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Vol. VII (1902^1903) 








VOL. VII -1902-03. 






Reprinted 1981 



Price s Rs. 90 

Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33, Kirti Nagar Indl. Area New Delhi-i 










VOL. VII .-1902-03. 









The names of contributors are arranged alphabetically, 


No. 6. Oambay plates of Govinda IY.; aka-Samvat 852 26 

J. F. FEJBI, PH.D., C.I.E., Indian Civil Service (Retired): 

No, 25. Kaluchumbarru grant of Yrjayaditya-Amma II .177 

28. Some records of the B&shtrakuta kings of MalkhM : 

D. Mantrawadi inscription of the time of Am6ghavarsha L; A.D. 865 . , 198 
E.Sirur inscription of the time of Amoghavarsha I.; A.D. 866 . . ,202 
J 1 , Nidagundi inscription of the time of Am&gliavarBha I, ; about A.D. 874-75 , 208 

The family-name of the Rashtrakfltas of MalkMd 214 

The original home of the Eashteakutas of MalkhM 223 

The banners and crests of the same and of the Eattas of Jtaundatti . . ,227 
G&vinda II., and the Alas plates which purport to have been issued in A.D. 770 , 230 


No. 4. Three memorial stones 22 

5. A rock-inscription at Tandalam , 25 

13. Bdoda'platn of Ivaradeva 102 

14, Inscriptions on the three Jaina colossi of Southern India 108 

15. Two Jaina inscriptions of Irugappa . , . . f , , . . ,115 

18. Aralala-Peiumal inscription of the time of Prataparadra ; $aka-Samvat 1238 * . 128 

19. Six inscriptions at Tirunamanallur 132 

SO, Fourteen inscriptions at TirukkovaMr 138 

23. Tiruvgndipuram inscription of Eajaraja III,, NaiasimkIL and K6pperunjinga . 160 

26. Pour inscriptions at !61apuram 192 

27. A Yaishnava inscription at Pag^a 197 


Nos. 1 and 24. Dates of Chola kings (continued) 

No. 2. Dates of Pandya kings (continued) ....... 

9. Kahla plate of the Kalachuri S6dhade>a; [Yikrania-]8amvat 1134 
10. luoknow Museum plate of EMpala ; [Yilama-]Samvat 1167 . 
11, Lar plates of G&vindachandra of Kanauj ; [Yikiama-]Samvat 1202 
12. A note on the Buguda plates of Madhavavarman .... 

22. Mawiuban plate of Harsha ; the year 25 


No. 3./.mar2lvati inscjiptioa of Krishnaray^a of Yijayanagara ; ^aka-Samvat 1437 -A . 17 

IjfTwo inscriptions of Tammusiddhi; Saka-Samvat 1129 , 119 

21. T*o further inscriptions of Tammusiddhi 148 


No. sjD^vulapalli plates of Immadi-Nrisimha ; aka-Samvat 1427 . 


No. 7. The inscriptions in the caves at KarlS , , , 47 

J. PH, Yo&tt, LL.D.:- 

No. 16. Two Brahml and KhaMthi rock-inscriptions in the Kafigra valley ' . 116 



INDEX.-BT v. VEnmu M,A -233 






1. Three memorial stones toiace page 24 

2, Gambay plates of Govinda IV. -Plate i between pages 38A89 

* >i n. , } n 4Q ^ 4,^ 

4 Karl6 inscriptions, Plate i to face page 66 

5- f jj ii. 3t 64 

ti ' "' II 72 

7 iv. , . M M 74 

8, Devulapalli plates of Immadi-Npimha; Saka-Samvat 1427 , , , between pages 82&S3 

y. Lncknow Museum plate of Kh-tiplla ; [Vikrania-]Samvat 1167 , , 96 & 97 

10. Bngada plates of Mldhavavarman .... , . 100 & 101 

11. Baloda plates of T!varadva ...,,.'. 5 , 104 & 105 

12. Jaina colossus at ravana-Belgola ,.,,,. to face page 308 

13. Inscriptions on the same , H 109 

j.4. Jaina colossi at Kftrkoja and Vlnur ..*.,. IIS 

15, BocHnEcriptions in the Kangra valley ....... ,, 11& 

16. TimlzWvalur inscriptions ,,.,,,,.. } , 144, 

17. Madhuban plate of Harsha ; the year 25 . .,,. 158 

18, Ivaluchurhbami grant of Vijayaditya-Amma II. , , , , , between pages 186 & 187 

19. 61apuram inscriptions and Pagan inscription , ..', to face page 194 

20, lantrav&di inscription of Am6ghavar8ha I. j A,D. 866 , . ' ; M ,. 2H1 

21, SMr inscription of Araughavarsha I, ; A.D. 866 ,..,., ,. 206 

22. KitUgnndi ir.fcription of Amogliavarsha I. ,,.,,. ,, ., 21 S 



Page ^.-Thhaj plates of Govinda III. of A.D. 794- For the localisation of tLin 
" Cah n f the P lacea ^tioned in it, see Int. Ant. Vol. XXX." 


^/ V lv l Sam C n ' eC0n n te tasl ^> P. 134 : see hd. 

Ant Vol. XXX p. 264.- For a Ml note on the Kisuk&d (Snlvitavi) seventy 
fet, see ,6* p. 259 ff_ Page 184, line 7 5 for " of his wife," read - of bin 
mistress ;" see Vol. VII. below, p, 182, note 4.-J. F F 
20*, tho JBrfHna ta *^^*y Art **> on the Kundi country, 8 ee Ind. Ant. 

230. The Bhairanmatti inscription.- Page 235, line 10, for "in the region " read 
' n an island 5" see M ' An *" Vol. XXXII. p. 55, and note 36.- J F F 

30G. The Tidgundi plates of Vikramaditya VI. of A.D. 1082.- For the identifica- 
tion of the Pratyandaka four-thousand province, see Ind Ant Vol YYT 
p, 380. J. F, F. ' 


Pago 204. The Kilgund inscription of Taila II. of A,D. 982.- For the identification of the 

Kdgali country, see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 106. J. F. F. 
212. The inscriptions of A.D. 1064 and 1072 at the Jatinga-Bamsvara hill. For 

the identification of the Kaniyakal three-hundred district, see Ind, Ant 

Vol. XXX. p. 108. J. F. F, 
278, The Karhad plates of Krishna III. of A.D. 959. For the localisation of this 

record, by identification of the places mentioned in it, see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. 

p, 373. For a full note on the Earahata four-thousand province, -see ibid 

p. 377 ff. J. F. F. 
350. The Hebbal inscription, of A.D. 975. Page 351, line 1, and page 354, translation 

line 5, for " R^vaka/' read " Kevakaidmmadi," and in the translation omit the 

words " (holding her) in (his) lap ;" see Vol. VI. below, p. 71, and note 4 

J. F. F. 
371, column 2, last line, 'for Hrahadagalli, read Hirahadagalli. 


Page 208, The Alas plates, which, purport to have been issued in A.D. 770. The Alaktaka 
vishaya of this record is mentioned as the Alatage seven-hundred district in a 
record of A.D. 1008 ; and the places mentioned in that record, and in another, 
locate it close on the east of K61hapu,r, where there is now the Alt&m sub- 
division of that State j see Ind. Ant, Vol. XXIX. p. 273 ff. For the point that 
the Alas plates are a spurious record, see Vol. VII. below, p. 231, J. F. F. 

341, fcext line 61, insert the figure 2 after 5sfq. 

39-4, column 1, line 9, for Vijcp^dn-nadu, read Vijp6dunadu. 

i, }> column 2, last line, for Pingala, read Pingala, 



ag6 19, note 4, /or Odegany, mi Odegary, 

23, note 4,- /or Ka^Mdi, mi E^ahdi, 

27 S line 5 from bottom,- for Godlvari, md G&divarf, 

30, last line,- /or Khajiiraho, read Khajarahl), 

32, line 12,- 

jj ,j /O,-" ,| J5 

36, line 14 of paragraph 2,- /or SUri (SkidM), ai BUrf (Skedl 

45, line 13 from bottom,- /or Grodavari, read GtodkwA 

50, line 22, /or KausMputo, read Eauiiktputa, 

66, line 13,- /or Nasik, read Nasik, 

79, note 7, line 6,- for MMimmlsvaraganda, read MMinimisvaragi 

j j) J, /or B" araaifigaiyadera, red FaraSirigaiyadeva, 

3) 86, last line,- /or fee ot, reai feet of, 

jj 92, test line 42, insert a hyphen () between yim and fiwt(tf) 

,3 115, lines 10 and 16, /or Chaicha and Ohaictapa, read Baicha andl 

5} 122, line 10 from hottora,- /or Tiruppasur, read TirappMir, 

5! 162, note 9, /or Gedilam, read Gedilam, 

219, line 8,- /or Eashtrakuta, reai Mahtrakiita, 





(Continued from Vol. VI. page 285.) 

55. In the KSsava-Perumal temple at Kftram. 1 

Svast[i] Sr[i] [||*J [Ma]d[irai ko]Bd=l[>m] pu[gun]da [k&>Pparakketsa]ri[pan> 

ma[r*]k[ku] yandu narpadavadu 
2 i[v*]v-at[t]ai . , , [da]ga- s nliya[r]ru apara-pa[kslia*]t[tu]=Chcliai}i-kkilamaijum 
nava[m]iyum perja Ur6yani-nal iratri. 

"In the fortieth year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman who took Madirai and 
entered Ijam, at night on the day of Rohinl, which corresponded to a Saturday and to the 
ninth .tithi of the second fortnight of the month of [Karkata]ka in this year." 

Although I am unable to give with confidence the actual equivalent of this date, I may 
state that between A.D. 900 and 985 the only years for which the date would be quite regular 
are A.D, 91 9 and 946. 

Pop A.D. 919 the date would correspond to Saturday, the 24th July, which was the 
35th day of the month of Karkataka, and on which the 9th tithi of the dark half (of the month 
jravana) ended 4 h. 41 m., and the naksbatra, was Rohini for 17 h. 44 m., after mean sunrise. 

And for A.D. 946 it would correspond to Saturday, the 25th July, which was the last day 
of the month of Karkataka, and on which the.9bh tithi of the dark half (of the month Sravana) 
ended 13 h. 11 m. after mean sunrise, and the naJcshatra was Rohini the whole day. 


56. In the Lakshminarayana temple at Kavantandalam. 3 
1 Svasti Srt [||*] Tiru ma[nni] vilanga ......... 

1 No, 84 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1900. 9 Bead perhaps 

1 No. 206 of the Govenuaeut Epigraphist's collection for 1901 $ 8(wth-Ind. Tnscr. Vol. III. JTo. 


2 ..... k6v=Irajakesarivatmar=ana udaiyar &i-[R]ajendra461adevak3* 

yandu 4avadu , . . 
;-? ..... ivv-dttai Mii(vji)schika-nayarru purvva-pakahattu 

TiruY&riamum pejra Vl[y]61a4:kilamai-na[n]r,u. 

"In the 4th. year (of the reign) of king Bjakesarivarmau alias the lord, the 
Bajendra-Cholsdeva, on a Thursday which corresponded to (the day of) iSravana and to 
Hxth titlii of the first fortnight of the month of Vrischika in this year." 

A date of the fourth year of the king's reign will be expected to fall in A.D. 1078 or 107 
and this date actually corresponds to Thursday, the 7th Worember A.D. 1073. This was 
12th or 13th day of the month of Vrischika, and on it the 6th tit hi of the "bright half (of t** *' 
month Margaftra) commenced 1 h. 38 m. after mean sunrise, while the nakshatfa was SravaigL^s 
by the equal space system and according to Grarga for 23 h. 38 m. after mean sunrise, and by f-l**- 1 * 
Brahma-siddhanta the whole day. 


For reasons suggested partly by the new dates of this king, I must recapitulate here the 
furnished by the dates already treated of, 3 and the results derived Urom iihem. 

No. 10 (above, Vol. IV. p. 73). In the fifth year . . . on the iforee-hundred- 
fortieth day, which was (the day of the nakshatra) Hasta, a Sunday, and the seventh tithi of 
the first fortnight of the month of Mithuna." Taking this date to have been correctly recorded * 
I found the best equivalent for it between A.D. 1110 and 1125 to be Sunday, the 22nd Ju*x<6 
A.D. 1113 ; and counting backwards from this day, I obtained the 18th July A.D, 1108 as tfa.** 
day of the commencement of the king's reign. 

No. 21 (ibid. p. 263)," In the 4th year ... on the day of gatabhishaj, wMelt 
corresponded to a Monday and to the eighth tithi of the second fortnight of the month of 
Rishabha." Guided by the result obtained under No. 10, I found this date to correspond t<> 
Monday, the 20th May A.D. 1112, when, to omit other particulars, the nafotata, by the equkl 
space system .only, was Satabhishaj for h. 39 m. after mean sunrise. 

No 22 (ibid p. 264).-" In the 5th year . . . on the day of Ardra, which corre- 
sponded to a Monday and to the eleventh tithi of the second fortnight of the moafli of Siinlia ** 
Guided again by the result obtained under No. iO } I found that this date would correspond to 
Monday, the 19th August A.D. 1112; but there was the difficulty teat on this day ^ & 
vakshatra was Punarvasu, not Ardrd. 

No. 41 (aboye, Yol. VI. p. 279).- In the . . . sixteenth year . , in the month o# 
Vau&kha, in the second fortnight, at the time known as Monday combined with an Ufctarl 
OwbAoira) ." Again guided by the re B ult obtained under No. 10, 1 found that Monda 
5th May A.D. 1124, would be an unobjectionable equivalent of this date. monaft 

No, 42 (MA. p. 280) .-"In the 9th year . , . in the Plava year which waa ti* 
year 1049, on the occasion of an eclipse of the mopn in the month of 

i lee, 3 oM ^o^ly in , lead o 
Im this it wfflbe mm tbat the resnlto obtained under NOB. 21, 22 and 

?t ma, 

1 Head thashthiyun=, 


would -wort ont, if the date No, 42 were really, as it is stated to "be, a date of tlie 9fch year of 
Vikrama-Chola's reign. Supposing this to be the case, the king's reign would have commenced 
some time between approximately the 28th May A.D. 1118 and the 27th May A.D. 1119, and 
wifch such a commencement of the reign the dates Nos. 21, 22 and 41 would yield the following 
equivalents : 

No. 21, of the 4th year, would correspond to Monday, the 1st May A.D. 1122. This was 
the 7th. day of the month of Vrishabha, and on it tie 8th tithi of the dark half (of the 
month Vaifiakha) ended 13 h. 28 m., while the nakshatret was Satabhishaj, by the equal space 
system and according to Grarga/row it. 39 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta from 1 h. 19m. 
after mean sunrise. 

No. 22, of the 5th year, would correspond to Monday, the 3lst July A.X>. 1122. This 
-was the 4th day of the month of Simha, and on it the llth tithi of the dark half (of the 
month Sravana) ended 4 h. 24 m., while the ndkshatra was Ardra, by the equal space system 
for 12 h. 21) m., and according to Garga for h. 39 m., after mean sunrise. 

No. 41, of the 16th year, would correspond to Monday, the 16th April A.D. 1184, when 
the 6th titU of the dark half of Vaisaklia ended 13 .h. 11 m., and the nakshatra was 
TJttarashadha, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 23 h. 38 m., and by the 
Brahma-siddhanta for 17 h. 4. m., after mean sunrise. 

It is quite clear then, that, supposing the king's reign to have commenced between 
approximately the 28th May A.D. 1118 and the 27th May A.D. 1119, the three dates 
Nos. 21, 22 and 41 would work out in the best possible .manner better, in fact, than with the 
18th July A.D. 1108 as the commencement of his reign, because on the equivalent here found 
for the date No. 22 the a really was irdra, whereas on the equivalent previously given 
for the same date the natekatra was 'found to be Punarrasu (instead of the nakshatra Ardra, 
quoted by the original date). 

To the date No. 10 I shall have ta revert below. For the present ifc will be sufficient to 
state that, irrespectively of No. 10, the four dates Nos. 21, 22, 41 and 42 for the commencement 
of the reign appear to yield some day between approximately the 28th May and the 
Slat July A.D. 1118. The new dates of Vikrama-Chola may be expected to shew whether his 
reign really commenced at the time here given or on the ISfcn July A.D. 1108. 

57. In the Tyagarfcja temple at 
ft . [Tribhuvana]cha[kra3vatti[gal] fir[l-Vibma].OhC63M^lfu 

' ylanda anjavadu Midhuna-nayars[u P urvva]-pak 8 ha[t*]tu pa[fichamOy[u]m 
Magamum pen* Vitya]la-[kk]iiamai-nal. 

fifth year (of the v^n) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorioui 


the fifth MM of the first fortnight of the month of Mitnuna," 

If the king's reign commenced on the 18th July A.D. 1108, this date would correspond tq 
tne 19th fU A.D. 1113, which was the 26th day of the month of Mithuna, and on 
of the bright half (of the znpnth Ishadha) n^ 5 h. 15 m and the 

7 L " after 

A D 

the other hand, if the reign commenced between the 28ih May and the Slst July ^A D. 

colkctiou far 1894, Another date.wMch occura m line 3 of the 
earn, rptio*, was paUiAed above, Vol. IV. p. 73, No. 10. ^ 


of the month of Mithuna, and on which the 5th titU of the bright half (of the first .. 

ended 11 h. 37 m., and the nahshatra was Magha, by the Brahma-siddhanta for 11 h. 1 *** 

according to Garga for 13 h. 47 m., and by the equal space system from I h. 19 rn., after 


Theoretically both the equivalents found might be taken to satisfy the requirements of 
case, but there can be no doubt that the second, Thursday, the 31st May A.D. 1123, wovtl<i 
pieferable because the iitbi of the date ended on that day. This date therefore also would 
to shew, though it would not actually prove, that the king's reign commenced in A.D. 1118- 

58. In the Divyajfianesvara temple at Koviladi. 1 

1 Svasti sri [H*] I(ti)ribuva[na]sakkaravattigal sri-Vikkii-aiua-S61adevark=iy ] 

llava[d]u Magara-nayarru [p]u[rvva]- 

2 pakshat[t]u trai(tra)yo[da*]siyura Sani-kilamaiyum pegr.a P[u]narbuda-nal. 
" In the llth year (of the reign') of the emperor of the three worlds, the 

Vikrama-Choladeva, 3 on the day of Funarvasu, which corresponded to a Saturday and to 
the thirteenth titU of the first fortnight of the month of Makara," 

If the king's reign commenced on the 18th July A.D. 1108, this date would correspond to 
Friday, the 27fch December A.D. 1118, which was the 3rd day of the month of Makara, antd on 
which the 13th tithi of the bright half (of the month Pausha) ended 16 h. 30 m. after 
sunrise, and the nttkshatras were Mrigasirsha and Ardra. 

On the other hand, if the king's reign commenced between tl.e 28th May and the 31st 
A.D. 1118, the date will correspond to Saturday, the 5th. January A.D. 1129, which was 
13th day of the month of Makara, and on which tbe 13th tithi of the bright half (of ttte 
month Pausha) ended 5 h. 49 m. after mean sunrise, and the nakshatra was Punarvasu, "by tiie 
Brahma-siddhanta and according to Garga the whole day, and by the equal space system jf-roz- 
h. 12 m. after mean sunrise. 

As this date then would be entirely incorrect if the king's reign had commenced in .A."O. 
1108, and is in every way correct on the assumption that the reign commenced in A.D. 1118, 
I take it to prove that the latter was really the case. And in my opinion the six dates 
Nos, 21, 22, 41, 42, 57 and 58, for which in entire agreement with the original da fa absolra-fceiy 
faultless equivalents have now been given, shew beyond a doubt that the reign of. Viler am a,- 
Chdla must have commenced between approximately the 1st June and the 31st 

A,D. 1118. 

# * * * # 

With the result now obtained, the equivalent previously given for the date No. 10 
of course, be the proper equivalent of that date. A comparison of the dates No. 10 and No. 
which are both from the same inscription, at OBCB suggests to us that No. 10 is only three 
later than No. 57. Both dates are of the first fortnight of the month of Mifchuna of the 5ttt 
of the king's reign ; the week-day of No. 57 is Thursday, and that of No. 10 Sunday ; and 
naksbatra of No. 57 is Magha (10), while that of No. 10 is Haata (13). If then the 
of No. 57 is Thursday, the 3lst May A.D. 1128, the equivalent of No. 10 can only be' 
the 3rd June A.D. 1123. This day was the 9th day of the month of Mithuna, and otx i-fc a, was Hasta, by the Brahma-siddhanta for 22 h. 59 m., and by the eqnal space 
and according to Garga from 1 h. 58 m., after mean sunrise ; but the tifhi which ended oao. 
same day, 10 h, 12 m.. after mean sunrise, was the 8th, not the 7th tithi, of the bright 

1 No. 276 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1901. 

* It is impossible to say a priori whether the son of Kulfifaunga I. U me^ut. 


Considering the complete agreement of the sis dates previously treated of, I Hvc i.c i- <...-. 
whatever that Sunday, the 3rd June A.D. 1123, is really the day intended H- th. ,i it,, 
No. 10,^ and that the writer of this date, in. recording the tithi, "has errantly \n::*, ;, 
fiapiflWtt^iiTji). instead of ash^amiyum. 

Since the date No. 10 is stated to have been the 340th day of th 5th yt'ar ,.f t!ii> ki- i'i 
reign, the first day of that year would now have been the 29th June A.D, 1122, the 
accession of Vikrama-Ohola must have taken place on (approximately) the 2otu JULQ 
A.D. 1118. i 

* * * * * 

The result now arrived at receives an unexpected confirmation from a reconsideration of i: e 
date No. 43 (above, Vol. VL p. 281). This date is of the seventeenth year (given in words s of 
the king's reign, and of the Saka year 1054 (given in figures only), and gives us f<.r cakuutiior. 
Thursday, the third tithi of the bright half of VaiSakha. When previously examinir.g it, 1 
found that for Saka-Samvat 1054 current it would correspond to Thursday, the '2nd Apiit 
A.D. 1131 ; and as I found it to be incorrect for what I then had to consider the 17th yeas- of tlit 
king's reign, I felt no hesitation in accepting Thursday, the 2nd April A.D. 1131, as the tr.:e 
equivalent of the date, and in assuming that the regnal year had been quoted errorieously. 

But now, with the 29th June A.D. 1118 as the date o the king's accession, a date in ti-.t; 
month VaiS&kha of his seventeenth year will be expected to fall in A.D. 1135, and for thia year 
the date regularly corresponds to Thursday, the 18th April A.D. 1186, when the third liili of 
the bright half of VaiSakha ended 9 h. SO m. after mean sunrise. I now therefore assume tiiat 
the date IB really of the 17th year of Vikrama-Ch61a's reign, and that the Saka year 1U54 hai 
been erroneously quoted instead of 1057 (expired). 

59. -In the Vaidyanatha temple at Tirumalavadi. 5 

This inscription is dated in the 15th year of the reign of "king Parakesarivarman alu- 
the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious Vikrama-Choiadeva." In the introduction 
it is stated nat he made gifts to the temple at Chidambaram on the following date : 5 

24 =ppattain=andil [&]i[t]tirai-ttinga[l] Atta- 

25 m perjta Adittav&i-attu=[t]tiru-valar-madiyin tray6da&=ppakkat[lu]. 
"In the tenth year, (t) the month of dlttlrad, on a Sunday which corresponded to 
day of) Hasta, (onj the thirteenth tithi of the fortnight of the auspicious waxing moou.' 
This date of Oe month of gitfcirai (or Mesha) of the 10th year of the king's reign, would be 

X JU-ID %**i?j w* *^-- m __lj -H.xr.11wr AAimaaTLTkTiri f^k HllTinA.V tnft 


date were Saturday, the date would correspond to Saturday, the Uth April A.D 1P8 \rken the 
13th fttW of tie bright half mmewed 2 h, 33 m., and the nakshatra, was Hasta, by' the equal 
space system and according to Garga for 17 h. 44 m., and by ike Brahma-Mddhanta for 14 h. 
27 IB., after mean sunrise. The earliest year of Vikrama-Chdla's reign, in "which the date, as 
recorded, is quite correct, would be the i3th, for which the date -wouia correspond to Sunday, the 
12th April A.D. 1131, with the nakshatra Hasta. i 

60,In the SdmanatheSvara temple at Somangalana. 1 

1 ..... , Tribhuvanachohakravarttigal Maduraiyum=[lll aim i 1= go 9 d=arulina 
M-Kul6tfcunga-S&lad67arku yandu. 14&vadu Magara-nayarjtt " "pi^rj^a-pakshattn 
Viyala-kkilamaiyuia Pu[6a]txram prathamaiyum=anay=anru. 

"lathe 14th year (of fts reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Kuldttunga-Choladeva who was pleased to take Madurai and llam, _ on a day wMch was 
Thursday, (tfo day of) Pushya, and the nrsfc tithi of the first fortnight of the month of 

The wording of this date is intrinsically wrong, because during the month of Kakara the moon 
can never be anywhere near the nafahatra Pushya on the first tithi of the first fortnight. The 
probability is that the first fortnight has been erroneously quoted instead of the second, and for 
the second fortnight the date is correct. 

A date of the month of Makara of the 14tih year of the king's reign will "be expected to fall 
in December A.D. 1191 or in January A.D. 1192, and in my opinion this date actually 
corresponds to Thursday, the 2nd January A.D. 1192, which was the 8th day of the month of 
Makara, and on which the first titU of the dark half (of the month Pausha) ended 10 h. 12 m. 
and the nakshatva. was Pushya, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 3 h. 
56 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 1 h. 58 m., after mean sunrise. 

* * * * * * 

For convenience of reference I giye below a list of all the dates of Ch&la kings examined in 
Vola. IV. VIL, with the exception only of the date of the 40th year of Porftntaka I., No. 55 
for which, as possible equivalents, I have given above Saturday, the 24th July A.D. *919 * and 
Saturday, the 25th July A.D. 946. Under the name of each Hog, I state approximately the time 

when he must have commenced to reign. 

A. Rftjara ja I. 
(Between the 25th June and the 25th July A,D, 

No. 1 (Vol. IV. p. 66).-Tear 7; the 26th September A.D. 991. 

No. 25 (Vol. V.p. 48) .-Tear 15 ; Tuesday, the 29th August A.D. 999. 

No. 27 (Vol. V. p. 19V) .-Tear 15 ; Wednesday, the 150x May AJX 1000.* 

No. 2 (Vol. IV. p. 67).-Saka 929 (current). This date is incorrect. 

No. 3 (Vol. IV. p. 68).-Tear 28,- Saka 934. The date would correspond to the 23 

December A.D. 1012, but contains no details for verification, Cl 

for 1901. 

. See VoL VI. p. 20, 

latte original date the week-day is wrongly given M Tfcoda,y, totted *f 


B. BaiSndra-Chola I. 
(Between the 28th November A.D. 1011 and the 7th Snly A,D W2 ) 

No '1 7v P ' 2?rT? r 9 ' aka 9 " i3 (OTrwnt > : ^fcy- ** j!. A i 

Nn' * 1 T-J' P ' l 8) '~ Saka M3 ^^eut) : Wednesday, fhe 1* Ma, A A R 1 il 
( A - 69 )-*" 31 (for 2L),i Saka 954: MoM-lay, the li'.rl 


No. 88 (Vol. VI. p. 81). Yew 22, Saka 955 : Sunday, the 25th November A II. 
No, 34 (Vol. VI. p. 21).-Year 26, Saka 959. This date is incoimt. 

C. "H^jadlairslja B;jakesarivarman. 


(Between tlie 15th March, and the 3rd December A.D. 1018.) 

No. 15 (Vol. IV. p, 218). Year [3]2 (for 22) : Thursday, the 22ml Kovemku- A.D- l-\ 
No. 12 (Vol. IV. p. 216). -Year 26 : Wednesday, the 14th March A.D. 1044 
No. 13 (Vol. IV. p. 217). Year 27 : Wednesday, the 13th February A.D. 1045. 
No, 14 (Vol. IV. p. 217). Year 29 : Wednesday, the 3rd December A.D. If)-M, s 
No. 11 (Vol. IV. p. 216). Year 30, Saka 970 ^current). The date does not a-linvt 

No. 35 (Vol. 71. p. 22). Year 35, 3&ka 975 : probably Sunday, the :3/d May A.D. H > 

D, Kajeudradeva Parakesarivarman. 4 
(The 28th May A.D. 1O52.) 

K. 38 (Vol. VI. p. 24). The 82nd day of year 4 : Thursday, the 17th August A.D, 1055. 
No. 86 (Vol. VI. p. 23). Year 6, Saka 979 : Monday, the 27th October A.D. idS7. 
No. 37 (Vol. VI. p. 23). Year 12 (for 11 ?), Suka 934 The date does' uot admit t,i 

E. Kuldttunga-ChoJa I. Eajakesarivarman, 
(Between the 14th March and the 8th Oatober A-D. 10TO.) 5 

No 56 (Vol. VII, p. 1). Year 4 : Thursday, the 7th November A.D. 1073. 

No* 39 (Vol VI-. p. 278). Year 7, Saka 998 : Friday, the 10th February AD. 1077 , 

No.' 6 (Vol. IV. p. 70). Year 37, Saka 1030 (for 1028?). The date dow not admit 
oi verification. 

No 9 (Vol. IV. p. 72). aka 1035 : Sunday, ifca 22nd February A.D 1114. 

No' 7 (Vol, IV. p. 70). Year 44 : Friday, the 1 3th March AJ). 1134. 

No' 8 (Vol.' IV. p- 71)-. "Sear 45 : Thursday, the 8th October A.D. 11U, 

* See Vol. VI. P. 22. , . ... . iri v iti^aiifum} is wrongly quoted instead of the tWrd (*f*i% 

, n . .rip- "e he ,eco.a <4 "" 0(Itod lmtel a of the third. A 

SiSrfl May A.D. Xi18. 

* In No. 87 wraamea B]cnvrm . 

. If the aatos 6 aad 6 given by Dr ^tzsc^ove V,i v i. p , ^ 

tt o r ea 8 onto B u 8 pe^ June AJ) . uoe , aad At MMk d y of 

^ - sati - ^^ is 


No.40CVol. VLp- 279).-Year 45, Saka 1056: Wednesday, the 9th December A.D. 

A.D. 1118.* 

F, Vikrama-Ch6}a EarakSsarivarman. 
(The 29th June A.D. 1118.) 

No. 21 (Vol. IV. p. 263, and 'vol. VII. p. 3).-Year 4: Monday, the 1st May A.D. 

No, 22 (Vof IV. P . 264, and Vol. VII. p. 3).-Yea?5: Monday, the 81* July A.D. 

1122 * 

No 57 fVol VII. p. 3).~Year 5 : Thursday, the Slat May A.D. 1123. 

No 10 (Vol! IT p!V and Vol. VII. p.4).-The 340fch day of year 5 : Sunday, the 3rd 

* 9 *<rrn*^*~*'^w******^: A U *A ., 

14h Aril 

* 9 **' A U *A ., 

^59(Vol.TOp.5).--YearlOtSand a ,y,thel5thApril, or Saturday, tie 14th April, 

*r ft rvnl VII n 4>, Year 11 : Saturday, the 5th January A.D. 1129. 

So. 5 (Yd. VL I > 279, and Vol. VII. p. 3).~Year 16: Monday, the 16th April 

No 43 (Vol A VI. p! 2 4 81, and Vol. TO p. 5).~Year 17, Saka 1054 (for 1057) : Thursday, 
the 18th April A.D. 1135. 

G. Kuldttunga-Chola m. Parakeuarivarman. 
(Between the 8th June and the 8th July A.D. 1178.) 
No 23 (Vol IV p. 264). Year 8 : Monday, the 8th July A.D. 1185. 
No 19 tVol' IV p. 220). Year 12 : Monday, the 4th December A.D. 1189. 
w ' fi0 ; Vo i' YII. p. 6).-Year 14 : Thursday, the 2nd January A.D. 1192.6 
So 24 Vol IV p 265).-Year 16 : Saturday, the 4th June A.D. 1194J 
Nn 17 Wol IV p. 219).-Year 19 : Tuesday, the 12fch November A.D. 1196. 
No 16 (Vol. IV p. 219).-Year 19 (for 20), Saka 1119; Friday, the 21st November 

A.D.1197.' . . 

No 31 (Vol. V. p. 199). Year 20. This date is quite incorrect. 
W 44 Vol VI p 281).-Year 27 : Thursday, the 5th May A,D, 1205. 
No 29 (Vol T.p 198)-Year 29: Wednesday, Hie 7A March A.D. 1207. 
2n' 18 fVo IV p 220).-Year 34 : Monday, the 19th September A.D. 1211. 
No! 30 (Vol. V. p P -:und 

. The original date coataiu, the expression ^ar^a^attp^nmitta^^ the exact import of wU* here 
t^o^tl; No. 28 the 12th tUU is wrongly quoted instead of the aecond which is correctly given in 

' 2 in the orieil date the 9th MM (.aptan.iy^) is wrongly quoted instead of the m^Uamiy^ 

In h S^al date either th* nMatr. o. the week-day *^~*- 

S the oriliual date tlxe firBt fortnight is wrongly quoted mst^d of the second. 

In he Snal date the' 4th (AW is w^gly ^^?to^' 

In the original date the 15th solar day U wrongly quoted mtead of tie 26th. 

, 40 (ToLTL P .-T Kri 8 ^' * ^ ***** A.D. 1Sa . 
No. (Vol. Ti. p . 282)._Year 18 T? a t I 3<aaaa * A ' D - 12M- 
K. (Vol. VI. p. 282 _5L is w f "^ * 2M August A ' E - 123. 
No. 40 (Vol. VI. p. 283) Jre^lS v'^'t '""'"to A.D. 1233. 
No. 50 ( Vol VI n 2WH v in day> ""> 2nd Ja "T A D P34 

NO. 51 vlTMzS : r b f y sr* * is * A^ ia* 

mj^tai^mm ttMt UT-oo o ^^1^ "^i 711 " 4 *^ 

September A,D. !062 and tHe 10th September ^Get <WWW the nth 

Date of the Chelliir plates of Kul6ttimga-Cli6da H. 

, 3 S? t ^ e *** of these P lates P^^d by Dr. Fleet with a piioto-lithogranx n 
Vol. XIV, p, 56 fc, &e date, in lines 49-51, is given thus : iim <* 

ea the meaeure of -the aka years had advanced to the Dumber of the flavours (6) 
fche arrows (5), the sky (Q), and the moon (l),"w. in Saka-Samvat 1056 . . . 
"at the qiiijaox combined with the Irdrfi nakshatra, in the bright half, on an* excellent" 

In Ind, Ant. Vol. XX. p. 191, Dr. fleet has shown that this date -would be incorrect for 
akfl,.Bariivat 1056 current and expired, as well as for Saka-Sathvat 1057 expired; and he has 
communioated a, euggestioa' of Mr. Sh. B. Dikshit's, in accordance with which the date would 
correipoftd fco the 24th March A.D. 1132, in ^aka-Samvat 1055 current. But really the date 
would bd incorrect even for ^aka-Saihvat 1055 current, because in this year also the equinox 
. WM not combined with the Ardrfi nakshatra. 

la 1ib,e twenty Saka years from 1047 to 1066 the date is correct only for Salta-Sanivat 1085 
In this year the M^aha-rishuva-samkrSnfii took place 16 h. 37 m. after mean etmrise 

1 TbJ tuxnwne occttrs only in the date No. 45. 

1 The Jtwt date of tM BijarAja, known to me, is from the month of EBJcka^aka of Ms 28th year which -WM 
<mtmt fti*8 the Saka, year 1165 j sw 8<wtb'lnd. Infer. Vol. I. No. 64. This date would shew flat Bijurlja's rsigo 
cou!4 IMA hftTfl cotnmenced fttte* the last day of the month of Karkataka in A.D. 1216, i'.a. oi later Oaw f4 J87<i 
T i vf 2) ?2i8 

* In, fclw original date either the oJfc*Afl^aUttita|tadi (Uttam-Bhadrapa^a) has been wroagly quoted iwtteail 
of Vttowa (Ottwa-Phalgunt), or the first fortnight instead of the second. 

Ja the original date the 4th *Aih been wrongly quoted instead of the 14th. 

* The day WM the 15th day of the month of Kanyfi, and on it the 14th titM of the dark baH (of the month 
Bhldreo&da) nded9 h. 21m. aftar mean nanrinej the nakt&vtra was Utfawra-Phalgunl, by the JJrahnw-sKtdMafca 
for l ^40 m, after mean aunrise, according to Garga the whole day, and by the equal space ystem>w Oh. 89 . 
after mean sunrise. 



of the 24th March A.D. JUS, and on this day the 7th titU of the bright half of Chaitra 
commenced 8 h. 9 m., and the nMatra by the equal space syetem was Ardrfc for 23 h. J8 m 
after mean sunrise; i.e. the equinox took place while the moon was in the naksbatra ArcSrS, 
during the 7th titU of the bright half. This result, moreover, shows that the tifhi on the 
day now given by me was really, in agreement with the term su-titU of the original text, an 
excellent titU; for, a seventh tilU of the hright half, on which - as * the case in the present 
instance -a Samkranti takes place, is called MMjagd, and 'for making donations as superior 
even to an eclipse. 1 

For these reasons I have no donbt whatever that the 24th March A.D. 1143 is the proper 
equivalent of the date, and that ihe Saka year intended is 1065, not 1056. The writer of the 
date has wrongly written rasa-visikha-, instead of vitikha-rasa-. 


(Continued from Vol. VI. page 315.} 

I herewith publish thirteen more Pandya dates, the European equivalents of which may 
be given with certainty. Eight of these dates, in addition to regnal years, also give the ffeka 
vears in which the dates fell, and the three latest dates, Nos. 41-43, also quote the corresponding 
Jovian years, according to the southern luni-solar system I have still a number of other 
dates -of apparently twelve different Pandya kings -the publication of which may be 
deferred to the time when more dates of the same kings have been discovered. 


31. In the Kailasapati temple at grlvaikuntliam. 8 

2 ... srl-ViCv!)ra-Pandiyade[va]rkktL ya- 

3 9 du 15vadu' kair*]tt[i]gai-rna[da*]ttu 13 tiyad[i]yma apara-pakshattu 

saptam[i]yum Viy&la-kkijamaiyum pejja Magattu -nal. 

"In the 15th year (of tie reign) of the glorious Vira-Pan$yad6va,- on the day of 
ttagha, which comsponded to a Thursday, and to Ihe seventh Mb of the Becond fortmght, 
and to the 13th solar day of the month of Karttigai." 

Between A.D. 1200 and 1500 the only year for which this date would be correct is 1267. 
la this Tear the Vrischika-samkranti took place 13 h. 33 m. after mean 8unnse of May the 
2Sil October The 13^ day of the month of YriSchika (or Karttigai) therefore was Thura- 
S theto^h November li. 1267 ; and on this day the 7th W oft the dark half (of the 
month K&rttika) ended 8 h. 9 m., and the nakthatra W as Maghft, by the equal space system for 
19 h. 42 m., by the Brahma-siddhanta for 5 h. 16 m, and according to Garga for 7 h. 53 m. } 
after mean sunrise. 

ne of eiv B lent\hich P I had previcmely aBcertainea ior the date So> * t rf co^firmatm 

1 did not wwh to publish with my flttt aeries of Pifldya dates. 
No. 174 of the Qovernwenli EpigraphiBfs collection tor 1885. 


32. In the AksMsvara temple at Aehcharapakkam. 1 

1 Svasti Sri [||*] Tribhuvanach[cha]kra[va]ttiga[l] gr[i]-Vi[ra]-Pandi[ya]ae>arkku 

[y]andu 7[va]du Karkadaga-najarru apa[ra]-pakshattu N[a]- 

2 yar,ru-k[i]lamai[yu]m saptamiyum per,ra AsVati-na[l]. 

" In the 7th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Vira-Pandyadva, on the day of Asvinl, which, corresponded to a Sunday and to the seventh 
tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Karkataka." 

If the equivalent found for the date No. 31, which is of the 15th year of the king's reign, 
is the true equivalent of that date, this date 'No. 32, which is of the 7th year of the same reign, 
will in the first instance be expected to fall in A.D. 1259. The date actually corresponds to 
Sunday, the 13th July A.D. 1269, which was the 17th day of the month of Karkataka, and 
on which the 7th tithi of the dark half (of the month Ashadha) ended 11 h. 3 m., and the 
nakshatra was Asvinl for 19 h. 3 m., after mean sunrise. 

The two dates iJTos. 31 and 32 together shew that the reign of Vlra-Pandya commenced 
between (approximately) the llth November A.D. 1252 and the 13th July A.D. 1253. 

33. In the ftishabhesvara temple at Sengama. 8 

1 Svasti grlh [H*] aka[bda][m*] 1262n mel k6 Marapanmar T[i]ra(ri)bu- 

[va*]nas'akravattigal Srl-Parakrama-PancliyadevaT.kkii yandu 6[vadu] Vrig- 
chika-nayajcju purvva-pakshattu dvadaSiyum Budan-H[lamaiyum per,ra*] 

2 Uttarattadi-n[a][l*]. 

"After the Saka year 1262 (had passed), in the 6th year (of the reign) of king 
Mftravarman (alia?) the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious Parakrama-Pandyadgva, 
on the day of Uttara-Bhadrapada, which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the twelfth 
tifhi of the first fortnight of the month of Vrischika." 

For Saka-Samvat 1262 expired this date regularly corresponds to Wednesday, the 1st 
November A.D. 1340, which was the 5th day of the month of Vrischika, and on which the 
12th tithi of the bright half (of the month Karttika) ended 22 h. 56 m., and the naksTiatra, was 
TTttara-Bhadrapad$ for 1 h. 19 m., after mean sunrise. 

34. In the Kailasanatha temple at 

1 Svastp] SrCi] [||*] K6 [M]arapanmar Tr[i]bhu[va]nachaLra[vatti]gal [fci]. 

Parakrama-Pa[n]diyad^varkku ya[du Svadu] Dhanu-[n] ay apara- 
pakshattu navam'iyu[m] Y[e]lli-kk[i]lam[ai]yum per.[ra] 

2 Attattu nal. 

" In the [8th] year (of the reign) of king Maravarman (alias) the emperor of the three 
worlds, the glorious Parakrama-Pandyade'va, on the day of Hasta, which corresponded to a 
Friday and to the ninth tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Dhanus." 

If this date were one of the 8th year of the king's reign, ife ought, in accordance with the 
result obtained under No. 33, to fall in Saka-Samvat 1263 or 1264 expired ; but for either of 
these years it would be incorrect. The date, in my opinion, is really one of the 18th (not the 8th) 

J No. 49 of the Government Epigraphies collection for 1901. 
8 No. 113 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1900. 
1 No. 100 of the Government Epigraphiat's collection for 1897. 



year of the king's reign and corresponds for Saka-Sadmfc 1274 expired to Friday, tlae 
30th. Kovember A.D. 1352, which was the 4th day o tlie month of Dhanus, and on which fb.e 
9th tithi of the dark half (of the month Margasiraha) commenced, h. 17 m., and the 
was Hasta, "by the Brahma-aiddlianta from h. 39 m,, and by the equal space system 
according to Garga from 2 h, 38 m., after mean sunrise. 

The two dates Fos. 33 and 34 would shew that the reign of Maravarman Parakrama- 
P,ndya commenced between (approximately) the 1st December A.D. 1334 and the 1st 
November A,D, 1335. 

35. In the ChSle'Svara temple at Cholapuram near Nagercoll. 1 

1 u Svasti M [i|*] Sakabdam 1293n mel 

3 . Sr[l"k]6=Chchadaipanmar=^na Tribhuvana- 

4 ehehakravarttigal ri-Parakrama-Paiidiyade>ar .... iyandu anja- 

5 vadin edit pattavadu pftrvva-pakahattu triti(ti)yai- 

6 yum Yell[i]-kki[la]m[aiynm] pejra Sadaiyattig nil. 

" After the Sakayear 129S (had passed), in the tenth (yscr) opposite to the Sfth. year 
(of the reign) of the glorious king Jatavarman alias the emperor of the three worlds,, ttie 
glorious Parakrama-Pndyadeva, on the day of ^atabhishaj, which corresponded to a FridLay 
and to the third ttihl of the first fortnight of the month of Hakara." 

For Saka-Sarii^at 1293 expired this date regularly corresponds to Friday, the 9th January 
A.B. 1372, which was the 14th day of the month of Makara, and on which the third titlvi of 
the "bright half (of the month Magha) ended 19 h. 59 m., and the nafahatra was ESatabMslm j, 
"by the equal space system for 20 h. 21 m,, according to Garga for 11 h, 50 m., and by the 
Brahma-siddhanta for 9 h. 12 m., after mean sunrise. 

Being of the 10th opposite to the 5th, i.e. of the 15th year of the king's reign, the date would 
shew that the reign of Jatavarman Parakrama-PSndya commenced, between (approxi- 
mately) the 10th January A.D. 1357 and the 0th January A.D. 1358. 

36 In the Kuttalanatha temple at Kuttalam. 8 

1 Sakabdam 1377 mel [sjellaninja ... 

ParakkiKa[raa*]-Pandyadevajku yandu Slvadin edir y[i]rand&-vadu 
Mi(mS)na-jnayajja irubattettan=diyadiyam purwa-pakshat[t]ti sbaahayam 3 
[k]ilamaiya(yu)m [pe]rra Mriga^irjshatfcu n[al]. 

"In the second (year) opposite to the 31st year (of the reign) of 
P&n.dyade'va, which was current after the Saka year 1377 (had passed),' on the day O f 
Mrigasirsha, which corresponded tp a Monday, and to the sixth titU of the first fortnight, 
to the twenty-eighth solar day of the month of Mlna." 

In solar Saka-Samvat 1377 current the Mlna-samkranti took pluce 1 h. 30 m.. after 
sunrise of Tuesday, the 25th February A.D. 1455, which was the first day of the month, of 
Mina. The 28th day of the month of Ulna therefore waa Monday, the 24th March. ^..33, 
1456 ; and on this day the 6th titU of the bright half (of the month Chaitra of luni-solar 
Samvat 1377 pfr*Z) ended 15 h. 44 m., and he nafolatra was MrigaSlrsha, by the 

'" JTor 80 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1R96. 
Ho, 203 of tie Government Epigrujrtiist's ^oUecWoii fov 189^, 


apace system and according to Garga for 10 h. 30 m., and by the Brahma-dddhaata for 9 h. 
12 m., after mean sunrise. 

37. In the Visvanatha temple at Tenkasi. 1 

1 Svasti sri [|l*j K6 Jatilavarmmar=ana Tribhuvanascha(cha)kravarttigal sri- 
Parakrama-P&ndyad&varku yandu muppattonravadin ediravadu Ka[r]kkataka-nayajru 
iiTibattonran=diyadiyum purvva-pakshattu chcha(cha)tarddaiyum Tingftt-kilamaiyam 
perra Uttiradattu nal. 

" (In tlie year) opposite to the thirty-first year (of the reign) of king Jatilavarman alias 
the emperor of tlae three worlds, tlie glorious Parikrama-Pandyadeva, on the day of 
TJttarasnadha, -which, corresponded to a Monday, and to the fourteentih tithi of the first 
f ortnight, and to the t-wenty- first solar day of tlie month of Karkataka." 

Judging by the preceding date, this date would be expected to fall in about A.D. 1454; in 
my opinion, it corresponds to the 19th July A.D. 1453. In A.D. 1453 the Karkata-samkranti 
took place 19 h. 36 m. after mean sunrise of the 28th June. The 2 1 at day of the month of 
Karkataka therefore -was the 19th July ; and on this day the 14th tithi of the bright half (of 
the mouth Sravana) ended 14 h. 14 m., and the naMidtfa was TTttarasMdha, by the equal 
space system and according to Garga for 18 h. 24 m., and by the Brahma-siddhlnta for 11 h. 
50 m., after mean su.nrise. But the day found waa a Thursday, not a Monday. Since in the 
whole of the 15th century A.D. there is not a single year for which the date, as recorded ^by the 
writer, would be correct, I take Thursday, the 19th July A.D. 1453, to be its proper equivalent, 
and have no doubt the writer has quoted the week-day incorrectly. 

38. In the Kuttalanatha temple at Ejittalam. 2 

1 Svasti Ari [U*]' Ko [S]edilavanmar=a[na] Tribhuvana[cha]kravatt[i]gal fe[!]- 
Parakkmrama-Pandi[yad]evai;ku yandu muppatfconr[]vadin edir na[l]a[va]du 
Mi(mi)na-kyirm iru[badan=diya]di[yu]m [apa]ra-[pa]kshattu panchamiyCujm 
Budan-kilarnaiyum perra Ani8ha[tti*n]al. 

ln tn'e fourth (year) opposite to the thirty-flrst year (of tto 
a tHeemperor of the tnree worlds, 


siddhanta for h. 39 m., after mean sunrise. 

39. In the Visyanatha temple at 

. Ko 195 of the Government EpigrapMsfc's collection for 1896. 
la 204 of he Government Epigr^ist'. collects for 895. 
So* 1P9 of he Government Epigraph's collet for 189,. 

FVor VlT 



the 8th (year) opposite to the 31st year (o the feign) of Afldfi alto, 

which was current after the Saka year one thousan^ fen* hundred 

and eighty-one (^adpa^^^on the day of Svati, which corresponded to a weoneflttay, anil 

ent-third solar day of the month of 

to the tenth MA< of the first fortnight, and to the twenty 

The three dates Nos. 36-38 shew that the reign of Jatilavarman 
commenced between (approximately) the 25ih March and the 19th July A.D. 1422. A tlaf c of 
the month of Mithuna of the 8th year opposite to the 31st year, i.e. of the 89th year, of tlio 
same reign should therefore fall in either A D. 1460 or 1461. Now assuming thin data No. 39 
to Toe really one of the 39th regnal year, its proper equivalent could only be Wedaesdayj the 17th 
Jtine A.B. 1461. On this day the 10th titU of the bright half (of the month Asb,l4ha>) oinlud 17 h. 
51 m. 3 and the nakshatra, was Svati, by the equal space system, for 19 h. 42 ., by the Brahma- 
siddhlnta for 8 h, 1 7 m., and according to Garga f or 7 b. 13 m. , after mean auorise, But I JIM 1 7tli 
June A.D. 1461 waa the 21st (not the 23rd) day of the month of Mithuna/ and foil in Baka- 
Samvat 1383 (not 1381} expired. 

No better result would he obtained if we were to assume the writer to hay quoted ilw Baka 
year correctly and the regnalyear incorrectly. ^aka-Saihvat 1381 esqpfo& would jichl no 
satisfactory result at all. For Saka-Samvat 1381 current the date might he ftald to correspond 
to Wednesday, the 21st June A.D. 1458, on which day the 10th tifhi of the bjght hiUf (of tho 
month Asbfidha) ended 15 h. 35 m,, and the nakshatrtt was Svftti, by the equal gj$*$ syattni for 10 li, 
30m., after mean sunrise. But the 21st June A.D. 1458 "was the 24th (not tikf 28rf) tiny <! tlw 
month of Mithuna 8 (and would faU in the 36th or 37th, not the 39th year of the kitten ivi^ ). 

The date therefore is certainly incorrect; but I have hardly any doubt that Jb mcomv.lw-n in 
caused bythe writer's interchanghig the last figures of the numbers of the SakayaaraiuUr tin- inltar 
day (*.e. by Hs giving us erroneously 1381 instead of 1383, and 23 instead of SSI), and tlmt ihu 
dayinteadedis Wednesday, the 17th June A.D. 1461. And accepting this rtJHull an am-i-(, it 
would follow that the king's reign commenced between (approximately) the 18th Juno and 
the lath July A.D. 1422. 

40. In the ViSvanatha temple at TenkftfiL* 

1 Snbham=a8tu [||] ak&bdam 1421? mel seUaninja [|] sv^ti trt [{*] Kd 

bhuvanaohchakrayattigal "' 

2 &ija KnWegaradiro- nam yMn iratadAvadu 

KpittiM, which (year) was current after the 6aka year 
Bevati, which corresponded to a Thursday, and to 
the fifteenth aolar day of the mouth of Vp5Mka 

* Cancel febe second yum. 

In A.D. 1461 the Miamna-wrhkrlijti took place 6 h. 41 m . f ter ma . . . ^ 

la A.D. 1468 the same Saihkrtati took pl^ce 12 h. 4 a, f t r *^ * Tk **V i 

80, 197 of the Government bimphltf a collectifln in*' i RQR 8qnn * fl * 8<>ll *r * 

**^ ' -^i~'w us ooiun waiUKtBUU KO^K VlflCQ la O, tJO &f fcflp CM T"B' 

80, 197 of the Government Kpigwphfcf collection tor 1895 "^"f ** 8wild ^ & 

1 Bead jHfaw* 



In Saka-Samvat 1421 expired the Vrischika-samkranti took place 13 h. 53m. after mean 
eunrise of Wednesday, the 30th October A.D. 1499. The 15th day of the month of VriscMka 
therefore wag Thursday, the 14th November A.D. 1499, and on this day the 12th titU of the 
bright half (of the month M&rgasirsha) ended 16 h. 13 m. after mean sunrise. On the day found 
the nabshatra by our Tables ceased fco be Eevati exactly at mean sunrise, bat it may be reasonably 
assumed that by other Tables the moon continued in Revati for some short time after mean 

Being of the 20th year of the Mag's reign, the date would shew that the reign of 
Jatilavarman Parakrama-Pandya Kulasekhara commenced between (approximately) 
the 15th November A.D. 1479 and the 14th November A.D. 1480. 

41. In the ViSvanatha temple at Tenkasi. 1 
2 {akabdam ayirattu-nanurru-anbattu-onbadil meir=chellaninra 

4 ..... k & Jatilavarmmar=ana Tribhuvanachchakrava[r]tti K6nermaikond[a]n ..... 

5 PeruimU Srivallabhadeva[r]ku yandu mu(nm)nr.avadu [fi][rjaham 

Vrischika-[ravi irnba]t[tu]-onbada[n]=diyadiyum [a]para-pakshattu [e]ka[da]siyu- 

6 m Budha-varamum pejra S6di-nal. 

"In the [H]vilambin year, the third year (of tlie reign) of king Jatilavarman alias 
.the emperor of the three worlds, KonSrmaikondan ..... Peraunal. rl- 
vallabhadeva, which (year) was current after the Saka year one thousand four hundred and 
fifty-nine (had passed), on the day of Svati, which corresponded to a Wednesday, and to the 
eleventh tithi of the second fortnight, and to the twenty-ninth solar day of (the month in which") 
the sun (was) in Vrisohika." 

The Jovian year Hevilambin. (Hemalamba) by the southern luni-solar system corresponds 
to Saka-Samvat 1459 expired. In this year -the Vrilchika-samkranti took place on Tuesday, the 
30th October A,D, 1537, by the Arya-siddhanta 9h. 48m., and by the Surya-siddhanta 12 h. 
30 m., after mean sunriae. By the Surya-siddhanta therefore and by iihe Arya-siddhanta also 
in case the Malabar rule was followed 3 the month of Vrisohika commenced on the 31st October, 
and the 29th day of that month was. Wednesday, the 28th November A.D. 1637. On this 
day -the llth tithi of the dark half (of the month MargaSirsha) ended 9h. 34m. after mean 
sunrise, and the nakshatra was Svati, by the equal space system during the whole day, by the 
Brahma-siddhanta f or 9 h. 12 m., and according to Garga for 13 h. 8 m., after mean sunrise. 

Being of the third year of the king's reign, the date would shew that the reign of 
Jatiltfvarman Srlvallabha commenced between (approximately) the g9th November A-3>. 
and the 28th November A.D. 1535. 

42. In the Kail&sapati temple at Gangaikondan. 3 

1 Svasti srl [||*j K6 Ma]ra[van]mar=ana Tribhuvanaehsa(cha)kravat[t]i 

K6n&rmaikonda[n] grl-Sundara-Pandiyad^va[jku y]^ndu 2avadu edir 
22avadukku akabda[m*] 1477n m.61 iellan[i]nja Irakshasa-varusham 
Ani-madam 4 3 t&di 4 pu[rvva]~pakBhattu 

2 duv&desiyum [Manda]-varamum pejja S6di*nt|.. 

1 No. 200 of the Government JJpigraphiBt's collection for 1895, 

2 See Sew ell and Dikshit's Indian Calendar, p. 12, 

8 No. 171 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1895. 

* The two words madam and tSdi are expre^ed by their modern abbreviations, 


" In the Kakshasa year which, was current after the Saka year 1477 (lad passed], (and 
which corresponded) to the 22nd (year} opposite to the 2nd year (of the reign) of king 
Mayavarman alias the emperor of the three worlds, Kon^rmaikondan, the glorious 
Strndara-Pandyaddva, on the day of Svati, which corresponded to a Saturday, and to the 
twelfth titlii of the first fortnight, and to the 3rd solar day of the month of Ani" 

The Jovian year Bakshasa hy the southern luni-solar system, corresponds to Saka- Samvat 
14-77 expired. In this year the Hithuna-samkranti took place 14 L 16 m. after mean sunrise of 
Wednesday, the 29th May A.D. 1555, and the third day of the month of Mrfchuna (or Ani> 
therefore was Saturday, the 1st June A.D. 1555. This day was entirely occupied by the 12b. 
tithi of the bright half (of the month Jyaishtha), and on it the wlcsh&tra by the equal space 
system "was Svati for 11 h. 10 m. after mean sunrise. 

Being of the 22nd opposite to the 2nd, t'.e. of the '24th year of the king's reign, the date 
would shew that the reign of this Maravarman Stmdara-Pandya commenced between 
(approximately) the 2nd June A,D. 1531 and the 1st June A.D, 1532. 

43. In the Kulasekharamudaiyar temple at Tenkasi. 1 

2 .... Saka[bda]m 1489 1 mfl seilaninza [|*] svasti sri [|*] K6 
Jatilava[r] nimar =ana Tribhuvanachcha kr a va [r] tt [i] iC&nermai [k] o [ n ] da ti 


3 Alagan-Perumal Ativiraraman Sr?va[l*]labha[d]6vaTku y&ndu an[ > j]avaclxt 

Pijabaya-varnaham 2 AvanjYj-raadanr* 22 t^di 8 apara-[pa]kshaattL(ttu) 

4 tiridigaiyum Sukk[i]ra-varamnm Kenda-[y6]gannxm Yatnik-karananiuin perra 


" In the Prabhava year (corresponding to) the fifth year (of the reign) of king Jatilavar- 
mau. alias the emperor of the three worlds, KonermaikondSn Sri-Perumal Alagan- 
Perumal Ativirarama Srivallabhadeva, which (year) was current after the Saka year 1489 
(Tiad passed), on the day of Uttara-Bhadrapada, which corresponded to the Vanik-karaixa 
and to the Ganda-yoga and to a Friday, and to the third tifhi of the second fortnight, and to tlie 
22nd solar day of the moniih of Avani." 

The Jovian year Prabhava by the southern luni-solar system corresponds to Saka- Samvat 
1489 expired. In this year the Simha-samkranti took place 18 h. 35 m. after mean sunrise of 
Thursday, the 31st July A.D. 1567, and the 22nd day otjhe month of SimKa (or A.vani) there- 
fore was Friday, the 22nd August A.D. 1567. On this day the third tifhi of the dark laalf 
(o the month Bhadrapada.) ended 20 h. 28 m., the karana Vaaij ended 8 h, 43 m., the nakshatra, 
was Uttara-Bhadrapada for 1 h, 19 m., and the yoga was Qanda for 11 h. 37 m., after- 
mean sunrise. 

Being of the 5th year of the king's reign, the date would shew that the reign of Jatilavar- 
man Ativirarama Srivallabha commenced between (approximately) the 23rd August 
A.D. 1562 and the 22nd August A.D. 1563. 

For convenience of reference I subjoin a Hst of the above dates, with the approximate com- 
mencement of the reign of each king, pub in brackets after his name. 

1 No. 202 of the Government Epigwipbist'a collection' for 1895. 

1 Tbe three wordi varwh> rnddam and Udi are expressed by tteir modern abbwnrlatiionB. 


A.~-Vira-Pandya (November 11, A.D. 1252 July 13, A.D. 1253). 

No. 32. 7th year: July 13, A.D. 1259. 

No. 31. 15th year : November 10, A.D. 1267. 

38. Maravarman Parakrama-Pandya (December 1, A.D. 133 aNovember 1, A.D. 1335). 

No. 33. 6th year (aka 1262) : November 1, A.D. 1340. 
No. 34. 8th [for 18th] year: November 30, A.D. 1352. 

C. Jatavarman. Parkrama-Pandya (January 10, A.D. 1367 -January 9, A.D, 1358), 
No. 35. Tear 10 opp. to 5 (i.e. 15th year ; I3aka 1293) : January 9, A.D. 1372. 

D. -Jatilavarman Parakrama- Pandya Ariksarideva (June 18July 19, A.D. 1422) . 

No. 37. [Year] opp. to 31 (i.e. 32nd year) : July 19, A.D. 1453. 

No. 36. Year 2 opp. to 31 (i.e. 33rd year ; Saka 1377) : March 24, A.D. 1455. 

No. 38. Year 4 opp. to 31 (i.e. 35th year) : March 16, A.D. 1457. 

No. 39. Year 8 opp. to 31 (i.e. 39th year ; Saka 1381 [for 1383]) : June 17, A.D. 1401. 

E. -Jatilavarman Parakrama-Pandya Kulasekhara (November 15, A.D. 1479- 

November 14, A.D. 1480). 

No. 40. 20th year (Saka 1421) : November 14, A.D. 1499. 

P. Jatilavarman Srivallabha (November 29, A.D. 1534 November 28, A.D. 1535), 

No. 41. 3rd year (Saka 1459) : November 28, A.D. 1537. 

Gk Maravarman. Sundara-Pandya (June 2, A.D. 1531 June 1, A.D. 1532). 

No. 42. Year 22 opp. to 2 (i.e. 24th year ; Saka 1477) : June 1, A.D. 1555- 

H, Jatilavarman Srlvallabna Ativirarama (August 23, A.D. 1562 August 22, 

A.D. 1563). 

No. 43. 5th year (aka 1489) : August 22, A.D. 1567. 


BY H. LtJDEBS, PH.D.; GSiraeiEN. 

This inscription, 1 which I edit from inked estampages supplied by Dr. Hultzsch, is engraved 
on a slab in the Samnydsin'a room in the Amaresvara temple at Amaravatl in the Kistna 

It contains 53 lines of writing-. The average size of the letters ia f ". The alphabet is 
Telugu of the type described in Vol. VI. p. 108 f . Ka, shows here everywhere the advanced form. 
La, appears twice (11. 10 and 14) in the older form of the Bitragunta and Vanapalli plates, but in 
1. 49 it shows a form which comes nearer to that of the Maigalagiri inscription. The Qttit 
appears in fha> (1. 35) ; in the case of dha and bha it occurs only in a few cases, and it is never 

1 No. 266 of the Government Epigraphies collection foe the year 1897. 


found in kha and t ha, AB first letter of a group, r is represented by the full sign in ryo in 1. 15 
and rvd in 1, 46. In all other cases the secondary sign has Ibeen used. The language is 
Sanskrit, and, with the exception of the introductory phrase subham=astu in I. 1 and the 
concluding words sr? M sri in L 53, the whole text is in verse. As regards orthography, it 
rnay "be noticed that a consonant is doubled after r in devair-m, i mai'hyamAndn (1. 7), hwvvan 
(1. 22), sdrththd (1. 24), -atulAryyiu (1. 43), arththi-sdrlhtha, (1. 48), klrtti-dharmmau (1. 50), 
after anusvdra in twhgga (1. 1), Vinlkornddam (1. 32) s Bellakomdtfam (1. 32)^ -dmttdd (1. 48), 
and as first letter of a group in jdfa-ppratistyMn (1. 28J and AtnarMa-pprasddatah (1. 52). 
The groups WA and <W& are written /^& and diW& ; compare, in addition to the cases tited above, 
tadh-dhdma (1. 4) and samirndTidM (1. 49). 

The inscription is one of king Krislmaraya of Vijayanagara. The greater portion of it 
consists of verses already known to us from ofcher records. 1 New are only the verses 1, 9, 10 and 
12. Verse 7 states thai; "from him (i.e. Mng Narasa) was horn hy Nagamamba king 
Krishnaraya, who causes pleasure to the world, as the moon, who causes libe fragrancy of the 
"RStgEJiligs, was born from the mjlk-ocean '* Erishnaraya's mother is generally called NTfigalA. 
However^ the variant NagfonbiH is found also in the prose portion of the Hampe and Sankalapura 
inscriptions. 3 

Of greater interest is verse 9, which praises Krishnaraya as him " who, having taken by' a 
forcible attack Stvanasamudr^, Udayadri. Vinikonda and Bellakonda, and having captured 
alive on the battMeld Virabhadra", the son of the G-ajapati king, took Kondavldu." Thia 
account, although rather meagre, is of considerable importance as being the first epigraphical 
record of Krishnar&ya's warlike exploits up to the conquest of Kondavidu. The enumeration 
of the events seems to follow the chronological order. The taking of Sivanasamudra, at any rate, 
appears to have been the first military success in KrishnarSya's career. The ancient city of 
Sivanasamudra is situated on an island between the two great falls of the Ekv&ri, 9 miles 
north-east of the modern Koll^g&l in the Coimbatore district. It belonged at that time to the 
Ummafcur chiefs, who regarded Some's varasvamin, whose magnificent temple may still be seen at 
Sivanasamudra, as their family god. 3 The Ummatur chiefs were subject to the. kings of 
Vijayanagara. The then lord of Ummatur must have revolted against his sovereign ; for, quite 
in accordance with the inscription, a native chronicle relates that, after having first settled the 
Dravida country about Conjeeveram, Krishnaraya crushed a refractory Eaja in the Maisur country, 
the Ga^ga Baja of Ummatur. In the war against the latter Krishnar4ya captured the strong 
fort of Sivanasamudra and the city of Srlrangapattana, after which all Maisur submitted to 
him ^ We_can_ even determine, with. great probability,. _ thejggagajsdbiolLj^^ by 

combining^the Jacfcs ascertained hitherto with -the statements of a Porfcuguese author. In his 
Gommniaries of the Great AfonsoJ)aWo^uerqu^ the son of the" great wnqueroF "gives us an 
abstract of a Effer written by a cw1mnjimiz t j JPranpiBqan. friar, who, after the disaster at 
Calicatm^nu^j.^ tiie cjoraTST Vijayanagwa with the view 

of securing Krishnaraya's assistance "against the Zamorin. The* letter' was delivered by the 

* See e. ff . KuppSWr plates of Kriehiiardyft, J. So, Sr. S.A.S. Vol. XII. p. Sdlff. j Hampe inscription of the 
same, 2Bp. Id. Vol. I. p. 361 f. } t) 6 ain9fijri plates of Aohyutarlya, Hid. Vol, III. p, U? fl., etc. Verae 5 of the 
present inscription is formed by combining tb. first halves of twofMkat of those hwcriptions (vy. 6 and 9 of the 
Hampe inscription, w. 7 and 8 of the tfinunafij&ri plates). 

3 Jjp. Ind, Vol. I. p. 365 , und Vol. IV. p. 267^ 

Bp, (7arx.yoI.IY. p. 60 of the text i compare fo* the Dmmatar cUef i Mr, Bice's account, iUd. Introduc- 
tion, p. 2?. 

* B. Sfiwell, SMok f the $ya*tiet of Southern India, p. 109. MX. Swell Quotes aa his authorities 
Mr. Poulkcs ia the Salem District Mawtol, p. 45, and the summary of a mantwripfc in the Madras Journal 
Vol. XIV. (I.), p. 39. J regret that these two books are not accessible to me at preuent, * 

1 Translated by Walter de Gray Birch (Hakloyt edit.), Vol. HI. p. 35. 


whom Knshuaraya sent to Goa immediately after having received the news of the 
of hat place by the Portuguese in November 1510. In this letter Fr. Lui z Infold 
que 'that the Jang of Narsinga was getting himself ready with five thousand men on 
foot and two thousand on horse, for an expedition against one of MB vassals who had risen up in 
rebellion and seised the city of Pergunda, (the rebel) declaring that to hrmself belonged the 
kingdom itself by right ; and that directly he had taken the rebel the king would proceed with all 
this force of men to his places situated on the edge of the sea." There can be little doubt I 
think that the rebel spoken of in the letter is the Raja of UmmatAr. Pergunda has already been 
^ ec %ldent A fiea;^yJVIr^ewelli with^Penakonda in the Anantapur' district, situated about 
ha iy. et ^ e ?5 Jwanagara and Sivanasaniudra, and tie war 'would thus appear to haye 
arisen from a dispute about this hill-fort. This view is further strengthened by an inscription 
at Hdnakanahalli in the Gundlupete taluka^ where Chikkaraja-Odeyar,' the lord of Umniatur, is 
given the Uruda Penugonda-chakretvara. As this inscription is dated in Sa'ka-Samvat 1426, the 
Krodhana samvatsara, during the reign of tfarasa, it would seem that the Rajas of Umm'afciir 
had taken possession of Penakonda already under Krishnaraya's predecessor, and thai it was 
not until Krishnaraya's accession to the throne that their claims were seriously disputed.' 

The taking of the forts of Udayadri, Vinikonda, Bellakonda and Kondavidu formed part 
of Kriahnaraya's campaign on the eastern coast against the Gajapati of Orissa. Fernao Nunes 3 
tells us that Krishnaraya had a special desire of acquiring Udayagiri, because king Narsymga 
(Narasirhha) in his testament had enjoined on his successors the necessity of taking the 
fortresses of Rracholl (Baichur), Medegulla (Mudkal), and Odigair (Udayagiri). 4 He therefore 
collected 34,000 foot-soldiers and 800 elephants and arrived with this army at Digary (Udaya<nri), 
which, although its garrison numbered only 10,000 foot-soldiers and 400 horse, was nevertheless a 
very strong place on account of its natural position. The king laid siege to it for a year and a half, 
cutting roads through the surrounding hills in order to gain access to the towers of the fortress, 
and finally took it by force of arms. On this occasion an aunt of the king of Orissa fell into his 

The capture of Vinikonda, the modern Viuukonda, and of Bellakonda, generally called 
Bellamkonda, is not mentioned by Nunes, probably because these places were only of secondary 
importance. He proceeds at once to the account of the siege of Kondavidu, which I have discussed 
above, Vol. VI. p. 109 . According to inscriptions at Mangalagiri, Kaza and Kondavidu the 
f ortreaa surrendered on Saturday, the Barivdsara of the bright half of the month Ashadha in 
Saka-Samvat 1437, which, for Saka-Samvat 1437 expired, corresponds to Saturday, the 23rd 
June A.D. 1515. 

There remains the statement that the king took alive on the battle-field Virabhadra, the son of 
the Gajapati. This fact is mentioned by Nunes as well as by Domingos Paes. The latter has 
only the short notice that, in the war against the king of Orissa, Krishnaraya took captive his 
enemy's son and kept him for a long time in the city of Bisnaga ( Vijayanagara) , where he died. 6 
Htmes' account is more detailed. 6 He tells us that, after the capture of Kondavidu, Krishnaraya 
continued his march northward until he arrived at Comdepallyr (Koadapalle). After a siege of 
three months he took it ; among the prisoners he made was a wife of the king of Orissa, and one 
of his sons who was a prince, and seven principal captains of the kingdom, all of whom he sent 
to Bisnaga (Vijayanagara), When Krishnaraya himself had returned to Bisnaga 3 he summoned 

i A Forgotten Empire ( Vijayawgar), p. 126. Mr. Sewell was also the first to draw attention to the importance 
of tnia letter for the history of the first years of Kpshnarfcya's reign. 
Ef. Cam. Vol. IV. p. 77 of the text. 

Chronica dos Seis de Bisnaga, p. 19 f. 5 Sewell, A Forgotten Empire, p. 316 f . 
* Ibid p 13 by Sewell, loe.oit. p. 808, their names are given as Kaehol, Odegany, andConadolgi. 
fr Jlid p. 89 ; Sewell, loc. eit. p. 247. " J-bid. p. 21 f .; Sewell, lot. tit, p, 318 ff. 



the son of the king of Orissa, who was renowned as being a good swordsman, to show I 3 - 18 s vl 
The prince consented, but seeing that the antagonist whom the king had chosen for b-" 33 - ( was a 
man of low birth, he felt greatly offended and, unable to bear such an insult, he killed lumse t. 
The news of the death of this prince induced the king of Orissa to open* fresh negotiations wi 5 
Krishnaraya, which in the end led to a conclusion of peace. 

Nunes generally shws himself so well informed that there is no reason to doubt that this 
btory also is substantially correct. The only discrepancy between the chronicle and the Inscription 
i^witli respect to the date when the prince was taken captive. Whereas the Portuguese author 
asserts that it took place more than three months after the capture of Kondavidu, it -would, follow 
from the inscription that it was before that event. This is implied not only by the woi'cls or the 
text which admit of no other interpretation, but also by the date of the inscription in verse 10, 
which states that ! in the Saka year marked by the Munis (7), the towns (3), the oceans (4), 
and the moon (1), (i.e. Saka-Sarnvat 1437), in the year Yuvan, on the twelfth day in the 
month isMdha, (the king) duly performed the gift called tuldpuruslw, and gave away many 
incomparable agrahiyas in the presence of the god Sulapani, -who is renowned in the -world as 
Amaresa, on~the bank of the Krishnaverii, which destroys darkness.' This date, although it 
is incomplete and cannot he verified, is without doubt identical with the. date given above as that 
of the capture of Eondavidu, the Harivdsara mentioned there being only another terra for the 
twelfth day of the bright half of the month 1 shadha. 1 Whether the chronicle or the inscription 
h to be trusted in this case, I do not venture to decide at present, It is quite possible that the 
test of the inscription was composed and engraved some months after the event which it is 
intended to commemorate, and that the author inadvertently referred to things -which bad 
happened in the meantime. But it ia equally possible that Runes has made a slight mistake, 
<md that Virabhadra was taken captive on an earlier occasion. 

The inscription concludes with a verse (12) invoking the blessing of Amaresa oil 
Krishnaraya, The Amare'sa mentioned here and in verse 10 is, of course, the god of the teruplo 
where the inscription is found. 


4 *F% || [\ 

5 Tfaftrtroi 


9 ^t tMTf fTO^qt; [l] 

10 TOT! gftl ^: W- 

1 Ss* aAore, Vol. VI. p. 1U> oote 4. From inked estampages supplied to me by Dr. H iiltzach 

' B4 WPW- * Bead (If ft 




14 ^^r: i[i y,*] 

15 Tf ^iTT^mH 

16 ^[^fj g^igi *FsiTrf?rgtrf?t 

17 ft fsjw cr^FT i 

18 TT8r?r^^njTr3t?f ftr- 

19 crtff 




25 f^srt^r srre: 




30 WOTHTT^ II [5*] 

31 ^ ?ft 

32 fcr ^ 

83 m^srr [i*] 

35 ^iirftci; ^t^ n [.*] 




39 m%t I Htt ^ftlP^ltiHT f rT- 

40 ?THf% 

41 ^ 

1 This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

J Bead ^rmt:. s Read 

* Eead ^!^ ', between fT and ft" an origiaal T has been effaced 

Bend itWSrm . Bead 







51 [Vjfftft i saw firarcrf 

52 [%]*wtsjTOT^r. iQ ^*] 

58 * * * 0*J 



The stone which bars this inscription (No. 103 of 1899) was discovered by Mr. T3L Krishna 
Sastri, B.A. It ia set up near the Siva temple at Bangav&di in the Mulublgal t&lxtlca of tlie 
Kfilfo district of the Mysore State and tears the representation of a warrior riding 011 a horse at 
full gallop. 

The alphabet is archaic Tamil and resembles that of the published inscriptions of th.e same 
king. 8 The only Graniha letter which occurs is da of Dadiya (I. 2). The language Is Tamil. 
An archaic form ia vdlgfaa&i (I, 2) for ndngtiva&u,. Instead of Mnga and Dadtyargal -we find 
the vulgar forms Mngn (1. 5} and Dadiyangal (1, 2 f.). MayindimmiKkirttma (1. 3) is a 
Prakrit corruption of HaMndffamkraina, The word tonry, (1. 4) ie a vaiiant of ipfw, * cattle,' 7 

The inscription is dated in the 24th year of -the reign of the(CJanfaPallava) king 
Vijaya-Narasimhaviioiamavarmaa. 8 It records the death of a hero, who was ia tb.e service 
of Skanda, the adlwdja of the Banas, 9 and who fell in recovering cattle which had "been seized 
by three persons, These were the Dadiya, evidently the chief of B^iga^vltdi, 1 * 1 an 
unnamed Bana chief, and a certain Mah&adravikrama. The usual imprecation at the end of 
the inscription is only partially preserved. 

1 Bead "RmTOl. Bead "Sty. * Ik 

4 Bead M^TF$-. Bead ^\ ^BrfHt- 

Above, Vol. IV. No, 28,A, and No. 52. 
T See above, Vol. IY. p, 179, note 2, and Vol. VI. p. 163. 

8 In two Ktl-Muftugiir inscriptions (see note 6 above) the name of tliis king appears k % e shorter form 

9 Qn the title ^ddkirdja see above, Yol, Y. p, 50 and note 14, 
14 See Dr, Fleet's remarks ia JEW. <!#(, Yol, XXX, p. 109 fc 8d atove, Vol. VI. p. 256, B<* ^ 


There is another virakkal lying near the same temple (No. 102 of 1899), which records, in 
the Kanarese language, that a liero met with liis death, when Banarasa together with the 
Maharaja Mahavali-Banarasa attacked Kolamba, Bacnamalla, Mayindadiya and Dadiga, 
and that the Kangavadiyan (i.e. probably the Ganga king Rachamalla) assigned land for 
setting up thia stone 1 in memory of the hero. Here Banamahar&ja, B&narasa, Mayindadiya 
and Dadiga correspond to Banadhiraja, Banar&ja, Mahe'ndravikrama and Dadiya of the 
subjoined inscription. If Raohamalla could be identified with one of the three Ganga kings 
named Rachamalla or Rajamalla 3 s thia would > fix the time of king Vijaya-Narasimhavikrama- 
varman to whose reign the subjoined inscription belongs. 

S ya[n]du irubattu-nal[g]avadu Dadiyanga- 

3 [lu][m*] VanaraSauum Mayindiramikkiramarum er.[i]- 

4 nda tonru Kanda-Vn[a]diarasar sevagar S[e]- 

5 ligar eri.ud[u] pattar=adu Kannadagarun=:gan[ga] [(*] 

6 idark=ali[ppu] .......... pada- 

7 ga .......... 

In the twenty-fourth, year (of the reign) of king Vijaya-N"arasimh.avikramavarman, 

Seligar, the servant of Skanda-Banadhiraja, fell, having seized (back) the cattle that had been 
seized by Dadiya, Banaraja and Mahetotdravikrania. Let the Kannadagas (i.e. the Kanarese 
people) look after* thia (stone') \ [Those who ] injure it [shall incur the five great] sins. 


The stone which bears the two subjoined records (Nos, 16 and 17 of 1900) was discovered 
by Mi\ GK Tenkoba Rao. It is set up in a field at Hanumantapuram near Pennagaram in the 
Dharmapuri taluka of the Salem district. Unlike other wrafcfcoZs, the stone bears no sculptures 
of any kind. 

The alphabet is Vatteluttu. The letters fc, \ and resemble those of the Madras Museum 
plates of Jatilavarman, 5 while y is more nearly allied to ihe y of the Cochin and Tirunelli plates. 6 
In two cases (fa oipada in 1, 3 f . and # of K4jKra* in 1. 4 of A.) the Tamil form of j or 4 seems 
to be used. The ^w of iydn<}u (1, 2 of A.) is reversed. In tfca (1. 3 of A. and 1. 4 of B.) the 
vowel o is drawn through the consonant ?. The & of fd in pa{fdn (1. 4 of A. and 1. 4t of B.) 
and the & of kd in Kd^iyai (1. 4 of A.) go downwards instead of upwards, The language's 
Tamil. The I of padinglldvadan (1. 2 of A. and B.) is doubled, and the samdU is not observed 
in Kanaifo (1, 3 of A.). The locative affix ban, which has been changed into fta? before the 
following fc, occurs in both inscriptions (1. 8 of A. and 1. 2 of B.), 

The two inscriptions are dated in the 17th year of the reign of king Vijaya-lsvaravarman, 
who, to judge from the prefix vijaya, seems to have been one of the Ganga-PaUavas, and record 
the death of two heroes in the service of Kattirai. This title means ' the king of the forest ' 
and is synonymous with Kadavap, Hhe forester,' which according to Mr. V. Kanakasabhai 

1 This seems to be the meaning of the words leal-nddv, kott(^t, which occur also on the Do^lraii^ stone; 
see above, Vol. VI. p. 43, note 1. 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Table, above, Vol. VI. p. 69. ' From an inked estampage. 

4 The infinitive Tcdnga is used in a similar manner in 1. 105 of the Kalakddi plates ; South-Ind, Inter, Vol. II. 
p. 851. 

Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 67 fl. Above, Vol. III. No. 11, ,and Id. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 285 ff. 


Pillai was a title of the Pallavas. 1 The correctness of this view is proved by the 

in which, as Mr. Venkayya informs me, ' iihe king of the Kadavas ' and ' the Palkva ' are 

as synonyms. The Kadava king whom the floysala king Narasimha II. claims to k#> 

defeated 3 was probably one of the Pallava cMefs of Nolambavadi, It thus appears tha* 

descendant of the Pallava dynasty was tributary to the Gaaga-Pallava king Vijaya-!4varavarra ^ 

Pudfir, the native village of the first of the two heroes (A. 1. 5), is now a hamlet of Pennagara** 3 -" 

TEXT. 4 

A. On the left of the stone. 

1 K6 Visaiya-tcbchuvaraparuma- 

2 [rjksiyandu padinellavada- 

3 nkataKa|jaiur s majj-udai pa- 

4 da=ttan=ajubattS,n' Kattiyai- 

5 gal sevagan Pudiir SSttan [||*] 

, On the right of the stone. 

1 K6 Visaiya-!clichuvaraparumaljki*3" 

2 yandu padiJiavadanka[t*J 
S K&t[tiyai]gai seyi[k]kav=arasar 

4 mar^-udai en^a t4g=apbattan 

5 K[a]dadi 


In the seventeentH year (of the reign} of king Vijaya-lsvaravarman, when 
fell into the possession of the enemies," Sattan of Pudur himself, the servant of Ka#i*ai, was 
cut down. 


Hx the seventeenth year (of the rafen) of king Vijaya-lsvawYarman, when Kfit^irai 
was victorious, K&dftdi7 Kajakkag himself, who went among to enemies of ftekmg, was out 


The fitone which bears this insoxiptm CKo. 101 of 1899) ia lyiug near the GfipUfcialu,. 
temple at Hebbiai in the MuhUgal taluka of the Kolar disirici It bears the representatxo^ of 
a bearded warrior with helmet, sword, shield and sword-belt. 

The alphabet is Tatteluttu, and the langua ge Tamil. The inscription is dated in ^e 
yeiff of the same king as No. II and records the death of a hero, who WM kdled by a 
chief named Kar6niri at Sir. aiyti*. _ ^^__ 


Kittipxi or 


"* ...... . . . - - . 

TEXT. 1 

1 K6 Vi3aiya-i[ch]chuvara- 

2 parumarki pannira- 

3 ndavadu Karoniri 

4 Vanarasar-pjo '[ix]= 

5 8 Chiraii5[re]riya Vana- 

6 rasar=[ariya] pattar=Ad[i]y[a][r ||*] 


In the twelfth (year of the reign") of ting Vijaya-fsvaravarman, when Kardniri 
Banaraja seized Siraiyur in battle, Adiyar fell, cut down by Banaraja. 3 


The existence of this inscription (N"o., 1 of 1892) was brought to my notice by Mr. B. 
Srinivasachari, Deputy Collector, Madras. It is engraved on a rock near the tank at Tandalam, a 
village in the Karve'tinagar Zamindari, 4| miles west by north of Arkfinam Junction. "With the 
exception of the two Grantha words svasti M in the beginning, the alphabet is Tamil, and 
resembles that of the V&lur rock-inscription of KannaradSva.* 

The inscription ia dated in the 10th year of Satti, the king of the Kadavas, i.e. Pallavas. 6 
It consists of two Tamil verses, each of which states that Fallavamaharaja built a sluice for the 
tank at Tandalam.. The donor may have been either a relative of, or identical with, Satti, who, as 
his title implies, claimed descent from the ancient Pallava dynasty. J?6Jiyur-nadu, to which 
Tandalam belonged, was perhaps named after the present P6Vur, a village 3 miles north-north.- 
west of Ark&nam Junction. 

The "Veokatesa-Perumal temple on the Tirupati hill bears on the north wall of its first 
prakara four Chdja insoriptions, which, were copied from their (now lost) originals when the 
temple was rebuilt in the fortieth year of Vtea-NarasimhadSva-Yadavaraya. The second and 
third of these four copies (Nos. 62 and 63 of 1888-89) are dated in the 14th year of " Paratrama- 
hendravarman" and " Paratravarman" evidently misreadings of the copyist for Parakesari- 
varman. These two inscriptions record gifts^by Samavai alias Kadavan-Perund^vi, the daughter 
of Pallava-Perkadaiyar, 6 (and) the queen of Sattividangan. aZias Srl-Kadapattiga}." 7 It is not im- 
probable that this Pallava king Sattividanga^ (i.e. ^akti-Vitanka), 8 who was a^ contemporary of 
the early Ch&la king ParakSsarivarman, 9 is the same person as the Pallava king Satti (i.e. Sakti). 
In this case the subjoined inscription would belong roughly to the second half of the ninth century 
of the Christian era. 

1 From two inked eatampages. * Bead Ghiraiydr'*. * Literally, while BfciarAja cut (him) down.' 

ATjove, Vol. IV. Ho. 9. * See above, p. 23 f . 

PexTcaAa* seems to be a Tamil form of the Kanareae yergade and tlao Telxigu preggacLa, * a minister.' 

t Compare Mr. Venkayya's paper in. the Madras Christian College Magazine for August 1890. Kadaj>af(i 
eemi to be a nnstake of the copyist for XJddnpatti, which occurs in a Pallava inscription at Conjeeveram (loo. cit.) 
and in two Ganga-Pallava inscriptions (South- Ind. Inter. Vol. III. p. 92 f.). Compare also Kddwatti (above, 
Vol. V. p. 171 and note 1) and KdduvittiJvara (ibid. p. 148). 

DantiSakti-VitanW alias L6kamahidSvl, a queen of the Ch61a king Eajaraja I., built a shrine in the 
Fafichanade&vara temple at Tiruvaiyai;u ; see my Annual Report for 1884-95, p. 4, 

Boa above, Vol. V. p. 42 and note 7. 


1 Svasfci dri[||] 2 Kadavar-dan=g&rj Satti [por]-j&ttil=itta 


2 diya-si(i)r Pap*31avamarayan. pasi ni(ni)kki 

ni (mjr-eli-kkalit gttm=andatfcu- 

3 [l]6r madippavaa [|| 1*] P61i[yu(yu)3r-nattti=Ttandalatt-Si-i-kka- 

4 ling=afflaittann=on-pamil-pp&r-mangai-dan 

5 Timmbura. Pallavamr{iyan^eh'r-pu(pu)-mar>gai-da[n]= 

6 g6n pnjindu [|| a][6u] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! (Verse 1.) In (the year} twice five (z.e. ten), -which was eng-refved on 
palm-leaves, 3 (/rom) the year -when (the name of) Satti, the king of the EMavas, -was entered 
on a gold leaf, 1 Pallavamar&yan. of enduring fame, who is respected "by (all) the inlxa-'bitants 
of the world, having freed (^e villagers) of hunger, caused to be built also a sluice, coixxposed of 
stones, for the water-tank at Tandalam. 

(V. 2,) The lord of the beautiful goddeas of the (lotus) flower (ie. Lakshmi), "E^a/Llava- 
tnarayan, who is beloved by the excellent goddess of the Tamil, country, graciously coaastr'ucted 
a sluice for the tank at Tandalam in Poliynr-nadu. 


BT D. E. BHANDAEKAE, M.A. ; Poem. 

The copper-plates, a transcript and translation of which are given below, were orig-inally 
found at Cambay, called Khambayat by the people. "While a husbandman was tilling 1 Ixies field, 
his plough struck against a hard substance. On digging a portion of the ground near tlaa/fc spot, 
he discovered a wooden box, which was so rotten that with little effort he broke it to pieces. It 
contained a black dirty object, which, until it was cleaned, was not recognised to be these plates. 
Prom the husbandman the plates af feerwarda went into the possession of a Ghrjarati li-ving at 
Petlad, which, is not very far from. Cambay. The Ghrjaratl waa very unwilling to part -witli the 
plates. I requested Professor Abaji Vishnu Kathavate to intercede in my favour. Tin. a lie 
kindly did, and was soon successful in securing the plates for me. 

The plates are three in number, each about 13f" long by lOf * broad. The edges of fchem 
are fashioned slightly thicker, so as to serve as rims for the protection of the writing. Tiie in- 
scription is engraved on the inner sides of the first and third plates, and on both sides of the 
second plate. Two small pieces have been broken off near the lower corners of the tlxir-dL- -plate 
and a few letters are bere and there damaged on account of verdigris. Stall the iascrip-fcion i 
the whole well preserved and legible throughout. Tbe plates are strung together by a, circula 
ring, of about 4f hi diameter and of about f " in thickness, passing Ijhrouglx holes on one aide of 
each plate. The ring had not yet been cut when the plates were seat to Dr. Hultzsoh. T]b.e end 

1 From an inied estampage. 

1 In this verse "d^id^ya" rhymes -with. nUiya, and Faqda? with *80&* a . 

* X.e, with which all documents issued at this time had to begin. 

"^ This seena to refer to some custom observed at the coronation of a king j compwe jStJiM^-JW. Z*sc*-. 

-. c*. -\r 
185 and note 3. * v Ql 


of the ring are soldered into a roughly square seal, which measures 2|'' in height anil breadth, and 
bears, in relief on a countersunk surface, as the principal figure, an imago o G-arada, squatting 
and facing to the full front, with Ms prominent beak-nose and expanded wings, and holding a 
snake in each hand. On Garuda's proper right there is a representation of Granapafci in the 
upper corner, and lower down a chauri and a lamp ; and on his proper left, aonie goddess, seated 
on an animal, too indistinct to be recognised, and below her, a svastika. 1 Along the border of 
the seal are to be seen certain emblems, among which a dagger, a bow and an arrow, and a 
thunderbolt are recognisable. Beneath the central figure certain letters were doubtless engraved, 
but are now almost effaced. The engraving is clear and well executed. The characters agree 
fully with thoae of the other Rashtrakuta records of this period, viz, the 10th century. The 
average size of the letters is about f ''. The language ia Sanskrit throughout. Excepting the 
introductory 6m svasti, down, to the beginning of line 38 the inscription is in verse ; and the rest 
ia in prose, excepting the five "benediofcive and imprecatory versed (11. 61-66) and another verso, 
containing the name of the person who drew up the charter (1. 06 f .). All the verses of this grant, 
excepting three of the introductory, and two of the genealogical, verses, occur in the Sangli charter 
of the same royal grantor, vie. the Rashtrakuta prince Govinda IV. As regards orthography, 
it is sufficient to say (1) that the letter 6 is throughout denoted by the sign for r>; (2) that the 
letters g, j, n, t, d, p, m, I or v following r are doubled ; but ia the case of jtt or the conjunct dyu 
coming after r, the letter j or d is not doubled. There is also an indifference about the doubling 
of y following r; thus it is doubled in Ndgamdryyasya ia 1. 60, but not in Ndgamclrydya inl. 52 ; 
(3) "that the letter dh is doubled (with d in the usual manner) in conjunction with a following 
?/, once in samvaddJiya i mdna in 1.42; and (4) that the final in of award, instead of being 
changed to an anusvdra,ia twice joined to a following p, in puluham=pdydt and plianindm=patynh 
ia 1. 4. As regards prosody, it is worthy of note that the metre of verse 7, which occurs also 
in the Sangli grant, cannot be determined. There can be little doubt that it is an instance of a 
half- equal metre (ardha-saina-vriita}. But it cannot be identified with any one of the half- 
equal metres, given in ordinary works on prosody. There is, indeed, a rule of prosody that any 
two quarters of regular metres may be combined to form what is technically called an upaj.tti. 
But even here the unequal quarters of the verse in question cannot be severally identified with 
those of the regular metres. 

The inscription is one o the Bashtrakuta prince G6vinda IV. or, as ho is described in lines 
40-42, iihe Para-maWiattdralca MaJidrdjadJiirdja Paramesvara, the prosperous Suvarnavarsha- 
dSva-PFitb,vivallabha, the prosperous Vallabhanar6nd.rad.6va, who meditated on the feet of the 
Parama'bnattaralsa Mahdrdjddhirdja Paramesvara, the prosperous Mtyavarsha, i.e. hia father 
Indra III. Govindaraja had, when this charter waa issued, gone from his capital Manyakhfita to 
Kapitthaka near the bank of the G-odavari, for the festival of pattab'mdha? (1. 46). On that 
occasion he weighed himself against gold. When he ascended the scalea, he bestowed on Brahmans 
six hundred agrahdras and three lacs of suvurna coins, and on temples eight hundred villages, 
four lacs of suvarnas and thirty-two laca of drammas (11. 46 -J 9). Afterwards, without de- 
scending from the pan, he granted the village of Kevanja, lying near the holy place E&vika and 

1 The figures on this seal are identical with, those on that of the De61t plates, excepting the central figure, which 
Dr. Hultzsch thinks to he that of Siva. See above, Vol. V, p. 189, note 1. 

a The term pattabandba, which literally means ' binding o the fillet/ has been generally supposed to signify 
< coronation-ceremony/ Though evidence may perhaps be adduced in support o this signification, there can be little 
doubt that it does not suit here. The earliest record of G&vinda IV. gives for him the date Saia 840 (expired), 
which is prior to Saka 852 (expired), the date 08 our grant, by no less than twelve years. It is hardly credible that 
lie remained uncrowned for at least twelve years, i pattabandba, is to be understood in the sense of ' coronation-cere- 
mony.' Besides, in these as well as the SangU plates he is expressly said to have been ' permanently settled at his 
capital Manyakheta' when he issued the charters. Again, what can be more unnatural than that a king, instead of 
getting himself crowned at his own capital, goes to some place far away from it for his coronation? for these 
reasons, I think, the word pattabandha does not here at any rate mean 'coroaatloa-ccreinony.* 

E 2 



situated In tlie KMtaka diati-ict of the Lata country (11. 52-54). It is to recoil fbe grft* of 
this village that the present charter waa issued. The donee was a Brahma j^ of ~ tie rtsone of 
Nagamarya, son 6* Mahadevayya, a member of the Mftthara gotra and a student "of &*** V ^ i " 
Kanva tffeU (11. 51-52). He is described as staying at Manya&Mta and subsistms 1 on ^^- e feet 
of Vailabhamarendrade-va, t. fl . Govinda IV. himself, but is said to have oMrnn-.lh- resided at 

The grant is dated, both in words and figures, in Saka-Sariavat 852 expired,, in the ~ - 
cyclic year of Khara, on Monday } the tenth tithi of the bright half of Jyaishtlia, wlie* 1 
si^on was near the constellation Hasta (11. 44-46). Professor Kielhorn kindly contributes 
following remarks :" This date, for Saka-Samvat 852 expired, regularly corresponds to MIo^ic 
the 10th May A.D. 980, when the tenth tithi of the bright half ended 12 h. 8 m. a-d -cue 
nakshatra was Hasta, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 22 h, 59 m.- 9 and "by 
the Brahma-siddhanta for 19 h. 42 m., after mean sunrise. By the northern hmi-solar axs-d strict 
mean-sign systems the day fell in the year Khara, which lasted from the 23rd December A.B. 
929 to the 19th December A.D. 930. [By the southern system the year would kafve been 
Vikyita.] " 

Having thus disposed of the formal part of the grant, I shall now give an account of the 

thirty-one verses, descriptive of genealogy, and of the preamble of the prose passages that follow. 

After the introductory 6m svasti, the inscription opens with a verse (well known to TXS from 

other Eashtrakuta records), invoking the protection of Vishnu and Siva. The nest ve*rse is In 

honour of the Sdmaveda, and the two verses following it (8-4) contain invocations to "Vislirra. 

and Sfisha. In verse 5 we are told that from the Moon was descended the race of the "STacine, 

to the glorification of which the next verse is devoted. After thus bestowing praise on the 

Yadus, Dantid'urgai&ja is mentioned in verse 7 as having arisen in the spotless race of th.e Yadua, 

as the moon hi the clear sky. He waa succeeded on the throne by his paternal uncle KpislijgLar&ja 

(I.), who is represented to have destroyed the Chalukya race, as the sun dispels darkness <v. 8). 

After Erishnaraja I. his eldest son Govindaraja (II.) came to the throne, and after G&viradaraja 

II. Ms younger brother, who bore the appellation Mrupama (vv. 9-10). Dr. Fleet, -who strongly 

holds that G6vfndaraja II. did not obtain sovereignty, brings forward the argument-, among 1 

others in aupport of hia view, that the Sangli charter, though it places Govindaraja II. "between 

Krishna I. and (Dhruva-) Nirupama, "does not make any assertion that he reigned. 1 * 1 - TMs 

statement can only be understood to mean that verse 6 of the Saiigli grant, which is identical with 

verse 9 of our grant, does not explicitly speak of G&vindar&ja II. aa having become a fedbag-, "but 

that Ms name occurs between those of Krishnaraja I. and (Dhmva-)Nirupama. If this is what 

Dr. fleet means, then we shall have to suppose that Jagattunga(-G6viada III.) and A.xn.dglia' 

varsha (I.) also did not reign. For verses 11 and 12, in which their names are mentioned, do 

not tell us in explicit words that they became kings, but simply place them between (I>lmiva-) 

Nirupama and AkHlavareha (-Krishna II.). Hence, If Jagattunga(-G6vinda III.) and " 

varsha I. arc to be supposed to have reigned, Gotindaraja II. too must, for the same xeason 
be regarded as having sat on the throne. 

(Dhruva.) Nirupama was succeeded by his son Jagattuga(-G&vinda IIL), on wliom 
nothing but conventional praise is bestowed (v. 11). After Jagattanga(-G6viri(ia 1 jjj \ 
Amdglmvarslia (I.) became king, who, in jiue first half of verse 12, is said to have gmidfied -the.' 
god Tama at VingavaUl with unprecedented morsels of cakes, which were the OMtukyas. This 
means that he inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern Ch&ltikyas at Vingavalli, whicla., I think 
probably signifies the VSiiglmaEidala, the territory over which they ruled. The second half 
of the verse, if I have rightly understood it, seems to mention a reservoir or some sixola. thine- 

1 See above, Vol. VI. p. 1?0 ., where Dr. "Fleet meets the objections I bmgt against his view In 
f, Bo, 3r. E, 1. 8, Vol. XX. p. U3 1 


which received the name of Jagattafiga-stadhu after Jagattunga(-G6vinda III,), father of 
Am&ghavarsha I. 

After Amoghavarsha I. the throne was occupied by his son Akalavora1ia(- Krishna !!,) 
of whom verse 13 says that his enemies abandoned the city of ELMtaka, which, ia my opinion, is 
here meant to denote ManyakMta itself, the capital of the Rashtrakuta princes. Two Eastern 
Chalukya records 1 mention that Gunaka-Vijayaditya III. (A.D. 844-888) " frightened the fire- 
brand Krishna and completely burnt his city," 2 and that " king Vallabha did honour to the 
arms of Vijayaditya (III.)." It, therefore, appears that the Eastern Chalukya prince Gunaka- 
Vijayaditya III. defeated the Rashferakuta king Krishna II. and was ia possession o his capital 
Manyakheta, and it is to the act of repulsing this Chalukya prince from Manyakheta that verse 
13 of our grant refers. 3 Verae 14 states that Akalavarsha(-Erishna II.) married the daughter 
of Kdkkala, who belonged to the family .of Satiasrarjuna, i.e. the Ohdi dynasty. How, the 
Bilhari inscription speaks of Kdkkalla as having erected two columns of fame, viz, Krishnar&ja in 
the south and Bhojadeva in the north. 4 Similarly, the Benares platea of the CbMi prince Karna- 
deva slate that Kokkalla's hand, which granted freedom from fear, was on (the head of) Bh&ja 
Vallabharaja, SJri-Harsha and Sankaragana. 5 There can hardly be a doubt that the Krishna- 
raja of the Bilhari inscription is identical with the Vallabharaja of the Benares platea, and that 
both are identical with the Rashtrakuta prince Akalavarsha(- Krishna II.). And the support, 
which K6kkala lent to Akalavarsb.a(-Knshna II.), was given in all likelihood at the time when 
the latter was defeated, and his capital Manyakheta occupied, by the Eastern Chalukya king 
Gunaka-Vijayaditya III. The last pdda of verse 14 tells us that from the union of Akalavarsha 
(Krishna II.) and the daughter of Kdkkala sprang Jagattunga, who, in verses 15 and 16, is said 
to have married Lakahml, daughter of Ranavigraha, son of Kokkala. 6 Verse 16 speaks of a 
prince named Arjuna as having helped Jagafctunga with Ms army and thus enabled him to 
acquire fame. It does not seem, difficult to identify this Arjuna. In verse 20, Arjuna is men- 
tioned as a son of Kokkalla. Arjuna was thus a brother of Ranavigralia, and consequently an 
uncle-in-law of Jagattunga. And, in all likelihood, it is this Arjuna who seems to have rendered 
him assistance. 

Verses 17-18 relate that from this Jagattunga aad Lakshmi king 3'aclra (1X1.) was born. 
Verae 19 describes a great victory achieved by this Indra. The first line of this stanza may be 
thus translated : " The courtyard (of the temple of the god) K&lapriya (became) uneven by 

1 Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 102. 

a [For a different explanation of this statement and its bearing, see above, Vol. IV. p. 320 . E.H.] 

s Verse 13 is also susceptible of another interpretation. Khetaka may be taken to denote the modem Kaira, 
and the term maqdala to refer to the surrounding district. If so, the verse must be understood as containing an 
allusion to Krishna Il.'a having supplanted the subordinate branch of the Eashtrakfits, dynasty, reigning at Khetaka. 
But the word parity akta implies that Kh&taka, before it was occupied by the enemies, was under the sway of 
Krishna II., and that, when it was so occupied, he by his prowess compelled the enemies to evacuate it. Bat fche 
R&shtrakutas of the subordinate branch did not occupy KhStaka and the surrounding district at any time ^during 
Krishna U.*B reign, but were ruling over it long before him. Again, the word oMta as applied to these tributary 
Bashtrakutas does not seem to be appropriate. They are referred to as MJcika-Rdshtrak^as when their rebellion 
against Amflghavarsha I. is mentioned (Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 183, and Vol. XIV. p. 199). Again, they are spoken 
of a lAndhavas when their disaffection towards the Gujarat Kashtrakuta prince Dhruva II. is alluded to (2nd. 
Ant. Vol. XII. p. 184). But in no case the word ahita or its synonyms are used to denote them. For thcae reasons 
the second interpretation does not commend itself to me as easily as the first, suggested in the tcxfc.^ The latter is 
much more probable, because we know that Manyakhka was once occupied during Krishna II.'s Hfe-fahae by the 
Eastern Cbllufcyas, who can, with propriety, be called his ahitas, inasmuch as they were the mortal enemies of the 
Kashtrakuta dynasty. 

See above, Vol. I. p. 256, verse 17. 6 !* Vol. II. p. 30fi, verse 7. 

e The true spelling of the name appears-to-be K'&kkalla, as ^tested by the records oi the ChMi dynasty. Jt 
is spelt K6kbala in verses 14 and 15, on account of the exigencies of the metre. The correct spelling of the name 
occurs ia verse 20, 

n _ ju*. .... JLJJi -U-LxJj-x* 


the strokes of the tusUa of his rutting elephants." The god Kalapriya is the same as Jlat- fi *f ^ 
whose temple at TJjjainns so widely known all over India. It is on the occasion o e 
festival held in honour of this Kalapriya -that the three plays of the poet Bhavabh-a**- 
represented. It thus appears that, in hia expedition of conquest in Northern India, ln-dr 
halted at U] Jain to pay his homage to the god. The remaining three lines may be thus rendLe 
" His steeds crossed the unfathomable Yamtma which rivals the sea. He completely dev 
that hostile city of ILahodaya, which is even to-day greatly renowned amonj-j men "by tfe 3aam 
f Ejusasthala." Indra III. therefore appears to have marched from. Uj jam northward , crosse 
the Jumna and reduced the city of Mahodaya. The lexicon of Hemachaiidra tells us tha-t I&laho- 
daya and Knsasthala are hoth names of Kanyaktibja, 2 i.e. Kanauj, so thut verse 19 rei^esenta 
Iiidra III. to have attacked the city of Ivanauj. But the complete devastation of ]tf i^3.6daya, 
which Indra III. is spoken of as having brought about, is merely poetical. Far, the poet.' s^objec 
appears to be to introduce a play on the words maliodaya and ltusasthal<i, which in tlxeir con- 
ventional sense mean Kanauj, and in their etymological one, ' full of high prosperity' an.a ' a spot 
of I'MSn grasa ' respectively : Mahodaya, i.e. Kanairj, ceased to be nuihadaya, i.e. highly -prosper- 
ous," and D hecame hisaskhaU, i.e. a mere apot of Jsuia grasa. Hence, the complete anaoiliilatum 
of 'the city uf Mahodaya or Kanauj alluded to in this stanza cannot he reasonably assumed to 
be a historical fact. This is also seen from the consideration that, as a matter o f act, for 
loner after tho event recorded in this verse took place, Kanauj continued to be the capital ot 
several princes ruling over Northern India. 3 What Indra III. actually did beyond attacking 
Mahkbya or Kanauj, cannot be inferred from the verse itself. But we can ascertain. ^ * 
the huh, of other inscriptions. We shall, however, in ihe first place, see whether wo ca^a decijle 
which o the rnlera of Kanauj Indra III. vanquished. The Rfishtrskuta records ffive me 
dates 915 and 917 A,D. for Indra III. ; and the succession and dates of the prmees, jeigmngr 
at Mahoclaya or Kanatij abont tins period, as determined from the Gwalior, I uhca and teiyacioa* 
inscdftions, are as follows : 

1. Bh6]a, A.D. 863, 876 and 882. 

2. Mahendrapaia, A.D. t03 and 907. 

3. Kshitipaia or Mahipala, A.D. 917. 

4. Devapala, A.D, QiS.' 1 

Now as for Indra (III.) we have the dates A.D. 915 and 917* and for KsHitipala. or 
Mahipala' t he date A.D. 917, tee can hardly be a doubt tot they w^conte^por^e 
And it is almost certain that it is this KeblttpUa whom Indra III. conquered^ Let ^ 
^wfludo,t what Into HI. did beyond obtaining^ victory over KahxUpala. A l^ajuratx 

*^m m ,^^^^^^ 

a partieular deity belong to that country. But whi* c ^^ f ^f^ a ^ ta saya in a fuotoute th-t* KUaprly 
ffi adc out. Waclmudra TidyMgara, in Ws edition of the ^rf^^S^S of tto poet 

' " 

ffi ac o. o 

nithataUie name of a ddtv installed in Padm ^f a ^) lda h !' '^a " d, according to liwwtiraaw^ it 
this note appears to be based on tlie comment of Jagaddto 3 nrt quoted, a , Blmv 

* *** ^tood C 

Blmv bha belorx-od. In the 

that the KF^ttMHfm* * *** ^oo ^ eU ^ m& G f UJJ^W. TKi s ideatifiea- 
a ***** DWi*.y, However, Mlaprxyauatha xa ^^^^awrfty ^MeH PP<>rt. it. 
tioa doxibtlffls fits here excellently, but I have not been able to trace tbo am y 

>Htoai^am'^6W^.a^^v.a78f, ^ haa beca show n further oa to be KsliMpMa ox- 

'Th.MngofMaMaayaorKanauj^vhomlndrain.d^ea^, ^^^ rt Kaiiau j Hia mccessors 

tt&tplla. And we Hve actual record B to show 4^;^ ^"^ J p&lad&V a, wpectfTeli (see above, Vol.111. 

?fa ^ wr, 

?!*' Dyn. Xa, J)w<n p. 415 f , 


inscription 1 claims that a king named Kshitipala was placed on Ms throne by the Chandella 
prince Harshadeva. As this Harshadeva flourished at the "beginning of the tenth century, the 
Kshitipala, whom he re-instated on his throne, can be no other than Kshitipala, king of Kanauj, 
who was a contemporary of, and vanquished by, Indra III. Indra III., therefore, appears not 
only to have attacked Mah&daya or Kanauj, but also to have defeated and ousted its ruler 1 

Let us now proceed a step further. The Bhagalpur grant of Nariiyanapala 2 asserts that 
Dh.armapala s the second prince of the Pala dynasty, acquired the sovereignty of Mahodaya by 
conquering Indraraja and others, but bestowed it upon one ChakrayTidha, just as Bali acquired 
the sovereignty of the three worlds by vanquishing Indra and other gods, and bestowed it upon 
Chakrayudha (Vishnu). The Bhagalpur grant thus tells us that Dharmapala first defeated 
Indraraja and others, and obtained the sovereignty of Mahodaya or Kanauj for himself, but 
gave it over to one Chakrayudha. The same event IB referred to in the Khalimpur charter 3 of 
Dharmapala himself, in the verse 

The stanza, as it s bands, yields no intelligible sense. There can be little doubt that the 
reading of the last line is faulty, though it occurs, as given here, in the plates. 4 Since we have 
dattahin the nominative case, that which is given, or in 'this particular case aWiisMk-oda- 
Tewmlhah, which is in the nominative case, must go with dattah. Farther, the person to 
whom something is given must be in the dative case ; but we have no such dative in the verse, and 
moreover the nominative M-Kanyalcuv^jah remains unconnected, The sense, however, 
requires that M-Kanydkubja should be considered the person to whom the coronation pitcher was 
given. Evidently, therefore, trl-Kanyakubjah requires to be corrected into irirKanyakubjdya, even 
at the risk of the break of the ccaswa. With this emendation, the verse yields the following 
sense : "With a sign of his eyebrows gracefully moved, he made over to the illustrious king of 
Kanyakubja his own golden water-pitcher of coronation, lifted up by tho delighted elders of Pan- 
chala, and acquiesced in by the Bh6ja, Matsya, Madra, Kuru, Tadu, Yavaiia, Avanti, Gandhara 
and Kira kings, bent down while bowing with their heads trembling." What the verse moana is, 
that Dharmapala earned for himself the sovereignty of Pafichala, and was consequently entitled to 
the coronation as king of Pafichala, which was approved of by the neighbouring rulers, such as 
Bhoja, Matsya and other kings ; but he declined it and assented instead to the installation of the 
king of Kanyakubja. The Pafichala country here referred to denotes the upper half of the D6ab 
between the Ganges and the Jumna with Kanyakubja as its principal town, and to this effect we 
have the authority of the poet Bajaekhara who flourished about this period. 5 Hence the fact 
mentioned in the Khalimpur charter is the same as that reported in the Bhagalpur grant. And 

i See above, Vol. I. p. 121 f. Prof. Kielhorn, however, thinks that Harshadeva first vanquished Kshitipala 
and subsequently restored him to his throne. But, in my humble opinion, the natural interpretation that can be put 
on the verse is that Earshad&va placed Kshitipala on his throne, who was ousted, not by Harshadeva himself, but: by 
a different king. This interpretation is supported by the fact mentioned in our grant, that Indra III. reduced 
Mahfidaya or Kanaui, in other words defeated the then reigning sovereign, who can be no other than Kslutipalft 
himself. This interpretation, again, agrees with what the Khalimpur and Bhagalpur charters have to say, M will 

be shown further on. .,**, -rtr oxo 

> jfnd. Ant, Vol. XV. p. 304 fl. i . Vol. XX. p. 187 f. 8 See above, Vol. IV. p. 243 ff. 

* See the photo-etching of the plates in /. B, A. S- Vol. LXIII. Part I. 
8 See the Sdlardmdyai}a t X. 86, 


piecing together the items of information furnished by these two charters, we find that Dharmap&la 
defeated a prince named Indraraja, and acquired for himself the sovereignty of Mahodaya or 
Kanauj, i.e. the supremacy of Panchala, but conferred it upon. Chakrayudha, according to the 
Bhagalpur plates, and upon the king of Kanyakubja, according to the KJialimpur plates. Further, 
as Dharmapala wrested the sovereignty of Mahddaya or Kanyakubja, not from the king of Kanya- 
kubja himself, "but from Indraraja, and bestowed it upon the king of Kanyakabja, the conclusion 
is irresistible that Indraraja must have vanquished the king of Kanauj and occupied his capital 
before he himself suffered defeat at the hands of Dharmapala. What we find, therefore, from 
these two charters is, that (i) Indraraja vanquished the king of KanyakuTjja, but (ii) was 
afterwards defeated by Bharmapala ; and that (iii) the king of Kanyakubja, who was ousted by 
Indrari j a, -was restored to his throne by Dharmapala ; whereas the facts we have above ascer- 
tained from, verse 19 of our grant and a Khajuraho inscription are, that (i) the Rashtrakuta 
prince Indra ELI. reduced MahSdaya or Kanauj and deprived its ruler of his dominions, that 
(ii) the name of this ruler was KsMtipala or Mahip&la, and that (iii) Kshitipala or MaMpala 
regained his lost possessions through the assistance of the Cnandella king Harshad&va. Thus 
in both cases we have a king named Indraraja, who attacked Mah&daya or Kanauj and ousted 
the king of Kanyakubja. The Indraraja, 1 therefore, mentioned in the Bbigalpur and Khalira- 
pur grants must be identical with the Rashfcrakuta prince Indra III., and the king of Kanya- 
kubja, whom he vanquished, is doubtless Kehitipala or Mahipala. But the honour of placing 
Kshitipala on Ma throne is claimed for the Chandella prince HarshadSva by the Khajuraho 
inscription above alluded to, and for Dharmapala by the Bhagalpur and Khalimpur charters. 
And what in all likelihood must have come to pass is, that both HarshadSva and Dharmapala 
placed Kshitipala on his throne. 

There remains another conclusion yet to be deduced from the Bhagalpur grant. The king of 
Mah&daya or Kanyakubja, whom Indraraja ousted, is mentioned therein as Chakrayadha. And 
we have just shown that this king of Mah6daya was KshitipMa or Mahtpala. Kshitipala, there- 
fore, appears to have borne the epithet Chakrayudha. Now, the Nausar! charters 2 of the Rashtra- 
kuta prince Indra III. contain a verse, wherein Indra is represented to have conquered Up$ndrB. 
Of course, the terms Indra and Upendra, according to one sense, refer to the gods Indra and 
Upendra ; but when we take them in their other sense, what the verse means to state is, that 
the B&ahtrakuta prince Indra III. vanquished a certain prince of the name of Upendra. Upendra 
is another name for Vishnu, and Vishnu is also known by the name Chakrayudha. The allusion, 
therefore, in the Nausari grants most probably refers to the defeat of KsMtipala, mentioned by 
the name Ohakrayudha in the Bhagalpur charter. The Nausari and Bhagalpur grants thus 
corroborate each other, and consequently there can be little doubt that Kshitipala also bore the 
epithet Chakrayudha or Upendra. 3 

1 In J. B. A. & Vol. LXIII. p. 62, Mr. Batavyal has expressed the opinion thatlndrn, brother of the Rashtra- 
kuta prince Govinda III., is the same as the Indraraja of the Bhagalpur charter, and the Ldttfvara-Maqdala, 
which he is mentioned in the Kavt grant to have received froin this Gdvinda III., may he identical with_ the king- 
dom of Kanatij, I leate it to those who are interested in the subject to judge of the correctness of this view- 

J, J?o. Sr. S- A. 5. Vol. XLIX. pp. 259 and 263. 

8 In bis note on verse 8 of the Bhagalpur charter in 2nd. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 188, Prof. Kielhorn suggests that, 
just as Bali wrested the sovereignty of the three worlds from the god Indra and gave it to UpSndra-Chakrayudha, 
Ms younger brother, so Dharmap&la took away the kingdom of a prince named Indra and made it over to the prince 
Ch&krayudha, whom, oa the analogy of the mythological alluaion, he thinks to he a brother of the prince India. In 
this note he pro-poses, with some diffidence, that this name Chakrayudha points to idivaraha, which waa another 
name of Bhojad&va o Kanauj. In his psper on the Khalimpur plate of Dharmapalade'va (above, Vol. IV. p. 246, 
note 1) he puts forth the conjecture that there was some connection between Indra and Chakrayudha of the Bhagal- 
par grant and Indr&yudha, who is spoken of as governing the north in the colophon of the Jaina Sarivatkfa- 
Pnrd?o, meaning thereby, if I have correctly understood him, that Indra is identical with Indrfyudha and that 
both Indrlyudha, and Chakrayudha belonged to one and the same family. But now our plates have conclusively 


Two other points of some importance deserve to be noticed. The first ia with regard to the 
date of Dharmap&la, who has been placed conjecturally by Cunningham and Prof. Kielhorn in 
the earlier part, or about the middle, of the 9th century. 1 But we have seen that Dharmapala 
was a contemporary of the Bashtrakuta prince Indra III,, for whom the Rashtrakuta records 
furnish the dates 915 and 917 A. D. We thus have positive evidence that Dharmapala lived in 
the earlier part of the 10th century, i.e. at least half a century later than he has hitherto been 
placed. Next, the Mungir plates of Dvap,ladeva tell us that Dharmapala married Baimdvi, 
daughter of the R&shtrakuta prince Slri-Paravala. Prof. Kielhorn, who re-edited the inscrip- 
tion, corrects Sri-Paravala into Srl-Vallabha. 3 If this correction ia accepted, the Rashtrakuta 
king, who was the father-in-law of Dharmapala, was either Krishna II. or Indra III. himself. 
For Jagattunga, father of the latter and son of the former, died without coming to the throne, 
Further, it appears unlikely that Dharmapala, if he had been,the'son-in-law of Indra III., would 
have carried on hostilities, with him. On the whole, therefore, it seems more probable that 
Krishna II. was the father-in-law of Dharmapala. 

So much for the historical conclusions to be drawn from verse 19 of our grant, From verse 
20 we gather that Indra III. married Vijamba of the Haihaya, i.e. Chedi, dynasty. She is 
therein said to be the daughter of Ammanadva, who himself was the son of Arjima and grand- 
son of Kokkalla. From Indra III. and VijamM sprang the prince Q6vinda (IV.), " the beauty 
of whose form excelled that of the god of love " (v.,21). The firsfc three lines of verse 22 look as 
if the composer of the inscription were giving of his own accord quite an uncalled-for defence 
to establish the spotless character of his patron Goviada IV. This is enough to lead one to 
suspect that certain accusations, which the composer tries to confute, were in his time actually 
whispered against Govinda IV. The second and third lines of this verse, as will be seen from 
the translation, defend him against the attack of sensuality and incest. This indicates that 
G6vincla IV. was popularly believed to have led a dissolute life and even looked upon as inces- 
tuous. And, that he had given himself up to sensual pleasures, is mentioned in the KharSpatarn 
grant and in the De6H and Karhad charters. The former calls him " an abode of the senti- 
ment of love, surrounded by crowds of lovely women." 3 The two latter represent him as "the 
source of the sportive pleasures of love " and as " one whose intelligence was entangled in the 
nooses which were the eyes of women." 4 The DeolS and Karhad charters, moreover, tell us 
that, in consequence of Ms sensual courses, he undermined his health and bedimmed his natural 
lustre. Another sense is also here intended, vw. that Govinda IV. incurred the displeasure 
of his subjects, rendered the constituents of the political body loose, and thus met with destruc- 
tion. ' To this may be added the further statement of the aforesaid grants that, after G6vinda 
IV. had thus come to ruin, the feudatory chieftains besought his uncle Amoghavarsha to 
ascend the throne and thereby maintain the Batta, i.e. Rashtrakuta, sovereignty, and tha't 
accordingly he acceded to their request. 6 Mr. K. B. Pathak has drawn my attention to a 
passage in the Vikrumdrjunavijaya by the Kanarese poetPampa, which has an important bearing 

proved that the Indra, who is associated with Chakr&yudha in the Bhagalpur charter, was a Rflshtrak&ta prince, 
holding away in the Dekkan, and cannot, therefore, .be identified with Indrayudha, who was ruling in the nortlj, 
and that this Kashtrakuta Mug Indra can neither be the elder brother of, nor belong to the sapae family 'wU1b, 
Chakrayudha, who was Mng of Kanauj. 

J See above, Vol. IV. p. 248 s Ind. Ant, Vol. XXI. p. 254; Arch. Sur. Sep. Vol. X-V. p. JL5'Q> wfttoe Cufcningliajay 
fixes the accession of Dharmapala in A,D. 831. Now that we know that Dharma^Ma was a contemporary of tke 
JRtehtrakuta prince Indra III., the mention of the week-day and the regnal year jin his-' M,hab6dhi inscription caji. 
be utilised to determine much more approximately the date of Dhftnnap&la'-a- accession, 'as was first suggested by- 

3 Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. p. S54, and note 10 on p. 99. 

8 Above, Vol. III. p. 298, text line 10. 

Above, Vol. IV. p. 288 f ., verse 30 ; Vol. V. p. 194, verse J8. 

Above, Vol. IV. p 284, vcrae 21 $ Vol. V, p. 194, verse 19, 

. VII. 


en this point. The translation of the passage, as kindly sirpplied to me by him, is as foll' ws ; - " 
" Arifcfiaari conquered the great feudatories sent by the emperor named Gojjiga and, destr ying 
the emperor who offered opposition, gave universal sovereignty to Baddegadeva, w** ll _ 
placing confidence in him (Arikesari)." 1 Of the personages mentioned in this passa-S' 6 ' u " 
k&arin (II.) was the patron of Pampa aad was a Chalukya chieftain, ruling over the Tola- conn ry, 
which in the main coincides -with the Dharvar district ; Gojjiga was the Rashtralulta soveieiga 
G6viada IV., and Baddegadeva his uncle Yaddiga alias Anuighavarsha. Now, piecing" He 
facts together, the conclusions that we arrive at, are (i) that Govinda IV, vtas a seusua 

J,t*U*M -Q / 

monarch ; (ii) that by his vicious courses he displeased his subjects, and sortie of his 
as may "be naturally presumed; (iii) that these feudatories, including Arikesarin II./" T BQ 1T * 
rebellion against Govinda IV., met him and his tributary allies in battle aad killed him ; anu- (w>) 
that Arikesarin II. together with the victorious feudatories requested his uncle Am6gl* a ' var8 & 
to occupy the Bashkakuta throne, which had fallen vacant by the death of Govinda I V". 

So far we have dealt with the second and third lines of verse 22. We have yet to find on 
the Ml significance of the first line, which, as will he seen from the translation, means to state 
that Gdvinda IV; did not practise cruelty towards his elder brother, although he had tlie power 
to do so. This evidently presupposes that, in Ms time, Govinda IV. was mamoiily izrtderstooc 
to have acted cruelly towards his elder brother. This is the natural iufeivnce 'to be deduced 
from the first line, unless it is tote regarded as meaningless. It now behoves us to see what 
probably constituted this cruelty. The same of this elder brother, as known from copper-plate 
inscriptions, was Amaghavarsaa (II.). That he came to the throne can scarcely be seriously 
doubted Dr. Beet, however, has taken exception to this view, on the gi-onn.1 that &6 vxnda 1 . , 
charier, describes himself as meditating on the feet of, ,* hi* elder toodier 
k but his father (Indra-jNityavarsha,* But this conclusion is directly contra- 
ktokuta and other records. The Bhadana and Khan-pajau charters, which 
the list of those Rashtrakuta piiucea only who reigned, mention therein tb.e 
varaha 4 The Deoli and Karhad grants, which mention thce princes, vho dxa 
specifically not having reigned, do not speak of Am^awha not aavmg 
numed but on the contrary, furnish positive indications that he dul mgu." l*ay, ^e may 
1!S , m further. The last mentioned charters assert that Anu,ghavar S ha II . went to 
ei' his father's death, as if out of affection for the latter,* T!UB mdxcates that 
IT reigned only for a very short period. This inference receives a strong (xm- 

g that AmoghavJU'sha r*j g*ned i or a 
of Ambgaavavaha's reign -was vct'y 
ta th7first line of verse 22 that Goviuda IV. was popix- 
to have treated his elder brother, i.e. Aiaoghayaraha, cruelly, one is naturally 

*?_ h fl "f t'l^LrGtodl I V- B , r if not actually caused, at any rate hastened, 

3 is so, uovmda iv . can by xio 

the latter was his predecessor. Bat to 

U. eldev 
He emoted m any 


played a prominent part in defeating fte allies of Oftviixda 
"in the babit of magnifying the deeds of Jlieir patrons, one 

e tells ns. 


positive evidence, looking quite the other way, furnished by the copper-plate inscriptions, and 
to render the first Hue of verse 22 void of all meaning. 

The last line of verse 22 tells us that G6viuda IV. -was known as Sah.a8&nka in conse- 
qxience of his unparalleled heroic deeds. Verse 23 states that, although he had the appella- 
tion Prabhutavarsha, he was styled Suvarnavarsna, because he rained down showers of gold 
and made the whole world golden. This means that G6vinda IV. had previously the usual 
epithet Prabhutavarsha, but that, on account of his profuse munificence, he earned for himself 
the additional liruda, of Suvaroavarsha. And deservedly was he styled Suvarnavareba. It has 
been mentioned above, in the summary of the contents of the formal part of the inscription, that 
G&vinda IV. weighed himself against geld, bestowed upon the Brahmans no leaa than sis. 
hundred grants, together with three lacs of suvarnas, and granted, for repaiiing temples and 
feeding and clothing ascetics, eight hundred villages, four lacs of suvarnas and thirty-two lacs 
of drammas. Such exuberant liberality no other prince of the Rashtrakuta dynasty ever 
displayed, so far as their records inform us. 

Little that is historically important can be gleaned from the remaining verses (24-31). 
Some historical fact, however, is undoubtedly contained in verse 28, wherein the G-aftga and 
Yamuna are represented as doing service at Goviuda IV .*S palace. The exact sense of this 
can be determined by the consideration of two other epigraphic references to the same fact. The 
Baroda charter of the Gujarat Rashtrakuta prince Karka asserts that Govinda III., " after 
taking away simultaneously from his enemies (the rivers) Ganga and Yamuna, charming 
through their waves, attained to the best and, highest rank, by means of the display of the 
actual signs (of those rivers)." 1 This clearly means that G&vinda III. wrested the territory 
intervening between the Ganges and the Jumna from a prince belonging to some northern. 
dynasty, and assumed their signs as a part of his insignia. The same fact is mentioned in a 
Nerur grant, wherein the early Chalukya prince Vijayaditya is represented as fighting before his 
own father with the hostile kings of Northern India, and securing for his father Vinayaditya the 
signs of the Ganga and Yamuna among -other insignia, of paramount sovereignty. 2 When, 
therefore, the Ganga and Tamunft are mentioned as doing service in the palace of Govinda IV., 
a similar thing is intended, vis. either that, after an expedition of conquest against Northern 
India, he added the signs of these rivers to his insignia, or that he inherited these signs from 
some one of his predecessors, perhaps his oven father Indra III., who, as we have seen above, 
overran Northern. India. 

There . now remains to be noticed the preamble of the prose passages,, preceding the formal 
part of the inscription. These set forth the various appellations by which Odvinda IV. was 
known. The topic of the appellations of the Bashtrakuta princes has already been handled in 

1 Ind, Ant. Vol. XII. p. 159, text lines 22 and 23. Here Dr. Fleet perceives a distinct allusion to some 
conquest over the Chalukyas, whether Western or Eastern, and further propounds the theory that the Kashtta- 
kutas wrested these signs from the Chalukyas, and the Chalukyas from the Early Guptas (loo. off, pp. 157 and 
248 ; Dyn, Kan, Dittr. p. 338, note 7). In my humble opinion, the word oka in the second line of the verse, 
wherein G&vinda III.' a assumption of the signs of the Gaig& and the Yamuna is mentioned, clearly indicates that 
he first conquered the regions round about the Ganges and the Jurnna and then adopted the signs of these rivers as 
part of his insignia. Dr. Fleet himself recognises this fact (loc. cit. p. 157). If so, I cannot understand how 
G&vinda III. wrested these signs from the Chalukyas, whether Western or Eastern, who were ruling in the 
Dekkan, far away from the Ganges and the Jumna. Again, I fail to understand how the Cbalukya?, towards the 
end of the seventh century, wrested these signs from the Early Quptas, whose power was extinct hy the middle of 
the sixth century A.D. The view which I have put forth here is, that an expedition of conquest in the regions 
round about the Ganges and the Jumna entitled both Gfivinda III. and Vijayaditya to add the signs of these rivers 
to their iiuiffnia. The same may algo he said in regard to GcWinda IV. ; but, as we do not know for certain that 
he ever invaded Northern India, and as we do know that his father Indra III. overran it, it is equally reasonabla 
to suppose that Govinda IV. perhaps inherited these signa from his father. 

Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 131, text line 20-32. 


detail by a much abler antiquarian than myself I shall, therefore, be as brief as possible. 
The first of the appellations mentioned of G&vinda IV. is Mtya-Eandarpa, which he ^ said 
to have received because he outshone the god of love. In accordance with this, verse 21 epeaks 
of him as a prince, the beauty of whose form excelled that of the god of lo^e " ' His f atlier 
ladralll. also bore the appellation Ratta-Kandarpadeva, 2 from which it may be inferred 
that the BashtrakOta kings had some of their Umdas ending in Ewirf-trpa. The "second of *&*** 
appellations is OMnakya-Chaturmukha or '(the god) Brahman (iu regard to the art) of 
Chanakya,' i, civil polity, What this phrase signifies is that, just as the VMas emanated 
from the god Brahman, so civil polity originated from G&viuda IV. His third appellation is 
Vikranta-mrayana. This reminds us of the epithets Vira-Harayana and Elrti-Fai-ayana, 
borne respectively by Am&ghavarsha I, and Indra 1II.,I and points to 'the concluskm that some 
of the Raehtrakuta hrudas ended in Ndrdyana, The last appellation of Gdvincla IV referred 
tola to preamble iBlfripati-Trmetra, which corresponds to Maharaja-gom,* mentioned by 
the Gujarat Eastrakdta records with reference to AmSghavarsha I. The titles of G&vmda IV,, 
occurring in the formal part of the inscription, are too general to require any special notice. 

As regards the places mentioned in the grant, Kevafija, the village granted, is the SBmdj 

L ] & T^ day> KaVit& the well ' kao K&vl, and Sihukagr&ma the modern 
Slgam or Sigam, The names of these villages occur in the "Inscription. f rom Kavi " 5 by 
Dr. Buher under the , shghtly altered forms of Kemajju, Kapikft and Sihurama,. It 

a mamMnati6f & * lace . 

his indicates that Kava or Kavi was not formerly noted as a mere .acred place of the Jniims, 
ri i is now, but was a centre of Brahmanism, and that its sanctity goes back to the beginning 
o the tenfc century A.D. It is also iuteresting to note that Kevafija, the village grafted, is 
saidxaourpkestobes: uatedmtheKk^taka district of the LSta &%. This implies tfcat the 
province of Lto included the City of Khetaka or Eaira, and ^oasmall portio n o! territory to 

a k a !Tv y bS PreSUmed ' Tte f Dr " Biihler ^ P dit BhagwanW 

^e that Lata con-esponds to the country between the Mahi and the Ko6ka 9 or tHe Tapti 

Sv " ' ^ tkt Md by Dr ' Hult2acl17 that ifc esto ^ f BortH as the 
n (Shedhij is correct, 


Brsi PZofe. 

?r% ii f 10 fr^n^^T TOT 

1 Above, Vol. VI, pp. 160498. 

1 .r. so, if. a. 4. 5, vd, xviii. Pp . 259 aua 253. IK*. PP . sss f, 

In/, Jo, Br. A ^. S. Vol. XX. p. 146, I understood tie expressioa to 

. pp. 112, 114, 145 and 147. 


original plates. ... f ^ 

i and of the next verse, This verse, which occurs in almost 
not to be found in the Sfingli plates, 

11 Bawl mra:, 

of tlw next rerse, Both these verses do not oceur in the Stfiftt jtote fc 


6 ^g^ftorrfer w^ w, u [B*] 


8 ronf^w: f^'t im irfwt 

10 f^rf^Mf^^^frft^T^ u [*] 


12 ^rfrow^n^ ii [**] 


u [?*] 


Read ftlKf:. 2 Bead WTCW:. 8 Metre: Sragdhsu-aj read 

* Sead lwt^. 5 Bead ^ct:. 6 Metre : VasantatilaM, 

1 Read ?(3? . 8 Read ^, 

8 For the metre see the introductory remarks, l " Eead sf^ . 
Metre : Sardfflavifcddita. 

" Eead fsfT^ftr;. The middle vertical stmke of the letter gha is inadvertently omitted. 

18 Metre : S16ka (Anushtubli). u Read f'Wftl^n'^. " Metre: Vasantatilalfc, 

Read ffi. Bead W<Bfi. l * Metre : Iryd. 

Metre t Sragdhar&. Eead <rtt. Bead 

38 PPT aiPHH INDIOA. [Voi, VII, 




ft i! [u*] ' 

17 <opnsro*w<3: i TO 



19 S&WT [n*] ^T 7 

r: n [u*] 


22 TOwnpT fitrf?rerff5ft 

Second Plate ; First Side. 


23 ^fjrf?r ^nf?r utt 

24 Tfl4*?r, i wtanfo "wf 

i B*d ^S. ' Read ?ff . 

* Metre i i*y t Mtre < Slfika (Amightubli), Metr : 

i Metre i Slflka (AnushtaWi}. B Metre : A^& j and of tie next Terse. 

' Metre : SfttdMaTikr^ita 5 and of tie next verse. This verse does not occur in the Singlt plates 

*R*dV$. Metre: Xryi. 

11 Metre i SIM, Tiii verse does not occur in the Sljgll plates, 

Cambay Plates of Govinda IV. Saka-Samvat 852. 

No. 6.] 


29 W^ \ 

u [* 

30 WRTOT*R^ I 

f^ccf^rrr U 

31 4 

%i m^?r; n 


34 ft 




: SRI*'. 

geoonti Ploe; Second SWe- 







66 fartftfirrf 






48 t3f%r, 



55 slrfi ^?H^Tp?T^rp^rotf^if^^^ 

Bead srraW * Kead ^rft^t. > Li ea d 

1 Her* the fio of rrta ifi slniCBt like fbe letter *Aa. 7 fiesd 

Bwd V- * 

Cambay Plates of Govinda IV.-Saka-Samvat 852. 


Third Plate. 



onty^ ii ;grer 

59 tj^hr: ^n 

iTcf: ^34141*4: i 

60 sffrfinrprsr wr^ ^nsNft 3 TO^TW: 11 w*r 


62 ft; i ^^^rrwf^f: trrfgt ls ?rr'r 



65 fs ^^^^rrf^ ^n5f wfa 

?rtig?[ ^TOI ^itftft" n [u*] 

66 ^^rit TT ^t ^t<r "ci^i^ii^ i i *rlTT 

: M 

67 T Sffif^T Tm^lT d*( 1 ^TT^r^T? IHTO 

; a 13 

^w. Hail! 

(Verse 1.) 'May lie (Vishnu), iihe water-lily (springing from) -whose navel was made (^w) 
abode by V&dhas (Brahman), protect yon, and Hara (Siva) -whose head ia adorned by the 
beautiful crescent of tibe moon ! 

(V . 2.) Triumphant are the sweeb songa of the BdmdvSda, of (i.e. sung by) Brahman -whose 
(soul was delighted by the creation of the world, (songs) -which gave delight to Sarasvati ! 

i Bead ^rmwf and UT1HT . Bead "vftm and ^PIKTfl. Bead 

* Metre: Salinl. ' Metre < Vasantatilakl. . Bead 

i Metre,; SlAka (AtHuhtnljli)} and of the next two verses. * 

Metre t Irya. u Here follows a flower, for which see the accompanying Plate. 


(V. 3.) May that Ke'sava (Yishnu) protect you, on whose person horripilation was caused 
by the waves, which sprang up in the milky ocean agitated by the revolution of the Mandara 
mountain, and which were reddened by the dense washings of quantities of red chalk of the best 
of the elephants, 1 emerging (from the ocean), (washings') which were mixed with the saffron of 
the numerous (marks of) female crocodiles on the full breasts of Sri ! 

(Y, 4.) May these ten hundred hoods of the lord of snakes dwelling on the head of Sambhu 
(Siva) destroy your sin, (hoods) which with the light of their jewels shine all round the forest 
of the mass of matted hair, and which hear the beauty of the circular basins of the wish-giving 
creepers (consisting of) the lustrous rays coming from the root, (viz.) the moon sprinkled by the 
celestial river (G-aiiga) flowing on high ! 

(T. 5.) From the Moon, (who is) the royal swan of the lotus-plants of the lake (via.) the 
sky, tilled up with a crowd of lotuses (which are) the group of stars ; (who is) the white parasol 
of the great king 'Cupid wielding the sovereignty of the three worlds ; (who is) the milky ocean 
of beauty; (who is) the silvery mountain (Kailasa) of lustre; (who is) the ear-ornament of the 
damsels (w'z.) the quarters ; (and who is) the dwelling-mansion of the goddess of -wealth of the 
three worlds, there arose this race. 

(V. 6.) From that (race) sprang up the family of the Yadus, (which was) the paternal 
residence of wealth, the abode of magnanimity, the pleasure-house of lawful conduct, great 
prosperity and gravity, (and) which acquired fame by the protection of distressed beings, just as 
the ocean (is the family-house of the goddess of -wealth, the abode of grandeur, the play-ground 
of steadiness, vast magnitude and profundity, and is renowned for sheltering all creatures that 
come to it). 

(Y. 7.) Then there arose, in the spotless family of the Yadus, Dantidurgaraja, to whom the 
hosts of (his) enemies bowed down, who was versed in arts, (and) who filled the directions by 
(Ms) extensive and great fame, just as the moon (rites) in the clear sky, to whom other orbs bow 
down, who is possessed of digits, (and) who fills the quarters by (his) extensive and profuse 

(V. 8.) After him the prosperous (and) glorious Krishnaraja, the paternal nude of that 
king, having ascended the pre-eminent (and) glorious lion- throne of the brave, as the rising sun 
(ascends) the peak of the Meru (mountain') ; having destroyed the vast race of the Chalukyas, (as 
the sun destroys) utter darkness ; (and) having placed his foot on the heads of kings, (as the sun 
casts) his rays on the tops of mountains, pervaded the whole universe by (his) extensive 
powers, (as the sun fills) the whole world with (his) overspreading rays. 

(V. 9.) From him was born Govindaraja, whose panegyric is seen, as it were, (engraved) 
on the surface of the stone (utz.) the disc of the moon in the form of the mark which is dark Toy 
the burning of (his) enemies. 

(Y. 10.) His younger brother, possessed of burning lustre 2 (and) bearing the other appellation, 
of Nirupama, became king, whose intellect was adequate for the protection of the world, who 
uprooted the continuous line of the family of (his) enemies, (and) by means of whose seal even 
the sea became renowned as tamudro, (.sealed). 8 

(V. 11.) After him flourished Jagattanga, whose princely enemies, deprived of the extent 
<>f all their territory, (became) like the breasts of women destitute of youth, (breasts) which, are 
shorn of all their plump circumference. 

