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Volume III (1894-95) 






Volume III (1894-95) 



First printed 1897 
Reprinted 1979 




Price : Rs. 100*00 

Printed by S. Sagar at The Bengal Press, Rani Jhansi Pul, Delhi-] 10006 







VOL. Ill 1894-95. 







A. H'ULDER & Co. 

Price. Us. 24- or 86 sh., bound. 










No, 22 ; The &ddapurataic! S o^tota 
J. F. FLEET, I.C.S., PH.D., CJ.E. : 

No. 1. Pattadakal pillar inscription of the time of 
8. Chiplun plates of PnliMsm II 


- 47. Eecords of the Sdmavamsi kings of 
, PH.D. : 

2. Eanganatha inseription of Bandara 
" J^kmanda P lates of Anantavarraan 

WatyamaDgalam plates of DevarSja II. ,- Saka-Sam vat' 1346* \ ' ' 
Ig/Tanapalli pktes of Anna- VSma ; aka-Sarimt 1300 . 
11-Cochin plates of Bhaskara Eavivannan .."""'' 

" ! ^ ap ^7 m insori P ti011 of ^ of Garmpati ; iafea-Samvat 1153* ' 

, lo. ^leuamadala inscription of GaDiapamba . 

9 , 20. Aehyutapnram plates of Indravarmaa . ..***" 
2L Chicacole plates of Gunarnava's son DeTCodravarman 
9 , 26. fi^voaa-BeJgola epitaph of Mallishdna ; after aka-Saiii vat 1050 . ] 
^/^adupurii grant of Anna-Vdma ; Saka-Samvat 1296 
46. toSsgad plates of Dhnrresfina I, ; [Gnpta-jSamvat 207 [ 

, s 48 fmt ^anchi inscription of Vikram&ditya . 

No. 6. Buguda plates of Madhavavarman *...,. 
?- MandMta plates of Jayasimha of Dhara; [Tikrama*]SamTat 1112 \ 
13. UdaySndiram plates of the Sana king VikrtinMitya II. * 

14. Uday^ndiram plates of Vira-Chola . 

* * * 

, 17. Paitha^ plates of Govinda III, : aka-SaiiiFat 716 

* * * * 

IS. Bahal inscription of tbe Yadava kiBg Singhana ; Saka-Samvat 1144 

S3. Uday^ndiram plates of Nandivarman *.... 

*5l tTnamafijM plates of Achyutaraya ; ^aka-Samvat 1462 , 

27. Edlhapur Inscription of the Silaiiara Vijajaditya ; fSaka-Saiiavat 1065 

28, Bamanl inscription of the Silah&ra Vijayaditya ; Saka-Saih?at 1073 

29, Kfilhapur Inscription of the iilahara Bhoja II. ; Saka-Samrat 1X13^1115 " 

30. Gadag inscription of the Yadava Bhillama ; aka-Sai?at 1113 
3L Parla-Kimedi plates of the time of Vajrabasta * 

33. Dudia plates of Pravaras&aa II. * . . . . 
36. Eaj6r inscription of Mathanad^a ; [Vikrama-]SamTat 1016 
37 Bhftti&na grant of Aparajita; Saka-Samvat 919 . 

40. KharSpitan plates of Battaraja ; aks-Samvat 930 . 

41. V&rawal image inscription ; falabhi-Samvat 927 . 

42. Sitabaldi inscription of the time of Yikramaditya VI. ; Saka-Samvat 1008 

43. Tidgnndi plates of tbe time of Vikram&ditya VI. j [Ch&lnkya-]V5kraina-SamTat 

44. India Office plate of Yijayarajadeva ...*.., 









ISO ' 

147 i 



^ x 

No, 4, Bitragnnta grant of Samgama II, ; aka-Samvat 12?8 ' . / . * 

34, luniyur plates of the time of Yenkata II, ; ika-Sanwat 1556 \ , . 

15. ft&gpor Museum inscription of Skeswa; laka-Saihvat 1130 , . 31-t 


Ko, 12, Three inscriptions of ChMa cMefs, 

A,-BilvanatMs?ara inscription of Vira-Champa ; ^aka-Samvat 1236 . , W 

B,-ArDla!a'Pemmal inscription of Champa ; &ka-Samvat 1236 ... 71 

C.~ Jamhktea inscription of Valaka-Kbaya ; ^aka-Samvat 1403 . 

V. Vsmm, I,A.:- . 

}} 32, AlampMi plate of YMpaksb;aka.Saiiivat 1305 

,i 38, Four ancient Tamil inscriptions at Tirukkalukkuntam , , , , , 27 

A,-InscriptionofEljak^arivarman .,,,,, 

B,-InscrJptionofParantabi . , 

C,andD,-JnscriptionsofKannaradk .,,,,, 


1. Part of the Pattadakal pillar inscription o KSrtirarmaa II. to face pag 4 

2. Banganatha inscription of StmdararPandya 99 14 

3. Alama^da plates of Auantavarmau ; the year 304 * between pages 18 & U 
47 Bitragunta grant of Samgama II. ; JSaka-Samvat 1278- Plate L , f ^ 26 & 27 

5. 5 , , 9 f ** i** to face page 32 

6. Satyamangalam plates of DSvaraya IL ; 3aka-*Samvat 1346 * . between pages 38 & 39 

7. Mandhata plates of Jayasimha of Dhara ; [Yikrama-JSariirat 1112 * to face pag$ 50 

8. Chiplun plates of Puliksia II. .... ^ 9 t ? 9 52 

9. T6rkh3d& plates of G6vindaraja of Gujarat ; Saka-Samvat 735 . * . between paiges 50 & 57 

10. Vanapalli plates o Anna-Vema ; aka-Samvat 1300 . . ^ , f 62 & 63 

11. Cochia plates of Bh&skara Ravivarman 5 and Jambukesvara inscription of 

Valaka-Kamaya ? aka-Saiiivat 1403 ....... to face page 72 

12. TJday^ndiram plates of Yikramaditya II between pages 76 & 77 

13. GanapMvarani inscription of Ganapati ; JakaSamvat 1153 . * to face page 88 

14. Seals of copper-plate grants <,<* M 104 

15. Paitha^i plates of GSvinda III. ; Saka-Sariivat 716 between pages 106 & 107 

16. Achyatapnram plates of Indrararaan ; the year 87 ,9 128 & 129 

17. Chicacole plates of DdTdndTavarman ; the year 183 . 132 & 133 

18. ^iddaptira Inscriptions of Ddv&qtam Piy6 ; Nos. I. and IL . . n 138 & 139 

19. S5 ^ No. Ill to face page 140 

20. tfgamftfijfiri plates o Achyntaraya ; aka-Samvat 1462, Plate i. . between pages 152 & 153 
2L " ,i ^ ^ ll * 156 & 157 

22. Spurious Nfigamaogala plates of Sripurasha ; 5aka-Sarimt 698 . . * to face page 164 

23. Spurious SMi plates of Butuga ; akaSamvat 860 . between pages 180 & 181 
24 rara:aa-Belgola epitaph o Mallishena ; after Saka-Samvat 1050 * n 194 & 195 

25. Parla-Kimedi plates of the time of Vajrahasta 99 ** 222 & 223 

20. ilampMi Pl ate o{ Vi ^ * * * * to face page 228 

27. Dudia plates of Prawasfina II. ..... between pages 260 & 261 

28. Bhadaaa graafc of Apar&jitadesra ; ^aka-Samvat 919. Plate i. . . ** 272 & 273 

29. p - - *' to face page 276 

30o TirakkalukkoBtam inscriptions ...... between pages 284 & 285 

31. Kfaar$p&taii plates o Eattaraja ; Saka-Samvat 930 * i, 9f 300 & 301 

82, Tfirawal image inscription of Yalabhi-Saihvat 927 ; and Sitabaldi inscription 

of Vikramadftya VI. 3 Saka-Samvat 1008 ..*... to face page 306 

33. India Office plate of Yijayarajadeva ....... 314 

34 Gar^sgacI plates of DtrnvasOaa I. ; [Qupta-]8amvat 207 - between pages 320 & 321 

35, Patna plates of the 6th year of Mahi-Bhavagnpta I. , . . . n 342 & 343 

30. Katak plates of the 31st year of MahA-Bhavagupta I. . i 3*8 & S49 

37, Eatak plates the 3rd year of HaM-BJiavagupta II. ...-, *$ 358 & 357 

38, EancM iusctiptioa of Yikramaditya *.....* to face page 860 


Page 5, text line 17, add a hyphen after Mrigatiamkakara, 

footnote 19. The suggestion that Gamgddharena was intended, may be cancelled ; 
' GayMhara ' occurs, as a proper name, in Ind. Ant. VoL XV. pp. 40, 45, verse 

, y 17, line 10 from below, for Alamanda, read Alamarida. 
21, 4, for the keeper of records, f ead the goldsmith. 

24, 11. The Inscriptions of the Bangan&yak& temjjle at Fellore show that 
VikraHLasImhaptirai Is an ancient surname of the^own of KTeUftr (Kellore). As 
Bitragunta is said to have been 3 ydjanas distant f^om It (see page 33, Terse 19), 
the length of the y&jana at the time of the Bitragunta grant must have been 
25: 3 = Similes. 

35, Ho. 5, paragraph 2. Mr. Venkayya Informs the Editor that the goddess of the 
Margasahayisvara temple at Virifichipnram in the Vellore talnka of the Forth 
Arcot district is now called Marakatayallia and accordingly proposes to identify 
Maratakanagara (for Marakatanagara) with VirincMpnram itself. 
37, text line 1,/or ^r^T? read ^w. 

K 51, 4, 4ngan4-patiyam&na, read angan-a(6)pagiyam4na 8 
^ 52, translation, paragraph 3 3 line 5, read whose pure fame Is being smug by the 

women of the KInnaras. 

Table opposite page 54, No, (6>, line 2, for A,D, 888-76, read A.D. 888. 
Page 59, line 4, for Vanapalli, read V&napalli. 

n 67, lines 1 and 2, for Kottayam, read K6ttayam. 

84, text line 10, for ^^|3a|?f, read 

y 9 88, footnote 1, <f r 4^s*Hf? read * 

3, 7, n^r, read ^. 

3* 89, ? , 1, ^ %, 

103, line 13, for PaitMn, read Paitha?. 

55 117, clause 6, line 5, for 1387, read 1386-87* 

9 , 119, line 10, for Pram&din, read Pramftthin* 

121, text line 32, after ?rfwr add a, footnote : Bead 

3 , 122, 51, imil%f% add a footnote s Bead 

123, 9 , 79, \^}^ add a footnote i^ Read 

99 125, line 6 from below, for PramSdin, read Piumathin. 

f , 126 S ,, 8 ,, KMS&Mhya, 

w 130, 10 80, 3, and 20, read 8, 3, an^i 2, 

133, text line 261, for 80 read 8, 

n f , ,, 27, cancel the cipher after 20. 

134, lin 16 jErom below, for 100 80 3, read 100 8 3. 

f , , f 14 99 cancel the cipher after 20* 

f , 99 footnote 3, cancel the words 4fi aiid In an inscription ** to the end, of the note, 
Professor Kielhorn has shown that the actual re&dlisg of- th Sirpur inseriptlcm 
Is not Savaura, but Saadhara ; see Ind. Ant. VoL XVIII. p. 179, nd p* 180, 
note 7. 
135, line 1, for KhsffSstitri, read Khardshthi. 


Page 151, line 2. The name Mosalimadu-Virama has to be derived from Mu&alimarfn! r - *- f 
fortress in the Knraool district I see the Madras Journal of Literature <,T**- 
Science for 1881, p. 231, and ike Madras Manual of Administration, Vol. IH 
p. 601. 

test line 18. Mr. R, Narasimhacharya, Kanarese Translator to the Go verm TV i * 
of Mysore, suggested to the Editor to write Tafhcha-rdjyam an one wonl t*n<l *- 
translate it by "the kingdom of Tanjore" {Tanjai or Tanjavur in TumiK 
3 , 153, text line 46, for Vani, read V&rd. 
161, Table, last line, for 766-67, rrad 776-77. 

165, line 1, and page 168, line 19, for Rajasimha, read Prithivipati IL 
178, text line 26, for pray&(y6)ktri, read pray&(y6)ktrl. 
17^? S j 3, 34, iSaigott, read Saigo^t. 
181, ,, 80, nripfinam, read nrip&n&m. 
182, (L. 36.), for Nitimarga, read ISTitiza&rga. 
39 186, line 9, for Bajasimha, read Prithivipati II. 
190, text line 18, for W*ff%*n-, read ^^f%WT. 

47 5 a/^r WT^T^ add a footnote : Bead 
124, for 

197, 3 , 213, 

203, footnote S 3 read Panini, ii. 4, 23. 

208 ? Kne 38. According" to Mr, KitteFs Kannada^English Dictionary, 

^^^ 11 Who 

, Who c rf Ms masted 

(2) a barber/ Another form of the same word appears 




e T 

, line 19,/or Timm-su-aau, reoi Timm-arasa 

ff'2 in HiWlilnfuni) 

37 J56, Kne 1 from below, for Alvar, read l} T ar. 
257, 11. Siini is a familiar abbreviating ^ Q - * 

are ixsed in the same manner. * bl ^ B1Tasa ' at prwont 

Q1 ~ ' J "' ^^**9 ''VUU, ^$?[. 

315, paragraph 2, line 2. Mr. E. S . JosH j nf 







BY J. F. FLEET, I.C.S., PH.D., CJ.E. 

HE existence of this inscription appears to have "been first made known by Dr. 
JL in his reports of the Arohceological Survey of Western India. , Vol. I. p. S3 (p^blfshsd 
in 1874). Its contents were first brought to notice in 1881, "by myself, in the Indian Axiiqv&ri'. 

Vol. X- p. 168 ; the esfcampages that I had then made* howeer s did not enable me to it 

with any completeness beyond line 11, In March, 1882^ I received some ink-impressions from 
Mr. H. Cousens : but they s again, did not enable me to deal -with the record fully* I edit it 
now from some better ink-impressions and some estampages, which were made under my awn 
direction in March, 1891* 

Pattadakal is a village about eight miles to the east by north ol B&d&mi, the chief town 
of the Badami Talnka or subdivision in the Bijapur District, Bombay Presidency, And the 
inscription is on a monolith pillar, apparently of red sandstone, which stands in the house of 

a name which, betrays 
a god. 

The upper part of the pillar is octagonal ; and this part contains the inscription which I 
edit, and which is presented in two copies. One copy of it is in i^ertr-STS lines, in the local 
characters of the period to which the record refers itself, lying on the =orih-T"est : west, south- 
west, and south faces : here, the writing covers a space of about 2' 3" broad by 3' 10* high ; and 
the size of the letters, which are very well formed and boldly engraved, varies from about 
* to If". The other copy is in twenty-sight lines, in Vftgart characters, lying on the east, 
north-east, and north faces : here the writing covers a space of about 2' 0* broad by 3' Iff 
high; and the size of the letters varies from about f to If. These Kagan characters are 
intermediate in type between those of the BSdh-Gaya inscription of Mahananian ot A.D. 51 1 
o* 588 (Gupta, Inscriptions, p. 276, Hate *K.), and those of the S^gad eo? ? er- P Me 
Of Khadg&Yaloka-Dantidurga of A.D. 753-54 (Ind. Ant. Vol. Xi. p. 110, P.ate) ; but 

i The aoath^rt face is blank, except where it was utilised, Beat the bottom, to insert a passage that 
carelessly omitted in the Nfigatf ferfe (a&> page 6 below, note S). 


approximate more closely to the characters of the B6dh-Gay& inscription than to those of tii<u 
Ssteiaagad. grant : for instance, the initial a is exactly like the initial & of the B&dh-Gaya 
inscription, (allowing, of course, for the mark which turns a into d), whereas the initial of ths; 
SainSngad grant is a very different letter; thep, m, s, and y follow the B6dh-Gay& inscription. 
in not having the fully-developed top line which appears in the Samangad grant j and the Ja, p, 
asd o have the pointed forms of the Bddh-Gaya inscription : on the other hand, except perhaps 
is. acMrya, line 23, in the conjunct letter ry, the r is formed above the line of writing, as in 
the Samangad grant, and not on it, as in the B6dh-Gay& inscription. The peculiarities of the 
characters are evidently due to the Brahman from Northern India, for whom the pillar was set 
't? ' A aad tte eom P arative results suggest that the Nagari alphabet which is exhibited in the 
SamSngad grant, was developed in Central and Southern India more quickly than in Northern 
India. It should also be noted that such of the letters of the present Nagari record as -were 
rally executed in what was evidently the intended style, and have been well preserved, show, 
wherever the form of the letter permits of it, a well-marked triangular top, in which the apex 
of the triangle points downwards, and the centre of it is left in relief in the middle of the three 
strokes by which the top is formed: this is discernible in ft, oA, j, t, cL, n, p, bit, yn f y, r, I, v, S t 
sb, s, and h ; the shapes of g, n, n, f, n, and dh, do not permit of it j in th it is doubtful It 
may also be mentioned that this record and the Samangad grant, which is six months earlier in 
actual date, give the earliest instances, as yet obtained, of the use of NAgaxi characters in 
Western India. My test of the inscription is put together from the two copies. Owing- to 
the rough treatment that the pillar has received at theiands of its worshippers, each copy of the 
mscnptzonis more or less damaged : but they mostly supply each other's deficiencies; and the 
whole text is decipherable, without any doubtful points, except three akshara* at the end of 

r s f ^ i ' fv " Une 19 ' f0ttr ifl *"* 2 ' and thirte * n or fo * rte ^ ** M 24, and 
tically the whole of line 25. As matter of fact, as far as the end of li ne 14 the text 

' 6 relj in ^ ^ &e iocai 

eefl f ' * eer 

t ooo^ fa Ldi' o ' " "* M ' """^ *" an 


Jayasimha L 

(1) Saty&raya-Eanavikrama-Pullk^itt I.; 
married DixrlabhadM. 
(About A. 0.550.) 

(2) EanaparAkrama-Klrtivarman I. 
(A.D. 566-67 to 597-98.) 

(A,D, 597-98 to 608.) 

(A,D. 590 and 610-$U.) 

Second < 
Braneh (d< 


(A,P. 609 to 642,) 


Eubja-Vishnuvardhana ; 
founder of the Eastern 
Branch of the family 

in Veigt. 
(A,D, 615 to 633.) 

Chandraditya ; 


(A.D. 655 and 659.) 


Vikram^ditya I, 
(A.D. 655 to 680.) 

(A.D. 680 to 656.) 

(7) SatyftfirayarSamastabhuvrfnASraya- 

(A,D. 696 to 733^34.) 

(8) Satyisraya-VikramMitya II, ; 

. 733-34 to 74647.) 


Third GttjarSt 



(A.D. 670 aud 691-92,) 

(9) SatyftSra^a-Fripaslmha- 

Ktrtiyarman II. 

(JLD. 74647 and 757.) 

B 1555 


(To face page 2*} 

Second Gujarat 
Branch (doubtful)* 


i Gujar&t 





(A.D, 738-39.) 

First Branoli< 



B udclha yarmara j a. 



of the god SiTa s under the name of VijayeSvara* This temple is now known by the name of 
Sanigamfesvara 5 but there is no question as to its identity : there are two short inscriptions on 
structural parts of it, whieli give the name of the god as Vijayesvara [Ind* Ant.'Vol* X. p. 170); 
and the same name remained in use at any rate till A.D. 1162 (cTbwr, J3o. Sr. S. As. Sac. Vol. XI* 
p. 273). It then mentions Vljay&difcya's SOB, Vikram&ditya II., whom it describes as haying 1 
bruised the town of Kafichi ; 1 and it tells us that his Mahddevi or queen-consort, Ldkamahft- 
dvi, who belonged to the race of the Haihayas, *.e. the Kalachuris, erected & great stone 
temple of the god Siva, under the name of Loke&vara. This temple, again, still exists, "but is 
now known by the name of Virup&ksba ; the identity is established by records on structural 
parts of it, which give its name as L6k6svara, and speak of it as the temple of L6kamahMevi 
(Ind* Ant. Vol. X. pp. 165, 167, and Vol. XI. p. 124) : it stands on the south-east of the 
temple of Vijaysvara~(SamgamSsvara). The record then mentions a Kdjnt^ or queen 3 of Vikra- 
xaMitya II., named Trailokyamahad^vi, who was the uterine younger sister of L6kamah&d&vi ? 
and was the mother of VikramMitya's son and successor, Kirtivarman II. ; and it tells ns that 
she erected a great stone temple of Siva under the name of Trail6kysvara* This temple, which 
must have stood somewhere on the north-east of the temple of L6Msvara,-(Vimpaksha) ? is not 
now in existence, I think. 51 The inscription then proceeds to record that the pillar itself, 
stamped with the mark of the Jw&ZZa, or trident, which is^the weapon of Siva, was set up, in 
the middle of these three shrines, by * sculptor named Subhaddva, for an Achdrya xuamed 
JMnasiva, who had come from the Mrigathanikahara vishaya on the north bank of the Ganges; 
and it concludes by recording certain grants. 

As regards the date* the inscription refers itself to the reigm of Kirtivarman II,, by 
speaking of him with the paramount titles. And further^ though it does not quote the year of 
the Saka era or the regnal year, it gives details^ which enable us to place it exactly. The grants 
were made, or one of them was made, on the occasion of a total eclipse of the stm s on the 
new-moon tithi of the month SrSvana; and the "English date is the 25th June 9 AJD. J764: 
on this day, which corresponds to the new-moon day of N the first pwrnimdnta Sravana of Saka- 
Samvat 677 current, there was a total eclipse of the sun 9 which was visible right across India. s 

Immediately below the above duplicate inscription, the pillar is square. Here, on the 
south face ? there are remains of five or more lines, of about twenty letters each, in the same 
local characters, and, on the east face, remains of eight lines of about twenty letters each, in 
MSgarl characters, of the same type; these two records, againj, are duplicates; but all that 
can be made out is that the inscription registers a grant of land, purchased with gady&nakas 
of gold, by the son of a jBhaffa named Pulivarman, and that it probably speaks of Pattadakal 
by its ancient name of Kisiivolal or IGsuvoiaL And on the west face there are remains of 
eleven or twelve lines, of about twenty, letters each, in the sam local characters: but, the 
north face being apparently quite blank, this record was not duplicated in Nagarij and it is BO 
much damaged that nothing intelligible can be made out, except that, in the fifth line, B&d&mi 
is perhaps mentioned as V&tftpl* 

3 The word used is mmardan^ which may mean eifeher bruising" or * destroy ing.* But the Woltkal^ri grant 
says that, though he entered KMehl* he did not destroy it (avindsy, praotfyas Ind. Ant. Vol. VI JL p. 28* and 
o&- Iw. Inscrs. Vol. I. p* 146)* 

2 Unless, perhaps^ it is the temple* partly of Northern and partly of Br^idiaB style, which Dr. Borgess 
(Zoo. &it. p- 33) describes as standing close oa the north side of the temple of Ysjayegwra<Samgame6v*tm)* Bat, 
tfaea, its position does not give the triangle that is required in connection with the description of the erection of the 
pillar (sea the Test s and page 5 below* note 10). 

s In this year* Srivaim was intercalary. For the eclipse see yoa Oppolzer'a nn $r Mnsterni&m* pp. 188, 
189, and Plate 04 e For kirtivarmaa II. we have a later date, la A,D. 757* in the eleventh year of his reign (JW. 
AnL Vol. VIII. p. 28). The eclipse that I mention above* answers 11 possible xe^uarements $ find ther Is ao other 
eclipse that does SO P lor afe least twenty years a either side o it. 

B 2 



1 Om 0m 3 ivftya[H*] Sa s Jayatu yama-balm-pariclnimbIta 4 -Tadana- 


2 sthalo 5 -I:-^!a-I2!a-Iila 6 -a!aHvaIi-Tidlirita 7 -karagram dasasatanayana-kirana- 

3 parivarddliIta 9 -r%a-ras-atlYarddliIta vlkasita-pnndarika-pratlmo HaraGauri 10 -samgam6 u 

sa jayatn [IP] ^ 

a ls vaihsavarddIiairiaiia--Baglitir=lYa KaHymga(ga)-nisrislita-man[a ! ^jii feuryya - 

5 daBa-ratahs=sada ls Vrlk6daram=lva 16 saliasa-rasikah g 

iMtya-Satyasraya-M^ h a 1 1 a r a - 

kena 19 

7 stMpito maM 20 -saIla-prasada-ri~VIj ayes vara-btatt4rakas=tasya daksMna-aig-bMg& [| *] 


S Flj B ayadityadeTasy=atmajalL prlyah 21 puttrat rt-anivarlta 22 samasta-samant 25 - 

[a*] nata-p&dayugiaaL. 
9 E2fieMpiira-Yimarddana 24 -M-^^ a h a- 


1 From the estampages and Ink-Impressions. Tlie numbering of the lines follows the version which is in the 
local characters. All differences between the two versions are shown in the following notes; except that I have not 
thought it necessary to do more than draw attention here to the point that the JSfagarl version uses only the 
ordinary I s and nowhere has f 

s la both versions* the first m is expressed by a plain symbol, and the second by the word itself in writing. 

9 We have here evidently a verse., in the A&riti group of metres, though the form in which it stands is oot 
correct : the first two pddas contain twenty-two eet fl and are exactly uniform with each other; the third jpdda* 
however, COB tains twenty-three feet^ and matches the preceding two in only the last seven feet; and the fourth 
p4l&* though it contains only twenty-two feet* is uniform with the first and second in^only the first seven feet. 
The verse seems to me to have been quoted, with imperfect recollection, from some Saiva poem, similar to the 
Vaistmaira &ita-GMda* And the third and fourth pdda& might be put right by adopting some such reading 
as cfa4Wflamltw-|j4^^ 

4 The Kigarl version (line 1) has 
s Bead *paydd&ara*8t&al$ ; the following a of ali ought to have been elided, but was retained for the sake of 
the metre, The Kagarl version (Hues 1*2) has pay6ddhar6$ the other payad&ar&. 

8 The hiatus here, which is in. both versions, is intentional, for the sake of the metre. 
* The Nagari version (lines 2-S) has viddkrita* 

B Bemd ^mmndalak ; samdM being not proper at the end of the second pdda* 

9 The Kigart version (line 3) has parivarddMtta* 

10 The I of t/amri is shortened for the sake of the metre. 

11 la the version in local characters* the g& was at first omitted, and then was inserted below the line. 

13 The NILgarl version (line 5) has* either chchaluki^ for c&alnki 5 or possibly chuluJci, with the subscript u of 
the first j!!ab!e damaged in such a way as to give the appearance of chc&a* 
!S Here s and all through, in the 2$igari version # is not doubled after r* 
M Bead & nf& *va. The N&gari version (lines 6-6) makes the same mistake* 
s * Bead O rf8*z$d& 5 or s as in the 2igari version (line 6), *ratah sadd. 
m Bead vrilstidara iva. The K&gar! version (line 6) makes the same mistake,. 
^ Bead D mirmTd/-ddTa* The Kagari version (line 6) has the same peculiarity. 
23 The iN&gazl version (line *!} has *pTitUv$wallal7w t correctly. 
Bead ^Mattdraktis** Una. 

m The 2vagari version (line 8) has either mdM* or mahM 9 
m The Sagarl version pine 9) has griyah^ 

Read *ry-a*ivdrttafc The hiatns a and the omissioa of the m*arga 9 are in both versions. 
18 The 2Clgar! version (line 9} has $dmamt. 
S The Hagar! version (line 10} has "mmarddanah. 
a The Kigari version (line 10) has wi&M correctly. 

The Nagari version. 


J* fr. FLCCT. I. C.S. 

Part of the Pattadakal Pillar Inscription of Klrtiv; 

'arm*/* If. 

The vei 


.<.,, :f. ;' y -.\; -- \ : . . xf, 

.'- I "^>^1 "'>"v'" ,% " V- ., J - 1 -'*-' 1 "^ 




10 bhattarakasya l Haihaya-vamssa-sambhut^ priya 2 maMdevi I7in& biagavatstm 

11 sthapito mahA-Saila-pr&aaa-fir^ [|] Sri 4 - 

Ii6kamaMdevy yah 6 

12 sodaiyya kaniyasi bhagini grl-Vikrai2i,dityadevaBya pri(pri)ya 6 rajfil Svasti Kirfcti- 

13 firiprithiviyallabharinah^ Wripasiziglia 8 r&jaaya 


14 sri-Trail6kyamaMdvyay&h 9 sth&pitd maha-salla-prasadasri-Tra.il6kyesarabliatt^i^ 

kas=tasya [pascMma-dl]- 30 

15 g-bMge {[*] itysdvams&yatan&mmsxnadliyS 12 Sandilya-sagotr^na 

rftpa-panttr ena Siva-rfipa- 

16 puttrena Siibhadeva-rfipena bMyah Sivas^san-amkaL. ss -bliagavat-pujya-Pay6bhakslii 

17 slshya-sishyena Jiianasiv-acMryyena Gkuhgfiyft iittara~ku(M)le 

vishay&d==Ik=agateiia sri-Vijayesvara 

18 bhattarakasy^asray-avasthitena 

dv[are] 16 maM-saiia-stambliali [||*]* Attra likhita- 

19 m=Idam sasaBa[m] prasasti-puryvakam [|*3 

kri(krl)ta 1 7-Sam . . . . 18 -aryya-bliatta-GayMdliar^[na] 19 

20 Vijayaditya-sasanat Belvala 20 -Yisliay^ Arapunuse-nama-gramasya 

....... . nama-gr^in6=rj jlta- 

21 s=tasy =arddham Vra(bra) 

Tasya sl 

1 Bead ' 

12 The Nagari version (line 11) '. 

3 Kead loJca-matd tayd* The Kagaii version (line 12) has WJca^mdfd tasgd, 

4 The N&gsri version (line 13) omits this M. 

5 Bead ya, as in the Hagarl version (line 13). The word, however, Is not really necessary at all* 
* The mistake occurs in both versions. 

7 The X&gari version (line 15) has Q WiatidrakaJi 

8 This is the reading of the N&gari version (line 15), The other version probably has exactly the mm 
reading* ; but It may be sin?&a. 

9 Kead makddvi tayd. The Nagari version lines (15*16) omits the vi9arg&) and has mahd&vydyd+ 

10 These three aTcs^aras^ recognisable at all in only the N%ar! version (line 16), are extremely doubtful. But, 
as the temple of L6kesvara-(Virupaksha) is on the southeast of the temple of Vijay65vara*(Samgam6vara),&nd the 
pillar stands on the north of the enclosure of the Lok^svara temple, and, to the best of my recollection* on the east 
of the Vijayesvnra temple, the temple of Trail6kyesvara must have stood somewhere on the Bortbeast of the 
Ldkesvara tern pie ; and so pascJiima is the word thafc is required here* 

33 Read dyatandn&mzzmadliyv; or s as in the N&garl version (line 17), 

13 Read dmJca. The Nagari version (line 18) perhaps omits the 
ls The N&gari version (line 20) has trisula. 

24 Read dmfca&. The NEgari version (line 20) has Q dnk6. 

25 These two a?cskaras t recognisable at all in only the Nagari version (line S0)j, are mostly doubtfnL But the 
civ seems to be fairly certain. 

18 The reading is very distinct in both versions ;; but it must be a mistake for 
17 The Nigari version (line 22) lias *dlankrita. 

38 What the two damaged aTesharas may be I cannot decide 3 but the name does not seem to be 1 
Ig The reading of this name 5s taken from the N&gart version only (line 22) j the afa^ara are Terj distiat ; 
brat I suppose that ga<mgddkar$na was intended* 
m The N&gart version (line 23) has velvalltz* 
Sl Bead dattam tai/& The N^garl %"ersion has the same mistake. 

6 This is aceonding to the Nagari version (line 25) \ in the other thi word the following ar illegibleu 


24 pi;i-s 

25 inata 

[eta] svakiy&yatane* dattfcai raksmiavyfou 


-e to Siva! Victorious, yictorious, be that union of (tlie god) Hara 
A /rt wld^ G-nri V Tvhich the face and breasts (of the goddess} are passionately kissed 

IIHCl CtiJuL0 STOClClb2>J' CTtdiiilil A*A TVAIJ.'UJJ. ****- _ t t ^ i ^ ^.-fc^ ^^ij^vo 4-Krf= 

^C /j.1..^. MA ^/4A0e> l-vQr? in "T^nlCH IrZIC iOXiO AUU; mj-juw^wuw ^j * T -- & f * 

8UIi "(Line 4 )- Possessed of a mind that was free from (the contaminations of) the Kali age ; 
like a ^ BLhu promoting the increase of the race of tlxe du***; ^ i cl ^J in S 
Lfce a very ^ag p s characterised by impetuosity, like V.ikod a ra.- 

ViiayMrfeya^Satyasmya, ^ ^ 
of ilia earth, tko OMdM the Param^w^ tke Jteffdrofe. By him 

Mra o ia ear, o 

there was erected a great stone temple of (the god) the holy Tijayagvara-bhattaraka^ On 

the south o this ; 7 ' 

ID 7 ) The SOB, the dear (or fevcrarite) son, of the glorious Vijayadityadava, (was) the 


, , 

-"ilun-cnsuiirepiise one s to whose f eet o^isance was done by all feudatory chiefs, tH torower 
of the town of the glorious Viloramaditya-(II.)-Satyasraya, 'the f aYourite ot 

fortune and of fche earth, the MahfotyWhirdj*, the Paramttvara, th0 Bhaffdraka, His dear 
(or fevcurite) ^iieen-eonsort, born in fbd race of the Haah.ayas 3 (^a^) one who, like the diyme 
(goddess) Urns, was a very mother of mankind, 8 By her there was erected a great stone 
temple of (the god) the holy Mkegvara-bhattaraka, On the north of this : 9 

(&. 11*} Of (&er) the glorioim L6kamaMWLl 5 the uterine younger, sister, a dear (or 
favourite) queen of the glorious VitoasidityadlTa 5 {and) the mother. of , Hail! > Eliti* 

XILgari version (line 26) has 

1 From md to iB/^a, both included, tlie p^sage is illegible In tbe version In local characters. In the Klgart 
varsion (line 2S), tlie nest word after &*^^^r[^f] Is &cMrya-pra$anga : the date, aud part of the foliowlag context, 
^ere ssaitted in their proper place, and were inserted^ with the exception of Jsreyo-rtt&aifo cha, which m r aaleffc out 
altogetfcers la four short lines that stand near the bottom of the ioutheast face, which had beea left Hank between 
tee of the line of the version in local characters and the beginnings of the lines of the Nigari veraioo ; 

cacii f cTtutsately, that part of the date which is obliterated in the version in local chas?actdrs> is distinctly legible 
ixi the SUgarl version* 

* This locative seems rather ancouth. Bat it occurs sgai% in precisely the same pbtaBe* in the other ISTftgari 
:sscr:pr : ^2. ca the east face of the square part o the pillar. 

* See page 4 above 9 note 3* 
s See page 4 above* note 12, 

* The literal translation may perhaps be "there was setup (the god) the^'hoij-Tijaj^lvara-bha^raka in (or 
of) a great stone temple/* Bat the inscription SCOTS rea% to seek to record the buiidiog of the temple* not 
cvtrely tlie setting up of aa image of the god,* Tlie same note applies to the two temples mentioned farther on. 

* Tbe contest Is M Thus, in the middle of these (three) shrines/* in line IS* 

f Her came, L^^mabidfevt, which here is only indicated by the word Wfa*mAtd t * mother of mankind,* is 
gif tn In tbe next Bcat^cce. 

^ aprlits litre* 


J the favourite of fortune and of the earth 3 the MdMr&fddffiirtfja, the 
Par&mjfvara 9 the ShaffdraJsa, the glorious (was) the glorious 

maM,d,Svi. By her there was erected a great stone temple of (the god) the holy !TraI16kyd* 
6vara~bhatt&raka. On the (?) west 1 of this : 

(L. 15,) Thus, in the^tniddle of these (three) shrines, "by the sculptor 2 Si2lbhad&va $ 
who belongs to the S&ndilya gotr % (and) who is the son's son of the sculptor SlTa.Tardham&ns f 
(and) the son of the sculptor |iva ; or s rather^ by the AcTi&vy, Juftnaiva who is the diseipla 
of the disciple's disciple at the feet of Imn 9 the venerable and worsliipfiil Faydbhakshin, who 
had the appellation of Siyas&sartaj, (and) who has come here from the 
vishaya on the north bani: of the (river) Gangs (and) is dwelling in the asylum of (the 
god) the holy Ti]ayesvara-bhatt&raka ? there has been set up* in (?) the gateway 8 of Ms 
own particular shrine* this gfreat stone pillar^ which beat's the mark of the seal of the trident* 

(I*. 18.) Here Is written this (following) charter., preceded by the (above) eulogy : > By 
the illustrious !am , , . , - Arya-Bhatta-Gangdhara (?) s 4 who belongs to the 
($$kh) and is adorned by (a knowledge of) the VMa that consists of three thousand 
there has been given to Brahmamfirtti-Arya^Bhatte^Trivikrainay 5 who knows the four Vddaa, 
half of the village named . . , on the east of the village 

Arapunuse in the Bel Yala 6 visfaaya* which was acquired ttroiigh a charter o 
{And) into his (TrivikraBiaV) hand* by the Jiohdrya Jfiinagiva., in. the montb Sr&va^a^ 
on the new^moon tithi, at a total eclipse of tbe aim 5 in order to increase the religious 
merit of (his) parents, [and for] his own welfare ; as a provision for the discourses of the 
AoMrya^ and for the studies of those who attend to the rites of the god ; and for perfecting the 
worship of the godj, there have been giyen^ at his own shrine*? fields (of fhe me&snre of) 
thirty mearfonajr, which were purchased with thirty gadydpahu of gold; 8 they ghoiald be 
preserred, **^*e^ 9 *.oo.* & 


BY E. 

This inscription was discovered by my First Assistant^ Mr* V* Venkayya 3 If .A., on the oaat 
wall of lie sscor :2 pv&kdra of the temple of Bangao&tlia (Tish^ti) on the island of Srira&gam In 

the Trichinopoly taluka. It consists of thirty Sanskrit yeraes. The Grantha alphabet in which 
it is written, differs yery little from the character that is employed by the Tamilas of the 
present day. The only peculiarity which deserves to bo noted 2 is that in two instances 
line 3 5 and wrf%4 s> line 5), the group ^ is written as though it consisted of HT and W^ 

sad once (in ^CTI line 3) as though it consisted of w and ^ while the correct form occurs also 
three times ("srfT^Wj lino 18, line 19, line 23)* The inscription is 

2 See page 6 abo?e, note 10. 

s 1 adopt a suggestion made Iby Dn Hnltzscb* that r%a stands for r&jpabdra. 

3 Se page 5 above, note 15. 

4 Sea page 5 above* note 19 

6 This person seems to be the priest of the temple 53! Vsjay&ivara. 

* tfhe correct name is Belvoiu. in the K&gart version the Bame here appeara as VelvaUa. 

7 See page 6 above, note & 

lit. ** wMcli were taken ? t!nrogh a of gold, by 


"by ozte on the left and one on the right. The carp (kayal or SSI) was the 

on the banner of the Pandya king*, 1 who was, therefore, called Minavag, * the bearer 
of the fish-bornier.' It appears on many P&ndya coins as the crest of the king* 

Inscription belongs to the tine of king Sundara-Pandya (verses 1, 12, 21, 23 ? 25* 26), 
who resided at (verse 2), belonged to the race of the Moon (verse 8), and was styled 

" tie Sim kings " (verse 3 and passim) and lf the Chief of the. world " 2 (verses 7 5 8 ? 15)* 

The onlj historical incidents to which the inscription refers, ai*e that Sundara-Pandya took 
from a king who is designated fis the Moon of E&m&ta," and whom he appears to 
have killed (Terse Ij, and that he plundered the capital of the K&tliska king (verses 4 and 8)* 
As tbese same two enemies are mentioned in the Jambukesvara and TiriikkaItildU|i|'aiH 
:n=rr:pt:Di:s, in which Sundara-Pandya is called "the dispeUer of the Karnata king** and 
** the fever to the elephant -(which was) the K&thaka (king)," we need not hesitate to identify 
the Snrdara-Pandya of the subjoined inscription with JatSvarman 5 alias Sundara-PiS^tdya^ 
who ascended the throne in AJX 125O or 1251, 3 The Kathaka king whom he defeated, 
was probably ore of the Gajapati kings of Orissa? whose capital was Kataka (Cuttack). 4 The 
"Moon of Eardlta," who was conquered by SiiBdara-P4ndya, has probably to be identified with 
the (or Hojsala) king Somesvara, the first part of whose name means c the Moon/ A 

ccprsr-plaie grant of this king, jcvhich is preserved in the Bangalore Museum, was issued OB the 
zew-n3cr tithi of Plialguna of Saka-Samvat 1175 carrent, the Paridh&vi samvatsara (1st March, 
A.B. 1253'?, the day of an eclipse of the sun, " while he was residing in the great capital, named 
which had been built, in order to amuse his mind, in the Chola country, which 
lie had conquered by the power of his arm." * The site of this Vikramapura can be fixed with the 
help of an inscription of the same Poysala king Vira-S6msvaradeva in the Jambufc&taKa 
in -which the king mentions " (the image of) the lord Poysalesvara, which we have set 
up in alias VSIiramapiiraiii, m (the district of) RajarfcjavalanMu/' * Ka TO anftr is 

the name of a Tillage at a distance of 5 miles north of Srirangam. On a visit to this Kannaikr, I 

i, the traces ^ o ^ _ at c an extnsiTe fortw pn t]ie braiict road to Man ^ ach 4 an ; 1M 

part of the SMrousding rampart was still visible over the ground. " The NawAb"" is supposed 
to haje carted awsy most of tlxe stones of the enclosure when building (or repairing? the 
^ e ^ cpc ^ forfc Begideg the prese ^ Yi!lag ^ o Kannanur, the fort included a temple which 

1 Compare verse 27 of tLe present inscription* 



* tfeL VoL XX. p. 390. 

*-- ^ --^I^M i&mv 

- - -*-- 

- ---- 4.- ; ? -;*-;-;, .; ^ --^I^M i&mv U^? uf^rfw^Rs qiT^rrsmT. 

fLT"^^ u^'J-TI* . ' " - : * - - " i .*-;<-.., <H ?,,,_,, 

,,**" *" * ~ ' ' - ifil^rs to lOOTP iMftOP^ vcrltiAVfe OA^^A/ 1 ^-^-w^,,^, m>www*/ww 

';^ ? :?--\~:~-.^*'>**^*6?^^^?'?**^ 

-, .-.^^..^u.^.u, WMi ^ ^sKr%Tr,s: 


is now partially in ruins. I was told that the stones of several mandapas and of the enclosure 
of the tank in front of the temple were utilised for building the bridges over the Kojpdam 
(Coleroon) and the Kavfiri rivers. The south wall of the shrine still bears an inscription of the 
Hoysala king Vira-BmaBtliadva s in which the temple is called Posaligvara (for Poysa* 
5 i.e. 'the tsvara (temple) of the Poysala (king)/ The name by which the temple goes 
, Bhdjisvara, is a corruption of the original PSsalisvara, and owes its origin to a confusion 
between the long-forgotten Poysala king and the^ popularly known king Bh6ja. The walls of 
a neighbouring modern temple of K&li, called Sellayi, contain detached inscribed stones on 
which some Hoysala "birndas are distinctly visible, and which, therefore, appear to have origin- 
ally belonged to the Poysalesvara temple, 1 The Poysalesvara of the Kartnan&r inscription is 
evidently the temple to which the Jambukesvara inscription refers. Accordingly, there can 
be BO doubt that the modem Kannsniir is the actual site of VUo?amap"ora 9 the southern 
residence of Somesvara. 

As regards Virs-BamanSthadevaj, he must have been a successor of SdmSftvara, an 
inscription of whose 23rd year is quoted in an inscription of the 4th year of R&mantha in the 
JamTmkesvam temple. His relation to the hitherto known chief line of the Hoysala dynasty 
is established by an inscription of the Banganaths temple, which records a gift by Ponnam.- 
fosclamah^dSvis 2 who styles herself the uterine sister of Vira-Bamanathadeva and the 
daughter of the Hoysala king Vira-S5m.6sva.ra by the Ch&lukya princess Devalamah,dv5L 3 
It thus appears that, while S6msvara was succeeded on the throne of Dvarasamudra by Narasirixha 
III., his son by Bijjaladevi, 4 the southern part of his dominions went to R&man&tha, his 
son by Devaladevi. An inscription in the Jambukesvara temple furnishes the name of one of 
the queens of king l&ma&&thad6va. This was KamalSdevij the daughter of a certain Ariya- 
Pillai. The name of this queen's younger sister was OhikkaS6maladevi 9 5 who appears 
to have received the" Kanarese prefix chikka, * younger/ in order to distinguish her from the 
elder Som^laclevi* 6 who "was one of the "queens of Ramanatha/s father S&mesvara. The two 
temples at Srirangam and the above-meBlji5ned temple at Kannanur contain the fallowing 
Tamil d&tes of the reign of Vira-E^manMhadeva : 

No. I. Inscription on the north w&ll of the fourth prdkdro, of the Rangan&tha temple 

at Srirangam* 

Poysala-rf-Vira-R&manS-thadevarkii yandn irand&vadu Kumbha-nay ajjcu purvva- 
pakshattu saptainiyum Budhan-kijamaiyum pegga Bharani~nal. 

* s The day of Bharant, which corresponded to Wednesday, the seventh tifhi of the first half 
of the month of Kumbha in the second year (of the reign) of the Poysala sri-VIra-Bama- 

1 Mr. Se well's account trader " Samayapuram '* in his &i$ta of Antiquities* VoL L p. 267, baa to be modified 
on the strength of the local Information whicli I was enabled to collect* 

3 This name is derived from Poxmambalam, * c the Gbldea Hall *' at the Cbidambarani temple iu the South 
A root district. 

^ fi ^i"t* *i -*? PsEvrat ^^r^f^r^t^q 066 <i t 

The last compound refers to the temple at Sdmaoatbaputa in the Talak&du t&luk& of the MaisCir 
district, which is mentioned in two inscriptions of Saka-Samvat 1191 and 1192 ; see Mr. Rice's Mysore Inscription** 
pp. 48 fL and S2S SP. 

4 Dr. Fleet's Kanarese Dg/nasties? p. 60. 

6 JD1900* Irdman&ad$v*r araximdril Artya-Pilfai magal&f ZCMMtl&d3viydr tangafydr 

This queen is mentioned in three inscriptions of Vra-S6mvaraddva t?i*. one of the Gth year in 

Bangan&tha temp!o g one of the 25tb j In the Jambakdtvara temple, and the Bangalore Mutetim plate o 

1175 (see p 8 above* note 5). 



[Vox, HL 

>. H Inscription on the west wall of the second prdkdra of the JambulkStoara temple 

at Srwangam-. 

yandti [7vadu] Dhanu-n^yayju apara-pakshattm 
shashthiynm Bndhsan-kilamaiynm pejja [Purajttu nft}. 

* s The day of Puxva-Phalgtmfj 1 which corresponded to Wednesday^ the sixth tithi of the 
second half of the month of Dbanns in the [7th] year (of the reign) of the IPoyssla Srt- 

So* III. Inscription on the sonth wall of the 

of the Hangandtha temple* 

pakshafctu prathamaiyum Tingal-Mlamaiyma pegp, Agvati-n&l, 

*' The day of Asvini, which corresponded to Monday, the first titM of the first half of the 
month of Mins, in the fifteenth year (of the 'y&ign) of the Hoysa4^ s 

No. IV. Inscription in the $outh**we&t corn&r gf the third pr$kdra of the same temple*. 



" The day of Bhara$! 3 which corresponded io Snnday; tike eleventh tithi of the second half 
of the month of Mithuna in the fifteenth year (of the reign) pf the Boysa|a srt- Vira-B&ms- 

Ho. V. Jttfl0njrft*on> o *^e ^otrfjt wall of the Poysalgvara temple at 

PadinelSvadu Adi-m&dam irnhattu-naMn^tiyadiy^dija Prajfipati-samvajsarada 
snddha-trayddasi Mangalav&raun. 

Tuesday, the thirteenth tithi of the bright half of Srftrana in the Prajftpati year, which 
corresponded to the tweniy-fonrth sol&r day of the month of JLp of the seventeenth (year of the 
reign) ** 

The ahove five dates Ban be easily calculated by an expert, because we knoW 9 from the 
inscription of PonBambalad6vi, that R&man&tha was a son of SdmSsvara. Hence the only 
possible Praj&pati year in date No- V. is Saka-Samvat 1194 As this was also the 17th yeaa? of 
Bam^toatha>'re%n, the dates of Nos. IM, and IV. will fall in Saka-Samvat 1192; the date of 
Ho, H, in Sakfr-Saotoat 1184 ; the date of No. I. in Saka-Samyat 1179 j and his accession to the 
thrroe in Saka-Sariivat 1177. 8 It further follows that the defeat and death of Sdmdgvam and 
the wronation of Ha^asimha III. at Dvftrasamudra probably took place In the same Saka year, 
1177. The earliest known inscription of Narasimha HE. is actually dated in this year 4 
From an inscription, which is dated in the 29th year of the reign of Vii?a^S6masvaracidvB, 
at TiraTasi Beer ^Srirangam, it -follows that the accession of SdmSsvara took place between 
mYat 1146, the date of Ms predecessor Farasimha II., and Saka-Saonrat 1177 29 = 


June, A.D. 

- No 

r as 1 

. the ^^ Marcll > 


1148. An inscription of the Poysa|a Mug Vira^HferasiiiiliadiTB in the Ba&gandtito temple 
suggests that, subsequently to Saka-Samvafc 1194 (the date of No* V), Bamanatha was succeeded 
or supplanted by his half-brother Narasimha III* This inscription is dated in the cyclic year 
Vijayett which would correspond to Saka-Samvat 1216, and refers to 3D6valadvi s who f as 
stated above ? was the mother of Bftmanftt|ia 

The fact that Rftmanfttha held Sriraiigsm aftefr the death of his father, suggests that the 
defeat which Sundara-Pandya inflicted on S6mvar% had no permanent effect, but that 
Rlman&tha soon recaptured Srirangam^ from the P&ndya king. The subjoined inscription 
appears to have been engraved between Saka-Sazhvat 1175, the date of the Bangalore Museum 
plates of S6m6svara, and Safca-Samvat 1179 3 the earliest date of R&man&tha* 

The immediate purpose of the BaAganatlaa inscription of SttndaraBndya is a description 
of his building operations at, and gifts to, the temple. He built a shrine of JTarasimha 
(verses 2 and 10) and another of Vishnu's attendant Vishvaksna (verse 8), both of which 
were covered with gold, and a gilt tower which contained an image of Narasianh (?)* Further* 
h covered the (original or central) shrine ol the temple with gold, an achievement of 
which he must have been, specially proud, as he assumed, -with reference to it, the surname 

i.e **the king who has covered (the temple) with gold/* and as h 

placed in the shrine a golden image of Vistara* which he called after -his own new surname (3), 
He also covered the inner wall of the (central) shrine with gold (22) and built* in front of it, 
a dining-hall, which, he equipped with golden vessels (23). In the course of two " dining- weeks/* 
which he called after his own name, he " filled the capacious belly **' of the god, or rather of Ms 
votaries (26), IB the month of Chaitraj he celebrated the "procession-festival** of the god 
(20). For the ** festival of the god's sporting with JQakshmi/' he builfc a golden ship (21). 
The last verse (80) of the inscription states that the king built three golden domes over the image 
of Hdmfiohehhfi^ (compare verse 3), over that of Q-aruda (compare verse 16), and 

over the hall which contained the eonch of Vishnu (compare verse 6)* , 

The following miscellaneous gifts to Banganatha are enumerated in the inscription:- 
A garland of emeralds (verse 4), a crown of jewels (5), a golden image of Sshs (6), a golden 
arch (9), a pearl garland (11), a canopy of pearls (12), different kinds of golden fruits (13), a 
golden ear (14% a. golden trough (15), a golden image of Gtenxda (16)* a golden imder-garment 
(17) a golden aureola (18), a golden pedestal (19), ornaments of jewels (24), a golden armour 
(25), golden vessels (28), and a golden throne (29). The first of the gifts which are here 
enumerated, appears to have suggested' the surname MsrakatarpritMviblirit^ i.e. *< the 
merald*king/ ? which is applied to Sundara-P&ndya in verse 13. 

TEXT. 1 

i ^rh 

ffW^ ^ 1 4^1 ll) ^'CSPtl%^' ^P^ilz^lwI^P^ [l 3 ^] W^fW^l^flTJrt 



two iaked estampagw. j a Ead 

C 8 


(Tot. Ill 



r a 



: [i*] 


fil l'il fif ^' H 



L t 

: n [^8*3 

1 Eead 

- 1 Bead 

* Eead 
5 Eaad 

No. 2.] 







etbhci <#K*'*jy wsrW^T 3JT S 

^ - ^gL c\ 


^^ ^-S^^^^^"; it 

^% [l^] 




f^rf^rs^-^^rir^ [i*] 

15 II 

^ ^ % 

16 ^^ g^r ip^ H [>**] ^4 

. ^^r^F^r^^E^ 






J Eead 
s Eead 
8 Eead 


" Eead 
8 Bead 

10 Read 



[Vox,. III. 

20 [*rs]?rr [fj*n ^ i *M^ i <* K^wtfol^H^H^ftrc^ D*3 *nx* 
f%^% tnrki^c ^fti^Jiwfftf'tt sr^Pj^ 1 ^q^4^|iif*i^wi'i5^['5]m*ni ti 

*] 4ttd*<4dM^M^4t^irM<l^ OHwif** *i^qJ^qi*^ [l*] r ^ n 
21 m^ii'M^^^ff *f'^"^i ncj5ig<!iTS!^44til'l^d *3ftt *rt*l"*l II 





] [i*] 



^iftfw: [i*] 


HarL Om, Hail! Prosperity! 

(Terse 1.) Haying caused to long for the otter world (i.e. to set or die) that Moon of the 
(country}, l>y whom this lotus- jjpnd? of Srlraaga had been reduced to a pitiable state, 
re-instating in this (lotm-pond of Sriranga) (the goddess) Lakshmi, who is worshipped in 
the three worlds* king Sundara-Pa^dya rose full of brilliancy, 8 (like) the Sun. 

(Y. 2,) The king who was theMahendra of the glorious (city of) MadJiurft, built for the lord 
of Hanga a shrine (dlaya) with the gold which (h&) had given by frequently perf orming the 
ascending of the scales. 9 The mass of its" rays, red like fresh roses, appears to bo the dawn which 
indicates perpetually the rise of the bright moon of (the Icing's) fame from the mountain of bis 
(i&e god's) raised arms* 10 

(V. 8.) Having covered with gold the shrine (vwndnd) of Hari (Vishnu) at Ra&ga, the Sun 
among Mugs placed in it (an image of) the highest being (parama-pums)l~ which consisted of 
gold to the tips of the naila, (and wUoh he called) after that name of his, wMch tad arisen out 
of that great work, 11 just as the Yogin (places the highest being) in (his) pure- mind* 

(V. 4.) The Sim ainoBg Mugs gave to S&rngin (Vishnu), who resides at Bs&ga, a garland 
of emeralds,^ which (he) had taken from the treasure of the Kfetbafca Hng, (and) which, clinging 





6 Bead 


The day-lotos (padma) is supposed to close its flowers at night and to be the residence 

Litarally, 'obtained a risfc wWcfc was steaming with brilliaticy/ 

Here, and ia verse 27, MAd*i*6ha is used for tuldpuwsTw or tuUlhdra, the gift of as mwh gold as eqal 

^ * e S J ^ , t? aeCOU!at f tbls ceremo ^ a * performed by the Maharaja of Travancore 00 the 29th 
, is given m the { Madras Mail " o the 3rd May 1892 

" 6 ^ n- rSe 10 r ** *"? tfee " ^ ised a ^ s w * those of Vishnu in his Narasimlm locartxatio^ who 
demon Euawattftpn. Both verses 2 aud 10 appear to fcfer to the building of oae and the ^me shrine 
t* out of fehe covering of the shrine with gold. Compare verse SO ne. 

toflMadthakto *> *** the curioua surname * emerald-king/ whi^h occ^s m 


to his (the god*s) "broad breast, bears resemblance to the tender arms of the Earth, who has 
sportively approached from behind to embrace (Mm). 

(V* 5.) The powerful Sun among kings gave to the god who is the lord of Banga s a 
of jewels, whose splendour extinguishes the light of fcltxe jewels on the hoods of the serpent (that 
forms the go$s) couch, just as (the splendour) of the sun (dispels the light) of the stars. 

(V. 6.) The Sun among kings made (an image of) the king of serpents (dfitiha), (ivTio serve 
as) eoucli to Sarfxgia ? the lord of Rsnga* which, was covered with a golden, skin {and) which 
glittered as though, it had been smeared with the saffron dye of the body of Lakshmi, who was 
sporting with her husband. 

(V* 7.) The king who was the Chief of the world ? made at Sriranga a golden tower (gopnra) 9 
which was the residence of NamsimiiB (and) which, surpassed the splendour of the peaks of 
(tJie golden mountain) Snmeru, When at night the full-moon is standing for a ipoment over this 
(go$ura) 9 which emits a mass of bright lustre, it looks as if she had joined the sun. 1 

(V* 8.) When the king who propagated the race of the Moon (and) who was the Chief of 
the world, had carried away the wealth of th capital of the Kftthaka (king), who was distressed 
by terrible single- combats, he built a shrine (vimdna) of Vish.vaksna s covered with plentiful 
gold, which, "by the mass of light that it emitted^ made the sun waver in (Ms) eonr30 on the 
Bky, which had been {hitherto) unobstructed, 

(V. 9.) Reclining under the arch (makaratorana) s which the Sun among kings tad made 
with masses of gold, (taken) from the crowns of (his) enemies, (and) which was adorned with 
numerous jewels,- Hari, who dwells in the temple of 2Janga s surpasses a monsoon cloud which 
is surrounded by a rainbow, 

(V. 10*} The Sun among Mugs built a shrine (ve&man) of Vishnu^ who gracefully raises his 
armSj with masses of gold from crowns which (he) had taken from the treasuries of kings. Th 
intense light which rises from it, makes the ground in Ms (the goffs) vicinity even now appear 
covered with the blood of the lacerated demon s on (his) lap. 

(V* 11.) The glorious Sun among kings gave to the lord of Bsfiga a pendent garland (sraj) 
of pearls, which appeared to be the celestial tree ? offered by Sakra (Indxa), who was afraid that 
(his) crown might be broken (by the Icing). 

(V, 12-) SundararPfindyadevs made for the lord of Banga a canopy (vitdna) of pearls, 
which appeared to be his (the king's) fame, reduced to a solid state, (and) through the splendour 
of which his (the god's) crown resembles the diadem of Pur^ri (Siva), which is surrounded by 
the Bhagirathi (Gangs,)* 

(V. 13.) Like the creeper (of paradise) that grows on the emerald mountain (i.e. Meru?) s th 
devotion that filled Mamkata-p?ithivibli|rit (i,e. the eznexald-king), 8 though of one kind only* 
gave delight to Murari (Vishnu) at Bangs by (presents of) masses of different fruits., which 
were manufactured out of heaps of gold s such as arecanuts, jaek*raits, plantains, cocoa-nuts* 
and mangoes* 

(V. 14.) The noble Stm among kings made at a golden car (4at$ng&) 9 which, on 

account of its height^ resembled a movable (Mount) MSru 5 (jnnd) through the splendour of which 
the clouds on the sky appear to be accompanied 4 by lightning even in the season of autumn* 

, : 

' ' 

* The wonder to which the poet wants to draw the attention of Ms readere s is that the apparent combination 
the sttn ajid the moon over the horizon takes place on -the f oil-moon day, and not p as we are accostomed to see it, 
1 the Bew-raoon day. 

3 Him^ijaksiipis, who was torn to pieces by Yishi^u in his Narasimlm incarnation. 

3 See. p. 14 boves, not 12, and compare the similar sarnanye H^m^ehchhidanar^ja In verse SO. 

4 The worcl of the teatfc is <z&&fc<9Era$a, * going to meet & lover/ by which the poet hints that both the lightning 
adit) and th antniim (iarad) wer IB lov with the eloud 


(V\ 15*) The king who was the Chief of the world (and) the conqueror of (all) foes, 
for -the god Madhuripii (Vishnu) at Kaiiga a large movable trough (prapd) of gold, whicla* 
like the dawn ? indicates, by masses of rays that are spreading 1 on all sides f that the moon of 
Ms fame is rising simultaneously in' (all) the'eight cardinal points* 

(V. 16.) The Sun among kings made for the highest "being whleh is fond of staying at '&&&&&'* 
a golden (image of) Suparaa (G-aruda)* by whos bright splendour, as (by tJiaf:) of (his') eldex- 
brother^, 1 a permanent dawn appears to reign IB the world. 

(V. 17.) The Sun among kings placed on the body of Kaxhsadvigh (Vislinu) s who reposea 
at Hafiga^ a golden tinder-garment* Covered by its rays, the Creator, who rests on (tJie 
naYelj, appears to dwell once more in the golden egg (/ro?& whicJi he was produced)* 

(V. 18.) The Sun among kings gaf e to the lord of Banga a lofty golden aureola 
valayay of great beauty, which, placed near him, resembles a lovely group of blowing 
(trees) 5 "with famdl (trees) between. 

(V. 19,) Placed on the golden pedestal (pifM)$ wMch the Sun among kings had given 
him), (and) which was adorned with various jewels, and beaming the lofty aureola (prabhd), 
lord of Kanga surpasses a black cloud which bears a rainbow (and) rests on the peak of tlxe 
Golden Mountain (Meru). 

(V* 20.) In the month of Chaitra, the S*m among kings celebrated for Baikgin the proces- 
sion-festival (ydtr-Qisawa)) which is praiseworthy on account of bright, wonderful, and prosperoi&s 
clays. It is no wonder (that) those who possess intelligence, rejoice^ when, even the trees^ whiola. 
are devoid of intelligence, are in high glee (or in full flower). 

("V. 21.) In order to celebrate the festival of the sporting (vihdr-dtsavd) of (fJie ffod) \vlio 
dwells at Banga* with Kamala (Lakslimi), king Simdara'-P&ndyadgTa built of gold a 
ship* Through the trees which grow OB the banks (and) which are covered with its (i 
splendour, the daughter of the Kavera (mountain) resembles tlia Mand^fcinJ 
whos b&nks ar adorned with gi a oups of manddra trees. 

V* 22*) The Sun among kings, who had covered the circle of the coast that formed 
anrrounding wall of the earth, which had become (his) residence* with the fame of, tils 
victories, cohered the high inner wall of the shrine (sadma&b) of Ssragin, who is the lox*d 
with masses of gold, -which (he) had bromght from (his) wars. 

r 23.) The large (and) long dimng~ha!l (abkyavahtira-man$ap&)% which king Siancia^^-" 
had om$traeted in front (of the sJirine) of the god wh^ is the lord of Banga* dicl noti 
suffice for accommodating the golden vessels (parfohcfahada)? whichj taking away the. -wealth, of 

kings 9 that same (king) had provided. 

(V. 24.) The Sim among kings placed on the body of the lord of B&nga, from the feet to 
the crest, ornaments of jewels, through which Padm& (Lakshmi) s though leaning on lais 

breast^ appears to have again catered the mine of jewels (i.e. the ocean, from which, slio 

(V. 25.) While, haYing crushed the enemies of order in war ? Siutdaara-Pfl^Ldyadd^vA.^ 

whose bow was (ever) i^eady for action, protected the world, the golden armour whicli 
gave to Vishnu/ who dwells at Sanga s was a (mere) ornament. 4 

3 Aru^a, the charioteer of the San. 

s L@* the Kilveri river. Compare verse 28. 

s The author uses m&ndapa. aa a neuter, which suggests thai he was a 

4 Th^ armour- was aofc ittqaired In earnest;, as the king had already destrojed the <Uarwfotff&a 
of ordir, or demons), with wham Yiab^n formerly used to fight. * 

Ko. 3.] 

V v ^t>* j Having' airanffed two r? * * ~ ^^ ==:===: ========^^ 

" **- - the sand, ba nl of e 

king who has covered (the temple) wilh 1*1 T ns * ame of HtoftohohMdaiuaftJa 
and for the splendid Lali (^ ^S' '" ^ f? ^stroyar of u^ ? 
bmlt three golden domes (vLana)?by^ h ^ T 7 ( f ** ^ } '~ the Sm 
bj the (tkree) crown s5 wom at (^ ) cor tJ ^^ f) ^"^ ^^ as he 

No. 3.- 


the V 1Z agapat am district/' and kindly fcran sm 7tted to h , 

1.0.8. The plates are struag on . p lL ri ng ? wMch hTd btf * f f f ^ 

wfcch measures about f inch in thickness and [ . , bee ? Cut before 

Plates is about 1 ft 7 ,, and that of the r L attl 9 ", f 1 di tof - 

S1 de of the plates are slightly raised in ordS to " ** 2 a - 

preservatzon. The alphabet closely resembles ton 

the aon of t]le jf^^ ABantavarman, wh ch * SS 

The language is very incorrect Sanskrit, anfis pLe 

imprecatory verses (lines 24-27). P? 

tnM of 

A ' Willoct ' 
ceired them, and 

-eight of the 
ri ms o f eact 


a . facsi -e by Dr. . 

3 with the exception of two 



. s , 

y 18 hnu, whose body is of dart oolonr, correspoads to ^ ,! W " re T s P rtln g < the Goldea Mountain ' 

tfee goldea mountaia Jf*. Compare verses 9 andm ^ Cl Ud ' IM ** " 

Ihia refers to the crowns of the 

, and tb throne to 


*r,*, .Tpfl. .* j -jf *. -. -r-t -.- s*a j), 

. r jo.1 A ill JJi U i 


A -cr. records tie gift of tlie village of "^/^^T^- 
j?7*Iri2f,r2. ?r the TijasaBe ja school (L 16). Tlie grant was mads aft v <v?lf'^ -;.----- 
,Le day cf a eclipse (L 18) is - lrne t>r^r 11 i-:.r:.clv,i-': --. J :-, "' yeca* of tae 

la G^ajigSyc-rac 5 ' (L 28 f.) & donor was king Ar.".-t"^r-: . .- .^ tli so.a 

^a St;c--s, M rmr-, a member of the Gariiga family (I. 12 L) wad .i v.-r-rr- 1 *:^ 
;L 11). Tiie wording of the passage which celobr^h^ the virtu u-3 of the 

t3 *^; s is identical with that of tie c^r^^oVlirr* passage in ?i coppeL-.^latc grant of 
rf.rr--r rr_r.n, the son of the IiIaMrtlja A:^r^-v-v=:-::/ ' As Dr. Meet hpJ '-^-M-T r 1 ' Ms 
ion cf treating the ^-rc^oloc;" of tie G^iigas oi Kalinga, 3 I refrain from ' '. . "/. any 
r:jrc5 regarding the date of tlie new ^?3r>t:or., and. would only point oat that it apooara 

same era as the grant cf tlie year 254,;-' a'lacl thnt, ec-^^.^ :-^ i:i -- 5 tho 
ir.zr. ; by v.iion the rjJ^*rr_od ciTr.r^ was i3sned s tippears to be distinct tvu'm^ and 

o was the father of Dr^'c^^-^-c^m 

:c reer to t 




F.'r^ P7rf/-d 

-L J / oy Ji, 6Lsut,G, 

t ^^w<H][^T*Jl^[T' : 1fHf['] ^CT^^^r; r fi-Jw[^]- 
<?r*]: grfw7*ra^ra^[^*] ^t^[i*]-^w?r^f%^r^rf%fe-- c 
fro 7 



: ILis Is probatlj fee modem "Oa^ccija 

^:.::: .- 5 Vol. I, p. 7. - - 

2 Pub-isled by Dr. Fleet; Zd. Ant. Vol. XIII. pp. 273 ff 

' rd. . Vol. XVIIL p. i tt . s 

p. 144, and My. cweU' a Xiafo e/ 


u Bead 

!s Head 
I Read 

17 Head 

* * <, i ' 

Alamanda Plates of AnaufcaTarmaa. The Tear 304 


Sfo. 3=] 





Second Plate $ Second Sife* 




Third Plate ; First Side. 

i*3 J 



[] ftrfW 


1 Bead 
s Read 

The fourth <*&*&ara of stands below 

the li 

7 Read 

8 Bead 
* Real 
10 Eiead 

11 Read 

23 Bead 
13 Eead 

14 ff^e Kf stands below the line \ read 
28 Bead 
17 Bead 
M Bead 

| the word to fee 

repeated by mistake* 

Bead "^fWWT * 

21 iB^tead of (t^. in the west 9 )* rea ^ 

ss Read 
35 Bead 

V Sead 
ss Read 
ss Read 

a Read 
si Read 

D 2 


Third Pfeie ; Second Side. 
29 Wf% [*] 

(Line 1.) Om- Hail! 

From the rictorions residence 2 Katmg,nagara* which. resembles the city of the 

winch is pleasant (on account of tlie simultaneous existence) of the comforts of ail seasons., - 
tie irrtrjit vrcr? nipper of Maliesvaraj \?ho adores the feet of (?m) mother and father, the ornament- 
c the spotless family of the Gangas s the son of the glorious Maharaja H&jSndravarmaii, tfao 
glorious An2ntavarrnadeva ? who Las become a receptacle of wisdom,, modesty, compassion , 
charity, courtesy, bravery, magnanimity, truthfulness, liberality, and other excellent virtues ; who 
has destroyed the principal mountains, (viz. his) enemies ; whose fame is as bright as the white 
vrater-Iily, the jasmine flower and the moon; whose handsome feet 3 are reddened by the 
clusters of the light of the jewels on the crests of all vassals, prostrated by (Ms) valour ; who has 
caused tie cry of " victory *' to resound in the turmoil of many battles ; (and) who is freed from 
the stains or the Kali (age) in consequence of (his) prostrations at the lotus-feet of the god 
Grdtemasvfimin, whoso crest-jewel is the moon,* who is the sole architect for the construction 
of the whole world, who is the lord of the animate and inanimate creation, (and) who is estab- 
lished on the sinless peak of the Matteflra mountain,* being in good health, addresses (the 
folloicingj order to the ryots inhabiting the village of Mede[ia]ka in the district (vishaua,} of 

Tirikatu: 7 


(L. 15.) " Be it known to you (*&&*), at tie consecration of a tank, (which took place) at 
an eclipse of the sua, this Tillage -was given, -with libations of water, to Vish^udSva's son 
Sridtara-Bhatta, of the V^asaneya (tffcM) and the Kanaka gStra, -who resides at Hom- 
varavala, (and) who thoroughly knows the V$das and VM&agas. 

(L. 18.) The marks of the boundaries of this (village) are declared (as follows) . In the 
eastern direction, a row of jnngle-trees (and) & rock ; in the south-east, a rock ; in the south, the 
Chatera river ; in the south-west, a group of tamarind-trees 6 (and) a row of jnngle-trees ; in the 
vest, the Gvra tank (and) a row of jungle- trees ; in the north-west, the Kalajfia tank (and) a rock - 
in the north, a trench ; in the north-east, a banyan-tree, a row of jungle-trees (and) 

* Bead 

2 In this and other Ga%a grants, trf a *0 appears to be used o the sense of rdjadMnt 

^ In line 8 of this inscriptioo, and la Hue 7 of one of the inscriptions published bv Dr ' Fleet IT** A^ 

* w W ******>. t ** Jg^ *"- *"* * N *- * *^ *.-. j-^ A^-A c JL i^jisu s Jt/J'(4' i /T 1 "fl'Sty 

XIII. p. 2To) 9 the word R^lRPwaWiCiqif^ Is erroneously inserted before sf^p^r An 
inieriptions {hid. Ant. VoL XIV. p, 11, teit line 11) shows that, la the origlim! draft of the 
liaaga grants, the ^word formed part of a compound which stood before Ml^j^r* 
4 i,f. the g-od SITS. 


Sr A* ^tm^s^shats 


U new fccladri te the Ma.dasa ..., " '' 5) ' 

ibc L:^ cf these it tailt of very large giuntte blSSiMd^SS ttiTva^Th 6 ^i. 8611 * fO " ^P 1 *" 
vx:n cf t^Gaiga grants. In the Jf a< z w ^j of the 29th Maf ifi ^ ls P er ^PS the G6kar^a- 

T Eaa * term ocear, te J^. ^. ToL XVJIL ? tertlSTlif ,, ?U and Kanareee Dictionaries. 

r:eh tlret reads meet. F r ' Eext liae S6f - Its aeaiungf might be ' the point at 


(L. 23.) "With reference to this (*fcW), there are < 

[Here follow two of tbe customary verses from the - 

( ' en y e P riTOte secretary 

(and) engraved by the keeper of records (nft* fl ? : v . . 

(L. 28.) (J) the yeax ttoee hundred and four of ' the ^os^ro-s and 
reign of the G[a]nggya race.^s d,nct 



The subjoined inscription has already been noticed by Mr. It. in Ms Lists of 

Antiquities, Vol. II. p. 8, No. 58. The original was lent by Dr. 0. D. of 

WeUore, in whose office it is preserved, to Dr. Hultzsch, -who lias placed it at my 

disposal for publication. It consists of five copper- plates, zTLeas^-g- on an average 10* bv 5i" 
There is a hole of about f " in diameter at the top of each plate^for the nsual^ring, which*is 
however lost. The order of the five plates is marked on the left margin of each plate with 
ones, two, three, four and five notches consecutively. Besides* they are numbered ty the 
ordinary Telugn numerals on the top of the back of each successive plate. The first four 
bear writing on both sides ; and the last is inscribed on the iii-er side only^ while its second side 
bears the numeral " five " at the top. The first side of the first plate has the symbols of the 
SUB and moon at the left and right top-corners respectively, and below the mooa the figure of 
a bull, tied by a rope to a tripod, which, is surmounted by a trident, j The occurrence of such 
symbols^ quite common in stone-inscriptions^ is rather rare on conger-platen. The lines 
written across the breadth of the plates and number about twenty on each, side. The raised, 
rims appear to have been flattened and filed on the borders, and, consequently, some letters 
which run into them, have been partly injured* Nevertheless, the rnscrirtio:: is in good 
preservation^ and, with very few exceptions, every letter of it can be made out with certainty. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit verse of various metres, written in faint, but 
boldly engraved Teliigu characters. The chief peculiarity of tie alphabet is the manner in 
which the aspirate letters are distinguished from the unaspirated ones* The letters da and 
are distinguished as in Old Kanarese or Telugn,- the Erst by an opening on the right side. 
the second by being fully closed up. But in lines 24 and 163, dtia is written in its modern form, 
i.e. with the addition of a vertical stroke below. The difference which the writer Has ^tterr^tei 
to keep up between la and bfaa, is rather complex- The top-stroke ffalekaftu* as it is called in 
Kanarese, or talaJcaftu in Telugu) is considered sufficient to f fstiEgrrish the aspirate from the 
unaspirated, except in cases where snots, a stroke is to be omitted in writing^ as when other 
vowels but a, u and 4 are affixed to the consonant, and when it appears conjnnct with another. 
Ttere are several cases, too, in which both the talaJcaftn and the devrnv^rcl stroke appear in tie 
same letter (11. 120, 127, 137, 141, 144, cfc.)- I* be observed that, in ayhVkdnih* in line 

11, Sfctf is written as in Old Kanarese or Telugu, with an opening in the centre Below, The 
downward stroke of tha and gha is dispensed with, because no cc-f^=:cn could arise between 
them and their corresponding nnaspirated forms ; -whereas, in the case of flfftoandpia, it is 
retained as the only mark of distinction from the ^aspirated. Tbe letters }a, sa, ska and Ja are 

i Tfae Banie official title occurs in Ind. Anf. Vol p 12. and Vol. p* 146, and the slightly different 

form (for rahatgaka,)* VoL XIII. p 181. 


l7 old in their f::7*?t : Tbe" vowels i and , o and 6, though disblri^rls^isd 

Is some cases "by a partial and complete loop on the top -cr^cct'T?^ are however, often 
confounded. To aold constant er,rr23t::.r_:-. arising 1 from close transcript?or!. I have ? in the ease 
of i and 4 always adopted that form which tiie context proves to be correct. The vowels & 9 ai 
and ait ars tne rnds^clcrssd forms of their modern inodifieatlenB ia Tolugu* The e of pr&yena 
in line S3 S and the length, of d of bfodgti In line 146, are shown as IB the modem Telugu 

As regards orthrsr^ji-",.- ^7idAa for cZeRfox freqnontlj occurs (11 20^ 101, 108, 157 and 

168)4 The redundant use ol an &itii&svdra before a conjunct nasal is quite common (1L 10 a 12, 
4S S 113, 131, 136, efo.)* ^ s ^ n otter ri [ 23r:rli::iL3 ; a consonant which follows r, Is scscs'iir.GS 
doubled. IB lines 15, 20 a and 21 the pa of j&zoijpjpa, a- in lino 31 the ya o samuijii^a are doubled 
after an ^misydra* A curious ^ist-alx^ Is committed In line 60, where ^ailuG^l^-'ij^:^ is written for 
k&dacihitpriyGbm. There are a number of other graphical peculiarities which are due to the 
influence of tile !5?elugu prcntLiisiatbr. of Sanskrit. Except ia nirvritim In line 59 S ri Is generally 
represented by ru. 7- l:r-3o 66 and 122 S bothr and , li and t& are respectively affixed to the same 
eoJisoaantj and once (L 181) ri Is represented by ri. It is worth noticing that the word ndtha, 
which occurs four times la the Inscription (II. 50^ 52 5 181 189), is spelt In the first three 

"with an anusvdra before tha* This may be clue to the tendency of the Telugo. language to 
insert an awusvdra in such, cases (compare tawtnnMd'it and tammttihdu'). The spelling hramhmassom 
(11. 178 and 179 f.) for brdlimasvam^ saijni (1 87) for sathjZi, saijna (L 186) for samjna, the 
prefixing of a y "before i and s and vice versa (11. 21, 22 ? 23, 44, 65, 160, 163 'and ISO) are also 
due to the Telugu pronunciation of Sanskrit. 

The inscription opens with, an invocation to the Boar-incarnation of Vishnu (verse 1). 
I., the first historical ancestor of the first Vijayanagara dynasty^ is then 
?ntrodticed without any reference to his mythical descent from the Moon, as is done iu other 
Vijayanagara grants (verse 2). He had five sons, Harlliara, 
and (verses 3 and 4). Of these, the first two ruled one after the other, 

is said to have defeated the Muhammadaiis (Terse 5). Kampa (verse 4) or (verse 6) 

tad a son, called II, (verse 7), during whose time the subjoined inscription was 

written. Of this king we learn nothing but a number of bintdas (verse II). The inscription 
records tie grant of the village of Bitraguata (verses 20, 21) or Bittaratei^ta (verse 19) to 
twenty-eight Brfthmanas, wtose nain^s and g6tras are specified In verses 27 to" 33 ; and refers 
incidentally to the grant of another Tillage, mss. (verse 24). Both grants were 

made a,t the suggestion of the king's spiritual pr--eptc- ; the Saiva philosopher 
(verse 12 and line 189), after whoso name- the village of Bitragunta received the "surname 
(versea 21, 34 35 and 42). The date of the first grant was the Bew^moon day 
of the third month o Sftka-SazhvfiA 1278 (ia numerical words aad figures), the cyclic year 
Durankha. The Ascription w^s written by the court- ieater of 1L 

(Yet se So). At the end of the document (L 184), the king is stated to have by Ms OWE 

hand the name of the tutelar deity of the city of Vijayana-ar^ (verse 42). 

This the origin of ihe colophons S&VMtpdhha, Sri-VeAkaf*** or Srt-Mma at the end 

ox otter vrjayanagara inscriptions. 

The motiTe for making the grant under consideration is stated to bare been twofold, 
-first, a reqnest or almost a compulsory demand, of the preceptor Srifeantliaiiatlia, and, 
.eeondly, the kings own desire to procure immortality to his father (verses 17* and 20). The 
second statement 3 farther suggests that the expression pratyabddhdlS in verse 20 means at the 
^versarj (of his lather's deatt); 3 The iascrlption does not inform us if the first or any 
following ifflrnvwaajy is meuit. But ihe motive why the king made the grant, tVe.'to procuring 
hir to his fatter, pyes us sufficient room for conjecture. It is a weU-known Hind4 
Jiat the spmt of a dead man will continue to be a Prfto, or an eyii spirit, until the 

Ho. 4] ^ITILlG'-rrNTA OP 3 a???*^:. II. 

cr~v- 1 cf:cn of all o^c^ci?.? rites; and this ecicplsilc n Is reached with the 53p f *ndy& 
cererroaiss, which are to be observed at the end of one foil year after the death. After this 
period, -and through the several charities made during the final ?3r3~7r_zr-c the Preia is 
supposed to become one of the Monies, i.e. to become classed vith die PihidSzzs. 1 Thus, It may 
be that the ,rr"T?:'srtrj on which ir-ricrfelitj* or godhead v?ac cojisn-ee! on Katapa ? was tLe 
first; and, If so, fee date of JCazcpa's and tie rrc-B-ifcr of ^r^^r-^:? II. would Be 

Sri^-St-trTr* I277 But this is only a conjecture \vMei requires co; w oborotior. 

The contents of the irserir!:io^ furnish us with two -?-:i*r.t facts, viz. first, tie distinct 
mention of the five sons of Saihgama I., and, secondly, 'that of a grandson of his, by name 
StrdigsiTns EL Both those facts are valuable; for, most of tie iz^cri^Hcris thai contain a 
regular genoalogy of the first ^I^ya-iag^rr. dynasty, mention only Harihara I. and Bakka L, 
the first and third sons of Samgama L, s.nd ignore ~?' ^zi^ii* the othei* three ; acd even the 
limited few that mention all the five sons of S^v"?Tr- L, s are either open to suspicion or 
i:_T?r>y?capf!v read. The ?irp^rtc.ncj of the second fact is eTen greater,, inasmuch as it eaalbles us 
to correct certain inferences which have been dra/^n from tlio colophon of the llfdli&i'tud 
Bhdtuvritti, This colophon reads us follows: " Tlie lL f *.dli&rl*jd Vritti 9 composed by 
^f/jrr^Sc^c^a (who was) the uterine brother of ??Ia*??^c ; the son of (and) the great 

minister of ?r,.fri^"^- a ^j the son of ISanprrf^r., the glorious lord of tlie Eastern, Western 
and. Southern oceans." 3 As the * title indicates^ the Mddhan^ri Rb&tuvfiiii was dedicated by 
its author, S&yf^ifioMrva 3 to his brother ?f?.d.h*T'?'*'i:Srya, who, as we learn from other 
sources,, was the minister of Brf^^nc, or Bukka.I. o Y^jr^^r.^^rr,. 4 Further, Mfvih?.rSchil? 

says of himself that "his mother ("was) Srlmati^ his father (was) the 1'amous? Maya^ia, (and) 
Ms two uterine brothers (were) Sayaiia and BL6s;rrf tipj, (who appeared to be his) mind 
and intelligence*" 5 That- Samgaraa, whose minister yras Sajana according to the MddhaviyA 
D'tiGtici'riiii. lias been hitherto considered as identicrJ with SaAc'n.s?.?. L, the father of 
Harihara I. and Bukka I. The present fr.*::-^-"---.. however, which acquaints us with a 
king Samgaroa H. 9 who, as the Saihgamar&ja of the colophon of the PJdtfJicii'k/Ll Bhdinvritti 
T?as the son of Kampa^ and which also mentions a certain "R"b6giB.tha. who is probably 
identical with that Bliogan&tlia who, according to the conamentary on the Parclfarasmriti 
was the brother of S&yana, shows that Sftjana must have been the minister of Sazh^ama II., 
and not of SamgamaL, who, in the present state of our o^rrr^^h^c^l^cTr!^^,.^ is nothing more 
than a name. In the coloplion of his commentary on i'- : ' :.,i -c ;; ,-. , '" t ; .. , S$yan.cb^.t^ r ? 
calls himself the minister of king HaEihara 5 who bore the titles of Rdjddlnrdia 
p^'^firn^e^^r. 6 Tliis can hardly refer to Harihara I., who claimed to be "only a 
2*a7i&?)ian#aleh*?,ya }? &n&it must "be assumed that S&yana, who was originally the minister 
of Samgama H siibseqtTently held the office under Eorihara ZI / occr^rn^ to 

See tb^^f^^c^cr^ CZL Yiiiiavalkya, i. 25S 1 1 g 


3 Colebrooke's Mtsce llavw.r 3S$say$* Madras reprint. Vol. II. pp. 2-54 If. Mr. Eiee s s Mysore 

p. 277 f. 5 Mr* SewalFs X>^ of Antiquities^ Vol. II. No. 79. Dr. HultzscT^ v/lio has eiraisilaed the orjginai^of the 
last- mentioned inscription* considers It a forger j, fr-briert?A :n tke time of the third 

^^ ..... 

5fff[:*] The Berlin MS,, as transcribed by Professor ^Y-.b:-- .LV-Z;,: Catctogu*) Vol. I. p. 222, No. 789^ reads 

4 See the introduction to M&dhava's ommentarj on the .PT-- ^ rrrr - : ^~ j n profeEsoi" A'afreeai/s Oxford 
Catalogue, p. 264; and Dr, Fleet's abstract of a Banavase ips^ptlon tj *ttd t AnL YoL IV", p. 8Q6 9 Wo. 3, 

3 ^ra-l^tfi^t^^r: I wmwi "r{4T^t ^Til^ClIl ; Professor Aufrecht's Qs&ford 

Catalogue t L c* 

s See Professor Weber's Serlin Catalogue,, Vol. IL p. 73,, 
9 < See his Mdami inserlptioa of Saka-Samrai 1261; Ind. ^h^,, Vol. S. p* OS, 


Professor Aafrecht, 1 be died in A.D. S887, All that we can at present gather regarding the 

genealogy of Madhava and S^yana* is as follows : 


married Srimatl* 


Midhava, S&yana, Bh6ganatba 

minister of Bukka I. minister of Samgama II, court-jester of Samgama II. 

and of Harihara II. 

According to Mr. Sewett's Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I, p. 142, Bitragunta 2 the first of the 

villages granted, is situated 7 miles south by -west of KHvaiij which is 32 miles from X9ell&r 

(Nellore) and is the head-qtiartars of the Kavali t&luka in the Kellore district. Its situation is 

described in tie inscription as being 3 y6janas north of the town of Vlkrazaasiiiihapiira in 

ihe district called PSkavisliaya, which was situated on the shore of the Eastern ocean, i.e. the 

Bay of Bengal (verse 19), I do not know if the name Vikramasimhapura still exists ; "but the 

name Paka survives in the name 01 a certain sect of Telugu-spealritig SMras B the Mysore 

territory $ who profess to come from Pakanadn^ the country of Paka, and are as such called 

Pakanatis, The other Tillage,, Siihkesari 9 Is said to be situated in the district called 

Mnlikidesa on the northern bank of the Penn& y i\e. the well-known Penner river, and to the 

north of the Saiva temple at Puslipaeliala (?erse 24), which is identical with Pustt.pagiri 9 

8 miles north of Kadapa (Cuddapah). A native of Pushpagiri informed me that close to 

Pushpagiri is a village named S'unkesara, which appears to be the same as the Simkesari of 

the grant. It inay be also remarked that a certain class of Smarta Bralimanas, who call 

themselves Mr^kir.dr.TC.rr. ; profess to have emigrated from the Muliki country. The otter 

places . meBtioned In the inscription as the boundaries of the two villages (verses 22 and 25) 

I am unable to identify. Bat so much is certain that Samgama II* held portions of the 

present Hellore and CmddapaSi districts, while his uncle Bukka I* was reigning at 

Vijayaaftgara. Samgama II. can scarcely have "been dependent on Bixkka I., as he would Jhave 

otherwise referred to the latter as his overlord in his inscription* The fact that lie represents 

Ms owa father as the actual successor of Harihara I. also suggests that lie considered 

himself entirely independent of Bukka I. 

First Plate j First Side. 

. , 

2 mf cr: i 


6 **rf^f ^ ^s^i-r;^"? vir- 

7 f%W*fWF^'4^/rif%wi^ 3 

8 <K^!<^HldRl^ftfri?^WT- 4 


No. 4.] 














[f*>rf ii 

: ii 

sraw finr 6 




. [c*] 

?f n [.*] 

Plate; Second Side. 




1 Head 
3 Read 
3 Bead 


6 Head 

7 Bead 

8 Read 

9 Bead 

10 Eead 



[VOL. HI. 

















HI j 

Second Plate; First Side, 




I! [^8*] 



fk^f 11 


* Tbe form f W is grammatically correct. See sote 1 on the 
t, Bombay edition of 1892, p. IS. 


; (Kanarese). 

7 Read 


Head < r ift | 4iHVf. 

11 Bead 
33 Read 

Bitragunta Grant of Samgama II. Saka-Samvat 1278. 


* \ 








62 *pnfor n 

63 a- 

64 H)fcKf<$f <T?r: 


66 7] 

67 ?ff j 


Second Plate ; Second Side, 



79 f* 



82 wr[ : ] 

O *> *> , _ _ 

00 <(q ft 1 4?f ; || 



2 Read <tiHi%. 1 2 Bead TT^teTcfT^ | s Read ^ftr. 

4 To the bh of tiftrifdm, hotk the vowels r^" and u are attached in the original. 
Bead ~ 

Read gTri3vft. Read 3T*f|j. 

TT. m -n-ir ___ f"' A. 

- . - S Read ^^* I lft Bead -,t^,.. 

n The ^.^ metre, in which this verse is written, requires on short syllable more in the first $dd-&. The 
form BittaraJe&mt&i which occurs in line 74, would meet the deficiency. 




*HUi<B3i)tcii Tifei^glifcg. 1 















Third Plate; First Side. 

: u 

t ftftr i 

Wo. 4.] 



Third Plate -, Second Side. 


























% wrr: 7 



1 Jieail 
a Bad 
s Heart 

~ Read 







u C^*-*] 

u [V*] 

a" ^fq-sf- 





***** &**, s Second 

r: ti 

No. 4] 

BITBAGtmT. J t-^KAiOLjC>F''K2dtfQ^.MA II. 
















Fift7i Plate. 

$hifch*{ "^ 

r n [**] 



1 Read 
3 Bead 
3 Bead 

* Bead 
6 Bead 

* Bead 

Rff t* 

7 Bond 

8 React 

9 Read 
30 Bead 
ai Read 
13 Bead 

13 Bead 

14 Read 
ls Bead 
J Bead 
J ' Bead 




(Verse 1.) Let that tusk of Hari (Vislinu), who disported himself (in tlie shape of) a 
, (<wrii<2) on which (tusK), as on a staff, the Earth appeared to be a parasol, will the 
golden mountain (Mem) as its point,- protect you ! 

(V- 2.) There was a ruler (catted 9 ) king Samgama [ I .]* whose uncontrolled, high valour, 
which was In conformity with the great pride of his renowned, powerful arm, overclouded 
the unchecked fighting-power of hostile kings, (and) whose shining, excellent lotus-feet were 
worshipped by the great splendour of the rubies on the humbly bent heads of crores of princes. 
(W. 3 and 4.) From Mm were produced five heroic sons, as, formerly, the (five) celestial 
trees s from the milk-ocean: first, Hug Haxihara ; then, the ruler of the earth, Kjwsipa.; then, 
the protector of the earth, Bukka ; (and) afterwards, Mtrapa and Muddapa, 

(V. 5*)t Of these, king Harilxara, by whom the Sultan (Sur&tr&na), who resembled 
Sutr&man (Indra), was defeated, ruled the earth* for a long time. 

(V, 6*) His younger brother, king Kampana, whose name became true to its meaning, as 
ha made the enemies tremble, 3 ruled the earth for a long time. 

(V* 7.) His heroic son was king Samgama IL3, just as Jayanta (was fhe son) of JambhUrr 
(Indra), and as Pradyumna (was the son) of S&rngin (Kjrish^a)* 

(T. 8*) Ah ! surely, Kama, the Jsalpa tree, and the celestial cow eagerly w&tcli his 

compassionate glance, which fulfils the desires of supplicants. 4 

(V* 9.) It is because she is desirous of resting on his arm (and) unwilling 1 to choose 

another, that, for a long time, the goddess of Victory enters battles and practises the vow of 

(walking on) the edges of swords. 6 

(V. 10.) While, by the extensive spreading of his fame, the three worlds experienced 

supreme delight, the moon was successful in nothing but in causing the water-lilies to 

(V II.) c * Here comes the glorious lord of both the Eastern and Western oceans, the 
disgmcer of the wicked kings that break their promises, the destroyer of the armies of opposing 


* The Author here uses the word fecdpa for the celestial trees in general* though it is strictly applicable to 
one of them alone ; see AmaraMm* L l s verse 53 For a similar use of the word ia the genera! sense, compare 

5 Nai$&ad?i&* canto xili. verse 1. 

1 Use poet derives Kanapana from Jeamgayafi* * he causes to tremble/ 

* TMs rerse implies that Samgaim's donations were admired, but not equalled, by Kama, the fcalpa tree, and 
the cslMtial cow s who are noted for their unbounded liberality. 

The purport of this verse is, that Samgama II had not to fight for victory, but that victory came to him of 

its own accord. 

* ThU Terse implies that the moou, which bad hitherto pleased the whole world, was beaten in that respect by 
the of Samgama II. aad served no practical purpose, bat to induce the aighMotus to open its flower*. 

Bitragunta Grant of Sarngama II. Saka-Samvat 1278, 









kings, 1 the lion to tho troops of the furious elephants of the lords of elephants, horses and 
men.'* s Thus do crowds of bards loudly (and) continuously proclaim his surnames in this world. 

( V. 12.) In order to give Instruction in philosophy to that ruler of the earth, who possessed 
to such a degree as stated before the art to please (the world by possessing) all virtues, (and) 
whose fame was boundless, the blessed Pasupatl (Siva) ? who is an ocean of compassion^ 
appeared in the form of Srikanthanatlia, Inspiring (the king) witli miraculous intelligence, 

(V. 18.) While this venerable person was expounding the truths of Maiiesvara (Siva)? 
(the conduct of the Icing to as so righteous that) most of the ancient kings appeared to have been 
produced afresh on earth. 

(V. 14.) By thq mere prohibition at Ms feet, salvation (mnfeti) is In tho reach of ascetics 

{yati) i "while, through austerities,, nothing 1 but exhaustion of the body is obtained. 

(V. 15*) His glances are the keys for opening the panels of the door of the path to final 
emancipation (jkaivalya) to those who desire bliss in the other (world). 

(V. 16.) Once, wlicn (his) beloved disciple, king Samgama [II.] waited upon him, the 
preceptor commanded him (as follows)^ with a glance which was full of great love : 

(V. 17.) " It pleases me to urge you to bestow some agrahdra. Therefore, O king, grant 

some village ! ' ?s 

(V, 18.) With folded hands (and) bent Iiead 3 the lord of the rulers of the earth received 
this command of (his) preceptor. 

(V. 19.) On the shore of the Eastern ocean is a district (visluiya) of boundless greatness, 
called Paka. The town (jpura) called Vikramasixhlia resembles its front-ornament. At a 
distance of three yojanas to the north of this lies the splendid village called Blttarakunta* 
This {village) the king gave away, in order to please (his) preceptor. 

(V. 20.) In the Saka year which was measured by the elephants (8), the mountains (7), 
and the suns (12), (in figures) X278* in the (cyclic) year Durinuklia s in tho third month, on 
(the day of) a combination of the moon and the sun, 4 at the anniversary (of his father's 
death?), the glorious king Samgama til.], w ^ waH anxioii& for the welfare of his elders, 
granted to thirty Brahmarias 5 who followed the conduct (prescribed) in the Vedas, the 
village of Bitragunta s in order to procure immortality to liis father. 

(V. 21.) On this (village), which was famed on earth by the other name of Bitraiinte t 
(the king), who resembled a lord of ascetics, conferred the (new) name of Srika^thapura* 

(V. 22.) As far as the land of Pusalapada* as far as the pond called Mallekunta, us far a& 
the neighbourhood of Papataputa s and as far as the canal from which salt is produced , <* 

(V, 23.) The boundaries of this excellent ayrahdra in the eastern, southern, western and 
northern directions are thus successively declared. 

1 Similar birudas occur in many Vijaysmagara inscriptions, e.g. io the inscription of Harihara I., Znd* Ant. 
Vol. X, p. 63. 

3 According to Bears translation of the Si-Yu-Kit Vol. L p. 13, fche Southern* Western, Northern and Eastern 
parts of India are supposed to be ruled over by four mythical monarchs, Gujapati, Chbattrapati, A^vapati and 
Narapati. The first, third and fourth of these are referred to in our text arid in, a number of inscriptions of other 
dynasties and periods, viz. in inscriptions of the kings of Kanauj (2nd. Ant. Vol. XV. pp. 9-13), of the Kalaehurii 
lungs (ibid. Vol. XVII. pp. 225 and 227) 8 of the Chaudcllas (ibid, p* 230) s and in certain forged m^erlptious (Hid. 
oi. VIII. p. 91). 

s The impolite manner in which the great man addresses the king, is intended as * specimen of the power 
which the preceptor possessed over his pupil. 

4 i.e. on a new-moon day. See the Amaralk6x&i i. 4, verse 8 : ^WT^T^fT teffTPTOif ^W* ^f^^^nTf J. 

s Properly speaking^ there were thirty shares, but only twcnty-**ight BrubniflJQaS) the second uiid tliird of 
whom received two shares each ; see verses 27 to 33. 

uti may also be the proper naoie of the canal. 



(V. 24.) There was a country (d&Sa), called Muliki. In it Is an excellent sbrme of 
Puraripu (Siva), named Pushp&chala. To the north of this, and on the pure northern bank 
of the FexuL& (river is) a rich village, called SImkesarL The preceptor caused the "king to 
give (this) away as a donative village. 1 

(V. 25.) As far as the river called Vakkar^ as far as the Jamtati hill, as far as the bank of 
the B&dara river, and as far as Ketanikunta ; 

(V. 26.) The foremost among virtuous men have to understand that such are the successive 
boundaries of this village in the four directions* 

(W. 27-33.) List of donees : s 

Name of donee. 


Number of faare$ 













Bom may 4 







Srl^ratsa . 






Kau^ika * 






Kauaika . 





























Ayyalu . 



N&ga . 



Sarva . 






Srlgiri . 









(V. 84.) Let it shin in safety as long as the moon shall exist,-* that a^rahdra (called 
after) Srikantliajs which is ever pleasant to dwell in, (and) thromgh. which becomes celebrated 
the first (i.e* BrS.limana) caste, which is of good conduct, high-minded^ free from disease* and 
of strong body, which is to be respected on account of perpetual goodness* and is the ornament 

of sacred places, which has appeased the bitter pain of the mind, and which resembles fire in 

(V. 35.) These verses were written on the plates of the royal edict (^dsana) by the wise 
Bh6ganat!is*ihe court-jester (narmMaohiva) of king Sariigam-a [U.] s ino^der that 
pitxa; might prosper. 

[Verses 30-41 coiitain the issuai imprecations* and are therefore left untranslated/] 

(Line 184,) 

1 The recipient of this gift was probably the Saiva. temple at Pns!ip&ei!ftla s wMeh is mentioned in the flfst half 
of the verse s 

* Th p rancmii tatret in Terse 27 ref ero to BI|raga^ in Yfers 21. 


(V\ 42.) In order to secure prosperity to Srikantfasptirajr king Samgama [IIJ wrote 
on the plate the mantra l of five syllables, (which consists) of tlie name of (the god) 

(Line 189 f .) drlka^thanfttha. Prosperity I Great fortune ! 2 



This inscription is engraved on tliree copper-plates of 5f by 9| inches, which were s < found 

hidden in a paffd land, belonging to one ArunSchala Aiyar, in the village of Satyamangalam 
in the TMur (Vellore) t&luk&," and kindly transmitted to me for examination by the Collector 
of the North Areot district, Mr. H. Le Fanu, LO.S. The ring on which the plates must have 
been originally strung, is missing. The inscription is in the Wandingarl alphabet and in 
Sanskrit verse; a few short passages in prose occur in lines 42 fc, 51 f., and at the end of the 
last plate. 

The inscription records that king Devaraya II of Vijayanagara bestowed on eight 
Brahmanas the agrahdra of CMtoytyiirti s which he had snrnamed (DevarsLyapura) after 
himself (verse 25). This village was situated in Anda-nadu, 3 a sub-division of Marataka^ 
nagara~prnta* The grant was made at the temple of Virtipakslia 4 on the bank of the 
TuiigaTbliadra river (v. 23). The date of the grant was Monday, the new-moon tithi of 
Ashadha in Saka-Saxhvat 1848 5 the Krddhi samvatsara (T. 24). Mr, Dikshit has favoured me 
with the following information regarding this date : 

" Amanta jLshadha krisTina amdvdsyd of Saka-Samvat 1346 expired, the Krfidhi samvatsara, 

ended on Tuesday, the 25th July, A.D. 1424^ commencing on Monday, the 24th July, as late 
as 56 gJi. 13 p. Ujjain mean-time. This is not the tifki in question^ as the original has a 
Monday* Besides, Ashadha was intercalary in this year, and its amavtisyd ended on Monday^ 
the 2Gtli June, AD 1424, at 31 gh. 56 p. Ujjain mean-time* This seems to be the tifhi in 

question, though the word adJiika*, cc intercalary/ 5 is not added in the original. There was a 
solar eclipse on this date (26th June), though I have not ascertained whether it was visible in 
India or not." 

The historically important part of the inscription is the genealogy of the first dynasty of 
Vljayanagara^ which is given in verses 3 to 21. As in other inscriptions^ 5 Yadu of the race 
of the Moon is mentioned as the mythical ancestor of this dynasty. The first historical person 
is Samgama IJ (v, 5), One of Ms sons was Biikka [I.] (v, 6), whose descendants are named 
in the same order as in a previously published inscription of D&varaya II. 6 Besides, the new 
inscription mentions the names of the queens of Bukka I. and of Ms three direct descendants* and 

1 The word manu appears to be used here in its Tan trie sense, viz. in that of mantra. 

3 The word " fortune ** Is repeated Hve times in the original. 

8 Other forms of this name are ,ndi-nidu and iija-n&du. To Andi-nMa belonged the village of Vdppambattu 
(in tlie VeMr taluk a) ; jSowtfalndian Inscriptions? Vol. I. pp. 80 and 131, A sub-rdmaion of n,janadu was the 
atmd of Gudiy&tara (now the head-quarters of a taluk&) | Ind. Ant. Vol. XIIL p. 132, verse 54, 

4 This is the Pampapati temple at Harape; $2p* Ind. Vol. I. p. 36S. 

^ Colebrooke's Miscellaneous JSssays,, Madras edition. Vol. II, p. 256; Journal* Bombai/ Branc&j R. A* S., 
Vol. XII. p. 372 1 Madras Journal of Literature and Science for 1881, p 253 j South- Indian Inscription*, Vol. I- 
pp e 100 wd 160. 

p. 160 f * 

v 2 


.ntroduces a younger brother of DSvaraya II., whose name was Pratapa-Bevaraya^, and 
:o Judge from Terse 21, appears to hare held a high office* perhaps that of co-regent, under fais 
royal brother. I subjoin a pedigree of the first Vijavanagara dynasty, in which 1 have enfce:ri<l 
the new details supplied by the present Inscription, by an inscription o Saih crania, II- 
4*) 5 and by other rr.scri^/i^ns wliicli -have been lately discovered: 

Sa/hgama I. 

J : 



i "1 

Hartbara J, 


Bukka L, !2u!i!L:ia. <-e 7-^kanna, 

Marapa. Muddapa 


or Kaiopana. 

f in, Gau?l ^r G.iur-'i,^. j : _Kl. 

;SAkc, 1261.) 


(Saka 1276 [current] to 1293. 3 } 

{Saka 1278.) 

Harihara II. 

, m. MalamMkiL 
(Saka 1301 to 1321.) 



Bevaraya L 
m. H&inatnbikfL 

(Saka 1330 [current]* to 1334.) 


(Saka 1 [333*5* "and 1338. 6 ) 

, Devaraja II. 

(Saka 1346 to 1871.) 

Prattpa - 1)6 varay & 3 

, Mallikaritina. 8 

(Saka 1375 and 1387.) 

(Saka 1392.) 

, . 

(Saka 1-iCI and 1408.) 

(Saka 1405.*) 

1 In previous jbahles (Journal* Swnbag Srancl, M* A. 8., Tol. XII. p. 339 f and Soutfolndian 

Vol. L p. 161 ) Saka-Sazhvat 1290 [expired], tbe Kllaka year, was entered as the latest known date of BukkYi I , 
Mr. Cousens has since farniabed me with impressions of two subsequent inecriptioxiB in tbe Kanarese language* z&i 

Bhatkal, mz. a copper-plate of Tira-Bokkarays, dated In Saka-Saimvai 1291 [expired], tbe Saumya year, a*c! * JV 
stone inscription of Vira^Bukkan&a-Odeyar of Yijayanagara (thus)* dated in Saka-Saihvat 1293 [expired 1, 

TirMhikpt year. 

3 Tbis Kanarese name was read by Colebrooke (Miscellaneous 33&says t Madras edition. Vol. IL p. 

Mudgapa ( c tlie protector of beans ') in wbich form it has found its way into Bohtlingk and Eoth*s 
Wurter"buchi and from it into Sir llonier Williama J Sanskrit Dictionary/. 

$ South-Indian Inscription^ Vol. I- No. 55. That this inscription has to "be attributed to Bukka II, 
first recognised by Mr. Venkayja; Madras Christian College Magmzine for March 1892, Another Tamil ittsoac\^ 
tion of Biikka II., dated In Saka-Samvat 1328 } expired, the Yjaja year s Is engraved on tbe east wall o tl*' 
Xatar^a shrine in tbe SkdmTan^tba temple at KMckf. ' * 

4 Saka-SaihYat 1830, the Sarvajit year, is the date of a Kanarese inscription of Dlrarija at Bbatkal s 
of which I owe to tbe kindness of Mr. Coasens. 

5 Sec Mr, Tenkayja^s article* loc. cit. 

B This is the date of the Vandav&si plates, which were pnblisfepd % 3r. Oppert in the Madras 
Literature and Science for 1881, pp, 240 C The inscription records the gram of the village of CLetta 
kingdom (rdfya) of Pedabiau, 1'his is the modern Padav^dti in the P6i&rtftink& of tbe Xortb Arcot 

This name is taker, ^,-in vrse 21 of tbe present inscription. 
^ Da this and she tVo next kings see In*. Ant. Vol. XXL p. 3n f . and JTa^ro^ CftnWaji Col^e^e 

See my 

for 1891-92, p. 9 % 

No. 5.] 














First Plasg, 

5: p 


[8*] ^ 





1 From the original copper-plates and ink-impressions of tbeni. 

a Versus 2 to i\ 8 and 11 resemble verses 2 to 4* 00 and 9i, 6. S s:id II of an inscription cf Tira-Vi^aj 

as Journal of literature and Science for 1881, p. 249 f.). Verse 7 Is nearly identical with verse 17 cf an 
inscription of Hariharn II. (Colclirooke's Miscellaneous E$f~r?. 31adns e!:::r>r. Vol. IL p, 264), and Terse 14$ with 
verm fc 195> of the same inscription. 

Is the Kanarese form of tlie Sanskrit 

-' Head 

, as lu the inscription of Vira-Vijaya, I." i'^^* fourtct &f tor 1SS1 

no, jtrse 11. 
Head C ff9wt. 
^ ?cftn?[ is tbe Kanaresa form of the Sanskrit cff*c|. 















Second Plate i First Side. 
) ft**] 

fert wtrr^: i 





Second Plate ; Second Side. 


Satyamangaiam Plates of Devaraya II, Saka-Sarsmt 1348. 

No. 5.] 





*H cn*la IS WC^W^frr!^: W- 

^ISCI *jii tJ*ft I ^ qfjxi I <3 1 M 1 1! ^ 

^1** i ^ R!im<if nwt^Rf: s [^--*] 

^rcqrEfFr*] 1 ^^^^^!^^: 

^5r: i 

fe ] 

1 i ( J SJ < L V> vs,. J, ^; ^55t, iffi?! 1 



,^^ JSMB JCU* M I!L 


wlwr^": i 



9 'f^OTl- 

* ^^* 


T 4 



Harins invoked Gr^apat: (verse 1) and tlie B? -i:v^r-^ *.-:i i of Vishnu (v. 2), the au t i 
fire t:;e following genealogy o the first Y>/,-i^2, :-a dynasty . 

The Moon (v. 3). 
Ei& d.:--^jn:;^::t, Yadu (v. 4% 
Kis dj^3i::I:r-t, Sarhga:nci [I.] (v. 5), 
One of Ills sons, Bukka [I,] (v. 6). 
His SOB by Grauri. Earihara [EL] (v. 7). 

(Terse 8.) "By erecting spacious halls (for the performance} of the sixteen great g'lfi' 1 - * 
saade tie wkole world (Jbi^ttana) tlie dwelling (bhavana) of (7m) wife, (rf/w? yotltfvss of} Fain* : . 

His son by MrJainlbild; Pratapa-Devaraya [1.] (v. 9). 

(V. 10.) "Through tli2 Tvliid (t^hlcli -was produced) by the flapping of tlie ears o* 
eler&asts on tlie field of battle, the Tuiushka (.0, Musalmdn) Vrsone**. exp^r^nc*.^ iht; * 
Of chiton (i.e. were blovrn away)* J; 

His SOIL by Hi::.:.- b:k:L Yira-Vijaya (T. 11). 

lT* 12*} CI The ligiitning (and) the stars {were) tlie bwers 3 and the stm and tho iir*< 
(irere) the rnits 9 o two burning creepers, (vis.) the valour and fame of this lord/"' ^ 

His son by 'Sarayanambika (v. 13), Bevar&ya [11.] (Y, 14). 

He bore the surnames (biruda) Rdjadhr^ja^ Rdjaparaw>*srara* *the disgracer of i: i 
who break their word/ 3 4 the disgracer of the three kings (of the South)/ * the terrificr of JK< *-r- 

ki^gs/ and fi the Sultan (S*irairdna} araong Hindu kings' (TY, 19 and 2lO) B 

(V. 21.) **(His) glory is made resplendent by his renowned younger brother 

just as that of Mc&endra by his younger brother Upeadra (Vishnu)* 
(Y. 22.) u Having ascended the throne of (his) father in tlie city (nagara) called 

whose moat is the holy ^Tufigabhadpa, (and) protecting the earth up to the oceans, 

(Y. 23.) * s The foremost among tlie virtuous, the glorious king Devar&ya [ II, J (w 

the following gift} in the presence of (the god) Sri-Tirlipakslaag on the bank of the "* - " 

(V. 24.) ^In^tie^ year of the ^aka (king), (which is expressed by the w wv w/ -,--,, 
tattraldka 0\s. 1346), 4 in the suspieior^ Kr&dhi samvatsara, on the pure new-moon tit fit 

which was (fhrongh leing} a Monday. 

(.25.) ^Having adorned by Ms own name (i.e. having sarnamed after himself) f h. 
Tillage called CMteyatytirii in the country called Iuda~nadu 9 (a subdivision) of 

nagara-pranta, 5 

* See p. Ind. Tel. I. p. 368, note 58. 

s Tbe only remarkable print, in tbis \erse is tbe occurrence of tlie rare dual pus&pavanfau, * tbe sun 
moon/ Acccrdhig- jo ^Sanderson's dictionary, tbe same word is used in Kanarese in tlie form $v$hpavantar 

* ^W^to'/aajAi-SA^a^a^fttt/aOT^a is a translation of tbe Kanarese term IMshege tappu 
pa this and on the aext ^rK?c see JE>. Ind. Vol- I. p. 363, and p. 369, notes 81 and 62. A sL MAJ 
. -.* ^^... M ,- *^ , , ff ^*. Q t ^ e troopers of (hostile) kings;' /& ^H#. Vol. XIII. p, 

* On tbis mode of expressing numbers see Ind. Ant. Vol. IV. p. 207 and 
**^rapA,y f second dition 9 T>. 73. * * 

Mmtakanagani i* a vulgar form of Marakatonagara, *tbe city of emeralds/ 
r -St c74<r^iti 2)ietiottartf give both ^fl[^?f?f {aMar^o^) and iTCHV f M 

>n of Su B aara-P4E%ai atf*, p . ig, test line 8. 



OT. 26.) "Endowed with buried treasures, deposits, water, stones, actuals, outstanding 

etc., 1 undivided, up to (its) "boundaries, UBencumbered, beautiful ( ! ), * 

(V. 27.) " For as long as the moon and the stars stall endure, with libations of water 
accompanied by presents (dakshind), the powerful (king) gave this agrahdra to Brahmanae. 
(V. 28.) " Let *tis agrahdra, which was given to Bra! - s by kine* DSvarftya 

prosper on earth as long as the moon and the stars shall endure ! 




(V. 32.) "Each of (these) eight Brhma$as, wlio had thrrcTishlv studied the 

and were descended from the race of the BJaaradvajas^ received for ever one share {vritti . of 
this (village), 

(V. 33.) "The eight shares of this agrahdra were (thus) settled. (Its} L-onr.cbrie* in the 

eastern and other directions are specified In the language of the country (Le. in Tamil), 3S 3 

In verse 34 the composer wishes along reign to the doaor 5 Hug Bevaraya [EL]* Then 
follow four of the usual imprecatory verses, a fivefold r-e"Detit:or* of the aT7sr>icicus rr.o*:c?*'! 1 aH? 
irt, and the name of the god Sri-Virftpkslia in Kanarese character*. 3 



The copper-plates which contain this inscription, were found in an earthen pot 3 buried in 
a field in the village of Biiguda, in the Gnmsiir talnka of the Gafijam district of the Madras 
presidency. 4 On the 28ili July 1S9G* they were sent to Dr. Hnltzsch by Mr. E. C* Jolmson, 
I*C.S 8? Collector of Gaiij&m, and 1 now edit the inscription from the original plates and from 
excellent Impressions, received from Dr. Hnitzsctu The original plates will be deposited in the 
GrQTernment Central Museum, Madras. 

The inscription is on tbree plates,, each of which measures about 6J V broad by 3" high 
and the edges of which are fashioned slightly thicker than the rest, to protect the -writing, 
The first plate is inscribed on one side only ; the two others are Inscribed on botii sides* The 
engraving is deep and well done, A careful erairixia^Vri sliows that these plates orfffinsn-T 
Bore another inscription, the letters of which probably were beaten in to make room for the 
i ascription her edited; but some letters of the older inscription may still be ree^i-ecL ever 
in the ink-impression, especially on the second side of the second plate. The three plates are 
held together by a ring, which is about 3" in diameter, and on -which is soldered a round 
about If in diameter. The seal apparently contains s'orne -writing and an emblem; but 
are too much worn to be made out with certainty. Before the plates came into Dr. Hultzsch's 
hands, somebody had attempted to remove the ring; and, in doing so, lie had rudely cut the plates 

i See JRp. Ind. To!. I. p. 402, note 41. 

The promised specification of the i omittect in the document itself, as m an uucnptam of 

II. ; C^lebrooke's editJoB, Toi 1L p. 201* ,>*.,, , . 

9 Ho. 4, wme 42, it that tbe word Srl-7*r^* to t!l0 ^ bn himmlf 

ProfrmMtport I* ihe G**ernm*niof Jfa^rwfaf Uay to September 1890, p. 2, Ha, vL 



from the ring-holes to the edges, and thus damaged some of the writing. With this exception, 
and except that four aksharas are broken away at the edges, the plates are well preserved. 

The size of the letters Is about '. The characters are N.gari 3 similar to, but more 
modern than, those of the Gorfikhpnr copper-plate grant of Jaydditya of Vijayapura. 1 The 
language is Sanskrit. Lines 31-41 are in prose \ the rest of the inscription, excepting tbe 
introductory 6m svasti, is in verse. As regards orthography, the letter 6 is throughout denoted 
by the sign for t? ; the guttural nasal is used instead of anusvdra before the palatal sibilant, 
in ansuWiih, line 2, prdnsur, line 7, and in the "word vansa, in lines 14 and 19 ; and tbe 
vowel ri is employed instead of ri in triVhuvana, line 6, and triyarsheya (for triydrsMija = 
trydrsJi&yct), line 38 The language is simple, but not always correct; and though the general 
sense is plain enough, it is in one or two passages Impossible to construe the words properly. 
and to make out with certainty what the writer exactly meant to say. 

The inscription is one of the illustrious Madhavavarman (line 30), who, fro to his residence 
at EaingSda (line 29) ? informs his officials and the people generally that, on the occasion of 
a solar eclipse a he gave the village of Puipina (line 36) , which was in the Khadira pdttaJca of 
the G-udda vishaya, to the JSliatta Vamana (line 40) , who was a son of Adityadeva and grandson 
of Vamana, and a student of the Taittiriya eharana, of the Harita gotra, and with the threefold 
pravara, Aiigirasa, Amt-arSsha 2 and Yauvanasva. 

After the words dm svasti, the inscription opens with two verses, one of which invokes 

the protection of the god gambhii (Siva), while the other glorifies the donor, here called the 

JtdjSndra MSdhavSndra. Verses 3-12 then give the genealogy of the donor* The first 

personage spoken of is Pulindasexxa s famous amongst the peoples of Kallxiga. 9 He, although 

endowed with many excellent qualities (a lofty stature, strong arms, a broad chest, etc.'), did not 

covet sovereignty for himself, bat rather worshipped Brahman, in order that the god might 

create a fit ruler of the land* And Brahman granted his wish, and created, anparenlly out of a 

rock, the lord Sailodbliava (verse 5), who became the founder of a AVii^T/.s^d family. 

In this family was born Banabhlta (verse 6) ; his son was the lord of the earth SainyafoMta 

(verse 7) ; in his family Yasobhita was born (verse S) ; his son again was SainyabMta (verse 

9) ; and his son was the powerful and pious prince HMtavavarman (verses 10-12). Beyond 

the indication that these chiefs ruled in the country of Kalinga s nothing of importance is 

reported of any of them, Verse 12 is followed by the formal part of the granfc s the contents of 

\7hich have been given above, Here I would only add that the list of officials, in lines 31-33, 

is a fairly long one, and that it includes officials termed antaranga, vaifadsika, and jpattaldka, 

who are not met ivitla ordinarily. The formal part of the grant closes with the usual admonition 

not to disturb tie donee in the enjoy rr^er.t of the land granted to him, and is followed, in 

lines 42-49 3 by five of tlie customary benedictive and imprecatory verses. The second verse, 

and evidently the third, fourth and fifth too, are stated to he a quotation from the Law of 

Mann {Manava Dharma, line 44 t) B Another verse informs us that the grant was written 

by Upendrasiaglia, the son of Kiandabhogin, marked 3 (?) by Jayaeinglia, and engraved 

by Esddifchcgir:. The inscription closes with the statement that the d&taka for this grant 

iras the pratihdrin Q?.igabhacLra- 

Tie inscription is not dated, and I have not found the Barnes of any of the chiefs 
ntnt:cned in it in other inscriptions ; nor am I able to identify the localities which are spoken 

of in this grant. 

s See Ind, Ant, Vol. XXI* p. 169. 

3 la tfee original this name Is written AmT&r'ka\<s, ar.d Atnrars&a. 

^ * The term of the original is tdnchhita ; I am not sure about the esact meaning of it. It occurs again IE 
toe *o of the copperplates of Vidy&dhara Bfaafija, where Dr. B&j&idwttl Mitra has translated (it by, 4 marked 
^a^d); v see Jomr. Seng. Af Soe. Vol. LVI. Part I. p. 159 


TEXT. 1 
First Plate. 
1 [u*J 

2 [^]^tt [i*] tn^rarrlj] 


4 r; ii [^ 4 it*] 
^r: w- 

5 [s*] 

6 (f^)^^ra^i<?SreTf STlih 1 




10 n [^ 9 it*] 


II [irt] 10 w: t ^iw ^ [i*] 

Second Platei First Side. 

13 II [g 12 II*] ^t 

14 [i*] TT^: 

is [ii ^ 15 *] ^rnli^(^")^T^^r:x 

18 [i*] 

I Prom the original plates* 3 Expressed b^ a symbol* 3 Bead 

4 Metre i Sardulavikridita, 

5 Tins syllable^ which makes the metre incorrect, should have been omitted* 

Possibly the plate* which Is damaged here, has ^t. 7 Metre : Sragdhar&. 

s Read "JTPIPST- - 9 Metre: Vasantatilak4. lo This akskara is almost entirely broken away. 

II The a"ks7iaras Xf^Sl^T are by mistake engraved twice ; read ^T*^t ^ 
12 Metre s S&rdftlavikridita. 

18 Bead W^- The exact conatraction of the Erst half of this verse ig not clear a 
34 Kead TO l5 Metre : Sldka (Anash^ubh). 

6 2 



18 g : ^i^srtfhrT *fo ^fiiMrd^RCft)^!^ [i*] 


19 f^?^tf^ 3 'i [n 

20 sr 5nsr(Tgrr)Usui *tmt wnit?r 'drr f^wtn: [i*] 

Second Plate ; 'Second Sifle. 

22 ***w. : Hf?Tt ^44^4l44Pd*il^^^T^^g^fNr: [i*] 


24, r^rnf^^TC n IX 6 ] 

25 ?r 





29 ^prKt rrM^[^*]girf?m^5rr ^f^cntsr tf [11 ti 9 n*] 


31 ,, ft *[!]*: 90^ H [^'o u -j 

TMrd Plate ; First Side. 

1 Metre of verses 6 and 7 : Tasantatilaki. 

5 Originally fl was engraved, which has been altered to ft 

11 Tbese two akshar&s are broken a way,, 
U Head ^jTftsj . a f ter ^| g oue wm }& 
32 The sign o! atisj-ttfra over W k Terj fasnt. 


Third Plate ; Second Side. 

43 Ptf 10 <3tqrd%rfw 5sraii% ^wrr^Vfk^w; [i*J 

44 wffWTcrr^^fw^^fwn^ *t M < iti*ni%fr5r [n \\^ u*] 

45 t '^ [i*] 


t [i*] w 

47 mfrrT fonfTfir: w% w*&( n [^^ n*] 

48 tnfi"[^rr]: [i*] %f-cji*ii<^ ih^^M-^i m^niiaMu^V 5 [n t^ *] 

* Read 

> The tliree X-sAaras ^twf are quite clear ia the engraving and cannot be read in any other way. Perbapa 
something like TTTt^aTt was intended. 

* Read KT%- -.,,.. 

* From here the te^t becoraps very incorrect. Ordinarily the donee would have been described thus : 

n^ttr^f vftenfrm^Tfv'OBrmf^^^rrtffir ft^ra'CTW ^T*tTBf TK ^if^^t^'er ?&% *rf ^T^FPTI^. i the text, 

as we have it, H^fq^ stands for ^IT^ (^PTm^). 'containing three lines of Sishis,' which properly would 

qualify a pravara. , 

* The vowel (!) of this akshara seems certain; but the first aksbara (ti) of the neit line is doubtful. 

Thia sign of punctuation ia superfluous. The following words would properly be ^ 
they are the words which the donee would use himself at certain sacr'.aeial rites, anu they are quite out of place here. 

7 This sign of visarg. ia doubtful. 8 Read 

It is diflcult to say whether the first cMk*** should be read a or A i I believe that it^is a. 
Art ^a takes hero the place of the ordinary fdtanttrttya or fdaanatotw** , 10 K ^ * 

15 Metre : VasantaLilaki. ia Metre from bwa up to the end : Sldka (Anusbtubli). 

^m TT. 3 * Eead qro^HiT. 1 B^d qw i r. I Aould ba? expected 


50 [i*] 

1 fejffcrotfTOT si [*c ] 


52 ~ 3 nrfinr 



[VlERA3IA-]SAMVAT 1112. 

BY F. Sirr-no:-:.. PH.D., C.I.B. ; ??~:^7>-. 

I edit this inscription from an excellent impression, prepared by Mi-. Consent* ^ : T "" ; "' r.t'.cnl 
of the Archaeological Survey of Western India, and sent to me by L>i*. 1 s uH:-, wh. The 
original plates are at HandMta, an island in the Narmada river, attached to 4 ! * c iS riif. h',st.rid 
of the Central Provinces. 4 

The copper-plates, which are inscribed on one side only, arc two in numlx.*** *- :< !i Ktcusuriiig 
about 13J* "broad by 10" high. They are in a state of perfect preservation, i .- a t i In- iv;ulin 
of the test, with perhaps the exception of a single ak^iaraJ' is nowhere ck.ul>i.fti I. Ivich plate 
contains fifteen lines of writing. The letters are boldly and regularly drawn it 1 1 1 I v.vl! <;,-. -raved, 
In the lower part of the first plate, and the upper part of the" second, there .!* lnI.-i for two 
rings. These rings had both been cut when the impressions were taken, an tl r li:>, s.-nl which 
may have been on one of them, was not fcTthcci-ir.g In the lower proper i-i-,-1 * tvn-iu-r of tbe 
ssecond plate, however, there is a representation of Garuda, about 2J-" hii?h I>^- t_* y", witli 
the body of a man and the head of a bird, facing the left, and looking at a. w< ^-f nutt, which is 
held by his left hand. 3 The average size of the letters is about T ". Tl-a.o <:' :ir:,;- J i arc 
Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. About twelve lines of the insrsi-1 f .ion (linc.s 1-2, 
10-12, 22-2S) are in verse; the rest is in prose. As regards orthograpljLS^ (,!. i r j,( (T 5 J 9 
throughout denoted by the sign for v ; the dental sibilant is used instead of tlio j > : , IuJ !t 1 { s /rnJ, 
line 1, wtwosraraA, line 12, and sametas=cKa &v.d Ainaresvarc, line 14, and t,l fcl . p-d-H-i! instf.d 
of the dental in stsanena, line 17 ; the guttural nasal is csio'.rred instead of tlir s , , ,/.', ,';, ; {he 
name Jaya S ^ 3 in lines 15 and SO ; and the same name apparently is writ 4... M ./, 
hne 6. ^Besides it may be noted that the sign of the a^m7 is occurs t w l,. s 
Sdrishta; in line IS, and vuddhva, $smad a in line 20. 

The inscription is one of the P,-.--tf. a? -:K-\ XihgrV'.'KMja. T*<, ^ rtll ;.,,, nrn {hc 
iilusteous JayasimhadeTa, who meditated on the feet of the P M J* ' '".,! 
aajadfl^ who, again, had meditated on the feet of the P. II P., the "LSJ " ' '' ' " 

who had meditated on the feet of the P. M. P., the illustrious ^ 

See C. Grant's Gaxettter of a Central Prom Kses , gec o n d edition, p. 257. 
I mean tbe second a&2ar 8 of the word read JfoWrftf, in line 6 

v,. p. 52> ttT 


the cos-er-r 

it is worded in every particular exactly like, and cites the same yerses jts, t 
inscription of Bhojadeva, published in the Indian Antiqiiary , Tol. VI. pp. 53-55. 

After two verses, glorifying the god Siva (Vy&rnakess, SraarsrAt:) and invoking >,; 3 
blessings, Jayasiiiihadeva, described as stated above, gives notice (in lines 6-17) to all cttlc-i.'.> 
and to the resident Pttttaktl-i- s."d people of the village of Bblma, which belonged to the Maktala 
village (group of) Fovty-Uvo iu the Purnapatliaka mandala, that, residing at Dnara, he grai.:. .: 
the said village of BMma up to its proper boundaries (and inclusive of; the grass and past:;:-,. 
land, with the money-rent and share of the produce, with the ?:f>jr&^rz and irc!:id:r.~ all unvs. 
to the Brahmans of the pa ttasdld at the holy Amaresvara, for food and other purposes. An I 
(in lines 18-21) he commands the resident Patt&ldla and people to make over to the donees s.\\ 
due share of the produce, money-rent, and so forth, excepting what had been ?.--?'--.--- - 
for gods and ; and admonishes the rulers that may come after him, to assent to r.nd 
preserve the religions gift thus conferred. This formal part of the grant is followed : in lir.c- 
'21-28) by five of the customary benedictive and imprecatory verses. Line ~29 gives, in fcrur^ 
only, the date, the 13th of the dark lialf of Ac^adha of the year 1112, followed b;,- il;, 
words 9vayamt=Ajnd,' 1 showing that the order aboufc this grant was delivered to tie p fe :,j,!e 
concerned by the king in person, and by the words " bliss (and) good fortune." And t-K- 
inscription closes with the words : " This is the own sign-manual of the ilIusti-:--s Jaya- 
simhadeva," which are also engraved (in line 15) at the bottom of the first plate. 2 

I am unable to identify the village of Bhima, nor can I suggest any i?.c=t:i:-r.t--r far th- 
Maktula village group of Forty-two or the Purnapathaka mandala. AmaresvarE, wlr.,^ 
in a copper-plate inscription of Arinr.ararmadevaa is called Amargsvaratxrtha, is nee:- t-v 
islaiid of Mandhata, on the southern bank of the Narmada. 4 As regards the "Srilir: : : ? or t_r.< 
place, in whose favour the cmiit was made, I do not know the meaning of the word fitr^-'J- 
which is compounded with the word ' ^hmn^bhi'ah in line 14 and can only s^t^t that. 
similarly to Irahtnapurt, it may denote an establishment provided by the kings labour :;,-. 
leai'ned and pious Brahmans. 

The date of the- grant, which must of course be referred to the Vikrama era, u-f -r:~r:?.t:J;- 
does not admit of verification, 3 and all that can be said with confidence about it, is, that for the 
expired Ohaitrddi year 1112, its European equivalent would fall in A.D. 1O55, and for the 
expired Zarltft&Zi year 1112, in A.D. 1O56. 

The importance of this inscription lies in this, that, with the date A.D. 1055-56.. Sr 
gives us the name of the (Paramara) king who was then ruling at Dhara, and <*f ^whom nu 
mention has yet been found in other inscriptions," and that, since this king Jaynsi^_2.^era was. 
the successor of Bhojadeva, it furnishes a sure and fairly definite limit beyond wh iC at.Le 
reign of Bh&jadeva cannot have extended. According to both the stone "V/l"^?". 
plate inscriptions hitherto published, BhSjadeva was succeeded by his .relative ^^~, 
and it is perhaps correct to say that it was this king who put an end to tte tro-ab.ou, s^ t 
of affairs connected with Bbojadt-va's death. But the omission of ayasin^a^ev^ - n.^ 

the 2 
*" " 

* See Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 161, note 28. 

3 In tliis respect, too, the plates resemble those of BMjadeva.. 

3 See Jour. Am. Or. Sot\ Vol. VII. p. 27* line 5, 

4 See the Gazetteer of the Central Provinces, p. 258. , 

s The possible equivalents for the expired Chaitrddi year HIS would be the 4jM * - " is*fa Ju-e 

(the day of the JDaksMtfyana-samtotinti), A.D. 1055 ; and for the expired iSr*Wtff year in-, .- - - 
and the 13th July, A.D. 1056. ^ ^ Praia* f* JE>- ^^- 

See Jwrf- -4^. Vol. XIX. pp. 346-47 3 Professor Buh.Ier J s^ edition of the ' ^ fl ^ &lgo Lasse ^ s jtndi*&f 
Vol. i. pp. 232-33 j and my edition of the KAgpur frataati* *U&- Vol. II, P- IS ^"rfttlnanda who is reported 
Mtertium*k**de, Vol. Ill- pp. 855 and 1163-69, for the king Jayachaodra or Ja 5 toaBte, wLo 
to have ruled after Bbojadeva, 

48 [Vol.. Ill 

from other inscriptions can be no reason for doubting- the correctness and authenticity of the 
iaforraatfon conveyed "by these copper-plates^ In a similar manner, the name of Uday&ditya's 
immediate euccassor, IiaiksbmadSva, is omitted from all inscriptions except the Nftgpur 
Prafasti \ and that Tery Praiasti clearly intimates that some time elapsed between the reigBS 
o Bhdjad&va and Udayaditya, The earliest and latest certain dates which we possess f 01 
Bh6jad6va, are Vikrama-Sariivatl078 = A.D. 1021, and Saka-Sanivat 964. - A.D. 1042-43, -w^le 
for Udayaditya the only certain date is Vikraraa-Samvat 1137 = A.D. 1080-81, For tLt 
interval between the two, our inscription now gives us a date in A,D. 1055-55, of the reign 
of Bh]ad"a's successor Jayasimliadeva. 1 How long this king may have ruled at Dliar& 3 it 
is impossible to say ab present. Probably his reign was not a long 1 one ; and it also seeing 
probable that BhSjadi^SL's reign liad come to an end not very long before the date of this 


First Plate. 

i ^f 3 [a*] m i 

2 ii 1"; 1 

3 H 


6 II G ?r[w]^mrr- ? 


8 m f we 

T" !'??] v?- 


! 1 

T \ 1Ylti the date ef tL - present inscription, it may be doubted whether the date which is furnished for 
i-dayajityabyan Inscription nt Cdaypnr{Yitrama-Saciv a t 1116 -fiaka-Sariivat 981; J"or. ^ w . Or. ^<?e. Vol. VII, 
p* 5^>} s is really so valueless as it has "been supposed to be, 

* From an Impression, prepared by Mr. Cousens and supplied to me by Dr. Hultzsch 

-xpres^d by a symbol. * Metre : Sldka (Amislitubb) j and of thenert verse. 

I am not quite awe abo: the actual reading of the ft**ra in brackets. Originally few wtuc enmt veil, but 
QC proper riw'kt side of tbe ^ seems to have been Pltercd, Eed 

J ?!r! !1!1 !: G " ! '""! ; ^ -*tto m bracket, might pc*i Mj be read **. 

r tt of pisuctuatica IB nparfc'Jt3. * Metre: Vaaaatutilaka, 

No. 7.] 





