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Vol. IX (1907 - 1908) 







W A* ^L 


VOL. IX -1907-08. 






Reprinted 1981 



Price : Rs. 90 

Printed at Pearl Offset Press, 5/33, Kirti Nagar Indl. Area New Dclhi-15 





VOL. IX -1907- 





(FROM PAGE 145) 






TK0BNER & Co, TtEMA ; A. HOLDEE <fc Co, 




i MM m. 


The names of contributors are arranged alphabetically, 


No. 40. PatiakeM grant of Maharaja ivaraja ; [Qapta-] Samrat 283 .... 285 
41. Murul&vari inscription of Udayasena ; [Harsha] Tear 30 889 


No, 4. Two grants of Indraraja III ; aka-Samvat 836 .- . . '24 

25. Yasantgadb, inscription of Yarmalata ..*..... 187 ^ 

26. Daulatabad plates of $ankaragana ........ 193 W^ 

p* 27. Buchkala inscription o Nagabhatfc 198 v/ 4 

,y 38. Ghatiy&}a inscriptions of Kakkuka 277 


No. 42. Sah&t Mah&t umbrella staff inscription. * . . . , ' , . . 290 


No, 32. M&nbalJi plate of ^rirallavang&lai 234 


No. &2, Krishnapuram plates of Sadasivaraya , . 32& 

ISA IiAt, B;A. : 

No. 5. Bagholi plates of Jayavardbana II. 41 

14. Kanker inscription of the time of BL.anude' va 123 

19. Inscriptions from B'astai- State 

20. Kanker plates of Pamparajad&va ... 166 

23. Bajapnra plates of MadborantakadSva ,..*.... 174 

, t 24. SMw^ inscription of Karnaraja 188 

39. Sfirangarh plates of Maha'SadSva 281 

44. Spurious lapbl plate of Pntav!d6va ........ 293 

, 48. Burnanpur inscription of idil Sbah ...,,.. 306 

49. N&ayanp&l inscription of Gunda MabidH 311 

53. Irang copper-plate of BbJmasena IL ; Gupta-Saihvat 282 . . . . .348 

orssaoj E. HULTZSCH, PH.D. : 

No. 3. Ajupa inscriptions at TJdiy&Tara ......... 15 

6. Maliyapundi grant of Ammaraia II 

7. Plates of Yrjaya-D&vavannan 

12. Takmancbi plates of Vikramadityal.. 98 

i6. Yandram plates of Ammaraja II 181 

81. Tirumalai iascription of Ba^ndm-CbAla, I. 229 V 

- 50. Timmapuram pktes of Yisnauvardbana I. YishamasiddM . , . . . 817 V 

PEOPBSSOB F. KIBIHOBK, Pff.D., D.Linr., LI.D., O.I.B. : * 

No. 1. Two copper-plate inscriptions of the time of Mahendrapala of Kanauj . , 1 

2. Yasantgadb. inscription of Purnapfila ,10 

9. The Cbihamanas of Naddola 82 

"13. MandbltJi plates of D^vapala and Jayavannan II, of MMava . , . .108 

16. Note on two copper-plate inscriptions of the time of MahendrapAla of Jtanauj ISO 

18. Mount !H Yimala temple inscription , . 148 

29, Dates of Chola kings (continued) 207 

80. Dates of Pandya kings (continued) , 323 




No, 34. Pathari pillar inscription of Parah&la , 248 

36. Balagh&t plates of PpthirisWna II ! 267 

37. Orissa plates of Yidyadharabhafijadfoa 271 


No. 11. Madias Museum plates of Vajraksta III 

21. Khariar plates of Maha-Sud^va 

43. Two Buddhist inscriptions from Samath 291 

46. Arig6m Sarada inscription of Ramadeva 3QQ 

47. ChandraTat} plate of Chandiad^va 302 

61. SiraatK inscription of Eumarad^vi 3^9 


3^.y55. Anmakoncla inscription of Pr61a / 2 


No. 33, Three early Bralmi inscriptions 239 

K. B. PATHAK, B.A. : 

No. 28. Klndur plates of Kirtivarman II ^ 

45. Ath6na plates of ankaragana ... ou ft 

J. o . 600 

D. E. SABNI :- 

No. 8. Benares inscription of Pantha ..... 59 

B. SBWBLI, I.C.S. (BETD.):- 

No. 22. Note on Bhujabala Mahar^ya ^ 4 


No. 17. Inscriptions on the Mathuia Lion-Capital 135 


No. 10. Ambiiaamudrani inscription of Yaraguna-Pandya 04 





3. III. . . . 


4. , IV. 

,. 22 

5. Bagumra plates of Indraraja III. First set 

6. Second 

O A Sr OK 

f . ,j >j *> <55 O3 

)f 4-1 ^fc 45 

52 & 53 

58 & 59 

1 0. Benares inscription of Pantha .... 

to face page 60 

11. Ambasamudram inscription of Varaguna-Pandya 

,t so 

12. Madras Museum plates of Vajrahasta III. 

. between pages 96 & 97 

100 & 101 

. '. ,, 110 & 111 

15. t)n& plates of Avanivarman 11. T6ga . 

130 & 131 

16. Vandram plates of Ammaraja II. ... 

134 & 135 

19. ,, ,) a n 111. 

. it n 1^6 

21. Mount Abu Vimala temple inscription 

i) 158 

22. Map of Bastar State .' 

., 160 


24. Khariar plates of Maha-Sud&va .... 

. t . t> it J/O ou I/a 


. between pages 196 & W7 

29. ,, II. 

81. Ke'ndth- plates of EMivarman II., Plate I. . 

, . . . ,, 200 
.... between pages 202 & 203 

,i 204 & 205 

... to face page 288 


35. British. Museum stone of Kanishka, Plate I. . , 

., 240 

. , . . n 243 

., ,> 252 

40. Balaghat plates of Prithivishe'na II. , 

, 270 & 271 

42. S&rangarfy plates of Maha-Sude'va . . . 
43. PalfiakeUa plate of ivaraja , 

.... to face page 283 
. between pages 286 & 287 

46. Saruath stone umbrella inscription .... 

,- 292 

47. Sarn&th Buddhist image inscription . 



48, L&phA spurious plate of Pyithvid^va tc 

49, Abh6ria plates of Sankaragaaa ..,.*,. . between 

50. Irig6m inscription of R&mad6va to 

51. Cbandrzivati plate of Chandrad^va .,.,*.* 

62. Burli&npilr inscription of Adi] Shah 

53. NMyanpU inscription of Gunda-Mah&lSvi 

5i Timmapuram plates of Vishnuvardhana I. VisnamAaiddlii .... 

55, S&m&th. inscription of Kumarad^i * 

56, KjisMporam plates of Sad&ivar&ya, Plate I between p 

"' A t> iL ,,, 

6S, Arang plate of Bhimasfoa II to 


4, para. 1, line 7, for Mah&idrapaladeva read 
10, for Haddala read Haddail. 

7, footnote 17, line l,~/or nistrimsa 
9, text-line 46, for -bhupalams"= read 
16, line 3 from bottom, for Santaras read Santaaras. 
, v 17, 9, for Aluva read Aluva. 
48, line 2 from bottom, /or Ch^di read Qh&U. 
56, line 1, for Thursday read Friday, 
58, para. 2, line 2, -for Godavarrreadt Kistna. 
60, line 13 from the top^/or Jhalrapatan read Jhalrapfttan. 
65, footnote 6,. line 1, for actua read aoiiual. 
71, line 4 from the 'top, [I think the word t&mbftlfya should meaq "betel chewed 

with areca-nut and ohunam " whicK the wonien sjiati out of grief. This is red 

and may be compared to rubies (padmardga)-~Il. ?, S.] 
72, last line,-- for Javalipura 

75, verse 12. [There is no allusion tp any legend here., 'The poet wapts to say that, 

amUhai&h) weighed the king's prowess (i.e, the 

Brahman out of arrogance (damUhai&h) 

sun) on one side and his fame (i.e. the moon) on the other pnd fonnd the two 
balanced so well on the scale of which the rod was the (heavenly) Gangs, that 
the pin (kanaka) in the middle was dhrwa (ie. stable). The other meaning 
intended is the Pole star (Dhmva) which oocripies the middle of the heavenly 
orbit and is almost fixed in space. H. K. S,] 

99, last bat one para., line 8, for Polikesra read olikejin, 

100, text-line 2, for *R read ztf. 

17, for ^t read w$t, 

119, footnote 3, line 2,/or Sfidra- read udra-. 

120, text-line 3, for Mamdodarivashpa- read Mamd6darlvfi^hp^-, 

125, line 10, /or Kandika-bandha read Kau<lika-bandha. 

143, translation of B., for Ea^lja read K^jula, 

156, footnote 5, last line, for KushmandinS read KiishmandmS. 

160, para, 3,,line 5, for Tirathgarh read Tirathgarh. 

165, footnote, line 6 for Dattakamim&ns& read DattafcaDaSmams&, 

line 8, for Jludramba r&ad pudr^mM. 

166, para. 3, line 2, /or 1783 read 1779. ' 

168, line 9 from the top, for Padi read Padi. 

169, line 2, for Lakshmidhara read LakshmSdhara. 

170, text-line 6, for -prasuta sama[sta*]- read -prasuta-sama^-fca 1 ]- 

,, 170, text-line 8, for ravidin read ravidine". 

171, para. 5, laatline, for ohohhreshta read chehhrsh$ha. 

172, line 8, insert a hyphen at the end of the line. 

footnote 7, line 2, for Sambilaka read S^mbilaka. 



, 175, line 4, insert (Nagari) after Sanskrit, 

176, line 16, for Medip^ta read M^dipdta. 


footnoto 2, for Tdjfiavttlkya read Tajnavalkya, 
178, line 13 from bottom, for Malava read MMava. 


Page 179, footnote 1, line 3, for Sakkara-kofctam read Sakkara-kottam. 
180, footnote 5, for Siyadoni read Siyadoni. 
181, para. 5, line 4, [Mndhaseli perhaps stands for the Telugn mudusati which means 

'old, ancient;' i.e. a headman respected on account of old age ; compare natty* 

muduimai; above, p. 21, footnote 3.~-H. K. S.] 
185, text-line 4, /or <rc: qiftft read ?re:Tzftfa, 
j, footnote 1, line 2, /or Devakuta read Dtjvakiita. 
205, para. 3, line 4, for Kartikeya read Karfctikeya, 
,, footnote 7, for Conjeeverum read Conjeeveram. 
223, H"o. 63, translation, line 2, for Uttara=Phalguni read Uttara-Phalgunf. 
235, para. 3, line 2, for Ayurur read Ayurur. 
236, lines 15 and 17,/or Ayirur read Ayurur. 
test-line 9, /or =kkil- read kil-. 

237, text-luie 17 and translation, line ^,for Ayurur read Ayurur. 
238, Ibes 3 and 11 and footnote 10,*- Ditto. 

257, footnote 4, [From the Palnada inscriptions -we learn that the Kakatlya king 

Gaaapati was ruling from his capital Oramgalln, already in Saka-Samvat 1173 

and that his daughter and successor Rudramahadevi was also ruling from the 

same city in Saka 1191. H. K. S,] 

261, footnote 6, line 7 from bottom,~/or Kul6tfcunga-Ch61a I. read Kul6ttunga- 


266, line 4, /or Kakati read Kakati. 
282, para. 5, line &,; for Khariar read Kharjdr. 
283, line 7, for Tindri read Tiindrl 
284, translation, line 1, for Sarabhapura read Sarabhapnra, 
,j footnote 6, line 3,~-/or JSjabhukti read J^jabhnkti. 
300, line 9, [Comparing the symbol for i in Q pihpati with the ^-symbol in parikinam 

(line 19) and in ndirgha (line 24) it appears as jif the form Mahapilupati 

was alfio meant here as in the Sankhecla plate of Santilla (Ep Ind Vol II 

p. 23).~H, K. S.] 

307, table, 1st column,~/or Gazni read Ghazni. 
3 , 3rd for idil Shah Ayna read Idil Shah Ayna. 
313, line 2, for Ealavur read Halavur and for Banvfei read Banavasi. 
316, para. 3, line 3, for bhano^ri read bhandari, 
line 8 from bottom, for Brahmaujhaka read Brahmaujhaka. 
321, last para., line 6, /or 493 read 793. 

330, footnote S,~/or Amnktam&lyada read Imuktamalyada and for Viehnuchittiyam 

read Vishnnchittiyam. 

331, para. ^ line 7, for Knttukkal read Euttukkal. 
n 8 3 --/or Pattaikulam read Pataikknlam. 





IN February 1904 Mr. Gaurishanlcar Hirachand jha of Udaipur, in Rajput&na most kindly 
sent me photographs of two Sanskrit inscriptions on copper-plates, which had been found some 
years before at tTnfi, a town in the southernmost part of the peninsula of Kathiav&d, in the 
Junagadh State. 1 Both inscriptions are of the reign of the Mahdrdjadhiraja, MahSndrapala or, 
as he is called in one of them, Mahe'ndr&yudha, of Kanauj, and record grants to a temple of 
the Sun by two feudatories of his, Balavarraan and his son Avanivarman IE. Ydga, who 
belonged to a Chalttkya family. One is dated in the [Gupta-] Yalabhi year 574, corresponding 
roughly to A.D. 893; the other in the [Vikrama] year 956, corresponding to about A. D. 899. 
In March 1904 I gave a short account of the contents of these inscriptions, in Naohridhten d. 
K. Ges. d, Wissensckaften zu Gottingen, and I have since tried to secure impressions of the 
originals. Not having succeeded in doing so, I now venture to publish the texts from Mr. 
Ojha's photographs. 

A, Plates of Balavarman; Valabhl-samvat 674, 

These are two plates, each of which is inscribed on one side only. They contain 36 lines of 
on the whole well-preserved writing in N&gari characters. 2 The language -is Sanskrit; it is 
generally easy to understand, but line 17 contains a revenue term which I have not met with 
elsewhere and am unable to explain. Lines 7-9 give two verses on the vanity of fortune, etc., 
and the necessity of works of piety, and lines 22-29 six of the ordinary imprecatory verses ; the 
rest is in prose. 

The inscription records a grant of land by the Mahdsdmanta Balavarman, the son of 
Avanivarman [I.], of the Chalukya lineage, a. feudatory, who had obtained the five <mdh&- 
abdas, of the Paramalhatfdraka Mahdrdjddhirdja PwamSfoara MahSndrayudhadSva who 
meditated on the feet of the P.M. P. Bhojadgva. From Wakshisapura, Balavarman informs 
the various officials and others that, after fasting on the sixth tifhi -of the bright half of Mfigha, 
he gave the village of Jayapura, belonging to the Nakshisapura group of eighty-four which 

1 See Indian Atlas, quarter sheet 13, 8. B., Long. 71 5', Lat. 21 49'. 

3 Since no facsimiles can be published, it would be useless to giro full particulars regarding tne form* of 
individual letters ; but I may mentiou here that the conjuncbs ry and rth are denoted by (well-known^ special 
signs which, contain no superscript ?, . 



ho had acquired by his own arm (svabhujopfirjita-NafcsJiisapnra-chatnrasitiM-), to (a temple of) 
the Sun under the name TarunSdityadeva, which stood on the banks of the river KanavirikS. 
The boundaries of the village were on the east the village of Slhav&halaka, on the south ihe 
village of Bafjyastha]la, on the west" the village of 3?dhillaka, and dh the north the village of 
Amvullaka (Ambnllaka). After the usual admonition to preserve this gift, and six impre- 
catory verses, lines 29-34 give the names of twelve witnesses four Brahmans, four merchants, 
and four Mahattaras. They are followed by the name of the writer, which, cannot be read -with 
certainty, and this, again, is followed by the date sri-Valabhi-samvat 574 Mdgha-sttddha 6, the 
numerals of which are ordinary decimal figures. The inscription, in line 36, ends with the 
signatures 8va-Tiasii6=[tra] drt-Vatya) lavarmmanak |J" sva-hastah srl-DMika, where (the second) 
sra-hastah is preceded by a mark which eeerns to represent the actual sign-manual of Dhiika. 
Who this Dhiika was, does not appear from the present inscription ; but the grant B. makes it 
probable that he was a high official of the king Mahendrayudha (Mah&ndrapala), whose 
permission was necessaiy for the making of ths grant. 

B. Plates of Avanivarmaa II. Yoga; [Vikrama-]samvat 956, 

These are three plates, the second of which is inscribed on both sides, while the first and 
third are inscribed on one side only. They contain 68 lines of well-preserved writing in NSgari 
characters. The engraving is done carelessly, so that the text contains numerous mistakes, the 
correction of some of which 5 especially in two passages where proper names are concerned, is 
very difficult. The language is Sanskrit. Lines 1-45 contain twenty-four verses which, after 
glorifying the Sun, treat of the genealogy of the donor and of his and his ancestors' exploits ; 
and two imprecatory verses are cited in lines 65-67 ; the rest of the text is in prose. 

The inscription records a grant of land by the MaJidadmanta Avanivarman [II.], surnamed 
Yoga, of the Ohalukys race (verse 2). In this race there were two ' great kings ' (mahd-wahi- 
patty, the brothers Kalla and Mahalla (v. 3), the former of whom is eulogized in conventional 
terms (vv. 5 and 6). Kalla had a son, whose name cannot be made out with confidence (v. 7) ; 
and this chief had a son whose name ended with dhavala, and whose full name perhaps was 
Yahukadliav&la (v. 9). This last named chief destroyed (or defeated) in battle a certain 
Dharma, conquered kings -who were well-known rdjddhirdja-paramesvaras, and defeated a 
Karnata army (w. 10 and 11). His son was Avanivarman [I.] (v. 12), and his son, again, was 
Balavarmau (the donor of the grant A., above). Balavarman defeated a certain Vishadha 
(v. 16) from whom he took away a pair of big drums (nru-Qliakka) ; and, by slaying Jajjapa and 
other kings, 'freed the earth from the Huna race' (v. 17). His son was Avanivarman [IE,], 
also called Ydga (v, 18), who ronted the armies of a certain Takshadasa 1 and other kings whose 
countries w-ere invaded by him (vv. 19 and 20), and put to flight Dharanlvaraha (v, 21). 

In lines 45 ff, this Mahdsdmanta Z6ga (i.e. Avanivarman II. )j a fendatory of the Parama- 
Ihatf&ralca Mahdrdjddhirdja Paramdfaara, MahSndrapaladSva who meditated on tie feet of the 
PJf.?. Bhojadfiva, informs his officials and others, as well aa future kings,- that, with the 
approval of the illustrious Phlika, 8 he gave the village of Amvulaka (Ambulaka), 3 which 

1 Verse 10 records that, after destroying the army of rakshadflsa, Avanivarrnan toot away from him the musi- 
cal instrument (tHrya) called SdyarakahSlha, In my previous account of this inscription I suggested that 
Yakshadfaa may havejraled the Madia country > bat this is wrong. As the engraver of the grant in several other 
places has engraved m instead of y, the actual reading muddha-bhdmith in line 36 nvust undoubtedly be altered 
to intddha~1>hdmi A, not to JMarfrn-iAtiw'h, 

* The inscription, the text of which is not qnite certain Here, afieins to indiflafe that DMika was an aritapiSla or 
'frontier-guard' 3 of Mahferidrapala*fl, anil that Avanivarman IT. was's subordinate of hte (as his 
hWi been before Liin). See the end of toe grant A. 

1 Thi Tillage (Ambnlaka or Ambnllakft) is mentioned also in the grant A.* 


belonged to the Kakshisapura eighty-four (NaksJiisapura-cJtaturasiti) in the Saur&shtra 
mandala, to (a temple of) Tarunadityadeva, located near the river Kanavirika" in the vicinity 
of the village of Jayapura. 1 The boundaries of the village were on the east the village of 
Viyaraka, on the south the village of Jayapura, on the west the villages of Sdnduvaka and 
K6rinttaka, and on the north the village of Vavulika. After the usual admonition to preserve 
thia gift* &nd two imprecatory verses, the inscription, in liue 68, ends with the date gathvat 956 
Mdgha-sudi 6, the numerals of which here also are ordinary decimal figures. 

The Chalukya chiefs mentioned in the preceding are not known from other inscriptions. 
The large Bilhari inscription, in Ep. Ind. Vol. I. p. 266, mentions a Ohaulukya Avanivarman 
whose daughter Nohala was married by the Kalachuri Chedi king Yuvaraja I. Keyftravareha. 
That Avanivarman may have been a contemporary 2 of Avanivarman II. Yoga of our grant B. ; 
but even assuming that the terms Chdlukya and Ohaulukya might be used synonymously 8 
he cannot be identical with him, because hia father and grandfather were Sadhanva aud Simha>- 
varman (not Balavarman and Avanivarman). 

.For Balavarman, a feudatory of Mahendrayudha (Mahendrap&la), the grant A. furnishes 
a date in about A.D. 893. We therefore may assume that his grandfather Vahukadhavala (P) 
lived about the middle of the 9th century A.D., and was almost certainly a feudatory of Mahe'n- 
drapala's predecessor Bhojadeva (Mihira) of Kanauj, for whom we possess dates from A.D. 843 
to A.D. 881. Now in the inscription No. 77 of my Southern List this Mihira (BhojadeVa) is 
stated to have been defeated by the Gujarat Rashtrakuta Dhruvaraja II. This at any rate 
would show that he was at war with the Rashtrakutas ; and I believe that such a war is actually 
referred to in tbe account -of Vahukadhavala's (?) exploits related in the grant B. In my 
opinion, the Karnata army which is said to have been defeated by him can only have been 
an army of the Bashtrakutas. As regards (the king) Dharma who is stated to have been 
destroyed (or defeated) by the same chief, I know of no king Dharma who could have been a 
contemporary of his, excepting the well-known Pala king Dharmapala, and I see no reason 
why Dharma should not be identified with that Pala king, who at one time or another 
undoubtedly was at war with the rulers of Kanauj. 

Balavarman himself defeated a certain Vishadha, and by slaying Jajjapa and other kings 
' freed the earth from the Hiina race.' Who Vishadha was, it is impossible to say. Wars with 
Huna kings are frequently mentioned in Indian inscriptions of the Middle Ages, 4 and we know 
of a Huna princess, Avallade'vi, who was married by the Kalachuri Karna in the llth century ; 
but in recording the 'name of Jajjapa our grant B. for the first time discloses the name of an 
individual Huna king, who must be placed in about the last quarter of the 9th century. 

The kings or chiefs mentioned as opponents of Ay ani varman H. Ydga, for whom we have 
a date in about A.D. 899, are Yakshadasa and Dharanivaraha. The former is unknown to us. 
The latter I do not hesitate to identify with the Chapa Mahdsdmantddhipati Dharantvaraha, 
known to us from his Haddal& plates 5 which were issued from Vardham&na (or Wadhwan in 

1 This village was granted to the same temple of the Sun by the grant A. 

2 A daughter of the Kalaehuri Ynvaraja L, Kundakaddvi, waa married by the RfishtralcAta Amdghavarsha III. 
Baddiga, for whom we now possess dates in A,D. 937 and 939 

8 In Nos. 354 and 856 of my Northern List certain chiefs are described as both Chllnkyas and Chaulakyas. 

* See my note on the grammarians' ajayaj"Jart6 Silndn in 2faohrieAte ,d.& 'Get, d. Wissenaohaften zu 
G&Uingen, 1903, p. 805 ff. The Pala Devapala humbled the pride of the Bunas (Up. Ind. Vol. II. p. 163, V. 13) ; 
according to the Khar^a plates of the Bshtrakuta Kakkaraja II. Amfignavarsha of AJ>. 072 thia king fought 
battles with the lord (or lords) of the Bunas (Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 265, 1. 33) j the Pai-amara Utpal 
(Mufijaraja) took *way tbe life of the Hunas J8. Vol. XVI. p. 28, i, 41) j bjs yojjnger'brother Sindhnraja 
conquered the king of the Hunas (Up, Ind. Vol. L p. 235, v. 16) 5 'etc. 

* See my Northern List, No. 353. 



Kathiavad) in A.D. 91 4, and in which he is represented as a feudatory of a Ri 
Makipaladera whose proper identification, as will be seen below, can 110 longer offer any difficulty. 
The place STakshisapura, the nine villages mentioned in connection with the two grants, 
and the river Kanavirika I have not, I regret to say, been able to identify. The main point of 
general interest connected with these localities is, that the Nabshisap-ura group of ^ighty- 
four, -which was held by the two donors, according- to the inscription B. belonged to the 
Saurashtra mangala. The name Surashtra we know to denote the southern part of Kathiavad ; 
and since the two chiefs Balavarman and Avanivarmaa II. describe themselves as feudatories of 
the MaMrdjddhir&ja Mahendrayudhadeva or Mahendrapaladeva (of Kanauj), it follows from 
these inscriptions that towards tlie end of the 9th century A.D. the kingdom of Kanauj 
extended as far south as, and included, the province of Kathiavad. Moreover, it becomes 
quite certain now that the Majddhirdja Mahipaiadeva, who in the Haddala plates of A.D. 914 
is mentioned aa the overlord of the Chapa Mafias amantddhipati Dharanivaraha, must be identi- 
fied with the MahdrdjddMrdja Mahipaiadeva of Kanauj (whose Asm inscription is dated in about 
A.D. 917), the successor of Mahendrapaladeva, and cannot have been one of the Chudasamas of 
Giniar- Junf gad h. 

In the grant A. the king, known to us from the grant B. and other inscriptions as Mahen- 
drapala, is called Mahendryudha. This name of course at once recalls the names Indra- 
yudfca and Chakrayudha, the former denoting a king who according to the Harivamsa-Purdna 
was ruling the north in Saka-samvat 705= A.D. 783-84, and the latter another king, to whom 
the sovereignty of Mahodaya (Kanauj) was given, after the defeat of Indraraja (i.e., in my 
opinion, Indrayudha), by the Pala Dharmapala, and who was defeated by Nogabhata, 1 the grand- 
father of Bhojadeva of Kanauj. It may also be mentioned that in Rajasekhara's Karpu-ra- 
niafnjcirfi a certain merchant is represented as having gone to ' Kanauj, the capital of Vajra- 
yu'dha, the Hug of Panchala.' That story would seem to show that in the opinion of Raja- 
Sekhara, who was Mahendrapala's guru, a name with the somewhat nnusnal ending dyudha, 
such as Vajroyudha, was a suitable or characteristic name of a Eanauj king. Most probably 
Mahendrapala himself was known to B.ajas'ekimra also by the name Mahe'ndrayudha. 

The date of fche grant A. 5 M-Valabhi-samvat 574 Mdgha-sttddlia 6, is by a long way the 
earliest date in which we find the technical expression Yatalhi-samvat. In the inscriptions of 
the VaJabht kings themselves the year of a date is ordinarily preceded by only sow, rarely by 
samvat ; and hitherto the earliest inscription containing the term ValabM-samvat was the 
Veraval inscription of the temple-priesfc Bhava-Brihaspati of Valabhi-samvat 850 (No. 503 of 
my Northern List). In the M6rbi plate of Jainka (ibid. Wo. .">02) of the year 585 of the same 
era the number 585 in line 19 is preceded by simply iaiit-vat, while in line 17 the year is described 
as a Qaupttt (i.e. Gupta) year. It is curious tbat in Kathiavad we slould .find the Gupta- 
Valabhi, Yikrama and Saka eras employed in dates of the same period and in almost the same 


First Plate. 

||*] Jayag=ch=abhyudaya$=cha |] Svasti [||*j Nakshisapxiratparama- 

bhattar&ka-maharaja] dhi- 

1 Of Kagabha$A Mr. Gaurisliankar Hirachand Ojha ha discovered in the JMhpur State a .stone inscription 
dited io about A.D. 815 (samvatsara-fa[t\ 872). 
a See J)r. Sten. Kouow's edition, pp. % and 266, 
From a photograph supplied by Mr. Ganriflhankar Hirachand Ojha. * Denoted "by a symbol 



3 mesvara-sri-Mahn(ira7udliad6va-pada-prasad^k8liata- 1 samadkigata-paSclaa,mali a 3 a v d a - 

(bda) -maMaamantas=[Cli]g,- 

4 lukySnvaya-prasilta-sri- 2 Avaiiivarmma-siita-sri-Va(ba)lavarmm sarvran=eYa raja- 

raj any a-rajastbaniy- 6parik-ama- 

5 tya-[clia]tabhata-bhatfca-[da]ndava(pa)sika-dand[6]ddharanika- 3 dmifagika-mah.attara-cliaru-' i 

cbara-bhata-bastyasvar6bba(ba)ka-prabhritib | 6 

6 yuktaka-niyuktakarii 8van=a(a)n.yam[s=clia] yabhasarhva(ba)dbyamariakan= 

samantiv6(b6)dbayaty=a8tu vab samviditam yatha padma-patt 

7 stbita-jala[va] tarala; sri driahta-nasb.tan=ch.a jivitadii. 7 | 8 Padmapatra-jalavididu- 

cbamclialam jhdtavyam=akbila3=cba sampadab | 

8 ity^avetya jagatah sthiti[m*] nripa^ kim dhanaib kuruta dbariamam=animdyab 9 

I) Pallavagra-jalavimdu-cbamcbale kl&sa- 

9 jala-pariveshtitti bbave | y5 na cliiriitayati karmma-satpatbam tasya janraa 

bbavat=iha nihplialarii 10 || Svam sarvYam= adb.ru va- 

10 m=al6[kya] dbarmme matih sthapyataih || Tan=may4 1J SYabh.uj6parjita- 

Nakshisapurachaturasitik&-prativa(ba)ddho Jayapur-a- 

11 bbidbjvno gramab 13 Magha-suklapaksha-Bhashthyam 13 up6pya(sliya) gandba-dbupa- 

pusbya(sbpa)-dipa-Bnana-vil^pan-6palepana- [sanma ? J- u 

12 rjana-kbapdasphutita-sudba-kurcbc]iak-adi-u^ru(sru)sba-krite sva-matapitr6r=atmana^= 

cba 15 aibik-amusbm[i*]ka-punya-yas6- 

13 bLivfiddbayS bhagavatah sarit-Kanavlrik-iat-ava8tliita-Sahasradid]iiteb gmaatas= 

Taru[na]dityadeTaya 16 bbakti-bba- 

14 vita-manasa 17 udak[a*]tisa 1 rggeua dharmmadayft nisrisbtab pratipaditas=clia || Yasya 

pfirvvatab Siliavalialaka-grama- 

15 sima maryad[a*] [|*] daksbinatab Ba[jya8tlia]la-graina-sima maryada | 

aparatab^ PSdtillaka-grama-sima [ma*]ryadS. | utta- 

16 ratab Amvnllaka- 1B grama-8}ina maryM^ | fivam chatui > agbaita(ta)n-6pakksbitah 

sa-bli6gabhagah sa-birany[a*]danab 

17 sa-dandadagaparadbab sa-simaparyantah s-6dra[m*]gab sa-vriksbamalakulab 

sa-parikarab cbfillakavainivai- 
13 gikakoebyadi-sabitab 19 acbatabhataprave^a-varjjito 20 bh.fi miohcbhidra-nyay&na 

dbarmmadfiy6 nigri(sri)sbtat || 
19 Asya bbumjatfl bbojapayatah kriehata^ karsbapayatfi va asmad-vamsajair=anyair= 

yva bhoktribhih 

1 Read, probably, -prasddllcrita-. 2 Read -fry-. 

s Instead of this word which I do not remember to have met with elsewhere, I shonld have expected here, nerfc 
to dandapdfika, as m other grants, -cliaurdddharanika-. 

* It is just possible that the two alcsharas ch&ru, were struck out in the original, and that the intended reading 
therefore is -chara-'bliata-. 

5 Bead -pral>hritin=&yu'kta'ka-niyu,Jcta'kdn=. 

6 Read -pattra-st1iita~jala,vat=tarald grir*. ^ Head Jim turn. 

8 Metre of this verse and of the next : Rathfiddhatl Read Padmapattra-. 

9 This of course cannot he right, but the actual reading does not suggest to me a suitable conjecture. 

10 Read nishphnlam. " Originally svjbhif was engraved, but the sign for d has been struck out. 

13 Read grdmfi. " Read -shashtkydm=. Read -samm&rjana-. 

_ " B ead = c ^=- " Read, in accordance with the preceding, d3uasya. 

^(JElere and in other places below the rules of samdM have not been observed. 
18 *5He!ad Amluilaka- ; iti line 54. of the grant B. the name is spelt Amwlalca-. 

This term, the reading of which is quite clear in the photograph, I am unable to explain. The word cUllilcd 
occurs above, Vol. III. p. 267, 1. 23 ; and Prof. Hult2sch draws my attention to Vol. VI. p. 88, note 9. 

One would huve expected here 'achdjalbatcifravtiah, and some other terui ending with varjitajt (like, e.g. 


20 pratish<5[dh6] na karaniyah palayitavyas=cha || yatal? sam[a*]nyam bhfimidfma- 


Second Plate. 

21 y6=nmnaatavy6 ssmat-prStyaabbyarthanaya cha palaniya iti || Tatha ch=5ktam 


2 ta vyas6(s)na l Vyae&na || 8 Yan=iha dattani pura narendraih danani dbarmm- 

23 s-karani | nirmmalya-vanta-pratimam tlaa. k& nama sadhub punar=adadita || 

24 3 Sbashtir=warsha-Babasraui svarggS tishthati bhumidati | [a]clichb[e]tta ch= 

^nuiaantSi eta [tany=6J- 

25 va narake vaa&t || Ya(ba)hubhir=vvafiudhl bhukta rajanaib 4 Sagar-adibiiih | 

yasya yasya yadA [bbfij- 

26 ruLs=ta8ya taeya tada pbalam || 6 SIiasb.tir=warsba-sahasrani 6 sha-ibtir=vvarsha- 

satani [cha] | [gavarh k&ti-pradanej- 

27 na bhiima-bartt^ na gudbyati || Vimdi.y-ata-sdshv=at6yasu(au) guslika-kotara- 

vaainah | [kpsh^abayd hi ja]- 

28 yante bhumi-dayam baratti(iiti) y |( Sva-dattam para-datt[am*] vd .ya[tn]ad= 

raksha nar&dhipa ) mahim tnahibh[yitatn sreabtha] 

29 danach=chhrey6=nupalaiiarii J) ^) || Ava(tra) sakshi vTa(bra)hmana-Dehada-suta- 

Bhavah j tathA Tra(bp4)hmana-[:au . ?]- 

30 nara-suta-Nage^varah (| tatba vra(bra)bmana-Jajjaka-suta-Harih || tatM 


31 VasudSvah |J tatha vauik 6 N6gha-suta-lBuvaIj f tatha variib 6 Naga-suta- 

Pa[ha]lla,h |] ta- 

32 tb^t 7 vam-J6uUa-snta-"Nan:nakah 1 tath& vanak 8 Samgama-suta-D^utbah || tatba 

^a(ma)b.attara-Dram [g]iya- 

33 suta-S$hak | tath& ma(ma)battara-G6vasa-STita-Ajaiaab. | tatba maltattara-Govasa- 

suta- MSb,a[ii] pa [ka] - 

34 ^ I iatha mahattara-Dbiira-BTita-Kanbakab || Likbifcam ch=aitan=mi(ma)y& kula- 

35 [r]adi[ty6]ja=Sti || ^ || SrI-ValabM-samvat 574 Magha-suddha 6 II ( II 

36 Sva-haat6=[tra] grl-Va(ba)lavarmma9ah il Z^ 10 sva-hastah sri-Dhiika 11 II < 1! 


TEXT. 13 

First Plate. 

1 Cm 18 [|l*] JayaS=ch=abliy[u*]dayaa=cba || Jayati 1 * jagatam pras<itir=visv-atm4 

sabaja-bhiiBbanam nabbasa^ | drutaka- 

2 nakaBadri^a-da^atamay{lkha-mal-arcbatab 15 Sayita || [1*] J5 Ast=iba sar6 va(ba)lur= 

amtara cha chchhidraih parf- 

1 Bead, probably, vtdavy&t3a. f > Metre : Iiidravajri. 

Metre of thin verse and the rest : Sldka (Anuahtubli). Read *So*Aih vart&a-. 

* Bad rtyabbib 8a$ar-. * Eead *Aa*At wsba-. ' Bead 
i Bead va&g.Jf. a Read va^ilc-SaA . 

The Batoe word oocurn jr. in Ini. At. VoL XIL p. 161, line 69. 

* TbiB Mart, which does cof: loot like a letter, apparently represents the signature of Dhiika. 

11 Cue would have expected -mtikaeya. See line 62 o the grant B. 

J?roni a photograph lapplied by Mr. GauriaOiankftr Hirtwhand Ojha, 

a Denoted by a symbol. M jjeire: Arya. 

" Bead -mdl-ttekitah "Metre : Indravajrfi. 


3 to m Yipatm&tah' I bLMyah parair-n-aiva maMpatinam V a (oba)lnkya- 

nam=Spara-tTimga-[Yam]sah |(||) [2*] 3^a(ba)bliava- 

4 tuid( 8 =ta)[im] maha-rnahipati na^-matl Kalla-MaChajlla-samjfiitaa | yaydh 

Bita k]rthr=upagamad=gu- J 

5 naib. parto prasiddHKm) S atata[A*] suni^alaih || [3*] SaublnAtaafl B oha 


6 y6[h*] ||(|) kalaYappapamamyatam* Rama-Iakslimanay[6]r=iva || [4*1 

L J 

7 raraja KaLla* kBla-ki[r*]tti-yn[kte]h | ka[m*]tyA mahatya 

va(clia) kalpadrumanam=i- 

8 va Pteiifttaft] [II [5-] ' Bftjya[WJ' ^[chra ?]7 maMpatau 

sati ksh.]n.a[rajti-pa- 

9 r a kram-an[Tiita-tanau nirbliatikaS gasati | IfikinAm-abhavan-manft 


10 [dh]ana[m] 8 ada tusl 1 tir = [yTa(bba)i 1 dhu]jai 1 a a ya gannya-janita 

satyattislxaC?)" || [6*] iOTa8m3n=mah^[ a *]d=vi- 

11 tatokaTiittihn laksliinj-mdhanani ^aranam guBanam ||(]) sauryasya bliihnir= 

vvasatir=minatia am 

12 tajairyabhimaC?)" taBaya(y6) va(ba)bhuya || [7*J 

mattamatamga-dtiggaiiiaiL | yacli-clia- 

13 ndadandata8rastah gatrat6=si8riy a3 i=vana ]| [8*] Ajani 1 * tat6=pi 

14 laahaYTiCn^bliavo yah | dha[r*]mmam=aYann= api nityam 

ninasadramamie |(||) [9*] ^RftjadMra- 

15 ja-paramfisvara-bliumiiiaCthian^yas^Ti^api svabhuia-virya-va8ad=Yijig[yl . 
1 6 mstramsambliray avilu[ji Jripfi ttimagair=avjair=ivS ksbiti-talaia 

Second Plate; First Side. 

17 samftrS puyinya || [10*] 

3 Bead vipattraidlcliaJi, i.e. both vi-pattra-gMhaA, ' without leaves and branches ' and oyjatf /4MA 
' whose branches protect from misfortune.' A bamboo (vafaa) has leaves and branches. But the ChAlukva race 
(vamSa} is a different kind (a$ara) of vama, one that has no leaves and branches, i.e., in the other sense of the adiec 
tive, it is a race the branches of which protect from misfortune. Similarly the other epithets in the verse 8ae J 
other differences between the two kinds of vaAfa. The word apara of the last Pada is practically equivalent to 
aptrva, which is employed in a similar verse above, Vol. III. p. 298, line 6 of the text. Apara is used in the same 
way (not in the sense ' before which no other excels') in the verse in Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p! 193, line 10 
2 Metre : Varimstha. s Metre : Sldta (Anushtubhj. ' 

* Bead Jcttladbarmma-samdyAtaJh. Metre : Upajftti. 

6 Metre. : Sardaiavikridita. 1 Bead yatra. 

6 Kead, probably, nirlhWlcaih. Bead, perhaps, sampattijah. 

10. Metre: Indravajra, n Eead vitat-firuUrUir*. 

I am unable to give the name of the chief, concealed in this corrupt passage. The verse w-nld be rijrht 
if we were to read Etftndra-n&md, but I am not sure about this conjecture. 

Metre : Sloka(Aimshtubh).- Bead the verse : Valgat-turangarndt- tumffa^att^mdtamga.dnragan^t \ A . 
oha,ndadandatas*trattdh /atrav6*>tifrtyanwanam || For ohavdadanda see above, Vol. VI. p. 10 v 20 
14 Metre : irya. ' >?>. 

Here again I.cannofc give confidently the name intended in the ' original. Th<v right, reading may noesiblv h* 
"'Mkd7i J * J 

w Read ran-6dya.t6=ntnafad*Dh(irma>*. The name..at the end of the verse undoubtedly ia-arma 
it Metre : Vasantatilaka.- Bead . the , second half of the verse: *UM*to*Mk,y ttr tu M +i f *t OM to aair 
aojair~iv<i Kthm-talam, semare prainahya II 
18 Metre : Sragdbari. Bead 


18 Karnnatani ai(sai)nyam=aj6(jaa) bbayarahita-nmua blifiri4&=bbii(im)pravisya | 

ekaki kbadga- 

19 yashtya drutam=atisitaja 1 y&=riinuddlii-pravaba[m] vah-ariid}i6=vagadham kamala- 

20 vanam=iva Srafcfcya-kbeda 2 lulava || [11*J s Tastuad=amjyata auto jvanivarmma- 

nama gaurya-prata- 

21 pa-vinay-adi-gunantapetah 4 | sannabavad=foh[ri*]sam=haara=a7atji dharitrim= 


22 niyata yena natna |(||) [12*] 5 Avaniva[r*3mmaQi ya[tra] aukarmmani 

vyatbita-aatravamatTnmani varmmani(?) [J] 

23 yuvati-nirmita-narmmam bb.upai6(tau) na janatabkir*aga[r*]mmani Sa[m*]kitam 1) 

[13*] Tasya 6 sfinur=ajan.=iha 

24 sukarma jaiitra-va(ba}ndh[u]janam,taliira- 7 sa[r]mma | kirttit6 vidita-^atravamanna 

y6 janair=abhi- 

25 dhaya Va(ba)lavarmma II [14*] 8 Satatam=avitath-6ktih 8nana-japy-adi-$a(3i)lah 


26 dMna-vistirnnasaifapat J bbrijaBnrn- 9 vibit-i^& yah sad=arabhya va(ba)lyatvi(t=Tri)- 


27 rchcb.aSilavan=8amprajataih(h) |(||) [15*] Prathita-karitararhgaih satanistrimsa-panih 10 

Vishadh ama va sa- 

28 m=iab. sadlm jitva samike [1*] BtMrataram=urudliakka-ytigmai3a=au dradbiyan 11 

29 dam=akbinn6 y&=graMn=ma[rh*Jdra-nadam || [16*] Ckatara-turaga-durggan=6amyati 

dkvasta-satni[h*] spbuta- 

30 m=iha jagati^an 13 Jajjap-adia=niliatya | prasabham=abb.imanask6 yo vyadhatta 


31 bliuvanam=idam=aMn& Huna-vamsna binam || [17*] Kuvalayadala-netrah 

sannat- ariisaatbala- 32 

32 kab | prakatam=Ava[ti]ivarinmS [njama tasy=[a]tma3[6]= btat | pritliula- 

katir=udarab. kaltama-ina- 

33 dhyasatatha yd vidita ita jagaiyam Y6ga-namn=pareria || [IS*] Samgrame 1 * 

YakshadasaCm*] va(ba)la- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

34 m=a[kb]ilam=api lfi dhyariisayitTa pravirfi yah samjagraha Ifiryam patutara- 

ninadam Sagaraksbobba- 

35 Bama I ya8y=alanjkara-bbutam^ jita-ripzi jagriliuiL pattay6=pi 

36 n=atamaliaiuikaya mu(yu)ddb.a.l3liamidi pra-visya || [19*] K6dai?da-db7asta-dliara- 

gai-a-kam-nakbarS Ti[ki > a]m-ava(ba)ddlia- 

37 cbitfce 15Iabhim(nn)-anyas6(s^)na-samadagaiagbata-iambbataihgaBthalik 18 | yaemiu= 

a[kra]mya bhihnim 

* Eead *atifitayd ySvrimdrddAa-. * Bead 

Metre : Vasantataata. Eead TagmAd^j&yata. * Bead 

6 Metre-. Drotayilambita. " Metre: Svigatfl. 1 Bead 

8 Metre of verses 15-18 : Mftlini, Read dmja-gvru-. Read 

11 Eead draAUydn=. l * Eead jagatif&~i=*, 

l * Eead sannat-AmsastJiaUkah pra. 14 Metre of verses 19 and 20 : Sragdharft, 

ls The sjrllable pi was originally omitted and is eagraved in tte margin. 

M Eead -&Atfd=. ' Eea 

19 Eead -tumga'ku&'bJirasthaUkti | yatminn*, 



38 [atbi]tevaH hi nija' sigliavad^Yakshadasa-Lkshfijnip-adyaiskumragair^vaS rfpu- 

mvahaih duratah satfa- * 

39 pnW6 II [20*] VydmnA yatam=adhikam mrigay[ a *].priy& yah satva* na 

munchati sa kim Dhavantvarahah [|*] maty=e- 

40 ^ II C rtilT^ aj45 sah *> aiva ^sya dura n =nanamsV matimam Dharanivarahah 

II [21*] 7 Khadga-khamdita-dhandara[m]8 

41 rua-mu^aigha-^anditath | ya M jibh[a*Jji jft ti[ti] saeapanaii' ranariganam || 

J u Nai-apatim=araura muktva ' 

l^ kalau sati sa[m*]prati trijagati paritrafcum sakto na kascliid=ap=il 1 a 
mam | suL]ajna-iiiva[h6] ma- 

43 tv=gtiYa nnatikamavi[kralma sarana-manasaifa srimamiarii yam 

u[ohohhp]itaCm*] || [23*] Tfina" pravaCchaJMa^-udabhra- 

44 chala[m*] vi[bhfitim ?] [padmaath ?]itamv 

vjdy[u*]dvilasa-va(cha)palan=cha vichi[m*]tya la- 

45 kehmirn pravartyata sphntain^ayam kshitidana-dh a [r] mma h || [24*1 Sa cha 

mahasamanta-si-i-Yoga 6vam=u[kia ?]van patha 15 

46 iWrari.n.ev^bLiBamyadhyakam svan=aByams=[ct a ] gamibhavi-hhupalam^cha 

Bamarmvo(b6)dhayaty=astii ^ 

47 vah sariwiditam yath^asmabhih prat ap a P ranata-sam a Btasamanta.g6(mati)li a aal.arohit a - 


48 Pbs* gagadhai ' akai ' aaikai '-^^%asa[h*] P rayaha-clhayalit a ^a^^^^ 

saminitabliya- J J 

49 dhikapradM,andfe.v a mdiv^d-6pagi,amana paramabhattfira- 

50 ka-mah[a*]r a] adhara 3 a-p a rami (me)s vara-sri-Bh6jadi(dg)va- P adanu d h y a t a-p a r a m a 

51 bhat.tainka-mahar[a*]3adhiraja-param^sva 1 a-si-i-Mah 6ifadrapaiad6va-praa a- 1 ? 

Third Plaie. 

52 pada-praaad-ATapta," ^nti(uni)yukta-tam[tramdra?] P ala^.s r i. Dh3ika . prativa(ba)ddliais= 


53 d-a D1 rnmtya cha 

1 Eead nijam simliavad^. 2 

Metre :Ya 8 antatilaka.- The geue^l waning of 
ide nt i e eatio ns eeabove jp .3f., _ p'ut to % L t b" 

The firstwords of the 

Bead,ai. = I caunot correct thk 

Read -,/ af,*rf=. , Metre ; ]flka h 

8 Bead, probably, -da*trf aram (in. the senae of ' elephant J ). 

Bead -Bw^o^rAa-. 10 Eead 

Meke , Harml. E d 

u f T : T.TP ; , ; " Eead -A--. 

Eead yofid (P) s but the words ^iwWTa ya^d would be quite out o place here 
Eead ^^^^IMsamladkyamAnaMn^&n^anydM^n^dmm^l 
These two ak.Tu^u (the first two syllables of the word prasdda) are quite out of place here 
^,th the preceding adjectives cue would have expected -JfeM^toifc^ hutthe I L 
W. preeed^g passage, co^encing with ^ TO ^, wei , a sin 

As the text "' Wfl do not 

doubtul ! can only su * gest that the i 

.ar.Uj.tiAF.tilA INDICA. [VOL. 

54 ^(ba^dh&^Amvttlak-abhidMna-gramah sa-vrikBhamttTakulah. 8a-simaparyan[t*]0 

55 8a-bh6gabhagah sa-hirany&danalj Ba-dandadaSaparudhat sabhajamanaveshtikafr 

56 8akala-ra]akiyana:m=ahaBt8prakshepanima(ya) a-chamdr- arksh (rk 

sarit-par [ vv]ata-sama- 

57 kalinah 3 ih=arva Jayapura-gram-abhyaek Kanavirik&-Baiid-Tipakant]i& 

58 dityade vaya khandasphntita-suka (dha)-dugdha-H [r] chchaka- snapana-vilepana-pushpft* 

db. upa-dipa-t[ai]la-n e(nai) ve- 

59 dya-darik-ady-upakritaye m[a*]tapiir6r=atmaiia3=cli=[ai]Hk-amiislimika"pnriya-yaB[6] " 

bhivriddhayfi bh&michchhidra- 

60 ny3y[e*]na pravi(ti)padita8=tad=ayaia svadla[r*]mmadaya-niiiM(rvvi)sepra(8ha)fc 

palaya(yi)tavy& snuaa(tna)ntavyas=clia || ya^ja(eya) ch=a- 

61 ghatanam pur[vv]ato Viyaraka-grama-suna | dakstiaatft Jayapura-grSmft" 

sina(ma) || apai'atah Se- 

62 ^duvaka-K6rinthaka-grama-8]m& | uttaratak Vavnlika-grama-sim^ | tad=^[na]iii 

chattira ghatand (na)-pari- 

63 kaliipta-grataarii bliumjatb bbojayatab kBha(kri)shatab^ karsha[ya]ta^ pratidiSft" 

i&(ib) ra(va) na kaischa[D.=a]lp=api paripam- 

64 thaua vyase* va karyah | yatah samanyasanapaIain.=aTity=: 5 a8inat-pritya palaniy* 

Ita(ti) II Tatlia d(cb.)=6- 

65 ktam Vyade(ae)na | 6 Va(ba)liu'bHr=vvasudh& biinkta rijani(bhi)h a(sa)gar- 

adibhit [I*] yasra 7 yaaya yada biumi^usa tasya ta- 

66 ra palam H 8 [Y]an=Sha daha[aa] 9 pura narendrair=ddanaDi l I 

mmarsragrasaskarani 1 nirmmalyavaiia-prati- 

67 mani tani k6 nlma !a(sa)db.tih pnnar=adadita || 

68 Samvat 856 Magha-sudi 6 [II*] 



About tb.e year 1840 the stone, whicb bears this inscription, was taken by Captain T. S. Bnrt 
from a tank at Vasantgadh 11 in the Sirohi State of Kajputana, and the inscription, was published 
in fourn. As. 800, Beng. Tol. X. p. 664 fE. 5 from a very unsatisfactory transcript prepared by 
Pandit Kamalakanta. For a long time the stone seems to have been lost sight of ; but it ha* 
lately been rediscovered by my indefatigable fi-iend, Mr. Gauriahankar Hiraohand Ojha of Udai- 
pur, and is now deposited at the town of Sirobi. I re-edit the text from impressiona 'which have 
been kindly sent to me by Mr. Ojha. 

1 Bead ddh'Atnl>,l<tk; In line 16 of the grant A. the name is spelt 

3 Bead tdtpadyamdnavisJitiJcah (or "vtikiiJcajt, which occurs often, elsewhere). 

" Bead Tc&Una. ' ' ' * Bead vydstd'h^ 

Bead a&mdnt/aih d&a->p7ialam=avStys>. * Metre ; Sldka (Antwh^ubh). 
i Bead ycuya yasya yadd J>Mtnis=tasya fasya tadd jtAatlaih. 

Metres Indrarajra. Bead iatt&ni. 

10 Bead t dbarmm-Artha-ya/as-Jcardw I nirmmMya-v&*ta~. 

11 Vasantga4h (Basantgadh) apparently is situated to the east of Mount ibA, but I do not find it on the MJ> 
of <ie Kijputana Agency. At or near the same place an important inscription, of 'the time of king 'VarmaUta, of 
the [Vikrama] year 682, haa lately leen discovered, 


The inscription contains 23 Knes of writing which covers a space of about 2' broad by 1' 4' 
high. At the' upper proper right corner part of the stone is broken away, so that between, about 
15 and 2 aksharas are missing at the cerumen cement of lines 1-9. Otherwise the writing is 
well preserved and may be read with certainty nearly throughout, The size of the letters ' j 
between ^ and f". The characters generally differ little from the ordinary Nagar}, but they 
include a few signs which, are peculiar to the earlier northern inscriptions. The letter b every- 
where is denoted by a sign of its own, and the secondary d is often written by a superscript line j 
once (in Tvashtuh=prasdddt=, 1. 33) we have the sign of the upadhtndntya ; and once (in 
bhdrydm, 1. 12) the conjunct ry is made up of the full sign for r and the secondary form\ of y. 
Between verses 32 and 33 and at the end of the text a conch-shell has been engraved, and 
between verses 33 and 34 a circular ornament. The language of the inscription is Sanskrit, 
and, excepting the words asy=dnvay6xpi&a.(l nagar-dnvayo^pi, in lines 8 and 13, the whole is in 
verse. Both, the language and the verses often are incorrect, and as a piece of literary composi- 
tion the inscription is worthless. Here, to show bow very limited was the author's knowledge 
of grammar, I need only point out forma such as tidmam, 1. 5, vesmam, 1. 9, vehnaih, 1. 14, and 
vyomd, 1. 21 (for ndma, vsma, vesmabhih, and vijomni), from passages regal-ding the reading of 
which there cannot he any doubt. And what liberties were taken by him, simply for the sake 
of the metre : in the spelling of words, may be seen from instances like Purnndpdla-, 1. 7, 
samdhi-, 1. 19, svapdna-, L 15 (for Purnnapdla-, samdhi-, sopdn.a-"), etc. 1 

The object of the inscription is, to record that a queen named L&hinl, a younger sister of 
the Paramftra PurnapaMa and widow of a king Vigrahar&ja, at Vata 2 (Vata-nagara, Vata- 
pura) restored an ancient temple of the Sun, and restored or founded a tank (vagi), apparently 
the very tank where this i-ecord has been found. And the inscription is divided into three parts, 
the first and second of which give the genealogies of Lahini and Vigraharaja, while the third 
glorifies the town Vata and the pious work executed there by the widowed queen. The whole 
is introduced by two verses, in one of which (so far as it is preserved) the author pays homage 
to Mahes'vara (Siva), Prachetasa (the poet Vahniki), and Van! (the goddess of eloquence), 
while in the other he invokes the protection of the god Hari (Vishnu). 

Verse 3 relates that through the ariger of (the sage) Vasiahtha there was produced a youth, 
or prince (kumdra) from whom the Pram&ra (or Paramara) family took its origin. 3 In his 
lineage there waa ITtpalaraja ; from him sprang Aranyara" ja, and from him Adbhutakrishna- 
r&ja. His son (or, if a name should have been lost at the commencement of line 4, his son's son.) 
was Mahipala, and from him sprang Dhandhuka. To Dhandhuka there was born from his 
wife Amritadevi Purnapala, who ruled the Arfouda territory (bliu-mamdalam,=Arbbu,da$ya).* 
In his reign, bis younger sister Lahini was married by king Vigraha (Vigraharaja). 

Vigraharaja's genealogy, inverse 12, commences with a twice-born named Tota, who by his 
"bravery acquired the title of king (S/wpa). In his lineage there waa the king (nripa) Bhava- 
gupta, who, after restoring the temple of * the Sun dwelling at Vata ' (Vafa-vdsi-lhdnu'), reigned 
at Vata. In his lineage, again, 'there was SamgamarSja, who ruled Badarl in Vamdaratha. 
IFrom him sprang Dtirlabharaja ; from him, Chaeha ; and from him, Vigrahara" ja, who, as stated 

1 The author's mistakes nave teen more fully poiuted out in the notes on the text. The inscription emplati- 
<s a,lly teaches us that the rnifttakes which may be found in an inscription need ,not necessarily be ascribed to the 
-vvriter or engraver. 

* In lice 9, verse 13, the word is used in the plural (Vattshu), and in the inscription of Varmalata, mentioned 
above, the place appears to be called Vat&TcarastJidna. 

s See e.g. p. Ind. Vol. II. p t 190, verse 13. Jn the present inscription we have the name Pram&ra in vorw 8, 
fld Paramdra, in verse 10. The name is written frctmdra, also ip. the nnpubliahed BMrunda inscription of 
napala of the [Vikrama] year 1102, of which I possess impressions. 

* In the Bharunda inscription mentioned in the preceding note Pftrnaplhvu said to rule fhe.Arfa 
B inscription actually has jrttnarvudam<tihdalcnn praUdsati), 

o 2 


already, married Lhiai. After his dei-th, his widow weut to her brother's home, and was 
settled at tho town of Vata which iu the course of time had fallen into decay. 

The t'jwu of Vata (Vata-nagara, Vata-pura) is glorified in verses 20-25. l Here it will 
1)6 sufficient to say that it is stated to have been founded by tiie sage Vasishtha, that it was 
situated on a river named Sarasvati, and that its inhabitants are described as devoted to the 
worship of the Sun. That tho queen Lahini restored there an ancient temple of the Sun and 
restored or founded a tank, baa been already mentioned. 

The inscription (according to verses 33 and 34) was composed by the BrAhman MatriSarrnan, 
the son of Htui, and engraved by Sivapala. the son of the s&trudhdra Dfiuka, who was the son 
of Durga (Dui'garka, i.e. Durgaditya), the son of the sthapati ( ; architect, carpenter,' eta.) 
ISY^'a. it onus (v. 35) with the date: the ninth tifki uf the dark hair of the month Nabha, 
i.e. ^nlTSinft, the moon being in (the na^shatra) Mrigasiras, of the year (given in words) 1099 
in the time uf Vikramaditya, ' in the place ' (xiMnakv ) of Chitrabhanu. By this last expression 
I understand the author to say that the date fell in the Jovian year Chitrabhnu. This year 
can be combined with the Vikrama year 1U99 only, when the latter is taken to be the expired 
CLaitt-iMl Vikrama year 1099, and Chitrabhanu to be the Jovian, year BO named according to the 
southern system. 3 For that year the date would correspond to the 12th. August A.D. 104=2, 
when tho Jth titU of the dark half of tho amdnta Sravana ended 10 h. 46 m., while the 
nakshatrn was Mrigasirsha by the equal space system and according to Garga for 15 h. 46 m., 
and by the Erahma-siddhAuta for 14 h. 27 m., after mean sunrise. The date is the earliest date 
uf the Vikrama era that quotes a Jovian year, and, with the exception of quite modern dates, 
the only Vikrama date in which a Joviau ye.ir is quoted according to the southern system. It 
also is the earliest known date in which we find the expression Vikraiti&iUfya-lsdtt. 

The Pramara or Paramara chiefs mentioned in this inscription ruled the Arbuda-mandala, 
.?. a tract of country called after Arbucla, the modem Mount Abu. They are probably closely 
connected with the Paramaras of Chandruvati, mentioned, e.g., above, Vol. VIII. p. 201. 
Regarding Vigraharaja and his ancestors I cannot offer any remark. 

The places Vata and Badari in -Vamsaratha (v. 14) I am unable to identify. Vata must 
be^an old place, being mentioned already in the Vaeantgadu inscription of Vai-malata' of the 
[Vikrama] year 682, and in a somewhat earlier inscription which was found at the village of 
Samoli in the Bhomata district of Mevad, and of which Mr. Ojha ha3 sent me impressions. If 
not identical with Vasantgadh itself, it must be looked for close to it. 


i] || [P]rachetaeam tatha Vanioi = 
px- a Sastis=sukrita maya || [1*] 6Jy6tir=jyddvidam savah sava-dhiyaih dkishnyam 
param varchchasaih || bhaktanaiii dhanadah smritah kalusbaha sa- 

w _ w |j ^ [m^ajsaihvritam matimatam data caa sat. 

kaimman&ih || payad=vo Vasu-Siddha-Kinnara-uutas^ti-ailokya-dipo Harih || [2*1 
G \ asiahtha-k6pfij=janitah kam-irah Pramarat-avfia a-7 

of verse 20 is not dear to me, ami there is a doubtful passaged verse 23^ 
By the northern system Cliitrahhann lasted from the llth September A.D. 1039 to the 6th September A D 1040. 

A* k r rr^7r?f1^ Below" Ed." denotes the text ia Journ. 

A*. SK.**ff.\i>l.\. p. 671 ; I auote from it only a fo- paasa g e!t , to sk.w wlmt that text is like, 

at the- eoiunmict'u, ' >S '! ; r^ Ed has Pranamva Sari 
a , ^ ~ "' 

invention, sug 


from u'liom t].c '= r -' ',,',,,. . ,. ,, . 

- -" " ' ' ' : ' ' ""-*'< ' :> < secma to have beea 


3 ^ 11^ ^ s^v tS=sya bbumyam mababala yattra 

babhuvub || [3*] Asysanv^aye bysTJtpalar&ja-nama 1 Aran.yaraj6pi tato 
babhuva || tasmad=babb1iT=Adbhutakrishnaraj6 vikbyata-kirttih kila vasu- s 

4 [|| 4*] w \x w v~/ b grimari=yatb=6rvvi[m] dbritavan= 

rara[ba]b 3 || pn.ttr6=pi tasman=Maliipala-nama taamadsabbM^hamdlitLka* eva 
bbupab^ || [5*] Asy=api Mrttib suraraia-lokS praglyate vai sura-kimnaribbib || 
Vinanivisbta - 5 karajamguli- 

5 ^ w [r=alam]kritabbib || [6*] YSn=^brita sau(^au)rya-balSna 

laksbiai[r=*] vikliyapya namam 6 parasainya-madhy^ || asy=api bbary^Amrita- 
devi-tta(na)mni 7 rup^na Bi(^i)lena kulena yukta || [7*] Utpamnamasyasuvi 8 
Purunapalah puranam.=imam palaya-- 

(j ^ || w [r6=p]i vijitya sattrum 9 sasasa Tbb-ft-matiidalani- 

Arbbudasya 11 [8*] 10 Kanakakamnika-bbTa8bitagamdaya n kakuabadsa-nivsita- 
viaaya || vibudba-rajalaile=mara-kanyaya sadasi yasya yaSab parigiyat^ || [9*] 
Hatva 13 y^na rane 13 rip-an=stibabusab 

7 w v> [k6] || vikramti mada-sa(sa)lia6 va,ra-gaja naddbab 

mamdirS || Pfirnri.apala- 1 %ulapradipa-iiripatau sau(au)r 

attra 6ri-Parararavamsa-tilak& rajyam stbiraih ^asati || [10*] 


Satya yatba purwam=Adb6k:sLa3^na || [11*] Asy=arLvay6=pi || ]| " Asi[d=*] 
dviiatir=yvidit5 dbaranyam kbyata-pratap6 ripuobakra-marddi || Ydtab. 18 sva- 

9 ^ [nrijpa-pradbanab, || [12*] Tad-anvay6 kbyata-matir=nrip6=bbufc=kula-pradip6 
Bhavagupta-nama || udbritya 19 vmani Vata-v&si-Wian6r*Vvates]iu rajyam 
kritav&.n=sa Yirah || [13*] Asy^anvayS Samgamaraja-nama Varhsratlie 20 y6 
Badarim saSasa || tasmad=abb i (id=DTirllabh.ar > 3a-bb.upas=Chacli6pi 21 tasm&- 

10 [d=va]ra-rajaputrab || [14*] Babbiiva tasma^guninam pradban6 nrip-6ttam6 

pradanasau(gau)ryadi-guuair=udarair=yas&(6) yayau yasya 

i Observe the hiatus. 

a Ed. has Vdsudtoah ; but I suspect that the original had vdsu&h&ydm (wrongly for vo&udhdydm). 

s Ed. has Tasy=dtmajo bhdvalaya-pratisbtliah Sri-NdtJiag'h6s'hi -ofitavdn vardnyah. 

* Here this name might he read VamATmTca, ; hut hi the Bharunda inscription of Purnapala the name 5s quite 
clearly DhamdhuTca. The same name occurs in Nos. 210 and 689 of iny Northern JJist. In a paper on the 
ChShamanas of ITaddula I shall show that Dhandhu also occurs, as another form of the name. 

6 The reading is clear, but offends against the metre. Perhaps we should read vtndnivishtd-) where (as in the 
case of the first d of driii/i&pdla- in 1. 7) the final a would have been wrongly lengthened. 

8 This wrong form (for ndma^ is clear in the original, and required by the metre. Ed. has btidram, 

' Ed, has llidryyd Q-britaddvi-ndmnt. 

8 This is quite clear in the original j Ed., instead of it, has tasmdd*amushydih l&uvi. I consider it quite 
possible that the author really wrote utpa nnam=asy-ds&vi in the sense of ' as his son there was born,' incredible as 
this may seem to be. 

9 Bead S<iHr4ii*>. Ed. has vijitya rdsHram, ndmd 'pi iMtam valadarpadtii. 

10 Metre : Drutavilambita. 

11 Eead, perhaps, svaJcucha or swkucha . Ed. has Icarapadti mantbTt^shitavtnayd. 

12 Metre: Slrdulavikrtdita. 

18 The aksharas na ranS are engraved below the line. 

i* for the sake of the metre for PArnvapdla-. Ed. has p^r^Ti PdlaJcula-pradipa ivttyd. 

is Observe the hiatus. 

w Metre of verses 11-15 : Indravajra, TTpe'ndravajri and Upaj&ti. 

^ For the sake of the metre for -bJiilbhujd. 

18 Ed. has y6 duhs'oaSauryydrjjitabh'&yaSasyali KdStSvaral}, 

19 Kead uddhritya. The followhig vifmam (for vfoma) is clear in the original, and required by the metre. 
J0 Ed. has vandy6 narair^yd. 21 Ed. has 


vijitya lokan || .[15*] ^vijihvaripuvuiiand lalanakantarAuianvitali || kulochcliaya- 

11 vapuh || svapanrasuadhrit&vanirsbalaBivishtaehakro ^han || "babbuva nrfvarfittamah 

sa narariipaaiijin=Madliavah j| [1C*] e Pr6tplnillasitakamala-mukham karatala- 
8ukmaarapajiikaja-nibb,a[ng3im || Sriyam=iya kulajflni i';\jui-Lahinim=udb.a- 

12 varii 3 eah |) [17*] Bhfirjam* sa elisavapya gnnaih sametam chii;t-6psitam=vai 6 

bubhuje cha fcLogam || s=pi priyarii prapya patiu=tu rome yadvacb.=Chbacb.= 
tmlrena Samaria vareme c || [18*] . As.jir^mnto bharttari daiva-y6gad=bh.rAttir= 
griham s=iipi gata viyakti )j uTUsit-t, vai nagare Vate=S73im=daivat=pra- 

13 hh.ie balinsah kramSaa || [19*] || Nagav-unvaycl=pi" j| || Taptaih tapam 8 

Varunln=api yattra uyagro[dlia-fiakt-!i]si>ama-rQapavasya 9 [| sfc3uine=rkka-B]iarggatL 
svanato 10 Vasiahtho mukti-pradau sthapitavan=varishthah |] [20*] Tadvad=Va$- 
ukliyam nagaraih van6=aniiii 11 Tvashtnh=prasa.dat=kritavi'iiii ls 

14 n=Vasislithah || prakAra-vapr-6pavanais=tada[g]aih prasfida-vesmruys snghanaiu 

sutumgaib || [21*] i ' i Srutimantr-6dani=ak8li6bbyarh sbadaiiigavartta-samkulam || 
ved-arnuavam drijah eamyag=yattra tirtv=apy=agarvviti"i[h] |j [22*] 16 L6]jair= 
ddliarmma-paraih. svakarmrna-nirataili sadbhih sad=jivasitam j| 

15 vrityartham 10 [cha ea FlmagataiH praiidisam nifcyatii vamgbliiv=vritam || [paa]- 

lalaih^ panikajanair-wyaBiuaikajhi su^u)rair=jjanailj BamTiulam || Imdra-stlianam= 
iv=aparaiii Vata-puraria kshoiii-tale eariisthitam |j [23* ; j 13 Svar-udgatzl yaitra 
sarit=Sarasvatl svapuna-parfakt=iva ls) urinam 

16 nimajjatam |[ supuriyapusb.pQdakapbeiia-Tuliiui dvij-Htsvainaniim jjanacevadhisbtLita 20 || 

[24*] Te ai sarvvam=palayaiiite nagaraiiita-rat-ib. 23 idtimaili^h pragamtah || 
d6van=vipran=yajamt& kanakadhanatuahivastraratnadi-danaih [j khyath'=yesham cha 
iiityaih tri(tri)bhuvana- 

17 valayS ead-giinair=eya nlta || te=sniin=pa^rah samastal? sakaltijani.-liita Bhanare 

bhaktimathtah |] [25*] 23 S=attr=agata LaMni-numa-rajni bharttur=vviy6gadb.i- 
nipiditaiiigi )| asroin=purS Tipra-janai^ sara%a triptiv [tu] teslittm rvalchanat= 
prabuddha || [26*] Bha- 

18 nfo-grihaiii daiTa-Tasad=vibLagnam Vusishtha-patiraih Rubrilarh yad=as5t || 

vainasi 24 saryr&m salia jivitana jfiatva griham taritam=tiau Blian6h |I [27*] 

1 Metre :P?ithvi. 

3 This appareutly ie intended for an Arya verse, but it is quite incorrect. Ed. omits the whole of it. 

1 Bead vein.=saJt. * Metre of verses 18-21 : Indravajra. 

6 Head tpsitam vai, or, perhaps, -Apsitam vai. 6 Bead vartina. 

1 Instead of these words and of the firat half of the following verse Ed. has TaslsUMr^j 6=pi atr*dsid*at6* 
yam Vaiisht'kardjdnvay6 > pi (jdtamatraga, TartiQindfi) atra ngagr6dh<tsy=df'famah. 

8 Wrong for tap 6. 

The intended reading may be -Mddhamsya, but I am not aure about the meaning of the verse. Some 
legend, which is unknown to me, seems to he referred to, 

19 Read sva-a{au, or, perhaps, sva-matau. 

11 Bead *smimf*Tva. u Read a Jcj-Hav4n^ 7a. 

u Wrong for -vAlmabhi^, which would not have suited the metre. 

i* Metre : Sldka (AjmstynWi). " Metre : SfirdAIavikrJdita. 

18 Bead vrittyartham. The sa in the following brackets seems to be engraved below the line. 
V There is hardly any doubt here about the actual reading, but the text must be incorrect. I cannot suggest 
a satisfactory emendation ; Ed. has pa*rdnair=gar}i1cdjanair'=>. 

18 Metre : Vam&astha. 

"" Wrong for s6pdnct-famktir**iva l which would not have suited the metre. 

Bead jananxiva nis&thitd, Metre: Sragdhatft, 

a Kead -raid. * Metre of verses 26-80 : Indravajrft. 

34 Wrong for 4/t (or wtindftJiait}, whioh. wonld not suit the metre. 


^uslishta-Bamdhith ruchirafm] supadam sail-eshtakam clia sthira-siihgha- 
karnnam 3 || yadvad=Dhimiidris=sikbarais=cha tadvat=kritva 

19 nike'tam Vata-v4si-bhau6h il [28*] L6ka-prap=aish& sukrita cha v&pi 

suslishtasamdhi-ghatitStpala 3 cha || sopana-pamktya snsubh6(bha) subaddhii 
nisre(rt})ni-bhut=e"va divaukasasya 11 [29*j Devaih 8amastaii*=ri(ri)shibhis=cha 
jushta papapaha vyapya jagat=sthita y& || jirnufi- 

20 dhrita 4 Lahini-punyahetoh. Sarasvati sesha-janasya vapi || [30*] Nishpadya 5 

sukritau kritva 6 artham datva 7 punah-punali || vainasikam=idaii ch=anya[j*=] 
jnatva lokasya charppitan 8 || [31*] 9 rayad=gaur=116ka-dh[a*]tri pravahati 
[pa Pjrnto 10 yavad=ark6=ntariksh || yavad=vichyas=sa- 

21 mudrS pavana-vidhunitah 11 samtatah pr&chchhalanti || yavad=vy6me 13 suigb.i'arn 

pracba[la ?]ti taibira-syamda(da)nasy=aika-cliakram || vapy-6kau tavad=astam= 13 
udukara-sadrisau reyase karakasya |) [32*.] 1) l4 Krifc=eyam Hari-puttrria 
Matrisarmma-driiaiiman^ || sastir116ka-b.ita- 

22 rthaya Lahinyas-cba 15 bit-aisbinS || [33*] 1G Asicb=ci.a Nagat=stliapat^s=tu 

Durggab || Durggarkkato D6uka-s&ttradharab || asy=api sdnub Sivap^la-nam& ({ 
ygn=6tkrit=&yaih 1 7 susubba praSaatih || [34*] 18 Navanavatirihsld 

Vikramaditya-kale 11 jagati 

23 dasasatSnto-oagrato yattra purnna [I*] prabhavati Wabha-mSs^ sthanaka 

Ohittrabhanoh II Mrigasirasi sasamkS krisbna-pakslie navamyam II [35 11*3 


The ancient royal family of the Alupas is one of those whose early history ia wrapped in 
obscurity^ 'carent quia vatosacro* as Horace (Oarm, IV. 9) expresses it. All that was until 
recently known regarding them will be found on page 309 of Dr. Fleet's Dynasties of the 
Kanarese Districts. A few additional records o them were published by Mr. Eice in hia 
JSpigraphia Oarnatica. The Ajupas or Aluvas are referred to in inscriptions of the two 
Western Obalukya kings Pulake"3in II. 19 and Vinayaditya, of the R&shtrakiita king G6vinda 
III., 20 and of the Kadamba Jayake^in I., and the poet Bilhana mentions them in connection 
with his patron Vikramaditya VI. They are thug proved to have existed as a ruling family in 
'Jie period from the seventh to the eleventh centuries of the Christian era. 

As regards the name Alupa, Dr. Bhandarkar suggested that it { seems to be preserved in 
';he name of the modern town of Alupai on the Malabar coast.' 21 This is very improbable, 
aecause Aluvay (Alwye) is situated in Travancore, while the inscriptions of the Alupas are 

i Ed. omits this verse. 

> Bead -simhakarTiTiam- This word sifakalcarqv, apparently is a technical term, relating to architecture. 

* Read -gbatit&ipald 3 the preceding samdht for the sake of the metre stands for samAhi, 

* Bead ddhritd. B Metre : !16ka (Anush^ubh).! ' Ohserve the hiatus. 
7 Read flatted, 8 Read cfa&rfpitcw* 9 Metre : Sragdhai-a. 

10 Bead j>urat6(?). u For the gate of the metre for -vidhtinitdh. 

is Wrong for vydmni, -which would not have suited the metre. 

i This dsidm is wrongly used here for dsdtdm (from ds) "or sydtdm (from as). 

i* Metre : S16ka (Arrashtuhh). ls The name of the queen is written here with (the dental) . 

i Metre : Indravajra. 1? TTtTcfitd wrong for ut%irn>t. 

8 Metre : Malini. Ed. omits the last Pada of the verse and has instead of it ta 1099. 

gee now ahove. Vol. VI.' p. 10. 20 See helow, p. 16 and note 7, 

J Sittory of the EeJc&an, 5. 51, note 3. 


found in Strath Canara, Fad ur and Shimoga. The original meaning of the word Alupaor 
Aluva is probably ' a ruler,' from tliu Dravidian root dl, ' to rule. 1 

A few individual names of kings a.re preserved to us, The Sorab plates of Vinayaditya 
were issued at the reqnest of Gunasagar-Alupendra's sou Chitravaha-Manar&ja, who was in 
possession, of the district {visliaya) of Edevojal iu the N.E. of Banavasi in North Canara, 1 
According to theHarihar platea of Yinayfiditya. which are tinted two years after the Sorab plates, 
another village in the district (Ihvya) of Edevolal, forming part of tbe Vanavasi-mandala, 
was granted at the request of Aluvaraja. 2 i.e. perhaps Chitravfiha-Maharaja. Tie same two 
princes ( China stigara and Chitravaha) may be meant in an inscription at Kigga in the Koppa 
tulnka of the Eadur district, 3 which states tbat, wheu Aluarasu, whose second name was 
G-unasagara, was ruling the Kadamba-mandala, : Aluarasa, (his) great queen and (his son) 
Chitravahana rnade a grant to a local temple. 4 Another inscription (Kp. 37), which is on 
the other face of the same stone, is dated while some Chitravahana was ruling Ponbuchchu, 5 
the modern Humcha. 6 Pinally, an inscription at M avail in tho Sorab taluka of the Shimoga 
district states that in -the time of Prabhutavarsha Goiadarasa, i.e. the Kasbtrakuta king 
G6vmda III., a certain CMtravabana ruled the Aluvakheda six -thousand, while Bajadityarasa 
ruled the Banavasi-mandala, 7 

If the Cbitravahana of tbe first Kigga inscription was really tbe same person as the Chitravaha 
of the Sorab plntea, it would follow that the Alupa or Alua prince Qunasagara waa governoi: 
of the Kadamba-mandala, i.e. tbe Banavasi province, in or immediately before the time of tie 
Western Chalukya king Vinayaditya, and that Gunasdgara's son. Aluvaraja Chitravaha or 
Cbitrav&hana (I), granted two villages in the district of Edevolal, which formed part of the 
Banavasi province, during Vinayadifcya's reign. Consequently Chitravahana I. seems to have 
succeeded his father Gunasagara in the government of Banavasi. In the time of G6vinda III., 
however, the BanavSsi-niandala had been taken from tbe Alupas and was entrusted to Rajaditya, 
while the Aluvakheda six-thousand was administered by a, second Chitravahana, who on the 
strength of bia name may be assumed to have belonged to the Alupa family. To judge from the 
Mavali inscription, ho proved troublesome and had to be coerced by the force of arms. That 
Ghitravahana,. whom the second Kigga. inscription mentions as residing at Htisacha, may or 
not be identical with this Chitravahana II,, but must be distinct from Chitravahana I., whose 
capital vvas most probably Banavasi. If this identification is correct, Ponbuchchu, the modern 
Humcha, would have been the head-quarters of tbe Aluvakheda six-thousand, which in a later 
record is mentioned as Alvakbeda among the boundaries of the Poysala kingdom. ' 

Mr. Bice's volumes contain many records of certain later families which wiem to be con- 
nected with the ancient Alupas. These are the Changalvaa, 9 Kongalvas, 30 Nad&luvas, n 
Santaras, 12 and the rulers of Kalasa and Karkala. 13 

In the course of a tour in 1901, Mr. H. Krishna Sastri, B.A., discovered a. number of 
archaic Kanarese pillar inscriptions of the Alupas at Udiyavara near Udipi iu the South Canara 

1 Ind, Ant. Vol. XIX. p, 147. A facsimUe of the Sorab plates has since appeared in JEp. Cam. Vol. VIII,. 
p, 92 of the Translations. 

Intf. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 302, and J5>. Cam. Vol. XL Dg. 66. a Up. Car*. Vol. VI. Kp. 38. 

4 A further remark on the same inscription will be found below, p. 21, note 8. 

* The Kanarese text has pinduvvdle for Ponbuchch^dle ia the Komwi text. 

See p. 17 below. 

t J?p. Com. Vol. VIII, Sb. 10, with Plate facing p. 3 of the Roman texts. 

8 Tff, Cam. Vol. VI. Cm. 160, line 5. 

1 Id, VoU IV. Introduction, p. 16; Vol. V. p. viii; Vol. IX. p. 19, 

Id. Vol. V. p. vii j Vol. IX. p. 18. " Id. Vol. V. p. vit. 

Id. Vol. VI. p. 10 ; Vol. VII. p. 17 ; Vol. VIIT. p. 6. Compare Dt/n. Kan. Dijtr, p. 458 and note 2. 

" Ep. Cam. Vol. yi, p. 19, Compare above, Vol. VII. p. 109 fi. aad Vol. VIII. p. 124 ff. 

Udiyavara inscriptions. Plate I. 

I. -Scale, one -sixth. H. _ Scale one . fifth. 







E. Hultzsch. 

Collotype by Gebr. Plettncr, Hall*. 


district. Of these records I now edit the eight most complete and important ones. "Regarding 
some difficult points in them I have consulted my old friends Venkayya and Krishna Sastri, 
whose remarks proved of much assistance in unravelling the meaning of these enigmatical 
ancient documents. 

The first five Udiyavara inscriptions are on Virakals, i.e. stones set up as memorials of 
deceased heroes ; the remaining three refer to grants of tolls. The three first inscripljions must 
all belong to the same period ; for Nos. I. and II. mention a certain Banasagara, and Nos. II. 
and III. one SvStavahana, These two names and, in addition to them, Chitravahana in No. I. 
look like those of Aluva princes, among -whom we have already found a Gunasagara' and two 
Chitravahanas. As the alphabet resembles that of the Mavali inscription, 1 we may identify 
the Chitravahana of No. I. with Chitravahana II., who ruled the &luvakhMa six-thousand 
in the time of Govinda III. Consequently Nos. I.-III, must be assigned to about A.D. 800. 
From the first few lines of No. I. we learn that Chitravahana II. seized TJdiyavara in the course 
of a war with Ranasagara, who seems to have been a rival claimant to the throne. Nos. II. 
and III. refer to the storming of Udiyavara by Svetav&hana, and No. II, records the death., 
on this occasion, of a follower of Ranasagara. From this it may perhaps be concluded that, 
after the time of the inscription No. I., Ranasagara succeeded in ousting Chitravahana II., bat 
that, later on, he was in his turn defeated by Svetavahana, who may have been a near relative of 
Ohitravahana II. 

The remaining Udiyavara inscriptions date from the reigns of the two Alupa, Aluva 
or Alva kings Prithivisagara (Nos. IV.-VI.) and Vijayaditya (Nos. VII. and VIII.) 
alias Maramma (No. VII.). It is impossible to say at present how these two princes were 
connected with Chitravahana II., Ranasagara and Svetavahana. But, as the alphabet of their 
inscriptions agrees with that of Nos. I.-III., they must be assigned to about the same period. 

In each of the eight subjoined inscriptions Udiyavara is referred to by .one of its older names 
Udayapura (Nos. V. and VIII ), Udayapura (Nos. II., Ill, VI ., VII.) or Udeyapura 
(Nos. I. and IV.). In. the three last it is mentioned together with Pati (No. VI.), Pombujcha 
(No. VII.) or Ponvuicha (No. VIII.). Patti and Pombuchcha are known to have been ancient 
names of the modern Humcha in the Nagar taluka of the Snimoga district. 3 This Humcha 
seems to have been the capital of the Alupa kings. For an inscription at Kigga is dated while 
Chitravahana (II.) was ruling Ponbuchchu. 3 

I. Inscription of Cbitravahana (II.) and Banasagara. 

This inscription (No, 94 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1901) ia engraved 
on an octagonal pillar in front of the Sambhukallu temple at Udiyavara. It records that a 
follower of Chitravahana (II.) met with his death when the ' lord of the earth ' (0*0. Chitra- 
vahana) occupied and entered Udeyapura (Udiyavara) ' during the trouble of Banasagara,' 
i.e. in the course of a war with the latter. 


1 Svasti fet [I!*] Rana- 

2 eagarana am(sam)ka- 

3 tadul=Udeyapuram 

4 dhareg[i]an=pade-po- 

5 guvalli Vijana- 

6 naygar& magan=Ka- 

1 See above, p. 16 and note 7. 3 See above, Vol. VIII. p, 126, See p. 16 above. 


7 Itide kadan-aggha- 

8 li kalega-kSsa- 

9 ri kariripu-vikraman 

10 aniyn[l*] dava- 

11 nam=odduvon=sa- 

12 hasad=ari-chakra- 

13 [vyu*]hatuan=odedon. 

14 [a*]havad=ode[da]n=pa- 

15 ra-[ba]lad=ani Chi- 

16 trav&hanargggi ka- 

17 li-kanti eri- 

18 da svarggalayakk=e'- 
ly radon [||*J 


Hail ! Prosperity ! 'When during the trouble of Banas^gara 1 the lord of the earth 5 
occupied and entered Udeyapura, Vrjananayga's 3 aon Kaltide, (toko was*) eminent in -war, 
a lion in battle, brave as a lion, applying a cattle-rope* to the array (o/ his enemies), breaking the 
body of bold hostile armies, breaking in battle the array of the enemy's forces, ascended to the 
abode of heaven, having fought 5 (with) the splendour of a hero on account of Chitravahana. 

II. Inscription of Banas&gara and SvStavabana. 

This inscription (No. 108 of 1901) is engraved on an octagonal pillar lying near a well in 
the back-yard of Raghavendrabhatta's house at Udiyavara and commemorates the death in 
battle of a follower of Eanaaagara. Ee fell while TJdayapura (TJdiyav&ra) "was entered by 
Sv6tavahana, whom I take to have been the victorious opponent of Ranaaagara. The dead 
warrior is described as a zealous devotee of the ' lord of Pa$ti/ and he and his two immediate 
ancestors aa adherents of the ' Pasupata lord/ Patti (or Pombuchclia) is the modern Humoha. 8 
It may be concluded from the present inscription thai this town was the seat of the head of a 
Saira tnatka. 


1 Svasti 6ri [||] Eanafsa]- 

2 garana alu Vifijan 
S Pra[ha]mbhusha- 

4 nanS magan Ka- 

5 mak6dan tanunnttu- 

6 muvarzi Pagup&^pa)tath 

7 namvrto g=7dva[do]r& 

1 I.e. ' the trouble caused by Banas4gara.' 

1 Viz. probably the Chitravahana mentioned in 1. 15 f. 

3 jT4yffa is a tadlhava of ndyaJca. 

* With ddvti$am=oddtt compare ddva$i kattu, ' to tie cattle in a row to a long rope fastened by two peg*,' 
ia Kittel's Sannada Dictionary. Compare above, Vol. YHI. p. 184, and >p- Corn. Vol. VI. Introduction, 
p, 19, note 1. J)dvaQt is a tadbTiaua of ddmani, 'a long rope to which calves are tied by means of shorter ropes' 
( Monier-Williams) . 

* Here and in the four next inscriptions eri is the same as iri, ' to strike, to stab.' 

* See p. 17 above, 

T Aa suggested to me by Bai Bfthadnr Veniayys, namvrdH is meftut for the Ttni] namfardf, 'lord' 
(litwrallj ; * ow lord ') , 


IV- Scale one -fourth. 

III. Scale one- third. 


Collotype by Qebr. Plettner, Halie. 


8 nalageyan ki(ki)- 

9 Ipon Patti- 

10 odeyong= 1 6a(va)- 

11 doran=patt-ali*pa- 

12 yvon Svetaviiha- 

13 nan. Udayapu- 

14 raman poguva- 

15 Hi ejidu sva(sva)- 

16 rgga(rgga)layakk=eri- 

17 [don] [|r] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! When Sytav,hana was entering Udayapura, Kanas&gara's 
servant, Vinja Praharabh-ftshana's son Kamakoda, who pulled out the tongue of those who 
were not attached to the Pasnpata lord of those three persona themselves, 3 (and) who seized, 
destroyed and assaulted those who were not attached to the lord of Patti, ascended to the 
abode of heaven, having struck down (his enemies'). 

IH. Inscription of 

This inscription (No. 105 of 1901) is engraved on an. octagonal pillar in front of the same 
house as the preceding inscription and commemorates the death of another hero on the same 


1 Svasti firf [||*] Pandyavi- 

2 llarasarl maga- 

3 n=De"vti s&du(dhu)-priyan=a- 

4 sada(dhu)jana-varjitan=Sv- 

5 tavahanarTJdaya- 

6 puraman-poguvalli 

7 ejidu svarggalaya- 

8 k 


Jlail ! Prosperity ! When Svatavahana was entering TTdayapura, PdgtdyaviJllarasa'B 
son D&VH, (who was) beloved by the good (and") shunned by wicked people, ascended to the 
abode of heaven, having struck down (his enemies). 

IV. Inscription of 

This inscription (No. 103 of 1901) is engraved on an octagonal pillar in the south-west 
corner of the court-yard of the ^ambhukallii temple at Udiyavara. It forms the memorial of 
a warrior who was killed when Prithivisagara stormed Udeyapura (Udiyavara) after MB 


1 Svasti Sri [()*] Pri- 

2 thivisagara- 

1 Bead 

I.t. the Piiupata priest whose adherents K&maidda, his father Prah&rabhushaua (aud his grandfafber) Yifiq'a 
were. I owe this explanation to Dr. Fleet. With tammvtttt-mdvar compare tammiit~ayvr and fammut'artiaar in 
Kittel'a Kannada Grammar, p. 241. Dr. Fleet has noted the similar eipressioa tammtttt-irbfar or tammutt-irblof 
above, Vol. VI. p, 161, note 7. 



3 Bpattarh gatti- 

4 si Ud[e]ya- 

5 puraman*po.- 

6 gutappalli Na- 

7 ndavilmndiya- 

8 ra magan=Pali- 

9 par,e ep'du 

10 evarggalaya- 

11 kk=e;;idon [||*] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! When Prithivisagarft, haying- had Qiimalf) crowned, WSB entering 
Udeyapura, Nandavilmndi'a son Palipajre, having struck down (Ms enemies), ascended to the 
abode of heaven. 

V. Inscription of PrithiYisagara, 

This inscription (No. 101 of 1901) is engraved on an octagonal pillar in the court-yard of 
the same temple and records that another follower of the Alupa king Prithivisagara fell at the 
storming of Udayapura (Udiyavara). 


1 Svasti fir! [!)*] Prithu(tM)visagara 

2 srimad-AlTipendra dusbta-bhaya- 

3 nkarargge ishta-bhrityaoi=appa Po- 

4 lokku Priyachelya [TT]d8[y&]- 

5 puraman pugntappa- 

6 Hi aha[pa](va)-ra[nga]dnl=urTi- 

7 bhatara [e]^idu Priyache- 

8 Iva chelya-sanpanna 1 ka(kha)la- 

9 [ja*]na-varjjitan dharegi(gl)- 

10 [ga*]nge 6vadora pata- 

11 ftjiya alidu stiralo- 

12 kakke endan [|*j Keleya 

13 Val[e]jeyan nijjisida [||*J 


Hail ! Prosperity ! When Polokku Prijachelva, who -was the beloved servant of 
Prithivisagara, the glorious JLlupSndra, the terror of the wicked, was entering Udayapura, 
(this) Prirachelva, (wlw was) endowed with beauty (and) shunned by wicked people, ascended 
to the Tvoiid of the gods, having struck down great warriors on the stage of battle (and) 
having destroyed the foot- soldiers 8 of those who were not attached to the lord of the earth. 3 
(His) friend Valejreya set up (this memmal 

VI. Inscription of Pjithivjsftgara. 

This inscription (No. 102 of 1901) is engraved on anotler octagonal pillar in the court- 
yard of the aame temple, It opens with, the name and Urudas of the Ajupa or Ajuva king 

1 Read -tumpanna, 

t As Mr. Krishna Sastri suggests, patati ia perhaps a iailhwa, tiead collectively, otpaddii. 
1 rii, the Ajupa king PritMvisfigara, 

* lUi Bahadur Vukayya would prefer to talce tre as synonymoua with the Tamil *jrf and to translate: TT 

" Keloya set up (this stone representing) a chief (with) a sword (in his hand)," 

Udiyavara inscriptions. 

Plate III. 





Scale one -fourth. 


Collotype by Oebr, Plettner, Halle, 


Prithivisagara, who claimed descent from the lunar race and bore the surnames TTdayaditya and 
Uttama-Pandya, and records that he confirmed a previous grant of tolls to the two cities 
(nagara) of Udayapura (Udiyavara) and Pati. The last is evidently the same as Patti, the 
modern Humcha. 1 The imprecatory passage at the end of this inscription and of the two next 
ones (VII. and VIII.) mentions two sacred places : VSranSsi and SivavaJJi. The former ia of 
course the modern Benares. Regarding the second, Mr. Krishna Sastri contributes the following 
information : 

" The Shivalli (Srvalji) sect of Brahmanaa in South Canaratake their name from this place. 
In the Madras Manual of Administration, Vol. III. p. 610, we are told that the town Oodipy 
(Udipi), ' considered the most sacred spot in the Canarese country/ is ' formed of parts of 
Badagabett, Moodanidambore, Poollore and Shivully villages. 1 In the Madras Postal Directory 
Shivalli figures as a village served by the Udipi post office." 


1 Svasfci sri [||*] Pridhu(thi)visagara 

2 srimad-Alupendra Somavams'c- 

3 dbhava kulatilakan TJdaySditya 

4 TJttama-Pandya srimad-Aluvara[sa]- 

5 rB[6]ygavarmara natu-mudimeyuQ] 

6 Udayapurada, na(na)gara-sahitam Pa- 

7 $y a nagarafcke jaladujam sthala[du] 

8 lain Bumkam=ardha-dana kadar [!*] Udaya[pu]- 

9 ranaygara magan=[SJirijgadattann[m] Ku[ma]- 

10 ra Ejeganum Ra,navikrama[natha]- 

11 nu Sandavaradara KanEachiyu [m] [(*] [I]- 

12 du a(a)chandratha(ta)rakam nilpu[d=a]ke(kke) [|*J 

13 Idan=vakram-illade kadu sali[po]- 

14 n= s asvarudhada pa(pha)la-prapti aku(kkn.in) [I*] 

15 Idan=8livon=Varana(na)siyum Si(Si)va- 

16 valliyumanalida pamcha[ma]- 

17 ha(ha)pataka-am(saih)yttktar=appar [j|*] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! During Boygavarma's headmanship of the district^ 3 Prithivis&gara, 
the glorious Ajupendra, who sprang from the race of the Moon, the ornament of (Ms) family, 
Jdayaditya Uttama-Pfindya, the glorious Ajuvarasa, confirmed the gift of one half (o/) 
:he tolls both on water and on land to the city of Pati, together with the city of TTdayapura. 
[The recipients of this gift were)* Udayapuranayga's 6 son Singadatta^ Kumara Ejega^ 
5anavikrama[natha]^ and Sandavarada's (son) Kannachi." Let this stand aa long as the moon 
indthe stars! (To) him^who without fraud confirms and grants this, shall be the acquisition of 
ite fruit of a horse-sacrifice. He who destroys this, shall be covered with the five great sins (of 
ne) who destroys Varanasi and Sivavajli. 

1 See p. 17 above. 2 See Kitiel'a "KannaiLa Grammar, 183, 8, 

* As suggested to me by Eai Bahadur Yeakayya, tu$(u*mudime is the equivalent of the Tamil ndttu mtidumai, 
;he headmftnslap of a district. 1 Compare Ep. Cam. Vol. VI. Zp. 38, where Ktindawrmmnrasam mvdimt geye 
.his is the reading of the Text in Kannada characters, p. 323) haa to be translated by 'while Kundavarmarasa was 

* The words iddpadedor may he supplied from VII. 1. 10, and VIIL, 1. 10 f. 
5 See above, p. 18, note 3. 


VJI. Inscription of Vijaytditya Maramma, 

This inscription (No. 98 of 1901) is engraved on two contiguous faces of another octagonal 
pillar in the court-yard of the same temple. Like the preceding inscription, it confirms a 
previous grant of tolls to the two cities of TJdayapura (Udiyavara) and Pombujcha (Humcha). 
The Alupa or Al.va king who confirmed this grant was called Vijayaditya Maramma. Like the 
Prithivisagara of the preceding inscription, he bore the surname U ttama-Pandya and traced his 
descent from the lunar race. Besides, he claimed the sovereign titles ParamSfoara and 


1 Om 1 svasti srl [||*] Vija[y]aditya A}u- 

2 pfindra parame'sva({lva)ra adhir[a]- 3 

3 jarajan Uttama-Pandyan=S6(B6)mavamg6- 

4 dbhava flrf-Maramm-A^varasar [U] 3 

5 TTdayapurada naka(ga)ra-sahitam Pombu- 

6 Jehada naka(ga)rakke sunka kadudu. sanku- 

7 rakke [pajttige ondare malavege pa- 

8 Iti padinar,u palam adakeya pfi- 

9 jmga(nge) mun[u]j;u velasina p^]ri&ge 

10 padina(na)ju pala[m] [l*J Ida padedor Bu- 
ll se'navadiyara SvarnnagSaasi Mutta- 

12 varara AdiyapaBefctiyu Mandukara 

13 Parae^byan S^navadiyara Nagakumaran [I*] 

14 Idu a(a)chandrat4raka[m] nilpud=akke [I*] Ida kado 

15 attaguna asva(sva)meda(dha)da pa(pha)lam=akke \\*] 

16 Idan=a]ido BCaJranasiyu SivavaJJiyn- 

17 ma alida pafichamaha(,ha)patakan=ak[Ti](kkuni) [1*] 

18 Ranadhari-likhita j| 4 


6m. Hail! Prosperity! Vijay&ditya Alupfindra Paramtevara Adhirdjardja TJttama- 
Pandya, who sprang from the race of the Moon, the glorious MSramm-Alvarasa, confirmed 
the tolls (due) to the city of Pombulcha together with the city of Udayapura, (w'z.) per double 
teg (of grain)* one and a half basket 8 (of grain); per walave! (of cotton), sixteen pala (of) 
cotton ; per load of areca-nuts, three hundred (nuts) ; (and) per load of pepper, 8 sixteen pala (of 
pepper). They who obtained this (were) Suse'navadi's (son) Svarnag&sasi, 9 Muttavara's (sow) 
Adiyapasetti, Manduka's (son) Parasebya, (and) Senavadi's (son) Nagakumara. Let this stand 
as long as the moon and the stars ! (To) him who confirms this, let there he the eightfold fruit 
of a horse-sacrifice! (To) him who destroys this, shall be the five great sins (of one) who 
destroys B&ranasi and &Lvava;ii. Written by Eanadhari. 

1 Expressed by a symbol. a Read adhird: 

8 Corrected from . The engraver has for the sake of clearness repeated the v at the beginning of tae next 


* In, the original the final atop is represented by a f our-petalled flower. 

s SahTfitri is perhaps the same as samkara, No. 4 in Kittens JEanna^a Dictionary ; ' a double flack for manure 
and grain trO be carried on the haclj of a bullock.' 
8 Puttfye is the same ae putti, * a basket.' 
t Mr. Krishna Sastri suggests that this may he another form of tna^a or mawvu, ' a maund,' 

* Originally I had taken relnsu for le\astt t 'corn.' But as the toll was not levied by measure, but by weight, 
I adopt Mr. Krishna. Sastri's suggestion, who compares wtef<w, ' black pepper/ 

* With gfaati compare gtsAiiga in the inscription VIII. 1. 11, and Dr. Fleet's remarks, above, Vol. VI. p. 256, 

Udiyavara inscriptions. 



K. Hultzscli. 


Sc;ile one-fourth. 


VIII. Inscription of Vijayaditya. 

This inscription (No. 97 of 1901) is found on the same pillar as the preceding- one (VII.). 
It is engraved on the same two contiguous faces as VII., but begins at the opposite end of the 
pillar, which mast have been placed upside down when the new inscription (VIII.) was incised 
on it. A third face of the pillar bears six lines of writing (15-20) which appear to be connected 
with VIII. This circumstance enables us to conclude that VIII. was engraved at a later date 
than VII. When the writer of VIII. had reached line 14, he was confronted with the end of 
the inscription VII., and was therefore obliged to finish his copy on another face of the pillar. 

The contents of VIII. resemble those of VII. The king is the same ; only one of his 
names, Maramma, is omitted here. He is stated to have confirmed the same grant o tolls to the 
two cities of UdaySpura (Udiyvara) and Ponvulcha (Humcha). But the names of the local 
representatives receiving the grant differ from those in VII. This shows that some time must 
have elapsed between the incision of both records, although both belong to the same reign. 


First and Second Faces. 

1 Svasti srl [||*] VijayMhi(di)tyan 

2 Alupendra paramesva(sva)ra (a)- 

3 dhi(dh.i)rajarajan, Utfcama- 

4 PandyansSfiniavans'&bhavan 1 

5 Aluvarasar Arakellara 

6 natu-mud5(di)meyul Udaya- 

7 purada naka(ga)ra-sahitam Ponvulcha- 

8 da naka(ga)rakke sunkada ardda(rddha)-[da]na 

9 ka[daha] avargge attaguna 

10 asva(s"va)mda(dha)d& pa(pha)lam=akkuxh [|*J Ida 

11 [pa*]dedor Muttavnrera 3 Saruvigdsasiga 

12 Kodalsettiyarfi Madamman Vija[s]e- 

13 ttigara Dharmmanaygan.=Manugasa- 

14 ttavar Sarvvavandu Pnleyarmman [|*J 

Third Face. 

15 1 okkal=paded[u]- 

16 vu [I*] Ida aiivo 

17 Sivavfiljiyu 3 V&- 

18 raasiyuman, 

19 ajiida pafichama- 

20 hapatakan=akkum 4 [||*] 


Hail ! Prosperity ! The eightfold fruit of a horse-sacrifice ahall be to him VijayMitya 
Aiupdndra ParamSfoara Adhirdjardja Uttama-Pfindya, who sprang from the race of the 
Moon, Ajuvarasa who, during Arakella's lieadmanshiplof the district, 5 confirmed the g-ift of 

1 Bead *S6mavamf6dbhavan> 

a Bead Muttavarara t as in VII. 1. 11 . s Bead Sivavailiyvm. 

* The w of Jcbvm la expreascd ty two different symbols behind aud Ix'lenv the Tck, 

1 S^a auove, p, 31, uote it, 


ijnarinaiiiiTgi*,"' au.aLiug*n3ni/vj uni-vavjuuuu ^uitwj a. uj.ojaj. jLua, J.JJL&OD 

(2*0) him who destroys this, shall be the fire great sins (of one) who destroys Sivavalli 



These two epigraphic documents were first brought to the notice of the students of 
Indian antiquities by the late H. H. Dhruva, -who published a transcript of them with his 
remarks in the Zeitaohr. D. Mory. Ges. Vol. XL. p. 322 ft They were afterwards edited 
with lithographs by Dr. R. Q. Bhandarkar, with a translation by Mr. (now Prof.) S. B. 
Bhandarkar, in the Journ, Bo. Br. R. As, Soo. Vol. XVIII. p. 253 ff. About three years ago, 
when Prof. Hultzsch first thought of having the inscriptions re-edited in this Journal, no trace 
whatever of them could he found, and it was 011 a chance -visit to the State Museum at Baroda 
in 1903 that I saw the plates exhibited there. On my informing Prof. Hultzsch of their 
whereabouts, he asked Rai Bahadur Venkayya to obtain them on loan through the Resident at 
Baroda from the Curator of the Baroda State Museum, and I re-edit the inscriptions at the 
suggestion of Prof. Hultzsch, and from the excellent ink-impressions supplied by Rai Bahadur 

[Along with the two sets of plates, two seals were received from the Resident at Baroda 
in December 1903. As the seals had been detached from the plates, it was not possible to 
ascertain which seal belonged to which set. But before returning the plates and seals on the 
7th December 1904, 1 put down some notes about them, of which the following is a copy. 

[The plates measure on an average 13" by 9|". The rings bearing both the seals 
had been cut before they were received in ray office. The larger of the two seals measures 
about 3" by 2f", The ring whose ends are secured at the bottom of the seal is 3f" in diameter 
ard \" thick. The seal bears, in relief on a countersunk surface, as the principal figure, an 
image of Qaruda whose wings are distinctly seen squatting on a seat which is probably meant 
to consist of two serpents. These appear to entwine his waist and to terminate in his hands, 
each of which is holding a hood. What looks like his sacred thread is perhaps a third serpent. 
The Garuda faces to the full front and has on his proper right a representation of Ganapati in 
the tipper corner, lower down a cTiawn, and below it a lamp. On the proper left in the upper 
corner is a goddess riding on a lion, and below the lion a svastika surmounted by a chauri. On 
each side of the head of Garuda is a circle which may be meant for the sun and moon. Below 
the squatting Garuda is an inscription which is not quite distinct, but which seems to 
be Tjlfafssw^rer- Along the margin of the seal is a border of various indistinct emblems, 
among which a ttAga and an elephant-goad are recognisable. The emblems on the smaller seal, 
which measures about 1|-" by l^*, are also out in relief on a countersunk surface, but are not quite 
distinct, The central figure is Garuda, squatting, as in the bigger seal, apparently on a couch 
consisting of two serpents, which seem to entwine hia waist and to terminate in his hands. Each 
of the hands of Garuda appears to hold a hood. What looks like his sacred thread may be a 
third serpent. To his proper right at the upper corner ie a projection -which, may stand for 
Ganapati, and below it is a lamp stand. To the proper left at the upper corner is another 

t StO above, p. 18, note S. * l,a, Sarvabandlra, 


projection, which is perhaps intended to represent a goddess. Below the goddess is a lamp stand 
above a svastika. The ring whose ends are secured at the bottom of the smaller seal measures 
8" in diameter and f " in thickness. Two sets of impressions of each of the two inscriptions 
were sent to Mr. D. B. Bhandarkar in August 1903. V.V.] 

As regards the find-spot of the plates, H. H. Dhruva, who first edited them, says : " On 
the 6th of July 1881, as a Dubla servant of Mulji Khushal, Patel of Bagnmr&, was furrowing 
the earth with the plough in his field, the ploughshare drew out of it these plates." This 
clearly shows that the plates were found at Bagumra', and consequently we must, as was first 
pointed out by Prof. Kielhorn, 1 speak of them as Bagumra, and not as Naus&ri, chatters 
of A.D. 915. 

Each of the two sets consists of three copper-plates, which are, to judge from the impres- 
sions, about 13'' long and 9" broad. The inscription is engraved on the inner sides of the first arid 
third plates, and on both sides of the second plate. The engraving is clear and well executed. 
The characters belong to the northern class of alphabets. For some of the forms of indivi- 
dual letters attention may be drawn to g in gatasya and svarggam, 1. 13 ; to n in Idnclihana,, 
1. 8, and rdjftah, 1, 13 ; to m in m=anyat=pu, 1. 17, m=dnandi, 1. 37, and grdinaltufa, 1. 46 ; 
to bh in bhupah, 1. 28 ; and to s in samtarppand , 1. 57, so far as the first record is concerned ; 
and to It in kdnt-Sndu-, 1. 1 ; to toi in tamJcha, 1. 29 ; to j in saras-dmbhojd, 1. 5, saidjagat-i, 1. 7 ; 
and to bh in kaustubha, 1. 2, so far as the second record is concerned. The language is 
Sanskrit throughout. In respect of orthography, the following points may be noticed. The 
letter b is throughout denoted by the sign for v ; consonants are doubled after r ; visarga, has 
been (permissibly) omitted once before the following sfk in vaksha-sthala, I. 2 of both grants ; 
n has been substituted for it in JcdncM, 1. 11 of No. II. ; visarga followed by s has been at least 
thrice changed to that letter in JRanav i igraha$=samabhava c , 1, 33, palaks7iitas*sdclramgah, I. 51, 
and ''laka'hais^sdrddhaik, 1. 55 of the second record ; anusvdra followed by a nasal has been 
twice changed to tbat letter in sammdnita, 1. 18 of No. I. and 1. 20 of No. II., and in g6p- 
dngandndn=*nayana-, 1, 6 of No. I. ; the dental nasal has been used instead of an anusvdra 
before s in fansati, 1. 25 of No. I. and 1. 27 of No. II. Lastly, the same word is spelt IdntiMiam 
in No. 1. 1. 8, but Idmokhana in No. II. 1. 9. 