1 This tetea to iiravata, the elephant of Iura> who was produced by the churning of the milky ocean. 

1 I am inclined to hold with Dr, Elect that Iddhattjta ia not a mere attribute of Dhruva-Uirnparna, but is 
intended to represent one of Ms Urudat (I#d> Ant, Vol. XII. p, 252 ; above, Yol, 71, p, 172 f.). But I am by no 
means certain of it, as other RIshtrakcLta records do not mention it, 

See Alii. Ant. Yol, XII. p. 252, note 80, 


(V. 12.) And from him was born Amoghavarsha of unparalleled strength, by wfaum Y.-ia i 
who waa pleased (with, Urn) was angrily gratified at Vingavalli with unprecaleiitVd m< n*ls , i 
cakes 1 (which were] the Ch&lukyas, (and by whom) that pure fame, which couU find nu M*,.I, 
in the inside, outside and upper side of the universe, was, as it were, stored up in (tic rcuncir v 
We called) Jaggattunga-sindhu under the pretest of water. 2 

(V. 13.) From him waa bom king AkSlavarsha, harassed by whose promss, (their) j-hiili 
(also KhStaka) was forthwith abandoned by (Us) enemies together with \their) scimitars (ult,,, 
along with the leaders of (their) circles). 3 

(V. 14.) The daughter of Kokkala, the ornament of the dynasty of Sahasrarjtma, 
his chief queen ; (and) from him was born Jagattuiiga. 

(V. 15.) From the ocean (viz.) Banavigraha, son of Kokkala, who was grave (at tlacc, 
is profound), who was a receptacle of gems (or of excellences), (as the ocean is a storr>hmiXf <7 
gems), who was capable of protecting kings from (their) foes (as the ocntn is cafnllt . T 
sheltering mountains from their adversary, vis. Indra), there was born (a daughter uu,r,ie<l< 
Lakshmi, (as from the ocean sprang up the goddess of wealth), 

(V, 16.) She became the wife of that king who had no enemy (and) who was possessed rf 
the ornament (consisting of) fame acquired by Ar who had a terrific army, (as Ajitasatru, %.f , 
Tudhishthira, was adorned by the ornament (whicJi was) fame earned by BlumasfinaandAr}uiia). 4 

(V. 17.) From King Jagattunga there was born a victorious prince, son of Lakshml, 
endowed with valour, (as) from the eastern mountain, the highest in the world, there rises tlif 
sun, full of heat, 5 

(V. 18.) Truly he was Indraraja, whose arm. was thrust forth for the destruction of the 
partizans of all kings swerving from lawful conduct, (and) who was fit to be seen with untwiuk- 
ling eyes, (as the god Indra) discharged (his) thunderbolt to cut off the wings of all mountains 
swerving from their motionless condition (and) is fit to be seen by (the gods whose eyes) do not 

(V. 19.) The court- yard (of the temple of the god) Kalapriya (became) uneven by th* 
strokes of the tusks of his rutting elephants. His steeds crossed the unfathomable Yamuna 
which rivals the sea. 6 He completely devastated that hostile city of Mahddaya (alto, the highly 
prosperous city of his enemy), which is even to-day greatly renowned among men by the name < i 
Kus"asthala (also, a spot of mere kuta grass). 7 

(V. 20.) That Kdkkalla, who was mentioned (as belonging) to that family of the illustrious 
Haihayaa, which brought down the pride of Dasafcantha (Havana), had a son (named) Arjnna, 

* AUy&sfia is given in the AnaraMt* as synonymous with pavli, which corresponds to the Mar&th! fQt, *>. 

C& ^Anofoer rendering of the last line is also possible : " and by whom pure fame . . . . . . was, ss it 

were stored up in Jagattnnga, the ocean, in the shape of (oblation-)water." Bnt this interpretation doei i not eommmd 
ilS tome, because the last line is an instance of tp***, in which the real character of the *gcct m tanl 
to denied, and that of an alien object ascribed to it. Tip is here denied, and must, therefore, be the 
a Id hence, truly speaking, real. If %* is thus real, then the 4Mb, into which it u put * be 
but must be real. If, however, we take JvaH+y**** M au instance of Hf-K as te to be Amn 
ieSTr ndering i. preferred, ,indhu ceases to become real. If, on the rite hud, we 
case j" B *^^^ tet ^ JtgetMf+iMto is no longer a rilp*, and ri*ta is made ml, 
an fof the a" LnW^ra fsbrought oat, but we may perhaps adopt the aeeond 

consistently throughout, 4 ^ ^ ^ 


pre-eminent in virtue. His (Arjuna's) BOH, who was exceedingly strong, - 

Prom him was born Vijamba, as Lakshmi (was produced) from the ocean and Uma froro- * 

lord of the mountains called Himavat. 

(Y, 21.) To the glorious king Indra was bom by that VijiimM a son, the prince 
Govindaraja, the "beauty of whose form excelled that of Kama. 

(V. S3.) Ignominious cruelty wag not practised (by him) with regard to (his) elder 
(though he) had the power- ; (he) did not obtain infamy by evil courses such aa (illicit) intercom* 8 
with the wives of (his) relatives ; (he) did not through fear resort to diabolical conduct -wlx-i ^ 1 1S 
indifferent to what is pure and impure ; (and) by (his) munificence and unparalleled heroic deeds 
he became S&hasanka in the world. 

(V. 23.) Though he waa PrabMtavarslia, he was called Suvarnavarsha by the people, 
because raining down showers of gold, he made the whole world consisting solely of gold. 

(V. 24) There being no mendicant at the door when there was made the proclamation 
'who is the supplicant and what does he want? who is impoverished on earth? '-even the 
treasure which was brought (to him) in abundance by the easily conquered lords of the 
did not please him. 1 

(V. 25.) On the occasion of his conquest of the quarters, the earth, with uplifted 
(consisting of his) mighty pdlidhvajas (and) abandoning other kings, forthwith quivers as if y 
the causing of a violent bustle (as a woman, when freed from an evil lord, dances with xipliited 
hands as if through intense' joyous excitement). 

(V. 26.) Even the sun and the moon, 2 as if with fear produced (in their mind, at 
thought) that he, the prosperous one, will not bear the rising up of another lord of a 
(country), run before him (inasmuch as they are the lords of mandalas, i.e. orbs, and are 
smuddhatfy i.e. rising in the sky). 

(V, 27.) For long shines his gateway (marked ly) the moon who ia like (him~), (and) 
decorated near (his) palace, before which other lords of mandalas bow down? which is accom- 
panied by the goddess of victory; and where the whole mass of his lustre (is see??). 3 

(V. 28.) Surely (thinking that) he cannot bear the army of (his) foes, which is equal O 
his own and) which is possessed (of man) of excellent qualities, the Ganga and the 3Tam.O3a& 
resort to his flawless royal abode (because they themselves are samavahint, i,e. flowing in a level, 
and possessed of excellences). 4 

(V. 29.) While this king was administering excellent government wherein (all) enemies 
were subdued, there was vimdnasthiti (i.e. sitting in celestial cars) among ihe gods (nctbTioga), 
(but) there never was vimdnasthiti (i.e. transgression of proper bounds) in enjoyments (bhdgra.') .-* 

(V. 30.) The blue clouds (are) the soot springing from the copious 6ames of his hiaruriant 
fire of heroism. The flashes of lightning (are) but the spreading-out of the gleams of the folacle of 
(his) flourished sword. The stars (are) but the pearls issuing in consequence of the splitting 1 - open 

1 There can be, no doubt that the stanza is intended to yield two senses, as the words praQito and led set unmis- 
takably indicate. One of these senses is that given in the text a"bove. What the other sense is cannot be accnra-fcely 
made out, It seems to refer to a lexicon composed by a certain author) who bore the name Helisiddha or DySpanA-fclta, 
or a name equivalent to either of these words hi meaning. IsitEfelSrljaorKshfrasvijnin? We must await finrfcljer 
researches to settle this point. 

1 This probably refers, I thinfc, to the figures of the aun and the moon on his banners. 

* This is a very knotty verse. I have, in the main, followed Dr. Fleet in point of the separation of worcls and 
translation. But 1 am by no means certain of either. Must we split up the third line of the stanza into o 
moiiwa-Jr<zmW=ronam and translate it accordingly ? 

* Foi.thehistorical fact contained in this stanza, see the introductory remarks. 

1 Thereto evidently here a play on vimSnastKti and on the double analysis of *alMfoit&u, tit. (1) 
'among the aeronauts,' and (2) na bMgishv, t not in enjoyments.' 


of the temples of the irresistible elephants of (his) enemies Th/> 

Sesha (are) the trickling of the mass of (M.) glory which has filled the world * "" "**" 

(V. 31.) While his mind was anxious to eradicate thorns the lot ^MI * i 
did not emerge from water, (lut) made (to hi m ) a p^nt^ljr V ' * "^ 
for self -purification, the fe^ofcj (-1^ - ._..-,. ., . . aitj residl S m U*r) hi 

and the reed-branch at (7uV) gate. 

(Line 38.) And he, laughing to scorn the vanity of the 

(Kama), who was rendered transient through being burnea by the eye f H , fS' 
(beca m e) the |teous Nitya.Kandarpa (i.e. a ver y eternal Kandarpa) ; f/J), delligThe 
happiness of Satamakha (Indra) by means of the power of energy amplified by the p'owL of 
royal majesty and good counsel, (became the very god) Chaturnmkha (Btrfiman) (fn the art of) 
Chanakya (*.. in politics) ; (A a), intent upon working weal to the earth overrun solely hv (hit) 
renowned valour, (became) the glorious Vikrauta-Nararana (i.e a very Mrayana among heroes) 
(as Vishnu became Vikranta-Narayana, i.e. the striding Narayana, when intent upon doing good 
to the earth occupied by (his) single renowned step) ; (he), devastating the fields (consisting of ) 
the breasts of (his) enemies by means of the ploughshare (consisting of) the weapon wielded by 
his hand, (became) the glorious Nripati-TrinStra (i.e. a very god Siva among kings). 2 

(L, 40.) And he, the Paramabha^drakci, Mahdrnjddhiraja Paramrwara. the prosperous 
Suvar^avarshadSva-Pritnvivallabha, the prosperous Vallabhanarendradeva, who meditates 
on the feet of the Paramabhattdrakct Mahdrdjddhirdja Paramesvara, the prosperous Mtya- 
varshadfiva, being well, commands all" the lords of provinces (rdshtra), lords of districts 
(vishaya), chiefs of villages, leading persons, officials, employes and functionaries, according as 
they are concerned : 

(Ju. 43.) " Be it known to you that I, who am permanently settled at the capital of 
3/Eanyakheta, who am maintaining grants to temples and agrahnras, though resumed by 
previous (rulers), and who day' by day am issuing charters of .villages, to be everlastingly 
respected '(by all), eight centuries of years increased by fifty -two having elapsed since the time 
of the Saka king, also in figures Saka-Samvat 852, on the tenth (tit It I) of the bright (half ) of 
Jyesbtha in the current Kb.ara-sa}ucU$ara, on a Monday, when the moon was near (the 
constellation of) Hasta, on the great festive occasion of the binding of the fillet in the village 
jp.f Kapitthaka, situated near the bank of the Godavari, having ascended the tulapurusha, gave 
unilo the' Brahmans six .hundred agrahdrcts together with three lacs of su^arna (coins) for the sake 
of bali,<charu, wifoaddva and atithitarpana* and granted to the temples of gods for the 
enjoymepi? of the gods eight hundred villages, four lacs of suvarnas and thirty-two lacs of 
dramtnas, for (the repairs of) broken parts and so forth, for ointment, frankincense, flowers, lamps, 
c-fferingsr and other requisite articles qf worship, and for the purpose of (providing) a feeding- 
estabttshment, gifts of outer garments and so f orth for ascetics ; and after this, without descending 
from the tuldpwrusha, bestowed first by pouring water from the hand, for the enhancement of 
the reHgious merit and fame of my parents and myself, upon Nagamarya, son of MaMdevayya, 
belonging to the Mathara gtitra, student of the Va^i-Kanva sdkhd s come from the holy place of 
Kavika which is situated in the KhStaka district (manjala) of the Lfita country. (#&), resident 
hereatjffiftnyaklieta, subsisting on the lotus-feet of ihe prosperous VaUablianariidradva, 
the village named KSvaiija, situated in the Kanaka district comprised injhe LSta wuxtry, 

:. Vol. XII. p. 254 and note 36. 

S.J.1. P. ao* ana now ao. . A j u -ni * 

.ous; for, the god who wielded the weapon of the plouglishare aad devastated aeldn u Balartoia, 

t^Otaer of J^rum^ *& * Triixto, <.. Siva. So far as my knowledge go* Balartoa u uowhere cOled Tm%* 

i &v s Anywhere spoken of as performing these functions pf Balaramft, 

* Qttpta Inter, p. 116, note 3, 



(and] lying quite close to the holy place of Kavika, together with its rows of trees up to its 
four boundaries, together with its cultivated soiU together with the royal share,* together with 
all the produce such as the produce of com, the acquisition of gold, the fines, (the proceeds of the 
jHMfcftfltmf < for) faults and the ten offences, and so forth,- for the purpose of (maintaining) the 
bah, chan,,, vatsvadeva and atithitarpana ; for the performance of the optional indispensable 
and occasional rites; for the performance of the Mddha and sacrificial ceremonies such as the 
dar&f<*rawu, chdturmdsya, astyakd and dgrayana? (rites) and the fortnightly (srdddhas) 
for the purpose of preparing the charu^uroddsn, sthdUpdka* and so forth ; for the purpose of 
(granting) priestly fees and gifts in connection with hfaa, niyama, the study of one's own 
Veda, 8 and religious service; for the purpose of (providing) accessory assistance for the rites 
concerning raj as&ya and the seven forms of the som a sacrifice such as the vdjapfya, agnishttma* 
and so forth; for the purpose of (offering) garments, ornaments,' entertainment, gifts, sacrificial 
fees, etc. to the various priests, such as Maitrdvaruna, Adluaryu, H6t r i, Brdlunandchchhamsin, 
Qrauutet and Agndh * and for the purpose of (supplying) the requisite materials for preparing 
satkra, prapH, pratisraya, vrisUtsarga, reservoirs, wells, 8 tanks, orchards, temples, etc." 

(L 58.) And the boundaries of this village (are), to the east the boundary of the holy place 
of Kavjka, to the south the village named Samagam, to the west the village of Sihuka, and to 
the north tae boundary of the land" belonging to the same (holy) place named Zavika. No one 
Phonlcl cause hindrance to Fagamarya while cultivating this village called Kevanja, thus defined 
by the four boundaries, or causing (it) to be cultivated, while enjoying (ii) or allowing (others) to 
enjoy (it). ' 

So the wordftarnrfflfti is explained in. Monier Williams' Sanslc^t-English Dictionary. 
G-upta Inscr. p. 97, note 6, 

*Vart>>p*rnd S a denotes "(the days of) new and full moon, ceremonies on these days (preceding all other 
ceremonies) j athtatd, " the eighth day after full moon (especially that in the months Htonanta and Lira on 
which the progmuto* ,* manes are worshipped, . . . . also a name of the worship itself or the oblations offered 
on those days) j and dgrayana .when masculine, -the first S 6ma libation at the agni^dma sacrifice and when 
neuter, "oblattou consistxug of first-fruits at the end of the rainy season"- Monier Williams' SansTcrit-Enalisk 
Dictionary- -yw 

Char* is aai ohlation (of rice, harley and pulse) boiled with butter and niilk for presentation to the sods or 
manes) ;" jrW*ro, " a mass of ground rice rounded into a kind of cake (usually divided into pieces 
receptacles);" and ttMHpd**, a dish of barley or rice boiled in milk (used as an oblation)."- Bonie 
- lih ' ^ vmti 

Sanskrit- English Dictionary. 

M6mct signiftea "the act of making an oblation to the Dgvas or gods by casting clarified butter into the fW 
and fltyaiRa, "any act of voluntary penance or meritorious piety (esp. a lesser TOW or minor observance dependent 
on external conditions, and not BO obligatory as ya ma).- Monier Williams' Sanskrit. English Di ctionarl 
oatob one word, meaning "study of one'a own VMa ; compare igvalayana's 

Rfasvya is a great sacrifice performed at the coronation of a king (by himself and his tributary Drinks 
. . )j' tt^opfyou the name of one of the seven forms of the sSma sacrifice (offered by kines .fiJim 
aspiring to the highest position, and preceding the r^<u4^ a and the 2nAaj?aft.MtKt) , ' agnisMdma i s "the 
of a protracted ceremony or sacrifice (forming one of the chief modifications of the jgStitMfaa offered bv mJ 
is desirous of obtaining heaven .... )_ Monier Williams' Sanskrit- English Dictionary 

i Jlff^di.o-n, otherwise called Pfa/^ r *,i8.the first assistant of the H6tri. The terms Adhvarvu Wfit * 
AgniXk are well known. Srdbma&Lcfohhafosin is "a priest who assists the Brahman or chief ijriartl* r '? nd 
sacrifices" and QrfaasW is one of the sixteen priests (called after the hymn [^F. X, 94 1 ffl a ddr !^V 
s$ma stones),^ Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary. ' ' oressed to the 

8 The word sattra signifies an alms-house and is frequently met with in the Gupta inscriptions ( a N * o 
and 10). Pr ? 4 denotes a place of distributing water gratis to travellers} pratifraya is "a shelt'er-ho' f 
traTeUers" (Jd!.'^. Vol. XII. p. 142). Both these words occur in the celebrated inscription of TT^lv!^! f 
Nirik, which records Ms series of benefactions. VrisUUarga, according to the Satdakafaadruma mea 5 
free a bull and four heifers on the occasion of a frdddha or as a religious act generally." As regards tT a T-i f 
thi ceremony, see this lexicon, **b OM . A<:coxdmg to MahesVara's commentary on ite AmaraMso. kl A 
an wdinary weH, and tdpt means I well with a flight of staiw. amarateOfa, MJW denote^ 

' For <Z-rfM see above, Vol. IV. pp. 165 and 157. 


[Vv. 32-36 contain the usual admonitions to future rulers.] 

(V. 37.) This praiseworthy grant of the prosperous Gdvindaraja has been written by the 
learned Nagavarman, son of Gangadhararya. 

(L. 67.) Good luck (and) great prosperity. 


The Editor of the TBpigrapliia Indica has been good enough to make over to me two set? of 
inked estampages of the inscriptions at Karle and at Nasik, which he caused to be taken in 
the year 1899 by his Assistant, Mr. Or. Venkoba Rao ; and he has kindly requested me to con- 
tribute a brief commentary on the Plates of them -which he intends to issue. All these records 
have been commented on. before by such scholars as Bhandarkar, Bhagwanlal Indraji and Buhler. 
Still, I cannot resist the temptation of adding my modest gloss in the wake of their learned inter- 
pretations. Nobody will expect, however, that I shall arrive at startling new results. 

The difficulties with, -which the explanation of these precious documents has to cope are on the 
whole due to two causes (1) their imperfect state of preservation; and (2) the employment of 
a certain number- of obscure terms or formulas. Since the comparatively recent date to which 
the preceding treatments of these inscriptions belong, few important new materials have come 
to light. On the other hand, as regards fac-similes, the Plates now issued may at first sight 
appear more imperfect than those which were published by the Archseological Survey. But, 
having worked direct from the inked estampages, I can testify that the new Plates seem to have 
been executed with scrupulous care, and that the collotypes are purely mechanical reproductions 
of the estampages. course they do not show all the details of the originals, because this is 
impossible, but they have not been subjected to any touching up by hand. The estampages 
were made quite recently ; and, in the course of several years which separate them from the 
earlier copies, the disintegration of the rocks which bear the inscriptions will have continued, 
and characters which existed before may have lost in clearness. Is this enough to account for 
the difference between, the old and the new Plates ? It seems to me that the former, or 
at least portions of them, were touched up by hand in details. These retouches, which were 
executed by competent readers who worked from the monuments, certainly have a value ^cf 
their own . Nevertheless they imply certain minute alterations which are hardly compatible with 
the scrupulous care that is now considered indispensable in such matters. I am dwelling on this 
point only in order to vindicate myself for not appearing to be quite so well informed as my pre- 
decessors m the treatment of several passages, and besides, for admitting that certain apparent 
readings of the earlier fac-similes do not exclude a priori some slightly different hypotheses. 
I do not know if, ^ t^s field of enquiry and in the present state of our knowledge, it is not 
more dangerous to affirm too much than to be too cautious. It goes without Baying that I have 
nowhere neglected the invaluable help which the earlier reproductions and tranampfcums 
furnished: if reduced to my own resources, I would have had to leave more &an one Uoana m 
ts. Nevertheless the Ldings which I propose are s^ 

by the context of the estampages which I have in my hands and ^ "^^^ *. 
new Plates In several cases where, though believing in a oertantwMWipfcion, I do not rentare 
to affirt it it Is perfectly sure, I enclose in square brackets the letters wkch to my mjnd 
1 moT oTll doubtful. I conf ees that even tiri. distinction has not been a very easy matter. 
One Teed only look at some of the Plates in order to understand that in many oases of &e 

ny^^ ** 

i Translated from the French by the Editor. 


authority of parallel passages or by the evidence of the context in which itfoccurs. 
in a vast number of instances it is perfectly impossible to decide whether we have to deal 
intentional strokes or with accidental cracks of the stone. This observation refers to the 
signs, and especially to the anusvdra. The latter, we know, is frequently omitted; hence it 
is all the more uncertain in doubtful cases. Fortunately these are details of secondary im- 
portance, at least for the interpretation. Is there any need to add that I have s 
recorded all the various readings of former editors whenever they are of any interestj t'.e. 
they are due to palpable mistakes or to misprints ? 

The chief value of these documents consists in their throwing light though dimly- OEt 
a number of historic, palseographie and linguistic problems. But they are not the only 
documents of their kind, nor are such documents our only source of information. TJ^ongn. 
interesting, it is unwise to take up general questions in connection, with a partial publication. 
This manner of proceeding is iaevitable in the first period of researches and of discoveries, out 
later on it is apt to scatter the information inordinately and to hamper its discussion. 1* 1S 
at any rate natural to rescind the explanatory remarks and the historical conclusions. To my 
re-edition of the texts and to the explanations which it will suggest to me, I propose to acid as 
a postscript the more comprehensive remarks which appear to be called for. 

The really useful bibliography of the K&rl6 inscriptions comprises only two worlds l ^ 
(1) Inscriptions from the Cave-temples of Western India, 1881 (CTI.), and (2) Reports of 
the Archaeological Survey of Western India, Vol. IV., 1883 (AS.). In the first publication, 
Dr. Burgess has transcribed and translated the inscriptions in accordance with the reading's and 
remarks furnished by Pandit Bhagwanlal Indraji j and in the second the texts and explanations 
have been subjected to a fresh revision by Buhler. Though this edition ia more recent and 
marks in the majority of cases a progress ou the first, it has the drawback of assigning texts of 
the same locality to different chapters according to their official or private character. The aew 
Platesfollow Bhagwanlal 1 a numbering. I have added in brackets the number given in AS. ; t K.' 
refers to the chapter entitled Earliest Karl e inscriptions " (p, 90 fi.) and Ksh." to KsHatrapa 
and Andhra inscriptions" (p. 98f.). T:be remarks regarding the position of each inscription 
are copied from the labels accompanying the estampages. 

No. 1, Plate iii. (K. 1). 

cave. Left end of the verandah. 


Vejayamtito sethina Bhutapfllen[&3 (1) eelaghara (2) parinithapitajm] (3) 
dipamhi (4) frtama[m] (5). 


m OTI BM*o The mark of d seems to exist clearly in A ,- but it is rather short and, 
aa te are traces of a crack on its right, it may be the result of the wearing of the stone. () 
AS Id OTI aLam.-- (3) Probably the a***** has disappeared m to crack ; it ca Mo t "be 

i * *i tia^Snft - (4) i ai ^ ned to e *P lain ^ dewl P meat of ** ceuferal lo P 

^V^^^'-*^ (5) AS - ttiama '* CTL " ttam " T * 6 long a appears * 





trie certain ; this is the only possible meaning of the double hook, contrasted with the ordinary 
form of u. It seems that at the end an anusvdra, did exist, which got mixed up by ihe wearing 
of the stone with the upper hook of the last symbol, for which compare the beginning of No. 5. 


" (This) rock-mansion, the most excellent one in Jambudvipa, has been completed by 
the Set {hi BhUtapaia from Yaijayanti," 

Vaijayanti seema to have been the ancient name of Banavasi in the North Kanara district, 
Bombay, 1 In addition to the instances quoted by Dr. Burgess, where Jayanti seems to represent 
Banavasi, one might perhaps ask if in the Banavasi inscription 2 the letter which has been read so, 
or sam before jayamtakasa (1, 2) mighb not be a ve, in which case the sculptor Damdraka would 
be designated as a native of Vaijayanti. In spite of the general meaning of selaglwa,, it 
seems if we compare tbe occurrence of chaityagriha at Kuda (CTI. Nos. 15 and 20), of 
chetiyaghara at, Nasik (Nos, 18 and 19), of gharamuJcha and gharasa, mugha at Karle (Nos. A 
and 6), and of gharamukha at AJanta (CTI. No, 1) that the expression gnha or ghara was 
habitually restricted to the halls used for worship, those which are generally styled " ohaitya 
caves." The expression pmrinifhapita implies the idea of completion, which must not be 
lost sight of. Even if one leaves out of consideration the open screen, the decoration of which 
may be secondary, several inscriptions describe certain pillars as particular gifts. Hence it may 
be assumed that the present record attributes to BMtapala the honour of having completed 
the ckaitya cave. 

No, 2, Elate iv, (K. 2). 
On the lion-pillar in front of the chaitya care. 

Maharattdsa G-otiputrasa Agimitranakasa sihathabho danam. 


Though there can be no doubt, I think, regarding any important detail of the test, the 
inscription is much worn, and the certainty of some points, e,g, the initial a of Agimitranalta 
and the t h of thabho, is in some way only a moral certainty. I do not venture to affirm that there 
is no anusvdra on the right of si, but incline towards the negative. 

" (This) lion-pillar (is) the gift of the MaharatM Agimitraijaka, the son of Goti." 

is an obscure and difficult term. It would be essential to know first whether 

the actual orthography of the inscriptions is rahi or ra}U. The }h seems probable here, and it 
is certain in an inscription at Bgds4 (OTI. No. 2) ; though on the other hand the th is 
probable in No. 14 of the Karle" inscriptions and in Bhaj4 No, 2. The writing of th by error 
for th being more probable than the reverse, the form Mahdraflii is the proper one to start from. 3 
If this is the case, the comparison with the epic epithet Mah&ratha and with brihadratha must 
be discarded, OTI. (p. 24) declares that " Mahdrathi is a Pauranic title of a great wariior j it is 
common in the families of Rajas." I do not know on what this statement rests ; if its first part 

1 Er r Fleet's Dyn. Kan, Dhtr, p. 278, note 2. 

a CTI. p. 100 i compare Ind. Af. Vol. XIV. p. 331. 

8 Dr Hultzsch, teads Mabdrathi also QIX the cains reproduced o-.i Plate iii, 


were correct, one would at least expect HaMratha and not MaMrathi, which, is not necessarily 

tlie same tLing, At any rate Mahdratfti is a title. Tliis is also Biihler's view (AS. p. 1 ^> ^ ote ' * 

but tlio special reason which ha adduces in support of it is not afc all decisive, vis* tlta* m the 

Kfiiifi inscription No. 14 Oklahliiy<tnnm Halidrathi should be translated by "the Afa^d* ^ ^ 

tlic Okhalakiyas." Kotliing proves that the genitive depends on NaMraflii, Several instances 

hhow us the proper name of a donor accompanied by the name of the tribe or the peopl* 3 * W -' :11C "- 

he belongs in the genitive plural, e.g. Junnar Nos. 5 and 6 (CTI. and AS.). The fact ixb-a-** * n the 

other cases where we find the word again and in that same No, 14 in the very nest li* 143 ? ^ a ^ l " / " 

ra^ii does not govern a genitive, forces ua to reject altogether the construction, proposed by 

BiihleiO Hence this inbtaucc cannot furnish, as he thought, a positive argument ag^i ns * ^e 

interpretation previously proposed by Gairez, 2 who saw in it a kind of ethnical name equivalent 

to Muvatlia. Etymologic-ally this explanation seems to me strongly supported by t!b.e ??*> which 

IK'tJiuppoaea it Sanskrit fnrni Malidn1sJi{nri. But MaMrashtnii has not necessarily a geo graphical 

meaning, and it is diificnlt to separate the word from MaMWwja and MaMsdmctnta, "wliieh. are 

connected with it in our inscriptions. As rdshtm often moans a province, it is qtii-te natural 

that nlsli-lrin follows the same analogy as IMja and suuanta, so that, if UaMWioja has become a 

title applied even to TV omen, the same could very easily happen in the case of Malidrcis^tT^ aa ^ 

Ma,Mf<Wtprim, or Ifo/tiini/W and MaMt'afliint s This is posdble, but not absolutely cex'tain ; it 

may as well have been that the name, starting from the geographical and ethnical meaning, 

k-cume fixed aa a title ci honour in certain families, perhaps because of certain important 

rc-lativt's or of special circurostaiices. 4 It may be noted that to our MaMrafM A garni tranaka 

cont'sponds a MaMratU Mitadeva in Fo. 14 ; that this Mitadeva is a KausikipT3.tra, like 

VisliBudatta at Bhaja (No. 2] ; and lastly that the MalidratUnt S?imadinika at BedsS. (Wo. 2) 

was married to an Ipadevariaka. Do nut these different names look an if they were connected 

with each other in such a way as to suggest the idea that they may have belonged to -fclie same 

circle of families or relations ? We find a Sthavira Igimita, ic. Agnimitra, at KlTid.3. (CTI. 

Ko. 5). I believe that the names in naka in our inscriptions, as liere and as Nanclarialca at 

Junnar (OTI. No. 22), etc., are not different names, but simply equivalents of Agnimitra., Fanda, 

efc. Gotiputra 5 is tie .^ame as Gauptiputra, from Gupta. 

Dr. Hultzsch contributes the following noto on the three coins figured at the "bottom of 
Plaio Hi., which are of interest in connection with the explanation of MaMrafhi ; 

" In the year 1888, Mr, A. Mervyn Smith, while prospecting for gold, found a zrruaiber of 
lead coins on an ancient site near Chitaldroog in the Mysore State and diatribu.tecl tliem to 
various coin-collectors. The smaller ones among these coins bore only Buddhist aind other 
gymkils, but a few larger ones had incomplete legends. On my speciinen (Plate Hi. IB .) I found 

Tl occuweDCc of the feminine Mal6ntMni in Bcdsl No. 2 also indicates rather that the term does not 
imply tk actual office of governor of a district or province, but aa honorific or nobiliary title. 

1 Jtnm. Ami, TIth serifs, Yd. XX. p. 201 f. 

8 I may here as well draw attention to th use of rattMka in Fill (e.g. Malea, II. 268, 12) as an equivalent 
ttyrHtptti and Fa%o, Couvpnw Saiapttk&Btdlnaia, XIII. 2, 9, 7, where tlie Wat are brought in special 
ecaawtlon with the rdsUri*, the wieMer of royal pnwer. 

We may compare the parallel TIM of the attributes &ldaffi(ke)rtt and Jfiwfiw (Mandavya)j on tjje late 
IN J*M in ld, Axt, Vol. TIL p. 2S4 Tlio occurcnce of jKekAnfoo* at Knfti (CTI. No. 14.V l eft vn 
toM riding ihe ethnical meaning of the word, though the USD of the dental d renders the idenfcificition 
msliila^tt. of literature proWcnatiwl. At BC-M (CTI. Ko, 2} Manila is connected with Mah 
twfo JfaMartjrff quit dear in fclie /tfe-jiw^ and excludes the useless and improbable 
rfi^<%, It will be ranged ftat intHs instance JfaAtoi precedes XAtocefrM. Seeing 
ii^ ilmyi precede* eitlcr attribute when connected with it 5 thk position does not seem to indicate that 

5 a -~A 

mM unplj a titk of nperiv KoWlity, and consequently still less that it could designate a very bigh dignifv 
5 [Tksaae epithet cccuw in the Sraga inscription of the Bliarirat St%a ; see Znd.Ant, Vol. XI V p 


the title Mahdratlii, which occurs in tlie cave-inscriptions (Karle) Nos. 2 and 14; A S.W I. V..1 
IV. p. 83, No. 7 (Bhaja), and p. 90, No. 3 (Bedsa). At my request Mr. R. Sewell kindly M-H i" 
me for comparison the two lead coins (Plate iii. A. and C.) which he had received from Mr. 
Mervyn Smith in 1888. These supply the first word of the legend, SadalsMin (see Dun- iii. A.> 
and contain portions of the second word, Kalaldya, while the third word, ;UVi7riif7t/*,i, i> pi, - 
served in B. and 0. The three coins may be briefly described aa follows : 

Plate iii. A. (Sewell). 
Obverse. A humped bull, standing towards the proper right. Round it, the words ,S.t?it7wv,a- 

Reverse. A bodlii-faee between two symbols. 

Plate iii. B. (Hultzseh). 

Obverse. Similar to A. There is a deep and distinct punch- mark below the I mil. Itiuu-i 
the latter, [So-] . [}ta]na-Ealaldya'Mahd'ratli[f]sa, 

Reverse. A ooYZM-tree, a chaitya, and a symbol between them. 

Plate iii. 0. (Sewell). 

Obverse. Similar to A. Round the bull, 3<.i . . . [Kaliijldya-MaJHn-'tlkisa. 

Reverse. A 66cWi4-tree and a cbaitya. 

" Taking the three coins together, it appears that the complete legend, of which each bear" 
a portion, is Sadakana-Kalaldya-Mahdrathisa. 

" The curious word Kalaldya reminds us of the equally peculiar Andhra name PulKnuiyi- 
SadaTtana is the same as S&takani in the Andhra inscriptions. Perhaps Kajalaya, with tlu- 
sui-name or family name Sadakana and the title Maharathi, held Chitaldroog aa a vassal of thr 
An.d.lira kings. From the emblems pictured on his coins we learn that he was a BuddhiHt. ami 
that his crest was a bull. 

" Since writing the above, 1 found that the Mysore Government Museum at Bangalore pus- 
sesses two lead coins of the same type, presented by Mr. Mervyu Smith, who found thotu m.-ai 

Claitaldroog in 1888." 

No. 8, Plate ii. (K. 3). 

Chaitya cave. Below the feet of the three elephants at the right end of the verandah. 


Theranam bhamyamta-(l) lEiiOdadevasa hathi cha puvado hatbinam cha 
uparim^ hethim^ cha veyika dauam-. 


(1) AS. and CTI. read bhayum* 3 . I do not feel inclined fco believe that the amisvdm cf 
bhafa is intentional ; but it certainly seems to exist on the stone. 


"The elephants and, before the elephants, the rail-mouldings above and below (are) the 
gift of the Sthavira, the venerable Indrad^va." 

In sewating do .and in considering it to represent the numeraj dvau, previous editors have 
created difficulties which they found it hard to overcome. It is sufficient to look at a photograpb 
to recognise that the elephants are actually .separated from the spectator by the teltutmde 


which tides the bottom of their legs. The Prakrit publddo = purvatah does not 

difficulty. Biihler has well defined the meaning of vgdikd by "bands or string-courses carved 

with the rail pattern," In No. 17 and elsewhere the term veyflcd is applied to fragments oi " this 


STo. 4, Plate i, (K. 4). 

Ghaitya cave. Over the right doorway. 


Dhenukakatl-t (1) gamdhikasa Si[rh]hadatasa (2) danam gharamugha. 


(1) The vowel-signs are not very pronounced; "but the two d-signs seem to be certain. 
After this word ia a space filled with cracks, which would leave room for two characters ', one 
might feel tempted to believe that originally the stone bore Dhenuk&katahasa (compare T&O. 6), 
But I reject this conjecture because the d of .5 ia very probable, and there are no traoes of Jea 
and so,, which ought to show among the cracks. Besides, the simple ablative is frequently used 
ia the same sense elsewhere, (2) Though neither AS. nor OTI. notices the anusvara of /Sfo'm, it 
seems to me probable. 


" (27ns) door () the gift of Simhadata, a perfumer from DMnttkakata." 
Dhe^nukakata is a name of frequent occurrence in the cave-inscriptions here and else-whore 
in these parts, Several Yavanas profess to be natives of that place. Therefore it ougvb.'fc fco be 
looked for in the north-west ; but it has not yet been identified. Compare AS. p. 24. 

No. 5, Plate Mi. (K. S), 

Cliaitya cave. On the pillar of the verandah in front of the central door, above fhe in- 
scription No. 6. 


1 Gahataaa Mat&deva- 

2 nakasa main Bhayilay& (1) danam. 


(1) I cannot say that the a of the last syllable appears to me certain, 


" The gift of Bhayila, the mother of the householder MaMdevft^aka." 
Regarding the name Mahadevanaka = Mahad&va, compare No. 2. The name Btiayiig, ha 
been explained by Bhrajiia. Thia transcription is nofc the only possible one, though it ar>T>ea t 
me the most probable. But could not this be the transcription of a foreign name ? I-fc 
again at Kud& (AS. Fo. IS), where a Br&hmant Bhayil^ is stated to have been the \vif C f M 
certain Ayitilu who, though called a Brahmaoa, bears a name of very barbarous form. V t 
i-eminds us curiously of Azilizes, etc. I do not pretend to affirm that our Bhayild is tHe* * 
though the writing of the two inscriptions appears to be quite contemporaneous and to IxT^^T ' 
mately related in certain details, e.g. the y*. I may add that the title of grilastJia, ap-pi" ? i~ 

1 for the loss of the aspiration ia gaJiaia compare e.y. jfcfoa in an inscription at Mathur&, 'En r^,^ 
00, No. XVIII. P ' * t *' Vol. I, 


her sou, seems to indicate a Brahmanical origin. In the case of an ordinary householder d tbo 
V.aisya class we would doubtlessly have gabapati as elsewhere. 

TSo. 9, Hate iv, (K. 6), 
Chaitya cave. Oa tike pillar of the verandah in front of the central door. 


1 Dhe?iik[ft]katakeg& (1) vadhakinii Sami- 

2 na (2) Venuvasa-put . . na (3) ghara[>a] 

3 mugha (4) kata durem . . dhu . . (5). 


(1) AS- and OTI. read V^fco . The long d seems very doubtful; the slanting -trukt 
resembles a simple crack.- (2) After Sdwt, OTI. inserts Tea and AS. Ie ; bat in the e h tampagp> 
there is no traoo of a letter which might have disappeared. The na is very probable, but the 
.crack which crosses the top of the character does not absolutely exclude the reading a.~- (a) 
AS and OTI. read putma ; but the e attached to the t is at least very indistinct. Bendes, it 
s from a comparison of the preceding line that there ought to have been an atom! 
here. The existing traces would seem to point to to reading putaltena, hough iks duni- 
very plausible.- (4) AS. and CTL read mugUm. I cannot distinguish the - 
deny that it eits. The stone is BO much defaced that no drtri 
" s a hook at *a bottom ^hich oan easily be taken for . ; but i 

fo, g o to ereas 

0m Mt 

is at 

mpr a ' 

By ft e oa^ ^i, aou of 

opening of the cave .. . TT^, . g^g i s tih. a t we have 

The muiiiatto of to tot m^ its -I*^ 1 ^.^ j the 'Jd compound 
Wa yaerig M tnreo.rb^^ C8sim ^t ^ taoription doea not fer te 

r<. into 9^ M " l> * I" 01 8 Z liu a, .mamg. Th m.y i ten spec, 
whota of to door, tat to details OOTmected * ^ ^ e j^pto. And H in 

or oiilierwiHe, undetermined. 

No. 7, Hate i. (K. 7), 




( Li Tin: lirst a of 'Mtd in AS. is surely only a clerical mistake. (2) The final anusvdra 
ii-iM- i.i u:c porJx'Ctly visible, 


(2Vm) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Sihadhaya f rom Dh&aukakata." 

I'Vt the combination of the singular Yavanasa witli the plural Sihadhaydna[m'] compare* 
N'i ", \\heru tho plural thcninam is followed by the singular Imdadevasa. 

Uo. 8, Plate iii. (K. 8). 
Chaitija cave. On the fifth pillar ; left row. 

TEXT. (1) 

t SoparakS bhayatanam Dhamutari- (2) 

2 yana sa , nathasa (3) therasa , (4) 

3 bha . . sa (5) amtevasisa bha'zia- 
-i kasa Na . pat . sa (6) Satimitasa 
o saha . . . t[i]hi (7) [tha]bho danamukha (8), 


i ; ) Ti,. hiMM-iplioji is much defaced, perhaps intentionally, as Biihler thinks, in order to be 
. i-liii-eil |.\ the fi.llmving- ono (No. 9). Hence all statements referring to it will have to "be 

,..,}- \\i! h ^KvLiJ caution. (2) AS. and GTI. read tdna and tara. I consider the anusVdra 
i ml tk- / ..I' ft comparatively certain.-- (3) OTI. and, -with hesitation, AS. read samdnatha , 
\ Mi-r1. luuj- bc-fiiw to bo lost ; but which ? The m does not seem to me more probable than 

iy i.lhtr i-1 1 CTI. readb ma and AS. a as the last letter which I am unable to make out. 

Oj AS, ami CTl.xx'ad f!W The first letter appears to be certainly a Wi; compare the t 

i ;/'. inV.. And T have no doubfc that t-wo letters have to be supplied between this letter 
I.-..1 t,lm liuiil x,t. (0) AS, IT.tiZi>afwa j CTI. Naduputisa. M or d are possible, but neither 
- crfttdii, 1 U.) uot discover any trace of an u below thejp; but, after all, puta8a is a priori 

> pudwljlc Oi it ! can hardly doubt that thia was the original reading of the stone. (7) AS. 

, . f/>t; OTI. Imatajj'^twja. The t above the t is more probable than the u below, 
,i>-1 the vending U i^, though not at first sight, at least as admissible graphically as ya. This 
_r.v.> Aviih UK- poshiblu restoration vutapi, a completely satisfactory form. The reading tuya, 
... tmitiiiijr tli. lotui-utiun [ . . . Mict^tuya, would seem to be recommeivded by jfee ex- 
t>r. ^i-.n i.j.i.trt,-.. in the fulbwing inscriptiun (No, 9), which seems to hav been intended to 
u place Uio ini-scut one. But why this substitution? Was it only in order to avoid the 
!-n ut inn <> the jmial-er of Satiuutu, ? Or perhaps for inserting the mention of the relics, wHch 
woHltl liavu boi'u jiatet-a over in silence in the first redaction and added ultimately by the donor ? 
V>) Tito Ik ia quite indistinct, but nevoitheless certain. The final letter, read la by OTI. and 
latimdolmamtdbyAS,, must bo, ]&, # dch gives us the excellent reading cUnatmifefo[>]. 
Tin. lorn oE K is nut cjulic uiual But it seems to be so nearly allied to certain variants of the 
sum* Idler us to 1W U this interpretation probable, which also gives a good sense To iudge tlc r.riu of kh in No, 1U, tho shape of this letter seems to have been particularly change- 
ibKj luul umlt ty-xiiujiwd. 


(is) the gift of tho preaoher Satimita, the son of Nanda (?) (o-ntf) the 
m ..,.,.... of tho venomblo 
Soparaka, togott&r with [his father and mother ?]." 

No. 7.] 


In explaining these lines one cannot separate them from tht following k^npti^u 
its abridged reproduction, the motive of which we cannot quite out, Thv* e 

proves that the connection with the sect of the Dham&tt&rfyas applies in the of ti 
fco Satimita himself. What is more doubtful, is, whether the first , 

applies to him or to his master. I do not "believe in Biihlep's eottjeclnrem[*NJ*<l 
is too risky to restore a purely hypothetical title of hardly at tins 

mistake attributed to the engraver, and I am unable to suggest a plausible r-f 

It seems to me very tempting to find here the proper name (.jr. m $a. : 

*.e. 'of arvaaiS,tha ' or 'of Sakranatha ') of this master of ov ; but j 

ifoera precedes the proper name, Hence it is a priori more imfetie tJbattiie *i 

the letters following fherasa, which cannot be restored with any certainty. I lisvc 
remaining traces would favour the reading "putasa for {he socoafl >f the 
reads Nadtpatisa and OTI. Naddgutisa, If we read at the !*]*!% *r 

the reading pw*osa seems to me assured by the 



a preacher and belonging to the sect of the Dhann6tta.iyaa s to i 

consequently umnarried. 1 As regards the use of dfaHmukha aa 
.is well known in the Buddhist epigraphy of the North- Westv it* i& 

sufficiently well established. 

No, e.mateiii. (X, 9), 

Olwitya cave, Immediately below iiie pcditig 


1 Sopraka bhayamtanam (I) 

2 kasa Stirattasa 

3 sasariro thabo dinam. 

(1) AS. and CTI. y&na ; but this avwsvdra appears to im tw ccrtaia tlie c 

) pillar oonteimng relioa .)-* pcwte 

. I-' * 

No. 10, Plate i. (K. 
cave. On to fourth pfltar 


a * *HN fc *** } ^ * 1 *" 

that of 


"Of Dhaihma, a Yavana from Dhemik&kata," 

This translation is that of my predecessors. I confess that the explanation of 
Javanasa, appears to me somewhat doubtful. At Nasik (IJTo, 18, L 1) we find a Tavane, 
the son of Dharmadeva. But the simple name of Dhamma applied to a Buddhist sur"p**i sea me, 1 
Thia combination of a proper name with, a tribal name in a compound is unusual In oi>ter cases 
(above, No, 7, and at Junnar, CTL Kos. 5 and 8) the word Tavana, precedes the proper otaame, and 
'both have the termination of the genitive. On the other hand, an inscription at Jui*- ar (^L 
No. 4) supplies a compound which resemblea ours at first sight. Thia is the attribute dhamma- 
nigawa, applied to a certain Virasena, It haabeen translated ( an upright merchant." I doTibi 
this translation for several reasons. ITirst, it is hardly probable that the donor, a simple private per- 
son, should bestow such compliments on himself ; what one would expect^ is, not an enco:paauni, but 
a positive statement like the title grihapatipratnukhct, which resembles dhafamanigama. Further, 
nigama does not mean 'a merchant;,' which would be negamct. Of course the change o & into i is 
not impossible in Prakrit, but it is a priori improbable in a case where the change would, produce 
a confusion with the usual nigama, which means, among other things, ' a group of people ' or ( a 
company of merchants,' It is still less credible, if one compares the two expressions, thai> Dhamma" 
Yavana could be used for ' an. upright "ISTavana.' Hence I feel tempted to take Dhamtrta in both 
cases in a specifically Buddhist sense, and to understand by dharnvnanigaana ' a menaber of the 
guild of Buddhist merchants; 1 - compare niga-masabhd at ftasik (No., 12, 1.4), On this analogy * 
Dhamma-Yavana would be ' the community of the Buddhist Tavauaa,' or rathei? a Yavana 1 
who has modestly omitted his personal name. 

No. 11, Plate i. CK. 11). 
QKaitya cave. On the seventh pillar ; left row. 


1 Dhemikakata TTsabhatfata-putasa Mitade- 

2 vanakasa thabho d&nam. 


" (This} pillar (is) the gift of Mitadevaoaka, son of Usabhadatft, from Dhnuk.^,fe.ata.' r 
I feel inclined to believe that tMfi MrbradeVa is the son of that Rishabhadatta who is raentionecC 

in No. 13 and many other inscriptions as the son-in-law of NaJbapaiia, For this name Is not very 

common, and I find another connecting link in the name of ^ishabhadatta's wife JDakhamitra 
, (Kasik No, 11). The silence kept regarding Nahap&na as well as the titles and donations of 

Rishabhadatta would suggest that the inscription is later than (he downfall of the Klxaharates ; 

compare Njlsik No- 4. In the palseogcaphic forms I do not see sufficient reasons for denying that 

the present insciiption could be slightly later than No, 13.. 

Ho. 12, Hate i. (K.12), 

Qhatitya eave. On ihe inside of the belt which forms the base of the giat aroh.. 

Asadhamitaye bhikhuni . danam(l)' 

i Jt is widfeot tfhat jbHe intentional application of this name to a purely flotatioua being as t& e <tSca in the 
J^ftAa Ifa..^ is a totallj dissiiuilar case and-cannofc Ise- quoted as a precedent. I 

Karle Inscriptions. Plate I. 

SCALE -125 

SCALE -125 


SCALE -06 

SCALE -135 

BO A Xill -17 


Collotype by KOmmler A Jonrw, ]Mwidn. 



(1) AS. and CTI. lchu^[ye] . . , . The letter ye seems to have dimppeam! i:i tl, 
crack, and I iMnk I can see after it d{a]iiam ; the warn, especially, is comparatively clear. 

"The gift of the nun Isadhamita." 

At Kud& (OTI. No. 5) we find a nun named Asadhamitl., the disciple of Pdutm)ik&. 
That inscription looks later than the present one. But it may be that the engravers of Kw lw ba-l 
kept up a slightly more archaic tradition. 

Ho. 13, Plate ii, (Ksk. 8). 

Ohaitya cave. On the upper frieze to the right of the central door. 

The estampage does not throw much more light on the text than the Plate. From this it 
will be understood that this inscription in its actual state leaves very much room for the in- 
genuity of the reader, and that the earlier reproductions greatly exaggerate the actual certfticty" 
of several readings. To become convinced of this, one need only compare the diffiereftetfi between 
AS. and OTI. at the end of the 3rd line. 


1 Sidb-am [||*] Rano Khaharfctasa khafcapasa STahapanasa ja[ma]tari (1) . n . 

kaputena (2) Usabhadatena id- (8) 

2 gosatasahasa[de]na nadiyfc (4) Banasaya (5) s[u]vanatathafc*rejm (8) ... 

brahmanana (7) cha sola[sa]gt- 

3 ma[d]e. Pabhftee ptitatithe (8) brahmanana ath&bhay4p[r> . . [ajawimm 

pi tu (9) satasahasam bho-(10) 

4 ianavita Valflrakesu lenavasinam (11) pavajilAnam . ohStBdrnw 

5 yfipanatha g&mo [Ka3r[a3Jiko (12) dato sa . na ... ***** (13). 


m CTI wd. I cannot discover any trace of the <i- (2) The tmdg MA. it * 
^ vi ^ V Jr,t the d is q nite indistinct on the estampagea, and & ft is.mmch wora (8) 
doubt certain; but the * * a d f ^^^ What has been token fw? ^i (Aa> 

I believe that there , ^ ta *^^f ^ W0 uld be a serious ^d u D u S ual ^fafc. 
would run into the bottom of h B ^J^ ^^j,- (6) T do any 

-(4) AS. tatfyd, i,bidh "^^^jitairttfn. IS. and CTI.r,ad raiha, though 
trace of the * belov the ., though f^^** ^ ^ ^^ fltro ke would not be ,o 
admitting that the word *^ rf T^bove which the < is lost,- (7) I do not 
straight if it jere a ra I . ^ r.m the comparison with tte Nasik iuerip- 

B ee anything of ^ tboogh ^ta. wort U ^ ^ & ^ rf ^.^ x ^ nofc ^^ 

tion No, 10. AS. and CTI, ad tnM* ^__ (9) The f has at the right bottom a per- 

aay traee.-(8} ^J^ M *' ** iwfcm.i Thf restoration <fea seems eerfcain ; 
pendicular line ^bich may express the , , as m flra ^ ^^ ^ ^^ rf 

L uotog rexnains of these lexers, ^^^ost JL, igh the mitial . is mucn 
AS., which resembles mine closely "W^ ^ ^ dear . Though beHeving th*fc I see 



,. VII. 

(11) AS. and CTI, tofe, a .- (12) The first I is very indistinct, and the r would see^ *o have 
at the top the vowel-mark d or o.~(l3) I am quite willing to believe that the readier Proposed 
by the first editor* sofa* vbavdntfoaA, is well founded; but a portion of it has foeSorae quite 
invisible, and between M and ^ there is certainly room for another letter Tt is * thai 
between and M there is also room for one more character, which is, Lowmr/qnite Ixrtpx-olbable, 


Success ! By TTsabhadata, the son of Dinika (and) son-in-law of the Hi- -fcfce 
,HiaZ.fcafropfl Wahapans, who gave tiree-hundred-thousand cows, who 
gold and a a on the nver Banana, who gave to [the Devaa] and the Brfh* 
villages, who at the pure twtte Pabhasa gave eight wives to the Br^hmanas and 
annually a hundred-thousand (BrdJ^anas) ,- there has been given the vflliW of Kiaa? 
the support of the ascetios living in the caves at Valtota without an/ distinction 
or 0ngin, for all who would keep the wfa (there)." aistincuioxi 

In explaining these lines, we have to compare closely Nos. 10 and 14 at N&sik M. 
of the first, espe^ly which is better preseryad, comes very neai- to our text. The ri^er 
(compare N&sik No. 14, 1. 10) or Barn&sU (Nasik No. 10, 1. 1) is represented in 
by two nvers named Banas, with which it has been successively identified The first 
Northern Gujarat, pasaes Palampur, and falls into the Ban of Kachh 
flows through Eastern Bajputana and 

gifto of 

also fed 
of sect 



and ^de pa gJta Henoe it nxay be ass e d that thia 
.mportapce for b. fa^l yj and it to . P ri ^tura! to tatf.. t 
Now li n precwly m those parte that the 8M od riyer Baute flows a 
is ollained it ssems to . mo r e proiaHa that thia 

nata, oi fcgiftB aUuded to is not 
is supported hythft comparison with 

define wMe The 

No 10 1 1 where (L 

oi T 01 ; ? " 


of a tradition whose 
W. wonld hare 


the epic legend locates the death o 

of dityarfna, ' If 

second case from that f the Brahmanas who 

... . .... ., ,., . . their husbands. There is notmui? m 

vamtion to justify the unlikely interpretation which Bhagwanlal (from an aigumcnt wh 
my opinaon could eaeily be turned against him) has tried to substitute for the true me,, ", 
^shabhadatta boasts of havmg given wives to eight Brahmauas by exempting eight you,, c wmie B 
of thoBrahmana caste from all the expenses which are involved bj the costly cuv*L i.t of 
Hindu marriages and the acquisition of the ornaments which in a certain waj represent ilit 

P iei are two particles. Buhler's translation ' for the sake of his father L 

text pitarato udditaa. Besides, independently of the omission of the ' mother,' which 
surprising ftnd contrary to custom, the mention would be curiously placed here in a l*.f 
recapitulation ; it is certainly missing in the parallel passage in Naaik No. 14. 

Valftrafca seems to designate Kai-lS ; compare the following inscriptions. The plural H used 
frequently in the case of village names. It remains to ascertain in what manner hare to b< 
construed all the genitives lertavdainaik pavajitdnam chdtudisasa saghata. We may compare 
several analogous formulaa. In No. 19, 1. 1 f. we find : lonetu Vdlurakesu vtithai'dwt p ataji/aj 

bhikhuna nikd-yaaa Mahdsaghiydna ydpandya gttma .... 

dadama ; in Nasik No. 2, 1. 10 : lena, mahddevi dvdtiti nikdyata 

Wiaddnaniydnam Ihikhusagliasa in Nasik No. 3, 1. 12 : gCimo bMkkuKi 

devilenav&tehi nikdyena Bhaddi/aniyeh-i paUga[h"\ya dato; and ibid. 1. 13 : g'tma . . , , . 

bhikhuhi devilencL[vdaeJii nikd^yena Bhaddyaniyehi patigayha dato. The 

passage in No. 19 was intentionally copied from the present inscription and has thtrtfore D" 
independent value. In both oases one might be tempted to separate the two genitive* and to 
let the first depend on daddti, the second on ydpandya or ydpanatha. But the long distance froEu 
the verb would be little favourable to this hypothesis. And in Nasik No. 2, where yapamiya 
has no equivalent, it is quite excluded. Besides, iu Naaik No. 3, where a different caw is natd, 
both terms are, just as here, in the same case. Hence we must conclude that in all the** 1 
instances the terms bhikTw or samgha,^ nikdya, and Mahdtamghiya, or Bhaduyuniya. art* 
oo-ordinato. Thus the donation is made here "for the support of the universal Sttmyha in the 
person of the monks residing in the caves at Valuraka;" in No, 19 " for the support of the 
brotherhood constituted by the MahasaThghikas iu the person of the monks (of thia community) 
residing in the caves at Valuraka"; in Nasik No. 2, "to the Sathgha of ihe monk in Um 
person, of the brotherhood constituted by the BhadAyamyas j " and so on. We shall *ee in due 
time how the change of the case in Nasik No, 3 is to be explained. Here I would only remark 
that iu the two passages of that inscription we find both n&dya, and Blmdayaniya in 1he 
instrumental case and are thus prohibited in No. 19 to construe, as would wem ntwml, 
MaMmbghiydna as dependent on nifc0,-' the brotherhood of the MahasaAghikw. 

This point being established, we shall have to 6x more clearly than *m to hw been tried 
hithwto the meaning wHch our inscriptions assign to the expression oUtadta *a*tf^. Ja my 
opinion eMtofa* & no* ^^ of ^ hf>ton orwan ^ ft co^mon-plaoe^ 
has an intentional meaning j it signifies the clergy of every origin, .e. A 

. .- - - '' ' 


^ ___ ! ovCT 

!nB"cMMrfrom which n vab>& **& ""* J thiftk ** ****** 

;*? obtuim*} ** ***- ,.-, .^A-J- 

of TI ordinary kind, wHch frequently repeated. 


beyond all particular limitation; and this is why the donor adds *,. - , - ,*, Tn 


(cAofcfciu ,a^) could be brought to take ,p thai, abode in the caves 

the* r, S1 dent host* If he donor had ? ant 0% the *nonl B K v ing 

^ T"~. SamS W> aS m ^ feU WU * insori Pfci*. I* ^ 

o 15 I 7 ^^ft^ toya^a o^rd,'fa6M, . Wwfflto . 

,* ^Hobeappheaforae mescal treatment of the monks of JL frff, 1 W 3ao shall 
mule IB the ^ of the Trira^i hill." Monastic conmunities maybe^fi^ in two 
respeots, , acoordmg to to raa.dence and according to the sect to which they Mn*. This 
double restnchon 1S exckded m pnnczplo by the nation of the chtindisa saLla, though in 
sorae case, and .ccor^og to the d^ta of the donor it may mean socially JT tHe other. 
o. 1 4 fa donjon as made a S follows , eto mama J e tJ^^d/^K^ 


samgha > y[a}imasmimlemwwmttimmI>liavis(Ltic'hiva,rikQ, r% i,- 

clothes to the monks .ho shall reaidek this cave without res^e' or "distinction ts toTeoT" Thf 

t0 the 8a ^ a "*" ^ property of the 

a quite aaHsfacy 

that their donation should beneBt 

of the sect whjch hey wauted to fa.our, of Stayer origin and usual reddenceF 
S xon seems to be s rongly corroborated by the compmsonof EMS No. 19, 1. 1 f., w here 
of Kara^ ,a g.ven, orthe ,u PP ort of the MaMsamgMka monks Aiding ia the 
Taluraka^-Z^ F^abm vtthavdna P avajitd na m^una nik&yata MA4 s 
ytpanaya. feeiie donation expressly restricted to the Mah&stogMka ffi onka re 
Valuraka Shall we not ooMe from this, that, in other cases where the cMtnr^a 
referred to ihe 0ft M m ade to the Mah^rhghikas of whatever origin P mile fc the 
examples fte wording .excluded all restriction as to sect, it excludes here all restriction f o 
ongin or residency It u hardly necessary to add that, i used alone and without axx 
clause, the expression excludea both the first and second restrictions, No, 19 inform* . 
the village of Karajaka was given to the monks of Yaluraka by V&sithipata Pxil? - 
Gotaipute Satakani. This inscription is certainly later than fi present ineT Thon-K OT 

not dlnde to a previous donation, and itouglx the form Kamjika, which we have lxe 
slightly from Kanaka, the only form which occurs in No. 19, 1 *hmk that Btthler is ' 
a dmitting(AS.p.ll3;c i omparep.24)thatthetwbname 8 ref e rtoth e g a mevilI w T 

e nctories of 

o aars creae y e nctoes of Q- 

puto, Satakani and by the destruction, of which he boasts, of that dynasty of the Kia W&-^ -1" 
whchora^, What peo^S 

h espressed with particular precision by 


, p. 81. 

Lenes[u] Vdlurakes[_u'] vdtJwodna 

nikdyasa Mabdeaghiydna y[_d"]pan[_<l]ya 
. gdma Karajaka . , . , dadama- 


me of this, is the parallelism existing between the phraseology of our inscription and that of 
No. 19 ; thus 

No. 13. No. 19. 

Valurakesu lenavdsinam pavajitdnath 
clidtiidiaasa sagliasa ydpanatha 
ydmo Karajiko dato. 

The close similarity proves that this parallelism was intentional, and it is all the more signifi- 
cant that the second donor, who was probably filled with a particular sympathy for the Mahasam-. 
ghikas, restricts the benefit of the donation to the 'monks of this sect alone. If the identification 
is well founded, it localises the village in qxiestion in the Mawal subdivision, west-north-west 
of Poona. 

Ho. 14, Plate ii. (Ksh. 17). 
Chatty a cave. On the upper fiieze to the left of the central door, 


1 Eano Vasithiputasa (1) Samisirip . . . . s , (2) savachhare satame 7 

[g]imhapakhe pachame 5 

2 [cQivase pathame 1 et&ya puvaya Okhalakiyana Maharathisa (3) 

Kosikiputasa Mitadevasa putena 

3 harathin& Vsithiputena Somadevena gamo dato Valuraka-saghasa (4) 
Valuraka-lenana (5) sakarukaro (6) sadeya- 

4i meyo. 


(1) AS. Vast . The long a is certain. (2) From the traces, the restoration Pulwndyisa, 
can hardly be called conjectural. (3) CTL rathisa ; but the central dot of the th can still be 
recognised, and the certain reading O rai/ii in the following line leaves no reasonable doubt 
regarding the transcription.- (4) AS. "rakasamghasa, (5) AS. Vcdtirakalenana. I do not share 
the opinion of Buhler who considered that the long u is certain. In my opinion, it would be less 
improbable in the preceding word, were it not that the condition of the stone deprives certain 
apparent but accidental strokes of any real significance. (6) GTL safcoriJ[ya]7<;aro{Va]. The 
transcription of AS., which is ours, seems to me certain. 


In the seventh 7th year of the king lord Sm-Pulumayi, son of Yasithi , in. the 
fifth- 5th fortnight of summer, on. the first lst~ day, on the above, by the Mah&rathi 
Somadevft son of ViLsithlj the son of the Maharathi Mitadeva son of Kosiki, of the 
Okhalakiyas, there was given to the community of Valtiraka, of the Valuraka caves, a village 
with its taxes ordinary and extraordinary, with its income fixed or proportional." 

I have stated on p. 50 why the genitive Okltalukiydnam must be connected with Somadevena 
and cannot depend on Mahdrathi&a. It is the geographical name of a country, or rather of a' tribe, 
Buhler (AS.) has pointed out the name of a district, Ukhada, from which it may be derived. 
The end of the inscription presents a difficulty which has not yet been solved satisfactorily. 
Bhagwanlal read sakardkarosa d&yameyo, which he transcribed in Sanskrit as samskdraMrnndya 
deya Sshah. I can hardly believe tliat Buhler could have approved of such an explanation; but, 
though he read sakarvka,-~ a reading which seems to be warranted by an examination of the 
back of the estampage, he adopted the same translation as Bhagwanlal in OTI., w. " this gift is 
in. order to keep the Valuraka caves in repair," As in his transcription (AS.) he separates 


t \ Olu 

the dative and the u, oi 

caused the end of th, n.cnpta after Valuraka^ g]las , to e, 

MMnan^ beragnecessary for costing the f ollowmg ^d. j J ^ reads 

he text wdhout preMce aud keeps in mind the custody wording of gn s " e l^ot fail 
to connect the words saWaro s^neyo w ith ^, HO toj an / to ^ 
resembung **. ^nfcara, e*,, which occur in other grants in F eei e v 
Be. ea, by ks cons ructxou we avoid havhg recourse to the espediL of 
always douab e The first re 8 ult is to condemn the brJSk of the 

These t W o tenns are closely C on u ,et tl l The gift is 
the ' 

,'.. aa the preceding inscdption expressed it k a .y 
way, to the 7a^mten Z e ^ S < of tha fl,fe ff to O f Vdfcraka. Valflraka is the general 
delation o the village where the so-called KarlA caves are situated. this focality 
contamed still other monks besides those who had found an asylum on the slopes of the till. To 
these last ones was confined the benefit of tlie royal donation. 

There remain the terms aafcarufcoro and sadeyameyo. It ia well known and will Denoted 
ngnu more than once how much uncertainty is felt in the explanation of technical terms repeated 
incessantly in grants of all ages, which define or describe the righte and advantages conferred on 
the donees, If this ia the case even in quite a modern protocol, it is not sur F i,h Jg that we are 
embarrassed by more ancient formula* which have fallen more or less into disuse, But ours is 
not without analogies. Kaf a is so well known in. the sense of ' dues payable to Government,' that 
I need not dwell on it, 1 The same is not tlie case witk ntkam > but, j>ar jfcom. which is its exact 
equivalent, appears almost invariably at the head of the customary formulas wMfh Jvgin. generally 
with tMraAga, dpankara. The meaning of udratiga is not yet established. I do xiot know 
if fcara can stiictly correspond to it. At any rate, there ia no doubt that nothing but a, kind of 
revenue is meant hero, so that in a general way sakarttkaro = akird*fearii Ijecomea tlxe natural 
equivalent of sMmigah soparikaraL The meaning of wparifcora is as little settled as that of 
udranga, and it will not be wondered at that I cannot be positive regarding the tranalatioxi of our 
new term. The certain meaning of kara, combined vrith the modification which w implied bj 
wi or wpctri, the first member of ufkwa or ujjankara, seems to recommend as plausible ihe general 
sense which I have attributed to these two terms. 

Tbe adjective which follows has at least the advantage that it can. be translated etymologi- 
cally, 'together with what has to be given and what has to he measured,' This is va,gue, hut 
not at all unintelligible. Here also, I think, the comparison of the more modem forraulas can 
assist us. Several grants combine with the epithets sodranga and sujuarikara the expression 
savdiablititadMnyaliiranyddeyo,? More commonly it is resolved into sabhutdvdtafratydya and 
sadMnyaUi'antjadeya, 5 which prove that, contrary to the hesitating conjectures of Dr, 371eet (Z.c. 
p, 170, note 9j and in conformity with Dr. 'Hultzsch's translation, d<Mya t 'what itt to To taken,' 
ia nothing but an equivalent of p-atydya, 'revenue,' Hence* AMnyaJiiray y ddey a aoxeans * the 
revenue both in grain and in specie.' The expression used in our inscription is not quite 
identical ; for we have not sddeya^ but sacttya. Nevertheless it seems to me very probable that 
it corresponds on -the whole to the idea expressed by the Sanskrit formula wad, Eke it, embraces 
' what is given or paid directly,' ie. the taxes in money, and * what is measured,' i.e. tlie dues in. 
kind which were levied on the products of the fields. 

1 Compare in the inscriptions of Jnyaa&tha and Sarvan&tka (Dr, Fteet' Gpfa Jmfrifti&$, p. 
p, 127,1,1?); asya (yrdmatya) gamttelitaWgabUgalearapratyAyapanayttfa Im'tif^4. 
* See e.ff, the M%& plntfs in Dr. fleet's G upta Inscriptions, p, 166, L S6, 
See e,g, the Allnft plates, Hid, p, 179, 1. 68, si-d tne Lnnsa4$ plates, *bove, ToL 1?, f, 80. 


Ho. 15, Plate I. (K. 13, 14), 
Chatty a cave. Above a pair of figures at the right corner of the verandah. 

Bhadasamasa bhikhusa deyadhama mithuna (1) ve (2). 


(1) Though the/ac-similes in CTI. have only a trace of the long u, it seems to me very probable 
from the new estampages that the writer formed an u, as in the following inscription which to all 
appearances is written in the same hand. One might feel inclined to believe that the letter is only 
an exceptional form of the short u ; but in No. 1 we have found clearly utama beside Bhutaptila. 
and in No. 13 there are several distinct instances of long u. We must therefore transcribe the 
sign by it, without forgetting what is attested by many cases and notably by the numerous- 
inscriptions which do not make any distinction between the long and the short vowel how 
negligent our inscriptions ate in marking vowels. (2) Though this inscription is closely 
connected with the following one, I do not believe, after minute examination, that, as my 
predecessors thought, the two inscriptions are absolutely identical, In No. 16 the reading is free 
from doubt. The same is not the case here. The last letter, which has been read , looks rather 
like v with the vowel e, and in the crack between tliu and ve there is room for the final n of 
mithfaia. It looks as if an n with d could be distinguished. One might even believe that one sees 
a distinct nd subscribed to this damaged character, as if the letter above had been spoiled by some 
accident and subsequently restored below the line. At any rate it seems to me wrong to transcribe 
the last letter otherwise than by ve. 

" Two pairs, the pious gift of the BMTcshu Bhadasama." 

If my impression regarding the reading of this inscription is justified, the proposed translation 
would be certain. In the presence of the following inscription, it would have to be 'assumed that 
the donor originally had the intention to perpetuate his double gift by only a single mention, bat 
that on second thoughts he added his name a second time on the other pillar. As regards the 
form ve, we find be dvau in ETSsik No. 4, 1. 3, and No. 12, 1. 3, and do in HMk No. 26, 1, 3. 

Wo. 16, Plate i. (K, 13, 14), 

Chatty a cave. On the inner side of the right hand screen of the verandah ; above a pair of 


Bnadasamasa bhikhusa deyadhamam (1) mithftnam (2). 


(1) AS. and CTI. dTiama; but the anusvdra seems to me sufficiently clear. (2) AS. and 
CTI. lMna; compare the preceding inscription. 

11 (This) pair (w) the pious gift of the BMfaliM Bhadasama." 

Ho. 17, Plate i. <K. 15). 
OUtty a cave, On the wall to the right of the central door (close to the rail pattern). 


manayutaya (1) danacu veyika. 


(1) AS. and CTI. . , . [$d]man&ya, mdtuya. No traces remain of the pretended ct, 
which appears entirely conjectural. The n, is certainly not accompanied by an a. To judge by 
their own plates, AS. and CTI, have inserted the wo, which is completely invisible and for which 
there is no room. The y which precedes bears a clear subscribed 4 of the same shape as in the two 
preceding inscriptions. The following t has at the top the mark of d, and the lower stroke, which 
has been taken for u, ought to have been attached to the right of t if it had this meaning'- 

" (This) rail (4s) the gift of ..,.." 

I can make nothing of the existing remains of the proper name. We see only that the 
sculpture of this balustrade was the gift of a female. 

Wo. 18, Plate iii. (K. 16). 

Cliaitya cave. On (he wall to the left of the central door (close to the rail pattern). 


Kotiya (1) bhikhuniya atranika-matu (2) veyika danam (3) [Namjdikena (4) katarii. 


(1) AS. and CTI, Kodiya. The second letter seems to me rather a fi but it is doubtful 
(-2) AS. ia; the u is certain.- (3) AS. dana, OTI. "ddna. (4) The first letter is doubtful 
the honzontal basis of the n being singularly slanting. But the final d is sure. 


"{!%) rail, the gift of the BhiksJwni Koti, the mother of Ghunika, was made by 
Handika." ' J 

No. 19, Plate II. (Ksh. 20). 

Claitya cave. On the 2nd and 3rd tiers of the frieze between the central and the right- 
hand doors. e 


1 ' * * " * C&napayati] Mamade (1) amaoha par . cata . 

rnasu (2) etha lenesa V&lurakesa (3) vathavana (4) 

2 TOavaiit&lia bhikTiTma. m'taTroao iuro'UA r ,~~i. _c , ,, 

y '. pan. . va etha 

4 glmwa Karajakftna bhikhuhalaparih^ vitarama apavesa a (12) 

glma Ka^ake^)^ ^ ^ " ****** ***** ' ( ^ ' et '" 

5 ttikhuhalaparihtoe cha etha nibadh%hi (15) aviyena, anata . 

sava m (18) ^W^^ (16) dato the '. .(17; * [ 

6 ^ pa 4 diva 1 Sivakfcadagutena kala. 

Inscriptions Plate 11. 

SCALE -123 

SCALE -125 

by BdmmU" A > 



(1) Of this inscription, CTI. gives only a fac- simile without transcript or commentary. 
Hence only AS. has to be considered here. AS. Hdmd[le] ; the de is certain. (2) AS. pa . ga 

. masu. The r is certain, though I cannot say whether it was accompanied by an & or an i, 
The last syllable looks like so, ; but on the "back the mark for , which AS. gives, can be clearly 
distinguished. (3) AS. lenasa Valurakasa. The letters vd and fee appear certain. I do not 
doubt that we have to read su in both cases, though the vowel-mark is not visible anymore ; 
compai "e preceding note. The locative is indeed what we would expect. (4) AS. vdfhavdna 
The this not doubtful. (5) AS, utaramatj[e']. (6) AS. gwn[e] Karajake[su'] . . . The 
final e of g [/>] is just possible, as well as the e of jafc[e]. But 1 do not believe that the 
syllable su a 1 " 1 any following syllables exist. (7) AS. Wiikhnhala ; but there is certainly a lettei 
between ha id la, which seems to be U. Its bottom, is not exactly in the same line with the 
neighbouring letters and the top runs into the crack. Could it have been repeated because it 
had come out badly the first time P (8) AS. etesa gd. The sa is certainly followed by a letter, 
which seems to bo tu. (9) AS. gam[e]. The m is clear and does not bear any vowel-mark, (10) 
AS. Karajaksfyu]. The Ice is probable, though the enlargement of the top of the k (compare the 
initial &) is frequent enough to leave room for doubt. The su may have dropped out. But iu 
the rest of the line the projection of the tops of the beams does not seem to have caused any 
breaks in the inscription. Accordingly, the latter must have been engraved subsequently ; or, if 
anterior, it must have been calculated iu such a way as to leave space for those projections. 
(11) AS. papahi. The il and the e seem clear. Between tasa and c7tasa there is room for two 
letters, but nothing seems to have been engraved there, unless the traces of the crack in the stout- 
should mark the place of letters which might have been engraved by mistake and obliterated 
subsequently. It seems that the engraver had reserved the necessary apace for the top of a 
analogous to the preceding ones, which was, however, not added. (12) AS. a[pajvesa , 

, (13) AS. pari^ariJia. I do not discover any trace of an i accompanying the r, and 
would rather read Ve7i[i]. (14) AS. ete chasa g finite] Karajake^su"], It seems to me impossible 
to say whether the stone bears eta or ete. I feel inclined to read etath. It is very improbable 
that the m of gtima bore the mark of e. As to the syllable su, neither the length of the following 
line nor the appearance uf the free space after ke authorises us to assume its existence, 
(15) AS. eta nibadlio[leln']. The reading is uncertain. What I propose, pe for le, appears tu 

me on the whole more (16) AS to vijayathasdtdre. The t L seems 

to be accompanied at the left top by a mark like e, which is however a lit/tie too slanting. The v 
of the last syllable might as well be read k h, (17) AS. {he rand. This reading seenih to nu> 
extremely problematical, especially in the case of the letters ra and nd, The last syllable of 
patika would also remain doubtful if it were not supported by analogous cases. (18) I follow 
Biihler in transcribing the second figure by ' 4 ': but he considered it very doubtful 5 and I see iio 
particular reason for reading ' 4 ' rather than any other unit. 


" [King ] commands the officer at M&m&da : For the support of tie 

t,ect of the HaMsamghikas, of the mendicant friars dwelling here in (these} caves of Valuraka, 
all pervaded with religion (?), we give aa monks' land the village Karajaka here in the 
Mamftla district on the northern road. To them I have secured the property of the village of 
Karajaka as monks' land, and to this village of Karajaka we grant the immunities belonging 

to monks' land, not to be entered (by roy a I officers) and to enjoy (all kinds of) 

immunity ; with all these immunities I have invested it. And this village of Karajaka and 
the immunities enjoyed by monks' land I have had registered here. Ordered verbally, written 
given at the victcmous camp (?) The deed was executed by 



SivaKbadaguta (Siva^kandagupta) in the year 14, on the 1st day of the 4th fortnight 
of tne rainy season." 

Then.- w no means of deoiOing whether this inscription emanates from Vii^h^Mputva 
'ulnm&Ti like Xu*ik No. 3, or from Gautandpuk* Sotakarni like Me Nos. 4 anil o. I incline 
Lowever towards tho first hypothesis. The phraseology is quite identical in IMsik ^o. 3 and m 
the p-it inscription, aud Llie l,reak which, to our legret, we find here, could be filled exactly by 
what precede. d M1 >ay*ti in Naik So. 3.- Manaala or Mamala ha, been identified (AS. p. 24) 
with the modern. Muwal or Haul along the Ghauts. Regarding ahara, compare Dr. Meets 
LJvpf * Inscriptions, p. 173, note. The final of par . grate . masu and the a of le nes a and Wurafcm 
*eem to prove that we have to read in each case^ the locative plural in ethu, and that die three 
words are connected, the first being only an epithet of the second. I propose to restore it as 
MrlgatadlMMsu, which might be a proper epithet of these places, Wholly devoted to religion.' 
it is quite clear on the other hand that the analogy of the parallel passages ^asik Nos. 3 ; 2; 
4>, -2) -would make us expect in this place, the proper name of the officer. It is only out of despair, 
and wapec-ally under the influence of the final su, that I have recourse to tliia hypothesis. The 
phrase has to be explained by comparing Karle No. 13, 1. 4, from which an additional argument 
iu favour of the reading Vdlwakesii is derived, and Naaik No. 3, 1. 12 ; Ihikhirfii .... 
itifcitytna liliMjaniyebi. The loth edict of Asoka (Khalai, 1. 38) all-early employs niUya 
in thv particular meaning of 'religious corporation.' Though yavajita and blriltJtu are equivalent 
in meaning, we find the two words combined elsewhere, e.g. in Nasik No. 5, 1. 8, As regards the 
construction aud the details of the translation, 1 refer to the remarks on Karle No. 14, of which I 
have Htatedthat our test intentionally imitates the wording. 1 will only add li ere that the 
construction of Mahusaghiydna as in apposition to nikdyasa, which is forced on. us by the 
comparison of Nasik Ko. 3, but which is a little puzzling to us, has at lea it one analogy, which 
the genitive gwnasa Karajakdna. (1. 4) makes obvious, in the freqiienfc construction of grama with 
a proper noun, the occurrence of which in the plural seems to indicate that originally it designated 
le^s the locality than its inhabitants. 

Biihler (p. Ill) proposed to take inaga, (mar go) as the name of a territorial division, which 
b not found in other documents. He quoted the analogy of pathaka which, occurs elsewhere in a 
tdmilai 1 sense. We have to wait for fresh f acta to confirm this conjecture ; but even in its current 
meaning uttara mdrga, 'the northern road,' 'the northern direction./ giveaa sufficiently goodaenae. 

Whatever may he the cause of the erroneous form lliiWwthalela, it can only be meant for 
bhikhuhalam, Unfortunately the meaning of this expression, which occurs not only here, 
but also in Nasik TSfo. 3, is far from distinct. Hala designates in certain cases a measure of 
land (Ejo. Ind. "Vol. I. p.- 8, note), the extent of which varies according to the word which 
precedes and determines "hala ; see dharmaliala, Hctritasmriti quoted by Kxtlluka on Mann, 
VII, 119; vrihaddhala, inscription of Harsha (Ep. Ind, Yol. II. p. 125), etc. But hala has also 
the meaning of 'cultivated field,' as in dSvabJiogaliala j 1 compare Irdhmandnam halakshStra in 
the Urumpalli plates (Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 52, text line 23), etc. WitK these expressions we 
may certainly compare that of our text. In the Buddhist language, ITtikhuJiala is the equi- 
valent of those religious donations which in the Brahmanical phraseology are termed dfoabUga- 
Ealft, dfauZdya (ahove, Vol. III. p. 274, 1. 60) and ItralmadSya, and convey, like the Ihilshuhala 
(ta and Kteifc No. 3, efo.)t certain privileges, pariMra,* which the Maliya copper-plates 
(Dr. Befefc's Gupta Inscriptions, p. 167) sum up by the formula wUtd brahmadfyaatUtih. 
, as here, the king grants not only a certain portion of land, but tho village itself is given 
hy him as bMftfoifaZa and participates in its entirety of the immunities implied by this 

' I'' 1 -' ft 1 ?-'* J Jili " f ' , Admittin S thafc ** authenticity of this donation is doubtful, it would be 
certain tHut it borrows iti phraseology from genuine documents. 



I have no doubt that, at the end of 1. 2 as well as in 11. 3 aii-l 4, flit* tvsr !. 
w] Ka-rajafc[e],in which Karajalte is the accusative plural If tb i uv 
locative 0TOe, we would also have Karajakesu, which I have stated to U- iut hai-v 
this is the reading which I find with certainty in the continuation of the line a, i:, 
bkikhukala[i'ii~\. Bat even if we had the locative, we should arrive by a nmiul-uU' 
same meaning : " the bhikhuhala in the village of Karajaka." It in IKTU-> > 
embraces the whole village, that no limit is stipulated and that the whok vliu.j 
in the immunitieB promised, while the contrary holds good in Xaaik No.s. 4 a:i.l 

After t'frjsufjw] 1 read tu. Perhaps cha has to be read ; but this ilx'sii.* ir.utj- ;. 
we have two co-ordinate sentences. I do not understand how JJiilikr analvvd *.\ 
tbo first sentence, which he readjpopa/ii and which 1 read without hesitation r \. > 
is the liivt bingular aorist of: the causative prupnyCmi, and for which wv -*><,) 
henuel the distinct parallels jpan/iaj*e7u[?h], and i7;tt[]i7/ta{>uy[/Hj. JX;/?" 
mcauH ' to caufae to obtain, to confer, a gift.' I believe that bhikhnLdln is nut tMi;i; 
(Zri/tt, but nuiflt bo understood as in apposition to gdmam Ka/'ajahc, I com-Si 
a pansage iu iSTisik No. 3, where we shall find the same expression without :,".i-, 
meaning of both constructions would, however, be exactly the same. Withuii* 
trace with certainty tbe reasons why the first singular and the tir&t plural wtiv b> : 
the Hamc phvaHf, 1 nhoxdd lilce to suggest that the singular may have been uie.l Is 
give a personal and deliberate turn to the affirmation or order. In tht- ncitne uuy 
of acceututtliug the idea more strongly has caused the employment uf tin.- can-u-' 
jifter the Hbnple dadCtma. The king is not content to give ; he wants to state tlm: I 
the nectary orders for realising his intention. I may quote here the t-xpt. 
Viiayalmadhavarman, to which I shall return presently : savaparihnrJti /M-' 
ueka (thin fctiio actual reading;' Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 101,1. 10). , Cmi 
uf Sivankandavarman, L 30 : p iriliaritavam paMpetavva cha, etc. Thu 
clear and one can nee now why the donor uses the two symmetrical pr^ ^ _ ^ 
he han assigned the village to the monks, that he grants toit the ammumne.,1, 
pJJfcttru has, Ithialc, been well explained by Professor Leumann (Lp l.ui \ >, 
The oi-igiual meaning,-- ' exception, immunity,' quite naturally leads to the mow- ^ 
privilege, privileged position.' 

The cognate imcriptions leave no doubt as to the privileges which ^*' 
, fa . .. j.. 4. MW1 . ,,r n ,n m .^am a lanahhdaalca)hrathatamviauilMui MVJ.J.J., i> m*. 

bited from taking possession 


Btodavarman . - Vo L p.^^ -' ^- ;^ dear; M if m , jwtmlw til 
Chandra (above, Vol. IV. p- 101). eBe woras a ^ ^ Jj(A ToL L p< i}? lktt ,,, ftt ,| 

* * rtm.* **> nroduction of salt is a royal monopoly ^ xftHlwc 

fact that the production of salt is a royal monopoly 

the details quoted by Bhagwanlal (*-*<* ^etteer 

the manner of digging the soil for 

seems to me that the explanation pry ^ ^ "-"? ct rf ftis imm nnity w< 

aofte^g of < into ^ is quite s^sfa^y ^M** -K. 

the representatives of the king the nght ^^^_____ 


The next term aeeins to be written, in our inscriptions aratliasavviayika or 
but 1.32 of the grant of Sivaskandavarman (Ep. Ind. Vol. I. p. 6) distinctly 
samvinayikam. In stating that this spelling excluded Ha earlier explanation,' Biihler did- not 
suggest another instead of it. I do not know any parallel expression which clears up tlxis one 
finally. The word seems to represent ardslitrasamuinayika ; but etymology al-aie is an "unsafe 
guide in the interpretation of technical terms. Vineti is only nsed in a moral .senj-et. Coiild "we 
think of translating : " exempted from the police, the magistrate of the district (rdthtra ; compare 
Dr. Sleet's Qupta Inscriptions, p. 32, note), or of the rdslitrin ? " This would ivmiud tirf of tliose 
grants in -which, on the other hand, it ia stated that the right of punishing thefts and. oi^ences 
is reserved to the king, or of those in which the right to punish the ' ten offences " 1 is -trans- 
ferred to the donee. At least I have nothing more plausible to suggest. It Is well kncrevJOL that 
the different formulas of immunities were variable and always incomplete. And it is aiot to 
he wondered at that they should be summed up iu a comprehensive and general expression like 
.iutrvajdtapctrihdrilta,. Elsewhere, the texts are more precise in stating that there are eighteen 
kinda of immunities. It will be enough to quote the inscriptions of the Pallavsis, and xiota/foly that 
rti" Sivaskandavamian, which reads attlw-asajdtiparihdra (Ep. Ind, Vol. I. p. Gj. 

More clearly atill than our estampage, those of Nasik Fos. 3 and -i appear to excltixLe the 
reading parihari'ni'ha. and to recommend the first singular pariharehith. We thu.s obtain. et,t^ exact 
counterpart of the expression employed for the grant of the village. The king begins "by an- 
nouncing his intention of granting : daddma and vitardma in the first plural. Then lie suras up 
the donation in the first singular : pdpehim, pariJiarehim, 

The reading nibadhapelii[_m'] seems to "be established incontestably by the comparison of ni- 
ba&Mpefha in Nasik No. 5. The approximate meaning of this word is nut doubtful. KT-ibandha 
is a technical term meaning ' endowment; ' see Yajnavalkya, I. 317 : datti\i bhumint nihcmdhaw 
?tt kritva Ukhyam iu kdraydt. Hence the correaponding use of the verb nibadh. In I^asik: JN"o. 5, 
we shall actually find nibaddho nibandhah $ this sentence is accompanied Ly a sejara.i;e dabe 
which ia several months prior to the date of the grant. Hence nibandku ivfers to a cListinct 
official formality which precedes the completion of the grant. I do not know in what i-fc exactly 
consisted ; perhaps it waa a kind of registration of the royal decision in the archives of tlie State. 
The four corresponding passages of this portion here and in ISTflsik Nos. 3, 4 and 5 seem to i-ead, 
Karle No. 19 : eto[m] cliasa gdma Karajake bJiikhuJialapariMre cha. 
Naaik 3: eia[w] alia gdma SamalipacLa[m~\ panhdre cha. 
4 : et[e] c/icwa JilietapariMre clia. 
5; eta[j] cliasa khetaparihdre cha. 

In spite of the comparative uncertainty as to details, which the condition of the stone aimoat 
always entails, it follows from a comparison of these quotations that the correct reading 1 is etam, 
not ete. This is supported also by the accusatives gdma KarajaJte and gdma Sania,lf<pct,tlam to 
which the pronoun refers, and by the following two cases -where etam is connected witij. TcTieta- 
pariMre by the double cha and hence can be notbing but an accusative, with which eitltex- Tchetam 
is to be supplied or which sums up the principal object of the grant ia a. general;n.. AK 
regards the wording of the phrase 5 the point in which the four versions differ moat obviouaXy is the 
absence of the syllable so, after the firsb cha in Nasik No. 3. At first thought we ml^ht feel 
inclined to resolve everywhere chasa, into oh& asya, as it has to be done for instance in 
11. 2 and 3 (compare KM& No. 20, 1. 4). The same -is just possible in 1 3 of otur 
(etasa, tihasa, gf4masa) and in 1, 3 of Faaik No. 4 (etasa chasa, khetasa), where the tautolo 
asya ia admissible. But this analysis is not possible either here or in H&sik No. 4, 1 . 5 an< j 

; see e.g. the Utn& plates, 1. 67, in Dr. Fleet's &pfa I%se9^pti<m* p. 179>aod the 
^Irk inscription, 1. 17 ( ibid. p. 217. 


No. 5. Though the syllable aa is wanting in Nasik No. 3, which seems to isujily iLat u.. 
addition is at least redundant, we cannot well consider such a frequent rq*titiui JH a U'j*u;: ' 
error. Biihler also was surprised at this expression in Nasik No. 5 (p. 10-t, note) an>i xi^ n 

tliat"theaa is purely pleonastao, just as in Pali socie,' if, 'and similar \vi.' i i> " 

He thought evidently of sayadi and sayyathd of the Buddhist Sanskrit and of Pali. 1 cauui t * -. 
"vvliat " pleonastic " means here ; perhaps he wanted to say ' expletive.' But it stems to iuu iii,I : i-'.:. T 
to assimilate without positive proof, a prothetical particle to an enclitical one, whu-h wo JHV t .10, , 
to admit here, I can discover only a single expedient, viz. to take so. =' yn = *rf(f. as in 'L- 
language of the tfoMiHwit*; see my edition, Vol. I. p. 412. In the expression tWjiw kt. 
I have quoted, as well as in the Pali tayassu, the particle seems to imply a shade of dmbt wi.I ' 
would be inadmissible here ; but I do not know any other example of its use after diu. 

Biihler happily explained aviyena by a reference to HSmachandra, who give* u'.va .. 

* .,L/ rt This is the equivalent of the formula soamtikhiijnu, etc., of later iu>-i-iii>ti ^ 
L avnouvm 01 n!ca. j.jj.ia * * i T-I > 

aae Dr Fleet's fapta Insoriptions, p. 100, note. I do not believe that Buliler a tqua.j, 
with regard to o/tTiafa. His interpretation rested on the suppose! parallelisin "f > 

5- but as this insci-iption actually reads eihhata> his argument loses ita Mip^y 
muot persuade myself that the king required the permission' of a subordinate oihe, 

bJ-LU>w U f**-* v _ _ . . _11 . _ 1 1 !,, .-. ,. r , -I 111 tli 

-a T cuot persuae myse 
Bes.des I P eyen ^ fcs7 ^, fl coula Wtt ll y be 

document (Ztfc^ia) and of its ^ ^ ^ t 

S . 99 note. la gi 

o xe oc ^ o 

- Bee Dr. Fleet's Otpta J W ^^on S p. 99, note. la gi ^ 

. vol. i. P. 7, <^w> fl ^^ to w^ 

iop^ Tte T-fc^. *S' fl ^Lh enrthetxt and wh 03 e agent, being always name 
Whik in our insciiptions feafd, winch ends tne >w ^ to ^^ compare 

auy title, is evidently a Bubo^aa offl oer o^Ly *" ^ ow docttmeute 

. 3^ of Dr. Fleet's <** 1^*-^ ^S, 1 ^ ^t of the 

7'tkMta, wniio in "I**. ** i-- fl?ttT olearLv corrBBvuiUAo " -".- - 

Stt any title, is evidently a Buboro^a ie f^*\ ^.fthat in our document* A 
{No 35- of Dr Fleet's (?wy<a Iw/icwipwo" 8 - i > ^ fl ^ t ^ ^ e ^pper-platea vrmctt 

Mf.hA^ti -axosh be read who is m -miaerfltand ihfi wo P jifjnnal 

^-* - 


iav mind, is raised to a certainty Toy Kasik No. 5, where we read chhato leklio. Chliat& wo" 11 * 01 m 
correspond to ksliata, from tlie root kslian. It is quite true that kslian ordinarily means only to 
hurt ;' "but this meaning vests on the primary signification ' to hollow out,' which is also attested 
for the form kfatn and is altogether quite analogous to the primary and essential meaning" of ZtK/i. 
Why is the word lihh, consecrated as it is by old custom, replaced in our texts by this equivalent ( 
I have no means to explain this ; but the fapt cannot be denied, I think. I can at least qxtote cases 
ivliejre 'khanati is employed as an equivalent of liklwti with reference to the engraving of a 
Mflwopftffa; see the inscription of Madanapala in the J. As. SOG. Beng* 1900, p. 73. I do not 
venture to assert that our cJihata is only a graphical variant of kJiata = Ttlianitn. 
hhe cloae relation which exists between the two roots khan and Itslian renders this 


The characters which follow olihato, namely vijuyafhasature, are perfectly certain, except that 
the th may be accompanied by an <?, and except the last letter, which I would decidedly read W* 
because of the curve at the bottom, if the hook at the top were a little more rounded. . -As it is, 
the reading khe seems to me just as possible as the reading re. Is it at all pi-oba"ble that^as 
Blihlcr thoxight (p. 112, note, and compare p. 105, note), we have here a triple error of -fclio scribe 
for <oijuyaltha[tii]dhfatii'e ? This designation of the residence of a king is indeed well- known ; but, 
putting aside the fact that such a conjecture is a little violent, one wonld wonder that stxcli a camp 
is here* contrary to usage and to what we find in Nisik No. 4, not detei rained by any topographical 
name. ' Should we look for such a name in the very indistinct characters following: dato P As 
may be seen, they are far too doubtful to guide ns by themselves ; but a priori tb.e interposi- 
tion of data between vijayaWiamdhdvdre and the name of the locality, whatever it; could be, 
renders that hypothesis very auspicious. 

If we stick to the apparent reading vijayaflie satftkhe for re), we are again obliged to 
embark on an ocean of conjectures fertile in shipwrecks. Here two comparisons suggest them- 
selves, which are curious, but at the same time perhaps not very safe. Satdre (or perhaps idt&rt) 
reminds of the well-known town and district of Sfitara on the south of Kftrlfi. It is trrxe that ihe 
name Satara has not yet been discovered in any document of ancient date (Bombay Gasett6sr t 
Vol. XIX. p. 224) ; but this may be simply accidental. Besides, it is not very probable what- 
ever the original form of the name may be that it should have already assumed tbe form S&iM 
iu the time to which onr inscriptions carry us back. At least it ought to have begun %vifch 8dta, 
whatever this means, and SdtdKhya aa the designation of ' a town whose name comnaexiceB with 
Sdta ' would not be without analogies. On the other hand vijayafhe, i.e., without doubt, vtjayattht, 
'situated in my territory' or 'in the province called Vijaya, 1 reminds of the name of VaijayaEtl, 
which, we have already found applied to the town that has since received the name BanavM, 
und which occurs again in Nasik rTo. 4. The very peculiar manner in which this inficripiion 
introduces the word tendye suggests that we might have here a name given by vii*tue of 
a recent conquest to these southern territories, where the district of Satara occupies an iinbermediate 
position between EMd and Banavasi. If this conjecture had any foundation, we sliould feel 
inclined to attribute this grant not to Vasishthiputra Pulumayi, but to Gautamiputra, Sfctakarp, 
to whose reign. Msik No. 4 belongs. Of course I am aware of the fragility of tbis assumption, 
As for the characters following dato, the reading fheraAd is, with reference to the two last lotto*, 
as improbable as the evidently desperate analysis of the word, which BLihler suggested. The 
first letter might be the, lout could also be ve. The comparison of Msik No. 4. sug-gests J9wrf 
ka{d orBendltataU ; but foe place which dato occupies dees not lead us to expect a topographical 
name, and I may add that the remaining traces would be little favourable to this resto:c-a,ticm, 

The figure '4 ' of the number 1 14 ' is hardly possible; I would rather think of a, * 5.* Bat 
in fact the only point which is beyond doubt, is, that the year must fall between Ml 0,^ < ig* 

One oannot help remarking the similarity of the names of several officers who ax*e employed 
here and at IflUik by Yfieishthlputia Pulumayi and Gautamtyufaa Satakarci, 


Sivaskanda is the governor of the district ; in Nasik No. 4 the ainabya Sivagupta writes the 
grant ; and here Sivaakandagupta engraves the document on copper. The simultaneous occur- 
rence of names into the composition of Tphich Vishnu enters prevents us from drawing from this 
fact hasty conclusions regarding the state of the sects in this region. Could these resemblances be 
the result of relationship ? 

I must not fail to recall the link which seeing to oimecfc this inscription with No. 13, to the 
comruentaiy of which the reader is referred. I will only add that, renewed by a royal personage, 
the gvant of the village of Karajaka was necessarily accompanied by fiscal and administrative 
privileges which, in. spite of his high connections, JRishabhadatta had been doubtlessly unable to 
confer. 1 

No. 20, Plate lit (Ksa. 21). 

North of the ability n, cave. On the wall of the second cell (from the south) of a vihdra, 
right of entrance, top. 


1 Sidha (I) railo (2) VSsitliiputasa Siri-Puluraavisa savachhare chatuvise 24 

hemamtana pakhe (3) tatiye 3 divase bi- 

2 tiye 2 upaaakasa Harapharanasa Setapharana-puttasya So[va]sakasya Abulanaaya 

vathavasya ima deyadhama madapo (4; 

3 navagabha (5) MaMsagMyanarh (6) parigaho (7) saghe chatudiae dina , (8) 

matapitunam puj& (9) savasatanam hitaaaghasthataye (10) ekavise (11) sa- 

4 vachhare nithito aahefca (12) cha me puna Budharakhitena matara chasya (13) 

. . upasikaya (14) Budaarakhitasa mat[u deyajdhamma (15) [papho] a [no] (I6j. 


(1) CTI. sidham. (2) AS. rao. (3) CTI. and AS. famat d, (4) AS. and OTI. 
mafapo. The da is not absolutely perfect, but at least probable, which cannot be said of the 
$a. (5) The bh haa a vertical stroke at the top, which is so pronounced that I am doubtful 
if we ought not to read garl'ha, with which bhe Sanskritisms puttasya and Sov&sakasya 
would, have to be compared. (6) AS. gUydna. (7) AS. and CTI. parigahe ; the 7o seems 
to me certain. (8) OTI. chatudise dinam md. After na there is certainly room for a character, 
"but no positive trace of it which would show that it did really exist. (9) AS. and CTI. pituna 
>"&jd* The tail of the subscribed u of pu seems to be a little more pronounced here than in the 
rest of the inscription. Bufc our engraver was so fond of this flourish that, in the absence of any 
additional trace on the right, we are not authorised to attribute a special phonetical value to 
such an. imperceptible differentiation. (10) CTI. "sjhataya, AS. sfhataya. The th and the final 
e are much more disfciucfe in the estampage than they appear in the Plato. (11) OTI. ehavisa ; 

1 Together with the proofs of this article, I received from Dr. Hultzsch a proof of his paper on the newly 
discovered Kondamudi plates (above, Vol. VI. No. 31), which throw fresh light on some doubtful points in Karle" 
Jfo. 19. In pointing out several of these corrections, Dr. Htutzsch has quoted my present article. It ia conse- 
quently too late to modify my remarks, and it will be enough at present to draw attention to the principal correc- 
tions which the new plates suggest.-*- (1) The reading oyapdpehi, instead of deya pdpehi ; (2) the explanation of 
this verb, as well aa of pariharefti and nibadMpehi, not as 1st singular aorist (with alteration of final hi into 
A**) b u * as 2nd singular imperative. (3) The proposed interpretation of vi'jayathasatdkhe ought surely to be 
given up ; but I do not consider the general meaning attdbuted to the phrase by Dr. Hnltzsch as altogether 
satisfactory. ^4) Nor do I consider his translation of cTihaia by 'signed' beyond every doubt, although the word 
is here accompanied by sayim. (5) The reading etamsi tarn in 1. 25 of the Kondamudi plates suggests a similar 
correction for etiia[jn] tu in L 3 of KM6 No. 19. Hut such a correction, at least so far as the second syllable is 
concerned, would be opposed to the apparent testimony of the etiunpage. Anyhow, my 'forthcoming article ou the 
inscriptions will give me an opportunity for returning to several of these difficult points. 


AS. ekatise. The i> is not doubtful ; the t and the v differ in the alphabet of this inscription 
in a quite distinct manner.- (12) CTI. sahata. I cannot vouch for the e; the third letter- 
is not a very clear t, but can hardly be interpreted differently.- (13) The reading proposed 
by AS., MataraMd, cannot be upheld; but after the group sya there is room for two characters, 
the first of which seems to have left remnants that might be interpreted easily as d. (H) TJa- 
fcw is very indistinct.- (15) CTI. and AS. "dfcoma. (16) The character read J&o remains 
do abtful ; if, as it would appear, the next following letter is really an initial a, there is hardly 
room for f7 between this a and the preceding p, and we are obliged to suppose its being reduced- 
to minute proportions. As to the letter n, I can say that it is visible in the estampage, especially 
on the back of it, though not in the Plate. 


" Success ! On the second 2nd day of the third 3rd fortnight of winter in tto.e 
twenty-fourth 24th year of king Siri-Pulumavi, son of Vfiflitni, this pious gift of the lay- 
worshipper Harapharana, son of Setapharana, a Sovasaka, living in Abulama, (t>w.) a nine- 
celled hall, hag been given to the universal Samg^ha, as special property of the MaMsamghilca.^ 
in honour of his parents and for securing the welfare and happiness of all beings. la the twenty- 
first year it had been completed and tomebyBudharakHxts 

a.nd his mother , a lay-worshipper. The a pio^ 8 g^ o 

Budharakhita's mother." 

As regards the proper names, I have nothing to add to Biihler's commentary. One can see 
from Fergusson and Burgess's Book-cut Temples, p. 241, thatthe excavation where this inscription 
was found is really a hall flanked by nine cells. I have said that I would rather read partgaHo 
than pangahe. I am aware that an exactly similar passage which has to be compared with ours, 
m 1, 12 of the inscription of T6ramana at Kura (Up. li*d. ToL I. p. 240), to which I have alluded 
before (No. 13), seems to read certainly: ayam puna, vthdrasyopaltarana ohdtvardiiS WiiksJiu- 
^afttgUparigraU dchdrryamaUSdsaUndm. Whatever the true reading may be, only one interpre- 
tation of the general sense is to my opinion possible. That of Biihler is not acceptable. He took 
parigraha to mean 'circle, group,' and took the adherents of the school of the Mahasaihghikas to 
be opposed to the oMtwdiia bhikshusamgha, though in his commentary on'theKura inscription he 
recognised that parigraha can only mean ' possession, property,' and thatthe ' universal Samg'hct, 
c-an only be understood in antithesis to the special sect of the Mahasamghikas. We have already 
seen that certain grants seem to stipulate that gifts attributed to particular sects should be meaoit 
for monks of every origin and of every denomination without distinction; compare No. 13, 
1, 4. Whether we take, as basis, the nominative in translating " has been given as property of tHe 
Mahasamghikas," or the locative in rendering " has been given into the possession of the Mala&- 
sftmgHkaa," both versions come to the same. We shall find a very similar sentence repeated 
twice in Naaik No. 3. I shall there return to this subject, because the two groups of passag-es 
seem to explain each other. 

With ekavise the obscurities begin. Biihler has clearly ' thrown the haft after the blade ;* 
still it is easier to condemn his evidently provisional attempt at interpretation than to replace it> Jyy 
a more probable one. I do not pretend to solve the difficulty, but would submit some observations 
with the desire that they may be of service to some more fortunate interpreter. The difficuJL-fcy 
consists chiefly in two points: the word which I transcribe saheta, and the four last characters 
which are read pfyho ano. As regards s&ha (the e, as I have said, is not sure), one feels 
tempted (considering that many other inscriptions at the end of a grant introduce the dependents 
Af the chief donor as having joined him in the donation) to expect an enumeration of relatives 
taking part in the pious work of Harapharana. But the characters which separate ha 
3t*dhorafeW^na do not farnishthe epithet of relationship which that hypothesis would re 
nnd with the exception of the vowels tbe reading, especially of the three laet letters, seems 

Karle Inscriptions, - pi ate HI. 


SCALE -125 

SCALE -17 

SCALE -125 


by B 


clear. That of the two firs t tacit a > is at least very probable. The c /ur, then. iuviu, * B l m ,, 

irresistibly to join ,** and to fmdm ,i som c people co-ordinate vuth ,,f/A.ra. IV, itnnnu-lr 

none of the motions which suggest themselves,- , aWft ,, , ttAftlVo and ^^afo- 

a, decisive rneanmg, or a construction with -which the following word me e.uldbe ea,ih 

1 m-ther, to which substantive do nitUto ami the other hypothetical participle it-fer p' 

t.o the man*?a whose donation is mentioned before. A\ ith UvMamMtusa a my senta ce most 

begin ; it_ would be contrary to all the habits of the style cf those epigraph* that the ol.kct of 

tbe donation, before being mentioned, should be omloped in such long circumlmiti,n, l4bam 

%vc should see clearer if this object were well defined, which turf 01 tunately it is mt. I have note,! 

it elsewheie only in a single case at Kudn (No. 31 of CTI. and No, 28 of AS.), whw \u- 

seem to read pdfJio deyo. If any point is certain, it is 1 hat there as well as heJthe dental th is 

excluded. This circumstance alone would suffice to condemn the translation ' jtas*gu, f proposed 

by BHgwanlal and adopted, without conviction, by Buhler. 1 have no more probable euujmtm 

to substitute for it. Whatever the meaning is, we seem to be oonfi onted hy the same tei-m at 

Sudd and here. Now, at Kuda the part of bhe sentence in question begins with the character 

saha-, which seem to bo followed immediately by the characters taw at the beginning of the- nest 

line. Neither the testimony of the editors nor the fac-similcs enable us to decide whether the 

break between ihe second sa and the initial pa of putlio is real or only appaient. In any case, 

one cannot help comparing this instance with our sahata or saheta, and oouseqa?tly asking 

vphether here also this word opens' the sentence of "which pa^lw is the subject, -while tkatitn^ 

samvacliJiare n^hito would refer only to inandapo. I have stated why a priori a full stop m/ems 

to be indicated before Budliaraldiitasa ; Mithout being absolute, this objection seems to me much 

stronger than the coincidence which I have jnst quoted against it, and which is extremely vagut- 

and perhaps altogether illusory. Another doxibtf ul point has to be referred to. Between the letter 

"which Buhler tianscribea d, while I read sya in accordance with Bhagwanlal, and the pd cl pdal- 

kdya, there is room for three characters ; but the previous editors read Dimply u without admitting 

a break. They soem to interpret thus the character -which follows the group sya. Hence they 

must have assumed that the distinct traces immediately before pd are not the remains of a Iwttei , 

probably of an u, but accidental flaws in the stone. An inspection of the original could alonp 

decide if another character has disappeared. The distance between the letter certainly suggest* 

this, and it is a priori probable that the title u-pdsikd, attributed to Budbarakhita's mother, should 

"be accompanied by her name as in other cases. Thus 1 incline towards believing that the lette> 

which comes after sya, and which may be d or u, formed tbe first syllable of this name, the second 

syllable of which, ia lost in the break, and that the traces which follow represent the initial < 

of updsikd, 

No. 21, Plate iv. (K. 18). 
North of" the chatty a cave. On two sides of a semicircular t'istom in a rrtdr*. 


1 ..... (1) 5 hematauam pa . e (2) . . . ra puviya bhaynta (3) 

2 ..... hina atevasinina lenam (4) bhagi ..... Hna (5) 

3 . . kale (6) pava'itaua sarhghaj a bu ..... uhnma (/) podhi 

4 '.!..'. ...... (8) 

5 ..... atevasinihi (9) ..... 


(1) CTI and AS supply savachliare, which is not doubtful, but of which only tlu* I***. 
character has left any traces.- (2) CTI. and A 8. temdtd** $Me. The kk is not doubtful, but 1 


ramiot say that I discover any remains of it. (3) CTI. and AS. 
of a dh, a ad 

" 4AS 

AS. fc^._ (5) OIL and AS 



Uhnm (1) pa va5tasa (3j BudharakMtasa 

(1) CT-I. and AS. ridhu. (2) CTI 
m n. Tt e t 
Portion d tie . 



tion commemomted the donation of a cister 
to . wto of tJl e 5tt IM-i^ 
*'nii is applied to (he female donor or to one 
%-wo^ipper,' as ia the terminology of the 

No. 22, Plate iv. (K. 17). 

One fu,lo J!g wut h of the rt fl ya cave. On the front wall of n7ti? , 

that ihe i 

xfc has the 

, left of enti'aace, top. 

! AS. 
with the weption of a 

! Tlle 

the aacelio Budharakhita 

As noticed 1427. 


s?^^ - p - 


Karle Inscriptions. Plate IV 




The language of the inscription is Sanskrit poetry, with the exception of a few wonh 
Sanskrit prose in lines 1 and 77 f., and the alphabet is Xagari of the Yijayanagara type/ 
e very last word, sri-Rdmaohamdra, (I. 78), which stands for tte signature, is in Telnjn 

The inscription records that Immadi-IN'risiinha (11. 39 and 46 f .), son cf TTrisimharfiya 
Ul. 221 and 46), granted to a Brahman a the Tillage of Eevulapalli il. 67 f.) in the Marjavada- 
slman 3 (1. 65) of the Penugonda-maharajya 3 (I. 64). Devulapalli, which is identical with 
tlxe modern village of that name in the Vayalpadu taluka of the Cnddapah district, is aid, in 
tKe inscription, to have loeen situated within the limits of the village of Gundluru 4 (I, CM>. 
soixtla-eaat of Sftrinayam-Musntfoni (1. 66), and north of Adavi-lLushturu (1. 67K Mr. 
Krislmasvami Nayudu. informs me that Surinayani-Mnslituru is now called Errakotapalli in 
tlxe public accounts, -while popularly it is known as Mushtfiru without any prefix, and that 
AdLavi-Mushturu is now known aa Kona, though it ia sometimes called also K6na-Mushtiiru. 
He also tells me Dfivulapalli is no longer an agrahdrn. 

The plates have been borrowed from Devulapalli Venkatavamanappa, who in said to bo 
a lineal descendant of the donee. It ia said that the original name of the family was^Vvjl^*f 
tliat it was given up in favour of Bollaprd, which, in course of time, became corrupted into 
Gollapini, and that finally the family adopted the name of Dvnlapalli, which ia the name of the 
village where it ia living to this day. 

The occasion for the grant was a lunar eclipse which occurred on Sunday, the Mi-moon 
tit hi of Bhftdrapada in the cyclic year Bafctakshin and Saka-Samvat 1427 (in numerical words) 
O. 32 f,). This date corresponds to Sunday, the 25th August A.D. 1504, on winch day there 
waa a lunar eclipse. 6 

Hiafcorically the inscription is of great value, as it relates to a line of chief a who emsed 
considerable authority on the east coast of Southern India in the 15ijh centoy of 
and one of whom, the donor's father Nrisimharaya, was thepnncrpal actor m the 

13 m. after mean sunrise. 1 ' 

T The title Sd\u va occurs in 11. 14, 15, 24 n 
He is styled Narasiiga or NaraBimha 

inacription, in order to distinguish him easily from his g 

_ refer to call him SpsiAhaiiya w in tb 

70 EPIGBAPHIA INDIOA. r^/r.u. \I1- 

the Government Library of Oriental Ifanudcnpts, Madras. 1 The Yaraliapnrdnam ~L~ v ' es ' 
names of only those persons who arc In the direct line of descent, and the names of the coli^ 
are taken from the Jaimini-Jjlidratam and the inscription. The Saluva family traces i~k 3 __ " 
from Yadu and is hence called Yadava-vamsa. The earliest historical person me**-*' 1011 * 
Vankideva, who is referred to in the Var&hapurdnam only. Yanki's son was G-unds. Wu ^ 
had sis sons, 3 of whom Manga or Sahiva-Hangu* wag the greatest. The Jaimini-Bh^-' 1 ' ai ' am l3 
very eloquent in its praises of -this person and says that, among other tliiug-*, he gain !< 3- sue 
ior Samparaya in his battles with the "Sultan cf the South" and thereby earned tb.e title of 
L " the eatablisher of Sanrparaya," that he founded (the temple of) the god Srirang-a, and gave 
hixty thousand md^as (half -pagodas) for the expenses cf the temple, and that ho killed C* 11 ' 3l ' ttlt 'V 
the " Sultan of Madhura." 5 

In the temple at Simhachalam in the Vizagapatam district there is an inscription elated m 
the Salca year 1350. It records that Telungurflya, eon of Samburaya of Kaunada-cl*^ 21 '* deli- 
vered into the poaaession of two si epherda one hundred cows for the maintenance of two perpe- 
tual lights (aTtlianda-dipa") in the temple, and that he gave the ahepherdj_ajMjlt' of jygjB^L-^ 1 
village Vaddadi in lieu of wages. There is another inscription of Telufigurnya, also elated m 
the Saka year 1350, at Santaravuru in the Bftpatlataluka of the Kistna district, in -which the 
king is described as the " HaJiiimnndctlSscara Misaraganda Kath&ri Sajuva Teltmgin.raya" 

Rao Bahadur K. Viresalrngam Pantultigaru quotoa a verse of the poet Srinatha (^vho lived, aboub 
this time), in which the poeb laments the death of several of his patrons including Telitri g~u.raya j?~ 
and there ia another verse which, is attributed to the same poet and which ends in tlae -words 
Sumpardyani Telungd TO/CM dirgli~dyuv=a,un : " Q_Teltiuga, (aon) of Satnparya ! May y otL ^ e 
blessed -nith long life !" There seems no doubt that the king or priuce Tclungu roeiitioxied. iu. the 
above-quoted inscriptions was one and the same, and if his father Samparaya itlias Sana'b'n-X'aya is 
identical with the S&mparaya of the Juimin^-liJidrataon, he -would appear to have belong-ed to the 
i^ame Saluva family as Manga apparently to a senior branch of it. It would appear also that 
the sovereignty, which waa originally in the senior branch of the family, subsequently passed on. 
to the junior branch to which Maiigu belonged, though we do not know at present how a.aacl -wlien. 
this change took place. The "Sultan of the South " who was at war -nitli Sampai'ava -was, no 
doubt, the Bahmani king, and by the " Sultin of Hadhura ?l we should, I think, nncLei'stand 
the Paudya king,' 1 the temple of Siirangam. which Mangu built t is evidently the celebrated 
temple in Srirangapattana in -the Mysore country. 

Sianga had sis sous, of whom one was Gauta, 9 who had four sons: Gunda, 10 Saluva, 
Boppa and Tippa. The Jaimini-Bhdratam devotea a couple of verses to the eulogy o Tippa, 11 ' 
who appears to have been a great warrior, and to whom are applied the birudas of DMCisara^" 
g&nda, Kathari, Saltrva and Pafi.chagharitauinfi.da titles which are ascribed to Njiaixjaliav&ya 
in the subjoined inscaiptioa (vv. 13 and 16). An inscription at Tekal in the Mysore -territory 
makes mention of a certain G6pai*aja,, son of Saluva-TipparSja-Odeyar, to whom the village of 

1 The au.ili'>r of the Varaliapurdnam gives the genealogy of Ms pativ n JTamsiiiilia, wlucU tallies with the 
published genealogy of tliat family, and ho also gives the genealogy of Narasiraha's master Sa.Iuva-3s T ris ; rhl)ai-fiya 

I See \.' 6 of Hie Dfivulapalli plates. 3 See v, 7 f. of the same plates. 

4 Ho is called S2.iiiva-Mangi in vv. 8 and 9 of the same plates. 

5 ./aim fni- Bhdrata'n, p. 4. 8 Mr. Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, Tel. I. p. 84. 
" Lhes of Telugu Poets (cditi;>n of 1895), Part I. p. 114. 

8 [Tliis reference ma.y as \voll be to one of the Slusalman. rulers of MadlrarH, cu wh-m see above, Vol VI, 
p. 334 aucl nrtc 0. E. H.] 

* See v, 10 of the DcvnUpalli plates. lo See v. 11 of the same plates. 

II [A certain G-fipa-Tippa-uiipiti is mentioned in an undated Granfcha iuscriptrra at ifcndaJ&i (IN"o. 55 rf 
'i897l, and an inscription of Groppa-Tippa-mahipiti at Rimesrarum appears to be dated in Saka-Samvat 13DO 

BnrgeBB and Sfatcsa, Sosfcri's Twnil and Sanskrit Inscriptions, p. 69, Fo. 11. where 1 wtxild cs-rrect TS>T!?fT^e^f 
the translator calls " verj bad Sanskrit" because ho does not understand it) into TSSUI'EH, *'< 1S90J. E. 3ET 

Tdkal was given under the orders of Devaraya-mali&rava 
a 1/atoa^aZ^araand the "Better-up of GangaHalT 

section from which the translation was mafe appear! to W ** - ** ^ rf th 
conclusions can loe drawn from it. But a ll^A . " a ^ te * no 

to throw some light on the history of the 
by hi, wife Maliamba, two sons : Tinuna' and 

a son n am ed 

From all accounts Wrisimharaya appear to have been a very powerful prince Rth 
accordmg to Fensh a a nd the author of the BurMn-i Ma'dsir he was the moat po Jrful lu 
nil Karnaja and iehngana and owned extensive temtories on the ea.t coast right np t - M a " 
pa-tarn. According- to the latter authority Nrisimharaya was comtantly at war with 
Bahtmmi -Hng Mxihammad II They met first at Rajnmahendri, ' on the further .ide of 
the infidel Narasithharaya with 700,000 cursed infantiy and 500 elephants like mountains O f 
liad taken Ins Ktaud."6 No battle took place, however, as Npsimhar&ya is fid to hare taken to 
flight on the arrival of the Sultan's army. This was probably in the year 1479 A, !) Next year 
tliey seem to have met again at Kondavidn, the people of which, throwing themselves on tht- 
protection of Navasiiixharaya, had altogether withdrawn from their allegiance to the rale o! 
Islam." After quelling this rebsllion, the Sultan marched against the kingdom of Npbirhhiiiilya, 
because " the deatruction of the infidels was an object much to be desired : aad as the infidel 
Narasimha who, owing to his numerous army and the extent of his dominions, WM the gA-stesst 
and moat powerful of all the rulers of Telingana and Vijayanagar, had latterly shown delay attd 
remiasness in proving his sincerity towards the royal court by sending presents and w,14ttln? 
(money given to foreign troops to abstain from plunder and devastation). *'* The Sultan laid 
niege to the fort of Maldr (iu the Mysore territory), "the greatest of the forts of that eountey," 
and was ultimately bought off! with valuable presents of jewellery and other valuables, elephants 
and horses, and with a confession by "Nrisimharaya of his -weakness and a promise of obedience 
and submission. This did not, however, prevent the Sultlb. from straightway marching against 
Elanchl, " situated in the centre of the dominions of that malignant one " (Kridrah&raja), and 
sacking the town and temples " which were the wonder of the ag*$," 

We shall now turn to the Hindis accounts of the same period. The Jaimini-Ehdratavi 
gives Nrisimharaya credit for having vanquished the kiuga of the ^ute? (or Tamil) and 
Oddi (or Orissa) countries and for having conquered the forts of KapB3ufg, Pentagons 
Boiiagirl, Chofiji, and Kommadhar^pura. 9 In another part of the Jaimim-BMratmn we are told 
that Nrisimharaya " dion-ated the golden palaces (temples?) of Kanehl, Tenkata (Timpati> and 
Kalahasti with tbe precious stones annually given as tribute by the kings of FificKHa, Dravidm, 
Aftffa, Mftlava, ' Saka and rra',rjy6tisha." i0 This is, of course, hypwbolical, but shows that the 
ihroe important places oC pilgrimage referred to were in the dominions of Nr^ii'hr^ya. 


inscription of tli 
Jnsci-. Vol. II. NI 

of the 

tmitej. ChGHjHiGbgMtatheSmttAroot 
"fain* ini- Phdratant , p. 1 1 5. 


According to the Vanihapiirdna'ai Nrisiriiharaya's first general Isvara of th^( Tulu family 
conquered the forts of (1) UdayMi-j, (2) Huttari,(3) GandikSta, (4) Pcnngonda, C^> Beggulurn, 
(6) K6vela-rTelIuru, (?) Kundani, (8) Godugunbiuta, (9) Bagura, (10) ' Nax-a^onda, (11) 
Amuru and (12) Srirangapattanam, ! and "destroyed the cavalry of the Yavanas of 
Bedatidakota at GandikSta," 1 The Tavanas referred to here are the Bahmani Mugs, who 
transferred their capital from Kulbarga to Bidar in June 1423 A.D., during the reigf 11 ^ ^k Qia u 
Shah. 2 .Referring to the same event, the author of the Telugu poem Pdrijdtitpct'ft' a ' ra 'P am S& J 3 
that Isvara "gave rise to thousands of riveis of blood by killing the horses of -tkt- & Yavanas or 
"Bedandak6ta," 3 but he transfers the ^cene to Kandukuru. 4 The Muhammadan historians do nof 
of course, refer to this event. 

Nrisimbaraya's dominions wera extensive, atid they prooably comprised the -whole of the 
modern districts of North Arcot, Chingleput and Nellore, and portions at least of South Arcot, 
Cuddapab, Kistna and Mysore. The Vardhapurdnam calls Nrisiniliaraya " t3a.o possessor of 
arms which are capable of protecting the kingdom of Karnata," 5 which shows li~s connection 
with that kingdom. According to the same work he was one of the Sumantas or tributary 
princes of the Karnata empire, and both Isvara and his son Narasiihlia were h.Is generals one 
after the other. It would appear also that Nrisimharaya was probably related to the kings of 
the first dynasty of the Karuata empire, since both claimed to belong to the Yada^va. line of the 
lunar race of Kshatriyas. This description closely tallies with that given by tlxe> Portuguese 
chronicler Feraao Nuniz of " .Narsymgua " who overthrew the first dynasty of the empire. In 
fact according to JSTaniz there was a doable usurpation of the Vrjayanagara throne about this 
time, the first usurpation being by " Narsymgua," whom I identify with Saluva ITririsimliaraya, 
father of Immadi-Nrisimha, the donor of the present grant, and the second by N^isimharaya'a 
general " Narsenaqne" or Xfarasimha, the founder of the Tultiva dynasty. 

According to Muniz, the following are briefly the circumstances that led to -fclie downfall 
of the first and the accession of the second dynasty. The last great king of the .first dynasty 
was DSraraya H., who ruled till about the year A.D. 1449. The next forty or fifty years saw 
no less than five sovereigns, all of thorn weak and imbecile. The last of bhem, -wliom Nuniz 
calls " Padea Rao," seems to have been the worst of the lot, and in his time the em j>ve declined 
eren more than in the time of his four immediate predecessors. It occurred to JSTirieimharaya, 
who was the principal minister and general of the state, that a change of so-vereiga was 
necessary to prevent the kingdom from falling an easy prey to ita hereditary enemy, the 
Bahmani king, and, with the consent and support of the other generals and ministers, he seked 
the throne and kingdom, allowing the king to make his escape. Nrisimharaya died, leaviqg 
two infant sons and a general named Narsenaque" or Narasa-Nayaka, in whom h & tad much 
confidence and whom he therefore appointed regent during the minority of his sons. In a short 
time ffmimbaraya's eldest son was murdered by one of Narasa-Nayaka's enemies, ^ho wanted 
!t to be beheved that Narasa-lST&yaka murdered the boy for the sake of his crown. S ixbaequentty 
the second prince was murdered at the instance of ffarasa-Nayaka himself, wlxo thereupon 

Verses 42 aad 48 of the ftrst diS*a. I am not able to identify Nos. 6, 7, 8 and 9. Huttari <"2> is probably 
Puttte rn fee Kftrritinagu Estate, and BeggulArn (5) is perhaps Bangalore. No. 10 may beNaragallu (Mh 
wea 'a rock' aud ko V ia a 'Mil') in the Chttttr taluka, where there is an eld fcrt (see the North ^Iraot *D t *trict 
Wamtal, new edition, Vol. II. p. 849), and Xmuru (11) is evidently Gid-Amdru or AmbArudurga in tlie GudivAtam 
takfca* The ether places are well-known. u^jnu** 

of Ridar**' ^"*" ^ XXVIII> P> 21 ' Be ^ ndakd f a Bedadakflta is 'the fcrfc of Bedada,' which Is a corruption 

* VftijymvW Prm editixm of 1895, p, 10. 

^ Wd8 KWhlWni &ud Ga ^ ikft ta suit the metre orally well, m* one of the readiuga I B 

5 ?ma SO of the Srat 4Sv4ta. 

No. 8.] 


proclaimed himself king. -TSTarasa-Nayaka was succeeded by his son " Busbal Bao," vrliodie.1 
after a reign of six years an.d was succeeded by his younger brother Krishnadevar&ya. 1 

N~imiz expressly states that rTarasa-Myaka was the father of Kridmadevaiiya ami tint 
" Busbal Hao " wash-is eldest son and successor. Narasa-Nayaka must therefore be itkntifit-a 
with Kfarasirhlia, the founder of the second dynasty, and " Busbal Rao" with bineldHL x>i> 
Vira-ISTarasimha. 8 Mr. Sewell finds this account confusing and conflicting with known ftictt- * 
This is because he identifies ' Naraymgna," the first usurper, with Narasimha, the founder i-f th 
Tu|uva dynasty, which leads him to the conclusions that hia successor Karasa-Na) aka, whom I* 
identiees with Ytva-Karasmiha, was not hia son, and that between Ylra-Narasiihha and KrMiua- 
d&varaya there was axi intermediate king conclusions which are certainly opposed to tsp$ts 
statements contained iu several inscriptions and books. 

These difficulties would vanish entirely if we admit the theory of double usurpation ami 
identify Narasa-Kayaka with the founder of the Tuluva dynasty. The theory of double , twu- 
pation is not only not inconsistent with known facts, but is highly probable, since but for the tot 
usurpation Warasiraha would have had no locus stavdi in fee afiairs of the empire and certadj 
opportunities or excuse for usurping the throne. The statement m the xnscnption that 
' harava with the aid of his sword defeated all and became a Sn<aW~ or empaoi 
seems to me to point Tinmistakably to his usurpation of the Karnata throne. 

of Nuxdz as to the nature of the relationship which existed between Siluva- 

. , . -,. ,1 n ^i J>.,K~ n.v^nViiwo.tpd bv the-Eardki5JurdaM 
asimha is directly an 

MW chapter (dsvdsa~) of the book gives 

Naraaiihha'a father ITara, wh.o is also called ;; ^ , ' ^.^ha IB said to hare been 

T[ TI I" n &."ij ofllCG I il QtHOTiXlcr jJitHjv -* ** a 

Ld .ppointed commander of his forc^ * and to a tMri ptace he . 

*^ * ?a> 5 j u the penultimate verse of the 

i-danfan&tha, i.e. * commander of 


of king S&lu-va-'Nrisimbaraya. 

at p^ent n o ^ o, 
hrone , but tbi S eveut must te P h 
is te latest known date of the tot dyna% 
1495-96), wHoh is tte earliest know, M* 1 
reoognised askUg of Vijw- * ' 
Hultooh informs me 'that an maonptoon at 


BU( ^A.D. 
That te Wtv 
ly stated bf Sa,,i*, d 
166 of 19011 of 

Utvara M6dinimtsaraganda 




* A. Forgotten 'Empire, pp. 305-315. 
1 confeBB I cannot derive Busbal Bao" um .- .-- 
[Perhaps the uamo is connected with B^oJo^ 
' 3rmjnr<?, p. 3O8, note 2. 


ver.e of th, 
Vol. T. p. 

j- ^ fl tfi 
^ llfl ' and 
UB. JM V a 

bllt there is no doubt about the 

M rf 


96 wd * 



of 1900 , 

0896 . 

S va aUo given. There 

Se datee of the mscriptxom NOB. 

Lata ^aka-Sathvat 3391, ^irfidhia, belongs to the ^ o d ta an JbnMJ '^ 


Vijayanagara, 1 and that his chief minister was WarasaCujna-iNayaka. 3 This 
may be identical -with the founder of the Tuluva dynasty and the E araanaque " of 'ETuniz. W this 
identification, is correct, Narasimha's usurpation of the throne of Nrisirhhavava ox' rather of his 
sou and successor Immadi-Nriaimhariiyaj cannot have taken place earlier than A*D. 1 4-99-1500. 3 

Mr.^Sewell quotes five inscriptions of " Narasimhar&ya of Vijayanagara " appertaining 1 to 
years prior to A.D. 1500. 4 One of these inscriptions was dated in 1451, one j a i^e9, and one ia 
U71. It is clear that these three inscriptions cannot be referred to the founder of the Tulava 
dynasty, as thoy came into existence long before he could have become king of Vijayanag-fU'ft 
according to any account. The last of the five inscriptions belongs to Saluva Immadi-Nri&imba, 5 
Houof ISrisimhaa-aja, The remaining inscription is to be found at Oonjeeveram aud it is pos- 
rible that, when examined, it will be found to belong to the time of Saluva-NYisirnlLaraya. 

As Dr. Hultzsch informs me, a B&mkur inscription (No. 152 of 1901) of fclxe MaUru.jd- 
tttvrfta Rdjajparamth&ra Vlraprat^pa Vira-Narasimharaya of Vijayanagara is dated iu 
Saka-Samvat 1424, Durma^(=A.D. 1501-02). This date suggests that Immadi-Nrisiitharayft 
was ousted by 3S T arasiriib/(or by Ms son Vira-Narasimha ?) between A.B. 1499' and 1502. In 
accordance with this/act the subjoined copper-plate inscription of A.D. 150-i does not represent 
him any more as a bfog of Vijayanagara, but as the ruler of the province of Penugonda. 


H* c-r^^Ti 

is called Bii 

; I ^^^^'^^*^-*^ SB) and elsewhere i 
* JW^^ q/ Antiquities, Vol. II. pp. 62-S4. 
s Mr. Swell's iiX* qf Antiquities, Vol. I p no 
H tawwrlpb has bem prepared ly Dr. Hult Z s C h ftom iuk-impressiouB. 
. s 


No, 8.] 














fn: i 

Trft ^: 

; \ 

5 *ft TO ccft ffl [f] 

i [**] 

i CT* 

Second Plate; First Side- 






42 g?T I [>i*] 


44 ^fftwf^T'f fwro ^^pg^tie; i f^f 



Seoond Plate ; Second Side 



56 ^; [^c*] i^^r^FWpa fiw^rt [i*J 



63 w i ^^n^ vT i 

, Road tWn. 2 Bead ^??:. * E<-ad 

* Read nf^TfT . 5 Bead ?ftl? . Read 

t Read 1$ffte. * Eead ?l^ & . > Read 

10 Read "WH*. ll Bead ^. ' > a Read 1W 

Devulapalli plates of Immadi-Nrisimha. Saka-Samvat 1427. 







TMreZ Plate. 

71 2 ^muHWt*f^ 3 ^r^n^^tgirr^ i 

72 tftftr m^TTT^t ^ i [$*] 


75 *sr[<?]TTf ftvxw H^rcf i [*] ^r^frt ^i^-ni ^rr 


76 ^^t t 




The first three verses are in praise of Vighn^vara, the boar-incarnation of Yialipti, ami the 
goddess of the Earth. 

(Terse 4 f .) From that glorious flower of the waters (the Moon), which perfumsa (ittumimit) 
the whole space, (and) which, giva always wears on (/m) head with great solicitude, was produced 
Budha, (and) from him, the renowned Pururavas. Several kings were afterwards born (in thai 
family) in course of time. 

(V, 6.) In the milk-ocean of this family was born the virtuous king Ghin^a (I.), like a 
second nrij dta (tree), though {he became) an Apfoijdta" (by conquering his enemies). 

(V. 7 f .) To him were bom the virtuous Gunda (n.)-Bomma, the glorious MMir&ja 
of great fame, Gautaya (I.) whose high fame was sung (by all), the heroic and glorious Virah6- 
toala, prince Savitri-Mangi, and king saiuva-Mangi- (Kfce) a second set of six emperom 

(V 9 ) Most famous of these was king SSJuva-Maftgi, a Mahendra on ear&, who van- 
quished a hero foremost in battle and seized the dagger (kafrdrikd) from hia aand. ta 

Bead ^JFSf a Bead ^K 



(V. 10.) To him. was torn the renowned Hug Gauta (!!.) ^ e unblemished moon of 
fnme, born in the fresh ocean (created by) the waters (poured out on the ocoasion of 
'.rifts, always -whitened the three worlds. 

(V. 11.) To him was "born, even as delicious fragrance out of a fresh blossom, the 
king Gam da (III.), who won the goddess of victory by churning the ocean of (his) enemies' 
with the Mandara ( mountain) of (his) arm. 

(Vv, 12-20.) By the grace of the god Nrisimha of Ahobala, 1 this lord Guada (IH.), ti] 
ocean of good qualities, begot on (his wife) Maliambikft Mrisimharaya of great fame, -wia 
p wacssed the titles- of Misaraganda, Kathari, Saluva (Le. 'the hawk') and Bharanivai*&lia 
who, aided only by (Ms) sword, defeated all (his enemies) and became an emperor (Sttrvabfaawma)) 
who became Dharfivaraha (i.e. ! the boar of the earth ') by saving (uplifting) the earth frox 
the ocean of wicked (kings), and Saluva by smiting fche crowd of (his) enemies like (a flight of 
Uirds j 3 whose title BarbaraMha became full of, meaning, because his powerful arm (hand) lia< 
become rough through the killing of enemies and the making of gifts to the needy ;* who to; 
conquering (excelling in making gifts) the Jive divine trees with the fingers of (his") hand (aiid 
ringing the bell five times (in celebration of the five-fold victory) became PancliaghantSninda ; 
who obtained the title of Aivaraganda by conquering (sxc&lling) the five Pandavas in truthful 
ness, strength, archery, personal beauty and intelligence (respectively); 6 who, wielding the weapon 
hcame Mururyaraganda7 by making through his valour the three kings of CMra, Chdra 1 
nid Pndya afraid on the battle-field ; who obtained the title UrvarSditya by dispelling the thicl 
darkness (his) enemies by the sunshine of (his) valour (and thereby) illuminating this ear-ill 
( and) who was Haii (Tishnu) in reality by virtue of his titles Cnauliattanialla, 9 Dharazil' 
varaha, CMlukya-Narayana 10 and Mohana-Murari. 

(V. 21 f .) His queen was the virtuous Srirangamamba,"even as Rama of Hari. By her vra.-- 
horn to him prince Immadi-M"risiiiib.endra, who, by excelling even his father, who waa so noble, 
in generosity, valour and other innumerable good qualities, made his name literally true, 11 (<#) 
who, praised by learned men, ascended his (vis. his father's) throne, which rose on tlie 
HSmakuta (mountain)) even as the divine tree, perfumed with flowers, (adorns) Mount M&rxi, 
which abounds in golden peaks (h&na'Jeufa), 

(V. 23.) What are gifts of agrahams to this chief of benefactors, who gave complete neck- 
laces (samagra-h&ra) ? What is the use of many words ? What is there that could not be made 
a gift of by the donor of a fall visvachakra and brahmdnfa ? 18 

(Y. 24.) This well-bred, glorious Immadi-Nrisimhndra, son of Nfisimharfiya, is pros- 
perous on earth. 

1 This is the celebrated place of pilgrimage in the Kuraool district. 

4 This is an evident; reference to Srisirhliaiiya's usurpation of Vijayanagara. 

* The tradition ifl that the title was due to the fact of Krisiihharaya's ancestor* having acted as fowlers to the 
Mugs of Karnftta. 

4 There is a pun in the original on the word ddna, which means ' cutting' aud nlso ' a gift/ 

1 This etymology is fanciful. PaTushaflTia^td^indd a is apparently the same as PafahdmaMialda 

Another graceful etymology. The meaning of Aivmtga^Aa is 'the lord of five (chiefs),' a title which 
JSrairhharSiYa seems to have borrowed from the Vijaya'iagara kings. 

i This title also was "borrowed from the Vijayanagara kings. 

8 Chdra stands for CTi&ra, and Chdra fot ChAfa* 

In this sense the word is a corruption of tirfwr.fortMwZZa. Another derivation is from ehatu^aiti-mafla. 
which means * a hero having the strength of four elephants.' * 

10 This is an anachronism, 

" Here ia a play on the word irnmadi, which means ' the second ' as well as ' double.' 

"[These are the names of two of the sixteen great gifts (mahAddw); see tip. Ind. Vol. I. p. 368 and note 
58. E, H. J ^ 


(Vv. 25-37.) This glorious Mahdrdya, who is tlie type of habitual givers of land, on tin- 
auspicious occasion of an eclipse of the moon, on Sunday, the full-moon ttthi of Bhadrapada 
in (the year} called Baktakshin (corresponding to) the ,kayear reckoned by the mountains (7) 
the eyes (2), the Yugas (4), and the moon (1), (i.e. 1427) granted with libations of water, a> 
a sarvamdnya and gkabhoga, with the eight rights of ownership, the village of DJyolapallu,south- 
east of the village Surinayani-Miisbturu and north of the village Adavi-Mushturu, within tlw 
limits of the village of Gundlliru in the s$man of M,rjayada in the mahdrtfjyaTof ^enugpnda, 
to Machanabhatta, who was the son of Annadatabhatta, grandson* of Narasimha, great-gvandsoi. 
of Pinnayarya, and great-great-grandson of Suray6jha of Velapatipura, 1 a Yajurvodin of th. 
Srlvatsa gotra. 

Vv. 38-41 are imprecatory verses,. 



This plate was found on the 15th August 1889 by the cultivator Shiusewak Eai iu his field 
at Kabla, a village in the tappa Athaisi of the pargana Dhuriapar of the Gorakhpur district in 
the United Provinces, and presented by Dr. W. Hoey to the Provincial Museum of Lucknow 
in January 1895. I edit the inscription which it contains from impressions, kindly furnished 
to Dr. Hultzsch by the late Mr. B. W. Smith. 8 

This is a single copper-plate which, to judge from the impressions, is about 1' 5^" broad 
by 1' |" high, and is inscribed on both sides. In the middle of the lower part of it there i^ 
a ring-hole, " in diameter, and together witib the impressions of the plate I have received im- 
pressions of a circular seal, about 3" in diameter, which contains in high relief the figuie oi 
a bull, lying down and facing to the proper right ; below it, the 'legend Mmat-S6dhad3vasy<i, 
in Nagarl letters about f" high ; and below this again, an arrow pointing to the proper right. 
An arrow is engraved also on the second side of the plate, in line 59, before the words sva-laMo* 
yam In general, both the writer and the engraver have done their work carefully. The wri- 
ting on the second side of the plate is well preserved, but that on the first side hag suffered from 
corrosion so that in several places, which will be pointed out in the notes, the reading of the text 
is doubtful. Fortunately, with a single exception in line 28, the names and dates may be given 
with absolute certainty. The size of the letters is about \". The characters are those of the 
Nagari alphabet of the time and locality to which the inscription belongs; they resemble those 
of the copper-plates of Gdvindachandra and Jayachchandra of Kanauj. In hnes^ 48-50 they 
ftirnish signs for the fractions ft and f , which I have not met within o&er northern inscriptions .- 
H is denoted by the figure for 1 with two vertical lines after it, and the fnohon f by the circle 
for nought followed by ihree vertical lines. The sign of awgraha occurs once in s amf radaU, 
Wdlhih, 1. 47. The language is Sanskrit, but the names of some of the Brahmans men^oned 
in linea 40-50 are given in their vernacular forms or in forma based on them. Lines 1-32 contain 

i TMs is evideutly the moden, vH^ge *g^ ^ on the 21st Novcmb er 1901 in the Bdmribh district 
After the lamented death of M^ ^E . W. Smith ^ Draf U aI1 of the Arc^okgical Surrey, United 

of the Kalila plate. 

i. VII 

thirty verses with genealogical matter, and lines 51-57 f^7Tr~TT ======= ^^ 

(~^ 1 W); the latter are aU numbered J^^^l.^ -P^*?^ verse. 

which ocour fe the lafc wffl b 
the sign for , throughout B fa both , 
ployed for the palatal ; the palatal for she denM fa ^ * 
(for *!), 1 22, and mWre> 1. 53; fa the palatal riii 
w. , 11. 6 aud 50, MBSJa , 1. 3, Ma ti, I 37, L Wa T 
r;,a, 1. 3, KdrttMfrjjS, I 4, a ndj^, 1. 23; gT, bsteadof 
1. 13 ; and fa aB(1 4Aw . a U 

the text is I* pro. 