*H,*n5T *W 



- \ 









23 1% 

Second Plate. 

: u 




1 Metre : Sldka (Annshtabli). 3 Eead 

4 The amusvdra of "W is very faint ia tlie impression. 

* Metre : Indravajr 
Ifetees BMinl 

Metre: Vanatatilakft. 


3 Bead 

6 Metre : Sldka 

Bead ijj 


28 f%?f ^ \ *ch<siaK*i<tiri <sr f(f)^r *r f% 
famuli ^f*T i 


so s 3 [a*] 

BY J. . FLEET, I.C.S., Pn.D., C.I.B. 

This inscription -was first brought to my notice in 1884, by Pandit Bhagwanlal Indraji, 
who then had the original plates in his possession. It was his intention to publish* it; and a 
paper on it, written by him, was sent to the Secretary of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 
Asiatic Society: but it was afterwards lost, without being utilised. The impressions taken by 
the Pandit were indifferent; and, though his reading of the text had passed through my hands, 
I had not kept a copy of it. In 1889, however, I found the original plates themselves in the 
Society's library. And, as it seems unlikely that, after so long a time, the Pandit's paper 
will ever be recovered and published, I now edit the inscription from them. 

The plates, which -were obtained from a cultivator at Chiplftn, the chief town of the 
ChiplunTaluka of the Batnagiri District, are two in number, each measuring about lOf by 4f*. 
The edges of them were turned up, so as to form raised rims ; and, except for some letters 
that are quite worn away in line 1, and a few that are rather illegible near the beginning of 
line 2, the writing is well preserved throughout. The ring, on which the plates were 
strung, was accidentally destroyed by che cultivator who found them, in trying to clean them by 
the action of fire. Any seal that there may have been on the rmg, was destroyed at the same 
time The weight o the two plates is about 1 Ib. 15 oz. The enaracter* belong to the 
southern class of alphabets, and are of the regular type of the period to which the record 
belongs. The average size of the letters is a little over " The engraving is good, and fairly 


I! -^ ? late * k^i; r^er thick, the letters do not show through on the reverse sides at 
all. The ^tenor s of them are too much choked up with dirt or rust, for any marks of the 
working of the engraver's tool to be visible.- The language is Sanskrit ; and, in addition to an 
m J^ f . Tisil * T1 and SOTen o ^ternary benedlctive and imprecatory 
iT< ' f n6 VerS6 * line *- 8 In ^P 60 * of orthography, the only 


f the *P*t****y ^ vdtdvytZh= P ra-thaa,line 2, 

_ j W the dou b^g of Jc before <r in vikkram-dkJcranta, line 1, and 
*"* 9; aQd ^ 4 > the Doubling of dh, by d, before r, in dddhvar, line 2. 

and an allotment at 
dated,, but the 

Probably for * Avancliapaili/ 

.Maodhata Plates of Jayasititha of Dhara. Samvat 


t o 

t 2 


t 8 



SCALE 4.. 





First Plate. 

1 Jayati 2 jagatam vidliatus^tri-Yikkraiii-akkr^nta-sakala-blitLvanasya nata-na <w w w na- 

w w w w na-nakli-amsu-jatilarix padam Vislin&h [||*] MSnavya-sago- 

2 tran[a*]m Hariti-putrana[m*] OM(olia)liikyanam=aii[v^]avay Vatafoy&(pya)|}L 

prathama-vidhaim*=anSk-Mdhvar-liY^^ | 3 


3 mangal-ayatanasya Tallablia-Brlpat61i=kirt[t}*]ya yuktasya 

samanushtMta-pafcl-dfivata-vratam Kamalalaya 4 -vipula-pay6- 

4 dliara-Yipu(lii)pta-cl3andan-41epali 


5 dgata(ta)-ritd}iira-dbara-snapi^ ni- 


6 grihita-bhritya-varggah lmra-gata-kliadg-6ttritfca-para-nrlpa-daiitidant6ttliita-val^ 


7 ka-laksho vividlia-s&str-lbttlia-^^ 

kula-tllakalL sarvva-sad-gnn4sray6 ripu-daridras=sri-Satyasrayo nama [[*] 

8 Yah 5 -padazii nyasya s6triina 6 auryyn=6parl parttli[i*]valL prakritya pumgctallm 

Lakshmim sativratam=asiksliayat [H*] Sa mahipatir=Avaretika-vIina(sha)ya- 

9 majMpayati yatli=Ayam mama matulas==samadhlgat-4ryya-in&rgga nnmarggali 7 sva- 

Tikkrama*kkraya-kla i tta-visMa-kirtti-vitaBa-naddha-sarvva-digantara^^ 
10 Sendrak,n,m tilakabMtah=paramamalisvara^ 

isaatapltr6r=^tmanas=clia puny-opacliay -&rttba [m*] 

Second "Plate, 
11 Afcr^ya-sagotraya Krlshnasv&ml-suiiav^ Mraa(ina)li^svar&y-slita-yajii[a*]ya Amravata- 

12 s^hata-bhatarduta-rajapm dvayam=efcafc=pradat [|*] Vidi- 

t [a*] s n =santu rajS.nas=sarrv [e*] mad-vamsa- 

13 sambhavak any cha pritMvi-pM&s=s&mantis=cha maliltalSjh. 12 Tali=kagelilt=pritliivJ-pM6 

bBogam=asya nivS.ray6t 

14 maliat^iii patakanan=tu karttus=tasya plialaiii bhavSt [||*] Uktam cha | Bah.n"bli|r- 

TTasudha blinkta r&jabhis^Sagar-idibliili yasya 

15 yasya yada bli1imis=tasya tasya tadS, phalaiii || Shashtim varsha-sahasrltnl svarggS 

m6dati bMml-dak ^chclili^tt^ cli=anuiQant[a*] cha 

16 t&ny=6va narakfe vas^t [l|*] Purvra-dattam dvijatibhyo yatnad=raksha Yndhishthirah 13 

mahim maliimat[a*][3ii sr^shtha danac!i=clilir6y6=niipManaiii [H^j 

17 Sva-dattam para-datt&m va yo liar^tlb vasundhararii sva-vishthayam krimir=vbhii(bbIiA)tTi 

pitribliissalia pacliyat^h 14 T^liilia 15 datt&nl pura 

1 Prom the original plates. a Metre: Ary4. * Read m4rtt$1i (or match). 

4 Bead vrata-Kamaldlayd . 5 Metre : Sldka (Anushtubli). 6 Bead wtrun&jn. 

? Read margg'&nmdyggah. 

8 Read sa rdjd; unless prdddt, in line 12, is altered into pradattam. 

9 This word was omitted in Its proper place, and stands in the blank space after the end o the last line. There 
is a cross-mark, to shew that it properly belongs here. 

10 It would seem that* in the second syllable, vd was engraved* and then was corrected into va by partially 
cancelling- the d. 

11 Metre : Sl6ka (Anushtufoh) ; and in. the next five verses. 

Read maUtaU |U is Bead Yudhi$MMr&. w Read pac&yaU fl. 

1S Read ^IAa. Metre : Indravajri* 

H 2 




20 Svasty=*astti 16kiaaka-yactaka*sr6%ibliyat |) Om 


Victorious is the footprints interspersed with the brightness of the toe-nails . 
* ...... .,*...*..* bowed down, of 

god) Vishnu, the creator of the (three) worlds, who traversed the whole universe in three 
strides ! 

(Line 1.) In tlie lineage of the ChalTt&yas, who are of the M&aaTya gdtni (and) are 
Haritiputras, of Kirtivarmaa (I*) s the first maker of V&tapi s whose pious form was 
thoroughly well moistened by ablations performed after celebrating many sacrifices, who was 
the abode of all auspicionsness, who was tlie king of favourites, {and) who was endowed with 
fame, the son (i^) ~ 

(LuS.) That ornament of tlte family of the Chaltikyas, that asylum of all good 
qualities, that person who has but few foes, the glorious SatyMi^yar(Pulikesm EL) by natoe> 
whose besmearing with sandal. wood oil is rubbed off by (the clinging of) the bulky breasts of 
the gpddess of fortune who practises (toward* Mm) the vow of treating a husband like a god ; 
whose pure fame plays the part of a husband towards the women of the Kimiaras in the hall 
of (Indra) the lord of the gods ; who is a very sun just risen above the mountain of dawxi 
wMeh is {his) elephant, infuriated with rut, the head of which is bathed in the trickling stream 
of blood that flows forth from the hearts of the enemies which are cleft open by tlae thunder- 
bolt that Is its tusk ; who punishes wicked people 5 who receives with hospitality learned people 
and friends; who confers favours upon servants; who has lit up the field of battle with the 
fiames of the ire that rises from the tusks of the elephants of the hostile kings which are split 
by the sword that is held in {Us) hand ; who is the sole aim of the arrows which are the eyes 
of nice young women ; whose keen intellect is capable of examining the essence of the meaning of 
various Sastras ; (and) who, {indeed) a king, having bravely planted {his) footstep over {his) 
enemies, has taught the goddess of fortune, who is fickle by nature, the observances of a true 
and faithful wife* 

(L, S*) He, the king, issues a command to the inhabitants of the Avartk& viahaya 

to this elect: 4f My maternal uncle, the ornament of the Sfindrakas, the most devout wor- 

shipper of (the god) Mahesvara, ^IvallBbl^reenaiiandaxaja, who has acquired (a knowledge 

of all) the proper and improper ps?aetiees of noble people, {and) who has covered all the spaces 

between the quarters of the compass with the canopy of (Ms) fame that was purchased by the 

price of his Talour, he, the Mug, in order to increase the religions merit of {Ms) parents and 

of himself, has giyea to Mahlgvara, the son of Erishnasvtnmi, of the AtrSya gtira, who has 

performed sacrigees, these two things, free from the right of entry by the irregular and 

regular troops, by messengers, and by the king's servants, (*&.) tlie tillage of Axnra-* 

vatffraka, an4 twenty at (the tillage of) Avaaehapait on tlie (rrrer) vambeima^ Let all 

kings, bora in my race, and other rulers of the earth, and (aZI) feudatory chiefs in the world, be 

made to fcoow (ffto*) any ruler of the earth who may otetruct the enjoyment of this 

to him will attach the penalty of one who commits the STO sins." 

1 pMla y or JWfe. Metre : 

* Bead 

CtiipltiR Plates of Pulikesin II. 

00 O 


(L* 14.) Attd it lias been said :<**r The earth, lias been eajoybd by many kings, commencing 
with Sagar&i -whosoever at any time possesses the earth, to Mm belongs, at that <am0 a the 
reward (of tMs grant thai is now macfe, if Tie wmUnue if) I The giver of land enjoys happiness 
in heaven for sixty thousand years ; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents to (<k. 
Mt of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell ! O YndhishtMra, best 
of Hogs, carefully preserve land that has previously been given to the twice-born ; (verily) the 
preservation (o/ a grant) is more meritorious than, making a grant ! Whosoever confiscates land 
that has been given ? whether by Mmselfi or by another, he is bom as a worm in ordure, and is 
consumed together with. (Ms) deceased ancestors ! Those grants, productive of religion and 
wealth and f ame 5 which have been formerly given here (on earth*) *by (previous) kings, (are) like 
worn-out garlands j verily, what good man wot&ld take them back again? He who grant 
land, (whether simply) ploughed (or) planted with seed, (or) full of crops, he is treated 
with honour in heaven, for as long as the worlds, created by the sun, endure ! 

(L. . 20.) Let prosperity attend the writer* the reader, and the hearers ! Cm ! 


BY J/V. Jbsn, LO.S., BnJX, CJLK 

I owe ilie opportunity of editing this inscription, wMcb is now brought to, notice for 
the first time, to the kindness of MX. O. <K Dodgson, I.O.S. (Bombay), who sent me th 
original plates, for'eyawaatioii, in 1801. They were obtained from DAvarSo bin Balwantrfto 
jah%4rd&r s a resident of the village of Tdrk&ed, in the Sh&hftdA TSlniA, 


The plates are t&r$e in number* each measuring about Ilf * by 8%*. The edges of them 
were fashioned aotnewhat thicker than th inscribed portions, BO as to serve as rims to protect 
the writing 5 atid a though the plates have been a good deal corroded by rmst, there are but 
very few letters which are not in a' perfect state of preservation.^ The plates are strung on 
two rings* One of them is about J" thick 5 and, though now bent out of shape, was probably 
originally circular* about 2|" in diameter: it has been severed; but it shews indications of 
having been soldered tap, to make an actual ring. The other is about f * thick : part of it is 
roughly oval, measuring about 3f " by 2| r/ j and it ends in two straight, pointed extremities^ 
which were intended for soldering into a seal: the total length is about 5|", The seal is not 
forthcoming. The weigh* of the three plates is 434 tolas ; and of the two rings ? I8| tolas : 
total, 452| tolas. 4 *- The characters belong to the southern class of alphabets, and are of the 
regular type of the period to which the record refers itself* It should be noted that two forms 
of Z occmr ; they are both illustrated ia liltta, line 10, and again in lattak? line 35, The average 
sisse of the letters is about f"* The engraving is good, bold, and fairly deep; but, the 
plates being substantial,, the letters do not show through on the reverse sides* The interiors 
of some of them sh^w murks^ as usual, of the working of the engraver's tool. The language 
IB Sanskrit. There are two of the customary benedictive and imprecatory verses in lines 47, 48 -, 
butj otherwise, there are verses only in lines 6 to 14. The langmage is mostly accurate : ' but 
the construction Is bad in the passage that contains the names of the various grantees ; and 
a corrupt or Prakrit word, uolio'hharpa^a for ntsarpan^ is used in line 22 la respect of 
prtttography* the only points calling for special notice are (1) the use of *, instead of the 
wusvdra, in dn$o, line 35 ; (2) the omission of a ^ for metrical purposes, in jagatnnga^ line 6 ; 
(3) the doubling of * before r in pauttra, line 18> woi^pfti'/dy, line 20^ agniMttrot. line 22, 
lines 38 to 39 (except in the subsequent addition to lime 39) ? puttra $ Imm 24 ? 2S f 

fVoL. HI 

SF1GSAPHIA UTDIOA. , .............. . " 

, ,Z t*"hr*' r, m Witimi. 
and dwMUro, line 35, but not in in, line 23 ; and (4) the doubling ot c 

dto&fo'<Zra, lines 42-43, and b&adWra, line 44. yj ^mhtrakfttti king 

The inscription refers itself, in lines 5 and 8, to the reign of tW* ^ f ^ n -^ ^ 
SmbMtavarsliarJagattimga^omiidani.^ and, in line 12, to the wiao ^ }l 
feudatory, Gdvindaiftja o! Gujarat. And the object of it is to record t> - 
G6vn>daiAja> the MeHasamanta Bnddhavanu,* of the fa ? U 

Bralimans a TiHsge named Gdvattona, situated in an estate, belonging* 
known as the or Siharakkhi Twelve, ^ ^ ^ 

The data on which the gyaA was made, is the seyentli titM, called m}a*/<* ~^ t *^ ||| 
the weekday Is not mentioned,- of the brigM fortnight of the month ** 
, aka-Sanivat 735 ; the year being expressed both in words 

, ^ 

The sa&vatwra may be determined either by the mean-sign system, acco- ^ ; -, ^ - 

began on the 9fch May, A.D. 812, in Saka-Samyat 735 current, and ended OTi f '' ' ' ' 

813, in .-S. 736 current; or by the southern luni-sola^ ^system, .." fu 

f * 1 ! 

, .. ^ 

coincided with 6.-S. 735 current. In either case the given Saka year b^ ' 11 "' 
acmrrent yaaar. And, for the titU, the corresponding English date is f * 1 

AJ>. 812; on this day 'the tfiM was current during all the daylight ho r, MM! 

about El 0fe. 10 y.,-12 hours 28 minutes, after mean sunrise (for 

As regards the places that .are mentioned, SiharaMd or i ^^ probably the 

modern fi SerMii/ ^hich ? according to the Postal Directory of the Bombay **. **""*'"* ^n*itt'Mol 
somewhere close in the neighbourhood of Baroda. But I have no maps at I>I*M!JII wlurli to 
look for its exact position, and to see if any modern representatives of Ci -if^Min and ^ 
hamlet (?) MtehuTallika can be found. 

First Plate. 

I Om 4 Ea3^-nripa-Ml-atita-samTatsara-sate8liii saptasu. 


2 saptamyamaakatdpi sainvatsararsatani 735 

3 titMli 7 asyam samYatsara-masa-paksha-diTasa-pftrYvay&m [I* 3 

4 mah^rajadhiraJa-param^Tarah sarach- chhas^nka-kirana*nirraiiiala- 


5 ta-medmi-yuYati-bh6kt^ PrabhUtaTarsliah srivallabhanarendrd 

rtjarnama \\ 

6 Jaga1^ga 5 ~tunga4uraga-^^ 

me=pi nabhS nikliikih 

7 pravrittamyate spashtaah l(||) Eakshata 6 yena nihs^sham 

samyutam r&Jyam dha- 

8 rmm%a idkanam krita ttiahtih par& hpdi |(||) Bhr^ta^ tn 

samana-yiryyah ^ 

I t&ke tbis opportunity of publishing a revised table of the Bftshtmkftta dynasty o ^ with Jt 

t femncli^, The numbers prefixed to some of the names indicate the members of the nLt**llw who 
reigned* and the order in which they succeeded each other. J 

s The tennixiation of tliis name seems clearly to be the Kanares arasd, s a kins?.* !T1*^ * - 
pmlmblj migrated to CfoprAi from the Kaname country. g XH |wm, 

1 2T ^ ^ Sla 1 f^t 4 Be P r W % plain symbol 

Metre : Arya. At the beginning of the verse, jagate&g* is used by metrical license 

Metre: SBka (AnMhtott). 7 Metre: IndravajA 


Baniivarman I. 
Indra L 

G^vinda I. 


Karka, or Kakka I* 

Indra IL 

(1) KhadgAvisbldka-Dantidurga, 

or Dantivarman II. 
(A.D. 754) 


(2) Akalavarslia-iibliatuiiga-Kxi 

Govlnda II. 

III. ; 

married G4mundabbe, 

(A.D. 782-84 and 81445.) 


Am<5gliavafslia I. 
(AJ>, 814-15 and 875-78.) 

(6) AkMavarsha-Su 

jhatunga* Krishna II* 

(A,D. 888-76 awl 911-12.) 
Jagattung'a IL 

By L>kshnA 

(?) JTityavarsKa-Indra III, ; 

married YijtoWL 
(A.D. 915 and.9i6*17.) 





(A,D. 866.) 



? Dantirarm* 

? Afc&Iayarslia-Krls 
(A,B. 888.) 


(9) Am6gliavarsha-V 
married Kuudaka 

A A t f . 
Amoghavarsha. II, 


(A.D. 918 md 933.) 

(.10) AMlavarsta- 
Krishna III. 

(A.IX 940 and 956.) 

(A BOB.) 

Jagattuxiga I 

Indra IV. 
(Died AJX 982.) 


(To fe page 

First Gujarat Branch* 

Kakkar&ja L 


Kakkar&ja II. 
(A.D. 757.) 

5 impama-Db ruva, 

Se_end Gujarat Branch* 


(A.D. 811-12.} 

PrabMtavarsta-Q-dvmdarlja . 
(A. D. 81 2 and 826-27,} 




(AD, 866.) 


p Dantivarman* 

(Another son.) G6vindar&ja* 

(AD, 888.) 

married an<iakadvL 

III. (11) Mtyavarsha-KlidUiga. Niru6ama. 
<A,D. 971.) 

(1 2) AAdghtaTarsha-KTyipatunga- Kakkala ? 

or Kakka II. 
(AD. 972 and 973.) 


9 vi kshmapatii^Indrarajah babhAyMbliiitaldrtti-sAti3==tad-aatta- 

10 Sunur^bbabliuva khalu tasya. 

lallta-cliltta-vrlttih yd gau- 

d6sam=nclicliaiii [||*] [Su 
12 niijas=4asya saiatam sevltd budhaih G-dYindarajo btupalah saksMch- 

13 parah [||*] PhaF-onmukliaii^apatitaii^vvidiiratali samam 
paksha-patibhih J 

Second Plate $ First Side. 

14 mah-aliave dftna^vidhau eta margganair^nua knnttitam yasya 

sad=aiva maBasam || 

15 Tad-dattaSlliarakMii-dvadaak6 prablmjyamanfe 

16 td murddh-abhisliikid duiTYara 4 -vairi* 

1? r&ti*taru*prabhafijand matari^va iaracli-chliaganka-kirana-kundaktisiima- 


18 samana-nirmm ala-yas [&] h sril!atiingE^paTittrali gri-BS jaditya-sutali 


19 samadtigat-asfisha-maliasabda-mabSsamantali sd=ya;m ri-Bixd<iliaYarassli 

sarvvan=6va bhavl* 

20 bMmipa]an=samanub6dliayaty=:Astii v&h sarhvidiiaiii yatfaS. may a 


21 nas=clba punya-yaso-blilvriddlaayfi altik-ainiislimika-plial-aY&pty-arttliaih 


22 dfeY-%nili6ttra-kratukriy-ady-uehcIa]ha(tsa)rppan-arttliaiti BadarasiddM 5 - 


23 Vajasan6ya-MMhyandiiia-brali^ tra-br&- 

24 hmana-Sdmfiya Sarvvadeva-puttrfiya tatlia bralunana-Nahara 6 Gautama* 

sag^tfcra Ma[li]6- 

25 sYara-pnttrah tatha Drdna Varshneya-sagdttra Sarinma-puttrah tatha 

S<>ma Katya- 

26 yana-sagottra Bappuka-sutah tatlia Lakutiti Agi} 

8 Metre : Vasantatilakn. 

3 This ctfasiimra, Is rather an anomalous one, between sha and $a. But I tlrinfe that it is intended fot ^a ; 
not for #a, by mistake for *Aa. The word puzzled me And I owe the reading of it to Dr. Heltzsch, who referred 
me, for an analogous expression, to ISp. Xnd. Vol. I. p. 156, verse 13, Sara iva vris 

s "Metre ; Vamsastha. 

4 Here we have a line iu the Vasantatilaka metre,- evidently a quotation. [The same line forms part of 
6 of an inscription of Krishna II, 5 J2/A Xnd* Vol. I. p. 5 Jr. S.H.] 

s The first two syllables of this word are perfectly clear and unmistakeable | but the engraving o them is 
not qraite complete, - owing 1 apparently to the copper being particularly hard jasfc here. There are other similar 
instances; e.g* in the b of ahlct 9 line 19, the raj of tripravara 9 line 23 5 the second 1?^ of nfoartvafa line 80 
and the syllables r&ra a, line 30. 

6 Prom here, to line 39, the construction is careless and faulty. 


Second Plate ; Second Side. " 

27 SatYYad^va-sutatt tatM Sarwadeva Mndgala-Bagdttrah tatfaaih 1 

tath&* tat.sut6 Gdva tathft Bh&ullah Vatsa-sagdttrah 

28 tathft GfivagarmraaiL tatM AmMdityaii tathft Fasenah tathft 

Gatitama-sagdttrahL Drdna- 

29 sutat^ tathft Iditya Pirasara-sagdttraii tatM LimMditya 

30 g6tteah taihft Yfigai Sa(la)mdila-sag6ttrah taihft Agnisarmmat 

KSvarevah Mudgala-sag^ttrali 

-SI tathft Nagah MMhara-sag6ttrahi tathft Kanasarah tathft 
tath& Bhaalla Tangana-sagdttrah 

32 tatM Nfivftditya Btaradvaja^^gdttrat tathft, fsvarah Kansa-sagdttrabt 

tatha Bappasvami tathft 

33 GSvafermmaii VarsLrieya^agSttrah tath& Sividityat tathft D6valiatai 

tathft Sihaii Lavi- * * * 

34 yaDta(na)-sag6ttralL tatM NamHxmk 3 Katyayana-sagdttmh tathft Mfttpi* 

sftrah tatha 

35 Agn^ya-samlna 

LallaB. Bharadva- 

36 ja-sagottrali tatM tasy=aiva bhrata Jajjutat tathft Dattah 

sagSttrah tathlt 

37 Agnisarmtnah lgn%a-sam&Ba-sag6ttrah tatM NeyMltyah tatlx& 


38 Kausa~sag6ttrah tathft Jajjukah Vftrsh^i^ya-sag&ttrali tathft AdityaJh. 


39 tatM Adiiyachftaliakali SSma-stitah tath 4 =lgnisa[r*]ma Mndgala- 

sagotea R6va Agn%a-samftna-sag6ttra & 

Third Plate* 

40 SiliMaMxi^avMa^ g^mah s 

41 ny-M4nai sa-danda-dasftpaxMhah sa-simft-paryyantali sa^tirtthaii 



tah [I*] yata- 

44 statsa na 

45 ny(ny)~aisvaryy%y=astMmm manushyam 
ptalam tad-spaharana-papam 

1 Bead tatM. 

The words to^M trt-sutf Ofoa stand above tbe line, and seem to have been added subsecmenfcl 
no mark to shew exactly where they belong ; but their intended place seems here, rather than af ter JBArf- 


3 Bead 

4 Tbe worda afa40wtf0[r]mi Mndgala-sagStra stand below the line; and tbe omission 
m mplfaft seems to sbew oo&elusively that they were added subsequently. Here asain then-* 

exactly wber tbey belong; bul tbeir intended place seems to be where I have put them B to ^^ k to 

Torkhede Plates of Govindaraja of Gujarat Saka-Samvat 735, 


J. F. FL.EET. l.C S. 







============ : ^__^^ 57 



47 B^ibMrWyasiidM u raMh S^ar^!:!- yanya jaaja 

bMmi S =tasya fcasya tacfa phaladi [||*] " 

48 Shashtim jarslia-sahasr4ni svaxggd tislithati ii*:s>ish 

&nnmant& cha tany=% a Barak^ vas6d=iti [|f*] Om*|(H) 

49 Likhltam 

Om ! in 88T0H oantmries, increased by *iirty-vs (years), of the that 

have gone toy from the time of the ( OP on the seventh tithi in 

the bright fortnight of (the month) or, in the ce-turies of 

785, in the Nandana samvataara, (the mouth) the 7 of the 

fortnight; on this (titU)* specified as above by the year (or saihtatszra) and month and 
fortnight and day : 3 

(Line 3.) (.There is) the Paramab'haftdra'ka, MsLhdr^ddJii^^ aad ParameSv&ra* 
Prabliutavarslbia, the king of favourites of fortune, by name (in.),- an enjoyer 

of the young woman the Earth, who is veiled By a mantle, which is (Ms) fame, that is as spotless 
as theTays of the autumn moon. Even in tlxe hot weather, the whole sky, In which the rays 
of tit sun are obscured on high by the dense dust (raised) by the tail steeds of Jagattunga. 
distinctly looks as if the rainy season had come. (And) the greatest possible Joy is produced 
in the hearts of men 3 through the manner 121 which he righteously rules the whole kinder:, 
together with the four oceans, 

(L 8.) His brother, Indrarllja^ equal in valour to (the god) Indra ; a glorious Mug on 
the earth 5 the source of the production of wondrous fame ? became the ruler of the province 
of the lord of Lata, which was bestowed by tiim (G6vinda III.). 

(Iu 10.) His son was oue of great dignity^- with, a mind that revelled in the pleasure of 
learning the meaning of the Sastras > who bo;re aloft, in the first place, the auspicious ai3re!!aticn 
of Cfi illnstrions Karkaraja,^ 5 accompanied by a secondary name. 

(Ii. 11.) His younger brother (is) the Mng QdYindai^Ja, verily like another (god) 

Sambhti personified, who abides in good morality? just as the god sits on the excellent ball 
(Nandi), {and) who is always worshipped by learned people, just as the god is "by (ffee other) 
gods. His mind is never dulled^ either in the iieight of battle by the arrows, tipped with (sharp) 
points^ which, discharged from afar on all sides, graze the (very) string of (his) bow and the 
feathers (of Ms arrow), or in the rite of charity by suppliants, on the look-out for rewards, who 
assail (him) from afar on all sides through partiality for (his) virtues. 

(L. IS.) At the estate 5 (called) the Twelve, conferred by Mm, this person, 

the illustrious Buddliavarasa* a MaTidsdma^^a who has attained all the mahd^abdasj who 
has been bom in the spotless SaluMfca race; wlio has been anointed on the forehead; who is 
the cunse of an unequalled f ever. Bard to be cured, among the wives of (Ms?) enemies ; 
is a wind that breaks down numerous trees* which are (his) enemies, inflated with pride; 
whose pure fame (is) like the white colons of the rays of the autumn moon, or of a 
jasmine flower, or of a piec of crystal ; who is the son*s son of the illustrious ; who is 

1 Metre : Sltoa (AxmsbtuWa) 5 and IB the following verse. 

3 Represented by a symbol which is identical with on of the forms of the xr :serieal symbol for 00. 

* The context k in Hne 19 " This person, the illnstrioBS Buddtiayamsa^ informs all future kings, * s 

The context k in Hne 19, " This person, the illnstrioBS Buddtiayamsa^ informs all future kings, * s etc, 

4 Or, perhaps, aiming at (his) shield.** 

5 pral&qfoamdtH*. In the constr faction In whioh It stand% tlia word is not a very emij one to translate 



the son of the illustrious Sjditya? (and) who is extremely well-disposed to Br&limanB, - 
informs all future kings : 

(L. 20.) " Be it known to you that, * for the increase of the religious merit of my parents 
and of myself -, for the sake of acquiring a reward in this world and in the next; (and) for 
maintaining the %aU, the charu, tlie vaisvadeva, the agnihStra, the sacrificial rites 3 etc., the 
village named G-ovattana, in the SihsraMil Twelve, with the (right of) taking gold, with. 
(the right to) fines and (punishments for) the ten offences, with all that is included within the 
boundaries, with (its) sacred bathing-places, with (its) hamlet of (?) SCSshuvalllka, (and) not 
to be pointed at by the hand (of confiscation) of any o the king's people, has to-day,, on the 
(tithi called) vijaya-saptami s been granted by me, according to the rnle of bhUmichchhidra (and) 
with the pouring out of water, (to the following persons ; $?.),- to the Br&hman S<6ma, son of 
Sarvad6va, who belongs to tlie community of the OhaturvGdins of Badarasiddlii 9 who is a* 
religions student of the Vajasan&ya-Madhyamdina, (sdMd), -who lias an invocation of three 
original ancestors, and who belongs to tlie Lav&yana gfitra ; also s tlie Brat man ISTahara, of the 
Gautama g8tra, son of Hahfigvara ; also, Drdna, of the Varshnfeya gfftra, son of Sarman ; also s 
S6ma, of the Katyayana gStra^ son of Bappnka ; also s Laknti, whose gfitra is the same with, that 
of the AgnSyas, son of Sarvadeva ; also, Sarvad6va, of the Mndgala gStra ; also 9 N6va ; also, Ms 
son G&va ; also, Blianlla, of the Tatsa gotra ; also, G$vasarman ; also s AnaMditya ; also t 
!N"&sfena ; also, G6va ? of the Gautama gfftra, son of Drona; also, Aditya^ of the Paragara gtftra ; 
also, Limbaditya, whose gotra is the same with that of the Agnfiyas ; also, T4ga, of the 
Sandila gStra. ; also, Agnisarman ; also, N6vareva ? of the Mudgala g8ira ; also, N"aga, of the 
Madhara g&tra ; also, N^nasara ; also, Rfevasama ; also, Bhaulla, of the Yangana gvtra ; also* 
NSvMitya, o the BharadYaja gStra ; also, lsvara ? of the Kausa gfttra, ; also, Bappasvamin ; also ? 
GSvasarnian, of the V&rshnfeya gfitrai also, Siv&ditya ; also ? Dfivahata; also, Siha 3 of the 
Lav&yana gtftra ; also, Narma, of the KatyS,yana gtftra, ; also s MatrisAra ; also, Mah6svara, whoso 
gotra is the same with that of the AgnSyas, (and) he has given his share to the daughter's son 
of Naina; 1 also, Lalla, of the Bharadvaja gfftrai also, his brother Jajjuka; also, Datta, of th.e 
Sanndana gfitra ; also, Agnisarman, whose gtitra is the same with that of the Agneyas ; also, 
N"vaditya; also, Satnbaiira, of the Kausa g6tra\ also, Jajjuka, of the Varshrieya g?^ra;-also 9 
Aditya, of the Gautama gotra ; also, Adityachihallaka, the son of S6ma ; also, Agnisarmaii, of 
the Mudgala gfStra 5 (and) Beva, whose gotra is the same with that of the Agneyas* 

(L. 43*) ^"Wherefore, no one should behave so as to restrain this grant. And this, Oar 
gift, should be assented to, and preserved by, future benevolent kings ; understanding that riches 
are not everlasting, (and) that man's estate is uncertain, and that the reward of a grant of land. 
belongs in common (both to him tvho makes it, and to him who continues it) 9 and understanding- 
also the sin of confiscating it. 

(L* 46 ) " And it has been said by the great sages j- The earth has been enjoyed by maay 
kinge? commencing with Sagara ; whosoever at any time possesses tb& earth, to him belongs, at 
that time, the reward (of the grant that is now made, if he continue if) I The giver of land abides 
in heaven for sixty thousand years ; (but) the eonfiscator (of a grant), or he who assents (ta 
act confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell F* 

(L. 49.)*- Written by me, the writer Krishna, son of 

perhaps, to (Ms) daughter^ son, N&ina." 




The original of this inscription was " found by a workman wlille 0^2?^?. ting some earth la 
old site" in the village of VaxLapaUi in the AmaMpnram taluka of the Godavari district. 

find came to the notice of Mr. P. V. S, Gopalam, Pleader., Cocanada, who reported it to the 
So-jperintendent, Archaeological Survey, Madras, on the 23rd May 1892. The plates were 
sixfosequently presented to Government by their owner s Vissapragada Krislanayya, and are 
no~w deposited in the Madras Museum, 

The inscription is engraved on three copper-plates of 10| by 5| inches. The rims are 
slilg-litly raised for the protection of the -writing. The preservation of the plates is fairly good ; 
on jplates i.5, ii.5, and iii.a, some letters are partially eaten aimy by verdigris, The three plates 
ajre strung on a copper ring, which measures about 3f inclies in diameter, and about T 7 g- inch 
iix thickness. It is nofc soldered and can be detached from the plates by bending it asunder. 
Ij3Lstiad of tlie usual seal, tlio ring bears a well-carved recumbent figure of the sacred bull Ifondi, 
vrlxich is about 1-| inch long, and placed on a plain pedestal, The alphabet of the inscription is 
3?6lngu 9 and the language Sanskrit. With the exception of a few words in lines 1, 49, 
5S & 57 f. and 65, the whole of tbe text is in verse. The signature of the king at the end of the 
document is in the Telugn language. As regards orthography, the writer of the inscription 
o!Llows the same system which is observed in other inscriptions from the Telugn and 
Kla/narese countries. Thns 3 dJidJi is written instead of ddh, if the letter dh is doubled either 
airfcer r ( in ardhdha for ardha, L 47) or through samdhi (e.g. in sidkdha for siddha,, 1. 21 3 ndhdJiaran for ^iddJiaran^ 1, 1). Similarly, cJiJicJiJi takes the place of clicJih (e.g. in ckdmara- 
GJ&J&c'hJiatTa for chdmara-chchhattra, L 35 f.). The letters &, g s d, t 9 d^ dh, and v are sometimes 
<ioixbled after an anusvdra (e.g. in laJnkka, 11. 48 3 52 and 61 ; amggana, L 50 ; gamdd, 1. 27 ; 
wimddam1;te~ 9 L S?; bamdhdht^ "1 26; and samvoatsara^ L 41). A superfluous anusvdra is 
soxo.etinies inserted before double wi 9 before double n 9 or before n followed by a consonant (e.g* 
in. Jmmmadi, II 42 and 52; Amnna for Anna, L 40; and sdmdmnya for sdrndnya,. 1. 58), 
irregularities are, "branihma for brahma (L 56) ? dhatnrmma for dliarma (L 58) y 
or sihvdsana for simMsana (11. 29, 30 and 38) 5 pdlaniyya tarpdlantya (1. 59) a and 
for ucliyate (L 57), The unaspirated letter takes the place of the aspirate {&$<> 
txx jpaZa&a for phalaka f L 31, and Mma for lMma s L 34) ; the sonant the place of the surd (e.g. in 
a,cl/ia for atha, 11. 49 and 58), and vice versa (e.g. in _pM!a for Widla^ 1. 7) ; and the dental n the 
place of the lingual n after r (in varnna for ar?aa, L 9 ? arnnava for arnava, L 25$ and 
fZr^^r^ja^tt for nirnaya, 1. 49). 

The plates record a grant by a member of the so-called Beddi dynasty of SoadaYidti/ 
a/ Ihlll-fort in the Narasarirupeta taluka of the Kistna district.. 2 The inscription opens -with. 
i:n.-voeations of Vishnu in his Boar-incarnation (verse 1), (janapati (v. 2), and the moon on 
ifbe head of Siva (Y. 3). It then refers to the creation of the world by Brahma at the command 
o "Vishnu (Y. 4), and to the fourth, (or Sfldra) which, like the river G-ang4, was 

produced from, the foot of Vishnu (v. 5). A member of this caste was king Prola (v. 6) 9 
TV Ixo must not be confounded with the Kdkat$ya king of the same name. s His son was ^Mng 
" (v. 7), who built a flight of steps and a hall at Srisc&aTEi (v. 10), the well-known Sarva 

in the Karntl district. 4 V^ma had two sons., (v. 11) and 

1 Compare Wilson's Mackenzie Collection* Madras edition, pp. 79 ia. j M>, Itfnekeime's jl/ff&iz;l of the . 
ici s p. 9 f. | atsd My. Sewell's List a of Antiquities, Vol. II. pp. US f. and 1S7. 
a tfctd. VoL I. p. 70 f. s Jtf. Ant. Vol. XXL p. 197. 

4 According to the Ktirmool Manual^ p. 183* JLns.-YlhflLr 1 ?..- ;"'J, : built two maiydagaa at SdsaHam. j<~ " ,- *** * ,<! {;Vg V 7* 

12--"^ -::->" ~-^?, v 

../ -CV" 
. < / .- > 

^7'' v " 





*TT. 13, 36, 17, IS, 20 and 21), ABa~Vma (w. 19 and 28) or (In Teluga) 
Tie of tliese resided at Kondairiti (v. 14), i.e. Kondavidu, and bore the st* 

(v. 13), EjsliiixilB-Kali-Vetaia and Karpwa-Vasantaraya (v. 19). 
references to HiSm&dxi (w. 9 and 11) show that Ms Ddnakhanda was considered an at: 
at the time of the grant. 

Tie ramediate object of the inscription is to record that king Anna-Vema gra*T* ^ 
Tillage as an ttgrahdra to a certain Immadi ol the JQohita gtitra (v, 21), who was the sot* o * 
minister MaHays (v. 23) and appears to have been the minister (v. 22) and spiritual pr<^** f ' 
(v, 24} of the king* The date of the grant was .the fourteen!)! UtM of the dark forfcziifX * 

in the cyclic year SiddltSrOuxt ^and the year 1300 (v. 21). The 

;; J rr^'77-z does not correspond with Saka-Samvat 1300, but with 1301 expired 
current (A.D. 1379-80)* JSx. Diksfait kindly informs me that the European 
the is Monday* the efh February, AJ9. 138O, The granted village was *u" 

(TV. 21, 24, 27 and 28) after the donee, and also AnnarV^snapiarE (v.J24?> ^ 
the donor. The western boundary of the granted village was the Q-aiztaml (v. 26), w I 
maj either the Godavari river in general, or ita northern branch "below the jpif** ***** { * 

Anicut. Mi** Gopalam, the discoTerer of the inscriptionj remarks that Vanapalli* wK** 1 '* 
tie plates were found, "lies on the southern side of the Gautami, a branch of tho G6d&va*^5 * *** * 
there is a hamlet called Immadivirilafdsia to the north of the village/ 9 The southern boin * 1 O 
3f immadilanka is stated to have been "a straight line (?) between a jpCjpaZ tree on a pl^f f * '** 
?,r)in the of !akiiy and the house of Muggullasanda " (v, 25 f.)* Mr. G-op^l^tn 

sajs; There are two villages, caUed PrakkilanlsB amd MugguJla, above the Anicmi^ *t.'l 
1 some doubt whether the inscription under enquiry relates to any grant neaar *!**> 

Tillages." If flris is really the case, the granted village of Immadilanka cannot be idc^ f M ! 
with the modera Immadivarilanka, which is not above, but below the Anicut. I am uzno^ I* - l- 
say whieh of these two possibilities is correct, nor have I any means for identifyiaa^c * ** 
brandnes m the east (Kriddev!, v. 25) ^nd in the north <KonMr! and Ko^dep^dS, v. StG) * 

toiy verses follow two verses in which the composer o < hr 
^raises his own poetical merits (v. 28 f.). The document *,*! 
and miii the signature of the king. 

TEXT. 1 

Plate; Mrst Side. 

Ko. 10.] 










fsrfiT: srenrt: 

; Second Side. 

H IX*] 


Second Plate ; First Side. 

The group looks as if 


The group T looks as if it consisted of 

stands at the beginning of the *e*t HBB. 









it ltd 141 1TTWWT tdlgtfi: 11 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

ST *f 1 

^ itf 



Third Plate; First Side. 


o f 

i err 



Plates of Azuia-Vema. Saka-Samvat 1-300. 


->. GL 


^p|p||g^ : _ _ ^ _ _ 









50 [i*j 

51 wwrar 2 iRn^rt f%fw 

OV % w^^.J^I^w^. C *"\ * * 

&& ^l^Sd^ i c?i*rFff T i 


53 i [^' 



56 ^?TJ f^^aqraf 5 r%c| n 

TMrd Plate; Second Side. 

57 ^wt 7 i 1%^%^rf%^f ^rl% w^rer g^rifta'qR r 



61 ^ 

62 sf 



(Line 1.) Let there lie freedom from obstacles ! 

(Verse 1.) Let Mm (Vishnu) protect (you), the boar-shaped lord, whose image, while he 
rescues the earth (/r OW , the ocean), is reflected in the thousand jewob on the hoods of (^e 
4^0^) SAsha, (and) who (flltw) clearly (od) emphatically demonstrates, as it were, his 
ommpresence to Qds) devotees ! 

f- ' th6 elG ^*' f * d (Ganapati), who, desirous of making a 

of the jewels on the hoods of (the snakes which form) the necklace of Sambhu (Siva) 
these (jewels) (an<f) looking at the face of (Mi) father ! 

(V. 3.) Victorious is that sickle of the moon on the matted hair of SrJkantha (Siva) 
winch possesses the luminous beauty of the smooth forehead of Parvati. 

" 4 ? h [ 0tus : se i ated (Brahma), who was produced from the lotus on the navel of 
created the whole movable and immovable world at his (Vishnu's) command. 

Bead ^csr. Read 


(V, 5.) In this (world'} is victorious the fourth, caste* which was produced from the 
lotus-foot of Sauri (Vishnu) 9 (and) whose sister, the river (GtangsL), purifies the (three) 
worlds by (her) threefold conrse. 

(V. 6.) From this (caste), as the moon from the ocean, sprang king- 3E?r6Ia,, the only 
protector of the*earth 9 a treasury of knowledge, whose appearance always satisfied learned men, 
as that of the moon does the gods (whom she supplies with nectar). 

(V. 7*) In consequence of the good deeds (in former births') of this king Pr61a 9 there was 
born (to him) an excellent son, called king "Vema, the virtuous chief of princes* 

(V, S.) While this righteous prince was ruling, the goddess of the Earth, witnessed great 
festivals and suddenly forgot the pain of her separation from king Harischandra and other 
(virtuous ancient kings). 

(V. 9.) How l can it "be described, the conduct of the lord Vdma, who performed all the 
gifts (d escribed by) HSmSclrij 3 who enjoyed (only as much of) the earth as remained (after the 
deduction of that portion) which was enjoyed by the twice- bom, (and) who produced fche seven 
kinds of offspring ? s 

(V, 10.) Having built (a flight of) steps on the path of the PatUlaganga, 4 king Versa 
-zn^erted Srisailam into a pillar (which records) his pious gifts. Being worshipped in the 
iaalL (asfhdna) by crowds of gods, demi-gods, and ascetics, the god continually proclaims his 
(the king's) fame by (Ms) faces, mas* that of TatpurUsha 5 and the other (four). 

(V. 11.) King "Fema*s son was king Anna-Vota, the greatness of whose valour was 
unequalled, who was deToted to the gifts (described by) Hmdri 9 who was the husband of fche 
goddess of heroes, who ruled the whole earth 7 by means of the sword in (his) arm, and who 
ccn-ertel the three worlds into a single ocean by the streams of the flood of (his) fame, 

(V. 12.) Having conquered the earth by his power, as Jishnu by his spear, having bestowed 
z?rz*drz3 on Brahmanas, (and) haying fulfilled the desires of the multitude of his relatives, 
tins Hog obtained the fruit of (his) birth (i.e. he died). 

(V. 13.) His younger brother (was) king Airna-VSma* (surnamed) Jaganofobagapda/ who 
was beloved by (the goddess of) Fame, (and) whose conduct on earth became a standard for those 
who are engaged in the practice of virtue (dharma), wealth (artha), and pleasure (Mma). 

* J^ 14 !.^ 51 !-,^ "** iS Seated n the ^-tfcttne in (his) capital, the prosperous city 
of KbjdaTi^ hostile kiags, out of jealousy as ifc were, migrate to mountains which bear the 
lairs of very temble lions. 10 

appears to be used ia the sense of IcatJiam 

Accord ' - ^^CSR*I* 

attrires^^^^ *' *' ia *> tU- is - one of the five facoa of Siva, 


" & Dame f th 

In rsa 17 u b JITr into " & Dame f the god Wwhmw, whose attribat a is the spear (fr H 

i st "^s sttj^^s^fr- ^r jw - fa -^' - - * 

on of the langs was, of course 

' * 

, of course, that they had to flee before 


(V. 15.) On the blade of his sword glitter extremely bright images, -which appear to be 
the annexed lines of fortune 1 of kings who have refused to submit {to him), 

(T 16) This noble king Anna-Vdma, who is exclusively addicted to liberality and 
bravery has made the earth up to the four points of the horizon free from the crowd of 
enemies (apa-ari-jdta), but-at the same time endowed with the Panj&ta.* 

(V 17 ) The sword of Axma-VSma bears resemblance to the regents of the points 
of the horizon, as it is victorious, bright, black, carnivorous, fettering, destructive, liberal, (.and) 

terrible. 8 

(V 18 ^ While king Anna-Vema, the treasury of all virtues, whose great fortune is 
praised' (as he "***. *) for the protection of the world, is seated in the tartar on the 
IweEed throne, some people receive the sovereignty over a country (**,) , others the d.stmct.on 
of f palanquin, a cLurf, and a parasol, others their {confiscated kingdom, (and) others 
aqrdh&rcks, full of wealth.* 

(V 19 ) Victorious is king Ana-VSma, (who. fa also catted} Kshnrika-Kali-Vetal^ 
who bears "4e surname (Wrmto) Karpura-Vasantaray^ whose gifts of land are boundless, 
(and) who is a treasury of wealth. 

(V. 20.) The wealth of the lord Anna-VSma exists (only) for the enrichment of learned 
men and their eloquence for his glorification. 

W 21.) In the Saka year reckoned by the atmosphere (0), &e sky ^(0), and the VxSvas 

HT> e 1300) in the (cyclic) year, SiddMrtbin, in (the month of) Magha, on the fourteenth 

' $ t^ed to) La/of the dark (fortnight), this heroic lord A.uaa-Venaa granted 

he incomparable village of Immadilaaka, the best of agraMra,, whach he had founded, to 

the illustrious scholar Immadindra, a descendant of the Lolata gtora 

(V 22 ) Hmna4Wvara (is) to kings the lord of ministers in pohtics, the cluef of learned 
men in scientific discussions, (and) a friend in salutary counsels. - 

f V 23 > This Immadlndra, who had studied all subjects, who was supenor m honors, 
Ca /J^> was) the S0 n of MaUaya-Mantri^ having received the agraMra, gave, mth joyful 
heart, one half of it to (other) Brahmanas. . . . 

T 24.) Besplendent is the sinless Immadilanka, <u) ABna.Vemapt^ra, which _ 

plentiful com. 

(Line 49.) The boundaries (of this village) are determined as follows : 

(V 25 f .) In the east, (a row of) &pal trees on the west of KriddSjl 5 in the southern 
directL a straight line (?) between a jpfeoZ tree on a platform (?) m the vallage of 
%Si and the house of M^asauda; in the western direction the * (^) ; 
and in the north, the interval between the banyan-trees at Kondun and Kondepundx. 

(V. 27.) The boundaries of the village of Immadilanka are (thus) declared. 

(Line 53.) Now quotations from the Pnranas are written: 

[Three of the customary 

The expression VhdgywSkM is probably borrowed from palmistry. 

= *.e. he was as liberal as the Ffat jAta tree which here take. .the 'place of the Kalpa tr 

These eight adjectives are, at the same time, surnames of the ght regents otttxe pom 

* ThisveSe ia intended for ax. account of the daily transactions m the king's court. 

* ;.*.'< (he who resembles) a VStaU in .battle with XW * ^^ o ^ 8pring . e8ti7al ^^ at 

* This epithet 

-f^. of king AnaaV^ma and of his preceptor 


(Lma 57.) And las said j 

[Another of the customary 

(V. 28.) Tictorious is the illustrious the excellent poet s the oimaim* 

a race of poets, who composed the edict (ooncerwn^) which, had "been 

by Mug AiM&*V*mE 

(V. 29.) Victorious is the poet, who was born from a race of poets, /whose 
eareer is a blessing for the world, who is learned in the doctrine (%ama) of Siva, wtto is 
favourite of S&rada (Sarasvati), (<mcZ) the stringing of whose words exhibits (i.e. 
the sweet-sounding spray of drops of the impetuous Maadftkiat (Gafigfi), wMclt damees- *> the 
coil of the matted tsar of the great dancer (Siva), 

(Line 65.) (^Obeisance to) the blessed Tripur&ntaka (film) ! The signature 



Two editions of {this inscription appeared in the year 1844* one* "by Dr Gundert^ 
llalayalam scholar who died only a few months ago in Ms native country 9 W!irteml>erg^ 
other by the late Mr, Ellis* 9 To Mr. Ellis* paper Sir (then Mr.) Walter Elliot added a, 
of Che original copper-plates, la 1859 Kookel Keloo Nsir published his own versioix of 
Gmnderfs tramslatioii^ Dr. Bumell next gave a translation whicli was based on the -fc^ro fi;rst 
versions, and ^which was accompamed by a bronzed reproduction of the original. 4 l 
liOgan's work on Malabar contains a reprint of Dr. Gnndert's translation* 5 His Higfb.&ss 
Second Prince of TraTaacore, wlio takes a warm interest in historical research, was gooci. 
to send me a set of fresk impressions, from wHoli the Plate at page 72 was prpa^**3U T*ihe 
subjoin^, traii^tipt and iamisljatioii, thongli coataimng little new, will be welcome "fco those 
-who are umble to use Dr. Gtuutart's and Mr. Ellis' papers. The transcript follows ijObat "by 
BF* QimdertJ 6 The traiasktiom also agrees generally with Dr. Gtradertte, thonglni, in a f o w carB% 
Mr, Elis* explaoia*i0ns were adopted as more probable. 

The orfgiml of the iiBcription is in ihe possession of th J0WE at KoelieM (OoclxiiaiL> . Ii> is 
engmved on two copperplates ; ihe second side of the second plate is blank. A kola f o^ -fclie riog 
on the plates must haYe been strong, is visible on the impression of each pla*o ; bmt 1 

BO iBfonnaftm if this ring is still preserved and if it bears a seal. The ehamc*r 
is used in the domment, is the (Vattelntta) alphabet. The onl 

-whicli calls for a special remark, is y. This- letter has, throughout -Kb.** ,, 

the same as in the grant f but once, in efyawxtuebm (line 7), i>l^^ totally 

Jcmiml of Zi0ro<m and S<rfm t VeL XIIL Pwi L pp. 

1 *& Part li. pp. I ft FF 

IfeU Vol XXI. p. 4$ 1 
* ifcL J[e. VoL III. p. 334 
rj oi n. pp^ exv ft 

7 ^^ tte &cimde Plate in the I*& jtirf. L X -^^^^c^^r 3tt 

Ho. 11J QW 67 

different form wHch. is employed in the larger" grant, 1 detmrSa Jmst aa in the two 

Kotfeyam the Tlraaelii grant! and the grant of JatilaTarman^ letters we 

used la a number of Sanskrits words 5 - wasti (Hue 1), 4rt (L I (twice) and L 20), s tf of 
(L 5) and <L 6), ** of 0oote* (1L 16, 18, 19). In the foreign word 

s the syllable $st Is expressed by a Grantha group (11. 6 and 16)* The inscription ends 
with a symbol which may be taken either for an ornamental of punctuation^ or for an 

archaic Higari d, which might be meant for $rt If the second eventuality holds good, 
approximate period of the inscription could perhaps be settled by a comparison -with dated 
records in which similar forms of t& occur*, 

The language of inscription is Tamils)*-* not the artificial language of literary worfca^ but 
the Tamil of erety-day He ? which, as the language of the Tanjore inscriptions of the Ch&jas, does 
not avoid Tulgar f orms, Kfce pirmSM&hclku (1* 5) for pirai&ditfa, and (in for 

aindu* The word pe$i (L 7) is probably a vulgar form of jpi#* * a female elephant/ 
(I, c.) is derived from the form ippari^ which occtu-s before each of the 

attestations on the second plate s appears to be a corruption of the Tamil ippagi, * thus. 5 A 
single word shows that, at the time of the Inscription^ the Tamil language was beginning 
to develop into This is the adjective participle $et/y%nr@> 0- 26), in which the y 

of the root iey is assimilated to the following jj, and which thus supplies the link 

between the Tamil Seygi^ra and the MalayMam ekeyynnna,^ 

The inscription is dated in the reign of king who is probably 

identical with a king of the name name^ during whose reign the Tinmelli grant was issued* 
The differences between the alphabets of the two records are not more considerable than might 
be expected in case of productions of two different writers* who resided in localities at a 
distance from each, otter* The king bore the title K6g6nmai-konddn y which may be compared with 
the similar title Kn@rifj>mai~'kQn$d^ aad which is synonymous with the Sanskrit M^ar^^ 
The date of the inscription WES to the second year." As 

I have shown on a previous occasion^ 8 the meaning of this mysterious phrase is probably 
** the tMrty-aixtli year (of the ting's coronation^ which took place) after the second year (of the 
king's yoMvar&jya)" The inscription records a grant which the king made to 
(11* 6 and 16), i.e. Joseph RabMn- Tile occurrence of this Semitic name s combined with the two 
facts tibat the plates are still with the Cochin Jews, and" that the latter possess a 
teanslation of the document, 9 proves that the donee was a member of the ancient Jewish 
colony on the western coast* The grunt was made at (L 4 f.,)* The Hebrew 

translation identifies this plac with Kociuniiallftr (Oranganore)^ where the Jewish colonists 
resided, until the bad treatment which they received there at the hands of the Portuguese* 
induced them to settle near Oochin. 10 The object of the grant was JJijuvannaia (1L 7^ 8^ 15, 
19). This word means * the five castes * and may IIETO been the designation of that quarter of 

1 Sea Sir Walter Elliot's tracing of this Inscriptioa in tbe Madras Journal^ VoL XIII. Part L 
Ind. Ant. VoL XXII. p. 57. 

8 In each of these tbre instances two fburisiies are attached to the left ad right top of the monosyllable 

M. The first of these flourishes appear to be an liwertecl form* and the second the usual fooa s of the Piljmi^d^ 
an wMch see Ad. Ant. VoL XX, p. 290, note 32. 
4 The same form pefo and tbe slightly different form vSylnam cciir In the larger grant 5 

l s VoL JtllL Part L p. 128, text line 42 f. 

s Compare the remarks on the laiignaga of the Tbnuielli grant; Ind. 01 XX a p. S86. 

@ Compare Dr. OaldwelFs C@m$)&v<f;iv G-rmmm^^ second edition pu L 
7 8wtfe Indi&n Imoripiiom^ i VoL IL p. HO. 

* Jaw*. Ant. VoL XX, p. 269. 

This translation was published by Br Gundert In the 01 XX1L ii. pp. 11 ff* 

Br. BarneU's Interesting e^tmcte In the Ind* ToL III p. 

K 2 


Crasgaaor, in which the &ve classes of artisans^ Aiii-Kammlar 9 as they are called in the 
smaller Kottayam grant, 1 resided. 2 

The last plate contains the names of a number of witnesses of the transaction. Five of 
these were the chiefs of five districts (nddu) which must have been included in the dominions 
of Biiskara BaTivarman, These were Ven&dn, Venapalinltdii, Sralanadtx, Va.lluvanadu, and 
KednznptLiaiTQxn&du. VenMu is the Tamil name of the Travancore country. Vdnapali is 
identified by Mr. Ellis with " VerapolL " Brlaiiadii or, as it is called in tiie smaller Kottayam 
grant, 3 Er&nadu, 4 is the territory of the T&m&diri (Zamorin) 6 of Kallikk6ttai (Caiieut). 
VaH.uyazi&da is still the name of a t&luk& of the Malabar district. Ifedizinpizgraiyiirnfidti is 
the district of PalakkMu (P&lgh&t) f and is probably identical with. P-iiyai^iiaiiadti in the 
Tiranelli grant. 6 The last two names on the plate are those of the ** sub-commander of the 
forces/' and of the undersecretary who drafted the document. 

Fifat Plate; First Side. 

1 Svasti gri [|J] Kdg6nmai-k 

2 IrsYiTagmw tiruv-adi 

3 ttndum eng61 

4 dn i3raadm&ndaiKkedir 

5 yipikottu irund^arnliya 

6 liya piras&dam=avadn [||*] 

7 JUojuvannamnin pediyMnm 

8 m p&gudamum Afijuvan^a^ppftjnm pagal-vi- 

9 lakkum p&y-adaiyum and&lagamuia kudaiyum 

First Plat*; Second Side. 

10 Va4uga"pparaiym=:maga-kalamiim idu-padiynm tdranataum td- 

11 ra^a-vitaBamum saravnin 8 mikkum elmbatt-ira^Ldu vSdu- 



13 m vitt6m [|*] majjum nagarattil kudigal kdyilkfcu 

14 irakknmadu ivan ixamaiynm pejcumadu* 

15 %a=chchepp-Sttodum Seydu koduttom [|*] 

16 m udaiyu^ Issuppu Irapp%ukkum ivaij santati * 

17 makkalkkmn peii-makfcalkkTim ivaQ marumakkallcku- 

18 m pen-makkalai ko^da maxumakkalkkTmi 

19 ulagum gandiranuna ull-4aYum 

Second Plate. 

20 ntati-ppimkiriti [|*] grf [|p] Ippari 

[p] Ippari 

Jftetaw Jevraal, Vol. XIII. Part i. p. 117, plate , line 1. 

vOlHTMJypI* "fcllft *5*RTjlif\1A * "4-* * < SL'*'l_ 

is Teoeatedl .f^B<l + <> ITV j- ^ whlch -Kawmd^a^rf or Karjand^aUri, s the quarter of the JKamsnalar,' 
12, lTS^16 ST J *"-^W ii-oK^Hu, Vol. II. No. 4, paragraphs 1, 2, 9, and No. Q, paragraphs 1, 10, 

- ' -. 10. 

9 Bead 


22 palinft4.u4aSya - 

23 B Sralamad-udaiya Mauavfipato-Mtoi^^ '*- i- f" 

24 axivdn Vallm V amadudaiy * 

25 ri ajiv&a ^s-ltL^pr^d^ 

26 ppari ariY 

27 fi=satta^ [(*] Vaii 

28 vay-kk%p%^eluttii 

TS A^IC >7 S 

(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity ! (2%e following) gift (pw&fcO was -r:- ; --- T 
who had assumed the title "King of Kings " (ST%%) S His Majesty (*:." rf. v * 
the glorious BiiSakara BaYivarma.ii 5 in the time during which (he) tte < 

and ruling over many hundred-thousands of places, in tbirty-sixth, the 

year, 3 on the day on which (foe) was pleased to stay at Muyirikkodu : 

(L. 6.) '* We have given to fssuppu Irappan. (the of) Ai;uT^-^ J ir-: 

with the seventy-two proprietary rights, (vis.) the tolls on female and 

animals, the revenue of Afijizvannatsa, a lamp in day-time, a cloth (tm/romf 1^ u-alt r/*j 

a palanquin, a parasol,, a Vaduga (i.e. Telugu ?) drun^ a large trumpet^ a an a 

canopy (i& *&6 shape) of an arch, a garland, and so forth* 

(L. 12.) * We have remitted tolls 4 and the tax on balances. 

(L, 13.) ** Moreover^ we have granted, with (these) copper-leaTes ? lie not 

d5we^) which the (of her) inhabitants of the city 5 pay to the royal ami <,&e? 

may enjoy (fhe beweffis) which (they) enjoy. 

(Ii 15.) ** To Iseuppu IrappSn. of AnjuTannanij to the male children to the 
children "bom of him, to his nephews, and to the sons-in-law who drirht-rr* 

(we have given) Afijmvarmam (as) an hereditary estate for as long as the sad the 

moon shall exist. Hail ! " 

(L. 20.) Thus do I know, GoirardhaaarMartandaa of do 1 

KddM of Venapalinadu. Thus do I know, of 

**ftu* Thus" do I know. Irayiram of ValliivasiMii. ^Tbus do I 

of Wa*iimiialytoi4u. Thus do I know, itho Mas the oi^ce ot 

Bub-commander of the forces, 

(L. 27,) The writing of the undersecretary 7 Vaw-TalaiS&i-Qs?4aP 8 3:^r-, ? ::!:.iv:-. 

3 Bead HI. 

Mr. BHU * p. 7 f.), tbe Tamil ^""appears to be a ftrffeu* of the 
This refers evidently to Muyisikkddn (1. 4 f.)- 
The^o two words arc repeated in tbe original (11. .' "> ftf ^ ri3 ,, fal ; si K iW41 p^. 

* a secretary.' 

*\tf. * fi tbe bero of great TeI1i<5lierry.* 

t>. - tbe mounfcam-splitter/ 3 an epithet of tbe god Skanda. 

70 ISTDIO^. [VOL. Ill, 





This inscripticn 1 Is engraved on the south, wall of a mand&pa in front of the Bilva 

shrine at Timvallsia in the Worth Areot district. It consists of three Sanskrit 
verses in the G-ramttia alphabet and records the erection s by am ascetic named Jfi4mitman 
(Terse 1) or Jliaam&rii (verses 2 8), of the mandap on whioh it is engraved* The 

far the building -were provided by a chief f called Vira^CJliarapas who was the sou of a 
Ohd|a king 1) ; and the erection took place in Sfaka^Samvat 1230 (vers 2). The 

building received the name u Bhadrar-mandapa/* i@ the auspicious mantjapa (vernes l f 2 

3), and the second name Ki^^TaB&iaairiJyi-imaadapa (Terse 3), which was deri-red 

from a Kr&da of Vira^Oliampa (Tetee 1). Jfianamftrtl also built a shrine of Siy% called 

on the side of the mmntja$& (Terse 3). The aame of this shrm may also 

to Vira-GliaisBaj and that he was a N%aka or lieutenant of an ummoied Mug, 

TiraroBain is refen^d to under the form Valla (verse 3) 5 and its Sira temple is " the lord 

of ** (verses 1 and 2). 

1 ^C^j^CTWl* 

2 [|*] 


4 8 ^;:^J^^^ . 

5 [|*] 

[ u 

><ai ^ s^ EU. 





(Terse 1.)' Tke glorious king Vtos-Ohamps, who used to win victories at the time o 
ofc sleep^ (anei) who was the son of the glorious OhAl king, 

*"^^ named 

" ^ HBltBSch ' 8 *Wt BepoH for October 1889 to 

et lE k e <I asimpage received from Br. Haltasoh 



No. 12B.3 

(V 2.) During a space of time which 

tangasrika &e. 1236), tie holy lord 
vesy lofty ^ w namedBhadra, for SambL 
with a creeper-like coil of hair, that is adornd with 
the celestial river (Gangland the crescent oFSfxuoon " f e * CeHeat 




This short inscription * is engraved on the outermost 
temple at Tiruvattiyur (Little CoBJeereram). It is 
consists of one Sanskrit verse, and a few words L Sa ~ e d w 





TEXT. 4 

^W^OfrsRf*Sfft 3|^g% 

-mf^ T^gpriir% .inniiin.iiiuiijy 

^ I q i <x| |3E>|af3f ! 
I *ft[ft]fl 

: [*] 


In (Ae <A e c /fer) the Saka king, which was measured by the years (expressed by 

iiTTZ* tU& ? Ss& ^ 1236 >' tbe g lori <>^ Champa, who nsed to be victorious 
in battle at the completion of sleep,* who was the son of the glorious Vira. 
whose desires were fulfilled, (and) the strength of whose arsns was well-known, gave a new 
everlasting car (pusfyaratha) to the god who resides on the Elephant-mountain. Let 
be victorious for a long time ! 

(This verse) was composed by his minister Vanatohid. 

completioa of flleep> " "* 

lor 1892-98. 



No, 51 of 1893 in Dr. HultescVe 
See page 5 of the same JR*p<>ir*. 

. an in . ked ^tampage received fe-om Dr. Haltzech. 

IB a slightly different form of the.eame liwOa whkb occurs in verses i aad 3 of tlie inscription 



Saka-Samat 1403* 

This inscription 1 is engraved on the north, wall of the second pr&kdra of "the Saiva temple 
of Jambukesrora on the island of Sriraiigam near Iricliinopoly. It is referred to in Mr* 
lloore's Trickinopoly Manual (p. 341) and in Mr. B. Sewell's Lists of Antiquities (Vol. I. 
p* 287) as the only inscription in the Jambukesvara temple^ -which contains a date in the 
Saka era. It consists of eight lines in modern Tamil characters, intermixed with a few worda 
and syllables in the Granfha alphabet. The language is very faulty Tamil. 

The :-ceriptien records the grant of one veli of land in the village of Vadakarai- 
"enkonkudi ~ to the god of Tiriiv&naxkka^ The date of the grant was the day of MaMmgha 
which fell on Sunday, the fall-moon tithi of the month of Kumbha of Saka-Saiiivat 1403 
expired^ the Plava samvatsara* Mr. Dikshit kindly informed the Editor that the European 
equivalent of this date is Sunday, the 3rd February, A*D. 1483* The donor was the great 
proYineial chief {maJidmandaUfa&ray !T41aka-"Kniay% aZia^ Akkalaraja, who bore the titles 
ol "a BMma among the Chdlas/* "a Vishnu among the Cfaola ** {S&la-Ndrdyan)^ and 
"the lord of Uraiytir * the best of cities*' (Uraiy$r-]pUTaar~ddM tiara")* Though it is very 
doubtful if he had any real connection with the ancient indigenous dynasty of the ChSlas* 
he claimed at any rate to be their rightful successor ; and his name has been accordingly 
included in Dr* Hultssseh's preliminary list of Chola kings. 5 His title mahdmandaU^vam 
suggests that he was a dependant* probably of one of the last kings of the first Vijayanagara 

1 Subliam^astu STa&ti 8 sri [||*] Sak-aptnm 9 1403 idaij ml ellan[i]Bifa Pilava- 

samvarsearattu Knmba-nayaEju pii^uva-pakslaattii pftjunaiyum Aditta-varamnm 
peir^b Magattu Dal Sim- 

2 ha*Brali^pati- ls MaMmaga-pm3ayarMlattil^ srimaa-maMmatidalesvaraii Sdiar-Biman 

S6^-2?"arayanan Uxaiyur-p1irYV^atMsvaran u Valaka-Kamayar Una Akkalarasar 

3 niyamar alagiya TiruvanaikkS,v=ndaiya nayan&r koyil 13 Adi-SandS8varu-devar 

kudutta tanma-sadana-ppattaiyam [||*] N&yai)&r alagiya 

nil mandapa-clicMTappiik[ku]m nacfachiyar Agilandanaya- 

s No. SO of 1891 la Dr. HaltaeFs Annual Report for 1891-92. 

" ^ e v *ffl rf7?Ml*u4l ^ meBtioeed in the Taaj^r Inscnptioes ; see **m 
il. p. . Jt4*ku mea M OB the northern bank (of the K&vri) ^ see iUd. p. 53, note 1 

V^ES^ ^ the ancieQt Tamii d ^^tioa of the Bite of the 

^amm temple ; see Sm^^Indtan Imcripfions, VoL II p 253 

f CMODarie8> thi8 tOWQ ' Whi " h h a W a Buburb of Tricbinopoly and the centre o the 
4 " B " 1 f " 


*,*' ? 6 ^ P ^ UKriyte C ntaiaS 8 me Bncient Cb ^ Ascriptions. 
* See lua ^niwaf Report for 1891-92, p 7. Pons. 


"..;:> .*'. rV' ".,.-" ." ..-'''-' ''.'','^'* "...,",-' .'./. : -'", '''. vl ''< ;'..'. ": ; '',;"1<' ,.'; : "' ',,'." . : j\-^ -'.''-'-. ' .--'" ;;'"'.'. ', ; .:.'-'' V-'^^^^.^T^^^'^^^V:^"^^'',::;;'-, :V;._.^" ' '.'- ~ '^^^:v|:i':^rr^ 

: ,^ 



5 giyarku==kkalaandiy=aga ammuda 1 leyd=aruli ta-na-ecbeb^rr:^-^. rsi-.VrX -:; 

taligai ammudu-padikkum tiru-M&rgall-cfccliirappiL amsaada St;-^- ii v - , 
naiidavanam. payir- 

6 cheygiga tdppu.-al ilakkaikkum aga Barnrat:dai'*a Baya[kjkatrta~na2i In* V ..^v 

Venkdnkudiyil [g]fcta s Irajavibadais. nilaxn veii [1|*] Inda r.:'.--^ 

7 veliRkum undana karam pon-mudal nel-m^chl indina[du2 ic~~ ** k ^i:r, 

ppadiyi[le ga] ndij-aditta-varaiyutn a-an.bavitt-==kkc2"-] = ^ : -' :: ^~"' :: ' r= - :;r "~ ::ira 1 

8 Inda tanmattukku agudam 3 pannmavan nndigai Gcigai-bl ~i"I' gu-vad&i j\ 

pavattil^ p6ga=kkadaTargal=%avTtm If 



(Line 1.) Let there be prosperity 1 Hail ! Forttme S At the a^piciotJ? time of ^M-r T 
(Mahamagha), 6 (to^ew) Jupiter (was standing in) Leo, (i.e.") on the day of Ifhe nikf'\^.j 
Magara. (Magha), which corresponded to a Sunday and to the fu!l-nc:- tit\i cf lip fi 
fortnight of the month of Kumbha of the Plava samratsara, whict was current^aftcr the Saka 
year 14O3, the glorious maMmandaUJvara, a Bhima among the Chdl&B, a yir',--.r.- rimcra 
theCholas, the lord of Uraiyiir the best of cities, Valafea-Kamaya^aFias Aklralari.'s. tfH7 
(the following') religious edict (^dharinaMsana.paf}aij/am) to the f/arw (of 
Adi-CliandSvara 6 () the temple of -the beautiful lord of Tinivanaikka : 

(L. 3.) " (One) K of land (which wascalled after} BSjavibnata? (on^) xT 
of Vadakarai-Venkonkudi in our dominions, (was givento rte i^?2e) * ''-;:*" 
1 decorating a 'ma^apa on the festive day, on which the beauMal lord 

fca^ied in procession to Vadakarai^eBkenku^i f or the sacred ta^ 
ulaie of rice which is offered at ft* daily worship to the goddess A^ 
S: wardHreated as sacrificial remnants (,., disced) ; ;f -the n ^ 

festival in (th. o<& o/> Margaji 5 and for the maintenance " of a gardener 

the temple scsrden. 

/T \ "rT/ie donee^l shall enjoy, for the above-nertioced purposes, as lor. g 
and L ZZL on this^k' cf land, the income in gold *. 


(L. 8.) If there be any person who injures this chanty, he shall incur 

a cow on the bank of the Ganga." 

' Read amvdv, throngfeout the inscription. 


. According to the Victioire ""J^^S^^ twelve years at 11,-h-i^ on tb, =::-.:.c--. 

" * in the 10th ~ 

cco twee years a , .. 

[JMkta^te in Sa^kyit] "Vj^ 1 ^^ ^*^^!* in the 10th l.nhr :-.t*:i^~ -> : * 
^ Mfi, i-. February, when Jupiter and the Moon are m 3 ^^ ^^ rf ^^ go tQ ;n tB? 

[If^Win Sanskrit], which fP arfc rf * !"f ^^^ the wat er S of the Ganges are wrpo-ed to r:^ - 
nk called Mtoaga-tkulam or Mamaga-ttfottam, th faug ; . n ., tfcree Mam , : f . 

tank called Mtoaga-tkulam or Mamaga-ttttam, T. faug ; . n ., tfcree 

- " - 6 - " " ' ft= * 1 "'- = ? " 


^. to 




An edition of this inscription, or rather, of tliese fragments of two - 

oi the B&na Mng Vikramaditya II. has already been published by tlie Rev- T. Po * lke * 
Iiw&a .dnfcgttartf, Tol. XIII. pp. 6 ff. and in the Manual of the Sale*** J>***cf ,Vol. IL 
pp. 388 ff. For my revised text I have used excellent impressions recei ve5L :** cxm -Ur- nultzsca, 
to -whom the original plates, which are at TTdaydndiram, in the GKidiy &**** talukft of the 
North Arcot district, were lent by the Acting Collector of the district!, UWC*"- JF. A. Nicholson, 

The copper-plates are four in number. Three of them, the first of which is inscribed 
on one side only, are the first, second, and third plates of a grant of whiolx -fcl* concluding part 
is missing. And the fourth plate, which, like the second and third plates, is inscribed on botk 
sides, is an odd, probably the third, plate of another grant, of which botlx the "beginning and tb* 
end are missing. Each plate measures about 8f" broad by 3 T y high,, and ail Bve raised tin* 
to protect the writing. The odd plate closely resembles the others, the only -difference being 
that the ring-hole is about \" nearer to the right margin than in the other jplffctes. The plates 
are held together by a ring, about 4J" in diameter. This ring, which. is CXL*, holds a circular 
seal, about 2* in diameter. The seal bears in relief a recumbent bull, wfaiola f aoes the proper 
right, reclining on an ornamental pedestal, and having a lamp on each sicle. -At the top is a 
parasol between two clumiis. The engraving is good, and the writing T. almost throughout 
in a perfect state of preservation. The size of tHe letters is betrweexx -* and ^*. Ti* 
characters are Grantfaa, with the exception of the Tamii word pugafar&pj&a-var (Plate iii. , 
line 39), which is written in Tamil characters. 1 As a photo-lithograplx of fclie inscription * 
published herewiiih, I need not attempt a detailed description of the <3rsEtn.i;liJft. characters ; "bat 
I may state that I have found it difficult to distinguish between the stii>enrsoarpt * and I, wMci 
in the original are very similar to each other ; and that also more than, onese I have failed to 
recognise in the impressions the superscript r of conjunct consonants. - Tbe language is Sa- 
krit. Of the inscription on plates i-iii. lines 1-44, excepting the introdTiofcoary twuti M{$$ t atfs 
in verse, and lines 45-51 in prose. lane 1 to nearly the middle of line 13 of the odd plt 
give the verses in lines 32-44 of the other plates, while the remaining' lines contain a pr 
passage which diiers from the corresponding passage at the end of ;pla/fce iii. As regnnl* 
orthography, attention may be drawn to the promiscuous use of the letters t and d, t being 
employed eighteen times instead of A, and A six times instead of t j to -fclie employment of tin 
conjunct tsh instead of Jcah, which occurs five times; to the incorrect of fche Grantlm flail 
m instead of the omndra at the end of words; and to the frequent omission of the s% d 
vuarga. In respect of grammar, it may be pointed out that line 5 of plate i. contains tfc 
wrong word mat Utum-manas (for matWu-manas, which would not have suited the metre). 

i ' iii> C0ntain ae ^amencement of an inscription which rocoaraed a 

Viiramaditya in favour of soxne 

The inscription, after two verses invoking the ^lessi o f the 
(Vishnu), gives the following genealogy of the donor : _ ^ 

-v * 

15) ; and in his lineage was born BfcjfidMriMa Clin 17), When 


Jffiir&fa and many otter B&pa priaces bad passed away, then there was torn in 

1. Jayanandivarman (1. 20), who ruled the land west of the Andhra country. 

His son was 

2. Vijay&ditya I. (1. za> ; ms son 

3. Hallad&va, surnamed Jagadkamalla (L 28) ; his son 

4. B^avidyadhara (L 31) ; his son 

5. Prablmmerudeva (L 34) ; his son 

6. Vifcramaditya I. (L 37) ; his son 

7. Vijayaditya IL, also named PugaJvippavar-Ganda 1 (L 39); and his son was the 


8* VijayabShu Vikramftditya H., who is stated to have been a friend .of a certain 
Epishnarftja (L 43). 

The odd plate contains part of an inscription which recorded a grant made by the same 
ifc favour of some Brahmana ; and this existing portion of it gives the genealogy of the 
commencing with Prabhumerude va. 

These inscriptions are not dated, bnt they may be assigned with some confidence to about 
middle of the 12tb centary A.D. 5 for Dr. Hultzsch has shown that the king BaaavidyS- 
of the above list probably lived during the first half of the llth century of our era, 
fcecause he married a grand-daughter of the Ganga king Srvamahar&ja, whom Dr. Hultzsch has 
to have reigned between AJX 1000 and 1016. 2 

The place TTdayendTimangala, mentioned in the above, has already been identified by Mr. 
Ifaira 3 with Udayendiram, where the plates are now preserved. 

TEXT, 4 

First Plate. 
1 Svasti &i[h*] (I 5 Tat-tat[t*]va-praJattkrit&v==atitar&m v6d6=pi n^ftlam yata[h] 

$ ginah |*] %ateha-namra-surfendra-brinda-makute^ 

4 M-S6n-4[m*]su-vraja-ranjit-4nghri-yugal6 bhdtyai g- 

5 vas=s6=stu vah I (I I) [1*3 Kshi(kshl)r6dam maiMtum-man6bhir==atulam7 
'*& dev-asurair=Mmandaram hitv^Sfaahipta iv=AnjanSrdrir=dva ya- 

7 =*atP=Mhikam 8 r&jatg [[*] yo bh6gi^)ndrarnivishta-mA[r*]iI^=^ 

8 Sam bhAyo=mritasy=aptayS raksh^[d*]=v^t sura-brinda-vandita-pata(da)-dva- 

9 dwah* ssa Narftyanah I(||)[2*] Yah prMM=asur-Mhip6 makha-var6 dadv(ttv)=&- 

g&m sa-dvipain sa-char4charfimm=adhimuda u 

[According- to an unpublished Tamil rock-inscription on the hill of Paneha-F&ndava-Malai near Arcot* 
ippavar-Ganda s *.e* the disgracer of famous (kings),* was ateo the name of the father of a local chief, 
Vira-Ch61a, who made a grant to Tirnpp&n-Malaid&ra (i.e. to the Jaina temple on the top of the Paucha* 
va-Malai hill) i the 8th year of the reign of K6-B&jar&ja-K&sarivarman (i.e. in A.D, 992). B. H-] 

* See Dr. Hultzsch's Progress Report for October 1889 to January 1890, pp. a and 4, and his Annual 

for 1891*92, p. 4 f ., where the date of the C&61a king Rajaraja, and, consequently, of the Gangs king 
llr^ja, is corrected. 

* Sea his JPreface to the Salem Manual, Vol. I. p. !v. f . 
4 From an^impression supplied by Dr. Hultzseh. 

6 Metre ; Sardulavikridita ; and of the two nest verses. fi 

" MatMtum-manabJiih is evidently intended to be a compound ; but tbe proper form would be 
Read vtulam, 

ft Bead *dhi1cam. 
** Bead rgliu,m=ddydya gam $&-dvi%>dm. n Read 


. Bft 









Second Plate ; First Side. 

Baitya-dvisli& [I*] so=bbut(d)=Vamai3ia.rupin^ 
sur^padraTa-vy^p^jr-aika-ratah ^~ A 1 ^- 

h [113*] '" * 



[II 4*] 






maliatl prasdtah 

idi) [6*3 

idyab 4 


Second Plflte ; Second Side. 

Andbr.t=path ah. 

7 Tasm&d=ajanislita suto 
[!*} rana-bliuvi yasya ni(na) tisiitbaiidy(nty)=araya, 

|(||)[8#] iOTama[t*]=samasta-"ripu 

fab. [I*] aaid=Anamga iva yd vanitSi-ja' 11 ^ 11 ^ 1 ^ 3 - 

iti yo Jagad-eka-mallah |(||)[9*] 



sut6 yah 

Tkir d Plate ; First Side. 

31 situ ^M(eliclia)maii-bliuta 
U dharah 









40 Gands 


vitrastah pal^yant^rayo 
iii pratMtam 19 ripu-dussalia 20 asya cba 


s Metre : TasantatikH. 

* : UimJIH; tod <^ ibe aest verse. 

1 I Wis^e tiis to be s misteke for ir#ta~ri$*-> 


Bead *tydm=*. 
18 Bead visadd diganta-. 
l * Metre: Vasantatilakft. 
Metre ; Mftlinl. 

* Metre : Sldka 

18 Metre : Tdtaka ; but the firafe 

19 Bead 

20 Bead 

Udayendiratn Plates of Vikramadttya II. 

n a. 





7 ' 






<> I: rrv.*-' : ^--' 

* -' 

~ * 





SCALE -75. 


Hi 6. 


-^^mMmvm^j- **"- " 

'C'-;i*3f?-7f*v*;**>-.'f' ">i.?)' ^:^-te J ' J 'W' f; 
-^ ' -v rijyuj -avj-g j.^ftiJ Jif-"-^^^^ ' ; 


,-. ,,,^ ., 



" T ' J 




No. 13.] 



; Second Side. 

dysidlii yat-karavala-talam 2 

[14*] 4 Axragada(ta)~naya-marggo Bana-Yams-aika-dipali prana[ta] 

yah [|*] ajani Vijaibfi-h,u03L*3 5 six- 
- dur it-6tir= Vv[i^]kraniati(di)tya-B am& 1 1 P-5*3 


41 abhavat 1 

42 vavrislni[Th*3 

43 ripu-samajah 

44 nnr= 

45 Sa 

46 da-rentih. 6 

47 Y jaya-labdha 7 - vlpula-yaso* bhlpurrina- bahn-manda- 

48 lah 8 Tivldlia-vicliitra-ranna(tBa)-vi]ina-valaya-sya-karafcaIa-griliIta-%Tiarii-[t 

49 makombta-nisravat 10 varl-dh^ra-pftrvvakam u aki(khi)la- veda-vedamga-ta[rkka] - 

50 tat[t^]]inma-iiirat6bhyali sva-mati6-iillaitathah-" 12 saiii 

51 siiSbhyali 18 dvija-varebhyaii 1 

Odd Plate ; First Side. 

... [I*] durvvara-viryya-yasa- 

2 sara prabb.aTas=taras[v*]i yah papa-dn[li*]klia-raliIta[iL*] PrafotiiimSradevah [(|*J 

3 Abb.aTad=anupama"Sri(sri)r=anat-arati-vargg > a h.^3 pratbita-pritlmla-kirttib. 

4 sunTir=asinat(d=) vini(ni)tah |*3 ksbitipatl-kTila-miikliya^lL*] Parvva- 

5 tis-aoiglirlpafcm.a (dina)-dvayanilaita-iaatir=yy6 Vikram,tl(di) 

6 tya^nani^b.^ 1(11) Tasy=apl 


8 yndH II 1 TPuka4[vi*]ppav^BvQUEi4a iti pratbitam 18 rlpu-dussaham 19 asya 

9 cba n&raa a param [|*3 abba vat 20 dya yndM yat-karavMa-dala[d !it J-dvipa-vari- 

Odd Plate * s Second Side* 




Krislinarjaprly6 yah [p] a|anl 

hya 23 aneka-samara-vijaya-sam- 


11 g-aika-dfpajb 

12 Vijaibfihtil^L*] 

13 ti(di) 


16 vanat-aneka-para~nri^ 

17 zaayfLkha-railjit-&m* ] ghrikamala [h*3 s va-karatalargriHta 

18 kar-orii-kaTa- 26 [gaIa]dvari-dbara-p-6.rv-v > aka[m*3 vlprebhyo 


2 Besd 

3 Bead 

z Bead - 

* Metre s MilinL 

5 Eead 

6 Read 

7 Tliia aksJiara looks in thS origieal rather like 

* Bead - 
30 Eead -m 


- (?). 

15 For lines 1-13 see lines 32-44* of the pfeoiiing e 

16 Eead -n&md. 
" Read 

18 Read 

19 Bead 
so Read 



TAree Mnt Pfofe*. 

Hail ! Prosperity ! 

(Terse 1.) May that 8iva promote your well-being, whose true nature even the 
cannot fully reveal, from whom the creation, the preservation, and the destruction ^of 
the worlds proceed, on whom the devotees meditate, (and) whose two feet are tinged with. 
collections of red rays of the rows of jewels in the diadems of the crowds of the chiefs Of 
the gods who in person bow down before him ! 

(V. 2*) May that ET&rftya^a, whose body ever rests on the lord of serpents, (and) wto^e 
two feet are worshipped by crowds of gods, guard you ! He, whom the gods and Asrus, 
desirous of churning the matchless sea of milk, discarding the Mandara laid hold of, * it 
were, to obtain a second time the nectar of immortality, (and) who then shone, even more 
ordinarily, as if he were the Aftjana mountain ! l 

(V. 3.) There was the regent o the Asnras, named Bali, whose sole delight it 
engage in acfcs of .violence towards the gods, while his one vow was, to worship the two 
feet of iva. He/ after having presented as an excellent sacrifice a respectful offering to 
primeval god, the enemy 2 of the Daityas, with great joy (also) gave to him who bore 
form of a dwarf the earth with its islands and with all things movable and immovable. 
(V. 4.) From him sprang a mighty son, a treasure-house of good qualities, 
whom was ever increasing the great pure favour of Sambhu on whose head are the lines of tl&e 
lustre of a portion of the moon, Bana, the foe of the gods, who with his sword struck 
the forces of his enemies* 

(V. 5*) As the cool-rayed moon rose from the sea of milk, so was born in his 
lineage BfinMMr&ja, who, possessed of never-failing might, with his sharp sword cut ttp His 
enemies in battle. 

(V. 6.) When Bfin&dliirja and many other B&na princes had passed away, there ^roas 
born in tMs (lineage), not the least (of Us members), Jayanandivarman, the fortune of viotcxry 
incarnate, and an abode of fortune. 

* 7.) This unique hero o great might ruled the land to the west of the 

country, like a bride sprung from a noble family unshared by others, having his feet ting-ed by 
the crest-jewels of princes. 

(V. 8.) From him was born his son Vijay&ditya, who scattered hosts of 
(and) before whom the enemies, seized vith great fear, did not stand on the field of battle. 

(V, 9.) From him sprang a son whose arm was skilled in cutting up all 
a source of never-waning merit and fame, who to womankind was like the god of love, 
illustrious MMLadSva, who was the unique wrestler of the world (JagadfikamsUa). 

(V* 10.) As Ham begat the six-faced (K&rttikya) on P&rvati 3 so he begat on his 
an incomparable, prosperous, and prudent son who completely scattered multitudes of enemies*- 
the Illustrious Bnavidy&dham> whose pure fame became an excellent cTiawl for the ea:rs& 
the elephants of the quarters, (and) whose two feet were an object of adoration for princes,. 

1 The meaning apparently is, that KMyana (Visfcnu), when worshipped by tlie gods and Asuras, grant 
neetar of immortality even more readily and abundantly than was the case at the churning of the oeea*i. 
meaas of the nsoiiEtain Mandara. The words Ihfy&smritaty^&ptayS in the second half of the verse mast: In 
opinion be connected with the words of the first half; compare the similar position of f r 4&mana*r&piQ& irr 

uexfe verse. 


(V, 11.) His son was Prablxiundruddva^ who drore away all enemies, whose mind was 
intent on the four branches of knowledge, 1 who was refined, a source of the fame of irresistible 
valour, full of energy, and free from fault and sorrow. 

(V. 12*) From him sprang a son of matchless fortune, named VikramSditya^ "before 
whom the hosts of adversaries bowed down, (and) whose great renown waa widely spread ; a 
man of refinement, who was the chief of the families of princes, (and) whose .mind was fixed 
on the two lotus-feet of the lord of P&rvatl 

, 13.) He, again, had a son named Vijayaditya,, frightened by whose valour the 
enemies ran away in battle* 

(V. 14.) He also bore another name, Pugalvippavaar-Gandaj widely known and un- 
bearable to opponents* Cleft by his sword in battle, the elephants shed their blood as clouds do 
the rain-water* 

15*) To him was born a son VijayabSlra, named Vikramadityas a unique light 
of the B&na family, who has followed the path of prudent conduct, before whom the assem- 
blage of opponents has bowed down, (and) who has Krisimar^ja for his friend. Eminently 
prosperous (he is, and) free from evil and distress. 

(Line 45.) This (prince), the dust of whose feet is tinged with the lustre of the jewels on the 
edges of the diadems of all princes without exception, and whose two arms are filled with ample 
fame, gained in victories over the multitude of arms of the adherents of many different hostile 
princes, after pouring out a stream of water from the beantif nl golden jar, held by the palms 
of his hands the bracelets on which are thickly covered with 2 various bright jewels s (hag given) 
to the excellent twice-born, dwelling at TJdayendiaioangala, who delight in, what is their 
proper duty, the knowledge of the truth of all the V&das and VMangas and philosophy (and) 
are eager to impart the knowledge of things which is stored np in their minds, 

~~The Odd Plate. 

(Lines 13-18.) * This (prince), whose broad chest is rested on by the Fortune of Victory 
whom he has gained by his victories in many battles, a sun to illuminate the very bright 
heaven of the Bna family, whose lotus-feet are tinged with the rays of the ruby gems, fastened 
on. to the sides of the diadems of numerous hostile princes bowing down before "hi after 
pouring out a stream of water from the beautiful large golden water-pot, held by the palms 
of his hands, . . to the Brfthmans, . . of the Vdas . 



This inscription, or rather* fragment of an inscription, has been previously published, with 
a photo-lithograph, by the Rev. T* Fonlkes* in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. IX. pp s 47 ff. and in 

the Manual of tTie Salem District, Vol. II. pp. 365 ft I re-edit it from aa excellent impression 

received from Dr. Hultzsch* to whom the original plates, which are at TTdaydndiram, in the 
Gudiy&taio. talnM of the North Arcot district* were lent by the Acting Collector of the 
district, Mr. F. A. Nicholson, I.O.S, 

* See Sir BL Monies-. WilUams*B Dictionary, s* v. vidyd ; trayt, the triple VMaj* d*tfk*hikt> logic and 
metaphysics i * <2ano-&, Uhe science of government; * and vdrttd, * practical arts, sneb m agnettlfeore* com- 
merce, medicine* ete* 

9 Lite^all y* viUn would rather be 'hidden by/ 

3 Lines 1-12 of the odd plate are identical with Hues of the preceding Inscription, 


These are two odd copper-plates, marked on their "first sides with, the Tamil 
2 and 5, and inscribed on both sides. Each plate measures about 9f" broad by 2|-" high, ax*-*! lias 
on the proper right a ring-hole, about -/g-'' in diameter. There is neither a ring nor a sea.l a*nd 
the plates are now tied together with a string. The engraving, though not very regular, is clone 
fairly well, and the writing, with one or two insignificant exceptions, is well preserved.- - Tlw 
size of the letters is between T y and T %". .The characters are Grantha. The iang-ixaS is 
Sanskrit ; and the text on both plates is in verse. In respect of orthograptiy I need only notice 
the doubling of a consonant before y and v in vibftdttyai, plate ii. line 1, GarudaddhvajS, plate 
ii. line 9, and maddhyamd, plate v. line 11. As- regards the language, the most note'woa.-tliy 
point is that the author in line 1 of plate ii. undoubtedly wrote trai, instead of irayt -wlticlt 
does not suit the metre. 

The inscription, as we have it, is part of a grant of " the lord of princes 
Plate ii. treats of the mythical genealogy of the Ch61a family, the beings actually 
being the g-cd Brahman, his son Marichi, his son Kasyapa, his son the Sun, his son Maxru* liis 
son Ikshvakr.. 1 his descendant (separated from Ikshvaku by many generations) SagSbX-a, hia 
descendant BhagJratha, and Raghu. Plate T. records that, -when the lord of princes (ox- Icing) 
Vira-Ch6|a was ruling the earth, his spiritual guide Nila advised him to make a g-x-ant in 
favour of some Brahmans; that Vira-Ch&a then went to the Ohola rtder ParakSsarivajrnaan 
and asked leave to bestow on the Brahmans a village in his own territory which he pr-OJaaiHed 
to name after Parakesaiivarman ; and that, having got the necessary permission, lie garo 
the village of Paxakeaarichaturvgdimangala, situated between the river KavSrl and a,, 
small river, to a hundred and fifty (Brahmans). 

I cannot say any thing definite about the Chola ruler BaraksaaAvarman axxa the 
subordinate prince Vira-CMla, 2 mentioned in this inscription; nor am I able to identify the 
village of Parakesarichatarvedimangala. 

TEXT. 3 

Second Plate ; First Side. 
bhavatat(d=) vibhuttyai trayi-sara-vastu^ 

Vidhatu^fcasya ptitro=bhut(n>Marlohirr*1= 

[I'] Mari ( ri)ches=cha tanujtbhftt L 




1} records 

cbief, wbo was not relaed rt 

to tte raUag d ynast y. Si Jlariv tS vL "S bafc p ? l ,. Whoia the name 
a Cbfila, and L 

, geaaa oe * nm 

s tifts$ ct R<l 

. 14.] 



Plate; Second 

7 vasvataft-chai siitd Manilla 

8 pranavas=chhandasain*:iTa 

9 bhaktirn&n Gariidaddhvaje 

10 ndala-samah || 

11 bahushv=api [|*] pftlayltvA blmvkn=di[r]ggiiam * cha 
pratl || Sagsro nama tad-vaiks jatavan [bhA]pa-pCi(pu)ingavBft3 [|] 

=i tad-amge * ' 


Plate i First 

1 Bakstam&ne bhuvam 4 visvam ITlrarClioli arlp-6sTarS [J*] dha[r*]m*A 

2 padestta tasy^&bh&t 6 Nila-nama maMsnrah || " Yushnli- 

3 [r*] wSsham 6 STargga-pripana-k^ranam [j] 

4 dSlt=%=enam=adidigat \\ Srutva 

5 Cli61amalii(hS)patiii 

6 d=vaclLa[>] \\ 


dasy&m! tava 

Plate*, Second Side. 


9 dbhya=afcebhyas=clia 

10 tuMvvdim.amgalr&l 

_ w smpratishta(shthi)'fcar-m 

12 ly-Srdi-sasya-bhiishitam [P] panaB-&mr-adi-samyiiktam 

. ^ ^ , , m ^ may tlie primeval gloxy, mtb. four farC^, 14 the of the 

VSdas, promote your welfare ! 

Of that Creator, BCarlobi was tlie gx^tt mind-bora son ; and of Mazielii*8 body sprang the 
great sage Kfisyapa. 

Of the sage K&yapa the resplendent STSJOL was the son s who dispek the darkness of all the 

Vivasvat's iB son again was Manti, thoroughly familiar with tie TMas and Yftd&figas, the 
first of tte rulers of the earth, as 6m is of the Vedic texte. 

And Manu's son was the mse IkshLvSkia* devoted to Hm ls whe symlxil is the 
he ruled the earth, equal to 

1 This eha spoils tlie metre. 

* Read either Jc^itUah sann~ or 

* Read 
4 Read 
s Read 

* Read < 

7 Read *paUm ! 

8 Read grdm&wi* 

9 Here again this f^ oifends against tiae metre. 

, as suggofted "by Mr* 

M Tlie first half of this verse la quite Incorrect* 

m Read 
18 Read 

i* 1^. tlie glorious god Chatmteana 
15 s.e. tlie Sun's. 
<A the god 


o > __ ___ Jrfm .^,* .-*. 

warriors born in the family of Ikshv&ku, having long ruled the earth, Iia.a 
to then the most excellent king Sagara was born in his family ; and in his family 

was afterwards the lord of men Bhagiratha. 
Raglm by name ..**** 

S. Fifth Plate. 
the lord of princes Tira-Olidla was ruling the whole earth, a Br&hman named. 

lis spiritual adviser* 

He directed him to bestow on the chief twice-born a gift of religion which would, secure 

to a!! MB ancestors. 
When lie tad heard his advice, the king went to the Chela ruler, bowed down* a*:nd s 

standing in Ms presence, spoke the following words : 

" In my territory I wish to give a great village, (which shall be) named after ttee^ ivo tlie 

BrUnaans ; please grant me leave to do this ! M 

And permitted by Parakesarivarman, who said to him s ** Do so speedily/* tlxe lord 
of princes Tira-CMla (gav.e) to one hundred and fifty (Brahmans) the entire villa*^e of 

well situated between the ISlverl and a small oriver, 

endowed with all suspicions marks, emhellished with rice and other grains, furrdslieci 
mango and other trees, with areoa-nnt tree gardens ....... * * 




TMs inscripfcion has been already drawn attention to by Mr. G. Mackenzie in his 

. . 

p. 214, and by Mr. R. Sewell in his Lists of Antiquities , Vol. I, p. 54. It 

is on three faces of a stone pillar in front of the Duxg&mbft temple at eanap6vexmin, 

a ne Talagada-Diyi in the Bandax (MasnHpatam) t&lokA of the Kistna district. Tho 

arae pillar bears four other, later inBcriptions, *fe. one at the bottom of the east 11,0** J 
dceaft the mscnption of Ganapati, and three others on the north face, which tad beam loft 
by the engraver of the Ganapati inscription. 

The la ^^ i Saxtskrit verse as far a,e 
121 to the end. ^Ehe Sanskrit portion opens with iwocationii 

l-d rfr G^pafi, wMch ti t^I J^? 1 "* 8n 4 d ^ 5 ' The second inscription refers to < tUo ***** 

^ 3 ^ and ti,-;,xi 

m the beantaful Peda- Divipura at the junction of tlu- 
i. Vol. XL p. 10, md Vol xjj 
^. vS. XXI. p. iss, note 11. 


Tailapadeva, and G^vinda-Daagul&ia, and re-instated Chddddaya (v* 6). 
The same four contemporaries of Prdla are referred to IB. the Aumakonda inscription, where* 
however, Mantena-Grurida is called Ghinda, the lord o tlie city of Maatarakiita. TailapadTa 
has been already identiEed by Dr. Fleet with, the Western Chalakya king Taila HI. 
Cti6d6daya is mentioned four times in the Anmakonda inscription. Line 32 f * of that inscription 
reads as follows : " Then he (Prola), who had easily plundered his (Udaya's) dominions in 
warfare, gave the kingdom (back) to king TJdaya.** Verse 6 of the Ganap&svaram inscription 
shows that TJdaya is here meant for Chodddaya. In lines 65 to 71 of the Anmakonda 
inscription, we are told that king Citododaya died oat of fear of Prola's successor* Budra. 
According to line 104 f. Budra burnt the city of Chddodaya* In line 107, Budra is called 
" the only resort of PadmS (or Lakshmi) who arose from the womb of the glittering milk- 
ocean of the race of Kand.ur6daya-Ch6daJ" TJdaya-Ohidiia is evidently a transposed, but 
synonymous form of Chddodaya. Further, I suspect that PadmS has to be taken as the 
actual name of Chod6daya*s daughter, whom Budra married for political reasons, though ha 
caused the death of * her father and destroyed his city. Finally, Kandiira appears to haTe been 
the name of Chddddaya's capital. According to Dr. Oppert 1 "there are in the Nizftm's 
territory and the neighbouring districts many places called Kandiiru." But I am mot in a 
position to say which of these is to be identified with Kaiidiira. 

By his wife MuppaladSvi, or, as she is called in the Anmakonda inscription, Muppamadevi, 
Prdla had two sons, Budra and MahMva (v. 7). Budra succeeded his father on the throne 
(v. 8). He is said to have settled the inhabitants of towns which he had destroyed,^ at 
drafigaXLtt 2 ( Worangal) and to have established on the sites of those towns new colonies, 
in which he built temples of Rudrdsvara (v. 9). Bndra was sncceeded by (Ms brother) 
MaJbJtdeva (v. 11), whose son by BayyamfoiiA was Gtanapati (v. 12). 

Verses 15 to 43 describe the descent of one of Ganapati's officers, the general J&ya or 
Jayaaa. The first person named is Bhima (I.) of the race of Ayya (v. 16), who resided at 
Kroyytirus in the country of Velanandu* (v. 17). His three sons by BachylLmbika, Jiila, 
Nar%ana (L), and Sftraya, were in the service of king Chodi (v. 18). Jilla defeated a 
certain KannaradSva and received in acknowledgment of this deed the dignity of general 
from the king (v. 19). At the command of king CJiddi, the second brother, Harayana (I.), 
fortified Dvlpa, i.e. Talagada-Divi, which is fabled to have been created by the god Knvem 
<V 20 L). He also constructed tanks and temples at Dvipa and at Vadlakurrn (vv. 23-25). 
He received from king CH6di the lordship over Dvipa and the Go^tm villas and the fatie of 
general (v. 26 1)- The foar sons of 3*4r%ana (I.) by KfaftmU (L) were GWtf Blnma (IL) 
Pinna-Chodi, and Bramma <v. 28). They served in the army of the kmg who was the lord 
of the CHoda country " (v. 30). This king appears to be identical with, or a <^*>^ 
previou 8 ly mentioned king Cfcodi (vv. 18, 20, 27). He may be also connected with Chodo^m 

IKrAmU (EL) and Peram^mb4, and three sons, Prxtkva, Jaja or Jayana, a*d 

I identical with >. distaat Krtd^ which is the headquarters of a tilaM of the 

. ^^ o ^^ Kaldtta^- - of a chief whose 


See not 4. 


(II*) (v. 32). At this time (the Kikatiya) king Gtanapati, who had defeated the 
of Chdla, Kaiifiga, Sevana, 1 Elarn&ta, and LUts* conquered the country of Velan&ncht 
together with I>vipa (v, 34). Having taken to wife ISTarama and Perama (i.e. N&ramba II. 
and PemmamM of Terse 32), lie took their younger brother J&ya or Jayana into his service 
(Y* 36 f.) and appointed Mm general (v. 38). J&ya had, on a previous occasion, defeated a 
certain VaJiigodlilimsgliaratta (Y. 41). 

The immediate object of the inscription is to record that the general J&ya btult at IMpa 
a temple of Siva, which he called Ganap&svara or Qranapatisvara in honour of his patron, ki^gf 
Ganapati (v. 44 f.), and tie name of which survives to the present day in the hamlet of 
G-axiapfisvaram* The date of the consecration of the temple was the tithi of Q-aurl in the bright 
fortnight of Vaisakiia of the S&ka year 1153, which corresponded to tlie cyclic year Khara 
(v. 45), I am obliged to Mr, DiksMt for the following remarks on this date : 

" The goddess Ganii is supposed to have "been born on the fonrth tithi of Jyaishtha, but is 
considered as the regent of the third tithi. Consequently, the " tifhi of G^nrf " might bemea ( nt 
for the third or fourth tithi. Observances in honour of G-anr! are enjoined on both the third 
and the fourth tithi of some of the twelve months. One of these observances commences on 
tie Ctaitra Sukla tritiyd and ends on the Yaigakha uUa trirtyd. This tiiihi ended in Saka- 
Samvat 1153 expired, the Khara samvatsara, on Monday, th.0 7th. April, A*D, 1281^ at 11 gK> 
IQp., and Vaisakha 4uO& chaturtht ended on Tuesday, the 8th April, at 7 gh. 13 p. Ujjain 

The TelGgu portion of the inscription (lines 121 to 135) s records that certain dues had to be 

by every boat touching at K"angega4da to the temple of G-anapatisvara at Bivi, 3 and 
that Jtyapa-lfyaS:a (i.e. J&ya or Jayana of the Sanskrit portion) assigned the revenue 
of a number of Tillages to the same temple, and granted twenty-five eows> the milk of which 
to fee used for supplying ghee to a perpetual lamp. 

A. Wett Face. 


* See I**. Art. Vol. XXL p. 199 f 

^-l Telugu terms. 
refer to the village of Talaga^Dm. 
*e derived from dtvi, which is 
P- S 2 . <>te 2). 

No. 15.] 




stand* at the beginning of the wfc to*. 
stands at the beginning of the next line. 

at the beginning of 





i [l*] 

frrot *ofw 


fwrtrr it 

B. South Face. 

^^ at * ^SiBniag of the next line 


65 : i>*] 



70 yr^chKT? i s? r * n 





77 *f^^hi>3Wr ^[^]<iaiM*liiwn [i*] 

78 ej^i^Jl^r '^c^rd VR^TWT: 





86 wr: n 



90 <<rfU<cHt^liM<dtHltl<dKgN** 


92 g- wr: n 




The anu&v&rm stands at the beginning o the nest line. 


S" The annsvdr& stands at the beginning of the nest li 


. East Face. 














tt !>**] 


i fsPWfa *ifw* 

1 H 



rft f%*nf?f I 

u [s*] 


[Vor.. HI. 

1 Read 

Craimpesvamtn Inscription of GanapatL 



r~ : .'. ; : > ; j-r- ; 3^\::v i ^^ : :c,Vv:-i^;.^^^:^>^'>^^;i : ^^' V; ;VCl/^ ;; '-^ 















H(ft|<n4i*i3<K# trr^ 



8 I 



(Verse I.) Let Mm bestow prosperity upon you* the bcmr-gtapoi of Proper: ty 

, who, in order to carry with ease on (Ms) tusk the Earth which ircpeeptiWy 

quickly raised from the ocean, grew (o such an Ms 

with difficulty into the aggregate of (att) the worlds, Before she the 

(Mm) with words appropriate for the request to pla (far) in her ! 

(V. 2,) Victorious is the sicHe of the moon on the head of (&) 

purifies the worlds by (*fc) rays, consisting of masses of nectar, (awl) 

water-spout, attached to a glittering golden vessel, 4he matted hair ctf 
tibie cool and cleas* water of the Gang& (r*Ver). 

(V. 3.) Let Mm protect you, the elephant-faced <<3-a^Sa)* the 
(temple*) resemble lovely blue water-lilies near a great mountain torrent! 

(V. 4.) There is on earth a mighty (a,n&) lovely city, called Anmakop4 a tibe of 

the Andhra country (and) *he family capital of the Mngs who sprang nw of 


(V. 5.) In this (<?%) resided Mug Prola, protected the by the of 

his arms, O*<2) in the fire of whose valour hostile kings from aU were life) 

(V/6 ) By Mm some Hugs were cut up witib, the sworii, as 2Iantia.Grurdfi: j 
were deprived of (tfWr) elephants and horses on the battle-field, as were 

driven away far from the battle, as GdvindarDandesa ; {and) others were in 

their respective dominions, as king CTidddiiaya* _ _ ___ 



iV 7) TMs king Prdla h-ad two sons by Muppalad8vi s the two renowned princes 
and Hahftd3va (^o prm?e$) Horn to the rutting elephants (which were) hostile Icings, 
(V 8 ) In f absence (Ma) father, 1 the earth was ruled -by king Rudra, the only hero 
in lie world, lie mighty forest-fire of whose valour burnt the crowd of rival Hogs, as a 3Ugk 
(V. 9.) The towns wMch he had rased to the ground, were known (only) by the quarters * 
(he) founded in &e city of drangallu under their respective names, and peopled with 
their respeotiTe inhabitants ; while in these same towns, which had been made his cram, (fa) 
toils celebrated temples, named Srl-Biadresv&ra, and settled fresh Inhabitants. 

IT* 10.) As a father (Us) children, this king made (his) subjects prosper hy noiuwlung, 
71-dierin^, punisMBg, protecting (and) fondling (them). 

(V. 11.) After king Budra had gone to heaven, the earth was cherished l*y king 

the rising son of whose valour extinguished the light of (other) kings, as of stars. 
Or. 12.) To this great king M&h&dSva was born by BayyambiLka the brilliaxit lord 
fie light of (Ms) race, whose hands were able to bear the whole (burden*) of the 

(V* 13.) In the points of the horizon are spreading the moon-white creepers of fame, 

which have grown on the battle-fields that were flooded with the showers of the rutting- juice, 

Mpping from the temples of Ms furious lordly elephants ; repeatedly ploughed by t3a.e hard 

of galloping tall steeds ; (and) covered 3 with the seed of masses of pearls, 

the of the elephants of (his) enemies. 

(V* 14.) Besplendent is he whose vast kingdom grows day by day, as he is 

to by aH the Hugs of the races of the Moon and of the Sun, either subdued "by his 

arms or subdued by others, (and) taking refnge (with Mm). 

(V. 15.) The beloved servant of this king (3-anapati is the glorious general Jfiya* His 
is described in the following (verses) : 

(Va 16.) In this Kali (age) was produced from the renowned race of Ayya tlie vsalorous 

BMmast wlao chastised those enemies who were hard to be managed, (and) easily iongtrfc those 
hard to be OYercome. 4 

(V. 17.) This BMma s who equalled Dhanada (Kuv&ra), caused the residence of (Aw) 

the Tillage named Eroyyum in the country of Velanandu, the ornament of tibe earth, 

to equal (EnTera'a city) AlakS. in wealth* 

4 V. IS.) To Mm were "born by Bscliymbifca three (son*), named' Jilla, XTtedya^gLa* and 
% whom, as by the (three) constituents of (his) power, 5 king Ch.6di overcame <>Z2 Aw) 

on earth. 

jlT^ 19.) Having conquered K^nnaradeTa in battle, Jiila* the strength of wlnoee arms 
was ' nlliaut, reeelTedfro- his lord the dignity of general, along with a palanquin, a parasol, and 

jfcU other emblems, 

(V, 20 > His younger brother was who was always deroted to the inteirosis of 

.ord, (ami) who converted all the enemies of king Oliddi into serTaBts by policy and 

^ i <> , Id* iatler*s deatb. 

IS, ^ST^I -ea-ing of r^tW ; B * a garden.^ 
- * A ' tG bearmtnat5 s al blunder for . 

to the tfofeft&frofe, according to wUeh Bn%msaim and Dwrjddliaii& were t)j 

at a kn are mtoM* and 


,* e C0mma ? i of CM*) lord, he converted tibis 3Dvipfl, which Dhawd* 

CKujera) had formerly created at th e jrmcfeion of the Kriahnavtol (ifa. Kridmft 
the aalt.sea,i afto a fortes whicfc was iard to be eate^^emii (f) ptaZt to 


(V. 22.) He converted Dvipa, which had been previously by 

a city winch was fit for the residence of a Hag, as it with rrt^io- 

houses, palaces, towers, and lofty mmpa^fcs ; as its site wm ^ ^::;n ........ v - 

teemed wit*. various flowers and fruits ; ( a d) M its riitterfre fields of and ESCT-C^ 

were inundated by the water of bximfol tanks in the 

, 23.) H coBstracted in this Dvipa the tank and the 

temple, (6erf& of which were called) after the of and the 

was oalleS) after the name of (&&) f ather. 

, 24.) He biiilt in the same (flaee) of and of 

of BanduTad&ri (ovuZ) of MaMk&lt. * 

(V. 25.) FurSier, to constructed in the Vaaatern: the 

tank, (on<Z) a lovely temple of Siva^ caEed o/ ^^ (Aw>, 

26.) The l<>rd, who was pleased valour, to this tht- 

loi*dsMp over Dripa and the mastership of the Gtontu villages (jmllt). 

(V. 27,) Knowing (Mm to be) a conqueror of wealth a hero, to 

(%&) country. Mug C&ddi also appointed the 

(V. 28-) To this renowned Wfee&yana ^rere "bom by four ^^I^JU^A M 

the sun, Ctiddif Bh.lm.% the renowned ginn ar431iddi g by 

(V. 29.) These four excellent warriors the ( four) m are the ef 

BrMmianas (JBAdofoa), (Just as the oceans are cf iJm ; 

expedients of the king a as they accomplisli {Mi) objects; the 

arms of (Vishnu) tibte enemy of Mnra s aa tkey einbr orfcune. 

30*) (These) four chiefs of warrio3rs procured "bj the strength of the 

victory over the four quarters to the Mug wto was the lord of the ChSda 

(V. 31.) As 6rl (t^ the wife) of Visim^Gir (Saraavatt) of the (BsairsfV 

tibie mouutaindan.gliter (Parvail) of Sssiiblra. CSiva) f of K&ms, of the 

of the gods, Ushft of the Sun 9 (and) Bdldbpl of -ike Mcwn f ifce of tie Tirt-:r^ !tr? 

fhe glorious Mima-Cliodi^ was Damfim"M^ -wlno fulfilled ite of ?:i r^!:?rr!t 2, the 

cselestial cow* 

(V. 32.) This couple s tad two daughters* 
called P^tfrva* Jaya, and irfiraya?ia 

(V. 33.) Though the middlemost of tie is 

(o/ *Aew) in ahUitf, just as (Arjuna) tibe middlemost of Hie 

(V. 34.) At this time the ornament of prinees 9 king 

the lords of ChA]a Kalinga, Svana, grmt Mid the 

between the Southern ocean and the mountain, lie whole eoantry of 

together with Bvlpa^ subject to Mmself* 

fV 35-) The Mug carried to -Ms ciiy a of womeas fine 

elephants and horses, and various of precious lie had fer,g% t this 

country of 

Compare p. 82, note & ^ inm-i mo 


(T 36) Then Hug Qanapati took to wife that Wfimma and PSrama, whose beauty, 
and gmca were unrivalled in the toe worlds, 

fT 87) The Hug welcomed and took into his service their younger brother, the 
Jlyaaa, who, in spite of' his yauth, commanded' respect on account of the great 
wisdom, cleverness, firmness, profundity and bravery, indicated by (to*) face, 

(T, 38.) Then, pleased by (his} deeds, the king joyfully granted to this J&y**na 
aigaitj'of a general (and} of a commander of the elephant- troop, along with a pal 
a parasol* aad other emblems* 

(T. 390 Having been appointed general by his lord, surrounded by wise men, 
full of 'power, young Jftya, the slayer of hostile warriors, resembles (the god) Kum&ra, who 
lias been appointed general by (Indra) the lord of the gods, is surrounded by gods, (and") beaars 
a spear, 

(V. 40.) The edge of his sword {is) the only messenger, (announcing) to powerful 
enemies (thrir approaching} union with celestial nymphs ; (and) his policy (is) the messenger, 
(aniMnneing) to Ms. beloved (master) the union with the fortunes of other kings. 

(V. 41,) He who was distinguished by the name Vadrigddliiimagliaratta^ 1 formerly 
became a (mere) mouthful for the point of his (ma* J&ya's) sword, that was about to devour a*ll 
the brave enemies in battles. 

(V. 42.) He is ashamed at the praise of (his) liberality, which meets (hia) ears s ( tftjn&n.<7>, it 
seeias s : "What are my gifts (worth), (if) a single lord of the twice-born (vis. the Moots) g^*B 
entirely emaciated in every (dark) fortnight; (if) a single scholar (w. the planet Mercury)* 
having lost most of his wealth (or light) 9 always approaches (another) wealthy man (vi&. tlie 
SEB) i (&nd if) a single poet (viz. the planet Venus), being bewildered, does not rise for some 

(V. 43.) He possesses of&pring in the shape of the following seven (acts) which, C&#) 
has duly fulfilled : (The procreation of) a son, the composition (of a paem) 9 (the hoa<rd%#&ff ojf) 
a treasure, (the planting of) a grove, the marriage (of a girl to a Srdhmana)^ (the 
of) a temple^ and (llie instruction of) a tank, 3 

(V. 44.) In this Bvlpa, founded by his grandfather Wte&yana* 4 this general 
tirsself caused to be built, out of true derotion, this lofty (and) substantial temple, equal to tine 
Kai!Ji8& mountain, of Mahadeva, who has the shape of a linga (and") ia called Gaa&plSSva& 
alter the name of king C^anapatL 

(V. 45.) In the Sfika (year) measured by the qualities (3), the arrows (5), and tibe 
(ll)/ (*A 1153), in the (cyclic) year Khaza in the bright {fortnight*) of M 

cm the of <Jaurt, JSya performed the consecration of this blessed OafltapatlSvara 

J5* Tehtgw Portion. 

121.) To the god Mah&ddra of the QanapatJSvara (temple) at TOvi the 
of the eighteen districts (mshaya) (on) both {sides of the B^ishfli river) gaire 
() revenue a large fanam (pMnna) on (every) boa*. 

cf Jijlt g * 8teae to tke whe&t < which was > the y-* ^*^ * ^ava been a smmame of the first 

SlT*"* 1 rea80n f J * 3fa '* *** asls . amed at tbe pmise of Ws iib **^y ie, of course, Ms great modesty 
Ar:s-Vtea ^des^ ^fe p^ S *Botel ^ Sprll3g t****^ 1 * or ^amtaii) to which verse 9 of the Vanapalli platea of 

* See TOTW 21 f 

^rr, "*T^^ tl * ed<fcCr ^* Because it is symonymoas with Budra* Comimre Siva-iatawllOO Iktf 
p, 2102, note 48. wi**&&w ew,v tufciiim4.j.uu ^faa. 

i ^tp : s sr.stber name of the lunar mcmtli of 


(L. 124.) For the merit of Ganapatida-MaMr&ja s JyaparHyaks granted 
following) shares (vritti) : Three puffi l in Enumfearuta. Three pu$ti in Pedda-Madd&li 
Two fut& in Kuru-MaddMi. Two putti In Ayaaampft^gi. Two jw# in Mentalakodiiru. 
Three puftft In Erfinikonda* Two -pt^" in Ciiikulapalii. Two pnfti in Kauaspparnta* *Two 
puffi in PaficliiirabaTiite. Twopufti in Ofaevendnu Four #2*^ in Bomepa^di* Two 


(L. 132.) In (W*e district of) OdapSngulu (e) granted (the following) land : Two putti 
in KautepallL Two jpttft** (*n) Vreftkati. 

(L. 134.) For a perpetual lamp JyaparM"ayaka granted twentyfiye cows, 


avail myself of this opportunity for correcting a mistake in my edition of the 
inscription of Ganapati. In line 11 of this inscription (Ind. Ant. ToL XXI. 
p. 201), write ^^HidW^Wt^W^r^cK: as one word, and add a footnote : * 6 Bead 

In the translation of verse 15 {ibid. p. 202), read : " who was the best of the smooth gems of the 
T&mraparni (which was his mother) Vfiohfimbfi." That VS,ch&mM was the mother of Ganapati's 
minister SftmantarBlidja, and that DocM, who is referred to in verses 15 to 17 of the fik&mra* 
natha inscription, was his father, follows from the subjoined short Grantha inscription 2 on a 
stone in front of the ManikantMsvara shrine at SSlahasti in the North Arcot district. 


-^ [H] 





13 ^ 

14 tl 


7 4t 

Hail ! Prosperity ! 

He whose father was the glorious minister DdeMs the ornament of the kingdom of ting 
Gaimpati 5 (whose) mother (w$) Vfich,mba s the gem among women ; (and whose favourite) 
deity (was) S6nianatha (Siva), that glorious S&maatOrBlidJB* who belonged to the renowned 

ffotra of the K&syapas* the minister of king caused daily offerings to be established 

in the city of the blessed 

1 According to Brown's Tslugu Dictionary * p. 623* the puffiiB the Indian ton- weight, equal tofciveaty 

IB Tamil). ** The <pu$ti and its fractions also denote the extent of land that produces thia 
of grain." 

s No. 201 of 189S in my ^wwtiaZ Report for 1892-93* 

s From two inked estampages, prepared by nsy Eirst AiiMtant^ Mr* VeakayjE* 

* Bead ^. 

s This is the name of the large Salva temple at K&Iahasti, which contains the so-called Air-Liaga 

INDICA. [Vol.. III. 

BT E. HuiaTzsCHj PH.D. 

A*n abridged English translation of this Inscription based on a copy from the collection 

of Colonel Colin Mackenzie, 1 was published by Mr a Gordon Mackenzie in the Manual of the 

District, p* 13 f. The original is engraved on four faces of a pillar in the village of 

Yersniadtele. in the Gnnt&r talnka. of the Kistna district** The pillar is now lying 1 in tlie 

of Yeniigdpala. Before its removal to this place of comparative safety* tie villagers 

it for grinding ehtmnam on it. This objectionable practice lias led to the destruction 

of a considerable portion of the inscription. Th first and second faces, which. Tbear an 

insertion in the Telngu alphabet and the Sanskrit langtiaga, are somewhat worn* but still 

Of the third face, however, which, as the published vevsion of Colonel Maoken2sie's 

sii0ws t formerly contained the first half of a long passage in the Telugu alphabet and 

only the first seven lines are now visible* while tfaa remaining lines are worn sraootlij 

the exception of one, two, or three letters at the beginning* aiad at the encl, of esaelx line* 

The fourth ace 3 which contains the end of the Telugn portion^ and three other Telngu 

irs^rlpticns o slightly later dat% is again in tolerably good preservation. . The last of tii 

Telugu inscriptions on the fourth face is continued at the bottom of the first face* wObleli liad 

left blank by the engraver of the first inscription. Finally ? a short TelBgu insoriptiou, 

irhich looks quite recenfcj but has been mistaken for a portion of the first insc 

engraved at the bottom of tie second, face* 

Besides the two later additions on their lowermost portions, the first and second 
of the bear, as stated above, an inscription in the Telugu alphabet and the 

It consists of twenty-five verses, the first two of which are addressed to Gajct^Sa and the 

Bott-=^m^Hc!i of Yiskpu Verse 3 refers to the race of the KSkatiSaa, or, as they a,re more 

Kakatiyas. As in the Ganap^Svaram inscription (ante, p. 82), the list of kings 

with (v. 4). His son MSdlisva (v, 5) must be identical with Mah&dftva, wlao was 

ike son of and younger brother of Badna according to the fikamranatha and Gaztap&g varam 

rrsrrfrt:?. Thig MMhava is stated to have lost his life" in battle (v. 5). His scm was 

(T. 6) or Ganapa (w a 7, 15, 23), whose daughter was Ctonapteifea (w. 8, 211 or 

(YT. 9, 15, 25). " 

Versetf 10 to 14 describe a dynasty of local chiefs, who ruled over the district of 

(v. 11) aM resided at Srl-DMnsrankapiiTa (vv 9 10, 17, 21), *\. Amaravati in 
the -.tfvu^sEe Mukl of the Kistzia district These are: K6ta (T, 10 f.), who gave away 
Ecwnty a^raSani* on the southern bank of the V0m&* ( TB 12)s Ms EQR Rudm (v- 13) J 

a 7 T f f a ^" M) V T tMs B ^ th P rincesB was 

marriage by ter faflier Qa^apa (T. 15). 

, VoL I. p. 310 f B 

*y to two last lines on p e J.4t of tli0 JBCt&fy&ez .-.. 

(see p. 95 below), this district appeara*"-^ 
' Kylsbn^ river, 

r - ,^,. -^ ,^ ^^^sEataor UMnm^^lr. - Q ^"^P* 1008 (^WcAr. Z). Jf. ff. Vol. XXX VII. 
^ ), oE fca Aaarirai ^^^ataka u a Sana^t mscriptlon <^^^^ w Z M ^>^^ "Foi L 

1 In his JKjrf^ u/ Anfwuiti&^ Vol. T. ^ tu. nr- e ^_^. 

cMef oa a 



In the subjoined pedigree of the dynasty, I have added the new details, 

supplied by the GanapesYaram and Tenamadala inscriptions, to the list which I bad 

published 1 

1* Betma* 

2. Frdla or Pr6$a, 

snrsamed Jagatilc&aarln, 

married Muppamad&vi or Jtfuppalad&vt. 

? ^? d ?\ /(A 4 e Mab&d&va or M&dhava, 

marred Bidnt& (P). man-ted BayyfcnKkft. 

(Sakal084.) * 

5, Gauapati or Gaiiap% 

married N&mma and P6rama. 

(Saka 1153 and 1172.) 

6aiiap&mb4 or Ganap&mbildl, 
married Bfca, 

After fihe death of B&ta (v. 16), Ms widow devoted herself to pious works. She placed 
golden pinnacles on the shrine of Amaafdsva^ra at 3rf-DMny&iikapura (Amar&vati) and built 
"in this city/* *.. probably at Yenauaadala, a temple of Siva, which she called Btfcgsvsra 

after her deceased husband (w. 17 to 19), and to which she allotted the revenue of the 
village of BenadaTl (v. 20), At Sri-DhanyaAkapura (v. 21), she built another temple of 
Siva, whfeh she called <^ap6svam after her father, king Ganapa (v* 23), and granted to 
this temple the village of CMntapMu (v. 24). Of the three temples which are mentioned 
in connection with Gaoap&mb&, the first, Amarsvara, still exists at Amar&vatl 2 The second, 
B6tgvara 9 cannot now be traced at Yenamadala* I do not know if the third, GanapSSvara, 
still exists at Amar&vati, 

As regards, the Telugn inscription on the pillar, the first of them, which occupies 
parts of the third and the fourth faces/ is a continuation of the Sanskrit inscription on 
the two preceding faces. This follows from the contents of the preserved portion on 
the fourth face, and from the abridged English translation of the third face in the Kistna 
Manual. At the top of the mutilated third face, some of the titles of the queen are 
still preserved. The only remarkable on among these titles, which the queen appears 
to have inherited from her deceased husband Bta and Ms ancestors, and are 

accordingly in the masculine gender, is : 8rimat-Trinayana*PalUm^ 

vQ{?y&ty&^&&%-da1t8lw ; " the lord of a district of six thousand 

(villages) on the southern (bank) of the river obtained through the 

favour* of the glorious Tri^ayanarallaVa, w The abridged translation supplies the date 

the sa&vatwra, wMch is now lost In the original, but wMch there 

Is no reason to distrust, as fie cyclic year Saumya actually corresponds to the year 1172 

(A.D. 1249-50). It follows from this date that Gana,p&mb& erected the pillar during the 

lifetime of her father Gautapati, whose inscription in the :kftmxanftfha temple afe 

is dated on he 8th Jane, A.D, 1249, and who appears to have in Saka-Samvat 118X 4 On 

the fourth face wo are told, IB Telngu, that, "having set up the god (the queen) 

granted, in order to procure prosperity to her father, 

for the requirements {angarangabhoga) of that god, for as long as the moon and the SUB 
endure, the Tillage of Cftintapalli." The insertion of ends with a lists of the 

/**. ^ Vol. XXL p. 107. Mr. BeweflM ZM, of 4M&tte, Voi L p. 6S f . 

toad &adiia-Xri*&v<i> 4 In s 9 ^^ Vole XXI- ^ * Iffl 

06 vo. m. 

servants of the temple of Ganap^Fara f and of the extent of the stares of the Yillag-e 

were allotted to each of them, ChimtapalH is evidently another form, of ChiatapSdu, the 

Tillage whicii was granted to the G&smp&ivam temple according to Terse 24 of the Sanskrit 

portion. It may be identified with the modem CMatapaUe in the Sattenapaile tiluM, 1 which 
is about 16 miles distant to the W.J5T.-W. from AmarHvati, the residence of GanapatnM s and 
which accordingly may have been included in her dominions. 

The four remaining Tolmgu inscriptions which the pillar contains^ are the following : 

A* On tJie fourth face. 

Kb* 1. An undated grant of 25 cows by K6tadd] varajn* The milk of these cows was to 
be used for the preparation of ghee for a lamp in the temple of Bdtdsvaara, 

No. 2* A grant of a herd of sheep for a lamp in the temple of Betd^vam, Date: 
SakaYarsha 1192 [expired] , the PramSda mmvatsara,, Pnshya Buddha 13, Friday, 

B. On the fourth and first faces. 

3. -A grant of 2[5] Buffalo-cows to the temple of BStSsvara. Date : Sakavarsha 
11[9]6 [ezpired] s the Bhava mmvatsara,} Asvaynja ^IddhaJ 1. 

O. On the second face. 

4* An undated, apparently recent inscription, which records that in Enumancial&~ 
stfaala (i.e, ihe village of Tenamadala) and in ihe sixty villages connected with 
Banroandala, temples and BrShmanas are exempt from taxes (sunkfya). 

The last of these fonr inscriptions supplies an earlier form of the modern name 
Tenamadala ; and ihe three former ones, whadh record gifts to the local Saiva temple of BetSsvaara, 
suggest that this temple originally contained the pillar on which they and the inscription of 
Ganap&mM are engraved* As previously remarked, the B&tegvara temple, which was founded 
by Ga^ap&mM, cannot at present be traced in the vfllage of Tenamadala. Another possibility 
remains, e&. that the words "in this city** in verse 17 refer to the preceding word rf- 
DMny&okapTtra. In this case the temple of BStSsvara would have to be looked for at 
Amarivati ; and it would have ta be ass-omed tihat the pillar was removed from Amaravat! to 
Tenamadala at any time between the date of the Telngu inscription No. 3, and the date of the 
modern Telugu inscription Mb. 4. As, however, it is extremely unlikely that anybody should 
have conceived the -idea of transporting a heavy stone piilar all the way from Amaravati 
to Tenamadala, 1 prefer to adopt the previous alternative, vfa. that the temple of B&tesvara* 
originally contained the pillar, was located at Tenamadala* 


A. Mrst Face* 

If l[l*] 

1 Mr. SewefFs Z*i$f$ of Antiquities Voi I. p. 64. TEere is another village of the same mm m tlie Falodd 

; Hid. p. 56. 
* From inked 

No, 16.] 





H [**] 



r; i 

2^*rrfsrWft^^-' /A -^EXjC^.^^t^-. 



| ^^ 



f (n) 




1 Ead 

^ The &&usv4rm stands at tlie beginning of th nest line* 

Bead ^TOKf :. s Bead 

Bead ^wfwcf; T Bead 






4$ [*]<! i q, i 

41 [l]WT 



: !>*] 

i Perhaps the actoa! reading of the ordinal 





-B. Second Face. 



76 TSf (l) 

77 cui^NUM ^ *irwrr 


80 [wan-*] 



84 [f%>m^ift (0 



88 fWr^fttf (i) 


r . * Read *T3l 

Thie 8 ev7n syllables were inserted by the engraver through mistake; they follow again in their proper pl* 
in line 82 f . 

* Bead ''Brt^TJlil' 8 Bad i<& 

o 2 


[Vox.. III. 

-*\9si suftm: i 




93 w 

94 rf tt 



97 m wm 


9^ 14 8W; I 

100 [^t] 






Hail ! Hail ! 

(Verse 1.) Worship ye incessantly the snn (which dispels) the darkness of obstacles, the 
Messed Ganesa, who is praised by the hosts of celestials, pleased by the attainment of the 
objects of (jtheir) desires (through his favour) I 

(V. 2.) Victorious is the staff-like tusk of Vishnu, who disported himself in the shape 
of u boar, (placed) 021 which (tusk) the Earth resembled a parasol, with the golden mountain 
(H&ra) as its top* 

(V. 3.) Hail ! Renowned in the world is the race of the glorious EBkatisas* the kings 
born in which are well trained in the protection of the earth* 

(V* 4.) In this (race) was (born) Prolag the foremost among Mugs, whose great valour 
was widely known, who destroyed the crowd of (his) enemies in soldierlike fights^ 1 (on (2) who 
was distinguished by the true science of policy* Even now, the hot-rayed stsu is moving 
on the sky as though it were a fragment of the brilliant lustre of Ms great, far-famed and 
terrible power. 

(V. 5*) To this favourite of the earth (HaMvallabha) was born a mountain of virtues 
(and) resort of the fortunes of heroes, king MSdliSTB* whose great snd spotless fame was 
celebrated in the world. Having fallen asleep in a great battle on the two temples of a female 
elephant, this foremost among warriors awoke on the two breasts of a distinguished nymph 
of heaven. 2 

(V. 6.) His son was king CSa^iapati* the ornament of the three worlds and) resting- 
place of wisdom, who was an adherent of Non -duality (Advaitavddin) with respect to valour; s 
who was fierce in (his) commands, which (he) caused to dance on the crowns of proud crest- 
jewels among 1 princes ; who had obtained great prosperity through the favour of (Siva) the lord 
of P&rvatt; (and) who supported all men with the wealth of the (whole) world, (which JIG had) 

(V, 7.) The foremost among kings (is) that ornament of princes* the glorious to- 

whose fame all the regions are attendants 5 the oceans,* tanks for sporting ; (Monnf) M6rm s 
a pleasure hill ; (Indra's garden) Nandana* a splendid park ; yonder disc of the moon* a 
looking-glass ; and the interval between heaven and earth^ a palace. 

(V. 8.) To this profound king, who resembled the milk-ocean/ WBS bom 
like another IJakshml incarnate* 

1 The author appears to have formed the word jparajxms on the basis of pariparin^ & aa enemy/ which w 
referred to by P&nini,, v. 2, 80. 

1 .* h was killed in battle. 

s e. lie was eseinsiveiy devoted fco fighting, just as the V&d&nfcia denle tbe existence of asytMng: beside 
the Brahman. 

4 Ga$apamba*s counterpart* the goddess lakahmi I believed to have risen from the onlk-oaean. 


IT. 9.) Do all pnre (and) excellent virtues, (me.) praiseworthy wisdom -wiiich springs 
from a wealth of intelligence, loftiness of grace, delight in the worship of good, men, perfect 
Tcodwty, aad ferrcnfc devotion to Sambhu (Siva), highly prosper (because they are) innate in 
the person of this Ganapambik, or (because they have) met (in it) by nratnal appointment!' 