Each of these two records registers the grant of a village to ft Brahmana, made by the 
Bashtrakuta king Indra III. or, as he is described in lines 43-45 of No. II., ' the P.Af.P., th& 
prosperous Nityavarshanarendraddva, who meditated on the feet of the P.M. P., the prosperous 
Aka'lavarshade'va,* i.e. his grandfather Krishna II. Indra III. had, when the grants were 
made, gone to Kurundaka from his capital M&nyakheta for the pattabandha? festival. On 
that occasion he had himself weighed against gold, and, without coming out from the pan, gave 
away, together with twenty lakhs and a half of drammas, Kurundaka and other villages, granted 
afresh four hundred villages resumed by previous rulers, and finally bestowed the village of Tenna, 
according to No. II., on a Brahmana of the Lakshmana gotra, a student of the Vaji-M&dhyandina 
jdhhd, and named Siddhapabhatta, the son of Sri-Vennapabhatta, originally of Pataliputra ; 
and the village of Umvarft (or Umbara), according to No. I., on a Brahmana of the same 
g6tra and student of the same JdKhd as the above grantee, but named Prabhakarabhatta, 
the son of Ranapabhatta. The charters are dated, in words, on the 7th tithi of the bright 
fortnight of Phalguna of the Tuva-samvatsara, the Saka year 836 (expired), which 
corresponds to tlie 24th February A.D. 815. 

After the introductory ofa svasti and the opening verse invoking the protection of Viahnu 
and Siva with which almost all the Bashtrak-uta grants begin, we Lave verse 2 in praise of 

1 See &!>ove, Appendix to Vol. VII. p. 15, note 5. 

4 For the meaning of this word see above, Vol. VII. p. 27> note 2. 


the god Krishna. In the verso following we find Indrarajadeva (HI.), the royal grantor 
of tne charterSj compared to the god Upendra (Vishnu). In verse 4 we are informed that 
the god Brahman sprang from the water-lily in the navel of Vishnu, from Brahman his son 
Atri, from Atri the Moon, and from the Moon the dynasty of tho Yadus, where Krishna 
was born. In the nest v.ei-Be we are told that there arose Hug Dantidurga in the Satyati 
branch of the Yadu dynasty, to whom of herself repaired the goddess of sovereignty of 
the Chalukya family. This means that Dantidurga was the Hrst Rashtrakuta king -who 
defeated the Clialukyas and made himself master of their dominions. From verse 6, if we 
notice the double entendre clearly intended, we learn that Dantidurga first reduced the 
lowermost, i.e. southern, country, then turned his arms against the Madhyadesa, and finally 
conquered the city of Kaachl. According to an. inscription in the Dadavatara cave at Elura, 1 
Dantidurga subdued the rulers of KiiQchi, Kalinga, Kosala, Srisaila, Malaya, Lata, Tanka, 
and BO forth. If we are right in understanding verse 6 as we have done, Dantidurga 
first gained victories in the South and conquered the kings of Sris'aila, Kalinga, and so forth, 
then turned to the central part of India and subjugated tho princes of K6sala, Malaya, 
Luta, and so forth, and finally came back again to the South and vanquished the lord of 

Verse 8 tells us that after Dantidurga his paternal uncle Krishnarja (I.) came to the 
throne. The next vereo makes mention of his son Nirupama(-Dhruva), hut omits the name 
of his elder brother Govinda II., probably because the author of the inscription -wanted to give 
a direct genealogy of the royal grantor, with reference to whom GJSvinda II. was a collateral 
prince, while he mentioned the name of Dantidurga as the latter was the founder of the 
dynasty. But by no means can thin omission be taken as favouring the view that Gfivinda II. 
did not reign. I have elsewhere adduced reasons for dissenting from this view ; 2 and in support 
of my position may now be stated the incontrovertible fact that the Dhulia copper-plate grant 8 
of Govinda II. 's nephew and feudatory Suvarnavarsha-Karka distinctly refers itself to his 
reign, and gives the date Saka 701, when we must consequently suppose G6vinda II. to have 
been alive and wielding supremacy. Verse 10 informs us that Nirupama(-Dhruva) won two 
white parasols in battle, one from the lord of Kosala and the other from the king of the North, 
Who these princes were we have no means to determine. But it looks tempting to identify the 
king of the North either with the Indray udha mentioned in the Jaina Harivamsa, or with Chakrd- 
yudha, the ruler of Kanauj and contemporary of Dharmapala of the Pala, and of G&rinda III. 
of the Mshtrakutaj dynasty. 4 

Verse 11 says that Irom Nirupama(-Dhruva) sprang Jagattunga(-Gr6vinda HI.), who, in 
his turn, begat SrivalLabha(-Amoghavarsha I.). The nest verse tells us that Amoghavarsha 

* Arch. Surv. West. Ind. Vol. V. p. 88. 

2 JWw. So. Br. J2. A. 8. Vol. XX. p. 133 f. 3 Above, Vol. VIII. p. 183. 

4 lu an unpublished grant of Ain6ghavarsha I. in tho possession of iny brother Prof. S. R. Bhandarkar, two 
princes of the names of Chukrdyudha and Dliarma are mentioned as having gone to the Himalayas to do homage to 
Gfivinda III. who had gone thither on an expedition of conquest. It can hardly be seriously doubted that Dharma 
is Dlvarrnapala, the second prince of the Pala dynasty, and that Chakrayuclha is the same as the Chakrflyudha of the 
Bhagalpur grant, whom Dharmaplla restored to his lost throue. Prof. Kielhorn (Nacliricliten von der 2T. G-es. d. 
Wins. KH Goitingen, 1005, p. 803) has already identified this Cliakruyudha with the Chalcruyudha of the Gwalior 
inscriptiou, who was conquered by Nflgabha-ta. NUgahhata again was n contemporary of Gflvinda III. (J~ourn, So, 
JBr. S, A, S. Vol. XXI. p. 422, note 2). We havo thus four princes, vis. Goviuda III., NAgabhata, Chakrayndha and 
Dharaapala, \vlia were contemporaries. We know from Eishtrahuift records that Goviiida III. reigned from A.D, 
JO-! to 8 IS. "We must, therefore, suppose DliarmapMa to liavo flourished about tliis time. As this synchronism 
was uot kuowii before, it was but right to assign. Dharmapala to A.D. 861, tho date of the Pftthari inscription referring 
itself to the reigu. of the Riiahtralcutu prince Pambala (NacTirioMeft von dor . Ges. e?. Wiss. zu Qiittingen, 1901> 
p. 525 .) l* u * now vf * rfeo ^at this date would be mt'her too 3ato for DLarmapfik. Besides, there is nothing to 
i'Lww that this Pariibiila i, jw a matter of fact, identical -with Paraba,la.j the fathor-iii-law of Dharmapala. 


I. raised the glory of the Eatta sovereignty immersed in the ocean of the Chalukyas 
and thereafter assumed the epithet Viranaryana. If we read between the lines, we cannot 
fail to notice that the Rashtraklita, sovereignty had been shaken by the Chalukyas of 
Vengi to its very foundations in the early part of Amdghavarsha's reign. The Ghalukya 
contemporary of Am&ghavarsha I. was Narendrararigaraja-Vijayaditya IT.j 1 who, in an 
Eastern Chalukya record, is represented to have fought, during twelve years, by day and 
night, a hundred and eight battles with the armies of the Gangas and the Rattaa. The latter 
can be no other than the Bashtrakutas of Malkhed, and it thus appears that Narendrainrigaraja- 
Vijayaditya II. was a powerful king. We can, therefore, very well understand that he might 
have for a time eclipsed the glory of the Rashtrakutas. Amdghavarsha I., however, was by 
no means slow to retrieve his lost reputation, and seems to have wreaked a terrible vengeance 
upon the Chalukyas, whom, as verse 13 informs us, he destroyed, just as a man burns chick-pea 
plants, the stalks of which have been pulled out by the root. That he inflicted a severe defeat 
on the Eastern Chalukyas can also be seen from the Cambay and Sangli charters, 2 in which 
he is said to have gratified the god Tama with unprecedented morsels of cakes which were the 
Chalukyas. Verse 13 incidentally gives us the information, if my interpretation is correct, 
that the Chalukyas whom AmSghavarsha I. vanquished had devastated Stamlbapura, which is 
the same as Tamralipta, identified with the modern Tamluk, the head-quarters of the subdivision 
of the same name of the Midnapur district, Bengal. 

From Srivallabha(-Am6ghavarsha I.), who was a comet of destruction to the Chaltikya 
family (v. 14), sprang KrishnarSja (IL)> "whose fights with the Gurjaras used to be still 
remembered by old men, as we are informed in verse 15. I have elsewhere pointed out that 
the Gurjaras, with whom the Rashtrakutas were often at war, ruled over Northern India and 
had their capital at Mahodaya or Kananj, and consequently the Gurjara prince defeated by 
Krishnaraja II. (A.D. 888-911) must have been Mahendrapftla (A.D. 899-907), the patron of the 
poet Rajas&khara. 

Krishnaraja II. had a son of the name of Jagattunga (v. 16), who married Lakshmi, 
the daughter of Banavigraha, the son of Kokkalla of the Haihaya, i.e. Ealachuri, 
dynasty (w. 17-19). It is worthy of note that Ranavigraha is here called OMd-ixvara, i.e. lord 
of Chedi. The same fact is hinted by a verse in Jahlana's SuktitnuktdvaU, quoted by Dr. 
Bhandarkar in his paper on the Karhad plates of Krishna III., 3 which purports to say that 
of rivers the Narmada, of kings Ranavigraha, and of poets Surananda were the ornaments of 
Chedi. The name Ranavigraha does not occur in the list of the names of the Kalachuris 
of Chedi. From a Ratanpur inscription, 4 however, we learn that Kokkalla had eighteen sons, 
of whom the first-born "was a ruler of Tripuri, and the others lords of mandalas, i.e. minor 
chiefs. If this statement deserves any credence, Ranavigraha, being a ruler of Tripuri, i.e. of 
Chedi, and not of a wcm^aZa, was the eldest son, and the successor of Kokkalla. But from 
the Benares copper-plate inscription 5 it appears that Kokkalla was followed by his eon Mugdhaf 
tunga-Prasiddhadhavala. We may, therefore, suppose that Ranavigraha and Mugdhatuiiga- 
Praeiddhadhavala were one and the same prince. 

The issue of the marriage of Jagattunga with LakshmS was Indraraja (HI.), whose 
epithets Batta-Kandarpadva and Srl-Kirti-Narayana are mentioned in verses 20 and 21. 
The next verse contains a double entendre, and so far as its mythological sense goes, it 
does not present any difficulty. But the historical sense of this verse is by no means clear* 
This much is certain that it records tho defeat of a king of the name of Uptmdra by the 
Rashtrakuta prince Indraraja III. But who this Upe'ndra was. and how the epithets 

1 Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p, 100. ! Above, Vol. VII. p. 43 ; Ind. Ant. Vol. XII. p. 252 f. 

3 Above, Vol. IV. p. 280. * JSp. Ind. Vol. I. p. 33. 6 Id. Vol. II. p. 301. 



j-y OI , t 

Govardhan-oddhdra and M-6nm&Uta~Meru, used in connection with the kings TTpendra and 
Indraraja respectively, are to be interpreted, is far from clear. At one time I thought that 
tTpSndra referred to Mahip&Ia of the Pratihara dynasty of Mah&daya, for whom I then contended 
that the Biigalpur grant of the Pala dynasty gave the other name Ghakrayudha. 1 But I 
have stated above that, beyond all donbt, Dharmapala and Chakrayndha, whom he re-instated on 
the throne, were contemporaries of the Bfishtrakuta prince G&vinda III. 3 Chakrayudha cannot, 
therefore, be identified with Mahfpala, who was a contemporary of Indra III,, the great-great- 
grandson of G&vinda III. According to Pandit Bhagwanlal Indraft 3 the word Mfru in tl* 
expression hel-5nm&Uta-M$ru signifies Mera or MShra, and the whole expression speaks of the 
defeat of some contemporary Meb.ra king of North Kathiawad by Indraraja III. Prof. Kielhom, 
on the other hand, holds that Mera probably is Mah&daya,* i.e. Kananj, implying thereby that i* 
records the capture of Kanauj by Indraraja III. specified in the StegH charter. With regard 
to the other expression, vis.krita-Govardkan-oddhdra, no interpretation has been proposed, and 
we must wait for the publication of other inscriptions to enable us to understand perfectly the 
historical sense of this verse. 

In the preamble of the prose passage preceding the formal part of the inscription, the 
P. M. P. Srlmatt-Nityavarshanare-ndradeva, i.e. Indraraja III., is spoken of as " meditating 
on the feet " of the P. M. P. SnmacZ-Akalavarshadeva, i.e. his grandfather Krishna II. This 
indicates that Jagattunga, the father of Indraraja III., did not come to the throne. The same 
may be concluded from the statement of our inscription that the battles of Krishnaraja II. were 
remembered and described by old men in Indra III.'s time. This shows that hardly a generation 
had passed since the occurrence of that event, and that consequently there was no Bashtrakfita 
sovereign intervening between Krishna II. and Indra III. The same conclusion is pointed 
to by the fact that the Kharfipatan grant of Kattarfcja,* in setting forth the Kashtrakftta 
genealogy, takes the succession direct from Krishna II. to Indra III. and refers to Jagattunga 
only further on as the father of Am6ghavarsha- Vaddiga. But our conclusion is placed beyond 
all doubt by the De61i and Karhad plates of Krishna III.," which distinctly speak of Jagattufcga 
as having died without obtaining the sovereignty. 

The composer of our inscriptions was Trivikramabhatta, the son of 3STmaditya There. 
can hardly be a doubt that he is identical with Trivikramabhatta, the author of the Nalachamp&, 
oftheSandilya^ra,andtheson of tfemaditya (var. lecL Devaditya).? Another Sdnd-ilya- 
Isavi-Ghakravartin Trivikrama was the sixth ancestor, of the astronomer Bhaskarabhatta a 
contemporary of king Bhoja of Dhara. The oldest mention of Trivikrama is in Bh'&ia's 
Sarasvattfanthdbharana, while he himself quotes Bana. The authorship of a Maddlasd-chamvA 
is also attributed to this Trivikrama. 

As regards the localities mentioned in the grants, Pa$aliputra from where the grantee of 
Ko. II. emigrated is obviously Patna, the principal town of the district of the same name in 
Bengal, and Manyakheta, the capital of the royal grantor, is MalkhSd m the Nizam's Domia 

I ;, K Ti d8 i a> ^ Inaiara 3' a IIL had re P aired for U* pattrindto, was first identified 
by Mr. A. W, T. Jackson with Kumndwad at the junction of the Krishna and Pancha- 
ganga in the Southern Mar&tha country." In No. I. the village granted 'is Umvara Cor 
Umbara) near Kammanij ja in the country of Lata, and the boundaries specified are Tolelafca 
to P., Mdgalika to 8., Samki to W., and Javalakflpaka to N. Umvara. as was first pointed 

'i Above, Vol. VII. p. 32. - See above, p. 25, note 4. 

Biitory tf Ghtfardt, in the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Vol. L Part I. p. 130 

4 See above, Appendix to Vol. VIII. p. 16, aote 2, 

* Above, Vol. III. p, 298, Above, VoL IV. p. 283 ; Vol V. p 198 

T Weber, Berlin Catalogue, Yol. II. p. 1205. Bitfory of Chtfwdt, p. 130, note 3. 



out by Dr. Bhandarkar, is the modern Bagumrfi, with the prefix lag. 1 Tdlejaka and M6galika 
cannot be identified, but Samkl and Javalakupaka are Sanki, one mile S. W. of Bagumra 
and Jolwa, one and a half mile N. of Bagumra. In No. II. the village granted is Tenna near 
Kammanijja, and the boundaries specified are Varadapallika (or Barada ) to E., Nambhltataka 
to S., ValiSa (or BallSa) to W., and Vavviyana (or Babbiyana)' to 1ST. They have been 
identified with Ten, Bardoll, Nadida, Waueaa and Baben respectively. Kammanijia, in the 
vicinity of which lay both the villages granted, is Kamrej. All these villages are to" be' fonnd 
in the Nausari division of the Baroda State. The Bagumra grant of the Gujarat Kashtrakiita 
Dhruva II. mentions Trenna, both as a village and a territorial division, and speaks "of the 
village of Trennfc as having been bestowed upon a certain Brahmana by his grandfather 
Dhruva I. (A.D. 834-35). "The explanation of its being given away again by the present 
record," as Dr. Fleet has rightly said, "is, no doubt, to be found in the statement, made in the 
present record, that Indra III. gave away four hundred villages which had been confiscated by 
previous kings ; this was evidently one of them." 3 

TEXT 3 OP No. I. 

First Plate. 
[ II -] *3 5 ^TT^TT TO TOTfoinrof W?f 1 


8 fa: 

1 Journ. So. Br. R. A. S. Vol. XVIII. p. 256. 

a Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXI. p. 396. 

1 From inked eptampages supplied to me by Eai Bahadur Venkayya. 

The t is not weU-formed. Metre : Sldka (Auusl^ubh). Metre ; 

i Bead f^^T^ . a Metre : Pushpitfigrfi. 

10 Metre: Sragdhar4. u .Rea 

11 Metre ; Vasantatilaka $ and of the next verse, 




u [a.*] 
10 *f [i*] 


13 ^ HM3fPfl II [*] f^f '3prfTO^%[5T 


f%<ft ^f5R?T: 

Second Plate ; First Side 

20 isf tpf: [i*] 

-.I".. _J JL ^- ___ TV 12 



19 H[f^sr]: i tft ^gww ^5 ii^^i^ii^^^rT u [n*3 

I Metre : Sragdharft. a Bead U^^. 

3 Metre : Yasaatatilaba ; and of the next verse. * Metre 

* One of the two circles of the oisarga has been omitted. 

8 The repetition of this word is superfluous. 7 Bead 

8 Corrected by the engraver from ^TfRUtn'. 

Metre : SWia (Anushtuhh) 5 and of the next two vees, Bead 

II VtfT is aUoposflible.. Eettd W . Bead 


Bagurara plates of Indraraja Iff. First set. 

**}.'-. LTbrl&JtS^tJfjAXi&tSBrvSrSi .-i.,'-"li; Hi ; ' 









22 nwi^vi gimTsr: i 

^fs; Trfw- 

: 0) 
24 ft 




29 rc i f^iT: ^r^f irnraR^t wftPSrmnrt: ftrt: 



32 ft: ^5% Tr5Tf?r 


33 traro: 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 



36 WieifRiifir! i [>o] " 

1 Metre : SlidAlaTifcrtditft. * fiead 

1 Bead if^fij. * Metre : 

Metre : SirdMaTibri^ita; and of the next verse. 

The first ta ia not well-formed and looks almost like t<t, t Head 

Hie letter tma U not well-formed. Metre Milinl j and of the next two Tenwi. 
M Eead "JWT^I^t . Bead "ft^ , u Bead fW. 



[VOL. IX. 









39 TO: [i*] 







Third Plate. 

graved 4.U. dM, to H 

stroke of *A in ,A Pa is wanting. 



57 f: 



61 ^r; [*] 

62 f 7 


2 OTTO u 



3 ; 11 i 

64 ^jft Ii^ TT?T*r5; ii 

^t [*] 



69 sphra: uf?rftsi<?t 3-Rnlr T ^ft^'ift URM'BMT ^^ [i*] 
60 " 

i Bead T*fi^. Bead *TM*IHfl|. 

4 Bead jfgT . 5 Corrected by the engraver from 

B Read *JFj5rer. 7 Metre : Slfika (Anushtubh). 8 Metre : SWini, 

Metre i S16ka (Anuslitulih) j tHs verse was left incomplete for want of space 



[VOL. IX. 


6 <gn*rr 






: u [>*] 


Lj;iL;umr;i jjiaics of Indraraja III. Second set. 








1 8 










SCALE 45. 









48 HSf^ctil^nM^y^y^tf^g^^ (l) 

Third Plate. 

49 W u i i d 



39 Tf^ff ^^fy*iHiii^'; i ^TOT ^Rf ^^nrr^rfwf ^5 


40 t??r g^^ wsrtfir ^ wsf %^twfgr dVira: [HI*] 

^tfsf^K t^r- 

41 nlRftw [*] ^^sfH^^rtf ftrwr 

50 OTft t'snmnrTT: [i*] ^rer ^^ d^nfin*i [i*3 

*l [l*] 

* Bend . Read 

Bead ^KT^J . Eead 

t u , Eead 


51 *rr fi*] Srrat gfwWiiw [i*] 






57 w 


59 K^<5T ^T^T^f*il55l^M[w]^i<rii*H*n e ii; 4 [l*] 

60 mcr^: ^prt ^n^ W3 

firefir ^f^: [*] 

61 m ^T^'m ^ m*N 


62 T. [t*J 

: u 


6m. Hail! 

(Verse 1.) May lie (ViBlmti.), the -water-lily (springing /rom) whose aa-vel was made (7m) 
abode by Vodkas (Brahman), protect you, and Hara (Siva) whose head is adorned by the beauti- 
ful crescent of the moon ! 

Bead MW. 


(V. 2.) Victorious is (Krishna). (who iV) the coract (of destruction") to Karbsa (and is) the 
friend of the gods, on whose chest, extensive as the Yindhya (mountain'), dangles the puro 
Kausfcubha, (and) on the stage of whose lotus-like face dance the side-glances of Laksluni, with 
the pupils (of lu.r eyes) languid through excess of love ! 

(V. 3.) 15 .'! victorious is the king Indraraja (III.), whose long arms (were made her") refuge 
by the goddess uf Wealth, who lias rooted out in battles the circle of (kin) enemies difficult to 
withstand, who has seized the lerritories of the mighty, (and win w) the lion (i.e. the best) 
among men, just at; Upundm (Vislniu) it ever victorious, whose long arms (were made her) 
support by (tha gudtlia/i) LuksLmi, who held up in battles (hits) discus bearing 1 spokes and diffi- 
cult to resist, who carried oft' Bali and (hi*) legions (tu Pdtdla), (and who wan) a man-lion. (in 
hia on.i'th inca 

O 7 "- -i'-) The suif-Ciiiiteut (Brahman) was born of the wide and blooming water-lily springing 
from the navel of (Vishnu) the lord of Sri ; of him was born (his) son Atri ; (and) of him again 
(u 1 . of Atri) the Moon that overflows with rays of nectar. From him there grew on earth the 
linenge of the Yadus, amongst whom (at oat fiuio) flourished (Vishnu) the wielder of the 
Stir Ay a (bow) (in Jits oijhtlt, incarnation an Krishna), who was worshipped by the lotus-eyes of 
s with every kind of flirtation., 

(V. 5.) In that family there arose the illustrious king Dantidurga, born in the great 
Satyaki branch . the i.vst of men, whose hand (lore) the (auspiciwn) marks of the conch and 
difocus. (rj,,f,l) to whom of herself eame the goddess of wealth of the Chalukya family, just as 
(if.t tlmt f-i'tH-ibn thfi-e :\rr,,^ Purushottama (Kyi.shjpa), who prolonged the line of Satyaki, 1 
\vlio (h'-.l-l) the conch iind di.-.eiift in (liis) hands as (liis peculiar) characteristics, (and) to whom 
vf hcr.seU' eauie (Jho ijuildtsj) L^kshmi from the ocean. 

(V. 0.) The hand (Ac. the prowess) of this (prince), matchless in battle, having (first) 
established itself on the beautiful lowermost region of the earth, and having again overcome 
in a. gentle manner ut its own will tho central region (Hailliyadwa), again established itself in the 
province of Kanchi, just as the hand (oj a lowr), after (fast) estahliahing itseLE on the hips of a 
woman, attractive to tht> heart, and pressing again gently at its will (her) waist, again 
tfatabhsheij itself on the region (Iclow tlie icaist*) where tlie girdle (is worn), 

(V. 7.) Hie orders, forming a wreath on (their) crests with -which, came in contact (tJmr) 
hands (joined) like bads, (all) kings respect with (their) heads slightly bent (and) with (their) 
knees rolling about on the surface of the earth, from Setu. (Barnes varam), where the blossoming 
lavttfoja (trues) are destroyed on the declivities of mountain-tops by hosts of powerful monkeys, 
as far as the Kailasa (mountain), the outskirts of which resound with the jingling anklets on 
the moving feet of Bhavaui. 

^ (V, 8.) When that king, after conquering the world by his own arm, had gone to heaven 
as if to conquer (if-), being desirous of a fresh victory, (his) paternal uncle, the illustrious' 
king Krishnaraja (I,), of well-known prowess, occupied Ms position of supreme majesty. 

(V. 9.) Wimpama, of spotless valour, sprang from that (king), whose fame, solid, extensive 
and blight, diverted itself ru the form of the lines of sanded-painting on the faces of the beauties, 
(ew.) the quarters, (and) who adorned the mountain '(consisting oj) the family of the glorious 

(T. 10.) From the hand of the trembling lord of the Kdsalas was snatched away by him in 
battle one white (regal) parasol, which, was the white (auspicious) water-pitcher for the setting 
out of (his) fame, bright as the kutida (flower), on a journey over the Avhole world, (and) 'which 

1 " Pair, of YuyudMna (a warrior in the Paii<Jtt army who acted as the charioteer of Efishna and belonged to 
the Vfishni family)."~io)iiflr- Williams' Dictionary* 


was the toy-lotus, resplendent as the disc of the fall moon, on the palm of the hand of Lakshmi ; 
another again (was matched, away by him) from the king of the northern (country) as if it were. 
(his) glory. 

("V . 11.) From him obtained birth Jagattuiiga, who honoured the twice-born ; he in his 
turn begat as son the king of Hags rivailabha. 

(V. 12.) This (prince), possessed of fortitude, on raising again the glory of the Eatta king- 
dom, drowned in the ocean o the Chalukyas, became (i.e. assumed the epithet of) 
Vlranarayana, just as (Vishnu), again uplifting the earth, drowned in the ocean, became 
Viranarayana (i.e. the heroic Narayana). 

(V. 13.) Having, by means of punishment, put down obnoxious persons, he destroyed the 
fiery Chalukyas, (his) enemies, who had completely devastated (the city of) Stamba, 1 just as 
(a gardener), after removing the thorns by means of a stick, barns chick-peas, the stalks of 
which have been plucked out with the roots. 

(Y. 14.) Prom him, who was the comet of destruction to the plantain tree, (vis.') the high 
family of the Chalukyas, was born Krisinaraja (II.), of spotless life, -whose fame, bright as the 
moon, wanders about, though constantly drunk by the people by means of the cavities of (their) 

(V. 15.) On the advent of clouds, when there is a heavy downpour of rain (and) when the 
circular rainbow (appears in the s%), the old men thus describe the event of his fight with the 
roaring Gurjara : " Thus did (he) in anger draw (his) bow, studded with a series of gems dart- 
iDg forth rays; thus did (he) discharge arrows at the heads of the warriors of (his) enemy." 

(V. 16.) Trom him was born the illustrious Jagattuiigadeva, who caused the destruction 
of the multitude of (Ms) enemies, who surpassed the beauty of Madana, who was the beloved of 
the goddess of Heroism, (the palm of each of) whose bands (bore the aus^ioious sign of) a 
discus shining by means of (the marks of) a banner, a lotus and a conch, (and) who (thus) by 
(his) greatness excelled Vishnu. 

(V. 17.) There was a king (named) SahaBrfirjuna, sprung from the Haihaya lineage, who 
relieved the itching sensation 2 of the powerful and shining long arms of the roaring and invin- 
cible Havana, (and) the letters (setting forth) whose fame and name, finding a resting-place in 
the ears of the gods, (and) written by the Siddhas with the dense fluid of nectar, covered the 
walls of the quarters. 

(V. 18.) In the dynasty of him who was an axe to the families of (his) enemies, there arose 
the renowned illustrious king Banavigraha, the gon of king Kokkalla (and) the lord of Chedi, 
into whose circle (of feudatory princes), pilferer as he was of the ornaments of the wives of (his) 
enemies, entered every enfeebled lord of the earth on the destruction of (his) partisans, just as 
the moon, destitute of (all) the digits, enters the disc of the sun at the end of the (dark) fort- 

(V. 19.) From him who was the receptacle of a collection of all virtues (and) the abode of 
resplendent majesty, there was born a daughter (named) Lakshmi, possessed of lotus-like hands, 
[just as from the ocean, which is the abode (of the sun) of intensely gleaming rays, there 
sprang Lakhsml, possessed of a lotus in (her) hand] ; Jagattungaddva, the moon to the night- 
lotus of the YadU race (and) the ravisher of the hearts of beautiful women, married her (viz. 
Lakshmi, the daughter of Banavigraha), just as Hari, the moon to the night-lotus of the Tadu 
race (and) the ravisher of the hearts of beautiful women, married her (vie. the goddess Lakshmi). 

1 The same as TAmralipta, i.e. Tamldk ; see p. 27 above, 
1 [Compare Sifufdlavadha, I. 48,] 


(V". 20.) Erona these two sprang Ratta-Kandarpade'va, whose bravery was known aa far as 
tie shores of the four oceans, who was a grinding-stone to (7m) enemies, who dwelt in the 
hearts of beautiful women, who was a refuge to all men, (and] who was a store of merit and 
beauty, [just aa from (Hari and Lakshmi) sprang the god Kaiidarpa (i.e. Cupid), whose 
prowesa is known as far as tbe shores of the four oceans, who is a grindmg-stone to (his) 
enemies, who abides in the minds of beautiful women, who is a refuge to all persons, (and) who 
is a store of heavenly beauty]. 

(V, 21.) This king, overrunning, by means of his own valour, the earth shining with 
the girdle of the four oceans, became (i.e. was known as) Srl-Klrti-Narayana, just as the god 
(Vishnu), covering, with his stride, the earth shining with the girdle of the four oceans, was 
known as Sri-Kirti-Narayana 5 on hearing of whose birth, the lustre of the faces, the minds, 
and the heads of (his) enemies, whose understanding was bewildered, simultaneously experienced 
dejection, fear, and the cavity of the hands folded (as a mark of) servitude. 

(V. 22.) This Indraraja (HI.), having uprooted M^ru (Mah&daya ?) with ease, was not 
puffed up with pride at (Tits) defeating (king) TJpendra who had saved Govardhana, just as 
the god Indra, who uprooted (Mount) M6ru with ease, was not puffed up with pride at (his) 
vanquishing (the god) Upendra (Krishna) who had upliftf * the Govardhana (mountain).^- 

(V. 23.) This lord of the earth, entitled to obeisance from all men, on founding many 
endowments to temples and agrdhdras (to Brahmanas), to be respected (ly all), became, in 
point of fame for charity, superior to Paraskirama, the greatness of whose merits shone by tie 
gift of a single insignificant village. 3 

(LI. 43-56.) And he, the Paramabhattdra'ka MaTidrdjddUrdja Paramesvara, the 
prosperous Nityavarshanarendradeva, who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhattdraka 
MaMrdjadhwdja Param$6vara t the prosperous Akalavarshadeva, being well, commands all the 
lords of provinces (rash^ra), lords of districts (vishaya), chiefs of villages, leading persons, 
officials, employes, functionaries, etc., according as they are concerned : 

" Be it known to you that by Me, who resides at the capital of Manyakhdta (and) who 
has come to Kurundaka for the glorious festival of the binding of the fillet, for the 
enhancement ofthe religious merit and fame, in this world and the next, of (My) parents and 
Myself with heartfelt devotion eight centuries of years increased by thirty-six having 
elapsed since the time of the Saka king, on the seventh (tithi) of the bright (fortnight) of 
Phalguna in the Tuva-samvatsara having, on the completion of the glorious festival of the 
binding of the fillet, ascended the Tuldpurusha? and having, without coming down from the pan, 
given away, together with twenty lakhs and a half of drammas, Kurundaka and other villages, 
and four hundred villages besides, that had been confiscated by previous kings, -was bestowed 
to-day, by pouring water from the hand, for the sake of .the Bali, Oharu, Vaisvadfoa, Agnihfara 
and Atithisantarpana, - upon Siddhapabhatta, of the Lakshmana gotra, a student of the V&ji- 
Madhyandiua (4&1thd), (and) the son of Sri-Vennapabhatta who had come from Pataliputra, 
the village of the name of Tenna in the vicinity of Kammanij ja situated in the country of 
La$a, denned by the four boundaries, viz. to the east Varadapallika, to the south ISTanibliitafiaka, 
to the west Valisa, (and) to the north the village of Vawiyana, 4 together with the royal share, 

1 There can hardly be a doubt that this verse is intended to yield two meanings, one mythological and the other 
Itfstorioal, The first is clear, T)ut the historical sense is by no means evident ; see above, p. 27 f . 

a There is here a play on. the word Ten, which means hoth 'the earth. * and ' insignificant.* 

* " Gift of gold, eio., equal to a man's weight." Monier- Williams' Dictionary. 

'- ' According to No. 1. 1. 49 ffi. " upon Prabhatarabhat^a, of the Lakahmana gdtra,,* student of the V&ji- 
MMbyandina (fdlchd), and the son of Ranapabhatta, the village of the name of Umvarl in the vicinity of 
Kammanijja wtuated in the country of Lata, defined by the four boundaries, vis. to the east Tdlejaka, to the south 
M&galikA, to the west the village of Samkl, (and) to the north Javalakupaka." 


"with the appurtenances, with (the proceeds of the punishments for) faults and the ten offences, 
with (the right to) forced labour as it arises, with the assessment in grain and gold. 

(LL 56-59.) "No hindrance should in the slightest degree be caused by any one to him 
while enjoying (this village)^ allowing (others) to enjoy (it), cultivating (it), causing (it) to be 
cultivated, or assigning (it) to another, in accordance with the manner of a gift to a Brahmana. 
Likewise, this My gift to a Brahmana should be assented to, just as if it were their own gift, by 
the good kings of the future, whether My descendants or others, bearing in mind that the fruit 
of a gift of land is common (both to the grantor and to the preserver) ." 

[L. 59 f . and w- 24-26 contain the usual admonitions to future rulers.] 

(V. 27.) This praiseworthy panegyric 1 was composed by the illustrious Trivikramabliatta, 
the son of Nemaditya (and) serving the feet of Indraraja. 

BY HiaA LAL, B.A., M.R.A.S. ; NAQPUR. 

These plates were kindly sent to me by Mr. 0. E. Low, I.O.S., Deputy Commissioner of the 
Balaghat district, Central Provinces. They were found in the village Bagholi belonging 
to the Saletekri Zamindari, nuw under tho Court of Wards and included in the Baihar tahsil of 
that district, by a cultivator while ploughing the field. There are three copper-plates, of 
which the second and third bear writing on both sides ; the third plate has only two lines on 
the reverse side. The plates are broader in the middle than at the top or at the bottom. At 
the broadest part they measure nearly 6- inches, and the average height is 5^-". They are held 
together by a circular ring, 2 T V in diameter, which is somewhat thicker and rugged at the 
place where the two ends are soldered together. A circular seal \vith taaselled borders is attached 
to the ring and was put orr it before the ends of the ring were soldered together. The seal has 
in two lines the legend Sri-Jayavardhanadevasya, which is enclosed by ornamental circles 
running round the bottom of the tassels. The ring was cut and resoldered by Rai Bahadur 
V. Yeukayya, who kindly took for me the impressions which are reproduced on the accompany- 
ing Plate. The copper-plates were found when Mr. Low was writing the Gazetteer of the 
JBal&gh&t District, in which an extract from my translation has already appeared. 

The language of the inscription is Sanskrit, written in characters belonging to the northern 
class of alphabets. The average size of the letters is about -". They are badly formed and 
somewhat difficult to read. The first 20 lines of the inscription (excepting the opening words 
Om svasti Srfvardhanapurdt) and again, lines 35 to 45 are in verse. The rest is Sanskrit prose. 
Pinal forms of t occur in lines 1 and 38, and one of m in line 45. The letter b is not distinguished 
from v. A notable orthographical peculiarity occui's in lines 32 f. and 40 f ., where we find mv 
written for m in tdmvra and Itamvala. On the other hand b is omitted in kufumina (1. 24) for 
kuiumbinah, but regularly expressed by v in daldmvu (1. 41). The letters with a rgpha at the 
top sometimes assume a very peculiar shape such as in sarva (L 25) and varsha (1. 37). At 
other places they have the usual form, as in sarwa (I. 29). There is also a tendency to change 
the final forms of nasals into anusvdra in contravention of the accepted grammatical rules, as 
in yramttlthdm (1. &4) and yurushdm (1. 25). The lea of Tcamvala, in line 40 f. has a peculiar 
form and differs from other has occurring in the inscription. 

1 The word praiaitd is here evidently used in the same sense as pra/fatti. 



The objeofc of the inscription is to record the grant of the village KhaddiM in the 
KatSraka district (1. 23) to a temple of the Sun-god at Chattulliha (1. 29 f.) by king 
Jay'avardhana II, It was issued from Srlvardhanapura (1. 1) and is dated in the Srd 
year of his reign on the 30th day of the month Karttika (11. 46 and 31). Judging from the 
writing it may be assigned to the eighth century A.D. ; tie characters very mnch resemble those 
of the Paithau plates of Gdviada III. dated in the year 794 A.D. 1 Jayavardhana II. is de- 
scribed in' lines 20-22 as a devotee of Mahesvara, the lord of the whole Vindhya, and 
tlaMrdjadhirdja Param&vvra. He belonged to the gailavamsa (verse 1). His grandfather, 
who bore the same name as himself, killed the former king of the Vindhya and made the 
Vindhya his residence (v. 3). The son of Jayavardhana I. and father of the donor was 
Srlvardhana II., who styled himself VindbySsvara (v. 4), and who may tare founded 
Srivardhanapura from which, the present charter was issued. Five more ancestors of this line 
are mentioned, the first of whom was grlvardhana I. His son was Prithuvardhana, who is 
stated to have attacked Gujarat (v. 1). In his family was born Sauvardhana (v. 2), one of 
whose three sons killed the king of Paundra 2 (Bengal and Bihar), while another conquered the 
king of K&si (Benares). Of this latter, whose name is not mentioned^ Jayavardhana I. was 
the son (v. 3). 

The first verse of this charter opens with an obscure epithet to Srivardhana I. who is called 
Eai7as"acAoZa-*M^o-s^r*ga-tjaw?a-dr^a-t>oja-jp>'a6/mA, which apparently means ' the lord 
of the family of her who was born in the great valley of the lofty peaks of the Kailasa 
mountain/ It is very difficult to hit at the true import of this expression,^ and the only 
conjecture I can hazard is that ii may mean the Gangavainsa, of which the Sailavamsa was 
probably a branch or a more well known name at that time. Otherwise it is difficult to see why 
in the same verse the same person should he called the lord or ornament of two families. If my 
conjecture is correct, the force of prakhydt5 bhuwi (famous or known on the earth) preceding 
fiailavctmsa-tilalcaK would be apparent. The Sailavamsa is very probably identical with the 
Sailodbhavas or Silddbhavas of Orissa, to which Prof. Hultasch has kindly drawn my 
attention. In the plates of the time of SasMkaraja, 3 a fendatory chief Madhavaraja II., who 
issued the charter, is spoken of as belonging to the Sil&dbhava family, which is identical -with 
the Sailddbhava of the Buguda plates of Madhavavarman 4 as pointed out there. The former 
is dated in the year 619-20 A J). and is the older of the two. Both were found in the Ganjam 
district, and both the charters were issued from K6ngeda or Kaiug6da, which is identified by 
Prof. Eaelhorn with the Kong-u-t'o 5 of the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang, who viaited the 
place in the year 639 A.D. 6 This principality was included in the Kalinga country or, roughly 
speaking, Orissa. In fact the village granted by MMhavaraja II. was situated in the district 
of Krishnagiri, a synonym of Nilagiri which is a name of Jagannatha (Purl) in Orissa. 7 
And it is well known that Orissa is the country where the &angavama originated. King 
Indravarmau of Kalinganagara is spoken of as the ' establislier of the sjotless famijy of the 
Gangaa,' 8 an epithet which does not occur in other grants of the Gangas of Kalinga. So he 
was a perpetuator of a dynasty with a new name, which probably he introduced in preference 
to an old one which was not very complimentary. The new name is a metronymic ; so we may 
suppose thab the one suppressed was a patronymic. The Buguda inscription tells us how one 
Polindasena worshipped Brahma in order to create a^fit ruler for the land, and how the god 
granted his wish by creating out of a rook the lord SailMbhava, who became the founder of 
the family of that name. However complimentary the story may have been in the beginning, 
it could not have failed later on to appear somewhat analogous to the alleged origin of low 

1 Above, Vol. III. p. 103 fl. * Wilaon's Vis\yi-wd*a s Vol. U. p. 170, note 5. 

Above, VoL VL p. 144. * Above, Vol. III. p. 42. 

1 Above, Vol. VI. p. 136. Cunningham's Ancitnt Geography, p. 615. 

1 Above, Vol. VI p. 14A* 8 Above, Vol. III. p. 127. 


castes, whick trace their origin to some such inanimate objects as scarecrows, dirt from 
MahadeVa's body, or the sweat of bis brow. In fact the aboriginal Goads aver that their leader 
Lingo liberated the first men of the tribe from a cave in the Iron valley in the Red hill by 
removing a stone 16 cubits high with which MahadeVa had closed the mouth of the cave, and 
out came 16 scores of Gfonds at once. 1 The Sail6dbhava origin would thus appear something 
like an improvement on this story. Recognising the tendency, which has always existed and 
still exists, to adopt eponymous names under the influence of what Sir Alfred Lyall calls the 
gradual Brahmanising of castes, it would not be surprising to find a familj with a dubious 
patronymic insinuating a non-Brahmanical origin, preferring a metronymic connectsd with 
go holy a deity as the Ganges, in spite of the Kshatriya mode of calling themselves after the 
male parent. It will then be asked why in the present grant the SailavamSa was at all 
mentioned, to which an answer may be found in the fact that there are always three classes 
of people : the conservatives or those who would stick to the old things only, the moderates 
who would tolerate both the new and the old, and the extremists who would wholly discard 
the old, and probably the donor of the present grant belonged to the second class. All this is, 
however, extremely hypothetical, and I only hazard it in the hope that a better explanation 
may be forthcoming. By the way I may mention that it was the G&ngavamSa kings of Orissa 
who revived Sun-worship and built many temples dedicated to that deity ; a and again most of 
the officials, such as samdhartri and sannidhdtri (1. 24), are those chiefly found in the grants of 
OrisBa kings. These are other items in support of the donor's family connection with Orissa. 

With regard to the places mentioned in the grant, I identify Khaddika* with Khadi, a 
village three miles north-east of Ragholi where the plates were found. It is only a Sanskritised 
name like Lanjika 8 for Lanji, which is also not very far away from this place. KateTaka is 
probably the present Katera near Katangi, 60 miles west of Ragholi. I cannot identify 
Chat$ulliha, unless it is a mistake for Raghulliha or Ragholi, where the plates have been found. 
With the elision of a little stroke in the first letter, and giving a slightly slanting position to 
the second, the word would read as Raghulliha. This may find support from the fact that the 
engraving of the grant is very defective, and that several other mistakes have been committed in 
lines 33, 40, 44, etc. I cannot find in the Central Provinces a place answering to iSrlvardhana- 
pura. It could not be Srlvardhana in the Bombay Presidency, the famous seaport referred to 
by European travellers as ZifEardaii and celebrated as the birth-place of the first Peehwa.* 
Prom what has been stated above, the family would seem to have come from a seaport in the east 
rather than from the west. But the place must be searched for nearer home, and it may be that 
it is now non-existent. The probability is that it was situated somewhere near Eamtek in the 
Nagpur district. Pfve miles from this place there is a village called Nagardhan which was 
known as Nandivardhana 6 in olden, times, and local traditions assert that the surrounding 
country was ruled from that place by Kshatriya Rajas. 8 The village contains ancient remains 
and is mentioned as the name of a district together with Nagpur in the De'&li plates of the 
Bashtrakuta king Krishna III. dated in the year 940 A.D. 7 It is plain therefore that 

1 Cunningham's Reports, Vol. IX. p. 158. 

1 See Hunter's Oritsa, Vol. I. p. 279 f. Dr. Hunter says : > " At a remote period, Son-worship, driven onfc 
of V&dio India by materializing superstitions, found shelter on the secluded Eastern coast. Its existence in Ories* 
in ancient times is proved not only by the fact of a specific division of the country being devoted to it, but also by 
the rock writings .... 'She most exquisite memorial of Sun-worship in India, or I believe in. any conntry, 
is the temple of Konirafc upon the Orissa shore." 

* In the Eatanpur inscription o Jajallad&raj Up. Ind. Vol. I. p. 83. 

* Xotnbay Q-atetteer, Vol. XI, p. 467. 

* Mr. Craddock's Settlement Report, 1895, p. 15. 

' It may be borne in mind that this part of the country wa for ft long time under Gonds and afterward* the 

s, and aa a rule the memory of these only survives. 
Above. Vol. V. 3. 196 f, 


Nandivardhana must have been a place of great importance before it gave its name to the 
district. 1 hold tliafc this was founded by a successor of Jayavardhana II. who removed the 
capital from Srivardhanapura, also named after a king of the same line, to the place to which he 
gave his own name. 1 The Rashtrakutas rose in. power on this side in the eighth century, and it 
ia probably they who displaced the Sailavamsa dynasty of the Vindhya mountains. Nandivar- 
dhana or Ifagardhana is about 100 miles from Bagholi, and both were included in the same district 
about a century ago. It may also be stated that, so far as I have been able to find, there are no 
other villages ending in vardhana in Balaghat or any of the surrounding districts, and the name 
ia so peculiarly different from those of other villages in the locality that it may almost be called 
unique ; for these reasons the location of Srivardhanapura round about Nandivardhana or R&mtek 
carries at least a certain probability with it. 

TEXT. 2 


2 5ftTO [tt*] 
First Plate. 





9 f?f 

10 ?rH^cf; ii 0*] 


Second Plate ; First Side. 


It ia noticeable that all names of this line end in vardhana. 

From the original plates. I am indebted to Pr .f. Hultzsch for a few corrections in my readiugt. 

Metre: SardiUavikrldita ; also of the two next vewes. 


There are two letters here which appear to have been struct off by the engraver. The metre also shows tlut 
they were redundant. 

Bead 3TT. Read Vw. * Read 

Plates of Jayavardhana II. 

1 O 

si a. 


1 8 




SCALE -6. 


ii b. 

ttt a. 





hi I, 



11 0*] 1 

15 ; 

16 WFtW^ft: sftW'T^reT Wff\ 3^ 8 II [8*] 



20 w? ^f: ii [**] 



Second Plate; Second Side. 

24 ^rfti^?it^r w^ 6 (0 


26 ^r wi-siRzifd' fii*] 



32 HlfTO WlrilfM^<Jc*i1^ H^finst ?rr " 


Third Plate ; First Side. 

*rarr 13 


1 Metre : IndraTajrft. 2 Bead ^^ffWcfT . Eeai 

Metre : Vasantatilaka. The BimUe heore is ftw*rf?RnftT t compare ^tfMt'ni 

in the Sdkityaprakdfa, 7th ZW*ff, /ZtJia 241. For this parallel quotation I am indebted to Pimdit Hirwuud* 
Sastri, M.A. 

B Read *)r i gi<JI|^. < Bead ^f^T,'. i Bead 

8 Read 5^T^. Bead WWf. " Bead 

11 Real ?Tm. Bead ^q^. " Bead 5*T, 



,- Second Side. 



[ to j 


(Line 1.) Gfo. Hafl ! From Srlvardhanapura. 

(Verse 1.) (iTAere Wfls ) king Srlvardhana a.), the lord of the family of her" who 

1^ ^ 6 A f 6&t 7aUey f &e lofty ^ ak8 Of the Kaila ^ ^uutain, ^) famous 
earth () the oxmment of the Sanavatfasa. Bos sou Prithuvardhana 

arm, at ouce overcame the Oaurjara count^ 

of foes 

of elephants, (ad) who augmented the prosperity of yarious (other) big familie^ 7 ^ 

(V. 5.) Hfl sosHlled in desiring all (W.) enemies and a treasury of great virtues 

accor^nce with PA 9 . VI. 3. 63. *nd to n^au the 

10 Literally, 'no$^thi^ihe two.' 

11 The idea IB that Ee WM very wealthy, and that his fame reached ttp to the heaveu,. 


(L. 20.) The devout worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva), who. meditated on the feet of his 
parents, the lord of the whole Vindhya, the MalMjddhirdja Paramttvara, the illustrious 
Jayavardhanadeva, being in good health, having worshipped the Brahmanas in (the village) 
Khaddika in the district (vishaya) of Zateraka, issues a command to the inhabitants and other 
householders (as well as) revenue collectors, receivers of public property and so forth, as they 
are appointed from time to time, (and) to all state officers and provincial governors. 

(L. 26.) " Let it be known to you that this village is given by Us, with hidden treasures 
(and) deposits, together with (the right of) taking all the dues, with the prohibition for 
the regular or irregular forces to enter (the village), with (the fines leviable on) the ten 
offences, 1 free from all troubles, to (the temple of) the holy Aditya-bhattaraka (i.e. the 
Sun-god) set up at Chattulliha, at the request of the residence (vis. Srivardhanapura, 1. 1), 
on the Karttiki (tithi), with libations of water, to be enjoyed as long as the moon, the stm and 
the planets endure, for bhe purpose of increasing the religious merit of (Our) parents and of 
Ourself, by (this) copper-plate charter. Knowing this, let (all) live happily, enjoying (their) 
due portion of rights, etc. And it is thus enjoined in the Dharmasdstra : " 
[Here follow four of the customary imprecatory verses.] 

(V. 10.) (This) auspicious charter was written by the illustrious Mahachandapala, who 
subsisted on the lotus-feet of the illustrious Srivardhanadeva. 

(L. 45.) The year 3 of the augmenting and victorious reign, the 30th day of 


This interesting record of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty was first published in 1905 by 
Messrs. A. Butterworth and V. Venugopal Chetti in their Nellore District Inscriptions, p. 164 ff., 
with seven photographic Plates. The original copper-plates had been " discovered by Mr! 
Venugopal Ohetti in the RamalingeeVarasvami temple at Madanfir, a village about 10 miles 
from Ongole, Nellore district." I re-edit the inscription from ink-impressions supplied by 
Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya, to whom the original plates were kindly forwarded at my request 
by Mr. Bntterworth, and who contributes the following remarks on them : 

"These are five copper-plates, measuring 9|" by about 4.V'. The first and laat 
plates bear writing only on their inner side and have raised rims about T y high only on 
their engraved side. The three remaining plates, which bear writing on both sides, have 
rims of the same height projecting on both sides. 3 Through holes (|" in diameter), bored 
on the left margin of each plate, is passed a circular ring, which appears to have been cut and 
re-soldered before the plates came into my hands. The ring measures 5" in diameter and is a 
little more than " thick. Its ends, which are slightly thinner, are secured in the upper part of 
an expanded lotus^ flower of ^ eight petals. To the lower part of the same lotus, which is 
fashioned into a rim-like projection, is soldered a circular seal, which measures 2 1 -" in 
diameter and is nearly f thick. It bears, in relief on a countersunk surface, the legend 
$ri-Tril>huvand)h'ku[a] in the centre, in characters similar to those of the inscription. Below 

1 These were probably killing (murder), theft, wrong action (adultery), slander, harsh language, untruthf nl- 
neas, incoherent convemtion, uncivilly, atheism and perverse behaviour, enumerated as daladhd pdpakarma iu the 
Sukrantti, adJiydya 8, tldka, 6. 

1 The high rims are responsible for the fact that some symbols at the beginning and the end of lines have not 
come out well in the Luk -impressions. 


the legend is an expanded lofcus flower, and above it a running (?) boar facing the pro^ 
left. In front of the boar is an elephant goad, and behind its tail a crescent." 

The alphabet is of the same Telagu type as in other grants of the same dynasty an 
period. No distinction is made between secondary 6 and aw, and secondary i and # is oft< 
written as i and . Final ft occurs in line 32, t in 11. 8, 30 and 51, n in 11. 10, 18, 24, 37, 39, 5' 
and m ID. 11. 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 51, 54, 55 and 60. The jihv&m&Uya is used in 11. 4.2, 51, and ft 
upadhmdniya in 11. 10, 41, 43, 46 and 51. 

The following orthographical irregularities deserve to be noted. Against one oi 
Panini's rules (VIII. 4, 49) the sh of varsha is doubled in 11. 8 and 11, but not in 11, 13, IS, 
25 and 40. Some spellings are due to the Telugu pronunciation. Thus -we find y&tad (I. 57; 
for ^o-cZ, ywttava (11. 54 f. and 57, but not in 1. 59) for uttara, rakshandyayivx (1. 47 f.) fa 
rdkahapdy-awa, aruha (I. 50) for arba, krishfa (1. 39) for krishna. Dental n is employed 
instead of lingual n in Kiranapuram and krishna (1,43), punya (11. 49,50), dlharana (11.49, 
53), gan&sa (1, 50), yuttardyana (1. 54 f.). The vowel ri ia replaced by ri in krishna (1. 48), 
sadris6 (1, 52) and kritvd (1. 56), The palatal sibilant is improperly used in farhba (1. 50) for 
9amgha and dadrisd (I. 52; for sa&nsd. 

The language is Sanskrit prose, interspersed with 20 Sanskrit verses. In 11. 56-60 BOUSE 
names of Tillages, tanks and fields appear in their Telugu forms. At the end of the reooiii 
the usual imprecatory versea and the names of the Ajnapti, composer and writer are missing, 

As the inscription records a grant to a Jaina temple, it opens with an invocation of tit; 
Jaina religion (v. 1). LI. 3-41 contain the genealogy of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty dom 
to Samastabhuvandsraya VijayMitya (VI.) or Amma.raja (II.), the date of whose coronation 
is given in the same two verses (18 f .) as in his Padaikaluru grant. 1 . The genealogical portion 
contains two passages of historical importance, the first (11. 13-16) describing the reign d 
Vijayaditya III., and the second (11, 22-32) the accession of Chalukya-Bhima II. 

The Pithapuram inscription of Mallapadfiva reports that Vijayaditya III. slew Mangii^ 
burnt Chakrakuta, terrified Sankila, residing in Kiianapura and joined by Krishna, restored tis 
dignity to Vallabh^ndra, and received elephants as tribute from the king of Kalinga. 3 The elaj' 
ing of Mangi is referred to also in three other inscriptions. 3 The second of them adds the binn- 
ing of Kiranapura, and the third states that the king, having terrified Krishna and SankilB, 
completely burnt their city. Hitherto we did not know who Mangi and Sankila were. Veres 
8 of the Maliyapundi grant calls the former ' the king of the great Nodamba-rashtra ' and tiit 
second ' the lord of the excellent pa[hft]La.* Thus Mangi seems to have been one of the Pall* 
vas of No]ambavfidi 4 and Sankila an early chief of Dahala (or Chtidi). "While two of the above- 
mentioned inscriptions couple the name of Sankila with that of Krishna, the Maliyapundi 
grant (v. 3) states that Sankila was ' joined by the fierce Vailabha.' The Nellore District 
Inscriptions (p. 109, note 5) correctly conclude from this that Sankila's ally Kfishna was a Vil- 
labba, i.e. a B '.siitrakuta. Hence my former identification of this Krishna with the Paramftrt 
king Kriahnaraja 5 must be wrong, and he may be identified, aa was done by Dr. Fleet, 6 "witt 
the Bashtrakuta king Krishna n. The latter is known to have been connected with the Ch&fi 
family, being the son-in-law of Kokkalla (I.) and the brother-in-law of Sankuka. 7 I feel no 
hesitation in ideutifying Sankila of JDahalawith Sankuka (or Sankaragana) of Ohedi, -the son 
of Kokkalla I., but am unable to identify Kiranapura, where Sankila resided according to ih 

1 2nd, Ant, Vol. VII. p. 16. LI. 23-34 of this grant are identical with 11. 32-41 of the Maliyapdncji grant. 

* Above, Vol. IV. p. 239 f. 

1 Aiv<j, Vol. V. p. 126, verse B f ltd. Ant, Vol. XIII. p. 213, text Hue 16 f .; South-Ind. laser. Vol. I. p. 42, 
Tre 10 (compare above, VoL IV. p. 226 and notes 7 and 8). 

* By. Kan, JXitr. p. 382 f. s Above, Vol. IV. p. 227. 

* Ind. Ant. VoU XX. p. 102. 1 Ind. Af. Vol. XII. p. 263. 


Pithapuram. inscription and Krishnaraja according to the Maliyapundi grant (v. 15). In two 
grants the burning of this Kiranapura, 1 the residence of Krishna and SanHla, 8 is attributed to 
Vijayaditya III. himself. Terse 15 of the Maliyapundi grant informs us that this feat was in 
reality performed by a military officer named P&ndaranga. It is perhaps worth noting that 
another Bashtrakuta prince named Krishnaraja is mentioned in a grant of A.D. 888. 3 Between 
the slaying of Mangi and the victory over Sankila the Maliyapundi grant mentions that Vija- 
yaditya III. ' defeated the Gangas who took refuge on the peak of G-angakuta.' As suggested 
in the Nellore District Inscriptions (p. 169, note 3), this statement may or may not be a mere 
variant of one in the Pithapuram inscription, according to which the king burnt Chakrakfita. 4 
He is elsewhere said to have ' defeated the unequalled G-angas.' 5 Finally the new grant reports 
that Vijayaditya III. bore the surname Paraoh.akrarma (1. 14). 

The Maliyapundi grant gives a vivid description of the struggles that took place after the 
death of Vikramaditya II. Five years passed in continual wars between the rival claimants, 
among whom Yuddhamalla, Bajamrtanda and KaptJnkS- Vijayaditya are mentioned by 
name. Then Bajabhlma .^(or Chilukya-Bhima II.) succeeded in restoring order by slaving 
Rajamartanda, defeating and. banishing Kanthika-Vijayadiiya and Yuddhamalla, and killing 
many other rebels. Yuddhamalla (EL) is the son of Tala, to -whom one grant of Chalukya- 
Bhima II. attributes a reign of seven years, 6 while two other grants/ like the Maliyapuudi 
grant, take no official notice of his reign. Eaj amartaijda is perhaps the same as Eajamayya in 
the Haluchumbarru grant, 8 and he is mentioned also in the Kolavennu plates. 9 In editing 
these plates I committed a mistake, which has been endorsed by Dr. Sleet 10 and Prof. Kielhorn, 11 
in taking Eajamartanda as a surname of Chalukya-Bhima II. As stated in the Nellore District 
Inscriptions (p. 170, note 4), the Maliyapundi grant now shows that Bajamartanda was a distinct 
person. Dr. Meet has already noticed .that 11. 17-19 of the Kolavennu plates contain a verse, 18 
the first half of which I would now, with the help of his remarks, correct as follows : 


Thus the verse mentions four enemies of Chalukya-Bhima IE. : Tatabikyana, Dhaladi (or 
Dhalaga), Munniriva and Rajam&rfcanda. Kanthik-Vijay,ditya, whom the king banished 
along with Yuddhamalla H, is undoubtedly the same as Kanthika-Be'ta or Vijayaditya V., the 
son of Amma I. and the ancestor of the Eastern Chalukyas of Pithapuram. 13 

The subjoined grant was made at a winter solstice (uttardyana, 1. 54 f.). The donee was 
a temple of Jina (Jindlaya) in the south of Dharmapuri (v. 17), which was in charge of a 
priest of the Yapanlya-samgha 1 * (v. 18). It had been founded by the Kafalkardja (1. 54) 
Durgaraja (v. 16) and was named KatakSbharana-Jinalaya (v. 17 and 1. 53), evidently after 
a surname of the founder. At his request (1. 54) the grant was made, and the grant portion 
opens with a pedigree of his family. His ancestor Fandaranga is stated to have burnt 
Kiranapura, the residence of Krishnaraja (v. 15), and accordingly must have been a military 
officer of Vijay&ditya III, 16 His son Miravadyadhavala was appointed ^Kafakardjct (1. 44 f.) . 
His son was the Eatakddhipati Vijayaditya (1. 45 f.),and his son was Durgaraja (v. 16). 

i Ind. Ant. Vol. XHL p. 213, text line 17- 

' South-Ind. Inter. Vol. L p. 42, verse 10 (compare above, Vol. IV. p. 226 and note V). 

Ind. Ant. VoL XIII. p. 66. Compare above, Vol. IV. p. 227. 

8 Soutlt-Ind. Inner. Vol. I. p. 42, verae 10. Ind. Ant. VoL XIII, p. 214, text line 31. 

' Sovib-Ind. Inscr. Vol. J. p. 44 j above, Vol. V. p. 188, note 8. 

Above, Vol, VII. p. 181. Soufh-lnd. Inter. VoL I. p. 46 and nota 1. 

" Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 269, and above, VoL VII. p. 182. 

" Lists of Southern Inscr. No. 662. Above, VoL VII. p. 11 f. 

> Above, VoL IV. p. 227. M Compare {bid. p. 888 * 

" See notes 1 and 2 above. 


[Voi. IX. 

(the Pandaranga of v. 15) is mentioned as Ajnapti in a grant of Vijayaditya III. 1 
The title Kafakardja or Kajaltddhipati, i.e. 'superintendent of the royal camp,' which was borne 
by his three lineal descendants, seems to be peculiar to the court of the Eastern Chalukya kinge 
Dr. Fleet remarked that the grants of Amma I. and Amma II. mention Eafakardja, KafaMsa 
and KalakddMSa as Ajnapti, and came to the conclusion that these two words were Lot proper 
names, bat mere titles. 3 The Maliyapundi grant now shows that iu each case they refer to one 
of the three direct descendants of Pandaranga, who bore that title, vie. ffiravadyadhavala 
Yijayaditya and Durgaraja. It seems preferable to take also Eajeyardja, in the grant of 
Chalukya-Bhima 1.3 as a vulgar form .of Ka^ardja, the title of Vijayadiirya, and not as a 
proper name. 

The object of the grant was the small village (grdmatfM) of Maliyapundi (I 551 in the 
district (wsfcaya) of Kamma-nandu (1. 42). Its boundaries are given in 1. 56 f. The northern 
boundary, Dharmavuramn is the Telugu form of Eharmapuri, to the south of which the 
Jwalaya was Situated (v. 17). According to the Nellore district Insvriptwn* (p 174 nnt^ 
both Dharmapuram and the western boundary, Kalvaium, are now in the Addanki division of 
the Ongole talula. Of two inscriptions at Dharma^ram (p. 966 fl. of the same worW the fir<* 
mentions Gunakenalla (Vrjayaditya JIL), Pandaranga, the burning of Kiranapura, an^harma 
vurarn. An nismption at Addauki (p. 896 f, of the same work) also refers to Pandarangt 
Dharmavuram. Maliyapundx itself, the village granted, does not exist any more at D^nf 

p. 167), but its former position is fixed by the identification of two l he 


district of Kamma-nandu, to which it belonged, is identical with the Eamma-rashtra 01- 
Kammaka-rashtra , of other inscriptions. To my former remarks on this geographical 'name* 
may be added that it occurs as Zammdka-rafra in the Jaggayyapeta inscriptions of Purisadata 
This Prakrit form renders my suggestion that Kavwdka may be meant for K 
untenable ; for the latter would have become in Prakrit E am *n a fiJca, and not Kmimdka. 


First Plate. 




1 Above, YoL V. p. 125, verse 9. a Abov6j Vo l. VII. p. 184 f. 

ALove, Vol. V. p. 130. 4 AbovC) V oL V1H. p. 238. 


. . 

^ raji'3 traiiBCTipt in Notes on the Anwavati St^a, p. 56, and Buhlefa tnnwdpte in the 
Ant. Vol. XI. p. 258 t. and in Amaravat-i and Jaffgayyapeta, p. 110 (compare Plate Jxit f.") 


* Above, Vol. VIII. p. 234. 
1 From two sets of ink-impressions. B jjead 

8 The anutvdra stands at the begiimiiig of tbc next line 
w Read 


15 ?: 7 ^ 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

9 ^t 3 5 


11 f^v^VM^i^ MHWsiid^* (i) qtqtfa D*J 

12 fi^cdj^^f^ajd^ I 'HlSt^liNI^ 4iM*imjsn*<: [l*] 

13 wn^r: 5 ^Tf^psrorrefir: [H 

i: [l*] 

16 l|(i(ce(i ^^csuRmdW^^i 1 ^ ftoKufewTt T^^ Hum I 

Second Plate ; Second Side, 

17 Tshq<i*i^r fro^TTfesr^r un^i^^wf^wfeiajri 9 [i*] 

18 qmm?T D*] 



21 grr: [i*] 

i Read ^HT?t. Read 

* Bead f^M Tltf%. Bead 

' Bead ^fatrt 'f'UMlf'Ifl'Nf^'i . 

Bead ^WTVS(T > in contravention of tte rales, the first half of the verse ends in the middle of a compound 

Bead'W. " Bead w' and 

" Bead 





Third Plate First Side. 

25 f^ ifa wrf% *rarf*r [i*] cm; 0*] 

t^ ^ ^t D*] ^- 

26 ftgg^ir^^ir^obi^l 4 R?^Ti' i [yi* 


27 UgTU^dl(:) 7 ^aTiM^^iR^*. traifem nmi<a<4 8 mPMni: [l*] 



30 H; xpsr" sM OTT T ^n^wf^^f yf^rB-S *r n^ [i*] 


32 vattllfeoiM^D I*] ^^TTSS^EWTW^^ 18 '<Wfiwt IKKIW. I '<*] 

ird Plate ; Second Side. 

1 As remarked in the Nellore District Inscriptions, p. 178, aote 1, the ^ after *1W<8 is superfluous ; it WM 
perhape engraved because the writer had in his mind the frequent word 4i*g<d. 

> Bead Pt4lit*T?lT. * Bead ^*ft5T. 4 Bead Tft. 

Bead rfhi . . The aksharat ^ and ^ are engraved on an erasure. 

10 Bead perhaps . 

11 Bead ??<F7a8 proposed in the Nellore District Inscription*, p. 178, note 6 ; ^F is engraved onn erulQie. 
Bead TT^T. 1S The awisvilfv staada at the beginning of tho neirt lin ; L 

"Bead <JHU4d4f. Bead *fJTFT. 

u Bead TK^^^TTW^niTsnft^. ' Bead . M Bead 

Maliyapundi grant of Ammaraja II. 





36 TCfftft 2 fafaHlR$3: [l*] <^ 

37 ^nrgxnrehwt; n [u*] ^ 

39 WT^ ar**w9 TTTlJtTtf^ [l*] 

40 *rgfa *3\ *3Zi&$ ^T^^nr^ g s}i^: trf [i*] 

Fourth Plate First Side. 


iTcrrftr 11 [i*] 


45 ^t fro-^fw^[;] ^^^TT^trf^fer^rrH:: 16 [i*] 

47 JTfTsFTT ^frifrfl f%^I 20 f^^Rf^T^; 21 [|*] 

38 ^fvr: [i*] <Mi^qt^fan^ifaiq?faHfa4i^5nR'f^rT ^rcifrn u 

2 Bead ft<JFltT. s Bead 

*Keadf^i^Hf . " Kead 


9 Bead ^l^^xaM^rfe?} , as suggested in the Nellore District Inscriptions, p. 178, note 2 
M Corrected from *r?TO . n Bead JfcTTft. la Bead 

"Beadum. ^ "Bead ^ ., Bead 

18 The vitarga was added subsequently. 17 Bead ^Tlf . 

Bead f T9T. M Bead ^t ^ ao 

sl The vtsarga was added eubaequently. a 












: [i*] 

Fourth Plate ; Second Side. 


r, i [**] 

; [ 

i ^rer 

t Plate. 


f^r 88 

[Voi,. IX. 



1 Read WI . The whole compound seems to be meant for 
offended againafc the metre. 

* Bead ^OT. Bead 

* Read T$H or perhaps, for the sake of the metre, 
Bead J^irf and compare below, p. 56, note a. 



11 Bead 

J Be*d 

M OP possibly *rspr*i. 

w Bead 
Bead $ 

:, which would have 



Verse 1 invokes the religion (tdsana) of the lord Jin3ndra. 

(Line 7.) Kubja-Vishnuvardhana (I.), the brother of SatyaSraya-Vallabhendra who 
adorned the family of the Chalukyas, ruled the Vengi country (manifala} for eighteen years ; 
his son Jayasimha (I.) for thirty-three j Vishnuvardhana (H.), the son of his younger brother 
IndrarS/ja, for nine ; his eon Mangi-yuvarSja for twenty-five ; his eon Jayasimha (II.) for 
thirteen ; his younger brother Kokkili for six months ; his eldest brother Vishnuvardhana 
(HI.), having expelled him, for thirty-seven years ; his son Vijayaditya (I.)-bhattraka 
for eighteen ; his son Vishnuvardhaua (IV.) for thirty-six. 

(V. 2.) King Vijayaditya (II.)j surnamed Nare'ndramrigar.ja, who had the courage of 
a lion, for forty years with eight. 1 

(L. 13.) His son Kali- Vishnuvardhana (V.) for one year and a half. His son, whose 
other name was Parachakrarama, 

(V. 3.) (twos) Vijayaditya (HE.), who, having slain in a great battle Mangi, the king* of 
the great Nodarnba-r&shtra, having defeated the Q-angas who took refuge on the peak of 
Gangakfi$a, and having terrified Saukila, the lord of the excellent p&[ha]la, who was joined 
by the fierce Vallabha, ruled the earth for fortynfour years. 

(L. 16.) Chalukya-Bhlma (I.), the son of his younger brother Vikramiditya (I,) who had 
received the dignity of Ywoar&ja^ for thirty. Bis eldest eon 3 Vijay&ditya (IV.) for six months. 
Has eldest son Ammarja (I.) for seven years. Having overcome his infant son, Tala-nripa, 
the son of Yuddhamalla (I.), the paternal uncle of Ohalukya-Bhlma (I.), for one month. 

(V. 4.) Having slain at the head of a rough battle this Tfila-rS, ja together with crowds of 
different vassals, who were joined by a superior army (and) had troops of furious elephants, the 
glorious king Vikramaditya (It.), the son of king Chalukya-Bhlma (!.)> of very fierce power, 
righteously ruled for one year the earth surrounded by the girdle of the oceans. 

(L. 22.) Afterwards at the setting (i.e. the death) of Vikram.ditya (II.), the kinsmen- 
princes who were desirous of the kingdom, (viz.) YuddhamaUa, BQ-jamartanda, Kanthikfi- 
Vijay&ditya, etc., were fighting for supremacy, oppressing the subjects like Rakshasas (at the 
setting of the sun). In mere war five years passed away. Then (succeeded") 

(V. 5 f .) The fierce warrior who slew among those BSjamartanda ; who in a battle made 
KanthiM- Vijayaditya and Yuddhamalla go to a foreign country ; the curved sword wielded 
by whose strong arm dispatched to the abode of Death many others who, though respectable 
kings, had shown themselves puffed up by evil conduct (and} causing distress to the country ; 
(and whose) command is carried on the head like a garland by the eager kings of the earth, 

(V. 8.) This Rajabhima (II.)i the eon of Vijayaditya (IV.) (and} grandson of Chalukya- 
Bhima (!,) righteously ruled the surface of the earth for twelve years. 

(V. 9.) Ammar&ja (It.), who was born to him by Ldkamahfide'vl, as Knmara to 
Mahfiavara by TJma ; 

(V. 13 f.) "Who as the eastern lord of mountains, to redden the world, (puts on himself) 
the sun put on, to please the world, the fillet in the twelfth year of (his) birth, in the year 
reckoned by the mountains (7), the flavours (fy and the Vasus (8) (i.e. 867) of the Saka era, 

i The reading of the text seems to be meant for 'Wir^WHI *&$K , which would however he against the 

' The other Eastern Ch&lulrya inscriptions show that agraja has to be taken, here to mean f the first-born son, ' 
aid not, as usually, ' the elder brother.' A similar nse of the word agrojawma* is noted by Dr. Fleet, above, 
Vol. VII. p. 181. 


in this month of Margaslrsha, on the -thirteenth day of the dark (fortnight}, on Thursday, in the 
Maitra (Annradha) nakshatra, while the sun (luas) in Dhanus, in the Ghata lagna ; 

(L. 41.) This Samastabhuvanasraya, the glorious Vijayaditya (VI.), the HaMrdjddhirdja 
Parmnesvara, the very pious Ammaraja (IE.) thus commands all the ryots, headed by the 
Rdshtrakutas, inhabiting the district (vishaya) of Kamma-nandu : Lords ! 

(V. 15.) Even one possessed of thousands of mouths (would be) unable to count the great 
achievements of that valiant Pandaranga, of spotless fame, who burnt Kiranapura, the 
residence of Krishnaraja, as MahSsa (Siva) (bumf) Tripura. 

(L. 44.) His son (was) Niravadyadhavala, "whose forehead was decorated with the fillet of 
Katakardja. His son (twos) the Kaiakadhipati VijaySditya. 

Verse (16.) His sou (was) Durgaraja, whose sword, always (served) only for the protection 
of the fortune of the Chlukyas, and whose renowned family 1 (served) for the support of the 
excellent great country (mandala) called Vengi. 

* (V, 17.) There is on the southern side of Dharmapuri a very charming excellent temple 
of Jina (Jindlnya) founded by him, an abode of merit, and marked with the auspicious name of 

(V. 18.) (There was) the lovd of ascetics Jinanandin, who resembled the Ganadharas, 
belonged to the pure and worthy 3 JTandi-gaohcnlia (and) was the chief lord of the 
Kotimaduva(P)-gana, which is to be worshipped (as belonging to) the holy Yapaniya-samgha. 

(V. 19.) His first disciple was a chief of ascetics called Div[a]kara, renowned on earth, 
a store of highest knowledge (and) high-souled, who resembled the Jinas themselves by great 

(V. 20.) His disciple was the wise ascetic Srlmandiradeva, a store of great austerities, 
whom people desire as if he were possessed of the power of pratilulrya. 5 

(L. 53.) To the Katakabharana-Jinalaya superintended by him there was given, at the 
request of the Kafakardja, for the cost of repairs of breaks and cracks, offerings, worship, etc., 
and of an alms-house (sattra), on the occasion of the winter solstice (uttardyana), the small 
village named MallyapUEidi, with exemption from all taxes, with libations of water. 

(L, 56.) The boundaries of this village (are) : in the east Munjuny[u]ru ; in the south 
Yinimili ; in the west Kalvakuru ; in the north Dharmavuramu. 

(L. 57.) The boundaries of the fields of this village (are) : in the east the Gollani-guntha 
(pond) ; in the south-east the Ra viya-periya-cheruvu (tank) ; in the south a demarcation stone ; 
in the south-west also a demarcation stone ; in the west Malkaparru and the Kojab&yu-tataka 
(tank) ; in the north-west also a demarcation stone ; in the north the Duba-chejuvu (tank) ; in 
the north-east the boundary (is) also the boundary of the Evv6ka-chenu (field) in Kalvakuru. 


Two seta of excellent ink-impressions of this grant were sent to me .by Rai Bahadur 
V. Venkayya, who had received the original plates from the Collector of the Kietna district, 

1 The word vamfet means also 'a cane ; ' see Nellore District Inscriptions, p. 173, note 5. 

2 It is act quite impossible that punydntha- is a mistake for funndga- -, compare the Pannlgavtikshani'iilagarta 
of the Naadis&mgba, above, Vol. IV. p, 838. 

8 According to Buddhist works, prdtihArya or prati&drya means 'jugglery, working mirnclwj' we th 
St. feterfburff Dictionary. 


"The plates belong to the Head Assistant Collector of Narsapur, in 'whose office they have been 
lying for a long time. The person from whom they were originally obtained is not known." 

" The copper-plates are four in number. Their length is 5| inches, and their height 
2| inches at the ends and 2| inches in the middle. Their margins are not raised into rims. 
The ring was cut by me (viz. Mr. Venkayya) for the first time. Its diameter is 2| inches, 
and its thickness slightly over | inch. The ends of the ring are secured at the base of an 
oval seal, measuring 2^- by 1-J inches. The seal is all but obliterated ; but a faint 'trace of some 
quadruped perhaps a tiger can be seen." 

The inscription on the plates is carefully engraved and on the whole in a state of very 
good preservation. The alphabet resembles that of the three grants of Simhavarman 1 and of 
the plates of Vijaya-Nandivarman. 2 But neither t nor n have a loop at the left. As in the 
Hirahadagalli plates, 3 the former is distinguished by a slight curve at the right ; compare 
e.g. the -ta of etassa (1. 8) with the na of vayanena (1. 7). As first members of a consonant 
group both look the same; see the ttd of uchchMttd, and the ntd of ch=&numant(i (1.17). 
Final forms of t and m, followed by a mark of punctuation which looks like a right angle, 
occur at the end of lines 17 and 19. The numerical symbol 20 occurs in line 11, the symbols 
3 and 10 are nsed in the date (1. 15), and the plates ii.a, ii.o, iii.a, iii.fr andiv. are numbered 
consecutively, like the pages of a modern book, 4 with the symbols 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 on the left 
margin; on the first plate the sacred syllable 6m occupies the place of the figure 1. 

The language is Prakrit proso, with the exception of the last plate which bears two of 
the customary Sanskrit verses. While in the cave inscriptions every double consonant ia 
expressed by a single letter, the orthography oE the prose part of the subjoined plates agrees 
in this respect with that of the literary Prakrit and of the British Museum plates of Charudevi. 5 
In samwacJichhara (1. 14) v is doubled after anusvdra. The language of the new plates 
is more archaic than that of the literary Prakrit in one important point : single consonants 
between vowels generally remain unchanged. 6 Thus ft is preserved in Vhaftaraka, (1. 3) ; 
Tth in pamuklia (1. 7) ; g in bliagavato (I. 1); j in vijaya (11. 1, 6, 14), ydjin (1. 5) and 
maMrdja (1. 6) ; t in bhagavato (1. 1), anujjhdta (1. 2f.) s Widnitavva and eta (1. 8) , yariliaritavva 
(1. 13 f.) ; tli in ratha (1. 2) ; d inpdda (11. 2 and 3) and padesa (1. 10) ; dh in me&ha (1. 5). 
But elision and ya-sruti have taken place in addhiya (1. 11) for drdliika, niyattana, (1. 10) for 
nivarfana, vayana (I. 7) for uac/iona, and at the beginning of the enclitic clia in duvaggdna, ya 
(1. 12) and pariharitawo ya (1. 13 .).? The word Pausha (1. 15) appears in its Sanskrit form. 8 
Dental n occurs in anujjMta (I. 2 f.), Sdlankdyana (1. 4), ydjino (I. 5), gTiarntthdna (11. 11 
and 12) = Sanskrit grihastlidna, and lingual in bhdnitavva (1. 8), Ganasamma (1. 9), 
duvaggdna and rakkhana (1. 12), samdnitta (1. 13) = Sanskrit samdjnapta? saa.Asamvvachchliardni 
(L 14). Both n and n appear in vayanena, (1. 7), niyattandn[i'] (1. 10) and manussdnam (1. II). 10 
Among the remaining Prakrit words may be noted the two numerals terasa (1. 15) and visam 
(1. II), 11 and of other inflected words the ablative Vengtpurd (1. 1), the genitives Devavammassa 
(1. 6) and Ganasammassa (1. 9), 1S the two differently formed locatives EUre. (1. 7) and 
padesamhi (1. 10), and the instrumental parilidre'ki (1. 13). 

The inscription is dated on the tenth titlii of the dark fortnight of Paushain the thirteenth 
year (in words and figures, 1. 14 f.) of the Mahdrdja Vijaya-Dvavarman (1. 6), who issued 

1 See above, Vol. Till. p. 160. a Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 175 ffi. ! Ep. Ind. Vol. I. p. 2 ff. 

* Another instance, in which the single pages of a grant are numhered, are the British Museum plates of 
CMradevi; see above, Vol. VIII. p. 144. 
'? Above, Vol. VIII. p. 144 and notn 5. 
4 Compare Prof. Pischel'o PrAkjit grammar, 189. 

t Compare ibid, 184. Compare Hid. 61<z. Compare Hid. 88. 

Compare ibid. 224 u Ibid. 443 and 445. u Compare Hid. 402, 


this grant from VSngipnra (1. 1) and addressed it to the villagers of Eliira (1. 7). The donee 
was named Q-anasarman (1. 9) and received twenty (in words and figures, 1. 11) nivartanas of land, 
evidently near Illura, together with a site for Ms house and a site for the houses of his servants, 
The king is described as * the performer of horse-sacrifices, the Salankayana, the fervent 
Mahe^vara, who is devoted to the feet of tha lord (his) father, (and) who meditates at the feefc 
of the holy Chitraraihasvamin.* Nearly the same epithets are applied in another set of platea 
to the Maharaja Vijaya-Mandivarman, 1 who was the son of the Maharaja Chandavarman, 
issued his grant likewise from Venglpura, and addressed it to the inhabitants of a village in the 
district of Kudrabara. 3 This family may be designated the Salankayana Maharajas of 
Venglpura. As Devavarman's grant is in Prakrit, he was presumably an ancestor of 
Chandavannan's eon Nandivarman, whose grant is in Sanslqrit. 

Vtogipnra, the capital of the Salankayanas, has been identified with Pedda-Vegi, a village 
neat Ellore in the Godavari district. 3 The correctness of this identification is confirmed by the 
existence of a small mound which, on a visit to Pedda-Vegi in 1902, was shown to me by the 
villagers as the site of the ancient temple of Chitraiathasvarnin, 4 the family deity of the Salan- 
kayana Maharajas. Other indications point to the same part of the country. The plates of 
Vijaya-Nandivarman were found in the neighbouring Kolleru lake, 5 and filura, to whose 
inhabitants the subjoined edict was addressed, is no doubt the modern town of Elftru (Ellore), 
7 miles from Pedda-Vegi, 


First Plate, 
Om? [I*] 

1 Siri-vijaya- Venglpura [I*] Bhagorvato 

2 Cbdttarathasami-padana- 

3 jjhatassa bappabhattaraka-padabhattassa 

Second Plate; First Side, 

4 paramamaheasarassa Salanlcayanassa 

5 assamedhayajino 

6 mahar&ja-siri-Vijaya-Devavammassa 

Second JPlate ; Second Side. 

7 vayanena Eltire mulnda-pamuklio 

8 gmo bh&nitavvo [|*] Etassa 

9 Ba[bhura]-sagottaBsa Ganasammassa 

Tlrird Plate ; First Side. 

10 sundara-padesamhi bb.umi-niyattanan[i] 

11 vtsath 20 gharatthanam addhiya-manues&nam 

12 duvaggana ya gharatthanam parihara-rakkhanam 

1 Ind. Ant. Vol. V. p. 175 fl. 

* This is the actnal readiag of the plates ; sea above, Yol. VI. p. 815 and note 4. 
1 South-Ind. Pal. p. 16, nofce 1 ; J<f. Ant. Vol. XX. j. 43. 

4 Comjara the qaotatioa from the Madras Journal, Vol. XIX. (which IB at present inaccessible to me), above. 
Vol. IV. p. 148, note T. 

, Pal, p. 135 S note 1. 8 From two sets of ink-impressions, 

a symbol, which stands on the left margin of line 2, 

11 a. 






" " 

' I'.'.-L- . ' - 1 * '' ' ; v ' .' '.tviT^'fi 

Hi b. 


T7iird Plate ; Second Side, 

13 samanattam [1*] Evarii savTja-pariharehi parihari- 

14 tawo ya [1*] Vijaya-samvyachch.har-ni 

15 terasa 10 3 Pausha-kalapakkha-dasami [10?] [I*] 

Fourth Plate. 

16 Shashtirb varsha-sahagrani svargge kridati bhumi-dah [I*] 

17 achchhe'tt& ch=anumant& eha tany=va narake 1 vas&t || 

18 Bahubhlr=vasudh& datta ballubhis=ch=anttpalit:}, [I*] 

19 yasya yasya yad& bh.umih 3 tasya tasya tada phala[m] j| 


Qfn. (Line 1.) From the prosperous and victorions Vengfpura. The villagers 3 of Blura, 
Beaded by the Muluda,* must be addressed (as follows) by the word of the glorious Hahdriija 
Vijaya-Be'vavarman, the performer of horse-sacrifices, the SalankSyana, the fervent Hahe'sVara, 
who is devoted to the feet of the lord (his) father, (and} who meditates at the feet of the holy 5 
Chitrarathasvamin : 

(L. 8.) " It has been ordered that to this 6 Ganasarman of the Ba[bhura] 7 gotra (there 
have to be made over) twenty 20 nivartanas of land in a handsome locality, a house-site (for 
himself, and) a house-site for the men. who receive half the crop 8 and for (his) door-keepers, 9 
(and) that the immunities (granted to him) have to be protected. And thus he must be 
exempted with all immunities. (In) the victorious year thirteen 13 (of the reign), (on) 
the tenth [10] tithi of the dark fortnight of Pausha." 

[LI. 16-19 contain two of the usual verses.] 


I edit this inscription, from two rubbings kindly supplied to me, one by Dr. J. Ph. Vogel, 
Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Northern Circle, and the other by Mr. G. D. Ganguli, 
Curator, Provincial Museum, Lucknow. A transcript of it has been published before in 1886 by 
Prof. Hultzech in the Z&itscJirift der Deutschen Morgerilandischen Qesellschaft, Vol. XL. p. 55. 

The slab on which the inscription is engraved is said to have been discovered in the vicinity 

of the modern city of Benares, and is one of the twenty-four objects which were presented, at 

the instance of Mr. J. H. Marshall, to the Lucknow Museum by the Principal of Queen's 

_ \ 

1 This -word looks almost like naraTcd, 

> Bead bUmitm. * Literally, ' the village.' 

* This looks like a Dravidian word, which however cannot be traced in the dictionaries. The plates of 
Vijaya-Nandivarman (L 4) aeem to read, instead of it, Munuda ; hut the apparent in the middle of this word 
may he in reality an obliterated (u. 

* The genitive ITiagavaio refers to Chittarathasdmi, the first memher of the following compound. This is of 
course a grammatical "blunder of the officer who drafted the inscription. 

* The pronoun 'this' evidently had heen uttered by the king in the presence of the donee, just as 6ttthdm in 
the plates of Vijaya-Nandjivarman, L 6. 

i Prof Kielhorn suggests to me that this doubtful word may be meant for Sabhru . 

s on drdhita or ardlattri* see the MUdJfshard on Yajnavalkya, 1. 166. The Prakrit form addUTca occurs 
in Ep. Ind> Vol. L p. 6, text line 89. 

The Sanskrit original of dwa&ffa seeme to he dvdrffa, which may be taken in the aentje of dvdhttto, 

I 2 



College, Benares, in December 1903. 1 In discussing these sculptures, Dr. Yogel also noticed this 
stone, but failed to ascertain its precise find-spot. 2 

Judging from the rubbings, the slab which bears the extant portion of the inscription 
measures 20" by 15" (66 cm. by 38 cm.) . The stone-mason has done his work with great care 
and neatness, and the letters are deeply cut. 

The inscription consists of eight lines, but it is far from complete. About one-fifth of the 
entire slab is broken away along the proper left edge, and consequently lines 1-7 have each 
lost a number of syllables, which varies from niae to fourteen. The first three syllables of the 
first line and the first aksliara of the second line have also disappeared owing to a small piece of 
btone having chipped of from the upper right corner. Tho record is further damaged by the 
surface having more or less peeled off in the marginal portions. 

The characters of the inscription very closely resemble those of an inscription from 
Jhalraputan 3 and are of the ornamental type current in Northern India about the beginning of 
the eighth century A.D. Attention must, however, be drawn to the letters lh and i/.* The 
former of these always, and the latter in several cases, exhibit forma which come very close to 
those of the Maukhari alphabet of the sixth century A.D. The language is correct Sanskrit 
and metrical throughout. As regards orthography, there are three different points which 
deserve notice : (1) the doubling of the letters m, t, p and v in conjunction with a preceding or 
following r, in -maranaydr^mftioksha-, 1. 1; yattra, 1. 2; attra and -murttik, 1. 4; sarppat- 
xarppa- and -rucJiir^vvilola-, 1. 6 ; (2) the substitution of a single consonant for a doable one 
in -tatva-, 1.3; -vrityd, 1. 4; ujvalam, 1. 7 ; and (3) the use of v for 5 in vrahmahd, 1. 2, and 
scindhivandha~, 1. 7. 

The inscription is not dated, and its object is to record the erection of a shrine of Bhavani 
at Benares. There are altogether five verses, the first three in the Sragdhard and the last two in 
the Sdrdulavikndiia metre. The first stanza is devoted to the praise of the city of VaranasS. 
The purport of the second verse is not quite certain ; it seems to speak of a particular quarter of 
the holy city, which was often visited even by the moon when practising her penance. The third 
verse contains an eulogy of the builder of the shrine, named Pantha, and the last two speak of 
the consecration of the Bhavani image (P) and the construction of the shrine, respectively. 


1 [Om svasti ||*] [Khya]ta Varanaa=iyam tribhuvana-bhavan-abh6ga-chaur=iti diirat= 

sevante yam virakta ian.an.a-maranay6r=mm.6ksha-sakt-aika-[chi]ttiah [|] so 

-- v^ - . - \S \s 

2 v-*[ta] sagano yattra devo vimuktah yarn driahtva vra(bra)hmah=api chyuta-kali- 

kalusho jayate 1 suddha-bhavah H [1*] AByam=uttunga-sringa-sphuta-sa[s'i]- 
kirana-[sveta-bhasli . aanathath ramy-ayama*]- 

3 prat61i-vividha-ja^apada-stri-vilas-abluramam J vidya-v6darfcha-tatva(ttva)-vrata-japa- 

niyama-vyagra-chandr-abhijushtiam srimat=sthanam [prijthivya ^ ^ w w \~> w 
_ w -- w -- |) [2*]" 

4 Attr=abhut=Pantha-nam& s"isur=api vinaya-vySpat6. bhadra-murttih tyagi dhirah 

kritajnah parilaghu-vibhav6=py=atma- B vrity(tty)=abhitu[shtah 6 I Gang&-sr6tas- 

1 Annual Report of the LwTcnow Provincial Museum for 1908-4, p. 2. 

2 Archaeological Survey Report for 1903-4, p. 212. 
8 Int. Ant. Yol. V. p. 180 and Plate. 

4 JE.ff. in yattva,j&yatt, 1. 2 ; vinaya, 1. 4 j and yina, 1. 5. 

B [In my own transcript this word was misread aa sdrya-* E. H.] 

' This restoration is based on the preceding abAittt and 

Benares inscription of Pantha. 






5 Himagiri-slkhar4r6ha-khMad=rite=mbhah bhakto bhaktya Siv6 me parishad=api 

gunais=t6shita yena nityam || [3*] Ten=aneka-vidhana-dikshana-[sataih sam- 
sthapit= 1 artha-vyayaih*] 

6 chandi chanda-nar6ttamanga-rachita-vyalambi-mal-6tkata I sarppat-Barppa-viveshtit- 

anga-parasu-vyaviddha-sushk-amisha Iila-nritta-ruchir=vvil6[la- 2 nayana murtir= 3 
Bhavanyah subha || 4*] 

7 [Samstha]py=api na tasya [tushti]r=a[bha]vad=yavad=Bhavani-griharii suslisht- 

amala-Bandhiva(ba)ndha-ghatitam ghanta-ninad-ojva(j;jva)lam 1 raniyam drishti- 
haram sila w \_/ w w w 

8 [prarudhaj-dhvaja-chamaram su[kri]tina sreyo-rthina kaiitam || [5*] 


[6m. Hail!] (Verse 1.) Famous is this Varanasl which, laving usurped the extent 4 
of the abode of the three worlds, is worshipped from afar by passionless people, -with their mind 
solely fixed on liberation from birth and death ; at which place was emancipated the god 5 . - . 

with his attendants ; and at the sight of which even the murderer of 

a Brahmana, freed of the stain of ain, becomes pure of heart. 

(V. 2.) In this (city there was) a place, renowned on earth ; [bathed in the white light] of 
the bright rays of the moon (as they fell on its} lofty turrets ; charming with the gracefulness 
of the wives of the various inhabitants of the [beautiful and extensive] 6 streets ; a favourite 
resort of the moon 7 engaged in study, interpretation of the Yedas, (search after) truth, 
(observance of) vows, muttering of prayers and austerities 

(V. 3.) Here lived (a man) named Pantha, who even aa a child was well-behaved, 8 
handsome, generous, wise, grateful, (and) contented with his earnings in spite of his limited 
means; (who used to think thus to Mmselj) : 'The god (ambhah)^ Siva is worshipped by my 
devotion without the toil of ascending the peaks of the Himalaya, [purified by the waves of the 
Ganges] j ' and who constantly gladdened the assembly (of the wise) by (his) virtues. 

(V. 4) By him [was erected at a considerable cost (and) [with hundreds of] different 
consecrations [a beautiful image of Bhavani], fierce-looking, awe-inspiring owing to a garland 
formed of gruesome human heads hanging (from her neck) ; with limbs encircled by crawling 
snakes, and with dry flesh pierced on an axe ; delighting rn a sportive dance, (and) with rolling 


1 Compare the expression samsthapya in 1. 7- 

2 This syUahle is required to complete the word vil6la. 

3 The restoration of mUrtir*, etc., is purely conjectural ; but that it is probably correct, may be concluded from 
the fact that the epithets chandt, etc., clearly refer to an image of Bhavani. Moreover, since the very nest verae 
records the foundation of a Bhavani shrine, it eeems almost necessary to assume that an image of the same goddess 
should have been placed in this shrine. 

4 Literally, 'the thief of the extent,' etc. 

B This passage presumably alludes to Siva's residence at Benares in the Tr&tdyuga, See Rajondralal Mifcra's 
Antiquities of Orissa, Vol. II. p. 68. 

s Literally, ' whose extent was charming 1 .' 

7 'bhakt-d'bhijus'htam would be a better reading. [Or ckandra may he meant for nara-ohandra, 'aa 
excellent man.' E. H.] 

8 I do not find the word vydpata in any Sanskrit Dictionary. VydpfM would be a more appropriate reading. 
1 [But ambhali does not moan e agod.' I would rather conjecture at the end of line 4 Q-ang&yd gdhamdnt- 

and translate : 'devoutly (Haktaft) [entering] the water (amlJiah) [of the Gaiga].' In the following I prefer t& 
join, &iv6mt and to translate : ' -who daily pleased Siva and UrnS by (his) devotion (and their) attendants by (his) 
virtues.' E. H,] 



(V. &) Not satisfied with tie erection (of iUs mage only\ the pious man, desirous of 
blias, caused to be built a shrine of Bhav&nl, which was joined with a very adhesive and bright 

cement, resplendent with the sound of bells, lovely, attractive, (^ 

decorated) with lofty flags and yak-tails. 


Of the Chaham&naB of Sfikambharl we possess two long inscriptions. One of them is the 
Harsha inscription of Vigraharaja, edited by me in Up, Ind. VoL II, p. 116 ff. It is dated in the 
[Vibrama] year 1030, corresponding to-aftont A.D. 973, and gives the genealogy of the Ch&ha- 
manas from Gtivaka L, 'who attained to pre-eminence as a hero in the assembly of the glorious 
Naghal6Va ) 1 the foremost of Mugs,' to Vigraharlrja, The other is the difficult Bijoli (Bijaoli, 
Bijolia, Brjholi) rook inscription of the reign of S&mlfivara, which has been uncirjtifeally edited 
in Journ. As, Soo. JBeng. Vol. LV. Part I. p. 40 ff. This inscription ia elated "&' $ Yikrama 
year 1226, corresponding to A.D, 1170, and gives a long genealogy, copameaiig wife Samauta, 
the reputed founder of lie family, and ending with Som&ivara. 9 Between tibese. two longer 
records, and subsequently to the second, we have a few shorter inscriptions of iihe same family, 
notably the Delhi Siwalik pillar inscriptions of Visalad&va- Vigrabaraja of A.D. 1114, and two 
short inscriptions on the defeat of the Chandella Paramardideva by the Cbihamana Prithvi- 
raja II., of the [Vitrama] year 1239=A.D. 1182. Tb.a latest available date for ihis family is 
the [Yikrama] year 1244= A.D. 1187. 3 

Irom this Sakamhharl family there branched off, some fame in the first half of the 10th 
century A.B., another line of Ohaham&nas (or Ghihnm&oas), which, was fonaded by the 
S&kamhhari prince Lakshmana, and which for a long time had its seat of government at 
Naddftla, 4 the modern Nadol in the Jfidhpur State of Eajputina. 6 To tins branph of the family 
there is assigned in my Northern List only a single inscriptiott, Fo. 141, tie Nadol CMpper-plate 
iuscription of the Mahfodja, Alhanadeva of A.D. 1161. But there belong to it also oliher in- 
scriptions of the List, inscriptions of chiefs whose connection with the family was npfc known 

1 I bare already dated elsewhere that the true reading in verse 13 of the Hanha inscription it 
N4ff&vaUlka-fravaranfifa-alh&-lavdkt(ldha)-vtrapfatitMAa]f. In my Syndumiriic Tabte for Korthern 
India I kre enggeted that Naganlflka may be identical with the Pratihita Nlgahhita ; bat thit apjwttf to be & 
mistake. A definite date for a king Nagaraldka apparently the Vikranm year 813- AD. 756 wil,K> far M I 
can aee nnfr, be fornUhed by & copper-plate inscription which has been quite recently dfoovftnd, and of which I 
hare received a phot(^taph from say friend Mi-. Ojha. ! 

2 See above, VoL TUL Appendii I, p. 18 f. * See my Fortler* Hit, ITo*. 14^ Wflai8. 

4 So this name is spelt below, in the Inscriptions A., B, and C., and in the inwription of Inn^Ml^ treated 
of under D. We find the name spelt ia fho same way (with <W) in vene 21 of the Bijoli iockkon{tioa> which u 
qnibo wrongly given in /our*. At. Soc. Binij. Vol. LV. Part L p. 42, the actual reading em tiHio being t 

rj/i?nd ,(. In the inscription at Vhuala'i temple on Mount Abo, which will be mentioned Wtmr, p* 81, &t 
name is NodAla. In verse 42 of the Meant Abft. inscription of Samaraiiriih* (Id. Ast, YoL XVJL p. 8K>) it if 
either NadMtta or Fadd-Ma (not Naddla) ; and in Prof. Weber** Catalogue of the MBS, of tba So&i Mtiaay, 
Vol, II pp. 1003 and 1(KU we find NadUla, XxUwlap*ra and NadUapwt, In ID. Ktflw^ idftlon of the 
EMikwm%d(, Q. 69, and, copied from'it, in Ep. 'ltd. VoL Z. p. 26, rene 14, *e aljo b*T JoAd*, bHWi llmort 
crtunlyiainiitIte. . ... . ' " ..'"' * 

1 Toirar<Uthendof tie 12th wntury A.D. the Mat of government wa trantfnred to JltBJpw* ||Uor)i 
and at the commencement of the 14th century a branch of the family took Chandrtntl wtthUonniiW AM the 



when I compiled the JJist. My object in writing this paper is, to give the genealogy of these 
Chahamanas of ZtTaddfila, so far as the documents which lately have come to my knowledge 
enable me to do so. Por this purpose I shall give the texts of three inscriptions which the 
kindness of Dr. Fleet and Mr. Granriehankar Hirachand Ojha allows me to edit, and an account 
of the contents of some Mount Abu inscriptions, based on excellent impressions for which we 
have to thank Mr. Oousens. 


These plates were obtained by Colonel Tod, 1 in October 1819, at Nadol, a town in the J&dh- 
pur State of Bajputana, and presented to the Royal Asiatic Society. An account of their con- 
tents was given by him in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I. p. 804 ; and the 
inscription which they contain was edited, in a rather slovenly manner, by Kao Bahadur H. H. 
Dhruva, in Journ. Bombay As. Soc. Vol. XIX. p. 26 ff. I re-edit it from an excellent photo- 
lithograph, 3 prepared under the superintendence of, and kindly placed at my disposal by, 
Dr. Fleet. 

These are two plates, each of which measures about 8^" broad by 6f " high. The first plate 
is inscribed on one side only, and the second on both sides. The edges of the inner sides of them 
are fashioned slightly thicker, so as to protect the writing, and the inscription is in a state of 
perfect preservation. Both plates contain a hole for a ring, but the ring and any seal that may 
have been attached to it have not been preserved. The characters are Nagari. The language 
is Sanskrit, and the greater part of the text is in verse. In respect of orthography it will suffice 
to state that the letters & and v are both denoted by the sign, for v, and that the dental sibilant is 
often used for the palatal. The text contains^ considerable number of clerical mistakes, most 
of which can be easily corrected. Other mistakes are shown by the metre to be due to the author 
himself, who possessed no accurate knowledge of Sanskrit. Of these I would point out here 
merely the wrong samdTii in sprihayan^amaratdm, (for 8<prihayann=amaratdm) in line 17, the 
meaningless -praguntlhutdpasavyakah pdnih (for -pragunibJiutdpasavyapdnih') in line 21, and the 
omission of some word like viditam before the words vo=&tu in line 18. In lines 13, 14 and 16 
the potential sydt is used for asti or lhavati. z 

The inscription records a donation by the Mahdrdja AlnanadSva of Naddula. 4 According 
to lines 18-23, this chief, on Sunday, the 14th titM (described as mahdchaturdasi-parvan*') of 
the bright half of Sravana in the year 1218, after worshipping the Sun and ts"ana (Siva) and 
making gifts to Brahmans and gurus, granted to (the' Jaina .temple of) Mahaviradeva in the 
Sanderaka gachMa? at the holy place 7 (mahdsthdna) of Naddtila, a monthly sum of five 
drwnmas, (to be paid) from the custom-house (sulka-manfapikd*') in the grounds 9 of Naddftla. 

1 See his Annals and Antiguitie* of Rajasthan, Vol. I. p. 698 ; my Northern List, No. 141. 

a Indian Inscriptions, "So. 10, not yet published. 

8 Por instances where the potential is used for the imperfect see e,g. Ind. Ant. Vol. XVII. p. 136. 

* go the name is spelt twice in line 22, and the same spelling is required by the metre in line 3. See above, 
p. 62, note 4. 

e For the similar use of parvan in other dates see Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 418, and Vol. XXV. p. 289 . 
6 In Mount A"bti inscriptions this gaoholiha, is also called Sand&ra-gacho'h'h.a and SJiandAfaTca-gaoTioliha. The 
town of Sandfoa (the Sanderao of the map of the Bajputana Agency) is mentioned below in C., line 16. 

* According to Colonel Tod Naddula was one of the ancient seats of the Jainas. 

* For passages in which the term mandafikd occurs, compare e.g. 3Sp. Ind. Vol. I. p. 114, 1. 27 ; p. 173, 1. 6 
(8lyaa6ni-*atka.aiandapikd)', p. 175, 1.' 19; p. 177, 1. 29 and 1. 80; p. 179, L 45; p. 262,1. 3 (jw- 
mandapiJcd) ; Ind. Ant. Vol. XIV. p. 10, col. 2 (ripatTtd-sth<i-ma,ndapilcd)-, Joum. At. Soo. Seng. Vol. LV. 
Fart I. p. 47, iv., and p. 48, v. ; Shdonagar Insor. p. 205, 1. 7. tSulTca-mandapikd 'occurs e.g. in SUmagar Jnjcr. 
p. 158 f., 11. 10, 15 and 18. The meaning of mandapiU is suggested by the Mara^hl mdmdavt, ' a custom-house. 

The word talapada, (in Sft-Nadddla-talapada'SuWawmdapiMgdm) is not found in the dictionaries I 
take it to be synonymous -with, or similar in meaning to, svatala, which occnri in some of the Valabhi inscription!, 
and for which see Dr.' Fleet's note above, Vol. VI. p. 166. Compare also Ind. Ant, Vol. XI. p. 839, note 80. 


The inscription, after the words { 6m, adoration to the Omniscient,' opens with a verse in 
which the holy Mahavirade'va, ' the youngest of the Jinas,' is desired to bestow welfare. It then, 
(in verses 2-7) gives the following- genealogy of the grantor.- 

In the Chalmxa&na race there was first at rTaddula the king Lakshmana. His son was 
S6hiya, and his aon Balirfija. After him came his paternal uncle Vigrahapala. His son was 
Mahendra, his son Aiiahilla, and his son BSlaprasada. His brother was JSndrara' ja, and his 
son Prithivlpaia. His brother was Jojalla, and his younger brother Asara" ja, whose son was 
Altxanadeva. Nothing" of historical importance is said about any of these chiefs. 

According to lines 33-38, the duta of this grant was the minister, appointed to the secretary- 
ship (Mltarana) t l Latsb-tnidhara, the son of Dharanigga, o the Pragvata race ; and the grant 
was composed and written, by Srfdhara, the aon of Vasala ( Visala ?), who was the son of Man6- 
ratha, of the family of the Naigamas. The inscription ends with the words ' this is the own 
hand (i.e. sign-manual) of the Maharaja, the illustrious Alhanadeva.' 

Naddtila of course is the modern Nadol where the plates were obtained, and where the 
temple of Mahavira to which, the grant was made apparently still exists. 3 The date of the 
grant, for the expired Ohaitrddi Vikrama year 1218, regularly corresponds to Sunday, the 
6th August A.D. 1161, when the 14th tithi of the bright half of ravana ended 15 h. 35 m, after 
mean sunrise. 3 

TEXT. 4 

First Plate. 

1 Om 5 || Dm namah Sarwajfiayah 6 | Dis'atu 7 Jina-kanishthah karmmavam(bam)dha- 

kshayishthah. parihiita-madamarafcrodha- 

2 lobhadirarah | dnritaglkhari-samvah 8 sv6(sv6)va3iyam cha sam vas = 

tribhuvanakrita-sev-ab | 9 s"ri-Mahav$- 

3 radevah || [1*J Aati 10 parama. a-]'alanidhi jagati-tale 11 Ch,humana-vams6 hi | 

tav(tr)=asin=H'adu(dda)lS bhiipah 

4 sri-nakshmana adau^ || [2*] Tasmad=va(ba)bh1;iva putr6 raj4 sri- 

S6hiFas 13 -tad=anu sunuh | gri-Va(ba)lirajo ra- 

5 ja VigranapS16nu oha pitrivya(vyah) || [3*] Tasy=at= l4 tanuj6 bhupalah | 16 

sri-Mahndradv-akhyat I taj-jah iri- 16 

6 Anahilo(ll6) 17 nripati-var6=bh<lt=prithTila-tejah || [4*] Tat-s(inuh ri- 

Va(ba)lapra8da ity=ajani parthiva- 

7 greshthah | tad-bhrat=abhu[t*]=kshitipah subhatah sri-JendrarSj-akhyah || [5*1 

1 Compao-e above, YoL VIII. p. 209, line 8 of the text. Above, Vol. Ill, p. 317, 1. 45, frtkaretna, by itaelf ia 
used to denote the official (' a secretary '). 

3 See the Imperial G-azetteer of India, Vol. X. p. 142. 

* Compare Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX, p. 30, No. 35. 

* From a photo-lithograph prepared under the superintendence of, and supplied to me by, Dr, Fleet, 

* Denoted by a symbol. 6 Bead jnSya, 

7 Mefcre : M^frtf- a Bead -/*, a thunderbolt.' 

This sign of punctuation is superfluous. Metre of verse* 2-9 : JLrya. 

11 Tor the sake ot the metre foxjagatl-taU. Bead tfaf=cA~4dav. 

M Mr. Dhruva'a text has L6hiyag~; bnt S6hiyaa~ is quite clear in the original. The same name, 
find above, Vol. VUL p. 221, 1. 19, and in another Mount AbG inacription, No. 1699 of Mr. Couaens' List 
M Read "^ftawflrf-. . Thia sign of punctuation U mperauona. 