Mi. is 

a ffi - 

Z6 ' 

mstead o 



gtaous Hary&asrtgaradSva (1. 83). The i 

After the words SM stiasti, verses 14 eulomzB A. MI,- 
the Mooa wto WB JUrf. ra , Budha, Srt 
Kteavi^Ariuna.' In the fa ^ deseed C 
quermg Ayomnkha' and snbduing the.&athas Ms l 
ornament of the Ealaohuris, after having oonlS to 
younger brother, and tte latter, Eak 8 h4 n JjT 
LahAmaaaraja's faonly there TOS the km? ' 

(or BttaU), defeated the king a of 

(v. 7). ^mHrnsp^Siva 

agam G n nambh6dhide T a (un u m ) 

and 1 by a warlike expedition took away the 

f ^ 
an acconat of 

P " 


^. a^ 

& Pewonage wfco by con- 

- to his 

SvStapada" ( v. 6). In 

*" lorf * Horses 



, who had diBt 
son fro* 

ae queen V ldya 

TO BMmana (w. 20-22) , his om 
to. son from TattlttbrtdW was Bhlma fv 
Bhlma hy . decree of fefe lost his kingdom 


17) ; hia 

( v . 


No. 9.] 


hi* fatfctr nu'l javl..^-,,- \V>^ 

t * . 1 1 i ' t %'| ^iy, 

officials and the instants conce 
occasion of the Uttarayana-samkranti o 
Pausha in the year 1134 (given in words 
of certain villages or hamlets to fouled 
the land are given in Hnes 40-50. Among 
description o the several classes of i^ 
met before or about the proper reading of 



. f the bn ht 

JT ***"** of land in ,., 

' ' "' ' ^ ' Ul 



*?** ^ f Uw * l 

() and WawM 

' abWiated ' ). ^ich also occurs in a p! at e 

Chandra of Kanau 3 (above, Yol. Y. p. 114, 1. 19 ), ap paren% is derived from 
theSandqit na2oa, a measure of distance equal to 400 (or, according to oth t , W or 
ftasias j -what I do not understand in the present inscription is, that ' the land measuring 
waZfcas ' in line 37 is further qualified by the expression dSvakttod9ktha-parimiia. Nor m"l 
able to give the meaning of the word pdtiM in the expression pdfiltayd mbhmy li!eh occ an In 
lino 47. 

The land granted by the king was in (the district of) Tlkarikft that belonged to tin- 
Gunakala-visliaya (1. 36). It formed part of the fields of Mahiari-pfitaka, AtM- 
Thiula-pataka, Vania.pataka, Duari-pataka and ChhidadfitSmblift, a group of 
bounded on ihe east by Annadha, on the north by Tikari, on the south by Amtlacfaajp*, 
the west by [Chandulia. The terms in which the land was given are well known from th*' 
grants of Gdvindachandra and other kings of Kanauj. 

Each, of iihe fourteen donees is described by a term indicating his place of residence or oriffitt. 
and in each case, the text gives the father's name, the gtttra, the number of pravara* (three & 
fi-ve), and -the Vedic &khd. The gotras so mentioned are those of K&tyiyaua, Kilyapn, Kaiifca, 
Krishnatra (for Krishnatreya ?), Kaundinya, Dhannira, Parasara (or ParMara), Bhliivl|a, 
Rahula, Savarna and MSandilya; the MTtMs the Bahvricha-g., Chhandogarg., Vljasoa^ya^,, 
JVIadhyandma-si. and Yajuh-^. The donees and their fathers mostly have one of the title* 
pantfita,, tffikshita, agnihdtrin, dvivMin, that fa, or simply br&hmana. Among their proper 
names occur 3 G6vindayichcha, Chhanchh! (gen. c ?fcasj/a), Jlkhu, JaW (gen. fc^a), Tilrayapi. 
siha, Dand^ (gen. &kasyu), ,Nimb6, Bhdgu, Madha, MMh6 (gen. t?fes/a), V4iunt*, nd 
Sidhft (gen. ^Jfasya). The adjectives derived from the names of the places of residence or origin 
of the donees are Kataughanagramiya (from Kataugbanagrama), KahalHya (from KWiaED,] ), 
KulandHya (from Kulandh[l] ), Tlkariklya (from Tikari), TaEMya (from Tftli), NIgara, (from 
Nagara), Nikhatigramiya (from Nikliatlgrama), MahulKMya (from Mahuftll), 
(from Mathura), Sankasasthaniya (from Sankaaasthana), and Hastigrlmtya (from BMtt- 
grftma) In the passage which records the exact partition among the donees of the land gmatel 
it is stated (in Hue 50) that one of the donees together with Ma 3 ndlm of knd * 


After the ten benedictive and imprecatory verses already mentioned it is stated (in KB* 5?) 
that this tto******* was written by &eJ^a.^C&a^ or reader of ardtrs Jmk 
Sutday! the sistb titU of the dark half of Ohait*a of fee year UM (gt t a fige. 

i This would remind one of 
* Compare the list 

of names given abov0 W. IT. p. 


and the inscription ends with the words : ' this is the own hand of the MaMrdjddhirdja, the 
glorious S6db.ad6va,' 

I regret to say that I have not been able to identify wiih confidence any of the mxtnerotiB 
localities mentioned in this inscription. The river Oandald in which the king had bathed 
when making his donation must be the Gandak or Little Gandak of the United Provinces ; 
but I have not found on their banks any name like Dhuliaghatta. The Sarayfi after which 
Sodhade'va's territory appears to have been called Sarayupara 1 most probably is the river Gogra, 
which in Oudh is known ' by the names Deoha, Surjoo or Sarayu, as well as Ghogra.' 3 The 
rivers would indicate in a general way where the Gunakala-vishaya and (the district of) 
Tlkarika, in -which the villages containing the land granted were situated, should be looked for. 

Of the three dates which the inscription contains, the date on which the grant was made 
regularly corresponds, for Vikrama-Samvat 1134 expired, to Sunday, the 24th December A.D. 
1077, when the 7th titU of the bright half of Paasha ended 17 h. 21 m., and the Uttar&ya?a- 
sarhkranti took place 5 h. 35 m., after mean sunrise. And the date on which the grant was 
written regularly corresponds, for the Rdrttikddi Vikrama year 1135 expired and the ptirn,wn>dnta> 
Chaitra 3 to Sunday, the 24th. February A.D. 1079, when, the 6th tithi of the dark half of the 
purnimdnta Ohaitra ended 21 h. 42 m. after mean sunrise. Prom lids it may be seen tJoat the 
grant was written as much as fourteen months after the making of the donation. The date given 
in lines 28 and 29 for the accession of Sddhadeva's father Vyasa must fall in the Kdrttik&di 
Vikrama year 1087 expired, because of the three years which might be denoted by the a-aiaber 
1087 that year alone contained an intercalary Jyaishtha ; and for the KdrtUkddi Vikrama year 
1087 expired the date corresponds to Monday, the 31st May A.D. 1031, when the 8th. titU 
of the bright half of the second Jyaishtha commenced 9 h. 47 m. after mean sunrise. It may 
seem somewhat remarkable that the week-day should have been connected here with a iifhi which 
commenced so late in the day, but this is no reason for suspecting the authenticity of the date; 
the accession of Vyasa may have taken place late in the afternoon. 

This last date, of A.D. 1031, is earlier than any date known to us from the inscriptions of 
the Kalaohuris of OhMi. 8 In my opinion, it shews that the founder of this new branch of the 
Kalachuri family, Hajaputra, cannot be placed later than the beginning of the 9th century A.D. 


First Side. 

1 Cm 5 svasti [|j*J 8 Abhut=S6mah saumya-dyutir=amrita-sur=Atri-tanayah. sphurach= 

ehuda-ratnam Smara-vijayinah samhrita-tamah j Vu(fou)dhaS">tasrn&;j-jatali 
kumuda-vi[sa]da-jna(3na)na-sadauam grahagrama-sk(la)gh -avadhir = a 
saubhagya-vasatik || [1*] 'Tasmaj=jaga- 

2 t-patir=apatyam=abhuteprabh^ 

tvkham vbaya-vSsma(ma) Pururaval?. sa yasy=>6rwasl(^l) priyatami puratd 
[2*] 8 Taj-janma Naghu(hu)shah kptf nijapada-bhramsa(4a)- 

<SirHr Gorakh P' arJ names of Parganas lite Bamhnlpira, BUw&ptoi, 
rte., m Sir H. M. Elliot's Races of the N. W. Provinces of India, Vol. II. p. 119 

r>r \^' Th( ! riltonl8 Oas * ii **r dn P- 333. 'Deoha' clearly is the 2>[W, which w have in 
V\.Q%]ta6d'pdr m a pkte of Jayachchandra o Kanauj, InA. Ant, Vol. XVIII. p. 138, 

v ^ d lT rH - eSt Certain ^ corres P nds to the lsa January A.D. 1042 5 compare my List of Worth. Iaer 
*o. 407. The Sariikaragana who was a contemporary of K6kkalla I. may have been the Saihkaragana I. of the 
present inscription. ^ * 

* Prom impressions supplied by the Curator of the Lucknow Museum 

Metre : Sikharinl. 7 

.verses 8 nd 4 , Sixdulavikri^ . originally 


kritat | tasy=asi(si)j=jita- 

saptaaagaradiiar^-cLliuryah ku!6 Haihayasatad-vansyah 1 Kritavlrjja(ryya)-bhftbbyid- 
abhavat=trata -fcrayi-vai'tmaBah 1] [3*] Ta8mad=bharfctur=abhun=nirantaranamat 

kshmapala- clrad ara-a- 

i-cholili^ya-samravalit^ariigliriparLkaja-rajah gri-Earttavirjj6(ryy6)=rijunah | yen 
Imaiiyasamali Jcraman=nripatayah kimcMtekalollilaya 3 dorddanda-fjvarjijjtiajh* 
par&na [>a(ba)3 li[nam=a]va(ba)lyam=Tillangbitali || [4*] Tatab.* prabhru- 

5 pranata-raja-raji-si[ra3^-characli-charanapaiiikajadvitaya-renur=agi(si)t=kule 


[5*3 6 Kalach.uri-tilakah sa(sa)trun(n)=]itva 
dadau la^tm-bhratTih | sa sri-Lakshman.arajah Sv(sve)tapadam yah 

punar=jjitavan Kit) [ 6*] 'Tad-vansS vis-va(sva)-bhartta tnraga- 8 patim=- 

afclifi va(ba)ddha.van=Vsilialiih. yo yaS=clia pra[ohi]-k8hitJndr-anavasara-karana- 

khyata-d6rddar)da-3arppali I raja gri- 
7 Rajaputrah. sa bti-aya"biiyId-aT3liaya-Yyaktir=avyakta-garvvali kharvvikurvvan Kiriti- 

pral>hriti-iiripa-yas6-rasi(|i)m=al(si)n=manisli5 || [7*] Tatah 9 prithvinatlia 

dvitaya-vara^iyat pra"bb.ur'=a"bTiiit=pramatM sa(a)triinam samiti 
3 Sivi(bi)r=iva | sutas=tasmaj=jatah. sa rauakaruna- Yritti 

natha^ kstemi prakriti-saralah. Sarbi(sam)karaganah. U [8*] "Tat-sunur* 

ddhama dhamn^zii nidliir=adliika-d]iiyaifa. Blaojadev-apta-bliuniih pratyaviitp 

prakara^i 13 pratki - 
9 ta-p?itlxu-yasa(aa)h sri-Gun.ambli6dMdvah | ySn=6ddam-aikadarppa-dvipa"gb,atita- 

gliat4.g-hata-samsa,lzta-mukta-s6pan-6ddantur4si-prakata-prifc]iu-pathgn=abrita Q-auda- 

lakskmS^i || [9*] Tasya 13 cba jyayasi jaya murttya 

10 kirbtir=iv=apara ( za^mna gri-Kamclianadevl Lakshmir=iva Itura-dvishal? II [10*] 

w Ta8mad=asy,m=ariindyadyuti-racbita-pliaDi(na)ohakra[bliri]d-vakrasalyah 
d^vah sitarclicliiti-sita-vitatayasa(a)h. kraiita-bb.ixr=Ullabli-akhyah [|*] 

11 dyishts' yaBminiL=akasina(sma)t=tarala-mrigadrisam [mjfikhalagraiat 

trasad^asfcram clxa, sa(sa)tr61i skhalati kara-talad=arthinam=artlia.trisluia, || [11*1 
Yad-bli-iimya vra J (bra)hmal6kayitam=udadliim=iTa pr^pya yam cha trasantah 
pakslia- ch ob.httuir = 

12 h^drad=drvad=ava,nibbrit6=py=asatS ksh^ma-bliaiali | y6=sau simanta-sdvftiiijali - 

valaya-valat-pada]padm-asrlta-srili samyat=simdara-madra-prabJbritibhir=udayakshma- 
btyitd datta-vart-fcah || [12*] Bliratri-siifeliacb=clia y^- 

na ' prasarad-u*-Ti-kari-sr69i-Bamgb.a[tta]-clianda.pra3y4ji-kliyata.sanga-prahata-riptt- 

' hW si[m]gliaCM)sanastb.6 nija-Yijayi-pa[d-61 

1 Bead -vantfyah. ' Bead -samvalU- . 

I Apparently altered to ^Jeal&llllayd ; read =>TcaUr=lUlayd, 

* The afokara* in brackete are doubtful, here and in the following words of this verse. 

' Metre : PrithvJ. Metre , Arya. Every atohara of this verse is qmte clear, 

' Metre: Sragdhara. Xtead Ta<l-<vam&. 

The^a of turaga- was originally omitted and is engraved below the line. ^ Sraffdharlt 
'Metre: Sikharini. 10 Bead =*Aat<<. . . . , " ^ 

Bead^*^-jraWf-C?) . this alteration seems to have been made in the original. 
18 Metre : S16ka (AnuBhtttbli). t4 Metre of verses 11-18 : SragdharS. 

II Bead -dantaa* . I take danta to be used in the sense of 'a pin.' Iini1nnllted i v struck oufe, and put* 
" Originally fefiljptf^ was engraved, but the sign of the voweHhas wen undoahtedly struck ouu, an F 

may have been altered to pta. . , , j tt ft and y are certain, 

!' I am doubtful abot tHe correcbaeas of the, two ofM m brackets. Only the letters an y ^ 




vgsma(sma) yasa(a)sam 

15 m ^K;;r ;7f ^^^^^ 

^C^%&<^^ pratw - 

16 ciandramiU, | yaBmrn^a^aigi-MamjaCd^ra-gura-^wSf-- - T, 

tert^ (sra ^ ra - salilaiil ^-l^^ u yf* 

, ^f""-^ k P a "Vgnca-Tjapt-aklulafahmatala- L J 

I/ I nn!!!'t7iif.oT i iTTMoT 5Yr. n rs~\ _ A* _ i > - ... _ _ . 



23 ialadM 

v . 


^Sfetee of verses H-16: SlrdAUvikridita. 

- ' 

r%'y a "pariohjut6 


* Originally jptVi" was engraved. 






: Mand&trlnti. 
een Altered to rrfy^ 



21? nna-janma tatah. 11(1) gri-Vyasab. sa Parasa(sa)rad=iva mtmr=Vyasah si(si)su(su)tve= 
pi na praptah 1 tyaga-day-adibhir^ggiina-ganaih 2 yasy=apar tulyatarh. || [25*] 
3 Kim=va Va(ba)lih kim.=ayam=U8hnamaram(ri)cM-B'unu^i kirn Ragtavalj kim=u 

28 Nrigah kim=ayam Yayatih | 6vam janaih prati-dinam 

8tuyat6 jagati Sasva-pa[d]& 4 p[r]ati[shtha]h || [26*] Sriman 5 Sasva- 
pifc[uh] pa[d6] gatavati JySshtM dvitiye kramad=vare gitaruelib; sudlia- 

29 sudhavale pakslie=8litami-vasare | sapta8i(si)ti-samanvite dasa(sa)-gune 

samvatsaranam 6 sate bhftp& Gokialaghatta-'bliaii katak6 bh,ty=6slia 
Iavdh6(bdh6)dayat II [27*] Tat-pntrah sukyitair=jjaiiasya nripatam=asaditah 

30 r=gunaiV 7 r&jk nirjiita-Karttaviryacharitah gri- 8 S6db.adev6adliun^ | satya- 

tyaga-Tiveka-vikraiim-naya-vyapara-vispb.arita-Pral^yaclialacli^aTiirmiiiala-yag6-dliauta - 

31 kitalah U [28*] 9 Praudhapratapa-paritapa[cliay-ari]bMpa"kirttSh srit& jalamdMn=api 

sapta t^[rnnam] | Laksh[inl]h. punar=jjaladM-madhya-mvasa-sai(sai)iyat l 

gri-Sodhadeva-cliaranam sara- 

Second Side* 

32 nam prayat& 11 [29*] [Sa*] 11 Srimat-S6dhadev6yam Sarayupara-jivitam I 

viduslilm=agravi[b*] sft(ft)r& dliarmma-rasL(si)li prai^ava(sTa)rah || 30 [||*] 
Svasti I Dhtilifiglaatta-samavaeat | la paramabhatt&raka-maliaraja- 

33 dhira3a-paramava(sva)ra-srl-Maryadasagaradeva-padanudliyata-para mabliafctaraka- 

maixaraiadhiraia-paranae8va(8va)ra-paramamali6Bva(va)ra-SririaairS6dlLa d6va-padali 
kalyaninah 13 | 'mahaiajni- | 

34 maharajaputra- | mahaBandhivigraliika- | maMmahamtaka- | mahapratihara- j 

maliasSnapati- | 14 mab.aaksliapatalika- | mab-asadbanika- | mah.asr6ab.t3ii- | 

mabadanika- | mabapandb.aktilika- | sau(au)lkika- 1 gaulki(lmi)ka- ( 

35 gliattapati- | 16 tarapati-visliayadaiiika- | duab.tasadh.aka- | ktandavala- 1 valadhira- 1 ? 

prabhyitin samaata-r^apurushan | bhattamakutika- 18 1 mahattama-pramukhaii(S=) 
janapad-adim= 19 cha manayanti 1 v6(b&)dhayanti | Bama]ri.apaya- 

36 nti oha | yatha I Tiditam=astu bhavatam | 80 Qu9akala-vialiaya-pra-biva(ba)ddlia- 

Tlkarikayam piirwS Annadha I utfcarS Tlkari I dakshin^ Avadackana I 
pa4chim& Chandulia I atra ciatiir-aghat-abhyantar^ Mahiari-pfttaka- I Asathl. 

Eead prdptds*> , a Bead -ga$air= . * Metre : VasantatilaM. Bead Kim vd. 

The letters in brackets in this line are doubtful. Sasva seems to be certain both here and in the next yerse. 

Metre of verses 27 and 28 : S&rdtllavikridita. 

Bead tamvn , 7 Bead =^?J.a. 

Originally fr tsa seems to have been engraved. 

Metre : Vasantatilaka. The first Pada of this verge is very indistinct in the impressions, 
" Bead -iaitydch* . " Metre : Slfiia (Anushtnbh). 

'* AH the signs of punctuation from here to the vrac&yathd in. line 36 are superfluous. 
* Here and in other places below the rules of samdhi hove not been observed. 
> Bead mahdksha . 

** This word is quite clear in the impressions 5 I am unable to explain it. 
11 This sign of punctuation seems to have been struck out. 
**' Read, perhaps, lalddMra- ; but the term is unknown to me. 
18 Bead, perhaps, lhatta- 1 tndktttiJca- 1 ; but the latter term is unknown to me. 
" Originally janapadd \ dirnto was engraved. 

* From here to 'tmdbhih in line 47 the text forms one sentence, and the signs of punctuation in thii part 
an iftftlly superfluous. 


37 ka- I Thiula-pataka- I Vania-pataka- I Duari-pataka- I 
ksMtreahu devaku^ikasltha-parimita-vmsati-^aluka-paiimana 

bhumi-nalfi 20 bhumir=iya[ih} sa-jalasthal& I s-a- ' " " 

:b [mvra(mra)]madliuk a 2 si-vanavatika | sa-gartt6shara I ri, 

tr6pi-acfaara-triiia-mmte-n> ia t. 11 >, a 4v,a_^^^x4 , ao . , 1A sa ' i - tLala vattafcara | pa ~ 


dtyudadhi-samakaiam chattiatriaaflOt- 

E d - - , saCsa)ta-samvatsare* Pauslia-maai suCs->ls:la- 

4 " a S~^5S^ : p^S?^s?i 

-II ^PCya)pagotra-tripravara-Vajas an 6ya S a(sa}khi-p a ^ita-Ch C H 1 amchchhi |6 
tliKSD.itaxtamaputi*a-DhaTi v "' t '"" iAJ " L -- - TT ' -- ^i^uin i 


pM ,Ch oU .d^W) Ul i. p .S r DaT M t^M 4 '^^^^^ 

^:^^ m ^^^ r ^^ P^-^ 

a,^ | tomvaai-j.^a.L-ctlL^ Sitslr r Ill d bW 

driJiBU*, nlh 1' qMM? Da J "*" s 3 r => 1| Mldh a8 y na^ ai 
VW, MJa i 1 Ul4 ^"7*1 "" 15 >-<' -Ma ^ 

. - 

' I in uligltiy doubtful about thii readk^ - wW , V, Perlm P 8 alter<3d to 

Bead ^W^ ^ 11 ^ 6 ]00lE8 *" t3*M ' 

i w i 

11 Ead -aA/ a . ' "" 






ch& dharmma-sl6(sl6)kali || Samfjariijklituii 1 
var-asva(sya) vara-varanah | 
1 || Sarvvesliam=eva 

plialarix ]| 2 
* 1 ubhau 

II II Tath.a 

chcliliatram 3 
phalam I bataka-ksMti-ganririam sapta-janm-amu(mt)gam 

yah pratigrilmati ya3=cb.a bhumim prayacliohliafci [I* 1 ] uhau tau 
karmmanau myatan. 3 svargga-gaminau || 3 || Shashthimf ulitim) Tarlut- 
tishtHati bhumi-dah | ackclihetta cli=anuniauta dia 






narakfi vas^t || 4 I! Sva-dattam para-dattaih va 
vasuBdharam 4 I sa visMtayarh krimir=bliutva pitriWiih 

bhumer=apy=ekam=aih g ulam i 

yavad-ahutasamplavam || 6 || Sva-dattam por^dattam= 6 v 
Yudhishthira | raaliim mahibliritam sr&shtlia danat 1 ? sreyo= 

' 7 II AJiam Ragliava Markkandah sapta-kaliWmum-aK 
U -aya svayarhdatt-apaMrakah || S || Va 
datta raiabhili Sagar-ftdibhih [|*] 

tasya tada ptalam 9 |, 
cha I 




58 II fb. II 


thr. M 


BT V Kittso, EEJ), LL.D, 

impreasiona, sent to 

Metre of verses 1-9 ^ Sl61ca (An 
Perhaps altered to & tam 

a Bead 

< OridLaally vcatun 


. Sot. 

V01.LXX. PartL 

No. 604) tlxe projection 


iu his boar incarnation, 1 with a small figure of a woman (representing the earth) resting* aa ** 
seems, on one of the god's arms. The god himself ie represented as standing over a serpe* 1 *' * n 
front of which there is a flower. On the back the projection contains the engraving of a conch- 
shell. The writing commences immediately beneath the projection and covers the whole of the 
first side and two-thirds of the second side of the plate. It is well preserved nearly throngf* 1011 *' 
The size of the letters is between ^ and T T /. The characters differ little from the ordinary 
Nagarl, The language is Sanskrit, but some of the names towards the end of the inscription 
appear in then: vernacular forms or rather in forms based on them. Lines 2-12 contain six verses, 
five of which give the genealogy of the donor, and lines 21-33 contain benedictive and imprecatory 
verses, Of the introductory verses two (verses 2 and 6) are incorrect. Owing to carelessness 
on the part of the writer or engraver the text, besides numerous minor errors, contains (several 
corrupt passages, one or two of which I am unable to correct with confidence. In respect of 
orthography it may suffice to state that the letter v denotes both i> and 6, and that the dental 
sibilant is often used for the palatal. 

The inscription records a grant of land by f the Parama'b'hatidraka _, . 

Paraw&Wfl, the devout worshipper of Mahegvara (Siva), the glorious Klrtipaladeva, vsrho by 
inheritance had obtained the lordship over Uttarasamudra;, and who meditated on the feet of the 
P.M.P., the devout worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva), the glorions Vikramapaladeva, wb-O had 
acquired the lordship over Uttarasamudra by his own arms (1L 18-21), The document differs 
from other grants in this that it does not contain an order to officials and others, but simply 
records the fact that the king made a certain donation. 

The text, after the auspicious word Mh, commences with the words " this is the own hand 
of the glorions Kirtipalade'va," words such as we ordinarily find at the end of a grant. Then 
follow the words 6m 6m svasti, and a verse glorifying the god Pafopati (Siva). After- that, 
verses 2-6 give the donor's genealogy. There was a king (nripa) Bhuvanapala, an ornament 
of the rulers of the earth of the family of Savarni (Mann), descended from the Sun. His son 
was Vikramapala, who by his own arms acquired the sovereignty over Saumyasindh.'U. (i.e. 
Uttarasamudra), And his son again was Kirtip&la. 

This Klrtipala, having worshipped the god Narayana (Yishnu), in his presence, on a, date 
which will be considered below, gave two villages to the Brahman, the Thakhvra Prahasita^ar- 
man, who was born at a bJbfta-village, vis, the village of BaTiramakula in the !ravastiya- 
viBhaya, belonged to the Gautama g&tra, and was a son of the Panftta ViSvarupa and grandson 
of the Pandita Kesava. Both villages were in the Daradagandaki country (deia) ; one was 
the village of D[amba]iili (or perhaps Devaiili), which belonged to (the) Sash6[raviP]sa 
(district), and the other the village of Vikara, belonging to (the) Sh6[th?]yiB& (district ; 
11. 12-17). 

The names of three of the localities mentioned in the preceding paragraph unfortunately 
are partly BO indistinct in the original that I am unable to make them out with certainty ; and 
I have not succeeded in identifying any of the places on the maps at my disposal Witli the 
passage describing the birth-place of the donee we may compare above, Vol. III. p. 357, 1. 38, 
Srdn^-man^m^U) Kadlti-bhattagranta-vinwggatd'yap the name Daradagandaki uraist he 
connected with the river Gandaki (the Great or Little Gandak m the United Provinces) ; 
and the names of the two districts remind one of similarly ending names of districts in the grants 

1 Compare Gvpta hscr, p. 159. In the Jow. Seng. At. Soc. Vol XVII. Part I. p. 306, Captjun J, ,-, 
Cunningham, describing a sculptured representation of Vishnu aa the boar, atPathirt, says: f The statue i> 
about 4i feet high ; it U coveted with figures disposed in ranks j it has B diminutive woman, hanging by tike tusk 
of the god, and the remains of a serpent may be traced on the ground on which it is standing,' 

Compare aleo Jd. A*i. Vol. XVII. p. 121, 1. 35, '-* "- ^^*--*-'--A--""--- - 


of the kings of ^Kanauj. With the name Daviramakula one may perh^p. t<, t r -, 
' Ramkola,' which occurs in the G6rakhpur district, Indian Atlas sheet AY Iff 1 "^ - 
lat. 26 54'. * " "*" " 

The donation, in lines 15 and 16, is stated to have been made on the second .*4. <( . of the 
bright half in the month PMlguna, atasamkranti of Brihaspati (or Jupiter), on a 
day, in the year 1167, given in words; and the same data, without the rtfcruiJtv to Jnpit*T' 
position, are repeated in figures in line 40. So far as I know, in quoting a ftainkninti of Jupiter 
the date is quite -unique. For the Vikrama year 1167 expired it rvgnlarfy is 'rmfwiub > 
Saturday, the llth February A..D. 1111, when the second tithi of the bright taif <r I'h&igu'.a 
commenced h. 47 m. after mean sunrise. As the true longitude of Jupiter at mean suiirl* 1 1 
this day by the Sftrya-siddhanta was 1 s 2'5', Jupiter had entered the wgn Vpshabha 12 h. w 
before mean sunrise of the given day. The result shews that, instead of sayirg lirifopau- 
samkrantau, the -writer might have said, more accurately, Snhaspatti-= Vritt'kubha'.'unkrdntn '* 
< at the time of Jupiter's entrance into the siga Vrishabha.' 1 

After recording the grant, the inscription in line 21 ff. has two verses eoBtainibg 
addressed to the Earth, and after that a number of benedictive and imprecatory vera*. 
duoed by the words " speech of the saorificer (or donor) after granting the land." The*? 
are followed in lines 34-39 by the names of 17 persons, each of which has prefixed to It a title 
shewing his rank or occupation or official position. Of these titles those which 1 do not n-rncm- 
ber to have met elsewhere are Asltavargika, DawdgdffifaM&hfothai&anikatf) and a*kk*dhAri* 
Of the names themselves Inuka, Jag^ka, K&savapaduma, Mahicbanda, 
Sankhaka and Sihada 2 may be drawn attention to. The grant itself called in line $J 
Ttdwasya, paita^m; it was caused to be engraved by the Pandita Mndhftka, and Ly 

the goldsmith Gansvara (11. 39 and 40). 

I have not found hitherto any reference to the kings or chiefs o mtarwrnmndm d n 
unable to locate their principality. Apparently it must have been somewhere between At 
and Gandak rivers and Nep&l. 


First Side- 


in Unas 19 ^ 20 



7 d-vikramlria pa,ripalita-"blitoichala?am=aliiiy=akka-v6d]iitam=iva prativuslitasasit 1 || [3 j 

* ?ivu(bu)dli4ry7a(rc]iclia)Ea-vipr'a-vnnda-aantarppan-al3]iyuda7a-Triddlii-parampara 7 an I 

ni[v]j]"itya Barvva-va(ba)lavad-ripu-ntnda- 
V lani lebM snkham paramam=Indra-nibliah sabMyfon || [4*] s Tasmad=a[ja*]m 

sat-putrah Kirttipalah. pratapaY&a | 
M Sui'jid=iva Manm^dcDianvi mftrttiiri-jita-Manmath&h || [5*J 


11 vrat-6ddandam=akha^di mandalam=ala [cha]nda-dvishJm 

bMbhrin-mandala-mandantJiia va(ba)linS takva(tka)- 

12 ladanda-srrja 4 d&rddanda-dvaya-vikrama-pratibb.uv& praptam cha rajyam nijam || 

[6*] Sri-Stavast&ya- 5 visbaya-I>avi- 

14 ramak[u.]la-grame 6 blattagram-a(6)tpanu.ya Gautama-g&traya paiidita4rf- 

Kesa(sa)va-napra' ? pandiia-sri-VmTa(sTa)- > ,| 

II. rupa-putraya thakkura-sd-Prahasitasa(sa)rmmana(n) Yra(bra)]am8nya prakshalitaK? 

pada-sainyag-arclichita-mu[r*]ttay earn- ;''- 

15 luijita-srimad-bliagavau-Mrayan-agi^ Plial[gu]ne masi su(su)kla-paksli" 

dvitiySylm Vri(bri)liaspati-samkra- 
I'i nfcau Sauri-dine saptashashty-adhikS dkadasa-savatsar^ 8 gn-DaradagandaH*; 

de[se(se)} 9 Sasho[raviP]sa-pratiYa(ba)- ,'",'! 

1 7 ddlia[li]- 1!) DCamva(mba)]iiii- 1! grama.Sh6[tlifi?] visa-prativa(ba)ddlia.Vika r a - g r fi m tfty 

saalakau 13 sa-jalau sa-atb.alau s-anra-ma- _ '';', 

b tlhukau sa(sTa)sisa(ma)-yiiktau sa(sa)sanikritya paramata(bha)ttaraka-maliarajadliirSj^ 

paramesva(^va)ra-para- '*}, 

1 J mamatava (sva) ra-niiablnij6parjjit-6ttarasasfi(mii)dr4db.ipatya-sr]mad-Vikxain ap a Uf; 

deva-charananu- ''/. 

2' > dliyata-paramabhafct^raka-maharaj adhiraja-paramesva(gva)ra-paramamaysva(va)ra-kraifc^ 

apt-6ttarasa- , 

-21 mudr-adkipatya-srimat-KirttipaladSTd dadau |(||) Tvam 14 Dliar^ 

saT6( i ttva)nam=alaye 16 Vra(bra)lima-iiirm6(rminljt& | a- 
dliar^ sarvva-l)hutaiiam=atali sa(sa)ntim prayachokha m^ || [7*] 

tu(r^)pena Yiahnau tvam st(mt)rtti-bliMa ri(pi)na[kma]h | earn- 

1 Hore again the writing m the original is quite dear ; I would suggest 
lttddltam^stt, but am not sure that this is the intended reading. 

2 Metre : S16ka (Anuslitxibh). 8 Metre : SkdMavikridita. 

4 The metre is faulty, but the reading is quite clear in the original and I do not see what correction could bf 
The author apparently pronounced trijd as trijd. 

The sign for ^ of w$ may have been struck out, and in my opinion the reading should be -grdma-l>1tatta . 

I Kead -naptrl. * Read -ctdhika foddaia-fata'samvafaart. 

9 After the afohara d& there are two marks in the plate shewing that something has been omitted, and on the 
margin at the bottom of the plate is the akshara tS with the figure 9, indicating the 9th line from the bottom 
(if. line 16). - 

w This sign of visarga may have been, and should be, struck out, , 

II Possibly the name in the plate may be Btva&U. u Here one would hare expected -grdwv. f 
"Originally sialdkau was engraved, but the vowel i of the first syllable has been struck outj perhaps 

was wrongly put ia the place of the sign for an which oae would have expected at the end of the preceding 
C^rAiia), I am unable to explain laoMJiaH, and can only suggest that the right reading may be either wj 
or sa-fMikw. 8* t*t*a occurs foequeatly in the grants of Uorthern India of the same period) and 
pallika compare tw^alliTc-6f6i9 in the Gunnha plate of Jaylditya II., Jour. Be$. As. floe. Tol. LXIX. 
p. 91,1. 12. 

11 Metre of versea 7-20 : S16ka (Anushtubh). 

** Bead sdlay^, and further on -nwmmitah aad ddhdrah. 

Lucknow Museum Plate of Kirtipala. 
[Vikrama-] Samvat 1 167. 


SCALE '54 









23. Bara-sag^d=asm&n=samaddTiar a VasundtarS || [8*] BMdan4nantaram 


niyatam svargga-gaminau || [9*] Si[m*]lia- 

the top, wro g j 

Thw is half a Sldka. 



tTlT^r^r^ ^ ^ TiUa * e f Lte H ** GW&hpnr district, Halted 
*, the Lark" oi i the Indian Atlas, sheet No. 103, long. 84" 2', lat. 26 14'. They were 

bMm to T l P i^ y b7 B f U *"-"* Sbgl1 and B ^Mahadeo Singh, nd presented 

by him to the ProymciaJ Museum, Lucknow, in September 1898. My account of tHem is based 
oa impressions, sent to Dr. Hultzsch by the late Mr. E. W. Smith. 

V T m ^. eac \ of ^^ * M tea the impresaio^s, meaBures 
^'^^^^edon one Bide only. There is a ring-hole m the 

rf l *!" ? Iate "* a COTreB P oad ^ tole in the centre of the upper pa^ 

of the second plate ; and togete with the impression of ttie plates ifcere las bee^ sen? ta me 



; and the words dmm and 

written 4m,ra and 

, in lines 19 

ng records m it that, when in residence at Mndgagiri, after bathing ia 
a810n f ^ ^'ya festival,- on Monday, the 

written by the Karanika, the 


istrict, Bengal s situated on t 
of &e Ganges.' Begardug the other places or districts mentioned! I kn only eay tfJU 

1 Wwmg for ftW<A. Kead , aAl)a# 

Compare the ymlwL wMch looks like rtAa, v . above, VoL IV. p. 101,' note 8 

Ownpwe the Inscriptions edited by me above, VoL 17. p, 09 ff., and VoL V p 118 ff 

by W above, YoL V. p. 115, mast after all be taken to coneapond to Mondav 


occurs also in the Pali plate of G&Tindachandra referred to by me above, Tol. V.p. 114, note 4, in 
the passage Saruvdra- (or, more probably, Sanwdra |) &navala-pathak$ ] Sirasi-pattaldydm |j 
Pdlt-grdma,*. Of the localities mentioned in this passage, Pali Is the village ' Palee ' in Indian 
Atlas, sheet No. 102, long. 83 25', lat. 26 30' ; Sirasi is 'Sirei,' *&*<*. sheet No. 87, S.E., long. 
83 9', lat. 26 32' ; and Onavala survives in TJnaula, (Unoula, Unaola, Anaola, Aonla), 1 a name 
of one of the parganas in the western part of the Gdrakhpur district. As the Onavala pathaka 
(with Siraei and Pali included in it) according to the Pali plate formed part of Saruvara, this 
would indicate in a general way where the localities mentioned in the present inscription should 
be looked for j but I have searched for them in vain on the maps at my disposal. 

First Plate. 

15 .......... 3rimad-a6vindaehaihdrad6v6 vijayi 11* Sar[u]vare 

DudMtt-samvaddha- 6 GovisaiakS Pftndala-pattalayay aiia 6 

16 P6tachayadargrama-:nrvM(8i)n6 nikhila-3anapadan=upagat,n=api cha raia-raini- 


17 bhandagarik-akshapatalika-bhishag-naimittik-antahpurika-duta" 

karituragapattan^kara8thanag6kulldhik&ri-7purushan=ajnapayati v6(b6) dha- 

18 yaty=adisati cha yatha viditam=a8tu bhavatam yath=6parilikhita-gramah ea-jala- 

sthalah sa-l&ha-lavan-akara^ ea-matsy4karah sa- 

19 madhuk-amvra- 8 vana- vatika- vitapa-trina-yuti-gdohara-pary an tab, sa-giri-gahana-nidhanah 

8a-gartt-6sharaljL s-6rdv{rdahv)-adhah 9 chatur-aghata-visu(4u)ddhah 

20 sva-sima-paryantah. dvyadaika-dvada^a-sata-samvatsar^ 10 VaisaCsa)^]!^ 1 ! ma[si] 

su(su)kla-pakshe tpitlyaySm tithau S6ma-din snkato-pi sa- 

21 yat 12 1202 Vaisa(sa)kb.a-8udi 3 S6me ady=eha MudgagiEriJ-samavasS 

akshaya-tritiyayain Gangayarii vidhivat=snatv& 

Second Plate. 

22 mamtra-deva.muni-manuja-bhuta-pitri. g anams=tarppayitva timira-patala-patana-patu- 


23 8a(^)kala-seC6)kharam samabhyarchchya tribhuvana-tratur=YvasudSvasya puj^m 

vidhaya prachura-payasena havisbl havirbhu]am hutv^ matapi- 

24 tror=4tmanas-=cha punya-ya 8 &(6)-bhivriddhaye S smabhir=g6karnna.kugalat&-puta- 

karatal-ftdaka-purvvakam Kasya(Sya)pa-sag6traya Kasya(*5ya)p-A- 

i In the Jfe. Alia,, ou the xnargia of ^eet No. 87, S. K 

Vol. XXII. p. 66, Unaola' wd 'Anaola/ and m the Imperial CtauUur, 2nd L, Vol. V, p 
ing to Thornton's e*** < Unouk ' is the principal place ol the patgana of the Ba :ne name (^ the 
diLct), itiade^ribedasaamallto^, 13 mile 8 Bouth of CMWkhW JW, 26 Of audlong . - 
^i*o*1the'Bdtao^ f P 

eame sheet, 10 miles south by west &om ' P&lee/ contains the name 'Oonowlee. 

From impression* supplied by the Curator of fee Provincial Museum, Lucknow. 

^ to S irS pmctically identical W ith the text of the Kamauli plate of G6vandac3mdra, 

above, Vol. IV. p. 100 f. 

This sign of punctuation is superfluous. * Bead samba<Mfia-. 

Bead wttaUydfo ; the second yd most probably is attack out already m the original. 
The two oMtarM *rfri were origiaally omitted and are engraved on the margin at the foot of the plate 

8 Bead -dffira: L , , , 

Here and in some places below the rules of laMM have not been obaerved. 

10 Read -samvataar8. v . 

l The second akthara of this word originally was *J. Kead samvat. 


25 vatsya(tsa)ra-Nai[dhru]va4ripravaraya thakkura-:il-[U]dharana- l pautta(tra)ya 

thakkura-r!-Mildhava-putraya va(clia)ttirth^(rvv^davidyavi3itaTanaihiaya- 2 

2G na-thakkim-gri-Sridharaya chamdr-arkkam yavach=chhasanikritya pradatto manda 5 

27 bhriti-iiiyataniyat4dayan=ajMvidheyi 4 dasyath=eti || chha || Bhavanti ch=atra 

Smriti-sl6(l6)kah |1 5 

'?",.. Likhitampidam tlmvra- 6 pattakam 

karanika-?thakkura-sri-Slha:$na [|| *] 
3S Tadaganam sab.a8ren= 8 asra(va)m6dlia-sa(sa)tena cha | gavam kfiti-pradanena 

bhumi-ha[r]tt& na stt(6u)dhyatt || <% |(||) Mamgalam maha-&riyam 9 [||*] 


Wishing to publish the accompanying photo-lithograph of the Bugnda plates of 
MMhavavarman, the text of which I have given above, Vol. III. p. 41 ff., Dr. Hultzsch has 
asked me to write a note on the alphabet of that inscription. In complying with his request, 
I take the opportunity of correcting one or two errors which I have allowed myself to commit 
eight years ago, and of adding a few remarks on certain expressions which occur in the formal 
part of Madhavavarman's grant. 

In my previous account I have represented the donor, Mftdhavavarman, as a son of 
SainyabMta. As pointed oub by Dr. Hultzsch, above, Vol. VI. p. 144, note 1, the facts of the 
case are that Sainyabhita is a surname of Madhavavarman himself, and that this Madhava- 
varman Sainyabhita was a son of "ifasdbhlta. Moreover, a reconsideration of verse 11 of the 
inscription leads me to think that Madhavava-nnan also had the Hruda Srlniv&sa, The name 
of the village granted I have stated to be Puipina ; I now see that the actual reading of the 
name, inline 36, is either Pulping or, more probably, PtiApind. For the form of the initial?, 
here used, we may compare the sign for t in -ddhyttt, above, Vol. III. p. 342, 1. 17, Plate. 

In the passage enumerating the persons to whom the order is addressed, my text, in line 
35, has vyavahdrinah sa[dh$]ran&'n*=, which I have proposed to alter to vyavahdrinah 
sudh&ranfim*, I now see that the aksfiava, in brackets should be read fco,the word intended being 
SQ-karandn-, The terms vyavahdrin and Ttarana occur together also in lines 14 and 15 of the 
Gumsur plates of Netribhanja, Jour. Seng. As. 8oc, Vol. VI. Plate xxxiii. (where the published 
test, vbid p. 669, has IJvyupadravinam and karana) ; and Jcqrana and vydvaMrika we find 
together in the Gauhati plates of Indrapalavarman, the Nowgong plates of Balavarman, and 
the Bargaon plates of Ratnapalavarman (ibid. Vol. LXVI. Part I. p. 126, 1. 7, and p. 291, 1. 10, 
and Vol. LXVII. Part I. p. Ill, 1. 54). 

The term saliladlidra-purahsardna in line 40 I had proposed to alter to the grammatically 
correct puraTiBaram, But whatever may be the rules of grammar, saliladhdrd-purah$arna 

1 Bead fry-Uddkara^a- (?). 

a Bead ~Dhaamjaya-, Plianathjaya is the name of a Vyfcsa. 

a Eea4 matvd. * Bead vidUyiU'Aya. ^ 

{ Here follow the eleven verses commencing SMmim yah Qfati'grihn&ti, Sankham Ihadr-dscmam, 
^dmaiWoi'iwfcj J?oA4Airaflawdi4> Shasktifo varsha-iahasrfyi, Na vi&Jutm vittom, Gdm=6kd 
V'it-dbJtfa-viliJiramam, Sva-dattdm pawiattdm vd t and 7dri-Mithv=>ara*ytshv. 

Bead tdmrtt-. 7 Originally Mra^ika~ was engraved, 

8 Read*f^B cttea", ' Bead >frih. 

Buguda Plates of Madhavavarman. 








lit a. 



52 V 


turns out to be so well established a term that it should not be altered. We find it, sometime- 
spelt incorrectly, in the plates of the time of Sasankaraja, above, Vol. VI. p. 145,1.21 ; in une m 
the grants of Dandimahade'vi, ibid. p. 142, 1. 33 ; the Ganjam plates of Prithivivarmadevn, abovu 
Vol. IV. p. 200, 1. 19 ; the Kudopali plates of Mahabhavagupta II., find, p. 259, 1. 17 ; iiu 1 
the Puri plates in Jour. Bang. As. Soc. Vol. LXIV. Part I. p. 126. Instead of it, we have w't'tV 
dhdrd-pwahsarSna vidliind in the plates of Vidyadharabhanja, ibid. Vol. LVI. Part I. p. W. 
1.6; dhdrdsalila-pwahsarilna vidhina in the Gumsur plates of Netribhanja, ibid. Vol. VI. 
p. 669 ; and udakap&rv&na in the Chioacole plates of Nandaprabhanjanavarman, Itid. Ant. Vol 
XIII. p. 49, 1. 4. 

Like the expressions just now enumerated, the term akartkritya in line 40 of our gram 
seems to be peculiar to inscriptions from the Ganjam. district and the countries adjacent to it, in 
which it occurs frequently. Instead of it we also find, in inscriptions from the same lucalititb. 
akaraMna, or, as in the Ohicacole plates of Nandaprabhanjanavarman, simply dkaram. 

The term IdnGhUtam, which we have in line 50, also occurs in the plates o! NetyibhaSja. 
the plates of Vidyadharabhanja, and the plates of Prithivivarmade'va, all from the Ganjam 

The characters employed in these plates are the same as those of e.g. the Gumsur plates 01 
UT&tribhanja, of which a rough lithograph is given in Jour. Seng, As. Soc. Vol. VI. Plate 
xxxiii. ; the plates of Vidyadharabhanja, of which there is a photo-lithograph ibid. Vol. LVI. 
Part I. Plate ix. ; and the Ganjam plates of Prithivivarmad^va. They represent a variety 
of the northern alphabet which has developed out of the northern alphabet such as we find it 
in the [Ganjam] plates below denoted simply by the letter &. of the time of Sasltikarlja ot 
the Gupta year 300, 1 published with a photo-lithograph above, Vol. VI. p. 144, and which I 
would call the Gafijam variety of the northern alphabet. 

Of initial vowels the text contains a, d, i, , and . Of these, a and d are denoted by one 

1 49 e sgn or s neary . 

latter with the i of taMf in line I of the present plates. The sign for occurs only in Puijmo 

(or J?dpty0), 1. 36, and that for u e.g. in utkirnnam, 1. 50. 

the signs for medial vowels only d, u and A call for remarks. In 0, ftftM (the* of 


, compare in S. to?*, L 6, gmd, 1. 14, and totfha, 1. 7, 

During th time which could correspond to a ^ y . Mch visibl6 ^ the Gafljto district ware one of 
Gafijto district. The two solar eclipses ueare rt t tt* ^ J* ^ _ ^ ^ h llm n of 

the 4th November A.D. 617, Kud one of the ^.^^'^ in mj opinion md ^%l^. tte 
the same inscription, b the place of ^.^^;S?i] 1^ of IW****** ^ ^ ^L p. 139, 
term aMaywM occnrs also (corrupt) in one of the L^njarnj g 
1, 34. i.. i /i*n,timi of and 4 aftta r, tf'. b ^mns L 4, and 

i.. i /i*n,timi of an a , . , 

have disregarded to the above the exceptuma^ ^^^ ^ pWM ft, wrttr ta. mtty wrt 
A<5,l. 20| oompwe in 9. oMwM*', L !-&> 


plates for both M and it ; compare dwllar at the end of line 23, dfitako, 1, 51, pwahsarena, 1. 40) 
andjjtirwfl, 1. 34. 

Of the consonants, jfc and 6 do not occur in the text, and the signs for oJih and th the latter 
hardly to be distinguished from the sign for t occur only as subscript letters. In general, it 
may suffice to draw the reader's attention to the forms of Wi, e.g. in Ttbydiah, 1. 9; g and li in 
Gangd, 1. 3 ; s in Mfaata, 1. 12 ; gh in vigbatfi, 1, 19 ; o/i in chandrah and j in jaleshu, 1, 17 5 $ & 
$aiy, 1. 3 ; (tt and w in pravddha, 1. 16 ; jpfc. in ^feala, 1. 48 j Wi and Tt 1 in mahfibhakuiribha, 1. 23, 
and gwfca, 1. 26 ; I in UmaladaUy&taU , 1. 9 ; and s in sandhaya, 1. 8. 

The signs for and ? are those which we find generally nsed in inscriptions from Eastern 
India ; compare pajund, 1. 29, shatyada, 1. 22, pdtfaka t 1. 36, and &7zai|a, 1. 40. 

For the form of the single % see e.g. phana, 1. 2, and guyind, 1. 10. When in . or form 
the first part of a conjunct, two distinctly different signs are used to denote the two nasals ; compare 
in S. mandana, 1. 14, and safichhanno , 1, 6. In the present plates the signs for % and n as first 
parts of oonjuncts differ very slightly, if at all, and one sign only is used to denote the same two 
nasals as last parts of oonjuncts j compare mayfaUm, 1. 10, saftchaya, 1. 8, vdfichM, 1. 13, 
Uncbhitam, 1. 50, krishnti , 1, 8, and yajfiais^ 1. 28. One sign only is used in the present plates 
also for the subscript oKh and th* just as the plates of the time of Saslnkaraja use one sign for 
the same two letters; 'compare in S. sanchhanno , 1. 6, and s$hityu t 1. 16, and in the present 
platea vanchM^ 1. 13, and sthali, It 23. 

When f precedes another consonant, it ia always, as in the modern Nagarf, denoted by a 
superscript sign j but, excepting in the conjunct ry, the letter y, when it follows upon another 
consonant, is everywhere denoted by the secondary form of the letter y which in the same 
position is used throughout (even in ry) in S. So it happens that the signs for such aksharas 
as ty0, nya, thy a, sya of the present plates differ very little from the corresponding signs of . 

The sign of ctvagrabu is not used in these plates j nor do we find in them the sign of vir&na, 
except perhaps in the final form of ft, used in the word samydk at the commencement of line 43. 
Of other special signs for final consonants the plates contain one for tf, in asakrit, 1. 16, 
kwmlffltwavat, 1. 24, Angirfoat, 1. 39, and svaddnfa, 1. 48, and one for w, in gari^ydn, 1. 18. 

To determine with confidence the exact time of these plates from the characters seema to me 
impossible ; my impression is that they cannot be earlier than about the 10th century A.D. and 
that probably they are not much later. 

BY E. ErazseH, 

These copper-plates were sent to me in T rnuary 1902 by Mr. A, B. Napier, I.C.S., on special 
duty in the office of the Commissioner of Settlements and Agriculture, Nagpur, before whom 
they had been produced in an enquiry into the succession to an estate. They " belong to one 
Ude Singh, a resident of Baloda in the Phuljhar Zamindari of the Sambalpur district " of the 
Central Provinces. 

1 In line 25 the writer has really written mabhddayfout, not mahtidayfaa. 

' In iMtm&n (for ^3#tanfe), 1, 10, the writer or engraver hag used the sabscript sign for M also for the 
first th. POP the *ro of wayfoan, I 24, he had originally put stka, but the back of the paper-impression seems 
to shew that this stha has been altered to m. 

No. 13.] 


The plates are three in number and measure about 91" in breadth and about 5* in Iwaght. 
Their edges are not raised into rims. The first plate is engraved only on the inner side, and 
the second on both Bides. The third plate is full of writing on the inner side and bears one 

es. e 

ac records the name of the engraver, a little above *e middle of Oeo.tar.fe 
SomtTthe lines on the inner side of the third plate are so deeply cut Oat they show through 
on the outer side. The writing is on the whole in a state of very good preservahon. In the 
B vllable not of 1. 10, a square hole was cut into the plate by the engraver and a fresh piece of 
coppa iTerted into the hole, , This was probably done in order to correct he sy lable , 
whfcn may have been spoiled accidentally in the original engraving. On the left side of each 
Tate is bored a roughly square hole for a ring to connect them. The ring, wfcoh had not yet 

bet ut when the pUs^ *' ^Tnd 

Its ends are secured in the lower part of a circular seal, which measures 34 xn diameter and 
o bsely resembles the seal of the Bajim plates of the same king.* The seal bears, m relief on a 
deep Luntersunk surface, across the centre a legend in two lines ; at the bot om a floral fence ; 
and aS top a figure of Garuda, facing the front and somewhat worn, *ith . 6M*a on hi. 
proper right aud a sanlcJia on hia proper left. 

The alphabet is of the same box-headed type as in the Bajim plates. The 

tiie J* te < tat in ihe majority of oases &e t fa not languished from the . The r of * . 
m n 18 19 21 25) ku the same shape as the seeoadary torn of *ma * 
Sif a V, & 0. 36) and *# (1. 37), and final in V * 0- > * ^ 
the numerical symbols for 7, 9, and 20. 

(1.32) da is used for 
ft. B^ plates, 

o^ - 



Tivaradeva's edict -was issued from Srlpura (1. 2), which Dr. Eleet has identified with the 
modem Sirpur, 1 and is dated on the 27th day of the month Jyaishtha in the 9th. year of his 
reign (1. 40), i.e. about two years after the Rajim plates. The king granted the village 
Menkiddaka in the district of Sundarikamarga (1. 22) for the benefit of a rest-house (sattra,) 
which had been established at Bilvapadraka at the request of his son-in-law Honnaraja 
(1. 25 f.). I am unable to identify the geographical names mentioned in the preceding 

TEXT. 3 

First Plate. 




8 IT; 

Second Plate First Side. 





1 <? M ;,Ai Iwcr,>ow, p. 293. From the original copper-plates. EKprewed by a 

Bead *mrft. e 

Bead ^PWt, 

Baloda plates of Tivaradeva. 




SCALE '65 


30 Mgl 



Second Plate ; Second Side. 

21 ssn^ctr, wri^ mmfaOT^^iTr 

22 ^f^wmfftf^ ufirarftro wnrnwft [i*] 


26 mra^fttrWwT Pwmrtr 



; First Side, 

31 fti^r fefr ^r^f^r nwftr ^T "S^T *nit 9 ^wnfr 



34 w*rg<far *re* 13 ^TTO^ H 0*] 

[T]W [i*] *n*- 

35 ^rrn 15 TC^T ^ li^Hrtlf ^[vrw] nnr[: i*] 


^ L "HI- 

38 frwgm ^^ ^[T*]^w^rf^: D] 

* Bead WTT 

*BeadVn*Tt &W: Bead *KT^3t. 6 ^ ead 

Bead ijf^if . Bead Tff . 9 

10 Bead TEflP?. MBead*ft*i M ^^ 

11 Bead ^nc^f. u Bead ??tatirrf . u Bea4 



11 [**] war 1 w?n**i serr^sf iftfe* [i*] 

40 ^T^%TOFrf*?f?r i! [>*] 
ft v s [*] 

ZWJ Plats ; Second #Zff. 


M*] CM 


<5&. (Verge 1.) Victoriotis is the glorious TlTarade>a, the foremost of all peirf ormers of 
meritorious acts, (and) the auspicious pillar (wjpporitgr) the mansion the family o Icings (who 
a) ornaments of the three worlds, 

(Line 2,) Hail ! From firlpura, he -who illuminates the neighbouring regions by the 
mirror of the nails of (kit) feet, which are ruhbed by the edges of the diadems of many bowing 
princes who have obtained the five great sounds ; whose sprout-like hand rudely pulls the 
abundant Jiair of the goddess of Fortune of kings (who are Jits) declared enemies ; virBo adorns 
the battle-field with heaps of pearls, which are drenched with copious streams of blood (oticE) 
which drop from the round temples of hostile elephants, struck down 7 by the heavy blows of 
(Us) sharp eword j (who is) the submarine fire to the ocean of (Us) enemies, swelling with the 
desire of acquiring a mass of various gems ; who does not cause distress by (heavy) taxes, just as 
the rising mooa does not cause distress by (hot) rays j who, like the milk-ocean, displays a wealth 
of many surpassing jewels ; who is skilled in uprooting the wicked, just as Garuda is skilled in 
picking up snakes ; who, (6y making them widows), wipes away the, collyrium belcrw the eye, 
and the saffron marks on the tender cheekSj of the wives of (his) enemies ; whose mind is bent 
exclusively on maintaining the rules of good conduct ; 

(L, 10.) who, moreover, is spontaneously worshipped by men on account of (&*) penance, 
performed in a previous birth ; who is quite insatiable in (acquiring) fame | who is very reserved 
in (fceapwij/) secrets; who is quite pure in mind; whose. eyes are pleasant; and whose body ia 
ornamented with youth; who, though he ia a master (wdnun), does not talk much:*, (while the 
god Svamin, .. Karttikeya, has many, viz. six, faces) ; 8 who, though not free from, the desire 

Bead ^qf <K3"tl ^T. Bead 

1 The f of *<<* seems to be engraved on an erasure and differ* from the rv occurring in U. 3, 14 g^ 32 5 
but in the corresponding passage of the Bftjim plates (L &6) the w is quite "distinct. 
Bead wflWftlf . * The tisarga here represents a full sto.' 

Bead wflWftlf . * The tisarga here represents a full stop.' 

6 The photo-lithograph of the seal of the B&jim plates also reads fareTi while the printed text ( Gupta Inter 

p, 264) has - 

I do not consider it absolutely necessary to alter pdtita Into pSlita, aa proposed In JM. Ant. Vol. XVI II 
p. 2:0, 

1 laftma mens both ' talking * and ' the mouth.' 


for (cohering-) the earth (**),! is very liberal ; who, though very fierce to enemies, is of atto 
aspect; who, tLgh adorned with majesty (&1WW), * not cruel m diapoaitum (whue Swa 
both smeared with ashes QMti) and cruel in disposition) ; 

(L 14, ) who, moreover, is sever satisfied in acquiring merit, but the contrary m 
accumuiating wealth; who is devoid of anger, bat not of power , who is covetous of fame, but 
STrfttkS ^e property of others; who is fond of clever remarks, but not o playing with 
wome* who byTe L of (7m) valour burn B the families of all (M enemies (Z^) heaps of 
Ttr/wt b7tio mass of (4 *** *** as the mountain of ice, illuminates the quarters ; 
who is handsome by nature ; 

(L 18.) the BO* o the glorious manadSva,- (trto ) tte son o the glorias Indrabate 
j a'doJed to race of P^da,- to glorio^ MaMslya-Mvarartja, who has acquired O, 

belongs to (the district of) Siindarilcamarga : 

(L. 22.) "Be it town to you that, for the increase of the me,it of (or) ^^to 
and of ourselves we have granted this village, to be enjoyed m long as the world endures in 
wMck ^Td^J is dispelled by the rays of the sun, the moon and the star, ; together 

rrnWe glorious Nannar^a, who has obtained the five great sounds; and under the 
condition that (this charity-) bas to be maintained by the (local) authority.* 

(L. 29.) Knowing this, you shall dwell in happiness, delivering (to the mttra) the proper 
share of the enjoyment," 

(L. 30.) And the following ia addreased to future rulers of the earth. 

PHere follow two of the customary verses,] 

[L 34 ] And with reference to this they quote (**a /oBowtn*) verses sung by Vyasa. 

rL 40 } Tfce year in ww - *eign of victory ; the 27tfc day of 

(L. '.) (Oftfc tof ) engraved by Boppanlga, the son of ^e goldsmitii 4 Sottranaga. 


(V 8 ) This edict, the object of which is the increase of merit, of the glorious Tlvaradeva, 
the sovereign of K6sala, (*ftH) endure as long as the moon and the stars. 

, the primary meaning of i-ffwM. * ' mean g reed >' musfc te also 

" means alsomoou.liWwhn e tie word ^^^, 'v.ry fierce,' hints a company with tne sun 

Or.perbapa^bythetowixtot Jiuvapaara^;.' The meauing o ""; ,, Vfl Vol m D 218), 

result. _ 2 




In the course of my two last cold-leather tours I tad occasion to visit the sites of the three 
famous monolithic images at Sravana-BelgoJa in the Hassan district of the Mysore State and at 
Xarkala and VSnflr in the South Canara district of the Madras Presidency. For descriptive 
notices of these monuments the reader is referred to Mr. Rice's Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgofa, 
Introduction, p. 29 f, and Mr. Sewell's Lists of Antiquities, Vol. I. pp . 231 and 236 f .' The 
largest and most ancient of them is the one at Belgola, which, according to Mr. Bice, is 57 feet 
Ingh and was set up by the minister Chamundarfija between A.D. 977 and 984 The second, at 
Karkala, is 41' 5" high and was erected by the chief Vira-Pandya in A.D 1432 Along with 
the two inscriptions on the image at Karkala, I publish an inscription (E. below) on a neighbour- 
ing pillar which was raised hy the same Vira-Pandya in A.D. U36. The smallest and most 
recent of the three monoliths is the one at V&nur, which is 35 feet high and was established by 
the chief Timmarja in AJD. 1604. 

g d * hom the three ima S es represent is called in Sanskrit BfiJmbaiin or 

GK Mow), le. the fir S t Jina 
-), Gatesa G, Gom^ata or 

eStampagS fm vhich Iam Pushing the Karkala inscriptions (Nos. 0., D. 
A F W6 7r?frf by mj pe DS - Th Se Of *Beteola a*d V^nur inscripfcione 

D + aon.eoauae none but 

are permitted to touch the images at Belgoja and 

A.- On the proper right side of the colossus at Belgola 

1 See the inscriptions C. 

. , .,. Vol. II. p. 

| Mr. Walhouse h^ the*, me perience; see J,dL^ Vol. V. p. 37. 
ZntenjriiOM f Sfoua 9 a^e?^o/ a| K . 76. 

Op. ci/. Introduction, p 22. ? . . 

No 78 of J89<1 f yi,l * J Above * V l v - ^ T 18, Plate. 

Colossus at S 

KU* KM.* -TON 


No, 1. 

No. 2. 



with, the first line. In Mr. Bice's opinion, 11. 1 and 2 were engraved between A.D. 077 and 
984, 1 and 1. 3 between A,D. 1115 and 1118. 3 

1 Srf-Chamundarajam madisidam 

n A /"<ii_ *. 3 A* A r .< n r- -i 

2 Sri-Chamundarajan* [se]yv[v]ittan 4 

3 Srl-Gariigara^a suttalayavam madisida 


(Line 1.) The glorious CMmundaraja caused (this image) to be made. 
(L. 2.) The glorious Chtamridaraja caused (this image) to be made. 
(L. 3.) The glorious Gangaraja caused the enclosure to "be made. 

B. On the proper left side of the colossus atT3elgola. 
This inscription (No, 526 of 190) also was first published by "Mr. Bice. 5 

The alphabet is MUgarl and the language is Marfitbl. The first line is a translation of 
1, 1 of the preceding inscription (A.), and the second line of 1. 3 of tibe same inscription. As 
the type of the alphabet of 11. 1 and 2 is quite identical, it may be assumed that both lines were 
engraved in the time of Gangaraja, whose name .occurs in the second line, The Mar&thl 
language was perhaps adopted for the benefit of Jaina pilgrims from the Maratha country. 

TEXT. 6 

1 Sri-Cha-vundaraj^m karaviyalem 

2 Sri-Gamgaraje 1 suttale 1 karaviyalfe 


(Line 1.) The glorious Chavund.ar8.ja caused (this image) to be made. 
(L. 2.) The glorious GangarSja caused the enclosure to be made. 

C On. the proper right side of the colossus at Kftrkaja ; 
Saka-Samvat 1353. 

This inscription (No. 63 of 1901) was first published in a tentative manner by Dr. Burnell, 7 
Mr. Rice's reprint of Dr. Burnell's text 8 contains a few improvements, based on a copy which 
was supplied to him by the late Brahmasuri Sastri, the well-known Jaina scholar of Sravana- 

The alphabet is Kanarese, with the exception of the colophon ^ri-Pdmtfyardyain 1. 15, 
which is in Grantha characters. The inscription consists of two -Sanskrit verses and a few 
words in. Sanskrit prose (1. 14 f .). It records that the chief Vira-P&ndya (1. 11) or PSndyaraya 
(1. 15), who was the son of Bhairav&idra of the lunar race, caused to be made the image of 
Bahubalin, on which the inscription, is engraved. 

1 Intcripiions at ravanci'Iielgola, Introduction, p. 22. 
s loc. cit. p. 23 ; see Id. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 116, Nos. 17 and 13. 
' From two inked estampages. 

4 The virdma after rdja and ttd% is expressed by a dot (;>??) at toe top of the letter. Th c re i another 
unexplained dot behind rdjan. 

1 Inscription* at Sravana-Belgola, No. 75. 

' From two inked,estampges 7 Ind. Ant, Vol. II. p. 853. 

1 Inscriptions at Sratana-Belgola, Introduction, p. 31 f. 



According to Terse 1, Vira-Pandya was prompted to undertake this work by the Ja - * 
Lalitaktrti, who belonged to the lineage of Panasdgei and to the DMigana. THe _ s _ 

occurs in another Karkala inscription 3 of Immadi-Bhairaraea of the f amdy of ^Tabasti &t 
apparently one of the successors of Vira-Pandya,- who built the Chaturm^ 
KaVkala in gaka-Samvat 1508 (expired), the Vyaya year It follows -from ** 
Jaina nfafa of Hanaa&ge bore the hereditary title Lahtakirti* and were tbe P 
preceptors of the chiefs of Karkala, iggg 

The day on which the image was consecrated fell into the (expired) _Saka 3^ 
aumerical words, L 5 f ., and in figures, 1. 14 f .), the cychc year J"f ^f ! 3t ^ bruary 
Professor Kielhorn's calculation, the "date corresponds to Wednesday, tne m* 

. 1482. 4 

TEXT. 5 







15 t^M ft*] ^SW^W^ [*] 


chief of aages, named Laliteklrti, yko was the lord 

inject ta^cript 

it rf tt -* - ^ T ' P ' ' TJW ** 

title Wrtatattrtt, . From an ioked etewpage. 8 Bead 



(on) a Wednesday in PMLgmia, on the auspicious tithi of the holy dvddaM 1 of the bright 
(fortnight), an image of B&hubalin was here caused to be made and was consecrated by the 
glorious lord Vlra-Ptodya, the son of Bhairavdndra of the glorious family of the Moon. Let 
(this image) be victorious ! 

(Line 14.) The Sakayear 1853. 

(L. 15.) glorious P&ndyar&ya I s 

D. On the proper left side of the colossus at Karkal.a. 

This inscription (No. 64 of 1901) consists of one verse in. the Kanarese alphabet and 
language, and two words in Nagarl characters and Sanskrit prose (L 7). Like the preceding 
inscription (0.), it records that the image was caused to be made by I?&ndyarya (11. 2 f . 
and 7), the son of BhairavSndra. But the image is here stated to be one of Gummata, the 
lord of Jinas. 

TEXT. 3 

7 fm H 3 ffa i fancTO ^nsr [*] 


Let it grant you (every) wish, the beautiful holy image of &ummat>a, the lord of Jinas, 
which was caused to be made with great delight by the glorious Pftndyar&ya, the son of 
BhairavSndra who was praised by wise men ! glorious 3?&ndyaraya be victorious ! 

E. On the BrahmadSvastambha in front of the colossus at K&rkaja ; 

Sakft-Sariivat 1358. 

This inscription (No. 65 of 1 901) is written in the Kansrese alphabet and language. It 
consists of one verse, which is preceded by a short prose passage, and records that Vira-Pandya, 
the son of Bhairava of the family of Jiiadatta, the same prince whose name we have found in 
the two preceding inscriptions (C. and D.), set up this pillar which bears at the top an image 
of Brahman. The date was the 12th tithi of the bright fortnight of Phalguna in Saka-Samvat 
1858 (current), the cyclic year Eftkshaaa, i.e. A.D, 1406. 

TEXT. 6 

1 ffj 

1 I. on the twelfth tithi. 

Compare the colopbon of the next inacripfcion (P.). 
1 From an Jnked estampage. * Metre 

1 From an inked estampage. Metre: Kanda. Bead 



On the 12th (titki) of the bright (fortnight) of Phalguna in the Rakahas** year 

corresponded to the year) 1358 of the Saka king. Let it grant you (every) wish, O^ e image 

of) Brahman, the devotee of Jina, who took up his abode 9 (here) in order to grant -with. 
pleasure (every) desire to the glorious prince Vlra-Pan^ya, the son of Bhairava of "the family 
of Jinadatta ! 

#. On the proper right side of the colossus at VSnur ; 
Saka- Sam vat 1625. 

A fairly correct transcript of this inscription (No. 72 of 1901) was published "fcy Mr. Rice 
ia the Introduction to his Inscriptions at Sravana-Belgolaf 

The inscription IB disfigured by a crack, which has injured one or more letters in almost 
every line. The alphabet is Kanarese, and the language is Sanskrit verse. La se-v*l instances 
the letter d is closed and consequently identical in shape with dh. This remark applies also to 
the next inscription (G.)- 

The inscription records that Timmara ja of the family of Chamunda set up the image of tb.e 
Jina named Bhujabalin 4 at Bnura (the modern Venur). This chief -was the ycna-sager brothver 
of Pa^dya, the son of queen Pandyaka, and the nephe-w and eon-in-law of mfi,yakuvara- ' 
From the fact that the inscription mentions his uncle and mother, but not ids fatlxer, it may t>e 
concluded that he and his family practised the aftya-santdna, i.e. the inheritaoace through 
nephews. Even now the Jaina laymen (frdvaka) of South Oanara follow ihis rale, while tb.e 
Jaina priests (indra) practise the maKkcQa-iant&Mt, i.e. the inheritance through sons. 

Timma,raja is stated to have net up the image at the instance of the Jaina priest Oharuklrtl, 4 , 
who belonged to the DStigana and was the pontiff of Be}gt4a (the modern 6ra,Ara,^a-Belgo}a.). 
Hence the latter must have been the spiritual preceptor of his family. This suggests that iihe 
Chamuuda to whose family Timmaraja belonged (1. 14 f.) may be identical witlx -the minister 
Ghamundar&ja who had set up the colossal statue at Belgoja.7 

The day on which the image was consecrated fell into the expired Saka year 1625 (in 
numerical words, 1. 4 f.), the cyclic yea* gdbhakrit. Professor Kielhom kindly contributes - i/L - 
following calculation : 

The date regularly corresponds, for aka-Samvat 1525 expired = S6bhakf it, 
Thursday, the 1st March A,D. 16O4, when the 10th *t*fc of the bright half enaed 3 h. 33 
and thenafcs^rawaBPushya/romlh. 58m. (or 2 h. 38m.), after mean Bunrfse.- The i 
Mithtina was lagna from about 5h. 20 m. to about 7h. 20m. after iame sunrise, *.e. the ti 
indicated by the date is about midday." 

1 Bead ^re[. * * ' who w " ^ ttp by the ^f 

c. cit. p. 82. The transcript supplied to MY. Bice contains three miBreadinga i~~ J 

TbisisaBvnonymof JBdA6aZ in the Karkaja inBcriptiott, 0. above. 

In the next following inscription (Q-.) he ia called Blyakumar*. Kvvara ia f o*M*w t 

Compare above, p. 110, note 8. f See p. 108 above. 

Jaincu Colossi. 




TEXT. 1 

2 mtWTWW ! 


4 sr i [t*] iwriifatfWtLi f]wr- 


6 f?r 


8 ITO fttflr 

9 [] [**] 

10 tr^: i <srr 

11 15^^ H [*] 

12 irmrm 


16 siwrera! H 


(Vere 1.) Let it be victorious,- the lioly religion of the lord of the three worlds the religion 
of Jina, the unfailing characteristic of which is the extremely profound scepticism ! 

(Vv 2-6 ) After the Saka years (meatured fy) the objects of the senses (5), the eyes (2), the 
arrows (5) and the moon (1)* had passed, wlife the (cyclic) year Sdbhakjit was current, in the 
month named Ph&lguna, on the brilliant (?) tantb ** of tlie bright fortnight, m (the 
(combined witV Thursday, (cl)-irfthe auspous %na - 


at the divine order of the sage Oh&mkirti, the sun on the firmament of the Dttyaya (and) the 

moon in fee milk-ocean of the pontincate' of the town named Be)gttlv--h who w named 

Timmaraja, the ornament of the family of Oham^da, tiu so iwn-kw of the glonous 

Bftyakuvaro, the virtuous son of his sister- the gieat o x ueen named Pa^yaka, the younger 

bS oT^rince Pandya, consecrated and set up ifce n named Bhujabalin at the town ot 


(Line 16.) Let there be prosperity ! 

Q. On tho proper left aide of the oolossuft at Vfinftr ; 

6aka-Samvat 1526. 

This inscription (No. 73 of 1901) consists of two verses in the Kanarese dvb&tet &** 
language. Like the preceding inscription (F.) t it records tibat the image was set up by Timmft. 

' From two \nked eatwnpagw. 

Compare e.g f 8o*H'Id. Inter. Vol. I. No, 158, vewe 2 f and No. 168, verse 1. 

Begarding pa^a see So*tk-Ind. Inscr. Vol. I. p. 159, note 1. 


the younger brother of PMya, the son of queen Pandyaka, and the nephew of 
Bat tie image is hove stated to be one of the Jina Gummatosa, the son of 

i, stated *<> ^ aYe belon S ed to the lunar raCe and t0 haVG rUkd Ver the kin 
" " The date (v. 1) is identical ia every detail with that of the preceding i 

e . 

the Saka year is here 1526 (in words) current, while there it was 1525 expired. 

Two shrinea m front of the Venur image contain two inscriptions (Noa. 74, axtd o 
which are d.ted in the same year. The shrine on the proper left is * 

o queens of Vira-Timmaraja-Odeyaru 


of 6^ttt a^d was fault by 
Binnani, another queen, of the aame chief. 2 

TEXT. 3 

2 iirtrg[ ]T 






(Verwl.) IntheyearSohhakrit (wWtA ) the glorious . 

^ a tcr one hundred having the number five, exceeding one thousan d, (on) 

ight falling into the month named Phftlguna, Sa (the a)SAa*ra) 
Thursday, (a^) in the lagna Tugma,-^ the dxvma order 

- f *- 

PandyakadeYi, the chief of the great eoJ *g ^o^ger brot 

T The kingdom (nft.) of Pufijali or Puu^^el^entioued^in too other inscriptkma at Y< 
^AVe^Lcurate translation of Binnani'a inscription was given in I<*. -i*. Vol. V. p. 38, note. 
From two inked estampages. * Metre , ***"% 

I caixnot find the name of this metre ; it is a aaworttta ot 4 wmes ^, 
The doubtful syllable ira looks as if it had been corrected trom ffa. 
i ThU is a rf poetical " way of expressing Saka-Satfavat 1526. 
This title refers to Ch&nikirti of Belgula ; sec 1, 9 1 of the preceding 



the son of Adijina. 


A. Dated in the DundubM year. 

front o a Jaina temple at Vijayanagara^ it is kaovra 





ichay*. Tte donor is o courae identeaJ 
ffi entioned in tta preoediBg 

buga {a ^ ^^ rf 

II. Hence <h. 


TEXT. 8 


bhartka pujaikku 

MaliD.dramangalam n 




* 1 rr^tke 
yl (J) th , , 

tliedayofK a ttigai (KyittiM), wHch 
^ e ^ forfcnight ia the 

fo ^ 

identify MaWndramangalam. 

* bove, Vol. VI. P- 29* No ' 

_ roffl tWQ inked e8 t ft mpage8. 


given to Trailokyavallabha. the god of Tirupparuttikkupru, for worship, for th e alms-house, 
and for repairs of ihe temple, (the village oj) MaheJadramangalam in the division (parrii) of 
Mavandur, (up to its) boundaries on the four sides, as a tax-free paUichchandaiti} 1 to 
^s long as the inoon and the sun. Let this pious gift be victorious ' 

B. Dated in the Prabhava year. 

This Grantha inscription (No. 42 of 1S90) is engraved on the roof of the wi'ndcipa. in 
i the shrine in the same temple as the preceding inscription (A,), and consists of one Sanskrit 
m-se in the Sardulavilaidita metre, It records that the man^apa on -which it i s f 01111 ^ vras- 
built by the same general Irugappa, the son of the general Vaichaya, at the instance of (his 
spiritual preceptor, the Jaina priest) Pushpasena,. in the year Prabhava. This year might be 
meant for Parabliav r a= A.D. 1366-67, Tvhich would, however, fall into the reign of BTifc ka * H ence 
it follows that Prabhava is usod on account of the metre instead of Prabhava = -A- .ID- 1387-88, 
^vhich falls into the time of BuKka II., 2 the contemporary of Iragappa. 3 

In this inscription the temple of the Jina Vardhnmana is said to hare been, included in 
KaficM, of which Tirupparattikkunru 4 TTas evidently considered a suburb, 

TEXT. 5 

1 Si > imat(d-)Vaiehaya-dani3anatha-tanayaB=sariivatsai > e 

2 sii-Kfichi-Jiua-Varddliarafma-mlayaBy=agre 

achikarach=cha silaa loaddham samantat sthalamll GL. 

In the year Prabliava, afc the order of the holy Puslipasena, the wise genera.! Irugappa, 
f !ie son of the glorious general Vaichaya, caused to be built, in front of the temple of the Jina 
Yardhamana at the prosperous Kafichi, a great hall for concerts and (caused to &e) paved "with 
stones the apace all round. 



The first of these two root-inscriptions was discovered by Sir E. C. Bayley at 
three miles to the east of Lower DharmaaU on the bank of the JVC &nj5 torrent. 
and wag edited by him in 1854 from drawings made by Lieutenants Crofton and Dyas, 6 In 
1375 it -wag reproduced again and discussed by General Cunningham. 7 

The second inscription I found laat summer in the coarse of an archaeological tout- 
in the Kangra district near a place called Pathyar, situated nine milea soutk of KanMara 
on the bank of the Baner rivulet, at a of about one mile from the DUcLb. Travellers' 

1 This term means ' land Iclongiug to a Jaina temple ;' see Sovth-lnd. Inscr< Vol. II. p- 52, note 2, and 
Vol. IV. p. 138, 

1 See above, Vol. VI. p. 329 f, 8 See p. 116 above. * See above, A, I 3* 

5 From an inked estampage. J. A. S. S. Vol. XXIII, p. 57. 

' h. Sttrvey Report* Vol. V. p, 175, Plate xlii. 


The two inscriptions are so nearly alike in script, substance and general character that 
it appears desirable to publish them together, the more so as the Kanhiara inscription has 
not yet been edited satisfactorily and the Pathyar inscription, as far as I know, has not been 
noticed before by any archaeologist. 

The legend in' both cases is given in two different alphabets,- Brahmi and Khar&sfcthi, 
though evidently of two very different periods. In each case the inscription contains only 
two words in both scripts, whereas a third word occurs in one script only. But at Kaniuara 
this additional word belongs to the Brahmi, while at Pathyar it forms part of the Khar6shthi 
lea-end The explanation of this third word ia somewhat difficult. Otherwise the reading 
nmy be said to be beyond doubt, owing to the enormous size and the clearness of the letters, 
which are deeply cut in hard granite boulders. Finally two auspicious symbols are m each 
case added after the Brahmi legend, one of which is the well-known svattfka. 

The KanbiSra inscription was read by Sir E. C. Bayley as follows -.-KrisJwayasasa drama 
in KharoshtM, and Krislmayasasya drama medangisya in Brahmi. I may state at once^that 
the correct 'reading of the first word appears to be KrisJiamyasasa and Krislinayasasya 
respectively, whereas the length of the first a of Ardma, as a matter of fact, is not expressed 
in KharSshthi.i He explains it as "the garden of Krishnayasas, to which in the second 
inscription some wag has apparently added the epithet medangtoy* (corpulent) from vied 
(fat) and anga (body)." 

Cunningham however, preferred to consider fodtoa as a synonym of viJidra, translating 
it by "the monastery of Krishnayasas," and even went so far as to derive the name Kauhiara 
from EanUya-yasas-drdma, Kanhiya being a synonym of Krishna. The third word he read 
m&datguya, and he thought it to be "the name of the district or possibly of the recorder 
of the inscription." 

Now before entering upon any discussion of these doubtful points, it will be well to examine 
the other inscription, which from its similarity is likely to contribute fresh evidence The 
Pathyar inscription consists of two lines, cut into one stone. The upper line gives the two 
words in Brahmi followed by a svastfka and a foot-print. In the lower line, wHch was partly 
buried in the ground, is the Khar&shtM legend, which consists of three words. The Brahmi 
letters are of considerable size, the final one being not less than If high. The KharSskfchi 
characters are much smaller (5" to 9"). Thus, notwithstanding the difference in the number 
of letters, both lines are about equal in length, viz. 7|'. 

It ia evident at once that the two words in Brahmi correspond to the second and third 
words of the Khar&shthi legend. I read them Vayulasa pukwripP or, in correct spelling, 
Vdyulassa pu,m<irint, 'the meaning being simply "Vayula's lotus-pond." -With regard^to 
the first word of the Khar&shtM, the meaning is less obvious. Manifestly it is a genitive 
denning the proper name Vdyulassa. It seems to me almost certain that it has to be read 
rathidarasa, i.e. in Sanskrit ratUtwasya. The t may be either short or long, If short, 
the word is to be taken as the comparative of ra*Wn ; if long, of the Vedic ratM. The 
meaning remains the same, vie. 'charioteer' (from ra*7*a). According to the St. Petersburg 
Dictionary the word rafhttara occurs as a proper name in the Vishnupurdna, also. But 
the meaning which has to be assigned to the word in the Pathy&r inscription is, I believe, 
a different one. Batbi is the name of an agricultural caste in Kangra. 3 If V&yula really 
was a Ratbl, we may infer that, in the time of the inscription, the Rathis were not inhabitants 

i Ihave to point out that the a has a small horizontal stroke to the right. But it is little prominent and may 
be ft natural hole in the rock. 

* The length of a in tf is expressed only in the Br&hmi. The -8tiok,e of yv is not found in the Brihmt, but 
i perfectly clear in the Khar&shthJ legend. 

> Gazetteer of the Kangra District, Vol. I, (1883-84), p. 88 L 


. that fertile part of the valley to which Pathyar certainly belongs. For, if this had 
i he case, a man "belonging to the Rathi caste would hardly have designated himself as sue! 
in order to distinguish himself from his neighbours. This, as far as I can see, is the onlj 
historical conclusion which can be drawn from the Pathyar inscription. Its chief interest 
flxerefore, is purely palaeographical. 

If we compare the two inscriptions, it is obvious that the Pathyar stcxue exhibits a niuel 
earlier type of script than the Kanhiara one. This is evident in part from some of tbi 
Khar6shthi letters, e.g. the s, which at Pathyar has the closed shape of the As6ka period 
whereas at Kanhiara it is open as in the Saka-Kushana inscriptions. On the whole, howevei 
the Kbaroshthi of both inscriptions is fairly identical. But a striking difference is show! 
in the Brahmi legends. The Kanhiara inscription -was assigned by Bayley and Cunningham 
to the first century after Christ. Possibly it is later. The y with its three vertical stroke 
..f equal length agrees best with forms of the 2nd and 3rd centuries. 1 The d shows a grea 
resemblance to the type of this letter in the 2nd century. 2 The m is angular instead < 
rounded as in the more ancient type. The rf, on the contrary, with its straight strokes 
has a more archaic from. So has the g, which is angular and not rounded. 

The Brahmi type of the Pathyar inscription, however, corresponds entirely with the 
of the Asoka period the earlier Maurya type as Professor Biihler called it and therefore ca 
safely be said to belong to the 3rd century B.C. 3 We may infer that both BrahmS an 
KharoshtM wore known and used in the Kangra valley from that time until the first or seco* 
century after Christ. 

It is a fact worth noticing, that, while the indigenous character had developed oonaiderabl 
during the course of the three or four centuries, the foreign alphabet had practically remains 
the same. The most plausible explanation would be that in those parts the Brfthm! was tl 
popular script used in commerce and common life, while the use of the Khar&shtbi was limit* 
co official documents and was in consequence fairly constant. The greater importance attache 
totheErahmiinay also appear from its taking the first place in the Pathyar inscription a* 
ti-om the larger size of the letters, though it must be admitted that the fuller reading is giv< 
m KhavSsbthi. In the Kanhiara inscription the Brahmi has the additional word. But in bo1 
msoriptions the wangalas are placed after the Brahmi and not after the Khar6shtM. 
- Now, to return to the KanhiSra inscription, it remains to be considered whether fc] 
newly found inscription throws any light on its meaning. First of all one feels inclined 
assign to the word i aroma the ordinary meaning of 'garden,' and not that of < monasten 
whSr^n"? f 1 ' considering that Vayula found it worth while to cut an insert* 
winch would stand the ages, amply to indicate that he was the owner of a lotus-pond, the 
is no reason to assume that Krishnayasas did not do the same with regard to Ms garde 
Moreover, m the case of a monastery the founder would preferably have written Ms name \ 
cbe building, and not on two boulders lying near it. 

With regard i to the doubtful term nedamgisya, we may with Cunningham reject Bayle 3 
npponfam that the word was added by some wag in order to ridicule KriLayasas. It wol 



* n two m **9<* *>, PO^ly to 

the O ff ence ? Corpulence, moreover, is looked upon with a different eye by the 

1 See BiiUcr'g InditoAe Palceograpkie, Plate iii. 31, XV. and XVIII 
1 Ibid. 2j XI, 

Rock-Iworiptions in the Kcwigra Valley. 




From inked estampages supplied Hy Dr. J. Ph. Yogel. 


and "by the European. Large and round limbs were considered characteristics of a 
and every traveller in India will get the impression that this is the case even now. 

Most probably the third word in both inscriptions indicates the caste or clan of the person 
mentioned. Among the meanings assigned to the word m$da by the St. Petersburg Dictionary 
there is that of * a certain mixed caste.' But this explanation would have to be abandoned, if 
with Cunningham we read tnddamgisya. It is true that the a-atroke is ordinarily attached Co the 
right, not to the left leg of the TO ; but, on the other hand, we never find the e- stroke turned 
to the right. Comparing the manner in which the d-stroke ia attached to p, s and h, we muwi 
consider Cunningham's reading correct. Unfortunately mddamgisya is as difficult to explain as 
meaamgisya. If we ignore the i in the penultimate syllable, it would correspond to the Sanskrii 
Mdfa,ngasya ; but that a member of this caste would be the owner of a garden and bear the namt- 
if Krishnayas'aB is scarcely admissible. 

It was stated above that one of the two many alas added to the Brahma legend is the svastika, 
The other Cunningham interpreted as an abbreviation of the syllable 6m, This, however, doe> 
uot seem very probable considering that that sacred syllable is always found at the beginning, 
never at the close of a sentence. But when we compare the two inscriptions in this respect, 
we discover a remarkable resemblance between the two mahgalas also. The mystic sign of the 
Kaiihi&ra inscription appears to be nothing but an ornamental development of the foot-print. 
It would be hazardous to draw from these signs any conclusions with regard to the creed of the 
authors. It is true that the foot-print and the swastika- are favourite signs of good omen 
with the Buddhists ; but it should be borne in mind that they are equally honoured by the 
Hindus in general and probably were so even in pre-Baddhistic times. 

One point still remains to be discussed, the language. In the older inscription it u- 
Prakrit or Middle-Indian of the Saurasenl-Maharaslitri, not of the M.agadh.1 type, as appear 
tVom the v in pukkliarini? In the Kanhilira inscription there is a difference of language in the 
two legends. The Kharoshthi legend is written in a Prakrit of which the distinction made 
between the three sibilants is a remarkable feature. The language of the Brahmi legend would 
best be characterised as Sanskritised Prakrit, such as came into vogue among the Northern 
Buddhists with the rise of the Mahay&na system. Thus linguistic evidence also would assign 
to this inscription the same time of origin as was found probable in view of paleaographic 
considerations. That Cunningham was wrong in calling the language simply Sanskrit scarcely 
tieeds to be demonstrated. 



The first of the following two stone inscriptions is engraved on the east wall of the Nataraja 
slu'iue in the VataranySsvara temple at Tiruvfilangadu, 3 miles N.-N.-B, of the Chinnamapet 
Railway Station in the North Arcot district. The second ia on the north wall of the central 
shrine of the VacMsvara temple at Tirupp&Sur, miles W.-S.-W. of Tiruvallur in the Tiru- 
vallur taluka of the Chingleput district. They are now edited for the first time from inked 
estampages supplied to me by Dr. Hultzsch. 3 

1 A. Griiawedel, Buddhistische Kunst in Indien, sec. ed. (1900), p. 138. 

2 See Professor Piseliel's OrammatiJc der Praltrit-Spraclieti (1900), p. 24, 

J Nos. 408 and 407 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for the year 1S96. 


and by the European. Large and round limbs were considered characteristics of a 
and every traveller in India will get the impression that this is the case even now. 

Most probably the third word in both inscriptions indicates the caste or clan of the person 
mentioned. Among the meanings assigned to the word m$da by the Si. Petersburg Dictionary 
there is that of 'a certain mixed caste.' But this explanation would have to be abandoned, if 
with Cunningham we read tnddathgisya. It is true that the a-stroke is ordinarily attached Lo the 
right, not to the left leg of the m ; but, on the other hand, we never find the e-stroke turned 
to the right. Comparing the manner in which the d-stroke is attached to p, s and 7i, we mum 
consider Cunningham's reading correct. Unfortunately mddamgisya is as difficult to explain as 
inedamgisya. If we ignore the * in the penultimate syllable, it would correspond to the Sanskrit 
Matangasya ; but that a member of this caste would be the owner of a garden and bear the nairn- 
> Kriahnayagas is scarcely admissible. 

It was stated above that one of the two mangolds added to the Brahmi legend is the swastika. 
The other Cunningham interpreted as an abbreviation of the syllable 6m. This, however, doe.* 
not seem very probable considering that that sacred syllable is always found at the beginning, 
never at the close of a sentence. But when we compare the two inscriptions in this respect, 
we discover a remarkable resemblance between the two wangalas also. The mystic wign of the 
Kanhiara inscription appears to be nothing but an ornamental development of the foot-print. 
It would be hazardous to draw from these signs any conclusions with regard to the creed of the 
authors. It is true that the foot-print and the swastika, are favourite signs of good omen 
with the Buddhists ; but it should be borne in mind that they are equally honoured by tht 
Hindus in general and probably were so even in pre-Buddhistic times. 

One point still remains to be discussed, the language. In the older inscription it is 
Prakrit or Middle-Indian of the Sauraae'nl-Maharashtri, not of the Magadhi type, as appear* 
from, the r in pukkJiarini? In the Kanhiara inscription there is a difference of language in the 
two legends. The Khar6shthi legend is written in a Prakrit of which the distinction made 
between the three sibilants is a remarkable feature. The language of the Brahmi legend would 
best be characterised as Sanskritised Prakrit, such as came into vogue among the Northern 
Buddhists with the rise of the Mah&yana system. Thus linguistic evidence also would assign 
to this inscription the same time of origin as was found probable in view of palreographic 
considerations. That Cunningham was wrong in calling the language simply Sanskrit scarcely 
needs to be demonstrated. 



The first of the following two stone inscriptions is engraved on the east wall of the Nataraja 
shriiie in the Vat&ranyfisvara temple at Tiruv,langdu, 3 miles N.-N.-E. of the Chinnamape"t 
Railway Station in the North Arcot district. The second is on the north wall of the central 
shrine of the Vachisvara temple at Tirupp&sur, 2 miles W.-S.-W, of Tiruvallur in the Tiru- 
vallur taluka of the Chingleput district, They aro now edited for the first time from inked 
astampages supplied to me by Dr. Hultzsch. 3 

1 A.. Griinwedel, SuddMstisclie Kun&i in Indian, sec. ed. (1900), p. 138. 

2 See Professor Pischel's Gramtnatik der PraJerit-Sprachen (1900), p. 24, 

2 Nos. 408 and 407 of the Goverument Epigraphist's collection for the year 1896, 


Both of them are intended to commemorate the donations of a king 1 Tammusiddhi or 
Tammuaiddba, who belongs to a family of Telugu chiefs of whom numerous records have boen 
discovered since 1893 iu the Chiugleput, North Arcot, Nellore and Kisfcna districts. On these 
materials Mr. Veukayya has based his valuable account of the Chodas of the Telugu country 
in the Annual Report for 1899-1900. However, as none of the inscriptions made use of by 
Mr. Venkayya have been published until now, I shall confine my remarks to the facts furnished 
by the following two inscriptions alone. 

The Tiruvaiangftdu inscription is damaged in a few places, but the illegible passages can 
easily be restored, partly from the context alone, and partly with the help of the TiruppAsur 
inscription. It is written in Grantha characters. The size of the letters varies from f to 2". 
Line 8 contains the rare subscript sign for jha in mrjjhard. The language is Sanskrit, andi 
with the exception of the concluding words evasty-astu, the whole text is in verse. As regards 
orthography, it may be pointed out here that in the middle of a word t is written instead of d 
before a sonant consonant in the word^atfwain 11. 1, 2, 3, and in bhavatWiir in 1. 21. 

After two introductory verses in praise of the donor, who, as stated above, is called both 
Tanunusiddhi (11. 2, 17, 18) and Tammusiddha (11. 1, 20, 21), the inscription gives his genealogy, 
which shows tho characteristics! features of the Chdla genealogies. 

Ife begins with some mythieal ancestors. 3?rom the lotus of Vishnu's navel sprang 
Brahman (vv. 3, 4), from him Marlchi, from him Kasyapa (v. 5), from him the Sun (v. 6), 
and from him Mann (v. 7), in whose family there were born many kings (v. 8) . This is the genea- 
logy of the solar race as taught in the Purdrtas. 1 It is found also in the Udayendiram plates of 
Prithivlpati II. 2 and those of Vira-Ch61a, 3 as well as in the KaUngattu-Parani* and the 
Vikkirama-i6lau'UM; 6 'b>ni in the last three passages the third name appears as Kasyapa or 
Kaclichipan instead of Kasyapa. The Vtfckirama-S6^an-Uld differs besides in placing K&lyapa 
before Marlchi, and the Udayendiram plates of Prithivlpati II. omit Manu. 

The inscription next mentions three kings who form the connecting link between these 
sagee of old and the direct ancestors of Tammusiddhi. The first of them, born in the lineage of 
Manu, is Kalikala (v. 9). Kalikala is identical, of course, -with the ancient half-mythical Ch&la 
king whose name is generally given as Karikala. The various traditions about him have been 
collected by Dr. Hultzach. In the present inscription we are told that he constructed the 
bauka of the Kaveri, and that, when he had lifted Mount H&ru with his play-staff, the quarters 
were greatly disturbed or confounded. The story about the construction of the banks of the 
Ponni or Kav6ri is alluded to also in the Kalingattu- ParaniJ the Fifefctrawia-^Zcw-ZTW, 8 and the 
large Leydeu grant. 9 The second legend, implied by the words of the inscription, is not known to 
me, but it is probably connected in some way with another legend recorded by the two Tamil 
poems. According to the Kaliftgattu-Parani Karikala inscribed on the side of Mount M6ru the 
whole history of the Tamil race as foretold by the Rishi Nai-ada, and in tine Ffc&*Vawa-$dja#-Z77<$ 
he ifl spoken of as " the king who net his tiger-banner on the mountain whose summit gleams with. 
crystal water! alia," where the mountain meant by the poet would seem to be again Mount Meru. 

1 See, e,g. t Agniputrdna, 6 2 : 

Viak^undlhyabjaj& Brahmti MartckirmBralma*ab stttah \ 
MarioKth, Ka.fgapa#>*taftndt Siry6 Vaivaitat6 Manuji || 
Compwro also 272, 1 f . } jftdmetyap*, 1, 70, 19 t ; 2, HO, 5 f. 
1 SottfA-Jitrf. IMC*. Vol. II, p. 882. Above, Vol. III. p. 80 f. 

4 Canto 8, vv. 9, 10 5 Xd. A*t. VoL XIX. pp.330, 840. 

1 ItuZ. Ant, Vol. XXII. pp. 144, 147 f. Manu is not mentioned liera by name, but alluded to as " the stern 
tire who drove his chariot over liis son to soothe a cow in dire distress." 
Sftw/ft.Jiwf. IMcr. Vol. II. p. S77 f. 

* Canto 8, v. SO j loe. oit. pp. 331, 841. Loc. eft. pp. 144, 148. 

urvey of Southern India, Vol. IV. p. 206. 


The verses 10 and 11 are devoted to a king who is said to have been, born in the lineage of 
Kalikala, and to have had two names, Madhtir&Titaka, t.e. ' the death to Madhura,' and 3?ottapi- 
ChSla. The former name he acquired by conquering Madhur, the capital of the P,ndyas, 
whose women he made widows ; the latter was given to him, for having founded, in the country 
of the Andhras, the town of Pottapi. Madhurantaka Pottapi-Ohola is a name frequently met 
with as that of a local chief in the inscriptions at Conjee veram, the ancient KanchSpura; in the 
Hat compiled by Mr. Sewell 1 it occurs more than thirty times. Provided, however, that all thesn 
inscriptions are to be referred to the same person, it ia impossible that that chief of KancMpura 
should be identical with the ancestor of Tammusiddhi ; for one of his inscriptions is dated in the 
18th, 8 and another in the 21st year of TribhuvanaGhakravariin Rajarajadeva, 3 which correspond 
to A.D. 1233-34 and 1236-37, respectively. He must have been a much younger member of the 
family, and Mr. Venkayya, for other reasons, ia inclined to identify him with Ch&la-Tikka. 
who probably was the successor of Tammusiddhi. 4 The identiBcation of Pottapi, which 
Madhnrantaka Pottapi-Chfila is said to have founded, must be left to future researches. 5 

In Madhurantaka Pottapi-Ch&la's race was born Tilungavidya (v. 12). The only feat 
recorded of him is the erection of a pillar of -victory with a figure of Garuda at the top of it at 
TTjyapurl. 6 U jyapuri may be the modern tljipuram or U jjapuram, 18 milea east-south-east of 
Kol|6gal in the Coimbatore district. Mr. Sewell states that there is an old ruined fort at that 
place, 7 and there is no difficulty in assuming that one of these Telugu Ch61aa should have 
extended his conquests beyond the Kav&d, if another boasts even to have taken Madhura. 

With verse 13 begins a coherent genealogy of the direct ancestors of Tammusiddhi. In 
Tilungavidya' s family was born king Siddhi (v. 13). His younger brother was Betta (I.), who 
had several sons (v. 14), the eldest of whom was Dayabhima (v. 15). Dayabhima' s younger 
brother was Erasiddhi (v. 16). He again had three sons, Manmasiddhi or Manmasiddha, 
Betta (II.), and Tammusiddhi, whose mother bore the name of ^ridevi (vv. 17-20). Of these 
only Siddhi, Dayabhima and Manmasiddhi are described in terma implying that they actually 
reigned, while of Betta II. it is expressly stated that, bsing given to the practice of austerities, he 
conferred, after the death of Manmasiddhi, the government on his younger brother Tammuaiddhi. 

In verse 21 we are informed that in the JSaka year 1129 (=A.D. 1207-8) Tammusiddhi 
allotted to the lord of Vatatavi all the revenues due to the king in the villages belonging to the 
temple. The inviolability of this order is enjoined in the two concluding verses (22, 23). As 
regards the name of the god, it is apparently derived from that of the village where the temple is 
situated, Vatatavi or its modern synonym Vataranya being Sanskrit renderings of the Tamil 
Tiruvalangadu, ' the holy banyan forest.' 

The TiruppMur inscription closely resembles the TiruvalaigUdu inscription in outward 
appearance as well as in its contents. It is written in Gteantha characters, about 1" high. The 
form of the subscript jha in nirjj'hard in 1. 19 slightly differs from that of the Tiruvalang&dit 
inscription, the loop to the left having disappeared here altogether. The initial also has a 

1 Listt of Antiquitiet, Vol. I. p. 178 ff. 

2 No. 97 of the Government Epigraphisf B collection for 1899. 

1 Litt* of Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 187 (No. 277). Mr. Sewell mentions also an inscription (No. 74) dated " in 
Saka-Samvat 1232, in the 24th year of his reign." 

* Loo. eit, p. 19. In the genealogical table, Hid, p. 18, Mr, Venlcayya mentions a certain Madhurantaku, 
Pottapi-Ch6dasiddhi who belonged to another branch of the Telugu Chdlas. ?nt he also cannot possibly be the 
person of that name in the present inscription, as he is represented as a descendant of Telungatujjana, whereas the 
Madhurantaka Pottapi-Ch&la of our inscription was an ancestor of that king. 

* [See 8ovth>Id. Inter. Vol. III. p. 83, note 1. The Pottal Directory of the Madras Circle mentions a 
village "Potapi" near "Tongootoor" in the PuUampty taluka of the Cuddapah district. E. H.] 

6 Or, possibly, Ojyapnrl, The quantity of the initial vowel cannot he made out from the text, as it is united 
here with the final vowel of the preceding word (yfa=djyapvryydm). 
1 Litts of Antijvities, Vol. I. p, 216. 



very peculiar form in 1. 61, whereas in 1. 11 it appears in the usual shape. The language is 
Sanskrit, and the whole is in verse, -with the exception of the words svasty=astu at the end. Here 
aW a surd consonant is written instead of a sonant in patma (11. 2, 3, 4) and IJiavatbhir (I. 64), 
mcl besides in dnitbliydm (1. 4) and dtfc daksliind (1. 35). 

Of the 23 verses of the Tiravalangfidu inscription 16 reappear in this inscription, occasion- 
ally with slight variations. 1 "With respect to the earlier part of the genealogy (vv. 2-9) it is to be 
noticed that the verses about Man a and gavidya are omitted here. That portion also which 
deals with the direct line of Tarnmusiddhi's ancestors (vv. 10-17) shows one important point of 
difference. No mention is made of Betta I. and of Dayabhima. Instead of the two verses 
ck- voted to them in the Tiruvalangadu inscription we find here a verse (11) stating that in king 
SidduiV family was bom Icing ITallasiddhi. In the following verse firasiddhi is called his 
yt-ungiT brother, which term m the identical verse 16 of the Tiruvalangadu inscription applies 
t<- Dayabhima spoken of in the preceding verse, and it might therefore easily be imagined that 
Diiyablriina and Nallasiddhi were only different names of the same king. Fortunately, an 
inscription at Tiruvorjriyur, 2 quoted by Dr. Hultzsch in his Annual Report" for 1898, paragraph 
18. leaves no doubt that they were two distinct persons, and the pedigree to be derived from the 
tTTt iubcriptions edited here is thus to be arranged in the following manner ; 3 


Madhurantaka Pottapi-Chola . 
Tilun gavidya. 

Siddhi. Betta I. 

i i 

Dayabhima. Nallasiddhi. Drasiddhi. 

Manmasiddhi. Betta II. by Srlde"vi : ' 

Tammusiddhi ; 
Saka 1129. 

Besides the name of Nallaaiddhi the Tiruppaaur inscription contains little that is new. 
Nallasiddhi seems to have taken possession of Kanchi or Conjeeveram ; for in verse 11 it is said, 
with a well-known pun, that, when the aoutibtern quarter had obtained him as her husband, she 
was yutita-'kdiicM'gwbu, which may be understood as ' having dropped her girdle ' or ' having 
lost KancM.* In verse 15 we ai*e told once more, but in a more explicit way, that after the 
death of Manmasiddhi the government passed without any disturbances into the hands of Tammu- 
i, Betta II. being of a religious turn of mind and therefore renouncing his claims to the 
ine ui favour of his younger brother. 

The verses 18 and 19 record that in the Saka year 1129 (=A.D. 1207-8) Tamnausiddhi 
to the lord of Pasipura the revenues due to the king in the villages belonging to the 

' Tlic name of the to\vn fouuded "by Madhurintaka Pcttapi-Chdja is licrc spelled Pottappi (v, 9). 
1 No. 104 of the Government Epigrapliist's collection for the year 1832. 
1 The purely fictitious first portion has been omitted here. 


;emple, and that in the same year lie presented the village of Kaivatittir to the god. PAlipaia. 
>f course, is nothing but the Sanskrit name of Tiruppasur. The village of Kaivaurur, ro 
Dr. Hultzsch informs me, is identical -with Zaivandur, 1 1 mile W.-N.-W. of Tiruppasfir. 

TEXT. 2 

1 Svaati sri-Tammnsiddhaya tasmai yat-sainya-r6nava[h] [|*] [Brahma-pa]tnia(<lmai 

8pri^a=amke bhavi-bhu-srishti-htavah \\ [1*] Jayati vrjayi-chapah ksfluilit- 
a[ 6] slia- [papa] s=satata-madhura-la- 

2 pai?. prapta-vidya-kalapah [|*] vitata-vitaran-apas=^atm-ra&ya-durapah pra[samital- 

kali-tapas=TammusiddM-kshamapah || [2*] Udadhi-^ayana-lDhaiah Patuiaulnia)- 
nabhasya nabh^^ kim=api nikhila-hetur=iiatam=ascha- 

3 r yya-patma(diaa)m [1*] yad=abhajad=api sriahteh purwam=etasya drigbliyuji- 

mridTX-kath.ina-ma]h6bhyani=inllan-&nmilan.ani || [3*] Tasmad=Virifichir=abhava? 


4 ntar=7Tasad=iva prakatayann=rajaaa^ pra[vrittim] [(*] ya[h*] Srisa-ta[lpa-phani-mauli"'- 

mani-prai'Udha-Hmbaa=srijann=iva bahhau eadrisasssahayanh 3 || [4*J 

5 MaricHr=udagat=tasrnad==uday-adr6r=iY=amsuman [(*] [tatah] Kasyapa eta^.i-.^' 

prakaga iva nirggatah* 1) [5*] A8mai=ia[gat*]-tiita[ya-managala-rat]nadipas=elibtiu.h- 

6 s-tanus^timii-a-k^nana-davavahBih [)*] di[k*J-kalay6h kim=apamm 

h&tu[h] k6=py=avirasa vaaudhadhipa-yamsa-kandah [t| 6*] 


7 bdah purnno gunair=nnikHla-niti-patha-pray6kta [|*] d^v6 Manus=sapadi 

iv=avatWnas=tan-mandal-anta[ra*]~gata[h p]urnshah puranah [J| 7*'] B 

8 vnrxtillasita-icirtti-nirjihara Man&h kule=smin bahavah kshamabhritah [|*] ai^.^- 

pritbivy6r=api yair=nniyantribhir=nniramkul6 niti-pathah 5 pravax-ttita[h] P| ^*] 

9 Tat-kule ?alil&16l6.bhut6 CKaverl-tira.krin=nripah] [I*] [yat-k6]lS-yaslm-tu!n<: 
' Merau vyatikrita digah [|| 9*] Jat6=sya vainse Madhuram viji- 

10 tva pagehaa-udanchana(n-Ma)dnurantak.akhyah [|*]* nitanta-mukt-abhaCrti Jnah 

pmchaudah Pndy-arb g auah pragma ya=chakara || [10*] Jish I mr=AndhreshTi 
yah kyitva purim Pottapi-samnjitam? [|*] ^ 

11 tBtas-tat-pttoWft-COhdinl-WdiyaV prakhyata-bhuja-vikramah [| [11*] Tad-vamse ^ 


tilakita-stambhah pratishthapi- 
12 tah[!] yHpA Qaruda^nidkahya sahaja-sn^na sutg Btktc 

yy6[ia] ras=tad-adi kshanam || [12*] Tat-kn.e 

BettabMpal pW^n El*] ta S y=api 
tiihiiiam || [L4*] Dyabhim6 n[ripa]- 

M i-ttfcM lySshthah k S h6nim,a P alayat [I*] yat-pft^ 
kashOTyiSh ,|-[15] Tasy^asiddM-nripa^sahajah 
' kalim=asya punah-pravefiam [|*] r6ddhum praT?i[t]ta 

' No, 68 on the JMWm* fifrt ! ej/ 2Vo>p of tbe Tivuvallto taiuka. 

> From ii l ked Rampages supplied My Dr. H^ltzsch. S^jtSfc itor anything eta. 

* The sign for r ffS look, Kber strange, hut it cannot ^ 9 ^. be _^t 5 S 

. The +w ha. te. added below the line, J tSS- Wow the UB, 

* Red - 


15 iva yah. prachuram yaSa[h*] sva[n*]'dik-simasu spliatika-sala-nibha,[:m balbandlia ||] 
[16*] [A]sy=abhavann=avaid-mandala-rakshitarah putras=traya[h*] sphurita- 
paurusha-hhusharias=te' [|*] yair=anvital> prasavita suchirarh vyarajat=t6j6- 

10 mayair=i?a n.[i*]jair=nnayanaia=Ti i iiiefcrah [|I 17*] Jyay[an=e"sMm]=Maii:Diasiddh. 
isvarah kshmam ksliar-ambliodlii-syama-siraafmj sagasa [)*] nity-ddaiichad-yacU 
yasah-panjar-antar=vvy6ma dhyamam kdkila- 

17 tvain bibhartti || [18*] Tatra svar-116kam=arudhe madhyam6 Be[tta-bhujpatih [(*] 

tapaavi rajyam=adhatta Taramusiddliau kaniyasi [ || 19*] Sa sridevyam 
Erasiddlii-ksliit^a[j*]=jata[b*] Mman=Manmasiddh-.anu;janma [|*J dMtrSm=&- 

18 tan=dra(iTa)yamanas=samastam=ast4ratis=Tammusiddhi-ksIiamapali {| [20*] Asmai 

Vatafavisaya Sak-abd dMra- 

19 yayini [|*] grame3hv=asya nnpa-grahyam pradad=ayam=as'eshatah || [21*J Dtat 

ksli6 ntb3aritam=amsu- j ata- 

^(j lair=mmakutair=dliritam [(*] jaga[t*]-traya-prasiddhasya Tammusiddhasya ,sanam il l 
[22*] Yatnena dlaarmma-saraniii paiii'aksha- 

21 niya s=eyam bhavatbhi(dbh.i)r=akbilair=iti Taramusiddhah [|*1 agaminab pranayat& 

uripatin=ajasi > an=d6rau=Bateiia sira- 

22 sa na sara- 

23 san^iia || [23*] 

24 Smty=aatu [||] 


(Verse 1.) Hail to that glorious Tammusiddha, the dust of whose troops, which touches 
the lotus of Brahman, (will be) the cause, I imagine, of creating the future world ! 

(V.^ 2.) Triumphant is king TammusiddM, whose bow is victorious, who has washed 
ofi all sins, whose talk is always sweet, who haa acquired the whole range of sciences, who has 
poured out the water of donation, who ia difficult to be overcome by the tricks of (7ns) enemies, 
(and) who has appeased the torments of the Kali (age). 

(V. 3.) From the navel of Padmanabjia 2 reposing on the waters sprang a certain wonderful 
lotus, the cause of all things, which, on account of his (Vishnu's) eyes emitting light now soft, 
now fierce, 8 used to close and to open even before the creation. 

(V. 4) Prom this (lotus) sprang Virifichi, 4 who, manifesting, as it were, the action of rajas 5 
because (he) dwelt long in its interior, seemed to create companions similar (to Mmself), "when Ms 
image was reflected by the crest-jewels of the snake (which formed) the couch of ike liuaband 
of Srl 

(V. 5.) From him rose Marichi as the sun from the eastern mountain. From Mm. 
went forth Kasyapa as the light from that "(sun), 

^ l After tMs stands a sign orach lite tie sign for medial * aad though it would be possible to read ifetnSna> 
1 think that it is iafceaded to mart the end of the proper grant, as the spiral is used in Kanarese inscriptions. 

* Je, "Vishnu. 

* [Vishnu's right eye is the sun, and Ms left eye the moon 5 compare above, Vol. III. No. 84, verse 8^ E.HJ 

* J.e. Brahman. 

s The word rctfat must be understood here in its double sense of < pollen ' and ' energy/ the latter being the 
quality predominant in Brahman, especially at the time of creation ; compare the introductory stanza of BAna's 



(V. 6.) From him originated a, certain bulb (wliitfi was the origin] of a race 1 of kings, the 
auspicious jewel-lamp to the three worlds, the body of which is the Veda, 8 which was a fire 
destroying the forest of darkness, the cause, moreover, of fixing quarters and times. 

(V. 7 .) The divine Manu quickly descended from thence, he who first acquired the title of 
king, who had plenty of virtues, (and) who composed all the rules of policy, in order to rule this 
(world), like the primeval spirit (Vishnu) who resides in the orb of that (sun). 

(V. S.) In this family of Manu were many kings who made their fame rush along like 
torrents, 3 i-ulers even of heaven and earth who laid down the principlea of (just) policy without 

(V. 9.) In that family was king Ealifcala who Constructed the "banks of the Kave'ri. 
"When (lie) had lifted Mount Meru with his play-staff, tiie quarters were greatly disturbed. 

(V. 10.) In his race was born he who, after his conquest of MacUmra getting renowned 
"by the name of Madhurantaka, cruelly caused the Pandya women to take off completely their 
ornaments (so that they were) as before (when they had been wearing Jine yearl ornaments) ; 4 

(V. 11.) Who, crowned with victory (an A) famous for the strength of (his) arm, after 
having founded in (the country of) the Andhras the town called Pottapi, bore the title of Cnola 
preceded by that (name). 

(Y. 12.) In his race (was) that king Tilurigavidya who erected the famous pillar adorned 
with a waving banner of fame at TJjyapurl ; I am sure, it is since that time that the sun tarries 
for a moment in the midst of the sky, 6 (Ms) charioteer 6 stopping out of "brotherly affection, when 
he perceives the Garuda at the top of that (column). 

(Y. 13.) (Born) in his family, Hug SiddM ruled the earth, on whose arms and on whose 
feet depended the life of his clients and that of his enemies (respectively) . 

(Y. 14) His younger brother was the mighty king Betta. To Mm also were born sous 
who defended those who asked them, for protection. 

(Y. 15.) The eldest of them, king Dayabhima, whose hand was reddened by pulling the 
hair of the goddesses of royal fortune belonging to (his) enemies, ruled the earth. 

(V. 16.) His younger brother (was) king ^rasiddhi, who, having driven far away the Kali 
(age), determined, as it were, to prevent ita return, piled up his abundant fame like a wall o 
crystal at the ends of the quarters. 

(V. 17.) He had bhree sons, rulers of the globe, (attired) with the brilliant jewel of heroism. 
Attended by them who were full of energy, the father shone for along time like Triuetra" witk 
bia beaming (three) eyes. 

(Y. 18.) The eldest of these, the lord Manmasiddhi, ruled the earth, the dark-bine limits 
of which were the briny ocean. The dark-blue sky became a cuckoo in the cage (ivhioh was) his 
continually rising fame. 

1 Or < a cane.' The sun from which the solar dynasty descends is compared to a. bulb with a sprouting shoot. 
1 With eMan&as-tanuh compare such epithets of the sun as v&A-i ntrafy in MaMbb, 3, 3, 19, or vMa-mfotih 
in the MdrTcand&yapnrav.a, 102, 22. The latter passage contains also an account of the origin of this appellation. 

* The term nirjhara is used in allusion to the second meaning of K&hamdblirit, ' a mountain.' 

* The pun contained in the word nitdnta-m'Uikl-dbTinraif.dli, the correct interpretation of which I owe to Dr. 
Hultzseh, can hardly be rendered in English. In the first case the compound must he taken as nitdntaw tnttktvnn 
dbharandni ydbUh, in the second as nitontd muktd dbkarandni ydsdm. 

1 The compound madJiyS-vydma is formed in accordance with Pamni, 2, 1, 18- Prof. Kiolhorn, who drew my 
attention to this rule, quotes as an analogous case ma$hy4-di a.m, 'in the midst of the dny,' in Trivilmunabhatta's 
Damayantikathd, in the first prose passage after 1. 30 (p. 15 of the jSirnayasasrara Press edition) 

6 The charioteer of the sun is Aruna or Anuru, the son of KaSyapa and Vinatl, and brother of Garudn. 

i Le. Siva. ' ' 


(V. 19.) When he had ascended to the celestial region, the middle (brother)) king Betta, 
leuig gnen to the piactice of austerities, conferred .the go vernmeut on (h-is) younger (brother) 

(V. 2U.) This glorious king Tammusiddhi, the son of king Erasiddhi and SridSvl, the 
younger brother of Manmasiddha, who, having destroyed (his) enemies, was ruling over this 
whole earth, 

(V. 21.) Allotted, in the Saka year (denoted by the chronogram) Dhlrayayin (i.e. 1129), 
t'. this lord of Vatatavi all the revenues due to the king in the villages belonging to his (temple}. 

(V. 22.) This (is; the order of Tammusiddha famous in the three worlds, which is borne 
by kings on (their) radiant diadems. 

(V. 23.) "This road of piety should be carefully preserved by all of you;" thus does* 
Tammusiddha make a perpetual request to future kings, (his) head beino- lowly bent, (but) not 
(his) bow. 

(Line 24) Let there be prosperity ! 


1 Svasti ;B-Tammusiddhaya tasmai yat-sainya-ifyavab [I*] Bra- 

2 hma-patma(dma)-sp?tauMamk& bhavi-bhu-syishti-hStavah || [1*] Udadhi-sayaiia- 

3 bluVjah Patrna(dma)nabhasya nabheh kira=api nikhila-htui=j 1 ltara=a- 

4 scharyya-patma(dma)m [|*] yad=abhajad=api srishteh pftrwam^taaya 

5 bhyain=mridu-kathina-mah6bhyam=niilan-6uniiiaiia'ni |'| [2*] Ta- 
G smAd= Viiinchir=udabhat suchiran=tad-antar= vvasa [d=iva'J 

7 prakatayan^ x-ajasah pravrittim [|] ya[h*] Srisa-talpa- 

B phani-mauli-mani-pravishta-bimba- 

9 s=drijann=iva babhau sadrigaa=sahaya- 

1U u [|| 3*] Manchir=udagat=tasmad=uday-adrer=i- 

11 v=amsmnan [(*] tatah Kasyapa gtaama- 

12 t ^ pi-aklsa iva nirggatah || [4*] Tasma- 

13 j=jaga[t*j-iaitaya-mamgala-ratnadipa- 

14 ^=chhandaa-tanus=timira-kanana-da- 

15 vavahnih [|#] di[fc*]-kalayoh kim=a- 

16 param(mm) vyavahara-hetuh 

17 k6=py=avii*asa vasudhadhi- 

18 pa-vari^a-kandah || [5*] Babhuvur=ullasi- 
ly ta-khiti-nirjjhara Mand^ kul^snu- 

20 n bahavah kshamabhritah [|*] divas-pri- 

21 thivy6r=api yair=nniyantribhi- 

22 r=nmr a nku46 niti-patha^i pravarttita^ || [6*1 Tat- 

23 kule Kalikal6=bhut 2 KavSrl-tl- 

24 ra-krin=nrip a ^ Q*] yat-kM-yashti-tnlite 
2o Mei-au vyatiknU disab, || [7*] Jat6= 8 ya 

27 rtotak-akhyah [|*] nitanta-mukt-abharanat prachanda- 
& fy Ptody-amganah prag=iva yag-chaMra II rstS V^ 
sh n ur=Andhr6sliu yah kiitva purlm 

- . 

IProm inked estampages supplied by Dr. Hultzsck 

B **kara 1 M 86effi8 to have been corrected out of something d8e , perhai ,, bhata . 


30 juib[am] [|*] tataa=tat-pui^va-Ch6l-akhyah prakhyata-bhu- 

31 ja-vikramah || [9*] Tad-vamse Siddhi-bhirpalah palayam=[a] - 

32 sa medinim [|*] yadiya-d6b-pad-ayattam=artthi-pratyarttbi-ji- 

33 vitam [|| 10*] Tad-yase(msa)jaa=sahaja-jitvara-satva(ttva)-rigi.s=satru.kshi- 

34 tii3vara-yaa-i3irama-Rahulj [|*] ^ri-3STallaaiddM-nripa- 

35 tir=yyam=npetya kantan=dik(g) daksMna galita-ka(M)ncbi-gnna 

36 babhuva || [11*] Tasy=Airasiddhi-nripatis=sahajab. karii- 

37 yan duran=nirasya kalini=asya punah-pravesam [|*J 

38 r&ddhnm pravritta iva yah prachuram yaa[b*] svan=clik- 

39 eimasn sphatika-sala-nibham babandha || [12*] Asv=a- 

40 bhavann=avani-maudala-rakahitarah putraa=traya[ti*] sphtivita-pau- 

41 rusha-bhushana8=te [|*] yair=anvitah prasavita suchira[ih] 

42 vyarajat=tej6mayair=iva nijair=nnayanais=Trin6tra[h] [|j 13*] 

43 Jyayan=&shan( kshmaih ksha- 

44 r-ambh6dhi-syama-simam gasasa [(*] nity-6da- 

45^ah-panjar-antar=vvy6nia dhyamam kokila- 

46 tvam bibbartti || [14*] Tan-inadhyamas=tad=anu Betta-in-i]) A- 

47 bb.idhana=6anta8 :i =tap6bhir=avadhuita-bh6ga- 

48 vanchhah [(*] jye"shth gatS divam=anakulam=era ra- 

49 iyan=nikshiptavan=api kaniyasi Tammusi- 

50 ddbau 2 || [15*] Jayati vipula-bhubhrid-vainsa,-jaama Hitvritla' 

51 t parichita-guna-gTimphas=sam.bhavan-nfiyaka- 

52 grib [I*] snehiram^avani-bhusha Tammusiddb.-4bhi(lhlina- 

53 B=sarasa-madhuTa-m.urtfci^=ohtanah k6=pi harab |[] 16*] Sa 

54 Srid6vyam=Erasiddlii-kshitJsaj=jata[h.*] ^riniS,n=]VLa" 

55 nmasiddli-anuiannia [|*] dhatvim=:etanti'ayami'lnas=sama- 

56 stam=a'st-aratis=Tatamusiddhi-kshama.pab, || [17*] Asmai 

57 Pjisipuresaya Sak-abde dMrayfiyini [|*] gruiaS- 

58 sliv=asya niipa-grahyam pradad=%am=asesH(sha)tab []| IB*, GiTnna- 

59 fi=cha dattavan=asmai Kaivantur=iti virn.tam [1*1 nva- 

* L- 1 J 

60 pnra-sre'shthinam pi-5tyai s6=yana=atr > =aiva va- 

61 taarfi [|| 19**] fitafc ksh&n[i*]bh?itam=an^u-ja-pa- 

62 Iair 3 =mmakubaii'=dhritam [(*] jaga[t*]-fcraya-prasiddhaHya T 

63 ddhasya ^aeanam || [20*] Tatnena dharmma-saranih pa- 

64 rirakahaniya s=^yam bhavatbhi(dbhi)r=akhi- 

65 lair*=iti Tammusiddhah [(*] agamiaat pranaya- 

66 te 5 nfipatin=ajasran=duran=natena Sirasa na 
(57 garasan^na (| [21*] Svasty=astn [||] 

(Verse 11.) In ids (i.e. king SiddM's) family was bom the glorioiin king Uallasiddhi, ike 
model (of a man) of innate, conquering energy, (a very) B.S,b,ti to the moon-like fame of hostile 

1 After fa, the engraver seems to have originally engraved some other 

a The first component of the sign for au stands at the end of the preceding line. 

* Tie sign for at stands at the end of the preceding line. 

* The sign for ai stands at the end of the preceding line, 
8 The sign for g stands at the end of the preceding line. 

6 Only the verses which are not found in the Tiruvsllangadn inscription have been translated here. Verse 18 
also lias heen omitted here, because it differs from verse 23. of the Tiruvalangadu inscription only with respect t 
the name of the god. 


kings. "When the southern quarter had obtained him as (her) husband, she dropped. I 161 ' 
(or she lost Kafichi). 

(V. IB,) After that, when the eldest; (brother) had gone to heaven, the middle one 
who was called king Betta, being free from passions on account of (his religious') aaisterattos 
(and) despising the desire for (worldly) pleasures, conferred the government, without fw^y distur- 
bances, on Tammusiddhi, though being the younger (brother). 

(V. 16.) Victorious is a certain living necklace of pearls, called Tamnausiddlia'., &n orna- 
ment to the earth for a very long time, which comes from a ridge of high, mountains, which is 
well rounded, which has numerous windings of strings, which shows a fine gem in 'tfa.e centre, 
which has an elegant and pleasant form, (and which thus resembles kiw king, who is born in a, 
family of great kings, ^vho leads a virtuous life, who combines in himself a series of good 
to/to enjoys the dignity of a chief, and who has a handsome and graceful appearance) . 

(V. 19.) And in the same year (viz. 1129) this (Icing Tammusiddhi) gave to Mm (*- 
of Pasipura) the village called Kaivantur, to the delight of the merchants of Ids town. 





This inscription (No. 43 of 1893) ia engraved on the west side of the base of the -verandah 
surrounding the stone-platform called " the hill " (moZa*)inthe Arulala-Perumai temple at 
Little Conjeeveram. The first six lines are fully preserved ; but of 11. 7-10 the begixi:nin#s are 
builfc in. The preserved portion contains seven verses in the Sanskrit language and the 
Grantha alphabet. Verse 4 is followed by a prose passage in the Tamil alphabet ancL language, 
and another Tamil prose passage occurs between vv. 5 and 6. 

Vv. 2-4 record that Muppidi, a general (n&yaka) of the KSkatiya king- PratSj>arudra 
of EkasiMnagari, came to EMehl and installed a 'certain Manavlra as governor of Kanchl 
The Tamil portion records that the same Muppidi-M'ay aka ' granted the revenue from two 
villages to the Arul&la-Perumal temple at KancMpuram. This revenue amounted, to an 
Annual sum of 1,002 " md$ai of Gandagopala." Of this sum, 240 tn&dai were set aside for 
paying the attendants of a flower-garden on the southern bank of the Ve]Lk&, -which, -fclae donor 
had purchased for 500 -panam from a certain PerumaJ-tMar ; l 360 w,&4ai for daily offerings, 
'}to. ; ^0 mddat for purificatory rites in Chaitra; and 382 mdtfai f or buildings. Those lirxea which 
are only partially preserved seem to have contained a list of gifts of ornaments and articles of 
worship (1. 6 f.), a list of buildings to be erected in the temple (1, 8), and a list of trees to be 
planted in the flower-garden (1. 9). The inscription ends with praises of JIuppidi-Nayafea. 

The inscription contains two dates, both of which fell into Saka-Samvat 1238 ("expired), 
tke Nala-samvatsara, = A.D. 1316-17. On the first date Muppidi installed Manavira (verse 
I), and on the second date he made hia grant to the temple (line 3). Professor Kie3Jh.orn las 
favoured me with the following calculation of these two dates : " The first date regularly corre- 
^>onds to Friday, the llth June A.D. 1816, when the 5th tithi of the dark half in. tlie solar 
month Suchi (Withuna) ended 7 h. 5m. after mean sunrise. The second date Irregularly 

1 This name is tlie Tamil equivalent of Viah^tu-cWsa. 


corresponds to^ Wednesday, the 16th June A.D. 1316, wbich was 'the 21st day of the month 
of^ Mithuna (Ani) and on which the llth tit hi (of the dark half of Jyaishtha) ended 17 h. 
47 m. after mean sunrise." 

The two villages granted by Muppidi were Paiyyiir, with the hamlets of lyirachcheri and 
O-ummidipp-undi, in the district of Paiyyur-kottam, and Pondaipakkam in Kachchiyur- 
nfidu. According to Mr. Crole's Manttal of the Ohinglppvt District (p. 438), Paiyyur- 
k&ttatn formed part of the modern PonnSri taluka, and several villages which are stated to 
have been situated in that kotfam have actually been traced in this taluka. 1 Paiyyur, the head- 
quarters of the district, is not found on the map, but its position is indicated by its hamlet G-nm- 
inidippiindi; 1 The whereabouts of Pondaipakkam and Kachchiyur-nadu are settled by a 
copper-plate grant of Venkatapati, dated Saka-Samvat 1526, Kr&dhin, 3 where both Podavakam 
and Kachchur are stated to have belonged to Kachchi-ndti, a subdivision of Ikkattu-kdttam- 
According to the Ghingleput Manual (p. 438), the district of Ikkattu-kottam corresponded to the 
modern Tiruvallur taluka and was subdivided into Kakkalur-nadu and Kachchi-nadu. tkkadu, 
Kakkalur, and several other villages of Kakkalur-nadu, Kaehchur-nadu and Malaya-nadu 
in Ikkattu-kottam, which are mentioned in the British Museum plates of Sadasivaraya, can still 
be traced on the maps of the Tiruvallur taluka and the Kalahasti Zamiudari. 4 Pondaipakkam or 
Podavakam is also found on the former map as Pondavakkam, 5 and Kachchiyur, Kachchi 
or Kaohohftr, the head-quarters of the nadu to which this village belonged, is represented on the 
second map by Kachchur, about one mile south of Pondavakkam. The river Vejka mentioned 
in line 4 is the Vehk& or VSgavati, which flows past the Arulala-Perumal temple. 6 

The chief interest of this inscription lies in the statement that, in June 1316 A.D., 
Conjeeveram was tributary to the Kakattya king Prataparudra of fikasiilanagari, L&. "Warangal. 7 
Another inscription of Prataparudra is found as far south as the Jambukesvara temple near 
Trichinopoly. 8 Three inscriptions of his at Bezvada (No. 306 of 1892), Warangal (No. 109 
of 1902) and Palivela (No. 501 of 1893) are dated in Saka-Samvat 1220 (Vilambin), the 
Pramadi-samvatsara (i.e. Saka-Samvat 1235), and Saka-Samvafc 1239 (Pingala). 

Who was the M&navlra whom Prataparudra's general Muppidi installed as governor of 
KancM? An inscription of ^aka-Samvat 1219, Hemalambin (= A.D. 1297-98), at Narasaravu- 
p$ta (No. 213 of 1892) states that Manma-Gandago'pala, Raya-Gandag6pala or Manuma- 
Gandag&paladeva-Chodamabaraja, the eldest son of Nallesiddhi, was a subordinate of Pratapa- 
rudra 9 and took possession of Kanchipura. 10 An earlier chief of the same family, Vijaya- 
Gandagopalad6va, was also connected with Conjeeveram, where three of his inscriptions, 
dated in Saka-Samvat 1187, have been found. 11 Two records of the Arulala-Perumal temple 
(Nos. 34 and 35 of 1893), dated in aka-Samvat 1156 and 1127, belong to two other chiefs of 
the same family, Ch61a-Tikka and Tamtnusiddhi. 13 Nallasiddhi, an uncle of Tammusiddhi, 
is stated to have occupied Kafiohi. 18 If it is borne in mind that several of these later Chdlas 

11 Above, Vol. IV. p. 9, and South-Ind, Inter. Vol. III. p. 118, notes 1 and 5 5 see alao iM. p. 1S9. 
8 Gmnmidipfoytdi is No. 199 on the Madras Surrey Map of the Pofl.$&ri taluka. 

* See my frogrets Report for May to September 1890, p. 3, No. IX. 

* See above, Vol. IV. pp, 8, 9 and 10. 

So. 229 on tbe Madras Survey Map of the TiruvallAr taluka. 

* See 8auth-Ind. Inter. Vol. III. p. 186 and note 8 ; above, Vol. IV. p. 146 and note 5. 

I Ina. Ant. Vol. XXI. p. 198 and note 12. 8 Ibid. p. 200. 

Pratdparydra-bUlpatyaprasiSd-rfryjiia-vaibhavah II. 

II KAticht])ura~Tripura-Triy8tra occurs among bis birudas. 
JW. At. Vol. XXI. p. 122. 

11 The second of tbese two itwcriptions will be published by Dr. Ludei-a in this Journal. 
" Bee page 122 above. 




[Vo t. VII. 

seem to have ruled over Conjeeveram and thaf *!, l t 
sutediaate of Pratiparudra, it becomes probahle It Se 
was a member of tie same family AnotW ,,* t 
the time of the inBcripta, tie standard cot fC^S * 

(1. 4), .Mch owes ita ^e evide^y t OB of T 


^ fe<5 * 
severil rf whonl 

JTeUore (Ho. 194 of 1894). This date iT 19 
the meXe Conjeeveram hal fL fa fl, 
eroded at KUUdfaS 131243 


An allusion to this 




Mtolnt ' in June 1316 P 

TEXT. 3 

Mia E&- 


at[pa]da Oadag6pala B 

pi4 %ai 
476 aga 

mf" ' m f T? iU tW hl8cri P tions <* Saka.Sa.hvat 1089 and 1042 (No* 282 and 
to be the coin which is known in the ftfe*, of Southern India M 
to the Mj^wt, ^ imit at^h y Harsha of Katolr, eompare 

pp. 34 f. and 36; and Mr. Rapson's Indian Coi**, pp. 82 aS 80. It 
Vifaamiditya VI, because the A*** J^ f f (^ 
new old coin from those of Karndta, and because the only kJg of 

vu - 985 - 

is <M *" 8d below line. 



The pyllable 

T ^e rf of frf is nte W d below 

e Una. 


5 aandavanattukkum idil leyya=kkadava engala(lu)nir odai 4kkum mel 
fieyyum vyavasayattukkuin n&[l] Ikku nij;kum al 20kku and=onrukku. 
madai 240m. tiru[v]ottaaraattukku arigikku panam 2m sarvva-sugandh[i- 
dra]vyamgalukku l paiiam Ifm tiruvilakkukku panani -| pal-milagukku 
utpattavaikku pana- 

6m 1m aga nal Ikku madai [1] aga &ndu Ikku madai 860m [|*] 
tiruppallittamamu[ni] pajlaraum kari-amudum tiranandavanattile nadattavum[|* 1 ] 
[Ch]aiyitra-pavitra:riigalukku madai 20m abi(bhi)sheka-mandapam ullitta 
tiruppanigalukku 382 madaiytim=aga aadakkavum [(*] Perumalukku=ppo[s]- 
ppattamum padakkamum 

7 .......... kkidk*a-ku[ttu]-v[i]lakku 2m [l]6makkalam 4m. 

dftpa-dtpa-p[atramga]l kai[y]-marii 2m tiruvala[tti*J-ttatti 1m kachcTm-kkattil 
1m [j*] inda ftr iraridum. sakala-prS.ptigaj.6dum cbandr-Jlditya-varai sarvva- 

8 .......... ntyd bliavat(d)"bhih ||(|) tasmad=6fcan btavinah. 

p&rfcth.ivSndra[ii*] bh.tiy6 bhliy6 y&ehatfi R&machandrat 6v_ [5*] Arul^lauadan 
kdyilil ge[y*]yum tiruppani fiyirakkal-tirumandapam MiidivaJSangiijan-fciruiuaui- 

9 ....... ... javvandi alari piokcM eadi lenbagam 

leu[ga]l-u[nt]r 6[d]ai 4 ma=ppill tennaraaram. [m]dalai elumbichcbai narttai 
maKXnnisulla maranga[lum] vaippadu || TaBy=^3fi^ 

10 .......... & 3 Varahafh? 11 ] sva-dh.anaii=clia 

nidyam(fcyam) prapd[]]yas=sa cb.a Sdman&tlaati ||Q) kirn ya[rnnya3 (rnya) tS 
[ta]sya cha bMgate(dh%a[m] kshanifcaU Muppti3ti<di)-nayakasya II [7*3 

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! 
[Verse 1 contains an invocation of the boar-incarnation of Vislmu]. 

(V. 2.) Theglorious ruler of a great province (malia-mandala-Ghakravartin}, tne KSkatiya 
Pratapamdra, whose fame is beautiful (an d) who possesses valour, conducts the kingdom at 

(V. 3.) And now his general (ndyalca), the lord Muppidi, who haa annihilated the party of 
the enemies by (his) valour, having put to flight also the princes of the South, entered the city 
of Blanch! in the Nala year. 

(V. 4.) And in the month Sucbi, on the day of the serpents, 4 in the dark {fortnight), 
on a Friday, in the afternoon of (this) day, (he) made the glorious Jffaiiavira possessed of the 
tying of the fillet (pajtabandha) 6 and (made) Kftfiohl obedient to Ms orders. 

(Line 3.) (In) the Saka year 1238, the Nala-samvatsara, (on) a day -which corresponded 
to an eleventh tithi, to a Wednesday, and to the tweaty-ftrst solar day (of ) the month 
Ani, Hail ! the glorious Muppidi- Nayaka granted, (with a UbaUon of) water, accompanied by 
presents (to Brdhmanas), as exclusive property (sarva-niydga), to (the temple of) Peramal 
Arulalanatha in the prosperous Kafichipuram. the revenue (tarcvm) of 2 villages, (viz,') (1) 
in the land of Paiyyur-kottam (the village) Paiyyur, (having), together with (its) hamlets 
Ayirachoheri and Gummidippundi, a revenue of 526 mdifai of Gandagopala, and (2) 

1 The syllable dra seems to be entered below the line, 

* Bead ^nbMy-tirumavipfondal. ' Read perhaps PrAytti. 

* Lt. the fifth tithi. * I.e. he invested him with the dignity of governor. 


132 EHGRAPffiA IKDIOA. [Voi. Til, 

Pondaipakkam in KachcMjrfir-nadUj (having) a revenue of 476 tndtfai', altogether two 
villages, (having a revenue of) 1,002 mdtfai. 

(lu 4.) Out of this, 240 md$ai per year (shall* le spent} for 20 people per day, in order to 
(maintain) & flower-garden on the southern, bank: of the VelkS, which (fee) had purchased at the 
price of 500 panam from Perumal-tadar ; in order to construct 4 lotus-tanks in this (flower- 
garden) ; and, besides, in order to cultivate the fields. 

(L. 5.) 2 panam (shall fee spent) for rice for (offerings at) midnight; 1 H^pannm for 
perfumes of all (kinds) ; | panam for lamps ; and 1 panafa for the ingredients of pepper-milk ; 
altogether, 1 mdtfai 1 * per day and 360 vnd$ai per year. 

(L. 6.) The temple garlands, fruits and vegetables for offerings shall be grown in the 
(above-mentioned) flower-garden* 20 mddai shall be spent for the Ohaitra-pavitras,* and 
382 mddai for the abhisheka-manifapa and other buildings. To (the god) Perumal (were given) 

a gold diadem, a breast-ornament, ,2 brass chandeliers, 4 -gongs, (two) 

vessels for incense and lights, 2 hand-bells, 1 salver fot waving lights (before the god), and 1 

webbed bedstead. These two villages 4 with all the revenue (prdptf), 

as long as the moon and the sun shall last. 

[Verse 5, which is incomplete, contains one of the usual admonitions to future kings] . 
(L. 8.) The buildings to be erected in the temple of Arulajanatha (are) a mandapa of one 
thousand pillars, a canopy of gems for (the image of) Mudivaiangirjaij 

(L. 9.) , . javvandi, 6 oleander (alari), pichchi, ddi, champctka, 6 bakula, 

4 lotus-tanks, 7 mangoes, jacks, cocoanut-trees, pomegranates, limes, 8 oranges and other trees shall 
be planted. 

(V. 6.) Whose command the rays of the jewels on the heads of all 


(Y. 7.) Varaha 8 has received his wealth (as) a gift, and that S6manatha 10 is to be worshipped 
(by him) daily ; How can the fortune of that Muppidi-Uayaka be described on earth P 



is a village in the Tirukoilur (Tirukk6valur) taluka 11 of the South Aroot 
district. It contains a Siva temple which is now called Bhaktajaneavara. This Sanskrit name 
ia represented in the inscriptions of the temple by its Tamil equivalent Tinittondlsvara. Both 
names refer to the 63 devotees of Siva 18 (Tiruttoy^ar or Bhaktajana), whose lives are narrated in 
the Periyapurdnain f and one of whom is supposed to have been a chief of Tirunamanallur itself. 1 * 

1 Ottasdmam ia a tadl&ava of the Sanskrit ardTtatj&ma,* 
1 This total shows that \ mddai was equal to S patfam. 
Compare above, Vol. V. pp. 22 and 259. 

* This refers to Paiyyilr and Pondaip&kkam in line 4. 

1 According to the dictionaries, fevva nd\ is the Indian chrysanthemum. 

* [Regarding Tamil eibagam=* Sanskrit ekamptka, compare Iet, Ant. Vol. XVIII .p. 105, note. 
1 These were already mentioned in Hue 5. 