(V. 10.) There was a 3dng, called KSttarSja, the lord of Sri-DhanyafWfcairar, ike lord 
of & vaole province (manfala), (and) the ornament of kings. 

T- 11.) Lord of tbe district (vishaya) of KonnatavMi (was) the glor-ious Kdtarfija, 
ho destroyed the crowd of (his) enemies, (and) whose righteousness, which was fa-tned in the 
taree worlds, is even now praised by all in troops. 

On the southern bank of the Vernft, this incarnation of charity conferred on 
i (and) excellent agrahdras. 

n Budrar& J a ' tlft goddess of whose fazae, tHon^h pure, 

,- wonder .'-fondled by the regents of the points of the horizon. 

from kin S ^dr ,s tHe sun from 
rt n Plendonr; ( T* W Ax) all the 


sad i&Tit 


U^-_ ... 6 mm ^r rt * +1.. v_.... , , , - ^ 

joyful*; and, having bnill in^L ^ \ *** bnlliant Iord .-A^ 
Ae mae king B6ta, (,*) procured L?j7lt 7 * temple of the lord C^i^* 
d.ce sa th7wo^ f S 4 '^^ ( ^ tusband ^festival of aneverlaati 

1 * ****j HibfiniF proYiiiAfl 4-1 i_ ^^ ^*yft35jKpxij^ * -T __ u 

LW :^ ) 1 1^^'^^W4i2^ 11 * ^'^ ^ -ppor*i (4f 



(T. 24.) To this (temple of) Sambhu, (caZZeeZ) GanapSSa, tbe great qneen granted for 
(its) requirements the village named Chintapadu. 

(V. 25.) She whose hands are exclusively engaged in worshipping Hara (Siva), whose 
eyes and ears are always attached to the festivals and excellent concerts which (ehe) closes t0 
be performed daily (in honour) of Sambhu, who thus joyfully passes (her) days though standing 
(at the head} of a great kingdom, (and who -is'), therefore, verily (identical tcithj the 
daughter, who ia able to praise that Ganapambik& (appropriately} ? 



This record is now brought to notice for the first time. I edit it from excellent 
ink-impressions, made by Dr. Fleet from the original plates, which belong to Tifkam Eai T&tyi 
K&sar Set, a resident of the well-known Paithfin, the ancient Pratishthana, on the GodAvarS, 
in the Nizam's DominionB, lat. 19 29' N., long. 75 28' E. 

The plates are three in number, each measuring from 13^* to 13" long, by from 8* to 81" 
broad at the ends, and somewhat less in the middle. The edges of them were fashioned 
thicker, so as to serve as rims to protect the writing ; and the inscription is mostly in a state of 
excellent preservation. But the surface of the second side of plate ii. was not made properly 
smooth for engraving, as the other surfaces were. The result is a good deal of confusion, caused 
by numerous markings in the copper itself. And the difficulty of dealing with this part of the 
inscription is enhanced by the fact that, in the lower lines of this plate and in ihe first line of 
plate iii., the record has been seriously tempered with, for the purpose of reducing the 
number of grantees from seven to four. The ring on which the plates are strung is circular, 
about JJ' thick and 3* in diameter. It had not been cut when the grant came into Dr. Fleet's 
hands. The seal (see the Plate at page 104), into the socket of which the ring is soldered, 
is roughly circular, about If" in diameter. In, relief on a countersunk surface, it has a 
representation, of Garuda, squatting, and facing fnll-front ; his hands are joined, palm to palm, 
on the chest, and are turned upwards ; his feet are joined sole to sole, and are turned 
downwards ; and the marks at each side denote his wings. The seal is practically identical 
with the seals of the Samangad grant of Dantidurga (Ind. Ant. Vol. XL p. 112, Plate), and 
of the Old-Kanarese grant of Govinda III. (ibid, p. 126, Plate). But it is a much better 
specimen, and shows the details far more clearly. Below the Garuda there is a floral 
device, apparently an expanded water-lily; he is probably supposed to be seated on it. 
The weight of the three plates is 357* tolas, and of the ring and seal, 55i ; total, 413 tolas. 
The engraving is good, bold, and fairly deep; but, the plates being substantial, the letters do 
not show through on the reverse eides. The interiors of them show, as usual, marks of the 
working of tne engraver's tool. The characters are Nagar!. Here and there they are 
drawn rather carelessly, so that, especially in the case of proper names, it is not always possible 
to say what exactly may be intended. In general, the forms of the letters are the ordinary 
ones of the period to which the inscription belongs; but the sign for the conjunct ry, which 
occurs in the word Ttdryd in line 64, is -quite unusual, and is apparently a remnant of an 
earlier form of the Nagarl alphabet.* The average size of the letters is a little less than 

1 See Dr. Fleet's G*pt<* Inscriptions, p. 202. 


i" The language is Sanskrit. Down to the middle of line 42 the inscription is in verse, and 
:...'" :-: \'"r - and imprecatory verses occur in lines 68-73 ; the rest is in prose. Tli number 
: <r-=jji at the beginning is 28. Of these, verses 1-19 occur in the same order, but wiifo some 
. ar/v:.- reidiags and partly damaged, in the Kavi grant of Govinda IV. (Ind* dLy*. Vol. V 
}. 14,";, which also contains verse 26, beginning with rakshatd yena in line 39 of *Be present 
- :p-r,=. and verse 23, beginning with tn=dam in line 41. Of the remaining- sevoai verses, 
.-.-MM 23-5, faegizsing with ia*y=fay=zbMdin line 35, are found, in a less correct fojraa., in the 
h'. : -I-,:.--: graafe O f Krishna II. (Up. Ind. Vol. I. p. 54). Accordingly, the verses which 
u*~ p iiiar to this Ascription are only four, <*. verses 20-22, beginning with rfr-.K2ftio&^>att 
*,. i; ne 3J, and rase 27, beginning with afraw<Jr<fc in line 40. As regards lexicography 
m ^aiaiaaT, attention may be drawn to the word pr&tirdjya, which in line 31 is need as a 
B;a.-<"ijj:e nomi, evidently in the sense of prdtirdja, 'a hostile king,' and to the redundant suffix 

- "' ^"^^'^^ ^ line 67 ' as wel1 as ** tlie ordinary yathd s amva(ba)dhyamdna.ka in line 
; - Jie ortS ^ap hr calls for few remarks. The letter 6 is throughout denoted Bjr tfco sign 
;; y . dental smiant i3 occasionally employed instead of the palatal, *.,.**,* toe 34, 

" ' 

8y i, able in hmaWH ^^ i ine 9, 

theemployaent of the gTxti^l a S a 

be a ^ raAa to d -^ *Se oliBio^ of a 
<*<%*<**** ** w**,Wa inline 57, 
, and ddnoytf (?) for ^aya in Hue 73 

^ ^_ ._.. ----- _ metzical wrfaon the ene - - * 


same dynasty (Govindar&ja 3L ; UB 

> H was noceeta l^ln^* A* to th * c ^um s tances un 
r-^rlm^^^i 1 -!^- ^ ^ ^ ate d in line 29 

,a U '.'vr-^-fs drove awaJ'a^eirSr 117 aeeated him in a battle ofBered _, 

,-"'- -.." 6 ^ aad norther n opponents, and obtaiiTed like" whole 

" :> at ;iher ns^-vtj- 

Seals of Copper-Plate Grants. 

1. Paillum Plates of Govinda III. 

.2. Pithapuram Plates of Vira-Choda 
(Eastern Chuiukya). 

4. Udayciidiram 
of Hastimallu, 

3. Madras Museum Plates 
of Uttama-Chola. 





molted against and defeated Ms brother, even though the latter, to protect himse* 
an alhance with fangs who otherwise were hostile to the E4Bhtrakuta fe^j ' " 

The formal part of this inscription, also, does not differ 
portion of other R^htraMta grant*, It records (in 
camped Bear PratishtMna, and having bathed in i river d 
solar eclipse on the new-moon titM of the dark hL?o7^2T'- of a 

years, increased by sixteen, elapsed since theSL^J the SSSr ^** Ce ff es <* 
716), granted the village of I^ba^mika, siteated il the SSSS^L" 4 ^ 

sacrifices and other purposes. Tbe boundaries of this village were fn 1 1?^ ff 
Samatirthaka, to the south the river G6davari, to the west a Stv J 5^ T 
and to the Borth the arable land (?)* of the village of Dh6nT(?) ^eLm^ f^f**?^' 
of the g are give, in ^-47-54. Therein be nTdoVbt 

was seve^ bat, as stated before, the inscription has here been seriously i^pered with ITS 
purpose of reducing tins number to four, aad, perhaps, in order to substitute, at least in one 
case, another name for the one which was originally engraved. Of each of the grantee* the 
mscnption gave not only, the father's name and the gtora and Tedic school which he 
belonged but also the place of resxdence. Bnt, with the exception of Pratishth^a which occurs 
in line 48, the names of these places are either altogether illegible, or so i*c*i- c * that thev 
mnot be read with cadence. The gtora. mentioned are those of Vatsa, Par^ra, Vasiahtha, 
Saiteha (?), Harlta (?), .and K&iyapa; the Vedic schools those of the Y4iins or Va^asanerin* 
Bahvrichas, Taittirlyas, and Mfidhyamdinas. Lines 63-72 contain the usual afco^-'rt to 
protect the donees in the enjoyment of this grant, and quote fire of the customary beaedictive 
and imprecatory verses; and the concluding line 73 gives the names of the dtitaka and of the 
writer of the grant, both of which are so carelessly written thai I am unable to say what they are. 

The date of the inscription- the new-moon titM of the dark half of Taisakha of Saka- 
Samvat 716 corresponds, .for Saka-Samvat 716 expired and the am&nta Taisakha, to the 4th 
May, A.D. 794, when there was a total eclipse of the sun which was visiMe in India, at 3 h 
48 m. after mean snnriae. It is, so far as I know, the earliesfc date from a genuine inser^cs 
of India proper whieh shows the amdnta scheme of the lunar farinigiis : and it is ten y^rs 
earlier than the oldest date 3 which has been hitherto available for the reign of Gcrindara'a in. 

With the exception of Prai^hthana, itself, I am unable to identify any of the places 
mentioned in i/his inscription. 


First Plate. 
1 Om 5 [||*3 Sa 6 v6=vyad=VMhasa dMma yan-n&bM-kamalam kritam J Fafss=elia 

yasya kant-endu-kalayS, kam=alamkritam \\ 

2 t-timiram=udyata-mandalagr6 dhvastin=nayann=a[bhjimu.kh6 
bhupah gnchir=.vvidhur=iv=asta(pta)-diga- 

1 On Dhrnvar&ja see Dr. Fleet's Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts, p. S3, and Dr. Bhaudarkar's 
History of the De&Kan, p. 49. 

9 The word of the original (in line 56) which I have donbtf ally translated by ' arable land,' is Sola. Tie 
ordinary meaning of this word is 'plough,' and it is also used as a measure of land; hut neither of these two 
meanings would be suitable hero. 

s viz. the date of the Old-Kanarese grant of Saka-Samvat 726, which works out properly only with the 
pdrnimdnta scheme of the lunar month; Ind. A.H&. Vol. XI. p. 126, and Vol. XTII. p. 141. 

* From impressions prepared by Dr. Fleet. * Expressed by a symbol. 

Metre : Sldka (Anueh^ubh). " Metre : VaaantatilakA ; and of the nest verse. Bead =<f ois&a-. . 



4 mam sapadi yj>a] ran^stn nityaih | dasht-adhar&aa 2 d&dhatft -bLrukuidm Ialat6 

kfcadgam kalam oha hridayaS=cIia 

5 tijaxh eaa satvaih 3 H Oa(kha)4garii* kar-%ran=mukhata[;sja(s=clia)] gobhft 

manastali samamseva yasya, [(*] mabhabhave 6 nama 

Karkkaraja iti gotra-ma- 

|(f|) Tasja 

i. f ksliinipali 





- -- ----'- 

f . 

Paithan Plates of Govinda HL Saka-Samvat 716. 


SCALE '49. 



21 x&hd Tarshati sarvT-&rtti-nirvYapariam If 1 Sliappaml,tiiia-cIni(bliu)ja-jata-Ta(l>a)l- 

teha(ra)lpaia=ftjatL vijitya nit]ii(si)t-a- 

22 silaift-prah&raih | p&K[dhva]j-4vali-[fiu]bhftm=a^liir[6*]na yd M rajadliirajaparamfisTaraMiii 


23 nail s KrddMd=utkMta-kba[dga] -prasrlta-ruclil-chayair^bliasam^nam samantSld=djavas 


24 pa-samksIid(ksM)pa-daksliai]b. | sanryya-tyakd(kt)-&ri-varg*g& 

kka(kv&)pi driptY(shtv)=aiva sadyo 

25 ya-karam=agamad=yasya dorddanda-rftpam |(|1) 

26 pi krita-dvi(dvl) I dat& 

vatam yo=sau srlyo valla- 

27 bhd blioktum svargga-plaal&ni bMrl-tapasa stli4aaiSi jagim=amaram JJ Y6na 4 


28 tasalilaxh jagm6 nasira-dliiili-dliavallta-siras^ Vallabli-^kliyaiL sad=ajau |*] sa sri- 

G-ovindarajd jita-jagad-aHta-strai- 
2& m-Taidhavya-li[e]tus-tasy=asit=s It 

6 Tasy=anujali grf^BlMniTaraja-Bam^ ma- 

31 ti-Gamga-Vemgika-yutA y6 Maiaves-ada(da)yalL prajy[a]n=S,nayati sina tan=ksMtibiiriti6 

sa(ya)h pr&tirajyan7=api ( miuiky-a- 

32 bharan&cM(iii) Ii6sa(ina)-nicliayaiii yasya p[r]apady=6par svam fjr6?]na> pratt tarn 

tath=api na kritaih chfet6=nyatli4 blirataram !] S&m-ady6(dyai)- 

33 i*=api VaUablio "na [hi?] 8 yad& sa[m*]dhini vyadh&t^tam tad^ 9 [bbrli, ?]tiir=dda[tta]^- 

ran6 vijitya ta[ra]sa paschit^tato blmya[ta ?]lt u I pracliy-6dicliya-[pa3- 

34 ractyapasya 13 cha lasat-palidlivajair=[b]iu?]sliitam chilinair=:jyah paramesYaratvam= 

akhilam Bbh6(bli6) mahand 13 vibhnk I| 14 Jit-&s6(s6)s'lia- 

35 pa(ma)MpalalL Pa[ra]mda[ra] l6 -jigi[sha]yi[l*] sa sri-lOrupamo r&jS, M[tr]^ martyam 

divam gatah [H*] 16 Tasy=4py=abhud=btnivana-blia[ra]- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

36 bkritan samarthah Par[tli]-&painaii Pri[th]tL-sa[m&]na-gTin6 gonajfiah [|*] 


37 sAmir=ina-pratapah H Yas(s)=clia prabliu^cliatiira-[cli]aru[i^Ti]dara-kirbhe(^^^ 
divan-Mirapamasya pitnh sakfisat | satsv=apy=a- 

a Metre : VasantatilaM. The third akzhcvra of the first word is distinctly ppa. 2 Metre : Sragdhar&. 

3 Metre: Sard^lavikridlitft. * Metre: SragdhadL 5 Metre: Upaj&ti. 

6 Metre : SirdAlavikrldita ; and of the next Terse. This verse and the next two verses are not found in any 
of the published inscriptions of the same dynasty* 

^ This word is apparently used here in the sense of pratirttfa, * & hostile king.* 

8 The consonant of this akshara might possibly he read , hut the sign differs much from the sign for * 
employed ordinarily in this inscription. 

9 The sign of the akshara in these brackets, again, is quite peculiar, and might possibly be read chd. 
10 This aJcsbara looks rather like nta in the original. " Bead IMycusah (?). 

13 Bead ~pard**vyapdsy<* (?). Bead maUndr6 (?). J * Metre : SIdka (Annshttihh). 

a The akshara* in hrackets look rather like ^* in the^original. 

Metre; Yasantatilaki ; and of the next verse. This verse and the next two verses occur only in the 
j grant of Krishna II. ; p. Ind. Vol. I. p. 54. The text here given is more correct 

Read -vanit-. 



35 rlv'^r^-t^zajbl:^ grLr.-slireMn^i^ rajyam Jj 

! ^ . :\ ?!r :; -l::.r: -ni v ^ra-r^bh A jabiiya(sya) yasah 
3S rzr^-i^rrE.-sirr.-itlxih [I*] parigiyatfc=ntLraktaijh. g Yidy^haia*siLada7- 

Rikskaia 3 yeaa nihsesbam chatTLr^chya(mba)~ 
4G dl>EO:~^ii: | rsjyam dharmmena loMnam krit& tushtit para farldi |(IO 

i3r*fcssp[r]iy6 16ka[n=yan=adra]ksli[i]t sam&[firi]ta[h] * 
41 n& te ya[cHta?]vant6=nyaiii bhiibhriiazu 

42 tini(ii)iia-|>amraarpiLnyalL pravarttito Tra(bra)limarday6=yam || Sa clia paramabhat^U 

rrJ^:>-r^!;liirn;adbir:i;ri-pararaesTara-sr [i*j - 
4S =:^2-Dharava[tsa(Mha)]dSva-pad&nudhy&ta^ 

7-. nm elrarti-PritliYi vallablia 
44 kusali 

45 7^L'i>rfy^Idtk-adIdkfirika-ia^ vat samvidifcam 


46 sMMiia[va]li%-samaTaslt^jayastt 

siiilx-inis shmika* 

47 pu[ny6F]ya7 [Ajvila^P] Cresal- 

tatihS gri-EratishtMna-[va]sfca- 
49 tya-tat;tr^*Hyar*tonfttt^ r a, ) h nx a - 

50 ; 8 '^^^^ a c h a r i - 

. . . . j tatha ........ v a]]- 

* ?** : ll7L * Eead '***- ' Metre , Sldka (Aaosbtubh) ; and of the ttert verse 


of portion f n ' 

ect tie wWrri seme of what has been effaced s dL t K "*! , 8afficieafc t WJes ^ain of it, to 

of tbe 

; a,J In line 54 tbe word efcrf^M^ bn '^, K ^ ^ ^^^ fa the plaee f 

^.-I) w da duty for the word ,jrffti. a j whirf, orirf.n !i. f 1 ""^ (where the ori ff 5 l wri 

f U teit wLUi It ha, beea gong | t to^^^S2d^S Tf ^ A -^*%^ ^hat 
w nnoft -t ecmpletely. aTe mcioaed m double square brackets, but I have uot beeu al>I e 

" ^^ * * ort with Dainty , the, look like ffaVM or 


i n the e Bgrarfnjr , bot ifc ^ ^a, ^ ^ 

* Pct*ib-; Js wlial is engraved mst be ffl,^?i. A 

^ M 8 ^ *- ri perhap, ft. 



i i 

51 [[sta]]vya~Sait6^ t* ] ^ilia-put ra- 

| [[tatlbta . . . . ' 

52 [[8ftmtey-[HMta]-tt^ ...... -pnira- 

knmim I tath& [Ka]> 

53 [tfehcliaiirajarvfe^ 

Third Plate. 
54 [[hmacli&ri ?]] s chaturbliya 

55 kaehcblLa-d Yada ga-grftm-&bhya ntare !stnv (rn^a)r-rr.IM -gr m5 

pfirwatali Samatirthaka-gra- 

56 [majli 4 daksMnatat GodSvari nadt [a]parstah "ra(bra)ti!iap]iiri 

57 n-6palacliclilii(ksM)t6 gramah sodramgah Bapcrfiaray Fr,'_!^s?c?rMbnt 

praty &y at. sotpady am fc- 

58 Bari(vi)slitikah sadi&Bya!iiranyftd4yd^hcfcft(cli&}tabhtar rav 

ahastapraksh. [*] paniya 

59 a-cliandr-arkk-aran^ pntr 

bkogyah piinrva"-prattia-de[va]- 

60 vra(to0hma^aft^ [bi^SziiiihcliiiTaLojarft-a 


61 das-6tta^sliii Vaisfikh-va<ba)liid-i!^^s^ a- 

62 [thl] -pada 1 %iaMyaJB-Mi-]qiy-6ssa^pan-&[aa3 11 

&sl(tl)sarg > g^na pratipadito 13 ya- 

63 t6-sy^&[cli]Itaya [Yi>a(bra)]limad[& ! ]ya-sfcMty& [bh]umjat8 

karsiayatalk pratidisata(to) T& na kalscM- 
04 d=anO)=M paripam[tta]B^ kSrya tatr,=%:-^i^:^i:^>^^c^Hr=- m 


chiyiiclialam cha jiYit 
6 --=-6-nBmaBtaTaE rtipiIci(!ayi)faTyaft=clia [I J 


v^nnEmoldatat^ sa 

This line begins In the original under the ***&* rl of tfce word 2MMHjra (?) of the 
After this, and before the word tftlftAjr* about 10 or 12 o2r^tofw are almort entirely and m tb 

place the word chafurlhya has been engraved in very large letters. 

a This w*ta originally MMyafc followed, I believe, bj topfedfy*, which lias l^een 

Here, and in the following, the rules of samdM have not beea obwffvrf. ; Bte iidi to 

It is impossible to say whether the consonant* of the name in these brackets are really to 
be <^ and n ; the first of them might possibly be dk or a or ^ s and the second or ^ 

Tbia otetera resembles nam more than to la the onginaL The foilowii^ aign of p 

otetera resembles nam more than to a e ongin 

OnTwooM have expected riyriluna*. * Originally 

Read *foaf. Bead .pofaia.. a Bead 

Bead Gdddvary***- W Kead )P<W*** f . , 

Ome would hmve expected here ^^f 9 and similarly the plural 
Bend M%mr^ Bead tflte. 1? Bead 




cha t4ny*6va narake 

[I*] Jm[sii]na,lmy6 hi j%ant6 bhftmi- 
TO ye" [ill Va(ba)httbhiiavva[8u3dh& nujtf rajabMk Sagar-adibMln 

jadi [bhfttilyadya 8 ta[sya] ta[d&] 

71 p aradatsa(tta)m [Va] yatnM=raksha narfLhiyahT I 

srfishtrha d4vft(n&)cli=chhp[6*]y6=[ti3upftla[na]m II 
ri(gri)yamssata(au)chi[2ii3tya [ma]napya(sliya)-jiv r itan=clia 
iii^tiiianiQi(Dal)i^vYa(iiiia) hi [gasa] sh^h 11 pasa-(]ki]- 
[113 Sa(pa)ra[m]svara<praJ^ likhitarfi 

eta T!ai 



inscription, wMch I edit from impressions supplied to me by Dr. r'fcet. it* 

* ' 

. . 

temple of Saraj&devi 16 at iihe village of BaMl, in the Chaliagaon subdivision of the . 
datrict of the Bombay Presidency (Indian Atlas, sheet 38, long. 75 9' E., lat. 2O** 36'IST.). 
It ooiitBiiiss nineteen lines of writing, which cover a space of about 2 1 10* broad by 1' 3^-" 3fciifiri* 
aad ii almost taronghout in a perfect state of preservation. The average aiae of tfre le**r ia 
%htlj leas than *. The characteacs are N ^agart The language is Sanskrit ; and, aroeptiwg 
tfce Lrtrodr-icrv M U dm non^ Dvarajd-dSvyai and the words of^a rdja-varhfah in line 7, 
linm 1-18 are in verse. The verses are numbered, and their total number is twenty/ Xn respect 
of orthography I have only to state that the letter 6 is exceptionally denoted by tl*e 
far * in the words vitwdka, in line 3, and vraTuna, in line 7. 

Kewl iti i UJklam. 

nesfc ^^ veraes - * 

' nd ia 

^ ** "* * of tie nert Hne there is again a vacant space, where o tt e woald 

r the miwmg 


re^J. oS 6 * OT * ** ^^^ " be meaafc 

""^o . 

" "J * intended, and can only say that the two last 

< ^ .. . 

bot ta or An. m^aSE?"** mth * he * ^ ^t* and ending with 
to be Mda oat ?t ^Tu,? w "! " cl < fo lower edge of the 

^ " e *" elCT " ^^ which 

No. 18.] BAHAL QE 

The inscription, after the words ' Oih, om, adoration to the Dv&rajV 

a verse glorifying Bfiavftn^ who is here named Dviraja; and Its proper is, to 

(in Terse 17) tlie foundation of a temple of that goddess % AnaTitaieTO, the chief 
of the Mng Simlia (or Smghana). It clearly * divides Itself Into two parts : 

2-7 give an accoiint of Anantadeva and Ms ancestors, which Is Interesting from a 
point of -view, while verses 8-15 glorify th king Simha and Ms father and grandfather. 

belonged to a family which, traced its origin to the Sandilya (v. 2). ID 

that family the:re was bora, as a son of a certain Mandratli&j the learned MalTesvara (V. S) 
who (in v. 4) is stated to liave composed a Karana of the planets, entitled Gkhara, a 
called PraUsTitJidvidhi-dipaka^ another work described as PJiala-grantha^ a brief commen- 
tary on the IjaffTiujdtaka* His son was Sripati (v* 5) ; tod Ms son 3 (v. 6). And 

Ganapatl's son was the founder of the temple, (v* 7), a scholar versed in the three 

branches of the Jyotfsha-tdstra, who expounded the 20th Adtyaya f called ChJtandafcJritv- 
uttar-ddhydya, 1 of Brahmagnpta's Brahma- SphutasiddJidnta^ also the great JETord (Ce. the 
Brihajjdtaka) of Varahamihira. The family here treated of was already known to us from 
the Patna inscription of Singhana, 2 which also mentions Mao^6ratha and his son MahSvara, 
the fatter of tlie astronomer Bhaskara, wlio must have been a brother of the Sripati of this 
inscription. Of tlie literary works enumerated above, tlie published catalogues of Indian 
libraries actually mention, as still existing, MahdSvara's Xtaghujdtzka-tlkdi and probably also 

The description of the king Simha (SingTiana) and of bis father and grandfather,, 
Jaitrapfila and BMUamaj in verses 8-15 of our inscription, is in general purely conventional, 
and the only historical facts recorded of tbem are, that Jaitrap&a, & an ocean of compassion, 
made Ganapati^ whose life bad been preserved in battle, 4 lord of the Amdlira country * (v. 12), 
and that Simha defeated the powerful Arjims (v. 14). BotK evente are mentioned* partly in 
the same words, also in tbe Paithan copper-plates of Ramacliandra 5 of Saka-Samvafe 1103, 
from which we learm that Jaitngi (JaitrapMa) ? * an ocean of compassion/ led Ganapati oai of 
prison and made him lord of the land, meaniBg s apparently, the land of Tnkaliiigu. The 
prince Arjiroa, spoken of in connection with Sixziha, Dr. Bhandarkar 6 would identify with 
Arjuna[varmadeva] of Malava, whose published copper-plate grants are dated in the Vikrama 
years 1267, 127O and 1272.? 

Verses 16-18 state that, during the reign of Simlia, Ansntad^ra* who had obtained the 
post of chief astrologer of the king, founded the temple, at or sear which this inscription was 
afterwards put up ; and that he received pecuniary assistance in this work from his younger 
brother Mah&fivara, who composed this Pratasti* Verse 19 contains the usual prayer for the 
preservation of the temple, and the poem closes (inr v. 20) with the data, the first day of 
Chsitra of tlie expired Saka year IM4 5 the year A line in prose adds that 

the inscription was written by the N%ara Brahmana and that the B&radhdra or 

architect (probatly of the whole temple) was ThaljL 

The date does not admit of exact verification; hut the expired Saka year 1144 
(==A.D. 1222-23), by the southern lani-solar system, was the Jovian year CMtrabhinn, as 
in the inscription, 

3 See Weber's Catalogue of the MSS. of the Berlin JMrary, Vol. II. p. 

2 See JEp. Ind* Vol. L p, 340. 

3 See Prof . Auf recfci/s Catalog*,* Gafalogorum 9 p. 445, ft. . .. r 

* This appears to me the most suitable meaDiBg of the words jrM?M Mritam IB line IS. 
See Ind. AM&, VoL XIV, p. 8I6 a and Vol. XXL p. 
See MB JEarl^ Hisforg of $&@ JDelslka^ p. BS. 
7 SvJJ. Ant. VoL XX. p, 135, Nos. 149, 151, and 

I2-2I.?Z.:^. lToz, III. 

l\ Oik D^lrp-jfi-d&vyai Si Jayati s Ditija-bbitath. 

^rfi^llal?:^ j 

manlkja-^i&!-ariii;a-cli.arar:a.saroji DvE^f-lLMrrS, 
2 Bhavflbi {{ 1 [[j*] 5 AsM=asima-i3ia]iaiiiya-iiiaha maharshib, SUmdliya iiy aldiik* 

Vhrr.!v> ^ fi^al | y ad-dkdma-dMma-pat^&ia 

-^T.^IM DeTOnady&h || 2 [||*J Ambhdja- 
8 fefcur=iva babhfcva ISSaheSvar-akLyd vamse visala-tapasah prathitasya tasya I 

aian.5pat!ia-snta^^ grati-sadma s 

*; 3 r;;] Yah 6 Sektar4klijam" 
4 rrasht!:-. Pratia!:tt^:db-5i?akaE: 

lagLusi cha tikaiii L^-lr^ltakasy^ If 4 [||*] 

II 5 [II*] 
ati % t p=sy&imanam=agranih stnuk snri* 

jit& jagad-vyi,pint kirttih 

. 1 ":'/"'^-"^ prbb=dT=r^*]jva!a if 6 
~. ** "" i _ '"" * - - ,- ,,, **kTfTTA 

tiiT^ iti r 

|| iiVishvak-sAnah 

" 4 ^^^^ kila 

aal'^-v^ l! 8 

i 10 

; . ^.^ pratapa-Sikhina 


* .imMM-r^r ^^^srm^ji-s: 

i jff,*^ T- "**-*. or something 

? Mftr, : ^ -I'-r-^'i- " ^ L ^ fi nesi verae- @ Mefee: Upaj4lL 

ii ^sx *. ^t* **"*"*"*'* iittr^: puT*^A^^sKt^ 

.,JT; L Z 1 ^*^;^-""- 7t " 1 ,v^ n ?>* *, x* "" <lul " < "*' ^^ 

-.. ** , ^ "**" -* ; .utj. *,^ 3 aS^ilait ^ff tils "W^s* 1 I* 1 T * -"sci^ fiSfcQDer&j th0 g*o@,ydii^.g^ erf the 


12 IbMta-dik^cha yah. | 

II 12 [,|] na^-iippaJ^ 
I jani-jagatt-jayasya jaga- o^ 


ataijayad^ftrjitam yah || 14 

^i-dvirada-rada-sam^^ n z-ra n a~ 

prithuh. | visnddJi*fimbh6-dhai*o yad-asi-jaladah kajjala-iiibhali pratipem 
kshapayati vipaksha-kshiti* 
II 15 [||*j TasudhSm^ .tatra vasudhi-sndhadhamni mahipatau J pmsisatl sati 

16 [s 

- - v -" -~ * T, v-*y. ||^ j 1 cuSi.aeKQtj Qt m 

vidh^ya dharmnae tasy^anujaiiin^ha MaMsvar-akhyah { *imi - 
-- J ly&mviiiirinniam6 nirmmala- 

prasastim || 16 [fj^] S^sho 7 T^Tad^vahati vastidhS.iB=esha iirahair=aseslsais?= 

PM- . ^^.^^^^^j v la J riighayaiiii/i | tSras^tair&p^ijir^Sbpi rajV^r= 

mamdalam=yavad=Stat=taTad=devya bhavafoi bhavanam 
18 biushanam tM-talasya (| 19 [||*] Shatk-6n sadala-sat-SdMEke} sahasre H44 


*/ *" LJ" J[ ..m..iyyuh.. iMp^4.^f> nmi ,mn*e*<i,v*,*-+*f m^%tw i%Ar**Jfc ^*fc'V < J F7 t CrW.l..a,li4firr'i,1i. *Cr &4^- -&> 

Saka-ppitMvipateh prayatd | Ghaltr-MFa-pratipadi CMtrabMnu- 
varslie pr&s&dd srachi ruchird=yam=:Aiiibik%ah |(||) 20 [||*] 

19 Mamgalam maha-rih f| Likhit=^yam N%arajn4tiya-bra pam GamgMharena II SMra- 


Tliree sets of impressions, prepared by tie late Sir Walter EUiot 5 of the subjoined msoriptioxi 
were forwarded by Dr. Fleet to Dr. Hnltzsch, -who has kindly placed them at my disposal for 
TpubEcation, The impressions are fomr ia number. The first and the fourth bear -the Kanarese 
numerals * one * and * three * respectively, and the second the numeral ' two. * Consequently* 
tGbie original, which I am unable to trace, appears to consist of three copper-plats s of which 
t5t first and the third are engraved only on one side, and the second on both rides* At the top 
of each plate is a hple through which a ring that held the plates together, must have been 

The alphabet employed in the inscription is Uandin&gari throughout, with the exception 
of the last line, which is in Kanarese characters. The technical execution of the inscription 
far from good. The distinction between long and short u is maintained only in. the first 
lines, in which three cases of long *& occur, via. mUla (L S) y mibrti (L 8), and ftfafaWfta (1. 10)* 
the rest of the inscription, no attempt is made to distinguish the long from the 
But, in order not to swell the footnotes unnecessarily, I have inserted the longiJ in the 
wherever the sense requires it, except in the case of proper names which are not generally 

2 Compare Tcaru^-varwndlayah y * an ocean of compassion/ in Ind* *dnt+ YoL XI Y. p. Sl^ line 23. 
Metre: Otti*. * Metre: Yasantatilak&. 4 Mefcre : Sikharinl 

8 Metre i Sldka (Anush^abh). 6 Metre : IJpaj&ti j and of the next verse. 

7 Metre : Mand&kr&nt&. e Metre : Praharsbini* 

1 am not quite sure about the consonants enclosed in brackets j possibly the intended reading may bo 



In four cases the short u is marked in such a way that it might be mistaken for a 

n viz. JP** ( at tiie end of J * ^ 9 )> ^^ EBci purusha (L 36), and samudra (1. 39). There 

are peculiar inisfcakes which repeat themselves in this inscription. In line 14, tlie loiag as 

SB the short * are attached to the tt of $&ttine (for p6tri$) 9 and the same mistake recTxrs^iri 

ronuectifln with the * of rfrf in line 52 9 In 2ae%a (L 11) and pdlaniyd (L 89), the short * is 

of the long 1 To the ft of M0ra in line 15, and to the si of vtra-si in line 23, the 

5i*n of 4 Is in addition to the f and i, respectively. In ddna (1. 69) and add (L 70) , tiiB d 

hi two signs of d affixed to it in each case. Both the vowels ri and i are attacked to d staid v, 

respectively s in drisJia (L 62) and vritti (1. 64). In some conjunct oonsoBanta of which 

the last element is r, and which are followed by & long <4, the r is added to the sign of long-th 

of to the group itself, For instance, the r of dathshfrd (1 4), dsid-grdw>a (L 59), and *?r<4n 

(L S9) s instead of being added to sht, dff, and d respectively^ is connected with the sig^n of length 

in each case* The distinction between s and a is not clearly marked. Thes of f bhttg&tsa>v& (1- ^D 

and of (L 33 f.) f and the a of aWtujamga, (L 24) and of cunivdrita (I. 39) are nearly 

In yad-davhshtrd (I 9), maJcaramdda (L 20) 3 and HuddanSna (1. 83), the two 

i's are written side by side without any attempt to indicate the virlima. Siniilar anoxrxalies 

in 26 and 32. In the former case h and m are written side by side, stud in the second 

foioparfis written for tatpair In line 19, we have a peculiar form of the letter ja. The 

angle, which is usually attached to the middle of the vertical portion of the letter, is in this 

at the bottom* The double U takes the place of tr in the following* cases : jpfftfif>$ 

(1 14), (L 59), iojotttf* (L 61), yatta (L 62) s and putt&panttd (I 68). 

Of mistakes due to wrong pronunciation, the following may be noted: vrsfafyd (1. 12) 

and Ynmd (L 61) occur instead of m > ishty& and Oma s respectively. The dental sibilant is 

for the palatal in for fri (11. 23 and 72), in SdlivdJi (L 50 f.) and in srauta for $r&u,ia 

(1.75). Dfe occurs for &Z& in sidha foi- siddJia (L 49), and $ftc?& for d<^fe in sidhdfia (1. 66) . 

Th I occurs in the following Sanskrit words : mamgala (L 22 f ,), fcaM (L 35), c&val* 

(L 40) f iw|atfi (I 61), chdkrav&a (1. 79), and yugala (L 92)* The Tamil name Ilangdvfl lias 

changed to YalamgMl (L 62) 9 It remains to be noted here that the name of the father 

tl II. is wiitten Mu&o, once (L 23), and BhnJcka throughout the rest of the present 

insmptioiu wMe in all otter inscriptions which haye. "been publisted, the name is spelt -with 
the BJmspirated and double A. 

langaage of the inscription is Sanskrit f verse (11. 2 to 37, and 50 to 92) and prone 
(II. 1, 38 to 50 3 and 93). The first two verses are invocations addressed to Siva and to 
*- r .-^ ?CTa t:ez: o Vislmn, respectively, the third to Ganapati, and the fourth and fifth 
in the b:nr-inrarrtation. The sixth verse refers to the Moon, and the seventh to Ms descendant 
and to the race of tie Yftdsros, who sprang from the latter. The eig-hth mentions 
(I.), tie first historical person of the first Vijayanagara dynasty^ and the tenth hie 
<$on (i.e. I.). Bhukka*s queen was CJaiarl and their son Hariliara <II.) (v. 14) ? 

in reign tie present inscription is dated. A lengthy prose passage (11. 38 to 50) consists 

:f a list of the of Harihara (II.). Yerse 18 gives the date of tke inscription, while 

19 to 31 fhe village granted and the donees. Verse 88 again celebrates Hariliara 

\iL), and verses 34 and 35 contain tibe names of tie composer and of he engraver of the 
"*"' Ttei1 foHow four of tie usual imprecatory verses. In the last verse (40) tho kiri^ 
rulers to protect tie gift made by him. As in other Tijayanagara inscriptions, 
doroill1lt is "J*e* % tie name of the god 

^^ ^ * tnow eo much as might be expected 
the tegnmiBg of the 14th centary of the 


* eUfl * dynasty is the only kmo wn imscriptio n of 


I n m whieh he IB called ama 


.? and wMch is dated in Saka-Samyat 1261, the Vikrama samvatsar (~ A.D. 
1340). 1 Of Mm the Bitragunta grant of Samgama II, says that he defeated s *tke Sulf&a^ 2 
In his Lists of Antiquities t VoL II. p. 161, Mr Sewell refers to a Hindu confederation, 
of which the Baya of Vijayanagara formed a party, and which <c with an immense force drove 
the Muhammadans out of Orangal *' in A.D. 1344, Though we hare no inscription of Harihara 
I. as late as A.D. 1344, it is not impossible that he was the R&ya of Vijayanagara who joined 
the confederation, because the earliest inscription of his younger brother Bukka I. is dated in 
Saka-Samvat 1276 s ( A.D. 1355). BAkka I. is represented in two inscriptions as a 
Mahdmandalegvara ruling in the BCoysana country . 4 Perhaps this statement furnishes a cine 
to the origin of the Vijayanagara kings. It may be that they were originally feudatories of the 
Hoysala Mugs. After the utter defeat of the Hoysala king BalMla HE. and the demolition 
of his capital Dvarasamudra by the Muhammadans in the year 1327 A.D. 5 he evidently 
continued the semblance of a kingdom,; for there are inscriptions dated in Saka-Samvat 1262 
(= A.D, 1340) 9 which refer themselves to his reign, at Erode in the Coimbatore district 6 and 
at Tiruvannamalai in the South Arcot district/ and one dated as late as Saka-Samvat 1265 
(= A.D* 1342) at WMtefield in the Bangalore district. 8 It would therefore appear that BaMla 
III. left Harihara I. in the north as a check to the Muhammadan invaders, who had ousted 
him in A.D. 1327, His subordinate evidently took advantage of the opportunity to create a 
principality for himself and eventually to assert his independence. The only epigraphical record 
of Harihara I. makes no reference to Ballakt IEL as overlord, nor does it furnish any cine as to 
the extent of the dominions owned by Harihara I* It is during the time of Bukka I* that the 
capital Vijayanagara first makes its appearance. 9 There is reason to believe that the 
Muhammadans continued to be troublesome during the reign of Bukka I* as well. 10 It was 
during the time of Bukka's son Hariliara H. that the kingdom became firmly established. 
This is shown by the fact that he could turn his energies to extend his dominions in the south, 
or rather to recover possession of the provinces which were probably once subject to BalMla III. 
The exact date of the accession of Hari3iaa?a n. f in whose reign the subjoined inscription 
is dated, is not known. He must have ascended the throne between Saka-Samvat 1293 
and ISO!* 11 From this as well as from other inscriptions 12 we learn that he was the son of 
Bukka I. by his queen Gtaurl. In the Satyamangalam plates of Dvaraya II. we are told 
that Harihara's queen was HaiamMk. 13 His inscriptions have been found at Hampe or 
Vijayanagara in the Bellary district ; 14 at Belur s 15 Chitaldroog, 16 Harihar r and Hassan 1S in the 

1 Znd. Ant. VoL X. p. 685 see note 52 on tbe same page. a ante, p. 32, verse 5. 

s Jour. Bo. Br. M. A. 8. Vol. XII. p. 338. 4 ibid. p. 340. 

* Dr. Fleet's Kanarese Dynasties* p. ?0. 6 Dr. Hultzsck's Annual Report for 1891-92, p. S 

7 Madras Christian College Magazine, Vol. IX. p. 667* 

8 Dr. Hultzsch's Annual Report for 1892-93, p. 2. 

9 ante, p. 36, note 1; Jour. So. JETr. JB. JL. S. Vol. XII. p. 374 ; Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Ms&ays, Madras 
editions, Vol. II. p.' 258, where it is said that Bukka (I.) made 4 Vidy&nagari a permanent metropolis; and Mr. 
Rice's Mysore Inscriptions > pp. 55 and 278. 

10 According to Mr. Sewell (.Lists of Antiquities, YoL II. p. 163), two attacks were made by the Muhammadans 
about this time on Vijayanagara, the first ia 1&S5-66 and the second in 1378 AJD. The first attack was successful, 
but in the second the leader was eventually compelled to retire. 

The la-test knowa date of Bukka I. is Saka-Samvat 1293 according to the genealogical tabje of the first 
Vijayanagara dynasty published ante, p. 36 S and the earliest date hitherto discovered of Haxihara II. Is Saka- 
Samvat 1301 5 see Jour* Bo. En &* A. 8. Vol. XII. p. 340. 

A * ante* p. 37* verse 7 1 Colebrooke's Miscellaneous Jftwcgr*, Madras edition* VoL It* p. 258 1 and Mr. Rice's 
Mysore Inscription^ p. 278. 

w anie 9 p- 37, verse 9* l4 South-Indian Inscrtpt%ons s Vol. I. Xt o. I5s* 

15 Mr Bice's Mysore Inscriptions* pp. 222, 327, and 26@ B 

In Colebrooke's Mi*eettaneo*9 JBmg** Madras edition, VoL IL pp. 254-267, an inscription on three braiw 
plates, found at Chitaiaroog, is published, and another found at the same pl&ce i noticed* 

i? Mr. Bice' Mysore Inscriptions^ p. 5. l8 *&*. p. 278, 



* c Hail I Boring the victorious and prosperous reign of the glorious and powerful emperor, 
uhe lord of tine eastern, southern and western oceans, the glorious king of great king's and 

supreme lord of kings, the glorious "Fira-'Hariliara-Maliarayaj while the glorious 
residing at HonnfiTurSj was ruling the kingdom of Halve*-- - iri the Elshaya 

which corresponded to the Saka year one thousand three hundred and nine, (when) Jupiter 
(tow standing) in Leo, on Thursday s the fifth (tithi) of the dark (fortwighf) of (the montJ* of) 
Pushya. " 

Gold and copper coins, apparently issued during the reign of Harihara II., still exist. 
In Ms paper on the Qoin$ of the Kings of Yyayanagara, 1 Dr. Hultasch describes a half-pagoda and 
a copper coin. A second copper coin is described in his paper on South-Indian Copper Coins? 
On all of them the legend reads Pratdpa-JSarihara* 

Of the birudas of the king mentioned in lines 38 to 50 of the subjoined inscription, 
the most important are : KarndtaTGa-lakshm%-karn-dva&ayhsa 9 Sdrdula-mada-b7ia7ijawa, s 
YedtA'hAshya'pra'kdSaka and Vaidika~mdrga~sthdpan-dchdrya. The first shows that lie was 
ruling over the Karnta country^ and the second that he professed to have conquered the 
Cli61as s who had the tiger for their emblem. The biruda VedabJidshya-pvaJcdsaka clearly 
refers to the commentaries on the VMas, which were published under the king's authority by 
SyanacMrya. This celebrated Vedic scholar professes to have been the minister of 
Samgama II. and of Harihara, IL S The biruda Vaidika-mdrga-stfidpan-dchdrya of the inscription 
corresponds to Vatdfika-mdrga-pravartaka,, which is attributed to Hariliara (II.) ixi tlie 
colophon of 3%"ana's commentary on the SatapatTiabrdhmana^ In his Oxford Caf,a,logue 
Professor Aufrecht describes a manuscript of the TarkabhdsJid-prakd&kd. From its 
we leam that the work was composed by a certain Chinnabhatta, who was the son of 
Vislmiidevaradliya, the younger brother of Sarvajfia, and a dependant of 

Professor Aufrecht tells us elsewhere that Sayana's teacher was Visfantx-Sarvajfia. 6 This 
SarvajBa was very probably identical with the elder brother of Chinnabhatta, and tte 
Harihara-Mah^raja of the colophon of the Tarka&hdshd-prdkdiikd with Harihara II. ' Some of 
the details furnished by Madhava's and Sayaiia's works 7 regarding their relations and con- 
temporaries are corroborated by a mutilated Grantha inscription of the AraI,la-PerTiKia|. temple 
at Conjeeveram, 8 which, with the permission of Dr. Hultzsch, I subjoin, 9 " as far as it* can be 
made out : 


JU. A*. VoL XX p. 302. :*****. XXI. p. 321. . See ^ 33 

The pa^ealludedtoruasasfollows:-- ^ISTWrfwWTT^R^^^^^^^ 

; Professor Weber's er2i Catalogue, Vol. II. p. 73. "^ 

cophon referred to TUBS as follows :_ 

p, . 

Aufrechtfs Oxford Catalog^ p. 244, a. ........ rofeaaor 

Catalogorvm, s.v. ^HRW. 7 ante p 2 S 

Dr. Hnltzsch'a Annual Report for 1892-93, p. 14, No. 60 of 1893 ' 

Fran, an iaied estampage received Irom the Editor. Eead 



This v * ^ sed to Sya 9 a and states that lie belonged to the BMrad.aja 
and followed the Bodhayana *4fra, M d that Ms mother was Ms fatter 

his younger Brother the poet Bhoganatfaa, Ms master Mug <no, and Ms 

Srikanthanatlia a 2 His elder brother is also mentionedj bat the nam ^ instead * of b - ^ 
as may be expected, seems to begin with Mayana. 

The date of the subjoined inscription (verse 18) is not quite intelligible. The meaning of 
the syllables gotradtacha (1. 51) is not apparent ; nor can the occurrence of the word tidhau 
(i.e - *t&a) in the same line after PramAdini be explained, as the word occurs afterwards 
(L 5^ in its proper place. Leaving these two obscure words aside, the date is Wednesday 
the day of a lunar eclipse in the month of of the cyclic year JPramMin, which wal 

current after the Sliv,Im S&ka year 18L Mr. BiksMt, to whom I subletted tMs date for 
calculation, has favoured me with the following remarks : The pdrnimd of adluka (into*- 
calary) Klrttika of Saka-Sainvat 1321 expired, ended on a Wednesday 'at 27 gh. 20 p. Ujjain 
mean-time. Its European equivalent is the 15th October^ AJD. There was a lunar 

eclipse on tMs day, as mentioned in the inscription, and, consequently, the above date must be 
intended in it, though the word adhfka (intercalary) does not occur. There is a method by the 
application of which and by making calculations from the First AryorSiddhdnta, this month 
is likely to prove an ordinary (not intercalary) month. The eclipse mentioned was visible for a 
short time after sunset over almost the whole of India*" 

According to verse 19, the place at wMch the grant was made by the king, was the shrine 
of the god Virupakeha on the Bhaskara-ksh^tra at a quarter of the city of Vljayana- 

gara. Pampa is the Sanskrit equivalent of Hampe s the Kanarese name of one of the villages 
which now occupy the site of the ruins of Vijayanagara, The shrine of Viriipaksha, r Fampa- 
pati, is even now situated in the centre of the village of Hampe? Prom the present inscription 
we learn that that portion of Pampa or Hampe, on which the temple of Virfipaksha is built, bore 
the name Bhaskara-kshStra. 

The donees of the subjoined inscription were two Brahmana brothers ? [Aujbhala and 
Jfrisiiiiha, who belonged to the Bharadvaja gotra and appear to have studied the Yajurveda. 
The object of the grant was the village of Kallfixi (r. 23) or Brinalliir (v. 29), wHch 

was also called Savanarajiyap-firain (v. 25), The village was situated in Megim-*valaaifidn s 
which was also called H"alatiiriplem-sim and formed part of Paiyiiri-kotta^ a district of the 
Chandragm-malirjya. Chandragiri is now the head-quarters of a taluka in the North Areot 
district. According to Mr. Crole*s Chinglejput Manual (p. 438), se Peiyur-kottam " formed part 
of the modern Poim&ri t&luka. Meguna-valanadu is probably a corruption of the Tamil name 
M0ykunra-valandn s which occurs in two of the copper-plate inscriptions preserved in the 
Madras Museum*, According to these two grants Meykunra-valanadu was another name of 
Paiyfir-kottam* 4 Kalaturipalem may be connected with Nellatuii, which is mentioned in a 
copper-plate grant of the third Vijayanagara dy nasty 5 Tondira-mandaia/ which occurs in 
verse 20 o the subjoined inscription immediately before the boundaries of the granted village^ 

1 In the introduction to bis dam men tar j on the Pa^di&a&asmriti,* Madliava calls Ms mother Sr$mati 5 see ante? 
p. 2S 9 note 4. 

3 According to tbe Bitrnganta grant, Srikanthan&tha was the preempt? of Samgama II. ; ante, p. 22. 
* Ep. Ind. Vol. 1. p. 361. 

4 See Dr. Burgess 5 Arch&ological Survey of Southern India^ Vol. IV, pp. 148 and 150. The passage In 
which Mejloinra-valanMu occurs, is identical in both of these inscriptions and rang as follows : SeyankH$da- 

Paiyftr-k6ttam, also called Mcjknnra-vn|anadn, which formed the eastern district (?) of Cbandragiri-r&Jyam^ 
(a division) o the Jayanlsonda-Tonda-maitdalaiii." 

^ Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII, p. 127. 

s Tund^ka-vishaya was the name of the Pallnva country according to a Western Chalnkya luseription, 
Indian Inscriptions^ Vol. 1. p. 146, and Tundira-mu^idala occurs in a TinimaM in&criptxo& 9 ibid. p. 106. 

120 IFDIOA a [Vot. III. 

is a ^"^'Hir.-^ cf the r'JL-lrrr'-Ti the ancient Tamil name of the 

country. Though tie Wt>rd Toadira-maitdala does not stand "before Ohandragiri* 

^u^-rra^ it the two Museum grants quoted above* 1 the latter 

^aJ aa a of die former^ Just as the Fadavlda-r&jya was according" to a later 

inscription^ village lay to the north of Ghirovftpurl, to the south 

cf to the of and to the south-west of the river* Of 

b^c^^sr-es, the o " Par&ppakkair. *' and " Toranullur " are in the Poj^gdri 

the Ara?i rlTer through the same talu-ki. Consequently^ the Tillage of 

fee for in the Ponnerl taluk& e On the Poji^ri Taluk Map there is a 

(^o. 124) y which is to the south- west of the Arani river ? to 

lie of ^evnttu-Pansppiki^r: (BTo. 125), to the northwest of Turanalldr (No. 123), 

is the as the " TcraniLllcr** of the Ohingleput- Manual the ToranallflLii 

ol thfi : -r?ripti-3i the remaimng boundary^ Ghixuv&pur^ is not found on the Taluk 

Vs^kli3>Tr,!K"r Be Identified with NelMri or Srfnalltr^ the village granted 

bj irseripticn. 

1 I i 

2 "fRCOL^-* 1 1 ^^W^WT*I^^T^% t 

3 I [f 5 ^ 

4 ^n w: i f 1 - 

5 g^f ^^ i [^*] 

6 i 'sn 5 s I 

7 v ftinrt 



by the kte Sir Walter Elliot. 


17 w^rr SRT: wuii4iK4r ^ f^err: i f>] 







Second Plate; First Side. 









34 fTOf^si^rer ehVarr 13 *rtf?r 


36 "^l^Hi^Kl^lt 1 ^sr I 

37 ffwrsT iTfdiM^ci^mdt^li^: 16 u 

38 17 ^M^Mlf^lW'iM4<*i!*4*'i: I 

39 f^<iiyr**ri-d<^*4^iyliM<: i 


41 [^]K*!!Hid<^u*H:: 

42 ^^ll d=h^l ^ 41^1 l d ^ : 

i Bead ?rf%*[. a Bead ^^. 3 The a at>dr is at the beginning of the 

* Bead *i<lPt>n. 6 "The a^^^ra ia at the beginning of the next Hue. ' 
7 Bead ^ff ^)<^^W- To the 'QT of ^tK% both * and d are affixed. 

* Read qvftfftrar.. " Bead ^TW. Read TO?:. " Bead 

Bead i^r. Bead tnm^^: ir * 



43 [i?]HT^fi: i [l*] 




: 3 i Ti*raw[T*Ji[iNgrM[: i* 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 





gg Trrw^airfertayraarlTtarii^i^ji rs Ji% i fni&l &, 


g0 f-arl a ^Ji j-^ i j" >tC' i 7 


71 fwf i [^JTOrerf^Dsrlk *\4*w f^M^^ 11 i |>L*] 



74 [<|TTR?r: i iRi^^^ti ^ w[1?r] 14 f 


Third Plate. 







84 W i|Tllim<jJll 

Kead f%^ and. ^rarf^^. Bead 

s Other inscriptions read ^T'fCT instead of ^ffff^- * Eead 

" To the ^T a second vertical line is attached besides the sign of length. 

8 To the <?T of ^T^T a. second sign of length is affixed. 

9 Read sraft ; the alcshara f?T is engraved below the Hue. 

10 The anusv&fa is at the beginning of the next line. 

11 Read f^nqf^l 1 . ^^ 
Bead ^tTTC3f } t\\ fit ail', i.e. ^fWt^T, is used in the sense o *H^. 
M The letter WT is engraved above the line. 

14 The letter f?T is engraved below the line; read Ifm IT^T. 

Bead va^r: TOt: ftp*:. M Bead *tnft. " Bead ' f " f: - 

is Bead ! ^ P * Bead 

R 2 


ss i [3**] en ^t 

SS i [^*] 

87 % i f 1 g > 

88 i [^c] lrr~ 

89 1 

90 ijjsjt I [^t*] 

91 c?t i ^iT9ir[:*] tt i 

92 9 'rtHi<Mi^CcU fsiWf ^P?rfW 11 [8 o*j 

93 [n] 


(line 1.) Let there be prosperity ! Obeisance to the blessed Ganadhipati ! 
(Verse 1.) Adoration to Sambhn (fiiva), who Is adorned, as -with a ohdmara, with tiie 23100x1 
is (his) lofty head, (and) who Is the principal pillar at the building of the city 

of the three worlds ! " 

(V. 2.) Let It protect yon, the staff-like tusk of Hari (Vishnu), who disported himself 
as a boar, (placed) on which (tusk) the Earth resembled a parasol, with the golden mountain * 
(Mern) as Its point ! 

(V. 3.) I obeisance to Vighnesvara (Ganapati), the remoirer of obstacles, wliQse 

feet are dyed yeEow "by the mass of the stamina of golden lotus-flowers* 

(V, 4.) Let it always bring yon prosperity, the body of Vishnu, the primeval Boaoc% who 

on the tip o (his) huge tusk the Earth along with Sri (Lakshmt) ! 

(V. 5.) Obeisance to that Boar, on whose graceful tusk rests the Earth ! On tMs 
(ore performed) sacrifices by good men who know the meaning of the YMas ; by 
the gods are pleased; the head of the race of these (gods) (is) Hari (Incira) ; 
to Hm belong the clouds; these {clouds) pour forth rain; by rain all creeper and 

; by these,4he men created by Pitamaha (Brahma) are gladdened. 

^ (, 6.) There was (prodnceeZ) the Moon, who supports the life (of the inhabitants) of tlie 
imm who appear to be an Incarnation of joy, (and who is) the chief ornament OTL tiie 

of Par&siesvara (Siva). 

(V. 7.) In Hs (rtc ilooft^) race, there was a glorious mler of the earth, (caZZad) 3Tfui^ 
aft which p^sewortly (Mn ) the descendants of the race of the Moon axe (also) exiled 

i' i 

n- S tMS P^f^ "f of Tadu was bom tHat glorious lord Saihgama, by 

a-1 satjecra were protected according to the ancient roles. 

tr its seed-vessel, 


great ^.^...-nz (Qanga) xirer for a stream of honey 


Kanarese characters. 



(V. 10.) In consequence of (his) numerous good deeds (in former this glorious 

Mug Samgama begat a son, the glorious Hug Vlra-B]m[k3ka who was m suspicious mirror 
to the goddess of heroes. 1 

(V- 11.) People identify this Mug Bhukka with Siva, devoid of terrible ramies as lie 
is slow of fire (i.e. anger) (and) not surrounded by dissolute friends (bhujamga)^ [while Siva 
is quick of fire and adorned with serpents (bhujamga)"]. 

(V. 12.) Tlie sporting goddess of Ms fame (had) the mundane egg for a jewelled hall, the 

Moon for a parasol {set witK) pearls, and Venus and the Sun for a (double) lamp. 

(V. 13.) WMle that glorious king Vlra-Bhukka was righteously Brotectinfr the earth, 
the people,, TajaaiBicted "by calamities s were continually enjoying festivals* 

(V. 14.) rom this great lord (mahSsvara)* who was the husband of Gauri, was bom the 
lord Haxiliara* a king who was renowned by {his) power {iakti) 9 {and) who was a partial 
incarnation of Skanda. 3 

(V. 15.) While this {king) was engaged in upholding the observances of all tlie 
and orders, tlie earth up to the four oceans became the celestial cow {in fulfilling all 

{V. 1 6.) Tlie ten dif ections are illumined by the fame of Trim who is seated on the throne, 
as by the light of the full-moon who is standing over the eastern mountain. 

{V. 17.) Having taken away the wealth of rival kings (a* suddenly) as a failing 
thunderbolt, {he) performed the sixteen great gifts, m&+ the gift of his weight (in gold)* etc. 

(Line 38.) Tlbis glorious Vigapral^po^Haffi^ who was adorned by a 

series of such Jiirudas as : The illustrious king of Mugs and the supreme lord of Mugs ; the 
lord of tlie eastern, southern, western and northern oceans ; the unopposed ; a VainatSya 
(i.e* Gamda) to the snakes {which are) wicked Mugs and princes; an adamantine cage for 
refugees ; tlie Diiarma {i.e. Yudhishthira) of the Kali age ; the eap-ornament to the goddess 
of the KarnStaka. {country) ; the supporter of the four castes and orders ; he whose proclama- 
tions are engraved on the slopes of the principal mountains ; he who is formidable OB battle- 
fields ; the moon to the day-lotuses (which are) hostile kings ; a brother to the wives of others ; 
he whose (only) delight is the fame of virtue ; the destroyer of the pride of the Tiger ; 3 the master 
in establishing the Cliera, Chela, and Pandya (kings) ; the publisher of the commentaries 
on tlie Veda! tlie master in establishing tlie ordinances p:rseribed by tlie Vedasi he 
who has provided the Adhvaryu (priests) with employment; the auspicious ornament of Mugs ; 
he whose eloquence is well-known ; 

(Verse 18,) After the auspicious Salivlia (year) measured by the earth (1), 

the eyes (2), the qualities (3), (and) the moon (1), (i.e. 1321), had passed, ^ 

^ in the {cyclic year) Pramadin 9 in the month called Urjaka (Eftrttlka) t 
in the bright fortnight of this (month), on Wednesday, the holy full-moon ttih 9 at tlie lucky 
time of an auspicious {and) excellent eclipse of tlie moon j 

(V. 19.) At the city (nagara) called Vljaya (*'.*. whose moat is^tha 

holy Tiiigatoliadra^ at Pampa, at the in the presence of {the god) Sri- 

1 The mirror Is one of the eight auspicious objects (tishta-mangala). In saying that was an 

auspicious mirror** to the goddess of heroes, the composer probably meant that the king was a speck! 
of that goddess. , , 

a The god Skancta is the eon of Mah&vara (Siva) and 0aorl 3 aod bears a spar laatt*). 

* The tiger was the emblem of the Ch61a kings. . _jv,^ . . *^ i * j 

^ The ontetamgible ^Dablea H^ ttd the word finft, i*. ft*, ^r kft ; 

p. 119 . . _ 

The conntruetioia Is here interrupted % verses 20 to 24. Th rerb follows m vee -. 


(V, 20,) In the great ChandragM-mah&rajy^ in Paiyiiri-kdttSs in the 
vs|asidii (obo) called NMstTiripaiem-sim ; 

(V. 21.) In the renowned Tondiramandaia* whieli is adorned by learned men, on tbe 
northern side of OMruirapiirl s on the south of Panappaka ; 

(V* 22.) On the south-west of the Arsnl river, (od) on the west of Toranaliuri ; 
(V. 23,) There was the test of villages, the Tillage called IJTallfiri, wHch was resplendent 
with am abundance of com, growing in the neighbouring paddy-fields ; 

(V* 24) Where Siva and Kesava (Vishnu) under the names of YaJangSvil and 
Hiladrisliad reside along with (their) consorts Uma and Ram& (respectively), 

(V. 25.) This "best of villages, which was well known -under the otter* name 
S&TOnsa^jiyapuram, (and) which was accompanied with twelve shares 5 

(V. 26.) Free of taxes, up to (its) four Boundaries on all sides, together -with treasures, 
depositSj stoneSj actuals s outstandings, and water ; 

(V. 27.) Together with the akshin1&n& dgdmin, with the eight enjoyments (?), productive 
of great wealth, adorned with ponds, wells, tanks, marshes and groves ; 

(V. 28.) To be enjoyed in regular succession by sons, grandsons, and so forth, a& long as 
the moon and the sun (endure)^ (and} with the right to present, mortgage, and sell (ity ; - 

(V. 29.) (The Mng) 1 gave (this) excellent (and} lovely village, called Srinailiir* to the 
learned [Aajbhala, 8 the best of sacrificers, 3 and to his younger brother* 

(. 30.) The pious [Aiibhajla-YajvaB, the son of Narayana, who was the best of the 
descendants of the holy gvtra of Bharadyaja, received six shares of this (village). 

(V 31.) His younger brother, the pious {and) glorious Nrisimlia-Yajvaii, wlito had 
crossed the ocean of the Vedas 3 also received six shares. 

(. 32,) Surrounded by several pious {and) amiable scholars, who waited in tlie path 
prescribed by the VMas, who were foil of eloquence, (and) who were headed by the family 

(V. 33.) The son of the favourite of fortune, king BIrakka, the heroic Hariltaana, the 

crest-jewel of Mugs, the illustrious Eaghava (Mma) in war, whose xoaming (?) fame adorns 
the three worlds, and whose brilliant ^power is (always) rising; protects day by day, as long as 
tbe moon and the ami (endure), like* a (single) house, the earth which is Ms own, ixp to the 

Chakraviia mountain, 

(V. 34.) Tie composer of tte verses (fitika) of (*Ms) edict (&dsana) (was) the wise son of 
Kotissradiya, MallangararttyavTittika, wto Toad frequently performed sacrifices. 

^V? 5 ^ 1116 Scttl P tOT Mudda^a, the "best among the masters (o/ the writers) of edicts, 
caused this edict to be engraved by order of the lord (Harihara). 

[Verses 86 to 89 are four of the usual imprecatory verses.] 
(T. 40.) I bear on (my*) head the pair of the lotus-feet of those kings, either descendants 

tr 8 ! ? e T f tter **> vto ' ^y 8 resplendent with c^ritable 

ke the protection of my gift/* 

(Line 93.) Sri-Viriipakslia 

See p. 125 8 note 5, 

. n. 




The copper-plates which, bear the subjoined inscription, belong to Mal!arr?mda Surya, 
Prakasa Rao of Achyntapiiram, near Mukhalmgam, In the Gan jam district. They -were brought 

to my notice by Mr. GK V. Ramamnrti of Parli-KImedl, and forwarded to me at my request 
by the Collector of G-ailjam. The owner has consented to lei me deposit the plates In the 
Madras Museum. The plates are three in number and measure 5|by 2 inches. Their rims are 
not raised. The second plate hears writing on both sides. The plates are in a state of nearly 
perfect preservation. The ring on which they were strung, and which tad not yet cut 

when I received the plates, is about T 5 " thick and about 3J' X in diameter. The small ova! seal, 
in the lower part of which, the ends of the ring are secured, measures about f * "by f lf . It bears^ 
on a slightly countersunk surface, some indistinct emblem or emblems. The weight of the 
three plates is 15J oz, and that of tlie ring and seal 6 os. 3 total I ft 5} %* 

The alphabet of the inscription, resembles the alphabets of the two published grants of 
Indravarman II. 1 The language Is nearly correct Sanskrit. With the exception of three 
imprecatory verses (lines 19 -22) and one concluding verse (1, 28 f .), the inscription is written 
in prose. s 

The plates record a gift of land, which was made at KMiiigaiiagara (1. 1) by one of the 
kings of Kalinga (1.4) of the GSnga family (1. 6), the Maidrdja Indravarmatt (1.8), 
alias Rajasimlia (1. 24), during (the sun's) progress to the north (udag-ayana, L 13), i.e. during 
the half-year between the -winter and summer solstices. Near the end of the inscription, there 
is a second date -which is prohahly intended for the day on which the edict was engrossed and 
issued. 3 This second date is ss the eighty-seventh year (in words and numeric&l symbols) 
of the reign, on the new-moon of Chaitra" (L 23), Dr. Fleet has published another 
copper-plate grant of the Mahdrdja Indravarman, alias Rajasimha, 3 which is dated in " the 
ninety-first year (in words and numerical symbols) of the reign/ 1 The proximity of this date 
(91) to that of the subjoined inscription (87) snggests that both inscriptions belong to one and 
the same king, Indravarmaa I. alias Bajasimha* This view is further corroborated by the 
concluding verse of the present grant, which is identical with that o the other grant, and 
shows that both inscriptions were drafted by the same person, t. Vinayachanctra, the ^son 
of BMnuchandra, Besides, the introductory passage which celebrates the Tirtues of the fang, 
is literally the same in both inscriptions* and styles the Mug the establisher of the spotless 
family of the Otogas,* an epithet which, as noticed by Dr. Fleet, doee not occur in other 
grants of the Gangas of Kalinga. 

The object of the grant was a portion of a field in the village of 81(1^1^ in the 
district of Va^vartSi* (L8), which wa, given to . Br^a of !i* 01, J^ JJ* 
0. 12) The field was situated near a tank named Sajatataka (11. 10 and 15), w. the Kag 
Tank," the water of which the donee was permitted to utilise for irrigate pupo*. <L 17 f.). 

XVIII. p. 


i. Barred to i t. other G^ V*: ** ** *" "> 


i-r-riirr to line 12 f. the grant was made on the occasion of the consecration o a tank 
(fafaJr*) * SB honour of the king's mother. This tank appears to be distinct from the ** King's 
Task ' f '2?5 -V:: *'?*:?) - near which the field was situated* 

TEXT. 2 


1 [ll*] 

2 ^^WK^F PIWWt 

3 ?nf>R l Wf5rar5r^t f^R'y ' ! "^ ^ *i| 


6 ^li i w l 

Second Plate; First Side. 


8 I 

9 [U*] qft 

10 % 


Plate j Second Side. 

13 [,] 





*nuei the void! T W^^fTaw which HP P-I ^ dwcovered hu mistake after he had 

7 ' 

Achyutapuram Plates of Indravar 

man. The Year 87. 










No. 20.] 








[a*] ^r^ ST. 


fa fad 


(Line 1.) Qmu Hail ! Prom the victorious (city of) EMingaiiagaM* wMct is pleasant in 
all seasons, the .devout worsMpper of Maliesvara, tiba glorious Mah&r&ja Indravaaiiiaa*- 
^wtio adores tte feet of (Ms) mother and father; whoie feet are reddened ly the dense clusters 
of the liglit of the jewels on the crests of all vassals, prostrated by (his) excessive valour; who 
^ tas (Gff e Gt&d>y the establishment of the spotless race of tlie Qungas ; who has caused the cry of 
" irictory ** to resomad in the turmoil of many battles ; whose spotless faoue is spread over the 
STurfaca of tlie eartli which is girt by the waves of the four oceans; who has acquired the 
etovereignty over tlia whole (country) of Kalinga by the qidveriBg of the edge of his own 
si word ; wlio is a receptacle of modesty, wisdom, and wealth ; (and) who is freed from the stains 
of the Kali (j&ge) by (his) prostrations at the pair of lotus-feet of the god <Mfcamasv&mizi 
tli sole architect for the Construction of the whole world, addresses (iJie following) order 
fco the ryots and all (otlt&r inhabitants) of the village of Siddhartliaka in (the district of) 

* 9*) ** Be it known to you that, at the consecration of a tank (in honour) of the feefc of 
trite lady (our) mother, during (the sun's) progress to tMe north (udag-ayana), we hare grren, 
^writli libations of water, (one) plough of land in a field (near) the Mdjafafdha in this Tillage, 
leaving portioned (if) off, with immunity from all taxes, having made (the grant) to lag* as 
loirxg as the moon and the sun, for the increase of the religious merit of (pur) mother and father 
aaQLci of oiarselves, to Zhirgasarman^ a member of the Gautama gotra (and) a "student of the 
Olxfctanddga (jSakhd')^ Knowing this, nobody shall canse hindrance to (the donee and i& 

while tlhey preserve (i.e. cultivate and enjoy ?) their own land. 
. 14.) "The nmrks of the boundaries (are the following): In the east, the 
of the Mdjatatdka ; in the south, the same; in the west, three ant-hills in succession; on. 

Ijofcween *TT 

1 Bead 2fi(4 Tfir. 

a This sentence appears to be left incomplete through a mistake of the engraver. E 
SET, as in line 13 of the ParJa-KimedK plates of Indravarman, Ind, Ant. VoL XVt p. 134. 
^ " ^ Tile ^ ^yj^- j s entered below the Hue in the original ; 

marks the place in whicl} it mnat be inserted. 




lie side, a boulder on the top of a gate, 1 them another "boulder (covered) with "brfeks, 

iien a of (or adhimdr?} trees, and then a MraM tree. Nqbody shall 

^"i^-ar-ce (to tt^ cJoae) if (7^) opens the sluice (udaka-bowdha') of the tank, 
(L, IS,) "And future slxonld preserve this meritorious gift; for tlaere are (the 

f 7:- *;-^ composed % Vyfisa: ^ f 

[Three -of the eastern ery verses.] 

(L* 22) (In) the 3isiij-3ST3^ (wifigwres)* SO (an<2) 7 9 of the 

"rrTtcric:^ reign* on tie new^mooii of Ghadtra. 

(L. 23,) This edict (jsasana) of Baj^imlia. ^ras written at the command of Ms (the Jemg'e) 

own % the son of 



Tiese copper-plates were found at CMoacola in the office record room of the Principal 

Collector of Gafij^m and kindly forwarded to me "by Mr. C. J. Weir, LO.S* 9 Acting 

Collector of the GaSjam district. Mr, GK T. Bamamisxti of Parli-KImecli informs xne ttat 

lie has mo doubt that this set of plates is the tfcnsslng one of the six sets wMett. wre d" *ap at 

CMcacole soin years ago and purchased By Mr* Graham. 3 Like the five other setSj, these plates 

are mow deposited in the Madras Museum* They are three in number and measure 8r "by 3f 

inches. Tlae margins of "both sides of the second plate* and those of tli inixer^ inscribed side 

of the first and third plates are raised into rims for the protection of the writing^ which is in 

a of very good preservation. The "ring on which, the plates* were strung, and which Itad 

mot yet teen cut when 1 received them, is about ^ thick and 4f* in diameter . The email 

seal, in the lower part f which the ends of the ring are secured f measures about 1^ by If v 

in immeter* It "b^rs, in relief* on a conntersniik surface^ a recumbent bull^ wliich faces the 

right and is surmounted "by a crescent. The weight of the three plates is 2Ife 2 025 , s and 

of the ring and seal 1 S 2| o%* y total 3 ffi 4| oz. 

Tie alphabet of the inscription resemWes that of the Aehyutapoxam plates of Indravarman 
I. f * with "wMcli, UBlike the two grants of Indravarmaii II., 5 it shares the K%arf forms of 
V and 1. In. Kne 26 f. tte inscription fornislies instances of tlie numerioal syiribolB for 
100^ 80, 3 S and 20 3 and ? combined with, tke last s of the decimal figure for OJ 8 TKe 
is n0t T^ry correct Sanskrit^ Witk the exception of three imprecatory verses (11. 20-24) and one 
recorfs the name of the writer (L 241), the inscription is in pros. As regards 
t>rt^erep3iy 5 -the jilwdm&lya is employed once (in taJt=EaK&ga? 9 line 2), and the upadhmd- 
wjm five times (in lines 7, 10, 17, 18, 19), The anusvdva, before 4 is expressed % n in <ni$t<rii$a 
(L 4) s (L 24) s and mMati (L 26 f.). In accordance with Pardmi -via. 4 5 47, the letter 

, in 

i in 
ri was pronounced as ri, which is actually used for ri in JerituA (L 10). 

Tn:s aypetn to rate to fte sltike of the tank. Tbis is perhaps the Telogn gdra^eMn a bramble * 

Hr. SawelfB JW. of ^ % ^w, V6L L p. 7 , YoL IL p. 21 f . J d JM. ^. Vol 
mfe, p, 127. Iiid. ^^. VoL XIIL p. 120 f . and p. 122 f 


130 INDIOA. 

the BOTtiem side, a boulder on the top of a gate ? l then another boulder {covered) with brfekg, 
a couple of dhimdra (or adMm&ra?) trees, and then a %<ira%a* tree* Hqbody shaH 
hindrance (0 tJie donee) if (7*e) opens the sluice (udaka-bcwdhci) of the tank* 

(L, 13.) "And future kings should preserve this meritorious gift; for there are {iJie 
f::l3i:^f) verses composed by Vyasa : ** 

Three -of the customary verses. "j 

(L. 22.) (In) the eightynreveiv-'- - (in figures) > SO (anc) 7^-^ of ^prosperous 

TictOTiOTis reign-* on th.e new-moon of Cliaitra* 

(L. 23.) This edict (idsana) of Sajasimlia was written at the command of Ms (the Mag's) 
month by ViB&yachaiidra, the son of 



Tliese copper-plates were found at CMeacole in the office record roam of the Principal 
Assistant Collector of Gafljam and kindly forwarded to me by Mr. C. J e Weir, I.C.S., Acting 
Collector of the Garrjam district. Mr* Or. V. Bamamnrti of Parl&-Kimet|li informs me that 
lie 1ms mo doubt that this set of plates is the f&issiag one of the six sets which were'dtig up at 
CMcacole some years ago and purchased by Mr* Graham. 3 Like the five other sets s these pktes 
are now deposited in the Madras Museum* They are three in number and measure 8 & by 3 
inches. The margins of both sides of the second plate, and those of the inner s inscribed side 
of the first and tMrd plates are raised into rims for the protection of the writing s which is in 
a of very good preservation. The ring on which the plates* were strung* and which lad 

not yat been cut -when 1 received them, is about -fa* thick and 4f* in diameter. The small 
in the lower part of which the ends of the ring are secured, measures about 1| by IF 
in diameter. It bears, in rlief s on a countersunk surface^ a recumbent trail, which faces tie 
proper right and is smmoimted by a crescent. The weight of the three plates is 2 ft 2 oz., and 

of the ring and seal 1 B 2|- O2. s total 3 ft 4| 021. 

The alphabet of the inscription resembles that of the Achyutapuram plates of Indravarman 
I., 4 with vHcii, unlike the two grants o Indravaraxan II.,5 it shares the S"%arf forms of 
if ^ In line 26 f . the inscription famishes instances of the numerical symbols for 

100, SO, 3, and 20, and, combined with the last, of the decimal figure for CK The 
is not vpy correct Sanskrit, With the exception of three imprecatory verses (11. 20-24) and one 
records the name of the writer (1, 24 f.), the inscription is in prose. As regards 
crtkogmphy* the is employed once (in c taR=KaUnga f line 2), and the u^adJimd- 

mlija TC times (in lines 7, 10, 17, 18, 19), Tte anusv wo, bef ore ^ is expressed by n in nistrinsa 
(i 4), (L 24), mid (L 26 f :>. In accordance with P&nini, viiL 4, 47, the letter 

i is before r (in dhaTmma^Jcmm^mTcJcyamdndm, L 19), and the letter t before y {e.g. in 

pretfjsfefcaTO, L 25, but not in #c%a-%% % L 8), and before r {e.g. in yattra, L 16, but not in 

h 1. 12). The erroneous doubling of t in. Mdttrichandra (I. 24) shows that 
iha Towel ri was pronounced as rf, which is actcaUy used for ri in "kritvA (I. 10). 

a TO- tojta -to tte BWca of the tet,k. a This is perh ap8 the Telngn **+*#+ a bramble.' 

' ^. -" m 0/ S rw^f :\f V 1 ;// 7 J V L 1L P ' 21 f ' J ttnd J ^- ^' VoLXUL p . *i 

* o*fe, p. 127. * Id. ^i. V6L XIIL p. 120 . and p. 122 f 

of the of a 


The plates record the grant of the village of Boppangika In Saraiimatamba^ a subdivision 
of the district of B2r6slittikavartaiil (1, 9), as an agrahdra (1. 10) to sis BrfihmaE& brothers* 
who resided at Kalinganagara (1. 11) and belonged *to the Chhanddga school (L 12). The 
grant was made at Kaliiiganagara l (L 2) "by one of the Mugs of Kalinga (1. 5) of the 
family (1. 4), the Mahdrdja Ddvdndravarman, who was the son of Giin&rriava (L 8). The 
date of the grant was the eighth. titJii of the bright fortnight of the month of (1. 11), 

during (fhe sun*s) progress to the north (ttdag-ayana,)? The edict itself was engrossed and 
issued in 6S the one-hiiiidradaiideglitytliirci year (in words and numerical symbols) of 
reign, on the twentieth (solar) day (in words and figures) of the month of 
(L 26 f.). THe second date is subsequent to the first by at least several months. TTnfortanately, 
neither of the two dates contains any elements which admit of verification, and which might 
thus help to fix the initial point of the Gr&ng-a era. The second date is preceded by the names 
of the writer of the edict and of an official witness (I. 24 f.), and followed by the name of the 
engraver (1. 27). 

Owing to the uncertainty in which the Ganga era is still involved, nothing can at present 
be said about Devendravarman, the son of Grunarnava, but that he must be distinct from 
DSvSndravarman, the son of Anantavarxnan, 3 and that the name Chmamava occurs twice in 
the list of the ancestors of Chddaganga of Kalinga. 4 

TEXT. 5 
First Plate. 

[n*] ^TORRHPT??^^ 

2 fi^f^^^^i 11 ^ 1 ^ 

3 t^r^in < ^"^ i Q^' 1 ^V s C ; ^' IW^lWT ^^^^^it^^T^-iK^^W 

4* vrf*97rarf^<w<J ^ ^wiHwgji^l'rcreiwt 8 fii^ifi t^^t^CVilTf^d' w^ 1 ^ 11 

5 ^^TST'TN <i^ L J WWH^'^g^^l^WC^^^^I 1 ^^ 

6 ^q^lftl-f ^ Ri fj"'^"'^''!!'^^ J ITrTi^i^^d^^^^l'^^^qi* 

2 The vowel of tlie third syllable is short here, as in the majority of other instances, while it Is long in line li 
in the Chlcacole plate of Auantavarman's son D&vndravarman (Ind. A.nt* Vol. XIII. p* 275 f teit Ime 2}^ ia 
the Alamanda plates (ante, p, 18, text line 2), and in the Parl&-Kimedt plates of Vajrahasfca, which will shdrtly be 
published by Professor Kielhom (Ho. 81 below). 

3 Compare the first date of the Achyutapuram plates, ante s p. 127. In. the Chioacole plates, ndagayan 
cannot "be taken in the sense of wttardyaqa-8ainJcrdnti 9 ' because the latter cannot coincide with the eighth titM of 
the bright fortnight of Magha. 

3 Ind . Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 273, and Vol. XVIIL p. 148* 

* ibid. VoL XVIII. p. 170 f . 

5 From the original plates. 6 Expressed by a symbol in the original. ? Read <lfttf *fo - 

s Bead fat%ra, 9 Bend !WiP5r. 

10 As in another O&nga grant (Ind. Ant. ToL XIII. p. 121), the participle 1Tf%cfcf is erroneously placed at the 
beginning of the compound, while the sense requires it to stand between ^fafUt"3F and ^W*r*rw> n in two other 
grants (Ind. An. VoL XVI. p. 3&4 and ante, p. 128). 

S 2 



[VOL. Hi 








Second Plate j First Side. 


Second' Plate ', Second Side. 

Chicacole Plates of Devendravarman. The Year 183. 






















&o ^443*nfiKWMwJ?*iiiit4te) ^rra^fimitt 1 <ftrr wf% [i] 



Third Plate 



4144441*41 [*] 

[i*] ir- 

(Line 1.) Om- Hail ! From the victarious (c% of) EMinganagar% wMcli is tke 
of tlie ^wia.ole earth (ancl) which, is pleasant (on account of the stvmdtaneow existmw) 
of iiiie comforts of J1 seasons, the son of the glorious GunarriaYa, the glorioms 

who has become a, receptacle of wisdom, modesty, bravery, 

fena.i;ladPiilness, liberality, and wealth ; who adores the feet of (his) mother and father ; wh0 is 
sfc do*v"out -worshipper of MahesYaxa; whose feet are reddened by the dense clusters of the %ht d 
jewels on tlie crests of the crowd of all vassals, prostrated by (his) yakrar ; who has caused 
ooE?y of " victory ** to resound in the turmoil of many battles ; whose spotless fame is spmd 
filae snrfebce of is]h.e earth which is girt by the waves of the fonr oceans ; who has acquired 
sovereignty ovex? tie whole (country) of Kalinga by the edge of his own sword ; who is 
cwraament of i>lie spotless race of the G&ngas ; (and) who is freed from the stains of the 
(age) by C^*O prostrations at the pair of lotos-feet of the god Ctdkarn^vimio, who 
sole arcMteci; for the construction of* the whole world, who is the lord of the animate 
inanimate cr-ea,iaon, (and) who is established on the sinless peak of the MaSitaitra 
xtain, addresses (the following) order to the ryots and all (other inhabitants) of the village 
of 3^>ppangika in ScuraHamtamba, (a subdivision of the district) of E^shtnkavartsid : 

1. 9.) " Be i-fc. tnown to you that we have given this village, having exempted (it) 
the burden of :aU taxes, having converted (it) into an agrahdra which is to last as long as 
jj^ ^| ie mjLXLt ^^ motions of water, for the increase of the religious merit of (our) 
and father and of ourselves, in the month of Magka, during (the* sun's) progress 

The group ^T lookci as if it consisted of if and t. 
Bead *t1%f?T H . ^*TC1 

* Head 


(udag-ayana), on the (titU) of flie bright (fortnight), to the 

Bhava^armaa, Sivasaannan, Vislinusarman s 

who reside at who are students of the CKhandoga 

are members of the Krislinatrfeya gStra, (and) who have thoroughly studied the 

wBD are memers o e rsinar , o ve orougy sue the VMaa 

and Knowing tHjs, dwell ye in peace s delivering (to the donees) the customary 

and errcyneni s !" 

(L. 14.) The fcoimdary-liniits of this village are j(&s following} : In the eastern 

direction lies the trench (which marks the boundary) of the district. In the southern direction 

a trench. In the western direction^ a trench in which, the water from the Boppangiig 

MH ind the water from the Sayadaka hill unites and runs, (and) which extends as far as the 

direction. In the northern direction, a kosamba (?) tree and a ginigini (?) tree ; then 

the boundary of the village of Kurudiimbi ; then, a tinduka tree ; again, a tfaduka (and) a 

iree 5 together with a crooked jambA tree and a bamboo clump ; (and), thea s for (a 

which equals) the shadow of a man/ the district trench,* which extends as far as tke 


(L. 19.) And (the Mng) addresses (the following) request to future kings : _ " HaTiig 

possession of the earth by means of rigitj, or inheritance, or conquest* (and) ruling 

(it), (sou) should preserve this meritorious gift $ and, with reference to this (subject), there are 

pUowing) verses composed % "Fyasa : ?* 

[Three of the eusbcramrj Yerses.] 

(L. 24) (This) edict was written at the command of Ms (the king's) own mouth by 

the son of MStricliandra (and) a descendant of the race of Ap&rranata. 
(L, 25.) (It was written) in the presence of the Mahattara, the Sayara s Wandisarman. 
(L. 26.) (In) the year one htrndred and ighty-three, (in figures), 100 SO 3 S 
of the prosperoiss and victorioiis reign, in the month of SrftTan^ on fbe twentieth, 

20 0* (solar) 

(L. 27.) (This edict) was engraved By Sarvaolmiicira^ the son of SZha^diohancba- 

Bh&gxka*^ " * 



The subjoined edition of tie ttree enlarged versions of Asdka's Hew Edicts, discovered 
by Mr. Lewis Bice, tie indefatigable and successful explorer of the archseological treasures of 
Mysore, a baaed on inked estampages, received from Dr. Hultescfe.* The earlier editions and 
notices of these documents, wMct have been used, end to which reference will be made in the 
TsSv T 1 "!, 5 ^' LewiS Eice 8 *&**> P**pt> Published in his Report of February 1892; 
/T" ^-f Di translation, and valuable full discussion of JBTo. I. in the Journal 

inX H L? P ;f ? ff " ( ?J? d '^ ra P hi ***>**, No. IV.) ; and (3) my own short note 
tiTl ^ 1 f^' V L Vn - PP - 29 * " which J announced the dx'scovery,- made 
the help of a photograph Hndly sent by Mr. Bice,- that the last lettera of the three 

; -..* 



inscriptions belong to the northern or aad thai the last sentence rives 

the name of the writer* fe 

The inscriptions are incised on three different rocks in the neJcAW^rhooi o f tfc e village of 
wliioh. is the head-qnartera of a snb-dirisicm of the ' MoI^Mfe- O f 

the CMtaldroog district in the Mysore state. On their exact positio^size/Md state of 
preservation see Mr. Sice's Eeport, pp. 1-3. respeet to their paleography 1 

make the following additions to his remarks (op. eit. p, 3) : 

1. The tjrpe of the letters comes nearest to those of the version of the 

Edicts; where, in particular, we have the same wavy ra, and the same contrivances for 
expressing groups with r& 9 which appear in prdnew dralyitavyam (Wo. 1. 1. <)), as well as 
pta* which be read tpa. And it may b noted that, in later times too, a 

connection is observable between the letters of the epigraphies! documents from or 

KathiavM, and those from the south of India. The land-grants of the o f 

and of the rulers of VaLabM all show characters of the Southern type. " 

2. The particular uncouth form of ma, with its abnormally large upper limbs, In 
the inscriptions era the crystal prism from the Sttpa 

3. Th ^stroke, turned upwards, to which Mr. Bice attention, occurs also in the 
version o the Bock-Edicts and elsewhere. ID addition, the curious ^stroke, beet 

downwards at the end, in ndtthesi* (Ho. I. L 11) deserves to be mentioned. I do not remember 
any other sign exactly like it in the old inscriptions,, There are also a few other 
resembling those in the later inscriptions* e.jr. the a in (No. I. L 3), the 

tu in No. I. L 4. With respect to the e of ekam (Wo, I. L 2), consists of two 

only, I should say that it has been left incomplete by accident^ it is the only of 

its kind. Every other e has three strokes, 

4. The first numeral sign is Irideed, as Mr. Eice states^ partly from 

in the and Hfkpnftth versions, and this difference further proof for the 

assertion that local varieties of the Somfchero alphabet in the of AsSk% 

hence this alpJhabet must have had a longer history, 

Finally^ I Ixave to point out tkat the Worthera or letters exactly 

those of the lEanseto?a and SMlib&ssgarlii inscriptions,. The colophons of of tie 

three inscriptions prove "beyond doubt -that the manuscripts of all three were written Tby 
the same scribe 3 3?a4&. Nevertheless, there are some verbal differences in the tezts^ as well as 
omissions and erroneous repetitions. The latter two kinds of mistakes occur excliairelv in 
Nos. II a and III. and are more numerous in No* HI. than in Wo* H. It almost looks as if Pada 
had written STo. I. first and then had become tired of the dc^uments, Tlie verfe^ 

differences lite hewam dha (HTo II. L3) instead of dnapayatt (No* I. L 1), and te (No. II. 
L 11) instead of $vdpite (ISTo* I* 1. 5) ar% just euch as the clerks and copyists of modem India 
are very apt fco Introduce* The use of the two alphabets pi^obably that PadawaspTOtici 

of, and wislied fco exhibit* his accomplishments. In fact, his winding up with liptksr&nm in 
Northern characters reminds one of a trick of sehoolboys f who sometimes sign their in 

Greek or otter foreign characters* The use of the Northern character may farther be 
to indicate that Pada once served isx Northern India, where the Khardshtr! alphabet ; 

for it is even now most turtisual to find professional who know other alphabets 

those used in their native districts, while the epigraphical evidence available at present is mot 
favourable to the assumption that the Khar6shtri alphabet was commonly known all over 

The of the inscriptions offers., it would seem ? a mixtmr of Worth-Eastern and 

Southern f orias. To the dialect of Hagadiia belong the substitution of e for Sanskrit a* (* g. in 

and jp*&e), tte word munisd, amd perhaps also cku. With tie of the 

Prakrit tie us of r o f instead of the ancieBt b v 


tiae ironl utafc&p^, and perhaps the frequent change of the dental no, I suffixes to na e 
dgvdn&m^ maMm&t&nam, pakamdminena, sdvane. The mixing of the two dialects is probkhT 
im@ to the fact that the edicts were drafted in axt office where a royal prince and H#h offi * 1 
fern Magmiha prided over a number of subordinates who were natives of the South. The feuf 
Hittfc Pda uses in No. I. (L 9) sacham, and in the corresponding passage of Ho. IL (L 17) ^ocAa " 
m y epmon coirreys the lesson that in ASdka'g times, just as now, most, if not all, Prakrit 
Amtecfc possessed two sibilants, which the uneducated and the half -educated classes f,n wiri A i 

-w*.ivinbyv/Oj WS WrJHCH. 

latter the professional writers belonged and still belong, used promiscuously in the sam 
words. The vacillation is Just tie same as when the inhabitants of Gujarat say in one sentence 
I fern Jutte eKh ("what does he say ?"), and in the next tam& aum fathyum (* what did yoa 
wy ?")- Similar instances of laxness in the use of the palatal and dental sibilants may be 
observed in most parts of India, and this laxness is at the bottom of the frequent interdfeage 
el the signs for the sibilants in some versions of AS&ka's Edicts, where, of course, ska and S 
both be taken to mark the palatal sibilant. 

The dictionary of the Asoka inscriptions receives quite a number of additions throngh 
the second part of these inscriptions and through the sentence which serves as introduction 
t both. It most be noted that the introduction certainly did not come from the Imperial 
Secretariat at Pataliputra. It is jost possible -that the second portion, too, which as yet has not 
toe* discovered elwmhere, may have been drafted at Suraii^agiil nd may furnish the 
Ay^wtas view of the essentials of Asoka's maiStwa. The difference in the orijrin would 

xftlly account for the difference in the lugoage. 

Irrespective of the fact that the &dd4jmra inscriptions wiih their summary of the 
-Bown Dtemma make the position of those **** difficult, wfeo contend that ASoka- 
fcrfm o* *fce author of the New Edicts,- their great valt !** therein that they 
aporfaon of the Dektan teble-laud to have MUmed to the M*** eme 

to the M***y emperor. This 

r' I !7 rt **"*** I * *^^y *ted in the Vienna, 
that this news dad not oome quit aae^pectedly to me. Ever since the late 

E dc - BaSe * * ea * ^ S. the Thana collector^ 
f <****** "* * th Konkan. The 
** eoatmuation was'subject 
onquest of th. whote Konkan by the Mauryas poL* 

M.ury chfeftaL or 
* thei 
w of the 


~ o ya ers n e 
*"* ^^ *^ ***%> the occupation of 

occurrence of the 

otber inhabits of various SfcT^.T^ ^ ^^^ laadL Wer8 

* b* explained in the sam* x? Dekhan,i which circumstance, it seems to me, 

if ^? S^ " the 8Urvival l the names ^aUcS or Shelfee, *. e . 
his t mL^f^ 5 SSmr ' *"' aah& ^5 -d so forth, Mr. Bice's 
as corretive e*l^e S iX7 ^* v*"^^ *** the8e P oiate deserv& 
the Mysore territory. T^tST^ ^' ^^ that ^^ had direct nte>1 

suggested by some other considerations. 

^ XIX. p. 75 , Vol . xxr. p. 110 . lathe 


The SiddApura edicts were sent to Isila from an office, presided over by an Ayaputa and 
Mahmatas* This scheme of government corresponds exactly to that, which, as the second 
Separate Edict of Dhauli teaches us, was adopted in Tosali, where a Kumia and 
ruled, to all of whom the edict is addressed. The natural inference is, therefore, that of Mr. 
Bice, who takes Ayaputa to be an equivalent of KumfUa* while M- Senart's supposition that 
the Ayaputa is a local chief (op. cit. p. 494 - Notes, p. 27) appears more far-fetched. And it is 
not difficult to show that ayaputa may be used in the sense which Mr. Rice attributes to it; 
for the St. Petersburg Dictionaries adduce passages in which the corresponding Sanskrit word 
dryaputra means * a prince.* Moreover, in Dr. BhagvanlaUs Katak inscriptions, 1 Nos. I. and 
III., the kings IQiarsvela and Vakadepa receive the epithet air a? i.e. dry a (ajr&), and in the 
STasik cave-Inscription ]$To. 15, s king Pulumsiyi is indicated by the word maha-airaka, i.e. 
mahdrya. Hence airaputa or ayaputa might indeed be used for c a king's son/ It may also be 
ixrged that, if the Ayaputa had been a mdndalika or padesika s as Asoka himself calls the local 
oMefs, the ministers would not be mentioned as sending their orders together with .Ms. Such 
;a proceeding would be against all etiquette. On the other hand, the position of a prince, sent 
out as a viceroy, was probably not an independent one. The distrus f and the jealousy of the 
father and sovereign no doubt surrounded him with Mgli officials, possessing almost, if not 
quite, the same powers, in order to watch, and, if necessary, to check Mm. Finally,- we also 
quote the circumstance that Pada, one of the writers in the Ayaputa 's office, presumably had 
acquired his knowledge of the Kharoshtri characters while serving in As6ka*s northern 

The extent of Asoka's possessions in the Dekhan cannot as yet be ascertained. But ifc may 
foe considered as certain that they included more than the northern extremity of Mysore, and 
I believe we may venture on the guess that they extended into the Bombay presidency and 
that the conquest of the Dekhan had been made by governors of the Konkan, after the 
annexation of the latter district* In the direction of the Western. Ghats I would also look for 
Suvamnagiri, the head-quarters of the viceroy of the DekKan. If it still exists, it will now 
go by a name like Songir or Songadh, Sondurg, Savarndurg, or the like. 

The three versions furnish in my opinion no great assistance for finally settling the most 

difficult problems connected with the New Edicts, They confirm, it is true, the view of 

^Professor Oldenberg who, years ago, 4 contended that, in the Rfipnath. Edict, adhatiy&ni ought to 

Ij8 read, instead of adhitisdni, as 1 had done. But this is also highly probable according to a 

mew impression of the Rupn&th version, made over to me by Dr. Fleet, according to which 

I shall publish a new transcript in the Indian Antiquary^ The readiiig adhatiydni, as a matter 

of course, makes it necessary to give up the assumption that the statements of the inscription 

regarding the time of ASoka's conversion to Buddhism agree with those of 'the Buddhist 

tradition. The Beloved of the gods says, not that he was a lay-hearer for more than thirty years 

and a half, but for two years and a half. Again, and this is a point not yet recognised, he 

does not say that he " approached or entered the Samgha" more than a year ago, but more than 

six years ago* When I wrote my first articles, I had not seen that the apparent i above va 

Is the upper part of a da, and hence read in the Sahasram version savimcJihale, instead of 

#a$vachhale, i.e. shadvatsaram. Moreover, misled by tlxe imperfect facsimiles, I believed that 

mistakes like ch"ha for sa were common in As6ka*s Edicts. Hence, I unhesitatingly corrected in 

fclie Rupn&th. Edict the inconvenient chhavachhare, i.e. stiadvatsaram, *a period of six years/ to 

1 Actes du Sixieme Congr&s International des QrisntaUstes, Vol. III. Part ii. p. 152. 

* Misread ver& by Dr. Bhagrv&nUl, who, in objecting to a PnLkrit diphthong at, had apparently forgotten the 
existence of the form tkaira and similar ones. 

* Rep. Arch. Surv. West. Ind. Vol. IV. p. Ill, and p. 112, note 1. 

* Zeitsckrift der Deutsch. Morg. Ges. Vol. XXXV. pp. 4*73 fL s [Vol. XXII. pp. 299 .] 


e 9 *xie year/ The onect total of the period during which the Beloved of the gods 
himself to have been connected with the Buddhists, is thus about nine years. With 

respect to the other, equally or perhags more important question, who the VyHtha or Vivutha was 
and to what the numerals refer, the Sldd&piira inscriptions yield, as far as I can see, no positive 
I shall discuss these problems again in the Zeitschrift der UeuUchen Morgenlandischm 
and will note here only this much, that I still take the Vivutha to he tie 

Tbtbfigata, and still refer the numerals to tie number of years elapsed since the HirvlLna. 

Kb. I. 

ayaputasa maM,matanam cha vachan[e]na I[si]lasi mahamali 
arogiyam vataviyi lievam cha vataviy!. [II*] 

First Edict. 

DeTanaih piye &napayati [|*] 

2 AdMkanp] adhatiy&ni [va]sani ya hakam . . . no tu kho bftdham pakamte 

husam [I*] Ekam savachharaih s&tireke to. kho sa[mjvaclihar[aliii s 

3 yam may4 Sainghe uj^yit baciham oha me pakamte [|*] Imin chu Miens 

amis& samana miinisa Jambudipasti] 

4 misi deTehl [J*] [Pakajmasa 4 hi iyam phale [I*] No tiyam saiye 

Baaii&tpeiieYa papotave [|*] Kamam tu 5 kho khudakena pi 

5 paka[mami3nena 6 vipule syage sakye &rMhetave [|*] *E[t]ayathaya iyaih sivane 

siYipite [I*] 

6 * * mahatp& cha imam pakam$[yti] . i 7 amta cha mai s 

j&Beyu ehirathitlke cha iyam 

7 pa . . * [!*] Iyam cha athe vadhisiti vipulam pi cha vadhisiti 

svaradhiya diyadhayam 

8 [mdh]isit [P] Iyam cha savan . sav . p * te Vyuthena 256 [II*] 

Second Edict. 

Se hevam BeYauam piye 

Mia [P] xn&t&pitzea sus6s[i]taTiye 10 [ | *3 Hemeva garut[vam] u pr^nesu 

* Sachaiii 

10 vfttairiyam [}*] Se ime dhammagnna paTatitaviya [|] Hemera 

1 From Mead estaicpages, received from Dr. Hultzsch. 
a Tlie tas i* mntil&ted on the rights tat the fi-afcroke is distinct, 

1 Fbaubly mmeMarom, as the Indentation, taken for an anumdra, is rather irregular in.its outlines. 
4 The St is damaged* but not #4, as the photograph might seem to indicate, 

f The ia consists here of a Bemieivci* open below an 
e pra^iice prevailizig id much later inscriptions. 

Bemieivci* open below, and a vertical standing above it $ in accordance with 

t* e ra^iie 

the upper portions of the two ma have been preserved, and the second very Smperfectlj- 

* The j* is faintly viaible on the impression- Bead ti. 

9 Use lower portions mloue caJ4 have been preserved. 
i The i&tpieBicm showia Mnt traces 4 of the vertical stroke of the vowel i 

The impmslm thow traces of a probably angular sign which was attached to the lower right of the to and 
1 *'*" ^ a ^esmmption that the reading was wtiM. s bat jar**** not absolutely 

Siddapura Inscription No, I of Devanam Piye, 

SIddapiira Inscription No. !! of Devanam Piye. 

v -s v- ' . '>'* h -> vi s' - ' *- 

**^&&&^m^ j& 


Ho. 22.] 




achariye apacli&[yi]taviye 

S&tikesn eta kfjii?] 1 ya[tM]rahazia 2 pavatita-viye [|*' 





d [Igh] avnse cha esa 

hevam esa kativiye 





ad0na li[kh]it[am] 

lipikarena 4 [IP] 

1 [Sjiivamnagirite 5 

2 nam [claa 

3 arogiyam 

WQ. n. 



First Edict. 

4 *ha [I*] 

5 ya ha, 






[njpasake no tu * kho b&dha [pakam]te husam [}*] 




ke 7 tn kho samvachhare 

[sa . i] 


7 [cha me pakam]te 

8 Jamtrad 
No hi- 

ya s[ak]e . . * n[eva] p%o[tsTJYe [|*] Kamam tn 
pi pa na vi nl svage sak 

ge ya [i] * *h s^vane sayite [1* 

da . . matatpS. cha imam [pajkameyn ti 

ghe npa[y]ifce 

*] Imina chu MIe[iia] . m[]sA sama . inu- 
[m]is& deveM [I 41 ] Pakania[sa,] M iyam pliale [|*] 

3cho klradakena 

S,radhetave [|*] 

YatM khn- 

axiita cha 

thifcike cha iyam 

14 a va[dh]i[s]iti v[i]pn am 
15 yam vadhislti [|*] I 

16 [II*] 

pakatne hot[u] 8 [|*] 

p[0 cha vadkisiti a- 

xh [eha] sa[va]:ae 

Second ISdict. 


17 [hyijtavyam [|*] Sa[cha3m va 

Im w dhammagu- 
13 ....... [|*3 H * m [acha]riye apachiyl- 

teviy sn 10 

1 This reading is not absolutely certain. The stroke which I Interpret as a % as attached to the lower 
left side of the consonant. The blot taken by others for an anusvdm is very irregular In its outline. 

2 The circle and the central dot o tTx* are faintly visible on the impression | compare the much plainer tM io 
line SO of Ho. II. 

3 Read fcafaviye. 

Written in Northern or Khardshtn characters. The apparent semicircles below the last signs are not 

connected with the letters, and are mere flourishes. 

* The first syllable is damaged, b*tt unmistakable. The impression leaves no doubfe that the lines near the top 
of the consonant^ which have induced others to read ti, are accidental 

Deceived by the donbl wteoigd, the writer has omitted wtoetytf efax, J&evam before this word. 

7 The signs ad . i are faintly visible on the impression* 

8 The reverse of the impression shows the stroke of %of& 9 and proves that i&e apparent l-stroke m the same 
syllable is due to an accidental fisstore* a 

9 The lacuna in line 16 is too small to have contained the whole text of the version of Ho, I. Some mdisti 

T 2 

signs are visible before 

10 This is probably the end o 


19 sa poran . * . t! di[gh*]vu[s . ] cia 

heme[va * te]v&sine eha 

20 &chariye . . tharaham pavatitav ^ 

2i esa [ta]tha kataviye cha [||*i 

Pa . o 
22 .... na*[l|*] 

. IEL 


12 * T pulam pi . 

11 sa(?) the[na] 256 

Second Edict. 

v . v . (?) 

10 * . tapitasti -.[si]ta[vi]ya he . e & - esu 

9 [hy ta]v a *h sacham vataviyam e * * , 

8 hevam pa[va]titaviy& 3 ? ? am na te m s . t . va 

? taviya hemeva a[chariye] amtev^si [n&] **.,. 

6 [r]&na paki * slta[v]iya i[ y ]^ 

5 . chariy. am 9 , [L]cha[riy . a] Sitik4 te . . 

4 . . titayiye es& . ra * [pak]Iti di . & . cha . * * . . . Sa . * e . a 
3 ...... . vati * . ye hevam [m]e Dev^nam pi[y]e 

2 .... kataviye . dena 4 [likhitjam 

1 . . karena 5 [||*] 


Tlie ofl3.cials in Isila must be wished good health and be addressed thus from 
Suvamnagtri. [I] 6 (Suvarnagiri) with the words of the Prince and the oflGLcials (residing 
tlere^) : 

First Edict. 

" The Beloved of the gods issues (these) commands : [2] More than two years and a 
half [3] (have elapsed), since I (became) a lay-hearer; but, indeed, I did not exert myself 
strenuously. One period of six years, [4] but indeed more than a period of six years, (has 
elapsed)* since I have entered [5] the community of the ascetics (and) have strenuously exerted 
myself; hut during this time the men who were (considered) true in Jamfoudvlpa, (have 
been made to appear) false together with the gods, [6] For this is the rcault of exertion. For, 
this cannot be attained by a great man alone. But in any case, [7] indeed, even a small man, 
who exerts himself, can gain for himself much heavenly bliss. For this purpose this sermon 

J Lines 19 (second half) 20, and 21 (beginning) seem to have contained Deedless repetitions. 
3 The ija, is in the Northern character. 

As far s this word, the text of the second edict seems to have been in good order. The following five line. 
eilulnt a gnit confonon. The copyist seems to have repeated the same sentences twice or even three times. 

The ^e is somewhat abnormal and looks almost like a mutilated da, for which I mistook it when writing the 
note in the Ft e ffl Oriental Journal, Vol. VII. pp. 29 ff. The apace between ye and de looks too small for two letters, 
d remnants of one only are visible. It seems, therefore, probable there wa 8 no c/ia after *ata*y*, and that 
the idea of readmg the name Ckapada, mentioned as possible in the Vienna. Oriental Journal, Vol. VII. p. 32, nmrt 
m given up* 

I I? 16 j 8 witte f i? Northern or Kbardshtrt letters. Indistinct remnants of pi are visible to the right of 'k*. 
The figures wthm crotchet* refer to the remarks given below. 

Siddapura Inscription No. Ill of Devanain Piye. 






has been preached : " Both small men and great men shall exert themselves to this (end)/*[8] 
and even iny neighbours [9] shall know It, and this exertion shall he of long duration. And 
this matter will grow, and it will even grow largely, at the least It will grow one size and 
a half. And this sermon has been preached by tlie Departed* 250 [10] (years ago). 9 ' 

Second Udict. 

" Even thus [11] speaks the Beloved of the gods : Obedience should be rendered to 
mother and father. Moreover, the respect for living creatures should be made firxQ,12j the 
truth should be spoken. Even these virtues prescribed by the sacred law should be practised* 
Moreover, the pupil should honour his teacher, and towards blood -relations one should indeed 13] 
behave as is due to them. This is the ancient standard (of wrtuous conduct), [14] this ecm- 
duces to long life, [15] and this should thus be performed." 

Written by Pada the scribe. 


1. Possibly the termination te (tost) has here the sense of the locative, in accordance with 
the maxim of the Sanskrit grammarians, declaring the affix tasi may serve to express any ease- 
relation. If so, the translation has to be altered slightly. In addition to the parallel passages 
mentioned by Mr. Bice and M. Senart, the second line of the Kasifc inscription No. XL B 
(Rep. Arch. Surv. West. India, p. 106) ought to be compared, where we read: rano 
Gotamftputasa 8dtaJcani$a mahddeviya cJia jivasutdya r&jamdtuya vachanena Gfovadhane Sdmako 
droga vatavo tato eva vatavo. Regarding the meaning of ayajputa see the introductory remarks. 

2. The second version has : " The Beloved of the gods speaks thus." 

3. Adfiatiya is, in Sanskrit, not ardhatritiya,, as Mr. Cbilders asserts, but ardhatr&ya* 

4. So.vacliliara or samvactihara, would have to be translated by * a year/ but for the varim 
lectiones of SahasrSra, safyvaoMiale (formerly misread savfohc&hale) , and of R&pnath, 
chhavacTihare, which both correspond to the Sanskrit shadvatsaram* Instead of sad (compare 
also saduvbsati, Pillar-Edicts I- VI.), sa or sam may, of course, be used, the following consonant 
being doubled ; compare sapandla in the Sahasram Edict, and d-sam-mas^ke^ Pillar-Edict V. 

5. TJpayite, upayite, or up . te 9 i.e. upetah, is the reading of all the versions. Up. te is plain 
in the facsimile of the Bupr^th version, where formerly I read wrongly papite. As AS6ka 
contrasts here the period- yam mayd samghe upayite with that when he was vpdsake t * a lay- 
worshipper/ it appears that the phrase means that he had entered the Samgha, and had become, 
at least nominally, a monk ; compare the Sanskrit phrases yajnam, vratam, or Irahmachary&m 
upa-i. The Sanskrit translation of the passage is : yan mayo, samgJia upet6 Mdham cka 
mayd prakrdntam. The prothesis of y in ytt& for Ua, i.e. ita y may be compared with that of v 
before u in vwJichati, vutta (upta), and so forth. It is common before e in Marathl words, 
e.g. yck for Ska,^ yeranda for eranda, etc. 

6. I do not think it either permissible or necessary to change, as M. Senart does, the word 
devehi, which occurs in two versions ; for the passage gives a good sense if devehi is taken a 
equivalent to dvvaih saha, as certainly may be done. With this esplanation a the transliteration 
into Sanskrit would be": l8t&na tu kdlendinrishd santd maniisfiyd mrisM \Terit&'$] devaifo [sahd]* 
The general meaning is that those men who were considered to be true, i+e. true prophet and 
instructors, like the ascetics and Brahmarias teaching the Vaishnavas, Saivas, and other sects, 
were deprived of their high position by the efforts of ASdka and lost the confidence of the 
people, and that their gods fell with them. The Eupnath Edict says, L 2 : Yi imdyo, Mldya 
Jambndipasi amisd devd husu te ddni masd Jcafd 3 and distinctly asserts the overthrow of the 
Brahmanical deities. Here we have the very natural assertion that the prophets and teachers 
fell in the estimation of the people together with their gods* The question whether the Sahasram 

im BPIGSAPHIA. OTDIOA. . [Vox*. Hi- 

Edict with, the R&pBith Tersion or with, that of SiddHpura, or if It tells us something* still 

different* as M. Senart thinks, will be discussed on another occasion, I, of conrsdy admifc -that 
M. Sensrfc is right in rejecting Dr. Bhagv&nl&rs conjectural emendation Jinsam te for #cz.m*a&j 
which, in 1877.* I inserted in my text. I now beliere that samta does not require any* alteration. 

7. Kdwrnm* * in any case/ may also "be translated by * at his desire/ 

8. The sermon which is spoken of here and at the end of this section? consists only of the 
six beginning with Kkudakd c~ha and ending with pakameyw ti 9 &nd its does not s fibs I 
thought formerly, go as far as diyadMyam vadhisiti. The ti after pakameyit, proves tlie 
correctness of the former statement. The use of an additional pleonastic yathd in No. II. arfc tie 
beginning o the sentence is in accordance with Classical Sanskrit usage ; see the examples qmoteci 
in the larger 8t. Petersburg dictionary under yatfad* 

9* The correct explanation of amtd has first "been given. by M. Senart* If further jpsroof 
were needed^ it is furnished by the additional mai, i,e. me, of our version. 

10. JLB stated already in the introductory remarks? I still believe the word Vy$>tTia to refer 
to Gantama-Buddliaj and the figure to the number of years elapsed since the Mirvina But 
1 mow admit that Vy&tha-Viwtha may be derived from vivas? and I take it as representative of 
Fywfcfa. The verb vivas occurs indeed not rarely in the sense of ' to elapse s to pass areray ; * 

*g*$ Gfibhila's GriTiyasHtra, ii." 8, janandd dafardtre vynshte, which Professor OIdexil>erg 
raiders correctly : ** When ten nights have elapsed after (the child's) birth ;** and fancha.tct^mfr^ 
ii. p"25 5 L 11 (Bomhay S. Ser.), anena vdvttdvyati&arena rajani vyushfd. 

11. The correct begiiming of the second edict has "been first recognized by M, Senarfc* 

12. Garutva, which (if the correct reading) is analogous to the form tadatva (Hock-EdLlcts, 
KMsi s X w ) s can of course be used like gaurava 1 in the sense of 6 respect for/ Drahyttavyam IB tlie 
future pa^ive participle formed from the stem of the piresent drahyati^ which corresponds to "the 
Sanskrit drikyati. It may^ be noted that the PML dictionary does not grre any represezLtaiti 4 v p o o 
the Sanskrit verb driJi^ though tie participle dalha and its derivatives show that one mxist tsave 

13, If the reading fat is Hie correct one, the word must b taken as a representative o 
or iio ; the ShfihUtagaarhi version of the Bock-Edicts, IV, 9, etc. 

14 has here either the meaning of svar&pa or of yini, which the Sansfait 

has so often* Dtarmasya or tfchdraaya must be understood. 

15. Compare Manu s ii. 121 : AW*vdacMatla*y* nityam vriddMpa,sgvtna,& \ eJiat 

lynr mdyd yaM laUm \\ and the paraHel passages quoted in the Synopsis to my 



^ preTiousIy pnbHshed, with a photoHthograph, by the Hev. T. 

v i 6 TT f Sf"!ft VdL TUL pp. 167 ff. f and in the HorniaZ of <Jba i^^Zem 

YoL n. pp- 849 ft I re .edit it from an exceEent impression received froim Ihr. 

The inscription is on tbne copper-plates, eacfc of wMck meastires Sf" long by 
fi^ and seccM plates are inscribed oa tott sides, and the third i. iJcribef on 

1 See the pagsages quoted in the two 8t. Pefenlurjf Dictionaries. 


only ; the "writing on the first side of the first plate, however, does mot form part of tibe body 
of the inscription (which is in Sanskrit), but is an endorsement in Tamil. The plates are held 
together Tby a rings 3" an diameter and about f " thick, which is now cut* It holds a circular 
seal, 2|^ in diameter^ which contains IB bas-relief a standrng bull, facing the proper left* and 
a much, worn and illegible inscription round the margin. The engraving is good s amd the 
writing is well preserved. Of the inscription proper (on plates 16, il and iiia) the of 

tlie letters Is between " and f ". The characters belong to the southern class of alphabets. 
They closely resemble the characters of what the late Dr. Burnell has termed fhe Eastern 
ChSlukya alphabet of about A.D. 680 (Elements of South-Indian Paleography t seeozicl edition, 
Plat v.) aiad differ 1 therefore decidedly from those of the TJruvnpalii grant of {he PaHaTO 
dynasty (JR&cL J-w, Vol. V. p. 51, Plate), with which the present inscription otherwise has much 
in common a The language is Sanskrit, and, excepting two imprecatory Yerses in lines 17 and 
18, the wliole is in prose. The text has been drawn up most carelessly, as may be seen from the 
omission of single syllables and whole words, as well as from the repeated occrareiice of groups 
of aJksJiaTt&s that are deroid of meaning. In respect of orthography also, the inscription is fall 
of faults, Bo:me of which may he accounted for by the influence of the writer's vernacular* Thus, 
the sign. of *visarga> is throughout omitted ; and similarly the sign of annsvdra or of the final m 
is omitted, everywhere except in the- word Pallav[_d*"]ndm 9 in line 10* We have a instead of 
final & in jpTapautra, L 2, pautra,* 1. 4, -dfflcsJiita, L 8 ; &nd instead of final & in -rdshffra, L 11* 
The palcvtcbl sibilant is used sis times for the dental sibilant, and the dental five times for the 
palatal. Unaspirated letters are employed instead of aspirates in VaMJsa {for Vaif&Kka), 
L 19, lavcla, (for laMha), L 8, and lakti (for Wuiktf), 1 6 ; and sonant consonants instead of surd 
ones in. bTitzffdrago (for bhattdrahd), 1. 9, and Daitriya (for TaittMya) 9 1. 12. Besides, we find 
ch for ^ in KulacharmmanS, L 13 ; ttli for ddh in -dttJiarana, (for -odd'havana), L 9; dh for d in 
-ddM-pr&d,7idna'i (for -ddi-praddnaiJi), L 5 ; and for <id& in rfdW, 1. 3, and samtadM, L 9 ; 6 for 11 
in &rato, 1, 7; and v for jp in uvanata, 1. 3 ; and for & in ^aZa, lines 1 and 14, lvda s 1. 8, and 
t?ajppa, 1. 9. In lines 17 and 18 a final m has been five times left unchanged before a consonant, 
where it slbould liave been changed to anusvdra ; and m is inregnlarly doubled in the body of a 

word in c&^czgammya^ L 14, and at the end of a word before a following Towel in 
at* (for ^ohchJidsanam^ati ) and sdrfoamm^avuha (for gdr$ram=arha), in L 16. Instead of the 
conjunct JA we hsw ny 3 in rdnya (for rdj^a ^ nd rdjna$), in lines 1 and 2 5 and, to facilitate the 
pronunciation, a -vowel has been inserted or y vocalised in a eonjauct in vdsJifira (for rdshfrS) 
L 11, arvbhaU (for arliati'), 1. 16, saZofca (for ^Zofc^), 1. 16, -mariyMasya, mariyddeyd, mariyddayd 
(for -wiavyddasya, and maryddayd'), lines 2, 11, and 13, and aiwariy (for aUvarya), 1. 14. The 
vowel r* is represented by the syllable ir in i^Vd^a (for vriddJia), twice in L 4 S prawVJAa 
(for jprat^ddAa), L 5, and WtavirdhaS (for abhivridd'hayi), L 14; and, on the other hand^ r 
is employed instead of *V 4 in Daitriya (for Taittirtya), 1. 12. Lastly, tie short vowel e, which 
is unknown to Sanskrit, but common in Tamil, is improperly used, partly trough the 
influence of a following^, in maryddeyd (for maryddayti), L 11, tj6ytf and ^ej^a (for vyayd), 
in lines 8* 14, and 19, and wneya (for vinaya), L 4. In addition to these errors the text 
contains otters wMch need not be enumerated tere. The size of the letters of tie 
endorsement on the first side of the first plate is between f" and J* ; tie eharaeters ara 
and Gra^tta ; and the language is Tamil. 

* Tlii diereBce Is stown especially, ^. 5 by fcbe forms of tbe initial a and of the eonsotianfe IT, #, , and r. 
I may state ber0 that in the present Inscription It is often quite impossible to dirtingmsh between tbe superscript 
4 and , aa fhat, accordingly, ia my transcript of the text, 1 bave pot i and I, wtoe fl of tbe two w 

* , 

Here tlie doubling of m might be justified by P&nlm, vm. 4, 47. 
s It is elear that^n was so piroBounced by the writer. 
* &^T* for ^<rfra (MMra) in'L 7 is probably due only to ae error of the engmver. 


The inscription professes to be one of the devout worshipper of Bhagavat (Vl^lmu), the 
wr-aKdis* of the Pallavas, the illustrious Ifandivarman (L 10), a member of the 

who is described as the son of the Maharaja Skimdavaarmao. O- b 

son's ion of the HaJiwrdja Simhavarman (L 4), and the great-grandson of the 

^andlEvaraiaa i (L 2). It informs us (in 11. 11-14) that, from the victorious KaSch 

(i L), Nandivarman gave the Tillage o Eaftchivftyil and four pieces of forest-land, situated 

la the district {rdshtra) of Adeyra, to a Brahinana inhabitant of KaficMvayiX. Darned 

who belonged to the Kansika gitra and to the VSdic school of the Talttdx-iyas, and 

was the Pravaehana. 3 The inscription further (in 11. 15-18) contains auxi admo- 

nition mot to levj taxes on the land so granted, threatens with corporal punishment tliose -wlio 

transgress the king's commands, and cites two of the ordinary imprecatory verseH ; 

and it clo^s(ia L 19) -with the statement that this document (jpaffika) was issixecl on tlie 

(lunar day) of the bright half of Vaisakha, in the first year of the -v^etorlo-os 

reign (apparently of Kandivarman)* 

The Tamil endorsement on plate La runs thus : " In the twenty-sixth year (of t7ie reign) 

of Jl^dirai-kOQ4^ we, (the members of) the assembly of K^iioliivayil* 

Igacmaraisnaxigaiairi* and we, (the members of) the assembly of TJdayac1iaiidxH.i3Ci,o-iiLgaIaxn,,| 

(have agreed as follows) : We, (the inhabitants of) these two villages, having jolxxod (twcf) 

having' Income one, shall prosper as one village from this (date)** 

Without the endorsement, this inscription is very similar to the Uruvupalli gfrx*rtt> of the 
Paltava Yuvamah&rdja VishnugopavarmaB, published by Dr. Fleet in the Indian Ancgi4>&ry 9 Vol. 

V, pp. 50 L Indeed, bixfc for the circumstance that our grant was issued (not from. ^f^Iakkndajf 
but) from KaBehtpura, and that the rulers mentioned in it are Skandavarman, Sixixlaauvarman f 
Skndamrman 9 and Fandivarman (instead of Skandavarmau, Vlravaramn, Skaxx5la.varmsun, 
Viahaiig6|,varmaii), lines 1-10 of it read much like a mutilated copy of liziea 1-16 of 
the IJravapalli grant; and in a similar, though perhaps less striking manner, 4 linesi 15-18 of 
Kandwoman's grant m^y be said to resemble Hues 28-32 of the grant of Vishnng-6p&varmaxi* 
This frefc has sot escaped the EeT, T, Foulkes, and the conclusion which he has felt inclitOLeel to dra,w 
from ifc f apparently is, that both grants were issued by the same prince, and that, axseordrngty* 
the YimTamian and Vishnugopavarman 8 of the one grant are identical with the Siiixhtwarman 
aacl Hmniivarman of the other, I myself am of opinion that the present inscription must, 
on j!ieograpMcal grounds, be -assigned to a later period than the Unxvupalli grab ; anct[ 
considering it g&spieious that, at different periods, there should have been two Palla^a, princtm 
and great-grandfathers were called Skandavarman, and that, moreover, two sets 
of four consecutive princes should have been described in almost identical terms, and fcakine also 
into the extreme slovenliness of the wording of Nandivarman's grant, I cannot, auppWHS 

the thai this grant may be a spnrions document, 6 the writer of which took foir His model 

eitier the Urnvnpali grant of Vishnugopavarman itself or some other inscription of t& a same 

The Tamil endorsement of this inscription is practically identical with the endorse^xont at 
end of the graut of yandiTarman Pallavamalla. published by the Rev. T. Foulkes i i>lxo 

, Vol. I. p. 112. 

T ._,._. _^_ ^..wo- *fr*va*ffp WI JL. p. Ii2/ 

t^^^J^^-fofthegrantof Simbarannan in Jrf. ^ Vol V n 156 

s^sasaL*---- K ;s^ 


"Vol. VIH* P- 273 if, Dr Hultzsch thinks that this grant and its endo*^.ea*?rf. 
characters of "botli of which are modern, were copied from a losfc, "but genuine 
The original of the grant of Nandivarman Pallavamalla most now l he assigned to the 

iir&fc half of tlie 8th century A.D. As pointed out to me hy Dr. Hnltsssch, the lost of 

the Taradl endorsement of the graut of Pallaramalla must "belong fco the time of the Chdla 
Baarantsbk^ I* * and presupposes the original of the grant of Pallavamaila, "because it to 

the village of Udayaclmradramangalam* which was only founded by that grant, 
endorsements which "we possess BOW, were copied at different times from the endorsement on tie 
lost original o f the grant of Nandivarman Pattavamalla* To judge from the alph^ets explore:!, 
the esxdorseiTLeiit of the subjoined grant may actually belong to the time of L, <*^ie 

the exlatirtg' copy of the Pallavamalla grant and of its endorsement has to be ^ .. ski! 

more ireceiafe period, 

As &g$vrds til localities which, in addition to ESfichlpiira, aie mentioned in this 
inscription, 1V!>. Foulkes has already stated that the Tillage of KafieMTyil 5 under Its 
name of ECaficMdvara, is mentioned in line 72 of the grant of PaOaramalla^ and that the 
grant, rm tilxe word Afrayanactt-viahaya in line 62, contains the Sanskrit equivalent of the 
A.clSyaira-^aslitra 4 of the present Inscription. The village of UdayachaBdmmftngaiaiii is 
probably identical with the modern Udaydndiram* which In another inscription Is called 
Uday e adi 

First Plate ; Second S% 

2 irjjiixC^ -6ijjita 8 TidM-vihita-sarwa-mariyMagya ranya 


^ f 



4, sya. m&C^^^a-srt-SmgliaTarmma^a^ pautra dfeva-dviia-gam.virdli-apacb&ji^ 


Jgowfti-Iadian Iw$c**i&ti<*n* r Vol. L pp. 11 a^ 145* 
* See - P. 112. s See also !<^ ^i^- ToL XXIL p. 66 f* 

* Aa^y^re, is either a mktake for, or a attempt to Sen.kptise, Adalj^, ff tte rl^er of rrfnge, wto* 

toyandiram grant ;^e^ Jf^a4 Toi II. p. S71 pUevL ^ text line 2 f. 
See ^^e p* ?5. 

tu& impresaion reeeiTed from Dr. Hultzscfe. 
the tari niAiog of the origmaL It ia most proteWj i^MteA fcr 

_ .__,*AA Jf T\ 

one or more wcsms* Attire u&e$i OTHit&eu. ur. 

; thie same reading we have in. 

engmrad ; but tbe 

d e tibe 

are dctoi wt 

** n*e *** a* before ^ i <jte s wa erne woaM 



Second Plate ; First Side. 

6 pftlfina-dAkBbwya saty-fttmand imah^aja-grf-SkaBdaYarmmana[h^| pntr6 

lm[k]ti-samp[aj- 2 

7 aito-sarvTa-kaly[a^]na[li*] praia-samra5jana-paaipal 

Tbrata- s 

8 diksMta naika-samara-salias-aTamardda-lavda-vIjeya-prakasaiia 4 

9 sh-&vasakdliarmm-attha^na- 5 2iitya.saiinadh6(ddli6) bhagavaka-p&mid]iyat6 6 

10 kteRt*] parama-bMgavato BMradyaja-sag&tra[h *] 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

11 na? Addyara-rasMIra KaficMvai-grama aranya-ksMtra-cliatiislitayan=clia, 

6pa"Htiiikta-mariy [a] - 

12 deya 8 KafieMTayil-T[a*]stavyaya brakmana 9 Kausi(i)ka 

ciiaranaya 10 sfttrata 

13 Pravachanaya Eidac]ia(sa)rmmaiife bralimadfe-mariyadaya n 

14 ga-hala- 1S var j jam=asinad-ay n-Yala-vejeya-aiavariya- bhavirdtae l4 dattava [n 11*3 

aYagammya 15 sa- 

15 rrva-parili[a*]rai[li*] K[*]ncMvyn-gra^^ 

pariJairai 16 paMrata [|] T6 17 

; Ptrs* Si^e. 

16 smasvSsaBamm=atIkrain6 ga papa sarlramm=aru]iaty=ipi dbatra 

sa!6kft btavanti [1*] 

17 ^^Mmi-daixamepai^mC^^daiiamC^^na bliCltain(ih)=iia bbati(vl)sliyati 

bMtam(ih)=na bhavishyati [H*] 

1 The afcskaraja Is engraved below tbe line. a Read 

S I b^IieFe the Intended reading to be -paripdlan-6dy6ga-wtata-wttra~vrata~d$Jcs7iit&2 corrsj>a*re t 
Uravmpalh graat, Une 10. 

4 Bead -la^km~mjaya-ya$ali-prakd*Gih ; see ibid, line II. 

5 Bead va*anna''d&arin6ddharaqa- $ see i bid. line 12. 

" This akxhara looks as if it bad been struck out. Perhaps earwan# may have been Grig's imliy 

and thic maj have beea altered to varmmd. Head ^varmyn^j&dSydra-rd&htrd Jdncfi,ivdyil-grdw>a'ft*=z- 
s Eead -mmr^dday^ * Read brdhmandya. 

a Head jratiHjra-c&ara$a;y0 Prai?acAaa-^iray, The word strata of the original is evidemtily 

for j-^frafalu 

11 Eead ^rakmad^a-mar^ddayd. ^ Bead -tpteami compare Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p, 156, Hiae 

11 Tlae a jfc&ara la of j&aZa la engraved "below the line. 

ls Bead md-dyur-bala*vijay-i8vary*dbMwidd&ai/e. As the donor is spoken of in the third 

would feaye expected -djfwr- instead of asmad-dyur-. 

What was iEteaded, is probablj pariharata parihdrayata cka ; compare Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. XSe line 2 
and p. 52, line 29. 

~ C ^ HroA da^ain=<irAa* || ^^ lA^^ra 5 compare H 

p. 2* line 30 5 p. 1S7 S line 4 s and p. 156, line 30. 

w Metre : Sloka (Anusbtnbb) j and of tbe next verse. Bead -ddndteparam. 
* - 

No. 24.3 




hareti vasunvar& 



p^avardliamana-vejeya-rajya-pratasatsarS 2 Vasaka-mase 
*l datt[a*] pattik& [1|*] 




Endorsement : First Plate ; First Side. 8 

KaficMvayil &giya Iganmaraimangalattu sa- 

TT[d]aiyasandirainangalattu sabhai- 

[I*] tivv-irand^romui^gadi 4 on,j=ayinamaiyil 

mr=pattadu 6r-nr=ay 5 valv&m=a[n6]m [Si*3 






TKese plates were found by Mr. M. Aiyasvami Aiyar, Inspecting Schoolmaster of the 
dziglepTxfc t&lnkH, in the possession of the Munsif of the village of Unamafijeri, *>***** 
*st of tHe \r ail aalur Railway Station. At Dr. Hultzsch's request, they were lent to him by the of C "kingleput ; and I now edit the inscription from two excellent im F ==* =. 
sta/pplioci to me Tby Dr. Hultsssch.. 

THese are flLve copper-plates, the first and last of which have bee* engraved 
side only, ^tile -fcte others are so on both faces. They are numbered, on the first i 
of eaoK plate, with the Telugu-Kanarese numerals frorn^l ^5,^8 - 
accompanying plxoto-lithograph. Each plate is between ?& ar 
at tlie top, abou-t lOf" high ; and the writing runs across the Held tog-etb,e*- by a ring, which, had been cut before they were 
is about 3-1- " ITL diameter and f* thick, and holds a seal, the low 
smaller ring, tHrough which the larger ring is passed. This seal is ij 
ort a. plain, pedestal, the figure of a boar, which faces the P M P ^[ 
sword or da,gger and by the moon and the sun. On the -~ 
plate tlxe -writiixg' has suffered slightly from corrosion ; 
of preservation.. The writer and engraver have done their wor. 

* _ f - . , ^l^r- -P^rtTVT, *^cn* tnftATnTVfclCfllSl 8 

tezx afoshcwcus (^-^v-Jaicli -we can supply irom 
ot>liers& C^liicli -v^re cannot supply) in lines 

3Sra.33LcLInaga.x-a, excepting the word & . 