Here and elsewhere the t of fri has pnrpoaely not been changed to y before a Towel , compare below, linea 9 
and 38, fri-Mlana , and .other pasasgea in B. and 0. and elsewhere. ^^ 

themetrt* D * me " ^^^ A ** 1 * ^ B " lbe 7 ' nd " ^ u . "d the same spelUng i*iiequirea.hre by 


8 ryayritis&bb.-adhyab | taBmad=abb.ayad=bhrata sri-J6jallo ranaras-atrna [|| 6*] 


9 n=As,(sa)r,jah pratapayara-nilayah | tat-putrah. ksh&nipah sri-AllianadSva- 

nam=abhut || [7*] 

10 Yasya pratapa-psa^lam 1 samkuladikchakra-prithtQayistaram | airhcliaihti 


11 nayanasalil-augliaih || [8*] So=yam maba-ksbitisah saram=idam vu(bu.)ddbitnan= 

acbirhtayata [|*] iba sam- 

12 sara 2 asaram. | 3 sarwam janm-adi jamtunam |(H) [9*] Yatab. [|*] Garbbab* 

strikuksbi-madbyS pala-nidhira-vasa- 

13 mMasa va(ba)ddba-pimd6 matuh pranamtakari 5 prasavana-samayS praninam 

syan=nu janma 5 dbarmm-a- 

14 dinam=av6tfc& bbayati Hi niyatam va(ba)la"bbavas=tatab SYa(sya)t=tamnyam 

syalpamatrarii svajana-pari- 

15 bbavastb.a(?)nata 6 vriddha-bhavali |(||) [10*] Kb.ady&t6dy6(ddy6)ta-tTilyat I 7 

kshanam=ib.a sukhadah. sampa- 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

16 d6 drisb.ta-nasb.tali pianitvam cbamciLalam syad=dalam=Tipari yatb^ toya- 

vitfa.dur=niiaKiiyalj | ]fiatv=aiYam. 8 Bva-pi- 

17 tr& spribayan= 9 amaraiam cb,=aiHkam 10 dbamuna-kirtti dsamt& u rajapix-fcran 12 

janapada-ganan T6(b&)dbayaty=&ya 

18 v6=stu 13 || [11*] Sam 1218 varshS I Sravaija-sudi 14 Bavau I asminn=eva 

mahaohaturddasl-parvvani II Snatva 14 dhauta- 

19 pat^ niv^8ya(ya) 15 dabane datvsalriitlQ 1 - 6 punya(Dya)kriii=Mamrtvada8ya 1 '' r 

tamaljprapatana-patot sampurya ob.=agbam.}iHm. 18 [|*] 

20 trail6ka(kya)Bya prabhuria ob.aracb.ara-gurupi samenapya pam 

kanak-anna-vastra-dadanaih 19 sampujya yipra- 

21 n gurun |j [12*] Ann 20 tilakukBbat6daka- 21 pragunibliutapasavyakah a3 

sasanam=6nam= 23 ayacb.cbb.ata ya- 

I Bead -jdlam. a Observe the wrong samdhi 

8 This sign of punctuation ia superfluous. * Metre of verses 10 and 11 : Sragdhari. 

6 Read Tcdri bto&janma I. 

8 The tfti of bhe akshara, sthd is not quite clear, but there seems to be no doubt that the above ia the actua 
and intended reading. One would have expected "paribhavasthdnaiht hut this would not have suited the metre. 

1 This siga o punctuation is superfluous, 

8 Here a syllable, perhaps vai, has beea omitted. 

8 Here, again, observe the -wrong saihdTii for which the metre shows the author to be responsible j 
sprihayann* would have offended against the metre. 

10 Read ^aihilctm dhar mma-lc trttim one misses a second cJia. 

11 I can only suggest that dUfdmtS may stand for dUfdntd, i.e. d&fdntali, dfadntar, ' in (this) country.' 

12 After this word a short syllable is- missing ; perhaps the reading should be trdn=>wa-janaj:>acla-, 

M The words <?=< caunot be construed with the preceding. The author had in his mind the phrase viditam 

II Metre : Sardulavikridita. 

16 Mr. Dhruva read this Sfaiia^at^ nMtya, which he translated by ' while encamped at Maitapata.' Com- 
pare dhavta-vdsatt faridJidya in line 19 of B., and, e.g., in Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 84.7, L 7 of the text. 

" Read dattv=dhutify. V Read =*Mdrttaihd<ny<i. M Bad *drghdfy'aiim. 

u Dadctna in the sense of ddna. ao Metre : Arya. 

21 Read tilaTcufdTc;sTi,at6daTca-, The ka of 6daKct is treated aa a short syllable before pr ; see Ind. Studies* 
Vol. VIII. p. 224. 

The metre, in my opinion, howB that the author undoubtedly wrote this ',. what he intended was 

a Wrong for 4nad=i or, better, 6tad=*. 


22 vach-cliamdrarkkapupalami |(||) [1 3 ] Sri-Naddula-mahasthanS Sri. 

Sarhdfiraka-gachclihe sri-Mablviradevaya sri-Ifaddula- 

23 talapada-ulkamariidapikayam masanumasani dKupavelartham |2 sasanena dra 3 5 

pamcha pradat [|*] Asya 

24 deyarasyanam* bhuinjanasya a&madvam6jair^bha7i-bli6ktribhir=aparaig=cha 

paripamtbana na kary^ | yatah [|*] 

25 6Samany6=yam dbarma-Batur=impanam ka!6 ka!6 palaniy6 bhavadbhih 

8arvvan=e'yam bhayinah pa- 

26 rtbiv6mdran bMy& bhiiy6 ykhate Bamacharfadra^ || [14*] Tasmat | 

UsmadanTa[ya*]ja bhupft bhaTi-bhupatayas=olia ye [(*]' 

27 fc^hamaaham karg lagnah P alanlyam=idaih eada |(||) [15*] 

28 tasy=aham karS Iagn6=smi s4(fi&)sanaih na(na) vyatikmmgt |(||) [16*1 

^VaCbaJlLubMr^aaudlia bb.uk ta rajanyaih Sagar-a- 

29 dibhih [j] yag y a yasya yad& bhilin$(mi)s=ta8ya tasya tadS phalam [|| 17*] 

Vvashtbi^varsba-sahasrani evarggS tisMliati dana- 

30 dab [|] acb.cMi6ta(tta) cli=anTLmami& cha tany=va narakam^ vaee[t] [|| 18*] 

'Sva-dattam para-dattam v& d^va-dayam harSta yah [|*] sa 

31 visbth&yam krimir=bh^tva P itii(tri)bMh Baha majjati || [19*] Sii(gu)ny. 

&tavivy(sb.v)=a%asu gusbkakotara-vasi- 

Second Plate; Second Side. 

32 aab | krisb.nahay6=bMjayamt ^4^-dayath harariiti y6 || [20*] Mamgalarii 

malia-srlh || ^-** " J B 

33 np.^ta.varnse Dbaramgga-^namna^ autd mahamatya-yamh eu-kamma | 

ya(ba)bh.iiYa du- ' 

34 ta pr&( P ra)tibha-mya S 6 Lakshmidiam^ firikaranS niySgi || r 2 l] 

" e L J 

35 chcb.ha.mala(na) Man6ratha iti praki* Naigamanarfx 

j*3i 01 a m pr ** ******* *w** 

36 playita-^dbJs=taj-j6=bliayat Vasalab I putraa-tasya va(ba)bbuy a 

yaaani(ti)h *-* 


37 ^ridbarat grfdbarS eiipasti rachayamcliakara lilikM O h=6dam 

38 [sajnam || [22*1 Sya-hast6=yam maiaraja-gri-llhauadSvasya II 


Mr Gannsbankar Hiracband Ojha of Fdaipur in Bajputana has informed tne that these 
plates alao were obtamed, in &e course of last year, at Nadol, My account of ihem is mainly 
based on two good rubbings, kindly supplied to me by Mr. Ojha. 

Read "IMTcdlafa; compare "IcshitilcdlaA in line 26 of B. 

Read dh4pa~tail-drtba,fa, without the sign of punctuation. 

Le. drammdn. 4 Bead 

Bead ,yi t m a * v a*f a jair. Metre: Salinl 

Metre of verse. 16-20 t Sldka (Annshtubh). 

" BeadoraM. Metre 

VIIL Pi m line 8 of 

; SltdAlavikridita. . 

J'iBctte wrong for jpWu.fo, which would not have aaifced the metre, 
w Bead "JAacad., and, perhaps, 


These also are two plates, each of which measures about 9|" broad by 6f " high. The first 
plate is inscribed on one side only, and the second on both sides. 1 The writing on them is in a 
state of perfect preservation. Each plate contains a hole for a ring; I do not know whether 
the ring and any seal that may have been attached to it hare been preserved. The characters 
are Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. The text contains eight verses* O f chiefly genealogi- 
cal matter, three of the ordinary imprecatory verses, and one verse giving the writer's name ; 
the rest is in prose, -which in one or two places is grammatically incorrect. As regards 
orthography, the letter v is used for both 6 and u, except in -labdhajanmd, 1. 3 ; the dental 
sibilant is used for the palatal in Mahesvaram, 1. 22 ; and the sign of avagraha is once employed, 
in sthgajah, 1. 16. In line 29 the gerund lagitvd is used in the sense of commencing from, 
beginning with.' __ 

The inscription records a grant by the Rdjaputra (or Hug's son) Zlrtipala, a son of 
Alhanadva of Naddftla. After the words 6m svasti, it invokes tiie blessing of the gods 
Brahman, Sridhara (Vishnu), and amkara (Siva), ' who, always free from passion, are famous 
in the world as Jinas' (or Jaina Arhats). It then (in verses 2-8) gives the following 
genealogy : 

In the town of Sakambbarl there was formerly, in the Chahamana 8 lineage, the king 
Vakpatiraja. His son was Lakshmana, who was king at Naddula; and his son was 
S6bbita. From him sprang Baliraja, and after him there ruled his paternal uncle Vigraha- 
pala. Vigrahapala's son was MahSndra, his son Anahilla, and his son JSndraraja, from whom 
sprang Asaraja.* His son was Alhana, the lord of KTaddula, who defeated the Saurashtrltas. 
This king married AnnalladSvi, 6 a daughter of Anahula of the Bash$rauda6 race, who bore to 
him three sons- Kelhana, Gajasimha, and Klrtipala. Of these, Kelhana, the eldest son, was 
made Tcumdra (or heir-apparent) and given a share in the government. 

According to 1. 17 ff. the RdjaTcula 1 Alhanadfiva and the Kumdra KelhanadSva were 
pleased to give to the Rdjaputra Klrtipala twelve villages appertaining to UaddulaL And 
then, on Monday, the 5th. of the dark half of Sravana of the year 1218, the fidjavtitra 
Klrtipala, after bathing etc. at Waddula and worshipping the Sun and Mahe'svara (Siva), 
granted a yearly sum of two drammas from each of the twelve villages of Naddtilal to (the 
temple of) the Jina Mahavlra at the village of Naddulal, and ordered this money to be paid 
in the month of Bhadrapada of every year, commencing with the year then current. The 
twelve villages to which this order referred were Naddulaigrama, SiijSra, Dariji, Kaviiada, 
Sdnauam, Idorakara, Haravandam, Madad,a, Kanasuvam, DevasGri, Nadada, and Maiivadi. 

So far as I can jtidge^ tihe village of Naddtlal mentioned in the above is different from 
(the mahdsthdna) Naddftla, and the words Naddtildi-pratibaddha in line 18 appear clearly to 
show that Naddulai not merely was the name of a village, but also denoted the district to which 
the twelve villages given to Kirtipala belonged. On the map of the Eajputftna Agency I find, 

1 The second aider o the aecond plate contains three lines of writing^. Of these no rubbing, but only Mr. 
Ojha's transcript has been sent to me. 

8 The metre of verse 6 is a mixture of TTpfindraTajrll and Vasantatilaka. 

* So the name is spelt here and below in C. 

* In C. the name is Atdrdja t v\u\z in A. the actual spelling is Atdrdja, Here we have Atat-dja, and in 
D. the actual spelling is Atardja. 

* The occurrence of this name here induces me to state that the name in the Delhi Sto&Iik pillar inscription 
of VisaladAva-Vigrahar&ja, A., line 2 (Ind. A*t. Vol. XIX. p. 218) is An*alladfoa, not Avttlad&va, and that 
therefore Annallad&va should be subititated for Avllad4oa also in my Northern Litt, No. 144, and above, Vol. 
VHI. App. I. p. 14, col. 1 (after Arn^r&ja). 

< For a Raohtrd^a vamfa see my Northern Litt, "So. 273. 

1 On tbii and similar titles see my remarks above, Vol. IV, p, 312, note 7. Mah<trdja%ula occurs below in 
D., and in other Mount Abti inscriptions. 

K 2 


south-east of Nadol, Desuri, which most probably is the DevasurS of this inscription ; of the 
other villages I can find no traces on the map, 

After the imprecatory verses the inscription (in lines 33 and 34) has the words * this is the 
own. hand (i.e. sign-manual) of the Hahfodjaputra (or Maharaja's son), the illustrious Kirti- 
pala, J and the statement that thia grant was "written by Subbamkara, the son of Dani6dara and 
grandson of the Kdyastha S&dha of the Naigama lineage. 

The possible equivalents of the date, for the gfarnimdnfa and amdnta month Sravana, 
would be 

for the Ghaitf&di Yikrama year 1218 cnrrent : Saturday, the 25th June A.D. 1160, and 
Monday, the 25th July A,I>. 1160 (when the 5fch tithi of the dark half ended 9 h, 8 m. after 
mean sunrise) ; 

for the Oha-itrddi Vikrama year 1218 expired: Friday, the Uth July A.D. 1161, and 
Sunday, the 13th August A.D. 1161 (when the 5th tithi of the dark half ended 3 h. 16 m. after 
mean sunrise) ; 

for the KdrttiMdi Vikrama year 1218 expired : Tuesday, the 3rd July A.D. 1162 (when 
the 5th titki of the dark half ended 11 h. 58 m. after mean sunrise), and Thursday, the 2nd 
August A.D. 1162, 

From this it will be seen that the given date is correct only for the amdnta month Sravana 
of the current Ohaitrddi Vikrama year 1218, and therefore apparently corresponds to Monday, 
the 25th July A.D. 1160. As current Vikrama years are qnoted very rarely, this result; is not 
perhaps quite free from suspicion ; but I can see no valid reason to question the authenticity 
of the wording of the original date. 1 

TEXT. 9 

First Plate. 

1 Orb 8 || Svasti || Sriyar 4 bhavamtu vo d&va | 5 Vra(bra)hma-ridhAra-amkarah 

sada viragavam- 

2 to yd I 5 Jiua jagati vismtah || 1 '&akambaart-nama-pur& pur=asl I 6 ch=chhri- 


3 m&n-nvaya-labdhajanma | raja maharajanat-arhhriyngmah khyit&=vana.u Vakpa- 

4 fcirftja-nfim& || 2 Naddul 7 eamabhut^tadiya-taaayah gri-Lakshmand bhupatihss 8 ta- 

5 smat-sarvvagun-anvito nripa-varalj sri-S6bhit-akhyah 9 suta^t | targmaohachhtr*]!- 


6 ma-nripatih pachat=tadly6 mahi-khyat& Vigrahapala ity=abhidhaya rajye 

pitjivy6=bhavat II 3 , 

7 Tasmat=tivramahapratapa-tarani^ putr6 MahSmdr6-bhavftt=taj-ja<3Ji=SrirA^B.ailladSva- 

nripateh sri-Jena- 

$ dratajah. sutah I tasmad=dnrddhAravamkumja,ravaaha-^^ sat- 

kirttyk dha,val[i]krit-&- 

1 With reference to the ftbove 1 may state that Mr. Ojha has unt me a rubbing of & tmt (engmved 'on one 
side of one plate only) of the UfaldrAjddhirdj a KSlhanadera, whicb u dated in lice 1 1 ttHkitott 1238 wtrsht 
Jy[4]sMha-vadi 13 S6mi. Thi date also works oat satisfactorily only for the atn4ia JyIlttb of tie current 
Chaitrddi Viktams jew 1228, for which it correaponda to Monday, the 7tb Jane A-D. 1I83* 

3 From two robbings sapplied to me by Mr. Oauriihaakar Hbaohand Ojih*. 

1 Denoted by a symbol. * Metre : Sldka (Auiuhtahh.). 

1 These sigas of panctn&tion are superfluous. * Metre : Indrayajrt, 

* Metare of verses 8-5 : SardAlayikrtdita. 8 Road thtpatis* . 

9 The inscription C. has SQbhita ; but a A. has S6hiy<t t I dojaot alter tbe 8&M* of Sii prtiaat Jpmption 


9 khilajagac]i=cliri-Asar,i6 nripah || 4 Tat-putr6 nijavikraruarjitam- 1 


10 y& jagraha jaya-sriyam ra:na-bliar& vyapadya Saurshtrikan I 3auchacb.ara- 


11 la-natho maMn=samkhyotpadita-viraviittir=amalah ri-Alb.ari6 a bhtpatih || 5 

An&m 3 rajna jana-visrute- 

12 na | 4 Eashtraiida-vanisaja-var-Analiulasya putri | Annalladvir-iti ila-viv6ka- 

yukt& | 4 R4meaa yai Janakaj=eva vi- 

13 yalrit=asan || 6 Abhyam 5 jatah , su-putra jagati vara-dMy& rtipa-saumdarya- 

yukfcah | 4 sastraih Sastraih praga- 

14 Ibha^i pravara-gunaganas=tyagavantaV su-silah | jy6sh.tliah ri-Klha9-akliyas=tad= 

anu cha Gajasirhliastafcli& Kl- 

15 rttipald I 4 yadv^n=HBtrani Sambli68=tripTirush.aYad=atli=ami jan^ vamdaniyah | 

(||) 7 6 Madliyad=amisliam pari- 

Second Plate ; First Bide, 

16 vara-nath6 sTatM(jye)sKtih6 Smgajah kshbm-talS prasiddlia^ | tjita[t*] kumar6 


17 sri-Kelhana[h*] sarwa-gunair=up^talj | (||) [8*] Abhyam rajakula-Sri- 

Alhanadeva- I 7 ktunara-sri-Kellia- 

18 nadevabbyam rajaputra-sri-Kirttipaiasya pras&dd datta-M'add^l&l-prativa(ba)ddlia- 

dvadaa-gramani 8 l| 

19 Tat6 rajaputra-ri-K:irttip,lah I 9 sam 1218 ^r&vana-7adi 6 S6m6 II ady= 

6[lia*] sri-Naddule snatv& dh6(dhau)- 

20 ta-vasasi paridtaya tilaksb-atakuSa-pranayinam daksbina-karam kritra d^van= 

udakfina samtarpya | va(ba)- 

21 halatamatimirapatalapatana-patiyaso nih&s1iapatakapamka-praksb.alaTiasya divakarasya 

22 ptjam vidliaya | characliara-gurn.D3 Mali6sva(va)ram namaskyitya | hutabliuji 

h6madi i avy-ahutir=ddatva 10 -aaliiii- 

23 dalagatajalalava-taralam jivitaYyam=akalayya | aiHkam paracH(tri)kam tha(oka) 

pL.alam=amgikritya svapunya- 

24 ya6-bluvriddbay6 dasanam prayachcbJiati yatiil || Sri-lS'addai.lgraiu I fri- 

Mabavira-jinaya NaddftlS-i- 11 

25 dvadaia-gramesliu gramam prati dra 2 dvau drammau suapana-YilSpana-dipa- 

26 varstam prati Bbldrapada-maefe cliamdr&rkkakBMti-kala[iii] yavat pradatta^ ', t 

JSTaddtmtgrama I Sfijera I Barijl [I*] 

27 Kavilada 1 Son&nam I WE6rakara I Haravamdam [I*] M&dada I Kfinasuvam I 

Devasurl I NBdada [1*] Maiivadl I 

28 &vam gra 13 12 fctlshu dvadaga-gram&skti sarvvad=api aamabhih 6asan dattau ) 

febliir=gramair=adktin& samvatsa- 

1 Bead "mdrjita-. a Bead 

4 Metre : a mixture of TJp&ndravajri and Vasantatilakl. 
4 These signs of puncimatioa are superfluous, 

8 Mefcre : Sragdharfl. The last Pildft does not contain the proper csesuras. 
* Metre : Up ajlti. 7 This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

8 Wrong for -grdmdh. The whole sentence which ends here ia ungraramatical. 
8 All the signs of punctuation in lines 19-23 are superfluous. In some places below the rules of tamdhi 
not been obxerved. 

Bad vddaittd, u Read *tdt . " I. e. 


29 ralagitva 1 sarwad=api varslaam prati Bhadrapade datavyau | atah urddhfv^am 

ken=api paripamthana na karttavy^ | 
SO 3 Asmad-vamse vyatikramte yo=nyah ko=pi bhavishyati [I*] taspaham tare 

laguo 3 na 16pya[m*] mama sasanam || [9*] Shashthi[m] 4 va- 

31 rsha-sahasrani svargge tishthati dayakah | achchhetta ch=anuma[ih]tl cha 

tany=eva narakarh 5 vas^t || [10*] Va(ba)hubhir=>vasudha 

Second Plate; Second Side, 5 

32 bhukt& rajabbih Sagar-adibhih | yasya yasya yada bhu:mis=tasya tasya tad& 

phalam || [11*] 

33 Sva-ha6t6=yadb. maMrajaputra-si'i-Kirttipalasya II Naigamzlnvaya-kayastha-Sodha- 

napta Subhamkarah j 

34 Daniddara-suiftslekhi 7 gasanam dharmma-s'asaiiam || [12^] Mamgalath maha- 

Srih || 


This inscription is on two stones which -were found on the SundM Hill, about 10 miles 
north of Jaswaniapura in the Jaswantapura district of the Jddhpur State of Rajputana. 8 I edit 
it from rubbings, kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha. 

The first stone contains 26 lines of writing -which covers a space of 3' 3" broad by 1' 7|'' high, 
the second 24 linea Tvhich cover a space of 2 f 10" broad by 1' 5" high. The size of the letters is 
about |" on the first stone, and between f and &" on the second. The inscription was carefully 
written by Namvasimha, a son of the physician Yijayapala, and well engraved by Jiearavi, a son 
of the sutradhdra Jisapala, and is in a state of perfect preservation. The characters are Nagari, 
and the language is Sanskrit. Excepting two prose passages at the bottom of either stone 
which record the names of the author, the writer and the engraver, the date samvat 1319 in line 
48, and another prose passage, numbered as a verse, in lines 35 and 36, the text is in verse, the 
total number of verses (including t the prose passage counted as a verse) being 59. As regards 
orthography, the sign for v denotes both v and & , the palatal sibilant is used for the dental in 
sasya-, 1. 16, jravamti, 1. 19, sahasrdmgu- (for saliasrdmgu-), 1. 22, Jalila-, 1. 23, Sitafa 1. 25, and 
titdmsu- (for sitdmtu-'), 1. 37 ; Teh and &h are confounded in mayuslia- (for may&kha-'), 1. 10, and 
pfydklia- (for ptyusJia-}, 1. 41 ; the i of M is left unchanged before the initial vowel of a proper 
name in dri-Asdrdja-, 1. 21, tri-'Uclayasim'ha-, 1. 35, and 6ri-A$>ardjitesa-, 1. 43 j chchh is written 
for chJi in chchhaMna, 1. 7, and ohchhdyayd, 1, 8 ; and the sign of avagraha is employed in 
Samderg srka, 1. 16, and in. four other places. The language is generally correct and plain, but 
there are one or two passages about the exact meaning of which I am still doubtful. I especially 
do not understand verse 12, which seems to allude to some legend unknown to me, in which the 
creator weighs the sun and the moon, apparently using the Ganges as a balance, Moreover, I 
am not sure about the meanings of the word Mkari, which occurs in verses 19 and 59, and 
gupyadguru in verses 15, 26, and 27. To judge from the context in verse 59 ($r$kart-sapta Jta- 
vddi-), the former 9 may denote some kind of musical instrument j and as a yupyadguru must be 

1 Bead rAl"lagitv&, 'commencing from the current year, 1 

2 Metre of this verse and the rest : S16ka (Anusbtubh). 

s Bead Ictgn6=smi. * Bead tJiathtim. * Bd iianlbi. 

6 Of the three lines on this side only a transcript! has teen sent to me by Mr. Ojha. 

7 The passive Aorist is uwd, wrongly here for the active altkhit, 

8 I owe this information to Mr. Ojha. 

> From the St. Petersburg Dictionary I see that! frlleart occurs in the Utfamaobaritralcat&tiHalaui, L 284 
(SitzungtberioMe der JT. Pretus. Akademie, 1884, Pirfc L p. 282), where Prof. Weber hac suggested for it tta 
uieauing ' a female ginger.' 


something on which a golden fewm&Tia and a golden Tcala^a can be placed, 1 the word perhaps 
denotes a temple generally or a particular temple. Of rare words or words employed in an 
unusual way we may note keli, ' the earth,' in verse 6, bMsphofa, ' a mushroom,' in verse 16, 
the feminine yugali, 'a pair,' in verse 18, and tdmluliya, ' an areca-nut,' in verse 21 ; bandhu 
and Mndhava denote ' a brother' in verses 24, 26, and 20 ; and a cousin is described as pitrivyaja- 
tayd bandhava, i.e. ' a brother in consequence of being born from a paternal uncle,' in verse 9. 

The inscription in the prose passage at the bottom of the first stone and in verse 59 is styled 
a pra^asti. It was composed by the (Jaina) s&ri Jayamangala (Jayamangalacharya), who 
belonged to the Brihad-gachchha and was a disciple of Ramachandra, himself a disciple of 
D&vacharya. 2 And its primary object is to glorify the Chaham,na chief Chfiohigadeva, 
during whose reign it was composed, and for whom it furnishes a date 3 in the month of 
Vaisakha of the [Vikrama] year 1310, falling in about A.D. 1262. Fortunately, the author 
has used the occasion to give a eulogistic account of the Chahamanas of Naddftla generally, 
which is of considerable interest. 

Verses 1-3 pray the moon on Sambhu's (i.e. Siva's) forehead and (Siva's consort) Parvati or 
Chandika to grant continuous good fortune and happiness. Verse 4 -then records that formerly 
there was the hero Ch&hamiina, a source of joy to the great ffishi Vatsa. 4 In his lineage there 
were : 

(1.) The lord of TTaddiila, king Lakahmaija, who was a fiakambharl prince 6 (w. 5 and 6). 

(2.) His son Sdbhita (v. 7; the S&hiya and S&bhita of A. andB.). He took away the glory 
of the lord (or lords) of the mountain Arbuda. 6 

(3.) His son Balir&ja (w. 7 and 8). He defeated an army of Mafijarfi-ja, i.e. the Paramara 
Vakpatir&ja II. Am6ghavarsha of Malava, for whom we possess dates from A.D. 974 to 993. 

(4.) His paternal uncle's son Mahlndu (v. 9). He is the MahSndra of A. and B., the son of 
Vigrahapala whose name ie here omitted. He most probably is identical with the Mahe'ndra or 
Mahindra (?) mentioned under No. 53 of my Northern Hit as a contemporary of the B&shtrakuta 
Dhavala of Hastikundl, whose inscription is dated in A.D. 997. 

(5.) His son Asvapala (w. 10 and 11 ; omitted in A. and B.). 

(6.) His son Ahila (w. 12 and 13 ; likewise omitted in A. and B.). He defeated an army 
of the Gurjara king Bhlma, i.e. the Ohaulukya Bhimadeva I, of Anahilapataka. 

(7.) His paternal uncle Anahilla (w. 14-17 ; in A. and B. described as the son of 
Mahendra). He also defeated the king Bblma (Bhimadeva I.) ; took S,kambharl ; and slew 

1 See verses 26 and 27. 

* He is described as irilcart'saptaka'vddin which, as intimated above, appears to mean ' playing the seven 


* The exact date (in verse 57) is the aTcshaya-trittyd or third tithi of the bright half of the month MMhava 
(VaiUkha) of the [Vikrama] year 1819, given both in words and in figures. The date does not admit of verifica- 
tion ; its possible equivalents would be the 4th April A.D. 1261, the 23rd April A.D. 1262, and the 12th April 
A.D. 1263. 

4 According to the inscription of Lontigftde'va treated -of under D. the holy Vachchha (Vatsa) brought 
tbont the creation of the Cbahnmana family. And according to verse 12 of the Bijoli rock inscription of 
Sdm&fvara (No. 164 of my Northern Lit*} Samauta, the first Cbahnmana chief, was born in the Vatsa #6(ra at 

1 The original ban SdJcambhartndra. It will be seen below nnder D. that Lakshmana most probably had the 
pithet Aikamlbart-mttnileya, ' the jewel of akambhari.' Mr, Ojha tells me that a Ch&haniana even now will be 
*44refted M SambTuu-irdja, ' SfLksmbhart prince,' 

* 1,0. Mount Abu. With the expression Kimddri-lhava of the original as a name of the mountain Arbuda 
oompare Himavatah tdnuji in the unpublished Vasantgadh iusoription of Varmalata ; Himaciiri-ianayal) in JKy. 
Ind. Vol. L p. 234, v. 6 j and G-eHtrtvaratvafvra-lkddhara-taihbJKiva above, Vol. VIII. p. 210, 1. 17. The lord 
(or lords) of Arbuda spoken of above probably belonged to the Paramara family treated of in the Vaiantgadh 
uwciiption of PurQipala, above, p. 10, 


(or defeated) S&dha, a general of tlie Malava kingBh.6ja (i.e. theParamaraBhojadeva), and the 

(8.) His son Blaprasda (TV. 18 and 19; omitted in B.). He forced the king Bhlma 
(Bhhnadeva I.) to release from prison a king named Krishnadeva. This Krishuadeva most 
probably is the Paranaara Krishnaraja (the eon of Dhaudhuka 1 and grandson of (?) Devarslja), 
of whom we have two inscriptions at BMumal (Srlmala), dated in A.D. 1060 and 1067 (Nos. 689 
and 690 of my Northern Lisf). 

(9.) His brother Jin dura j a (YV. 20 and 21; the Jendrarftja of A. and B.). He f ought 
victoriously at Sandra (the modern Sanderao in the J6dhpur State, south-west of Nadol). 

(10.) His son Frith vipala (vv. 22 and 23 ; omitted in B.). He defeated an army of the 
Gurjara king Karna, -i.e. Bhinaadeva's son and successor Karna Trail&kyamalla. 

(11.) His brother Tojaka (w. 24 and 25 ; the J&jalla of A., omitted in B.}. He by force 
occupied Anahillapiira (Anahilapataka). 

(12.) His brother JLsSraja (w. 26-30 ; in B. described as the son of Jendrar&ja). He pleased 
Siddhadhiraja, i.e. Karna' s son and succeasor Jayasimha Siddharaja, by the assistance whiok 
he rendered to him in the country of Malava, but afterwards apparently was on hostile terms 
with him. 

With the account of Asaraja ends that part of the inscription which is on the first stone. 
The part on the second stone (after a symbol for <5?) begins, as if it were an H*deiedent 
inscription, with a verse (v. 31) praying f or the blessing of Sambhu (Siva), ' the- ore^ of the 
SugandMdri/ 3 i.e. the mountain, Sugandna, which clearly is the Sundha Hill where the 
inscription was found. The author then continues the genealogy by stating that AglrAja'a son 

(13.) JLhl&dana (w. 32 and 33 ; the llhanadeva of A. and B.), His assistance was sought 
by the Gurjara Mng, and his army put down disturbances in the mountainous part of Surashtra 
(girau Sawdshtrg). He built a Siva temple at ITaddula We have seen above that the two 
inscriptions A. and B., which are of this chief's reign, are dated in A.D. 1161 and 1160. Before 
that time, he is mentioned (together with his son Kelhana), apparently as a feudatory of the 
Chanlnkya Ktunarapaia, in the Keradu fragmentary inscription of Knmarapala^s reign which is 
dated in A.D. 1153 (No. 183 of my Northern List}. 

(14.) His son Kelhana (v. 34). He defeated the southern king Bhilima, and after 
destroying the Turushka erected a golden torana, ' like a diadem for the abode of the holy 
S&mesa.' For the Mahdrdjddhirdja Kelhana I have given above, p. 68, note 1, a date iu 
A.B. 1165. The southern king Bbilima, whom he is said to have defeated, must have been 
the Devagiri-Yadava Bhillama, whose Q-adag inscription is dated in A.D. 1191 (No. 334 of my 
8'outhern List). 

(15.) His brother Klrtipaia (w. 35 and 36). He defeated a Kir^takuta oHief named 
Asala, and at Kasahrada routed an army of the Tnrnshka. As ruler of the kingdom of 
JTaddula he took up his residence at Javalipura. Of the places here mentioned Kir&tttkAta^J- 
Ker&dn, according to, Bhdvnagar Inscr. p. 172, 3 'a small village near Hathamo under B&damera' 
(Bfirmer) in the J6db.pnr State. Javalipura, to which KlridpSla transferred Ms residenoe, is th& 

1 He apparently is tie ParamAra Dhandhn, who acoordiug to an inscription at Virnala'* temple on. Ifbant 
Abd which will be mentioned below, p. 81, transferred his allegiance from Bnlmadeva L to king Bhdja the lortf 
of'DhaiA (*.a. Bhdjadfeva of MWara)-. * 

* I understand this epithet to mean thftfr therp wa a temple of Siva on the mountain Sugandha. 

* Inline B of the inscription given there the name appears ai Kitdta1c4pa t ~ According to the 

Vol. II. p. 2&S, ' Kheriro-' is ahoat 20 miles weat of Bftrmer:, ' 

town of Jalor in the same State. A place named Kasahrada has been identified by the late Prof. 
Biihler 1 with Kasandra or Kasandhra, a village with abont 400 inhabitants on the road from 
Pholka to Palitana,in Long. 72 11', Lat. 22 19'; but the Kasahrada of this inscription may 
be a different place nearer Nadol. According to verse 41 Kirfcipala's daughter Rudaladevl 
built two temples of Siva at Javalipura. 

(16.) His son Samarasirhha (vv. 37-40). He built extensive ramparts on the KanaMchala 
(or 'gold hill') and founded the town of Samarapura. This town I am unable to identify. 
Kanakdchala according to Mr. Ojha is the name of the fort 3 of Jalor which, he informs me, is 
locally known as ' Sonalgarh,' and the Sauvarna-giri of Javalipura I find actually mentioned in 
an inscription on Mount Abu. 3 In an inscription of the [Vikrama] year 1221, from which 
Mr. Ojha has Bent me a quotation, it is called Kdnchana-gadha. Samarasimha clearly is the 
Gh&hu[m&na*]-rdna[ka*~\--Samara>s ! ilia, whose daughter LUadevi was the (or a) queen of the 
Chaulukya Bhimadeva II. 4 

(17.) His son Udayasimlia (vv. 42-46). According to the prose passage in lines 35 and 36 
he ruled ' the glorious Naddula, the glorious Javalipura, Mndavyapura, Vagbbatam&ru, 
Surachanda, Ratahrada, Kheda, R&inasainya, Srimala, Batnapura, Satyapura, and other 
places.' With the exception of Mandavyapura and Ratahrada the places here enumerated are 
easily found on the map of the Rajputana Agency (in Marwar) under the names Nadol, Jalor, 
Banner, Surachand, Kher (between Tilwara and Ealotra), Ramsen, Bhinmal, Ratanpura and 
S anchor. Mandavyapura is Mandor, according to the Rdjput dna Gazetteer three miles from 
Jodhpur ; Ratahrada I cannot identify. TJdayasimha's queen was Prahl&danadvl, who bore 
to him two sonBj Ch&cMgadeva and Cb.anmndar,ja. Regarding his exploits, the inscription 
states in a general way that he curbed the pride of the Turushka, was not to be conquered by 
the Gurjara kings, and put an end to the Sindhu king. He was a scholar conversant with the 
great works of Bharata 5 and others, and built two iiva temples at JUvalipura. Udayasimha 
clearly is identical with the Hahdraja-dhirdja Udayasimhad^va of whose reign -v^e have three 
inscriptions at Bhinmal (Nos. 697-699 of my Northern List) dated in the [Vikrama] years 1262, 
1274 and 1305, corresponding to about A.D. 1205, A.D. 1218, and about A.D. 1248 ; and also 
with the Mahdrdjakula Udayasimhadeva, for whom I have given a date, falling in A.D. 1249, 
in Ind. Ant. Yol. XIX. p. 175, No. 115. He was succeeded by 

(18.) Ms son 8 Chachigadeva (vv. 47-57). He in verse 50 is described as 'destroying the 
roaring Gtirjara lord Virama, hating the enemy Salya, taking exquisite delight in felling the 
shaking (or leaping) Peltuka, depriving of his colour Sanga, and a thunderbolt to the mountain 
the furious Nahara.' As will be seen from this translation, the words 6alya,' ! pdtuka and tango, 
of the original must in, my opinion, like virama and nahara, be taken as proper names ; but of 
the five persons enumerated I can identify only the first. Being described as ' Gurjara lord, r 
Virama appears clearly to be the Vaghela ViramadSva, the son of VSradhavala and elder brothei 
of Visalade'va, who is reported to have been the son-in-law of Udayasimha of Javalipura, 8 and 

1 See tiia paper on the SuTcritasamTclrtana of Aiisimha, p. 25. For another identification of K&sshrada eee 
above, Vol. VIII. p. 206, note 2. 

\ For a description of this fort which is about 800 yards in length by 400 in width, and crowns a rocky hill 
of an altitude of 1,200 feet above the surrounding plain, see the Rdjpuidna Q-atetteer, Vol. II. p. 260, 

1 Line 83 of No. 1722 of Mr. Cousens' List. 

* See the plates of Bbimad6va II. (of A,D. 1206) in Ind. Ant. VoL VI, p. 195, Plate ii. line 1. 
J I.e. apparently the Bh<rattyii~ndtyajdatra. 

8 Udayaiimha's other son Ch&mnndaraja is not further mentioned in the inscription. He may be the 
Chamnndaraja whose name occurs under No. 703 of my Northern List. 

1 Salya probably is R proper name, denoting an enemy of Laviinupras&da, also in Ep. Ind. VoL I. p. 27, verse 
19. In our inscription the name may be Satrufalya ; compare Prof. Bggeling's Catalogue) p. 1510. 

* See Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 190. Compare alao the Mombay Gazetteer, Vol. I. Part I. p. '208, where 
Jabalipura has been taken to be Jab alp ur, 


would~tnerefore have been the own brother-in-law of Chachigadeva. Tlie following verses treat 
of the same chief's works of piety. At SrimEtla he remitted certain taxes, and at Ramasainya he 
granted funds for the worship of (the god) Vigrahaditya, and placed a golden cupola (Jcwmb'ha) 
and a flag-staff (dhvaja) on the temple of (the god) Aparajite^a to whom at the same time he 
gave a silver girdle (mSkhald'). For the same temple he provided a hall (jfaW) with a car 
(ratha) richly decked with precious stones. Chacbigadeva visited the Sugandhadri, worshipped 
there the goddess Ohamunda, known by the name Aghatsvarf, and at her temple established a 
mantfapa which was consecrated by tha Br&hmans on the aksTiaya-trittyd of the month VaiSakha 
of the [Vikrama] year 1319. 

I have already stated that the inscription thus for the reign of Chachigadeva yields a date 
in about A.D. 1262. Two other dates, of She [Vikrama] years 1333 and 1334, falling in about 
A.D. 1276 and 1277, are furnished for him by the two BMnmal inscriptions Nos. 702 and 703 
of my Northern List, where he is described as the Mahardjakula Ohachiga or Chachigadeva. 

I may add that Chachigadeva is mentioned, under the name Cnacha, in line 8 gf the 
J&dhpur inscription of Rupadevi, published by me above, VoL IV. p. 312 ff. In my text of 
that inscription I have given the name as Ohdva, and a renewed examination of the impressions 
enables me to affirm that either this is the actual reading, or that at any rate the name would 
be so read in the impressions by any one not acquainted with what we have learnt now from the 
Sundha Hill inscription. Knowing what I do now, I have no doubt that the intended reading IB 
Ghdcha. This ChaGha is called a Chahumana in Bupadevl's inscription and described as the 
son of TJdayasiifaha 1 and grandson of Samarasirhha, which exactly fita our Ohachigadeva. The 
inscription supplies the additional information that Chacha's wife was Lakenmld^vl, aiid that 
this lady bore to him BupadSvi, who became the wife of a king Tejasimha (to whom ahe bore 
a son named Kshetrasimha) and founded a well or tank in A.D. 1284, in the reign of ihe $ahd- 
rdjakula Samyantasimtiadeva. 2 


First Stone. 

1 || Om 1 * || 5 Svetambh&j-&tapatram kim=u Giri-duhituh Svastatinyjt gavakshah Hm 

va saukhy-asanam va mahimamukiianiah^siddhidevi-ganaBya | traildkyanatfada- 
het&h kim=uditam=anagham ^laghya-nak.shatram=uohchaih Sambh6r=bhalafithal- 
emduh eukritikrita- 

2 nutih pStu v6 rajya-lakshmim |j 1 B laasy=amk-avanir=anupamanamdasamd6ha-mfila 

chamchadvasSmchaladalamayi bhushana-praTidhapushya(shpi) | sallavanyddaya- 
Buphahm Parwatipr&ma-valli lakshmlm pushnlltv= anu-dmam=ativyakta-bhaity4 
natanam || 2 7 Vikatamukuta-madyatteia- 

3 s& vy&xnui daityan=iva bhuvi manimayya mekhalSya^ kvan&na } ananur&viia- 

lSlahajiifiakaiB=trasayamia phanipatibhuvan-amtas=CiLamdika vah fciy6=*tu || 3 

8 Srimad-Vatsamaharshi-harshanayan6dbhutarhvu(bu)puraprabha- 9 purvv6rvv!d h a r a - 
anauiimukhyafiikharalamkaTa-tigniadyutih | prithvim tratu- 

4 ro^pasta-daityatimirah grf-ChanamSnali pura virah kBhirasamudrasodara- 

yas6ragiprakai6=bhavat || 4t 10 Batn"avalyam=iva nripa-tatau tat-kramfi vifruiayaili 

1 The proper relation to TJdayasiihha o the M&navasimha who' ia mentioned in my account of H&pAdAvl'i 
inscription, &bqtre, Vol. IV. p. 818, will t>e given, below, uuder I>. 

* So the name is spelt in the inscription. The published texts of the inscriptions NOB. 704, 706 and 707 (of 
A.B. 1282, 1286 and 1289) of my Northern Li*t have SdrnvatatimhadAua. 

*. From a Tabbing supplied to me by Mr. Qanruhankar Hinwhand Ojha. 

Denoted by a lymboL B Metre : SragdharA. Metre : MandakrAntA. 

Metre : Malini. s Metre : iSArdiilayikrl^ita. 

* Originally frabAd was engraved, but the sign for d hai been itruok out 
19 Metre of Term 5 and 6 t Mtuuttkranta. 



dharmmaslhanaprakarakarana-praptapunyStsayayam | sri-Naddul-adMpatir.abliaval= 

5 raja Lakshmililasadanasadrii&kara- Sakambhar-lmdrah II 5 A patMat=eamara- 

jaladMm Mamdaro yasya khadgo mushti-vyajad=bhiijagapatina rimkhaln= 
ayaya(ba)ddhah | nirmmathy=6chchaih sapadi Kamalam lilay=6ddirittya(tya) 
mattas=chakre ruittam ranita-katakah kelikam- 

6 pa-chchhalena || 6 1 Tasmad=Dhimadribhavanatha-yas6pah.ari $ri-&6bhit6jani 

nripo=sya tanudbh a y6=tha | gambMryadhairya-sadanam Va(ba)lirajad6vd y6 
MumjarajWa(ba)la-bhamgam=achikarat=tam || 7 ^amrajy-asakarSnum 

ripimripatigaja-st6main=akramya jahre yat-khadgo gam- 

7 dhahasti samararasa-bharg Vimdiyasailayamane | muktaauktimdukamt- 

ojjyalamcMsiiu lasatkirtti-Revatatesliu prandhnamd6paci.ar.61vanaptaakatatih 
pushkaratiam chcktalena 3 || 8 4 Tatpitrivyajatay=at]ia Yam(bam)dliavah 

ri-Mahlmdur=ajanisIita bhupatih | yat-kfipana- 

8 latikam=upeyusham chchhayayaS virahitam ' mukliam dvisMrh || 9 Jajn^ 

k&mtas=tad=aBu cha bb.avas=tatrtanfij6 3 avapalah kalah krurS dvisM su- 
cLarite piirnnacliamdrayamanalL | yah eamlagnd na khalu tamasa n=aiva 
doshakar-atma tj6-nmktah kYackid=api na yah Hmcha mitr-6- 

9 dayesliu || 10 7 ^67 fir& g r aniTislitaratna]iikar a -pr6dyatprabl 1 adamya(ba)ra-Tyaktam 

samgararamga-mamdapatalS yam vairi-laksbjnik Srita | Tir^shn prasritfisliu 
tfishu rajasa nitSslm dnrllaksbyatam lavdii6Cbdli6)payava(ba)l=pi 

nirmmak-gunair=vagya prasasy-akritih || 11 Pn- 8 

10 tras=tasy=Ahila iti nripas=tamiiayfislia(kb.a)-c]achhalSaa srashta yasya vyadhita 

ya^asam t^jasam tSlanam nu | GamgatSle ^si-tapanay6r=dambliata3= 

charaohelS madi.yastb.ayidiruvamislia-lasatkamtak6 kauttikeiia || 12 8 Ourjaradbdpati- 
BMma-bhiiblnrjaljL sainya.pfiram=a- 

11 jayad=raB6sliu yah [|*] Sambhuvat=Triptna-sambhay a m ya(ba)lam vadav6= 

nala iv=ariivu(lm) dlite-jalam || 13 10 Sainyakramt-akhilayasmnatimamdalaa=tat- 
pitrivyah sriman raj=abhayad=atha jit-aratima!16=nahiUah I Bhlma.ksh&nipati- 
gajaghata ySna bliagna ran-agrS hridyarth-ambh6ni- 

12 dhi-Eaghu-krit ch=ha pamktih khalanam || 14 AmbhdjaniH mnkhany=ah6 

mrigadri^m ctamdr-fidayanarii mud6 Lakshmir=yatra narSttamanusaranayySp&ra- 
paramgama | yanaui praeabham BubLaixi eikhari-sr^n=iya gupyadguru-stdme 13 
yasya nareivarasya tulanam sSn=am- 

13 vu(bu)raS!r=dadhau || 15 Uryyirut 13 yitapavalamya(ba)-sugphiharmyeslm 

dfisam dhyat-atyamtaman6harakritinijaprasadayatayanah | bh&sphdta 
yitatany=alekya hah^ti-yak sasm.ar=atapayaranani gata& yad-yaravraa- 

14 h || 16 Drishtah kair=na CKatnrbhuiah sa samarS Sakarhbharlia y6 

ya(ba)laj=jagrah=anu jaghana Malava-pater-Bh6jasya Sdh-aiiyayam | 

damd-adhisam=apara-sainyavibliayarii tiyram Turushkam cha yah skshad= 
Vishrnir=asa[db,a]niya-ya^asa grithgarita ygna bhuh || 17 Jape 15 bbibhyitetad^a- 

1 Metre : VasantatilaM. 2 Metre . SragdharA. " Read chhalfaa. 

4 Metre : Rath6ddhata. s Bea i ajWya^d. 6 Metre : Maad&kranta 

1 Metre : S&rdfilaYikridita. 

8 Metre : Mandairant4.~ I am unable to explain this verse. See above, p. 70. 

9 Metre : Bath6ddhata. f w Metre : Mandakrantft. 

11 Metre of verses 15-17 : Sardtklaviirldita. 

12 The exact meaning of the word gvpyadgurv, is unknown to me 5 it occurs again in verses 26 and 27. See 
>tove, p. 71. 

18 Bead vrvvi-rudvi . u Kea d tatted. Metre : Mandakranta. 

L 2 


15 nu tanayas=tasya Va(b)lapras&do Bhima-kshmabhricli-charanayugalimardda^^ 

vyajato yah | knryan p5dam.-ativa(ba)lataya m&chayamasa karagarH'- 
bl.umipatim=api tatbl Krishriadev-abhidliariam 1 1 18 Srikaryo 1 jalada-bhram*"- 
dadhur=ah6 sainy=sya ae- 

16 Yarasayatartu-pratiine samujvala-pata 3 vasa marala-sriyam | karhpam vay^- 

vasena keta-nivalia ga(sa)sy-anukaraiii clia te 3 samgitani cha kSkilarava- 
tnlam cMtte . tu tapam dvishah || 19 4 SrimamB=tasy=aiani narapafcr- 
vam(bam)dhav6 Jimdurajo yah Samdere 

17 srka 5 iva timirarn vaiii-vrimdam vi(bi)blieda | yasya jy8tih-prakaram=a'bbi^' 

vidvishah tausik-abka drasbtnm sakta na M girigulia-mad]iyaTa=adhya^rita?- 
tat || 20 Gachchkamtinam ripu-mrigadrisaria bhushananam prapat^ 
asarair=glianaiati-talaiii vi(bi)bhratinam=aranye | durvva- 

18 bhramtim marakatamaBi- er^nayo yat-prayan& tamvu(bu)liya-blirama:ni=iva 

chakrire padmaragab 11 21 Pritlivira 6 palayitum pavitramatiman y^L 
karshukanarh 7 karam mamcban. prapa yaSariisi kumda-dhavalany=anamdahridy- 
ananah | Ppthvlpaia iii dbruvam ksMti- 

19 patis=aBy=amga]'anm=abliaTat=pratyak8b.6ranidliih s sa Gurjara-pateh KaninBsy& 

eainy-apahah || 22 Yat-sena kila kamadhemi-sadpisi kirttim gra(sra)vaiBt! 
payah svacL-cMiaifadam Eacb-aracliare=pi bb.tivaii^ ^atruths=trinikurvati I 

dliarmaoi vatsam=iva evakiyam^auagliam vriddbim nayathti 

20 muda kasy=anamda-kari va(ba)bb.uya na bbuy6=bMelitairi samatanvati || 23 

T6jak6 bliupatir=asya vam(bam)dhur=TiTekaeaudha-prava(ba)lapratapah 
atapatrna virajamanah gakty=lnaMliakhyapurpi reme || 24 
Bandb.am=udara-k^Hvipinam krid-a- 

21 n!m1& dirgbikam palyamk-agrayanam karenueliti mudam stbanam samamtad^api \ 

yasy=ariJj;shitipala-va(ba)lalalanaIj ^aile vane nirjhar6 sttulagrava-sirassu samsinritiztt^ 
agnh piirvSpabliukta-griyaih || 25 u Sri-Asraja-nama samajani vasudha-iiayakassta- 

22 sya vam(bath)dliuJtL saliayyaih Malays' nam bliuvi yadasi-kritarii -vikahya 

Siddhadliirajah I tmhto dliatte ema kumbham kanakamayam=ali& yasya 
gupyadgnru-stliam tarn liartum n=aiva ^aktah kalusbita-hridayah ggsbablifipala- 
vagbbiK U 26 ia TJdayagmgirab.-Btham kim eaMsramsu-vimvam 13 

23 vitata-visadakirtt^r=iatcddhiii Mm nu pratapab | upari siibbagataya adgata 

kirn kanaka-kalaga abliad=ya3ya gupyadgnru-stliah || 27 Kanakamcbi- 
pL.anipati-jnalianjyaay=avatarah sa Visb.n6h \ 

24 tayfl mamdire akamdiia'd^sS dadi.ad=avatum=Tidaram=agrimaiji punya-miirttihi il 2S 
^Sattragara-tadaga-kanana-Haraprasada-vapi-prapa-kup-adini vinirmmame dvijajaa- 
anamdi tsBama-mamdal^ | dharmmastliarta-sataiu yah kila Yu( 

* Metre : S4rdiilaviiTidita. Originally (rtlciry6 was engraved, but this Lau clearly been altered to *rtkari,6. 
The word occurs again in. verse 59, See above, p . 70. 

9 Ke&d tamujjvala'. 

* Here a sign of punctuation was engraved, but baa beea struck out. 

* Metre of venea 20 and 21 : Mandakr^nt^. 

1 The sign of avagraha is engraved at the end of the preceding line. 

* Metre of verses 22 and 23 : SardiUavikridita. 

1 Bead 'karshukdndm (for the ordinary TcarthaTcdndm}. 

8 ThiB word is qaite clear in the rubbing, but I am not sure that it i* correct. Perhaps the intended reading 
my be prafyaJcgh6=>mbuni<iMh* 

Metre : Upajati. Metre : Sardulavikri^il*. u Metre : Sragdliara. 

11 Metre of verses 27 and 28 ; Malinl. u Bead 

u Metre of verse* 29 and 30 : Bavd&avikrtdita. 


25 kalpadrumab kas=iasy=emdutuBbaragaila-dbava]am stotum yaah k&Yidalj. || 29 

Svetany=eva, yasamsi tmhgattiraga-st5ma1j. s"i(si)tab subbruYam cbamcbanmatiktika- 
bbusbanani dbavalany=ncbcbaih 8amagrany=api | pr&malapa-bbaYam smitam 
clia Yi^adain ubbr&- 

26 ni Yastraukasam. vrimdan=lti nripasya yasya pritana Kailasa-laksbmim sritli || 30 

Pragastirsiyam Yri(bri)liadgaclicliliiya-M-JayarQariigalacliarya-kritih || Bbisbag- 
Vijayapala-putra-N'aniYasimbSna likMta 1 Sutra- 1 Jisapala-putra-Jisaravina 2 utkir^n^ || 

Second Stone. 

27 II Om 3 || 4 Jata-mul Gamgaprava(ba)lalaiiariptrakub.ana-samiiiirailacb.cliliatraprakara 5 

iva namrSaliu nripatam | pradatum ri-Sambliuh salsalablniYan-adM^varataya 
taya va dSyad=vah ^ubham-iha Sugamdliadri-mtikiitah [| 31 6 Asaraja-ksliitipa- 
tanayah ^ri 

28 mad-AhiadaiL-ah.Y6 jajnfi bb.ubb.rid=bb.uYaiLa-Yidita=Chaiiam,nasya Yamg^ I ^ri- 

Naddiile Sivabb.aYaiia-krid=a]iarnimaBarvasYa-Yett& yat-B^hayyam pratipadam=ali6 
GJ-urjjaresas=ciiakamkBb.a || 32 7Cb.amcliatketakaohampaka-praYilaBattalltamalaguru- 

29 nanalik&rakadalidraks]a&mra-kamr& girau I Saurashtre katilograkamtakabMd- 

atyuddamakirtts=tada yasy=abb.ud=abHmana-bliasiirataya sSnachaTanam ravah 1! 33 
8 Brimams=tasy=aihga3a iba nripah Kelliano dakaHnagadM^-fidanicliad-Bliili- 

30 ma-nripatSr=manal]Lrit-saiayasiriidliuh | nirbMdy=6c]icliaih. praYa(ba)la-kaliiam yas= 

Turushkam Yyadhatta gTiS6naesaspadamiikTitaYat=t6ranaih karhchanasya || 34 
Bhrat= asy a prava (ba)lapratapa-nilayah ^ri-Kirttip16 bhaYad=bliu-natha^ 

pratipaksliapartMvacliamtdav-amYa(bTi)Yab.-&- , 

31 pamah I yat-ki.adgamvTi(bii)iiidb.au hat-arikarinarh kumbhasthalibliyaJbL ksb.aran= 

muktanam nikar6 marala-lalitam db.att6 sma dhar-agrayah || 35 T6 
durddamta-Kiratakfita-ixripatim bMttva ^arair=Asalaiii taamia=Kasalirade 10 
Turushka-nikaram ']itYa rana-pramgan& I ^ri-Javali- 

82 pur Btbitim Y yaracliayaai=Nadd1ilaxajy-eYara^=cHmtaratiia-iiib]iab. samagra- 
Yidusliam nibsimasainy-adhipali || 36 Sri-Samarasimliadeva8=tat-taTvayab. 
ksbdnimamdal-adblpatib. I Imdra iva Yivu(bu)dliabjiday-anamdi purasb.6ttam6 
Harivat j| 37 Prakarab. 12 Kanaka- 

33 chal Yiracbito yen=ha puny-atmana nanayamtraTnan63na-k6sb.ta(Blitha)katatir= 

YidyadbariiirBliaYaii [1 *] -Mm SSsbab. pbanaYrimdamSdura--fcamir=YaksbabsthalS 
va bbiiY6 barak tim bbramana-gramad=udTi-gauab kirn Y=aisha bbejS 
Btbitim |1 38 13 Kamala-Yanam=iY=dam Yaprairsb.ali-dam- 

34 bban=nikbilaYiptilad6iaM-samakarsbanaya 1 likMtaYisadaYirhd-asr6nivan=XQattaYairi- 

ksbitipativipbalajistdma-samkhyammittam U 39 Tfilayamlsa 14 yab svarnnair=atmanarh 
s&ma-parvani 1 arama-ramyam Samarapuram yab. kritaYan=atba \\ 40 

35 "Sri-Eirttipaiabbftpati-pii-fcri JfivftUpura7ar6 chakr& I gri-BadaladSvi Sivamamdira- 

yagalam pavitra-matib || 41 Sri-SamarasimhadSvasya namdanab prava(ba)- 

i I.e. s4tradhdra->, compare the same attreviation e.g. in Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 248, 1. 27, and above, Vol. 

III. p. 304, 1. 5. . 

J Bead n=6f. 8 Denoted by a symbol. * Metre : Siitarmt. 

Bead o4flA*Br^proftof. Metre : Mand4kr&ut4. t 7 Metre : 

s Metre : MandAkrania. ' Metre of verses 35 and 36 : Sard61avikridita. 

Here the a of the second syllable is (before hr) treated an a short vowel $ see Ind. Stvdien, Vol. VIII. 

p. 226. 

Ji Metre : Arya. " Metre : Sardillavikrldita. 

" Metre ; Malinl. u M etre : S16ka (Annshtubh). 

Metre of verses 4.1 and 42 : Aryi (pathyd aad Adi-vipvld). 


Then there came Lakshmana, who by his irresistible valour acquired part of the earth.' 
In the mutilated verse 12, which together -with verge 11 treats of this chief, the word Nadditta 
is distinctly legible, as well as Soltcuiibhan ; and it is certain that Lakshmana is described in 
the verse as king of Naddiila, and highly probable that he ia spoken of as Elakambhari- 
mnikya, 'the jewel of Sakambhari.' 1 After him, verse 13 mentions ' his son ' Baliraja, 3 and 
Baliraja's ' son,' whose name I read as S6M, 3 regarding this to be another form of the name 
Sohiya (Sohhita, Sobhita,) of the preceding inscriptions. According to the latter, Sohiya was 
Lakshmana's son, and his son again -was Baliraja ; the author of the present inscription has 
erroneously transposed the two names. Verses 14-18 then enumerate Mahinctu, 4 Jinduraja, 6 
Asarja, Alhana, ELlrtipala and Samara simha. 3?rom what we know abeady from the other 
inscriptions, this is the line, from father to son, of the Chahamanas of Naddula from Mahindn 
to Samarasimha, except that, between Mahiiidu and Jinduraja, Anahilla, the son of the former 
and father of the latter, has been omitted. So far our inscription tells us nothing of import- 
ance that is new. 

Samiirasimha, according to verse 19, had two sons, of whom the one called TJdayasimha, 
who also is^already known to us from bhe inscription C., succeeded him in the government, 
TJdayaaimha's elder brother was Blauavasimha (v. 20) ; his son was Prat&pa (v. 21), and his 
son Vijada, also named DaSasyandana 7 (v. 22). This chief married Namalladvi (v. 23), who 
bore to him four sons I*fi,vanyakarn.a, Lundha., 8 Lakshmana, and Limavarman (v. 24), of 
whom the eldest became the ruling chief. When Lavanyakarna died, he was succeeded by the 
next brother, whose name in verse 26 ia clearly Ltmtigadeva, in verse 28 Luntiga, in verse 30 
Imndh&gara, and in the prose passage in line 29 Liintagara. Luntiga conquered and ruled 
* all countries,' particularly Chandravatl and the divine territory of Arbuda (Arbuda-divya- 
desam, v. 27). On ihe mountain Arbuda he set up images of himself and his queen, and carried 
out repairs at the temple of Aohaleivara. As a grant to the temple, he moreover gave the village 
of HStb-Ufijl fl (v. 33) for the perpetual worship of the god. 

From the prose passage whteh follows, and which is more or less illegible, we learn that in 
th.e year 1377, on Monday, the 8th of the "bright half of Vaisakha, in, the Kshaya-Bamvat- 
sara, Luntiga, described as the Ma7idriijakula } the glorious Luntagara, resided at [Vu ?}hundlia 
which belonged to Chandr.vatl. 10 This date regularly corresponds, for the expired Kdrttikddi 

1 The Translation, after Lakshmana, mentions " the heio, named Mlnikya, whose distinguished capital was 
Sakambhari 3" tufc tbis is erroneous. 

3 The Translation has Adhir&ja instead. 

8 The second half of the verse, part of which ia very indistinct, in my opinion is: S6ht'samjna,[sat a "]t6 
vam$& 6bht Ihdmau hi ia^-su/o[^].~Tho name $$hi occurs above, Vol. VIII. p. 220, 1. 13. 

* The original actually has Jtiahidu. 

1 The Translation has Sindhuraja, Kulaviverddhana, Prabhurasa Rajfi, (derived from the actual reading 
prablwrAaardja)> Dandana (for Alhana), Kirtipfi,la and Samarasinha. 

' According to tlie Translation Manavasimha waa Udajwimha'a son 5 but this is a mistake. The original 
text, after mentioning Udayasimha, clearly has : y6 vaipard ddna-guvair=garishthas'>tasy*d/raj6 Mdna,va>imka- 

i J.a. Dalaratha. The original text of vewe 22 is : Tasy^dtma.j& ^p4[r]wgu^-ddUvdsa [d]i(st)daI)aSasyam- 
&anq-ndma[dli&(dhW]ya,h [|*] va(l<t)sd(b1i4)ra, vtjdni tu 7ijad6 y6(ya&*>}ahatvdri r&jydya Harty prasdddf 
I (||). I shall show below that the chief here spoken ot undoubtedly was named Ptjada. The name Daiasyandana 
(Dawatha) may have been, given to him because, like Eama'a father Da&uatha, he, according to the account here 
given, had four sons. Compare above, Vol. VIII. p, 215, v. 18. 

8 The reading of the first syllable of this name is not absolutely certain here. 

1 Above, Vol. VIII. p. 222, line 38, and in an unpublished Mount &bu inscription (No. 1794 of Mr. Consene* 
Lifif) the name is spelt Htthailmji. 

V The text bai i tamwtt 1377 vartU Vai[f\<ikha'(udi 8 S6mt Kshaya-iamvalsttri Sdy^tfia Chamdr&vat <- 



Vikrama year 1377, to Monday, the 6th April A.D. 1321, when the 8th tibU of the bright 
half of Vaisftkha ended 17 h. 13 m. after mean sunrise j the day did fall in the Jovian year 
shaya, which according to the northern mean-sign system lasted from the 30th May A.D. 1320 
to the 26th May A.D. 1321. 

Of the localities mentioned, in addition to the well-known Arbuda or Mount AM, 
Chandravatl according to the Rajputana Gazetteer, Vol. HE. p. 126, ia a large place (now in 
jn.ins) on the Banas river near the south-east border of the Sirohi State. There can be no doubt 
that it was taken by Luntiga from -the Paramaras. 1 Hethufiji is the small village of 
' Eetamji ' on Mount Abu. 2 Vuhundha if this is really the name I am unable io identify. 

On Mount Abu there are at least two other inscriptions, 3 of no great extent and partly 
illegible, of the reign of Luntigadeva, described as the Mahdr&jakula, the glorious Lfindhaka 
0r Lundha(P). One is dated on Wednesday, the 8th of the dark half of Ohaitra in the 
(Vikrama] year 1372, corresponding, so far as I can see, to Wednesday, the 17th. March A.D, 
J316 ; the other on some specified day, which I cannofc make out with certainty, in the [Vikrama] 
year 1373. And there is a third, partly effaced inscription,* which also mentions the Mahdrdjd- 
Jtula, the glorious Lfindhaka or Lfinfhaka, and speaks of the glorious KlmaladSvl, who 
clearly is the Namallade'vi of the present inscription, the mother of Luntigadeva, I am not at 
present prepared to give a fuller account of these three inscriptions. 

But I may add here that another account of some of the later Chahamanas is found in an 
inscription 5 which is on a stone at a temple the Vimala-vasaUltd, ordinarily but wrongly 
.called Vimala Sah's or Shah's 6 temple which was founded on Mount Abu, according to the 
inscription itself in the Vikrama year 1088,7 by a certain Vimala, ' an ornament of the Prag- 
vata race,' after he had been appointed danfapati at Arbuda by the (Chaulukya) king Bhima- 
de'va (I.). This inscription in lines 9-15 (verses 14-22) gives th*e following ' rdjdvali ' : 

There was a hero, Asaraja 8 by name, a moon to the lotus-flower the Ghahuv&ma'i 
family, who was king of the town of UMftla 10 (v, 14). Then there came Samarasiifaha ; and 
his son was Mahanasimhabhata (v. 15). Then came Pratapamalla ; and of him was born 
"Vtjada, who ruled the Marusthali-mandala (v. 16). He had three eons, the first of whom was 
the king Lftniga (v. 17). After him the text mentions Lundha (v. 18) and Lumbha (v, 19), 
without distinctly saying that they were his younger brothers; It then records the conquest Of 
Arbuda (v. 20) ; says further that LU^iga's son waa Tejasimha (v. 21) ; and after him eulogizes 
Tihunaka, to whom it wishes long life (v. 22). 

The mutilated verse 23 appears to say that the glorious Lumbhaka, together 'with* 
TSjasimha and Tihuna, in right manner carried on the government of the mountain Arbuda f 

Sae my Northern Liti, No, 198, 209 and 210 (now above, Vol. VIIL p. 201). 
See above, Vol. VIIL p. 207, aud the Rdjputdna Qasstteer, Vol. III. pp, 181T and 141. 
tfos, 1907 and 1909 of Mr. Congous' List. 
No. 1908 of Mr. Cousens' List. 

No. 1790 of Mr. CousW List. I hope soon to give the text of tbu inscription, which ifl *eady for 

1 Vimala tdla seems to occur firat la At. Set. Vol. XVI. p. 811, note. It owes its origin to a inliuudr* 
tending of the term Vimala-vatahikd, ' Vimal&'s temple,' which we find e^, in line 8 of No. #74 of Mr. Consaw* 
liist. I may add that In line 10 of the same inscription we have the similar term Tijap <Ka-ea*iiH 'TejapAla'B 
*mple.' _ ' . 

t foe date" is girenin veraellt rt~njcrAmdditywrip<td=>vyatitS Sihtfaifaydtt (arrtdfa iafrairl(ir6) I 
*+t-jlditidthaik tiHaft'f^udatya tvSti(fi)faih Sri- Pimaltna vafadt I). 
8 I give all names here exactly as they are written in the original 
' This may be a uptake for Chdhttvdna or GMhwdQa* 

u Thia ii the actual spelling of the name, and is required by the metre. The same may be laid of the name : 
a, which occurs below. 


and the rest of the inscription treats of a. private family, two members of which made repairs of 
the temple. - The date given in verse 41 is Monday, the 9th of the dark half of JySshtha of 
the [Vikwuna] year 1378. It corresponds to Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1822. 

Afl regards the genealogy given in this inscription, it is curious, 'but of no historical impor- 
tance, that it commences With Asaraja 1 (JUaraja,; Aiaraja), who was neither liEte founder of the 
family .nor the father of Samarasiifaha who is here mentioned immediately after him. Instead 
of the name Manavasimha of Luntigadeva's inscription "this account has Mahanasimha which 
must be regarded as. another name of the same person; and while accor$^, to the former 
Vijada had four sons, according to this genealogy he had only three Iiunjga, Lundha and 
Lumbha. Of these, Luniga undoubtedly is identical with the Lavanyakarnar of the other 
inscription, 8 and Lundha with Luntiga (Lundha), while Lumbha (Lumbhaka) most probably is 
another name of Lunavaraan. What is new to us and of some importance, is, that by the 
account here given Tejasimha, who is known to us from other inscriptions, was a eon of Luniga. 
According to No. 261 of my Northern List Tejasimha 8 vrae ruling in the [Vikrwna] year 1387, 
corresponding to A.D. 1331 ; and there is an unpublished Mount Abft inscription* of his of the 
[Vikrama] year 1393, corresponding to A.D, 1336. What -was the exact relation of Tihun&ka 
(TOmija) to Tejasimha, does not appear from the Vimala temple inscription; but the matter very 
probably is cleared up by. a statement in an inscription (No. 265 of my Northern lout*) of TSja- 
gimha's eon KflnhadadSva, who was reigning at Chandravati in the Vikrama year 1394, corre- 
sponding to A.i>. 1338, That inscription in lines 11-14 records four separate grints of villages 
by the Chdhun^afadtiya-rdja-r$-T$i&Bimla.a, ) the <^fltf&frl-Tihtin$ica> the rdja-sri- 
Etahadadeva, and the C/a?iwm(i?i(iJa(!)<li/o-r4Ja-^rt-Samata8lmha. Haste Tihunaka is 
placed between Tejasimha and his ; son Kanhadadeva, who both are distinguished from him by 
iheir title of r&jan. This and the order in which Tihunaka is mentioned in&B Vimala temple 
inscriptdoh render it probable that he was IMjasimha's younger brother. And thir may possibly 
be the. meaning of the ; w.ord 44vafA prefixed. to his name* a word which saemato'bff'Stymologically 
oorawctedwith ^ifl Sanskrit d$v^ dSvara, need in the' specific sense, of '* hwfeand's youngw 
broffler.'* >J 

In the Table on page 83 I have placed all the chiefs mentioned in i|e above in their 
genealogBoal order, "and have given, the dates known from: iiuacriptioni either fef iGb^nBelves or for 
the kings and chiefs with whom they are said to have come xn-eottiaofc The^fiJfe wfll showthat 
takflhmana, the founder: of the family, must b^ placed in about A^D. 926-950, wd that there- 
fore'hb very fwobably "waa a son of that Vftkpatifi j ft of SftVftTnjjbft^, who waft tt grandfather of 
the Vigrahwaja'' of the Haraha inscription who lived m AJ). 973. My ganellQgioal Table of 
{he family is not quite' complete. I .do not, know yet iow .to :p3aoe ao% itm^fahdfdjaktila 
Sdmvataeimha or Samyantasimha, who' is meatibned in Noe. 704-707 of my JTori^n List 
with dates from about A,D.-1282 to A.D, 1289, and if thia should be a djairof chief the 
&tfd Sltaataaimlia, mentioned in 

i If it vr? not far the othsr inwriptioni,: tb.l ytaae might of caafe ^iakn to tUwllir^lfffn^a. 

dft tn No, 2ffi ot my 

1 The fimmUtion of the Mprat kingdom of Nddlik wu p^l^pf 



Lakshmana of Naddtila (son of V&kpath'aja of Sakambharl). 


&biya (S6bMta, Vigrahap&la. 
S&bbita, S6M). 

Baliraja. 1 MahSndra (Mahtndn).' 

Alvapala. Anahilla. 

Abila. 4 Balaprasada. 5 J&ndraraja (Jinduraja). 

Pfithivipala. 8 J&jalla (Ydjaka). Igaraja (Agaraja).? 

Alhana (AL.ladana') ; 8 m. Ai 
A.D. 1153-J161. 

K&lbana. 9 Gajasiriilia. Kirtipfila.^ 
A.D. 1165. I 


ManaTasimha (Mahanaslriiba). Udayasimha; nl. PrahBdaiiad&vi. LSlad&v!; 11 m. 

V.D. 1205-1249. by Bhinjadfiva II. 

(A.D. 1194-1288). 

Pratapa. Chaohiga (Chacha) ; m. Lakahmtdfivl Chimun^araja. 

A.D. 1262-1277. 

VSiada-Dafiasyandana ; m, NamalladSvi Bflpad^vt; m. by T6jasimha. 11 

" A r IVQA 

A.D. 1284. 

L&va^yakarna (Lftijiga). l4Wto ia '(Ltindlift). Laksima^a. L^avarman (Lumbha). 

A.D. 1816-1821. 

Tfejasimta. Tihu^aka. 

A.D. 1888. 

1 At war yriih Vb PwamAra Wn,fijaiAj.<A.D. 974-98). 
Probably a cotitempowcy of Dl&vala of Hastikn^l (A.D. 997). 

A,D. 1831-1336. 

Kanhadad6va ' A * w ^^ * te Chaalnkya Bhlmadeva I. (A.D. 1029) aud the Parawia 

(A.D. 1021). 

At war with'BUlmad^Ta I. 
Probably a contemporary of the pwamara Krishnadeva (A.D. 1060-67). 

At wr with the Chunlnfcy. Katv* (A.JX 1091). 

7 Contemporary of the Chaulukya Siddb^ (A.O^ 1138 in . 

a Contemporary of the Chaolukya ^^ ai ^ [ ^'^'^ 

At war with the Devagiri-Yftdav. Bhillama (A.D. 1191). 

w Transferred the seat of government to Javallpm-t 

11 It is impowible to lay wbether these wer* youger daughtew. 

Thi* TftiaaiAha bad on nHifd KaJidtraslrfaha. 

Took Chandr&ratt with Mount AhA from the Paramawe. 



Amb&saraudram is situated on the northern bank of the Tamraparni river and * H *"<-* 
quarters of the t&luka of the same name in the Tinnevelly district. The town l* iv3 * l( -*^ 
imputation for the manufacture of cloths largely in demand on the western coiist- ^ On & 
southern bank of the river is the big and flourishing village of Kallidaikkuric belli;. %v mull p: ^ 
its name to the cloths manufactured at the sister town on the other bank, because* the Im^f ' 
them is carried on mostly by the Brahmanas of the former place, who temporai-ily n.'tjin- -- 
Malabar and are frequently met with on the west coast. 

The site of Ambasamudram seems to have been altered in comparatively recent; tiH 4 H, 1 ^ * 
greater portion of the town is now situated at some distance from the river, vrliil*' tin* K,V*S 
important temple, now called Erichcha-Udaiyar, is quite close to it, and is separate*! f*'i <*- 
town by a pretty large extent of rice fields; The heavy floods in the Tamrapax-rii at a-rf*.t 
seasons of the year might be one of the causes which led to the removal of the town. t-Q tt m*-?* 
distant locality. Besides, in ancient times, Ambasamudram seems to have been *J* big J>1*> 
including some of the adjacent villages such as Tiruv&llsvaram 1 and Mannfi/r3s:d3'' r il' a In ** 
inscription, of [Jatavarman Sundara-jChfila-Pandya 3 the temple of Erichcha-Udaiy&r in eastl "* 
be situated in the southern hamlet of B&jaraja-ehaturvedimangalam. During t>lio jH;rir>d s* 
Pandya supremacy the town was called Ilangokkudi or IJangoykkudi,* which was tt Jtc'itr<l sr - 
Efijaraja-chaturvldimangalam after the Chola conquest. 5 The latter name has px-olmbly tt> f 
traced to the Oh&la king Eajaraja I., after whom the Pflndya country was itself called Hftjari}*- 
mandalam. 6 

During the field season of 1904-05 I copied eight inscriptions in the temple of Ki'it'hri.s- 
U^aiyAr, of which two belong to the early Pan^yaa, 7 two to the ChSlas, 8 one to t}i CJi^>- 
Pandyas 9 and two to the later Pandyas, 10 while the eighth does not mention any king. 1 L One of i 1'^ 
early Pfindya records 18 seems to belong to the reign of Vira-FSridya, ' who took th.0 Ixead. of tfc* 
Ohdja.* TheOhftla king with whom he fought must be Aditya (II.) KarikfiJa, 18 wh.o acconlisf 
to the large Leiden plates, fought in his youth against Vira- Pandya. 14 The newly <3icovt*re<i * 
TiruvMangfidu plates of Raje'ndra-Chdla I. do not mention the name of the Pandya kirt# ftgwjytf 
whom Iditya II. fought, but report that the latter "killed the Pandya king in battle and **i 
up his lofty head as a pillar of victory in his city."* Accordingly, Vira-Pandya reigned in ite 

i The temple at Tiruvallfimram is said to have been situated in Bajaraja-ohatarvMimangalam, wliicli WM tfc* 
name of AmbaBamudrara in Chdja times t Annual Report o* Epigraphy for 1904-6, p. 48, Nos, 115 ao.<* 1 19 of IWt 
nu * Th * V ^^. teTa I )leattMaTma 8r e ' U4 Bl^ndra-Chdla-vinnagar in ancient times, was alo 0Itut*i tt 
*MJWMtovMuniagTMa j No. 112 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1905. 

1 No. 102 of the same collection. 

* No. 104 of the nut* and^lmea 2, 6 f. aad 10 f. of the subjoined inscription. 

1 Sovth-Ind, Inter, VoL II. p. 149. 

[ Noi. 101 aad 105 of the Government Epigraphy's collection for 1906 

8 Koi. 98 and 99 of the same collection. 

1 Ho. 102 of the wme. w 

not ,v* *K m ^ N 

.no. iu* of tne game, H !- 

l. I. p. H2 


period prior to the conquest and occupation of the Pandya country by the Ch61as at the end of 
the 10th century A.D. 

The subjoined inscription is engraved on a slab built into the floor of the first circuit in the 
Eriohcha-TJdaiyar temple, -which is comparatively dark. The record was found and copied with 
the help of a lamp. At my request the Collector of Tinnevelly has removed the slab to the 
Government Central Museum at Madras. The plate iesned with this paper is based on fresh 
impressions prepared by my Assistant Mr. K. V. Snbrahmanya Aiyar, B.A., after the removal of 
the stone to Madras. 1 The alphabet of the document is VateJuttTi and the language TamiJ 
prose intermixed with a few Sanskrit words in the Grantha alphabet. The preservation is good, 
though a few syllables are mutilated at the end of lines 3 to 13 and 81. The slab was ruled 
before the writing, which is crowded into three sides of it, was engraved. The number of 
Sanskrit words written in Grantha is comparatively few, viz. svasti (1. 1), fri (11. 1 and 3), 
anugraha, (1. 1), bha^dra (11. 1, 3 and 10), maharaja (I. 5), mahardja (11. 12 and 81) and 
rajyavasha (1. 12). 

The following peculiarities of the alphabet deserve to be noted. The horizontal stroke of Tea 
is very often small and indistinct. But the letter has not yet assumed the slanting form found in 
the Tirunelli 8 and Cochin plates 3 of Bhaskara-Ravivarman. The variant of the letter ytt 
noticed by Prof. Hultzsch in the Kottayam plates of Sthanu-Bavi and in certain Choja inscrip- 
tions 4 does not occur here. Two slightly different forms of t are used, of which one (the -first t 
of tieluttu in 11. 5 and 14) resembles, to a certain extent, the form in an ancient Vatteluttu record 
from Tirun&darkunr.u in the South Arcot district. 5 The vowel ai occurs thrice in the inscription 
(11. 9, 22 and 75). As in other Tamil inscriptions, hardly any distinction is made between the 
short * and the long i when they occur in combination with consonants. Double fcfc is occasion- 
ally written as a group, e.g. in mahardjarkku and ndngdvadukku in line 12 ; poludaikku inline 
15 ; hum-may attukku in line 16 ; lakku and ^kkaruvdlai in line 18. The -i-symbol is added in 
some cases over the top of the consonant to which it belongs, instead of by the side as in 
later Vatteluttu epigraphs ; see e.g. vi of virrirundu (1. 6), U of poli (1. 9), $i of kutfi (1. 11), 
m of vamidu (1. 14), and U of na=ndti (1. 16). The syllable p6 is written as in the Madras 
Museum plates of Jatilavarman 6 without the addition of the d-symbol (on the right) found 
in the Chola Vatteluttu inscriptions 7 published by Prof. Hnltzsch. The Tirtmelli plates 8 
distinguish by a similar addition Ihe longpo from the short po, and only p> single instance of the 
former occurs in the Cochin Jews' grant.* Thus the distinction between y>o and po appears to be a 
later innovation, and evidently belongs to a period subsequent to the Jatilavarman plates and to 
the subjoined inscription. If this conclusion be correct, the Cochin and the Tirunelli plates 
of BhSskara-Ravivarman must be later than Varaguna-Pan dya. And as Prof. Hultzsch 
has remarked that the alphabet employed in both of them agrees with that of the Ch6{a inscrip- 
tions from South Travancore published by him., 10 Bhaskara-Ravivarman may have to be assigned 
to the 10th or llth century A.D. 

The language of the subjoined record calls for a few remarks. The vulgar form mahardja 
occurs twice instead of the Sanskrit mahardja (11. 12 and 81), while maharaja in line 5 is 

1 The stone has evidently been slightly damaged in tranMt. Accordingly, portions of the last letters in 11. 4 
to 9, which are missing on the Plate, are found on my original impression prepared at Amb&samudram in 1U05 befot* 
the stone was removed to Madras. 

* Ind..Ant. Vol. XX. Plate facing p. 290. 

* Above, Vol. III. Plate facing p. 72. * Above, Vol. V. p. 42. 

8 No. 289 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1904 and Annual Report for 1908-4, paragraph 8Q. 
Ind. Ant, Vol. XXII, Plates facing p. 70, U. 32 and 43. 

* Above, Vol. V. Plate facing p. 46, E,, line 1 $ and H., 11. 5, 8 and 9. 

* Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. Plate facing p. 290 5 compare pay in 11. 13, 19 and 84 with p6m io 1. 21. 

* Above, Vol. III. Plate facing p. 72 ; compare f6lan in line 2,7 with pdm of the preceding uotje. 
Above, Vol. V. p. 42. ' . . 



[VOL. IX. 

evidently & mistake. Amidu (1. 14) and amvrdu 1 (1. 19 f.), both of which, correspond to tlie 
modern Tamil amudu, are tadbhavas of the Sanskrit amrita. The -word jwZt (1. 9) is used both 
here and in the TrieMnopoly care inscription, of Varaguna-Pandya* instead of the . more common 
poltiai, -which ooonrB in the Tanjore inscriptions 3 'and stirvives in the'Malayalain faltea, 1 ' The 
word wtfftt (11. 27 and 69) is still current in Malayalam, -while; its mod&rtf T'aniii, equivalent is 
nfrtt. The root from which they are both derived is n4r, -which has aequired & figurative sense 
in Tamil, 5 -while the original meaning seems to be preserved in Telugtu* The measure known 
as Sovijti occurs four times in the form &vtfttt (11. 25, 27, 5.4 and .70). The -word nigadi is -used 
in line 27 as well as in line 13 apparently in the. same sense as nt&uW, of which niyzdi (1. 77.) 
is a variant. V6n* in line 75 is a vnlgar forra of the -word vfatfiya. The form &nr, -which 
occurs twice (11. 58 and 73), is perhaps a simple mistake for kttruni. 

The subjoined inscription belongs to the time of Varaguna-Mah^r&ja, whose name occurs 
thrice (11. 5, 11 f. and 81), and is dated in the 12th opposite to the fourth year of his reign, 
From his camp at Arais"ur on the bank of the Peanai river in Tondai-n&dUi the king granted 
290 fcrflu to the temple of Tiruppdtftxdaiy&r? (the ancient name of Erichcha-Udaiydr) at 
Ilangdkkudi in MuJ|i-n4 u ' 8 The assembly of the village received the money. The committee 
of the assembly 9 and the temple servants had jointly "to provide for offerings to the god, accord- 
ing to a fixed scale, out of the interest from those 290 Jed^u. 

The inscription of Varagnpa-Pandya in the Upper Cave at Triohinojioly is dated on the 
2501st day (and) in the 4th year or. the llth year of his reign. 10 No reasonable doubt can at pre- 
sent be entertained as regards the identity of this king Vfith the dono* <rf ihe subjoined record. 
On the occasion of making the former donation Varaguoa was at Ulyamam in the Tanjore 
district, after having destroyed the fortifications of a town named Vfimbi^, At Eaman&tliapuram 
near Dindigul in the Madura district is a Tamil inscription which refers to the expedition 
(ydttirai) of Marafija4aiyan a gainst Idavai in the Ghdja country. 1 * The Tsiohinopoly epiga-apli 
implies that Ma^anjadaiyanp was a surname of Varaguua, 1 ' Hnd iikis infewnfie is borne out by a 

1 Amircht ocoun also ia the Tanjor* incripti6ng j ee e^. Sottih^Ind. Inter. Vol, II p. 69, text line 3, 
Amvrd* U mother form of the same wort i we abore, Vol. Vll. p. 194, tart line 8. , ; 

See the Diraotoi-Gteneral'B A***al for 1803-4, p. 276, text line 18. 

See e#. Swtb-lnd. Inter. Vol. U. p. 69, text liae 8. The form pvlitoi lo <Xscun in eplgraphical records; 
ee iUJ. p. 1S2, text line 27. ' ; 

4 According to Dr. Gundert jaalifa means ' interert on money,* 
Aooordinf to WinBlow4fttmean*b6defltroy, tokilL* ' 

Acoox^ng to Btown's Ftlug* Ei&tiaiwy, 4rifa meani 'to grind oe ahftrpeu' ;j^/to reduce to powder.' 
IMimunemeana 'tixebleawd lord of the boll,'*. . SiT. ^ ; . 

According to an iMcttpttott of the C3^ Jdng Bajftndta-OM^ftl, (aboTe, Vol. ^%, p> 4^) ShArmfid^i in the 
TinheTdly diatriot was incladed In MuUi-nfcfc. )CnUi-n|^iJbelonged' t6 ^ I^r**^t-tl, t.e. Travancore, in the 
iTtii oetttnty A.. (Uid. -TU. IO. p/flWQ.' v ^ ,, 

The ezpreaaion favai-vdriyar tetoau to implj tihat the lyttem of Tttlge aflmtitfitifttlon prevalent in the 
Choi* ooantry in the 10th century A.D. WM aOw> in operation in-tbe PA<}4ykIni[don)iBi the 9th century A.D.; 

See the Ditector-aeneral'i J.**al for 190^4, p. 276. . 

u A*t*ai Report .o Spiff raphy for 190&'6; Part TL pior*gtEh S. f|l* 
Sewell (Litt* of 4<2f, Vol. J. p, ''' 

character!. .. ' ,'"''''. ' 

19 MArafijadatyan, eemto hare been a fotal name of Tomgona, fqjit 
Taraan were of Ohftla king*. Ko^erittinaikondln, WW ft thndar 

ln*8^ption mentioned by Mr. 

W 'V very old Tamil 

quently by thePtnd^ai too. Among the 11 
domed, eyideatly, from the. Tamil word* JOr4f nd 
bn o of ten app^ to the Ptndya ting that it ha* boma oiie. ol ib* 
" JSTfli -2?y o;C ;!k|MI 4a the Trrrandrum MuMran belongs fa 

g, andTilufiam, ' ' ' ' ' 

kings and subse- 
formal names 
Cupid,' bat has 

i- I* njy ^<> a 


record at Tillasthanam in the Tanjore district, which, is dated during the reign of Ma^an jadaiyan 
and records a gift for the merit o Varaguna- Maharaja. 1 Accordingly, it may be concluded that 
Varaguna alias Mar,anjadaiyari led the expedition against Idavai in the Ch&la country. Idavai 
is evidently identical with the village of the same name 2 in Manni-n&du, a subdivision of 
Ba^ndrasimha-valanadu situated on the northern bank of the river Kveri. 3 The village of 
VSmbarrur situated in the same subdivision 4 might be identical with Vembil, whose forfcifica- 
tions Varaguna destroyed. The destruction of Vembil probably followed soon after the expedition 
against Idavai. In the same locality is Timppirambiyam, 5 where a battle was fought between 
the Pandya king Varaguna and the Western. Q-anga Prithivipati I. 6 The expedition against 
Idavai in the Ch61a country and the attack o Vembil were apparently acts of aggression? 
on the part of the Pandya king, which eventually led to the battle of Srjpujjambiya (in Tami] 
Timppirambiyam). The part which Prithivipati I. played in this battle was hitherto inexplic- 
able. In editing the Trichinopoly cave inscription of Varaguna-Pandya, I remarked : 8 " How 
it was that the Gangas of GangavUdi in the Mysore State managed to get so far south as 
Kumbhak&nara in the Tanjore district, and why the Pandya king Varagana had to fight 
against them, are points on which no information is at present forthcoming." The verse in 
the Udayendiram plates which describes the battle runs as follows, with Prof. Hultzsch's 
corrections : 9 


With the approval of Prof. Hultzsch, whose translation of the verse is slightly different, 
I render it as follows : " Having defeated by force the Pandya king Varaguna at the head of 
the great battle of Sripurambiya, and having made (his) friend's title Aparajita (i.e. the un- 
conquered) significant, this hero entered heaven by sacrificing his own life." Thus we get a king 
whose name or surname was Apar&jita, and who with his ally Prithivipati I. fought against the 
Pandya king Varaguna. The existence of a king named Aparajita might be concluded already 
from one of the Ukkal inscriptions, where the other name of that village is Aparjita- 
chaturvedimangalam. 10 From the Ambur inscriptions of the Ganga-Pallava king 
ff ripatunga it may be supposed that Prithivipati I. was his feudatory. 11 Accordingly, Aparajita, 
the friend of the latter, was probably also a Ganga-Pallava. Indisputable evidence of the 
existence of a Ganga-Pallava king of that name is furnished by an inscription of Yijaya- 
Aparajitavikramavarman, discovered by my Assistant Mr. K. V. Subrahmanya Aiyar at 
Tiruttani in the North Arcot district. 10 Aparajitavikramavarman was apparently the successor 
of Nripatunga> and we may at present suppose that during the reign of the latter (or after hia 

1 No. 51 of the Government Epigraphist'fl collection for 1895. 
a South-Ind. Inter. Vol. II. pp. 825 and 386. " IIM, p. 53. 

* Hid, p. 325, paragraph 88, and p. 836, paragraph 77. 

TiruppiramMyam near KumTDhakdgam is the modern Tamil name o Snpurambjya mentioned in the Udayan- 
diram plates of Prithivipati II.; 'see also the following note. ' 

Hid p 387. Vaimhalguli, where another battle was fought by Prithivipati I. according to the Udayen- 
diram plates, may have to be "looked for in the same locality. It is not impossible that the place is identical 
with Vembil, whose fortifications Varaguna destroyed. But the name of P F ithivipati's enemy in the battle of Vaim- 
balguli is not mentioned. Consequently this identification remains doubtful. _ 

TThat the Pindyas were strong and powerful about this, time, is proved by their invasion of Ceylon 
recorded in Chapter i'. of the Singhalese Chronicle MaMvafaa ; see Mr. L. C. Wijesinha's Translation. The inva- 
pion seems to have been unprovoked and falls into the period A,D. 846-866. 

8 Director-General's Annual for 1903-04, p. 273. 

SoutTi-Ind. Inser. Vol. II. p. 384, verse 18. 

Ibid, Vol. III. p. 2. u Ahove, Vol. IV. p. 182. 

4nnu<zl Report on Epigraphy for 1905-06, Part II, paragraph 8. 


death) there was a Pandya invasion headed by Varagana. The invader probably did not meet 
with any effective resistance at first, and therefore advanced as far north as Arais'ur on the 

Southern Pennar river, where he was encamped at the time of making the grant registered in 
the subjoined Ambasainudrain inscription. Subsequently, AparS jita, who wafi perhaps the heir- 
apparent at the time, 1 appears to have been sent with the Western Q-afiga Prithivipati I 
to repel the invasion. The decisive battle was fought at Sripnjambiya, and the invader was 
driven back. But the Qanga king lost his life in it. a 

The Tirav&langa<Ju plates of the Ch&la ting Bajendra-Ch6}a I. help us to trace the 
fortunes of the Ganga-Pallavas to the very end, Verse 49 of the Sanskrit portion of this grant, 
which describes the achievements of the Oli61a king Aditya I., rnns as follows : 


TOT $fe^f wflsfflftoM [*T*]3nrGnj snft 

" Having conquered in battle the Pallava who had brilliant troops, though (he was) 
Aparajita (i.e. the tmconquered), he (vis. the Ch6Ia king Aditya) also took possession of his 
queen, (rtz.) the earth, (and) thus accomplished his object." 4 In other words, the Ch&la 
king Ad%a I. conquered the Pallava Aparajita 6 and annexed his dominions. The Pallava 
Aparajita 8 may now be identified with the Ganga-Pallava king Aparajitavikramavarman of 
the Tirnttani inscription, and with that Aparajita who defeated Varaguna-Pandya. And, 
evidently, Ukkal in the, North A root district was called Aparajita'chaturvfidimangalam after 
this Ganga-Pallava king. He was apparently the last member of his family. Though successful 
against the Pandyas, he could not offer any effective resistance to the rising dtLdlaB, who, under 
Aditya I., not only conquered him in battle, but also annexed his dominions, 

In a Vattejuttu inscription at Aivarmalai in the Madura district, 7 copied during the last 
field season by my assistant Mr. G. Veukoba Rao, I found a &aka date for Varaguna. His 8th 
year is coupled with Saka-samvat 792. Thus his accession took place in A.D. 862-63. If 
the facts and inferences eet forth in the preceding paragraphs be confirmed by future researches, 
and if there was only one Paudya king named Varaguna, the invasion of Itjlavai in the Ch&la 
country and the destruction of the fortifications o Vembil must have taken place in or before 
A.D. 87S-73. 8 Varagu^ia was at AraiSur on the southern Pennar in A.fo. 877-8. The battle 
of Srlpurambiya might have taken place towards the close of the same year or in the nest 
year. If the surmise made by me, that Aparajita was probably heir-apparent when that battle 
took place, be true, his accession may be placed about A.D.' 830. His deieatby the Ch6]a 
king Iditya evidently occurred after/ the Tiruttani inscription of tJie 18th year of his reign. 

1 Aparijit* it called the friend (tuhfid) of Prithivlpati I., whowaffa Gaiiga-PftHwv* leadktoi^. If the former 
had beea the reigning king, it is perhaps not likely that he would be referred to M the *lrin4*cf Prithivipati I, 

* Soon after the conquest and occupation of the Pallava dominion* by the 0M|v $& '$&& who had been 
feudatories of the Ganga-Pallaw, seem to hare acknowledged the Ohdju as their Ytordt. ID. an inscription 
of BijaifiaariTarman which hat to be attributed to Aditya I., Kiidlpa6 son ci Ittnrofjaflytjr (i.e. perhaps 
PrithiVtpatL II., ooa of Miraaiifahn), is mentioned, apparently, aa a Oh^a feudatory i 4w?l!JM*< 
for 1896-97, paragraph 7. ''..- . 


* Annual Xiport on EpijrapAy for 1905-06, Part H. paragraph 10. ? V ,,, ; ; 

* The place at .which this battle was fought ii not mentioned here. Accotdinf" la tealdtBtt'lb* battle which 
crashed the Pallava power was fought near Sholinghur hi the North. Aicot 

Aroot ZHttriet, Vol. I, p. 89, * 

That Aparajita is called a PalUva, i n<o bar to th& propoeed 'fa&6$lto^ 

Vol. IV. p. 181), the Qanga-PallaTa tfripatnngavikramavannan and bH Wsafat* : l^yi^ft.]yi^nu, and their 
legendary ancestors are the same as fluweof tiie Ballavaa of GonjeerecaBi, , * ?>1 j , 

Annual Stport on fipifffoply 01 1996-6, Part II. paragraph 86. V 

* The latter event is mentioned in the Trichinopoly imcription, dated in tte lllh year Of U feng** reign. 


Accordingly, the event may be supposed to have taken place at the end of the -9th century 

A.D. 1 

The great Saiva saint Manikkavasagar mentions the Pandya king Varaguna twice 2 in his 
Tiruchchirrambalalckova'iydr. The time of Sundaramurti-l i rayanar, who probably flourished in 
the 8th century A.D., is the upper limit of the date of Manikkavasagar, -who is conspicuous by 
his omission from the T-iruttondattogai, i.e. the list of Saiva saints composed by the former. 
The lower limit may be taken as the reign of the Cho'la king Parakesarivarman. Rajendradeva 
(A.D. 1052 to 1053), 3 because in an inscription of the 5th year of his reign (=A.D. 1056-57) 
reference is made to the poem [Tiru^vembdvai composed by Manikkavasagar. 4 It may, therefore, 
"be concluded that this Saiva saint -was a contemporary of the Pandya king Varaguna. And if 
there was only one king of that name, the Saiva saint must have flourished in the second half 
of the 9th century A.D. 

It is worthy of note that the calculation of the annual requirements of the temple provided 
for in the subjoined inscription implies that the measure of paddy known as kalam consisted of 
90 ndli, instead of 12 kuruniovQQ nd,U, which we find, for instance, in the Tanjore inscriptions, 
and which is the prevailing equivalent in the Tamil country. A lialavn was equal to 15 
Iturtini, and a kuruni equal to 6 ndli. The rate of interest, according to the subjoined 
inscription, is 2 kalam, of paddy for each kdsuj while in the Tanjore inscriptions it is 3 liuruni 
for one kdsu. Thus the rate in the Pandya country at the time of Varaguna would be nearly 
eight times higher 5 than that prevailing in Tanjore during the reign of the Chola king 
Bajaraja I. (A.D. 985 to at least 1013), in case there was no difference in the value of the 
MSu. The variations at the same two places and peiiods in the price of some of the 
important articles of daily consumption are recorded in the foot-notes. It is interesting 
to note that common salt and firewood, which are included among the daily requirements in the 
Tanjore inscriptions, are conspicuous by their omission in the subjoined document. This is a 
significant fact, though we may not be warranted in concluding from it that these two articles 
had not to be paid for in the Pantjya country during the reign of Varaguna. 


First Side of the Stone. 

1 Svasti [||*] Srl-Bhatarar=anugra[ha]tti[na]- 

2 x 6 Mulli-natt=Iiangoykku.di T[i]- 

1 The conquest o the Pallavas is attributed by tradition to Adondaij an illegitimate son of Kul6ttniga of 
Taniore. The first battle, said to have been fought at Puraldr, ended in favour of the Pallavas. Adondai was then 
forced to retreat to gholinghur. "Encouraged there by a dream, he renewed the contest and defeated the enemy 
with great slaughter. The Pallava king was taken prisoner, and the brazen gates of the Paralur fort were carried 
to the temple (!) of Tanjore;" see the Manual of the North Arcot District, Vol. I. p. 39. If there be auy truth 
in this tradition, KuMtunga must have been a surname of Vijayalaya, and Adondai of his son Aditya I. But there 
is not even the slightest hint in epigraphical records that Aditya was the illegitimate son of Vijayalaya. , Another 
tradition has it that the mythical Chdla king K&kkilli had an illegitimate son named Adondai by a Naga woman., 
and that the province conferred on the latter by his father was called Tondai-nadu or Tondai-mandalam. It looks 
as if this Adondai is mixed np with the conqueror of the Pallavas in the former story. 

J Verse 8U6 in illustration of Maruvudaluraittal, and verse 32T in illustration of Vinaimit^rininaiUal. 

* Above, Vol. VII. p. 7. 

* No. 12 of the Government Epigrapbist's collection for 1905 from the VirattaueSvara temple at Kilur near 


5 In ancient bimes the rate of interest seems to have been more or less arbitrary. It looks as if the ordinary 
laws of Political Economy were not allowed full play, and it is therefore unsafe to draw any conclusions from the rate 
of interest. At Conjeeveram the rate of interest during the reign of a Ch&la king named Parakesarivarman was 15 
per cent. About a century earlier the rate was 5 per cent, in the same place. Again the interest ou. 250 Tettlangn 
of gold was 500 Tcdii of paddy, and 150 kddi on 50 lealanju ; G. 0. No. 452,. Publiu, dated 10th June 1891, p. 5. 

* Bead ndl ; the ha of anuffraha is slightly different from, ha in 11. 5, 12 aad 81. 


3 ruppottudaiyar &*ik&yil-Bhafcara[r*]kku mu[dal*] 

4 [kejdamai poll kondtt 1 n.a[n]gTi kakmun=di[:niv-amtL*]- 

5 du elu[t]tuvada[ga] Varaguna-Maharajar Todai-nfit[tiiI*]- 

6 pennaikkarai Araififir vij^irundu Ilan[gdkku*]- 

7 disckcliavaiyar kaiyyij=kridutta kaiu irn-n11j[jrti-to*]- 

8 nnftju [I*] ivazj;&E=kaginvay=iru-galamaga an[du*]- 

9 varai gavaiyar=alakkum poli-nel ai-nuilrj;-e[nba][di*]- 

10 n kalam [|*j ivai kondu Bhatarar pani-makkaltim. Ila[n*]- 

11 g6kkudi=chchavai-variyarum uda=^i|jjn Varagti[na*]- 

12 Mahar[a]jarkku r&jya-ra[r*]sham naogftvadukku ?d[ir*] 

13 pannirand,[m*] yfi-ndu Tuia-fl&yini mudalaga niga[di*J- 

14 yaga nangn kSlam[u.]n=dirav-amida ^elutfcum. [pa]- 

15 di [|*] oru-pojudaikka vSnduvaga ariSi aenn[e]j= 

16 jittal na=QaJi kmomayattukktL pa[ya]jju= 

17 pparupp=uri nrvMikka pasuTii}=gajii-3iey[y]au- 

18 lakku=ppaauTin=j;6y-tayir=uri=kkaruvalai- 

19 ppala=nangu sarkkarai oru-palam kaji-am[i]- 

20 rdu kayk[ka]ji ogjra pulinga^i irandu pulu- 
. 21 [k]kukkaji 05^1 porikka^i orjju 6jj=kkaji 

22 ainjinukkun=gapL padig-pala[m] 

23 [ka]ji tumikkaYiim porikkavum. paguvi=ga]tu-iie- 

24 y ajiakkn=k[kflt]tnkku p&Suvig [t]6[y]-tayi- 

25 r=nriokkayam iru-Sevittn. ilai-amirda 

26 vellilai Sr-adukku adaikkay pattu 

27 n^ju oru-gevitfcu [|*j aga nigadi, nangu 

28 poludaikku v^nduTaga ariSi le- 

29 anej=xitfcal padin-aja-ttaji 

Second 8ifo of the Stone. 

30 aga 6r=attai[k]ku ariSi gen[ne]- 

31 [j]=tlttal apiba[t]tn-n&j 

32 [ka]lam [|*J i va i [ka]lav-ariikku mux[kkala]- 

33 nellaga nfijj^..tton[n(k]j|;-iru-gala- 

34 m [j*] payanu=pparnpp=iru- . 

35 n&li ivai Bali=pparuppti- 

36 kku m.u=nnali nellaga 6r=[a]t- 

37 taikkn nel imbattn-naj=kalam [|*] 

38 pauvin=naju-ney n&liy-tiri i- 

39 vai aal[i] ne[y*]kku muppadi=n&U ne- 

40 silaga 6r=a[t*]taikku nel n^ij-eiba- 

41 dig kalam 1*] paStmg=j;&y-[tayi|- 

42 r ns=^aii ivai nali=t[ta]yirkku 

43 muann&li nell[a]ga 6r=attaikkn ne- 

44 1 a&[K]patt-en-galam [|] karuva^iippa- 

45 lam padini-aiu ivai iraijdii[kku] 

46 nali nellaga 6r=attaikku ne[l] ' 

The phrase mvdal Teeddmaipoli ktndu oortesponda to m*Ja, 9 irk3 pcli kotf* pf fa triehlnopoly 
hon } T>irector-General'B Annual for 1908-04, pj 275, text line 16 . 

1 At the beginning of this line b a iymbol which looks like rtt, but wbi$h it pro&% mere crack on the 


47 muppatt-ira-galam [|*] sarkkarai 

48 [la]m i[da] oru-palattukku naji- 

49 y-uri nellaga 6r=attaikku nel 

50 irubattu-nar=kkalam [|*] kaji naipa- 

51 din palam ivai pan-pa[la]- 

52 ttukku naji nellaga 6r=a[tfj- 

53 taikku uel pa[di*]n-aju-kalam [|*] kayam 

54 alakkfi mu=chchevittu idu 

55 ulakku kayafctukk=aru-na- 

Third Side oj the Stone. 

56 [H] nell[a]ga 6r=at[tai]- 

57 kku nel patt[o]n[ba]-' 

58 [di]n kalane markka [Eu*]ui [|*j 

59 ilai-amirdu vel- 

60 [li]lai irandu pajju 

61 [i]vai om-paj};uk[k=i]- 
63 [m]-nali nellaga 6r=[fi]- 

63 ttaikku nel pa[di]- 

64 [n-a]ru-galam adai[kka]- 

65 y niypada ivai [i]- 

66 rubad=adaikkay[kku] mu=n- 

67 [na]liy-uri nellaga 

68 6r=attaikkti nell=[i]- 

69 r[u]ba[tt]-en-galam [|*] ntj[u] 

70 n[a]j=chevittu idn 

71 nalikk=ira-naiiy[aga] 

72 6r=attaikku nel 

73 pann-ixu-kn[xu*]ni [|*J el- 

74 l[a]m 6jcp 6r=a[t]- 

75 taikku vena nel [ai=n]- 

76 n%-[6]nbadin kala[m] [|] 

77 i=ppaiitL niyadi- 

78 [p]padi mutt[a]mai 

79 n[ejdun=galanaun=ie- 

80 lu[t]tuv[ada]ga vai[t*][t]|- 

81 r Sri-Varaguna-MaharSjaCr*] [11*3 


(Lines 1 to 8.) Hail ! By the grace of the blessed lord {bhafdrar) ! Varagun.a-Mah&r&ja, 
being encamped 8 at AraisQr on the bank of the (river) Fennai in Tondai-nfidu, gave into the 
hands 3 of the members of the assembly of IJangokkudi two hundred and ninety kdsu, from the 
interest of which the capital remaining unspent* offerings had to be provided for four times 

1 Bead ndr*palam. 

a Vfairundu means literally 'being seated majestically,' 

* This is the literal translation. The money must have been sent by a messenger to be made over to the 
village assembly. 

Literally ' taking interest (m snch a way) that the capital ia not destroyed ;' aee note 1 on page 90 abovo. 


(a day') to the lord of the glorious temple 1 of Tiruppottudaiyfir at IlangSkkudi ia Mialli- 

(LI. 8 io 10.) For this (amount} the members of the assembly have to measure out five 
hundred and eighty fcoZaw of paddy per year (as) interest, at the rate of two kalam for each TtdSu. 

(11. 10 to 14) Ont of this (iwcowie) the servants of the lord (Wiafdrar) and the committee* 
of the assembly of IJangokkudi shall jointly pay for offerings four times a day, 2 commencing 
from, the montn of Tula in the twelfth, year opposite to the fourth year of the reign of 
Varagriitta-Mah&raja, (according to the following) scale: 

(LI. 15 to 27.) (The following) are the ireqnirements for a single offering : 8 fonr nali 
of clean superior rice ;* (one) wi of split green gram for the Jtuwmdyam ; 5 (one) ulaltku of cow* 
ghee of the best quality to be offered 6 (by itself) ; (one) uri of cows' curds ; four black plantain 
fruits ; one palam of sugar ; ten_paZcm of vegetables (/or) foe vegetable offering (kari-amirdu*) , 
(ws.) one Ttdykkari,' 1 two pulingari,* one pulultkukkari 9 (and) one porilfkari in all, five (Icindtf 
of) curry ; (one) alakku of cows' ghee of the best Duality for seasoning 10 and frying vegetable ; 
(one) uri of cows' curds for the compound curry (&u?f) j 11 two sevitfu of asafcetidaj tw*> 
bundles of betel-leavea, 12 ten areca-nuts (antZ) one seviftu of lime (ntfrtt) for the leaves offering. 

(LI. 27 to 73.) The aggregate requirements for (the off&rvngi) four times a day 13 (are) : 
At the rate of sixteen ndti of olean superior rice (a day), sixty-four Italam of clean superior ric** 

1 The word frtJcSvil means 'the sanctuary of a temple ' according to Dr. Gnndert. It is used here in the uair; 1 * 
sense as the Tamil tiruJckSyil, ' a temple, a place of worship, a sacred shrine.' In the Tanjore inscriptions frik6y* 
is used, to designate the orthodox Hindu temple as opposed to the temples of the Dravidian Tillage deities and to tU> 
Joins temples (Sowth-Ind, laser. Vol. II. p. 48, note 8, and p. 59). 

J The word igadi occurs again in line 27. * Literally ' (the offering) at one time.' 

* With fennel compare tirvobchennadai-nel in a Chfija inscription from Conjeeveram ; South-Ind, Inscf 
Vol. I. p. 117. 

6 This word occurs in a similar context in an inscription of B&jakesarivarman found at Tirnvellajai near 
Trichinopoly (No. 518 o 1905). In an unpublished record of the Ohfila king EajakesariTannan from Gndira&llftm 
in the North Arcot district, split green gram (/ir^-payaf^-parttppu) is provided for lewnmdya-amvdu (No, 222 * <f 
190S). The modern meaning of the word Tov-mmdyam, vie. 'mortar,' will not do here. In Malayalam and it*. 
Kanarese the root Tcummu mean* ' to beat with a pestle,' and Jewnndyan might therefore demote something pounds I, 
if the word is derived from that root. 