8 JLlvmUobehai is meant for efamichoA/ii. * J.f. the boar-incarnation of Vishnu. 

10 This is an epithet of Siva and suggests that Muppidi worshipped this god aa well as Vishau. 

11 No, 320 on the Madras Survey Mo$ of this t&luka. 

41 Compare Sauth-Itid. Inter. Vol. II. fp. 184, 162 ff., 167, 172 and 252 f. 
" See page 136 below. 



inscription of: "foe Ch61a king Parantaka I. (A. below) states that the stone temple of 
ttondiavara was btdlt by his son RajadityadeVra. Hence it is alao called Bajaditye^vara ia 
some of ita inscriptions. 

Besides the sb.rin.e of Tiruttondisvara or Rajadityesvara, the same temple included the shrine 
of Agastysvara, -which is mentioned in several inacriptions of the temple. Another inscription 
(Ho. 365 of- 1902) records a gift to the temple of Kalinarisvara. This temple has been recently 
ctexnolished by ike villagers, and the only portion of it that survives is a sculptured stone -which 
"ears the figux-e of > kneeling elephant, above the elephant a hauda, with a stout male person 
reclining in it, and tlxe single word &ri-Kalindrai in Pallava-Grantha characters (No. 376 of 
Id OSl} . It may perhaps be concluded from thia, that the demolished temple of Isvara (Siva) wag 
built "by a 3?allava king named Kalinarai, and that the man riding on the elephant ig meant to 
represent this king. 

According to the subjoined Tamil inscriptions, the ancient name of Tirunamanallur was 
*3?ijeTJ.n&valur. Tb.e Saiva saint Sundaramurti, who was horn at Tirunavalur and was the prote'ge' 
of a. chief of that place, 1 derived from it the surname Navaluran, vrhich he applies to himself 
in some of his hymns. Tirunavalar belonged to the district of Munaippadi (C, below) or 
Tirixxnunaippfidi (A.. a^ B. below). In the time of Rai&ndra-Gh&la I. it bore the surname 
aaJljaaittad^ap-aratn, 8 -which is due to the fact that its temple had been founded hy Rajaditya, 
a,a was included in M&ur-n&du, a subdivision of 'J xrumunaippUdi, a district of Jayaagonda- 
Clkftja-mandalam. C^- "below). 

The subjomed inacriptions contain the names of a few other villages in the neighbourhood 
Of TiTUnamanalliir. Of these, gevalai in Vennainallur-nadu (C. below) survives in the two 
villages Periyagevalai and Sinnasevalai' (i.e. 'great and small Sevalai') close to Tiruvennai. 
a,Iliir * fikadhira-cnaturvedimangalam (D. below) cannot he identiBed, as ifc is not the name, 
tmt the surname of some village. Arumbakkam* (B. below) is situated 2 miles south of 


This inscription (No. 335 of 1902) is dated in the 28th year of ' Parakesarivarman who 
toot Madirai (Madlawa)," Le. of the Chdja king Parantaka If who ruled from about A.D. 900 
to about 940.7 It record* the gift of two lamps by a servant of K6kkU^tbe queen of, 
[Paramtaka I and the mother of his son RajadityadSva. The latter the B^iditya who, 
fro^ng to the Targe Leyden grant' and the Atakur inscription of AJX9W*- 
taattle by the Bastttrakuta king Kyishna III, 


Svasti C]rm C*3 [Madi]r[ai] ko[n]da 

u irubattettavadu [TJwunvu- 
Bajadittad^var ta[y]ar na 

See page 136 below. 

Other inscriptions have the shorter fomE&]idittpurain. 

Mr v B6 .tk. * fc"***-* 

No. 278 on the same map. 
Sovtth-lnA. 2nscr. Vol. II. p. 879 1 .,*.*, date of the Kftram inseripfcum fp I 

. 881. H *** Kielhorn 
by the discovery of emi 


6 k=[o]nrukku va(vai)[tta 3]ava m[u3va=pper-ad[ti] tonnur.u 

7 kk=onju [|*] idu pan-[M]aye(he)svarar irakshai |i 

8 meEpadiyal Sittirak[6]malani vaitta vilakk=onru Ilia- 1 

9 vilakku:|| 


(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In ihe twenty-eighth year of king Parakesarivarman who 
took Madirai, Chitrak&malain, a female attendant of oar lady KokkiJ&nadigaJ, the mother of 
BSjadityadSva who caused to be made the sacred stone temple of Tiruttoiidisvara at 
Tirunavalur in Tirumunaippdi, gave one perpetual lamp. For (this lamp she) gave ninety 
undying (ancZ) imaging Kg sheep 3 (and) one tla, lamp. 8 This (gift is placed under) the proteo- 
tion of all MaheSvaraa, 

(L. 8.) The same Chitrak&malaia gave one (other) lamp (and) an lla lamp (-stand). 


This inscription (No. 363 of 1902) is dated in the 39th year of the same king as A. and 
records the gift of a lamp by MaMdSvadi, the queen of prince Rajadityad^va and tlie daughter 
of Hadarsyar, for the merit of her elder "brother Bajadittan Pugajvippavarganda. RajMitya 
was already mentioned in the preceding inscription (A.). Iladarayar means ' the chief of La$a 
(Gujarat).' This title was borne hy a family of local chiefs, one of whom, named Vira-Chd}.a, 
ia known to have been a feudatory of Rajaraja L* Vira-Ch61a was the eon of Pugajvippa- 
varganda. This chief is probably identical with Rajadittan 5 Pugajtvippavarganda, the elder 
brother of Rajjaditya's queen Mahadevadi. 

TEXT, i 

1 ||[6u] Sva(ava)sti sri []|*] Madiraiyrim Ilammum 8 konda k6=Pparakesaripa- 

2 n[ma3[r*]kk*iyaadu muppattu-onbadavadu TirumtinaippadiaTtiruna- 

3 valur Tiruttondiyisvarattu' Mahadevarkku=ppillaiyar Ba- 

4 jadittadevar deviyar 8 p]iadarayar magalar "MahadevadigaJ tamai- 

5 yanrjar 10 Araiyar Ea[ja*3dittan Pukaliprargandanai 11 sartti va(vai)ch.clia notta- 12 

6 vilakk=[o3njinukkum [va](vai)[ch]cha ^a[v]a mu(mu)va=pper-[ajda 1 3 


7 nirai elu[ba]din palam ^a[n]d[ira*]dittaval eri[p]padakku u [|] i[da] 

rar irakshai | 

Hail ! Prosperity ! In the thirty-ninth year of king Farakesarivarman who took Madirai 
and IJam, Manadgvadigal, the queen of prince EajadityadSva (and) the daughter of 

1 Bead fla-. 

1 The meaning of the two terms 'undying' and 'unagtog' is, that those sheep which died or ceased to supply 
milk had to be replaced from among the lambs that had grown tip in the meantime. 

I.e., apparently, a lamp-stand after the fashion of llam (Ceylon). According to the dictionaries, the word 
tytm means also gold j ' but, ii this meaning were intended here, the writer would haw probably used the common 

* See above, Yol. 17. p. 180. 

to the name of the Lita chief Pugalvippavarganfl* in honour of tja brother-m- 

i H . A- 

law, tne Gnoja prince Rajaditya. 

I Jfd flamvm. , 
" The secondary form of i is engraved above the initial i. 

Read MahddSca*. u 

n Read Pugalvippatargatdanai, M 

u The d of rd seems to be corrected from du. M Bead 


Iiadarayar, gave one perpetual lamp to (tlie god) Mahadfiva of the Tiruttoudisvara (temple) 
at Tirunavalur in Tirumunaippadi for the merit of 1 (her) elder brother Araiyar Rajdittan 
PugalLvippavargandan. For (this lamp she*) gave one hundred undying (and) imaging big 
sheep 3 (and) a lamp-stand weighing seventy palam, to burn as long as the moon and the sun 
shall last. Thia (gift is placed under) the protection of all Mah&svaras. 


Thia inscription (No. 362 of 1902) is dated in the 17th year of Kannaradeva, i.e. of the 
Rsh.trak&ta king Krishna III., the conqueror of the Pallava and Chdla countries. 3 It records 
the gift of a lamp by a chief of Miladu, named Warasimhavarman. and surnamed Saktinltha 
and Siddhavadava. He claims to belong to the lineage of 3tikra and to the Malaiyakiila, i.e. 
the family of the rulers of Malaiyanadu or Malainadu, of which Miladu and Maladu are 
contracted forms. According to the Periyapurdnam^ the capital of this district was 
Tirukkovaliir (Tirukoilur), the head-quarters of the present Tirnkoilur taluka.* The chiefs of 
Malaioadu claimed connection with the Chedi family. 5 They had the custom of prefixing the 
name of the reigning Ch&la king to liheir title. Thus, six inscriptions of B&j&ndra-Ch&la I., 
Kul&ttunga-Ch6la and Vikrama-Chdla at KijLur near Tirakoilur (Nos. 241, 260, 284, 285, 286 
and 290 of 1902) mention Miladndaiyan Iraman Mummadi-Cholan alias Raj&ndra-ChSla- 
Miladudaiyau, Kiliyur 6 Malaiyaman Kuldttaiiga-Ch&la-Che'diyar&yan, and Kiliyur Malaiyaman 
Vikrama-Ch&la-Che"diyarayan, the father of Vikrama-Ch61a-K6valarayaij ; and in two inscrip- 
tions of T-nbhuvanaohaltravartin Rajarajade'va and Kul6ttunga-0h61ad6va (Nos. 288 and 293 
of 1902) we find Kiliyur MalaiyamaQ Baftajraja-ChMiyarayan. 

The TriTikrama-Perumal temple at Tirukoilur bears an inscription of the sixth year of 
Parak&Barivarman alias Raj&udradeva, i.e. A.D. 1057-58 7 or about a centary after the present 
record. It belongs to a later chief of Mil&du, whose name was likewise Narasimhavarman. 
He resided at Tirukkovalfir (Tirukoilar), was a descendant of the lineage of Bhargaya (i.e. 
Sukra), and bore the surname Kanak^sari-Bama, 


Svasti fot H6\_ Srl-KaiinaradSrarkku yandu padin^Javadu Mut)aippadi= 
Ttirunftval<irTti[rut]tondi(ndI)varattu Ma(ma)had^varkku svasti 

6ukranma(nva)y-6dayachal-aditya Sa[k]tinatha simha-ddhvaja ^ikhi- 

makara-la(la)nchhana Malaiyakul-6- 

tbha(dbha)va Malaiyakula-^fl.(chu)lamani Srimat(n)-NaraBiri3LhaTaCr*]mma 

KCilftd-udaiya nattan Sittavadavankgiya Narasimhava[n]man vaitta 
noijda-vilakk=onj;inukku vaitta pon padiij kalaflju [|*] i-ppon padin 
ka^tfiiu[n]=gondu Ven- 

$ainallur-nattuChchevalai sabhaiy&mum urdmum 4ttq nurju nali ney [k]odu 
vanda madSviyalSy 8 5antradityaval attuv6m=an6m fievalai sabhai urdm [|*] ifa- 
vilakku onj;u H idu pan-Mah[6]fivara[r*] 

irakahai ||6v_ 

TMB seems to be the meaning of the gerund tdrtti, which occurs frequently in the same connection. 
See above, p. 134, note 2. 

See above, Vol. III. p. 282 ff. and Vol. IT. p. 81 * . and p. 280 f, ; Sovth-lnd. Inscr. Vol. III. pp. 11 and 22, 
Sovtfo-I**. Inter. Vol. II. p. 167. See loo. eit. and Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 148. 

Kiliyur is a village in the Tirukoilur t&luka, No. 198 on the Madras Survey Map. 
i See page 7 above. 8 Read cfiandrd*. 




(Line!,) Hail! Prosperity! In the seventeenth, year of the glorious Kannaradeva . 
Hail ! the glorious Narasimhavarman, the sun of the eastern mountain the lineage of Sukra 
Saktinatha, 1 whose banner bore a lion, whose crest were a peacock and a makara, who was horn 
in the Malaiyakula, the crest-jewel of the Malaiyakula, the lord of the country of Miladu - 
(this) Narasimhavarman who was called Siddnavadava 3 gave one perpetual lamp to (the 
god) Mahadeva of the Tiruttondisvara (temple) at Tirunfivalur in Munaippadi, For (tU t 
lamp he) gave ten kalanju of gold. 

(L 2.) Having received these ten kalanju of gold, we, the members of the assembly and 
the inhabitants of the village of Sevalai in VennainaHur-nadu, shall have to bring every year 
one hundred n&li of ghee aud shall ha veto pour (it) out (i.e. measure it) by the mddSvi* as long 
as the moon and the sun shall last, 

(L. 3.) One lla lamp (-stand)* (was also given). This (gift is placed under) the protection 
of all M&hSsvaras. 


This inscription (No. 356 of 1902) and the next one (E.) are remarkable for being dated 
according to the Saka era, which is employed in very few of the earlier Tamil inscriptions * The 
iwmpuon D recorde the gift of a lamp by a Munaiyadiyaraiyan, i.e. a chief of the district 
of Munai or Munaippadi, in which Tirunamanallur wag included.' ' The chief of the people of 
mT 1 '/ 11 ""*^^ *^ k mentioned as a ^ssal of Vikrama-Ch6}a in the Vikki.ama-Solan- 
WaJ According to the Periyapurdnam, the Saiva saint Sundaramurti was the protege of 
another chief of TirumunaippMi (Hunaiyaraiyar), named Narasimha, who resided at 
o^S^rf ( ^ nftmanaM ^' aud who is Mmaelf considered one of the sixty-three Tiruttoadar 


1 II Svasti fei ||L_ agar[ai] ya[n]du 

2 875avadu Tirunavalur Ti- 

3 ruttondi-Isvara- 8 garatta 

4 devarkku Munai[ya]diyarai[ya]- 

5 n Kulamariikkan [I]rama- 

6 devan vaitta notta(nda)-vilak- 

7 ku onru sava mu(mu)va=pper-adu 100 [!*] 

8 ivv-adu [nu]run=gondu ^an- 

9 dira[d]ittavalu[m] eri'kka n[ejy at[tu]- 

10 var<a.]nar devadanam CE3kadi(dhi) r 

11 Lrwe]dimangalattu sabhai[ y ar] [||*] 


d&i* <the ^ f *" *****' " Hlie ** **^~'^^^ ~v* Skauda 

1 Le, "(the owner) of renowned mares.' 
|Jj. a mMmre called after the ctief queen (mahddtvt). t q a 

* Read Tirutto<idHcara: ' lnd ' Ani ' VoL XXIT - P- I4a - 

* See above, p. 134, note 2. 


(L. 8.) Haying received fcheae hundred steep, the members of the assembly of Ekadhira- 
^b.aturvdim.angalao3, (a village) granted to the temple, shall have to pour oat ghee, 1 to burn 
^s long as the moon and the sun shall last, 


This inscription (No. 338 of 1902) records the gift of a lamp by the queen of a chief of 
SflCunai, whose name resembles that of the other chief mentioned in. the preceding inscription (D.). 


1 Svasti sri [||*] JSagarai ySndu 87[a]- 

2 fivadu TinmavaMr Tirattondlsva- 

3 rattu Mahad&var,kku Munaiyadiyaraiyar Kulama- 

4 nikkerumanar dev[i]ya[r=A][g3aiyar vaytta 3 

5 nonda-vilakkinukku va(vai)tta fiava m[u]va p&r-ado. 

6 nuju | s nurun=[g]ondu nu 4 ni[|la]da[m*] ulafcku 

7 n[ey] attuT[6]m=an6m Arumbakka[t*]tiii'[6]m [|*] idu 

[Tarar irakshai ||*] 


(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the Saka year 878, [A^kkinangaiyar, the queen of 
Munaiyadiyaraiyar Kulam&nikkerama'iia'r, gave a perpetual lamp to (the godi) Mahad^va of 
the Tiruttondisvara (temple) at Tirunavalfir. For (this lamp she) gave one hundred undying 
(and) unaging big sheep. 6 

(L. 6.) Having received (these) hundred (she&p), we, the villagers of Animbkkam, shall 
"have to pour out daily one ulakku of ghee by the md&evijl This (gift is placed under) the 
protection of all Mah^varas. 


This inscription. (No. 360 of 1902) belongs to the reign of ParakSsarivarman alias 
E&3todra-Gh6|.ad^Ya, i.e. the Ch&la king RajSndraGh61a I. -who ascended the throne in A.D, 
1011- 12. 8 The figure denoting the year of his reiga is lost. A regiment of the king gave to 
the god a necklace of gold and jewels, and the commander of the regiment gave another necklace 
of pearls and a bracelet of gold. 


1 Svasti fc[l] [11*] K[6]=PparakeSaripa[r*]mar-a[na] &S-Ba;j6ndh3(ndi)ra- 

6jad6varku ya[ndu] . . [va]du Jayafi.gonda-6la-maCnda31attuTtiru- 

2 murjaippEdi] Mte]lur-ntt\i-Ttirunavaltirana Ba.jdittadvapurattu 

[Tirutton]di(ndl)svarattu A4avaUjkku udaiyar padai Vi(vi)ranaraya[ua]- 
tte [r]i [nda- vil] ligal 

8 leyd=itta mWai Itj&l pon mu-kkalau3=arai [(*] idil tadavi kattiija 
Bpa(spha)tika[m] nayagan utpada um paditjettu ni(n$)lam irandam [)*] 
[mu]tt6du malai o- 

1 Compare the preceding inscription (C.) * Bend vaitta. 

1 TMa sign of punctuation is expressed by a dot above the line, 

< Cancel thia syllable. * The syllable md IB entered belo* the Hue. 

1 See above, p. 134, note 2. 1 See above, p, 186, note 3. * See page 7 above. 

INDICA. [y OL . y IL 

4 nru [I*] idu se[y]vitt=iduyittan i-ppadaikku nayagam geyda Marayan 

Paluvur JTakkan [I*] ivane tiru-kaiykku s"atti arula tadavi kattina 
sphatikam onru mutt^e'rina ka- 

5 yai onru po[n kalajfiju [|*] ivai pan-Mahahe3va[ra*]A'a[k8hai] [||*] 


(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the . . th year of king- ParakSsarivarman aim 
f-he glorious RfijSndra-ChdladSva, the chosen "bowmen of Viranarayana, 3 a regiment of the king 
made and gave 1 necklace, consisting of three and a half kalanju of gold, to (the god) Adavalar 4 . 
the Tiruttondisvara (temple} afc Tirunavalur alias Bajfidittadevaptiram in M!UN 
nadu, (a subdivision') of Tirumunaippadi, (a district) of Jayangonda-SdJa-mandalam, In 
this (necklace) were fixed eighteen pieces of crystal, including the central gem, and two 



(L. 3.) One necklace of pearls. This was caused to be made and to be given by Marayan 
Pajurur Nakkan, 5 who commanded this regiment. - 

(L, 4.) The same person (gave) one braceleyto be placed on the arm of the god (and 
f">ntiiting of) one halanju of gold, in which one 'crystal was fixed (and) on which pearls were 

(L. 5.) These (gifts are placed under) the protection of all* varas. 



Tirakkovaliir is the head-quarters of a taluka of the South Arcot district. It contains a 
\ uhju temple named Trivikrama-Perumal, and fclie suburb of KJlur a Siva temple named 
Vmtta S 63vara. Of the subjoined inscriptions, ten (A. to J.) are in the Siva temple and four 
(K. to N.) in the Vishnu temple. 

The sacred writings of the Saivas and Vaishnavas of the Tamil country mention both of the 
Tirukkovalur temples. Tirunanasambandar refers to the Siva temple as Vlrattanam at 
KovaluVand Tirumangai-Alvar to the Vishnu temple as 'Idaikaji at KdvaKir'" The sub- 

CilLT^:^T , T T^r m &*. J V> ^ ******* (K.) or Idai. 

the Oh&la 

lam (K.). It was included in Kurukkai- 

of h n,ft, T Mna4V a dirtrio * of 2 ' 000 (***), ^MoH ^e time 

of tbe uli61as was surnamed Jananatha-valan&du (K ) 

1 The first i of ig entered below the line. 

*""* "r 6 "'' e " M 

01 - nt - p - 

See page 135 above. i KA , Ko ,. _ _ . 

J>o. 153 on the M adrat Surrey Map of the Tirukoilur t41u)c, 



This Tamil inscription (No. 278 of 1902) is dated in tie 17th year of Yijaya-Nandivikrama, 
t.a. of the Qahga-Palla?a king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman. 1 It records the gift of a lamp 
by a concubine of Vanakovaraiyar, This was probably the title of the chief of Vaaakoppadi 
or Vanagappadi, a district which according to other inscriptions (No. 40 of 1887-88 and No. 126 of 
1900) included Tiruvannamalai on the northern bank of the Permai. 3 A later Ytaakdvai-aiyar 
is referred to in an inscription of Kulottunga I. 3 and another Yanakovaraiyan in one of 
Kul&ttuDga III. (No, 72 of 1890). 


1 Svasti grf [||*] K6 Vijaiya-7ikrama-^andivi[k*]kiramarkku yandu 17avadu(du) 


2 Kurukkai-kktirrattu Tirukkdvalur Timvi(vi)[ra3ttanattu-Pperiimalukku oru-no- 

3 nda-vilakku Manifcka[t*]tar magalar KSnakkanar Yanakovaraiyar bogi- 

4 yar vaitfca pon palan-gasmddu uraiy=oppadu 15 la 5 []*] i-ppon 

5 padinan- 6 gaianjim=gondu kadav&m ivv-iir nagaratt&m [)*] i-pp^n- 

6 nin paliSaiyaley nigadam ulakk=ennai 4(a)ttut6m-an6na nagaratl6m [|*] idu pan- 

M&h^vara-rakshai [ | ) ] 


(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! In the 17th year of king Vijaya-Nandivikrama, 
K6nakkai$r, the daughter of Manikkattar (and) the concubine 7 of Vanakovaraiyar, gave 15 
kalanju of gold, which was equal in fineness to the old Mfa, 8 (for) one perpetual lamp to (the 
god) Permnal 9 of the Tiruvlrattfijiain. (temple) at Tirukkovalur in Kurvikkai-kiirrara, (a, 
siibdivision) of Mal&du. 

(L. 4.) We, the citizens of this .place, have received these fifteen kalafiju of gold. 

(L. 5.) Out of the interest of this gold, we, the citizens, shall have to pour out daily otw 
ulaltku of oil. 

(L. 6.) This (grift is placed under) the protection of all MaheSvaras, 


This Tamii inscription (No. 277 of 1902) is dated in the 21st year of Vijaya-Nripatanga- 
vikrama, the son and successor 10 of Vijaya-Nandivikrama whose name we have found in the 
preceding inscription (A.). It records the gift of a lamp by a servant of Ve$uvadaraiyar, 
apparently a local chief. 


1 Svasti Sri [||*] K6 Vijaiya-lSTinipatongavikramarkku yandu 21avadu Milft- 

2 t^u-Kktirukkai-kk-ajjattu Tirukkdvalftr Tiru-vi(vl)ra$anattu Mahad&varkba 


3 kkinukku Ve^tuvadaraiyarkku aiamunnum Nannan Kojjan kudutta pen 

4 12 ' Ja 11 [I*] panniru-kalanjin paligaiyal&y iravum pa[ga*]lum oru-nojxd&-vilak- 

1 See above, Vol. VI. p. 321. * I.e. the Southern Pe^naiy&sn } see above, VoL VI. p. 833. 

Soa-7d!. iMor. Vol. III. p. 152- Cancel viXsrama-. 

'This letter slants towards the rights it is evidently an abbreviation for &.?<*'#* I n inscription of 
KuWttunga I. (above, Vol. V. p. 105, text line 5) I have misread this gyuiM as jpa. 

' B6gi is used in the sense of Wj*(t (bhtigint in Sanskrit). 

8 This mnst be the designation of some gold coin ; compare above, Vol. V. p. 106 and note 8. 

This is one 6f the Tamil names of Vialinu, but is here applied to Siva. 
10 See above, Vol. VI. p. 821. " See note 5 above. 


5 k=eripp6m=an6m Tkukkdvalur nagarattom sandradittaval [|*] idu 


(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the 21st year of king Vijaya-Nripatungavikrama,-. 
^ Korjan, a servant 1 of Vettuvadaraiyar, gave 12 Tcalanju of gold for a perpetual lamp to 
(ths god) Mahad&va o the Tiruvirattanam (tetnple') afc Tirukkovalur in Kurukkai-k%am, 
(& mbdiviswn) of Mil&du. 

(It. 4.) Out of the interest of (these) t-welve Tcalafiju, we, the citizens of Tirukk6valiir, 
shall have to burn one perpetual lamp night and day, as long as the moon and the sun shall 

(L, 5.) This (gift is placed under) the protection of all Mabe's'varas. 


This Tamil inscription (No. 303 of 1902) belongs to the same king and year as the preceding 
one (B.) and records the gift of a lamp by the same servant of Vettuvadiyaraiyar. This form 
of the title occurs also in an inscription of the 22nd year of Vijaya-Nripatungavarman &t 
TirachehennamMndi (ISTo, 301 of 1901), while the preceding inscription (B.) has the slightly 
different form Vettnvadaraiyar. 


1 Svasti M [|J*] K& Visaiya"Kiru[patonga]vikkira- 

2 maparamarku yandii [21]avadu T[i]rukk6- 

3 YaMr Tiravi(vi)ratt[a]nattu Mahadevarkkn [na]- 

4 nda-vilak[k]intikkii Vettuvadiyaraiyar a- 

5 jamunELU=Nannan Koxxan kudntta po- 

6 [B] panniru-kalanju' [|] idan paliiaiya[l] 

7 nanda-vi|akkn iravum pagalum erippo- 

8 mm=aijdm Tirukkdvaliir nagarattom [1*] i- 

9 [du pan-Mahgsvara-ra*]kshai [|i] 


(Hne 1.) Hail 1 Prosperity ! In the 21st year of king Vijaya-Krlpatungavikrama- 
Tarman.-.Iiraiiaij Korean, a servant of Vettuvadiyaraiyar, gave twelve fcaZa% of gold for a 
perpfetual lamp to (tt god) Mahadeva of the Tiruvirattanam (temple) at Tiinkkdvamr. 

(L. 6.) Out of the interest of this (gold), we, the citizens of Tirukkdvalftr, shaU have to 
oara a perpetual lamp night and day. 

(L. 8.) This (gift is placed under) the protection of all Mah&varas. 


TH* Tamil inscription (No. 299 of 1902) is dated in the th year of the Chdja Hag 
fctenvas and records the gift of a lamp by a queen of V&nak6varaiyaS 


1 S* above, Vol. V. p. 42. 

' Oa tWg title see p. 180 above. 


2 nd[a>vihttt[Tjjmkktt Vanakovaraiyar 

3 ttar vaitte por| padigaiff(n).galafiju [|*] i-pponnubku 

4 ppadiyal iravum pagalum nand&-vilakk=erippipp6m=&ii5=iiaga[ra*Jfct6m [|*] 

5 idu , 

(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the fifth year of king Parakgaarivarman, 


the qiwen of Vanak6varaiyar (an<l) the daughter of IlMaiga},* gare 
fifteen, kaluflJK of gold for a perpetual lamp to the god of the Tiruyirat$anam (temple), '' 

(L. 3.) For this gold, we, the citizens, shall cause to burn a perpetual lamp night and 
day, at the rate of one n' (of oil) per month for each hala&ju, 

(L, 5.) This (gift is plactid-undir) the protection of all M&h^varas. 


These two Tamil insoriptionfi (Nos. E79 and 280 of 1902) belong to the reign of 
"ParakSsarivaraaa who took Madirai (Madhura)," i.e. of the Ohola king Par&ntaka I. 3 
The Bret is dated ia his 2Hth and the second, which follows it in line 4, in his 33rd year. 

The inscription E. records the gift of a lamp By a daughter of Kayiriir Pernmanar, 
a chief of Miiftdtt t a,nd the inscription F. refers to a similar gift by fche regiment of prince 
A*&ttlaJtsritt. The same prince is mentioned as ' the royal son of the Ch6}a king ' in an 
inscription of the 24th yeat of Parlatoka L at Tiruppaadixratti near Tanjore. 8 He is perhaps 
identical with Aritiijaya, tho third son of Parantaka I.* 



2 kftyrattu TirulrkdTaliir Tiriavi(vi)ra^anattu,Ppei'uraa}ukku oru-nonda- 

Ti}akkn[k*]ku M![l]fi4-w4aiyk 
8 KayirfirPp0rumf&3fliar magallte BftjadMyar TSa4akki Perumftnar yaitta 

va pan-yaT-wia L. Svasti jrf [||*] Madirai 
koPpw;akWaripaamaCr*3kkiyandu [3]3lTadti Tlruk- 
5 k&valte TinnrifvOrailABiattu Mah[*]d^Tarkku pillaiyar 


vaitta 6M mu(mu)va=ppr-adu 
ivai patt-MihSlyara-rakaliai H [6CJ 


Hail I Prosperity! In the 28th year of Hng PamMsarivarmaa who took 

TifiadakW* SemmAnftr, titxe daughter of the lord of MHadii, Kayirfir 

1 The B&ffifl of tbl pawoa wheats that she may have been connected with the L&fc cHefa of the Nortii Arcot 
district t we above, p. 184 iwd note 4. 

* See above, p. in wd nobe 6. 

1 FttbtoW by Mr, Veatatyy& ia tie Jfawfo'tfir Cfoittia* College Maffttnitu o August 1890. 

* Ho, 6 of the Tab! in 8oik-Ind. Inter. VoL I. p. 112. 

* Th5 word mean* 'tha subduer of the lustre (of enemies).' Both this aurnamo and the following title 
Pervmdytr would be more appropriate for a priace, than for a princes*, 


Perum-Snar, gave one hundred undying (and) unaging big sheep 1 for one perpetual lamp to 
(the god) Perumal 8 of the Tiruvirattanam (temple) at Tirukkovalur in Kurukkai-kurraa 
(a subdivision) of Maladu. These (sheep are placed under) tbe protection of 'all Mahesvara' 


Hail! Prosperity! In the 33rd year of king Parakesarivarman who took Madirai 
the Malaiyana-orraichchevagar, 3 fche regiment of prince Arikulakesariyar, gave one hundred 
undying (and) unaging big sheep for one perpetual lamp, (which was) to burn as long as the 
moon and the sun shall last, to (the god) Mahadeva of the Tiruvirattanam (temple) at 
Tirukkovalur. These (sheep are placed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras. 


^_XThis Tamil inscription (No. 268 of 1902) is dated in the 21st year of KannaradSva, i.e. O f 
the Rashtrakuta king Krishna III. 4 It records a grant of land by the Vaidumba-maharaja 
Sandayan Tiruvayan and (his queen) Suttiradevi. 5 

The Yaidumbas appear to have been local chiefs. One of them is stated to have been 
defeated by Parantaka I. ' Sandayan Tiruvayan,' i.e. Tiruvayan, the son of Sandayan has to be 
identified with Tiruvaiyan, the father of Samkaradeva who was a contemporary of Rajaraja 1.7 
and -who is called a Vaidumba in an inscription of RajSndra-Chola I. 8 

The subjoined grant of Tiruvayan is quoted, and the names and measurements of the fields 
are repeated, in an inscription of Rajaraja I. (No. 286 of 1902), which has been utilized for the 
translation of the present record. 


1 Svasti srl [||] Kannaradevark-iyandu irubattonravadu Malattu-Kkurukkai- 

kkuryattu Timkk6valtrTtiruvi(vi)rattanam=udaiya perumana- " 

2 digalukku Vaidumba-maharajar Sandaya & Tiruvayan Tirukkovaliir sabhaiv^- 

idai yan vilai-konda bhtmi Unangalpundi- 9 

3 yir-padii=nilam nanieyum puijseyum Bagavanda-kkalani irubattettum KM^ru kala= 

Marattu|an-veli ettum KalarmMu H(kJ)lina 

4 pattern mtona irardu m&vum Kaliya-kka^ni K6rpadu ettn mavurn [|*1 ittanai 

mlamum po kuduttu ijai ijichchi a.| v ar- " 


kku^timvamudu [i]rattikku nivandafi=jeydu kudutten Tiruvayan-en [|'j 

ivaiyijjil Kadamba]aum=:IJttiraii-idai=CliGh^ttirad6vi ton- " " 

du kuduttana patfcu=chchejuvum Uvaohcha-kalan [|] idu P an.Mali^v a r a r=irakshai ||- 


1 See above, p. 184, note 2. 

di U expressed twice. 


Bhagavanta field, (containing') twenty-eight (md) j 1 (the field called) Kdderu, (containing) a 
quarter (v&li) ; 8 the Marattuldn field, (containing') eight (md) ; ten (ma) below the Kalarmetfu ; 
two wd above (rf/ie same) ; and eight ma (called) Korpddu (in) the Kaliya field. Having paid 
gold and having exempted this land from taxes, I, Tiruvayan, gave (it) to the god of the 
Tiruvirattanam (temple) at Tirukkdvalur in Kuru^ai-kurram, (a subdivision) of Malfidu, 
for the requirements of a double (daily) offering to the god. 

(L. 5.) Out of this (land) &ftttirad3vi gave a field of ten (ma), which (she) had purchased 
from Kadamban and Utbiran, (as) a field for the Uvachclias* 

(L. 6.) This (gift is placed under) the protection of all Mahtsgvaraa. 


Tbia TamiJ inscription (No. 235 of 1902) belongs to the same king as the preceding one 
(GK). The year of the reign is obliterated, but may have been the 22nd. The inscription records 
a gift of gold by a female relative of the Vaidumba-maharaja Tiruvayan, whose name has 
been already met with in GL 


1 Svasti sri [||*] Kannaradevarku ya{n]du ..... . 4 [Mal*3[at3tu 

Kkurukkai-kk'uryattu'Ttiru'kk6valur-Ttiruvi(vi)rattanattalvar]ku sam- 

2 [kr]anti-t& snapanarx=jeyvadar.ku Vaidum[ba]-mahrajar Tiruvayanar deviyar 

mu(mu)tta-deviyar Virattan Vi(vi)ranaraniyar vaitta 

8 [po]n trubadia kajanju [|*j i-ppon irubadin , kalanjun=gondu kaiafiiiu-v%=kkala- 
ppoliyutt=aga=pperilama(mai) [y]al irubadin. 

4 kala=nellum tuyav=akki kuli-pparam pattu tiru-munattukke kodu seni=alandu 

kudupp6m=an6m Mimdamtoifckam.agiya(ya) Neomali Ba[bh]aiy6m [I*] i-nne- 

5 1 tanduvarkku" me[y*]=kkandu sdju kuduppom=aii6m Nenmali sabhaiy6m [|*] 

Nenmali sabhaiyarum Sirrinjur sabhaiyarum pri|a- 

6 ma(mai)yal=alakk[u>nellu ajubadin kalam=ivai eanaii-kkaUl eluba[t]tain- 

[ga]lamu[n=d]ingal-obadi aju-kalane m[u]-kkur.u[ni]yun=gondu kalaSam iruba . . 


(Line 1.) Hail I Prosperity ! In the [22nd ?] year of Eannaradeva,- queen 

(i.e. Ylranarayani), the elder sister of the queen of the Vaidttmba-manariija 
Tiruvayanar, gave twenty feaja^ f gold to the god of the Tiruvirattanam (temple) at 
Tirukkovamr m Kurukkai-kfirpam, (a subdivision) of [Mal]adu, for bathing (tJie god) at 
every samkrdnti. , . , 

(L. 3.) Having received these twenty Ulanju of gold, we, the membere of the assembly of 
Miladammkkam alias Nenmali, shall have to supply - at iterate of _ interest of one fcotom 
P3r Tcalafiju - twenty fcaZam of paddy by ihe ptrilawai (measure), cleamng (rf), *JW 
cooly ^halge, conveying (the paddy) to the very court-yard of the temple, gmng (***) ad 
measuring (ii). -K f the 

(L. 4.) To those (temple officials) who shall call for this -^^ wo fl wfim ^ 
assembly of Nen.mali, shall have to supply boiled rice ****** 

* The m& is 1^5 of a D$Zi. 

1 This is equal to five md, the measurement ol this field given in No. 236 of 
8 I. e. the temple drummers j see Southed. Inter. Vol. II. p. 299, note 2. 
' The existing traces of letters suggest the reading 2S4vadu. 


(L. 5.) The members of the assembly of Ken.mali and the members of the assembly of 
SirrtSijtir have to measure sixty kalam of paddy by the perilamai. 

(L. 6.) Having received -these (sixty fcaZam), (-which are equal to) seventy- five kalam, by 
the Ml 1 o eight ndti, and to six kctlam and three Jcuruni per month, ........ 

. twenty (?) pots 3 .......... 


This Tamil inscription. (No. 267 of 1902) is dated in the 24th year of the same king as the 
two preceding inscriptions (&. and H.) and records a gift of 24 lamps by the Vaidumba- 
maharaia Tirwayan, the donor of GK 


1 Svasti fcl [1!*] KarmaraaSvark*iyandu(na>) irubafctti-nalavadu Malattu*Kktmikkai- 


2 Ttixukkoval[-u]raTtir\ivS;i]rattaiiatt=alvarkku Vaidumba-maliar&jar Tiruvayaiiar 

3 alvarkku [cha]ndradittaval tiru-vilakku 24kku vaitta adu sava mu(inu)va=pp&- 

4 r-adu irandayirattu-mnnnurr,u-naEnalum nonda-vilakku pan-Mahesvara-rakshai || 


Hail 1 Prosperity ! In the twenty-fourth year of Kannaradeva, the Vaidumba-mah.rfi,ja 
TirrrvayaiiaT gave to the god of the Trravirattanam (temple) at Tirukkdval-fir in K-uyukkai- 
kurram, (a subdivision) of Ual&du, two thousand three hundred and four undying (and) 
uuaging big sheep 3 for 24 sacred lamps (loMGh shall Znwn) before the god as long as the mooti 
and the sun shall last. The perpetual lamps (fed) by (the ghee prepared from the milk of tbt*$& 
sheep are plated uncler) the protection of all Mahe'svaras. 


THs Tamil mscription (No. 239 of 1902) is dated in the 9th year of Bajarjaksari- 
varman, i.e. of the Chdla Hug Rajaraja I., and records the gift of a lamp by Amitravalli, (the 
daughter of) Kundanan. and the mother of queen Iiokamahadevi. The same queen of Rajaraja I 
is mentioned in inscriptions at Tanjore and Tiruvaiyaru.* 


1 Svasti sri [||*] K6 Bajarajaksarivanma[r*3ku yandu onppada- 5 

2 vadu Mi[l]fitt u " Kkll J' u!cl:ai ' i: ^P5 afctUia tT] tirukkdvalur *Ttida ( ru) - 

3 Ti(yl)rattanam ude(dai)yar[k*]ku nam-birattiyar U18gamahad6viya[rai3. 

4 ttira-vayiju-vay tta Ktuxdanan [A] mittirava[l]li alvark- 

5 ku chamdradifctavafc vaichcha noada-vilakku onju [|*J tiru.vun[n]a[ili*J- 

6 gaiyar i-[v*]vilakkal pon [k]ondu chandr[a]dittavala(lu)m 6 vilak[fc]=eri- 

7 Jj)]p6m=aft6m tiruvunnll.lig[ai]-sa'bhaiy6m [|*] irandu 

8 pefcja Ija-vilakkti on[xu] [|*] idu pan-Mah^vara-rakshai || 

1 Edl is & shorter form of matraJclcdl or &*rl<> & measure wMcli consists of 8 ndli and is equal to -fa 
compwe Sovtt'Ind, Intor. Vol. II. p. 48, note 5. 

4 Time pots were evidently required for the bathing of the god, which was the purpose of the grant accordir 
to 1, 2 of the inscription. 

See above, p. 184, note 2. 

4 South- Ind. Inter. Vol. II. pp. 90, 142, 148, 162, and 278, note 7 ; above, p. 25, note 8. 

8 Read on.laddva.du.. 

" The secoivd&ry sign for stands above tara oJ "tavalam. 

Tirukhovalur hacrijMons. 



(Line 1.} Hail ! Prosperity ! In the ninth year of king Rajarajakgsarivarman, 
Kundanaji .A.mitravalli, who gave "birth to our lady LokamahadSviyar, gave to the god of the 
Mru7irattaQ ain (temple] at Tirukkovalur in Kurukkai-kurrani, (a suldivisim) of Miladu, 
one povpetxxa.1 lump (which shall lurti) before the god as long as the moon and the sun shall last. 

(L. 5.} Having received gold for this lamp, -we, the members of the assembly (in charge) 
of the Btoz*e x^oom of the temple, 1 shall have to "burn the lamp as long as the moon and the ran 
shall last, 

(L. 7.) Qne lla lamp (-stand), 3 worth two lidfa, (was also given). 
(L. 8.) This (gift is plaoed under) the protection of all Mahesvaras. 


This inscription (No. 123 of 1900) opens with a Sanskrit verse in the Grantha alphabet ; tl-e 

remainder is -written in Tamil. It is dated in the Gth year of the Chola king ParakSsarivarman 

olias BajdxxciTadSva, i.e. A.D, 1057-58. 3 As in other inscriptions, 4 "Rajendradeva is stated to 

have ccmq'uea'ed Rattapadi, to have set up a pillar of victory at Kollapurainj and to have defeated 

Abavamalla, afc Koppatn. 

The object of the inscription is to commemorate the rebuilding of the Tirnvidaife&li temple 
at TirtLklcS-val-iar by a chief of Miladu, named Warasimhavarman, who had the surname 
Eanak6sari-Bama, belonged to the family of Bhftrgava, 5 and resided at TirukkSvaKir. 


1 H Svaatl gri-Narasimhavanma(rma)-nripatih Sr[i]k6val1ir bhajan vamrii visva-jagaa- 
ni-vlLsa-vapiishali 4rl-Vamanasy=[a]kar[6]t [|*] Sailam 4umbhita-satalnimbha-vila8at- 

kutn."fc>liam ma- *n^&\ 

'2 ha-manaa.rpalm prakaram P ara-maiika-vilnsita[m*] muktamayi(yl)fi=cha P rapa(bha)m ||- 

K6yll iri-Vaiyiahnavar rakshai || Svasd *A [||*] Tirumagal marnviya fcmgol 

valaira=ttan tiru-ttam[ai]yan[6]dam [p&]- 
3 y Ira-fc-fcapadi" 61-arai ilakkamtin=go D du. Kollftpurattu jayasta[mbha]=nath tnindu pondu 

pSr-t S >:an"-garai Koppattu lhavamallanai anjuvittu Engavan anaiyum 


kon^u vijaiya[r=a]bhisMkan=jeydu 
kd^Pparakesaripanmaro&na udaiyar 

brahmad^yam Tirukkevalur^ana 

maxxialattu.Ttiruvidaikali [a]lvar[m]toanx manba 
ppala,gi=ppilandamai kaodu Bhteggava-vwhlattn. 

6 vai I^^aMsari-Iramar-ana NaraSmga V a[nma]r k6yUai 

[ma]ndapamu[m] e[du]ppittu 

tii-uchchuKumaligaiyum [mu]nbi[l] 
7 mum edu[p]pittu mu[t]tu-ppandalun=gudiifcta munbu tol 


ixxda M-vim[ana]ttg kallum vettuvxttlr 
abish^gam pan- 

, Infer. Vol. in. p. 20, 

{Uf.nd"i. 7). 

2 See atxve, p. 134, note 3. 

* 8ou,tfr-Zn<*- *' v l- H- P- 808 ! Vo1 - ITI< *- 

i planet Venus j compare p. 135 above. 



8 ni mudi kavittu Miladu irandaCylitrajm pumiyum unda 

Narasi[n.]gava[nma]r II Narasingavanmar sandradittaval erilrlct*- vaife 
tim-nunda-vilakku iran[du] [|*] [i]v[ai]- ^ 

9 [oh]chukku vilakk=erikka kudutta 4ava mu(mu)va=ppora[mj-basu [aj;u]!)Ji.t-i n-u:ini JJ^ j 

ivaichohfil nisadam vilakku ira[n]din[i]i;ku ney uri [!*] i-pi_K(.sii-liJx|ffl]- 


(Line 1.) Hail ! The glorious prince Tfarasimhavarman, residing in Srlk6vo.l.**ra, wade 
for the god Vamana, in whose body the whole world abides, a great niandai>a of Htomt , i'CH]>lundont 

with pitchers of shining gold, a surrounding -wall, adorned with exccdltmb building*, snix a canopy 
of pearls. (These buildings are placed under) the protection of the frJ-YaishnavaH of i 

of pearls. (These buildings are placed under) the protection of the frJ-YaishnavaH of ilic iumple. 

(L, 2.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the sixth year of kiug ParakSsarivarman /*-* t-^ U! ^ ll ' t l A< ^- 
MjSndradeva, -who, while (Jits) sceptre, embraced by the goddess of Fortune, wan jrmapmng, 
went wrfch his royal elder brother, 3 conquered the woven aud a half lakahun of BattapAcii, nut up a 
pillar of yictory at Kollapuram, started again, terrified Ahavarnalla at Koppam C^'^O ^' bank 
of the great river, seized his elephants, horses, women and troaHtiros, performed the aii.t3iii,iacnt of 
victors, and was pleased to take his seat on tho throne of heroes, 

(L. 4) Having perceived that the central shrine of the god of the Tirtividaik:i'Ji (<Vm/>7tf) 
at Tirukkovalur alias ^ri-Madurantaka-chaturvedimafi.galam, a braftmtttltiiju iit XCurnkkai- 
kurram, (a subdivision) of MCiladu alias JaiaanEttha-valan&d-a', wliinh fonnorly cu)nsl:-i^fl of luycrw 
of bricks, had become old and cracked, the lord of Miladu of the BMrgava Jino:^ 1 , Baiia 
k^sari-Bama alias Narasiriahavarnaan, pulled down the temple, rebuilt Hie (-(Mitral Hhriuo and 
the manfaga of granite, placed (on tho shrine') five solid pitchers of gold, built a- miwouuding 

wall and a manijapa in front, and gave a canopy of pearls. 

(L. 7.) The lord of Miladu, Uarasirhliavarmaii, who, having been anointed n/n*.id crowned 

under the name Warasimhavarman, ruled the two thousand country of Miladw, <tausuil to be 

re-engraved (cm) the stones of this central sbrme all endowments from copies u UK; former 

engraving on stone. 

(L. 8.) Ifarasirixhavarman gave two perpetual lamps, to burn, as long aa the iuoo*n and the 

sun shall last, For feeding these lamps, (he) gave sixty-four undying (and) ixnuigiiijjf big 

cows. 3 From these, one wri of ghee (has to 5 o supplied) daily to (these) two lamj>H. Having 

received these cows, ..... ..... 


This inscription (No. 118 of 1900) consists of a' single Tamii verse. It is a ftlaorb poetical 
version of the preceding inscription (K.) and refers to the rebuilding of the Id-aHsmJ,! temple at 
Kdval, i.e. Tirukk6valur, by B&ma Narasimha. 


1 Svasti iri [||*] Nan-g6n=Irfitnane3[iy-cheng6= 

2 |Srara4i[n]ga|} et-g6ii-Ean K6val 

3 I ang&y karungaK-padai . ai[n]du 

1 This is a Sanslcritized, form of TiruktSvalto. 

a Ft*. Eajfidhlraja L; see South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. III. p. 

1 Compare above, p. 184, note 2. 



! Prosperity ! Our king Bama Warasimha, whose sceptre is beautiful, caused to be 
placed close -together (ami') povHiaui'utly layers of granite (and) five pitchers of pure gold in the 
Idai&ali (.t&tnpU) at cmr gniTti Koval. 


Tlnn r J?ximl inscription (No. 120 of 1900) gives the name of the avehitecfc who rebuilt the 
temple 011 ao count of N arasimhavarman, tlie chief of Miladu (see K. above). 


1 Malad-udaiyfw Harasingavanmarkkaga n[i]npi- 1 

2 inda svl-vi'nAnniTnL ednppichchan Senibangudaiyan 

3 [Nlfirayanan AcUtta-a=aiia S6[la]sundai'a-Mu(niu)vendav61an || 


On tuccoiiat of the lord of Miladu, Warasithliavarman, this central shrine was caused to be 
fu%ami Adifcya alias Ch61asundara-iIavSudavela^. 


This Tamil inscription (No. 119 of 1900) records a gift by a chief of Maladu, named 
mrasimlxa, who ia stated to have been the grandson of that Rama Narasimhavarmaix who rebuilt 
the tumple. This rofurs in HanakiXsari-Rama alias Narasimhavarman, the contemporary of 
(see K, above). 


The inscription qnotc-s the third year of Bajarajadeva. As the donor yas the gimdson of a 
mpor^-y of KajeudradSva, the BajaTajadeya who is meant here must be the Ohola king 

XI. 51 


! Inda W-vi^n.^garui.g^-p.d.i Se^itta 



"J. JK-ja. j.> o jjxv A * . 

repairs i tTaia temple, ^ 

second n is entered below the lino, 

r lias been, inserted above the line- 

-rf*. " corrected by the ,ngr*ver from 


Tb.i pnnctuation IB exptcsaed by a *<; and - ^ lt ^^ to . 

Wfe-fe *eaut, is perhaps a column ending m a ram s bead, ana aoov 


rvoi. TIL 



The subjoined inscription is engraved on the east wall of the second jprdff ^ a 
idhipurisvara temple at Tiruvorriyur in the Saiddpet taluka of the Ghinglep* 1 -* d j 

The excellent inked estampages from which it is edited here were supplied to * e ^y r * 


a// .A- | )# 

The inscription consists of 26 lines in. Grantaa characters which vary in. size from - a - ^u i 4 . 
The language is Saasixit, and the whole test is in verse, With regard to ortkograp&y it y 
be noted that the engraver has followed the common practice of the time in. this pai't of the 
country, in writing a surd consonant instead of a sonant before a sonant, in pat^ma, C*-* 1 * ' **' , '* 
dr&blvg&M (L 3), uftfauatt (1. 8), whath&JM (1. IS), and IhavaftMr (1. 25). Instead of 
ushadbudba, lexicographers teach usharhidha, and this form is actually found in tii lift am" 
rdmaaka/rito (6, 4"). Nevertheless I do not venture to alter tishafbudJia into us7iarbt6cZh&, *> lt ' 
word occurs again iu exactly the same shape in line 15 of the Ai'ulala-Peruialtl inscription of 
Tammusiddhi (B. below), and under these circumstances a mere clerical error seems to be out 
of the question. 3 

The inscription is one of ting Tammusiddhi or Tammusiddhta, and in every respect eloaely 
resembles the two inscriptions of that chief which I have edited above, p. 119 if. I have pointed 
out already on that occasion that the present inscription is of some importance as settling the 
question of the relationship of Dayabhima and Nallasiddhi, which was left undetermined by the 
other two records. 3 Besides, the genealogical portion of the inscription contain s sevon new 
verses, three of which, however, are of no interest for the historian as they are merely in praise of 
some well-known heroes of the solar line from which Tammusiddhi claimed descent, -viz. liagfan 
(v. 8), Dasaratha (v. 9), and Rama (v. 10). Terse 12 also, which alludes to the feats of the 
ancient Ch6}a Hug Kalikala, adds nothing to our knowledge as it is an almost literal equiyakut 
of the corresponding verse in the other two inscriptions. The verses 26 and 27 are eulogies of 
Tammusiddhi after the usual fashion, 

The only new verse of historical value is verse 15, which introduces a king 33tta &a 
descendant of Madhurantaka Pottappi-0h61a and an ancestor of Tilungavidya or, as lie is called 
here (v. 16),'TiluAgabijja. Literally translated, the verse runs thus: "In tibia family WHS 
Born (a Ung] called Betta, who waa the crasher of the thunderbolt whose flight -was impelled 
by Sakra ; if he with Ms fiery splendour had risen before, the cutting of tke wiaig-s of tlie 
mountains also would not have taken place." Betta is here compared to Agni, tlie fire or the 
fire-god, who has the reputation of being able to split diamonds and thunderbolts. 4 .Aa Betta, 

1 No. 104 of the Government EpigrapMsfs collection for the year 1892, 

3 The writbig vshsdlwi'ha, is perliaps due to tie influence of Tami] phonology. As in Tamil a Sanskrit dental 
gasa&lly assume* tie sound of p before a labial (compare e.. Tamil v,^atti Sanskrit vfyatti anfi TamiJ tx^pwimn 
Sanskrit adbhtttani), I think it not unlikely that the r of vskarbudha also was looked at as a secondary sound and 
therefore erroneously converted into d or t. 

1 It wiUbe noticed that the term tad-tafofajalk in verse 11 of the Tirupp&iir inscription is replaced hero 
(v, 20) by the words as$*dtijalf, 

'See especially a passage in the Vttanrdmacharita (6, 4'), pointed out to me by Prof. Kielacura t 
uehpMnda'Viyra-kkt^d'dcatfUttt-patt^ , , . uiharludhah, 'the fire . . . wMcti is able to aplit into 
pieces foe exceedingly hard wjras.' In this case, it is true, tajra, would naturally suggest the m easing of 
diamond ; but aa vajra has also the meaning of thunderbolt, and as the thunderbolt is thought to be of the mwt 
substance with the diamond, it is easy to understand how later writers caine to credit the fee also -with tlie faculty 
of destroying thunderbolts. 


however, is not a legendary person to -whom purely fictitious exploits suck as a fight with India 
might be ascribed, it is evident that the words Sakrtt-cMd'ita-gatgr asanefr prahartd must he 
understood in a double sense and as referring to some historical event. We are thus led ta take 
Agani as a proper- name and to translate ' who defeated Asani whose inarch had been ordered by 
Sakra.' In this case Asani -would seem to have been the general of a king called Sakra or 
Indra; hut it is perhaps even more probable, as suggested to me by Prof. Kielhorn, that 
Sakra-ehdd'ita-gati is the Sanskrit rendering of some TamiJ or Telugu Uruda of Agani, just as 
Asani itself may be the Sanskrit equivalent of some Dravidian name. Who this Asani was, I 
am unable to tell ; but it can be shown, at any rate, .that proper names or Mrudas with the 
meaning of ' thunderbolt ' are by no means uncommon in Southern India. Pagappidugu, ' the 
thunderbolt which cannot be split,' was the surname of the Pallava Mahfindravarman I. 1 
Among the ancestors of the Chola chief Srikantha appears an Agranipiduga, ' the thunderbolt 
to the foremost (of Ms enemies),' 3 and in the inscriptions of the Peruma] temple at Poygai we 
find four times a certain Sambuvarayan who "bore the liruda Virasani, ' the thunderbolt to 
heroes.' 3 To these may be added Piduvaraditya, the Uruda of Malla II., one of the chiefs of 
Velanan.du, as the first member of the compound seema to be connected with pi,$ugu.* 

The object of the grant is to record that in the Saka year denoted by the chronogram 
Dbirayayin, i.e. 1129 (=A.D. 1207-8), Tammusiddhi allotted to the god, the lord of Mhipuri, 
all the revenue due to the king in the villages belonging to the temple, Adbipuii is an attempt 
of Sanskyitizing Tiruvorriyur, the name of the village where the temple is situated, 5 

TEXT. 6 

1 Svaati sri-Tammusiddhaya tasmai yat-s&inya-renavah [j*] Brahma-patma(dma)- 

sprigas=samke' bhavi-bhu-srishti-h^tavaloL || [1*] Jayati vrjayi-ohapah ksha}.tt- 
&e'sha-papas=satata-madhura-lapah pra- 

2 pta--vidya-kalapah [|*] vitata-vitaran-apag=^atru-maya-durapah prasamita-kali-tapas= 

Tammtisiddhi-kshamapah || [2*] Udadhi-gayana-bhajah Patma(dma)nabhasya 
nabheb. kim=api nikhila-h^tur=ja- 

3 tam=aschai'yya-patma(dma)m [)*] yad=abhajad=api srisht^h purvvam=^tasya 

drikbhya(gbhya)m=mridu-kafchina-mah6bhyam==muan-6nmilanani || [3*] Tasmld= 

Virinchir=udabhut=suchiran=tad-antar3!vvasad=iva prakatayan=rajasah 

4 pravrittim [|*] yaCh*] Sria-talpa-phani-mauli-mani'pravishta-himbas=sriianneiva 

habhau sadrisas=sahay an 1 1 [4*] Marichir=tidagat=tasmad=aday-adr6r=iv=aiiiuman [)*] 
tatah Kasyapa etasmafc 

5 prakaga iva nirggatah |j [5*] Tasmaj=jaga[t*]-tritaya-mamgala-ra1;nadtpag==chhandas- 

tanus=timira-kanana"dava-vahnih [(*] dik-kalay6h kim=aparam Tya,vahara-hetu.^ 
ko=py=aviraaa vasudhadhipa-vam^a-kandah || [6*] Asma- 

6 d=idam prathama-sambhrita-r^ja-iabdah purnn& gunairsnmkhila-niti.patha-pray&kt^ 

0*3 d^v& Manus=sapadi g6ptum=iv=4vatSr^nas=tan-mavdal-antara-gatah 
puranah || [7*] Tasy=anvaye > Eaghur=abhu- 

d. Itiscr. Vol. II. p. 341. TMs and the following two references were kindly communicated to me 
t>y Prof. Kielhorn from his forthcoming List of Inscriptions of Souther* India, 

2 Above, Vol. V. p. 123, note. I assume that Agrampidaga stands fo? Agrantpidugu. 

* JSoutb-Id. Insor. Vol. I. p. 87 ff. 

* See verse 14 of the Pithftpuram pillar inscription of Pyithv&vara and Dr. Bnltzseh's note on that passage, 
above, Yol. IV. p. 49. In this verse Malla II. Pidu vanity a i s dwcribed as nija*khadga>-Jklnin(lita~<nakdcha%d- 
dfanih, f he who broke hy Ms own sword very fierce thunderbolts,' which almost looks like an imitation of the pas- 
sage from the Uttarardmacharita cited ahove. [Compare also Vid&lvidn|ip, ( th crashing thunderbolt,' in South- 
ltd. lsar. Vol. III. p. 93. E. H.] 

* [See above,. Vol. V. p. 106 and note S. E. H.] 

8 ~8m& inked estampagea supplied by Dr. Hultzsch. 


7 t SuraUifit pay6bbir=yyab p&sbitab prakriti-karariatfixrL upctaih 

addb.yaram=amiisbya l kim=atra ebitram sarwasva-danam-api visva-digaia 

vijetub || [8*] Atb=abbayat Panktiratlias=tad-anTaye W 

8 n&a cbiraya raksb[i]tH [|*] adanava y&ia krit=Amarayati 

iyan=cba mAdinJ || [9*] Tasmad=utbba(dbba)vati sma 
abhidhanA Earir=yyas=samkb[y*]& vinihaiya rakahasa-patirii 

9 rvva-sarvvarLkasiiam [|*] dfivim svam sasinah krifiam=iva 

pravisy=analam suddkim prapya vinirggatam puuar=api 
punm || [10*] Babb.i\vur=ulla8ita-ktrtti-nii^liara Eaghoh kul6=amln. 

10 kshamabhritah [|*] divaa-pritHvy6r=api yair=BDiyantiibhir=nmifi 

prayarttitah || [11*] Tasmin kule samabhavat Kalikala-Cholo 
tanayan-tatimm yidhati [|*] yat-k^li-yasbtd- 

11 parigbattita-matra dva M^i-u^=cbalan=yyatikai'am haritan=dhakara | 

vam6 Madhuram yijitya pacliad=udaiicbaa-Madliuran.tak-akIiya,ti 
mukt-abbaranah pracbandah P&ndy-ariiganab prag=iva ya- 

12 s=cbakara || [13*] Jisbaar=Andhresiiu ya,b kritva purim P 

tatas=tat-ptrvya-Ch6l-akbyah prakbyata-blmja-viki-amah || [14*] 
samudapadyata Betta-nam& ya=Sakra- 3 cbodIta-gater=a[a]- 

13 nb prabartta, [|] prag=6ya yady=aradagamisbyad= 4 usb&tbu(d-lbTL)dli-aroliobih. 

paksba-ksbaya^. ksbiiibbyitam=api n=abbavisbyat || [15*] 
Tilumgabijja-nripatir=yy^n=-6jjapuryyam=aaau cbaficbat- 

14 klrtti-patakay& tilakita-stambbalj pratisbtbapita^ [|*] yasy=^gre 

sabaja-sn^b^na BiitS stbit6 maddby-vy6ma vilambatS dinapatib px*a,yaa=tad-Adi 
ksbanam H [16*] Tat-ku- 

15 W Siddhi-bhiipalab palayam=asa niSdimm [|*j yadiya-d6b-pad-Hya,fctam=artthi- 

pratyarttbi-jivitam i| [17*] AD.ujanm=ab3iayafc=tasya Betta-blrupat pra,-fcipavan [I*J 
tasy=api jajfiir^ putras=tratara=sarari-arb-tbi- 

16 nam || [18*] DayabMmo nripas=tsbafi=jyfeebtba^ kab6aim=apala,ya-fc [(*] yat- 

paijiMatrava-grfnam k^i-akrisbti-kasliayitah || [19*] Asy=aauias=atliaja-jitvara.'- 
satva(ttva)-rasi=gatra-ksbitlvara-yaga^-6isiramgu-rabuii [|*J 

17 Irl-Nallasiddhi-nripatirsyyam^up^tya kantan=dig=daksbitiS, galifca-tinolii-gti^iA 

babbiiva || [20*] Tasy=Aiyasiddhi-nyipatis=8abaja^ kaniyan=duran=xLi-ra,sya kalira* 
asya punab-prav^am [(*] prayyitta iya yab pracbuxaiit ya- 

18 ga[^*] svan=dik-simasu epbatika-sala-nibliam babanddba 6 j) [21*] 

avari-ma^dala-raksbitarab p-niras=traya[b*] spburita-pauruslia-bh.-(isli.a5ias=t6 ft*! 
yair=anyita^ praaavitl, sncbiram vyara]at=i^36iaayairs=iya nijai- 

19 r*nnayanais=Trin&fcrab^ || [22*] Jyayan.a^s 

ksbar-ambb&dH-gyama-sSmam . gagasa [| *] nity-6dan 
yyy6ma ddhyamam kdkilatvam bibbartti || [23*] 

20 B=^antae=tap6bbir=avadMiita-bb6ga-yanchbah [|*] jySsbfchS 

rajyau=nikshiptavan=api kanlyasi TaHunnBiddliaa || [24*] 
bbubhrid-vamsa-janma suvrittab 

1 The m of m lias a peculiar form 5 it loots as if it had not beea finished 
8 The length of the d of saddP is expreesed "by two signs. 

* The akshara Jera looks like ta, hut apparently only owing to a fissure in the stone 

* Bead mvdaffamiihyad*. 

1 The sign for 6 stands at the end of the preceding line, 


31 s=sambhavan-uayaka-si-ih [|*J suchimm==avani-bkusha Tamm-usiddn-abhidhaiias= 
sarasa-madhura-mmitis=ch6fcaTiah ko=pi harah j| [25*] Yasa=subhram yasya 
^ravaua-gtibhagam samaadi muhus=Sahasrakshas=srinvan=madhura-vachasah kinna- 

22 ra-mukhat [j*] sva-chakalms-saiiilcliyaka-sruti-vibliava-kautuhala-Ta^t kalatr&ya 

praya[h*] sprihayati ptmar= Ggautama-muneh |( [26*] Dalita-iipu-karindra-^ni- 

23 murttilj [|*] jayati ghatita-lakshmih kshSra-vas-churnna-kiTnnah purusha iva 

puranaib.*] gyamai6 yat-ktipanah |j [27*] Sa SridSvyam=EpasiddM-ksMtia;j- 
jata[h*] iriman=Ma:amasiddli-anujanml [|*] > a^atrim=tan=trayamanas=sa- 

24 mast^m=aai5-aratis=TammtisiddM-ksliamapah || [28 W ] De^&y=Adnip-urisaya Sak- 

abde dbirayayini [j*] grame'shv=aaya nripa-grahyam pz>adad=%am=-asesliatal3i 
il [29*] Yatnena dharmrna-saranih parirakshaniya s=e"ya- 

25 in bhavabbhi(dbhi)r=akhilair=iti Tamorusiddhah [|*] agaminah pranayatS 

Eripatin=aiaaran=duran=natena sirasa na garasanena || [30*] 6^. || jfitat 

ksh6uibkyitam=amsu-]atalair=:mmaktLtair=ddhritaia [|*] ]aga[i*]- 

26 traya-praaiddliasya Tammusiddliasya ^sanam || [31*] 


(Verse 8.) In his (i.e. Mann's) family was Raglra who was fed by the milk of Strrabhi 
wliicli had "become the cause of procreation. Is it surprising, under these circumstances, that he 
should have performed a sacrifice at which, (his') whole property was given away, (and-) that he 
should have conquered also all the quarters ? 2 

(V. 9.) Then there was in his family Panktiratha, 3 who, by the exploits of (his) arm 
protecting for a long time (6otf7i) Amaravati and this earth, kept, of his own accord, (the one) free 
firom. demons (and the other sprinkled*) with the water of donations. 

(V. 10.) From him was born, nnder tne name of Rama, Hari full, of valour, 4 who, having 
killed in battle the lord of the Rakshasas who was injuring all (beings') through, (his') arrogance 
(awakened by the conyuesf) of (Indra's) heaven, 5 took hack his queen, after she had emerged ii 
purity from, the fire which she had entered, as the narrow digit of the moon (emerges again * old 
splendour") from, the sun after it has entered it, 6 and went to (his) capital. 

(T. 12.) In this family was born Kalikala-Ch.61a, the hero who supplied with banks the 
daughter of Kav6ra. 7 When (Mount) M&ru. had been merely touched by his play-staff, it began 
to shake and ((hereby) caused a confusion among the quarters. 

(V. 15.) In this family was born (a king) called Betta, who was tihe crusher of the thunder- 
bolt whose flignt was impelled by Sakra ; 8 if he wrth his fiery splendour had risen before, the 
cutting of the wings of the mountains also would not have taken place. 

1 Only the verses wWch are not found in the Tiruv&langfi,^ and TirnppftSdr inscriptions have been translated 
here. Verse 29 also has been omitted, because, apart from the name of the god, it is identical -with verse 21 of the 
Tinivalaiigldii inscription. 

3 According to the RagJiuvamfa, (II. 69 ff.) Raglm was conceived by Sudakshina, after her husband Diltpa had 
drunk from the milk of the cow Naudini, the daughter of Surabbi, and not of Surabbi herself aa implied by the verse 
of the inscription. Raghu's diyvijaya and his performance of the Vilvajit sacrifice are narrated in the fourth 
sarga of the Kaghuvamia ; compare with our verse especially IV. 86 :- sa YiivajHam dj<ihr& yajnamsarvasva- 

I.e. Dasaratha, 

The teem viferama is used with reference also to the three strides of Tisbnu. 
Havana' 9 conquest of Indra's heaven is told in the Rdmdyana, VII. 27 ft. 

According to the Purtinas, the moon, when reduced by the draughts of the gods, enters the orbit of the Ann 
and is replenUhed^hy it j ee e.g. rigknupnntoa II. 12, 4 fl. 
' I.e. the K&vrt; see above, Vol. VI. p. 132, note 6. 

Or ' of Aani Sakrachdditagati.' Regarding this verse Bee my remarks above, p. 148 f, 


(V. 26.) When the thousand-eyed (India) in (his) court constantly lieaa-s of liis (* 
Taminusiddhi'g) brilliant fame, pleasant to the ear, from the sweet-voiced mouth, of t3ae Kimalu'as, 
I am sure, he will covet again the -wife of the sage Gautama 1 out of desire for the cle-volopment 
of ears equal in minibei 1 to his eyes. 2 

(V. 27.) Victorious is his sword, which is decked with shining pearls that Hare dropped from 
the cleft large frontal globes of the numerous princely elephants of (/**'*) enemies, (jctnd) wirioh. 
resembles the primeval spirit (Vishnu), because it is dark-blue (and) covered -vex** 1 (i ' ust as 
(Vishnu is sprinkled) with the water of the milk-ocean, (and) because it has esta,"blial>.ci.l (7u's) 
royal power (as Vishnu is united with Lakslnn'i). 


This inscription, which I edit from inked estampages supplied to me by Dr. JHCraltzsch, is 
engraved at the base of the north wall of the stone platform called ' the mountain. * (.inaltri) in 
the Arul&la-Perumal. temple at Conjeeveram. 3 

It is written in Grantha characters which vary in height from f " to If". Up to line 15, 
medial ai is expressed in the usual manner by putting the two spirals side by side ; see tasmai 
(1. 1), saiiiya (1. 1), gttnair (1, 7), samlTiavair (1. 8), kirttyai (1. 9). svairam (L 10), yctir (3. 12). 
But in the second half of the inscription the two signs are put one above tlxe other ; see 
asy-Airasidlidlii- (1. 16), yair (1. 17), tS] 6 may air (1. 17), nijair=nnay ana-is (1. X7,), -dsmai 
BastifaiUfoardya (1. 20), akhilair (1. 20), jafdlairwrnakutair (I. 21). The laxxg-uage is 
Sanskrit, and, with the exception of a short passage in 11. 19 and 20, the whole text; is in verse. 
The spelling of the words patma (11. 1, 3, 4), Vdlmikivat bhdnu- (1. 9), abliut b7iuj-&j0addnna 
(I. 9), utbhavati (1. 10), ushatbudha* (1. 15), sghdyat-bbjmne 1 (1. 20), prddat grcLm,a,in. (I. 20), 
tihavatb'hir (1. 20) is in agreement with the practice followed in similar Grantha inscriptions. The 
group ddh is written dhdh in =Airasidhdhi and rodhdhwn in line 16. 

This is another record of king Tammiisiddlii, It enriches our knowledge by incidentally 
mentioning the surname of Tammusiddhi's father, Ejcasiddhi, and the time aixdL place of 
Tammusiddhi's inauguration. This information is found in 1. 19 f. where it is recorded that 
in the JSaka year 1127 (=A.D. 1205-6) king Tammusiddhi, the son of G-andago-pSJa and 
Srjd^vi, the younger brother of the great king Manmasiddhi, having performed his anointment in 
the town of Nellur, presented the village of Muttiyampakka, the head-quarters of l?an -fca,rfi,sli$ra, 
to the god, the lord of Hastisaila. Nellur is the modern Nellore, the chief town of the 
district of that name. Muttiyampakka and the district of Pantarashti-a I am unable -fco identify. 
The temple of the lord of Hastisaila, 4.0, * the elephant mountain,' is the Artdala-Peru.:tn&t temple 5 
\fhere the inscription is engraved. 

Except these data, the inscription contains nothing of historical value which is not known 
to us from the previously published records of Tammusiddhi, the four verses (4, 8, 9 , 12) which 
here appear for the first time being merely eulogies of the king's mythical ancestors : TBrahman, 
Sagara, Bhagiratha and Eua. Perhaps it is worth' mentioning that Tilung-a.-vi.olya and 
Nallasiddhi are omitted in the genealogy, and that the name Betta is here constantly- spelt Vetta 
(w. 17, 19, 24). - 

1 J,e. Alialyl, -whom Indra tried to seduce. When Gautama became aware of his intention* he cxtrsect the god 
in consequence of which Indra'sbody was covered with a thoueand eyes. 

1 The idea which forms the theme of this verse is rather far-fetched. Indra, being eag-er to listen to 
Taaantisiddhi's praise, wants to have a thousand ears. He therefore looks again for Gautama's wife, hoping that 
by a new curse of the gage he will get as many ears as "he has got eyes. 

No. 35 ofthe Government Epigraphist'fl collection for the year 1893. 
' * With respect to this word I refer to my remarks ahove, p. 148. 

[Compere above, Vol. III. p. ft, and Vol. IV. p. 145. E. H.] 


TEXT. 1 

1 Svasti sri-Tammusiddbaya taamoi yat-sain.ya-rnavah [I*] Bralima-patma(dma)- 

spriias=anke bhavi-bhu-srisliti-lietavah [|| 1*] Jayati rijayi-cbapaTa kfcMlit- 


2 papas=satata-madkura-lapab prapta-vidya-kalapab [I*] yitata-vitarari-apas=fotru-maya- 

durapab prasainita-kali-tapas=Tammusiddb.i-kshamapat [II -*] Udadlu-saya[na]- 


3 [Pa]traa(dma^iia,bbasya nabheij kioa=api nik3iila-kefcur=jj?itam=asoliar i yya-pat-raa(dma)Bi 

[I*] yad=abbajad=api srisbteh purvyam=etasya di-igbliyarQ=mridu-katliina- 

mab6bbyam=milaii-6:nmila:tiarii [||] [3*] Tasmad=a- 
4i Yirabhuch=cb.avac]aara-ia[ga]n-nirmiiiana-niryyaliakas=tasy=antas=cMra-vusa-sambb^ 

yrittis=sa Patma(dma)sanab [|*] ySna Sripati-talpa-paniaaga-pliaiia-ratiiCslitha- 

bimba-spj'isS. srasb-ta- 
5 r6 bahavaa=sabaya-vidlxa[y]6 sampadyamana iya || [4*] MavioMr=udagfit=tasmad= 

uday-adrer=iy=amstimau [|*] tatal. Kasyapa etasmat pxakasa iya nirggataU 

[|i 5*] Tasmaj=iagat-tritaya-mamga- 
C la-ratna-dipa^cliliaiidas-tantis^timira-ianana-daya-valmih [I*] dik-kalay6h kim=apavarix 

vyayahara-Mtub k6=py=avirasa yasudbadMpa-vamfia-kandab [|| 6*] Tasmad=ida:ii 

7 sabdab purnn6 guiiair-akliila-niti-patlia-prayokta [|*] d6v6 Mamis=sapadi 

iY=avatirn^as=tan-mandal-autara-gatati purasbalj puranah. [II 7*] 


narelyarab [|*] cttakara yas=sagaram= 

|| 8*] Bbagirathasatatra 

babhuya divyam Sarasyatlm yah. ksbi- 

9 tim=aninaya [|] Valmikiyat(yad) bbanu-kulasya kirfctyai sampadayitrim 2 kayi- 
kautukani [||] [9*] Tad-anyay& Panktiratkah ^ kramad=abb.ut(bhud) bliixj-apadan^na 
cbiraya raksb.[i]ta [!*] adaiiaya y^na krit=Amarava- 

10 tJ sa-dana-vafb*] svairam=iyan=clia medini [||] [10*] Tasmad=ntbba(dblia)Tati ama 

vikrama-dhan6 Ram-abMdlian6 Harir=yyas=samkli[y*]^ vinlhatya raksbaBa-patiiii 
syar-ggaryya-saryyamkaahaTia [|*] d^yim sy- 

11 am asmab. krisam=iya kalam-arkkam pravigy=analam ^uddbim 

vinirggatam ptinar=api svikritya yatah pui-lm [||ll*j AbMt satas=tasya 
abbidi.[a*]n& rajfiab kara-spargam-avapya ya- 

12 sya [I*] Kumudya[ti] sa sarasab. prarudba yikasvar-amgi sa.chirft[n=na]nanda || 

[12*] Babb.^vur=nUasiti(ta)-kirtti-nirJibara Ragh6h kul^=smin babayah 
ksbamabbiitah [|*] divas-pritb.iyy&r=api yair=nniyantri- 

13 bhi[r=iim]vamkug6 nHi-patbab prayarttitat [II] C^ 3 *] Tat-kul^ KalikaiS-bMt 

Kaveri-tirarkrin=nnpaJhi [|*] yat-k61i-yasbti-tulit& M^rau yyatikritl diteh 1| [14 ] 
Jat6=sya ya[m]e Madbnra[m] vijitya 

14 dliur&ntak-akbyab [|*] [ni]fcanta-mukt-abb.araiiab prackandab Patidy-amganab 

prag=iya ya^cbaklra || [15*] JisbnTir=Andlxrsliu yab kxitva purim Pottappi- 
samjnitam [1*] tatas=tat-pftryya-Ch6;-akbyab ^rakbyata-blitija-yikramah [|| 16 ] 

15 Tasmin kulS samudapadyata Vetta-nama ya6=Sakra-cb,&drta-gat&r=agaia&b. prabarfcta 

ri*l praR=^va Yady=udagam[i]sbyad=uebatbu(dbu)dh.arcb.cbi[b] patsba-ksbayah 

PH*1 m3 p,^i,^ .--..^-t*^fi -51_A_ 4 

ksbitibb:ritam=api n=abba-visbyat [I I] [17*] Tad-ya[injse 

1 "Prom inked estampages supplied by Dr. HultzsCh, 
"The syllable mpd has been added below the line. 


16 sa medinim [|] yadiya-doh.pad-ayaitam-aiitM.pratyarttlii.iivitam [II 18*] 

libbavat=tasya Vetta-bbupab pratipavan [(*] tasy=api 
garan-kttbinam || [19*] DayabMmo impas=tesha[th] jygslit 
yat-pan[i]fMatrava-sr[i]:uaiii keS-akrisbti-kasMyitah [|[ 20*]' 
niipat[i]s=sakajah, kaniyjtiifduran^nirasya kal[i]m=asya 
r6dtdhu(ddliu)m pravritta iva yak pracburam yasa[b*] 
sphatika-slla-nibliam babandia [||] [21*] 

17 Asy=abtayanin.=aYani-mandala-ra[k8lii]tara[Ii pu]tra[s=traya][h*] 

bM[sba]nas=t& [!*] yair=auvitab^ prasavifca suciiiraih 
nijair=nuayanais=Trin&trat |[| 22*] Jyayan=esliam=M:anm 

kskarimbhddM-syama-simam i^as&sa [(*] nity-6dafLohad-yad-yasali-pai3 j^* 
vvyonia ddhyaniain kdkilafcvam bibiartti || [23*] Taa.madiiyaiaas=tad-a3a"W- 
nnp4bMdhama^=gantas=tap6bhir=avadh.irita-bli6ga-vaScliIiah [| *] 

18 iyfislth.^ gat& divara=anaktilam=6va rajyan=niksMptavan=api kantyasi 

| [| 24*] Jayati Mpnla-bliiitthpd"Va[ih]ga-jaiua4 suvyit 

sambJhava[n*]-nayaka-Mh [|*] suchiram^avani-bliusliS 

sarasa-naadlnira-mtotti^=cMtana[lL] s k6=pi h[arah. |][| 25*] 

grava^a-subliagarii samsadi mni.ui3=Saliasrakslial=gri9vaii=madliura-vacliasab. kinnara- 

mukbit [I*] Sfa-clialcslitis-saihkbyaka- 

19 flrnfci"Vibhava.kautfthalft-vafl&t kalatraya prlyaft*] spriiayati punar= 

mtma l| [26*] DaIitarriptL-karmdra-sr^Di.vistirn[n]a-kumbba 

maTiktika-vylpta-mfirttib [(*] jayati gbatita-lak&hmiij 

Mrrmah purti[slia iva pu]rana[i.*] ^yamajo yat-kripanah f| [27*] Sa khalu 

fiaaaasta-Bamr%&ya HeMr-nnagar^ krit-abbishekaft*] ^i-O-arLciagdpala-^r'l- 

20 deTi-vira-sfttii^Mmanmaaiddhi-aliara-a " Tammusidd.]biiroa,j3.fp^ah 

Devay^asmai HastCi3saiI^j^as > aya 

[|*J . . . ddMmS OPa^a- 

pradat(dad) g^mam=U:uttiyampakS:a.samjnara K [28*] 

Yatnfena dbarmma-sara^ib parirakahappjyfi ScSyam bhavat(Tud)LMr=akb.Ilair=iti 
Tammnsiddbah [|*j agaminab pranayat^ nnpatln=ajasran=d&ran=nat&aa 

21 sa na fepftBanton [|| 29*J fiiafij tsb6ntbliritam=aii.3 a t a l a ir=mmak 

[I*] iaga[t*]-traya-prasiddbasya ^ammiasiddliasya gasaaam || [30*] 

(Verse 4.) From iMs (Zofcw) arose that Padmasana, 6 " who, taving accumulated tGbe -power 
of rajas, because be bad dwelt long in its interior," accomplished tbe creation of tBe ar-odtaftte 
aad inammate world, (and) wbo, in order to create companions, Beemed to prod-o.ce 
creators, wbea be touched tie images reflected in. tbe jewels of tbe toods of the snafce 
formed) the coucb of tbe bnsband of Sr!.' 

(V. 8.) Then Ifcere was. in bis (U Mann's) family an iUnstrioTis ruler of tibe eaar^. kino- 
Sagara, wbo by Ms own sons made tbe ocean an everlasting receptacle of the aggregate of * 

(V. 9.) In tbis Ow%) was Bhaglratha, who led to the earth the tearenly 
tfcat produced wonders of poets like Vllmlki for tbte glorification of tbe solar race. 

* The la has been added blow the line. a The mtaiya has been added below the line. 

" Three oM(jraf* % belore^flfW#i are legible. 

ntU mt* tean ' ilation coiaiir ' ise8 onl y th 8e verses whlch we n <>t &uad in the inscriptions >f TammusiddM 
& Le - Brahman. e ggg ^boy^ p , 1S4() note g> f ^ ^ 

I.e. the Qangi, and, at the same time, the goddess of eloquence. 


(V. la.) Has(*.e. Rama's) son was he who bore the name of Kua. Having obtained 
the tox\cli of tho hand of this king, that Koraudvati, -who had emerged from the tank, ' expandin"- 
her body, enjoyed pleasures for a very long time. 1 

(Line 19.) How, this king Tammusiddhi, the heroic offspring of the glorious G-anda- 
gdp&la, and Sridevl, the younger brother of the great king Manmasiddhi, having pcrfuraic-.l 
his anointment to universal sovereignty in the town of Wellur, while protecting the whuk- 
(earffe) girt with the oceans, 

(V. 28.) Presented, in. the aka year (denoted by the chronogram) Sarayogya (i.e. 1127) 
iihe village called Miittiyamp&kka, . . . tho head-quarters of Pantarashtra, to this god, the 
lord of Hastisaila, whose -wealth is increasing. 




This plate waa discovered, in January 1888, in a field near the village of MMhuban 8 in the 
tMna Is atlx&pur of the tahsll Sagrl, in the Azamgarh district of the Benares division of the 
United Provinces, and is now in the Provincial Museum of Lueknow. The inscription which 
it contains has been already edited, by the late Professor Buhler, 3 in Ep. Ind. VoL I. p. 67 f. 
As it is desirable to issue a facsimile of the plate, I re-edit the inscription from impressions 
that were furnished to Dr. Hultzsch by the late Mr. E. W. Smith. 

Tb.ia is a single copper-plate, about 1' 8" broad by 1' f" high, and inscribed on one side 
only. Judging from the impressions, a seal was soldered on to the middle of the proper right 
aide of -fee plate, just as is the case with the Banskhera plate of Harsha and the three plates of 
the MaJtdrdjas of Mah6daya, 4 but it must have got detached from the plate* and has not beea 
discovered. In the upper part and on the proper left side the plate has auffered somewhat from 
corrosion, but the writing throughout is so deeply engraved that on the back of the impressions 
every letter of the 18 lines which the plate contains may be read with absolute certainty. 1 he 
size o the letters is about T V'. The characters belong to the north-western class of alphabets j 
in general, tney closely resemble those given (from the Lakkha Mandal insc^tem, North. rwr. 
Ho 600) in columns xv. and xvi. of Table IV. of Prof essor Buhler 's In d. ^J- <* 
initial vowels tiae text only contains a (e.g. in ana^*, 1. 15) ; * (e.g.* *, L *\>**** 
whiob., employed here, in Professor Buhler'sTable occurs only inmodx later inscriptions. (in 

Tbe wor da used of Ku^udvatl are selected with <^-*^ 

tltt t fl likened to a group of Iotu 8 es (ftwMMI) growing an a T^^ZJL& of KuSa and 
touclied by the beame i 

* According to Dr. Puhrer, 
> 189> where the above information is given 

plate o* Hareta, above, Vol. IV. p. 208 ff. 

* See above, Vol. IV. p. 208, and Vol. V. p. 208. M1 ._ d p^^ 

* Compare the Sdapat seal of Harshavwdhana, ff ^<i >*r. ,P- ^ ^ ^ wrifefeen la 

* The pp?ently more antique manner in wlucb. easentoauy^e ^ *-, ^^ we 
Way b seen from the plates of the time o* Sa&nkarA 3 a '(above, Vol. VA. p- A*, 

years older than this Madhuban plate. 



, 1. 7) ; and e (in ekacliakk-a , 1. 3). Of the consonants, gl, dh and I do not ^ CC11 ^' ^ 

c7i7(, jA, nand ffeare only found as subscript letters, e.</. in tacJi^hMsanam, 1. 10, 'AJyr^^^ L ' ' 

t'jjict-, 1. 15, and jy^slttha-, 1. 13. Regarding' the other signs it may be noted that five ^ 
fe, g, d, r and ' when they have no subscript letters, have a small hook at the TDOftoi"* 1 v *'' 
IhfigaJtara-, 1. 15, tadit-> 1. 10, and saiiiiidxileh=, 1. IS); and attention may also be clx"a"W a 
forms of ft (<?,#. in ftfl-ro-, 1. 15), (e.g'. in sddrangah, 1. 11), c7i (e.|/. inchamchal&l/ (j '<L>, ,. o 
(e.^. in patalfi?) 1. 17)) <i (e./. in danath, 1. 16),|>74 (in phalam, 1. 16), andi> (e.t/, in ^* 
1, 14). The superscript sign for r is sometimes written above, and sometimes on? "fc^ 18 A1B * '' 
where it follows upon another consonant, ia always denoted by the secondary, sa~fc>9 <3ri P or ' 
even in the conjunct nj (e.g. in pa-ryantah, 1. 11). The ordinary form of the s iibscsril:"' *"* / 
be seen from the stliU of rujasthdniya-, 1. 9; the same form is used in the coarjt*-" 13 - * ^ \ 
^amprmitil'HJii-, 1. 5, but the full form, of tha is exceptionally employed in the st7nt of sao~ 
yasthunai'n, 1, 15. The subscript form of n does not differ from the sign for t 2 -^ see e '* 
fyu.vai'nni-,1. 13, and Visltniivnddha-,1, 14 Apparently in order to distinguish eleaa*ly between 
the subscript dh and f, the latter is denoted by a peculiar triangular sign; compare &'&- ^'-ke "_ 
of -Hwriddhaye, 1, 13, with, the fc of =dgnihd f 'atv3nu,, 1. 14. The only final consona-'ut %vhich 
occurs is the t of the word samearf in line IS ; it is denoted by the lower part of the sign for 
with a separate horizontal line above it. As regards medial vowels, only the signs fox* ($> 
call for remarks. The ordinary sign for (unJ. for the d of yd) may he seen e.g. in <m*a>fa&'> 
rjja-, 1. 12. "When c! follows upon ft, jf or n. or a conjunct beginning vfitb one of these consonants, 
it is denoted by a wavy Hue placed vertically above the sign for n, t or n ; see e.g. 'bliait.Jct'Vt^y 1. 10, 
llia.ttdi'aka-, 1. 13, and karanddhi-, at the end of line 17. In the same way d is deno-fced in the 
khyii of samdkhyiHam, 1. 17 (compare with it the &/ia of vimuk-Mh, I. 7), and in the j-fiu> at the 
ccmmenccnient of line 10 (compare with it the jM of djnd-, 1, 15), 1 Ezcepting ia t*h.e ayllablo 
rft (for which see Fa ?'., 1, 5), the vowel t* is either denoted by a subscript vertical line or 
prolongation of the .vertical line of the consonant-sign ending with a small hook, ox* by a sign 
which resembles the subscript u of the modern Nagari alphabet. The former way of denoting i& 
is followed 111 writing the aksJiaras chchbu, slinu, ilu, w, pti, w,u, J/M, w, dvu and su, tiie latter in 
kit, to, r/M. tit, stu and Wtu ; compare mclichliunta-, 1. 4, dushfa-, 1. 6, samucMfia-, 1. '15, and 

tulya-, 1. 15, Skaiidagiiptah, 1. 17, o^o. For two ways of writing the medial i th.o one 

followed'outy in fZ4, and the other in fal, ^and &M compare dutakd, 1. 17, andM/f>- 3 1. 10. 
The inscription does not contain the signs ofihejihvdin'&Uya, upculhmdmya and Q,vaqra7ia> ; but in 
line 18 it has three numerical symbols, for 20, 5 and 6. The symbol for 20 is like tHe aft s Tiara 
ilia -, that for 5 looks like tri, with the sign, of the medial d attached to it ; and the syxxibol for 6 
sesemblcs the aksham da with a subscript u. Signs of punctuation are used in the e:xt three 
times, in lines 16 and 17. Throughout the writer has formed the letters witli grea-fc care and 
pldll, The language of the inscription is Sanskrit. 3 Any unusual or rare words arid, technical 
terms which it contains will be drawn attention to in the notes on the translation. Tiie text 
generally is in prose, but it contains a verse in lines 6 and 7, and two benedictive and ixnjpre eatery 
verses in one of which the Hug Harsha himself is referred to as an authority for the 
sentiment expressed in lines 16 and 17. In respect of orthography it need only "be stated that 
the sign for v denotes both v and & 3 that k and t are generally doubled before r (e.g- in. %y^{,ttra8s 
\. 1, and -dtikkr&vta-, 1. 8, but not in -pmvritta-cfiakra, 1. 3), and that now and tJb.en. -fclxe rules 
of saih&ht have not been observed. 

The inscription is a charter of the well-known king Harsha or Harsha vardhaiia,, -fete hero 
of Sana's Harshacharita, who ruled part of Northern India at the commencement of the 7th 

1 In the BanskMra plate of Havsha the same superscript sign for d is more frequently employed. 
a According to Prof, BuMev blw language of the Banskhdra plate is better than that of thia plate but I 
eiwaot find any difference, * 


century -which the village of Sdmakunda'M, in the Ku^adh&ni viahaya of the 
Si&vasti T&hukti, which had been previously held by a Brahman on the strength of a forged 
charter, -was granted to two other Bnihrnans. The king's order was issued from the royal 
residence or camp of Kapitthika (1. 1), and is dated on the 6th of the dark half of the month 
Margasirsha of the yoar 25 (apparently of the king's reign 1 ). The actual order is preceded 
by the genealogy of Marsha, in the course of which it ia stated that hia immediate predecessor, 
his elder brother Bajyavardhana, after defeating Devagupta and other kings, was treacherously 
slain in his enemy's quarters. On this event and on the genealogy generally it is now 
unnecessary to comment. 

Of the localities mentioned in the inscription, Kapitthika apparently is the Kie-pi-tha 
(Kapittha) of Hiuen-Tsiang, a which, again, ia the same as Samkasya, identified by the late Sir 
A. Cunninghams ^ the modern Sankisa, 4 on. the Kalmadi river, about 40 miles north-west 
of Kanatri. And Sravasti, after which the Sravasti-bhukti was called, ia the modern Saaet- 
Mah0tf> in the Gonda district of Oadh. Kundadhtoi, from which the Kundadhani-whaya 
received its name, and the village of Somakundaka have not been identified. 

TEXT. 6 

1 Cm? svasti ni] Mah t VnatL-hasty-asva.jaya8kaiidhavk&t=Kapitthikayah maMraja- 
r5-War a varddhanaB=ta SJ a ptdtra S =tat P adan,dhytoh ^ri-Vajrinidevyam^utpannnh 

' J3S 

5 Dhad,-Varua.fiid l a- P btot-a 1 - ]l , 

ra a&na- 8 am P rimb-tobihriaay6=tiiayita.ptova ra p-c! 1 aut6 


^^^^^" ^ *"" d-M| - 

a ah TaS5 - 

yah [If] __ 

* A - D - 68 - 3L 

- - i897 ' p - 43L 

^ ** -^ v 289 i 

. See im. p 126. Compare also Dr, Block ^l^lJSr * added the Ltaow Mu-eom plate 

mn SAW* y 

Bee iow< jj- > vj"i"]f ~ 

290 to the inscriptions there enumerated as nanti 

of Ktrtipaia, above, p. 96, 1. W id : the tat, &l Mu8eiim) Luctoo w. 

e From impressions supplied by the Curator ot tue nov 

T Denoted by a symbol. , t ^ een observed 5 read 

8 Here and ia other places below the rufea of J**^^ .^^^ aud . A i a 

Bead Ay-. UMetre ' -" !i " 

Bead r4/d. 



. VII. 

S b=tatp&daflttdL.yatah paramanuiliesvaro 

fcamupagatarii 2 








jiiapayaty=astu vah samviditamm= 4 ayarfi Somakundaka-gramo 
Ytimaiathyfina kuta-easan&ia blraktaka iti vicharya yaias=tacla=cliMsaiiaifi 
btaiiktva tasmad=akshipya cba svasima- 

paryaiitah s-odraogah sarvva-rajakulabhavya-prafcy-tya-sarnetah sarwa-parihfita- 
pariliard viBliayad=uddli F ita-pi9daii 5 puttra-pauttr-anugahs " 

bhaiaichchhidia-nyfiyfina may^ 
PrabMkaravarddhanaddvasya matixb 



v urasvanii- 


16 pi 

18 i 

m 1 1b li y ft ib 

^b.aratv^a pmtipMitah^ viditvA bharadbhili 

-y6 r -^6pan.y a b s^aparthto* 


20 5 Margg a ta,h-Taai 8 
ttfc.1.) Om. 

r - n 
Qr n arena> 

th boate, elephant, and 

1 Originally $<5mo,kui}dik<i- was 
fl *me Mow, in line 10. 
* Read 

r 9 i,' has been struck out 5 8 ee the 

* Bd 

12 Jfete , 

14 Metes: lflka (Anush| u bli). 

see mv note on 
^ ^ OT 

8 Here one would fc w expected V*a * 
n Beaa.ft/| ^-. 

*' " Eead 

Madhubzm Plate of Harsha. The year 25. 

oo O 


Begotten im Apsarodevi, his son, who meditated on Ms feet, (was) the devout worshipper of the 
Sim, the MaJT, drdja Adity avardliana. B egotten on HafcftBd naguptftdevl, his son, who im'ditate<l 
on Ma foot, (was) the devout worshipper of the Sun, the ParamaWiattdnika Ma7iuV#rW 'V.ya 
Pra"bMka:ra,-<ra:rdliana whose 1 fame crossed the foxir oceans; before whom other kings bowed 
down on aceoxuafc of Ms' prowess and out of affection for him ; who wielded his power for the due 
maintenance of the castes and orders of life, (and) who, like the sun, 2 relieved the distress of the 
people. Begotten on the queen of spotless fame Yasdmati, his son, who meditated ou his feet, 
(was) tke aevoixt worshipper of Sugata (Buddha)- like Sugata solely delighting in the welfme 
of others tte Paramabl^tAralca MaUrtjddUrdja Bajyavardhana pi.], the tendrils of whose 
bright fame overspread the whole orb of the earth; who appropriated the glory of Dhanada 
Varuna, Ixxdra and the other guardian (deities) of the world; who gladdened the hearts o 
suppliant* Toy many donations of wealth and land acquired in righteous ways, (and) who surpassed 

the conduct of former kings. 

He iu "battle curbed Devagupta and all the other kings together, like vicious horses made^ 

to ton away from the lashes of the whip. Having uprooted his adversaries, havmg conquered 

the earth, having acted kindly towards the people, he through hs trust in promise** lost has life 

in the enemy's quarters. 

(L 7 > His younger brother, who meditates on his feet, ths devout worshipper of Ma^ 

(Siva)- like MahoSvara taking compassion on all beings- ^"^^ ll ^j^^^ 

that charter and taken. (the milage) *iwiy & om im ;' a . ' Ts^nhh&karavardlianadeTa, of 

and fame of my father, tho ParamaMattdrala, Xabarfa?fa**JtoW*x ^ ^^ ^^ 

y mother, the ^^^^ 

brother tlie ParamaUatfaraka MaJilM^wr^a -"]> a v,n UL - -, . 

Compare G^te J.or. p. 220, lines 1 and 2 of the text. 
The wa,d for ' e^loyed in t,o on K inal on account o 

r, ' wKose chariot has only orxe wheel ' , ^^.^^' v . 59 (wherathe Sun say,: W 

dag with dJfctf***i-*ikw*fl*r* yraWai>rf., and Mayto ^^ *" T k 6 ^j fl Inscr . p. 162, text, i. 8. 
l m^! wit,,***,**). Ifor the idea tbrt h. sun rehev e. dl ^^^^ ^^ a pLive 8 ense ; 'like 
The Gerund kHM of the original text is employed, in fi as S oftho wbip. ' In PtUqftt we do 
(cuxWd) rfto they have_been .ade * 

vouBoraee _ ay a 

find passive Gerunds compare .^. 6A W ji* ( ^f !!l / 23 For L 8 krit I ciux only quote, from ^e 


^?. ^-^ ^ t- ^ false dvmtie8 on * e parfc of ** tos f Gan4a ' 

B ee Pro*. Cowell ,nd. Mr Thomas's TransMiou, JL m. gee w . 4w ,. Vo i. XXV. p, -182, note 

On. pramdtdra and maMpramdidra, wWch occurs in ^ime u 
l also apparently occurs in <?yfo Inner, p. 216, l- . 

i^^^^^ compflje Wfy* 

a 2n S ar. p. 216, 1. 6, *<** ft* t6I. P- 

the suffix *a has beeu added to 

50 ' 


of a donation 1 (to Brahmans), as an agrdhdra extending to its proper botindarxes, m 
vdranga, together with all income that might be claimed by the king's family, 3 exoxxip rom ft 
oblr'at^ena, 3 as a piece taken out of the district 4 (to which it belongs"), to follow "fcl*- 6 ^ u 
of 5 sons and sons' sons, for as long as the moon, the sun and the earth endure, according 
maxim of IhwniohcliMdra to the Matfa Vatasvamip. who is of the gotva, of S^-"V ar ^ att 
felloe-student of the Chhand6gas, 6 and the Bhatta Sivad^yasvamin who is of ~&b- e & Ta ** 
Vishnuvriddha and a fellow-student of the Bahvrichas.? Knowing thia, you sho-old assent to 

this, and the resident people, being ready to obey my commands, should make over o y 


these two 8 the tttlya-mSya? the share of the produce, payments in money and oi>i- e:K1 
income, as they may be due, and should render service to them. Moreover : 

(L. 16.) Those who profess (to belong to) the noble line of our family and o-fclters ahotutt 
approve of this donation. Of fortune, unstable as lightning and a bubble of water, dLoxiations ana 
the preservation of others' fame 10 are the (real) fruit. 

By deeds, thoughts and words one should do good to the living. This Hat-ska li^s declared 
to be the very best way of earning religious merit. 

(L. 17.) The (M/aA-a in this matter is the MaMpramdtdra Mahdsdmanta, tlx illustnottfi 
Skandagapta. And by order of the great officer in charge of the office of records, -fc-h. 
MaMrdja Isvaragupta, (this was) engraved by Garjara. 

The year 20 5 M&rgasirsna-vadi e. 


This inscription" (No. 142 of 1902) is engraved on the west wall of the prdTctSra, of the 

Devanayaka-Perumal temple at Tirnvtodipuram, a village 4| miles west- nor-fcii- west of 

" * Since pratigraha-dkarmand, which would be a Bahuvrihi compound, could not be taken to tjualiif^y agrahdra 
iu the abstract noun agrahdratv&na, I] ve altered it to j>ratigraha~dharmtya. With the whole pas sa-ge compare 
e,g, above, Vol. VJ. p. 139j 1. 34i, alesl yantit>l-dharm&n=dJcaratv&na pratipfiditah. Compare also 3>hraae8 like 
pratigraMqa pratipddita'h, 2nd. Ant. Vol. XV. p. 113, 1. 12 of the text; affraMratvena 'pratipe<i$ah, t'Wrf* 
Vol. XX. p. 124, 1. 9 of the text j divdgrahdratvSna pratipddayati sma, Gupta Inter, p. 289, 1. 10 j etc. 

2 With rdjaTcvlAbhdvija, compare rdjdbhdoya ia the plates of the Makdrdjas of Uchchakaipa, &ttpta Intot* 
p. 118, 1. 11 j p. 122, 1. 18 ; p. 127, 1. 20 5 etc. 

* With sarva-pariTirita-parihdra compare sarvavisMi-parihdra-parihrita in the plates of tlae VAMtaka 
Mahdrdjas, e,g, above, Vol. III. p. 362, 1. 20. The meaning intended is more correctly expressed by p ar*Af<a 
sarvayida, e.g. above, Vol. IV. p. 250, L 53, and by sarvakara-pariTtdra-m Tcritvd, above, Vol. III. jp. 223, 1. 16* 
Compare also sarva-lddkd-parihdra (e.g. 2nd. Ant. Vol. IX, p. 128, 1. 35;, and for similar expressions eee 

Vol. VI. p. 13, note 3. 

* ' The expression vis7iaydd=uctdkrita-pinda I have found again only in the Panduk^lvar plate of 
dva, Jwd. Ant. Vol. XXV. p. 180, 1. 21. I am not quite certain aoout the exact meaning of it. 

6 I.e. 'to be inherited in turn by; ' compare putra-pautr-dnuffdmin, e.g. above, Vol. III. p. 262, 1. 31. 
8 I.e. a student of the SSmav&la. ' 1.0. a student of the Rigveda, 

* Instead of anaydr=$ea one would have expected dbhydm=3va. 

* I do not know the exact technical meaning of tulya-mtya which might he translated by 'tilings to be 
weighed and to he measured;* mtya by itself we find, in gr dma-praty dyd mtya-hirayyddayalff in G-u-jota Inter. 
p, 257, 1. 12 ; and tlya occurs ibid. p. 70, 1. 10, apparently in a technical sense. See also above, p. 62, 

10 Fi*. hy not resuming the grants made hy them. The verse occurs with different readings in. JTnd* A*t> 
Vol XIX. p. 84, 1. 9 of the text, and Vol. XXV. p. 181, 1. 28. 

tfo, 23.] 


Cuddalore (Kftdalur), the head-quarters of the South Arcot district. 1 It consists of 9 lines in the 

UuaaaJiore (j&ugalur), tne neaa-qunriers 01 trie soutn Arcot district. 1 it consists of 9 lines in the 
Tami| alphabet and language and forms a single big sentence, which can, however, be dissolved 
into several distinct periods with the help of the gerunds Ittiffa, ' having heard,' in lino 2, and 
e$ru, ' having said,' in lines 3 and 4. The pronoun namakkum, ' to us,' in line D shows that the 
subject of the passage beginning in line 4 is the plural of the pronoun of the first person. 

The language exhibits a few peculiarities. The letters d and d are doubled after a nasal in 
ydntftfu (1. 1), ?ndda (1. &) and ehmddu (1. 0). Instead o! the gerund lton$u (twice in 1. 6, and 
1. 8), the poetical form Iccxju occurs four times (11. 2, 3, 4 and 9). Arulivittn (11. 4 and 9), 
arwlivihlea (1. 9) and vetfwittv, (1. 7) are vulgar forme of arulunttu, etc. 

This inscription is distinguished from most other South-Indian inscriptions, as it does not 
record a donation or similar transaction, but is of a purely historical character. It is dated in 
the 16th year of Tribhuvanachakracwrt'in E&jarajadeva (1. 1) and must have been engraved at 
the instance of two military officers (dannakka^, named Appana and Samudra-Goppaya 3 (1, 5), 
in the service of the Hoysarta (or Hoysala) king Vira-Harasimhadeva (1. 1). This king had 
heard that K6pperunjinga had captured the Choia emperor at Sendamangalam. Anxious to 
vindicate his title ' the establisher of the Ohola country,' he started from Dorasamudra and 
conquered the laha[ra] kingdom. When at Paehehur, he ordered the two above-mentioned 
officers to continue the campaign. They advanced through the enemy's country until they 
reached gSndamangalam, forced Kdpperufljinga to release the Chola emperor, and accompanied 
the latter into his dominions. 

The title ' establisher of the Ch6;a counfciy,' which the inscription applies to Ylra-Nara- 
Bimhadeva (1. 3), and the statement that ho conquered the Mahara kingdom, show fcat this king 
is identical with, the Hoysala Narasimha II, who in several inscriptions is styled < the establisher 
of the Ch6ta kingdom' and ' the uproofer of the Makara or Magara kingdom.^ As the 
inscriptions of Narasimha II. are dated between A.D. 1223 and 1234 it follows that &e kmg 
Rajaraia, to whose 16th year the subjoined inscription belongs (1.1), is the Ghola king 
Ea Jja III., who ascended the throne in A.D. 1216,* and whose 16th year accordmgly 
corresponded to A.D. 1231-32. He is no doubt identical with the 'Chola emperor who was 
captured and released at gtodamafigalam. The dates of other inscnptions of K& ]a 
Bhow (bat he continued to reign after his re-installation. His latest known date as A.D. 
in an inscription at Poygai. 8 

The subjoined inscription mentions a considerable number of 
Ddrasamudra, the capital of Narasimha II, is the modern Ha^bid in ti 


Circle, p. 1350, has correctly ' Tiruvendipuram.' B/ j fl ^ fl t fl see Ind. Avt. Vol. XX. p. 304 and 

' Dawakka and da^aka are tadbhtms of the Sanskrit iatf**!***, 

' The flrrt part of tUi name is apparently derived from D6r a8 amudm. 
Dr. Fleefc ' IV 

Bee page 

The ftrrt part of Ui name is apparently derived from D6r a8 amuka. ^ * a ?/>\ 

Dr. FleefcC%. K*, DM* P. 507 , Mr. Rice's ^^^ * *[** ^ m p & f _ y^ * ^ & 

Bee page 9 above. S^th-Ind. Inter. Vol. I- o, o*. / ? C'V X v . ^ 


Q. 6 f.) destroyed 'To^daimasalllir, and hdted at TiroppadirippTJliyftr (1.7). Next% 
destroyed Tiravadigai and Tiruvekkarai (1. 7) and the cotuitpy between the V&ranav&si river 
Jn the north, adamangalam in the west, and the sea in the east (1. 8). As far as the route 
of Narasimha's two officers can be followed on the map, it appears that -they crossed the present 
South Arcot district from south to north. Ell&i and Kalliyurmulai (now Kaliyamalai) are in 
tibe southern portion of the Chidambaram taluka. 1 Ponnamhalam is one of the Tamil names of 
Coidambaram itself Tondaimanallur is perhaps the modern Ton4amSnattam in the Gudda- 
lore taluka, 3 and TirappadMppuHyur is the veil-known ancient name of Tiruplpttliyur, 3 a lafl- 
way station north of Cuddalore. Tiruvadigai is Tiravadi 4 near Panrutti, 6 and Tiravekkarai is 
Tiravakkarai in the Villupuram (Viluppuram) taluka. 6 As regards ^Sndamangalam, 7 where 
K6pperunjioga kept tibe Ch&la king prisoner, and afc the gates of which the war seems to have 
ended, thePosfa? Directory of the Madras Oirde mentions no less than eighteen villages of this 
name, three of which belong to the South Arcot district. The Sendamangalam which is intended 
here is probably the one in -the Tirnkoilur (Tirukk&valur) taluka. 8 I am unable to identify the 
Vfiranav&si riverj which has to be looked for to the north of Se'ndamangalam, 9 and the village 
of Tohidagaiyur, which must have been situated south of Chidambaram. It is not clear why 
Appana and Samudra-G-oppaya selected the temple of Tiruve"ndipuram for engraving lihis account 
of their achievements. Perhaps it was at this village iihat they took leave of the Ch&la Hug 
Bajaraja III., whom they had rescued from the hands of K&pperunjiitga at S&adamangalara. 

As far as we know at present, Narasimha H. was the first among the Hoysala kings wto 
possessed a portion of the Trichinopoly district. In an inscription on a' vtrakal, dated in A.D- 
1222, 10 he is stated to be "marching against the Ranga in the South," i.e. the island of 
Srlrangam, and in the Harihar inscription of AJD. 1224 11 he is already called ' the uprooter of 
tite Makara kingdom ' and ' the establieher of the Cho}a kingdom.' Hence his conquest of 
Srirangam seems to have taken place between AD. 1222 and 1224. This first invasion of tie 
Makara and Ch&la kingdoms was distinct from and prior to the conquest of the same two king- 
doms which is related in the Tiruve'ndipuram inscription, and it is presupposed by the wording 
of the latter, which implies that the king started on his new campaign in order to vindicate his 
previously earned title ' establisher of the Ch61a country.' A further testimony to Farasimha'a 
influence in the Chola country is supplied by an inscription in the G&karne'Svara temple at 
Timg6karnam near Pudukk&ttai (Ho. 410 of 1902), which is dated in the [l]0h year of 
yribhwanachakravartin Rajarajadeva.-t'.e. A.D. 1225-26, and records a grant of land by a servant 
of S&maladevi, 18 the wife of Sdmes'varade'va, the son of theP&^ala king VSra-Nteisimhade'va of 4 

1 Nos. 274 and 200 on the Madrat /Survey Map of this taluka. 

* No. 229 on the Madrat Survey Map of this tftluta. 

1 No. 204 on the Madras Survey Map of the Cuddalore taluka. 

4 See above, Vol. VI. p. 381 and note 8. 

1 No. 79 OB tbe Madras Survey Jfap of the Cuddalore taluka. 

I ' TinratanV No. 239 on the Madras Survey Map of this tikka. 

7 This word is derived from SSndan, 'the red one, 1 a name of the god Skund*. 
1 No. 288 on the Matdrat Survey Map of this t&lnka. 

* The nearest river on the north of Sendamangalam is the Gedilam, 

II Mr. Bice's Ef. Car#, Vol. VI., Cm. 56 : SaJca-vanaa 11M CUtf(tt>lidM*iam \ rada AfvtycHmdda 10 
[da*]*ami Mamffalavdrad=-amiii. On this date Professor Kielhorn remarks as follows ! " lor I^ina-stdi 10 of 
Saka-Samvat 1144 expired* Chitrabhanu this date is wrong ; it would correspond to Friday, the 16th September A.D, 
1222. IfwecouIdradw<Wtf7'*a[pto*]Mtw<raldreguM^ 

Dr, Fleet's JD|y, Kan. Distr. p. 607. 

" See above, Vol. Ill, p, 9, note 6. Another princess of the same name is mentioned in Mr. Bice's Bf, Corn, 
Vol. IV, Kp. 63. She is there compared to Lakshml, and Narasimha II. to the Moon, Hence she must have "been 
Ms sister, and not his wife as Mr. Rice thinks (iJU, Introduction, p. 21). According to other inscriptions, the wile 
of Narasimha II. and the mother of Sdm^yan was Kalalede' vi j see i&id. Vol. Ill, Md. 122 ; Vol. IV,, Ng. 98 ; and 
Vol. VI., Kd. 125. 


D&rasanmdra. 1 finally, a mutilated inscription ia the Ranganatha temple at Srirangam 
(No. 54 of 1892), dated in A.D. 1233, 2 records a grant by a female relation of Bhujabala- 
BMmakMava-Dandanayaka, tlie great minister (mahdjpradhdna) of PratdpaGhakravartin P&sala 

Among the opponents of -l^arasimha II., tihe Harifaar inscription of A.D. 1224 and'the 
Basaaralu inscription of A.D. 1234 mention the Radava king and the Pandya Hng, 3 and three 
inscriptions state that " his valour caused the reduction of the Pandya sovereignty."* As will 
appear "below (p. 164 and note 3), E~6pperunjinga claimed to belong to the EMava or Pallava 
family. If ne is meant by tihe expression ' Kadava king ' in the Harihar inscription, it would 
follow that, he had come into hostile contact with. EFarasimha II. before the time of the Tiruv&ndi- 
ptiram inscription, perhaps on the occasion of ISTarasimha's first attack on Srirangam between 
AD. 1222 and 1224. The Pandya contemporary of Narasimha II. was Maravarman alias 
Simdara-P&ndya I., who, as shown by Professor Kielhorn, 6 ascended the throne in A.D. 1216. 
This king "boasts on his part to have conquered tihe Ch&la country and to have restored it to the 
Gkfila king ; and an inscription of his 9th year, i.e. A.D. 1225, is actually found in the 
Raitganatha temple at Srirangam, 6 while we have seen that Narasimha II. was marching 
against Sriraiigam in A.D. 1222. 

Among the partisans of Kfipperufijinga, iihe inscription mentions two chiefs named Solakdn' 
(1, 5) and Kolli-SoJakog. (1. 6). Viraganganadalvaij and Chlnattarayan are stated to have 
been killed and are called ' officers of the king.' Apparently, they were originally in the service 
of Bajaraja III. and had gone over to K6pperunjinga. Of special interest is the statement that 
"four officers including ParakramaTbahu, the king of tlam," were killed. What the author 
wants to say is perhaps " Parakramabahu and three of his officers." tlam is the Tamil name of 
Ceylon. According to Wijesinha's Translation of the Mahdvamsa (page xxiv. ft), 
Parakramaloahu I. died in A.D. 1197 and Parakramabahu II. in A.D. 1275, and neither of them 
fell in battle. Hence the Parakramabahu of this inscription must be different from both ; per- 
haps he was not a king, but a prince of Ceylon. 

Kdpperunjinga, the person who was responsible for Narasimha's interference in the affairs 
of the Ch&la kingdom, is first mentioned in an inscription of the YriddhagiriSvara temple at 
VriddhSelialani (No. 136 of 1900), the head-quarters of a taluka in the South Arcot district. 
This record opens as follows*: 

1 6t- Svasti grfh [||*] Tribhuvanaohchakravatti- 

2 gal Sri-Rajarajadevarku yan.- 

3 du 14avadu udaiyar Tiru- 

4 mudugunram-udaiya nayanarku Pal- 

5 lavan Kopperufijingan agam- 

6 badi-mudaligalil Ediriganayan Po- 

7 ttappi-Chch6Jan i-nnayan- 

* rij a iya-samma(samva)taara*tu Edttiffai *addka*panoltami J.divdra=mdal ; "from Sunday, the fifth 
tithi of tfae bright (fortnight) of Kattigai in the Yijaya year." Professor Kielhorn kindly informs me that, "for 
flu month KftrttUca of Saka-Samvat X155 expired Vijaya, this dlate regularly correaponda to Sunday, the Mb 

, 1233." 

* Dr. Pleef B Dy. Kan. Distr, p. 507- 

* Mr. Bice's Sp. Corn. Vol. III., Md. 121 5 Vol. IV., Ng. 98 } and Vol. VL> Ed. 12, 

* Above, Vol. VI. p. 814. . . 

See I*d, Ant. Vol. XXI. p. 84.4, and above, Vol. VI. p. 308, No. 5. The Tirupparangmffam .cave-mswp; 
tba and the smaller Tiruppuvanam grant belong to the reign of the same king. 

1 A different person of the same name is mentioned among the officers of Vikrama-CadJa m the 
Id. Ant. Vol. XXII, pp. 143 and 149. 

T m 

164 EPIGRAPHiA INDICA. Vo1 " V11 - 

8 ajktL yaitta tirunundavila* 

9 kku onrukku ..... 

" In the 14th year of the emperor of the three -worlds, the glorious B&J ara jadeva, 
Ediriganayaij Pottappi-Choj.a, (one) among the chiefs of the body-guard 1 of *ke 1>alla< va 
Kopperunjinga, gave to the lord, the god of Tirumudugunram, 3 one perpetual la-xsap," etc. 

Prom this inscription -we learn that KSpperunjinga claimed to belong to the Palis-^ 01 family, 
and that in A.D. 1229-30, i.e, two years before the Tiruvendipurain inscription, lie &till acknow- 
ledged Bajaraja HI. as his sovereign. The defeat which Narasimha II- inflicted on 
KSpporunjinga enabled Rajaraja III. to remain in power until at least A.D. 1243-44i. 4 -^out ^ 
time he was either ousted or succeeded by his former enemy ; for, an inscription of KI&pP ertL S]mga, 
\vho had assumed the titles deva, 'king,' and Sakalablitt-vanacJiakravariw, in. irlxe Artilala- 
Pcrumaj temple at Conjeeveram shows that the 18th year of his reign corresponded to Safca- 
Sanwat 1182. I subjoin the date-portion of this inscription, and that of three otb-ex* inscriptions 
at TU'ttvennainaMr, Tiruvidakaarudur and Tirukkalukkunram. 

A. In the ArulaJa-Perumal temple at Conjeeveram.. 5 

1 Svasti ri [||*] ak,bdam &yiratt-orunurru-en|a3tt-irandin m61 ^ellSmnpa 
agalabuvanach[cha]kkaravattigal ^ri-K6pperuniin[ga]d[e]varktL yfindti 

[ISavadu] Vriichika-nayaKsu apara-pakshattu da^amiyura Kaya^j;u- 

kkilamaiyu[m*] .......... 6 

" In the [18th] year of the emperor of the whole world, the glorious Kopper'u.iB.jmgade'va 
which was current after the Sata year one thousand one hundred and eiglatiy-two, 
..... . , . . ,' a Sunday and the tenth tithi of the second fox-t.n.ig'lit of tin 


B, In |he Vaikuntha-Perum&l temple at Tiruvennainallur. 8 

1 [Svasti*] [Art II] Sakalabhuyafiachchakravarttiga} ^i-K6pperufijii;n3sa,a.evarpj:*']lci 
ya^du. [7a]vadu Sim[ha]-nayaxju apai v a-pakshattu chaturtfcbly 0.1-0. Vcl|i- 
kkilamaiyum perja BeTati-nal, 

" In the [7]th year of the emperor of the whole world, the glorious K6pperu.iIJiiigadeva, 
on the day of R&vati, which corresponded to a Friday and to the 1 fourth tithi of tlie second 
fortnight of the month Simha." 

C, In the Mah&lingasvamin temple at Tiruvidaimarudur. 9 

1 Svast[i] M. [il*] Sagalabuvanagakkaravattigal gri-K6pperanjmga[de]'va;p;is:u 
ISvadu^ Kan[n]i-nayajj;u purvva-pakshattu panckadasiyum Naya/^i;i 
pejja Sadayattu [n]al. 

" In the IBth year of the emperor of the whole world, the glorious K6ppern:fL jixigaddvay--- 
on the day of Satabhishaj, which corresponded to a Sunday and to the fifteenth titm. of the first 
fortnight of the month Kanya." 

1 See Dr. Gundertfs M&layd[aw Dictionary, p. 2, B.V, ag&mbadi, 

* Thin is the Tamil name of Vriddhachalam 5 compare South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. I. p. 123, and "Vol. III. p. 162, 

* In the Madras Christian College Magaxine of March 1892, Mr. Venlcayya states that two inscriptions &| 
Tiruvannamalai also call Kftppemnj&ga a Pallava or Kadava. Regarding Kadava as a synonym of Pallavu set 
above, p, 25, and ScwM-Ind. Inter. Vol. III. p. 68. " * 

* See above, p. 161 and note 6. 

s No. 38 of 1890 i see South-Ind, Ingcr. Vol. II. p. 340, note 5. 

8 The remainder of the line is built In. 

1 A portion of the date, which probably contained the name of the nakshatra, is lost. 

8 No. 820 of 1902. No. 135 of 1895. 


2:5 In the Vddagirisvara temple at Timkkalukkugram. 1 

1 SV8 ?mf, J-"* 3 , SagalabuvanachchakkaravattHgal Avaniy-aia-ppirandar K6 PP erufi. 

la ^ U ^ 4U C33lYadU Ku ^ a ^yarru purvva-pakshattu d[v]it[i]yaiyum 

2 ni-kkilamaiynim peiKa Uttirattadi-nal. 

"In the tablet year of the emperor of the whole world, him who was bom to rale the earth, on the day of U ttarabhadrapada, which correaponded to a Saturday and 
to the second tithi o f the firsb fortnight of the month Kumbha." 

According to Professor Kielhorn, who has kindly examined these four dates, " the first date 
(A.), of Saka-Saixivat 1182 expired and the 18th year current, regularly corresponds to Sunday, 
the 31st October A.D. 1260, which was the 4th day of the month Vrisehika, and on which 
the tenth UfM. of the dark half (of the month Karttika) ended 6 h. 31 m. after mean sunrise. 
The second date (B.), of the 7th year, corresponds to Friday, the 30th July A.D. 1248, which 
was the^Srd day of the month Sim ha, and on which the fourth titU of the dark half (of the 
month Sr&vapa) ended 9 h. 38 m., and the nakshatra was Kevatl from 3h. 56m., after mean 
sunrise. The -third date (0.) is incorrect. The fourth date (D.), of the 31st year, corresponds fco 
Saturday, th.e loth February A.D. 1274, which <was the 18th day of the month Kumbha, and 
on which the second titU of the bright half (of the month Phalguna) ended 10 h. 46 m,, and 
the nakshatra, -was TJttara-Bhadrapada" for 21 h. 1 m., after mean sunrise. The three dates 
A., B, and D. show that Sukalabhuvanachak'ravart'in Kopperunjingadeva must have ascended 
the ihmne in A..B. 1243 between, approximately, the llth February and 80th July." 
His reign extended to afc least A.D. 12V8-79 ; for, as the subjoined list of his inscriptions showa, 
two of them at Chidambaram are dabed in his 36th year. In this list the inscriptions aio 
arranged tmder different heads according to the manner in which they quote the king's name tod 

I. Kdpperunjingadeva. 

1. 20th year: Tiruvottur, No. 83 of 1900. 

2. 22nd year : do. No, 95 of 1900. 

H. SakalabhuvanachakravartigaJ srl-K6pperufijingadeva. 

1 . 5th year -. Vriddhachalam, No, 134 of 1900. 

2. [7]th year : TiruvetmainaUur, No. 320 of 1902. 

3. 8th year : Vriddhachalam, No. 135 of 1900, 

4. 14th year : Vallam, No. 186 of 1892. 

5. 16th year : Chidambaram, No. 467 of 1902. 

6. Do. do. No. 468 of 1902. 

7. 18th year : Timvidaimarudfir, No. 135 of 1895. 

8. [18th] year : Conjeeveram, No. 88 of 1890. 

9. 26th year : Tirukkdvalftr, No. 308 of 1902. 
10. 36th year : Chidambaram, No. 455 of 1902. 

HI. Sakalabhuvanachakravartigal Avaniy-aja-ppirandar Kdppero&jingadeva. 

[3] 1st yf;ar : Tirukkalukkunjam, No. 181 of 1894. 

i Ho. 181 of 1894. The inscription records the gift of a lamp by the wife of PafichnMi-V^9W 
Kuagftngarayar (1. 3). The same person or & relation of his ia mentioned in an inscription of W5 2$ti year of 
KuWttunga III. ; South-lnd. Inter. Vol. III. p. 84. 

> See Sowth-Ind. 2', JOT. Vol. II. p. 340, note 4. 


IV. Sakalabhuvanachakravartigal Avaniy-ala-ppirandtr alias sri 

1. 3rd year : Chidambaram, No. 462 of 1902. 

2. Do. do. No. 465 of 1902. 

3. Do. do. No. 466 of 1902. 

4. 5th year : do. No. 459 o 1902. 

5. Do. do. No. 464 of 1902. 

V.-SaJcalabhuvanaenakravarfcigal rl-Avaniy-aia-ppiyandr alias 

1. 5th. year : Chidambaram, No. 463 of 1902. 

2. 8th. year : do. No. 460 of 1902. 

3. 34tk year : do. No. 461 of 1902. 

4. 36th year: do. No. 456 of 1902. 

The Vallam inscription of the 14th year 1 mentions ' prince (yillaiydr) ISTilagangaraiyaJf,* 
apparently a son of K6ppernirjiugad&va. An Inscription in the Arulala-Perum&l temple at Con- 
jeeveram (No. 41 of 1893), -which is dated in the 22nd year of TriVhuvanacha'k'i'c^varUn Yrjaya- 
GandagSpaladeva, 2 records the gift of a flower-garden by Kllaganga of Amiir, "wbo bore -the 
surname Bhia-paian-oclbhava (in Sanskrit) or Puvi-ala-ppiranda (in Tamil) y **.e. 'who was 
born to rule the earth.' This person is no doubfc identical with the prince N"3tlagangaraiyar of 
the Vallam inscription, and his surname is a slight modification of Avaniy-dla-gypiranddr, "the 
title of his father K&pperunjingadeYa. 

As stated on page 163 above, the Tirave'ndipuram inscription mentions among" ~fcb.e partisans of 
K6pperun.jinga a certain Solakon. This person is probably identical with an officer whose name 
occurs in moat of the Chidambaram inscriptions of Kftppermrjingade'va. In one inscription he is 
called " Perumalppillai alias S61ak6nar, (one) among his (viz. K6pperunjingacl&v'a's) officers,"* 
and in another (No. 462 of 1902) "the lord of AraSur, enganivayar alias 3?illai 61ak6Q&r 
JLliyar." The grant portion of the Chidambaram inscriptions of the 3rd to 16th. years opens 
with the words Solakfin dlai, i.e. " the order of S&lakon," and ends -with the -wox-ds ivai $&lak$$ 
eluitu, i.e. " this (is) the signature of S61ak6n." Accordingly, Solakon. must; Kave been ihe 
representative of E6pperufrjingadeYa at Chidambaram until at least A,D. 1258-59. 

A short undated inscription at Tiruvendipnram supplies the name of S61ak6n,'s younger 
broiler. This inscription (No. 146 of 1902) runs as follows : 

1 Svasti sr! [||*] Avani- 7 S61ak6n ta[m]- 

2 ala-ppisanda- 8 bi Perumal Ve- 

3 n K6pperufi- 9 [n]Mudaiyn ^e[y*]- 

4 jingadevar ti- 10 vitba tirukk6pura- 

5 rum^nikku naniSi-' 11 m ||6u 

6 ga Senganivayar} 

"Hail! Prosperity ! ]?or the benefit of -the royal body of him who waa "born to rule the 
earth, K6ppervnjingadva, Perumal Venadudaiyan, the younger brother of Senganivaya^ 
Sdlakon, caused to be made (this) sacred gdpura." 

Ven&dudaiyai} seems to have succeeded his elder brother as officer in charge of Chidambaram 
lor, in two Chidambaram inscriptions of the 34th and 36iih years of Kdpperunjingad^va (Nbs, 461 
and 456 of 1902), iiae grant portion opens wiiih the words Y3ndi}u$aiydn 6lai and ends with 
Words wai Vdndjutjaiydft efattu. 

1 Above, p. 165, clause II. No. 4. 

> As the 15th and 16th years <jf this Hng corresponded to A.D. 126S (!?. Ant. Vol. XXII 2g m 
d this inscription mast fall in A.D. 1271-72. ' P * " * '' 

Fo, 460 of 1902 1 ww mudaliffalil ?erumdlpfi\\ai d$a SAlaTc6rtdr. 


A solitary Sanskrit record of K6pperufijingad&ra is found as far north as Drfikshftrfima in 
the G6davari district. Unfortunately this inscription (No. 419 of 1893) is so much mutilated 
thai- no connected transcript of ifc can lie given. It is dated in the Saka year 1184 and records 
gifts to the temple of Bhimanatha by the Mng, who is called Bahalabhwanaohctkravarttn, 
Avmy-avan-ddlhava, or Avany-avana-samb'hava, and Maharajaaimha. The two names beginning 
with avani are Sanskrit translations of Ms surname Avaniy-dla-ppiranddr. 1 - Maharajasnhha 
means ' the lion among great kings,' while K6pperunjinga would mean * the great lion among 
kings.' The Draksharama inscription calls him ' the ornament of the EMhaka family >s and 
' a worshipper of Kanakasabhadhinatha,' 3 He is stated to have defeated the Karaa$a 4 and Ch6}.a 
kinga and to have established the Pandya country, 6 Tie Kakati Mng and Ganapati-mah&raja 
are also referred to in the Draksharama inscription. The first three lines contain two verses in the 
Sard^lavikridita metre, and the sixth line states that certain verses were composed by the Hug 
himself and inscribed on his gifts to the temple. 

It was stated in the preceding paragraph that K&pperunjingadeva claims to have estalilisaed 
the Paadya country. On the other hand, an. inscription of the PSndya king Jatavaraan alias 
Tribfrnvamchakravartin Sund.ara-Paadyade'va at Tiruppandumtti 6 asserts that thig king 
" besieged the prosperous city of Sendamangalam and fought several battles to frighten the 
Pallava."? This Pallava is evidently Kftppemijingadeva, and Se'ndamaogalam seems to have 
been his capital, as we might already conclude from the Tiruvendipuram inscription, according 
to which K&pperunjinga was besieged in Se'ndamangalam. 


1 Svasti sri [||*] Tiribu[vana]cli[clia]kka[ra]vattigal ^rl-BajarajadfiCvalrtkJku ya9[d]du 8 

15[vad]il edM[m]=andu Prata[pa]chchafckaravatti Hoy[Sa]na"M-Vi(vl)'ra- 
;Nara8i[m*3hadva!i 61a-olichabkaravattiyai= 

2 Kko[pp]erafijiiigan 9 []enddaman[ga*31att6 [p]idi[t]tu kodu iru[ndu] tan 

[pajdaiyai ittu rajyattai a]ittu dSv-a[laiyanga]lu[m] 10 Vishna-stananga)tim 
aligaiyale" ippadi devan ket[t=a]ru- 

3 li ^dia-mandala-pratisht-agariyau 11 ennu[m] ki(ki)r[t*]t[i] ni[lai]-m[rujtti a[l]ladti 

i-k[k]alam=titfcuvad[i]llai w enru D6ra[sa]muttiratti[i3Li*][i}.]ru[m] edutfca vaadu 
[Ma]aaCra*]-raiya=nirmmi!llam=adi ivanaiyum [i]van pendu-pandara[mu]m kai- 

4 Paohohtrilfi vittu=Kk6p[p]erufljingau de|>]mu[m) ajittti=01ioh6ift.chcliakkara- 

vattiyaiyum elund=aruli(lu)vittu=tko(kko)duv=an[iu] 13 d6van tiruv-ullam=ay 4va 
vidai kondu elunda svaati firimanu- u mahapradhani paramavilvasi 

5 dandinagbpan Jagago(do)bbagaridan Appana-da^[a]lckaftTini 

QoptPalya-dattnakkattTim K6pperufiji[n]gagi iru[n]da 
Kalliyarm,u(mii)laiyum, 6Jak6n iru[uda] Toludagaiy fauna alit[tu] 

6 [nda]n mudaligali[l*] ViragafigaMaCdjaivan J[i](chi)fl!aCt]tarayaCn3 ti 

Parakpc]i|;daKra)iaabfili-u[ll]i[t]ta [mu]dali [4] p^raiyum . . . ko[n]iu 

1 See above, p. 1651 

1 Here ' Kattaka' can hardly refer to the kings of Cuttack, but mart he taken M Sanskjit equivalent of 

;' tee above, p. 164, note 3. 
1 1. of the god at Chidambaram. I.e. the Hoysaja king KarMimlift II, 

* 2iiMya-ma.mddala-thApand'<ltra<l Mr tiy* . 

6 No. 166 of 1894. According to Professor Kie\hora, the date of tliia record ootf poad to the 7th October 
LD. 1257 ; see above, Vol. VI. p. 807 f . 

' Line 10 f.:~ Sittdamangala-eheUlum-ladi ifjftaPjpoZioa'>ad'"" 
8 Bedj^B. *Eead'^da. ' flad 

11 Bead pratishth-dchdfyetn. ' 2 Bead *d#vaiill 

Bead e si ? . Bead Mma** 


i[va][r*]gal kudiraiju[m] kai-kondu Kolli-Chchdlakdn 

kai-kkondu FoCn]- 
na[mba]la-devanaiyum kumbittu eduttu vandu Tondaimanallur ullida Hanmkk- 

u[rgajlum aUt[tu a]li . . [kkfijdutn vetti(ttu)vittu Tiruppkcd3i[r]iCp]. 

puliyurCijlg vittu imndu Tiruvadigai Tiruvekkarai ullitta r- 
galum ajittu Varanavasi arpikku=tterku Sen[da*3mangalattukkum ku 2 kijakku 

kadalile j>U]-urgalum kudi-k[kai]ga[lu]m guttam alidudum 3 pendu[ga]lai 

pidittum kollai-kondum Sendamangalattil eduttu vi- 
da=ppu(pp6)gira aladi(vi)16 K6pporufij[i]Cn*3gao kulaindu S61a-clicliakka[ra*]- 

vattijai e[lu]nd=a[ru*]li(lu)[vi]kka^kka*]davadaga dfivanukku -vinnappa[m*j 

Seya ivar vittu namakkum al vara=kkattugaiyald S6la-chchakka[ra*]vatfciyai 

elund[d=*a]ruli(lu)vittu=kkodu 76(p6)ndu rajyatte puga vifctadu 


(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! In the year whieli was opposite to the 15th year (i.e. in 
the 16th year)* of the emperor of the tiree worlds, the glorious BSjarajadeva, when king"* 
Pratdpachalcravartin, the Hoysana, the glorious Vlra-ITarasiihhadeva, heard that 
Kopperunjmga had captured the Chola emperor at Sendamangalam, that lie destroyed the 
kingdom with his army, and that the temples of the god (Siva) and the places (sacred to) 
Vishnu were destroyed, he exclaimed ;- This trumpet shall not be blown? unless (I shall) 
have mamtamed (my) reputation of being 'the establisher of the Ohdja country.'S " 

(L. 3.) He started, from Borasamudra, uprooted the MahaCra] kingdom, seized him," his 
women and treasures, and halted at Paohchur, 

. P leasedto order : ~- M De ^roy the country of Kopperufijinga and 

the Ch61a emperor."- Hail! (We), the glorious great minister, the very confidential 

(L. 5.) (We) destroyed (tJie villages of) Blleri and Kalliyurmiilai where Kdpperufiiinga 
was staying, and Toiudagaiytir where S61ak6n was staying; killed . . . . among tho 

?Z S * r Vl /!f ^SanMfiJv^ (on*) CMnattarayan, and 4 officers including Partoma- 
bShu, the king of flam ; sexzed their horses j and seized the horses of Xolli-gdlafed^ 

(L.6.) Haying worshipped the god of Ponnambalam, ( we ) started (again), destroyed 
nch (?) villages including Tondaimauailur, caused the ... fo,!,! ^ ^ C11 t dom 

and halted at Tiruppadiripptiliyur. torest to be cut down, 

^ d !f yed T ?!r?? a f '. Tiruvekkarai * o^er villages ; burnt and destroyed 
on the sea and the dnnking-channels to the south of the Varanavfisi river Ld 
to the east of Sendamangalam ; and seized and plundered the women. 

v J 

til he will have defeated K6ppe r fij inga and re- 
the architect (casing) the stability of the ChAla countr 

fa (see ahove, p.-167, not e 5; proves that the worddcj . n ' ' -- 

, an architect.* y iOUKrB U8eu in its i auul meaning: 'ft 

Pit. the Mahara king. 

.^ KanareB6 ' and m ^ f '* commander of an army.' 
* U als Kanar8e > 8 e "lve, Vol. II I. 

. Gnndert'B Jftrf,^** Dictionary, .. v , aZ," and at 

So, 24] 



(L. 8,) " (we) advanced against SSndamangalam and were going to encamp (Stare), 
Kdpperunjmga, became afraid and submitted to the king tliat (he) would release the Chola 

(]j, 9.) As he (vis. the king) agreed and despatched a messenger to us, (t?e) liberated the 
Ch6}a emperor, went (with him), and let (him) enter (his) kingdom. 


that 06 


(Continued from page 10.) 

Hultzach again has sent me a large nnmber of dates of Ch&la kings, of which I now 
twenty-three, with the results of my calculations. Of these, the dates Nos. 61-74 show 
times previously found for the commencements of the reigns of the five bngs to whom 



yet teen earned, prove that Oh king command to reign 

more dates of the kings to whom 

61 In the Mulsvara temple at 
] K ta da[l] ftr .Ch K M lM taUri* 

'tetaight of the Mouth of Hit^a m 
The date corresponds to **>* 
month of Mitlxuna, and on wh,ch the li * 
while Uxe *Artr. !. T * 
to 15 h. 6 m., and by the tyai sp^e system frm I b 

62.-IU the Kr a v n aMv temple .t 

*rl [II*] 

rf ^ 

* --. 
for3 h. 47m., aooordmg to Garga 

., rfter me^ snnrise. 


19 i[vv4ndu] Kar.[kadaga-naya]mi pu'[rvva-pakshat]tu chatu[r]tth[iy]um Ve]l[i]- 

kk[i]lamaiyum [pe]rra Pujjaarbu]- 

20 satti=nal. 

11 In the 31st year (of tie reign) of king Parakesarivarman [alias] the lord, the 
glorious Bajndra-Ch61adevar- on the day of Punarvasu, which corresponded to a Friday 
and to the fonrth titU of the first fortnight of the month of Karkataka in this year." 

The date is intrinsically wrong because the nakshatra on the fourth Ubki of a bright half in 
the month of Karkataka cannot be Punarvasu. The equivalent of the date apparently is Friday, 
the 23rd July A.D. 1042, which was the 28th day of the month of Karkataka aind which was 
entirely occupied 1 by the fourth tttovof the bright half (of Sravana). The nakskatra on this 
day was Uttara-Phalguni, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 13 h. 8m,, and 
by the Brahma-siddhanta for 9 h. 51 m., after mean sunrise. 

83. -In the KaravandisYara temple at Udaiyarkoyil. 8 

1 Svasti M|| Pugal guhida punari 

8 [k6T=Mja]k^aripat[ma]r=ana Tribhuva- 

9 nachchakkaravattigal Mo[l]6[t]tunga-S61.adevar[k*]ku yfindu 16avadu . , . [apara-pakshattu V]i[y]ala-kkilamai[y]tita 

dacha(sa)miyu[m] per.ra Uttirada[ttu nal]. 

" In the 18th year (of the reign) of king Rajak^sarivarman aZtWthe emperor of the three 
worlds, the glorious Kul6ttunga.Ch61adeva,~on the day of Ufctardshadha, which corre- 
sponded to a Thursday and to the tenth MM of the second fortnight of the month of Mha." 

A date of fte month of Mina of the 16th year of Kulottunga-Chola I. would be expected to 
fall in AD. 1086,3 and in my opinion this date undoubtedly corresponds to Thursday, the lath 
March A.D. 1088, which was the 19th day of the month of Mlna, and on which the ndktiatn 
was UttarashSdha, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 16 h. 25 m., and by 
the Brahma-siddhanta for 9 h. 51 m, after mean sunrise. But the titU which ended on this day, 

10 h. 50 m. after mean sunrise, was the 9th, not the 10th ttthi, of the dark half (of Phalguna).~ 
This result shows that the word' dtuthmfym of the original date should be altered ' to 

84. In the Vamanapurisvara temple at Tirumanikuli.* 

1 [S]va[s]ti, frfl] 01*], Pu-madu punara 

2 ^^[paratejsarHpainlmar^tna] Ti[r]ibuvaE 

firi-Vikkirama-S61adeTajkn yfodu padin-o[nravadu] 
apa]ra-pakshattu SkadaSiyum Budan-kilamaiyum" pe"r.r.a Vi^gattu' n'al. 
"In the eleventh year (of Oa.*^* king Parak6sarirarman alias the emperor 

of the three worlds, the glorious Vikrama-OhoJadgva,- on the day of Vigakhfi whicli 

corresponded to a Wednesday and to fa eleventh titU of the second fortnight of the month of 

1 Tha tithi was a pratkama-chaturtM. 
* No. 899 of the Government EpigrapMst'g collection for 1902. 
1 See abovei p. 7, note 5. 

[It is not absolutely excluded that the writer wanted to write narmiyvm, and that the two Grantha letter. 
fe and eh* are m reality a badly shaped na and M , respectively.- E. H.] * 

1 No. 148 of the GBvemmeut Epigraphist's collection for 1902. 


My calculation shows that the name of the month of this date -was Dhanus. For this month 
the date corresponds to Wednesday, the 19th December A.p. 1128, 1 which was the aBth day 
of the month of Dhanus, and on which the llth tithi of the dark half (of Margasirsha) ended 
22 h. 1 m. after mean sunrise, while the nakshatra was Visakha, Toy the equal space system and 
according to Garga for 16 h. 25m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 11 h. 50 m., after mean 

65. In the Xaravandisvara temple at Udaiyark6yil. s 

1 [Svajsti [fi] r [l] [||*] Pu-madu p[unara] 

* k6= ...... pan[ma*]r=4ria 

Tir[i*]bu[va*]na[cha] [k*]karavattigal sri-Vik[kara*]ma-S61ade' vark[ku yan]du 

l[5]ava[du Si]rima-nayajrti apara-[pap [m] 

V[iya]la-kkila[m]ai[jum pe]jr.a * 

" In the 16th. year (of the reign) of king [Parak6sari]varmarL alw the emperor of the 

three -worlds, the glorious Vikrama-Ch6}adeva, [on the day of] , which 

corresponded to a Thursday and to the [W*W] of the second fortnight of the 

month of Simha." 