Ttie inscription offers the rare sigrn for jh, in tfie 
7 7 5 a.d ii> laas a sign for the rough r,^ 
sixpei-soript sig-T* for the same letter, in the voids 
TJxuv&r, 1. 1*8. The average fliae of the letters isTab 
o^ceptfeg tte -words ^^a.nddUpataye namak at the commas 

- f 

are in a perfect state 

bttt toj have omitted 



r combined 

faffH, I . 

is Sanskrit, 

Rea,<i * 
3 Tlie text 
* Reaxi 

-r^^-^a^-^ been 

translation of this endorsement have been 

* Bead ^". 

ed by Dr. 

uw , 


The arttogmphy calls lor few remarks. The palatal sibilant ia five times employed for the 
dental (p.g* in ttab'h&M, 1. 19), aad once (in ttthUv^ I. 63) for the lingual 5 and the $0utal sibilant 
twiea for the palatal (in ambur&si, i 47, and twa, 1. 117), at*d omoe (in nisphalam, 1/193) 
oy tlie liagnah* The aigm of vittvrgo, is nine times wrongly omitted, mostly before the word rfr<. 
And b is three times used instead of &ft m tapobir and %X I 7, and maMbujdm, L 12. Besides 
we seed OBly Botics liere that the word P&nktiraiha ( Dagaratlm) is spelt Pa&tirOrtha, in L 24, 
and *&wo. tdmmra, in lines 188 and 190, Of Sanskrit words wMeb. aither are not giyen by tbe 
dictionaries, or have as yet been met with only in lexicographical works, our text only offers 
Mp&UM, * a cload (of dust)/ L 48, PwJi&ja, & the son o the San/ M. Kar^a # and amJiaff, * a 
gift,' the two last in the iMrada P40^a-2^jp<^ir^^ * fond of bestowing gifts which 

t&k0 away the pride of Kar^a/ in lln 81, Like other inscriptions of the same dynasty, 1 this one 
aJjso contains the K&narese birudas Md$Jwg&4&ppum^dyaTa~gam$a,$, * the disgracer of those 
kings who break their word/ inl, SO, and M&rn-rdyara-gamdak, * the disgracer of ihe three kings 
(of the South)/ in L 82 ; and It similarly employs the Uruda Him&wdya^8Uratrdnah,*tih& SaJtS-o 
among Hindu kings/ in L 84, and has sereral times the Kanarese words r%a amd mahdrdya for 
r$a and maJidrdja,, In 1. 184 we also have rdyasa, * a secretary/ and in I. 194 (only by a 
mistake of the writer) ^arn$ha ; &iad &everal terms and Barnes wMeht are not Sanskrit occur in 
the deseription of the village in lines 97*99, aad in the list of the donees which commeiaces in lixae 

The inscription is on& of the king Achyutdridra^ or Aeh.3nat8a*aya, or 
maharaya of Vij&yaaagara,. It clearly divides iteelf into two parts* The first part, up to L 91, 
gfires in thirty *>eight yer&es a. eulogistic account of Achyut&ndra and some of his predecessors, 
and the secoiod part, from L 91, records the grant of a village, made by the king 1 ID Saka-Samvat 


Of the thirfcy-^iglit verses with which the inscription opens, twenty-two (W#, the verses I? 3-13, 
&Bd 15-24) oeeur (& verses 1-6, 9-23, and 29) in the Hampe inscription of AchyutSiidra/s 
imjnedlate predecessor Krisbnur^ya, edited and translated by Dr. Hultzsch in the JUpigraphia 
Vol. I* p* 361 ff- And, omitting zaytWcal beings, the genealogy furnished by tlxe^e 
a3 gi"ven % Dr* HBltesch, ti. p* 362, is this :-~ 

1, Timma, md, 

2, Isvaara, xad, 


3, BFara&a or 

a. hj Tipp4ji~ &, % 

Beyond what sappesi^ from this tebialar statement, the verses referred to contain hardly any 
historical infomt&tion whatever,* 

Terse 14 of the present inscription records that the king Ifyisimli^ (Jfarasa) from a third 
wife, dbAznb!kfirddvi t had one more son, m^med Aelxyuttoitoa. ; and yers 25 states that this 
prince* tlie younger brother of Kpisli^aaraya, on the death of that king, succeeded him. 4 The 
versaa {S6*32) which follow some of them imifcatioBS of preceding 1 verses eulogize 

See, <j^., JJp, J^, Vol. I, p, 363, * See Dr. HaltzseV* remark^ il> p. 862. 

Vei^e & which is nut in tbe Hainpe ijwcription, iFo^es tlie protection of the go<l Hari (Tistiinm). It is 

j0 In ^ttw Tijayatsagam inscriptions, 
* Vhelatert dmt^ for KpA^riya, knowa to me from published mscription, jcorresponds to Friday, ^3rd 
April, AB, 159 9 ana ilte earliest 4ate for Ae]iyntftrA.; to Monday, Uth August, A,D. 1530 ; see Jff Jwd Vol I 
p. 399 V and J8dJ, jt*^. Vol. JY, * 


Aehyu.t&ndra in the ordinary conventional manner. Verses 33-37 give a string of birudas of Ms 
which are not new to us, 1 and record (as the Hampe inscription does of Krishnaraya) that he 
was waited upon by the kings of Anga, Vanga, and Kalinga. And this part of the inscription 
ends with another verse in praise of Achyntendra, which is merely an imitation of verse 24 of 
this same inscription. 

According to verses 39-53 (in lines 91-115) the Mahdrdya Achyutendra, being on the hank 
of the river TungaDhadra, on the 12th lunar day of the bright half of ESrttlka the day 
when the god. Vishnu rises from his sleep of the year 1462 of the era of galivaha, -which 
was the ( Jovian) year arvari, in the presence of the god Vitthalesvara, 2 and surrounded by 
many holy men, granted the village of TThinai, which (apparently in consequence of this grant) 
was also called' Achyutendramaharayapura, to a number of Brahmanas learned in the Vedas 
and famo-as for their knowledge of the Sustras ; the king having been requested to do so by his 
trusted minister 3 the chief of the Ndyaleas Virftpaksha, who was born in the family of Ananta 
and is described as the moon of the sea of the tlQdiyappendra Ndyakas* The village of 
TThinai, thus granted "by Achyut&ndra (in terms which are common to the copper-plate grants of 
the Vijayanagara kings), was situated in the Senkalanirpattu stond of the Kumup nddu of the 
Kandayira-mahaveH paffn of the Amuru Uta of the Padavidu maUr&jya. of the Jayankonda- 
Chtoia ma , n dcLU -, and lay to the east of the village of Ayyafieheri, to the south of the village 
of KTiJappaka, to the west of the villages of Nallampaka and Venkampaka, and to the 
north, of the village of Arunkal. 

The date, given in the preceding paragraph, does not admit of verification ; but the fact 
that it fell in the Jovian year SArvari shows the year to have been Saka-Samvat 1462 expired, 
and for this year the 12th of the bright half of Karttika would correspond to the 12th October, 
A.D. 154O. 

As regards the localities, TThinai, according to Dr. Haltzsch, must be the former name of 
the very trruamanjeri where the plates were found; for by the Ghingleput Taluls Map this 
village lies to the east of Ayyanjeri, to the south of Kolappakkam, to the north-west of 
Nallam-paiiaoam, and to the north of Ariagal, four of the very places which, under shghtly 
different names, are mentioned in this inscription in the same (or almost exactly the same) 
positions with reference to Uhinai. eBk4amrpattu, the name of the swa, to J^Dte 

tbe b-*- of 1* 



To proceed with our analysis of the inscription, tlie village of Uhinai (or rather -fclxe income 
from it) f according to verse 54 (11. 115-117), was divided into 60 vrittis, or stares* 1 Of these, 
one vritti and a quarter were set aside for the benefit of the god Raghunfttha ( Vislirra-) ; and the 
amount was reserved for the worship of the god Chandisvara (Siva ; vv. 55 a/nd 56). s 
Tie bulk was distributed, in amounts ranging from a quarter of a vritti to five vrft t& 9 among 
forty-eight Brlhmanas who are named in the verses 57-104 (11 120-179). Each of tlxese verses 3 
gives, in addition to the exact'amount allotted to each person, also the name of the a.tlier of tie 
recipient, and specifies the gotra or anvaya of the latter, and the Vedic texts studioci by him. 
Tie names of the donees and their fathers' names which occur in TV. 57-104, a/rrrang-ed in 
alphabetical order* are the following : 

Actehan $ v. 75 ; Anna, v. 96, or Adrian, v. 83 \ Anantabhatta, v. 76 ; Anantaya, w. 86, 97 ; 
AppttQ, v. 82; Appaya, TV. 85, 98; Ammaya, T. 103; Allalabhatta, v. 79; Aebcli** "V. 87; 
Anidtknta, v, 79; Kachanadhvariii, v. 57; Kachambhatta, v. 61 ; K&m&bliatta, w. 90, 95; 
KMahastin 9 T. 99 ; Kalahastibhatta, TV. 70, 101 ; Kuppaya, v. 89 ; Kondapa, v. 94* ; Klcradaya, 
w* 91, 101; Gangadharabhatta, v, 60;"Gautam[a]bhatta, v. 64; Chantikanti-Rllia.a-iry^., v. 69; 
Cban^dibhatta, vv. 70, 71; Timmaya, w. 88, 91, 103; Timmajydtishika, v^r. 58, 102; 
TimmMbibatta, w. 62, 72; Timmavadhanin, TT. 59, 61; TiruvgrLkam-tJda[i]yar, vv. 84^ 98; 
Dnrgibtatta, v. 57; Devarebhatte, T. 65; Dhannaya, v. 82; Nadabk&rata-N'&gr&rya., v. 92; 
Wayinar, TV. 78, 84, 89, 97; Nagappa, v. 95; N%&bhatta, TV, 67/68; H"ar%ana s w. 80, 93; 
KarayaBiry^ v. 86; Padmaya, v. 100; Per[i]ya-Pernmal 3 v. 75; Pannaya,, v. 90; 
Basavabhatta, v. 63; BMtanatha*sri-CMttibhatta, v, 74; Bhairavabhatta, v* 59 ; IMa,ndala ? 
T W 88; Mandala-srl-Piirusha, TV. 80, 93; Mallavadhanin, T. 73; Mallubhatta, w. 65/99; 
Baghavsbbatta, v. 66 ; Eama ? TT. 77, 81 ; Ramaya, v. 94 ; R&mabhatta, v . 74 ; Lakstmastxiialbhatta, 
T. 64; Laddagiri-Timma, v. 72 ; Lingaya, T. 92 - Lingstbhatta, TT, 67, 71, 100 ; Varadaya,, v. 87 ; 
YamdaWmtta, v* 69 ; Vitthalabhatta, T. 66 ; Virftpakshabhatta, T. 63 ; Vlraragtiava, v. 62 ; 
v. 81 ; Yefikadatt-U3riivlfcr-&rya, T. 77 ; 4 Sinniyappa, v. 83; Sellappa*, v. 96; 
SrldliMrabhatta, v. 73; Sabhapati-kavindra, v. 104; SdmaTara-M-Gurvaya, T* 6O ; S6za& 9 
v. 85 j and Svayambhiki^tha, T. 104. 

The g&ras or, as they are here commonly caUed, anvayas of the donees wei^o -fcHose of 
w. 57, 60, 75 ; Kausika, vv, 82 5 83, 85, 88 ; Gautama, v. 74 ; BharadT&ja, -v-v. 59, 61 > 
62, 65, 69, 76, 79.81 5 84, 86, 87, 89-94, 96, 98, 99 ; Mandgalya, T. 63 ; MannaWito^ava, vv. 58, 
102; Vatsm w. 66, 97; Vasishtha, v. 72; VisT^mitra, TT. 64, 67, 68, 70, 71, 95 ; Sa,mkriti 
77; S&var^a, v 104; and Harita, vv. 73, 100, 101, 103. 

^ Twmty^ne donees were students of the RigvMa (bahvricha}, eighteen stnden-fcs of the 
rajnrrada (if^wfco), and one (in v. 104) was a student of the S&mavfeda (fdm^ffa^. Six 
followed s the tufa* of Drahyayaiia, and one (in v. 103) that of Ipastamba. 

!f^d the donees, our inscription, in verses 105-108 (11. 180,185), 
states iha* tte Brabmana*, to ^hom the sixt *& had 

sixty *&& had thns been assig^ea m the 
made up thirty additional ^ftffra and gave . thesej as a preferential sh ^ Oj to 

* The mm of the w, specified in TV. 55-104*, actually is 60| 

y^<i^ n 6Vi 

1 Tce78 (IE !L 149-150) is mutilated. 

tbe Ta ^ "<* ^ mountain near Tlrp.ti in the 
n the ^ of Dr&hy%a9a (or 

of rt . 

to M e to be to ooewMch IB indicated b, the woo'xl ' Theorm 


the secretary (rdyasa) Vdnkat&drij 1 a son of the minister Timmaya and grandma 
of the minister Mosalimaduvirama, who belonged to the gotra of Harita s was a distinguished 
student of the Yajurv&da, and followed the $wtra of Apastamba. 

Yerse 109 tlien states that this is an edict (a>$ana) of Aehyutar&ya Verses 110 and 111 
add that this edict on copper, by the order of the Makdrdya Achyutfendra, waa composed by 
Sabhapati, and engraved by Vtranacharya, the son of Mallana. And the inscription ends with 
five of the ordinary benedictive and imprecatory verses* Below it is engraved, in large Kanarese 
characters* the word 

TEXT. 2 

First Plate. 
Sri-Gan^dhipatay-fe namah |(H) 3 3$Tamas=tu:D^a-sIra3-cli^^ 

2 ra-charavfe | trailokya-nagar-arambha-mftlastambhaya Sambhavfe I (If) [1*] 

3 varMmsya damshtr&-damdah ssa 4 ptu vah | tHfimadri-kalasa yatra dh&tri ctchha- 


4 yam dadhau |(U) [2*] Kalyany=4stu tad=dhama p[r*]atyuha-timir-apaliam \ yad= 


5 j-6dbhtltam Haa?in=api cha piijyatd |(||) [3^] Asti kshiramayM=d6vairsmathya- 


6 h^mbudhfih | navanitam=Iv=6dbhAtam=apani[ta^]-tam6 mahah |(H) [4*] 5 Tasy= 


7 bi(bM)r=atulair==aiivartha--nania Bndhah | 6 punyair=asya Pnrurav& bu(bhn)ja-balair= 


8 shaiii niglinatalii | tasy=Aytir=]S'ahush&=sya tasya pu(pa)msh6 yaddfe(ddhe) Ya- 

9 kliy&tas=tasya tu Tnrvasnr=Vasii-nibhah sri-Ddvayani-patfih 

10 ]Lnir=didipS Timma-bhilpatih | yasasvi Tnluv-eihdresliu Yaddh Krishna iv= 

11 j& 1(11) [6*] Tat&=bMd=BiikkaimLa-jiuir=isva^a-tshrt^^ f atrasam=agnnabliram- 

12 sam maTtli-ratnam mahibuCbh^jaiii |(U) [7*] SarasM=ndabhut=tasm&n=Braaras- 


13 kah. | DevaM-iiaiiidatiat=E:am6 D6vaki-namdanad=iva |(H) [8*] 9 Tividha-sTikrit-6dda- 

14 me B^xaesvaa^^pramukM m"ahnr==niudita-hridaya stMne stb&ne vyadhatta yath&vi- 

15 dhi [1*3 bndha-parivritS nana.-dS.nanl yo bhuvi shSdasa tribhavana-jan-6- 

16 dgitam spi(sphl)tam yasah punarnktayan 1(I|) [9*] 10 E^irerimasu ba[d*]dhv& 


17 ray^m t&in. vilamghy^aiva. ll gatram jivagT^ham grihitva samiti bhtija-feal&- 

18 t=tam eta rajyam tadiyam \ kritv4 Sriramg^-purvam tad=api uija-vasfe pattanam 

19 y6 Tbabli&s6(se) I 12 kirtti-staikbham nikhaya tribhnvana-bhavana-stiiyaman-&padSiiah 

CU 10*3 

I This Bame occurs (with the date A.3X 1536) in the list of great ministers and chiefs during tlie reigns of 
Krishna, Achyuta, and Sad&siva, Compiled hy Mr. B. Sewell, Lists of Antiquities* Vol. II. p. 249. 

3 From Impressions supplied to rae hy Br. Hultzsch. s Metre of verses 1-4 : Sldka (Anttshtuhh). 

* Bead *a* 8 Metre : sard^lavikridita. 

This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 7 Read Tay&tih 

8 Metre of verses 6-8 : Sidfca (Anushtuhh). 9 Metre : Harinl 

10 Metre of vers^ 10 and 11 : Sragdhar^* 

II The original has a sign of punctuation between gJiyai and va* 
M This sign of punctnation. is superfiuons, 


20 Ghfiraiii Choramlam 1 eta Pm^]dyam tam~api cha Madhiira-vallabbaii^ 

bhftshaih |* viry-6- 

21 dagram Ttinisli'kam Gajapati-srlpatlm eli=%>I jitv& tad-anyan J 
2S m-lAxhk&-pratIiam nitimtam | 2 kfayatali 
28 srajaia=iFa sirasam sasaiaaih yo yyatantt |(||) [11*] 


25 Eama-LakslimanaY=4ya namdanau | jatau ViraWrisimhe[m^]cliA(dra)-H^l^ 

Second Plate \ First Side. 

26 maMpati |(fi) [13*] Aszii&d-dbft]iibik&-d6vy&m=^oh7u^ 

27 tih i D^vakyam DaBU]^atir=VasTi<ifeTad=iY=a,l}havat I([|) [14*] 6 Vira-j3tri-Ntra- 

28 siriilias*sa Vijayaaagare ratnasimhasana-sthaii kirttya nityft nirasya.xi]Srpga- 


30 tali SFairam^a ct=6dayadr6r=a pascMty-^haI-&mtM:^ rajyain 

31 t(H) [15*] MBUdanaBy=akarslait=Kanaka-sadasI yah sriViriipakslxaii3'va.sth&. 

32 na srf-Ka!aliast4sitTir==apl nagarfi V^mkatadrau cha Kaidictyam \ Srigadle So- 

33 nasaEe matatl Hariliar6=li61mle Saiiigamfe cha | 6 Sriramge Kum : bliagli6nfe liata-ta- 

34 rnasi Maianamdi-tlritM Mvrittau |(||) [16*] G6kani6 B4ma-s6tan jag-^tl tad- 

35 pysaaasu P^ya-sanesiT=aa-aaiavidha-bahaIa^mali4^ 

36 1 yasp*dittiichat-tnraifagaVpk^ 

37 t*patathaK3li(^id^yattaiartku(ku)ljgad]^ 

Brahmamdam vi- ^ * 

38 sva^hakram gliatam=iidita-mah&bliutakam ratna-dhfinurii sapt=aml>liddMi3a=cla 

39 raita^ktikfe k^mcliaiiim kama-dtlraaii [j*] svama-kslim&m yo 

rattam==api in- 

g&-aalia S raiix | L6m^vam Mma-garbhazh kanata-kari-ratham paxfacha- 

100 P1 Tat6= Py =av&r y a-v$ ry ah srf- 

48 y^maMpatih 1 bibharfcti ma^ikeyura-idrvisSaham ma hlm bhujS |( H ) [20*3 

rach-aikyam ^vraj^I^ga^ya, plira 

f^ 00 ^^ 
omitted : 

This sign of puoctnataon is saperfluous. 


rigaaf panctoation 



pr ayaak 1 Padmaksb6*pi cliaimr-blraJHam chafer- 


. I 3 Kali khadgam=adMd=Bam& cba kamalam vinam cha Vim 
) [21*] Satru(trft)nam3 
dadata iti rusba kirn nu saptUmburasi(sin=) 


48 _ 

tn ^ Ki ~3 al dJbi-g[r]^mka yd vidbatfcg | 4 bralmamda-sva^nameru-pramnkba-nja-^. 

50 h&dLfi,aaa.--fc6y a lr=ameyailL |(||) [22*] Mad-dattJLm=arfcM-sarttM[b*] fcijaia23 



| prayab. 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 
tat-tad-dig~3aitra-vri[t*]ty=api cba bimda-padair=amkita[m*]s=tatra tatra 

bbtivi y6 bMbhrid=abliramkasli-agiaii 

53 staaixKhaoa.CnXi* 
CSS*! Stu- 

K. yf J_ 

t><si t;y-aTxdSa?yabL sudMbhlh sa VijayanagarS [ra*]tnasimhasana-stliab kslimapftlan=Kn- 

55 li^iajca3ira-ksb.itip a tar=adharikritya nltya Erig-adin | a piirvadrer=atli4- 

56 sfca.3s:sliitidliara-katkad=a cba H6m^hal-amtad=a Sefc6r=arttM-sartba-sriyam=d- 

57 ha, "faalialikritya kirttya babbasS 6 l(||) [24*] Kritavati? sara-13kam 






punya-karm=Acliyutiiidrah ( 
vilasati Hari-cb^ta vidvad-isbta-pradik |(!|) [25*] 8 T6=sau patt- 

l>lnivara=api nikbilam palay^m 9 jaifcra-yai^-arambbaiCbhe) samBMiWiaman- 

I Madrarii bhlty=4panidram samadb%atak-ma" 
Kaliifagam satamkam Vaihka(ga)inAriigaiii saba-balaiEi=aka2^Scli(cli)= 

[26*] HTat-kirtti-cliaiiidra=cliaiati kBbamayaib. 


.=. - 

cha | tandti cliakrasya mudam samimdh^ divS. cha sayam knnradair=vi- 
|(|J) [27*] Madam 18 manasi marutam Sitliilayaty=am^yai[sta?2yaii=Tai-sST- 
patali kbiu- 

a RoadL ~*>a&f*^=&aua-. 3 This sign of punetnation is superfluous* 

* MEetvre of verses 22-24 : Sragdhar&. 4 This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

s Rea*d =4zv3ti/a, prdyafy* The reading dlaydn at the end of this line is preferable to the of 

ofcber iosciri^fcioiis. 

* The EEampe inscription of Kyishnariya, v. 29, reads samimdM* 7 Metre : MMlni 
a MIetro : Sragdbard. 9 Read pdlaifan=. 

*<* Tlie sense would be better expressed by +dnu*Za&tam, but I iav0 BO dosbt that ttie-abcw n 


Ia - Metee = Upaj^ti* 

MTetr^ = FrithvL This verse clearly Is an imitation of part of v. 22, abo*e, and itegenemf iew u not doa.** 
ul. The teac* of it, also, witb the exception of a single afeftar* is quite clear in the impreisioim. Buttle nd of 
the arsfc Jp.aa (^a^atff- or stay air) yields no sense, and I fail to see the construction of the verse, as re^ a^c, e. 
feel alnaosfc certain that, in tlie first Pada, weougbt to read BtUUyant^ (instead of MUU^ty *) andto ^^ 
qualify ^^?&-jg?3!#aZ^ s and that In the last P&da we should read amiwdMm and ( qualifying tbw ) - 
i,. Fos- tne ^est y I would suggest, with some diffidence, reading <mtyai*4*m6 (tnstoul of 

^! \ TJtr?-^!^ 4-risca^1*ST'j1fiflS Eflfi ' 

}pTa,mx,tTia>n"6dyat6 ( instead of lala-pramatkamasyan$ ). witn wwe an.ezMuu> " 
the veirse woi^ia be about this : ** Seeing how the multitude of his horses, humbling the co: 
___.. _ I* rt-sji _i_-^-u ri .*:/% ; tK if: lirtofsL one feels IB 

darkness by the immense clouds of dusfc which it raises with its hoofs, one feels 

eager to destroy the opponent forces, Achyattedra angrily is drying up the ocean, because it impedes tie 
of hia chargers." 


68 ralh ksM[ti*]-raj61>liir=:utth^pifcaiii | ajijanad=iti 

6? yatj=aiiibiidM-bala-pramatliamasyaii6 raya-Yiradhinam Tajiimm j(lj) 28*] 

68 grih-akalita-Y^a-Yir^ 

69 marasja 1 EajadMraja-PararS,jabhayamkar-aii:aYir-Mik&in 

70 birudani bahftni yasya |(H) [29*] Sriramga-Vemkatamahichala-S^tii-Kamclii-. 

71 Srtsaila-Sonagiri-Hemasabli-adimesliiL 1 stMneshti ttrtlia-iiiva~ 

72 heshn cha' p&YaneshTi d&n&ni shodasa bahunl kfit&ni yena {(H) [30*] 

73 bhodMn=siivara-ava~rathain=api tiala-purasham visva-chakram 1 3 

74 rnamediny-anaaratamlatai. k&mchaBiiii k&ma-dhenum 1 braJiio4mdam 

75 tna-dhenuiii kanaka-tari-ratliam g6-saliasraih cha sirltn^paiiicli^^pi svarna-ga- 

76 rbliam ya iia bhuvi maMbMta-kam(kiim)blia[iii^] TyatS,nit |(||) [31*] 

Thirrd Plate ; First Side. 

77 ma-salilo=gastyeiia - pit-6[3*]jbitas=tapt6 

78 Uiay& gamtapyamanah sada [|*] amtasfchaii^ 

79 susitko ddhra(dkra.)Yam yad-dan-ambu-gban^ambiirsambndlii^^ purnah 

saiaii[d*]dy6tat^ 1(11) [32*] ^ Bhish^ 6 

SO Ba-Tairi-viktamdana-cliaihdah. 6 SSslia-maliablaara-bTid-bliujadamdaiL [|*3 Bhas^age- 7 

81 tappuva-rayara-gamdali Pustaja-darpa-lirid-'aihliatl-gaiiaiidat |(U) [33^] R&jadliir[a]- 8 

82 jas^Sarvajfias^srl-IlajapararaesYarali I Miirii-.rayara-gaihdas=cha V&ri- 

83 xasI-gabMra-dMlL |(H) [34*] Para-daresku [ti(vi)]mTikhah Para-raja-bliayamka- 

84 rah | Sistta-samrakshaiia-paro Duslita-sardula*mardaiiajh. |(H) [35^3 JHimd'or&ya. 

85 suratrana Imdnvamsa-sikMinanih 1 Ar-!bha-gamda-bMruiiid6 yo= 

86 rddhan^rf-Batesvarah. 1 ityadi-birndaih ^ kirtti-[bba]ritair=yatatL 1(11) [36^] JLm- 

87 gen*api EaHihgdna Vamgena cha parair=nripaih 1 jaya jiva matfir 

88 ray=&ty=anisam giyate cha yah 1(}|) [37*] Sa 10 jayati narapalas=satya- 

89 dharma-pratishtho Vijayanagara-rajad-ratnasimhasaua-sthati I 

90 Kriga-Nala-Nahnsh-adim(din=) nichayan^r&ja-iiitya 

91 Tiry-and%a-bh4r==Acliyiitemdrah }(|j) [38*] n Sak-abd SaliTaliasya 

92 na cliatus-sataih. I dYishaslttya clta samayi2kte(ktai)rgananam prapitS 

93 mat 1(11) [39*] Sarvarl-namak^ varslig msi K&rttita-namani | su- 

94 kla-paksh. eta piinyy&m*uttliaiia-dTtdasi-titha'a i(j|) [40^] T-amgatolaadT 


95 tfc6 VittlialesTara-saxhnidhau j nanars4kli-&bMdlia-g k otra-siitre- 
90 bhyas=sastraYittaya I vikhyatebhyo dYrjatibbyd v^dayidbliyo vis^sha- 
97 tah 1(11) [41*] Praldiyata-sri-J^^ j 

98 r%& khyS,t;am=Amtru-k6ta-gam |(1|) [42*] Eamdayira-mahLaveli-ppatta'a Ku 

99 miili-nMiii* | Tara-^0mkalaiiirpattu-sini%am cha* krlta-sthltim [|f 43*] A 

] 00 1S yyamclierF-ShYaya".gr4inad=asa 

disi sthitaiii 

* Metre of verses 29 and SO: Yasantatilaki, 3 Metr : SragdhadU 
4 fills sign of puncsmafcioD. is super&uoas, * Metre : S^rd^lavikrldl 

Metre ; Dftdh&ka. Originally d<zh m*&~ was engraved. 

7 Read faa$k$e<* (dat, siBg. of Kanarese bhds&g =& Sanskrit ^hdsjid). 

8 Metre of verses 34-37 : Sldka (ABusbtubh). 
s Here tlsree syllables are missing. 

Metre : HftliuL Metre of verses 39-108 ; SIdka {Aneshtubb). 

T^ie sign oE Use supei^cripfc r in AgyeukcMrg* is tsgraTed twicse. 


Third Plate Second Side. 

102 pk&eli*cl2^ pascMmam I Arixmkiiti vlkhyata 1 ^mM=uttara-stMtizh. |(||)[46*3 

103 AcliyfX]t&^ d lXI am &^^^ 1 sarva-sasyais=sad& yu 

104 ]dmTTlita^"iP^^ I (I I) [46*] Sarvamanyaih chatms-simi-samyntem cha sa~ 

105 maiirfcatait i mdlu-nikshfipar-pteM |(||) [47*] A- 

106 ksM^y-ag"&i^i" sa y ll ^ aj51 gana-bbogyam sa-bMmbam I vip5-ld2pa-tatsLkais=clia ka- 

107 sc]iciili(clicltla)-ar^mais=clia samyutam |(ll) [48*] Putra-pautr-adibHr=bii6gyam 

J rail3a ^.=^cli&in.drar-turalcaih 1 dana- 

108 sy=&diiama:Q.asy=&pi vikrayasy-&pi cli=6cliltam 1(11) [49*] STami-k&rya-dlrarinSEa svi- 

109 dMna-naya-sampada I yamsin=Adiyappdmdraiiayafc-amliiiiii- 

110 dh-txSidiin& H [ 50 ^] Agra-ganyena ^ 4ranam=Aiiamt-anTaya-janina- 

111 na | vinay6n=eva miirttena viBV&s-av6(Ya)sa-Tsmana I vljMpitA 

112 ViriipiJfcShLa^^ ICH)[ 61 *3 Paritah prayataik ssigdliait pn~ 
1 13 robitar-purogainaili J vividliair=vibiidlials=smutaptlilkair=adliikai- 

114 r=gira 1(11) C&2*] SarataCdra-ma]liaray6 s mananiyo manasvln&m 1 satim- 

115 Bya-pay6dli&ra-piirvakaiii dattaTan=muda |(H) [53*] Asmin=grftmfi=iSikhrfc 

116 sliasliti-vritti-samanYitS I Trittimamto TiHkliyamte vipra^ ^ ^ 

117 ragait" |QO C 54 ^] VislmavS BaghunatMya visYa(sva)-raksM-vidMyin 1 

118 tra * 

119 kadimaay^ I atra pdjIukritS YrittIK sapad=aik[^] samarppii4 1(I|) [56*] 

120 Dm-o-abliattas=STidMr=:atra Kachanaddlivari-iiamdanai I pamelm v?ittir=aT4?=te 

121 y&jixsMlL ^Kasyap^xxvayaH I(H) [57-] MaunabMrg- - 

122 k-atmajat I Tiihm&]y6tisWk6 Yritti-dYayam=atr=aiti 

123 m&vadlilLTLiiias=suniir=BMradYaj-aiiYay-6dbliaYali 

124 r=BtaIraTabliatt^kliy6 batYrlcli6=tra dYi^Yrittikak I! [59 ] 

Fourth Pla-te ; First Side. 


125 Xa3HSiias=ooisaaYara-sri-urQLrvayari x^wy^^-^^j <*>*? * ^ -^ 

126 t=%m&ti gri-Gamg&dharabhatta-iab. |(||) [60*] Bharadv^nvay-ddbliutaft*] sunus= 

127 m&^dhanlxiab. 1 arddba-vritfcim=aYa P n6ti K&ctambliatfc6=tra bahyricliai [(II) 

128 dvva= 8 4ntxs=Tiiixm&bl ia ttasya f bahvricliat 

129 vivi VlaglxavaL |(||) [62*] 

130 aH | balivpckd Basavabliatfcas= S iidl 1 i S =8^ddlia-dYi- 

Gautambbattasya Bamdanali i SdJiim^Lakslimanabbat^akliyo bahjricli5= 
1(11)' [64*] Bhfcmd^^V^dKhAtt D^varebhatta-namdanah i 

133 bvaty^ddia-vrittim^^tra bahvricbah 1(1!) [65*] 

134 2ST I atra Baghavabbatt^dba-vritti^pBoti baKvncbab ,01) 

185 .u^ ' 

Here one syllable is missing, Head vi&Aydtdt**itffr&nd&* 
a Read JLc&i/<Mtmdr&maMrd#. 

' Read d7im*m,l**LiGP+ 

4 Read Jfall^Wezf |d j bslow, v, 99. 



136 feiTTkbat 1(1!) [67*] N%abhatt6(tt-&)h.Yayo^%&bli a t.tas7a 

137 vm=B a [68*] 

i^^i^r^TXi''T ' f~ti 

135 Si^r^-csAdaMb | bahvricli& Varadabliatt6 Trittlm=fek[a^]m=ili^siitii^ U* 

139 VisTamitr.aixTayodbliaTah I gri-Ka 

140 khy& tafcvpckfebca dYi-wittikah |(||) [70*] Nadtdana^CXhatimaibhattosya. 



141 -, A ^^rrih | batTricM Trittim=ate=aikaik Limgaih(ga)bliattas=samagnut& 


148 l^daa^-Tkm-^liTa^iiri-jah I Timmabhatto baKvricli&=tra 

143 rrittimittL !(f!) [72*] MallaTOdhaninas==siiiitLr=balivrlcli6 

144 ikr^^tt-^tTo ^ittim=4kam=ili=anut6 |(ij) [73*] 

Clurdhha- r ^ . 

145 Bamdaim^ | Mm^bliattas=sapM"-ai55:a-vrIttIko GaTitam-&iaTayah ICII) *-* 


146 ryarPeramfil-a[tma]ja 
141 1(11) [75*] 

IIS t -Irl'Ii-aikirii Trittim^asniiijd |(J|) (76*] 
S(sa)mkriti-g6tm-jah j grf- 

sapad-aik&m TOttim=apn6ti yfi-jusliah |(H) [77*] 

151 i:::niir,=T 

Wonrfh Plate ; 

152 iluuijr=:>*>=:a3ab!iaTBfc t Bh^adYajas^sapM^aikani vrittim Dr&tya,yan6=gxiixto f(H) 


153 i^'-fers^-fid'btfttc V&miadait-Appa-BamiaiaaiL J srf-R&md yajusid 

154 !(1|) [31*] KamsIk-anT 
dTi-^ttiTsfcratrfi, ^Dlmnaayd dMmat&[m] 

155 Kj|) [82*] Simmiy^pp-SliTayd dMm.4n=yajuslialL Kausik-S-nvayalL { 


^ ^emetre, instead of Periya-Peramll, the Tamil equivalent of 

Tamil W rd^ y ^. lord, 

l* of ttis ve* is mta* 
* Read 

Unainanjerl Plates of Achyutaraya. Saka-Samvaf 1462. 














160 tr=arddha-Tittimin=lc] 1 cMii- S ^ur=Varadaya8=sudl 1 lii |(||) [87*] Kausik-&iivaya- 

sambbiit& yajasb& Mamdal-atma- roo*! TDT,* as- 

161 jab | TOittim=Skam=ib=%>iiSti Tam(tim)may6 dhimatam varab {(1!) [88 j fHaradvaj- 


Kamabbattasya suim.[b*] ,, *, 

163 srf-Bharadrkj-inYay-ddbiavah I vrittim=ekam=ili=a P n6ti batvriobat Pa-anayas=sudIiiiL 

1(1!) [90*3 BMradva- A 

164 j-anvay-6dbhftiah Komdayasy=at m asambbaTab I yaju3Jias=Timmayo 

^Tittima^ftfe.iit6 I (II) [91*3 

165 NadabMrata-Nagarya-namdanS Limgayas=3udhih 

166 yajusliat |(t|) [92*] mrayano Maiiidala-sri-PTiriisliasy==atmasam-bliaTah 

tnvaj-o>o y- .. A A ^i* ^&4 

167 jusbe^arddia-vrittimaH 1(11) [93*3 Komdap-akbya-sudhl-sun^Bharadvaj- 

- yajusho 

168 y^ vritti m =ekim=atra samasnutfe |(||) [94*] V^mite-anvay- 

namdanali [I*] a- ^-* n -o, A -, * A 

169 rddba-vrittim^pixSti N%app6 bab^icba S =sudbib |(H) [9o*] Bbaradvaj-anvay- 

6dbhuta[b*] grl-Drabya- ^ A .,.., 

170 ya^a-sutraljab ! Sellappa-namdano^r^rddlia-vrifctim^Amna^samasiiute |(||) 

Vatsa-g6tra-sam[udbbu]- ,, ? , 

171 t6 Nayimar.&tmasambhavab | padarvrittim^ib^paoti y^usbo^amtayas^sudhib 


173 6=tr=&rddba-ttikab |(||) [98*] 

174 r, salute ,(,!) [99*] 

I/img&blbattasya namdanah 1 ba- Art *n * 

175 tvricbab Pa[Lxa]yab pada-vritto==at ra samain^g I (II) [100*] Sn- 

bltattasya mamdand Harit-a- 

176 nvaai | &da.vrttim=ili=&pii6ti babTriobab Komdayas=sudbab 

aTmaargava-gaia-a3as= A 

177 TimmajyfitiaMk-atmajab I Timm&3y6tiaHk&=tr=arddh ft .VTitt 1 m=a P not 1 

178 HaynMtTim m ayo=mmaya-n^^ [ !*3 

var.Apastamba.sutra-[jab |(||)] [103*] [Sa-?] 

179 varna-g6tra, S ambbutas=SabMpati-kavlmdra-jab | S udMs=Srayambb4tiatb- 

=t^=aika-vrittikab l(U) [104*] 


180 V^aa-^str.arttba-t a [t*]tva-3iia rrittimamto 

T>"fi.r-vam sliasktl-vritti- 1/^-1,1 

181 r= V in=adbTma I (I!) [105*] Punas=saiT=dhiMk ? itya trimad-T ? ittir=i n ah a (Ba)svmab 1 

Harit-auTaya-jata- . , A nnfi*1 Pan. 

182 ya vax-lpastomba-aMrinS i yajus-sakbavattoagra-yayine grma-sabne^ ^li) [106 ]Pan 

183 traya --artha-viduHbe ,Timmay-a- 




185 kamdji-mamtriiio naya-tamtrmS I 

muda ii [lOS^J 

186 Pliravato 1 bndha-vamcli&(Gii]ia) v&rayato yairi-blatipa-cMtta-madaiii I a- 

157 cljiita^Mte-l>Iiur=Ac]iyiitaxayasya gasanam tad=idam |(||) [1Q9*] 


158 tarayarsasanena SablApatifr I abhM^Ct^pa)^-^^^ 1 * 11 * 1 * 13 tad=idam 
189 mra-sasaiiam |(II) [110*] Acliyutemdra-maliar%a-sasanaii=Mallan-atmajat 

ISO s 

101 aanacli=cMirey6=iiiipalaiia3ii I 

192 padam 1(1!) [112*] SYa-datt&[d*]=dvigunam(na-) punyam para-datt-amipalanauiii f 

193 sra-dattam nisphfl(8hplia)lani bhavfifc |(||) [113*] 

para-dattam ?a 
1^4 v& liareta vastimdliaraiii I sliaslitir=variislia-saliasrani 4 

195 jarate krinsii I(H) [114*] Ai(6)k=aiva bhagin! 16kg garvesMm=gva 

196 jaia 1 Ba bt&jya(gyi) na kara-grfiiyft viprai-dattA vasumdharS, [ II 115*] 

197 maiiTO=yam dliarma-settir=iiripan&iii kale kal& palaniyd "blia,va- 
19S dbMs(dbMti | )asarv4n^6t&n=sbhfi,viiiah partMv-^mdran=b 

EamaclaanidrahL [{ [116*] 
109 " Sri-Vira(r&)paksha [IP] 


BY J. 1. FLEET, LC.S;, PH.D., C.LE. 

This inscription, wMct is now pnblislied for the first time, came to my notice iix 
2 5 mhets. I obtained the original plates, for examiBatioiLj from Irayya bin 
Muradiniatlia, a resident of Sficii in tie Eon talnka, BMrwar district. 

The plates are five in number, eacln measuring about 9-f" by 41* The edges of tliem, 
were fasMoned slightly thicker than the inscribed surfaces,, so as to serve as rims to protect the 
writing; and, though the plates are in many places a good deal corroded by rust, there are "but 
Yery few passives in which the text cannot be made out qnite satisfactorily. The ring on ^btlcfa 
the plates are strung, is about ^ thick, and circular in shape, about Sf" in diameter. It Bad 
net been cut, -when the grant earne into my hands. The surface of the seal in wMck the ends 
cf the rirg are secured, is slightly oral, about If" by If*. It has, in high relief ,on a slightly 
^^tcrrirk sErface ? an elephant, standing to thp proper right., with its trunk hanging' do*wn- 
The weight of the five plates is 188 tolas ; and of the ring and seal, 23g- tolas : total, 21 1 
tc;aa,~The characters belong to what is usually known as the Old-Kanarese alphabet. The 
Bim of fhe letters IB about #* The eBgraving is fairly good : but it is not 

lB tbe tllird PMa of this Tme oae or two ylW>taB are missing. 1 would suggest 
:r=, - 

1 of verses 110-115 : Sldka 

V*- E, H.] 
4 tlof Af {A on&a-. Metre : SMiaL 


deep ; and so the letters do not show through on the reverse si^i * *r< rV** 
of them shew, as usual, marks of the working of the exxrscr--' & tool" *i ' 
seems unnecessary to lithograph the whole record ; but! as a ^ c ^c% 
and Iv. a aiad 6. Except for the use of a few Kamarese forms ajfl w^ 
78, the language is Sanskrit. In addition to two of the cnst -^r-r w^- 
verses in lines 80 to 82, there are verses in lines 48 to 64? and 88 ^"T*^' 
nothing calling for remark, a *"" 

The inscription purports to he a record of that pnsce B-^ir*, 

according* to the AtaMr inscription (Epigraphia Indica, Vol. IL p. 167 , *lew ?> ^:. 4 ' 
K&jaditya, in tlie war between the latter and the B&shtraV'W king Erishj.a III \V* 
before A. IX 949-50. And the object of it is to record a grant of land, iT J ' I ;: \ ^ 

have made, to a* Jain temple -which -his wife Bivalamba had founlrd at Sundi*' - 
The record^ however, is spurious. 

Tlie date on which the grant purports to have been made, Is Sunday, tie rgUh * 
the briglit fortnight of the month Kartttka of the Vik&riii ::r - r 1^7 *:* ^fiv!?*:. - 
expired. The details, however, do not work out correctly . Bj tie rcr -:;r, fjN i, 
cycle 5 by "which alone VikArin can be connected with the giyen Tear, tie r:,^-/ - : 
on the 19tla Noveraber, A,D, 937, in Saka-Samvati 860 current* and ended on tht 15:1: ?* 
A.D 93S-, in Saka-Samvat 861 current (860 expired). Dorin<r this perl fJ. tbe raor*r \.. 
fell in A, D. 938 ; atid the given Utlvi ended on Thursdays 4th Octortr, A D ^.i>. \: i% u: *' ^ 
45 paZa5, = 191irs. 54* min,, after mean sunrise (for Bombay). Bvtli2 s ^1 .:^".' .- ,\ *" 

X^ ^.^ >. Ir J^ S 

Vikarin ooincidsd with Saka-Saiiivat 861 expired, or 862 cmrreiit: rut tTfc ;f *t tt u^, 
that tlie a^ecord contains a mistake inxespect of ihe year, 110 "better rt^nit can It ..nuuiii; I * 
Saka^SaaxLvat 862 current the given tifki began on Tuesday T 22nd October, A B i*3i ^r * 
SO gh* 25 - p.,= 12 hrs. 10 min. 

TMs grant belongs to a series of spurious records of a lirailr or %ni:j the o* r, ^ 
wHch. maj, for tlie sake of convenience, be appropriately called tlie cr 

C3-S3&igss of Gaiigs>v&dij- a proTince "which lay principally in Is now ike ^xn 

These records Jbave been mistakenly accepted by Mr. Blee as genuine it , . 

unfort-anate that this has happened; for the supposed facts and :**t *ut* i r v 

permeate and vitiate almost everything that he has -written in cozne?:!.:. with thtfj*r. ,1 ^ 
they purport to belong. I have before now indicated the true of th &< 3>^ . : I ^ 1 

of the reasons for stamping them as spurious. 1 Mr. Eiee^ however, had re^*^ ,u 
And I taJce this opportunity of stating the case more fully, and In a ma^c.r <*<* 
possible -when I -wrote abont it twelve years ago ? in the hope of aVt 

last, and with, tlie object of -at any rate prerentiBg otters, may le worky r ^: :-- , 

history of India without reading the original documents for ^-.=i*-- T -" -:::-!-. iff i,'* 
same errors, and from being misled By such of Ms published statements ai an W-Jt a , ' 

records. -it - * *. 

E^clndixig the present grant, which I shall notice or, *t ^^, i ^ 

these sirarions records, in print more or less, as follows : 

Cl> Tlie Tanjore grant of Arivsrmsn 5 i.e, dLtcd >: t^ r*a^ ^ ^ ^ . * 

Saka-SaAvat 169 expired, with details falling in A.D. 24*; F^'*- ^ ^ 14i 4fij 
Vol. VIII. p. 212, with a lithograph. ^ ^^^ ^ ^ _ , 

<S> Tlxe Ha^Iliay grant of an unnamed son of ^::^I:F..T? -y. ^/ ^; ? 
intended to be Madliava n. f dated in the Sadhftrana c^^r;^i^ ^-^-^ -- < - 

See,**, JW. ^ YoL XII. p.lH- My present 
written OB ibis subject. 




with details falling in A.D. 351 ; published by Mr. Rice, Ind. Ant. Vol. VII p 173 with a 
lithograph: the translation is also given in his Mysore Inscriptions, p. 293. ' * 

<3> The Manohalli grant of Avinita-Kongani, dated in Ihe twenty-ninth year of his 

J?n IV ^ Jaya JT!f r^ ^ iS r akea b7 Mr * RiCe t0 be &*-*** 377 current 
(AD 454-0.) pubkshed by Mr. Bice, Ind. <**. Vol. V.. p. 136, with a lithograph the 
translation is also given in his Mysore Inscriptions, p. 289. s*p fi- 

(4) The Merkara grant of the same person, dated in the 
^ifiedbutisfafcentobethe Saka era, with details ~ 

as current or as expired, fall in A.D. 466 ; publiahed by Mr Bice Ind A Vnl T 
lithograph : the translation is also given in his Mysore scr fptL?t 282 - Is V" ?' 
and, have aU been reprodnced in Ms ' ' ' 

' * 

is also given in his Mysore Inscriptions, p. 291 P< ' htto ^P^ ' translation 

^th^;^^^ ^ ata - SaA - fc * -pired, 

p. 284. imOiwued by Mr. Bwe, translation only,- Jf^ore Inscriptions, 

S , 

been compiled hy Mr. 
sBch as it is ; i the 


with the 

1S so 


from a Tamii 

not 7 et 

published, have 

in all the early part of it, that Is 

nor a 

to be ezpected somewhere or other in 
care, i. nevertheless not gentle. Bnt , 

ao gentiiae epigraphic remains which even 



tte characteristic slips that 

th agh P re P ared with ski11 
ther rec rds ' there are Absolutely 


610 (j nf |. ^ n ,. Vol . Tn 
palpable forgery, and belong? 

KurtaM grant, which 
a I. and to ha ve been issued 

reG rded t ' to 
of tte BrifcisI]L 



The earlier Western 

according to the spurious grants. 


(A. D. 248) 

MMhava II. 

A vintta- Kongani. 
(A. D. 466) * 

DurvinSta- Kongani. 

Mnshkara, or Mokkara* 

Vitrama, or Srivikrama, 

Bhiz vikrama, Sivam&r^-Kongani. 

(A son.) 

(A.D, 762 and 766-67) " 

grant, it may be added that portions of the text arc bodily misplaced j and the contest is so 
np that, -without the other records as a guide, most of It would be hopelessly unintelligible* 
The next point to command attention is the paleography of the gmnts s as far as 
jsublished lithographs are available. 

The Tanjore grant purports to have been issued in A JD. 248. But every character in it 
l>etrays a far later date ; and, taken all together, they point to tlie tenth centiary AJX as the 
possible period for the fabrication of the record. This was recognised by Dr. 
{South" Indian Palaeography, pp. 34, 35, and Plate xi.} 5 who classed the alphabet 
the Grantha-Tamil alphabets, and expressed tie opinion that the document, distinctly 
"by him ** a forgery/' shews the condition of the northern Chera characters shout the 
century. A most tell-tale character in this record is the I : It is 'distinctly a 
of a late type | and the only approximation to it, that I can find, is in the 
exhibited hy Dr, Bnrnall in his Plate xiv., and allotted hy lam to A. D. 1383. 


The extraordinary Harihar grant, -which, as Mr. Bice Mmself has said, includes certainly 
. if not three alphabets, or, rather, attempts at alphabets, is made up of characters which, 
for the most part, baffle any attempt at serious criticism. It is sufficient to say that among them 
there are some of the most modern Kagari or Balfoodn forms, note particularly the Is and y, 
mud the p and TO in one of their varieties ; and that the fabrication of the record, must be 
placed even later than that of the Tanjore grant. So clumsily dense was the ignorance of 
the man -who concocted it, that the Teh and nd of Tcfidndita, line 3, are actually formed backwards. 
And the nature of the whole document is such that, but for the previously published records, 
the greater part of it could not have been deciphered at all. 1 

The earlier Mallohalli grant, TSo. 3, aim's throughout at an old type of characters. But 
they are so indifferently formed, all through, that, taking this feature in connection with, the 
"rr-.ttres- of the orthography. the spurious nature of the record, and its late origin, cannot be 
cbabted for a moment. I am not at present prepared to fix the earliest date possible for the 
?br>rt:or of it. Bat I do not doubt that it was concocted at least as late as the Merkara 
grant and the other grant from Mallohalli. 

The Merkara grant, purporting to have been issued in A.D. 466, was considered by Dr. 
Barnell to be K the earliest unquestionable inscription as yet known " (loc. cit. p. 34) ; and from 
it he framed what he called a Chera alphabet of A.D. 467 (see his Plate ii.). But, when Dr. 
Bsrnell wrote, comparatively little was known about the palaeography of southern and western 
India. Any practised eye will now see, at a glance, that the record is of much later date than 
that to which it pretends. And, on closer inspection, it is definitely betrayed by a character 
wMch furnishes a leading test in dealing with southern records. The letter Teh occurs in it six 
tnnes, in Uajga and Manjita, line 2, in mukhade, lines 24, 26-27, and 29, and in Ukhitam, at 
the end; and, in each case, the form that is used is the later or cursive form, which, elsewhere, 
in Dr. Bnrnell's tables, appears first in his Plate vi., the alphabet in which is taken front a 
copper-plate grant of the Eastern Chalukya king Amma II., issued in or soon after A.D. 945 

! i" 1 -,' P ' 15 ' and Hth S ra P h > for tte **, see khalu, line 24, dMyah, Hue 25, and 

Ifttoa*, toe 64). As a matter of fact, this later form of the Jch is carried back to the time 
of the lasarrazuia king Amoghavarsha I. (A.D. 814-15 and 876-78) : for, though only the 
r form appears in the Sirur inscription of that king, dated in A.D. 866 * the fater form,- 
~ P rn m ^ iDSCription f the same kin S> dated in A.D. 865, at MantrawME near 

fw f T not seem at a11 possible that t can be carried back to before ' 

i^TTor- 3 e predsor 


tL W1 n, T r T ae tte Same Class of characters, .. the 

Ind T^K Sf f a kiBg Erti ' H, ^ted in A.D. 757 (JA 

and ^thorah.* 

*gslo f I quote from sn Ink-impression 

: till earfier records in .. 8am e class of 

. to .=- to .n^rtta, with tL el "retrf Th -V f ^^ f0rm f the * and also of the 6 
, or e.mT forms of these two cha r . e i nto epSiT.Itl? 8 ** 8eem * 8hew tbat the Production of 
t"~toJ.BttiBtl 1 eH e Amteh^Sbli *" counected with the er.courageo.ent 

It Ki* ? be noted here thai, 

^ i the names, which h 


In the same way, tlie later MaUolxalli grant* So, 6 f the characters of which are all 
suspicious enough, even at first sight, is conclusively "betrayed by another tell-tale letter, The 
form of the b used in it (see labdha-bala, line 2 3 and other words all through the record) is the 
later, one, which, also, in Dr. Burnett's Tables, appears first in his Plate vi, of the alphabet of 
A,D, 945 or thereabouts (in the lithograph of the grant of Amma II., on which charter the 
plate is based, for the 6, see, for instance, labdha, line 2, bdlam, line 17, and bandhujanfy KILO 
29). Like the later form of the Jch, and bj precisely the same records, the later form of the I is 
carried back to the time of Amoghavarsha I. 1 And, in the same way, it cannot be carried back 
to an earlier date than A.D. 804 : for, the earlier form alone occurs in the Kanarese grant of 
Govinda III., dated in that year (see the words brihaspcM, line 3, gdmundabbe, line 5, fcottrfaZW, 
line 8, and all the other words in the record that include a &)> and throughout the WokkaJSri 
grant of Klrtivarman II., of A.D. 757. So, here, again, we have the beginning of th ninth 
century AJD., as tlie earnest possible period for tlie concoction of the record. 

The characters of the Nagamangala grant follow the early forms almost thro^ghont. 
They are mostly of very good and uniform execution, considerably more- so than would be 
thought from the lithograph published with Mr. Bice's paper on this record; and, to shew his 
and to illustrate my other remarks, I now give a lithograph of plates i. and iii. &, from my own 
ink-impressions of the original plates, the opportunity of seeing which I owe to Mr. Bice. And, 
being of an almost isolated type, they might, at first sight, be easily accepted as belonging really 
to the time to which they refer themselves. But they, again, are betrayed by the way in which 
the writer dealt with the letters kh and &. Of the Kh, the old form appears in Khnfga and 
khandita, line 2, dkhyas, line 26, and probably mJchydta, line 38 ; but in mnkJiK-makka, line 15, 
mukhah, line 16, dhanushkJianda and nakka, line 30, akUlam, line 38, mukhartta,, line 40, 
akhandita, line 52, khanda, line 58, ckkakhyath and duhkhain, line 75, and likhtiam, line 79, the 
writer" forgot himself, and lapsed into the later form which is subsequent to AJD. 804. So ajso 
with the & : the old type is followed in labdha-bala, line 2, and in varioiis otlier words all 
through the record; but the writer forgot himself, and gave the later form, mjbwqpsat to A.D. 
804, in baTiala, lines 28-29, dmbara, line 34, baldrir (and in the first 6 of bb&k^ Ene 87, mbudha, 
line 45, budTia, line 48, bdna, line 51, labhfaa, line 56, baliubMr=bi>awMd, line 76, and 
braTimadSyam, line 80. And so, here, again, the beginning of tlie ninth, cautery AJ>; is fixed 
as the earliest possible date for the fabrication of the record; a time which is later "by at 
any rate twenty-seven years than the given date of it, 2 

Finally, the British Muse-am grant aims at producing- the old typ$ of characters 
throughout ; including even the kh and 6. But the execution of them is vefy indifferent all 
through ; and, with the very marked corruptness of the orthography, and the displacing of portions 
of the text, which has already been noted, it proves, beyond any possibility of doubt, the sptirlotts 

1 In the Sir&r inscription of A.1X 866, only the older form of tlie 5 is used. In- the Mantraw^i inscription 
of A,D. 865, only the later form occurs. In an undated inscription of tlie same king at Nidaguudi near Shiggaoss, 
the two forms are mixed : the older form occurs mostly ; but the later form is found once. 

a I have said, above, that the characters of this grant are of an almost isolated type. Among published 
instances, I koow none that exactly match them, except those of the spurious grant of Ravidatt* from the 
Coimbatore district (2nd. Ant. Vol. XVIIL p. 36S, and lithograph). And the resemblance is so marked, that it 
seems very likely that the two records were written, for reproduction by the engraver, by the aie hand. There is 
also a close verbal connection between the sparions Coimbatore grant and the spurious Western GaBga, records; 
the former gives some actual phrases from the latter. In editing the Counbatore grant> I expressed the opiniou 
that the date of its concoction might perhaps be placed about the commencement of the eighth century A.D., 
but certainly no earlier. As, however, it includes the later form of the &h (in m&ha> line 4* and ohha&hyam 
and d^Jikham, line 32), it cannot be placed before A.D. 804. As in the case of the Merkara grant (ae pug* 16& 
abov* note 5), the means of determining the exact date of the fabrication of the N4gama%aU grant may exist 
i* the names, mentioned in it, of some Jam teachers in the Pallkml^aciichha of the Eregittto-Onsja in the Baud* 

Samgh in the M&la-Gan.a. 

T 2 


of tie record, and a late origin for it. It is not possible that tttis reC< !*lJf * 
fried *t any earlier period than that wMeh is established for all *** *l*ers. 
We mar turn aext to some details TrMch present serious chronological atEftoxOties. 

* purporting to have been issued in A.D. 776-77, belongs to tlie tweffifc 
cfT; TL Opposed founder of the family. Whereas tie Merritora grant 
1 --- ,*.-,, to h ave been issued in a year the equivalent of which is supposed to be, ana m tact 
l A.D. 466, belongs to the sixth generation? Thus we have three Inxn-ared and tenyeara 


ed bj- only six generations ; with the excessive average of more than fifty years apzece, ]usi 
what is usually accepted as the average for purposes of Hindu chronology- And a, still more 


ni average s deduced from the Tanjore grant; for, purporting/ to "belong" to the thud 

~='r^b3 and to be dated in A.D. 248, it gives, up to the Merkara grant, an interval o two 
hundred and eighteen years, filled by only three generations, with an average of more tlisn seventy 
years each. Further, the Tanjore, Merkara, Hosur, and Nagamangala grants represent themselves 
aniavinfr been -written, at intervals of two hundred and eighteen and two hxtndred an.3L 
to three hundred and ten years, by one and the same person, Visvakarman, - a name suspicious 
enough in itself. 1 And, in some respects at least, the witnesses to botb. tB.e Tarijcxre and the 
Merksra grants, at an interval of two hundred and eighteen years, were absolutely id.eni>ical. 

O 3 . * 1 1 

As the most convenient way of dealing with certain miscellaneous mistakes, 1 -wall now 
the historical details that are asserted in these spurious records ; noticing* ^* "the same time, 
as far &s 1 eaa check them, other items taken by Mr, Rice from extraneous sources. 

The founder of the family was Konganivarman. 3 In an inscription of A.X>- 968-60 at 
LakshTneshtrar. lie is said to have had the proper name of Madtava ; 4 and Mr- Hice lias 
am i-^er-rticn at Hnmclba, dated A,D. 1077-78, 5 which, I think, calls him Dstaig 
=pr--r?rt!T, " the portly MSdhava," his son KiTiya-M^dhava, and the lattax- 9 s 

His title appears as MaMrdjddTiirdja in the Tanjore a*:rael 3EIarilia,r grants, 

tilt m MaJidd'hirdja In all the others : and, in connection with this point^ ii; is to "be otxoted that, 

the first is a perfectly genidne title,, it did not penetrate into Western India, tmttl after 

tic of PnliMsim II. (A.D. 609-10 to 642), 6 and that the second is a 2aondoBOx*ipfc title 

elsewhere occura only once, in connection with DharasSna II. of Valslxhf , and is, in itself 

m suspicions item. He is described as "a sun of the J&hnaTiya family, ** i.e. of i>li family 

or relating to the river Ganga ;? as heing of the Kanv&yana g&$ir& ; and a*s having 

(or exhibited) strength and puissance by severing a large pillar of stoxie wh a BiBgle 

of his sword : and the Mallohalli grant, No. 8, seems to speak of hioa a.s ** a forest-fire 

the thicket of the Sana kings." The TJdayendiram gi^ant of a GJ-suag-a prixice named 

1 Mr. Mice says (mr& Imcri$tiom$ % p. 10) that "persons with Indian experience will :reco^nlso the 

& Bame may well be used, as a sort of clan name, by the P&Sch&la srfcificers* who invarfaljly claim 
Ti$?kftrinaii, the artificer of the gods, and are addressed in ceretnonioias cori*espoii donee a^ of the 
^lifsiarma-immia. 9 * To this I need only say that, in spite of the very large mass of materials fcha,fc ate now 
BO otfeer SBC!I instance can he adduced from any epiprraphic records ; and that Sis- ^Walter Klilofc, tvlioni 
ls refered to g hoiaing similar views with himself on this poimt, said that it would b ** a very forced 

113). ^ Sir Walter Elliot's 

113). ^ Sir Walter Elliot's genera.1 ec^saclusioo vna tfaftt 
them" (neither the graote nor the chronicle) * 4 a^ord reliable ohronologieal dat& to determine either 

fESHJg or the end of the dynasty " ffoc. c. p. 115). 

lull. A* Vol. VIIL p. 214, text, lines 41-43, and Vol. 1 p. 364, lines 7-9 from tbe end of the text 

*Ji a * m ^ i 18 - Wmten Ko6 ^ n * l7ar nn Kofigi^ivannan. and Koiigulivarman. It seems to have bean 
XoTvu ^ ^ 

- lie quotes the record as givin^ the names o* two brother, 

,L^ i- t ; f seeding afc the head of the genemWy 

SIX p. 306. ^ J " 

daughter of the sage fchim.- For the Eastern Oamga, vwriM of 
whih the family name was acquired, ^ee lid. A^. VoL XVIIL p. 17O. 

Spurious Nagamangala Plates of Sfipurusha. Saka-Samvat 698, 








R^jasimha, otherwise called Hastimalla, a vassal of the Chela Mug Parantaka L, published 

by Mr. Fonlkes, and allotted by Mm to about A J>. 920, 1 adds the information that Ms city 

was KttTOl&lapixra, which. is tie modern Kolar, in the east of Mysore^ and that Ms banner 

was tlie ytvichJtadTivaja, or banner of a bonch of feathers f and it says that, " while he was yet a 

little boy, playing at big boys' games, he cut in two a great stone plllar 3 at a single stroke* with 

the supple sword wMch he held in his hand." In connection with the banner thus mentioned, it 

may be noted that the family crest was an elephant, which appears on the seals of the grants, and 

is also mentioned in line 7 of the Harihar grant* The Udayendiram grant further states that the 

Ganga lineage originated from a saint named Kanva s born in the race of Kasyapa, and owed its 

g k i*eatiiess to a certain Siihhanandin. Here Mr. Foulkes read maJii\jpa>']j ' king.* And Mr. Rice, - 

on tjhe strength of the mention, elsewhere^ and in no connection with the Gangas," of a Jain 

teacher named Simhanandin, who, in a rather obscure passage, appears to be described as giving 

to Samantabhadra, while the latter was still a disciple, the sharp sword of meditation on the 

divine Arhat which breaks, like a line of stone pillars, the army of destructive sins, whereby 

Samamtabhadra broke with Ms sword the solid stone pillar that barred the road to the acquisition 

of the goddess of sovereignty, 3 has altered mahipa into muwipa, ' saint, or leader of saints, * and has 

arrived at the conclusion that Konganivamian " was aided, in establishing his kingdom^ by his 

ec Guru Simlianamdiri." He has found some apparent corroboration in the Humcha inscription* 

And lie has finally developed all this into the assertion that Simhanandin presented to 

Koi*ga^Iva2m.a:n a miraculous sword, with which^ at one blow, lie cut through the stone 

pillar ^wMcli was the chief obstacle in the way of Ms securing the throne, 4 But the 

pixrely conjectural alteration of mahipa into muwipa is rather a violent step. And, whatever 

the A.cTidrya> Simhanandin of the Humcha inscription may have done, the Udayendiram 

record distinctly implies an interval, of unspecified but appreciable duration, between the 

SixialianarZidixi, who is mentioned in it, and Konganivarman. 

His son was M&dlaavaI- 9 who in the Humcha inscription is called Kitiya-M^dhava^ the 
younger or lesser M&dhava.' His title appears as Mah&rdjddJwrdja in the Tanjore grant ; as 
j&dhivaja, -which, like the preceding, is a genuine title, in the Mallohalli grant No. 3; and as 
MaTiddhtrdja in all the others. No historical facts are stated in connection with him. But he is 
said to have "been the author of a commentary on the Datta!kasutra 9 a -work on. the law of adoption. 
His son -was Harivarman f who in the Tanjore grant is called Arivarman. His title appears 
as MaJidrdjdd'hirdja in tlie Tanjore grant ; in the Mallohalli grant No. 3, as Mdrdja 9 which is a 
corrupt f onn.3 and a very suspicious and instructive one, of the genuine title MaJidrdja ; and 
as Mahddhirdja in all the others. In connection with him, again, no historical facts are 
stated. But. the Tanjore grant indicates that his capital was Talavanapura, which Mr. Bice has 
identified with Talakad on the K&veri ? about thirty miles east by south from the town of 
Mysore j 5 and Mr. Bice Considers that this town continued to be the royal residence from that 
time onwards : before that time, he says, * on the authority of the KongudSsa-Rdjd&kal, the 

1 Manual of the Salem District, Vol. II- p, S89, As regarfs the period of this record, Par&ntaka I. came 
three generations before Saka-Saihvat 926 (explred) 9 * A* D. 1004-1005 (see 8ont?&-lnd. Infers. Vol. I. p. 112) 
and, therefore 3 closely about A. B, 920. 

s This banner Is allotted, in the Kalbhvi inscription, to the Oanga 'chieftain Saigotta-6anga-Perm&Ba4i, au4 
is there called * the banner o the divine A.rMt s * {Ind Ant. VoL XVIIL p. 313). 

3 TnscTiprtion* at Sr&vana-Belgola) No. 54. 

* ^ar^(a&a-SaM4nuscteBnam> Introd. p. IS. Mr B Bice has suggested {., note; aud on preyious occa- 
sions) tbat gildsiamftha may stand for stlastamM^ and that there may he an allusion fco the overthrow of a column 
of Asdka edicts. Bnt> as tie himself remarks, how an A^ka pillar could stand in the way of the establishment of 
the Ga&ga kingdom, is Bot clear. And the probability is that the passage refers to a rana&taml&a ^or 3*9*- 
*tomb&<* * a pillar of battle or victory,* set up by some other Mag s and destroyed in the samB manner with one of 
tbe Maudas^r columns (see ImL Ant. VoL X^ p* 254, Mad G-npta J9crijp^>oM p. 144)* 

* Jlfy^ore Xitfcrijptioito, p. sli., and map, p, 


capital ws&s Skandapnra, wMch Lassea lias placed afc Gajjalhatti on the old ghaut road from 
Mysore to TricMnopoIy. l 

His son was Visiu^iigdpa, whose title appears as Mahdrdjddhirdja in the Harihar grant ; in 
the MaUohalli grant No. 3, as Mdja y which is a genuine title, but not one of paramount 
sovereignty; and as Maliddkirdja in all the osiers. The Harihar grant either omits two 
generations altogether, and makes Mm the eon of Konganivarman ; or else it calls 
Harrearman Konganivarman 5 and transfers to him the feat of severing the stone pillar,, which 
elsewhere is always attributed to Konganivarman. 

His son was M&dliava H os who in the Humcha inscription is called Ang&la-Madhava. s 
Assuming that he is the Mng referred to in the Harihar grant, his title appears there as Hdja ; 
in all the subsequent records, it is MaJiddhirdja. He is said to" have married a sister of the 
Kadamba MahddMrdja Krishnavarman ; a,nd we now know three Kadamba kings of that name, 
referable to approximately the sixth century A.D.: but none of the Kadamba records mention 
such an alliance : and a note "which Mr. Bice has given, 3 to the effect that there is a grant of 
D6vavarman, son of the Kadamba Makdrdja Krishnavarman, which would place the latter about 
AJD. 438-89, is altogether misleading; in the record in question,. 4 there is no statement of any 
date, and not even anything that helps to fix its specific period \ and the date of A.D. 438-39 
for Ejrishnavarman was arrived at by myself, 5 from the spurious Gang-a records, and before I 
recognised their true nature. The Harihar grant gives this Madhava the hereditary title of 
" supreme lord of Kol&la, the best of towns, ** and describes him as " having' acquired the 
excellent favour of the goddess Padm&vati;" and it also mentions him, or another person, as 
I&jamaEla. On these points Mr. Rice himself has remarked : 6 * c No other inscription mentions 
"him" [e. B&jaxnalla], "and it is doubtful whether this name was used so early. The forns 
" Kolala, too, is more modern ; and the reference to Padmlivati seems to connect him with the 
tt later kings. 9 * It is really remarkable that Mr. Rice should recognise so much, and yet fail to 
arrive afe the proper ultimate conclusions. 

His son was Avinlta-Kongani* whose title appears in the MaUohalli grant No. 3 both a& 
Sdja and as Mahdvdja, and in the subsequent records as Mahddhirdja. He is said to have 
lammed a daughter of the Punn&fcaraja Skandavarman ; and corroboration of this statement is 
supposed to be furnished by the fact that the K6maralingam grant of Bavidatta mentions a 
Skandavanmm, whose son was named Punnatar&ja. 7 But the K6maralingam record contains no 
mention of any intermarriage with the Gangas ; and it is itself a spurious record, of certainly 
no earlier date than the commencement of the ninth century A*D, 8 

His son was The Hosur and F4gamangala grants give him no title ; 
in the Bangalore grant, he is styled MaJidrdja ; and, in the MallohalJI grant No. 6 and the 
British Museum grant s either Raja or Vriddhardja, the latter of which titles is unknown except 
for these ^spurious records. The MaUohalli grant No. 6 styles him " lord of the whole of Panada 
or P&nn&da, and Punn&da/' He is said to have been victorious in battle at Andari, llattur, 
Pondare, and Pelnagara, Pernagara, or Pennagara ; 9 and to have composed a commentary on 

1 ibidj aad Coorg Inscription^ Infcrod. p. 1* 

3 InBeeve and Sanderson's Kanarese Dictionary 9 angdtu (of wiiicli ahgdla is the genitive singular) is given as 
meaning- * the sole of the foot/ 

8 Coorff Inscription^ Introd. p 2 S note 5. 4 2nd. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 33. 
5 Ind. Ant. ToL-VI. p. 2S, Ooorff Inscriptions, infcrod, p. 2, note 3, 

1 1nd. Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 368. See page 163 above, note 2. 

9 Pennagara is said by Mr. Bice (Coorg Inscriptions^ Introd. p. 3, note 2) to be in the Salem District, at the 
f oofc of O*e Eastern Ghauts. And it is, I suppose, the * Penagara* which is shewn, in approximately Jat. 12 6', long, 
77 W, In the map given in the Manual of the Administration of the Madras Prmideney* Vol. L llattftr 
appear in the later MaUohalli grant, Ho. 6, as llanfcnr. Mr. Rice Si as suggested ( Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 135) that 
sfc snaj lie s village about ten miles south of the citj of W ym*. But there is mlso an in the CoimlJatore 
district ; mai n * Alatore 9 in the JUatebar district 


fifteen cantos, or on the fifteenth canto, of the Kirdtwrjuwiya (of BMravi). An author named 
Nripatu&ga, vhom Mr. Bice identifies with the MshtaiMta king Amogharrarsha I. (A.D. 
014-15 to 876*78) says that among previous -writers there were Vimala, Udaya 3 lf%&cjuiifl 
J ayafcandlra, and Dnrvinita ; from which Mr. Bice derives corroTborative evidence of the existence 
of the Western Ganga king Dnrvinita. 1 But, granting that the Nripatmnga in question is 
Am6ghavarsha I., the statement only proves that there was an anthor named Dnrvinita at 
some time "before about A. D. 850 ; and there is nothing in it, either to establish any particular 
date for kirn, or even to shew that he was a Ganga. An^ unpublished grant from Hebbftr states 
that Dxtrvinita was taught by the author of the Sabddvatdra^ i.e., Mr. Eic says, by 
Pnjyapada, -whose date, he holds, is thus established, 2 Whether this author was the 
celebrated Piijyapada, what the date of that Piijyapada was, and what, if anything, it 
a.y prove in connection with Durvinita,* I am not at present prepared to consider. But, at 
any rate, the date winch is to be deduced for Durvmita from, these spurious records, has no 
weight of any kind in determining the date of Piijyapada. 

His son was Mtishkara, whose name appears in the British Museum grunt in. the form of 
Mokkara. The same record styles Mm either Xtdja or Vriddhardjd ; but the Hosftr and 
N&gamaiigala grants do not give Km any title. The British Museum grant says that he married 
s. clang-liter of Sindhuraja, or of the ting of Sindhn. The Lakshraeshwar inscription mentions 
a Jam temple called Mukkaravasati : 3 this may possibly be taken as shewing that, at some 
time before A.D. 978, there really was a Ganga king or prince named Mushkara, Mukkara, or 
JMokkara : but it fixes no specific date for Mm; and it can bardly be said to suffice to prove 
the genealogy given in the spurious records. 

His BOH was Vikrama or SriviJurama, 4 -with whose name, again, the British Museum, grant 
connects tlie title of Bdja or VriddJiardja ; tlie Hosur and Nagamangala grants do not give 
him any title* No historical facts are stated in connection with "him. 

His son was BhiivUEcama, -with whose name the British Museum grant connects the title of 
^MahddTifrdja ; the Hosftr and N&gamangala grants do not give him any title. He seems to have 
liad tlie ttiruda of Srfvallahha. And he is said to have defeated an unnamed Mng, in 
battle at a place named Vilanda or Vilandha* The British Museum grant says also that he 
STibJTLga.ted the whole of the Pallava dominions. 

His younger brother was Sivamfira, to whose name the Hosur and Nagamaiigala grants 
attacli the genuine title of MaMrdja. He had the. Uruda of Uava-Kama. Also, from a 
copper-plate grant from Suradhenupura, Mr. Rice gives him the Itiruda of Nava~Ch&fca. 5 And he 
fnrtliei!' suggests that he may be the Kambayya* supposed to be also called Nava-L6ka, -who is 
mentioned In one of the Sravana-Belgola inscriptions as the son of a king named Srivallabha : ft 
Iynt 9 from ink-impressions received from Dr. Hultzsch, I am able to say that the true Tyirwda in 
the Inscription In question is Ranllvaloka ; and this, compared with Ejbadg&valolsra In the ease of 
Dantidorga., Is suggestive of a Bashtrakuta king or prince. 

Tie name of Sivam&ra's son is not given in the Hosiir, Nagamacgala, and British Museum 
And they also state no history in connection -with him* But the Uday&ndiram 

5 wliieh s as regards the interval ? simply tells us that, in the line of Kongamvarmany 

were Vishnugopa ? Hari 5 Madhava, Durvinita^ BMvikrama, and " other kings/* seems to 
name him either as Prithuyasas or as Prithivipati ; and it mentions^ in connection with Mxa, a 

3 K&r^tafe&-Sa,bMnusdsanam> Introd. pp. 7 9 19, 23. 

2 Gotnrp fnscriptions, Introd. p. 3, and Inscriptions at Srn?<*3&*.2te{$r0!a Ifttrod. pp 53 atxd note> 69; see also 
Zctrv!>f$taJSci*-Sabddnu{*anai> lutrod* pp. 18, 19, 

3 .&<&, ^Lnt. VoL VII. p* 109. 

4 Tlie following: nftm^ * BMsikTama/ suggests fhat Sri may liere be iatancbd to be part of fciae name. But 
otherwise It wosslci w>t be admissible (see &upta Inscriptions* p. 0, 

of r&vana^elgola, Introd. pp. 

168 INDICA. [y L. III. 

Mug named Amdghava^ha* Now, here there is a plain anachronism ; for, whereas, according to 
the Hosftr and Nagumangak grants* Sivam&rafc son came at least fifty years "before A.D, 776-77, 
the earliest Amdghavwsha is the K&shteakAfca king- Amoghavarsha I., who commenced to reign 
in AJX 814-15. 

son's son was named, according to the Hosftr and Mgamangala, grants, 
oiigani ; and they also imply that he had the birudae of BMmak6pa ajid 
Bajak&sarin : but some genuine stone inscriptions disclose the fact that Ms real proper name was 
Muttarasa} and Sripumsha, therefore s must also "be taken as a Uruda,. The Hosiir and 
U^gamaiigala grants both' give Mm the title of Mahdrdja. Mr. Rice says that liis wife was 
Srtj&; but the passage, in the N"%amangala grant, on wMch this is based, says in reality that the 
grant was made by the Hahcfadjddhtrdfa and Param^vara.> the glorious Jasahita : whether this 
denotes Sripurnsha, or someone else, 1 am not at present prepared to say. The Hog-fir and 
H%amangula grants both describe him as having Ms victorious camp at the town of Manyapura; 
which place, whatever it may ba s is certainly not the MS-nyakhfeta of the EaslitraMtas, And 
they give for Mm dates in AJD. 762 and 776-77 ; the later record also stating that A.D, 776-77 
was the fiftieth year of Ms reign. The Fday&ndiram grant, however, which can only be 
interpreted as naming Mm as M&rasimlia (or else as not mentioning him at all) 9 establishes a 
considerably later date ; it makes Mm (or else some otherwise unknown brother or cousin-) the 
father of ESJasimha, otherwise called Hastimalla, who received the Bana territory from the Chela 
king Parintaka I. ; and it thus places Mm (from either point of view) only one generation 
before A, D. 920 or closely thereabouts. 1 

1 will take next certain internal evidence In the Merkara record. It mentions, without 

naming Mm, the minister of a king JJkfilavar^Ti s s and says, as far as the text can be properly 

construed at all, that in A.IX 466 he acquired from Avinita-Kongani a grant for a Jain temple 

t the city of Talavanagara ; at any rate, it asserts that there was a king named AMlavarsha in 

or shortly before A.D. 466. Mr. Bice says that no doubt a B&shtrakftta king- is intended ; s and 

in this I quite agree. But, on the assumption that every Krishna of the REshtrakuta family 

nrast have borne the biruda Ak&laYaxsha s he goes on to identify this Ak&lavarsha with a 

R&shtrakiita king Kjislupa, whose son Indra is said, in the Western CMlukya traditions of the 

eleventh century A,D., to have been conquered by Jayasimha I., the progenitor of tlie whole 

Chalukya stock, 4 and who, in accordance with this statement, is to be allotted to abont the end 

of the fifth or the beginning of the Birth century, A.D., i.e. to a period that approximates to 

the date put forward in the Merkara grant ; and here it is impossible to endorse Ms views. In 

the first place, the existence of this early BftahtrakfLta king Krishna is purely legendary, and is 

undotibtedly imaginary. The Western Chalukya records themselves contain no mention of Mm ; 

and they do not record any specific victories at all by Jayasimha I,, who seems, in fact, to have 

not enjoyed any regal power, and to be quoted simply as the grandfather of Pnlikdgin L, the 

founder of the dynasty. The EAshtrakiita records do not mention him. And, though certain 

coins have been obtained from the N&sik District, which do give the name of a king Krishna, 6 

and may be allotted to the period in question just as well as to a somewhat later one, still they 

contain nothing that refers them to the K&shtrak'u.ta dynasty ; and my opinion now is that, in 

aE probability, they are coins of king Krishna, father of Sainkaragana, whose existence Las- 

j^eeiatly been brought to notice by a copper-plate grant from S&nkhd& in the Baroda State/ 

and that this person is an early Kalaekuri king. The existence of an early RS,slitmkuta king* 

Krishna, referable to approximately the period to which the Merkara grant pretends to belong, 

depends upon notMng butr the tradition which first appeal's in the eleventh century A.D., after 

2 See page 185 above, and note 1. 

% See fclse text as given in Caopg /0*eKjaii*, p. 3* f id. In trod, p, 0. 

* *#. 2nd. Ant. Vol. XVI. p. 17, s J*& Ant, Yol. XIV, p, 6a 

Zntfjco, Vol. II. p. M 


the overthrow of the Bltslitrakutas by the Western Ch&lukya Taila IL And I am certain tliat 
the origin of the statement is to be found in the facts that, almost at the end of the Rashtrat&ta 
period* there was a powerful R&shtrakuta king Krishna III., and that he left a grandson, 
Indra W. ? by crowning whom the Western Ganga prince M&rasimha attempted to continue the 
Bashtrakuta sovereignty after the overthrow of Kakka II. 1 And in the second place, even 
granting, for the sake of argument, thai there was an early Rashtrafciata king Krishna, belonging 
to the same period with the Western Chalnkya Jayasimha I., and approximating to the date 
put forward in the Merkara grant ; and also that the Mrudas of the B^shtratiitas were as 
constant as Mr. Rice would have them to be s there must have been a time when each Iriruda, 
was first devised \ and the only sound course in respect of any particular "biruda, is to take the 
earliest instance that is actually proved for it. The biruda Akalavarsha appears first in 
connection with the R&shtrakiita king Krishna I. 9 It belonged subsequently to Ms descendants 
Krishna II. and Krishna III. And, intrinsically^ any one of these three kings might be the 
person referred to in the Merkara grant. If that person, however, is Krishna I., who came 
shortly after A.D. 754, then at the best, the record was written close upon three centuries after 
the date to which it refers itself ; but this identification is rendered impossible by the palseographic 
evidence, noted above, which fixes about half a century later, and the third generation after 
Krishna I., as the earliest possible period for the concoction of the record. The date of 
Krishna II., just after A.D. 878, fits in sufficiently with the pale&ographic evidence, and, going 
slightly farther, establishes the last quarter, instead o the beginning* of tlie ninth century 
A.D., as the earliest possible period to which the fabrication of the Merkara grant cam be 
referred. I think, however, that the mention of a king Akalavarsha in this record is in reality 
to be atttributed to the fact that the l^iruda belonged also to Krishna III., whose period was 
about A.D, &40 to 956, and who had some very special relations with the Western Gangas : by 
This fatter Amdghavarsha-Vaddiga, a sister of his was given in marriage to Permanadi-Butnga^ 
with, as her dowry, the districts known as the Puligere Three-hundred, the Belvola Three- 
hundred, the Kisuk&d Seventy, and the B%e or Bagen&d Seventy ; 3 he himself confirmed 
Biituga, probably as governor, in the possession of the same districts, a& a reward for killing the 
Chola king R&jftditya ; 4 a son of his own married a daughter of Ganga-Q-ang&ya; i.e. BAtuga ; 5 
and Indra IV., by crowning whom M&rasiihha sought to continue the R&shtrakiita sovereignty 
after the downfall of Kakka II,, was the offspring of that marriage. 6 And if this view is 
accepted, fhe earliest possible period for the fabrication, of the Markara grant is pushed still 
further on 9 to about the middle of the tenth century A.D. 

There is also similar evidence in the British Museum, grant. In line 56 it 'gives the name 
of KBlivallabha f which, there can be little doubt, either denotes the R&shtrakftta king Kali- 
vallabha-Dhruva (just before A J>. 782-84), or else owes its origin to the fact of his having 
had that Tyiruda 

And finally we have to note that, in the four oases in which the dates include details 
that can be tested by calculation, in not one instance do tho&3 details -work out correctly 3 
Thus : 

The Tanjore grant purports to be dated in the Prabhava s&mvatsara, Saka-Samvat 169 
expired, on the new-moon tifhi of the month Ph&lguna, on Friday, under the R&vati naksfoatra 

1 This is evidently the real meaning of a passage near the beginning o Inscriptions <f> 
No. 38* TOhieh (id. Introd. p. 19) is rendered tfsiferenfcly by Mr, Rice. 

3 It is established for him by tbe PaithaijL grant of Gdvinda III. <o A.D. 794 (page 10<& above). In the cstses 
of bis descendants Krishna II. and K?isbna III., the biruda is well Itnowu, from various records. 

3 From an unpublished record. & JSpigrapMa Xndica, ToL II, p. 174. 

* Inscriptions $ Sravna-&elgola, lottod. p. 21. * ibid. 

7 I place this point last, because there are undoubtedly some* I oofc many, genuine records, the dates of which 
are not correct, but which are not, therefore, to be condemned. When* howver y as in the present series, everj date 
is wroBg s the point becomes one of very considerable importance. 


170 _ ,.. 

. v,MH -uoaa By tke southern hud-solar system only can Prabha^a be connected mth 
<f Ijw9 e^d and, by flu* system, it coincided with the given year, wMca is ^troaUy 
1?0 cuS Th; new-moon titU of tne ,*?***, Ptalgana began on Friday, 
170 =* ? lg ZaSj==4 i^. 3 min., after mean snnrise (for 

" neker L B^ati o*rta*r, *o. 27, nor tne VriddM 

No 11 tnnrise t -. &*****, No. 24, and the ,o,a was either Siddha, 

of the 

rr c 

mean-sign system was the one for Southern India, up to at any rate A.D. 

The Hsrihar grant purports to be dated in the Sadharana Samvatsara, Saka-Samvat 272, 
on the new-moon titU of PMlguna, on Sunday. Here, again, the samvatsara can be connected 
^ith the iriven year only by the southern lum-solar system, x according- to which Sadharana 
Voided S sLa-SaxnvatW as an expired year, i.e. with Saka-Samvat 273 L B,t 
the new-moon tUM of the p&rnimdnta PMlguna began on Monday, llth Febniary, A.D. Sol, at 
about 51 ah 30 p ,=20 hrs U min. ; and the new-moon tUM of the omfeto Phalguna ended on 
Thursday; 14th March, at about 6 yfc. 20 ^,=2 hrs. 32 min. Here, again the use of ^ 
soutHera lum-solal- system of the cycle is itself evidence of a comparatively late date 
And so also is the fact that the Saka year is expressed by numerical words ;3 for the earliest 
genuine epigraphic instance of this, in India, is the record which gives the date of the 
coronation of Amma H. in A.D. 945, and the earliest absolutely reliable instance m Western 
India, known to me, is an inscription of the time of the Western Chaiukya king Somesvara II. 
at Annigere in the Dharwar district, A.D. 1071. 4 

The Merkara grant purports to be dated in the year 388, which is taken to be, and can 
only be, Saka-Samvat 888, on the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight of Magha, on Monday. But, 
in Saka-Samvat 388 current, the given tithi ended on Friday, 7th January, A.D. 466, at about 
21 gh. 50 p.,=8 hrs. 44 min. And, with Saka-Samvat 388 expired, the given Min, in baka- 
Samvat 389 current, -began on Tuesday, 27th December, A.D. 466, at about 7 gh. 45 p.,=3 hrs. 
6 min.. 

And tie Hosur grant purports to be dated m Saka-Samvat 684 expired, in tb6 month 
Yaisaklia, on Friday, on tie occasion of an eclipse of the moon. In this year, however, the 
Mi-moon titU ended on Tuesday, 13th April, A.D. 762 ; and on this day thea?e was no lunar 
eclipse* 5 

It is necessary now to say a few words about the Tamil chronicle, the Kongudesa-B&jald^ 
which has already teen incidentally mentioned. It pnj?ports to give an account of twenty-e^ht 
kings of the Konga or Koiigu country, from four generations before A.D. 82-83 to A.D. 894j-yo. 
In many respects it agrees with the grants: so much so that it and they plainly have some 
Tery close connection; though, whether the grants were fabricated from the chronicle, or w kether 
the grants having been first concocted, the chronicle, which mentions charters of A.D. 82-Sd, 
178-79, 288-89, 746-47, and 878-89, was put together, with additions from them, or whether ail 

1 For this date, see also Ind. Ant. Vol. XVII. p. 241; some of tbe details given there are, however, superfluous, 
s& mo year can possibly be concerned except Saka-Samvat 170 current (169 expired). In snob cases as tbe preaen 
ones, it is only necessary to state tbe beginning or tbe end o a titJii^ wbiehever falls on or nearest to tbe given 

a See Ind. Ant. Vol. XVII. p. 142. 

s Tbat tbe date is expressed in tbis way was partially recognised by Mr. Bice (Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 17 } 
Ttie proper reading of tbe text is Saga-vasa nayana-giri-naya-wa. 

* Sit Walter Elliot's CarndtaJca-B4$a Inscriptions, Vol. I. p. 216. 

Tb lunar eclipses of A JX 762 were on tbe 15tb January and tbe I0th July (see You Qppolzer's Qanon far 
ffffj p. 855). 


were taken from some common source whicli remains to be discovered, it seems impossible to 
decide. But it adds some farther details, 1 wMch. are sufficiently instructive, According' to the 
grants, the founder of tlie family was Konganivarman* The clironicle mentions this person ; 
^ith the date of A.D. 189-90 or 190-91 for his installation., at Skandajrara. But it also gives 
the names of seven preirious rulers of the same kingdom, of a different family ; and it 
tells us that they were of the Ueddi or Batta trtfoe 9 and belonged to the Suryavamsa 
or Solar Race. 3 And, not only does it make this pointed statement, but, of these persons, 
five are distinctly to foe identified with members of the Kashtarafcnta dynasty of 
Malkhed, whose dates, far from lying before A.D. 189, fall between about A.D. 675 and 
956. The names and relationships of the seven mlers, as given in the chronicle, are 
VirurS,]a-Chakravartin, who was born in the city of Skandapnra ; his son Govindaraya ; his son 
Krishaaraya; his son Kalavallabharaya ; his son Govindaraya, with the date of A.D. 82-83; hia 
son Chatnrbhuja-Kanna^ad^va-Chalcravartiii; and his son TirtL-Vikramad^va-Chakravartin^ who 
Is said to have been installed at Skandap-ora in A.D. 178-79, and to have been converted from 
Jainism to Saivism by the celebrated Saadakarach&rya. And the second to the sixth of them are 
plainly .Govinda L of the Rashta^^fc&t^ dynasty (three generations before A,D. 754) ; Ms 
grandson Krishna I, ; the latter' s soil Kalivallabha-Dhrava ; Dhmva's son Govinda III, 
(A.D. 782-84 and 814-15) ; "and either Govinda's grandson Kannam-Krishna IL (A.D, 888 
and 911-12), or the latter's great-grandson Kannara-Krishna III. (A.D. 940 and 956) , 3 The 
placing of these kings before the supposed founder of the Western Ganga family, and in the 
first and second centimes A.D,, establishes at once the utter worthlessness of the chronicle 
for any historical purposes, whether it is a composition, of recent date, or whether it can 
pretend to any age. 4 

It is hardly possible, after this detailed exposition, that any genuine dtfnbt can remain as to 
the spurious nature of the grants, and as to the complete futility, and worse, of placing reliance 
on either them or the chronicle .for any historical or antiquarian -purposes. But the question 
may very reasonably present itself, "What was the object of the invention of the genealogy 
that is exhibited in these spurious records? And I think that even this can be satis- 
factorily answered. There are plain indications that, just about the period, the last quarter 
of the ninth century A.D. ? that has been established above as the earliest possible one for the 
fabrication of the Merkara grant, all the reigning families of Southern India were beginning 
to look up tb.eir pedigrees and devise more or less fabialons genealogies The Puranic 
genealogy of the BAshtrakiitas makes its first appearance in the Sangli grant of A.D. 933. 5 
The Puranic genealogy* of the Chaliokyas presents itself first in the Korameffi grant of shortly 

* Seethe extracts from Prof. Do wsou's abstract (Jour. M. JLs. 800., P. S., Vol. VIII, p. 1 ff.), whicli are attached 
to the first account of the Merkara grant (Ind. Ant. Vol. I. p. 360). 

3 Even this detail is wrong ; for the R^shtrakiitas (Rattas) attributed themselves to the Sdmavamsa or Lunar 

3 The wrong statements o relationship, by which each person is made the son of his predecessor, and the 
perversion of Kalivallabha into KMavallabiia, are thoroughly typical features of such a document,-- It has 
been suggested (Ind. Jint. Vol. XIV. p. 124) that the first G6vindar&ya represents Gdvinda IL, soe of Krishna I.; 
and that the proper .order of these two names has been transposed. But 1 see no reason for adopting 
this suggestion. The composer of the chronicle evidently got hold of some R^htrakilta record which as several 
of them do, started the genealogy with 06 vinda I., and omitted Gdvinda IL, who did not reign.- ChBtarbhnja- 
KanBa^va-Cbakravartin may be, as has previously been assumed, Kann am- Krishna II But, for the reasons 
given above in connection with the mention of a king AkMavarsha in the Merkara grant, I think that he is more 
probably Kannara-Krishna III* , , , , , , . - . 

Aaother document of the same kind (except that it i. known to be of absolutely modern date), winch ha, 
been similarly ased for the creation o imaginary history about Mysore, is the &y**t-*atk+ with .ts wonderful 
account, in connection *ibh Sravana-Belgola, of the fato-KMK* Bhadrabaha and a sapposititioua godson, 
Mined Cbandragupta, of AS6ka, the grandson of Chandmgopta of Pataliputra (see I*J..Af. VoL iii. p.i&7J. 

s Ad. Attt. Vol. XII. p. 247. 

z 2 

172 - nmiCA. IT 01 -- in. 

after A.D. 1G22. 1 The Glx61a Pur4nic genealogy Is, apparently, first met with in tha 
Paranis which, was composed in the reign of the Eastern Cialiilkya king Kulottunga-Cla6dad&va 
I. (AJX 1068 to 1112).* And the Pnranlc genealogy of the Eastern G-angas of Kalinganagara 
is first made known Tby a grant of A.D. 11 18-1 9. 3 The Western Ganga prince Marasimta, 
who lias been already mentioned, and who was a feudatory. probably half independent, of 
the last three Rashtrakiita kings, Krishna III., Khottlga 5 and Kakka II., was a person of no 
small rank and power. Nothing Is more likely than that lie should follow the general example 
that was then prevailing. And I tMnk thai the lakslundshwar inscriptions dated in A.B. 
968-89 9 4 -wMcla actually represents Mm as the younger brother of a HariYarman -who is plainly 
the person of thai name -who stands in the third generation in the Table on page 161 above, 
indicates that lie did so, and fixes very closely the time wlien the Western G-anga geneaJtogy* 
exMibited in the spurious reeords 9 was invented ; the inscription in question seems to me to 
represent, in a rudimentary form^ the beginning* of a longer genealogy which was elaborated 
subsequently. 5 

I will, in conclusion, state the exact position which. I tafce up in respect of tliese 
spurious 'Western Qanga records, sad of Mr." Bleeps writings in epnmection with, tbenu 
I believe tliat any critical mind will admit that my position is the only sound and logical one. 
And I lay stress on the matter, because, though Mr. Rice lias an opportunity in Mysore, sucli as 
few people can enjoy, of turning out most vataable Mstorical and antiquarian results, lie is 
spoiling everything that lie produces, bearing upon early times, "by the manner in which he 
makes all Ms results conform to the statements of the spurious records and mistaken traditions 
that abound in that part of the country ; if Ms writings are to meet with the appreciation and 
cany the weight that they might easily deserve and bear, it is necessary for him to discard 
these spurious records and false traditions altogether, and strike out everything that is based 
on them, and to put forward as history nothing but what rests on authorities that cannot be 
questioned. 6 

* id. Vol. XIV, p. 48, and Voi XX. p. 274. 

2nd. ^nt. VoL XIX. p. S29 S and-VL XX. p. 278, id. VoL XVIII. p. IBS. 

4 Znd* Ant. Vol. VIL p. 101. Doubts bava been suggested as to the authenticity o this record ; on the 
grounds {see Coorg Jn*crtp<fe4 IiifcrocL p. 9) that it is followed, on the same stone, hy two others which refer 

* T^T*^ earii - er timea * l am ** prepared to discuss the matter fully; now, at least. But the Gaaga record 
ot A.O.^ 968-69 IE in genuine characters of the period; and the only suspicious point about It, to my msnd, is that, 

nKoi^ younger hrotlaer of the 

s to tha following two records which stand after It, written in characters of the same period, that doubt 

^ tby m&J be ^ % C0ples of ear1 ^ ori ^ a ^ which were pmhably on copper- plates = Sir 
Has suggested that they were put on this stone for the unification of the titles ** (Coin* of Southern 

9 p. 114). x ^ 

^ ^^^^ Inscription of Mtemmlm, dated in the same year, the VIbham m^atsara, Saka- 

Sanmt 89O expired (Ind. Anf oL VIL p. IIS 5 the third part of the record), only mentions KoBganivarman, and 
is lineae ad-> 


says thafc in his lineage (fad-aw>a$fy tlsere was ina. 

I am not writing in any unfriendly spirit ; and I hope not in an upfriendiy style. Also, it does not affect my 


f r g tlme ltt W rMng at &e anciejlt M <W of India. It seems to me 

* lt deSer " 68 fo ^ treated Critica11 ^ awd oa ^ ^s. And what I say aa to 

* *t W to reeogmse, evenally if t at once, the 
w ottw Pct of which he has similarly gone artray. 
^ f the Westera G *ga grants .5* far 
been, not the recognition o! their tr^ 

a ^ r m Whi * *^ ^ * a** ^ be gennine and to ^eqnire serious 
S poa. co^^ta g^mts are not confined to Mysore and its naSfabonrhood ; 


Certain statements in the records of the KadamTba Mug Mrig6savarman s and of the "Western 
Chahzkya kings Mangalesa, Pulikesin II., and Vinay&ditya, do prove that in early times 9 -during 
at leaSt the sixth and seventli centnsles A.IX, there really wae a reigning Ganga family 
in Western India. But the references are all impersonal ; they do not give the names of any 
individual Gatigas. And 3 -while I am ready and eager to accept any such names, for the 
period in questioit and for any earlier one, as, may be proved "by authentic evidence, I cannot fall 
ia with Mr, Bice's view of the matter, wMcii is that, unless I can uslighteu Wm- * to who the 
real Gangas of the period were,, I am bound to accept those whom lie names from the spurious 
records that lie has produced. 1 I do not demy the possibility of those records containing here,, 
and there a germ of truth ; in fact, as I will shew,- two instances in point can now "be 
quoted to that effect. But the records themselves &re spurious 3 and were not even concocted in the 
early times to which they refer themselves. The simple contrast, with, each otter, of the dates 
wMcJi they purport to fiirnish for Harivaramn and Avinita-Konganij and still more the con- 
trast of those dates with the period which they assert for Sriptorasha-Pritliuvi-Kongani^ is 
sufficient to prove, either that those dates are false, or else that the pedigree is imperfect;, and, 
consequently, that we are not even in possession of veracious facts recited in spurious documents* 
And I protest against the fabrication of imaginary history by adopting, wholesale, statements 
which rest solely upon such utterly unauthentic bases ; against dragging in similar spurious 
records to substantiate them ; a and against complicating real Mstory, by? for instance^ 3 taking 
tte undoubted fact that there was an early Krishnavarman in the Kadamba family, and then 
using the assertion of the spurious grants that Madhava II., referable, according to them, to 
about A.D. 400 to 425, married a daughter of a Kadamba Krislinavarman s to establish for 
the genuine Krishnavarman a date which is considerably too early, and is misleading in a 
variety of connected matters. 

As matters stand at present, out of the names mentioned in the spurious records, the 
earliest authentic one* in respect o which we have certainty* is that of flripiinisha- 
Pirithiivi-Konganis or, as he may be more appropriately and shortly called, Srlpiirusha-Miitta^ 
rasa 9 who is referable, no doubt, to -what is to be called the Western Ga&ga lineage, and who is to 

taking only sack as have "been already published, and even then excluding those in favour of which any doubt 
whatever may exist, we have the following from other parts of India : From Btb&r, of Samndragnpfca, purporting 
to be dated in the year 9 (&upta Inscriptions, p. 254) 5 from K&thiaw&4, of Dharas&na II., Saka-Samvat 400 (Ind. 
Ant. Vol. X. p* 277), and of JMkadeva, Vikrama-Samvab 794 { <d. Vol. XIL p. 151) ; froto Kair% the Baxafia 
State, and Broach, of Dadda II., Saka-Samvat 400, 415, and 417 (id. Vol. VII. p. 61; Vol. XVI L p. 183 5 Vol. XUL 
p. 116) 5 from KMndSsh, of Pnlik6&in I. or II., Saka-Samvut 310 (id. Vol. IX. p. 203) r from somewhere in the 
Kanarese country, of Polikesin L, Saka-Samvst 411 (id. Vol. VII. p. 209) *, from Batn&glri, of PnlikMin IL, of 
bis fifth year (id. Vol. XI Y. p. 330) 5 from Dh&rw&r, of VikrunaAditya L, Saka-Samvat 532 (id. Vol. VII. p. 217> 
and the grant of Bdtuga-now edited ; and from TTdaytediwwn in the Horth Arcot district of the Madras Fresi- 
dency s the grant of Nandwarmim ( id. Vol. VIII. p. 167, and page 1<I2 above ). But Mysore, with some neighhouring 
parts, bas been especially productive of them, including some of the moat barefaced specimens. Tbus, in addition 
to the nine Western Ga&ga grafts, we have, from Coimbatore, the grant of Eavidatta (Ind. ^fi#* Vol. XVI II. 
p. 362) ; and from Mysore itself, the Mudyan^r grant of MaUad6ro-Nandivarrasn f piarporfcieg to be dated Saka- 
Samvat 261 (Ind. A*&. Vol. XV. p. 172), the B-angalore grant of Vlra-Nonamba, Saka-Saiirrot 366 (id. Vol. VIII. 
p 94) the Hos4r grant which purports to give the name of a daughter, Arab&r&, of Pulik&in II. (*A Vol. VIII. 
p. 06, with a lithograph hi Vol. IX. p, 304); and tbe Auaptpnr or Gauja 3 B^g^r, Bhtmankatti or TirthahsiK 
Kuppagadde, and Sorab grants of Janawdjaya, which pretend to be nearly five thotassud years old (id. Vol. I. pp. 
375 377 - Vol. IIL p. 268 ; Vol. IV. p. 238 3 Vol. VIIL p. 91 5 wwl Mysore Intoriptiont, pp. 2S2, 238 S 251). 

8 i Bee Coorff Inscription*, In trod. p. 10. I might just as reasonably attempt to name the mummed leaders 
of the Ch61n, P&ndya, Kerala, Kalahhra, Ch<6ra, and other families of the period. 

e .ff. the spurious Coimbatore grant, which I have disposed of above (page 163, note 2), and the spurious 
Mndyanikr grant, purporting to have beea Issued by a B&aa king named MHilad^va-Nandivarman in A.D. 1138 
(Ind ^nf Vol. XV. p. 172), which Mr. Rice has quoted (Inscription* at 8rae*wX*lffl** Inirod. p. 44) as 
proving the esisteoce of Bina kings in the beginning of the third centary A.D. This B^a grant m betrayed 
, amongst other things, the use of the later form of the *& which WES subsequent to A.D. 804 e 

* xxxvii.^ asxis., and C7oor^ Inscriptions* Introd. p. 


be placed in the eighth or ninth century, A3X, say, pending more precise discoveries, Bomewhere 
in the period A JD. 75 to 86O. His existence and period are proved, not by tte spurious 
grants, but by stone inscriptions at Talakad, Sivara, and Sivarpatna, unquestionably genuine, 
bat unfortunately not dated, of which Mr. Bice sent me photographs with the object of 
inducing my admission, wHclx I give without hesitation, of the genuine existence of afc any rate 
one of the "persons named in the spurious records. The Talakad inscription, -which speaks 
of rfenraslia-Muttarasa as the Mahdrdja Prithuvi-Kongani-Muttarasa-Sripurusha, axid describes 
Mm as reigning as paramount sovereign, would have been, in itself, quite sufficient to establish 
Mm as a historical personage. And, being- engraved in remarkably fine characters which are 
fttTJbutaHe to any period about A.D, 800, 1 it" makes it quite possible that the fabricator of the 
Haste and "Nagamaiig&la grants had available* or hit off, true dates for him. But it contains 
no hint of the genealogy that is given in the copper-plafce grants; nor do the others; and so, 
of course, these records do not substantiate either that genealogy, or any of the supposed facts 
that are stated in the course of it. There is, indeed, one other nanie 3 which may- perhaps 
be placed before that of Snpurasha-Muttarasa : for, a genuine but undated stone inscription at 
Debtor in the Naiijangud taiuka, Mysore, engraved in well-formed characters of jjtist about 
the same period, mentions a iYam&ra, and, without connecting 1 any title with. ILIS name, 
describes him, also, as reigning as paramount sovereign ; 3 and the existence of a iking 1 named 
SIvamAra, either just before or just after Sripurasha-Muttarasa, and referable to the same 
lineage with him, is, therefore, also proved. But this record, again, contains no g-enealogic'al 
information j and so it does not help us to decide whether this Sivamara is the person who 
according to the Sfldi grant 3 was the father, and according to the Hos&r and If ag-amangala 
grants was the grandfather, of Srlpurusha-Muttarasa, or whether he is the person whom the 
Sftdi grant represents as a son of Sripurusha-Muttarasa. 4 Thus, the existence of one at least, 
and perhaps two, of the persons named in the spurious charters purporting to belong- to the 
earlier period, and referable approximately to the period that is made out for one of tliem by 
those charters, is BOW established. And, taking the later period as represented by tlae spnriotis 
SidI gr&nt, a genuine but undated stone inscription from Daddahiindi in Mysore, now in the 
Bangalore Museum, 5 establishes the existence, in just abaut the same period, Tbn.fc probably 

1 It includes the old form of the b; as also does one of the Sivarpatna records. I do not find the later form 
of the M or theft in any of the records in question, four in number. I would mnk here a remark on an 
Incidental point of some importance. The photographs suffice to shew the general standard of these records well 
enough. But thej do not represent the originals faithfully aud intelligibly ; the reason being that, for photography, 
the letters were filled in, either with paint or with whitewash, by hand. This practice cannot be too atrongiy 
condemned; it distorts the characters, introduces mistakes, and frequently renders it quite impossible to decide 
what the original, really contain. The ancient records, when studied from reproduetiobs, can be properly 
appreciated and understood only from reproductions which are purely mechanical. 

s Here I write on the authority of an ink-impression, which Mr. JS,ice ki nelly sent for my inspecfctou The 
impression L, not very clear ; but the record appears not to include the letters Jch and b in either form 

1 See the Table on page 177 below. 

al8 in ne f tlie Si r P*tna inscriptions of Sripurusha-Mu ttarasa. But 
7 "f f - t t help US t0 dCide tbe qUeStl * a f W tity.- Mr. Rice has also Bent me photographs 

theSivam&ra who is represented as either thSL 

T Sd - M 

to aU been wfS Xlt * S T"* " * 8PUrl US ^^ "^ B " "* the 

who wrote the Nlgi?^' Ant\7' T 1 "^ ?> * ^^ ^ ^^ bj the 

the old form of th. f : ^ *T *" P*logphic test of the two specially tell-tale ebon* 
" * * ^ fchr ** War farm of the U is used all fihroa^h, except. 4n cue 

.i . ^Hultzsch k indly,en feme . This record contain, 

later tl^t^of^^ AB regards g eeral feature,, the character. ^ 

^ae 01 cue genoine records of Srlpuraaha-Muttaiusa and Sivain4ra. 


after the two persons mentioned above, of a king named Mtimarga- Kongnnivarma- Perm&nadi s 
with tlie title of Mahdrdjddhirdja, and Ms son. Satyavakya-Permanadi, wlio are undoubtedly 
referable to tte same lineage, and ma*y perhaps be identified with the Ereganga-jSTJtim&rga- 
Kongunivarman and his son Rajamalla-Satyavakya-Kongunivarinan who are mentioned in th 
continuation of the genealogy as given in the Sudi grant. So, also, the existence of a 
person named Bfttuga, who is to be identified with the Jayaduttaranga-Bfttuga of the Sfcdi 
grant, is a fact ; and we have for him an authentic date, A.D. 949-50, which approximates 
closely to the date given for him by that grant. And very possibly some other authentic 
naines, "with dates, may be identified with names mentioned in that grant. But further 
inquiries in this direction would be beyond the scope of the present paper. We are dealing 
now with the spurious charters which purport to belong to the earlier period. And the point 
with which we are concerned here, is simply that the existence of one at least, and perhaps 
two, of the persons named in those records, viz* Sripurusha-Muttarasa and Sivamstra, is now 
established, and that to the first-mentioned of them there may quite possibly belong the actual 
dates that are given for him by two of those records. But we have still to bear in mind 
that even this does not suffice to establish the truth of anything else that is stated in the 
records in question ; the records themselves are so clearly spurious, that nothing at all, put 
forward in them, can be accepted without similar corroboration from extraneous sources. If 
similar authentic evidence, establishing any other portions of the alleged earlier history, can be 
produced,, by all means let it be produced ; no one will welcome it more than I shalL But the 
spurious records -will remain spurious. And of one thing I am sure, that, unless it upsets in 
some -way or other the genealogy that is asserted in those records, nothing will ever be obtained to 
establish, the dates of A.D. 248 and 466, which they give for Harivarman and Avinita-Kongani 

It only remains to say a few final words about the contents and nature of the spurious 
Sudi grant, which is now published. 

The genealogy given in it agrees with the Taxrjore and other grants, up to the mention 
of Bhuvikrama. The continuation of it, from him onwards, is shewn in the Table on page 177 
below ; together with tlie historical items s real or fictitious, which it connects with some of 
the names. It is to be noted that this record differs from the .others, in making Sivam&ra the 
son, instead of the younger brother, of Bhuvikrama ; and in representing Sripnmsha as the son, 
instead of the grandson^ of Sivamara. As, however, the grants from which it differs are all 
spurious, and it is also itself spurious, it would be superfluous- to do more than simply draw 
attention to the discrepancies. Erom Sripurasha onwards, the genealogy, with most of the 
historical statements, remains to be verified or disproved. At present, I can only say that the 
genealogy does not seem to agree with that furnished by some records for the same period ? which 
Mr. Bice lias had under examination j 1 that the Bashtrakixta records give no indication of 
an intermarriage with the Gangas in the time of Anaoghavarsha I., who is plainly the king 
whose daughter Gunaduttaranga-Butuga is said to have married ; and that it is curious that the 
record* makes no mention of Ereyappa and his son Rachamalla, though it was by . killiog the 
last-mentioned that Jayadnttaranga-JButuga, otherwise called Permanadi-Butuga, secured tlie 
Gang-av&di province. 2 

The record does contain references to two real Mstorieal events : tbe marriage of 
Jayaduttaranga-Bfttuga with a daughter of Baddega, i.e. the Bashtrakuta king Amoghavamba- 
Vaddiga (between A.D, 912 and 940) ; and the victory over the Chola king Rjaditya, And 
it gives a perfectly possible date for Jayaduttaranga-Butuga* in A.D. 938. 3 


1 See, e.<?'9 Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgola, Introd. pp.68, 69, Nos. 14 to 19. 
3 JUpigrapliia, Xndiea, Vol. II. p. 173. 

s Tbe date of A.D. 949-50 Is established for him by the Atak&r inscription (Epigrap&ia 2ndi&, Tol II. 
p. 109.) 


r^Uve it to be a spurious grant j partly because of the type of tihe cliairacters, and 

*7*a tie does not work out correctly. As regards the characters* lithographs O f 
itiartife alphabet of Western India of this period have not as yet T>ee:a published; 
":: :*X 1 cannot justify my objections In detail. JBut the character present a 
v: g-eteral appearance than those of the Atakur inscription, and of any records that 
I &r - rr_i with, belonging to within fifty years or so of the asserted date of iJbis record. 
-*- ; *r. ; %.* teia to rae to be distinctly more modern than those of tlie Koruzaelli grant of 
i ;*;.'*: ^ * I *~::::i2 w^ issued in or after A. D. 1022 (Jnd. -d^. Vol. XIV". p. 48, and, Ktitograpli) 
IEJ^J # *:*.<- sr.r & Tt- as being perceptibly not early enough for the date to which, tliey purport 
" *> :** Ar i tiisbeiaig so 5 tie fact that tlie details of the date do not work out* correctly 
a^'i^v^r 3 ztr:rg point against tlie authenticity of the record. 

TEXT. l 
First Plate. 

Jita[m*] bhagavata * 

- - .rer- 

Padaa-abli&na [||*] Snmaj-Jahnav6ya3-kul-arma11a.vv6m.-Ava- 

==a.^.Uk3ra4: || ' 

'*-*" x '*"" ;: ^ ira ~ ii ^^ 

- bM 


niti-slbtrasya vaktri-pmydktri-kusald datta k ai- 


L a t XL - 
Plate; Fir 

Om Tafc- 


u - 

No. 25.] 



The later Western Gangas, 
according to tlie spurious Sudi plates. 



1 1 


03 e= 5; 

S V 'S^;S B 53 


^Lfs g~l"g 



S 1 ! ^jleif^ 
11 is1*:-il 

J gp S- 2 ia.S'15 1 ^ 








1 i^ii-f-ii 

' ES a-a*!* 

* <D S * 05 tJ- 











w 1 

2 A 



1 Komgnnivarmma-va (dta) rmiimmakarajadliiraja-pu (pa) ramesvarah. riniad - 

20 nihnaja(d]i6)y&h [II*] Tat-putro vijrlmbliaiaana-sakti-trayai. 

2 1 gar-ddy^aiiSlca-s&iaara-mtLkha-xaaklm-^ [u*] fca-praliata-surapiiriislia-pagupaliara- 

22 sa- Yiiasti (s ti) t rita-Kritant- Agni-mukliah Kiratar jnniy asy a paficliad a,sa- 

Second Plate ; Second Side, 

23 rimad*IP*]iirvvi^ [||*] Om Tat-pixtro 

durddant a-sa (T!) mardda-mridite (ta) --vis va [m] bhara- 

24 ri(dM)pa-m&(nuHi)U^ a in a- 

Ba-charanay ngala-Balmah sri- pffuslika]ra 3 

25 pmttaina-namadiieyah |(IJ) Om Tat-putras^diaturddasa-vidyastJiazi* 

ad1iigate-ramala 4 -matir=YYisesliat6 [ni] ra 

26 vasepa(slia)sya nitl-Sastrasya vak[tri]^praya(yo)ktri-knsal6 rlpiz-tioiira- 

nikara-sarakamn 6 -6daya-bha- 

27 Bkarah sri-Vilorama-[pra]tliaina.namadheyali [||*] Om Tat-putra (tro) = 

25 lakslnni-laksHta-Takslia^*] sthajah. samadMgata-sakala-sastr-artta[hL* : 3 sri- 

29 prafhama^namadlieyali [||] Om Tat^-putrah svakiya-rap^atisaya- 

30 karas=Sivama[m-pmiliama.n^]mad]i[^*3y a h 8 [H*] Om Tat-pixtrah 


32 rsiiiims- Tat-putr6 

anTaya-naiaL :? 8tliala.ra(ga)bliastiinal! sri-Kom- 


Bead ri 

v' , 

Une & '~ 
line 18 . tbpy are 

- The 8hape of this * 

So^e c^eet SS^^^ * -o*ln to the real reading of it. 

btake for toa. It b j^t possible tWaAilM f- ' 6 ? " ^ a PP arent to me > ^^ ^*fa is a pun 

^ of line so> have been 

Ieadlne there was *-M4|fcww - ; and that the w 

ere. Iealne tere was *-M4|fcww - ; and that the word 

*' L? aDy> tbat ^ fiMt ^ llaUe thh word * M intended to be ,'*, not *. 

Wo. 25.] . 179 

34 Saigott;-4para-2iamA [|^] Tasya, 


35 laksimi-pa(sa) m&limglta-Y&ksM]i 

Plate f First Side. 

36 japaram6svara[h^] gri-B&janiaIga(na 

putrah. Bamati( ? di)-samara-samha- 

37 Ipi(ri) t-6dara-Tairi-vi(Ti)rapurusli6 

dharmmamaMrajadliiraja-paramesvara[li !!|E ] 

38 srimad-EIe(re)gamgadva-prathama--2iainadli^yali [H*] Ota Tat-pufcrah 

Sg,miya-samara-saiiijanita- vija - 

39 [ya*] -srlh |ri-Satyavkya-Komgiiniva^jiijQaa*dhari^ 

paramesvara [h*] gri-BS jamaHa- 1 

40 prattamar-namadh^yak |(H) Om Tasu(sya) kaniyan 

nirI16ri(tlii)ta Q .PallaT-adliipah srima[d-A^]m6gliavaMliadaTa- 

41 prith^dvallablia-sutaya^ srimad-Abbalabbayai(fe)pr&n-esTara[h*] firl- 


42 madhSyah Gunad-uttaramgali 4 |(||) Om Tat-putrati | 5 Ele(re)yappa- 

pattabandha-parislikrita4ala[in6] Ja( ? ba)m- 

43 tepperupem jern-prabbriti-y nddha-prabandha-prakavi (ti) ta-Pallara( va) -para- 

44 . Bamgini 6 varmma-ra (dha) rmmamaliarajaviCdhi) raja-param^svara^^] sri- 


45 Komara-vedemgah |(]|) Om Tat-putra[k*] 


46 srtman-Narasi[m*]ghad6va-pmthama-namad]i[e*] 

gab. 1(||) Oin Tat-putrah kottamarada .......... 

47 tonniraga-sri 7 -Niti^ jadliir&ja- 

paramesvara[b*] gri-Eajama ?]Ha- 

48 pratbama-namadMyah j Kadieheya-G-amgah |(||) Om Vri(>Ti) 8 [If*] 

Tasy 9 =annj6 nija-l)hTi]-lirjjita-sampa[d-ar]tth.[6] 

Third Plate*, Second Side. 

49 bhtivallablia[ih*] samupagamya La(da)h&la-desd grf-Bad^egam tad* 

anti ta- 

50 sya sutam sab^aiva vak-kanyayi vyavahad=ttttavl(ma)-dhis=Tripii 

51 ryyfim [II*] Apl cba H Laksbmim 10 =Indrasya barttruii gataTati 

divi y ad-Baddeg-liniki (k&) 

1 The second ak&hara of this name is damaged; but it can be distinctly recognised as/<3 aot <?a. In line 36 
the same name occurs, and the a&sharas are not damaged at all. 

* Apparently, nirlfaqthita would be a more correct form. 
s Eead suttfydh. 

* In this biruda the first part is the Kanarese genitive guyada* We have other such genitives in 
4B 9 j<yad& 9 line 64, and nanniya, line 66. 

* This mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 

* Head fcom^tt**. 7 Or, perhaps, *ow*"' 
Le* vfii$&** g Metre : Vasantatiiaka. 

M Metre 3ra&dhar&; and ia the nest verse. 






h[ri*]iv4r I*al[l ? ]eya-iastat=:kari-tTiraga^^ 

I radafc Krislinaya rajfie ksMt[i*]-pati-gananasv==a~ 

M-Butiig-akliyas=samajaixI viji- 

KamcMtali Mima 2 

Aiaeiiaptira-pati a 


Banasl tva- 
ma 3 BajavarmmS iantatvaih santa-deso 


Bijj-akhyo Bantivarmiaa 









Fourth Plate i First Side. 


pat li Ejditya^naresvaTa[iii^] gaja-gliat-atopfena sandarppita[m*] 
jitT=Mesata eva gandngamaM HiddMtya 5 I Tamjapurim 
rra=:-Hi.adrr3i.dnigga.nivahftn dagdhv^ gaj6ndp&n hay&n 
ya pratttaiii2i=dlia2a35i svayam=adat sri.GaCm*]ga-Nar 
Ai^ra || ^^tanrnda^^BMtd-Mdhata-kuvAdi-lnm 

-iittaar^ H Gadyam || 


; Second Side. 

griBiitiiga- P mtliama.iianiadli%6 Nanmya-Gamgah 

Gamga-mandala[m] pratipajaya(ya)n* 


c_ is Sucli Plates of Butuga. Saka-Samvat 860. 

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/> ' ? "* *?:? : X"''///-: ^ ^ 4 ^/- "^ '^A'C.H' 
















77 Tasy^&gliata 1 purvvatah. ia^nasi3diga-key=daksHnatahi pannasina- 

bhuioili pa- 

78 schimatah ke( ?ko)ppara-polam uttaratah B&Lugdxiya banda* 

pallam [SI*] Aruvanam gadya- 

79 jna-trayam gram6 diyate=selia 3 -"kramam gr&md rakshati |) 

80 Samanyo 4 =yam dtarinina-s^fcu[r^]=2iripaiiaiii kale-kal& p&laniyo 

bhavadbhih sarvv&n=6- 

81 tam(n) bhSvinah parttMvendr6(ndran) bhuyo-biuyo y&chate 

Ramabhadrah || BahubMr 5 =wasu- 

82 dM, bhukta rajabMs=Sagar-adibhi[h^] yasya yasya yadi bhui3Qis= 

tasya tasya tada ptalam || 
8 3 Siald&avi 6 ~saptati-mukhy a-Strndyfim-acMkaram Jena, 7 -griham pra- 

slddbam pad-gr&mani * , 
84 sMI 8 -Tidli&iia-p-urYYam gri-DivalCS^ihba jagad-^ka-BambM 1(||) Om 

Om II Om H 


Beverence to that Arhat, the teacher of the religion which Is beneficial to the world, 
whose glory is resplendent as including the possession of wisdom, as being faultless, (and) m 
being free from any wasting away ! 

(Line 2.) _ Victory has been achieved by the Divine One, Padmanabha, who resembles 
(in the colour of his lady) a cloudless sky ! 

/I^ 3,) _ (There was) the glorious Kongunivarman, the pious HaMrdjddhirdja, who was 
ft very sum irradiating the clear sky which is the illuBtrious JaJrnaviya family; who acquired 
strength and puissance by severing a great pillar of stone with a single stroke of Ms sword ; 
who was adorned with the decoration of wounds received in cleaving asunder a host of cruel foes ; 
(and) -who -was of the KSnvayana ^otra. 

^ 7^ _ His sou, endowed -with virtues that imitated (those) of (his) father, (was) the 
gloriou^ Mahdrdjddhirdja D^adliava (I.)*J 9 9 ^hose behaviour was regulated by learning and 
modesty ; who attained the objects of sovereignty by doing nothing but properly protecting (his) 
subiects /-who was a very toucli-stone for testing the gold that is learned men and poets; who 
was skilled among those who expound and apply the science of politics ; (and) who was the 
author of a commentary on the DattaJtasutra. 

CL 10.) Om ! His scm > endowed with the virtues of (his) father and father's father, (was) 
the glorious UahMhirdja HteiTarmao, whose fame was flavoured by the waters of the four 
oceans -which were acquired 1 ** in many fights of four-tusked elephants. 

(L. 130 His S011 ( wa *) tli0 & loriolls Mahddhirdja Vishtragopa. 

(L 130 His son (was) the glorious Mahddhwdja Madlxava (H.) s who bought the 
sovereignty with the price of the streBgth and puissance of Ms own arm, (and) who was 
ever ready to extricate the bull, Religion, wHch is sunk in the mud of the violence of the Kab 

age " CL 151 Om! His son ? the dear sister's son of the Mahddhirdja Krislinavarnian, 
who (was) the sun of the sky that is the glorious Kadamba family,- (was) the glorious 

_ ' Ed 

a Vh** intended readiBsr setms to be s'hat^rdwa^r^s'ktl. m 

3 Sae pa^ 1?6 bove,1,ote 8, <*- sovereignty extoding to which W 8 acquared 


Konjpmivarman, the pious Mahdrdjddhirdja, the Paramdsvara, possessed of the first name of 
" the glorious Aviaita, " whose soul was completely filled with learning and modesty ; wliose 
valour was chiefly characterised by being irresistible ; (and) who was worthy to be reckoned 

first amoEg learned men. 

(L. 20.} His son (was) he who had the first name of " the glorious Durvinlta ; " wiose 
three constituents of regal power were (ever) extending themselves ; who "brought confusion (of 
envy) on the faces of Death and the Fire by (the largeness of) the remnants of the oblations of 
animals which were the slain heroes offered tip in sacrifices in the ran of battle at -A-nAari, 
Alattur, Purolare, Pernagara, and many other places ; (and) who was the author of a 
commentasy on fifteen cantos (or, on the fifteenth canto) of the Kir&tdrjunhja. 

(L. 23.) Cm ! His son (was) he who" had the first name of " the glorious Mtislxkara, i 
whose feet, resembling water-lilies, were (always) made of a yellowish colour by a mass of 
JJwnents which was the rows of the diadems of the kings (bowing down, before him) ^b.o bad 
been braced in the course of (Ms) crushing (enemies) hard to be subdued. 

of " the fflorioua Vitaama," 
dio ^ derstaildi ^ ~ ^quired by (naJer^ff) the fo^teen 

by the e,oe SS of 


gifts (tkat ke gave), was (^ incre^^Z ^ dT r 
(the mountain) Mandara resonant with (^ Sghte P y ' ( } "^ made **" ca ^ fcie8 of 

SlLflf ''I?? Kofcguniv^man, the pious UaMrQMUrty*. the 

* - -. ujjLo iij^bu nStXXie Ox Sx*ySiin sS "yo rf ^vr^h 1 j A.I ^j>^^9 w*.*.\j 

a Terr sna In the skv flm+ ; *i, ^ .v and the other nat^e of Saigotta ; 

iu nne sKy thai is the pnre Gtensra linea^A. - 

If f!^? 7011Ilger br tter ( w *) the fflorions 
the_ ^^ 

fiisfc name of f K "" g1 ^ lvairtaail s t ^e pious SfahdrdjddMrdja* the 

WA Lne glorioTis Erofiraite'aci^'U'fi ** fs,*j\ ^ * 

ses to be destroyed in fh Kof^i B^^-^V^S ^f*^ who caused tlio 

i L 4 33)~ His son (was} tliA i ttle of Bamati (or Ramadi)* 

-^-'-^..heP.^.,, ; wh e ^" s Satyortkya-Kongu^ivarman, the pion, 3f a ka 

TL ^rr de83 -^^"s. *- ?- -*-^ -> - 

*" n 


in tefetle at Jaortepperupeftjern* and other places, 

<!. 46.) Cm ! His son (*) SatyavSkya-Kongiinivarmaii, the pious Ifahdrdidthirdia 
J arameJuara* wlio had the first name of the glorious Narasinglmdeva^ (and icaf aisi 

the 1 

(Lu 4t>.)- Oin! His son (was) . * . . 

the gloHoiiB Mitim&rg;aKong-aiiivarman s the pious Mahdrdjddhirdja, the PuramAVara/ who 
lw*l the hrt name of " the glorious R&jamalla (?)," (and was also catted) Kacholieya-QaELgs, 4 

(Ij* 48.)" Oxu ! (Metre) : His younger brother, possessed of prosperity and 
acquired by liis own arm, went to tlie glorious Baddega, the favourite f the earth. IB 
tint <'ounirj of ^Pa&fi4a, and then, being of the most excellent understanding, wedded Ms 
dttuffhttr, along, of a verity, "with the maiden Eloquence, at TripurL Or again: There was 
Imrit tli king* who liad the appellation of "the glorious Butnga;** who conquered the 
uf (/nV) enemies; who was excessively fierce; (and) who, being, through (hit!) might s one 
first in enumerations of kings, when that king named Baddega had gome to 
the fortunes of (the god) ludra iu heaven^ 5 took elephants and horses and white 
u xi thro Ha** and thrones from the possession of LallSya (?) s audgae (them) to king Elriskaa, 
front this excessively fierce king G-aiLga-Gaiigeya, did not Kiakkarftja, lord of 
upiirUy acquire (fear) of death, ? ; did not Dantivarman 5 earned Bilja^ hurriedly go (in 
in war to his own Banavftsl ? ; did not Bajavarman become quieted ? ; did mot Dmaii 
of XTii^tiirugirii "whose country vr&& made quiet, obtain the breaking of (his) pride?; 
tt id not XT&gavaarmaoa, feel, mid-way, the (?) very extremity of fear ? BaYing, at command indTO5 f 
(Mpisjti^red king R.&j&ditya s who was made arrogant by pride in (it*) array of elepimmts, 

burnt nuniliow of Mil-forts, headed by ISTalkote, (he), the glorious Ganga-ETarayan^ of Ms 
own iM<-!nrd to (king) Krishna lordly elephants (and) horses (and) great wealth. (Aryl);~ 

With f InmiWlMjllH that were the maxims o those who interpret the Vedic writings, fc., (he), 
Jayttcl-Tittaraiiea. cleft open the frontal glohes of the lordly elephants who are the 
^pinmct* of evil precepts, puffed -up with the rut that is the doctrine of devotion to one sole 

object of worship* 

(14 C4 ) (Allitwativc prose) s Satyanitiirakya-Kongimivarman, the pious 

* the Pttram^vcwa, who has the first name of "the glorious Bfttoga," (and -*" 
raZtoJ) Wanmya-Ganga^ while raHng over the Gtanga mandala, 
Biety-0ix thousand (villages) ; (and) when staying at the 

of tlxe aka years, increased by siicty, Have gone 

^*^^^ ^^^11^^^ * .-aajs . to 4*1 ^iiift Htnoriit fortni&:h.t of the montk 

tithi* C^ftJled) 

* ,. - a wonder among brave e - * - *e q*oa or Ughti,, 

tf* hail diWL" e Seepage ISO above, note 

it. K f W*W.~" ^rtW~ Oi 

.'... - tL. .rch of rirtor, ;. ^, *, ta ^ O ,f r J . wan , . r 

184 EPIGR1PHIA INDICA. [Vot. Ill, 

Hiirin Bsmvateara, having gratified six female mendicants with gifts and honourable 
taMtment, etc., (and) having of bis own accord wasted the feet of Nagad6vpai?.clita, the head 
f U holy Vadiyftr-Gana, 1 has given, at Sundi, in the northern part (of h,e wttag&) t sixty 
<wra^nw* (of load), by the staff which is the royal measure, for the purpose of repairing 1 
scything that may become broken or torn, (and) for the performance of worship, and. to provide 
food, to the chmitydlaya, built at Sundi, the city which is the chief (town) of the Suldhatwl 
eronty villages, c his wife, the glorious Divalamfoifc, who is a manifest g-oddess through 
tfafe parity of (her) accurate perception. 8 The boundaries of it (are) . On the east, the culti- 
VMCO lacti called Manasinga-keyi ; on the south, the land called the land of the jack-fruit 
trws , a tie west, the field called Keppara-pola ;3 (and) on the north, the stream that cornea 
a <tt nEage of) BalugSri. The village gives three gadydnas as the aruvana * (and) the 
prewrreB the entire arrangement. 

f.L *>J.) This general bridge of piety of kings should at all times be preserved by you," 
J *!L . E4mabhadra a S ai * and again make a request to all the future princes ! The earth 
aw oeet enjoyed by many kings, commencing with Sagara; whosoever for tlie time being 

fco Mm belonss ' a * that time ' tlie reward (o/ <w> rant t7iat is 

f the """WWlfw* seventy, the gootts 

j rites 

Jama temple to be built. Om! Cm! Om! 



at Sv^^l? & , ^"^ " th PA^*-Ba8t on the 

Mr, Bfctf Tke bd Na V ngliSl1 translata ^ ^re published in 

based on 

utri. In spite of all pbSS? ? f ' <T * 7 WJ Kajl ^ ese Assistant, Mr. H. 

of ere ^ ~ of ffic; ; nofc ^ atter myself 

n.,. ^ probfblfwd 7^' f ^^ investi ^^ of the literature 
a^d Leumann ^wtl r * * he elttcida *^ of most obscure paseag-es, 
.* Md the readers UBder^Jo^. 1 S< f On 7 e sefc of *** proofs of this paper 

adits p 

under theicinitials (F. K. and J3 L) 

mplete vision,' *amyag-jn<$ n& 
tna~trava or <fK^ WSJ*** W J FU3 < 
*f +v 3 ^ 1 hree exc ^Jetife fchin^s/ of the 
* tlie natnfi ; z. *^**go, wj. wie w^abj^jtw, 

w T * u *3 la wCi?^O^J5y/K till if* \vl'l/ n klb -rj-k.j.3 

, - ~- - '- - /i/. * - x o awat ,_ M** *ue wiiole word seems to mean " fcha 


Among Professor Eaelhorii s s contributions are * various readings * from, a manuscript copy of the 
present inscription. This copy was made from a palm-leaf MS. at Madras foi Professor B5hler, 
by whom it was presented to the India Office Library* 1 After the publication of Mr. Rice's 
Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgbla, Professor Kielhorn recognised at once that the Madras MS. 
contains a copy of the Mallishena epitaph, and proposed a number of improvements in Mr. Bice's 
text on the basis of Professor Buhler's copy. 3 It appears from Professor Kielhora's * various 
reading's * either that the Madras MS. was copied from the pillar while the latter was still in a 
state of more perfect preservation than at present, or that the MS, was based on an independent 
duplicate of the Mallishena epitaph. 

The alphabet of the inscription is Kanarese. The upper and lower portions of some letters 
o the first and last lines, respectively, on each face of the pillar are drawn out into ornamental 
flourishes. The language is Sanskrit, verse and prose ; only the two last lines are in the 
ICanarese language. The only orthographical peculiarities which deserve to be noted, are that dh 
and 6&, when doubled, are sometimes written as dlidJi and bhbh, and that rnna is written as rnna,$ 
The object for which the inscription was composed, and the pillar containing it set up, is to per- 
petuate the memory of the Jaina preceptor Mallishena-Maladliarideva (verse 64), who commit- 
ted religious suicide by sallekhand (line 211) or samddM (L 212), i.e. by prolonged fasting, 
which, in his case, lasted three days, at Svetasarovara (v* 72} or Dhavalasarasatirtha (v* 70), 
i.e. at Sravana-Belgola. 4 The date of his death wag the day of Svati, Sunday, the third day of 
the dark fortnight of Phalguna of the (expired) Saka year 1O5O, which^ corresponded to the 
cyclic year Kilaka (v. 72). According to Professor Kielhorn's calculation^ 6 the European 
equivalent of this date is Sunday, the lOth. March, A.D. lisa. The date of the inscription 
Itself is not stated ; but the -record cannot have been composed more than a generation after 
Mallish6na ? s death, because the composer, Mallinatha, was a lay-disciple of the deceased 
preceptor (1, 222). 

The account of Mallish&na's suicide is preceded by a sort of historical sketch of the 
Srava:na-Belgola branch of the Digambara sect of the Jainas. It is not a connected and complete 
account, and cannot even be proved to be in strictly chronological order. The names of some 
selected Digambara preceptors are mentioned with much stale and extravagant praise, but not 
without valuable allusions to contemporary persons and incidents. 

1. The list naturally opens with Vardhamana of the ISTStlia race, the founder of the 
Jaina religion (v, 1). 

2. Of the three Kfevalins 6 the- inscription mentions only G^utamasvamioL, surnamed 
Indrabkiiti (v. 2). 

3. The SrutakSvalins (v, 3). 

4. Btkadrabfihu^ whose disciple was 5. Chandragupta (v. 4) ; and 6. B^Tindakunda 7 
(v. 5). In two other Sravana-Belgola inscriptions (Nbs.40 and 108 of Mr. Bice's volume), these 
three names are mentioned in the same order, amd Bhadrab&hu whose pupil was Chandragupta, 
is called the last of the Srutakevalins. 8 

. M. G. VoL XLIL p. 552, No. 308, 
Vienna Or. J. Yol. VII. p. 248 ff, 

* In order fco avoid a useless repetition of identical footnotes, I bare replaced rnna by r $na tbrougbont the 

4 tv$a-Sara$ and Dhavala-Sarasa are Sanskyifc translations of tbe Kanarese Be\-Kol&, f< the White Tank/* 

* Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 124. 

See Dr, Hoernle's Table, I*d. ^nf. VoL XXI. p. 57. 

7 See Tnd* Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 15; Soutli* Indian Inscriptions* VoL I. p. 158, note 2; Dr. Hoernle's Table, Trf 
.Ant* VoL XXI. p. 74, No. 5. A detailed sketck of KuudakanoVs Pravachan&sdra is given in l>r. Bbandf*r&ar*& 
Meport on Skt- HSS. 1883-84, p. 91 If. 

Compare Ind. Ant. VoL XXL p. 156. 