The verb nwtdiltka in line 17 may also have to "be taken with the words tayir (L 18), faruvdlaippala m 
(1. 18 f .) and jarklcarai (1. 19), if not with all tho items mentioned in 11. 19 to 27. 

T According to one of the Tan jore inscriptions of Rijaraja I. (South-Ind. Inter. Vol. ILNo- 26) pepper, mui- 
tard, and perhaps also salt were required for this preparation. Some vegetable must also hv6 been added, though 
the fact is not specifically mentioned. Old rice, pulse, pepper, mustard, cumin, sugar and ghee were required for * 
similar preparation called appaJcJcdyJekafi. 

8 Pepper, mustard, cumin, sugar, tamarind, curds, horse-gram and plantain fruits wefip required for it 
according to the inscription quoted in the preceding note. Pvliyiftaditiigati (consisjiiig of pepper, cumin, 
tamarind, and perhaps Boino vegetable) was a similar preparation. 

2vluklcukTcar.ii 'boiled carry,' is perhaps so called in order to distinguish. it from^or**af, 'fried cnrr.^' 
The former is not mentioned (at any rate under this name) in the Tanjore inscription quoted above, while gli&e U 
provided for the latter. Evidently forik Icari consisted of a vegetable fried in ghee. 

10 Tb.e verb twi means ' to sprinkle.' Condiment powder is even now sprinkled over boiled Curry and the wht*!^ 
seasoned with boiling ghee, in. which a small quantity of mustard ia frying. The pwfsra^on 1* called podittvn l t 
* powder sprinkling,* and the same is apparently indicated by the use of tie verb tarn here. A story is told in. e</ n _ 
necfcion with the Tamil Pet Kamban, which shows that the noun tumi was not in oomtoon 019 during his time. 

n Ztf jftw is a liquid preparation still in use and consists of (1) a vegetable cooked either w$h .Bengal grata ^ 
beans, (2) two or more vegetables boiled together, or (3) specially made powder dissolved in curds. <lj and (2) do nt/t, 
generally, requiwl any curds. 

u The word for betel-leaves both here as well as in the Tanjoxe inscriptions ii ve\\ilait 'Wlite leaf/ while t} llfc 
modern Tamil, form id ver^Hai, 'empty leaf.* 

u Worship at six periods of the day ia the rule at present in big temple*. In Ib6 oate f a minor ekriu,,. 
in the Tanjore temple, provision was made for offerings only three times (moming, midday and, night, 8otttA.-Xn.it ^ 
Inter. VoL II p. 146) and twice in the case of two other shrines (4&&. 


for a year. At three Tealam of paddy for one kalam of rice, 1 this (comes to") one hundred and 
ninety-two kalam (of paddy). The split green gram (required for a day} ia two ndli. At the 
rate of three ndli of paddy for (one) ndli of split (green gram), z twenty-four kalam of paddy per 
year (have to be allotted') for this (item). Cows' ghee of the beet quality (required for a day) is 
(one) ndli and (one) uri. At the rate of thirty ndli of paddy for (one) ndli of ghee, 3 this 
(comes to) one hundred and eighty kalam of paddy for a year. (The quantity of) cows' curds 
(required for a day) is four ndli. At the rate of three ndli of paddy for (one) ndli of curds, 4 
this (amounts to) forty-eight kalam of paddy annually. (The number of) black plantain fruits 
(required for a day) is sixteen. At the rate of (one) ndli of paddy for two (fruits), 6 these (cost) 
thirty-two kalam of paddy annually. The sugar (required for a day is) four palam. At the 
rate of (one) ndli and (one) uri of paddy for eyery palam, e this (item costs) twenty-four kalam of 
paddy per year.- (The daily consumption of) vegetables being forty palam, sixteen kalam of 
paddy (have to be allotted) for this (item) every year at the rate of (one) ndli of paddy for ten 
palam. 1 (One) dlakku and three gevittu of asafoetida (being required daily), nineteen kalam and 
three kuruni 8 of paddy (have to be allotted) for this (item) annually at the rate o sis. ndli of 
paddy for (one) ulakku of asafcetida. 9 (For) the leaves offering (are required) two bundles 10 of 
betel-leaves (daily), which, at the rate of two ndli of paddy for one bundle, (come to) sixteen 
kalam of paddy for a year ; forfey areca-nuts (daily), which, at the rate of three ndli and (one) 
uri of paddy for 20 areca-nuts, (cost) twenty-eight kalam of paddy annually j 11 (and) four eviftu 
of lime (daily), which, at the rate of two ndli (of paddy) for (one) ndli (of lime), (cost) twelve 
kuruni 1 * of paddy per year. 

(LI. 73 to 81.) Altogether, the (quantity of) paddy required annually is five hundred and 
eighty kalam. The glorious Varaguna-Mahar&ja thus deposited (this money), in order that 

1 In Tanjore 5 Tcalam of paddy were required for 2 kalam of rice during the time of Rajar&ja I. 

2 Pulse was exchanged at this rate during the time of Bajaraja I. at Tanjore. 

' In Tanjore ghee and paddy were exchanged in the proportion of 1 to 32 at the time of Rajaraja I. 

* The same rate obtained in Tanjore during the reign of Rajaraja I. 

6 There seem to have heen three varieties of plantain fruits available in Tanjore and its vicinity ahout the 
beginning of the llth century A.D. Two fruits of the first kind could be had for one ndli of paddy (South-Ind. 
Inscr. Vol. II. pp. 75 and 77) ; five ndli of paddy had to be given in exchange for 18 fruits of the second variety 
(Hid, p. 127) ; the third was sold at the rate of 1200 for each kdgu (ibid, p. 151). 

6 Two kinds of sugar were apparently available ahout the beginning of the l.lth century A.D. in the Ch6la 
capital and the country surrounding it. Of the cheaper kind 3J palam could be purchased for 2 ndli, 1 uri, I 
dldkku and 4 sevidu of paddy (South- 2nd. Inscr. Vol. II. p. 127), while the more costly variety exchanged at the 
rate of 1 ndli and 1 uri of paddy for i palam (Hid. pp. 70 and 71). 

7 In one of the Tanjore inscriptions quoted in the preceding foot-notes, the daily allotment for purchasing 
vegetables is 6 ndli of paddy. The quantity of vegetables is not mentioned. 

8 If this calculation is correct, a kalam must be equal to 15 instead of 12 Tcu^nni, and a kuruni equal to 6 


9 Asafoetida and lime are not mentioned in any of the Tanjore inscriptions, where common salt and firewood 
are specially provided for (Sout h-Ind. Inscr. Vol. II. pp. 75, 77 and 180). The two latter are conspicuous by their 
omission in the Ambasamudram record. Perhaps they had no exchange value in the Pandya country during the 
time of Varaguna. It may also be that temples could obtain both common salt and firewood without any payment. 

10 From lines 26 and 60 of the text it may he concluded that one bundle (parru) was equal to 4 adukku, of 

11 Provision is made for the supply of areca-nuta and hotel-leaves in three of the Tanjore inscriptions, where only 
the aggregate cost of both is given (Noa. 6, 26 and 35 of Soitth-Ind. Inscr. Vol. II.) : 1 ndli of paddy for 8 areoa- 
nuts and 32 betel-leaves {No. 6) ; 4 ndli and 1 uri of paddy for 30 areca-nuts and 60 betel-leaves (.No. 26) ; and 
1 ndli and 1 uri of paddy for 12 areca-nuts and 24 betel-leaves (No. 36). 

12 The actual calculation yields 36 ndli of lime annually, costing 72 ndli of paddy, i.e. 18 ndli less than a 
kalam (=90 ndli according to this inscription) or 12 kur.uni. But it has been pointed out that a kalam was made up 
of 15 kufuni (note 8 above). Thus the Tcu^uni was equal to 6 ndli instead of the more common 8 ndli. With this 
equivalent of the kuruni the calculation in the text would be correct. 

w This calculation would be correct only on the assumption that a kalam was equal to 15 kuruni and a 
kufuni equal to 6 ndli ", see the preceding note. 


(the inumbcrs of the village assembly) might provide (the requirements') day by day 1 for a 
long time 3 without (any) obstruction. 



Tin?-, inscription is found on a set of copper-plates which, have been deposited in the Madras 
iiii.si-.iUii. I U>s not kti.i\v i\iif!-o they liave been originally fonnd. I publish the inscription from 
excellent ink-impressions^ supplied by Rai Bahadur V. V"enkayya, M.A., who describes the plates 
as follows : 

" Tbo plates arc five in number. The first bears writing on the inner side only. The last 
is uouipk'toly bla.uk ; it was evidently put in to protect the single line of writing on the second 
side of tbu fourth pinto. The plates have slightly raised rims (though in certain places these 
are either beaten down or worn away) and are strnng on a ring, the ends of which are soldered 
into the lowwr part of u round seal. About tbe middle of the seal is a seated Nandin, whose tail 
extends to the bottom of the seal. From either aide of the bind part of the Nandin proceed what 
nitiv bu taken for lotus buds. On tlie proper left of the N and in are two flag-staffs placed one by the 
sido o thb other, with a bowl above them ; and on the proper right of it are a conch, a lampstand 
and a cbgiroi 1 . The ring \vas cat by me. It is not quite circular. The diameter varies between 
t>' and -&''. Tlio thiukuoss o the ring is f ''. The seal is roughly 2|" r in diameter. The follow- 
ing measurements of the plates show that, as regards breadth, they are slightly bigger in the 
middle than ut tlic cuds, while, as regards height, the reverse is the case : 

Avcnigo lireailth of plates ........ 9i" Sf 9jf 

Avi-ragt- height of pktw ........ 4i" 4" 4J" 

The foarth plate is comparatively small in height, measuring 4" at the ends and almost 4 
in the middle," 

The inscription consists of 54 lines. The greater part is in a good state of preservation, 
Tho fourth plate, however, ia rather corroded, and some passages of it can only be read with 

The alphabet is Nslgari of the same kind as in the Nadagam plates of Vajrahasta of 
Saka-Samvat 979.* Tbe class nasal, and not the Anuw&ra, is used before class mutes. 
Exceptions from this rule are *tttNi in 1. 9, and yV in 1 48. Consonants are doubled after r, 
except in "fafsf^T , 1. 26. g is written for ^ throughout. has been substituted for H in 
*ffta;, 1. 25, and ^ef , L 49. On the other hand, we find ^ for ^ in fnisNi: 5 1. 21, -vtffi, L 39, 
and ^^T, 1. 54. A nasal with a following guttural or palatal is written in the same way as i^ 
the Nadagam plates. Note further such writings as ^ga^ei, 11. 7 and 24, TOlfeff instead 
1- 3, and ?r^iK instead of H9=9ffa*ff3, 1. 19. 

1 The word niyadi is apparently synonymous -ikh nifadam which occurs frequently in tha Tanjore inwsrip- 
tions, and with nifadi iu the Tridiiuopoly cave epigraph of Varaguga (Director- Qeneral's Animal fur 1903^, 
y, 275, text Jina 19), 

3 la later inscriptions the plirase ne&un-gdlamum is replaced by the Sanskrit abandrddityavat, * as long a 
tLe flioou auu the stin (endure).' 

3 Since the above was written, I litve had an opportunity of inspecting the originl plates together vith Mr- 

* Above, Vol. TV, p, 18& 5, 


The language of the inscription is Sanskrit. It contains the same twelve verses as the 
Nadagam plates of Saka-Samvat 979. The remainder of the inscription is in prose. The first 
41 lines are almost identical -with the corresponding portion of the Nadagam plates. They are, 
however, more carefully engraved and give several passages in a more correct form. 

The inscription is one of king "Vajrahasta (III.), the son of Kamarnava (H.) of the Ganga 
lineage, and of Vinayamahadevi of the Vaidumba family. His genealogy is given in the 
same words as in the Nadagam plates, from Gunamaharnava downwards, including the date 
of Vajrahasta's coronation. 1 The inscription then goes on to state (1. 40 ff.) that ' the devout 
worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva), the Paramabhatfdraka Mahdrdjdd'hir&ja,, the lord of the three 
Kalingas, the glorious Anantavarman Vajrahastade'va, being in good health, issues the 
following order from Kalinganagara, having called together all the subjects, headed by the 
ministers :' " Be it known to you (that), for the increase of the religious merit and fame of 
(Our) mother, father, and Ourself, the village named Tamaraoheru in Varahavartanl, combined 
with the Chikhali hamlet (vdfaka), circumscribed by the four boundaries, including water aud 
land, free from all molestation, to last as long as the moon, the sun, and the eartn, has been 
granted by Us, with libations of water, as an Agrahdra, to five hundred learned Brahmanas who 
delight in the sis acts of sacrificing, conducting sacrifices, studying, teaching, [giving] and 
accepting, (and) who are well versed in sacred lore, in the Saka year of the dice (4), the 
Vasus (8) and the treasures (9), on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun. Therefore (Our 
gift) ehonld be preserved by future kings in compliance with the law proclaimed by Manu. 
Moreover, land with the produce of two hundred Murakas of grain has been given, to last as 
long as the moon and the sun, free from hindrances, to the god K6tisvara s for (the maintenance 
of the rites of) Bali, Oharu, Naivgdya, D^papujd, and so on. And the repairs of what is broken 
aud torn in this (temple) should without- fail be effected by the Brahmanaa living there." 

The inscription does not add anything to our knowledge of the history of king Vajrahasta 
III. We only learn that he also had the name Anantavarman, like his grandson Ohodaganga- 

Of the localities mentioned in the inscription, Kalinganagara has been identified by Mr. 
Karnamurti 3 with the villages Mukhalingam and Nagarakafcakam in the Ganjam district. 
Varahavartanl occurs in. several Ganga grants. 4 The village of Taraaracheru is also known 
from Ganga inscriptions. Its boundaries are given in the Ohiqacole plates of the Mahdrdja 
Devendravarman, 5 in which the village Tamarachheru is granted to three hundred Brahmanas 
on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun. The Chicacole plates of the Ganga Mahdrdja 
Indravarman, issued from Kalinganagara in G&agSya-Samvat 128, 6 further state that the village 
of Tamaracheruva was granted to certain. Brahmanas on the occasion of an eclipse of the moon 
on the full-moon day of Margasira. The latter inscription mentions Tdmaracheruva-grdmam 
bdfyd^takdQcaj-sahitalm^Q. 8 f.). This vdfaka is perhaps identical with the Chikhall-vataka 
of our inscription. The village of Tamaracheru has not as yet been identified. It should be 
looked for in the neighbourhood of Ohicacole. 

The date of the grant is found in a part of the inscription which haa not been so well pre- 
served as the rest. The first word is scarcely legible in the ink-impression. After a careful exa- 
mination of the original, however, Mr. Venkayya and myself find that the reading krita, is 
certain. The date of the inscription is accordingly the aka year 984. If we take this to be 

1 Above, Vol. IV. p. 185 ; Vol. V. Appendix, p. 50, No. 855. 

a This was evidently the name of the temple of Siva at Tamaracheru. 

Ahove, Vol. IV. p. 187 f. 

Above, Vol. III. p. 127, note 5 ; .Vol. V, p. 185, note 5, etc. 

Intl. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 273 ff. Ibid. p. 119 ft. 


the cnrient Saka year, tte date would correspond to A.D. 1061-62. Professor Kielhorn has been 
good enough to inform Professor Hultzsch that the only eclipse of the sun whicb was 
(slightly) visible in Gaujam between the Saka years 980 989 took place on the 20th June 
A,D. 1061. This would therefore "be the date of our inscription. 

TEXT. 1 
First Plate. 


3 ^^^^f^^'Htyvr^a^'f^efiif^raiW^miW* [*rfm] 






Phte ; First Side. 


13 ^ ^ qtf [i*] 



17 M^ffTT 18 ii fferTg^t fronf^cBrC;*] ^*n^: 17 ?r?r: 18 

18 m$t ^ndl'ch'[gna]w: D*3 

1 Trom tte original plates. a Expressed by a symbol. 

d %. * React 

6 Bead <nirw^f The 4-stroke is not ^sible in tho inlc-impressjon. 

8 This looks like grg|)i*iq. ' Metre : SardAlavikrf dita j 

J0 Before T%^\ the engraver began to -write '9, but subsequently cancelled it. 
"Bead'W. Read 8f?zr. u Bead t 

" Bead Tl^t l^Vf-. " Bead 

" Read ^nf^; l8 Metre ; Slfika j read ^parrft. u Bead 

_ mauras museum plates of Vajrahasta III.- Saka-Samvat 984. 

Scale -6 

E. Hultzsch. 

Collotype by Gebr. J'li-ttner, Halle- Saale. 

in a. 


\_ L/ ^ 3- v * -^vi- v "i f$/l MJ ^ %( [^[( c( ^a.H n -/ ^. 


. 5is\ -5143 Wcr^lzfiSi^oifeiaiessi 1 3)f/!?ma^i ' 



f im 

iit b. 



iv a. 







25 wnrt 




32 [f?T] 


Second Plate ; Second Side. 

. n 

: i*J 

: 3 (i) 

: mfiSt: n [3*] 
: [i*] r 
: 11 [*] 

; 11 [i*] [^r*] 
: n [a.*] ?Tcft 1 

Third Plate ; First Side. 

; [i*] 

: n [>*] 


: n 

: n [>."] 

Third Plata ; Second Side. 




35 ^ 

36 H 



1 Metre - Sardtllavilcridita ; read 

a Read ^TTfcflt^T^^l^r^r. 1 ' * Read 

8 Metre : Vathsastha. 7 Read ^. 

Metre : Malini. 1U Read VWT- 

Bead "T^^tfl- u Metre : Slflka; read ITJT. 

is Metre : Giti. 18 

i6Headl3rT . " Read 

ai Eead b Wf. 22 Eead sn^i** 
" Bead ?*r*nsK The second ^ B ooins to have been cancelled hy the engraver. 

a* Bead f^t^T%- !8 Read ^l^I^i ^f^^fV^t- 98 Metre : Vasautatilaka. 

7 Bead f%W. * 8 Read H^[. * 9 Read 

10 Read aj^^PTSTT. n Metre : Sardulavikridit*. " Read 

Bead ZTSt^f 

Metre : G}ti ; read f ujiy. 
"Metre: Malini. 


39 ?ir g^ft 1 *ra *Fsfrn3TRrf: a [i*] 

41 ^[R*tem^fvUMfachfalFT^ 


44 W*ft TTIT (l) 

Fourth Plate'; Firtt Side 






Fourth Pl'at$ ,- Second- Side. 



This inscription was first published by ileesrs. A. Butterworth and V. Venugopal Che 
their Nellore District Inscriptions, p. 189 ff. According to p. 192 of the same work tb.o r 
were "discovered about 12 years ago by a servant of Adapalfi Venkata Beddi of 


1 The engraver ihad originally written ^l 

8 Bead 

The reading of this word IB very 


ploughing some land known as Talamanchipadu in Talamanchi of Nellore taluk l where a 
Jourishing village is said to have once stood." They " have been sent to the Madras Museum at 
Jie request of the owner." I re-edit the inscription from three sets of ink-impressions, 
^indly prepared at my request by Rai Bahadur Y. Veukayya, M.A., who describes the original 
p follows: 

" Three copper-plates, of which the first and last are engraved on their inner side only. 
?hey measure 7|" in. breadth. The height of the plates is not uniform. Generally they are 
igher in the margins than in the middle. 

Height in the margins. Height in the middle* 

1st plate: 3|" 3^ 

2nd plate : 3f " 3|" 

3rd plate : 3f & 3|" 3f 

through circular holes bored on the left margin of each plate passes an oval ring measuring 2 f 
y 3|". It is nearly 5" thick. The ends of the ring are secured in the base of a seal, which is 
Iso oval and measures 1" by f". The emblems on the seal, which appear to have been engraved 
31 a countersunk surface, are much worn, but show a lump in the middle perhaps meant to 
3preaent a boar. The total weight of the plates with ring and seal is 80 tolas, 11 

The writing on the plates is well preserved, excepting a few letters near the margins of 
ate i. and plate ii. a. The alphabet resembles that of two other grants of Yikramaditya I. 3 
""he upadhmdmya is used once (1. 24), a final form of m twice (11. 24, 27), and one of n once 
.. 17). The three Dravidian letters I, I and r, the second of which has the same shape as the 
padhmdniya, occur in the two village names Elasatti (1. 23) and Kolcliumlco[nra~\ (1. 22). 
he language is Sanskrit. There are four well-known Anushtubh verses : one at the beginning 
ad three near the end ; the remainder of the inscription is in prose. 

The document was issued in the sixth year of the reign (1. 20) of the (Western) 
halikya (1. 5) Vikramaditya (I.), the son of Satyasraya (i.e. Pulakesin II.), grandson of 
Tirtivarman (I.) and great-grandson of Polikesin (I.). Each of these four kings receives the 
>me laudatory epithets as in other published grants of the same period. The new inscription 
scords the grant of the village of EJasatti, 3 north of Kolchumko[nra], to Srlm eghaeharya 
.1. 22 and 31 f.), the preceptor (gwii) of Yikramaditya I., and was written by Vajravarman of 
.e Vaidya family. 

The historical importance of the plntes lies chiefly in the date of the grant (1. 20 f.) s regard- 
& which Prof. Eielhorn kindly contributes the Postscript on p. 102 below. On the strength of 
.e latter I have added the date " A.D. 660 " to.the title of this article and to the heading of the 
companying Plate. 

TEXT. 4 

First Plate. 


On the map prefixed to the Nellore Dittrict Inscriptions, Talamanchi .is marked by the figure ' 32 ' oil the 
rth of Nellore town. 

1 Jovrn. Bombay Br. E. 4. S. Vol. XVI. pp. 235 and 238. 

8 Messrs Buttenrortk and Venugopal Chetti are unable to identify this village ; see Nellore District Inscrip- 
>u, Preface, p. vi. 

* From three sets of ink-impressions. 

o 2 






2 q"T qlj! [ll 





11 D^] fer?nr?r: 8 





PZafe / First Side. 

17 form^ ^nrfsr^ f<yi1-?i i f^fiii ftft f%renr 


19 [f^]^*^^Ki^ify<NM<^[^wTln[TrTM2if?f] [i*] 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

24 Xf^nwftqT!^ qfltTNmfVfK 1 * ^n^ [i*] ^ 

J Read T*I. * Cuicel tbe CQnd c f^l ,ad the second "^tnaft* i *d 

'S^d ?!^^ . l ^'rt^>*^T^d WimTV > . 

* B4 cPH. ' Cancel the jitr<Jra of 

M Rd 

Talamanchi plates of Vikramaditya I. A. D. 660. 

From ink-impressions supplied by Rai Bahadur V.Venkayya. 


29 <NfaMHKlftflE [l*] 

31 thmifq f^rarnit ^rni^ (*r*iRr^ i [s*] 

33 ^ne^ ntwnff%wr: [i*] 


[ Verse 1 cbntainfl an invocation of the boar-incarnation of Visliira.] 

(Line 2.) The great-gri&ndson of tfce glorions Polikd^i-Vallabha-Man&raja, whose body . 
was purified by bathing at the end of a horse-sacrifice, (and) who adorned the family of the 
glorious Chalikyas; 4 

(L. 7.) The grandson of the glorious Klrtivarma-Prithivlvallabha-MaMraja, : whose pure 
fame was established in the territories of hostile kings, such as Vanavfisi, which had been 
subdued by (his) valour ; 

(L. 8.) The dear son of Saty*yraya-SrfpritMvivallabha-Maha^ 

who acquired the surname of ' supreme lord ' (paramettvard) by defeating the glorious 
Harshavardhana, the lord of the whole northern country, who had encountered (him) in battle j 

(L. 11.) He who, at the head of many famous battles, (assisted) by none but (his) noble 
steed named Chitrakantha and by the edge of (his) glittering, spotless and sharp sword which 
behaved like a tongue in licking the blood of hostile kings, conquered would-be conquerors by 
his own arms which resembled the coils of the serpent who carries the burden of the earth ; 
into whose own armour many blows had plunged ; who, having gained f pr himself the royalty of 
his father, which had been concealed by the triad of kings, 6 caused the burden of the whole 
kingdom to be governed by (himself) alone ; who, for the increase of (his) merit and fame, by 
his own mouth confirmed the property, of temples and the grants ibo Brahmanas which had 
lapsed in that triad of kingdoms; the sun of whose valour (became) irresistible after he had 
recovered, at the head of battles the royalty belonging to his family from the hostile kings of 
every quarter, and after he had acquired the title of ' supreme lord ' (parairiSivara) ; VikramaX 
ditya-Satyasraya-^rfpritMvivallabbA-Maharaiadhiraia-ParamSSvara commands all people (at 
follows ):T- 

(L. 19,) "Be it known to you (that"), in the sixth year of (.Owr) reign of growing 
victory, at an eclipse of the sun in the month of Sravana, the village named EJaaatti on 

'Bead "irfqfq-. * The 4 of aft i* expressed twice. 

* Expraued by a ayniboL * The usual epitheto of thu ftunily (1L 2-5) w omitted in.fte imulatioA. 

Le. Pttlakefiia H. 

' Viz. the Chflla, Piuijy* nd Kdn)a. Compare one of the epithet* applied to Tikrama^tya I. in the gnmto f 
his too. Vinayiditytt, above, Vol. V. p. 202, note 16. 


the nortliern side of the village of Kolchuniko[nra] has been given by Us, with libations of 
water, -with exemption from all molestation, to Our own preceptor (aunt) Srimeghacharya of 
the Vasislitha gofra, who knows the Vedas with (theif) Anyas and Upanyas. in order that 
(0r) mother aud father and Ourself might obtaiu merit aud fame. As long as the moon, the 
sun, the earth a,nd the oceans shall exist, (this grant] should be protected without distinction 
from their own gifts by those who desire to accumulate fame." 

[Verges 2-1 contain the usual admonitions to future rulers.] 

(L. 31.) (This') edict (in favour") of the family of SriinegMchrya was written by the 
illustrious Vajravarman of the Vaidya family. Let there be welfare to cows arid JBrahmanas ! 



The inscription edited above by Prof. Hulczsch is dated in. the 6th year of the reign of the 
W. Chalukya Vikramfiditya I., at the time of a solar eclipse 'in the month Sravana. From 
page 2 of Appendix II. to Vol. VIII. of this Journal it will be seen that this date must necessarily 
fall between A.D. G.S5 and 685 ; and from, what we know to be the general rule regarding 
eclipses that are quoted in dates, we may conclude that tL.e eclipse here referred to most probably 
was one that was visible at Bdd&mi, the capital of the W. Chalukyas, situated in about Long. 
76 and Lat. 16. 

it so happens that during the fifty years from A.D. 635 to 685 there was, in both the 
p&rniindnta and the am<lnta month Sravana, ouly a single solar eclipse that could have been at 
all visible at Badami, viz, the eclipse which took place 3 h. 5m. after rneau sunrise of Monday, 
the 13th July A.D. 660. That eclipse, an annular one, was fully visible at B&dami, and the 
13th July A.D. 660 wag the 15th of the dark half of the purnimdnta Sravana. We may 
compare especially the solar eclipse in the date of the Pattadakal duplicate pillar inscription of 
the reign of the W: Chalukya Kirtivarman II. (No. 48 of my Southern List), of the 25th June 
A.D. 754, which likewise took place in the p&rnimanta Sravana ; and to show that in early 
times the purnimdnta, scheme of the mouths was p-evalent in Southern India, we may also cite 
the solar eclipse in the date of No. 9 of the List, which took place in the p&rnimdntu Bhadra- 
pada, and the solar eclipse in the date of No. 551 of the List; which took place in the 
pArniindnta Phllguna. 

Monday, the 13th. July A.D. 660 (in JBaka-sarhvat 582) would thus be in every way a 
suitable equivalent of our date ; that it is its true equivalent is rendered more than probable by 
the date of the Nerur plates of the queen Vijayabhattarika (No. 23 of my Southern List). That 
date corresponds to the 28rd September A.D. 659, and is of the 5th year of a reign of which- 
hitherto it appeared doubtful whether it was the reign of Vikramaditya's eldest brother 
Chandraditya or of Vikramaditya himself. Since we now have a date in A.D. 660 which would 
be a most proper equivalent for a date of the 6th. year of the reign of Vikramaditya I., the date 
in A.D. 659 must surely be definitely assigned to the 5th year of the same reign, and the two 
dates in my opinion must be taken to prove that Vikram&ditya I. commenced to reign 
between some time in September A.D. 654 and July A.D. 655. 1 

1 Dr. Fleet, in his Dynasties, p. 868, arrived at the conclusion tLafc *' we shall probably be very close to the 
mark, if we place the formal cornmoncemont of Ms reign, somewhere in the autumn of .... A.D. 665." 





Qi the Param&fa kings, who ruled over Malava for more than three hundred yeafs, there 
been published hitherto the texts of twelve copper-plate and three stone inscriptions, 
^ -fj^ve besides short notices of about half a dozen other stone inscriptions, generally of email 
3 % or importance. Of the copper-plate inscriptions, three were first edited by Colebrooke in 
^ two by L. Wilkinson in 1836 and 1838, one by Rajeodralal Mitra in 1850, and three by 
"""^jtfdward Hall in 1860 and 1861. Of the stone inscriptions, the largest was first edited by 
'^ ^angadhar Shasfcri in 1843, and another by FitzEdward Hall in 1859. And from these 
' .0<nes principes the genealogy of the Param&ras of M&lava, with most of their dates, might 
been drawn np, abont fifty years ago, very nearly as I have given. it above, Vol. VIII. 
r J. pp. 14 and 15. Moreover, of so important a king as TJdayaditya we even to-day hardly 
than that ' wretched scrawl,' made known in 1840, of a person- 'who knew nothing 
family.' I mention this to show how little that is really new we have "learnt 
Malava, from its own records, for half a century, and to indicate wliat chances are open to 
jj&cials of the Archaeological Survey of India to enrich our knowledge of the histhry of 'that 
%fy. For, in my opinion, a systematic search for inscriptions in the ancient Malava country 
\yQ sure to bring to light numerous documents of importance. Even now such : a search has 

-v?ell inaugurated. 

. -.- ' , 
jjji 1903 there were discovered at Dhar the inscriptions published above 1 , Vol. VHI. p. 96 ff. 

-p. 241 ff., highly interesting from a literary point of view. And in 1904 and 1905 we're 

(3., at or near M4ndhSt^, the two copper-plate inscriptions now here edited. These pla'tes 

fy some value inasmuch as they show how DS v&pala, one of the later kings of Malava who 

etlready known to ns, was related to preceding rulers, and as they give us the names of two 

of his, Jaitugiddva and Jaysvarnlafi. pi.}, who, one after the other, succeeded him. 


These plates were found, in May 1905, near the temple of Siddhe's'vara at MftndhafA, an 
icl in the Narmada (Narbada, Nerbudda) river attached to the Nimar disteiot of the Central 
-riiaces. 1 They were discovered enclosed in a chest made of two stones, V 8* long by 
-'* troad. They are now in the Provincial Museum at Ifagpur, to which they hare been 
9xted t>y Rao Jaswant Singh of Standhata. The first account of them was given by an old- 
'.1 of mine, Mr. Lefe, Director of Education in the Dhar State ;* and a transcript of the 
r-ijyfcion engraved on them, with a translation and notes, was afterwards* furnished to the 
.orities by Mr. Py&ri Lai Ganguli, pleader of Nimar. The text and a translation, with an 
>cl-n.ction, hate also been sent to the Government Epigraphisb "by Pan'dfi Hifanand '^hastri, 
fctor of the N'&gpur Mufieum. At Prof. HtilfczsoVs request, I edit the msoription which is on 
3 plates from impressions kindly supplied by Mr. Oousens. 

inscription is on three plates, which are stated to measure about 1' 5^* broad by 
and of wliich the second is insoribed on both sides, while the first and third plates are 

See Gazetteer of tie Central Provinceg, p. 257 ff. ; ConStatfeViZ&mtf AHha tf !*> Ptete 87, d; and 
'Vol. III. p. 46. On^ teiafte of Sidah^raEra see^jttao Artkaot* &HMH& 0f-I#dier,f-J.inMil JSBtpoity K>08-04, 

. tele at the time most kindly offered to Bend me impreauons of -the plate*, lafc WM nwhoflr or otbdr 
m doing BO. . I take the qpportuaity of thanking him here aleo pablicly for thfr genwodty wHh irtiak 
over "tQ "me Hfl valuable imprewion* e* the J>h$r IntcriptioiM ^pntHalwd-in VA- VJB, of tb}i J<mu|t 



inscribed on one aide only. The writing on the several sides covers a space between 1' 4" and 
1' 4|" broad by between 10$" and 111" high- In the lower proper right corner of the first side 
of the third plate a space about 2" broad by 3" high, is marked off by double lines, which enclose 
an engraving of the mythical bird Garuda, the exact shape of which may be seen from the 
accompanying photo-lithograph. 1 The plates ate held together by two rings for which there are 
two holes in each plate ; these rings, I am informed, aie open and were apparently never soldered. 

The three plates contain SO lines of well-engraved writing, which is hi so perfect;* state of 
preservation that, with the exception of not more than three aksTiara*, every letter; iBi.ay be read 
with absolute certainty. In line 40 a vacant space is left for four aksharas which mstf have been 
illegible in the original from which the inscription was copied ; and there is a similar vacant 
space for two aksharas in line 54. The size of the letters is between T y and f". The 
characters are Nagari of the period to which the inscription belongs, and the language is 
Sanskrit. The forms of individual letters hardly call for any remarks. Attention may be 
drawn to the iniiial i and i (e.g. in iva, 1. 4, and Uda^ t 1. 50), and to the initial & (in. Ma, 1. 17) 
and ait (e.g. in Audalya-, 1. 27, and Aurvva-, I. 40) ; perhaps also to the forms of th (e.g. in 
purushdrtha-, 1. 1,) and ksh (e.g. in sdJtshdt^ 1. 1). It may also be stated that the signs for f 
and bfc, and those for ddh and do, often are so much alike that it is very difficult to distinguish 
between them. As the 22 verses in lines 1-17 are all numbered, tbe inscription offers specimens 
of all numeral figures ; and in lines 28, 34, 49 and 50, it gives the fraction J, denoted by two 
vertical lines, placed, as the case may be, after a numeral or the sign for nought?. 3 In line 79, 
before tho word rachitam,-, the text contains a peculiar symbol (perhaps a monogram), the 
meaning of which I am unable to explain. As regards orthography, the sign for v denotes 
both b and v ; the dental sibilant is used instead of the palatal about 30 times, and tshe palatal 
instead of the dental about 25 times (even in such ordinary words as fain % for tittah, 1. 9, 
&wnaf edtt- for S&nwvZda-, 1. 29, etc.) ; ri is used for ri in fiwAt-, 1. 60, and ft for r in tp 3 for 
trf (i.e. trivSda-'), 1. 29 and elsewhere, and in aktri- for aktri-, 1L 23 and 71 ;/ is employed 
instead of y in jas6- for yafo-, 1. 73, and in the names Jasodhara-, 1. 29, and Jcttadeva- (for 
r<wod(&<j-), 1. 64 ; and ksh for kfy in drhlcshd-yaiia- t 1. 46. The occasional employment of dy, 
dv and dhv for ddy, ddv and ddhv need perhaps hardly beientioned ; bat I may add that the 
word tiimratdih is written tdmvrat&m in line 2, and that the sign of avagraha is employed three 
times, insfccfohuta. , 1. 15, dfydsyam=, L 75, and vudhvassmad*, 1. 75. There are a few clerical 
errors not referred to in the above, that can all be easily corrected. The inscription, m lines 1-17, 
has 22 verses which chiefly contain genealogical matter, and of which verses 1*10 were already 
known to us from the three grants of king Arjunavarman.. 3 In addition io them, we have in lines 
20-22 tbe well-known verse commencing with Vctidbhra-vibkramam*iidafr 
which, with a single exception, 4 occurs in all Paramara plates; and in li 
and imprecatory verses, the last of which, commencing with Iti 
w common to all Paramara plates. The rest of the text ifl in proas. In the poeiiqat potjbioa wo 
find in Hue 6 the (as far as I can see, perfectly correct) adjective ttdddmcm* instead oE u,lddmn 
which alone is given by the dictionaries. And in the prose part them oOona in lines 72 and 

1 Similar representation* of Qtrufc are found on all complete plates of tbt Pamnlrjttof JHtUv*, of wlicb 
facrimilea have been pnbl'tslied ; eompre e.g. above, VoUIJ. Plate opposite p. SQ. 

Compare above, Vol. VII, p. 86. 

Not. 195, 197 and 198 of my NortTurn Lift. . 

4 Vis. tlii Uljain platei of Vakpatbtja, pnbliilied in Ind. Ant. VcL 32V- n. 18&, -.-, ;,,. . . , . 

1 knew of no grammatical rale by which a compound formed of tut and *&ma* (in U( w of ddmvi 
udyaiaft wonM become vdddma, and moat of the paatagefl, whick In tkefapfay^^^ 
might just as well be p'aced nnd*r ddd*an. In his coromeutary on Str^nva^tn | 78^ 3|iTilnit^i tettully 


73, thu strange revenue teria shamhaldtama[ka]-sa'ma'nvita, which I have not met with 
'Jsewhero and am unable to explain. 

The inscription records a grant of land by the Paramara (or Eramara) king Mahdrdja, 
as he is styled in lino 80 Devapala of Malava. A full translation of the introductory verses 
will be given below. As has been already stated, up to the end of verse 19 (in line 15) the text 
is identical with the introductory pai-t of the three published grants of the Paramara Arjunavar- 
man, und so far contains little more than a list of kings who were ruling over Malava : 
Bnojadeva, tJ dayaditya, his son Naravarman, his son Ya^6"varman, his son Ajayavarman, 
his sou Vindhyavarman, his son Subhatavarman, and his son Arjxtna (Arjunavarman). 
Viudhyavamiaii and Subhatavannan were at war -with the G-firjaras, and the first of them 
recoven d Dhara, which must have been taken possession of by the enemy. 1 Arjuna in his youth 
put to flight Jayasimha, of whom it is elsewhere said that he was a king of Gurjara and belonged 
to the Chaulnkya family (of Anahilapataka). 3 To the nineteen verses of Arjunavarman's 
grants only three new verses (vv. 20-22) are added here, which tell us that on Arjuna's death he 
was succeeded in the government of Malava by Devapala and record the name of this king's 
father. When I published the Harsauda inscription of Dvapala, I had to point out 3 that by 
certain epithets in that inscription Devapala was clearly connected with the MaJiakumdras 
Lakshmivarinadeva, his son HarisohandradSva, and his sou Udayavai-madeva of Dhara. Verse 
21 of our inscription now informs us that Devapala actually was a son of Harischandra (and 
therefore a brother of the Maliiihumura Udayavamian, whose plates are dated in A.D. 1200). 
In the 1 Tarsauda inscription, which is dated in A.D. 1218, only three years after the date of the 
latest known grant of Arjunavarman, DevapMa, unlike bis brother and his father and grand- 
father, is styled HahArdjddhiruja. Tins, together with the fact that he succeeded Arjunavar- 
man, would indicate that in him the two branches of the Paiamara family which till then had 
separately Iteld sway over Malava became reunited, or that one of them ceased to exist. 4 Beside* 
the llarsaudn stone and the present plates, the date of which will be considered below, we know 
of two inscriptions of Devapala's reign, dated in about AJ). 1229 and probably 1232. 5 

In lines 17 ff. Devapala informs all king's officers, Brahmans and others, and the Paftakild 
and other people dwelling at the village of Satajuna in the Malmada pratijdgaranaka, that, 
while staying at Mabisbmati, on. the occasion of an eclipse of the moon 6 on the full-moon 
tithi in the month Bhadrapada in the year 1282 (given in words), after bathing in the 
Beva (i.e. Narmada) and woi-shipping Siva (at the temple) in the neighbourhood of (the temple 
of Vishnu) Daityasudana, he granted the village of Satajuna, (as stated in lines 72 and 73) 
well defined as to its four boundaries (kaAkafa'), eto., to certain Brahmaus enumerated in lines 
22-71 ; and (in line 74) he orders the resident Patfakila and others to give to these Brahmana 
the customary share of the produce and money-rent, etc., excepting what was already enjoyed 

1 The context would indicate that Dlijri had been taken by the Gurjaras. 

* See now above, Vol. VIII. p. 99; compare also below, p. 118, note 2. In M6ratnngA's Prabandftaahintd- 
mani, y. 240 f ., we are told that the Malaya king Sdhada (i.e. Subhatavarman), when about to invade the Gurjara 
country, turned back from its frontier on hearing the verse; Pmtdj>& ri-jamdrtanda 2>4rv<uydm*tta rdjatt \ 
tatva vilfryam ydli fafchim&f&-oalambinah\\' } out that afterwards the Gurjara country was 'broken' by 
hia son Arjunadeva. 

* See Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 311. 4 See ibid. Vol. XIX. p. 848. 
s Isos. 207 and 214 of my Northern List. 

* The text bos s6ma-p&rvvani iustea-i of tlie fuller aad ordinary *4magra7KHta-pariHQi ; similarly rttrya- 
parvani is nsed instead of sdryagrahaQa-parvani, e.g. in the datea of No. 366 of my Northern Lift and of No*. 889 
and 380 of my Southern List. I may ndd that, excepting the Mandhata plates of Jayasimba, publuhed abora, 
Vol. III. p. 48, the word partani occur* in the dates of 11 fnlly preserTed Paramara platet that have been hitherto' 
published. We have pavHrctka-parvva^i inBTo. 46 of my Northern Litt, t6maffrahana~parvvani in No. 49 aad 
121, udatiat/ana-yarvvani in No. 67, sa&jdta-idryaparvayi in No. 172, Mahd- Vaiidkhydm yafwa^i in No. 189^ 

t.i in No. 195, t^ryaffraha^a-parvai in No. 197, aad chandrtifardffit-parvani in No.lfiS. 



by gods (i.e. temples) and Brahmans. After the usual appeal to future kings to preserve tibia 
/grant and the imprecatory verses, the date (in line 79) is repeated in figures, with the additional 
remark that the day was a Thursday. 

I may state here at once that, so far as the week-day is concerned, the date is incorrect. 
"The full-moon tithi of Bhadrapada ended 

in the current Chaitrddi Vikrama year 1282 : 10 h. 50 m. after mean sunrise of Friday, 
the 30th August A.D. 1224 ; 

in the expired Ohavtrddi Vikrama year 1282 : on Tuesday, the 19th August A.D. 1225 j 

in the expired Kdrtttkd&i Vikrama year 1282* ; on Monday, the 7th September AJ). 


Ifone of the possible equivalents of the date therefore was a Thursday. On the othei; hand, 
there was an eclipse of the moon a partial one from. 17 h. 45 m. to 20 h. 13 m. after mean 
sunrise, and therefore risible in India, on the second of the three possible days, and I have no 
doubt that that day, Tuesday, the 19th August A.D. 1225, is really the day on which the grant 
-was made, and that in line 79 ' Thursday ' has been erroneously put down instead of ' Tuesday.' 
Of the localities mentioned above, Mahishmatl, from where the grant waa made, is 
JMahesvrar, a town in the Indore State, Central India Agency, situated in Long. 75 37' and 
Lat. 22 11', on the northern bank of the Narmada (Constable's Sand Atlas of India, Plate 
27, Bd). The village of Satajunfi, exists still under the same name- the Indian Atlas has 
'Satajana' about 13 miles south-west of Mandhata in Long. 76 3' and Lat. 22 8' (Indian 
Atlas, sheet 54). Mahuada, after which the gratijdgaranaka or district was called, probably is 
4be village of ' Mohod,' about 25 miles south of ' Satajana,' in Long. 76 and Lat. 21 48'. 
Below, in line 23 of the inscription B., we have Mahuada-pathakd, clearly equivalent to 
MaTiitafa-pi'atijdgaranakS. Among other Paramara grants, the word for ' district ' is pathaka 
-also in No. 57 of my Northern List, and pratijdgaranaka in Nos. 172, 189, 195 and 19& The 
latter term long ago has been identified with the modern pargand, ' a district or tract of 
-country including a number of villages.' 

An abstract list of tae donees will be given below, p. 115 f . Prom that list it will be 
-seen that their number was 32, and that the proceeds of the village granted to them were divided 
into 32 shares (van{aka), 1 in such a manner that 26 donees received one share each, & half a 
.share each, 2 one share and a half each, and 1 (the mahdrdja-panfita or ' king's Pandit ' Goae 8 ) 
two shares. The original. in each case gives the gotra and pravaras of the donee, the names of 
'his father and grandfather, and his place (or country) of origin ; also, with two exceptions, the 
Vedio tdkhd or Veda studied by him. The gotras, dkhd* and localities so mentioned may be 
seen from the list ; the names of the donees' fathers and grandfathers are given in a separate, 
alphabetical list, below, p. 116 . The two lists will show that, with a single exception, the 
people referred to in the preceding are distinguished by certain epithets which are prefixed to 
their names, and which generally refer to their religious occupation and are mostly given in 
abbreviated forms. In alphabetical order, these epithets are : o#t, i.e. agnihdtrin; 4a or 
dnuafftifca; upd t Le.vpddhydya; cha or chaturvSda ; /Aa, i.e. f&afcfcara/ fy-t* (for rt^, i.e. 
trivtda; <K, La. dikthitot; dW, i.e. dvwSda ; path or j>amt, ie. panfifa; p#$d, ie. 
pdthaka; ydjrii , Le. ydjnika; iu or SuUa; rfroW, i.e. fr6triya. In addition to these, we 
have pa*dha in line 71, r&jan in line 37, and mahdrdjapan^tta in line 39. About the jnWung 
of paHoha? I am somewhat doubtful. The meaning that first suggested, itself to me witf 
jpafyhakula ; but as most of the other epithets refer to religious occupations, I would wdiher 

""~"~~~~~~~'~~~~~~~~~~^ ~ r w 

1 The Inscription B. (ia linea 82, S4, 86 and 87) ahoirfl that the -word atfo*0 ! 
* He probbly U the QA^ka, mentioaed ia line 61 of the inscription B. 


take pancha to be equivalent to panchakalpin (panchoU) which, occurs as an epithet of two 
persons (father and son) in Prof. Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin MSS., Yol. II. p. 96. In the 
case of 20 donees the same epithet is borne by grandfather, father and son ; in 7 cases the 
grandfather and father have the same epithet, and the son has a different one ; and in one case 
the epithet of father and son is the same, while that of the grandfather differs. In the four 
remaining cases we haye the sequences : dikshita,) dvasathika, faikla ; upddhydya, agnihdtrin 
dikshita ; agnihotrin, dikshita, dvasathika ; and agnihotrin, upddhydya, dvasathika. Speaking 
from personal experience, I remember that many of my Indian pupils had one or the other of 
the above mentioned terms as surnames Dikshit, Padhye, Pathak, Pandit, Shukle, etc. which 
they probably have handed down unchanged to their children and children's children. 

Of the places with which the donees are connected, I take Mahavana-sthana to be 
Mahaban, a town in the Muttra district of the United Provinces (Constable's Rand Atlas, 
Plate 27, b) ; Tripuri-sthana is Tewar, a village in the Jabalpur district of the Central Prov- 
inces, about six miles west of Jabalpur ; Akola-sthana probably is Akola in Berar (ibid. Plate 
31, D a), and Matlmr-sthana is Muttra in the United Provinces (ibid. Plate 27, C b), 
pindvanaka-sthana apparently is the pendvanaka, mentioned above, Vol. Y. p. 210, now the 
town of Didwana 1 in J&dhpur, Eajputana (ibid. Plate 27, B b). Regarding the remaining 
places I cannot offer any definite suggestions. Mutavathft-sthana is the same place which is 
mentioned as Muktavasthu-sthana in the three grants of Arjunavarman ; 2 and HastinSpura 
may be the village of Hathinavara (on the northern bank of the N armada in the Pagara 
pratijdgaranaka'), which was granted by Arjunavarman's grant published in Journ, Am. Or.. 
8oc. Yol. YII. p. 27. With Takarl-sthana compare ' Takari,' above, Yol. III. p. 350 r and note 
13. The names Asrama-sthana and Sarasvati-sthana I have not found elsewhere. On the 
other hand, MadhyadSsa is too well known to call for any remark here. 

After the date in line 79, the text of our inscription has the three aksharas M M mu, followed 
by the numeral 3 and a peculiar mark the esact shape of which may be seen from the photo- 
lithograph. The first akshara of course stands for d&takah or d&tah, and should be followed by 
a name to which the word ^r* would have been prefixed ; but I do not know whether any or 
what name may be intended to be denoted by mu 3 and the following symbol. We find the same 
witt 3 (probably followed by the same mark which we have here) also in the two grants of 
Arjunavarman in Journ. Am. Or. Soc. Yol YII. pp. 29 and 33. 

The inscription then has the statement that ' this was composed by the king's preceptor 
(r&ja-guru) Madana, with the approbation of the mahdsdndhivigrahika (or great minister of 
peace and war), the learned Bilhana * a statement which occurs also in Arjunavarman's grant 
in Journ. Am. Or. 800. Yol. YII. p. 33, and (with mahdpanifita instead of mahdsdndfi'ivigra'hika- 
pan<fita~) in the same king's grant in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. Yol. Y. p. 879. On Madana, who* 
may reasonably be taken to have composed merely the introductory verses of the inscription, see 
now above, Yol. VIII. p. 99. As regards Bilhana, in verse 7 of the praiaati at the end of 
Agadhara's Dharmdmrito? 'the learned Bilhana, the lord of poets,' is described as 'the 
mahdsdndhivigrahika of the glorious king Yindhya (Vindhya-bhupatf).' Since this king 
Vindhya can be no obher than Arjunavarman's grandfather Ymdhyavarman,* it might seem as 
if his mahdsdndMvigrahika Bilhana could not be the Bilhana of Arjunavarman's grant and of the 
present inscription. But in my opinion there are not for the present any valid reasons why the 

1 In Prof. Peterson's Third Report, App. I. p. 335, the town is called Dim&av&nanagara, 

2 See Journ. Am. Or. Soo. Vol. VII. pp. 27 and 82, and Journ. As. Soo. Seng. VoL V. p. 379 (where tn& 
published text has Muktdvasu-stftdna). 

* See Dr. Bhandarkar's Report on the search for Sanskrit MSS. duricg 1883-84, p. 291. 
4 Tindkya-bhiiptzti baa been taken to mean ' king of the Vindhyas or M41ava ' ; bat as ArjuHii'bhdpati in 
the same praiaati denotes Arjunavarman, the former can only denote Vindhyavarman. 

P 2 


two should not be considered to be identical. Of the length of the reign of Arjtmavarman's 
father we know nothing ; and all we know in this respect about ArjnnaYartnan is, that he reigned 
daring the five years from A.D. 1211 to A.D. 1215. Besides, it should be borne in mind that 
Ifi&dhara himself, from whose work the above statement is taken, was a contemporary of no 
less than five successive Hugs of Malava, from Vindbyavavman toD&vapaWs eon Jaitu^'ideva, 1 

The inscription ends with the words : ' this is the own hand (/.</. tho sign-manual) of the 
a, the glorious DSvapaladgva/ followed by tho usual munyalaih mdhu-srih. 

TEXT. 3 

First Plafe. 

1 Oih 3 || Oih namah pm-ushartha-caftdamaiiay^ dharmraaya || *Pra/tivimva- 6 mbli!id= 

bhume'h kpitvS sakshat=pratigmharii | jagad=ahladayan=di5ya[cl*]-dvij6ih- 

2 dr& mari;galani vah |(||) 1 |(||) Jyat=Pm-!ism-:uu6=6au. kshatraih kshuuuftm 

rau-ahataih | Bamdhyai'kkarviravaia= 6 uv=6rvvi-d!itui > =yaBy=c(ai)ti 

3 Yna ilamdftdariyashpa-varibliih sa(Sa)mit6 mridli& | pr 

sa Ramah reyase=sfcn vah |(||) 3 |(i|) Bhimn=&pi dhrt^ mu[i'*]ddhni 

4 sa Yudhishthirah I vamB(s)-ady^n=Smdima jiyat=su-tulya 8 iva nrrnutah |(||) 

4 |(|0 Param,rakul-6tfcarhsah Kameajin-maliinifi nripah | Sri-Bh6jadeva ity=a- 

5 Btn=nasirakvamta-bhutalah |(||) 5 |(j|) Yad-yasa^charndrik-6dy6t6 digutaaihga- 

taramgitfi | dvishanTiripa-yaahpumjanuiii4arlkai[r*]=nimilitarii |(||) 6 |(||j Tat6= 

6 d=Udayadityo nity6tsah-aikakantuki | aeadharaDa-Tiragrhr^afiri-hSttu^virddhinruii |(||) 

7 |(||) Mahakakha-kalpariit6 yasy=&ddamabhir=a6n(<ta)- 

7 gaih | kati n=6nmulitas=tumg& bhubhritat katak-61vana|? |(||) S |(||) 

Tasmacb.=chjhinna-dviBhanmarma Naravarmft naradhiparh | dhannu(rjn-ji)- 
bhyuddhava^e dhiman=abhut=Bima 

8 mahlbhujAm |(||) 9 |(||) Prati-prabhatam viprebhyo dattai[r]=grama-padaih svayaiii i 

ftnekapadatam niny& dharmmo yen-aika-pad=api |(||) 10 [(||) Taty(sy)=ajaui 

9 pntrah kshatriya-Sekharah | tasmad=Ajayavarmabhft,j=jayaM-vilpatah Su(sn)tah 
|(||) 11 |(||) Tat-sunur=wSra-murddhany6 olhaay-dtpatiC^v^ajayafca | Qurjaro- 

10 nirvvamdhi 10 Viihdbyavarma njaha-bhujah |(||) 12 |(||) I)hiftray=6dclbritaya 

sarddham dadhati sma tridharataih. | s&mynglirasya yasy=Afiis=traturii loka- 
trayim=iva |(||) 13 |(||) 

11 Tasy^amushyayanah patrah Sufcrama-rtr=aiih=aSisaat | bkupah Salbhatavarmni=eti 

dharm.m.6 idshthan=mahi-talam |(||) 14 |(||) Yaeya jviJati $fe< : j$8& pcattipas= 

12 t6h | davagni-ohchhadman=ady=ayi a garjjad-GHlpjjara-pattan6 ffJO 1J^ 1(11) D6va- 

bhftyam gatfi ijaaniia==nftmdati6-rjjuiia-bhtlpatti(ti)h; ,| d$sb^i| dhatt^^dl ana 
dhatri-valayarii valayam 

1 See the incription B., below. PTOBU n i 

* Denoted by a symbol. * Metre Of Terse* l23i Slflt* ( 

* Read prati bimba-, 

Bead -tddytti. w Bend 

11 The edition* of the platea of Arjmmvarmaix hare garja** * bat 7^<J.itt PMEdiflg ftUw of S., Mow, 
p. 131, line 14. 


3,3 yatbl |(||) 16 |(||) Va(ba)lal51-ahav6 yasya Jayasiifahd palayitS | dikpalahaaa- 

yyaj&na ya6 diksliu yijrim"bliifcam |(||) 17 |(||) Kayyagarhdharwa-sai'vyasva- 

Jji y&na 1 sampratam | bhar-avatarariam 3 d$vya=ehakr3 pustaka-yinay&h |(||) 18 

|(D) YSna trividha-vireiia tridha pallavitam yasal?. | dhayalatvam dadhus* 

trini ja- 
X5 gatfati katL.am=amya(nya)tl}a |(H) 19 |(||) Ath=arthinam=apiinyna pupy&oa 

svargga-subbmyam | s6 sdblmtatyagasilaa=cha grimgari cha divam gata^t |(||) 

20 j(||) Ta- 
3.6 tab. Pramara-charbdrasya Harischamdrasya namdanah j raraksha Mlava- 

kshonira Devap&lah pratapavan |(||) 21 |(||) Pavifcra-karapadmagya(sya) 

X7 bhitaih | na vidmo D^vapalasya devapalasya cli=aihtaram |(||) 22 |(|j) Sa 

eslia nara-nayakah sarvy-abhyudayi || 3 Malmada-pratijagaranakS Satft- 
TL 8 junS-grame^ samasta-ra3apuruskaii=vra(bra)liman-6ttaran=pratiniyasi(ai)-pattakila-jana- 

pad-adim=olia v6(b6)dhayaty=a8tu valj samyidi- 
JL9 tarn yathS | 3 sri-MaMshmatl-stMtair=asmabhihr= 4 dvyasityadhika-dvfid.asa^ata- 

samvatsare Bhadrapad ms paurnnanaaBy&m so- 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

"3O ma-parvvani Evy,m snatyft gri-DaityasAdana-sannidbau bhagavantarix 
Bhayani-patim samabhyarchchya samsarasy=asarabam draBhtva | tatlia M |) 
Va- 6 

,3. tabl.ra-yibliramam=idam vasu(sti)dli-adb.ipatyam= 6 apatamatra-madhTir6 viahay- 

6pabli6gah | pranas=trinagrajalayimdu-sain& nuranam dha- 

2 rmmab, sakha param=ah6 poral6ka-yau6 |) iti saryyam vimriiy=adrishtft- 

ptalam=amgikritya || 7 Asramasthana-yinirggataya Vajimjtdb.yamdinasa- 

3 kb.-adb.yayin ParaSa[ra*]-g6traya Parasa-alct.ri-Va^ish.tb.4ti 8 tri-pravaraya ^r6tri 9 

Dam&dara-pautraya sr&fcri Vra(bra)lima-pTitraya ^rdtri Garhgadb.a- 
4* rasa(sa)rmman6 vra(bra)limanaya varhtakam=6kam 1 Mahavanasthftna- 

yinirggataya Payitra-g6fcraya Garggya-Gatirivit-ArQgiras4ti tri-prayar&ya Asva- 
layanasakh-adhyayin^ di 10 Garfagadhara-pautraya ava^a(sa)thika-Maliaditya-pUtraya 

karii 1 Mahavanastha"na-ymirggataya Payitra-gdtraya Garggya-Gaurivit-mgiras-Sti 

tri-pravaraya l^valayana^lkb.-adliyayin& dl Sirh(sim)ha- 
kamtha-pautraya ga n Madkukamtba-putraya n Oiamdrakamthasa(^a)rmman5 

yi'a(bra)liinariaya vamtakam=^kam 1 Mahfivanastha[na*]-vinirggataya Audalya- 

g6traya 12 Ma- 

dhyamdina^akli-adiyayinS di PadmasvAmi-pautraya di Tril6cJhana-ptttraya dl 

yra(bra)hmanaya sardliam yariitakam=4kam l Ma- 

Originally yima ws engraved. 

The edition of the grant of Arjunavarmaa in Jovrn. Am. Or. Soe, Vol. VII. p. 26, 

These signs of punctuation are superfluous. 

Eead aasmdbhir*. * Metre t Vnsantatilaka. 

Instead of the aksharo, dhd originally dhau seems to have been engraved. 

TJ|s sign of punctuation ia superfluous. Here and in other places below the rules of tamdAi have not been 

rinally Pardid-a was engraved. Eead Pardiara-SaJctri-VaaisJith-tti, where the name S*tfr, 
3i^fBe, would stand for the more correct &alcti. See below, line 71. 

J, here and below, fr6triya' 10 I.e., here and below, dtkshita-. 

I, here and below, iutcla-. ll Here tfaspravartu are omitted. 


29 hdvanasthana-viriii'ggataya Katyayana-g&traya 1 Sa(sa)mavM-adIiyayine tri 3 

tri JasodJbara- 3 putraya tri SurasarmmanS* 

- vamt;akam=S- 

30 kadi 1 Tafcaristhana-vinirggataya Bharadvaja- 5 g6traya BJbtaradvaj-AmgiraBa- 

Va(M)rliaspaty-eti tri-pravaraya Kauthumagakh-adhyayi- 

31 ne tri Dalana-pautraya tii Isadhara-ptLtraya tri VisvesvarasarnmianS 8 

vra(bi'a)limanya Tamtakam=6kaih. 1 TakarlstMna-vinirggataya Bliaradva- 

32 ja-g&tvaya Bliaradvaj-Amgirai5a-Va(ba)rliasya(spa)ty-&ti tri-pravaraya liadiiyariidina- 

^akli-adhyayine di K'lhana-pautraya di Madhu-putraya di Ra- 

33 masa(sa,)rmmanS vra(bra)lunatia[y]a variitakam=Skarii 1 Tripurlsthfina- 

Tinirggataya Blaradvaja-gotraya BliaradYaj-libgirasa-Va(ba)rliaspaty-eti tri 

34 raya pam | 7 Earidhara-pautaraya pam | Mahidhara-putraya pam Blirigti- 

garmmaoa& 8 vi'a(bra)bmanaya aarddham Tamtakam=ekam 1^- MutavathustMna-' 

35 Kayapa-g&traya Kasyapa(p-A)yatsara-!N'aidhruv-6ti tri-pravaraya Asvalayanasakli- 

adhyayine aha 010 Prithvidhara-pantraya cha Asa(ga)dliara-pu- 

36 traya agni 011 Narayanasarmman^ vra(T)ra)limanaya vamtakam=^kam 1 

AkfilastMna-vinirggataya Para,TasTi(su)-g6traya Paravagti(sTi)-Eamkaya- 

37 na-Kaikasgya 13 iiri-pi-avaraya tha | 13 Bliaratapala-pautraya tha | Dallana-putrSya 

raja-G6sa(sa)]a^armniane 1 * vra(bra)limaEiaya vamtakam=ekarii 1 Mathurastha- 

38 ns-vinirggataya Isvalayanaakli-adhyayiii6 Vasi(si)Bt.tlia-g6traya Kasyap-Avatsara- 

tri-pravaraya chatnrvveda-Janarddana-pautra- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

39 ya cliaturTV&da-Dharaiiidliara-putraya maharajapamdita-ri-G6sSsarmmaBfl 

vra(bra)hmanaya varfataka-dTayam 2 MathurasthaBa-vinirggatayai A- 

40 jSvalayanasakh-adhaymk Bharggava-gotraya Bliarggava-CliyavaTia-ApnnTSn 16 

AtirTva-Jaiiiadflgiiy-&ti pamcha-pravaraya cha .... 18 -pantraya cha 

41 Vislmti-piitraya cBa RamSsTa(sva)rasa(^a)rmmanS Tra(bra)lmianaya 7amtakam= 

1 Matlnirasthaua-yinirggataya Agvala[ya*]nasakh-adliyayin& Kasyapa- 

42 ya Kalyap-Avatsara-Naidhrav-^ti iiri-pravaraya cha Samuddhara-pautraya cb 

D^yadhara-putraya ch.a Gadadharasa(ga)rmmaia& yra(bra)limanaya Tamtabam= 
Skam 1 Ma- 

43 tlLtLr,8thana-viairggataya Agvalayanalakli-adhyayinS Bharggava-g6traya BharggavB- 

Vaitatavya-Sav^tas-fiti -fcri-pravaraya cha PavitTa-pantra- 

44 ya oha Dliaragidhara-pTitraya cna Garblisva(SYa)rasarmman vra(bra)limariSya 

Tarbtakam=dkam 1 Mathurasthana-vinirggataya Agvalayanagakli-adhyayi- 

originally omitted, and is engraved above the line. Here, again, the pravaras are 

> Here and telow for <r ie. triv4Aa~. * For YaMdhara: * For <Ara4armnia$t, 

In the place of the a kshara. ro originally .dta was engraved. 6 Bead Tifattvartf. 
t This, ax pain", here and "below, pa*dtVa-. 8 The tdlcAd of this man is omitted. 

Below, iu lines 4fl and 49, the name is Sfutdvat M. 

* Xe.j here and "belo-w, chaturvtda-. Il I.e., here and belovr, agnihttri: 

19 Bead Ea\Jcai~4ti* * I.e., here and below, thalclcura-. 

" The fdTchd of this man is omitted. Read -Apnaedna- \ see below, lines 52 and 66. 

M Here an oj>en apace i left for a name of four syllables which b.a been omitted. 

Mandhata plates of Devapala. [Vikrama-]Samvat 1282. 






- aWTOM^ 




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i a^93(Bfeafen3!a^^ wwL^ra^a.^^: 

'^^^^^^^^^^^^^&Si^^^^^^^^ ! ^^ 




30 ' 



-v- JO^X"sr- ^ JAMi^VJ^UW&-Vlja ^V^SJTSJ-^V^-' \JU t^L-l'.iJ^Jk.'^i.^-l,^ U.L\JJ^S 






45 n& KaSyapa-gotraya Kasyap-Avatsara-Naidbruv-eti tri-pravaraya cha Samuddliara- 

pautraya cha Devadhara-putraya cha L6b.atasarmman6 vra(bra)limana- 

46 ya vamtakam-ekam 1 pimdvanakastMna-vinirggataya iSamksliayana^akh- 

adiyayine Gantama-g&traya Gautam-Amgirasa-Autattliy-fiti 3 tri-prava- 

47 raya cha Dkavanidhara-pautraya cba Vra(bm)iima-patraya cha Puru9h6ttama- 

sarmmane vra(bra)limanaya vamtakam=6kam 1 Mutavathusthana-vinirggataya 

48 diiiasakh-adhyaymS Kasyapa-gotraya Kasyap-Avatsara-Naidkriiv-ti tri-pravaraya 

dvi 3 Govimda-pauti-aya dvi Yasadhara-putraya dvi Gada- 

49 dharasarmmane vra(bra)hmanaya vamtaka(k-a)rddliam | Mutavathusttiana- 

vinirggataya Madliyariidinasakli-adliyayiii^ Kasyapa-gotraya Kasyap-Avatsara- 
Kaidhru- ' 

50 v-6ti tri-pravaraya di 4 Garhgadliara-pautraya di K6sava-putrayr.. Udaisar- 

mmane vra(bra)b.manaya vaditaka(k-a)rddbam | Mahavanastha[na*]- 
vinirggataya Kau- 

51 thtunasakli-adkyayin& Gautama-gotci\ya Gautam-Amgirasa-Autattliy-fiti tri- 

pravaraya pam Madana-pauk-aya pam Kabna(iilia)da-putraya pam 

52 vra(bra)lirQanaya variitakara=ekam 1 Takari8th,na-vimrggataya 5 Kautliuma^akli- 

adliyayine Vatsa-gotraya BMvggava-Chyavana-Apnuvan 8 Aon r |va-Jamadagny-e- 
3 ti parhcha-pravaraya tri Janarddana-pautraya tri N"ara8im(siiii)ha-putraya ava 07 
AbMaamda^armmanfi vra(bra)hmauaya vamtakam=ekam 1 MadhyadSsa- 

54 ya Madhyamdi[na*]sakb.-adliyayiiae Mudgala-g6traya Arhgirasa(sa)-Bhara . . sa- 8 

Mudgal-Sti tri-pravaraya agni Cb-chhitu-pantraya agni Dharanidhara-puti-a- 

55 ya agni Anantasarmmarie vra(bra)linianaya vaihtakain=6kaih 1 MadhyadSsa- 

vioirggataya MadhyamdiuagaklL-adh^'ayinS Saihdilya-g6traya Samdilya-Asi(8i)ta- 

56 D6val-eti tri-pravaraya yajfii 09 !N"agadSva-pautraya yajni' ErisLna-putraya agni 

Stlianfisva(sva)rasarinraaiie vra(bra)hman.aya vamtakam=6kam 1 MathuiAstliaiia- 

57 rggataya Asvalayanagak]i-adb.yayia6 Dhaumya-gotraya Easyap-Avatsara-[N"ai*]dh.ruv- 

6ti 10 tri-pravaraya cha Visbnn-pautraya cha Sadharana-pntra- 

58 ya ch.a Udha[ra]garnima:n& n vra,(bra)hmanaya varbtakam=6karii 1 llathurasthana- 

vinirggataya 12 Ea?ayinisakb.-adtiyayin^ Bliaradvaja-g6traya Amgi- 

59 rasa-Va(ba)rhaspatya-Bharadvtvj-eti tri-pravaraya tri Madhava-pautraya 13 tri 

S&msva(sva)ra-putraya tri Kuladhara^arniiiian.6 vra(bra)Timanlya varhtakam= 
Skam 1 

Third Plate. 

60 Mathurasthana-vinirggataya Raaayinisakli-adtLyayinS Bharadvaja-gfifeaya Amgirasa- 

Va(ba)rhaspafcya-Bliaradvaj-^ti tri-pravaraya tri Ei(ri)8lii-pautraya tri 

1 Bead SdmTchydyana or, more correctly, SdmMdyana . 

8 Autatthy- - Aucbatthg- ; see below, B., line 33. ' I.e., here and below, dvivtda-. 

* Originally Gdmgd was engraved,'but the first & has been struck out. 

Originally stlidnarn ut was engraved. 8 Bead - Apnavdna-. 

I I.e., here and below, dvasathvka-. 

8 In this name au open space is left for two syllables. The name which one would have expected is 

J^., here and below, ydjnika-. 10 The aki'hata t>6 is engraved above the line. 

II Originally tidhapa, was engraved. " Bead, here and helow, 
11 The alcthara dJta is engraved above the line. 


61 Markanda-pufraya iri Madhusudariasarrniriane vra(bra)b.mariaya vamtakam=4kam 1 

Sarasvatlsth&na-vinirggataya Kathasakk-acLhyajine [Har]ita-Kutsa- 

62 gotraya Arbgirasa(sa)- 1 Arhva(ba)risba-Yauvana6v(sv)-Sti tri-pravaraya cba Vijayi- 

pautraya cb.a Ajayi-putraya cba AlliaarmmanS vra(bra)hmanaya vamtakam= 

63 Madhyadesa-vinirggataya ' Madhyamdinagakb.-adhyayin Kasyapa-gotraya Kasyap- 

Avatsara-Naidlmrv-eti tri-pravaraya upa 3 Narayana-pantraya agni 3 

64 4 Jasadeva-putraya di Lahadasarmmane 5 vra(bra)limanaya vamtakam=ekarh I 

Madhyadesa-yinirggataya Madhyamdinasakli-adlij > aym& Samdilya-gotraya A- 

65 ^i(si)ta-DYala-Sam(gam)dily-eti tri-pravaraya agni Katuka-pautraya di Pura- 

Bh6ttama-putraya ava Narasimha^armmane vra(bra)limanaya vamtakain=ekam 1 

66 dhyadesa-vinirggataya Madhyarhdinnsakli-adbyayine MarkarhdSya-g&traya 

Bharggava-Chyavana-Apnuvan 6 Aurvva-Jamadagny-eti pamcha-pravaraya agni 

67 traya npa - Damodara-pntraya aya Markamdeyasarmmau^ vra(bra.)hmanaya 

vamtaknm=ekam 1 MadhyadSsa-vinirggataya Madhyamdinasakli-adh.yayui6 


68 traya Amgiraa(sa)- 7 Va(M)rhaspatya-Bharadvaj-eti tri-pravaraya dvi Narayana- 

pantraya dvi Padmaiiabha-putraya patha 08 Yayudevaarmmane vra(bra)]imatiaya 

69 m=ekam 1 Mathurasthfina-Yinirggataya AYalayanaakli-adhyayiQ6 Kautsa-g&traya 

Amgirasa(Ba)-Ariiva(ba)ri8lia-Yaiivanaav(^v)-6ti tri-pravaraya cha Hari-pau- 

70 traya cha Janarddana-putraya cha Rajesannmane yra(bra)]imatiaya Yarhtakam= 

arddham | Hastinapura-vinirggataya Kautbumasakli-adliyayin^ Parasa(sa)ra-g&tra- 

71 ya Parasa(ga)ra-Saktri- 9 Vai(si)6lith-gti tri-pravaraya pariicha 010 Kahna(nlaa)da- 

pautraya pathoha Ktiinara-pTitraya pamdi 011 Kusnmapalalanamapfi 

Yra(bra)hmanaya vaihtakam=ekam 1 

72 samast6=pi grama^=cb.atuhkamkata- 13 visu(su)ddhah fla-vrikBhamalakalab. sa- 

hiranyabhagabliogah s-6parikarah sarvvadaya-sametali sa-nidhiniksh^pah sba- 

73 Bahalatama[ka]- 13 sanianvit6 matapitr6i*=atinanas=c]ia puDyaias6- 14 bliivriddhay6 

chamdrarkaTnnavaksliiti-Eamakalarii yavat=paraya(ya) biakty& sasa(ea)n6n=6daka" 
piirvvam pradattah [J*] tan=tna- 

74 tv& ianruvai(si)-pa[tta]kila,jariapadair=yathadiyamaiia-bliagabh6gakaraliirauyadika 

liiriaria"bhukti-Yarjjam=a3fia-Yidb.^yair=bhtitv& Barwam=6b]iy6 vra(bra)- 
datavyam [|*] 

75 B&maDyaih ch=aitat=punya"phalam vudb-va 16 ssmadvamsaiair=anyair=api btavi- 

b!i6ktribh.ir=asmatpradatta-dliai'miQaday6 18 jyam=atnimantavyat palantya 
TJktam cba |1 18 Va(ba)b.ubb.ir=va^u(su)dha 

1 Originally Amgirifa- WRS engraved. a I.e. t here and below, tipddht/dya-. 

1 This sign of abbreviation, is eugraved at the commencement of the next line, 

4 For Yaiddtoa-. 6 Originally L6kaia t> was engrnved. 

' Be&d 'Apnavdna-. 1 Originally Amginia- was engraved. 

8 I.e. pdfhalca-. ' Bead Safctri-, and see above, p. 109, note 8. 

10 ., here and below, pciHoha&alyi-(?). T1 I.e. pamdita-, u Bead ohat 

11 The afakara in brackets might possibly be read chha. As will be seen from the facsimile, the space- 
between Id and ta at the commencement of line 78 is larger than it generally is between two aJcsharas. 

14 Bead punyayaiti*. 1B Bead ItuJdhvd, 

11 One would have expected dharmmaddij6 ; but dharmatdddyd is the reading of most of the Paramara. 

'7 Originally 3 {"ohaih was engraved. 18 Metre of this verse and the next : Sldka 


76 bhukt& rajabhih Sagar-adibhih | yasya yasya yada bhumis=tasya tasya tada 

phalaih || Sva-dattam para-datfcam va yd harMa vasumdharaiii | sa 
vishthayam krimir=t)hiitva pitribhih salia 

77 majjati || 1 Sarvvan=6vani bb.avin.6 bhuinipalan=bhuy& bhuy6 yacliate 

Ramabhadrah. [|*J samany6=yam dharmma-setur^nj-ipanaiii kalS ka!6 palani- 

78 y& bhavadbhih. ]| Iti 3 kamaladalamvu(bu)vindu-l&laiix griyam=anuchiiiitya 

manushya-jivitarh oha | sakalam=idam=udahritam cha vudhva 3 na hi pu- 

79 .ruehaih para-kirttay& vilopya iti || Sarhvat 1282 varshe Bhadra-sudi 15 Gurau || 

Du 4 srimu 3|| 5 Rachitam=ida[m*J naahasandhi- 

80 vigraMka-pamdita-sii-Vi(bi)lhana-sammatna | 8 raja-gurunii. Madanfina | Sva-hastd= 

yam maharaia-sri-DSvapaladSvasya || Mamgalada maha-srlh [||*J 


Cm ! Orfa ! Obeisance to dharma,'! the crest-jewel o the aims of mail ! 

(Verse 1.) May (the Moon), the Lord of tbe twice-born, gladdener of the world, after having 
openly accepted the earth in the guise of its reflection, 8 bestow blessings on you ! 

(V. 2.) May that Parasurama be victorious, for whom, when he granted the earth (to tba 
Brdhmans,') the very orb of the twilight-sun, pierced by the Kshatriyas slain (by him) in fight, 
became the copper- plate ! 9 

(Y. 3.) May Bama minister to your welfare, he who in battle quenched the fire of separa- 
tion from his life's mistress by the water of Mandodari's 10 tears ! 

(V. 4.) May Yudhishthira be victorious, whose feet even Bhima pkced on his head, (and) 
whom tbe Moon, the progenitor of his race, framed as it were equal unto himself ! 

(Y. 5.) There was a king, great like Kamsa'e conqueror, 11 an ornament of the Paramdra 
family, the glorious Bh6jad6va, who occupied the surface of the earth by the van of his 
army. 13 

1 Metre : Silinl. 2 Metre : Puahpit&grl * Bead faddhvd. 

4 I.e. d4talcah or ddtak (OB in the inscription B.). 

B For tLe exact shape of this mark, which is not & sign of punctuation, see the accompanying photo-lithograph. 

6 This sign of punctuation is superfluous. 

i I find no English word hy which I could fully express all the meanings of the Sanskrit; dharma ; in the 
present case ' religious merit ' would perhaps best convey some idea of what is intended. The four aims of man are 
dharma, artTia, Tcdma and mdlcsTia. 

8 The spot. (kalaAka) in the moon is by poets taken to be the reflected image of the earth. Prof. JacoM, who 
first drew my attention to this notion, quotes BagAuvamfa XIV. 40, and especially Haravtfaya XLI. 64} and I 
find that the idea is clearly expressed in verse 1982 of the Subhdshitdvali, according to which ' others have said ' 
that the spot in the moon is ' the reflected image of the earth ' ( lMm&i=oha limlam par&) 3 compare also ibid. v. 
^%^,SaSalaTcsTi'iM^fwi\Mtdfj\thviTtalahMyai^ With pratilimla-nilMt compare pratibimla-mit&tit in 
the Pdrijdtamahjart, above, Vol. VIIL p. 110, line 50 j and with jagafa&hlddayan, as applied to the rnoou, 
Ahlddaya,n=viSvam in Ind. Ant. Vol. XVI. p. 208, line I. The Moon being a dvij a (or Brahman), one of his privi- 
leges is to receive gifts (pratifffitka), just as it is his duty to make them (ddna). 

The verse has been called awkward, because it has not been understood. Since warriors slain in battle enter 
lieaven through.ihe sun, this luminary, covered with their blood, assumes the reddish hue of copper. In. this state 
it appears injfce twilight sky, and is thus represented to be the very copper-plate charter (tdmra) by which 
Pajasuramslgjf fted the earth to the BrAhmans. For the idea of warriors who are slain in battle splitting the suu 
compare, eW,jt. Ind, Vol. II. p. 192, v. 83 j SulMthUdvali, v. 2274 ; and the pretty verse, given to illustrate the 
fl gf fe of rfljlfc, in tikdvali, Bombay ed., p. 826 : Navtthu Tcdtftfabi* Jcfitdl'hildihdl) svarg&nffan&lf fr&ktTiya 
**< [fjAiffjJ'prf'ri-iwAa bhtpdla iat=dhai-6bv, leamp&falafo dar/ayati fvalimbam ||; afraid of being split, the 

Havana's favourite wife. ll I.e. the god Krishna. 

at (i.e. ait-mtiMa) occurs in the Pdrijdtamanjort, above, Vol. VIII. p. 116, 1. 78 ; also, 
\tyacharita, XII. 73 and XUI. 23. 


(V. C.) When the lustre of the moonlight of his glory overflowed the lap of the regions, 
there closed the day-lotuses of the glory accumulated by hostile kings. 

(V. 7.) Then came TTdayaditya, whoso one desire was constant enterprise ; who, of un- 
equalled glory as a hero, made inglorious his adversaries. 

(V. 8.) As lofty mountains, abounding in ridges, at the end of a mundane period are 
uprooted by impetuous winds, so in fierce' contest how many rulers of the earth, abounding in 
armies, were not uprooted by his irresistible arrows ! 

(V. 9.) Prom him sprang king Naravarman, who cleft the vital parts of adversaries ; the 
acme of kiugs, wise in upholding religion. 

(V. 10.) At every dawn freely granting shares of villages to Brahmans, he made religion, 
one-footed though it is (t tliis Kali age}, possessed of several feet. 1 

(V. 11.) His son was Yasovarman, the chaplet of Kshatriyas; (and] from him sprang his 
son Ajayavarman, renowned for the glory of victory. 

(V. 12.) His son, of auspicious birfcL, the foremost of heroes, was Vindhyavarman, long 
of arm, eager to extirpate tho G-urjaras, 

(V. 13.) The sword of this (Ung) skilled in war, with Dhara rescued by it, assumed three 
edges, 3 to protect as it were the three worlds. 

(V. 14) Then the son of that illustrious one, king Subhatavarman, abiding by religion, 
ruled the surface of the earth, glorious like ludra. 

(V. 15.) The firo of prowess of that conqueror of the quarters, whose splendour was 
like the snn'e, in the guise of a forest-fire even to-day blazes in the town 3 of the blustering 
G-urjara.' 1 ' 

(V. 16.) Now 5 that he has attained unto godhead, his son king Arjuna supports with his 
arm the circle of the earth like a bracelet. 

(V. 17.) When in the battle which was his childhood's frolic Jayasimha took to flight, his 
lame spread in the quarters in the guise of the laughter of the quarters' guardians. 

(V. 18.) A treasure-house of the stores of poetry and song, he now has relieved the goddess 
(Sarasvati) of the burden of her books and lyre. 

(V. 19.) This triple hero made his fame triply sprout. How otherwise did the three worlds 
acquire their whiteness ? 

i ! .1 tho golden age dliarma liad four foot, of which it lost one in each subsequent age (Pardgarasmriti, ed. 
by Vauian &V,tri Islfiinpurkar, Vol. I. P. I. p. 82). The word for 'sLare' in tlic original being pada, i.e, 'foot/ 
the- kh-.g by p'iiutiiig shares of villages increased, tlio miuibcr of Jharma's feet and so brought back as it were tho 
Uoklcii a<\ Compare Jrf. Ant, Vol. XVIII. p, 218, 1. 19 : matdddndiiy-aiifaii/diii &ur m an=pciri-vdni/=anSkasa$ I 
dharHimustf=4ctvridhad<=y6=faMn; see also ibid. Vol. XII. p. 159, 1. 7. 

? By itwelf the sword had two edges (Ahdrd) ; the town of Dhilra, retaken by it, became its third edge (dhdrd). 
The author suggests that the sword became like the tridMrd, i.e, tbe ' tlirce-streauied ' Ganga, which flows through, 
and purifies, heaveu, earth, and the lower regions. 

s The- word pattana may also be taken as a proper name of tho well-known Fattana (see e,a. above, Vol. VIII. 
p. 224, 2fo. XII,, and p. 229, No. XXXH.). 

4 Qai'jjcid-G-Arjjara- occurs also above, p. 85. 1. 27 ; compare also Ind. Ant. Vol. XVIII. p. 217, I Us m* 
aivam G[jf\tyjara garjja. 

B Tins ' now ' is really inappropriate in inscriptions of Arjonavarmau's successors, but the verses 16-19 have 
been taken over unchanged from that king's omi grants. 

8 I.e. a hero in fight, in compassion (like JhnutavAhana}, and in bounty (like Bali) yudMa-vtra, dayd- 
ttra, and ddna-vtra ; compare Vamanacharya in his edition of the KdtyaprakdS<b p. 113; Sfingdrntilalca, III, 
14 (trividkd n&yalcaJi) ; and similar works. In the Pdrijdtamanjart, above, "Vol. VIII. p. 102, 1. 1, and p. 103, 
1. 18, Arjunavarmau is styled trivfdhavifa-cJiAAdmani. The same epithet I find applied to a person named LTdaya, 
in three Mount Abu inscriptions of the Vikrama years 124S and 1291 (Mr. Cousens' List, Nos. 1725, 1726 and 1840). 
With the whole verse one may compare Ak&VQli, p, 268 : JTofcwtAA* mahtpdla k4rtit*iripat}ta$4 tata I * Icttya 
Ihavitd fldghyA pundnd ITwvanatrayam 1. 


(V. 20.) Then, through the want of merit of suppliants and through the merit of the 
lovely-browed damsels of paradise, he who was hoth marvellously bountiful and amorous went 
to heaven. 

(V. 21.) Then Dvapala, foil of prowess- the son o Harisctiandra, the moon of the 
Pramaras came to rule the Malava country. 

(Y. 22.) Because of the pouring out of the water of donations by him who holds kufa 
grass in his lotus-hand, we know no difference between Devapala and the guardian of the gods 
[whom the exploits of the enemy of the Dfcnavas caused to take the argha in his lotus-hand (to 
make a respectful offering}]. 1 



Name of donee. 



Sakha or Veda. 

Place of origin. 



Gang&dhara a 




A^rama 8 



















































Carried over 


The king Devapala and the guardian of the gods (d&mpdla, i.e. the god Indra) are alike because either 
Bddna'oiiri-vijrimbhUaihpa'oitrakarapadnM^ About the exact meanings of the first of these two 
there can be no doubt j it means both ' the pouring forth of the water of donations ' (ddna-vdri ) and < tho 
of the enemy of the DAuavas ' (DAn^a-ari, *.. the god Vishnu- Krishna). I am not so sure ahout the two m 
ings of the second word. Eeferred to the king, it means 'holding pavitra (i.e. kuSa or darbha grass which is 
taken up by the person who w about to make a donation) in his lotus-hand.' Applied to Indra I take it to 
that Indra, pleased with the exploits of the conqueror of the Danavas, took up the pamtra (i.e.' the araU vessel! 
to make a respectful offering to Vishnu. In support of this explanation I would quote Xp Id Vol L I ]S1 
v. 2, where Brahman offers to Vishnu the argU-talila, when he sees how the latter has cheated Bak But I a 
myself not quite satisfied with this explanation, because I suspect the word padma to have been used in two differ^ 
ent senses in the compound. From inscriptions we may compare with our verse especially the verse in Ind A~* 
Vol. XVIII. p. 218, 11. 19 and 20 : 6riyaih lalMra vidhivad^navtrdtMMtah | MaU^d r a V ^A^air& s Uhl 
va rgg**=tat->ahgam-dgata!i\\, where ddnavdr&tMsUtali means both ' excessively pleased by the water of dona 
tions' and 'pleased by the enemy of the Danavas.' Ddwdn also has a third meaning, 'the ruttW-iuiee 5 
elephants' (nada-jala), and in that sense as well as in the sense of the enemy of the Danavas ' the word is u,S 
in the NaMadMyacharitfi , XIIL vv. 8 and 23, the Brst of which, jn so f ar a* it is applicable to Indra, ^eems to 
have suggested the trvyahlalhdra . . . ddnavdrdtMtUtafr Mrttifc^ O f th e verse qribted ^ f 
inscription (Incidentally I may mention that Panchanaltya is not 'the title of a work,' hut a'natoe of the I8th 
.arffaot the Nto.hadMyachanta). In Ak&valt, p. 200, the hand of a king i* compared with the ocean, "because 
both hold the ddnano&rt* ' 

* All these nnmea haye.the word teuton. ^f^nS. to them. 

With the exception of MadhyaWfa^ Hattin&pw, these names have the word-rfW**ttaohed.to.them. 



[Voi, IX 

-_J^^^^uiw n ,. 


Name of donee. 



Sakha or V&la. 

PJace or origin. 





Brought forward 

I 10 



lauLa andit 
































16 J 






10 '7 ^ A 

W Qadadhara 


1 TTir-n 




18 Udai (Udayi) 


I uaayapa 




1S) Kuladhara 



n" '. 


20 Abliinauda 






21 Auau ta 



22 Stlian&vara 

gn dtria 






28 t)(lha[r] 
24 Kuladliara, 



Db.au my a 


; J '"' ' 


25 j Af 






26 Alii 
27 Labada 








23 Narasithlia 






29 if 






30 Viyadeva 






31 R8 




t "' 

L ^mk16 1 


32 1 Kusumapala 


(Varalayfaia 1 j 





= . 



trivia, 1. 31 ; chatnt7$da, 1,35 
lft thakkura, L 37. 

^i 1. 23 ; 
*n U. 54, 66. 
triyfida, 1. 31. 


tiakkura, L 37 


Gangadhara, dikshita, 11. 25, 50. 

G6vinda, dviveda, 1. 48, 

Hari, chaturveda, 1. 69. 

Haridhara, pandita, 1. 34. 

Janardana, chaturveda, 11. 38, 70 ; triveda, 

1. 53. 

Jasadfiva, agnihotrin, 1. 64. 
Jas&dhara, triveda, 1. 29. 
Kanhada, paudita, 1. 51 ; pancliakalpiii(?) 5 


Katuka, agnih&trin, 1. 65. 
Kelhana, dikshita, 1. 32. 
Kefova, dikshita, 1. 50. 
Krishna, y&jnika, 1. 56. 
Kumara, paiichakalpin(?), 1. 71. 
Madana, pandita, 1. 51. 
Madhava, triv&da, 1. 59. 
Madliu, diksliita, 1. 32. 
Madlmkantha, sukla, 1. 27. 
MahMitya, avasathika, 1. 25. 

Mahidhara, paodita, 1. 34 

Markanda, trivda, 1. 61. 

Nagadeva, yajfiika, 1. 56. 

Narasimha, trive'da, 1. 53. 

Narayana, upadhyaya, I. 63 ; dvivda, 1. 68. 

Padmanabha, dviveda, 1. 68. 

Padmasvaniin, dlkshita, 1. 28. 

Pavitra, chaturveda, 1. 43. 

Prithvidhara, chaturv&da, 1. 35. 

Purush&ttama, diksliita, 1. 65. 

Ramesvara', triveda, 1/29. 

Rishi, triveda, 1. 60. 

Sadharana, chaturveda, 1. 57, 

Samuddhara, chaturveda, 11. 42, 45. 

SimhakatLfcha, dikshita, 1. 26. 

S6m6Tara, triveda, 1. 59. 

TrilSchana, diksliita, 1. 28. 

Vasadliara, dvivfeda, 1. 48. 

Vijayi, chaturvtjda, 1. 62. 

Vishnu, chaturveda, 11. 41, 57. 


These are two plates which were found by Mr. Lele, 1 some time in 1904, at the village of 
Godarpura opposite the island of M&ndhata, on the southern bank of the Nannadft in the Nimar 
district of the Central Provinces. They were sent by the Deputy Commissioner of Nimar to the 
Provincial Museum at Nagpur, where they are now deposited. They measure about 1' 5f " broad 
by I0f" high, and are held together by two rings, now cut, for which there are two holes in 
either plate. I edit the inscription which they contain from impressions sent to me by the 
Government Bpigraphist. 

The first plate is inscribed on one side, and the second on both sides. The writing both on 
the first plate and on the first side of the second plate covers a space about 1'4" broad by between 
9|" and 10" high, that on the second side of the second plate 1' 4|" broad by 8" high. The three 
sides together contnin 53 lines of well-engraved writing which throughout is in a perfect state 
of preservation. On the proper right of the second side of the second plate, between 
lines 42 and 50, a vertical line marks of! a space 3" broad by 4* high, which contains 
an engraving of Garuda, with, below it, the words sva-hasto-yam maMrdjasya ||, in smaller 
aharacters than thoso in the body of the inscription. The bird is represented in human 
form, kneeling towards the left, but with the head turned towards the right, and with four 
hands, the two inner ones of which are joined over the breast, while the two others are 
lifted up on either side, the one on the left holding a snake, the head of which looks like a 
bird's head. The size of the letters is about f". The characters are tfagarl, closely resembling 
those of the inscription A., and the language is Sanskrit. The inscription is so carefully 
written that in respect of orthography only few remarks are necessary. The sign for v 
denotes both 6 and v ; the dental sibilant is used for the palatal only in sata~, 1. 25 ; as is often 
the case elsewhere, dy, dv and dhv are employed instead of ddy, ddv and 'ddhv ; Jandrddana- 
is written Jan&rjjana- in line 34, and shaij.'bhvr* as slatlhir= in line 37. The sign of avagraha is 
employed seven times ; and, excepting in sdmpratam, 1. 16, m at the end of a verse or half -verse 

1 The plates were first mentioned by Mr. Lele in a Beport of his on the progresa of Archaological work in the 
Dhftr State, dated thfl24rti)i August 1904. 


is denoted by the sign for <m, not by that of anusvdra,. La lines 1-23 the inscription has 
23 verses, chiefly containing genealogical matter, 21 of which are already known to^ us from 
the inscription A. ; and in lines 25-27 we again find the verse commencing with Vdtdbhra- 
vibhramam^dam vasudh-ddhipatyam, and in lines 42-48 five benedictive and imprecatory verses, 
the last of which here too is the verse commencing -with Iti Jcamaladaldmbuvindu-loldm. 
There are besides two verses in lines 50-52, which record the names of persons who had to do 
with the writing of the grant. In the prose part of the text, attention may be drawn to the 
peculiar construction in lines 25-28, asmdhhih , . . Gdngadeva-$dr3vdt . . . grdmo^yith 
trilhyo Irdhmanebky d ddpitah, 'we have caused Gaftgadeva to give this village to three 
Brahmans.' 1 

The inscription records an order by the Param&ra AfaJidrdjddhvrdja Jayavarman [IL] of 
Malava,, dated, as will be shown below, in A.D. 1260 and 1261. Of the 23 verges with which 
it opens, verses 1-21 are identical (except for two various readings 3 ) with the same verses of the 
inscription A., and contain therefore the same list of kings from Bh.6 jade va to Devapfila. The 
two new verses, 22 and 23, may be rendered thus : 

" When 3 that king, the glorious DSvapala, had joyfully resorted to Indra's abode, his eon, 
a death-dealing god to enemies (while) ever pleasing the people by his good qualities, the wise 
king Jaitugideva, the glorious Malava chief, ruled this hand, by his noble exploits a young 
Narayana." 4 

" Now that he, after enjoying the delights of royalty, has gone to the habitation of the 
goda, his younger brother, king Jayavarman, rules the land." 

Devapala, therefore, was succeeded by his son Jaitugideva, and he by his younger 
brother Jayavarman [II]. Jaitugideva was known already from the pra^asti in Asadhara's 
Dharmdimrita, referred to above, 5 according to which the commentary on that work was com- 
pleted during the reign of the Pram&ra Pevapala's son Jaitugideva, on a date which corre- 
sponds to Monday, the 19th October A.D. 1243. In my Northern List, No. 223, I have 
assumed that Jaitugideva is identical with a king who is mentioned in a Rahatgadh 
inscription of the 28th August A.D. 1256, noticed by me in Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 84, where I 
have given the king's name as Jaya[sitnha]dcva. But with what we now know from the 
present inscription, I am, not sure whether Sir A. Cunningham 6 was not right in reading the same 
name as Jayal/uarmmct^d^va, and would therefore suspend my judgment on the matter till 
we possess proper impressions of an inscription at Udaypur in Gwalior,' which seems to be 
of the reign of a king Jayasinghadeva and to be dated in the [Vikrama] year 1311 (in Jan- 

1 Exactly the same construction occurs in my Report on the tearakfor Santlerit ATS&, Bombay, 1881, p. 11 : 
Una . . . UkTt,aJea,-SdJiacLa-j)drivdMikhdpit&, 'he c&nsed the writer Sdbada to write (a certain MS.),' With 
the use of pdrivdt we may compare that of Aattdt in Prof. Peterson's Ftfth Report, p. 29 : TTdayachawlraganind 

9 In verse 17 this inscription haa J~aitra*imM instead of JayaiimM, and in. verse 21 prafdsii instead of 
raraksfa. For the readiug JaitratimhS see shore, Tol. VIII. p. 203, where a certain person i* called both Jayan- 
tattihha and Jaitratimka. If nny importance could be attached to the new reading, it would in my opinion show 
that the Jayaaimha, who WHB defeated by Arjunavarman, undoubtedly was the Chaulukya JayantaBimha (Jayasimha) 

* The text aotonlly haa : " Now that Devap&la has resorted to Indra's abode, hia BOD Jaitttgad^va. rules this 
land." The verse undoubtedly was taken over unchanged from, an inscription of Jaitugidfira himselt 

4 ' Eala-Nar&yana ' moat probably was an. epithet of the king, Comj&re Z^ro- JT^yflt^O) as an epithet of 
the Paratoara Sindhwija, in, the NaveudhfuAnJtackarita, I. 69. 

See above, p. 107. 

6 See Afckatol. Survey of India, Vol. X. p. 31. Judging from Sir A. Cunningham's rubMngr of flie inscription 
which I hate again examined, the two ctAsbaraa between Jay a and diva- are almott oompletol/ tap|Q away. 
T I am writing this with Sir A. Cunningham's tabbing of the inscription before me. , 


nary 1255). For the present, what is certain is, that JaitugideVa 1 was reigning in A.D. 1243 
and his younger brother Jayavarman in A.D. 1260-61. 

In lines 23 ff. of our inscription Jayavarman informs all king's officers, Brahmans and 
others, and the Patjakila and other people dwelling at the village of Vadaiida in the 
Mahuada pat haka, that, while staying at Mandapadurga, in the year 1317 (given in words), 
he caused the Pratihdrct? Gangaddva to give the village of Vadaiida to three Brahmans. 

And, according to lines 28 ff., the PratiMra O-angadeva, on Sunday, the third titJri of 
the bright half of Agrahftyana (Margasirsha) of the year 1317, while the nxksJiatra was 
Purvashadha and the yoga Sfila, at Amaresvara-kshetra on the southern bank of the Rev& 
(Narmada), after bathing at the confluence of the Reva and Kapiia and wo.-.shipping- the 
holy Amaresvarade'va (Siva) with the five offerings, 3 gave the village of Vadaiida, divided 
into six shares (vanfaka) so that 

four shares (pada) were assigned to the agnihotrin* MfulhaviiSarmnn a son of the 
pdfliaka HariSarman and grandson of the dvivSda Veda a Brahman of the Bluirgava gotra? 
and student of the Madhyamdina sdkhd, who had come from Navag.mva ; 6 

one share (poda) to the chaturvtida Jauardana a son of the ftovoS&a LiniMeva and grand- 
son of the AvivSda Llshu - a Brahman of the Gautama gotra and student of the JUvalayana 
Mkhd, who had come from TakSri ; and 

one share (pada) to the dvivSdtt DLamaddvafiarman a son of the diksUta Divakara and 
grandson of the diksUta K6ku a Brahman of the Bharadvaja gotra and student of the 
Madhyamdina sdkhd, who had come from G-hat&ushari. 

From line 37 to line 48 the text contains so well-known phrases that it may be passed over 
lere. The remaining part of the inscription yields the following information : 

On Thursday, the Uth of the bright half of JySshtha of the year 1317, this king's 
srder (rdja-tfaana) was written ' here, at Mandapadurga,' by Harshadeva, a son of the learned 
3-aviSa, with the approbation of the sdndhivigrahika (or minister of peace and war), the pandit a 
Maladhara, an official of the MahdrdjudJiirdja, the glorious Jayavarmadeva ; and the king's 
document was corrected by the grammarian (sdbdika) imadSva, a disciple of the learned 
3-6seka (Gbsb) 7 'who knew the boundless essence of legal science.' The grant was engraved by 
';he rupakdra Kiinhada. The duta was the great minister (mahdpradhdna), Edjd Ajayadeva. 

The words. ' this is the own hand (i.e. the sign-manual) of the Malidrdja ' are engraved, as 
las been already stated, under the engraving of Garuda on the second side of the second plate. 

The dates contained in this inscription are both correct. The fiwt date, in lines 28 
ind 29, for the expired (Chaitr&di or Kdrttikddi) Vikrama year 1317 corresponds to Sunday, 
;he 7th November A.D. 1260. On this day the third titU qf the bright half ended 16 h! 
iS m. ; the naksjiatra was Purvashadha, by the Brahma-siddhAnta for 17 h. 4 m., according 

1 In the first half of the^lSth century A.D. we find the name Jaitugi twice iu the family of the Yiul;i\as ..f 
)evagiri ; and the>re was a [Sillra] KontoaijachaJcravartin Jaituffidtoa, an unpublished inecr^.ti -n (beloi, ' ,. Jo 
;he Bombay As. Soc.) of whom apparently is dated in A.D. 1207. >n 

Given in the abbreviated form pratl . The word pratihdra means 'a door-keeper', but denotes A tA j 
>fficial. c 

8 Compare pancUpacMra-ptyd, e.g. in Ind. Ant. Yol. XVIII. p. 847, 1. in, and above, Vol. III. p. 235 1 6 
nd p. 300, 1. 42. The five articles presented are gandha, putTipa, dbdpa, dtpa and naivtdy*] cbmjare 8Mra' 
iamalAkara, p. 140 f ., where panchtpachdra, dastpachdra and similar terms are explained. 

* These epithets here too are given in the abbreviated forms agnf, pdi dvi, eha, and dt. 
5 In the original fhe pravarat also are given. 

The names of the place* of origin here also have the word sthdna attached to them. 
1 See above, p. 106. 


to G-arga for* 22 h. 20 m., and by the equal space system from 10 h. 30 m. ; and the yoga was 
Sula for 20 b. 46 m., after mean sunrise. And the second date, in lines 48 and 49, for the expired 
KdrttiMdi Vikrama year 1317 corresponds to Thursday, the 12th May A.D. 1261^ when the 
llth tithi of the bright half ended 10 h. 46 m, after mean sunrise. The dates show that the 
year 1317 of the inscription was a Kdrttikddi year. 

Of the localities mentioned in -the inscription, Mandapadurga, from -where the king's 
order was issued, is Mandogarh (Mandu), a deserted town in the Dhar State, in Long, 75 &>' 
and Lafc. 22 21' (Constable's Hand Atlas, Plate 27, B d). Prom, the same place was issued the 
order in the Piplianagar plates of king Arjunavanxian. 1 On Mahnada, see above, p. 106. 
Vadaiida perhaps is the village of ' Burud ' which according to the Indian Atlas is about three 
miles north-east of ' Satajana,' the village granted by the inscription A. I have already pointed 
out that Muhuatfa-pathakS of tMs inscription is equivalent to %fahua4a-pratijdgarana,M of the 
inscription A. ; and I may state that a (or the ?) village of Vadaiida is mentioned also in the 
plate of the Paramaras Yasovarman and Lakehmivarma.il, in Ind. Ant. Vol. XIX, p. 352, 11, 5 
and 13. Amaresvara-ksbe'tra is the AmarSsVara-tirtha from which the grant of Arj^na^arman 
in Journ. Am. Or. Soc, Vol. VTI. p. 27 was issued, and the Amaresvara- mentioned in the plates 
of Jayafurhha, abo^e, Vol. III. p. 47 ; it is near the island of M&ndhata, on the southern bank of 
the river N armada. The grant in Journ. Am. Or. /Soc. quoted just now also mentions the 
confluence of the Rev and Kapila, which ia now called ' Kapila San gam, where a small 
stream joins the Narbada.' 2 Of the places of origin of the donees, Takarl-sthana is one of the 
places mentioned in A,; JTavagamva-sth^na may be the town of Naweg&on in the Oha"nd& 
district, mentioned in the Gazetteer of the Central Provinces, p. 370, but there is at least one other 
place of the same name in the Central Provinces j GhatSushari-sthana I am unable to identify. 

TEXT .3 

First Plate. 

1 || Oiii narnah purushartha-chudamauayS dharmmaya || 4 Pi i ativimva- 6 nibhad=bhumet 

kritva saksha.t--pratigraham | jagad=a- 

2 hladayan=disya[d*]=dvijeihdr6 6 mamgalani vah || 1 [||*] Jiyat=Parasuram6=san 

kshatraih ksb-annam ran-ahataih | 7 sariidh.yarkka-vinavani= 8 6- 

3 v=&iTva-datur=yasy=aiti tanrratam || 2 [||*] TSna Mamdodarivashpa-varibhih 

samit6 mridhe [|*] pranesvaii-viy6gagnih aa 

4 Ramah sr^yase sstu vah || 3 [||*] Bhimen=api dhrita murddhni 

yat-padah sa Yudhishthirah | varhS-adyen=erhdnn^ ]iyat=sva-tnlya i- 

5 va nirmmitah || 4 [||*] Paramarakul-Stfcamaah KamBajin-mahim& nripah | 

sri-Bho j ad eva ifcy =asin=uasirakranta-bhii.talah. 9 

6 II 5 [I!*] Yad-yagaschamdrik-&dyote 10 digatsamga-taramgit^ | dvishamoripa- 

yasahpumia,purbda.rikair=nniniilitam || 6 [||*] Tat6 sbh4d=TI- 

7 dayadityd nity6tsah-aikakaatuki | asadharanarvlragiir^ii-h6ttir=vm > 6dHiiAm (I 

7 [||*] Mahakalaha-kalpa- 

1 See Journ. As. Soc. Seng. Vol. V. p. 879. The town ia called Afandapapttra in line 16 of the 
inscription published ibid. Vol. LIT. P. I. p. 70. 

* See Gazetteer of the Central Provinces, p. 258. ' From an impression supplied by Dr, 

* Metre of verses 1-21 ; S16ka (Anushtubli). 6 Bead fr cttiUviba; 
9 After dr6 another vertical stroke was engraved, but' has been struck oafc 

* This sign of punctuation, was originally omitted. 8 Read -ij"mi*m. 
s In the place of to, originally la was engraved. 

10 Head -6ddy6t&, Between the aksharas ia and Scharh a vertical stroke was ariginally engraved* but IIM teea 
struck out. 


ya8y=&ddainabhir=asiigaih | kati u=6nmulitas=taiiiga bhubhritah katak-6lvanah 
1(11) 8 [II*] Taam&oh=chhinna-d\i3hajmajmni& Narava- 

naradhipab | dharmm-abhyuddharan6 dhiman=abh{it=8imfl maMbhujam j| 
9 [||*] Prati-prabhatam viprebbyo dattair=grama-padaih svaya- 
^n | an6kapadatam ninyS dJbarmm6 y$n=aika-pad=api || 10 [tl*] Tafly=ajani 

YaSovarmma putrah kshatriya-kliarah | tasmad=Ajayava- 

5fmmabbtj=jayasri-visru.tah sutah || 11 [||*] Tat-sfinur=vvira-mftrddhany6 

dhany-6tpattir=ajayata | GftrjjarochchhMa-nirvramdhi 1 Yimdliyavarmma 


t>b.uiali || 12 [||*] Dh,ray-6ddhritaya aardham dadhati sma tridbaratam | 
samytigiiiasya ya8y=asi8=tr&tum 16ka-trayim=iva || 13 [||*] Tasy=a- 

putrah. Sutrama-rir=afch=ali8liat | bbiipab Stibha|;avarmm-^ti 
tialithan=nialal-talain || 14 [||*] Yasya jyalati da(di)g-j6- 

. pi i atapas=tapana-dyut^h | daTdgni-chchliadina(dnxa)ii=ady=api | garjjad- 

Gurjjara-pattane || 15 [||*] Deva-bb^yam gat^ tasmiii=naifadaii6=rjiina- 

^ 1 ddshna dhattS sdktina dhatri- 2 valayarii valayam yatha || 16 [||*] 

Va(ba)lalil4havS yasya Jaitrasimhe 3 palayit^ | dikpalaha- 
^ ea-vyaj^na yaso dikshu. vijrimbhitam || 17 [||*] Kavyagamdharvva-sarYvasva- 

nidbm^ yena aamprafcam | bhar-avafcaranarh dSvya=cbakr6 
^ pustaka-vinayob 4 || 18 [||*] T^na trividha-virSna tridha pallavitam 

dhaTalatvam dadhus=trini jagamti katham=anyatba || 
Q 19 [||*] Ath=arthmam=apuny6na puny^na svargga-Bnbhruvam | s6 

tyagasila=cha Sririigari oba divam gatai 
|| 20 [||*] Tatah Pramara-chamdraaya Harischamdrasya namdanah |](|) 

prasasti 5 Maiava-ksbdpim Dvap&la^L pratapava- 

Second Flate ; First Side. 

20 3D II 21 [II*] 6 Tasmian=Aimdra-padam ruTid=aritavati Sri-D^vapSl7 nripS 

tat-siliiur=dvishad-ariitak6 nija-gunair=!6ka- 

21 3J=sad& ramjayan | dbiman(n)=Jaitugideva 6sba uripatih grf-Malav-akbAmdala^ 

easti ksb6mm=imam.=udara-cba- 
J2 ritai^ svair=Yva(bba)lanarayanab || 22 [||*] Bhukfcva 8 rajya-sukham tasmin= 

prapt& tridaga-mamdiram | fiasti tasy=&nujat ksbdnim Jaya- 
^3 -varmma janadbipab [| 23 [||*] Sa ealia nara-nayakah sarvv-abhyadayi || 9 

Mahuada-pathakfi Vadaiida-gramfi eamasta-rajapuni8lian=vTa(bra)- 
14 hman-6ttaran=pratuiivasi-pattakila-jaTiapad-adlm=clia v6(b6)dbayaty=astu vah 

eamviditam yatha || 9 idman-Maiiidapadiirgga-8tbitair=a- 
-S smabhih. saptadasadhika-tray6dasaBa(sa)ta-samvatsare II 9 samsaraBy=a8aratam 

dyishtvft II tatb.4 hi || 10 Vatabhra-vibhramam=idam vaaa- 
^<5 dh-adhipatyam=apatamatra-inadhTir6 vishay-6pabh$gah | pr&na8=trinagrajakvimd 

naran&m dharmmab sakha param=ab6 

1 Bead -nirllamdhi. * Originally dhdiri' was engraved. 

1 In A. and in the three grants of Arjunavarman the name ia Jayasiihht. 

4 In the place of vt originally vt was engraved. 8 Instead of this word A. baa raralctka. 

Metre : SirdAlavikrldita. 