This date does not admit of verification. 

ee. In the Vamanapurisvara temple at TirumanikuJ.i. 5 

1 Svasti Sri [)(*] Puyal peruga 

3 . . . . k&=Pparak6saripar,mar=ana . TribhuXbhu)vanaSakra[va]ttigal 
Kul&ttunga-SSjlade'vaxkku y[a]ndu i^u(mu)[n]r&vadu Sim 

apara-bha(pa)kshattu panchamiyum pejja Avat 

"In the tnird year (of the reign) of king Paa:ak6sjlrivarmaii alias tlje emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Kul6ttunga-Ch6jadva, on the day of ASvini, which corre- 
sponded to a Monday and to the fifth tithi of the second fortnight o the month of Simha." 

A date of the month of Simha of the third year of Kul&ttunga-Gh&la III. would be expected 
to fall in A.D. 1180, and in my opinion this date undoubtedly corresponds to the 12th August 
A.D. 1180, which was the 16th day of the month of Simha, and on which the 5th tithi of the 
dark half (of Srayaaa) ended 9 h. 34 m., while the nakshatra, waa Asvinl for 3 h. 17 m., after 
mean sunrise. But the day was a_Tuesday, not a Monday. 6 

67. In the Bhaktaparadhisvara temple at Gidangil. 7 

1 Syasti firi [||*] K6=Pparak6gariyanmar=&iia Tribhuvanachakravarttigal Srl-KuJ&ttunga- 


2 yfindu 3vadu Simha-nayairu irubatt6ian=di[yadi*]y=ana Budan-kilamai pejr.a 


" In the 3rd year (of the reign) of king ParakSsarivarman alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Kuldttunga-ChdJade'va,-- on the day of AsviTii, which corre- 
sponded to a Wednesday which was the twenty-seventh solar day of the month of Simha." 

1 The year A.D. 1118 would yield no satisfactory equivalent for this date. 
a No. 404 of the Government Epigraphies collection for 1902. 
1 Bead -paTcshattu ; the tithi ia lost. * The nafcthatra is lost. 

1 No. 165 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1803 ; South-Ind, Inter. Vol. III. No. 85, 
On Monday, the llth Angutt -A.1X H80, the 5th tithi of the dark half commenced 8 1)., and the 
wa Afivint from 3 h. 56 m., after mean sunrise. 

1 No. 226 of the Government Epigraphigfc'g collection for 


Under the preceding date it has been stated that the tialtsliatra was Asvini on the 16th day 
-i the month of Siriiha of the third year of the king's reign ; Asvini therefore cannot have been 
the nakshatra on the 27th day of the same month. Nor would the weekday be correct; for the 
^7th day of Simha of the third year would be Saturday, the 23rd August AJD. 1180 ("when the 
nakshatra, was Uttara-Phalguni) . I have not found any year of the rei<m of Kiildttunga- 
(%61a HI. for which the date would be correct. 

68. In the Vamanapurisvara temple at Tirum&nikuli, 1 

1 Svasti sri [||*] Thibuvanachchakravattigal sri-Virarajendira-Soladevarku yandu 

elavadu Sirhha-[nayar]ru irubattaran=diyadi ana Budan-MJamaiyuin 

purshva(rvva)-pakshattu -chehatu[r*]dasiyum=ana 8 Sadaiya- 

2 ttu nal. 

"In the seventh year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Virar&jendra-Chdladeva,3 on the day of Satabhishaj, which was the fourteenth titM of the 
first fortnight and a Wednesday, which was the twenty -sixth solar day of the monti of 

The 26th day of the month of Simha of the 7th year of Kul6tt,unga-Gh61a III. corresponds 
t> Wednesday, the 22nd August A.D. 1184.* On this day the 14th tit hi of the bright half 
(<.f Bhadrapada) ended 18 h. 19m., and the nduhatra was Satabhishaj, by the equal space 
system and according to Garga /rom 1 h. 19 m, 5 and by the Brahma-siddhanta from 1 h. 58 m. 
after mean sunrise. * ' 

If this were a date of Rajendra-ChoJa III, it would be quite incorrect. 

69. In the DarbhfiranyGsvara temple at Tirunajlar. 5 

1 Srasti sri [|i*] Tiribuvanachchakkaravafctigal Madurai kondu Pandiynn mudi- 
ttalaiyum kond-aruliya 4i-Kul6ttun-ga-S6ladevarkku [y]andu 17va"du " Kumba- 
Cn]ayaTru purva-patti^ttu^ ti[ti]yaiyu m 7 Tingat-kilamaiyum perra Uttirattadi- 

v 1A . (0/ the m '^ } of the emperor of tae * h * worlds, the glorious 

Kul6ttunga.Cho}adeva who, having taken Madurai, wae pleased to take also the crowned head 
of thePandya, on the day of Uttara-Bhadrapadft, which cori-esponded to a Monday and to 
the second ttthi, of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha." 

The date conesponda to Monday, the !3th February A.D. 1195, which was the 21st day of 
the month of Kumbha, and on which the second tithi of the bright half (of Phalguna) 
-n*il^ wag uttara-Bhadrapadft, i ^ 

Brahma-siddMn^ and aoootding to Garga the whole day, and by the equal space 
3 k. 17 m. after mean sunrise. 

70. In the Krippurisvara temple at Tiruvennainallur.s . 
1 Svasti r![H*J PA maruviya disaimugattdn . 

Tmbuvanachchakkaravarttig^Maduraiyum Pandiyan mudi-ttalaiVun 

1 No. 164 of the Government Epigraphisf a collection for 1902. 
1 The da of dafi is entered below the 

^ ^* > * * -"^i- of the 

tCOk ,? - 6 16 ^ * m ' 8fter roean 8umi8e of the 7th July A.D. 1 184 
Government EpigTftpbist'8 collection for ] 902. 
8 Bead 'pakshattu. 7 ^^ . 

8 No. 318 of the Government Epigraphies collection for 190:'.*' *"* 


8ri-Kul6ttunga-S61adeva[ t r]kti yandu I7avadu Miduna-nayarlju] apara-pakehat'u 
trai(tra)y&dasiyum ViylUa-kkilainaiyum perra Ur6ani-[nal], 

"In the 17th year (of the i-eigti) of the emperor of the tl ie worlds, the glorious 
Kulottunga-Choladeva, who was pleased to take Madurai ana the crowned head of the 
Pandya, on the day of Echini, which corresponded to a Thursday and to the thirteenth tithi 
of the second fortnight of the month of Mithuna." 

The date undoubtedly corresponds to Thursday, the 8th June A.D. 1195, which was the 
I3th day of the month of Mithuna, and on which the nakshatra was Rohini for 9 h. 51 m. (of 
9 h. 12 m.) after mean sunrise. As the 13th tithi of iihe dark half (of Jyaishtha) ended on this 
day only a minute or two after true sunrise, I should have expected the writer to quote the 14th 
tithi instead of the 13th. 

71. In the Ikshupurisvara temple at 

1 ... ..... ... T[i]r[i]buvanachchakkai*avatt[i]gal Ma- 

2 duraiyum Pandiyan mudi-ttalaiyun=go[n]d-aruliya []i-[Ku]- 

3 loitnnga-SoIadevarkku ya[n]du pattonbndabada.=Kkani- 8 na- 

4 yanru=ppur[va*]-pakshattu navamiyuua Tinga[l]-kiiamaiyum perj.;a At[ta]- 

5 nal. 

"In the nineteenth year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Kuldttuiiga-Choladeva, who was pleased to take Madurai and the crowned he-'d of the 
Pandya, on the day of Hasta, which corresponded to a Monday and to the ninth tithi of the 
first fortnight of the month of Kauya." 

The date ia intrinsically wrong because the nakshatra ori the 9th tithi of a bright half in the 
month of Kanya cannot be Husta. The equivalent of the date apparently ia Monday, the 2nd 
September A.D. 1196, which was the 6th day of the month of Kanya> and on which the 9th 
tithi of the bright half (of Bhadrapada) ended '22 h. 22 m. after mean sunrise. The nakshatras 
ou this day were Mula and PtrvSshadha. 

72. In the Vamanap-urlsvara temple at 

1 S[va]sti M [1|*] T[iribu3vanachchakkara[Ta]ttiga[l] Ma[d]urai kondu Pan[diya]n 


2 yun=gond-ai-ulma 6ri-Kul&ttunga-S6ladeva]rku y[a]ndu pattonbada- 

3 vadu Rishabha-nayarru ar&n=diyadiy=aua purvva-pakshattu dY&da%um Budan- 

kilam[ai]juin perra [A]- 

4 ttattu nal. 

"In the nineteenth year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the 
glorious Kul6ttuiiga-Ch61adva, who, having taken Madurai, was pleased to take also the 
crowned head of the Pandya, on the day of Hasta, which corresponded to a Wednesday and 
to the twelfth tithi of lie first fortnight, which was the sixti. solar day of the month of 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the 30th April A.D. 1187, which was the. 6th day 
of the month of Ijttshabna,* and on wloeh the 12th tithi of the bright half (of VaiSakha) ended 
19 h. 87 m., while the nakshatra, was Hasta, by the equal space system and according to Garga 
fov 7 h, 13 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 3 h. 56 m v after mean sunrise. 

1 JSTo. 397 of the Government Epigraphist'e collection for 1902. 

2 Read pattonbaddvad'u=*K'kan,ni-. 

3 No. 161 of the Government Epigrapbist'a collection for 1902. 

* The Kishabh^-sarhkraiiti took place 14 b. 4rm. after mean suiuiae o tie 34tk Ajril A.J). 11&7. 


73. In the VamampuriSvara temple at 

1 Svaati sri [||*] TiribuvanachehakkaraYarttigajT] Maduraiyum Ilamum 
mudi4talaiyui=gond-arul[i]ya s"ri-]Iul6ttuBga-!&iad&v&[r*]kku yandu 
Me"sha-n[a]yajru ' pfrrvva-[pa*]k8hattu dasamiyum Budan-ki|amaiyu[m] 
[Ma]gattu nal. 
"In the 21st year (of the reign) of the emperot of the three worlds, the 

Kulottanga-Chdlad&va, who was pleased to take Madurai, Ijam and the crowned ' head of 

Pandya, on the day of Magh, which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the tenth tith* of 

the first fortnight of the month of M6sha." 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the 7th April A.D. 1109, -which was the 14fch <3Lay of 

the month of Me"sha, and on which the 10th tifhi of the bright half (of Vaisakha) ended 23 h. 

39 m., while the nakshatra was Magh&, by the equal space system for 22 h. 20 m., by the 

Brahma-siddhanta for 7 h. 53 m,, and according to Garga for 10 h. 30 m. } after mean sunrise. 

74, in the Vamanapurisvara temple at Tirumanikuli. 3 

1 Svast[i] sr[i] [||*] Pu[ya]l yayttu .......... 

4s ..... k6=Pparake^aripaTmar=ana Tiribuvanaehchakkamvartblg'a[l] 

Maduraiyum=lianniD=gondti PAndiyan mtidi-ttalaiyuai=goiid-arulina sil-Kulot- 
5 tun[ga]-S6lad^rarkku yandu Slvada Rishabha-nayarru piarvva-pakshattu tri(tra>)yo- 

dasiyum Sani-kki|amaiyTim pejja Atfcatti=nfil. 

" In the 21st year (o/ the re^u.) of king ParakSsarivarman alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Kuldttunga-Choladeva, who, having taken Madurai and Ilam, 
was pleased to take also the crowned head of the Pandya, on the day of Hasta, which corre- 
sponded to a Saturday aud to tibe thirteenth UtM of the first fortnight of the morttli of 

A date of the month of Rishafcha of the 21st year of the reign of Kul6ttunga-Ch6la, III. 
would be expected to fall in A.D. 1199, but for that year this date is incorrect, and I have not 
found any other year of the king's reign for which ib would be correct. Such being the caste, I 
feel certain that the month of Jfcshabha has been quoted erroneously instead of M6sha. IFor 
this month the date regularly corresponds to Saturday, the 10th. April A.D. 1190, which. *was 
the 17th day of the month of ifolsha, and on which the 13th tithi of the bright half (of Vaisaklia) 
Bended 22 h. 48 m. after mean sunrise, while the nakshatra was Haeta, by the equal space system 
and according to Garga the whole day, and by the Brahma-eiddhlnta for 21 h. 40 m. after mean 

75, In the Tirutnalisvara temple at Magaral. 3 

1 ..... i-tte[varkku] y&ndu nalavadu Mid[u]na-[naya]r[ja] 
pakshat[t]u=sppanchamiyun=D[i]nga[t-ki]Jiamaiyum perra Sadaiyattu - nl. 
"In the fourth year (of the reign) of this king, 4 on the day of Satabhishaj, 
corresponded to a Monday and to the fifth tithi of the second fortnight of the moatli of 

The date corresponds to Monday, the 22nd June A.D. 1220, which -was the 29th day o f 
of Mithuna, and on which the 5th tithi of the dark half (of Ashadha) ended 15 h, 

Government Epigraphist's collection for 1902. 

* No. 170 of the Government fipigraphisf s collection for 1902. 

1 This is an earlier date of the game reign which is quoted in No. 76 below. 

* Tit. Rfijar&ja HI. 

No. 24.] 


56 m., while the na hsMtra by the equal space system was Satabhishaj for 4 la. 36 a., after mean 

Bum>1Se ' 76. In the Tirumalisvara temple at Magaral. 1 

1 . . T[i]r[i]bnYanachchak[ka]ravatt[i]ga[l] sri-Raearasadevarku yan[du] 

5[va]du ' Siihha-nayariu a [pa]ra-[pa]kshattu pafichamiyum Buda[n> 
k[i]lamaiyum [p]erra Asvat[i]-nal. 

In the 6th year (of the reign) of the emperor' of the three worlds, the glorious 
RajarajadSva, on. the day of Asvini, which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the fifth 
tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Simha." 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the I9iih August A.D. 1220, which was the 24th day 
of the month of Simha, and on which the 5th titU of the dark half (of Bhadrapada) commenced 
10 h. 38m., while the nakthatra was Asvini for 18 h. 24m., after mean sunrise.-- As the 5th 
titM commenced very late in the day, I consider it probable that it has been quoted erroneously 

instead oi the 4th. 

77. _ i n the Ikshupurisvara temple at Kdvilvenni. 8 

1 [Sva]sti Sri [H*] Tiribuvanachchakkara- 

2 vattigal sri-I[r]ajarajadevaj;kkTi 

3 y&ndu 6a[vad]n edir=am*a[n]- 
i 4 du Tala-na[ya]i;[ra] pnwa-[pa*]kshat- 

6 ta saptamiyum Viyaia-[k]k[ila]mai- 

6 [y]tun perra Uttiradatiu [n]a[l*]. 

" In. the year which was opposite the 6th year (of tlio reign) of the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Bajarajade'va,-- on the day of TJttarashadha, which corresponded to 
a Thursday and to the seventh titU of the first fortnight of the mouth of Tula." , 

The date corresponds to Thursday, the 13th October A.D. 1222, which was the 16th day 
of the month of Tula, and on which the 7th titU of the bright half (of Karttika) ended 11 h. 
33 m., while the nakshatra, was TJttarSshadha, by the eqnal space system and according to Grarga 
for 13 h. 8 m., and by the Brahma-sidd-blnta- for 6 h. 34 m., after mean sunrise. 

78. In the Adiyappan temple at Kil-Xasakudi.3 
I ..... RajarajadSvarku yandu pattavadu. M6sha-nayar,ra apara-pakshatta 

ashtamiyum Seway-kkiiamaiytun. perja Avittattu nal. 
" In the tenth year (of the reign) of ...... B^p4a46va, on the day of 

Sravishtha, which corresponded to a Tuesday and to the eighth tifhi of the ffeearflaBfe^Kb, 
the month of MSsha." 

The date eorftesponds to Tuesday, the 21st April A.D. 1226, which was the 28th, day of the 
month of M^sha, and on which the 8th Kthi of the dark half (of VaiSaBia) ended/10 h. 16 m., 
while the naksbatra was Sravishthft, by the equal space system and according io Garga fpr 19 h. 
3 m,, and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 19 h. 42 m., after mean sunrise. 

> '? 


79. _ in the Karavandisvara temple at XJdaiyarkdyil.* 

Svasti fc[i] [II*] T[i]r[i]bu[Ya*]r^ 

devarrku 6 yapdu 3vadu Mina-na- 

1 No. 217 of the Government Epigraphist'a collection for If 101. 
* No. 396 of the Government Epigrapliist's Collection for 1902, 
1 No. 392 oi the Government Epigraphiat's collection for 1903. 
1 No. 406 of the Government Epigraphiafs collection for 1S02. * Bead 



pu[rrvaj-pakshathi pan[cha]m[i]yuni Sa$i-kkilamaiyu[m 

In the 3rd year (o/ the reign} of the dmperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Raje"ndra-Gh6l.adva,-"- on the day of Rdbinl, which corresponded to a Saturday and to tho 
fifth tithi of tie first fortnight of the month of Mlna." 

My "examination of the four dates Nos. 79-82 has yielded the result that the reign of 
Rajendra-Ch6}a III. commenced between (approximately) the 21st March and the 8th 
May A.D. 1246. 

This date, No. 79, corresponds to Saturday, the 20th March A.D. 1249, which ,was the 
2Hth day of the month of Mina, and on wMah the 5th tithi of the bright half (of Chaitra) 
commenced h. 30 m., while tbe nakshatra, was E6hini for 18 h. 24 m. (or 17 b. 44 m.), after 
mean sunrise. 

80. In the Banganatha temple at Srirangam. 1 

Kannarigara]a-pra[tijkMa-Mladanda makaralaya~ma;jjita-[Kali)-balft 


Tiribuva[nn]ohcb.akkaravattigaj. s\i-Rage > ndira-S61advarkku . y&ndu 
Vavadn Magara-nayaj^u. apara-pakshattu ashtami[y]um Sudan -k[i]laniaiyum 

"In the 7th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Baje"ndra-Ch6ladva, ..... the hostile rod of death to the Kannariga (i.e. Kar- 
u^taka) king, lie who had drowned the power of the Kali (age) iu the ocean, the hero's anklets* 
on whose feet were pat on by the hands of Yira- Somes vara, 3 .... . on the day 
of Ohitr, which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the eighth tithi of tJbe second fortnight 
of the month of Makara." 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the 25th, December A.D. 1252. On this day the 
Makara-(Utterayaiaa-)samkranti took place 13 h. 3 m., 4 the 8th ttthi of tbe dark half (of 
Paxisha) commenced h. 17 m., and 1 the nakshatra, was CMtr by the equal space system and 
according to Garga the whole day, and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 21 h. 1 m. after mew* 

81. In the B&jag6pala-Perum4 temple at Mannargudi. 5 

Svaeti Sri [||*] TribTivanaohchakkaravattigaJ ^rl-Eaja[je]ndra- 6 [S61a]d^varku , ysndu 
21vadn Kajkadaga-nafyajjn] a[para-pakshattu ek]adaiyum Budhaii- 

ki]amaiyum pejija E6hi[n]i-na|. 

"In the 2lat year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Baj&ndra-ChdJade'va, on the day of Bdhini, -which corresponded to a Wednesday and to the 
eleventh tithi of the second fortnight of the month of Karkataka," ,, 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the 80th June A.D. 1266, wMch was the fourtl day 
of the month of Karkataka, and on which the llth UtU of the dark half (of JUbldha) end^d 

1 No. 64 of the Government Epigrsphiat's collection for 1892. 
9 P~tr-t$b&arayu is used in the sense of the Tamil vtra-Jck&lal. 

* Thifl implies that the Chdja king had defeated the Hoysaja king SfimSsvara and employed him as a imant, 

Ordinarily, therefore, the S5th December A.D. 1252, here described as a day of the month of Makara, would 
be considered to be the last day of the month of Dhaaus. 

* No. 105 of the Government Epigraphies collection for 18G7. 
6 Bod -Xdj6*&ra-, 


10 It. 21 m. after mean sunrise, -while the nakshatra was Echini, by iihe Brahma-siddhlnta and 
according to Garga the whole day, and by the equal space system from 2 h. 38 m. after mean. 

82. In the Annamalainatha temple at Mannargudi. 1 

1 Kru](ri)btivanachchak[ka]ravattigal gri-Baj[e*]u.[di]ra-S61a[d]^varfclai y&ndu 22vad - a 
Rishabha-nayarru [pujrvva-pakshattu gadurtegiyum Ha[ya]jru-kkilamaiyum perra 
Visagatfcu nal. 

" In the 22nd year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
S&jn.dra-Ch61adeva,~ on tbe day of Visakha, -which corresponded to a Sunday and to the 
fourteenth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of ^iahabha.'* 

The date corresponds to Sunday, the 8th May A.D. 1267, which was the 14th day of the 
month of Jjtiehabha, and on which the 14th titM of the bright half (of the first Jyaishtha) 
ended 21 h. 40 m. after mean sunrise, while the nalesJiatra was Visakha, according to Garga the 
whole day, by the Brahma-siddhanta for 22 h. 20 m., and by the equal space system from 
5 h. 17 m., after mean sunrise. 

83. In the B,angan,tha temple at Srirangam. 8 

1 Svasti srih [11*] Mama-S6ml(me)vara-pTafakula-ka]adanda [Tjiriburanach- 

cbakkaravattigal sri-Rajendra-Soladevarkku yandu e.lavad[in] edir=am=ando. 

yrigchika-nayar[r]u purvva-[pa]ksha[t]tu panchamiyum Tingat-kilamaiyum pejfja 


*In the year which was opposite the seventh year (of the reign) of the emperor of 

the three worlds, the glorious Ejendra-Choladeva, the hostile rod of death to (his) uncle 

S6m$gvBTa, on the day of Asvini, -which corresponded to a Monday and to the fifth tithi of 

the first fortnight of the month of Vrisehika." 

The date is intrinsically wrong because the naltshatra cannot be AsVini on the 5th tithi of 
a bright half in tbe month of VrisSchika. A date of the month of Vrischika of the year opposite 
the 7th, i.e. of the 8th year, of the king's reign would be expected to fall in A.D. 1253 ; but for 
"that year this date would correspond to Tuesday, the 28th October, when the nakshatras were 
PurvSshadha and Uttarashadha. If the date were one of the 9th year of the king's reign, it 
^vould correspond to Monday, the 6th November A.D. 1254, when the wakshatras were 
Uttarashadha and Sravana. I a,m unable confidently to suggest any correction of the original 
da,te with which the date wo aid yield a satisfactory equivalent. 

BY J. F. FIEBT, I.C.S. ( RETD.), PH.D., O.I.B. 

This record is the one which I have entered as H. in Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 271, in one uf 
my papers on the Eastern Chalukya chronology, and from which I have given a short extract 
(verse 8, line 35 ff.) in the same Journal, Vol. XII. p. 249. I edit it from the original plates, 
which belonged to Sir "Walter Elliot and are now in the British Museum^ There is no inf ormatiou 
as to where they were obtained. 

The plates are five in number, each measuring about 8%" by 4 T V The first of them is 
inscribed on one side only ; the others are inscribed on both sides. The 'edges of the inscribed 

1 No. 91 of the Government EpigrapMst's collection for 1897. 
a No. 65 of the Government Epigrapuist's collection for 1892. 


surfaces, except the last, were raised into rims, to protect the writing. The crater side of the last 
plate, having no such rims, is somewhat worn ; and a few letters bhere are more or less illegible. 
But the rest of the record ia in a state of very excellent preservation ; and the text of it is (juite 
clear and certain, throughout, except in one place in line 36. The ring, on which the plates are 
strung, is about |" thick and 4f '' in. diameter. It has been cut ; but it seems to be the same ring 
which was attached to the plates, and which had not then been cut, when the record first came 
under my observation, ia 1877 or 1878. The seal, in which the ends of the ring are secured, IB 
circular, about 3" in diameter. It has, in relief on a countersunk surface, across the centre, 
a boar, standing to the right (proper left), and the legend M'TnlJvuvan[_d*]n)ku[^a]h, -which 
presents a motto of the kings of the dynasty and means " the glorious elephant-goad of the 
three -worlds :" the .fa, which ia considerably damaged, stands behind the boar, and the visarga is 
in front of the boar; the rest of the legend is in one line above the boar. Above these, there 
is an elephant-goad, with the sun and- moon above it. And, below the boar, there is a floral device, 
apparently an expanded water-lily shewing seven or eight petals. The characters belong to the 
southern class of alphabets, and are of the regular type of the locality and period to which the 
record belongs. They range in size from a little more than f" to nearly %', The engraving, 
though good, is not very deep ; and, the plates being substantial, the letters do not shew through 
on the reverse sides. Marks of the working of the engraver's tool can be seen in many places, both, 
in the interiors of the letters, and in the copper which was pushed up by the tool at the sidea of 
them ; such marks on the sides of the letters, caused in the same way, can, be seen very clearly in 
the lithograph of the ETorumelli plates of R&jaraja I. 1 The lingual of is distinguished from the 
dental d by a slight but marked prolongation, upwards of the end of the character. The record 
presents final forms of fc in line 17, of * in lines 8, 29, 31, 32, 42, 60, and 73, of n in lines 11 
and 31, and of TO in lines 10, 12, 13, 14 (twice), 15, 35, and 71. In line 15 itpresentsa peculiar 
mark of punctuation, regarding which reference may be made to the foot-note to that passage. 
As regards palaeography, the guttural n does not occur. The M, y, &, and I, all present the later 
cursive forms, throughout^ The initial short i occurs three times ; once in line 43, and twice in line 
66. In each instance, it is of the old square type, but the actual form of it presents the following 
abnormal feature. The full form of the old square initial short i of the alphabet with which w 
are concerned, consisted of an upper component which may be likened to the outstretched wings 
of a hovering bird, and of a separate bottom part which consisted sometimes of two circles, as 
may be seen very clearly in iti, the last word of the Haidarabad plates of Pulake'sin II. of A.D. 612; 8 
and sometimes of two points or dots, as may be seen in iva, line 15, No. 15, and in iv=, line 4*0, 
the last akslara bub four, of the Diggubarru grant of Chalukya-Bhima II. of the period A.D, 
934" to 945. s The peculiarity in the present record is, that the ends of the upper component 
have been brought right down to the lower- line of the -writing, and the bottom components 
have been omitted. The form of the letter thus presented is not a transitional form, but is a 
variety of the old square type. It may be characterised as more or less of a freak. But it 
cannot be stamped as a mistake. I have found one similar instance, in the word iti in line 23 
of the Kolavennu piatea of the period A.D. 934 to 945 ;* and there it might perhaps be treated as 
a mistake, because the two bottom components are duly shewn in that .record, as points, in wtfor, 
line 19, and ithwm, line 22. In the present record, however, there is no such contrast : the 
abnormal form pnly is presented j and it was plainly intended. In lines 73, 74, there is a Tehtgu 
passage, for the translation of which I am. indebted to Dr. Hultzsch ; and lines 65, 66 present; 
some Telugu words, including tbc genitive IQiytiri. But, with those exceptions, the language 
is Sanskrit throughout. There arc two of the customary benedictive and imprecatory verses in 

1 Jn4. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 62, Plate 'iv.a, the last four or five lines, and Plate v. 

* Id. Vol. VI. p. 78, Plata, ' Id. Vol. XIII. p. 214, Pla^e. 

4 South-lad. Insert. Vol. I. p. 45, A lithograph, however, has not been given there 5 and I am quoting froin 


68 io 70 > aild seventeen ordinary verses in the body of the record, with, one more inline 
. y which refers to the djnapti, the writer, and the composer of the record. In respect of 
orthography, we need note only (1) the incorrect samdM, made by the nse of an epenthetic ro, 
m brahmavyanm^Attili, for IraJimanya Attili, or more correctly bralimnnyd*TtiU, in line 49 ;i 
(2) the omission to combine the t and & in sai&t&i in sat-iiaranam, line 39, and irfnwf rfri, line 
59- 6O ; (3) the omission of the vworjfo in cMm-M, for clidru-srih, line 55-56, in accordance with 
an optional rule of Southern India, taught, Professor Kiemorn tells me, in the VydtatilishS, 
wliicH permits the omission of a visarga, before a sibilant that is followed by any consonant, hard 
or soft; 2 (4) the doubling of s before y, once, in tassya, line 65; and (5) the nse of /for $ 
three times, in act,u, lines 17, 41, and vitrdsa, line 18. 

The Inscription is a record of the Eastern Chalukya king Amma II., otherwise called 
Vi ja-y&ciitya VI. It is not dated. But we know, from other sources, 3 that he was anointed to 
the sovereignty on Friday, 5th December, A.D. 945, and reigned for twenty-five years. It 
registers the grant of a village named Kaluclmmbarru, in the Attilinandu province 
(.visTiaya),* to a Jain teacher named Arhanandin, belonging to the Valahari gana and the 
A.cLcla,k.ali gachchha, for the purpose of providing for repairs to the charitable dining-hall of a 
Jain temple called SarvalokaSraya-Jinabhavana. The grant was evidently made by Amma II. 
himself ; but it was " caused to be given " by a certain lady named Chamekamba, wlio belonged 
to tlte Pattavardbika lineage and was a pupil of Arhanandin: on this point, see page 182 below 
Th.e Teliagu passage at the end of the record mentions a present made by Arhanandin himself to 
the writer of the record. 

To the identification of tie places referred to in this record, we are led by the mention of the 
A-trfcilinarLdu vishayain line 49. This province evidently took its appellation from a town named 
A-ttiili, which still exists in the Tanuku taluka of the Godavari district, Madras Presidency; in 
he Indian Atlas sheet No. 94 (1899), it is shewn as * TJttellee,' in lat. 16 41', long. 81 39', 
seven miles south-west-half-west from Tannku. The name of the village that was granted, ia 
presented as Kalucnumbarru in line 61, and in line 73 as Pedda-Kaluchuvubarru ; this latter 
appellation marks it as being then the larger or older of two villages bearing the same name. It is 
-the * Kunsanmrroo ' of the map, the village-site of which is about three miles south- by- west 
f roiaa Attili ; the modern form of the name is to be explained by the not infrequent interchange 
of 1 and n, and by a transition of ah into s. Of the other places, mentioned in specifying the 
botxnxlaries of Kaluehunibajru, Aruvilli, on the east, is the 'Arraveelee' of the map, the 
village-site of which is one mile towards the south-east from that of ' Kunsamurroo ;' and 
Koinxkolami, on the south, is ' Corecolloo,' one mile and a half south-west from ' Kuasamurroo ;' 
and. -the Yidiyuru of line 64, on the west, mentioned again as Idiyuru in line 66, ia * Eedooroo,* 
one tmile and a half west-north-west from ' Kunsamurroo.' The other names cannot be identified, 

"With this instance, compare the similar use of m in $4ryyatut<m*wa and Vrilctdwram^im, ia Vol. III. 
abo-ve, p. *> lines 4*, 5 j and that passage presents also an epenthetic i>, in niravadga-wddra, for niravady~6dfaa,. We 
have a somewhat similar use of m. in Kalfalu(dru)mam=w= and Jandrddanam*iv=m Ind. Mt. Tol. XVIII. p. 267, 
lines 7, 8 ; line 7 of that record, however, presents also samtdraw=iv*6dayavcwtam. for savit=Sc=6dayaadn, which 
indicates the use, in the other two instances, of the accusative for the nominative, rather than of an epenthetic , 
Originally* not knowing of the existence of the modern Attili, I thought that the present reading ought to be 
collected into fiwiwo^C^] Mattili. And that was how I came to present the name of the district as Ibftifi. 

in- 1<*- -4<- Vol. XX. p. 271. ..,, 

In his SouM-Ind. Palcso. p. 31, Dr. Burnell said : " InS. India the alternafare allowed hy the grammamns 
ssimilating visarga to a following sihilant is almost universally accepted, and the reduplication of the siMlaat 

omitted . This remark covers the case in question, but also includes more , it would jusfafy the omte of 
ga hefore a sibilant which is not followed by a consonant. 

See Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 271. -^ , . __ 

Eegarding my having previously taken |the name of this province as Matfahnandu (J& 4**. Voi, XX. 

P. 271), see note 1 above. 


unless Yullikodamandra, on the north, is ' Komera,' about two and a half miles north-west-by. 
north from * Kunsamurroo.' 

The Attili country is mentioned again, as the Attili dsa, in the Chellur plates of 
A.D. 1143, where, we can now see, the correct reading ia, dese=sav=Attil-iti kshititala-vidita 
.... pradad .... Kata-dandadhinathah, 1 " this same Kata, the leader 
of the forces, ^gave to learned Brahmans the Mandadorru agraUra, together with the village 
of Ponduva, in the district known on tlie earth by the name of Attili." The Mandadorju 
agraMra, it may he added, seems to be tie ' Mamdooroo ' of the Atlas sheet, about four miles 
'>nth-raHt from Attili, and two miles on the east of ' Kunsamurroo.' 


Differing from all the records of the Western Chalukyas of Badami, and from some of the 
other records of the series to which it itself belongs, 8 this record presents the family-name in 
line 5.6, in prose, as Chalukya, with the long & in the first syllable. It does the same, again 
in prows line 30, in mentioning the king Chalukya-Bhima I. But in line 52 it presents tho 
family-name as Cbalukya, with, the short a, j this instance is in verse. 

In order to introduce a play upon words in connection with the incarnation of tbe Rod 
\ *yu ns a dwarf, the composer has presented the name of the founder of the dynasty M 
Ktibja-Vishnu (line 7), instead of using the full form Kubja-Vishnuvardhana. 

In connection with Vijayaditya in., it may be noted that this record, following some 
others, presentsmlme 15, in verse, in the form of Gnnaga, a Kruda, belonging to him, which in 
the Ma 8 uhpatam(?) plates of CMlukya-BMrna II, of the period A.D. 934 to 945, is presented a* 
Gunaka.* And in the same verse, just after tiiat, it describes him as ankakaras.sakshftt Aa 
gunalsa means ' a calculator, reckoner,' and anTca meana 'a numerical figure,' I originally' took 
the expression aAbriufnuNrifeft* as meaning " a thorough arithmetician," and as explaining the 
bwd** ^ And it is, in fact, difficult to avoid thinking that the composer of this record may have 
had in view some kind of an explanation of the bimda as presented here. The full form of the 
Mm*, however, was Qunakenallata, he who is good, excellent, or beautiful on account of his 
virtues, as given m the Kolavennu plates which also were issued in the time of Chaluk 7 a- 
Bhima IL And, though ottoMra may have to be here invested with a secondary meani 
than tt no doubt ^that it also stands for the word which in the southern records is usually written 
^a^^iththeDi-avidmnf, and that the expression used by the composer is properly and 
primarily to be translated by ' a veritable cHampion.'" Like all the other records, with one 
eioeptaon, ifai. record states that Vijayadity, 111. reigned for forty-four years, and does not, 
in mhty, add an alternative statement of forty-eight years j see note 8 on page 189 below The 
ole exception is the Pithapuram plates of Vira-Ch6dadeva of A.D. 1092-93, which specify 
forty years ; this is to be attributed to a careless omiseion of the syllables Mdha or *rikote. 

e Prof. KuOhm has shewn that the record preset .. by mistake ^^0-^ ' 

Begarding tie vanants of the lamUy-name in, reBpectively, the Weetern and the Eastern xecordB mT 

(ta * e ^ r ftt - B " t > *-* > r - ">. rt -"x 

Tol. V. ahove,p. 136, Hue 13-13. 4 - Ind ^ nt Vo i X X p 102 

' OL L * * ""* 12 '~ l ^ ^^ "^ 8 me remril8 a ' this ***** ta > 

k t^rTir r T 1 ' VL above ' *' 66 > note ** * ^ * been ,id there, 

added that Momer-WilhaniB' Sanskpt Dictionary, revised edition, gives aMakdr* M ase d in the W* 
mean champion chosen by each side to decide a battle* - rc 

? Vo1, V, above, p. 76, line 26. ' ? w the e d yew if thi. record, e. Vol. VI. rior* p. 386. 


Differing from all the other records, this one says, in line 30 f ., that YikramMitya H, 
reigned for nine months. Of the other records, some Bay eleven months, and some say one jear.i 

If taken as it actually stands in line 31 f ., in prose, this record would represent Yuddha 
m alia XI. as Tdlapa-rdj-dgrajajanmav, "born from an elder brother of kiog Taluj*." TLii 
statement, however, is not borne out by the other records which mention tbe paronti-ige ul 
Y-addb.aEaa.lla II. There is, indeed, one record, -the Diggubajju grant of the period A.D, 03 i in 
945, -whieli; in verse, speaks of him as Malla, and describes him as Tdha-jySs'hfha~sutii ; s und 
this expression, -while ordinarily and most naturally meaning "eldest son of Taha." might 
te rendered as meaning "son of an elder brother of Taha." The other records, howevr, 
more explicit ; and, it may be added, ihey all speak of him by his full name of YuddLmi 
The Padamkaluru grant, of the period A.D. 945 to 970, describes him, in verse, as 
*fiw, s " son of king Talapa." The Masulipatam plates, of the same period, describe Lha, in 
prose, as Tdl-ddliipa-s&nu* "son of the lord Tala." The ' Yelivarru ' plates, also of the mane 
period, describe him, in prose, as Tdlapa-rdjasya suta, 5 " son of king Talapa." And the Kont- 
melli plates, of the period A.D. 1022 to 1063, the Chellur plates of A.D. 1090-Ul, aid 
tLe Pitla&pTiram plates two years later in date, describe him, in prose, as tat-Tdfapa-rdja* 
tutaf " sou. 'of that same king Tadapa." And, in view of those statements, we may safely 
decide tHat there is a mistake of some kind in the present record ; the explanation perhaps is 
that the composer used the word agrajanwian, ' first-born, ' in the sense, whether correctly or not, 
of ' eldest son,' instead of in its usual meaning of ' elder brother,' and that either ho, or the 
writer of -the record, carelessly repeated the ja, and so produced the reading whidi ia actually 
presented, but is certainly wrong. 

In connection with Chalukya-BMma n. (A.D. 934 to 945), whom it calls in Hue 33-8 i sdmp!j 
Bhfaoa, and in line 41 Baja-Bhima, this record mentions, in line 35 ft, the f ollowiiig enemies 
overthro i \ra. "by him, namely, Rajamayya, Dha}aga, Tatabikki, Bijja, A.yyapa, G6vinda. a rulvt 
of the Clxdlae named L6vabikki, and Yuddhamalla. Yuddhamalla is undoubtedly the Ki&teia 
Chalukya king Yuddtoamalla IE., the immediate predecessor of Chalukya-BMma II, ; & speitie 
mention <y Ms overthrow and expulsion by Bhima IT. is made in the Padamkalura giant <{ 
-the period A.D. 945 to 970.? Govinda is the Eashtrakuta king Gdvinda IV., foi whom we 
have dates ranging from A .D. 918 to 933-34. Ayyapa is very possibly the Ayyapadero, doubt- 
less a Nolamba prince of the Nolambavadi territory in Mysore, to whom the "Western Gauga pruw, 
Bjeyappa lent a force for the purpose of fighting against a certain Viramaheudra j 8 and, if so, h 
probably follows that Viramahendra was another bwuda, of Chalukya-BhtmalL, or, ratliBr, TO? a 
variant of Ms liruda Gandamahendra. Bijja seems to be identical with the Dantivaratn, ako 
named Bijja, who is mentioned in the spurious Sudi plates, apparently in connection with Banavlrt, 
as one of iine foes against whom, it says, the "Western Ganga prince Butuga II. (A D, Oit an*! 
d53) foTxgtt and prevailed. 9 And Eajamayya is perhaps the Bajavarman who, also, is iwuli, u< a 
in that record, but without any indication as to where his territory lay. Ldvabikki, fie rule- 
of the Oliolas, is not as yet known from any other sources. To Dhajaga and 
reference is made in the Kolavennu plates of Chalukya-Bhlma II. himaelf, in a 

See Jnd, Ant. Vol. XX. p. 269. Aud, for the statement of eleven mouths, add now the Fitim F an,,,n 
ie Vol. V. above, p. 76, line 28. 

Ind. Ani, Vol. XIII. p. 2U, line SO f. ' I* Vol. Vll. p. 16, Hue 19. 

140 line IS f s '<* -*' Vcl XIL * 9J! ' 

VII. p. W. S* W. VI. d, P. ' * 


presenting their names in the somewhat different forms of Dhaladi and T&tabityana, spp eara 
to say: "He, this Bajamartanda (a very SUE among kings), piercing (everything) ^ ^ ront 
(o/ Urn), having conquered in. battle, with his arm, him who was named Tatafoifeyana, 
(and also) Bhaladi, causes his fame to be sung by people." 1 We hare, however, no information 
as yet aa to the part of the country to which they belonged. 

It maybe remarked, incidentally, that a birttda of CMtakya-Bhima II., not mentioned 
in this record, which is presented in the Gundtgolanu grant of the period A.D. 945 to 970 as, 
apparently, Kajayilladata, 2 would have been given more correctly as Kareyilladata : it means 
"he in whom there is no spot or blemish" (Itarey-illad-dta) ; and it answers exactly to the 
Sanskrit appellation Akalanka. 

* * * * * 

\XcMmekamba, who caused the grant to be made, seems to be clearly marked by line 53 
as a courtesan. It would appear, therefore, that she was a favourite mistress of tiie king, 
And, for a case analogous to this one, we may quote that of the courtesan Vin&p6ti } the 
pr&namllabU or "mistress as dear as life" of the Western Chalnkya king Vijayaditya, who ia 
mentioned in one of the Mahakuta inscriptions as making certain grants to a temple, and whom 
that record has treated with such respect as to name also her mother and grandmother. 3 So, 
also, the spurious Sudi plates claim a grant of some land at that village by the Western Gauga 
prince Butuga II, for the purposes of a Jain temple founded by his mistress Divalamb&. 4 


The EattavardMka lineage (anvaya),- to which, as is indicated in line 52 f . of this record, 
OhtaJflkimbft belonged by birth, and in respect of which we are told that the members of it 
belonged to the retinue of the Chalulcya togs, is mentioned as the Pattavardtini race 
(TOOTM) in a record of AmmaL (A.D. 918 to 925). That record specifies, as members of it, 
Kaiakampa, who had been a follower of Kubja-Vishnuvardhana I, and, with his permission, had 
killed in battle (a Img) Daddara and seized his insignia; a descendant of Kalakampa, named 
Sdmaditya; Somaditya's son Pritiviyarlja; and Pritiviyaraja's son Bhandan&ditya, also 
called Kimtaditya, who had been a servant of Vijayaditya IV. (A.D. 918), and to whom the 
grant of a village, registered in the record, was made. 6 And another reference to it is to be 
found in a record of Amma II, (A.D. 945 to 970), which registers the grant of some fields to 
ike Yweortijc Baliaiadeva-Veiabliata, also called Boddiya, son of (the lady) Pammava (of) 
the Pattanrdainl (family). 6 

* S<Htt1i-Ind. Inion. Vol. I. p. 45, line 17 ft I read the first two pddas, from an ink-impression, thus ; Taa 
Titabikvan4ftyariin=Dba]adi nunn-ljiv* Bljamlrtiairfati. Jhe verse is in the Ary&giti metre, At tlie end of the 
teAfUo H*hMofooiii8etoba corrected into totyau, In the second jAdo, thiee syllabic instanta are 
wanting j tie metre may be set right by reading: ~ Dhaladira mmm-ir. Bajam&rttandfl =SRU. The 

woi-da mum- 


'Z<*.^. Vol. XIII. p. 249, line IMS. > JeZ. Vol. X. p. 103. 

' Vol in above, p 184; and see 2nd. Mt. Vol. XXX. p. 817, No. 81. The expression mMya-friyd, in 
Ime 70 of' the text, should be rendered by "his mistress ; notbj "his wife," as was done by me in editing the 
record This should perhaps have been recognised by me at the time, from the description of DivalambS. i n ii ne 4 
aa "the oneRamblia of the world ;" and also because, the passage being in prose, the word print or bAdryd might 
have been used jurt as readily as friyd, if a *ife waa really intended. But there are, I think, a few casea in which 
aaite respectable women were likened to Rambhl in respect of their beauty and general charms j and the name itself 
o-cnrs aa the name of RambU, the tddM or virtuoua wife of the poet Ratnasimha, ia the Ratnapur inscriptioa 
aj prithvldeva (Vp. 2nd. Vol. I. p. SO, verse 12). However, we know now that the wife of Bfltuga II. wa 
Revaktminmiadi ; Bee Vol. VI. above, p. 71. 

SoM-Ini. Zuicri. Vol. I, P- 48 8 Vol. V. bove, p. 140, 


In addition to conveying the village itself, tlie record recites, in line 70 f ., the grant in 
etuity, to a certain Kusumayudha, son of Kattalamba, of the gr&maMlatta or office of 
Utamakuta O r headman of the village. The post was evidently that of the village official 
who is known in Marathi as the Patel or Bitil, and in Kanarese as the Gavuda or Gteuda. 

Of the Kanarese word gavuda or gauda, we hate various earlier forms, gautida? 
gavuntja* gdvunda? gavun^ gavundu? g&munja* and g&mntfu? And we can BOW see that it 
was derived from. the word grdmakuta itself, through a corruption of grJma, into some such 
form as the gdmvu which occurs as the termination of certain village-names in the Paithan plates 
of A.D. 1272, 8 coupled with, in kuta, a disappearance of the fc and a softening of the I into tf, 
and accompanied by a shifting of the nasality of the first component of the word. It may be 
added that., in colloquial usa^e, the modern form gauda ia often nasalised and pronounced 
gaun$a ; also, that Professor Pisckel tells me that the DUsindmamdld, ii. 69, gives gdniautja 
as the Prakrit form of grdmaMfa. 

It may be remarked here that the Marathi wordpatel, patil, can now he distinctly traced back 
to the earlier word pattakila, which we have in, for instance, the Ujjaia plates of A.D. 975 and 
1023 s and the Bh&pal plates of A.D. 1200, 10 through an intermediate form pattSla which I have 
found in a Sanskrit Nagari inscription, of about the thirteenth century A.D., at Manchar ia the 
Poona district, in which a certain person is described, in verse, as pattela-varya, " best or chief of 
the pa$}elcts." In this case, again, there has been an elision of a medial It. 

In line 72, the record presents the expression ajnaptih. katakadidsah. The word ajfiapti 
means literally { a command.' But, as has been indicated before now, in such passages as the 
present one it was employed to denote the Dtitaka or messenger, whose duty it 'was to communi- 
cate the fact and details of a grant to the local authorities. 11 What was intended by the word 
katakadJb-isa, has not been so obvious. But it can now be made clear by a comparison of 

\ Vol. V. above, p. 232, and p. 247, line 34. ' Ibid. p. 232. 

3 Hid. pp. 214, 261 ; and Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 219, the last line of thetert : this last instance is of A.D. 866. 

* Jonr. So. Sr. E. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 245, line 48. 

1 Ibid. p. 204, line 1, and p, 245, line 46 ; the first of these two instances is of A,D. 980. 

' Ind. JLnt. Vol. XI. p. 70, line 17, of about A.D. 750 ; and id. Vol. XIX. p, 144, line 8 ff.,of about A.D. 690. 

1 Id. Vol. XII. p. 271, lines 12, 13 > this instance is of A.D. 973. 

8 See id. Vol. XXX. p. 517, 

9 Id. Vol. VI. p. 51, line 10, and p. 53, line 7-8. Mr. N. J. Kirtune, who edited those records, recognised the 
meaning of paftabila, and translated it by pdttl. 

10 Id. Vol. XVI. p. 254, line 10. 

" See, for instance, id. Vol. XX. pp. 18, 96, and Vol. V. above, p. 119. The word has, indeed, been other- 
wUe rendered, by ' executor $' see South-Id. Insert. Vol. I, pp. 36, 6-2, and Vol. V. above, p. 71. But that is 
opposed by sucli expressions as djud svayam and sva-muJeh-djnayd ia two of the records of the Eastern Gangas of 
Kaliitganagara ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 121, line 19, and Vol. III. above, p. 129, line 24 ; The word f/rf, 
also, means ' a command.' It was, indeed, sometimes used in the same technical sense with djnapti-, for instance, 
another Eastern Ganga record says djnd naUmah,aUara-Qmriiarvm\d*'], "the SjM is the Mahdmahattara 
Oauri&MTOan, 3" see Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 123,line 24. But in the expression sva-mitTel-djnayd it is to ha translated 
by its ordinary meaning of ' command ; ' the passage tells us that " this charter of Bljasimha has been written, at 
the command of his (the Tcing>) own mouth, by Vinayachandra, son of Bhinuchandra " In the expression djnd 
tsayam, it may have a more technical meaning. But it cannot there mean ' executor ; ' for, a Jting would certainly 
not attend in person to the administration of an endowment made by him. On the other hand, neither would lie act 
as a DAtaka ; and Prof. Kielhornhas reminded me of two cases in which the expression djU nay am, in the transposed 
lam'nayafv'AjiU, "the djM is Ourself," is followed by the words' MUkat^Mtoa, "and the Difoka in this 
matter is, ebc.," introducing the name of a person who was not the king who is designated hy the words st^aw* 
d/firfj see l&d. Ant, 'Vol. IX. p. 170, line 21, and p. 175, line 22-23. 


We must get aside one instance of an anomalous nature, occurring in the record of ^ -ne second 
year of Vish.nuvardh.arta II. It presents the expression sva-mukli-djnaptd- 1 ELex* e > "we have 
to emend tbe terfc, aad read either ajnnptn, or djndpitd, or more prohably ajnay>^y^> "by the 
command of (Our) own mouth," on the analogy of the sva-mukh-djfiayd which ocettrs elsewhere, 1 
And, irrespective of the necessity for emendation, this instance is not to the point- The other 
instances, in chronological order, are : 

(1) The record of the eighteenth year of Vishnuvardbana I. recites, ... 
apaptirsAtavidurjjayah, 3 " the jnapti is Atavidurjaya, bora in tho illustrious Matsya 
family, who has bowed down hia enemies by ike strength and prowess of his arm./* (2) Tha 
record -which purports to be of the eighteenth year of Jayasimha I. but is of somewliat doubtful 
authenticity, recitea, a(a)jnaptis=Siyasamim=asya, 4 "the ajnapti of this (gra.vit') is Siya- 
sarman." (3) A record of the time of Mangi-Yuvaraja (A.D. 672 to 696) recites, &jnapti 
Nissaramiji (?) . . . - , 5 " tho ajfiapti is Nissaramiji (?)," (4) A record, of the time 
of VijayMitya, II. (A.D. 799 to 843) recites, in verse, .... &jnaptir=asy a. cLharmmasya 
Nripai'udrd, 8 " the ajnapti of this act of religion is the moat excellent prince ISTripamdra, 
brother of Nare^adramrigavaja-(Yijayaditya II.), born of the Haihaya race." C5) A record. 
yyliich purports to be of the same period (A.D. 799 to 843) but is of some what doubtful 
authenticity, recites, in vei'se, a(a)jfiaptir=asya dharmmasya .... Bola<ma-nam[a*] 
. j 7 "the ajnnpti of this act of religion is that spotless best of men named 
Bolama, a very store of religion, who devotes his thoughts to meritorious actions ixx -this world." 

(6) A record of the time of Vijayadiiya III. (A.D. 844 to 88 Si) recites, in verse, ajnaptirs 
aaya dnarmniasya .... P&udararngab. .... , 8 "the ajnaptii of this aot 
uf religion ia the majestic Pandaranga, vfho like a second Blbhatsu (Arjana) lias overconae 
all hostility by Ms valour." (7) A record of the time of OMlukya-Bhlma I. (A. IX 888 to 918) 
recites, inverse, ajna(jua)ptir=asya dharmmasja Kadeyarajah .... , 9 *' the ajfiapti 
of this act of religion ia the majestic Kadeyaraja, whose father's father was P&ridaranga who 
vexed his foes." 

(8) A record of the time of Anoxia I. (A.D. 918 to 925) recites, ajfiapti[b*3 3zatakarajah, 10 

"the ajnaptiis the Katakaraja." (9) A record of the time of Amma II. (A.D. 945 to 
970) similarly recites, ajMptih katakarajah, 11 "the ajnapti is the Katakarlija." (1O) 
Another record of the same period (A.D. 945 to 970) similarly recites, ajfiaptib. katakarajah, 1 * 

" the ajfiapti is the Katakaraja." (11) Another record of the same period (A.D. 945 
t0,970) similarly recites, ajiia(jua)ptih katakarajah, 13 " the ajnapti is the Xatafcaraja." 

(12) The present record, also of the time of Amma II. (A.D. 945 to i>70) recites, in verse, 
ijaaptih katakadhis[a*], 14 "the ajfiapti is the Katakadhlsa." (13) A record, of the time 
of Kajaraja I. (A.D, 1022 to IOCS) recites, in prose, ajuaptih kati(ta)Mo, lb *- " the ajnapti 
is the EatakSsa." 

i 2nd. Ant. Vol. VII, p. 189, liue 67, and Vol. VIII. p. 320, Plate. 

a Sea p. 183, above, note 11. 8 Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 17, line 20. 

* Id, Vol. XIII. p. 138, line 28. 

* Id. Vol. XX. p. 106, line 28. For djndpti, read djnaptih. 

* Id- Vol. XX. p. 417, line 61 f. Tht ucfcual reading of the name, presented in the original, is r 
i Vol. V. above, p. 121, lime 25. 9 Ibid. p. 1S5, line 34 f . 

Hid. p. 130, line 45 f. Ibid, p. 183, line 36, 

11 Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 17, line 63. For cyMptify, read fynaptih. 
w Id, Vol. XII. p. 93, line 60. ' " Id. Vol. XIII. p. 250, line 3& 

14 Page 188 below, line 72. 

15 Ind. A*t. Vol. XIV. p. 55, line 113 f. I have previously taken thie passage a meaning < tfa e dinamti \ 

ftkfcSa, son of R&ahiya-Pedd6ri-Bhlina ;" see id. Vol. XX. p. 2f 5. But the last words hate to l>e connected with 

ice name of the composer, Chfetanabhatta, 


A record of A.D, 1090-91 recites, .... dattasy=asya sasanasy=a;jnaptib 
paihclxa pradhanah, 1 " the ftjnapti of this charter, given in the twenty-first year of the 
glorious and victorious reign, is the five ministers." And similarly (15) A record of the 
same reign, toro years later in date, recites, .... dattasy=asya iasanasy=ajnaptih 
paihoha pradhanah, 2 " the &jnapti of this charter, given in the twenty-third year of the 
gloriotxB and victorious reign, is the five ministers." 

Now, in the instances Kos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7, the word ajnapti unmistakably introduces 
certain individual persons mentioned by name; and probably also in No. 3, where, however, 
a continuation of the text may have been lost. And, f&ja, being a frequent enongh ending of 
proper- names, it was, therefore, not unnatural that the word fcajafcaraja should have been 
originally, taken as, similarly, a personal appellation. 

Oix tne other hand, in the instances Nos. U and 15, no individual is mentioned by name, 
and tlae word fij&apti introduces a body of officials known as the five ministers. 

TKe word fcaf oMfo, m *To. 13, * mere variant of the fcafafefcZMfe of No. 12 ; and both 
these words are fairly capable of being taken as only synonyms of MaWja. We can 
recognise a decided objection to interpreting katafcarlja as a prope, name, m the fact that 
it coxxld at least nob denote one and the same individual through so long a penod as that which 
s oo^ered by ^ instances Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 11. And, from a comparison of all the passages 
lay finalt decide that, as has been suggested as possible some to .go,' the word 
Maay nnauy kfttak adlilsa and katakesa, should be taken as denoting an official 

" of tt 

ae p^,^,. (orms> 

rf ^*^^ 

MayidavWu plates of Siva-Skandavarman.' 

TEXT. 8 

First plate. 

4. aa-^m&sadita-vW-^rtol&mchchMolhOn-Sksh^ .puehtA Obi- 

5 nrt-t^ t - h r k iiUi M en 

6 IttUy&nam kulam 

J_na, -.-- r- - i T-rf -DJJ. yui. A-O-- ? , 

v, v. .b., ,. H >ie m ^ p . , ^ i. * = ^Vrv.Ts, "L .7, 

I', Vol. II. N.. 73, 1. 10 It, htt. f^f^V* 5^.. l^ipti.,, 
,f Lllhraiiuii. ltd. M- Vol. XXII. p. 71, 

in the usual wij. i. Bead '*** sda An ovA ^n of tiu two 

.I ^e^llt^h). T^arawo^^too^y^eio^,^, 

yllble Zya would mke the loaetre correct. 2 1 



: VII, 

7 kram&a(n):4dy6 durjjayad=Balitd liritaih asttadatSa samah Kubja-Vishgur- 


8 r=mirmliim=aalaat Tad-atmaj& Jayasiinhas-trayas-trimSataia [|*J tad-a- 

Second plate - first side. 

9 mij-l!ndrftraja-nandan6 Vishnuvarddhand nava | tat-sannr=Mmamgi-Yuvarfija^ pa- 

tat-putr6 Jayasimhaatray6daa || Tasya 



11 klsiliCh*] Bha^-mMa [|*] tasya i[y*]6shth6 bhrata Vishnuvarddhanastam 

uclichatya sapta-fcrim^a- . 

12 tarn I tat-sntft Vijayaditya-Bhattarakdnslitadaga | tat-satft Vishnu- 

13 varddkana^ shat-feriihgatam | tat-sut& Nardndramrigarajas-s-asiLta-chatvarim^a- 
U tarn | tat-putra^ Kali-Vislinuvarddhana-dliy-arddlia-varsham [II*] Tat-sut& 


15 .oliatafl.ohatvari[ili*]fetam | athava |i SntasMasya iy^hth6 Qunaga- 


16 mtakai-as=saksli[^3d=Vallabhanpipa-samabliyarclioHta.bliujah pradhanafh*! 

na(na)m=api subliata- ' " 



18 r=yyu V ar a jasya 

19 Mnlxxa-sanmbhah 

Second plate ; second side. 

aaxhyati Krishnavallabha-^ha.dand 





23 eya pnya-tenay&B mal 1 &n=adliik a -Dlianada S = 

24 nvitet para-Mdaya-ni^bM namn=aiva 

Third plate ; first side, 

Kaluchumbarru Grant of Vijayaditya-Amma II. 


^^f^SSJi^S;'^>^ : : "." *r:-v v * v -- r .< 

&'?' *^^l\" i l4* ki ^|%^. '.i';'''-;', 11 ''-'^," **;'''* <~^~S', % - "**v , *" 

5/v^v*w* fe)f'<* J&r*;,^' *>^ \w~,vCu'v* ~/ '< y /-v-T'.j ,-. , rt .- v- ,., - N ^ s _^ ' ^ 

.lf x ^V w^^^/^^^^i^^^S'T'O.v;^ ^- ? ~ -"*...- t,; - - - 

^^a^^^^^forj'H ; - ---l.^ ^/ r -::;, : 

r ' t ' '..* ' ' - '^^^V: ' -I ^/ ; -- -^ - 1 "' <"- 

^m-fe-'S^^t^F'^r^^^^''^ >*>.-^: : ^v v ^,.v vWv v w 
,;,-, _ r ^ v ^^r-:^^^,7^ -->v ^.N-V^-.^^.:.-,-^ *_ .^ ^^ * 

'>'',,'' ' -" ' ^ *'-,,'' < * ""*"" " t^!> "'*" / # 4 ' S - 

i-' jM.'f^B^*': 4*^",**^.. . J.V* .. - " VJ>< *"Cjl **V. J VL> .. V- .-1. . . "*> .. "l .' "*~" 

1 >s'*''^^5 " 


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SCALE '80 

t) a. 



" lam - .. . _ . .--.. . - ...... .; .. ;. _ ..... .. - .. .-. . .-_ ........ 

31 mksbipya nava masan palayat 1 !! Tat6 YuddhamallasTlapa-ra- 
82 j-agrajajauma 8 sapta Yarshani griM(M)tv=atishtliat || Tatr 3 =antar6 vidita- 

Third plate , second side. 

83 Kollabigan.d,a-But6 4 dvaimafrar6 vimta-BSjamah^ndra-namnalj Bhi- 

84 m-adbipo vi;jita^hi(bM)ma-bala-pratapab praoliiii=di^am vimalayann=-adi- 

85 td -vij&tum" [||*] Srimantam 5 Bajamayyan*DhaJagam*urtitaran=TatabikM^ 


86 ?da[m*] Bijjaih. sa[J3aih oka] 6 yuddlie balinam=atita(ta)raia=Ayyapaih bMmam= 


37 dandam G6vinda-raja-praniMtaia=adb.ikam Ch.6la-pam Ldvabikkim'' vi 
33 kranta[m*] Tuddhamallam ghatita-gaja-gliatan=sanidhaty=aika 4ya |J 

39 sayaa=sat-saranam 8 =Tipagat[a*]n=palayan=kantakaii=uts anna n=k u r v v a n=s u-g p i h. u a- 
*4iO n=karara=apara-'bh.uy6 ramjayana(ii) svafi=jan-ati.gliam tanTan=kSrtti[ih*] nar^ndr- 

41 mayann=arjjayan=vaatTi-ra^a=^va ^rf-Eaja-Bhimd jagad=akhilam=agau(sau) 

Fourth plate; first side. 

42 bdanysarakshat |(||) Tasya 9 Malie8vara-mii[r*]tt^r=TJma-samaii-akrit^h Kumara- 

"samana[h*] L6- 

43 kamahadvyah khalu yas=sama'bliavad=Amma-raja ifci -vikliyat6(tat) I (II) Y6 


44 Maa6jarii vibliav^na MaliSndram=abiiaakarairi=urii-malia(lia)8S Harara 10 =ari-pTira- 


45 ii^na nyak-kurvvan=bJiati vidita-nirmmala-kirtiab^ [U*] Tad^-b^hu-da^da-karav^la- 


46 matt-Sbha-kumbka-galitani Tribt^nti yuddtd muktdpa(pb.a)14ni gubtata-ksiia- 

47 taj-6keHt4id bijani ktrtti-vitat6r=siva r6pitanih ls |(||) Sa eamasta- 

48 Kb.uvaiiaSraya-^r!-Vijuy8,dit y a-m ali^rajadliirai a-p aram<Hvar a-p aramabha- 

49 tt^rakah parama-brah.maniyairL=Attilina^du l3 -vi8lxaya-ru.vasin6 raBb.trakiita-pramu- 

50 kMn=kutumbmaa=samaMy=^tthLara=aitiapayatih 14 I| Addakali ls -gacb,cMia-namli | Vala- 

Fourth plate ; second side. 

51 h,fi.ri-ga 


1 Bead m&sdn=ap&layat. 

' Bead dgrajanmd ; and see the remarks on page 181 above. 

Metre, Vasantatilaka. * Bead putrd, or tinw, to suit tlie metre. 
' Metre, Sragdhara ; and in the next verse. 

I giye what appears to be the reading. But the letters are so filled in with met here, that it is not quite 

? The first syllable of this name is probably 16, with the ordinary 2. But it might possibly be taken, as 16, 
with th,e Dravidian I. 

Bead saeh-cMaranam, ' Metre, Aryagiti; and in the. next verse. 
10 The TO was at first omitted, and then was inserted below ttheiline. 

u Metre, Vasantatilaka. 

M Bead rtipitdnt, A vitarga has in the same way been mistakenly 'inserted in djnapayatih, line 50, and 

11 Bead, either brahmanya Attili*4nd, with hiatus, or, more correctly, lraf>many6^TliUnd^dH, with aamdhi. 
Bee note 1 on page 179 above. 

" Bead &jMpayat\. Metre, Ary igiti ; and in the next three verses, 



52 lasluta-manaskah. || Sri-raja-CIialuky-.nvaya- | 

53 laka | gapiklljana-muklia.kamu(ma)la-dyumani-dyutir=ilia hi Chameka- 

54 mb=4bhlt=sa |(||) Jina-dharmma-jala-vivarddhaiia- | -^asi a -rucliira-Bam&- 

55 na-kirttHabha-vil&la f dana-daya-i(st)la-yuta | 3 charu- 
.55 sri* Sravaki budia-irata-nirat^ || Yasyafc 6 guru-pamktir=uch.ya- 

57 t& || Siddhanta-para-dri^va prakatita-guna-Sakalacliandrasiddhanta-muiii[li*] I 

58 tack-chlusliy [6*] gunavan=p r a b h u r=a m i t a-y a s a a=s u-m a t i r=A y y a p 6 1 i-m u- 

56 nindrah |) Tach 6 -chMsliyay=Arb.anaiidy-a(a)mkita-Yara-munayd Chamekambl BU- 

btaktya sri- 

JVfi^ $>late first side. 

60 mat srif-Sarvvaldkasraya-Jiimbliavaim-kh^ 


61 r&j[6*] ksKtiblmti Kaluohuriibajrpuau-gramam=ishtaiii | 8 clia(sa)nLtualita 

dapayitvS, bu- 

62 dha-jana-Tiuutam yatra ja(ja)grab.a kirttim |j Trttarftyana-nimittena ka(kb.a)nda- 


63 ka(ta)-navakarmm-arttlia[m*] sarvva-kara-pariliararii sasanikritya dattam=Aay= 

avadhayah [|*j purvva- 

64 tab^ Aruvilli 9 [|*] dakshinatat Korukolanu I pa^chimatah Yidiytru I 
(55 uttaratah. YuDikodamandra II Tassya ksMtr-avadhayab. [|*J pfirvvatah 

S arkarakuir TU [ | *] 

66 daksbinatah Isjulakolu [|*] palchimatah Idiy&ri pola-garusu | uttaratal?, 


67 ndu || Asy=6pari na knacliid=badh4 karttavyli yah karoti ea pamcka- 

mahapataka-sa [ m*] y u- 
63 kt6 iDhavatib. 10 |(||) Bahnbhir^ovvasudhA datfcam 12 bahubhi8=cli=anupalit4 yasja 

yasya ya- 
(59 da Tob.fcmi8=tasya tasya tada phalam || Sva-datta[m*J pai^a-datta[m*] va y6 

liai-Sta yasu- 


Fifth plate ; second side. 

70 [ndha]ra[m3 shasliti-varsiia-saliasra^i viahthaya[ra*] [jaya*]te kpimih j| Asya 

gramasya 13 gramaku(kt)ta- 

71 tva[m Ka]ttalamb-atma]'at l *-Kusamayudh.aya dattaih la^vatam || Asya gratnaaya 

72 [ka ?]pp-abbidJianam kara-varjjitah(m) || IjSaptJi 15 katakadhii[6*] BhatfcadSva^= 

clia l^khakab. kavi^ Ka- 

Bead dntaya-parivdrita, omitting the mark of punctuation. 
Read vivarddhana-tafi, omitting the mark of punctuation. 
This mark of punctuation, at the end of a third pdda, is superfluous. 
This stands for okdwSrift. See page 179 above. Bead yasyd. 

Metre, Sragdharft. 7 R ea d MmaeMM, 

This mark of punctuation, at the end of a third pdda, is superfluous. 

The M was first written in the place of the *i. Then the aks&ara was corrected iuto vi nd the Hi 
added, before the writer went any further. 

11 Metre, Sldka (Anushtulh) ; and in the next verse, 

11 Eead<fo4. 

11 The na was at first omitted, and then was fowertd below the line, 

' Metre, Slftka(Anusitubh), 



73 Yichakravartti sasanass&syukrit * || Peddba(dda)-Kaluehuvubafiti sasanafm*]bu 

a&aina 3Blia- 

74 ttad^vaaikArahanandi-bliatatCu*31u Gumsimiya r[e*]tHdlu-gampulunundi pa-ia 

r4a. 2 tumuna net? ni) 3 vutlu vittu-pattu vrasa'dan=cbMri [||*J 


Cm! Hail I Of SatyaJrayavallabhndra<Pulake^itt IL),-~ who adorned the family of 
the Ch&lukyas, who are glorious ; who "belong to the Mamavya gotra which, is being praised 
throughout the whole world ; "who are HMtiputras ; who acquired sovereignty by the favour of 
a boon from th.e goddess Katis'iki ; who are protected by the assemblage of the Mothers (of th 
world) ; who meditate on the feet of the god Svami-Mahasena ; who have made the territories 
of their subject to themselves on the instant at the mere sight of the excellent 
boar-crest wlxich they acquired through the favour of the divine Narayana; and whose bodiei 
have been purified by ablutions performed after celebrating a^awe^a-saciiEces. the (younger) 
brother : 

(Verso 1 ; line 6.) The victorious Kubja-Vishnu (that ia, Viehnuvardhana I.), the first 
husband of ITortune,* protected for eighteen years the earth, taken by his valour from a mighty 
(/oe) 5 hard to he conquered, just as the 'dwarf Vishnu, the first husband of Sri (Lakshmi), 
protected the earth, taken by his stride from the demon Bali hard to be conquered. 

(Line 8.) His son Jayasimha (I.) (reigned) for thirty-three (yean). Vishnuvardhaaa 
(II.), son, of Ms younger brother Indraraja, for nine (years). His son Mangi-Yuvaraja, for 
twenty-five (years). His son Jayasi&ha (II.), for thirteen (years). 

(L. 10.) His younger brother Kokkili, bom from a different mother, (reigned) for six 
months, Has elder brother Vishnuvardhana (III.), having expelled him, (reigned) for 
thirty-seven Clears). His son Vijayaditya (I,)*Bhattaralca, for eighteen (years). His sou 
Vish^OTardKana (IV.), for thirty-six (yeurt). His son Harndramrigar3a-(Vijayaditya 
H,) for forty- eight (years') . His son Kali-Vishnuvardhana (V.), for one year and a half, 

(L. 14.) His son Gunaga-Vijayaditya (HI.) (reigned) for forty-four (years) ; or (in other 
ordO;-(V. 2- 1 15.) His eldest son, the lord Chiuaga-Vijayaditya (III), a ventabb 
champion/* to W hose arm great honour was paid by the Vallabha king; and who, in addition 
to being a ciiief of heroes, was a crest-jewel of great warriors, enjoyed the earth for four aud 
forty years. 8 

(Vv. 3, 4 j 11. 17, 19.) The son of his brother the Jwardja king Vikramaditya (L), 
namely, the king Bhlma CD, 9 vho caused alarm to his foes, and who was (to) liberal (that, he 

1 Bead, probably, fdsanaxy=*dty 

'. SrSher SSTSi en^ved d ct,d W. -, *, fW A. 
the akshara, is perhaps a mistake for the figure 9. 

Bali. But we have no facts as yet, in suppo 

of M** ** ******* < 


tMs record, many years ago, I read, fc line If, 
e eluded iuto ^J^^^aJ]^^ 
Vol. XX. p. 102) that this record adds an ^rnahveata^ 


III. * forty-eight years. The real reading, ^-^ ^ 

nd my awatake was due to the great aimilarity between the untal a ana we 
uboript d eft, in the period to *hich this ord Wo ugs. ftpDe ll ft tioa, 

Tins ^g ! mentioned again itt line 30 as Chaiukya-Bhima (I.), by wi more y. 


resembled Kanina (Kama), conquered in fight the great army of Krishnavallablia, 1 together 
with kinsmen of his own, and, being a very son io gods and saints and Brahmans, repeatedly 
gave away wealth for religions purposes, and made his kingdom free from, troubles and un- 
equalled and very thriving and possessed of prosperous subjects, and enjoyed the earth righteously 
for thirty years. 

(V. 5 j 1. 22.) After that, his dear son Vijayftditya (IV.), who was great ; who bestowed 
so much wealth that he surpassed the god Dhanada (Kubera) ; who was endowed with, truthful- 
ness and liberality and majesty; who cleft open the hearts of his enemies; and who by name 
indeed was (known as") the king Xollabiganda, reigned for six months, possessed of prudent 
behaviour and steadfastness. (V. 6; 1. 25.) His eldest son king Amma (I.), whose power 
was unconqueredj who conquered whole rows of hostile kings; who had the famous name of 
Kajamahendra ; and who was ike straight path of the sentiment of compassion, was Mag 
for seven years. 

(L. 27.) Having expelled his son Vijayadltya (V.) (while he was) a child, king Talapa, 
son of the glorious Yuddhamalla (I.), 8 guarded (the earth') for one month. Having 
completely conquered him in battle, Vikramaditya (II.), son of Chalukya-BMma (I.), 3 
having overthrown him by prowess in. attack, protected (the earth') for nine months. Then 
Yuddhamalla (II.), the eldest son* of king Talapa, took (the sovereignty) and continued for 
seven years. 

(V. 1 j 1. 32.) At that juncture, the lord Bhlma (IE.), who was a son of the famous 
Kollabiganda-(Vijayaditya IV.) ; who was a brother, born from a different mother, of him 
(Amma L) who lad the extolled name of Bajamahendra; and who surpassed the epic hero 
Bhima in strength and majesty, rose up to conquer, purifying the eastern region. (V, 8; 
1. 35.) Having unaided, indeed, slain the glorious Rajamayya, and Dhajaga who excelled far 
and wide, aad the fierce Tatabikki, and Bijja who was (always) ready for war, and the 
excessively powerful Ayyapa, terrible and savage, and the extremely great army sent by Hug 
G-ovinda, and LSvabikki the ruler of the ChdlLafl, and the valorous Yuddhamalla, (all of 
them-) possessed of marshalled arrays of elephants :- (V. 9 ; i 38.) Verily, this glorious Baja- 
Bhima (II.), giving encouragement to those who were frightened, and protecting those who 
came to the excellent refuge (which he afforded), and removing troublesome people, and justly 
levying taxes from the lands of his enemies, and giving pleasure to the mass of his own people, 
and spreading his fame abroad, and making the multitude of kings bow down, and accumulating 
stores of wealth, guarded the whole world for twelve years. 

(V. 10; 1. 42.) He who, resembling Kumara, was bom of him, an embodiment of the god 
MahMvara, from Lokamahadevl whose form resembled that of Uma, is he who is famous under 
the appellation of king Amma (II.): (V. 11 j 1. 43.) Who, putting to . shame Maudia 
(KamadSva) by his beauty, and Mahendra (India) by his might, and the hot-rayed sun by his 
great glory, and Hara (Siva) by burning up the cities of his enemies, is resplendent, his spotless 
fame being well known.- (V. 12 ; 1. 45.) The pearls, dropping down in battle from the templee 
of rutting elephants cleft open by the scimitar which is his long arm 3 shine out as the planted 
seeds, moistened by the blood of great warriors, of the clump (oj trees) which is his fame. 

(L. 47.) He, the asylum of the universe, the glorious Vijayaditya-(Amma H.), th 
Mah^rdjddhirdja, Poraw^aro, and Paramabha^draTta, who is most kind to Brahmans, having 

1 That is, the BHahtralrilta -king Krishna II. 

from other sources, ure know that Yuddhamalla I. was a (younger) brother of the Vikrain&dity I -.HO i- 
mentioned in line 18 of this record. 

* That ii, of tho Bhima who in mentioned in line 21 of this record. 

* See page 181 abov. 


, waned uy tne KashtrakHtci, who dwell in the AttiliEandu 
issues his commands : " " 

Mt,,Ki- x. ; 50<) " ( ^ V s ) thesectwhicllllas Rename of the Addakali gachcnlm, wMrk 
Bta b liBlxed its renowned fame m the Valahftri gana, and the minds of the members of which 
racu- desires bent on granting excellent food to ascetics of the four castes. 

14 ; 1, 52.) " Hero (on earth}, indeed, there came into being she, Chameki, who is MI 
t of the Pattavardhika lineage which belongs to the retinue of the lineage of the 
gtonouH royal Chahikyas, and who possesses the lustre of a sun to the water-lilies (blowing in 
the daytifyk&'y which are the faces of courtesans : (V. 15; 1. 54.) And who agitates herself in 
acquiring fame as radiant as that of a moon to bring to full tide the waters of the religion uf 
Jim, and. is endowed with charity and tenderness and good character, and in beautiful, and is a 
disciple "wlao delights in the teachings of learned people. 

(I*. 5 6 . ) " The Hue (of succession) of her teacher is declared : (V. 16 ; 1. 57. i (There was) 

the na.iti.fc iSakalachandrasiddhanta, possessed of virtues which were very manifest, who was 
thoKrafglxly -well versed in the SicWTuwtfa- writings ; and his disciple was the great saint Ayyapoti, 
ritiuotua oaacL masterful and possessed of unmeasured fame and very intelligent. 

I (."V* 17 ; 1. 59.) "To Ms disciple, the excellent saint who is marked by (tie name of) 
Ohambkamba, through her great devotion to him, while king Amma (II,), the 

Mgfa. Icxircl. of Vengl, is reigning, has, with great pleasure, caused to be given the excellent 
villftge of IKaiuoh.umbai'j'U, wished for by him., for the purposes of the renowned dioing-hall of 
fti holy and famous Jain temple called Sarval6k&graya-Jinabhavaaa ; whereby she has acquired 

praised by learned peopleTJ 

>,) " On. account of the winter solstice, (this village) has been given, conveyed by 
oBarter, with exemption from all taxes, for the purpose of the restoration of whatever may 
"tar-oken or torn. Its boundaries are : On the east, ATUvilH ; on the south, Korukolanu ; 
Oft the -west, Yidiyiiru ; and, on the north, Yxillikodamandru. The boundaries of its fields 
the east, Barkapaknjju ; 2 on the south, Ijrulakolu ; on the west, the waste land of 
; and, OB the north, the rock (?) called Kancharigundu, 

67.) " No one should cause any molestation (to the enjoyment} of this (village} ', he wha 
does o incurs (the guilt of) the five great sms! (V. 18; 1. 68.) Land has been given bj many 
people, *.nd has been protected (in enjoyment} by many; whosoever at any time powesw A 
mrth, to him belongs, at that time, the reward (of making or protecting *fc* j|foii<)I (V. I; 
1. 60O ^ e - wto confiscates land that has been given, whether by himself or by another, ia bora * 
ft wowocx in ordure for the duration of sixty thousand years ! 

70.) "The office of QrtmaMt* of this village has been given in peyeh% to 
yudha, son of [Ka]ttaUmba. That, belongmg to this village, which is named %^,* u 
from taxes. 

20; 1. 72.) "The 
of the poetical parts of this charter is the poet Kavichakravarto. 

T^t i, the head official or governor of i*e 

uB was perhaps the name of a hamlet. The ^^ a ^^^ &, ,*,.** 

' HulWWft w- * 

of village-nainea. a* a j~ nr 

tat ta, tbe office of village-headman - the port ^ri* rf th. 
* TWa Memii to ba the vord which in Kiwurese means tribute , 

Tfcat ie, the governor of the wynl <4P ; e page 186 above. 


(L. 73.) To Bhattadeva," 1 who has drawn up tlie chatter concerning Pedda-Kalucb-tx'VU.barj'Ti, 
the venerable Arahanandi lias given, as a present, land requiring as seed 9(_?) puttis of twelve 
tumus (each), (which he received) from the cultivators, (possessing) two bullocks, at Gujii-si^ (?>. 


Mr. G. Venkoba Eao, one of my assistants, lately visited Sojapuram, 2 a village about 8 miles 
south of Vellore, and copied a number of inscriptions, of which I am now publishing "the four 
most interesting ones. 

The ancient name of Sohypuram was Kattuttumbur (B. and D. below), which was included 
in Pangala-nadu, 8 a subdivision of the district of Paduvur-kottam 4 (B. below). I** irtacrip- 
tions of the Gh61a kings Bajaraja I. (No. 421 of 1902) and Kulottunga I. (Nos. 423 and 425 
of 1902), the village is called Uyyakkondan-Solapuram and is stated to have belonged to 
Mugai-nadu, a subdivision in the north of Pangala-nadu, a district of JayangoricLa-S6ia- 
mandalam. From other inscriptions we know that Pangala-nadu included Velurppadi, a, suburb 
of Vellore, 5 and that Tirumalai near Polur belonged to Hugai-nadu. 6 

Vol. I. of South-Indian Inscriptions contains one inscription from Sojlapuram. (]N"o. 53), 
which I now republish (B. below) because my former transcript of it was not quite correct. A 
fresh copy (No. 422 of 1902) of another Solapuram inscription which was noticed in South- 
Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I. (No. 96), enables me to add that this record opens with the words 
Pugal-mddv, vilanga and hence belongs to Kuldttunga U and that it mentions the temple of 
Rjarjgsvara at Uyyakkondan-Solapuram, which, as well as BajSndra-Cholesvara, 8 is perhaps 
a later designation of the Nandikampisvara temple. 9 


This inscription (No. 429 of 1902) is engraved on a long stone broken in three pieces, which 
were dug up by Mr. G. Tenkoba Eao in a tope of trees opposite the ruined Isvara temple at 

The inscription consists of 2| mutilated Sanskrit verses in the Grantha character, and a 
passage in Tamil prose which is incomplete at the end. The Tamil portion is dated in the 8th 
year of king Vijaya-Kampa. The archaic alphabet of the inscription makes it probable that 
this king is identical with Kampavarman, whose inscriptions at Ukkal are dated in the lOth and 
1 5th years. 10 As I shall show f urther on (p. 196 below), he was perhaps a son of the Ganga-IPallava 
king Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and hence belonged to the ninth century of the Christian era. 

The Tamil portion records that a chief named Eajaditya built a temple of Siva and. a tomb 
in memory of his deceased father Prithivagangaraiyar and apparently made a o^ant to a 
Brahmana. The mutilated Sanskrit portion contained a genealogical account of this 'WiMit 
His earlieat ancestor was KAdHava of the GangSya family, v hose son was "he ^Ho was 
renowned as the splitter of even a stone-pillar." In the inscriptions of the Western Ganges, this 

^ This passage is in Telngu . I am indebted to Dr. Hjiltzseh for the translation of it. 
2 No. 95 on the Madras Survey Map of the Vellore taluka. 

An ilpt|o& of Partotaka I. (No. 423 of 1902) mentions Sfllapuram as ' Kftftnttombflr in 
and \ ellore as ' VftUir alw, Pn6<vanttnwigrim ;' compare SoutMnd. Inter. Vol. I. So. 110. 

* FOI other divisions of Paduvfir-Wttam see ibid . Vol. Ill p 89 


^ , In * r - Vo1 - L N 

l. III. p. 126. gee Hid. Vol. I. 2T O . 97. 

See p. 186 leJow. n So*th-l n d. Inter. Vol. III. No.. 8 and 6 

No. 26.] 


feat is ascribed to the mythical king Konganivarman, 1 who is, however, there represented as the 
father and not as the son of Madhava. The S61apuram inscription then states that in his (. 
Kongardvarman's) family was bom a king whoae name is given in the corrupt form of 
A'tvivarman, -which may be meant for Atrivarman, Agnivarman, Arivarman, etc. Verse 2 
praises a king whose name is lost ; but the Tamil portion suggests that this is the person who 
is there called Pritfcivigangaraiyar. Verse 3, of which only the first and last words are 
preserved, opens with the name of Bfcjaditya, who is described in the Tamil portion as the son 
of Prithlvigangaraiyar and the contemporary of Vijaya-Kampa. As regards Prithivigangaraiyar 
he must be different from the Ganga chief Prithivipati I., because the latter was the father of 
Maraaimlia and the son of Sivamftra^ while the former was the father of RajMitya and apparently 
the son o the king whose name is hidden in the corrupt form Atvivarman. 

1 Svasfci 


fcl[||*] Otohgaya-vMNyft vijaiaa)y4bhir&ma[h] 
a bhuva | chhetta Ha-sta[m]bhani=api 

=) P ri(pra)[thi]t6=tvi[varmm a ]H!ll*] 







died, Ms 

great tog BiWitya, whose 
be bnilt, constructed and 

4.) [To] Tittaiaarman, a great Brahmana 

( s iva) an a . 

rf ^ 


a Taetter impression prepared in 1902. Vijaya . K ampavikramavarman"'- who is 

TKe inscription is dated in the 23rd year of ^^T buSding of a temple of Karayaa* 
probably the 

Alcove, Vol. HI- P. 16* t and p. 186 ; 

This sign of punctuatioa is expreased by a V ar a - This j s only W/ 1 a ew- 

4 I am ulable to correct with coufldence thts corrupt name. ^ Reftd ^.^^ 

. Read riftes See above, Vol. V p. 62, 

pp. 18-2O n4 p. 28, respectively. 


(Vishnu) at KttuttumMr (i.e. Solapuram), which must be identical with the temple of Perum&l 
(Vishnu) on which the inscription is engraved. The temple was named SCaiiakiavalli-VlshnTl- 
griha after the -village of Kanakavalli, in which some land was granted to it. The name of ihe 

person who built the temple and granted land to it is lost, 


1 Svasti r[l] [||*] K6 V[i]saiya-pEa]mpavikkiramapamnaarkkaiyaiidu 

irufoatttt-mu(mii)n,ravadu [Pa]duv[u]r-kk6ttattu=Ppa[n3~ 

2 gala-nattu=Kkattuttumbur Narayana-bhattaragarkku SrS-koy[i]l eduppittu 

Ka [na3kava[lli]- Vishnu-griham. ennu- 

3 m n&mathe^dhe^yattal amaippittu idanukku [tonjkalam aradhippadarktwn 

tri[ka]lam tiru-amurdukkum na- 

4 nda-vilakkum aradhippaaukku iSvitamum aga i-kkottattu i-nattu Kanakavalli 
eri ki(M)l bhumi i- 1 


Hail I Prosperity ! (Iw) the twenty-third year of king Vijaya-Kampavikramavarman 
& sacred temple was caused to be built to the god Narayana (at) Zattuttumbur in Pangala-nadu, 
(a subdivision) o Pa4uvfir-k6ttam ; (if) was endowed with the name Kanakavalli- Vish^u- 
grifaa; and, for the worship at the three times (of the day'), for offerings at the three times 
(of the day"), (for) a perpetual lamp, and aa a living for the worshipper, [there -was granted] to it 
land below the tank of Kanakavalli in the same kdjtam (and) in the same nddu. 


This Tamil inscription (No. 428 of 1902) is engraved on a rock near a pond called 
Ka|languttai, south-west of Solapuram. 

The date of this inscription is expressed in three different ways, via. (a) " the year two j" 
(5) the gaka year 871 (in words) ; and (c) "the year in which the emperor KannaradSva- 
VaOlabha, having pierced BSjaditya, entered the Tondai-mandalam." The second and third 
portions of the date furnish an interesting confirmation of the Atakur inscription, according- to 
which the Eashtrakiita king Krishna ni. had MUed the Chola king Bajadltya at Takkdlan* 
in Saka-Samvat 872 current, the Saumya-samvatsara = A.D. 849-50, 3 As the date of the 
Solapuram inscription does not contain a cyclic year, it is impossible to say if its aka year 
has to be taken as expired or current. In.the former case the date -would be the same as that of 
the Atakur inscription, and in the second case it would be A.D. 948-49. The * year two " wifcli 
which the 861apuram inscription opens cannot refer to the reign of Krishna III., because we 
know from the De&li plates that AmSghavarsha, the father of Krishna III., had died and fihat 
the ktter^was reigning 3 in A,D. 940. 4 Hence, as far as I can see, the " year two " can only refe* 
to the reign of the Ch&}a king EajMitya. This ' would indirectly confirm Professor Kielhom's 
calculation of the date of an inscription at Kuram, according to which the 40th. year of 
Parantaka I., the father and immediate predecessor of Rajaditya, corresponded to A,D. 946.6 
It may now be provisionally assumed that Parantaka I. reigned from about A.D. 907 to at 
least 946, and that Rajaditya was crowned in about A.D. 948 and was killed by Krishna III, 
in about A.D. 949. 

The purpose for which the subjoined inscription was engraved was to record the construc- 
tion of iihe pond near which it is found, and which was called the Kallinangai pond 

1 Tho remainder of the inscription it lost * See above, Vol. 1. p. SI. 

8 Abow, Vol. V. p. 195, TV, & and 28. Dr. Fleet'* JDyn. X. JWrfr,. p. 420. 

' See p, 1 abore. 

Ep. ln,l. Vol. YII. Noa. 28 & 27. 

. 26.] 



itt memory of a -woman flamed Kallinangai. Tlie present name E&Uanguftai, *-e. *tbe 
robbers pond/ is evidently a popular corruption of the original one. Kallinangai Jbad died at 
Axunguaram, a village in the modern Ardot taluka. 1 She was the daughter of the Ganga 
chief Attimallar (i.e. Hastimalla) alias Kaimarade^a-Prithvigangaraiyae. This chief was 
the son of Vayiri-Adiyaji, the lord of Panga}a-nadu. a Hence he seems to be different from 
the Ganga-Bana ch'ief Hastimalla alias Prithivipati II., who was the son of Marasimha. 1 
f he word KaWkradeva, which is prefixed to the name of Prithvigangaraiyar, characterises 
the latter as a Subordinate of the conqueror Krishna III. His wife Kamakkanto tore the title 
Oafigamali&cl&vl and was the daughter of Vanakovaraiyar Orriy to-Adiyan. Yanak6Taraiyar 
is known to liave been the title of certain chiefs * Orjiy^r-Adiyati means the devotee of the 

temple at Tirixvoxjiyfr^' 6 


1 Svaati firf rn*l Y&nda irandu 

2 J(cha)kravartti Kaimar a dev a -VallabBaix 

3 [yl^^^angala-nad-udaiya VayM-Adiyan 

Eajadittarai e^ndu 


maganar Attiniallar.&gija 


vayirra[t=pi]randu ATungunrattiff.[ 8 varg g a> 
KaJMnangai-kulam 00 


of Vanakavariyar O t riyto-A4>y9, ^ At 
, the sot o* Vayiri-A4lyaB, to lord d 


This T*mil insoription (No. 846 ol 1901) ?" 
. It dated fa 

. This 
hi. fetter is ^ted to have been 

Thafaim.Ftio D records gtante to the two 

by Hastmalla , 

bffl. Ha.timallfl alia. 
edmC.- ruling th. 
lord rf 


[Vot, VII, 

of destruction;' and Puttadigal means ' a devotee of Buddha/ Hence the donor seems to tare 
been a Buddhiat. 1 

ITandikampisvara must have been the ancient name of the temple of Uv&m (& w ) 
which this inscription is engraved. As no other Siva temple exists at S6]apuram, it may bate 
identified with the Isvara temple tbat was founded during- the reign of Vijaya-Kampa acowdiw 
to the inscription A., and the Nandi-Kampa, after whom the NandikampiSvara temple w 
called, may be identical with Vijaya-Kampa. As the alphabet of the inscriptions of Vfot* 
Kampa, Kampavarman or Vijaya-Kampavikramavarman resembles that of the inscription! f 
Yijaya-Dantivikramavarmau, Vijaya-Nandivikramavarman and Vijaya-NrJpatungavikwaa*. 
varuian, 3 1 feel tempted to explain Nandi-Kampa by ' Kampa, the son of Naadi/ and to wmm 
that Kampavarman was a sou of Nandivikramavarman and a brother of Nripatu6gavikranjf 
vannan. The temple of Gunamalai may have been a shrine in the NandikampiSvara temple 
another name of the Vishnu temple referred to in B, above. 


1 Svasti Mil- !agar ya[ Q du3 ..... CJmba3tt~*aiflj6vadu 

Att[i]mallarag[i]ya CKapnara]dpva-P]rii:thivi]ganga[rai3yar 

2 ppiir-majjftdi alav-irukka [ijvar=adigari Puttadiga}agiya 

Ppiridigangaraiyan-^n KSttuttumbur Nandi- 

3 kampyvara.d6varkk=oru-nand^ Ccha]n 

chchava mu(mu)va=pper-adu tonnu^adum auna 


kkatti=kku.dutt6n ' 

TvB a .aaa 9 a-pr( ga ngaraiyan4n[|^i.^ 
msada[m*] [u]lakku=ttumbai-ppuvum Guna[m3&- 

7 [ ra *][vn]nfiligai.ppemmakk a 16 [ajtfuvippadaga 

ppe^nukku [mujnru sndhi[y]um tu-umavidua 

8 h^tt^ll^ljjM, 

chcheyya CA 

9 B [|! u]daiy&r 



tv M, ^-^d'^eventy-flfth year of the toa 

the 8ame person .orsMpped both Siva and Buddha, ,ee a bo,e. VoL ft 

The remainder of the hwcriptiou is lort. 

Thi word is a corruption pf the Sanskrit marvddd 
" See above, p. 184 and aote 2. 

[No, 27. 



(L. 5.) IT or supplying daily, as long as the moon and the sun shall last, one ulakku of tnmbai 
flowers to this ISTandifeamptsvara temple and one ulakku of tumlai flowers to the Gunamalai 
temple, I gave one Jcalanju of gold ; I gave (if) in order that the great men (in charge) of the 
store-room, of fclie temple 1 of this god 2 should cause (the flowers) to "be supplied. 

(L. 7.) When I Alivifta-Kalakanda-Prithvigangaraiyan, requested the lord Prithvi- 
gaftgaraiyar to combine four villages into one village called Amalangavalli-Attimalla- 
chatarvedimangalam (which should provide) for offerings to be made at the three times (of the 
day) in the G--anamalai temple, and when (accordingly) the lord combined (them) into one 
village, . . .' , . [to] this Gunamalai temple 



Thk inscription was noticed at Pagan by the Honourable Mr. A. T. Arundel, O.B.I., in the 
oou*Be of Ms tour through Burma. At his instance, Mr. Taw Sein Ko furnished _ me with an m,- 
of it in December 1902. After I had Bent him a copy of i^e sunned text and 
, he good enough to supply me in February 1903 w th toe further in^. 
oand ith the following additional ^rmation :-JChe *s^ 

was foTLnd at Myinpagan, which is situated about a mile to the south of Pag^n. At 
ntd In6hL g the last of the Talaing Hngs, who was led mto cap^by 
<-!,,, TOM AD The captive king was surrounded by His leuow 

to W temple, or to some otter buildmg which ta smoe to. demohahed. 

thlrteenttt century of the Christian era. 

saint XulasSfcHara, who, as shown by Mr. 
eleventh ceixttLry.* M ag6dayarpananam in 

The Tamil prose ^^J^LS^ His name, Sri-Kula^khara-Nambi, stops 
MCalaima^aalam, w. Crangano re^ "' 

Mm as a devotee of the Vaish^ava 
is derived. The recipient of ha 
Axivattaapuram, * 
alia. Pug&ma.' 

temple of BT4ldMUViwr at 
LyM inscriptions is styled 
the Vishnu temple' of those 
was seated in the 

tbe Buddhist country of Burma, had been 

from various parts of the Indian Peninsula. 

See above, p. U6 and note 1. ha anthori e. of hU temple had to make over 

The word d**>* refers to NandikampiSvara-dfiva, Bvidenwy tn 

UhT floweti per day to the temple of G^am&lM-perum^^ ^^ Jwflf< Vol m . p . 148 . 
i printed in tta Sdvyo^dld, No, 1. 6 J-d ^^ t Vo i. XXII- P. 17. 



1 Svasti Sri [||*] N=asfcha. dhanmeXrme) ua vasu-niehay& n-aiva 

2 badge 1 yat jat 1 bhavyam bhavata [bha*]gavan. pur7va-kaam(rm)-ltoittt(ipam Q*} 


$. t prathyam(rthya*a) mama bahutama 8 janma-janm-antatards^i tvat-pad- 

4 hai@ia)-yuga-gata niSohalfc bhaktir=astu HO || Svasti Sri [)}*] Tira-oIichel[Ta][ni*] 

peruga [|*] 

5 3?tifckam.ana Arivattanapurattu NanadSf-Vlnnagar-Aivar k&- 

6 yil tiru-mandapamufi=jeydu tiru-k[ka]davum=ittu iuda mandapa- 

7 ttukku ninr,=erigaikku iulai-vilakk=ony.nm=itte'ij Malai- 

8 raandala[nn]u(ttu) Mag6dayarpattana[;tt]u I(i)rayirai} 

9 Kula6gara"E l a(na)mbiy-6ij [|*] idn fei [|*] i-danmam 



(Line 1.) Hail ! Prosperity ! (I have) no regard for merit, none for a heap of wealth, none at 
all for the enjoyment of lust. Whatever is to happen, let it happen, God I in accordance with 
previous actions* This (alone) is to be prayed for (and") highly valued by me : In every other 
birth also let (me) possess unswerving devotion to the pair of Thy lotus-feet ! 

(L. 4.) Hail ! Prosperity ! Let the wealth of (this) temple increase ! (Jw) tlie temple of ft ana* 
de^i-Vinnagar-Alvar at Pukkam alias Arivattanapuram, I, Irayiraij Sipyag alias Bri- 
KttlaSekhara-Nambi of Magddayarpattanam in Malaimandalam, made a sacred ntynfaya, 
gave 1 & sacred door, and gave one fixed lamp to bum constantly .in this m 
prosper S This meritorious gift (was made ly) a- native of Malaimandalam. 


BT J. F. FLKiT f I.O.S. (BBTD.), Pn.D. r O.I.E. 

(Qvntinata from, Vol. VI. page 198.y 

D. Mantra wadi inscription of the thne of Amdghavarsha I. A.D. 865. 
This inscription has bctoft tnentiened by me in Vol. III. above, p. 16$, note 1, 14 wa 
originally brought to ndy notice by Mr. GoVind Gangadhar Deshpande, And I obtained ink' 
impresBiona of it in 1882. It is now edited for flie first time. The collotype is from, an 
ink-impreseion received in 1886 from Mt. Oousens, Superintendent of the ArotsBological Swewej 
of the Bombay Presidency. i 

&antrtiwMi Is * yiltage about fife miles towards the east-f>y-fi6rfch from &higgaon r the 
head-quarters of the B&nkapnf tMtfka of tlie DMrwaf district. The Ifidiain Atib^ sheet 
No. 42 (1827), shews it as ' Munturrehdee.' The Mfij* of^ the Dhit^fe? Oollectoraie (1874) 
shews it as ' Huntrawudee/ Tliepresenf fecofdffeemB to indicaie that it& origina,} came wa* 
EJpunuse, or else Elamva^i. 4 And the purport of it places both Blpuntise and ElatavdJJi in 
the Purigeje disWot, the furigeje three-hundred of otter ifecords. the' irksorli>tt6n JB on a 

- . ^ * - --. - , - , -- _ - ___, 

1 Bead yad*yad~; the M*lcitndain&ld reads jad^hfaya* 
9 The Mukundamdld read* lakumataA. 

Th maps do not shew, in the neighbourhood of MaatRbwI^i, any villages with namta resembl&ig these tw.o. 

No. 28.} 


80ul P ta3?eSye P^nting ihe goddess Lakshmt, 

- meet above her head ; and each of *> w** j. - 

flower over her.- The rating covers an area about 2' Of" broad by 3< 9f high, and is mostly in a 
State of very good preservation. la addition to the record edited and shewn in the collotype 
there M one kae of -writing below the sculptures, which are, as usual, cm a surface which proiecte 
somewhat m front of that part of the stone which bears the body of the record. It is in 
characters of the same type with those of the body of the record ; and it gave the name of the 
wnter; hut the greater part of it ia damaged and illegible; we can only recognise, at the 
beginning of the lime 8ri-B&(?)vayycma, and at the end UKMtam, with perhaps a cross-mark 
below the m, as if to shew that something is to be supplied here, namely, possibly, the akslaras, 
standing before the Sva&ti of line 1 of the body of the record, which are not wanted there and 
seem to be meaningless. The 'Characters are Kanarese, boldly formed and well executed. The 
ize of them ranges from about f " in the dha of dharmmadol, line 22, to about If in the va of 
^oravartim, line 8 ; the Ichi of pelchisal, line 15, and the {fa of fef>#ar, line 17, are each about 
2|" high. The lingual 4 is not very clearly, if at all, distinguished from the dental d. As regards 
ike palaeography, the n does not occur. The j occurs four times, in lines 2, 3, and 8, and is, ia 
each case, of the old square type : the exact form aimed at in this record, ia illustrated best ia 
the j& of rdjddki, line 2, No. 2 ; it is a cloised form, of that particular shape from which there 
may have "been, derived, quite directly, the back-to-backj and the open / which we hav in the 
Doddahu^di ioscription of Mtimlrga and Satyavakya. 1 The Jch occurs three times, in lines 6 
17, and 20, and again in UKkitaw, in the line below the sculptures : in each case, it is of tha 
later cursive type ; and the form of it is practically identical with the modern form of tbje 
present day : it is seen best in the Teha of akhan$ita, at the end of line 17. The 5 occurs mos 
often, and is of the later cursive type, throughout ; the intended form of it is aeen very clearly in 
the bd of bddM, line 16, No. 11, and is to be recognised as almost identical with the modern form 
of the present day. The I occurs still more freely, and is, also, of the later cursive type, through- 
out, including the Z in UKhitavn in the line below the sculptures ; the particular form of it aimed at 
in this record, is perhaps, exhibited most clearly in the la of Mlam, line 17, No. 2. Except in the 
2 of ratohisnl, line 15, where it is hardly to be detected, in the I, as presented in this record, wo 
can recognise a feature which played an important part in the process by which the later cursive 
type of this character was evolved from the old square type, namely, the miniature representa- 
tion, of the principal part of the old square character, which stands here in the centre of the 
later cursive character. In the development of the later character, the first step was the pro- 
longation, with a sweep to the right, of the downatroke with which th formation of the original 
otoesfccter ended, a feature which ia well illustrated in the Hattt-Mattur inscription of the time 
of Rriah3?a I. ; 8 that was eventually followed by a continuation of that stroke up to the top Hue 
f the writing ; and, meanwhile, the principal part of the original character was diminished, 
rounded off, and raised, until the original leading characteristic of theold square letter was almost 
entirely lost. In some Kanarese fonts of the present day, it hasdMappeafedftltoge^r,--for 
instance, in the font used, in accordance with the general custom, in th Rev, Dr. F. Kitbei s &w 
nada-Eugliah Dictionary ; on the other hand, the miniature of tbe principal part of the old square 
character ia distinctly recognisable in the font used for the words presented in Kircarese , charac- 
fensia the compilation entitled Bombay Places and Oommon Official Words, In Jtnei 7, , 1* 
SO (twice}, 21, and 22 of this record, we have peculiar form of the h &r which at pweol 
ttie earliest limit is fixed by its occurrence in para-dattwbd in line 14 of the KwW-gwa* E 

See Vol. VI. above, p. 43, ad Bate, 

3 VoL VI. above, jp. 160, wad Plate, 



G6vinda III. of AJD. 804 ; l it ia here seen Best in the md of nelanum=Ad,itya, 
occurs again in Ukhitam, in the line below the sculptures, where it is formed somewhat smaller 
than usual, so as to mari? it as a final form; it is a character which may often be confused with 
one form of re, rS. The corresponding form of the v occurs, but not very clearly, ia the upper 
of sarvva, line 16, o. 10. The language is Kanarese, of the archaic type, in prose. In 
tdsanamum, line 9-10, the copulative ending um is attached to the usual archaic ending of the 
nominative singular neuter in rh, m ; OD the other hand, in line 8 it is doubtful whether the m 
has been retained, mdh&janamum^ or whether it has been softened into v, tnaTtdjanawim, In 
line 20 we seem to have the accusative singular neuter in , dharmavarh ; while, on the 
other hand, in line 17 we have clearly the more archaic form in m, stMnaman. In line 14, 
in sthdnamuvam or stMnavuvam, the m, m, of the copulative suffix, with the accusative ending 
after it, seems distinctly to have been softened into v\ but, whether the m of sthdnant, stJidntm, 
has been retained before it, or has been softened into v, is doubtful. Line 10 gives us (unless , 
we assume a mistake of sfors) dise, as another variant of dife, dese, 'a quarter or point of 
the compass, direction, region, side;' line 12 gives niru-gal, which seems clearly to mean *a set- 
up stone,' nirv, being, no doubt, connected with nitf, 1, ' to be properly arranged or prepared, to be 
ready,' from which we have nirisu, ' to put down, place, arrange, adjust, prepare,' which occurs 
in line 20 in respect of the setting up of the sfcone itself that bears the record ; s line 15 gives 
peldbisu, as a variant of y&tckisu^ gechohisu, 'to cause to increase, to multiply'; s and line 21-22 
gives brahm&ti, as a variant of brahmaM, brahmSti, = brahmahatyd, 'the killing of a Brahman.' 
The orthography does not present anything calling for comment. 

The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Hshtrakuta king Amoghavarsha I,, son 
and successor of G6vinda III., who was on the throne from A.D. 814 or 815 to A.D. 877 or 
878. And it mentions a feudatory of his, named Kuppya, 4 who was governing tlie Purigere 
district. The object of it was to record the grant of some lands to a priest named G-dkar^ia- 
panditabhatsira. The sculptures at the top of the stone mark the record as a Vaishnava record, 
and thus shew that the jdonee was a Vaishnava. And it seems worth noting that one of the 
donors waa a Gorava or Saiva priest. 

The record is dated on the full-moon day of Vaisakha of the Parthiva samvatsara, coupled 
with Saka-Samvat 787. Whatever system of the cycle is applied, the Saka year is the expired year, 6 

1 Ind, Ant. Vol. XI. p. 127, and Plate. 

2 Compare I fdsanatnaa^niKisidar, " tliey placed, adjusted, or set up, this charter," in the Dandapur inscrip- 
tion (Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p, 223, text line 12). Compare, also, mifitida Tcinnari-gMa guAAe ndlkv, in an inscrip. 
tiou afc KTaregal in the H6n. tfiluka, Dhlrwar (Jour, o, Sr. . At, Soc, Vol. XI. p. 229, text lines 51, 53, 55), and 
*ir.isidagu&de ndlTcv. (iUd, p. 230, line 5*7). As regards the first of these passage*, the occurrence of the combina- 
tion kimnarigal (line 51) or kinnarigal (lines 58, 65) in a record at a place aamed Naregal, . which ia mentioued 
as Eiriya-Nareyamgal in a neighbouring record (ibid. p. 248, line 20-21), and the name of which would often be 
written Narigal in the present day, led me to think that the text ref erred to a smaller or later !NaregI, dirtiu- 
guished from Hiriya-Nare.vftmgal ; hut I now see that we should interpret the text as meaning, not " four heaps of 
stones. above graves of Kim-N&rigaV ete., hut "four set-up heaps of stones (bearing representation) of female 

together with a lingo and ascetics and a cow, 

1 Compare pel-dore, the great river,' for the more usual per-dore in the Mulgund inscription of A D 975 
Vol. VI. above, p. 259, text line 5. ' ' 

* The vowel of the penultimate syllable is apparently to be taken aa the long S t on the analogy of the 3 in 
Bankeya, which ig marked as long "by the metro in line 53 of the inscription at Konnfc (Vol. VI. above p 33). 
but it is not quite certain that the long S is ot used there simply to suit the metre. The name of Ba'nk6y B 
Baiikeya appears also as Baton, in Ihfikesa (Vol. VI. above, p. 30, text line 19). So, also, the name KupnSva or 
Kuppeya appears- (hut in the caao of another p ei so,,)~ as Knppa, and Kuppanna,in the Kidtagundi fofcriotiot.' 
P. below, page 214. * * 

s By the luui-solar system of the cycle, northern or southern, the PArthiva aeakvahara was Saka-Saihvat 788 
current, = A.D. 65-66. By the mean-sign sysi em, it be gan on the 27th September, A.D. 864, S.-S 78 ' 

and ended on the 23rd September, A.D. StS5, S.-S. 7S7 expired. 

D. Maatrawadi Inscription of A moghavarsha I. A.D. 865. 


1 2 


1 6 

1 8 







the corresponding English date is tlie Uth April, A.D. 885, cm wMohday the 
iction occurred at about 20 hrs. 54 mia. after mean sunrise (for UjjaiD). 

TEXT. 1 

1 [Om] 3 Svasty=Am6ghavarsha grfpritMvivallablia moha- 

2 rajadMraja paramfiSvara hh&t&rara r[a]- 

3 [jy]-abMv? iddhiyol=Saka-D. ripa-kl-atita~sam"va- 

4 tsftra-satamgal=el-auj=eribhatt"Slaa0ya Etotthi- 

5 va-samvatsaraih. pravarttise Purigere-B.ada[ni] Ku- 

6 ppeyan s =ale "Vaisakha-masada patmma- 

7 mase(si)y-and=ElpTirmseya nalvadinaba- 

8 r=mmahajanamri(?vu)m 4 Moni-goravarom MulastM- 

9 -nada Mahadvar=alv=Elamval}iya sasa[:aa]- 

10 mum=a d&vara miida-diseyol=muda vaddava . . 5 

11 ya pola m&reye temka dfevarb-geyye mere 

12 paduva nirn-gal=mre badaga, K^labe(?)ya pola 

13 m[6]reye m&re-m^,di ernbliattay-vattar=kk[e]yyum=aju 

14 tontada Delamimiditya-blxatarara 

15 raksMsal=pelcb.isal=4vaT& 

16 rana-pandita-bliatarargge 

17 kkam kalcM kottar=l stblnaiuaii=aiva goravar=akha- 

18 9dita-brahmacliariy=apudu brahmacharyya-li!naran=i 


19 yada gorayarkkal=kaleTor4 paddlmtiyam filft-lS- 

20 kte-madi mjisidar=ppa9dita-bh.atarar=l dharmmavaA' ka- 

21 dorhg=avam&dhada phala[m] aliyal-bamgevomgeS bra- 

22 bmatiya papam=akkum [I I*] $Tagad&van=i dharmmadol= 

g6sTati(slitlii) a(?)dom 9 [||*] 


[Dm] 1 Hail 1 In the mcrease of the sovereignty of Amdgluwarana (I.), the favourite of 
Fortune and of the Eartk, the Mahfadjd&lwrAja, the FarMn&towa, the Bhafdra, while the 
PartMva samvatsara, tne seven hundred and eiguty -seventh, (year of) the centuries of 
years that have gone by from the time of the Saka ting, was current, while Kuppeya 10 

1 Ironi the ink-impressions. 

3 There seems to have stood here, originally, a plain symbol for the word Om, on which there were afterwards 
overlaid two *#ara*, which seem to be m&gi,' apparently -belonging to the line of writing below the sculptures 
above the body of the record (see page 199 above) . 

Eegarding this name, see note 4 on page 200 above. 

4 There is a small mark between tbe consonant and the vowel, half-way down the consonant, which makes it 
probable ihfttm was written but was not fully engraved 5 so, also, in^flawiK(?o)f<Ji, line 14, and perhaps, but 
not BO probably, in dharmmavam, line 20. 

s One aleshara is lost here. The consonant must, apparently, he either 9 or . The vowel orasfc he either i or . 
There is a word oddar^e, array, preparation,' which, however, does not seem suitable here. Otherwise, I can 
only think of vadfavane, for odda-mane 5 but I do not know whether the of mane ever changes into t> 5 and this 
word also, meaning " the honse or abode of the Oddas," does not seem altogether suitable. 

See note 4 above. 7 See note 4 above. B Read bagevomye. 

The aktkara before the don, is doubtful. And the dictionaries do not give any such word as gtM\i or 

the sense of ' president of an assembly, 1 which clearly seema to be implied. Perhaps what was intended 

10 See note 4 on page 200 above. 


was governing the Purigere district, on the day of the full*znoon of the month 

(Line 7) The forty AFaMjanas of Elpunuse, and the Gorava Moni, and the managers 1 of 
Elamvalli which belongs to the god Mahadeva (Siva) of the Hulasthana, 3 saying "He, 
indeed, is able 3 to protect (the property), and to increase it," gave to the honourable 
G6karnapandita, free from all molestation, having laved his feet, eighty-five maUavs of 
cultivable land, and six plots of garden-land, and the property of Idityabhatara, on the east side 
of that same god, making the boundaries to be on the east, the . . . . field ; on the 

south, the cultivable land of the god; on the west, a stone that was (then) set up ; and, on the 
north, the field of Kalabe(?). 

(L. 17) Let the Goravas who manage this property be such as keep unbroken ihe vow 
of continence ; the Goravas of this community shall reject those who are wanting in continence, 
The honourable pandit* put this precept into (Che form of) a writing on stone, and set it up, 

(L. 20) To him who protects this religious grant, there shall accrue the reward of perform- 
ing an asvamedha-B&cti&ce ; feo him who (even) thinks of destroying it, there shall attach the guilt 
of Blaying a Brahman ! 

(L. 21) Nagadeva was the president of the meeting in the matter of this religious graat. 
E. Sirur inscription of the time of Amdghatarsha I A.B. 886. 

This inscription was brought to notice and edited by me in 1883, in the Xnd. Ant, Vol. XII. 
p. 215 ff., from an ink-impression obtained in 1882, A lithograph of it was not given then. 
And, for that and other reasons, it is now re-edited. The collotype which accompanies the 
present revised version of the record, is from an ink-impression which Mr. Couaens was good 
enough to obtain for me in 1898, the original impression having suffered some damage and 
become unsuitable for reproduction. 8 

Sir-fir is a village about sixteen miles west-by-north from ISTawalgund, the head-quarters of 
the lawalgund taluka of the Dharwar district. The Indian Atlas sheet No. 41 (1852) shews it 
as ' Serroor. ' And the Map of the Dharwar Collectorafce (1874) shews ifc as < Siroor.' The 
record gives its name in the older form of Srivtra, which may possibly be a mistake for Srivura, 
with the long I. And the purport of it places Sirur in the Belvola three-hundred district. The 
inscription is on a stone tablet somewhere on the south of the Mde or village-bastion at Sirur. 

I have no information as to whether there are any sculptures at the top of the stone.- The 
writing covers an area about 3' 7" broad by 3' 3" high. The extant portion of it is in a fairly 
good state of preservation, and can be read without any uncertainty, throughout. But, before it 
came to notice at all, a portion of it had been broken away and lost at the upper left-hand corner 
in consequence of which there is missing a part of the text ranging from fifteen or sixteen 
Mara* in. line 1, to one akdiara in line 7. And, since the time when the original impression was 
obtained by me, some damage has been done to the lower left-hand corner, whereby we have lost 
one complete ofa&ora at the beginning of lines 22, 23, and 24 The characters are Kanarese, 
Mdly formed and well executed. They contrast rather curiously with those of the Nllgund 
inscription, edited in Vol. VI. above, p, 98 ft, which are of a much more squaip and upright 

l &**<* warns to be nsed he*e in the sense of 'the act of governing, ruling, government/ and to be, like 
djanti,, a neater employed with a collective meaning. 

! ^ * robabl y im P lieS tllat fche tem Ple of MahadSva waa (to earliest and principal trempU of the village. * 
8 The original ftses fcae honorific plural," these, indeed, are Able." 
4 te^ doubtless, the grantee, 06Earnapanditabha$ra. 
> _ Owing to the papef used in making the ink-impression* having stretched Uomewfeat unevenly, 

* * of line 12> and 


joggestive, at first sight, of iheir belonging to a period considerably earlier than the 
w of ttie present inscription, though the two records are, in reality, of precisely the same date j 
this drff evcmoe u to be attributed, of course, to the facts, that the two records were written to 
Afferent persons, and that the Shaft* who wrote the Nilgund record for the engraver to transfer 
it to the etone, or who painted it on the stone for the engraver to reproduce it there was a better 
writer or draughtsman than Madhavayya who wrote or painted the present record and also was 
more guided, in some details, by a prepossession in favour of the older types and style The 
writing of the present record is fairly uniform, the size of the letters ranging mostly between 
about | and 1|"; the fl however, in Anmgereyal, line 19, and the ya in mj a ya, line 16, are only 
I high., a-nd the Z in ilw&rvvoruth, line 20, is somewhat less: the rjju in Ndgarjjunam, Hue 23, is 
2| HgH. The -record presents final forms, of I in rdjyam-bol, line 14, and of I in SdrandsivaLl 
line 21 ; there ought to have been a final *, of abMt, in line 3, but it was omitted. The distinct 
form of: the lingual is, curiously enough, presented in pudidudu, line 24, where, however, it is a 
mistake for the dental d ; whereas it is not shewn in the ju oferadum at the end of line 16 : 
a remark:, which might have been made earlier, may be made here, namely that it was seldom, if 
ever, tla early practice to use the distinct form of the $ in the combination n$ ; we must suppose 
that tibxe n was considered sufficient to mark the nature of the subscript consonant. As regards 
paleeography,-" this record presents all the five principal test-letters. The tih occurs twice, in 
rfajfifcTio,, line 9, and in liWvttamj for lUchttam, line 23 ; and, in both places, it is distinctly of the 
old square type, though there are no actually straight lines in it : it is exhibited best in tike JtU of 
UJthitarh, line 23, No. 18. The j occurs freely, and is of the old square type throughout : we have 
an open form of it in the 36 of dhvajoru, line 9, No. 29, and again in the ja of pamkaja, line 18 : 
in some other cases, illustrated very well by the ja of mahdjanada, line 20, No. 19, there is a clear 
ffpaoe l>etween the centre stroke and the upright part of the letter j but, in other cases, that stroke 
is joined to the upright stroke, according to the original practice, and we have the fully closed 
form, of the character, as is illustrated very well by the upper j of the rjju in Ndgarjjunam, 
Kne 2*2, TSo. 22. The n occurs ten times, and, following the j in the usual manner, is of the old 
square type, throughout : in some cases, it presents the open form, as in the nga of ttunga, line 11, 
No. 2 ; in the other cases, it presents the fully closed form, which is illustrated very well in the 
nga o Nripatunga, line 13, the last aksliara. The b occurs eleven times : in nine cases, it is of 
the old. square type, sometimes in the closed form illustrated in the be of Belvola, line 18, No. 26, 
and sometimes in the open form exhibited in the bi of Utfoih, for bitfofit, line 20, the last aksliar a 
But one : but in the bda of tabda, line 7, No. 4, we can recognise clearly, though the dksJiara is 
Bonae-what damaged, the later cursive form, the occurrence of which here is made doubly peculiar 
"by the fact that the old square type was presented in the same word, of the same passage, in line 9 
of. iib.e NSlgnnd record ; evidently the writer of this official record, familiar with both types 
Icmt snore accustomed to the later type for ordinary purposes, intended to use the older type of the 
b throughout, but made an involuntary slip in the word tiabda and inadvertently used the later 
type there ; and it would seem that he began to do the same in the subscript b in n&a, the last 
aksTiara of line 4, but recognised the mistake almost directly after beginning the letter, and turned 
it into a 6 of the old square type with a very abnormal dip down in the top stroke. 1 The I 
oocmxs freely, and is here of .the later cursive type throughout, though the Nilgund record 
presents the old square Z much more frequently than the later character : the exact form aimed 
at, && a rule, in this record, is perhaps exhibited in the la of kdlaih, line 20, No. 23, as well as 
anywhere else : but the U of IfoWam, line 23, No. 17, exhibits very markedly the preservation in 

* It may be remarked that lines 4 and 7 present the first instances of the occurrence of the letter J in this 
record j and that may account for the peculiarity pointed out. After the first uae of the old square J, in 5A*, 
line 1.2, there is no relapse of any kind into the later cursive type. In the M of Bdra****!!*, Hue 22, there is a 
stroke to the centre, which seems to be due to a slip of the engraver's tool \ through sonae mishap in the final prat. 

some of the copies of the collotype shew B break, which does not really exist, in the top stroke of this ***ar. 


miniature, in the centre of tlie later cursive letter, of the principal part of the old square 
character, to which attention has already heen drawn on page 199 above, in tlie remarks on the 
MantrawMi inscription of A.D. 865; and the same feature is recognisable, though, not so pointedly, 
in alamkntam, line 1, JcavileycDk, line 21, and Icavileyu, line 22. There seem to be three 
abnormal vowel-marks in this record : the stroke projecting downwards from the bottom of the 
k of gawkd, near the end of line 8, appears to be intended to supply the d, which was omitted in 
its proper place on the top line of the writing ; in the superscript 2 of srimad, near the beginning 
of line 16, the long- vowel appears to be marked by a curve on the right, instead of the left in the 
usual manner ; and in frtmad, line 18, it appears that, i having been written instead of 2, an 
upward stroke to the right was added, on revision, by way of marking the vowel as long. As 
regards the language, we have ordinary Sanskrit verses in lines 1 to 6 : and the remainder of die 
record is in Kanarese, of the archaic style, in prose. As far as the words Annigereya]>-ire, in 
line 19, this record follows the same draft on which there was based the corresponding part of the 
Nilgund inscription. But this record does not seem 1 to have included the verse Jayati bTwvaW" 
h'ranaat, etc., which we have in the beginning of the Nilgund inscription ; and it presents a few 
various readings, of which, however, only iSaufdn, instead oi.GaMJd, in line 4, is of any particular 
interest. Like the Nilgund inscription, this record presents, in line 8, the word prdtwdjya, 
employed in the sense of pratirdja, ' a hostile king/ or rather, perhaps, ' a collection of hostile 
kings.' In Mrandswadol, line 21, we have a curious substitute for the usual locative Bdrandsiyo}, 
with which we have to compare the locative Vdranasivadul in an inscription at Balagami, 9 and 
Bfiranaswada, in the place of the usual genitive Bdranasiya, in an inscription at Pattadakal 5* 
these forms suggest, of course, the existence and occasional use of a base Bdrandswa (with such 
variants as Bdranasiva and Vdrwpatwa), for which, however, it is difficult to account. In respect 
of orthography, the only points to be noted are (1) the use of n for ri in the word wtohfi, line 10, 
just as in lines 12 and 83 of the Nilgund record, and again in 'wiUU, line 15 : and (2) the 
occurrence of Zdftofana*, instead of Ufichhanam, in line 13, just as in line 16 of the Nilgund 

This inscription is another record of the reign of the Bashtrakuta king Amdghavarshal. } 
and it is distinctly dated in such a way as to shew that he commenced to reign in A.D. 814 or 
815. It mentions, like the Nugnnd inscription, an officer of his, named DSvannayya, who, 
reading at Annigere,* was governing the Be^ola three-hundred district. And, devoted to 
the same end with the Nilgund inscription, it records that Devannayya assigned the 'tax on 
clarified butter to the two-handred MaMjmw. of Srivura,- doubtless in order to make the 
proceeds of the tax available for expenditure by them on communal purposes, instead of being 
credited to the state revenues. 6 

The record is dated at the time of an eclipse of the sun on Sunday the new-moon day of the 
Gimftj**) month Jyaxshtha of the Vyaya *,*<, Saka-Samvat 788 (expired), in the ffj. 
second i year of the reign of Am&ghavarsha I. And the corresponding English date is Sunday, 
UEh June, A.D. 808, when there was a total eclipse of the sun, visible in India, at 9 hrs. "4 mm, 
arcer mean sunrise.* 

presented " this record fi* 68 ' ^ I have pointed out before now," the oommenoe- 

f Am ? gh T? Sha L * A ' D - 8M r 816 > * * e *^ * ^e 
moon day of the omfefo month Jyaishtha, on'- which day the alignment 

but one. 
ol An,i^e the lingual , see Vol. VI, abov* 

IvI^Jlt 4 ' rS - Vd - VL above, p. 102, note 8. 
the Oa.ettee r ^^^^^ *^^ %-^ / * * ***** in 



registered in it \va"s made, in the Tyaya samvatsara, Saka-Samvat 788 (expired), and in the fifty- 
eecond year of his feign. But it does not say that the fifty-second year of his reign coincided 
either with the samvatsara or -with the Saka year. The new-moon day of the amdnta Jyaishtha, 
S.-S. 788 expired, being in his fifty-second year, it follows that the new-moon, day of the omdwta 
Jyaishtha, S.-S. 737 expired, fell in the first year of his reign. And the first year of his reign 
began on some day from Aehadha gukla 1 of the Vijaya samvatsara, S.-S. 736 expired, falling in 
May or June,.A.D. 814, to the amanta Jyaiahtha krishna 30 of the Jaya saihvatsa/ra, S.-S. 787 
expired, falling in June, A.D. 815. 

TEXT. 1 

1 [Om 11 Sa a > v6=vyad=Ve'dhas& dbama yau-nabhi-kamalam krfjtam HaraS=cha yasya 

knt-[S]ndu-kalaya kam=alamkrita[rb] |(||) 

2 [Labdka s -pratishtham=achiraya Kalim su]-du^ra]m 4 =iit8aryya guddha-eharitair 

ddharani-talasya kritva punah Kritayuga-6ri(ri)- 

3 [yam=apy=a^sham chi]tra[rh] katha[m] ITirupamaCh*3 Kalivallabh6-bhu[t*] [||] 

Prabhfitavarsho 5 G6vin.da-raj(jah) 8 Sauryye'shu vikramah' 

4 -Ejitvt ]agat=sama]st[am] [y6*] JagatCt*]uriga iti 6m.ta[h] [||*] Ke*ala 8 -Maiava- 

Sautan. 9 sa-O-U3 jara 10 Cbitraku(kii.)ta-giridurgga-stlian='ba- 

5 [ddhva K,ncb.-Sa]n=a(a)tha sa Ktrttinarayan[6*] jagati 11 [||*] Ari 12 -nripati- 


dhavalah [||*] Svasti Samadhigart6(ta)pancha- 

7 ma(ma)ha^abda-maharajadhira]a-param^gvara-bhatt4raka . ohatur-udadhi-valaya- 

ya(?va)layu(yi)ta 13 -sakala-dharatala- 

8 prHtir%-an^ka-mandalikarkkaia kataka-ka(ka)tia[u]tra-kundala-i:4yura-h[a]rabharan- 


1 Broin the ink-impression. Tu the footnotes to the text of the Nilgand inscription, Vol. VI. above, p. 102 ff., 
such differences of reading in the two records, as seem to present anything at all of interest, have been exhibited. It 
does not seem necessary to shew them all here again. 

2 Metre, &16ka (Anushtubh). Before the verae, there was douW89 an Om, represented by a plain symbol, 
asatthebe^nningoftheNilgnnditiBcription. There seems to be not room enough for the word Swti to have 
stood after the 6 m . Prom the ink-icapression, it cannot be decided whether there was, or was not, any writing above 
the first extant line o the present record. Bat the verse Jayati Kkvana-1cd>'a,iut**' e * c -> whicl1 we bave ia th 
beginning of the Nflgund inscription, would fill about a line and a half in the writing of the present record } and the 
first ydda of the verse Sa v6*vyM, eta., preceded by 6m, quite suffices to fill the lacuna in the first part of line 1. 
And it seems, therefore, that the verse Jayali Uttvaa-Mr<t**m, etc., was not used here, and that no writing is 
misaing above the first extant line 5 beoanse it would be contrary to custom to leave a blank space of half a line or so 
between two such verses. 

* Metre, Vasantatilaka. , , ix w 

* The M waa at first omitted by the writer, and then was inserted below the line* over thejwof Mrnpama 

of the next line. 

Metre, SWca (Annshtubh). I ' See Tol. VI. above, p. X02, note 10. 

Bead, probably, fmyytw ******* ^ 8ee Voi VI above, p. 102, note 11. I. ith^ Mra ryyt, the 
vowel I was at first omitted, and than was added on revision.-An inscriptioa at Obifiobh ia the <h*g taluka, of the 
ttoeof Krishna IL, dated in the Kfigala *****, Saka-Samvat 819 (expired), - A.D. 897-98, seems to pre.ent 
the reading iawyy-t<tm*a]-vifo amab, <' posaessed of prowess charactensad by heroism. 

* Metre j st-e Vol. YI. above, p. 102, note 1$. 

* Nllgund, line 6, has Gauddn; see page 207 below, note 9. 

Bead G*wrdi , if '*<; is observed, G*jJar4***Mri * Vol. VI. above, p. 102, note 15. 
u In the first syllable of this* word, ji wa formed and then was corrected wto j* 
Metre 5 see Vol. VI. above, p. 103, note *. " See Vol. VI. above, p. 108, note 4. 

" The a. omitted in its proper place, seem. & have been supplied, ia a very unusual manner, by the 
projecting downwards from the bottom of the lea. 


k "P & i i d h v a j 

10 digantar-ella 8 sri(sri)sh[li-s&aapati 


11 ttanga-kirita-makuta-gliyislita-padaraviiida-yugma nirjjita-vairi ripu-nivaha-Kala-daniJa 


12 na 5 am6glia-Baiaa[m] para-ohakra-panck[a*]naiLaih sm>asTira-marddanari* vairi- 

bhaya-karam badde-man6liararii abHmS,na-mandiram 

13 3^tta-vams-&dbb.ava[m] Garada 6 -lanc]ia(fiohh.a)nam tiviU-pajeghdahanaiii 

Lattalura-pura-param^varam grMifipatunga- 

14 nam-amkita-LakalimlvallabMiidraih'? chandr-adityara kalam-varegam. maha-Vishpuva 

rajyam-bol nttar-ottaraib rajy-abhi- 

15 vri(vri)ddM salntt-ire ^aka-nripa-kal-atlta-aaihvatsara 

e^taaeya Vyayam-emba sa[m*Jvatsaraiii prava- 

16 rttise grimad 8 -Amogliavarsha-Nripatunga-iifim-ftnkitaiia 


17 m-uttar-3ttaraw 9 rajy-a^hivfiddhi 11 salutt-ire 


18 d^va-padapamkaja-bluaiiiara 


19 nsalnttumsAnmgejeyap-ire 


20 grirurada Eavikayyam modal-agi iln^rvrorum mahajanada kalam kalohi 

dejeyam bi(bi)ttom [||*] " 

21 I 8ti(stM)tiyam kad4ta(ta)nge Bara^asivadol 15 s[a*]aira kavileyam 

1 See Vol. VI. above, p. 103, note 7 j and for vddiyyct"etyya.mdna read either dSdtpyamdna, ' very brightlf 
ahining-,' or d6dhuyamdna, ' being waved to and fro like fang.' In favour of didtyyamdna, it may be noted that 
a TamiJ song presents the expression "0 king, whose white umbrella shines respleodeut :" see Ind.Ant t Vol. 
XXVIII, p. 29. 

1 After the j? 6, the -writer or engraver first formed a fc, and then, without properly correcting the & into r, added 
the rather imperfectly. 

* In the akihara re, tie superscript e is formed very anomalously. 

* Bead, probably, vithayddMndibj see Vol. VI. above, p, 103, note 11. 

1 Apparently &iapa was intended, without gamdhi with the following word. As remarked in Vol. VI, 
above, p. 103, note 32, from this point more attention was paid, both in this record and in the Nllgund record, to 
the case-endings of the nominatives. 

* First ta was written; and then it was corrected into At. 

* Read vallalMndrana or vallaUendranel. JNilgund,"line 17, has the same mistake, except that the wuuvfra 
was omitted. 

8 In the fri, the long 4 seems to be marked here by a curve on the right, instead of the left as, for instance, 
in /ft, line 13 5 so, also, in friinad in line 18 below, it seems to be abnormally marked by a stroke upwards to tfo* 

9 The mutedra is quite clear in the impression, though not in the collotype. 

10 The original had rdjycyyd ; and then the jya was cancelled. 

11 Bead <$5ArW%t* ; see Vol. VL above, p. 10*, note 7. 

M Begarding the way in which the superscript t is formed, see note 8 above. 

Bead Amigeyeyol, as in Nllgund, line 22 j or else Annige^eyal. M regards the n, which is probably a 
muttake for 9S , see Vol. VI. above, p. 100, note 3. From the collotype, it might be thought that we have hero tbe 
long t. But that is only due to a fault in the impression. My impression of 1882 shews distinctly that the vowel- 
mark is quite closed down on to the top stroke of the consonant, and that the vowel is therefore the short . 

11 Bead Jyeththa } or, more correctly, JyaithtAa. 

11 Regarding this word, see some remarks on page 204 above. 

E. Sirur Inscription of Amoghavarsha I. A.D, 



SCALE .20 


22 [!]dan l =alidu tuppam s -unt-ata(ta)rh Baranasiyu 3 s&sira kavlleyu[m*] 

23 [Ni]mbiohchara 4 -Bam[m*]ayya besa-geysido Madhavayyana likhl(khi)tarix 

Nag[a* t ]riiunarh bhe(be)sa-geydo 

24 [SQri-gavundana eltu 5 "pudi(di)dudu [!(*] 

[Om ! ]-* (Yerse 1 j line 1) [May he (Yishnu) protect you, the water-lily (growing) in -whose 
,vel is made a habitation by Vddaas (Brahman)] ; "and Hara (Siva), -whose head is adorned 
a lovely digit of tie moon ! 

(V. 2 ; 1. 2) Since, with his pure actions, he [in no long 1 time] drove far away from, the 
.rface of the earth [Kali who had secured a footing there], and made again, [complete even] 
ie splendour of the Krita age, [it is wonderful] how Wirupama-(I)hrtiva) became (also 
wwn as) Kalrvallabha. 6 

(V. 3 ; 1. 3) (There was Us son^ PrabliTiitavarslia-Q-Svindaraja (HI.)* who, [having 
mquered the whole world] by his heroism and deeds of prowess(?), 8 was known as Jagafr- 
inga. (V. 4 ; 1. 4) Having [fettered] the people of Kara]*, and Malava and gmt% 9 and, 
)gether with the Gurjaras, those who dwell in the hill-fort of OMtrakfite, 10 and then [the lords 
Kftricltil, he (became known as) Kirtinrayana oa the earth. 11 

(Y. 5 ; 1. 6) (And then there came his son) AtisayadhavaJa-CAmdgliavarslia I.), whose 
eet are nibbed by the diadems of hostile kings (bowing down before him), and whose heroism 
a [praised] throughout the whole world, and who is -worshipped by the lords of Vanga, Anga, 
ffagadha, Malava, and Vengi. 

(Line 6)- Hail ! While, to an extent ever greater and greater, the increase of the 
sovereignty of him, IakshmivaUataliL6nd.ra s 12 who Is distinguished by the narae of the glorious 

1 Bead da, with the short *. The i, of which only a small part is now extant, is supplied from the original 
ink-hnpresBion of 1882, which was made before the stone suffered injury at this place ; so,dlao,the Ni at the begiuning 
of the next line, and the Si at the beginning o line 24. 

s Bead tappum. 

3 Bead, probably, Sdrcwdsigum. We might, of course, supply ?, and, reading Edrcwdsiyn], obtain here 
another instance of the comparatively rare locative in itl, regarding which see Vol. VI. above, p. 99, and note l^on 
page 100. But it seems more likely that the copulative nominative (Bdran&siyum), standing for the accusative 
{Rdrwasiyumam), was intended here, as was certainly the case in the next word but one, Jcavileyv,, which is 
mistake for kavileyum, standing for Jeavileyumam. Tor the justification of the use of the accusative of J34ra%asi 
in thia and similar passages, see Vol. VI. above, p, 1O7, note 5. 

* This ra was evidently at first omitted, and was then inserted on revision. 

* The original impression of 1882 snews, between this akshara and the Be which is above it, a thin horizontal 
line, seven-eighths of an inch long, which seems to have been intended to turn the I into a <,. In Mr. Consens' 
impression, also, this line is visible; but more faintly, because of a little too mnch ink having been used. In the 
collotype, it is hardly discernible at all. 

See Vol. VI. above, p. 105, note 9. ? See Vol. VI. above, p. 10S, note 10. 

See Vol. VI. above, p. 102, note 11. ^ , 

Tha Uflgund inscription gives Gauda. Satif;a may perhaps be accepted as another form of Sauda, the nama 
of acottntry mentioned in the B&afafatiffiyit, vi. 300, which speaks of a math a founded atDiddapura for the 
accommodation of people from the Madhyadesa or middle country, and from La^a, Sauda, and Udra (?). Or, as In 
line IS the writer first wrote G aruta and then corrected the ta into da, Savldn may be treated as an uncorreofced 
mirta'ke for &ad&. Or,- again, we might assume that the i, also, is a mistake for g> which would not be at SU 
impofflibloj and," on that view, the Gawtdn of this record would be imply a mistake for Oavddn in the original 

M The allusion here seems to be to ' Ohitor * and ChitorgarV in Eajput&na, rather than, aa previously thought 
by me, to Chitrak&t or Chatarkdt in Bundelkhsnd. 

'i See Vol. VI. above, p. 106, note 1. u See Vol. VI. above, p. 106, note 2. 


Hripatunga,- the Hahdrtijadhirdja and ParamSsvara and BTiaftdraka who has attained | 
pa-tichaniahddabda ; l lie wlio lias covered all the territories of the numerous chieftains of ^ 
hostile kings, over the whole surface of the earth which is girdled lay the belt of tie f 
oceans, with his thousands of female elephants 3 decorated with rings on their tusks and Imam 
their cheeks and pendants from their ears and bracelets and strings of pearls, and viiih | 
darkness (o&useil by the multitude) of his cbauris, and with his very brightly shining (?) 5 faj 
white umbrellas, and -with his battle-conches, and with his broad % standard of the p&jidlmji 
"banner and his (other) flags ; He who is a born leader of armies ; he whose feet, resemb% 
water-lilies, are rubbed by the lofty tiaras and diadems (bowed down before Mm) of Dvfa 
ndyakas (in charge) of capitals and groups of places, and of chieftains and other lords rf 
districts (?) j lie who has conquered his foes ; he who is a very staff of Death to the lost of Mi 
enemies ; ne who breaks down the pride of wicked people ; he who is a' very unfailing BSbajht 
who is a very lion to the army of his enemies ; he who subdues gods aM demons ; he who cams 
fear to his foes ; he who captivates the minds of truthful women j he who is the habitation rf 
haughtiness 5 he who has been born in the race of the Battas ; he who has the Garuda owit; 
he who is heralded in public with the sounds o the musical instrument called tivili; (iel 
has the hereditary title of) supreme lord of the town of Lattalura, was continuing, lib 
the sovereignty of the great Vishnu, so as to endure as long as the moon and sun might las,ii j~ 

(L, 15) While the samvatsara named Vyaya, the seven hundred and eighty-eigha 
of the years elapsed of the era of the Saka kings, was current ; and while fiw 
fifty-second of the augmenting years of the victorious reign of him who is distinguished 
by the name of the glorious Amoghavarsha-Wripatungawas continuing (with) an inorfiw 
of sovereignty to an extent ever greater and greater : 

(L. 17) While, by the favour of the king Atisayadhavala, the illustrious DSvannayya, s 
very bee on the water-lilies that are the feet of Amdghavarshadeva and a very asylum fat 
excellent people, waa dwelling at Annigere, governing the Bejvola three-hundred : 

(L. 19) When it was the new-moon day of the month Jysh$ha and a Sunday, at the 
time of an eclipse of the sun, he (De" vannayya) laved the feet of the two-hundred -MffM- 
jancts, headed by Ravikayya, of Srivura, and relinquished (to them) the tax on clarified Imtte, 

(L. 21) To him who protects this ordinance, there shall accrue the reward of giving a 
thousand brown cowa at Baranasi ; he who, having destroyed it, is (thereby) guilty of a misde- 
meanour, shall be (as) one who destroys Baranasi* or a thousand brown cows or a thousand 
Br&hmans ! 

(L. 23) Written by Madhavayya, at the command of Nimbichchara-Bammayya ; set up 
and fixed in its place by Sirigavnndaj at the command of N&garjuna. 

F. Mdagundi inscription of the time of Amdghavarsha I. About A.D. 874-75. 

This inscription has been mentioned by me in Vol. III. above, p. 163, note 1. It is BTO 
edited for the first time. I originally obtained ink-impressions of jit in 1882. The accompanying 
collotype, however, is from an ink-impression received from Mr. Cousens in 1886. 

Kidagundi is a village about four miles towards the south-south-west from Sbiggaon, the 
head-quarters of the Bankapur tWuka of the DhS,rwar district. The Indian Atlas sheet No, 41 

1 See Vol. VI. above, p. 106, note 3. 

1 Using another meaning of gaiiilcd, which is given in. Monier- Williams' Sanskpifc Dictionary, revised effltiWi 
namely ' female elephant' instead of 'courtesan,' I give here a translation which seems more appropriate 4Sn to* 
pat forward for the same passage in the Nllgund inscription. 