7* Samantablaadra 1 (v. 6), The composer quotes two verses (7 and 8) which this 
preceptor is represented to have addressed to an unnamed king, probably of Karalbtataka 
(Karh&d),* and in the first of which he professes to have undertaken, a missionary tour 
to Ffitaliputra (Patna), Malava 9 Sindliti* Ttiakka (the Panjab), K&fichipiira, and "Vaidisa 


8. Verse 9 speaks of a person who " broke by Ms sword the solid stone pillar, which, barred 
the road to the acquisition of the fortune of the kingdom,*' and states that this unnamed person 
was assisted by the sag-e SimhanSrndixie As noticed by Mr. Rice, 3 a similar feat is 
attributed in the Uday&adiram plates of the Qanga-Bana king Rajasimha, alias Hastinaalla, to 
the first Granga king, Koiigani,, " who, in his youth, resembling the powerful Sisn (Karttikeya) 
in gracefulness, cut in two a huge stone pillar with the sword in his hand at a single stroke."* 
The same plates appear to connect Simhanandin with the mythical founder of the Granga dynasty 
in stating that " the Ganga race obtained prosperity through the power of Simhanandin/' & 
I cannot follow Mr. Bice in considering this coincidence between the MallishSna epitaph, and 
the Hastimalla plates "a most important identification/* but would only conclude from it 
that the same legendary traditions were known to the composers of both documents. 
9. Vakragriva 6 (v. 10). 

10. Vajranandin, 7 author of the Navastfitra (v. 11). 

11. Patrakesarin 8 (v. 12). 

12. SumatidSva," author of the Sumatisaptaka (v. 13). 

13. Kumarasena p.J f was born and died in the South (v. 14). 

14. CMntmani, author of the GMntdmcmi (v. 15). 

15. Srivarddhad^va, 9 author of the poem Ck&ldmani (v. 16). A verse (17) in his praise 
by Daudin is quoted. 

16. Mahesvara (v. 18 f.). 

17. Akalanka, defeated the Bauddhas in disputation (v. 20), Three verses (21 to 23} by 
him are quoted, which he is represented to have addressed to a king Sahasatunga, and IB 
the third of which he claims to have overcome the Bauddhas in the court of "king Himasitala, 
A legendary account of this dispute between Akalanka and the Bauddhas in the court 
of u H^masithalan " at K&nchlpura forms part of the Mackenzie M anuscripts* and an abstract of 
it was published by the Rev. W. Taylor. 10 Another document of equally questionable 

1 This author is mentioned in Kir&ja*s Sabdama.nidarpana^ p. 125 of Mr. KittePs edition. Sainanfcabiiadra )f i 
Aptamimdmsd was commented on by Akalanka and Yidydnanda ; Journ. JBo.^As. Soc* Vol. XVIII* p. 210. The 
name Samantabhadra occurs also in the Sv&t&mbara JPattdvalfo; see 2nd. A.nt* Vol. XL p. 247, No. 19, and 
p. 252, No. 16. 

3 See /*. A*&. Vol. XXI. p. 228, note 20. ETatabata was the capital of a branch of the SilaMras ; see Br, 
Buhler'fl Introduction to the Vikramdnkad$tacJtarita 9 p. 40, note. 

3 Inscriptions at Sravana~Be$gala 9 p. 42 IF. of the Introduction. 

4 Verse 14 of the Hastimalla plates, Manual of the Salem District, Vol. II. p. 370. See also ante, p. 165. 

5 Verse 12 of the same plates. The original, which is in my hands, reads &imhanawli*maki-$>rafalabd&&' 
vitdhi, which must be corrected into 8imJtanO'i^i-mahima,'pratilal}dha^riddhi. 

Vafcragriva was also a surname of Kaundakunda (v. 5). See Professor Peterson's Meporf w Sbt. M&S* 1884, 
p. 80, and p. 168, verse 4 ; South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I. p. 158, verse 4; 2nd. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 351, ISfo* 5, 
and Vol. XX U p 74* note 35. 

? The same name occurs as No. 13 of Dr. Hoernle's Tables, Ind- Ant. Vol. XX. p. 351, and Vol XXL 
p. 74. 

* According to Mr. Pathak {Journ. Mo. A3. Soc. Vol. XVIII. p. 222 f-), P&trak&sarin, who i named ia 
Jinasna j s Adipurd^a % is identical with Yidy^nanda, a contemporary of Akalanka. 

9 The similar name Yfiddhad&ra occurs in the Svgt&mbara Paft<t?a/t> ; 2nd. Ant. Vol. XI* p. 247, No. 20, and 
p. 252, No. 17, 

Catalog**, Voi IIL p. 4E3 t 


value is said to record that " many Jainas came from the Nerth. to the Kftficht district In 
the Kaliyng*a 1451, Sallv^hana-Saka 710, 1 in the reign of " Himaaitola-MahAr&ia." It was 
then a forest, which they cleared and cultivated. In Ms time a schism arose between the 
Jalnas and tte Bauddhas. Akalankadfeva overcame the Bauddhas. Some o the Baaddhas 
were intended to be put to death in large stone oil-mills ; but, instead of that, were embarked 
on ships and sent to Ceylon." 2 The manuscript subsequently treats o " revenue matters in the 
time of the Honourable Company " (!) . These two accounts and verses 20 to 23 of the Mallish&aa 
epitaph are clearly borrowed from the same source. I would, however, entirely ignore 
king Himasltala of Kanctipura for historical purposes as long aa no contemporaneous 
epigraphical records, bat only legends, are available as proofs of his existence. 

18. Enslipaseim, appears to have been a contemporary of Aialania (v. 24), who was 
referred to In the preceding verses* 

19. Vimalaeliandra 3 (v. 25). The author of the Inscription quotes a verse (26) which 
records that this preceptor challenged the Saivas, Paupatas s Bauddhas* KapilOcas* and 
Kapilas in a letter which be affixed to the gate of the palace of a king named 
(or sTirnainecl) Satrubhayamkara* 

20. IxLdbcanandin (v. 27). 

21. ^aravadimalla 4 (v. 28). The author quotes a verse (29) which this preceptor is 
represented to have uttered in the presence of a king named Krishnarja. 

22. Aryadeva (v. 30 f.). 

23. C3aandrafcirti (v. 32). 

24. Kaxmaprabriti (v. 33)* 

25. Sripaladeva, 5 surnamed Traividya (v. 34). 

26. MEatisgaara (v, 35). 

27. ECemasena, surnamed Vidyfidhatiaiiijaya (v. 36). A verse (37) by him is quoted, in 
which he addresses an unnamed king and challenges other disputants. 

28. 33a,yap&la p.], composed the Hitardpasiddhi (v. 38) and was the disciple of 
Matisa&ara and fellow-student o Vadirja (v. 39). Matis&gara was referred to in verse 35, 
and V&dir&ja is described in the next verses. 

29. Vadirajas ( Y . 40 i). The author quotes three verses (42 fco 44) o u the poets." 
The first verse states that Vadiraja challenged other disputants in the capital of an unnamed 

emperor. The second verse, which refers to " the court of the lord/ 5 suggests that 

thie disputation took place in the presence of the emperor himself. 

1 Saka-Samvat 710 corresponds to Kaliyuga 3889, a small error of 24&S years. According to Mr. Bice 
{p. 45 of the Introduction), tfce Jamas have the traditional date Saka-Saroirafc 777 for Akalafcka's victory ovec tfee 
Bauddbaa. Dr. Bhandarkar quotes a verse from Jinas&na's Adi$urd$a,> in which Akalanka is referred to; Report 
on Slct. MSB. 188S-84, p. 423, verse 53. According to Mr. Pathak, thp. Adtpurdw* was composed between Saka* 

Saihvat 70S and 760; J'ourn. So. As. SOG. Vol. XVHI, p. 227. 
3 Taylor's Catalogs, Vol. III. p. 436 f. 
^ The same name occurs in the Sv&tambara J?atf4wto 5 t*d. Ant. Vol. XL p. 24S, Na S5, and p. 

4 Ao undated Tamil inscription at Tiramalai near PAlAr in the Hortb Are^t district records A gift by 
a disciple of ParavMimalla of Tirumalai, who may bave been called after that Paravd4iiaalla who Is referred to in 
our inscription. See South-Indian Inscriptions^ Vol: I, p. 105, 

5 Srlp&la is mentioned in JifiaB&aa 9 & AdijpUTd^ai Jonrn. Mo, A*. 8e. Vol XV III p. 222. 

A Juina iireeeptor of this name Is mentioned in Nftgawman's Xdoydeattlca; se p. M^FII* of Mr, Kittel'a 
on jE**a** Literature, preteed to bis edition of NAgaTawinasi's Prowdy. The &JMM****6*r*> a short 
poem by one Vadirli-Ja. has appeared in the KdoyenMd* Part vii. No*S* 

2 B 2 

]g8 3FTG2APHIA 1NDICA. [Von. III. 

30. Srlvijaya, 1 was worshipped by an unnamed G-anga king (v. 45). The author quotes 
verse (46) which, is said to be composed by Vadiraja, and according to which Srivijaya was 
the successor of H&nasena. Vadiraja was treated in the immediately preceding verses (40 to 
44) and Hemasena in verses 36 and 37. 

31. Kamalabhadra (v. 47 f.). 

32. Dayapala pi.] (v. 49 f.). 

33. Santideva, was worshipped by the Poysala king Vinayaditya (v. 51). This is tfo 
only royal personage in the whole inscription, about the identity of which, no doubt remains. 
Yir-^MitTa, the first of the Hoysalas, ruled about the middle of the llth century of 

oar era.- 

34. The next verse (52) introduces a preceptor on whom an unnamed IPandya king 
conferred the title 'Lord ' (Svdmtn), and who was known in the court of a king- JLhavamalla 
under the name Sabdaehaturmnkha. Possibly, this preceptor is identical -with Santideva, to 
whom the preceding verse refers. If this is really the case, or if, at least, the names of Jaina 
*ji?V=rsTS e===erated in chronological order in'this portion of the inscription, the time of, king 
Ahavamalia in verse 52 would be limited by the date of the Hoysala king "Vinayaditya (v. 51) 
and the date of Mallishena's death (A.D. 1129). Under these conditions, this Ahavamalla may 
fee identified with the Western Chalukya king Ahavamalla II. or S&mSgvara I. The Pandya 
I-ing with whom the name of the preceptor is associated, was probably not one of the Madhnti 
Pandyas, hut one of the Pandya feudatories of the Western Ohalukya kings. 3 

35. Gttaasna, a native of the country near Jri*Miillftra (v. 53). 

36 Ajitasena* (vv. 54 to 57), bore the surname Vfidibhasiiiilia (v. 57) or 
VadibhakanthiraTa (v. 55). The author quotes three verses (58 to 60) composed hy him, 

Ajitutea's disciples were 37. Santinatha, alias Kavitakanta, and 38. BadLmaaabha 
Aa* vadjkoMiala (line 174 f.). The author quotes two verses, the first of which (61) prai 8 es 
KaHtesaati,- i.e. Santinatha, alias Kavitakanta,- and the second (62) Pactnaanabha. 

39. KumarasSna [H.] (v. 63). 

Mala^^t^l^rr'f n r t*\ S t0 ,. 4 - MaUish ^ ^o was alao called 
-aiacuisrm, s e the bearer of dirt, because, to show hiscontempt of worldly habits, he had ceased 

-We hs , 8tera h ave 

"** **<-*-**. P- 4 of M, Ki^ePs editioa. 

p - * 58 - 

ft. Madra, a 


least we have hitherto found the title only within the current millenary. Among the 

SvgtSmfoaras it is bonne by several members of the Earshapiirlya-gadbiolilia.* Later OB there 

appears a separate Maladhaxi-gaehoMiag which must be derived from some eminent Syfet^mbara, 

named Maladharin ; e.g. two representatives of this gachckha, Gunatilaka and Kshaml^imdam, 

are quoted in Samayastnidam's Sdmdchw^ataka. Tie earliest mention of a Maladh&rra. would 

be found among the IKgambaraa, if the date Saka-Samvat 975 for Maladh&ri-H&machandra 

(Mr. Bice's Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgola, 'No. 55, pp. 49, 50, 141, and p. 37 of the Introduc- 

tion) is correct. IB the eleventh eentmry of the Saka era, several Digambaras of the name 

Maladh&ciddva appear to have lived at Sravana-Belgola. One is mentioned in the Hampe 

inscription discovered by Mr. Sewell ; and Mr. Bice's book refers to one who was a pupil of 

Div&karanandi and preceptor of Subhachandrad^va (Saka-Saihvat 1041 ; I G. No. 139, pp. 110 

and 185), another in Saka-Samvat 1099 (No. 42, pp. 13 and 123) who was a pupil of Damanandin 

{Saka-Samvat 1040 ?), and a third in Saka-Samvat 1045 (No. 43 5 pp. 17 and 124). 

[Tliere is a Digambara author called three of whose works are named 

in Mr. Rice's Skt MS 8. in Mysore and Ooorg, the NdgaJcumAra-kdvya (p. 302), the 
Prdbhritakatraycwyak'hy&na (p- 310), and the Mantravdda (p. 316). TMs author might be 
considered distinct from the MallisMna of the inscription, wMcii does not refer to any literary 
products of tlie latter. An argumentnm e& silentio is, however^ out of place tere ; for Mallinatha s 
the composer of tiie inscription, appears to have been a professional panegyrist, "who knew 
little of the.ecclesiastical tradition and might Lave easily overlooked eventual works of MaHishSna 
on theological matters.] 

[I have derived the above information on Maladharin and MallisMna from Dr. Klatt's 
Jaina-Onoma&ticon, a "book which contains an enormous amount o references, but requires 
thorough revision and condensation before it can be presented to the public. Only a specimen 
of the work was especially prepared for the press and printed in the Transactions of $ke Berlin 
Academy for 1892 (14 pages, 4), E.L.] 

TEXT, 1 

A. North Face, 
1 ^Tlf^fftW^ 

2 ijT^T^cr^n^^Ti^ 

3 i ^wrf%^3(^ 

* [*rr] wrt 



7 w 

8 n [ 

9 1 

10 ^f I 

11 OT W5WI^fi^^ 

inked eat*mpages prepared by Ms* H. EcMhaft Sattri. 




[\Tofc. Ill- 












^ ^ 

[8*] *Wt *T 


&rG wfsfw 

'{-<T<fH rfW 

us ITOT&>RT: i 




II (>*] 

: n [.*] 

Wrf , 

fal f 



No. 26,] 














. D*] 

'- [5*] 

: [i*l 

: I [*<=*] 


: n [I*."] CTTTT 

: D*l 



Bead *TC*. [Tbe MS. also reads 

* Read ^tW- CThe MS. do 

* {The MS. doea ead -VfK, F. 
7 Eead 


[Vot. Ill, 












f [I*] 


U is the reading of the MS.- P. K-] 

No. 26.] 























: [i*] 

: n 

t [|*J 

| M 

: [i*] 

1% TiT- 



[l*] ^T: 

i: [l*] * 


: u 

t [l*] 




: [i*] 

> The MS. does read fgr^r: ; see Ft Or. J". Vol. VII. p- 249 f. 
Bead "^S". * The ^ s - reads ^^^ 5 8e ^""^ Or - - 71 

VI1 ' ?' 



C. South Face. 

rs. ""N. 


125 H^T fwr q^i<y^M fsr^; [l*] 




129 fT f^f 

130 TRT; trtg w: H [s*] ^Hi 

131 vM^i^-^^: D*] 


134 if 

135 ^T; 

s Bad *flnt._ [The MS. also reada 






















145 ft [i*] 

146 'uam^ira: ii [X*] 

147 sj^r^t ^^l 1 ^f%f%iTT^nTcr ^r f^rgrf^sr: gftirenr w^* ri m l 

v * L J 


149 rfarr^rT^izrr: n 

150 ^rnRrnv ^s [i*] 

: n 


153 T[l-]:rM<!5fk<?J*4^J: [l*] 

155 ^<c^m^i^fq^i(q^i ^nn^4lrtr^dliy^1ll^v?t ^Il%|4ri44<j *jf^ [l*] 


157 *ra^wfTwc n 


159 7 [^^1 r^d ^fd*r[^]=rT5?rT ^r 

160 tw^J^ ^rf^fwr: mf^T: 

161 [s"]<=*Mi^M^r;ii4^^^i^^i ^fitfriRci ^rr [i*] 

i M <*4 Hd d 3 *< d fd ["*rf?T:] II 



1 Read W^^rf%1% . 3 Read 13^". 

3 The MS, does read *ajnT?T< \ see Vienna Or. J. Vol VII. p. 25O. 

Bead ^TTff . Bead n cilW>. 

The MS. does read ^ff^cT J see Ft0moF Or. J. VoL TIL p. 251. 

7 The MS. does read 44|f<j; see F>**a On J. Vol. VII. p. 251. 

8 Bead 

2 C 2 



[Vot, H L 









f^f *Tf5f 

: effr 







f [I*] 


tfo 26.] 




m At i&e Bottom of the East Face, 

222 H 

223 [sf] 


(Terse 1*} I^t kim be propitious to the flock of the good (jbhavya), 1 as of cfo&k&ras? the 

moon of tke glorious JTfttha race, 3 the blessed Jina Vardliamaaia, who is to be worshipped lay 

the court of Indra; (who is) a great (cw<2) excellent cluster of light which dispels darkness (and) 

the world by the streams of nectar (which consist of) the glory of knowledge ; (and) 

through whom, the protector of the good, the great splendour of the ocean of pure religion 

is increasing ! 4 

(V. 2.) Let Gautamasvminj the head of a school (ga,nin) 9 be victorious, whose 
well-known (other) name IndrablrftH (i.e. he who resembles Indra in power) was full of 
significances as, hy means of the seven supernatural powers (maharddhi*)^ he placed, the three 
worlds at (Ms) feet ! The unimpeded Mand^kini (Q-angH) of words, {having risen) from the 
throat of Vira* as from the slope of the snowy mountain, 6 having entered the ocean of his 
(ct*. Gautama's) intellect, (and') being absorbed by the wise, as by clouds, purifies tlao world. 

(V* 3.) Let the Srutakevalins, whose knowledge is confident (as it possesses*) a* thousand 
kinds of argumentation, 7 derived feom.the doctrine of the founder of the religion (TirfhMci) f (and) 
who aira worshipped hy the heads of a host of wise mem, expose the secrets of false doctrines "by 
(their) thundering words, just as Indra, whose body is safe [as it possesses) a thousand eyes, 
produced at the sight of (Gautama) the lord of saints, 8 (and) who is worshipped by tlie heads of 
the host of gods, cut the attributes (i.e. the wings) of the mountains by (his) roaring thunderbolt ! 

(V* 4*) Say, how can the greatness be described of BliadrabfilLU, whose a,rms were 
eng&ged in subduing the pride of the great wrestler, delusion ? Through iihe merit acquired 
by being Ms disciple, the well-known Chandrsgupta was served for a very long: time by the 

nymphs of the forest. 9 

(V. 5.) By whom on this earth is lie not worthy to be worshipped, the pious lord 
j who adorned (all) the quarters by Qiis) fame which possessed the splendour of 

1 n",e. of the Jainas. See Mr. Sice's Inscriptions at Srav&<$a,33elgola, pp. 59 and 63 of fcbe Introduction, 
s Tli we birds are supposed to subsi&b on moon-beams. 

3 The expression NatjLa-kul-endu corresponds to Wdya-Jcula-c&anda, 'the moon of the N&ya race/ in the 
faZjpeu&ra, paragraph 110. [I have not yet met with !N&tha as Mah&vJra's family name. The Sv&t&mbaras use 
the form Jn&ta, and tbe Digambaras Jfi&tp, at least in the name of the sixth Aiiga : Jn&tridh&rwa&at&d, 'the 
aermon of JMfcp. 5 E. L.] 

4 Tbe Influence of the moon on the tide is alluded to. 

* [The Sr&t&mbons distinguish more than seven riddM* 5 compare the An$a$dtiJca&<&tr&, paragraph 24, 
aai H&maehiradra's remarks on his ~Y6gadstra* i. 9. B. I*.] 

* * a mountain/ is given as a Sanskrit word in Sanderson's Canarese Dictionary. The Trtfcdqdatt&t 
the form Jcxkila. * * 

7 [Sew kinds of argumentation (aya) are enumerated in the IndisoJie Studien, Vol. XVII. p. 30 (Jtf. 
Art. >pl. XXI. p. BOS f. where n<$$ is a misprint for *a). Professor Webex's translation of wayi, * method of 
exegesis, 5 meets onlj those cases in which, as usual, the nayas are hrooght to hear on the canonical boob, 
ficn* ^rse, however, they refer to mooted problems of a general kind, in which the Srutakivalint 
tte Mlowers of other religions hy means of their kinds of argumentation.' B. L.] See also D*% 
M&prt m Ski. MSS. 1883-84, p. 95 f. 
1 This is an allusion to the story of Ahalya. 
The same legend is alluded to in Mr. RicVs inscription No. 40. 


the jasmine, (and') who, a bee on tlie beautiful lotua-handa of magicians* 1 firmly established 
sacred knowledge in India (Bfaarata) ? 

(V* 6.) Worthy of worship is he who was skilled in reducing to ashes morbid appetite ; 3 
on whom au exalted position was conferred by the goddess Padm&vati ; who summoned (the 
Arhat) Chandraprablia by the words of his spells ; the head of a school, the teacher 
Samantabhadra, by whom in this Kali age the Jaina path was suddenly made samantabTiadra, 
(i.e.) prosperous on ail sides. 

(Line 18.) NOTE (cMrni). The following fine words (stfkt'i) manifest his display of 
eagerness to commence disputations : 

METRE (vritta). (Y. 7.) "At first the drum was beaten by me within the city of 
Pataliputra* 3 afterwards in the country of Ualava* Sindliu* and Thakka, at BSficMpimi,, 
(an<f) at Vaidisa. I have (now) reached Karahataka, which is full of soldiers,, rich in learning, 
(^and) crowded (with people). Desirous of disputation, O king ! I exhibit the sporting- of a 

CV. 8*) " While Samantabhadra stands disputing- in thy court, O king ! even the tongue 
of Dh&rjati (Siva), whp talks distinctly and skilfully, quickly wanders (bach) into (its) hole. 
What hope (of success is there) for other (opponents) ? " 

(V. 9.) The sharp sword of the meditation on the blessed Arliat, which breaks, as a 
line of stone pillars, the hostile array of destructive sins/ was conferred as a boon on him, 5 
thought he was a (mere) disciple. Otherwise, how could he, together with "the sage Simha- 
nandin, have broken by (his) sword 6 the solid stone pillar, which barred the road to the 
acquisition of the fortune of the kingdom ? 

CV. 10*) Could the king of serpents, though he possesses ten hundred throats, adequately 
praise the power of speech, which overcame the crowd of orators, of the great saga Takragrlvaj 
who, respected by the Ssanadevat&, while the necks of the devils, (0&. all) the disputants in 
this (world*), were bent with shame, briefly discussed the meaning of the word atha^ during six 

CV . ll.) O lords of poets ! your praises will not reach him in spite of all* trouble ; make a 
profound obeisance to the sage Nandin whose (name) begins with "Vajra (i.e. Vajranandin), 
who composed the Navastotra, which is pleasant as an excellent composition, containing the 
variety of the doctrines of all the Arttats ! 

probably means here* a Jaina monk endowed with magical powers/ In this sense the word 
occurs occasionally as an abbreviation of vidyd-chdrana* I cannot vouch for the correctness of this translation 
as I do not know if the tradition of the Digambaras connects Kundakunda with a professor of legerdemain like 
Khaput&eh&rya. . ,.] 

a The learned Brahmas&ri S&stri informs me that the meaning of the word ITiasmaka- is thus explained in 
VWlbhasUhba*8 EsfaktracMd6ma*i . -HWffTWr W^TRMt ^m ^t Wilt^tWTrr- Compare Mr. Rice's Introduction, 
p. 61. 

s 3TfzrM^; appears to stand for ^R^pSf. 

4 Brahmaauri S^stri gave me the following explanation of the expression gMti*mala : WTW^ft "gTH^ 

W$ "qpcnu. The four gMttni Jcarmdni are specified in Dr. Bhandarkwr's Report on SJet. MSB. 
1888-8*, p. W,. notel. 

At first sight this pronoun would appear to refer to Samantabhadra, whose name was mentioned in the pre- 
ceding verse. But, as noticed by Mr. Bice, it is more probable that the pronoun points to the mythical Gang* king- 
Kongaaji ; see p, 186 above. 

6 The only possible way in which I can explain the second half of this difficult .verse, is to assume that 
la meant for ^ Rj ^ f^cT* 

is generally the first word of Sanskrit books.. 


(V. 12.) Great is the might of the preceptor fSirakdsarin, on account Of whose devotion 
goddess) Padmavati became (M$) helpmate in disproving (the theory of) the three qualities, 1 

(V. 13.) Praise that Sumatid&va] 9 who, out of affection for you, composed the Sumati. 
which, displays crores of wise thoughts (and') removes fche pain of worldly existence to 
those who avoid the wrong path and desire the path of truth ! 

(T. 14.) wonder ! s Having brightly risen in the southern region s the sage 
Kumarasena set (i.e. died) in the same (region), (and} the splendour (of the fame) of this 
unique sun of the world remains the same Rafter his death) . 

(V. 15.) How could not men ? experiencing sweet pleasure, praise that noble chief of 
CMntamani f who composed (for use) in every house the Chitotdmani, which, contains 
Sue thoughts on virtue, wealth, pleasure, and salvation ? 

(V. 16.) Only Srivarddliadeva 5 (who was) the crest- jewel of poets (and) the author of a 
poem, called 'Chdldmani, which is worthy o study, has performed (sufficient) pious deeds 
($ farmer births) for earning fame, 

(Line 42.) NOTE, He was thus praised in verse by Dandin : -~ 

(T. 17.) " Param&svara (Siva) bore Jahnu's daughter (Gangd) on the top of (his) matted 
isair, Tliou, O &ivarddhaddva ! bearest Sarasvati (the goddess of speech) on the tip of (thy) 


(V*. 18.) Granted that, (like the <$age Maliesvara, the god Mahesvara) has overcome 
Cupid, supports a troop (of demigods, alias disciples), (and!) touches with (his) feet the 
crests of mountains (alias, of kings). But who in this (world) can (sufficiently) praise 
that sage Mahgsvara, whose standard (the god) Mahesvara is not able to reach, as he 
knew all arts (kald), (while Siva wears only the crescent (kald) of the moon on Ms head), 
as the celestial river (Ganga) of his fame flowed over the glittering diadems of fche eight 

of the points of the compass, (while from Siva's head the Gaiiga descend* on earth) ? 
(V. 19.) Worthy of worship is that lord of sages, BEahesvswa, who was victorious in 
great disputations and in innumerable others, (and) who was worshipped (even) by the 

(V, 20.) Within whose reach is that pious saint* A&alanka, by whom (the Buddhist 
Tara that had secretly descended into a pot * as dwelling-place, was overcome together 
; before wbom the gods of fche heretics,- who were burdened with (Ms) 


Chan (icUcfc ^ earned (on their shoulders),- folded the hands for worship - and in the dust 
of whose latns-faet Sugsta . e . Buddha) performed an ablution,* order to atone, as it were, 

tor \lits) sins r 

reported fco be his own description of the 

'L" -^ Shasatufl S a ! There are many kings with white parasols ; but 
are aa ^cto^ous m war, (and) as distinguished by liberality, as thou, are hard 

of easting Batter (-) are 

* 8 *' p - 95 - Acc rding to Mr - 

discussed aiid refuted a PAtrakfesarin's 

(Dior's C^l^. Td. Ill 

5 f - of the 


^ ..... '_L-r-.._"_ * _'.,_ ...... '" _ ...... - . '-" _- ........... --"' ' ' '""'. -r^-^'"^,..;;'!" :"" "-' :".'.". ......... - ...... * ........ _. r - : ... _ - - ..- ............. __ . .. - . . .- _ ... ., ________ _ _ 

to find. Thus, there are (many) scholars in tlie Kali age ; (but} none (among them) are such 
poets, such masters among disputants, so eloquent, (and) of minds equally skilled by the stady 
of various sciences, as I/* 

(Line 55.) Obeisance to Mallisliena-Malad.lixldeva I 1 

(V, 22.) " As thouj O king ! art known here (on earth*) to be skilled in subduing the 
arrogance of all enemies^ so am I famed on this earth as the destroyer of the whole pride of 
scholars* If not, here I am, (and) here in thy court good (and) great men are always present. 
TVliose is the power to speak 9 let him dispute (with me), if he should know all sciences ! 

(V. 23.) " (It was) not because (my) mind was influenced by self-conceit (or) merely 
filled with hatred, (but) because (I) felt pity for those people who, having embraced Atheism, 
were perishing, that, in the court of the glorious king Himasitala, I overcame all the crowds of 
Bauddlias, most of whom had a shrewd mind, and broke (the image of) Siigata with (my) foot." 
(V", 24) The only abode of greatness (is) that holy sage, the saint Pnslipasena, 
whose colleague was that holy one. 2 (Is) not among flowers the lotus, whose friend is the 
sun, the only site in this (world) of the sports of (the goddess) Sri ? 

(V. 25.) If scholars were able to understand properly the difficult style, which subdued 
the pride of all disputants, of the preceptor Vimalaelaandra, the king of sages, would (they) not 
then be able to explain (the style) of (Brihaspati) the lord of speech ? 

(Line 67.) NOTE. For, the following verse, which caused pain to the hearts of opponents, 
(records that) he hung up a letter (in public): 3 

(V. 26.) " To the gate of the spacious palace of Satrabliayamkara, which is constantly 
thronged with passing troops of horses and numbers of mighty elephants of various kings, tlie 
High-minded Asirafoara (i.e. Digambara) Vinaalachandra eagerly affixed a letter (addressed) 
to the fSaiiras* the Pasupatas, the sons of Tathftgata (i.e. Buddha), the K&p&llkas, (and) the 

27.) O good men! if you are afraid of being overcome by the devil of sin, then 
serve the holy sage Indraoandin* who was worshipped by many kings ! 

(V. 28.) Who (was) skilled in crores of chains of arguments ? 4 Doubtlessly the eloquent 
the king of scholars, 5 alone. 

(Line 75.) NOTJS. He addressed the following etymological interpretation of his own 
name to KrlshdBtar&ja, who had asked for (his) name : 

(V. 29.) " That (view) which is different from the accepted view, is * the other * 
(para) ; those who profess this, are * the professors of the other (view)* (paravddiwah) ; he who 
wrestles with these, (is) * the wrestler with the professors of the other (view)' (Paravdimalla) : 
This name good men declare (to 6e) my name.*' 

(V. 30*) Let him. be carried on the head (i.e. worship him), the ascetic AryadSva, the 
best of teachers, the establisher of the (Jaina) doctrine (raddhdnta), who, being engaged in (the 

1 These words have no connection with the context and are merely introduced in order to Sll up the vacant 
pace at the end of the last line of the north, face of the pillar* 

3 The word ^6^137^ , by which Akalanka (verse 20) appears to be meant here, occurs again in line 132 
Vofessor Kielhom informs me that, according to the Mak&bhdshya on F&mni, v. 3, 14, it is used like 

3 As here dlawib&na* the verb lambayati cfenotes the * hangingr tip in public 5 of a half-2$&a in the story 
Brahmadatta ; Professor Jacobi's Ausgew&hlte 32rzahlungen in Mahdrdshtri^ p. 18, lines 21 and 24> and p. 140 
t the Glossary, where the word is erroneously translated by * spreading.* E. L.j 

* Literally, *in statements about the pot* (#hafa)> which is one of the favourite examples o the Naiy&yikas, 
ad evidently of the Jainns as well; see Dr. Bbandarknr's Report o, S&t. MSS. 1883-84, p. 95. 

5 With viddm dvafy compare pa,q,dita*d$va in line 210. 

2 D 


observance of) abandoning the body, 1 abandoned fclie body for ever at the end of the festival of 
(Mi) going to heaven ! 

(V. 31.) It is reported that, if those who wanted to test (his) self-restraint, placed a straw 
on his ear, (even) when his attention was dormant and absent at the hour appointed for sleeping, 
he slowly wiped the ear with the peacock's tail, made way for that (imaginary*) insect by gently 
turning round, and lay down (again). 

(V. 32.) O wise men I Worship aloud that head of a school (ganin), Chandrakirti, 
whose fame resembled the moon in splendour, whose speech was sweet, (and) who, out 
of compassion towards the weak-minded disciples of this s>ge, by means of (7^) intellect 
alone which was as sharp as the *kusa (grass), condensed into a minimum of doctrine 2 the 
whole meaning (of the books) which the chief disciples 3 had composed with too great verbosity ! 
(V. 33.) We worship the lord called Karmaprakriti, 4 who had completely mastered 
the (Jaina) doctrine (kritdnta), who was disposed to deeds of pure merit, (and) by obeisance to 
whom emancipation from the {eight) terrible kinds of deeds 5 (is obtained). 

(V. 34,) To be worshipped is SripSladeva, from whom the good (receive) the knowledge 
which discerns the truth, (and) who was content with the simple title Traividya (i.e. versed 
in the three VMas), though he had by his own mouth explained all sciences. 

(V 35.") The high-minded preceptor, the holy Matis&gaara (i.e. the ocean of wisdom), 

_ f rom Tvhom were produced shining pearls that were increasing in splendour, (&.) many 

llent pure virtues, which became ornaments of the heads of the rulers of the earth, (and) 

in whom the mass of the water of darkness (or ignorance') was drunk up by the glittering light 

(of knowledge, or of fhe submarine fire), made the circle of the earth a pure holy place. 

fV 36 ^ Alone victorious (is") that great sage Hemasena, bearing the pure title TTidyfi,- 
dlmnariijaya'* 6 at whose attack .even (Siva) the abode of ashes, who wears the lovely crescent 
of the beautifully shining moon, becomes powerless. 

( Line 99.) NOTE. - The following verse, (which contains) a vow (made) by him in the 
king's court, caused the opponents, who, like children, had ascended the mountain of false pride, 
to become unsteady with the fear of falling to the ground through defeat :_ 

(V. 37.) " Whoever, inflated by (his) practice in logic (and) grammar and by (Us) wisdom, 
competes with me in disputation before learned umpires in the presence oi kings, on that 

i A definition of the observance of Tcdy6tsarga is given in Dr. Bhandarkar's Report on 8kt. MSS. 1883-84, 

p. 98, note 3. 

* SrutaMndvma.y be therms of a work by Chandrakirti. [According to Dr. Klatt's Jaina- Onomast icon, 
Professor Petersonis Report on SJct* MSS. 1883, Appendix, p. 32 f. notices two works by Chundrakirtigani, the 
second of which bears the title Siddhdntdddhdra, ' extracts from tbe canonical books,' and may be identical with 
the SrutaMndu* though it appears to belong to the SvWAmbara literature B L.] 

a [The Gan&dhlsvaras are the same as the Ganadharas or pupils of Mah&vtra. !For to these the tradition 
attributes the authorship of tfee canonical scriptures which, according to the present verse, were condensed in the 

t ^ appeara to be responsible for the irregular use of the locative ndmni instead of the instrumental 
ndwna [An ancient work, named Karmapra*rtt** is already quoted by SMnka, unless he means Xraf&fyaad, 
chapter xxiii. which is also entitled KarmapraJcriti ; but the author's name appears to be Sivasarmaa. There 
may have been other compendium* with the same title. The following reference to tne Karmapralcriti occurs in 
Jinasena's Karivamfapurdnet* chapter IxvL verse 30 : ^RI wflTlffif ^W ^ ^t 1%?f TWft <fl <i Q i *f *! 
_ 35 k i _ Karmaprakriti may have been the name of both a book and its author, just as Chmtamani in verse 15. 

8 [The eight kinds of ftarman are enumerated, e.g*, in Dr. Bharidarkarte Report on Sfct. MSS* 1883-84, p. 98, 
note, and p. 97, note. E. L.] 

* This surname is explained in the relative sentence which follows it. As Arjuna, also called Dhannmjaya, 
fought with Siva* who was disguised as a Kir&ta, H6mas6na defeated the Saivas in disputation through his 
superior knowledge ( 


scholar I stall i"nevitably inflict a thorough defeat, wMcTi cannot "be measured (i.e. described) 
by words. Know, O king ! that such is the belief of Hamasena ! " 

(V 38*) To be praised aloud is that sage Daypla, whose Hitardpasiddhi was 
composed in noble style for men desirous of (their own) welfare, (and) who, celebrated for (his) 
power, (was carried) on the head (i.e. worshipped) by the good. 

(V. 39.) The only exceedingly virtuous person is the ascetic Dayapla, the lord whose 
preceptor was the holy Matisagara, the producer of a moon, of glittering fame; 1 whose 
fellow-student was the holy Vadir,ja 5 the head of a school; (and) in whose mind (dwelt) 
hatred of his own body; we need hardly mention that (he) called the wives of others 
devils. 2 

(V. 40,) A speech, which illumined the three worlds (trailtfkyadipikd), has issued only 
from two persons on this (earth) ; s one (was) the king of Jinas (Jinaraja), the other, VadirEja* 

(Y\ 41.) To be served by the wise is the holy Vlidir,ja, whose fame, like a (royaT) 
parasol, constantly covered the sky (and) desired (to outshine) the disc of the moon ; near whose 
ears glittered masses of speeches, like rows of tails of female chamaras ; 4 the might of whose 
chair was to "be worshipped (even) by lions ; 5 (and) at the greatness of whose excellence loud 
cheers were uttered by all the disputants, as by subjects. 

(Line 117*) NOTE. To his virtues refers the following play of words of the poets ; 
(Line 118.) Obeisance to the Arkat \ Q 

(Y. 42.) "In the victorious capital of the glorious Ch&lukya emperor (chakre&vara) , 
(which is) the birth-place of the goddess of Speech, the sharp-sounding drum of the victorious 
V,dir,ja suddenly 7 roams about. ( The drum sounds ) "jahi JJ (i.e. strike !), (as though') its 
pride in disputation were rising ; (it sounds} ** jahihi* 9 (i,e. give up !) (as though) it were filled 
with, the conceit of being convincing ; (it sounds) te jaJidhi " (i*e. give up I), (as though) it 
were envious of the speech (of others) ; (and it sounds) f{ jahihi ** (i.e* give up !), (as though) 
it boasted of clear, soft, sweet and pleasant poetry ! 

(V. 43.) * " The king of serpents, whose thousand tongues 'are well-known, lives in the 
lower world ; (and) Dhisha-na (Brihaspati), whose pupil is (Indra) the bearer of the 
thunderbolt, will not leave heaven. Let- these two live on account of the strength (i.e. the 
inaccessibility) of their abode ! What other disputants in this court of the lord 8 do not 
abandon all conceit and bow to the victorious V&dir&ja P 

1 Maljs&gara means * the ocean of wisdom,* and the moon is supposed to have been produced from the ocean. 
Compare verse 35. 

* I had originally taken ctstdm as 3rd dn. imperf. of as and as predicate of -both JcatJid and wgr&hah. Professor 
Kielhorn pointed out to me that it is better to take it as the 3rd sing, hnper, of da, 

* In the case of V&dir&ja this may imply that he was the author of a book entitled TraiUkyadipikd. JL 
Jftina geographical work of this name is referred to by Wilson, 3ac1cenzie Collection p. 169, A Big-ainbara 
work entitled TraildJcyadtpibd haa IndraY&mnd&va for its anthor. But the same title occurs elsewhere, also 
among- the Sv&t&i-nbaras. The author's name, as given in the inscriptions t>^. V&dir&ja> is frequent epithet which 
makes any final identification impossible.^- E. L.] 

4 This verse institutes a comparison between a king and VMiraja,, whose name niesras * the king of dispu- 
tants.* The subjects of the king are represented 4>y the dirpuiants, and his pajasol by V&dir&ja's fame. For the 
king's claH* the author discovered an equivalent in YMWLja's speeches, which, like the former, were near the 
ears, because they proceeded, from the mouth, and which resembled the foruae* in whiteness, because they exposed 
the teeth. As c&amarija for tihawL&r& y vdgja, appears to be used for vdlnm&ya. 

5 Thia alludes to the lion -throne (simkdsana) of kings. 

* Compare page 201 above, note 1. 

/ Nish^dndam is the same as the usual a~kind&* 

* This appears to refer to the Cha^ukya emparor mentioned in the last verse. Professor Kielhorn pointed oiat 
to me that inasabha is a neuter according to the Kdfikd on P&cini, iL 423. 

SB 2 


(V. 44.) "Let them protect you, these loud stouts for help 1 of the ancient sage (i.e. 
Brahma) : ' Sow this holy sage Vadiraja eagerly takes away from my side the goddess of 
Speech, whose affection (has become) very strong through (his) long familiarity (with her) . -Ah ! 
Ah ! Look ! Look ! Is this the way of ascetics ? ' " 

(V. 45.) Wise, endowed with superhuman qualities, (and) dispelling darkness (or ignorance) 
Tr-y the rays of true knowledge (was) he whose famous name commenced with the word. 
Sri and ended -with Vijaya. The splendour of his fine moon-like toe-nails mingled witli the 
dawn-like redness produced by the jewels on the head of the G-anga king. 

(Line 132.) NOTE. For, this holy one was praised by the holy V&dirajadSva (as 
fcllotct) : 

(V. 46.) " All that double excellence of learning and penance, which, before, in the 
holy sage HSmasena had heen brought to the highest pitch through very long application, 
must have devolved on Srivijaya when he occupied his chair. How else (could he acquire) 
such learning (and) such penance in a short time ? " 

(V. 47.) I worship that lord of sages, Kamalabhadra, who obtained fame on this 
(tarth) by floods of sin-destroying virtues, (and) who possessed proficiency in learning (but) no 
conceit, brilliant penance (but) no fierceness, might (but) no pride. 

(V. 48.) I resort to him, in order to purify myself, the extremely pure Kamala- 
bnadra, (who resembles) an excellent lake, by the mere thought of which the mind of (all) good 
pilgrims (or disciples) on this (earth) becomes perfectly pure. 

(V. 49.) Let (all those') good men who are considered as learned on this (earth) 
praise that great scholar (s-Ari) who adorned (i.e. appropriately bore) the name Dayapala! 
to whom alone the title of Pandita was suitable, the extremely fortunate one who, though the 
foremost of ascetics,* was resplendent with numerous ornaments of jewels, (viz.) virtues 
(and) was embraced in this Kali (age) by the goddess of Speech with all Qier) parts ! 

(V. 50.) Victorious is the holy DayapaladSva, who subdued the pride of Cupid, who 
knew an sconces, who conquered all disputants, whose extremely pure fame pervaded 

' (an2) Who8e feet were redde * e * *>J the jewels in the diadems 

as " sucl1 and such " t]fcLe 

f PUTO lotas - f ^t, the well-known Poysala king 

g d , deSS f <**> MDgdom <<**** countries! 
are (me ^ Wt P ssess 8 ^ Pliant and great 

^T ^/^ ^ > -Ifare, is that lord of 
the beryl* (producing) country near 


endowed with faultless 1 excellence, a mass oi great splendour, the ornament of the of 

Hngs, through tlic mere smell of 'tie medicine of whose good words ? men were made to 
tie condition which is devoid of decay. 

(V. 54) I worship thee, O AjIta&Sna ! who art another sun on earth in dispelliss- the 
znas's of darkness in the heart, who art* eagerly worshipped day by day by those who* know the 
science of Scepticism (^Syddydda), ^and) through whose contact the lotus of the mind of 
-those who devoutly bow (before thee), shakes off the bnrden of sleep (and) becomes the abode of 
wide expansion (or knowledge) * 

(V, 55.) Avoid the ornament of .false speech ! Give up Iiaughtiness ! Profess Scepticism 
^Qyddvdda) I Modestly bow before V&difchakantMmva ! 2 If not 5 you will be perplexed by fear 
at iihe hearing of the loud roar of Mm, by whom the elephants, (viz.) the dispulants s are quickly 
precipitated into the pit of the 'ruined well of refutation. 

(V. 560 Of which praise is he not worthy, the lord of ascetics^ AJitasens? (His) 
idrtues successfully rival, the glitter of the jasmine ; (his) voice wafts nectar ; (his) fame appears 
to be as charming in gracefully floating, as the plava (duck) ; (and) the splendour of the 
moon-like nailfc of (his) feet is desired by a crowd of kings, as by chaMra (birds). 

(V. 57.) Resplendent- is Ajitasena 5 (alias) Vaditalaasii2alia s s -the head of a school 
igandbhrit), ^o split the temples of * all the mast mighty elephants, (viz.) the disputants, 
O?) whose lotus-feet were kissed by the tops of the glittering diadems, worn on the bowing 
lieads of all kings* 

(Line 165,) NOTE. Th,e following words of his own indicate the intensity of his indifference 

to the world : 

(V. 58.) " (I) have entered the holy religion of Jina (Jina-&sana) 9 which is difficult to 
be obtained by (all) living, beings in the three worlds, which resembles a support for the 
of men who are immersed the- ocean of the world, (and) the adherents of which are adorned 
by the glory of complete knowledge that is regardless of other (knowledge). Therefore, what is 
difficult (for me) ? Of what (should I &<0 afraid ? Or, what pleasure (haw 1) in this body ? 

(V 59.) " Uow (J) know that the sovereignty of the soul has the form o infinite know* 
ledsre etc In order to obtain that (*w<*eigty), this (my) mind is intent on this (?:r.::r!ei^ 
alone'in accordance with tt* doctrine. ' (J have) given up the desire for other happiness (j) 
that of a lord of gods, and that of an emperor. Therefore, enough, enough of the ways of 4be 
world, the purpose of which is idle, (and) which attract the ignorant ! 

(V 60.) "Let one strive (tn vain), whose mind is polluted by external love and 
(and) who does not know that the soul.-has for its body the knowledge of ^llobjeets, (and) 

Am^t of fta* 

an w . 

that his own mind (H* 6e) constantly tranquil, in order to become the 
(knowledge) I How (ooiAZ) ome who Jmows this (soul), even for a moment ateve for anything 
but that (knowledge) ? " 

(Line 174.) NOTE.^ The following description of the eminence of the vast scholarship of 
Ms two disciples, the Pandiias Sautinatha and Padmanablia, whose other names were 
anta and Vadikoiabal^ (respectively), -is (still) incomplete: 
611 O holy Kantasanti, whose f4me rose without interval in all 

' of 

[The word **Mva, fault, defect,' is peculiar to the Jaiaa *"^ ^J-SjjS^ Aos'Tthe G* 
formfcMva occurs in Professor Jacobi's Aus ff <wShUe ErsaUungen JlaMromir , v 

E ' ^ i.e. the lloa to the elephants, (.) the 'disputants.' This was a Mrrf. of AH* * TCMe 57 ' 


experienced at last on approaching tlfiee whose intellect was great, (and") the eminence of 
was to be worshipped by the best of all scholars. Therefore, how (can) we describe (it) ? 

(T* 62.) " Having lost the abundance of their great pride, having- forgotten flbe fierceness 
of their envy, tittering pitiable cries, (and) not knowing to which direction to turn,- tie 
elephants, (viz.) the opponents in disputations, ah! run away trembling at the (very) smell of 
the mast elephant, (viz.) the holy scholar Padman&Tblia. sn 

(V. 63.) -Let him protect (ws), Kumarasdim 9 who possessed jaana penance wlich 
removes pain, feom whom ascetics (received) both initiation and instruction, (and) whose 
pure life (was) an example of the path to bliss ! 

(V. 64,) Let him have mercy on me, the preceptbr MtUisli6iia'-lIaladliaridva, the lion 
who split in two the m&st elephant, blind with f ury,, (viz.) Cupid,, the destroyer of the dignity 
of people; by whose feet the crests of kings were to be adorned; (and!) whose 9 practice of 
the austerities which consist of twice six (i.e. twelve) kinds, 2 {was as brilliant) as the rising of 
the sun ! 3 

(V. 65,) I worship that lord of sages, Maladh&rin, whose heart was firmly resolved 
to be engaged in beating 1 the enemy, delusion, (and) who w&s exceedingly resplendent with 
true self-restraint. Even the dirt which had collected on his body, (was) aione able to wash 
off the soot of the ugly impurity, which had, gathered in the minds of those who bowed (before 
Wm) in the manner of manifest devotion** 

(T* 66.) Let him qport in the dwelling of my mind, the king of sages, MaUishena, whose 
lotas-feet attracted crowd of good taen> (as) a toe^y <*f bees, (awd who was) the abode of the 
splendor of the power of^ great penanee, which resembled a, fire for burning the ancient forest 
o mundane existence* filled with a mass of deep darkness I 

,(T. 6*7*) Worthy to be worshipped: is that Rdhajjia mountain of gem-like virtues, 6 the holy 
preceptor 3allishena a whose hotly was covered with dirt in order to remove the impurity (of 
tin), who w&s poor ip order (to obtain) the glory of the kingdom of all the three worlds, (who 
pr&eU$&&) penance which surpassed fire (in heat), in order to remove the great pain (of human 
&f B )> (flnd) who purified the earth by (his) wonderfully beautiful conduct. 

(V. 68*) How should he not (create) wonder on account of (his) conduct, the holy sage 
MallislLena 5 in whom unequalled forbearance delights, whom mercy violently embraces, whom 
impartiality loves, whom freedom from covetousness covets, (and) who, though himself a lover 
of final emancipation, yet (is) the foremost of ascetics ? 6 

V. 69.) Obeisance to that holy lord of ascetics, MaladhSxin, who is worthy to be worshipped 
on aarth,, whom the good incessantly praise with eagerness, by whom Cupid's bow was con- 
quered, to whom sages pay homage, from whom ascetics (obtain) decisions (on doubtful 
points) in the Againas, who has mercy on living beings, (and) in whom resides the religion 
(dharma) ! 

(V, 70.) At the ttrtha of Bhavalasarasa, he, striving at ripetiess which was blessed by 
renunciation, full of joy, with firm mind, (and) exercising (Ms body) in the (five) methods (of 

illustrates *afcaanAbha'a sorname VAdikWfthala, ^ <bb tumolfe . 

[The twice six kinds of austerities are tine &h: external (6&&ira-t<*pa*) and the six internal 
K L 1 Regarding tlleir Bames aud fche whole lwiacatiQO of ta f & see the A$*p4ti**a4to*> paragraph SO. 

* la comparing the twelve kinds of austerities to the sun, the author alludes to one of the names of the latter, 
&, Dv&da&fctnan. 

* P " timent is "Wted by the came of MaladbArin, w h; c h means ' the bearer of dirt.' 
The Rbav mountain (Adam's Peak) is celebrated for its mine 8 of precious stones. 

& feee page 204 above^ note 2. ' 



Uyotsarga), abandoned (his) unstable body, 1 in order to produce as ft w* **, 
destruction of (Cupid) who springs from the body. ' ' & 

(Line 209.-) NOTE. When this noble disciple of 2 the holy AjitasSna theHntrof 
was about to abandon his body by the rite ofsallekhand, which is celebrated in the lra f 
the Jamas, he quickly composed the following faultless verse (padya) in order toflSt to 
the ripeness of his own mind, (and) in order to give delight to the whole Cbnorewrtioa (8atk,l*\ 
that had assembled with the desire of witnessing the rite of samddhi, and "of perform^* (t]L 
services) usual (on such occasions) : "* * 

(V. 71.) " Having obtained the triad of jewels,* proclaimed in the Igamaa iavinsr 
reached freedom from pain, 4 and having practised forbearance with all beings, we abandon th* 
body at the feet of Jina and go to heaven." 

(T. 72.) In the Saka (year} measured by the sky (0), the arrows (5), the sky (01 and & 
earth (1), (t.e. IO5O) 9 in the (cycKc) year Kilafca, in the month of PWUgonaka, on the third 
day, in the dark (fortnight), on a Sunday, 6 under (the nakshatra) SvMi/ at moon at 
SvStasarovaa-a, the holy sage Mailishens, the lord of ascetics, went to the city of the gods in 
consequence of three days' fasting. 

(Line 222,) (The above) was written by MaUiMtha, (who was) a lay-disciple of the holy 
(and who surpassed all) writers of eulogies/ jast as Mah^ivara (tarn*) 

Cupid. (It) was engraved by Ga&gficli&ri, the head-ornament of engravers 8 of eulogies. 


BY F. KIELHORN, PH.D., 0.1 JI.; GoraiKasK. 

This Inscription is on a stone in front of the Jaina temple near the Sukrav&ra gate of the city 
of Kollitpur, in the K61Mpnr State, Bombay Presidency. An imperfect account of its 
contents, with a kind of facsimile of the text, wiH be found m Major Graham's Statistical 

[The words {a&g&m} fthdvai/an "bTidvanabMh correspond to the stereotyped expression &$pdw& 
(atmdnawi Uidv&ndlMr bJidvayan)* and the words vyctsrijad angam are a paraphrmse of 
< he practised the Jcdytiisarga? In the observance of which five methods (b&foanfy are ditBn^niihed. 
following two verses contain the names of the five IMvands or inlands, and tlse places in which the fi 
iions of the second bfrdvand are practised : 

tav4na I satt^na 2 eufct^na 3 &gattna 4 baMna ya 5 j 
tulan& panchah^ YBtt4 Jinakappam padivajjad tl 
padhans^ avassayammi, hiyll bllhi^ taiy4 chaiikkammi 1 
simaaharammi chaCitthi^ aha panchamiy^ mas^nammi g 

"The tulana {or IMvand) of one who follows the Jlna-kalpa* is declared (/o be) iiTCfold* tic, I. 
2. $attvenat 3. sutrena, 4. $katvena 3 and 5. lalena, 

The first (saftva-b&gvand) (is practised) in a convent or other residence (pjpdfrvy }$ the iecoxni^ ontude 
(bahili), the third, on a (GJiatusTika) > the fourth, in a solitary house (tfwsya-^Aara), aiad the if % OB a ca- 
tery (smasdna)." E. L.] 

* Literally, * he whose mind had hecome a bee at the divine lotus-feet of.' 

3 Tlie three ratnas SLf&jndna^ dar$an&> and cMrifoa or dharma } see Dr. Bhandmrkar*s Report Q Skt. 
1880-8^ p. 100, 

appears to be incorrectly used In the sense of 
5 The woi-ds WI^1%^ ^nr^pft appear to stand for ^rf% 
f Qngudda, a disciple/ see Id. Ant. Vol. XVIII, p. 36, note 4, and Mr, Rice's Znicriplion* t S 
oja, pp. 35 aad 40 of the Introduction. 

' The word Mrwda, appears to be used in the sense of prafasti. 
8 Rfadri is probably a tadlhava of r&pakdrin $ compare pvtfdri 



of the Principality oj Kolhapoor, p. 358. I now" edit tlie inscription froxo. an excellent 
impression, supplied to me by Dr. Fleet, 

Tiie inscription contains 31 lines of writing- -which covers a space of about 2' 3^ broad by 2 r 1 
high, and is in a perfect state of preservation. Above tTbte writing are some scralptttres : in the 
centre, a seated Jaina figure facing fall front, on its proper right a cow with a, caulf , and on tie 
left a crooked sword or dagger ; and above tkese, on the light the moon, and on. the left tie 
BUIL _ The average sisse of the letters is about ^. The characters are Old-BZaxiarese 1^ 
1 angnag0 3 up to the middle of L 28, is Sanskrit; the remaining lines consist of a, -verse inQld- 
Kamarese. The Sanskrit portion is in prose, excepting that lines 1-3 contain two verses in the 
Anushtobli metre. In respect of ortliograpliy f I need only" state that the rules o samdhi kave 
been frequently disregarded, and that the sign of the upadhmdrilya (which does not differ from 
the sign for r) has been employed in arhataA=Pur t t4d@vasya, at the coBmaenceoxent of 1. 3, As 
regards the language of the Sanskrit part, L 18 contains the word Jiadapavala (deiaoting perltaps 
a dependent) wHch is not Sanskrit, and a few other terms which are not Sanskrit occur in tie 
list of Urudas in lines 10-12. 

The inscription records a grant of land by the Mafodma,ndal$vara, Vijay&clityadLeva of the 

Sil&Mxa family* 1 Opening with two verses 3 which glorify the Jaina faith, it gives in lines 

8-15 the following genealogy and description of the "donor : In the Silfihftra Kslaatrlya lineage 

was a prince Jatiga, who had four sons, Gonkala 9 G-frrala, KXrtir&ja, and Chandrfiditya. Of 

'these, the prince Gonkala had a son named Ml&rasimlia. Hlis sons were Q&v-alA, Q-arigad&ra, 

Bsllaladeva* Bli6jacieva 9 and G-andaradityaddva- And G-andaradityad,eva*e son was tie 

HaTidmandaUsvara, who had attained the five maJiagabdas, the illustrious VijayfidityadSvfy 

distinguished by such titles as * the supreme lord of the excellent city of Tagara*, the illusirions 

SilJi,ra prince, surpassing by his innate charms the lord of the gods, begotten in tlie lineage 

of Jimutavahana, famous for his heroism, having a golden Garuda in his ensign, - at god of love 

to maidens, the breaker of the pride of hostile rulers of districts, maruvan7Ge,-&trjpap ay yam- 

sing a, prominent in all excellent qualities, terrific to hostile rulers of districts^ i>o "those whom he 

hates what the lion is to elephants, iduvardditya, a Vikramaditya of the Kali ag 1 , in beauty of 

form K&r-ayana, by his policy surpassing Ch&rayana, 4 ii conqueror- of mounta,lxi fortresses, a 

vituperator of his adversaries, sanivdra-siddhi, & ivhose mind is given solely to *wliat is right, 

who has obtained the favour of a boon from the goddess Mahalakshmi ? and who Iby nature owns 

the fragrancy of musk.' 

According to lines 13-26, this VijayHdityad^v& s ruling in comfort at liis residence of 
Valav&da, on the occasion, of a lunar eclipse on Monday, tlie f nil- moon tithi of the 
month Mglia of the Drrndubhi year 9 -wliexi 1O86 aka years !had elapsed^ - granted a field, 
wMch by the measure of the Kundi 6 country measured one quarter of a <n,%'va j rtMa, and a 
dwelling-house measuring 12 Jiastas, "both belonging- to the* village of H,viaiarIOIrIlag0 in tie 

1 See Br. Fleet's Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts^ p. &8 ff.j l>r. Bhandarkar's Sc&r'lv/ History qftte 

^n.p. 92 ff. j and Dr. Bbagva,ula! Indraji in <Tour. JBo. ^.#. Soc. Vol. XIII. p. 15. 

s The first of these verses occurs frequently at tbe commencement; o Jaina inscriptions 5 tb second speaks o 
the' Jaina docfcrine as tbe doctxirte of the Arhat Purud^va, a name which I have not met with elsewhere. 

8 According to Dr. Fleet, either * as venomous as a snake in its place of shelter/ or-< as venomous as a anale to 
any one who Intrudes on its place of shelter;' see JLrch&ological Survey of Western Zn&ia,- Cave-Temple 
Inserlftions, p. 103* note. 

4 I do Dot know of any Ch&r&yana -who was famous for bis politic conduct. The name "has been used here 
simply because it rhymes best with N&r&yana. An inscription }n which the same arrangement o the 5>*fo*bag 
been carried to excess, will be found in Mr. Rice's Inscriptions afr &rauay.&-&e&0la, pp. 86-37 {ISTo. 53), 

5 This has been translated by c he whose desires (or wishes) are accomplished on Saturdays 5 * sea n$. Ant. Vol. 
II p.^ 303 5 four. JJo. A*. Soc. Vol. XIII. p. 6 ; Mr. Rice, loo. eit. p. 91. A deity called Sa,r*Iv&rasiddhid6va is 
mentioned several times in a fragmentary inscription at K61h&pur of Saka-Samvat 1161* 

See Ind. A*& YoL XIV. p. 16, 1. 4 ,- VoL XVI. p. 20 ; Vol. XIX p. 



district of AjirageklLoUa, for 4te eightfold worship 1 of P^syan&tBad^a at a shrine which 
had been established at the said village by a certain Vfaodft, a depended (? *a*wi>V> of 
the Sdmania EZamadeva and disciple of M^ghanandieiddMntad^ the head of the Putakm 
^A*a of the D^ya ^a of the MAJa M ^Aa and priest of the Jaina temple of the ho! V 
B4panar%ana at E^lmUakapw^ and for the purposes of keeping the ehrine in proper repl 
and of proTidmg food for the ascetics of the shrine 5 - having washed the feet of 
Manikyanandipa^ta (apparently the superintendent of the shrine) who was another disciple of 
Maghanandisad dhantadeva, and exempting the grant from all tafes and molestations Lines 27-^8 
contain the usual appeal to future rulers to respect this donation as if it were one of their'own 
And the inscription ends with the verse* 3 (in Old-Kanarese) : _ 

'The lord Jina, himself the abode of the sentiment of quietism, (tV> his god- the austere 
Maghanandin, the saiddMntika, the yogin, himself the abode of the virtue of unweariedness (is 
or was) his preceptor; the lord Kmad6va, the Sdmanta, () his ruler (or master) ; this (fc) 
the excellence', this (is) the religious merit, this (is} the advancement of Vasudlva I f 

As regards the date of this grant, the year Dandubhi is Saka-Samvat 1065 as a current* 
(not, as stated erroneously in the text, as an expired) year; anG for Saka-Samvat 1065 current 
the given day corresponds to Monday, the 1st February, A.D. 1143, when there was a total 
lunar eclipse 17 h. 23 m. after mean sunrise, which of course was visible in India. 

Of the localities mentioned, Valavada, the place of residence of Yijayadityadeva. had 
been suggested by Sir W. Elliot to be probably the modern WMwa, about sixteen miles to the 
south of Kolh&pur ; but Dr. Fleet now suggests that it may be in reality the village of W&lwa 
(Yalavem) on the Krishn&, abont twenty-f our miles north by east from Kolhapur, which gave 
the name to the "Wllwa t&hik& of the Satar& district. The village of Havina-Heriiage and the 
place Ajirage, which gave the name to the district in which the village was situated, I am 
unable to identify. 3 Lastly, Kshiillakapura clearly is another name of the town of Kolh&pnr 
(or Kollapura^ itself, where, as we know from an inscription at Trd&l and from another 
inscription at Sravana-Belgola, there was a temple of the holy Eupanarayana, the priest of which 
was the same M&ghanandisiddh&ntadeva who is mentioned in this inscription as well as in the 
next. 4 

TEXT. 5 

1 6 Srzmat^parama-gambH^^ [ j*] jiya[t=*] trailokya- 

nathasya ssanam Jina-s&sanam II ^) II (^ 

2 Svasti Mr=3jayas=ch^abhyudayas=cha }| Jayaty=amala-naiialtha-pratipattl- 

pradarsakam (*] arhata- 

3 h=Purad6vasya sltsanam moha-sasanam |] Svasti [|*] Sri-3Silaliara- 

mahS,kshatriy-&nvay^ vitra- 

4 st-^6sha-ripu-pratatir=Jjatig6 nima naremdr6=bhut | tasya sunavo GSomkaio 


5 Kirttirajas-Cliandradityas-xch^^ti chatvarah { tatra Ooiiikalabhfi.talapater= 

Mmrasimli6 -n&ma nandanah | tasya tannjih 7 GHiTOio 

6 Gamgadevah BaU&ladevah BUojadevah Gandamdityade[va3s*eh=eti 

pamcha | t^shn dharmmika-Dharmmajasya vairi-ka- 

1 See Ind. A.nt. Voi XIV. p. 24, note 27. 3 I owe the translation of tins verse to Dr. Fleet. 

s Major Graham has suggested that the village may prohablj be the * Heirleh * of the maps, about eight mile 
north-east of the city of Kdlh&pur. I myself have felt inclined to identify Ajirage with Ajuriki (the modern 
Ajare), where S^mad^va wrote his Sabd&rna vac&andriM ; see Ind. Jjnt. Yol, X. pp. 75-76. 

4 See In^ Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 18, 1. 48; and Mr. Rice's Inscription* at SraDana^elgol^ pp. 9-10 (No. 40), 
where we find the Sdma^ta K&naadeva of the present inscription mentioned *& ly disciple of MAghanandip. 

*From aa impression, supplied to me by Dr. Fleet. * Metre z Sldka (AB 

7 Here and in other places below, the rules of samd&i have not been observed, 


. r . - ..... a==^ 

7 nti-vsIdhavya-diksM-gnroii sakala-darsana-eliakslrasiiali 

priya-tanayali | l 

8 BYasti sanmdlugaiapaaiichama]i&^ I 

9 hfiranar&adrali nija-villsa-yijita-deYendrat Ji* i ciitvS,b 
vildiy&tah J 

10 suvariojpLa-g i mruda-dhyajati 1 yuvatijana-Makaradhvajah 

darppah. j zxia^Yamka-sarppah J 

11 ayyana-simgah I sakala*guna4um 

gaja-kanthiravalt* | 

12 iduvaridityah 1 kaliyuga-Vlkramadltyah [ rftpa-Nftr&yanah 1 

13 r&yanah. 1 giri-dttrgga-lamglianah. ! Yihita-vir6dhi-vaihgliaiia!h 

sicfdlii!h. | dtanam-aika-buddiiiii | MahS,- 

14 lafcslimideYi-laBdlia-varaprasadaiL I sabaja-kasturik-am&dali 

15 Tirajam^iia-gnma 

vinodena r&aih ku- 

16 rTvSnah I Saka-irarBli6sliii pamcliasliaslity^iitta^a-sahasi^-praiiiitesliv 

pravarttaiii&iia- u !DTiiii' 

17 diibM-samvatsara-Maglaa-m&sa-paiirnnsmasyam S6ma-irre 1 

18 ttain^AjirageMioU-^BBgata-Havma-H^illage-gram^ | sSrmanta-K^inadeirasya, 

19 vapna ' sri-MAlasaihglia-Desiyagana-Pustakagacliclit-adMp 

20 nalay-aeMryyasya riman-M%liaiiaiidIsiddMnfcadevasya priya-cliclih&[t*]tr69a 

gunaratna-p&trena ( 

21 Jma-padapadoia-'bhrlingferLa | viprakula^samntfoxhga-ramgdna I 

sadblavema } Vasudev^na J 

22 k&rit&yah vasatei. grf-Pfagvaxi&thad&TO^ "l iact- 


23 spliutita-jir^&ddli^-aii;tliam 1 tatratya-yat!n^mm-41i&ra-din-ll.rtthaiii s eta I 

tafer=awa grame 

24 KntLtii-dandena jdyarttana^hatiirttha-bliaga-pramitaiii ksIi^iraiSi 

sammitaiii grilia-Bivesasiani 

25 cha 1 taii=M%lianandisiddliantadeYa-sisliyaBaiii 

padau prakshalya dliara-pu- 

26 rvrakaih 

2? ^ 
* santati-YriddMni=al3MlIps"abMii 

28 datti-mi'YYis^sliaiii pratlpddaniyam=iti || Santa-rasakke 

29 Jina-prabka tanna & dalYa|ia=asr4iita-gunakke t&ne -neley=Ma taponidlsi 


30 yogi tanna gurn. | 6 tann=adMpaih vitlm KamadeYa-sainamtaB.=ld=Tittamatvam=idi3L 

lf Tb!g siga of punctuation and all the others which occur in lines 8-25 are superfluous, because i^^ 
words from &*&u In L S up to dattavdn ia L 26 form a single sentence. The word *cat at the commB<seme"fe 
of L 8 is put in parenthetically to mark, as it were, tbe proper beginning of the grant- 

Eead -yatlndm^Mra-. * AH the signs of punctuation in this line are superfluous, 

*: TJtpaiainik. Read ^tVan.-*. tThit sigB ox punctuation ia sajMarfluons. 




This inscription is on a stone which, stands "by the door of a Jaina temple at the Tillage of 

five miles south- west of K%al, the chief town of the- Klgal State in the K51h&ptur 

Territory. An account of its contents and a kind of transcript of the text are giyen in Major 

Graham's Statistical Report of the Principality of Eolhapoor? p. 381, I edit it BOW from a good 

impression, supplied to me by Dr Fleet 

T-Iie inscription contains 44 lines of writing which covers a spac ffl e of about 2' I0|*" high by 
1' 4f broad. At the end of each of the lines 1-3 and 13 one akshara^ which in each, case can be 
easily supplied, is effaced* and one or two a^sharas, -which cannot be restored,, are broken away at 
the end of each of the lines 14 and 15 ; otherwise the mitingis well preserved* At the top of the 
stome ar some sculptures : immediately above the writing 1 , in the centre^ a seated Jaina figure, 
facing full front, cross-legged^ with, the liands joined in the lap s and sixtrmcranted by a serpent 
coiled up behind and displaying seven hoods ; to the proper left of this figure, a crooked sword 
or dagger and a cow with a calf ; and above these, again, on the right tilts sun, and on the left 
tike moon. The average size of the letters is about f v . The characters are OldKanarese. 
The language is Sanskrit* excepting part of line 43 and line 44 wMck are in Old-Kauarese. The 
main part of the text is in prose., but nine verses occur in lines 1-2, 26-31, and 34-4*3, As regards 
Ortti0grap!iy 9 the sign of the upadkmdntya (which, is like the sign for r) has been employed 
"before the word Pwrud$vasya in 1. 1, and before jpatyd in I, 16 and pitra, in L 17; and 
instead of the conjunct ddh we find dhdh in the words sidhdhi in I, 10 and udhdhdra in 
U 19. 

This inscription records another grant of land by the MaMmandaUdvarcs, VijayS-dityaddva 

of the Sil&lifira family. Opening with a verse glorifying the Jaina faith, which is already 

fcnown to us from lines 2-3 of the preceding inscription, it gives in lines 2-10 the genealogy and 

description of the donor as they are given by that other inscription^ only omitting the names of 

six of Ids more distant relatives (Ktrtirftja, GkandrMitya, Gftrala II., Gungadeva, Ballladva 

s^id Bhoj&d&va) and nine of Ms less important birudas. 1 Lines 11-34 then record that 

Viiayfidityad.6va s ruling at Ms residence of "Falav&da s at the request of Ms maternal uncle, the 

Sdmanta Iiakshma^a, and for the spiritual benefit of his family/ on the occasion of a lunar 

eclipse on Friday 9 the full-moon tithi of the month. BhMrapada of the IPramddayea^ when 

1O73 Saka years had elapsed, granted a field which "by the measure of the Eiandi coimtzy 

measured one quarter of a nivartana,, a flower-garden measuring 30 stambhas, and a dwelling- 

homs measuring 12 hastas, all belonging to the village oi Madapjiira in the district of , 

naTn[kB;ige^o|la s for the eightfold worship of P&i^vaiiathad^va at a shrine which had Been 

established at the village by Ohodhore-Kamag&vniida 3 (the SOB of Sanagaxnayya and Chaih[dha] 

. . TT^, hnsl>and of Punnakabb&, and father o Jentagavunda and HemmagS-vnnda), and for 

the purposes of keeping the shrine in proper repair and of proTiding food for the ascetics of the 

shrine s having washed the feet of ArhaTiandisiddh&itadftva (probably the superintendent of the 

shrine), a disciple of Mftghanandisiddh&ntad&va who, in addition to what is stated of him in the 

preceding inscription is described hero as a pupltx^f Kulachandramuni and as e a sim of the 

1 Tlie BtVittto which in the prccediag inscription is spelt maTuw&mfoa->&<&rjpp^ is here la L 7 spelt 


Literally (in L 24) * in order thtf.t it migbt be a gift of his fam!ly*X 
The &>t parfc of this name is not clear to me. in L 16 of a frag-raentwy i&fserlptiosa at K61h%>er of 
1161 I find the name Chaudhurl-Kdnu*g&umd&* [Gdvitoda Is the same ma tbd Kaoarese 
of a village/ E. H.] 

2 a 2 


lineage* - l and exempting the grant from all taxes and molestations. Linos 3441 
coBtain five imprecatory verses ; these are followed in lines 42-43 by another -well kn.O'wn verse 
in 6 praise of the Jaina doctrine ; and lines 43-44 add, in Old-Kanarese, that tliis inscription "wag 
engraved "by G6vy6ja, the son of the goldsmith Bammy&ja, s and lay~disciple s of ATbti- 


As regards the date of this grant, the year Prafh&da is Saka-Samvat 1073, here too as a 
current (not, as stated erroneously in th text, as an expired) year; and for Saka-Ssbxii-vat 1073 
current the given day corresponds to Jfriday, the 8th September, A.D. 115O, when there -was 
a total lunar eclipse 20 h* 6 m. after mean sunrise, which of course -was visible in In.c3Lia%* 

Of the localities mentioned, in addition to those which have already been spoken, of in the 
preceding inscription, I am nnable to identify the village of HadafT]ura; and I can only hesi- 
tatingly suggest that the concluding part of the mutilated name of the district, . . 3pLa/v-U[ka]-< 
gegolla, may perhaps survive in the name of the town of KHgal, in the neighbourhood of which 
the inscription is still preserved. 

1 Svasti 11 5 Jayaty=amala-nanarttha-pratipatti-pradarsakam 1 arhatafe-Pur[]Tx 

2 sya sasanam. naoha-sasanam [( Sri-Siiahara-rarhs^ Jatig6 " n^ma 

3 tisas=saih|atas=tat-putrau G-omkala-Glivalau | tatra Gtomfcalasya 

4 r=Mmarasim]iadevas=tad-apatyam 


5 tapamchamah^abda-maliamanda[M] 

6 vsr-adhisvarah | srf-Simhara^vamsa^aCna)r6ndrah \ 

7 nvaya-prasttah | snyamna^gariida-dliTajah I maptirakka-sarppah 
3 gah | ripu-mandalika-hhairavah | vidvishta-[ga]ja-kanthtravah | 

9 fadiyngarVikramftdiiyah. 1 riipa^arayanati | giri-durgga^lariigliaziat 

10 niTara^idhdM(ddhi)h | ^-MaMlakshmi-laMha-varapr 

Tirajamanah | 

11 srimad-VijayMityadevah , Valavada-stMra-gibird --v. 
1- Bodena Tijaya-rajyam kurrvaii | trisaptaty-xittaara-saha. 

3 ara-praniiteBlxv.atitgsh^ arhkat6pi 1O73 pravarttamana-Pramoda-sanxv 

14 ra-Bliadraada s6magraHana- P a J nr ra -ni m ittarMiT 


17 -,. - 

17 gavu^yopxtra OMdhore-KAmag^nd^a 


-unnecessary, to printout sep.^ly, tte ,les of ,*.- ^^^ |Jofc 
* This aiiiar* is etaced 10 TI * - ' . . J - - - 

H. Met>r two a * are broken a rJ WO ** Aor ^* l% ^wkei.w^ - 1 

m*e away . Originally **&<,*&-. wa* engravfed. 










gat-stamblia-pramina-pTislipAvattm 1 

cha aa raj& nija-matula-Ijakslimana-sainaiitii-ij5a- 

tasy^aiva gotra-dan-arttliaih sr 



stufcah Kulacliamdramun^iL sishyaix 

sum&tt II Api eta || s R6d6-mandalam=anga Mm 

vyapmdti Sakra-dvipah kim ksM^ambudliir=aTOln6ti btuYansm 

kim v&shtate | styan6==yam prfya-su&tHrali samarncliat^Mnx s4m 

p6 yal-kirfcty=6ttliam==abhud^Titarkfcaiiam==asaTi grf-M%3iaiiaBdi jayet }| ^Ta- 

n-mmnimdrasy=amtevasIn&m=A3fliaim^ ^ p&dan 

praksMlya dliar^purwakam sarrra-namasyam saryva-l>adliarpriMram=l-Gtmiii- 

dr^rkka-t^ram sa-4[sa^]Bam dattaT&n 11 <> II Sya-datt&ii 4 pawrdattfah T& yd 

YisttMy&m- j&yat krimih |f Ha 

35 ndhar&m | shasMim 





ty=Miur=dd^ a svam Tis3iaia=uoliyatfe ' .1 -vistam^kakinam tanti dfeTasT&m pu- 
tra-patifcrakam U Api olia .tf Sa-vatsam kapilam gaatryi hatv=%a 

Gamg^yam s6=-fcii y6 grDin%=amiim dharmm-orrvaram 


Barak-ivaBati || Any4oh=cta II 

rm A 

taAga-v^&nasn [I*]. 



mmySjana putra | 

bHkshaya labdtam gy*C?) 

. A A . 
sampadyatam prata^a^heteve f 

P a%as^ || <t II Ai *^f 
gtidda GSvydjana khadarane \\ 9 


SAKA-SAMVAT 1112-1115. 
The stone whfcfc contains tH, iBseriptiom, was found built into the wall . E tie ho use of 
Ann^axya Pandit, in tbe enclos^e of the temple of AmMbM, "J-.-^* 
to^-hauTof the city of Koll^p^. An account of the contents of the 
of facsimie of the text are given in Major Graham's BtatiM* Report of 
Kolhapoor, p. 398. I now edit it from a good impression, supplied to me by Dr. Sleet. 

The inscription contains 23 lines of siting ^^** 
2' 2%> high. Do^n to Hne 14 the writing is on the whole well preserved, 

*. Metre : Sidka (Aimshtubh). 2 Metre : 

5 Originally -vapnushd was engraved. 

* Metre : S16ka (A*m&htubli) ; and of the next four vers^ 

5 The a&sar# #< o Qdta>T&& w#s originally omitted., aaa i 

$ The secooid a^ftaya^ (y) is slightly dsiBaged but I b*T 

I am itnable to explain this word, . 

7 Metre : KafcbdddbatiL 8 Theae two gw of punctntion *re 

the actual reading of 

21 4i 


have Buffered considerably, from exposure to the weatlier or other causes, BO that in several 
places it Is impossible to make out the exa'ct wording of the text* 1 At the top of the stone are 
same scnlptore3 : immediately above the -writing 1 , on i>he proper right a cow with a calf, and on 
the left a crooked sword or dagger ; and above these, again, on the right the moon, and on the 
left the sun. The average size of the is about !". The chaxaotors are N"S,gari. The 

language is Sanskrit ; and the whole inscription is in prose. Both the style and the language 
are Yery simple ; but ibis record contains several words which apparently are not Sanskrit, 

the exact meaning of which I do not understand- In respect of orthography^ it need only 
be stated that the rules of samdki are frequently disregarded. 

The inscription divides itself into three parts. The first part., from line 1 to the "beginning 
of line 13, records that the MaJidmaqfalSivara V^a~Blidjadevs 9 ruling- at his residence of tie 
fort of rraaalaka 9 on tlia occasion of the sun's entrance upon MB northern eouxsa 9 on 
Tuesday, the twelfth, Itnmr day of the dark of Pusliya (or PauaiiB) of the 
y08F 9 when 1112 years had elapsed since the time of the Saka king granted a fdlikhaUa* 
field, wMeh by the Bdenada measure measured 550 vapyak&sfi and in connection with it a 
dwelling-house measuring 12 hastds, and connected with this again a JchadavalaJka,, 4 all 
belonging to, and the field lying 1 on tie eastern side of, the village of Kopparavlida in 
ISdenids* * ^ke four Bi*ahrtianas Adityabiatta, Lakshmidharabhatta, Prabh&karaghaisasa of 
Ejamiata, 5 and Yasiyanagliais&sa, who were settled at a mafha (i.e. a temple or other religions 
establishment) founded by the Ndyaka Lokana, for performing the fivefold worship of the god 
Umamahesvara^ a form o Amritesvara (Siva) 5 and for the purposes of feeding* the .Br&hmanas 
dwelling at the matha^ of offering eatables three times a day to the goddess MahMakBhml, and of 
keeping the niatha in proper repair. And the inscription adds that the land so granted lay to 
the east of a fearotZa 6 field which was to the east of the road from TlravfidablcjA to the fort of 
Baimale, to tie north of the edge of an empty tank marked by a field-deity s to the west of a 
^aranja^ field (or i?ood) ? and to the south of two other fields belonging to DSsileya and Cfaendi- 
key a (?). 

On the Mahdman$al&vara Vlffe-BlidjadSva, otherwise known to us as Bhdja II* of tic 

SllaMra family, it will suffice to refer the ieader to Dr, Fleet's Dynasties of the XEanarew 

Districts, p. 105, and Dr. Btandarkar's Early History of the JJekkan, p. 95. The date of this 
grant of Ms corresponds, for Saka-Samvat 1112 expired which was the Jovian year Sadltarana, 
to Tuesday, the 26th December, AIX U90 f when the iitta^ayana-samkranti took place 14 h. 
"2 m. after njean sunrise, daring the 12th tithi of the dark half of Pausha which ended 19 h. 7m. 
after mean sunrise of the same day. Of the localities mentioned, Pranaiaka-durga or Pannaie- 
durga the residence of Vtra-BhojadeYa, ie the well-known fort of Pannftla (or PanhSla), about 
11 miles Dorth-west of K61hapm% The village of Kopparav4a I am unable to identify with 
confidence. The district of Sdenada, to which that village belonged, is mentioned also in a 
ecpper-plato grant of the SilaMra GandarMityadeFa 8 of Saka-Samvat 1032, and in an 
unpublished stone inscription of Saka-Samvat 1161 ; and the former of these inscriptions states 

1 From the rongli facsimile in Major Graham's Report it wotald appear that, when the inscription was first 

brought to puhlic notice, it was in a better state of preservation than it Is now. 

^ Bah is * rice,* and ttxtla denr^ -, in addition to other things, a canal, cut, trench, deep hole/ etc* but the 
m^mag of the whole term 1 do not know. 

r . I have no ^"d elsewhere. [Perhaps the word m connected with vdpa* on whicli 8ee JE> 

\ ol. L p. 161, sole 19. B. H.] 

in an Inscription of Sata- 

.|p|r" l? ,' u --f-T _ 

es prepe^nVk^O i' m * lor #f * le &*&&&*> p. 95, joins the word KaraMta&a of the text with the two 

s 4n^ C * i c 1 . tll I3:i:ue!5 eujuiig- in^^aw'^ see ibid, and JTwrf. -4#.Vol. XIV. n, 74. 

^ ibe only meaning of this word kjnowu to me Is < tax-pnyim* * 

Tto the name of a pLu.t or tr,o. s See Jar. Bo. ^ &c. Vol. XIIL p. ft. 


that Tlravftda in TSdrn:l<?a, wlucli most probably is the Tiravadabida of this inscription, 1 was 

the residence of GandarMityadova. 

The second part of our inscription (lines 13*19) records that, on Friday, the first of the 
bright of (or Asvina) of the Paridh&via year, when 1114 years had elapsed 

elnee the the king t the NdyaTca Kaliyana, a, son of the above-mentioned Nay oka 

L6ka$u, gave to the same lour Briiihmanas sorao land and other properly at the agraJidra village 
of Paiiva 9 situated in ^ilxizagokhollft* for the purpose of feeding the Br&hmanas at a sattra or 
alms-house established by [ Ms mother Pftm&kativ& ?]. The property so granted is described as 
* OBO largest (uttama) nivcvrttana (and) one smallest (JtanisJitha) nivarttana, making thus half a 
writti (of land) 5 connected with it, half of a first-rate ^uttama) house and one middle-sized 
(madh't/ama) house, and a Mtadawlalca connected with them ;' and, so far as I can make out from 
the text, this property he, 4 originally belonged to one Lakhumanaghaisasa, 2 -who had sold it 
to the traders of the Tillage,, of whom it was afterwards ^purchased by Kaliya-na, 

The data of this donation does not work out satisfactorily ; for the first of the bright 
half of Asvina of joakaSaxhvat 1114, whiqh was the year Paridhavin, corresponds to the 9th 
September^ 8 A.D. 1192, which was a Wednesday, not a Friday. The localities I am unable 
to identify. 

Finally, our inscription (in lines 19*23) records that, on Friday, the fifth lunar day of the 
"bright half of Pliglgirna of the Pramdiia year 9 the same Ndyaka Kaliyana gave to the same 
four Br&hma#as some land, v wliicli ho had purchased of Mayimkauva, the daughter's daughter of 
36m^varabbatta 9 a Btudcnfc of the S4mav6da, for the purpose of feeding the pupils at a school 4 
established for tlie tttady of the Vodas- 

The- year Pram&din of this dat should be Saka*Sazhvat 1115 expired, and for this year 
the given elate corresponds fco Friday^ fhe 28th. February, AJ>. 1194 9 when the 5th tit hi of the 
bright half ended 21 h. 44 m. after moan sunrise. 

J Svasti j I*] Brtman-tnnib&m&iiidal^vard Vira-Bhojadevah 6 Pranfilaka-dnrgga-Sibire 

2 na rfl.jyam kurvA.naK Sa3an^pa*kSJdfirabhya varsheshu dv&dafidttara- 

riiv rittoshu varttamana-Ba- 

H^ Bhauma-vare bh&uor* 


4 bliiTricldhayft 8ahavaUi*Ij6kuiian&yak6na kaiitasya, matlias^'ri 7 Amrit&Svaramiirty- 

6 ta- jt riin-6ddlilir-alrtlmiii Edon4d-aiimtarggata-Koppaaravada-grama-aim*fi l 


1 A place* * Bir * or * BeecP lies 74 miles south-w<:&t of K61Mpur; and, i ense this were the Tiruv&diibiiia of 
our inscription , I would idikutify KopparavA^a with the village 'Kopurda 9 of the maps, which is about 2 
north by wciafc of * Bir.* 

5 The word khaddiyd[v* ?] ? which in line 10 precedes this name* 1 do not understand. 

a The first MAi of the bright half ended about 11 iu 1% na. after m^an dauriee of this 

4 The original, m line 21, lim the word [M<5 t^dafca which 1 do not understand. 

* Krom aw iinpresHion, ppUed to me by Dr. Fleet. 6 Originally dto6 was engraved. 

" Here and in other plmcs below, the rules of tafa&hi have not been observed. 

" It IB difficult to ^j wbefcher the layt but one word of thib compound should be read paricMla or parivdla. 
it to be yaricMla* employed in the twnse of pariototra, ie. pd/4 ; compare the use of the word jp^ in L 5. 
Head -dntaryyutv. 30 liead 

216 [VOL. On. 

m&rgg&t p&FTYataii karada-ksH^Ctmm] 1 4iA-pArataii p 

tAy&K rikta-tat&ks-pMjSJbt mtterafcak 
8 ^[k&mm] |a^malM=pagcliimataiji 1 4 

ksketmj6r=ddakslim^tah. I 8 evam 
7 ^3B&4sr<iamda--mS ( iieiia, Tapyak&n&dbi pamchMad-adMkain pamaka-Satam 

k&ketram tat-pratibaddliam tad-gr&m-&Hbyaiitr6 dv&dafia- 
10 pmjsta-prsminaiii niy^ganam tat-pr^haddliiuii ktadavalakam oha |J 

sanrram tail- matlia-nl vislata-saJiav&sy- Aditya'blia- 
1 1 ^-Lalcsliis^dliarab^ 

12 aazia^mhiiaaii dli&r&-piirTTakaiii sarrva-naiaasyam sarvma-bad3i&r-parili3.raiii sarvv-aya- 

13 m=&-eliamdr-ltrkka-.stMraiii dattavftn II Aaaiyacli^clm U 

TttembAOai ehstiarddasottara-satadJiiSjfe-m^ ttivritte- 

14 ska Twttemaim-Paffidliaid-sa Siaira- 

v&rd tasy=ai"va sakavasi-Ldkana-ix&ya- 

15 kasya puiarah. Kaliyana-iiayakah [sva?] 10 . . [h] [kauv&P] * h, saftre 11 


16 ifi^iiil&ra-Paiw^ 

ddJfoxa-kray&Qa griMta[m?] kliaddlya[3ii?] Lakimmanag'liai- 

17 slLgagya vrittl-madityS uttaina-nivartta 

h. tat-pratibaddhaiii uttaraaJ-gxiiiasy-S^<lliaixi madhyama* 

1& lmmsk&m. tat-pratibaddham ktadavalakam ' 14 * ...... jana 

19 mhtayarli&ste db&ra-purTvakam saaryva-bMlilUpa[iililtram sarw-Aya-vijsiiddllaiii [a- 

- eh l &Tk3dr-&rkka-stliiram dattav4n || Anyacli=clia \\ 


, * [gra]ma-slm-abliyaiiiiitar6 16 

21 d 



23 dhlt-pErik&ram sarv^-iya*visuddlmia=i-cliaiiidr^^kka-stl4 dattavan || ctha 

1 Hera a sign of punctuation was originally engraved ; but it appears to have been struck out again. 
3 This fiign of punctuation is superfluous. 

* The $rt Jb*^ara in these brackets is almost entirely broken away, and of tlie second it is doubtful 
it 80-oatd* be r^ad ram or rn^ or r^. 

4 Tki*siga of pancfcuatian is superfluous. 

^ ^ * Of tbe &&&&aras in these brackets, again, only tbe two copsonanta Jfc and r are certain. I believe fctfat 
orifelnallj kamra was engraved, and tbat tbis has been altered to Jearam, 

* This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 7 This ak&ht&m is quite broken away. 
** This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

* It is just possible that the two akskara* &r$&sha maj bave been altered to prakM and that tbe 
pa fgwiisg prmtesMpa) may kave been added between the lines, above tbe akxhara y* But 

also occurs in other inscriptions. 

^?be facsimile in If tijor Grabam^s Jf^or^ bas : ava-mdtw& P&md&<$ydk. 
Bead M***. Head -4ta V at-4^ Head ^CUy airf^ 

Tbefpetimile in Major Orab ft m's i^por* bas, *ofcrrwiA t*d-3r#m~ 

Here tbe fmesimile lias : t**minn*4v& agraMra-P6va*. ** Read 

Here tbe facsiiaild apparently baa vritt2r**u$tama-bh4mty 




TMs inscription is on a stone at the temple of Trikutvara (Siva) at O-adag, the chief town 
of the Gadag fcaluka in the Dh&rw&r district of the Bombay Presidency. Its existence was 
indicated, twenty yeara ago, by Dr. Fleet in the Indian Antiquary, Vol. II. p. 298, and I now 
edit it from an excellent impression, supplied to me by the same scholar. 

The inscription contains 21 lines of writing which covers a space of about I 7 7" broad 
by 1 ; 11" high. Excepting that in line 12 three ofe&zro* have been intentionally effaced, 
lines 1-19 are in a fair state of preservation and may be read with confidence through- 
out ; but the greater part of lines 20 and 21 is broken away, and so is the end of the inscrip- 
tion, probably one or two more lines, of no particular importance* At the top of the stone are, 
in the centre, a linga aixd a priest ; to the right, a cow and calf witl* the sun or moon above 
them ; and to -the left, a bull with the moon or sun above it. The size of the letters is between 
f" and f". Tlie oliaracters are TTagari. The language is Sanskrit,' SpeaMng generally, lines 
1-9 are iii verse, and lines 10-20 in prose ; and the inscription apparently ended with other 
(benedictive and imprecatory) verses. The orthography calls for no remarks* 

The inscription records a grant of land by the YMava, king BMllainadSva (of Dvagri) 
Opening -with, a verse which invokes the protection of ' Kamsa's foe ' (Vishnu), it gives in seven 
verses the following genealogy of the donor: In Yadu's family there was a king named 
S&ronad&va. His son. was the prince MailugidSva. His son, again, was the prince 
Amaraga&ga. After him his younger brother Karnadva became king. And Ms son was the 
king BMllamadeva, an incarnation as it were of Krishna, who, conquering many countries and 
acquiring much wealth, rendered the rale of the family of Hug Svana (or of the Sevana kings) 
highly prosperous. After this, the inscription in another verse (in Hne 9) states that 
BMllamadSva had a minister, named Jaitasimlia, who was endowed with the three constituent 
elements 1 of regal power, whose prowess' was surpassing thought, and who was a very scorpion 
to rulers of districts. 

Lines 10-19 then record that, at the representation of this Jaitasimha, His Majesty 
Bhillamadeva, adorned with such titles- as < the refoge of the whole world, the lilnsteons 
favourite of the earth, Mahdrdjddhirdja, Paraw&vara, Paromofciaff **, the ornament of 
Tadxt'a family, bom in the holy Vishnu's lineage/ while his camp of jf'** 
HSrfira,- at a solar eclipse on Strnday, the new-moon tttbi of Jymah^aof 
year, wlxe* 1118 years had elapsed of the era of the Safca king,-- after 
feet of the holy chief of ascetics SiddMntichandrabh^hanapan^va also 
the disciple of Vidy&bharanadeva who in turn was a ta. * 

STand n^on with < ^ ^^^^ 

according to line 19, >s destmed for the g od ^u^ ^^ ^ 

mutilated or is eotirely hroken away; and what remains oimres _ J _ 

, there i. of W<^, is correct, 
but am unable to explain i&e term m jself. g F 


inscription ended with aa appeal to future rulers to respect this grant, and witli one or m 
the customary benedictive a,nd imprecatory verses, 

According* to tbe above, the genealogy 3 furnished Tby this record of Bhillama, 1 is tins:- 


2. Mallugid&a 3 son of 1, 

3. AmaragaBga,, son of 2. 4. Karnad&va, younger brother of 3. 

5* BMilaxnad&va, son o-f 4. 

Of these princes or kings, Sevanadeva clearly is the S&ana or Settnachandra of 
possess two inscriptions of Saka-Samvat 991 ; s and Amaraganga is the Amaraganggya 
Hem&dri's VratdkhanifaP also is stated to have been bora from Mallugi, while in the Haral 
ccprer-plates 4 of Sing-hana II. of Saka-Samvat 1160 his name is given before that of Ma 
ills exact relationship to this prince being* left undefined. Quite new to us are the nai 
Karaadeira and the statement that he was Bhillaxna's father. The Paitlian copper-plat< 
Htinacliaiidra of Saka-Samvat 1193 only record in a general way that Bhillama came 
llallugi ; but the Haralahalli plates distinctly assert that Bhillama "was born from Haling 
this, too, is the conclusion i^hich. Professor Bhandarkar has drawn from the account c 
Yadava family given by HemadrL To reconcile these different statements is impossible 
obliged to choose between them, I would unhesitatingly adopt tiie account givsn "by the pj 
inscription, because I do not believe that its author could have made a mistake ahoi 
name of the father of the sovereign whose grant lie was recording-, 

The name of the minister at whose representation this grant was made-, according i 
text, ^ss Jaitasiihha. He of course is the Jaitrasimha who, in line 30 of the Gadag inscri] 
^of the Hoysala Vira-Ball&la of Saka-Samvat 1114, is described as the right arm of Bhil 
and whose defeat by Vira-Ball&Ja is spoken of in thai; inscription. With great probabil 
has been suggested that this Jaitasimha or Jaitrasimha must be identical with Bhillama' 
and successor^ Jaitugi or Jaitrapala; but it is somewhat strange that our inscription shot 
silent about the close relationship of both. 

The prose part of this inscription has much in common with, the corresponding porti 
tie inscription of Vira-Ballala which has just been mentioned. It records a grant ma< 
favour of tie same temple, and mentions the same ascetic as the personage whose fe< 
supposed to have been washed by the donor. Tlie date of our ^inscription corresponds 
fraka-Samvat 1113 expired which was the Virodtakrit year, to Sunday* the SSrd JBH0 S j 
1191 5 when there was a solar eclipse which was visible in India, 10 h. 29 m. after mean sui 
and the date of Yira-BallMa's inscription is Saturday, the 2 1st November, A.D* 1192. Bet 
tLese two dates, therefore, Jaitasimha must liave been defeated by Vlia-BallftJa, and mu 
eouatry Gadag have passed from tibe possession of Bhillama into that of the Ho 

f rince, a circumstance wldoh imdoubtedly caused somebody to efface BHllama's name ID 
1 ^ of this record. 

< ? .- I)SSr e ^ r ' Fteet>a ^ww*fr*yr the Kanarese XXttriats, p. 72, and Dr. Bhandarkar's 3l*ftf Si 

I S *****! T , L "' ^ 224 T ' *" ^ Bhandarfcar s I.e. p. 11^, v . 86. 


mentioned in this inscription, Kratiika is Gadag itself, and HMya- 
tlic village of fi Hundeegol, ' about six miles west by north of Gradag; 
mentioned in line 12 I am unable to identify. 

TEXT, 1 

Om svasti U Avatu 2 sa vah Kamsarih ka.miida-rueliir=*bli*iti 
Sai iiklt ali | kshiralbdM-inathana-sambhrama-saihkrant 

j va n [1 JJ*H Asti 3 kshattriya-siniliasya Yadu-namnnrL 

ktdai^^^^^^^ 1 ^ [2*||^] Tatra SevanadTakhyaii pratliitah prithivl- 

^n' r:r*^Tasya Mallugidev^khyo babhftva ^P a ^ Sllt ^ ' ^^ a 

g bhftn=mahipatih 

Sovana-Wmpf.!-.,- Ta8 j = asti 

vxvarddbitam U L II J 1 "J 

13 vardna Satauiyipafcfil 

... r A T .6 devena 

Mmat-pratapaolxakr a varttin[a} 

ta-vijayaalcariidha- ^ traV 6das-adliikesli=ekad.asasTi 

iafcfil-atitarsaihvatsararsateBhu ^y 


16 tapaBaolnlriddixfahtk^hd 

k^itva Boluvolatrisat-a-ihtargata- ^^.kara-badha-parihara^ saiaast-idSja- 

17 Hlixiya-Hamddg61a-in\ma-grainuli sa-bUiK 

saMtah pftrva-prasiddha- _ r , ll1l - TV -AksliantTa3=tribli6ga-yuktah 

nA^nlanvitf. r ajaki y auam=an a mguUpiekshanly 


namasylkrltya dvcdka A d tt h ,[ Tatr=aiko 

19 vilca dhrxru-purvakam sa-sasano^ dattafr 


1 From an imprison, Happlka to me by Dr. lleet. w bb)- 

2 ^etre : iryft. :i ^ * vopfics 2 " 9 *' Sl l x . ^ n skillam^ a 
4 Tins sign <>f pnnctaatiou in superfliioua. ^ efface d ; but these ak^aras must have oeeu 

Here about thtoo a!fo$firtt ai>e y 1 * nn^rifv tbis reading- o r *"> 

I believe that ilie traces which remain ol them, ull> 3*** ^ - F - 


20 . 3 . . . . * * 9 dliarmas=tad*vaiiisyair=aiiyaiclia 

h. p&laDtyaL. || Uktam cha p&land 

* see0* 

bhifa. Sagar-adibhiL. 1 yasya yasya [yada] 


These plates were first brought to Dr. Hultzscli's notice by Mr. G. V. Ramamurti of 
Kimedi, tlie c^iof town of the ParM-Eamedi ZamJad&rt in, the G-anjam district of the Madras 
Presidency, and were afterwards sent to Mm for examination Tby the Collector of Gafij&ra. They 
have now "been presented to the Madras Museum by Sri Padmanabha Deo, brother of the 
Zamindar of Parla-KimedL I edit the inscription which they contain from excellent impres- 
sions, supplied to me by Dr. Huitzsehu 

These are three well preserved copper-plates, each of which measures 9". Jong by from 
2f " to 2|" broad. About l T y from the proper right margin, each plate has a round hole, about 
H" in diameter. The ring which passes through these holes .had not been cut when the plates 
were received by Dr. Eultzsch. It is 3f" in diameter and f" thick, and -has its ends secured 
in a slightly oval seal which measures about 1|" by If" in diameter, TJils seal bears in relief 
a bull couchant, facing the proper left, with the moon's crescent above it, and placed on a plain 
pedestal which is supported by a lotus flower. Between this flower and the pedestal is the 
N&gart legend &$-I)[d*]raparano. Esieh of the three plates is inscribed on both sides, but 
the writing which we now find on the first side of the first plate, and, with the exception of four 
akshams, all the writing on the second side of the third plate, are apparently later additions, 
and the inscription proper which these plates contain begins therefore on the 'second side of the 
first plate and ends at the top of the second side of the third plafce. Of the %vriting within these 
limits the average size of the letters is about ". The characters, perhaps the most interest- 
ing* feature of this inscription, present a curious mixture** of the N%ari alphabet, as written iu 
Southern India, and of several southern alphabets, properly so called. Speaking generally, of 
about 730 aksJiaras which the inscription contains, 320 are written in N"%arS and 410 in southern 
characters; and the writer has not merely shown his familiarity with several kinds of writing, 
but has also displayed some skill in the arrangement of the different characters. To show this, 
it will suffice to draw attention to the manner in which he has written, e.g. y the word parama- 
mdhesvard in 1. 7, and the same word in 1. 9 ; GangdmalaJculatilako in L 8, .and Gathgdmala- 
kulatilakah in L 9 ; stitradhdra in 1. 3, and the same word in L 28; guna and gana in lines 10 
and 11; vaJiubhir in 1. 25, and bahulhis in lines. 25-26; yasya yasya and tasya, tasya in 1. 26, 
etc. As regards the southern alphabets put under contribution by him/ the majority of the 
characters used is found in the Chera copper-plates of which a photo-lithograph is published in 
the Indian Antiquary, Vol. V. p. 138 ; but some of the characters employed also are peculiar to 
^hat Dr. Buraell has called the Western CMIukya alphabet of A.D, .$08, the Eastern (Kalinga) 
Chalukya alphabets, and even the Chola-Grantha alphabet. It thus happens that, excepting 
the letters ? (in Erayamardja ii. 1. 13), I (in GJtdla in L 10), I (in Selu$eldga$4% in I. 18, and 
lomJca in 1. 20), and a few others which would not be expected to occur frequently, every letter 

* At the commencement of this line, about twelve aJcsharas are almost entirely broken awar 
3 More than half of thU line is broken away. 

of the Ganga MaMrdja Setyavarman; 



ppears in at least two fprms, and tkst for some we have no less than four (or even morel 
rms. To w a few examles e hv 

1 3 and sakdla, 

1. 10; four or even^more forms for J 9 in rdja, L l& 9 janita, 1. 5, rdja, 1. 8, r&j6 t L 11, and 

tNoftjafft, ! 6; for ^ in anttMrmaifc, 1/1, ramaniya, 1. 1, t^a, 1. 10, daksUn^ah^ I 17^ asi ~j 

<t?a, L 11; for tf, in wjayavatak, L 1, gtratisfifMtasya, 1. 2, tasya, L 9, adhipatifa I 10,* and 

Attorn, L 12; for & 5 i& Mafrendra, L 2., dhava, 1. 5, mahwrdja, 1. 8, and parihdram,' L 15. ' Ami 

equally great is the Variety of the signs for the medial Towels, especially in the case of 2 & & 

t and d, which are -written in four, five, or even six different ways. The language of the mserip- 

tioa is Sanskrit, and, excepting two "benedictive and imprecatory verses in lines 24-28, and 

another verse giving' -the name of the dutdka (here called djnaptt) in lines 27-28, the whole is 

in prose. In respect 'of ,ortliOjgrap1iy I have only to state that the consonant b is four times 

denoted by the sign for t? (l>y the JSTSgoxi sign for this letter in lavdJia t L 13, Kadamva, L 22^ 

and vahubhir, 1. 25> and fey a southern, sign in avdah, 1. 5), and twice by its own proper sign 

(in kutumMnafi, L 11, and t>ahi&b?ii$ 7 11. 25-26, where both times the same southern sign has 

been employed), * . 

The inscription is of the reig-a of a, Gangs king Vajrattastej and it begins, similarly to 
the grants of the Ganga Mahdrdj&s Inclravarman, Dev^ndravarman, and Satyavarman, 1 just as 
if it were meant to record a grant "by tli^tt king himself, thus : 

"Om! Hail! From -his vietorioTxs residence of ICalinganagara which, charming -with 
the delights of all seasons, resembles -tlie town of the immortals, the devout worshipper of 
ilah&ivara (Siva), who .meditates on tlxe feet of his parents, the ornament of the spotless family 
of the Gangas, the Mahdrdjddhirdja 3?a,rame$vqra, the illustrious VajrahastadSva, who is freed 
from the stains of tho Kali ago by his obeisance to the two lotus-feet of the holy GokamasvamiD, 
the parent of the movable 'and immovable, the unique architect who has constructed, the 
whole world, -(the god) with -the moon for his crest-jewel who is installed on the spotless 
aammit of mount Mahtodra ; who by his onslaught in many battles has roused the shouts of 
victory; wjiose blessed 'feet are tinged ^ith thick clusters of the lustre of the crest-Jewels of the 
circle of all chieftains, bowed down fcy his prowess; and whose fame is pure like the white 
ter-lily, the jasmine, and the moon, and diffused in all quarters " .... Then, instead of 
recording some command of the- kiwg- so described, the inscription in lines 9-15 tells us that 
"in the reigu of this (Vajrahastad^a), .the devout worshipper of Mahesvara, the ornament cu_tHe 
spotless family of the Gangss, the regent of five districts (jpancha-mshaya), the illustrious 
Dtoparaja, a dear BOIL of the illustrious CUd^Kamadiraja and a home of ^ ^ l 
qualities, issued the following command to all cultivators or householders (kutumbin) inhabit- 
ing Lankfikd^a; Bo it known to you that, on the occasion of giving (our.) dangater i 
Mm) in marriage, we have given the village named Hossandi, exempting it from all taxes, 10 
the ornament of the Naggari-Salnki s family, the SOB of the illustrious 
Rdjapntra marked with the name of (i.e., probably, named after) the HI- 
has illumined the quarters of the compass with the banner of the renown 
by his victories in xnany battles." 

Lines 16-21 then give an aecotoit of the boundaries ^of the villag 
clearly contains the names of a fairly Ia,rge number of other villages, but w 

~^^^ mn '** 

1 [This appears to" be a corruption of the word Chali&bga* * H-J 

he has 


BIT inability of. identifying any of the localities mentioned, I do not fully understand. To the 
east of Hossandi was G-ula-dda^ and to the south-east Knravagadda s apparently two Tilla^ 
To tie south and south-west -were a -water-pond and the triangular (?) "boundary-line of (the 
villages?) Vapavata, CMtragummi, and Hommandl. To the west lay (the Tillage?) 
SSlusel&saddi* thePaliinga hill, and two boulders described as aramgath-patthara and bkaduval&, 
pattJiara. 1 On the north-western corner was the Kanra river and 'S'uliijd (?) rock as far as (the 
village ?) Asuravli To the north lay the village of Wannnich,adda s and a rook in the middle of 
a Falley f and to the north-east (the village ?) KliandadcM as far as Quladdfi, which must to 
the Giiladda previously mentioned. This account of the boundaries is followed, in lines 21-22, by 
the statement that the official in charge or headman (? pdlaka) of the village, so granted, (at 
the time) was the illusfcrious Ugrakhediraja^ 3 born in the Nidusanti clan, and called 'the 
ornament of the spotless family of the Kadamfoas/ 

Lines 23-26 contain the usual admonition not to interfere "with this donation, and cite two 
of the ordinary imprecatory verses, here ascribed to Vy&sa. Line 27 records^ in another verse, 
that the Ajnapti 41 (or d&taka) of this grant ^dliarma,') was VachcHbapayya of the K%astha family, 
a minister of DUraparaja. And the inscription ends -with the statement that it was written by 
the MaTidsamdhivigrakin DronaeMrya, and engraved by the artimn Namkanchy6m&chari, 

The inscription contains no date, but it would in my opinion^ on mere palosographical 
grounds, have to he assigned to about the llth century A.D. . Now the Viz&gapatam 
copper-plate grants of Anantavarma-Ghodagang-adeva 5 mention five Gang-a kings named 
Vajrahasta ; and since the latest of them, "Vajrattastadeva V. 9 the grandfather of Anantavarma- 
Chodaganga who was anointed king on the 17th February, A.D. 1078, must have ruled about 
A.D. 1035-1070, it does not seem to me at all improbable that he may he the "Vajrahastadeva 
in whose reign was made the donation which is recorded in our inscription. 

Of the localities mentioned in this inscription, the townKaliAg&oagara (or Kalinganagara) 6 
and the mountain MaliSndra are often spoken of in other inscriptions of the same family, and 
well known to nSo The other localities referred to I have not been able to identify. 

I have already stated that these copper-plates contain some additional writing, apparently 
of a later date, on the first side of the first plate and on the second side of the third plate. On 
the proper left half of the second side of the third plate there are four lines of incorrect Sanskrit, 
in southern Nagari characters, which evidently have not been- written by the writer of the 
inscription described above. The exact meaning of these lines I cannot make out, bufc it would 
seem to me that they record a donatioai, by means of a copper-plate grant, of the village 
Homandi (called Hommandt in L 17 of the preceding inscription) by a Rdnaka Udayakhedin, 
A transcript of the four lines would be as follows : 

Banaka^ri-TJdaya(?)kMdi k&m[& ?]k[6 ?]- 

mandi ya(?)vad(?)vada grama Homandi 

pravesa t&mvra-s;asana(?) datah chatur-a- 

ghata-simasandhi-pray ^n tah . 

Begarding the endorsement of four lines on the first side of the first plate, nothing can be 
said but that it is not in Sanskrit and that, in line 3, it refers to Homandi. 

Pafthara would of course be the Sanskrit prastara, < a stone, rock/ 
[According to Brown's Tel* ff Dictionary, lonJca means a dell. 9 E. H.] 
^ Compare the name I>h*rmakMdin in Ind. Ani. Vol. XVIII. p. 145, L 13. 

- ^S e rS 10yme SL < f OK 1S term com P a ^ ** **. Vol. VII. p. 17, L 63 ; XII. p. 98, 1. 60 ; ZIIL p. 
ltsf P^50 S L35; XIV. p. 65, 1.118; XIX. p. 433/L 114 , XX. p. 17 t L 20 ; p. 106, L 

* See M. Ant. Fol XVIII. pp. 164 S 170-171, and 175. See page 131 above, note I. 

Parla-Kimedi Plates of the Time of Vajrahasta. 


P':^i^ f ^ 

,' :,: ..; ^-~ : _ ^ji^ ,^ -P, .* r rn^n^- -r? rj^z*&*')^<3$,. 

&.-%& *v ^3^^&&^&8z^i% 

mSm^v^ ^3& ^ -^5^|ilii 










1 6 





7 dv4(a) v 

ro Plate ; Second Side. 

^ pra-tap-avanata-sanasttx-si 

4 sita-fe:rsri 


Second Plate ; First Side. 

9 jrabSStedevm^L 5 tusya rfi>jy6 paranxamalaesvarfi Gamg-&mala-tnla-tilakah 

10 y-ftdlupatih * gri-Clxdia""K;aiB.adirajaBya priya-tanayah 

11 gaii""ig[A*l"ral> firtnaad-Dteapaa-ftjd LamkifeSna-nwasinah 

12 B amftiUittliamftjn&payati [l*] TIditam=astu 

13 k&ya *sri-Brayaiunra3a-sanA-v 7 anC6*]ka 

14 UvrfA&Hitar-Aigirtitor&lftya grl-Kamadi-nam^mkita-rajaputraya 


Second Ft ate | Second 




19 rvvatai ^ 

20 suiiytUim As-orav&litia y^vata 

21 B M%& pattbara-siia Mtoatafr 



r[.] " 

J J 

1 "From Uyw*ionR f supplied to me by Dr. 

2 Ex}r<m8(Hl by a jrmlx>L 

Eoud W M 1 ^mr.. Originally ******* 
The 8 K of the vowel i of r** f ^"tv thfrules of 
1 W uld not join this word with tbe following ty the rules 
Road Sry- ZS X . 7 Red ^iM**a-. 

a Thtotf if use* t all, 8 hold have been P'* M . d "* 
OnghmUy *a*dMy** ^as engraved, but the ^ f 
In the olgiual thi word looks rather like 
been otaemd. . ,_ ' 

litre and In the following, the consonants 
Read pdlaKa. 1S -a 

Tbi. last 


and be low, the rules of <*, 

possibly be da. 

transcribed by 


1S <*. rf-a. " ' s ^ v . ve ^u alte3 to . 

originally was either od or ^5, but it appears 


23 g=eha [H*] Asy=6pama(ri) na k6nacMd=v&dh&'- karaniya f|^] yah kaj&(r6)ti sa 


24 kt6 bhavati [||] Vy[A*]afta*Apy-ukbaih (| Sva-datt&A * para-daW^m va y6 har&ta 

vastmdhara[ih |*] 

25 s sliashtir^vvarshar-saJiasranl vishthayam jayate krisnih [||*] Va(ba)hnbhir=:yvasudli& 

datt& ba 

26 h.Tibliis=cla=4ntipaIitS, (*] yasya yasya yada Tbh&mis=tasya tasya tad& phalaxh [|}] 

27 Ajfiaptir=asya dhazmasya K4yastlia-kala-bliiisliana!k [1*3 mantra 3 B&raparSjasya 

Vachchhapayy6 ma- 

28 Mmatih [||*] lakhitanx maMsandhivgraM-Dr6nacliaryy[e]na [i*] utkim^am 

Third Plate^ Second Side. 
29 m&charma [||*] 


A tentative English translation of the subjoined inscription was published in 187 m 
the Manual of the South Arcot District (page 2, note^), and Mr. Sewell has drawn attention to 
this translation in his Lists of Antiquities, Volume I. page 207* The original consists of a 
(single plate which is now in the possession of N&r&yana Sastti of Alampundi, 6 a village 
in the Sefiji (Gingee) division of the Tindivanam t&luk&' of the South Arcot district, 
and was obtained by Dr. Hultzsch on loan through the Mnd offices of the Collector of the 
district. The plate measures about 11|;" in height and 6f* in breadth, and is rounded' 
at the top. Both sides of the plate have raised rims to protect the -writing* -which is in 
fairly good preservation. There is a hole at the top 'of the plate ; but the ring for which 
the hole was made, and the seal which that ring may have carried, are not forthcoming. 

With the exception of the colophon Sr^rHarihara, which js in Kanarese characters, the 
alphabet employed in the inscription is G-mntha, which differs very little from its modern 
form. As in other Grantha and Tamil inscriptions, if a 'group consisting of a consonant and 
of the secondary form of a vowel stands at the end of a line, the second element of the group 
is occasionally placed at the beginning of the next following line if no room is left for it at the 
end of the preceding line. Thus, of d$ of d@uydm (L 9 f .), the ^ iS at the end of line 9 and tbe<2 
at the beginning of line 10. Similar instances occur in sau (1. 12 ) and bhyo (L 20 f.). Again, 
of may& (1. 21 f.) the y is found in line 21 and the A in the following line- Another instance 
of the same peculiarity occurs in kk6 (L 15 1). Such a separation is impossible in the Tebgu 
or Kanarese alphabets, because the secondary form of a vowel is there attached to the consonant 
itself and constitutes along with it a single complex symbol* In the Grmntha, Tamil, and 
MalayMam alphabets, the secondary vowel forms are distinct symbols which are written either 
before or after the consonant. Irregularities similar to those pointed out above are thus 

. - ._ __..._- - IT- ~ - . -. .. _- ._ r ,- r _. , . __ _ _... .'. _ ---,.-.._.._- '... ., r - - --.. 

1 Metre : SIdka (Anushtubti) ; and of the following verses, 

3 Bead shashtim var&ha*. 3 Bead tnantH. 

4 Originally sfitradk&ri- was engraved, but the sign for bas been struck out. 
8 JSo. 85 on the Tindivanam Talnk Map. 


r aridered possible In theae alphabets, and are of frequent occurrence in Grantlia and Tamil inscrip- 
tions. 1 Another graphical peculiarity of the Alampundi plate deserves to be noted. The consonant 
group &r of the Tamil names Palaknmra, (L 15) and tdnri (I 23) is, in the absence of Orantha 
letters to represent it, denoted by the group nr 9 as It would be vulgarly pronounced even BO*W. The 
laughs 6 of the subjoined inscription is incorrect verse (11. 1 to 22, and 26 to 33) and 

prose (U. 1, 22 to 26, and 34), 

Tke first and second verses of {he inscription contain invocations addressed to the Boar- 
incaffnatioiL of Vishnu and to the goddess of tine Eai*th, respectively. The third verse refers to 
Bi^karaja (I.), who belonged to the race of th.e Moon* and who was the son of Samgama (I.) 
by K&mSksIil* Bukta's son was king Harihara (U.) who, as in other inscriptions, 2 is said to 
have performed " the sixteen great gifts tf (verse 4). Harihara (II.) married Maliadevij who 
belonged to the family of Bamadeva ; and their son was Virftpfikslia (v* 5), who conquered the 
kings of Timdlra s Ofaola and P&ndya^ and the SimJmlas, and presented the booty of his wars 
to Ws father (v. 6), OiTthe day of the Pnshya-Baiiikr&iiti of the year BaktaksMn (v. 8), which 
corresponded to tie aka year 13O5 9 4 king VirftpSkslia (v, 7) granted to certain unnamed 
Br&hmarias of various gatras the village of Jlampii^di (v, 9). This village had been the object 
of a previous grant by Harihara (U.) (v. 9) and had then received the surname Jannam- 
toifcafodM (v* 10). Th pronouns mama and may a, in limes 17 and 21 show that both Harihara's 
previous grant and the present donation of Virftp&ksha were made at the instance of a princess 
who was the sister of Harihara (II.) (v. 9 ) aiid, consequently, the paternal aunt of Virftpaksha, 
and itfiiGse name must have been Jann&mbik& s because the village of Alampundi received the 
surname Jannambik&bdM (i.e. JanBi,m.bika"-Bam.udrani) 6 after her awn name* The description 
of the boundaries of the granted village is contained in lines 22 to 26. Then follow iihree of 
the customary imprecatory verses. The inscription ends with the name Sr$-Harihara. 

The Alamp&ndi plate -would add considerably to OUT knowledge of the history of the first 
Vijayanagara dynasty if we could be quite sure of the genuineness of the plate. As in other 
inscriptions of this dynasty, the first historical person is said to have been Samgama (!.) The 
Alampandi plate is the only inscription which informs us of the name of Samgama's queen , ms. 
According to the same plate the queen of Harihara II. was MaAlftddvi. The 

Satyamaiigalam plates of D&var&ya II. give the name of Hariliara's queen as Maiambika* As 
the two names MalBd&vi and Malambika aare very similar, we may, for the present, consider 
them as identical. The llampftndi plate adds that Mall8dvi belonged to the family of 
Hamsideva. It is not impossible that MaH&d&rf was related to the Yftdava Mug Bamachandra^ 
who was also called Ramadva 9 and who reigned from Saka-Samvat 1193 to 1230. 7 It is from 
the present inscription that we first learnt that Harihara II. had a sister called JannSmMka and 
a son called Virupfcslia f wlio is reported to have made extensive conquests in the south 5 and 
wtom bis fatlier appears to have placed in charge of at least a portion of the South Arcot 
district. The date of the grant of Yirfipakslia (Safca-Samvat 1305 for 1307, the BaktaksM 
samvatsara) is a few years later than the accession of Horibora II. 8 In referring to a previous 
grant of tbe village of Alampiindi Tby Haribara II iumself 5 the inscription implies that the 
latter "was ruling over a portion of the modern South Arcofc district even before Saka-Samvafc 

1 la the Tamil inscriptions contained in Volume I, of Dr. Bisltzsefo'a SQittfa-lnd ian Inscriptions^ especially in 
tlie csomparativelj modern opes among them, several instances of this peculiarity occur on each page 5 see s e.ff. t 
page 72, where there are no less than nine cases. 

2 ante,, p- 116* ' s On this name see ante, p. 119, note 6. 

4 The Rakt&kshin year does not correspond to Saka-Samvat 1305 S "but to 1307 current, 

8 A*bdM is a more poetical synonym of samudra, a frequent ending of village names 5 hence tlse actual surname 

probably Jannamhik&samadranu 

s an^a s p. 87 S Terse 0. ' Dr. Fleet's Kanares& Dynasties p* 71* 

s Harihara II. mast have ascended the throne between Saka-Sammt 1293 and 1801 ; ante* p 115, note 11. 


1307, We do not know from other sources that, at this time, lie had already extended H 
dominions to that part of the country. The earliest inscriptions of Harihara II. that hav^ 
hitherto heen discovered in the south ? are dated in Saka-Samvat 1315.1 Consequently, iti sat 
least doubtful if the date of the Alampundi plate can be looked upon as gexraine. If th e week 
day Trere mentioned in the date, it could be verified "by an expert, and the result of such 
verification would help considerably in deciding whether the .grant is genuine or not. The omission 
of the -week-day and of the names of the donees may also be urged against the genuineness of 
the rlocuTnen*. The orthographical as well as calligraphical mistakes in winch this small in- 
scription abounds, and the uncouth language and construction which., to a, casual reader, render 
it difficult to say who the actual donor was 3 Harihara., Viriipakslia^ or Jaunaxabili 
are other facts which may be urged against the genuineness of the plate. On the otter hand, we 
cannot definitely pronounce the inscription, to "be a forgery, because the date, Saka-Saniyatl3Q5 
(for 1307), actually falls into the reign of Harihara II., who, in verse 4, is spoken of as if he ms 
living' at the time of the grant. s Iii spite of the doubts -which may thus "be reasonably enter- 
tained as to its genuineness^ the grant is interesting as the first known, copper-plate inscrip- 
tion in Grantha characters^ professing to belong to the Vrjayauagara dynasty. 

The object of the grant, Alampundi s is identical with the village in -which, the plate is 
still preserved. Alampundi was situated in the district of CliencM, which, formed part of tie 
country of Palakunrakk6ttam 9 which was also called after Chixhkapura (V. 9). According to 
Mr. Grole's Qhingleput Manual, page 438, Palakunrakkottam was situated In the North Arcofc 
district. But tlie present inscription shows that a portion of the South A.rcot district was also 
included in this Mttam. Chimkapura is probably the same as SiXtgavaram xiear Gingee in the 
Tindivanam taluM (No. 146 of the Taluk Hap), and Chenchi is a SartskiHttised form of Sefiji, 
Tulgo Gingee, the site of a well-known hill-fort. The boundaries of Alampxlndi were: In the 
east, T^nrientala ; in the noi*th ? the Vdganadl (river) ; in the west., Safcti:maiigala ; and in the 
south, Mafohuvillienatala, Of these, Saktimangala has to be identified with Sattiyamangalam 
(No. 84 OB the Taluk Map), which is situated to the south-west of Alampiindi. The northern 
boundary, the Veganadi, does not retain its old name. On the Tindivana*m Taluk Map tiereis 
a river marked as flowing to the north of Alampundi, but its name is g*Iven as Varh.anadL 
The same river is mentioned in the Manual of the South Arcot District., where another name of 
the river is also given, v&. the Gingee 5 which is evidently derived from, the town of Gingee, 
close to Tdaich the river flows in its lower course. Consequently, the V"6g-anadl of the inscription 
has to be identified with the Var&hanadl of the Taluk Map. T&nrientala ia a Sanskritised form 
of the Tamil name Tanri-endal, which means * a hill on which tdnri trees grow/ The last 
portion of the name of the southern boundary, &natala, is also a corruption of the Tamil word 
endal, a MIL' But neither T&nri-^ndal nor Mabhuvilli-endal can be traced on the Taluk Map, 
In the Manual oj the South Arcot District, the colophon J^r^Sariha^a is explained as the 
signature of king Harihara II. As, however, all other Vijayanagara grants conclude with the 
name of some god as Virupdhsha, Vemkafesa or Edma, it is preferable to explain the coloplon 
Sr^Earzkara as denoting the tutelar deity of king Virup^ksha, who made the grant, 

First Side. 

i [*] ^twTT[T^}^rr^^TiT 

2 ^f D*] f^irrs^K^ siiwii 4 ^r*r; i3^wrqtf%% [n 

anie 9 p. 116. 
The earliest 
15 audll^. 
From ink-impressions, received frora the Editor. * Bead 

2 The earliest date hitherto discovered for Harlbara IL is Saka-Sathvat 1301, and the latest 1321; 
pp. 115 audll^. 

Fo. 32.] 







12 ^rf^r <TI<=H^ i [4.*] 


14 fim^D-d<id^ i O*] 


16 ifiWdW f^^^oiT^ [ c *] 



19 tTf^ct 15 ^[T*]^^^ 0*3 




23 W 24 d I 

Read awfrtW^t. a Bead 

Eead ^rf?-*TT f^rTTS. 6 

' The d of <W is at the end o the previous line. 

10 The 3 of sau Is at the end o the previous line. 

12 The d of 7c6 is at the beginning of the next line. 

13 Read f^f*in% ^ft* 14 Head cT^H^* 
15 Read ^fs|cr. 

Read ^^ifachT . The & of nnd is engraved below the line, 

19 The 6 of bty6 is at the end of the previous line. Bead f*W** 
30 Head' 

21 The 4 of *ay<S is at the beginning of the next line. 

Read <rer. as Bead TtW^tTTO. 

- Read ^m ; the composer has here used the Tamil ta**~ of tb. Sans . 

Bead a6 Bead tm and see note 24 above. 


Second Side. 
26 ^ 



29 ^ Ui^flidMmH 0*3 6 


32 *fr*t wrfw: 9 [i] 

34 =^ 


(Line 1.) Let there be prosperity ! 

L) ^ A . d rati i n to . the P rfmeval Boar ' ^ose/pair o/) tWks have the shape of the 
J who sporty m the pond ( wW * *) the Sruti (VMa), (a^) who possesses fim 
power (or, who carries the constant goddess of Fortune) ! 

TT^-^V-^ ^ P?^ 6 * 11 ^ ^ * ^ e /),*^ whole Earth, who is the consort of 

SS S^ ^ r^ f ^ ( ^i ? dieS f (SiTa) Wh beara tte l0 ^ n on to 
crest, (awrf) who has the seren oceans for her girdle ! 

(V. 3.) There was a king called Bubfcoraja, whose might was imbotmded, who was an 
ornarnent of the race of tHe Moon, (and) who was the son of Kftrnfifcahi and Samgama 

(V. 4.) His son is king Harihara, who equals Sntraman (Indra) in power (<md\ 
being devoted to (the performance of) the sixteen great gifts, has destroyed [(the *L o 

JXiSI*ll \CLQ&y 

o/) fl 

(Y. 5.) This famous (Km?) begat prince Virfipgksha on MaUfidvl, (w^o aro) from the 
race of Hamadeva, as KamaM (Lakshml) from the ocean. 

(V.6. ) Having conquered the kings of Ttmdlra, Chdja and Pandya, (and) tie 
SimHalas, he (,'.. Virftpaksha) presented erystalsU and other' jewels to OM) fa^er. 


. . 6 Tr?. eWe8n 8n 9 arge ' thM 08nal ; tbifl Probbly dne to an erasnre. Cle 

to the left of TI and^below the Ime there seems to be an indistinct symbol which may be read as ^ or ^ 

* Readtfffe* ^r^^*fTfw. 

5 The engraver has entered only the & ottS and omitted the symbol i. 


Bead TOWtT ; the engraver h aB , by mistake, written an d im^ead of the second * of the groap <A* and 
tne symbol should, strictly speaking, be transcribed as cTFT. 

he izzsSiEtysz Sr re ^ ated the mistak<s menti ^ to the "* -^ -* *-* * 

Bead tgitmrt. Bead nft:. . In Kanarese charactere- 

^^orwaM. u qwmynow /^.>, which, accord ing to the Sanrtyit dictionaries, means a cryatal.' 
According to the Tamil (hctionaries, ttva % is used in the sense of ' catVeye.' 

Alampundi Plate of Vlrupaksha. Saka-Samvat 1305 





















(V. 7.) This prince Virupaksha, 1 who was regaa-ded as the foremost of the virtuous, in. 
Saka year one thousand three hundred and five ; 

(V. 8.) On the. lucky day of the auspicious time of the Pushya-satiikranti in the 
&eor), in the' country (&Uat) called Palakunrakkdtta, which is (also) called 

(V. 9.) In the district (nivrif) of Chenchi, the excellent Tillage called llampundi, which 
"been previously granted by (my~) brother Hariaara (and called) after my (*.e. Jannambika s . ) 

(V. 10.) The excellent village, which was claimed by the best of the Brahmanas of that 
""Mage (and) which was (also) called Jannanibikabdhi, up to the four boundaries ; 

(V. 11.) The wise (Tirftpaksha) gave, for the enjoyment of those Brahmanas of various 
gforas, (tfo above) village, which had been given by me (i.e. Jannambik& ?), free of taxes, for as 
long as the moon and the sun (shall endure). 

(Line 22.) Theeastem boundary of this village (extends) as far as TanriSntala ; the northern 
Boundary as for as the Veganadi; the western [boundary] as far as the boundary of 
Saktimaiigala ; the southern [boundary] as far as the boundary of MSbhuvillie'natala. 

[Lines 26 to 33 contain three imprecatory verses.] 
(L. 34.) Srl-Harioara. 


I take advantage of this opportunity to publish a short inscription of Harihara II. in 
Srautha characters, which is engraved at the entrance into the inner prdktira of the KamS&slil 
;emple at Kafiehiptiram, and which is dated in aka-Samvat 1315 expired, the Srimukha 
'CLmvatsara? It consists of a single Sanskrit verse, which records that Mug Harihara (II.) 
a copper-door for the central shrine of the Kamakshi temple. 


& t ^hrnwn 

4s Ulffl'K] UlWS[[t] H'siWi 

TEXT. 3 '*'.''>" : A, \ 

5 i[ir]cfTi|^tfwrER^ n 


On (the day of) the star Mitra (i.e. the naktotra Anux-idha), on the day of ^ son of the 

(i.e. on Saturday), on the tenth *U of the bright fortnight of the month of Ashadto of 

grimt&ha (samvatsara), (which was our**) after the auspicious Saka year {*,*** ly 

chronogram} Saktyaloka (i.e. 1315) had expired/-Hng Harihara, whose might was 

p - 116jWhere 


an inked estacapage, received from the Editor^ 
Bead ^. 5 Instead of ^?Pffir one wodd sped 


victorious, wlio was resplendent with, good fortune, who was a relative (as dear as) life to (his) 
subjects, (and) who was an ocean of good deeds, provided the sacred shrine (vfmdna) of Qhe 
goddess) KamaksM at KancM with a copper-door* 



BY J. F. FLEET, I.O.S., PH.D., C.I.B. 

Blaairanmatti 1 is a village ten miles east o Bag-alkot, the chief town of the 
tahikaiu the Bijapur district, Bombay Presidency, The inscription is on a stone tablet, 7' 
high, which stands near a modern and insignificant shrine of the g-od Hamimaiita, outside the 
village and towards the south, 

The writing covers a space of ahont 2' Of" broad by 5' 6" high near tiie top of the tablet, 
and, except towards the end, is in an excellent state of preservation. The jSCTtlptnres above it, 
at the top of tlie tablet, are in the centre, a lingo, ; on the proper right, a seated fignre, and a 
cobra standing on the tip of its tail, and, above them, a cobra coiled in a spiral, and the sun; 
and on the proper left, the hull Nandi, and, above it, a cow and calf,' a "crooked sword or dagger? 
and the moon. Tte characters are Old-Kanarese ; and, as may be seen from the photograph of 
this record, from an estampage, published in my Pdli, Sanskrit, and Old-Canarese Inscriptions -, 
No. 86 5 they furnish, a fine specimen of rather ornate writing of the eleventh century AJX 
The average size of the letters ranges from f " to f ". The language is 'Old-Kanarese, There 
are two invocatory verses in the first two lines, and an imprecatory verse in line 56-57 ; and the 
record itself is in verse from line 10 to line 29. In respect of orthography, the following 
points may be noticed : (1) the vowel ri is represented by ri almost throughout ; (2) the visarga 
has become s7i, by samdhi, in sirasli-'karamndan^ line 27-28, and dmtashfcarana, line 32 ; (3) bh is 
wrongly doubled 3 after r, by bfa, instead of by 6, in garbhbham, line 1Z j and (4) there is much 
confusion between the sibilants, s is constantly used for s$ & occurs for sh in msay-ddhirdja. r 
L 35; and s7i occurs for s in stiambhavtf, line 1, and in two words in lines 8, IS. 

The inscription is a record of a branch of the feudatory Sinda family, the members of 
which are called in it the Sindas of Bagadage 9 i.e. of B^galkot ; 3 evidently, just before the 
time of the Sinda Afahdmandal^svaras of Erambarage, i.e. Yelburga, 'some of whose records have 
already been published, 3 they held the subordinate government of much the same tract of 
country. The inscription was plainly written all at one and tlie same time. But it divides 
itself naturally into two parts, 

As regards historical names 3 the first part s lines 1 to 50 ? tells lis that in the time of the 
"Western O&aliikya Mng Taila II.* 4 and in the Vikrita samvatsara, = A.D. 99O-01 S coupled with 

1 Indian Atlas, Sheet ISTo. 58, * Byrunmuttee/ 

3 For this Identification, see J5?p. Xnd. YoL II. p. 170. 

3 Jowr. Bo, J?r. S. A.S. Soc> Vol. XL p. 219 ff. 

4 I take this opportunity of publishing a revised table of the Western Ch&lukya dynasty of Katy&napura, 
i.e. of the modern Kalyani in the NizSm's Dominions. The numerals prefixed to some of the names indicate tbe 
members of tbe family who actually reigned, and the order in which they succeeded each other. 


iBatried Bonthftdivl 

(1) Ahavamalla. 


married Jakkaladivt 

(AJ), 978*74 to 996-97.) 

A D. 897 ft** 1008i ' 

Da&varman, or 

Tasfivarman ; 

(8) Tribhuvanamalla" 

Vikramaditya V. 
(IB, 1009 and 1011) 


married to one of tie 

Kadambas of EingiL 

(A,D. 1021-22 and 1050,} 

(6) Bhuvanai^amalla- 

S6mesvara II, 
(A,D, 1688, an4 1069 to 1078.) 

married Bfchaladirf, C 

Mailalad^vi, and t 

(A,D. 1044 and 

(7) TrlbkTanatnalla- 

PermMi-Tikramaditya VI; 

married S&valadH LMttld&v^ JakkaladM, 

Malleyamade'vi, CbwiflaladW, and M ilalad^vl 

(A.D, 1055-56, and 1076 fco 1126.) 

(A.D, 1108 and llfl.) 

(8) BMBkamalla- 

(ID, 1126 to 113849.) 