' The aTctliara fd of this word seems to be corrected out of U which wa originally engraved. 

6 Metre : Sldka (Anuahtubh). ' These signs of punctuation are superfluous. 

10 Metre : VaaautatilakH. 


27 paraloka-yan6 [I)*] iti sarvvaria vimri^ya dapan-ad^dslitaplialaiii=aingikritya \ l 

pratf 3 gri-G-flihgadeva-parSvat 3 Vadaiida-gram6=yam 

28 tribhyo vra(bra)b.manebb.y& dapitah | Tena cha pratf Sri-G-firiigadgvSiia 

sammat* 1317 AgratLana- 6 sukla-tritiyayam tithau 

29 Ravi-vasar Purvva^hadha-iiakshatre Sftla-u&mni yogS folmad-Amar&5vara 

ksh&fcre Kevaya dakshine kftlrt Beva-Kapila- 

30 BamgamS enatva biagavaihtaiii riarSchara-gurarii firimad-Amar&sYara- 6 

dSvam pamch-6pacb.&raih samabhyarchya (I 1 jivitam yidyuch-oliamchalftm 

31 Navagmyastlina-TiDirgataya Bhargava-sagdtraya Bhargavft-Cliy&Tana- 7 Apiiavaiia' 

Atirva-Jfiinadagny-^ti pamcLa-pravaraya Madhyam- 

32 dinasSakh-adhyayine dvi 8 Veda-pautr4ya 9 pa 10 HarLgarmma-ptitraya agni 111 

MadtayaSarmmane vra(bra)kiuariaya padani chatvfiri 

33 4 TakS.ristbana-vitxirgataya G-autama-sag6traya Gautam-Ariigiraea-Aticliatiihy-^i 

tri-pz-avaraya Asyalayanafikh-adliya- 

34 yinfi dvi Lastfi-pautraya dvi Limadfiva-putraya cLa ia JanarjjaBaSarnmia$S 13 

yra(bra)limanaya padam=&kam 1 Ghatausharisthfi- 

35 na-yinirgataya Bhriradvaja-sag6traya Aragirasa-Va(ba)rlia8patya-Bliaradv4j-4ti 

tri-pravaraya Md dhyamdinasdldi-adliyayinS 

36 di 14 K^kfl-pautiaya di Divakara-putraya dvi DtamadSva^armimni 

vra(bra)h.raatiaya padam=41cam 1 ^vam.=ebhyahs= 15 tribh.y6 

37 vra(bra)hmanM)liya^ Bhatbhir= 1B vrariitakair=Vvadauda-gram6=yam samast6=pi 

chatiitkariika,ta- 17 vi^uddhah Ba-vrikshamalaktilah sa-hira^yabha- 

38 gebh^galj s-6parikarah. sarrvMaya-sataetah ea-nidy(dbi)nik8li&p6 matapitr&i= 

39 cliamdrarkkarnnava[k8hJiti-Bamakalaiii yavat=paraya bliaktya 

bhukti-varjjani Iasan6n=6daka-pu- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

40 rvva[m] pradattah || ta 


liiitva sarwaia=^tebliyah samupantavyam 18 1 eamanyatfa 
phalam vn(bn)ddhY=asmadvariisa3air--atiyair=api bhavi-bht .'; . 

42 smatpradapita-dharmmadayd 19 sya.m=annujaniavyah palaniyafa=cha || Uktam ' .ft 

8 Va(ba)lLubb.ir=vvaBudha bhukta rajabhih Sugar-adi- 

43 bbit I yasya yasya yada bhumis-taaya tasya' tada phalam [||*J Sva-datt&m 

para-datt4ria va yd har&ta vasuriidliaram 

1 These signs of punctuation are superfluous. * Le,, here and below, 

* Bead -pdrfvdd*. 

* Originally sammatb seems to have been, engraved. Bead tamvaf. 

* Bead AgfaJidyana-. 

6 The afabara rS of this word in the engraving is really rara. 

1 Read Chyavana- ; this correction may have been mode already in the original Here and in some 
Vclow the rules of aaaidhi have not been observed. 

s I.e., here and below; dviv&da: Originally -tlattrttya was engraved. 

10 I.e. pdtkalca-, M le. agniUtri-. 

I.e. ctaturvida-. ** Bead Ja*drd4*afi. 

IF., here and below, dtJcsMta-. * Bead Ji&ya. 

i* Read sTiadlMr*. * Bead eAo*i*Jfe**a$*-, 

" Originally "nttavyaik waa engraved. M Compare above, p. 118^ note Ifll 

10 Metro of thb and the next two verses : SWTca (Anush^ubh). 


44 | vishthayam sa krimir=bhutv& pitribhih eaha majjati | (||) ShaBhtim varsha- 

sahasrani svarge" tishthati bhfimidah | 

45 &3hchh&tt ch=anumatta(nta) olia tdny=Sya narake 1 vau&t | (||) 1 Sarvvan=e'vaiii 

bhavinft bhumipalan=bhuy& bhu- 

46 y6 yachate R&inabhadrah I samany& syam dhanmna-s&tnr=iiripanam kale' kale" 


47 bhavadbhih II Iti 2 kamaladalamvu(bu)vimdu-161arh firiyam=anuchimtya manushya- 

jivitam cha | eaka- 

48 lam=idarn=udahritam cha vudhva 5 na hi purushaih para-kSrtfcay6 vil&pya iti 

1 1.$.| | Sam vat 

49 1317 Jyeslxtha-sudi 11 Ghirav-ady=elia sri-Mamdapadurgg maharajadhiraja- 

srjmaj- Jayav armme- 

50 dfiva-uiyul;&?v-. samdlilYirga(gra)liika-path 04 gri-MaUdhara-BammatSna || 6 

e ' a,Linjdit^riadra-Gavisa8ya siintma vidush^ Bpu(spb.u)tam | 

51 Haisliadv-abhidh.6ii=edam. l&khitam.? raja-aasanam 8 ( (||) Y6 9 v^tty=aparam 

smristisastra-saram G&s61s:a-iianin6 vu(bu)dlia-pTimgaya- 

52 sya | ^ishyab. sadhih ^avdi(bdi)ka Amad6y6 bhfipasya 

t6na | (||) Utkirnnam=idam ru(ru)pakara"Kanbad6na I 

53 D&t6 maliapradh.Sna-raia-rf-AiayadSvali | (||) 

10 Sva-!hast6=yam maharajasya || 

THE [SAKA] TEAR 1242. 


THs inscription, or praGasti, as it is called in line 19, is lying in the veranda of the school 
house at Kanker, the capital of the Feudatory State of that name in the Central Provinces, and 
was brought away from, the ruins between the Diwan and Sitala tanks in that town. It was first 
brought to my notice by Mr. Baijnath, B.A., Superintendent of the Bastar State, who kindly 
furnished me with an inked estampage, and further estampages were supplied to me by the 
Diwan of the Kanker State and the Agency Inspector of Schools, Chhattisgarh Feudatories. 

The stone is a cubit square and half a cubit thick, and the writing covers a space of 18" 
by 17" in 19 lines. The letters are bold and well formed, the average size being ". The 
characters are D&van&gari, and the language is Sanskrit. The whole of the inscription is 
written in verge, except the commencement (dm siddhiJi) in Hue 1, and the concluding portion 
(11. 18 and 19) containing the date and the names of the erector and the writer of the inscrip- 
tion. There are altogether eight verses, of which six are in the kdiilavikridita metre, and 
the first and the last in Sragdhara and Anushtubh respectively. The principal orthographical 
peculiarities are the indifferent use of s for s and vice versd (U. 1 3 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 15, 17, 19) and the 
use of b for v (11. 2, 12, 14). Some of the letters with a superscribed repha have been doubled 
(especially m and t), others not. The sign of avagraha has not been used at all. Final forms of 
t occur in U. 12 and 18. 

Metre SWint. s Metre : Pushpitigril. * Bead btdd&vd. 

4 j e .p'ati&Ua. This aigu of punctuation is superfluous, " Metre : Sldka (AnuslituWi). 

7 EeLd MM**. 8 Originally -4*ao* was engraved. Metre : Indravajrl 

10 These vords are engrave* in small letters under the figure of <3wu4 which is on the proper right of the plate 
between lines 42 and BO. . 


The inscription is an eulogy of the Ndyaka Vasudeva, the minister of king BhftnudSva of 
Zakaira. 1 It states that he constructed two temples of MaMdeva, and another in honour of 
the local deity of the fields, "besides a building with a gateway, and excavated two tanks, It is 
dated in the [Saka] year 1242 bearing the name Baudra, on the 5th titU of the dark 
fortnight of Jyaiflhtha, corresponding to (Tuesday), the 27th May A.D. 1320. Unfortunately 
the week-day is not mentioned, and hence the date does not admit of verification. It is aleo 
possible that it may have been Wednesday, the 28th May, as there was a repetition of the 
Hindu date yaftriamiin that fortnight and month. The record gives the genealogy of the 
minister for four generations, and that of his sovereign for seven generations. It is stated that 
Vasudeva's ancestors were elephant-catchers (?). Though in the Kanker State wild elephants 
are not now found, they are still to be met with in the division in which it is included. 3 The 
most important part of the inscription is that which gives the genealogy of the Kakaira chiefs, 
mentioning in order the following : SimharAj, Vyaghra, VdpadSva, Krishna, Jaitaraja, 
S6maohandiaandBhanudva. The dynasty is stated to be lunar, and the want of any 
epithet indicating paramount sovereignty postulates a subordination to another power. The 
epithets applied to them :~ran^a (1.1), n r t>a (11. 2 and 5), dhararidhar* (1- 6), lUp&la 
(1. 7) and nripati (II 10 and 13), are all synonyms of the word 'king.' I* two copper-plate 
grants of Pamparajadeva found in the Kanker State" the king is styled 86waMdnvaya- 
pras&ta-maluSmarfaUka (feudatory chief of the lunar race), which supports the above state- 
ment. The present Raj family of Kanker is doubtless connected with these kings. It belongs 
to the lunar race and has always claimed to be a very ancient family * According to its own 
traditions it claims to have come from Orisea. Its original ancestor was ruling at Jagannatha- 
puri, but, on suddenly becoming a leper, in which state he could no longer occupy the throne, 
left the place and went out in search of a cure. At Sihawa, close to Kanker and now in the 
Dhamtart tahsil of the Eaipur district, a spring was found, by bathing in which he got rid of 
the loathsome disease. The local people* persuaded him to stay on at Sihawa and installed him 
king, and he and ius descendants continued to rule there. There can be little doubt that Sihawft 
was once the capital of this dynasty as its ruins and temples testify. There is still an inscrip- 
turn there, which is dated in the Saka year 1114. The capital was finally removed to Kanker. 
This must have been done prior to Bhanudeva's times. For in line 12 we read : Kdfair$ 
nnpa-ZU U d6 V *.n a9 ar3 (in Kakaira, the town or capital of king Bhanudeva), and in lines 3 to 5 : 

ZT fca ^ Sri-J- a itardj6=bhavat (there was the illustrious Jaitaraja in Kakaira), 

This Jaitaraja was the grandfather of Bhanudeva. Thus Kakaira has been the capital of the 
State for over 600 years. Kanker onoe included the rich Dhamtar! tahsil of the Baipur 

This is really the correct name of the town and State, but It is now officially written M Kanker. In General 
nttham'fl Sevort for 1878-74 t. in malt. na TTSWU .v :__ii.. Ai v . . , ...:... i " uo "" 1 " 

> The Central Province^ called Godwin* by the Ma1n,aD 8 , were .0 infested by these animals that even 

f I'tT' fl Eve ? placeB like Jabftl P or ' * hioh e and are far l.,jongly than Kanker, 
aof w.ld elephant.. See ' 

r fl 

amrqooao w. eephant.. See Jarrett'e ^n-i-ATclari, Vol. II. p. 198, where the following occur, :~ 

l \ ( S 68 r / PUF) K" & BeparSte St8te < * ffl "* "M ***" ta wWoh ar* n,Lou 8 wild 
eephants. The ealtiviton pay the revenue in mohnrs aud elephanta." About a doten year, ago 40 

^ Baitilkh0l> * 8tot6 nowtraMferred to B^I, wl I had onoe *a occasion of riding 

1 These have not yet been published and are at present in my potseauon. 

* Central Province! Gatetleer, 1870, p. 236. 

It ia said that the installation of the Kanker chief is up to this day confirmed by the 

ing the Rlja before the -hriae of Maulidevl. .The HalbL axe an .i iffitts , Wbe^y u 

Ml 1* ITf ' ^J^e^- t^ve come from Ori. M alon, & the toper king and 
SI J? M/ d ? a " a ?f the Kanker chief. They .peak a dialect witch i, a curio*, mixtarerf Oriyi, 
ChhattfcgarbUaform ol Eastern Hindi) atx* Mar4 t W } see Dr. Grierwn's JMp** Bwy of India, Vol. 


district, but is now limibed to an area of 1,429 square miles lying between 20 6' and 20 34' N . 
and 80 41' and 81 40' E. 

As regards the buildings and tanks mentioned in the inscription, there can be no doubt 
that the two tanks are identical -with the present Diwan and Sitalfi, talaos, between which the 
ruins of the temples may still be seen. It is very probable that the Sitall talao a name which 
gained currency since a hut dedicated to the goddess Sital& was constructed on its bank is 
the Kaudika-bandha of the inscription, the unnamed tank being called Diwan talao or 
' minister's tank,' thus keeping up the memory of its original constructor, who by calling it 
a taddga apparently distinguished it from the bandha, i.e. the tank formed by merely damming 
up a stream. The very name Kandika-bandha indicates its secondary importance. In the 
first place it was merely a bandha (dam), and secondly it was probably constructed by the 
payment of Jcairfikas, 1 a, Sanskritised form of kauris (cowries) or shells, a currency of the 
lowest value. 

The temples aud buildings have all fallen or been pulled down, and from the materials 
a fresh temple was constructed by the predecessor of the present chief. The old temples were 
seen by Mr. Fisher, who was Deputy Commissioner of the Raipur district (to which Kanker 
was formerly attached) about 1873 A.D., and he alludes to them in his private Journal 3 thus : _ 
" Saw some very curious old temples to the west of the village ; one has a bijak giving, as I 
was told, some particulars of its history. They are very old and utterly neglected now." This 
oyafc was seen on the gate of the Mahadeva temple about the year 1825 as recorded in the 
Asiatic Researches, Vol. XV. p. 505, where its date is also stated, which is the same aa that of 
our inscription in all details. A noteworthy point in our inscription is the mention of the 
construction of a puratobhadra with a pratolt, about which latter Dr. Vogel has written an 
article in the Royal Asiatic Society's Joiirnal, July 1906, p. 539. He has proved that pratolt 
really meant a gate-way, evidently strongly built and of considerable height. It waa sometimes 
provided with a flight of steps. 3 I have not been able to find puratobliadra in the KoSaa to 
which I have access, but sarvatobhadra is described as a kind of house with 4 doors facing the 
4 quarters. 4 From this I infer that a puratobhadra was a building with only one door in front. 
And the Kakaira puratobhadra was actually furnished with a gate-way (pratoli). 

1 In this part of the country a good deal of trnnsactious were done in cowries (shells, Sanskrit 
dikef), which are still used as currency by the poor people. Ib mast not however be supposed that there were no 
coins here. In the copper-plates of Pampaiajadeva alluded to hefore, the coin ta&ka of local mint finds a 
mention. It is still a practice in some places to get work done, chiefly digging nnd throwing of earth, by what 
is called kattdiJiai, a mode of piecework payment, 2 or 4 cowries or more according to the labour involved being 
paid for each basket of earth, thrown out. A mnn. with cowries stands at a place where the earth is to be thrown 
and as each labourer turns up and throws down the earth, he receives immediately the fixed number of cowries 
each time. This mode of labour automatically punishes the idlers and saves a good deal of supervision and 
account-keeping where a large number of labourers are engaged simultaneously on such a work. 

2 Quoted in Cunningham's Archceological Beports, Vol. VII. p. 147. 
8 Dr. Fleet'a Gupta Inscriptions, p. 43. 

* The idea seems to have been taken from a sarvatdbjtadra village, which is described in the Mdnasdra 
a book of the highest authority on Hindi architecture, as "a town or village of quadrangular form, containing 
in the middle a temple dedicated to one of the triad, Brahma, Vishnu or Mahelvara. It has 4 streets of equal 
length on the 4 sides at right angles, and 2 more crossing each other in the middle. Between these may be 
formed 3, 4, 5, or as many more streets as the extent of the village will admit, on eauh side, parallel to the 
middlemost street. "Without the walls should be placed the shrines of the deities who preside over and defend 
the several quarters of the village j at the angular points should be erected halls, porticoes, colleges and other 
public edifices, and towards the quarter of Agni (south-east) a watershed for the accommodation of travellers 
and passengers. The whole village should be secured by a quadrangular wall and a ditch around it, with 
4 Inrge and as iriauy small gates in the middle of the sides and at the angular point?. Without the northern 
pnte should be erected a temple for the worship of Mahakali, and the huts of Chandalas or outcasfcei should he 
a Tcrdia distant from the village. A tank or reservoir should be constructed either on the south or north side 
or near either of these 2 points for ablutionary and culinary purposes." See Earn Eaz's Architecture of 
the Sindut, 1 834, p. 43. 



[Voi, II 


f%fo; n 

3 *& 

fo*4n*idfw fi II til 

: n^n 

; [i*] 

fif fq? 

: [i*] 

II 8 II 


> Read 
' Head 



" Thfl original has rfdtfr 
'H z f ' 


"Bead fTrflT. 
* Bead 
"Bead ftp^TTO 


t Bead 

" Bead f 
Bead 1RT; 

n Bead 




^fem 8 [i*] 





dw. Success \ (Verse 1.) In tlie race o tlie Moon there was (&w) Siihhftr&j, a (very") 
lion to enemies, (and!) praised as possessing numerous "virtues. From Mm, was born king 
"Vy&ghra, of unequalled fame, who outshone the sun by his splendour. He also begot an 
ornament of kings befitting hie own manliness : V6padva ; and the latter, Eke wise, (had a son) 
xxamed Kri[ sl ma], who was given to destroying crowds of hostile kings, (and) who dominated 
fclie tmi verse by (his*) valour. 

(V. 2.) (Then) there was in K&kaira the illustrious Jaitarfija, the lustre of the nails of 
wliose lotus-feet was rendered (still more) brilliant by the light emanating from. the shining 
diamonds in the diadems on the heads of kings (prostrating themselves before him) to the ground, 
(janfi) who had the merit of conquering heroes on the battle-field. 3?rom him who owned the 
gflory of wonderful great valour (was corn) the illustrious king Sdmaehandra. 

(V. 3.) From Mm, the glorious ocean of virtues, (was born) a young king : the illustrious 
3E*li&nu, who was brilliant by (his) whole body and apparel, who acquired honour and prosperity, 
-felte destroyer of the party of opponents, a crest- jewel of kings. (3e) is (noyi) protecting the earth, 
"V^kile he is ruling, the people are (all) virbuous (and) well-intentioned. 

(V. 4.) The country is replete with permanent wealth and virtue and ia devoid of (all) 
calamities ; the twice-born are devoted to good actions ; the subjects are intent on performing 
sacrifices and doing charitable acts. What more ? The citizens are very virtuous (anS) refined, 
their minds are purified by the study of the SSfifitras. What wonder does not (happen) in 
iron age, while king Bh.nudeva, the incarnation of virtue, is ruling the kingdom P 

(V. 5.) In a family which abounded in men subsisting on (catching ?) groups of elephants 
was the fldyalca P6[lu], of brilliant fame, a leader of men, the son of the illustrious 
X>&m6dara. His famous, straightforward son was called Bhlma. His son was the illustrious 
, (who resided) in K&fcaira, the town of king Bbftnude'va. 

Read WSTC , * Bead ^ffar. Bowl 

* Read W . 6 mft*S' a and W- 

Bead &V. 1 Bead WUfa . Bend nfj| . 


(V. 6.) This illustrious Vftsudeva, the pillar of the city, the chief gem (shining) witi : 
priceless splendour amongst (/its) caste fellows, famous, devoted to the lotus-feet of king 
Bh&nudSva, known to be very valorous before the array of knights on the battle-field, great, of 
wonderful power (and) patience, is (now) adniimstex'hig the country, 

(V. 7.) (This) clever (minister) caused to bo built two temples of the god whose ornament 
is tho moon (vis. Mahadeva), together with, halls, a puratolhadra with a gate-way, and an 
excellent temple (dedicated') to the guardian deity of the fields. Moreover (he) caused to to dug 
n large pond (tatfUgo) and a long tank (bandha) called Kaudika, which contained a great 
quantity of water. 

(V. 8.) The moon-light of the true fame of Vasudeva, devoted to sacrifices and charitable 
works, has expanded (and) become established so long aa the moon, the sun and the stars 

(Line 18.) Samvat 1242, in the Haudra year, on the 5th. (titlii) of the dark (fortnight} 
of Jyaiahtha, (this) pratasii was erected by the Nay oka Vasudeva. Written by Saifr 
kunaara, Hail I 



Prof. Hultzsch has asked me to express an opinion on the date of the stone inscription 
published above, of which he has sent me an impression. He also, at the instance of Mr. Hira 
Lai, has requested me to give my readings of, and, if possible, to verify, the dates of two 
copper-plate inscriptions of the KSkaira (Blanker) chief Pamparajadeva, which are aboal 
to be published by Mr. Hira, Lai, and of whioh impressions have been forwarded by him. 

The date of the stone inscription clearly is, aa given by Mr. Hira Lai : Samvat 1342 Raudrn' 
sawvatsard \ Jyeshfa-vadi pathchamydm |, It does not admit of exact verification, and the 
only question concerning it is, to whioh era the year 1242 should be referred so that the date 
may fall in a Raudra-samvatsara. A priori the expression sathvat 1M2 \voald be taken here to 
denote the Vikrama year 1242 ; but there is no Vikrama year 1242 that could he called a Katuiia 
year. Nearest to V. 1242, Eaudra, by the southern system, would be the expired Ohaitnifa 
Vikrama year 1257 ; and by the northern mean-sign system it would indicate the time from the 
13th November A.D. 1195 to the 8th November A.D, 1196, in the expired Chaitrddi or Kdrttikddi 
Vikrama years 1252 and 1253. If the year of the date were 125ii instead of 1242, it might be 
taken to be the expired KArttik&Ai Vikrama year 1252, in which case the 5th of the dark half of 
Jyatshtha would undoubtedly fall in a Eaudra year ; but there is nothing to prove that the writer 
erroneously put 1242 instead of 1252. 

Assuming, then, the figures for the year and the Jupiter's year to have been correctly given, 
it would only remain to take the expression sanivat 1242, as has been done by Mr. Hira Lai, to 
denote the expired iiSaka year 1242, which by the southern system was ja Eaudra year. But 
here we are at once met by a difficulty. In my paper on the dates of the Saka era in inscriptions 
I have shown 1 that among 400 laka dates of inscriptions only five do not contain the word oafca 
or dka, and that of even theee five dates three are spurious or suspicious, while the two others 
are in verse. There is therefore every reason to assume that the writer of the inscription 
would have denoted the Saka year 1242 by some such expression aa Sake 1242, not by samvai 
1242. And there might be the further objection that in the Central Provinces, where the date 
comes from, the system of Jupiter's years ordinarily followed seems to have been the northern 
system., not the southern system by which alone the Saka year 1242 can be described as a 
P.andra year. 

1 SOB 1J, 4*. Vol. XXVI. p. l*y. 


Ae tlie date cannot be verified, it would be useless to indulge in further speculations. 1 To 
the wording of it seems certainly to be suspicious. And I can only say that, assuming the 
for the year to be correct and the date to be really a Saka date, it would correspond 1, 
-foe purniindnta Jyaishtha, to Monday, the 28th April A.D. 1320, and for the aindnta Jyais he. 
* stated by Mr. Hira Lai, to Tuesday, the 27th, or Wednesday, the 28fch May, 3 A.D. 1320. 
Of the two copper-plata inscriptions of Pampar&ja, one is clearly dated as follows : 
[L. 7] ............ . tsvara- 

[L. 8] samvatsare Kartika-masft Chitra-rikshe Ravi-dine sury6parag& .... 

[L. 10] samvat 966 . 

i.e. " in the Isvara year, at an eclipse of the sun on a Sunday, in the nakshatra dritrS 
-the month Karitika, . . . in the year 966." 

x I have no doubt that the year 966 of this date must be referred to the Kalaehuri era. 

In Festgruss an Roth, p. 53 ff., I have tried to prove from the 12 dates between the years 
-?}3 aQ d- 958, wkick hitherto have been available, that the Kalaehuri (Chedi) era commenced 
the 5th September A.D. 248, that the years were Asvinddi years and the months purni- 
f ^ta months, and that therefore, to convert an expired Kalaehuri year into an expired year of 
-v\0 Kaliyuga, we must add 3349 when the date falls in tbe bright half of Asvdna or in any 
' Oi 3,thfrom Karttika to Pkalguna, aud 3350 in all other cases. Applying this here, we find that 
^j? date, for the p&rnimdnta Karfctika of the expired Kalaehuri year 966 = Kaliyuga expired 
Q& + 3349=4315, regularly corresponds to Sunday, the 5th October A.D. 1214, when the 15th 
i of the dark half ended 3 h. 33 m., and when the naltshntra was CMtrS, by tbe equal space 
-fcem and according to Garga for 2 h. 38 m., after mean sunrise. On the eame day there was a 
eclipse of the sun, the greatest phase of which at Kanker (in about Long. 82 and Lat. 
Q =>) was four digits. 3 

It will, I think, be generally admitted that Sunday, the 6th October A.D. 1214, uu- 
^-l3-^btedly is the proper equivalent of our date ; but, in connection with this date, the writer 
:>-parently has wrongly quoted the year Isvara instead of tlie immediately following year 
^.tjtidhanya. By the northern mean-sign system Isvara lasted from the 2nd September A.D. 
31 2 to the 29th August A.D. 1213. By the northern luni-solar system therefore Isvara was 
,o proper name of Kaliyuga 4314 expired, and not of the year of our date, vis. Kaliyuga 4315 
r j>lred, which according to the northern luui-solar system, as already intimated, would have 
ceived the name Bahudhanya. For the present, I can ascribe the error only to the writer's 
velessnets, but the error is of such a nature that it confirms rather than, invalidates our general 

3Ult. 4 

The date of the other copper- plate of Pamparaja I read thus : 
[L. 9] . . .1 samvata | 965 Bhadrapade vadi 1[0] 

[L. 10] Mriga-rikshe S6[ma]-dine | 

Here everything is perfectly clear aud certain in the impression excepting the number of the 
7fci and the second akshnra of the name of the weekday. As regards the latter, it appears to 

T If the year were 1244 (instead of 1242), it might be taken to be a KalaeVmri year, in which cn.-ai' the date 
-T*^ Lnve fallen in ft Baudrfi year. I do not moan to suggest hereby that tlie inscription eoultl ~ue asM^tifU to feo 
a period (A.D. 1492-93). 

s The 5tL tithi commenced 1 li. 4 m. before mean sunrise of the Tuesday and ended h. 30 in. aft?? snv sw- 
O; f the Wednesday. 

s Uetvcen A.D. 1201 and 1250 this is the only solar eclipse in the month Ka,rttilc& that could Iwve TXKB vwnli,' 

3Vtr. Hira Lai quite lately hns scut, me for calculation a date from the Central Proniu-en, wWrli KUM-IVJ ,. .' y 
e& X" 1 oruls to Woducsday, the 5th October A.D. 1005. Accordiue to the original date, this Uay should fall jii :?-.? 
aiahhaya'; hut hy the northern luni-solar system it would fall in tlio year Plavanga \rhich inllo 
upoa Parabhava, and by the southern system in the year Vivavasu which immediately precedea Pavrib 



me evident that ike engraver after the akshara so in tlie first instance by mistake engraved tie 
letter d (of dine), and that he then altered this d to ma. Under any" circumstances there could 
be no doubt that the intended weekday is Soma-d-ina or ' Monday.' Nor can there be any real 
doubt about the number of the t'ithi. The date clearly gives us the dark half of the month 
Bhadrapada and during it the naksfiatra Mriga (Mrigasirsha). Now in the dark half the 
nalcshatra -will ordinarily be Mriga about the 8th tifhi of the am&nta and the 10th ttilii of the 
P&rnimdnta BMdrapada ; and a careful examination of the impression, shows that the word vadi 
is actually followed by 10, the of -which is engraved quite on the margin of the plate. I 
therefore take ib that the date giveaus for calculation "the year 965, the 10th tithi of the dark 
half of (the ptirnimdnta) Bhadrapada, with the nakshatra Mriga and a Monday." And treating 
the year again as a Kalaoliuri year, I find the following equivalents ; 

!For the expired Kalachtiri year 965 = Kaliyuga expired 965 + 3350=4315 : Saturday, the 
2nd August A.D, 1214, when the 10th tithi of the dark half of the p&rnimdnta Bhadrapada 
ended 18 h. 25 m., and the nakshafoa was Mriga, by the equal space system and according to 
Garga for 21 h. 40 m., and by the Brahma-siddh&nta for 20 h. 21 m. 3 after mean sunriae. 

For the current Kalachuri year 965 = Kaliy'uga 4315 current : Monday, the 12th August 
A.D. 1213, when the 10th t'ithi of the dark half of the pfariimanta, Bhadrapada commenced 
7 h., and when the nal-shatra was Mriga, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 
15 h. 46 m., and by the Brahnoa-siddhanta for 14 h. 27 m., after mean sunrise. 

Of the two, I do not hesitate to accept Monday, the 12th August A.D. 1213, as the true 
equivalent of our date. That the tithi of the date was a current tithi can cause no difficulty. 
And the fact that Kalachnri years, occasionally and exceptionally, are quoted as current years 
is proved by another date, in an inscription of which Mr. D. R. Bhandarkar some time ago haa 
bean good enough to send me a photograph. The inscription referred to is one at Seorinarayan 
which the late Sir A. Cunningham had stated to be dated 
Kalaclwri-samvatsare \\ 898 ]| Asvina-sudi 2 86ma-dinS. 
According to the photograph the date really is 

Kalachuri-samvatsard \\ 898 || Asvina-sudi 7 l S6ma-din$, and with this reading the date 
regularly corresponds, for the current Kalachuri year 898, to Monday, the 24th September 
A.D. 1145, when the 7th tithi of the bright half of JUvina ended 20 h. 57 m. after mean sunrise. 




While I was reading the final proof of my paper on the two copper-plate inscriptions of 
the time of Mahendrapala of Kanauj, published above, p. 1 ff., I received from Prof. Hulfczsch 
excellent ink-impressions of the two inscriptions which had been supplied to him by Rai 
Bahadur V. Tenkayya. The impressions enabled me to make one or two slight corrections in my 
texts, but it was impossible to insert in my article Mr, Veukayya's description of the original 
plates, and to get ready in time the collotype facsimile of the second of the two inscriptions, 
the plates of Avanivarman n. Toga, which Prof. Hultzsch had at once ordered to be prepared 
and which is now published herewith. 

On the 'plates A., those of Balavarman, Mr. Venkayya writes as follows : 
" The too plates are about 13 V broad and about 9|" high, somewhat less in the middle. They 
arfl strung on an almost circular ring, 2|" in diameter. The enda of the ring are secured below 

1 &o the titM was already given, correctly, in M. figs. Vol. XV. p. 605. 

Una plates of Avanivarman II. Yoga, [Vikrama-JSamvat 956. 

11 a. 

Scale -45 

E. Hultzsch. 

Collotype by Qebr. Plettner, Halle-Saale. 

From ink-impressions supplied by Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya. 


a circular seal, which is slightly damaged and measures nearly 1|" in diameter. It is about 
f thick, and bears in relief a squatting figure, perhaps representing a god, the right hand of 

which seems to be raised, as if to indicate the alhayahasta Either plate 

near the top has a ring-hole which is about ^ in diameter." 

On the plates B., those of Avanivarman II. Yoga, Mr. Venkayya writes : 
" The three plates are between 12g'' and 12%" broad and between S|" and 9" high. They 
are strung on an oval ring which measures 2^" by 2^". The ends of the ring are secured 
below a circular seal, which is slightly mutilated and measures nearly 2" in diameter. The seal 

bears in relief a squatting figure, similar to the one on the seal of the other plates 

Each plate contains a ring-hole which is about -" in diameter." 

On the excellent facsimile published herewith I have to say only a few words. It will 
show that the inscription in some places is not very easy to read. As regards individual signs. 
I would merely draw attention to the forms of the initial i and e, e.g. in iha, 1. 33, and foam*, 
1. 45 ; to the sign for ry, e. g. in f'a>iryasya, 1. 11 ; to the final t } e.g. in =J}hut } 1. 32 ; and to the 
numeral figures, especially that for ' 9 ', in line 68. 

In my text of the inscription the word sri- has by an oversight been omitted before 
!Fa[rti]?id-, above, p. 10, 1. 57. 



These plates were found in the backyard of Buddharaju Venkataraju of Vandram, a village 
in the Bhimavaram talnka of the Kistna district, and were forwarded by the Head Assistant 
Collector of Narsapur through the Collector of Kistna to E.ai Bahadur Venkayya, who sent me 
two sets of ink-impressions of them, with the following remarks : 

" These are five copper-plates, measuring 7f" in length and 3f" in height. They have 
high rims more than $ thick. The ring on which the plates are strung was cut by me for the 
first time and soldered subsequently. It is oval, measures 3 v by 3", and is nearly -" thick. 
The ends of the ring are secured in an expanded eight-peialled lotus at the bottom, of a circular 
seal, which measures Sf* in diameter. The seal is much damaged, but bears, in relief on a 
countersunk surface, the legend Sri-Tribhu[vandm'kit'6a], with a boar facing the proper left 
over it and a floral device below. The other symbols cut in the seal are not quite distinct. 
Traces of the sun over the boar, of the crescent of the moon behind his tail, and of an elephant 
goad in front of him are visible." 

The first and last plates bear writing only on one side, and the three remaining plates on 
both sides. The plates are in a bad state of preservation. Of plate i. a small portion is miasing. 
Plate ii.fr is a palimpsest, and part of its writing is effaced. The two first lines of plate iii.Z) and 
some letters of the two last lines of plate iv.a are damaged by corrosion. Of plate iv.6 the 
two first lines and part of the third are in a still worse condition. On the last plate (v.) some 
letters are more or less doubtful. 

After the MS. of this article had gone to the press, I received from Mr. Venkayya the 
original copper-plates, with the help of which I was able to improve my readings of several 
indistinct words. 

The alphabet is ancient Telugu of the usual type. I would only draw attention to the 
peculiar form of the secondary $ in -m,urtt$r=, 1. 18, and 8amdhuya> 1. 36 f . The language ia 
Sanskrit ; but the four first lines of the last plate contain some Telugu. words. The Sanskrit 
portion consists of both prose and verses. 


The inscription opens with the genealogy of Ammaraja (II.) of the (Eastern) Chalukya 
(1. 5} dynasty. LI. 1-17 are practically identical with 11. 1-23 of the Elavarjni grant of the 
same ting. 1 But Vikram&ditya (I.) receives the title Yuvanija (I. 13), and the name 
Kollabiganda is twice (11. 14 and 17) spelt -with o, not with bh. 

Ammaraja II. is then praised in seven verses, all of which occur in his Padaakaluru 
grant, 8 where they are however differently arranged. 3 The two verses (5 and 6) recording 
the date of his coronation ara also fouud in the Maliyapuadi grant, 4 It is a curious fact 
that the major portion of plate ii.& (consisting of verses 3-5 and nearly the whole of verse 6) of 
the Yandram plates is engraved over another grant of Ammaraja II., which seems to have 
been partially effaced by tie writer, but of which distinct traces are still visible. 5 I subjoin a 
transcript of those lines of the original inscription on plate ii,6 which can still he made ont. 

20 .......... H 

23 tnErfa D*] 

The poetical description of Amma's reign is followed by a prose passage (11. 30-37) which 
is worded in nearly the same manner as 11. 30-36 of the Elavaj-ju grant. 6 Ammaraja II., who 
is here styled ( Samasta^Tiuvandsraya, the glorious Vijayaditya (VI.) Mdhar&j&dhirnja-Para- 
tiiusparu ParamaWiattiiraha, the very pious one, who meditates at the feet of (his) mother and 
father, thus commands, having called (them) together, the ryots, headed by the Jldshfrdkutas, 
inhabiting the twelve villages (the chief one of which is) Prandoru in the Pavunavara district 

So far the text can be easily transcribed and understood. But the remainder of tho 
inscription cannot be deciphered in full, as a number of words in the damaged portions are 
doubtful or quite illegible. Besides, the author of the long metrical passage describing the 
donee (11. 37-61) knew so little Sanskrit, or got his draft copied in such an imperfect way, that 
I am unable to propose satisfactory corrections even of some of the well-preserved portions of it. 
The whole of this passage seems to be in verse. Making allowance for the damaged and lost 
lines I number the verses as 8-28. Verse 8 praises the family (gotra) named Mitrayu. A 
descendant of it was Torkkaya-Peddiya 7 (v. 9), who lived in the large village Bavipayru 
(v. 10), his son Vijayaditya (v. 11) and his grandson Turkkiya-Yajvaii (v. 12). The last had 
by Kandamamb& a son named Kuppanayya (v. 14), who seems to have enjoyed the titles of 
minister (amdtya^ r. 15) and vassal (siimanta, v. 16). He had the surname Vipranara[yana] 
(v. 21) and founded a shrine of Siva at Drakaliarama. 8 

" To this Kuppan[a3matya, who is devoted to Me, the village named Tanderu has been 
given by Us, having made (it) an Agrahdra ; to whom (the village) named [Betijpundi (in the 
neighbourhood) of Prandoffu 9 in your district 10 (vishaya), together with the share of gold, 

2nd. Ant, VoL XII. p. 91 ft H>id, Vol. VII. p. 15 ff. 

The verses of the Pa^a&talitrti grant (11. 23-37) correspond to the following verses of the Vaadram plates : 
I, 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 2 j and an additional verse is inserted between 1 and 4. 

* Above, p. 47 ff. 

I s Both sides of plate v. also exhibit traces of obliterated writing. A grant of Bhlma I. is a similar palimpsest j 
;*ee Prof, Kielhorn'* remarks, above, Vol. V. p. 127. 

In the latter the epithet itulittipitriptiddntidhydtab (L 35) is however missing. 

i With Tftr&kays compare the names TftrkaSarman (above, Vol. V. p. 120 a note 14) and Turkisma ( Id. Attt. 
Vol. XIII. p. 2H text 1. 49). 

8 Xtrdks'hdrdvtS krita-iva-Mlay6 } v. 22 (1. 68). 

* Ffaudorti is the Telagu genitive of frdndo^v, (1. 35). w Le. iu the Pavtmavara-visliaya of 1. 06. 



/as given with exemption from all taxes, having made (it) an AgraMra." I subjoin my reading 
i this passage, which is wo peculiarly woi-d L 'cl,tbafc it remains doubtful whether the present grant 
0fers to Tandera or to Betipundl or to both, awl whether only the second or both of them 
^longed to the PjLvunavfu'ii-vishaya. 


62 i 

63 ^ 

64 tR 3 <* ^frf faf^ro^ cj[ : ] H ^^ fa) qT*rmN3re: ii .... 

Of the subsequent description of the boundarieB of the village granted (11. 64-C7) I am 
uable to furnish a satisfjiciory transcript. The remainder of the inscription (11. G7-72) is 
jarly identical with 11. 57-liU of the Elavarra grant.' 1 The last line (72) seems to read : 


Accordingly the Ajfiapti was the Eataliaruja? the poet? Maha[ka?]bhatta, and the writer 

Of the localities mentioned in this inscription, Draksharama is well-known," and the 
3-vunavara-vishaya is probably the same as Pagunavara-visliaya in a grant of Bhinia II. 10 
ie villages Prandoru, Betipundi, Tunderu and Kuvipavrn I am unable to 'identify. 


First Plate. 


9 i crtt sT^gw'^TksT i 

1 Bead +15*1^. 2 Read ^rft3itgTTinfvrTr;. s R ea d 

' Instead of tath-oktam Vydstiiiu, \. C9 reads tatlid eh*6ktam Vydsa-l'ha,ti\d*'\ra'k&n(t(na). 

6 Read ttiSh. G See aljove, p. 49 f. 

i I.e. the author of the verges describing the doneo. In other grants of AumiarAja II. Pfltanabhatta and 

avabha^a are mentioned as ' oL'ts,' 

a^a are 
s The same person was the writer of the Elavarru and Padaiikalum grants 

9 See e.g. above, Vol. IV. p. 37, nutc 3. 

10 Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII. p. 213. 

11 From two sets of ink-impressions and the original copper-plates. ll Read u 

16 The amtsv4ra sfcauda at the beginning of the next line. 










Second Plate ; First Side. 

; [i*] 

Second Plate ; Second 8ide. 







Bead <H#jfl; MSroip tere to- the and (1, 27) tte. tid ot to jdafa* i. 

Vandram plates of Ammaraja II. 





Third Plate ; First Side. 

n [ 
: i 

[>*] *r 

Third Plate; Second Bide. 



Mathur lion-capital was discovered by tlie late Dr. Bhagvanlal Indraji under 

detailed ia Ms article on The Northern Eshatrapas edited and publislied by 
-of ssor JB. J. Rapson in the Journal oj the Royal Asiatic Society, N. S., Vol. ZSVI. 1894 
541-554; see in particular pp. 542-4. It was found embedded in the steps of an altar 
vo-fced to Sitaia on a site belonging to some low-caste Hindus at Mathnra, bat not more 
fixii.tely located. Having been with difficnlty secured by Dr. Bhagvanlal, the capital was 
a-veyed to Bombay ; subsequently, on his death, it was despatched to England, and it can now 
seen in the Buddhist .Room- at the British Museum. 

*3Che inscriptions incised on the capital were transcribed and translated by the. discoverer 
oaself ; but owing to his death the task of publishing the MS. was entrusted by the Council 
fclte Royal Asiatic Society to the late Professor Biihler, who was able to compare the read- 
's -with the stone itself and. with paper impressions presented to Him in 1889 by Dr. James 
At the commencement of the pubh'shed account, which appeared in the Journal .of 
Asiatic Society, N. 8., Vol. XSVI. 1894, pp. 525-540, Prof. Buhler observes that 
collation has made necessary some alterations in the transcript and in the translation, 
w hich the more important' ones have been pointed out in the notes. But I may confi- 
assert that all really essential points have been fully settled and explained by Dn 
nlal, whose great acumen and scholarship are as conspicuous in his interpretation of 
inscriptions as in his otter epigraphio publications. SVxr convenience's safe} I have prefixed 
, summarising the .chief results .Reducible from the- inscriptions. " 

a The anutvdra stands at the beginning of the next Jiuo. 
ElittftKPi gTit (1. 82 f.) fmppliee the correct reading 


While endorsing in the main these statements of so great an authority, from all points of 
view, as the late Prof. Buhler. I have endeavoured, in re-editing the inscriptions with Plates, 
which before were -wanting, to give an unbiased reading based upon new impressions supplied by 
the kindness of the Department in the Museum (fit the instance of Dr. J. F. Fleet, who originated 
the suggestion of this article), aud upon frequent inspections of the stone itself. Tbe present 
versions will thei-efore be found to differ in some particulars from those of Dr. Bhugvanlal 
and Prof. Biihler. 

The shape and dimensions of the capital will be best realized from the accompanying Plates ; 
but some particulars demand a verbal description. In the fa-si place, the circular hole in the 
upper square surface, corresponding to a similar hole in the under surface, pi-ores that the capital 
was surmounted by a shaft or some other continuation. Prof. Biihler remarks that various 
representations on slabs from the Amaravati Stiipa prove this shaft to have supported a Dliarma* 
ohakra, referring to the Archreological Survey Plates published by Dr. Burgess (Plate sxxviii. 
figs. I and 6, and Plate si. figs. 3 and 4). But it has already been pointed out by me in the 
Journal of t7ie Royal Asiatic Society for 1906, pp. 216 and 464, that the use of lion-capitals of 
actual pillars was a common feature in Indian architecture, derived from Persian models. 
Examples may be seen in the Archaeological Survey publications relating to Bharhnt 
(Canningham, Platea vi., viii., x.), Sanchi (Maisey, Plates sis., xxsiii.), Mathurfi (V. A. Smith, 
Plates xliii.-xlvi. and xlix.-l.), AmarSvati (Burgess, p. 93, Plates xlix., liii., liv,, lv.. and 
Burgess, 1882, Plate xiv.), and elsewhere. The presumption, therefore, is that the lion-capital 
formed the crown of a real pillar. 

Secondly, the state of the stone has been somewhat impaired by time and accident. In some 
cases, e,g> in the loss of the horn- like projections of the two heads, this has involved no curtail- 
ment of the test. Tbe chippings at the two bottom corners have been, no doubt, equally harmless. 
But the front, which, would be the most exposed portion of the stone, has in part so peeled away 
as to render some characters illegible. In the second line of the large inscription carved ou the 
body of the lion to the spectator's left (J. 1.1) the large rva is followed by traces of two or three 
aksliaras of equal size leading to a partly visible so, (?), after which intervene three doubtful 
characters before we corns to firm ground again ia pali. 1 

Iu size the ahshuras vary considerably. We may distinguish five groups : (1) the inscriptions 
B. E. F. I. J. M. on the front and back of the stone (among which I. perhaps exceeds the others 
slightly in size), having characters about 2-2-| in. in height ; (2) G. N. P. E" , on the back and 
under surface of the stone, circa 2-1 1 in. ; (3) A. (on the unpolished top and back of the stone), 
K. L, (on the breast of the left lion), O. Q. R. (underneath), J'. (front, on the leg of the left 
lion), circa 1| in. ; (4) 0. D. E'. (which may be estimated from E'., slightly the largest, visible 
among the characters of E.), circa 1 in. , (5) H. H'., slightly incised in small characters, of 
about f in., at the places indicated on the front. In the same inscription the aksliwras generally 
maintain a fair average size, but sometimes they become a little cramped by limitations of 
space. It is clear that the inscriptions in the larger characters (1), (2) and (3) were carved 
first, and those of a smaller size were afterwards crammed in wherever space offered. 

In type, on the other hand, the characters present an uniformity which, like the subject- 
matter of the records, forbids any supposition of additions during the subsequent history of the 
stone. They have been, compared by Prof. Biihler to those of the Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra 
versions of the Edict-si of Asoka. But the degree of similarity and dissimilarity may now bo 
more exactly estimated from Biihler's Indian PalwograpJiy, where the columns viii. and is. 

1 In quoting Klmtalithi records, length of vowels is noted except wLc're the intention is to insist ujion 
reading supplied by tlie original in question. 

Front of the rapital. 




2 No. 1 are based chiefly upon these inscriptions. The type may be described as inter- 
-> -, between the As"oka forms and the cursive derivatives of the Dhammapada MS. and 
* ^covered by Dr. Stein, to -which approximate the vase scratchings from Manikiala and 

places and the inscription of Sue-Vihar (see the Plate given by Dr. Hoernle in the 
Antiquary, Vol. X. facing p. 325). It does not, however, appear to bo quite identical 
1 -fofri exhibited in any of these or in the Taxila plate (seethe facsimile above, Vol. IV. 
p. 56), where on account of the historical contiguity we should expect to find, and do find, 
^ Congener. The inscriptions edited by M. Senart in the Journal Asiatique, Ser. IX. Vol. 
*' (1899), p. 526 ff. and Vol. IV. (1894), p. 504 ff. (No. 35), are also in similar 
' ^ers (see the Plates). 

Li*^ / 

forms of the individual letters may be seen from Plate IV. Those of fha, sa, mu, pa, 
of medial e and the looped form of u have been described by Biihler. Attention may 
? -t#d. to the rda in Q. 1, the spa in A. 7, the rna (?) in I. 1, the curious form in J. 1 inter- 
* -, by Biihler as sli{3, the archaic ma with the original angle beneath in A. 2. A few points 
"^ -. further consideration. The form of to,, which occurs many times, has in other records the 
<?f tra (see the Plate). Although we have certainly one case (J. 2 3 in Ttdrita), and 
+j& two others (E". in Ttrakdrita ?, and E. 1 in Tachhilasa QT Rachhilasa ?), where the bottom 
js wanting, the character occurs so often that there can be no doubt as to what it denotes, 
.pposing it to be a da Biihler, who in his articles in the Z. D. M. G-. Vol. XLIII. pp. 133 and 
A lias read a similar character as tt (so also Johansson, Der Dialekt der ShdhbdzgarM- 
fation, I. p. 126), was influenced by finding it inprateso (M. 2) and similar cases. But the 
ijaf form of da is several times instanced, and the t for d in prateso and elsewhere is a 
^rical, not an orthographical, feature, found in other ELharSshthi records. 

-jO*' " 

only question remaining, as concerns ta, is part of a larger matter. How do we 
represented the conjunct r ? In a number of cases the addition is made by a stroke inclined 
left attached to the lower curve. This occurs in A. 1 (chhattra ), A. 6 (mdtrd), A. 7 
). In these examples there was some slight danger of confusion with f 6, which shows 
Plate) a similar stroke attached to the upper curve. Perhaps for this reason another 
ice is more frequently adopted, namely a dot in place of the stroke ; see B. 1 and 3 (chhatra\ 
2; ^pu*ra),M. 1 (chhatra ), Q. 2 (cTihatraP). There remain A. 3 (where te is written), A. 5 
I can detect no clear indication of the r-strolce or dot), G. 1 (where there is nothing 
to the ta, though the reading may be chhratava, if not clichliatava), G. 2 (cJihatava), 
(where we seem to have atraur$na for aie). In A. 1 we have two strokes, both of 
" oli srem to be intentional ; one of them, which resembles the downward stroke of the Aramaic 
TPahlavi t, I have conjectured to denote a doubled t before the r. Of a cerebral (fa) I can 
3. xio trace, unless indeed it is contained in the mysterious third sign of A. 13. 

"With other consonants than t the t is regularly inserted where required. We may quote 

-a. in A. 7 (where it takes the form of a detached stroke), gra in A. 2 and N. 2, pro, in A. 10 

-adhravipra '), A, 11 (prati ), M. 3 (jprattisff), N. 3, dhra in A. 10 and M. 2, clihra (chchlia ?) 

O. 2 and I. 1 (ehhratava? and chhratrava). In the last example, as also in pradhravi 

- ~\Q, patftir^vi in I. 2), it would seem to be even repeated ; but this may be a feature of 

*xtinciation rather than of writing. A really otiose r-stroke is found in maheshri, A. 2, and 

in Pispasri, A. 7. 

The case of kra is peculiar. If we disregard the doubtful inscription E",, it is found four 
, in. bhakravato (A. 12), ndkraraasa (F. 1 and N. 1), and saTtrastdnasa (P. 1), i.e. in places 
we expect a simple go,. This can hardly be accidental ; it would seem probable that in 
cases the combination Tcra represents a spirantic pronunciation of ga, analogous to the 
I ; more especially as in the name of Seistan (Pahlavi Sayhastan") this sound no doubt 
at the time. 


A few further points remain to be noticed. (1) In ateiirena and horakdparivdrena (A. 9 
and 10) "we find a perhaps intentional stroke diverging from the tail of the na, though not in 
both cases on the same side. Have we here na ? The rather noticeable variations in the form 
of the nasal may be observed in Plate iv. 

(2) Sa varies between tlie forms with and without tne small adjunct near the centre (see 
Plate iv). In JST. 3 the addition of the r-stroke makes s^m. In B. 4 a slight curve at the foot 
may also indicate sani, anticipating, as in the Stein documents, the following nasal. A writing 
sya is certainly to "be seen in Gr. 1 and probably also in B. 2. 

(3) The two occurrences of Jtharafata (A. 4 and E. 1) seem both to show a small diverging 
mark in the place -where h is usually appended, a circumstance which, together -with the prob- 
able derivation of the word, suggests a reading rfta=:&ra. 

(4) In A, 2 a has a small stroke added as a sort of head. 

(5) In A. 13 we have the distinguishing mark of 8 vertical and at the top; elsewhere it is 
horizontal and at the centre. 

(6) T,he 4 of A. 11 has two small (head and foot) strokes differentiating it from the sS of 
tihe previous line,- apparently without reason, 

(7) The complicated jo of C; 2 recalls the varieties on the coins (see Gardner, The Coins of 
Sactria, pp, 55, 83). 

(8) Lastly we may mention that the stone presents a number of dots and other small 
marks which muet apparently be ascribed fco aooideut or wear. In some cases we might be 
tempted to trace the anusvdra, e.g. in J., where we should thus arrive at a reading 
Sarvdstivdt amna m. 

The Prakrit in which the inscriptions are composed has beea described by Buhler and per- 
haps need not be discussed at length. It is distingtiiBhod by closeness to Sanskrit. Elision of 
medial consonants occurs, if we neglect the suffisal k (nagaraa, kwtfaaa, m&Msdnghia), only in 
ateiirena (for vurena, 7), 8aJpa[t]8. In oyarta and puya (=ttcWrya and pbj&) we have a weak- 
ening of ch to y. I have suggested (Journal of the Royal Atiatio Society , 1906, p. 205) that the 
sound denoted by this y was that of the French j, and the matter will arise again in connection 
with the proper names. The changes apparent in the word dhhatrava, are nxxt fleo&ssaiily Indian. 
The hardening of g and d to AT and t has been already dealt with ? on the other hand p appears 
in tb&va and pratifhdvit6 as , never b as p. Conjunct $ is, except in foreign and technical 
names Qihara6sta t sdkastdna, sarvdsttodda), assimilated (jY^fofoa, feuftartCra, prati^fMnta, 
Vhi\l<i]khu) ; r, on the other hand, remains both as prior (t&rva, &ar<2aa), and as posterior, 
member of a conjunction. The forms of the a and d declensions are very well preserved. The 
nominative sing. masc. appears both as a (in th&va, etc.) and as o (feAafad#$, e*0)j *^ e aeuter is 
in a[m] (rfar$r^[5]), the genitive singular in []*, twice written ya. In -W*t* the i declen- 
sion shows the Prakrit form ; of the 4 inflexion we have several forms (imitfcramental "id t etc.). 
The r-stema seem to be regular (dhite in A 8 being a misrwriling for <%&), wk3fe ia ywardfia [A] 
in A. 4 we have an ultra- Sanskrit use of the consonant paradigm. We nitty uoi&lHuB employment 
of aarvdstivdda in place of vddin. The only pronouns occurring aj n^ nominative masculine, 
and i-U, a locative, and the only finite verb Ihusavi (certainly not #&&$ * Blhler read) 
presents a problem ; see the note to A. 13, The false concord fawra jpf&ffejp&# is found else- 
where (see the note ad lac.), 

We now come to the historical matter, which has been discussed btttfebjBiiMer, pp, 529-33, 
and by Professor Sapson, (p. 541 f, of the same volume). The object of ifeff ofiief iaseri^tion 
(A.) is to record a religious donation on .the part of the Chief Qjtteett '& *fiw flta!*p Eajulo, 
with whom are associated various members oj her family and hei? whole oaurt. In the other 
inscriptions we find honourable mention of (1) certain atib&r members '& ^^ ; tife^N| family at 
Itfathorl, (2) other Satraps, and (3) a Buddhist teacher, or two BnddMrt twwfljeof^ bearing the 


names Buddhila (or Budhila) and Bu[d]dhadeva. The last named, who is termed an dcharya 
and represented as a champion of the Sarv&stivadin school against the rival Malias&nghikas, 
bears a name which cannot have been rare ; one teacher of this name is mentioned by Taranatha 
as a leader of the Vaibhashikas (see Schiefner's translation, pp. 4 and 67, and the references in 
the St. Petersburg Dictionary), and we have therefore no sufficient means of identification. It is 
different with some of the other names. 

In the first place, the Great Satrap BSjula himself and his son, the Satrap Sudasa, have 
both been identified with rulers named on coins and in other inscriptions from MathurS (see 
Buhler, pp. 531-2, Ep. Ind. Vol. I. pp. 195-6, 199; Cunningham, Archaeological Survey 
Eeports, Vol. III. p. 30, and Vol. XX. pp. 48-9 ; V. A. Smith, Mathurd, p. 21 ; Rapson, Indian 
Coins, p. 9, 33). These identifications were made by Cunningham, -who also proposed to 
identify the Yuvanija Kharaosta -with the Kharamosta, sou of Artas, known from coins, a 
suggestion which is scarcely tenable (Buhler, op. tit, p. 532). The further identification of the 
Great Satrap Kusftlaa Ptidika -with P&tika, eon of the Satrap Liaka Kusulaka, named in the 
Taxila plate, is important not only as supplying a date, though in an unknown era, for the 
Taxila Plate is dated in the year 78, (in the time) of the Great King Moga, but also as imply- 
ing that the other Satraps mentioned may also have ruled in distant places. It appears there- 
fore that the inscriptions make a point of naming with respect the chief representatives of the 
Kshatrapa dominion in Northern India ; and this is a strong argument for retaining the evident 
interpretation of inscription P. as ' in honour of the whole Saka realm ' (Sakastdna). It is 
therefore important to ascertain what other indications of nationality the inscriptions supply. 

In an article published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1906 (pp. 181-216 ; 
see also pp. 460-4) I have endeavoured to prove (1) that Sakas inhabited the region now known 
as Seistan as early as the time of Darius the Great and Alexander ; (2) that the inscriptions of 
the lion-capital exhibit a mixture of Persian and Sata nomenclature ; and I have inferred that 
the Kshatrapas of Northern India were the representatives of a mixed Parthian and Saka 
domination. I think that all these propositions must be adhered to. Upon the first of them 
we need not dwell here. The second is strongly supported a, priori by the fact that Patika of 
Taxila, who bears himself a distinctively Persian name, mentions as his overlord the Great King 
!M6ga, whose name is with equal distinctiveness Saka. 

I may here refer to a small point in the Taxila inscription which ia not without interest. 
The form of the phrase chhatrapasa Liako Kus&lako ndma tasa (for chhatrapasa Liakasa 
Eus&lakasa), which recurs in a second phrase, has been by Buhler compared with passages in 
two of the Jaina inscriptions from Mathura. We may perhaps find something of the kind in 
later Sanskrit inscriptions and in the style of the Panchatantra and Hitopadetia. But the turn 
of the phrase is so conspicuous a feature of the edicts of the Acheemeuids that we are strongly 
tempted to regard it as, like the earliest Indian architecture, derived through the Satraps from a 
Persian, model. 

This is not the place for resuming at length the discussion of the etymology of all the 
names occurring in the inscriptions. A few points may be mentioned : 

1. The name Kharaosta or Kharha(hra)6sta,B>B =khshathra, 'sovereignty,' -\^osta, 'blessing,' 
is practically certain. The initial kha, which reappears in khahardta with variant kshahardta, 
presents no difficulty ; it recurs in the kharapalldna (no doubt =lc'hs'hai;Tirapihldna, ' defence of 
sovereignty,') of the new Sarnath inscription (above, Vol. VIIL p. 173 ff.). The variation, in 
the initial consonant group, of which we find a third form in chbatrapa, is of the same nature as 
-that in. cavalier and chivalry, that is to say, it ia due to historical and dialectical differences. 1 

1 On a coin given by Prof. Bapson, Indian Coins, PI. iii. No. 1, we have Kshahardta m Brfthmi together 
with CJiTialiardta in KbarAshtht ; some- of the- Kasik inscriptions have RhakAardta, etc. 



The hra, from fhra, aroae (with other forms) on Iranian soil, Mihra (Skt. Mihira) being a variant 
of Itfiihra, 1 of which a still more simplified form is found in Miraboyana of the Takht-i-Balu 
inscription (see M. Boyer's article in. the Journal Asiatique, Ser. X. Yol. IIL (1904) pp. 4634) ; 
the old Persian, dialect had also s, concerning which it may he sufficient to refer to the grammars. 

2. Mevaki is no doubt a variant of the Scythian name Mauakes Mfvantyy, which vre find 
attached to the king Maues and M6ga (z=Matiaka), 

3. The two names Kaltit, Kdmuio show a Pahlavl suffix $, in the second case with addition 
of an Indian termination. 

4. Naiiludo is no doubt for Natirddd, ' New Growth," with a Pahlavi or Alghan Z for r, 

5. The element Rbala- appears in. Kh&lama and Khalatamvdo. 

6. The termination "Us in Eoim&sa, and $amlMo seems to he Soythio. 

7. The element -si in Ayasi Romtisd, Nandasikasa, Pispasi is certainly not the Sanskrit ///, 
which would have been so -written in tbese inscriptions. It ia a derivative element, perhaps 
identical -with the -ci, -zi (Pahlavi -city which appears in many Iranian names. 

8. The y in Ayasi> Hay war ana, Ayimisa, found also on the coins as an alternative for z ia 
Ayilisa, etc. (see Gardner, op. cit. pp. 93, 173), most probably represents a j sound resembling 
the French j, for which reasons it must also remain undetermined whether the ayarlu 
(ssdchdryct) and puya (=2pwja) of our insoriptions were intended or not to represent a pronun- 
ciation with a y. 

9. The name Ab&7t6ld doubtiless consists of two members, Abu (of uncertain meaning) to bo 
traced in AQovXiTjjs (see Justi's IraniscJies Namenbuch, s. .) + h6la, a variant of the hora in 
Spdlalidra, and the Tidrakd of our inscriptiona. That spdla is a Pahlavl form of 0. Per,i. 
spdda = Zend spdda = !N"eo-Pers. sip ah is plain from its occurrence in Syalapati, which corre- 
sponds to* the Persian Isjsahbad, Pahlavi Spdhpat (see Justi, op, oit. ajid Horn, Neupers-iscJin 
JStymologie, No. 699). As the Zend-Persian aihiira, is used in the sense of ' prince ' and as tho 
form hdra is to be traced in the common (Sassanian) name Hormisdas, there can be no reason to 
doubt that this is the meaning of the second part of the name of MGb&ld and that her 
Tidrakdparivdra was a ' retinue of princesses (or ladies).' 

10. As regards the term Kusulaa (KusdlaJea of the Taxila Plate), it seems to mo 
extremely unlikely that the word is unrelated to the KuyGla, KujUla^ Koou\o applied to 
Kadphises and KanisKka, more especially now that the Sarn&th inacriptiona have brought 
Kanishka into relation with the northern Sfttraps. The word seems to me to have been probably 
a title of the order of $dhib, Bahdck.tr, and the like. 

It will now be sufficient to enumerate the persons occurring in the inscriptions. Thcoo 
are : 

(1) The family of Rajula : 

(a) RajQla himself with hia sons Khara&sta (Yuvardja? son of the Chief Queen Afouhola), 
Sudftfla (entitled Satrap), Khalama (entitled Kum&ra*), and Maja (entitled, Kwishfha), tht 
two last ako being possibly children of the Chief Queen Abuh61&'- and his daughter Harm. 

(2) Five other, probably princely, persons : Kalul, lffaul'ft<J6, K&mftld, Ayimi^ 
Khalasanauso. These were perhaps relatives of Rfijula. 

(3) Friendly satraps, namely Kusulaa Padika, Mevaki Miyiift, 3 E(p>6uina, 
Taohhila (Rachhila). 

(4) A Buddhist dcJidrya, named Buddhila (Budhih*), and a B&fcQtfil (jusrhaps 
with the former), named Buddhad,6va. 

Of. Htiaing tn STwAtt* Zeitta\fift> Yol. J J X VI. jx ! ff , v. i Vqf, Toi XXXTJ. 

On tiia wd otibe* similar titlet pee tf. 7V''>'s trticlo it. the /oy A;/ .<&fcftgWj ei&t, iX.-fiut, XIX. p. i<5 C? 

* l l be name of a strap 3&uai ia t*ac.,i b^ P<-tf. 


The inscriptions supply in themselves no means of dating. But the style of the monument 
of which they celebrate the foundation seems to have been strongly Persian. This is ia favour 
of an early date ; but for a definite determination of it we must continue to rely upon the more 
or less contemporary Taxila plate belonging to the year 78 (iu the reign) of the Great King 
M6ga, who is usually placed (see Rapson, Indian Coins, 29) as early as 120 B. C. 

A, I. 

1 Mahachhatra(ttra)vaaa rajulasa [Mahachhatravassa Rajulassa] 

2 agra(ggra)maheshriayasia(o ?) [agramah^ahi-Ayasia] 

3 komusaa dhite [Komusaa dhite] 

4 khara(rha ?)ostasa yuvaraua [Kharaostassa yuvaranah] 

5 mata nadadi(si ?)akasa . . [mata Namdadi(si ?)akasa . .] 

A. n. 

6 sadha mata(tra) abuholaa(e ?) [sadha matra Abuholaa] 

7 pitramahi pispasria bhra [pitamaM-Pispaaiii bhra-] 

8 tra hayuarana sadha hanadhitra(?) [-tr& Hayuarana sadha Hana-dhitra] 

9 atra(te)urena horakapa [amteiirena horakapa-] 

10 rivarena iSe pradhraviprate [-rivarena is& pradhraviprate-] 

11 se(sre ?) niaime sarira pratithavito [-se nissim^ garira[m] pratitthavitfi] 

12 bhakravato sakamunisa badhasa [bhakravatS Sakamunissa Buddhassa] 

13 ma(mi-a ?)kite(hi ?)ra(?)ya sagpae bhusaveti(P) [ < . . raya sa^paS bhusa-v-iti] 

14 thuva cha sagharama cha chatu [thuva cha samgharama cha cbatu-] 

15 disesa saghasa sarva [-ddigassa samghasaa Sarva-] 

16 stivatana parigrahe [-Btivatanam parigrah^]. 


By the Chief Queen of the Great Satrap Rajula, daughter of Ayasi Kdmftsft, mother of the 
Heir Apparent Kharaosta, Nandasi-Akasa (by name), together with, her mother Abfih61, her 
paternal grandmother Pispasi, her brother Hayuara (?), her daughter Hana, her household and 
court of hdrakds (ladies), a relic was deposited in this piece of land in a st&pa with, the thought : 
' May it be for the eternal ....... of the Holy Sakya sage Buddha.' And the 

and the monastery are for the acceptance of the universal Sangha of the Sarvastivadins. 


Genealogy. The scheme appears to be as follows : 


lyasi K6musa=Abuh61a. 

Rajula=Nandasi-Akasa. Hayuara, 


Headings. L. 1. The additional stroke in the tra, if not accidental, may denote a 
doubling. At least I learn from Prof. Eapson that a (cross) stroke is used in the Stein docu- 
ments for that purpose. 

L. 2, aggro, with, a cross stroke ; ma in mahesJii has the original form with a aubwwibed 
angle ; sJiri has the otiose r-stroke found elsewhere. 

L- 3, te in dhite is quite clear ; it must be due to an error, as the regular form of ira 
occurs several times in the inscription. 

L. 4. Is the aide stroke in the r of Ttharadstasa accidental, or does it possibly represent 7i ? 
See p. 138 above, It occurs in the place, though, not 'with the shape, of aspiration in other 

L. 5. No doubt namdasi should be read, on the analogy of the other names. But th> lower 
stroke of the akshara is cartailed (being at the Ted ge o the stone) in suoh a way as to produce 
the appearance of the cursive da, in Butler's Table, col. viii. After sa nothing can be clearly 
seen on the stone. The analogy of the other names would lead ns to expect -sad. On the ta in 
mat& see p. 137 above. 

L. 8. From what nominative form the instrumental Hayuardnd is to be derived is not 

L. 9, a\m~\teufena presents a case, rare in these inscriptions, of disappearance of a medial 
consonant. The only other cases are ; (1) saspaS for iaJvaU, 1. 13 (if that is the correct read- 
ing) ; (2) It in ndkraraassa and vndhdsamg'h'idna ; and (3) khardaassa. As in general the medial 
consonants are sharp. ^ied rather than weakened, this seems to show a mixture of dialects. On 
the word horaJcd see p. 140 above. 

L. 11, nmwe. Biihler takes this as denoting a st&pa, and he quotes Professor Pisohel's view 
that it is a Prakrit form of nihs&ma, used in the sense of ' high', hence st&pa. The word is cer- 
tainly a substantive and the name of a manufactured object, as appears from the phrase ni8$m& 
kdrita nfydtitd in inscription J. ; but in point o etymology it may perhaps be related to the 
nissimamdloka of the Mahdvamsa, o. xxxii ; ranno Aariram jhdpesum yasmvn nissbnawtyake. 

L. 13. The last oikskara is doubtful, 'and it is indeed possible to question whether any sign 
is intended after m. Buhler's reading bh&sati is out of the question. "We must apparently take 
Hhfad as a strange optative form. 

Xi. 12. The sign for to is, owing to misplacement of the vowel stroke, that usually in these 
inscriptions denoting tra. I do not detect a sign for r. 

L. 6. Whether indtd or mdtrd is inscribed I cannot determine. 

L. 7, tra is clear in pitra, and sri in Pispasri. 

L. 9, The second dkshara resembles tra more than anything else ; if it is really U (which 
in any case must be meant), the sign for is added to the earlier form of ta. 

L, 13. Buhler's reading mukihitdya. The first akshara is certainly not wit, but might be 
mra, unless it is simply ma, and the third is far from being an ordinary hi ; tha expression 
Buddhasya muktikitdya does not present an. orthodox appearance, 

L. 15, &$ seems clear ; compare &$ in 1. 10. 

Grammar and interpretation. L. 1, ft in R&jula is supported by the JS&rajttBafo, etc., of 
the coins, 

L. 2. It is doubtful whether maUshi Ayasi-? or inahesUd- Yasi is to be read. In the for- 
mer case we. have an omission (or postponement) of the sign of declension, as injswftStyiaJW, 1. 7. 
It would however not be entirely out of the question to take pra,t<ithdwtd as an, ;activm |aprtioiple 
with the subject mdtd in the nominative and a false concord : Buhler obsess (px$3) that 
' pratifodvitd is the neuter, as frequently in tfto SMhbAagarhi version of the Btoek"&aiQ*s,' We 
may qr >te vmafo kafavo in Edict XI. Generally however in cases parallel to the jjre&ant fag. in 

Inscriptions on the Mathura lion-capital 
in the British Museum. 

Back of the capital. 

Plate II. 

!/ .* >aSa 
i ':.*,:: .?>WJ ''^i 1 ''- 1 --'^ " 

'. * : f ? =4-^ '*"* ' 

^j.ji ..'.. 

t;; ^x V^.^'^'^iaift^---^-^ 




ie Manikiala, Taxila, and Wardak inscriptions) the active construction (pratitlidvtti) is pre- 


B. 1 

1 Mahaohha(chohha ?)travasa [mahachhatravassa] 

2 vajulasya putra [Rajulasya putra] 

3 gudase ohatrave [Sudase 1 chhati'av6]. 

Sudasa, son of the Great Satrap Baulja, being Satrap. 


L 1, A cross stroke, nppareiitly intentional, on the chha may indicate duplication, as iu the 
cases already dole* 1 . 

L. 2, va (fitc). 

L. 3. As these inscriptions seem to present no other nominatives in -e, $u$ds3 may best be 
regarded as a locative i in M. it is plainly so. 


1 Kalui a [Kalui a-] 

2 vamjo(jho ?) [-varaj6]. 


Kalui, younger brother. 


Naulndo [Naiiltido]. 


1 Kharafrha ?)osto yuvaraya [Khara&sto yuvarfiya] 

2 khalamasa kumara [Khalamasa kumfira] 
8 maja kanitLa [Maja kanittha] 

4 saCaam ?)manamota. 


Kharadsta, Heir Apparent ; Khalamasa, kumwra ; Maja ; youngest ; ..... 


Buhler read Jalama in 1. 2, but the dk&hara seems to be a kha. He also regarded 
Jtimdr^maja as a single word, The last line is uncertain ; but I may perhaps suggest that 
the cross stroke in mo is accidental, in which case we may understand the words samdnd maid 
as indicating that the three sons named were uterine brothers. Biihler's reading chha is by no 

means borne out by inspection. 

E .* 

Kamuio [Kftmflid PJ. 


Apparently a proper name, like Kalul. 

kra ka(rva P)rita (yu?) [-kra Writ*?]. 

See Plate II. Bee *lato III. 

In Bm&ll letters at the place indicated in Plate III. * See Plate II, 
In smaller letters within B. ; see Plate II. 

Oa toe right cheek of the right lion ; not shown in the photographs. 



The ta, if it ia so to be read, has the earlier form. 

F. 1 

1 Bndhilasa nakraraasa [Buddhilassa Nakraraassa} 

2 bhikhusa sarvastivatasa [bhikkhussa Sarvastivatassa], 

1 Mahachhatavasya kasnlaasa padikasa meva(na)kisa [mahachhatravasya Kusulaas* 

Padikassa Mevakissa] 

2 miyikasa chhatavasa puyae [Miyikassa ohhatavassa pilya&]. 

J. (3).3 

Sarvastivatana padi[ri ?]grahe [Sai-yastivatana padi(ri ?)grali6]. 

P. Of the NSgara IhikKhu Buddhila, a Sarvastivftdin. 

G-, Por the honour of the Great Satrap, the KustUska Pftdika, and the Satrap Hevatt 

J. For the acceptance of the Sarvftativadina. 


These three inscriptions, written in aksharas of about the same size, adjoin eaoh other, and 
may form a single whole. 

Headings. G. 1. The va or na of m$va(na)lcisa is a single straight; stroke. 
however more probable than m$naJci (maindki) ; see above. 

J. (3). The di in padigrahS (.=pratigrah8) is identical with that in PtW^fei ; 
parigrahS is on the whole more probable in view of A. 1. 16. The bhikJchu Buddhila may be, 
need not be, identical with the Buddhadeva of the inscription K. He belongs toNagara, 
doubt the famous city of Nagarahara (but see Matter's Yuan Ohwang, Viol I. p. 184 ff., 201 
and reff.). Concerning the remaining persons see the introductory remarks, Thpe Beems to l 
no ground for joining the inscription J. (3), as Bfihlerdoes, to the lines J. (I and 8), on tbe 
opposite face (the front) of the stone. 

M. 4 

1 Chba(chohha)trave Sudise [chhatravS Sudis4] 

2 imo padhravi [imo padkravi] 

3 prateSo [prat66] 

1 veya ath (u P) dirna (dinam P) kadiararo busapa 

2 ro kadha 
8 vafo 

4 viyaa 

* fiee Plate IL 

See Plate I. Ibid. 

Inscriptions on the Mathura lion-capital 
in the British Museum. 

Top and bottom of the capital. 



J. (land 2.) 1 

1 viya TVS, palishte (??) na 

2 nisimo karita niyatito [nissimo karita niyyatito]. 

These three inscriptions present the most difficult problems of all those inscribed on the 
capital. They are written in aksharaa of approximately the same size. As M. has no verb 
(unless we here make use of the -krakdrita (?) of E".), we should naturally expect it to be in 
connection with one of the others. It certainly seems to join the v$ya of 1. 1. But here we 
enter upon a very obscure passage. Biihler with great ingenuity has elicited the reading veya- 
udino kadhavaro busaparo kadhavarovdgodfono skandhdvdro busaparo skandhdvdrd, which he 
renders ' the army has started in haste, the army is intent on wealth,' But to this there are, 
apart from the inappropriateness of the sense, the following objections : (1) skandhdvdra 
does not mean ' an army,' but ' an encampment;' (2) the meaning ' riches ' attached to busa is 
attested only by Wilson's Dictionary ; (3) it is doubtful whether the third akshara is really u ; it 
is unlike the other w's of these inscriptions and rather resembles am, while the bottom curve may 
even be a part of the accidental indentation in the sbone (see the Plate) ; (4) a weakening of g to 
<y in v$ya is contrary to the tendencies of the languages employed in these inscriptions. On the 
other hand, the ro of 1. 2 plainly follows the pa of 1. 1, and a reading veyaariidinaih kadhavaro 
skandhdvdrd appears but little promising. The viya which precedes the large rvct 
J. 1 is in small characters and no doubt an independent addition. Can ifc possibly be au 
insertion to show that the large rva, which apparently joins on to nothing, is an error for vya= 
<uiya ? The sign which Biihler renders by sty (reproduced in his Indian Palaeography, Plate I. 
ool. xiii.), is quite clearly inscribed ; but its meaning is anything but clear. It is more like rdi, 
^hich seems very unlikely. With the preceding pali (Biihler pult) it composes no doubt a 
proper name. What came before $aU, occupying a space sufficient for 7 or 8 aksharas, is quite 
obscure owing to the stone having peeled away. We seem to have the remains of a sa ; 
"but what is to be done with the large rva commencing the line ? Even adopting the suggestion 
that it is an error for vya we have no ground for proceeding further. The words ww?s2w5 kdrita 
Tiiyydtitd, ' a st&pa was caused to be made and presented/ are quite satisfactory. We have 
already noted the older form of ta in kdrita. With these remarks I must be content so far as 
these inscriptions are concerned. 


1 Khalagamu- 

2 so. 

The aksharas are perfectly clear, though Biihler read khalas'dna so. We seem to have here 
a proper name. 

K. & L. 3 

1 Ayariasa [ayariassa] 

2 budhatevasa [Buddhatevassa] 

3 utaena ayimisa [utaena Ayimisa]. 


Through the elevation of the dchdrya Buddhade 1 va, Ayimisa. 

The exact meaning is not clear. We might take Ayimisa as a genitive with ddnant 
a-Tiderstood. Bat what then was the ddna ? The last akshara of Ayimisa, which lacks the tail 
f the *a, was read by Buhler as ta. 

i See pj ate j 4 2 On the leg of the left lion, under his tail. 

Not shown in the Platea : incised in very clear characters on the breast of the left lion between J. and V.-<>. 
. plainly tingle independent record. 


H. 1 

Gubaviharo [Gtihavihare] . 


In the c&ve-vihdra. 

Buhler would translate : * In the Guha-monasfcery,' and the matter cannot be considered 
certain, as we have a Hamsasangharama near Gaya (Archaeological Survey Reports, Vol. I. 
p. 18) and a (Jaina) Hihvravihdra mentioned in an inscription published by hum in Ep. Ind. 
Vol. II. p. 212. 

H'. 2 

Dhamada(?)na(?) [dhammadanam]. 


Religious donation. 

w. - :.,, 

1 Ayariasa budhilasa nakraraasa bhikhu [ay&riassa Buddhilassa Nakraraassa bhikkhu-] 

2 sa sarvastivatasa pagra [-ssa Sarvastiv&tassa pagra-] 

3 na mahasaghiana pra [-nam Hahas&ihghi&naifa pra-] 

4 ma(?)Savitave khalulasa [-manaTittav6 khalfilassa]. 


To the Sarvietivadin dcharya, Buddhila, a IhikTehv of Nagara, an exercise-ground in the 
knowledge of the nature of proof to the vanguard of the MahasanghikaB. 

L. 1. Buddhila is, of course, the bhikkhu already mentioned in the inscription F. The 
rendering 'of Nagara' (Biihler) seems to be the most satisfactory among the meanings of 
Ndgaralca, for -which see the St. Petersburg Dictionary. Concerning the place probably denoted 
see Waiter's Titan Chwang, Vol. I. pp. 184 ff ., 201 and reff. 

LI. 2-3. Of the sa -which Buhler inserts after gra, in order to get the Word prakdsamd 
I can see no trace. 

L. 4. The reading seems certain ; the only difficulty is the word khalula. HaHyndha gives 
Tchadfaika in the sense of 'a military exercise-ground,' and the Atharva-Yeda has J&ad&ra with 
indeterminate sense. If the rendering given above does not seem quite acceptable, -we may at 
least find in khalula some form from the root Tshand, so common still in titles of controversial 
works. That the Mfchaeanghikas were opposed to the Sarvastivadius Buhler has already 
observed. I conjecture tha,ipramanavitave*prd'mdn / yav'ittv. 

O. s 

1 Sarvabudhana puya dhamasa [aarvabuddhauam puyft dhammassa] 

2 puya saghaaa puya [pfiy& samghassa puya]. 


Honour to all the Buddhas, Honour to the DAorma, Honour to thje Sangha* 


1 Sarvasa sakrasta [sarvassa Satrasta-] 

2 nasa puyae [-nassa puy&e], 

1 la small oharacterB below the letter H. in, Plate I. 

* Insmallcharacteis, aaH., below the letter H'. in Plate I. 

> See Plate III. 



For the honour of all SakastSna. 

The objections raised by Dr. Fleet (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1904, pp. 703-9 ; 
1905, pp. 154-6) to this rendering of Buhler seem to me ineffective. As regards the presence of 
Sakas at Mathura, see the introductory remarks, where it is also shown that the form of the word 
exactly represents the name of SakastSna. Nor is there any difficulty in the expression of honour 
to the ' whole realm of the Sakas,' since we find in the Wardak inscription (and elsewhere, e.g. in 
the inscriptions of Sue Vihar, Anyor, and various Mathura inscriptions, which have regard to the 
' good and happiness of all living creatures,' sarvasattvdndm) even more comprehensive expressions ; 
nor again is there any difficulty in the use of sarva (uncompounded) with the meaning whole r 
(see the St. Petersburg Dictionary). As regards svaka, ' one's own,' (a common, word), and the 
Pali sakatfhdna,, ' one's own place (home, etc.),' it may be remarked that, while it is natural to say, 
as in the passages cited by Dr. Fleet, ' he went to his own home,' etc., ib seema less natural to 
inscribe on the stone ' honour to (somebody's) own home,' etc. [This inscription has been 
recently discussed by M. Barth, Oomptes Rendues de I'AcadSmie, 1907, pp. 364 ff., with his 
accustomed perspicacity. I am, however, unable to admit that the name of a donor is required 
here any more than in the inscriptions Gr. and 0. A pujd addressed to a country is certainly 
unusual, but inscription GK contains a similar p&ja addressed to the chief representatives of the 
Saka dominion.] 

Q, 1 

1 Khardaasa [Khardaassa] 

2 chhatravasa f chhatdvassa] . 

Of the Satrap Khardaa. 


1 Ra(ta ?)chhilasa [R<Ta P). 'th.' .:is,' j 

2 kroni".ai? i ; T --p."?,: ;a ''j, 


Of RaobMi--. (Tai'.bhila ?) Kaundinya (?). 

Kauiiifinya is a suggestion of Biihler, who also regards Tachhilasz as =Takshasilasa. 

Additional Notes. 

1. A number of questions relating to, or connected with, the inscriptions on the Lion 
Capital for instance the forms of the names Moga, Rajula, and Kharaosta, and the date of 
Moga have been diseased by Dr. J. F. Fleet in an article entitled ' Moga, Maues, and Vonones,' 
published in the J. E. A. S. for October 1907, pp. 1013-40. 

2. P. 137, 1. 9 : Insert after ' pp. 526 fE.' the words ' (where sapana is perhaps =sappana 
=8attvSnSm, see Pischel's Grammatik der Prakrt-sprachen 300).' 

3. P. 137, 1. 38 : Insert after ' detached stroke' the words 'to the left together with the 
same curve to the right that in ^e denotes e, see below.' 

4. P. 139, 1. 44 : Insert after the words ' defence of sovereignty ' the words ' see the Iranian 
Grundriss U. p. 97.' 

1 See Plate III. and Plate I. where R. has been printed in error. The word cAMavata is inverted on ike 

See Plate I II, 




In 1828 H. H. Wilson, in As. Set. Vol. XVI. p. 284 fE., published an account of tie 
inscriptions on the mountain Arbuda, the modern Mount Abu in the Sirohi State of Rajputana, 
from copies presented to the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Captain Speirs, Popdal Agent at 
Sirohi. In that acoount Prof. Wilson gave full translations of one of the two ijarge inscriptions 
at the temple of Neminatna, the texts of which were first published in 1883 by Mr. A. V. 
Kathavate, and which have now been edited, "with facsimiles, by Prof. Liiders, above, Vol. 
VIH. p. '200 ff. ; of the Gnhila inscription in the neighbourhood of the temple of AohaleSvara, 
edited by myself in Ind. Art. Vol. XVI. p. 347 fE. ; L and of the AchaleSvara temple inscrip- 
tion of which I have treated above, p. 79 ft* Of other inscriptions only short abstracts 
of the contents were given, appare Q % based on an .account in Hindi that had been drawn 
tip by a native scholar. 

For many years afterwards little 3 was done for the study of the Mount A" bft inscrip- 
tions. But in the cold season of 1900-01 Mr. Conaens, Superintendent of the Archeeological 
Survey of India, Western Circle, while staying at AM, had impressions (or, in a few oases, eye- 
copies) prepared of all inscriptions -which are nov found on the mountain ; and by sending them 
to the Government Epigraphisb he for the first time has placed at our disposal trustworthy 
materials for a critical examination of these records. Most of these inscriptions are very short ; 
none of them go back beyond the middle of the llth century A.D. ; and considering their great 
number, the data furnished by them for the political history of the country are disappointingly 
few. In other respects, some are of considerable interest and well deserve to be made mfre 
generally accessible, while a good many contain some name, or expression, of date, or perhaps 
only some mark or letter, which, unimportani as it may seem at first sight, may prove of use on 
a future occasion. , ' 

The number of the inscriptions in Mr. Cohsens* collection, which has been sent to me 'by 
Prof. Hultzsoh, is 298, of which 270 are ink-impressions and 28 eye^-copies only, f Of the total 
number, 148 are from the temple of Rishabha (idinatha) which was founded by Vimala ; 
97 from the temple of Neminatha, founded by Tejahpala j 5 30 from the temple of Aohalesvara, 
and 13 from other localities. Of &e Vimala temple inscriptions 126 ar* daied, the earliest 
date being of the [Yikrama] year 1119 (about A.D. 1062), in a short insor%*iott (No. 1780 of 
Mr. Cousens' lost) of a minister of the Chaulukya Bhimadeva L, .and the latest (i No. 1874) 
of the [Vikrama] year 1785 (about A.D. 1728) ; between the two, tke-yfctars which most 

1 A kind of facsimile of the inscription may be Been in SMmutffar I*tor. Plate wxvi 

Prof. Wilson also gave a translation of the inscription of the Yikrama yea* 1286, pabUihed hjr D*. CarteHieri 
in Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 221 ff., the origin* 1 of which is now at the town of Sirohi; we PrOffritt Report of the 
Archaol. Survey of India, W. Circle, for 1906-1908, p. 47. : 

1 Por inicriptioiu that have been edited (in addition to those translated by Prof. Willow) *ee my Northern 
Lit t, No*. 261 and 265. * 

* la inscriptions the temple it called Ftwfa-twM'W, V\mal<ttya vaittki1sd t P3*MfeHMft0$> od Vimala' 
wtatikd-ttrtka, in literary works alto Vtn^a^mmii. Above, p. 81, 1 have already utaJadlibaiiHie names 'Yimala 
SAh ' or ' Ylinala Shah,' recently written ' Vtal* Si,' in my opinion owe their origin to * pd9dfff*nling of the 
term Vimala-vcuaMleA, Vimala's temple.' Similarly, IAni ff a-vwMlcd hag given ri*e to the name (for TAjat/ 
pala's beother) ' Lnniga Sahiki,' in A* 5- Vol. XVI. p. 809. 

1 Above, Vol. VIII. p. 200, Prof. LtLden IIM ihown that the ordinary name of &a i0n%Ti0iii X^nutiMct (or 
Lttatikai'WM&ikd or X4*A-<ua*iW. i inicriptioiu I also find L4*vgw<ua\ikd, &jfa&n*9taKiU and 
X*jal*-oiu9M, and in literary works jMrif*MMtii ^ 


frequently occur are the Vikrama years 1245 (22 times) and 1378 (25 times). Of the inscrip- 
tions at Tejahpala's temple 77 are dated, and here the earliest dates are of the Vikrama year 
12S7 (about A.D. 1230), the very year in which the temple was founded, while the latest date 
(in No. 1748) is one of the [Vikrama] year 1911 (about A.D. 1854) ; no less than 47 inscrip- 
tions are dated between the Vikrama years 1287 and 1297, and 9 between 1346 and 1389. Of 
the 30 inscriptions at the temple' of Achalesvara 22 are dated. Here the earliest inscription 
appears to be one (No. 1950), unfortunately almost entirely effaced, of the [Vikrama] year 
1186 (about A.D. 1129), and another (No. 1941) seems to contain a date in the [Yikrama] year 
1191. What I consider to be certain is 3 that No. 1951 of Mr. Cousens' List is dated in tbe 
[Vikrama] year 1207 (about A.D. 1150), in the reign of the [Paramara] Malidmandalesvara 
Yasodhavaladeva (a feudatory of the Chaulukya Kumarapala, an inscription of whom is dated 
in the same year). 1 Two other inscriptions (Nos. 1945 and 1946) are dated in the [Vikrama] 
years 122[5] and 122[8], the rest in 1377 and later years. Regarding the 13 remaining inscrip- 
tions, it will suffice to say that the Guhila inscription mentioned above (No. 1953 of the 
List) is dated in the [Vikrama] year 1342, and that the dates which occur in others are of 
later years. 

Of the inscriptions at the temple of Neminatha, the two largest and most important, 
together -with 30 shorter ones, have been edited from Mr. Cousens' materials by Prof. Liiders, 
above, Vol. VIH. p. 200 ff. I now give the text of an inscription, of the [Vikrama] year 
1878, which, is at the temple of J^ishafoha, and the chief point of interest in which is the 
statement that that temple was founded in the Vikrama year 1088 (abont A.D. 1031) 
by a certain Vimala, who had been appointed &an$apaU at Arbuda by [the Chaulukya] 
Bhimadeva [I.]. 

Before I proceed to describe the inscription, I may state that the date here given for the 
foundation of the temple is known to us also from other sources. In Ind. Ant. Vol. XI. p. 243, 
the late Dr. Klatt gave an extract from a Patldvali of the Kharatara-gachchha, according to 
which ' the minister Vimala, who belonged to the Poravada (Pragvata) family, and who 
broke the parasols of thirteen Sultans and established the town of Chandra vati, caused 
a temple of Rishabhadeva to be built on the mountain Arbuda a temple which even now is 
known by the name Vimala-vasahi,' and which, it is added, was consecrated by Vardhamana- 
suri in the year 1088. The same story, with the same date, is more fully given in the 
extracts in Prof. Weber's Catalogue of the Berlin MSB., Vol. II. pp. 1036 and 1037, where 
we are moreover told that, to obtain from the Brahmans the ground on which he intended to 
build the temple, Vimala had to cover it with gold coins, and that he expended 18 crores and 
53 lacs (185,300,000) in the building of the temple. And the date also occurs in an interesting 
extract from. Jinaprabhasuri's Tirthahalpa, in Prof. Peterson's Fourth Report, p. 92 f . There, 
again, the Vikrama year 1088 is given 2 for the foundation of the Vimala-vasati, and 1288 for 
that of the Luniga-vasati? and it is also stated that, when the two temples had been 'demolished 
or damaged (Ihagna) by the 'Mlechchhas, they were repaired in the Saka year 1243 (i.e. the 
Vikrama year 1378), the first by Lalla, the sou of Mahanasimha, and the other by Pithada, 
the son of the merchant Chandasirhha. We shall see below that our inscription actually records 
the restoration, in 1378, of Vimala's temple by Lalla (Laliga), the son of Mahanasinaha, and 

1 No. 129 of my Northern List. 

a So for as I can see, there is something wrong in the verses 89 and 4G, as given by Prof. Peterson, but regard- 
ing the date of the construction of the Vimala-vatati there can he no doabt. 

8 According to the extracts, the sdtradMra, who built the JAqiga-vatati, was Sabhanadfiva, who is mentioned 
in the same way (as prdsddakdraka-sdtradbdra) in Merutunga's fralandhaoTiintdmani, p. 259. This builder's 
name actually occurs in No. 1674 of Mr. Cousena' List, an inscription of the Vikrama year 1288. Jinaprabha- 
suri's account of the mountain Arbuda, from which the extracts are taken, seems to be based on inscriptions and to 
be quite trustworthy. 


Vijada, the son of Dhanasimha ; and the name of the person who repaired 
Tejahpala (the L&niya-vasati) is given as Pethada in an inscription 1 at that temple, tb.0 
text of which is : 

L, 1 Om 3 || 3 A-chamdrarkkam nanidatad=esha samgha-| 4 dhisah srima- 

2 n Pethadah samgha-yuktak | jirnnoddharam Vastup&la- 

3 sya chaityS | 4 tend yen=ehasrbu.dadrau sva-saraih || 

The inscription with which we are more immediately concerned here 5 is on a black 
built into the bide wall of a shrine ia the corridor of Vimala's temple. It contains *iG 
of writing which cover a space between 1' 7|" and 1' 8" broad by 1' If high, but of *&* 
only the first 22 lines extend over the full breadth of this space ; lines 23-29 are 
1' 5" long and line 30 (which contains merely a date) only 3f". The greater 
of the writing is well preserved; but in line 16 about 10 aksharas and in line 17 
4 aksharas are effaced, and in some places the writing is difficult to read, mainly, ft 19 
seems to me, because the letters have been formed carelessly and are so close to one another *^ 
they have not come out clearly in the ink-impression at my disposal. 6 The size of the lette ra 
is between ' ' and ". The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and, witb *^ 6 
exception of the words dm || foi-Arbtidatirtha-pr 'as 'astir '=likhyate \\ at the commencement, *^ e 
words atha, rdjdvali \\ in line 9, and the date in line 30, the text is in verse, the number of vcffi es 
being 42. In respect of orthography only few remarks are necessary. There are sopft*** 6 
signs for the letters 6 and u, and the sign for the former has been wrongly employed also f r v 
in sarlajfia , 1. 16, and sa-hbhabafr, 1. 21. The palatal sibilant is used instead of the dented 
manaivi, 1, 4, Sdmha- (for simha-), 1. 6, and sahasre, 1. 8 ; and the dental instead of the 
in nwSsitam, }. 8, pssala-, 1. 18, and^aai-, 7 1. 29. Instead of the vowel n we have the 
ri in JBasAo&Aa. 11, 26 and 29 , and in line 24 the author himself has written shafc 
instead of sha$=ritavah t which \rould not have suited the metre. 8 What isnore interesting 
that in line 4 -we find nripasa, for nripasya, and in line 21 vaddjfid instead of vaddnyd. 
latter reminds us of the name NydnaiaJcti (instead of JftdnaSakti) in Ind. Ant. Vol. XIII, p. 93, 
1, 26, and shows that in Eajputana as well as in the Kanarese country there oonld have been 
hardly any differoace in pronunciation between jna and nya ; and nripafa recalls taia an^ 
similar genitive cases of far more ancient inscriptions, 9 without, of course, proving more than 
that the pronunciation of i must have been similar to that of the conjunct sy. In respect of 
grammar I need draw attention only to the word vidadhdna, in line 3, the reading of which ia 
certain, and which the author undoubtedly has used as a 3rd person singular of the Perfect of 
vi-dhd (instead of vidadhe), probably misled by the participle vidadhdna which was more 
familiar to him than the proper verbal form. 10 Though the writer or engraver in some places 
hae done his work carelessly, I believe that, with the exception of what has been entirely effaced 

1 No. 174(3 of Mr. Cousens 1 List, " on pilaster near shrine doorway of the principal temple in Vastup|la' 

a Denoted by a symbol. s Metre : S4lini. 

4 These signs of punctuation are superfluous, 
6 No. 179O of Mr.. Consent List. 

When my text vas finished, I was able to compare impressions kindly sent to me by Mr. QfturiBhankar 
Hirachand Ojha and by the Government Epigraphiutj which in one or two places where there had been some doubt 
COD firmed the correctness of my readings: 

For curiosity's sake it may be stated that the Sanskrit fafa, German 'base, 1 EngU*h 'hare,' seems to go back 
to an original fata; compare Prof. Wackernagel's Altind. Gramm. Vol. I. p. 225. 
8 Compare bhadficAa and shadarcha in the St, Petersburg Dictionary. 

* See Prof. Eapson in Journ. Soy. At. Soo. 1900, p. 104 ., and Prof. Franke's fdli and Satkfii, p. 97 t, 
nd compare the genitive cases terafa, sagata., etc., ia Ep. Zeylanica, Vol. I. p. 18 S. 

10 Proper Perfect forms which occur in the text are babWva, balhdwh cAak4ra t Mdtfa, pra-ftdt and 


and of perhaps the last words of verse 21, the original text may everywhere be restored with 

The object of the inscription is, to record that in the [Vikrama] year 1378 two persona, 
Lalla (Laliga) and Vijada, for the spiritual welfare of their parents repaired the temple of 
Rishabha (Adinltha) on the mountain Arbnda. And the inscription is divided into three parts. 
The first part (verses 1-13) is a prasasti or enlogy of the sacred Arbuda ; but besides glorify- 
ing that locality and some mythical or divine beings (Ambik& and Srimata) residing there, it 
also gives a few historical details connected with it, and especially records the foundation, in 
the Vikrama year 1088, of the temple of Adinatha by Vimala. The second part (w. 14-23) 
contains a rujdvalt of the chiefs who at the time of the restoration oE the temple were in posses- 
sion of the mountain. And the third part (vv. 24-38) gives an account of the family of the 
men by -whom, the temple was repaired. The concluding verses (39-42) record the name and 
spiritual lineage of the priest or teacher who consecrated the restored buildingj and the exact 
date when he did so. 

To omit what is of no historical interest, the first part begins with, the well-known story 
how on the mountain Arbuda there sprang from the fire-pit (anala-kunda, agm'kunga') of 
the sage Vasishtha the hero Paramara. In his lineage appeared the hero Kfi-nhadadeva ; and 
in his family there was a chief named Dhandhu (Dhandhur&ja), who was lord of the town of 
ChandrSvatl and who, averse from rendering homage to the [Ohaulukya] king Bhlmadva [I.] 
and to escape that king's anger, took refuge with king Bhoja, the lord of Dhar&. The author 
then, rather abruptly, tells us that in the Pragvata family there was a distinguished personage 
named Vimala in whom religion, immerged in darkness through the wickedness of the times, 
suddenly shone forth again in its splendour. He was appointed by king Bhlma dandapati 
(commander of the forces or governor) at Arbuda, and there one night was enjoined by the 
divine Ambika to build on the mountain a beautiful dwelling for the Yugadibhartri (Yugadi- 
jina, Adinatha). That Vimala obeyed the request the author intimates in the verse : " I adore 
the. holy Adinatha who was placed on the top of Arbuda by the glorious Vimala, -when one 
thousand and eighty-eight years had passed since (the time of) the glorious king Vikra- 

The chief Dhandhu or Dhandhuraja, spoken of in the preceding paragraph, apparently ia 
the Praraara (or Paramara) Dhandhuka mentioned above, p. 11, whose son Purnapala ruled the 
Arbnda territory in the Vikrama years 1099 and 1102. 1 He would of course have been a 
contemporary of both the Chaulukya Bhtmadeva I. and the Paramara Bh&jadeva of Malava. 
Vimala's name occurs in another inscription at his own temple, dated in the Vikrama year 1201. 
Tbat inscription, 3 No. 1767 of Mr. Cousens' List, contains 10 lines of siting which covers a space 
about 2' 6" long by 5|" high, and contains 17 verses. In the ink-impression the first two lines 
of it cannot be read with any confidence, but so far as I can see, a man is spoken of in them, 
who belonged to the Srimala hula and was an ornament of the Pragvata vamsa. His eon was 
Iiahadha, who was somehow connected with the king Mula (i.e. the Chaulukya Mularaja I.) 
and was also known by the name Vira-mahattama. Lahadha had two sons. The first of them, 
was the minister Nedha, and the second Vimala, who in verse 7 is described thus : 

I)vitlyak&=dvaitamatavalamvi(b!) damdidhipah sri-Vimalo va(ba)bhuva 1 
y^n=edam=uchchair=bhavasimdhnsStukalpam vinirmmapitam=atra ve'ema || 

1 The name Dhaudhuta also occurs in the genealogy of the ParamJLras of Chandr&vatt, above, Vol. VIII, 

y. 201. 

* According to Mr. Consens the inscription is over the doorway of cell No. 10 in the corridor of Vimala's 
temple. It is referred to in As. Res. Vol. XVI. p. 311, ia the words: " One iuscriptiou bears date S. 1201, but 
as nothing else is decipherable, it is oi no further value.!' 


N^dha's son was Laliga ; his son was tlie minister Mahiduka ; l and he again had two SMS, 
Etema and Dasaratha. And tie object of the inscription, is, to record that Dasaratha at Its ; 
tample of llishabha set up an image of,Ne"mijin3Sa (Ne'mitirfchakara, i.e. Nerninatha), which ma - 
installed on Friday, the first tithi of Jyeshtha of the Vikrama year 1201, corresponding to IWday, - 
the 5th. May A.D. 1144. I may add that the genealogy here given is for the greater part 
corroborated by another inscription at VimaJa's temple, No. 1768 of Mr. COD sens' Liat, 8 the 
full text of which is : 

L. 1 3 Srl-Sr]malakul6dbhava-| 4 Viramahamamtri-putra-fsajnmamtri- 1 sri- 

2 Nedha-putra- Laliga- tatsuta-Mahimduka- 6 suten=e' dam {| Jfijapu- 

8 trakalatra-samanvitena (* sanmarhtri-I)asarathen=edam | sri-Ne'mi- 

4 natha-[b]imvam 6 | 4 mokshartham karitarh ramyam || 

?or ns the main point of interest is the date which the first of the two inscriptions funu'sies 
for Dasaratha ; for that date, being of the Vikrama year 1201, shows that Vimala, the younger 
brother of Daiaratha's great-grandfather Nedha, may well hare lived in the Vikrama year 1088, 
the traditional date for the foundation of his temple. 

The contents of the second part of our inscription (verses 14-23) I have already given 
above, p. 81 f. This rdjdvali in verse 14 commences with Asaraja, who belonged to the ChS- 
huvama (Chjthuvana, Chahamana) family and was king- of the town of Nadula (Nadduh), 
After him came Samarasimha ; and bis son was Mahanasimhabhata (v. 15). Then cams 
Pratapamalla ; and to bun was born Vljada, the lord of the Marusthalliwa^aZa (v. 16). 
He had three sons, the first of whom was the king Lftniga (v. 17). Verse 18 then eulogizes 
Lnndha ' vrho like a god of death devoured the host of adversaries ; ' and verse 19 Lumbha, 
of whom verse 20 records that he conquered the mountain Arbttda, and that, after having ruled 
the earth, he became the lord of heaven (i.e. died). Verse 21 then eulogizes Tejasimha, the 
son of Ltiniga ; verse 22 wishes long life to Tihunaka ; and the mutilated verse 23 appears 
to say that Lumbhaka together with Tejasimha and Tihuna (srimal-Lum'bhaka-ndmd saman- 
vitaszTSjasimha-Tihuidbhydm,') in right manner carried on the government of the mountain 

Regarding the first part of this r&jdvaU, as far as Vijada, there can be no doubt, and I 
have nothing to add to what I have previously said about it. A difficulty arises concerning 
the sons of Vljada. According to the inscription of Luntigadeva, above, p. 80, Vijada, wiio 
is also called DaSasyandana (Dasaratha) , had four sons Lavanyakarna, Imndia (Lantiga), 
Laksbmana, and Lunavarmau, of whom Lavanyakarna is distinctly called the eldest (jySstyha), 
According to 1 the present inscription Vijada had three sons the first (ddya) of whom was 
Ltiniga. After Luniga the inscription mentions Inindha and Lumtoba, withont saying tlist 
they were his younger brothers or in any way specifying their relationship. In my account 
of Lnntigadeva's inscription I have identified Luniga with Lavanyakarna, and have taken 
Lundha and Lumbha to be the names of his brothers, identifying Lundha with Lundha 
(Luntiga) and Lumbha with Luriftvarman. Other inscriptions are sore to be discovered wliel 
will show whether I am right or wrong. In the meantime I feel bound to state that my 
friend Mr. Ojha, than whom nobody is better acquainted with the history of his country, takes 
the three names Luniga, Lundha and Lumbna (Lumbhaka) to denote one and the same 
person, and to be all Sanskritized forms of Lumbha, denoting a chief ' commonly called ^pf 5fHTj 

1 The metre shows that the name is correct here. 

a The inscription is on the seat of an image in cell No. 10 in the corridor. 

* Metre of the two verses : AryA. 

* These signs of punctuation are superfluous. 
1 The metre requires us to- read 

* Read 

No. 18.] 


the famous conqueror of Abu.' If my learned friend should be right, the last lines of the 
genealogical Table published above, p. 83, would of course have to be slightly altered. Mr. 
Ojha agrees with me in considering Tihunaka (Tiauna) to be a younger brother of TSjasimha, 
but from his point of view places both, together with Tejasimha's sou Kanhadade'va, under 
Luatiga (Lundha, Luniga, Lumbha). At the time when our inscription was composed, in 
the Vikrama year 1378, Lumbha was dead, and the government of Abu mast have been 
actually carried on by Tejasimha. 

The account, which forms the third part of our inscription (versea 24-38), of the family 
of the two men (Lalla and Vljada) who restored the temple, contains little more than a 
Eat of names which may be seen from the following Table :~ 

Genealogical Table. 



DSsala ; 


from THmati : 

from Mai' 

Gosala ; Qayapila. 

m. Gunad&vi. 

Dhanasimha ; 
m. DhandhaladSvl. 

Bhima ; Mohaga. M6h, 

m. Hamsalade 1 , 

Mahanasimha ; 
m. MayanalladeM, 

Vljada. Shimadham. Samarasiinha. Vijapala. Narapila. Viradhavak. Laiiga Siha (?). L6pa (?). 


The individuals mentioned iq, this Table were devotedly attached to the Jaina faith. Jelhft, 
the founder of the family, was a merchant, and his guru, was Dharmasttri. 1 Eia place of 
residence was given in the inscription, but the name has been effaced. Of Ddsala it is said 
that he made fourteen processions to the seven sacred places, 8 Satraihjaya and the reek 
The other members of the family are eulogized in general terms. 


1 See teloW) p. 164. 

* The wren Hrthtt or Jet&ttrat are fregtiantly mentioned, bat I have not yet found the names of the seven 


There are at Vimala'B temple several short inscriptions of members of this family, like- 
wise dated in the [Vikrama ] year 1378. And there is a longer inscription 1 of the same 
family, No. 1791 o Mr. Cousens' List, which ia dated, in words and figures, in the Vikrama 
year 1309. This inscription contains 25 lines of writing with 15 verses, and records the in- 
stallation, by Anandasuri, of an image of Nmijiua (Neminatha) at Vimala's vasahihd. We 
learn from it that the family belonged to the Uka[aa] vamsa," and that its founder, Jelhaka, as 
he ia there called, was an inhabitant of Mndavyapura (Mandor). After Kiiladhara it mentions 
five sons pf his, but as the text is partly effaced, I am not at present prepared to give their names 
from the ink-impression at nay disposal. 