1 See above, p. 206, note 1. 

See Vol. VI, above, p. 107, note 5. An inscription at Xrani in Mysore (ffp. Cam. Vol. IV., Kg. 81) 
in the same connection, oi the destruction of Frayaga as well as 


(1827) shews it as ' Neergoondee.' And the Map of the Dhlrw&r Collector-ate (1874) shews it 
as ' Needgoortdee.' The present record gives its name in the older form of Mdugundage, and 
marks it as tlae chief town of a group of villages known as the ISidugundage twelve. And 
the purport of the record has the effect of placing it and its attached villages in the Kundarage 
seventy, and perhaps in also the Belgali three-hundred. The inscription is on a stone tablet, 
which was found in a field, Survey No. 64, at Nidagundi, and is now stored in the kachlri. at 

The top of the stone, about 7|" high, shews the sculptures of a linga on its ctihuMka- 
stand with fclie bull Nandin, recumbent, and facing towards it. These sculptures cover about two- 
iftirds of the top part of the stone. The rest of it, on the proper right side, is occupied by six 
short lines of -writing, in characters of the same type and period, which contain a short supple- 
mentary record ; they have been numbered 20 to 25, and are given after the text of the body 
of the record. The writing of the body of the record covers an area about 1' 9f broad by 
2' 4i v high, and is mostly in a state of very good preservation. The characters are Kanarese, 
boldly formed and well executed. They are fairly uniform in size, ranging mostly between about 
V and U"; "but the yo of Vdrandsiyol, in line 17, is only a little more than I'' high : the M in 
Hue 1 is about 2" high. The record itself presents final forms, of * in Mmat, line 5, and of m in 
m line 13 and pa^edomm, line 16 ; and we have the final w again in the supplementary 
Zrdattke top of the stone, in lUtfdram, line 22. The amsvdra is formed between the lines of 
wto instead of above the top line, in idam, line 16, and apparently also in MmUyufn 
L 18 The distinct form of the lingual d can be recognised clearly m jwwtera*Miw* hne 9, 
f? m. naoxe so in eerwefo to ^rggade, line 11 ; it is also marked, though not so plainly, in 

n, r,n^v>iaTYi-nfarv record, in attttwct/iaw-fffii/" 1 ^ lluc flt> ' , ,_ 

agarn in the supplementary rec^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ rf ^^^^^ ^ 4> No< 6 , 

of . old square type , dosed. Tho ~"^ ^ 8 taBoes, we have the old ,uare type, in 
we have the later cursive torn ; but, in aU the otnsr IM , , & t rf SaA . 

ft, .taed form, and the intended exact to d ri ^^Sttw, K- 2^ i md a 
kjv ,* ( e, to 10, H.. 4 = " Tf;; " X P ^ " ^ta lu * dosed 'to, : the 
d, it is of the old sqnare %P e ' "J"^ fa , l bfc , , to 4, Ho. 6, oat, - * 
olitery mstanoe of the use of the later ^^ " h * rt of ^ rfer. The I occurs more 
case ot the Sirto record, be ezplarned as a slip o >P ^pptementerv record, in 

bed, BtLll : it is, throughout, of the later cursive *J^ ^ ^edtythe preservation, in 
,W,J, or ofaj^ line 23 : the I. of l *'^ w ' n ^^te to whiot attention ha, already been 
miatare, of the principal part of the old square character, to TT ^^^ ^ fta 

Smwnm page 199 ; but to I. of 9 Ml ^X 6 u^ Kanarese, of the archaic type ta 
mot form that TOB aimed at in to * M f Cj,, *"LU of which is not apparent- The 
rm. In line 23, we have a word oWe -*^ art B eMept (1) the insertiou of an u- 
OtthOgrapW does not, present anything calling lo '? ^ U ne 15, aud ^to*, for 

ffiWBary oBUMrJ in Bdp"""*" 1 ' lm \ 10 '7' *j , for 1, in .*. uue 14, for ta 
H*7 OI ^rf.*, Une 16 , and W P^^^T ft.' . is po^ly ** *" 
as a possible tadbTiava-comiption of b^aW^a nere ' 
mistake for lh- . . Eashtrakuta. Mng Am6ghvarslia I. 

This insoription is another record of f 7^"* ^a, who was governi si 

It^ntiox.saa official of his, named Baya ox Ban^y ^ ^ 

twelve-thoiiBand province, and the nown 


Kundarage seventy, the Kundiir five-hundred, and the Purigere tnree-hundred. And it 
mentions also a son of Bankeya, named Kundatte, who was governing the group of villages 
known as the Mdugundage twelve. The primary object of it was. to record the grant of some 
lands to a temple of the god Mahadeva (Siva). The short supplementary record at the top of the 
stone, indicates a certain Viriakade'va as the person on whose instigation the grant was made. 

The date of this record is expressed in a very exceptional and peculiar manner. The Saka 
year is not mentioned. For is the name of the samvatsara given. And the record only refers 
itself to the time, AmSghavarsha .... ond-uttararh rajyarh-geyyutt-ire, " while 
AmSghavarsha was reigning increased by one." Evidently, there -was here an omission of 
some kind or another, whether intentional or accidental. And we have to consider whether -we 
can supply that omission. 

How, from the Siriir inscription, which quite clearly and unmistakably places the new-moon 
day of the - amdnta month Jyaishtha of the Vyaya samvatsara, Saka-Samvat 788 expired, in 
the fifty-second year of his reign, we know, as shewn on page 204 f., that Amoghavarsha I. 
began to reign in A.D. 814 or 815, One of the Kanheri inscriptions supplies for him the date, 
without full details, of S.-S. 799 (expired), = A.D. 877-78. l Though he had then been reigning 
for at least sixty-two full years, we might, if we should like, as there is nothing as yefc in the 
dates of his successor fco oppose it, add another two years to his reign. And it might thus he 
thought possible to take the date of the present record as equivalent to " (the Saka year 800) 
increased by one," that is to say, Saka-Samvat 801 (expired), = A.D. 879-80. t Ve have, 
however, not any proved instance of Indian historical dates having "been expressed in that 
elliptical manner, with omission of the centuries, except in connection with the Laukika 
reckoning of Kashmir and of some adjacent parts of Northern India. That reckoning was 
devised in only the tenth, or possibly the ninth, century A.D. There is not anything that 
can give us a reasonable cause for believing in the existence of any Indian custom of recording 
historical dates with " omitted hundreds," except in those parts and in connection with that 
particular reckoning. And I do not for a moment think it possible that the present date is to he 
explained in that way. 

Some other explanation must be found. Now, we know that the reign of Amoghavarsha I. 
lasted for at least sixty-two full years, and that it thus included one complete revolution of the 
sixty-years cycle of the planet Jupiter. We know, also, that the use of that cycle, in the 
Kanarese country, was definitely established by the Rashtrakutas, and thab it was already being 
freely used there in the time of Amoghavarsha I. There "is, indeed, one epigraphic instance of 
its use in those parts before the Bashtrakfita period ; namely, in the Mahakfita pillar inscrip- 
tion of the Western Chalukya king Mangalesa, which is dated in the fifth year of his reign 
and in the Siddhartha samvatsara, with other details which place it on exactly the 12th April, 
A.D. 602. 9 That, however, is at present only an isolated epigraphic instance "of earlier times. 
But the use of the cycle was definitely established by the BashtraMtas. Amongst the records 
of G&vrnda III., the father and predecessor of Am&ghavarsha I., we have it in the plates from the 
Kanarese country of A.D. 804, iu the Want plates of A.D. 807, in the Badhanpur plates of 
A.D, 808, and in the T6rkhed6 plates of A,D. 813.3 Amongst the records of Am&ghavarsha L, 
we have already found it used in the Kanheri inscription of A.D. 851,< in the Mantrawadi 
inscription of A.D. 865,5 fr ^ Mgund inscription of A.D. 866,* and in the Sirur inscription of 

Ind 4fc Vol. XIII. p. 135, No, 48 A. 

t ' which X am ^infr in the Injin* Anttqwy, Vol. XXXIT 
p. U. No 

?! e !l lori1 ' 8 Brothem List, p. 13, No, 73. p ftgc 2 Q1 alove. 

Kielhorn' 9 Southern List, p. 13, No. 75. 


the same date. 1 I Iiaye found it used in vavioas other records of his time in the Kanarese 
country. It was used very freely in the Rashtrakuta records of subsequent reigns, in all parts 
of their dominions. And I do not hesitate to decide that the explanation of the present date is 
to be found in. connection with that system of reckoning, aond that the expression ond-uttaraih, 
presented in this record, is the abbreviation of a full expression wMch would be ond- 
uttaram^aruvattaneyct, varsham, " the sixtieth, year increased by one." I have not overlooked 
the possibility of the eleventh, twenty-first, thirty-first, forty-first, or fifty-first year being 
intended. But it is difficult to recognise anything rational in an elliptical expression being used 
for any of those years. On the other hand, with a cycle of sixty years actually in use, au 
elliptical method of designating years in. excess of the number of sixty, in such a case aa this 
one, is perfectly intelligible and admissible. And I entertain no doubt that that is the method 
which was adopted in recording the date of the present record. This record is, therefore, to he 
placed roughly about A.D. 874-75. The palaeography of the record is quite in agreement with 
this result. And the result is also thoroughly in accordance with the date in A.D. 897, which 
is established by the prasasti of the Uttarapur&na for L&kaditya, son of the Banke'ya who is 
mentioned in this record. 2 

The question remains, whether this explanation places the record in actually the sixty-first 
year of Amoghavarsha I., or whether it places it in the sixty -first samratsara counted from, 
and including, the samvatsara, in which his reign commenced. The two things are not exactly 
the same; because it happens that, in the period A.D. 814-15 to 877-78 covered by the reign 
of Am&ghavarsha I., there waa an apparent or an actual omission of a sumvatsara. If the 
samvatsaras were taken according to the so-called northern luni-solar system, then the year 
S.-S. 745 expired was the Subhakrit samvataara, No. 36, and the year S.-S. 746 expired was 
the Krodhin samvatsara, No. 38, and there was an actual omission of the Sobhana samvatsara, 
"No. 37 . 3 If, on the other hand, they were taken according to the actual mean-sign system which 
underlay and governed the other system, then there iras not an actual omission of that or any 
other samvatsara, ; but each of the sixty safovatsaras ran its fall course, and there was only an 
apparent omission of Sobhana, No. 37, presenting itself in the fact that the first day of the year 
S.-S. 745 expired fell in Subhakrit, No. 36, while the first day of the year S.-S. 746 expired 
fell in Kr6dhin, No. 38. It does not seem, necessary to make calculations for the period A.D. 
873 to 876, to determine the smhvatsaras for those years according to the actual moan-sign 
ayatem ; especially, as Professor Kielhorn has arrived at the conclusion that the system then in use 
was the so-called northern luni-solar system. 4 It seems sufficient to state the following results. 

We have seen, on page 205, that Am&ghavavsha I. began to reign at some time from 
Ashldha sukla 1 of the Yijaya sa&vataara, Saka-Samvat 736 expired, falling in May or June, 
AJ). 814, to Jyaishtha krishna 30 of the Jaya tantvalsnra, S*.-S. v 737 expired, falling in June, 
A,D. 815, The first samvatsara after a complete round of tlie samvatsaraa would be, again, 
either Vijaya, S.-S. 795 expired, beginning, according to the so-called northern luni-solar system, 
in A..D. 873 and ending in A.D. 874, or else Jaya, S.-S. 796 expired, beginning in A.D. 874, 
and ending in A.D. 875 ; and the record is to be placed in A.D. 873, 874, or 875. 

On the other hand, the actual sixty- first year of Amoghayarsha I, would commence on 
some day from Ashadha Sukla 1 of the Jaya samvatsara, Saka-Sachvat 796 expired, in A.D. 
874, to Jyaishtha krishna 30 of the Manmatha sariivatsarct, S.-S. 797 expired, in A.D. 875; and 
the record is to be placed in A.D. 874, 875, or 878. A more exact result cannot be arrived 
at, because the month and tithi, with the week-day or any other detail, are not specified. 

1 Page 2&H above. 

2 See a note on the Mukula or Chellak&tana family, wliich I am giving mtlie I#dia Antiquary, Vol. XXXII, 

* S<>e Sewell and Dikshit's Indian Calendar, Table'l., p. 34s 

* Sec Ind, Ant. Yol. XXV, p, 269. 

2 i 



Of the territorial divisions mentioned in this record, the Banavasi twelve-thousand and 
the Purigere three-hundred are already well known. The Mdugundage twelve was, of course; 
a group of villages headed by the modem BTidagundi itself. The position of the 3Kundarage 
seventy is probably marked by a village in the North Kanara district, the name of which is not 
given in the Indian Atlas sheet No. 42 (1827) but is shewn in the Map of the Dnarwar 
Colleetorate (1574), perhaps as a hamlet or deserted village, as * Koondurgee, ' one mile and a 
half east-by-south from Mundag6d in tha Yellapur taluka and nine miles west-by-iiortli from 
Nidagundi. The Belgali three-hundred may be connected either with a village in the Banka- 
pur t&lnka, which is shewn as * Belgullee ' in the Indian Atlas sheet No. 41 (1852), and as 

* Belugulee * in the Collectorate Map, four miles on the north of Shiggaon, and about eight 
miles north-by-east from Nidaguudi, or with a village in the Hubli taluka, which is "shewn as 
*Belgttlee' in the Collectorate Map, but as ' Bellagattee ' (no doubt, by mistake for 

* Bttllagmllee *) in the Atlas sheet No. 41, about seven and a half miles on the south of Hubli, 
arid twenty-two miles towards the north-by- west from Nidagundi, The position of the Kundur 
five-hundred is a more difficult question. There is a village in the Ban ka pur taluka, which is 
shewn in both the Atlas sheet No. 42 and the Collectorate Map as ' Koondoor,' seveu miles south- 
sauth-east-half-south from Shiggaon, and five miles south-east from Nidagundi ; but the close 
proximity of the Panurbgal or Hanumgal five-hundred and the Purigere three-hundred, districts, 
renders it difficult, if not impossible, to find room for a five-hundred district there. And there 
is also a ' Kuadur * somewhere in the Sirsi taluka of Xorfch Kanara ; but, if the Kixndur five- 
hundred lay there, Bank&yarasa must have been governing also the Panumgal five-hundred, 
intervening directly between that locality and the Purigere three-hundred ; whereas, the record 
does not mention the Pauuiiigal five-hundred. A Kundur five-hundred, however, appears to 
be mentioned elsewhere, in the passage in the Aminbhavi inscription of A.D. 11 13, 1 which, 
according to the transcription given in Sir Walter .Elliot's Manuscript Collection, mentions the 
place as Ammaiyyanabhavi, and claims that, in the time of the Western Chalukya king 
Palakeiin II., and iu A.D. 566 or 567 (an altogether incorrect date), certain grants were made 
to the god Kalideva of Ammaiyyanabhavi, which was au agrahdra, in the Kundur five-hundred 
of the Palasige province (vuhaya). Aminbhavi is about six miles north-north-east from 
Dharw&r, and about thirty miles on the east of Halsi, the ancient Palasige, in the KMnapur 
t&luka. The position is a thoroughly suitable one for the Kundur five-hundred district And I 
think ifcat we may safely take it tfcat the Kundur five-hundred of the present record ia 
both** by the A^nhhavi record and included that village, though I cannot at present identify 
fee town, Kundur, from which the district took its appellation. 

TEXT. 2 

1 Svasty^AmSghavarsha sriprithiviva- 

2 llabha mahfirajadhiraja(ja) ' param&vara bhat[4]- 
8 rara(r) ond-uttaraih r%am-geyyutt-ire satya-samara. 



ijmbol for Hu orf <). " *"* * * <e " wdl e sk *ned to be token for the remnwiti of a damaged 

er exactly f nor exactly a, see note 4 nbove. 

F. Nidagundi Inscription of Amoghavarsha I. 







6 paiitiircIich.dsiramiim^nsBelgali-mun&rtiinS.m. BLundara- 

7 ge-elpattumam Kxmdfir-aynur.umaj^m] Purigere- 

8 munuKTimam Bamk6y-arasar l =alutt-ire Bamkya- 

9 na maga[m] Kimdatte Mdugundage-panrieradinnan=a- 

10 lult-ildu Bamk)yarbge dharmmam=akk=end - a Kundat- 

$eymm. Ra- 

11 panumm 2 =i]dTi eradara pergge- 


12 Kuppannana degulada Mahad&vargge or-nunattar= 


13 ay"inattar=kkeyyu kottam 3 [||*] Majdaiii tanna 

bhagamam kude a 

14 vattara 4 Kuppa[iia] d^gulamam madisi sarvya-badha-pa- 

15 riharam Samkaram. nal-gamu[ndu*]-geye Gadiyam- 

mamn 6 =a ba- 

16 la[rh] paripalisi nile pa4edomm 6 [j|*] Idam kadonge 


17 ranasiyol=aTamedL.ada phalarh idan=alidoage 

18 sSsira kavileyum sasirvvar=parvvariiman=alida ma- 

19 M-patakam=akku [||*] Om7 [||*] 1(1) kallam Durgga- 

d[a]sam samedo[m] [||*j 

At the top of the stone. 

20 NamastS 8 Sri(fal)- 

21 Y i n a k a d 6 v a (v a)- 

22 btattaraia 9 sabba(bba> 

23 clio(?vo)lege l anugra- 

24 haii-geydu padeda[iii] 
25 i(i) t&nama[th] [||*J 


Hail ! While AmoghavaofBlia, the favourite of Fortune and of the Earth, the Mahdrdjcl- 
dhirdja, the ParamS&oara, the Bhajdra, was reigning (for the sixtieth, year) increased by 
one ; u and -wiiue the illustrious Baoke'yarasa, whose javelin-banner has been taken, as an abode 
by the goddess of -victory won by encounterings in genuine battle, was governing ihe whole of 

1 This ia an unnecessary repetition of the nominative which we have already in line 6. 
1 Bead Edpanwn. 

Bead TeTceyyvAi Teottof. The use of ike final m ia Jcottam is rather peculiar ; hoita-h (or leottan) would have 
been. more correct. Compare padedomm for pa&edom (or jpadedon), line 16, and bhattdram .for Uatfdram (or 

Ihattdrati), line 2 2. . 

* In the second syllable of this word, the subscript* has not been properly joined to the upper?; and it has 

also teen carried so low as to be overrun by the top stroke of the A of rihdram in the next line. The word itself, 
vattdrct, either is a mistake for Uaffdra, or else stands for l&{tAra, as a possible te<Aaa.corrnption of 
' Bead Gddiyamma*. ead padedoih ; see note 8 above. 

1 Represented by an ornate symbol, much damaged. 

Bead am6*stu. ' Bea^ Motfdram j see note 3 above. 
It. is just possible that, before the olo or vo, there may be a cramped and imperfectly 

piptaps ra or fca, ou the edge ot the stone. 
- u See page 210 f . 


the Banavasi twelve-thousand, the Belgali three-hundred, the Kimdarage seventy, the 
Kundiir five-hundred, and the Purigere three-hundred : 

(Line 8) Kundatte, the son of BankSya, while governing the Mdugundage twelve, said 
to Bankeya "Let there be a religious grant;" and Kundatte and Ttapa, being convened, 1 
fayp one viatiar of garden-land and five mnttars of cultivable land to the god HaMdeva of the 
temple of Kupparma the Pergade of the Nidugundage twelve. 

(L. 13) On Majda giving his own share, that same honourable Kuppa caused the temple 
to be made ; and, while Saiokara was holding office as N&lgdimindu, G-adiyamma, protecting' 
{hat property, acquired it so that it continued unimpaired, free from all molestation. 2 

(L. 16) To him. who protects this, there shall accrue the reward of performing an asva- 
Tn?'.?/m-Bacrifiee at Varanasi; to him who destroys it, there shall attach the guilt of the great sin 
of deatroying a thousand brown cows or a thousand Brahmans ! 

(L. IF) Durgad&sa prepared this stone. 

At the top of the stone. 

(L, 20) Let there be reverence ! The honourable one, the saintly Vinakadeva, did a kind- 
ness to the whole . . . . , 3 and obtained this property. 

***** * 

The family-name of the Eashtrakutas of MalkhM. 

To my previous paper on some of the records of the Rasblrakuta kings of Malkhed, in 
Vol. VI. above, p. 160 ff. } I attached some notes on a few special points, chiefly in connection 
with the names, Urudas, and other appellations of the various members of that family. 
Eventually, we shall consider some wider questions, such as the antiquity that may "be assigned 
to tie RasLtrakuta stock, the extraction of the Bashtrakutas, the period and localities in which 
they fipst^oame to the front as a ruling power, and the distribution of them in later times aa 
indicated ID the first place by epigraphies records, and in the second place by the existence o! 
tribes and clans who now claim to be of Rashtrakula descent. Meanwhile, I deal now with some 
more preliminary points. 

In line 13 of the Sirar inscription of A.D. 866, 4 as also in the corresponding passage in line 
16 of the Nilgund inscription of the same date, 6 the family-name of the Malkhgd dynasty 
is presented to ns^ in the formal prasasti or eulogy in Kanarese prose -which introduces 
the practical details of the record, as Eatta, in the description of Amfighavarsha I, as 
Sattwafot'tdb'haioa, "born in the race of the Rattas, or in the Eatta race."6 And these two 
passages are the earliest known passages which present the name Eatta. 

1 lid* is equivalent to adan^ildw ; see Vol. VI. above, page 68, note 6. 

8 This passage, the construction of which is not quite grammatical, seems to recite the previous founding of 
the temple, and the original endowment of it.-The metming of nile is not quite certain 5 but the word seems to be 
a form of the iafinitive of i7, t7, in the sense of 'to ataud or last, to continue unimpaired.' A very simtlai- 
wpression, # mMigidom, occurs in line 46 of the Hebbfil inscription of A.D. 975 (Vol. IV. above r>, 3541; nila, 
also, is a form of the infinitive of nij, nilu. 

s The meaning of tke word at the beginning of line 23 is not known. 
* F^ge 206 abore. ' 5 Vol . VL abo ve, p. 103. 

in v J \J C ?! yeniellfc to 8peak of " the Ka 0^ Bashtrakftfa race, lineage, or family/' and of "the Eatta or 
Kashtrafcftta kingdom, rule, or sovereignty." And we meet with the actual expression n*tt-dhvav6 onjhSah, "the 
race wluch has the appellation Rattaj" see page 218 f. But the exact analysis of all such compound., a, 
fiw^S f at ^ raM ^-^ la > and *&, etc., seems to be EaUdndm vatita, "the race of the Eattas," 
AA^MfaiAMf. k!a, "the famfly of the hashtraldtas," and RatidndMjya, "the kingdom, rule, or sovereignty 
of the Hanas,' and so on; compare the expressions ,a*(6 . . . . YadtnAm and Tad^kula on Paff9 37 above, 
tat Hue* 8, 9, and 9-10, and Y^an^a* and Tadn-^a in 2W. Ai. Vol. XII. p, 26*, textS 


In the records of th.e Malkhed dynasty, the only other known instances in which, the 
occurs in the same form, Ratta, are the following. The two sets of BagumrlL plates oi ; 
A.D, 915 speak, in a Sanskrit verse, of Ratta-rajija, " the kingdom, rule, or sovereignty of the 
Rattas;" 1 and the same expression occurs again in the Deoli plates of A.D. 940, in two 
Sanskrit verges, 2 and again in the same two verses ia the Karliad plates of A.D. 959. 3 Tho 
Bagumra plates of A.D. 915 further apply to Indra III., again in a Sanskrit verse, the birudtt 
Rattakandarpa, " a Kandarpa, Kama, or Love of the Battas ; "* and the same Liruda is applied 
to G6vinda IV. in a Kanarcse verse in the Kalas inscription of A.D, 930, 5 and to Khottiga in 
Kanarese prose in the Adaragunchi inacription of A.D. 971, 6 and to Indra IV. in Kanarese versea 
in the Sravana-Belgola inscription of A.D. 982. 7 The Kalas inscription of A.D. 930, in the 
Kanarese prose passage which leads up to the date and other details of the record, further 
applies to G6vinda IV. the bvruda Battavidyadhara, "a Vidyaclhara or demigod of the Battas. " H 
And the De"61i plates of A.D. 940 introduce, in a Sanskrit vorse, the eponym Batta, as the name 
of the imaginary person whom that record puts forward as the original ancestor of the family ; 9 
aad the aame verse occurs in the Karhad plates of A.D. 959. 10 

In those of the other records of the M&IkhM dynasty which put forward the proper 
name of the family and do not refer to it as simply the race, family, or lineage of Yadu or of 
the Yadus, 11 the name is always given as Bashtrakuta. The Samauga4 plates of A.D. 764 
liken Indra II., in a Sanskrit verse, to sad-Rdshtrak&ta-kanaMdr'!,, "a golden mountain (Mem) of 
the good Bashtrakutas;" 12 and we have the same verse in the Pai than plates of A.D. 7 94, 1 -5 
ia the NausM plates of A.D. 817, " in the Kfrvi plates of A.D. 827, 1B in the BagumrS, platea of 
A.D. 867, 16 in the Chokkhakuti grant of A.D. 867, 17 and in the Bagumra plates, of doubtful 
authenticity, of A.D. 888. 1S The Nausari plates of A,D. 817, in another Sanskrit verse, describe 
Dlirava as B,d$li{rak&ta-tila'ka,, " an ornament of the Rashtraldatas ; " 19 and this verse oceurn 
again in the Kavi plates of A.D. 827 , 20 in the Bagurar& plates of A.D. 867 , 81 in the Ghokkhakuti 
graat of A.D. 867, 2S and in the Bagumra plates, of doubtful authenticity, of A.D. 888. 2a The 
Baroda plates of A.D. 835 speak, in a Sanskrit verse, of sulUka-EdsJifraMta, "tributary 
Baabtrakutas ; " 24 and the same verse is presented in the Bagumrii plates of A.D. 867, 35 in the 

When M is prefixed, as, for instance, iu gri-E&sMra&dt-din-aya, the proper analysis seems to be frtmatdih 
RdiMraMtdndm^anvaya; compare, for instance, jrlmatdm .... Chalvkydnaik kulam in Ind, Ant, Vol. VI. 
p. 76, text lines 2, 6. 

1 Jour- So. Sr. R. As. Soo, Vol. XIII. p. 258, B., plate ii. a, text line 5, and p. 262, A., plate ii.a, Hue 3. 
Ia my previous paper, these two records have been referred to as " the Nausflii plates of A..0. 91 5." I have already 
indicated the reason fov which they are to be properly known as "the Bagumr& plates of A.D. 915 j" see Vol. VI 
above, Additions and Corrections, p. vi. 

I Vol. V. above, p. 194, text lines 29, 32. s Vol. IV. above, p. 234, text lines 31, 89. 

* Loc. cit. (note 1 above), p. 259, B., plate ii.S, texb line 5, and p. 2f>3, A., plate ii.6,.liae 2. 

* This record has not been published yet. I quote it from an ink-impression. 

Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 256, text line 4-5. 7 Inters, at Stav.-Bel, No. 57, verses 2, 17, 

8 See note 5 above. * Vol. V. above, p 193, text line 11. 

Vol. IV. above, p. 282, text line 10-11. 

u Two verses presented in the Cambay pUtes of A.D. 930 (p. 37 above, text lines 8 f. and 9 f.), and again, in 
ths Sangli plates of A.D. 933 (Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 249, text line* 4 f . and 6 ff.), simply place the members 
of the family in the Yaddndm vamia or Yadu-kula. The Kharda plates of A.D. 972 similarly place them ia the 
Yad6r=*ai>vaya or Yadv-vttmia (Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 264, text lines 4, 6-7). 

Ind. Ant. Vol. XL p. 112, text line 14. ll Vol. Ill, above, p. 106, text line 9. 

14 Jbwf. .Bo. Br- B. At. Soc. Vol. XX. p. 136, text line 9. 

Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 146, verse 6. u Ind. Ant. Vol. XII, p, 183, verse 6. 

" Vol. VI. above, p. 288, text line 7. l8 Ind. Ant, Vol. XIII. p. 66, verso 4- 

II Jour . Bo. Br. S. At. Soc. Vol. XX. p. 137, *ext line 81. 

* Id. Ant. Vol. V. p. 146, verae 20. " Ind. Ant. Vol. XII, p. 182, verse 17. 
Vol. VI. above, p. 289, text line 20. " Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 67, verso 11. 
* Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 1S-9, text line 17- "' Ind. Ant. Vol. XIL p, 183, verae -29. 


Chokkhakuti grant of A.D. 867, 1 and in the Bagmnra plates, of doubtfnl authenticity, of 
A.D. S88. 2 And the Kalas inscription of A.D. 930 3 describes G&vinda IV., in a Kanarese verse, 
as Rdshtrak&t-ottama, " a "best of the Bashtrakfttas," The Ward plates of A.D. ,807 mention 
the family, in a Sanskrit verse, as tfrt-BdshfrqMt-dnvaya, " the lineage of the glorious 
Bashtrakiitas ; "* we have the same verse in the Radhanpur plates of A.D. 808 ; 6 and the 
inscription of probably the period A.D. 814-15 to 877-78 at the Dasavatara'cave atE116ra, speaks, 
in another Sanskrit verse, of prakata-Rdshfrakut-dnvaya, "the manifest, public, or well-known 
lineage of the BSshtrakiitas." 6 The Baroda plates of A.D. 812 speak, in a Sanskrit verse, of 
fri-Rdshfrak&t-dmala-vadisa, "the spotless race of the glorious B&shtrakutas ; "7 the D66I! 
plates of A.D. 940, and, following the same draft, the Karhad plates of A.D. 959, again in a 
Sanskrit verse, speak of JRdshtrak&ia-vaibfa, " the race of the Basntrakutas, or of Bsh$r9- 
Idlta, " and propose to account for the name by saying that the family derived ifc from the 
name of a certain (imaginary) B^shtrakuta whom these records put forward as the son of the 
eponymous Eatta. 8 Knally, the Bagnmra plates of A.D. 915 introduce the family, again in 
a Sanskrit verse, as M-Bdshtrakuta-kula } "the family of the glorious Bashtrakutas ; "' 
and the same expression Rdslttrakuta-kula, " the family of the a&utas," is put forward, 
in ornate prose, in the Kadaba plates, 10 which purport to have been issued in AJX 813, but 
which are not of unquestionable authenticity, .' 

In the records of some other early branches of the same general stock, but only 
distantly connected, if actually connected at all, with the Malkhed family, we find used only 
the form Basntrakuta. Thus, in Sanskrit prose, the Untikavatika grant of Abhimauyu describes 
his first ancestor Mananka as Rdstyrakutdndm tilaka, "an ornament of the BSslitra- 
kiitas," 11 A Sanskrit verse in the Multai plates of A.D. 708 places Durgarfrja, the first ancestor 
of Yuddhasura-Nandaraja, M-Eds^rakuf-dnvayS, " in the lineage of the glorious Bfishtra- 
kutas."is And a Sanskrit verse in the lntr6K-Ohharoli plates of A.D. 757 describes Kakkaraja 
I., the first ancestor of Kakkaraja H., as M-Mdshtrakuta-kula-pankaja-shanja-s&rya, "a 
sun of ihe group of water-lilies (blooming in the daytime) which is the family of the glorious 
Bshtrak1atas. !)1 

In later extraneous records which mention the MalkhSd family, we .find the follow- 
ing usage. A Sanskrit verse in an Eastern Chalukya copper-plate record of the period A.D. 918 
to 925 describes Vijayaditya II. (A.D. 799 to 843) as fighting during twelve years, by day 
and by night, a hundred and eight battles with the armies of the Gangas and the Batfcas; and 
a subsequent Sanskrit verse in the same record says that Vijayaditya III. (A,D. 8*4* "to 888), 
prompted by the lord of the Battas, conquered the Gangas, and cut off the head of Mangi in 
tetfle, and frightened Krishna and Sankila, and completely burnt their city." In the Ch&Ja 

f m P ' 2 ^ *f* **^ ~*Ind.Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 67, versed 



8 Arcliaol. Surv. West, 2nd. Vol. V. p. 83, text line 3. 
Ind. At. Yol. XII. p. 1S9, text line 2. 

V ' al)OVe ' P- m > text lines 1 1, 13 , and Vol. IV. p. 282, text lines 10, 11. 

' As ' So ' Vo]< XVIIL p - 258> B " plate "-^ text line 

10 Vol. IV, above, p, 840, text Ike 6. 

ar. So. Sr. S, As. Soc. Tol. XVI. p 90, text line 2. 
. Art. Vol. XVIII. p. 234, text lines 1,2. 

** Vd - l XVL P- 107 ' t e * B 2, 3.- I am of opinion, no*, 

abranch Of the MUkWd ftundy, but n-ere only 

; s ^ that they beWed fco a 8eparate nae - 

'****"' mr '' iextI ithe second rerse, see also Vol. IT. above, 


records, the Rashfcrakuta territory, -which, however, had by that time passed into the hands of 
the Western Ch&lukyas of Kalyani, is called, in Tamil prose, the Ilattapftdi aad Irattapadi 
seveu-and-a-half-lakh (country), in -which appellation the name stands for BattapSdi, "the 
country of the Battas,"i and Irattamandala, "the teeritory of the Battas." 8 The Bhad&ua 
SilaMra grant of A.D, 997 speaks, in a Sanskrit verse, of the once flourishing Ratfa-nljya, or 
" sovereignty of the Rattas " as then existing only in memory, and further on, in Sanskrit prose, 
uses the same word in mentioning the downfall and destruction of the family, consequent on 
the overthro-w of Kakka II 8 The Khar&patan Silahara plates of A.D. 1008 speak, in a Sanskrit 
verse, of Rdshjrakut-gsvardndm vamta, " the radl ^f the Rashtrakuta lords," and further 
on, in Sanskrit prose, describe the Western Chalukya king Invabedanga-Satyasraya as ruling 
over Battapatior " the country of the Battas." 4 And the Kanthth Western Chalukya plates of 
A.D. 1009, in. Sanskrit verses, speak five times of the Bashtrakutas, and Rdsh$rakuta-kula or 
" -the family of the Bashtrakiitas," and also present once the other form Ratta, in referring 
to Bhammaha- Ratta or " the Batta Bhammaha," whose daughter Jakavva became the wife of 
Taila II. 6 

In the later extraneous records, there are many other references to the Rashtrakutas of 
MalkhM, of which some speak of them as Rashtrakutas, but the majority call them B/attas. We 
need not pursue those references any further. But we must note the usage in respect of the family- 
name, in connection both with the Rashtrakulas of MalkhM and with the Rattas of Saundatti, 
in the records of the feudatory Batta princes of Saundatti, who ruled over the K$ndi three- 
thousand province which lay in the territory that had belonged to the Rasbtrakuta kings of 
Malkhed, and who, in their later records, are represented as belonging to the same lineage with 
those kings. 6 In these Ratta records, as far as they have been explored, the name B&shtrakuta 
is but rarely met with. An inscription at Bail-Hongal, probably referable to the period A.D , 
104-i to 1068 but perhaps to be placed about a century later, presents the name of the family of 
apparently the Batta princes as Bashtrak&ta. 7 An inscription at Saundatti, put together in 
A.D. 1096 or soon after, speaks, in Kanarese prose, in a passage which presents wrongly the date 
of A.D. 875-76, of a king Krishnarajadeva, by whom it means Krishna III., and describee him 
aa RashlraMta-kula-tilaka, " an ornament of the family of the Bashtrakutas." 8 The Terdal 
inscription, which was put together in A.D. 1187, includes a passage dated in A.D. 1122 which 
applies to -the prince Kartavirya II., in Kanarese prose, the epithet Rdshtrakfy-dnvaya-sirah- 
tikhcbmam, tf a crest- jewel on the head that was the lineage of the B&shtrakutas." 9 And the 
Saundatfci inscription of A.D. 1228 describes the prince Lakshmideva II., in a Kanarese verse, as 
RAshtrak&t-d-nvaya, " belonging to the lineage of the BaBhtrakOitas." 10 But, with the above 
exceptions, the Eatta records, including even the records of A.D. 1096, 1187, and 1228 mentioned 
above, always present the name as Batta, or, using a variant of the name written with the 
Dravidian r, as Batta. The earliest certain record of the Batta princes, the Sogal inscription 

^See, for instance, South-Ind. Insert, Vol. III. p. 15, a record of A.D. 1008; and ibid. p. 112, a record oi 
A..D, 1054-55. 

3 See ibid p. 63, a record of A.t>. 1053-54. 

s Vol. III. above, p. 272, text line 20, and p. 273, line 43. 

4 Vol. III. above, p. 29^ text line 6-7, and p. 299, line 21 There can liardly be any doubt tliat the same 
word Battapatf is the real reading in the passage in the Navcudhatd^kao^afita, XL 89, 90, in which Dr. Biihler 
Uee Sp- Ind. Vol. I. p. 225) found a mention of " R&dftp&W-" 

* Id. 4.t. Vol. XVI. p, 21, text lines 10, 15, and p. 23, lines 89, 40-41, 43, 44. - 

8 See a nte on references to Krishna III. in the records of the Battas of Saundatti, which I am giving in the 
2*dia Mtiqwry, Vol. XXXII. 

t See Inil. Ant. Vol. IV. p. 115, The language of the record !s Kanarese. But I did not note whether tb 
particular passage is in prose or in. verse. 

See the article referred to in note 6 above. In*. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 18, text line 47. 
10 Archaol. Sure. West, Ind, Vol. III. p. 110, text line 5. 


dated in July, A.D, SSO, 1 speaks of the prince Kartavirya I., in a Kanarese verse, as Raj fa- 
kitla-Wt&iihana, " an ornament of the family of the^ Rattas." The Satindatti inscription, dated in 
December of the same year, of the Baisa prince Santivarman, speaks in Kanarese verses, with 
reference it may be to the Rashtraktitas of Malkbe'd, or it may be to some earlier members oi 
the Ratta family of Saundatti, 2 of Rafta-hd-dnvaya-nripar, " the kings of the lineage of the 
family of the Battas," and, with the Dravidian r, of Battar, " the Rattas." 3 The Mantfii 
inscription of A.D. 1040 presents a formal prasasti of the usual kind in Kanarese prose, 
introductory to the practical details of the record, in which it applies to the prince Ej;flga. 
Ereyammarasa the epithet Ratta-vathd-tidbfova, "born in the race of the Rattas," and the 
l-imdii Rattamartanda, " a sun of the Rattas ;" and, in Kanarese verses, it gives him the 
bimda Rattanar&yana, "a Narayana of the Battas," in addition to repeating the Unda 
Rafctaniartanda ; and it further speaks, in Kanarese prose, of a tank called Rattasamudra,* Tie 
Kanarese inscription in the temple of Ankalesvara or Ankusiesvara, at Saundatti, 5 in the passage 
< A.D. 10-48 describes Nanna, the father of Kartavirya I., in verse as Ri^ta-^l-dihbaffi' 
tinmuroclii, " a BUU of the sky which is the family of the Rattas," and speaks of Dayium in 
verse as Rutfara MSru Ddyima, " Dayima, a Meru of the Rattas ;" 6 and it uses the same 
form of the name twice more, in verse and prose, in connection with, Anka in that passage, 
and once again in the passage of A.D. 1087, in which it describes Kartayirya II., in a formal prose 
prasasti, as Ratta-fada-kamala-mdrttanda, " a sun of the water-lily (blooming in the daytms) 
which is the family of the Rattas." Another inscription at Saundatti, of the period A.D. 10(J9 to 
1076, describes the prince Kartavivya II., in the formal prasasti in Kauarese prose, ag Ratfa-bula- 
vu'iiaja'Vana-murtanda, " a BUU of the group of water-lilies (blooming in the daytime) which is the 
family of the Rattas," and, in giving his pedigree, uses the same verse that stands in the record of 
A.D.104S, and styles his ancestor Dayima, in a Kanarese verse, Ratfara MSru Ddyima, "Dayima, 
a Mem of the Rattas."? The Saundatti inscription, put together in A.D. 1096 or thereabouts, 
which has been quoted above as presenting the name Rashtrakuta in connection with Krishna ill, 
describes the prince Kartavirya II., in the formal prasasti in Kanarese prose, as Eaffa-hila- 
bhutkana, " an ornament of the family of the Rattas," and, in tracing his descent, describes Ms 
ancestor Kartavirya I., in a Sanskrit verse, as Ratja-vamJ-odbhava, " born in the race of the 
Rattas." 8 The Terdal inscription, put together in A.D. 1187, which, has been quoted above as 
presenting, in a passage dated in A.D. 1122, the name R&shfcrakuta in connection with the 
prince Kartavirya II., styles him, in the formal praiasti in Kanarese prose, Rajta-kula-blifanana, 
u an ornament of the family of the Rattas."" The Kalhole inscription of A.D. 1204 descales tie 
prince Sena II., in a Kanarese verse, as Ratt-dnvaya-Sri-nStra, " the eye of Fortune in the ahape of 
the lineage of the Rattas," and applies the biruda Rattanftrayana, " a Narayana of the Rattas," 
to Kartavirya IV., again in a Kanarese verse, and then, in the formal pratasti in Kanarese prose, 
styles Mm, as usual, Raffa-kula-bMslana " an ornament of the family of the Battas." 10 The 
Bh6j plates of A.D. 1208 speak of the family of the princes, in a Sanskrit verse, 

J Noticed in Dy U . Kan. Dislrs. pp. 423, 553. I quote it from an ink-impression. 

I Oa this point, see page 223 below, note 5. 

II Jour. So. Br. fi. As. Son. Vol. X. p. >04, text lines 1, 2. 

* Ind, Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 164,, text lines 9, 10, 17, 24, aud p. 165, line 27, 

Not yet published, but; mentioned in Jour. So. Sr. B. As. See. Vol. X. p, 172 f., and Dyn. JT. Dittrt, 
pp, 568, 654. I quote it from an ink-impression. 

* * W ^^ e 6pitbefctlluB a H? lied to W ma > compare the likening of ludra II. to a golden mountain (Me* ) 
o. the good Eishtrakfitas ," see page 215. It would also seem that Kagavarman, somewhere in hi* l&vydtalMa*, 
ci tta aprwKm Batfara Mtru Dantiga. "Dantiga, a M6ru of the Rattas," with reference probably to th 
Kasntrakut, king Dantidurga-Dantivarman II. ; see Jour. So, Sr. R. As. Soc. Vol. XX. p 25 
"> Jour. So. Sr. . At. Soc. Vol. X. p. 213, text line 6, and p. 214, line 12. 
B.Up,196,tejHaea24,26, * 2nd. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 18, text line 43. 

Jovr. Bo. Sr, . At. Sw. Vol. X. p. 220, text line 5, and p. 221, lines 12, 16, 


sa, " the race that has the appellation. Ratta," and in the formal prasasti, given in this 
case in Sanskrit prose, style Kartavirya IV., as usual, JRatta-kula-bhushana, " an ornament of 
the family of the Rattas." 1 The Nesavgi inscription of A.D. 1218 uses, throughout, the variant . 
of the name which presents the Dravidian r ; in Kanareso verses, it speaka of the Malkhed kings 
as ffatt-dwayar, " those -who were of the lineage of the Battas," and of their family as Ratta- 
tamsa, (t the race of the Battas," and Batta-k'ida,, " the family of tho Rattas," and of the family 
of the princes of Saundatti as Ratta-vamsa, " the race of the Rattas. >1!i The Saundatti inscription 
of A.D. 1228, which has been quoted above as presenting the name Bashtrakuta in connection 
with, the prince Lakshmideva II., further speaka of him, in. a preceding Kanareae verse, as Raffa* 
v&ihs-Qtlbhava, "bom in the race of the Rattas," and uses, also in lanarese verses, and in con- 
nection with the prino s, the expressions Ratfa-rdjya, " the rule of the Rattas," and Rat fa-raja 
and JBa^-dmjpa, " the Ratta kings;" and in the formal prasasti, in Kanarese prose, it styles 
Lakshtnideva II., as usual, Katta-kula-b^shana,, " an ornament of the family of the Rattas." 3 
And an inscription ab Hannikere or Hannikeri, put together in A.D. 1257, 4 uses, throughout, the 
variant of the name with the Dravidian r, and presents the name of the family of the kings of 
Malkhed as ^Ba{ta-vamsa, " the race of the Rattas," in a Kanarese verse, and as Rutt-dnvaya, 
" the lineage of the Rattas," in Kanarese prose, and describes the prince Karfcavirya III,, in 
Kanarese proae, as Itatta-'kula-'bliuj'hana, " an ornament of the family of the Rattas," and his 
son Laksh.mid&va 1L, in a Kauarese verse, as Eatfa-'hil-dgrani, " a leader of the family of the 

The form Ratta, with the Dr&vidian r, has not as yet been found in any records of the 
Bashtrakuta kings of Malkhed. It'is met with, first, in the Saundatti record of A.D. 980. But, 
from the other instances given above, it does not seem to have been used at all freely until about 
the beginning of the thirteenth century A.D. It was not always used even then. It became, 
however, so well established and well known a form of the name, that we find it used also in 
extraneous records, and in the N agari characters, though, a special device had to be adopted to 
represent it in that alphabet. That device was the doubling of the ordinary Nagari r, with the 
result of presenting the name as Rratta, without, however, producing a double consonant strong 
enough to lengthen a preceding short vowel. 5 And we have the name in this form, in a Sanskrit 
verse in the Haralahalli plates of A.D. 1238 3 which contain a DSvagiri-Tadava record, 6 and again 

1 Ind. A*t, Vol. XIX. p. 245, text line 6-7, and p. 247, line 87-88. 

3 Jour. o. $r. .B. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 240, text Ibios 4, 10, and p. 21.1, lines 11-12, 14. 

* Arohtsol, Sum. West. Ind. Vol. III. p. 110, text lines 5, 6, 7, 10, and p. 112, line 52, and p. 113, line 62. 

* See the article referred to in note 6 on p. 217 above. 

To the same expedient, the doubling o the ordinary r r recourse was had even in Eeeve and Sanderson's 
Canarese Dictionary (1858), in the comparatively few instances in which an attempt was made to indicate the 
Dravidian. r in that work. 

* Jour. Bo. Sr. R. A. Soe. Vol. XV. p. 387, text line 27. The doubling of the v was effected here by placiug 
a super*cript r over the ordinary r. The same means was also used in the Kanarese part of this record, written in 
Kagaii characters, in ~Kv,mbdrragerrey=o\, for Kv,m,bAf,agefeyao\agB ) line 9S, and in Kumbdrraffolana ke\age 
for KvMdzagolana Jcelage, line 97. And the same means was used in the word Bratta, quoted abov from the 
BShafti plates of A..D. 1253, and again in mdrra-kdntdv,, for mdta-kondut in the Kanarese passage, given in Nigari 
characters, at the end of the Behatti Kalaehurya plates of A.D. 1183 (Ind. Ant. .Vol. IV. p. 276, text line 87). 
The same means was nsed in, also Kirm- Valasig-dkhyam, for JTtyu" Valasig'dkhyam, in the Hals! Kadamba plates 
of A J). 1199 (Jour, Ho. Br. tt. At. Soe. Vol. IX. p. 244, line IS). Another means of representing the Drfcvidian y 
in EAgart characters, was, to double the Nagari r by making from the bottom of it an upstroke "to the rightsimilar < 
tehthe upstroke to the left in the ordinary r. This device was used in the spurious plates in the Bangalore Musdum 
which pujport to have been issued in A.D. 445 (No. 49 in my list of Spurious Indian Records in Ind. At. Vol. 
XXX. p. 221) ; here we have Semjarra for Semje^a (Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p, 94, text line 12), and Seihjerra 

. , . . irridu for JSemje^a , . . . tj-tdw (ibid. p. 95, text line 17). We have the double rr in t S agari, 
for the Dravidian r, again in arruvana, afuvana, in the Bh6j Eatt;a plates of A.D. 1208 (Id. Ant. Vol. XI i, 
p. 2i7,text line 108). But I have not kept & note as to how the rr ia formed there. 

"" ' 2 v 2 


in the same verse m &e BarftoD. 1253, which contain another 

record. 1 

That the family-name of the princes of Saundatti, who ruled the Kfzndi three- thousand 
iace was Ratta, not Rashtrakuta, is unmistakable. And it is also quite plain that ^hil* 
ZiL was the formal appellation which it was customs to apply to the kings of 
MalkhM in ornate language, the real praotical form of their family-name was Rafta, 
This is made clear, in one way, by the fact that Ratta is the name that was used m taug 
those Mr***, or secondary appellations ofHhe kings, of wtich the fam^y-name was a* 
pouent, and of which we have at present instances dating from A.D. 915 and onwards ; *, 
Rattakandarpa in the cases of Indra III., G6vinda IV., Khottiga, and Indra IV , and Rat^ 
vidvadhara in the case of Govinda IV. But it is made clear in other ways alao. In the records 
of the Malkhe-d family, except in the ease of the Kadaba plates which are not of unquestionable 
authenticity, the appellation Rashtrakuta is found only in Sanskrit verses, in those parts of the 
records which were introductory to the passages containing the practical details of the reoonto, 
and were devoted to exhibiting the pedigree, reoifciug the achievements, and generally magnifying 
the importance of the kings, in the principal literary language of the time. And even in the 
record put forward in the Kadaba plates, where the appellation occurs in prose, the passage is in 
ornate prose of an elaborate and stated kind, or, as Dr. Liiders has styled it, in "exceedingly 
rich and flowery language." 2 The name Eatta appears first in the Sirur and Ntlgund msonp- 
tions of AJX 866. And in them it is presented, not in a Sanskrit verse, but in the ^Kanarese 
prose ymScuti which introduces the practical details of the records. At about that time, there 
arose a practice of presenting compositions, which did not even include excerpts from the early 
standard drafts such as we have in the case of verses 1 and 2 in the Sirur record and verses 2 
and 3 in the Nilgund record, but which departed altogether from the early standard drafts, and 
were also liable to be independent even of each other. The composers of those later records 
indulged in various liberties, which had not been allowed to the composers of the earlier reetmk 
And, in the drafts presented in the Cambay plates of AJD. 930 and the Sangll plates of A.D. 
933 and the Kharda plates of A.D. 972, the real name of the family, in either form, vas 
actually suppressed altogether, and the members of the dynasty were simply allotted, in connection 
with their then recently elaborated Puranic pedigree, to "the race of the Yadus" or "tie 
lineage of Tadu." 3 It was only in those later compositions that the habit crept in, of using the 
name Ratta in Sanskrit verses. And, even then, a kind of apology was made for using iihe 
more practical form of the name in the more ornate parts of the records. That the o*ra 
Rattak&ndarpa, in the case of Indra III., should be used in a Sanskrit verge, in the Bagumrs 
records of A.D. 915, in that practical form and without being metamorphosed into Bashtauku$&" 
kandarpa, is natural enough. But it is found rather far on in the record. And the composer 
of the draft presented in those two sets of plates was careful to introduce the dynasty by its more 
stately appellation of " the family of the Ivashtrakutas," before he proceeded to speak of "tno 
kingdom or sovereignty of the Rattas" and to bring the biruda Uattakandarpa into one of his 
verges. So, also, the draft presented in the D61i plates of A.D. 940 and the Karh&d, plates 
of A.D. 959 introduces the dynasty as "the race of the Bashfcrakutas," before it, again, speakeof 
" the kingdom or sovereignty of the Batfcas." And these two drafts, presented to us first in 
records of A.D. 915 and 940, emphasise the point that Ba$a was the real and practical 
form, and Kashfcrakuta was the ornamental or stately form, of the family-name. Saob 
are the facts. But the Rattas of Malkh&d have come to be familiarly known as the RashtrV 
kfttas of Malkhed, because that form only of their name is presented at all prominently in 

J x Jor. .Jo, Br, . As, 800, Vol. XII. p. 43, text line 17. As stated in the preceding note, the doubling: Of the 
t was effected here, also, by placing a superscript r over the ordinary r. ' 

*Vol. IV. abore, p.382. ' See note 11 on page 215 abore. 


their "various records which, were published before the time when the Sirfir inscription came to 
notice. And, for parposes of easy discrimination, it will be desirable to continue the use of that 
appellation, and to speak still, as hitherto, of the Bashtrakuta Mugs of Malhhed and 
the Batta princes of Saundatti. 

"We have now to consider wMch of the two names, Batta and Rashtrakuta, was 
evolved from the other name, and how it was done, 

And, in the first place, it is to be remarked that we have been told by Mr. Pataak 
that " the word rafta, according to Trivikrama, is a Prakrit form of the Sanskrit rdshfra." 1 I 
have, however, been assured, by the very best authority, that Trivikrama does not give in his 
grammar any rule at all about the word rdsjifra, and that the word ratta has not been found in 
Prakrit literature. And, as far as our actual knowledge goes, the forms which the Sanskrit 
word rashtra, ' a country,' would assume in the Pr&krits, are ratfha, raffia and rata. "We have tie 
form rattha in Sarattba, = Snrashtra, and Sorattha, = Saurashtra, which instances Professor 
Pischelhas given me from, respectively, HSmachandra, 2, 34, and Trivikrama, 1, 4, 14; and the 
use of it evidently underlies the Jaina-Mahirashtrl, Sauraseni, and Apabhramsa word Marahattha, 
for Manarat.tha,= Maharashtra, and the Maharashtra word MarahatthS, for MaharattM, = Maha- 
rashtri. 2 In Pali, we have the independent word rajtha itself, = rashfra, in the sense of 'king- 
dom, realm, country, land, district.' 3 And, in epigraphy, we have Sdtdhani-ratthe, "in the 
province of Satahani." 4 We have the form ratha, in epigraphy, in Suratha, = Surashtra, in 
one of the Kasik inscriptions of Pulumayi. 6 And we have the form rata, attributable no 
doubt to the tendency to avoid aspirates in the Dravidian languages, in Sorata, = Saur&shtra, 
which is given as an instance of the changes of au to o and of sht to ? in the illustrations of 
K&siraja's Kanarese Sabdamanidarpana, sutras 270, 283. 8 So far, no authority can be obtained 
for saying that the form rajta, = rdshfra, ' country,' actually occurs. However, according to 
the Sabdamanidarpana, sutra 283, the Sanskrit shf may become ft, as well as , in Kanarese ; 
and there are cases, such as duffa, = dushja, sitfi, = srishfi, and ittige, = a's/i^afea, in which that 
change has occurred. And so, also, in the Prakrit languages technically so called, while the 
Sanskrit sfef usually becomes t(h, 7 there are some cases in which it has become | ; as, for instance, 
in utfa, = ushfra, and a few other words. 8 And we are, therefore, not prepared to say that the 
form raita, = rdshfra, may not be found to occur, though it was not taught by Trivikrama, 
and though we cannot at present quote any instance of it. 

But the name Batta was pertainly not obtained from the word rasbtra, or from the 
name B&shtrak-uta. The family-name, in its Sanskrit form, waa, not Rashtra, but Rashtrakuta. 
There was no name Rashtra, from which to obtain the name Ratta. From the name Rashtrakuta 
we obtain, by corruption, in the most'uatural manner, Rashtr&da, actually presented in a Verawal 
inscription of sA.D, 1384, which speaks of Rdstyrdtfa-vamsa, "the race of the E4shtr6da8," and 
describes it as a third race famous like the Solar and Lunar Races ; 9 and we shall not be 

1 Jnd. J.nt. Vol. XIV. p. 14 a. * See Prof. Pischel'n Prakjit Grammar, 354 

* Childers' Pali Dictionary, p. 408. The word figures ia also ra(thavisin6, * inhabitants,' ratih4dMf6 } 'a 
king,' and rat^hik6, ratthiyd, 'an inhabitant." 

* Ep, Ind, Vol. I. p. 6, text line 27. And, evidently, the same word figures in the fiscal term a~rat(ha-tadH)i' 
nayikam in line 82 of the record, and is the basis of the official title ratthiJtsa in line 4. As variants of thiB fiscal 
term, connected with the other form ra^hct, we have a-ratha-ta.i>inayiba in Archeeol. Surv. West. Ind. Vol, IV. p. 104, 
Kb, 13, line 4, and p. Iu6, No. 14, line 10, and a-ratba-aafavlndyilca in Vol. VI. above, p. 87, line 14. 

1 Aro'ieeoL Surv. West. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 108, teit line 2. For other instances of this form, in a certain fiscal 
expression, gee the preceding uo;e. 

* Dr. Kittel's edition, pp. 836, 370. So, also, Sora^a is given as the corruption of Sanrashtra hi the illustrations 
of itea 160 of Bha^ikalankadeva's KarndtaTcaiabddnuidtata, Bangalore, 1890. 

See Prof. Pisehel's Prfck|it Grammar, 303. 8 See id. f 804. 

' the-Sombay Pretidtitoy, 1897* p. 258. 


surprised, if -we meet hereafter with epigraphic instances of further conniptions such as Batth6da 
and Bathoda, of which forms the last is actually the modern name -which in gazetteers, etc. "is 
presented as ' Rathor ' and ' Kahtor.' 1 But, in the name Rashtroda, the second component, 
Mta, of Eashtrakuta, is duly represented. 2 Whereas, in the name Ratta there is nothing 
whatever to represent that second component of the other name. And, for that reason we cannot 
admit Ratta as a corruption of, or in any way obtained from, the name Raahtrakuta. 

It can only be the oase that the name Rashtrakuta was evolved out of the name Eafcta, 

And, that that was the case, is unconsciously disclosed by the draft presented in bhe De"61i plates 

of A.D. 940 and the Karhad plates of A.D. 959, in the verse which puts forward the eponymous 

person Rata as the imaginary original ancestor of the Malkhfid family, and asserts that he had a 

son named Rashtrakuta, and says that it was from the name of that son that the family became 

known as the Mshtrakuta race, or the race of Rashtrakuta or of the Rashtrakutas." But the 

name Eashtrakuta is certainly not merely a Sanskritiscd form of nothing but the 'name Rattoj 

for the simple reason that in Ratta there is nothing to account for the component Mfa in the other 

form of the name. The name Ratta does account for the first component, rdshfra. It does not 

however^ account for it in the way of having been literally translated by the word rfokfra. The 

explanation is that, in devising an ornamental form of a name, Ratta, which, whatever may have 

been the origin of it, did not mean a 'country/ there was used, not "unnaturally, a Sanskrit word 

rfohfra, which was the actual representative and origin of words of very similar Bound," such aa 

ro//A tt , rafta, and rafa, possibly even ratta itself, if the existence of that form should be 

established hereafter,- which did possess that meaning. There was thus obtained, as the first 

step, a name ESshtra. But it seems to have been then recognised that the appellation tkus 

obtained was not sufficiently high-sounding, and that something more was needed to adapt it 

better to the purposes for which it was wanted, Now, the word kuta has the meaning, among 

ethers, of < the highest, most excellent, first/ derived no doubt from its meanings of ' any 

prominence, a peak or summit of a mountain.' In literature, it occurs in that meaning in the 

Magwatapurdna, 2 9, 19, where Bhagavat (Vishnu-Krishna) is represented a a addling 

Brahman as Mta y6gind m> chief of ascetics ! " In the epigraphic records, it is used in the 

same meaning m the official title grdmaMfa, < a chief or headman of a village,'* and also actually 

m the word rMtnh&t* as an official title meaning 'the headman of a territorial division 

technically known as a r<Mj m .>' The word Ufa, in that same meaning, was plainly employed 

in makmg up the full family-name Bashtraktta, And the use of it, to fill out and give 

sufficient pomp to that form of the name, was very probably suggested by ihe actual existence 

of the word n&traktt* as an official title. But we need not think, any longer, that the name 

'-* *!***' " *? *"* f RI 3> tta &" iaver *g **" P'oceBB, " have invented Msh^dha SS 

I "^ * ditRCUlt P ' &kFit WOTd 5 96e M A ' 

****+*+ from wMct we have eventually 

dand e vt 

vAa, and eventually gaunda, etc. 5 see page 183 above 

V L ^ P " 28V ' Vme 7 ' and P- 282 > text liae 1ft It 
- the o r i,i n o, tne 

' - ' 

bel ngin ^ OT P r P<"^g to belong to the aame period, prcnta th 
* Tf- * ,?" Dding 6ithey f r "fa*^W^ or%or S r* m ak4ta*a, L wo like; 
' A T 15> . The reC rdso Wefltera India USBall y Pr*. in t^ otrJMraMta, 
* Boddhlrtja of A.D. 610 (see Vol. VI. 


is itself tho official title, or that, like the official title, it means 'a headman of a rosJj./m.' 1 It*'" 
waa plainly intended to mean 'highest, most excellent, chiefs, or leaders, of the Eattaa.' 

Ifc may be atlded that both the original family-name Batta, and its ornate form Rashtra- 
kuta, cnme to "be afterwards used as personal names. Thus, the Kharep&tai) plates of A.I). 
1008 mention a, jilahara prince named Batta and Battaraja ; 2 and Hemachniidra mentions in 
his Paritiitli'fctjpcbrvan a man named Rashtrakuta. 3 It may also be remarked that Kalhana has 
asserted the existence of a queen of the Dekkan, of Karnata extraction, named Eatta, alleged 
to have been a, contemporary of Iialitaditya of the Karkota dynasty of Kashmir; but tlujie 
can be no dcra."fot that Dr. Stein has rightly explained the passage, nob as establidhiug the 
real existence of any sxxch queen, but as presenting a personification of the dynasty of the 
Rashtrakubas of Malkhed. 4 

The original home of the Kashtrakutas of Malkhed. 

In line IS of the Sirfir inscription of A.D. 866, and in lino 16 of the Nilgund inscription of 
.the same date, -A-m&ghavarsha I. is described as LaitaUra-pura-param&vara, " supreme lord of 
the town of Ijattalftra." The same town is mentioned, sometimes as Lattalur and sometimes 
aa Lattanur, ixt also the records of the Ratta princes of Saundatti ; for instance, the Mantur 
inscription of .A..D. 1040 describes Eraga-Ereyammarasa as LattaUr-pwravar-esi'ara, "lord of 
Lattalftr, a best of towns, au excellent town, a chief town," and the Bhoj plates of A.D. 1208 
describe Kartavirya IV., and the Saundatti inscription of A.D, 1228 describes Lakshmideva II., 
as Zatta^r-pwava.r-dMSvara,, " supreme lord of Lattanur, a best of towns." 6 And in these 
epithets we 3ao,ve, in various forms, a hereditary title commemorative of the place which the 
B&shtrakftta Isings of MalkMd, and, after them, the Batta princes of Saundatti, who, 
according to soxne of their later records, belonged to the same lineage with those kings,- claimed 
88 their original home. The name of the town is further presented to us in a transitional form 
in the Sltabaldi inscription of A.D. 1087, which applies the epithet latolwa-viwrgata," come 
fora or emitted from Latalatira," to a feudatory of the Western Chalukya king \ikram- 
aditYa VL, SwaoelT to the HaUsdmanta, Dhadibhadaka or Dhadibhandaka, also called the Ednaka 
DlMUaaftrft, -wtom ifc further describes as MaU-EdsntraUt-dnvaya-pwuta, born m the great 
lineage of the ^^shtrakutas, or in the lineage of the great Mahtrakutas ;" and the record appb*. 

""T^Twotxld, however, not haveTiTanything derogatory even ia that derivato of the name. The name 
xuere wfjw.-"> ^uow, ^ ^ j & !,,,;. tatrn its orkrm from the fact that the first of them 

of the well known Andhrabhrxty^] ^BJ^l^^^^^ of ^.vho referred thea, 8 elves to a lineage 

,5, ., .. . ? ,sm). 

doorkeepers of tlae Gurjaras. 

a Vol HX. aliove, p. 800, text lines 32, 34. 

SoeMottier-WilllamB' San B krifc Dictionary under r^ fy* . fourth tool. 

See hlB tranalatiou of the JMjataramffini, Vol. I. p. 135, note on i ene iw ^ a 

8 , respectively, X*. AnL Vol. XIX. p. 165, * 2 f ^^f^ed f he S the pished U of the 
M 62, and Plate 73 in Vol. IL P ; 224.- By a pnnter's * ** d , i^d'f the short * in the 
Bhfij record gives the name of the town, ^ 8W7 V? ^SS, I cannot trace *& the use of this title to 
flr8 fc 8 ylkWe. T^ nece^ry correctxon shou d be made.- U .jew, Q& ^^ ^ Kakg&pur 
any date before A.D. 1040 in records which beloi g ^ nw *'Tjf aoe8 "indeed, mention a JfA4ii* 
birip* of A..D. 933, of the time of the B^r a kAta ^^^^^ It U practically certain that 
whom it deBcribes as i^Z^^-^mm^ra and aa ^f'^^ ^^ in lha i^-impresmon, either U. 

he WM B & n ' ^ "V 1 record is g reatly ^T^' * /rlt If The Sog,l inscription of the B** 

,ame, or wy%tifl* wWch speciBcally refers him to the , hw^ ^o ^ ^ lbe ^ A J d ifc may ,, a(J W 

yrinoe Kartavtrya I., of July, A.D. 980, does not seem t mak j ,g rf ^ ^ f the 

that the town i certainly not motioned in the Smudatti ^iption, ^ variou9 ^^^ ft u , ery 

******* SSntlvarman (Jwr, Jo. -Br. A ^- *. Vol. X. P- ^ ; - 

questionable whether that ia really a Batta record at au. 


the same epithet, " come forth or emigrated from Latalaura," to DMdibhadaka's oittcer, tie 
Vasudeva. 1 

Tire town Lattalur or Lattanur may, or may not, nave been in the territory of the 
RSshtrakutas of MalkhM. By a similar title, the Western Ganga princes of TalakM were 
styled Kovaliila-puravar-Sfaara, " lord of Kovalala, the best of towns." 2 Here, tlie allusion is 
to the town now known as K61ar, the chief town of the K6lar district in the east of Mysore. 
And that town certainly was in the Western Gauga territory. So, also, the Kadamba princes of 
Hangal had the hereditary title of Banavdsi'puravar-ddhtevara, " supreme lord of Banav&si, the 
best of towns." 3 And -they sometimes had the administration of the Banavasi province. But 
their hereditary authority was confined to the Pannriigal five- hundred province : the Banavfai 
province proper was a crown property, administered from time to time by whomsoever the paramount 
sovereign might appoint ; it was only by special appointment that it,, with also some neighbouring 
districts, was occasionally held by the Kadambas of Hangal ; and they nsed the title simply 
becanse they claimed descent from the early Kadamba kings, whose capital was Banawlisi. These 
are the only two instances, that I can recall, in which a hereditary title of the kind that we are 
considering was more or less connected with actual territorial authority. The same title, 
' Buprenie lord of Banavasi, the best of towns," was used by the K&damba princes of G-oa,* who 
had no authority whatever at Banawasi, and simply derived the title in the same way as did the 
Kadambas of Hangal. The Kalachurya kings of Kalyani in the Nizam's Dominions had the 
hereditary title of Kdldnjara-(fov KdlaRjnra^-pwravar-ddhisvara, " supreme lord of Kalanjara, 
the best of towns," 6 simply in connection with the legend that referred the origin of their family 
to Kalanjar in Bundelkhand, Central India, a long way outside their own territory, The Gtotto 
princes of Gutted, whose power was usually limited to quite a small part of the Dharwar district, 
used the title Ujjayani-puravar-ddhitvara, " supreme lord of Ujjayani, the best of towns," for 
which in one passage there is substituted " supreme lord of Patali, the best of towns," 6 simply 
because iheir tiaditions or legends connected them with the Early Guptas and the mythical king 
Vikramaditya, and consequently ^with the far distant Ujjain in Mftlwa and Patalipntra-Patna in 
Behar. By similar titles, the Silahara princes of the Northern Konkan styled themselves 
Tayara-pura-paramesvam, " supreme lord of the town of Tagara," 7 and their relatives who ruled 
at Karhad styled themselves Tagam-puravar-ddh-isvara, " supreme lord of Tagara, the best of 
towns ;"' though Tagara, which is the modern Ter in the Naldrug district of the Fizara's 
Dominions, 8 was at a very appreciable distance, a hundred miles at least, from any part of the 
provinces to which their authority \vas confined. And the Tadava princes of the Suna country, 
which T\ as the territory of which the chief town was Devagiri-Daulatabad, used the title 
Dvdravatl-pwa-paramehara, " supreme lord of the town of Dvaravati," 10 which, in the form 
Dvurdi'att.puravar-ddhiJvara, " supreme lord of Dvaravati, the best of towns," was taken over 

1 Vol. III. above, p. 305, and text Hues 4-5 and 7. It seems clear that, ia line 5 of the text, mahd was prefixed 
toSfohtrakft-anvaya-frasuta in order to indicate that Dhadibhadaka claimed descent from the great Eislitrakuta 
kings of Malkted^ and not from one of the minor branches of the BashtrakHtft O r Batta Btock which existed in 
other parts of India, 

a See, for iustance, Vol. VI. above, p. 44, and-tejct line 2. 

* See, for instance, Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 254 a, and text line 34-25. 

* See, for instance, Jour. So, Mr. B. As. Soo. Vol. IX. p. 300, and p. 296, text line 6. 
See >ol. V, above, p, 24, and text line 6, and p. 257, and text line 55. 

* See Dy. JTa. Distrt, p. 578 ff, 

1 See, for instance, Vol. III. above, p. 269, and p. 278, text line 43-44. 

r ,ff instance ' Ca *Templ e Inscription, (No. 10 of the brochures of the ArchseoJogical Survey of 
%teilndk),p. 103, text line 26-2 7 

See Jbtw. . M. Soc,, 1901, p. S87 ff., and 1902, p. 280 ff. 

p. 215 l Plates of A ' D ' 1000j 


from thorn. by their descendants, the YMava kings of Devagiri-Daulatabad. 1 Bat, whereas the 
allusion here is to Dvaravati, Dvaravati, or Dvaraka, which is the modern Dwarka at the 
western extremity of Kathiawar, the Yadava princes of the Seuna country certainty never ruled 
at Dw&rk& 01? over any part of Kathiawar. The title was only set up by them in connection -with 
their claim to belong to the Lunar Eace, and to be descended from the god Vishnu, who, in 
his incarnation as Krishna, made Dwirka his capital. And, that they simply claimed Dwarka 
as their traditional place of origin, is explicitly shewn by a passage in the Bassein plates of A.D. 
1069 whioii. says in respect of Dridhaprahara, whom it puts forward as the original founder of 
the family, -fclaat "he, in the beginning, came from the city (pattana) of Dvaravati" to the 
territory,, ixt iibe Nasik district and the Nizam's Dominions, which his descendants were ruling at 
the time "wlxen the record was drawn up, '"and made famous in the world the town of 
Chan.dTaditya.pxira, which had already sprung into existence." 2 From all these facts, we can see 
plainly that; -fctese hereditary titles, presenting the names of ancient towns, put forward only 
assertions as -to places of origin, and not claims to actual local authority ; aud that, to take a 
Specific ins-faa/nce, the title Latialura-pura-paratnSfoara, " supreme lord of the town of Lattalura," 
which -we lia,-ve in, the Sirur aud rTilgund records, is nothing but a more dignified and ostentatious 
method of conveying the exact idea which is expressed by the Lalalaura-'owwgata,, " come forth 
or emigrated, from Latalaura," of the Sitabaldt inscription. 8 

An idleixtification of the town Lattalur, Lattanur, or Latalaura, has not yet been estab- 
lished, 4 I lia,ve, indeed, suggested that it might not impossibly be found in the town known as 
Kfttanpur, ITX the Bilaspur distiict, C entral Provinces ^ because the letters " and r are often 
interchanged., and so it would not be difficult to derive th'e name Eatanpur from the full form 
LattanttTptx^a,. That suggestion, however, was based chiefly on the fact that we find traces of 
rulers oallixxg themselves Eashtrakutas in various parts of India far to the north of the territory 
of the Basil fciakutas of Malkhed. And it is not, really, in any way sustainable ; because the name 
Katauptir lias been simply obtained by transposition from Eatnapura, as is shewn by a record of 
A.D. 1114 a-t Batanpur itself. 6 I cannot at present quote any epigraphic references to Lattalur, 
except f roxo. the records of the Eashtrakutas of Malkhed and the Eattas of Saundatti, and from 
the Sifcabaiai inaoription. Nor can I find it mentioned by any ancient geographer or traveller, or 
in any Purdna or other work. But we are certainly concerned with a southern locality. And, 
while not asserting a final identification of Lattalur, I would indicate a place in respect 
Of whioto. it seems worth while that some precise inquiries should Toe made. That place IB 
a town itx tlie Bidar district of the Nizam's Dominions, which is shewn as Latur ' in the Indaan 
Atias sheet Ko. 56 (1845), in la*. 18 24', long. 76 38', and in Thacker's Eeduced Survey Map 
of India Toy Bartholomew (1891). In Philip's Gazetteer of India by Eavenstem (1900), it w 
treated as * X,athur, or Latur,' -and is credited with a population of 9,063. It seems to have been 
not long ago, of more importance than at presentjfQr.Mu 

It l. Applied to the first king, Bhillatna, in an inscriptime, dated m .D. 1183, rt Mntegi IE the 
district. I quote from an ink-impression. ^ . YyY - 1s 

*. ^*.Vol XILp-maudtexUinesStoB. -**^<*^ 

On tlae technical u 8 e of vinirjat* in such expressions as this, see Ind. Ant. voi. "-"* 
.to. <3bana m ' Sfl g gestion,pUt forward in <^ 

p. 40.6), fchftt it is Atlmf, tiie head-quarters of the Athji ^J^J^ll 8e em 9 ta 
iBtoteken reading of ' Atunpoor/ and ia, of cor fl e, altogether unsustainable. ^andM ^ na ^ ^ 

have eatectafeud the idea (see the Gazetteer of ik. Bo^ay *.**, Tol. I. ftrjt jT^.1 ^^ 
Ut country, in Gujarat, was derived from the name of some loca ^ be J^j^fjjj.* sUiw^ * 
Mi.)* Who ^5gHt possibly, ttoongh the interchange of I and r, *>*?* ^iL Country and tie djnasty. 
ttwt Lft^til.i-a (.fa) may have been in La^a and may have given its name to WH , Jf 

It U diffici.-ilt, however, to look on this as anything except an early crude speculate, wfticft w W 
would nofc -have incorporated ia any final presentation of his more mature views. 
* Djfn. Man. Distrs. p. 884. 

* Ind. Vol. I. p. 33, and text lines 12 (twice) and 17. g Q 


shows ' Lattoor ' as the name of a territorial subdivision ranking on equal terms with BicUr, 
Kalbarga, ShoEpur, Yairag, and Pandharpur. 1 Along with Pratishthana-Paithan and Tagara- 
Ter, ' Latur ' is iu that part of tie Dekkan, watered by the Godavari and its tributaries, which 
has been indicated by Dr. Bhandarkar as a favourite region of early Aryan settlement f and it 
is, in fact, only about twenty-eight miles east-by-corth from T&r, and three miles south of the 
1 llanjera,' which is au important feeder of the Godavari. And I strongly suspect that local 
inquiries would result in finding that ' Latur ' is the ancient Lattalur, Lattanur, If BOj there 
will, perhaps, be found at ' Latur ' some notable temple or remains of such a temple, either of 
the goddess Dorga in the form of Chamunda, or of Vishnu in the form of the man-lion, or 
possibly temples of both those deities ; since the Sitabaldi inscription further describes Dhldl- 
bhadaka as " he who obtained favour by a boon of (the goddess) Chamunda," and Va0ud6va as 
"he who obtained favour by a boon of (the god) Narasimha." 3 

The matter must, of course, depend a good deal upon what is the actual spelling of tie 
modern name which the maps and gazetteers present as ' Latur, Lathur, and Lattoor,' We 
need not trouble ourselves about the fe which appears in one of these forms ; it is as easily 
accounted for here, as in some other instances referred to by me elsewhere. 4 .For the rest, I 
feel no doubt that inquiries on the spot would shew that the real name is Latur, with a long A 
followed by a single dental t: And, if that is so, the modern name is distinctly derivable from 
the ancient name, through steps the rules for some of which have been given to me by Professor 
Pischel. We start with the form Lattalfira, of A.D. 866, of which Lattanuj, appearing first at 
present in A.D, 1208, is plainly only an optional variant attributable to the interchangeability of 
I and n. 6 The first step would be the dropping of one t in the second syllable, which would 
give ua Latalura, and eventually the Latalaura which we actually have in the Sitabaldi inscrip- 
tion. The nest step would be the omission of the short a of the second and final syllables, 6 which 
would give ua Latlur, The nest step would be the assimilation of the I to the preceding if 
which would give us LattUr. And, finally, the nexus tt would be dissolved into the simple *, 
and the preceding short a would be lengthened by way of compensation } * and this would give us 
the ultimate form Latur. 

1 See the skeleton map on p. 9Sl, and the key to it on p. 953, sub-divisions Nos. 66 to 71 

, ., ***** ^! f ? ***!??* **'**, Vol. XIIL, Thana, Part II., p. 423, note 4, and Early SMory 
of the Dekkan (td, Yol. I. Part II.), p. 185 ff. 

^Compare another epithet of the EMambas of Hangal, namely Jtyanti- 

vTl J W J ^ flme i N the f ceUent fwour of the &<i Madhuk^vara of Jayant 
Vol. X. p. 252, text Ime 25) , also, another epithet of the Guttas of Gutfal, namely .aw 

laWpratdda, ] ho obtamed the excellent favour of the god Mahakala of UjjayanP (P. A 0,0, 
Ko. 108, hue 10), But the records do not always present a title of this land, in conaeclion with the title 


ongm; for instance, though, like the Kadambas of Htogal, the KAdambas of 
Oo. .were *flA "supreme lord of BanayH the best of town 8 their other title was 


0., 1901, p, 543 ff ; 

and Vol X XXT * WK *X tC ' P> 317 ^ and Ball8ft " Wai)e8a ( se Vol. XVI 1 1. 


K *X t > " 8a se o. . 


> 0H ^ri<Ml in Northern India (see id. Vol. XX p 89 note 2 ' P " ' 6) ""* ^ latn ' a ^ mi for 

Seo id. \ 148. '*' ' } ' 


See Beamed Comparative G^mmar, Vol. I. p, 1 52 , j 41, and p. 281, f 78 (1). 


The banners and crests of the Efishtrakutas of MalkhM and of the Eattas of 


The difference "between the l&richhana or crest, which was the device used on the seals of 
copper-plate cHarters, 1 occasionally at the tops of inscriptions on stone, and on coins, and the 
dhvaja or banner, has "been explained, with instances, in my Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts, 
in the GaaeHeey of the Bombay Presidency, Vol. I. Part II., p. 299, note 4. 

The Bastktrakutas of MalkhSd had the paiidhvaja banner and the Garudalanelthana 
or Garuda crest, which are mentioned in, for instance, lines 9 and 13 of the Sirur inscription of 
A,D, S66, EL, page 206. And it would appear, from a passage in the Adipunina of Jinase'na, 
that the pS.lid.To.vao a was a particular arrangement, in rows, of a thousand and eighty flags, a 
hundred and eight flags of each of ten kinds of flags bearing, as there specified, the devices of 
garlands, clo-tHs (_?), peacocks, water-lilies, geese, eagles, lions, bulls, elephants, and wheels; see 
Ind, AntSVol. 2OY. p. 104 1 

The B-attas of Saundatti, on the other hand, had the suvarnaGarudadhvaja, or banner of 
a golden Gar-UKia, and the sindtiraldfiokhana or sender aUnohliana, the red-lead crest. 

Their l&acTaliana is mentioned in the records edited by me in the Jour. So. Br. E. As. Soc. 
Vol. X. pp. 194 to 286, in my translations of which I treated it as the mark of vermilion. 
Subsequently, Kowever, the expression simdura-Uchlianam, for sMma-ldnoh'hanam, in line 43 
o the iascrip-bion at Terdal, was translated by Mr. Pathak as meaning "who has the demce 
of an elephant." To this there was attached a note, telling us vaguely that, " according to 
K&fotiau sinctfwra, is changed into wMra." And, 'accepting that statement, I translated 
rfn^WMofcfcana* in the Mantur inscription of A.D. 1040,* and ri*fo*to*ol*KI** in 
the Bh63 plates of A.D. 1208,* by who has the crest of an elephant ; and I have taken !t 
&8 eatabl sked tnat the Rattas of Saundatfci had the elephant crest* Since that tune, however 
I have gradually learnt that, even apart from his habit of often not statog chapter and vers 
for Ms aTsertionB, so that it is sometimes difficultor impossible to test them, the person who made 
that statement, about the meaning of mdfcu fc this combination, is by nc .means feo * ^ 
implicitly. He has misled us in this matter. And, as happens ^ ^Tf* *J W 
of setting things right cannot be made as brief as the enunciation of the assertaon which has led 

us astray. 

On re-examining the Batta records themselves,' I find that they mention the , cresl .by two 
wordB, siucltoa and I sendtetJ I find the word sindura in tne > fo o w,ng cases ^My ink 
Tmpreasion of the fragmentary inscription of Kartavirya II. at Saundatti, of *^P^^ ^ 9 
to 1076, shews distinctly simdtira-UmclicliUnam, as given by mem Jour. ^^ ' ' ' 
X, p. 213, te^t line 5. My photograph of the Kalhole mscn^on ^TO ^ 
1204Bhews distinctly simdMdmcWanam, asgxvenbyme M_ p. W,*** 
pubHahed facsimile lithographs of the Saundatti in B cnption d ^ 11. 

ahewa distinctly sirndtira-ldrnGlilianam, as given by me iM. . ^ 

1 There were, however, exceptions to the rule. And, notably, the seal o 
which has come to light, the Bh6j plates of A.D. 1208, appears to present 

waa the device cm their banner; see InA. Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 243. ^^ WM doM under _ 

. I*. *nt- Vol. XIV. p. 24 note 24.-- ^^"^^TL Present -ini d not ****. 
by me i and there can be little doubt, it any, that sue o 

Ind. A.***- Vol. XIX. p. 164, text line 9-10. 552 . 

Ibid. p. 247, text line 88. nf 1 ManS inscription and the Bhdj plates, , 

I have not got either ink-impressions or photographs of the nwnw J The follovv - mg conjunct 
i In the first syllahle of this word, the vowel may be either the short . 01 the long 

consonant 'indicates, preferentially, the short e. 

* S*rv. Wett. Ind. Vol. II. p. 221, Plate 73. g Q 2 


word sendura in the following cases: My ink-impression of the Saundatti inscription of A.D. 
1096 or thereabouts shews that in line 24, where ray published test, Jour. Ho, Sr. R. At, Sot. 
Vol. X. p. 196, gives sindhura-ldnchhanam, the original has sendura-ldnc7iJiaiiam : the vowel of 
the first syllable is unmistakably e, , not i; and in. the second syllable the nandtheii are 
unmistakable, and the subscript consonant, somewhat blurred, either is an original d, or else is an 
original dh corrected into d. And my ink-impression of the inscription at the temple of 
AiikalesVara or AnkuseSvara at Saundatti, which, though not published, has been mentioned by 
me elsewhere, 1 shews distinctly sendura-ldmchchhanam in line 24, in the description of Anka in 
the passage of A.D. 1048, and again in line 59, in the description of K&rtavirya II. in tie 
passage of A.D. 108V. 

We thus have, well established, the two forms sindura and sendura or sndiira,boih 
used in the Eatta records. And we have now to determine the meaning of the word. 

Now, we have in Sanskrit two words, sindhura, with the aspirated dh and the short , 
meaning 'an elephant, 1 and sindftra, with the unaspirated d and the long , meaning 'red lead, 
minium, vermilion,' and ' a particular kind of tree or plant.' 

Dr. Kifctel's Kannada-English Dictionary (1894) gives sindhura, with the long 4 but still 
with the aspirated dh, as a variant of sindlraraj and only with the meaning of ' an elephant,' 
His authority for it is the NdndrtbaratnAlcara, 26. I am not able to examine that work. But 
I notice that Gangadhar Madiwaleshwar Turmari's Kanarese Vocabulary (1869) gives 
simdMra, with the long 4 and the aspirated dh, with the meanings both of ' elephant ' and of 
fatnfaima, 'saffron,' the use of which for certain purposes was much the same as the use of 
sindura ; and, further, it brackets simdhura, with the short , in such a way as to attribute to it, 
also, the meaning of kunkuma, for which, however, I cannot trace any other authority, And so, 
also, Eeeve and Sanderson's Oanarese Dictionary (1858) gives sindhura and sindJiura, with Mb 
the short n and the long u and with the aspirated dh, as meaning both ' red lead ' and ' an. elephant.' 

In addition, to giving sindhura, as another form of sindhura, Dr. KittePs Dictionary farther 
presents sindura, with the short u and the unaspirated d, as a acM<raa-corruption of 
sindhura. The authority quoted for this is the ^abdamanidarpana of Kesiraja, Dr. Kittel's 
own edition (1872), p. 339. And there, under the illustrations of 'sutra 255, which teaches 
amongst other things the change of dh to d, we certainly have " simdhuram simdwam." Here, 
however, the short u is preserved; and the corruption, of sindhura, thus presented, is not swd&m 
with the long . This corruption, sindura,, is not given in Gangadhar Madiwaleshw's 
Vocabulary, or in Reeve and Sanderson's Dictionary. 

To the other word, sindftra, Dr. Kittel's Dictionary assigns only the meaning of ' red lead, 
minium.' And, as fado/ww-corruptions of this word, it gives chandra (2), with &handa.ra t 
chendara, (1) and chendira (1), and also sendura, with the short e and u, and sSndfira, with the 
long e and &,, and both, with the unaspirated d. Reeve and Sanderson's Dictionary does not 
include sendura or senMra. Gangadhar Madiwaleshwar's Vocabulary does not present mdwa, 
or sdnMra; but it does present aemdhiira, with the long ^ and and with the aspirated 3k, as 
another form of simd&ra. I do not find this last form anywhere else. 

For Snd1ira, as. a corruption of sindtira, Dr. Kittel has quoted only Gangadhar Madiva- 
leah war's Vocabulary. But, as I have just said, that Vocabulary presents, not sSmd&ra, with the 
imaspirated d, but sgmdlv&ra with the aspirated dh. 

For sendura, as a corruption of sind&ra, Dr. Kittel has quoted, with another authority 
which I am not able to examine, the Saldamanidarpana of KSsiraja. his own edition (7872), 
p, 37. There, however, under the illustrations to sutra 271 which teaches amongst other things 
that i becomes e, we have " siihdh&ram = semdhuram." In respect of this, I can only say $at 

1 Joitr . So. Sr, M. As. Sac, Vol X, p. 172 f-, and T>yn. Kan. Vistrit, pp. 553, 854, 


either it establishes sendTiura (for which., however, I cannot find any other authority) as a corrup- 
tion of sindJufa u>, for sindliura, ' elephant,' ox else, and more probably, it is a mistake for 
" sm^ram ~ setitduram," based on. a habit which, Dr. Kittel has told me, the manuscripts have 
of aot unfrequently presenting an aspirated instead of an unaspirated letter and vice versd. 
Beyond that, I can only say that Mr. Rice's Karn&takatiabddnusdsanam of Bhattakalankadeva 
(1890), p. 108, under tlie illustrations of sutra 160, does give sendura as the corraptioxx of sindu-ra, 
So far, no autliority has been found for the assertion that sindhura, * an elephant,' 
becomes sindura. We have only obtained sindwa, "with the unspirated d but retaining the 
short tf, as a corruption of that word, and sindhura, with the long & but retaining the aspirated 
d h, as another form of it. 

Bat, also, we have not found any conclusive authority for sendura or sendtira as a corruption 
of Sinatra, ' red load.' We have only obtained, more or less certainly sendura with the short u, 
and doubtfully sSndliura with the aspirated dh, and sSndurct apparently deduced by inference 
from it. Turning, however, to other sources of information, we there obtain something quite 
definite. In a language closely allied to Kanarese, Mr. C. P, Brown's Teluga-Bnglish Dictionary 
(1852) does not give sindura, sendura, sendtira, or sgndtira,. It doea give simdhwamu, with the 
meaning of only ' an elephant,' and simduratnu f with the meanings of only ' red lead, minium,' 
and 'a sort of tree. 3 And, while it does mention simdh&ramu with the aspirated dh and the 
long <fi, it specifies it as an " error " for aifad&ramu, But, in a language of which the voca- 
bulary is very muck mixed up with that of the Kanarese of the southern districts of the Bombay 
Presidency, Moles-worth, and Candy's Marathi-Buglish Dictionary (1857), while not presenting 
si-ntihw, 'an elephant,' or sindura, does give Simdtira, with the meaning of only ' red lead, 
minium,' and gives sSmdura (with the palatal s) as a popular form of it, and also semdura 
(with the dental s) with the indication that it is commonly written 'Mmd&ra. And Professor 
Pkshel, in 119 of his Prakrit Grammar (1900), Yol. I., Part 8, of the Grundriss der 
Indo-arisohen Philologie und Altertumskunde, has given sendura, with, the short e and the long 
6, as the corruption of sindtira. On the other hand, the PdiyalaohcTiUndmam&ld of Dhanapala, 
according to Dr. Biihler's edition (1879), does not seem to deal with sind&ra, but indicates, in 
verse 9, that swdhura, ' an elephant/ retains the tatsama-fovm simdfaura, and does nob present 
any corruption of that word. 

It would thus seem that, among the Kanarese authorities, there has been some confusion 
between sMJiura, ' an elephant,' and wwWfcro, ' red lead, minium, vermilion,' which confusion, 
however, is in all probability confined to mistakes by copyists. But I cannot discover any 
authority of any kind for the assertion that sindhwa, ' an elephant,' takes the form rind&ra, or 
any indication that the word sind&ra has the meaning of an elephant.' And there are no 
reasonable grounds for imputing any confusion between the two words to the writers of the 
ancient records. On the other hand, sendura, a&ndura, and sSndura are given as corruptions 
of ainduraby authorities of an unquestionable kind. We may, therefore, safely discard any 
idea that sindural&fiehhana and senduraiafichhana can mean ' an elephant crest.' And we 
way safely revert to my original rendering of it as the mark of vermilion, for which, how- 
ever, there is now to be substituted, in more technical terms, the red-lead crest. 

Tie only 
red-lead cresfc 
ftlafcct as meaning 

1 Also, we may remark, it gives W<Zdra-*Za*a as meaning 'marked with red lead, an elepfcaat, aud &>*. 
ttM denoting <a woman whose forehead is marked with red lead (aad therefore whose huBband is living). 
An4,H. H Wilson has mentioned a particular use of the ibtdtoa-titoka hy -women, in telling us that a Widow, 
about to commit *** " in making preparation* for ascending the funeral pile, used to mark her forehead with 
W<K and to deck berself sumptuously with all the symbols of a .adhavd," or woman whose husband u mil 
Met see his Workt, Vol. II. p. 300. 



Kannada-Engllsh Dictionary gives sind&ra-lottu as meaning ' a round mark (on the forehead) 
made with red lead,' That, therefore, was one of the uses of red-lead; namely, for making the 
tilaka or ' mark on the forehead, made with coloured earths, sandal-wood, or unguents, either 
as an ornament or aa a sectarian distinction.' But a special use of the sindura as a royal 
prerogative is established by the Rdjataramgipi, 8, 2010. We are there told, in respect of a 
certain confidential official named Koshthlivara, a councillor of king Jayasimha of Kashmir, 
that, baddhv=yhikarinah sulkam grihnat=4kari raja-vat tena svn-namnlt TbL&nde'shu drang$ 
smdura-mudranam, "imprisoning the officials, he collected the customs at the watch-station, 
aud had Ms own name stamped in red-lead on the wares as if he were the Icing.*' 1 To this, 
Di% Stein haa attached the comment that "it is still customary in Jamtnu territory, aud 
''probably elsewhere too in India, to mark goods for which octroi-duty has been paid, with 
" seal-impressions in red-lead (sindura). 1 ' That comment is apposite enough. But we further 
learn from the text that, in ancient times, there was a certain royal privilege of stamping 
with red-lead. The word mudrana means the act of making the mudrd or stamp or impression 
of a IMclihana or device on a seal or crest. And we thus see that the possession of the 
sinduralanchhana or senduralSnchhana entitled an owner of it to stamp his name, crest, or 
other symbol, in red-lead. 

Govinda H., and the Alas plates which purport to have been issued in A.D, 770, 

In Vol. VI. above, p. 170 ff., I examined again, in the light of only the most nearly syn- 
chronous records, a question which had engaged my attention once before. 3 And I arrived at the 
same conclusion ; namely, that the successor of Krishna I. was his younger son Dhruva. 
I indicated that the pointed expression used in the Wani record of A.D. 807 (and repeated in the 
B&dhanpur record of A.D. 808), that Dhruva obtained the sovereignty by " leaping over hia elder 
brother (jyfohj'h-olUngJia'na)" would not be incompatible with the possibility that G&vinda II., 
the elder son, was the intended successor of Krishna I., and in fact is rather suggestive that, 
not only was that the case, but also an appointment of him as Yuvardja was actually made. And 
1 found, in the Paithan record of A.D. 794, a possible intimation that Govinda II. established 
Mmself in the northern parts of the Rashtrakfita territories, while Dhruva set himself up as his 
rival in the south, and that time elapsed before Dhruva made himself master o the whole 
kingdom. But I found it to be plain that, at the best, Govinda II. made a stand for only a short 
time. And I arrived at the conclusion, from the early authoritative records, that Dhruva set 
himself up as king immediately on the death of Krishna I., and that Q6vinda II. had no real 
part in the succession at all. 

Since then, there has been published, in Vol. VL above, p. 208 ff., the record contained in 
the Alas plates. This record mentions Dantidurga, son of Indra II., by a name, Dadrivarman, 

Go^b n a r^e tHng ^ a mi8tai:e ' mad8 ^ the Witer ' f r Dantivarman - Xt fctrodtuw 
Pamw^ara, and , BUtt&raka, AkSlavarsha- (Krishna I), and describes him as the Yuvarftfa 
Gdvindaraja, mft the Mrwfe or second^ appellations of Prabhutavarsha and Yikramavaldka, 

JTTJTlZT^ by ^ anoiatment to tlie P siti * of Yuvaraja which was greeted 
am n .rrm .1 by ^ whole wrldj ^ ^ ^ ad attained fhfl vaftchamaMfabda." It 

sio) and Ratnavarsha, 
of" a Dhnivar&ja (who 
And it recites that, at the request 
y of the month Ashadha'in the Saumya samvateara, 

June^A.D. 770, Gdvinda H., as Yuvarftja, being 



then at the confluence of the rivers Krishnaverna and llusi after his victorious camp had 
invaded the province of Tengi and the lord of Yengi had humbly ceded hia treasures, his forces, 
and his country, granted to a Brahman a certain village ia the Alaktaka mslirtya, which 1 was a 
territory close on the east of K61hapur, "between the rivers Varna, Krishna, and DMhgangl 

Now, the bad formation of the characters, and the occasional very marked irregularity of 
the lines of the writing, suffice to shew that these Alas plates do not contain, the original and 
synchronous official record of the matters recited in them, And they are, therefore, a spurious 
record. Whether, however, the matter set forth in the record is unauthentic, is another 
question, But it seems hardly likely that the composer of it could have invented the bimdas 
ending in avaUka? There is nothing discordant in the date, A D, 770, which applies, of course, 
to Krishna L as well as to Govinda II, and fits in perfectly well between the dates of A,D, 754, 
which we have for Dantidurga-Dantivarman II,, and A.D. 783-84, which we have for Dhruva. 3 
And I think that, pending the production of any distinct evidence to the contrary, we may 
look upon this record as "based upon sometloing genuine, and as being a more or less accurate 
reproduction, from probably a manuscript copy, of an original record which had been lost, and 
may accept it as establishing, provisionally ,<that Govinda II, was actually installed as 
Yuvar& ja, and was holding office as such, under his' father Krishna L, in A,D. 770, While, 
however, it may be provisionally accepted to that extent, this Ala's record does not prove that 
G6vinda II. succeeded to the throne and reigned as king. 4 

1 See .M.^. Vol. XXIX, p. 277 f. 

3 On the subject of the mJMa-appellations of the Rashtrakutas O f MaWd, see Vol. VI- above, p. 188 f, 

3 See Vol. VI. above, pp. 167, 197. 

* There is nothing more that can he said about that question, to any practical purpose, until we obtain further 
definite facts to go upon. But 1 am compelled to notice Borne remarks made by Mr. D. B. Bhandarkar, on page 28 
above, iu connection with the Sangll record of A.D. 983 and an alleged utilisation of it by me, in respect of the 
point in question, on the occasion indicated above, namely, in Vol. VI. above, p. 170 IE,, when, he has said, I was 
meeting objections brought by him against the views previously expressed by me. So far from basing any argu 
ment on the Sangli record, BO completely did I set it aside as being a late record of no authority, on the point ^ in 
question, that it was only after twice reading through my remarks that I discovered that Mr, Bhand&tkar'B allusion 
- is to my inclusion of it in a foot-note in which I merely put together all the cases in which Govinda Il^is, or is not, 
mentioned in the Klshtrakuta records. And, so fat from rightly understanding and applying the meaning of what I 
wrote, Mr, BhandarWhas simply himself made from the Sitglt record an objectless deduction, about Jagattufiga- 
G6vinda III. and Amflghavarsha L, which could not serve any practical purpose, and in respect of which there U 
not any basis for his suggestion that it followa from anything said by me,- To the cases, put together by me ia 
Vol. VI. above, p. 172, note 2, in which Gflviuda II. is, or is not, mentioned in the Eashtrakuta records, we have 
now to add two more. The Chokkhakuti graut of A.D. 867 (Vol. VI. above, p. 239, verses 15, 16, text lines 17 to 
20) repeals the two verses about G6vinda II. and Dhruva which are presented in the Pa'nhau record of AD, 794. 
And the Cambay plates of A.D. 930 (page 87 above, verses 8, 9, 1'), text line* 10. to 14) present the three verses 
about Krishna L, Gdvinda II., and Nirupama- (Dhruva) which we have in the Sfogll plates of A,D, 938, 

I1TDBX. 1 


Abhidh&nacl.mtatnani, quoted, 
AbbimMyG, Rashjrak&ta ch. t 

abhyfisha, a cake, 
Abulajna, vi,, 

Achoharap&kkam, #., . . . 
Aotystaraya, Vijayanagara k., . 
Adswganohi, vi,, . . 
Adavalar or A^ayallk, *. 
Adftvi-MtwJhflira, s. a. Ktoia, 
Addakali gachchhft, . . 

adhikarikfl, . 
adhikarin, a minister, 
Adbipurl, *. a. Ti 

adhvaryn , . 
a$i, -Hiw Majesty, . , 
Adijina, *. a. ^ishabhatatha, 
Adipnrapa, quoted, . . . 
Adityabhatara, ., , . . 
Adxtyas^na, Gupta %., 
Adityavardhana, Eanauj k. t 
Adtrariba, ir, o/ Bb6ja, . . 
^diyappan, te. t .... 
Adiyar, t., .... 
agambadi, a body-guard, 
A'gasty^Svara, te. t . . . 
Agimita (Agnimitra), m., . . 
Aghoitrariaka (Agnimitra), m., 
agnidh, ..... 
agnih6trin ..... 
Agnipnrajja, quoted, . , 

. 20,27,4,6,75,84, 

. 30n 
. 216 
. 132 
. 43n 

.. . 72 
, . 168a 
. 11 
. 18n 
. 215 
. 138 
75, 85 

. 179, 191 
. 87 
, 62 
. 45 
. 196 
. 149 
. 148 
. 46 
. 24n 

108, 114, 115 
. 227 
. 202 
. 59 
. 159 
. 82n 
, 175 
. 25 
. 164 
. 133 
. 50 
49, 50 
. 46 
, . 87 
, 120a 
. 46 

160, 180, 212 
. 149 


Aharamalla, *ur. of S6tn6Bvara I,, 
Ahmad 8h&, Bahtnani k,, .<- . 
AbobaU, P*., . . . * . 
Air&vata, the elephant of Indra, 
Ajvaraga^da, wr, of Nyisimbaraya, 

145, 146 
. . 84 
, "43n 
. 84 

Ajilatii, mr, qf Vlra-Timmar&ja-Odeyara, . 114 
Ajmete, vi,, ...... 58 

ajna, s, a. ajnapti, ..... 183n 

ajfiapti, . , . 69n, 183, 184, 185, 191 
Akalavawha, sf. of RfahtraMta kings, 28, 

29, 43, 230 
akhasalii, s. a, akkasale, .... 107n 

akkaaale of akiasaliga, a goldsmith, . . 107n 
Akkinaijgaiyar, queen of Kulamanikkeru- 
maiiar, ....... 137 

aksh&pafcalika or ftkalapatalika, . . 69, lQ7n 
aksbaeMika or> akabafialm, s. a. akkasale, . 107n 
akeb&ya-nivi ....... lOln 

AksbMrara, te., . . . , . 11 

Alagaa-Peruroal, sur. of Jatilavarman Sri- 
valkbha Ativirarama, .... 16 

Alaktaia-visbaya, tft., ..... 231 

Alangndi, i., ...... 5n 

alaii, /ower, . ..... 132 

Ala*, vi., ...... 230, 231 

Albnqxierque, Portuguese viceroy, , 18, 19 
ali-mukbam, a, port-town, , . . .168 
........ 62n, 68q 


aloijiakb^daka, ...... "67 

alphabets : 

box-headed, . . . . . 103 

Br&mJ, .... 117,118,119 
Grantha, Z%, 25, 76n, 108, 109, 115, 116, 

120, 121, 128, 145, 148, 152, 192, 1S7 

of Pnttadigal, 

The figures refer to pages ; ' n ' after a figure, to foot-notes ; and * add.' to the Additions and Corrections on 
pp. T. and vi. " The following other abbreviations are need : c?i. = chief; co. country ; di. = district 01 'dwinon ; 
do, - ditto ; dy. dyncaty ; B. jBaatern f /. female ; fc. * king ; m. - male; mo. => mountain ; n*. 
. a. am at j tut. ewrname ; te. temple; w. village or town ; W, Western, 


[ VOL. VII. 

Ea:rtse, log, 109, 111, 112, 113, 199, 


202, 209 

.... , 

ifagari, 75, 85, 94, 98, 102, 109, 111, 156, 

P-*!iava-Grantba, . 
m , 

;. ela u ' 

Alrar, t . a, Visbnu, 

183, 219 




Infika, w., 
anusvara, . 
Apadef anaka, m., 
apabnuti, alamlcdra, . 
Aphsad, vi., 

., .... 
Apsartdfivl, s'twm O f fiftjyavardhana L, 
Mwyar.tftf*, ' 


Amaravatl, ., , 

Amaresa, s, a, AmaresVara, . , ] ! 20 

Amarelrara, fe., . , t t ' 1 17 

aaaatva, ... 

Ainbtir, i., .*'* 70 

Amburudurga {Gid-AVu-u;, vi , ' ' *" 

Amlnbhivf, \ f . '910 

Afflitravalli,/, ' ' ' ' 144 

' 4 

179, 182, 184, 190, 191 

ajam (apm), 


88, 103, 809 

. .' m 

. 99 

, m 

Arbanandiu, Jaina teacher, . 
Arihararaja, t . a. Haribara II, 
Arikfisarin II,, ChaluJcya eh., 
Arikulakfcarin or Q k6saiiyar, ,, a * 

Arimaddanapnra, sur. 

fl 1ftfi 
' IT 

36, 43, 189n, 198, 200, 201, 202 W 
m > 208, 209, 210, 211, 213,' 314,' 

223, 231n 
Amfir, ?"., ' ' ' 34 

. 166 

. 78 

laatl, 9 . a. ajfiapti, .' " *' ' 6 ? 

&9atti, a?o. ' " -185 

Aaawrata, /&., ^-^5 

Aadhra, <%., ' 197 

Aadhrabhritr. ^ * ' 51) 121} 125 > 22 3n 

. 18? 
. 141 

Arinna /^X^- 7 " ~ "*""' * W, in 

a-rjuna, UASdt k,, O n oo in 

i 2y, 38. 43 M 

arka, we^a?, ' ' *^ 

* 107a 

arkasalikg,, ^, . akkasalio-o. ' ' , 

A i **asaiiga, j/v., 

Arkdnam, t?z., , /n 

Arraveelee. j " 

' . 170 

' a. Arulila-Perurna], , , jgg 

128, 129, 130, 148, 

^^., , . . ?* 

Iruvilli, ,. a . ArraveeJee, 
Arya-siddhanta, .' 

Asani, eh,, 

Afiga, eo,, , 

77, 207 

218, 228 

180, 189 

218, 228 

' 218, 228 

' . 85 

. 87 




. '67 

t aid 

A6ka, Maurya k. t 
Aevalayana G-yihyasfltra 
asvam^dha, sacrifice, . 
A" takiir, vi., 

Atavidurjaya, Matsya oh., 
Athni, vi., . 

, in 


. U 

. fif 

U9, ISla 

. 05 
66, 118 


. 183, 1^4 

. 184 

07 r 208 

45, 48 



Attllinandu, oft., 
Attimallar, s. a. Hastimalla, 
Atvivarman (?), W. G-anga &., 
Avadaohana, vi., . . 
avapraha, . 
ivali, a lineage, , 
ava!6ka appellation, 

PA an 

. 179, 191 
. 195, 196 
. 193 
. 87 
, 85 
. 110 
. 231 

Avanivalappirandar, sur. of Kdppernfi- 

w l65 - 1M ' 1 f 1 

Avanyavauasambhava or Avanyavanodbhava, 
a. a. Avaniyalappirandar, . .167" 


AyiraehcMri, ., .... 129, 131 
Ayitilxi, ., .. ' * 
Ayomukha, demon, 

Ayyapa, *. a. Ayjapad&va, . 181 > 19 
Ayyapad&va, Nolawba ch., . * 181 
Ayyap&tf, Jaina teacher, .191 

Azamgarh, vi., 15 * 

Azilizes, k., ..-' 



Baddega, s. a. Vaddiga, 
Bagmnra, vi., 
Bagflra, vi., . 
Bahmani, dy., . . 
Bahuhalin, Jaina saint, 
BAhtr, vi,, 

Baioha or Baieaapa, ch., 
Bail-Hongal, vi., 

"bakula, flower, 

, 180 
. 34 

. 315, 216, 220 

. 73 

. 76,77,78 

108, 109, 111, H2n 

. 169 

. 115 and add. 
. 217 
. 218 
. 132 

Balaram&yai?a, drama, . 
Bftlavarman, Pr&gjy6tisTta k., 

Bali, *. 
Balisa, . . Wanesa, 

45, 46 

81, 32n, 189 
. 189n 


Banas,n., .... ^ 

Baeasl, s. a. Banas S 

Bamvasi, 49, 70, 224, 226n 

Banavasi twelve-thousand, di., 181, 209, 212, 

214, 224 

Bauer, ri., ..* ***- 

Bangalore, OT., .... 61,7Rn,219n 
Batgavadi, vi., 22 

_ , , 'SOAri 

Batk^ga, s. a. Bankeya, .... -Mun 
Bankeya, Bankeya or Bankeyarasa, cTi., 200n, 

209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 2U 

1 KS 1 <\Rn 

BanBkh^ra,i,, * I&D, locn 

Baranasi, s. a. Varanasi 208 

Barbarabaha, sur. ofNrisimharaya, . . ^34 

Barg&on,i., l( 

Barnasa, s.a. Banasa, . . 58 

Baroda,^, .... 35,215,216 

7Q CO 

EaruWr, m., . . ' /d}&J 
Basaralui ^io 

Bassein, vi,, . ' ' * ^ 
Bedada, *. a. Bidar, . *** 
Bedadakdta or Bedandakota, s.a. Bidar, . . ' 

T!ii & * ^' ^^' ^^ 

Begg^.a.Bang.1, . . . ^^ 

Vl>, * ' 

BelgaHthree-hundred,^, ._ . 209,212,214 
Belaola o-Belgula, 9. a. gravana-Belgola, 108, 
>S ' ' 109, 112, 113, IHn 

Belgulee, vi., 

Bellaguttee, s. a. Eelgulee, . *" 
Bel1akonda,*.o. Bellarhkonda, . 18, 1 

. * .IS 


202, 204, 208 
29, 98n 

. 148, 151, 162 
121, 122, 126 
121, 122, 126, 128 
. 129 
. 34, 217 

Baloda, vi., 

. 182 

. 102,l03n 
. 22,24,26 

Belugulee, vi., 

Be^vola three-hundred, di., 

Benares, '. 

Bettai Telugv,- Cktida ch., 

Betta I., do-, 

Betta II., do., 

Bezvada, vi., . 

Bhfi,dana, vi., 

Bhadasaraa, *., . . 


iraja, title, 
BanamahaTaja, *. a. 

22n, 28 
. 23 
. 28 

Bhagalpur, vi. 

BhAgavatapttfana, quoted, 
BJtfiglratha, mythical k. 
Bhairaya or Bhairaye 1 ndra, 

, te,, , 


31, 32, 33n 

. 143 

. 222 

. 152,164 


. . 192 


[ VOL, V II. 

Bliaktaparadhisvara, te. f , 
Bhamana, tur. of Siraraja II., . 
Bbarna'nadeva, KalacJiuri Jc., 
Bbammaha, Ratta ch., . , 
Bbandanaditya, eh., 

. 171 
. 86 
. 86 
. 217 
, 182 

BMnuchandra, *.,..., 183n 
Bblrgava, A a. akra> . . 135, 145, 146 

Bbarhut Stupa, ...... 5o n 

bbatara, ..... , 201,213 

Bbatpar, vi., ,. 98 

m,, . , . , igi } 193 

bba-fctagrama, ..,, 94 
B3ia$$kalai]kadeva, autltor, . . 221n, 229 

bbatft&makutika, ..... 87 

bhattaraka, ..... 208,230 

Bbattaraka, sur. of Vijayaditya I., . . 189 
Bbavabbufci, poet, .... 80 

Bbayila (Bbrajila),/, , .... 53 

bhikbubala, ..... 66j 67 

bbikshu, . '.... 63 

bbiksbuni, ....... 04 

BMIlama L, Tadava /&., , . . . 22on 
Bbillama II, fa, ..... g24 n 

Bbima, JZulaoliiiri Jc., . . 86 

Bhtroa, s. ct. OlAlutya-BIiima I., . . 189, 190n 
Bliima, s. ct, (Mlukya-Bhlma H., , . jgj IQQ 
BMmaitStlia, te., , jgy 

Bisnaga, s. a. "Vijayanagara, . 
Bitraguata, vi., ... 
boar crest, .... 

Boddiya,wr. o 

PMhi-tree, c 

b6gi, a concubine, . , 
Bojama, m., , 

* o 

Bollapini o^ Gollapini,/^^ 
Bomma, sur. o/'Gunda II., . 
Bonagiri, vi., 

Boppa, S&luva ch., .. 
Boppa^aga, m., 
BrabmadSvastambba, pillar, 


. 19 
. . 17 
74, 17 8} 159 

. 1S2 

218, 219n, 228, 227 

. .30,32&,86 
. * t .29 
,. 183 

Bh&pal, <oi., -., 
Bhujabala, sur. of Hoy sola Unffs, . . 
Btujabak-BMmak^saTa.Dandanayaka, <?/5., . 163 
Bhnjabala-m4dai, coin, .... ISOn 
Bbujabalin, s. a. B&itubalin, . JQ8, 113, 118 

bbAmicbahhidra, * . 160 

Bh4p41an6dbliava, sur. of Nikgafiga, IQQ 

. 184 
^ ^ 


BtomnapMa, Te 

Bibhatsu, s. a. Arjona, . 

Bidar, %..,. t 

ij, . a. BiJja^Dantivaman, . 
otivannan, &,, . . 
Bilhari, i,, 

Blvapadraka, w\, , . , . 104,107 
Binnftni, queen of Vira-Timmaraja-Oaeyani, . 114 
Birudu-mAda, coin, 

. \ 39 


a a J-Orc 

. . 75 

. .83 

. . 76 

. .111 

66} 146 

Brahman,^, 36, 41, 45, 111, 112, 130, 124, 

152, 154n, 207, 222 
Brabmana, ..... 5gj 87 

brahma^achclihamsin, . . . 46 

brahm&ijda, .... , .84 

Brabmani, ....... 5 % 

Brabma-siddhanta, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9n, 10, 12, 
13, 14, 15, 28, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 

175, 176, 177 

brabmatx (brahmahatya), . . .200 

byibadratha, ..... . .49 

Brihaspati, planet, , . .95 

Bribaspati-sava, ...... 4Q n 

Britisb Museum plates, . . . 129, 177 

Bubbnowlee, vi., .... . 99n 

Bu ddba, ...... 159,196 

Bnddbaraja, Katachchuri &., . ' . 222n 

Buddbjst, 50, 51, 55, 56, 60, 66, 69, 119, 196, 197 
Budbarakbita, m,, . 73, 73, 74 

Bugnda, {., ...... 100 

Bukka, ch ........ 79^ 

Bukka I., Vijayanagara Jc., . . . 115,116 
Bukka IL, do., ..... 115,116 

Bukkaraja, *. a. Bukka II., . . . .115 

Bukkar&ya, s. a. Bukka I., , . . . J15 
bull crest, ...... 51,85 

Bund&lkhand, co., ..... 224 

Burhan-i Ma'asir, name of a work, . . 77 
Burma, co., .... . . 197 

Busbal Eao, sw. qf Vira-Narasimha, , . 79 
Butnga II., W. Ganga k, t . . 181, 182 

Calicut, vi., 
Cambay, vi., 


* 26, 2l5n, 220, 281 n 



Ceylon, island, 





. 163 

Cbikkaiaja-Odeyar, Ummattir c/t., 

. 19 

128, 132 

Chinattarayan, ch., 

. 163, 168 

petfiony) * 

. 51 

Chificbli, w., . 


. 114 

Cbiunamapet, vl, 

. 119 

, of Ksbitipala, . 
, 28, 34, 35n, 4S 

31, 32, 33n 

CHtaldroog, vl, . 
Cbitot of CMtorgarb, vi,, 

50, 51 
. 207n 

177, 179, 

Cbitrak^malam, /., 

' 207n 

CMlukya-Bbima I., S. Chalukya L, 180, 184, 

189n, l"U 

. 178, 180, 181, 182 
ma, sitr. of Nnsiri 

Cbamara-mada, coin, . 

, 5o 


^ A _ 1(70 182 191 

cbampaka^wer, . -^ ' 
Cbamundaj s. a. Chanmtidaraia, "* 

Ctamnnda, goddess, . - ' 

108, 109, 112 

. .36 

Gbanakya, m., . 

Cbaijaljya-Cbaturaxikba, swr. o/ G6vinaa I V. 

36, 45 

Chandradityapura, ., . 
Chandragupta II., Gupta k 
Chandranatlia, Jaina saiflf , . 
ChanSxilia, vi., .. 

Cb&ra, , a. Chtoa, . 
, . . 

charu, ...... 

CharuMrti, <**Ze ofJaina teachers, HOn, 114 

CbS!kutr^ CMt0r ' ' ' 215,216,231* 
OMfe I] 1 ' 1 ' ^."6, 25, 84n, 120, 129, 130, 133, 
'l34n,135 5 137, 138,140, 141, 144,145, 
147, 148, 149, 151, 161, 162, 163, 167, 

168, 169, 176n, 181, 190, 192, 194,216 

tan, sr. of ambah- 

" 19 




Cb&la-Tikka, Telttgu-CUda ck, 

, . i 

chole or vole, 

Ooleroon, /'i-f * 

Comdepallyr, s. a. Kondapalle, 
Conadolgi, . a. Kondavidu 


Corecolloo, vi., 

. 87 

113, 114 





Chaturmukhabasti, <e,, 
Chatnrrargftctiiitamani, quoted, . 
Chauhattamalla, sur. of N?isimhar&ya, 
Ch&vundar&ia, j. a. Chamundaraja, . 
CMdi,Vo ...... 29, 33, 86B, 88, 135 

Cuddalore, ., 
Cuddapah, vl, 
Cattack, vi., 

Daddara, Tc.> ' 

Dadh, * 

Dadiga, t, a. Dadiya, . 

Dadigavadi, co 

Dadiya, ch., . 
Dadrivarman, s, a. Dantivarman, 
a, 9, a,. Ct6di, - 

sa, * 
Daivahapara, di., 

Chenji, s, a. Qingee, . . 

a, T., . 


Gbicaeole, vt., . 

8 ' 


. 182 

. 116 

. 23 

. 22 


. 230 

. 86n 

. 95 

. 88n 


, ., 
CHdambaram, ., . 6, 162, 166, 166, 16. 7a, 172n 


Damayanttkatha, quoted, 
Dambaiili or D^vafiK, vi,, 
., . 
, *. dftyadharma, 
, *. a- da?d&n4yaka, 

. 94 
, 49 


'. . 161n,208,224 



[ VOL. VII. 


Dandapur, vi SOOn ; 

DandimahSdevi, queen, 101 | 

dandinagopa, ...... 168 ; 

Dandu,m., 87 j 

dannakka, s. a. dandanayaka, . 161, 168 , 
danta, a pin, ...... 89n | 

Dantidurga, B&shtrakuta ., . 28, 42, 222n j 
Dantidurga, sur. of Dantivarman II., 218n, 230, 231 j 
Dantiga, s. a. Dantidnrga, .... 218n ; 

Dantisakti-VitankJ, queen o/Bajaraja I., . 25n ; 

Dantivarman, cJt., 230 days, solar : 

Dantivarman II., R&shtraMta k., 218n, 230, 231 j third, 

Daradaganclaki, di., . . , . . 94 , sixth, 

DarbhAranyeBvara, te., .... 172 j thirteenth, . 

darsapumata&sa, . . . . . 46 | fifteenth, 

Dasafeumaracharita, quoted, . , . 159n : twentieth, 

dasaparadha, 46, 63 n i twenty-first, 

DaSavatara, cave temple, .... 216 twenty-second, 

dates : twenty-third, 

recorded by a chronogram, 76n, 126, 149, 155 j twenty-sixth, 

recorded in numerical symbols, 61, 66, 72, ! twenty-seventh, 

recorded in numerical words, 9, 20, 85, 110, 


. 13, 128, lain, 171, 174, 175 
3, 87, 88, 157, 160 

. 1,11,12,170 

eleventh, 2, 3, 15, 129, 131, 169, 170, 171, 176 
thirteenth, .... 7n, 173 

fourteenth, . . . . . 9n 

new-moon, . , 204, 205. 208, 210 







. 16 
. 173 
. 10 
14, 15 
. 13 

13, 14, 129, 131 
. 16 
. 14 
. 172 
171, 172 

112, 113 

danhsadhasadhanika, ..... 159 
Daulatabad, ., .... 224, 225 

Paviramakula, wi., .... 94, 95 
Dayabhima, TeUgu-CMda ch., . 121, 122, 

125, 148 

Payima, Satta prince, .... 218 
days, lunar: 

bright fortnight : 
first, . ...... 6 

twenty-eighth, . . , . .12 
twenty-ninth, , . . , 15- 

days of the week : 

Sunday, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 75, 85, 87, 

88, 163n, 164, 165, 169, 177, 204, 20S 
Monday, , 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 28, 45, 86, 

88, 98, 115, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177" 
Tuesday, . . 6, 8, 9, 162n, 171,175, 177 

Wednesday, 6, 7, 8, 9-, 11, 13, 14, 15, 110, 

111, 129, 131, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 
Thursday, 2, 3, 4, 6, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 

112, 113, 114, 170, 171, 173, 175 


Vo, 105, 172 
5, 12, 98 

* riday, . 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16, 128, 131, 162n, 
164, 165, 170, 179 
; Saturday, 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 16, 19, 95, 165, 172, 

174, 176 
De~hatt>ade>$, queen o/'Bh&mamad^va, . . &6 

Dekkan > 33TJ, 35n, 228 
D66-Baranark, vi,, , . . gg n 
Deoba{Daivah&);ffl'a, Qogra, ... 88 
De-6H, ., . 27n, 33, 34, 194, 216^ 216, 220, 222 
Deigana or Defiigana, . no, 112, 113, 114 
DeSinamamala, quoted, .... 188 
de>a, a king, . . . i / 

dark fortnight : 

. 3, 4, 163n, 176, 177 
2, 12 

. 2,4,10,87,88,175 

14, 28, 45, 112, 113, 114, 162n, 174 
. 11, 14, 15, 16, 20, 111, 118, 173 
. 25> 85, 115> 200; 201, 202 


d6vabh6gahala, . . 
d&radaya, . '. . . 
B4vagiri, s. a. Daulatab&d, . 
D^vagupta, ., . . . 

* * 66 
. 66 
219, 220, 224, 225 
. 157, 16& 



Dfrapala, Kanauj L, . 

. 160 
. 204, 208 
. 30 
. 33 

drainma, coin, ... 97 35 45 

Dravida or Dravida, co., ... 18, 77 
Dfidliaprahara, Yddava, k., ... 225 
DuAripataka. vi . QT 

ruT ofiJ* 

. 138n 

. 77 

Dixdhali, vi., ...... Qg 

DUvsraya II>, Vijayanagara &., . 

. 78 
. 58 

Dixrga, goddess, 228 

D&v&ndxakirti, &Ze ofJaina teachers, . . llOn 
JWvulapalli, ?'., . .74, 75, 76n, 77n, 85 
dSyadharma, 55 
Dhadiadeta, s. a. Dhaclibhatlaka, . . .223 
DiadJbhadaka, cA., . . . 223,224,226 
DMdlbbandaka, s. a. Dbaijibhadaka, . . 223 
Dhaladi, s. a. Dhalaga, . . .182 
Dhalaga,cA 181,190 
Dhamma, m., . .56 

Durgaraja, Raslitralcuta, oL, . , .216 

Dfisi, vi , igg 

Dvaraka, .?. a, Dwarka, .... 225 
Dvaravatl or Dvavavatl, s. a. Dwarka, . 224, 225 
dvivedin, ...... 87 

Dwarlia, vi., .... . 225 


Dhammutariya (Dharm6ttarlya), . 
Dhanada, s. a. Rubdra, 
Dhanamjaya, sur. of Vyftsa, . 
Dhanapala, author, 

54, 55 
. 159, 190 

. lOOn 
. 229 

eclipses, solar, .... lOln, 204, 208 
Ediriganayaa Pottappi-ChOla, cA., . . 164 
Eedooroo, vi,, 179 

Dhatj vl., .... 
Dharanivaraha, liruda, 
Dharavaraha, sur. of Nfisimhar&ya, 
Dharmad&va, m., . 

. 86 
77n, 84 
, 84 
. 56 
. 97 

Ekadhirachatui'v^diuiaugalain, vi., . 133, 137 
fikagilanagari, *. a. Warangal, . 128, 129, 131 
Elariivalli, s. a. Mantrawatli, . . 198, 202 
elephant crest, . . . . ' . . 227 
El]dii,w, - 161,162,168 

dharmatala, .... 

. 66 
. 81. 32. 33 

Dharmsala, vi., 116 
Dbarwar, ., 34,212 
DhSmMkata, vi 52,53,54,56 
ihirayayin, chronogram, . , . 126, 149 
Bhruva, BdshtraMta L, 28, 42n, 207, 215, 
230, 231 
Dkr^Ta 11., Q-ujar&t R&shtraMta, ch., . . 29n 
Bhuliaghatta, vi., . , , . 87, 88 
Biddapura, vi., 207n 
Digary, s . a. Udayagiri, ... 19 
Dtggubarru, vi., . . , 178,181, 186n 
diksjiita, ....... 87 
Dinika, ch,, ... 58 
dSse, a quarter, 200 
%a!4mba,/, 182 
"Wvyajfian&gvara, te., 4 
D&b, co,, 31 

7 vtj WJ. 

^o^djkhundi, m., .... 23n, 169 
DSranamudra, *. a. Ha}6Tld, . 161, 163, 168 
*W . 46 

EJpunuse, *. a. Mantrawadi, . . . 198, 202 
Enfira, s, a. VSntir, .... 112, 113 

JEjaga, *Mr.,o/JEreyammarasa, . . 218, -228 
eras : 

gaka or Slka, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 27, 28, 45, 75, 76, 
77n, 79, 80, .85, 1P9, HO, 111, 112, 113, 
114, 121, 122, 126, 128, 129, 130, 131, 
136, 137, 149, 152, 155,. 162iv 163n, 164, 
165, 167,19,4, 195, 196, 200, ,301, 804, 
205, 208, 210, 230 
Vikrama, . . . -85, 88, 93, 05, 98 
Emiddhi, Telugu*Ch64a oh., 121, 122,125, 
126, 152 
Ereyammarasa, Eattwl., . 31i 228 

JErr'a^dtapall.!, *. o.-HuB^tAWj * TV 


Fomkta, author, 

Gacliyamma, -m. } 

jrahapati, . . . 

Gaharwara, family, . 

gahata (grihastha), . 

Gajalhatti pass, . . 




. 214 

. 53 

. 30n 

. 52n 

. 161 

Gajapati, dy., . . . , . 18, 19 
Gajapati-varaha, coin, .... 180n 

gamaiida, s. a. gramakuta, . . . 183, 222n 
gamunda or garnundu, 5-. a. gauda, . .183 
Gajiapati, #oJ, ...... 27 

Ganapati, Kfikatiya k., .... 167 

Gamlagopala, liruda, . , . 128, 130, 131 
Gandagdpala, sur. of Erasiddbi, . / 152, 155 

Gandak, ri. t 88, 94, 95 

Gamlaki, s. a. Gandak, . . .87, 88, 94 
Ganda-Boida, coin, ..... 130n 

Gandamah&udra, sur. o/Chalukya-BMtna II., 181 
Gandhahasti- or Gandhavarana-mikla, s. a. 
Gajapati-varaha, . . . . . 130n 

Gandhara, co., ...... 31 

Gandik6fca > vi., ...... 78 

Ganfvara, m,, , .95 

Gaiiga, <fy., '. . . ... 23,216 

Gaiiga, Eastern, dy,, .... 107n, 183n 

Gaiiga, Western, dy., 108, 181, 182, 192, 193, 

195, 224 
Ganga (Ganges), n., . . 35, 42, 44, 98, 164n 

Gafiga-Bana, family, lg g 

GangadJbararya, m., 47 

Ganga Hale Samti Eaya, c^., ... 77 
Gangaikondan, vi. } . > e 

GaiigamaTiadSvi, sur. qf Kamakkanar, . '. 195 
Ganga-Pallava, family, 22, 23^ 24, 25n, 139, 192 



Garga, astronomer, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9n, 10, 12* 
13, 14, 16, 28, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 

G&iga Elja, Umtnat&r ch^ 
G&ngdya, family, . 
ganikfc, a female elephant, . 


*4a crest, . 27,98,108,121,125,208,227 

gauda or gavuda, 

GauhatJ, vi., . . , 

gaulmika, .... 

gaunda or gavunda, s. a, gauda, 

Gauptiputra, . . 

Gaurisarman, ch. 3 

Gauta I., S&luva c/j., . . 

G'auta II., do., . 

Gautama, T^sM, 

Gedilam, ri. t . . 

gerund, .... 

ghara (griha), a chaitya cave, 

ghattapati, . . 

Gliunika, m. t . , 

I, VI., 

GIngee, m., 



. 39,224,% 
27 and add., 45 and did,, 1 

Gfidavari, ri. t 

Goduguchinta, vi., , 

Gogra or Ghogra, rl., . 

Gojjiga, s. a. G6vinda IV., . , 

G&karnapanditabhatara, teacher, . 

GdkarnMvara, te, . . , , li 

G&kulaghafta, vi., 

Golden Garu^a banner, , . , , $ 
Gommata or Gommatggvara, .?. a. B4hubalin, lOi 

GSpalakrishr^a, te., , , , . , Jl 

Gdparaja, Sdliiua ch., . . . 76, fl 

G6pa-Timnoa, do., . . . . 7?a 

G6pa-Tippa, cA., . . . . , ffe 

Goppa-Tippa, ch., . . . . , f| 

gorava, a Saiva priest, 


Gotamiputa S&takani (Gautanaiputra Sata- 

tarni), And-hra k., . . . . 60,86, W 

Goti (Gaaptl), /, . . , . ' ' ,, * 

Gotiputra, *. o. Qauptiputra, . . W 
6traa : 

Bharadvaja, , , . ,/"''# 

Dhaumra, , , . . . . 8J 

Gautama, . , *. , ; ,.' W 

Kalyapa W 

Katy&yana, . , . . " ^ 

Kaandinya, . . . . *' ^ 

KauSika, . . , , . " ' $ 

Krishnfttra (Krishn&trfiya), . /,* 

Kufiika, . . . , . 

Minavya> . . . : . , i '" & 

*- J- - 

ParaSara or Parasara, 



Sarar^a or Savarni, 

06 a II-, 

. 87,160 
. 85 

"..'* 16 
i a Jc. t 28,42,230,231 

Haihaya, mythical A., 

tal, measure of land, 

Hampe, vi., 

t . Hanasdge, vi., 

7., do., 27,28,33, 34, 35, 36, 44, ^ 

47, 181, 190, 215, 216, 320, 223a ' 
Gbymdachandra, Kanauj 1c., 67, eo, > Hannikere, *.. 
GfinndayicUclia, w-, . * Hannik^ri, *. a. Hanaikre, 

G67isalaka, vi., . * T * 7 * Hanumantapuram, vi., 

Hanumat, jfoc?, < 
ive-hundred, di. 

. 46 


Haraphara^a, * 

*- a. 

1 J W 

Hanhar, v*.i 
Harihara II., Tij 


87 ' 

idSvH, a. a. Gugasagara I., 

Gunapadeya, M., 

I., Kalaclmn k., 

., Sdluva cJi. 







bast a, **w^ qfland* 

Hastigrauaa, vi., 

* 178 

- -33,43,184 




* 189 

' ^ 


t 7 


,, . 

HastiSaila, .,* A^a-Perumal, , - 152, 15, 




&Q\KD&, vi., ' "| 

rff, . 35n,46n,50,224 

rf ..... 


a. 96n 

'. 214m 


. 30,69,221,223' 

, do ..... ou ' ' 


fltemauta, season, 
Hiiaavat, mo., . 
Hindi, . 

. 77,: 




. 200n 
. 157 
. 46 

Hiriya-Nareyamgal, g. a, Naregal, 
Hiuen Tsiang, . a 

b.6ina, ..... 

Honakanahalli, v i,, . . , . .19 
hoti-i, ....... 46 

Hovsala, rfy., 24, 79n, 108, 161, 1G2, 167n, l?6n 
Hoysana, s. a. Hoysala, . . . 161, 168 
Hubli,'., ...... 212 

hude, a, viHage~la$tion, ... 202 

Humcha, -si., HOn 

Huttari, s. a. Puttur, 78 


Idaikali, .?. a. Tiravidaikali, . 138, 14 G, 147 

Iddhat&j&Bj sur> of Dbxuva, . . . 42a 
Idiyftru, s. a. Bedooroo, . . . 179, 191 

Ikkadn, L, 129 

Ikfcattu-ktotam, di. t 129 

Ikshupurigvara, te. } .... 173, 175 

lladaiga^., ch., 141 

Iladarayar, ch., 134, 135 

lla-lamp, . 134, 136, 145 

Ilam, Ceylon, . . 1,6, 134, 163, 168, 174 
ImmatU-Bflairarasa, cfi., . . . .110 
Irnmadi-^arasimha w Immadi-Niisimha, 

S&luva eh., . . .75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 84 
indra, a Jaime, priest, . . . 112 
Indra, gad, 31, 32, 42n, 43, 45, 149, 151, 152, 159 
Indra II,. Bdslitrakdta L, . . 215, 218n, 230 
Indra III., do., 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 84, 35, 

36, 43, 44, 215, 220 

Indra IV,, do,, .... 215,220 

Indrabaln, ck,, .... 103, 107 

ladradfitra, in., . . . .51 

IndrapMavarman, Fr&gjy&tisha ., . .100 
Indrarija, JE. CkaZu&ya &., . . ,189 

Indrarfrja, s, a. ludra III,, ... 31, 32 
Indrayudha, *., .... 32n, 33n 

Indus, ri., 4 

It^man MuiQrQadi-01i6}an, MiUdu ch., . 135 

Irattamagidala, s, a, Rattap&di, . . , 217 
Iia$apdi or Ilattapadi, do., . . . 217 
f rajiran Sijijan, m. t ..... 198 
Ijivahedftiiga-Satyyraya, W. CUlukya L, . 217 

Irrulakolu, vi. t 

Ituga, Iraifapa or Irugappa, ch., . 115,116 

Isl&m, * 

/*. a. Siva, . . 192, 193, 196, 196 

f svara or tsvara-JSayaka, Tulnva ch,, 
Isvaraeliandra Yidyasagara, editor, 
tsvaragupta, ch. % . . . 


. 30a 
. 163 

Jagaddbara, commentator, . . . . 3Qn 
Jagadobbagaijda, biruda, . , . .168 
Jagattunga, sur. o/G6vinda III., 28, 29, 42, 

207, 231n 

Jagattnnga II., &sktraMf a L, . 29,33,43 

Jagattunga-sindlm, tank, . . . 29,43 
Jaguka, m., . . . . . ,95 
Jaiinini-BMratam, Telugupoem, . . 75,76,77 
Jaina, 32n, 36, 74, 108, 109, 110, 112, 115, 


Jakavva, Queen of Taila II 217 

JakhG, m., . . . . " . .87 

jalam-aslitami, s. a. janm-ashtami, . . 226n 
Jalu, .,......, 87 

Jambudvipa, ...... 49 

Jainbuk^svara, te., 129 

Jammu, di., ...... 230 

Janaka, m., 87 

Jananafclia-rolanadu, fur, of Milidu two- 
thousand, 188, 146 
Jataka, quoted, ..... 50n,56fl 

Jatavarman Parakrama-Pandya, Pdndya ., 12, 17 
Jatavarxnan Sundara-Pa^dya I, do,, . . 167 
Jatilayarman, do., . . . .28, 185n 

Jatilavarman Parakrama-Paijdya Arik&sari- 
d6va, do., .... 12, 13,14, If 

Jatilavarman ParakrauQa-Pandya Kulafi^khara, 
do., .... ,14,15,17 

Jatilavarman Srivallabha^ do., . . 15,17 
Jatilavarman SrivaHabha Ativirarama, do,, 16, 17 
Javelin banner, . . . . . .213 

j awandi (sevvandi), flower, . . .138 

Jayachchandra, Kanauj Je., , . 85, 88n 
Jayaditya II., L, , 98n,96a 

Jaya-mada, coin, . . . . ISOfl 

Jayanatha, L, , 62o 

J8yaDgonda-Ch61a-mandalam, eo., 133, 138, 193 
Jayanti, s. a. Bauayasi, . . .49, 226n 
Jayasimba, KaSmir Je., .... 280 
Jayasimha I., E. ChaUlcya L, , . 184, 189 
Jayasimha II., do., . , . . , 189 

108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 110, 114 ll 




Jinadatta, mythical *., 
Iinas6na, Jaina author, 

, co 

Jupiter, planet, 

. 227 
. . 34 
. 50, 55, 56 
. 46n 

b0 ' 


s. a. 

. 129 

. 120 

* " j, j3eJ 

Kacbcbur, ., '"'''. 216,220 
Kadaba,**., ""'**. 24 

Kadadi Karakkan, i., ^4 

Kadamba,^, - ' g 22 4 2 26n 
Kadamba,/<Mify, ,143 

1 ! 124u 

ttbi, "Kadupatti or Kadnvat& *- a. 

Kadava, zon 
23, 24, 25, 26, 163, 


- 95 

f 1 Samavai, . * 

UBUtSVl, ow -J <- la -^ L " ' 


i ' ' * 184 

Kadeyaraja, ch., ^ ggn 

KWuvitt^svaia, tff-, * * QV 


Kakalll, ., g. 

. 42 

10, 15 

f"*l""" ' ' 2 9n,36 

Kaita, ., , 23 

KaivandAr, i., * ' 

. A TToivandTlir ** J-* a 

^r^tioTKakatiya, family, 123, 120. WL WJ 


kalakanda (kalaka^a), 

Kalalaya,^., . ' * ' 
Kalaled6vl,2aeeno/Narasimb.aIL, ^ M 

kalam, measure, * 

kalam, o trumpet, * 

Kalanjara (Kalafi-jar), i., . 

KalanjavadHpati, *wr.o/ CU , , jnnn - 

kalaftju, ^M, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143 197 

Kalapviya, S ..Mabakala, . . 29, BO^M 

K&lapriyanatba, te ' * 

* 1 j * -L'a'v 

a arm , ... 215,216 

Kftl,w., >233Q 

Kalasapur, ., ^ 

K tT^ e *' '''''.' 218,887 

KaU^o/TiBK^dbanaY., . ^^ 
Kali age, ' * ^ _ ^ . 212 
K I'! KariHla' W 131, 122, 125, 118, 161 
Kalinadl, r i., g 

'.".* 133 

. 183n 
Kaliiiganagara, ., Q 

Kalitgattn-Parani, jo#^, . ' 9Q7 
Kalivallabba, tur. of Dbruva, . - -^ 

Kaliyamalai, ,__ ... - ' ^ 

. 195n 

'.'... 194,195 

. 195 

^434, k 193 ' 19e> 
. f . . . 194,195 

i ai "IrtO l^ft 

illai *. a- Kliyamaai, 101,10^,0.00 

Haiiiyuiui 1 * > J 1170 iQi 

Kabcbumbajra, ... Kunsamurroo, . 179,191 

TT-.,I__J . . loUn, oLi, jjs* 

nftpara or Kalyam, vi,, *"" 

, . . 197 
\ . 44,45,190,215 
. 195 

. 129 
'.".. I 29 

"Jl A 
^^ 3]fl l.i irW/wTu* u.** , oiA 

,Sakku&jaU.,(io.> ' 
',|U, s. a. matakkal 

^'d " ". " ' 86 ' 88 
. 86n,219n,224 

2, 193a, 196 

, 182 

Kampa < 

* '.'.' 167 

* 194 

I 94 
Klni'^ 30, 31>2, 88u' 85, 86,, 87, 88^ ^ 

K&nctanad^vi, qneen of Gunasagara L, - 86 
Kafiobarigundu, rocTc, " 2 x g 


[VOL. VtL 


K'aiiuu" 6, 1 Ivaiuchipura (Conjeeveram), z'., 18, 
Son. 77. M), 115, 116, 121, 122, 128, 
129. 130, 131, 152, 164, 105, 166, 207 
jvamLijnv-Salai. vi.* ..... 16 
Kamhilniru, vi., . . . , . 78 
Kai:gavailiyaij. G-anaa k,, . . .23 
IvaiV'ra. r/,, . 117 118 

Kartavirya I., Ratta c7i,, . ' . . 218, 22Sn 
Kartavirya II., rf ., . 217, 218, 227, 228 
Kartavirya III., do., . . . 21Q 

Kartavirya IV., rf 0i , 313 s 2 ] 9, 223, 227 
Kartavirya Arjuna, mythical lc . . . 6 
Karttikeya, s. a. Skanda, . . . .106 
KMkndi.ct., . . . 23n and add., 185n 
Kasilli, ., 94 

Kasmir.m, . . . 130n, 210, 223 : 230 
kasu, coin, . . . , .139,145 

Jvanh.-ri. vi., , . . , . . 210 

KaiihKtra, vi., . . . 116,117,118,119 

Kann/ulaga, s. a. Karnataka, ... 23 

Kataclichuri, dy 223n 
katakddhisa, katakaraja or katakMa, a super- 
intendent of the royal camp, 183, 184, 185, 191 
Kataughanagrama, vi., . . ,87 
Kathaka, s. a. Kadava, . .167 
Katbari or Kattari, biruda, 76, 77n, 79, 83n, 84 
Kattalamba, /., 193,191 
Ivafetirai, cTi., . 90 n A 

Kannaradeva, s. a. Krishna III, 135, 136, 143, 
194, 195 
Kannaradera, do,. . . , 25, 142, 144 
annaradera-Pnthvi(' Prithivi)gaiigaraijar, 
sur. o/Attimallar. .... 195,196 
Kannariga, s. u. Karnittaka, . .176 
kanyadana, , ... 59n 
Kanyaknbja, s. a, Kanauj, . . . 30,31,32 
Kapaladurga, /wf, . . , . .77 
Kapika, s. a. Kavi, 35 
ICapitthaka, vi. t ... 27 45 
Kapittliika, s.a. Ivie-pi-tba, . . 157, 153 
kappa,. .... t 'IM 

Kat^uttumMr, s. a. ^olapuram, 192, ] 94, 105, 196 
Kausiki, goddess, .... ]g9 
Kausikipntra, .... 60 and add. 
Kauthem, vi., 2 17, 222n 
Kavantandalam, vi. t . . t t j j gg_ 
Kavfira, mythical >&.,..,. , 151 
Mrtn., . . 18, 120, 121, 125, loin 

Karajaka or Karajika, vi., . 53, 60, Co, 67, 71 
Parana, ....... IQQ 

karana : 
^anij J6 
karanaUyastlia, ! 97 
karanika, ... " qa 

Kavi, m., ..... 32 n , 36, 215 
Kavichakravartin, .,..., . 191 
Z&vM,a.a.Kftvi, . . 27,28,36,45,46 
Kavyavalukana, quoted, . . . , 218n 
Kayirur Perumanar, Mildfa cA., . . 141, 142 
Kazi, ., . . 1Q 

% * " Jlit/ 

K&najju, s. a. Kim6j, ... .36 
K6rala, co., 130,207 
KSsarivarman, sur. of Eajarftja I. . . 6n 
K^gava, j., 94 
KSsavapaduma, z ,95 
K&sava-Perumal, te., . i 

KaraTandteTOra, te., . . 169,170,171,175 
Karayilladata or Kajeyillad&fa, gur, of 
ChMukya-Bhima II, . . _ lga 

Karhaa, -., 88j 34i 215> 216> 220) ' 224 

Karikala, O7^Z<z ^,, . . < . ]20 
Kariya-Perumal Periyanayan, 'w. qfVara-' 
sidlha 147 
KnteTL.QitJarteRtoifaUfa^ . 35 

Karkala,^ . I 08j 109, 110, 111, 112u 
Kark6ta,%., 22g 

Xlrty, w, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 57, 58, 59, 60*, 

kannanta, . . . , fi 

Karnad^va, OMrff ft., ...*'.' 2 

Kar 9 ata or Karnataka, ,., 75, % 78j 7 J ( 84n " 


Kta6niri,^ ao ^ . . 9i o? 