(9) Perma- 
Jagadekamalla II. 
(A.D. 1138-39 to lift) 



(ID. UN to 116M 

(11) TrMmvanas 



Safca-Samvat 911 "by mistake for 912 (expired), 3 there was a Sinda prince named 

son of Kammara or Kammayyarasa and Sagarabbarasi ; to Pulikala and Revakabbe tliere was 

bora, the Mahdedittanta Hagditya 3 M"agtya 9 ,or N&gatiyarasa ; to Nagaditya and Poleyabbarasi 

there i^a& bom Polasinda ; and to Polasinda and Bijjaladevi, daughter of the KMndava 

Mandaltlfoara^ tliere was born the Mahdmandalesrara Svyarasa a This latter person is 

mentioned as a vassal of tlie Western Chalukya king Somesvara II. And this fixes the period 

A.IX 1069 to 1O76 as the time when the inscription was put on the stone. But the antique 

expression raji/am-gei/ye, in line 4 3 shews that the opening part of It was taken from some record 

which had been drawn up more or less synchronously with the date that is given in connection with 

Talla II. and Pulikala* "This part of the record registers the fact that in some unspecified year, 

on a, Sunday combining the uttardyana-samkrdnti or winter solstice with the Vyatipata yoga, 

the Mahdsdmanta N&gaditya had granted to a priest named Paratraya-Siihharagibhatta afield, 

measuring one thousand mat tars by the measuring-rod of Pattiya-Mattaiira, 4 at the village of 

Koriya-Siriiiray 5 and that th0 aruvana, or tax on the field, was twelve gadydnas. 

The second part of the inscription, from line 50 to the end, registers a grant, at a village 
named Pnradakeri, 6 which the same Mahdsdmanta Nagditya had made to a priest named 
T&jorasipandita in the time of the Western ChSinkya king Jayasimha U., when the latter 
was reigning at Kollipake, in the Srimukha samvatsara, Saka-Samvat 955 (expired), = 
A.ZD. 1Q33-34: ; 7 and it adds that this priest 3 who was the AcJidrya of the god Sind7ara, 
eSected some repairs to the temple of that god. 

A special point of interest in this record is the legendary account as to the origin of the 
Sinda family, and of its name. These Sindas claimed to belong to the IBTagavamsa or race 
ojf liooded, serpents, to carry the ndga-dhvaja or phani-patdkd, i.e. the banner which line 41 
of tlie text explains as bearing representations of the Haga kings Ananta, Vasugi (more 
properly Vasiiki), and Takshaka, to use the vydgJwa-ldnchTiana or tiger-crest, and to 
lia-ve the hereditary title of " lord of BhoggLvatij the best of towns/ 9 -which place, in Hindu 
mythology, -was the capital of the ISTaga king Vasuld in Rasatala, one of the seven divisions of 
PlLtala or the subterranean regions- And, by way of accounting for all these attributes, and 
for tlie family-name, the record tells us that the eponymous founder of tlie family was 
a, eeTtaixL ** long-armed" Sinda 9 a human son of the serpent-king Dharanendra, bom at 
j^lilclxclxb.atra. in tlie region of the river Sindlra g i.e. the Indus, and reared by a tiger 
Tliis Sinda is said to have married the daughter of a Kadamba prince, 8 and to have had by her 
thtree sons, who established the family of the kings of the Sinda race. They appear to have been 
the first of a li;ne of thirty-one successive rulers. And after them, at unspecified intervals, there 
came another prince named Sinda, and then Kammara or Kammayyarasa, the father of Pulikala, 

The eponymous ** long-armed Sinda 5? figures in records of also another branch, of the Sinda 
famaily ; for instance,, in an inscription of about A.D, 1165 at Harihar (Pali, Sanskrit, and Old- 

1 By tbe mean-sign system of the cycle, the Vikrita or Yikyiti samvatsara "began on the IStli April, A.D 9t-8 ? 
ia Saka-Samvat 911 current, and ended on the 14th April, A, D. 989, in Saka-Sarbvat 912 current (= 911 expired). 
But that system bad then gone out of use in the part of the country to which this record belongs, and had^heen 
superseded by the southern luni-solar system, according to which the sariwatsara in question coincided with Suka- 
Samvat 913 current ( 912 expired). Further details of the date, the month, etc. are not given* 

s This name seems to represent the Kanarese Tiuli> * tiger/ and fcdlti, * foot or leg.' ~ 

* This seems to be a family or territorial designation, rather tban a personal name, And, in fact, the 
dictionaries give the word Jchdndava as the name of a region. 

4 This must be the modern Hattt-Mattur in the Karajgt ialuka, Dhirwar district. 

s This nmst have been a village, now non-exisfcent, somewhere in the neighbourhood of Bhairanniatti, possibb 
a bamlet o or offslioot from, the modern Sirur, which is about eeven miles to the south-west. 

The maps do not shew any village of this name anywhere in the neighbourhood of Buairanmatti. 
"Jii this date, again, no further details are given. 

* Tlie passage gives one of the few instances of the word Kadamba being written with the lingual tL 


Ganareae Inscriptions^ Mb. 119, and Mysore Inscriptions^ p. 60)^ wMcli describes him, as "born from 
the union of the god Siva with the river Sindlm, and "brought up by the king o serpents on 
tiger's milk, and says'that^ being told that Karahftta, the modern KarM in the Sat&rH, district? 
was to be his residence^ he went there? drove out the kings, acquired the earth for himself by the 
strength of his own asm, and so came to rule over many districts in the Karah&ta Four- thousand 

1 Om 2 [IP] Namas 3 =tomga-gim-chii^ traildkya-nagar- 


2 vishkritaih 

|| Om 

3 Om Sripri(pri)thvivallabha mah4rajadhiraja 

nttar6ttarana*%e Tailapa- 

4 yyaiii r4jyam-geyye Q*] Sa(sa)ka-varsha all Vifcri(fcri>tamemba 

samvatsara pravsrttiso [{*] Azi*ziri(xqi)pati-kaii- 

5 kumbhi-ktohbhasthala*virdrggato*k^^^ i(chch.i)ta- 

6 jaya-r4jya4akshmivaksha[h !i: ]sthala 

7 va n&gadliTajaprat4psb vijaya-paseghosliana 

Bh6ga t atipi2Ta" a parm.sva(STa)ra tianni- 

8 g-&sira(sra)ya ranarariaga-k^sari 

pnsig=enippa sara-kri(kri)ta 

9 maiimatam^anya|a-Mandja Sinda-N^rayaria xtallargge-nfilla 

Sildruka^ M- ' 

10 Pnlikfilali Om [||*] 

3a6rppen-end=&daradim ta- 

11 t-sainyamam pimtirisi vaniteyum t&num=4d=akkajriitidam bar garbhbha(rbbha)m 

tdje ted-va31abhg paded=AMclicMia- 

12 tmdoln puttidam l^som-tdj-Mbh&si SiindM-nadiya " kuiuvadolt6 Siiiidan^ 

emba[iii*] kum&ra || 

13 Padedu vimdhamam puHg=ahigvaran=i gishu(su)v^m surakshitam nadap=ene 

panne(Biia)g-4dhipatiyoI^ besa-ve- 

14 ttu nxah4*maMsanam Badap^ene knm4rakam 10 'baled^il-MMka-sanCga^iyyada 

dicggha-b&huvam pade 

15 dano sanda SIiidBviBMyMhipan^imnata-viraslb(sa)saiia ff Bharadindan I1 =nidTi-' 

d6(d6)la Sinds-vibhu 

1 From the original, stone. There is a transcription of this record hi Sir Walter Elliot's 
In4cs*ijptiom$ 5 YoL I. p. 25. 

s Represented bere 9 at tbe eutd of line 2 9 and at the beg^nningr of line 8 f by an ornate sjunbol ; elsewliere s by si 
plain symbol. At the end of line 2 S in the photograph the symbol has been spoilt, IE mistakenly trying to wake 
the estampage clearer for reproduction. 

* Metre s Sldka (Annshtubh) ; and in the nest verse. Bead 

5 This a^^ara, ra t was at first omitted, and tben was inserted above the line, 

s Bead $kd&ga-SMra%;a. 7 Metre s Mabtoagdhard. Read 

fi Metre : 

IB na&ap~&ne Iwmdrakam the metre Is faulty; there Is one short syllable too many 
Metre t Matt^bbavikrtdllta. J ' 


16 muoliclie karmam. Kadambar=*adMsa prlyadim taimUbtaveyan^iyalw komdu tra=a 


17 tari(re)yolst kridisutt(t)-ippinarii 

18 ta-Siadavariisa-maHb]bri(blarl)t-samjatar=i lokadol^ |( Ant^a muvatt-cmda 

BiscMmtade Baga- 

19 dage~nadart=alalu seYyam Kantn-samanam putrfcid=ananta-giiriam negardda 

Sindanse^^jba kuma- 

20 ] \\ Wldu-dola Sindanim tan=edev-ariyade bamda Sindarnvayam 2 


21 Simdarin^esedadu podaviyol=ene negarddan=alte Kammaran=emba |[ Dliare 

pogale nega- 
^2 Ida KaniinBryy-arasamgain=anuHavidita-guna-gana~si^^ 

23 [m-a]sam-eseye puttidam Pulikftla \\ Piililla'iiri(iirl)patiga[ih*] Sri-lalanege 

24* R^vakaTbbegamaadam [sale*] sad-gunade su-putra[m*] kula-dipakan=enisi 

puttida 3 N&gatya-nri(nri)pa || 
35 Kali-IS'agaditya 4 -nri(2iri)pamgairi Boleyabbarasigam=an"ana-gTina-gana-ni]ayaiii 

'2& e(ye) puttidam ri-PolasIihda[iri*] Sl3iidavaiiisa(sa)-tilakaiii dhareyolw || 

27 bliave BIjjaladevi tayi jagan 6 -manda[iia*]n==adi-.ra]a-cliaritarii phani- 

28 ramndan 7 ==av"ainuktaka--bliiipane tamde Simda-marijtamdaiL=enalk=idanb]iaya 8 -paksha- 

VIBTI (TI) dlidhano Se- 

29 vya~bhi3.blro.3a \\ Svasti SamadliigatapaiiLchamahasabda-maliamamdal^svara BhogS- 

30 d.liIsvaxanA.Mcliclilmtrapiiradharaniar^ Simda- 

31 ta-^astrasastra-pS.ravara-parayariaih mui*ttI-Nargt[ya*]na Hara-charana-smaran^-pari- 
3 2 riafc-aiiitaslikararLa parama-mah^svaram pliampat&k-Ssvarani ripu-mamcJalika-daityar 

33 iaa-parixLat-Op^mdra nara-svarupa-nag&nidra sakala-kal^kalita-va. . , lana-lila-lala 

34 xna blmja-"bala-blxima Bliuva[naika3inaUadeva-chaxana-keli-durllalIta-kalahamsa 

35 sa saMtya--vidya-viYeka-VirimclaaTia vyaglira-lameliliaiia Simda-Yisa(slia)y-adhiraja 

saliaj a-rupa- 

36 Man6ja trailokya-yarttita-kirtti Patala-cliakra^artti vidlia(da)gdlia-Tibud]ia-jaiia- 

37 kramaditya karavala-iridya-Saliad&va katakada-govam sriman-mah^mamdal^vara 

prablaix- Se vy-a- 

38 rasarw || Svasti SamadMgatapa[m^]cliamaliasabda-inali&s^maiiLta rpn-Bri(nrI)pati- 


1 Metre : Kauda j and in the next four verses. 

s la tlie second syllable, the short a has been lengthened for the sake of the metre. 

s Here f again, tbe metre is faulty 5 this word 9 or the preceding one, introduces one short syllable too many 

4 The metre requires Ndgdtya, as in the preceding line. 

* Metre : UtpalamlUik&, The metre requires tdy^j&gan. 

7 Head Q feara<n.dan. 8 Read i 


39 iumbbastlialai-vid&ra n^ublaaya- 

"bala-gam- " ^ 

40 da arI-nii(nri)pa-samMra-k&rana-Knlika dri(dri)shtii7islia-kiila-tilaka suvamna- 


41 shana vijaya-paregh6sliana Bhdgftvatl-piixsTO^ 

Taksliaka-pliani-patak-&sva(gva)ra vya~ 

42 ghra-mmeliliana-Manoja Simdhu-Yishay-adliiraja 8akaJa-blmTiia.bhavana.parral. 


43 n=akalamka-Simda Simda-kizla-tllaka sri-Nagaditya || Svasti Yama^myama- 


44 sttliaiLa(Ba)-parayanar=appa Paratraya-Simharasi(si)bliattarargge 3 uttaraTana- 

samfcrnti-ya(vya)tlpata- "" ' 

45 AdityavSrad-aindii Pattiya-Mattattrada damdinolw Kiriya-Siriiirada 


46 na[m*] Simdesva(sYa)ra-d6Targge BT^gatlyarasa 

gala kala[m^] karolaclu kotta [(*] ant=4 sayl- 

47 ra mattarimg[e*j a^uvana gadyana tanneradu [b]ratmacli[&*]ryyam-iillaYarti 

stMnarnan=alvarii [||*J 1 dha- 

48 rmmamam kadatamge Gamge 0aye Varanasly[olti s4]yira kavlleya kodum 

kolagumam pom- 

49 aol=kattisl sasirvva[r*]==ttap6dlianar[ggam] chat[unrv&da.p&r&ya]narigaiii kotta 

phala j*3 i dharmmamam sa 

50 liasra-kavileyTimam [ta]p6dha[nar]umam [vadliijsida pa5t3ta.mah&pataka [||] 

S vasti Samastabhuvanlisra(gra)yaiii 

51 gri[pri*]t]avivallablia3ii maharajadhirajam [paramesvaram paramabhatt&lrakarnil 

CMlnky-abliaraiiam grimaj-Jagadeka- 

52 malladSvarw Kollipafceya bid[i]nol[w su]kha-saihka[tWUTOa6]dadiifa. rijyaah-gey. 

ye [1*] Sa(sa)ka-varsh.a 955[ne*]ya 

53 SrimBklia-samTatsara pravarttise fl^l 

54 kalam kachcW Puradakgriya ' pogede vargge 

bitta parisiitradol=ada damda-d6- 

55 samu d^vargge [|j*] 1 dharmmaman=aruvar=ggav[tuiidugalu pratipaliejuvara [|*] 

idan=alidavamge kapileynm ta- 

56 p6dhanartimam Tadliisida patakam=akkn] [H*] [Sva3-dattarfi para-dattam va y6]^ti(ta) vasiondliaram sashtir-Tvarsh.a 4 -saliasrarii 

57 TisttMyam jayate krimih || Srl-Sind^vara-d^var=acMryya fT^6r^i-pa]nditarn 


58 dbdM(ddlaa)rava[m] puna[li*].pratisb.the-madidarTi [i|*] MaiiigaJarinaha-gri-gri- 

arf [H*] 


After a standard invocation of Siva under iibe jiame of Bambini, and another of Vishnu as 
the Boar, the inscription commences : While the favourite of fortune and of the earth, the 
MahdrdjddUrdja, the Para-m&vara, the ParamabhattdraJca, Tailapayya CH-) (line 3-4) TOS 
reigning, and when the Vikrita samvatsara, which -was the Saka year 811, was current 
(1. 4), (there was) the illustrious Ptdikala (1 10), who was the ornament of the family of the 

a I" t ^ i ?.7 ord ' the s y llable *" has teen repeated by mistake TO passing from line 88 to KT.B 89. 
Bead blattarffge. Metre : Sldka (AnmAt^bh). * Read rf*f, rr*Aa. 


serpents {lit. * the family of those who have poison in their glances, * drtahfimsJui-kula, L 6) ; 
who was born IB the W&gavamsa 5 -which is resplendent with* the rays of the jewels in the hoods 
of the members of It ; who had the dignity of the aga-banner (L 7) ; who had the crest of a 
tiger; who was tb.0 supreme lord of the town Bhogavati j who was a very Narayana among 
the Sindas (1. 9) ; and who, even unaided, was a very Sudraka* 

There is then introduced Pulik&la's genealogy : Saying : I will behold the region of the 

earth which is so belauded by the sons of men," there came {from tTie lower regions) Bh.aranndra t 

the serpent-king (L 10), leaving his army behind him out of respect, both he and his wife, 

through the affection that existed between them ; and then, on her becoming pregnant, there 

was born to Ms lady, at Ahiokchliatra (L 11-12) in the region of the river Sindhu, a prince 

named Sind.a (1. 12), resplendent with lustrous glory. Being much perplexed {at the birth of a 

son in human form), the serpent-king said to a tiger : " Carefully preserve this child in 

safety * 3 (L 13). Thereupon the tiger, preferring in turn his own request to the lord of snakes, 

said : M Cause him. to become a great lord of the earth" (L 14). And so the boy was nourished, 

and, becoming the lord of the Sinda country (L 15) and practising exalted and brave precepts, 

developed long arms of prowess which surpassed everything else on the earth. When the 

lon^-armed. lord Binda joined his hands and closed his eyes {in respectful request}, the lord of 

tke Itadamfoas (1. 16) through affection gave him his daughter ; and, he having taken her, 

during the time that he lived in dalliance with that charming woman, there were bom three 

sons (1. 17), from whom there sprang those who were born as kings in the most exalted race 

of the Sindas (1. 18). 

Wliile they, tliirfcy-one {in succession), 1 were governing the BSgadage district with 
freedom from anxiety, there was born {another) prince named Sinda (L 19). 

Glorious on the earth, through the Sindas of Bagadage (L 20), is the lineage of the 
Sindas, -which came without a break from the long-armed Sinda ; and famous was he who \viis 
named Kammara (L 21). Amidst the praises of the world, to Kammayyarasa and to hia 
wife Sagarabbarasi (L 22) there was born Pulikala (L 23). To the king PtOikSla and to 
R&valtatobe (1. 24) there was born king N&gsttya (L 24). To the brave king Hagatya and 
to IPoleyafoto&rasi (L 25) there was bora Polasinda (1. 26), an ornament of the Sinda race. 
^Ar&cl Jiis sow is) king &vya (L 28-29), pure by both lines of descent; for, his mother was 
BijjalacL^irl (1.27), daughter of th.eKhan.dava MandalSsvara (1. 26), and his father was 
that STIZL of tlie SiudaSj who had tlie banner of the hooded serpents. 

Hail ! .A. Mahdmandalesvara who has attained the paiicfiamahdsabda ; the supreme lord 
of Blxogavati, the best of towns (L 29) ; he whose right arm is skilful in protecting the 
BrjUimariaiS of the town of Ahichchhatra (L 30) ; the sun of the Sindas ; a most devout 
worshipper of the god Mahesvara (1, 32) ; the lord of the banner of hooded serpents ; a very 
king of Nag^as in human form (L 33) ; a feaZa&amsa-bird whose feathers are ruffled by the play of 
the feet of Bhuvanaikamanadeva-(S6Bisvara EL) (1. 34) ; the ornament of the Sindavamsa ; 
the o-wner o the tiger-banner (L 35) ; the king of the Sinda country ; the emperor of Pfitala 
(1. 36) ; a "very Vikram&ditya in a new form ; a very Sahadfiva in the art of using the sword, 
{sttcfo is) tlie illustrious MahdmandaleSvara, the lord Sevyarasa (L 37). 

Hail ! A MaMsdmanta who had attained the panchamaMSaMa (L 38) ; a very Ktilika in 
effecting tlie destruction of hostile kings (1. 40) ; an ornament of tb.0 family of tla serpents 
{drisJitivisfaa-'kula) ; decorated with three golden umbrellas; the lord of Bh6g&vati, the best 
of towns (1. 41) ; the lord of the banner of tlie hooded serpents Ananta and "Vasugi and 

B This seems to be the iBeaniag of the text. But it is not clear why the neater form of the numeral is used, 
instead of the masculine. 

2 u 3 


Takskaka 5 a very Kamadva with his tiger-crest ; the king of the Sindlra country (L 42) ; l 
the spotless Simla (1. 43) ; the ornament of the Smdakula 9 (sucJi was) the lllustrions 

Hail ! To Paratraya-Sinihaaragibhatta (L 44), on a Sunday wMcla combined the 
TTttarayana-samkrnti and the Vyatipata (yoga) 5 having washed the feet of Paratraya- 
Simharasi, 35~agatiyarasa gave, for the god Slndesvara, a field, of the measure of one thousand 
mattars by tie staff of Pattiya-Mattaiira (L 45), of (the village of) Kiriya-Siriiira. The 
aruvana* on these thousand mattars is twelve gadydnas. And those who are in the state of 
being Brahmaohdrins shall manage the property. 

Hail ! While the asylum of the universe (1. 50), the favourite of fortune and of the earth, 
the Mahdrdj&dhw&ja, the ParamSsvara, the Paramdbhattdrdka^ the ornament of the Chalokyas, 
the glorious Jagad6kamalladva-(Jayasimha II.) (L 51-52) was ruling, with the delight 
of pleasing conversations, at the camp s of Kollipke ; and when the Srimukha samvatsara 
(L 53), which was the 955th Saka year, was current j the illustrious Mahdsdmanta 
TSTagatiyarasa, having washed the feet of the holy Tejorasipandita, allotted to the god 
.................... of Puradakeri (L 54). The 

six Gdv-undus shall protect this act of piety. 

T6j6rasipandita (L 57), the Achdrya of the god Sind6svara, restored such (parts of the 
temple) as had fallen into ruin. 



The copper-plates -which bear this inscription, belong to a Brahmana resident of the village 
of Kuniylir in tlie AmMsamtidraia taluka of tte Tinnevelly district^ and were sent to 
Dr* Hultzscli for examination by Mr. T. Yarada Bao 5 Acting Head Assistant Collector of 
Tinnevelly, in December 1890, I edit the inscription from two sets of ink-impressions, whioh 
were iindly made over to me by Dr. Hnltzsch, who has already noticed it briefly in Ms Progress 
Report for October 1890 to March 1891J* 

The original consists of seven plates, measuring 8| inches in height from the middle of the 
bottom to the middle of the semi-circular top, and 6| inches in breadth between the two 
parallel sides, the height of which approaches to 5f inches. The ring-hole, which is a little 
more than %* in diameter, is bored just f" below the rounded top. " The plates are strung on a 
ring witli the seal which contains the figure of a boar facing the left, the legend Sr%- VemJcatgfa, 
and representations of the sun and the moon " (loo. dt.). The first and last of the seven 
plates bear writing only on the inner side, while the rest are written on both sides. The second 
side of the first plate, where the inscription begins, is marked with the Telngu numeral * one ' 
to the proper right of the ring-hole, while the remaining plates are similarly and regularly 
numbered on their first sides. From the appearance of the impressions I infer that the original 
plates have raised rims, and that those letters at the beginning and end of lines, which are 
indistinct on the impressions, may be quite clear in tlie original. 

1 * Sindhu * is possibly a mistake for * Sinda/ 

3 Here we have btdu> < a temporary residence, a halting-place/ It seems to have not so strong a meaning as 

tdv, of which of coarse it is a component. 

8 "Madras G. O. dated 10th June 1891, No. 452, Public, p, 6. 

No. 34] 



As otter grants of the third Vijayanag-ara dynasty, the present grant is written in the 

HaBdin&garl alphabet. The writer has been very careless and quick, so much so 5 that the 

letters ya, t;a da and ta assume various forms and that, in conjunct consonants, the several parts 

are often not easily distinguishable. Several erasures and insertions are made, the most import- 

ant of which are pointed out in the foot-notes* The writing on the whole of the first side of 

the sixth plate and on the latter part of the seventh is very small, evidently owing to want of 

space. A graphical peculiarity which I have noticed in this and in the Vil&paka grant of 

Venkata I., 1 an impression of which Dr. Hultzsch has kindly given me, is that the group rya 

is expressed "by combining the full form of r with the secondary form of ya ; hut in four cases 

(in lines 9 and 15, and twice in line 255), the r is, as usual, written over the line. Other 

consonants following r are written in the usual style, with the exception of rma in line 170, 

where the secondary form of m is affixed to the full form of r. The vowel n is never used at 

the beginning of words, but is then expressed by rt, rw, and even r * (lines 176, 182, 184 and 

241). Ma is written as gjna in two cases (lines 11 and 143). The prefixing of y and * to 

certain vowels, the interchange of the dental and palatal sibilants, the insertion of superfluous 

anvtsvdra*, wisargas and punctuation-marks, the assimilation of consonant-groups, and similar 

vulgarisms are not uncommon in this and other grants of the third Vijayanagara dynasty. 

Comparatively speaking, the present inscription is on the whole correct. 

The language is Sanskrit verse in various metres. The poetry is of the poorest possible kind 
and deserves that name oniy because it conforms to the laws of metrics. Line 249, which is in 
Telngti prose, is engraved on the upper margin of plate vii and was evidently inserted after 
the engs^avirig of the whole grant liad been finished. 

The composer of this inscription and of the VilapS&a, Xondyata,* and Kallakursi 4 grants 
of Verikata I., Venkata IL, and Banga VI. is stated to have been one and the same person, .m*. 
Rama, the son of Kftmakoti and grandson of SabMpati; while the engravers of these TOUT 
grants were Kamay^charya (the son of Ganapaya and younger brother of Virana), Achyutary 
(the son of Ganapaiya and grandson of Vlran&chArya), and SdmanfctMrya (the son of ****** 
aixd grandson of Ganapayarya). It thus appears that Achyutfcrya, Tirana and Kamayaonary 
were brothers. The engraver of the DevanaHalli grant of Banga II.' was Ganaparya toe 
son of Viraria. Evidently the descendants of Vlran&cMrya ^ere the hereditary engravers at ^n 
grants of the Mngs of the third Vijayanagara dynasty. Their relations are shown in tne 

(D^vanahalli grant of Saka 1506.) 


(Kimiyilr and Konijyata 

grants of Saka 1556 and 


The inseriptio* may be divided into fotrr 
of ttofi third Vijayanagara dynasty (TV. 1-37) ; 
the granted village (w. 38-48) ; III. a genealogy of Turumala of 

(VilMka g*nt of 

llajkor^i grant of 

of kins* Venkata H- 
and the description of 
dynasty (of 

t. Vol. XIII. p. 125 ff. 4 


(vv. 49 to 54) ; and IV. the Information that the previously mentioned viEage 
granted, "by Venfcata H at the request of Tiromal& to a number o Br&hmajgias, and a list of 
their names, etc. (vv. 55-118). The inscription, ends with some additional clauses regarding 
the grant 5 three verses (124*126) referring to Venkata II., the composer and the engraver, five 
of the usual imprecatory verses, and the name of the god $r$-Vemkatsa. 1 

The first part of the inscription opens with invocations of the god Venkat&sa (line 1) } the 
feet of K&ma (verse 1), and the god VIshvaksena (verse 2). The genealogy begins with the .Moon 
(verse 3) and some of his mythical descendants (verse 4) The next verse contains a number of 
royal names which the composer appears to have introduced in order to connect his patron witk 
certain well-known ancient dynasties. Thus Wanda is the representative of the dynasty wMtsh 
was subverted by the Mauryas ; Olmlikka and Itajanardndira y of the Chalukyas ; and Bijjal^n- 
dra, of the Kalachnris. Vira-H0mmali3*aya 9 the lord of May&puri 9 is probably identical with., 
the Kalachuri king Perm&di (Saka-Samvat 105 O). 3 The fourth after HemmMi is reported to 
have been T&ta-Pinnama (verse 6), with whom the regular genealogy begins- The only difficult 
point in this long list of kings is the relation of Baxiga, the father of Venkata II., to his pre- 
decessors. Dr. Hultzsch has conclusively shown 3 that th word pwrvam, formerly 9 * in verse 24 
of the subjoined inscription refers to Bama H. f and that Dr. Oppert's arrangement of the third 
Vijayanagara dynasty 4 is opposed to facts. One alteration has to be made in Dr. HtdtJBseli'fi 
table ; 5 as recognised by Dr. Oppert, 6 Raiiga VI. was not the son of G&p&la, but the son of 
China- or Pina-Venkata ? and the adopted son of Gdp&la.? In the annexed genealogical table, 
the Arabic figures prefixed to names show the order in which the latter are mentioned in the 
copper-plate grants. 

The second of the kings of the accompanying table, S6mid6va, is said to have taken seven 
forts in a single day from an unnamed enemy ( verse 6 )* Pinnama II. is styled the u lord of the 
city of Araviti " ( verse 7 ). His son, Bukka, is said to have " firmly established even the king- 
dom of S^l.uira-H'risimlia. 319 From this statement we may conclude that he was the minister of 
the third king of the second. Vijayanagara dynasty,, Nrisimha or ISTarasimlia, whose inscrip- 
tions are dated in Saka-Samvat 1404 and 1418, 8 and -who bore the surname S&luva. 9 BegardiDg 
Bukka's son, Hama I., we learn from two other grants 10 that he took the fort of Avanigiri from 
Sapada or Sapata, whose army consisted of seventy thousand horse, drove away K&sappodaya or 
Kasapudaya, and captured the fort of Kandanav61i. Both Muhammadan historians and European 
travellers inform us that Kma H. was the powerful minister of the puppet king Sadsiva, the 
last representative of the second Vijayanagara dynasty^ whose sister he took in marriage as we 
learn from an inscription of Sadasiva. 11 BlLuaa II. and his youngest brother Vexikatsidtri lost 
their lives in the famous battle of Tallkota on the 23rd January, A.D* 1565. The second 
brother, Tinimala I., continues to acknowledge the nominal authority of Sad&siva in four 
inscriptions near V&Mr in the North Arcot district^ which are dated on the 5th February, A3). 
1567. 13 He is said to have transferred the seat of government to Pennals:ori.da in that very 

1 This is the Dame of tlie Image of VSslmu on tlie hill of Tiruinalai near TIrupati in tlie Cfaandragiri fc&IuH of 
the Norfch Ai-cot district, 

2 See Dr. Fleet's Kan&rese Dynasties, p. 58 f. 

* Ind. A.nt. ToL XIII. p. 153, and Vol. XV. p. 147 f . 

4 Madras Journal of Literature and Science for the year 1881, p. 277, and Ne Sutor VUra Crepidm* 
pp. 28 and 81. 

5 Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 155. e See the two first quotations in note 4. 

7 The words ^VMj^qTWfSTT in Ind. Ant. VoL XIII. p* 158, plate iii. b, line 10 f. mast be written as one. 
B Ep Ind. VoL I. p. 362, note 5. 

9 South-Indian Inscriptions* VoL I. Htfoa* 116 and 119. 
30 Ind. Ant. Vol. XIIL p. 129, verses 10 and 11, and foot-notes. 
" Ind. Ant. VoL XIIL p. 154 f. 
13 South-Indian Inscriptions, VoL I. p. 09 ff. and Xn&. Ant. VoL XXII p, 136. 


(To face 

3. Ra 

i Pinnama 11 

m, Balli or Ballami 

m, taka or 

7, Mga L 

m. Tiimffi, 



married a aster of Sadasiva. 
(t A.D, 1W5.) 

18. toga IT/ 
nno of five Whew. 


(S4 165S4588,) 

20, Pina-Venkats 
or Ohina-VeftWa III 

23 EanraYI' 

adopted By l/pak 

(Ma 1566.) 


m. Yengala, 

(A. D. 1567.} 

J2, Eapga tt 

13. Bama III. 

14 Tenkaia I 




17, EbalV. 

JO, VeikatMri 
(tAJ), 1665,), 

21 f 

v r 


unlhg to the Ti 

See vem 81 of the present iracriptim. 



year. 1 His second son, Banga II., is actually called Hug of Benugonda (verse 19). The same 
town was the residence of Venkata II., to whose time the subjoined inscription belongs (verse 32) 
The description of the reign of Venkata II. and the list of his birudas (verses 33-37) are 
altogether devoid of historical value, because they have beon copied over from the inscriptions of 
fcis predecessors. Thus, verse 33 of the Kuniyur grant ( = verse 36 of the Zondyata grant), 
which records that Venkata II. was anointed by his family preceptor Tatayarya and that he 
destroyed the Tavanas (i.e. the Muhammadans), is already applied to Venkata I. in the 

"Vilapaka grant. 

The third part of the inscription (verses 49-54) supplies the following genealogy of 

Tiramala ISf&yaka (of Madhura), who is well-known on account of the magnificient buildings 

with which he adorned his capital. 

The Nayaias of Madhura. 

Naga of the Kasyapa 

Krishnapa Nayaka. 


Visvapa Nayaka. 

Mudduvfra. Tirnmala. 

"This pedigree agrees almost completely with that of the Nayakas of Madhura given by 
Mr. SeweH,' with the only difference that the present inscription makes Muddukpsbna the SOB 
of Visvapa, while, according to Mr. Sewell, he was the son of Viivapa s elder brothe^ A 
oopper coin of Muddukrishna, the father of Tirnmala, and three copper coins of V^vanatha, 
tKesecond in the pedigree, have been published by Dr. Hultzsch.* The ^* 
Madhura were originally generals of the king of Vijayanagara ^^. 
tteir sovereign aglst the king of Tanjaviir, they seized Madhura and founded 
aynasiy.^ The pLnt grant shows that they continued, at least nominally, to 
kings of the third Vijayanagara dynasty as their sovereigns. 

The second and fourth parts of the inscription (verses 38-48; -^ verse 
eontain the grant itself. Th^ date of the g-nt was %*^^ 
Samvat 1556 (expired), the Bh&va samvatsara (AJ>. . IBW g J 
^ grant ^ the^presence of the g* **- * . ^ rf 


Tillage of Kftniyfir (verse 46), which was surnamed Muddi?k?islinapirram (Terse 45) 
OTideatly after Muddukrishna, the father of the donor, Tiramala. The village was situated in 
the ViravanaUiiru-magMBi, in MiOJi-na^Ti, in Tinradi-rajya (verse 41), to the south of tfa e 
Taniraparai river and of Bhrantamangala, to the east of BSrisJrareM, and to the west of 
SeravanmaMdevi (verse 42 f.)- According to verse 119, it was situated on the bank of the 
Kttrnatoka (i.e. Karnataka) canal, and according to verse 122, " on the western "baxtk of the 
canal -which flows to the south." The Map which accompanies the Twmevelly Manual, shows 
two of the boundaries of Kuniyur, viz. Shtemfiddvi (S6ravanmahd6vi) and, to the west of 
it, KaraikurieM (? Karakurchi), both situated in the Ambasamudram taluM and to the south 
of' the Tamraparnl river, The mdgMni in which Kiiniyiir is stated to have "been situated, 
was evidently named after Viravanalliir^ a village to the west of KaraLkmichi- The term 
Tlrvadi-r&jya is perhaps derived from the Tamil tiruvadi, "the sacred feet " (of the king). 
The Karnataka canal on which Kuniyiir was situated, reminds of the " Kannadiyan channel ; " * 
but the two can hardly be identical as the " Kannadiyan channel " does not appear to extend 
as far east as KaraikurieM and Shermadevi. 

In the list of donees occur many names of Tamil origin. Most of these are derived from 

the designations of certain temples of Vishnu and Siva in Southern India* Thus, Alagadri is 

called after the sacred hill of Alagar in the Madura district; Yenkatadri,* Veitkatapati, 

Ve%adatt-appa, Tixnm-arasu, Tirumala, Tiruv^ngada, Vadamala and SesMdri are derived 

from different names of the temple on the hill at Tirupati in the North Arcot district; 

Yaradabhatta owes his name to the Varadar&ja (Arul&la-Peramal) temple at ^Little KSnchi in 

the Chingleput district; Ranga. and Bangar^ja refer to the temple at Srimngmn in the 

TricMnopoly district ; and Ahdbala is the Bame of a village in the Kanml district, "which 

contains a famous shrine of Narasimha. Among the Barnes connected with Saiva temples, Arura 

is derived from Tiruv^rur in the Tanjore district., and is^ commonly applied in Tamil literature 

to Snndaramurti ? one of the sixty- three Tiruttondar or Saiva devotees ; Kanakasabhfipati is a 

name of the god at Chidambaram in the South Arcot district, and Chidambar&vadh&nin is 

called after the same place; Chokkanllthamakhin and Chokkavadhanm are derived from 

Ctokkan^thasvamin, one of the names of the god at Madhura ; K&lahasti is the name of a famous 

place of pilgrimage in the North Arcot district ; and Arunagiri and Arun&dri are Sanskrit 

names of Tirnvannamalai in the South Arcot district. Among the remaining Tamil names, 

Perlyatiruvadi is synonymous with Periy&foar, the name of one of the twelve principal saints 

of the Vaishnavas. JLlvar (i.e. dlvdr in Tamil) is an epithet which the Vaishnavas add to 

the names of their gurus, and ndyandr, the first member of 15fain&rbhatta ? is an honorific title 

affixed to the names of Saiva devotees. 

First Plate. 
t I 

2 if 

3 Tre^rorp^ i [^*] issm f^c^irrarr: 

f i ^cff 

iy Manual, p. 41, and Ho. & on the ]W 

2 nri. , - - 



Second Plate ; First Side. 


\ ^. Mfl I 

23 ^ i *^ifui*ff *44<si-ti4? "^nfv^psrt (0 

fl! 18 | [c* 

25 ^(*<*.i^l' (l) 


26 ^T^ff*: nmiiT I 

29 srr i td^lRqi^ft^-^rsTt-q-i^ ^r*ir4<* 1*3*44 

1 Read ^i^. _ 3 ? is corrected from T. * Read Sm 

* Bead <i-sj-^r9!^iMfi . * Read Tf. R ea< j 

7 Read *. a Read w ^trr. B Eead 

I seems to be a correction from V, which the engraver had written a second time by mistake. Read 

2 i 




40 5 

j-y olj> IIL 

f [u*] sraf 


Second Plate; Second Side. 

Bead TO*. 



No. 34.3 


Third Plate ', F irs 

r *n 
72 wra: i 1^*3 


.T&ircl Plate ; Second Side. 

81 zfc* Rrawfr i !>.*] ^ 

83 3 

98 ?rt 


: (i) 2 * 



: i [t**3 



92 fir qirftt^i fM*RirfiriNi[:*] 

93 kiitPd^i^a irm^^T^f I 

94 y^flklfaffinfiWiW:' I 


96 IAM \ ^ng^^3| u T *rK41fd<j<^K"Hi^^: [i] 


101 ^Rtf i w 

Fourth Plate i 

102 smRpn* (0 

103 tWnwt: it 

1 Read SMfir<Snst. 

s In the original, the r of ryai is doodled ; read 

8 ^^-^ ^efT. 4 n ea( j - 

Eead TTO._ ? Bead % WJo 8 Eead 

9 The f of ^4: is imperfectly executed and looks almost like *&. 
'" Red m?T. ii Bead 


5 &Uaknr f ^ rant ' tbe inac ^P tion om; te the following half vewe which is found in the Kondv4t a 

^ T 
and Vi|&paka grantg ; "PT l^t: B . 

Read ^.TkW'. u The ^. and ^ of ^ seem ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ 

18 Eead " 

No. 34.3 


Plate; Second Side. 

To the ^ of both 


131 ^<*fl sHI udm*n*![ *f^+-ui4Nr: i IX**3 ^^rwr 

132 2 !4|j|4) <U *lfd <i44<a ^TT^T^ *f^ft flf (0 *Tl*n^l- 
1S3 <<!n*<d <<=h^ I >1<M Kl Pi M I it 1 

N> ^ 

135 mf fsR?fe^^ivi*?T^W ~*l" i ^s sft W'*lTTT^n I iXl J 

136 f^pr^J^t (i) 

137 ^qVi^iOitRsr [i*] 

138 i?pfr 4 vtf*iprerrW t IX**] 

139 -g'^l'^^f^q^i^iitf^f; i 

TI A C* 



144 tl4rti4^ I ^"4T^*^fl'm4i^V^i<4^^Mf?Tl^; \j 


146 *n?m f^m u fwr 

147 7r*raft 

i JRfr^f Side* 

148 ^^rmifiwt 13 wft i [40*] 

149 ?E(;)^W[:*] ^^^waifrtw: i 

160 15 

151 x ^R > <4*i<*is3i: i ^f'cii d i f^ (^ ^Ti 144 qR- 




155 u ^friW ^1^44) t [**] 20 WlH^f^ch|^cii^^^ 

1 Read W^. s Bead ^ft^HnTT Bead 

4 Bead "WKPHcf^ . 5 Bead ^cf^F e Bead 

" Bead ^TW. a Bead f^cT^ra;. 9 Bead 

10 Bead ft*rfB. * Bead f%^%. i<3 Bead 

l * B^ad fwfT. H Bead i^f^^. i Eead 

16 Bead f^i^\^'I. *7 Read ^r^Tfai^ 1S Bead 

19 To the ^ of "botli r* and f are attached in the original. * Bead 


156 ^r 


158 I [^*] 

159 ^nr ^ i ^ ij- 

160 I [^*] I 

161 i [$^*] *rr- 

162 ^^<ct'ri'f i iNf 

163 ij | [X^*3 i 

164 ^f ^p?|rr^^^ I [A*-*] 

165 *3f 

166 I I} ^] TTK \ I 

<& >^ 

167 "Sf 4: ^<#8i i litiT^T? r-sw i 



JFV/?A Plate; Second Side. 


174* <A^a 3 ' ^^*3 "ch^m'^^H^^iM^fl 1 *rfFmr: r 



177 ^rf M^f^cji^ i [>>a*] ^rmt wfcrt 

178 i ^idb^r^^d: %^ f^^r^ "^OTIT: i [**] 


180 TT^C: w*ra?r i 
isx ^Pr ^^i' 18 t 

. ,Kead 


ia Read 


19 Bead 



188 ^t 'lit** i MIC: %^*r ^ wwi^ i Ot*3 f%' 
184 m 9^4414 (i) 



188 sji^fo 7 ^nr ^ra^ i [=^8*] 

189 fe 9 %IRi*i^i^: i 10 0ii ( 4*ji^fy 


192 eargi'Tt ^i*isi: i ^IH^T* ^r $<Krt TITW f%- 
198 ?fr*r^ i 


197 3 -won' ^sfr f%^*rt i [.o*] 

Plate; First Side. 


199 r *T5r?r i [<<L**3 f^fj 




:* 3 

. 5 ea "n- Read 

7 Read m's:. 8 


'" The ' of 

Read *W^J. so Read 


209 ^ , ^hrawf^t *f**rrfftrrpjw i 

210 f%[;*] ^hRfpf 'fllWTOM^ITft^n I 


212 ^rVcnms: %^*mwroT3i TOI i [f e * 

213 ^rm: fiiiR^^i i 

214 ^ra^ i Un*J 





220 ^im^d i qmwfecK: M**4 



223 from 9 t i 

5"*^ Plate; Second Side. 


225 ai4(4\ [sqrl^TZW^SHt \ 

227 wfWfrw. i 


230 ^rt* Mfii^^K i [*U*3 

231 THW. l 


> Eead *t*C Mt- a Read ^TW 'W^rtPt. * Read 

* Bead 4\W\*. > Read '^ft. * Read 

T Bead *Him*t. 8 Bead 

10 Eead ^faU<1. The Yt of WT?PI ia written below the line. 

Eead ^Ht^FHfii. " Bead ^iat. 

2 E 



235 yN'% I Ctt* *u^tSl|iFT Tr<Fn<*V4| 3H^q\T<44: 0*1 




239 fafFrrnr i 

240 "i^ i 

241 gfff 


243 rT^ftf^?! 1 I 

244 M^i^Tl^i^r^ct tTT^gq^^if^ici I 

245 fdbM4ote-<H(*8lft I e < I ^^^l "H^^^t t| ^4i V *ff^i [cf 



C C 

248 ^ TT: I 

Seventh Plate. 




258 ^qu^Ri m^^K^ri *<% [u 

259 H^TH^MI^*!" [l*] 


* Bead ^. fr The five letters sf^rf ^R- are written on an erasure. ed 

s Read WU^l*. Bead q*|f^i} fw?f. 8 Bead 

9 Bead X4t. Jo Kwi ^ifpq^. Head 




Obeisance to tte blessed Vefiiatesa I 


which sustains the life of tfce gods. 

(V 4 ) The grandson of him (* 
l^hi" son ^ahnsfca; fron, I 
was born king Bharata ; in Ins hneag_e 
was bom Abhimanyu ; (and) from ham 

(V. 5.) The eighth. (A. *-nO 

; Ms (son 

^ ^ 
him was Vi^a; from 



. 6.) The ta* 

trembled; from him was torn 


iea . _ . . - the two feet o E&ma. 

The two objects referred to th verse ^ wd Ws pre ceptor 
oB -y to Java's town mth ** T ^ was AJ-U* 

which immediately tomA ta the 

which immediately tomA ta the body * J nnffl the time when ^^ wMcb form pt of 


Mia tht, 

teo d B poa 

beeB carted by to 
t~A ip- it; - the 
wMcb form pt of 


smgle day ; his heroic son was king EaghaYadva ; (and) from Mm was born the glorious king 


(V. 7.) The son of this lord of the city of Aravlti was ting Biikka, whose power was 
(pontinwdly) rising, (and?) who firmly established even the kingdom of Sluva-N"rlsi3mlia* 

(T. 8.) Just as Yistmu (married) Lakshmi, Biifcka 9 the ornament of kings (and) the Jcalpa 
feee to scholars, married the prosperous Ball&mtolka* who surpassed the celestial nymphs by her 
personal beauty, (an&) whose virtue was highly respected. 

(V. 9.) As Lakshmi (bore) K&ma&om Madhava, as P&rvati (&ore) Kumira from Samkara 
and as Sacfei (Sore) Jayanta fromlndra, so did Ballam bear a son, BamBraja 9 who was renowned 
in the world, from the lord Bixkksu 

(V. 10.) As Lakshmi to Vishnu, so to this glorious king R&nmraja* who fulfilled the 
desires of all supplicants, LaMmbiM was the queen. 

(V. 11*) In consequence of (hii) great austerities, there was born to Mm a son. Hue 
rlmiigarja f the light of the race of the Moon, at whose brilliant splendour O wonder ! _ the 
eyes even of the wives of (his) enemies became bright. 1 

(V. 12.) Having wedded as (bis) legal wife the Yirtuous Tiramammbika* who resembled 
Axundhai! in good conduct, who at the same time surpassed the fame of the earth in patience, 
(and) who captivated (all) hearts by (her) good qualities, >that foremost among heroes felt as 
happy as the Moon (by the possession of) R6!\ini s 

(V. 13.) This powerful king begat by that TimmaladSTl the following {three) sons 
ia succession, the wise BSmar&ja* who was conversant with politics; the excellent 
TSrnmfllar&ya ; (and) king Venkat&dri, 

(V. 14.) Having killed in battle all dangerous enemies in the world, this heroic Bftmaraja, 
who resembled by his great fame Bharata, Manu, Bhagiratha and other kings, ruled the circle 
of the earth. 

, 15.) Among the three sons of Mug Srlranga, the wise (and) powerful king 
as Ban among the trinity, haying conquered hostile kings in battle 

(and) having been anointed to the matchless sovereignty, ruled the whole earth, 

(V. 16.) At the coronation of this moon among Mugs (and) foremost among the famous, 
iMs earth, being sprinkled with floods of water (yarned out) at donations, occupied (as it were) 
the place of queen. 

(V. 17.) Just as the S&man and the other (three V&das were produced) from the mouth 
of the Creator^ as peace and the other (three) expedients from the brave Satyav&cb (?), (and) 
as Rama and (his three brothers) from Daaratha 3 (thus) from that excellent king were born 
(/OUT) SOBS of great fame : 

(V. 18.) From Mm were born a king called Baghunfitlia; (who was) a 

pfoiy&ta (tree) to supplicants; the glorious n&mm&j^ the moon of the earth; (and) the 

(V. 19.) Among these brothers, 8rlra6.garaya ? who had crossed the milk-ocean of policy 

{and) -who if as renowned in the eight regions, waa crowned to the kingdom of Pexragozida,. 

(V. 20.) After (him) the wise (and) glorious VeAkatapatidSvar&ya ruled the earth* 
the ten regions "by (his) fame. 

* ^. lie Mlled Ms enemies. As widowa are not permitted to tmo eollyriura, the eyes o 4b relicts of bis 
daceased enemies had a brigbt appearance, thoisgb *UM with tears, Hence the wonder. 

In this verse a iMdkdtM** atoMdra, which does not admit of a literal tnuwlavion, Is Muted In the 
antithetic words Arundhati and 

It is usual at a eoroQatioa ceremony to blithe txth the king aad the qmm with water brought from variw 


(V. 21.) To Ms elder brother, the lord Bmar&ja s whose deeds put to shame the celestial 
trees, ^ere born Tiriimalaraja and the famous Srimngar&ya. 

(V. 22.) Of these two, Srimitgaraya begat sons -who possessed great modesty, -were fall of 
compassion, learned (and) famous. 

(V. 23.) Among these sons of king Srirangaraya* the glorious ting B4mar&ya, who was 
beyond the reach of the eloquence of the best poets, shone for a very long time, as the JcaustubJia 
among the gems produced from the sea, 

(V. 24.) Formerly, from the famous king B&mar&ja* who resembled the holy Eamahhadra, 
-WBre horn, as the (Jvoe) celestial trees from the milk-ocean,, five sons who were eager to 
gratify the desires of all schoiai-s, who followed the path of policy, who were able to protect th 
world, {and) who possessed rising prosperity. 

(Y. 25.) [All these] excelled Sngriva in (the effectiveness of their) commands, were 
stubborn (only) in pleasing wise men, [were to be respected by the learned on account of 
(their) virtues, (and) tad "beautiful forms]]. 

(V. 26.) Among these kings. of famous deeds, Srirangaraja, a moon on earth, was celebrated 
in the three worlds, as the pdrijdta tree among the celestial trees. 

(V. 27.) The horses which are abandoned in battle by hostile Mugs who have taken to 
flight in great terror on hearing th# loud roar of his drums, are wallowing (on the ground) 
through fatigue. Is it through fear of .their (the kings*) being pursued that (these horses) are 
(thus) wiping away the foot-prints, of (their) masters, which bear the (royal) marts of pitchers, 
parasols and flags, (and) -which (now) adorn {only) the jungle ? 

(V. 28.) Through the great mercy of the lord of Seshagiii, 1 who was pleased with 
th great austerities of Srirangaraja^ there were born to (him) two beautiful sons who ware as 
happy as Indra. 

(V. 29.) Pond of protecting (their) subjects, (and) expert in slayiBg the cruel (ft&ora) and 
the wicked (d&sJiana), (these) two (princes), named Peda-Vefikat&idxa and the lord Pins- 
Venksta, gave delight (to the world), as Rama and Lakshmana (who slew the demons Ktara and 

(V. 30.) Of these two. the elder by years, prowess, liberality, profundity, firmness, 
scholarship and all other virtues (was) the glorious king Pe<iairaBkatndra s in whose kearfc 
Hari (Vishrni) takes up (his) abode (because Tie is afraid) that (his proper abode) tie oaean 
might become land by the clouds of the dust .of (his) army during his expeditions (in which hs 
practises) the art of destroying hostile kings. 

(V. 31.) United. with (Us) queen Baftgftramftmbft, whose heavenly form is the abode of 
the kingdom of love, this king Vofikata shines like Sakra (Indra) with SacM, (anS) like Saun 
(Yishnu) with Bam& (Lakshmi). 

(T. 82.) When this son of king Srirangarajs, Venkatadevsr&ya, the best of heroes, 
was anointed to the kingdom of Penngonda, then were also the learned anointed (*. 
abundantly presented) wifch ^old. 

(V. 33.) Having been anointed according to the rule by his family preceptor, the famoma 
T&tayarya, the ornament of the learned, just as (B&ma) the descendant of fhe raee^ol 
Minself by (yasiflhtha) the bnsband of Arundliati, (and) having destroyed a an instant tue 
{just as Sdma) the demons, 3 lie rules the earth victoriously. 

1 This is another aam of .Tirnmalai s on wMeh see page 23S above, sofce 1- %2 synony aa 

Ten -a-jus..* occ^. 

vene 34 of the KallakiirsI gratit, 3m^ 

* For the word dara'rn the sense of * demon * see the ^maraMia, L 1, 62 : 


(V. 34.) He who resembles the ocean in great profundity ; the only excellent 
of the fort (durgu) of ChanrSsI | he who terrifias vehemently the heairts of the hostile kings of tbe 
eight directions | the favourite of Sarngadhara (Vishnu) ; 

(V. 35.) He who is sporting with the powerful goddess of heroes ; the lord (ov> the central 
gem) of the necklace (which is) the town of Araviti ; he whose arm is as strong as (Seslia) 
the lord of serpents ; he who is obtaining the title MandaUkadhara^ardka 1 (i,e. the boar CD 
earth among provincial chiefs) ; 

(V. 36.) The foremost of the kings Tborn from the JLtrya gofra $ he whose fame is great ; 

(V. 37.) Bringing the throne of Kamats into Ms power by the strength of (his) arm, (and) 
joyfully rating the whole earth after (he) has destroyed (all) enemiea from (Rama's) bridge UB 
to the snowy mountain,, this glorious prince, Venkatapati^ the foremost among kings, wfco 
surpasses all ancient kings in wisdom, (and*) who is Sutr&man's (Indra'g) tree to (i.e. fulfils the 
desires of) the crowds of wise men, is resplendent, 

(Y. 38*) In the Sakayear reckoned by the seasons (6), the arrows (5), the arrows (5), and 
the moon (1) 5 (.e. 1556), in the (cyclic) year called Bli&Va 9 in the month aaamed Valskha, _ 

(V, 39.) In the brigtit fortnight, under an auspicious star, on the sacred full-moon titU 
in the blissful presence of the lotua^feet of the blessed Venlmtdsa,- 

(V. 40,) (The Mng gave)* to excellent Br&tmanas of various Mkhds, names, gStras and 
s&foas, who were celebrated for learning in the Sdstras (and*) deeply versed in the VSdas, _ 

(Vv, 45-48.) A village, famed by the name Kfiniyftr, rich In all grain, consisting of sixty-two 
shares (gana), adorned by the surname Muddllkrlshn^pirrani, adorne.d with houses and gardens, 
free of taxes (sarvamdnya), up to the four boundaries all round, accompanied by treasures, 
deposits, stones, actuals, outstandings and water, with the akshini and the dgdmin, to be enjoyed 
in shares (gana), with the trees, to be successively enjoyed by the (donees') sons, grandsons, ete.j 
as long as the moon and stars (exist), 

(V. 41.) Situated in the prosperous Tirvadi-r&jya in Mi41i-nfid-a 9 in the prosperous 

(V. 42*) Situated to the south of the great river TSmmparjgd, and to the east of the great 

Village TTftrn'igTyif>hi 3 

(V. 43.) To t&e south of the boundary of Bhraiitamangala^ to the wafct of the prosperous 
village of SravanmaM,devi 

<V. 44.) (And) to the north of a high road (which is) to the north of a hill, comprising 
(?) two fields (ksMtra) on the fifteenth (?) canal at 

(V. 49.) (The son) of the glorious prince 3SSTga, who was a descendant of the 

, the object of the spontaneous favour of (tf&e #od!) lTiOTSirara who was pleased by (Us) 
severe austerities, a treasury of virtues, (and) the besfe of those who grant the object of (their) 
desires to the crowd of scholars^ was Visvanatlia* a Samkrandana (Indra) on earth, who was 
honoured on earth as the foremost of great heroes* 

(V. 50.) From him was born a chief of N&yafcae, Rpiahnapa* who was renowned in the 
world, who seized the diadems of hostile kings in conformity with (his) name, 3 who gpverned 
the inhabitants of the earth with justice, (and) whose (liberal) disposition resembled that of 
(Kubera) the lord of wealth. 

(V, 51.) To him was born a moon on earth, the glorious prince Virapa* who was surrounded 
by the splendour of spreading fame, who delighted the circle of the earth (or the night-l&twi) 3 

1 The title Dharantvardha fcad been previously borne by Immadi-NFisimha (of Vijajanagara) ; see 
Imdiam, Itoseriptions, Vol. I. p. 13^ No. US. 

3 The name of tbe king and the verb follow in verse S8 f . 
8 *.*. who ws a wtwsfcfay namesake of the aaefeaafc 

No. 34.] 



who was the support of scholars (or of gods), (and) who destroyed the Inward pleasure of (Us) 
enemies (or of bees) . x 

(V. 52.) To Mm was born a chief of N&yakas, VisVapa, a moon to the darkness (which 
were) hostile Mngs. To him was born the brave (and) glorious lord Muddufcrislms, who 
resembled (the mountain) Meru in firmness. 

(V. 53.) He had two sons, the lord Muddnvira and prince Tiromala, who were the 
receptacles of the continuous stream of the deep compassion of (the goddess) Min&kshi and (t fie 
god) S-undaresa, 3 who were resplendent with their fame which spread from the Kailasa mountain 
to (Rama's) bridge, and whose respected command (resembled) an ornament of splendid jewels in 
the diadems of kings. 

(V. 54.) Then, having been eagerly anointed to the sovereignty over the whole kingdom by 
many chiefs of ministers, (and) having obtained the whole surface of the earth through the great 
compassion of (the god} SundarSsa, prince Tirxunala shines (Ztt-e) an Indra on earth. 

(Vv. 55-59.) Sanctioning the request of this glorious prince Tirumala, the strength of 
whose arm was hard to be resisted by the enemies, who was a Sutraman (Indra.) on earth ^in 
happiness, who was a Tcalpa, tree on earth in liberality, whose enemies ascended high mountains 
as soon as he ascended (7ws) mighty elephant, who surpassed the enemy of the ocean (*.. the 
submarine fire) m attacking a town for conquest, who spent the time in gifts of bndes, food, gold 
and land, (and) whose beauty surpassed that of Jayanta, the Moon, and Cupid, the glorious 
Mncr vira-Venkatapatimalxaraya joyfully made (ike above) grant with libations of water 
(poured) over gold." (The names of) the Brahmanas, deeply versed in the Vedas, who received 
shares of this (grant), are written (here) : 

(Tv. 60-118.) List of donees. 

1 ! 


2)onee 9 s name. 

Relation^ \ 


Gdfra. } $4$ra* 

g et 


Soa of VenkatMn 



Bbarad^aja. j 



LakshmlBarali ari 

LekshmiB^UAa - 


Srivatsa . ] 


Yeitkatadri . * 



Haritasa 4 * \ 



IsTara . . 

9I Sadasiva 


Itr^ja j Aimlayana 


X anakasabli&pati 

a> SrtraBgaraja , 




***. . . . 

tt Anaatabhatfa | 


Do. - | 

: : ' - 


S vii. 

, verse 1 : 

These are the names of the god at the Madim^ temple and of his nrt 
The HindA S&stras conrider a chnrity inefficient, if Bfc a^compamed by . tfofefefd; see the 
the <*!**<** Gold is lovably chosen for thl. pur^e; for at every g.ft 
verse is recited : 


the performance of the sixteen great ddna* t people who caa afford it, keep a piece of gold 
P P -ter into te don^s hand aad then offer the ? ee M rf. W.^ 


t-.' cases of popular etv TO <v are rp. ^. J*-'** and 

s, Tol. I. p. 109, note 2), and j*> {-&i<*. Vol. II. p- 251, note 3). &. H.J 



List of donees continued. 

Donee's name* 






^ Son of Tframala 






,. mrubbatta . , 


. BhAradvija 

1 1 

Yallappa * .. 

, Arundd'ri . . 



9 ed 

BbiAntttvan, . . . 




n * 

N&garasa . 
Alagadri . 

- s Yenkatapati B 
^ Baghupati 







(xhatalaya * . 



> t Srioivasa 




i f 
' 2 


K %^ 

?j x^a Q.rfisftrnuotitts 



Sriniv&sa ,, 

y Anantabbatta 





Siddhaya . 

>. eBkatayya . 





-KEgaaiK saita * * * 

ss> SasavavEdhamn 

r>. , 

M^iitiU, B 

I* tt arad V8 j ft * 



Afignya . 

?s Kalabastl 

. Yajus 

Haritasa . 


Arftn* * 


M ^aliaperura^l * 





Abdbala . 

> Harasimlia 

ra|og ft 

KM a a 





pn Fananatlm . 



* - 


VAnff4fcteppft . . a 

M Singaperami) 




Xraakatffaft^ f * ' 

Peddlbbatta <, 




^M^OU^ * ^ ' 

" S6m4bha ^ . . 









Apa8tam>^e . 


FI nambbatta. 



( * 

n^Av^bteia . . 

Son of" Perubba^ts 


B h S-i*ad v4ja? 


S^sliadri . 

s Mallabbatts 6 



Ipastan,^ . 


* * a , 

4 ^ 

samvate . 



* s * 

t Yallubbatta . 




Nigdbbatta ^ 





O B 


V j* 

Mmaliitgavadbanm . 






JBgAvadhanra . 





Gangadliarayajvan . 

Bo. . . 



* * i 

" SS8htoi . . 

Bo. . ] 



v^ttfa^"" a 

" TaUn y a 3 TOa - . 

*a J 

Itr^ya . $ 

L pas tarn ba 



a? AiVsrff ^ 

Rich ^ ] 

3o B 



JTo. 341 



Xiist of donees concluded. 

Donee's name* 





a!appai"aQ * 

Son of igvam 


itrfiya . 



jtyyapa * * * 

Aaantahyiahnia . 





*eriyatirttvadi * 

s , Cbokkan^tbamakbisi 





*&&tlQA&Ilfttiyft * * 

SB ^^*r^yi\no. . * 


ItrSya . 



S&r&ja^a . 

9& SiAgli*! 



&>PlSt!ailkl*)lt ; 


PenkatapaU . 

>a Giriyappa 


Srivatsa . 



5&r^^Tiwr8yStS3ta . 

, 9 Amnagirl 






t Tiruven^ada . 





Irfni * * ") 

Tsnkata 3 

Younger brothers of Yadamala 


D. . 



HlBl(0li8.1b^E. * 

Son of AnaiiiHiiHr4ja^.a 


K a09 4in^. 

** ' 


tigbava * 

Brotber of B&mabba^ta 







^eiikatMri. , . ' 




'enkapa J 

F eBkat4Mo 

Son of 0&taapati 



Saty^Wh^ . 


Eagbm&atbamakMn - 

. VyAaarfyabbafta . 







Samkj-iti . 

E6dMyans , 


>barmarija . 





> &**lj sWJLlt ^ r * 

Son of 33%bava. 


Bb&rgava . 



*"*jr ^*^araynHLa ^ 

M Bbiakarabhatta * 



Apasfamba . 


ii*ojK.K G> v &Ct o & om 

SiBgM . , . 

Yajus * 




iSdwnbatHv^h^m . ._ 

99 arndabbatta 


Kaailka . 

^.pastamba * 


w Jgann4tba . 


&trya . 



rlniv&sa .... 



Kansika . \ 







.imalifigfi of Ko^davi^i* 9 







it^. . 

' -"I" . ."" -"gg 



in tbe Kistuw district ; ee page 60 above, line 2 from top. 

31 Tbis total, if added to tbe balf of a field mentioned in Ha 249. agrees wttfc the 
ihat tbe Tillage rf K4ttiy4p wsia divided into sixty -two shares* 

lTo&. m, 

119-123 ) Let them all IB "victorious as long as tfofi moon and the (eseirt), t 

Vrf of tbe "twice-born who ottamed as a tax-free gift (wrrowAiya) the aboYe-mentio^ 
1? t Tillage adorned % trees growing on the bank of the prosperous canal, 

"SSL? the iaiea of leaded BrfOimanaa (BJfcaffa), including all the gifte to temples 
with the Jsapat&jfo, with the tirutuvalaya, with the mafopparo, with the 
with fiTO and a half m*m** in with its boundary (stonm) on all 

s marked with (*fo a0* of) he "blessed Vamana (<roa4ra), situated on the western bank 
of the canal which flows to the south, and to the east of a small garden which is on the east of 

(Line 249.) Half a field QuMtra) -was purchased and given to the village deity (grama- 


(V 124.) This (is) an edict of the best of kings, the famous (and) glorious 

who is a moon to the lotuses (which are} learned men, (and) a Mahendra on earth. 
(V. 125.) At the command of Vlra^Vexikataraya, the poet the son of 

(owl) grandson of SabMpati, composed the text of (this) edict. 

(V. 126,) The excellent Aclayutarya^ the BOH of (and) grandson of the illus- 

trious (and) excellent correctly wrote the fine verses of the edict of Veiikats, 

the diadem of kings. 

[Verses 127-131 contain the usual imprecations.] 
(Line 266.) 


These plates wer-e sent to J)r a Hultzsch by Mr. H. Consens, Superintendent of the 
Archaeological Snryey of Western India, who tad received them from Mr, W, Montgomerie $ 
Settlement Officer, OKhindwara, Central IoTinces. They belong to ff *Bhaxafcsa and otbers, 
Gonds 3 at Dndia in the Aser pa^am^ of the OhHndwara district/" I edit tihte inscription which 
they contain from excellent impressions, supplied by Mr a CcmsenE and Dr. Hultzsch. 

These are foixr well preserved copper-pIateB 3 each of which measures 7|^ long by 8| v 
broad. The second and third plates are inscribed on both sides, the first plate is so on one side 
oaly, and the fourth is blank and merely serves to protect the writing on the second side of i&e 
third plate. The plates are quite smooth^ their edges having bem neither fashioned thicker 
nor raised into rims ; but the writing, nevertheless, is in aa excelleBfc state of preservation 
throughout. About l| f/ distant from the middle of the proper right margia 9 each plate has a 
hole, about T V in diameter, for a ring on which the plates were strung. This is between 

and f* thick, and 3|" in diameter. ,Th* two ends of the piec^a of copper of which it is formed 
are flattened off, and ccratain holes for a rivet g which, hB.s been lost* ' On the ring slides a 
copper band, f broad, which is bent into a ring of J by l| v in diameter, and the two ends of 
which are soldered together. Through the soldered part a hole is drilled, which corresponds to 
a hole in the centre of a circular seal ; and a rivet* wMch. also is lost now s must hav held the 
copper band and the seal together, 2 Owing to the loss of the two rivets, the ring s the copper 
band and the seal are now quite loose. The seal is 3.^ in diameter, and has across its surface 
a legend in four liBes 3 wltioh will be given below* The weight of the four plates is 3 Jibs*, 

1 Tlsa Tamil wo?d w$m& or md means 8 on twentieth (of the laiid-fBea&tare called 
s Compare Dr. Fleet's deieription of t!& Siwani plates j 0$pla Z$&Tip$iQn$t p 

JTo. 35.J 




arina- the copper band and the seal, | Ik; total, Sflbs.-Tlie aize of the Iftfcters 
* 'o^rac^s belong to the souther* class of alphabet, d fad. L nrite 
fmton of the < box-headed ' variety of the Central-Indiea alphabet, of which we find 
g ^ fjl Dr Meet's <*** *o**m.. They are, in fact, atoost ideBtical with the 

The inscription is one of the ^^^^ 
oae Goladasa (i 29) ; and is dated (in 11. 28- 29 ) 
xalny season in tHe twenty-tbdrd year (of the 
S3SpatL And its object is, (in H. 13-18) to record 
&*&* (r&jya)? of 25 6MM- (of land) at ""fT 
to one Taksharya of the Ka^ika gttra, ^d of 60 

the vfflage of 


this, the inse-ription yields no izrformation whatever that has 
Chammak and Siwani grants^ which e **}*** 
year of his reign. Like those other xnscr^ptions it ope 
take to be employed simply as a term of good 
here by a*y other word of *P 
charter also professes to be issued from 


n . ia 

word ^r^^ 
a fa ^ 

Charwuak gmat, thift 
* to 

Compare especially lines 13-14, 18-21, and 24-26. 

* Compare the B imilar use of the word *&?* in other uaeriptlona, 

See Gp* a J-ip ., p, 241, note 9. confluent o two * 

CSndrapra-*a^a.**M probably means a tract of land near <, 
neighbourhood of, Chandrapnra. . ite j ^ the original. In line 18 of tbe 

s This word, which ia used also elsewhere ms a temtonftl term, 18 J d ^ tha ^ae sense. 

Siwani plates we find 6i^ (i this be reaEy the reading intended) used apparently 

See &upta Inscriptions, p. 235 ff. and p. 248 ff. . ,, utelal ggaue an .a to traaslate it 

See . p. 240, note 2. Professor Buhler is inclined to take df Wm mi ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

fey'eeen,' the worf iiadicating, according to hte view, ' that the copy of toe &* ., 3^ Vol. I. 

*, and as acknowledged to be correct, by the minister or by the Keeper o 


i , f Pravarase-na II., exactly as it is given in the two other inscriptions, only 
gives the genealogy of J ^ io}l ^ ng li nes , np to the word Mrtfayfaa* bm 
sing some insignificant epithets, ine D r officials of the Irammi 

onnttingsomeinsigmficantepi^^^^ ^ to ^ ^.^ ^ the lrammi 

25, in which the donor issues IB ..^^ under w Mch the land, given by him, is granted, 

district, specifies the * ime -* a " e . hfc molest the done es, e*c., agree with lines 21-35 of 

threatens with pvButoaeM , ta ^ ^^ ^^ readingSj the most i mportaQt rf 

the ChammakgraBt excepting jr an ^^ ntl addreased fe 

which will be pomted ont below^ ^ follow jn , ^ ^^ ^ 

fendatorie, or ^^ ^^^ i?pln s -ith 4e date and the name of the ^ 

aa ^P^^f^end on the seal also is the same as in the other inscriptions, bnt worded 
given above, me iwjswiiu. w """ 

less correc y. . -^..-.j.: does no t admit of verification, and all I can say about ifc is, 

The date of this mscripiKn identificaticm i of the Mahfodjddhirdja DSvagupta, who 

that in . ftM pdw ? ?f ^ th r e fftther of tte mo ther of PravaraaSna II,, this record wonld have 
is mentioned . lineJJ L ^ a f he g th centur y A.D. Compared with the dates of the 

to be ass lg ned to about the beginning 01 fortnights of the lunar months Jyaishtha 

n^^^J^^'SSJ^ hein/referred to the fourth Jrtnight 

Th'Tlocalities mentioned in' this inscription I am unable to identify. Olmndrapura may 
KTrtT dern Chandpnr, which lies to the south of Siwan! and to the west of the 
laps be^tne m y . ^sposal shews in its neighbourhood any of the 

l CrfLTl^a 1?'1'V6'^ ? DTDLw |3CJI**' vi UiJlO jjLMa*^* | s> **v jj j^" 

otiber places referred to in this inscription^ 


Pint Plate. 

1 Driattam [|*3 PwvsawiirBat* agnisht&m<fc*]ptfti7yA^thya.s 

2 sav^^y^krLSLra^ama^^ evi s li^uv ? Iddha-eag6trasya samrata^ 
t A ^Sri.rMi^s&iBsya 8 s4n6hi sftn6^ aiyani-SvAini-Mah&bliairava.bbaktaqra 

4 M i^L-&M r a " 

I LMhigata-Bb^ - a v a b h F i - 

ta( fcha)-sBat&B&m=Blaa- 

6 iWtatartna^ Gautamiputraaya 

7 kflaftm-miA[&*3iAia-^^wS^^ sfin6 ^ aiyanta mttittTarasya saty-[^]rjj 


^ See Gupta Inicrspttons* Introduction, p. 15. 

a [Hira^yapura might. he the modern " Hirapur/* S. 8. K. of SAgar.-^- K. B.J 

9 From impr^saions, supplied by Mr. Ccmsetis and Dr. Huttzsch* 

4 Here and frequently helow, th0 mles of samdM have not heen ohwrved. 

* originally -aiir6tra- was engraved, hufc it has heen altered to ativtftr* 

* The fiwt aJczkara of this word is really more like chi in the original. 

? Eaad jowf^fft* for tamrdjti ; the Chawimak plates bnve mmrddt the Si want plt8 
Bead -Irl-, whkh tnaj he the reading of the original, 

Of the afcfiam w, in brackets, dither only a small portion wa ctoa% engraved, or the 
been almost completely *t{?ac<d. 
* Head M-* 

Dudia Plates of Pravaraseng, II. 



it a. 

ii b. 


SCALE -75. 


; . . , ,. ...... , ; . jM _ : ; <;; ; '^- : ^^.;^.^^;;/.>::,Ji.. 

A/ 974(1 '''&&t'ffi 



Second Plate} First Side* 
.-naya-vraaya-m&h&tmya-dM ay i* 

sam nditasy a varsha-Satam -abMvardd]bam!iim s <" k&&^landaH9&dh ana-sant&na* 
utriaa^ Tudhishthira*v|rittte=Vvr 
30 kA$*l^tfi^inmah&^^ 

yasya Vfifcgtafefinfimmah&r^a*firi-Biidrasdnaaya s sAnoli mah&r&jftdhir&ja- 

0nt[a]y&h* "I^abhC&JTatigiipt&jtm^iitpaiiBasya Vafcp^taiAnam^maliC^Jr&ja-grf* 


Arammi-rajyfe ainaisantak^4arvT[&*]ddhyak8h^^ 

Plate ; Side* 

14 pntp-[&*3dliikrit&h 

payitavya]ii [|*] f Viditam=astu 

15 r= 



18 ra^atisrishtaV 3 [1*] 



Instead of ?***<&<**< the Chainmak pbntes actually 
tle tb.e Siwatit pkfces^ too, read pdtra&*t. 
s Tbe actual reading of the original may perhaps he 

^^"^^^ w ^ch Is the reading of the Ohummak plates. Before jftto^n/ttte- one inbse the word t** 
tiie other plates have* , 

cA *f^=< f ** viSrvtv-p&rtuy^jnay^jMpa, . The other plates both have mSruta in a fced of th 

tfii&a&t& 9 

Read .Z*l- ,V P arjf V -. > Read vaijeyileS. 8 

^ and *^ a anothei> ***-. perbap* ^ or C A*. w 8 oHginallv engraved, bnt the 

that ifc hBS been 8fcmck ^ asai - Oaa would 

Bead KMrn^y.^ (or !) ,S,^,'A 4 Eend Kdliarmmn6. 

13 Read op, rova-dattyd. 
18 Read rt* 

ba * aken torefe " *o ^twa pieces of land, eManed b*<, 

have n thin eo^ang to the sentence 
ik ' but omifc fw>ul ifc the wo 


to the 



oha [I*] Tag=ch=i,smacfaL'-eliMB>ii4(iaa)iii==agaiaa(na)ya- 

nigrahaii=kuiyyi,mah. lc> [j*] 




28 zati dusKkrltaBz |(||) 

divasd s^napatau \ lg 

29 H"amlda^ 1 MkMtam 

i saMi(kll)ptdpakK(MI)ptatt 

[|*] blmfijat^ 5 na fcdnaohi- 

| Second Side. 

[I*] Vyasagttas=cli=4tra 

yo hareta TasnBdiiaraD(m) | 

The Seal. 

1 i- 1 

2 Tcfcrainapr&pya-nripagriypTn^ 

3 I 

4 g&Banam ripu-s&sanam |(H) 

The actual reading of the original looks rather like 

The signs of punctaation in this line and in the next; are superfluous. 

Originally nid3t&n *was Bngraved^ but it has been al tered to nidk v Instead of the preceding mnidMs read 

Sead s in accordance with the rest f ^rfminatt. s B-essd 

Bead d**isydghdfafa The CbaHsmafc plates have Jc&n&cM vydghdtam. 

1 Bead, here and ia the nest word^ ^avyae. 

9 In the original this sign o^tiw^ra is placed above the followiog 1 &* 

f Read, with the Ghaisamak plates^ ledrayitd. One womld ha^e expected 

m Bead "&<&&%/ %f dm*. 

** Ee&d asmm,x?=c&a. For the following word, the reading- of which is quit certain, tbe hamnk plt 
feave <{%<Erflfn-^ara-^ara9d 9 which I do not understand ; and the Siwant plates, d&ar9m-4dhi&ar<*q&. As poisited 
out % Dr. Fleet, dharmm-ddar&-&&ra#& is wkat Dr. Bbagvanlal Indraji propoeed to read* 

a Bead, r2/^-^<sf^a-sa^cHntoMa* whicls elearly is tb.e reading inteB<ied ia the CliainiBak plates. 

** Bead-^dAt,y^a*(?). The ofcber plates have nothing correspondiogr to the sentence *6&op- - - 
The cboice of the verb djn&paydmafa, contrasted with tine following vtfnpaydma& &p|jeirs to 
Aew that the words oAXra^- . , ~6p&jdtdn refer to feudatories or atibordinates of the 

** 'Read 4fepa-. The original looks as if the engraver first had engd corrwtly 
inserted the siapertooiis ^ afterwards. The Siwani platen haTe $$fo^ant&$fo&l<*-* 

Read ^attrofd v This si^n of puBCtisRtioa is superatiocus. 17 Metre : Siflka {l 

18 Bead fr&$6vimatim$ or, correctly* tir$t&&im&atUam$ 9 m ThiB slga of pnncfcnatioB is fiipertam 

* M*tre : SIdka (Airashtubh)* 3a This aigEi of pQfuefcuation b sttperfic 

* Read frdjpt0-nripoiriya%. ** Thw @IgB of 




BT IP. KiiiHOBw 3 PH.D.* IiIf,D., GJUEB. ; GOTmsrois. 

The stose which bears this inscription was found, about eighteen yeara sgo 5 Bear tha 
temple of Nilatantka MahM6va among the ruins of the eity o P&ranagar whieh are to the 
south of the village of or Bajorgadh* a a lofty rang'e of in the B&jg&dh district 

cf the Alwar State in Bajpnt&na^ about 28 miles soatii-west of the town of Alwar $ l a&d ii is 
mow preserved at Alwar itself* The Inscription, was first published by the late DP, BajamdraM 
Ifitra, in the Proceedings of the Bengal Asi&tw Society, 1879, p* 15? fl., fifom a tmaseript 
prepaid by Pandit Bhavanamda and his brothers, of Alwar ; and it hag again been printed 
in the PrdcMnat^kkamdld of the Kdvyamdld, Vol. I. p* 53 ff* s from another copy supplied by 
the same gentlemen. I mow re-edit the inscription from rabbiaga wMoh have beam proem?ei 
for me by Dr* Fleet. 

The inscription contains 23 lines of writing which covers a spaee of about 1'5* broad 
by 1' Si* high, and is nearly thronghottt in s perfect state of preservation. The arerag 
of the letters is about |^ s The clia^aetera are N&gari ; they closely resemble those of 
Hatsha inscription of Vigralaaraja ? published with a pho^to-Iithograpk m the Ejtfgraphfa 
Yoi II. p- H6 ff. The langmage is S&Bskjrit, amd, excepting fo^r banediciira and i 
ver^s, here ascribed to Vyltea, in Hues 18-20, and another WTB im line 21, wHcl 
names of the composer, the writer and the engmrer? the text is in prose. Th iascripMcm tan 
been written and engraved very carefully. la respect of rttiogmpliy^ I Deed only note- ttfc0 
employment of the letter * for "both and &> the doubEB^ of * and d IB the eoBJioicte Ir mad 
dfr, and the occasional us of the sign of a^ag^aha^ As- regards lasieogi'aphy^ liBes- 11-13 
contain a number of *evenae~termd* the exact import of wMct is not apparent^ and SOIBB other 
words of unkuowii or doubtftd meamiixg tpravcwpi, $aMi 9 &h&Ui"kds eto.) QCCBT in fines 6 S 16 and 
17, and 22 and 23, 

The inscription (im limes 1-3) refers, itself to the reign of the* PaTamab&af$drQiJ$ 
Parcm&vara* the illnstrieus Vija^apftlsddra^ who, meditated on flie feet of 
flie ParamabJia-ltd&aka, Mahdr&jddbirdja P&ram$$vara, the illustrious KsMtip&BscieYS ; and is 
dated, in words and figures, on Saturdays the lath of tha bright half of of the y^ffi 

1018* On this daj the MaMrdjddhirdja Parame^arm^ the illustrious Mathsnadvs s of the 
Gurjarapratiliara lineage, and a son of the MahdrQjAdhirdjp, the iUustrious SivatSt raiding 
at SSjyaptira, (im lines 3*13) informs Ms affioiais, the gomdgamiba^^ and othe^, and the 
m&h&tTa$i ma'hafiamms^ ia6reiiaiitB 3 j?ra^am^ 4 and otihev iniabitants of ike tillage of 
yglirapta&a s pertafeing to the Vamap6taka 6?i%^ whicli MatiaBad^va held possession 
of, that on the occasion of the installation (of the Image, or the consecration of tie temple) of 
the god ImclmlilmMsTara Hah&d&va (Siva), 90 named after Ms mother to has 

granted to the god (or Ms temple) the iditag of * ap to Its ps?opeir 

2 See Sir A, CQBBingham 8 ^rc&<8o2. Survey of Indi&^cA. XX. pp. lfcH36. Ih7 w doubt ttrt 
Fowlefefc T!gb% lxeKed |i4i6r or B&jAi^afh (t^. B&jyspur&) to be the old same of Ftou&gsr ; and ife sterns to me 
Mg%p^>baMe that 6 tbe laiol^ templet Kilaka^tha Mab&Uv*, which i the aioet SamoniB pliw? of p%rimge in 
this part of the country/ and wMc& Sir A, Cunningham bas ^signed to the 10th center? AJD.. i* the ' 

th*t r^fttKe t inscription 

s Tbe conoladlog word /H- M&th&nah is in somewhat larger charaeters. 
a Compaq e^., JA Jbi*. Vol. XV, p. 30^ 1 3S s ^oi XVM* p. 11* 1* Mu 
* IMB nnaMe to explain. Ods word f bail; v<nOd 40wpare vitb w^-^r^a^i-|iriiwjilA0 tha 

^l^whe^* ' Praeafift Qccarn in $nwaj*-*#**> 
XV. p. 1 


the grass and past?ore laud, with the tuZraAgji, with its rows of trees, -roth its water, witih 
&&%a and mmyuta 1 income, with ail customary and not customary, fixed and not fixed receipts. 
the shares of all sorts of graia, the kh&la-bMkshd* prasthaka,, skandhaka, mdrganaka, the fines,. 
ten offeaees, 3 gifts, treasures and deposits^ the aputrffi&dhana 4 ' and na,sJifibhara$a y and together 
with. all neigh1x>TiriiLg fields, cultivated by the Gftrjaras, for fchte purpose of defraying the 
eaqpenses of baiJaingr (the god) three times a day, of unguents, flowers* incense, naiv&dy& 
offering, lights and oil, of applying white-wash and red lead, of repairing what may become 
damaged or broken, of public shows and putting on the sacred tlaread* and of paying labourers^ 
gardeners, efc/ Lines 13-15 shew that the administration of this grant, in the first instance, 
was entrusted to the Jioly ascetic Omklij^ivltaMrya (a disciple of Rftpasiv&chfirya, who 
again was a disciple of Srfkanth&charya), a member of the SSpttrlya line or school (of devotees) 
started at Amardaka. and inmate of the Nityapramnditad&ra mafha at B,jyaptora f which wag 
connected with the Gopalad&vitad&gapali mafha at Clahattrasiva. 5 And the donor (in Hues 
13*17) exhorts his successors not to obstruct* but rather always to assist the ascetic's disciples 
and disciples* disciples in the management of the property 6 for the benefit of the god (or his 
temple). Lines 18-20 quote four of the customary benedietive and imprecatory verses ; asui 
the main part of the inscription ends, in- line 21, with another vei^e, according to which this 
charter (4&ana) was composed 7 by DMda, written by his son SuraprasMa, and engraved 
by HarL 

Lines 22-23 then record certain additional taxes or tolls., the proceeds of which were to be 
made over to the same deity (or temple) jointly with the god VinSyaka (Ganfega, whose image 
or shrine was) set up m the lower grounds 8 adjoining four chapels on one side (of the temple 
of Lachchhukfegvara). So far as I understand this passage, these taxes were three vimtiopakas* 
as customary in the market, on every sack 9 (of agricultural produce) brought for sale to the 
market; 10 two palikds 11 from every ghataka-k'&paka of clarified butter and oil j two 

5 As tbe inscription is written and engraved very carefully, I do not tMnk that the word m&yuta of tbe text 
Is likely to be a wrong reading | but its meaning is not apparent. 

s Tbe exact meaning of this and tbe following terms I do pot know. ,Khala-lM%*M 9 * tbe alms of tbe threshing 
Boor/ occurs again in -Zp. Ind. Vol. II. p. 179, v. 42 j and MalaJ&a I nd as a revenue-term in Ind. A.V&* Vol. 
ZVIIL p. 114, L 5& Mdrga^akcs, occurs (in abMnawmdrg gazabo) Hid* Vol. XVIII. p. 83, 1. 20. 

a As we find in other inscriptions xadagdpardd&adanda and *ada#dadag<jpar&d& used as synonymous 
expressions, I believe tbat tbe words of onr text, too, are intended to denote * tbe ftises for tbe ten offences/ wbafceve? 
fcbese may be* For anotber explanation of da^da-da4dparddha 9 tbe correctness of wbicfa appears to me doubtful, 
&QJovrn, Mo. As. Soe. VoL XVIII. p. 253, note 1* 

4 Tbls term* tbe property of a da*i#bter wbo is not a putri&d* and tbe following mas&ti Mar&fa ( or 
perliaps na$hta%kara$a ) I m again nnable to explain* 

11 So far as I can see, tbe text in line 14 is not quite correct; for the word samfoddha, in my opinion, is meanfc 
to refer, not to *ri*>&4jyapur$ f bnt to tbe following M-mtyapramuditad$vvmath& Tbe dimcnlty could of 
*we easily be removed by altering tambaddha to samb<ddh$, 6$dndfat-t*d6ga~$m-math* would be * tbe 
mafka on tbe margin of tbe tank of G6p&ltdfcvL' To tbis religious establishment that at R&jyapnra apparently 
- & subordinate- 

Here w bave the otherwise unknown word tatti, in 1. 16 in the phrse tattim . . . 
apparently expressing the sense of the ordinary Wtn&jat$ bMjdyatd v& t and in L 17 in the compound 
h$a 9 s rendering assistance in the proper management (?).* 

Dearly k tbe meaning of tbe word kritavdn in L XL. Tbe name BMda occnra also in one of tbe 
inscriptions j see J^>. T*d* Vol. J. p. 129, v, 47. 

- WOTd J a #" M occttrs ia Ind - A**. YoL XIV. p. 160, 1. 15. In tbe Artkaol. Survey *>flndi&> Vol. XX. p 9 
it is stated that the date Samvat 1010 is clearly legible on a figure of QanMa in the lar^e temple of 
ha at Firaoagar (Bajdr). B 

^ re * **** ^ F ' Ind * ToL If * P- 24 > L *> ^** ***** *im$6$*kami and, for mm$6pak> itid* 


^ ^ 7 e , erta5n abon * the Bearing of the word hatfad&na, in 1. 22. It may perhaps he equivalent to 
td or M*a.<Mt<grfitf, ' a custom-house,' which occurs in i m i!ar passages of other inscriptions. 
OOBp *r e .*' ***' J 1 ' L P* l66 ' -* re grf* *te foflowingr ghataJcv-Mpaka, I can onl y say th.t ghafa by 
mean* a 3 ar, a p.tcher, a measure equal to one or to SO drf***,' ** *<lp** a leatheroil 


per mensem for every shop ; and fifty leaves from very eMllikd * (of leaves) brought from 
outside the town. The inscription concludes with the words 'the illustrious Hatfaana;* 
representing the signature of the donor* 

In the Indian Antiquary,, Vol. XIX. p 2S, I have already had occasion to shew that the 
date of this inscription, for the expired Vikrama year 1016, corresponds to Saturday, the 14& 
January, AJD. 960. This date enables us to prove, -with a fair amount of certainty, thafc the 
sovereign Vijayapaiadgva* to whose reign the inscription professes to "belong, was a Mug of 
Kanauj. In the Spigraphia Indicia, Vol. II. p. 235, 1 have attempted to shew that the three 
kings Vijayapaladeva,, Rajyap&ladeva and Tril&chaBapalad^va, who are mentioned in the Bengal 
Asiatic Society's plate of TriI6ciaiiap&la, edited by me in the Indian Antiquary, ToL XVIII. 
p. 33 fL were rulers of Kanauj ; and as that plate, for Triioohanapalad^a, gives us a date 
correspond! ng> to the 26th June, AJX 1027, there would, so far as regards the two dates, 'be no 
objection to identifying the Vijayap&ladeva of the plate with the YijayapaladSva of the present 
inscription (of the year A.D. 960). And such an identification is supported "by the fact that the 
Vijayapaladeva of this inscription is here stated to have been preceded "by KsMtip&Iaclm* 
For we know that a king of this name, also called Mahipala and Herambapala, was actually 
ruling at Kanauj in A.D. 917-18, forty-two years before the date of our inscription.* It is 
true that, according to the large Siyadoni inscription, 3 Ksfaitipa!adva of Kanaiij in A*D* 948 
had been succeeded (not by Vijayap&ladSva, but) by Devapaladeva ; but this would seem to 
be no very formidable objection to the proposed identification. For it might either be said that 
Tijayapaladeva was a younger brother of Devapaladeva, in which case the omission of the elder 
brother's name from the ptseut inscription would nofc be without precedeot ; or we might 
assume that Dvap&ladva and Vijayapalad^va are two names of one and the same Mng 3 an 
assumption in favour of which it might be urged that eacls of the three predecessors of 
Devapaladeva Bhoja, MahSndrapala, and Kshitipala also bore each at least one other name. 
For the present, then, I do identify the Kshitipaladva and Vljayapaladeva of this inscription 
with the sovereigns of the same names, known to us from the SijadSnt inscription and the 
plate of Trilochanapala ; and consider the MahdrdjddMrdjti Paramesvara ICathaxiadeva, who 
made the grant here recorded, to have been a feudatory or subordinate of the kings of Kanauj. 4 
Of this Matnanadeva and his predecessor 8&vata nothing is known to me from other inscriptions ; 
and I have not found elsewhere any mention of the Qurjara-prstiiifira elan or family, to which 
they are stated to have belonged* The clan perhaps is identical with the Vafag&jcHra-va&fa 
(* the Bargujar tribe of Rajputs ')* mentioned in line 8 of an inscription at M&ehftdt, of, 
Vikrama- Samvat 1439, 6 of which a rough photo-lithograph was published in the Arch<& logical 
Survey of India, Vol. VI* Plate xi. 

Of the localities mentioned, B&jyap-ura, apparently MathanadSva's capital, is of course 
K&j6r or R&j6rgadh^ or rather P&ranagar s close to the modern village of Bajfir, where the 
inscription has been found ; and the village of Vy&gliraptaka Is said to exist still, near 
Kajor, under the name of Baghor* 6 The place Vaiixsapdtafca* which gave the name to the 
bhdga or district to which the Tillage belonged, I am unable to identify. Nor can I Identify 
the places Amardaka and Clih&ttarasiTa, which are mentioned in connection with the ascetics 
to whom the management of the grant was entrusted* Chbattrasiva ought to be looked for in 

1 This word I have not met witli elsewhere. Fifty leaves appear feo foa a tuna! tax i compare, *.?. .%- Imd. YoL 
II. p. 179, w. 41 and 42. 

3 See JBfp. Ind. ToL I. p. 171, f See iUd. p. 177, !. 28. 

4 It sway be mentioned that the feudatories of tlie kings of Kanaaj, wb0* name occur In it* SIjTmid^i 
inscription, also are styled Makdrdjdd'kfrd}**. Compare also here a paper on the reJ&tion between tit* fciagdm 
of Ksnatij and Oujarit, in Ind. An. Vol. Ill* p. 41 * 

s See ibid. Vol. XIX. p. 81, No. 4S. 

* See tbe Prdch$n&Ukktmdl& of the JCf0jfaM^T 9 Vol. I. p- 54, note. 

2 M 


tibe neiglibouTliood of Bftjdr; afid ihe name Amardaka, I haira previously found In the word 
Amardakatfotha-ndtTias the Dame or an epithet of a Saiva ascetic *who is mentioned in the 
inscription from Ban&d (Eared), published hy me In the JSpigrapJiia Indies, Vol. I. p. 351 ff, 

TEXT* 1 

2 ra- rf-Vi jayapdladva~p&^^ 

sateslm dasasu shMas-SttarakSefau !&- 

3 gliam&sa-sitapaJtsliarttray6dasyiii aaiytifetayam^evam saiii 

18 SanaT*adya Iri-Bajyapin > -&Tastliit6 mah&rajMhiraja- 

4 paramegvara-sri-lfl[atliaiaad6Yd xDah&rft]&dMrftja-xiSftvafaHBi!baur*G^^^ 

anvay ah. kugali [ 4 svabh&g-^Tapta- Va3casap6tafca"bh6ga-samva(ba) ddha- 

5 Vyghrapatakagr4ine 6 samnpagat4n=sarvTaii=eira rajaptiriishan=]DLiy6gasth&n= 

gam&gamik&n 6 =mynktak~&Giy^ 

6 Tanik-prairani-pTamtikha-janapad&ms^cha yath^rham mS,nayati v6(l>6)dhayati 

samadigati ch=^stu Yah samviditam ( tti]a-&g i ra-Iag i na-jalaTindu-samBthan-fi, 

7 sthir^ni garii^-sampa3-"jSvita.R=it=:tm&m 

kalpasthayitam jfi&tYa maya pittr&r=&tmanas=cha 

8 ddhaye 7 aihik-^mtishiiiika-.phaIa-Biinittam sams^r-i,rnnaYatarari-.&rthaiii svarg-ga* 

m&rgg-4rg^al-6dghtana-hM6h BYa-m&tri-SriLa43licliliiihfi-n&m{ii firf- 


9 h idevay a praty ahaih 3 8 SBapamia* sam SlahhanB-pustpa-dhiipa-BaiT^dy a-dipa- taila-BH dha* 


10 r6hana~karmmakara^T&ti^ ah ava- 

simS.-trina-y^ati-g&ka (cha)ra-paryantah Bdddramgah saTpikshamlU 

11 l&kulah sajald 9 bh6ga-tnaytit-S 1 dl,yfi,[bhy3S,m=apI samasta-sasy^nam bhEga-khala- 


12 m-&ptttt:rikadhana~Bashti^ a)d dhB-SBinasta- 


13 tpmgr&hyd=dya pmny&shani snJLtvft d^Taeya pratishth^-k&le 11 


15 pasiaohaiyas-tachchhishya-grimM-Omk&3^iv&ch&^ hmachary- 

sishy a- 

1 From rubbings, supplied to me % Dr, Fleet* 2 Expressed bj a sj mbol. 

* Bead ^amra^ara-. * This sign of punctuation i 

* Tne nauae F^^Arajj^|ai?@ is quite clear in the rubbings, both here and in line 10, below* 

* This word also is clear In the Tubbings, and the reading is not Icramdg&miJcdn*** 
? Bead *ddhaya. s R^ trfy-snapana-. 
The ie3t is perfectly clear here in the rubbings. The editor in the Kdvyam&ld 

proposes to alter tM@ to $akla&k&gasa<m.yuia*<, 

* This may possiblj have been altered to nashfa in the original. 

Head -Isdla* ** Bed 

14 iBfttead of jraisi3h$ one would have expected 

So. 87.] 
U pay6g.&rtjj an , TT^^ =a===!agB= ^^ ^ 

. 4fT&*^^=^ss 


P^tes are 


iwSdf ^cMefT" ^ ^ ieadman f ' 

of the 



268 EPIGRAPHIA IN DIG A. [Toiu ni 

really is in a state o excellent preservation. The plates are held together by a circular ring 
about y thick and 2f in diameter, which had not been cut when this record came into 
Dr. Fleets hands. The ends of the ring are socketed in a seal, of which the surface is 
circular, about 2$* in diameter. This seal has, in high relief on a counterscmk surface a 
representation of Garuda, with the body of a man and the face of a bird, squatting full-f ront 
with the hands clasped on the breast. The weight of the three plates is 224 tolas, and of the 
rmg and seal, 32J tolas ; total, 256| tolas. The engraving is bold and good. The plates being 
suhstential, the letters, though fairly deep, do not shew through on the reverse sides at all the 
interiors of some of them shew marks of the working of the engraver's tool. _ The size of the 
letters is about &. The characters are Nagarl, and the language is Sanskrit. Up to nearly 
the end of line 39 the inscription, after the introductory 6m 3m namd VindyaTsdya, has 24 verses 
chiefly containing genealogical matter. The rest, being the formal part of the grant, is in prose' 
but includes, in lines 49-50 and 74-82, a well-known verse on the vanity of this life and seven 
of the ordinary benedictive and imprecatory verses. As may be seen from the occasional 
omission of single aksharas and groups of akskaras (e.g. in lines 38 and 54) and from the 
frequent occurrence of wrong letters, the writer has done his work in a rather slovenly manner 
As regards orttiograpljy, the letter b is throughout denoted by the sign for v; the dental 
sibilant is frequently used for the palatal, and the palatal three times for the dental (in atid 
I. 3, tekala, 1. 37, and Jamvatsara, 1. 54) ; and the dental nasal is employed instead of the 
guttural in the words anka, 11. 5, 32, 54 and 89, and Konkana, 1. 56, and instead of the palatal 
in Jednchanam, I. 78. In respect of the language, it may be noted that the text in line 45 offers 
two U-rudas, Malagalaganda, 'a conqueror of mountains (?)/ aud Nannisamudra, 'a sea of 
truth,' which are not Sanskrit, and that it also contains some proper names with Kanarese 
endings, in lines 64 and 85-86. The word dramma, abbreviated to dra, which occurs in lines 
88-89, is often met with in cognate inscriptions. 

The inscription is one of the Silara 1 MahdmandaU^vara AparajitadSva. It clearly 
divides itself into two parts. The first part, up to line 39, gives the genealogy of Aparajita 
himself and of the Batta (or Rashtrakuta) kings, to whom the earlier Stlara chiefs owed 
allegiance; 2 and the second part records the grant of the village of Bh&dana, made by 
Aparajita in Saka-Samvat 919 in favour of (the temple of) the god (Surya under the name) 
Lonaditya, at I>avanetata. ' 

Opening with the words '6m, 6m, adoration to Vinayaka/ the inscription first has two 
verses (one of which is well known to us from Rashtrakuta inscriptions) invoking the protection 
of the gods Vishnu, Siva, and Brahman. It then gives, in verses 3-12, the following complete 
list of the seventeen Bashtrakuta kings from Q6vinda I. to Kakkala -.* I, Odvindaraja ; 2 
Karkaraja; 3, Indraraja; 4, his son Dantivarman ; 5, Karkaraja's son Krishnaraja'; 6 
Oovindaraja; 7, his younger brother Dhruva; 8, his son Jagattunga ; 9 Burlabha 
Amdghavarsha ; 10, his son Krisanaraja; 11, Jagattunga's son Ii^draddva Wityanivarslia " 
12, his son AmSghavarsha, who is said to have ruled for one year; 13, his younger brother 

1 On the tliree branches of the SMra or Silira or SilUbira family see Dr. Bhairvanlal Indraii in /* A 
So*. Vol. XIII. pp. 10-17. On the particular branch of the f ami ly to w hich AparfZ tl on "d ^lr^' 
th Northern Koikan, compare the JBomb Gazetteer, Vol. XIII n 422 ff JnT*K which ruled over 


is like 

Compare Dr. Fket' 8 9*i - Kanarete Dirtrict,, p. 81 fl. ; Dr. Bhandnrkar's Early XMory of the 
D** , p. 47 ff.j and egpeciatly Dr.. Bbandarkar in the JBo. A*. Sac Vol XVIII p 340 ff Jt9m>v ojrtA * 

- ^x-(K.:sr.r^, to :Lri t 


Gdvindaraja Suvarnavarslia ; 14, his paternal uncle, tlie (son. o Jagattuisga and) younger 
brother of Nityamvarsha, Vaddigaddva ; 15, Krishnaraja; 16, Khottigadeva ; and 17, 
Kakfeaia, a son of a prince Nirnpama. It will be seen that this list agrees -with the account 
'yen in Dr. Bhandarkar's J3ct<rly History of the Dekkan, p. 57, as amended by the same scholar 
fa the Journ. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XVIII. p. 240 ft.; and the only points new to us are the name 
Dnrlablia for the first Amoghavarsha (No. 9), and the remark that the second Amoghavaraha 
(No 12) ruled for one year only/ 1 This account of the Rashtrakutas, in verse 13, closes with 
the statement that (when the grant here recorded was made) the last king Kakkala had been 
overthrown by (the Western Chalukya) Tailappa, as a light is extinguished by a fierce wind, 
and that of the once flourishing Batta rule there remained only the memory. 

Verses 14-24 then give the following genealogy of Aparajita himself, already known to us 
from other inscriptions: the mythical beings JimiitakStu and his son Jimutavahana, ' the 
ornament of the iilra family ;* Kapardin; Pulasakti; his son Kapardia; Vappuvanna;* hi. 
son Jhafijha ; his brother aoggiraja 5 his son VajjadadSva ; and his son Aparajita. What is 
new here, is, that Aparajita, according to verse 20, also bore the name Mriganka.s 

After these verses, the proper object of the inscription is stated in prose, in lines 39-66 : 
'After the down-fall of the Batta rule, 4 consequent on the extinction of the Paramathaftdraka 
MMdjctdMrdja ParamMeara, the glorious Kakkaladera, who had meditated on the feet 
of thT P M P., the- glorious KhottigadSva, who in turn had meditated on the feet of the 
PUP, the glorious Krishnarajadeva, (kings) who formerly resided at the famous 
ManyakhStaka,-- the Mahdsdm,,ntddhipati MaMmandalMvara, the glorions AparajxtadeTBi&ja, 
who by virtue of his might has attained the pafchamahMabda, and is adorned with such titles 
as "the supreme lord of Tagarapttra, the Silara prince, he who is begotten, in the lineage of 
JimMaTanana, who has a golden Garuda in his ensign, a great ocean of pnde a conqueror of 
mountains (?), B a god of love among heroes,* the possessor of annate knowledge,? the ^frontal 
ornament of the Western Region, a sea of truth, a sun of fierce sp^^ Santvtra^aya , 
.to., ..... informs all persons as they may be concerned the future occupant* , of the 
village (to be mentioned below), feudatories, rdjaputras and heads of towns, and the chief and 

i Beside, verse 11 may possibly contain an allusion to the imprisonment of K^bmrfija (No. 16) by <me f 
Ms adversaries 5 see page 272 below, note 6. ,* whi^li n 

It xnay be noSd that, by the strict wording of verse 17, the ^ V '""' ^ I 
onght to be taken as another ame of the second Kapardin, spoken of in ran. 16. Bat the 
distinctly call Yappuvanna the Bon of the yonngcr Kapardin. 

tt eem 8 impossible to take the word mr****** 5n Terse 20 m any other * in 

* As thi 8 event had taken place tw euty-for years before ^f^*^y^^ . L* OB 

the formal part of the inscription commences shows, * ^"'^"^^TS. ^ ^known inscriptiom of 

customary way be retained, even after the occasion for them has ceased to oak. The later *no 

the Sllara family contain no reference to the Kashtraktitas. chiefs' Ind. An*. Vol. XX. 

* With vJlaffala-ganda compare alap*rol**'9*+ '*** * 'T^ a hBl^- B. H-3 

p. 804, note 8. [Perhaps 'malagala is meant for maUg^ gen. plnr. of M a . ^ 3 . 3 f o j tiltdrm , a. 

With ,*<"><*? ^mpare, e.g., Ma^a-Kandarfa, ib. Vol. XIL P- *>*> 3 . 

T -yalso meaa 'by nature a Vidyadhara , ' compare -^^ 0. 

,hich X cannot o ff er - > 

** *- 

270 EP1GRAPHIA INDICA. [Vol.. Ill 

tends of the superintending people of the town of Ghmapura (P), the merchants AmM-sreshthin 
and V&ppaiya-SreslttMiL, tibe priest (bJiojaJka) Ch&lappaiyu, the Br&hma^a Govanaiya, and 
others, and having worshipped with pure faith Hari ( Vishnu) 9 Hara (Siva)* Hiranjiyag'aarliia 
(Brahman), Agni, and other gods, gave the Tillage of Blaad^na, in the Ufi&irlhfixa msha^a&i 
Kofikana which contains 1,400 villages, , * to (the temple of) the illuminator 
of the three -worlds, the holy god ILdn&Mtya at !Lavaii6tata 9 for the purpose of providing' flowers^ 
perfumes, lights, offerings of eatables, piiblie shows 3 etc., and for keeping the doora and other 
parts (of the temple) in proper repair/ 

The village of BMdana s so granted, (according to lines 57-62) was bounded on the north 
"by a bMnndra (?) field of the village of Padigah.a f on the west by (the village of) ABaehcliliadi, 
oa the south by the great river Murula, and on the east by the river Kizmfolxtoi ; and was 
given with its rows of trees, up to its proper boundaries, with the udranga and parikara, 1 with 
the exception of what had been previously given to gods and Br&hmaz^as, but together with 
(the fines imposed for the commission of) certain great and lesser offences, 3 and with, the 
privilege that it was not to be entered by the irregular or regular troops. 

Lines 66-82 contain the usual injunction to preserve this grant intact, threaten with 
spiritual punishment those who might interfere with its provisions, and quote seven of the 
ordinary benedictive and imprecatory verses* The inscription then (in line 82) continues time : 
* In confirmation of the above, the MaJidmandalevar& 9 tie glorious* Apa^jitedvar&j t as it put 
down (here) by the writer's hand that this is his decree, (in the words) " such is my decree, 
that of the glorious Apar&jitad^varja/ f (issued) while by the glorious king's 8 appointment 
the illustrious Sa&galaaya is MaJtdmdtya 41 and the illustrious Sihappaiya Mahdsdndhivigrahikaf 
This charter 6 has been written at the direction of Sangalaiya (?) by Ms son and deputy 
Annappaiya. It is deposited at Sthfinaka, Everything without exception that is written here, 
be it right or wrong, should be regarded as authoritative/ 

Lines 87-89 then record an additional settlement by which the town (it is not clear which. 
town?) was to give every year 260 dramnias, I do not understand for wLat exact purpose. And 
the inscription ends with the vordfl & bliss, great fortune/ 

The date of tMs inscription is not quite regular* In Safca-Saikvat 919 rarpired, which 
by the southern luni-solar system wa$ the Jovian yearH^malamba, the DakshinS-yana (Karkata) 
Samkr&nti took place 22 lu 13 m. after mean sunrise of the 24th June, AD* 997 3 dining the 
second tifhi of the dart half of the amdnta Ash&dha ; and the fourth tifhi of the dark half of the 
wme Ash&dha commenced Oh. 43 m. and ended 21h. 52 m. after mean sunrise of the 26th June, 
AJD. 997. Judging "by a large number of other dates, any rite specially connected with the 
Samkranti shcrald in this case have "been performed on the 25th June, and this day should have 
Inaen described in the text as the second of the dark half, both hecanse the second tftJiA ended on 
its S h. 7 XD. after -mean 8-mm.m, and because the Saodar&ati took place during' that tithi* As no 
^eek-day is given, it is impossible to say whether tbe 95tk or the 26th. Jiame s A JD. 09T f is the 
exact day of the grant. 

1 This word is used here m elsewhere for ibe ixwre common wpcm&ava $ compare, .#., page 109 alaove^ note 7. 

* Ube first baif of line 61 of the text I do not f ully understand ^ &umdrt-*Ma*o (if tbi T>e tbe conrect 
izig) wocald of eon* se be 4 vioteuea ofieTed to a ( girL J 

8 Tbe term of the original (in Hue M) is /Ht(M)^da&i-f'4?a > tbe king wlio has fai m Ms UrudaS Compare 
ibe expression 4*MinriM&a (?) used with tefeirei*ee to Apavftjita, in As. M*&. Vol. I* p. 3&7, last line of tbe litho- 
graph, and I*&. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 34, 1. 33. 

* i,0- * great minister/ 

%e. * great minister for peace and war/ a Sihapaiya is mentioned as minister tor peaee and war i tbe 
$Qg graafc o Chfaitt*w>ajad$v& of Saka-Samvat 048, 1d. Ant. VoL V. p. 
M+ tbe original of it, of which Ibe copper-plates iurmab a 
In all pffohabtiitd it was 


Of the localities and rivers mentioned in the inscription, BMdana-grama clearly is the 
Tillage of * Bhadanah * or * Badana * of the maps, about mine miles east by north from Bhiwandi. 
Two miles north of it is the Tillage of * Padg&a* or e Padghe * or * Padgieli, * the IPadigatta- 
grSma of the grant ; and east of it is a small river, the 6 Knmbari 5 or f Kontbaree, * tie Kum 
tohfirl of the inscription. This river flows into tie UlMs, which, flowing generally from north- 
east to south-west, might fairly be called tie southern boundary of BMd&aa, and is BO donM 
the great river Mumia of the grant. The maps do not shew anything corresponding to 
ancient village of Asaehelihadi, which was OB the "west of - Lavanetata Is tlbe 
modern village of Ldg&d, six miles south-east of Bhiwaridi and. half a mile nortlx of the Ulhis 
Ti'veTy a place where there are many ruins of ancient temples ;* and Sth&naka or 3rl~Sth&ia&a of 
course is the town of Tfaana. The town of G-imapnra (?) and the place from which the 
hftra msTiaya was called , I am unable to identify. 

First Plate. 

pi*] Om Bamo Viniysk&ya \\ Sa 4 T&=vyM=T^dlias4 di&[ma] 
nabH-kamalam kritam [|*] Hara==cha yasya ka- 
2 nt-^mdn-kalay^ kam=^la3iikritam H [1*] 


3 gat-srish-ti-nama-dliaiB^ni vah su(Sn)bhani j| [2*] 

kahitipa[ti*] -tilakah Karkka^a ja- 

4 stat&=biiud^bli4-blLartti sr-IndrarjaCk^3 pTmar=ablm[a3d=at6 

snnah [1*] khyatah sri^KrisbnarJa|li^| 

5 fcshapita-ripnr=abh-at=Karkkar43asya suiauh 6 tad- 

anujah gri-Dlrniv-&nk6(nk6) =dhi~ 

6 rajatt \\ [3*] ^JagattuAg^g6)*^ajaBtasy { 

7 tah ButaK II [4^] Jagattnmg-&mgajah griinto^laiimdevaa^tatS^btaYa^ [I*] 

Wityamirarslio 9 bhnTO bliartta Yikram-6fcum<ttiirii)- 

8 ga-laksMtah || [5*] 

r&jya-bh&jano jatah || [6*] ^asy-Anujd Hkriz^iir^[ddh ?>ra P]- 

10 [1*3 Ba > [n-*]na[m]aBkE(k6)^ehyitta(ta)-siidaran 
ehitnah. si[rii]liasaid gnru-ira(ba)lah pnnmho-fefea- 

11 md-bbfti* II [7^3 Pitriyyaii* 3 SvaTimaTarBha^a NityasiTarsSi-ftiitijagsciLirasi [1*] 

knrvaBH=akamtaka[m] rajyam tapasa saha- 

12 staa eta II [8*3 Tasmad-bMpat^h 14 sftinar*'5 fl reddfgad4vd [1*3 

SB (ma) 

* See tb ^oia^ C?azan Vol. XIV. p. 211 if. s From topressiow pirepaTea by Dr. Fleet. 

3 Expressed by a symbol, * Metre: fAmisbtttbfa) 3 Budof -ftewxt vme. 

5 Metre: Sragdhfti4. s Bead s4nn^ta\ 

" Metre: SIdka, (ABtishtobb} ; and of Hie next verse* * Emi ^^%5. 

5 So tbis name Is deatl^ wrliteai botb ber sisd below. 
Metre : GitL 32 Rea^ -i?Mfrf* ! . n : 

Metre : gl^a <Aiuislitnb1i) ; a^d of the next Terse ^ 

Tbe reading is ^nite clear iiere IB tie origiaftl, tat ^ m tl tnct. of 

would limm |*etei Jw********- Tfe@ in BM SS Ao 



13 pi cha dpsyat6 II [9*] Atha 1 gataTati tasmia=Vaddlg'6tm^]dr& nar&dra* 

Buvimalamsapi !ambhQr=dv&(ddM)ma suja 3 

14 TidMtmm [|*] kanaka-ka1asa-dli&r&-dliaiita-p&t=6va 4 kany& tad=aira 

|| [10*] 

15 &Asminn=astemIt6 Tisau(bhan) 

sa (Sa) ttru-pamjaram- 

16 dM s slird(pr6)tkri8lita-r6cliislimati 

tafcak " grfma 

17 ddYB, ity=abMdtar& rftjya-sthitd bMpatih || [11*] 8 Tad=ann Madana~mftrtta[iiL*3 


nar&mdram narapa- 

Second Plate; First Side* 

19 ti-faifca*svam r&ja^Iakslimirsjjagftma II [12*] 9 Tasmin 

prachanda~T ai]lappa[sa] - 

20 mSn* samprS,pit6^jyoti[r=alam ?] l -vivirlddhS ka[th-ava]bMs6 11 sati Batta- 

rAjyA II II [13*] 

21 J2 Jimiitaltdtii-taiiay6[s:]vatat&ra y6=smin 18 Jimfttavahana iti pratMtaJtt ppitliivyfim 

[!] Sip&l- 

22 ieavajiisa(ga-tilak^h sTa-Sarfra-d&nat=tr&t& M I6kamsauagtas=oTia GamtmataL. 

23 ta-maarddl tasya Ta3iis6(S6) Kaparddl dalita-ripu-kadamva(mba)h pr&Bin&m prana- 

dah sah ||(I) samara~sarana(ni)~ 

H [15*] Vipnla-maii[r=ud$]mriali 

25 EjamiaaTat=:STai?nna-Tarslia% 

abliaTad=ilia na d!na8=tasya 

26 rddl Jita-pam-Ta(ba)la-dand-&klianda-p|itlivS4aru )| [16*] 

Butas=tasmM=TTa|^pTi]imiiii^d 17 ^ II (I) udi[t6]- 

27 ditaiA y^na vamfiasya prakatikrM || [17*] Bhr&ta 18 tat& Yi"vn(bu)dlia.ratiia. 

gim..alka-k6^ah. pAjyah pay6dhir=iTa ra- 

28 kBhita-gfitra-pakshak | lakshmi-Bidhit Sag-ararEJa-patha-pra-Vflttah. gri-Ooggir&ja 

iti aa[t*] iva-sam&gray 6=bM- 

29 t || [18*] 19 PM-ikraiate-k|i(Bi|iP)t.&rivargga-TanM^ sa grf. 

1 Metre : M&Iint Bead n<zr$mdr&. s Rmd Aidilram (?). 

4 Bead gdfr**$v&. s Metres Sdrddlavifcri^It. 

g This reading is quite clear in the original* but I donbt its being- correct. In the place of rzidhi I should 
expected a substantive, expressing 1 that from which K?ishr&arllJ& derived additional splendour. Perhaps wa 
should read vucM, an<l asstime that Kpsbnarftja bed been Imprisoned by one of bid oppoitent. 

T Bead fttdMtv*. 8 Metre : M&linL * Metre : Upaj&ti. 

10 I am very doubtful about fcba correctness of tbe tym fo&a9*&s in these braoket. Th Erst of them is 
illegibly and the second looks rather like tm or M 

M 1 should haire expected here Jcth-$v (&$&$&&. 

ss Metre: VasantntilaklL Bead ***mi*i*Jf. 

14 [These words allude to a legend wbjob is told in the K&*&$art$@& i $&p&t tar^itsga xxii., and which form 
subject of the drama Nagdnand&.~*~ IS. H.] 

as Metre; Mftlini; and of the uast Terse. ^ Metres Sldk 

J " Thei sHsond mk&h&r of this narae whicb 1 read ppw^ might poitiililj be read 

a Metre : Tn^aiitntilaka. The first word look iu tbe originnl rather Ilk 


30 tmaj& bb.ftbli.ujab. 

yasya tyaga-mah&tsava-vri(Yya)- 

31 [ti]kar6 n=ady=api vi[Sr]amyati H [19*] Muiavarata-daiia-Silab. pratapaYan=niti- 

vid=yas6(g6)-nilayali | su- 

32 mis=tasya Mriganka(nka)^ grfman=Aparajitd jatab. || [20*] 3Krftr-&rati-YaHjak 

sukirtti-bbavanam kalpa-dru[ma]h. pra- 

33 rthinam sthanam n^tra-mu(sn)khasya Tai(dtai)rya-jaladljili saukhyasya kand- 

amkurali [[*] sad-vidya-nilayah. kala-ma[dlxa]-sa. 
34. riD=nitau " cha Vachaspatiti B adTa(ddlm)rma-drQma.bh4mir=utiama-matir=LakslmiJ- 

nivaa-asyadab.3 || [21*] 4 Vis[rita]-ma[t]i- 
35 viv^ki 6 dharma-tanDishtlxa-ciitti5 

36 prarfchinam p^rit-as6(go) ripuvara-kari-si[m]li6 raja-dhniyah prasiddhah || [22 ] 


37 sat-saimi|>fc ?]afc(fi&) nimpa IQ ft-idia.MrttatL(tti.)[vy]apta.l5katray6 yah [|*] api 


Second Plate ; Second Side. 

38 *ikka(ahka)laihk& mabita-charita-bMgyah sMliifc.Mfcl(fa)ttn* II [23*] Yasya 

prataya(pa)-tapita-dn8tt4 sa? ^ ,.,..,. . 

xtai^astam tad- 

39 *a 

abhyadbikab 11 U [24*] M P^rwam Srf-Ma- ^ 


-' A AJ2 , 



adbipati-TagarapTira-pa- A^T,,*; 

44 ram^ (iva) ra -Siiara-nargmdra^miitavah a ix.aiiTayapra S 4ta.Suvar W aga r u d a d h T a 3 - 

46 ^-ai-sa^^aiav^^^ (s v a) r a-s r i m a d- 

) agami-grama- 


48 S 

49 T* s^dlta,, yath, H OUIF ** 

yauranam Kyitanta-dant-antara 



50 rtti jiYita[m |*] tatlL=&py=avajaa, para-16ka-sadhaxi 

T6(ctie)shtitam || saka- 

51 lam=etad=as*aratay=adMshtliitaiii vinasTO(gYa)ra~sYabhaYam dharma ev=aikah 

sah&yah sa(sa)sTa(sva)t3S=cli=ai(e)ti kl(ri)- 

nhty=tem&bhir=ayam pitror=[ai*]Hk-amuslimika-plial-avaptaye(ya) 


53 ye " "|| l Sa(sa)kaiirips-kal-atita-sainiratsara- s sa(sa)tesliti 

ekonavimsaty-uttaresliii pravarttama- 

54 na-Hemalamva(mtoa)-samTatsar- 3 aiita Asliadlia-va(taa)liiila-e]iatiisy 

aBka(nka)to=*pi samvat^ 910 AsM-dha-vadi 4 

55 sri-St&anake samavasthitasya grimato rfi,jnali prast&vS samjata-dakshinayana- 

58 parwani su(sn) bt-abhyudaya-kS-rini chatTXrddasagramaat-6paIaksMta*Koiifca(iika)iL- 

57 Mrikara-vishay-anna (nta) rvra[r* ] ti-Bhadana-gramd y asy a cli=agliatan&ii i (iiy =) 

nttaratah Padigalia-gra- 

TJiird Plate ; First Side. 

58 miya- [bli?]mnLra-ksli^tra-maryada pascMmataK 5 Asachch 1 liacii~marYad& daksliinataK 6 

59 dl pizrvratali Elionbliari-nadJ-iaaryada 7 Svam nikata-chatnr-&gli&tan-6palaksliitalL 


60 laktdah STasimlt-paiyaiitalt at dramgah saparikarali 

Tra(bra)liinad4ya- varja [rh*] 

61 nldlia[ii]alipaka[]h. ?] 8 kumaro(ri)s^Iias-apntradi [dha?]na-prad]a& 

vitali 9 achatablaa* 

62 tta(ta)prave[g]yah 10 jaga[t*]tray"6[d*]dy6takar%a Lava^etata-iiivasin^ srl- 

LSnadityadevaya pnstpa- 

63 [dM]na(pa)-dipa-:DalYMya-prksh^ n klianda-spliatikasplnitita- 

64 clia i5i Amvii(mbu)sre(s^ 

vipraG&vamaiy-.adi-G-Tinapatira(?)- 14 

65 Bagar-adliislitliita-liast&dakairi Tidhaya Hari-Hara-Himnyagarbha- Datan-adSn 

devan(n-) amala-gra[ddlia]- 

66 y& saihpiijya clia putra-pautr-ady-upablioga-vrittifcTeiLa gramah sampradattas= 

ta[ih ?] dastain&cliaiiidr-^arkka-k^la-ma'" 

67 ryMam yasvi(tM P)chchli-&cha[r36[9a] l>]ximijat& bMjayato v& lia(kri)sliataJb 

karstayatd T& na 

i Tbis sign of pnnctoation IB 8 yperuotis. - a Eead ^ 

s Bead -samvatmr- ; one would expect bere ~$amvatsar 
4 Bead tarn**. Bead mata. 

7 Bead O d=afoe& ; tlie word waryddd (after wa^) appears superfluous, 
This sigti of vkaja appeaw to have been originally omitted aa to bare been added afterwards. I do 
not understand the sense of the original text. 

9 Bead "W-eW. 10 Bead 

w The word spJiafi'ha appears to he entirely out of place here 
Bead Q 

This correction appears to have heen made in the original 

e three lines wh!ch denoto 

Bead %aA r 












karya ki[m*] tarbi sarrvad=aiva 

pradatta iti mautavya[m] A 

[n]=atra visTiayS parasparam=anyat6 va panlamghana vidliatavya LH J iaa ~ 

idam db.arma-danam=a-cliaihdr-arkka- 
kaiaro stbayi gamagami-nripatlbWr=asinad.Tamaiair=anyair=vv^ asat-karma- 

A i 

slia) [D.]-avicM-ni[ra*]ya- 


=api pratipalaniyam 


sa eva P axnchabh3r= 


cha bgavat.a Vya[6>a I! 
tiatthati bMmi-dalL | abholih6tta(tfca) 
ct[nu] m amta' cha ttoy<T] narakam vraj^t II 


Suiya-stita=clia ga- 

Third Plate -, Second Side. 

pbalam II TSa^B^ta^bbavi^ P^__^^ ra ^ m Anto^^Bh* dlxarma- 
80 riMT-^mdran bb.uy6 bbuyo yacliate 





SthanakS dknrvam II 

- , 
1 Head = 

t Hrtn : Slk. 


u This 

of putJOtuation appear* to haw teen strnck 



2 H 2 


87 Yat=kim=api likhitam ynktam=ayuktamL tad=aesham=api pramana-bh&tam 

vijSayani 1 | Titha 2 bhuy6=pi 

88 vyavastM eh=atra nanvavy& vasha prativirsha 3 nagarena rajakulasya 

arbhan&bhavyartham* prarmmanau 5 

89 %hashtha(shtya)dhika-atadvayam=anka(nka)t&=pi dra 260 datavyani {"1)*] 

Mamgala[m*j mabasiit(r)=iti (| 


Tirukkalukkunyam, or Pakshitirtham as it is called in Sanskrit, is a large Tillage in the 
Chingleput district on the road f rom Ohingleput to the port of Sadras, about half-way between 
both. There are two temples, one in the village of Tirukkalukkunram, called VMagirisvara, 
and another, named Bhaktavatsala, on a neighbouring hill. Of the fora- subjoined inscriptions, 
which are engraved on the wall of the strong-room (tiruv-dbharana-1cotta&) of the 
VSdagirfsvara temple, three were already published in the Madras Christian College Magazine ? 
from pencil transcripts prepared by myself on the spot. At the suggestion of the Editor, I BOW 
republisb, from inked estampages, these three inscriptions, along with a fourth, which was not 
yet published, but only referred to in one of my former articles. 8 

That part of the wall where these inscriptions are found, is disfigured by a number of 
mason's marks, which are noticed in the footnotes to the texts. These marks consist, in most 
cases, of Tamil numerals, engraved probably before attempting to pull down the wall with a 
view to repair the temple. The numerals would indicate the order in which the stones had to 
be arranged while rebuilding the wall. This custom of marking is still prevalent in Southern 
India, as may be seen on the walls of the temples at Madura and Chidambaram, which have 
been lately repaired, and of the Ekamranatha temple at Conjeeveram, which is now undergoing 
repair. In these places the numerals are not cut with the chisel as at Tirukkajukkunram, but 
painted on the stones with tar or chunnam. The alphabet and language of the four subjoined 
inscriptions is Tamil; but a number of words of Sanskrit origin are written either wholly 
or partially in Grantlia characters. The following is a list of such words and syllables, with 
the exception of the two words svasti M, which occur at the beginning of every one of these 
inscriptions and are, as a matter of course, written in the Grantha alphabet. 

e lf Uv=ird 3 a > sa of Msa > aDd farmrna (for varma) ; 1. 3, Srl-M&lasthdna ; L 4, 
; 1. 5, MA of NaraMtiga; 1. 6, ralcsU; pfowa at the end of 1. 7; 1. 8, r&jd of 
al, raja and [sa]r* of Rdjateaari ; 1. 9, rmma and d&harmam rakaht. 

i a o W^porasl. 4, ^M&lattA {for M&larthd ); 1.7, U of ; 

L 9, f ;f; (&r n dr-ddf>), [ (for "AZftarmam), rakshi, and * ; ?bhaf] at the begin' 
mng of 1. 10. s 

1 Read vijntyam (P). * Read 

the ori^ mantav * d S' tM & Pnrt-****; the sign of the vowel I of el* fc almoat certainly struck out in 

I m tmable to nggeat a proper correction, but believe ariland to stand for arha-nA. 
* Rend drammtqi. 

tbe or ^ nal witt **^. "* 4-AfUOa. i. engraved b e lo W Malaya, in . 
Vol. VIIL p. 267 if. d ToL IX, p. 746 *. W . Vol. IX. p. 748 f . 

Bhadana Gmnt of Aparajftadeva.-- Saka.Samvaf 






In C. line 1, frt of M-Kannara ; de at the beginning of 1. 2 ; 1. 3, fri-Mtttasttf* (for 
M&lasthd ') ; ^a, at the end of 1. 5 ; 1. 6, tr-dditya (for dr-dcfo'fya), j?a of pan, MdhSsvara, and 
raJcsJiai ; 1. 7, <jfe of Qengai', 1. 9, sabhai. 

In D. 1. 2, de of cfc?ua ; 4ri-M&lastcP (for M&lastbd ') at the end of 1. 4 ; 5M of JMnw at the 
beginning of 1. 9 ; 1. 10, agni ; 1. 11, &o.bhai ; 1. 12, dravya and ^awir-^cZi (for efcaneZr-adi ) ; 1. 13, 
tta of ariM and dharmma (for <&ZJiarMi) ; 1. 14, raksM and d&a[mma] (for ddharmti) ; 
0e and <?a* of Qengai at the beginning of I. 15 ; the second pa of ^>a in 1. Id. 


This inscription is dated in the 27th year of the reign of Eajakesarivarman, and records 
the renewal of a grant which had been made by a king called Skandasishya and confirmed by 
another king, VStapi konda Narasimgappottaradyar. Skandaishya is probably synonymous 
with Skandavarman, a name -which occurs repeatedly in the genealogy of an early branch of 
the Pallavas, 1 whose grants are dated from Palakkada, Dasanapnra and Kanchlpnra. 8 Though 
we have no materials for identifying this king, yet it is certain that he jwas one o the 
predecessors of the other Pallava king who is mentioned in the inscription. This^ IB 
Naragimgappottaraiyar.3 which is a Tamil form of the Sanskrit name of the Pallara king 
Narasimhavarman. The epithet Vatapi konda, 'wfco took Vatapi,' which is given to the 
king, enables ns to identify him with certainty with the Pallava king UTaraaimhavarmaii I. 
who is described both in the Kurarn plates of Paramelvaravarman I . and in the TTdayendiram 
plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla* as the destroyer of Tatapi and as the enemy of 
Pulikesin (H.) alias VaUabharaja. The Singhalese chronicle Mahdvamsa also refers to this 
war between Karasimha and Vallabha, in which Manavamma, one of the claimants to the 
kingdom of Ceylon, who was then residing in India, rendered substantial service to the Pallava 
king 6 The Periyapurdnam, a Tamil work which narrates the lives of the sixty-three devotees 
of liva, and some of the statements made in which have been confirmed by recent epigrapbical 
discoveries 7 refers to the destruction of Vatapi in the account of the life of one of the devotees, 
via Siruttonda-Hayaear. It is reported that this devotee, who was originally a military man, 
reduced to dust the old city of Vatspi for his master, whose name is not given, but who 
must undoubtedly have been the PaJJava king Narasimhavarman I. who destroyed Vatap* 
according to the Pallaya inscriptions. 

According to the PeriyapvrdpHn, Siruttonda-iraya 3 ar was visited at his own vfflage by 
the great Saiva devotee TiruMnasambandar,' and the latter mentions Sirutto^ by name m 

f AePaUav* 

e grea ava ev , 

one of hi8 hymns." Thus TiruSanasambandar was a contemporary of a general of 
king Narasihavarman L, whose enemy was the Western Ohalukya knxg Pulikesm II. Tie 

derives the name of Pallava, the supposed ancestor of the PallaTO dynasty. B. H.J 
4 Sovt'h-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I. p. 152. 
Salem Manual, Vol. II. p. 359. 
L. G. Wijesinha'a Translation pp. 41 to 43 . ^ reference to the 


- -- 

have been generally knmn during the time ^^^ ard Madraa edition of 1870, P.rt II. J. 31, 

' J?en<t*ra*am t ^ 

6* .-IL.-J >> oft 

. 9 . 318, *. . P- 98- 


atttmmmate date derived from tMs synchronism for the great devotee is confirmed by the f ir , 7 
that he was a younger contemporary of another devotee, called Tirunavukfcaraiyar or App^r, 
who was firsb persecuted and then patronised by an unnamed Pallava king. One of this k^ ... 
surnames appears tohavebeen Gurtadhara, because a feudatory of his is said to have boilt ^ 
female of Siva, and called it Gunadaraviehcharam, ^.e. Gunadhara-Isvara, probably after K* 
overlord i In an archaic inBcription in the cave at Vallam near Chingleput, which will y^ 
tmblisbed in South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. II. Part III., reference is made to a king call 
Mafcendrapdtaraja alias GunaTbHara, whom Dr. Hnltzsch has identified with either of the t-r : 
Maheadravarman's mentioned in the TJdayendiram plates of Nandivarman Pallavamalla.* A . 
the difference between the names Gunadhara and Gunabhara is very slight, Mahendrap&taaA; n 
alias Gunabhara of the Vallam inscription maybe identified with Gunadhara, who, aceordfc ^ 
to the Periyapurdnam, first persecuted and then patronised Tirunavakkaraiyar. As this devoir 
was an elder contemporary of Tirunanasambandar, who, as I have shown, lived during the time 
of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I., it is clear that the Mahendrapdtarija oWa* 
Gunabhara of the Vallam inscription, whom I propose to identify with the Gunadhara of tfc ^ 
P^napurdnam, could only be MahSadravarmanl., the father of Ifarasimhavarman L Thus 
we arrive at the conclusion that the two great Saiva devotees Tirunavukkaraiyar and 
Tirunanasambandar, whose time has been the subject of controversy for a long time,* weir c 
contemporaries of the two Pallava kings Mahendravarman I. and Narasimhavarman I.. 
respectively This result is important for the history of Tamil literature, as it fixes the date of 
two thirds of the collection of Saiva hymns, which goes by the name of Dtodram and which i* 
ascribed to Tirnt^vukltaraiyaT, Tirufianasambandaar, and Sundaramurti-Nayanar. The 
date of the last of the three authors cannot yet be settled ; but he must have been later thaa 
the two others, because he refers to them by name in the hymn which is knowa as the 

As regards the king RajafcSsarivarman during whose reign the subjoined inscription was 
ensraved, we do not possess sufficient data for his identification. The name Rajak&arivarmac 
giuUets that the king was a Ch6Ja, because the Barnes Bajakeaarm and Parakesarin are said to 
have been borne alternately by the Ohola kings* and are actually applied to a large number of 
them in their inscriptions.? The archaic characters in which the subjoined inscription is 
engraved, show that, if the king was a Chdla, he waS probably not a successor but an ancestor of 
Parantaka I. This conclusion is supported by the comparatively frequent occurrence of fee 
virdma or, as it is called in Tamil, tfcejpttZZ*, which is marked in no less than twenty cases m 
this short inscription, while in a pretty long inscription of Madirai konda Parak6sanyarman,j.e. 
Parantaka I., the pftt occurs only five times. 8 The occasional occurrence of the pullt has been 
noticed also in two other archaic inscriptions,* 3jttt this ,sign is Dver met with in the inscription** 

1 ibid. Part I. p. 184, verses 145 and 146. 

4 Dr. Hnltzseh's Annual Report for 1892-93, p. 2, paragraph 7. 

* See the Table of synchronisms on page 11 of South-Indian ln*e*lptio*s> vol. I. 

* Madras Christian, College Magazine, Vol. IX. Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 9. . temrfe ut 
> t. e. the list of the devotees (of Siva,).' SundaramArti is .said to hav* sang *hi* hynm in the tmpie 


* ArcZceoloffieal Survey of Southern India, Vol. iy. p. 206, 1. 19 . 

* See Dr. Hultzsch's Annual Zeport for 1891-92, pp. 4 to . 