The remaining verses (39-42) of our inscription record that Rishabha -was installed 
(or rather re-installed) on the mountain Arbuda by the guru or suri JfitQ,n.aetiaiidra, on a date 
iu the [ Vikrama] year 1378. Regarding the spiritual lineage of Jnanachandra, we learn 
that he was preceded by Amaraprabhasuri, and that the founder o the lineage was 
Dhftrniasuri, also called Dharmaghosha-gauaryaman, i.e. Dharmagh&sha, ' the sun of the 
gana? ( who defeated VMiGhandra and Gunaohandra, and caused the awakening of three 
kings,' Other inscriptions of the [Vikrama] year 1378 speak of JSanachandra either as being 
in the jpa??a of Dharmaauri 3 or as being in the pafta of Dharmaghfishasuri and an 
undated inscription, No, 1796 of Mr. Gonsens 1 List, commences with the words : Srimad- 

The Anandasftri of the last must be the Anandasuri mentioned above with a dabe in the 
Vikrama year 1309 ; and the Anandasuri and AmaraprabhasQri of the inscription apparently are 
the Anandasiiri and his disciple Amaraprabhasuri who, according to Prof. Peterson's Fifth 
Report, p. 110, 1. 1, are mentioned in a manuscript written by Amaraprabhasuri's advice in 
the [Vikrama] year 1344 Before Anandasuri there is mentioned, ibid. p. 109, Dharmasuri 
(a disciple of Silabhadrasuri of the Raja-gaohchha), who to the pride of conceited disputants 
was what the lion's roar is to an elephant, and who put an end to the intoxication of the king 
Vigraha, And the same person is mentioned, under the name Dharmaghdshasuri, in Prof. 
Peterson's Third Report, App. pp. 15 and 307, where he is represented as enlightening the 
king of Sskambhari ; and ibid. p. 262, where he is said to have defeated disputants in the 
presence of the king of the Saps' dalakshs country. From all this there can be no doubt that, of 
the three kings who in our inscription are spoken of as having been awakened by Dharmasuri, 
one was a king Vigraharaja of Sakambharl (the capital of the Sapadalaksha country). In 
fact, I believe that that king is identical with Visaladeva-Vigrahar&ja, whose Delhi Siwalik 
pillar inscriptions (No. 144 of my Northern List) are dated in the Vikrama year 1220 (in A.D. 
1164), and that Dharmagh&shasuri himself is a person of that name who in a short Vimala 
temple inscription (No. 1906 of Mr. Cotisens* List) is mentioned with a date in the [Vikrama] year 
1226 (in A.D. 1170). Who the two other kings were I do not know ; nor have I identified yet 
V&dichftndra 6 and Guciacaandra who were defeated by Dharmasuri. 

The date given in verse 42 is Monday, the ninth titlii of the dark half (siti) of JySshtha 
in the year made up of the vasus (8), the munis (7), the gv.nas (3) and the moon (1), t.e, the 
[Vikrama] year 1378. Here there is the difficulty that the word siti, which I have translated 
by ' the dark half,' might equally well denote ' the bright half ' ; and at first sight the latter 
interpretation might really seem to be preferable, because in line 30 of our text the date is repeated 

1 This is the inscription referred to in As. Res, Vol. iVI. p. 311, ia the words-. "Another (vie- inscription), 
in like toftnnerj shows a. date 3. 1S09, but nothing elsn." 

1 J.e, the Oaavila. trite ; compare Ep. Ind. Vol. II, p. 40. 

* ffos. 1759, 182S and 1852 of Mr. Coasens' List. 

* Noa. IjrBft 1958A, 11764 and 1793 of Mr. Cousens' List. 

* There is a Tfcdichandra who composed the Jndnatdryddaya ; I do not know whether he ia the man mentioned 
in our inscription. 


in the words 1379 Jys7itha-sudi 9 SomL But against this it has to be said that in four 
independent inscriptions (Noa. 1771, 1821, 1829 and 1904 of Mr. Cousens' List) we have samvat 
(or sam) 1878 varsfie Jyeshtha-vadi 9 Soma-din$ (or Som$), which evidently is the same date as 
the one given in our inscription. And besides, for the bright half of Jyaishtha the date would be 
quite incorrect for 1378 (as a OhaUrddi current or expired, or Edrttikddi expired year), whereas 
for the dark half of the yurnimdnta Jyaishtha of the expired Kdrttikddi Vikrama year 1378 
it regularly corresponds to Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1322. For these reasons I regard 
my translation of the date to be coirect and take Monday, the 10th May A.D. 1322 to be its 
proper equivalent ; and I consider the way in which the date has been repeated in line 30 
(where ' 1379 ' under any circumstances would be suspicions) to be due to a mistake. 

TEXT. 1 

1 H Cm 3 i| 3 Sri-Arbudatirtha-prasastir=likhyate || *Amgikrit-achalapad6 vriBhabhaeito= 

si | 5 bhutir=ganadhipatisevita-pMapadmah | ^a,mbhur=yugadipurusho jagad- 
ekanathah pnnyaya pallavayatu 6 prati-vasaram sa[h]7 [| 1 

2 8 Nibaddha-mulaih phalibhih, sapatrai 9 dramair=naremdrair=iva sfrryamanah | 

padagrajagrad-bahuvahiaikati ari-Arbudo namdatu amla-rajah, || 2 Yasmin 
10 Viishtanalakumda-janma kahatikshati-traDaparah pur=asit | pratyashi- 11 

3 rthisarth6nmathana-kritathi | 12 kshitav=iha sri-Param&ra-n&nia || 3 13 Tad-anvaye 

Kanhadadeva-virah pur^avir-asiva 14 prabala-pratapah | chiram nivasam 
vidadhana 16 yasya karaihbuj& sarvajagaj-jayasrih |j 4 16 Tatkulakamala- 

4 maralah kala[h*] pratyarthi-marhdalikana[m*] | Chamdravatlpur-Ssab. samajani 

vir-agrani[r*]=Dha[m*]dhuh II 5 ^Sri-Bhimadevasya nripasa(sya) Bevam= 
amanya[m] anahi Vila Dhariadhurajah I naresa-r6shach=cha tat6 manasvi(svi) 

1 From an impression supplied by Mr. Cousens, No. 1790 of his List. 

2 Denoted by a symbol. 

8 Here, as often elsewhere, the vowel of fri is left unchanged before the initial vowel of a proper name. 

* Metre : Vasantatilaka. 

6 This sign of punctuation, which is superfluous, may have been struck out in the original. 

Originally yamtit was engraved. 

' Originally $d was engraved, but it seems to have been changed to sah. So far as I can see, the verse does 
not admit of a proper construction. In the three first Padas the author addresses the Jaina Tirthamkara Rishabha, 
in terms which would he equally applicable to the god Siva ; and, as the text stands, he then in the fourth Pada 
speaks of him in the third person, in words which would literally mean ' may he day by day put forth sprouts for 
(our) religious merit/ Instead of $alla,vayatu I should have expected pallavaya,, followed by an accusative case 
and generally words to some such effect as ' cause our devotion to thee to sprout for our religion* merit \' (Compare 
&atruihja,ya-mAMtmya> XIV. 33: tddrifdndm Aisadb7iakti*vally=&va,ih]:>allavaty*api). In the first Pada I take 
urithabhdtitd^si to be equivalent to both VTrishabTia, dsit6*si and vfishabTi&sitdasi, so that the Pflda would mean 
both, ' O Yrishabha (Rishabha)! having chosen this mountain for your residence, you are seated (here), ' and ' you 
(O Siva !), who have taken the name Achala, are seated on a bull.' I am aware that Rishabha has a bull for his 
cognizance, and that in representations of him this animal is figured beneath him ; but I am not sure that he could 
be described as 'seated on a bull.' In the second Pada gcHtddhipatt denotes both Puudarika, the leader of 
Rishabha' a ganct, and Gan6a. 

8 Metre of verses 2 and 8 : TJpajati. 

9 Bead sapattrair=. The word pliala, means both < fruit ' and ' the blade (of a sword),' etc. } pattra ' leaves ' 
and ' vehicles, ' etc. j and vdhint ' rivers ' and ' armies'. 

10 Bead VasisMhd ; the same wrong reading we have below, in line 9. With atnala-Jeunda compare 
agni-%*i}da in "Ep. In&. Vol. I. p. 284, v. 5. 

11 The akshara sTti is a mistake for rtU, and should be struck out because rthi has been repeated at the 
commencement of line 3. 

u Bead -Tcrltdrthah. M Metre : TTp&ndravajra. " Read -rff =. 

16 Wrong for vidadhi, which would not have suited the metre. 
" Metre : Arya. " Metre i TJpajati. 


5 BhSjanripam prap&dfi || 6 1 Pragvtavaihs41>haranarii babbftva 

pradbanam Tbi(yi)mal-abbidb&aah | yas=t&jasa Musamay-adhaka 
dharimnab satoa=avir-astta 3 || 7 4 TaTa(ta)=cb.a BblmSna naradhipe'na 

6 16 mahamatib j kva(kri)t6[r*]bud damdapatib satam priyah 

namdatu Jaina-asan 1 1 8 AS6kapat[t*]rarana-panipallav& 
gam(sim)lia-vahaiia [|*] Sisadvayalamkrita-Yigrab& sati 6 satam kri- 

7 y&d=vigbaa-vinagaia=A:mbika |) 9 Att=anyada tarn mi damdaBayakam 

prayatS, kil=Ambika [1*] ih.=achi(cba)le tvarb. kuru sadma 
YugadMarfctur=iiirap^ya-samsrayab || 10 6 ri-Vikramadityanripadvya- 

8 tit sshtaslti-yate saradatn. sahasre(srS) I 6rl.ldi[na]tha[] 7 

niv&si(gi)tam Sri-tV]itnal3na variidS [| 11 8 Vigknadtivyadhi-liaifatri ya 
pranafc-amgiebu | 0ripumjaraja-taua7& SrimSta bbavatam 9 &i- 

9 y& || 12 10 Aobaleda u Vi^i8htnalatatini-Maihdakiiimmala8alila- | punyani 

ri[m]n^ ia jayamvi(ti) Yividbani tirtKani || 13 Atta rajavali 
dalan^ gata-tamdra=0h&huvamakn.lakairava-cb.ariidrab 1 * | yo N 

10 gatasya narga Asaraja iti -viravard sbkilt || 14 16 PrabalavairidavSn^ fll ' 

vaiidah Samarasi[m*]b.a iti pratHtas=tatab | Mahanasiiiiliabliatah 
agranlh pritbu-ya^ ajanisbta tad-amgajali || 15 10 Pratapamallas-tad-anu 

11 pi babhilva bbdpMa-sadassa manya^i [|] vir-avatarhsd^jani 1 ? 

ldarustlialimamdala-bbfijnibliartt& || 16 Asan 18 trayas=tat-tanay& 
mtrttah pum-arth^ iva bbagabli6(bba)jab | adyd dharifcripat 
kbyStab ksbit6(tau) Lfiniga- 

12 namadhfeyab II 17 19 Nyayamargga-&kh.arf madhamisab 80 Hlavaksha(t=ka)vaJlayantt !:s 

ari-vrajaih [ mamda]ika-palia(dfli)v!m=apalaba(ya)l=Lumdha ity=abbidbay^ 

dbiyam nidhib || 18 !31 V'ipakslianar!-naya3iariibapiirail=cbakara yah kirtti- 

1 Metre : Indravajri. a Bad Oitsictmay(or dufrtAamay'j- 

I Bead <&#. * Metre of vewea 8-10 : VamSastha. 

f Here a. sign of punctuation was originally engtaved. AmlitA is similarly described in the inscription of the 
"Vilraraa year 1201, mentioned above, p. 161 f,, in a. verse the correct reading of which I take to be : FVioia- 
tatlvd clia dhv.taiabalataidH-'bhdwram fahgamtiohahaih \ vaAati tutam=>vd4ram 
ad*aiva mfigapaiim^ad'hir&ihd t*AmliJcd v6**tit ttubtyai ||. Compare the representation of 
in Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXII. p. 463, Plate iv. 
8 Bfetre: Upajati. 

7 It is difficult to aay whether we should read Adindtlaik or Adidfaam. The aktlara which follow* upon 
ddi originally was di, bnt seems to have been altered ; and the next akthara looks more like tha than va, but it 
might be said that th has "been wrongly engraved instead of t> also in Thimala for Vimala, in line 6. On the whole 
I think that the reading Adindthafa is preferable. 

8 Metre : S16ka (Anushtnbh). 

* The sign for d in this word is clearly struck oat in the original, audit seems probable that the engraver 
intended to alter thavatdm to bhavatu. In the above I have purposely given Srtmdtd, not Srt'Mdtd, because ia 
other inscriptions trt appears clearly to be part of the name, not an honorific prefix. I may mention that in 
No. 1774 o-f Mr. Coosens* List we have ^rtmcttddivt as one word, not Srtmdtridivt, and that in the account given of 
this mythical being and her father in Me'rutanga's PrabanitlachiKtdmaw, p. 282 -ff., the base of the word is both 
rtmtt& and Srtmdtfi. In the same account the father's name is &rtpuja. 

w Metre : Arya. n Bead Veuishtlnf j compare above, line 2. 

II Bead itifag 6. Since at the commencement of the verse the mountain, is addressed in the vocative case, 
ne would have expected tava tringb, but iiiis would not have soited the metre. 

Metre : Sv&gati. 

14 CM Tmvdm' probably is a mistake for either CAd^uvdno'Or Chdhwdw- 

15 Metre -. Drutavilambita. w Metre : TTpajati. 

w After the 6 of tams6 another vertical stroke waa originally engraved, but has been struck oufc 
18 Metre: Indravajra. Bead Asamftrayat*. u Metre: Rathoddhati. 
s" Bead, probably, madhusravajt. sl Metre ; Upajati. 


13 latam. sapat[fc*]r&m | babliuva bliumipati-labdbaiiiaii& Luriib]i-ab}iidb.an& jagad- 

fekavirat II 19 3 Samhritya ^afcrun prabalanu 2 balena sri-A[r]budam prapya 
nagadairajarh | 3 [bb]uktva sa [bh]uma[m*]dana-ra[jyam=ucichaih] | 4 svar!6- 

14 ka-l6kadhipatir=babbuva || 20 5 Lftnigasya tatrajo jaga[j-ja]yi Tejasimha iti 

tejasarh nidhib | yat-pratapadavapavaka^cTairatii vairivargga-vipadarh 

iiabatisma 6 || 21 7K ar agra[ja]gra[t-*]karava- 

15 ladaThda-kbao4ikrit44esbavir6dbivarggab | pjithyam 8 prasiddlaa8=Tilitmaka-iiam& 

vii'-avatamsab sa cliirayur=asta || 2L (22) 9 SrirnaT-Lumbhaka-nama sama[ny]itas= 
Tjasimlia-Tigu(hu)nabhyam | A[r*]buda[g]irl6a- 

16 rajyam nyayani[dhi ?] 10 ..... [|| 23*] . . . "urapura-vasi 

Bnguru-sri-Dharramasuri-padabliaktah [|*] SarbajnanasSna-ratah 13 sa jayati 

Jglb-abhidhah sr0sbti(sb.fcbi) || 24 Tafc-banayab su-nay&=bb.ut 13 Ve- 

17 p.h3kab sakala-bkuta u .... [I] tat-putrah su-c"haritra[h] pnnya-mdhib. 

Parasah sadhnh H 25 ' SSM-Dega-DSsala-Kuladhara-namna tad-amgaja jafcah | 
chatvarai. kulamamdira-sudridhasfcambli-abtirama [yS ||] 

18 26 15 Sri-Desalah 8Tikri[tap6sa]la-Yittak6[tii= 16 ohamcha]c]ioliatiirdaajagaj-jaiiita- 

vad[ata]h 17 | Satrumjayapramul<ha-virutaaaptati[rtlia]- 18 yatrag=cha[tTi]rdaa chakara 
mahamah^na || 27 19 De[ma]ti-Mai- 

19 namni sadhu-gri-DSaalasya bhaTy& dvS | nirmalagilagun-a[d'h.y]& daya-kalia[mS] 

Jaina-dharmasya 1| 28 Deraatikukslii-prabliava G6aa[la]-Qayapaia-Blil[ina]- 

namanab | Mai-knksliSr=3atau Moha- 

20 na-M6'h-abMdliau putrau || 29 Jinasasanakamala-ravili eadhub rl-Q6sal6> 

vi[dat] ao kirttiih | guaaratnar&hanadhara 31 GunadSvi priyatam& tasya j| 30 
S2 Sadd}iarmmakarmin-aikaiLiba- 

21 ddb.abuddbi8= 23 fcad-amgajal3L sri-Dhanasiriilia-sadbub | bbaryl tadiya sadaya 

vadajna(nya) mauya satam Dhamdhaladevi-samina || 31 24 Sadb.6[r*]=Bhimasya 
stito Hamsaladekukslii-sambliaba^a)^ sr5ma.ii | ma- 26 

22 h.ima-nidliir=nialiauia maliainatir=Mahanasimh-akliya[h] |1 32 S6 Mayanalladvi- 

varaktikaMukbi-inuktas=trayas=tat-tanay& jayamti | jSahta 3 ? jagadvyapi- 

] =Laliga- 

I Metre : Indravajra. 2 Read prctlaldn. 

s Up to the end of the Hiie the aksharas in brackets are more or less conjectural j they are carelessly written 
in. the original. 3?or thdmamdana- read IhUmamdala-. 

* 'I'his sign of punctuation is superfluous. 5 Metre : Eathfiddhati, 

* The four alcsharas nahatisma are quite clear in the original, but offend against the metre and. yield no 
proper meaning. The only alteration which I could suggest -would be dakatv=iha. 

"> Metre : TTpaj&tL 8 Bead pfithvydm, 

9 Metre of verses 23-26 : Irya. 10 Here about 10 aksharas are effaced. 

II In No. 1791 of Mr. Cousens' List (see above, p. 154) Jelhaka is described as an inhabitant of M&odavyapnra. 
14 Bead SarvajnaSdsana-ratah. M Read =bMd=. u JJere about 4 alcaharas are effaced. 

ls Metre : Vasantatilaka. 1B Bead pfaala'Vitia1c$ti(=. ' Bead, perhaps, ddnah. 

18 Originally "tirthS, with a sign of punctuation after it, was engraved. 

19 Metre of verses 28-30 - S.rya. 

10 The reading is conjectural. The original has vi [t ?] di ktrttim. 

11 Compare gunara-tnardhanagiri in my Report on the search for Sanskrit MSS., Bombay, 1881, p. 43, linel, 
Metre: Upajati. 

11 After the aksTiar a ddJti a sign of punctuation was originally engraved, "but has been struck out. 

14 Metre: irya. 

> 8 Here originally mi was engraved, but the sign for S seems to have been struck out; the two aTcsJiarat hinia. 
at the commencement of the next line are quite clear. The author has used the feminine tnahiind instead of th 
masculine mahiman* 

M etre : Indravajra. The two aksJiarat may a at the commencement of the verse were apparently read a 
one syllable (mai). 


23 sadhurajah || 33 1 Agvin.e'ya[T]:siva $rdshth[au] kanishthau guna-s"alinau [J*] 

Siha-Lop-abhidhau 2 dharmmadhyana-pravanamanasan |) 34 Shat sutfi 

Dhanasimhasya murttS 

24 iva 8had=arttavah 8 | YisvavisY-6pakaray=avatirnna[h] pritha(thi)'vi-tal6 II 35 

4 Te"sham=adyah sadhu[r*] ==V1 jada iti vimalama(ta)ra-yaSahprasaral3i | gnga- 
sagarah Shimadharah sajna(jja)na- 

25 raanyah Samarasi[m]hah || 36 5 Rajasamaja-sreshth& vikhyat6(tah) sadhu- 

"Vijapalah [|*] nipuna-matir-Marapalah sukrita-ratd Vlradhaval-akhyah | (j|) 
37 6 Svapitri-sreyaBe 

26 jtrnndddharam? Bishabha-manidire | karayam4satur=Llalla-Vl;jad.au sadhu- 

sattam6(mau) (||) 38 8 VMiohamdra-Gunachamdra-vije't bhupatitraya-vib&dha" 
vidhata | Dharmmasuri- 

27 r=ifci nama par=a3ita 9 visvavisva-vidife6 muni-raja [t*] I (II) 39 10 Maiapatta- 

kram& taeya Dharmagli6slia-ganaryam4 u [|*] "babhuvah ama-samp^rnpalt ls 
AmaraprabliasCirayah || 40 

28 13 Tatpatta-bhiishanam=adushanadharmasila- 1 %idya(ddIiam)ta3imdhupari8ilana-Vishn-alilab; 

f sri-Jnanaohadidra iti nathdatu suri-rajah puny6pad^aTidhi-b6dh.itasa- 

29 tsamajah | (||) 41 15 Vasu-muni-tu(gu)aa-sasi(si)-varsha I Jeshta 16 sitinara(va)mi- 

Soma-jnita-divasS | sri-Jnanachamdra-gTirBna pra[ti3shti(shthi)t6=[rbu]da-gi[rau 

30 1379 Jesta-sudi^ 9 S&me II 

On the Cbahamanas of Kaddula. 

AB I have referred in tbe preceding to the Genealogical Table of the Chahamanas of 
Naddula published above, p. 83, I take the opportunity to state that Mr. Gaurishankar Hira- 
chand Ojha has recently sent me rubbings of four inscriptions, two of which famish a date in 
the [Vikrama] year 1147 for the chief Jojalla (Ydjaka), here called Jo jala, while the two others 
are of the reign of Rayapfila of Naddfila, whose name does not occur in the Table, and for whom 
they furnish dates in the [Vikrama] years 1198 and 1200. The rubbings do not enable me to 
edit the full tests of these inscriptions, but the initial lines, which contain the dates and the 
names of the chiefs, may be given with confidence. 

1. This inscription is at Sadri (about 13 miles south of Nadol) in the G&dwar district of 
the Jodhpur State. It contains 11 lines of writing and commences : 

L. 1 Om 19 samvat 1147 Vaisakha-sudi 2 Budha-v&sare maha- 

2 raja-firt-Jojaladeve-na sri-Lafcehmanasvami-prabhriti- 

3 samastadevanam yatrakala-yyaTahard ISkhitah || 

1 Metre of terris 84. and SB : Sl&ka , 

a I am doubtful about tb.9 correctness of the two names -, the four akaharas at the beginning of the Pida mieht 
b read also sthdldfd. s 

s Wrong for s&afcritavah, which would not have suited the metre. 

* Metre: AryL * Metre : FpagMi. Metre : Sldka (Anushtubh). 

1 Bead "rawaSwAaZJa-. 8 Metre : SrAgata. Bead dtid<=. 

Metre : Sl6ka (Anushtubh) . u Eead .gandryttm^fy. 12 Bead .*pw<*. 

Metre : Vasantatilaka. With the commencement of the verae compare e.g. Prof, Peterson's ' Fifth Report 
p. 207, v. 5 : taipaUa-Wthaitamanif^ata-dilskatJitizlhdt. * 

" Probably the intended reading was tilaji. ' Metre : Aryi. 

" Eead *varsU JyfaJitM (or JyaisMU). 
v Bead -girdv^J^itTtallka,^ 
M Bead Jytshtha (or JTyaifhtha). nidi / and see above, p, 155. 

lf Denoted by a symbol. 


2. This inscription is at Nadol, It contains 13 lines of writing and commences : 
L. 1 Cm 1 sanrvat 1147 Vaisakha-sudi 2 Vu(bu)dha-vfisa- 

2 rS maharajad^raja-sri-Jojalade'vah sama- 

3 fita-devanam 6ri-Lakghmaaasvami-prabhntanaia yatra-vya--- 

4 vabiram lekhayati yatha || ..... 

The date of these two inscriptions regularly corresponds, for the expired Kdrttikddi Vikrama 
year 1147, to Wednesday, the 23rd April A,D. 1091, when the 2nd titbi of the bright half 
ended 16 h."26 m. after mean sunrise. 

3.. This also is afc Nadol. It contains 39 lines of crating and commences ; 
L. 1 Oin 1 samvat 1198 ravana-vadi 8 BaviLv-adya&ha [ma]- 

2 haraja[dhiraia]-ri-Bayapaiad0VBh 2 kalyana-yija[ya]- 

3 rajy<3 e"vam kale pravarttamanfi ' .' 

The date corresponds either, for .the pfanimdnta Sravana of the expired Qhaitrddi Vikrama 
year 1198, to Sunday, the 29th Jane A.Q-. 1141, when the 8th titJti of the dark half endeoV 3 h. 
11 m. after mean sunrise ; or, for the amdnta Sravana of the expired. KdrtUkddi Yikrama year 
1198, to Sunday, the 16th August A.D. '1142, when the 8th tithi of the. dark half ended 11 h. 
20 m. after mean sunrise. As the date of the following inscription is correct only for the amdnta 
month, I here, too, take Sunday, the 16th August A.D. 1142, to be the true equivalent of the 
date. . ' 

4. .This also is at Uadoi. , It' contains 8 lines of writing and commences : 
L. 1 Cm. 1 1| Satfivat 1800 Bhadrapada-vadi 8 Budha-7,re ady=Sha iri- 

2 Na[du?]lesamastaTaiavalisamalamkrita-puiya-maharaiadhi- 

3 raja-paramMvara-M-BayapaiadeTa-vijayaraiyfi e- 

4 vam kale pravarttamtoe ^ . . . , 

The date, for the amdnta Bhadrapada of ^ the expired Kdrttikdd'i Vikrama year 1200, cor- 
responds to Wednesday, the 23rd August. A.D. 1144, when the 8th titU of the dark half 
ended 16 h. 52 m. after mean sunrise. 

In the Table Bayapala : (A,D, 1142 and 1144) would have to he placed between J&jalla 
(A.t). 1091) and llhana (A.D. 1153-1161), and it is probable that ' he was" the immediate pre- 
decessor of the latter; but how he was related to either of them it is impossible to say at present. 

I may add, that Mr. Ojha has also been .good enough to send me some notes on the identi- 
fication of Kasahrada' and ttaddulai, spoken of by me above, pp. 73*and 67. On the former, 
which I suspected to be somewhere neat Nadol, he writes :-* 

" I would identify Kaaahrada with Kayadrfim (also called Kasadrain) at the foot of 
Mount Abu, about 3 miles from the Bhim&na 'station of the E. M. Railway v It is a place of 
considerable antiquity with several old temples. An inscription of the time of the Paramara 
prince Dh&ravarsha was discovered there by me some years ago." - 

And respecting Naddulal, which I had taken to be a different place from Naddula, he 

saya: - N ' . 

As you think, it. is quite different from Naddiila. It is now called -Karaiai, and is situa- 
ted in iihe G&dwar district of the Jfidhpui State. An inscription from the place is published in 
Ehdvnagar Jnscr. p. 140 (where the. date given is incorrect 3 ). " 

Denoted fcy a symbol. 

See my Northern List, No. 306.- On the map of the K^puUna Agency ' NarKi ' is sevea miles fl outh-e.'w.t 



Mr. Cousens in the Annual R'eyort of the Archaeological Survey of India, 1903-04 (p. 54- * 
opens his report on the conservation of antiquarian remains in the Central Provinces with the 
remarks that-' the Central Provinces and Berar cannot be said to be rich in antiquarian re- 
mains,! but ' possibly there exists many an old relic of considerable interest lying hidden awsy 
ia some of the extensive jungles and little known tracts in the province, that has not come utuI*-T 
the notice of any one capable of estimating its value.' Exactly from such a place do I draw 
. the materials for the subject I propose to notice on. 

Bastar is a feudatory state in the extreme south of the province situated between 17 46' aE"! 
20 14' north latitude and 80 15' and 82 15' east longitude, touching the Gf&davari and compris- 
ing an area of 13,000 square miles, all covered with dense forests and populated by the "wild* *" 
tribes, some of whom did nofc till very recently know the use of clothes. This extensive jutJ^'f 
has been made to yield no less than 22 inscriptions L through the strenuous efforts of my fr r*4 
Mr. Baijnath, B.A., Superintendent of the Bastar State. Three of these inscriptions -fft r^* 
noticed by Colonel Glasfurd, Deputy Commissioner of the then Upper G6davari District, abv-nt 
the year 1862 A.D. 3 So far as is known, only one of them has been published, vis., the so-call* -3 
Nagpur Musanm inscription of S&mesvara. 3 On the authority of the information supplied f */ 
the Curator of the Nagpur Museum it is there stated that the stone was brought from a vilU^f 
Kowtah, near Sironcha, which is incorreftfc^as will presently be shown. It belonged to 'JBarsur, tsf 
the Bastar State, and ia an important record of the predecessors of the present line of R&jas. 

In order that the references to places in the Bastar inscriptions may be easily understoinS, 
I append a map of the State showing their positions as also some other places possessing archse?*- 
logical remains. As most of the latter have never been noticed before, a brief mention of t 
least some of the important ones may not be out of place here. These places are 
Dantewara, Gadia, Bhairamgarh, Narayanpal, Sunarpal, Kuruspal, Tirathgarh, Pofcinar, 
and D&ngar. 

B&rsur is a place of very great interest. It is ..55 miles west of Jagdalpxir, the 
capital of Baatar. It contains ruins of many temples, the most important of which is a Siv* 
temple with two sanctuaries having a common mandapa supported on 32 pillars in four rown, I n 
each of. the sanctuaries there is a lihqa, and a Nandi, and old people remember that an i 
was removed from, this place about half a century ago. Another Siva temple has a m 
with 12 pillars in three rows, and the third is called Mdmd bhdnjd-kd mandir and is 
guished by carvings on .the inside walls in the shape of bells suspended from chains. OutaitJ* 
the Ganega temple there is a huge figure of Ganesa, 17' in circumference and about 7' or 5s-" 
high. Numerous images are lying about or collected together under huts, of which tb.e xtto*& 
noticeable is one of Vishnu, 4' high, and showing good workmanship. There are also 
images of Mahishasaramardmi, one of which is inscribed. All the temples are of 
Brahmanio style, most of them built of stone without lime. Dante" w,ra is about 20 miles 
of Barsur, and in the intervening villages there are sculptured stones lying about, some of 
being five-hooded- cobras or interooiled snakes. Dantewara contains the shrine of Dante"S var! t tb* 
tutelary goddees of the- present ruling family. The temple is built at the junction of two 

1 Since 1 yrote this Mr. Baijaath ha made further discoveries which will be described in another paper. 

* See Stltctioiu from the Zeeordt of the Government of India in the Foreign Department, NQ 
P. 62 et tyg. 

Above, Vol. HI. p, 314. 

=p % ~ 


r*^^ \ ^v. r> n^^Sfi^-nSinuftntiuf i 



i^dr y6__. I/ 
-^- T'yapw 

iSemaldodij; / ^7-r r ~'^\ 

'"PLmgagin Q ^~ 

V^-^V^. JVtZawai 

Chief Town Q . . JAGD ALPTJK 

Town or ViHago 


State Boundary 

Places, of archaeological interest 

re underlined,tbu8 


Area in Square Miles. . 13,062. 
Population in 1901 . . .806,501. 


Scale 1 Inch =2* Milea 

*> t *> 

Pnpued tpecMOlT for tin Ctort, Epigraphrst for IndU. 
ton u origiMlmiiplied by him . 


called Sankhini and Dankini, and is notorious as a place where human sacrifices were formerly 
annually offered. At least a place was pointed out to me in the innermost; sanctum, close to the 
goddess, where they said the victims used to be decapitated. The goddess has eight arms and 
is represented in the act of killing the buffalo demon. She is in reality Mahishasuramardvni, 
locally known as DantSsvari. There are various other images such as those of Vishnu, Kartti- 
keya, Gane'sa, etc., some of which were brought away from the ruins of Barsur. There are five 
inscriptions here, three inside the Dant^sVari temple, one just outside it, and another near a mud 
hut called Bhairamgudi. There are remains of several other temples buried in, ruins. For the 
support of the Dantesvari temple, an estate consisting of several villages is attached. Bhairam- 
garh is about 70 miles west of Jagdalpur and has three or four temples, together with remains 
of a fort and a ditch and several tanks. There is an inscription on a pillar, and at Potinar, a 
village near Bhairamgarh, there is a slab 1 inscribed on four sides. Gadia is 20 miles weat of 
Jagdalpur and has a stone temple with no idol, but built in the same style as those of. Barsur. 
About 400 yards away there is a big inscription, arid a liiiga was found buried in a brick 
mound. Narayanpal and Kuruspal are quite close to each other, the former being situated 
on the river Indi-avati. "Near these villages are the forts of Rajapur and Bodra, and not far 
away the beautiful falls of the Indrvatt at Ohitrakut present a magnificent appearance. 
Narayanpal is only 6 milea from Gadia and has an old temple, an. image of Vishnu, and an 
inscription. Sunarpal and Chapka are -within 12 miles from Narayanpal. Ohapka has a 
number of sati pillars, several of which are inscribed. Tlrathgarh also contains some temples 
and relics. Dongar is a place where according to custom the present Rajas go to be crowned. 
Here one of the queens, whose finger was chopped of by royal order and who ventured to 
inform her father, writing the letter with the blood BO wantonly spilt, was buried alive. The 
pit, which is still pointed out, was once disturbed by a greedy Raja of the same family , who also 
brought down the temple of Narayanpal and some others in search of supposed buried treasure. 

I now proceed to give a short notice of each inscription of which I possess impressions,, 
with very brief remarks where necessary, reserving a fuller account for other papers. The 
Bastar inscriptions may be roughly divided into three classes, viz., those of the (1) Nagavams'l 
kings, (2) the Kakatiyas, and (3) miscellaneous. Of 2?< yet discovered, ten belong to the 1st 
class, five to the 2nd, and the rest to the 3rd. 


I. Narayanpal Stone inscription of Queen G-unda-mahadSvl, the mother of 


Narayanpal is a village 23 milea west of Jagdalpur. The inscription is on a stone slab and 
is in Nagari characters, and the language is Sanskrit. It records the grant of the village 
Narayanapura to the god Narayana and some land near the Khaj juri tank to the god Lokesvara,. 
and it is dated in the 3aka year 1033 on Wednesday, the full moon-day of the Karttilsa 
month in the Khara samvatsara (afca-nr*pa-fcdtatf# daSa-6ata.traya[8*]-tri>h$-dd'hi'k8 Ehara- 
samvatsard Kdrtika-paurnimdsydm Budhavdre) corresponding to 18th October 1111 A. D., and 
issued by Gunda-niahadSvi, the chief queen of Mah&rtfa Dnaravarsha, the mother of S&mel- 
varadeva and^the grandmother of Kanharad&va, who was then ruling on the death of his father 
(Mahdrdja-SomMvara-dSvasya tow(swr)gat tSshAih putrasya, dsdm, naptuh . . . Jrwiad-vtra- 
KtmhwraMvnsya Inlyana-vyaya-raiyS). The dynasty claims to belong to the 3STgavama and 
the Kasyapa gotra, to have a tiger with a calf as their crest and to be the lords of Bh&gavatl th& 
beet of the cities (Ndgavamiodbhava, Bhtigdvati-pura-var-esvara 8ava,tsa-vydghra'Umchhan& 
Kd$(s)yapa,-gdtra). At the end of the inscription the sun and moon, a cow aud a calf, and a, 

1 Thin has aow beea removed to a.roadsWe pUce called Jfagtt, iix milei north of Potin&r, for eaay access. 



dagger and shield with a linga in its socket, exactly of the shape in which the Lingayats wear 
them, are engraved. There is a postscript to this inscription in which it is stated that the land 
was given by Dh&rana-mahade'vi, who was probably the widow of Somegvara, as will appear 
further on. There can be no doubt that Narayanpal is the Narayanapura of the inscription. A 
temple of tfar&yana is still standing there. The image of Vishnu, abont 2' high, canopied by a 
hooded snake, is exquisitely executed. 

II. Barsur inscription of Ganga-mabJdevl, wife of S6mesvarad6va. 

This inscription is now in the Nagpur Museum, and, as stated above, it has already been 
published. 1 It ia a slab 9' 2" long, 14" broad and B\" thick, broken into two pieces, the bigger 
one measuring 6|' and the smaller one 2' 11". It is inscribed on three sides. The inscribed 
portion of each flat side is about 4|', thus leaving half of the pillar buried underground. As 
the whole of the inscription could not be completed within the allotted space, the remaining 
portion has been inscribed on the third side, on which the writing runs to the \lengtb. of 31". 
The atone ia stated to have been brought from Kowtah near Sironcha, but the Tahsildar of 
Sii'oncha informs me that it wa3 never sent from that place. 8 

The stone is indisputably from Barsur. Happily Col. Glasfurd has given a facsimile in 
his report on the Dependency of Bastar. Speaking of the Barsur temples he says 3 : " In front 
of ( this temple I found a slab with an ancient Sanskrit and Telugu inscription on 'both sides ; 
part of it had been broken off and was nowhere to be found. After offering a reward and 
causing search to be made I had the satisfaction of obtaining it. As the Telugu is of an 
antiquated character, I regret to say I have not succeeded in obtaining an accurate translation 
of the inscription. A facsimile is appended. From what I can ascertain it would appear that 
the temple of Mahade'va where the slab was found was built by a Raja S6mesvarade"va, & 
Nagavamsl Kshatriya, in the year 1130." 

The inscription is in the Telugu character, and the language is also Telugu prose, the 
biruddvaU or titles of the king being in Sanskrit and corresponding with those in the Narayan- 
pal Sanskrit inscription. It records that Ganga-mahMevl, the chief queen of S6msvaradva 
gave a village named KSramaruka or Keramarka to two temples of Siva (both of which she 
had built) on Sunday, the 12th tithi of the bright fortnight of PMlguna in the Saka 
year 1130. The two temples referred to here still exist, having one common mantfapa, and from 
local enquiry it appears that it waa from this place that Col. Glasfurd removed the slab. 
Although the names of the temples VirasomSsvara and G-angS.dharsvara given after the 
royal couple as recorded in the grant, are forgotten, a tank still remains which is called 
Gangasagar and retains the memory of the charitable queen Ganga-mabadevi. If the 
SomSivara of this inscription is identical with that of Narlyanpal, there has apparently been 
a mistake in engraving the date which should be 1030 and not 1130, and that is perhaps the 
reason why the week day does not correspond with the tithi given there, viz,, the 12th of the 
bright fortnight of Phalguna, on a Sunday. According to Mr. Dikshit's calculations, Phalguna 
Sukla 12 of Saka-Samvat 1130 ended on Wednesday. So it was concluded that the 
year meant was Saka 1131 expired, in which year the tithi given in the inscription fell on a 
Sunday, But on calculating the week day for the same tithi in Saka 1030 expired I find that 

i Above, Vol. III. p. 314. 

a A similar error seems to have been committed In relegating the Buddhist stone inscription of Bhayad6va 
(tepubliahed in J. B. A. S. 1905, p. 617, by Dr. Kielhorn) to Batanpur, whereas from nay enquiry in situ 1 found 
that the inscription was really brought from Bhtludaka, and this is confirmed by General Cunningham, Reports, 
Vol. IX, p. 127. 

8 Report on the Dependency of JBastar, 1862, p. 62. 


it also fell on. Sunday. 1 In the Narayanpal inscription it is stated that the grant of U&rayanapiira 
was made in Saka 1033, in the reign of Kanharadeva, who had succeeded his father 
Sdm&svaradeva on his death. And as there is nothing to show at present that there were two 
Some'Svaras, 9 the date 1030 fits in very well. It, however, seems somewhat extraordinary that 
euoh a palpable mistake shonld have been allowed to remain when it could be corrected by 
joining together with a curved line the two enda of the Telugu 1 which is Kke an egg half-cnt 
(at least it is so in the inscription) thus transforming easily the second 1 of 1130 into a zero. 
I am very reluctant to/suppose that the engraver committed a mistake, but that he did is patent 
enough in this case whether we read 1030 or 1130. The village K&ramajnka may be identified 
with Kodmaln&r, which is situated quite close to B4rstr and is said to have been mu'afi or 
exempt from the payment of taxes for a long time. 

m. Kuraspal inscription of DbArana-mahadSyi, second queen(?) of S6insVara. 

Kuruspal is a village about a mile off from Narayanpal. The inscription -was found bnilfc 
upside down into the steps of a small tank, which shows that it did not belong to the tank 
itself, but was brought away from some ruins, possibly the temple built in the centre of the tank, 
and was utilised without regard to what was engraved on it. It is in the Nagart character, 
the language being Sanskrit with very bad spellings. The object of the inscription is to record 
a grant of land situated near Ealamba by DMrana-mali&devi, who seems to have been the 
second queen of SdmSSvaradeva. The inscription belongs to the victorious reign of Maha- 
rajadhiraja Some'svaradeva (Mahdrdjddhir&ja-Sri-Sdmdfoamddvfapdddn'U Italy dna-vij 'ay a-rdjy@ 
. . . rimat-sa(mach-chh&)8ana- l in(L'hdd$vi dvitiya Dhdrana-'wahddSv'i tay=dcham,ya Kalammva- 
samipasthd bhumi dattam(d)). The same long lirudas aa in the Nar&yanpal-and B&rsur 
inscriptions are attached to S6mesVaradeva's name. The inscription also mentions the name of 
Narayanapura. It is dated in the Sauinya samvatsara. 

17. :Sun&rpal stone inscription of Bahad6vl, queen of Jayasimhadeva. 

Stm&rpal is about 10 miles from ISarayanpal. The stone is partially broken, and a part of 
the inscription is gone. It is undated. It records the grant of land, or, more pfoperly, an im- 
precation against the resumption of granted land, and gives the names of witnesses before whom 
the gift was made, but it is not stated where. The gift was apparently made by Manadevl, the 
chief queen of JayasimbadSva of the N&ga race, the supreme lord of Bhogavati, having the 
tiger with a calf as his crest, He is called Rajadhiraja Maharaja Sri Jayasimhadeva. 

V. The Dantesvarl gudi inscription 3 of NaraBimnaddva. 

This is another stone inscription in Telugu character found in the temple of the goddess 
Dante'svari at Dantewara. It is dated in the dark fortnight of the month Jfyeahtha in the 
Saka year 1140 (expired). In this year there was an eclipse of the sun, and the month of 
Jyeshtha was intercalary. At that tune Maharaja Narasimuadeva, the ornament of the race, 
of the best of serpents, Was ruling (Sri-bhujaga-v&ra~bhfahana-MaMr&jul=aina. Srtman-Nara- 
sinkadeva-Afahdrdjula rdjyamu). The inscription is only a fragment. 

1 Since I -wrote the above, Prof. Kielhorn has kindly calculated the date for me and finds that S&ka 1030 
Phalgtuia Sudi 12 Sunday regularly corresponds to Sunday, 14th Feb. A.D. 1109. 

1 I do not think that umch importance can be attached to the different birutdat tteed in the BirBot and 
Narlyanpal inscriptions. The SflmeSvara of the former has the title jagad&Tcab'hfa'teityi-inahdr30a, which doeg not 
occur in the latter. But then the liruda* used in the Bastar insctipblohs we hot always the sunie. 

* For reading this 1 am indebted to Mr. Sitaramayya, one of the Saperintendents in the Comptroller'i office, 
Central Provinces. 



Of the remaining five Nagavamsi inscriptions it has not yet been possible to obtain good 
impressions. They are all in Telugu. The Potinar slab seems to refer to Narasimhadeva and 
the Dante"wara stone lying outside the Dantesrari temple to Jayasimhadeva. The Bhairamgarh 
inscription contains birudas similar to those found in the Barsur one, and the king is stated in 
both to be the worshipper of Manikyadevi (Sri-Mdnikyadevi-divya-sripdda-padm-drddhakci), 
which is an older *name of Dante"svari, so named by the successors of the Nagavamsis, the 
Kakatiyas, although the latter claim that Dantesvari came with them from Warangal, where she 
was called Manikyesvari. 1 This inscription is incomplete and it appears that it was never 
completed. The Bhairamgudi inscription at Dantewara appears to be the oldest of all, as its 
date appears to be Saka 984. 2 The G-adia inscription, apparently of Somes' varad&va's time, 
contains the usual figures of the cow and calf, Sun and Moon, Siva, etc., the peculiar signs of 
the Nagavamsi kings, although they do not seem to refer to their family crests. They are all 
picbure imprecations. The sun and moon represent that the grant is to last aa long as these 
luminaries endure. Siva is the protector against violation of the grant on the spiritual side, 
and the dagger and shield of the king on the temporal. The cow and calf depict the grave sin 
which the transgressor would commit, exactly equal to taking away the cow from the calf. This 
interpretation is supported by the fact that the Kuruspal inscription, lias a representation of an 
ass associating with a pig, the imprecation being explained in the text thus, Jo (yo) anyathd 
karoti tasya pitd gardabhah sukari mdtd (he who acts otherwise has for his father an ass and 
for his mother a pig.) 

From these inscriptions it would appear that Bastar, which has been held to have always 
been the home of wild animals, with almost wilder tribes, was once ruled by a people whoao 
civilization is sufficiently evidenced by the remains of temples, some of which are of great archi- 
tectural beauty. These inscriptions carry the history of Bastar back to the eleventh century 
A.D., when at least the central portion of the State was ruled by the Nagavamsi kings. They ap- 
parently belonged to the Sinda family of Yelburga, whose titles are strikingly identical with those 
of the Bastar H'zigavams'i kings. Dr. Fleet states 3 that there appear to have been more branches 
than one of this family. One of these was that of Bastar, which has been hitherto unknown. 
These inscriptions disclose the names of five or six different kings, vis., DMreivarsha, his eon 
SomSsvaraddva, and his grandson Kannaradeva, Jayasimhadeva, NarasirhhadSva, and a 
possible S6msvara II. In view of the fact that half the inscriptions relating to these kings 
have not yet been deciphered owing to their incompleteness or want of proper impressions, I 
reserve a fuller discussion of the history of these kings for another occasion. 


All these are modern ones, the oldest being those of the Dantesvari temple at DantSw&ra 
written by the rdjaguru of the present family, who was a Maithila Pandit. One of these is in 
Sanskrit and the. other is a Maithili rendering of the same with some additions. Col. Glasfurd 
has given a very defective transcript of both in Ms report. They are dated in the Vikrama 
Samvat 1760, or 1703 A.D. on the 3rd day of Baisakh, dark fortnight. They record the 
pilgrimage of Baja Dikpaladdva to the Dant&svari shrine when ' so many thousands of buffaloed 
and goats were sacrificed that the waters of the Sankhini river became red like kttsuma flowers 
and remained so for five days.' The Kakatiyas are stated to he Somavamsis, 4 born of the 

1 Ellioffl Report on the Sastar and Eharonde I>e$endenciet ) 1861, p. 13. 

* As read by Eai Bahadur V. Venkayya. 

* &a*etteer ofihe Jlombay Presidency, Vol. I, Part II, p. 672. 

In the Ekamranatha inscription of Ganapati (Ind, Ant. Vol. XXI, p. 200) they are stated to belong to tha 
spUr race to which ' Sagara, Bhagiratha, Baghu. and Rama ' belonged. This apparent contradiction is, however, 
capable of being explained. The Kltatlya king Ganapati had no male isane. He had a daughter named Budramba, 
who Bucceeded him on the throne. Apparently she also had no male issue and had therefore to adopt her daughter's 


Pandava Arjuna. The genealogy begins *i& Kakatl Prataparudra, who was Hag of 
Warangal. His brother Annamraja ^as the first to come to Bastar, and the genealogy IB 
continued to Dttpfitadfiva, nine succesaors being mentioned. The present Bastar f axnuy , foe 
representative of the old War^ngal family, who, having been defeated bj _MjJto, fled to 
Bastar. Combining-the information hitherto available, the following list of Kticafaja kings may 
be made up. 

l.-Predecessors of AnnamdSva, from Professor Kielhom's Souttefw JWW, 

Vol. VIII, Appendix, p. 18. 

1 Durjaya. 

2 B&ta (Betmaraia) Tribhiivanamalla, son of 1. 

3 Prola (Proleraja, Ertdartja) Jagatikesarin, son of~2 ; made the Western Cbalutya 

deva prisoner; defeated Gavindaraja and Gunda of Mantrakuta j conquered but 
reinstated Chododaya ; pat to flight Jagaddeva. . "~^- - 

4 The MahfaavtaWwa, Rudrade.a, son of 3; snbdued Pomma; conquered 

burnt the city of Gh6d6daya. A.D. 1163 -[and 1 186]. 

5 dl sou of 5 ; defeated the B.vagiH Tadava 

the kings of Chola, etc. A. D. [1199-1200 to 1260-61]. . 

tneKa^m^rfaZacftafcramr^nPrataparadx-aoffikagilanagan, t.e. Warangal. His general 

Muppidi entered KauoM and instaUed Mana-yira as governor. A.U. idifr. 

2.~SucoesBorsof Annamdeva down to XHkpUadAra according to the Dantewara 


Annamraja, brother of Prataparudra. 
Hamirade'va. - 
Bhairava (Bhai R&j) dSva. 

5 JayasimhadSva. , a-.,., 

NaraaimhadevajhisqaeenLachhami-dM dug many tanks and planted gardens. 

7 JagadiSarayad^va. 

8 "Vfranar&yanade'va. 

9 Virasimhadeva, married Vadanakumfiri, a Chandella princess. 

Dikpaladeva, married Aiabakum^ri, of the Chandellaa, visited the Panteiwarf temple in 
Samvat 1760, A.D. 1703. 

. Iti 9 po M ible Ou Prai^u^ fathe, 
Prataparudra became by adoption a Kakatiy* of tie ., 
f am uy, must have refined what Me father ,aa, tMt is, of ^ 
does not seem to have a very str^clann to be a solar Kibatiya. H 'J~W J ^ ^ he BBCCeed ed to tha 


t^trSeage,^, the 

^nse alone thrt the Baster fud* conld be classed KIW^ ^5* I' But lilt II 

lun ft r race. All this however would apply if Annamdeva WH. a brother rf the ^^wto wfeprobably ruled 
with 10 kings for a period of about 400 years postulate, the ^^^^S^SS^i^ MM A.D. 
hundred years later and lort his kingdom and hi. life m the battle ^ih AJunad Statt ."* 
ihi. Pwtlparudra wa 9 also probably angrafted from another fapuly lite b. predecesaot, , tt al 
Jnjwr race 5r vrhiob his brother Annamdfira as a ujafter of natural coue cwtiuued to beloag, 


3. Successors of DikpaladSva down to the present ruling chief, according to records 

kept in the Baja's family. 

1 Rajpald^va, 

2 Dalpatd&va. 

3 DaryaodSva ; his brother Ajmer Singh rebelled against him in Samvat 1836, A,D. 1779. 

4 Mahipaladova. 

5 BhupSladeva. 

6 Bhairatnadeva. 

7 Rndrapratjlpade'va, the present chiof . 

The family records place another Prat&parajadeva between Narasimhadeva and 
Jagadisarayadfiva, Nos. 6 and 7 of List 2. Prat&parndradeva, the brother of Annamr^ja, IB 
H tubed to have had three eyes j hie army was composed of nine lao archers, 1 and dnring his time 
golden rain fell. Prataparudra I. was a great patron of learning, and Vidy&natha wrote a work 
on AlankSra, which he called afber him Pratdparudrayasdbh&shana or Pratdparudrfya? 

The other three inscriptions are at Dongar ; they are written in Hindi. Two of them are 
dated in Samvat 1836, or A.D. 1783, and refer to a visit of Raja Daryaodeva in order to quell 
a local rebellion. The third is dated in Samvat 1928, or A.D. 1871, and records the jpaftd- 
HhishSlta ceremony of Bhairamadevaj the father of the present rnler. 


All these are unimportant and give no historical data. Siz belong to Chapk and are 
engraved on sati memorial stones and, with one exception, in Nagari characters. Most of these 
have the nsual marks of the snn, the moon and the outstretched hand with figures of hnslaand 
and wife. Some have got temples engraved, with the couple in the act of worshipping the 
linya represented there. One is found at Barsftr on the pedestal of a goddess and is 



These are two copper plates which were found in an old well in the Village TaaankapSr, 18 
miles from Kanker, the capital of the state of the same name in the Chhattisgarh, Division of 
the Central Provinces. They are now in the possession of the chief of that state and were sent 
to me by his Divan Papdifc Durgaprasad. Ink impressions were kindly taken for me at Nagpur 
by Mr. T. GK Green, Superintendent of the Government Press, and they are reproduced in the 
accompanying plate. 

There are two different records issued at an interval of a year. Both the plates are 1%" long, 
but they differ in height and weight, one measuring 3f" and the other 3J V , the bigger one 

1 This mj be true in the seme that he ruled over so big a population, who, as subjects, could at any time be 
wiled oat for military service. In Bastar and adjoining tracts almost every man knows the use of the how and 
arrow, with, which they even kill tiger. The probability, however, if that ' nine lac ' was a conventional term for 
tho highest Bomber. . In tbe Hottfbr inscription (Ga-zotteer of the Bombay Presidency, Vol. I, Part II, p. 483) the 
Chfilukja ling Sttyilraya is stated to have put to flight a Ciffla king who had collected a force numbering' bine 
laca, indirectly insinuating that ha defeated the biggest army that could be brought in the field. Similarly it h* 9 
become idiomatic to (peak of Bdwanffarh (52 forts), 700 cMla* (disciples), 108 art*, etc. 
J 2nd. Ant. xxi. p. 108, and Duff* Chronology of India, p. 218. 


weighing 02. and the smaller 6 oz. 10 drs. Tlie former lias an oblong hole at the^- top, 
measuring | v X -jV', apparently for stringing it with otter plates. It is uniformly and sufficiently 
thick, and is in a good state of preservation. The smaller one is thick in the middle but very thin 
at the ends, so thin indeed that the commencement 6m svasti has cut through the plate leaving 
holes in the engraved portion, and, similarly, at the diagonally opposite end, a portion is exceed- 
ingly worn- out leaving irregular holes there. The corners of this plate were rounded off. It 
has at the end an ornamental figure representing the moon. This was probably the family crest. 
The average size of the letters in the bigger plate is -? and in the smaller '. The former 
appears to be a 'palimpsest. Both the sides contain minute scratches of letters of almost doable 
the size, which are altogether illegible. 

The characters in both the plates, which were written at an interval of a year only, are 
Nagari, and the language in both is corrupt Sanskrit prose. Both the plates were engraved by 
Sethi or Sao KSSava, who apparently lived at E&di (town). 

There is very little to note about orthographical peculiarities. The letters dha, ra, na t 
kslia, bha, jfta, and the figures 9 and 5 appear in a somewhat antiquated form, and the usual 
indifference to the use of * for / is conspicuous. Spelling mistakes there are many ; they have 
been noticed in the footnotes under the text. 

The bigger plate, which is the older of the two and was issued from, the Kakaira 
residence, is a state document conferring a village with a fixed revenue on the village priest 
LakshJmidharasarman,. This refers to Jaiparfi vilkge, but Chikhali is also incidentally 
mentioned. The smaller plate records the gift of two villages, KogarS and Andall, to the same 
person on the occasion of an eclipse of the sun. These transaction were made by the 
KahwrnantfaUka Pamparajadeva of the SomavamSa (Innar race) in the preseaee of his queen 
Laksbmldevl, prince Vopadeva and eight Government officials including the minister. In the 
village document these officials appear as witnesses. The recipient of the villages was himself 
one of them. 

The village document is business-like and contains abbreviations which were no doubfc 
very well understood at that time, but are now difficult to make out. It does not indulge in 
genealogies. In the gift, however, we are told that Pamparajade'va meditated on the feet of 
Sdmarajade'va, who meditated on the feet of Vdpade"va. I take this V&padeva to be identical 
with that of the Kanker stone inscription of the ISaka year 1242 (see above, page 124). I 
shall discuss this question in another paper on the SiMwa inscription, which also gives a 
genealogy of this family, 

The bigger plate is dated in Samvat 985, in. the Bhadrapada month, in the Mriga lunar 
mansion, on Monday, the 10th of the dark fortnight, and the smaller one in the fsvara- 
samvatsara, in the month of Karttika, in the Ohitra lunar mansion, on Sunday, at the solar 
eclipse, the year being given in figures at the end as 966. It is not stated to what era these 
dates belong, but Professor Kielhorn, who has kindly calculated them for me, has conclusively 
proved that they refer to the Kalachuri era. The reader is referred to the postscript added by 
him at the end of my article on the Kaiiker stone inscription (see above, pp. 128 and ff.), -where 
he has fully discussed the question. The English equivalents of these dates, as calculated by 
him, are Monday, the 12th August A.D. 1218, and Sunday, the 6th October A.D. 1214, 

The towns and villages mentioned in the plates are Kakaira, Padi, K6garft, Andall, 
Jaipara, Chikhali and Vanikotta. Kakaira is the modern Kanker, where the present chief of 
the state resides. It is 88 miles from Baipur, the headquarters of the Chhattisgarh Division, 
in which the Kanker state is included. Kdgarft has now been corrupted into Kong era. There 
are two villages of this name in the state, and for distinction one is called Deo Kdngera (8 miles 


[VOL, IX. 

south-east of Kanker), and the other Hat K6ngSr (6 miles north of Kanker). The feme: 
is associated with gods, and the latter with a market, which is held there. In the inflcriptL a 
K&gara is said to be close to the shrine of PrankSsvara, which has now disappeared, bat 'to* 
apparently left its reminiscence in the suggestive adjnnet Deo which K&ngera now bears. I 
therefore, identify our K6gara with Deo K&ngera. Jaipara is the modern Jeprfc (Indian A*&*. 
quarter sheet 92, N. W., Long. 81 81', Lat. 20 28'), a village 15 miles north of Kanfeer, 
and Chikhall is about 21 miles in the same direction just on the borders of the state. It ij 
now included in the Dhamtari tahsil, which formerly formed part of the Kanker state. A^dftU 
is probably represented by the present Andni (Injnl), 10 miles east of Kanker. P&di canm.i "r 
identified. The same is the case with Vanik6t$a about which it ia doubtful whether it is Ua 
name of a village at all. 

Plate I, 


1 Svasti Kakaira-samavasS rajadhira3a-paramelvara-paramamaheBva(Sva)ra>S&- 

2 ma*vams(B>anvaya-prasuttt-Katya[ya*Jni-vara-lavdh^^ 


3 mahAman[d*]allka-simat- s Pamparaiadeva-viiaya-rajy6 tat-Bamnihita-rajn! Lakahml* 

4 devi kumara 3 Vdpadeva pradhana Bh6ga rM I vaipatha I asu 4 et 

vyftparam kurwam ti- 

5 Bhtha(a)mti Jaiparft Vai?ik6$ta mary&di-kritya grama-patr6=yam 

Lak8hmidharayam(ya) pradattam 

6 prathama saraha gaja bhama achhu 130 vijaya-raja 6 ttamka 140 


7 tare" 1 tatha Ohikhali-grama-patrS vijaya-ra;j[y*]a-ttamka 150 pralava-pau- 

8 na-pattamtarfi I Asmim arth& sfikshina^i bhattara[naka*] (!) Govinda u(i3 

Lakshmidhara | gai[ta*] Ma- ' 

9 h6svara I na[yaka*J | Chhamta I najjaka*] I Damddara I sfi[o*] i 

samvat (|) 965 BMdrapada vadi 1[0] 

10 mriga-rikshe? s6dma-dine 8 | pam I Vish^ufiarmmana likhitam sethi 

utkirnnam Padi- 

11 pattanfi [|j*] subham 8 bhavatu |] 


Hail ! At the Kakaira residence, in the victorious reign of the illustrious 
Pamparajadeva, the king of kings, the supreme lord, the great worshipper of Siya, (who 
born iii the lineage of the family of the Moon, who is hailed as having obtained the 5 sound* * 
a boon from Katyayani, who has acquired (his country) by (the force of) his own arms, witk htm 
the queen Lakshmidevi and Prince V6padeva (sitting) by his side, and while the eight 10 offteml* 

1 Bead laldha>pan<Aa*faba; * Read Srttnat-. * Bead tundra. 

* Probably lte. 5 Bead rdjya. Bead MaUivara. 

t Bead wrva*"^*^ 8 Bead tttnadint. BeA/J*aA. 

These eight officials seem to have included the minister, the village priest, who in the present caie li * 
to the traniaetionj the Baj Pandit, who wrote out this document, and five others, whose office is probably 
by fire letters Ed, Sd t Vai, Pd and Tha t which perhaps stand.for Sdyako (chief counseUor), Bdjavalla& 
favourite), V tonka (chamberlain), Pdrivika (mide-de-camp), and Thakkura (lord-in-waiting). See Jbwr, 
Soe. Bengal, 1906, Vol. I. p. 10 ; Vol. XVII, 1878, pp. 405 and 408 -,'lnd. Jt#,.Vol. XI, pp. 244 and 387, I 
lat, which i a Chanlukya grant of A.D. 1207, the following occurs: itair = o*AWiAt> g AiMJiiTeaiJt , tt 
learned, thii place of worship has to be token care of by the following eight trustees. Onr inscripUoo *** 
written only six year* after the one referred to above, and it would seem that at that time eight waa coo 
an adequate number of persons at witnesses or trustees* etc., in connection with transactions of at least 

Kanker plates of Pamparajadeva. 

[Kalachuri] Satnvat 965. 

[Kalachuri] Samvat 966. 


SCALE -80 




(headed by) the minister Bhoga (?) are present on duty, this document of the village, making 
Jaipar& Vanikdtta the limit, 1 is given to GaM% Iiakshmidhara. First 3 (the revenue va3 
payable) at 130 (in former coins, now) 140 coins of (our) victorious reign (mint) for half the 
Halba 4 patti (share). Similarly in the document of Chikhali village, 150 coins of (our) 
victorious reign (mint) for the f Pralava (Halba) patti (share). The -witnesses for this 
purpose (are) Bhattardnaka Govinda, G-aita, Lakshmldhara, Gaitd Mahesvara, Ndyaku, 
Chhantu, Ndyalca Daaiodara, $tto Palatu. Samvat 935, Bhadrapada (month), in the 
Mriga lunar mansion (rifcs/ia), on Monday, the l[0]th of the dark fortnight. Written by 
Paudit Vishrrusarman and engraved by Sethi Ksava in the Padi town. Let good fortune 


Plate II. 


1 Cm 5 Svasti Padi-samavase samasta-ra.j-avali-manMathkrita 6 -s6raavam[sS,nvaya- 7 


2 man[d*]alika-3rimad-V6padSva"p^d-anudhyfita-parama-bhatt&raka-niahainap[d*]alik a, 8 - 


1 This is another ambiguous phrase capable of various interpretations. It is possible that the executors meant 
to convey that the boundaries of JaipiirA Vaaik&t^a were duly marked oat on the spot before the document was 
given to Lakshmidhara. Yanikdtta is another troublesome word. It may have been the name of a village in the 
vicinity of Jaipava and may have been used as an adjunct to distinguish it from other villages oE the same naine. 
Similarly people tnlk of Dori Naharnmu, meaning that P&ort which is near the village Nahnrmau, to distinguish it 
from- another Deori. There is a village in Kanker called Pharask6t which is probably a corruption of Parafiukfltta, 
and on. this analogy, it may fairly be asserted that there ia nothing extraordinary in the name Vauik6t$a as 
denoting a village. It is, however, equally probable that it was no village, and that Jaiparft had this adjunct 
because there existed in that village a vani7c*k6tta, or "traders' fortress," that is, a fortified place probably made by 
Banj&raa for storing grain purchased for transport. In olden times the Banjslras are known to have curried even 
gem* for protecting themselves from plunder. Jaiparil may have been one of their central dep&fcs, ' which they 
fortified, and the village therefore came to be called JaiparS, Vani[k*]-k6!;1;a. It is not necessary that the BanjJras 
alone should have done this. There may have been other traders who might have "built a fortified place, but as this 
part of the country has been and is a favourite resort of these -wandering traders, it is more likely that they should 
have built such a depftb. Numerous examples oE such adjuncts may be cited. Thus, there is a village Bard iu the 
Saugor district. It has got Hindu tombs called /Swat and hence people call it Bar! Suraigaon. In fact the 
adjunct has gained such prominence that the real name Bark is almost elbowed out, and only Suraigaon is regularly 
used. Similarly, HirdenagaT-G;arhak6ta, well known as Garhakdta, derives its name from the construction of a 
fort and rampart, the original principal village being Hirdenagar, which a Bundeli chief Eirde-Shib. founded in. 
his own name. 

2 The village priest is still called Gaitd in Kanker and Bastar States. 

1 Lines 4 and 5 are 10 obsc'ure as to make their translation extremely doubtful. There can be little doubt, 
however, that they relate to the fixation of revenue of the villages mentioned, in the coins of the reigning prince. 
Whether the old revenue in respect to the village to which the transaction refers, was 130 tanfsat, and on revision 
on the present occasion, waa enhanced fca 140 tanfeas, or the old 130 tankas were et[ual to 140 new coins ia not 
clear. While executing the present document opportunity was taken to revise the revenue of another village, 
Chikhali, for which another grdmapatra or document existed, and the revenue was fixed at 160 new tankcu. It 
appears that the Chikhali document was not near at hand, and that seems to be the reason why blank space enough 
to nil up 3 figures was left out between the words Chilshali-grdmapatrt and Vij aya -rdjyatank* to be filled up 
afterwards. Bnt ouce omitted nobody cared to fill it in, the matter not being of great importance, as the old rental 
was superseded by the revised amonot which, was thenceforth payable to the State. The fact that this record is a 
palimpsest seems to show that the fresh transaction -was a matter on revision under the new regime of 
Painparijadeva, and apparently the old record, which had become useless, was "beaten out and the new one was 
inscribed instead. The words sardha gaja, bhdma daMw appear to be Borne local technical term, which, 
was used iri fiscal matters and was well understood at the time, but so far aa my enquiry from local sources goes, it 
has not survived and it is not now used in State transactions. The matter, however, is not of great importance fcnd 
does not affect the historical information inferable from the record. 

* Pa#< are plots of land in a village and the Halv a or Halbft pa^l was apparently on* cultivated by the 
Halbaa, an aborijanal tribe chiejly found in Kanker (see above note 5, page 124). 

Expressed by a symbol. Bead "ma^y-alaAfefHa. * Bead -vamfdflvaya: 8 Bead -mabdmaitdaltJta. 



place occurs as Karial on the Indian Atlas sheet 92 N. E., Lat 82 50' and 20 17'. The plates 
have now been deposited in the Nagpur Museum. 

There are three copper plates, each measuring 5f " x 31". The first is inscribed on one 
aide only. Tracea on the other side show that the plate has formerly been nsed for another 
inscription. The plates are quite smooth, and their edges have neither been fashioned thicker, 
nor raised into rims. They are in an excellent state of preservation. About I* from the middle 
of the proper right margin, each plate has a hole, about -%" in diameter, for the ring on which, 
tha plates are strung. This ring is oval, 3-jV long and 2^|" broad. It had not been- cut when 
the plates were sent to me. 

The ends of the ring are secured in a circular seal, about 3f" in diameter. It is identical 
with, that described by Dr. Fleet, Gupta, Inscriptions, p. 196. Its upper part shows a re- 
presentation of a standing Lakshml facing full front ; on each side of her an elephant is 
standing on a waterlily, with its trunk raised above her head. In the proper right corner there 
is an expauded vraterlily, in the proper left corner a Sankha. 

The seal has been subjected to fixe, and the legend could not be made out when I received 
the plates. It has, however, proved possible to clean it, BO that it can now be read with 
certainty. Ifc therefore also makes it possible to decide what the legend must have been on the 
corresponding seal published by Dr. Fleet, which is quite illegible. 

The weight of the three plates is 1 Ib. 2f oz.; and of the ring and seal 1 Ib. 2 oz., total 
2 Ib. 4f oz. 

The size of the letters is about |". The character is the same box-headed variety of the 
Central Indian alphabet as in the copper plates of the same king published by Dr. Fleet, Gupta 
Inscriptions, pp. 196 and ff. The long variety of i is denoted by a dot in tne middle of the base 
of tne circle denoting i, and usually not in the centre of it as in the Arang plates of Maha- 
Jayaraja, 1 nor in the right side of it as in the Kaipur plates of Maha-Sudeva.* The separate sign 
of the cerebral d occurs in chuddmani, I. 1, and the final form of t in dadydt, 1. 18, and vasSt, 1. 19. 
Note also the use of one and the same sign to denote a stop in 1. 5 and the yisarga in 1. 4, etc. 
The compound ngh occurs in Drdnasinghena, 1. 23, and nch in Ttdficfictnaih, 1. 17 ; mahimatdfi- 
chchhreshta, 1. 21, and, falsely, in ddndncfcchhreyo, 1. 22. 

The numerical symbols for 2, 20, and 9 occur in 1. 22. 

The language is Sanskrit. The legend oa the seal and the usual imprecatory stanzas, 
here attributed to Vyasa, are in verse, the remainder of the inscription is in prose. 

As regards orthography we have to rote the doubling of fc before r in vikkrama, I. 1 
the similar doubling of dh before y in anuddhy dtat, 1. 3 ; the doubling of a consonant after r 
in svargge, 1. 18; visarjjito, 1. 8 ; suvarnnarh, 1. 16 ; dharnvngshtt and dharinvna, 1. 13 ; suryya 
1. 16 ; sarwa, 1. 8 ; hetur=vvasu, I, 3 ; bhtirtwaishnavS, 1. 16 ; bahub'hvr<'vva8udhd, 1. 19 ; the 
form savvatsara, i.e. savvatsara, 1. 22 ; the use of the jihvamuliya in yaJi-kdnchanarh, 1. 17 (but 
-rdjah bshiti-, 1. 4) ; of the upadhmaniya in >prada& paramo,-, 1. 3 ; tidmbilaleaydfiprativdsi., 
1. 5, etc. The visarga is usually replaced by s before hard dentals. Before the stop, however, 
we find IMmih tasya^ 1. 20 ; -srishfah te, 1. 10. A superfluous anusvara has been added in 
Witimipamn, 1. 12. Tri and tri have been interchanged in yntri-, 1. 3, and tfidaJa-, 1. 6. Note 
finally the forms tdmbra,-, 11. 10 and 23; Dronaingh6na, 1. 23, and the use of the genitive in 
Vishnusvaminas, 1. 10, 

The inscription is one of the Eaja Maha-Sudeva, and it is dated in the second year of hia 
reign on the 29th day of Sravana. The engraver was Tr6nasihgha, who also occurs in 

1 Gupta Inscriptions, pp. 191 and ff. ' a Gupta IincrifHons, pp. Ig6 and 8. 

2 2 


MaM-Sudeva's Raipur plates. 1 Like this latter inscription and the A rang copper plates of : 
Maha-Jayaraja, 3 our inscription was issued from Sarabhapura, and it states that tlie illustrious 
Man-Sudevaraja, whose two feet are washed by the water which is the flowing f oi-th of the 
lustre of the crest jewels in the tiaras of the stlmantas who have been subjugated by Ms 
prowess; who is the cause for the removal of the parting of the hair of the women of lik 
enemies; who is the giver of riches, of land, and of cows; who is a devout worshipper of 
Bhagavat ; who meditates on the feet of his mother and father, issues the following order to 
the householders living in UTavaunaka and the neighbouring ^ambilaka, in the Kshitimand' 1 
ahara: Be it known to you that these two villages, which assure the happiness of the abode 
of the king of gods, have been bestowed by a copper charter on the Vajisaneyin VishrmsvamiB, 
of the Kausika gotra, for as long a time as the world endures, having tho terrible darkness 
dispelled by the rays of sun, moon, and the stars; together with their treasures and deposits, 
not to be entered by district officers 3 and soldiers, free from all taxes ; for the purpose of increas- 
ing the spiritual merit of our parents and ourselves. 

The date of our inscription cannot as yet be settled. Maha-Sudeva is tho same who has 
issued the grant published by Eajendralala Mitra 4 and Dr. Fleet. 5 According to the legend 
of the seal he was the son of a certain. Manamatra, who in his turn had risen from the 
Prasann-d-rnai-a, i. e, who was descended from Prasanna, probably his son. 

Neither Manam&tra nor Prasanna are elsewhere known. Manamatra can perhaps be 
identified with Mananka, " the ornament of the Rashtralrutas," who is mentioned in tlie 
copper plates of Abhimanyu of Manapura edited by Professor Hultzsch. 6 This MSnanka had a 
son, Devaraja, who might be identical with Sudevaraja. In support of this hypothesis it may 
be mentioned that m&trd and aitka are both stated by lexicographers to mean ornament. On tht 
other hand, the alphabets of the two inscriptions differ, and this, in addition to the difference 
in the names, makes the identification very doubtful. 

Of the geographical names occurring in the inscription Sarabhapura also recurs in the 
two other grants by Haha-Sudeva and in the Arang plates of MaM-Jayaraja. Navannaka may 
be the present ISTahna, the Naina 7 of the maps, three miles south of Ehariur. We do not know 
anything about the location of the remaining geographical names of our inscription, 
Kshitimanda and Sambilaka. They should be looked for in the neighbourhood of Khariur. 


Mrat Plate. 

1 Svasti [I*] !arabliapurad=vikkram-6panata-samauta-maknta-ohudamani- 

2 prabha-prasek-ambu,-dh6ta 9 -pada-yngal6 ripn-vilasini-simant-6ddharana- 

3 h&tur=vvasu-va3udha-g&-pradah=paramabhlgavato mata-pitri 10 -pad-anuddhya- 

4 taS=sri-Mah-Sudeva-rajah Kshmmand-ahariya-Wavannaka^tat-prav^ya- 

5 SambUakay6h=prativasi-kutumbinas-samajnapayati || Viditam= astu 

1 Gupta inscriptions, pp. 196 and 3. 2 Hid. pp. 191 and ff. 

* Bor the meaning of chdta compare Dr. Vogel in Archaological Survey of India, Annual Report, 1902* 
03, p. 247. 

* J. Seng. A. 6., Vol. xxxv, Part \, 1867, pp. 195 and ff. 
5 Gupta Inscriptions, pp. 196 and ff. 

s Above, Vol. viii, p. 163; compare Fleet, Ind. Ant., Vol, xxx, p. 509. 

i The Commissioner of Raipnr now informs me that the plates were actunlly found in Kahna, and that the 
local authorities are inclined to identify Sambilaka vrith the present San Doil or Sandohal, a village adjoining 

* From the original plates, ' Read -dfiautct; w Read 




SCALE -85 






. p*f:X- *;*'-' T y T.-. ." v 


Second Plate; First Side. 

TO yatli=asm.abliir=etad 1 =grama-dvajam tndasa 3 -pati-sadaua-sukka-pratishtMkar6 


7 d^ravi-sasi-tara-kirana-pi-atikata-gbor-attdhakamm jagad=a\ T atishthate tavad=upa- 

8 bUogyas-sauidhis=Bopaiiidhii i =ac]iata-bhata-prav6sya-Bai'vva-kara-vi8:u > iji- 

9 to niatilpik-6r=atmanas=clia pony-abhivriddhaye Vajisan6ya-K6sika 3 -sas6tra- 

10 Vish.ausvaiainas=tauibi i a3asan6a=atisrislit3.h [|*J T yuyam=evain=upalabb.y=asy=a- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

11 jna-sravana-vidbeya bhufcva yatliocbitatii bh.6ga-bh.agam=iipanayaTita8=sukb.am prati- 

12 vatsyatha [|*J Bhavisb.yatas=cha bhuaiipirixu^aaujai'dayati [||*J dauad 5 = 

visishtam= anupa- 

13 lana-jaih 8 purana dUai-mmfishu nischita-dliiyah=pravadauti dharmma[iii*] 

!| (I) tasma[d*J dvija- 

14 ya Buvisuddlia-kula-srataya dattam bhuvaih bhavatu vo . matir=ovit 

gf.ptu[ni*J I! 

15 Tad=bkavadbhir=apy=eBlia 'dattir=auupalayitavya [|*J Vyasa-gltaiii5-oh=ati-a 


Tlml Plate;. First Side. 
ItJ daliaranti || ' Agner 7 =apatya[m*] prathamam suvarnnadi bliur=vvaisluiaTi 


17 8utus=oha gavah f |*j dattaB=traya8=tena bb-avauti loka yah=kan.cbanadi gam. 

clia maMtia cha da- 

18 dyat [||*] Shastti 8 -varsha-8aliasx'aiii svargge m6dati bhumidah [I*] aclicbbC'tta 

19 cli=anum.aafea' cba tany=eva narake vaeet [||*J Bahubb.ir=vvasn.dlia datta 


20 s=Sagar-adibbih [|*J yasya yasya yada bhumih tasya tasya tada phalaii II 

Third Plate ; Second Side. 

21 Svadattam 9 paradatfcaih va yataad=rakalia Tiidhifihthira [|*] mabim=maliimatan= 


22 dana(a)'oh=ciilircy&impalanam=iti [||*] sTamukhajtayl sawatsara 10 2 Sravana 

di 2O 9 

23 'utkirnnam tambrasasanaiu DronasinghSna. 


Prasaam-arnnava-sambbftta-M&namatr "6ndu-janmana[h* ] Srima[t-Sude] varfijasya stbiram 

1 The engraver originally wrote edttodbUfaya; but corrected it to *4tmclbhir*6ia: Tte gender in the 
following is wiMDg. 
* Bead trl-. 

1 Kead -baufika: 4 Head lMmi$dn=. ' s Metre : VasantatUaka. 

* The *o in anuptllaita.- lias been added below the line. ' 7 Metre ; ludravajra. 

8 Metre; Slfika, ' ' Metre: &I6ka. w Head ww 


By R. SEWELL, I.C.S. (Retired). 

In "Vol. VIII. 122 ff. Mr. H. Krishna Sastri, B.A., publishes an inscription of the Kalasa 
chief Bhairava II. at Karkala in the South Canara district of the Madras Presidency, and 
in the course of his discussion 1 on the history of the family quotes Mr. Rice's Mudgere Talnq 
inscription of A.D, 1516 (Mg. 41). His comment on this is as follows "This inscription 
supplies the interesting iuformation that, during the reigu of the great Krishnaraya of Vijaya- 
nagara, Bhujabala-Maharaya led a campaign against the Tulu-rajya, and was encamped at fhe 

bhuvana-SLde in Mangalura Biiujabala-Maharaya, who led the campaign, 

must- be identical with Krishnaraya' s elder brother 'Basbalrao' mentioned on p. 110 of 
Mr. Sewall's Forgotten Empire, etc " 

There seerns to be a mistake here. Firstly, I note that Mr. Bice does not consider the word 
SJiujabala, in the passage in question to be a proper name. The passage 3 rnns Vijat/a- 
ua-garada Wiujahala mahdriiyant Tulu rdjyada mUle dandu bandu, and is translated by Mr, 
j{,i ce "The mighty (bJiujabala) Mah&raya of Vijayanagara having come against the Tulu 
kingdom with an &rmy." Here there is no ruler or leader named '-' Bhujabala Maharaya." 
Secondly, the leader of the army could only have been Nuniz's " Busbalrao," elder brother of 
Kriahnadeva Raya, if the date of this expedition to the Tulu country were referred to a period 
at least seven yeara earlier than the date of the inscription, because " Busbalrao " had died 
when Kriahnadeva was placed on the throne in. A,D. 1509. It is possible that the expedition 
did take place before Krishnadeva's accession, and it is equally possible that it may allude 
to Kriahnadeva Raya's own exploit shortly after he came to the throne, when he, or bis 
generals, reduced the Granga Raja of Ummatur in Mysore. The mention in "Mg. 41" of 
Krishnadeva Raya's supreme sovereignty over the Kalasa country during' the chieftainship of 
Immadi-Bhairarsa-Odeyar gives us no clue to the date of the Vijayanagara army's march 
to Mangalora, for this may have taken place at any period before the date of that chief's 
grant, vis., Sunday, July 13, A.D. 1516. But what is quite certain is that the leader of the 
army refer red to could not have been Krishnadeva Raya's elder brother, whom KTuniz called 
" Busbalrao," dwing, as stated by Mr. Krishua Sastri, the reign of Krishnaraya ; for it was 
" Busbalrao's '* death, according to Nuniz, that placed Krishnadeva on the throne. 

At the date of the grant Krishnadeva was conducting his decisive campaign in the east, and 
had captured Kondavidu three weeks earlier, vis., on June 23rd, A.D. 1516. 



The discovery of this first copper plate inscription in the wild Bastar State of the Central 
Provinces is the result of the zeal with which Rai Bahadur Baijuath, B.A., the Superintendent 

1 Page 127, note 2. Will some one tell as whefcber the name should be spelt Ea}aa or Kalasa. It appears 
to be spelt either way in the original inscriptions, Thus in Mff. 40 (the inscription preceding the one in question), 
the Kanarese text Las Ka\asa va line 11, and Kalafa in line 12. On p. 68 of his translation Mr. B-ice gives UB 
three times Ka\aia and five times Kalafas on p. 60 we Lave four times Kalaia (nofc Sala/a) and tbree times 
JSTaZcwa. This last form is certainly wrong, for the second akshura in always la in the original. The variation ia 
oply in the third syllable. Mr. Kfisnoa Sastri, in the Ejiigraphia gpella the word consistently 

See E Cam. VI. 155-262, lines 1-2. 


of the State, set himself to make a search for the antiquarian remains in that little known and 
remote quarter, at my request. Mr. Baijnath has been richly rewarded for bis efforts, for, in 
addition to the present copper plates, he has discovered more thau twenty new inscriptions in 
Sanskrit and Tehign characters, of most of which he has sent me ink estampages and tracings. 
I have deciphered several of them and they \vill in due course appear in this Journal. I bpoin 
with the copper plates, as this is perhaps the most ancient Sanskrit inscription yet found in 
Bastar. Mr. Baijnath found the plates in the possession of a Brfihman named Gangadhar Parhi 
of Elsvwadgaon close to Rajapura. Gang&dhar received them from his sister-in-law, who found 
them buried in a field at Naharni, sixteen miles from Rajapura, 

There are three copper plates, held together by a ring, soldered into what was apparently 
the lower portion of a seal, which had been broken off. Each plate is aboiit lOf '' x 5J" and they 
weigh 2iH. 30 and 35 tolas, respectively, the weight of the ring being 2G tolas. The plates are 
smooth, sufficiently thick, and in an excellent state of preservation. They are inscribed on both 
sides, except the first oue, which is inscribed on one side only. Mr. T. G. Green, Superintend- 
ent of the Secretariat Press, Nagpur, kindly took for me impressions, which arc reproduced in 
the accompanying plate. The plates are numbered 1, 2, 3, on the margin, which was apparently 
left to prevent the ring holes from coming in between the written lines. Tbe word srt has been 
engraved in the upper margin of the first plate, over the figure 1. 

Tbe second side of the third plate is inscribed with bsnedictive and imprecatory figures, 
ris., 12 bands in a row at the top, beneath which there is to the proper left a cow with a boll 
attached to her neck, and a dagger and a shield beside her feet, a florated linga in the form of a 
arasf-iku in the middle, and a woman pursued by a donkey to the proper right, with the figure 
of the sun and the moon over it. My interpretation of these figures is as follows : The hands 
are uplifted, apparently as an expression of benediction on the donor, and they are twelve, 
probably because there were 12 pdtras or donees referred to in the inscription. The cow is 
apparently drawn to remind us that whosoever appropriates the gifted land, will have to reap 
the same consequences which a cow's curse can produce, or will fall mto the same calamity as & 
cow is in when deprived of her calf. Siva is shown ag the protector against aggression on the 
spiritual side, aud the ruling king's dagger and shield on the temporal. The sun and the moon 
indicate that the grant is to last as long as these luminaries endure. Lastly the obscene figurfe 
of an ass associating with a woman is a vulgar imprecation implying that the transgressor of a 
gift should be so low-born. 1 

The inscription is in the ETagari character. The average size of the letters is -{-'. They 
are well formed and clearly written. 

The language is corrupt Sanskrit, and except the bonedicfcive and imprecatory verses, which 
are inserted in a somewhat disconnected manner, the remainder of the inscription is prose. In 
fact, the whole composition is disjointed, aud there are several grammatical slips and spoiling 

The most noteworthy orthographical peculiarities are the representation of the initial i 
with two dots and a stroke underneath, resembling the Nfigari figure 2 (11. 13, 1G, 23 arid 30). 
The auusviira is put at the side of the letter aud is represented by a dot with a halo, underneath 
(11. 2, 3, 5, G, S, 10, 12, 13, 15, 1G, 17, IS, 20, 21, 22, #5, 20 and 27), but in several instances it 
is also represented in the ordinary way by a dot on the top of the letter (11. 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, 
10, It), 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31 and 32). One top stroke representative of the mdtrj'x 

1 Compute my remarks, above, p, 164, 


of 3, ai, a and aw is exhibited by a vertical stroke placed before the letter to which it is attached 
a practice which is still followed in the Bengali and Oriya writing, but exceptions may be found 
Bide by side, where it is placed on the top of the letter according to the practice now followed in. 
writing. Thus, in line 12, the de of Madhurdntakadeva has a top, while the very next de of 
JZanharadeva has a vertical stroke preceding the letter da. The latter form, however, pre- 
dominates, the exceptions being found a3 regards e in 11. 2, 4, 10, 11, 12, 21, 26, 29 and 31 and 
of o in 11. 1, 19, 31, and 32. Ai has been used only once, in line 8, and au twice, in, lines 11 and 
26, and in each case one of the top mdtrds has been represented by a vertical stroke preceding 
the letter to which it is attached. The letters Wia, dlia, ra and ksha, invariably appear in their 
antiquated forms. The letter v is used throughout for Z>, and s for s, except in the solitary 
instances of daia, in 1. 3 and o svi in 11. 12 and 29. Ja is used for ya (11. 20, 24, and 27), ri is 
used for the vowel ri in 1. 8, and na for na in 1. 6. In line 8 kanivala 1 for kamala is a spelling 
which occurs in other inscriptions. It represents the actual pronunciation of the vernacular 
word a pronunciation still kept up in the Chhattisgarh division, of which Bastar forms part. 

The object of the inscription is to record the grant of Rajapura village, situated in the 
Bhramarakotya mandala, to one Medipota or a Chhurikara Medipota and his descendants, 
together with 70 gadytinaka? gold. The grant was made by the king Madntir&ntakadeva, 
who belonged to the Chhindaka family of the Naga (Cobra) race. The inscription is dated ia 
the [Saka] year 887, in the Parabhava samvatsara, on Wednesday o the bright fortnight of 
Karttika month. Although the tit-hi has not been given, there is a most minute description o 
the moment of the grant, ihe nakshatra being stated to be AnuradhS, the yoga to be 
Saubhagya and the Itarana, to be Qara. From these data the exact date has been kindly 
calculated for me by Professor Kielhorn who says : 

" The date for Saka 987 expired corresponds to Wednesday, the 5th October A.D. 1065. 
On this day the third titlii of the bright half of Karttika ended 9 hours 17 minutes after mean, 
sunrise, and the naM&hatra, was Anui\idha and the yoga Saubhagya. The second half of the 
titM was the Itarana Grara. But the Jupiter's year is not quite correct. By the southern system. 
i't should have been Visvavaau and by the northern luni-solar system Plavanga and by the 
northern mean sign system Eilaka. The mistake is the same as in the first Blanker 8 plates." 

The purpose for which the grant was made is somewhat obscure. I take it to be a compen- 
sation for supplying a victim for human sacrifice. Before proceeding to show how I arrive at 
this conclusion, it may he stated that in Bastar and the adjoining tracts human sacrifices were 
rampant about seventy years ago. It is notorious that human victims were offered to the goddess 
Dant^svari, enshrined at Dantewara in the Bastar State. Colonel Macpherson of the Madras 
Army, who was appointed agent for the suppression of Meriah sacrifices and female infanticide 
in the hill tracts of Orissa, which Bastar adjoins, says 4 : " In the worship of Tari Pennu or 
Earth Goddess the chief rite is human sacrifice. It is celebrated as a public oblation by tribes 
both at social festivals held periodically and when occasions demand extraordinary propitiation, 
daeh. as the occurrence of an extraordinary number of deaths by disease or by tigers, or should 
very many die in child-birth, or should the flocks or herds suffer largely from disease or from 
wild beasts, or should the greater crops threaten to fail, or the occurrence of any marked 
calamity to the families of the tribal chiefs. Victims are called Meriah and are acceptable only 
when they have been acquired by pu^hase or were born as such, that is, of a victim father. 
Tictims are generally supplied to the Khonds by men of the two races called Panw& and 
Gahinga, who are attached in small numbers to almost every Khond village for the discharge o 
this and other peculiar offices. The Panw&s purchase the victims without difficulty or kidnap 

1 Compare Dr Grierson in J". 5. A. S. 1907, p. 1057. 

1 Gadydqaka is a weight = 32 fftinja. Bee Y&jnav&lkya iii. 258. 

' A,bqre p. 1$$. i j. JS. A. S. Yol. XIII. (1852), p. ?4S et se^ 


them from the poorer classes of Hindus, procuring them either to the order of the Khonds or on. 
speculation, and they moreover constantly sell as victims their own children and children of 
whom as relatives they are the guardians. Khonds when in distress, as in times of famine, 
also frequently sell their children for victimSj considering the "beatification of their souls certain 
and foeir deaiih for the benefit of mankind, the most honourable possible. The Meriah grove, a 
clump of deep and shadowy forest treea, usually stands at a short distance from the village by a 
rivulet which is called the Meriah stream. It is kept sacred from the axe and is avoided by the 
Khonds as flaunted ground." Bearing these remarks in mind, I now proceed to examine in how 
far they can throw light on oar inscription. The italics in the above extract are mine, and they 
should be borne especially in mind, while considering what follows. In 11. 26 to 28 it is stated 
that !t no body enters the cfihuriprabandha. There is no place for the preceptor of yogims. Ifor 
this purpose this village is taken with a view to do good to all living beings." From this it ia plain 
iihat the grant was not made for any spiritual purpose such as the increasing of the religious 
merit of the king and his ancestors, but with a practical earthly aim, %iz., in order to secure the 
welfare of the general public including cattle and other animalB. The grant was not made to a 
Brahmana but to a Medip6ta (11. 12 to 14) who is styled "Patra 12," and to whom 70 gadydnaka 
gold were given in addition to the village, with the mc'ual consent 1 of the king, the queen, the 
prince and officers of State as stated in the grant, evidently in order to make the transaction an 
out-and-out purchase. Had the donee been a Br&hmana, we should have expected a mention of 
his parentage, gotra and caste, but no snoh information IB forthcoming in this grant. In 1. 25 
Medipdta is called cTihurikcira, which is probably used in a technical sense having reference to 
the cT^hurifrabandha referred to abovej and not in the ordinary sense of a knife-maker (black- 
smith), lam unable to say what chhuri'pra'bandha' 2 ' really means, but from the context it appears 
to stand for something like narabaUprabandha, apparently on account of the great importance 
of the chhvri or knife in the sacrifice. 

With regard to the epithet " 12 patra " I am inclined to believe that Medipota, whether this 
word is a proper name or the name of an office, was the head of the 12 persons employed in the 
work of procuring victims. So late as 1884 A.D., when an investigation was made in Bastar in 
connection with kidnapping persons for sacrifice, it was believed that there were 12 villages 
given rent-free to kidnappers of 12 families, with whom the stipulation was that in case they 
could not procure victims from elsewhere, they must supply them from their own family in con- 
sideration of the free grant they enjoyed. Of course the existence of a grant for such a purpose 
could not be proved, as the sacrifices had been stopped long before the institution of the in- 
vestigation. But the tradition of 12 families of melUahs or kidnappers of victims is significant 
and points to a practice which evidently existed in the days of these sacrifices. 8 I am further 
inclined to think that Medipbta was an office, Medi being the same as Meli or Melli vulgo 
IfeHiah or Malia,* the word pdta, which in Telugu means a sacrificial victim, being dropped for 

1 The Kdlilcd Purdqa says : 

If a human sacrifice is performed without the consent of the prince, the performer incurs sin (see 

Zudhirddhydya in the Asiatic Researches, VoL V. p. 383). 

1 [The text has chhuripravadham, which might perhaps be translated " tilling with a chhtiri.*' S. K.] 
1 [The passage in question (1, 14) can also be translated, " Keceivers 12 Mdip6tas, in their hand property 
WM received," The GTihwiTedra, of 1. 25 would then he a special M6dip6ta. S. K,] 
4 Capt. Mac Vicar saya : 

"The Meriah offering, whether so called Toki Poojah or Noroboli (Narabali), is essentially the eame in 
object as the loli (bali) of the Doorga Poojah, and to this day the ritual of the Khond is annually 
celebrated by the Borisoloo o? Maliah fat'er (P&tra) at Pooramari, the capital of Chinna Kimedi, r>u 
the conclusion of the Dasserab, festival a goat now being substituted for the more precious vu:tim." 
Mark the italics, which are mine. (See Report by Capt. MacVicar, 1851, in the History of operations 
Jor the suppression of human sacrifice in ihe hill tracts of Orissa, 1854). It would appear that 
Melliah (the procurer) and Meriah (the victim) were identical terms, the procurers being regarded in 

2 A. 


the sake of brevity. It will now appear that the grant gives sufficient indications pointing to 
the procuring of a human victim. The village is secured as the residence of the preceptor of 
the jSginis, who of course dwell in a haunted place, which is naturally avoided by others. The 
victim is oht&iaed by purchase, with the mutual consent of the king and his subjects, the grant 
is made to aon-Brahmanas, the likely persons to take part in such a ceremony, and all this is 
done for the purpose of dayd and dharma to all living creatures. Having referred to these 
main points, I pass over the minor ones which lead to the same conclusion, that this grant was 
made in favour of procurers of victims for human sacrifices. If therefore the purpose of the 
grant is really what it appears to be, then I fancy this is a unique record and no similar 
inscription has hitherto "been discovered. 

Some remarks about the dynasty of the king mentioned in this grant will be found above 
on pp, 161 and ft, where -I have dealt with the inscriptions of the Nagavarhsi kings 
found in Bastar, most of, which are not yet published and which I propose to edit in due 
course as intimated before. The dynasty is clearly related to the Sinda family of Yelburga. 
Though styled "Lord of Bh&gavati, the best of cities," Madhurantakadeva appears to have 
been a MaafaUka (feudatory chief), as the verse in 11. 24-25 shows that his r&j was limited to 
Bhramarak&tya, which is described as a mandala in 1. 15. He belonged to the Chhindaka 
family, one of the 36 Agnikulas 1 mentioned by Ohand Bardai, the court poet of Prithviraja, 

With regard to the localities mentioned in the record, Rajapura is identical vnth the 
present village of the same name, 22 miles north-west of Jagdalpur (the capital of Bastar), on 
the hank of the Indr^vati river. There are ruins of a fort there, and it is believed that it was once 
a royal capital. The present Baja family also dwelt there for some time. Chakrakotya is, I feel 
little doubt, the town mentioned by the Kashmirian poet Bilhana in his VikramdnJcadevacTiarita, 
in which he tecords that Vikrama as yuvamja set out on a series of warlike expeditions, with 
the permission of Ms father. He repeatedly defeated the Cholas and plundered K&Schl He 
assisted the king of Maiava in regaining his kingdom and carried his arms as far north as Gauda 
and Kamartipa. He attacked also the king of Simhala or Ceylon, destroyed the aandal wood 
forests of Malaya ^Hille and slew the lord of Kerala. He finally conquered Gaiigaknada (IV 21) 
Vengi (IV. 29) and Chakrakota (IV. 30). After haying accomplished these brilliant exploits 
Vikrama turned homewards, and, on coming as far as the Krislma, he was suddenly disquieted 
by the news of his father's death. Dr. Biihler 3 remarks that " Bilhana's rhapsodic treatment of 
this portion of Tikrama's career makes it impossible to determine the chronological order of these 
wars. Only BO much may be considered certain that Ms last exploits were performed in the 
south as he came on bis homeward march to the Krishna." There can be no doubt about these 
exploits of Vikrama. They were, as related above, the conquest of Gangakunda, Vengi and 
Chakrak&ta, and at least these seem to have been conquered in the order in which they have been 
mentioned. Gangakurda was the Ch&la capital, situated in the north-east corner of the 
Tnohinopoly district, 8 whence Vikrama proceeded north to VengS, the country between the Krishna, 

the same light as the victims, as they had themselves to become victims in the absence of a procured 
one. The sacrifices paid the Melliahs, w ho thus became purchased victims, and they did not care 
whence the victim wne procured BO long as one was supplied to them when wanted. Thus to the 
sacrifices, the procurer and the victim would mean the same thing, but the terms came to be differen- 
tiated when a class of procurers grew up and the real victim happened to be a substitute for themselves. 
A parallel instance of such differentiation in the same word may be found in K6twal and Kfitwar 
in the Saugor district, where in spite of the officials regarding them as identical, a social distinction 
is made out. . The Kdtwal is generally of a higher caste than the K&twar and considers himself tb,e 
proper village watchman, other jnenial duties being taken as the proper function of the E6twr. 
tfatrdja Rds6, Canto 1, page 54 (N&garJ Praoharinl Granthamall series). 

* 2nd. Ant. Vol. V, p. 319 footnote. 

* 1*1, 4*t. Vol. XIX. p. 3,88. 

Rijapura plates of Madhurintakadeva. 3aka 987. 






and the G&davari. He apparently crossed the latter and raided the country of Chakrak6ta and then 
wended his way homewards. This occurred just a few years after the present grant was made 
(1065 A.D.), in. as much as Yikrama became king in 1076 A.D. Many a southern king 1 like- 
wise raided this somewhat weak power, which mnst accordingly have been situated near to their 
kingdoms. Therefore Chakrak&ta was not near Dhara, as some scholars have supposed, but waa 
contiguous to Vengi, being situated in the present Bastar state. I think the confusion with 
Dhar& is due to the fact that Chakrak6tya had a king named Dharavarsha (which has been 
apparently wrongly interpreted to mean 'king of Dhara' 2 ). In an unpublished inscription 
found at Kuruspal, a place close to Rajapura, there occurs Ghakrakutddhttvardndm Uulam^alath 
Ttarishnuh .... samabhavad DhardvarsTiandmo naresvarah. The JN~arayanpala inscription 
also mentions Dharavarsha, whose widow Gunda-mahadevi gave avray-the Narayanapura village 
in her grandson's reign in the year 1111 A.D. 3 The name Chakrakotya probably survives in the 
present CKfrakiita or Chitrakota, 8 miles from Rajapura. Bhramarakotya was possibly an 
alternative name of Chakrakotya, which seems to survive in Ghmnara, a name given to the fall 
of the Indravati at Chitrakota, 


First Plate. 

1 Cm* svasti [|*] Sahasra'phanamani-kirana-nikar-avabhasura- 5 N'agavams-6- 

2 dbhava-Bnogavati-pura-var-esvara 6 visada-jaya-patu-pataha-gam- 

3 bha(bhi)rya-dhvani-lamkarita 7 - (| 1 )daia-di8-amtaralardhanu 8 - ( | |)vyaghra-lam- 

4 chhaiTa-(|)Chhimdaka-kula-tilaka-kamala-bTiaskara (II) maha-mahe- 

5 svara(svara)-charana-kamala-8evi-kimjalka-pumia-pi[rii*]jarita-bhra- 

6 marayam&na(na) (||) Burapati-vmirjita-dumdubH-t{trya-iw-6[t*]tra- 

7 sit.ari-chakra chira-lavdha-joyeta 9 (|) eravat-opari-lavdha-lamva 10 - 

8 kamvala.kadala(li)-dhvaja 11 samkh-aika-savd-abhinamdita | svasti nri- ia 

9 pa.kal-atita-sa[m*]vat 987 nava-sata-sataai-sapta- 13 

Second Plate j J?int Side. 

10 varshasa 14 parbhava-samvatum-abhyamtarah-fcartika-maaa-sutla-paksh ls vudha- 

11 din nakvatra armrave 16 saubhSgya-jdge 17 | karana-gajS 18 | sarve 19 mahu- 

1 Tte first raid so far as is known appears to have been made t>y Vijayaditya III. of the Eastern Chalukya 
Hne, who ruled between 844 and 888 A.D. He burnt Chakrakdta (above, Vol. IV. p. 226). ^Then the Ch&la 
Raiendra-Chfila I. (A.D. 1011-33) took Sakkara-k6ttam (South. Ind. Inscr. Vol. II. p. 108), while one of his 
successors, king Viraraj6ndra I., claims to have crossed the G6davarl, passed through Kalinga, and advanced against 
ChakraV6ta (ibid. Vol. III. p. 70). Nest the Ch61a king Kulfittuiiga, while yet a youth, won his riist 
lanrela in battle by storming Chakrak6ta. This happened prior to 1070 A.D. and is mentioned in the Tamil poem 
KaUngattu Parani (X 24), and also in inscriptions (see e.g. Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. p. 286), Vikrarna was probably 
the fifth raider, the sixth being Vishnuvardhana Hoysala in the 12th century (Kielhom's Southern iisi,No. 396). 

2 I would therefore, instead of ' Rajakesarivarman (i.e. Kul&ttunga Ch6}a I.) conquered the kiug of Dhara at 
Cbjvkrak6^n ' read Bajakfisarivarman conquered king Dliara(yarBb.a) at Chakrakfltta ' (see Kielhorn's Southern 

3 See above, page 161. * Expressed by a symbol. 5 Head 

6 Head -&vara viSada-, T Bead 'farnkdrita. 8 Read -di3-dmtardl6 

9 Bead -labdJia-jay'dpUa. 10 Bead airdvat-dpari-labdha'lamla'kamala-, 

11 Bead famlcji-aika-iabd-. 1J Bead safca-nfi-. 13 Read - 

14 Bead varshasya. 

l * Bead sainvatsar-dbhyamtara-Jt;drttilica-m<!la-sukla'paktA6 Jn^Ao-. 
w Bead anurddhd-naisha,tr&. IT Bead 

w Bead aara-JearanS. ig Bead sarvn-muhurttishu. 

o i o 
ft A A 



L2 tram srl-Madhurmtakadeva || kumara 1 Kanharadevah rajfii Nagala-maha- 

13 ddvi I kumara 2 lTaikah nayaka Sudrakah 3 kumara Tumgarajah srM 

14 shthi Puliama IF ekanmati 6 -Khufcva pfifoa 12 mMip&ta hastS dravyam 

15 grihifcam suvarnna-gadya'naka 70 Bhramarak6tya-mandala-madh.y 

16 Eajapura-gramam pada prakahala[y*j itva" hast& dharam pradata(ttam) |j 


17 taraka-prabhpifci siva-nirmalyam 6 vaditam. kala-kal-antare grilma- 7 

IS mam vadati || Vanarasyam sahaara-linga "bhagiie ( sahasra-tataga 8 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

19 sahasra vrahmana 9 ( g6-sahasra-ghafcam kritv& | tasyasy6pi 10 phalath bhav^tii II 


20 da[t*]t[fi,*]ih paradat[ta*]ia va ]'6(yd) hared(reta) vasumdharam [|*] ahaahttc"- 


21 viahfchayaiii jayate krimi[h*] || samany6=yam dianna-settim(tTir)=flripliitaro 

kalS ka- 

22 1 (y6) palaniyam(-y6) bhavadbHih [|*] sarvan=y6p6fcam ls bhagioatli 

plrbhavemdro bb.ft- 

23 y6 yachate Eamachamdrah [|I*J lkas-6tpati ls nidhi gaja da[t*]tam lit 


24 vahyam raja-dravyam || u jaya chadra8=clia surjas=cb.a Java tiehtliati mfidin! )| 

(I) j^va- 

25 to Bhramakotya rajavamsa tavafcu || chhuri-kara medipdtasya putra- 

26 pautr6 sasanarii 15 .palaoiyarh (| grama-mSdb-yS 16 chhuri-pravadham 17 ko=pi n 


27 sati 18 || kuiayani 19 -j6gin$-acliaryasya(^) sthalain n=a3fci |j 

Third Plate; First Side. 

28 gramam griMtam daya.dharma-sar7a-]aT5atu-(|)upak&r-artha-Mhim || Chakrakd* 

29 tya-ma?idala-inadJiy& safcsH nayaka Sri-DMrSsvarah(syara^) Mudhasfili 

30 haeti I karana Dftria I Likhitam kayastha-Dhariflkfina(h) iti 

31 lekha[ni] dhritam kumara 30 Tumgarftja DhSmad^va Q^vardhanab 

Danardanah 31 patra 

32 Q&girfl sadhu saharanga(-su ?) | Manavridhi- 83 svahastd^yanx matam= 

33 ti tl 

1 Bead Jeumdra. z Bead Icw.-^fa Ndyakah, Bead Sddtakah. 

5 Eead Skdwumati- ; cf. iTeamatilMi'oSi in 11. 29, 30, aid 83 of the Siyadoni inscription (above, Vol. I. p. 

a Read 6iva-irmdlyam<*uditam- 1 Read grihiidm=imam. 

8 Bead -taddga. Bead brdhmaw w Bead ta,sy**dsy=dpi. 

11 Read shas&fim varsha-sahasrdrii, 
" Bead sarvdn=6vcnh bhdvinah pdrthfyfadrdn Ih4y6 JAiJ-. " Bead dkdi-6tpatti. 

14 Bead ydvachtcfiandra^o^a sdryaj-c&a ydvat"tiili(kati yddini ydvaMu Bhramardk6t,y4 

15 Bead Sdsanam, Bea4 -mtdU. l ? Bead -pralandhafa. 
M Read toti. Reafl kwldyi*t'y6ffii. Bead itw4ra. 

21 Bead. Jandrdana. In. Bastar sud the adjoining driya country tins name is commonly prononned 
Dmdrdanic, and I have found a Tahsildk of K&l&haadi who actually writes his name to. AH these names should 
properly be in the instrumental, 

11 Bead Itaqiv 



Om ! Hail ! (In tlie reign of the king) born of the race of the Naga (Cobra), which is 
resplendent with the mass of rays (proceeding from) the jewels in (its) thousand hoods ; who 
ie lord of Bhogavati, the best of cities ; while the space "between the ten quarters is resounding 
with the deep sound from the shrill drums (proclaiming bis) brilliant victories ; whose crest 
ia a bow and a tiger ; who is (as it were) the sun. to the lotus (-like) crest jewel of the 
Cnhindaka family ; who resembles a bee which is rendered yellow "by the mass of the pollen 
served to the lotus feet of the great Manes' vara ; whose circla of enemies is terrified by the 
sound of the dundubhi (drum) and fury a (musical horn.) won from Indra ; who is endued with 
victories gained since a long time ; whose banner ia the lotus and plantain, (leaf) supported on 
(the hack) of Airavata (white elephant) ; and who is hailed by the sound of conches only ; in 
the year of the (Saka) king 987 expired, in the month of Karttika, during the Currency of the 
Parabnava-sarirvatsara, in the bright fortnight, on Wednesday, in the Amiradb.4 lunar 
mansion, in the Saubhagya yoga and Gara karana, in all these auspicious moments, the 
illustrious Madburantakadeva, Prince Kanharadeva, Queen Ngala MEahadSvi, Prince 
Nayaka, J-Tayaka Sudraka, Prince Tungaraja and Sre'shthin Puliama, having unanimously 
agreed, the village Eajapura (situated) ia the Bhramarakdtya mandala is granted, after 
washing the feet and (accompanied) with pouring streams (of water), (and) 70 gatfydnaka gold are 
received in the hand of (by) Medipota, (who is the head) of the twelve pcitras (persons worthy 
of receiving gifts). The gift is declared as tSwanwrndlya. (as sacred as a gift offered to Siva 
and therefore inviolable), as long as the moon, the stars, etc., endure. If any one from time "to 
time says: "I take it, " the result for him also (will be the same as in the case of) breaking 
a thousand lingas in Banaras, breaking a thousand tanks, and killing a thousand Brahmans and 
a thousand cows. 

" He who resumes land given by himself or given by another becomes a worm in ordure for 
sixty thousand years." 

" Common is this religious bridge to princes, and it should be guarded by you from age to 
age. Thus does Ei&machandra again and again conjure all future lords of the earth." 

The produce from the heavens, deposits (in the earth) and (wild) elephants 1 are given, but 
other things outside the village are the State property. So long as the sun and the moon and 
the earth and the royal race of Bhramarak6tya endure, so long (must this charter be observed). 
This oharter is to be respected in the case of Chaurikara Ktedip6ta's sons and grandsons. 

Nobody enters the chhuripralandha at the village sacrifice. There is no place for the 
preceptor of the resident (local) joginis. For this purpose this village ia taken, for the benefit of 
all creatures, for the purpose of (showing) kindness and (performing) virtue. lu the Chakra- 
kotya mandala the witnesses are : -Nayaka r! Dliaresvara, Mudhasdll, Nagahasti, (and) 
Karana DariS. Written, by Dhanuka Kayaatha. 