1 4>. ^SQ 

KSsiraja, author, . . . 221, 227, 228 
KSvafija, s. a. Kim6j, . . .27, 36, 45, 46 
Khaharata,<fy 56,68,60 
Khajurah&, vi., . 30 and add., 32 and add. 
Khalimpur, vi., 31,32 
Khalsi, vi., $6 
KhamHyat, *. a. Cambay, ... .26 
Aandaraksha, ..... , 87n 
ciiandavala .87 
Jharda, vi 21 5n, 220 
Khar^patan, vi., . . . 33,84,217,223 



. s. a. Kaira, . . 28, 29n, 36, 45 

Kbetaka, s. a. M anyakheta, . . 29, 43 

Khottiga, R&shtrak&ta, &., . . . 215, 220 
Kie-pi-tla (Kapittha), s. a. Samkasya, . .157 
Kilappal.uvftr, vL, ..... 13 Sn 
Kiliyftr, v L, . . > . 1 35 
Kil-KM,kudi, vi., ..... -75 
Kil-Muttugur, vi., ..... 22n 

Kimnara ...... 152, 20n n 

Kimdj or Kimaj, vi., . . . .3(3 

Kira, co ....... .31 

Kiritin, s. a. Arjuna, . . . . &6 

Kirfci-Narayana, sur. of G6vinda III., . . 207 
Klvfci-Narayana, sur. of Indra III., . . 36 
Kivtipala or Kirtipaladeva, Uttarasamudm 

cA., ...... 94,167n 

K6kkala or E&kkalla I., CJiedi ft., 29, 33, 43, 8Sn 
K6kkilana(li, queen o/ Parantaka I., . 133, 134 
Kokkili, #. Clialutya, A., . . - . 189 
K&l&r.w ........ 224 

Kolavennu, ?., . . * . 178, 180, 181 
K61hapur, i., ...... 231 

Kollabiganda, sur. of Yijay&ditya IV., . . 190 
Kollapuram, vi., ..... 145, 146 

Kollegal, vi., ..... 18,121 

Kolli^61ak6n, e&., .... 163,168 

Komera, vi ....... 180 

Kommadharapura, vi., .... 77 

K6na or K6na-Mushttoi, vi., . . . 75 
Kdnakkanar,/., ..... 139 

Kopdamudi, i, ..... 71n 

Kopdapalle, vi., ..... 19 

Kondavi(lu, vi., . . . 18, 19, 20, 77 

3?6iifirmaikondan, liruda, . . . 15, 16 
KoiiganivaTman, W, G-anga Tc. t . . . 193 
Konkart,co., ..... 36,224 

Konnfir, vi., ...... 200n 

Koondurgee, vi., ...... 212 

Koppam, m., 145, 146 

K6pperun3iiiga, Pallava ch., 161, 162, 163, 

164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169 
K6rpadi3 s ^eZ^, ...... 143 

Korukolann, s. a. Corecolloo, . . 179, 191 
Kormnelli, vi., ..... 178, 181 

K6sala,co ....... 103,107 

Kdsbtli^TaTa, cL, ..... 230 

KosiM,/., ....... 61 

Kofc/., ....... 64 

K6val, s, a. Tirukk6valAr, . . 133, 146, 147 


. 173, 175 

. 86 

, 172 

45n, 59, 222, 22S 


Kovulala, s. a. K61ar, ... 224 

Kovalur, s. a. Tivukkuvalur, . , . 13* 

Kovela-NeUuru, vi., 7S 

Koviladi, vi,, 

Kovilvenni, vi., . 

Kratha, co,, 

Kripapurisvara, te,, * 

Krishna, god, . 

Krishna, k., ..,.,, 2K5 

Krishna I., B&shtraJcuta k,, , 28, 42, 

Krishna II,, do., . 28, 29, 33, lS9n, 

lOOn, 205 a 
Krishna III., do,, , . 133, 135, 142, 

194, 195, 217, 21* 

Krishna, ri., 231 

Krishnarajadeva, s. it. Kriwhua III., . . 2L7 
Krishnaraya or Krishnadevaraya, Vijaya." 

nac/ctra k., f , . 18, 19, 20, 7$ 

Krishnavallabha, s. a. Krishna II., . . 190 
Krishnavtlm, s. a. Krishna, , . . .20 
Krishnaverna, do., ..... 231 
KrishnayaSas, m., 117, 118, 119 

Krita age, 207 

K'ritavii-ya, mytJtical &.... 86 
Ksliatrapa, a Satrap, , . . .53 
Kshatriya, ...... 78 

Kshirasvamin, author, ... 44u 
Kshitipala, Eanauj k., ... 30, 31 S 32 
Kub]a-Vishnu or -Vishnuvardhaua, s. a. Vish- 

nuvardhana I., ... 180, 182, 189 

Kuda, vi., . . . .49, 50, 52, 55n, 57, 78 

KMalftr (Cuddalore), vi., . . . .161 

Kudopali, vi., ...... 101 

Kulamanikkan Iramadevan, Miinai ch, t . 136 
Kularaanikkerumanar, do., .... 137 

KulandM, vi 87 

KulaSfikhara, Yaisbnava saint, . . .197 

KulaS&kharanmdaiyar, te .16 

Kulbarga, vi., ...... 73 

Kullftka, commentator, .... 66 

Kul6ttniiga-Ch6da II., GMlulcya'CMla k,, . 9 
Kul6ttuiiga-Ch&la I., CMla k., . 1, 4n, 

Kul6ttuDga-Ch61a III., do., . 6, 8, 139, 165n, 

169, 171, 172, 173, 174 

Kul&ttnBga-Ch61a-Ch3diyaTayan, Miltiduch., 135 
Kul6ttutga-Ch61adSva, Chdla k., . . . 185 
Kuldttniiga-mada, coin, . 130a 
Kumara, s. a, Skanda, .... 1,90 





kumaramatya, 159 

Kumuda, serpent, 155n 

Kacradvati, do., . . .' , 155 

Kundadhani, vi., 157 

Kundadhani-vishaya, di., . . . 157, 159 
Knndanan, m., . . , . 144, 145 

Kundani, vi,, 78 

Kuudarage seventy, di., . 209, 210, 212, 214 

Kundatte, m., 210, 214 

Kundi three-thousand, co,, . . . 217, 220 

. 160n 
. 101 

Znadur, vi., 

. 212 


Kundur five-huadred, di., . , 210, 212, 214 
Kunsamurroo, m., . . . . 179, 180 

Kuntaditya, sur. o/^Bhandanaditya, . . 182 
Kuppa or Kuppanna, cL, . , . SOOn, 214 
Euppelur, vi., ...... ig n 

Kuppeya or Xuppeya, ch., . . . 200,201 
Kura, *., ..... . eo^g 

Kuram, vi., .... 1, 133 U , 194 

kurnt, a hamlet, . I91n 

Kuru, co., ...... gi 

Kurukkai.kurram, di., . 138, 139, 140, 

142, 143, 144, 145, 146 

kuruni, s. a. marakkal, . ' . . .144 
Knsa, mythical prince, . . . 153155 
Kusasthala, *. a. Kanauj, ... gn 40 
Eushana, tribe, , -I-IQ 

Kusumayudha, .,... 333 191 

a, a forged charier, 
Kuttalam, vi., 
Kuttalanatha, te., . . 

Lalitasurad^va, k., . . . 

lafichlnta, . , 

languages : 

ApathraiMa, . . , ogi 

Gu;}arat1 ' -...' ]226n 
Kauarese, . 23, 107n, 108, 111, 113, 
124n, 168n, 182n, 183, 191n, 199, 
200, 204, 209, 210, 211, 214, 215, 

216, 21 7n, 218, 219 n, 231, 226n 
Magadhi, .... jjg 

MaLarashtri, 119,221 

60n, 69, 221 
. 22, 52, 56, 67, 107n, 119, 

159n, 183, 185, 221 

Sanskrit, , 18, 27, 69, 76, 77n, 85, 94, 98, 
103, 109, 111, 112, 116, 120, 122, 
128, 145, 148, 152, 156, 159n 4 167, 
178, 183, 192, 197, 204, 215, 216, 221 


Tamil, . 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 77, 108," 

115, 128, 133, 139, 140, 141, 142, 
143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148n, 161, 

168n, 192, 193, 194, 195, 107 

, s. a. NandikSshwar, . 

. 22Sn 

^ lg 

19 ' 

i-J, JLO 

Mithuaa, , . . . 112 119 

Lakkha Ma^dal, te., . . , IM 

lakshmanaraja, Kdlachuri &., \ 

l^UhaS.godd^ . 26, 44,' 152,* 

T > , 162n, 199 

-Lakshmi, queen of Jagattunga II., 9Q ,o 

^' 43 

] ^ 


. , 28, 36, 45, 134, 141n, 
. jatalaura, s. a. Lattalura, . 333, 224, 225, 226 
Latesvara-mandala, co., . , . . 32n 

Lathur or Labor, m., .... 225,226 
Latta or Lafta, tribe, ..... 
Lattalur or LattaMra, vi., . 208, 223, 224, 

225, 226 
Lattanur, s. a. Lattalfir, . . 223, 224, 

_ ' 225, 226 

Lattoor, s. a. Lathur, ..... 26 
Laukika reckoning, . gjQ 

Laranyavati, ^eew o/" Gunas^gara II., f . S6 
Leyden grant ...... 120,133 

!? ga ' ...... 200n,209 

non banner, ..... ,gg 

L6kaditya, ch., ..... ^ 211 
L6kamalxad4vi, q Jieen of Ckalukya-Bhitna IT., * 190 
L6bunah&ddvt sur, of Dantigakti-Yi>nk$, 

25n, 144, 145 

L6vabikki, CUla, prince, . . , 181,190 
Lucknow Museum, . . 93, 98, 155, 167n 

Luiz, Franciscan jriar, . . . 18 19 





ma, measure of land, . . . , . ] 
Machanabliafeta, m., ..... 85 
mMa, a, half pagoda, . . . .76, 130n 
madai, s. . mada, . . 128, 130, 131, 132 

naadain, Ion, 16n 

Madauadovi, qiiQen q/Gunasagara I., . 86 
Madanapala, Palo, &., . . . . .70 
snad^vi, measure, . , . * 136, 137 

Madha,^., 87 

Madhava, ., . . . . , .98 
Madhava, W. Ganga &., 192, 193 

UadhavaYarman, Ruling a cL, . . 100 
Hadhavayya, *., .... 203,208 
Sladtmban, /., c , . . . 155 

Madhukesvara, te., 226n 

Madliura (Madura), vi., . 76, 121, 125, 133.. 141 
Sfadh-uraataka, sur. o/Pottapi-CIiola, . 121, 

122, 125, 148 
Madhurantaka-Pottapi-ChMasiddbi, Teluyu- 

CMda c7t., 121n 

Madhur4ntaka-Pottapi-Ch61a, cL, . . .121 
Bladhyadesa, co., , . e 94n, 207n 

Madirai, s. a. Madbura, . 1, 183, 134, 141, 142 
Madiraja, Sdluva cl., , . . 83 

Madra, co., , , . 31 

Madras Mixseum plates, * 23 ; 18u. 

Madurai, *. a. Madhura, . . 6,172,173,174 
Madurantakachaturv^dimafigalam, sur. of 

Tirukk6valAr, 188,146 

Madurantakan-rnadai, coin, . . . ISOu 

maga (marga), 66 

Magadha, co., ...... 207 

Magaral, m. } 174, 175 

Mag6dayarpattanam, *. a. Cranganore, . 197> 198 
Maliabbarata, quoted, . 125n II., Trikalinga Tc> s 101 

tnahabbdja, 50 

MabSibddbi, te*, . . . 33n 

mabMana, 84a 

mabadanika, 87 

Mabadgva, s. a. giva,135, 136, 137, 140, 142, 

202, 210, 214 

M.aMdvadi, qtteen of Eajaditya, 1* 

Mab&de'vanaka (Mabad&va), *w., , 8a 

"..,..- 28 > 45 

. 159 

. . , 202,204,208 
mahajaja, titM, 

Mahakala, te., . 

Mahulingasvamin, te., 




, 30, 226n 

. 182, 210 
. 164 
. 87 




maliapratihara, . 



Mal)ara, s, it. Makara, 

76, 77, 79, 1J5 

. 87 

. 163 

. 159n, 160 

. 91 

. 97 

. 119 

. 161, 16S 

maharaja or maharaja, 23, 85, 142, 143, 144, 

155, 158, 159, 100, 167 
maliftrajadhiraja, 27, 45, SO, 86, 88, 94, 98, 

159, 190, 201, 208, 213, 230 

mabarajaputra, , , 87 

MaMraja-Sarva, sitr. o/Amoghavarsha I., 36 
MaMiijasimlia, s. a. Ivoppenuljinga, . . 167 

malarajiii, .87 

maharatha, title, . . 49, 50 

malmrathi, do., . , . 49, 50 

maharatM, do., . . .49, SO, 51, 61 

maliarafclnui, do., ..... 50 

tnaliarthasasamka, ..... 95 

maMsadhanika, . . . . 91, 97 

mabasaiQanta, . ... 50, 159, 160, 223 

MahasafflgWka, . . 59, 60, 61, 65, 72 

mabasandhivigrabika, .... 8? 

Mabfisfluaguptadevi, queen of Adityavardhana, 159 
Maliasiva-T:tvararaja, Kusala oh*, . 103, 107 
mabaer&litliin, ...... 91 

jnahastbana, a holy place, .... 36 

jnahattama, . . . . . .91 

icabattara, . . . , 45 

MaTbayali-Bilnarasa, Sana Jc., . , 23 
sa, quoted, . . ,163 
MaliaTastix, do., . . . . . .69 

Mahayana, sect, . . * . .119 

Mahendra, s. a. Indra, ... 83, 190 

Mahenfewnaiigalaxn, vi*, * . .115, 11G 
Sdahendrapala, JZanaty k., . . . .30 

MatendEavarman I., Pallava k,, , .149 

MahSntlravikrama, ok., . . 22, 23 
Slahjjsvara, commentator, .... 46 B 

MahlSvara, *. . Siva, . 86, 94, 159, )yr P 

, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 

141, 142, 143, Ui. . _ 



[Von, Til 


MaW, ri., 36 

Mahiaripafcaka, vi,, . .... 87 

Mabichanda, m., , . . ; 96 

Mahika, ., ...... 95 

Mahipala, s. A. Kshitipala, ... 80, 32 

Mahisasaka, 60 

Mabodaya, s, a. Kanaty, . 30, 31, 32, 43, 155 
MahualJ, vi., ...... 87 

Maisur (Mysore), co., , . . .18 

maitravaruga, . ..... 46 

majjadi, s. a. maryada, .... 196 

Makara or Magara, co., . . 161,162 
makara crest, . . .... 136 

xnakkak-santana, ..... 112 

Malabar, co., .... 15, 1Q7 

Maiadu, s. a. Milacju, . 135, 138, 139, 142, 143, 

144, 147 

Malaiinandalam, s. a. Malabar, . . 197, 198 
MalainMu or Malaiyanadu, s. a. Miladu, . 135 
MalaiyakuK/owmJy, . . . 135, 136 

MalaiyamSij, sur. of Mil&du chiefs, . . 135 
Slalaiyana-orraichohSvaga'', regiment, . . 142 
Malatimadbava, drama t .... 30n 

Malava, co., 77, 207 

Malayalam (Malabar), .... I42n 

Malaya-nadu, di., ..... igg 

Jlalda, m., . . . . . .214 

Malbi, in., ...... 87 

Maliyti, vi., 62n, 66 

Malkhed, vi., 189n, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 

319, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 231n 
Malla, s. a. Yuddhamalla II., . . . ^1 
Ma! la II., Felandntfw ch., .... 149 
MalllmbS or Mallambika, ywen qf Gunda 

"1 77, 84 

Mallid&vi, queen of Vlra-Tiuimaraja-Odeyaru, 114 
MaV.ikarjuna, Vijayanagara &., . . . 70 n 

MaWr, vi., ...... 77 

Mamada, *, a. Mamala, . . 65 

Mamala or Mlmala, *. a. Mawal, . 65, 66" 

Mamandur, vi., , lion 

Mamdooroo, vi., ..... igo 

Manaiiku, Rds7ifrak&ta ch t , . , ^ gjg 

MAnavaJ&ka, sur. of VijayAditya, . . 230 

Manavira, Teliigu-Chdfa eh., 128, 129, 130, 131, m., -..,, 183 
Mandadorju, *. a. Mamdooroo, . . .180 
mandala, a district, .... 29n, 44, 45 

Mandara, mo., 42, 84 

MnclaTa (Mlndavya), . g^ 



, 210 

Maiigalesa, W. Chalukya Jc. t 

Mangi, k., ...... 215 

Mangi-Yuvaraja, JR. Clialulcya k. t . 184, 18} 

Mangu, s. a. Saluva-Mangu, . . , ft 

M&9ikkattar, m., . . , . , 139 

Manjera, ri., . . . . . , 226 

Mafiji, ri., , m, Telugu-C Jidda cli., 139,180 
Maamasiddba or Manmasiddhi, do., 121, 122, 

125, 126, 162, 165 

Manrjargudi, vi., ... 11, 176, 1?? 

Man6bari, Talaing &., .... IfiJ 

Mantrawadi, vi. t . . 198, 199, 204, 210 

Mantur, vi., .... 218, 223, 227 
Mann, rishi, . . 66, 120, 122, 125, 161, 151 

s. a. Manma-Gandag6pala, . . .129 
Manyakheta, s. a. Malkhdd, . 27, 28, 29, 45 
marakkal, measure, ..... 141s 
Marasimlia I., W. G-anga A., . . 193, 185 
Marasimha, II., do., . . . . 108 

Maratba, co., 50, 103 

Maravarman Parakratpa-Pandya, Pandya Jc., 11, 

12, 17 

Maravarman Sundara-Pandya T,, do., . . 163 
Maravarman Sundura-Pandja III., do., . 15, 16, 17 
Marayan Paluvfir Nakka^, ch., . . .138 
Marjavada, di., .... 75, 85 

Markandeyapurapa, quoted, , . . 125n 

Maryadasagarad^va, sur. of Yyasa, . . 86, 87 
Masulipabam, vi., ... 77, 180, 181 

matbn, ...... i 207n 

Mathtir&, vi., . * . . 52n, 7 

Matsya, co., , . . ... 31, 184 

uoatta r , measure of land, , . . 202,214 
Mattilinandu, di., . . l?9n 

Maurya, family, . . , .118 

Ma^a^dfir, s. a. Mamand<iiv . . 115, 116 

Mawal or Maul, di. t . . . . 61,66 

Mayidav61u, vi., . . 185 

Mayindadiy, s. a, Mab&adravikrama, . . 23 
Mayftra, poet, ...... 169a 

Medegulla, *. a. Mudkal, . . . .19 

MMinimisara or MSdiniinifivaiagunda, 

Uruda, ... 77n, 79 and add. 

Mlfir-n&du, di., .... 133, 188 

Menkiddaka, vi., .... 10i,W7 

M ^ro,' mo,, . 42, 84, 120, 1 25, 161, 215, 21 



Meypportmayanar, Saiva devotee, . , I38n 
Miladamanikkam, sur. of Nenmali, . . 143 
Miladudaiyan, a lord of Milfoil, , , 135 

liladtt two-thousand, di, 135, 136, 138, 140, 

141, 145, 146, 147 

Mlsar&ga^da, tiruda, , . . 79,81 
litadeva, cL, . .... 50, 61 

Mitadevanaka (Mitradva), cJi 56 

Mfihana-Mnrari, sw, o/Nrisimharaya, . . 84 

Monghyr, vi 98 

Moni, Saiva teacher, . . . .202 
months, knar: 

ivina, 162u 

BMdrapada, 75,85 

ChRitn, .... 7n, 10, 87, 88 
Jyaiabtha or JySabtha, 2, 28, 45, 104, 107, 

204, 205, 208, 210 


, . . , 157,160 
, , . . 87,88 
Sana, . . 7^95,111,112,118,114 
. , , 2,5,98,200,202 
months, solar :~ 

Am, 16,129,131 

Avani, 16 

Karttigai or Kattigai, . , 10,115,16Sn 

ittirai, 5 

Moon, race of the, 28, 42, 83, 86, 103, 109, 111, 114, 225 

MudaMdure, vi., llOn 

Mndgagiri, *. a. Mongtyr, ... 98 
Mudivalaigiiian, god, , . .132 
Mudkal, ., ...... 19 

Mugai-nadu, di .192 

Musdkkiiga, w. o/^amkaragai^all., . 86 
Muhammad II., SaJimani k., ... 77 
Mnkula, s. a. ChelkkStana, , . . 211n 
poem, . . . 197,198n 

Mfflfisvara, te., 





Mfouiiy&raga^a, Uruda, ... 84 

uru, vi,, ,,.,, 75 


Muttagi, vi , , 225n 

Mntiiyampakka, n., .... 152, 155 
Myinpagan, w, . . , . , 197 


m., , . . , 58 

iva, in., , 202 

\, s. a. Nagatnamba, . , , , 13 
Nagamamba on Nagambika, rij/Mya queen, . 1ft 
Nagamlrya, 0,, . 23,45, 40 

Nagara, vi., ...,,, 87 

Nagarjuna, m,, 208 

Nagavaraaan, Kaname poet, . , . 218u 

Nagavarman, m , , 47 

Nagercoil, vi, ..,,,, 12 
Nagpur, m., ...... 103 

naEn (lahan), g26n 

sJiairapa, . . , 56,58,60 
tt, tribe, 142n 



. . , , IS 
. 2,3,9,10 

. 11, 171, 172, 175, 177 
. . 5,176 

Mtjnai or Mtmaippadi, di., . 133, 186, 137 
MunMjadiyaraiyan, a, chief of Munai, 136, 137 
OT ....... 212 


MnppidiorMappidi-Byaka, ei, 128, 129, 

' 130,131,182 

. 2,4,5,6,11,12,28,45,173,174 
Krittika, .... 14,115,169 
Magha, 3,410,174 

nl 1*1 0'lfiiTR n 1 O*OJJ.oUtlj t t t , j j^^jj 

Mula, . 173 

. . . 4,170 
. . . 173,177 
. . 6,112,113,114 
BSvati, .... 14,15,164,165 
. - 1,173,176,177 
hiibj, . . 2,3,12,164,172,174,175 

ravana, 2,177 

. . . . 175 
. . , 14,15,16 
. . . . 2 
TOarabkdrapada, . . 9n, 11, 16, 365, 172 
. . 9n,170 

idha, ' . .' 3,13,170,175,177 
, . 170,171,177 
. . . . 77 
. . . . 214 
. . . 136,141 


\, measure, 




Kaljwiddhi, Telgu.CW<i ch, 

Kallcsiddhi, do., 
nalu or naluka, measure cf Ic.nd, 
ualva, do,, ,,, 
Nanadesi-YinnagaL', fe , - 


122, 127, 
129, 148, 152 

- 1>2S 

. 87 
.. 87 

197, 198 

NaBtotharatnakara, Eanurese lexicon,, . 228 

Nanda, TO., ...... 54 

Jtfandunaka (Nanda), w.., . ... 50 

NandapraUianjanavaiBianj Kalihya. k , 101 

Kandi, s. a. Ns.ndivikr,nnavai'Lmi, 196 

Nandika, w,, ...... 64 

Kaadi-Kampa, s. a, Yijap-Ka:upt, . 196 

a, fe., . 192, 195, 196, 197 

Kandia, Siva's Ml, 
Kandini, the celestial cm-. 
Isanna, JSVffa ci, . 
Naumiera, cL, , 

Nannan Kcrrati, ),'<, 
Kannaiaja, cL, . 
Narada, rw/'*j ,, 

a, m,, 

Karaaa, s. . Narasimha, 


, - . lain 
. . . 141 
. 218 

103, 107 

104, 107 

,.. 120 
... 78n 


, 18,19 
Ifarasa- or Narasainia-Nayak., .? a, Kara- 
siifaha, ...... 78,79,80 

Karasaiivupeta, vi., ....... 129 

3S T ai'asimha, m., . . . , . ,85 
Karasimha, Miladn ch ....... 147 

Karasimha, M'imai ch., , . . .136 
Jfarasimha, Tuluva cli., . 19, 75, 76n, 78, 

Jfamimlia II., Eoysala k., , 24, 161, 162, 

163, 164, 167n 
Narasimha, ^. n, Yishau, .... 226 

Farasimhaiiya, s. a. Immadi-Nrisimliaraya, . 80n 
Ifarasimhavarman I., Miltyv clt., . 135, 136 
JSTarasimhavarxnan II., do., , 135, 145, 148, 147 
NaralifigaiyadCTa, s. a. Nrisimharaya, 79n and add. 
Naraing&raja or Narasiihha, s. a, Nrisiihba- 
raya, ...... 75, 77, 80 

Uaravardhana, Kanauj k ...... 153 

a, s. a. Vishnu, 45, 94, 189, 193, 194, 218 
la, Palo, 1., . . . . 31 

Karegal or Naiigal, vi., .... 200n 

sur. of Yijaj&ditya II., 

184, 189 

Nawenaque, s. a. Nara&a-Nayaka, . , 78, S 1 
Narsinga, Narsymga or Narsyaagua, s. a. 

Nrisimharaya, . , , 19, 73,79 
Narven, vi., ...... 226n 

Nasik, vi., 46n, 47, 49, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 

63, 66 and add., 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72,221 

Nataraja, s, a. Siva 119 

Natasa, do., ...... 138i 

Nausari, vi., . . , 32, 215 

Naraluran, sur. of Sundaramurti, , . . 13J 
Navasabasankaoharita, quoted, . , . 217a 
Nawalgund, vi., , . . .202 

nayaba, a general, .... 128, 131 

More, vL, . 130,152 

Nellm-, s. a. Kellore, .... 152. 155 

Nemali, vi., , , . . . . 1S3 

Nenmali, s. a, Nemali, , . 138, 143, 144 

Nepal, co., gj 

Nerflr, vi., , ... 35 

Nesargi, vi,, 219 

Nfitribhafrja, cL, .... 100, id 

nibandha, an endowment, , . . .63 
Nidagundi, w., . . 200n, 208, 209, 212 

Nidugundage, s. a. Niclaguudi, . . . 20^ 
Niilugundage twelve, di., . 209, 210, 212, 214 
nigamasabha, ...... 5C 

nikaya, a religions corporation, . , .65 

JSfikhattgrama, vi,, 87 

Maganga or Nilagaiigaraiyai, Pallava cL, 166 

ISTilagaiigarayar, ck., 165n 

Mgund, vL, 202, 203, 204, 205n, 206a, 207n, 

208n, 210, 214, 220. 223, 225 

ITimbichchara-Bammayya, m 20S 

Nimbo, in., 87 

niju-gal, a set-up stone, .... 200 
Nirupama, sur. o/Dhruva, 28, 42j 207, SBln 

Nissaramiji (P), m,, 184 

Nitim&rga, sw. of W. Ganga- Icings, . . 199 
Nitya-Kandarpa, sur. o/Govinda IV., . 36,45 
Nityavarsha, sur. o/Indra III., . . 27,34,45 

niyama, 45 

Kolamba, s. a. Pallava, , . . .181 
Nolamba, *. a. Nolamba . . , .33 
Nolambav&di, di. t . . , . 24,181 

Nowgong, vL, 100 

Nyiparndra, prince, . ... 184 

Nnpati-TrmStra, sw. o/G6vinda IV., . 36, 45 
Nripatuiiga, mr. o/Amoghavarsba I., . ' . SOS 

Niisimha, god, 81 

Nrisirhltaraya, Sdluva cL, 7S| 76, 77, 78, 79, 30, 84, 


PiGE . , 128,132 

fcF-mSo. . 19,20,78,79,80 panam, m*. - 
IU) Panasogc, . a. Hanasoge, ' * * t 

Panchashantaninada, fo'mfo, . . 76. bl 

01 99 77 
I'ancliala or Pafichala, co., . - 3i > a " 

paficha-mahasabda, . Sin, 106, 107, 168n, 208, 2BO 


Oddi, s. a. Orissa, 

. 20ln 
. 77 

WAI, S. a. vnssiJ, , 

Odigair ,Odegavj,*.a.TJdayagin, 19 and add 

Cnavala, s. . 
Onavala-patbaka, di., 
Oonowlee, -oi., 
Orissa, co., * 

ottasamam (ardhayaraa), 

Pabhasa, s, a. PraMsa, 
Pachcbur, m., 

. 99 
, 99 
19, 20, 77 
, 195 
, I32n 
. 17 


Pauchanad^vara, <?., . 

Pafidumedi-Yanar, sur. of ffflagansarayw, , Ifion 

pafioha pradbanah, ^e>e mwstm, . . 1 

Pandala-pattala, (J*., 

PaTnlaraiiga, c/i., 

. IE* 

andavaSj tlie fire, 

87, 94 85 


Pandita-^la, sur. of Eajendra-Ctiola T., . 136n 
Pandita-^ola-terinda-villigal, #{, ' 138n 

Padea Rao, Vij^amgant k. 
Padmapura, ti, 


161, 168 
. 181 
, 78 
. 30n 
. 95n 
, 57 


. 103,107 
. 160n 

PandyMi, . - '. 118,118.1".^ 
Pandya, CO , . 10,76,84,121,125,163, 


Pa9dyi.ka w Pandyakad^i, queen, 112, 118, 114 
PkdyakadSvi, queen of Viia-Timmaraja- 

" ' 114 

Odeyaru, . 

nayftraya^.a.Vka.Pandya, . . 109,111 

^ i ni-v in< "\r~ 

, 162 
. 152,155 


. 197 


Paiyyur, si., 
Pals, dy,, 

Palasige, . a. Hals!, 

. , 129,131,132u 

, . 129,131 

. 31 

1 '. '. 135 

[ , . 58 

"... 212 

. . 212 

Paigala-nadu, di., . ' 193,194,^14 

P^nini, quoted, . 

Panrutiti, vi, 

Papta-rashtra, di., 

Panumgal, s. a. HanumgaK %$ 

Panumral five-hundred, di., "* 

m n i 5 140 141 

Parak&aaiiTfttman, Lliolct K.I - * a > - L * v > **' 

Parakesarivarman, mv. of CMla kings, 1, 5, 
7, 8, 133, 134, 135, 197, 138, 141, 142, 


, -1/19 ItfO 

Par&kramabahu I., Ceyiou *., 163 

Parakramabahu II., do., . 163 

. 27,45,88,04,98,169,190 

. . . 159 

44, 208, 227 
. , . 129 

vi. t 
Pali, *. a. Palee, 
palidhvaja, banner, 

Palivek,w., , 

Pallava, dy, 24, 25, 68, 133, 135, 149, 163, 164, 167 
iyan (Pallavftmaharaja), t. a. ^atti,SB,26 


daiyar, cl., " 

. . . . 116 

, 182 
33, 8 

Psmmavl,/., . 

P3ii' *** ~ . . . 

parametaa, . 27,45^6,94,98,190,201, 
v 208,213,236 

. . 192n 

141, U2, 192n, 194 
. . 66,67 
. . 83 
. . 78 

iiata, tree, 

i or Parm&ndi, s. a. Vikramaditya 





L, VII, 

parp, a division, ..... 116 

Pa&'pura, *. a. TiruppiSftr, . . 122,123,128 
Pakpali, $. a. &m, ..... 94. 

Patali, s, a. Patna ...... 224 

Pataliputra, do,, ..... 224 

pat^patil, .... 183, 191n, 222u 

pathaka, a district, . . . . 66 


. . 113n 

. 27,131 

. 204 

. . 183 

1UJJ, vi.j t a . 

patta, a pontificate, . . 

pattabandha, . > 

Pattadakil, n., 

pattakila, , . 

PattavanlLiia or Pattavardhini, family, 

179, 182, 191 

pattela, s. ti. pattakila, . . . .183 
peacock crest, ,...,. 136 
Pedda-Kahchuvubarrii, s. a, Kakchumbarru, 

179, 192 

Pelioa, m,, 30 

peHorc, * great river, .... 200a 

Penakonda, m,, 19 

Penuagaram, oi 23,24 

Peanai, s. a. Southern Pennaiyaru, . . 139 
Penugoijda or Pwugoiide, s. a, Penakomla, 


PenngQBda-chaWsvara, Jwn?a, , 19 

Penugoncla-maMiajja, co., , . 73,85 
pergade, s, a. preggaila, , . , 25n, 214 
Pei'guuda, s, a, Peaakonda, ... 19 
p&rilamai, masws, , , . , 143, 144 
Periyapurinam, qwted, , 24, 132, 135, 136 
Periyaseyalai, vi, . , . . 133 
perkadai, s. a. preggada, , , , . 25n 
Parana}, s, a, iva, .... 139, 142 
Perumal, s. . Tishpa, , . 149,193,194 
Pernmal, m, of PAnfya kings, . . 15, 16 
Perum&l, w. of VbSdudaiyk, . . ,166 
Perumal-Aru}a}auatla, *. . ArulHa-Perumal, 131 
PerUDaalppillai, sw, of 6}aWn, . . ,166 
Perumaltadar, t. a,, Vis^nda-sa, . , 128, 182 
Petlad, tij., ..,, 26 
pidtctij flower, '..,,, 132 
pidugu, a thunderbolt, , , , ,149 
Pidavajlditya, snr, of Malla II, . . . 149 
Piljai 61ak6n4r ijijlr, s, a. g&lak6n, , . 166 

Pinnaj&rya, m., 85 

aiyai, s. a. Prithrigatigaraiyai}, , 196 

Pithapurarn, n., 


Poliyur-nadu, di., , , , 25 26 

Pondaipakkam, s. a. Pcmdav&kkam, . 129, 132 

Pondavakkam, vi, } .... m 

Ponduva, m,, ,, . . , , , ]gj 
Ponnambalam, s. a, Chidambaram, 161, 182, MS 

Ponneri, m., ..... log 

' " * . il 

Ponni, s. a. Kay^ri, .... m 

Portuguese, .. 1 
PMaJa, a. a. Hoysala, , . , i 62j ^ 
Potaehavada, n., . . , . , M 

Pobapi, t) I21a 

Pottapi or Pottappi, s. a. Potapi, 121, 122 n , 125 
Pottapi-CMa, TelvgvOMfa d., 121, 133, 

125, IIS 

Po -^ ai ' OT '-' 149,161 

Prabhakaravardbna, lanauj L, . , 159 

Prabhava, s. a, Prabhava, . . . 118 
Prabhtavarsk, sur. of MsltnMla, kings, 

35, 44, 207, 230 

Pragjy6tisha, eo., ..... 77 

PrahasitaSarman, m, t , . . , , 0| 

pramatara, ...... jjg 

prapa, a trough, a cistsr n, . . , $ 

prapti, revenue, ..,, ID' 

P ragasti . . 211,214,218,219,220 
pras'astri, s. a. maitravarup, , . , 4 B 
Prat^paoliakravartiu, SWF. of Hoysala kings, 

Prataparudra, Kftkatiya, L, , 128,129,130,131 

pvatirajya (pratiraja), . . . , 
Pratishtblna, s. a. Paithan, , , . 

pravaras : 

Naidbmva, . . , 

Prayaga (Allahabad), li, , 
preggada, a minister, , , 
Prithivigaiigaraiyar, F. Ganga ck, 
Pritbivipati I, F. Ganga k., , 
Pritbivipati II., do., , , 
Prithivivarmad^a, R Ganga Je,, 

, 192,193 

. . in 

. 120,195 

, . 101 



Pritlivideva III., Ratnapura k., . , 182n 
' Prithvigatgaraiyar, s. o. Kaimaradeva-Prith- 

vigangaraiyar, . . 
| Ppthvisvara, Ydan&n&u cJi., 
PrithvivallabLa, timda, 
Pritiviyaraja. cL, 
Pudukk&ttai, m., . 

. 197 
. 149u 
27, 45 



Pugalvippavargaijda, s. a. Eajadittati Pugal- 

Pug&ina, s, a. Pagim, 
Puipina, w., 
Pnldcam, s, a, Pagixn, 

. 134 
. . 197 

. 100 
. 197, 198 

Pulakttin II, F. Ckalvtga k., . 178, 189, 21 8 

pallt, 109u 

Pulnmayi, Anctlin k., ... 51, 221 

Pufi]alio)*Pon.jalike, dt., . . . 114,115 

Purt,., 101 

Purigere thee-huudred, di., 198, 200, 202, 

210, 212, 214 

Pushkar, lake, 
PuBhpasena, Jafaa teacher, 
Puttadigal, eh,, . 
puff;!, measure, , . 
Puttur, m., 
PuyialappiTanda, s, a. B 

. 116 
195, 196 

76, 192 
. 78n 
. 166 




210, 216, 230 
. . 2l7n 
. 148, 151 

Eactamalla, TF Gamga k,, , 

RaoiaEnalla II., do., . . 

B&chiya-Pedd&ri-Bblma, m. r 

EsLdbanpur, vi., 

Radupaiji, s. a, Eattapa|i, . . 

Baghu, mythical k., . , . 

EaghuvainBa, quoted, , , . 151n, 155n 

Eaau, demon 127 

rainy ceason, 66 

s. a. Cbalukya-BMma II, . 181, 190 
.(jviyar, queen, .... 

Rajadhiraja I, CMla, k 7,146n 

SiijadittadSvapuram or Eajadittapuram, s. a, 

TiiaDbalfir, ..... 133,138 
Bajaditten Pugalvippavargaada, ch., , 134, 135 
1&,OUlak, , . 133, 134, 19i M. 
,W.Gwgad,, . . . 192,19 


ivara, s. a. Hhaktajanes^araj . . 133 
lajfl-of Eaya-Gandagupala, sur. of Manma- 

. 129,130 

\,te. t . . . -176 
JajaWsaiivarmau, sw. of Chula kings, 2, 6, 7. 

^ajakesarivarman, sur. of Rajdndi'adika, 
Rfijamahendra, siw, of Amma L, . 
Rajamahfhdri (Eajahmundry), ai., . 

TF. Gcwga k., . . . . 23 
Eajamai'tanda, sar. of Clialukya-Bhima II., . 182 
Rajaraaitanda, sw. of Indra III., . . 43a 
mayya, s. a,. Rajavarmau, . . 181 19U 

ivara, bo 

Eajaputra, Ealachuri k. t , . . 86, SS 
jaraial., CUlal, 6,200,134,142,144,169,^192 

Rajaiiia II., do., 147 

Eajaiija III., do., 9, 121, 161, 162, 163, 164, 

168, lOfl, 174, 175 
Eajars> L, E. Ohahtya L, , . 178, 1S4 
Bajaraja-ChMiyavayaij, Mil(i$it ck-> 135 
jaiijadt'va, CUla k., 135 

Bajaiijakesarivarman, wr. of Bajar^ja I., 144, 

145, 169 

Bajaiija-mada, coin, . 

, s, a. Nandikampisvara, 
, poet, ... 
, Vijayanagara L, . 
Eajasimha, *w, of Indravarmaa I., 
rajastlianiya, . . . . 

, 130n 
. 192 
. 31 
. 79n 
. 159 

sacrifice, . . . . 46 

Mjataramgini, quoted, . 130o, 207n, 223n, 230 
jav^, queen of Gu^asagara II., . 

Kajavarman, k, 

. 181 

la I, CMla k,, 7, 133, 135, 137, 

138, 142, 169, 170 

Eajfendra-CWla II, s. a. Kul6ttuDga-Cb61a I., 2 
Bajbdra-Cbola III., CMla k., 169, 172, 175, 

176, 177 

Bitjshdra'Chila-Milad.udaiyan, w. of Iraman 
Mummadi-Cb61an, ..... 135 
s. a. Nandikampilvara, . 192 
\,CMlak,, . 7,135,145,146,147 
. 103,104,106a 
. 58, 222a 
. . . 30a 
. . 153 

Rijyawdbana II., da., , , . 157,159 
s, a- Lakahn!, . * .84 
,Mn*, . , , 148,151,155,203 




Rama Narasimha, a. ct. Narasimbavavmaii II., 

146, 147 

Ramayana, quoted, ... 12Qn, 151n 
Rambha,/., ...... 182n 

Ramesvaram, island, ..... 76n 

Ramkola. vi ....... 95 

ranaka, ....... 223 

Ranakesari-Eama, sur. of Narasimbavarman 
II., . . . . 135, 145, 146, 147 

Ranavigvaba, Chedi k., . . . 29, 43 
Randbulia, m., . . . . . .95 

Ranga, s. a. Srirangatn, .... 162 

Ranganatha, te., . , , 77n, 163, 176, 177 
Rannadevi, queen of Dharinapala, . . 33 

Rapa, vii,, . . . . . . .214 

Rasbti-akuta, dy., 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 3-1, 35, 
36, 42n, 183, 135, 142, 181, 189n, 190n, 194, 
200, 204, 209, 210, 211, 214, 215, 216, 217, 
218, 219 and add., 220,221, 222, 223, 224, 

225, 227, 230, 231n 

RasbtvaMta, ., . . 

Basbtrakuta, mythical It., . . 
rashtrakuta, the headman of a village, 
v&shtramaliattara, . 
rashtrapati, .. 

Rasbivauclba, ,. a, Bathe?, . . 
rashtrm, ..... 
Rasbtroda, s. a. Rashtraktita, . 
Ratbi, caste, .... 
ratMtara, ..,., 
Rathoda, *. a. Rather 

Ratikara, m., ... . 
Ratnapalavarmaii, Pr&gjydtisha k., 
Eatnapur or Ratnapura, vi., . . 
Ratnasimlia, poet 

Ratnavali, drama, . . 
Ratnavarsha, stir, of Vijayaditya, 
Ratta, mythical k., > 


. 216, 222 
. 191, 222 


. 45, 222n 
. 222n 
.. 50n 
. 221, 222 
. 117,118 
., 117 

.. 30a 
. .97 
. . 100 
. 182n, 225 


. . 15 9n 

, . 230 

215, 216 r 222 

Ratta or Ratta, s. a. Rashtrakfita, 33, 208, 214, 
215, 2.16, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 

224 n, 225, 227, 228- 

Ratta of Rattaraja, SilaMva, prince, . , 223 
Eatta, queen, ...... 223 

Rattakandarpa, sur. of Guvinda IV,, . 215, 220 
Battakandarpa, sur. of Indra III., 36, 215, 220 

Rattakandarpa, sur. o/Indra IV., . . 215, 220 
Raljtakandarpa, sw. of Khottiga, . . 215, 220 
Rattamartamla, sur, ofEjeyammarasa, . . 218 
Battanarayana,, do,, ..... 218 

Rattanarayana, sur. of Ivartavirya IV. 
Battapadi, co., .... 
Eattapati, s. a. Rattapadi, g . 
Eattasainudra, tank, . . 
Eafctavidyadhara, sur. of Govinda IV., 
ratthika, ..... 
Ravana, demon, .... 
Ravikayya, m., 
Ravivarman, Kerala, Te,, . . 
Rayakol.a, m,, ... 

Rayakumara or Rayakuvara, ch., . 
R^vakanimmadi, queen o/Bx\tuga II., 
Risbabhadatta, ch., . , .5^ 
Risbabhunatba, Jaina saint, 
Rishabbeavara, te., , , . 
Kobanigutta, s. a. Robinigupta, 
R6binigupta, m,, .... 
Rracholl or Rachol, s. a, Eaicbur, 
Rratta, s, a. Ratta, . . , 

. 21& 

145, 146, 217 
. 217 
. 21S 

. 215, 220 


. 43, 15k 

. 208 

. 13C 

. iSSn 

. 182o 

58, 59, 60, 71 
. 108 
, 11 
. 69 
, 69n 
. 19 
. 219 

Sabdakalpadruma, quoted, .... 4t 
Sabdamamdarpana, do., , . . 22], 228 
Sadagera, co., . . , f * oOn 
Sadakana, s. a>. Satakani, . . , .51 
Sadasivaraya, Vijayanctgara, k. } , , , 12& 
sadeyameya, . . . . . 02 

s;i<ii,flower, igg 

Sagara, mythical 1c., . . . l2, 154, 

Sahasaiika, sur. of G6vinda IV., . . 35, 44, 
Sahasrarjuna, CMdi Jc., ... 29, -J3 
Sahet-Mahet, vi., ..... 157 
Sainyabhita, sur. of Madhavavarman, . , 200 
aiva, .... 133,. 136, 138,200 

Saka, tribe, 77, us 

Sakalabhuvanachakravarfcin, sur. of Kdppe- 

ruujiriga, . . . 164,165,166,167 

Sakalachandrasiddhanta, Jaina, teacher, , . 191 
sakarukara, , . . , ,, .62 
0akra ( Indra), ch., , 149,151 

iakra, s. a. ladra, 14g 

^akrachoditagati, sur. of Mam., . . 149, 151a 
0aktinatha, sur. of Narasimbavarmaa I., 135, 136 
salai, an alms-house, , . . . . 11C 

Saluva, family, . . 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, SO, 84 
Saluva, Saluva ch., ... . . .76 

Saluva-Mangi W Saiuva-Mafign, do., , 76, 88 


Saluvasaluva, birutfa, . 
Saluvd-Timma, e7^., . . . 
Sainailinika,,/., . ... 

. 77n, 79n 
. 79n 
. 50 
. 46 


sarva-niyoga, exclusive property, . 131 

Sasankaraja, Tc. s . . . . 101, 102, 155n 
Sasho[ravi]sa, di., . 94 

. 215, 222n 

famanta, . . . 
Baiaavai, queen of Sattividangan, . 
samu-vptta* . . 
Sambiuaya, s. a, Sampavaya, 

78, 160 
. 25 
. 114n 
. 76 

. 149 

Sataliani, co., 221 
Satakani, Andhra. Jc., , . . o .51 
Satapatha-Brahmana, quoted, . , . 50a 
Satara, vi., . , ... 70 

sathgha, ..... 
Sami (Syauiila or Svamiii), *) 

59, 60, 62, 72 
. 53 

. 214 

Sutti, Pallava If., . . . . 25,26 

Samkawduva, Vaiduinba ch 
Bamkarugana I., JCalMhuri k., 

. 142 

86, SSn 
. 86 

Sattividangan (Sakti-Viianka), do., . 25 
sattra,' ." . . . . 46,104,107 
Satyasraya-Yallabbendra, s. a. Pulakesin II., . 189 
Satyavakya, sur. of W. G-anga kings, . . 199 
Sauda co . ^07a 

. SO 

SamkuHya, s, a, Scmkisa 157 
satiikiintis : 05, 143 
ilesha-samkranti, . - - 7n, 9 
Uttanlyana-samkranti, . . 87, 88, 176, 191 
Sampar&ya, S&l&ra c/i., .... 76 
Samudra-Goppaya, ch., 161 162, 168 

Saiichi, vi., fi0n 

** * -7 1 19 
Bandayan, T^ttid'timba c/i., . . . '<' 

Saugainruk, vi., . * 2-4n 
Saiigli, vi., 27, 28, 34, 36n, 38n, 216n, 220, 231n 

Saumyasindhu, s. a. Uttarasamudra, . 9* 
Sauudatti, vi., . 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 
223, 225, 22T, 228 
Sauta co, 2^ 

Savarni (Manu), family, . .94 
savika, ...''* 
Saviti'i-Mahgi, Sdltiva c/i., 

. 29 

Seinbaugudaij an Harayana Aditya, m., . . 147 
?Ana TT IRnffa eh .... 218 

SaiikasastUaua, 1)1., 
pankhadhariii, ... 
Sa.iikbfi.ka, m., .... 

. 87 
. 95 

. 216 

senbagam, s. a. cbampaka, . . . . 132n 

gi Till ICO 1 M 1 fiS IftQ 
endaroangalani, vi., . .loi, iva, io/j J.vo, iw 

SSudan, s. a. Skaada, 162n 


Santaravuru, <oi.> 
SantiSvara, Jaina saint, 
SautivarmaB, Saisa prince, 
Saptakotisvara, te., . 
Sarasvati, goddess, . . * 
?iray6gya, chronogram, 
Sarayfi, s. a. Gogra, 
Savayupara, co., ... 
Sarkamkuj-ru., vi., . 
S&rsavnij vi., 
sariti, . . . 
Saruvara, di>, < 
Sarva, s. a,. !iva, 
sarvabhauma, .... 
Sarval6kaSraya-JinabhaTana, te., - 
aarvam^nya, .... 

. 76 

, 213,223a 
. 226n 
41, 154 
. 155 
86, 88 
86, 83 
. 191 

. 135 

98, 99 

79, S4 
. 179, 191 
. . 85 

sendura, senduva or sendura, s. a. sindura, 228, 229 
& 11 

gen-anivayar, sur. o/PiHai 61ak6nar Aliyar, 166 

^ *" 101 

serpents, day of the, ... . J.JH 
SA E U an/ j ... 28,45 

Setapharana, m., " 2 

setthi, . ^ 
... 224,225 

l^l'ivi '.'..- 133,136 

Shlri'csSdhi),^., '- - 86 J 1 ^ 
Shigga.rn.ri, . - -198,199,208,209,212 

Sh6[tha]visa, di., . ' ^ 
Siddhanta, ^ ;_ * * igg 

Siddhi, Telugu-Choda ch., ^ 121,122, , 




Sigam or Sigam, vi., . 
Sihada, in,, 
Sihada, m,, 
Sibadbaya, m. 

. 36 
. 95 
. 95n 
. 54 

Sibugrania or Sihuhagrarna, s. a. Sigam, 86, 46 
ilaliaTa,/<zm%, . . . 217, 223, 224 

siman, a district, .... 75, 85 

Siihhachalam, vi., . . . .76 

Siiiihadata, m., ...... 52 

sindura or sendura etefct, . 227, 228, 229, 230 

S"iraiyur, vi., . . . . 24, 25 

Sirasi, s. a. Sirsi, ..... 99 

Sirasi-pafctala, di., 99 

Sirigavunda, m,, ...... 208 

Siri-Pulumavi or Siri-Pulumayi, s. a. Vasithi- 

puta PuLamayi 61, 72 

Sirpur, vi., 103, 104 

girrinjur, vi., 138, 144 

Sirsi, vi., ....... 99 

Sirur, vi., 202, 209, 210, 214, 220, 221, 223, 

225, 227 
Sisira, season, ...... 46n 

Sitabaldi, vi., .... 223, 225, 226 

Siva, god, 22, 27n, 28, 42, 45, 83, 107, 132, 

133, 136, 138, 139n s 168, 192, 196 
Sivadevasvamin, m., ..... 160 

Sivagupta, m., ...... 71 

Sivakhadaguta, s. a. ivaskandagupta. . . 66 
Sivamara II., W. Ganga Jc., 193 

Sivanasamudra, vi., .... 18, 19 

Sivaraja I., Kalao'hwri Jc., . . . .86 

Sivaraja II., do., ..... 86 

Sivaskanda, cji., ...... 71 

Sivaskandagttpta, m., . . . . 66, 71 

Sivaskandavannan, Pallava Jc,, . 67, 68, 

69, 185 
Siyad6ni, vi., .... .' . 30 

Siyalarman, m., ...... 184 

Si-yu-ki, 157n 

Skanda, Sana, ch., .... 22, 23 

Skanda, god, 136n, 162n 

Skandagupta, ch., ..... 160 

Smriti, 103 

S6dHad6va, Kolaahwi Tc. t , . . 86, 87, 88 

Sogal,w., .^ 217, 223n 

61ak6ft or S~&Jak6nar, <?., . . 163, 166, 168 
S&laptirano, ., . . . 192, 193, 194, 195, 196 
sfima, . t ..... 4g 
S^madfrva, <rA., ...... i 

. 182 
157, 159 
. 162 
. 132 
. 5b 

S6maditya, ch,, . 

Sfimakundaka, m. t 

Somaladevi, queen of Somesvara, . 

Somanatha, s. a. Siva, . 

S6manath.apattana, s. a. Prabliasa, 

S<knanath6svara, te., . , 

Somangalarn, vi., , . . . 6 

Sdmeevara, Hoysala k., . 161, 162, 176, 177 

S6m<jsvarasvamin, te., . . , 18 

Simpat, vi., ...... Ig5 n 

Soparaka, vi., , . . . . 54, 65 

Sorata (Saurashtra), co., .... 221 

Sottranaga, m., a 1Q7 

Southern Pertnaiyaru, ri., .... 139n 

Sovasaka, . . . . ... 72 

Sraddlia, ....... 40 

sravaka, . . . . . . .112 

ravana-Bo}gola, vi., 108, 109, llOn, 112, 115, 215 
Sravasti, s. a., . . . .157 

ravasti-bb.ukti, di., .... 157, 159 

Sravasti-rnandala, s. a. Sravastiya-visliaya, . 94 
Sravastiya-vishaya, di., . . . .94 

ri, s. a. Lakshmi, . . 42, 124, 154, IB 1 J 

Sridevi, queen of Erasiddhi, 121, 122, 126, 15*2, 155 
Sridhara, m., ...... 08 

Sri-Harslia, CJiandella, k., . . , .Si) 
Sri-Kadapattigal, sur. of attividaiigan, . 2o 

Irikantha, GMla oh., . . . . 14A> 

Srikovalura, s. a. Timkkovalur, . . .140 
Sri-Kulas6khara-N"ambi, sur. of Irayiran 
Siriyan, ...... 197, 198 

grtmad-G6vindachandrad6vah, legend on seal, 9B 
srimat-S6dhad&vasya, do., . ... 85 

^rinatha, Telugu poet, .... 76 

0riniv&,sa, sur. of Madhavavarman, '. . 100 
ri-Paravala, s. a. ri-Vallabba, ... S3 
!3ripura, s. a. Sirpur, .... 104, 108 

iSriraiiga, god, ...... 78 

riraiigam, vi., . 77n, 161, 162, 163, 176, 177 

SrirangamamM, queen of Nrisimhavaya, 77, 81 

rirangapattana, vi,, . . . .18, 76, 78 

gri-Tribhuvanamkugah, legend on seal, . . 178 
Srivaiku^itham, vi., . . . . 10 

Srlvallabha, biruda, ..... S3 

3rivura or grivura, s. a. Sirftr, . 202, 204, S03 

50, 51, 54 
128, 181 
181, 183 

sthavira, . . . . . 
uclii, s. a. Mithuna, ... 
Stidi, vi., 

i, queen of Sivaraja II., 


Sugata, s, a. Buddlia, 

ukra, planef 

SAlapa^i, s. a. Siva, 



summer, . .. 


135, 136, 145n 


.. 61 
. 158,159 

Tapti,n., ....... 3G 

taram, revenue ....... 13 1 

tarapati, ....... 91 

....... 181,191' 

Sun, race of the, . . , 

SundaramfirtI, Saiva saint, . . 
Sundarikam&rga, di., ... 
unga, dy. t .... 

Burat"ha (Sur&shtra), co 
Stiray&jha, in., 

SMn&yam-Mxishtunt, s. . Musht&ru, 
Surjjoo, s. . Sarayti, ... 
Stiryafiataka, quoted, ... 

sfttra : 

suttee, . . 

&ttir&d6vi, queen of Tiravayan, . 

suvarna, coin t . 

Tatabikyana, s. a. Tatabikki, 

94, 120, 125n 

. 133, 136 

. 104, 107 

. 50n 

. 221 


75, 85 

. 88 

. , 159n 

. . 15,95 


Tdkal, *., 

Telingana, ?o., ,. 

Telagu-Cioda or -Cb61a, /amity, , 
Telunga, *. a. Teluiignraya, . 





or Tilungabijja, s, a. Tilunga- 

I21n, 148 

Telniiguraya, Sftluva ck., , . . . 7t 
Tenkasi, vi ...... 13,14,15,115 

Tte,w ........ 224,220 

Terd a l,z ...... 217,218,227 

Tfisadakki Peruiaanar, sur. o/Kajadfiviyar, . 141 



Tb-iulapataka, vL, ..... 87 

229 tiger banner, 

142, 143 
27, 35, 45 

Suvarnavarsha, sur. of Guvinda IV., 27, 35, 41, 45 
Bvadliy&ya, ...... 46 

Bvflmi-Maliasena, a. a. Sktrada, . . .189 

Svftniin, do., J 06 

svastika, 27,117,119 

Svetapadaj eo., ...... 86 

symbols, nnrneric'il, . < 85, 86 

Tigula or Tigula, s. a. Tamil, . . 
Tihuyanasilia, m,, ..... 87 

f ikarika, di., ..... ^ 
Tihitgavidya, Tehigu-Cfwda eh., . 121, 122, 

125, 148, 152 

Timma, Sfiluva cJi., ..... 77 
Timma or Timmaraia, d>., . 108, 112, 113, 114 

Tippa, Sfilttva cli., 
Tipparaja-OcJeyav, do., 

Tiruchcheiinamburidi, vi.. 

&, IS. Chululcya Jc., 
Tagara, $-. a. Tfir, 
Ttiha, s. a. Ta,(lpa, 
Taila II., W, Gh&l&kya k., , 

. 181 
. 224,226 
. 181 
. 217 
. 94n 
. 194 
. 181, ISO 
. 197 
. 224 
. 46n 

Talx,w., . W 

Tanimusiddha or Tamrnasiddhi, Telugu'CMiia 
c/i., 120, 121, 122, 124, 126, 128, 129, 148, 

149, 152, 154n, 155 

ianli'a-putta or -paltaka, 4 . .87, 95, 158 
Tarulalam, vi., 25,26 

Tirukkajtukkunram, vi., 

Tirukkattuppalli, vi., 

Tirukk6valiir, s. (t. Tirakoihir, 135, 138, 139, 

76, 77 
. 76 
. 58 
. 140 
. 162 
- 77n 

Takkolam, '., . 
T&la or TWapa, s. a. 
Slalaing, co., 

Tirukoilur, vi., 

Tirumalai near P6Wr, vi., 

140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 165 
133, 1S5, Ifi2 
. 182 

Tirmnalavadi, vi., 


Tanjore, ""> 

77n, 138n, 141, 144 
. 179 

I'inmamanalMir, * 


. 174,175 
. 138 

. 170,171,172,173,174 
, s. a. VriddhacMam, . .164 
188, 134, 
135, 186, 138 
, 173 
182, 133, 136 

, Saiva saint, . 



. VII. 

Tirunuvalur, s. a. Tirunamanallur, 133, 184, 

135, 136, 137, 139 
Tiruuelli, vi,, ...... 23 

Timtpapuliyur, vi., ..... 162 

Tirupati, hill, . . . . . 25, 77 

Tiruppadirippuliyflr, 3. ,. Tii'npapuliyfti', 162, 168 
Tiruppaudimitti, vi., .... 141, 167 

Tirupparafigunram, vi,, . . . 163n 

Tinipparuttikkuiiju, vi., . . . 115, 116 
Tiruppasui', w -., 119, 120, 121, 122 and add., 

123, 126, 148n, 151 n 
Tiruppitvanam, vi., ..... 163u 

Tiruttofldar, the 03 Saiva devotees, . 132, 136 
Tiruttomlisvara, \ a. Bhaktajanesvara, . 132,, 

133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138 
Tiruvadi, vi., ...... 162 

TinivadigaK s. a. Tiruvadi, . . . 162, 168 
Tiruvaiyan, Vuidumla en., .... 142 

Tiravaiyfvru, vi,, .... 25n, 144, 

Tiruvakarai or Tiravakkarai, vi., . . . 162 
Tiruvalafigadu, vi., 119, 120, 121, 122, 127n, loin 
Tiruvallaua, vi., . . , 186n 

Tiruvallur, vi., ..... 119, 129 

Tiruvandipuram, s. a. TiruvOndipuram, . . 161n 
Tiruvannarnalai, vL, .... 139, I64 n 

Tiruvarur, vi., ...... 3 

Tiruvayan or Tiravayanar, s. it. Tiravaiyau, 

142, US, 144 

TiruTckknrai, s. a. Tiruvakarai, . . 162, 168 
TiruvOndipurain, oi., ICO, 161n, 162, 163, 164, 

166, 167 

Tiruvennainallur, vi., . . 133, 164, 165, 172 
Tiruviilailcali, te., , , . 138, 145, 143 
Tiruvidalmaruditr, vi., . . . 164, 165 

TiravlraUiinaui, s. a. Virattanfisvara, 138, 339, 

140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145 

TiravoniyOr, vi., . . 122, 148, 149, 195 
Tiriwottilr, vi., . . . . . .165 

tiruvunnaligai, the store-room of a, temple, 145, 197 
Tittaiyarman, m., ..... 193 

Tmradova, s. a. Mahafiiva-Tivararuja, . 108, 

104, 106, 107 
tivili, musical instrument, .... 208 

Toludagaiytir, vi., . . . 161, 162, 168 
To:nda.imaiitaiur, s. a. Tojndamanattam, . 162, 168 
To^dai-mandalaui, co. t . . , 104,196 

Tontlam&natfcam, vi., ..... 162 

Tongootooi, vi., J2j n 

Tfiramana, k., , . . w 60 72 

Trailokyavallabha, god, 
Tribhuvanacliakravartm, title, 

Tricliinopoly, vi., 
Triloehanapala, Kanauj &., 
TrincHra, s. a. Siva, 
Trirasmi lull, 
Trivikrama, autJior, 
Trivikramabhatta, poet, . 
Ti-ivikrama-Perumal, te., 
tulapurusha or tulaparusha, 
Tulu or Tuluva, co. f 
tumbai, flower, 
tuma, measure, , 

Tyagaraja, te., 

. 116 
I, 135, 161, 

162, 166, 167 

129, 162 
. 39u 

. 125, 129n 
. 60 
. 2S1 
. 125n 

- 135, 138 

75, 78, 79, 80 
. 160 
. 197 
. 192 
. 93 


TJchchakalpa, vi., 

Udaiyarkfiyil, vi,, , 

TJdayadri, s. a. TTdayagiri, 

Udayana, ch., 

ITdayendiram, vi., . 

Uddharana, in., 

Udra, co. . 


Ujipuram or Ujjapuram, vi., 

Ujjain, vi., ... 

Ujjayani or Ujjayinf, s. a. Uj Jain, 

169, 170, 171, 175 
. 18, 19, 78 
. 19 
. 103 
. 120 
. 98 
. 207n. 
. 46, 62, 1GO 
. 121 

. 30, 183, 201, 224 
SOn, 224, 226n 

TJjyapuri or Gjyapuri, *. a. tjipuram, . 121, 125 
Ukhada, di., ... fil 

TIkkal, vi. f ... . ing 

n^akku, measure, - . , 137 jgg j^gy 

Ullabha, JUalacJiuri Te,, ... 86 

TJrna, s. a. tarvati, . . .41, 1QQ 

Ummattar, m., . . 18 19 

138, 14,2 

. 216 
.' "07 
. 00 

vi., . 

Unaula, s. a.ButhnowIoe, 
Untikavitika, vi., . 

uparakhita, . 

upavika, . 

upavikara, . 

upayuktaka, . 
upasana, ... 



, w- o/Kshitipala, 


' ' 

u, measure, 

TTruvupalli, vi, ..... 
Umriditya, w. of Nrisimbaraya, . . 
Usabhadata w Usabliadata, , . flishabhadatta, 

ushatkdha (usharbudha), . 
Usliavadata, s. a. Ilisbabhadatta, 
Uttamaganda-m&Aa, coin, . 
UttaramalMr, vi., 
Uttarapurana, quoted, . 

Uttarttrlmacharita, drama, 

Ufctarasamudra, co., 

UlteUee, vi., 

Uttiran. m., 

uvachcha, a temple drummer, 

' 139 

Yanatovaraiyan or Yanak&varaiyar, biruJu 

VaoLlsvara, fe., 

Yaddadi, M., 



Vabali BMuB, A., 

Vaichaya, . Baicha, 
Vaidumba, /flmi7y, . 
Vaidyanatba, fa, 
Vaijayantl, s. a. Bamasi, 
YaikTintlia-Peiiimal, fa, 


, 148 
. 46n 
. . 130n 
. 198n 
. . 211 
94, 95 
. , 179 
. 143 
, 143 



. 87 
. 115, 116 
142, 143, 144 

. . 49,70 

. . 164 

. 159n 


. , 45,46 

. 0a, 53 

Yaniapataka, ., 
Yankidiva, Sahva cL 

139, 140, 141, 195 



Yarahapminam, Tefagu pom, . 75,76,78,79 
Taranaji, s. a. Beaarcs,, . - 11 
VaranavMi, n., ^-'IIR 

Vardhamana, Jaim suint, ^ ll 

YMdb.amanakka,4w. ./Pandyaliadevi, 

Yaruna, <70<Ji * 
varusbam, . 
YasitM, Aiidhra jiteen, 

YasithipntMVasishthipata) Pnlumayi, 

. 231 
. 159 
. 16n 

Yajrinid&vi, queen o/Natavardhana, 

. 158 

ings, 27, 28, 
Tftlton,w, .... 79n,165,166 

VaUabba, w. o 

. 58,59,60,61,62,65 

Yarnana, god, ..!" 
Ytotnapnrifivara, fti, . 170, 171, 172, 173, 1? 
Yamaratbya, m., ..... ^' 


-, ,* , 
Yasudeva, cA,, 

Yataiany&vara, fe, 

. 224, 226 

. . 119 

. 160 

Yat&tavi w Yataranya, t. ft. Tirumlaiigto, 

121, 1*' 

Vayalpach, vi-> 
Yayiti-Adiyan, TF, 

ve (dvau), 


f load, 

, 75n, 85n 

, 195 

. 117. 118 

. . 63 

, 165 

. 87,160 

28, 41 

. 87,180 


28, 45 

. 87 
. . 87 
. 129 
. . 129 
. . 149 
. 7oa,85 
. . 143 
, , 192 
. 25, 192n 
. 192 
. 166 





. 28, 191, 207.S31 
. . . 77 
. 129 
. 75 
i-Perumal, te., : ... 25 

Venkata, s. a. Tirupati, 
Venkaiiapati, Vijayanagara, &. 
Veftkataramaaappa, m., 

Yeijnaroallr-n&du, di 

133, 136 

Venuvasa, m., 53 

Yeratval, m., 221 

Vetta, *. n. Betta, 152 

Ycttuvadaraiyar, olt. t . . . 139, 140 

Vetfcnvadiyaraiyar, s, a. Vettuvadaraiyar, . 140 
vcyika, . . , .. . ..52 

Yidarbha, no., 30n 

Yidelvidugu, Unida, .... 149n 

Vidya, queen o/iarhkaragana II., . . 86 
Vidyadharabbaiija, eh., .... 101 
Yighn&svara, s. a. Gaoapati, ... 83 

vihara, 60,117 

Yijamba, gueen of Infos, III., . . 33,44 
Yijaya-Bnddhavarman, Pallava k., . 67, 69, 185 
Yijaya-Dautivikrataavaraau, Ganga-Pal- 

lava ., 196 

Vijayaditya, ?L, 230 

Vijayaditya, W. CJialufytt It., . . 35,182 
Vijayaditya I, E. Clwlukya ., . . .189 
Yijayaditya II., do., . . 184,189,216 

. 29,180,184,189,216 

Yijayfiditya III., do., 
Yijayaditya IV., do. } 
Vijayaditya V., do., 
Vijayiditya VI., sur. o/Amraa II., 

182, 190 

. 190 

179, 190 

'Vijaya-f^varavarinan, &ctng<t-Pallava L, 23, 

129, 166 

vajaya-Kampa, s. a, "Vijaya-Kampavibrama- 

24, 25 

varman, . . 
Vijaya-Kampavarman, do., . 

lava k., , 

Yijayanagara, vi. t 

192, 193, 196 

18, 19, 75, 77, 

78, 79, 80, 84n, 115 
Tijaya-Xandivi krama or- -Nandivikramavar- 

man, G-anga-Pallma L, 

139, 192, 196 

Yijaya-Narasirixhavarman, s. a. Yijaya- 
Uarasiifaliavikramavarraan, , 

Yijaya-JSTarasiihhaTikraBiavarman, Gfafya- 
Pallava A,, . 

Yijaya-Kfipatangavaman, . a, Yijaya-Nri- 




Vijaya-Nripatungavikrama or "vikramavanaan, 

G-anga-Pallava fc., 
Vijayapala, Zamuj Jc., 
Yikara, vi., 

139, UO, 185 

Vikkirania-Solan-nla, quoted, . 120, 138, 

Vikrama-Chola, CMla L, . 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 

135, 136, 163n, 169, 170, Ifl 

Vikrarna-CMla-CliSdiyarlyaij, Miladv. cL, , 13j 
Vikrama-Chola-Kfivalarayan, do., , . jjj 

Vikramadifcya, mythical k., ... fy 

Vikramaditya I., E. CJiahikya k., . 189, 18)5 

Vikvamaditya II., do., . . . 181, 1] 
Vikrarnaditya V., W. ClwluTcya /&., . , 222s 

Vikramaditya VI., do., 

gQn, !23 

Vikramapila or Vikramapalad^ra, Uttara- 

samudra ch,, jj 

Yikram4i;junavijaya, Sanarese poem, . 33, Mi 
Vikramaral6ka, sur. of Gfivinda II., . , 21 
Vikr&nta-Marayana, sur. of Govinda IV., 36, & 
Vinakad^va, m., .... 210,311 

Vinapot!,/., , $ 

Vinayachandra, m., 188s 

Vinayaditya, W. Chalw'kytt Te, t , . 33 

ViBgavalU, vi., 2g t fi 

Vinikonda, *. a, Yinukontk r , . 18, IS 

vinirgata & 

Vi^nagar, a VisJinu tein^U, , , , ISIa 
Vinukonda, vi., ...... U 

VirabLadra, Gajwpati prince, . , 18,19,29 
Vira-GhSda, J5. Chalukya k., . . . 160 

Y!ra-Ch6}a, cL, 114 

Vlra-Ch61a, mr. of Prithivipati II,., . . 123 
Viragai3ganadalvan,cA., . . . 163, MS 
Virah6tala, S&luva ch., . , . S3 
virakal or virakkal, . . , . 23, Id! 

virakalal, 1/fc 

virama, Jaa 

ViramahSndra, sur. of Chalukya-Bhima II., , 181 
VSra-Narasiniha, Vijaywagwa Tc,, 79,88 
Vira-NarasimhadSva, *. a. Narasimha II., 


Vira-Mrayana, sur. of Am^havaraha L, . 38 
Vira.-Narayana, sur. of Par&ntaka I,, . . ISSa 
Viranfi,rayana-teriada"villig4) regiment, . 138 

Vira-Pandya, cJt., . 
Yira-Pandya, P&nfya k,, 


VSraprat&pa, sur. of Vijayanagara, king*, . 6ft 


, M( . r 

wladeva, *. . "Vifarajendm- 

"Wau-sa, a*.- 
Warn, /., 

210, 216. -230 

. 12L 

-rr ' IT- iMt,<a.rh61a Warancal- < 


ra II., * & Kuloitunga-viiuiar 
. 172a 


" " 

' * / " 149 

>f SaffibttWayan, 

/ ** **-"*" i/ ~ 

VSrasena, m 
Vira-Timmaraja-Odeyaru, <*., 
Yirattagara, *. a. Virattan&svar 
Virattan&svara, te., 
Viraftan YiracaraniyaT, queen, 


. , 



106n, 147n, 179, 193n 
..... iw ' 

Vijp&h-n&da, <K., 

vbhayapati, . ' 
Yishp.M . 28,31,32,41,42,45,83, 

93, 9to, 107, 120, 124, 125, 181, 132n, 
138, 139n, 1MB, 152, 164., 168, 180, 
189, 194,196,197,207,208,222,225,226 

_, . ,^ . . 128a 

Visbnudasa, m- 

Vishnudatta, . 

7 ' 

, SoysctU k, t 

Iain, <2o., 

, 28,31,42,215,220 

' 68 

'. i 28 * 8 

. 30, 35, 43, 44 


, queen of SaifakaiagWja 111., 
/ Prabbakaravardhana, . 

. . as, 
Yavana, (3w, 

Yavana, a 3f^aZ^% " 
years of tte cycle : 

Yamuna (3mm), rl, 





"VialpvardhaBalll., do., 

"Viatouvaidhatia IV., do., 

' TP j 

Viah^avardliana V., (to 

Viskva, an equinox, . 

TiSwuk wmjwa, 




7 9 10 



. . loin 

' . fi , 



arika or Tyavaharin, . 

lOOn, 107 
. 179 
. 8n 
. 100 


"fftdgatra, j., . 
laudiwash, tii,, . 


, 128, 131 



Sanmya, . 



[Voi, YIL 


f eurs of the reign, . . 1, 3, 3, 4, 3, 6, 7, 
24.25,26,61,66,72,74, 104, 107,121, 
130,133,134,135, 136, 139,140, 141. 
142,143,144,145, 146, 147,157, 160, 
161,162,163,164, 165, 166,168, 169. 
170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 
1S4, 185, 192, 193, 194, 195, 204, 205, 


Telivarru, t>i,, .... 181 
Yidiyuru, & & Eedooroo, , , . 179, 191 

Ganila, 16 

Y&ddhamalla L, E> Wmlukifd k. t , , .190 
VuddhamallalL, do., , , , 181,190 
ruddhasura-Nandaraja, Sii&htmUta ch i; . 216 
tudhisbfhira, mythical k } , . , , 48 
i . , . . t S5 

....... 45 

Yullikoaainandru, s, ct, Komera, . . 180, 191 
araia, . . . . 182,189,230,231 

Zamorin, . $ 

Zodiac signs of the: 

Dha aus, 11,32,171 

* 9n, 164, 173 
ttaka, , . . I,9n,ll,13,l70,176 
Kumbha, ^ ^ 

""" . . 46,12,176 



Mithuna, , 2, 3, 4, 14 128, 129, 169, 173, 174 
Kisbabha w Vrishabha, . S 3 3, 95, 173, 174, 177 
SimK . . 2, 3, 164, 165, 171, 172 f 175 

Tula > 175 

Vyischika, . , 2,11,14,16,164,165,177 






IN continuation of my List of the Inscriptions of Northern India 1 1 now publish a pitnilar list 
of inscriptions of Southern India, which also was originally compiled solely for my owu 
use. It contains all southern inscriptions from about A.D. 500 -which I have found in the vari- 
ous publications accessible to me, excepting, aa a rule, those in Dr. Burgess and Pandit Natesa 
Sastri'a Ankaaol Swvey of Swiherv, In<Ka, Vol. I?., and in Mr, Rico's Epigmytta, Qwmticn, 
Vol. III. The inscriptions of any importance, other than reprints, in tho former publication 
may be expected to be soon repiiblished critically, and thoso in the Epiynplm GwnaUoa will, 
I have no doubt, receive a general index of their own, when all tho testa have been published. 

While I am writing these lines, 2 my list contains 1,020 numbers -which treat of about 1,100 
separate inscriptions. Of this total about 210 are on coppev-plates, and 890 on stone, Taken as 
a whole, the inscriptions of the South in some respects differ essentially from tho northern 
inscriptions. The latter with insignificant exceptions are all in Sanskrit ; of the 1,100 inscriptions 
in the present list not more than about 290 are in Sanskrit only. 3 About 340 arc in Tamil, 320 
in Kauarese, 10 in Telugu, 90 in Sanskrit and Kaaarese, 30 in Sanskrit and Telugu, and 20 in 
Sanskrit and Tamil ; the language of four is an ancient Prakrit, and a few are composed or con- 
tain remarks in a dialect which apparently is an old form of Marathi. On tho other hand, while 
tie inscriptions of the North are dated in about ten different eras the chief of which is the 
Vikrama era, Southern India generally usea the Saka era. Of about 510 of these inscriptions dated 
according to eras,* 450 quote the Saka and 20 from the southernmost part of India the K&Jamha 
(or Kollam) era ; six quite exceptionally use the era of the Kaliyuga (marked Ky.), and 34 are 
dated according to the Chalukya-Vikrama era (marked Cha. Vi.), i.e., really, in regnal years of 
the Western Chabkya Vikramaditya VI. The Vikrama era is foreign to the South ; it is quoted 
only once, itt the most modern inscription of this list (of A.D. 1830), which also gives the 
number of years elapsed since Vardhamana's Nirvana. This list, moreover, will show that in 
large tracts of Southern India it was the custom - more rarely observed in Northern India 
to- date documents only in the regnal years of the reigning kings. Of the prominent part 
which the Jovian years play in the dates of southern inscriptions I have had occasion to speak 

Differently from the course followed in the Northern List, I have arranged the inscriptions 
here given mainly according to the dpasties to which they belong. Dated and undated misnd- 
laneous inscriptions which I cannot assign to any particular dynasty will bo given under separate 
headings at the end of the list. Any inconvenience which my arrangement may cause I Lope to 

1 See above, Vol. V. Appendix. ' < 

3 Any inscriptions that may be published wHlc this list ia being .printed will as far M possible be l 

their proper .places, 

1 When the language of an inscription is not stated in this list, it should be understood to he Sanskrit 
* Cnrwnt yews will be denoted in this list by an asterisk placed after the numerals for the year. 


lessen by an index which will give all dated inscriptions arranged in the order of the Saka yeara, 
Another index is to contain most of the proper names which occur in this lisfc. 

While doing this work, 1 often have found cause to regret that I know so little of the 
vernaculars of Southern India, and I fear that this list must suffer through this want of 
"cnowledge on my parfc, I nevertheless venture to hope that what I offer now will at least save 
some trouble to others who are interested in Indian. Epigraphy. 

A.Tlxa Western Chalukyas of Bfidami. 1 

1. S. 310. Ind, Ant. Vol. IX. p. 294 Pimpalner (spurious 2 ) plates 3 of the W. Chalukya 4 
Mahdrdjddhirdja Satyasraya (PulakSsin I. ?) : 

(L. 1). Sakanripak&l-atite-samvatsara-aate'shu tri(tri)ahu da-6ttar6shv=asya[m*] sam- 

(L. 35). suryagrahana-parvvani. 

2. S. 411* Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 211, and Plates in Vol. VIII. p. 340. AlfM s 
(formerly Captain T. B. Jei-via's, now British Museum, spurious 6 ) plates of the W. Chalukya 
Mahdrdjddhirdja i?ulak&in I. Satyasraya, the son of Ranaraga who was the son of Jayasimha L ; 
and of his feudatory Samiyara, the son of Sivara who was the son of the Rdjd Gonda, of the 
Rundranlla-Saindraka family (or Kundrani]a and Saindraka families) : 

(L. 28). akanrip-aMe'shv=e^adas-6ttar6shu chatus-sateshu vyatiteshu Vibhava- 
samvatsarS pravarttamane" . . . Vaigakh-6dita-purnna-punya-divase" Baho(Iiau) 

vidhau(dh6r=) mandalam gle'sbt^ (?). 

(L. 35). Vaigakha-paurnnamasyam Rohan vidhu-mandala[m*] pravishtavati. 

12th April A.D. 488 ; a lunar eclipse, not visible in India ; but see ibid. Vol. XXIV. p. 10, 
No. 164. 

The inscription record? the building of a Jaina temple and the allotment of certain grants 
to it, and gives the line of Jaina teachers Siddhanandin, Chitakacharya, N"agad6va ; and 

3. S. 500. IwcZ. Ant. Vol. III. p. 305, and Plate ; Vol. VI. p. 363, and Plate in Vol. S. 
p. 58; PSOCI. Ho. 39. Badami cave inscription of the W. Chalukya? Mangalesvara 
Ragavikrauta, of the 12th year of the reign (of his elder brother Kirtivarman I.) : 

(L. 6). pravarddhamaiia-Tajya-samvvatsarS dvadaiS akanripati-rajyabhisyka- 

samvvatsar6shv=atikranteshu panchasu Sateshu . . 

(L. 11). maha-Karttika-paurnnamasyam. 

4. I n d. Ant. Vol. X. p. 60, and Plate ; P800L No. 40. Badami Kanarese rock inscription 
of the W. Chalukya* Mangalfisa, 

1 For the W. Chalukyas of Gujarat see iny List of North. Inscr. Nos. 898, 400, 401 and 404. Of the (un- 
published) BalsUr plates, dated in S. 653, of the JayaSraya-Mangalarasar&ja (also called ViuayAditya and 
Yuddhamalla) who is mentioned *6u2. No. 404, an account is given in Jour. So. As. Soe, Vcl. XVI. p. 5, and Ini, 
Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 75. In Jour. So. Aa. Soc. Vol. XX. p. 42 is published a Sanjan copper-plate inscription which 
professes to be of the time of the W. Chalukya Vikram&ditya I. and to record a grant by his paternal uncle 
Buddhavarasa, the younger brother of Saty&feaya (PulakSlin II.)- I hope that this inscription may be re-edited 
with a facsimile. (For the name Buddhavarasa see below, No. 67.) 

* See Ind. Ant. VoL XXX. p. 216, No. 25. 

* The third plate ia numbered with the numeral figure 3. 

* The name Chalukya or Chalukya does not occur in the inscription. * See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIX. p, 2?3, 

* See iUd. Vol. XXX. p. 218, No. 35. The original has Chalkya. 


5. IntZ. Ant. Vol. XIX. p, 16, and Plate. Badami (Mahakuta) pillar inscription 1 of the 
Sth year of the reign of the W. Chaiukya 8 Mangalesa Banavikranta :- 

(L. 14). utfearottara-pravarddiiamana-rajya-paficliama"ri-varsb. pravarfctaman. SiddhartM 

The Jovian, year Siddhariha, if it is really intended here, 8 by the mean-sign system lasted 
from the 25th October A,D. 601 to the 21st October A.D. 602 (in S. 523-524). 

In the lineage of the Ghalikyas, Jayasingha ( Jayasimha I.) ; his son Banaraga ; hia son 
Satya^raya Banavikrama [PulakSgin L] ; bis son Pura-Ranaparakrama [Kirtivarman I.] (defeated 
the kings of Vanga, Anga, Kalinga, Vattura, Magadha, Madraka, Kerala, Ganga, Mushaka, 
P&ndya, Dratuila, Ch6h*ya, Aluka, Yaijayanti) ; his younger brother Uru-Ranaviki-anta 
Mangale^a (conquered the [Kalatsuri] king Buddha). 4 The inscription mentions Mangalea's 
father's wife Durlabhadevi, of the Batpfrra family. 

6. Ind. Ant. Vol. VII, p. 161, and' Plate ; PSOGI. No. 11. tfer&r (now India Office) 
plates of the W. Chalnkya 8 Mangalaraja (MangalSsa, who put to flight Samkaragana's son 
Btiddharaja, 4 and killed Svamiraja of the Ohalikya family), the son of Vailabha (PulakSsin 

*) i~ 

(L. 14). 8amvatsara-pujyataml.ySm Karttika-dvadaSy&m. 

7. &. 532. Jour. So. As. 800. Vol. X. p. 365, and Plates. Q-oa plates, recording a grant 
by Satysraya Dhruvaraja Indravarman of the Bappura^ family, who was staying at 
R&vaMdvtpa 6 and acting with the permission of the Mahdraja Srlprithivl-vallabha ; of the 20th 
year of the reign (according to Dr. Bhandarkar, of the W. Chalnkya MangaWsa, but according 
to Dr. Fleet of the 20th year of his own administration) : 

(L. 6). Magha-paurnnamasyam. 

(L. 17). pravarddhamana-rijayarajya-samvatsararix viasatimamT Saka-kalah=pancha, 

8. . S82 (?). Knrtak&ti (spurious) plates of the' W. Chalukya Vikramaditya I. 
Satyasraya ; see below, No. 21. 

9.-S. 534,rnd!. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 73, and Plate ; PS 001. Kb. 12. Haidarabad plate 8 of 
the third year of the reign of the W. Chalukya 5 Makdrtija Satyfisraya (Pulak6sin H,)> son of 
the Mahdrdfa Klrtivarman I., and son's son of the Mahdrdja SatyaSraya Polefcggivallabha 
(PulakSgin I.); issued from Vatapinagari : 

(L. 11). 4tmana^ praTarddham^na-rajy&bhish^ka-saihvatsar^ tpit!y& Sakanripati- 
aamTatsara-gat^shu chatustrims-adhik^shu panchasvatite'shu Bhadrapad-amavftsy&ySm 

2nd August A.D. 612 ; 9 a solar eclipse, not visible in India; see ibid. Vol. XXIII. 
p. 130, KTo. 106. 

10. & 556 (Ky. 37S6 1 ). J?jp. Ind. Vol. VI, p. 4, and Plate ; PS 001. No. 73. Aihole 
inscription, recording the construction of a temple of Jine'ndra by a certain BavikSrti, during 

1 The inscription, is read from the bottom upwards | compare below, Ifo. 641. 

* The ordinal has Chalikya. 

' The earliest inscription in this List, in which a Joviaa year undoubtedly ia quoted, is No. t>6 of S. 692. 

* Compare JS?jp. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 294. 6 The original has GAalikya. 

* See below, No. 10. t Bead vimfatimam* 8 Bead dvdiriihsdni. 

9 This vas the new-moon day of the ]p4rnim&nta BMdrapada. On the 23rd July A.D. 618, which was the 
new-moon day of the pdrnimdnta Bh&drapuda of S. 585 expked, there was a total eclipse of the Baa that was folly 
visible at B&d&mi. 

29 Described as the year 3735 since the Bhirata war. 



the reign of the W. Chalukya Pulakesin EC. Satyasraya ; (composed by Ravikirti himself, 
whose fame is compared to that of Kalidasa and Bharavi): 

(L. 16). Trimsatsu tri-sahasreshu Bharatad=ahav&d=itah [|*] sapt-abdasata-yukteshtt 
sa(ga)teshv=abdeshu panchasu [f|*] Panehas'atsu Kalau kale shatau pancha-gatasu cha [|*j 
samasu samatftasu Sakanam=api bhubhujam jj 

In the Chalukya lineage, Jayaaimhavallabha [I.]; his son Ranaraga ; his son Polekesin [I.] 
(acquired Vatapipuri); his son Kirtivarman [I.] (defeated the Nalas, Mauryas and Kadambas) ; 
Ida younger brother Mangalesa (defeated the Katachchuris and took Revatidvipa) ; Kirtivarman's 
son Polekesin [II.] Satya&raya (was at war with Appayika and Govinda; besieged Vanavasi; 
subdued the Gangas, Alupas, and the Mauryas in the Konkanas ; besieged Puri ; subdued the 
Latas, Malavas and Gurjaraa ; defeated Harsha [of Kanauj] ; conquered the three Maharashtra- 
kaa j was at war with the Kalingas and K&salas ; took Pishtapura ; fought at the Kaunala, i,e. 
Kolleru lake ; defeated the Pallavas of Kafichipura ; crossed the river Kav&ri and caused pros- 
perity to the Ch&las, K&ralas and Pandyas). 

11. J0p. Ind, Vol. V. p. 7, and Plate. Yekkeri rock inscription 1 of the reign of the 
W. Chalukya 3 Maharaja Satyftsraya Pulekesivallabha (Pulakesin n.) : 

(L. 8). Karttikasya punnimasam 8 likhitS, prasast=iti || samvatsai-a . . 6(?) 
rajya iti. 

12. Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 43, and Plate ; P80CI. No. 266. Nerfir (now India Office) 
fragmentary plates of the [W. Chalukya] Maharaja Satyasraya Polekesivallafalia 4 (Pulakeaia 
H.) the son of Kirtiraja (Kirtivarman I.). 

13. Up. Ind. Vol. Ill, p. 51, and Plate. Chiplun (now Bombay As. Soc.'s) plates of the 
W. Chalukya SatySsraya (FulakSsin II.), the son of Kirtivarman I. ; recording a grant by Ms 
maternal uncle Srivallabha SSnanandaraja of the S&ndraka family. 

14. Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 330, and Plate. Kandalgaon (spurious 5 ) plates of the Sth 
year of the reign of the W. Chalukya MaMrdjddMrdja Satyasraya Pttlakesivallabha 
n.) : 

(L. 14). Tijayarajya-samva[t*]sare panchame 1 Maghamasa-saptamyam. 

15. Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 96, and Plate in Vol. IX. p. 304 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 159, 
p. 298. Hosur (spurious 6 ) plates of the W. Chalukya SatySsraya (Pulakesin II.), recording a 
grant made at the request of his son or daughter (?) Amfo&ra or Amfoera : 

(L, 8). maha-Magha-paurnnamasyaya . . . s&ma-grahane. 

I6.--Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 106, lines 51-61 of the text. Lakshmeehwar (spurious?) 
inscription 8 of Durgasakti, the son of Kundasakti who was the son of Vijayagakti, of the family 
of the Sandra kings who belonged to the Bhujngendra lineage ; contemporary (or feudatory) of 
the W. Chalukya MaMrdja Ereyya Satyasraya (Pulakesin II.?), the son of the Mahdrdja 

17.- Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 124, and Plate. Mrpan (spurious* ?) plates of the W. Chalukya 
Tribhuvanasraya Nagavardhanaraja, recording a grant made at the request of a certain 

The inscription contains numerical symbols for 4, 6, 6(P), 8, and 50. 

The name Chalukya or Chalukya does not occur in the inscription. 

Bead ?aurwam6sy<tib IVkhitd prafa*tir*iti. * In verse apparently called simply Vallabha. 

See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 217, No. 27. See i&id. p. 222, No. 63. 

See ibid. p. 218, No. 37. 

Put on the atone in about the second half of the llth century A.B. 

Se Intl. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 216, No. 26. 



In tlic a,mily of the Chalnkyaa, Satya&raya Kirtivarmaraja [I.] ; his son Pulakesivallabha 
(Pulakesm XI., defeated Haraha [of Kanaaj]) ; his younger brother Dharasraya Jayasimba- 
vavuianVja ; lajLs son Tribhuvaiiasraya Nagavardhanaraja (Jayasraya ?). 

18. Jcmr. So. As. Soc. Vol. XVI. p. 235, and Plate. Karnul district plates of the third 
year of tlie ^elgn of the W. Chalukya 1 Malidrdjddliirdja Vikramaditya I. Satyisraya, son of 
the MahtiraJ a, gatyaaraya (Pu.lake'sin II., who defeated Harshavardhana [of Kanauj]), grandson 
,>f tlio Mithdrdja KBivarman I. (who defeated the kings of Vanavasi, etc.}, and great-grandson 
of the Mahardjd Polekc?sivallabha (Pnlakesin I.) : 

(L. 20) . pravarddhamana-viiayar[a*]]ya-tritiya-samvatsare . . samgama- 

19. J-QTIT. So. As. Soc. Vol. XVI. p. 238, and Plate. Karnul district plates of the^ 10th 
year of tlie reign of the W. Chalukya 2 MaMrdjddhiraja Vikramaditya I, Satyasraya 
(dcrtodbed aa in No. 18) ; recording a grant made at the request of Devasaktiraja of the 

Soudvaka family : A A . 

(L. 18) . pravaradhamana-vijayar%a-dagama-samvatsar& Ashada(dha)-paurnamasyam. 

20.~~X,<2. Ant. Vol. VI, p. 76, and Plate; PSOCL No. 13. HaidarabM ( B pnriouBF) 
plates of -fctie W. Chalukya MaUr&jddUrdja Vikramaditya I. Satyasraya (who defeated 
KamHimHa,, MaHmdra, and Ifivara or IfirarapftbuAja* of Kanchi), the son of the HaUrdtfdhvraja 
Sfttyasmyn, (PtilakSfiinll,, ^ ho defeated Harshavardhana [of Kanauj]), grandson of the Maharaja 
Kirtivaiina,ia I., and great-grandson of the Maharaja PulakMiyallabha (PulakeSm L). 

21. S. 532 (P)^-Jnd. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 219, and Plate. Kurtak6ti (now Royal As. Soc 's, 
8puriou8) first and second plates" only of the 16th year of the reign of ' 

rSjMhirdja, Vikramaditya I. Satyasraya (described much as m 
Kisuvolal : 

hatrim6ttara- P ariichaat6shu Saka-varsheshy=atit^hu 

arsh^pravarttamana . . - tasya 
S6hi^ya-riksh& madhyahna-kaU . 
sai-v varaft.( gra) si(ai)bhute. 

The Oate is irregalar ; see ibid. Vol. XVIJI p. 2So. _ 

2 o Tour So As 800 Vol XVI. p. 240, and Plate. Karnul district (spunous') plates of 
the W^tlky^ 1^W% vLunkditya L Saty^raya (descnbed m uch as 

No. 18) : - 

. . . p[au*]rnnamasya[m J. 

20) ; x 



S81] : 23rd September A.D. 659 

Tlie original has n 

8 See Jl ^. Vol. XXX. p. 219, Ho. 39 5 
* I.e. the Pallavas NarasinJxavaman L, 
No. 62S and 634.- In the verses which give the 
deambea by the epithets or ^^ Amvwltar 
family is called the Mahamalla ftJ ; compare 
See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 217, No. 30 
T See W..2HNo. 8. 

, 1900, p. 345 ff. 
L , compare below, 
IB refmed to or 


i, Tikramaditya J. 
isika and 

27, 629 and 632. 

f Not earlier than the ninth or tenth c. 

. a T be original has Ch ^ a ' ^d the Tull-Tihttr* 

t lid. p. 214, No. 8. . ,. f Sgvina commenced 4h. lm.. " wo J - 

* O* this day the second iitU of the bright ^<* A g ^^ ^ ttS , M , p. 365, note 8. 
safckrtoti toolc place 9 h. 26 xn, after mean sunrise. Compare 


24. Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 45, and Plate. K6ehrm plates of VijayamaliadSvl, the 
queen of the Mahdrdjddhirdja Ckandraditya, who was the eldest brother of the "W. Chalukya 
Vikramaditya I., son of. the Mahdrdjddhirdja Satyagraya (Pulake"sin II.), etc. : 

(L. 1 8) . > Vaigakha-gukla-dvadaiSyam. 

25. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 67 ; Jour. So. As, Soc. Vol. XVI. p. 233, and Plate. Karnul dis- 
trict plates of the first ySar of the reign of ihe W. Chalukya Mahdrdjddhirdja Adityavarman, 1 
a son of the Mahdrdjddhirdja Satyasraya (PulakSsin II., who defeated HarshaT-ardhana [of 
Kanauj]), grandson of the Mahdrdja Kirtivarman I., and great-grandson of tne MaMrdja 
Satyasraya (Pulake'gin L) : 

(L. 15). pravardhamam-vijayarajya-prathama-samvatsare' Karttika-paurnamaayarii Paifca- 

26. S. 80S. Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 112. Notice of a Laksh.meshwar (spurious 2 ) inscription 3 
(fourth, part of the record) of the 5-th year of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vinayaditya 
Satyasraya ; issued from Kaktapura : 

Asht&tiara-ahatchhate'ahu Saka-varshe'shY=atifce'shu pravarttamana-vi]'ayara]'ya-pamchania- 
samvatsarS . . . Maglia-nmsS paurnuamasyam. 

27, S. en. Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 86, and Plate; PSOOL No. 14; Jour. Bo. As. Soc. 
Vol. XVI. p. 242, and Plate. TogarchSdu plates of the 10th year of the reign of the 
W. Chalukya MaMrdjddMrdja Vinayaditya Satyasraya; issued from PampHirtha : 

(L. 24). ^kadaSdttara-shatohhateshu Saka-Yarsh6shv=atite'shu pravarddliamana-vijayarajya- 
samvatsar^ daame varttamand . . . Karttika-paurnnamasyam. 

In. the family of the Chalukyas, the Mahdrdja Pulak^givallabha (Pulakesin I.) ; his son, tlie 
Mahdrdja Kirtivarman [I.] ; Ma son, the Mahdrajddhirdja Satyagraya (Pulakesin II., defeated 
Harshavardhana [of Kanauj]) ; his son Vikramaditya [I.] (took Kafichipura) ; Ms son, the 
Mahdrdjdd'hirdja Vinayadifcya Satyagraya. 

28. S. 613. Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 89, and Plate ; PSOGI, No. 15. Karnul district plates 
of the llttt year of the reign of felie W. Chalukya Mahdrdjddhvrdja Vinayftditya Satyfisraya, 
recording a grant made at the request of the Yuvardja Vijayaditya; issued from 
EJumpundale : 

(L. 24). tray&dagottara-snatchhat^shu aka-varsb.eshv=at ! tteshu pravarddhamana- 
vijayarajya-samvatsarS ^kadale varttamane' . . . Magha-paurnamasyam. 

Grenealogy as in No. 27. 

,29 S. 614. Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 149 ; PS OCT. No. 16. Sorab plates of the [llth] 
year of the reign of the W. Chalukya MaMrdjddh'irdja Vinayaditya Satyasraya, recording a 
grant made at tne request of the Mahdrdja Chitravaha, the son of the Alupa king Gunasagara ;* 
issued from OMtrasedu : 

(L. 18). [cha]turdda6ttara-shatchhateshu Saka-varsh6Bhv=atit^shu pravarddhamana- 
viiayarajya-samTatsar^ [6ka]da-^ varttamane' . . . dakshinayan-abhinxukli^ bhagavati 
bhaskare E6hini(ni)-nakshatrS Sanaigcharavar^. 

Saxjurday, 22nd June A.D. 692 ; but the nakshatra on tMs day was Asl&sha or Maglia, not 
R6hin$; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 9, No. 160. 

G-enealogy as in No. 27 ; but the name of Satyasraya (Pulak&sin II.) is omitted through 

1 Compare below, No. 150. 2 See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 213, No. 38. 

* Put OIL the stone m about the second half of the llth century A.D. 

See Dt. Hultzsoh's Report for 1901, p. 5, where we find the names of the Alupa iings Bauasagara, 
PriWtorvts&gara, VijayHditya, etc. 

30. S. 016. Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 1 and 

e 14ax year oi the reign of the w . Suh^l 

recordmg a g ca>lt ^de at the re^rt of an Awaking . i 
. sh6dag&ttara-shachchha(tchha}teshu 

_ 31. Xd. 4n*. Vol. XIX. p. 144, and Plate; P800L No. 152. Balagamve Kanarese 

umptiaa of the reign of the W.ChalukyaiMa^^^^ 

feudatory, tire MaMrSja Pogilli of the Sendraka family. **Jray8, and ius 

S2.&. 62L--I*. ,1^. Vol. X.p.60. Badami Sanskrit and Kanarese* inscription of the 
third year cx the reign of the W. Chalnkyai MaUrdjddUr&ja, VijayMitya Satyasraya - 

(L. 5). pravardhamana-vijayarajya-samvatsare t?itSy6 varttamlnS ^ayims6ttara- 
bu Saka-varsheshv=atiteshu Jy6(jyai)shthyaih 

33. - &. 622. Ind. ^f. Vol. IX. p. 126. Nerur (now India OGBce) plates of the 4th year 
of the reign, of the W. Chalukya 3 MaUrajddhirdja VijayMitya Satyisraya, recording a grant 
made at -tlie request of a certain Nandejeya ; issued from Easenanagara : 

(Jj^ SO). dvavimgatyuttara-shatohhateshu aka-varsh^shv=atiteshu prayarddhamana- 
vijayar^3ya,-saiiivatsar^ chaturtthe vartamane . . . AsMda(dha)-paurnnamasyam. 

Genealogy as far as Vinayaditya Satyfigraya as in No. $7 ;* his son, the MaUrdjddhirdja 
Vijay&ditya Satyagraya. 

34. -Q. 627, Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 130. Nerur (now India Office) plates of the 10th year 
o tlao reig-ia of the W. Chalukya 3 Mahdrdjadhirdja Vijay&ditya Satyasraya, recording a grant 
made at tih.e request of a certain Upendra : 

(L. 29). saptavimgatyuttara-sbatchhatfeshu Saka-varsheshv=atitSshu prararddhamlna- 
viiayarfi-jya-aamvatsar^ dasamS vai-ttamane . . . maha-8aptam6(myam ?). 6 
Genealogy aa in 3STo. 33. 

35. - ind. A n t. Vol. VIII. p. 285, and Plate ; PSOOL No. 76. Aihole Kanarese inscription 
of tke -fclaird month of the 13th year of the reign of the W. Chalukya 1 MahdrdjddMraja 
"Vijaya3.itya SatyaSraya : 

(Hi. 2). tray6daga-varshamum mu(mu)xu-tuhgalul . . . lsvayu]a-pu[r]nnamasadul 

[^. esl] : 23rd September A.D. 709'; see ibid. Vol. XIX. p. 188. 

36. - g. 645. Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 112. Notice of a Lakshmeshwar (spurious?) inscrip- 
tion* Cfi^a* part of the -record) of the 28th year of the reign of the W. Chalukya VijayMitya 
Saty&siraya ; issued from Raktapura : 

a Pa,mchachatvMmgaduttara-shatchhat^shti Sa(4a)ka-varsheBhv=atitSshu pravarddhamUna- 
-samvatsar^ aahtavimle varttam&n^ . . . Bhadrapada-paurnnamSsyam sarrragraai- 

<jhamcLra.grahan-&palakshit&yarfa . 

20 Hi August A.D. 723 ; a total eclipse of the moon, visible in India. 

name Chabikya or CMlukya does .not occur in the inscription. 
a 3Bixt the Kanarcae part of the inscription is almost entirely illegible. 
a Tlxe original liaa Chali&ya. 

* Stit Vikramaditya I. is described as the MaUrdjddhMja Vikmnfcditya Sa 

* Xr. Tleet takes mahd-saptam* to denote one of tfae divisicmsof the seven Koafa^M 5 seeto Dya S f,ej p. S72. 

* X>r. Pleetnow takes fee equivalent of the date to be the 28rd September A.D. ,08; see his 
p. 37O ttote 5, and p. 372. 

7 See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 218, No. 38. 

T? at on the stone in ahoufc the second half of the llth century A.D. 

Ifrom an iuapression supplied hy Dr. Fleet. 


37. S. 651 Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 112. Notice of a Lakahm&slrwrar (spurious 1 ) inscrip- 
tion 2 (second part of the record) of the 34th year of the reign of the W. Chalukya VijayMitya 
Satyasraya,, recording a grant to his father's priest Udayadeva-pandita, also called 
Niravadya-pandita, who was the house-pupil of Pujyapada ; issued from Raktapura : 

Ijkapamchasaduttara-shatchhateshu Saka-varsh6shv=atite'shu pravartta(rddha)mana- 
vijayaraiya-samvatsare' chatustrimse Yarttamane . . Phalguna(na)~mas6 paurnnam&syam. 

38. Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 103, and Plate ; P80CI. No. 50. Bftdtoni (Mahakuta) Kanarese 
insciiption of Vinapoti, ' the heart's darling ' of the W. Chalukya 3 MaMrdjddMrdja Vijayfiditya 

39. Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 165, and Plate ; P80CI. No. 53. Pattadakal Kanarese inscription 
of the W. Chalukya 3 MuMrdjddhwdjas Vijayaditya and Vikramaditya II, 

4Q.Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 133. Nerur (now India Office) plates 1 of the W. Chalukya 
^laMr&jdd'hvrdja, Vijayiiditya Satyasraya, apparently recording a grant made by hia son, the 
Mahdrdjddhirdja VikramMitya II, Satyasraya. 

Genealogy as in No. 33. 


41. J. 656. Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 106, lines 61-82. LakshmeshTrar (spurious 5 ) inscrip- 
tion 3 of the second year of the reign of the W. Chalukya Mahdrdjddhirdja Vikramaditya II, 
Saty&sraya, -the son of Vijayadifcya Satyasraya, etc, ; issued from Raktapura : 

(L. 72). shatpamchasaduttara-shatchhateshu Saka-varaheshv=atitshu pravarddhamha- 
vijayarajya-samYatsare dvitiy6 varttamane Magha-paurnnanaasyam. 6 

42.~-l?icZ. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 286, and Plate ; PSOOL No. 77. Aihole Kanarese inaciiptiou 
of the reign of the W. Chalukya 7 Mahdrdjddlrirdja Vikramftditya II. Satyasraya. 

43. Up, Ind. Vol. III. p. 360, and Plate. ConjeeYeram Kanarese inscription of the W. 
Chalukya MaMrdjddUrdja Vikramaditya II. Satyasraya. 

44. -Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 166, and Plate ; PSOGI. No. 54. Pattadakal Kanarese inscrip- 
tion ; records that LdkamahSdevi, the queen of the "W. Chalukya Vikram&ditya II., confirmed 
a grant made by the Mahdrdjddhirdja Vrjayaditya Satyagraya. 8 

45. Ind. Ant, Vol. X. p. 167, and Plate* ; PSOOL No. 57. Pattadakal Kanarese inscrip- 
tion ; mentions L6kamaMdvi, the queen of the W. Chalukya Vikramaditya II. 

46, Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 164, and Plate ; PSOGI. No. 59. Pattadakal Kanarese inscrip- 
tion ; mentions L6kamaMd3vl, the queen of bhe W. Chalukya Vikramaditya II. 

47. Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 164, and Plate; PSOOL No. 58. Pattadakal Kanareae inserip- 
tion ; mentions the queen of the W. Chalukya VikramMitya II. 

48. JSp. Ind, Vol. III. p. 4, and Plate. Pattadakal duplicate 9 pillar inscription of the 
reign of the W. Chalukya MaMrdjddUrdja Kirtivarman II. Satyasraya : 
(L. 22). Sravana-mase amavaByayam sarvva-grase suryya-grahane'. 

See Ind. Ant, Vol. XXX. p. 218, No. 38. 

Put on the stone in about the second half of the llth century A,D. 

The name Chalukya or CMlukya does not occur in the inscription. 

The authenticity of thia grant is doubtful. See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 218, No. 37. 

The date would correspond to the 13th January A.D. 735, when there was a lunar eclipse, visible in India. 

In Nos. 42-47 the name Chalukya or Chalukya does not occur. 

8 Below the above inscription, on the same pillar, is a short inscription, the language of which appears to be 
Kanarese, and which seems to record the name of a certain DhulSprabhu, perhaps a visitor to the temple j 
Ant. Vol. X. p. 166, and fSOOL No. 55. 

| northern and in southern characters j compare below, No. 254. 


[6. 673 : 25th June A.D. 754 -, 1 a total eclipse of the sun, visible in India; see ibid. p. 3. 
The inscription, mentions the Mahdrdjddhirdja Vijayadifcya Satyasraya; 3 Ms son, the 
drdjddMrdja Vikramaditya [II.] Satyasraya ; 3 and his queens (of the Haihaya family) 

&a . 

LokamaTaadevI and her younger sister Traildkyamahadevi (the mother of Kirtivarman II.). 

49. S. 679. Bp. Ind. Vol. V. p. 202, and Plates. Vakkal&i plates of the llth year of the 
reign of tlie W. Ckalukya MahdrdjadUrdja, Kirtivarman II. Satyasraya, recording a grant 
made at tlio request of a certain D6sirja ; 4 issued f com Bhandaragavittage : 

(L. Gl). _ ga (iLa)vasaptatyuttara-shatchhateshu i3aka-varsheshv=atifceshu pravardhamana- 
vijftyftrftjya-saifavatear& 6k&da$6 vartfcamane' . . . Bhadrapada-panrnamasyam. 

Genealogy as far aa Vijayaditya Satyasraya as in No. 33; his son, the MaUrdjddhirdja 
Viknun&ditya [II.] Satyagraya (defeated the Pallava Naiidip6tavarman5) ; his son, the 
MaMrdjddhirdja Kirtivarman [II.] Satyasraya.- The inscription mentions [the Pallaya] 


50 InH Ant Vol. XI. p. 69. idtir Sanskrit and Kanarese damaged insciiption of the 
reigu of theV. Chalukya-? IMjddUrdja Kirtivarman II.; 8 mentions a king Smda ot 
Ptuidipura, and a king Madhavatti. 

51. ^?p. Int. Vol. VI. p. 253, and Plate. Didgur Kanarese inscriptions of the reign of a 
[W. OhalukyaP] king Kattiyara, under whom a certain Dosi" was govemng the Banavasi 
twelvc-tliotisand province : 

( L, 4) , gi'ahana[do]L 

52 Ind Ant Vol. XX. p. 69, and Plate. K6tur Kanarese inscription^ of the time of a 
Chalutya^tctlmed ParaLar^a ; ^records the ceremony of walking through fire and the 
death of a Saira ascetic named Sambu (Sambhu). 

B-TH0 Basatrakiitas of Maikhed and G-ujarat (Lata). 

,,latos of tlie EAshtrakftta 

Khadgavaloka: titf samTOtoW 675 

(L. SO-pamohasaptatjaaika-SakakaUsamTa ^ 


dbtriot) plates of the RasKtrakuta MaMrd 

(L. 29). vishuva-samkrantau 

tvi e ku(k6)n^lty-adhike ifivayuja 
tke eBU ; 


. . 
5uddliaCdclli&=n)kate(t&)=pi sam 600 70 9 


_. - 

This T as the new-moon day of the first ****** 

dnta Sr&vana). * 

Witb the cpitliefc or liruda Niravadya (?) . 

He lias the epithets or Urudas AmvUrita and Nr lp aBim)ia. 

* See below, No. 61. 6 z e mra simhavarman ; see below, No. 634. 
e J.e. ITaudivarman 5 see helow, No. 633 tt. Inscription. 

* The name Chalnkya or (Mlukya does not occur in the inscnpuo 

a See Dr. Fleet's Vyna&tie*, p. 877. f ble to close ly about A.D. 800. 

* According to Dr. Beet "the characters of d are faxrly ^ ^ 

to Compare below, Ko. 232. tt j n ftfl conc iudi D g verse called Pantivarman- 

w Of aboat the ninth century A.D. 


24th September A.D. 757 ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 113, No. 2. 

Kakkaraja [I.] ; Ms son Dhruvaraja; his son Govindaraja, married a daughter of Naga- 
varman ; their aon Kakkaraja [II.]. The grant mentions, as duiuka, Idifcyavarmaraia, 

55. Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 101, and Plate, Hatti-Mattur Kanarese memorial tablet 1 of the 
reign of Akalavarsha (Krishnaraja I.). 

56. S. 892. Up. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 209, and Plate. Alas plates of the Rashtrakuta 
Yuvardja G-ovindaraja H. Prabhutavarsha Vikramavaloka, recording a grant made at the 
request of VrjayMitya Manavaloka Ratnavarsha (son of Dantivarman and grandson of 
Dhruvaraja) ; issued at the confluence of the rivers Krishnaverna and Muni : 

(L. 29). shatchhate' dvinavaty-adhike Saka-varshe Saumya-sarhva[tsa]re Aflhadlia-sukla- 
paksh saptamyam. 2 

Govindar&ja [I.] ; his son Kakkaa-aja [I.] ; his son Indraraja [II.] ; hia son Dantivaraian 
[II.], 3 vanquished the Karnataka army which had defeated Hardha [of Kauauj], Vajrata and 
others ; and conquered Vallabha (i.e. the W. Chalukya Kirtivarnian II.) ; after him, Kakkaraja's 
3on Krishparaja [I.] Subhatunga Akalavarsha ; his aon Govindartda [II.] (defeated the lord r-f 

57. Ind. Mii. Vol. XI. p. 125, and Plate; PS 001. No. 60. Pattadakal Kanareae inscrip- 
tion of the reign of the Rashtrakuta 4 MaMrajddMrdja Dhdravarslm Kaliballaha (KaliTallabha 

58. Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 163, and Plate. Naregal Kanarese memorial tablet 5 of the reign 
of D6ra (i.e. Dhora, Dhruvaraja), and of Ms feudatory MSrakkaraaa. 

59.~-.Ejp. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 166, and Plate. Lakshmeshwar Kanareae iiiacription 8 of the 
reiga of Srlballaha (Srivallabha, according to Dr. Fleet in all probability Dhruvaraja). 

60. Inscr. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 24, p. 3. Fragmentary Fanarese inscription of the 
MaMsdmantddMpati Kambayya (Stambha?) Banavaldka, a sou of [the MalidrdjddUr'tja] 
Srivallabha (Dhruvaraja ?). 8 

61.--6. 718. -Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 105, and Plate. Paithan plates 9 of the Rashtrakuta 
Mahdrdjdd1t<irj.ja Govindaraja 3U. Prabhutavarsha, issued from outside Pratishthana . 

(L. 60). Sakanripakal-atita-aamvatsara-sa(ga)teshu saptamu(su) jd(sh6)da-6ttar^shu 
Y aisakha-va (fca)aul-aniavasy am=adityagrahana-parwani. 

4th May A.D. 794 j a solar eclipse, visible in India; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 131, 
No. 107; 

Genealogy from Q-dvindaraja [I.] to Dantidurgarfja as in No. 53 ; 10 after him, Karkar&ja's 
son Krishijaraja [I.] Subhatunga Akalavarsha (defeated Bahappa) ; his son Gdvindaraja [ILj 
Vallabha 5 his younger brother Dhruvaraja Nirupama Dharavarsha ; Ma son G6vindaraja [III] 

^ 62. g. 726. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 126, and Plate. Kanarese country (formerly Sir W. 
Elliot's, now British Museum) Kanarese plates of the Rashtrakuta* Mahdrdjddhirdja Qdyindft 
(aovindaraja IH.) Prabhutavarsha : 

(L. 1). akanripak&l.atita-8amvataaramgal=el-nux-!(i)rpatt-a3faneya Subhann embha(mba) 
varshada Vaiaa(s^)khamasa.krishnapak8ha-pafichame(mi)-Briha > spati(ti)varam=gi(gi). 

1 By Dr. Fleet assigned to about A.D. ?65. .a This date fell in A.D. 770, not in 769. 

1 t l8 ^ Cal i; d T ftlla : bbara J a - * The name BaslitrakAta does nofc occur in tlie inBcription. 

* By Dr. Fleet assigned to about A.D. 78 

By Dr. Fleet assigned to about A.. 7 Compare below, Ko. 68. 

See Mr. Bice in Up. Cam. Vol. IV. Introduction, p. 5; Dr. Fleet in JBp. Ind. Vol VI p 195 
.Compare Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 515. 
But the name of Kakkarfija is spelt here Karkardfa, and Dantidurgaraja is also called ValTabharlja, 


Thursday, 4th April A.D. 804; see iW. Vol. XXIII. p. 122, No. 55, 

The grant gives the name of GSvinda's queen, Ganmndabbe ; states that he had conquered 

Dantiga 1 of Kafichi ; and recordsi the renewal of a grant made by [the W. Ckalukya] Kirti- 

vannan [II.], 

63. S, 730*. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 157, and Plates. Ward (in Nftaik district, now Bombay 
As. Soo.'s) plates' of the Eashtrakuta MaUntjddhir&ja, Gdvmdaraja III, Prabhutavarsha, 
iaaued from Mayurakhandi : 

(L. 46). Sakanripakal-ati'ta-sariivatsava-sateshu saptasu tyimitriiiOsad-adhikeshu Vyaya- 
sjamTatsare Vaisakha-sita-pattruamasi-somagraliana-rtialuiparvvaQi, 

The date is irregular ; 5 see iUd. Vol. XXIV. p. 11, No, 172. 
Genealogy, efc., substantially as in No. 64. 

64. S. 730,%. Ind. Vol. VI, p. 242, and Plate ; PS 001. No. 281, RMhanpur first 
and second plates only of the Eashtrakuta IMurdjiicWm'cya GdvindarS. ja III. Brabfcutavarsha, 
issued from Mayurakhandi : 

(L. 53).-Sa[ka*]nripakal-Mita-aariivatoara-gat6s1iu saptasu trim(triiii)sad-attareshu 
Sawajin-namui samvat[sa]re' Sra?aiia-va(ba)hula-a(l-a)mavasyam suryagrahaiia-parvam. 

27th July A.D, 808 ; a solar eclipse, visible in Mia ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 181, 
No. 108. 

Krishnaraja [I], called Vallabha (took fortune away from the Chalukya family) ; his son 
Dh6ra (Dhruvaraja) Nirupama Kalivallabha Dharavarsha (set aside his- eldest brother 
[G6vindaraja II.], impiisoned the Ganga, subdued the Pallava, defeated Yatsaraja 4 ); his son 
G6viudara]a [III.] Prabhutavaraha (defeated a coalition of twelve princes, released but re-im- 
prisoned the Ganga, defeated the Gurjara, subdued the Malava, reduced king Harasarva, 5 con- 
quered the Pallavaa, and gave orders to the lord of Vengi). 

65.-S. 734. Ind, Ant. Vol. XII. p, 158, and Plates. Baroda. (now British Museum) plates 
of the Eashtrakuta MMsdinantMUpaU Karkaraja 8 Suvarnarasha of Qujarftt,' iaaued from 
Siddhasami : 

(L. 52). ^akanripakal-atita-samvatsara-sateshu saptasu gcha(oha)tustrinsa[d- 8 adhiB]shu 

G6ymdaraja [L] ; his son Karkaraja [I] ; hia-son Krishnaraja [I] (assumed the government 
after uprooting a relative of his) ; his son Dhruvaraja ; his soa G6viudar!ija [HI.], called 
Brivallabha; his brother, IndrarUja, waa made by him ruler of Lata (Lattlswa-inandald) ; 
Indraraja's son Karkaraja. The grant mentions, aa d&taka, the rctfa'ptttra Dantivarman, 

66.-1 735*. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 13, ami Platea ; ly. IwZ, Vol. IV. p. 340. 
Kadaba (now Bangalore Museum) plates 9 of the Eashtrakuta Rdjddhwdja PrabMtavarsaa 
(Govindaraja m.) recording a, grant which at the request of the Ganga chief Chakiraja was 
made to the Jaina mini Arkakirti (the disciple of Vijayakirti who was the disciple of Kuli- 
achai7&) for having warded off the evil influence of Saturn from Chakiraja's sister's son 
Vimaladitya (the son of Tag&varman and grandson of Balavarman of the Gkalukya family, and 
governor of the Kunungil district) ; issued from Mayurakhandi ; 

(L. 83), Sakaoripa-aamvabsai^shu gara-gikhi-mnniahu vyatitSshu J[y*]eshthamasa- 
suklapaksha-dasamyam Pushya-naks 

1 PcAapa the Bautivarman of No, fi52. a Compare Iirf. Ant, Vol. XXXI. p. 217. 

a The date would be correct for S. 73^ curreat, tlie year Vijaya. 
* Or ' the Mng of the Tatsas,' 6 Compare below, No, 122. 

1 In the signature of the grant the name is spelt KaJekaiAja, 
" The original has 'lord of LSHp' (LdteSnra). 8 Bead "slnmSad; 
The authenticity of this grant is cousidered doubtful The description of the Iwad&rica, ie,,isiu Kunarew. 


Monday, 24th May A.D. 812 j 1 see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 9, No. 161. 

G&vindaraja [I.] ; his son Kakkar&ja [I] ; his son Ind[r*]ara,ja [II.] ; his son Vairame'gk 
[Dantidurga] ; his father's brother AMlavarsha Kannesvara [Krishnaraja L] ; Ms son PrabMta* 
varsha [GSviudaraja II] ; his younger brother Dharavarsha Vallabha [Dhnrvaraja] ; his son 
Prabhutavarsha [Goviadaraja III,], also called Vallabheudra. 

67. S. 735. E-p. Ind. Vol. III. p. 54, and Plate. T6rkhed6 (in Khande'sh district) platee 
of the reign of the R&shfcrakuta 2 Mdhdrdjddhirdja G6Yindaraja III. Prabhutavarsha, and the 
time of his nephew and feudatory GSvindaraja of Gujarat ; recording a grant of the latter'a 
subordinate, the MaldsdwaMta Buddhavarasa (the son of Mjaditya and grandson of 
Maninaga) of the Salukika family : 

(L. 1). akanripakal4tita-sariivatsara-satshu saptasu panchatrim(trim)saty(d)-adhike'shu 
Pausha-guddha.saptamyamsankat6=pi samvatsara-satani 735 Nandana-samvatsare 1 Paushah 
^uddha-tifchih 7 asyam 8amYatsara-masa-paksha-divasa-pu.rYvii.yam . . , 

(L. 43), vijaya-s'aptamyam. 

Sunday, 4th. December A.D. 813 ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXV. p. 345, No. 1. 

Prabhutavarsha G6vindaraja [III] Jagattunga 3 [I.] ; Ms brother, ludraraja, was made by 
him ruler of Lata (jCa^ara-mawrfoZa) ; Indxaraja's son Kavkaraja ; his younger brother G&vinda- 

68. S. 738. Jowr. Bo. As, Soc, Vol. XX. p. 135. Nausari (now Bombay As. Soc.'s) platea 
of the Rashtrakuta MaUtdmantddhipati Karkaraja 4 SuYarnavapsha of Gujarat, issued from 

(L. 67).akanripakal-at]ta-samvatsara-sateshu 8aptasY=ashtatririsad J adhik^8att M&gha- 
guddha-paurnijam^sy^m | chandragrahana-parvvani. 

5th February A.D, 817 ; 6 a lunar eclipse, visible in India, 

Genealogy from G&vindaraja [I.] to Govindaraja [II.] Vallabha as in No. 61 ; his younger 
brother Dhru-varaja ; his son G&vindaraja [III.] Prithvivallabha (defeated Stambha 1 ? and other 
kings) ; his son Maharaja-Sarva Am&gbavarsha [L] ; his paternal uncle Indraraja ruled LUta 
(Ldfiyam mandalatn), given to him by his master ; 8 his son Karkaraja. 

69. fl. 740. M. Ant. Vol. V. p. 145 ; PflOOI. No. 282. Kavi plates of fclie Eashtrakuta 
MahdsdmantddUpati Govindaraja Prabhutavarslia of Gujarat, issued from Bharukachchha : 

(Pkte iii. L 7). Sakanripakal-Ma-aamvatsara-[sapta]satMiY=^kannapamchMat"Samadhi- 
kshu maha-Vaiglkhyam. 

Genealogy from G5vindaraja [L] to G6vindaraja [III,] as in No. 68; his brother, 
Indraraja, was made by him ruler of Lata (Mtefoara-manjala) ; Indraraja's son Karkaraja ; 
his younger brother G6vindaraja. 

70. . 757^-JjkZ. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 199, and Platea, Baroda tiiitd and fourth plates 9 
only of the Rashtrakuta HaMs&mantddUpati Dfcruvaraja L Bharavarsha Mrupama of 
Gujarat, issued from SarvamaDgalasatta outside Khetaka: 

(L. 36).- Sakanripakal-atita-samvatsara-gatfehu saptasu saptapanchas'ad-adhike'slra 

[Krishnaraja I.]; his son G6vindaraja [II.] Vallabha; his younger brother Dhruvaraja; 
his son G&vindaraja [III,] ; his son Maharaja-Sarva [Am6ghavarsb,a I.] ; Ms paternal uncle 

1 But the nakshaim is irregular. a The name Rashtraktita does not occur in the inscription, 

1 The name here (iu verse) is spelt Jagottuaga. 4 In the signature the name is spelt KaJckardja. 
' ' Bead "IriAfad-. 

* This, hy the rules of mean intercalation, was the full moon day of the second Hagha, otherwise of Phllguna, 

Compare above, No. 60. 8 f^ QflviudarSja III. 

' The second of these two plates has four notches) and the first three, on the lower edge. 


ludraraja ; bid son Karkaraja (alter defeating some Bashtrakutas, placed AmSghavarsha on his 
throne) ; his son Dharavarsha Nirupama Dhruvaraja [I.]. Surv. of West. India, Vol. V, p. 87. Elldra Dasivatara cave-temple fragmen- 
tary inscription of the Bashtrakiita kings ; contains the names of Dantivarman [I.], Indraraja 
[I.], Gdviudaiija [I.], Karkaraja [I.], Indrar&ja [II,], Dantidurgaraja, 1 and Maharaja-Sarva 
[Am&ghavarsha I.]. 

72. S. 765 (P). Id. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 136. Kanheri inscription of the reign of the 
RaslitraMta 2 MalidrdjddUruja Amoghavarsha I,, and of the time o his feudatory, the [Silara] 
HaMsdmanta Pullasakti, the successor of Kapardin I., 'the lord of Konkana : ' 3 

(L, 5). sarnva [765], 

73.S. 775 (for 773), Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 134. Kanheri inscription of the reign of 
the Rasktvakuta 3 MaMrdjadhirdja AmdgnaYarsha I.,^the successor of Jagattunga I. (Gdviuda- 
raja III.), and of the time of his feudatory, the [ilaraj MaMsdinanta Kapardin IE., the 
successor of Pnllasakti, ' lord of the whole Kontana : ' 

(L. 1). Sakanripakal-atita-samvateara-sateshu saptasu pamchasaptatishv=amkatah [api 
samva]t,saL-aah 775 tad-antarggata-Prajapati-aasva(riiva)tsarantahpati-Agvina-va(ba)hula- 
dvitiyafyaih Budlia]-dine asyam Bamva[tsara]-masa-paksha-divaaa-purvayaiii tithau. 

Wednesday, 16th September A.D. 85\ ; see {bid. Vol. XXIV. p. 4, No. 189. 

74 . 782. Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 29. Konniir spurious inscription 4 of the Bashtrakuta 
HahdrajadMntfa Amoghavarsha I. Vira-E"&ryan.a 3 the successor of Jagattunga I. (G-6ymda 
raja III.), recording a grant to the Jaina Devendra, made hy the king, while residing at his 
capital of Manyakheta, at the request of his feudatory Bankesa 5 (Bankeya, Bankeyaraja) 
alia* Sellaketana, the son of Adhora (or Adhora) and grandson of Erak6ri, of the Mukula 
family. The inscription professes to be a copy (prepared 5 by the agency of Yiranatidm, the son 
of MSghachandra-tcaividya?) of a copper- plate charter. The date of the grant is : 

(L. 43). Sakanripakal-atita-samvatsara-sateshti saptasu dva(dTya)6ity-adhikeshu tad- 
abbyadhika-samanantara-pravarttamana-trayosititama- 8 Vikrama-samvatsar-antarggat-lgvayuja- 
paurnBamasyam. sarvvagrasi-somagrahane' maha-parvvani. 

3rd October A.D. 860 ; a total eclipse of the moon, -visible in India ; see ibid. p. 26. 

Before Amoghayaraha the inscription mentions, in the Yadava lineage of the Rashtrakutas, 
Govinda, son of Prichchhakaraja ; Karkara, son of king Indra ; his son Dantidurga ; S-abhatun- 
gavallabha Akalavarsha ; Prabhutavarsha, son of Dharavarsha ; his son Prabhutavarsha 

75. S. 788. Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 102, and Plate. Nilgtmd Sanskrit and Kanarese 
inscription of the 52nd year of the reign of the Mahdrdjddhir&ja, Amdgfcavarsha I. JHpipatunga, 
also called Atisayadhavala, born in the race of the Battas, ' supreme lord of the town of 
Lattalura :' 

(L. 18). Sakanripaka[14]tSta-samvatsara^ata[m]gaHl-ii[u):-eEibhab^enta]neya Vyaya- 
[saThva]tsam[m] pra[va]rttise [4ri]ma[d-A]m6ghava[rsha]-Nri[pa3tu[iii]ga-[;nani.amkitana 
viiayaT]iya-pravarddhamana-samvatsa[ran]gal=ayva[tt-eradum=utter-&]fctararix [r&jy 

1 He defeated the army of Vallabha (i.e. the W. Chalukya Kirtivarjaan II.) and others, and acquired the 
position of SrivaUabha (3rtvallab&atam=(ivdpa). 

1 The name Bashtrakilta does not occur in the inscription. 

3 See below, Ho. 302 ff.' 

* The inscription contains a verse and a prose passage in Kanarcse. 

1 B&nk&a invaded Gangavadi, took the fort of Kerala, put to flight the ruler of Talavanapura and, after cross 
ing the KavM, conquered the enemy's country. 

' About the middle of the 12th century A.D. 

? See below, Nos. 887 and 408. 8 Bead -tryaSilitama-, 


abhiraddlii alju[lt-i]re . . . ta[d-a]ntarggata-Jyeshta(shtlia).masada 
aaiaseyu[m] sihyyu-grakanainum=agi . & grahanadoQ],, 

[Sunday], 1 16th June A.D. 866 ; a solar eclipse, visible in India ; see Ind. Ant Vol XXIII 
p, 123, No. 59. 

Before Amoghavarsha the inscription eulogizes Nirnpama Kalivallabha [Dhruvaiija], and 
Prabhutavarsha G&vindaraja [III,] Jagatluuga [I.] Kirti-Narayana. 

76. S. 788. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 21S. Sirur Sanskrit and Kanarese inscription of the 
5 2nd year of the reign of the Hahdrdjddhirdja Amogliavarsha I. Nripatunga. 

Tlie date, etc., are practically the same as in No. 75. 2 

77.S. 788. JwcZ. Ant. Vol. XII. p, 181. Bagumra (now Vienna Oriental Museum) 
plates of the Rtishiralsut-a HaMsdmantddhipati Dkravaraja II. Bharavarsha Mruparna of 
Gujarat, issued from Bhrigukachchha : 

(L, 64). Sakanripakai-utita-aamvatsara-sateshu saptasv=eku(k6)nanavaty-adlukshv= 
ank-ata^ saihvat 789 Jyeshth-amayasyayani adityagrahana-parvvani. 

6th Juno A.D. SG7 , a solar eclipse, visible in India ; see ibid. Vol. XXIII. p, 131, "No, 109. 

Genealogy from Govindaraja [I.] to Indraraja, the ruler of Mta, as in No. 68 ; his son 
.Kakkaiuja (after defeating some Rashtrakutas, placed Am6ghavarsha on his throne) ; his BOD 
Nirupama Dhmraiija [I.]; hia son Akalavarsha Bubhatunga ; his son Dharavarsha Nirupama 
Dhruyaraja [II] (defeated Mildra). The grant mentions, as dMdha, Go^indaraja, a son of 
Subhatunga and younger brother of Dharavarsha Nirupama [Dhruvaraja II.]. 

78. g. 789.~]2p.lH&. Vol. VI. p. ^87, and Plates. GujarM (now Dr. Bhandarkar'a) 
plates 3 of the Rashferakuta Mahfa&mantddhipati Talaprahdrin Dantivar-man AparimitavarBba, 
the younger brother of Dhruvaraja II, of Gujarat, recording a grant made, after baihing in the 
river Pui-avi, infavottr of a vihdra (or Buddhist monastery) : - 

(L. 65). Sakanripakal-atita-samvatsara-sat^shu sa[pta]su navasity-adliikeshv=amkatb=pi 
saihvatBararfiatfi 789 Pausha-va(ba)hula-navanayam(mya)m=uttarayana-mahaparvvam=uddisja,* 

23rd December A.D. 867. 

Genealogy as far as Dhruvaraja [II.] as in No. 77 ; hia younger brother (the son of 
Akfilavarsha) Apariinitavarsha Dantivarman. The grant is signed by both Dantivarman and 
Dhruyaraja [IT.]. 

' j X ' P- 194 '' p S 01 - No - 88- Saundatti 

Sanskrit and Kanarese Katta inscription, recording several grants. Date 6 of the time of the 
Katta MdhAadmoHta Prithvlrama? (the son of Merada), a feudatory of the Bashfcrakiita 
Krishnaraja [IT,?] : 

- y^ cha samayukt[6*]su(shu) saptasu 

atiteshu Manmath-ahvaya-vatsare || 

(For another date in the same inscription see below, No. 201.) 

. Ant ' V L XIIL P- 135 K^^eri inscription of the reign of the 
MahardjddUrdja Amoghavarsha I., and of the time of his feudatory, the [Silfea] 
MalMtamanta Kapardin II., ' the lord of Konkana :' 

(L. 1). Sakanripakai.atita-aamvatsara-sat^hu saptasu navanavaty-adhikeBhv=amkatai> 79, 

Jnf. Vol. XXXI. p. 254. ' ^ ^ *** 

^ 5 The defeat of MiWra b y Dhruvaraja II. is not mentioned here, 

I-* as PrMvirama ia conc.ned, 

^ WP1- of On,** who waa the diaciple oj 
8 The name KashtmkAta does not occur in the inscription. 


81.-8. 810. Ind. Ant, Vol. XIII. p. 66, and Plates. Bagumva 'now Vicnaa Oriental 
Museum) plates 1 of tlie Rashtrakuta Muhdsdmant&dliipati Krishnaraja Akalavarsha of Gujarat, 
issued from Ankulesvara ; 

(Plate iib, 1. 11). SakanripakM=atita-9amTatsai i a-attehv=a9htasu dac-^ttareaha Ciiaitre- 
mavasya[y!im] suryagrahana-parvani. 

15th. April A.D. 888 ; a solar eclipse, visible in Mia j see itid. Vol. XXIII, p, 123, Nc, tiO. 

The grant first treats of the kings from G6vindaraja [L] to [Nirapama Dlmivaraja Il?j 
as No. 77 ; it then mentions [the latter's younger brother] Ihmtivannan, 2 and after him [hi* 
eon P] Akalawsha Krishnaraja, 

82.~S.822 (for 824). M Ant. Vol. XII, p. 221, and Plate in Vol. XL p, 127 ; PS'JCl 
No, 85, Nandwadige Kanareae inscription of the reign of the Bashtrakuta 3 MahdrdjudhifSja, 
Ak&lavarsha (Krishnarlja II.) : 

(L. 1) ,- Sakanripakal4tita-sarbYatsar[amgal=eiihi-Tiiu;a]"irppatt-eradaneya Dundubhiy= 
eriiba variahajm] prava[r*]ttise tadva[r*]8h4bhyantai'a"Magha-su(su)ddha-pamchamiyBm 
Briha[8*]pativarad=andu[rh] UttaiMada(dha,)-nakshatramum Siddhiy=emba [y&gamu]m4ge. 

Thursday, 6th January A.D. 903 ;* see t6W, Vol. XXIV. p, 9, No, 162. 

83.S. 824, Jour. Bo. A.S. Soe. Vol. X. p. 190. Mulgund fragmentary inscription of the 
reign of the Bashtrakuta 3 king Krishnavaliabha (Krishnaraja II,} : 

(L. 2). Sakamipakale=shtha(shta)-sate chatui'uttaravimad(ty)-uttare sampragats 
Dunduhhi-nimani varshS pravarttamlne, 

81 S, 832.%. Iwd Vol. I, p, 53, Kapadvanaj (in Kaira district) plates of the 
Bashti-akuta 3 Akalavarsha SJubhatunga (Krislinaraja II.), and hia feudatory, the Mahdsmmta. 
Praclianda, the son of Dhavalappa, of the race of Brahmavaka : 

(L, 60). Saka-samvat 832 Vaisakha-iuddha-paiurnriamasyaih mah^-Vaisakhyiim, 

Subhatunga Erishnaraja [L] ; hia son Nirapama Dhruvaraja ; his son Govindaraja [III,] ; 
his son Maharaja-Shanda [Am6ghayarsha I.] ; his son Akalavarsha Subhatutga [Krishcaraja 
II.], called Vallabharaja. 

In the race of Brahmavaka there was Kumbadi ; his son DSgadi ; his sou RajahaiiiBa 
Dhavalappa ; his sona Prachanda, Akkuva (Akkuka) and SellaVidyadhara, 

85.-. 831 (for 888). M Ant, Vol. XII. p. 222, and Plate in Vol. XL p. 127; 
PSOOI. No. 79. Aihole Sanskrit and Kauarese inscription of the reign of the B&shtrakfifa 8 
Kannara (Kjishnar&ja II.) ; 

(L, l),~Sakanripakal-ati(ti)ta-samTatsara-satamgal=entu-nuj;a-vit(mu)vatt-o[n] dan e y H 
Prajapatiy=emba samvatsara[m*] pravarfctise, 

86,-fi, 836, Jom-. So, As. Soc. Vol. XVIII, p. 257, and Plates. Bagumra 6 plates of the 
Eashtrakuta Ma,lidrujadU i r^a, Indrar^ja III. Mtyavarsha, the successor of the MahA- 
r&jd<l,Uraj<t Krishnaraja II, Akalavarsha, residing at Manyakh^ta ; isaned from lurundaka ; 
(composed by Trivibramabhatta, the son of Ne'jo.aditya) : 


(L. 52). Sakanripakal-atata-samvat8ara-sat^sliv=ashta8U shattrimgad-nttarfehu Tuva. 
samTatsara-Phalguna-gttddha-saptamyamsampanne Sn-pattava(ba)ndh-6tsav^. 

la the Satyaki family of the lineage of the Tadus (sprung from the Moon), Daniidwga 
(conquered the Ohalukyas, took Kanchi, etc.) ; Ms paternal uncle Krishnaraja [L] ; his son 

1 This grant is very incorrect and full of omiaBionB. ' See above, No. f 8. 

! The name ESshtrakAta doea not occur in the inscription. 

1 But the nakihatta and the y6ga are irregular. 

6 los. 86 and 87 are spoken of as " Nans&ri plates," but they were found at Bagrmrd ; compare Zeittchr, 


Nirupama [Dhruvaraja] ; his son Jagattunga [I. Govindaraja III.] ; liis son Srivallabha Vim- 
Narayana [Amoghavarsha I.] (defeated the [E.] Clialukyas) ; his son Krishnaraja [II] his 
son Jagattunga [II.], married Lakshmi, the daughter of the Chedi Eanavigraha who \vasa BOB 
of Kfikkalla of the Eaihaya family j their son Indraraja [III.] 1 (uprooted Mem 9 ). 

87. S. 836. Tour. So. As. Soe. Vol. XVIII. p. 261, and Plates. Other Bagumrfc plates 
of the Rashtrakuta MahdrdjddJrirJja Indraraja III. Mityavarsha, of the same date as, and, 
excepting the formal part of the grant, identical with, No. 86. 

SS. S. 838 Ind. Ant, Vol. XII. p. 224. Hatti-Mattur Kanarese inscriptions of the 
reign of the Kashfcrakuta 4 MaMrdjddhiraja Nityavarsha (Indrar&ja in.), recording a grant 
by the Mahdsdmanta Bendeyarasa : 

(L,3). Sa(sa)kabhupalakal-[a*]kranta-sam[va*]taara-Praba(bha)v-adi-namade(dlie)yam= 
uttama-madhyama-iaghanya-pa(pha)}ada(da)-praHiritigal=entu-nura-muvatt-ente ( u t a ) n e y a 
Dhatu-samvatsar- [a*] ntarggata. 

89. S. 840. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII, p. 223. Dandapur Kanareee inscription of the reign 
of the Rashtrakuta* Prabhutavarsha (Oovindaraja IV.) : 

(L. 2). entu-nura-nalvatt=avu ta |j Saka-kalamgal=varsham prakatam peaarim Pramflthi 
varttise dinapam makarakke varppa samkramana-kaladol=kude banda Paushada titLiyol | B 

90. S. 851. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. Ell, No. 48; see ibid. p. 249. Bate of a Kajas 
Kanarese inscription of Goj jigadva (Govindaraja IV.) : 6 

^ ^ (L. 22). [Sajka-vai-sha 851neya Vikiita-sainvatsarada Maghada punnamey=ldityavaram= 
Asl^sha(sha)-nakshatrado(?)l(?) sdma-grahanath samanise tula-pn[rasham=i?]ldn tatsamayadol, 

Sunday, 17th January A.D. 930 ; a lunar eclipse, visible in India ; see iUd, Vol. XXIII 
p. 114, No. 7. 