8 Sovt^-Indiem Inscriptions, Vol. I. p. 118. . _ ._ r ,. T .*na*. 

* In the Tamil portion of the Ktom ptete. of P*m6S*.*va*um I-, *^^ ^J'^^J^STS 
Vol. I, the t*& Lars m combteation^th sewn letter of the Tami} alphabet. In f e ^^^ 
Sanajppdfctaralyfts, published in the Madras Christian College Maffasi**, Vol. VIII. ?.., tney it 

in six eases. In these two inscriptions as well as in the one quoted in the preceding note, the pvi <* u ! 

vertical stroke placed over the letter, while, in the TirnkkalukknTH^m inscription of R&sakesarivarumn, it ae- 
by a peculiar crooked line which is not always nn5orm in its course. 



o BAjarAjaddva &nd in all subsequent Tamil Inscriptions. Assuming that the cessation of tie 

employment of the pidli was gradual, the comparative frequency of its occurrence may be usei 

as an argument to establish the priority of the present inscription to the time of Parintaka I 

Again, in the subjoined inscription, the upper horizontal strokes peculiar to certain Tamil 

letters are represented by slight curves opening upwards, which remind of similar corves 

in the corresponding letters of the Sanskrit inscriptions of the Pallaya kings R&jasimlia and 

Mahdndrayarman at Coirjeeveram. On palasogra'phical grounds we must, therefore, conclude 

that this is one of the oldest Tamil inscriptions yet discovered, though we cannot" ascertain even 

its approximate ^date. The contents of the inscription do not furnish any materials for this 

purpose. R&jakesarivarman renewed, at the request of a certain Puttan (Le. Buddha), a 

grant which had "been Dsade by Skandasishya and confirmed by IS T arasimhavarmaB 7 both * o f 

whom are spoken of as ;c former kings " (pwva^akkal), It is not said what the nature of the 

grant was that had originally been made by Skandasishya, nor do we learn the circumstances 

that led to the petition (vmnappam) af Puttan for a renewal of the grant. But so much is 

certain that, at the time of BajakesarivarmsB, a portion of the Pallava dominions had passed 

into the hands of the Cholas* 

In this and in the following three inscriptions, Tirnkkalukkunrani is said to have been 
situated in Kalattur-kottam and "in the subdivision (k&ru) called after itself." 1 In the 
Appendix to his Manual of the Chingleput District, Mr. Grole gives a list of JsCtfams <sritfc the 
subdivisions contained in some of them. Among the former he mentions " Kallattur-kottam ?> 
in tie GMngleput t&luk&, which is evidently identical with the Kalatinr-kottam of the 


1 Svasti firi [IP] K6v=IrajakesMlparmma[T*3k]tt 

2 rnbatt-^Iavadu [|] KaCla3ttiirkk6ttattii=ttan 

3 ET3tirukkaliik]iiiiratto s firi-Mfilastb&oattu perunjaii a- 

4 di[galn]kkDL ir[ai]y-iliy=aga Skandastehyan 4 knduitamaiyi- 

5 [1 ^]ppa[di]y^ P&dvi 5 konda Narasimgappot- 
g taraiyarum apparige rakshittamaiyil "A^ditiraiya 

7 n Gunavan magaij Puttaii vinnappattisdl pArvva- 

8 rajakkal^ [vaijtta padije 7 vaitten(n)=Irjake[8a3ripa-s 

9 rmniag.-Sxi, [ I *] i *ddharmmam rakshittan adi en miidi melina fi 


(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! In the twenty-seventh year (of tJte reign) of Mug 

(L. 2.) " Whereas Skandasishya had given (certain land) free from taxes io the feet of 
the god of the holy Hulasthana (temple) at Tiriilskaliikktinram in KalattAr-kotfcsm (and) in 

1 Tb.e actual name of this subdivision was probably Tir 

2 The &&skara$ fram ^a of $a$i toja of raja are eugraved over an erasure. 

f Above tbe tu of Jcunrattu is engraved some letter whieb looks like the modern Tamil ^a aad o-rer the 
word 34last&dna t tbe modern Tamil numeral *twenfcy*oae/ 

* Tbe engraver bad originally written %a instead of /i and then partially erased tbe^ 

5 Tbe reading ydddviar Tdtdpiis also possible; P&d&vi, V4d4vi and Y&t&pi are ancient isaisses of BM&nsiitf 
the Bombay Presidency, 

fi The aJcsharas from jd to f appear to be engraved over an erasure, 

? Over tbe $>avpadt> tlie modern Tamil numeral * five * seems to be engraved. 

11 TbB eagrarer had originally written j& Instead of &a and tfeen orreeted onlj tbe bottom* Ism^ing Ilia top && 
it stood. 


the subdivision called after itself, (and) as, accordingly, BTarasingappettaraiyar, tfce conqueror 
?VWTM ooBtoed (rt. gr**) -the same manixer,- 1, Bajafcesarxvarm^ at the re- 
qLst S Puttas, the son of CKuiava^ of A*dTi*ai, have mamtarned (the grant) as former 
kimgs Had maintained it. ? 

(L. 9.) " The feet of one who protects this charily, shall be on my head I 


This inscription is now published for the first time. It is dated during the 13th year of the 
trim of Madirai Itonda Parakesad-varmau, and records the gift of a perpetual lamp to the 
Tirnkkalukkunraoi temple. Madirai ko*da means who- took Madirai (** . Uadbuzft V and b 
synonymous with the Sanskrit Madhurantaka, a name which is Applied in the large Leyden 
anmt to two of the successors of Parantaka I* Several inscriptions of Madirai konda 
Krak^saiivarman hare already been published, three from the Kailasan&tha temple at Conjee- 
verams and one from Tirapp4ndurutti near Tanjore.* The endorsement on the TTday&idiram 
rfates of IfandiTarniaiiS and on those of Nandivarinan PallavamallaS are dated during the reign 
of the same kin^. The Tamil portion of the TTdayndiram plates of the Ganga-Bana king 
PrithiTtpati II alias Hastimalla belongs to the reign of the same Madirai konda ParaksariYar- 
m'an? and implies that he bore the surname Viraii6ryana.8 In the Sanskrit portion of the same 
grant, the two names Viran&riyaiia^ and POrifettka 1 * are used- for the Ch&la king. In the 
larve Iieyden grant the name Parantaka alone appears- 11 In both of these qopper-plate grants, 
he is said to have been the son of the Chola king Aditya (I.) and the grandson of Vijaylaya, 
From the Udayndiram plates we learn that he uprooted the B,na king* 2 and gave the B&na 
territory to his Gangs feudatory PritMvipati H^ He conquered the P^ndya kinglRajasiihha 1 * 
and defeated the army of the king of Ceylon. 15 This event appears to be referred to in the 
Mah&vamsa when it says that the Singhalese king Kassapa V. sent an array to aid the Pandya 
Mug against the Chola, but that the expedition was not successful- Kassapa V. is supposed 
to have reigned from A.D. 929 to 939. 1 ? If the chronology of this portion of the MaMv&msa 
can be relied upon, 1 * we can get to a nearer approximation -with regard to the date of 
Par&ntaka I. than what is furnished by the JLtakur inscription, from which it appears that 
this king's eldesc son B&j&ditya had been killed before A.D. 950, In the verse which refers to 
Par&niaka I. the KaUngattu-Parani mentions the conquest of Ceylon and Madhtir,. 19 The large 
Leyden grant says that Parantaka I. covered with gold the Siva temple at Vyaghragrahara, 2 <> 
which is a Sanskrit rendering of Puliyur, one of the Tamil names of CMdambaram. This 
evidently means that he built the so-called KaixakasabhS or Golden Hall at Chidambaram. In the 
collection of Saiva hymns known as TiruvifaippA, there is a poem composed by Kandaradittar, 

1 i.e. **I woTsMp tlieir feet.** [A similiar captatio benevolenf*& 9 the transcription nd translatioa 
of which must; be changed in accordance wifcli the one given here, occurs In line 9 of the V&iftr inscription of 
K&imarad&va ; Sonth-lndian Inscriptions^ Vol. I. p. 77. H- H.] 

" " s Sonth-Indian Inscription*, VoL I. p. 111. * t*&. Kos. 8& 88 and 145 

* Madras Christian College Magazine* Vol. VIII. p. 104 if. 

s See p. 147 above. 6 Salem Manual* VoL II. p. 859. 7 iMd. p. S71. 

8 The village granted by the inscription was called Viran&rfcya$aehfili&r! after tbe reigning king"- 
Salem Manual VoL II. p. 372, -verse 6, - 10 ttM. p. 37S S verse 25. 

31 ArcfaBotogieal Survey of Soutker* India, VoL IV. p. 206, L 82* 

* Salem Manual* Vol. II* p. 372, verse 9. Ind* Av&. VoL XXIII. p. 296, note 2. 
14 Salem Manual* Vol. II. p. 372, verse II. 1S . ibid, verse 10. 

lf It. C. Wijesmha's Translation, p. 80. z ? Hid. p. xxii. 

* 8 That the chronology of the M&Mva&ts& is not beyond suspicion, has been pointed out by Dr. Hultzach m 
Ms jlmm&al Maport for 1SS1-92, p. 6, note *. 
** Canto viii. verse 23. 

Survey qf Sontfar* IkfftJ VoL IV. p. 206, L 85 f . 


who calls Mmself c Hug of the people of Tafijai (Tanjore) * 1 and wlio was very probably identical 
with Q-andax&dityaTariBaiis mentioned in the large Leyden grant as the second son of Par&utaka 
I. The eighth versa of this hymn refers to a Chola wlio conquered the dominions of the 
IP&adya king and Ceylon* and who was the lord of Uraiyur. It further states that this king 
coTered with gold the hall at CMdamfoaram* The Vikrama>$&la%~Ul& s extracts from which 
were lately published by Mr. V. Kanakasabhai Pillai, mentions a king *-wie> constructed 
a roof of gold to the sacred hall in the temple at OMdambaram.* 2 The Ttruvttaippd and 
the VikTawia-Solan-ITld evidently refer to the event that is mentioned in the large Leyden 
grant as having occurred during the time of Parntaka I* The $Longudga,r&jdkkal 9 a chronicle 
the statements made in which are to be accepted with caution^ notices a real historical eveafc 
when it says that the Ch61a king Viran&i&yagA built the EanakasabM. at Chidambaram. 
From the Uday^iidiram plates it appears that Par&ntaka 1. married the daughter of the 
Kerala king. 4 Leaving aside the numerous unpublished inscriptions of Par&ntaka I., the 
five published ones, which have been found at Oonjeeveram in the ChiBgleput districts 
Tiruppiiiidtoratti near Tanjore, and Udayendiram in the Horth Arcot district, show that 
his dominions must have been very wide* The latest date we have for Mm, is the 36th year 
of his reign. 5 


* 1 Svasti IrS [11*] Madirai konda 

2 saripanmarfeii y&Bdu 

3 Kalattu2>3d5Ldt[ta3ttu tag kftjpi 



7 yaniim ivai| 8 t&y&r CK63yina[figai3 

8 yuznftga v[ai]yt[ta] [uu*]ud4.vilakku o[^iu3 9 [1 *3 

9 idu sa[Btr]-MittavaE [1*] i-tha[r]mma[m*] 1 ^ rakshippir [saj- 
10 bt[ai]yar [||] 

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the tWrteentli year (of the reign) of king ParakSsaiivannim, 
conqueror of Madirai, JTedumSl g&ttaij Sengipperayaa of Kaaraflck&ttar in Amfir- 
kdttam and his mother K6yiangai 1S together gave one perpetual lamp 18 to the god of the 
holy' Mfilasthfina (temple) at TirakJcaiTLklcusram in Kajattfir-kdttam (and) in the subdivision 
called after itself. This (shall last) as long as the moon and the sun (endure). The members 
of the assembly (sab'hd) shall protect this gift. 

* TwjaiyarW* ..... Kaydar&dma* ; !Kr*eXaipp&, Madras edition of 1879, p. 76, vewe 10. 
2nd. JLat. Vol/XXII. p. 142. 

Sle m Manual, Vol. I. pp. 89 and 40. * . - H. P- 372, verse 8. 
6 Dr. HoltzscVs Annual Report for 1891-93, inscripfcicm No. 1OO of 1892. 

Read HXrrilH&ktot&pUu. * Eead ^^*** : , 

In this line th'e Tamil numeral -seven' seems to be engraved over of ; 'twenty-two below the 
a&t&aras van td of tdydr j and ' twenty ' over *gai of *a*fftri. 

The modern TamiJ numeral ' three ' appears to be engraved over r of <>* 
Read i-dd&arnam, " *<* P; " w*i > te 

This name is made op of *6>*7, ' a temple,' ' and o^r**', c aladj. ,-,. T .^,- 

.Z7tuKbf-iri{a** mean* a lamp which doee not require to be trimmed. See S<mt&-rd*<i I**crtptvmt, 

Vol. II. p. 13S, note S. 

2 O 



These two inscriptions are written in bold archaic characters which rasemble vary closely 
those of another inscription of KannaradSva near Vfilte (Vellore),* but are tnore rounded than 
those of other ancient Tamil inscriptions. Both inscriptions: ate dated during the mgft of 
KsnnaxadSTa the first in the 17th and the second in the 19th year. To the naoje of the 
king" is prefixed in both of them the epithet KachcMyTirL-Tsfijaiyiin-konda, *wlio tdofc 
KaekcM and Tafijai.* Kachchi is the ancient Tamil name of KaficMpura (Conjeeveram), the 
capital o the Pallavas, and Tafijai is a shorter form of TBUJ&VUT (Tanjore), the Chdla capital, 
The actual meaning of the attribute appears to b that the king conquered the Faffltava and the 
Chola countries. 

The inscription near Wftr is dated during the 26th year, but here there is no reference 
to the conquest of Kachchi and Taujai. The ArnnachaMsvara temple at TiruvannamaaM in 
the South Arcot district contains two fragmentary inscriptions of Kairaaradvan. 3 As the dig. 
tinguishing epithefc is missing, it is not absolutely certain if the Vlur and Timvamt&malai 
records befong to the same reign as the two Tirukkalukkunram ones: Even if tbis should not 
be the case, the fact that the two subjoined inscriptions are found at Tirukkalukkunram, which 
is within the Pallava dominions, testifies to the correctness of the statement that the king 
conquered the Pallava country* The name Kannara, which is a vulgar form of the Sanskrit 
KrislitL0 3 does not occur among the members of any of the dynasties of the South. Nor is 
it found among those northern dynasties which are known to have invaded the South, except 
among the Bashtraklitas. That this dynasty exercised a considerable influence over the 
history of Southern India, is established by the following facts. 

1. In an inscription of Govinda EEL* 3 this Rashtrakiita king claims to have conquered, 
and levied tribute from, Dantiga 9 the Pallava ruler of Kafichi* 

2. The Udayendiram plates of the Grange king PWLtMvipati IL, who was a tributary of 
the Chola king Partntaka I., appear to refer to an invasion of Amoghavarslia (I.) and its 
repulsion by the Ganga king's grandfather, PritMvipati I> 

3. The Atakur inscription of Saka-Saiirvat 872 reports that Bfttuga, a Ganga feudatory of 
the Rashtrakuta king Krishna (HE.) alias Kannaraddva, treacherously killed the Chdl-a king 
B&jditya in a battle at TaTdtola. 5 The D61i plates of Krishna III*, dated Saka-Samvat 862, 
report that the king killed Dantiga and BappiaiEBy and tha4 he transferred -Hie Ganga territory 
fr@m Kachhy&malla the B&ehamaila of the Atakur inscription. to Bhtitarya. 6 This is 
evidently the Butnga of the Atakur inscription. In hie remarks on the DS&li plates, DR 
Bhaindarkar suggests that Bappuka might be identical with the Ch&la king R&jMitya, 7 who is 
mentioned in the Atakur inscription. But no connection can, be established between tla two 
names Bappuka and EajMitya, and the war with the latter need not yet have taken place in the 
aka year 862, the date of the Be6lt plates. 

4. The statement of the Atakto inscription that Krislma III, fought against BAjAditya, is 
confirmed by the large Ley den grant, which reports that the Ch&la king Bjaditya s the son of 
IPsr&atisfea I. 9 died in bsettle with Krishnai^ja* 8 

The characters its* which* the two subjoined inscriptions are engraved* Ico-k more ancimt than 
ihoae employed in the inscriptions of the Gh61a king B&ja&stlirjadli^a, and lass msh&w ithaa those 

Inscriptions^ ToL I. p. 78* 

* Madras Christian Coll*&& M&ff*$se t "^dr. IX. 

* Ind. Ant. Vol. XL p. 127. * Salem Manual, Vol. II. p. 

* JST^. Ind. YoL IL p. 168. 

s Joste*. Jfe t As* 5oc; YoU 3LVITL p^ It of tiM Ifefipssiot. 7 ^wk p. 4. 

s ArcJuzologieol Survey of Southern India* Yol. IV, p. 206 f ., 11. 42 to 45. 


in which, the grants dated during the reign of Parantaka I. are recorded. R&jar&jadSva wss 
one of the most powerful of the Chola kings, as is shown by the fact thafc Ms iziBcriptions are 
found on the walls of almost every ancient temple in the Tamil coutsfcry. Consequently^ it is 
very improbable that KairaaradSva's invasion toot place during his reign. Again, the three 
inscriptions of Parantaka I. found in a Pallava temple at KiScMpnram, 1 which was the Paliava 
capital, and the above published inscription from Tirukkalnkkniiram, which must also have been 
situated in the Pallava territory, show either that Parantaka conquered the Pallavas himself,, or* 
if the conquest had been effected by one of his predecessors, that he continued to keep them 
under subjection. The two subjoined inscriptions say that Kannara took Kaehchi and TaS|ai 5 
and imply that he enjoyed undisturbed possession of the country for a considerable length of 
time ; f or s otherwise grants would not have been issued in his name. It is very unlikely that a 
king like Par&ntaka, whose military resources were enough to keep the Pallavas under 
subjection and at the same time to conquer the Pandya and other kings, would hare allowed a 
town like Tan jai, situated as it is in the heart of the Chola country, to be occupied by a ^notorious 
invader* Thus palseographical and historical considerations combine together in fixing the 
period of these grants between the death of Par&ntaka I. and the accession of I&jax&jadgm 
This period was occupied, according to the large Leyden grant, by the reigns o sis: ClaSla 
Mugs. 2 Of the military achievements of none of then* has it much to say. The Ealingattu- 
Parani leaves out these six kings entirely in the account which it gives of the ancestors of the 
reigning king* Kuldttunga I.,* and inscriptions dated during their reigns are conspicuous by their 
absence even in the heart of the Ch61a country. Of course, some of those which begin either with 
&<J RdjakSsarivarman or fed Parakesarivarman alone, may have to be referred to the reigns of 
two or more of these kings. But the fact that these contain no historical introduction is significant- 
and would imply that fcheir military achievements were not worthy o record. These considerations 
naturally lead to the inference that, during the reigns of these sir kings, the Cholas occupied 
quite an inferior position and "were probably feudatories of some foreign king. It was just 
during this period that the invasion and the considerably long occupation of the. Chola 
dominions by Kannarad&va was possible. Wot long after the death of Paraniaka L, Bfttnga* a 
Ganga feudatory of the R4shtrakuta king Krishna III. alias Kannarad&va^ fought a battle at 
Takkdla^ ~ a place which has not yet been identified, against the Ch61a king R&j&ditya, who 
was defeated and killed in the battle. Commenting on the unreliable nature of most of the 
statements made in the spurious Sudi plates of Bfttuga, Dr. Fleet remarks that there ar 
references to two real historical events in the inscription. 4 There is 5 I think, a third historical 
event when they say that, after defeating the Chdla king BajMitya, the Ganga Mug Butugs, 
undex* orders from Krislma HL, besieged Tanj&purl* *.e. Tanjore. 6 As has been pointed out 
above,, the Chdla power was very weak after the death of Parantaka I., and nothing could 
stand in the way of the victor at Takkdla proceeding straight to Tanjore, which appears to have 
been the. CMla capital during the time of RajMitya's successor GandarMityararman/ and 
capturing it. It was also stated that palseograpMcal considerations point to the interval 
between the death of the Ch61a king Parantaka I. and the accession of R&jarajadeva as the 
approximate period of the subjoined inscriptions^ which are dated during the reign of 
Kaxmarad&va*; that, about the commencement of this interval^ the RMitraktta Mug Krishna IIL 

1 See note B, p. 280 above. 

a These were R&j&ditja, (la-^daridifcyavarman, Aiimjaya, Par&ntaka IL, Aditya-Karik&la snd Hadhnr&nfcftfea. 
The fmcfc that Jld!tya-Karik&!a preceded Madhur&ntaka, shows that the iueeassicm was disputed after the death f 
Par&ntak& II. ; South~Xndi&n In*G#*pfionS) Vol. I. p. 112. 

8 The next event that is mentioned after the conquest of Ceylon and MM!ror&* which took ? lace during Hie niga 
* P*&otaka I* is the capture of Udagai, which occurred during the reign of B4jaijad&r& / see canto vSL 
d 24. 
ft* p. 175 afeo*e* B See p. 183 above. * Bm nute I, p. 28i atere, 


[Yot. IH. 

alias Kannaradeva actually killed the reigning Chola king ; and that the name Kannara does 
not occur either among the southern dynasties, or among the occasional conquerors of the South 
except among the Rashtrakutas. From these facts the conclusion seems to he irresistible that 
the KannaradeVa of the subjoined inscriptions, who took K&fiohS and Tanjavur, -was no other 
than the Rashtrakuta king Krishna HE. who was also called XannaradSva. 

The donor in ^inscription B. was Hedumal Sattan Sennipperayan of Karaikkattur, and in 
the inscription D. Sattan Sennipp&raiyan of Kami. As pointed out to me by the" Editor, the 
names of these two donors are very similar, and the name Karai, which occurs in D may only 
be a shorter form of Karaikkattur in B. It is, therefore, not improbable that the donors in B 
and D., which belong to the reigns of Parantaka I. and of Xannarac^va, respectively were 
identical. If they were the same, the identity of the Kannaradeva of the two subjoined 
inscriptions with the Bashtrakuta king Krishna m. would receive some support- for we 
would then have direct evidence to show that B. and B. were engraved within the life-time of 
the same man. 

T- ? i th il* WO B "** oi d fP tioils > 0. records the grant of a perpetual lamp to the 
Tirukkalukkunram temple, and D. the building of a hall (ambalam) at Tirukkalukkunram and 
a grant of some land to this hall. 


St S ' rS Cl * 3 

a , 

2 dSva^kk* yandu padin-Slavadu Xalattur-kkrfca- 

f f? \ a ,. . n k jf u TirukkalTikkunrattu Srl 

4 tu* peruman=adigala[k*Jku XaraiCy-ujdaiya BaladSvan-ajfiya 

5 takappSrarayan vaiytta nunda-[vijlakk=onru [|] ' 

6 ntr.adityavar= P an-Mah^varar rakshai 



Pr 8peTity ! ? tbe "*~*to. Jear (of Me reign) of the glorious 
f Kac ^ i and Tafljai,-. BaladSvan aKa. Mute. 
P er P etnal lam P *<> the feet of tbe god of the holy 
n ******** (^> to the subdivision 
s ^ ProteCti n f al1 M^varas as long as the 

* he Assembly ( fl 6M) of Tirukkaltdckun^aBa, obstruct 

*"*** iB J ined * th n - that ^ loot, as if it were 

Th . 

Tirukkaluklouiram Inscriptions. 

Inscription of RajakesariTarman. 

SGAi-E 17. 

B. Inscription of PamntakaJ^ 



Bo*. Mo. SOS. Bp lad.- - 




Ko. 38,} 












gri [II*] 






Sennippairaiyaii * 

idaijnkkn ambala-ppuram=a[ga 

ETakfcadiBattEBi pakkal 


B pakkal 8 

ttamm Bl 

m rakshlttan 


kendo emm-firuxn 



talai m[e]litia [{*] 
gey da 9 p&pattii 










(Line!.) Hail! Prosperity! In the nineteenth year (of the reign) of Ksu5.ErsdYa s the 
conqueror of KaclioM and Tafijai. 

(L. 3.) fe Whereas Sftttag. SeBiiippdraiyaii of Karai had built a hall (a^6c>?am) to the 
south of ^ the holy Miilaathaaa (temple} at Tiri2liaiiiMUBram in Ealattfir-kdttam (a^Z) in 
the siibdivisioB called after itself, and had given as a dependence (? puram) of this hall y m** 
for providirsg water and for supplying fire to the hall, 10 a well and (one) paft* of land (called) 
Kalarwhchermm^ which he had purchased from ts2iasiva alias Hal^adi-Bhatta^ (w$) 
the members of the assembly (sa&M), haYing taken from this (person) the money for taxes, 
gave (the land) tax-free for as long as our Tillage 5 ls the moon and the sun endure/* 

extreme somth of tbe peniKsnla bag been explained by supposing t&at the ri^er was swallowed p bj tlia 
In bis Htstors/ of Tiwtevelly, p* 19 ff^ Dr. Caldwell bas sbowts, from explicit ttetements contaiaed in 
JPertplfo, tbat Kumari was not a river t>ufc place, and that people did, In ancient times a now s not bathe in 
a river but in tbe sea. Dr. Caldwell adds tbat tbe title Knma$*wfaGMrppan 9 wbicb is given to tbe 
king on account of the proximity of bis dominions to Cape omormj also implies that Kumari was oofc a 
"but a tract of land. 

1 In tbe original tbe symbols for & and t of ifo are joined together, 

2 Tbe symbol for $ and of ^ are joined togetber in tbe original, 

* la tbe original it looks as if tfoere were tbree a r's Jaere instead of two s of wMch the first Is joined to tbe M 
which precedes it. 

4 Read MdlastMnaiin. 

^ Head ^peravyan ; it is not impossible tbat tbe engraver has bimself made this correction* 

* Over the &M of &&tK=^ some symbol wbich looks like the modern Tamil nd is cut, and between 
&$& of tMs line and sab&ai of the next s tbe uoodern Tamil numeral 'nineteen* appears to be engraved. 

* Over tbe fi of j?a^ and the of vaiytta^ the modern Tamil symbol for the numeral * tea * is 
8 Above tbe I of pakkal tlie modern Tamil numeral * eigbt* is engraved* 

Over tlae a&$&ar&$ ?yda p$* tbe modern Tamil immera! * sevetj-seYen * is engraved. 

10 In tbe K&rara plates, provision is made for 'water and fir required for a 

Inscription^ Vol. I- p. 151. 
14 The word Jeal^ri means c uncultivated ground* fctid lef^tw meBm a Ield, 
proper name, denoting a certain tract of nee-iselds* 

32 It is not common in inscriptions to make tb dumtkm of s gmstt 
which the object granted lies* 




irftb tlml rf 



(L. 13.) * Tka fee * o 02ie who P^ ote <^ * his charity, shall be on (our') heads. One "who 
injures this diarity, shall incur the sin committed by those who commit seven hundred 
murder Bar tb@ and near 


The- original of this inscription belonged to the late Sir Walter Elliot. I edit it from two 


of impressions, prepared for Sir Walter Elliot, and kindly made over to me "by Djpcr Fleet, 
has noted the following details on the cover containing* the impressions :~- " Three copper 
plates, lOf by4| inches; in fair order if cleaned, The edges are slightly raised into rims. 
The ring has been cut ; it is about f " thick and 4f * in diameter, and has a kneeling bull 
spidered on to it. The plates are marked c 21 * in white paint 5 to* there is BO label to say 
wlwre they come from/' The second sides of the three plates are numbered with the Tatagu 
numerals 1, 2, 3, respectively, between the ring-hole and the edge. 

The alphabet is Telugu. Of orthograplwal peculiarities the following deserve to be 
noted. The letter J>Ji is not distinguished from 6 if the vowels tf, 6, au and i are attached to it 
or if it forms the second consonant of a group (as in SfJifF, line 11, and ^wffrflnrf% 9 nj 1. 54), 
and if, consequently, the right top-stroke which distinguishes ITi from &, disappears ; only in 
two cases (bhi of ^snrfOTTO, 1- 2 * a:Q d *Tif*r, L 3), the aspiration is then denoted by a 
vertical line below the letter. In the aksharas rya (11. 33 to 39) and rri (1. 44), the letter r is 
written in frill, and the secondary forms of ya, and ri are attached to it. The group tfh is 
thronghout written as fat, and similarly the group ddJia of ?r^rre^SW (1- 24) is represented 
by dhta. 

The languages of the inscription are S&ns&yit and Telugu. It opens with nineteen 
Sanskrit verses, which are followed hy a list of the twenty donees in Sanskrit prose (1 32 ff,). 
The boundaries of the granted village are specified in Telugu prose (1, 39 ffcY). Then follow 
five imprecatory verses in Sanskrit (L 47 ff .), and the inscription ends with a short sentence 
in Telugu (L 55 f.). 

As the TanapalH plates of Saka-Samvat 1300 (No. 10 above), the present inscription records 

& grant of land by Anna-VSma of Kondavlti (verse 15), i.e. of Kondavtdu in the Kistm 

district. It opens with a genealogy which contains tke same proper names as that of the 

other inscription- After an invocation of the Bo^r-Inoarnation of Vishnu (y. 1) 5 it refers to the 

(Sftdra) oa-sta (v. 3), a member of which was IPrdla, (v. 3)* whose son V&ma (v. 4) built a flight 

of steps at Srisaila (v. 6), Vema's two sons, Anxu^Vdta and Anna-"V"6ma (v. 7), successively 

occupied the throne after him (vv. 8 and 10). Aroaa-VSma or Ana-VSma (L 55) bore the 

surnames Vas^ntaraya (v. 18) and Pallava-Trin^tra (v. 15). The first of these two epithets, 

which, means c the kmg of spring,* he owed to his participation in the spring festival 

(vas&ntQtscwdf) v, 14) . l The surname PallavaF-Trin^tra 10 boirowed from a mythical MiPg of the 

Telugu country, who appears as Tril&ohana^Pallav& in the inscriptions of the Eastern 

Chalukya dynasty^ 3 as Trinayana-Pallava in the TeBarasddala inscription of Ganap&ml>& 

(p. 95 above), and as Mukkanti-Pallava or Mnkkantir&ja in local leg-ends^ As m the Vanapalli 

1 Compare pag-e 6$ above, note 6. 

* l*d. *d*t. Vol. XIV. p. 40, and AwM-IiuR** lw*v$piioma> Vol. I. p. 50. 

* Ki*tn& M&nual* p. ^ and Mr, Saweli'e Listx of AKiiqmiies, Vol. I. pp. 64 135, l&B &^d 144* 

To. S9-] 



plates (w. 9 and 11), Hemadri $ tie author of the DdnakJianda 7 is repeatedly referred to 
(TV. 5j 9 and 17). 

^ana-lTema's sister, Vemasiiii, is stated to have beei* the queen of a certain IfsIIanunka 
(v. 16), whose name I have not found elsewhere. For her spiritual benefit^ Airaa"V > 6ms 
granted to twenty Brahm^nas the Tillage of Hadupiifu (v. 18), which received the surname 
in commemoration of V&masani's own name (v. 19). The grant was made in tie 
temple of VijayeSvara on the bank of the G-autami (i.e. Godavari) rlTer(y. 18), The temple of 
TrayeSTsr^- Is probably Identical with the Tillage of Vijayfegvaram in tie Taauku t-Mnta of the 
Gedavari district, which is situated " close to the west end of the Gddavan ameut M and contains 
" rwo old temples, held very sacred/' 1 The village granted, NadupAm. was situated on tie 
eastern bank of tie G-odaTari (1. 43 f.). A 11111111561 of ofchei Tillages, which I am unable to 
Identify, are mentioned in the description of its boundaries (11. 39 to 46)- The Madras Surrey 
Map of the G&davarf district shows a village named NadnpMl in tie Karsapar on the 

right bank of the G6davari^ and another village, named Vemavaram^ about 5| miles ^S.-S.-YSr. 
of yadnuftdi. I hardly think that one of these two villages can be identical with Kadnpiirit 
alias VimaOT-am, which must be looked for on the opposite Bank of the rhrer. The country 
or district; *to -which Nadupurn belonged, was called Konastiiala (v. 18). This may be the 
same as the Konamandals* which had been ruled over before the time of Anna- V^ma by a 
dynasty of chiefs whose names are given in the second inscription on tie Pitfaipwam pillar 
and in inscriptions at Palakol, and with Kdnasima, a local name of the GodaTari delta.' 

The date of the grant (v. 18) was the day o a lunAf eclipse on Krttikl (*.e. the fell- 
moon tithi of tie month of K^rttika) in tHe year 1298 (in numerical words and in 

figures) Saka-Sam^at 1296 as a current year would correspond to A.D. 1373-'/*, aad asim 
expired year to A D. 1374-75, Mr. Dikshit kindly informs me that both in 13^3 and in 13*4 
A.D. there was a lunar eclipse in BhAdrapada, tat not in Ztttika, and that no liinar eclijwc 
in KArttiia is possiHe in the years 1375 to 1370 amd 1362 to 1369; but that then were tamr 
eeliBses in KArttika of A.D. 1370 and 1371, and that a Ye*y small lunar eckpae, not TimWe 
anyVnere in India, is possible in Isrina (tie month preceding KrtHka) on tte 

13th October, A.D. 1372. 

A Telu^a inscription on the ^all of the garden of ti Kopp*Ta topto at SiU^a 
the AmalApLm tCUA of the GMftrf **** records a gr6 rf tod ^ J^ 
Ana^em^Be^di o^ the 5th WK of tte brigM fortnight ot Phalgu^a of the Sato year ISO* 

The VanapalE plates and the NaJnpAm grant fonuA the folIomBg stort^ pedigree of 
Beddi dynasty of Kcmdavictm 

1. Prola. 

S. Ann*- V&. 

for 1893-94, pp. 3 3 

Sewell's Xsfe of A.tiquit96j> Vd. I. p- 

s See my 4t*int(x Mepo 

G$daari 3$an$ialy p* 5. 

4 ^No. 505 of 1893 in my ^*~ ^-- - - 
at Drsksbir^ma (No. 448 of 189S) records ttie erection rf 
10; but it remale uBcertajn if thi* Aa^-l^to^ s8 ^ * 

IntcnpSoa I 


w 5 tb Ano^Vfcw 


First Plate j Krst Sid$. 

^Y %[WT]^ 

2 iff I 

3 [tjwf I [t*] 

4 [IT] i 

5 I [^ ] 

8 ^f^^^T^f^r?n^ J f^rpncfir i w^nr^pf 

7 wif i 

8 vnjrr: WHrfwl 1 ] will \ ^ 

i [*] 

; Second Side. 

10 ^T%?fFrt 9 i 

11 i IX*] 

12 -vftk: i i [^*] 

18 WW? TWW^Pffw^ WTql' 1 

14 I [*] ftigi^ff^^wife]^!^ 

15 ^r i iifwra^iw 
10 i [c 11 ] 

i? r^jww i 


18 i 

a From Sir Walfcer Elliot's impressions* s Bead 

Bead ^e^WT- 4 Bead 

5 Bead ifte WI^I. 6 1$ i corrected by the etsgraver f rntB 

^ !Tli0 anKsvdr. stands at tlie begianing of the nest lioe 

s Tli consfertaetiosi ftw t ftPHW is correct accoirdiog to FA^iai, ii. 3 9 


So. 39.] 






22 [r>i 

23 , 

21 fit: , 



Second Plate; First Side. 




Second Plate, Second Side. 




[YoL. III. 


35 y si)i<*i'iDiet1 i 

: [i*] 
36 ^Frrt%[*r]i: i wtfwcPTN: i 






Third Plate j First Side. 

TUrd Plate ; Second Side. 

* Read IT**- Bead 

4 The ow*ticr stands at the beginning of the next line. 

* The atM&wtr* stands at the beginning of the next line. 
8 The anvstdra stands at the beginning of the next line. 

s jtea| ^f^f^g 


52 wput frc^ ^ ^ ^ *n|trct i *rfir 


*r * C4-3 

Verse 1 contains an invocation, addressed to the Boar-ineamatlon of 

(V. 2,) ^ Like the celestial river (Gangft), a eertain caste (Jdti) 9 wMch is distingnisiied 

by great "virtues (j&nd) whose profession 45 deserves respect^ took origin, for the welfare of 
men, from the lotus foot of C7;Uh$u) whose navel ibears) a lotus/* 

In this caste was bom king Prdla (v* 3). His son was king "Sma (v. 4), who performed 

the gifts described by. HemSciri (V. 5). 

(V. 6,) ** Desirous of ascending M^rti^ Maiidara and Kailasa/ the high-iBinded king 
constructed a flight of steps ai>lfrissiia* s * 

He had two sons s AnnaV6ta and Anna-Vdma (T* 7), the eider of whom succeeded Ms 

father in the kingdom (v 8), 

(V* 9.) &s He granted many ^graTidras ; he performed the gifts (described %) HdimMri ; 
he built rest-houses (*ara) at places of pilgrimage (ttrfha) ; and he thoroughly gained tie 
affection of (hfs) subjects." 

He was succeeded by (Ms younger brother) A3ma-Vma (v. 10)* 

(V. IS*) ** He who was sumamed VasaiitarayBr^ caused not only the earth s but also the 
Bky$ to be perfumed with mttsk, camphor and sandal ? scattered (a* the spring festival). 

{V* 14.) **Did the three worlds beeom -wMte tkrougli the copionB camphor-powdar^, 
scattered at Bis spring f estiirals* or tiarongh his fame ? 

(T. 15.) "This hero, who is surimmed the glorious PaJlaa-^riait2?a $ rales the 
prosperous city of Kondaviti, wMch is situated to the asfc of Srisails* 

(VV. 16 and 17.) tt As LakslmiS of the Moon ? the uterine sister of this Aima^Vgma 
(is) tli famoms Vm^^&Bi f the queen (tnahishf) of the glorious prmca Mallanaiika (who 
resembles) Vishnu in splendour. She possesses the seven kinds of offspring 
(andj datllj performs the gifts prescribed in the rules (Jkalpa) of Hdmfidxi* 

* 18.) " In the flilsB year reckoned by the tastes (6), the jewels (9), and the suns 

(12), (t figuTei) 1206 f ' when the niooa was swallowed liy BaijUj on the Klyrttild 
(JtitM), before i^foe god) VijayiivaiSj on the bank of the holy Qautaml^ thafe king 

VSxaa gave to BrSlimanas the excellent Tillage called Madupmni in Kdaastliala^ for fehe 
ireligious merit of (his) sister, the iUustrions 

sppesirs to be corrected from "4tw^Ti"5* Bead 

* Wiili refereace to t&e ri^er 0aBg4> J^w^* has to be In the sense of * water/ 

, in order to gain ixeaveB through charity. s See 02 aboe t note 

292 INDIGA. [Vo*. TIL 

(IT. 19.) st TMs agraTidr, which contains twenty shares (and!) whiclL was giTen together 
witt the eight powers (aiivarya) (and) with the eight enjoyments (i&%&) 3 is resplendent, 
being called VStnapura after her name. 

(Line 82,) "The {twenty} recipients of this village {were) s Tallafohatta, TlppaySrya 
and P&ctaySrya of the Harita gotra; Devarebtatta, Singayabhatta and Macbayirya of the 
Kansika gotra ; Mummadiy&rya and Lakkanarya of the Srivatsa gStra ; Prabh&karabhatta, 
N&gayabhatta and V&sud&Tarya of the KaJyapa gotra \ Perum&nibhatta of the L6hita gdt ra ; 
B&ghavabhatta and Konday&rya of the Bhftradv&ja gdtrai Immadiy&rya of the Atreya gctra^ 
Ayyad&var&rya and Mallinatharya of the G&pgya gotra ; Vallabh&rya and Naraharibhatta of the 
Kfimak&yana gotra ; and Lakkan&rya of the Kaundinya gotra. 

(L, 39.) * c The boundaries of this village (are) : - In the east, the "boundary 1 of Muppalle. 
IB the south-east, the junction of the two boundaries of P&fichaia*VBrainii (and) Muppalle. 
In the south, the boundary of the high ground 2 of IPiittalatodi and Ka4undurru, which 
goes from the south-east to the westa thence to the north, thence to the west, and thence to 
the south ; (and) thence up to the Q6davarl 9 the boundary of SSdakdti MSditapa. 3 In the 
south-west and in the west, the Ood&vsrSU In tbe north-west, an embankment which extends 
from the G-6davari towards the east, and iPrdmtilakiinta* In the north, the boundary of 
ICeditSpa, and Kommepfida ; (and) thence, the boundary of ITallazabaUi. In the north-east 
also, the boundary of 

Lines 47 to 55 contain five Imprecatory verses- 

(L. 55.) " King Ana-Vema gave, with libations of water, Mam 5 (i.e. fire ftftaptffc) 
of cultivated land, included in the fields of PaficliaiaTaiwmii and in the fields of this villag-e 
. Nadupuru)." 



These plates were found, rather more than fifty years ago, by a Brahmana of 
a town in the Dgvagad taluklt of the Eatnagiri district of the Bombay Presidency ; and the 
inscription which they contain has been already published, by Bal Grangadhar Sastri,, in the 
Joturnal, Bombay Branch, R. A. 8. 9 Vol. L p. 209 ff. I now re-edit it from an excellent 
impression, prepared by I>r. Fleet. 

These are four copper-plates s the Becond and third of which are engraved OB both sides, 
while the others are so on one side only. They are marked with the Nagari numeral figures 
from 1 to 4, which are engraved on the right margin of the second side of the first, second and 
third plates, and of the first side of -the last. Each plate measures from 7f * to 7|-'' broad by 
about 4f * high. The plates are strung on a circular riag s about J* thick and 2$* in diameter, 
which had not been cut when this record came into Dr. Fleet's hands. As wall be seen from 
the accompanying photo-lithograph, this ring has soldered on to it an image of the mythical 

This translation of punta> wMefe usually means * a path,* is suggested by tbe context. Probably tbe boun- 
daries of Mnppalle and of tbe villages mentioned subsequently were marked by, and used as, cart-trucks. 
s Metfa is tbe same as mefta* on wliicb see Brown* **TelugwD*ctionar9f\ 
i.9. * Hg^itapa nenr S4ak6dn/ 

o Mr, O. V. Bamamtirti I am indebted for tbe correction of several mistake in the translation of tb 


bird Garuda. H is represented as a man, with wings, squatting full front, with the 
clasped on the breast, and under the wing on his left shoulder is seen a hooded serpent^ its 
head projecting from behind. The total height of the image and ring is about 4*. ^Th 
weight of the four plates is 4 Ibs. 8 ozz., and of the ring and image, 9foz.; total, 5 Ibs. Ifos, 
The engraving is good, and* with the exception of one or two akshar&s which are partly 
the writing is well preserved throughout* The siso of tlie letters is about y 3 /*- 
characters are Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. Up to about the middle of line 33 h 
inscription after the introductory 6m 6m namah Sivdya 9 has 21 verses (interrnpted by a short 
prose passage between verses 10 and 11), chiefly containing genealogical matter. The reat s 
being the formal part of the grant, is in prose, but includes, in lines 38-40, 62-67 5 and 69-71, 
seven benedictive and imprecatory verses, and, in Kns ?4-75 3 another verse on the requisites of 
a faultless charter. As regards orthography* the letter 6 is everywhere denoted by the sign 
for v 5 the dental sibilant is ten times used for the palatal, 1 and the palatal twice for the dental 
(in dit 9 lines 11 and 21) ; the consonant m has been retained s instead of being changed to 
anusv&ra 9 in the word samvatsara, twice in L 41, and in paradattdm&Bd, L 60 ; and * & is 
wrongly doubled after r in AkdlavarsJishd t L 9, and probably was so doubled by the writer also 
in lines 8 and 10, where the engraver has put =mdghai}^rshyo and =m%&at?ar#%aA (instead of 
varsh8ho and ^varsfishaK). The sign of avagra&a is employed six times. In respect of the 
language, it may be mentioned that the text offers two words which are Dravidian : in, 

1. 21, and the first member of the compound name AmSfocnra IB L 42; and that it contains 
some words the meaning of which is not apparent (notably jivalSkn, in L 49 S chdkdntaw 
and jGhafat, in 1. 50, aod jagatlpura, in L 59). A wrong verse we find in line 29 j and another 
verse, in line 27, contains a passage which, as it stands, does not seem to yield any satisfactory 

The inscription is one of the Siira* Mantjalika BattErjs. Like the BMdtna grant of 
the Sil&ra Aparijita,* it divides itself into two parts. The first parfe, up to line 33 ? given tha 
genealogy of Bstterfija, and of the BsHtrakuta and (Western) OMliikya kings to whom he 
and his ancestors* were subordinate ; and the second part records various donations, made by him 
in Saka-Samvat 930, in favour of some learned men connected with a temple of the god (Siv% 
under the name) AwSsvara. 4 

Opening with the words < 6m, 6m, adoration to Siva/ the inscription firefe invokes &e 
protection of the god tfia (Siva). It then glorifies the family of the B^htrafcufa lords, tie 
ornament of Yadii's race/ and -gives (in verses 3-8) the following well-known Irtcl ^uga , of 


;^rrL a yc^ 

Satyfisraya ; and a short prose passage in lines -fflWl mmmai* 

in 8a taepar te of tUe inBcription it is difficult ***** between O. sig M for , 


those for oh, dh, v, and p. nwwana erant of Apar&jifca (Na. 87 above) it i writfaw 


, , , . 

So the name is give* here, in line 22 J^ Ie ' tbe ., 
Sil&ra, and in the Kdlhipur iuoripciou. o VijayM.tya (Nos. 27 

s See the preceding note. Kanarcse word aw* 

* I take the first nxember of this compound * be th e . 

compare auch name, of Siva a- 

This JagattuDga was the son of Akal^ataha aud 


INDIOA. {Tot. 


was while that glorious king SatyMraya of the prospering OMkkya was 

over *'. the dominions of the (or Btthtrakfttas).* 

The of is given in verses 11-21. There was the regent of 

Jimiiiaketti's son Jlmiltavaiiana who (to save the serpent Saakhachuda,) 
Ms life to Garuda. From him sprang the prosperous and powerful family, a 

among'the rulers of [ To this family belonged ]*: 

1. [SajnapMlIa, a favourite of king he acquired the country from 

sea-shore up to the mountains. His son was 

2. Dkammiyara s the founder of the great stronghold Yalipattana; his son 

3. Aiyaparijag endowed with the qualities of a conqueror^ who was bathed with 

water of tie cocoairats 3 near 5 his son 

4 e Avasara p.], who, well versed in politics and of fierce valottr s singly subdued 
multitude of enemies (?); 4 his son 

5. AditjavarmB-a ; his son 

6. [ILJ, a prince (tmjpa) who conquered his enemies and aided the rulers 
at Chmiilya and 5 his son 

7. Indrar^ja ; Ms son 

8. Bhlma* who distinguished himself by seizing the CJliandra district (ma^oZa), as 

Eahu swallows the moon s s orb 5 his son, the king (r^'an)* 

9. pH3 1 and his son s the Mug (rdjan) 

To ike above abstract o the contents of verses 11-21 1 cannot add much of importance-. 
have pointed out already that this particular branch of the SilHra (Silara ? or ^ilahSra) 
faniily f of which no other inscription has yet been published, 8 apparently was established in the 
Konkaih The two other branches of the same family, the SilSraa of the Northern 
KonkaEt and the Silaharas of the country around K&lhipur,, also feace their origin to the 
Mythical JimutavSliaiia ; but only the present inscription connects the mMo, with the 

rulers of BimiialSj or Ceylon. How nmch value should be attached to this statement, It 'la 
difficult to decide. In making it, the author perhaps only wished to give expression to the 
prevalent belief that the family had come from the South ; but it also seems possible that the 
word has been brought in here merely on account of its resemblance to the word 

Of the ten chiefs enumerated, none, so far as 1 know, is mentioned in other* 
iascriptiom it is true that in the KMrepltaigi plates of the ilam Anantad&va a a prince* 

2 See pmge 299 below, note L 

s In fteofigiaal there is nothing fiorrespondiag t the words in brackets. 

^ * IdonofcmidmtBDd the exact rignificanoe of Hie ceremony. The meaning perfmps is that 
gained a victory sit Ohandrapnta. Compare the Ma^umma, m 41 and 42 

4 See page 299 below, note 10. 

Jom - *<><" ^ VoL XIIL p. Mi Dr. Fleets 
Early History of tU Dzklcm, p e 98. 
latbe 2^ Ant. Vol. IX p. S8 9 aote 47, the late Mr. Telaug lias staled that somebody bad famished him 

i" rr n f al) f ? ^" M ^ Pkte WhSch ""** to tte ~* - the SiirM Si 

ttmfed of and wkch, hke the present inscription, began with fche MshtrnkAtas aaid ended with tbe- 


Aiyspaddva Is said to have been kept on the throne by the aid of AnantadSva'B ancestor 
Aparajita; but s as was reigning in Saka-SamTat 9I9, 1 that Aijapadem must have 

lived about 200 jears after the Aiyspar&ja of tie present inscription. Considering that our 
grant is dated la Saka-Samvat 930= A.D. 1008-0, and that the succession of the ten in 

every ease was from father to son, it Ms been yightly assumed that the founder of this family, 
[Sa]:aaplroHa s who first took possession of the country "between the sea and the 
range* lived in the second half of the 8th century A.D., and that, therefore, the Mug Kjisli^m 
whose favour he enjoyed, can only have been the Sashtrak-fita Krislma- I. who ruled In the 
third quarter of the same century. Of tie places mentioned, Valipattaa% Chajidmpiira and 
Ghdmiklya* the last has Tbeea identified with GhenTOi .(OhSol or Chaul), an ancient town on the 
coast, about thirty miles south of Bombay-, of which a fall account is given in the IferoS&y 
Ga%etteer y Vol. XL p. 269 JL Here it will be sufficient to state that Gh&mfilya is mentioned IB 
the KMr^pate^ plates of Anantadeva, 3 aa belonging to the KonkacL group of 1400 [villages] 
which was held by the Northern SflSras ; and that, according to Mas'fidSj who "visited the town 
called Saimur by Mm early in the 10th century s it was then under the government of a 
prince Djamdja^ i.a* Jliafijlia* one of the Silaras of the Northern Koiikaiu These references 
show thmfe the rulers of Cbemulya, -who in omr inscription are reported to have "been aided by 
Avasam PZJ most probably were Silarae of the northern branch of the family. Valipattsaa 
is showu by the passage,, quoted on page 294 above s note 6> to have been situated, like O]ieiaMy% 
on the coast ; and the prominent manner in which it is mentioned in this inscription would 
seem to indicate that it was the capital at any rate of the earlier Sil&ras. The late Mr. Telang 
felt inclined to identify it with the Baifcipatna of Ptolemy and Palaipatmai of the PeripM; bat 
this, eren supposing it to b correct, would not help n& to identify the place. I myself cannot 
suggest any probable identification* 4 laor can I identify C&&ndrap'ara 9 which also was situated 
near the sea, as is shown by line 57 of our inscription* and was apparently the principal town 
of the Chmidra-maiidals, conquered by the chief Bblma* 

The proper object of the inscription is stated in lines 3S-61* Here the Mandalika* the 
glorious Battaraja^ who meditates on 6 the ParamalJiattdraJ^a Mahdr&j&ihir6ja 9 the glorious 
Saty&smyadUiva* infornas the towns-men and country people and the chief ministers 
belonging to him* that, * . . . wlaan the years from the time of tfie 
were nine lumdred and tMrty s on the f nil-moon titM of Jyaishtlia of current 
Kliaka, h gsme? as a reward of learning to the learned preceptor, the holy JLferSya^ a bee 
clijsging to the lotuses, the feet of Ms preceptor, the holy AmbMjagambhii 3 who had 
the darkness of ignorance by the sun of true knowledges, come to Mm tlirough a series of 
tors of the Kaxkeroni branch of the famous MattamByGra line (or school of ascetics) ; who by 
intense self -mortification had destroyed every worldly attachment; -who by the light of wisdom 
bad reTealed the way to heaven and final beatitude, and had secured fame in the three 
by the acquisition of prof otmd meditation, for the pmrpOHS of worshipping 
offerings the holy god Ayvesvara 6 and keeping Ms shrine ia proper repair, and of rM 

1 See No. 37 above. 

* Seo Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p* SS. 

* See iUd. YoL XIII. p. S27, and Vol. VIII. p. 

^ According to the Jtomtoy Ga**U**r. Vol. XI. p. 345 9 Balllpatna (or Ptkipatmai) te 

village of .P4M, sbonfe two miles oortb-west of MsM^ in lie dmtriel 5 but thl to te 

a Stbe original the word ***My*t* Is used by ^ tfee ordinary ee Dr. 

Fleet* Q*pfa In&cri^tion, p. 17, note 2. -^ . * , *, x ^ ^ 

If the remdiag in line 42 stiooid be intended to be $**a*tr*m (see page SOG below, a0te II), tbe KW 3^ 
worship ping witk fi*e-fcUl offerings^ lioly god ArfMm, gm to Atrfjm, for tit 

of keptBg (tbe gi*@ dtrine) la 


food and raiment for the ascetics (of the shrine), and for the "benefit of disciples, learned 
visitors and otters : 

(1.) the village of Ktisliman.di 9 bounded on the east by the cistern (prapd} 1 of 
on the south by the road to the village of Vaparavata, on the west by the r-Co* 

of the village of SaeliadalakEpittliB s and on the north by a salt river Qt$Mr 

(2.) the village of AsaBavira s bounded on the east by a water-course caused by heavy 
stowers of rain (? dhdra-dhald), 4 on the south by the river of the village of Krapariii s on 
the west by the sea, and on the north by the river of the village of davaliana ; 

(3.) the village of Vadadgnla, bounded on the east by the twin-rock (?) of the Bh6ga- 
dva hill, on the south by the water- course of Akhadada on the west by the stone of Patasada 
and on the north by the sisavi (?) till of the village of Stamina ; 

also &jival6kcfi at the village of Ddvala&sliml a okakdntara at Vyadgamla s and 
at Sayyapall* 

Rattaraja at the same time (in lines 50-52) ordains* that these three villages and the resfe f 
well defined as to their f our boundaries* for every one belonging to the king (?) abJiyantara- 
siddha, not to be entered by the regular or irregular tronps, are to be enjoyed, with the exception 
of previous gifts to gods and Bralxmanas 5 by the learned teachers of religious sfcudentsMp 
bora in the Karkardni branch of the famous Mattamsyftr^, line (or school), to be preserved to 
them as long as sun and moon endnre. And lie adds (in lines 5661)<> that he has farther 
assigned a gadiy&na 1 of gold from every vessel arriving from foreign lands, and a dharana of 
gold from every ship arriving from Kan.dalamiiliya f excepting Cfafimlilya and Cbandrapiira; 8 
also families of female attendants* a family of oilmen, a family of: gardeners, a family of 
potters, and a family of washermen ; also within the fort, for a jagaUpura 9 g a piece of land 
bounded on the east by the wall of a dwelling-tense, on the south by the a monkey gate,*' on 
the west by the road to Sivata* and on the north by a, street- well ; and outside the fort, for a 
flower-garden, the land formerly known as "the mare's ground/* 

Lines 62-73 then contain an appeal to future rulers to protect this gift of religion (dharma 1 ), 

threaten with the punishment of hell those who might resume it, and quote six of the ordinary 

1 The ordinary meaning of pr&pd is s a place for watering eattle, a shed on the road-side for accommodating 
travellers with water/ Bal Gangadhar Sasfcri lias translated the word by * a creek/ because the Mar&thi 
synonym pl in the dialect of th Southern Koakaia (according to him) has that meaning* and because sheds for 
the distribution of water are as unknown as they are unnecessary in the Konkan* 

s See Ind. An$. Fol. XVI. p. 206, note S3. 

* K&Mra-nadi may possibly Im^e to be taken a a proper nam 5 compare ^M^ipdfa^ the name o! the town 
where this Inscription has been found. 

4 DMra-vdkald also may perhaps be a proper uamei compare Als'haAmda^d'kmld below, 

s For the three words ji^aUJca, oMMwtan and/Mafta;, whict are quite clear in the original, I cannot sagged 
any suitable meaning, 

s If the Intended reading In line 51 should be *0riHMf4/afty4*<ftii^ 

stddfom, tbe translation {so far as ife can be given) would be * not to b touched with the hand (of appropriation) 
by any one belonging to the king, atkyantar&tiddlhh' etc. 

7 This word, ordinarily spelt; gadyd^a, k in Mr. KitteFs Kannada-SngUsfr JMctionary explained to 
mean *a weight about equal to a rt? or farthing, a kin,d of small gold coin (at Bellari, occasionally In Mysore)/ 
dfatraqa IB in tte same dictionary said to be a sort of weight (for gold) variedly reckoned/ 

8 [Compare above, pp. 84 and 92, where a tass of one fanam on every boat is referred to* B.H.] 

9 The word/a^attyfff-*, which I have not met with elsewhere, may perhaps be similar in meaning to 
ajwK ' an establishment for learned and pious Bvftfamavu/ tpr 9 J*ffattp*ra might be the same as /writ- 

a raised square seat before a village, round a tree, ttej Sanderson's C**am* Diction ar#.-<- B.H.] 
This word is used here as a neuter noun. 


benedictive and imprecatory verses. And the inscription then (from Hue 73, cosdadf iir> - 
In confirmation of the above,, the glorious Battaraja puts his hand to Ms aurnais* * 
acknowledging it to be his, the glorious Rattamja*s 9 signature. A charter 

when it is faultless as regards the seal s faultless as regards observances, 1 faulting aa 

possession, when it is furnished with marks, aad is faultless as regards the king '& ?ie~ atari 1 M A * 
there be bliss ! This has been written by Lokaparya, the SOB of the 5 r f * "; :-r** T " 4 'ir 
illustrious D&vapSla.* 

The date of this inscription contains no details for verification; 5*^-.^ -*--* ;, )1t " 

expired, by the southern Inni-solar ^system, was the Jovian year Kilaka, for that th*- 

given day 9 the full-moon day of Jyaishtha, would correspond to Saturday^ this 22aJ 

Of the various Tillages and other localities/ mentioned in tts lafttr part of the :r^rrM ' - , 
I have not been able to identify any on the maps at my disposal, 4 1 culv :> 

tion to two points. Kandalamnliya apparently was a portion of the coa*t c Wy-trrn IT. -I, k i 
this follows both from the manner in which it is opposed to the foreign 'ard> ' clii\ i 1 r z* * , %r ! 
from the fact that Chandrapura and CliSmiilya belonged to it, Ard "2:! i^i-yl r*. w: k -, 
mentioned in connection with the learned ascetics in whose favour the grtut ^"as niTidt 1 , :r, **t ** 
the place of the same name whicli is spoken of in the Eanod (or Xar*5' ir^/rr,^ : ' ** % 
town of a chief Avantivarman, where a ma tha was founded by a great S^iva a<e/ sam" :i 
Purandara* It clearly was situated in Central India, 

First Plate. 

1 Qm? [H*] Om namat Sivaya If HeI-dH41ta-2ha^^-i=?i-:i 


2 hata-Svaraing"6dgata-gnktisainpBte-galan-miiJrt } j 

kamkalam cha ja-I^rhu 

4 s=vi'(chi)ram || [1*] Gdtram" bH[t*]tva na bMt4 
dharmina-vakrd n=akrant6 da- 

i As the text stands the meaning mnrt be that Baftar^a'B nmme bad already l*f-T^ b^^ *r uu ^^ 
rtet f and that Batfear^a, by putting his hand to it, acknowledged _ the > na ^;; ; A ^ ; : . J ' ^ ; . . 
a I am not quite sure about the *^*-i . ff of fche terms ^ ._--*- . . -* - 
* marks/ referred to by the word 4 
objects* found on some copper-plates. 

Cu&TuB?. *,**v* *** r-- j * --* * * & *.!-. ^AwvMtB 3--"" - r v ' 

a I am not quite sure about the exact technical meamng of the terms rf ... -. _,.,.., m ,.i ^- 

The ^arks,' referred to by the word M-riUtaofe, are perhaps the representation of ihe . ^.- ^-*- 

instead of ^iJsAwz^ndO must have beeB situated between the villages of ^^ *' f ^^ "|^ ^ f tb) , M . Am 
which will be found in the lower right corner of No. 40 and * ,. ^ ' thstf apt ^: a? ,i * h. 

J 5T""&rfi2!S^. vaau. fa * i * - rom ""1S^.'' T -"- ' = - ' 

JVIet<r ! oa*idl*I'V** 1 " s -\r l1 *' * - 1 a 4llA FfiflSC 1 * twfa VTQ^-B^" *~ 

m e * Metrfof Verses 2 d 8 : SragdUaA rA* l ^^ t te^"rtl^ r ** rlwix ettCtef ' ' 
and lineage, race, family/ The double sens^o^ ^^..^^^^ troth, bal b -=* 
**?*a*f<*-&tta in Pida 2 I un ere n w hUe the rdioarj fJ% * 

the R&shtrakta af has come to ena f 
innumemble) 9 


5 rid8ri:6ty& na cha para-pavaB-akampitS n^&ata-Mnah. I 


6 ti-ghan& nd rane datta-prislithah I 1 s&=p4rTv6=st=iha vamsd Tadu-kula-tilakd 

7 ran&m 11 [2*] Tatr=4sid=Dantidurggali prabb,ur=apl cha tafcah. Kxishnarjah 

8 ndaarajas=tam=:ariix Hirupamo 

mogfaavarshy 6 (rslid) 2 ripu-Yarj a-da- 

9 hand $sy=apy=atli=Aklavarslisli6(rslid) napt=asya sr-IndrarSjd rucMratara- 

10 rsliya(rslia)]hL 

T^itali | 

11 tasya kaniyan=blirati Q6vindacajo=bMt U [4*] 4 Pitrivyas=tasy=asi(si)t=pranaya-]a- 5 

Second Plate ~ y First Side. 

12 nata*kalpaYitapi Krit&mt6=r&tinaiB iia 


13 siksli4t=kritaynga-2iripari4m kall-yugfe sad-4cli4ralL s&ntd mnnir=iva Jagattixmga*- 

tanayah|| [5*] 

14 Sam(saih)blid]h. 6 Shad^naiia iv=Atri-mun^r=Iv=endft BamS yatha 

Dasa(^a)rathasya Hare3?=J3yrantab. I tasy=atmaj6= 

15 pi 7 c ]iatiiramTii(T}u)dM-ineklialliya bliartti bhuvalt samabIiavad=bliiiT 

BMshnarajali || [6*] Sattram^ bhi[t*]tvft mandalam 

16 ydga-drishtya yatfe tasmit(n)=SaiYa-sadm-fi,vakS,am | tasya bhr&tft EHiotik- 

17 tyaga-dMm-6rjjlta-sri(ri)LL 1| [7*] ^Kaldsalas-taaya bh[r^]atrivy6 WauYd bhartta 

jana-prlyalL ) fi,sSts=pracliaridaidliain=:6Ya 

18 pratapa-jita-satraYah U [8*] Samar6 tarn vinirjjitya Tailapo [s]bh^n 


19 Jishnur^axati-gaja-kesar! \\ [9*] Tasy=atmajah param jishnuh. 

20 t4Yarat satya-Yrittir=Yilaum-aika-.raB-6r]jitali \\ [10*] fivam 

1 This sign of punctuation Is superfluous. 

5 TBe reading intended by the writeiyhere and at the commencement of line 10, apparently is 0ar*&*&4 and 
&&s&ah ; and or^Ad is actnally eBgxaved in line 9. But according to P&nini, viiL 4, 49, a sibilant may be 
doubled alter r only before a following consonant. 

3 Metre : Arys, 

4 Metre : SikharinL 

5 Bead j>ra9a&*Va-; this correction has perhaps been made already in the original'. 

6 Metre : Vasantatiiaka, 

7 Originally &hdtyp was engraved* 

8 Metre: Salint Compare the P<mMam.mrt^ Calcutta edition, p. 626:.Dt*t? m0t jpm^i I AM 
*&r$&mavwfolalMdinau \ parivrdd gogayuUa i dha <ran& cMlhimwlch6 hatah If. 

* Metre of verses 8-21 1 S16ka (Annshtubh). The word $w&mvda-dkdmd in line 17 I take to be an ebithet 
or a name of the sun ; compare c^ad4tl and similar words. 

TKi oUo^ which is partly ~efeced> looks rather like Mi or gvi in tne impressiois. In the following 
line, it u somewnat difficult to say whether the actual reading is *at$<*-vrimr or 


21 yaraj Battap&tim^anns&sati 

Garufcmadatta-jivltah 3 [{*] 

22 JimiitakStotL safc-pntrd namna JimutaTahanah {| [11*] Tatah Silara-variisfc 

biiut^Simhala-k shmabbr i- 

23 tarn varah | prabtdta*bhflta-saiibtiagja-BliagyaY&n=urj]it-&rjitaii || [1 

[8a]nap]milali 3 kbyatah. 

24 Elrlslanaraja-prasMavan | samti<iratjra-Sahy-anta-desa-saiiisadliaii6=bhavat i 

Tat-putro dharmma 

Second Plate ; Second Side* 

25 ev=abhun=namzia Dliammiyarah. 5 parah 

krlt=kriti |] [14*] 

26 yaparaj6=bhM=Yljigis 

Hmvu(mbu)n==asa [ya]h 9 

27 Va(ba)bh<ivA.vasa^ I ela-mS(?nS)tra- i( > 

pralagn-^ri-kanda^^cband^-p^^^a'^nsb^ 1! [16*] 

28 Adityavarmma putr6=.bhut=tejas=adii>yavat=tatali | tasmM=Avasaro jat6 jit- 

arir=ddharmmava:0=BrIpah H [17*] 

29 ll Climulya-Chandrapiirar ja- [kshm]ablirit-s41iayya2n=adad=yalL 12 I tat6=btavad= 

30 ndarah. It [18*] Tasm^t=prabhuta-bbagyo=bMd=BMmo BMm-abha-Tikramah \ 

prajSa-j an -avasali 

p is a Sanskritised form of tbe Dravidian ZrattapMi* the designation of tha empire of th 
straas and. later on, of the Western CMlukyas; see, e.g* Soutb-India* In&crtptiom, oL L pp. 03 and 
96 and Vol II pp. 8 and 94, E. H.] Compare with ,attapdtlm=a&u&xaU the phrase ****4va5&* (tr 
XMvaitoMD m ***B*tt*~r*Jy** iu liue 20 of tlle ^' allt of A P ai ^ita, page 272 above, 

" s Read &arutw,<*d*datta-jMtah, similar to sva-fartra-ddndt, ibid, line 22S; or, perbaps, 0ar^^olte- 

. - 4 m -t 

J "**"The slffn of the Brst fc*Saro! of this name w quite cleat in the original, and its right-hand portion 
aadonbtedly is like that of the ordiuary sign for *a; but the lower part of it has a peculiar form and look* 
somewhat like the sign for I* I believe that is intended, but that the engraver s tool slipped m forming the 
lower part of the letter, and gave it thns a somewhat strange appearance. Bal Gangadhar wi read the o*me 
laphulla, and Dr. Bhandarkar, Marly History of the DeJcJcan, p. 93, note 2, would read it Sw*. 
* The sign of amniftw in wrf^ is joined on to the letter/ of *ftfft in the preceding hue. and looks 

aa If it formed part of it. ,.*,,. v TV __ - 

Bal Gangadhar Sastri read d&trna-yateh-parah, and took the name of the ch.rf to be Dhanw. 

6 The afoLr. in brackets might perhaps be read pa (instead of M ) ; but rehp***** and * 
occnr in. another Silara iuscription ; see above, p. 294, note $ , i. Ditrana * 

? Bal Oangadhar Sastri read tasmdf Drfyapo#*, and m hu translation the name g.yen u D.yapa *. 

* Originally .*.. appears to have been engraved, but it has clearly been altered to -****-. la the 
second syllable of the following word ndUUr- the I has a rather unusual form. 

S$^2^ SS/SU aPP- to ^ b -It-ed to^. The other .Mor^ t-ft. 
endofSUL r ^ 

^r - 


32 [sftjrat paramarupav^n || [20^] 3 Battaiaam=a'bhavat=tasiaS,d=raja punyavat&m 

Yarah. I nitl-jfid nitl* 

33 s&(s&)str-artha-TO[ddba]-sevi jit-endrlyah H [21*] Paramabhattaraka-maTaar^jadliir&ja- 


34 v-^Biidliy &ta-mandalita-sri(sri)"Eattax&jali sarvvam-eva 2 sva-samva(ba) dfayamana- 

paura-j anapada-prad h&- 

35 nS,matya-varggam=alsuy==aslm. 3 vah saiiivlditam yatli=aiitar]ina-jar4-p'afcaB-fi,Fa-vdha(bdlia)- 

grasam yauva- 

3 6 nam Biraya-patanam=iY=eslita-vIy6ga-diilikliam vyavi(dlii)-jara-marana-s&dhlupaaaiii 

37 sarirakam ^pavaua-cliala-kamaladala-gata-jalalava-sadrisS dhan-ftynshl 

Third Plate j Pint Side. 

38 matva dana-ptalaii=clia 5 vivfca*vn(bu)ddliy& || nktam cha mmmibHh f 6 Agner= 

apatyam prathamamf su- 

39 Yarrmam 7 dyaur=VYaistnavi Sfi.rya-suta^=clia gaya^. | I6ka-trayam tena 

blaav&d=vl(dlil) dattam yah, k&mclaanam 

40 gam clia mabS&scha dady&t I(l|) itl muni-vacliaiiaiii=avadliarya pitr6r=uddeseii= 

S,tmaBas=clia sr^yase Sa- 

41 I^airipa-kl-tita-saiiivatsaffa-iiava-sat6s]ati 8 triinsad-aiihikSsliii pravarttamana* 


paficliopacliara-puja-piirassara-khanda-splni- 11 

43 tita-sairiskir-&dy-artliaiii sai>tapasvi r bh6jan-lk3hclib&dana^ 

abhy 4gat- &dy-upay 6g-My-artlia- 

44 fi=cha 1 l2 K1islimandi*gramas^tasy=%batt;a(tta)iiaiil 13 kathyatte(nte) 

Maaiigrmaprapli dafcshiiiatd Vapaxavata^ 

45 gr&ma-m&rgali paschiinatah SachSiidalakapittlia-gr^ma-Y41iaIa | uttaratah 

nadi 4 tatlia $- 

46 saiiavira-graTnas=tasya pftrYYat6 dhara-Y^hala | dakslalpatah 

tiadi I pagchimafcah 

47 saiaudrali 14 uttaratd Gavahana-grania-Badi | tatM 

purYvat6 BIiogadeYa-parYYa- 

48 ta-yamala-prastaro dakshinatd $Kfa.&>&&s*v&h>l l j paSchimata^i 


and e@w - *tr*rtk^i&u**M compare 

m the Mag7wwam&&? vL 41. * 

3 Originally sawt^w^ixas (or perhaps *an>*4#*foa) was engraved. 

3 Between abuya and ar^tc one misses a verb like xambddk&yati. 

4 Originally j?awa^a^ was engraved. 

As the text states the Accusative ddna^JiaUm must be made to depend on matv<g, but I should rather 
expected the Genitive ddna-p7iala$ya, dependent on viv&7ca~bndd7iyd. 

Metre : Indrav a jr& Bead 64^. 6 Bead . ffa ^ fflfearo .. 9 Rea(J .^,5,^^.. 

Bal Gangadhar Sastri read ArffhSSvoradto*., but^, P ^a m is quite clear in the orSgiual. See above, 
p 293, note 4. ' 

M Possibly the intended reading way be -pvrassaram M a *da-, and in that case tbe adverb ending with 
-furassaram. ought to be taken to qualify the verb tamaddt (for samaddm) in line 56, below 

This sign of punctuation and all tbe others np to the end of the sentence in line 56 are superfluous. 

* The correction in this word seems to have been made already in the original. 

* Here and in several places below the rules of aamdhi have not been observed. 


49 St&mfinargrima-sisavi-parvvatait If 4 \\ tatBa. Bevaiatolimi-granie 

f 1 I VyadgairalS chli- 

50 kantarai 1 I Sayyapaiyam jukakah 1 | 

chattiragli&ta*Ticlicl]tJiiBiiam sarvva- 1 

51 rfi.jak^%=abliyamter8^siddliam=ach^tab]iatapravesa s 


TMrd Plate j Second Side. 

52 msyiir~ILiivaya-IiCsr]^^ a[chjarya 

bli6gyam=acliamdrarkaiii palaniyam | srima- 

53 n-lffatlgraiayfi^&nTO^ 


54 mdha tamasanam ta p6maMina--pradlivasi}-as6s1iasaiigiii&ih prav6 Cb6) 

55 sam&dhijaya-lavdha(bdha)-triblinvanakSrttSnlrai 

cliaranakaraal- antarlina-raadliii- 

56 lidbhyah firimad-Atr^ya-vidvad-gnrablxyd Tidyadana-svarfipena saiaadat 4 f 

tatha dvipantar-ayata*vahi- 
5 7 tr&t=svarrma-gadiy anam 1 Chfim<ilya-OliandEr*lapUpa-var j ja-Eandalaiiiiiliy-%it@r 

58 darik4-kntTimvltCmba)3il cha I tailika-kutmmva(ml3a)iii=ekaiii 1 nifilakara- 

kutnmvam(mbam) 1 kuiiibliak^ra-kiitiimTa(mbanij 1 raja- 

59 kar.kutmmva(mbam) 1 [|*J durg-dbtyantare cha jagatipnr-artha-bliiimiiii 5 

tasy4 %hattanani kattyante purTTato yasatl- 

60 prakard dakshinato markkata-g^pnram paschlmatah ^Ivata-marga uttarato maiga- 

kupah ||(|) durgad=va- 

61 liig=cha pnshpavaty-artham pftrvva-prasiddha-vadavlt-bhuTain II O fl Tad=Idam 

dharmmam mamaki"aaia=atinaii3Dair=blia- 

62 vibhlr=narendrali^aixii-Maniam 6 =iiktafi=clia mtnnbMli | "Tan=ilia 

03 dharmm-Artlia-ya(Sa)s-kaiAei 1 nirmmMyarTSiite-pratioiiiil tami ko nama 

64 hubHr=TTasudlia bhukta rajabMt SagaivMibliii ii(l) yasya yasya 

tasya tasya ta- 

65 d^ phalam |(U) Sadyd 4 dAoa[A] 


66 prMiur=:diiiacli-cliBrgy6-Biipa]ffliam 1(1!) Da[t*]fev4 bWmiA 

partMT^ndran=bliny6 btuyo ya- ^ 

67 cbat^ EaniabliadraiL I sam&Byo=yam diarama-setiir^iiripEDam kale kale 

* Sarw^My&^Uyamtarv-tiadtem I lv not met with aojwhere ebe. Justed of fcbt tet wrf J 
should bave expected ^r^raJaMy^a^a^a^apra^M^fljain or some 

* T. j o -> - o -* ju * Qriffinaili -rra3caffJWrv 

3 Bead pravesam or $trave$$am, *4* 

4 Read samaddm* 

* One would have expected here -drt&aik 

* Bead * V ^ I *". S 

6 Metre : Sldka (AnusLtubb) i and of tlie next verse. s Metre : 


68 Ta3=fcv=eTam=abIiyartMt6=pi kalikala-musliita-manaskatt purataua-dliariiimadaya-lii-Dt" * 


69 B& eva nlraya[m] phalam^anubhavisliyati | nktam elaa 

pai*a-dattam=va 2 yd "hareta .vasumdlia(iidlia)ra" 

70 in \ 3 sitaslitir=*7arsiia-sahasi4Eii " visfatfa&yaoa sa krimIr==Tbliavet 

varslia-sabasranx STargge tishtha- 

71 ti blmmi-daiL | &clichh6tt& ch=&nTiiBari J , cT^% t* > y=eva narakam 

72 rya samast-agaml-iaripafcibln'b. palana-dliarmma-pliala-loblia eva karaniyak 

73 s=feal-15pa-kal8,nka-paxai3?=bliavitavyara |(s]) YatM ch^aatad^evazL' 1 sri-KattarSjah 

sva-tastS sva-hasta- 

74 m^aropayati sva-hastc=yam mama gri-Rattarajasya |(||) 5 Mudra-suddham kriya 

suddiam bhnkti- 

75 siiddliarii sa-ohii?.i *ikam | rajasvatasta^Suddliaiii tu suddMm=&y&ti Sasanam \\ jjjj) 
7S Slram-astn |j Saihdlii-vigrahika-sri-Devapaia-sutSna Ldkaparya-nS-mna Hk^ita* 
77 Tn^idain jj 


By F, KisfcHORtf, PH.D., LL.D., C.I.E.; GOTTTOGEN. 

This inscription, wtlch was discovered by tlie . ate Dr. Bhag^ranlal Indraji, is on ilie pedestal 
of an old iiaage, built into a Trail of the modern . temple of the goddess Harsatadevi, 
at Vdrfiwal, the ancient Somanatliadevapattana, in Kathiaw^d. 6 It has been already 
published in Archaeological Survey of Western India, No. II (List of Antiquarian Remains, 
hombay Presidency*), p. 1$5. I now re-edit it from an im-inked paper eatampage, kindly procured 
by Mr. Haridas Yiharidas, Diwan of Jtm%adh, which "has been placed at my disposal by Dr. 
FleetJ ' 

The inscription contains five lines o writing which covers a space of exactly 1' broad by 
2F high, and is well preserved throughout. The size of the letters is about f " The 
characters are the kind of Nagarl which we find in the Jaina palm-leaf MSS. of the 12th and 
13th centuries. The language is Sanskrit, rendered incorrect by the influence of Prakrit, 
which shows itself in the spelling of names, in the absence of the jJroper case- terminations, and 
in the employment of the form kdrdpitd, for kdritd, in line 5 ; and the whole text is in prose. 

The object of the inscription is, to record that, on a date which will be given below, the 
Sr&hthm Mftlajdga, a member of the Gallaka 8 caste (or clan), and Ms wife, tie Sr&hftint 
Mddhl; their son, the seller of perfumes Joja, and his wife SMvada ; and their sons Jayatl 

3 Metre : Sloka (Anushtubli) ; and of the next verse. 

2 Head -dattam v*. BiaS m. 

4 After this, one Would hasre expected the word tethd : compare the grant of Apar&jita, above, p. 275, texfc 
line 83. 

5 Metre : SIdka (Anusfctubb), 

6 See Br. Fleet's Gupta. Inscriptions, Introduction, p. 91 ; Ind. AM$. Vol. XI. p, 241 : and tbe Bombay 
Bazetfeer, Vol. VIII, p, 686. 

"The photo-lithograph opposite page 306 is from Dr, Bhagvanlal IndrajTs cloth-rubbiag. [Begarding the 
painted inscription of the Maharaja Blnmas&na, which is reproduced on the same Plate, see Sir A, Cunningham's 
faporh* Vol. XXI. p. 119 f, and Plate xxx. B. H.J 

8 [Compare the Eanarese and Telugu folia, f a cowherd/ E. H.] 



Jasadfrva and Jasapala s and oilier ^jiemVers o the family)^ at Devapattana (Le. S 
t'ovapattap.a), caused to be made for purposes of worsMp an image of the holy GK>vardliana 
the image below which the inscription it engraved for their ard their ancestors 11 spiritual wel- 
fare ; and that '-his image was carved by tbeartizan Blkgiava, the son of the aitizau Yiihjbadeva. 
The only poiLt of general interest in. this Inscription is the date in Hue 1, srimacl- 
VaiabM-sapiijvat 927 varslie Phalguna-sudi 2 Some i.e. * on Monday, tl*e 2nd of the 
bright half of Phaiguna, in the 3"ear 027 of the era of the famous Val- >M.* Ttia 
ctote lias "been alreaoy fully discussed "by Dr. Fleet, la his Gupta Inscrtptrns, Introduction, 
pp. 90-93. The reading of it, "which, 'was adopted by Dr. Fleet, is now by the paper estampage 
proved to be the true reading, and, with this reading, the European equivalent of the date 
-uidoubtedly is 3 as Dr. Fleet gave it, Monday, the loth February, A.D. 1246. The only 
difficulty presented by this equivalent is, that Monday the 19th February, A.D. 1246, falls in 
Baka-Samvat 1167 expired ( = Vikrama-Samvat 1S02 expired), aud that thus there is here a 
rliiference of only 240 years between the VaJabM year (927) and the corresponding expired 
Saka year (1167), while in th*j case of some other Gtipta[-Talabhl] dates this difference 
amounts to 241 years. To explain this discrepancy, it might be said that the years of those 
otliei Gupta[- Valabhi] dates are expired years, and that- the writer of ibis date, exceptionally* 
quoted a current year ; and such an explanation would no doubt accord well with the practice 
of other eras. Yet, in the present Instance, I would rather suggest a different explanation, I 
find it somewhat difficult to believe that in the 13th century AD. the people of KatM&wM 
should have possessed a true knowledge of the exact epoch of the original Gupta era. The era, 
then in common use among them was the Vikrama era, and what men knew or belieTed 
was, that ValabhS had been destroyed 375 years after the commencement of the Vikrama 
era, and that an era had once been in use which dated from that event. 3Sbw the meaning* of 
the traditional rerse s about the destruction of Valabhi having taken place 375 years after 
Vikrama can in my opinion only have "been this s that, to convert a Yikrazna year into the 
corresponding Valabhi year, it was necessary to deduct 375 from the Vikrama year. This I 
helieve to have actually been done in the date of the Vr&wal stone inscription of ArJTznadSva, 
where the ValabM year 945 is quoted by the side of the Vikrama year 1320 ; and this I believe 
to have been done also in the present date- In other words, I l^elieve thai the year of this date 
is really Vikrama- Samvat 1302 expired (and must be treated as such for the purpose of 
calculation), and that the writer, desirous of quoting the obsolete era, attained his purpose 
by putting down in the date the year ValabM- Samvat 1302 375=927. 4 

TEXT. 5 

1 Om 6 {( Srimad-ValabhI-sa[m3vat 02t? vsrshe Phalgumarsudi 2 II 

Ady=eha sr 

1 Or the meaning may be, tbnt the image was caused to be made by the Ms&fMmi M64fai, the wife of 
; by Sbvada, the wife of J6J&, a son of the former ; and by the sons of and Shdvmga, and other 

(members of the family). 

a See Professor Peterson's TMrd 22<gor*, p. 4, and App. p. .285, v. 102 5 also 

. 279 : 

vd&di&t tinni sat/aim a$% 

3 See 2nd. Ant. Vol. XIX. p. ISO, No. 129. 

* I should perhaps state here that tlie above remarks, which I see no reason to modify, were written and sent 
to Bombay to be printed in June 1890, before the publication o Dr. Fleet's valuable paper oa the Gupi.VJ*bh! 

era in 2nd. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 376 fl- For all practical purposes mj mews entirely agree with thorn of Dr. Fleet. 
5 From a paper estampage, snpplied to me bj Dr. Fleet* s Expressed by E symbol. 

* Originally SavmS was engraved, the vowel an belBg written by 000 Hue before, OBe line after, and oa 
the sign for * j but the superscript Hue, wbicb turns 6 into a, hm clsaxly been sfcroek out* 


2 eakala-r&jaYall-pwvam 1 Gallakaj&tiya-sr^sTitMMulaj6ga bMrya gr&*-M6dhi3 tathi 


3 ta-gamdhika-Jdja bhftryft Shevada tatha ptttra-Jayata^vitijapntra-JasadeYa^ 


4 Jasapala-prabh|itaya 4 grf-G6varddliaiia-m ft rtt I 6 namaskaran&r [ttha] m s va-sreyase 

piirvajanam grey6- 

5 bhivriddiayd sva-bhaktya k&rapiti || 

ghatita 1] chha [It] 




This inscription Is on an elaborately sculptured pillar which was found Ijy the late General 
Sir A. Chmningham at Sitabaldi ? near N&gpiir 5 In the Central Provinces, and is now in* the 
CJoYemmemt Museum at N&gpur* 7 To judge from the photograph before me, the sculptured 
part of the pillar measures about 5 f high by 2|' "broad, of -which the inscription occupies the 
middle portion. Above the inscription is a row of small figures, and above these are, in the centre 
a linya^ and on tie two sides of it representations of the gods Brahman, and Vishnu ; below the 
inscription are some cows and calves, and below these there is again a row of small figures, 
apparently fighting. I edit the inscription from an estampage, supplied to me some years ago by 
Dr. Fleet. 

The Inscription contains 11 lines of writing which covers a space of about 2' broHd by IF 
high, and is fairly "well preserved. The size of the letters Is about I' 7 In the upper lines, and 
ratter less tban f f/ in the lower ones. The characters ar N&garL The language is very 
Incorrect Sanskrit, and the whole is in prose* In respect of ortliograpliy. It will be sufficient to 
note that the consonant & 3 with perhaps one exception, 8 Is expressed by the sign for v, and that 
tie dental sibilant is generally employed for tlie palata! 3 and the palatal once for the dental (in 
gahasravdhu, 1. 6). As regards grammar and Iexicograpliy 3 attention may especially be drawn 
to the Pr&krit termination 9 it, in saku, L 1, ddsu, 1. 8, tatpavu and dhavalu, 1. 9 ? and dvddasu? 
L 10 ; to the employment of the words Ghaddka, 1. 5 ? and panat% y c a gsreat-grandson 3 * and mti 3 
6 a grandson/ L 8 S -which must have been taken from the authors vernacular ; and to the peculiar 
construction of tlie numerals In line 10. 

Opening with the words * 6m ? may It be well/ and a date which will be considered below, the 
Inscription (in lines 2-4) refers itself to the reign of -victory of * the refuge of the universe, the 
favourite of Fortune and of the Earth./ the Mahdrdjddhirdja Paramedvara ParamabJiattdralta, 
the glorious TrifohuvanamaUad&vas the frontal ornament of the family of Satyasraya and 

3 With this phrase, for the employment of which there was no reason here, compare rd/d^M-p^rcnam ia 
Ant. Vol. VL p. I91> Hue 1 o the inscription. 

Le. sr$$kiMn$ t 

The superscript line of & is very faint in the estampage. 

I.e. ~$>rab&rit&ifaJi 9 for ^pralb&fitibkih. 

Bead ~~m&rttir=*. 6 I.e. swtiradJidra-. 

.See A&ek&ol. Sumsey of India, Vol. VII. p, 142 ; and the (S-asteiteer of the Central Province*, p. $^- 

In the mine M6papai in line S If m y xeading of it IB correct. 

Compare l*&, JL^ Vol. XVI. 



ornament of the ObtoO^i*. the king Vikra^aditya VI. of the Western 
It then mentions (m Lnes 4-7), as a dependent of the king, the 

, was 

hneage and was distinguished by such titles as 'the scattcrer 

amues, m war a SahasraMhu,3 a uterine brother of others' wives, the wrestler of all 
he who obtained favour by a boon of (the goddess) CMmunda.' And in lines MO the nsc 
turn records that a dependent of this DMdiadeva, the DandandyaJca* Vtend*ra> a son of f 
bhatt* Padmanabha, grandson of the bhatta [B6]papai and great-grandson of the Itett* 
yi|hapax, who belonged to the Kanva M&A and Vatsa gotra and had five pravaras, and who also 
had emigrated from Latalsnra, a slave to cows and Br^htnanas ' and ardent worshipper of the 
god Vishnu,* who had obtained favour by a boon of (the god) ISTarasimha (Vishnu) gave 12 
Hwartanas of land, which had been purchased by him, for the grazing of cattle; also 7 nfeor. 
tanas for daily food given to cattle ;.and 5 ntoartana* for vdhaka, (P), apparently to a temple 
at which the inscription was put up. The concluding line 11 states that, whosoever 
appropriates the land so given, robs the gods Brahman, Vishnu and Mah&irara (Siva) - and 
that, who steals the cows from it ? falls into hell. * 

The inscription is dated, in lines 1-2, in Saka-Sarhvat 1OO8, on FWLday, the third lunar 
day of the bright'lmlf of VaisSkha of the year Frabhava. By the southern luni-solar system 
tneyear Prabhava would be Saka-Samyat 1009, not 1008, expired; but the date does not 
work out satisfactorily for either year, nor for the four surrounding years. For the third 
tiihi of the bright half of Vais&kha ended> 

in Saka-Samvat 1006 expired, on Thursday, llth April, A.D. 1084 ; 

n 1007 expired, on Monday, 31st March, A.D. 1085 ; 

? 1008 expired, on Sunday,, 19th April, A.D. 1086; 

99 1OO8 expired, on Thursday,? Sth April, AJX,1O87; 

99 1010 expired, on Tuesday, 28th March, A.D. 1088 ; and Wednesday 

26th April, A JX 1088 ; 

1011 expired, on Monday, 16th April, A.D. 1089, 

In my opinioil, the day intended by the date is really Thursday, the 8th April, A.D. 1087, 
and the writer made a mistake in regard to the week-day. 

The jplace Latalaiira, which is twice mentioned in this inscription, I am unable to identify. 

TEXT. 8 

svasti [!)*] 10 Sakamdpa-kai~tH^ 
aslitatyadliike 13 Baku 1OO8 Prabhava-sam- 

vatsare VaisSMi^^su[dlia]-tpLtiya-Siikmdin^ ady=eha samastabbuvaisairaya- 


See Br. Fleet's Kan&re&e Dynasties^ p. 48; and Dr. Bhandarkar^a m&rlg History of the De&fc&nfp. B4, 
i*4* * the great feudatory/ * *.*. Arjnna. 

.e. 'one who applies the rod,* a head police-officer, etc. 

The exact sense of the word nlh&ya<lvdda[$6'\dhavalu> of the text Is not apparent. 

About the meaning- of the word vdbalca also I am doubtful ; perhaps it denotes here the drivers or attend- 
ants of the cattle. 

7 On this day the third tithi of the bright half ended 16 h. 9 m, after mean sunrise. 

8 From an impression, supplied to me by Dr. Fleet. 9 Expressed by a symbol. 

10 The date would have been correctly expressed tlms: Sa&anripa-lkdl-&tta-amvatmi*a-gc$&$^ 
d&htik&shu yatr^dn.Tcat6-pi Sak& 100B Jpralh&va~stswwa$sar-dtttar0ata- Yaid3s&a~ndd]k&-t* 

ai The akshctra* Id and ta t having been originally omitted, are engraved above the line. 

18 This may possibly have been altered to ashtddhiM* 

33 Here and In other places below, which it is unnecessary to point onfi separately, the roles of mmd&i 
nofc been observed. 

2 R 



3 t&r&j^hlritfa-para^ 
na~gri- * . 

]-Tri(ti^ tj 

5 iaura-Yinirggata 55 M aliarslitrakiitt(t)-anvay a-prasAta 3 B5a,Ms&ma mtah 

Dhfidtbha[m Pjdakafa, ariva(ba)laclia<Ia [ka] 3-samgr&maSa~ 

6 ia[ra(sra)]va(M)li^^ d h a - 

7 lariikrita-gri-I>MdiadTa-rinakam 5 II tatp^dapadm-dpaji^ 6 

vinirggatah? KanYa-s&kMy&m 8 ' Vachcli]ia(tsa)gStrlya[li?3 

8 pamchapravaxfTJya 9 bhatta-Vitliapai-paiiat! 10 bhatta-[B6]papaI 11 n!t! bhatta-Padmanlbha- 

putra is gd-in^(br^)]iinaria-dasli 13 VistmL-pMapathka;j-&- 

9 rSdbana-tatparo. ubhayad vMa [sd] dliavaliz 14 * 5 Narasimg]havaralaTdM (bdh.a)prasMa- 

damdanayaka-sri-VastideYena gd~pracMrasy=&rfcli suva- 

10 rnn&aa grihlta-bliftmi-BiTarttana-dTadasii 16 amk6 12 tath& gaTS3mika-iiiTartta[Ba*]- 

sapta 7 [va]haka-nivariifcaiia-pamclia 5 fifcadiya-bMrnau 17 pra- 

11 [tiplldajniyS, [|*] fitadiya-bifimd 18 [ja31i Wpayamti t^na Vra(bra)tma-Vis]inii- 

MahsYa(sva)ram Idpayaihti [|*3 *vam ya gau IdpayatI sa kumbMplka 
patati [lf*3 



These plates were found, about thirty-fire years ago, at the Tillage of Tidgtindi a about 
twelve miles north of the city of Bijaptir, in the Bij&pur t&h:k& of the Bij&pur district of the 

I Originally a rdjg$Ji appears toliave been engraved. The following sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

3 Head ~vinirggat6 and -$ra$nt6. 

8 This word eha&akct is not Sanskrit ; it probably is connected with the root chat , * to break/ and apparently 
the whole 5*>wZai& equivalent to ari%alan4$h4dan&. Compare also the Mar&th! ckacLaJca^ * a slap, a stroke/ 

4 Wdm&n is quite superfl.uous here ; its sense is contained in the following 1 $&ma$tar$j&v&l$* 

5 Bead ~*r$n&kaJtz hut the words in the whole phrase, beginning- with tatpddapadm^pajtvj, in line 4, should 
really have been put in the Ikocative. The following sign of punctuation is again superHoom, 

6 This word and the following" words in the Nominative ease* qualifying aa they do WdsudfoSw* inline 9, 
should have been put in the Instrumental. 

7 This siga of visarga was originally omitted. 

8 Bead -MJcMyam^ or perhaps rather ~tMit/6. Bead Vly<5. 

10 3?anati and niii in the following compound are cjlearly closely related to and synonymous with the 
Msratht pa^atti, * great-grandson/ and ndt4 9 * grandson f the Sanskrit words would be pran&ptd and napt&. 

II The first akshara of this name might also be read vv6 or 9 perhaps, gh6 ; the last alzsTiara was originally 
p&n y but has been altered to gaL 

Bead -pvtrt. 

13 On the termination u of this and of some of the following words see my remarks on page 304 above. 

14 The aJsf&ara in brackets may possibly be *y$. I do not understand the exact meaning of this compound; 
perhaps it has reference to religions observances on the I2th day {dvdda&$) of the two halve* of the month* 

15 Bead Wdratimha*. 

16 Intended for grihitdni lMm%~nivarUandni dvddasa. On the construction of the numerate here and below 
compare Ind. An. Vol. XVI. p. 207, 

** Probably intended for &d IMmayah yvatipdditdli* 

Beadle n*mtr*yS Idpagamti U Br*km&rto&i*.MahMvar4Mm?faayamti 1 foam 6 ad Wpayat* *& 

Painted Inscription of the Maharaja Bhimasena. The Year 52. 




SCALE -17 

Verawal Image Inscription. ValabM-Samvat 927. 

SCALE '50 


5itab*ldi Inscription of the time of Vikramaditya VL-Saka-Samvat 1008. 



Presidency ; and they were recently in the possessors of the late Mr *h P Pajrd-* 

who hm published a translation of the inscription which they contain. with a I-Ll^lv cf \ 
tezfc, in the Indian Antiquary, VoL I. p. 80 ff. I edit the isamnt:o= from'7wo eicellfci^ 

impressions, supplied to me by Dr. Fleet. 

These are three copper-plates, the second of which is on hoth sides, while the 

others are so on one side only. Each plate measures I2j f/ bj g^ Ligh. ' xte ed^pg 

of the plates are fashioned thicker, so as to serve as rinis to protect the writing, anil the 
writing in consequence is in a perfect state of preservation iircneho::*. The are 

on a ring, which had not been cut when this record came into Dr. Fleet's hands. rise* j a 

abont 4f" IB diameter aaid f * thick, and holds a circular seal, about 2| f/ In diameter, Tie seal 
contains, in relief on a countersunk surface, in the centre a HOE or tiger, to the prcptr 

right, with the Head turned to the front ; above it, in the middle the moon, or ttfc left tLe Per, 
and on the right an open right hand, held up with the palm to the front : bescati: tie LL-rTr 
tiger, from the right to the left, a straight sword or dagger, a palm-tree (?;, a cobra, EtEi;!;^ 
on the tip of its tail, with the tood expanded; and a wast&a, the sHort trr-Hr;r- tf nhici 
going tte wrong way. The weight of the three plates is 55-if tolas, and that of thi* ri&g and 
106J tolas; total, 661 tolas. The size of the letters is between // and ,&*. Tie ohar 
are Nagarij they include the sign of the sirs^rrrjn?.^. In the word rj^a, in line . 
language is Sanskrit; but the birudas in lines 32 to 39 hare tie tersiiraricrs of the 
nominative case (ami, am or a), 1 and the text contains, in addition to some Kanarese proper 
nameSj five words which are Kanarese, adafa y L 34 3 ban fa, L 36 3 f**feW*2. 1. S5 ? and mamm^La 
and sdmya, 1. 42. The inscription opens urith three Terses rf^rih-iE?, or inToklng the blesajtsir 
of, the gods "Vislinu and Siva, and ends with one of the ordinary iisz5retTa*rrr verses ; t 

also contains two verses in lines 24-32 and one verse in lines 4t3-42; the rest is In prose. A 
regards orthography, ri is generally 3 employed instead of the vowel r, b is aiw&vs denoted 
try the s%n for ; the dental sibilant is often used instead of the palatal, and the twice 

instead of the dental (in m&arfra, L 16, and fcs-:?c**ft- L 48) ; the word &&a Is irrittcs 

ySsTi, in line 25 (and was so written originally also in line 26), i$~.rz ^^r*-.r in Hue 45 
As regards tihie inscription in general, it may he noted that the main of It, from line S tc 

line 44 3 consists reaHy of a single sentence^ bat that this is broken up % the isacrticx: 

of descriptions of tlie two personages cMefly ceneemetL whicsh 5 rather odilj^ &2 just &5 

an independent document or order of either would be expected to comrsei;^* 1 . 
The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Western CMlufcja 

(Vifanamaditya VI.) ; and records feiatj on a date which will be giTea helow. a depeodem cf 
Tribbuvaiiamalla, tike M&Mman$Mar Mug (maMpafl) Mimja m som of wisD 

WBS the eldest son of BMma, the gOTeimor of the I^atya^dska*PoisrtliO'tisard. ! the 
v&mS sold the Vfiy^Bda group of twelve villages^ -with the of the vilkffe cf 

!I l ak:kalik&, to another dependent of TribknvanamaHa^ the Of 

both the vendor and the pureliaser a Isrge number of are emunemted in lie : here 

it wiE suffice to draw attention to the titles of a few of 

tnxn out to be of some historical importance* 

The date on which the above sale is stated to hvre taken 10 * Sunday, the Brit cf tit 

bright half of K&rttsifc% when six years of the glorious Yikm time in the 

seventh current year, the year Dundnbhi. 1 Tie em eiaplejed is more ??n cr!? 

in line 38 coB^las the Kmri gwitire ******* : 
see Dr. Fleet's J&aa**M I>$m^^i^ p. 41 ; Jmrf, ^nl. VoL XV. p. S7S ; aad T B?h;!-:=?ri .<3f^^ r-^;.r^ 
- ^ ^VWTK. -^f#*** 3ba the msie line i the gn. pinr. of &#. E. H,l 

* Origiiiftilj tib Yowtl r* w throughout written by the njllmble ri, bat Our salKAkf iuw !**= ^rr^'^I 

three times. 
3 See page SOS ftboire^ note 1, 

2 it 2 


by the phrase GTidlukya-Vfkrama-varsTia, and the seventh year of it, the year DTmdnbhi, should 
correspond to Saka-Samvat 1004 expired. 1 But the date does not work out satisfactorily 
either for this year or for the years immediately, preceding and following it; for the first 
of the bright half of Karttika ended, in Saka-Samvat 1003 expired on Wednesday, 
the 6th October, AJX 1081-, and in Saka-Samvat 1004 expired on Tuesday, the 25th October, 
A.D. 10S2; and in Saka-Samrat 1005 expired it commenced h. 9 m. before mean sunrise of 
Saturday, the 14th October, A.D. 1083, and ended 2 h. 29 m. before the end of the same day. 

Of the localities mentioned, TakkalikS, one of the group of the VsLyvada-Twelve, may 
perhaps be the Tillage of * Takulkee,' about twelve miles north-west of the city of Bijapnr and 
fourteen miles south-west of Tidguudi. Pratyaiidaka* after which the Pratyandaka- 
Fonrthonsand district was named, and the city of Bliogavati, 2 from which Mimja took one of 
Ms Mrudas 3 I am unable to identify- 

TEXT. 3 
First Plate. 

1 *Jayaty=aTishkri(shkri)tam Vishn&r=vv&rham kshSbbit-arnnavam [|*] dakshin-6- 

2 nimta-damsh^-agra-Tisraihta-bhovanaiii vapnh \\ 6 Vapnr~dalana-8ambhramfi- 

3 t=svanakha~ramdhra-nasht6 ripan kva J&ta iti vismayat-prahi- 

4 ta-ldchanas=sarrvatah 6 [|*][ vrl(vri)th=6ti kara-dhiinanS nipatitam pu- 

5 ro 7 renuTan=nirfkshya 8 bhuvi Danavam jayati j&ia-h&so 

6 Harih \\ 9 P^mdti-pamkaja-samlina-madhnp-Mi-saiuam ga- 

7 lam [I*] y6 vi(bi)bhartti yidheyat=t6 na kapall sa mamgalam \\ 

8 Srasti [I*] Samastabhuvanasraya- Sri-Pri(pri)thv{*vallabha- mah&- 

9 r&jadhirftja- paramesva(Sva)ra- paramabhatta,raka- Satyfi- 

10 srayakulatilaka- CMlufcyabharana* SrS-Tribliuvaaiama- 

11 UadeTiasya 10 Tijaya-rajyS ri-Kalyanapur va(ba)hn-divasa* 

Second Plate; First Side. 

12 sthira-nivasini pri(pri)thvi[ra] p&layati sati 3rl-Viku(ixa)makaia- 

13 samTatsareshu shatsu 11 atitgslnz saptamS BumdubM-samiratsaarS prava- 

14 rttamane ^tasya KS[r*]ttika-su(su)ddlia-pratipad-Adivar [H*] TatpSdapa- 

15 dm-dpajivind MTiihja-mahipat^r=anvayah [1*] 

16 liasra(sra)des(s).adliipatih Siihda-Tamsa(sa)-prabhavah 13 

17 nita-bhir=Bliim6 nama tad-agrasatah prakhy&ta-ktrtti 

18 mnamgan-arjjit-arjita-jayasrl-vallabhah Simdarfi- 

19 jo nama tat-satasya Mu[m]ja-mahipat^h prasa(a)sti-sta[m]bhah 

20 sti [I*] Samadhigatapamehamahagavda(bda) mah&mandaI6sva(Sva)rarb.^ 


2 See Ind. A*t. Yol XXII. p. 109 ff. 

J Compare 0j* Vol. VIII p 6 ;Dr Fleet's Kanare** VfvaM*,, p. 97 ; above, p. 231 ; and below, p. 316. 
1 M im ^ Sl( f S S ^ hed ^ Br ' m ^ 4 Metre : S16ka (ABmbtubh). 

7 /I ' f^ thvl Originally **trkvtah was engraved, 

the J o?? ^if w'T* Wa , 8 ^ gra ^ d ' bUt ^ 8aperscri * t line which ^ n8 ^ tato a bas been struck out. Over 
! ^. be * l loW1B f W0rd there 1S a 81 ^ of *v& which has been struck out. 

Tins ofcrfara, ^%a, loaks rather like oAcA%a in the ordinal ' 
9 Metre: Sldka (Anushtubh). 

" with wiat foll WSi we sboilld have expected here ^^' withoufc 

* In * he Mlowing w rd the sign of ottf "^ 8 is "S"'* 1 above *' not 

Ko. 43-1 


22 Simda-kTilakamalana^rttanda- Gunuka-vadavanala- 

23 iagatliapa- 3 namavalt-samalaihtri^kri)ta- 3 

24 rajadvasy-airwaclianain=idam II Purwam 4 yo 

vidhau dainyam. ma- 



Second Plate ; Secod Side. 



n& HX& graMn=n=ayarii 

chri(chii)damanit [|*] 
n=3py=amgikri(kri)ta7-kola esha 6 

jagatah pat 

27 yam 

rajita-raja-raji-vijayi pya^maM-vallaKhah II Chimia 

28 ja-maWpat tava ripu-svamt6 sn-tapt&*siSam 

29 Tu(bu)dhi-bhi-kar6 vicharitum 161a claa 9 kirty-amgana ~* 

30 tvayi -vidyatfe 

31 n-^yam- 



34 laiCkri)tamtaU 

35 bharirjanam 

36 garakirttinavasaram'* 


Svasti [i*] 

nJ II *^ a cta 8 va-mamdala-maaiiy6 H vas r 

tapamcliamab.aavda(bda) maliasaixiamtam viralaksliraikaihtaih 


37 patihitaclia[r*]yaii-acLalitadliairya 

38 kamitram dharrazaa-Dharxntn^jtmaaa 

39 tekamthiravam iOT- 

40 t-Kannasamamtah [I*] tasy^SrvTac 

41 samatmUtS 



f ad 
*> aud 

tbe firet 

(and not,-^^*) U tH. 
tt o .riafti La line 4. I do not 
sense to the ordinary ,.9A2* 
with y^M****** &*. ** Vol. I. P- 365, tart 
and 343). E. H.] 

OrigiBally *am&la***rita was engraved 

. Metre: 4dAlavikridita , and of the 
construction; what the author ^eant to say J 

Originally y^ appears to have been engraved, read . . 

6 Originally ^ar= wa engraved. ^^^a to *, and perlmp. * 

7 Originally iri* was engraved, but ft* has been n 

s Originally y^ia was engraved. (Mtrffr*)- 

This C atna, have been altered to tr in the oragi 

Originally Atn was engraved. ,,^ above fo. h ba dely 

Here a sign of a*^ra, which had been 
may have been altered to *r- 

. ^ T^ 
(1*1, ^. ^. X 

.0t ** 



Th, and not *oAaf. 
'a mighty, powerful, or heroic man.* 

Originally *di<^ was engraved 
" BSnteMra also is a Kanarese word, 
Tbi; i. what was originally W" 
superscript r of the word Mrtti have been_ 
is a Kanarese ^S* of the 

reading of the origin** ; *f* * 
ream g 

& sportsman.' 
* s bow 

I b. 4 

M* " 

18 Metre t S16ka 


42 mm vairi-feri(kri)taiiifcakali || Tasmai 

43 BB0ya*[s]&mya3ii vayro^dvMaga-grainA dattah 3 tan-madhye 

44 k-ftidliAnargt&nazh, varjayitvi I) Tat-pradhftnapurosh 

45 yyarmayakali 4 Madlinkari-B^akah. samdhivigrahl || s Bhammaiyya-iia- 

46 yakah 6 Mmva(ba)ya-n%aka etesMm pn.ratah 

47 pai-pratihattna 7 likhitva 3 fiiirUumja-maMpatinft Kazuusftma 

48 ys H 9 sva~hast6na dattam-idam tamvra-sasanam 10 ]| g a sl[6]kaii; 

n Sva(sva)-datt&m para-dattam 

49 vS 6 

50 j&yat6 krimih || < 


(Line 1.) Victorious Is the boar-incarnation of Vishjgm, 1 * which agitated the oeean, 

at wHct the Earth was reposing on the tip of his uplifted right task. 

Victorious is Hari 15 who when the enemy, in terror of having his "body torn 
in a fissure of the god's nail wondering where he taight have gone, vainly cast his glances 
in all directions, and then broke into a smile when, on shaking his claws 3 he saw the demon fall 
before fr? on the ground, like a particle of dust. 

May he, 16 the wearer of skulls, who has a throat like a row of "bees hovering on a wMte 
lotus, accomplish your happiness ! 

(L. 8-) Hail 1 In the reign of victory of the refuge of the universe, the favourite of 
Fortune and of the Earth, the MahdrdjddMrdja Parame&vara Paramabhaffdraka, the frontal 
ornament of the family of Satyftgraya, the ornament of the Chaiiikyas, the glorious 
Tribhuvaxiamalladd'va, (while W 7 ) firmly residing for many days at the glorious city 
of EMyS^s* is ruling the earth; six years of the glorious Vikrama-time having elapsed, 
the seventh (year), the year DundiibM, being current, on Sunday^ the first of the 
bright half of Karttika of this (year) 1 :~ 

(L* 14-) Of king Mufija, dependent on his 19 lotus-feet, the lineage (is this) : (There 
was) the governor of the Pratyandaka-Fotirthousand country, bom in the Sinda race, 
fearless on battle-fields, named Bhima. His first-born, of renowned fame, a favourite of tK 
mighty fortune of victory gained on battle-fields, was Sindarfija* Of his son, king MEnfija, 
the column of praise (records) : * 

Hail! The MahdmandaUJvara, the glorious KtufijarftjadSva, adorned with the titles 
* he who has attained the five mahASabdas, the MatdmapjaUhara, the supreme lord of the city 

a Originally pdrvv&bamm= was engraved; read -jp4rt?a&aw $-dtmty (?). 

meaaiae ' a reapecfcable 

*l^dattA#*ta<> Rent -<tyaM. 8 This sign of punctuation is .aperfluoaa 

Originally Shammmaiya- was engraved ; read -ndyaU. 7 Read "Aafttna FOUS. 

One would, have ejected likhita*. . T hi, sign of pncttion is su 

Bd*ft4ifMM. Metre: Slfika (Anushtubh). Read *Aa*AtL t>". 

11 Originally viikt&ydfy was engraved; read ofrjlfi^yt&N. 

" Literally, "the boar-body of Vishnu, manifested.' 

*,a. Tishnu as man-lion, fighting with Hiranyakalipn. 

Ih08e ' thr at is dark - blHe from "the steiu of the deadly poison which would 


Compare page 308 above 9 note 10, 

SSl^ ! Qfch r ^ itt to mtaa ,-* whicb ~ * what follows, i, that -on thi. 

n^a sold to Kannas&manta certain villages/ 1S 


of Bhdgftvati, born in the serpent-chief's race 5 the frontal ornament of the familT, 

the sixxi of tie lotus tie Slnda family, the submarine fire of the 6iirrakas(?) the fever to the 
eleplmnts the rolers of districts;' the Messing pronounced on him is this ; 

f * In former days, it was not Vamana whose heart, when he -was engaged in subduing Mug 
Bali, 1 faintness did not seize, it was this king Mufija* tie crest*jewel of princes ; nor did 
this kiog assume a boar's body, when the world had long been cast down by adversaries. 
Victory to him, the favourite of the Earth, the conqueror of rows of resplendent rulers ! 

" IMTarvellous it is that your Fame^ king Unfija, is so eager to visit incessantly the burning 
hearts of your enemies which frighten (even) the ocean 3 of their tears! Ah, I know, you 
possess the magic power of stopping fire, poison and the rest, and therefore she lightly wanders 
among* tie crowds of the enemies between the Himalaya and (Rama's) bridge/* 
he in the midst of ins territory 3 

u 32.) Hail! Fortune! The illustrious Eannasamanta, who worships the feet of 
the g^loirious Triblmvaiiamalladeva $ who has attained the five mahdiabdas, the great chieftain, 
the "beloved of the fortune of heroes, the god of death to hostile forces^ the hurricane to 
scatter* tie mass of clouds mighty chief tains, the lion to the elephants" hostile cMeftaiEts s 
the huxnter of chieftains, the fresh essence of the god of love, the passion of warriors* the 
champion of SSvanaclSva, the ins&raetor in what is beneficial to his master, of unshaken 
firmness, the purifier of Ms family, the unique friend of good men* Dharma*s son 4 in righteous- 
xiess s Rftdhft's son 5 in truthfulness, a Bevanta 6 in (the management af) horses^ a lion, ia 
prowess ; the blessing pronounced on him is this : 

6C "Victory to the illustrious Easim$msmtaj who loves to adore Hara's feet, who touches 
the breasts of the women of I*ta s who has long' annihilated the adversaries ! ?J 

j. 42.) to him, 7 after purchase, he has given ? together with Ms own rights as 
(?), the VSyirada-Twelve villages, excepting from among them the "village of 
In the presence of his chief officer^ the NdyaJca, the illustrious Khambhayya ; the 
Nay oka IBAadlrakari, the SamdhivigraJriHi the Ndyaka Bhammaija; (and) the Nd$/a>ka Eimbaya, 
has tb.8 copper-edict, written "by Nannapaa^ the deputy of the 8ajfodhivigrahi 9 "been given by 
the glorious king Mufija with. Ms cp?m hand to Kannae&manta* The verse here (appropriate 
is) :* 

" "V^liosoever should take away land given by himself or given by others^ he is bom a worm 
in ordTLire for si^ty-thousand years*" 



I Alt this imscriptiQB from the aceompanyimg photo-lithograph, which lias been prepared 
under J>r. Fleet's supervision. The original plate is at the India Offlc ; there is no informa- 
tion as to where or "by whom it was found. 

original may also ba translated * in subduing powerful kings. 9 
as tbe submarine fire frightens the real ocean, 
is seatenea is eoBtiBiai below, in tbe tmnslation of L 42 fi* 

* i.^. YndhishtMra. 6 ** Kar^a. Thi 8 is ibe Baise of a n of Sikj* 

7 BL ere the sentence commencing above vifch tie words and he in the midst of hi* temtery u eoatarawi. 


This is a single plate which measures about 10" broad by 5|" high, and is engraved on 
one aide only. It contains ten lines of writing- written across the breadth of it, and another 
line, which merely contains the name of the donor, on the proper right margin. The writing' is in 
a perfect state of preservation. The size of the letters in the body of the inscription is between 
T y and *, and of those on the right margin, about ^.'. The characters are N"agari, as 
written in Orissa or neighbouring parts of Eastern India probably in the llth or 12th 
century A.D. The language is very incorrect Sanskrit prose, greatly influenced by the 
Prakrit or vernacular of the author. In some places the case terminations are altogether 
omitted; in others we have wrong cases, false genders, and inappropriate or incorrect 
verbal derivatives. The influence of the Prakrit is shown by the substitution of single for 
conjunct consonants (as in Vigahapdla for Vigrahapdla, U. 2 and 7, saddtUtyd for sadtistMt-yd, 
11. 4 and 5, and saJutsta for twaJiasta, 1. 5), the use of the lingual for the dental nasal (as in na 
for na, L 3, and kuttumvikdndm for Mndm, 1. 7), the substitution of sfor^andsfc (as in sSsam for 
Usham, 1. 8), and the omiasion of medial y and final consonants (as in -vtdhSdndm for -vidhSydnam, 
1. 9, and kasyachi for hit, 11. 5 and 7).i That the author's vernacular was' closely related to, or 
was a kind of, MagadM Prakrit, appears to be particularly proved by the occurrence of the 
word ostd for avasthd in-line 5; by the use of the conjuncts sp, sm and sy instead of shp, 
shm and shy in chatuspada, L 6, tusmd (for yushmat-), 1. 4, and nirvvahisyati, 1. 9 ; and (if my 
interpretation of the text be right) by the Nom. sing. masc. yS in line 3. 8 ' In respect of ortho- 
graphy it may be noted that t is everywhere doubled before r (as in -puttra, 1 2) that 6 is 
written by a sign of its own in kufjumUkd, 1. 3, and bal-ddhikrittna, 1. 4, but by the sign for 
in, I. 6 ; and that the writer throughout has written ft instead of the single f (as 
m -karate, 1. 1). The style and phraseology of the inscription are very peculiar, and I know of 
no other inscription which is similar to it in this respect. A territorial term which I have not 
mrt- with elsewhere, is paribMga in line 3, used apparently in the sense of bkukU or bhoqa, < a 
district.* 9 

The inscription described in line 2 as a prasdda-paffaka or < document of favour,' * is one 
at m PamffoUoffon*. Mahdrdjdd^dja Para^ara VijayarfijadSva, and records a grant of 
laod and other property in the KSsawkotta parfMg* and the grant of a village named J?6tfi, 

V^v^^ m Lr P 7 f **? cla * OT caste ' There is nothing to show to what dynasty 
^ayarajadeva begged, or to determine the time when he lived ; and all that can be said, is 
that, 3 udgmg by the wrrtmg, the inscription must be referred to Orissa or some part of 

, . -rd . 

> ! 1 * ** **** ** & pr per name ' ^* probably is really the 
O ' A" 6 g ^ tS W6re ""^ resided at Cutteok ' ^ ^1 city of 
thmntio ^ T ' ^fr' m the - 8cri P fcion -*<* I am unable to explain satisfactorily, 

The district of Kesaarfkdtta and the village of P6t& I am unable to identify. 


. ** 




svasti [||*] Srl-vijaya-katta(ta)kfe 3 samavasita-paramabliattaraka- 

ija-parain6sva(sTa)ra-grl-Vijaya^jadevat | 4 kusali 
srf-Vigaliap&la 5 Dusala-puttra tatha MiMrava Kusuar^-puttra Palka-jaii prasada- 

pattakaik prayachchlmty=aiiay& bhashaya yatha sri-KSsa- 
rfc6tta-paribli6ge ksh&ttrM>hftxnj* tatha kupa tathft grIM tatta 

lsnatta(tu)mbik& y& 7 oha na kam=api diYasam Mulad^Ya-fohuktam sa cha 

samastam maya ri-bha- 
tt,rakena 8 4-clialiidr-&rka-taraka yava- krlty a 9 tusma-pmttra-pantra-prapaattr-sdi 1 

iiirwafaam&mi 11 sadatMtya 12 prasadlkritya pradattgL ls [|*] k6n=api bal-&dhi- 
kyltSna na psripamtliaiiiy& 14 [|*] g&ttraja 15 kasyaciii 1 ^ anyasmapi kamakaro 

n=&sti [1*] I7 sahasta-paraliast6na blifiktavya [|*] sad&ttiity& attraam o- 
st& [I*] mah&raJBi gri-La[eli^3olLliideTl tatKa maharajni 18 sri-Hamsinidevi [1!*] 

Tatlia Pota-gramam 19 dTipada-cttatiispa(sIipa)da-ksliettranam- kutturavika- 

sahltam samastam grf-VIgahapala-puttra-pauttranairi 23 bhatta(tta)-graiaaci 

maya sri-bbattarakena prasadikritam [f*] anya-PalliE^ kasyaclir 24 kania- 

Dr. Fleet's accotopanyiog plioto-litbograpli. 
9 .Expressed by a symbol* 

JKata&a may be either* a royal residence * (rdjadkdni) in general or tbe proper same of a town. If the latter 
should fee the case here, we ought to write -JEbfaftf. For instances where vijaya Is prefixed to the names of towns 
w& In*%~ <d.nt. Vol. XVIII. p. 270. 

4 This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

s Mere and in the following BOUBS op to -jdti the terminations of the Dative ease are omitted. 

I take the word intended to be foMtra-lMmi*** ; the following kfyd atid ff rihd are probably meant for 

XLead yao^te ^e^ and afterwards, for s cM s toe***** * y$ the (Magadhl) ^om. sing, mase., nsea 

of the neuter ; ^ot is the Pr4kpt form of ts* 

. , 

tiy for ydvat-Jkritya, ydvafrkritw* ; and tlieVhole phrase for the ordinary o- 

TMg eompotind is used in the sense of the Instrumental case {-dditkih}. The Ursfe word of it, I 

to be equivalent to ynl&ma,t. . A , . T f , 

form, the sense of which the writer wished to express, seems to be mrva^am aud the meaBing 1 ta* 


to be that of parilMfyam, * to he enjoyed or possessed/ Below, line 9, the root 4 with tbe preposition mr 
ed in the souse of a to carry out, to accomplish.* . . 

Apparently for ^^-.a%^ * In permaeeEce or perpetuity 5 ' the word occurs again in the nes, Ime. 


^ family or any other (ruler) must follow Me iBclioatiom (to take away to pwty). 
Tbe two a^AorMXrav were orsgioally omitted and are engraved bdow the line. 
Origmallj Mi^M was engravedfbnt the sige of * appears to ^f ^^^ 
^, K I -t ,ure about the exact ^ing 

***** d^W*3MMy-^*W 5 (the property pted) may^e ej jye* y i ^ ^ 

(^. by them penally) and (with their ^^^J ^J^ tUJayitJ^ If other 

perpetuity.' The fin* part of this clause would thms ^^ to to the m^M eqnlraieiit of 
iwrlptiant Ae regards the wording of the Becond part *I " 

&od at^* probably Is a mistake for a&r4*ri which would stand tor 

Orlgiaally was engraved. 

ead .^4tf. aod f orkher o* agreei^ with it, 
o?hiB word and the next should hftT been put in 
JEtead A?f6*^^, for 

should have bean In the Dativ ease. n^At^iu* 

What the writer to j 9 is probably vvay* 


8 Mro n=asti [|*] Kusnara-puttrai^. Pota-gramaih varjaitva 1 sesam yatha- 

Hkliitam bhdktavyam [|*] sadhtL-sa(sa)bli-acMr4n4m 3 &jia-sraTana- 

9 yfdheariairi 3 upari-likMtani sarvvam nlrvvaMsyati 4 || Raj-adesat 5 ri-I>nrgapla 

vachanena likhitaxix may& Muladeva 6 Mamguka-su- 

10 ta kemakarena If 

11 * SriVIjayarajadevah7 [||*J 


(Line 1.) Om. Hail ! 

Dwelling at Ms glorious royal residence of victory, 8 the ParamabTiattdraka Mahdrdjddhi- 
rdja Paramesvfira 9 the glorious Vij ay arjadeva fe being in good Health, grants to the illustrious 
Vigahapala. son of Dnsala* and to Mihirftva, son of Kusuar& ? of the Pallia clan, a document 
of favour, to this effect that 

I, the glorious Bkatfcfaraka, have graciously granted (to you) in perpetuity, in the 3Eesari 
district (jparibhoga), cultivated land and wells and houses and house-slaves and whatever 
has not any day been enjoyed by H&ladeva, 9 to be possessed by you, your sons, grandsons* 
great-grandsons and so forth, as long as the moon, the sun and the stars endure ; (and) not 
to be interfered with by any commander of forces. 10 The (rulers) of (my) family or other 
(rulers) have no claim (to this). It may be enjoyed by (your) own hands and (with your 
consent) by the hands of others. This is the settlement (made) here in perpetuity. The 
Hah&rdjnt, the glorious LaolicliliidSvi, and the HahdrdJTii, the glorious Hamslnidevju 

(L. 6.) I, the glorious ShattdraJca, have also graciously given the whole village of PdtS* 
with its bipeds, quadrupeds, fields {and) house-slaves, to the sons and grandsons of the 
illustrious Vigahapala, as a bhatta- village. No other Pallia has any claim (to it). Excepting 
the village of P6t the sons of Kusuara are to enjoy everything as written (above). (My) 
well and virtuously behaved (subjects), ready to obey my commands, will carry out everything 
written above* 

At the king's command, by the instruction of the illustrious. Burgapaia written by me 
the goldsmith M uladSva, son of Manguka. 

The glorious Vijayarajadeva. 



The slab which bears the subjoined Inscription, is preserved in the Museum at 
1 edit this record from three sets of excellent inked estanipages, one of which was supplied to 

1 Bead trjat$ittd tetk 


" This is engraved In large letters on the proper right margin. 

] ?*> " :t may \ e '' 5 We J2* & l the gl&rious t fcown > of itory Kataka'; see page 313 above, note 3 
^ am so-xewhas dcaMr.1 abo^t this, bat see no way of translating the ori^naltcst differenHy Jt is 
tut the Baffi e c the v-JIage, to which the land belonged, should have been omitted. ameren y- " ^ 

- 10 The original. has 

India Office Plate of Vijayarajadeva. 




Dr* ECultzsch by Mr. Consens, and two by Dr. Fleet, for whom they had been prepared by 
Shaikh. Karim. Bach, set of impressions consists of five pieces, The contest suggested to 
me fcl&at the first and second pieces should form the front 5 and the third and fourth pieces the 
"baclsz^ of a slab wMch. is broken in the middle, and that the fifth piece is probably engraTed 
on 05ae of the sides o the same slab. To settle this point. Dr. Hulfasseh forwarded one s et 
of tix<e impressions to Mr. R. S. Joshi s Curator of the Central Museum* N&gpur, who readily 
supplied the following information. The first and second, third and fourth pieces are actually 
engpcanrecUon the front and back, respectively, of a slab which is broken across the middle. 
Tlie fifth piece is on the right-hand side of the upper half of the slab* and the lower half 
contains* four lines in continuation, of which Mr. Joshi kindly sent a pencil-rubbing and an 
impr-essioiu He added that "the stone was brought to the Museum in the year 1861 from 
SiroxxelLa, about 160 miles from Nagpur, by Colonel G-lasf ord, the then Deputy Commissioner 
of tOh.e then Upper Gr&d&vari district, who found the same serving the purpose of a tombstone 
and zmGTinted at the head of an innumerable number of curious sarcophagi at the of a 

raiag-e of hills in the insignificant village of Kowtsli s some 6 miles from Sironcka tahsil." 
Siroxieiia is situated on the left bank of the Q-M&Yari, in about 19 latitude and SO 5 longitude, 
The slab itself is noticed as " said to have come from Sironeha" in Sir A. Cunningham's Beports, 
Vol. "VII. p. 115. 

A.t the top of the front of the slab are drawn some rude figures : a dagger between a 
tiger- facing it from the left and a lingo, on the right. Below the tiger is the sum, and below 
the li-Aga, a crescent, with a doubtful figure (a bowl ?) between the two. 

Tlie alphabet of the inscription is Telugn, and its language Teliigm prose. The characters 
on the front and back of the slab are much larger than those on its right side. A few letters at 
the "beginning of lines 38 to 40 and at the end of line 56 are lost altogether; a number of other 
letters are indistinct and doubtf ul, especially on the right side of the slab and about the end of 
the inscription on the back. I am unable to give a complete transcript and translation of the 
damaged portions of the inscription. Of orthographical peculiarities I need only note that the 
-vowel ri is represented by n in praJcaUknta (L 6f.) and SaJ&anripa (L 26). 

Lines 18 to 35 of the inscription record that GimgamaJiMevi* the chief queen of 
Soxmasvaradeva, gave a village, named KSmmaruks (L 35) or K^ramarka (L 55), to two 
temples of Siva, both of which she had built. The first was called Vira-S6m6svara after her 
hnsbcuod, and the other Gangdliarsvara after herself- The date of the consecration of the 
two -temples and of the grant of the village was Sunday, the twelfth titM of the bright fort- 
nigh.* of Phaiguna in the Saka year USD. The next few lines (35 to 42) appear to contain 
the king's sanction of the grant. Lines 42 to 55 specify the names of a number of royal 
officers who were witnesses of the transaction. Lines 57 to 79 I have not teen able to make 
oufc satisfactorily. They appear to record that both and 

performed libations of water; but it is not clear if they did this in connection with tbe same 

/fc that was referred to before, or with some additional donations. 

I laare no means for identifying the village of Keramamka which was the object of the 
The date of the grant has been Kndly calculated by Mr. Dikahit, who remarks on it as 
follows:- -In Saka-Samvat 1129 expired, Phalgnna MOa 12 ended on Satoday, me 1st 
Marob, A.D, 1208, at 13 gh. 59 patos. This titU can in BO way be connected with ^ tie 
Sunday, and therefore this is not the given date. In Saka-bamrat UaU^ expired, 
-^ fefifo 12 ended on Wednesday, the 18th February, A.D. 1209. This aiso is not tie 

* ' date. In U8i expired, PMlguna *Oa 12 ended on at 1* gk. ^ 

*_ The European equivalent- is the 7th February, A.D. iao.' f 

first sixteen li^g of tfce -^"rfoiio!! are made^ up of a ^^^^ 6 j["*J 
full name was J ^ -" : ^ .-I- --"- *C~- iitoftJ 9 a '^ 1 ^ ^-^^^ ^-^ q , 



He claims to be a descendant of the race of the N&ga with thousand hoods, ie. of the serpenfe 
Sesha, to be the lord of the city of Bh.6gvati, to have for his crest a tiger witti a calf* to 
belong to the Kasyaps gStre, and to be a worshipper of the god MaMsvaraTand of the goddess 
Manikyadevi. In his Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts (p. 95 &) and in this Journal (p- 
230 ff.) ? Dr. Fleet has given details of two branches of the Sinda famiiy, which were established at 
Bagadage and at Erambarage, and which were tributary to the Western CMlukya and Kalaclmrf 
dynasties. 1 In the Bhairanmatti inscription (No. 33 above), the members of the B&gadt|?o 
branch of the Sinda family are stated to be descendants of the race of serpents {Ndga^am^J^ to 
use tie crest of a tiger, and to be the lords of the city of JBhdgAvatl. As three similar biruda.8 
are applied to S6m6svara ? during whose reign the subjoined inscription is dated, it is clear tlmfc 
lie must hara been connected with the Sinda family. But as the inscription does not mention cmy 
of his ancestors, it is vain to conjecture whether he was a direct descendant of the B&gwju^e 
branch, or of Vikrama, the last representative of the Erambarage branch who is noticed by 
Dr. Fleet, and whose latest inscription is dated in the Safe * year Il02, twenty-eight 
before the subjoined inscription. 

TEXT. 2 

i ^t 3 ^rf% [] 

-Front of Slab. 














.ac& "/Slab. 

29 fe 

30 wi<f5|'fit 

No. 45.] 










[T]%*J nfefo 















C. Side of Slab. 

F~f*9 MlJu^lbl-Wl&M* 


57 ^SMHI- 

58 TT^[T]- 


59 P*t]f% ^ft" 


60 *T 5i nr- 


61 OrJ^rt- 


62 ;nw[T> 


63 'Sjttf tWl 


64 3gM* 


65 &9T? 


66 ^TT 


67 [r]w [] 


68 t[3Q- 

' "" 


f W- 

10 [n*3 

1 The anusvdra stands at tbe beginning of the next Fine. 
3 The annsvara stands at tlie beginning of the next line* 

Read ^flftf%. . 

T ^ oJMWwft^ stauds at the banning of fbe next line. 





Om. Hail ! 

Gangan aMdevi, the chief queen of the glorious Jagadekabhushana-Maliaraja, alias 
the glorious SdmMyaradeva-Caakravartm, who was born of the race of the NSga (*.e'. the 
serpent esha) who is resplendent with the mass of rays (proceeding from) the jewels on. (his) 
thousand hoods; who is the lord of Bhogvati, the best of cities; whose crest is a tiger together 
with a calf; who belongs to the Kasyapa gotra ; whose shout of victory is universally 
known ; who is the supreme ruler of the whole earth; who is a supreme lord ; who resembles a 
bee which is rendered yellow by the mass of the pollen of the lotus-feet of the great 
Mahgsvara ; who is full of pride ; who is a worshipper of the heavenly and holy lotus-feet of 
the blessed Manikyadevi ; (and) who is a conqueror of hostile armies, on the day on -which 
(she) had performed the consecration (of the image) of Vira-Somesvara, (which was called) after 
the name of her husband, and (of the image) of G-ang,dhardsvara, (which loas called) after her 
own name, (vis.) on Sunday, the twelfth ttihi of the bright (fortnight) of Phalguuia in (the 
year) U3O of the years expired from the time of the Saka king, gave, for worship in these 
two temples of Siva, the village of Keramaruka. We 1 gave, with libations of water, in (this 
viUage), two sixteenths of our revenue (sitnka) 

(Line 42.) To this transaction, our minister Mandalika-SSmaraja, the secretaries Damddara- 
Myaka, Mentama-Nayaka and Chanchana-Peggada, the door-keepers Somi-Nayaka, Gnddapti- 
Esapa-Eeddi, Viluehudla-Prabhu and Parakdta-Komma-Nayaka (were) eye-witnesses. 

(L. 55.) The revenue of Keramarka 

(L. 57.) The glorious GangamahadSvi performed a libation of water (into the hands) of 

(L. 68.) S6m.Ssvaradeva performed a libation of water for the 

support of Brahmanas. 


The copper plates which bear the subjoined inscription, were found in a field at Ganesad 
m the Damnagar taluka of the Baroda State. In March 1894, Major W. B. Ferris, then. 
Assistant Agent to the Governor-General, Baroda, sent them to Dr. Fleet, who very kindlv 
placed them at my disposal for publication. They have now been returned to, Baroda. 

The plates are two in number and measure about 11 by 7| inches. The edgea of their 
.miwr, mscnbed side 3 are raised into rims to protect the writing. When the plates reached me 
they were covered with a thick layer of rust. Ifeving been immersed for a, 

c e r^ trr of todd ? r d ^ marind ' * <>--<-% ^^ ** dau 

i '^ ^ G ? ^ ' "* ^ n W in a &ir State of P^vafcion. The 

Lot, T?> t ^ i 6 ^ "^ ^^ dlStinCtly at the back * ^ P^es. Thro two 

1 This pronoun apparently refers to the 


the lower end of a well-preserved oval seal, which measures about 2| by 1| inch. The back of 
the seal is of convex shape. On the front of the seal, a plain oval border, measuring If by If 
inch, is divided by a pair of horizontal lines into two compartments, of which the upper one 
contains, in bas-relief, a recumbent bull which faces the proper right, and the lower one, in 
raised letters, the usual legend *ftaz$:. The weight of the two plates is 3 Ibs. 7 oz. and that 
of the two rings and the seal 7| oz. ; total, 3 Ibs. 15 oz. 

The date at the end of the inscription furnishes instances of the numerical symbols for 
5, 7, 10 and 200, and the symbol for 300 occurs in line 14. The language is tolerably correct 
Sanskrit The proper name Mataklta (for Shal&rJta) in line 3 and on the seal, 1 and the 
adjective jamala (for y amulet) in line 14 are two instances in which the writer of the inscription 
relapsed from. Sanskrit into his Prakrit vernacular. 

The plates record an order, issued from (his capital) Valabhi (line 1) by Dhruyaseaa [L] 
(1 10) and conferring on a Brahmana eight measures Qihanda} of land and two cisterns 
in the village of Hariyanaka, which belonged to Akshasarakaprapa, a subdivision of 
Hastavapraharani (1. 12). I am unable to identify the village of Hariyfaaka and the 
subdivision in which it was included. The district of Hastavapraharani, Eastakavapraharani, 
or Hastavaprahara is mentioned in three other Valabhi grants." Hastarapra or Hastekayapra, 
to which it owes its name, has been identified with Hathab, six m:les south of Gogha in the 
BhUvnagar State, and with the ' Astakapra ' of Ptolemy and of the PjpJfo.- 

The Vtaaka, of the grant was the door-keeper Mammaka, and the writer of the edict was 
Kifekaka (1. 28). The latter also wrote the three other published grants of Dkuvasena I. 
and the former acted as IMtaka, of one of te three grants.* The date of the subjoined grant 
Tas the 15th *KoE the dark fortnight of Vais*kha of the (Gup a) year 207 1 29 f. ,,. 
lib 526 27 Another grant of Dhruvasena I, published by Professor Buhler^ is dated* 
Ifsame year, which fcL the earliest date of the Valabhi dynasty that has been lutherto 
found In inscriptions, ^ .,.,,, ,, , , 

reading sampanna, which actually ^^^J^ J^^y. ass ume that this was 


also the reading of the ongmal diatt otme ^^ ^ ^ ^ 


S ; Vol. T. P- 206 ; and 

6 ibid. p. 204 fl. . . ^tell-andJEWBrf-Vol.Lp.SMoteSS. 