The pen (engraving stylus) (was) touched by Kumara Tungaraja, DhamadSva, G3var- 
dhana, DanSrdana, Patra G&gira (and) Sadhu Sauaranga (SaMrasu ?). This is in Manavyi- 
dni's hand(writing) (which) sets np (expresses) the (general) opinion, 

1 In Bloehman's Ain-i-Aklari, Vol. I. pagre 122, the following occur* : 

* Elephants are chiefly found in the Subah of Agra, in the forests of Bayftwiu and Narwar as far as Berar, 
in the Sttbah of Allahabad, in the counties of Pattah and Ghoraghat and Ratanpur, Nandanpur, Sargachh aad 





This inscription, is on a slab built into the "wall of the Karne^var, vulgo Kanesar, temple at 
Sihawa, the principal village of the tract of that name in the Dhamtari tahsil of the Raipur 
District in the Central Provinces. It was first noticed in the Asiatic 'Researches, Vol. XV. p. 50 h, 
and it is referred to by General Cunningham in his Reports, Vol. VII. p. 145. The place does 
not seem to have been visited by any archaeologist. The inscription was brought to notice by the 
District officials, who thought it sufficient to ascertain the date, and the full contents of the 
record have hitherto remained unknown. I therefore edit it from an ink impression supplied 
by Mr. Crokul Prasld Isvardas, Tabsildar of Dhamtari, from which a reduced facsimile ie 
reproduced in the accompanying plate. 

The inscription contains 16 lines covering a space 22'' x 13|". The letters are bold and well 
formed. They are all intact excepting one which is broken off in line 2. Their average size is 
about |-". The script is Nagari, and the language is Sanskrit. The whole of the inscription is 
written in verse, except the invocation in the beginning, 6m namah Sivdya,anA the name of the 
sutradhdra at the end. There are altogether 13 verses, 4 in the Vasantattiaka metre, B 
J. nushtubhs and one Upajdti. 

The following are the principal orthographical peculiarities : s is almost invariably 
used for & The sign of the avagraTia is not used at all (see lines 3, 4 and 15). Letters following 
an anusvdra changed from a nasal are doubled (lines 2, 10, and 13). Letters with a repha are 
sometimes doubled and sometimes not. Instances of doubling may be seen in lines 1 and 15, 
and of non-doubling in lines 2, 3, 4, 5 and 11, while lines 8, 9, 10 and 14 afford instances of both. 
In conjunct letters % has been, used instead of the proper nasal as in panchakam and punyatah 
in lines 12 and 15. SimJia is spelt throughout as simgha, following the usual vulgar pronun- 
ciation, and, finally, in Hue 1 the vowel ri is used instead of the ri, tritaya being written as 

The object of the inscription, is to record the construction of five temples, two in his parents' 
name, two in his own, and one in his isaneless brother's, by king Karnaraja of Kakaira, and of 
one by his wife, queen Bh6palla-de"vi. These were all built at the sacred place De 1 vahrada, 
The date of the inscription is given in the last verse as Saka 1114, without any other details as 
to the day or month, etc. The inscription was accordingly written in the year A.D. 1101-92, 
apparently after the completion of the whole group of temples, and it was put up in one of 
the king's own temples, in which Siva was enshrined. The other one of those which he had 
built for himself was dedicated to K6sava, who apparently occupied a secondary place in his 
estimation. The temple in which, the slab is found, is still called Kane'sar or Karne'svara, 
after the king's own name. The writer was the stitradhdra Sup, and the composer of the 
yraiasti Ifrisirnha. 

The inscription opens with an invocation of the three-eyed Siva, and in the second verse 
the moon, as the progenitor of the dynasty, is praised. Then begins the genealogy of the kiug, 
commencing with Siinharaja, whose son was Vagharaja, from whom was born V6pade"va, the 
father of Karnaraja, who married Bh.opalla-de'vi, and who, having conquered all the neighbouring 

No. 24] 



princes, assumed the title of a paramount sovereign. Combining the information from the otliei 
two Ka'kaira inscriptions 1 of these S6mavamft kings we get the following genealogical tree ; 


Vyaghraraja or Vagharaja 


Krishna ? 





1192 A.D. 

S&maraja-d&va. Ranakesarin. 

1216 A.D. 

VopadtSva (Prince). 

Bhanudeva, . 

1320 A.D. . . 

It -would appear that V&pad6ya had four sons, but the probability is that he had only three, 
the doubtful Krishna of the Kanker pratasti being probably identical with Karna of our 
inscription. Evidently the three brothers were all ruling chiefs, who appear to have divided the 
state between them and selected their residences in different places, though always keeping in 
touch with the ancestral capital a.t Kakaira and recognising one amongst themselves as over-lord. 
Karna seems to have had a predilection for a site near the older capital, viz., SMwa, and was 
probably living in Dhanfira, now in the Bastar State, at a distance of about 28 miles from Sihfiwa. 
In this village my friend Rai Bahadur Panda Baijnath, B.A., Administrator of the Baetar State; 
has recently discovered ancien t remains, there being about 20 tanks and 25 mounds, one of which 
he excavated and found in it a huge Siva ling a with beautiful carvings. Dhan&ra is enclosed by 
lulls on three sides, and is a likely place selected by a Raja for his residence. There is a local 
tradition that a Raja Karna ruled there, although the people of that place do not even now 
know of the existence of any inscription mentioning his name. S&maraja and his son Pamparaja 
favoured Padi-pattana, which I cannot identify. It was possibly somewhere towards Dhamtari 
side. Rauakesarin was issueless, as our inscription informs us, and he was probably wholly 
.dependent on his brother Karnaraja, as we find the latter building a temple in his name to per- 
petuate his memory a thing which he would perhaps have done himself had lie been his own 
master. If he was ruling as a chief subordinate to his brother, we have no information as to 

Above, pp. 123 and ff., and 166 and ft. 


where he lad selected his residence. There can be little doubt that all these branches of i--'' 
Kfvkaira family owed allegiance to some other power, which was very probably represented 'v 
the Haihaya kings of South Kosala, as the use of the Ealachuri era by Pamparajadeva wo^ 
indicate. Karnaraja was apparently more ambitious than the rest. He subdued the neighbor^ 1 ' 
ing princes, as our inscription, relates, and probably set himself up as an independent ruler J n 
the out-of-the-way jungles j that is perhaps the reason why he used the Saka era in his inacrip' 
tion instead of the Kalachuri era, thus intimating that he did not acknowledge the Haihnp 
domination, unless it was customary fco use the Kalachuri reckoning in official document 
involving disposal of property, etc,, while the older Saka era was used for other religious afi'i 
.general purposes. 

The earliest date 1 of this line of kings is 'that which we get from the present inscription 
112., 1192 A.D., and the latest is that of Bhanudeva, 1320 A.D., there being thus a difference 
of 128 years between Karaaraja and Bhanudeva. Karuaraja stood in the same relationship M 
Bhanndeva as did the first ancestor Simharaja to Karnaraja. Simha was great-grandfather of 
Karnaraja, the latter being great-grandfather (or great-granduncle) of Bhanudeva, and if 
similar interval is allowed between Simha and Karnaraja, Simha's time would be about 10'j-i 
A.D. According to this calculation the generations would be very long-lived, about 42 year-* 
each on an average, which is hardly probablo, though in sporadic cases there would be nothing 
extraordinary about it. The present Baja family, according to its traditions, believes its fir.-jt 
ancestor to have come from Oriasa about Yikrama Samvat 1150 or 1093 A.D., and this curioualj 
fits in well with the evidence afforded by the inscriptions under consideration. Apparently, thtn, 
Simharaja was the first emigrant, and he came about the end of the eleventh century or the 
beginning of the twelfth. The Raja family story 3 as related before (above, page 12-i) is to the 
effect that a Puri king, having become a leper, quitted that placo and came to Sihawa, which 
was merely a dense jungle, where he found a spring of -water in which ho took a bath which 
removed his leprosy. He was then installed king of that place, and it is possible that the locality 
was named after him, being called Simha + avah SithMwah (the comfort of Simha) which 
finally was corrupted into Sihawa. From our inscription it appears that it was also known a* 
Devahrada btrtha or the holy lake of the gods, and there was certainly ample reason 3 for calling 
it so. In fact a large portion of the Sihawa tract seems to have been regarded as a piece of holy 
land. Local tradition avers that It was the hermitage of the rishi Sringia, who is still wor- 
shipped there, Mve miles from this place is the village Ratawa where Angara (Angiras) 
risJii used to live, and Muchnkunda had his d&rama in the village Mechaka 22 miles from 
Sihawa. About 10 miles west of Sihawa there is Devakuta (the hillock of the gods), which also 

1 It is perhaps more than a coincidence that a ting Vyaghvaraja of Mahakautara, who must have held sway 
in the same neighbourhood, is mentioned as early as the fourth century in the Allahabad pillar iuscription o 
Satnudraguptaj see Gufta Inscriptions, p. 6 ffi. 

s A variant of the same story is that a Purl ting having appointed an illegitimate son of his as his successor, 
the others took offence and quitted the place. They came over to the wilds of ChhaMsgarh and became the 
leaders of the local tribes, who installed them as their kings. That there is some truth in this story is evident from 
the fact that the installation of most of thesj chiefs is considered complete when it is confirmed by a particular 
tribe, by way of expression of gratitude on the part of the Raja family. Thus the Kanker family seems indebted 
to the Halb&s, the Kalaliandi family to the Kandhs, the Eaira'khol to the Bufcka Sudha, the Baun-a to the Bhuiyls, 
and so on. 

3 Besides the healing power of the spring, which in itself is sufficient to cause the place to become a ttrtha, 
Sihawi is the source of the Mahanadi or Chitrltpala, of which it is s&id: 

Suvarndlcliyd puri punyd puiiyd 3fdrjdrak$$art, Edsaldydm trayali punydh pvnyd Chitr&tfald nodi, 
Suvar^npuri is the present S6npur, capital of the state of the s*me name, and MarjarakeSarl is another name of 
Narasimhnnath in Borasambhar Zamindari of the Sambalpur District. A visifc to that place is held fco wipe out all 
sins. En passant it may he noted that the apparent mistake of a sculptor in carving out a cat-lion instead of a 
man-lion has metamorphosed the statue of the Utter kept in the Narasimhanath cave, into a new incarnation of 
the God, to account for which there has been no lack of imagination on the part of the local Brahmanfl. 


contains ruins of old temples. 1 At Sihaw& there are two old temples close together in a prebty 
fair state of preservation. One of them, in which our inscription was found, is dedicated to 
Mahadeva, and it is certainly identical with one of the two mentioned in line 12. The otter is 
dedicated to Ramachandra, bnt the people say that it was also formerly a Siva temple and that 
the present statnes of Rama and others in it were brought from the ruined temple (about 300 
yards away) near the Amrita Kund, a bath in which is reputed to have cured the leprosy of the 
first Kanker king. One of these must be the temple dedicated to KeSava. There are three other 
temples close by, which may possibly be those constructed by Karnaraja in his parents' and 
brother's name. In the village Bhitarras, which means ' the interior ' and which probably 
formed the interior of the Sihaw& town in its days of glory, there is another old temple contain- 
ing idols not easily distinguishable but stated by the people to represent Ramachandra, etc., and 
this may possibly be the temple which Bhopalla-devi built It cannot, however, be confidently 
identified, the probability for such a conjecture being based ou another supposition, viz., that 
Bhopalla-devi was a Vaiahnavi, while her lord was a Saiva. It appears that it was in deference 
to her that Karnaraja dedicated one of his temples to Kegava, And as one temple erected in her 
name was thus built on the holy spring, it seems reasonable to suppose that she should have 
selected a site for another which she built independently, in the interior of the town. 


2 *cii<^ i ^^qt^^mf^itHif^[^T]uiiiHifa ftM4UiTcH ^fftfa \\i\\ 


i 13 <i^tifTi 

7 nan 

1 Mr. Qokal PrasM visited these temples lately (November Ifl07) and has seat me a copy of a small 
. Tiflcription found in one of them, in which I read the name of Sri Vagharijix. Thus the Devakilta temples appear 
to be older than those of Sihiwi, having been built in the times of Kanjuaja's grandfather. 
Metre : Vasantatilaka. Read jfa ^q^-^ . * Bead 

Metre: Vasautatilaka. Bead ^^T^^^nifen^f^ . ' Eead 

7 Bead ^' I am indebted to Pandit Hirananda Saatrt, M.A.., for pointing oat that the moou is Atrt's son 
who comes out of the Ocean in the form of hw penance. e Read faff. 

8 Metre: Anushfubh. Bead fa^*ff ^ ^n. 10 Bead ' 

"Metre: VasantatUaka. Bead ^t^^ . u Bead 

-'Metre : Anushtabh. is Bead f*fo; W^T . Read 




44 fW 


14 ?ft 



Om ! Salutation to iva. 

(Verse 1.) Let that triad of eyes o Siva, consisting of fire, sun and moon, protect you on 
all sides (that triad) which out of kindness burns the miseries of this world (and) illuminated 
and pleases it daily. 

(V. 2.) May the god moon be victorious (the moon) who is a good whetstone for sharpen- 
ing the arrows of Cupid, who is (the embodiment of) the splendour on the orb of the mirror 
(-like) faces of the maidens of the (various) quarters of the sky, who is a pearl from the ocean 
(emanating in the form of) Atri's penanoe, and (who is) the only jewel on the crest of Bivas 

(V. 3.) In that (moon's) family which prospered through Pnruravas and other tings there 
was a king Simhar&ja who was the leader of (other) kings. ^ 

> Metro: VawntatUaka. Bead ^^ =ft af|. a 

Bead ^f . * Metre : Anuslitubh, * Bftad 

Metre: TTpiq&tL Bead. ^^, ' Ee d 

* Metre : Anushtnth. fl Bead Tf^|{. Io Read 
n Metre : Anusbtath. Bead ? ^^. " Metre : 

Bead TKQV . " Bead ^f, w Metre: Anushtnbb. 

" Bead * '" Kefl *$V> " Beftd 


(V. 4) From him was born VSgharaja, -whose feet were indeed scratched by the Motion of 
diadems (adorning the heads) of (other) kings (prostrating themselves before him). By (this) 
king, who was devoted to his subjects like a father, the world came to be well-ruled on all Bides. 

(V. 5.) From this lion as it were was born V6padva, another lion, frightened by whom the 
elephant like hostile kings went (i.e. retired) to the (various) cardinal- points (of the compass). 

(V. 6.) From him was born the illustrious Karnadeva (who was) the splendour (adorning) 
the assembly of kings, whose glory was (well) known, and through fear of whose svrord in the 
t'orm of dispensation of justice the Kali (age) was unable to enter the spotless Kakaira country. 

(V. 7.) His queen was the 'beautiful Bhopalladevi, whom the people considered as if she 
were Lakshmi (goddess of wealth) come to this earth. 

(V. 8.) Having completely conquered the lords of all the neighbouring countries by the 
force of his arm and having secured paramount sovereignty (over them), (he) caused them to 
become devoted to his service, to pay tribute aud presents and to become charitable. 

(V, 9.) In the holy place DSvahrada five edifices were built by him. Two of them were 
his own, where Sankara and K&gava (are enshrined) . 

(V. 10.) The king, having caused two other temples of the god of gods, the holder of the 
trident, 1 to be built bestowed them on (i.e. dedicated them in. the name of) his parents. 

(V. 11.) One temple Karnaraja gave to (i.e. dedicated in the name of) king BanakSsarin, 
through fraternal affection, knowing that his lineage was to become extinct. 

(V. 12.) There, an auspicious temple was also caused to be built by Bhopalla-dvi, who 
wished for the union with her husband (both) in body as well as in meritorious acts, 

(V. 1 3.) This (was done) in the Saka year eleven hundred increased by fourteen. Let 
prosperity daily attend. Composed by the clever Nrisimha. 

The Sutradhara, (architect) was Supfc (?). 



Last year a summary of this inscription was published by Prof. Kielhorn, 3 wiiih a promise 
to publish the full text on some future occasion. The impressions sent by Pandit Gaurishankar 
Hirachand Ojha of Udaipur were not sufficiently clear for that purpose. During the touring 
season ending March 1906, my work chiefty lay in the Sirohi State. I was thus able to inspect 
the original stone in person and take the best possible impressions. . When the summary was 
afterwards published on my return to head-quarters, I sent my impressions to Prof. Eaelhom. 
But, as circumstances arose which prevented Hm from publishing them, the impressions were 

1 In tlM original the word is <rt4a/i which I originally read as tritAdanall, Dr. Konow has suggested tae 
correction adopted in the text. 

* QSitinger Naohrichten, 1906, H. 2. 


,'inltfl to whom the temple was dedicated. The second name is Pratihara Botaka, the &f# 
which words I think signifies tbe race. Botaka. was thus a Pratihara, i.e. Padiar, and tfr 1 ' 
the earliest instance of the denomination Pratihra occurring in an inscription. The third **^ 
is ntjasthdniya Adityabhata, the first parb of which is unquestionably an official designa^* 
meaning the foreign secretary. 1 

Prof. Kielhorn thinka that the name of Varmalata spoken of in our inscription as J>^f , 
mount sovereign settles the date of the poet Magha. It would be impossible not to agree '^ 1 
him when he says, that, out of the numerous forms found in the manuscripts of the Sisup^ 

vadha, of the name of the king at whose court Magha's grandfather Suprabhad&va is stated 
have leld the office of prime-minister, the. variant Varmalata is to be selected as the most liJ^ ^ 
one. But to the identification of this prince with the Varmalata of our inscription,, suppoS* 11 ^ 
the date V.E. 682 to he correct, it is possible to raise an objecbion. As every student who ^ 
read the Sisupdlavadlta knows, Magha in his work distinctly alludes to the two gramma*^* 1 
treatises, 'the Ktlsikdvritti and its commentary called Nyilsa. The former is the joint product'" 11 
of Jayadifcya and Vamana, and, with regard to the former author, the Chinese traveller I-t0 w ^ 
informs UEI in unmistakeable terms that he died about A.D. 661-662. It should, moreover, " 
borne in mind that the author of the Nydsa was Jinendrabuddhi, who like Jayadltya was a f t> *" 
lower of the Buddha. 3 And it is inconceivable that I-tsing, one of whose principal objects irt 
coming to India was to collect information about Buddhist authors, could have poJSsed him 
in silence, if the latter had flourished before A.D. 695 when the Chinese traveller's 
from India took place. The conclusion is, therefore, irresistible that the authar of the 
could not have lived before the first half of the 8th century. Magha, therefore, has to 
assigned to the latter part of the 8th century. This line of argument adduced by Prof. 
appears to me to be worbh considering. Dr. Konow, however, informs mei that he does 
think it convincing. He says, "the argumentum ex silentio is always unsafe,, and, even if we 
admit that Jinendrabuddhi cannot have written before A.D. 695, that does not disprove) 
Professor Kielhora's identification of our Varmalata with the king whose minister Magha's grand" 
lather was. Our inscription may very well date from a time previous to Ms appointment as* 
minister, and it does not, at any rate, make it impossible to bring Magha down to the first twenty 
years of the 8th century. There is nothing to hinder us from supposing that Jine*ndrabudcJbJ 
flourished about A.D. 700, The alleged reference to his work in the Stiufioilavaelha -would, I 
think, be more intelligible if we suppose it to have been a new work at the? time when Mag&ft 
wrote his poem." 

I quite accept Dr. Konow's main conclusions. But I agree with Professor Patbak that the 
argwmentum ex silentio carries some weight in this particular instance. One of the chief objeota 
I-tsing had in view waa to gather all available information about Buddhist authors in India, 
And, when we consider that he haa even mentioned his own contemporaries, it is very unlikely 
that he should have failed to notice Jin&ndrabuddhi, if the latter had actually achieved fame in 
his time. As pointed out by Dr. Konow, there is, however, nothing to prevent us from consider- 
ing M&gha and JinSndrabuddhi as contemporaries. The mere fact that one author quotes another 
one, only shows that he knows him, and not necessarily that he belongs to a later time. Magha, 
and Jin&ttdrabuddhi can, therefore, very well both have lived at the beginning of the eighth 
century, and Professor Kielhorn's identification of the two Varmalatas remains unaffected by 
Professor Pathak's argument. 

1 Sittory of Gujarat in the Bombay Gazetteer, Vol. I. Pt. I. p. 82. 

1 It might perhaps be doubted whether JindndrabnddM was a Buddhist. Bat there are no reasonable grounds fo*- 
this doubt. A Deccan College manuscript (No. 33 of 1881-82, leaf 90b) has the following ! It\ 

thah. pddah. I am indebted to Prof. Pathak for this reference. See also Ind. Ant. Vol. VII. p. 57. 
> Jour, So. At. Soe. Vol. XX, pp. 805-6. 



by the tact that fte tuples dedicated to the Sun 
Jibe in^ofW 

different name for the place, 

old place called .h lr^ nd 

descried and the question regarding 

P ff M E ej ,ori of i^e Arr^ological tivn-g 0} India, Wcstw C 

to Mai-oh 1906, meluBive, pp. 49 ff." 1 



* ^ tne 

w w 


2 trftnpftft Rreft ^ wrt 

tliirtcen milea north-east of it. 
?Ltbe original stoae. 

Bead * 

. , 
6 Read 

a Wrong for 0; 5qTflK' which would not have suited the metre 

, , . 

Expre38 ed by a symbol. 


J -etre - Sra,. ,ra. 
' Metre: Aryaj and also of the \tT3& f:l'.'"- '- 

u not in the sa.e Una with , an-1 +*** ? * 

a two^eS sUare added one above and one below between the. to draw ***** to ib. 
Bead, probably ^ iurtead of ^. ' Me.v 

18 Bead ^'.. 

[Vol. IX. 



, . 

. *** , 




These plates were in the possession of a Tongawalla, named Bhau Devram Bhat, a Brahma- 
kshatri by caste, and residing at Daulatabad, in the Kizam's territory. They seem to have been 
preserved as heirloom in his family, and, according to the account given by him, it appears that 
they were given to his great-grandfather as a sanad. The plates were obtained on loan by me 
from the owner through Maulvi Syei Mohammad Bilgrami, First Talukdar, Aurangabad 
district, who was kind enough to accede to my request promptly. 

There are three plates, each of which measures about 7|" long by about 5" broad. The 
first plate is inscribed on one side only, and the remaining ones on both sides. The edges of the 
inner sides of them are fashioned slightly thicker' &o as to protect the writing, and the inscrip- 
tion is, on the whole, in a state of almost perfect preservation. The plates are strung on a 
circular ring, the ends of which are joined together by means of a knob bearing a roughly 
round seal, containing, in relief on a countersunk surface, a representation of Garuda, squatting 
and facing full-front 5 his hands are joined, palm to palm, on the chest, and are turned upwards ; 
his legs rest one upon the other, and two projections at the sides denote his wings. 

The characters of the original inscription belong to the northern class of alphabets prevail- 
ing in the 8th. century. With regard to the forma of individual letters, attention, may be drawn 
to d, e.g. in Astf, 1. 2 ; to ft, which looks almost exactly like m, e.g. in puUna 1 1. 12 ; to nga in 
Hhanga, 1. 14; to nkaia. Sri-^atikaraganftrcija, 1. 27; to rya in vvryd, 1. 20; and to ticket, in 
^anchabhi* , 1. 35. The alphabet also includes signs for the numerals 7, 1, and 5 in. line 41. 
The last sign is almost exactly like that for 5 given in the Samangadh grant of Dantidurga, 
where the date is also expressed in words. No reasonable doubt can, therefore, be entertained as 
bo the correct reading of the date of our inscription. The language is Sanskrit. Up to almost 
the close of line 24 the inscription is in verse, and two benedictive and imprecatory verses 
occur in lines 38-40 ; the rest is in prose. The number of verses at the beginning is 12. Of 
these, verses 1-9 also occur in other early Rashtrakufca records. The remaining three verses are 
peculiar to this inscription, and are historically important. The whole of line 31 after the word 
vraCbra^hmachdri and a part of the line following have unquestionably been tampered with. 
They contained names of the donee and the village granted, which have been cancelled and 
replaced by new ones by heating the plates and beating in the letters originally engraved. The 
boundaries of this new village are specified after about the middle o line 42, where-the original 
inscription, really ends, down to line 55. The letters of these lines are as carelessly written and 
are of exactly the same type as those incised in- lines 31-32 just referred to. Lines 42-55 are 
thus a continuation of the forgery commenced in lines 31-32. In respect of orthography, the 
letter 6 is throughout denoted by the sign for v there is an indifference about the doubling of 
consonants after r ; the visarga is ofteu wrongly omitted ; the vowel j-i is employed instead of ri 
iu Ww.pas^trivishtct'pa, 1. 5, Kanakddrir^w^ndrardjctlt, 1. 8, and priy-tiltm^^jah, 1. 24 ; the 
letter gh is employed instead of h once in rdja-simgha'h, 1. 4; and an anusvcbra in -con junction 
with a following n is changed to that letter once in dhvaatin=naya, 1. 2. 

Tho inscription records a grant by Samaravaldka-srl-Sankaragana-raja of the Rashtr&kuta 
family. In the introductory metrical portion, his genealogy ia given, beginning with (Wvinda- 
raja I. The genealogy set forth as far as Krishnarftja I. is in verses 1-9 which, as already 
said, are to be met with in many other grants of this dynasty, and which consequently teach us 
nothing new. It then describes Qovinda II. in the following words in verae 10, occupying 
11. 19-21 and bearing a double entendre: "His son was king Gdvindaraja who -was' like Hari 
(Krishna) inasmuch as both were fond of battles, inasmuch as the f ornier was celebrated fox- 


having snatched away the glory of sri-Parijata just as the latter was for having carried off tb 
greatness of the auspicious pdrijdta. (tree), and inasmuch as the prowess of his arms was show: 
by the former by supporting Govardhana just as it was shown by the latter by uplifting tb 
Govardhana (mountain)." The mythological sense is clear enough, and, besides, the verse Beenu 
to show that Govinda II. defeated a king of the name of Parijata, and made alliance -with, fln3 
espoused the cause of, another prince called GSvardhana. 1 The names Parijata and Govardliara 
are^new, and have not so far been met with in epigraphic records. Then follows a verae (11) 
which is as important as it is unfortunately corrupt. Bat if the emendations proposed by me are 
accepted, the following appears to be its sense : " His younger brother was Nimpama, \vho, <H 
perceiving him solf-conceited, abandoned by (feudatory) princes, and even deprived of policy, 
assumed the royal authority placed (ia the hands of a person) other than one possessed of devo- 
tion for the elders, in order that the sovereignty might not deviate from the family." What ft* 
verse means is that Govinda II. was a self-conceited ruler and resorted to bad policy, which resulted 
ia the regal authority being held by a person who had no respect for the Rashtrakuta sovereigns 
that preceded him, and consequently created disaffection amongst his feudatory chieftains, vho 
deserted him, and that Dhruva-Iftrapama fearing that the sovereignty would pass away to 
another dynasty, was compelled to take the reins of the government into his hands and thus rale 
over his brother's dominions. The De6li and Karhad grants of Krishna III., however, give a 
slightly different account. They record that " sensual pleasures made G-6vmdsr&j a careless of 
the kingdom, and that, entrusting fully the universal sovereignty to his younger brother, 
Nirupama, he allowed his position as sovereign to become loose." The discrepancy in the tiro 
accounts is with regard to whether Dhruva-Nirupama was actually entrusted by Govinda II, 
with the management of tha kingdom, the Deoli and Karhad grants saying that it was BO, but 
our inscription implying that it was not so, as it was left to the care of one who was anything 
but attached to the Rashtrakuta family. 3 But the facts, the actual occurrences, mentioned in 
our charter, which is the earlier of the two and consequently more reliable, could not have been 
distorted, though the motives might have been coloured and differently expressed; and heace 
what most probably happened was that Govinda II. gave himself up to sensual pleasures and 
allowed the government of his kingdom to slip into the hands of a person other than Dhruva, 
and not of Dhruva himself, as the Deoli and Karhad grants claim, and whether it was to remove 
the danger thereby caused to the stability of the Baahtrakuta supremacy, aa the motive is stated 
in our inscription, or, what is more likely, his mind lusted after sovereignty, for securing 
which a splendid opportunity had presented itself when Govinda II. gave himself up to vicious 
courses, Dhrava-Mrupama was successful in making himself ruler of his brother's dominions. 

Verse 12 informs ua that the paternal uncle of (Dhruva-)Nirirpama was Sri-Manna, 
brother of Sri-Krishnaraja and son of Sri-Kakkarja. Then follows the preamble of the prose 
passage which -usually precedes the formal part of a copper-plate inscription, and therein the 

1 I have baken the word uddharan.a in the sense of "uplift! ug, upholding," but it also signifies "eradication, 
extermination." In that case it would mean that G6vinda II. slew a prince of the name of G6vardhana. Or if 
G6vo,rdhana is here supposed to denote a province, it would mean that he devastated the province of Govardhans. 
A province and a place of that aatne have been mentioned in the Nasik cave inscriptions, and have also heen spokes 
i>i in the Puranas. But whether the name was extant so late as the 8th century is doubtful. A similar play upon 
the word Goaardhana occurs in the Bagutur& grants of Indraraja III. (above, Vol. IX. pp. 32 and 3K). 

1 This discrepancy may perhapa he removed hy putting a different interpretation on the words : gitru-Wtakti- 
matd-nyasarhstliam. It might he said that the person who had no respect for the elders, i.e. the Bashtr&kftta 
H >roruign who were dead, and in whose hands the sovereignty lay, was no other than G6vinda II, himself. It 
uticrUfc be argued that the management of the kingdom had actually heen entrusted to Dhrnva "by him on account of 
In* souHiial courses, as the De&li and Karhad plates claim, and that the motive put forth by Dhruva and his party 
i'uv ousting Govinda II. and completely severing his connection with the Rastyrakuta kingdom was that lie had 
iih-v.vn hi in M\ f vftworfchy of his elders, i.e. the sovereigns who preceded him, hy abandoning himself to sensual 
(iciiMU'iji ii-m not himself carrying oil the administration of his kingdom. In my opinion, this interpretation would 
K: [riT-it'hihi'vl anil f utitastio, 


name of the grantor Samaravaloka-Sri-Sankaragana-raja is specified, and he is mentioned as son 
of Srl-Nanna just referred to. It is worthy of note that no titles have been coupled with his 
name. He was thus not even a feudatory chieftain. It is, therefore, no wonder that he is 
spoken of as issuing the charter with the express consent of Sri-Kalrvallaliha Ifarendradeva. 
The latter was doubtless an epithet of (Dhruva-)lfinipama, who was then the paramount 
sovereign and whose cousin Sankaragana was. The proper object o the inscription is stated in 
11. 28-83, but, as said above, the names of the original donee and the village granted to him 
which were engraved in 11. 31-32, have been erased, and new ones incised in characters which, 
though old, are not quite legible. The only particular which has survived of the original 
grantee ia that he had emigrated from Tenvi, and the expression tat-putla-pujiii-tliain <juni,- 
daksJiind, which occurs iu 1. 3B, shows that he was the preceptor of Sankaragana. Lines 34-36 
contain a request to future rulers to respect the donation, and threaten with spiritual punish- 
ment those who might rescind it. Lines 37-40 quote two of the customary benedictive and 
imprecatory verses. And the original inscription then concludes thus : " And this charter was 
written by Chandayika by order of the supreme ruler, when 715 years had elapsed in 
accordance with the era of the Saka Kings." The supreme ruler here alluded to is (Druva-) 
Nu-upama., and the Saka year 715 must consequently refer to his reign. The earliest record the 
Paiihan graut of hia son and successor Govinda III. is dated in Saka 716. It is thus plain 
that (Dhmva-)Nirupama could not have lived long after Saka 715 when our grant was made. 

After this commences the second part of the forged record. It has been mentioned above 
that the names of the grantee and the village granted engraved in the original inscription in 
lines 31-32 have been erased, and new ones substituted for them by beating in the previous 
letters. The name of the new grantee cannot be made out, but his gotra specified is Bharad- 1 / (X 
vaja. Secondly, the name of the new village incised appears to be something like SSmira. 1 ^^d^ 
And it is the boundaries of this village that are now specified in lines 42-53 after the completion ^ 
of the old genuine inscription. The names are written so carelessly and the composition is so 
full of grammatical inaccuracies that it is not possible to he here definite about anything. In 
line 52 is given the expression vala(lla)bJia-nar{:ndra which is an epithet generally borne by 
the Rashtrakuta rulers. The connection of this expression, however, with what precedes and 
follows is not clear. The forged document ends with $ri-Bhata,h(tLt)rka-inatah || 800. The 
name Bhutarka reminds one of the inscriptions of the Valabhi princes, and if the numerals taken 
for 800 are correctly read and represent a date, as is highly probable, it must be referred to the 
Yalabhi era, and it thus becomes equivalent to A.D. 1119 which may be taken to be the date of 
the fabrication of the forged record. Our copper-plate charter, as has been said at the outset, was 
in the possession of a person from Daulatabad, a Brahmakshatd by caste, and has been preserved 
in his family as heirloom. As BrahmakahaMa in the Dekkan are known originally to have 
come from Kabhiawar, it is not unlikely that somebody in hia family, after securing these plates, 
tampered with them in order to use them as documentary evidence to strengthen his otherwise 
disputable claim to the village therein mentioned, and it ia but natural that he should engrave 
the name Bhatarka after the manner of the Valabhi plates which he must have either seen 
himself in Kathiawar or known about from hia forefathers. 

TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 

[ii*] ^ ft^ntsNrf 3 'WTST sraTf^^ ^ \ \*] nr$ 

From the oi'iginal plates. 2 Expressed by a sy mboi. 




5 *Trrtftf *i fogfcfa aw grererft i 

6 w?rsr: 'tftwHW Tfir ^^^Hu^ i (K) 


10 vrtmr ^r 10 uiragHir. ^^fa^Ki^^ \(\\) 


Second Plate ; JVr 

13 ls id%^wf^^f r?r^ "Mf^^^^Ql^^id^*^ i (11) 

1^ ^^Hi"^ifir<3qiniM*i'ninHfnT5fii'H^n<4?r [l*] ^t 


17 ir 

rffw 18 fif- 

18 ^ M<n3 qoi<H^^ wnn^im^n; [l*] 

19 trfTf 20 w^r^T^C^]^ ii [e.*] ?r[5r] 

20 Ryi idf^x^i^i^inf^r 83 [i*] 'H^S- 

Bead^r. Bead 

i Bead "^ffrpj^ aaid 'HrflgRjttl . 8 Bead tim^Tllf . Bead 


14 Head v/ ^TT^l<l Cr ; ttw l*ttr'^[ In ^WKlf^lT WM fiwt inadvertently omitted.bat WM aftorwtttdfl tiogmred 
below iMiween K and *C, nod the muMioa indicatd by a horizontal rfioke above, 

w Redd W and *l*f. ** Boad WW. Bead I%t.. 

*> Bead t?f%;. Bead ^.* Bead inft?r:. 

31 Bead fff. Bead 

Daulatabad plates of Sankaragana. Saka-Samvat 715. 





, PHC 




Second Plate; Second Side. 




29 ^ 


4 (0 

32 1% --- 



TTwr A Plate; First Side. 

> * Read 3WH" "^^ " ' c_ 3 - 

'. mittedia the text. Th ^t of *W^ lArt 'U more probable, the ft pro cedmg 
. ; | M omitted m the ten. f fir^^f; a nd qrm^Hi;. 

it, is 



in the origi 

graatee and of the village grantedi 

o *= rt. 


40 mWfWt ff STR^T tffa^ra ftfsrT ^ l(ll) [**] 

42 SpTOsnn 2 ^fa%*T ii 3 s?rcfa 1 ftm - [i*] 

44 sr ii srTOT; trssn^ZT ^ ^rgft] 

45 ftR* tm Z3R 1 %frf**(T 10 


46 st^r^ ft^^i fr^r% f^^H^f i 

47 HSTcii [i*] ^f^r?r: ^^r(?)^i: [i] 


P?aie ; Second Side. 





SAMVAT 872. 


This inscription was first discovered by a Brabmabhatfa of J6dhpur named Nannurima 
w^ioee zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at 
Buohkala in the BilMa district, J&dhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right 
forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabhdmantfapa of what is popularly known 
there as the temple of Parvati. The inscription contains twenty lines of, on the whole, well- 

1 Read ^cf^5rQf. a ^^ wor ^ * s re P ea ^ unnecessarily. 

* The original inscription ends at ^'*{[i^f ; aud after that begins again the forged, part which goes on till 
1. 55 at the close. It is engraved BO carelessly that I am by no means certain of my reading of it It is, moreover, 
so f uH of grammatical inaccuracies, which, in many cases, are due to local pronunciation, that it is not desirable to 
correct them all. 

* Read faT.'. 5 Read ijfcf. 1 . 8 Bead gr^T?T:. 
T Probably qdiHIA . 6 Eead c faT> Bead tj^ff:. 

!f Read ?ffaT. n This ^f^W?T: is probably a mistake for qftfffi;, 

Read &mff',. u The reading f t ii also possible. 

11 Bead ^TTOTI. * s 

Daulatabad plates of Sankaragana. Saka-Samvat 715. 


<-;V> ''."rN- ' ^^}-,l 



SCALE 0'8 



preserved writing which covers -a space of about 2' 4'' high by 11 1' broad. The characters 
belong to the northern class of alphabets. They include the somewhat rare forms of gli and 
and the numeral figures 8, 7, and 2. Attention may also he drawn to the way in which the 
letters ^ and ware engraved. With regard to the latter there ia no difierenee between it and in, 
except that the upper vertical strokes in the case of the former a.-e mn-. h n~a 'er t- each oiuei 
than in the case of the latter. The language is Sanskrit, bat is anything but grammatical, arid 
the -whole is in prose. In respect of orthography, ' is doubled in conjunction with a following 
f ; dlii is written ddlii twice in the word mahdrdjdddhirdja, and there is a tendency to use tho 
dental 'sibilant instead of the palatal, though in one case the latter is substituted for the former 
vis, in suttradhdrah, 1. 20. 

The inscription is dated Sam vat 872 1 the fifth of the bright fortnight of Chaitra, and 
refers itself to the reign of the P. IT. P. Magabhatta-deva meditating on the feet of the M. P. 
Vatsaraja-deva. It ia thus clear that NSgabhatta ia no other person than Nagabhata, son of 
Vatsaraja, of the imperial Pratihara dynasty wielding sway over the larger portion, of North 
India. Of the princes of this royal family we have had but few dates earlier than the time of 
Bh6jadeva I. In fact, we had only one date, vis. Saka 705 = A.D. 783-84, for Vatsaraja fur- 
nished by the Jaina work Harivamsa-Purdna,. And our inscription now supplies the second 
date, V. S. 872 = A.D. 815 for his son N&gabhata. s 

The purport of the inscription, however, is not quite clear. Something is said therein to 
have been set up (nivesitd), bat what that ' something ' was is far from evident. This something, 
we are told, was set up, after building the temple (dlvagriha) and worshipping the feet of 
Param$vara, in the village of Rajyaghahgakarii, by the queen Jay&vali, the daughter of 
Jajjaka, who himself was a son of the Pratihara Bapuka, and wife of Bhumbhuvaka, the son of 
Haragupta of the family called Avanganaka. As Jayavali has been spoken of as queen (rdjfify, 
her husband must have been some kind of ruler, most probably a chieftain, feudatory to Nagabhatta, 
and reigning at, or 3 at any rate, holding, Rajyaghangakarh, which musb be supposed to be the old 
name of Buchkala. The name of the sutradkdra or mason is ParLohahari, the son of Deia. 

The temple is, as we have seen, said to have been dedicated to Paramesvara, which is 
usually taken to be a name of Siva. This, however, does not agree with the sculptural details 
of the temple. Although it is now-a-days called a templo of Parrati, there is, truly speaking, no 
image in the sanctum. But on the dedicatory block oa the shrine door and in the principal niche 
at the back, the images in which enable one to determine to what god the temple is dedicated, 
ia_a figure, with four hands, doubtlessly representing some form of Vishnu, as the mace, discus, 
and 'conch-shell can be distinctly seen in its hands. Other images, also carved on the inner 
and outer walls of the temple, show that it was a Vaishuava structure. The word paramfavara, 
nrti&t, therefore, be taken in its ordinary sense and as referring to Vishnu. 

TEXT. 8 
1 *ft [l] 



1 It to wonky of note that, in the copper-plate charters issued by Bh6jad6va I., Mah6ndrnp&la and Matoipala, 
alias Vinayakapala, letter-numerals are used to express figures, whereas, in the present as well as other stone* 
inscriptions belonging to the time of these princes, decimal notation is employed. It will thus be seen that both 
systems were current in North India about this time, [In. the facsimile 892 is a misprint for 872. S. K.] 

3 The date has already been given by Prof. Kielhorn in Ms Sj/ehramstie, Table for Northern I*dia t col. d> 
{root information, furnished by Mr. Ojha. 

Jrom the original stone. * Bead Oj^fiRlT. * Bead 









fsrff TOT 





This inscription was first brought to my notice in May 1902 by Bhringarkar bvs, a well- 
known reciter of Mrtans at Poona. He was then engaged in a literary controversy aboat the 
identity of Jnan&Srara, the well-known saint of AJandi, with Jfian&srara, the anthor of tbtf 
Juan&svari, a famous Marathl commentary on the Bhagavadgita, and asked me whether the 
inscription threw any light on the point he was discussing. When I told him that the grant WM 
issued in Saka 672, and had nothing to do with the anthor of the JfianSsvari, who wafl'jcoatem- 
porary with RamadSva, the last of the Yada-ra kings of D6vagiri, Bhringarkar tava was iind 
enough to lead me the plates for the purpose of editing the inscription. 

Bead ^miPKai . Bead 

Bead ^nrT. * Bead 

6 Here and in the following the rales of tamdhi have not been observed. 

* The words s<S^^| and f*ft?Y M they stand, make no sense, and I can raggest no correction. 
T Some inch reading as Q *>W*nt^fraf?f might be expected. 

Bead ?;iff. f Bead tn^nrer. 10 Bead 
" Read l^ftlfT. " Bead^fTtf^rT. u Bead 

A * Bead "SM^H^. Thia word seenw to have been here nsed in the sense of " engTing." 
Bead ^fftj. Bead WX*l< 

Buchkala inscription of Nugabhatta. Vikrama Samvat 892. 




*: 2O 


SCALE 0-30 



The plates were found at KSndur, a village in the Eled taluka of the Pocraa district. 
They belong to Mr. Purush&ttama Rajapathak, now residing at Kendftr. There are five plates, 
the first and the last of which are inscribed on one side only. The plates are equal in size ( 
measuring 9" long by 4|" broad. Their edges are raised into rims to protect the writing. 
The ring on which the plates are strung is about half an inch thick and 5f" in diameter. The 
seal on the ring is oval, measuring 2" by 1|". It has, in relief, on a countersunk surface, a 
standing Tboar facing to the proper left. The weight of the plates, together with the ring and 
seal, is 225 tolas. The inscription is in a state of excellent preservation. The characters 
belong to the southern class of alphabets. The language is Sanskrit throughout, and with the 
exception of tha invocatory verse at the beginning and the benediotive and imprecatory verses 
at tha and, the whole is in prose. 

The grant is one of the Western. Chalukya king Kirtivann.au II., and is issued from the 
city of Bftktapura, which is probably to be .identified with LakshmSsvara, in the Dharwar 
district. It records that on the full moon day of the month Vaisakha, during a lunar 
eclipse, in. Saka 672 expired, in the sixth year of his reign, when his victorious camp was 
at Raktapura, Kirtivarman II., at the request of his great queen, granted to a Brahmana named 
B&maarman, the village of Beppatti in the centre of the villages of Pegfbisa^ru, Kisuman- 
galam, Snjiam and PerbbaUi, in the district of Vejvola. The five villages can be easily 
identified with Behatti, Hebsur, Kuaugalla, Su}Ja and Hebballi, in the Dharwar district. Vel- 
vola is a Sanskritized form of Belvola or Belvala, a name which is applied even at the present 
day to a portion of the southern Maratbi country. 

Before the discovery of the present grant, only three records of KSrtivarman II. 's time 
were known to scholars. Of these the most important is the Vakkaleri grant, which has been 
published by Mr. Rice 1 and re-edited by Dr. Eaelhorn. 2 Aa interpreted by these scholars, 
the date of that grant is Saka 679 expired, which is spoken of as the eleventh year of 
Kirtivarman's reign, while, according to the present grant, Saka 672 expired was the sixth 
year of his reign. These two statements cannot be reconciled. It is, however, important to 
note that the present grant was issued five years earlier, and is perfectly legible throughout. 
It also mentions the occurrence of a lunar eclipse. Therefore the date in this grant, which 
admits of verification, is correct. But in the Vakkaleri grant, the first word describing the 
Saka year is not legible. Both Mr. Rice and Dr. Kielhorn have proposed to read it as nava, 
nine, and this view has been endorsed by Dr. Fleet. But the proposed emendation does not 
agree with the present inscription, according to which Saka 677 expired was really the eleventh 
year of the king's reign. 

The historical information in the present grant may be briefly summarised thus. The first 
king of the Chalukya line was Polekesin who performed horse sacrifices. Then came his son 
Klrtivarman I., who defeated the kings of Yanavasi and other countries. His brother Hanga- 
HSa being passed over., we are next introduced to SatyaSraya, better known as Polekesin II., 
who defeated the famous Bnddhist king Harshavardhana, the patron of the illustrious 
Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsiang and the hero of Sana's immortal work, the Harshacharita. 
Polekesin II.'s son, Vikramaditya I., was the next king, who recovered, by means of his horse 
Chitrakantha, part of the Chalukya dominions, which had been overrun by the Pallavas, and 
had obeisance done to him by the lord of Kanchl, who had ho.wed down to none other. 
Vikramaditya I.'s son and successor was Vinayaditjra, who broke the ^confederacy of the 
Ch&las, KSralas, Pa^dyaa and Pallavas, and defeated the paramount sovereign of "Northern 
India. Vinayadiiytt's eon Vijayaditya, ihe next king, had greatly assisted his father and 
grandfather in their wars. Though suddenly taken prisoner by the enemy, whom he had put 

1 Ind, Ant. VoL Till. p. as ff. ATwve, Vol. V. p. 200 and ff. 


to flight, he skilfully effected his escape and restored the splendour of the Chalukya empire. He- 
was succeeded by tia son Vikramaditya II., who led an excursion into the Tundaka country, 
defeated his natural foe the Pallava king Nandipotavarman, and entered the Pallava capital 
Eanchi, but did not destroy it. He restored to the Rajasimhe'gvara and other temples, which 
had been caused, to be built there by Narasimhapotavarman, heaps of gold and mbieS) which had 
been taken away from them. Vikram&ditya II. was succeeded by his son Kirtivarman II,, 
who issued the present grant. 

TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 

1 Svasti [I*] Jayaty=avishkrita[ih] Vishn6r=vvarahaih kshobhit-Srcavam fj*j 


2 rapuh [||*J Srimatam eakala-bhuvana-samstuyamana-Manavya-sagotranam Har[i]ti- 

putranaria sa- 

3 pta-16kam^tribhis=saptamatnbhi. i =abhiYardhitanam Karttikeya-parirakshana-prasta(pta)- 


4 paramparanarh bhagaYan-Narayana-prasada-saniasadita-varaha-lanchhaii-ekshana- 


5 vai-kfit-as6sha-mahibhritan=Chaluky&narh kulam=alamkarishn6r=asv<'imedh-aTa- 

6 bhrithaanana-pavitri-krita-gatrasya ^ri-PolekSsi-Tallabha-maharajasya su- 

7 nuh parakram- akranta- Vanavasy-adi-paranripati-mandala-pranibaddha-Yisuddha-kirtti- 


8 Kirtrtivarmma-prithu(thi)vivallabha-maharajas=tasy=atmajas=sarQara-sarfasakta-aakal6ttara- 

9 pathesyara-^ri-HarBhaTardhana-parajay-6patta-param6svara-abdas=tasya Sa- 

Second Plate First Side. 

10 ty^raya-Bri-prithu(thi)Yivanabha-maharajadhiraja-paramsvarasya priyatanayasja 

11 pmjnata-nayasya. khatga(dga)-m.&tra-sahayasya Chitrakanthakhya-pravara-turamgamen= 


12 n=aiv=6tsadit-agesha-vijigish6r=aYanipati-tritay-antaritaih SYagur6 giiyaiu= 


13 t-kritya prabhaYa-kuliga-dalita-Panidya-Chdla-Kerala-Kalabhra-prabhriti-bhubhrid-a- 

14 dabhra-Yibhramasy=ananyaYanata-KS 1 mchipati-naakuta-chumbita-padarhbuja8ya 

15 Vikramaditya-Satyasraya-n-prithu(thi)viYallabha-m,aharaiadhiraia-paranid^Ya- 

16 ra-bhattarakasya priyasun6h pitur=ajnaya Balendug^(se)kharasya Tarakarati- 

17 r=iva daityabalam=atiBamuddhatam trairajya-Kamcliipati-balam=avashtabhya kara- 

Second Plate ; Second Side. 

18 dikrita-Kavara-Paraslka-SiihliaJ-adi-dYip-adhipasya sakal-6ttarapatha s -natha-mathaD- 


19 rjita-p&lidhYaj-adi-samasta-paramaisYaryya-chinha(hna) sya Vinay&ditya-Satysraya- 

4riprithu (thi ) Yivalla- 

20 bha-maharajadhiraja-parame^vara-bhattarakasya priy-atmajaS=Sai[sa*]va ev=adhigat- 


21 g&Btr6 dakshinasa-vrjayini pitamahe aamunmulita-nikhila-kantaka-3amhatir= 


22 vijigish6r=gur6r=agrata 6 

1 Prom the original plates. 

1 Tie engraver has originally written $atht, but corrected it. 

Kendur Plates of Kirtivarman II. Saka Samvat 672. 




SCALE 0-7 



23 na-vi^iryyamSna-kripana-dliaras=samagra-vigrali-agrSsara[h*] san=sahasa-raBikali 

24 param(a)mukMkrita-Satrumandal6 Gamga-Yamtma-palidlivaja-padad.hakka-ma]ia^abda- 


25 nikya-matamgaj-adin=pitrisat=kurvYan=paraih palayamanair=asadya kathamapi 


26 d=apaait6=pi pratapad=eva vishaya-prak6pam=araiakam=ntsarayan=Vatsaraja i- 

Third Plate; First Side, 

27 v=anapSksliit-apara-saiiayakas=tad"aYagralidii=iiirggatya Bvabkuj-avaslitambharprasadhit- 

28 mbharat prabhur=akhaihditar5aktitrayatvat(ck)=clihatra-inadarbliaihjanatvad 


29 maBta-bhuvan4srayas=sakala-pfiramaivaryya-vyakti-h^tu-palidhvaj-&dy-u[i*]jYala-pra]"ya- 

30 rajyo Vijayaditya-Satysraya-sripritlan(thi)YiYallabha-mahar&iadbi:&ja-paTam6gYa- 

31 ra-bhattarakasya priyapatras= sakala-btuYaiia-samrajya-lakskmi-SYayamvar-a- 

32 bHsheka-Bamay-anantara-sam.upaiata-mali6tsajh.ah atmavamlaia-pu- 

33 rYva-nripati-chchhay-apahariDah prakrity-amitrasya Pallavasya samiil- 


34 krita-Daatir=atitYaraya Tutiidaka-vishayam prapy=abhim.Tikli-agataiL= 


35 bhidhanam. Pallavam rana-mukhS samprahritya prapalayya 


Third Plate ; Second Side. 

36 mudi-agh63h-abHdhana-Yadya-vi^eshan(8hau)=khatYaga-dhvaja-praijj.a,tt 1 a-prabhuta- 


37 n=sYa-kirana-nikara-vikasa-niraknta-timirarQ=manikya-rasin=cha haatSkritya 


38 ya-harid-amgan-amchita-kamchiyamanam Kamchlm-aYinaSya praY%a sataia- 


39 n-ana(na) ndita-dYija-din-anatha- janah Narasimhapotavarmma-iurmmaprta-silainaya- 

40 BajasimliC'Svar"adi-deYakula-siiYarnarai-prat7arppan-6parjit-6rjita-pu- 

41 nyah anivarita-pratapa-prasara-pratapita-Pamdya-Ch61a-Krala-Ka}abhra- 

42 prabhriti-rajanyakah kshubhita-k ari-makara-kara-hata-dalita-eukti-mukta-muktapliala- 
4S prakara-mariohi-jala-Yilasita-Yel-akTiW ghurnaman-arpd-nidhanS dakehiija- 

44 rnave sarad-amala-sasadhara-vi^ada-yago-ra^i-mayam jayastambhani=atishfi[h*]ipat 

Fourth Plate ; First Side. 


46 ttarakasya sfinuh(r) balyS 8usiksltita-astra-gastra[h*J sva-guna-kalap-anandita- 


47 daySna . pitra samar6pita-yauYarajya[b*] svakula^vairi^ah Karfaohlpatfir* 


48 ya marii prSshaya ity=ad^am pr^rthya labdhva tad-anantaraio=6Ya krita- 

prayanaa=-sann= a- 

49 bhimnkham=agatya prakaia-yuddham karfcnmsasamarttham praYJshta-durggam 


t50 vam ,-arnaBtat6=bhibliuya bhagnaSaktim kriiYa prabhilta-matta-matariigaja-su- 
151 Yarna-manlkya-k6tir=adaya pitrS samarppitaYan=6Yam kram^^a prapta-ea- 


52 rvvabhauma-padah pratap-anurag-avanata-samasta-samaiita-makuta-ma- 

53 la-rajab-pumja-pidijaiita-cliaritua-sui'asirliah^uhah) Klrtivarrujia-Satya- 

Fourth PI afe; Second Side. 

54 sraya-sr5pnthiviynllabha-maharajAdhiraja-paraiue^-ara-bliattai i akns=Barvaii=eva- 

55 m=ajfiapayati [|*] Yiditani=astu v6=smabhir=dvisaptaty-uttara-shatchhatesflti 

Saka varsh eshv-atltSslm 

5G pravardhamana-vijaya-rajya-samvatsare shashthe varttamfinS Raktapuram- 

57 ti vijaya-skandhavar^ Vaiflakha-paurnamasy&m somagrahane Kasyapa-go- 

58 traya VajappasarmmanaJj^pautraya Makaya-Vaj:ipe[ya*J-yajiiiah 

59 pu traya re'da-vediiuiga-paragaya Kamasarnnnarie Vejvola-visha- 

60 j& Penbasaaru-Kisumamgalam-Sul}am-Perballi-nama-gi-ajnauam=ma- 

61 dlijfi Beppatti-n^ma-grixmo si-J-maliad^vl-vijSapanayA dattah 

Fifth Plate. 

62 Tad=agamibhu'=asmad-vam$yau'=auyai5=clia raiabb.u-=ayur-aiivaryy-admam vilasitam= 


63 r-ainsu-cliaiachalamsaTagaclicbhadbhirsacliandr-ai'ka-dhar-arnava-stliiti-samakalarh yasaS= 


64 rshnbhis-sva-datfci-mrvviseaham paripalantyam.=U'ktafi=clia bksgavata vMa- 


65 Vyasihja [|*] BabubhiL'=vvasudlia bliuktS rajabliis=Sagar-a<lib}iih [1*] yasya 

GO yada bkumis=tasya tasya tuda phalaiia [||*j Svan=datum sumahacli" 

C7 duhkham=anyasya pManam [(*] dauain va palanam v=etti(v=iti) danjlcli=clilirSy6= 

unpalanaih [||*] 
6S Svadattaiii paiudattam va y6 liar^ta vasundliaram [|*] BhaBhfch.(t)im 


69 srAui vishtliayam jayatS kri(kpl)niii'=iti [|[] Dhanamjaya-Punyavallabh6na 


70 midarfa. 


(Verse 1 .) Hail ! victoriotis is the body of Yisli^u, manifested in the form of a boar omchose 
uplifted right tusk rests the -world, and who has agitated the ocean. 

(Lines 2 to 6.) The great king, the prosperous PolekSsi-vallabha, whose body was purified 
by the avabhntha bath terminating a horse-sacrifice, and who adorned the family of the prosperous 
Chalukyas, who belonged to the family of Manavya praised by the whole world, who were the 
sons of Hariti, -who were reared by seven mothers, the mothers of the seven worlds, \vbd had 
acquired a series of benefits through the protection of Karfctik&ya, and who had subdued in an 
instant all kings at the sight of the sign of the boar acquired through the favour of the revered 

(LI. 6 to 8.) His son waa the prosperous Klrtivarman, the great king, and the lord of the 
earth, who had achieved spotless fame by the conquest of Vanavfisi* and other countries of 
hostile kings. 

i [Looks like rdjart/armmaya^^ K,] . i Also Called BanavMi or 

Kndur Plates of Kirtivarman II. Saka Samvat 672. 







SCALE 0-7 






(LI. 8 to 9.) His son was he who had acquired the title of Paramesvara by defeating 
the prosperous Harshavardhana, the. lord of all the north, and addicted to war. 

(LI. 10 to 16.) The dear son of that 1 asylum of truth, the prosperous lord of the earth, 
tlie great lung of kings, the great lord, was Vikramaditya, well versed in politics, whose 
companion was his sword alone, who had destroyed all rivals only with his excellent horse called 
Chitvakautha, who retrieving the fortune of his father, which had heen interrupted "by the 
confederacy of the three 3 kings, had destroyed the great splendour of the mountain-like kings of 
tlie PSndyas, Cholas, Keralas, Kalabhras and others with his prowess resembling a thunderbolt, 3 
whose lotus-like feet were kissed by the crest of the lord of Kanchl who had not bowed down 
to others, and who was the asylum of truth, the prosperous lord of the earth, the great king of 
kings, the venerable emperor. 

(LI. 16 to 20.) His dear son, -who reduced to the condition of tributaries the kings of 
Kavera, Parasika, Simhala and other countries after vanquishing the proud army of the 
confederacy of the three 4 kings and tie knd of Kanchi at the command of his father, just as 
Kartikeya, at the command of Siva defeated the very insolent host of demons, who had acquired 
all the symbols of sovereignty such as a) lofty p&lidlwajaP and others "by subjugating the king 
of all the north, was Viuayaditya, the asylum of truth, the prosperous lord of the earth, tlie 
great king of kings, and the venerable lord. 

(LI. 20 to 30.) His dear son, who while still a child, had mastered all the sciences and 
tlie use of arms, who when his grandfather conquered the southern region had uprooted the 
multitude of all his foes resembling thorns, conducting warlike operations in the very presence 
of his fatter who was desirous of conquering the north, who had the edge of his sword blunted 
by destroying the group of hostile elephants., who took the lead in all fighting, fond of meeting 
danger, who caused the multitude of his enemies to turn their backs, delivering to his father 
the variegated j>aZi-banner, B the dhakkd, the great musical instruments, 6 rubies and intoxicated 
elephants, who, though taken captive through the force of circumstances by the flying foe 
approaching with some difficulty, put an end to anarchy and popular commotion by bis prowess 
alone, and like Vatsaraja, expecting no help from others, escaped from the peril and conquered 
the -whole earth, by dint of his arm, who was \ an emperor, the asylum of truth, through his three 
powers being uninterrupted, through his breaking the pride of his enemies, through 'his 
liberality and blameleasnesa, whose vast empire was resplendent with a pdUdhvaja which was 
a symbol of universal sovereignty, was Vijayaditya, the asylum of truth, the prosperous lord 
of the earth, the great king pf kings and the venerable lord. 

(LI. 31 to 45.) His dear son, who had enjoyed great pleasure immediately after the 
time of his anointment at the self-choice by the goddess of universal sovereignty, who 
resolved to uproot the Pallava king, his natural foe, who had robbed of splendour the 
former kings of his line, who on coming to the Tundfika? district in great haste, beat and put to 
flight, at the opening of ,the campaign, the opposing Pallava king named Nandipotavarman, 

1 Tasya means " of one who is well-known or referred to above." 

3 Compare the expression avanipatitriteya with trairdjya in line 17. Mmatdt-kritya should be kritv4. 

* Vikramaditya is compared to Indra. 

* Trairdjyv, is used by Jinasena in the following verse (Adipurdw, XXX. 35), and is explained by the 
commentator to mean Cho^a, Kerala and Pandya : 

frasddhya ddkhii\dm=&t&m viHus trairdjyapdlakdn \ 
tamam pra^amaydm^dsa vijitytt jayaaddfmnaill II 

* Tor the explanation of pdlidhvaja, see my paper in the Ind. Anf., Vol. XIV. p. 104. .^ 

* The expression mahdialda is frequently nsed in this sense in fampa Dhdrata, p. 211 'j"33p 

* Tn^aikimstiayft or Tondai U a name of the Dravida country. K&ncbl.,^..:vj, / .^J|^i was the 
capital of it. .; / .' :, jjjjj^f 


took 1 possession o particular musical instruments, called Itatumukhavdditra and etu^. 
draghdsba, the Ithatvanga-dhvaja, many excellent and well-known intoxicated elephants aij 
a heap of rabies, which dispelled darkness by the brilliancy of the multitude of their r&jj. 
who entered, without destroying it, the city of ECanchi, which was, as it were, a girdle adornirj 
yonder lady, the region of the south, who had rejoiced Brahman as, and poor and helpless peof!; 
by Ms uninterrupted liberality, who acquired high merit by restoring heapa of gold to fc : 
etone temples of Rajaei&lieSvara and other gods, which had been caused to be built b 
Narasitiihapotavarman, -who distressed IPSndya, Choja, Kerala, Kajabhra and other kings tj 
the extent of his valour which could not be withstood, and who erected a pillar of victory 8 in ife 
form of his great fame, as bright as the cloudless autumnal mooa in the southern ocean, fullti 
rolling waves, the shores of which were shining with the multitude of rays of numerous pearl- 
dropped from shells struck and broken by the trunks of excited elephants resembling whales, was 
Vikramaditya, the asylum of truth, the prosperous lord of the earth, the great king of kings, 
and the venerable lord. 

(LI. 46 to 54.) His dear son, who was trained in science and the use of arms in hu 
childhood, was appointed heir-apparent by his father whose heart was delighted with a 
multitude of his virtues ; who having asked for and obtained an order to put down the lord 
of Kafiehi, the enemy of his family, led an expedition, defeated the Pallava king in every quarter, 
who, unable to meet him in an open field had taken refuge in a fort, made him powerless, took 
possession of many ruttinh elephants, gold and crores of rubies, and delivered them to hi; 
father ; who thus gradually attained to the position of an emperor, and whose lotns-like fed 
were rendered yellowish by the mass of pollen on the numerous crests of all feudatory kings, 
who bowed to him through love of his heroism, Klrtivarman, the asylum of truth, the pros- 
perous lord of the earth, the great king of kings, and the venerable lord, thus commands all; 

(LI. 55 to 61.) Be it known to you, when six hundred and seventy-two years of the 
aka era had passed away, and the sixth year of tour] increasing prosperous reign was 
current, when our victorious camp was located at Baktapura, on the full moon of Vais&kfaa 
during a lunar eclipse, the village named Beppatti surrounded by the villages named 
Pentoasaaru, Kisumangalam, Sullam and Perbballi, in the district of Vejvola, was granted bj 
us at the request of the prosperous great queen to R&masarman, "well versed in the Vedas and 
Vdangas, who was the son of Makaya, a performer of the Vdjajpdya sacrifice, and the grandson 
of vajappasarman of the Kasyapa g&tra. 

(LI. 62 to 64.) This should be preserved, as though it were their own gift, by future kings 
of onr own family or others, knowing the flash, of life and other things to be as changeful as 
lightning, and desirous of achieving a fame lasting as long as the moon, the sun, earth, and ocean 
will endure. 

(LI. 65 to 70.) And it is t,aid by the venerable Vyasa, the arranger of the Vedas. The earth 
has been enjoyed by many kings, including Sagara. Whoever is the owner of the earth, reap* 
its fruit. It is very easy to give what is one's own ; it is difficult to preserve what is given by 
others. Of the two things a gift and preservation preservation ie the better. He who takes 
away land, whether given by himself or others, is born as a worm in ordure for' sixty thousand 
years, This is written by Dhananjaya 3 Punyavailafoha. 

1 The expression JiasU-Tcjitya. is not wrong; compare Dhanalijaya, T> ^sandhdnaTcdoya XIII. 36, 
DlksUite.'a remark on Panmi I. 4, 77 s svlMram4tram=ify*anyt ; kast^-lcrUy motAdstrdniti. 
p, 224 (Benares edition). 

a Vitramaditya II. did not set up a pillar of victory j only his fame, which spread to the shores of fl 
southern ocean, is compared to such a pillar. 

3 This must be the same person who composed fche VakkalSri grant five years later. A relative of his, perhapi 
hia father, was Auivaritapunyavaliabha, who wrote the Kaflcht inscription of VikramadLtya II. (above, Vol. 111. 
p. 359 f.). 




(Continued from Vol. FIJI, page 274.) 

From, the materials supplied to me by Rai Bahadur V. Venkayya I publish here, with the 
results of my calonlatioas, twenty-two more dates of Ghd^a kings (Nos. 137-158), and two 
dates (Nos. 159 and 160) oE the kiug Perufijingadeva, " who claims to be a Pallava and who 
subverted the Ch61a sovereignty about A.D. 1231-32." 1 Five of these dates (Nos. 145-149) 
belong to the king Bajadhiraja [II.] Rajakesarivarman, of -whom no dates have yet been 
published, and whose reign these dates with great probability show to have commenced between 
(approximately) the 28th February and the 80th March A.D. 1163. The other dates in 
general merely confirm the correctness of the res alts previously found for the commencement of 
the reigns of the kings to whom they belong ; but No. 142 reduces the period, during which 
RSjaraja II. must have commenced fco reign, to the time from (approximately) the 6th April 
to the llth July A.D. 1146. 3 

I am still keeping back a number of dates of Kul&ttanga-Ch&la II. Rajak&sarivarman 
in the tope that more dates of this king may be discovered before long. 

At tbe end of this article I give a list of all published dates of Oh61a kings that have been 
examined by me, with approximate statements of the time when each king commenced to reign. 

137. In the givayoganathaevamin temple at TimviSaltir. 8 

1 Svasti Sri [ || ] K&-Rajarajake'sarivarmniakku yandu 5 avadn iw-att[ai] 

[Dha]nu-[n] ay ar.ru Nayar.ru- kk[i]lamaiyum Mulamum pakka- 

2 m * prathipadamum kudina va,ra-y&gatt[i]n p&du. 

"In the 5th year (of the reign) of king Bajarajaksarivarman, on the day of the 
atispicions yoga which was combined with the first tithi of a fortnight, 5 (the nakshatra) Mftla 
and a Sunday in the month of Dhanua of this year." 

I have previously found 6 that R a jaraja I, commenced to reign between (approximately) 
th.e 25th June and thej 25th July AJD. 985. This date of the 5th year of his reign corresponds 
to Sunday, the 1st Eleoember A,D. 989, which was the 8th day of the month of Dhanus, and 
on which the first tit hi (of the bright half of Pausha) commenced 6 h. 6 m., while the nakihatra 
was MLtila, by the equal space system for 16 h. 25 m., and according to Garga for 3 h. 56 m., 
after mean sunrise. 

For dates with, the auspicious yoga also called amrita-y6ga 7 of a Sunday with the 
nakahatr a. ^Mula, see above, Vol. VI. p. 21, No. 33, and note. Compare also H&raachandra's 
Saldd>nt^dsana-vrit ~t i, end of Adhyaya II. Pada 2 : Muldrkah 8 My ate ifaM sarvakalydnv. 
hdranavn \ adhund Mtilardjas=tu ohitrafo Ukeshu 

See Mr. Ventayya's Annual Report for 1906-07, p. 89. 

Compare above, Yol. VIII. p. 264. 

No. 19 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1907. 

Bead pratipada , 

It is not stated whether it was the bright or the dark fortnight. 

See above, Vol. VII. p. 6. 
See Up. Cam. Vol. IV. p. 114, No. 10. 
8 I.e. SHHa-nakshatrfya yulctt 'rJcali t try ah. 


138 and 189.- In the Amritaghatesvara temple at Tirukkadaiyur. 1 

1 Svasti IrS [||] [Tiru-ma]gal 

2 M-k6v=IrajarSjake'saripanmar.ku J^P^M 

16 vadu &gum yandu Pi- 

3 [ra]ttadi=tti[nga]l pij;=pakkattu=[p]pakkani [8 ettu]=kki[Ja]mai 3 Tingal nal, 


9 ... i[v*]Y-[SndSy] Tula-nayajru pu[rvva-bha]kfchat[tn] 

dv&[da]siyam Naya[jr]u-kila[m]ai[yu:m] poy.r.a Iraivadi . . . s 

"In the year -which, was the 16th year (of t7ie reign) of the glorious king 
Bjarajakeaarivarmari, - on the day of Punarvasu, the -week-day (being) Monday, (and) the 
day of the fortnight being [8 eight ] of the second half of the month Purattadi .... 

, on [the day of] Bevati which corresponded to a Sunday and to the twelfth 

tifhi of the first fortnight of the month of Tul& in this year." . 

The first of these two dates regularly corresponds to Monday, the 23rd September A.D, 
1000, which was the 29th day of the month Purattadi (i.e. the month of Kanya), and on -which 
the 8th tifhi of the dark half (of Asvina) commenced Oh. 55m,, while the nakshatra was 
Punarvasu, by the eqnal space system and according to Garga for 22 h. 20 m., and by the Brahma- 
siddhanta for 2,1 h. 40 m., after mean sunrise. 

The second date apparently corresponds to Sunday, the 13th October A.D. 1000. Ttis 
was the 18th day of the month of Tula, and on it the 12th tithi of the bright half (of Karttika) 1 
ended 1 h. 17 m. after mean sunrise ; but as the nakshatra was BSvatl only from 11 h. 10 m. after 
mean sunrise, I should hare expected the day to be described as the day of (the preceding 
nakthatra) TJttara-Bhadrapada. 

140. In the iva temple at Perangiyur. 5 

1 Syasti sri [||*] grf-R&ja-R&jarajade-varku yasdu 

2[4]aradu i-yandu 6 iMrifichika-nayarr.u pn[r]wa- 

pakshattu=P[ptLdanj-kilamaiynm panjamiynm per.r,a Ti[ru]v6[ua]fctin na[l]. 

"In the 2[4]th year (of the reign) of the glorious Baja-Rajarjadeva, on the day oi 
firavana, which corresponded to the fifth titM and to a [Wednesday] of the first fortnight of 
the month of Vfischika in this year." 

!For the giren week-day (Wednesday) and the nakshatra Sravana the date would be wrong 
for all the ten years from the 20fch to the 29 bh year of Rajaraja's reign. Irrespectively of the 
week-day, the date for the 24th year would correspond to Saturday, the 0th November A.D, 
100&, which was the 12th day of the month of Vrisohika, and on which the 5th titbi of the 
bright half (of M&rgas"!rsha) ended 3 h. 33 m. after mean sunrise, while the nakshatra by all 
systems was Sravaaa the whole day. I have little doubt that this Saturday is the proper 
equivalent of the date and that the week-day, if not misread, has been wrongly given in the 

1 Ifo. 27 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1906. 
' The letter la is engraved below the line. 
8 Bead R4tati~ndl. 

* I.e. tbe utftdna'dvddait'tiihi (the tithi of the awateiiiug of Vishnu). 

* No. 208 of the tio-veiumeat Epigraphist's collection for 1906, 
6 Bead 


141. in the Amritaghatesvara temple at Tirukkadaiyiir. 1 

1 Svaati sri [||*] Pu-malai m[i]daindu . . 

16 k6=I^rake's'aripatmar=5sna] Tribhuvana- 


17 gal sri-Vikrama-S&laievarku y&ndu 6 ar[a]vadu. Y[ri]scld 

^[yjaiy 11111 [Ba]dan-kilamaiyara pejrra Mrigasirshatti=naL 

"In the 6th sixth year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivartnan alias the emperor 
of the three -worlds, the glorious Vikraoaa-Claoladeva, on the day of Mrigaalrsha, which 

corresponded to a Wednesday and to the [second ?] tithi of the 

[of the month of] Vrischipca]." 

The reign of Vikrama-Chola has been found 3 to commence on the 29th Jnne A.D. 1118, 
and this date o the 6th year of his reign undoubtedly corresponds to Wednesday, the 7th 
November A.D. 1123. This was the llth day of the month of Vriaohika, and on it the second 
tithi (of the dark half of Karttika) ended 4 h. 45 m., while the nakshakra was Mrigasirsha, by 
the equal space system and according to Garga for 7 h. 13 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 
5 h. 55 m., after mean sunrise. 

142. -In the Gramardhanathesvara temple at ELvanasfir. 4 

1 Svasti ri [H*] Pu maruviya Tir.ii-madum 

13 . . k6=Pparakesari[pa]tmar=ana Tribhuvanachohakravar- 

14 tigal Sri-Raj arajadevarku ytndu 5 [l]5[vadu] 6 Me- 

15 sha,-nayar,ru pfirvva-pakshatta ashtami[ya]na Badan-ki- 

16 lamaiyum pejja Pusatti-nal. 

"In the [l]5th year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Bajariijadeva, on the day of Eushya, which corresponded to a 
"Wednesday and to the eighth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Mesha." 

With the result previously obtained 7 for the commencement of the reign of Rajaraja [II.] 
Parakesarivarman, this date regularly corresponds to Wednesday, the 5th April A.D. 1161, 
which was the 13th day of the month of Mesha and on which the 8th tithi of the bright half 
(of YaiSakha) ended 12 h. 54 m., while the nakshatra was Pushya, by the equal space system 
and according to Garga for 11 h. 10 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 9h. 12m. after 
mean sunrise, 

143. In the Gr&mardhan&thesvara temple at Elv,nsur. 3 

4 ......... k&=Pparake's"ajipanmar=ana 


5 Tanachchakravattigal gri-Rajara]adfivarku yandu l[7]vadu Dha[nu-naya]ru 


6 ksha[t*]tu nayamiynm Nayarru-H[la]maiyum perja A . . ... 

1 No. 80 of the Government EpigttphUt'a collection for 1906. 

3 Perhaps dvittyaiyum is meant. * See above, Vol. VII. p. 8. 

* No. 140 of the Government EpigraphUt's collection for 1906. 

5 The letter n is engraved below the line. 

' The letters vadu are written in a group. 
' See above, Vol. VIII. pp. 2 and 261. 

6 So. 129 of the Government Epigraphisf collection for 1908. 


. "In the l[73th year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman alias the emperor of l ~ 
three worlds, the glorious Raj arajad<va,~ on the day of A ..... ,1 vfr'' 
correBponded to a Sunday and to the ninth tithi of the second fortnight of the month of DhaO^ 

The date corresponds to Sunday, the 2nd December A.D. 1162, which was the 7th dtf '' 
the month of Dhanus, aud on which the 9th tit hi of the dark half (of Margasirshai ended & 
56 m., while the nakshatra was Hasta, by the equal space system and according to Garga *' 
13 h. 47 m., and by the Brahma-siddhauta for 10 h. 30 m., after mean sunrise. 

The result shows that the nakshatra, of the name of which only the initial vowel a rema^ 
in line 6 of the original, was Attam (Hasta). The date is the latest one hitherto examined d 
the reign of Bajaraja II. 

144. In the OramSrdhanatbesvara temple at Elvnas"ur. s 

1 Svasti Sri [||*] Pu marnviya Tirn-madnm 
......... ..... &- 

8 P[p] a ra[k]esaripatmar=ana TribhtLvana[ch]chakrava[r]tigal grf-R&jar&jadtojh 

yandu 15[vadn] 3 M[i]na- 

9 n&yarru p[ft]rwa-paksliattu pau[ jami]y[u]m Tingal-Mlamaiyum perrn 

M[ri] gasi [r] shatti=naj . 

*' In the 15th year (o/ the reign') of king Parakesarivarman alias the emperor of tM 
three worlds, tae glorious Rajarajadeva, oa the day of Mrigaslrsha, which oon-esponded 
to a Monday and to the fifth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Mina." 

In accordance with the previously obtained results, this date should fall in A.D. 1,161, some 
time before the 24th March (the first day of the month of Mgsha) ; but with the actual reading 
of the original it would be incorrect. In my opinion, the fifth tithi (pan[ ja mi]ywn) has here 
been quoted erroneously instead of the seventh (saptamiywn), and the date correspoiida to 
Monday, the 6th March A.D. 1161, which was the 12th day of the month of MIna, and <a 
which he Vth tithi of the bright half (of Chaitra) ended 3 h. 41 m., while the nafaJiaira, was 
Mrigaslrsha, ^by the equal space system and according to" Garga for 4h. 36m., and by the 
Brahma-sidJhanta for 3h. 17 m., after mean sunrise. 

Of the three dates, the date No. 142 would show that the reign of Kajaraja II, ooulg 
not have commenced before (approximately) the eth April A.D. 1146.* 

145. In the TyagarSjasvamin temple at Tiruvfirur. 5 

1 Svasti r[i] 6i_ Kadal Sulnda par-mag [a]lu[tn] 

2 ..... k6 R&jakSBaripa[nma]r= Sna Tribhuvanachcha[k*]taravattigal sii- 

Baiadha(dhi)rajad^vaiku yaodu 2[avadu] Mesha-nayajju ptlrvva- pakshatte 

shashthiyun=Dingat-kiJamaiyum perra Pnnarpiisatti=na]. 

"In the 2nd year (of the reign) of king Bajakesarivarnjan alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious E&jfidhiiajadeva,~ on the day of Punarvasu, which corresponded 
to a Monday and to the sixth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of MSsha." 

1 The name of toe nalcshatrat which is lost in the original, may be ASvati (ASvini), Attain (Hnata), Avituuu 
or Annlam 

3 No. 137 of the Government Bpigraphisfc'a collection for 1906. 

The letters vadu are written in a group. * Compare the date No. 108, above, YoK VJIL p. J8f 

* No. 538 of the Government Epigruphiat's collection for 1904. 

* The word aaadv seems to bo denoted by a flouiiuh added to tho figure 2. 


The five dates Nos. 145-149 are of the reign of a Hng Rajadhiraja BajakesarivarmaTi, 

,, ^ fire takan from inscriptions every one of which, begins with the words kadal Suliidct,. The 

* Hour dates work out regularly oa the assumption that this king commenced to reign 

fc ^Veen (approximately) the 28th February and the 30th March A.D. 1163. With such 

tn.mencetaent of his reign : 

- This date, No. 145, corresponds to Monday, the 30th March A.D. 1164, which was the 
^ ^ <lay of the month of Mesha, and on which the 6th titlii of the bright half (of the first 
^-l^akha) ended 19 h. 3 m., while the nakshatra, waa Punarvasu, by the Brahma-siddhanta 
J Oj>i 7 h. 13 m., according to Garga from 9 h. 51 m., and by the equal space system from 
* *i. 40 m., after mean sunrise. This equivalent of the original date might perhaps be objected 
the ground that the nakshatra was Punarvasu only from *7 h. 13 m. (or later) after raeau 
e ; and in the case of the date No. 106, above Vol. VIII. p. 263, where also the nakshatra 
found to he Punarvasu from, 8 h. 32 m. (or later) after mean sunrise, I have myself stated 
*t that nahsliat-ra in the original date might have been, quoted erroneously instead of the 
1 ? a Mediately preceding naUshatra .Ardra. But the two dates together now seem to me to show 
in either case there was some special reason for quoting the nakshatra Punarvasu, instead 
naksJiatra Ardra in which the moon was at the commencement of the day. 1 

146. In the Kapardlsvara temple at Tiruvaianjuli. 3 

-* Svasti [ri] ||*] Kadal sulnda p&r-madarum . . . . . ... 

" [k&] Bajakesari[vanma]r= a[na3 Tribhuvanach.chakTava[ttil- 

6 gal sii-EfaJjadhirajadevaiku fyjandu [Sajvadu Sim[ha]-n[a]yaj[ruJ [ajpara- 

patshattu [dv]ada[siyu]m [Ti]- 

7 nga]t-lrilatnai[yu]m peifja [Puna]r[pu]sat[tu] nS,[l]. 

" In the [S^th year (of the reign) of king Rajakeaarivarinan alias the emparor of the 
ttwree worlds, the glorious Rajadhirajadeva, on the day of Punarvasu, which corresponded 
to a Monday and to the twelfth titlii of the second fortnight of the month of Simha." 

The date corresponds to Monday, the 10th August A.D. 1170, which was the 14th day of 
the month of Siriaha, and on which the 12th titlii of the dark half (of Srftvana) commenced 
2 la. 3 m., -while the nakshatra was Punarvasu, 8 by the equal space system and according to 
17 h. 44 m., and by the Brahma-siddhinta for 17 h. 4m., after mean sunrise. 

147. In the Tyagarajasvamin temple at Tiruvarur.* 

1 ESva"][sti] grih ||| Kadal sulnda par=e[=aisfti 

7 . . k&v=Ir&iak6sariparmar=&na Tribhuvanachcha.kravattigal Srf-Rkj&dhirajade'vajfcu 

yandu 10[avadu] 5 Mina-na[yarr]Ti p&rwa-pafcshattu tray6daiyufi=JevvAy-kkilamai- 

yum perra Magattu nal. 

"In the 10th year (of the reign") of king Bajakfisarivarmati alias the emperor of the 
worlds, the glorious B.ajadhirajade'va, on the day of Maghfl, which corresponded to 
Tuesday and to the thirteenth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Mina." 

1 Por other dates with nalcshat r as which also, if I may say so, commenced some time after sunrise, compare 
7 . Nos. 28, 47, 66, 105, and 121 of this series. 

3 No. 627 of thft-Ctovernmeat BH^^hist's collection for 1902. 

3 A 12th tit hi joined with the \3jra Puuarvasa ia called jayanti ; it is a malui-dvctdafi. This may be 
reason why the 12th tithi has X- ; ' : -v, Wjd in the original date (as a current tithi). 

* No. 540 of the Qovernmoij;' ./j&jjpliist'i collection for 1904. 

* The word dvadv seems tq& ! . jKa by a flourish added, to the symbol for ten. 


The date corresponds to Tuesday, the 27th February A.D. 1173, which was the Hth f ' 3 -' 

of the month of MitM, and on which the 13th tithi of the bright half (of PMlguiia) <;-'-' 

10 h. 50 m.j while the naJeshatra was Magha, by the equal space system for 14 h. 27 in., t' r -' 
according to Garga for 2 h. 33 m., after mean sunrise. 

148. In the Darfoharanyesvara temple at Tirunallar. 1 

1 Svftfiti sri[h] [||*] Kadal sulVjda [pfi]r-mfularnm 

[k]ov=Irfi~sa )ki'dar[i]parmar=a[na Tmbuvajna[ch]chakkarava[t*]tig<.l Iri-I.-'-v- 
j[a*Jd[i]r)i[ i ;a*]ilevarku yii[ii]- 

2 <3u padin-oniMYJidu Sinna-na[ya~]rru pu[r]va-paBlia(ltsha)ttu pnujamiyu[P. r 

Budan-ldlamai[y]um p[e]i;ra S6d[ij-nal. 

"In the eleventh year (of the reign') of king Bajakesarivarman alias the emperor of 
the three worlds, the glorious Rajadhirajadeva, on the day of Svati, whioli r-r.rrf 
sponded to a Wednesday and to the fifth tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Simlm." 

The date corresponds to Wednesday, the 15th August A.D. 1173, which was the KHh chy 
of the mouth of Simha, and on which the 5th tithi of the bright half (of Bh/idrapadai en&J 
13 h. 53 tn., while the nakshatra was Svati, by the equal space system for 17 h. 44m., accwiiiiiS 
to Garga for 5 h. 16 m. 3 and by the Bralima-siddhanta for 1 h. 19 m., after mean sunrise. 

140.- In the Vrishabhapurisvara temple at Mel-Svur. 3 

1 Svaati sri [||*] Kadal ^ulnda par-m[a]darnm 

2 .......... k& Irasak^[sa]ripatmar-ar,a 

Tribhuvanachchakkarayattigal M-Eaja[dhira*]jadevaxku yandn. ItJJivada 

na Baduu-kil-imaiyum=apara pakshattu ekada[S]iyam perra B[6]^ani-fiiti!. 

"In the 13th year (o/ tie reign'} of king Eajakesarivarman alias the emperor of tfce 
three worlds, the glorious Baja[dhira]jadeva, on the day of R6hini, which coirespomi^i 
to the eleventh tithi of the second fortnight and to a Wednesday, the thirteenth solaa- day of tk 
month of Karkataka." 

In the three hundred years from A.D. 1000 to A.D. 1300 there are only two days wbi'li 
would satisfy the requirements of this date, viz. Wednesday, the 8th July A.D. 1097, siJ 
Wednesday, the 8th July A.D. 1181. 

In A.D. 1087 the Karkataka-samkranti took place 17 h. 26 m. after mean sunrise c-f 
Thursday, the 25th June ; the first day of the month of Karkataka therefore was Friday, the 
26th June, and the 13th day of the same month was Wednesday, the 8tti July. On this day 
the llth tithi of the dark half (of Ashadha) ended 5 h. 36 m., and the naksTiatra, was Rdhinl, 
by the equal space system and according to Garga for 4 h. 36 m,, and by the Bralma-siddynte 
for 3 h, 56 m. after mean sunrise. 

In A.D. 1181 the Karkatalra-samkranti took place 10 h. 56 m. after mean sunrise of May, 
the 26th June which was the first day of the month of Karkataka ; and the ] 3th day of the 
same month therefore was Wednesday, the 8th July. On this day the llth titM of the dark 
half (of Ashadha) commenced 4 h, 24 m. after mean sunrise, and the nakshatra was Bdhiplf by 
the Brahraa-siddhanta and according to Grarga the whole day, and by the equal space system jvm 

1 h. 58 m. after mean sunrise. 

1 No, 394 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1902. 
* No, 222 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1904. 


It is clear tliat if, as was assumed above, the reign of Rajftdhiraja Bajakesarivarinan com- 
menced bclvavn the 2?th Wbrnary and the 30tli Mat oh A.D. 1163, neither of the two Wednesdays 
given ribovc oould Lavu fallen in tlio 13th year of liis reign. On the other hand, I may state that 
if either of tliL x two days really fell in his 13th year, the other dates would bo incorrect. In 
these circumfibmces, and nssuming that, with tho exception of the regnal year, the details of the 
original date havo been given correctly, 1 can only Bnggest that the year 1 3 (which is given in 
figures J only) has licen quoted erroncontsly instead of the 19th year, and that the proper equivalent 
of the date therefore, is really Wednesday, the 8th July A.D. 1181. It might of course be 
objected tliat this day would fall in the reign of KuK tttinga III. Paraksarivarmnn, which, 
couimenreil k'tween tlui Cth and the Sth July A.I). 1178. But I have already shown that we have 
a similar overlapping of two reigns al^o in other cases. A date (No. 94) of the 39tb year of 
Kulottunga III. corresponds to the 25th January A.D. 1217, while the reign of his successor 
RSjarnja II T. on-umenced in June-.JnIy A.I). 1 2 1C ; and of this king again we have hvo dates 
(Nos. 96 and 97) of the 7th February and the 22nd April A.D. 1248, whereas the reign of his 
successor Rajf'ndra-Chola III. commenced in March- April A.D. 1246. 

From tho materials available I therefore infer that Rajadhiraja BajakesariVarmaii, i.e. 
Rajadtiiraj'a II., commenced to reign between (approximately) the 28th February and the 
30th March A.D. 1163. 

150. In the Gramardhanatheavara temple at Elvanasur. 2 

1 Tmbuvanachchakkaravattigal sii-Virar[a]iendira-Solad6var.k[ku] yanda Gyadu. 

M agara nfiyarjru purvva-pakku[li]ttu 3 dvit[i]yaiyam Tingat-kijLamai[y]um pe|>jra 

" In the 6th year (o/ the reign) of the emperor of tha three -worlds, the glorious 
Virar,jendra-Ch6ladeva, on the day of Sravisnthfi,, which corresponded to a Monday and 
to the second tithi of the firat fortnight of the month of Makara." 

The date corresponds to Monday, the 16th January A.D. 1184, which -was the 22nd day 
of tke month of Makara, and on which the 2nd titlii of the bright half (of Magha) mmrnenced 
5 h. 36 m., while the nakshatra was Sravisbtha, by the equal space system and according to 
Garga for 10 h. 30 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 11 h. 10 m., after mean sunrisa. 

151. In the Amritaghatesvara temple at Tirukkadaiyur. 4 

1 Svasti sri [||*] Puyal vnyppa 

5 k6=[Ppa]rakesaripajrnar=ana 

5 Tibuvanachchakkaravattiga,l Madu[r]aiyum Pandi[ya]naiyum mudittalai- 
kopd-aruliya sri-Kul6tbunga-S61adevaxku yandu 16 vadu M&sha-nayarj;xi pftrva- 
pakshattu [a]ttamiyu[m] 

6 Viyala-kkilamaiyum perja Pusatti=nal. 

" In the 16th year (of the r&ign] of king Paraksarivarman alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Kulottuiiga-Choladeva, who -was pleased to take Madurai and the 

1 Mr, Venkayya has informed me, about three years ngo, that the figures undoubtedly are ' 18.* 1 would 
suggest t>iat ( tbe thirteenth ' solar day, which is mentioned closely to the regnal year, maj have misled the writer 
to put down '13* also for tlie Utter. 

* No. 158 of the Government Epigraphiat's collection for 1906. s Bead ' 

4 TSo. 48 of the GcR&bnment Epigraphist's collection for 1906. 5 Bead 


crowned head of the PA,ndya, on the day of Pusliya -which corresponded fco a Thursday and t-: 
the eighth titJii of the first fortnight of the month of Mesha." 1 

The date corresponds to Thursday, the Slat March A.D. 1194, which -wag the 7th day of tie 
month of Bte'sha, and on which the 8th tithi of the "bright half (of the second Chaiti-a) endei! 
10 h, 50m., -while the nakshatra was Pushya, by the equal space system and according to Garga 
for 18h. 524) an., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 16 h. 25 m., after mean sunrise. 

152. -In the Sivayoganathasvamin temple at Tiruvisalur. 2 
1 Svaati ari || [Pnjyal vappa 

16 . . . . ..... . k6=P[pa]ra- 

17 k[e^a]ri[pa]rmar=[a]na T[i]iibuva[na]chcha[kka]ravattigal Ma[du]rai[yu]m [P]4n[dij- 

18 yan mudi-ttalaiyun=gond-aruli[na gri-Kul6]ttunga-S6[la]- 

19 devarkku yandu padine[t]tava[du] Kum[bha]-naya[r]r.u piir[va]-paksha[tta] 

20 tri(tri)tiyaiyum Sani-kkilatnaiyum p[e]lJ?a [Pu]rattu n&[|]. 
" In the eighteenth year (of the reign) of king Parakesarivarman alias the emperor of 

the three worlds, the glorious Kulottunga-Choladeva, who was pleased to take Madnrai 
and the crowned head of the P5,ndya, on the day of Purva-Phalgunl, which corresponded 
to a Saturday and to the third tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha." 

The wording of this date is intrinsically wrong because on the third tithi of the bright half 
in the month of Kumbha the nakshatra could not possibly be Purva-Phalguni ; and the proba- 
bility would seem to be that either has the first fortnight been erroneously quoted instead of the 
second, or Purva-Phalgtmi (Purattii) instead of Purva-Bhadrapad^ (Purcittddi). 3 In my 
opinion, the date corresponds to Saturday, the 3rd February A.D. 1196, -which was the 10th 
day of the month of Kumbha, and on which the 3rd tithi of the bright half (of Pkalgnna) 
commenced 5 h. 40 m., while the naksJiatra was Purva-Bhadrapada, by the equal space system 
f or 4 h. 36 m., after mean sunrise. 

153. In the VataranySvara temple at Tiruvalangadu.* 

1 [gva]sti [Sri] [||*] Tribhnvanachchakkaravattigal Maduraiyu[m Ijjamum 

P[an]di[ya]n mudittalai[yu]n=go- 

2 [n]d-aru[lijna [sn]-Kul6ttunga-6[la]d[6]Ya[r]kku yan[du 2] 3 vadu .... 

4 . Kanni-nayaf[ru]=ppadina[jan=di]yadi[y3=ft[na] 

Sevvay-kka(kki)[la]mai[ya(yu)]m pu[rn]va-[pa]ksha[t]- 

5 tu [tri]tlyaiyum pejr[ra] Sittirai-nd[l]. 

"In the [2]3rd year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three -worlds, the glorious 
Kulottrmga-Choladeva, who was pleased to take Madnrai, Ilam and the crowned head of the 
Pandya, on the day of Chitra, which corresponded to the third tifhi of the first fortnight and 
to a Tuesday which was the sixteenth solar day of the month of Kanyfi." 

The date corresponds to Tuesday, the 12th September A.D. 120O. The preceding 
Kanya-samkranti took place 20 h. 58 m. after mean sunrise of Sunday, the 27th August ; the 
first day of the *nonth of Kanyft therefore was Monday, the 28th. August, and the 16th day of 

1 Another inscription of the [l]6th year of the same king with apparently the same astronomical details i 
found in the same temple (No. 42 of 1906). Bat the portion, where the fortnight, the nalcshvtra, aud the titht may 
be expected, IB damaged. What is actually found is [ p$\ . . . . . 
tlcalamaiywn perra JP^atttt] nd\. 

8 JsTo. 14 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 190?. 

8 Compare the date No. 60, ahove. Vol. VI. p. 288. 

4 Ko. 456 of the Government Epigntplriafc'a collection for 1905. 


the same month was Tuesday, the 12th September A.D. 1200. On this day the 3rd titU of 
the bright half (of ASvina) commenced 7 h. 12 m., and the na'ks'hatra, was Chitra, by the equal 
apace system and according to Garga for 2 h. 38 m., after mean sunrise. There seems no reason 
why the second tithi (dvittyaiyum) should not have been quoted in the original date instead of 
the third (tntiyaiyum). 


154. ID the Jambukesvara temple near Trichiriopoly. 1 

1 Svaspa] sr[i] [||*] [TrTJbhuvanachchakravattigal srPRajarajadevarkku yandu 
24[avadu 3 ] Mid[u]na-nayarru pftryya-pakshattu Skadasiyum 

Sani-kkilamaiy[u]m perja [S]6di-nal. 

" In the 24th year- (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
R&jar&jadeva, on the day of Sv&ti, which corresponded to a Saturday and to the eleventh 
tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Mithuna." 

The reign of Rajaraja III. has been found to commence* between (approximately) the 27th 
Juno and the lOfch July A.D. 1216. This date of the 24bh year corresponds to Saturday, the 
2nd June A.D. 1240, which was the 9th day of the month of Mithuna, and on which the llth 
tithi of the bright half (of Jyaishtha) ended 3 h. 37 m., while the nakshatra was Svati, by the 
equal space system for 5 h. 55 m,, after mean sunrise. 

155. In the Jambukesvara temple near Triohmopoly. 6 

1 Svas[ti] siih [||*] Tribhu[va]nachchakravartbigaj. sri- 6 Rajarajadvajku yandu 

2[9 7 ayadu 8 ] Tula-nayaji;u=ppiirvva-[pa]kshattu prathamaiyum [S]evvay- 
kilamaiyum pej- 

2 ja 6di-nal. 

' In the 2[9]to 7 year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 

Bftjarajadeva, on the day of Svati, which corresponded to a Tuesday and to the first tithi 
of the first fortnight of the month .of Tula." 

The date, for the 29th year, regularly corresponds to Tuesday, the 4th October A.D. 
1244, -which was the 7th day of the month of Tula, and on which the first tithi of .the bright 
half (of Karttika) ended 12 h. 58 m., while the nakshatra was Svati, by the equal space system 
for 15 h. 46 m., a.nd according to Garga for 8 h. IT m., af tar mean sunrise. For the 26th year of 
the reign of Rajaraja HI. the date would be incorrect. 

156. In the Jambukesvara temple near Triohinopoly . 9 

1 Svast[i] ri [||*j Tribha[va]nachcha[kra]vattigal sri- 10 flajarajaa6varktt yandu 
2[9 10 avadu 10 ] Tula-nayarr.u purwa-pakshattu prathamaiyum Seway- 
kka(kki)[la]maiyum pej-ra S[6d]i-nal. 

"In the 2[9]th 10 year (of the reign) of the empetoi 1 of the thr'ee worlds, the glorious 
Bajarajadeva, on the day of Svati, which corresponded to a Tuesday and to the first tithi of 
the first, fortnight of the month of Tula." 

1 No. 508 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1905. 

3 This name consists of two abbreviations for the -word rdja, placed aide by side. 

8 This word seems to be denoted by a flourish added to the second figure of the regnal year. 

* See above, Vol. YIII. p. 260. 

8 No. 501 of the Government Epigraphisfa collection for 1908. 

* This name consists of two abbreviations for the word rdja placed side by Bide. 
1 The second figure of the date might also be 6. 

8 Tula word seems to he denoted by a flourish added to the second figure of 'the regnul year. 
' No. 502 of the Governmeut Epigrnphistlij collection for 1905, 
10 See the notes ou the preceding date. 


The date is identical with the preceding date, and corresponds therefore to Tuesday, the 
4th October A.D. 1244. 

157. In the JambukSsvara temple near Trichinopoly. 1 

1 Svast[i] Sr[l] [||*] Tr[i]bhuvanaohchalcravatt[i]gal sr[i]- 3 Mjarajadevarka 

[ylandu. 2[9 avadu] 3 Kumbha-naya.^n-.ppu[r]vva-pakshatta uavamiynm 

Tingat-kila[m]aiyum perra TJr6san[i]-nal. 

" In the 2[8]th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Kajar&jadSva,- on the day of Rdhini, -which corresponded to a Monday and to the ninth titfii 
of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha." 

The date corresponds to Monday, the 6th February A.D. 1245, which, was the 14th day 
of the month of Kumbha, and on which the 9th tithi of the bright half (of Phalgnna) 
commenced 1 h. 12 m., while the nakshalra was Eohinl, by the equal space system and according 
to Garga for 7 h. 58 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta fur 7 h. 13 m.-, after mean sunrise. 

168. In the Jambukesvara temple near Trichinopoly. 4 

1 Svastp] sr[i] [||*] Tr[i]bhuvanachohakravatt[i]gal sr[i]- 3 Rajarfljade[va]jka 

[y"]andu 2[9avadu] 3 Kumbha-nayarru=ppurvva-pakshatfcu navani[i]yum Tingat- 
k[i]la[m]aiyum perja Ur6san[i]-nal. 

"Inthe2[9]th year (of the reign) of the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious 
Rajarajadeva, on the day of Bohinl, which, corresponded to a Monday and to the ninth 
tithi of the first fortnight of the month of Kumbha." 

The date is identical with the preceding date, and corresponds therefore to Monday, the 6th 
February A.D. 1246. 

159. In the Jambunatha temple at Jambai. 5 

1 Svasti 8r[l] [||*] Sa[galabn]vanachchakkaraTattigal s'rf-k&3Pperu[n]jingadeva[r]fai 
yandu 16vadu Danu-nayajrra pu[rwa-pakshattu] ti-ay6das[i]yum Tiiigat- 
k[i]lamaiyu[m*] perjra Ur&^au[i]- 6 naj. 

" In the 16th year (of the reign) of the emperor of all worlds, the glorious king 
PerufijmgadSva, on the day of Bohiai, which corresponded to a Monday and to the thirteenth 
tithi of the first [fortnight] of the month of Dhanus." 

Above, Vol. VII. p. 165, I have found that the reign of Perufijingadeva commenced between 
(approximately) the llth 'February and the 30th July A.D. 1243. This date, of his 16th year, 
corresponds to Monday, the 9th December A.D. 1258, which was the 14th day of the month 
of Dhamis, and on -which the 13th tithi of the bright half (of Pausha) commenced 7 h. 48 m,, 
while the nakshatra was Bdhini, by the Brahma-siddhanta the whole day, according to Garga 
front 1 h. 19 m., and by the equal space system from 13 h. 8 m., after mean sunrise. Instead of 
the 13th, I should have expected the 3 2th tithi to have been quoted, especially as, joined with 
R&hin$, this tithi is a mahd-dvddatt (pdpa-ndsini), 

1 No. 500 of tbe Government Epigraphiat'a collection for 1906. 

* This name consists of two abbreviations for the word rdja plnoed side by side. 

* Thii word teems to be denoted by a flourish added to the second figure of the regnal year. 
4 No. 62 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1908. 

1 No. 96 of the Government Epigrapbist's colluction for 1906. 
' The ylUbles /an[t] are repeated by mistake in the original. 


160. In the GrSmardhanathesvara temple at Elvanasur. 1 

1 Svasti gri [||*] Sagalabavanachchakkaravattigal 

sri-k6= 3 Pparan- 

2 jingadevarkku yandu muppadavada Tula-nayarju apara-pakshattu 

3 tri(tri)tiyaiyum Tinga[l]-ki]amaiyum pejrra Kattigai-nal. 

** In the thirtieth year (of the reign) of the emperor of all worlds, the glorious king 
^apufljingodeva, on the day of Krittikft, which corresponded to a Monday and to the third 
tittti of the second fortnight of the month of Tul.' 

The date corresponds to Monday, the 10th October A.D. 1272, which was the 13th day 
of the month of Tula, and on which the 3rd tithi of the dark half (of Asvina) commenced 6 h. 
40 m., while the nakshatra was Krittika, by the equal space system, for 13 h. 47 m., by the 
Brattma-Biddhanta for h. 39 m., and according to Garga for 1 h. 58 m., after mean sunrise. 


A. Far&ntaka I. Parakesarivarman. 
(Between the 15th January and the 25th July A.D. 907.) 

No. 101 (Vol. Yin. p. 261). Year 36, Kaliyuga 4044 (current) : Saturday, the 14th 

January A.D. 943. 
No. 55 (Vol. VH. p. 1). Year 40 : Saturday, the 25th July A.D. 946. 

B. Bajarfija I. Ejak6sarivarman. 
(Between the 25th June and the 25th July A.D. 885.) 

No. 137 (Vol. IX. p. 207). Year 5 : Sunday, the 1st December A.D. 989. 
No. 1 (Vol. IV p. 66). Year 7 : the 26th September A.D. 991. 
No. 61 (Vol. VH. p. 169). Year 11 : Sunday, the 14th June A.D. 996. 
No. 25 (Vol. V. p. 48). -Year 15 : Tuesday, the 29th August A.D. 999. 
No. 27 (Vol. V. p. 197). Year 15 : Wednesday, the 15th May A.D. 1000. 8 
No, 1S8 (Vol. IX. p. 208). Year 16 : Monday, the 23rd September A.D. 1000, 
No. 139 (Vol. IX. p. 208). -Year 16 : Sunday, the 13th October A:D. 1000. 
No. 2 (Vol. IV. p. 67). Saka 929 (eurrent). The date is incorrect. 
No. 140 (Vol, IX. p. 208).-Year 24 j Saturday, the 6th November A.D. 1008. 4 
No. 3 (Vol. IV. p. 68). Year 28, Saka 934. The data would correspond to the 23rd 
December A.D. 1012, bufc contains no details for exact verification, 

C. Bajndra-Ch6J.a I. Parakesarivarman. 
(Between the 27th March and the 7th July A.D. 1012.) 

No. 102 (Vol. Vm. p. 261). Year 5 : Tuesday, tae 26th March A.D. 1017. 
No. 32 (Vol. VI. p. 20). Year 9, Saka 943 (current) : Thursday, the 7th July A.D. 1020. 
No. 4 (Vol. IV. p. 68). Saka 9i3 (current) : Wednesday, the 1st March A.D. 1021. 
No, 5 (Vol. IV. p. 69). Year 31 (for 21), Saka 954: Monday, the 23rd October A.D. 

1 No. 159 of the Government Epigraph.iflt'fl collection for 1906. 

2 Bead "Pperunjinga. <> 

3 In the original tlie week-day is wronjsly given as Thursday. 
* The week-day is wrongly givea a Wednesday. 


No. 33 (Vol. VI. p, 21). Tear 22, Saka 955 : Sunday, the 25th November A.D, 1038. 
No. 34 (Vol. VI. p. 22). Year 26,' Saka 959. The date is incorrect. 
No. 62 (Vol. VII. p. 169). Year 31 : Friday, the 23rd July A.D. 1042 * 

D. Bajadhiraja I. BajakSsarivarman. 
(Between the 16th March, and the 3rd December A.D. 1018.) 

No. 15 (Vol. IV. p. 218). Year [S]2 (fop 22) : Thursday, the 22nd November A.D. 1039, 

No. 12 (Vol. IV. p. 216). Year 26 : Wednesday, the 14th March A.D. 1044. 

No. 13 (Vol. IV. p. 217). Year 27 : Wednesday, the 13th February A.D. 1045. 

No. 14 (Vol. -IV. p 217). Year 29 : Wednesday, the 3rd December A.D. 1046. 8 

No. 11 (Vol. IV. p. 216). Year 80 : Saka 970 (current). The date does not admit of exaot 

No. 35 (Vol. VI, p, 22). Year 35 : Saka 975 -.probably Sunday, the 23rd May A.D. 

1053. 3 

E. Baj 6ndradeva Parakesarivarman. 4 
(The 28th May A.D. 1052.) 

No. 38 (Vol. VI. p. 24).-The 82nd day of year 4 : Thursday, the 17th Anguat A.D. 1085, 
No. 36 (Vol. VI. p. 23). Year 6, Saka 979 : Monday, the 27th October A.D. 1057. 
No. 37 (Vol. VI, p. 23). Year 12 (for 11 ?), Saka 981 The date does not admit of exact 

F. VlrarajSndra BfijakSsarivarman. 6 . 

(Between the lltli September A.D. 1082 and the 10th September A.D. 1063.) 
Vol. Vn. p. 9. -Year 5 : Monday, the 10th September A.D. 1067. 

O-, Kulottunga-Ch61a I. Bajake'sarivarman (Bftjendra-OhdJa EC.) 
(Between the 14th March and the 8th October A.D. 1070.) 

No. 56 (Vol. VII. p. 1). Year 4 ; Thursday, the 7th November A.D. 1073. 

No. 39 (Vol. VI. p. 278). Year 7, Saka 998 : Friday, the 10th February A.D. 1077," 

No. 63 (Vol. VH. p, 1-70) .Year 16: Thursday, the 12fch March A.D. 1086. 

No. 6 (Vol. IV. p. 70). Year 37, S*aka 1030 (for 1028 P). The date does not -admit 

of exact verification. 

No. 9 (Vol. IV. p. 72). Saka 1035 ; Sunday, the 22nd February A.D. 1114. 
No. 7 (Vol. IV. p. 70). Year 44: Friday, the 13th March A.D. 1114. 
No. 8 (Vol. IV. p. 71). Year 45: Thursday, the 8fch October A.D. 1114. 
No. 40 (Vol. VI. p. 279). Year 45, Saka 1036 : Wednesday, the 9th December A.D. 1114, 
No. ?6 (Vol. V. p. 48).- T Year 48 : Monday, the 7th January A.D. 1118. 
Nofl. 20 and 28 (Vol. IV. p. 262, and Vol. V. p. 198). Year 48 : Friday, the 25th JannaiT 

A.D. 1118.7 

1 The ntlkikatra quoted it in trimically wrong. 
* The 2nd tit&i !fl wrongly quoted instead of the 3rd. 
1 The 13th lithi hns probably been wrongly quoted instead of the 3rd. 
4 In No. 37 aurnamed EUjatfijarivarnum. 

s "So. 273 of the Government Epigraphiit's collection for 1904 contains a date of the 7th year of this ling 
and of Salu 991 expired (- A.D. 1069-70). 

' The month Mflgts is wrongly quoted instead of Phftlgnna. 

T In No. 28 the 12th tithi U wrongly quoted instead of the 2nd which is correctly given in No. 20. 


H. Vikrama-Cn6}a Parake'sarivarman. 
("She 29th June A.D. 1118.) 

No. .21 (Vol. IV. p. 263, and Vol. VH p. 3). Year 4 : Monday, the 1st May A.D. 1122. 
Nos. 103 and 104 (Vol. VILE. p. 262). Tear 4 : Wednesday, the 10th May A.B. 1122. 
No. 22 (Vol. IV. p. 264, and Vol. VII. p. 3). Year 5 : Monday, the 31st July A.D. 1122. 
No. 57 (Vol. VH p. 3). Tear 5 : Thursday, the 31st May A.D. 1123. 
No. 10 (Vol. IV. p. 73, and Vol. VII. p. 4). The 340th day of year 5 : Sunday, the 3rd 

June A.D. 1123. 1 

No. 141 (Vol. IX. p. 209). Tear 6 : Wednesday, the 7th November A.D. 1123. 
No. 84 (Vol. Vm. p. 1). Year 7 : Thursday, the 7th August A.D. 1124, 
No. 105 (Vol. VTQ. p. 263). Year 8 : Tuesday, the 18th August A.D. 1125. 
No. 42 (Vol. VI. p. 280). Year 9, Saka 1049 : the 27th May A.D. 1127. 8 
No. 59 (Vpl. VII. p. 5). Year 10 : Sunday, the 15th April, or Saturday, the 14th April 

A.D, 1128. 5 

-No. 64 (Vol. VH. p. 170). Year 11 : Wednesday, the 19th Decemher A.D. 1128. 
No. 68 (Vol. VIE. p. 4). Year 11 : Saturday, the' 5th January A.D. 1129. 
No. 65 (Vol. VII. p. 171). Year 15. The date does not admit of verification. 
No. 41 (Vol. VI. p. 279, and Vol. VII. p. 3). Year 16: Monday, the 16tb April A.D. 1134. 
No. 43 (Vol. VI. p. 281, and Vol. VH. p. 5). Year 17, Saka 1054 (for 1057) : Thursday, 

the 18th April A.D. 1135. 