91. S. 862. Jp- Id. Vol. VII. p. 36, and Plates. Cambay plates of the Eashtrakuta 
MaMrdjadMrdja G6vindarja IV. Suvar^avarsha, (described as) the successor "of the 
HaMrdjddhit'dja Nityavarsha (Indi'araja III.), settled afc his capital Manyakheta :' 

f ( L , 44) . Sakanripakal-atita-samvatsara.atSshv=ashtaau d vapailchasad-adhikeshv=ankat6= 
pi Saka-samTat 852 pravarttamana-Khara-aamvatsar-antarggata-Jy^shtha-suddha-dasamyam 
S6ma-din Hasta-samipasthd chandramasi. 

Monday, 10th May A.D. 930 \ see ibid. p. 28. 

^ In the family of the Tadus (sprung from the Moon), Dantidurgaraja ; his paternal uncle 
Krishnaraja [I.] ; his son G6vindaraja [II.] ; his younger brother Iddhat^jas Niru- 
pama [Dhravaaftja] ; after him, Jagattunga [I. Gdvindaraja III.] j his son AmSghavarsha [I.] 
(defeated the [E,] Chalukyas at Vingavalli) ; his son Akalavarsha [Krishnaraja II.] (conquered 
KhStaka), married a daughter of Kdkkala ; their son Jagattunga [II.], married Lakshmi, the 
daughter of^ K&kkala's son Kanavigraha ; their son Indraraja [III.] (uprooted Mah6daya), 
married Vijamba, the daughter of Ammanade'va who waa the son of Kdkkalla's son Arjuua ; 
their son Govindaraja [IV.] Prabhutavarsha Suvarnavarsha. 8 

1 Also called Eatta-Eandarpa and Kirti-Narayana. 
a I.e., probably, Mah&daya; see below, No. 91. 

8 This inscription is followed ou the same storie by another Kanarese inscription, of the lltli or 12th century 
A.D., recording private grants. 

The name Rastyrakuta does not occur in the inscription. 

5 See Dr. Fleet in Ep. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 177, note 7. 

6 See Dr. Ileet Hid. p. 177. 

7 But, when making the grant, the king had gone to Kapitthaka on the Gadavarf for the festival of the 

8 Also called Sahasanka, Nitya-Kandarpa, Vikranta-Klrayana, etc. 


92.-S. 855. Jnd. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 249, and Plates. Sangli (now Sawantwadi) plates 1 
of &e Rashtrakuta MahfotjMhw&ja, G6vindarjs IV. tararaavarsfca (described as) the 
successor of the MaMrdjadUrdja, Mtyavarsha (Indraraja III), residing at Manyakhe> : 

(L. 44.)BakaDripakM-&tita-samvataara ) ^ateshv=aahfca8U pamchapamchaM-adhike'shv = 
amkat6=pi saihvatsaranam 855 pravarttamSirLa-Viiaya-BaDivatsaa'-amtarggata-Srlvapa- 
paurnuamlsyam vare" Gurfih Purvvabhadrapada-nakshattre. 

Thursday, 8th August A.D. 933 ; see M4. Vol. XXIII. p, 114, No. 8. 

Genealogy, etc., substantially as in No. 91. 

93,-fi, 862. Bp. lad. Vol. V. p. 192, and Plate. D&oli (in WardM district) plates of the 
Eashtokuta MaMrtfddhvr&ja Krishaaraja III. Akalavarsna, the successor of the MaM> 
rSjAihw&ja, Am&ghavarsha III, recording a grant made for the spiritual benefit of the king's 
younger brother Jagattunga III. ; issued from Manyakhe'ta : 

(L. 47).-Sakanripakal-atata-8amva[tsa]ra.gat^shv=ashtaau dviaha[8%-a]dlik&[slni] 

In the lunar race, in Tadu's family, there was the god Vishnu-Krishna j and kings of that 
family became known as Tungas, belonging to the SatyaM branch of it ; in their lineage, Ratta ; 
after Mm, named after his son Rashtrakuta, the Rashtrakuta family. From that family sprang 
Bantidurga ; his paternal uncle Krishnaraja [L] ; his sou Govindaraja [II] ; his younger 
brother Nirupama Kalivallabha [Dhruvaraja] ; his son Jagattunga [I. Gflvrndaraja III.] ; his son 
Nripatunga [Am6ghavarsha L] (founded Manyakh&ta); his son Krishnaraja [II.]; his eon 
Jagattunga [IL] (did not reign) j his son Indrarkja [III.] ; Ha son Am&ghavarsha [II] ; his 
younger brother G6vindaraja [IV.]. Aiter him, the son of Jagattunga II, Am6ghaYarsha [III. 
Baddiga] ; his son Krishnaraja [III] (slew Dantiga and Vappuka; 2 in Gangapati deposed 
Hachliy&malla, i.e. Rachamalla I., 8 and put in his place Bbltarya, i.e. Biituga II. ; he also 
defeated the Pallava Anniga). 

94.-. 867,-Ej). Ind. Vol. IV. p. 60, and Plate. Saldtgi (now Indi) pillar inscription 4 
of tke reign o Krishaaraja IE. Akaiavarsha, the son of Am6ghavarsha III, residing at 

(L. 3).-Saka-kalad=gat4bdanam sa-saptadhikashaahtishu sateshv=ashtasu tavatsu 

saminlm=ankat6=pi cha | Varttamane Plavamg-abdS ... 

(L. 45).-Purvv-6kte varttaman-abde maso Bhadrapad^mchitS piki-paryvani tasy=aiva 
Kujavk&na samyutS suryyagrahana-kale tu madhya-ge" cha divakar^, 

Tuesday, 9th September A.D. 945; a solar eclipse, visible in India; see Ivd. Ant. 
Vol. XXIII. p. 123, No. 61 ; and Vol. XXV. p. 269. 

95.-S. 872*.%. !<?. Vol. II. p. 171 ; Up. Cam Vol. III. p. 92, No. 41, and Plate ; 
%. hd. Vol. VI. p. 53, and Plates. Atakur (now Bangalore Museum) Kanarese inscription 
of the time of Krishnaraja IE. Kaanaradeva 6 (who killed in battle at Takk61a the Ch&la 
MTadi-Chbla RajadityaO and of the W. Ganga Permanadi Butuga II. ^Satyavakya- 
Konguaivarma-dharmamahar&j&dliiraja, ' lord of K61ala,' ' lord of Nandagin : '- 

(L l).-Sa(8a)kanri(Bri)pakal4tita-sa[m]vatsara.aa(ga)Mg4=entu-nt};"[e]lpatt-[e]rada- 

aeya S6(sau)myam=emba sa[m]vatsaram pravarttiae. 

1 Compare lad. Ant. Yol. XXXI. p. 219. 

a Below, in No. 98, the name is Vappuga. 3 See No. 95. . , , ,. v ^ , 

* He pfflu ksidea contaias two Kanarese iaacriptiona, one (<iZ. p. 63) of about the period to which the above 
Sanakfit macription belongs, aud the other (Md. p. 65) of the llth or 12th century A.D. The former records grants 
of a certain Kafichiga of the Selaja race; and the latter a grunt of the JttMmtfaMw* <Sd[v]tjama of the 

Described as a hee ou the waterliliea that were the feet of Aaftghmnhadta [III.] i see No. 93. 
8 See below, NOB. 127 and 712. 


The inscription mentions a follower of Butuga's, named Manalei-a, 'lord of Valabhi,' 
rLe Sagara vaihsa. A subsidiary record on the stone states that Butuga killed Rachamall 
fh], the son of Ereyapa, and tliat it was Butuga who treacherously stabbed Bajaditya. 

96. S. 873. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 25-7. Soratur Kanareae inscription of the reign 
oi the Mah&raj&dbirftja ATcalavarsha Kannaradeva (i.e. the Rashtrakuta Krishnaraja III.) : 

(L. 4). Sa(ga)kanripaka,l-akrajata-samvatsara-saCga)tamga[l*] 873 Vir6dhi[krit*]- 
samratsarada Marggasira-masada punnameyura^ldityavaramum K6hiui(m)-nakshatramum 
stS ( s6)magrahanad= andu. 

Sunday, 16th November A.D. 951 ; a hmar eclipse, visible in India; see ibid. Vol. XXIII 
l. 114, No. 9. 

97. S. 876*. Supplied by Dr. Fleet. 1 Date of a Chinchli (in Dharwar district) Kanai-e^e 
inscription of the time of the Bashtrakuta Krisimaraja III. : 

Safa)kahhupalakal-akranta-aamvatsara-sa(sa)tanigal entu-nur-elpatt-araneya Auaiida- 
-aihvatsarada Vaisaklia-su(su)ddha-bidige Somavaramum Mrigasira-nakahatrainum=age(? gi). 

Monday, 18th April A.D. 953. s 

98. S. 830. Ep. Int. Vol. IV. p. 281, and Plate. Karhad plates 3 of the Raalitrakfita 
.MuMrujtUMrdj* Krishnaraja IH. Akaiavarsha, the successor of the MaJidrdjd'dliirdja, 
Amoghavarsha III., issued from M^lpati : 

(L. 56). Saka[nri]pakal-[a*]tita-[sam]vatgara-gat6Bhv=ashtasv=a[si]ty-adhik68hu IQla- 
y ukta-samvatsar-antarggata - Ph[a]lguna- va(ba) lutla-tray&dasyam(sy am) Vu (bu) dhd . 
Wednesday, 9th March A.D. 959> 

Genealogy as in No. 93. Krishnaraja III. oonquered [the Kalachuri-Chedi] Sahasrarjunji, 
though he was an elderly relative of his wife and his mother ; he slew Dantiga and Vappiiga ? 
m GangapatJ he deposed Rachhy^malla (i.e. Eaohamalla I.) 6 and put in his place Bhutarya 
(i.e. Butuga II.) ; and he defeated the Pallava Anniga. 

99. S. 884*. Supplied by Dr. Fleet? Date of a D^vi-Hosur (in Dharwar district) 
fCanarese inscription of the time of the Bashtrakuta Krishnaraja III. : 

Sa(sa)ka-varsha 884 Dundubhi-samvatsar-antarggata-Pausha-su(su)ddha-tray6dasi( k si) 

Sunday, 22nd December A.D. 9618 (^ith the Uttarayana-samkranti on the nest dav 
Moriday). J ' 

100.-fifotrf74-.Tnd. Inscr. Vol. III. No. 7, p. 12. Ukkal (Vishnu temple) Tamil inscription 
i'i the 16th year (of the reign) of the glorious KannaradSva who conquered Kachchi (i.e 
Kftfidiipm-a) and Taujcai (i.e. Tafijaviir), (i.e. the Eashtrakuta Kyishnaraja IH.>. 

101. Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 284. Tirukkalnkkunram Tamil inscription of the 17th year 
(of the reign) of the glorious KannaradSva who conquered Kachchi and Tafnai (* e the 
Rfishtrakuta Krishnaraja III.). J 

102.-J57p. Id. Vol. III. p. 285, and Plate. Tirukkalukkunram Tamil inscription of 
the 19th year (of the reign) of Kanaaradeva who conquered Kachchi and Tafiiai (ie the 
Hashtiakftta Krishnaraja III.). 

1 See Up. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 180. 

c Cum pare 2nd. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 373. 

Vol. IVp. S.^ th UtM the date a mmenced 2 h " 33 m ' affcer mean s ^e; see my remark*, in E P . 
* Above, m No. 93, the name is Vappuka. 

n 6 Jne bove, No. 95. 7 See ^ Jf(A ydf ^ J8Q 

ihia day fell hi the year DundubM oaly by the northern luni-solar system. 


103.%. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 82, and Plate. Bavaji Hill (near VMr) Tamil rook inscription 
of the 26th. year (of the reign) of Kannarade^a (-i.e. the Rashtrakuta Krishnaraja IE.). The 
inscription mentions a Vira-Ch.61a, who according to Dr. Hultzsck may he identical with thts 
Ganga-Bana Prithivipati II. Hastimalla; see Hid. p. 223. Compare below, No, 671. 

104. S. SQB.Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 255, Adaragnfichi Kanarese inscription of tine 
reign of the MaJwrajddMrdja Kottiga (Khottiga) Mtyavarsha, 1 and the time of his feudatory. 
the W, Ganga Permanadi Marasinina II. ; 2 recording 1 grants by PanchaladSva :- 

(L. 7).~Sa(sa)kanripakal-atita-samyachehlia(tsa)ra-aa(sa)tangal=entu-iifi.};a-tombhat ta- 
mfijaneya Pra]apati-sa[m*]vachchha(taa)i'am sallutam-ire tad-Yarah-abhya(bhya)ntarad= 
Asava(sva)ytrjad=amavase Adityavara suryya-grahana. 

Sunday, 22nd October A.D. 971; a solar eclipse, visible in India; see ibid. Vol. XX) T),, 
p. 123, No. 63. 

105. S. 894. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 26-t. and Plates. Khavda' (now Bombay As. Soe.'i-) 
plates 4 of the Eashte'akuta .MahdrdjddUr{i,ja Kakkaraja II. (Kakkaladeva) Amogiavarslia, 
' who meditated on the feet of the MahdrdjAdhiritja AMla-varsha, 1 residing at Minyakheta : 

(L. 47) . SakaMipakal-atita-samvatsara-sate'shv=a8}itasn chatin'nna(mna)vaty-adhikSfiliv- 
ankatah samvat 894 Angira(rah)-sainvatsar-antara'gata-Asvayuia-paurntiami3yayi)r! ' 
Vu(bu)dha-dino somagrahaua-mahaparvvaai. 

Wednesday, 25th September A.D. 972 ; a lunar eclipse, visible in India ; see -Hid. VtA 
XXIII. p. 115, No. 10. 

In Tadu's lineage, Dantidurga; his paternal uncle KyiBhnaraja [I.]; his son G6vinda- 
raja [II.]; his younger brother Nirupaina [Dhrxtvaraja] ; his son Jagattuaga [I. G6vinda- 
raja III.]; hia son Amoghavarsha [I.] (defeated the [E.] Ghalukyas; founded Manyakheta) ; 
his sou Akalavarsha Krishnafraja II.], married the daughter of the Ch&li Kokkalla, tin 
younger sister of Sankuka. Their son Jagattunga [II.], married Lakahmi, the daughter of 
the Chedi Samkaragana, who bore to him Indra[r&ja III.] ; he also married ' his matemiti 
ancle' Samkaragan&'s daughter G6viudamba who bore to him Amoghavarsha [III,]. 
Am&ghavaraba [III.] married Yuvarajad^va'a daughter Kundakadevi, who bore to him 
Khottigadeva who became king after the death of his eldest brother Krishnaraja [III.], 
Am&ghavarsha Wripatunga Kakkaraja [II.] 6 is the son. of Khottiga's yotmger brotier 

106. . 898*. Ltd. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 271. Gundur Kanarese inscription of the rdga 
of the Mahdrdjddhw&ja Kakkaladva (KakJsaraja II.), and the time of lis feudatory, the 
W, Ganga Permanadi Marasimlia n. W oJamtaaltul&ntalEa, and of PanetialadSva : 6 

(L. 13). Sa(sa)kha(ka)-varsham=e5tu-nuja-tombhatt-apiTi.eya Silmukha-samvatsaT- 


Perhaps Sunday, 22nd June A.D. 973, but the Samkraati took place on Tuesday, 24th Jaw. 
A.D. 973 ; see Hid. Vol. XXIV. p. 12, No. 174. 

107. . 904. Inser. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 57, p. S3. Eulogy, in Kanarese, of tis 
Eashtrakuta Indraraja IV., the son's son of KrishnariLja III. Date of Ma death : 

Vaaadhi-nabhd-nidhi-prainita-samkhyfe (khya)-SakavanipaJa-kalaniarb neneyise Chitrahhana 

Monday, 20th March A.D. 982 ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 124, No. 64. 

] Also called Eatta-Kandarpa. a See Mow, Ko. 129 ff. 

1 See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXI. p. 220. 4 The third plate is now missing. 

1 Also called VSra-Mrayana, etc. 

See Dr. Fleet's Dynattiei, p. 30? ; Up. ted. Vol. V. p. 173, note I. See also below, 2fo 132. 


Western Gangas. 

108. fl. 169* Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 212, and Plate. Tanjore (formerly Sir W. Elliot's, 
now British Museum, spurious 1 ) Sanskrit and Kanarese plates of the W. Ganga AriTftrme* 
(HaaiYarma-)maMrajdMraja : 

(L, 10). Sa(8a)ka(ka)-kal6 nav&ttara-shashtir=e1basata-gateslra Prabhava-samvatsar- 
abhyantare- ...... Sha(Pha)lgun(n)4mavas&(sya)-Bhrigu Revati(ti)-nakshatr3 Vriddlu- 

y6g6 Vrishabha-lagne. 

The date is irregular; see find. Vol. XXIV. p. 10, No. 166. 

In tike Jhnave'ya family and Kanvayana gotra, Konganivarma-dharaamaharajadhiraia ; 
his son Madhava-maharajadhiraja [I.] (composed a Dattdkas&trarvrittt) ; his son Arivarma- 

109. S. 188.%. Oam. Vol. III. p. 202, No. 122, and Plates. Tagadura (spurious^) 
Sanskrit and Kanarese plates of the W. Ganga Hanvarma-mahadhiirajadhiraja, issued from 
Talavanapura :-~ 

(L. 11). Saka-varishe'shti gateahu at-tasiti-sate Vihhava-samvatsare 1 Phalguna-masS suddha- 
[da?]sami- Ouruy^re Punarvasu-nakshatr. 
The date is irregular. 
Genealogy substantially as in No. 108. 

^110. 6. 872 (?) In&.Ant. Vol. VII. p. 173, and Plate; Mysore Inscr. No. 156, p, 2!$. 
Harihar (spurious 3 ) Sanskrit and Kanarese platea of a son (described as ' lord of K61ala ') of the 
W. Ganga Vishnug6pa-manai?ajdhiraja s the son o KoAgnKvarma-dliamamah&pAjAdhirtja 
of the Jahnaviya family : 

(L. 9). Saga[ . . nayana-gi . , neya f ] Sadharana-gammachhohharada Phalguna-ici 
amava^e Adivarad=andu. 
The date is irregular. 

m.-~I& Ant. Vol. V. p. 136, and Plate ; Mysore Inscr. No. 154, p. 289. Mallolialii 
(spurious 4 ) plates of the 29th year of the reign of the "W. Ganga Kongam-maMraja (Kongani- 

(L. 17). atmanah pravarddhamana-vipula-vi[ja*]y"aisvaryya ^k6natnmgatd(?) Jaya- 
sabatsar^ 5 ^ataya-nakshatre". 

In the Jahnaviya family, Konganivarma-dharmamahadhiraja ; his son Madhavadhiraja [L] 
(composed a DattaTtasAtra-vydkhyd) j his son Harivarma-maraja ; Ma son Vishnug6pa-r4}a ; 
hfe son Madhava-raja [II.] ; his son Kongani-raja, 

112. 1.3 388, Ind. Ant. Vol. I. p. 363, and Plate j Ooorg Inscr. No. 1, p. 1, and Plate ; 
Mysore Inscr. No. 151, p. 282. Merkara (spurious 8 ) Sanskrit and Kanarese plates of the* 
W". Ganga Avinlta Kongani-mah&dhiraja : 

(L. 16).- ashta asiti uttarasya tray6 satasya samvatsarasya Magha-masam S6may&ram 
Svati-nakshatra sudhdha-panchami. 

The date is irregular j see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 11, No. 169. 

In the J&hnavlya family and Kanvayana gotra, Kongani-mahadhiraja ; Ma son Madhavn- 
mahadhiraja [I.] (composed a Dattakastitra-vr'itti) j his son Harivarma-mahadhMja ; his sea 

1 See Ind, Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 215, No. 10. See ibid. p. 221, JSo. 46, 

See Hid. p. 221, No. 48. f See ibid. p. 221, No. 50. 

* The year Jaya according to Mr. Rice is here S. 876. 

Bee Z*Z. Awt. Vol XXX. p. 219, "No. 40. 


-iraja; Me son Myhava-maMdhmlja [II.]; Ms ^ ^inita Kofigam- 
maMdMraja, slater's son of the Kadamba Krahnavaraa-maMdliiraja. 

113 -M. In*. Vol. VII. p. 174; Mysore Inter. Ko. 157, p. 294 Bangalore Museum 
(nnuum>) Plates* of the tHrd year of the reign of the W. GangaKoEgam-maMraja ; : 

savats ^ s 

the Jtov&ya family and Ka^vayana *, Kotganmrma-^^ 

a I)oMfnKr ^>' ^ " =^i 


darter's SOB of Ska^arman W of Punn^da). 
** Oar Vol. Ill- p. 107, No, 113, and Plates. Hallegere 



i For Kadamba^ named Kjishnavarman. 8 ee below, NOB. 618 and 614 

See M. A* Vol. XXX. p. 232, No. 52. 

The yew Vijaya according to Mr. Eice is toe S. 4JB. . gw .^ 222j No _ ^ 

See Ind. A* VoL XXX. p. 222, No, 54. <* ^ sbactffardB and forwar d 9 in a way Ctat 

. , - is ertr1jc orrupt ;; . -t ' gvarhalli) grants." 

L) the name ol one 

o! hi f endfttories. 


117. S. 672. 'Ep. Cam. Vol. VI. p. 151, No. 36, and Plates. Javali (spurious ?) plates 
of the 25th year of the reign of the W. Ganga Sripurusha PritMvi-Konguni-maharaja, wsueu 
from Mannegrama : 

(L. 35). dvusaptatyiittara-shatclihateshu, Saka-varsheshv=atiteshv=atma:nah=pravai'- 
ddhamana-vijayaisVaryya-samvatsare paiiehavirhse' varttaraane . ; . . Vaisakha-suklapakslia- 
dasamyaih TTttaraphalguni-nakBhatrl S6mavai i e' Vrishabharasi-sanakrantyarn. 

Monday, 20th April A.D. 750. 

Genealogy as far as Sivamara [I.] substantially as in No. '115; his son's son Sripurusha 
Prithivi-Konguni-mahara ja . 

118. S. 684. Madras Jour, Lit, So. 1S7S, p. 138 ; Mysore Insor. No. 152, p. 254. Hosiir 
(sptuious 1 ) plates of the W. Gaiiga Sripurusha Prithivi-Kongani-maharaja, issued from 
Manyaptira : 

Chaturasity-uttarSshu shatchhateshu Saka-varskeshu bamatiteahu . . . "V^isakha-mase 
a6ma-grahane ViSakha-nakBhatre ESukravare. 

For j. 684 current the date might perhaps correspond to Friday, 24ih April A.D. 761, bn* 
there was no lunar eclipse on that day ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 11, No. 17L 

Genealogy as in No. 117. 

119. S. 698. Ind. Ant. Vol. II. p. 156, and Plates ; Ep. Cam. Vol. IV. p. 233, No. 85, ami 
Plates; specimen Plate in Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 16-i ; Mysore Inscr. No. 153, p. 287. Devarhalli. 
formerly kno'vn as Naganiaugala (spurious 2 ) plates 3 of the 50th year of the reign of the 
W. Ganga Mahdrdj&dliirdja SripuruabaPrithUTi-Kofigani-maharaja, recording a grant made at 
Manyapnra, at the request of Paramagula-Prithuvi-Nirgunda-raja (the son of Dundu-Nirgunda- 
juvavaja, of the Bana family ?), in favour of a Jaina temple founded at Sripura by Prithuvi- 
Nirgunda -raja's wife Kundacbchi, the daughter of Maruvarman of the Sagara family : 

(L. 41). ashtanavaty-uttareshu [sha*]tchhateshu Saka-varsheshv=atit^3hv=atnianaL 
pravarddhaniana-vijayaisvaryya-sariivatsare panchasattamS pravarttamane. 

Genealogy as in No. 117. 

The grant gives the line of Jaina teachers Chandranandin, his disciple Kitinaranandin, hi* 
disciple Kirtinandin, his disciple Vimalachandracharya. 

120.S. 281, Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 311, and Plate. Kalbhavi (spurious*) Sanskritam! 
Kanarese 'Jaina inscription, recording the restoration, by the Gaaga M.ahdmandaleswni 
Kambharasa, 5 ' lord of Kuvalala,' of a grant that had been made by the Gangs 
Mahdwandalehara Saigotta 6 PermSnadi Sivamara pi.], ' lord of Kuvalala,' a feudatory of king 
AmogaaYarslia, professedly on the date here given : 

(L. 14).- Saka-varska 261neya Vibhava-samvatsarada Paushya(sha)-bahula-chaturddasi- 

The date is irregular; see ibid. Vol. XXIV. p. 11, No. 168. 

The inscription mentions, in the Kareya gana and Mailapa anvaya, Gunakirti, NUgachandra- 
munindra, Jinachandra, Subhakirti, and Devakirti-guru. 

121. JBjp. Corn. Vol. IV. p. 109, No. 60, and Plates. Galigekere (spurious 7 ) Sanskrit and 
Kanarese plates of the W. Ganga Bauavikramayya. 

Genealogy ^as far as Bhuvikrama substantially as in No. 115 ; his . . . 8 (?) Sivamara [I] ; 
his son's eon Sripurusha ; hia eon ivamSra [II.] Konguni-maharaiadhiraja (anointed as king 

1 See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 222, No. 56. * See ibid. p. 223, No- 57. 

3 Part of the formal portion of the grant is in Kanarese. 

* So far, at any rate, as regards the date ; the writing is of about the eleventh ceatnry A.D. 

* See "Ef. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 65, note 2. See below, No. 127. 

See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 223, No. 69. 8 The original omits the word which is required here. 


by the Rashtrakuta Gr&vinda and the Pallata Nandivarmaa) ; his brother Vijayaditya ; his son 
Kajamalla ; MB son Haaavikramayya. 

122.--.Ejj. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 257, and Plate. Gudigere fragmentaryCanarese inscription 1 of 
tlie reigu of the [W. Ganga] Mahdrr&ja M&rassalba, 8 under whom a certain Dadigarasa was 
governing the district (including the village at which the inscription is). The inscription 
contains the name Subhachaiidra-pandita. 

U3.~Ep. Lid. Vol. IV. p. 141, and Plate. Vallimalai Kanarese inscription (in Grautha 
characters), recording the foundation of a Jaina cave by the [W. Ganga] king ESjaraalla. 
.] 3 ; his son Sripurusha; his son Ranavikrama ; his son Bajatnalla. 

124.JBp. Corn. Vol. Ill p. 165, No. 91, and Plate ; Ep. Ii,& Vol. VI. p. 43, and Plates. 
Doddahundi (now Bangalore Museum) Kanarese inscription, 4 recording the death of the 
W. Ganga Mtimarga-KonguniTarma-dharmamaMrajadhiraja, 5 'lord of Kovajala,' 'lord of 
Naudagiri,' the illustrious Permanadi, and the bestowal of a grant by his eldest sou 
SatyavSkya-PemmSnadi 6 on one Agarayya. 

125. S. 808.~-Iw<l Ant. Vol. VI. p. 102, No. II., and Plate; Oowg Ir. No. 2, p. 5; 
PS 001 No. 269. Biliur Kanarese inscription of the 18th year of the reign. of the W. Ganga. 
SatyavSkya-Kongunivarma.dharmam.ahar&j&duiri8 Permanadi, 7 ' lord of Kovalala,' 'lord 
of Nandagiri : ' 

' Saka 809 (in words, 1. 2), the eighteenth year (in words, 1. 5) of his reign; the 6fth day 
of PhAlgnua.' 

r. No. 113, p. 209, and Plate ; F800I. No. 247 ; Ep. Ind. Vol. 1. p. 350 ; 
i>. Ind. Vol. VI. p. 48, and Plates. Begfa (now Bangalore Museum) Kanarege insoiiption, 
recording that the W. Ganga Ereyapparasa 8 lent to AyyapftdSva 9 for the purpose of fighting 
against Viramah&adra 10 a force collected and commanded by the leader of the Nagattaras, that 
this commander was killed, and that then Breyapa appointed Iruga to the leadership of the 
Nagattaras and made a grant to him. 

127.-S. 860^-JJp. Ind. Vol. III. p. 176, and Plate. Sudi (spurious 11 ) plates of the 
W. Ganga Butuga II. 13 Satyanitivakya-Kongunivftrma-dharmamaharajMbiraja, recording 
a grant to a Jaina temple founded by bis mistress Drva}anaM ; issued from the town of 
Pmikara : 

(L. 68). Sa(sa)ka-vari[sh]eshu shashtyuttar4fllita[sa]tfeshu atibamt&shu Vikani(ri)- 
aamvatsara-Ka[r]tt[i]ka-Nandif3va(gva)ra-su(au)kla-pakshah ashtamyam Adityavarg. 

The date is irregular ; see ibid, p, 159. 

1 According to Dr. Fleet "the characters of it are Mrly referable to closely about A.D. 800." 
1 According to Dr. Fleet to be identified with the MMferva of No. 64 above. 
! Tor Sivamira II. see No. 659. 

* According to Dr. Fleet to be placed roughly about A.D. 840. 
6 By Dr. Fleet identified with. Eauavikrama of No. 123. 

By Dr. Fleet identified with Eijamalla of No. 123. 

' For a short K8tftr undated Kanarese inscription of Ms' see Ind. Ant. Vol. VI, p. 103, So. III. ; Coorg 
Inter. No. 8, p. 6 ; PSQCL No. 270. According to Dr. Fleet he is Btrtuga I. ; see Ep. /& Vol. VI. p, 68, 

8 According to Dr. Fleet about A.D. 908-938; the eveata recorded in the inscription, according to Dr. Fleet, 
have to be placed about A.D. 934-938. 

Identified with a Uolambiidhiraja Ayyapadfiva. 

u According to Dr. Fleet in all probability identical with the E, Chalufcya CMlukya-Bhtma II. 
Gan^amahtedra j see below, No. 560. 

u See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 217, No. 31. 1! For Bfctuga I,|see also above, note 7. 


Genealogy as far as Bhuvikrama substantially as in No. 115 ; Ms son 1 Sivamara [I.] ; Ms 
son Sripurusha Kongunivarma-db, 3 ; Ms son Sivainftra [II.] Kongunivarma-dh. Saigotta ; Ms 
younger brother Vijayaditya ; bis son Rajamalla [I] Satyavakya.Kongunivarma-dh. ; hia son 
Egegauga pj Nftimarga- Kongunivarma-dh. ; hissonMjamalla [II.] Satyavakya-Kongunivarma. 
dh,; Ma yoanger brother Butuga [I.] Gunaduttaranga (married Abbalabba, a daughter of [the 
Bashtrakuta] Amdghavarsha [I.]) ; bis son Sreganga [II.] Mtimarga-Kongunivarma-dh., also 
called Komara-vedenga (' whose forehead was adorned with the yattobandha, of, or by, Ereyappa ') ; 
hia son Harasingha Satyavakya-Kongunivrn'ma-dh., also called Vira-vedenga ; Ms son 
Rajamalla (?) [III.] Witimarga-Kongiinivarma-dh., also called Kachcheya-Ganga ; his younger 
brother Butuga [II.] Satyanitivakya-Kongunivarma-dh., also called Nanniya-Ganga, 
Jayadtittaranga, Ganga-Narayana, etc. (married a daughter of Baddega 3 i.e. the RaBhtrakuta 
Amoghavarsha III., at Tripuri in Pahala ; on the death of Baddega secared the kingdom for 
[the Rashtrakufca] Krishnaraja [III.]; caused fear to Kakkaraja of AJachapura, Bijja- 
DantiTarraan of Banavasi, Rajavarman, Damari of Nuluvugiri, and Nagavarman ; defeated [the 
Ch61a] Eajadifcya, 3 besieged Tanjapuri, etc.). 

128.- fi. 872*, -Itakftr Kanareae insciiption of the time of the W. Ganga Peririnadi 
B&tuga n, Satyavakya-SIongttnivaraia-dJiarmamaliarajadMrija ; see above, No. 95. 

129. &. 890.-JwcZ. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 104, Hues 1-50 of the test. Lakshme'shwar (spurious 4 ) 
inscription 5 of the W. Ganga Mfirasiiiaha II. Satyavfikya-Kongunivanna-dliannamftharaja- 
dhiraja : 6 

(L. 24).- Sakanripakal-atita-aamvatsara-sai^shvsashtasu navaty-uttareshu pravarttaman^ 
Vibhava-samvatsar^. 7 

In the Jahnave'ya family and Kanvayana g&tird, Madhava Konganivarma-dharmamaha' 
rajMhiraja ; his son Madhava-mahMjadhiraja (composed a Dattakasutra-vritti) ; his son 
Harivarma-maharajadhiraja ; his younger brother Marasimha. 

The inscription gives the line of Jaina teachers De"ve"ndra, his disciple fikadeva, his 
diaciple JayadeVa-pandita. 

130. SI. 890.--J?p. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 351. Hebbal Kanarese inscription, recording grants 
fo. by the W. Ganga Marasiriiha II. Satyavakya-Kongujaivarma-dharmamaharajadhiraja 
(also called Nolambakulantakad^va, etc.), ' lord of K61ala,' 'lord of Nandagiri,' and his grand- 
mother Bhujjabbarasi, the mother of Butayya (Butuga II) : 

(Ii. 16). Sa(ga)[i]ta-sa[rii]vat8ara-gatamga[l*] 896neya Bhava-samvatsarada 

Thursday, 18th February A.D. 975. 8 

In the reign of [the Mshtrakuta] Akalavarsha Kannarad^va (Krishnarajall.), Baddegadeva 
(Amoghavarsha III. Baddiga) gave his daughter ReVakanimmadi, the elder sister of 
Kannarade'va (Krishnaraja III.), in marriage to Perma'nadi Butayya (Butuga II.) Satyavakya- 
Kongunivarma-dharmamaharajadhiraja. Their son Maruladeva, married Bijjabe; their eon 
Bachcha(?) -Ganga. Immediately after his reign, there reigned the son of Butayya and 
Kallabbarasi, vis, M&rasimha [II.] Satyavakya-Kongunivarma-dh., also called Nolambakulanta- 
kadeVa, eto. 

1 Elsewhere Sivamfcra is described as the younger brother of Bhflvikrama ; but see also No. 121. 

* I.e>, here and below, -dhamamailrajadhirija. 

See above, So. 95. * See 2nd. Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 218, No. 38. 

* Pub on the sfeone in about the second half of the llth century A.D. 
8 See above, NOB. 104 and 106. 

1 See the same date of aa inscription of apparently the same ling, Ind. JLnt. Vol. VII. p, 112, third part. 
8 On. this day the tifki of the date commenced 6 L 52 in. after mean sunrise. 


ISl.-Itwcr. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 38, p. 5 ; jBp. I*d. Vol. V. p. 176, and Plate, 
Sanskrit and Kanareso much, damaged inscription, "being a panegyric of the W. Ganga 
M&rasifclia II. Satyavakya-KongTinivarma-dharmamaMi'ajadbiraja (called Nolamba- 
kalaataka, etc.) ; engraved after Ma death, 1 

He conquered the northern region for [the Rashtrakufca] Krishnaraja [III] ; destroyed 
the pride of a certain Alia, an opponent of Krishnaraja ; crowned Indearaja [IV.j; defeated 
Vajjah ; 2 destroyed the Sabara chief Naraga ; conquered the Chalukya Bajaditya, etc. He 
committed religious suicide at Bankapura, near the Jaiua teacher Ajitase'na. 

132,d. 897.% Ind. Vol. VI. p. 259, and Plate. Mulgund fragmentary Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Ganga Pafichaladeva 3 Satyavakya-KoiiganiTrarma*' 
dharmamaMrajadhiraja, ' lord of Knvalala,' ' lord of Nandagiri,' the successor of 
Nolambaknlautakacleva (Marasirhha IT.) : 

(fj. 5).-Sa(sa)ka-var8ham=entuniara-tomhhatt-[(j]laTieya Yuva-samvatsarada Bhadrapada- 
bahula-bidiye Brihaspabivaram Kanya-saihkrantiyu[ib]. 

Thursday, 26th August A.D. 975. 

138. S. 899 JwJ. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 102, No. I., and Plate ; Vol. XIV. p. 76 ; Coorgr Inter. 
So. 4, p. 7, and Plate ; P800I. No, 271, Peggn-ur Kaaarese insciiption of the V- Ganga 
ESohamalla n. PermaBadi SatyavakyaoKonginivarma-cHiarmamaharajadliiraia, 'lord of 
Kolala,' ' lord of Nandagiri :' 

(L. I), Sa(sa)kanripakal-atita.Bamvatsara-Ea(ga)tanga[l*] 899taneya l8va(Sva)ra- 
fiamvatsaram pravarttise . . . tadvarsli40hyaatara-Fa(pha)lgttiQa(iia)-su(g'a)klapaks1iada 
Nfundlsva (ava)ram tallaj-avasam=age(?). 4 

Ihe inscription mentions a certain Bakkasa (a younger brother of Mchamalla ?). 

134. Inscr. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 60, p. 58, Kanarese memorial tablet of Bayiga., 
private attendant or guardian of the W, Ganga prince (?) Ealskasa, 

185. Twscr. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 61, p. 58. Kanarese memorial tablet of Gunti (who 
fell in battle ?), the wife of Ldica-Vidyadhara, erected by her sister's husband Bayika (B&yiga), 

136. Iftscr. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 109, p. 85. Inscription recording achievements of 
(MTOndaraja, general of the "W". Gaaga Jagadekavira (ve. M&rasimlxa n.). Born in the 
Brahmakshatra Ma, he fought for Jagadfikavlra, when the latter at the command of [the 
Mshtrakuta] Indraraja [IV.] conquered Vajjaladeva 6 who was the younger brother of Patalamalla ; 
lie also fought in wars with the Nolamba king, eto. 

137.Insor. at Sravana-Belgola, No.85,p, 67, Kanarese inscription, being a panegyric of 
Gommatesvara, of whom a colossal statue was erected by Cbarmradaraya, the minister of the W. 
Gaoga E&chamalla II.; (composed by the poet Boppa Sujan6ttamsa). 

138, Insor. at Sravana-Belgola, No. 67, p. 60. Kanarese inscription, ^recording the 
foandatioB o! a Jaina shrine by the minister Chamunda's son, a lay-disciple of Ajitasena. 

139.-JscA at Sravana-Belgola, Nos. 75 and 76, p. 62, and Plate ; Sf. Ind. Vol. VIL 
p, 109, and Plate. Short Kanarese, Tamil and MaratM inscriptions containing the namea of 
(Chl7iig.d,ar,3a) and G-aftgar&ja. 6 

1 According to Dr. Fleet, this record may be placed in A.D. 975, 

1 Sea below, No. 136. See Kos. 106 and 140. 

See JBjp. Ind. Vol. T, p. 168, note 4 

1 Bee above, No. 181. * See below, "So, 886 ff, 


D. Tte Western Chalukyas of Zalyni and their Feudatories. 1 

140. Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. j>. 167. Part of a Gadag- Sanskrit and Kanarese inscription) 5 
recording the restoration of the W. Chalukya sovereignty by Taila II., the son of V"ikramadity a 
IV. and Bonthadevi. Taila destroyed some Eattas, killed [the Paramara] Muiija, 3 took i fl 
battle the head of [the W. Ganga] Panchala./ possessed himself of the Chalukya sovereignty 
and reigned for 24 years, beginning" with the year Srimukha. 
[SrimukhacrS. 895.] 

14,]. s. 902. Supplied by Dr. Fleet (compare his Dynasties, p. 553). Date of a Sogal (iu 
Belgaum district) Kanareae inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Taila II., and of hw 
i'eudatory, the Eatta Kartavirya I., 5 lord of the Kuudi country : 

Sa(a) ka-varsha 902neya Viki-am.a-samvattiarafl=Aahada(dha)d-amavaayey= Adiv[araai] 

The date ia irregular as regards both the week-day and the eclipse. 

14-2. S. 902. Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 204 Saundatti Kanarese inscription of the 
reign of the W. Chalukya Tailapa (Taila II.), and of his feudatory, the Ratta l/a7ufe<ma?tf fl 
Santivannan (SSnta), the soa of Pittuga (who defeated Ajavarraan, and) who was the son of 
Prithvirama : 6 - 

(L. 3-i). Sa(sa)kanripakal-atita-saihvatsai'a-satuihga[l*] 902neya Vikrarna-samvatsarada 
Paush.ya(sha)-suddha-dasani3 Br0aaspatiTarad=a!ijdin=uttarayaiia-ga(sa,)mkrainaiiadol. 

Thursday, 23i-d December A..D. 980; but the titlti which ended on this day was the 14th, 
not the 10th titU of the bright half of Pausha ; see Ind Ant, Vol. XXIV. p. 6, No. 147. 

143. S. 904. JJp. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 206. Nilgund inscription of fche reign of the 
W. Chalukya MaJidfdjddMrdja Tailapa Ahavamalla (Taila II., who defeated, amongst others, 
king Utpala 7 ), and of his feudatory Sobhana, 8 the younger brother and successor of Kannapa 
(or Kennapa) : 

(L. 17). Sa(sa)kanripa-samvatsai^shu chattiradhika-navagatshu gat^shu Chitrablidau- 
fiamvatsai4 Bhadrapada-mas^ suryya-grahane sati. 

20th September A.D. 982 ; a solar eclipse, visible in India. 

144. B. 911 (for 9l3).~-:#p. Ind. Vol. III. p. 232; PSOOI. IS T O. 86. Bhairanmatti 
Xa3]ai-ese Sinda inscription. 9 Date of the reign of the W. Chalukya Tailapayya (Taila n.), 
and of the Sinda Pulikala, born in the Nfiga race, ' lord of BhogavatJ/ a son of Kammara 
( Kammayyarasa) :' 

(L, 4). Sa(Sa)ka-varsha 911 Vikri(kri)tam=ediba samvatsara praTarttise. 

(For a later date in the same inscription see below. No, 156). 

1 These include (among others) : 
(a). The Eattas ; see Nos, 141, 142, 158, 163, 181, 189, 192, 193, 201, 220, 263-263, (and, of earlier iuscrip. 

tioiis, No. 79). 

(A). The Sindae ; see NOB. 144 156, 189, 218, 224, 233, 234, 238, 243, 247 (and perhaps 253). 
(c;.-The K,dambas; see Kbs. 147, 164, 168, 173, 210, 227j 235, 241, 242, 249, 254, 255, 260, 261, 262, 260, 

270 (and below, Nos. 424 and 425). Tor the early Kadambas see No. 602 ff. 
(rf).-ThePandyasof the Ecmkana and Nolambavadi (Nonambav-adi) j see Nos. 212, 219, 225,231,236, 

238, 244, 248, 250, 251, 252. -For the Pandyas of Madhura see below, section K, 

According to Dr. Fleet, of the time of the W. Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. } see his Dynattiei, p. 426, note 3, 
Compare below, No. 328. 

See Nos. 132 and 259, and compare Dr. Fleet's 'Dynasties, p. 482. 
See below, No. 181. { See above, No. 79. 

I.e, the Para-inara Mufija } see below, No. 150. In my edition of the Nilguud inscription I have wrongly 
altered Utpn\a to Vtkala, 

8 Sea below, No. 14.6. Put on the stone about A.D. 1070. 


145.S. 919. PSOCL No. 2U ; Mysore hscr. No. 99, p. 186. Talgund Kanavcso iusovipti- n 
of the reign of the W. Chalukya Tailapa Ahatamalla (Taila II.), and of his feudatory 
Bhimarasa : 

' Saka 919 (in figures, 1 1. 12), tlie Hemalanibisaroi'dsa,ra ; Sunday, the fifth day of the bight 
f 01 tnight of (?) JUvaynja ;' (1/j/s. Iwscr. : ' Vaisakha, the 8th day of the moon's decrease, 1 Sunday, 1 
which would be Sunday, 2nd May A.D, 997). 

146.-8. 924. Ind. Ant. V,ol. II. p. 297, No. ?>, and Yd. XII. p. 210, No. 31. Noiice of a 
Gadag Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Irivabedanga Satyasraya, 2 and of 
bis feudatory, the MaMsdmanta, Sobhanarasa: 3 

(L. 7.)~Sa(a)kabhupalakal-akramta-samvatsara-sa(sa)taiiigM[r i{ ] 024neya Subhakrit- 
eariivatsararh pravavttise tadvarsh-abhyantara-Chaitra-Buddhao Adityavarad=andu. 

Sunday, 22nd March A.D, 1002. 

U7.-S, 928 (for 929). Ind. Ant. Vol. XTI. p. 212, No. G7, Gndikatti Karaite 
inscription. 4 Date of the time of (?) the W. Chalukya [ Yuvardjii, ?} Jayasimha II., and 
feadator'y, the Kadamba (of Goa) UaMmandaltHvara, Snashthadeva I. : 5 ~ 

(L. 13), Sa(sa)kani=a(a)bda gaja-dvi-nidhi Plavaihgadolw. 

(For a later date in the same inscription see below, No. 164). 

148. S. 980. Jwd. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 212, So. 52. Date of a JhinawaHi Kanarese inscription 
of the W. Chalukya (Irivabedanga) Saty&sraya : 

(L. 10). Sa(sa)ka-variaha 930 Kilaka-[aaiiivajtsa[i i ada] Sravam-bahuja-chatti 3 

Monday, 26th July A.D. 1008. 

149. S. 930, Kharepatan plates of the Silara MandaWat EattarSja, a feudatory of the 
W. Chalukya (Irivabedanga) Satyasraya; see below, No. 301. 

150.-S. 930 (for 881).J<Z. Ant. Vol, XVI, p. 21, and Plate, Kauthfim Plates of the 
W. Chalukya JUaMrwjudkir&ja, Vikraaxslditya V. Tribbuvanamalla, -recording a grant made at 
the Kotitirtha at Kollapura : 

(L. 61). Sakanripakal-atita-samvatsara-gatSshu navasu tnm(trim)sul-adhike,shu gatcfihti 
930 prava[r*]ttamSjia-Satimya-samvatsar paurnnamasyam somagraaana-parvvaai. 

Probably the 6th October A.D. 1009, with a lunar eclipse, visible in India. 7 

In the Chalukya lineage, 8 after 59 kings at Ay6dhya etc,, there was Jayasirahavallabha [L] 
(who conquered the Rashtrakuta Krishna's son Indra) ; his son Eanaraga ; Ms son Pulak^in [I.], 
(lord of Vatapipuri) ; his son Klrtivarnian [I.] ; hia younger brother Mangalisa ; his elder brother's 
son [Pulak^iu II,] Satyagraya (conquered Harsha [of Kanauj]); hia son Nedarnari; his son 
Adityavarman ; hia son Vikramaditya [L] ; hia son Yuddharnalla ; his son Vijayaditya ; Mason 
Vikramaditya [II] ; his son Kirtivarman [IL] 5 a, brother (named Bhima ?) of VikraraMitya [I t.] ; 
Ms son Kirtivarman [III.] ; his sonTaila[L] ; his son Vikramaditya [III.], ; hia aon Bhinra ; his 
eon Ayyana [L], married a daughter of Krishna ; their son Vikramaditya [IV.], married Bontha- 
devi, a daughter of the Chedi Lakshmana ; their son Taila [II] (conquered the Bashfcrakutas 

1 But the original seems distinctly to quote the bright fortnight. Fur the 8tU of the bright half of JUvina 
the date would be Sunday, 12th September A.D. 997. 

J Foi 1 Satya^iaya the inscriptions also have Sattiga and Sattima ; see Dr. Fleet's ftt/Mttiev, p, 4S2. 
> See ibid. p. 432, and above, No. 148 * Put OB the stone in A.D. 1052-53, 

6 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 436, note 1; p. 439, notel ; and p. 587 ; and compare below, No. '6<1, 
* This is the true reading of the original, verified by Dr. Fleet. 

7 lathe year Saurnya of the date this ia the only lunar eclipse thut was visible in Mia. 

8 Inoneof the introductory verses the grant glorifies a Frag named Akahnkachwita, who would naturally be 
understood to be Vikramadifcya V. ; but the name was a iirwdtf of Ijivabedanga Sa*jafeiya. 



Karkara, i.e. Kakkaiija II., and Ratiastambha, and imprisoned king Utpala, ie, the 
Parana ara Hun ja 1 ), married Jakavva, a daughter of the Eashtrakftta Bhammaha-Katta; their 
son [Invabedanga] Satyagraya ; his younger brother Yasovarman, 2 married Bhagyavati ; 3 {heir 
son Vikramaditya [V.], 

151. S. 940.- P80GI. "So. 153 ; My son Inter. No. 80, p. 166. Balagamve Kanarege 
inscription probably of the W. Chalukya Jayasimha II. Jagadekarnalla : 

' Saka 940 (in figures, 1. 10). The other details of the date are illegible.' 

152. S. 941, Id. Ant. Vol. V. p. 15, and Plate; PSOCI. No. 154;Ifyw Inter, 
No, 72, p. 148. Balagamve Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Jayasimha II, 
Jagadekamalla ( the moon to the lotus which was king Bliftja, 1 and ' the lion to the elephant 
which was Raj&ndra-Chola [I.]' B ), and of hia feudatory, the MttlidmandaUfaan Knndamarasa, 
a sou of Jiivabedangadeva : 8 

(L. 25).~- Saka-varsha 941neya Siddhartthi-samvatsarada Pushya-guddha-bidige 
Adittyavarad=amdin=uttavayapa-sarhkramtiya piirbba(rvva)-nimifctadim. 

The date ia irregular ; see M, Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 13, No, 177. 

153.-S, 944.-iy. Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 273 ; P800I. No. 70. B&fo Kanarese inscription 
of the reign of the . Chalukya Jayasimha II. Jagadekamalla, and of hia elder sister 
Akkldevi : 

(L. 29).Sa(a)kanripakal-atita-sariivatsara-satamga[l*] 914neya Dumdubhi-aamvaisa- 
The date is irregular ; see Ind, Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 13, No. 178. 

The inscription mentions Akkadeyi's father Dasavarman, her mother Bhagaladevi, 7 and her 
elder brother Vikramaditya [V.] Trihhuvanamalla. 

164-8. 946.- Jour. Boy. As. 800. Vol. II. p. 380, and Vol. III. p. 258 ; Ind. Ant. Vol. 
VIII. p. 11. Miraj plates of the W. Chalukya MaMrtjMlwdja Jayasimha II. Jagadekaiaallai 
issued from near Kollapura : 

Sakauyipakal-atita-aamvatsara-sat^hu navasu shatchaMrimsad-adhikeshv=amkatah saravat 
Sunday, 26th April AD. 1024; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 115, No. 12. 

Genealogy as far as VibamMitya [V.] as in No. 150 ;<> Ms younger brother Jayasimha 
[II.j Jagadekamalla. 

155,-S. 950.-M. Ant. Vol. IV. p. 278; PBOOI. No. 215; Mysore hscr No 105 
p. 201 Talgund Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. Chllukya Jayasimha II 

, ^-Sff^ 950neya Vibhava-sa^atsarada Pushya-stzdhdh^ddha) 5 
Somav[a]rad=Tittarayaiiasa[m]krantiy-andu. ' 

Monday, 23rd December A.D. 1028 ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIII. p. 115, No, 13. 

frf!; J f ' V !' ?' P- 232 ' WOOL No. 86. Bhairanmatti Kanarese Sinda 
Date of fte tme of the W. Ch^lukya (Jaya^ha II) Jagad'itamalte, andof 

1 See above, No. 148, and below. No. 282. a n mfl ii,, na uj r e A 1. , 

Elsewhere called BMgakdM , see belo., No. 153. % ***"" ' <MMw ' ^ 1SS and 1W ' 

, . . 

' It. the Paramta Bhfija j compare North. Inscr. No. 57. 
1 Compare helow, No. 729. 


8 But the nme of Vikramftditya's father is here DasaVarman. 
' Pat ou the gfcone about A.J). 1070, 



the Si ud a Maliasamtffita Nagatiyarasa (Nagaditya, Mgatya), 'lord of Bh&gavati, 1 ilie son of 
FulikiMa : 

(L. 5'2) . _ Sa(sa)ka-varslia 955[ne*]ya Srimukha-samvatsarapravarttise. 

(For an earlier date in the same inscription, see above, No. 144). 

Tko inscription after Nilgfvtya mentions his son Poksinda, and after him Sevya (tlio 
MaUmandalcsvara Sevprasa) M a vassal of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara II.) B1iuvunailcum.Ua. 

157. S. 857. I'SOCI. No. 155; Mi/sore Icr. No. 71, p. 146. Balagamve Konarcse 
inscription of the W. Ch&luleya Jayaaimha II. Jagadekamalla, reigning at Pottalakeje :- 
(L. 10). Saka-vnrahu 957neya Yuva-saiiwatsarada Pushyada pam-nnamu8oy=uttara- 


Tlie date is irregular. 

According to My. Tvw. p. 148, the above inscription is followed by a grant, the gitair 
of wliioh has been defaced, of apparently a W. Ganga chief. 

1 58 S 962 -IW Ant. Vol. SIX. p. 164 Mantur Kanarese inscription of the reign of 
,a II, JaUa^aUa, reignin, a, P^e^nd of Q* 

5 Atlitynvarad-amdu. lQn 

The date is irregular ; BCC iMd. Vol. XXIV. p. 13, No. 180. 

t Val TTT T, 20Q No 14 Date of a HWi Kanarese inscriptwn 
fl-i. v ol. All. p. ^UJ, no. i*. 

" f 

L rf ^ bright fortni ght 

I =. 

. 968.-PSOOJ. 

968 (in Jgs, 1. 3), 

S.870.-W. Ant. Tol. IT 

,. !2).-aka-varslia 970neya 
The date is irregular ; eee InA. Ant. Vol. 

* See Dr. Fleet'* ^' M 'P >439> 

i See below, No. 181. 


_ 103,-. S. 970.-/CW. So. As. Soc. Vol. X. p, 172. Notice of a Saundatti Kanarese in. 
turn cantoning a date of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara I.) Trailokyamalla 
of Jus fomlatory, the Eatta MaMaammta Anka i 1 ' 

&ka 970 < the Sarvadhari samvatsam, on Sunday, the seventh day of the dark fortnirirt of 
the month PuRhya, at the time when the san was commencing his progress to the north ' 

The date ia irregular, 

(For a later date in the same inscription sec below, No. 192). 

1G4.-S. 973 (for 974).~I^. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 211, No. 42. Gudikatti I^ 
K.lml* inscription. Date of the reign of the W. Chalukya S6mmra i^and'of hi 3 
feudatory, the Ivadamba (of Goa) Jayakesin L, 'the lord of Konkana s? 

^ (L. 19).~Sa(g a )ka-k a l a m 8-uu,.B a pta-Namda.mri(mi)tam4gal=vaiitakam Nandan- 

(For an earlier date in the same inscription see above, No. 147). 

. ir ' 5 ;~f ' ^'"Tfj ?"* y l' IYl P' 260 ' and PIate - Kelawadi Kanarese inscription of the 
mgn o^tho W. Chalukya (S6 m gsvara I.) Trailokyamalla, and of his feud.tory the 
S^lt Bh ^devaras 3} recording a grant by the latter's nephew, the master 

(L. 21).~Sa(fc)ka ) vajraha 975neya Vijaya-samvatsarada utTt'lj 
amun. L J 

A - a saa ; var S hada 976neya Jaya-samvatsarada Vais^kha-bahula abhaya- 
tn(tri)tiyad=amavase Adiyara-nimittam. ' J 

For the aMaya-tntiyd nev-moon, w. the new-moon of Chaitra, the date remark 
con-esponds to Sunday 10th April A.D. 1054; in the original date the word YMBto ^ bee: 
put erroneously for GJiaitra. 

167.-S, 876 i-Ini Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 272. Honwad (now Bombay As. Soa'a) Sanskrit 
and Kanarese Ja im inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara I) 
Trailokyamalla, recording grants made at the request of his queen Ketaladevi :- 

(L. 33).-S a (a)ka-var S ha 976neya Jaya-samvatsarada Vai S a(sa)khad-amavasTe% e ) 

10th May AD 1054 with a solar eclipse, visible in India j but the day w a Tuesday, not 
a Monday ; see thd. Vol. XXIV. p. 7, No. 150. 

Tlae^insoripfion mentions, in the Mula-sariigha, Sfina-gana, and Pogari-gachchha 
Bahmasena, his diaciple Aryasgna, his disciple Mahasem, and Hs disciple CMnkirfe 
Chankanaryaor Chankimayya, the son of Kommaraja of the Vanaaa family), an officer of 

168.-1 9n.~hd. M. Vol. IV. p. 203. 'Notice of a Bankapur Kanarese inscription of 
the time of the W. Chalukya Vikmmaditya VI. (while viceroy under Hs father Somesvara I.) 
and of the Kadamba MaMmandalesvara Harikesarin. 4 

' The inscription ia dated ia the Saka year 977, being the Manmatha 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 553; and below, No. 181. 

2 See Hid, p. 439, note 1 j and p. 567 5 aid compare below, Kos, 249 and 254 
s Described as ' a lion to the elephant Chdla,' etc, ; see below, No. 741 fl. 

4 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 563. 


169. S. 984. Ltd. Ant,. Vol. XII. p. 209, No. 16. Date of a Hulgur Kaiiaitso iu>aip- 
tion of the ~W, Chalukya Sdmesvara I. :- 

(L. 11). Sa(sa)ka[n]ripakal-akranta-sariiTatsara-satamga[l*] 984noja Subliakrit- 
samvatsararh pravarfctise tadvarsh-abhyantarada Pushya-baliula-saptarn.e(nii) Adityan'uaiiium= 

24th. December A D. 1062 j 1 but the day was a Tuesday, not a Sunday ; sec Hid. Vol , XXIV. 
p. 7, No. 151. 

170. g. 984. IjZ. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 209, No. 15. Date of a Chilim'-Badni 
inscription of the "W. Ghalukya Bomesvara I. : 

(L. 26). Sa(sa)kanripakal4tHa-samvatsara-sa(sa)tamga[l*] 984aeya [Su]l>luikribf- 
pamvataarada Pauya(sha)-su(su)ddha-dasa(ga)mi Adityavaram=uttaraya u a a a ui k r a u t i - 
vyatipatad=aucla . 

The date is irregular ; compare above, No. 169. 

171. S. 986.%. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 213, and Plate. Jatinga-Ramsvara Hill Kninm-i- 
inscription of the W. Chalukya Visnniivardnaria Vijayaditya, described as 'flic wnrnor <.f 
Ihavamalla (Somesvara I.) ' and son of Trail6kyamalla (Somesvara I), governing tUc 
Nolambavadi Thirty -t-wo-thou sand (as viceroy) at Kampili : s 

(L. 12.) aka-varsham [9]86neya Kr6dhi-samvatsarada Vai[sa]khada PTH.U.IUJHL- 
Somavarada [cha]n[dr]agrahana-par'bba(i'vva)-nimittade. 

Monday, 3rd May A.D. 1064; a lunar eclipse, visible in India. 

1*1%, S. 988. P80QI. No. 136; Mysore Inscr. No. 11, p. 19. D&vangerc Kaiiiu-cv 
inscription of the reiga of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara I.) Trailokyamalla, and of lii.s ^..|. 
Vishnnvardhana Vijayaditya: 

("0. 17). Sa(ka-varsha 988neya Parabhava-samvatsarada BhadrapadJwUumivu-y 

llamgalavara suryya-grah anad=aifadu. 
The date is irregular. 

173.-S. 990. Mysore Inacr. No. 170. p. 320 (Ind. Ant. Vol. IV. p. 206, No. ) Ijiimnfi... 
Kauorese inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara I.) Traildkyamalla, ; 
of his feudatory, the Kadamba (of Hangal) Malidmanjalefaara Kirtivarman II., ' loiil of 
Banavasi : ' 3 

'IntheSaka year 990, the year Kilaka, the month Chaitra, the 1st day of the rau,.uV 
increase (rest not copied).' 

174 S. 993. P800L No. 159; Mysore Inter. No. 70, p. 144 Balagamvo K>.'i...... 

inscription of tha reigu of the W. OMlakya (Somesvara II.) Bbuvanaikamalla, and ..1 J-: 
feudatory, the Danjanfyaka, Udayaditya, residing at Bankapura : ^ 

(L. 12). Sa(sa)ka-varsha 993aeya Vir6dhikrit-samvatsarada Pushy a-su(i5u <l. !!>.'. 
S6mavarad=am din=uttaray aaasanikranti-parbba (rvvn)-nimittadini . 4 

25th December A.D. 1071 ; but the day v/aa a Sunday, not a Monday; HOC f,> I, ' 
Vol. XSIV. p. 7, No. 152. 

175. . 993. P80QI. No. 160; Mysore Insor. No. 78, p. 164. Another .Ita 
Kanaregekscription of {he reiga of the W. Chalukya (S3mesvara II.) 
and of his feudatory, the Dandandyaka Udayaditya ; of the same date. 

3 On ibis day the titki of the date commenced 10 h. 33 m. affeer mean sunrise. 

* Compare below, No. 741. , , 

3 See Dr. fleet's Dyvaitiu, p. 561.- Kirtivarman II. was the son of Tailapa I. in Jio. 

* See Iwl. ui<. Vol. XII. p. 212, No. 55. 


]7G.~ S. 993,JSp. It,d. Vol. IV. p. 215, and Plate. Jatinga-Rarn&svara Hill Kanarese 
uwcriptiou of (-lie W. Chulukya Jayasimha HI., 1 styled ' the lion of his elder brother ' (SomeSvara 
II.), encamped (as viceroy) near Gondavadi : 

(L. S). Sa' 4 la)ka-varsha 9y3neya Virodhikrit-sarhvatsarada PA(pha)lguaa(na)d=amavftse 

Wednesday, 21st March A.D. 1072 (?). 2 

177. S. 998. Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 127, Bijapur Sanskrit and Kanarese inscription of the 
reign of the \V. Chalukya (Sooa^svara II.) Bhuvanaikamalla, 3 and of hia feudatory, the 
Dandauayaka Nakiniayya : 

(L. 10;. Sa(sa)ka-varsham 996neya Inaihda-samvatsarada Pugya(shya)-sn(u)- 
clMha,(d<lha) 5 Bii(bri)haspativarad=amdia=uttarayanasamkraihti-parvva.mmittam.=agi. 

Thursday, 25th Ueoe.uber A.D. 1074 ; see ibid. Vol. XXIII. p. 115, No. 15. 

178. S. QQ'J. ArchceoL Surv. of West. India, Vol. III. p. 105 ; Vol. I Plate xiii.; Ind, Ant. 
Vol. I, p. 141 ; P800I. No. 92 Kadaroli Kanarese inscription of the reig-n of the W. Chalukya 
(Somesvara II.) Bhuvanaikamalla, and of his feudatory, the Dandandyaka Kesavaditya t 
^ tL.^19). Sa(sa>ka-varsha 997neya Rakshasa-samvatsarada Pushyada puunaine 
Adityavura uttai-riyanasam(,sam)krauti-vyatipatad=aihdu. 

25th December A.D. 1075; but the day was a Friday, not a Sunday ; see Ind. Ant 
Vol. XXIV. p. 7, TSTo. 153. 

179. S. Q97.Ind. Ant. Vol. IV. p. 208 ; P80GI, No. 161; Mysore Insar. No. 69, p. 142. 
balagamvo Kanarese inaciiption of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Soro^svara II.) 
Bauvanaikanialla, and of hi a fendatory Gangapermanadi Blravanaikavlra TTdayfiditya :* 

(L. 30). Sa(ga)ka-varsha 997neya Rakahasa-samvat 9 arada PTishya-^udhdba(ddha) 1 
fo orna varad -andm=uttarayanasamkranti-parbba (rvva) -nimittadin= 

The date is irregular; compare above, No. 178. 

Before Bhuvanaikamalla the inscription enumerates Satyasraya [Irivabedaneal, Vikra- 
xoaditya [V.], Ayyana [II.], Jayasiihha [II.], and Trailokyamalla [Sdmgfivava I.].' " " 

-,'~ <o -' M '^ I ^-No. 61, p. 132. Balagamve incomplete Kanareso 
mscnption of the of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara II.) BkuYanaikamalla, and of 
Ins teudatory Bhuvanaikavira TJdayaditya. 

181.-JMM-. Bo ^ Soa. Vol.X. p. 213. Saundatti fragmentary Kanarese inscription of 
e reign of the W .Chalukya (Som^svara II.) Bhuvanaikamalla, and of hia feudatory, the 
Ratta MaJutmandatthara Kartavirya (Katta) II., lord of Lattalur ' 

Genealogy o Kftriavfaya II.: King Nanna ; his S0 n Katta' (Kartavirya) [I] ; his sou 
PaynaaCDavan); h 18 younger brother Kanna (Kannakaira) L] hia son Eyega (E r aga) / hi a 
younger brother Anka ;7E fga . a scm sgna [L]) married Mai]alad ^ their son * \l 

[II.], married Bhagalad^v! ; their son SSna [II.] 

<rWM 78 ' P> Ul ' B*^^ Ka ^e inscription, 

piobablyof the W Chalutya Vxkramaditya VI. Triblmvanamalla (according to My. 
Inter, of Somesvara II. Bhuvanaikamalla).* y 

3 The *W of he date only commenced: 13 k 6 m. after mean sunrise 

8Cli ^ n ' undated and apparently unflmahed, of (VikramMitya VI.) 

e Utteage f B -^^*-s, and as 'lord of Kdlalapura > and 'lord of 
8 See above, No. 141. 


183. S. 998. Ind. Ant. Vol. XYIIL p. 38. Gudigere fragmentary Kanareae Jaiua 
inscription, recording gifts of the Achfoya Srinandi-pandita : 

(Ii. 19). Sa(sa)ka-varsha 993aeja Nala-samvatsarada sraheyok. 

The inscription mentions KunkamamahadeV!, the younger aisier of the Chalukja 
Qhafaunrtin Vijayadityavallabha (i.e., probably, the W. Chalukya Vijayaditya 1 }, a' having 
formerly founded a certain Jaina temple. It also mentions a Bhuvanaikamalk-SautinatbdSva, 
i.e. a Jaina temple or image of Santinatha that Lad been built or set up by the W. CMlukj a 
SomesYara II. Bhuvanaikamalla. 

184. S, 889.JW. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 209, No. 17- Date of a Hulgur Kanarese inscrip- 
tion of the W, Chalukyas Vikramlditya VI. and Jayasimha HI, : 

(L. 14). Sa(3a)kanripak[al]4tita-samvatsara-sa({ia)tamgak 999neja Pimgaia-saihvutsa- 
rada Ashada(dha)-su(u)ddha 2 Adityavara 8amkranti-pavitrar6hanad=amdu. 
Suaday, 25th June A.D. 1077; see Aid. Vol. XXIII. p. 116, No. 16. 

185. CM. Vi. 2. Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 11. Yur Sanskrit and Kanarese inscviptiou 
of the reiga of the W. Chakkya MaUrdjddhinja, Vitoamaditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla, 
residing 1 at his capital of Kalyana : 

Srimach-Chal-akya-Vikrama-yarshada 2neya Pitfagala-aariivatsarada Srarana-paurGnamSbi 

[Pingala=. 909]: Sunday, 6th August A,D. 1077; a lunar eclipse, visible in India; 
see iUd. Vol. XXII. p. 109, No. 1. 

Genealogy 2 as far as Jayasimha [II.] Jagadekamalla as in Ho. 154 ; his son [S&megvara 1] 
Ahavamalla; Ha son [S&megvara II.] BhuYanaikamalla ; his younger brother Vikramadifya [VL] 

186,- Oha, Vi. 2, P800L No. 163 ; Mysore Insar. No, 60, p. 129. Balagamve Kanaresi- 
inaoriptioii of the reign of the W. Ohakkya VikramSditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla, residing at 
Etagirij 3 and of his feudatory, the Dantfandyaka Baraxadeva : 

(L. 39). grfmaoh-ChalTikya-Vibama-varsha Sneya Pimgala-samvatsarada Pushya- 
Btt(u)ddha 7 Adityavarad-amdin=nttarayana-8amkrantiya parbba(Twa)-nimittam.* 

[Pingala = i, 999] : Sunday, 24th December A.D. 1077. 

187.- ChS. Vi. 2, PSOOL No. 164 ; Mysore Iiww. 0. 77, p. 163. Bajagamve Kanarese 
inscription oE the reign of the W. Ohalnkya Vikramlditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla, reading 
at Utagiri, and of his feudatory, the Dandanayaka, BarmadSva : 

(L, 26), Brlmach-Chalukya-Vikrama-varishada yerade(da)neya Pidigata-aamvatsarada 
Maghada punname S6mavarad=andina sSmagrahana-parvra-nimittadim, 5 

[Pingala = S, 989] : 30th January A.D. 1078, with a lunar eclipse,. visible in India; but 
the day was a Tuesday, not a Monday, 

188. CM. Vi. 3 (for 4P). Jtfyrow Inter. No, 165, p. 305. Anantapur Kanarcse 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramlditya VI.) Tribhuvanamalla, aad of his 
younger brother, the Jwar&ja Jayasimha III. : 6 

' In the 3rd year of Chalukya Vikrama, the year Siddhtohi, at the time of uttarayana- 

[SiddhartMn = . 1001.} 

1 See above, No. 32 ft 
The genealogy is in Sanskrit, aad ia professedly taken from a copper-plate cliarter., 

* See Dr. Sleet's Dynasties, p. 450, note 2. 

* Sea ltd. Ant, Vol. VIII. p. 190, No. 6. ' See Hid. No. V. 

Tha full name is TrMlfikyamalla-Vira-lTolaaiba-Pallava-PeriDanaijii- Jayasiiiiha ; compare above, No. 1 70. 


ISO.- Chfl. Vi. 7. Ep. Ind. Vol. III. p. 308. Tidgundi plates of the reign of the 
TT. Chfilukya jitlaMrajddhir&ja (VikramMitya VI.) Triblmvanamalla, recording that the 
MaMmandaUsoara Munja, ' lord of Bh6gavatV (a son of Sindaraja who was the eldest son of 
Bhima) of the Sinda family, 1 sold some villages to the [Ratta] MaMsiimanta, Kanna-samanta 3 
(EannaJsaira II.) : 

(L. 12). sn'Vikru(kra)makala-sathvatsareshu shatsu atitSshu saptame Dumdubhi- 
sainvatsarG pravarttanuine tasya Ka[r*]ttika-au(su)ddha-pratipad-AdiYar6. 

[For Dundufohi = S, 1004] the date is irregular. 

190. Cha. Vi. 9. Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 92. Hadali Kanarese inscription of the reign 
cf the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) Tribhiivanamallaj recording a grant by 
Jnanasakti-pandita, 3 tie disciple of Devasakti-pandita : 

(L. 5). srimach- Chalukya -Vilaurna-Yarshada Sneya Rakt&kshi-samvatearada Chaitra- 
su(su)dhdha(ddha) 1 S6mavarad=amdu. 

[For Eaktaksha = S. 1006] the date is irregular. 

1DL S. 1008 (for 1008). Jp. Ind. Vol. III. p. 305, and Plate. SMbaldi (now 
Nagpur Museum) inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya MaMrdjddhirdja (Vikramditya 
VI.) Triblmvaaamalla, and of his feudatory, the Mahdsdmanta Dhaciibhandaka (also called 
the Rdnalca Dhdiadva), ' who had emigrated from Latalaura,' of the Maharashtrakuta 
lineage : 

(L. 1). Sn.(sn,)kanripakal-at5ta-samTvatsar-amtarggata-daasata ya[tra] ashtatyadhikt; 
(possilly altered to ashtadhiki3) Saku 1008 Prabhava-samvatsar 4 Vai8akha-Bu[dha]-tritiyS- 

Perhaps the 8th April A.D. 1087, bat the day was a Thursday, not a "Friday. 

102. S. 1009. Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 173. Notice of a Saundatti Kanareee 
inscription containing a date (of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vikram&ditya VI., and) of the 
Ratta MahamandaUfaara Eartavlryall. and bis wife BMgaladev! : B 

Saka 1009, 'the Prahhava samvatsarct, on the occasion of a total eclipse of the ami on. 
Sunday, the day of the new-moon of the month Sravana.' 

Sunday, 1st August A.D. 10S7 ; a total eclipse of the sun, visible in India. 

(For an earlier date in the same inscription see above, No. 163). 

193. Cha. Vi. 12. Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 287 ; PSOOI. No. 93. Konnur 
Eanareso inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramgditya VI.) TribhuvanamaHa, 
cf his son Jayakarna, 6 and of the Dandddhipa Oh&manda, and the Ratta MangaWvara S&sa- 
II, (?), and the Ratta MahdmandaUsvara Kanna II. :7 

(L. 56). srimach-Chalukya-Vikrama-kalada 12neya Prabhava-samvatsarada Pausha- 
Imshna-chaturddaii Vaddavarad=Tittarayanasamkrantiy-amdu. 

[Prabaava = S. 1009] : Saturday, 25th December A.D. 1087; but the titU which ended oa 
this day was the 13th, not the 14th of the dark half ; compare Ind. Ant. Vol XXII p 111 

No. 12. ' 

(Tho same inscription in line 63 contains another date for Jayakarna, of the 46th year and 
the year Plava = S. 1043, but some of the details of it are illegible). 

1 He is also described as ' the frontal ornament of the Nlga family.' 

'* See below, Nos. 193 and 201. 8 In the original the name is written 

* BcMtl Yandlc'kn-suddlia-. * Compare below, No. 201. 

5 Sec Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, pp. 455 and 554. 1 See Kos. 189 and 201. 


194. CM. Vi. 16.- Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 21. Notice of an Alur Sanskyit and Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. TribhuranamaUa, oeing a record 
of grants dated 

' at the time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north, on Thursday, the twelfth day 
of the bright fortnight of the month Pushya of the Prajapati sariivatsara, -which waa the sixteenth 
of the years of the glorious Chalukya king Vikrama.' 

[Praj&pati = 0. 1013] : Thursday, 25th December A.D. 1091 ; see ibid. Vol. XXII p 110 
No. 3. ' ' 

(The same inscription ^contains another record of grants, dated in the 4t6(?49)th year, 
the Krodhin samvatsava, = S. l<J4t> ; but the given date is irregular). 

195. CM, Vi. 16. PS 001. No. 217 ; Mysore Insor. No. 106, p. 202. Talgimd Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) Tribjtravaiiamalla : 

' The sixteenth year (in words, 1. 20) of his reign, 1 the Prajapati samvatsara ; Sunday ; at 
the time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north. The month and lunar day are' not 

[For Prajapati = S. 1013] the date is irregular; aee above, No. 194. 

196. Caa. Vi. 18. Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 342, and Plate (facing p. 46) ; PSOOI, No. 165 ; 
Mysore Inscr. No. 38, p. 73. Balagamve Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. "Ohalukya 
(Vikramaditya VI.) TribhuvanamaUa, recording grants made to S6mevara-pandita 2 (the 
disciple of iSrfkantha-pandita who was the disciple of Kedarasakti), the priest of the god Nakha- 
rMvaradeva at Tavaragere : 

(L. 27). Mmach-Chalukya-Vikrama-varshade(da) ISneya Srimukha-samvatsarada 
Pa(pha)lguaa(na)d=amavasye Idivara saryya-grahanad=amdu. 

la =8.1015]: Sunday, 19th March A.D. 1094; a solar eclipse, visible in India 
aee InA. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 110, No. 7. 

197. Cha. Vi. 18 (?). Mysore Inaor. Nq, 173, p. 328. Date in a Heggere Kanarese 
Hoysala inscription : 3 

'in the (?) 18th year of Chalukya Vikrama, the month Jeahta, the 5th day of the moon's 
increase, Monday, at the Sankramana.' 

For Cha. Vi. 18 = S. 1015 the date is incorrect; for . 1013 SB Cha. Vi. 16 it would 
regularly correspond to Monday, 26th May A.D. 1091. 

198.-0ha. Vi. 10 (for 20 ?).I<2. Ant. Vol. X. p. 185, Dambal Sanskrit and Kanareae 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) TriTbHuvanamalla, and of his 
queen Lakahmadevi, recording grants to two Buddhist wihdras (or monasteries) : 

(L. 17). sri-Chalukya- Vikrama- varshada 19neya Yuva-samvatsarada Magha-su^ujddha- 
pamchami Adityavarad=amdu uttarayanasamkranti-vyatipatad=amdTi. 

f Tlxe date is intrinsically wrong and of 'course irregular both for Yuvan s= S. 1017, and for 
S. 1016. 

199.-OM. Vi. 21. Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 138, and Plate ; P300I. No. 71. KattagSri 
mscnption, recording a grant for the purpose of maintaining a tank : 

L ^'T | ri . mach " Ch& l uk y a " TillI>ama - va rstada 21neya Dh.atu-samvatsarada Chaitra- 

5 Adityavarad=andu. 
[Dhatri= g. 1018] ; Sunday, 2nd March A.D. 1096; see Ind. Ant.Vol. XXII. p. 110, No. 6. 

' The original has Ohdl^ya- nkr ama .var t h*d*. ' Compare My,. Inor. p. 91. 

Compare Dr. Fleet's Dy* as tie*, p. 500, note 6. 


200. Cha. Vi. SLP80QI. No. 166; Mysore Inscr. No. 84-, p. 170. 
Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. Trifohuvanamalla, 
and of his feudatory, the Dandandyaka Sarvadeva : 

(L. 47). &imach-Chalukya-Vikrajna-kalada 21neya Dhatu-sarhvafcsarada Puahya- 
eu(Su) 5 Adivaradh(d)=aiiidia='uttarayaaaaaihkrariti-Tyaiapatad=amdii. 1 

[For Dhatri = S. 1018] the date is irregular; compare Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII p 111 
No. 11. ' ' 

201. Ch&. Vi. 21. Jour. So. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 194; PSOOL No. 88. Saundatti 
Sanskrit and Kanarese Ratta inscription, recording several grants. Date of the time of the 
W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla) Permfidideva, and (?) of the Batta 
Sena II. : 

(L. 39).~Vira-Vib?ama-ka]a-namadheya-samvatsar-aikavim^aia-pramiteshT=atit^shu | 
vaiitamana-Dhatti-samvatsare Pushya-l3ahiila-tray&dasyam=AdiYar-6ttarayariasamkrant6(]itaTi). 
[For DMtri = i. 1018] the date is irregular; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. 'p. Ill, No. 11. 

Of Sena II. the inscription gives the following genealogy : 3 In the race of the Ratfcas 
there was, aa a^ son of king Nanna, Kartavirya [I.], a feudatory of [the W. Chalukya Taila II.] 
Ahavamalla; his son Davari; his younger brother Kannakaira [I.] ; his son Eraga; his younger 
brother Anka ; Eraga's son Sena (Kalaaena) [I.], married MailaladevJ ; their son' Kannakaira 
(Kanna) [II.]; his younger brother Kartavirya [II.] ; his eon Sena (Kalasena) [II.]. 

The MaJiamandaUh-ara EartavSrya [II.], ' lord of Lattalur,' is also mentioned separately as 
a feudatory of [Vikramaditya VI.] Tribhuvanamalla, and it is stated that hia wife was 
Bhagalambika. 3 

(For another date in the same inscription see above, No. 79). 

202. Oha. Vi. 22 (for 23). PSOOI. No. 167 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 47, p. 107. Balagamve 
Kanarese insciiption of the reign of the W". Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI ) Tribhuvanamalla, 
and of his feudatories, the Danrfandyakas Bblvanayya 4 and Padmanabhayya : 

(L. 39).- ^rimach-Chalukya-Vikrama-kalada 22neya Bahudhanya-samvatsarada Pnshyads 
amavasyey*Adityavaram=uttarayanasamkranti-vyaiipatad=amdti. 6 

tBatradhanya = . 10203 : 25th December A.D. 1098 j but the day was a Saturday, not a 

203. Cha. Vi. 24. -PSOOI. No. 113. Kiruvatti Kanarese inscription of the reign of the 
W. Chalukya Vikramfi-ditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla : 

(L. 34). Chalukya-Vikrama-varishada 24meya Pramathi-samvatsarada Jye"shtha-9uddha- 
paumna(rnna)masi Adityavara 86ma-grahanad=amdu. 6 

tPramatMn =s S. 1021] : Sunday, 5th June A.D. 1 099 ; a lunar eclipse, visible in India; 
see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 110, No. 4. 

204. Cha. Vi. 27. PSOCL No. 168 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 40, p. 78. Balagamve Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the "W. Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. Tribhtivanamalla, and of Ma 
feudatories, the Dandandyakas Anantapala and Q-ovindarasa : 

(L, 47). sriraach-Chalukya-Vikrama-varshada 27neya ChitrabMnu-samvataarada 
Paushya(sha)-guddha 13 Budhavarad^uttarayanasamkrantiy-amdn. 

[Cbitrabhantj = ^. 1024] : Wednesday, 24th December A.D. 1102. 

See Ind. Anf. Vol. VIII. p. 191, ]S T o. 17. Compare above, No. 11. 

Compare above, No. 192. * See Dr. Fleet's Dyaatties, p. 451, 

See 2nd. A.t. Vol. VIII. p. 191, No. 19. See ibid. No 20. 


205.~Cha. Vi 27.PSOC1 No. 169 ; Mysore Inser. No. 85, p. 173. Bilagamye Kanarese 
memorial tablet [of the reign oHhe W. Ch&lukya Vikramlditya VI. Tribfcuvanamalla ?] i 1 

' The twenty-seventh year (in figures, 1. 6) of Ms reigu, the Chitrabhann samatsara ; Mon- 
day^ the first day of the dark fortnight of Phalgnna ;' (Mj/s, Inscr, ' the 27th year of Chalukya- 
Vikrama '). 

[For CMtrabbiira = . 1024] the date is irregular. 

206. Chi. Vi. 27. PSOOI. No. 170 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 58, p. 127. Balagamve Kanaiese 
inscription* of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vikramditya VI. TribhinranamaUa [and of his 
Bandandyafa Govindarasa] : 

(L 41).-- sriraach-Chsilukya-Vihama-varsliada 27neya Chitrabhanu-samvatsarada 
PbilgTLtia('na5d=ama"vasye Adityavara samkramana-vya{lpatad=amdu. 3 

[For Chitrabhanu = Si, 1024] the date is irregular. 

207. Ch&. Vi. 28. PS OCl No. 171 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 68, p, 139. Balagamve Kanarese 
inscription of the reiga of the W. CMhkya Vikrara&ditya VI, TribliuTanamalla, and of hia 
feudatories, the Dandantiyafas Anantapala and G-6vindarja : 

(L. 45). Srimflch-Chalukya-Vikrama-varsha 28neya Sabhauu-samvatBarada Pnshya-ba 10 

[SubMnu = & 1025] : Friday, 25th December A.D. 1103. 

208.~-(M. Vi. 32.PSOOI No. 218; Mysore Imr. No. 104, p. 199. Talgnnd Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chahkya (Vikram&ditya VI) Tribhuvanamalla, and of hia 
feudatories, the Dandandyakus AnantapSla and G6vindarSja: 

(L. 20). Ohalnkya-Vikrama-ktilada miivatt-erade(da)neya SarvTajit-samvatsarada 
Chaitra"Su(ti)ddha-tadigeBri(bri)haspatiiv-4radali4. 4 

[lor Sarrajit = S. 1028] the date is irregular. 

209.-CM. Vi. 32. M Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 252. Date of a Hftli Kanarese memorial 


' Vaddavte, the fifth hthi of the dark fortnight of Sr&vana of the Sarvajit sa&vatwa,, 
which was the thirty-second year of the Chalukya-Vikrama-kala.' 
[Sartajit = S. 1029] : Saturday, 10th August A.D. 1107, 

210.Ch&. Vi. 83. Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 251. Kargudari Kanarese inscription of the reign, 
of the W. Ohalukya (VikramSditya VI.) TrMuvanamalla, and of hie feudatory, the 
I&damba (of Hangal) MaMmandalefaara, Tailapa II., 'lord of BanavsH' rtiling at 
Pauthipm-a : 

(L. 38), Mmach-Cha'lakya-Vifo'ama-varshacla 33neya Sanrvadhfiri-Bamvatsarada 
Herjjuggiya 6 punnami S6mav^rad=andina gubha-lagnadol, 

[Sarradharin s= . 1030]: Monday, 21st September A.D. HOSj see ibid. Vol. 2XII. 
p. 110, No, 5. 

The inscription gives the genealogy of the Kadambas from Mayftravarman 6 [I,] to 
JayaVarman [II] as stated in Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 559. Jayavarnaan [II.] hadfive sons, ow, 
MbtilidTa, Tailapa [L], S^ntivarman [II.], Ohokideva, and Vikrama; of these, Santivarman 
[II.] married Siriyad^vi of the Pandya family ; their son Tailapa [II,], married BachaladSvl of 
the P&ndya family. 

1 According to My> hser. the inBcriptiou is of the time of the MahdmandaUiSrara Pennadid^va, ' chief of 
the great city of Kolalapura.' This apparently would be the MahdmiidMivara UdaySditya-Gangft-Permildi, o! 
ils W, Qsmga family, mentioned in Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 462. 

1 "The inscription is almost wholly illegible," 

1 See Ind. Ant, Yol. VIII. p. 191, No. 26. * See Hid. p, 192, No. 29. 

1 Merjuggi or Hejjuggi ia the day of the fall-awn of A^rina ; jee Jp. Ind, Vol. V. p. 16. 

* Compare below, No. 603. 


211.CM. Vi. 33. -PSOGL No. 137 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 10, p. 17. Davangere Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) Tribhuvanamalla, and of hia 
feudatory, the Danfandyaha Bammarasa (Barmarasa) : - 

(L. 28). Chalukya-Vikrama-kalada 33neya Sarvvadhari-samvatsarada Prshya-suddha- 
pamchami Bri(bri)havarad=uttarayarLasamkraraana-vyatipata-iiimittajra=agi. 

[For Sarvadharin = S. 1030] probably Thursday, 24th December A.D. 1108; but this day 
fell in the dark, not the "bright half of Pausha. 

212. CM. Vi. 37. PS 001. No. 172; Mysore Insor. No. 41, p. 82. Balagamve Sanskrit 
and Kanarese inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Vikramaditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla, 
and of his feudatory, the Pandya MaMmandalesvara Tribhuvanamalla KamadSva, ' lord of 
Gdkariia,' 'ruler of the Konkana rdshtra : '* 

( L. 58) . giri-Bha-val6chana-37-pramita-Vikrarjaa-varsha-ja-Nan.dan-akhya-vatfiara-bhava- 
Paushya(sha) masa-sitapaksha-chaturtthi Mahijavaradol=beras-iral=uttarayanado] . 2 

pSTandanas= !. 1034] : Tuesday, 24th December A.D. 1112. 

213. Cha. Vi. 38 (for 37?). PSOCL No. 173; Mysore Inscr. No. 79, p. 166. 
Balagamve Kanarese memorial tablet of the reign of the "W". Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) 
Tribhuvanamalla, and of his feudatories, the Dandandyakas Anantapalayya and Govinda- 
rasa : 

(L. 4). sr3mat?t-Chalukya-Viki % ama-varshada SSneya Namdana-earhyatsarada ; 3 (Mys. 
Inscr. : ' in the 4th year . , the year Siddharti, the month Srayana, the 5th ' ?). 

[Nandana=S. 1034.] 

211 Ch&. Vi. 38.. PS 001. No. 103. Hlngal Kanarese memorial tablet of the reign of 
the \Y. Chalukya VikramMitya VI. Tribhuvanamalla: 

(L. 1). [^r]]mat(ch-) Chalukya- Vikrama-varshada 38neya Vijaya-samvatsarada Chaitra- 
guddha-padiva Buddha(dha)varad=amdu. 4 

[Vijaya == S. 1035] : Wednesday, 19th March A.D. 1113 5 

215. CM. Vi. 38 (or 39?). PSOGI. No. 174 ; Mysore Insor. No. 96, p. 185. Balagamve 
Kanarese memorial tablet of the reign, of the W. Chalukya Vikram&ditya VI. Tribhuranamalla, 
and of his Dandandydka Govindarasa. 6 

216.Cb.a. Vi. 39. PSOCL No. 175 ; Mysore Insor. No. 88, p. 175. Balagamve Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya VikraiMditya Y,L Tribhuvanarnalla } and of his 
feudatories, the Dandatidyahas Anantapala and Govindaraja (Goviudamayya) : 

(L. 49).- grlmach-Chalukya-Vikrania-kalada 39neya Jaya-samvatsarada Chaitrada punnave 
Adivara grahana-vyatipata-sa:mkramanad=amdu.7 

[In Jaya = SI. 1036] the UtM of the date commenced 1 h. 29m. after mean sunrise of Sunday, 
22nd March A.D. 1114; but there was no eclipse, and the Mesha-samkranti only took place on 
the 24th March A,D. 1114. 

217. CM, Vi. 43. Ind. Ant. Vol. IX. p. 75, and Plate; PSOCL No. 82. Aihole 
Kanarese inscription, recording donations to a temple : 

(L. 1). Chalukya- Yikrama-varishada 43[ne*]ya Vilambi-sarhvatsarada tittarayaria- 
aamkraman ad=amdu . 

"[Vilamba = S, 1040.] 

' ~~~ ~ _^ . _ _ . 

1 See Di-. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 452. 3 See Ind. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 190, 2To. 3. 

1 See ibid. p. 192, No. 30. See ibid. No. 31. 

* On this day the ttthl of the date commenced S h. 10 in, after mean sunrise. 

' The details of the date seem quite doubtful. See 2nd. Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 192, No. 32. 


218. CM. Vi. 45 1 (for 47 ?). JW. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XL p. 247. Kodikop Kanarese 
inscription o the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) Tribhuvanamalla, reigning at 
Jayantipura, and of liis feudatory, the Sinda Ma'hamanda.le&va'ra. Acha (Achama) II. : 2 

(L. 16). srimat(ch-)Chalukya-Vikrama-kalada 45neya Subhakn(kri)t-samya- 

cliclil)a(tBa)rada Ohaitra-su('su)ddha 8 Sonaavara uttarayanasamkrantiy-amdu. 

The date ia intrinsically wrong and of course irregular for both Subhakrit = S. 1044 and 
S. 1042. 

219. CM. Vi. 46.4 PSOOI. NO. 138; Mysore Insor. No. 7, p. 14. Davangere Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya VikramSditya VI, Tribnuvanamalla, and of his 
feudatory, the Hahdmandalesvara Tribhuvanamalla PfindyaclSva, ' lord of Kanchipma,' ruling 
the Nolanibavadi Thirty-two-thousand: 

(L. 37). Chaltikya-Vikrama-varshada 46neya Hava-samvataarad=Avija4>ahula-pamcharai 

[Plava = S. 1043] : Sunday, 2nd October A.D. 1121. 

220. S, 1045. Ind. Ant, Vol. XIV. p. 15. Terdal Kanarese Jaina inscription. Date of a 
grant of the MandaliJta Gonka 4 (G-onkidevaiasa) of T&ridala, a dependent of the W, Chalnkya 
Vikram^ditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla Permadir&ya, and of his feudatory, the Eatta MaJtd- 
mandalesvara, KSLrtavirya II., 5 ' lord of Lattanira : ' 

(L. 49). Sa(sa)ka-va[r*]sha 104s5neya Su(^&)"bhakri(kri)t-satiivatsarada VaisSakhada 
pTinnami Bra (tei)haspativaradalM. 

" Thursday, 12th April A.D. 1123 ; see ibM. Vol. XXIII. p. 116, No. 19. 

The inscription mentions, as Gronka's preceptor, the Jfaw^oZac^ari/aMaghanandi-saiddhai^tika, 
the priest of the temple of Bupa-Narayana at Kollapura (Kollagira). The same Maghauandi- 
saiddhantika also ia described as the preceptor of the Samatita Nimbade'va. 6 

(For later dates in the same inscription see below, Nos. 256 and 258). 

221. S. 1047. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 212, No. 56. Date of a Nar6ndra Kanarese inscrip- 
tion of the W. Chalukya Vikramditya VI, : 

(L. 108). Saka-varsham 1047neya Visva(sva)-?aau-samvatsarada [Bha]drapada-ba 13 
ukravara mahatithi-yugadiy-amdu. 

Friday, 28th August A.D. 1125 j eee ibid. Vol. XXIII. p. 124, No. 67. 

222. PSOGI. No. 176 ; Mysore Insor. No. 63, p. 135. Balagamve Kanarese inscription of 
the reign of the W. Chalukya (Vikramaditya VI.) Tribfcuvanamalla, and of his feudatory, the 
Dantfandyaka Gundamarasa. 

223, PS 001. No. 108. Chaudadampur incomplete Kanarese inscription of the reign of 
the W. Chalukya Vikram&ditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla ; of his feudatory, the HaMsdmantd- 
Grovindarasa, and of a subordinate (?) of the latter, the Gutta Mahdsumanta (?) Malla 

the eon of Gutta I. who was the son of Magutta. 
224 [, 872*]. Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XL p. 224. Narlgal incomplete Kanareae inscrip- 
tion of the reign of the "W. Ch&lukya Vikramaditya VI. Tribhuvanamalla Permftdi, and of 

1 For a Draksharama inscription dated in S. 1042 and in the OMlukya-Vitrama year 45, see Ep.^Id, Vol. IT. 
p. 3?. 

2 See Dr. Fleet's "Dynasties, p. 574 ; and below, No. 224. 

a 3?or two Kanarese inscriptions at the fort of Gutti, of the years 46 and 47 (Hava and Subhakrit), see Soui,K~ 
Id. Ivor. Vol. I. p. 167. 

* He is stated to have sprung from the family of Jlmfltavpiana 5 compare below, No. 301 ff. 

& But tne date of tlie graat does not belong to Ms time ; see Dr. Pleet's Dynasties, p. 654, note 4 j and above, 
No. 201. 

8 See also below, Nos. 319 and 413. 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 80. The time of the inscription according to Dr. Fleet is about A.D. 1116.- 
Compare below, No. 298. 


the $&&<&& MahdwiandaUsv am Permadi I., ruling at Erambarage ; records a grant which, ia stated 
to lave been made 1 

(Ii. 47). Sa(sa)ka-varsha 872neya Saumya-samvatsarada Pushya-su(6u)ddha-puaiiiffl0 
Sfimavara s6ma-grahanam=utterayana8amkrantiy-amdu. 

The UiU of the date ended on Monday, 7th January A.D. 950 ; but there was no eclipse, and 
the Uttarayana-samkranti had taken place already on the 23rd December A.D. 949 ; see Ind, Ant. 
Vol. XXIV. p. 12, No. 173. 

In the Sinda family, Ichugi [I] ; his younger brothers Naka, Singa [I.], Dasa, Dava ( 
Chaunda (Chavunda) [L], andChava; Achugi's son Bamma; after him, Achugi (Acha) [II.] 
(put to flight the Poysala, took G&ve, put to flight Lakshma, seized upon the JConkaiia, eto,\ 
married Mahade'vi (Madevi) ; their son Permadi [I.]. 8 

325. S. 1045(?).PSOCI. No, 146; Mysore Inscr. No. 4, p. 8. Chitaldurg Kanarese 
inscriptioD. of the W. Chalukya Jagadekamalla II., 3 and of his feudatory, the MaMmantfaUtvara 
Vijaya-PSndyadeva, 4 lord of Ka5ch5pura,' residing at Ucb.ab.angi and ruling the Nolambavadi 
Thirty- two-thousand : 

' Saka 1045 (in figures, the last two effaced, 1. 28), the Sdbhakrit samvatsara ; Sunday, the 
tenth day of the bright fortnight of Phalguna ;' (Mys, Inscr. : ' at the time of the equinox '?J. 

The date is irregular. 

226.S. 10B1*. JwZ. Ant, Vol. XII. p. 212, No. 57. Date of an InglMwar Kanareae 
inscription of the W. Chalukya Sdmesvara HI., and of his feudatory, the Kajachurya 
Mahdmandaldfaara Perm^di : 6 

^akb.a(ka)-varuaha 1051neya Kilaka-samvatsarada Karttika-paurnnamaseyol B6magrahana- 

8th November A.D. 1128, with a lunar eclipse, visible in India; see ibid. Vol. X'XIIL 
p. 127, No. 84 

227. PS OCT. No. 178; Mysore Inscr. No. 42, p. 87. Balagamve Kanarese inscription of 
the third year of the reign of the W. Chalukya Somesvara III. BMlokamalla, and of Ms 
feudatory, the Kadamba (of Hangal) HaMmandaletvara Taila II., 6 ' lord of Banavasapura :' 

' The third year (in figures, L 70) of his reign, the Kilaka samvatsara ; Thursday, the day 
of the new-moon of Magha.' 

[For Zilaka = S. 1050] the date is irregular ; it would correspond to Wednesday, 20th 
February A.D. 1129. 

228.-.W. Ant. Vol. X. p. 132. HunaSlkatti Kanarese inscription of the 6th year (of the 
reign) of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara III.) Bhulokamalla, recording a gift by the 
Makdiman$aUvara M&rasimhade' varasa : 

(L. 1). Mmad-Bhulokamalladevara varia(rsha) 6neya Sava(dlia)rana-sanivatsarada 
PhSlguria(Da)-^u 5 Adiyarad=amdu. 

[lor Sadh&rana = S. 10S2] the date is irregular. 

1 The date, of course, has nothing to do with the reign of Vikramaditya VI. See Dr. Fleet's Dynattiei, p. 675, 
note 3. Compare below, No. 234. 

' Compare below, No. 243. 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 457, note 3; compare also below, No. 229. According to Dr. Fleet, 
Jag8<WkaMlla, at the time of the date, ' may possibly have held some administrative post under MB grandfather 
( Vikramaditya VI.). But the record speaks of him as if he were himself the paramount sovereign/ 

* Described as 'defeater of the designs of EAjiga-Chdla' (Le. Rajtodra-Chflda II, Kul6ttunga-Chdla L); see 
below, Nos. 250 and 571. 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Dynastiet, p. 470} and compare below, No. 288, where the name (in Sanskrit)- in 
Tie Tailapa II. in No. 210. 


229.-Ini Ant. Vol. VI. p. 140 j P80CI. No. 44. Badami Kanarese inscription of the 
second year (of llie reign) of the W. Chalukya Pntaya-dab-avartw Jagadekamalla II , recoiv 
ding a grant by his Dandandyakas MahldSva and PaladSva : 

(L, 21 }.- Ohalukya- Jagadelamalla-varishada erade(oneya Siddhartthi-samvatsarada 
Karttika"Su(su)ddha-tray6dasi(si) S6mavarad=atiidu. 

[SiddMrtMn = S. 1061] : Monday, 6th November A.D. 1139. 

230.-PflOCI. No. 179 ; Mysore Inter. No. 62, p. 134. 'Balagamve Kanarese inscription of 
the reign 1 of the W. Chalukya (Somesvara IE.) Bhulokamalla : 

' The SiddhartH samvatswa, ; Sunday, the thirteenth day (in words, 1. 21) of the bright 
fortnight of Pushya ; at the time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north.' 

[For SiddMrthin= S, 1061] the date is irregular. 

231. PS00! No. 139 ; Mysore Inter. No. 8, p. 16. D&vangere Kanarese inscription of 
the reign s of the . Chalukya (S6ms?ara HI) Bhulokamalla, and of his feudatory Vira- 
Kndyadeva, residing at Uchchangklurga and ruling the Nolambavadi Thirty-two-thousaud :-~ 

' Monday, the eleventh day (in words, 1. 26) of the (?) bright fortnight of Pushya of the 
Dundubhi samatsava ; at the time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north,' 

[3?or Dundubhi = . 1064] the date is irregular, 

232. Sp. Ind. Vol. V. p. 15. Managoli Kanareae insmiption of the 6th year o the reign 
of the Kalachurya Bijjala (below, No. 278) ; in lines 1-59 refers to certain e?ents of the time 
of the W. Ohftlukya Prakdpa-ohakrwiartin Jagadekamalla II. (and his feudatory, the 
Bammanayya), and gives the following date of the 5th year of that king's 

(L. 39). nija-bhuja-vijaya-nam-aiiikita-varsliada Sneya Dumdubhi-samvatsarada Pnisliya- 
BuddhalO Bri(hri)hasp'ativarad=amd=uttarayaoasaiiibamti-vyat3p!ita-nimittaT-agi, 

[For Dundubhi = S, 1084] the date is irregular ; see ibid. p. 11. 

The insoription, before Ayyapa [I,] (the father of Vikramaditya IV.), mentions a Chalukya 
Kattiyaradeva. 8 It also states that Taila [II.] annihilated the RashtraMtas Kakkara 
(Kakkaraja II.) and Eanakambha (Ranastamblm) ; see above, No. 150. 

233. Jow. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XL p. iS3. Kodikop Kanaiese inscription of the 7th year 
(of the reign) of the W. Chalukya PfaM^a-fiWwarfw Jagad^kamalla II., and of his 
feudatory, the Sinda MaMmandaUswa, Jagadekamalla Permldi I. *. 4 

(L, 22). Jagaddkamalla-varshada 7neya Raktakshi-samvatsarada Pusbyad^arailvasye 

[For EaktakshaaS. 1086] probably Monday, 25th December A.D. 1144; the Dttarayana- 
sarakraati took place on Sunday, tho 24th December, and there was a solar eclipse which was 
visible in India on Tuesday, the 26th December, A.D. 1144. 

234~[S. 872], Jowr. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XL p. 239. Nargal incomplete Kanarese 
inscription of the reign of the W. Chalukya Jagadekamalla It, and of the Sinda Mdhd- 
Jagadekamalla Perm&di L, ruling at Erambirage; records a grant which ia 

(L. 37). Sa(sa)ka-varsha 872neya Sadharana-samvatsarada Karttikad=amavasye 

The date is irregular ; but see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 5, No. 144. 

1 But see Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 455, note 6. 
1 But see Hid. - Part of the iuscription is ^legible. 
1 Cimpare above, No. 61. * See Dr, Beet's Dynasties, p. 575. 

1 The date, of course, has nothing to do with the reign of Jagadeiatrfklla II, Sea Dr. Fleet's Dynattiet, 
. Compare above, No. 224. 


Pei-madi [I.] vanquished Kulasekharanka, besieged and beheaded Chatta, put to flight [the 
Kadaruba of Goa] Jayakesin [II.], and defeated Bittiga (i.e. the Hoysala Vishnuvardhana), 

235. PSOGI. No. 97. Lakshme'shwar Sanskrit and Kanareee inscription of the 10th 
year (of the reign) of the W. Chalukya Pratdpa-chdkravartin JagadSkamalla II., and of the 
[KMamba of Goa ?] HahdmandaUfaara Jayakesin [II. ?] i 1 

(L. 55). Jagadekamalladeva-varshada lOneya Prabhava-samyatsarada Ashadha-suddba 
12 Brihaspativara dakshinayanasamkrarnana-vyatipataih (?). 

[For Prabhava = S. 1069] probably Thursday, 26th June A.D. 1147 ; but tkb day fell in 
tlie dark, not the bright half of Ashadha. 

236, PSOGI. No. 116; Mysore Inscr. No. 34, p. 67. Harihar Kanareae Inscription' 
of the W. Chalukya Perma Jagadekamalla IT., and of his feudatory, the MaMmandaUtmra 
Vira-Paadyadeya, ruling the Nolambavadi Thirty-two-thousand : 

Myt. Inscr. : ' in the 10th year of the emperor Jagad&kamalla, the year Prabhaya, the month 
Ashyija, new-moon day, Sunday.' 

[Prabhava = S. 1069] : Sunday, 26th October A.D. 1147. 

237. PS 001. No. 180; Mysore Inscr. No, 44, p. 97. Balagamve Kanareae inscaptiou of 
the 13th (?) yea^ (of the reign) of the "W. Chalukya Pratdpa-chaleravartin Jagadkamalla IL, 
and of his feudatory, the MaMmandaUsvara Tribhuvanamalla Jagadd^va 4 of the Santara 
family of Patti-Pombuchchapura : 

(L. 40). Jagadekamalladeva-varshada 13ney a Sukla-saihvatsarada K^rttikada paurn ? a- 
niasye Somavai-a s6ma-grahaQad=amdn, 

[For Sukla = S. 1071] the date is irregular. 

238. PSOGI. No. 119; Mysore Inser. No. 32, p. 60. Harihar Kanarese inscription of 
the time 6 of the W. Chalukya Jagadekamalla II., and of the Kalachurya Bij Jala and Ms 
servant, the MaMmandMvara Vijaya-Pandyad6va, the ruler of the Nolambavadi Thirty-two- 
thousand (an official of whom was a person of Sinda descent, called king tsvara.e 'lord of 


239. S. 1076.I& Ant. Vol. XII. p. 209, No. 18. Date of a Enlgte Kanareae inscrip- 
tion of the W. Chalukya Taila III. : 

(L. 18). Sakanri(nri)pakal-atita-satamgal 1076neya Bh4va-samvatsarada lla(sM). 
da(dha)-su(au)ddha 5 Bri(bri)haspativarad=amdu. 

Thursday, 17th Juue A.D. 3154 j see ibid. Vol. XXIII. p. 116, No. 21. 

240. PSOOI. No, 181 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 45, p. 100. Balagamve Kanarese inacription 
of the 6th year (of the reign) of the W. Chalukya (Taila III.) Trailokyamalla, and of the 
Kalachurya MaMmandalesvara Bijjana, ' lord of Kalanjara,' and his Dandandyakz 
MahMeva: - 

(L. 44). Traildkyamalla-varshada 6neya Yuva-samvatsarada Maghad=amav%ey* 

[For Yuvau= S. 1077] the day may be the 25th December A.D. 1155, but this wa8 a 
Sunday, and the new-mo on day of Pausha. 

1 Bee Dr. Fleet's DgoBiie, p. 569 ; and compare below, Nvs. 240 and 264, and No. 405, note. 

2 Much of the inscription is illegible. 

| See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties^ p. 457, note 5. < Compare below, Nos. 388 and 584. 

The photograph does not show the date ; see Dr. Fleet's Dotiattics, p. 470 
See ibid, p. 577. 


241. S. 1080. Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 273. Siddapur Kanarese inscription of the reign 
a the Kadamba (of Goa) MaMtnandalShara Sivachitta Permadi, ' lord of Banavasi,' and 
brother) the Yuvardja Vijayaditya II., 1 staying near Sampagadi : 
(L. 28).~Saka-varsani(rsham), lOSOneya Bahudhanya-8a,mvatsarada Aa(sha)da(dha)d= 

S6mavarad=aihdu dakshinayanasamkr&ntivyatipatada punya-tithiyolti. 
27fch June A.D. 1158, bnt this -was a Friday, not a Monday; see ibid. Vol. XXIV. p. 8, 

??0. 154. 


242. Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. IX. p. 296. Q-olihalli Kanarese inscription of the 14th, 17th 
^tid 26fch years (of the reign) of the Kadamba Makdmandalesvara Konkana-chahravartin 
givaeMtta Permadi, ' lord o Banav&si,' ruling at his capital of G6ve (Goa) : 

(L. 33).- Sri-Kadaiaba-Sivaohitta-sn-Vira-PermiriadideTa-varehada 14neya Vikrama- 
gjjmratsarada Vais&kha-masada guddha-dasami Somavarad=amdu. 

[For Vikrama- S. 1082 = Ky. 4261] the date is irregular. 

(L. 37). -Permmadideva-varshada 17ueya Syabhanu-samvatsarada Marggaira-bahula- 
claBami (?) 2 S6mavarad=amdti. 

[Subhanu =s S. 1085 s= Ey. 4S64] : Monday, 18th Norembar A.D. 1163. 

(L. 54). -- Permmadide'va-YarBhada 26neya Fandaixa-saiiivataara Maghamaaa-Stiddba 
dasaml Brihaspativarad=andxi. 

[Nandana = S. 1094 saEIy. 4273] : Thursday, 25fch January A.D. 1173. 

243. . 1084 (for 108S).~-JoMr. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. XL p. 259 ; P800L No. 67.. Pattadakal 
Kanarese inscription of the Sinda MaMma-ndaUhara Chavunda II., (who was, or rather had 
been) a feudatory of the W. Chalnkya Uurmadi-Taila (Taila III.) :* 

(L. 66). Sa(sa)ka-varshada saisirad-embhatta-nalke(lka)neya Subhaau-samvatsarada 
Je(3y^)ahtha-su(gu)ddha-paurnnamasye Somavara sdmagraha^a-Tyatipata-samkramanada 

The date ia irregular ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 15, No. 187. 

In the Sinda family, Achngi [I.] 5 his brothers Naka, Simha [I.], Dasa, Dama, Chavunda 
[I], and Chava. Aoha's (A\chngi's) son Bamma ; his younger brother Singa [II.] ; hia eon A\cha 
[II.] (burnt G6ve and repulsed [the Silahara] Bh6ja [I.]) ; bis sort Pemma ( Permadi) [ L] ; his 
younger brother Chavunda [II.], married D&nalad&vi ; their sons A ehideva [III.] and Pemmadi 
[II.J * 

244, PSOCL No. 140; Mysore In sor. No. 9, p. 17. Davangere Kanarese inscription, 6 of 
tlie MaMmantjalefaara Vijaya-P4ndyadeva, who ruled the Nolambavadi Thirty-two-thousand 
aud resided at UchchangJ, of the 15th year of the reign of (?) the "W. Chalukya Tailapa 

(Taila III.), the year Parthiva. 8 
= ^. 1087.] 

2^5, PSOCI. No. 120 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 30, p. 57. Harfaar Eanarese inBcnption.'' of 
the time of the W. Chalukya Nurnxadi-Tailapa (Taila IH.), and of the Kalachurya Bijjala 
and his dependent Kasapayya-nayaka. 8 

1 Compare below, Nos. 24.9 and 254. 

1 According to the translation this should be panoJtami, and the European equivalent oJ tho date, given 
tove, ia for this iithL 

1 See Dr. "Fleet's Dynasties, p. 575. 

* Compare Nos. 224> and 247. * Part of the inscription is illegible. 

8 See Dr. Beet's Dynasties, p. 459, note 3, and p. 463, note 1. According to Dr. Pleot, the reeord belongs 
to a period subsequent to the death of Taila III. 

1 The date is illegible ; see Dr. Beet's Dynattiet, p. 472. 

' See below, Nos, 279 and 281. 


246. P800I. No. 104 and No. 105. Two Hangal Xanarese memorial tablets of tie time 
of the W. Chalukya Hurmadi-Tailapa (Taila XH.). 

247, CM. Yi. 84,IwcZ, Ant. Vol. IX, p. 97 ; P800I. No. S3. Aihole Kanareae inseiip- 
tion of the Smda MaMmandalMvara Ch&munda (Charonda) II. and his sons (by SiriyadH) 
Bijjala and Vikrama i 1 

(L. 23).~-srimacli-Cha]ukya-[Vikrama-Yarshada] 9ineya Virodhi-samvatsarada . . . 8 

[Virodhia=S. 1091.] 

248. . 1091. P500I. No. 141; Mysore Inter. No. 13, p. 23. Davangere Kauarese 
inscription of the Mdhdmanfattfaara Vijaya-Pandyadeva, ' lord of Kancbipura,' residing at 
Uchchaogi and ruling the Nolambavadi Thirty-two-thousand : 

(L. 16).lrimat-Saka-varshada 3 1091neya VirSdbi-samvatsarada dvitiya- Sravana- foddba- 
punnami S6maYarad=amdu. 4 

In the given year Sravana was intercalary, but otherwise the date is irregular; see Iwd. 
Jf.Vol.JXIV.p. 15, No. 188. 

249. Ky. 4270 and 4272. /own So. As. Soo. Vol. IX. p. 278 ; InA. Jneor. So. 32. Ealsi 
inscription 6 of the 23rd year of the reign of the Kadamba (of Goa) givachitta Paramardin, and 
of the 25th year (of his reign, and) of bis younger brother VishnueMtta ; (the first part of the 
inscription waa composed by Madhnsudanasuri, the second by Yajne^varasuri 6 ) : 

(L. 18). Samnkrifcte 1 Kalh kale kha-sapta-dvi-paybnidhau | pravardhamati^ tad-rajye 
trayfi-TOhlft Virodhini | aamvatsarS Suchau masS dars& yftrf Vri(bri)haspateh ( 

[Virodhin = S. 1091 a Ky. 4270]: Thursday, 26th June A.D. 1109; see hd. Ant. 
Vol. XVII. p. 264, No. 15. 

(L. 34). Saihnivritte KalSh kMa(]e)=sva(svi)-sapta-dvi-pay6nidhau | pravardhamane 
tad-rajye pamoha-viihSe same Kbar | Maghe cha ^uddha-dvadasyam masS vare 
Vri(bri)haspath | sampiipte Vaidhritau y6gS. 

[lor Khara = S. 1093 = Ey. 4272] this date is irregular; see ibid. p. 265, No. IB. 

The mythical Jayanta (Trilochana); in his race, Jayakesin [I], conquered the Alupas and 
established the Chalukyas in their kingdom, and took his abode at Gopakapattana (Goa); his 
son Vijayaditya [L] ; his son Jayak&in [II.] married MailalamahMSvi, the daughter of the 
[W.] Chalukya Vikramarka (Vikramaditya VI.); their son Paramardin Sivachitta; his 
younger brother Vishnuchitta. 

250. IS. 1083* and 1085*. PS OCL No. 1J8 ; Mysore Inter. No. 1 28, p. 51. Harihar 
Kanareae inscription of the MMmandaUsvam Vijaya-PandyadSva, 7 ' lord of KanehSpura,' 
and of bis Danfjandttia Vijaya-Permadi ; 8 

(L. 49). Saka-varsha 1093e(xa)aeya Vikrita-samvataarada Puahya-bahula-padiva 
Sukravarad=t!ttaray ana-sapikramanad=amdu. 

(t. 63). ^aka-varsha 1095neya Namdana-samvatsarada Bhadi-apada-suddha-iadige 

Bfih aapativarad=amdu. 

Friday, 25th December AD. 1170; 9 and Thursday, 24th August A.D. 1172. 

1 Compare above, No. 243. a The full details of the date are illegible. 

Bead Srlm<u>&~Chhk- * See 2nd. Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 156, No. 37- 

Professedly copied from a copper-plate (or copperplates). The descriptions of the boundaries contain 
Kanarese words and inflections. 

Compare below, No. 269. 

' Described as 'defeater of the designs of Rijiga-Ch&la ;' see above, No. 225. ( > ^ 

8 The inscription also mentions a Kadamba MaUmqiLaUSwr* K&tarasa, 'lord of Uchch*ng5giti i see 
pr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 564. 

' On this day the tithi of the date oommewtd 2 h. 36 m. after mean sunrise. 


251. PSOGT. No. 117 ; Mysore Inser. No. 35, p. 71. Harihar Kaiiarese inscription of the 
tfalidmandalesvaras Vira-P&ndyadeva and Vijaya-PimdyadSYa. 1 

252. PS 001. No. 135; Mysore Insor. No. 36, p. 71. Haribar Kanarese inscription of 
Vijay a-Pandyadeva(?) . 3 

253.-S, 1095 and 1103.-~ls. Res. Vol. IX. p. 431 ; Colebrooke's Misc. Essays, Vol. II. 
p. 271, Translation of a ' Curugode" (Kargdd, now Calcutta Maseum) Sanskrit and Kanarese 
inscription 3 of the reign* of the W. Chalukya Tribhuvanamalla Vira-Somesvara (Somesvara 
IV.), reigning at Kalyaua; recording grants by the MahamandalStivara Irmadi-B&ehamalla 
(Burnamed Sindagovinda) of Kurugddadurga : 

* The year of Salivahan 6 1095 in the Vijaya year of the cycle, and on the 30th. of the 
mouth Mjirgasira, on Monday, in the time of an eclipse of the sun.' 

'The year of Salivahan 8 1103, of the cycle Plava, and on the 15th of Kai^ttika, on 
Monday, in the gracions time of the moon's eclipse.' 
Both dates are irregular. 

In the lineage of the long-armed Sinda was Rachamalla ; to him and his wife Sovaladevl 
was born Irungala ; and to him and his wife Elchaladevi were born Irmadi-Kaohamalla and 

254. Ky. 4275.- Jour. So. As. Soc. Vol. IX. pp. 266 and 287. Two D^gamve inscriptions 6 
of the 8th year of the reign of the Kadamba Sivaehitta Perinadi, residing at G-6pakapnri' 
(Goa) ; recording a grant made at the request of his queen Kamal,d6vl ; (composed by 
G6vindadeva) : 

(P. 269, 1. 33, and p. 291, 1. 42). panclasaptatyadhils:a-dvisa.t6ttara-cliatu.haahasreshu 
Kaliynga-samvatsarlshu parayrittesha pravaviamanS cha sri-KadamTDa-Sivachitta-VSra- 
Pefmadidevaaya pravardhamana-vijayarajya-samvataar^ aBhta-vim4 Jay-ahvaye" MargasirsKS 
BmaYaByam BhatunaTare suryagrahana-paryani. 

[Jaya = S. 1086 = Ky. 4275] : Tuesday, 26th November A.D. 1174 ; a solar eclipse, visible 
iu India ; Bee Ind. Ant, Vol. XVII. p. 266, No. 17. 

The mythical Triloehana-Kadamba ; in his lineage, the Kadamba kings ; in their family, 
&uhalla Vyaghramarin ; his son ShasMhadeva [I.] ; his son Jayakesin [I.], a god of death to the - 
king of Kapardika-dvipa, uprooted Kamadeva eto.; his son Vijayaditya [I.] ; his son JayakMin 
[II.], mamed Mailalamahadevi, the daughter of the [W.] Chalukya Vikrama (Vikramaditya 
VI,); their son Sivachitta Permadi, married Kamaldevi, the daughter of Kamadeva of the 
lunar race and of his wife, the Pandya princess Chattaladevi. 

255. Jour. So, As. Soc. Vol. IX. p. 294. Deg&mve Kanareee inscription, recording the 
construction of two temples at the command of Kamaiadevi, the queen of the Odamba 
(of Goa) JJivaehitta Permadi (and daughter of king Kama, here described aa belonging to the 
solar race, and Chattalad&vi, here described as belonging to the lunar race 7 ). 

1 Tie inscription 5a almost entirely illegible. The date given in Mys. later, is quite incorrect. 
s The greater part of the inscription is illegible. 

* I owe an account of this inscription to Dr. Fleet ; for some fantastic characters in it sec Iwrf. Ant. Vol. XV. 
p. 864. 

* But compare Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 463, note 4. 

1 Sdlivdhana. really does not occnr in these dates; see Ind, Ant. Vol. XXX. p. 208, note 29. 

* The two inscriptions are identical, one being in Nagari and the other in Kanareae characters j compare above, 
Ko, 48. Both (called npala-idiantt) are perhaps copies of a copper-pkvte inscription. 

' Compare above, No. 254. 


856, S. 1104*. Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 15. TMal Kanarese Jaina inscription, Date oi 

ft private grant : 

(Ii. 59). Sa(ga)ka-varsham 1104neya Plava-samvatsarada Asvayuja-bahula 3 

Sunday, 27th September A.D, 1181; see ibid. Vol. XXIII. p. 129, No. 100. 

(For other dates in the same inscription see Nos. 220 and 258). 

257. S. 1106. P800I. No. 102. Dambal Sanskrit and Kanarese inscription of the 
TV, CMlnfcya S6m4svara IV. Tribhuvanamalla : 

(L 71). Sa(&)kanri(nn)pakal4tita-samYatsara 1106neya &6dM-sanmtsara<U 
lsa(shi)da(dha)d=amaTasye S6maY^rasuryyagrahana-sarbkrariiti-vyat}patad=amdn, 1 

Pei'laps Monday, 9th July A.D. 1184; but there was no eclipse and no Samkranti on that 

258. S. 1109. Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 15. TMal Kanarese Jaina inscription. Date of 
a grant by the Dandandyalw BMyideva, the son of the Dan($andyaka Tejugi : 2 ~ 

(D, 79). Sa(sa)ka-varfam(rsham) 1109neya Plavamga-samvatsarada Chaifaa-sii 30 

The dale is irregular ; see ibid. Vol. XXIV. p. 15, No. 190. 

(For other dates in the same inscription see above, Nos. 220 and 256). 

259. S. 1110*. Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 96. Toragal Kaaarese inscription of (tie 
MaMm&nitalesvara,) Barma, 3 ruling at Tojragale, recording a grant by hia wife SuggalacKivl! 

(It. 33). Sa(Sa)ka-7arsham lllOneya Piavarhga-samvatsarada Pnsya(shya)-bahttja 10 

Saturday, 26th December A.D. 1187 ; see ibid. Vol. XXIII. p. 180, No. 101. 

The Mahdmanjalefoara JLhavamalla-Bhutiga (as a feudatory of Htiraadi-Taila, .e. 
Taila II, killed Panchala 4 ); his son pavaramalla [I] ; his son Chatta [I] ; his son Davaramalla 
[II,] ; Ma son Chatta [II] j his son Bhfita (BhMga) ; his aon Barma. 

260.- g. 1111.-PSOOI. No. 90. e Hangal Kanarese inscription of the W. OMhkya 
Som^vara IV. Tribhuvanamalla, and of hia feudatory, the Odamba (of Hangal) KaM- 
MandaUsvara ZSmadeva : s 

1 Saka 1111 (in words, 1. 74), the Saumya sa&vatsara ; at ihe time of the sun's commencing 
Ma progress to the north.' 

26L-Ky. 4888.7- Jour. Bo. As. 800. Vol. IX. p. 241. Halsl plates of the 13th year of 
&e reign of ihe Kadamba (of Gtoa) JayakSsin IH.; (composed by Gangddharasiiri, the eoa of 
YajneMvara 8 ) : 

(L. 66).~sashtyiti^atadvay-dhik^shu chaturshu sahasrfishu 

prayartamanS tray6dag Siddhlrthi-samvatsari Chaitra-kddha-dvMai-Guruvar damanar6pa 

[Siddharthinsg. 1121 = Ey. 4300]: Thursday, llth March A.D. 1199; see M Ant. 
Vol. XVII p. 299, No. 19. 

1 See 2nd. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 209, No. 19. 

1 See Dr. Fleet's Dynastiet, p. 465. Tfrjugi (Tfija) is described as 'a thunderbolt in breaking the mountain 
Sirolian&riya, and a lion to the eleplrnnt-the brave Kamngarfcya.' 

' This peraon in different from the tiatdanfyafa Bamma (Bammima, etc.) who was a aoa of Ktea (Ka&9ft} s 
see below, No. 294 

See above, No. 140. i See Dr> Fleet , g ^ Md{ ^ p< 466) note i, and p. 668. 

A sou of Tailama who was a son of Taikpa II, in No. 210.- See'also below, Nos. 424 and 425. 

TMi is not the year in which the grant was made, but ihe year from which the remal yeare we*e counted. 

8 e 8 


The mythical Jayanta or Tril6chana-Kadamba; in his lineage, Shashthadiwa [I] ; his son 
Jayake'sh [I.] ; his son Vijayaditya [I] ; bis son Jayak&sin [II.], married Mailalarnahadtjvi, 
the daughter of [the W. Chalukya] Peraadi (VikramMitya VI.) and younger sister of S&ma 
(Sfime'svara III.) ; their sons Sivachitta Permadi and Vijayaditya [II.] (Vijayarka, Vaiii- 
tttftshana) ; the lafcter married Lakshmi who bore to him Jayake'sin [III.]. 

262, Ky.4289*. 1 Jotw. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. IX. p.304;Iwd. Ins&r. ffo, 33. Kittur 
Kaaarese inscription of the 15th year of the reign of ihe Kiidamba (of Goa) Jayakesin III., 
' lord of Banayaai,' recording a trial by ordeal : s 

(L. 3). Kaliyuga-saihvatsaram 4289neyasamd=ad=adi(di)y4gi . . . 

(L. 12).~M'Vira-Jayak6si(ii)dev-araaara varahaka(da) 15neya Du[L'*]mmati 
aamvataarada l.shada(dha)-^ud[dh*]a ashtami 8 Adivarad=athdu. 

(L, 25). tat-samvatsarada Ashada(dha)-bahula 7 saptaml Adivarad=adum. a 

(L, SO). a bahula 8 S6mavara de(di)vaea. 

(Pumalii a . 1123 =Ky. 4302] : Sunday, 10th June ; Sunday, 24th Jm\e ; and Monday, 
20th June A.D. 1201 ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. XVII. p. 297, No, 18. 

263. PS00I. No. 94 ; Anhaol Sun. of West. India, Vol. III. p. 103 ; Jowr. Bo, As. iSfoo. 
Vol. X. p. 181. Konnur much damaged Kanareae inscription of the Ratta U&Mmanddeswra 
Okiriwarttn Kattama (Kartavirya III. P) ; 4 

1 The . . . year of his reign, the ... samvatsara ; Monday, the eleventh day of the 
blight fortnight of Pushya ; at lihe time of the sun's commencing his progress to the north.' 

264. S. 1124*. Graham's KoZTiopoor, p. 415, No. 9. Translation of a Raybag inscription 5 
of the Batta MaUwndaletoara EMavirya IV., dated Saka 1124, the Durmati aamwkwa, 
Triday, the 15th of the bright half of Vaislkha. 

Friday, 20th April A.D. 1201. 

265. ft. 1127*.- Jowr. Bo. At. 800. Vol. X. p. 220 ; PBOOL No. 95. Kalhole Karnrese 
inscription of the Eatta Maktimantlalesvara Kartavirya IV., 'lord of Lattanur/ ruling at 
V&flugrama, and of his younger brother, the Yw<ija MalliMrjuaa : r 

(L. 54). Saka-yarsham 1127neya Raktakshi-saniTOtsarada Pati8hya(sha)-gaddha-bidigo 

Saturday, 25th December A.D. 1204 ; see Ind. Avt. Vol. XXIII. p. 128, No. 90. 

S&na [II,] 6 married Lakshmidevl ; Mr son Kattama (Kavtavlrya) [III.], married Padmala- 
dM; their son Lakshmideva (Lakshmapa) [L], maiiied Chandvike (Chandrikadeyi, 
ChndaladSvi) ; their sona Kartavirya [IV.] iwho mftmod Hchaladfevi) and Mallikarjuna. 

266. . 1181*.rnfl(. Ant. Vol. XIX. p. 245. Bh6;j plates of the Ratta MaMmtfattharn, 
Eftrtavirya IV., ' lord of Lattanur,' raling at VSuugrama, and of his younger brother, tho 
Ytward'jtt MallMrjuna ; (composed by Adityad&va 7 ) : 

(L. 9?). Sakanripa-kalasy=aikatri(tri)ihsaduttara-iatfidhika-8ahafratamasya Vibhava- 
samvatsarasya Karttika-masasya sukla-dvMaSyam Budhavka-samanvitayam. 

Wednesday, 22nd October A.D. 1208 ; see QM. Vol. XXIII. p. 128, No. 91. 

lu the Eatta race, raised to eminence by Krishnaraja, 8 was SSna [II.] ; his son Karta- 
Tirya [III,] his son Lakshmid^va (Lakshmidhara) [L], married Chandiikad^vi ; their sons 
Kfirtavirya [IV.] (who married fichalade'vl) and Mallikarjuna. 

'. This, again, is the year from which the regnal years were counted j it is quoted hero as a current yfarj sec 
aiove, No. 261. 

1 See Dr. Elect's Vytaitiet, p. 571. Read *aMn, 

* See Dr. Beet's Dytuittiei, p. 555. See ibid, p, 557. 

6 See above, STo, 201. "> :Por another Adityadfiva see below, Nos. 288 aud 300. 

1 JU tha Rlthtnkiltft Krieh^ataja II. 


267. 1141*. Jour, Bo. As. Soo. Vol. X. p. 240. NSsargi (Nesavige) Kanarese inscrip- 
tion of the Batta Mahdmandalehava Kartavirya IV., ruling at Vnupura (Venugrarna) : 

(Jj. 57). Sa(a)ka-varja(rsha) 1141neya Bahudhanya-samvatsarada Magha-suddha 7 
Guruvarad=amd=uttarayanasamkranti-vyatiplita kudida punya-tithiyal=. 

Either the 25th December A.D. 1218 (but this was a Tuesday and the 7th of the bright 
half of Pausba) or Thursday, the 24th January A.D. 1219 (but this was the day of the Kumbha- 
samkranti) ; see Ind. Ant, Vol. XXIV. p. 8, No. 156, and Vol. XXV. p. 293, note 64. 

Genealogy from S&n.a [II.] to Kartavirya [IV.] as in No. 266. 

268. S. 115l*./owr. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. X. p. 260; Archceol. Surv. of West. India, Vol. II. 
P. 223, and Plate Ixxiii. ; and Vol. III. p. 110; PS 001. No. 89. Saundatti Kanarese inscrip- 
tion of the time of the Ratta JbfaMmancialehara Lakshmiddva II., ' lord of Lattanur,' ruling 
at V&augrlHna, the eon of Kartavirya IV. and Mad vi ; recording grants made at the command 
of the JZdjaguru Munichandra : 

(L. 64). Saka-varsham HSlneya Sarvvadhari-samvatsarada Ashldliad=amavtl8e 
S6mavarad=amdina sarvvagrasi-suryyagrahanad=uttama-tithiyol. 

Monday, 3rd July &.D. 1228 ; a total eclipse of the sun, -visible in India ; see Ind. Ant. Vol. 
XXIII. p. 130, No. 103. 

269. Ky. 4348. 1 -Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 289. G-oa (now Bombay As. Soc.'s) plates of 
the 5th year of the reign of the Kadamba (of Goa) Sivaohitta ShashthadSva II. and of his 
brother-in-law K&madva (K&vana) ; (composed by Chatyanarya, the son of S&manatha and 
grandson of Yajfiavarya 9 ) : 

(L. 29). ashtachatvarithgadadhika-trigat6[tta*]i^ahu chatuh-sahasreshu Kaliyuga- 
samvatsar^shu paravritte'shu satsu | svarajy-anubhava-kal^ pamcham^ Sadharana-samvatearfi 
[| ta]sy=A^vayuja-4u[d*]dha-pratipadi Budhavare Tula-rasim=upagat.avati bhagavati 
bhaskar^ vishuva-samkramtau | mah[a*]punya-kal^ | 

[SadMrana = S. 1172 = Ky. 4351]: Wednesday, 28th September A.D. 1250; see ibid. 
Vol. XVII. p. 300, No. 20. 

The mythical Jayanta in whose family were many kings. Among them was GuBalla j then 
Shashtha [I.] ; his aon JayakSsln [I.] ; his son Vijayarka [I.J ; his son Jayake"s"in [II.], married 
Mailalamahade'vJj the daughter of the [W.J Chaluky'a Permadi (Vikramaditya VI.) ; their sons 
Permadi and Vijaya [II.] ; Vijaya's son JayakSsin [III.], married Mahade"vi; their Bon 
Tribhuvanamalla, married Manikadevi ; their son Shashtha [II.]. His sister was married to the 
prince KamadeVa (Kayana), the son of Lakshmid<3va and Lakshml. 

270. Jow. Bo. As. SOG. Vol. IX. p. 310. Degamve Kanarese Kildamba inscription (P). 

271. &. 1182. Jour. Boy. As. 800. Vol. V. p. 177; Jour. Bo. As. Soc. Vol. IV. p. 105. 
Terwan platea of the reign of the Chalutya MaMmantfaU&ara KSmyadSvaraya, ' lord of 
Kalyaoapura,' recording a grant by his minister Ke"sava : 

(L. 1). Sri-Saku 1182 varshe Raudra-samvatsarS | Pushya-vadi saptami(mi) Sa(^a)ni- 
dinS | ... uttarayapasamkranti-parvani. 

Saturday, 25th December A.D. 1260 ; 3 see Ind. Ant. Vol. XXIV. p. 1, No. IU. 

1 This is not the year in which the grant was made, but the year from which the regnal years were counted. 
1 Piobubly the YajftSsvara of No. 249. 

1 On this day the tit hi of the date commenced 13 h. 19 m. (and the Uttarayana-uamkranti took place 16 "h. 
46 m.) after mean sunrise. 


272. hd. Ant. Vol. XIY, p. 141, and Plates. British Museum (spurious) Sanskrit and 
Kaaarose plates 1 of the Chalukya MaMr'tJLWnrdfa QTiakmartin Vlra-Satya' sraya, lord of, and 
residing at, Kalyanapura, tlie sou of Govindaraya ;~ 

(L. 20). Bhava-samvachhares Jyeshta-rnase' krishna-pakshS Sasivare saptemylm tithafl. 

273. & 388.-- Iwi Ant. Vol. VIII. p. 94, and specimen Plate. Bangalore Museum 
(spurious 2 ) Sanskrit and Kanarese plates of the Chalukya MaMrdjit&lw&ja, Clmlerawtw 
Vira-Honamfta, lord of, and residing at, Kalyanapura : - 

(L. 13),~ Saka-varasha 366 Tarana-sarivvachhai^ Phalguua-mase knshna-paksh$ Bihavara 
amavfisyayam titliau. 

3?or S, 866 the date would regularly correspond to Thursday, 22nd February A.D. 445 ; but 
S. 366 could be called Tirana only by the southern lum'-solar system, which was not in use at 
so early a period; see itid. Vol. XXIV. p. 9, No. 163. 

274 low, Bo. At. SOG, Vol. II. p. 270 ; Graham's lolhapoor, p. 470, No. 23. Translation 
of a KolMpur inscription' 3 of a Chalukya named S6mad&va (S6m6svara).-~ In a Chalukya 
family which flourished at Samgame&vara in the Konkan was born king Karna (who liyed at 
'Vijaypat'); his son Vetugideva; hia son S&madeva; his younger brother (?) S6madva 
(Somesvara), whose queen was Manikyadevi. 

E. The Kalachuryas. 4 

275.-S. 1079. PS 001. No, 219; Mysore Inter. No. 102, p. 188. Talgund KimarB 
inscription of the Kalachurya MaUimnij.aUka'ra Blwjab&la-olirikrava'rtin Bijjana, 6 ( lord of 
Ealanjara, 1 and of his Dandan&yah K^simayya (KSsava) : 

(L. 57).- Sa(&)ka-varsham 1079ney=fevara-BamTatcha(tsa)rada Pushyada puunami 

The date is irregular. 

The inscription mention the W, Ohalukya kings as far as Taila III,, but conveys no 
distinct information as to the exact relations then existing between Taila III, and Bijjana. 9 

276.-P80GI No. M; Mysore Inw, No. 90, p, 182. Balagamve Kanarese memorial 
tablet of the third (?) year of the reign of the Ealachurya Bhijabak-cliaknvari^ Bijjana : 

' The second year^ (in figures, i 3) of his reign, the Bahtidhanya wmvahwra, ; Tuesday, the 
fourteenth day of the dark fortnight of Chaitra ;' (Mys. Inter. : ( the month Karttika, the last 
day of the moon's decrease, new-moon day, Tuesday'). 

[for Bahudh&nya = S, 1080] the date would be irregular, with either reading. 

277,-6,1080.-P00CI No. 183; Mysore Inscr. No. 74, p. 152. Balagamve Kwaiese 
inscription. Date of the time of the Kajachurya UaUrdjddUrdja, M^ahk-^Anmiin 
Bijjala Tribhuvanamalla, 'lord of Kalanjara,' and of his Danjan&yaba K^imayya (Kfifiavs, 

lOSOneya Bahudhkya-samvatcha(tsa)rada Pugya(shya)da 
punnamiS6mavaram=nttarayanasamb > kti-vyat1pata-s6magrahanad=anidu, 

1 According to Dr. Meet referable to petkpi the IBtk or 14tli century A.D.~ Compare also hi. Art. 
Vol. XXX. p. 369. 

1 See M. An*. Vol. XXX. p. 221, No. 49 1 the grant apparently is a quite modern forgery. 

i gee m. p. 207. * See also above, NOB. 226, 2S2, 288, 240 and 245. 

1 Here and in other inscriptions Bijjana has the Urnda Nl&ankaiaalla. 

8 See Dr. Fleet's Dynasties, p. 473. / 

* According to Dr. Fleef a Dynaiiiet, p, 474, the tUid year, and probably the month BMdrapada ; (for S. 1W 
tie 14th of the dark half of BMdrapada would correspond to Tuesday, 23rd September A.D. 1158). 

8 See M. Ant, Vol. XII. p, 212, No. 59. 


Monday, 5th January A.D. 1159 ; but there was no lunar eclipae and no Samkranti on this day, 

The inscription mentions the W. Cbllukya kings as far as Taiia III., but conveys no distinct 
information as to the exact relations then existing between Taila III, and Bijjala. 1 

(For another date in the same inscription, of the third year of the Kalachurya Sankama, see 
below, No. 292). 

278, Up. Lid, Vol. Y. p. 15. Managoli Kanarese inscription of the 6th year (of the reign) 
of the Kalachurya Blmjahtla-clalmvartm Bijjala : 

(L. 59), Bijjaladeva-varahada 6neya Yish[u*]-samvatsarada BhMrapada-bahiila 6 
Mamgalavarad=amd[ii] . 

(L. 64), Kapila"chatti-vyatipata-parvva-nimittav-ag[i], 

[Vishu = S. 1083] : Tuesday, 12th September A.D. 1161, when the naksliatra was Rolibi 
and the yoga Vyatipata. 2 

(In lines 1-59 the inscription refers to events of the time of the W. Chalukya Jagadeh- 
malla IL, and contains a date of the 5th year of that king's reign; see above, No. 232). 

279. PSOGI. No, 184 ; Mysore Inscr. No. 43, p. 92. Ba]agariive Kanarese inscription 3 
of the Gth year (of the reign) of the Kalachurya MaMmandalesvarot Bhujcibala'oliakrnrtw 
Bijjala Tribhuvanamalla, 'lord of Kalanjara/ and of his Dandaiidyaka Barmarasa; recor- 
ding a grant which was made at the request of Bijjala's dependent Kasapayya-nSyaka : E 

(L, 46). 6neya Yishu-samvatsarada Pushya-masad=am&vasye sui'yya-grahanad=aaidu, 

[Vishu = S. 1083] : 17th January A.D. 1162, with a solar eclipse, visible in India. 

280. "Ep. Ind. Yol. V. p. 24. Managoli Kanarese inscription of the 10th year (of tlie 
reign) of the Kalachurya Mahdrdjddhirdja Bhujabala-ckaltravartin Bijjala, [ lord of KalaBjaia,' 
reigning at hia capital of Kalyana, and of his Dandanuyalta Ammanayya : 

(L. 18). Bijjaladeva-varshada lOneya Partti(rtthi)va-samvatsarada Marggasirad=amayaaje 
Adityavaras i &.ryyagi i ahana-bya(vya)tipata-nimittadirii. 

[PSrthiva = S. 1087] : Sunday, 5th December A.D. ] 165 ; but there was no solar eclipse on 
this day ; see iUd. p. 24. 

281. PSOGI. No. 121; Mysore Inscr. No. 33, p. 64. Earihar incomplete Kanarese 
inscription 8 of the Ka}achurya MaJidrajddUrdja Bhujabala-cliakravartin Bijjana Tribhuvaca- 
malla, and of his Dandandyaka Barmarasa, the son of Munjaladeva and nephew of Kasapayya" 
nayaka, of the lineage of Sagara. 

282. P80CI. No. 186 j Mysore Inscr. No, 83, p. 169, Balagamve Kanarese memorial 
tablet of the time of the Kalachurya BhujaMa-clakravartin Bijjana, and of his Dan^andyah 

283. PSOGI. No, 187; Mysore Inscr. No, 91, p. 182. Bajagamve Kanareae memorial 
tablet of the time of the Kalaohurya Shitjabala-chakramvtm Bijjana. 

284. PSOGI. No. 223; Mysore Inscr. No. 110, p. 206. Sorab Kanarese memorial tablet 
of the time of the Kalacturya (?) Bijjana ; (according to Mys. Inscr. apparently of the time of a 
W, CMlukyaking). 

285. PSOCI, No. 185; Mysore Inscr. No. 48, p. 109, Balagamve Kanarese inscription 
of the 16th! Kajachurya year, 7 recording the transference of the government by the Kalachurya 

1 See Dr. Fleet'* Tiynattiet, p. 473. 

' See Ind. Ant. Vol. XXVI. p. 183, BMdrapada-knshnapaksha VI. 

* The inscription, besides other literary works, mentions the Raumdra, fdqMya and 8<iJcatd$na gramnm 
1 See Dr. Fleet's Dyeutiea, p. 475. * See Nos. 245 and 281. 

8 For an account of the descent of Bijjana (Bijjal