7 See Dr. Fleet's <?j^ tom>fc S , p. 16', note U, *** m y< 2055 and O f K. fto. 
s L reproductions rf the ^^^^^Phto iv.). In the <** * ^ * 



{Vol.. HI. 

paraphrase the passage by Maitrdkandm (i.e. MaitraMshu) JBhafdrko sbhavat, or supply the word 
veimse after Maitrakdndm, 1 it is now evident that Bhatarka, tlie ancestor of the "Valfttxhl 
Mings, himself belonged to the family or tribe of the Maitrakas. 2 

First Plate. 


- , 

". s ;r i V ; 






Ganesgad Plates of Dhruvasena I. [Gupta-] Sam vat 207. 










13 Sm^tiM^fo tw^i^iiir ^4ftR<flfa fr^^ast* 1 

14) *w ^i<imin^i m ^o i ?rf^^ 9 in% HmCtTK^tfti 

^HN^qlfM 5 


Second Plate* 

16 [WJWfw 9 



20 *r 



22 I*] 

iftipn cf % WT^ 1 8 [I*] 

23 I! 


^r w^t ^t^ [*] w ft 

[i*] wit ^t; 

Bead sq^tn^. * Kead 

Bead -r1%tr. * Bead ^j)^' 

\ 6- TtjptfLA HI"0T 

Bead ?fFW9Tt?t. ttewi ^', 

Bead ^^. 8 Ecftd ^^' 

* na 30 Read 
Bc-ad %W^W 

^wimM^fiT^Wf^r^^ as Eead 

Bead ^fl^ 

Eead TlW. ^ 

Bead V^f% 

, ^* M R 2 ^ 


Bad *- " ^ 


25 [B*] 

id *f i 1 RT 

26 ^t TW Wf: i^frr^rffT [n*] %'^f^Tif 

[l*J l 

27 [i] *rar 


28 [n*] 

BigHt of the Second Plate: 

29 ^ ^@ >a 

30 * to ^ [B*] 


(Line 1.) Om. Hail! Iom ValafoM J 
(J &e race) of the Mbitrskaa* who prostrated (their) enemies by force, (wa# &ewt} the 

devout worshipper of MahdSvara, the glorious general (sendpati) Bhatirkag wB.o obtained 
splendour in hundreds of battles, fought with a vast crowd of enemies of unequalled strexiirfeh ; 
who gained the devotion of those whom he had prostrated by (his) splendour, throixgrlbi (ft&) 
impartiality (in conferring) presents and honours ; (and) who acquired the glory of z-oyaJfry by 
the strength of a devoted body of hereditary servants, hired soldiers^ and friends. 

(It. 3.) His son (was) the devout worshipper of MaMSvara, the general Dharasdiia, -whose 
bent head became purified as it was reddened by the dust of the ? f eet of (his fathe^y ; s the 
splendour of whose toe-nails blended with the lustre of the crest-jewels on the bent la.ea,cla of 
(hie) enemies ; (and) whose wealth was being lived upon by distressed and helpless people. 

(Ii. 5.) His younger brother (was) the devout worshipper of Mah&gvara, the M*a.~hdwdja 
Br6nasMiJia f whose spotless crest-jewel was (still more) purified (by his prostration^ at the 
feet of (Ms elder brother); who was by nature addicted to the performance of tike diatias 
prescribed by Manu and other (law-givers) j who, like Dharmar&ja (i.e. YudMshtbira),, pointed 
out the path of the rules of good conduct; the ceremony of whose anointment to the royalty 
was performed by His Majesty (pwamasvdmin), the lord of the vast circle of the whole" world, 
in person ; (and) who purified (his) royal glory by liberality, 

(L, 8.) His younger brother, the devout worshipper of Bhagavat, the Mahdednwnta 
(and) IfaMrdja BlsriiTasena s ~ who meditated on the feet of His Majesty ipwamalJiaft^raJca) * 
who, like a lion,' defeated alone, by the strength of his own a*m, hosts of troops of enemfes 
(who resembled) elephants ; who was the refuge of those seeking refuge ; who knew i>h;e true 

. 3 Read lRsU*Kn*ft4NnTfr. 2 Read ^jf. s Read 

4 Eead SftfW- s Eead Wf^crt. 6 Eead 

* The word ValabUtah depends OB samdjudgayaU in line IS below. 

8 ^ ^"/f 1 *? ^I 18 ^ <" in verses 20 a and 65 of the Hallisiidim epitaph (pp. 200 and 2OO 
where the dust of the feet and the dirt on the body o holy mm are said to purify from L 

Pr^m tmEBlators have constmed tbe words M* 4* a with the preceding word 
en^ent mention of the elephimts- which are always represented as the Ltural enemies* of 
that nmla iva must he coraed^d with tbe felbwi&g words, 



. <**> ^ * Oekfra tree, conferred the enio^e,i of rewards 

g ? ^ H f * imds ^ f ^onrite S> - being in good health Issues ft* 

^ f S ^ rf **"' WW^Wto, 
, Ddndapdhkas, irregular and regular soldiers, Ld so forth :- 

SkW to7<>11 ftat|in rder to ^ crease ^^%ious merit of 


> sea and tte rth f (KZ> for the same 

ttenverBaBdthempniit ains, to be enjoyed by (a daMaV) sons, grandsons and (/w^r) 
ants, free of taxes (* **aa*ap6) of gifts and taxes (in i&a shape) of forced labonr s i accord" 
*o the maKim of bMmiohchlMn. with libations of water, as a BrafcrnaAfca, in theTiU^e of 
wHch belongs to Akshasarakaprap^ ( a ^division) of the HasfeaTapi&liaraiii 
5 four -khandas of cultivated land at the north-western boundary (and) four of 

B0rtll " easter3a boundary, thus eight kharfas of cultivated land in 
(are contained) three hundred pdMwrtas,* (in figures) p 800, (and) at tie norfh- 
boundary of the same Tillage a double cistern (yamaUwdpf)* forty pdddmrtas in area, 
a second cistern, twenty pdddvartas in area, thus in the same (village) altogether three 
and sixty fddfoartas, to the Brahmarta Dliammila, who resides in the same 
, belongs to the Darbha g6tra 9 (and) studies the Vajasaneya (AttM). 

(L. 19.) " Wherefore^ nobody should create even a small obstruction or objection to (fhe 
while he enjoys (the granted land) according to the rules relating to SrsS^adsy^ 

(t#)> causes (it) to be cultivated, and assigns (it to others). 

. 21.) ** And future gracious kings bom of our lineage, knowing the reward of a gift 
to be common (to all "kings), should approve of this our gift. 

. 22.) " And who may confiscate (this grant) or approve of its confiscation, lie shall be 
of the five great sins together with the minor sins. 

23.) se And with ireference to this (subject) there are (the following) verses composed 

[Four of the customary verses.] 

(L. 27.) (This is) the own signature of m, the Mahdsdmania (and) Mah&rdja 
The D&taka, (is) the door-keeper (pmtthdra) Mannaaka. (This was) 

by KiKfcaka. The year &OO (and) 7 (the month) Taiskhai the (fortnigH} ; 

1O (and) 6. 


BY J. F. FLEET, LC.S-, PH.D., O.I.E. 

Of the copper-plate charters which I deal with on this occasion 5 two 3 0. and P., are now 
to notice for the first time, I believe ; the others are re-edifed ? partly -with a Tiew 
giving more correct versions of them, and partly in order to bring the whole series together 
ito, oi^e and the same place. 

a V4tt6llaka is probably tbe aame as the Sanskrit eMfi. the Telngm wfti and the Cttuareae Wff*. Tfe0 

* of the lowest tillage servaut, Vettivddn m Tehsga aad Yettigdn in Tamil, is derived f rctn this word. 
3 With tlie adjective ^&AaMr0^ajmip<y0 compare VatastMliM^d^i^ in anotfeer VakbM grant; 
"Vol. V, p, 206, 

AcoordifigtoBOhtlingkandlbath'tf^ajM^t^l^^for^^ is esplalned % fee commeaiator oa 

K: ft.*3T %Ba's rnt4tr& as f a square foot/ Compare also Pr, Fleet's G*pt& Imcripimm^ p. 170, note 4* 
* The same expEesgioE oocurs in another Valahhi grant j JTn^. -4s4 VoL IX. p. 338. 


324 1FBICA. [VOL. 

Of the latter, the first tbat wag brought %o notice is B* f on of set of three eliartars 

by Mahfi*Bhsv&giipta I* in MB thirty-first year* It was edited in 1876 5 in the Iud~ 

JLnt. Vol. V* p. 55 ff., by Babm Rangalala Banerjea, who propounded the views (1) that 

MaM-Bimvagnpta I. IbeloBged to the dynasty of " the great Guptas,* * meaning, apparently, tie 
Early Guptas, or to some branch of it established in the Kalinga country 5 (2) that EL, 'which 
reoordy though not then published, had been examined by hint* proves that a king named 
YayUfci reigned in Orissa when Halia-JSivagnpta, 1 the son of Maha-Bhamgnpta I., was the king 
of the three Kalingas; (3) that the Mugs of Orissa were feudatories of the Guptas, and made all 
their grants in the names of their parstnor.nt masters 5 (4) that Yay&tl is to be identified with, a 
certain Tayti-B[8sarI 3 who, according to a (supposed) historical account of Orissa, compiled 
"by Mr* Andrew Stirling from two local vamMvalis or genealogical lists of kings and from the 
Sdjc&Gritra chapter of the MddldPdn,ji or archives preserved in the temple of Jagannatlia ais 
PnrS, and published in the Asiatic Mesearefaes, VoL XT* (1825), pp. 254 to 305 3 was the 
founder of the Kesari dynasty of Orissa^ and reigned from A.D. 473 to 520 ; 2 and (5) that 
the period o Maha-Sivagnpta s and of the record itself. Is determined by this identification. 3 

Next there was brought to notice E. f the by MabJirIiYEgup1a in tide niatli, 

of Taytis i.e. in Ms own year^ which was edited by the same gentleman in 1877^ 

in the Jowr. Beng. As. SQG, VoL XL VI. Part L p. 149 ft. On this occasion, lie again treated 
MaM-SIvagnpta and Tayati as distinct personages ; and, in fact, he pointedly emphasised 
the supposed difference of personalityo He repeated the view that the KHssris of Orissa 
acknowledged the Guptas as the paramount power,, i m e. that Tay&ti was a feudatory of 
MaM-Sivagnpta, and that the grant was made By Yay$,t in the name of his supreme 
sovereign. He again accepted the period of A.B. 474 to 526 4 for Yayiti* taking 

Janamejaya to be simply an " ancestor '* of Tay4ti s ~ not MB father ; though is the 

relationship which ^ distinctly stated in the recorci, and which was acknowledged Tby the Babrn 
Mmseliin Ms translation of it, he identiied Janam^jaya with a person of the same name 
who, aeeoriiing to tradition 3 f cranded the city of Katak-01iandw4r | 5 and h placed him seven 
generations "before Yay&ti, and allotted Mm to the earHer part of the first century AIX 

In the year ? and in Ih0 same volume, p. 175 ft, A, another of the 

by l. and in the of JaiittjaFa f i.e. in bis 

^Called simplj c Slv^npta f % tbe^Babn 9 who did not notice the poittt that the fatbar of M alift-Bliaagiip|ja 
was SiYs^epta, and MB son was HiA^iTagmpta* S also, except in the translation, lie called 

Aoeordiag to Mr. Stirling, he omaeixcea to reign in A.B 473 after the end of Saka-SaAmt 390 {loo. ei*. 
^\ and died AJ>. 520 (p. 26G).~Sioce Mr. Stirling's time, the records of the temple of JagaonAtlm, 
tan lieen twice investigated (see Sir William Hunter's Ori**^ edltloei o 1872, ToL L pp. 198 S 199, ancl 
notes ^,);m 1868 by I^.BajendraWaMifc^ whose arrangemeote for paWcatioir, kower f were BroYenfeiBd 
% the pnerts fr^m being carried out - and at aa earlier date by BhabaBi Chamn Baodopmdhyaya, vlio pabllsiiea his 
reiralte in a BengM work eafeitled PvwMttamaetonM*d. Sir William Hunter gaya that this account is fuller 
d mo earefuBy done than Stirling's excellent sketch $ he Is s ' inclined to believe tbafe all tbe really historical 
8 ^J^f extmcted ^ ""e ha giw the lirt of kings and dates, thus made out, from B.C. S1O1 to 
mththekadingfeatofes of ha sUtemeats made in connection with them, in Ms Grim, VoL II. 
Lpp .WStoUtt. TU.M6aimt.gms with Mr. Stirling's accotmt, IE represeBting 

l / * 8 .?* 1 ? d f a8 ^ ^ ^ eriod that ife * * M. ^waver, ia A.D. 474 to 5,~ 

htfj fromthe pemd amwd at by Mr 8 Stirling; and there are differaEees in some of the other dates also. 


But h T Btoo PWe ^Bds, hat the records "cannot be *ei-j ancient- (loo. <*. p. 6O). 


n oo. <. p. 
i he supposed HahA*taapta ** to hare been a contemporary of Tayfttt-Ktoari, 

o.dh.ta fee years 474 aad i26 JLD .- (for these drt* see the end of the preceding^ 

* e ta precediiig two notes. o / 

riginal ci *y WM ChadwAr or 



.^as edited by Babu Pratapaehandra Ghosha, who, however, from aD y 

siiionB 5 he contented himself with saying that it was not evident from the record what 

majaya tad to do with the grant, and that, until Janam%a could be It was 

needless to make any attempt to fix: the date of the record, 

.And finally, D., of the set of three by i 

la year s was edited in 1882, in the Jour. jfcn0. A*. Sm* Vol. LI. Part 

ProceeaiogSj p. 9 ff, 3 by Dr. Bajendralala Mitra, whose remarks OB it furnish about as'good m 
illtistcation as could well be sought, of the cumulative results of careless and uncritical <work, 
folio-wing blindly in the tmck of writers who have handled matters that they could not deal with 
properly. He took Babe. SangqJal& Banerjea as ref erring to" the later Grata Mrgs of Ma^adia f 
evidently, simply feecamse s *& lie himself asserted (be. ***. p. 10} S without the slightest 
fotitt elation in fact for the second and third assertions^ "we know from the Apisad inscription 
"that there was a long liae of Gupta kings " '(i.e. the Guptas of Magadha) in Behftr, and"t% 
" called themselves the lords of the three Kalingas 5 and that BhaTagupta was one of them/ 11 
He misread the name of the king as ' M&h&dftvagnpta,' and represented the person,, 
exiatezice lie thus arrived at* m a grandson of Mahl-BhaTagupta I. himself. Taking an 
expression, towards the end of the record, which describes MaM-Bhavagnpta L as a Tery god 
KaaciaTpa (Klmad&ya) in respect of religion^ as giving the name of tie person who made the 
gran-fcj and endorsing an assertion of Babu Bangalala Baaerjea th^t the Sastras enjoin 
sovereign Hugs only had the power of granting land in perpeluitys he arrived at the conelEgion 
that <tf the donor was ostensibly MaMrdja MaMd^yagupta, son of SiYagnpt% but really a 
" chief of Kftsala, of the name of Kandaipadeva } who s not being himself competent, accorikg to 
*' the S mrltij to gr^nt land, which theoretically belongs to the paramount power, invokes Ms 
u dates it after him." He followed BabE Bangalala Banerjea, in accepting A.D* 474 to 526 

m period of Yay&tiy the alleged founder of the K^sari dynasty according to the local 

in. makiag him a contemporary of MaM-Sivagupta. And he placed the supposed 
Uah&d6vagupta and the date of his record, 'about the beginning of the sixth century AD. 

views summarised above are oa errors. One is 

the failure to recognise what, seems clear nough even from A* and E. j viz. that Janamejaya 
and Tay&ti were Mahl-Bhavagnpta I and Maha-Sivagupta themselTes, Another is the 
perfectly unsustainable assertion that now but paramount sovereigns could make grants of land, 
whether in perpetuity or otherwise ; as the result of which, it is to be taken that the supposed 
fandsaAory prince Janamejaya* for instance, issuing charter A., had all the essential pariof it 
worded ae if it were issued by a totally different person^ m his supposed paramount soTereiga 
MahA-Bhavagupto 1 And the third is the blind acceptance of the local annals, and of tie 
period which they purport to establish for Tayte, the alleged founder of the dynasty, 

jSLS the last of these mistakes 9 -it should surely be almost to ay 

that, CT6B if any gems of ancient historical truth at all an coEtaicad in the 
question, there is certainly nothing in them that caa be aooopted without complete ooneolonte 

omtaide, Mr. Stirling, indeed, while questioning efwything before 
mom the accounts as reliable 'from that point ; he eomsidemi that the -later 
4ir of authenticity about the date of the accession of the 473 A.D., pw to 

the accounts are BO replete with obvious mconms^ 

aimclironlBm, as to be equally unintelligible and unworthy of notice ( Inofco 
XT- p. 256). But he shewed BO reasoB^this differentiation whchnas p 


20B, 1X, 2B), m l notion wb.^ of 

in f not, ao mt oecw in any record know, to me, apart from ^^^f^^ 5^. ^ a* ?U 

M awan to ^ fonna in Dr. RtJMidiiUa IBM own lendmg of to Ap%a4 ~/~J^ of Hw^- 

PwtL,a67^Inw^^tliIaMBgof Jttdhwfapta. who "neof the Ouptu of 


except that, after the mention of the traditional Mug Vikram^ditya, who is represented 
m having reigned for a hundred and thirty-five years, in order to fill up the etymological 
interval between the commencement of the Vifcmmaera (B.C. 58) and the commencement ot 
the era (AJ>. 77), "the em of SaHvaLhana, >J (i.e. the ^aka era), "wMclx dates^ xte 

* s commencement from A.D. 77 in Orissa, 1 is used in all the accounts, and we now come to reigfn& 
* of a probable and moderate duration* the first dawning o an approach to the atttb.en*io period 
of the native Mstory " (*&& p. 262). And he simply attached to the annals of Orissa a, valixe 
wMch neither they, nor any other Hindu records of the same Mnd that tare ever yet come to 
light, can possibly possess. It is almost needless to say that the annals in question <io xaot iaclndLe 
any such names at all as Sivagupta and Bhavagupta ; these being real Mstorical Bames 3 it Is not 
to be expected that they would be found in sueh. documents- They undoubtedly do preserve a* 
reminiscence of Jaaam^jaya-MahA-Bhavagupta I. and Yay&ti-Mahft-iTO^apta f in the names of 
Yay&ii-Kesari, and of Janazn^jaya-KSsari which also occurs in the list of the Kl^sari ting's ; 
f or* 0therwlse s there is no reason why such purely Pur&nic names should crop up In. sb aeries ox 
mostly quite ordinary names. But they do so under completely erroneous and anaeHiwalstlcr 
circ-amsfcaiices. According to the annals,, Yayati-K^sari was the first of Ms dynasty* and waa 
succeeded by s Snraj s - or * Surjya '-, i.e. Sftrya-K&sati* and Janam&jaya-K&sari cama lor^g after 
Mm, in the period A.D. 754 to 763 ; whereas, the ciopper-plate charters shew that Ya.yliti~Malisl~ 
Slvagupfca was the third Hug of Ms line, that Janam&jaya-Malia-BhaYagiipta I. was his 
predecessor and father, and that lie was succeeded by BMmaratha-Malifir-Bliavagixpta II. ^ ^f 
whom we possibly have a perverted reminiscence in the name of tile alleged BJaaraita-K^BarJ 
who is placed next "after Janam6jaya~K&sarL, in the period A.D. 763 to 778, A.zid, ~ eva-n. 
apart from what I shall shew below, as to the period to which, the real Yay&ti-Mali&r- Si a. 
must be. referred,- the annals nnconsciomsly betray themselves, by connecting witlbL the aMae 
of Yayati-K^sari events winch, can hare happened only several centuries at least after the 
period wMch they would establish for him. They say that, just before him, some people 
Yavanas mled over Orissa for a tnndred and forty-aix years, and that lie established Jbtis 
dynasty by expelling the Yavanas (fbid. pp 264, 265, and Orissa^ Vol. II. Appendix: 
p. 185) : as I will shew further on, though the Yavanas here are the Early Gupta Jklngs* tlie- 
term elsewtere means, all through, the annals, the Musalmans, 3 and the statements ooroaectad 
with Tayati-K^sari mix up the Early Gupta rule with the Musalm&n conquests : if tliezi* tlia 
statements are based on no actual fact, but simply on what took place generally in Northern 
Indiaj they cannot refer truly to any time anterior to the period of Mahmud of Q-haasui 
(AJD. 1001 to 1080), who, moreover,, did not penetrate as far as Orissa ; -while, if they* 
commemorate an actual conquest of Orissa, they tsannot possibly refer to any time a/nterior* 
to A.D. 1567-68, -when Sulaiman 3 king of Bengal, defeated the last independent Mug- of Orisaa 
and practically subjugated the province, 4 

As regards the second mistakej whatever the SSstras may say, or seem to say, tiia 
assertion that none "but paramount sovereigns could make grants of land is without any "basis- o 
fact : any number of epigraphic instances to the contrary could be quoted ; and, though there aro 
instances enough of feudatories md officials making grants with the permission of their sttpr-orao 
MngSj yet even then the grants were always made by them in their own names, a*xd mofc 
a single authentic ease can be quoted of a feudatory or official assuming the namo of his Mug- or 
other superior authority for the purpose of issuing a charter. 

1 Le apparently, the people of Orissa use the current Saka years. 

a Qri9v*> Vol. II. Appendix VII. p. 186, Mr. Stirling did not enumerate all the K&8ari kings s and scr 
naia is not to be f ourid in his account, 

It is sufficient to note here that, la the CMt&rgadh mseriptlon of A.B 1428 or 1429, Ftrfta SbAfa or 
nd-aiii TagUaq, kiog of Belbi (A JX 1351 to 1388), is called the Y^vaua Hug Perdjn " (J^. Ad. Vol. II, 

4 Sc the Imferial Qazetteer, Vol. S. p. 430. 


The Somavamsi Kings of Eatak. 


Maha-BtaTagupta 1* 


Maha- Si 

MahlL-Bhavagnpta II. 

And as to tin first of them* the facts are these. A. names, in the formal part o therecord ? 
a paramount king* named Sivagtrpta, and his successor HafaBliavagupta (I*) who made 
tlie grant ; It is dated in the sixth year of a paramount Mug named Janamejaya; and it ends 
with a Terse In praise of this latter king, who, like HaM-Bhavagnpta (I.), Is attributed to fhe 
Lixmstr Hace* 3E. opens by mentioning in verse a king* named Janamejaya s and his son Yay&ti ; 
then, in the formal part of the record^ It names a paramount king named Mahfl-Bhavagapta 
(I.) 9 and Ms successor Mah&-Srvagnpta who made the grant ; and it is dated in the- ninth year 
of 'STary&ti, to 'whose name there are here attached the paramount titles, just as in the case of 
Matlb-Sivagupta,, and who, like Maha-Sivagnpta, is here described as "belonging to the family 
of tlie Moonj and as "being the lord of tlie three Kallngas. And 3?., after mentioning in 
the opening verses three kings named Janam6jaya s Yay,ti 9 and BMmazaiha, names, in the 
formal part of the record, the paramount king Malia-Sivsgiipta 9 and his s accessor Mab&- 
mxavagupta (II.) who made the grant ; and it is dated in the third year of BMrnarafcha, to 
whose ame there are here attached just the same paramount titles which are attached to the name 
of Maiia-Bhavagtipta (II.)* ad who, just like Mahft-Bhavagapta (II.) in this record and Maha- 
Slvagnpta In B., is here described as "belonging to tlie family of tlie Moon, and as being the 
lord Of tlie three Kaliiigas. It is true that the fact is not specifically stated. But it is 
self -evident that we have the names of four kings, Sivagnpta, KCahA-BhavBgapta I. 9 
Sivag-irpta, and Mlalia-Bhavagiipta U., each the father of his successor, and that Jaaamejata, 
Tay&tI 9 and Bhlmaratlia were simply fanciful names of the second, tMrd* aad f anrfih of 
{beza. They were paramount kings of the Kosala country ; for, the charters issued in the 
thirty-first year of MaM-Bhavagapta I. style him Z3**Z-ftZra or "lord of Kosala*' and 
convey Tillages in different divisions o the K6sala territory," Maha-Sivagnpta's charter 
conveys a village in, plainly, DaJcshina-KSsaia or Southern Kdsala, and the charter of MaM- 
Bhavagupta II. conveys a village in yet another division of Kosala : and, unless one of their 
titles, tri-KalMg-ddhipati, was simply a meaningless attribute, they were also paramount kings 
of tlie territory that was knowm as tlie three and which included evidently 

or * Cnttack, * and probably the whole of Orissa, capital seams to have been 

whiolL is mentioned by name in A., B., 0., and D. f as the place from which those charters were 
issued: B, and I\, however, ware issued from other towns named yimtyroa aad 
agaM* both, like Katak, on the Mah^Badi ; these places have not been identified ;* bat it 
possible ttat the names are fanciful nam.s for Katak itself. And they eternal to 

EegardiBg the point that Tayitinagara cannot be tlie modera Jijpor, eee page S55 below. 


to the OP the Race* Their dynastic name proper lias not 

yet come to fight. But their paramount titles, Paramdb&attdraka, 3aJidrdjddMrdJa 9 and 
Pora^iefoarfl, * were not the exclusive attributes of the Gruptas, as Babu Raugalala Banerjesi 
thought. And s even apart from the fact that their period is plainly too late, the termination 
of their names does not require us to allot them to the lineage of the Early Gtaptas, or even of 
the later Guptas of If agadha ; and there appears no reason whatever for our doing so. 

There remains for consideration the period to which, these kings be allotted,* 

And 9 as their records are not dated in any era 3 and their names have not been met with, in any 
other records so dated or capable of assigned to an exact date by means of a record so 

dated, this question can only be dealt with. mpp:r0ximately f on Tlie 

results, however, are sufficiently definite s within certain limits* 

The characters used in these charters are Partly because of the locality to 

wMct the charters belongs and partly because of certain unique forms of the vowels e s aj amd 
&n$ which will be noticed again farther on and which. are radically different from any f orme 
to be found in records from Southern and Western India s they must unquestionably be allotted. 
to the northern of N&gari alphabets* And they exhibit more or less of a tendency 

towards a particular type of that class of ISTagari alphabets, to which, rightly or wrongly? the 
special name of Kutila has come to be attached* 1 A comparison of the records s one with, each 
others shews this peculiarity most plainly in B, O., D. f and E* And characters of apparently 
much the same type with the present oneB 5 as exhibited in four records* are carried "back 
to about the middle of the seYenth century A.D. by the Aphsad inscription (Beh&r) of 
AdityasSna, {Gupta Inscriptions^ p. 204 9 Plate). But closer inspection, shews that the present 
characters are very much later than those of the Aphsad record 5 contrast* for instance^ the 
initial & of the -Aphsad inscription, in dsid, line 1, and theft,.;",?, m, r, and s 9 in feafa&d, jayind? 
uuutdndha, ^iAyM'har^ mhasra in the same line s with the initial d in dkshfytd, line 20^ and 

the & 3 j 9 f y m s T 9 and ^ in kafafedt, samdvdsita, vijaya* and parama f line 1, of B, s and still more 
with the same characters as exhibited in the same words in A* lines 1 and 27* From these 
letters alone* it is evident that a very considerable interval must have elapsed from, the period 
of the Aphsad record to tibia time when these charters were engraved. Audi, reverting further 
on to a few individual letters-, 1 will deal first with some other features which, endorsing* the 
above result, help better to fix the approximate period of these charters. In making compariU 
SQBS 3 1 staU quote records^, with published facsimiles* which come from the nearest possible 
localities to the part of the country to which the charters under consideration belong. 

A point which will at once attract attention^ as suggestive of a certain amoinat of 
, is tie us of for * three * and ten * in E. line 65. But we are 

* TMs name was fist used by Prinsep, in 18S7 (Jour. Senff. A.9. Soe Vol. VL p. 7W), on the authority of the 
kvtil-4kaard& idmM$ which oecar towards the end of the D&wal inscription of the CfaMnda prince 
Laila. la re-editiog this record^ Dr. Buhler (Jgjp. I*d. Vol. L p. 76) has expressed the opiaion that the words 
mean not that the writer was acquainted with letters called KutiSa or - crooked letters/ but that; be was 
skilled in readiQg badly written and difficult 3 documents. I think, however, that the analogoBs expressions quoted 
by me from other records in noticing the words used In the DSwat inscriptioa (ff^pte Invrtytitu*, p. 2O1) 
make it quite clear that, whatever it may actually mean, the expression refers to the character In which that record 
itself uengiaved. And the coBtesBfc between them (see the Plate, Sp. 1*2. To!. L p . 76) and the far more 

f? f r iMtaBCe5 tbe S ' Beo ^ ra ^ fiMeriMon of Viaas^s Hid. p. 

5 ajass . p. a 

, late), indicates that the reference mfcst he to the t 1P e of them, the pecnliaritj of which perhaps consists 
mm the general ayoidaBce of straight lines, than In the tails or bottom twists to the right which appear 
also in the Beopara inscription and in other records in the sqaere characters.- As I Remarked on the same 
occasion, the espressiOE k*W&***r&i* does not seem to have Been used in the Mwai Inscription with the obiect 

iTT^K a f ^^ ""/ * * T^ 5 f the alphabet ' Bat the t@rm Ku ^ ^ ** tJ! ^ tottw. so wall, 

it has been m ose te so loog a time, there really seems nb objection to continue it, as the 
at t the northern alphfthef^ noi as the imma of a distinct a Iphabot. 


compelled to place the record, on this account, before A,D. 794-95 5 for, the same system 
used in the grant (r<?m somewhere in Bengal) of the MaMrdja Vlnayatapala, the date of 
falls in that year (JnA. Ant. Vol. XV. p. 140, Plate). And the force of this feature is 
the fact that decimal figures also occtir in all the six. charters. This latter feature, 

ed, does not oblige us to place these records after A.D. 862*; for, decimal figures occur in 
*3a.e D&dgadh inscription (Central India) of Bh6jadeva of Kanauj, of that year {Archil. Sum. 

Vol. X. Plate xxxilL No. 2). But it points to about AJX 800, as the eatliest possible 
for these charters. 

The next point to which attention may be given, is the use of the virama, in eozHi 
the full form of t in B. to B 1 ., and once in conjunction with the full form of n in B. ; this 
, however, being qualified by the use also of final* forms of t, n y and i, more or less 
*lxx-cragliOTit the wlj.ola series. The virama perhaps occurs with t in samvat, line 6 3 in the 
31>^6gadh inscriptioii of A.D. 862. 1 It certainly occurs, in conjunction with a half final form of 
# - a, complete t* except for the absence of the mdtrd or horizontal top-stroke, in. paftchdf&f, 
llx&e 20-(twiee), in the G-wftlior inscription (Central India) of the same Mug, of A.D. 875-7S 
Xnd. Vol. I. p. 160, Plate). It appears in conjunction with the full forms of t and 
in the Pehoa inscription (Panj&b) of MaMndrapala, of about A.D. 900 (ibid* p* 244 
see, for instance* SdrngabTirit^ line 2 3 and tdpam, line 3. And it occurs in conjunction 
the fuU forms of $ 3 n* and m in the Khajnr&hd inscription (Bondelkhand) of YasovarmaBj 
of A.D. 953-54 {ibid* p. 124 Plate) ; see, for instance, t>ar# line 1, tydgamn, line 3, and 
r--yt7ri^i'm ? line 28* So far ? therefore, as the use of the vir&ma is concerned, the present charters 
xae^d not be placed after A.D. 900. And the use of final forms also might seem to necessitate 
c>a.:r placing them before that date. But, though the records mentioned aTboYe shew no final 
02?Tns at all, a final form of t occurs in the word samvat, lines 32 and 33 ? of the Harslm 
inscription (Rajputan&) of Vigrahar&ja, of A.D. 973 (id. Vol. II. p. 120, Plate) ; and the 
I>^wal inscription (North- West Provinces) of the Chhinda prince Lalla^ of A.D. (id. 

"Vol. I. p. 76, Plate), shews, e.g. in bhuvam, line 8 3 a half final form of m 3 a complete m y except 
f 0-3? the mdtrd, with a vir&ma attached to it. And therefore, in spite of the use of final foams, 
charters may also, without objection^ he placed as late as A.D. 973. 

Another instructive feature is tlie use of the aYagraha in E. and F. ; properly^ in E. 
38, to denote the elision of an initial a after an o, and incorrectly, in E. line 29, and F. 
line 35, to mark the absorption of an initial a into a preceding A. This sign does not occur in 
ajny of the other records mentioned above. And the earliest other Instances of the use of It* 
isfasat I can quote, are vd$num6d&a in line 43 of the Bardda grant (Gujarat) of DMravarsha* 
:Ni~rapama-Dhruvarsja ? of A.D. 834 or 835 (In*. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 200, Plate), and 
<3<mad in line 25 of the Ujjain grant (MMwa) of Vakpatiraja of Dhir&, of A.D. 974' or 975 (L 
Vol. VI. p. 52, Plate), in both of which places it is nsed, improperly, to mark the absorption of 
"initial* a into a preceding 4 and Hlp^ntar&yah, line 4 3 dadhe&asMam, line 13, and 
JZohhitd&ir, line 18, where it is used correctly, and frutodsnyathd, line 19, where it is used 
toorrectly in the * Deopara ' inscription of Vijayaa&m, attribatable to the end of the eleventh 
A.D. (tip. Ind. Vol. I. p. 308, Plate). It is a sign which is emphatically opposed to 
particular amount of antiquity. 

Still more instructive is the UBB of the fully developed or horizontal top- 

of the letters, almost all through these charters. In A and F tMn feat M veiy 
kable,-. plain straight lines being used. In BO, and D., the npiaght strokes are 
with triangular tops, cloven on the upper side; the mdtras were formed 


waj as to avoid botli the mtdma and final forms ; except 
the following m* ^ 



these tops into each other ; and the result was, that the mdtrds here are not always perfect : "but 
the intention is evident. In B., in v 7 hich the upright strokes were capped in the same way, 
many of the letters present a still more disjointed appearance ; bufc there can be little dou>t that 
this was induced largely in the preparation of the liihograph, which is plainly not altogether 
a mechanical one, and that the intended general style was precisely the same as in B., C-, and 
D. There ia^indeed, one letter, ph, in respect of which a distinction has to be drawn between 
A* and F. on the one side, and B., 0., D., and E. on the other : for some reason or other, in the 

latter four charters, probably from aiming generally at copying a more antique style, y ~b~ is 

exceptionally formed, throughout, witll only the half mdtrd, over the left-hand part of the 
letter; 1 see, for instance, phatam and dspUtayanti, B. lines 18, 23, and muJetdphala and sp1idr$~ 
bhavach, E. lines 19, 1, and contrast these words with aphala and dsphotayanti, A. Hues 25, 
29, and aphala and dattdt=phalam, F. lines 49, 50. .In other respects, the charters are all in 
unison : and the facts are as follows, jh does not occur, and fh occurs only subjoined ; tlie 
M, g 3 n, n, fh, and 4 are what may be called round-top letters ; the f and dh have no mdtrd J the 
2 has a 'half 'mdtrd, over the upright stroke on the right hand, rather than a full one ; and all 
the other consonants have the full mdtrd : among the initial vowels, e, ai, 6, and au. are T-oiind- 
top letters, and a, d, i, ?, and have the mdtrd ; & does not occur. In dealing with the question 
of the mdtrds, the instructive letters are p, m, y, sb, and s. In the Aphsad inacription of abcmt 
A.D. 650, the grant of Tinayakapala of A J). T94--&5, the Dedgadh. inscription of A.D. 862, the 
Gwalior inscription of A.D. 876-76, and even the Harsha inscription of A.D. 973, these five 
letters are without the complete mdtrd, having tops on only the left-hand part of them. But 
the Khajuraho inscription of A.D. 953-54 presents the f ally developed m&tr&s in the five letters 
in question, as well as in all "the others which admit of it ; and they appear also in the Dewal in- 
scription of A.D. 99S-93, 8 in the Nsnyaur& copper-plate grant (North-West Provinces) of Dhanga- 
deva, of A.D. 998 (Ind. Ant. Yol. XVI. p. 202, Plate), and in the Jhusi grant (North- West 
Provfeces) of Trildehanapala, of AJ5. 1027 (id. Vol. XVIII. p. 34, Plate). The transitional 
period appears to be illustrated by the Pehoa inscription of about A.D. 900, where, for Instance, 
in patau, line I, ekatdm, line 1, odayah, line 6, gatSshu, Hne 1, and sadvritta, line 11, the p t im 3 y, 
sh, and s distinctly have only the half mdtra over the left part of the letter, though in the 
majority of cases the mdtrds of even these five letters are complete ; and still more pointedly by 
the Asni inscription (North-West Provinces) of Mahipala, of A.D. 916-17 (.Ind. Ant. Vol. IXVI. 
p. 174, Plate); which very clearly shews the letters in question both with, and without the 
complete mdtrd. And the result from this feature is, that the present charters need not toe 
placed after A.D. 950, but can hardly be placed before A.D. 900. 

An examination of iiidiTridusl dharaeters leads to much the same result j except tirat the 
forms of fc and pJi, which represent almost the last stage before the development of the modern 
forms, seem to necessitate an appreciably later period. A similar instance of the k with the 
markedly round shape of the left-hand part of it which is exhibited in these charters 9 - see s 
e.g., katak&t* A. linel, and paramabhajtdralca, B. lines 1, 2, occurs, by some chance or other, 
in the word drka, line 21, of the Gwalior inscription of A.D. 875-76 ; and this instance ucrast 

probably b taken as stewing that the form was known thei^ though it tad not Tbeem 
duced into eplgraptic use : but, in the remainder of that record, in the D^Sgadt Asni 

imscriptiOBSj and even in the Hcrsha and De^ra! iis3cript?ons, the k is decidedly of the pointed, typo * 
the round type is followed first in the Pahoa Inscription of about A.D. 900 ; and it re-appears im 
the KhajuT&hft inscription, and in the Nanyaurft and grants. As regards the ph 

- a la dafiai-pfaalam* E- line 45 5 where the p% lias the complete mdfrd t the ograYer^s tool seems to have 

3 Some of the strokes TO rather thin 5 with the result; tha the complete Is sometimes wanting or ia 

the lithograph seems to be so @ But It appears clear that the fully developed were Intended 


the complete mdtrd, as exhibited in aphala, A. line 25, (the same word in F. lines 49 S 50 
shews essentially the same t^pe, but a later form in which the right-hand, stroke is continued 
down to the bottom line of the writing), 1 the same type a and almost the same form, occurs in 
the Pehoa inscription of about A J>. 900 S in mt~phald, line 15, and dvirepho* line 10 : the only clear 
difference in form is, that in the present charters the stroke to the right and 'downwards, which 
turns p into ph, is left open, whereas in the Pehoa inscription it is turned back on to the upright 
stroke from which, it starts, as also, for instance, in the word pJialam* lines 26, 29, in the grant 
of "ikpatirja of A.D, 974 or 975 ; but perhaps the Pehoa inscription stews also a especially 
in the word dvirSphd, in a rudimentary shape, the continnaiion of this stroke, downwards in 
a slanting direction to the right, which produced the next form of this letter before the final 
development o the modern form, and which is illustrated Tery plainly in the Ujjain grant of 
Bh6jadva of Dhar^ of AJX 1021 or 1022, in the word phalam, line 14 ( Ind. Ant. VoL VI. p. 
54 9 and Plate). The other records, quoted above 5 however^ shew the antique pfo of the Aphsad 
inseripti on and earlier records, which is of a very different type ; and so does even the Pehoa 
inscription, when the pJi is in conjunction with s ? see sphnrita^ lin 2, splid/r^m, line 8, $pTtar%~ 
&faava,$ 9 line 9, splmran, line 11, and spkurj&t, line 14. The antique pfo appears again in the 
Nanyanrft grant (North-West Provinces) of Devavarmsd^Fa, of about AJX 1050 (Ind. Ant. 
Vol. XVI. p. 202, Plate), in phalam, line 16. But the grant of Chamdrad^va and Madana- 
pftladfiva, of A JX 1097 (Ind. Ant. VoL XVIIL p. 12, Plate), reverting, in the word pJialmm, 
line 20, to the later type, shews also a form which is later than the form of that type used in 
the Pehoa inscription, and which was arrived at by making the stroke to the right aad then 
downwards start, not from the top, but frou^ the side of the p, and also by continuing it 
markedly still further down in a slanting direction to the right, without closing it in at all oss 
the side- stroke from which it starts. This last form, evidently the latest stage before tlie final 
development of the modern form, appears also in the grant of Madanavarmad^va, of A.D. 
1134 (Ind. Ant. VoL XVI. p. 208* Plate), in phalam, line 19 ; and in all the later records 
which. I have examined. And the transitional period, whep it was developed, seems to "be marked 
by the GwMior inscription of MaMpala, of A.D. 1093 (Ind. Ant. Vol. XV. p. 36, Plate), 
which shews the antique type in otpJiulla, line I, and p*hala*&, line 11, bat the later type, 
and the later form o that type, in sphura^iy line 2, spJiufa y line 12, and spJiatika, lines 38 and 
39 . This third form of the later type is undoubtedly of later origin than the form which 
appears in the present charters. But the form of the later type which we have in the Pehoa 
inscription of about A.D* 900 seems to be as certainly of earlier origin than the form used 
in the present charters ; for we have it in Western India in records 4f A.D. 754 and 807 (Ind. 
Ant. VoL XI. p* 112 and Plate, gulpha, text line 12 ; and p, 160 and Plate phalam y test 
line 57). 

Of the vowels, a, d, u (& does not occur) s and 6 do not present any matter for special com- 
ment; they are simply developments of the types which occur through .all the .records mentioned 
above. The form of ?*, which, with an addition, makes also , is a very peculiar one. In A, 
lines 11, 22, 37, 89, 42, the short i is denoted by a straight line (in fact a mdtrd) with two circles 
}>elow it ; in B. line 32 5 the straight line is turned into a wavy line (and so also in 0. line S3 f 
and IX line 36)j in E. lines 39, 57, the circles are still preserved, but (if the lithograph shews 
the letter completely) the straight line or mdtrd is broken up into two disconnected points ; and in 
F. line 64, the top of the letter is a wayy line of another shape s and there are semi-circles, instead 
of circles, below it : the long 1 # occurs only by mistake for *; iti A. lines 16, 21, it is the short 
i of that record, with, below it, a twirl from the left to the right, then downwards, and theft 
upwards to the left ; in F. line 44, it is made by a wavy line, two circles below it, and, below 

* Tib type used in B. ? CL, D*, mnd iL, Is the same with that -mod in A; but there is the diffarenea In form 
alreacl j noted 9 tliat the m$?d w not complete. 

2 ir 2 


them, a short line slightly curved do wnwards f rom left to right* Probably, the standard forms, 
of "both, the short and the long Towel, are those which we have In A. ? and tike others are 
only fancy modifications of them. But the type IB essentially the same throughout. It 
differs totally from the type followed in all the other records quoted aboTe, and exhibited 
in them by the short i^ which consists of two circles with a twirl, of irarying shapes^ 
below them, 1 I do not find any close resemblance to it anywhere else. 3 But it may have 
been developed from the short i of the earlier Eastern Chalnkya records, which was formed 
by a wavy line or two semicircles joined (easily capable of being developed into the straight line 
of A,)^ with two dots or circles below it (see, for instance, Ind. Ant. VoL XIII. p. 214 
and Plate* i~k=aijat ^nAi^-dtiputam^ text Ene 40) ; the long and the short n, however, have 
no connection at all with the long % and the u y long or short, of the earlier Eastern Chalnkya 
records (see, for instance, uL Vol. VII. p. 17, and Plate, $4dnafa$ and uttaratak, text lines 54, 
55 S and VoL XIII. p. 186, and Plate, 4ri and uru 9 text lines 17 9 18, 20, 24), The initial <?, 
wMch, with an addition, forms af (see eka 9 @t@bhy8, and aivuli, A* lines 10, 12, 18), is a still 
mozse remarkable letter* It has no connection with the original triangular character, with 
the apex placed downwards, from which were derived the forms wMch appear In the 
Gw&lior, Pehoa, Asni, Khajur&hS, Harsha 5 Dwal, and Nanyanrii records ; 3 nor with the 
g of the earlier Eastern Chalukya records (see, for instance, Ind. Ant. VoL VII. p. 17, 
and Plate, 0tad, line 55, and VoL XIII. p. 214, and Plate, ekdda$a> line 27) : and it can 
hardly have been^developed from even another form of the e which we meet with In Girjar&t 
{id. Vol; XII. p. 159, and Plate, eldpur, line 14). In Prinsep's Antiquities, VoL II. pp. 40, 41, 
Plate xxxix., Mr* Thomas has given both the e and the ai, as we have them in A., as 
Bengali characters of the tenth century A.D., meaning really the eleventh century, as is 
evident from the fuller heading of his eighth line of alphabets in the first half of Ms Table. 
But I have not been able to verify his authority for this, an inscription from 6 Adisur 3 * 
supposed to be dated A.D. 1065. As far as my knowledge goes, the forms of ^ and a% used in 
A*, are unique in epigraphic rebords* And* by Mr, Thomas himself in another Table (loc. 
$it. p. 53), and by a work entitled Qramm&tography 41 (see page 45 of it), forms which 
are practically identical with these, are given as the modern Bengfi.ll forms. The initial 
au 9 which Is but very seldom met with, occurs in aud&tya, P. line 40* It is different IB form 
from, but it may possibly he a development (and^ If so, It is certainly a later form) of, the 
au which we have in auttareSvarah in line 22 of the Harsha inscription of A.D. 973. As 
in the case of the $ and the ai? the form which we have here is, as far as my knowledge 
goes, unique in epigraphic records. And, while, as In the case of the ^ and the ai, Mr. 
Thomas has in*his first Table allotted this form to the tenth century A.D., meaning really 
the eleventh century, in his second Table he has given a practically identical form as the 
modern Bengali form ; and the Qrammatografhy does the same. 

1 Curiously enough, if we remove the straight line which forms the top of the long* as exhibited in A. s we 
have, exactly, the short I of the D6ga$h ; Gw&lior, Harsha, D&waJ, Hanyaar^ and Jhftsi records. Bat this caa 
be only a chance coincidence. 

* The Chicacole Ganga grant of SatyavarmaB (Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 10, and Plate ; the genuineness of tins 
record is open to question) presents an equally peculiar form of the short n\ exactly an inversion of the * 
exhibited in A> two circles at the top, nd a straight or slightly curved line below them (see M 9 line 20, and 
iddntm, line 22). The only ^approximation that I can find to this, is the i of iva in line l a of the Kadi gprant 
(Gujarat) of Hftlaraja I., of AJX 986, where the vowel is formed by two semicircles, with a wavy line below 
them (Ind. Ant, Vol. VI. p. 192, Plate) ; but throughout the rest of that; record the form is the usual one, 
two semicircles, with a twirl below them. 

3 The Chicacole Ganga grant of D&vendravaromn (Ind, Ani. VoL XIII. p. 274, and Plate; the genuineness of 
this record, also, is open to question.) shews an sct inversion of this original form, a. triangle with the apex 
placed upwards (see Svam t line 23). 

4 Based on the German compilation of F, Bg&llhora, and published (1S61) bv lYiibner at Co. 



The general result of the palasograpfale consideration taken altogether, is, that these 
records cannot possibly be placed before A JX 000. They may belong to any later period 
But, on the whole, I should say that the characters are of the eleventh century, and that 
the kings mentioned in them are to b placed somewhere between A.D. lOOO^and I1OO. 

# % * * 

The pal&ographic considerations compel us to discard a somewhat tempting identification 
which was made by General Sir Alexander Onnningham, and the adoption of which was 
contemplated bj myself before I came to look fully Into the matter. A copper-plate grant from 
Rajim in the Raypur District., Central Fwvinces (Gupta Inscriptions^ p. 291), gives us the 
Barnes of Indrabala, of the P&nduvamsa or race of Pandit, his son XansLadSva, and 
NannadeFa's adopted son, the Bdja Tivaradeva OP MaMiva-Tivarar&ja, a feudatory prince of 
the Kosala country. An inscription at Sirpur in the same district (Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII- 
p. 179), which -supplies the name of Indrabala's father^ Udayana, and tells us that lie was of 
the lineage of the Moon, (to which the race of Pandu did belong), carries the genealogy two 
steps farther^ through Chandragapta, son of Nannaddva, and through Chaadragupta's son 
Harshagrtpta, to a prince named Balarjuna-SiTagnpta, son of Harshagupta, who evidently held 
the feudatory government of the territory round Sirpur* And Sir Alexander Curnlnghani 
(ArchtBol. Surv. Ind. Vol. XVII. pp 17, 85 3 87) identified this Balarjuna-SiTagupta with 
Sivagupta, father of Maha-Bhavagapta I. ; and also, accepting^ like 'the other Trriters who aare 
been mentioned above, the local annals, and f ailing^ like them, to see that Janain^jaya and Yayati 
were, not feudatories of Maha-Bhavagupta I- and Mah&-Sivagnpta 9 bac those persons 
themselves, he arrived* from the date which the local annals purport to give for Yayati- Kesari, 
at the dates of A.D* 319 or 325 for Indrabala, A.D. 350 for ^annadera, A.D. 3J5 for 
Tivaraddva and Chandragnpta, A.D, 400 for Harstagupta, A.D. 425 for Sivagapta, A.D. 
450 for Maha-Bhavagupta I, and his supposed contemporary Janamejaya* and A.D* 475 for 
Mata- Sivagapta and his supposed contemporary Yayati. The erroneous nature of the dates thus 
arrived at has already "been shewn, so far as the Siragnpia of the present charters and Ms 
successors are concerned. We are dealing now only with, the identification of the two 
Sivagnptas. It appeared to be a very plausible one ; for, Maha-Bhavagnpta 1, 3 and MB son 
and gmndson, also possessed the K6sala country ; and the absence of the prefix mah& 9 and of a 
second fanciful name* IB the designation of his father, seems to suggest that a sudden rise 
in the status of tie family occurred just then, in short* that Sivagnpta, having been at first 
only a feudatory prince of KSsala like Tivarad&Ta, subsequently became powerful enough to 
seize the paramount sovereignty of that country^ and perhaps also of the Ealinga territories. 
But, though I fully agree with Professor Kielhorn (In & Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 179) that the 
Eajim grant is at any rate not older than A.D. 700, and that the Sirpur inscriptions may be 
placed in the eighth or ninth century, still, the pateograpMc evidence seems to render irapsssible 
the identification that was made by Sir Alexander Cunningham, Lithographs hare been 
published of the edited inscription of Sivagupta* the son of Harslisgapta, and of other records 
which mention him and Ms father (ArchasoL Sun. Ind. VoL XVII. Plates xviiL A. and B., 
and six. O.)- The original records evidently have the p 5 m, y, sh 9 and s with only the half 
mdfod, throughout. The & is of the pointed type. And another feature stamps them as 
belonging to even an- earlier period than that which may be estaMshed by these two 
characteristics ; the m has, not only the half m&trd, but also the straight arm to the leit, 
instead of the loop which appears in the present charters and in all the records which have 
been quoted above, from the Deogadli inscription of A. I). 862 onwards, 1 and which is carried 

In the Gwailor inscription of A,D. 875-76, indeed, the exact forro of this feature is rather that of a 
than of a loop with a bolksw centre ; but the type is the same, In the lithographs of the SirporJnicrtptK 
m appears with the loop twise, IQ A. Hue 1 and B. Ens 12 5 but it seems tolerably certein tibftt iuftanea* a 

made in prefwriug the baad-drsiwiaga from wbieh til iithogrsiplii ware 

334 INDIGA. [Voi. Ill, 

"back even a earlier by {he Djg&w^DtibaaH grant (Bengal) of the 

of A.D, 761-62 (Ind. Ant. Vol. XV. p a 112, Plate ; see, for instance, maMrdja, 

line 2 S and divydm-ntpannak $ line 4), The,/ and! # P also s as presented in the Slsrpnr inscriptions, 
axe much more antique .than {he forme which we have in the present charters* And ? even 
if a somewhat earlier period s tlaxt that wMcfa I have arrived at, should be hereafter established 
for the Sivagnpta and hie successors of the present charters, the palffiogr&phio changes in so 
many details appear more than can possibly be covered by the lapse of a single generation, 

The local of mentioned in the preceding remarks 3 have bee^i taken so 

seriously,, and so much interest has been attached to the question of the identity of the TaTOnaft 
who are* mentioned in them that it is necessary to do more than simply dismiss them with 
only a broad statement of their general want of Talu s amply supported though it is in the case 
of Tay&ti-Kdsarij and with the curfc assertion^ borne out though it is by at least one certain 
epigraphic instance,, that the Yaraaas are simply the MusalmsLns of Northern India of the 
period A.D. 1001, or later^ and onwards. The alleged facts and dates recited in the annals 
have all "been accepted as history or " tfie mile-stones of history " by Sir William Hunter 
in 'Ms Qrissa (see, in partictilar, Vol. L, edition of 1872 5 chapter V. p. 198 ft), from wMch 
the leading features tave been reproduced in Ms article on Orissa in the Imperial Gazetteer 
of India, Vol. X. p. 428 ff. : l and s in the other taatter, Ms conclusion was that by the name 
s Yavana 3 the annals mean tie Greeks j and Ms line of argument (Orissa, Vol. I. pp. 207 to 
214) appears to^ have been ? ~- the Epice and PUT&PAS numerate the Tavanas in the list of 
foreign or non- Aryan races on the western frontier of India 5 through their spirit of enterprise, 
which led them into various part of Asia, the Ionian Greeks became known at an early period 
to the Persians, of whose empire, in fact, one body of them formed a part ; the name Ionian 
was, thus, well known to the Persians, and came to be applied by them, to the whole Greek 
race; the appellation was made known to the HindHs by the Persian expedition sent by 
Darius to the Indus in the sixth century B.C. ; by the Hindis, the name *Iw would be* 
naturally transliterated by ' Ydna,' which is the contracted form of * Tavana j* from after the 
date of Alexander's expedition into the Pa&jlib at the close of the fourth century B.C., the 
term * Tavana,* in Hindii. literature, applies unmistakably to the Greeks; the inroads of 
Alexander and Selencus left in the Fanj&b a residual element of these Greeks, which soon 
inevitably began to migrate southwards f their presence in the Gangetic valley is proved by a 

* Hia Qris$& was published twenty-two years ago. And the article on Orisaa in the Imperial Qas&eiieer was 
last Issued, in the second edition* eight years ago. 1 do not find any quotation of fche alleged facts and dates of the 
aon&ls of Orissa in The Indian J2mpire, the new and revised edition of which was issued last y'ear,-*~ apparently 
Iweeaiss there was BO occasion to quote details of that kind; but the results arrived, at previously appear to he 
endorsed up to date by the remark (p. 220 j in the chapter on the Greeks in India, and just after mention of 
the fact that the term Yavana originally applied to several noo-Br&hmanical races, and especially to the Greeks) 
that **the Orissa chroniclers called the sea-invaders from the Bay of Bengal, Yavanas, and in later times the term 
" was applied to the Mnsalnaans/' to which is attached a reference,, in a footnote, to Qri&sa, Vol. I. pp. 25, 85, and 
S09 to 232 (ed. 1872). I am dealing, of course, only with the Yavanas of the annals of Orissa,, who are quite 
distinct from the Greek- Yavanas* 

* For clear traces of Yavanas, sporadically, in Western and Southern India, in K&thi&waJ, in the H&sik 
District, and at Dhnuk&kata ( Amar&vati), see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. pp. 194, 105. Sir William Hunter (Ortsm^ 
Vol. L p. 218) has quoted Br. Bhara Baji as the authority for a list of seven Yavana'princes who ruled in Central 
India from {it is supposed) the &th century A JX to about the ninth. These, however, are simply the V&k&tafea 
MaUMja* of the Chammak and Siwan! charters (&wpta Inscriptions^ pp. 235, 243) and the Ajanti inocrifrtkut 
(A-dtari. 8wv. West, Ind. ToL IV. p. 124), The mrst of them was YiodhyasaktL This person "was Ideatined 
Iqr 3>r. Bhatt Daji with the KaHokila-Yavana king Yindhyagakti of the FfrA^n-PKn&pa (Wilson's translation, 
HalT* edition, Vol. IV. p. 210). But there are absolutely no grounds for this i 

No. 47.] 


statement of the grammarian Panini, who, writing in [it is supposed] the aec:rd century B C , 
and referring to occurrences which he himself might have seen, says that tht- TavKuw had 
siege to Otidh and besieged the Mfidhyamikas ; the Mftdh-akz*-. wto were B-idiii-^s ^w 
the people of the kingdom of Magadha or Behar where B-i5i.:*r* had become the n<rtl 
religion under Asoka in the third century B.C.; 1 and it is tirc-j-- this kicgdom fjf Mmenwih* 
or Behar tbiat the Greeks found their way into Orissa. But. like the " -..-. .": "! 1" :' 
(see p. 17O f . above) and the mjdvati-kafhe (see Ind. Ant. To!. XSL p. 157) for the prtmncc 
of Mysore in Western India, these annals are in reality absolutely wortnlew for any 
purposes of ancient history. And it is desirable to prove this, by shewing up tie a*n.w 
of the earlier part of them, and to put them out of court once aad for 

The aumals open with the commencement of the Kali age. In B.C. 3101, _or mow 
3 3102- and they give first the names of three -r='!-tr-^: Faracic 
a,* Parikshit, and Janamejaya, of the Panda dynasty of Tr.inn?tfc o: 
in "the S&mavamsa or Lunar Bace. These three persons are -*^ f ~-~* M ?***** 

L^adiva* (" 5 ^>-7^'t^?-"" ---^' '' 

covering tlie period from Is-L-. Ic^/ to o^ , **- - s 

point, the commencement of the Vikrama era, for 

annals had. a definite name with which to make a 

altogether from the Puranas, which mention none 

different line of descent, from SatanSka, son of J* 

taken as a point in favour of authenticity. But 
at the best, the details were not taken truly 
Samfcara, Gautama, Ishtadeva, Sevaka, Vajra, 
be real rulers of later times, sxmply antedated 
time, since Mr. Stirling calls Sevakadeva [B.b 
seems to be here an anachronistic and ^ 

king AS&ka of the third century > ^ &ctiiicw of Ais part . t --.* * 
remaining two names expose clearly the , p "^ ^ 1S4 to 7 . i at the MT.^ :' 
The reign, of Bhdjadeva is made to cover tue P en ^^^ ^.^ H!r4< ^ ,_ ;x j. r ; a .*^ P - 
- tradition which elsewhere also is sometunese^^- ^g,.;, c f MT ^ ^nired 

that bis court was adorned ** "^.^ ....... ,._ sifirt f rf- " 

_ fck 

& ^ 

^ of c ,^ c , might b, 
. ,f the : ' -r - .r^t 
"loord.: Arf whik 

g d -^t .be-* 

of A ? 
j:M1 ^: - ^ith 


chief of whom 

king Bb&ja of Malwa, of Hterary test e*_ 
S 1021-22 to 1042-43 (see ^. ** 
indisputably real name is g^en ,t 
in connection -with, ibe same o. 

r ^^ *i^/i * 7 - 

PP. ^^ r J ^_ 

about tweiT-e cs" 

*e a****^"! ^tfc*.; 

jji.ffli *A** ** */ ^ 

.^ saotl<?h 4 



Deo ' by Mr. Bb*> 


reign is made to cover the period B.C. 1037 to 822 ; but the annals say that he founded the city 
of B&jamahendri, i*e* R&jamandri or R&jamahMdrapiirani In the G4d&yari district, Madras 
Presidency ; and, though there may have been a city on the spot in earlier times, still (see Ind. 
Ant. Vol. XX* pp. 94, 266) there can be but little doubt, if any, that the name R&jamahndra- 
pura was given to it by, or on account of , the Eastern Ohalukya king Amma I*, who had the 
Mruda of Baja-MaMndra, and whose period was A.D. 918 to 925 : consequently, at the best, 
with the name of Mah^ndradeva *there is coupled the reminiscence of an event which took 
plabq some eighteen hundred years later. After Bfa6jadeva there reigned, according to 
Mr. Stirling's version, Vikram^ditya alone, and according to the other version Vikramaditya 
and his brother Sakaditya, for 185 years, from B.* 57 to AJD. 78, The object of thia 
statement is simply to fill the interval from the commencement of the Vikrama era (really in 
B.O. 58) to the commencement of the Saka era (really in AJD. 77). We know now (see 
Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. pp. 405 S 409) that it was not till about the ninth century A.D. that the 
word vikrama began to be connected with the Tikrama era \ that most probably the appellation 
* Tikrama year or time * simply denotes the -poets 9 * war-time,' the autumn, and was transferred 
from the autumn to the whole year itself ; that the era did not derive its present name 
from any real king Vikrama or Vikram&ditya 9 synchronous with the initial point of it ; and 
consequently, that this statement of the annals, though correct from the traditional point of 
view, is intrinsically as purely fictitious as the matter that precedes it. The period from 
A.D. 78 to 328 is filled by the reigns of Karmajit (65 years), * Hatkesvara ' (51 years), 
Virabhuvaua (43 years) s NirmaladSva (45 years), Bhima (37 years), Sfibhanadeva (4 years), 
and Chandrad&va (5 years), 1 Then, we are told, the Yavanas, who had invaded Orissain 
the time of S^bhanadSva and had put Ohandradeva to death, held the country for 146 
years, from AJD. 328 to 4^4 Then, the annals say, Yay&ti-Kesari expelled the Yavtoas, 
and founded the K&sari dynasty ; he reigned for 52 years, and was succeeded by forty-three 
members of his dynasty, whose reigns varied from 2 to 54 years ; .and thus is filled the period 
from A.D, 474 to 1132. And then, it IB said, a king from the south, named Ohddaganga, 
obtained the throne of Orissa and established the Oangfivamsa. dynasty f he himself reigning for 
20 years, from A.D. 1132 to 1152* Except in the cases of Yay&ti-Ksari and Janamjaya- 
Kesari, from Karmajit ( A.D. 78 to 143 ) to Suvama-KSsari, the last of the Kfesari dynasty 
( A*D. 1123 to 1132 ) ? the names are so utterly unknown that they do not present material 
for individual criticism of the same kind : in respect of most of them, it can only be said that 
the terminations Sdifiya and varman 9 or any of the other endings which were so much affected 
in early times, do not occur anywhere among them s and that not one of them has any ring of 
antiquity in the sound of it : they may possibly be real names of later rulers, misplaced in 
order to make out a consecutive chronological series; this, however, is the utmost that can 
be said for them. But I would draw special attention to the names of Narasimha-K^sari, 
K&rma-K&sarij Hatsya-KSsari, Varaha-E&sari, V&mana-^esari^ and Parasa-Kfesari, which are 
placed one after the other in the period A.D. 1013 to 1080 ; in respect of these, nothing 
could be plainer than the eviden t fact that the inventive faculty and other resources of the 
persons irho concocted the annals failed. them, and that they here drew on the incarnations 
of Vishnu as the man-lion, the tortoise, the fish, the boar, and the dwarf, and as Parasur&ma, 
the destroyer of the Kshatriyas. Other clear indications of a recourse to mythology present 
themselves in the names of Padma-K6sari (A.D. 701 to 706), Q-andharva-K^sari (A.D. 740 
to 754), Kali-X&sari. (A..D. 778 to 792), MadhusManaK6sari (A.D. 904 to 920), and Tripura- 
Kfesari (A.D. 961 to 971). And the name of Alabu-K6sari (A.D, 623 to 677) distinctly 
suggests a Musalman with some such appellation as ( Aiap Kh&n. * But the cases of Yay &ti- 
and Jaiaamjaya-K^sari are, even alone, amply sufficient to upset the whole list. 

1 Called & isidra Deo ' bj Mr. Stirling* 


As we have already seen, Yayati-Ke'sari, representing Yayati-Maha-Sivagupta, is mistakenly 
described as the first of his dynasty, and is placed at least five centuries before the earliest date 
to which he can possibly belong ; and Janamejaya-E&sari, representing his father and predecessor 
Janamfejaya-Maha-Bhavagupta I., is placed nearly three centuries after him, in the period A.D. 
754 to 763. Chddaganga ( A.D. 1132 to 1152 ) is possibly a historical person, placed not very 
far from the period to which he really belonged ; he may be identified with Anantavarma- 
Chddagangadeva of the family of the later Eastern Gangas, lords of Trikalinga or the three 
Kalingas, who was anointed to the succession in A.D. 1078, and for whom we have also the date 
of A.D. 1118-19 (Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII. pp. 162, 166) : one of the records ^of this king tells ns 
that he replaced the fallen lord of TTtkala, i.e. Orissa, in his kingdom (W3. p. 171) j and he 
seems, therefore, to have played some important part in the local history. Bat all that precedes, 
resolves itself into simply this : The object in view was the magnifying of the antiquity and 
importance of the temple of Jagannatha at Purl, and of all its surroundings and connections. 
The persons who set about doing this, by concocting the annals, could not well go back to before 
the commencement of the Kaliyuga, the present age. But they felt bound to go back as far as 
that point. And they had before them two other well-known epochs, the initial points of the 
Vikrama and the Saka eras, and, apparently, the date, not much displaced, of a fairly recent 
king, Anantavarma-ChSdagangadeva. 1 They thus had three periods to fill np with names, 
B.C. 3102 or 3101 to B.o'. 58 or57j B.C. 58 or 57 to A.D. 77 or 78; and A.D. 77 or 78 to A.D. 
1100 or thereabouts. The last of these periods, being the best filled one, seems to have 
been taken in hand by them first ; and, except for the alleged occupation by the Yavanas for 
a hundred and forty-six years, from A.D. 328 to 474, as regards the real meaning of which see 
further on, they filled it, partly with a few names which are obviously inventions, and partly 
with a number of names, connected mostly with reigns of reasonable and admissible duration, 
which present no appearance of antiquity and cannot by any means be accepted for the period 
to which they are allotted, but may very possibly be names of real rulers of later date, say of 
the twelfth century and onwards, probably many of them petty princes contemporaneous 
with each other. But the accounts for this period do not even agree with each other ; for ( see 
page 340 below ), another compilation makes the KSsari dynasty begin in B.O. 144 or 132 and end 
in A.D. 553 or 565, places next an isolated: Hag of the 'Chourang dynasty' named Udi 
Patehourang,' who reigned for ninety years, and then a line of kings belonging to the Solar 
Baoe, which lasted till A.D. 1324, and makes the Gangavamsa dynasty begin only then. 
The interval from the commencement of the Vikrama era to the commencement of the Saka 
era was accounted for in the customary traditional manner, with the reigns of a purely 
fictitious king Vikram&ditya and his brother akaditya. On the earliest period, less- trouble 
was expended. The list was opened with three well-knowa Puranio names, which were made 
to account for 1,294 years ; and it was imperfectly eked out with only nine names, which were 
made to fill the remaining 1,750 years with reigns of almost equally fabulous duration : of 
these nine names, seven may possibly, like some of the names of the third period, be real names 
of rulers of the twelfth century and onwards, or, as already suggested, one of these seven may 
contain an anachronistic and otherwise erroneous reminiscence of the great Buddhist king 
AiSka; but one, that of Mahendradlva, seems to be a pure invention, to account for the name 
of a city which is to be allotted to a period about eighteen centuries later; and the ninth, that 
of Bh6iadeva, is the name of a real king antedated by about twelve centuries. In the whole 
account, from B.O. 3101 up to the mention of Chddagaaga with the date of A.D. 1132 to 
1152, tli only historical gleams which can be detected are that (1) the opening of the list 

* It is not made clear whether the dates A.D., allotted to the various kings who are mentioned in the ann*!*, 
**e taken from Saka dates put forward for each king, or are limply worked out from the len^hs of be taign.. 
iTfbetettor is the case, the initial date for the Chodagaig* of the axmal. could eaeOy to Bd* to coined* exactly 
with the date of the coronation of ABMtovwrma-Cbadagang&d&va. 

2 x 


with three Pnranic kings of the Lunar Sace* to which race the copper-plate charters refer 
Sivagupta and his successors, suggests a knowledge of the fact that there really had been 
kings of Orissa who claimed to belong to that lineage j (2) there certainly is preserved a 
reminiscence, but a completely erroneous and anachronistic one, of two of those real kings, 
Janamejaya-Maha-Bhavagupta I. and Yayati-Maha- Sivagupta ; and (3) the alleged occupation 
by the Yavanas for a hundred and forty-sis years, from. A.D. 328 to 474, plainly embodies a 
vague memory of the Early Gupta kings, for whom, as far as their unbroken lineal 
succession goes, we have dates (see Oupta Inscriptions, Introd. p. 17) ranging from the year 
82 to the year 147 or 149 of an era commencing A.D. 320, 1 and whose power, extending 
from Kathiawad right across India to Lower Bengal, formed a barrier between Orissa or any 
part of Southern India and the ' Yavanas ' of that period, viz. the Indo-Scythians of the Panjab. 3 
And, with such results as these before us, it is evident that everything relating to ancient 
times, which has been written on the unsupported authority of these annals, has to be 
expunged bodily from the pages of history. 

It only remains to say a few more precise words about the 'Yavanas* who are mentioned 
in these annals : it is obvious that, whoever they may be, no real history connected with them is 
preserved in the annals ; but it is also as well to shew clearly who they really were. They are 
first brought to notice in connection with Vajrad6va (allotted to the period B.C. 538 to 421), 
in whose reign, we are told, they invaded Orissa from Marwar, Delhi, Babul Dg ' (supposed 
to be Iran, t,e. Persia, and so explained to Mr. Stirling), and Kabul, but were repulsed; and, Mr- 
Stirling says (Asiatic Besearches, Vol. XV. p. 258), " then follows an incomprehensible story, 
" involving some strange anachronism, about Imarut or Himarat Khan, who comes from Delhi 
" with a large army and attacks the Raja." They are not specifically named in connection with 
Narasimhadeva (B.C. 421 to 306 ; he is called < Sarsankh Deo ' by Mr. Stirling) ; but they seem 
to be meant in the statement that " another chief from the far north invaded the country 
during this reign, but he was defeated, and the Orissa prince reduced a great part of the Delhi 
"kingdom" (Orfcw, Tol. II. Appendix VII. p. 184), or, as 'Mr. Stirling aays, " Sarsankh Deo, 
" a warlike prince, is attacked by another Khan, whose name is variously written, and is always 
"so incorrectly spelt that ifc is impossible to unravel it; the Baja defeats the invader and 
" emboldened by Ms success, advances upon Delhi, and reduces a great part of the country " In 
the time of Manakrishnadeva (B.C. 306 to 184; he is called 'Hans or Hangsha Deo' by Mr 
Stirling), the Ya-vanas again invaded the country, from Kashmir, but were driven back after 
many battles. Bhdjadeva also (B.C. 184 to 57) is said to have repulsed a Yavana invasion 
from Sindh, according to Mr. Stirling's account. And finally, in the time of SdbhanadeVa 
(A.D. 319 to 323) the Yavanas invaded Orissa by sea, under the leadership of a person named 
Eafctabahu, t.. Bed-arm ' or ' Bloody-arm,' and on this occasion with success :' the Yavana force 
indeed, after effecting a landing and plundering the town of Purl, was overwhelmed by the sea - 
but the Yavanas remained masters of the country; gdbhanadeva, who had fled before their 
the jungles; his nominal successor, Chandradeva, was put to death by them 

J OOUnt1 UIltil tt oufc 

~ ya-esar 

a AD 474. Sir William Hunter admitted this last story so fully as to remark tha 

wlnle very fact of tins mvasion having been made by way of the sea would suggest a donbt 
6 6 ordinai 7 H - dfis '~^ id** of braving the oceln in arnaed 

C0uld easil y * reacted *>y &y tend, 

, r US ^ ^ Bratma ^l faith,'- "it formed n adntnr 

* * ^aginafaon of the Asiatic Greek; it waa Alexander's sail down the 


Ixxdnsreprodmceduponfclie Ganges, witt the continuatioH of Neftiehus' e^!-^-T -V.". . 
along the coast to the west of the riyer mouth " (0n*m, VoL I. p. 218). JU/it s^ms to i- ^ 

, . . . 

been minified somewhere else into a whole series of attacks by sea^irales, -- 

the seventh, eighth, and mnth centuries AJX* But, as far as the 

go 3 tlie annals contain BO mention of the YaTanas after the supposed time of Ts-V-'. 

Tie story of Baktabahm is the only one thai includes an attack by way of the sea Ay -1 

there is no doubt, whether an invasion was really made by S ea or not, that It aim pi v 

, p 

embodies the conquest of Orissa by the Mnsalmans in the thirteenth eentnrir A.I* 
mixed up with, the vague memory of the Early Gupta kings. That the YavaaM of llJ 
period AJD. 328 to 474 can be none but the Early <Jupta% we have already seen. The' Ya<nm;i* 
of the next preceding- mention (aUotted to B.C. 184 to 5?) are indisputably the 
Bh&jadeva of M&tara, who in really the king who is thus antedated by twelve rtntrar^ 

(real dates, A.D* 1021-22 and 1042-43), may easily have come in hostile contact with 
of Gtazni, who in AJX 1022 and 1023 penetrated as far as the of fn 

- Bimd&iliand, and in A,D. 1024 invaded Gujarat ; and, in fact, the Udepnr 
that Bhdjacteva conquered the Tura^hkas, a e, the Mnsalm&ns (Ep. Vol. I. pp. &n f 

231, 238) : but there is no otter foreign power with winch te can liave in collisi ,r 

And this being so cleaa? s I will quote here certain facts wMeh make it, if possible, still in-r^ 
eTident that the term TaTana, as used in the annals, wag isteiided to denote the i!~^^!r:r V.- < 
as already stated (page 326 above, note 8), in the Chitdrgapi inscription of A.D. 1428 or 1429, 
Flr&s 8Mb, or Mrftz~ud-din Taghlaq, king of Delhi (AJX 1351 to 1388), is "the Y&Tana 

Mng P^rdj^*' (-Sp. Ind. VoL II. p. 410); Sir William Hanter has mentioned an :nscr:T*: 2 
of A.D. 1516 ? in Orissa, which " applies the word distinctively to the Muhammadans " < (Trw 7, 
Vol. I* p. 224), and has also told us that "in the modern vernaculars it signifies JbrnMaru 
TmrMshs or JCnghul JJ (6$d.) ; .and Mr. Stirling tells us that the Pandits whom lie employ ei 
to translate the materials that he used* always rendered * YsTana * by * ? ^Antfis 

Researches, VoL XV. p. 259). To reTert to the annate, the statements about tie city :i 
33elhi and certain Kh&ms, made in connection with Vajrad^a (allotted TO B.C. 58S to 42] 
and Narasiihhad^Ta (B.C. 421 to S06) 3 point distinctly, not only to Musalmans, tut :j 
Musalm&ns established at Delhi ; and the Mnsalmtes did not permanently as far 

as Delhi till A*D. 1193, when SMh&b-nd-din Muhammad Ghori conquered the whole of 
the Panj&ls an^ a good deal more of Northern India* It was this conquest which 
the way for the conquest of Orispa. Bakhtiy^r Khilji, a ^neral of Mohammad or 

of his -viceroy Qntb-ud-din, invaded Bengal and conquered it in A*D, 1203* There was thai 
establisOied in Bengal a branch of the Musalman power, which from A*D. 1212 
constant raids into Orissa^ with more or less success,, hut without any perm* nest results. 
finally, in A JX 1567-68 Sulaim&n, king of Bengal, attacked and defeated the last u*.r-^ I- r.^ 
Mngof Orissa^ and practically subjugated tlte province- It seems to me tie .f 

Baktabaim, a perfectly correct Sanskrit word s Mt one which is moat iaprcbabV. if ^not 
absolutely inadmissible, as a historical name^- is a perrersiosx o the first of IT^r!:! 1 ;, *.- 

Khilji ; and that the name of Ixnarftt or BEmarat Khan/ wHcti is connected with the 
wtom Vajrad^va is said fco ha^e repulsed, may enable us hereafter to exactly the n 

wbioh is allotted to the period B.C. 538 to 421. Bat, however tie case may be on thea* t^ :^ 
points, there can be no substantial doubt that the Tavaaa iavasioBS 

so the annals ssy s by VajradSva and Ms successors* and the by tbo 

Yavaass in the time of Sdbtiansddvs, aare (mixed up with the rule) 

the raids into Orissa by tn Munlmftns in the thirteenth and -antrr:^ Kid 

ultimata conquest of the country by them IB the sixteenth century, A. P^ ^ 

* See Jf^ ^^ ToLXVIL p. 6O, where Mr. Howortii ho suggest^ that tne pimte* tn 
been Msl^js f ioin J&vu. 


After wliat lias Ibeen shewn alx>ve as to the valueless nature o their contents, there is* 
perhaps, not much to be gained from any consideration of the time when tlao annals may 
have been commenced. Still, a few words on this point may be not amiss. Of the two 
am$dvalis used by Mr. Stirling for his article in the Asiatic Researches, "Vol. XV., one was 
obtained from a Br&hmag. of Purf, and the other from a Brahman living in the family of the 
R&ja of *Puttia Sarengerh/ "one of the branches of the royal house of Orissa. 9? In respect 
of the former, he was told that it was originally composed ' by some of that Brahman *s 
ancestors, three or four centuries ago, and had been continued up to date (loc. cit. p, 256). No 
information is given as to the time when the compilation of the second tfamSdvali may have- 
been started ; but there can be no reasons for attributing real antiquity to this, any more than 
to the other. 1 The M&dld-Pdnji pretends to greater age. According to the article in the 
AsiatiG Researches^ the compilation of it was commenced in the time of tf Ghdrang'' or Sarong- 
Deo * (loc. ait. p. 268) ; i.e. in the time of Chddaganga, 0r 5 according to the annals themselves* 
in the period A.D. 1132 to 1152. And another compilation, or a different recension of the annal% 
woald invest it with eyen much greater antiquity : the Jour. Beng. A&+ Soc. Vol. VI. (1837) 
p. 756 ff.j contains another account of the kings of Orissa, taken from a manuscript by Mr. 
Stirling, found after Ms death, in respect of which we are told that it is- the source whence the 
materials for Ms article In the Asiatic Researches was taken, but which really gives a very 
different account, both in names and in dates ; according to this compilation, the Kesari dynasty 
was established by Chandra-K&sari, Yay&ti-K6sari being here represented as the second king 
of that line, in B.C. 144 or 132, 3 and lasted till A.D. 553 or 565 ; then came Udi 
Patchourang ' of the 'Chourang* dynasty 3 reigning for ninety years, from A.D. 553 or 565 ; 
and he started the compilation of the Hddld-Pdftji, in the period^ thus made out, A.D. 553 
to 643, or 565 to 655. This is altogether incredible. The period A.D. 1132 to 1152 is, perhaps, 
a possible one; though not very probable, because the statements which follow the mention of 
Chddaganga are not suggestive of any true history having been preserved even from that point- 
But this much is certain, whatever may be the date when the compilation of the annals was 
commenced, tlie stories about the Tavanas shew that they cannot have been finally reduced 
to their present form till the sixteenth century AJX Sir William Hunter has said (Om*a, 
Vol. I. p. 286) that the vamMvali on which Mr. Stirling's posthumous article was based, is " a 
subsequently compiled list." But, as far as the published account goes, it makes no mention at 
all of the Tavanas ; unless this expression is used in the original where in Mr* Stirling's render- 
ing we have * Musalm&n * and 'Moghal,' in the account of T61inga-Mukundad6va (A.D. 1512 
to 1534, or thereabouts) and onwards. And if this be the case, it seems rather to be a rudi- 
mentary compilation, of earlier date, from which the fuller annals were afterwards elaborated. 

A. Pa$na Copperplate Grant of the sixth year of Hahft-Bhavsgupta I. 

This record was originally brought to notice in 1877, in the Jonr. Beng. As. Sao. Vol. 
XL VI. Part I. p. 173 ff., by Babu Pratapachandra Q-hosha, according to whose account the^ 
plates were found buried in an earthen vessel somewhere in the Native State of Paftt^, attached 

1 H mentions also numerotia otber m*mf<4t>a2tr, possessed by almost; every almanac-maker In the province 
(foe. oii. p. 257). Bnfc ft while claiming that " occasionally a few facts, or illustrations may be gleaned from them/* 
lie says that they in general abound with errors and inconsistencies, ** and h stamped them as * less certain and 
tfuflfcworfchy guides/* 

a According to whether Yudlrishthira is allotted a reign of twelve years in the Kali age, or not. The article 
simply says * On the death of Baja Yndhishljhim, the period of the Kaliynga obtained complete prevalence/* 
Sir William Hunter (Ori**a, Vol. I. p. 286) has taken the dates o B.C. 182 to A.IX 655 for the duration of" 
the Kesari dynasty according to this compilation ; but he has wrongly included th* ninety years reign of the 
Isolated Icing * Udi Patchomrang/ of the Chonrang* dynasty^ who cam Iwtwwn Os lant of the KAsaiis aad the 
tret of the 8ftryava!tii& 



to tie Sambalpur District, Central Provinces. I re-edit It from tie original plates, 1 

examined in 1884; they were then in the collection of the Bengal Asiatic Society, 
been presented by Captain M. M. Bowie, Deputy Commissioner of Sambalpur* 

The plates are thre in number, each measuring about 9f " by 5* at the and 

less in the middle. They are quite smooth ; the edges of them having been neither 
tMcker, nor raised into rims* The inscription, however^ is in a state of perfect 
throughout. Tbe rin^ 9 on -which the plates are strung* is about | f/ thick,, and A|* in 
It tad not been cut when the grant came under my motac, The seal* in which the of 

"the ring are secured* is circular^, about If * in diameter. In relief on a c^irater^irik ii 

shews, very indistinctly, in the centre, some seated figure s perhaps of thgcc!fes, Lakers! 
her elephants, as on. the seal of G.; and, on each side, apparently a c&attrl ; if there * 

legend below this, it is now quite illegible ; but it seems more likely that there m 

floral device. The weight of the three plates is 7 Ibs* 4 oz., and of the ring and seal, 1 Ib, 4 OK* ; 
total, 8 Ibs. 8 O55. The characters are IST&garl, of the northern class* They iiaelmde of 

the decimal figures 6 and 8 S in line 41* The mrdma does not oecur in this record ; 
occur, of t in Jcafakd^ line 1, va$et y line 27, dadyd t line 29, and samoat r L 41, of it in 
&a,rwvdn y line 6, and of m, resembling an anusvara with a virdma below it, in ^drtkam* line 19 
Tke average sisso of the letters is about ^. The engraving is goocl and deep ; bm% the 
being substantial, the letters do not show through, on the reverse sides. The interiors of the 
letters shew, as usual, marks of the working of the engraver *s tool. The way la which tbe 
surface of the plates, being evidently rather soft, was pressed up inside of and ar r.d the 
in the process of engraving, has rendered it impossible to obtain impresses mi 

absolutely clear lithograph, throughout ; especially in Plates ii, a and 5, and lii a, The 
is Sanskrit. Arad, except for the cnstomary benedictiTe and imprecatorv in 2* to 

39 and ome ordinary verse at the end, the whole record is in prose. The rules rf w* 

neglected in several places. In respect of orfcliograpiiy, the only that call far 

notice are (1) the use of the guttural Basal n, instead of flieai*ira,in=a/ia=i^^I:r- 
aixd. (2) ibe mse of 11 for 6, throughout. There are many cases in which the long vowti * 
been given by mistake for the short ; but this seems a matter of ear-less- 

The inscription is one of MaHS-Bbavagnpta I., otherwise called Janamijmy*. 
charter contained in it was issued from the city of Katafca,* wtj* is Mtady tto 

the record ends with, a verse m praas of the Jang unaer e u* 

ta&m of 


inah^raj &dbi- 

* The words &<wa*ftf*4*ttn* 1 inighfc B 
the locality from whtoh tbeae records come, " 

* So, also, B., O. t and IX were issu^ by 




2 lAja-pamm^vara-M^ 


3 jMtiraja-paramMTO^ al 


4 It 1 k&sliali s I s 0iigatat8^viliaya-pratl^^ tat- 


6 vavddhajana-r&javallablL'&dSiL sarYYan r&ja-p&d-6pa]SvinaiL sam&jfL&payati [I*] Vidi- 

7 tam=asta bhaYatam *| yath=aBmS,bMr=ayaiii gr&isaak sa- 


eliattiii-si(si) m4- 
9 etaeteliMnYah. 5 I pratinisHddta-ckata-bliata-pravfesab. 

Second Plate $ Jftr&f Sitie* 

10 biiy& dYijati-Yarebliyak 6ka[h^] Ka,"acliiclilia(t 

Yd (y an) van&s Ya-pra Yarat TuYaaag Yad- Am varislia- 

12 teYya[iL^] btattaputra-Dam&ka^ Aivuli-sA(sioL)iia^ [|*] dvittyft 
g&ti^'h A(a)ngirasa-pravarali. Y&rliaspaty-ftnti- 




15 dhy^yi Koiikaledda-Yiiiirggataft*] Mpati3Agft-Y&stavya[t*] bhaf^aputra, 


16 tah 

18 onaYanEa maSarmiBa^s'ii)ta]fei [(] dtdbliyd dvijiia- 

h salila-dh&rli- 

19 pA(pii)iM^8aTOm=&.bhaiidra.tfc 


Plate ; Second iSitle* 
21 kari(rf)kritya pratipftdita 

This mark of punctuation is imneoessary* Bad 

30 Bead Jdhmavdha*. 

ty j^, was a mistake, and carelesBnesn about oonreclit^ tbia icil to tba 

Pa la Plates of the 6th year of Maha-Bhavagupta I. 

mgjnpnpmyp&j&e *!&*$, 

fwJjWiitf ~*-V *?'' V " i ' ' i * "-V 


jSt^i 1 --- **V-5U4^ it <*-i s **, > ^ ;-V- s^iw 

S .3; ^^ : ' : -s '"' '* yl^?'^ C '*/;" ' ' v " ' ?. i; 
Ift ^livir, ;?"* ^^ir^.v?^. -Aix-*! 



f-KFi -,-T- ftt* ^ v-^- .--t i^t^ 
V^^ir^^'^b^^^^SS?*' ''t'lv. 


;^'^ ^ '-^-? ^.^-.^ <k^,<^A v3A^ 


J. R FLEET, k C.S. 

SCALE -70 


S, PHC"C-LrH. 



22 "vriddhay6 



25 r l =vvasii(sti)dM datiA 

tasya tasya tada plialam 

26 saiikli yah. para-da tt=6ti 

&nup&lan6 U Sliashtl-vaTslaa-sa-' 

27 hasrlkil svargg^ mddati bh-omi-dah. aksMpta 

narak^ vasSt || 

28 Afzn&r 2 -=apatya[m*3 prathamam 

blm(bM) d^aphala- 




32 sr^I vftj' 

i H Harat^ 

Plate ; First Side. 

33 rayat* yas=tu 

**.,' ^ 
?>r^ v s 


42 gri&i-rf-]ttall&^^ &yastha-K6ig!i&s]i&na 

43 Asti 1 kst6nilvar4nltm=amaIa-maiiI-riicli^in=anTajat s kanstu,bli&b]iabi gaurya-ty&g* 

sierra (mba)rftfii- 

Third Plate j Second Side. 

44 r^TlracMta-TldlilYad-dana'-iiiblirtkrit^blirah Sriman=JammSjay 3 -S,kliyas=Tri(tri)dasa 


45 kyichcliha(tei3a)-gam bhdkt 



From the victorious (city of) Katafca (line 1) 5 the most devottfc worshipper of (the god) 
MahdSvara (iya), the Paramabhaffdraka^ Mahdrdjddhirdja, and Paramevara, the ornament 
of theSdmakola^the lord of the tbreeXalidgaSstlie glorious Maha-Bhavagnptaxjad6va (I.) 
(I, 3), who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhaffdraka, Mahdrdjddhirdja, and ParameJvara, 
the glorious SSivagiiptaddva (L 2), being in residence a Mftrasima (L 1), and being in good 
health. (L 4)^ issues a command to the agriculturists residing at the tillage of Vaksveddft in, 
the Gftg&tata Yishaya (L 4) f and to the inhabitants of the district and to all the officials and 
servants of the king, to the effect that the Tillage m question has been given by him f by 
this charter, to four Brahmaiis, vti. to D&m&ka (L 12), son of Aivuli, belonging to the 
Kaiitsa gotra, with the pravara of Angirasa, Ambarishaj and Yanvan4^va, and the anupravara 
of Tnvan&sva, Ambarisha, and Anglras, a student of the Kanthuma Mkhd in the 8dma-V&da, 
an immigrant from Pamp&sarasi (I. 11), and a resident of Iididpinga, ^to an uonamed son of 
N&rapaganda (L 13), belonging to the Gautama g&foa* with the pravara of Aogirasa and the 
annpravara of Barhaspatya, a student of the Kanva Mkhd in the Yajur-Vtida, an immigrant 
from Odayaspinga (1, 13), and a resident of KhandaksMtra,^ ^o V&aud6va (L 15), son of 
Hpshlk^sa, of the Krlshnat%a gdtra, with the pravara of Archan&nasa and the anupravara of 
Sy&v&Sva, a student of the K&nva Mkhd in the Yajwr-V&la, an immigrant from Koitfcaledda 
(L 15), and a resident of lapatoiiga, and to Kondadeva (L 18), son of Bamagarman, of 
the Agasti gdtra, with the pravara of Idhmav&ha and the Anupravara of Ohyavana, a student 
of the K&nva idkhd in the Y&jw-V4da 9 an immigrant from KaliAga (L 17), and a resident of 

Lines 22 to 39 are occupied with the usual mandate to future kings to continue the grant, 
and with benedictive and imprecatory verses about the merit of preserving gmnts and the sin 
of confiscating them- 

Lines 39 to '42 tell us that the charter wa written by the Edyastha K6igh6sha, son of 
Vallabhagh6sha, who belonged to (the office of) the son of the Mahdsamdhivigrahin 

Maliadharadatta, on the eighth tithi in the bright fortnight of the month Ash&dha in 
the sixth year of the victorious reign of the Paramabhattfoafo, MaMrdjddhirdja, and 
Pvr&nrftoara, the glorious Janamejayaddva.* And the record ends with a verse in praise of 
king JanamSjayaj of the Somavamsa or Lunar Race. 

- , , 1 m8 i8 by mefcrica! Hcell8e fw fVw. * Bead pafur. 

Omi rnight J tmopted to iM a mark of puoctnation before uuu^ ifae ttf id ta tabetb! Lte as 
the data osi which the gmnt wag made, and aofc aecesaarily connected with the writing of the charter, But the grant 

"T^iT* WaS ^ m M 6 i 7 a8I n 1 ", e !i! P *I f the * nn (Hae 42 >' and th *h **e given at the 
end of that record HAr* fakla 3 was lainl th 

i* ^ m i , e gven a e 

end of that record, HArg* fakla 3, was plainly the date of the writing of the charter, though it Is not that* 00 
.tated rt dL AecordiBglj * see^ that the dates * dl thro^l, the serie. ar/simplft^ whi^ the 

w@?@ i^ctBaHy wr itteu. 


* s O. f and D. Katak Copper-plate Grants of the thirty-first 

of Maha-BhaTagupta I. 

These three records form what is called in line 46 of B., line 48 of C. and Hue m of D.< 
a, triphLall-tamra-sasana or set of three connected charters. The object of WHA to 

register the fact that Maha-BhaTagupta I. granted to a Brahman named Siibir*-* 
Apparently the person who is mentioned In them as bis chief minister* -the of 

and. AlSndaia in the P6v, vishaya (B, lines 4, 5), ArMgr,m& in the Tulamvft (C. 

Hoes 4, 5), and TulSndfi,, or perhaps TrulSndg,, in the Sandn& ishaya (D. line 5), in th 
XCdsaLa dsa or country (B. line 4, 0. line 4, D. line 5). The charters were all by one 

sand the same person, M&huka, on Marga gukla 13 in the thirty- first year of the of 

Bliavagnpta I. ; and they were all engraved "by one and the same person, M iihaYa* Wlr trie 
grants were not all recorded in one and the same charter,,, is not ; except on 

hypothesis that, the villages conveyed by each charter being In different territorial divisions, 
separate deeds were required for exhibition to the different local authorities of the three 

As the plates are not all of the same size, and so the forty-nine lines of which B* 
3rn.ii out Into fifty-one lines in O. and fifty-three lines in D., the records do not He trail armi J 
on the three sets of plates. But* with the exception that* for the words jEofa{ta)?od&r P'/tu- 
wia{8ha}yiya-Ran4(i-grdm& \ tatJid Mdndald-grdme of B. lines 4, 5, we have STVi'/- !ifr A1 
Tulumva-Jchandtya-Arkigrdmd-grdme in C, lines 4, 5, and T&fatsafla-deti Sz^d3-l-r*fj. ' rlj ; :^ r,- 
irl(? trtf)Und&-grdme in D. Hne 5 5 the texts were intended to be identical ihrc^hcTit aud 
practically are so, save for a few of the accidental slips which are always met in of 

this Hnd. It seems sufficient, therefore, to give the test of B. only* in full i =Kt:?=i=j in 

footnotes any points of interest in which the text of 0. and D. agree with OT from It 

a lithograpli of B* suffices to iUnfitrate all the three records. 

This record was originally brought to notice in 1875, in the In*. ML Vol. V. p. 55 ff, f 

oommnnicated the Babu's paper to the jotimal in which it was jmbliAed. 

t . 

a state of perfect preservation throughout. me rro o ^ Tbe 

fclxick and P 4? in diameter. It had not been cut w_he^ & eg- 1 u^y ^ ^ & 
eeal, in which ha ends .of ering : ae e - oun^.k ^ace, ** godie. 


eeal, in which ha ends .of Bering : jae J e J- ^ly coun^.k ^ace, ** 
deal damaged ; but it shews, m rehef on a . .^M ^y ith ^ fc Iifted 

Lakshml, seated on a throne, with, on <*^^'j s ^ P qn ^ iBegflto.- The w-* 
o^er her head ; below this, there wa^ ^J^J*^" lb . 15^. ; to4 6 Iba. 6 o,.- The 
of the three plates is 4Ib. 7 oz., and of the ring ^^jV^ formB of tto deelmml figart* 
Obaraoters are N&garl, of the northern claas J^ ^^ ^ fljl tea, f die lett o 
1 and 3, in lines 45, 46. The ,**.. occurs, in c ^ ct ioB ^^Mrfa**., li. 

which it is attached, in ft****, ^^T^J 1 ^^^*^-*-"* r.7^i,U *, 
31, 32, and Mm.^ line 45 ; but the final ^^^ an ^ ra with a MM below it, . 
and .r*, line 7, and a final form of , resembling a 2 T 


bhav&tcim, line 8, pJialam, line 18, dnandya^ line 19, and several otter words. The average siae 
of the tettem is about ^\ The engraving is good and deep ; but, the plates "being substantial* 
the letters do not show through on the reverse sides. The interiors of some of the letters shew 
the usual marks of the working of the engraver's tool. And the way in which the soft copper 

was pressed up in the process of engraving, has rendered the lithograph rather Indistinct in 
some places ; especially in plate iL 6. The language is Sanskrit. There are the customary 
benedictive and imprecatory verses in lines 17 to 84 ; and three ordinary verses in lines 37-42 and 
48 * 49. In respect of orthography^ the only points that call for special notice are (1) the use 
of the guttural nasal, instead of the anusvdra, in triniattimS, line 44 ; and (2) the use of t? for 6 



The inBC^?iption f which is styled in line 46, a triplialt-t&mra-S&s&iia or one copper charter of a 
connected set of three, the others being C. and D., is one of Haha-Bhavagnpta I., who in line 
48 is called Kosal-endra^ or c< lord of Kdsala." The charter contained in it was isaued from 
the city of Katafca s while the king was in residence at the &rma or pleasiixe~gardeiu And 

the object of it was to register the grant, to a Br&htaan, of two villages named Ran.d, and 
in the P6v& vishaya in Kosala* The charter was written by a clerk attached to 

the office of the MahAsa^md'hivigrakin Hallsdatta* on Margasirsha s-ukla 13 in the thirty-first 

year of the reign of Maht-Bhavagupta I, 


This record is now brought to notice for' the first time, I believe* I edit it from the original 
plates, which I obtained for examination from Mr. Beames in 1883. I have no precise 
information as to -where they were found ; but it appears to have been somewhere at, or 
closely in the neighbourhood of s Katak* 

The plates are three in number, each measuring* about 9* by 5J*. The edges of them were 
fashioned slightly thicker than the inscribed portions, so as to sei*ve as rims to- protect the 
writing ; and the inscription is in a state of perfect preservation, except in a few places in the 
lavfc lines of plate ii. 6. The ring* on which the plates are strung, is about f " thick and 41^ iii 
diameter. It had not been cut when the grant came under my notice- The seal s in which the 
ends of the ring are secured, is circular, about If * in diameter. In relief on a slightly counter* 
sunk surface, it has the goddess LakshmJ, seated on a throne, with, on each side of her, an 
elephant, with its trunk lifted up over her head ; and, below this, a legead* of which, the first 
letter and the last four are rather indistinct, but which is plainly 4&Mahd*Bhavayuptarfy'adfaa. 
The weight of the three plates is 4 Ibs. 4 oz. ? and of the ring and seal 1 Ib. 15| 025, ; total .6 Ibs. 
3f oj& The characters are of precisely the same type with those of B.; the t>3r$m<& 5 and the final 
forms of , n, and m, are used almost exactly as in B. The average siase of the letters is about 
T V^ The engraving is good and deep; but, the plates being substantial, the letters do not show 
through on the reverse sides. The interiors of same of them shew the usual marks of the 
working of the engraver's tool. There are the same peculiarities of ortliogs?aplxy as in B. 


This record was originally brought to notice in 1882, in the Jour. B&ng. As. 8oe. Vol. LI. 
Part I. Proceedings, p. 9, fL, by Dr. Bajendralala Mitra 3 according to whose account the 
plates were found at Katak. I notice it from the original plates, which I examined in 1884 ; 
they were then in the collection of the Bengal Asiatic Society, having been presented by Mr! 
Winters cale. 

The plates ate three in number, each -measuring about 8-fT by' 5-f*. The edg-aa of them 
were fashioned glightly thicker than the inscribed porfekmB 9 so as to serr as- rims to protect the 

BTo- 47.] 



writing ; and the inscription is in a state ^f perfect preservation almost thro-gtrat The ring* 
on which the plates are strung, is about -f" thick and 4^ in diameter. It had not cut 
the grant came under my notice. The seal, in which the ends of the ring are secured, Is circular^ 
about li" in diameter. It is partly broken ; and the surface of It is so much worn 
are now BO traces of any emblems or legend on it. The weight of the three is 

4 Ibs- 4 oss.j and of the ring and seal, 1 Ib. llf 02. ; total, 5 Ibs. 15| oz. The are of 

precisely the same type with those of B. and C.; the mrama^ and the final forms of f , . m* 
are nsed almost exactly as in B* The average size of the letters is T 5 f . The 

engraving is good and deep ; but the plates are too substantial for the letters to 
through on the reverse sides. The interiors of them shew the usual marks of 
engraver's tool. There are the same peculiarities of orthography as in B, 

First Plate. 

\ Om* Svasti 







^^ S 


' line 7, nd D. line 8, al, bave 


2 T S 


10 sim^pai7antas=s-aCmra^] 1 -madhTikas-sa-garf-6Blia[m^]a s - sa-jala-sthala-saMtah 


11 vttab i TtaC^)kftrl 8 -vinipggalAy 1 K6sa(sa)l 4 Ttarvvuna-vastavyaya I 

BliaradY&ja-g6trya 1 Va- 

--ravar&a V&aa^MteH-&dhyftyinA bhatta-srf-mahattama- 



13 ya | bhatta-srf-S&bhana-sixtaya I saliiadli&ra-purassaram=a-oliaiidra.t&rak. 

Second Plate ; J^ 


tamrra (mra) 6 -^sann=&karf- 

15 iritya pratipMitam^ty^avagatya samuclilta-bli6ga-bliaga.kara-liirany-adi- 


16 dbMr=bhavadbMs=sukiena prativastavyam=iti 

ddattir=iyam=asmadiya dharmma- 
VJ -- va-dattir=4v=&nuMani& \\ TathA 

6ktan=dharmma--astre | Va(ba)hubM- 

18 r8=vvasudlia dattA r^abhis^Sagar-adibMh | yasya yaaya yada bhftmia* 

tasya tasya tadH phalam (| Ma bhu- 

19 d=apbala-anka vat papara-datt=6ti p&rtbiYiti | sva-d&n& 

anandyam 10 para*diii-&- 

20 nupalanS [H*] Shaslitim=vars]ia-saliasrani svarggS mddati 

21 mta cha dvitayan=narakam vrajM (t Agng^^apatyam prathamam 


22 sraya-snt&s=clia g4Tah I ya^ W^ohft(fioha)na[iii*3 u gari(fi)=cha 

cha dady&t dattas=trayas=t^na bbavanti IftkACkffb) 1 ' [||*] 

23 Aspb6tayaiiti 14 pitarah pravalganti pit&maMlt | bMmi-data kul6 jfttat 

sa nas=tr&ta bha- 

24 Tishyati tl BMmim yah. pratigribaati yai=clia bMmim prayachcliTiatl | 

ubtau tau pnnya-karmmanau ni- 

25 yatam svargga.g&minan II Tadag&na[m^] sahasr^i vajap6ya-Sata[ni^] 16 

eta 1 gav&m kfiti-pra- 

26 dantoa bMmi-liartt& na Sudhyati || HarSta Marayd=yas=tn manda- 


* C. line 10, and 3X line 11, bave $-dmra, correctly. 

C. line 10, and D. line 11, have 6s%ara&> oorrectly. 

a C. line 11 also lias TfaMri, for Takdri -, D. line 2 baa T0fo**-<!, evidently tforowgb pure carelessness. 

^ ci line 11, and B* line 12, also have %6&aU, for RfaaU* 

* Bead Ydjasan$y<**~ C* line 12, and D. line 13, nave the same mistake. 

6 C* line 15, and D. line 16, also have &fcm?m, for tdmra,. 

7 Bead pratfyddita. C* line 15, and D, line 16, have the fiame mistake, 
s Metre : Sldka (Anushtnbh) s and in the next two verses* 

Bead $ar<*.~- B. line SI makes the same mistake ; C. line 19 has para, correctly. 

w C. line 20 has the same reading; D. lines S51 9 22 9 has dnantyam. n Metre : Indravajra, 

is Here, and in the following two words, C. line 23 a and B, line 24, also have the 9 hy mistake for n. 
* C.line 23, and B. line 25, also have UJc^ for Ufedh* 
* Metre : Sldka (Atrashtahh) i and in the next six veraes. 
*& C. line 26 f and B. line 28, have atdm, correctly. 

Katak Plates of the jist year of Maha-Bhavagupta I. 






SCALE .70 





; Second Side. 

80 8 6m Imtttau* | S41ap ,cha bhagavto-abhii.^^ bltmi-dam 
S&manyo s = 

31 yam diarmma-sMur==t r i(nri)pMm 3 k&S-k&lS pManiyd bbavadbhili 

sarvvAn=&varii bhavinah parthi- ' 

32 ' 



33 Mm fciyam=anuohintya maHustya-j^itam efea 1 safcak m =:Idam 

ud^liyita^*] clia vudv^ 
84 na M punishaili para^kirttayd vil&pyaii || 

35 Iagna-ma 

pracb a 

36 l^gra-Wia^dlt-arMi-matta-m&k^a-vimnkta-miik^ r a n a- 


37 mandalah || Tas^Sfidliarana-Bamiii mantri-tilakS vinyasya sarvy-agamam 

dhairy-6danyatt ti 

38 yra-tfejasi dturam rajyaBya Yipr-dtfcam \ B4ii-akhy&aaka-yistar4iorita- 








42 ryyMkam sft^yam^nclicliais^tri-jag'ati yiditd dharmma-KaadaarppardSvah If 


tridsatti(tta)me 11 


1 C. line 28, and D. line 29, bave F4nnaM, correctly 

a Metre : SAlinf . * * 

8 C. line 82, and D, line 34, also liave tfH^d^m, for 

4 Metre : FushpMgrA. 

5 Bead &^?A^,~ C. line 36* and D. line 87, have the same mistake. 
C, line 8JT and B. line 88, also have *ravy**'*< s *&*> for 

7 Metre : SardAl&vlkrldita, * 

? C, line 41, and D. line 43, have the correct reading, 

a Metre : Sragdhari, 

? C, line 41, and D. line 43, have the correct reading, jM#-df4s&*drffa. 

10 Bead Swaguru* C. line 42, and D. line 44, have the correct reading. 

11 D, line 48 also has trtafotftm*, for Mnfattam&; C. line 46 introduces an additional mictekt, sad bas 


45 re 1 | sudi 3 tlthau 

40 13 likhitam=idaih triptali-taiiivra(mra) 4 -sasaua[iii^] mah&s&ndH- 


47 M 6 -ranaka-srt-Manadatt^^ Prlyankara- 

48 ditya~stLt6ii 6 =4tI || Pranitam 7 K63a(sa)l 8 -6ncirena prativ6(b6)aiiya- 

mamiattama 9 | Matta PnndariM- 

49 kshatt sisanarii t&mra 10 -iiirmmita2ii || TTfckirnita 11 Mfidhavdna Vasu- 


From the victorious (city of) Kataka (line I), the most devout worshipper of the god 
Mahfivara (&iva), the Paramabhaffdrakfi, MahdrdjddMrdja^ and ParamStivara, the ornament of 
the Sdmakula, the lord of the three Xsiiiigas 9 the glorious MalifirBhavagiiptaddva <!> 
(L 4) 9 who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhaftdralca, Mahdrdjddhirdja, and Parame&ar&? 
the glorious Sivagnptadeva (1 2; s feeing in residence at the pleasure-garden (L I), and being* 
in good health (L 4,), having done worship to the Br&hmans at the villages of Eanda (L 4) 
and Al&gtdalft in the Povfi, vishaja in the Kdsala dSsa, issues a command to the inhabitants 
of the district and to all the officials and servants of the king, to the effect that the village in 
question has been given by him by this charter^ to the Bhaffa, the Mahattama SMh!kra2?a 
(1. 12;, son of the Bhaffa S&bhana, an immigrant from Takftrl (L II), 1 * a resident of 
TirnraiiA in K6sala s belonging to the Bharadv&ja gotra 3 with the praeara of BSxhaspatya and 
Angirasa s and a student of the Vajasanya i&Khd. 

Lines 15 to 34 are occupied with the usual mandate to future kings to continue the grant, 
and with benedictive and imprecatory verses* 

Lines 84 to 42 praise the king as a rery god Kandarpa (K&madSva) in respect of religion* 
and tell us that his chief minister was a Mantrin or counsellor named 

And lines 42 to the end tell us that the charter was written by the TZdyastha M&hftka 5 son 
of Priyamkaraditya, who belonged to (the office of) the MaMsamdMmgrahin, the EA^a'ka 
MaJIadatta, on the thirteenth ttthl in the bright fortnight of the month Mfirga or 
Margasirsha in the tMrfcy-flrst ye'ar of the victorious reign of HahA-BhaYaguptad^a 
(I.) i and that, delivered by the lord of Kosala* and Intended to give information to tie 

a G. lines 46, 47, and IX line 49, also -iiave aamvafaairg, for samvafsar^ 

2 C. line 47* and IX line 49* also have $udi. 

8 C* line 47 3ms wmvata, for samvaf ; B. line 49 has 8amva$ 9 more correctly. 

* O, line 48 S and D. line 60, also have tdm^ra^ for tdmra* 

* Bead #andMmgrahL G. line 48, and D, Fine 50, hav the same mistakes. 
6 C* line 49*50 lias $4$&un, for* sdnun? ; D. line 51 has *4Mii , for suUa*. 

I Metre : Sldka (Annshtubh). 

8 C. line 50, and D. liaes 51, 52, also have Kdfal , for K6taP. Eead mahattamam. 

M O. line 51, and D. line 52, also have tdmra, correctly, in this passage. 

II Eead vtUroam. C. line 51, and D, line 53, have the same mistake. 
13 I>. line 53 also has aMtbf j C. line 51 has Autfa*. 

12 This, and not Phafc&rf, seems to be the name that is given, or wa intended to be given, in the grant of 
Madanavarmadeva of AJX 1134 (ZM. Am. Vol. XVI. p. 208, text line 12). It is perhaps another form of the name 
of the Uofja-Tiflage io the Madhyadeia or Middle Conntry, which is called Takk&rikA in tlie Kalas-BtiarAkh 
grant of Bhillama III. of A.D. 1025 (ft* Ant. Vol. XVI I, p. 118). A somewhat similarly named place 5s 
mentioned in the grant of Dhangad&va of A.D. 998 5 the exact name there, however, is TarkArikA* with the dental 
instead of the lingual t (Ind. Ant. Vol. XVI, p. 204). IB H. below, we have ?hkkAr 

E Katak Copper-Kate Grant of the ninth year of MaM-SiTagupte, 
THs record was ^gmallj brought to notice In 1877, in tie /iwr.lfc*. j,. fl, YoL XLVI. 

Part I p. 149 ff., by Babn Baogalala BaBerjea, according to whose accost the plates wa 
feud among the official records at Katafc. I re-edlt it from the lithograph, with tit 

BabuWrticle on it winch, though It is OB a veiy small scale, and tltoLgh li Is pki% no! 
a purely mechanical reproduction,' suffices to make the text clear all through, except for 
some four or five letters in line 86. 

The plates are three in number, each measuring about 8* by 6** ; it would appear that 
the first plate is engraved on one side only, and the third on both sides. The ring, oa 
which the plates were strung, with any seal that there may have teen OB it, is reported to 
have "been lost. The characters are N&garl, of the northern class ; they are rexy 
to the characters of B., 0. 5 and D., and were possibly written, for reproduction by tie engrfcver, 
by the same person who wrote those records. They Include forms of the decimal 1 

to 7 In lines 7 to 20, and of the figure 9 in line 65; and also forms of the numerical 
for 3 and 10m line 65. s The avagraha occurs twice; in yatM&mSbhir, Hue 29, where it is 
not really required, and in yasosbhivriddhaye, line 38, where the use of it is quite correct. The 
vwdma occurs with t, In drdt, line 11, tasmdt &ndpwd s line 12 5 and anwSdMt, line 42* 
forms occur, of n, in yasmin, line 11 ? rfrtma-n, line 14, sarvvdn, line 29 3 and priy&n f line 61, and of 
tn 9 (1) resembling an anusvdra with a vir&ma "below it, in mbJi4^Mfam^ line 16, and 
line 51, and (2) in a more elaborate shape, in drt ham, lines 37 5 38 3 and probably in &&araf dm, line 
29. The language is Sanskrit. And, in addition to the customary benedictive and impre- 
catory verses in lines 42 to 59* there are ordinary Terses in lines 1 to 20 and 60 to 2* 
In respect of orthography, the only points that call for special notice are (1) the use of tie 
guttural nasal n y instead of the anusvdra, before ^ in dhvan^ana, by mistake for <&& 2, 
line 8 j (2) the use of for &, throughout ; and (3) the use of j for j? in jaydti, line 64* 

The inscription is one of Maha-Sivagupta, otherwise called Tsyti. The clmrter COB- 

lained in it was issued from a town named Vinitspiam, on the bank of the irrer 

Ajod the object of it was to register a grant, to a Br&hman, of a YiUsg Hamad 
gr&ma in the Maarada visliaya or district in BaksMua-Ko&aia. 4 At the end is 

recorded the date, apparently for the -writing of the charter, of Jy&htha 13 in the 

yew of tbe reign of Yayati, \e.of 

TEXT. 5 

Mr*t Plat*. 

[II*] Svasti? |8 prgma-Biraddha-magdha"inaiias6h 


i Evidently ae Ddtfo, for transtnission of the charter to tbe grantee. 

'The perfeclly plain ground between the letters ^prove* i h.s^ an!al lnAnjs teMe in the JW. J 

'The form o 10 need here is practically given in oo). 6 of **"*"**. _g ^,. Soc. Vol. XL. P.rt I. 
Vol. VL p. 44 ; but he took it (. M. P,46. and note ) ^^-^^^Sofs 5s t gt^n ta to Ub 
WSJart line of the text, and Plate) which must really mean iw *w 
tt hw pMdbty b*n somewhat added to in preparing the 1 > i ^jg"j e .' Eepr^B^ by pUi= *? 

* Seepai 858 below, note 11. From the pnbhshed ^o^. ^ ^ ^^ BJ>MceSJlPy 

Metre t Srd4lTikrS4ita ; and in the next two verse*. 


3 rsftvirblm(rb^ 

3muliG[hL !|1 ] stavya- 

4 tS 1 i| 1 "l| s Yat[r*]=aeslia-visMia-ra^ 


5 hdshycapi pranayinah. kar^n-6tpalals=t4dit.h I jayante pravigankita-smara-garra- 

6 pr6tth&pit-intar-vyatli4ClL*] sftndri(ndi)-svMa-jal^ 

? h y 2 || 

8 st^-dhvaniana^BisIipltalilq^^ 


9 janasya vlsadam mukt&mayam mandanam Baiik^t-aspadam=apy=atiya 

10 prasada-sriBg-ligrataL |(||) 3 || UabtoadlMn^ 

11 lach-cHhikaravadblilr^^r&t I yasmln rat.&8aktimad*a&gan&nft[ih*] ram*apan6- 

12 dah kriyatfe marudbliili l(||) 4 || Tasmat ra~Vinitapitr,t I L6ka 6 .traya-p^a- 

13 tHte-8ubliiu-yafl6-vit&na-Tyftpt-&fl^ | 

14 r^ja va(ba)bhuva bhuvi bhavita-bhavya-miirttili Sriman sardja-yadand Ja- 

Seeond Plate ; JR& 

15 namejay-akhyak H 5 \\ TaM khadg-%ra-vidarita-dTipa*gliatA-1aimbliastlia- 

16 l 


17 kre cliamtaraii=iiarS,dliipa-sir6-ratti-&gra-j41-S,maI& yat-pM-itnvu(mbn) j a- 

18 ^avah samatay& tad-ragmi-Iakstmiih dadhuii || 6 H Nirddrit 8 -&ri-kari- 


19 miilia-mukfca.mTilrf}aplia]a-pi^karada[ttaratliaiig^ tasmM=aj%ata jagwfcta- 

20 ttraya s -glta-kirttix=hM^viiiirJ3itaripur=nii[ri^]pat^^ H 7 \\ 

21 ni 

22 S 6 makulatilaka-triKaliiigadlilpati-siri'-lCah.a -BhaTaguptara j a - 

23 dva-pad-aBud hyata-paramamilieSYara-paraiBabliatfc&raka-mali&rS,- 

24 jadMr&ja-paramegyara- S6makulatilaka-tr i Kaliiigadliipati-gri-MIa- 

25 h&-Si(i)vaguptarajadeYah knJali U 10 DaksMt6saiaym u Marada-visliay!- 

26 ya-ChSudagrame I 13 tad-yisliayiya*Tr&(br^)limanan=sa[iii :||e ]pAjya yatt&k&l- 

27 samahartri-saBiiidli&trI-talaTil(?)ta-slbma[m :||: ]t- asika-niyaktakadliikS,rlka- 

28 ndap&si(si)ka-pisuna-v6trfe(tri)k-avar6dliajaiia- ranaka-rajapmtra-ra[ja^ 

samajnapayati [I*] Vidifcam=astu biiaYa[ta]m 


These opening verses are numbered in the original. But the numbers 1 and 2 are wrongly placed after, 
respectively, the end of the second verse and the second p&da of the third verse. 
Read dhvdnta-d7ivamsana. 

This word was at first omitted, and then was inserted below the Hue. 
Metre: Upajati o Indrava;jr& and Up&ndravajrlL 
Metre : Vasantatilaka. 7 Metre : 

8 Metre i Vasantatilaka. * 

10 Thia mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 

11 This seems to be a mistake for J>aks7iina*K6&aMydm 9 which, reading was given by Bahu 

Banerjea as if it really stands in the original. There appears, however, to have heen also a country nnmed Tdahala 
or Tdsalfu 

11 This mark of punctuation is unnecessary,, 



I' 1 







36 XKUL& Dinatara^putr&ya 





Sewnd Plate ; Second Side* 


Angirasa- | 


&jya-p&(?s)la . , ...... * . * h salik-dlairi- 


pratip&dita ity=avagatya 

| & dadadbltlii 


dharmma-sistre [1*1 

> - ^ 

4ati4 r&jabli% Sagar^dibMi | yasys yasya yada 






TUrd Plate*, ffint Side. 


val^ayanti pit&niaE&K btAmi^data kul^ j&tah sa 
Bttmifm*] yali pMt^pMii y^^cha blifomm^rayactoHiatl ||(I) 


ixbhan tern 


ga-vto kdti-pr^^na 





This nmrk of punctuation, also, is 

Bead A^ira^-mrhaspatya ; omittmg the 

This mark of punctuation is unnecessary. 

f praM , tna tion which steads between the two word.. 
r p rf pnnct^tion, also, is unnecessa 

This mark of punctufttion Is unnecessary* 
Metre iSftlini 

^ poactntion b 



57 chafc6 Mmabhadrah H Iti 1 kamala-dal-amvii(mbii)-vi(l3i)ndu-I&lam 

58 mncBlntya mannsliyarjlvitaS^elia I sakalam=idam=[u^]d41iritaS.=c]ia vuddha 3 ma 

hi pn- 

59 [ni3hai]h para-kirttay6 vi%yah |(||) Sra(?)aJita(?) 4 

adM(?) [||*] 

Third Plate; Second Side. 

61 ram=atul&m 

2 sakha sarvvada yah 7 khyatd dhrita-sll(8a)ndlii--irigraliapadah 

ChohMeholiliat&Sva(sa)%i kriti || 

63 Paramamah^svara-paramabhattllraka-maliaT & j a 8 - p a r a m & g v a [r a ^>S 6 m a k u 1 a 1 1~ 


65 navam^ 9 Jydshtliasi(si)tatray6dasyCrii3 | IO 8h 10 

|| Om Om 


The record opens with four Terses describing the charms and delights of a town named 
Vittltapura (line 12), on the Mahftnftdl (1. 10), Then, In three more verses, it mentions a king- 
named JanamSjaya (1. 14-15), and his son Taytti (1. 20). Then it continues: -From tlxe 
town of Vinltapura (I 12), the most devout worshipper of (the god) MaJaSivara, the 
Paramabhaffdra'ka, IfoetMah&rtijddhirdga, the ParamStvara, the ornament of the Somalrizla* 
the lord of the three XalMgas, the glorious Maha-Sivaguptarajadeva (L 25), who meditates 
on ihe feet of th most deTOut worshipper of (the god) Mah^sirara, the faramabhattdraka 9 "the 
ja, the ParamMvara, the ornament of the Sdmak:iila 9 the lord of the tlurea 
, the glorious (I.) (L 22-23), being In good health (L 25), 

and having done worship to the Br&hma,ns0f the district at the village of Chfindsgrama (L 26) 
in the Marada fiBhsya in DaksMna-K6saia (L 25), is issues a command to all the officials 
and servants of the Hog, to the effect that the village in question has "been given by Mm ? by 
this charter, to Sa&khap&ai (L 35) 3 son of Dinakara and gr&ndson of , Ananta 3 an immigrant 
from Srlvan&grama in the Madhyadesa (L 32), a resident of Siiatohafijap&tl in the ddbra 
(L 33), Belonging to the Takk&ra-Bh&radv&ja gSty, 14 with the j?<raws&m of Angirasa 9 
Bikrhaspatya, and Bh&radva,ja 5 and a student of the Chhand&ga-Kauthuxna itiWid. 

Lines 39 to 59 &re occupied with the usual mandate to future kings to continue the grant? 
and with beDedictive and imprecatory verses. 

1 Metre : PustipHAgriL a This mark of punctuation is 

Read bnddJwA* 

4 Tliis is the commencement of a ?erse & in the Sftrdftlavikrigita metre 9 whicls was left mefinisliecl* 
Metre : &Alavikrt$ta. 

Bead a$kimdnair*>}i&. 7 Bend a. 

s Read maMrdjddJtirdfa) for which the word in the text is obiriousiy a mistake. 
9 This mark of punctuation is unnecessary 
w The word divasah "be aupplied, in apposition, 
n aBd ^ Bepreseoted Tby ornate symbols* 
18 gee page S58 ahove s note 11, 

u Or perhaps^ 8 *to (a branch of) the Bhftradv&ja @<$r 9 which was formerly settSed at 
i* perhaje another form of T^UArik^ for which sa S50 mbwe, note U, 



Lines 60 to 62 praise a, minister of the king, named Chhiehehhat&sa, holding the office of 

And lines 63 to the end give the date of the thirteenth, tithi in the bright fortnight of 
the month. in the ninth, year of the victorious reign of the most devout 
worshipper of (the god) Mabesvara, the Paramabhattaraka, MaMrdjddhirdja, 1 and PsrawsY'jra, 
the ornament of the Sdmakula, the lord of the three KaUngas, the glorious Yayatirajad8T ; 
and tell us that the charter was engraved by a person named MMhava. 

y. Katak Copper-plate Grant of the third year of Maha-Bhavagupta n. 
This record is now brought to notice for the fast time, I believe. I edit it from tie 
orierinal plates, which I obtained for examination from Mr. Beames in 18S3 or 1SS4. I have 
no precise information as to where they were found; but it appears to have been Bomewbexe at 
Katak, or closely in. the neighbourhood of that place. 

" The plates are three in number, each measuring about 9f long by 7'bwadat ifenfe >J 
somewhat less in the middle. They are quite smooth, the edges of them havzBg been dr 
fashioned thicker nor raised into rims; and the inscription IB m some places a goc^ deal 

m blemB and legend may have been on at are ^^ ^^J 7 lbi . 8 

three plates is 6 Ibs. 2 <*.. and o the rmg and L sea l 6 -. 

tfuoaotan are Hagarl, of the northern 

to lino VS. The a^rafea occurs m 

The *** occurs with *, in ftimtf 

line 11 ; of n, (1) a simpler form, in 

My*n t Uno 68, and (2) a more comple 

line 81 1 and of m, resembling an a****** 

Une 35, and p^^m, UB 49. The 

good and fairly deep ; b^t, the 

^^ g 

where it is not really 
' J iaal foms occur,-of f, in 
ifrf-^H" 63, 
, line 14, and 
or below it, - .=- 5 'H 
aboa t *'. The engraving i. 
do not show through on 
usu^l marks of the working of the engraver . 

tributary of the Mahana,di and ^ ^J^register the fact that^ on the ^ oc-a ^ 
. of uta H. 

See pae 354 above, note 8. 










TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 

Om a [II*] 

Svasti 8 

tanvat&h 1 Yicbchbm[n*]6=pi krit-atimatra- 


lakai=aYirbbaYat- S itkritair=asl^bair=glapita-klamaib. smara-raaab kamam ura- 

_. . - ,.,/% 

pranayinab karnn-6tpalais=taditab | jayantS 



muktamayam mandanam sank&t-aspadam=apy=at*Ya dbavalam pr&- 
A i! ' 'e-affratab (||)| jaiiaii.adl*-tunga-taranga.bbaTiga-spbar-6cbcbbalacb-cb.b.l- 

sa a-srmg-ag . . ^^^^^gj^^a^^ganaiia^m*] gra(gra)m-a[pa*]n6dab. 













maradbbib I (II) Tasmat grl-Yayatinagarat | L6ka 5 -traya-pratbita-giibbra-ya- 
g6-Yitana-Yyaptlasbta-dik=prasabba-mrjita-Yam.Yargab. | raja Ya(ba)bbfiYa bb.UYi 
bhaYita-bbaYya-mfirttib Srlman sardja-vadand JanamSjay-akbyah II ISTir- 

darit-ari-kari-knmbba-samfiba-imikta-muktapbala.p rakara-datta-ratbanga,dha- 
rat [i*] tasmad=ajayata 3agat-[t*]raya-glta.klrttip=Mla-viiiirjita-ripur=nripa- 

Yat -kbadg-agra-Yipatita-dYipa-gbatia-kumbbastbalad=Tillasa- 
prati-rana[m3 pritbYi-Yadb-^ra[b*]atbalam Sag^v^ad- 


Second Plate ; First Side, 

il-amala yat-pad-amYTi(inbii)3a-r^9avaJ^. samatayS, tad-ra- 
Madyal 7 -l&l-ali-mal-akula-karata-put-asYa(Bya)ndi-dana- 

sita-pritbula-radan. Kamad6v"-adi-saih3nan | 31- 

patita-sura-Yadbu-Yismaya-smfera-Yaktirah kbadgi trima-kS- 

rindran 8 gara-Bikara-bat-ar6bakan=agraMd=yab || Pntras 9 =tasya va(ba)bbuYa dba- 
rmma-niratab gri-BMma-piirYV& rathah kby^tab k8bmapa-nisMvyamaiia(iia)-chara[na3- 
s-cbMamanir=bbubb-ajam | y&=sau gaucba-mabadband=pi samarS laksbmib(m) par- 
sbam " Ya(ba)laj=jagraba kshata-vairi-Yarga-YabhaYab saundarya-l6bb-aspadam |J 
Paramamab^gYara-paramabbattaraka-mabaraiadbir a 3 a-p ar a m 6- 
dhipati-gri-Maba-BbLavaguptarajaddvah kuSaia(li) I Kosala-Saklianga- 

gmi-lakshmim dadbub 

1 From the original plates 

* Metre : SftrdiilavikridiHa ; and in the next two verses. 

* Metre : Upajiti of Indravajra and Trp6ndravajr&. 

* Metre: yasantafcilaka aad in the next verae. 

* Metre : Sirdiilavikridita. 

* Bead trimfat-kartndrdn. 

' Represented by a plain symbol. 

3 Metre : Sragdhai*. 
Metre : 

Katak Plates of the 3 rd year of Maha-Bhavagupta II. 

i, F. FLEET, I. C.S. 







33 pftjya 

35 samajfiapayati 








Second Plate ; Second Side. 

> cbatnh* a-^mTa-madlitLkab sa-garfct-dsharah 
Sr,vastl-mandan^(le) " K^inl-bhattagr&marvinirggataya 




bliatfea-Param^svara-pautraya bhatfca-Yamsbt&a-stttiy* P 







smadiya. _ 





yasya yad& bbAmls=tasya tasya tad& pbalam II Mil 
nka).vah para-datt^t^Cti) parfbivab. S Ta.dati&t=pba!m=aBaiita[m*3 para- 

,i bbtmi-dab f|(l) * 
|| Agner l<f sapfttyaa 


tt-anTipalan& If SliaslitCi*]m 
kslieptfi, ,Qi3L=43iumaiita eta 





QQ edemata |(||) Sadattam=paradattam^v& yd 

vifihihfty&Dfc] fc?i- 

61 mir=bMtva pitribMh |(||) Adity<& Yarand 

62 lmt&sa(ga)tiah ftlapftQifi=cha btagaYan^abliiiiaiidaiiti bhftmi-dam 


63 r=Bfip&na,[m^] Mle-kMe pManiyo bhavEdtMt I 

64 bhilyd-bhAyo yachate Ramabhadrah |(U) Xti s kamala-dal-&m[b*]a-vi(bi)ndti461ftm 

65 m^nnchintya xnanushya-j!vita[iii*] cha sakalam=idam=ud!Jhritaik eha vadva 4 

na H pn- 

66 rashaih para-kSrfctay& 

67 [r*]=jit& 


68 ma-dTayaia=api pr%a[n*] sarwadUr sa 

padab. Sri-Si- 

69 fegadattah kyitS l(lf) Maiigaladattena kftyasthtaa sa w aldkhi 


70 sam 

71 param&svara-SdmakMsti^ 

72 iriyrdcihamana-vijayarrajyS triti 7 -BamTatsar MftrgaslrsliamfiBi^ 

tithau tritCl*]- 

73 ySym yatrnkeia4pi S S^. 8 || Vijfi&ni-Madliii- 

mspejna utkaritaih [||*] 


The record opens with, a description of the charms and delights of a town named 
Tay&femagara (line 12), OB the (L 10),- using the four verses which in E. ore 

applied to Viaitapnra, Then s in five more verses, of which three occur in B., it mention 
a king named Janamejaya (1. 14), his son YayfitI (1. 17) 9 and the latter's son Bhlitxiavattia 
(L 24). Then it continues : From the of Tayatmagaxa (L 12), the most dewnt 

worshipper of (the god) Mahdfivara, the Paramabhatt&raka, the MahdrdjddM^ja, the $*aram&~ 
mar, the ornament of the Sdmatazla, tlie lord of the tkre the glorious UCalift- 

BhaTaguptai^jaddTa (H.) (L 31), who meditates on the feet of the most devout worshipper 
of (the god) Mahdsvara, the PammabMtfdraJca, the MaMrdjddUrAja, the ParamttvarOt 
the ornament of the the lord of the three KalingaB, the glorious Ubha- 

(1, 28-29), being in good health (1. 31), and having done worship to 
the B^hmans of the district at the viEage of Gaiidasiminilligi^ma in the K6sala- 
vishaya (L 81^32), Issues a command to all the officials and servants of the 

Hug, to the effect that the village in question has been given by him, by this charter, on the 
occasion of an eclipse of the aim (L 42), to the Kanaka Rachchhd (1 42), son of the Shaffa 
Vasishtha and son's son of the Param^Svara, an immigrant from the 

* Bead &<*r$ta vamMdAardm, Metre : SUinL Metre : . 

f ? 6a f j^f ^ s Metre : SfadAlavikrt^to. Metre s Sldka (Anuahfabb). 


UB tritlf^. B^ad 

STo. 48,] 


of K&sllli in the mandala (1. 38), a resident of in the 

in Kdsala (1L 38-39)j, belonging to the Kausika golra^ -with the pr&cara of Visvacaiira. 

, and Aixdaia* and a ptudent of the Chhanddga iakhA. 

Lines 44 to 60 are occupied with, the usual mandate to future Mugs to continue the 
and with benedictive and imprecatory verses. 

Lines 66 to 69 praise a minister of the king, named holding the office cf 

SamdhivigraJimy and* in doing so, use the Terse which in K is applied in tic of 


A verse in lines 69 and 70 tells us that &e charter was written toy the 

And lines 70 to the end give the date of the third titM in the bright of the 

month. or ia the third year of the mctorions reign of the 

devout worshipper of (the god) Mahdfrara, the Parama&^tfrofco, the Hrtg-lfj&i**:**; 
the Paramd&ara, the ornament of the S6makul% the lord of the the 




In editing the Ktram plates of the Pallava king Psrar^varararmai. I., I ooticecl 
iBcription in theKaiiasaaatha temple at Conjeeveram, which proves mat a fccg 
, is shov by his surnames to belong to the Western Chalukya dyaaaty, 
visited the temple, 1 I now e^t this record from excellent 

the inscription is engraved on the 
^ fwt of the BaiasimJisvara shrine, and nearly touches the east jail cf a=3tJ:e? 

^rr^d^^^^ - -*- - tte -. ; - 

oTd^nare.e ; Ind the togasge i. ,Btof? P~. " 


n.aes of 

ii t<o the god. 

of another o 

superintended him. 

In. tlte inscriptions of the 
Vikram&ditya H. are stated to have 
the Pallava king Pa*am^varavn 
inscription is not date 
t yaa , it may he assigned 
plates explicitly state 

the " * " 



I. wd 

^^ ._ ^ , ^ - 

t the former from ^Irsrr."- riray*. I-**', 

* T* 1 * IM,, * w If t H.A 

belong to the reign of either c: tbe twc 
to Vitoamt3itya H., becaisc the 


TEXT. 1 

Svasti H 

2 3 Pritlmvi.vallabha-Mahara3adhi. 

3 rSja-Parame^vara-Bhatt&rar g^. 

4 fieMytoskondtt Bajasi|;ih*3gii&gvara- 

5 da, dhanaman=kandn maguldu deva- 

6 rgge bitfc&r [j] Intu bitta bhat&rata 8 

7 dharmmada sfehiiayn[m*] 

8 man=a|ivlix=l7=tr& ghatigey& 

9 janama,n=kondara Idkakke 

10 Niravadya-srimad-A[ni]v&r i t a punyavallabh.e- 

11 na likhitam=i[daiii] Vallabliadurjjayaradluk&padi[m 

(lane 1.) Hail! Vitoam&ditya-SatyaSiya, the favourite of Fortune and of the Earth, 
the MaMtdjddhirclja Parametvara Blia{(dra t _ 'having captured Kafldii (and) having inspected 
the riches (telonging) to (tie temple of) RajasiAghesvara (.. Bajaaiihh^vara), gave 
(them.) again to the god. 

(JL 6.) Those who destroy these lettera and the stability of the king's charity which 
was thus given, shall enter the world of those who have killed the mea of the assembly f?}* 

j* .I * *, it <J \* J 

of this eifcy. 

(L. 100 This (ediet was) written by the blameless and illmstriotiB Aniftritapunyavanablia 

under the authority of Vallabliacte Jaya* 

1 From inked estampages, prepared bj Mr* T, P. E^sbnasmmi 
a Bead jy^Wirf. s Bead U 

* The Kanareae twm ghajige (gha$M m Sw&rit) posribly e0nr*potod to the wthvi (wlM m SaoBkrit) of 
Tamil inscriptions. 




. BIO* 



AbbakbbA, queen of Gnnadnfctaranga-BTitiiga, 

177, 182 
AbhmandadSva, m* 9 .... 

Acfach&n, m. s . 

... 212 

... 17 

... 150