I. Zul&ttunga-Choda II.* 
Vol. VH. p. 9. SaTca 1056 (for 1065) : the 24th March A.D. 1143. 

J. Bajarfija II. Parakesarivarman. 
(Between the 6th April and the llth July A.D. 1146.) 
No. 85 (Vol. VIH. p. 2). Year 4 : Wednesday, the 23rd November A.D. 1149. 
No. 86 (Vol. VIII. p. 2). Year 6 : Thursday, the 24th January A.D. 1152. 
No. 89 (Vol. VIH. p. 8). Year 6 : Thursday, the 14th February A.D. 1152. 5 
No. 87 (Vol. Vni. p. 2). Year 12 : Wednesday, the 26th March A.D. 1158. 
No. 88 (Vol. VIE!, p. 3). Year 15 : Thursday, th 12bh January A.D. 1161. 
No. 14.4 (Vol. IX. p. 210). Year 15 : Monday* the 6th March A.D. 116L6 
No. 142 (Vol. IX. p. 209). Year 15 : Wednesday, the 5th April/ A.D. 1161. 
No. 106 (Vol. VHI. p. 263). Year opposite to 16 : Wednesday, the llth July A,D, 1162, 
No. 143 (Vol. IX. p. 209). Year 17 : Sunday, ihe 2nd December A.D. 1162. 

K. Bajadhiraja H. Bajakesarivannan. . 

(Between the 28th February and the 30th Maroh A.D. 1163.) 
No. 145 (Vol. IX. p. 210). Year 2 ; Monday, the 30th Maroh A.D. 1164. 
No. 146 (Vol. IX. p. 211). Year 8 : Monday, the 10th August A.D. 1170. 
No. 147 (Vol:IX. p. 211). Year 10 : Tuesday, the 27th February A.D. 1173. 
No. 148 (Vol. IX. p. 212). Year 11 : Wednesday, the 15th August A.D. 1173. 
No. 149 (Vol. IX. p. 212). Tear 13 (for 19 ?) : Wednesday, the 8th July A.D. 1181 (?). 

1 The 7th titki is wrongly quoted instead of the 8th. 
9 Tbe year Plava is wrongly quoted initead of Plavanga. 

.* In the original data either the nakthatra or the week-day is quoted incorrectly. 

4 Perhaps identical with Kul&ttuiiga-Chd{a II. R4jk^arivarman, of whom I potsoti unpublished date* of 
the regnal yean 4, 10, 14 and IS. 

* Tbe month of Mint it wrongly quoted initead of Knmbh*. 

* The 5th titli it wrongly quoted initead of the 7th. 



L.-Kul6ttunga-Ch6Ja m. ParakSsarivarman (VlrarfijSndra-Chdla, 1 TribliuvanavJra*). 
(Between the 6th and the 8th July A.D. 1178.) 

No. 66 (Vol. VII. p. 171). Year 3 : Monday, the llth August A.D. 1180. 3 

No. 67 (Vol. VII. p. 171). Year 3 : tlie date is incorrect. 

No. 107 (Vol. Vin.p. 264) .Year 4 : Thursday, the lltb March A.D. 1182. 

No. 150 (Vol. IX. p. 213). Year 6 : Monday, the 16th January A.D. 1184. 

Nos. 108 and 109 (Vol. VIII. p. 264). Year 6 : Thursday, the 5th July A.D. 1134.* 

No. 68 (Vol. VII p. 172). Year 7 : Wednesday, the 22nd August A.D. 1184, 

No. 23 (Vol. IV. p. 264). Year 8 : Monday, the 8th July A.D. 1185. 

No. 90 (Vol. VHI. p. 4). Year 10 : Tuesday, the 5th January A.D. 1188. 5 

No. 19 (Vol. IV. p. 220). Year 12 : Monday, the 4th December A.D. 1189. 

No. 60 (Vol. VII. p. 6). Year 14 : Thursday, the 2nd January A.D. 1192. 6 

No. 110 (Vol. VIII. p. 265). Year 16 : Monday, the 17th January A.D. 1194. 

No. 151 (Vol. IX, p. 213) .Year 16 : Thursday, the 31st March A.D. 1194. 

No. 24 (Vol. IV. p. 265). Year 16 : Saturday, the 4th June A.D. 1194.7 

No. 69 (Vol. Vn. p. 172). Year 17 : Monday, the 13th February A.D. 1195. 

No, 70 (Vol. VH. p. 172). Year 17 : Thuraday, the 8th June A.D. 1195. 

No. 152 (Vol. IX. p. 214). Year 18 : Saturday, the 3rd February A.D. 1196. 8 

No. 71 (Vol. VH. p. 173). Year 19 : Monday, the 2nd September A.D, 1196. 9 

No. 17 (Vol. IV. p. 219). Year 19 : Tuesday, the 12th November A.D. 1196. 

No. 72 (Vol. VII p. 173). Year 19 :' Wednesday, the 30th April A.D. 1197. 

No. 16 (Vol IV. p. 219). Yeac 19 (for 20), Saka 1119 : Friday, the 21st November A.D. 

1197. 10 

No. Ill (Vol. Vm. p. 265). Year 20 : Sunday, the 3rd May A.D. 1198. 11 
No. 31 (Vol. V. p. 199). Year 20. The date is quite incorrect. 
No, 73 (Vol. VH. p. 174). -Year 21 : Wednesday, the 7th April A.D. 1199. 
No. 74 (Vol. VH. p. 174). Year 21 : Saturday, the lOfch April 1199.1 3 
No. 153 (Vol. IX. p. 2 14).-^ Year 23 : Tuesday, the 12th September A.D. 1200. 
No. 112 (Vol. VDJ. p. 265). Year 23 : Monday, the 6th November A.D. 1200. 
No. 113 (Vol. VDJ. p. 266). Year 25 : Wednesday, the 24th July A.D. 1202. 1 3 
No. 44 (Vol. VI. p. 281). Year 27 : Thursday, the 5fch May A.D. 1205. 
No, 29 (Vol. V. p. 198). Year 29 : Wednesday, the 7th March A.D. 1207, 
No. 114 (Vol. VHI. p. 266). Year 32 : Monday, the 21st December A.D, 1209. 1 * 
No. 18 (Vol. IV. p. 220j. Year 34 ; Monday, the 19th September A.D. 1211. 
No. 91 (Vol. VDJ. p. 4). Year 35 : Sunday, the 2nd June A.D. 1213. 
No. 92 (Vol VIH. p. 4). Year 36 : Monday, the 14th April A.D. 1214. 

1 This name occur* in the dates of the 6th and 7th years. 

3 This name occur* in the dates from the 32tid to the 39th year. 

* I now tale this to be the proper equivalent of the date. 

* The 12th tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the llth. 

* The second fortnight is wrongly quoted instead of the first. 
9 The fitot fortnight is wrongly quoted instead of the second. 
1 The 4th tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the 14th. 

" The nakthatrct Purva-Phalgnni is wrongly quoted instead of Purva-Bhadrapada. 

9 The nrtkthatra quoted is intrinsically wrong. 
*" The 15th solar day is wrongly quoted instead of the 25th, 
11 The nalcahatrct Uttarashadhl ia wrongly quoted instead of Uttara-BhadrapadS. 
13 The month of Rishabha ia wrongly quoted instead of Meshft. 
19 The 6th tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the 4th. 
is wrongly quoted instead of the 8th* 


No. 93 (Vol. VHI. p. 5). Year 37 : Monday, the 17th November A.D. 1214. 

No. 30 (Vol. V. p. 199). Year 37 : Sunday, the 7th June A.D. 1215. 

No. 94 (Vol.,VIII. p. 5). Year 39 : Wednesday, the 25th January A.D. 1217. 

M. Ea" jaraja m. Kajake'sarivarmau. 1 
(Between the 27th June and the 10th July A.D. 1216.) 

No. 115 (Vol. Vni. p. 267).-Year 2 : Monday, the 29th January A.D. 1218. 

No. 75 (Vol. VII. p. 174). Year 4 : Monday, the 22nd June A.D. 1220. 

No. 76 (Vol. VII. p. 175). Year 5 : Wednesday, the 19th August A.D. 1220. 2 

No.* 77 (Vol. VII. p. 175). Year opposite to 6 : Thursday, the 13th October A.D. 1222. 

No. 95 (Vol. VIE. p. 6). Year opposite to 8 : Monday, the 7th October A.D. 1224. 3 

No. 116 (Vol. VIE. p. 267). Year opposite to 8 : Sunday, the 23rd E'ebruary A.D. 1225. 4 

No. 117 (Vol. VIII. p. 267). Year 10 : Friday, the 17th April A.D. 1226. 

No. 78 (Vol. VII. p. 175). Year 10 : Tuesday, the 21st April A.D. 1226. 

No. 118 (Vol. Vin. p. 268). Year 12 : Monday, the 2nd August A.D. 1227. 

No. 119 (Vol. VIII. p. 268).-Year 16 : Thuraday, the 10th July AfD. 1231. 

No. 120 (Vol. VIII. p. 268J. Year 16 : Saturday, the 22ad May A.D. 1232. 

No. 45. (Vol. VI. p. 281). Year opposite to 16 : Saturday, the 25th September A.D. 1232. 

No. 46 (Vol. VI. p. 282). Year 17: Tuesday, the 18th January A.D. 1233. 

No. 47 (Vol. VI. p. 282). Year 18 : Tuesday, the 23rd August A.D. 1233. 

No. 121 (Vol. VIII. p. 269). Year 18 : Sunday, the 13th November A.D. 1233. 

No. 48 (Vol. VI. p. 282). Year 18 : Wednesday, the 7th December A.D. 1233. 

No. 122 (Vol. VIII. p. 269). Year 18 : Sunday, the 25th December A.D. 1233. 

No. 49 (Vol. VI. p. 283). Year 18 : Monday, the 2nd January A.D. 1234. 

No. 123 (Vol. VEIL p. 269). Year 19 (for 18) : Sunday, the .1th June A.D. 1234. 

No. 50 (Vol. VI. p. 283). Year 19 : probably Sunday, the 13th August A.D. 1234. 5 

No. 124 (Vol. VTIL p. 270). Year 19 : Sunday, the 5th November A.D. 1234. 

No. 125 (Vol. VIII. p. 270). Year 19 : Thursday, the 25th January A.D. 1235. 

No. 128 (Vol. VEU. p. 271). Year 27 (?, for 21) : Monday, the 12th January A.D. 1237. 

No. 51 (Vol. VI. p. 284). Year 22 : Tuesday, the 16th March A.D. 1238.7 

No.-52 (Vol. VI. p. 284). Year opposite to 22 : Monday, the 28th February A.D. 1239. 

No. 53 (Vol. VI. p. 284). Year opposite to 22 : Wednesday, the 2nd March A.D. 1239. 

No. 54 (Vol. VI. p. 285). Year opposite to 22 : Friday, the 4th March A.D. 1239. 

No. 154 (Vol. IX. p. 215). Year 24 : Satnrday, the 2nd June A.D. 1240. 

No. 126 (Vol. Vin. p. 270). Year opposite to 24 : Saturday, the 12th January A.D. 1241. 

No. 127 (Vol. VIII. p. 271). Year 27 : Wednesday, the 30th July A.D. 1242. 

Nos. 155 and 156 (Vol. IX. p. 215). Year 29 : Tuesday, the 4th October A.D. 1244. 

Nos. 157 and 158 (Vol. IX. p. 216). -Year 29 : Monday, the 6th February A.D. 1245. 

No. 129 (Vol. VEX. p. 271). Year 29 : Monday, the 26th June A.D. 1245. 

No. 130 (Vol. VIE. p. 272). Year 30 : Sunday, the 17th December A.D.1245. 8 

1 This surname occurs only in the date No. 45. 

1 The 6th tithi may have been quoted erroneously instead of the 4th. 

' The 9th tithi is wrongly quoted -instead of tbe 8th. 

1 [The last day of] the month of Kumbha Las been quoted erroneously instead of [the first day of] the 
immediately following month of MJna. 

1 In tiie original date either the naksbatra Uttirattadi (Ufctara-Bhadftipada) has been wrongly quoted 
instead of Uttiram CUttara-Phalgnni), or the first fortnight inetesd of fche second. 

If the published reading of the original date is correct, the second fortnight has been wrongly quoted 
instead of the firHt. 

1 The 4ti tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the 14th. 

8 The 13th ft/fjt ii wrongly quoted intesd of the 12th. 


No. 96 (Vol. Vm, p. 6) .-Tear 32 : Friday, the 7th February A.D. 1248. 
No. 97 (Vol. VHI. p. 6). Year 32 : Wednesday, the 22nd April A.D, 1248. 

If. Eaj6ndra-Ch6}a HI. 
(Between the 21st March and the 20th April A.D. 1246.) 

No. 79 (Vol. Vn. p. 175). Year 3 : Saturday, the 20th March A.D. 1249. 
No. 98 (Vol. VIH. p. 6). Tear. 4: Sunday, the 12fch September A.D. 1249. 
No. 131 (Vol. VHI. p. 272). Year 4: Wednesday, the 5th January A.D. 1250. 
No. 80 (Vol. VII. p. 176). Year 7: Wednesday, the 25th December A. D. 1252. 
No. 83 (Vol. VII. p. 177). Year opposite to 7. The date is intrinsically wrong. 
No. 132 (Vol. VIII p. 272). Year 9-: Tuesday, the 12th January A.D. 1255. 
No. 133 (Vol. Vm. p. 273). Year opposite to 11 ; Monday, the 9th July A.D. 1257. 
No. 134 (Vol. Vni. p. 273). Year 16 (for 17) : 'Monday, the 1st May A.D. 1262. 
No. 135 (Vol. Vm. p. 273). Year 18 : Wednesday, the 2nd January A.D.- 1264.1 
No. 136 (Vol. VIII. -p. 274). Year 20: Wednesday, the 20th January A.D. 1266. 
No. 81 (Vol. VH. p. 176). Year 21 : Wednesday, the 30th June A.D. 1266. 
No. 99 (Vol. VIII. p. 7). Year 22 : Wednesday, the 20th April A.D. 1267. 
No. 82 (Vol. VII. p. 177). Year 22 : Sunday, the 8th May A.D. 1267. 

* * * * * * * 

O. PerunjingadSva. 
(Between the llth February and the 30th July A.D. 1243.) 

Vol. VII. p. 164, B. Year 7 : Friday, the 30th July A.D. 1249. 
No. 159 (Vol. IX. p. 216). Year 16: Monday, the 9th December A.D. 1258. 
VoL VII. p. 164, A. Year 18, Saka 1182 : Sunday, the 31st October A.D. 1260. 
No. 160 (Vol. IS. p. 217). Year 30 : Monday, the 10th October A.D. 1272. 
VoL VDI. p. 165, D. Year 31 : Saturday, the 10th February A.D. 1274. 

* * * * 

P. Tribhuvanavira-Cho'JadSva. 

(Between the 24th August A.D. 1331 and the 23rd August A.D. 1332.) 

No. 100 (Vol. "VHI. p. 7). Year 11 : Friday, the 23rd August A.D. 1342. 



(Continued from, Vol. VIII. page 283.) 

From the numerous dates of Pandya kings sent to me by Eai Bahadur V. Venkayya, I 
here giro Eve (Nos. 63-67), the European equivalents of which may be given with certainty. 
The remaining dates must wait till more dates of the kings to whom they belong have been 
discovered. Of those here published, Nos. 64 and 66 we valuable inasmuch as, taken together 
with previously published dates, they show that Iftaravarman KulaSSkhara I. commenced 
to reign between (approximately) the 2nd and the Tth June A.D. 1308, and Mfiravar- 
man Xula$khara II. between (approximately) the 8th and the 29th March A.D. 13J4. 

1 The aecond fortaight is wrongly quoted irutead of th ftwt. 


In a postscript I give a date of a king Bajakesarivarman Vira-P3<iya, according to 
Mr. Veiikayya a ruler of Kongu, which quotes both tlie Saka year 1202 and the regnal yeai 
15, both given in words. This date is of considerable interest, because my calculations provo 
its meaning to be this, that the day of the date fell in the 15th year of the king's reign \vhich 
(reign) commenced in the !aka year 1202 (and not, that the day of the date itself fell in 
the Saka year 1202). The date thus suggests another point of doubt and uncertainty regarding 
the interpretation, of dates that do not contain sufficient data for exact verification, even where- 
at first sight such, doubt seems to be out of the question. 

At the end of this article also I give a list of all published dates of Pandya kings that 
have been examined by me, with approximate statements of the time when each king commenced 
to reign. 


63. In the rock-cut Siva temple at Tirumaiyam. 1 

1 Svaeti Sri [||*] K6 Marapanniar=ana Tiibhuvanachchakravattigal sri-Sundara-Pandiya- 

dvarku yandu 7vada [Risha]bha-[nayi]rja=ppadinm[u]nran=diyadiyum purvva- 
2 Tnikeliattu dasamiyum Nayirru-kkila- 3 

2 mni[yu]m pej[ja*] U[tti]ra.ttu nal. 

" In, the 7th year (of the reign) of king M&ravarman alias the emperor of the three 
worlds, the glorious Sundara-Pandyadeva, on the day of TJttara-Phalguni, which corre- 
sponded to a Sunday, to the tenth tithi of the first fortnight and to the thirteenth solar day of 
the month of Bishabha." 

I have previously found 4 that the reign of Maravarman Snndara-PApdya TI. commenced 
between (approximately) the 15th June A.D. 123S and the 18th January A.D. 1239. This date of 
his 7th year regularly corresponds to Sunday, the 7th May A.D. 1245. The preceding Vrishabha- 
saihkranti took place Oh. 4m. after mean sunrise of Tuesday, the *25th April A.D. 1245, which 
was the first day of the month of Vrishabha ; and the 13th day of the same month therefore 
was Sunday, the 7th May A.D. 1245. On this day the 10th tithi of the bright half (of Jyaishtha)' 
commenced h. 43 m., and the nakshatra was Uttara-Phalguni, by the equal space system and 
according to Garga for 19 h. 42m., and by the Brahma- siddhauta for 10 h. 25m,, after mean 

For the reign of M&javarman Sundara-Pandya I. the date would be quite incorrect, 


64.IH the Arjunesvara temple at Kiladi. 6 

1 Svasti Sri [||*] K6 Majava[rrama]r=anfi Tr[i]bhuvanacb.chft[ka]vattigal7 
[em"]mandalamuii=gond-arnliya sr[i]-Kulas6kharadevark"ku [yajudu 23vadu 
Mith[u]na-nayanu 6 'ti 8 piirvva-pakshattu [tri]t[i]yai[yum] Vel![i]-kk[i]Jamaiyuna 
perjfa Puattu nal. 

In the 23rd year (of Hie reign) of king Mfiravarman alias the emperor of the 
three worlds, the glorious Kulasekharadeva, who was pleased to take every country, on 
tlie day of Pushya, which corresponded to a Friday and to the third tithi of the first fortnight 
(and) to the 6th solar day of the month of Mithuna." 

i No. 387 of ihe Government Epigrapliiat's collection for 1906. 

* Bead -paTcshattu. 

* The whole of this line is engraved over an erasure. 4 See above. Vol. VI. p. SOS. 
I.e. the tithi of the Ba&aliard. 

* No. 447 of the Government EpigTftjbiat'tf collection for 1906. 

i Read cAo*ra B Tlie syllable ti here stunts for iiiiadi. 


I have previously found 1 that the reign of Maravarman Kulase'khara I. commenced between 
(approximately) the 19th March and the 27th June A.D. 12t58. This date of his 23rd year 
regularly corresponds to Friday, the 1st June A.D. 1291. The preceding Mithuna-samkranti 
took place 7 h. It) in. after mean sunrise of Sunday, the 27th, May A.D. 1291, which was the 
first day of the month of Mithuna ; and the 6th day of the same month therefore was Friday, 
the 1st Jnne A.D. 1291. On this day the 3rd tithi of the bright half (of the first Isbadha) 
ended 3 h. 3 m., and the nikshatra was Pushya, by the equal space system and according to 
Garga for 14 h. 27 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 12 h. 29 m., after mean sunrise. 

The date reduces the period, during which Maravarman Kolase'khara I. must have 
commenced to reign, to the time from (approximately) the 2nd to the 27th June 
A.D. 1268. 

65. In the ArjunSsvara temple at Ki^adi. 2 

I Svasti sri [||*] . . . svi-ko 

Majapanmar=ana Tribhuvanachchakavattiga[l 3 e]mmandalamun=gon[d-a]rniiya 
sri-Kalas'&garadevarku yandu SOvadin ediram=andu Ka[r] kkafcaka-nayar.ru 8 ti 4 m 
~'-"~ apara-pakshatfcu 6[k]ada[si]yum pejrra R6hin[i]-nal. 

" In the year opposite the 80th year (of the reign} of the glorious king Maravar- 
man alias the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious Kulasekharadeva, who was 

pleased to take every country, on the day of E6hinl 5 which corresponded to the eleventh 
tithi of the second fortnight and to the 8th solar day of the month of Karkataka." 

For the year opposite the 30th, i.e. for the 31st year, of Majravarman Kulasekhara I. this 
date regularly corresponds to [Saturday], the 5th July A.D. 1298, The preceding Karkataka- 
samkrinti took place 17 h. 19 m. after mean sunrise of Friday ,, the 27th June A.D. 1298. The 
first day of the month of Karkataka therefore was Saturday, the 28th June, and the 8th day of 
the same month was Saturday, the 5th July A.D. 1298. On this day the llth tithi of the dark 
half (of Ashadha) ended 18 h. 55 m., and the nakshatra was Rohinl, by the equal space system 
and according to, Garga for 23 h. 38 m., and by the Brahma-siddhanta for 22 h. 59 m., after mean 

66. In the Bhuuilsvara temple at Gudimallur. 5 

1 Suvasi 6 [sri] [||*J E6 Marapanmar Ti[rn]buvanaclichakkarava[t]ti sri-Kula- 
[s]garadevaj;ku yaodu 12[avadu]7 pann[i]ran[dava]du [M]6flha-nayajr,u 
pupu[r.u]va- 8 pakshattu cliatuttesiyum Yelli-kkilamaiyum pejjjp Avittat[tu n]aL 

w In the 12thtwelfth ' year (of the reign) of king Maravarman (a/ias) the emperor 
of the three worlds, the glorious KulaSSkharadeva, on the day of Dhanisht;ha, which 
corresponded to a Priday and to the fourteenth tithi of the .first fortnight of the month of 

This date is intrineically wrong because the nakshatra cannot possibly be Dhamshth& on 
the 14th tithi of a first fortnight in the month of Msha. Irrespectively of the nakthatra 

i See above, Vol. YJII. p. 273. 

9 Ho. 449 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1906. 

1 Bead "cliakraS ' The syllable t\ her* itanda for tiyadiy*. 

' No. 4-19 of the Government Epigraphist's collection for 1905. 

* Head svasti, 

* Tie word dtadv, seems to be deautwt by a flourish added to 2. 


tlio date would be wrong for tlie 12th year of tlie reign of M&ravarman Kulasekhara I. Bui for 
the 12th year of the reign of Maravarman Kulasekbira II. (which, has been found * to commence 
between approximately the Gth March and the 23rd July A.D. 13.14) the date would regularly 
correspond to Friday, the 29th March A.D. 1325, which was the 4th day of tlie month of 
Mesha, and on which the 14th titlii of the bright half (of Chaitra) ended 7 h. ( J m., wliile the 
nakshatra was Hasta, by the equal space system and according to Garga for 10 h. 30 m., and by 
the Brahma-Biddhanta for 7 h. 13 rn., after mean sunrise. I have no doubt that this is the 
true equivalent of the date, and that the concluding words of the original date ought to bo 
Attat-tu mil, *' the day of Hasta," instead of Ai-ittattu nill. 

The dfite would prove that Maravarman Kulasekhara IE. could not have commenced 
to reign later than (approximately) the 29th March A.D. 1314. 


67. In the Satyagirinatha-Perumal temple at Tirumaiyam. 2 

1 Svasti sri [I]*] Sri-k6^[Chchadni]panmar=ana Tr[i]bnTanasa[kra]vatt[i]gal Sr[3l- 

Parakk[i]rama-Pa[ndiyade]varkku [a]udu 5vad[in] 

2 edir 7vadu .... -n[a]yaj;ra apara-pakshatta dvadisiyum Nayai;ni-kk[i]- 

lamaiyum peij;a Uttaradattu. nal. 

" In the 7th (year) opposite the 5th year (oj the reiijii) of the glorious king [Jata]- 
varman alias the emperor of the three worlds, the glorious Parakranaa-Pandyadeva, 
on the day of Uttarashadha, which corresponded to a Sunday aud to the twelfth titlii of the 
second fortnight of the month of " 

I have previously found 3 that Jatavarman Parakrama-Pandya commenced to reign between 
(approximately) the lUth January A.D. 1357 and the 'Jth January A.D. 1358. This date of the 
7th opposite the 5th year, i.e. of the 12th year of his reign, undoubtedly corresponds to Sunday, 
tlie 4th February A.D. 1339, which was the llth day of the month of [Kumbha], and on 
Tvhioh the 12th tit hi of the dark half (of Magha) ended 21 h. 7 m. after mean sunrise, while 
tlie naksluttra was Uttarashadha, by the Brahrna-siddhanta aud according to Garga the -whole 
day, and by fcbe equal space system from 6 h. 34 m. after mean sunrise. 

The date shows that Jatavarman Parakrama-Paridya could not have commenced to 
reign before (approximately) the 5th February A.D. 1357. 


In the Kariyamanikka-Perumai temple at Vijayamangalam. 5 

1 Svaeti Srf [||*] Nanraangalan^irakka [||] [Saga]r-yandu ayu'att=iru-nui;r=irandil 

[ko] v= [Ira] sa [k] Osnripa [n]mar=rvna [Tri]bhuvanachcha[kravat] - 

2 tigal gri-Vira-Pandiyadevarku yandu pa[di]nainjavadu 6 Tu[l]a-nayarru apara- 

pakshattu=7TtiQgat-kilamaiy[u]m dasamiyum. pe[rr.a] Ut[t]irattu n[a]l. 

1 See above, Vol. VI. p. 315. 

a No. 395 of the Government Epigraphiat's collection for-1906. 

s See above, Vol. VII. p. 17. 

* This king is neither a P&^^ya nor a Chdja, but a ruler of Kongn ; see Rai Bahadur V. Veakayya's Annual 
Jteport for 1905-06, page 79. 

5 No. 54i of the Government EpSgraphist's collection for 1905. 

6 The alcsliara tu is engraved above tbe line. 

* The guttural n is engraved above the line. 



"In the Saka year one thousand two hundred and two, the fifteenth year (of 
reign) of king tRa]jakesarivarman alias the emperor of the three worlds, the 
Vira-Pandyadva, -on the day of Uttara-Phalguni, which cori'esponded to the tenth UtU 
to a Monday of the second fortnight of the month of Tula." 

The meaning of this date would naturally be taken to be that the day of the date fell 
in the 15th year of the king's reign and in the Saka year 1202, either current or expired ; ]) 
for either of these Saka years the date would be incorrect. 

For the current aka year 1202 the date might be taken to correspond to Monday, the 2^ 
October A.D. 12*79, which was the 4th day of the month of Tula, and on which the 10th tithi <>* 
the dark half (of Asvina) ended 2 h. 37 m. after mean sunrise. But the naksliatras on this dfr? 
were Maghi and Purva-Phalguni. 

For the expired aka year 1202 it would correspond to Saturday, the 19th October A.P* 
1280, which was the 22nd day of the month of TuU, and on which the 10th HtU of the darfc 
half (of Asvina) ended 18 h. 25 m., while the nakshatra was Purva-Phalguni, by the Brahmft* 
siddh&nta for 11 h. 10 m., according to Garga for 15 h. 46 m., and by the equal space systct* 1 
from 3 h, 17 m., after mean sunrise. 

The date would be incorrect also for the Saka year 1200 (current or expired) and for all 
years down to Saka 1214 expired. It would be correct for Saka 1215 expired (= 1216 current)* 
For this year it would correspond to Monday, the 26th October A.D. 1293, which was tht> 
29th day of the month o Tul&, and on which the 10th tithi of the dark half (of Karttiktt ) 
ended 6 h. 52 m. after mean sunrise, while the nakshatra by all systems was Uttara-Plialgunl 
during the whole of the day. 

I have no doubt that Monday, the 26th October A.D. 1293, is the proper equivalent of tho 
date ; and, in accordance with this result, I take the true meaning of the original date to be this, 
that the day of the date fell in the 15th year of the king's reign -which commenced some* 
time during the (current) Saka year 1202 (= A.D. 1279-80) that is quoted at the beginning 
of the date. For dates that have to be similarly interpreted, I may refer to Nos. 261, 262 and 20# 
of my Southern List, 


A. Jatavarman Kulasekhara. 
(Between the 30th March and the 29th November A.D. 1190. ) l 

No. 2 (Vol. VI. p. 302). Year opp. to 13 : Thursday, the 26th February A.D. 1204. 
No. 1 (Vol. VT. p. 301). Year 12 opp. to 13 : Saturday, the 29th November A.D. 1214. 
No. 45 (Vol. Vin. p. 275). -Year 13 (for 13 opp. to 13 ?) : Thursday, the 6th October 

A.D. 1216(?). 
No. 44 (Vol. VHI, p. 275). Year 14 opp. to 13 : Wednesday, the 29th March A.D. 1217, 

B.~Maravarman Sundara-Pfindya I. 
f Between the 29th March and the 4th September A.D. 1216.) 

i\ T o, 6 (Vol. VI. p. 304). Year 7 : Monday, the 13th March A.D. 1223. 
No. 5 (Vol. VI. p, 303) .Year 9 : Friday, the 28th March A.D. 1225. 
No. 46 (Vol. VOT. p. 276). Year 15: Tuesday, the 3rd December A.D. 1230. 

Or perhaps ; Betweeu the 7th October and the 29th November A.D. 1190. 

No. SO.] DATES OF P ANDY A KlffGS. 227 

No. 3 (Vol. VI. p. 302). Year opp. to year opp. to 17 : Monday, the- 4th September 

A.D. 1234 
No. 4 (Vol. VI. p. 303). Year opp. to year opp. to 17 : Monday, the 19th February 

A.D. 1235. 

C. Maravarrnan Sundara-Pandya H. 
(Between, the 15tTi June A.D. 1238 and the 18th January A.D. 1239.) 

No. 63 (Vol. IX. p. 223). Year 7 : Sunday, the 7th May A.D. 1245. 
No. 10 (Vol. VI. p. 305). Year 11 : Sunday, the 25th April A.D. 1249. 
Noa. 7 and 8 (Vol. VI. p. 304). Year opp. to year opp, to 11: Wednesday, the 18th 
January A.D. 1251. 

No. 9 (Vol. VI. p. 305). Year opp. to year opp. to 11 j "Wednesday, the 14th June A.D. 
1251. 1 

D. -Jatavarman Sundara-Pandya I. 
(Between the 20th and the 28th April A.D. 1251.) 

No. 11 (Vol. VI. p. 306). Year 2 : Thursday, the 27th March A.D. 1253. 
No. 12 (Vol. VI. p. 306). Year 2 j Saturday, the 19th April A.D. 1253. 
No. 13 (Vol. VI. p. 306). Year 3 : Wednesday, the 29th October A.D. 1253. 
No. 17 (Vol. VI. p. 307). -Year 7 : Sanday, the 7th October A.D. 1257 a 
No. 14 (Vol. VI. p. 307). Year 9: Tuesday, the 29fch April A.D. 1259. 
No. 15 (Vol. VI. p. 307). Year 9 : Sunday, the 15th June A.D. 1259. 
No. 16 (Vol. VI. p. 307). Year 10 : Wednesday, the 28th April A.D. 1260. 
No. 18 (Vol. VI. p. 308). Year 11 : Tuesday, the 19th July A.D. 1261. 3 

E. Vlra-P,ndya. 
(Between the Uth November A.D. 1252 and the 13th July A.D. 1253.) 

No. 32 (Vol. VH. p. 11). Year 7 : Sunday, the 13th July A.D. 1259. 

No. 31 (Vol. VH. p. 10). Year 15 : Thursday, the 10th November A.D. 1267. 

P. Maravarman Kulaselchara I. 
(Between the 2nd and the 27th June A.D. 1268.) 

No. 20 (Vol. VI. 'p. 309). Year 10 : Wednesday, the 5th January A.D. 1278. 

No. 48 (Vol. VIH. p. 277). Year 22: Monday, the 27bh June A.D. 1289. 

No. 64 (Vol. IX. p. 223). Year 23 : Friday, the let June A.D. 1291. 

No. 21 (Vol. VI. p. 309). Year 26 : Wednesday, the 18th November A.D. 129 3. 4 

No. 19 (Vol. VI. p. 308). Year 27 : Friday, the 10th December A.D. 1294. 

No. 49 (Vol, VHI. p. 277). Year 30 : Wednesday, the 31st July A.D. 129*7. 

No. 65 (Vol. IX. p. 224,). Year opp. to 30 : Saturday, the 5th July A.D. 1298. 

No. 50 (Vol. Vin. p. 277). Year 34 : Saturday, the 8th July A.D. 1301. 6 

No. 51 (Vol. VDZ. p. 278). Year 29 (for 39) : Saturday, the 9th July A.D. 1306. 

No. 22 (Vol. VI. p. 810). Year 40 : Saturday, the 24th February A.D. 1308. 

No. 47 (Vol. VHI. p. 276). Year 40, Saka 1229 : Monday, the 18th March A.D. 1308. 


1 The month of Mina u wrongly quoted instead of Mithuna. 

1 In the date, which is intrinsically wrong, the month of Kanyft is quoted instead of Tall. 
* Thursday appears to have been wrongly quoted, instead of Tuesday. 
- * The 2nd tithi is wrongly quoted, or misread, instead of the 3rd. 
*. The 3rd tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the 2nd. 

2a 2 


0- JatSvarman Sundara-Pandya II. 
(Between the 13th September A.D. 1275' and the 15th May A.D. 1276.) 

No. 25 (Vol. ""I. p. 311). Year 6 : Monday, the 21st July A.D. 1281. 

No. 52 (Vol. V33I. p, 278). Year 10 : Monday, the 23rd July A.D. 1285. 

No. 54 (Vol. VHI. p. 279). Year 12 : Wednesday, the 27th August A.D. 1287. 1 

No. 26 (Vol. VI. p, 311). Year 12 : Friday, the 12th September A.D, 1287. 2 

No. 53 (Vol. VHI. p. 279). Year 11 (for 12) : Wednesday, the 29th October A.D. 1287. 

No. 23 (Vol. VI. p. 310). Year 13 (for 14) : Monday, the 1st August A.D. 1289. 

No. 24 (Vol. VI. p, 310). Year 13 (for 14) : Friday, the 5th August A.D. 1289. 

No. 27 (Vol. VI. p. 312). Year opp. to 14 : Monday, the 15th May A.D. 1290. 

No. 55 (Vol. VIII. p. 280). Year 2 opp. to 13 : Monday, the 28th August A.D. 1290. s 

No. 56 (Vol. VIII. p. 280).- Year 9 for 10(P) : Friday, the 29th March A.D. 1286(?). 4 

H. MSravarman Kulafiekhara II. 
(Between the 6th and the 29th March A.D. 1314.) 

No. 29 (Vol. VI. p. 313). Year 4 : Saturday, the 23rd July A.D. 1317. 
No. 30 (Vol. VI. p. 313). Year 5 : Monday, the 5th March A.D. 1319.5 
No. 28 (Vol. VI. p. 312). Year 8 : Saturday, the 14th November A.D. 1321. 
No. 66 (Vol. IX. p. 224). Year 12 : Friday, the 29th March A.D. 1325. 6 

I. Maravarman Par&krama-Pdindya. 
(Between the 1st December A.D. 1334 and the 1st November A.D. 1835.) 

No. 33 (Vol. VH. p. 11). Year 6, Saka 1262 : Wednesday, the 1st November A.D. 1340. 
No. 34 (Vol. VH. p. 11). Year 8 (for 18) : Friday, the 30th November A.D. 1352. 

J. Jat&varman Par&krama-P&ndya. 
(Bet-ween the BtJb. February A.D. 1367 and the 9th January A.D. 1368.) 

No. 67 (Vol. IX. p. 225). Year 7 opp. to 5 : Sunday, the 4th February A.D. 1369. 
No. 35 (Vol. VH. p, 12). Year 10 opp. to 5, Saka 1293 : Friday, the 9th January A.D, 

K.- Kone'ranmaikonda'B Vikrama-Pandya. 
(Between the 13th January and the 27th July A.D. 1401.) 

No. 59 (Vol. VIII. p. 282). Year 4: Sunday, the 15th February A.D. 1405 (?)/ 
No. 58 (VoV VHI. p. 281). Year 8 : Friday, the 27th July A.D. 1408, 
No. 57 (Vol. VIII. p. 281). Year 15, opp. to 2, Saka 1339 : Wednesday, the 12th January 
A.D. 1418. 

1 The 31st solar dny is wrongly quoted instead o the 30th. 

1 The 13th tithi is wrongly quoted instead of the 3rd. 

1 The [first day of the] month of Kunj & is wrongly quoted instead of [the last day of] Simha. 

* This data may possibly ha one of the 8th year of J. Snndara.pagdya 1., corresponding to Friday, the 28th 
March A.D. 1259. 

1 The date is intrinsically wrong. The month of Sirfiha is wrongly quoted instead of Mtna, and the naJethatft 
Pushya (Pd/af'u nd\) instead of 3?Cirva-Phalgunt (Pfoattu ndl). 

* The ntrtcshatra, DhanishthS. (JLviftatfa nd{) ia wrongly quoted instead of Hasta (Attattu ndf). 

1 In, the original date, which is intrinsically wrong, th* first fortnight ia wrongly quoted initead of the 
second, and the 3rd tithi instead of the 2nd, 


L. Jatilavarman Parakrama-Pandya Arikesarideva. 
(Between the 18th June and the 19th July A.D. 1422.) 

No. 37 (Vol. VII. p. 13). Year opp. to 31 : Thursday, the 19th July A.D. 1453. 1 

No. 36 (Vol. VII. p, 12). Tear 2 opp. to 31, Saka 1377 : Monday, the 2ith March A.D. 

1455 . 

No. 38 (Vol. VII. p. 13). Tear 4 opp. to 31 : Wednesday, the lOtj March A.D. 1457. 
No. 39 (Vol. VII. p. 13). Tear 8 opp. to 31, Saka 13S1 : Wednesday, the 17th June A.D. 

1401. 3 

M.- Maravarman Vlra-Pandya. 

(Between the 13th March aad the 28th July A.D. 1443). 

No. 60 (Vol. VIII. p. 282). Tear 11 opp. to 2 : Monday, the 28th July A.D. 1455. 
No. 61 (Vol. VIII. p. 283). Tear 14: Sunday, the 16th January A*D. 1457, 
No, 62 (Vol. VIII. p. 283). -Tear 14: Saturday, the 12th Harch.A.D. 1467. 

N. -Jatilavarman ParHkrama-Pandya KulaSekhara. 
(Between the 15th November A.D. 1479 and the 14th November A.D. 1480.) 

No. 40 (Vol. VII. p. 14). Tear 20, Saka 1421 : Thursday, the 14th November A.D. 

O. Maravarman Sundara-Pandya in. 
(Between the 2nd June A.D. 1531 and the 1st June A.D. 1532.) 

No. 42 (Vol. VII. p. 15). Tear 22 opp. to 2, gaka 1477 : Saturday, the 1st Jane A.D. 

p. .Jatilavar-man Srrvallabha, 
(Between the 29th November A.D. 1534 and the 28th November A.D. 1535.) < 

No. 41 (Vol. VII. p. 15). Tear 3, Saka 1459 ; Wednesday, the 28th November A,D. 

Q,. Jatilavarman Srivallabha Ativlrarama. 

(Between the 83rd August A.D. 1562 and the 22nd August A.D. 1563.) 
No. 48 (Vol. VII. p. 16). Tear 5, Saka 1489 : Friday, the 22nd August 1567. 


When, more than twenty years ago, I started epigraphical work in the Madras Presidency, 
I prepared with my own hands an inked estampage o the inscription which is here re- edited. 
After Mr. Venkayya had joined my office in Bangalore, we spent a considerable time in reading 
and translating this record one of the first early Ohola documents we tried to make out in a 
reliable manner. The Tamii text of it as printed in South-Indian Inscriptions, Vol. I. p. 98, 
does not contain any misreaditigB. 8 But tho translation on p. 99 needs revision in th% light of 
the other ChSla inscriptions which were published later on, and a facsimile of this beautifully 

1 Monday ia wrongly quoted instead o Thursday. 

3 Saka 1381 is wrongly quoted insfcead-of 1383, and the 23rd solar day wrongly instead of the 21st. 
1 Only the date in line 12 should he ' 13 ' (instead of ' 12 ') ; the same correction has to be tcate in the heading 
of the Plato facing p. 232 below. 


engraved and well preserved rock inscription was hitherto missing. I theref ore republish it now 
in Roman characters with a fresh translation, and with a collotype of a careful inked estampage 
which was prepared recently under Rai Bahadur Venkayya's personal supervision. 

The inscription is engraved on a smooth piece of rock near a rock-cut Jaina figure on the 
top of the hill of Tirumalai near P6}ur in the North Arcot district. The language is Tamil, 
and the alphabet is likewise Tamil, interspersed with a few Grantha words and letters (wasti 
s/i, 1. 1 ; sliai of vwhaiya, 1. 9 ; Mahl , 1. 10 ; Sri-EdjSndra-Oholadeva and ja of J~ayaiigon$a t 
1. 12 ; sri, Jiiia and deva, 1. 13 ; vydpdri, 1. 13 f.). 

The inscription is dated in the 13th year of the reign of the Ch61a king Parake'sarivarman 
alias Bajgndra-Chdladeva I. (1. 12), who ascended the throne in A.D. 10 12, 1 Its first eleven 
lines consist of a passage in Tami] verse which describes the conquests of the king, and the first 
words of which (Tiru manfii, etc.) are quoted as pointed out by Mr. Venkayya in Peron- 
dSvanar's commentary on the Virasoliyam? 

The list of conquests opens with Idaidurai-nadu (1. 1 f.), i.e. the country of Yedatore in the 
Mysore district, and Vanava^i, i.e. Banavasi in the North Canara district. The next item s tta 
city of Kollippakkai, must have been included in the Western Chalukya kingdom. For it waa 
set on fire by Rajadhiraja I, in the course of a war against S&me'svara I. and Vikramaditya 
VI., 3 and it is mentioned as Kojlipake in an inscription of Jayasimha II. 4 Mannai-kataka 
is identified by Mr. Rice -with the city of Manne in the Nelamangala talaka of the Bangalore 
district. 5 

liam (1. 2) or Ija-mandala (1. 3) is the Tamil designation of the island of v Ceylon. Rtljfin- 
dra-Ch&la I. boasts of having deprived its king of his own crown, the crowns of his queens, 
and two other trinkets which the Pndya king had previously deposited with the king of 
Ceylon : a crown and the ' necklace of Indra.' Mr. Venkayya has pointed out that the Mahavamsa 
(chapter LUX) also refers to the crown of the Pandya, which had been left with the king of 
Coylon and was taken from him by the Oholas, 6 and that the ' necklace of Indra' is alluded to in 
several Pandya inscriptions. 7 ' 

The Ke'rala (1. 3) is the king of Malabar. Sandimattivu (1. 5), i.e. the island of Santimat 
(?), is unknown. Musangi is perhaps identical with the forfc of Uchohangi in the Bellary 
district. 8 Jayasirhha of B-atta-pSdi (1. 6), who was put to flight at MuSangi, is the Western 
Chalukya king Jayasimha II. 9 

SakkaragSttam, i.e. Chakrak&tta, is shown by the inscriptions of Kulottunga I. to have 
belonged to the dominions of the king o Dhara. 10 Madura-mandala (1. 7) need not be 
connected with Madhura, the capital of the Pandya king, who has been already accounted for 
(1. 3), but may be meant for the district of the northern Mathurft on the Yamuna. Tha three 
next geographical names cannot be identified. 

At 1 dinagar (?) R^jendra-Chola I. captured Indraratha of the race of the Moon (1. 8). 
As suggested by Prof. Kielhorn, 11 this prince may be identical with that Indraratha ^who is 
mentioned in the Udaypur inscription as an enemy of Bhdjade" va of Dhara. 

I Soufh-Ind. Inscr. Vol. III. p. 196 ; above, Vol. VIII. p. 262. 
3 Compare South~Iitd. Inter* Vol. III. p. 197. 

Hid. p. 52. 

Above, VoL HI. p. 281, Compare also Vol. VI. pp 224, 226 and 227 (Kollifdkd). 

Sf. Cam. Vol. III. p, 10 of the Introduction. 

Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1906-1907, p. 73. 

T Ibid. p. 63 f . j Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 72 and note 78, 
8 8ont\JXnd. Inter. Vol. II. p. 94, note 4. 

Hid, Vol. I. p. 96. Ibid. Vol. III. p. 132. 

II Litt qf Southern Inter, p . 120, note 3. 


Odda-vishaya (1. 9) is the province of Orisea, and Kosalai-nadu is probably Sout7wrn 
Kfisala,. 1 Taudabutti, i.e. Damlabhukti, and its ruler DL.arraa.pala are unknown from other 
sources. The same in the case with Rayasura, who ruled over Takkanaladam (1. 10), i.e. 
Dakshina-Virata 2 or Southern Berar, and with Govindachaudra, 3 the ruler of Vafigfi}a-desa, 
i.e. the .Bengal country. Mahipala, whom tLe Chola king deprived of his elephants and women, 
is identified by Prof. Kiclhorn with the Pala king Mnhiptila I. 4 

TLe list of conquests clo-ies with Uttivaladaui (1. 11), -i.o. Uttara- Virata or Northern Berar, 
and the Gang&, i.e. the river Ganges. 

The short passage in Tamil prose with which the inscription end* (11. 12-14) records it* 
_actual purpose a gift of money for a lamp and for offerings to the Jaiua temple on the hill 
by the "wife of a merchant of Malliyur in "Karaivali, a subdivision of Perumbaaappadi. The 
temple was called Sri-Kundavai-Jiualaya (1. 13), i.e. tho Jina toraplo of Kuudavai. This name 
suggests that the shrine owed its foundation to Kundavai, the daughter of Parantaka II., 
elder sister of Rajaraja I. (and consequently tho paternal tiunt of R;i]eiidm- Chola I.) and wife 
of Vallavaraiyar Vandyadovar. 5 The sacred hill (Tirumalai) ia stated to have funned part 
of Vaigaviir, a palliclichandam, i.e. ' a village belonging to a Jiima temp]o,' c in Mugai-nadu, a 
subdivision of Pangala-nadu, a district of Jayaiigonda-Chola-mandala. .Malliyur is the 
modern. Gudimallur near ArcotJ The remaining geographical names mentioned iu this 
paragraph have been discussed in South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. III. p. 89, and above. Vol. VII. p. 19*2. 

In conclusion I would like to add a few words on the later conquests of Rajendra-Chola I . 
which are registered in the Tanjore inscription No. 20. Mr. Venkayya has shown that my 
former identification of Kadaram with a place in the Madura district 8 must be wrong, because 
the Gh&la king despatched an expedition to it on ships by sea, and because two of the localities 
mentioned in connection with this expedition, Nakkavaram and Pappalana, are, respectively, 
the Nicobar Islands and a port in Burma. 9 Among the remaining items we read in line 9 of the 
Tanjore inscription niraisir-visaiyamuin, and in line 11 kalai-ttakliar jnitjal tahii-ttakktJlamum. 
The second of them, Takkolam, may be identical with Ptolemy's TonrwXn ifunoptay, which 
Colonel Gerini places at Tak6pa on the western coast of the Malay Peninsula. 1 ' 1 Instead of 
the first, which I had translated by ' Vijayam of great fame,' an inscription at Kandiyur near 
Tanjore reads nirai-fofcishaiyamunt, ' the prosperous Srivishaya.' 11 This may be the correct 
reading ; for according to the larger Leiden grant (1. SO) Srlvishaya was the name of the 
country ruled over by the king of Kafcaha or Kadaram. 

1 South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. I. p. 97- 

a In MB Annual Seport on Epigraphy Jor 1906-1907, p. 87 f., Mr. Venkayya has shown that tlw TamiJ. 
term Jidda does r,ot correspond to the Sanskrit Ldfa (Gujarat), but to 7ird(a (Berar). 

3 Page 34 of Dr. Burnell's South-Indian PalceograpJiy (2nd ed.) contains the following note : "The great 
inscription at Tanjore (llth century) mentions a SSramln, hnt also a king of Karuvai (or KarQr) nnd a Gdviuda- 
obandni (Hng of Kannada)." Kanndda (Kannadaor Karnata ?) is nothing but a misreading of the word 
TaTcka^aUdatn, which happens to precede tho name &6vindafandan (1. 10), and Karuvai, here represented us 
referring to Karuvur, ii probably derived from Adinagar-avai (1. 8). I am not drawing attentiou to these mis- 
takes in order to gloat over them, hut to prevent their being quoted as reliable f acts. 

* JLitt of Southern Inscr. p. 120, note 4. 

8 Sovth-Ind^Insor. Vol. II. p. 68. For three tt'ier princesses named Kundavai see Ind. A,nt, Vol. XXIll. 
p. 298, note 13, aad South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. III. p. 100. 
8 Above, Vol. VII. p. 116, note 1. 

* See Mr. Venkayya's Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1905-1906, p. 86 f ., NOS. 418, 416 and 419. 
8 South-Ind, Inter. Vol. II. p. 106. 

* Annual Saport on Epigraphy for 1898-99, p. 17. Compare South-Ind. Inter, Vol. III. p. 194, f , 
10 Journ. H. As. 800. 1904, p. 247. 

" See my Annual Report on Epigraphy /or 1894-95, p. 4. 



1 Svasti sri [II*] Tiru manni valai > av=ira-uila-madandaiynjn p&r-chchaya-ppavaiyun= 

ju'-ttani-cliclielviyu.^=dan perun-deviyai-^agi iijb=ur,u ned-udijal uliyul 

'J rai-nadun=dndar- vaija-vH-ppadar Vanavasiy ufia ju]li-c hcMl-in adit=Kollippakkaiyu= 

narmark-aru-mnrau Mann.aikkadakkam.Tim poru-gadal ilatt=aras;^da=muc[iyura 


3 nvr deviyai'=uu^-clin-Baadiyu=munn-avai i pakkal=Ttennavar vaitta gundara- 

mndiyum Indii-aii=aramun=den-dirai ija-mandala=muluvadtLm eji-badai= 


4 mu.rainiaiyir=chudun=gala-dana,Ta=agiya palar pugal mudiyTin=Jengadir-malaiyu.n=> 

j vil ! irubaLi-oru-gri^araisugalai katta Parasuraman meT-arun=Jandimattivv-araQ 2 

karmli irnttiya sem-bo^-Riru-ttagu-rQudiyum bayan^goda pali miga 

Musapgiyil m.i;- 
f 1 duw-ift=olitfca SayasiCsi)ngan s ala-pperufn-bugalndum pid-iyal Irattabadi el-arai 

ilakkamu=naTa-uedi-kkula-pperu-inalaigaliira vikkirama-vSrar Sakkaragottamu= 
7 mudira-bada-vallai Madura-maridalamum ka-midai-valaiya=Nmanaikk6riamuni 

ven-jiliii-virar Panjappalliyum pas-udai-ppala=nan-M:agurLi-desamum ayarvi- 

5 l-yan-gifgi )rttiy=Adinagar-avaiyir=Cliandiran=i;ol-galatt=Iradaranai 4 vilaiy= 

amai i kkalat+u=kkilaiyodnni pidpt]tu=ppala-danattuaa nijai kula-dana-kkuvai- 
'> yun.^ptt-arui"i=jej;i-milaiy= B Otta-visliaiyamum busurar ser nal-Kk6salai-nfi,dTin= 
^.-^ijmaljalanai vem-mtinaiy=alittu vand-uEai-s&lai=Ttandayu(bu)ttiyum 


6c[a=ttangada-saral Vangala-desamtin=d6du-gadaj-charigugottan= 6 


11 Ten-jama[T*j-valftgatt---anjnvittsai'uli on-dij-al yanaiyum pendir-band arA.mti= 

nittiIa-nedun-gadal=ITtti[ra]ladamum veii-man.ajr-ju-tta-ttej;i-bunajr=Kangaiyua 


12 poru-dandar=konda ko=Pparagesariba5mar=ana udaiyar Srl-Bajendra- 

Clioladevarku yandu ISavadu [Ja]yangonda-SI61a-mandalattti Pangala- 
nttu naduvil 

13 va[g]ai Mugai-nattuppalliclichandam VaigavuraTtirumalai grl-Kundavai- 

Jinalayattu derajku=Ppenim.banappadi=Kkaraivali Malliyur irnkkam yya- 

14 p'iri Nannappayaii mauavatti Samundappai vaitta iir unandavilakku onrinukku= 

kkasu irubadum [tiru]vamtidiikkti vaitta kasn pattum [||*] 


(Line 1.) Hail! Prosperity! 

(L. 1-2.) In the 13th. year (of the reign") of king Pa^akesarivarman alitis the lord 
, vrlio, 

1 Rend =cJiinavi. 2 Read tttv-aran. 

1 Other iusariptions read alapp-arum ; see South-Ind. Inscr. Vol. II. p. 93, note 5. 

4 Kuaci =j,iairaradanai. That this is the original reading, becomes more than probable in the . following 
manner : (1) The doubtful word may be expects i to rhyme on Chandira, the third word before it. (2) The 
Tanjore inscription No. 20 reads =Indiradanai. (3) Indraratha is the only correct Sanskrit name I can taint of, 
whicli would account for both corrupt readings. 

* The Tanjcrc inscrintion No. 20 reads Tcitt-amTisjeri-minai. 

1 Bead, as in the Tunjore inscription No. 20j todu-galar-changuv-oltal, 


E. Hultzsch. 


(L. 1.) in (his) life of high prosperity, while Firu (Lakshmi)s having become constant, 
was increasing, (and) while the goddess of the great earth, the goddess of victory in battle, and 
the matchless goddess of fame rejoiced to have become 3? is great queens, 

(Ij. 11.) seized by (his) great, warlike army (the following) \ 

(L. 1.) Idaidurai-nadu ; Varjavasi, (round which) a fence of continuous forests "was 
spreading; 1 Kollippakkai, whose walls were surrounded with brushwood; 3 Mannai- 
kkadakkam, whose strength was unapproachable ; s the crown of the" king of f iam (oil) the 
tempestuous ocean ; the exceedingly fine crow as of the queens of that (king) ; the beautiful 
crown 4 and the necklace of Indra, which the king of the South (i.e. the Pandya) had pre- 
viousljfcdeposited with th^t (king of tlam) ; the whole Ija-mandala (on) the transparent sea ; the 
crown praised by many and the garland of the Sun, family -treasures which the arrow- shooting 
(king of) K.eraja rightfully wore; many ancient islands, whose old, great guard was the 
ocean which makes the conches resound ; the crown of pure gold, worthy of Tim (Lakshmi), 
which Parasurama, having considered the fortifications of iSaadimattlvu impregnable, had 
deposited (tJiere), when, in anger, (he) bound the kings twenty-one times in battle ; the seven 
and a half lakshas of Irattabadi, (which was) strong by nature, (and which he took), together 
with immeasurable fame, (from) Jayasimna, who, out of fear and full of vengeance, turned 
his baok at Jffiusangi and hid himself; the priacipal great mountains (which contained) the 
nine treasures (of Kuvera) ; 6 Sakkaragottam, whosa warriors were brava j Madura- ma$.dala, 
whose forts ( bore) banners (which touched) the clouds; Namanaikkonam., which was sur- 
rounded by dense groves ; Panchappalli, whose warriors (bore) cruel bows ; the good Masuni- 
d^sa, whose fruits were fresh; a large heap of family-treasures, together with many (other) 
treasures, (which he carried,, away} after having captured Indraratha of the old race of the Moon, 
together with (his) family, iu a fight which took place in the hall (at) Adinagar, (a city) 
which was famous for unceasing abundance ; Odda-vishaya, which was difficult to approach, 
(and which he subdued in ) close fights ; the good KSSalai-nadu, where Brahmanas assembled ; 
Tartdabutti, in whose gardens bees abounded, (and which he acquired) after having destroyed 
Dharmapala (in) a hot battle ; Takkanaladatn, whose fame reached (all) directions, (and 
which he occupied) after having forcibly attacked Ranasftra; Van.g&la-dSa, where the 
rain-wind never stopped, (and from which) G6vindachandra fled, having descended (from 
his) male elephant; 6 elephants of rare strength and treasures of women, (which he seised) 
after having been pleased to put to flight on a hot battle-field Mahlpala, decked (as he was) 
with ear-rings, slippers and bracelets ; TJttiraiadani, as rich, in pearls as the ocean ; and the 
G-afigs, whose waters dashed against bathiug-places (tirtha) covered with sand, 

(L. 12.) Chamuudappai, the wife of the merchant Nannappaya, who resided (at) 
Malliyur (in) Karaivali, (a subdivision) of Perumbanappadi, deposited twenty kdsw for one 
perpetual lamp and tea Mtus for offerings to the god of the rl-Kundavai-Jinalaya (on) the 
holy mountain (Tirumalai) of Vaigavftr, a paUichchandam in Mugai-nadu, a subdivision 
(vagai) in the middle of Pangala-nadu, (a district) of Jayangonda-Chola-ma^dala. 

1 Ib seems most natural to take padir as a verb. It may also mean ' a road ' or muy be the nona. plur. of 
the Sanskrit bhata t * a warrior.' 

a This was perhaps done by the besieging ChSla army when setting fire to the city. Among the meanings 
oC S it\\i tlie Dietioftnaire Famoul-Franqais notes the following: 'broatilles, menu bois sec pour brdler.' 

8 Other inscriptions read nanna^Tc-aram-aran, 'whose fortifications were unapproachable.' 

* It seems more simple to tale the first member of fitndara-mudi as an a<lj<'ctive, tbim to translate Uie 
compound by 'the crown, of Sundara.' 

* See Soutk-Ind. Inter. Vol. II. p. 05, notu 1. 

* Compare pagafeiliitd-dta* itid. Vol. Ml, p. 34, test Unf 7 f. 

2 u 


234 EPIGRAPHIA INDICA. [V :**'' ^ 


The copper plate on which, the subjoined inscription is engraved, belongs to the Mfl^*^ , j ft 
bhandarattil of the Mamballi matha and was secured for me for publication by Mr. S. Cf* v 
Filial, High Court Vakil, Trevandrum. Besides this plate, there are five other oddplatas 1*** f . 
ing to the same matha, which bear fragments of inscriptions of the Kilapperur l dynut r 
the VSnadu kings. In one of them occurs the name Sri-Vira-Devadaran-Keralavax'** 1 * 1 ' 
Kilapperur. 3 ^ 

The plate measures 10|"x3^-" and has a hole on the left margin. It does not ftpl**'^ ( 
have possessed a ring or seal. At the left end of the plate, the owner has engraved, in r*>*'** ,, 
MalayfUam characters, the word Mivmballi. Excepting this single word and a few C*x** Alf * 
letters interspersed in the document, the inscription is written in the Vatteluttu ftlpJ' 1 ^ .' 
The words svasti and fri in line 1 ; the letter &ri occurring in the name SrivallavangiVl 1 **" . 
lines 7, 18 and 19 ; raltshi and rakshd occurring in the words rakshichchu and ralcslidbhii'jf*** 1 
1. 12 are in Grantha characters. The consonant ft retains the earlier form, without a loop **^ 
bottom ; this form differs from the later ones which are scarcely distinguishable front the y *** 
for all. The letter pit (of puAgd in 1. 3), whilst it has the common form in all other iimt** Ii *"' es ' 
looks like the Grantha letter hra. The language of the inscription is Tamil, tinged he i**-' ** 
there with the colloquialisms of the Malabar Coast : e.g. irundaruliy=edattu vaichchu, (=^c ntfc ttle 
place where they were pleased to be seated) , in 1. 5 ; pattdra-gakkolla for 
(= belonging to the Hhattdraka) in lines 6 and 12 ; an' for arm (= rice) in 1. 9 ; 
for MurungaiyiLr in 1. 21 ; Sanhwan for SaAgaran in 1. 22 ; raltsliiehchu for rakshitiu in J- **' 
The phrase n&ji^liGhcheyAu is contracted in the modern Malayalam language into ndnalic,?* #&*' 

This is the earliest known record dated in the Kollatn era, and belongs to the 
the Venadu king grlvallavafigodai. 3 It is dated in the 149th year of the Kollam 

1 [Kilnppdrftr is annexed as tlie house-name of tlie V^aid (Travancore) princes in later inscriptions (Intl. 
Vol. XXV. p. 190). It is a village about 8 riftles to the north-east of A^inga!, which is the hereditary (flt- 

of H. H. tbe Senior Eani of Tra-vancore (Mr. Nagamaiya's Travancore Manual, Vol. HI. p. 579). The <*mti*ti7 
round irringal seems to have teen Inown as Kapadela in ancient timea. The late Mr. Sundaram 1'tllifti WAI 
of opinioa that Yfinftdu and KupadSSa were two distinct principalities and that the latter was at some uttt^e of 
its history annexed by the rulers of the former. The Vfinadu. kings are said to have assumed the fnmiJjr it*ijie 
Etlapperftr after this annexation, V. Venkayya.] 

2 [This name ooours without the title vtra in a Vatljeluttu inscriptioa from Vlranam in the Trayancor** Slate, 
The la^B Professor Sundaram Pillai has called the king Kgralavarman II. and assigned A.D. 1193 for his* 
(Jnrf. Ant, Vol. XXIV. p. 283). V, V.]. 

1 [In the name Srivallamigo' lai kddai was perhaps an epithet of the rulers of VSnadu. The fir*t 
of the name, .*. &rlvallavRQ (Srlvallabha) may be that of the king to whom V6nadu was 
Sncli a combination of names is frequently met with in Tamil inscriptions. If the nnrne Srivallavanj$ l* be t 
similir compound, Srtyallaran or Srtvallabhn. might be the name of a Pandya king. The Pandya king, who i 
reigned about this time, was Vira-Papdya, with whom the Ch61a Xditya If. is said to have fouprlit in lii 
Vira-Pflndyft himself claims to have taken "the head of the Chdla (king)", and a number of his incrtitic*jjj 
hveb9n found at l^cMndram iu South Traranoore. Bnt we have at present no reason to suppose that 
the name SrtvaUabhn, although the designation was common enough among ihe Pandyas. On the other hft^itl., 
Singhalese chropicle Mahd#>$'twa refers to an invasion of Ceylon in the period A.D. 978-991 by Vallattlwst,, 
Ch% king (Mr, Wijesimh&'a Translation, Chapter LIV, p. 85). Jft is, however, donbtf il if the CliS} 
powerfnl anough to undertake an expedition, tigainit Ceylou at tne time of which we are now speaking, 
the chronology of li^ Singhalese chronicle is not beyond question, we cannot suppose that tho ruler of 'iY 
mentioned in the Mfcwbajli plate was a Ch6}a feudatory. The history of the Ch6ias is very little known, 
e juontly it U nncertaiu-to which djnauty tbe Srlvallahha, whose foadalory the V6nadu ruler might havu 
A.D- 078, belongd.--V. V.] 


on a Sunday corresponding to the Asvati-nakshatra in the month Vrigchika when the 
planet Jupiter stood in the constellation Tulfi,. Professor Kielhorn kindly contributes 
the following remarks on the date : " If the date were correctly recorded, it would correspond, 
for the year 149 of the Kollam era, to Sunday, the 9th November A.D. 973 ? which was 
the 15th day of the month of Vrischika, and on which [the llth titlii of the bright half of 
Margasira ended 11 h. 12 m., while] the nakshatra vr&a Revati for 16 h. 25 m, after mean 
sunrise, and Asvini (Asvati) for the rest of the day. On the same day Jupiter's mean 
longitude was 191 44', and his true longitude 195 27', i.e. in either case Jupiter was in the 
sign Tul,." 

" The difficulty here is, that the day should have been described as. the day of the 
nakslmtra AsVini, when this nakshatra only, commenced 16 h. 25 m. after mean sunrise ; 
and I have no doubt whatever that either Asvini (Avati) has been quoted erroneously instead 
of Revati, or Sunday instead of Monday. If the week-day were Monday, 1 the date would 
regularly correspond to Monday, .the 10th November A. D. 973, the 16th day of Vrischika, 
when the nakshatra was Asvini (Asvati) for 16 h. 25 m. after mean sunrise, and when 
Jupiter of course still was in the sign Tula." 

The inscription informs us that TJmaiyammai of Tirukkalayapuram, daughter of 
Adicbchan, set up a bhattilraka (image) in the temple at Ayurur. The king Srivallavangodai 
made a gift of laud to TJmaiyammai for the purpose of keeping up the services of the bhattd-raka 
set up in the Ayurur temple ; and she, in her turn, made over the subject matter of the gift to 
the Tiruchehengunrur temple, in order that it might be placed under the management of the 
Poduvdls of that temple. From the produce of the land so given, the Podtivdls of the 
temple of Tiruchchengunrur had to supply to the temple daily 4 n&lis of rice for daily offerings 
and annually 200 parais (of 9 ndlis each) of paddy. 2 If the word udai used in 1. 18 was 
really meant to be used in the sense of ' of or belonging to* the inscription would warrant us to 
draw the conclusion that Umaiyammai was a near relation of Srivallavangodai either mother 
or wife. It would then be more probable to consider her as his wife than as his mother, as the 
passage Srivallavangodaiy^utfai AAichcha-n^Vmaiyammai means Adichchan TJmaiyammai 
belonging to Srivallavangodai. She might perhaps be the daughter of the Chdja king Aditya 
H., s to whose time this record belongs. ' If, on the other hand, uQai be a mistake for i$wi then 
no sort of relationship need exist between the two.* 

The inscription employs several peculiar terms which require some explanation each. The 
word at^ipperu (11. 8 and 19) implies 'acquisition by the pouring of water.' This mode of 
acquisition differs from others, such as purchase, etc. 5 The meaning of the expressions Hlidu 
and idaiy^du is not definitely known. TLtt'ifa literally means ' that which is placed under,' 6 
and <idaiy=idu, ' that which is placed in the middle.' A piece of land placed 'under the manage- 
ment of a person was perhaps called a kijddu with reference to that person. If this person 
sublet to a third party, the person subletting seems to be the idaiy=idan, i.e. he is the middle 
man between the owner of the property and the sub-tenant. It is in this sense that the 
passages of the inscription, in which, these terms occur have been translated. The name 
voduvdl was given to a class of people who were eligible for service in temples. It has now 

1 [According to the Editor's footnote 4 on p. 236, the name of the week-day is engraved over an era- 
sure. P. K.] 

a [See below, p. 288, note 3. V. V.] 

8 [The record may belong oithor to the reign of Aditya It. or of his successor Madhurantaka. If Umaiyam- 
mai was the daughter of the Choi a king Adityn, II., it is difficult lo understand why he is described as a native of 
Tirukkalayapurana. In all prolinliility flhe was a private individual. V. V.] 

' * [See below, p. 238, note 10. V. VY] , ; vi B [See below, p. 237, note 12. "V, V.] 

[Compare Hultzsch, Ind. Ant. Vol. XX. p. 292. V. V,] 


become the name of a sub-caste among the Ambalavasi section of the Malayalis. Then 
again, the word urdlan is explained variously as a trustee of an endowed temple, magistral de la 
ville, or a patron or founder of a temple. I believe it is used here in the first two meanings. The 
term adhikdri occurs in the inscriptions of the Tamil and Malayalam countries, and is used 
in the sense of 'an officer in charge of a division,' 1 and it is in this sense the term is used in 
line 23 of the present record. The phrase mukkulvattam implies, according to Dr. Ganderfc, 
a Bhagavati temple. If this be the sense in which it is employed in our inscription, then the 
bhattdraha set up by Umaiyaminai might be taken to be Bhagavati. But its literal meaning, 
'the three- fourths of a vattani (circuit or group of villages),' and the use of the bhaftiiraka 
instead of bliattdraki preclude the possibility of its being a Bhagavati temple in the present 
instance. How mukkdlvattwn came to mean a Bhagavati temple is not known. The meaning 
of the expressions Sirrfirnad ai and irrurnada,<i-ttan$(i'ni is not clear. Hence they have been 
tentatively translated as "the custom obtaining in small towns " and "the fine levied in accord- 
ance with the custom obtaining in small towns." 

The places mentioned in this inscription are: Kollam, Tirukkalayapuram, Ayirur, 
Tinichchengunrur, Id.aiymanam, Murunnaiyur, Manalmtikku, Punalur and Kudagottur. 
Of these Kollam, Ayirur and Tiruchohengunrur are the modern Quilon, Ayirur and 
ChengTinnur 3 (the head-quarters of the taluka of the same name) in North Travancore. 
Idaiyamanam might be identified with Edaman, a station on the Maniyachi-Quilon branch of 
the South. Indian Railway ; and Punalur is another station on the same line. I am not able 
to identify the rest. 

TEXT. 8 

First Side. 

1 Svaati sri [||*] Kollan=d6tm nurru-narpattonbadam=andu Tult.- 

2 ttul Viyala-ninra Mirichchiga fiayirru [S'ayir^anda] 4 

3 Achchuvadi i-nna[l]al Kollattu=p[pu]ngavin koyilul=uya- 

4 riya kottilul TiruchchenguTijur=pparadai=pperu-makkal kutta- 

5 n=gudi irundaruliy=edattu 5 vaichchu Tirukkalaiyapuratt=Adichchan= 


6 Ayurnrif=piradittai-Seyda pattaragaraiyutn pattaragarkkolla 6 puouyum 


7 chcbau=Umaiyamraaikkn, [ni]r6d=atti-kkoduttan Ve"nad=udaiya Srivallavangodai 

[||] Idich- 

8 chan=TJmaiyanamai tan=attirpe"jn kondadu Tiruchchenguniur=ppattaraga- 

9 rkku=kkil-iday=chchirj;ur nadaiy=odu kuda nanali=chchey[da]ri tiruva- 


10 nukkum [o]nbadi=nalx=pparaiyal irunu.ru pajai=chche[y]du nel andu- 

11 varai kudttppidaga=ppoduval kaiyyil ntr6d=atti=kkuduttal [||**J Ayurur 


12 kkil-vattamum pattarakkolla 7 idaiy-idum rakshichchu koduttu raksha- 

1 [The word adjiilcdrin is also used in the sense of ' minister; ' South-Ind. Insert. Vol. II. p. 92, and above 
\'cl. m p. 196.-V. V,] 

1 [According to Mr. Nagamaiya the village is called 'Cuengannur {Travancore Manual, Vol. III. p. 681) 
and there is a large and famous pagoda dedicated to the goddess Bhagavati, in which there is celebrated annually 
a festival laating for 28 days. V. V.] 

1 ^rom the original copper pla!,e. * This portion is engraved jver an erasure. 

s Bead intndaruliyay-tdatttt. 8 

i Bead pat\dratfarklkv,\\a. 

Mamballi plate of Snvallavangodai. Kollam 149. 

>\ rf \ S~\ 

N /v 1 

y h.:V; 


^V n /Ci 


" ; r. flf 

r^^ -^ '"" 

?v *?^ 
2 ? ^P V 

-< < 

^ v c < 

no ^>- : <- 

? ?&6r,- 

s - ^-- "\ 

: ^ ^ / 


.^ <^^Xv 



13 goljakkadaviyar poduvfilmar [||*] i-pparisu seyda til-ittil uralaraga i- 

14 V daiy-idaraga pukkn vilakkaYum porul kavaravuru pe^ar [||*] 1 idft[nnali]l=onj;u 

Second Side. 

15 seyyumavan 2 yepperru-vagai chchirrur"nadai=ttandam iruniijru=kkalar:iju 

16 pon tanda-ppada-kkadaviyan [||*J avfinku 3 padu tangumayanum ippari- 

17 e taudappaduvidu [||*] i-pparisu mer=chollappatta Ayurur mukka- 

18 1-vattamum pattaragarkk=o]la 4 idaiy-idu5=Srivallavang6daiy=udai- 

19 Adichchan=Uraa,iyammai atti-pperu kondadu [||*J Srivallavang6daiy=u- 

20 dan=irukka=Ttiruciicliengunjur=ppattaragarkkTi kil-idaga attiy=e- 5 

21 datt=ariyun=jadukkal Murunnaiyur=Ttevam=Bavittiran nanum=ari- 

22 van [||*] Idaiyamariattu Sannaraii=Gandan nanum=arivan [||*] Manalmukki[n] 

23 Kandan=Dam6daran nanum=ar.ivan [||*] Venattirku adigaran=jeygi- 

24 n?;a Pn.aalur(i) Iravi Parandavan nanu.m=ajiran [||*] Kudag6tt-(ir= 


25 davaa=Gandan nanum=ajivai} [||*1 ivai Tiruclicierigun);ilr=ppodti7a- 

26 1 Sat[ta]i5=Jadaiyan=eluttu [II*] 


(Lines 1 i 7). Hail! Prosperity! In the year one hundred and forty-nine after 
Kollam appeared, on a Sunday corresponding 6 to the Achchuvadi (afoati-nakshatra) in 
tlie month of Mirichchigam (Vrischika), when Jupiter stood in Tul while? the great 
naon. of the parudai* (assembly) of Tiruchehengunrur were pleased to be assembled 9 on this 
day in the high hall of the palace (situated) in the flower garden of Kollam, Srivallayango'dai, 
(the king) of VnSdu gave, by the pouring of water, to Adiehohan-Umaiyammai of 
Tirukkalayapuram, the fco^araTcar 10 set up by Adichchan-Umaiyammai at Ayurur, and the 
lands belonging to the baftdralcar. 

(LL 8 to 11). Adichchan=Umaiyammai gave, as kil-itfu to the latfdrakar of Tirucliohen- 
, by pouring water in the hands of the poduvdl, il what she acquired by gift, 13 so that (he) 

1 [The reading aeems to be id[ai] naiyil-onru. If nai has to be taken as nd it would be quite different from 
the other nds which occur in the inscription and resemble the modern Tamil n&, V. V.] 
a [The reading aeems to be vewfytu. V. V.] 
a Read avanukku. 
4 Read t pait&ragarTc'ku\}a,> 
6 Head afiiyay-idatiu. 

6 [The original haa $dyi=dn&a AcTicliwvadi, which would mean in Tamil * the (nalcshatra) ASvafci (ASvinl) 
which, was governed by 5foyir.u (the Sun).' If then the week-day be Sunday, $dyir=diida would correspond to the 
modern ffrdyirdlcha and the word dlaha which Dr. Gundert derives from the root dlv, ' to sink ' may, ia that 
case, he derived from the root &\ ' to rule.' V. V.] 

7 [The expression idattu vaichohu of the original seems to be used in the sense of the modern MalaySlam 
idattil vechohu which appears to be almost synonymous with the Tamil idattil. V. V.] 

8 [The word yctrudai occurs also in the form paradai and is a tctAlhava of the Sanskrit pafif&at. "V. 7.] ' 

9 [The original has " were assembled and were pleased to be seated." V. V.] 

10 [It was evidently the imag'e of the god that was made over to S.dichchan, Umaiyammai 5 see below, p, 238, 
note 10. V. V.] 

Jl [According to Dr. Gnndert, j>ocluvd\ means " a class of half-Brahmans, temple servants " and agap$o&itvd\ 
with. pA-QU-ndl officiate as priests and administrators of temple property. V. V.] 

12 [Atfirpiru is evidently the same ae atfippSru which, according to Dr. Gundert, means " complete pmchaie 
of a freo h Id." Mr. Nagamaiya defines the term ae { ile out and out surrender of the jenmi's rights by sale 
(Travaiicort Manual, Vol. Ill, p. viii.) V. V.] 


might supply, according to the rate current in small towns, 1 four mili of rice 3 for (daily) 
offerings, and two hundred parai of paddy at nine n&li per parai, annually. 3 

(LI. 11 to 13). The poduv'its shall protect the mukkal-vattam 4 of Ayurur and the idaiyidu 
of the Ihattdraka, and take (a fraction of the produce) as remuneration for the protection 
(afforded). 5 

(LI 13 to 14). The Anilars shall not enter as 6 idaiytdars in the kiltfa (which is the 
subject of) this transaction, 7 and shall neither dismiss (the killdars) nor collect the rant. 

(LI. 14 to 16). He that reduces this to a fourth 8 shall, consistently with the custom 
obtaining in small towns, be subject to the general fine of two hundred kalanju of gold. 9 

(LI. 16 to 17). He that abets the former shall also be subject to a 6ne in the same way. 

(LI. 17 to 19). Both, the mukkdlvattam of Ayurur and the irjaiy$<fu belonging to the 
fifcaffttrafcrtr, mentioned above, are thus the acquisitions in gift of Adichchan=Umaiyammai (of, 
or) related to Srivallavang6dai. 10 

(LI. 19 to 22). (The following are the signatures of) the sddhws who were present at the 
time when Adichchan=Umaiyammai, while she was with Srivallayangodai, made this gift of 

1 [I take chirr'&r-iiada.iydcLti Tcida us meaning " together with the shrine atSijrur. " Nadai (nada) is used 
for ' temple ' in South Malabar according to Dr. Gundert, and there is a temple at Quilon called Ganapatiuadai 
meaning ' shrine or temple of Ganapnti. ' V. V.] 

2 [1 would read in the original cTi&oad=ari (1. 9) and cMvadu nel (1. 10) and take cMvadu nel as equivalent 
to /eneZ which occurs in fclie Ambasamnflram inscription of Varaguna-Maharaja (above, p. 90) and which accord- 
ing to Winslow means " superior kind of rice, of a yellowish hue as Senjdli, " V. V.] 

s [As the dative tiruvamudinulcjcum is used and as the purpose for which the 200 parai of paddy had to te 
supplied is not stated, it looks as if the puddy was to be converted into rice and used for offerings. In this case, 
there is something wrong in the calculation here made. At the rate of four ndli of rice per day the quantity 
required for a year or 360 days comes to J,440 ndli of rice or 160 para according to the equivalent of the faro, 
given in line 10. How 160 para of rice can be obtained from 200 para of paddy it is difficult to undei-stand, 
According to the Tanjore inscriptions of Rajaraja I., 2 times the quantity of paddy was required to obtain a given 
measure of rice, and 3 times the quantity according to the Amhasaomdrani inscription of Varaguna- Maharaja. - 
V. V.] 

* [The word muJckdlvattam occurs in the Tiruuelli plates of Bh&skara Bavivarnmn, where Professor Hnltzsch 
has translated it by 'temple' (Ind, Aat. Vol. XX. p. 292). According to Dr. Gundert the term denotes in Travail- 
core c a temple of Konganirnar. ' An inscription at TiruvalisVaram near Ainbasamudram in the Tianevelly district 
mentions Tirijpuraddna, (da,7ianai) pannina S&vagandr tirumultkdlvattam, where tirumuTelcdlvattam appears to 
mean ' the holy shrine ' of the god Siva (No. 120 of the A. A. Superintendent's collection for 1905).'V. V.] 

s [According to Dr. ftundert raka~hd-'bli6gam is synonymous with rdja-lTidgam, which denotes the ruler's 
share. From certain Tellicherry records (1796-1799) it appears that this share amounted to one-fifth (of the reve- 
nue).- V. V.] 

8 [The word dga here translated ' aa ' occurs in a similar context in the Tirunelli plates of BhAslcara Eavi- 
vaiman (Ind. J.nt. Vol. XX. p. 290, text line 17). It is apparently synonymous with the Tamil dvadu or Agilw* 
and the Malajalam dya^A. V. V.] 

1 il'jpparifu means 'in this manner, thus. ' I would translate the passage thus : "Neither the 4rd{ar nor the 
icLaiyidar shall be entitled to interfere and disturb the Jctltdu thus settled or to seize (any) property." V. V,] 

8 I.B. he who contributes to the dwindling of this charity. 

' [I would translate the passage as follows : " He who does any injury to this (contract) shall individually pij 
a fine of two hundred JealaHju (to) the shrine at Sir^ur," See notes 1 and 2 on p. 237 and note 1 above. V. V.] 

10 [Instead of Ayur-Arit^piradittai ieyda ytaitdragar of line 6, we have here Ayuirdr muklcdl-vattam which to 
a certain extent confirms the meaning ' ahviue* of muTcTcdlvattam. Instead of pattdragar'kTf^olla pdmi in line 8, we 
have here p&ftdragarlelcaolla idaiytdu, which denotes the interest which the Ayurur shrine possessed in the land 

acquired by Sdichchan-Umaiyauimai from Srivallavangddai. Consequently, the sentence repeats the stateme 
in lines 6 to 7 that Xdichchan-Umaiyammai had obtained the concession from SrivallavaDgodai. Accordingly, it 
seems to me that &rtvaUavatyddaiy*udai at the end of 1. 18 is a simple clerical mistake for Srivaltovangtdait/* 
idai. If any soch relationship as would be implied by the use of the word udai were intended, it would be more 
natural to expect it noted when A'dichchaa-Dinaiyaimnai is mentioned for the first time. Besides,' it would be 
unusual for the mother or wife of llrivsllavangodai to enter into a transaction of this nature with him. V. V.J 

British Museum inscription of Kanishka, 


land as igaiytyu to the Ihatfdraltar of Tiruchchenguniur : 1 I, Devam- 8 Pavittiran of 
Murunnaiyur, also know ; 3 

(L. 22). I, Saniiaran Kandan of Idaiyamanam, also know ; 

(LI. 22 to 23). I, Kandan Damodaran of Manalmukku, also know ; 

(LI. 23 to 24). I, Iravi-Parandavan 4 of Punaliir, the adhikumn of Venadu, also know ; 

(LI. 24 to 25). I, Paran da van-Kan dan of Kudagdttiir, also know. 

(LI. 25 to 26). This is the writing of 6attan-Sadaiyan, the poduvdl of Tiruchchengunr.ur. 



Oil the occasion of a visit to the British Museum in the autumn of 1906, I discovered in 
one of the oases of the Northern Gallery the stone bearing the subjoined inscription, which, as 
far as I know, has never been published before. At my request impressions were taken, from, 
which I have- prepared the transcript. Subsequently Dr. Meet kindly sent me the photograph 
of the etone reproduced in the accompanying plate. 

Nothing seems to be known about the origin of the stone, but the characters, the language 
and tke date of the inscription prove that it comes from Northern India. 

The sculpture at the top of the stone represents a man and a woman sitting on a bench. 
The woman to the left, wearing a loin-cloth and a girdle ' and the usual ornaments round the 
neck, the wriafcs, the ankles and in the lobes of the ear, rests her left elbow on the knee of her left 
leg which she has placed on the top of the bench, and turns her laughing face to the spectator. 
The male person also is wearing a necklace, bracelets, ear-drops, and a dhoti covering the knees. 
He is sitting astride, and with the right hand he touches, -or points to, a sort of stand placed 
between the two persons on the bench and bearing what would .seem to be a cushion adorned by 
three small square marks and supporting some bell-shaped object. Right over the head of the 
man there appears something which at first sight looks almost like a club, but which in my 
opinion, probably" is. the mutilated head of a cobra. As the stone is broken off immediately above 
the head of thfe female person, it is quite "possible that her head also was overshadowed by a 
Bixnilar representation of a serpent's head, and it seems to me very probable therefore that the 
sculpture represents a Naga and his wife, 

The writing is Brahmt of the earlier Knshana type. The subscript ya is expressed by the 
fail sign, and the sJia shows the old form with the small cross-bar. The language is the usual 
mixed, dialect. The inscription, which is dated in the tenth year of maharaja devaputra 
Kaniahfca, records the gift of a temple. -Details will be discussed below. 

1 [In tjw original the name Xdichchau-Umaiyammai is not repeated as it is represented in the translation. It 
looks as if Srlvallavangddai waj seated with the members of the assembly of Tiruehchengun)tfr in the palace at 
Kollftm (11. 4-B) while making the gift to Adichchag Utnaiyammai. Accordingly I would translate; this sentence u 
follow* i ' (The following are) the tddAvt who know (the transaction entered into) at the place at which 
(Adiohchaa TTmaiyammai) while SriyallavaDgddai was sitting with (the assembly P) grafted the Ulidn (of the 
land P) to the lord (bhattaraka) of T'-rnchchengunrur." The same fact is referred to in lines 8 and . V.-V,T 

2 [The name of the man was apparently D6va& Pavittiran. Y. ?.] 
1 ZM. the terms of this transaction and hear witness to the same. 

* CParandavan U apparently a tadbkavp of the Sanskrit Parmtapa. V. V.] 



1 Siddha[ni] 1 maharajasya deva[pritrasya] 3 

2 Kanishkasya savatsare [10] 3 

3 gii 2 di 9 etaye purvay[6] * 

4 [u]tarayam 5 na[va]nrikayam 8 [h]a- 

5 [rmya]n=[d]ata[m]7 priyat&m dSvi 8 gra[masya], 9 


1 The anusvdra is indistinct because it is crossed by the line forming the base of the 
sculpture. 2 The reading of the bracketed characters is certain, though the surface of the stone 
lias pealed off at the corner. 3 This figure also has suffered from the peeling off of the surface, 
but the reading is beyond doubt 4 The e is very indistinct, and the correct reading may possibly 
be_pwi7/a or ptt,rvayai.b .At first sight one might feel inclined to read natardyaiii, but the 
base-line of the first letter is quite straight, whereas no, has a distinctly curved base, I feel 
therefore sure that what appears to be the continuation of the base-line to the left, is merely due to 
a flaw in the stone. 6 The two convergent side-lines of the va are not very distinct, just as in the 
same letter in line 3, and there appears a vertical in the middle which makes the letter look 
almost like na, But this line is far too thin to really form part of the letter and must be 
accidental. 7 The bracketed letters of these two words are more or less damaged, but the reading 
seems to be sure. 8 The e-stroke is added to the top of the letter, whereas in dS in the first line 
it is added in the middle. 9 The last two letters are damaged, but only the ya can be said to be 


Success ! In the year 10 of the maMrdja devaptitra Kanishka, in the second (month of) 
summer, on the ninth day, on that (date specified as) above a temple was given in the northern 
navamikd (?). May the goddess of the village be pleased ! 


Tie orthography of the inscription is very irregular, double consonants, long vowels and the 
anusvwra being frequently not expressed in writing. A long a appears in the word Jidrmya. 
According to the St. Petersburg Dictionary the same form is found also in tihe Taitt. Ar. VI, 6, 2 
instead of the ordinary harmya occurring in the corresponding verse in Atharuav. XVIII, 4, 55, 
In hdrmyan-datam the final m is converted into the nasal before the following mute, which is rare 
in inscriptions in this dialect. Another instance is found in the concluding words of the Mathura 
inscription, above Vol. I. p. 386, No. 8 : prtyatdm,=bhagavdn=Rishal'ha,$rfy i which at the 
same time help us to understand the phrase found at the end of the present record : priyatum 
d&vi grdmasya, 

Of greater interest is the spelling of the king's name, Kdnis'h'ka,, with a long vowel in the 
first syllable and a lingual . With regard to the latter point, the seven Brahml inscriptions that 
have preserved the name are in perfect agreement. 1 In the Kharoshthl inscriptions of Su 
Vihar 9 and Zeda 8 the name is read as Kanishka, in that of Manikyala as KanesJika* but I am by 
no means sure whether in the two last mentioned inscriptions the readings Katyiehka, and 

. of S, 5, Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. p. 34 ff., No. 4; Mafchur& inscr. of 8. 7, above Vol. I, 
p. 391, No 19 ; Mafchnra inscr. of S. 9, Vienna Or. Journ. Vol. I, p. 173, No. 2, and Ind. A*t. Tol. XXXIII. 
p. 37, No. 6j Mathurt inset., Ind, Ant, Vol. XXXIII. p 149, No. 25 j Sarnath inscr. of S, 8, aTwvc Vol. VIII. 
p. 176. No. 3' ; Sariiath inscr. of S. 3, above Vol. III. p 1?&, No. 3 d . 

Ind. Ant. Vol. X. p. 326. J our n. At. Ser. VIIL Vol. XV. r . 137, 

4 JTmrn. As, Ser. IX. Vol. VII. p, 8. 

f'^ >x ,. ' '^' ^W;^1p^^ 

^i^%^' : '; "i^^S-3 

Vvj -.;.T*<,fe-.* '.V.'&BL ym*^ -'AvJ 

*i-.; ' v* 'TO. < '-'WV ,- . *-^:^W'Sff.4.W,ir 

F " -C' ^'. 1 P^'" '^^t- 

fe^'-x-'C : ;?M^. .. ; '";Jl 

K. Hultzsch- 

Collotype by Ocbr. Plittner. 

From a photograph supplied by Dr, Fleet 


Kanashka would not bo preferable. On tlie "whole, contemporary records certainly are in favour 
of the spelling with the lingual n, and I would therefore propose to use Kauishka as the common 
form, of the name. The spelling with the long vowel in the first syllable as iu the present inscrip- 
tion is unusual, but it does not stand quite alone. In the Sarnath inscription, No. 3 s , the editor, 
it is true, reads Kanishkasya, but the photo -lithograph 1 distinctly shows Kunislikasya. 

Turning to the special object of the inscription, we may infer from the concluding words that 
the temple was dedicated to a goddess, and the representation of the two Nagas above the inscrip- 
tion makes it not unlikely, I think, that the goddess intended was a Nag!. That during the 
^Kusnana period there existed temples for the worship of serpents in Northern India, is well 
attested by the two Mathura inscriptions 3 which mention the temple (st[)i\<ln a) of the ndgendra 
DadMkarna and a servant at the temple of the same Dadhikarna (Dadhikarnnadcvikulika). 

The most difficult words of the inscription are utaruyam navamikilyaih. I have thought for 
some time that they might be part of the date and mean ' on the following (i.e. intercalated) ninth 
(lunar daj/)', but for two rea'-ions this idea must be given up. Firstly, such a statement would he 
in the wrong place after etayS purvaye, and secondly, as Professor Kielhorn informs me, uttara 
is never used in the sense of adJiika or dvitiya. s The words nmst therefore be connected with 
lidrmyan^datam, and as a form ending in -uijum can hardly be anything else but the locative sin- 
gular of a stem in d ; utarii navawikd would seem to denote either the locality where the temple was 
erected or, possibly, the goddess to whom it was dedicated. However, these explanations are far 
from satisfactory. Neither has navamiku the appearance o being the name of a locality, nor 
does utarci navatnikd in the least sound like the name of a goddess or a Nagi, I am at present 
unable to solve this difficulty, 


This inscription is engraved on a stone-slab discovered by Sir Alexander Cunningham in the 
Jail Mound at Mathura. It was first edited in 1870, together with facsimiles, by Rajendralala 
Mitra in theJburn. Seng. As. Son. Vol. XXXIX. Part I. p. 129, No. 15, and by Dowson in the 
Journ. Roy. As. Soc. New St-r. Vol. V. p. 183, No. 4. Iu 1873 Cunningham published it again 
with a facsimile in the Arch. Sitrv. Hep. Vol. III. p. 32, No. 8, and in 1904 I. have treated it 
myself in the Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. p. 106, No. 20. I edit it here again for a special 
reason,. When I was in Oxford in 1905, Professor Hoernle kindly made over to me the collec- 
tion of impressions, rubbings and drawings of inscriptions formed by him when preparing the 
second volume of the Corpus Insorijptwriutn Indicarum, which was to contain the ' Indo-Scythic ' 
inscriptions. In this collection there is also the impression which I have used for the present 
edition. It caimofc be said to be first-rate and, as unfortunately most of the impressions of this 
collection, it has been tampered with iu some places by pencilling out parts of letters that in the 
impression itself are more or lesa effaced. Nevertheless the impression is of the greatest value ris 
shown "by the following note written on the margin, probably by General Cunningham himself : 
' The only impression now avail.-ible. The stone has been lost at Agra.' Under these circum- 
stances ib seemed to me desirnble to publish the accompanying reproduction of the impression, 
which in spite of its shortcomings naturally is far superior to the drawings published hitherto. 
Professor Hoernle's collection contains besides two facsimiles. The one is an eye-copy in red 
and hlae pencil on a slightly reduced scale, made according to a marginal note by Captain Watts, 
Royal Engineers, the other is a pencil-tracing on transparent paper, perhaps made from the stone 
itself, but afterwards gone over with China-ink, blue and red pencil, and practically of no value. 

1 [I have some weeks ago examined, the original and the d is quite certain. S. K.] 

2 Ep. Ind, Vol. I. p. S90, No. 18 ; Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII, p. 102, No. 13. 

* Professor Hultrscli writes to me that he U nevertheless inclined to connect uianttjaiti natpmiltcty&jii with 
thfe date, but lie would take utlara in the sense of uchyamdna, iifan-lilchita, ' nbjve-rneationed.' 



^_ ... _ , .^. _-,.... ...-.' ' _ . ~--^ 

The inscription is divided by & blank space into two parts. The upper portion, containing 
eight lines, is complete -with, the exception of some letters at the end of the first two lines, whicfr 
have disappeared by the breaking off of the right corner of the stone. the lower portion 
wKich in Dowson's and. Cunningham's facsimiles has been omitted altogether, nothing is left bn^ 
faint traces of some characters in the first line. The characters are Brahnii of the Kushana tjpe 
The ska, appears in the older form -with the small cross-bar, but the subscript ya shows the 
cursive form. The language is the mixed dialect. The inscription is dated in the year 74 of a 
mah&raja ra[j9,tiraja] devaputra whose name began "with Vasiz, but owing to it.? fragmentary 
state its real purport cannot be made out. 


1 Maharajaeya 1 r[a] s 

2 sya dtivapntrasya Vasu 3 

3 saratsaro 1 70 5 4 varsbam[a]- 8 

4 a& prathame divasS 

5 tris'[e] 7 30 asyam 8 purvvayarii 9 

6 Talrtldj[6] 10 mahadanda- 

7 aayakasya 11 Vii- 

S linas[y]a k[sh6]t[ra]w ilihi- 
9 [mahadauda] 1 *-. 


1 The /(-stroke is distinctly visible in the impression, although it does not appear in Capi 
Watts' eye-copy.~2 The ^-stroke is uncertain. Restore ritjAtirUja-. 3 The a-stroke is quite 
distinct, tliongh here again it is omitted in'Capt. Watts' eye-copy. As regards the restoring of 
the .line, I refer to the remarks below. 4 The ^-stroke, omitted in Capt. Watts' eye-copy, ia quite 
distinct. 5 Owing to a flaw in the stone, a small portion of the lower left cross-bar of the 
symbol has disappeared. In the impression somebody has tried to restore the missing portion by 
adding in pencil a hook turning upwards, but there is nothing to warrant this restoration. There 
can be no dr-ulrt tliat the symbol had the shape of a plain St. Andrew's cross, just as in other 
inscriptions. The lower right cross-bar also has been pencilled over in the impression, but this is 
of no consequence as it is perfectly distinct. The meaning of the symbol will be discussed below. 
G The upper portion of the TO and the d are not quite distinct. 7 The e-stroke is indistinct, 
and the fo has suffered from a hole in the paper. -8 The apparent curving of the tail of the a 
has been caused by pencilling. In Capt. Watts' eye-copy the tail is quite straight. 9 Above 
the pu there is a distinct stroke which must be accidental. 10 There are some strokes behind 
and below the fa, but they are not noticed in Capt. Watts' eye-copy and may be accidental. The 
5-stroke is not very distinct, and the reading TalaMyam would be possible.-]! Capt. Watts 
expressly states that there are no traces of letters before the mi of line 7 and the U of line 8. 
The ml IMS been pencilled over so as to look almost like set, but there can be no doubt that it is 
nil-, and as such it appears ulso in Capfc. Watts' eye-copy.- 12. The ya is damaged, but certain. 
13 The M of the first and the r of the second syllable are damaged, but certain. The S of toU 
is vct-y faint and not given in Capfc. Watts' eye-copy. The last syllable may also be tr't as in 
Capt Watts' eye-copy. 14 Of this word only -faint traces are visible in the impression, and the 
reading rests almost entirely on Capt. Watts' eye-copy. Instead of da Capt. Watts gives M. 


( In the year 74 of the maMrdja rctjcitiraja dfoapitra Vasu , in the first month of the 

ramy season, on tho thirtieth day, 30,~on that (fate specified w ) above, in the field (P) of the 
great general Valiua at Talakiya (or Talaki ?) Mihi , 

.Mathura inscription of Samvat 74, 


E. Hultzsch. 

Collotype by Oebr. Pletlner. 



The orthography shows the usual .featares. The lengthening of the vowel in ddnfa 
appears again in the same word in the Sst-Mahet inscription, above Vol. VIII, p. 181, and 
We may further compare such forms as dtht&vdsisa arid dihtevdsiniyS in the Mathura inscriptions, 
Ep. Ind. Vol. H. p. 198 1, Nos. 1 and 4. 

As regards the date, the first symbol of the data of the year requires a fuller consideration, 
as it has been differently interpreted. As already stated above, it has the shape of a St. Andrew's 
cross. Cunningham 1 originally read it as 40, and he was followed by Dowson, who in editing the 
Mathura inscriptions everywhere adopted Cunningham's readings of the dates. 8 In 1891 
Bualer expressed his belief that the sign really represented 70, 3 and this opinion was endorsed in 
the following year by Cunningham in his paper on the coins of the Kuahanas in the Numismatic 
Chronicle, Ser. HE. Vol. XIL p. 50, note 6. 

I accordingly read the symbol as 70 when I published the inscription in the Indian 
Antiquary, and I am still convinced that Biihler was right, bat in order to settle this question 
definitely, it will be necessary to examine the other Northern Br&hmi insoripti&ns where the 
same sign occurs. They are the following seven, all of which come from Mathura or its neigh- 
bourhood : 

(1) Mathur& inscription of the time of svdmin mahakshatraga Sodaaa, EJO. Ind. Vol. II. 
p. 199, No. 2, and Plate. In the Vienna Or, Journ. Vol. V. p. 177, Biihler read the symbol as 
40, adding 70 in brackets. la the Ep. Ind., loo. cit., Biihler again gave 40 in the text, but added 
ia a note that the symbol might possibly be 70. And lastly in .Ej?. Ind. Vol. IV. p. 55, note 2, 
lie stated that he would now remove the alternative reading 42, which he had thought admissible 
at first. 

(2) Kltaaan inscription, JEfp. Ind. Vol. II. p. 212, No. 42, and Plate. Here Buhler rendered 
the sign by 70 in the text, but added in a footnote that it might also be read as 40. 

(8) Mathura inscription, Jbwrn. Beng. As. Soc. Vol. XXXIX. Part I. p. 130, No. 17, and 
Plate ; Jburrc. Eoy. As. Soc. New Ser. Vol. V. p. 183, No. 5, and Plate ; Arch. Surv, JSep. Vol. 
III. p. 33, No. 11, and Plate. Cunningham and Dowson, read the sign as 40, and I have 
followed them in Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. p. 102. 

(4) Mathura inscription, fourn. Beng. As. Soc. Vol. XXXIX. Parfe I. p. 127, No. 1, and 
Plate ; Jbwrii. Boy. As. Soc. New Ser. Vol. V. p. 182, No. 1, and Plate ; Arch. Surv. Rep. 
Vol. III. p. 33, No. 12, aud Plate. Ca.uningh.a,.n and Dowsoa. read the sign as 40, and I have 
adopted this reading in Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIH. p. 101, No. 11. 

(5) Mathara inscription, Jbttrn. Beng. As. Soc. Vol. XXXIX. Part I. p. 127, No. 2, and 
Plate ; fourn. Boy. As. Soc. New Ser. Vol. V. p. 183, No. 2, and Plate ; Arch. Surv, Hep. 
Vol. HE. p. 34, No. 13, and Plate. Cunningham and Dowsoa read the sign as 40, and I have 
followed them in Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIH, p. 102, No. 13, 

(6) Mathur^ inscription, Jburtt. Beng. As. Soc. Vol. XXXIX. Part I. p. 130, No. 18, and 
Plate. The facsimile is very poor. In the Ind. Ant, Vol. XXXIH. p. 101, No. 12, 1 have read 
tb.e sign as 40, but I have pointed out also that the inscription is possibly identical with that 
referred to under No. 3. 

(7) Mathura' inscription, Journ. Roy. As. Soc. New Ser. Vol. V. p. 184, No. 7, and Plate ; 
Arch. Surv. Rep, Vol. IIL p. 34, No. 14, and Plate. Oaauingham and Dowson read the sign as 40. 

1 The absurd opinions oi Rajendralala Mitra may be passed over in silence. 

2 Compare Cunningham's remarfes, Journ. Roy. As. Soc. New Ser. Vol. V. p. 194. 
* Sp. Ind. Vol. I. p. 8T3, note 7. 



It thus appears that the symbol has hitherto been treated sometimes as 40 and some- 
times as 70, but it -will be readily conceded, I th'ink, that it is impossible to assign two different 
values to the same sign in inscriptions of the same locality and the same period . But before we 
can decide which of the two interpretations is the correct one, we shall nave to examine also the 
other symbols supposed to represent either 40 or 70 in the early Brahmi inscriptions of Northern 
India. The following inscriptions, which for convenience sake I number in continuation of the 
list given above, must be taken into consideration : 

(8) Mathari inscription of the time of mahardja Hnviksha, J3p. Ind. Vol. I. p. 387, No. 9, 
and Plate. The symbol resembles the ligature pta and was read by B tinier as 40. 

(Si) Mathura inscription, J3p. Ind. Vol. I. p. 387, No. 10, and Plate. The general appearance 
of the symbol is the same as in No. 8, bat its lower part is not quite distinct in the photo-litho- 
graph. Buhler read the sign as 40. 

(10) Mathura inscription, Arch. Surv. Hep. Vol. III. p. 33, No. 10, and Plate ; J0p. Ind. 
Vol. I. p. 396, . No. 30, and Plate. The symbol generally has the same form as that in No. 8, 
but ita lower part is a little more cursive. Cunningham and Buhler read it as 40. 

(11) Mathura inscription of the time of malidrdja Huvishka, Arch. Surv. Rep. Vol. III. 
p. 34, No. 15, and Plate. The symbol is the same as in No. 8. Cunningham read it aa 40, and 
I have followed him in my treatment of the record in the Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. p. 103, 
No. 14. 

(12) Mathura inscription, Ep. Ind. Vol. II. p. 204, No. au, and Plate ; p. 321, and Plate. 
The upper part of the symbol is the same as in Nos. 8 11, but its lower part is a distinct loop. 
Biihler read the sign as 70. 

(13) Mathura inscription, Up. Ind. Vol. I. p. 387, No. 11, and Plate, As Buhler expressly 
states in a footnote that the symbol is a plain pta, it may have been so in the impression before 
him. In the photo-lithograph, however, it does not bear the slightest resemblance to that sign, 
but looks exactly like the letter ora. Buhler read the symbol as 40. 

(14) Sauchi inscription of the time of inahdrdja r&jdtirdja devuputra Shahi Vasashka, Ep. 
Ind. Vol. II. p. S69 f., and Plate. The symbol found here has quite a peculiar shape. Provided 
that the vertical standing behind it does not belong to it, but is part of the following sign for 8, 
it resembles the nsual sign for 20. As such it was read also at first by Buhler, but at 
Qimm'ngham'a suggestion he afterwards took it to be 70. The reading o the sign was then 
discussed at length by Dr. Fleet in a paper in the Journ. Boy. As. Soc. 1903, p. 326 ff., and he 
came to the conclusion that it was 20. But later on, when Mr. Vincent Smith in his Early 
History of India, p. 238, had suggested that the symbol might be read as 60, DT. Fleet admitted 
the possibility of this interpretation; see Journ. Boy. As. Soc. 1905, p. 357. 1 

Leaving aside for the present the symbols found in the last three inscriptions, it appears that 
there are two symbols, the St. Andrew's cross and the pta, one of which must represent 70 and 
the other 40. Now in the inscription which forms the subject of this paper the St. Andrew's 
cross cannot represent 40, as in that case the inscription would be dated in the year 44 in the 
reign of a king whose name begins with V&su, whereas we know that from 33-60 Huvishka waa 
the reigning monarch in this part of the country. Here, therefore, the St. Andrew's cross must 
represent 70, and we must accordingly assign the same value to the symbol also in the inscrip- 
tions enttmerated above under Nos. 1-7. We thus get the dates S. 72 for No. 1, S. 74 for 

* Another sign that originally was read 40 "by Buhler, is found in the Mathura inscription of the timo of 
mtUrdja rdjdtirdja dSvayutra Huvashka, Ep. Ind. Vol. I. p. 386, No. 8, and Plate. Later on Buhler declared 
that ou further consideration he read the symhol as 60, and as each it has been treated aince then everywhere ; tee 
JEp, Ind..Ttol. II, p. 804, note 01. 


No. 2, and S. 77 for Nog. 3-7. The inscriptions themselves contain nothing to contradict this 
result. No. 4, it is true, mentions tho mahiirdja rdjdtirdja di-crjputra Huvishka, but not in 
connection with the date, the inscription simply recording a gift to the riltara of that king. As 
to the date S, 72 for the muluikshutrapa Soiasa, I refer to the remarks of Dr. Fleet in the 
/bism. Roy. As. Soc. ] 907, p. 1024 ff. 

If the St. Andrew's cross represents 70, the sign resembling i>ta must he 40. The inscrip- 
tion Wo. 8, therefore, would be dated in S. 44, No. 9 in S. 45, No. 10 iu S. 47, and No. 11 
in S. 48, which is in accordance with the statements of Nos. 8 and 11 that their dates fall into 
the reign of Huviksha or Huvishka. 

The symbol occurring in No. 12 undoubtedly differs from cither of tho two symbols found in. 
NOB. 1-11, but whereas it bears no resemblance whatever to the cross-shaped sign, it is easily 
intelligible as a cursive development of the pta sign. 1 Iu my opinion therefore this sign also 
must be taken as 40, and the inscription as bdiug dated in S. 4&, not S. 7;). There is another 
point in favour of this interpretation. The inscription records a gift made at the request of the 
venerable Vridhahasti (Vritllliahastin) t a preacher in the Kottiya(Kottikii}yrt,na, the Yam\ 
( Vajri") Sitklul. There is another Matbuvti inscription dated in S. GO, 2 recording a gift made 
at the request of the yanin, the venerable Kharuna, a pupil of this same Vriddhahastin. If 
Vriddhahastin in S. 60 had a pupil who had acquired the dignity of yatiin, he mast have been a 
man. advancod in years at that tims, ani although, of cmi-ae, it is uob impossible that he was 
still alive in S. 79, it would certainly seem more natural to find him as a spiritual adviser in S. 
49 and his pnpil in tho same capacity eleven years later on, in S. 60. 

Little can be said about the symbol occurring in No, 13. Ths form appearing in the photo- 
lithograph, is quite peculiar aud unlike any other symbol in the inscriptions from Mathura or 
elsewhere, but in accordance with Biihler's statement, it may be provisionally taken as 40. 

As regards the symbol in No. 14, I agree with Dr. Fleet that there is no reason whatever 
why it should be 70, a 1 } even the sign iu No. 12, which Biihler cited in support of this 
interpretation^ ia to be read not 70, bub 40. On the other hand, I feel sure that it is not 20. I 
liave lately received through Dr. Konow impressions of an inscription running round the base 
of a' pillar preserved in the Mathura Museum. The inscription, which is in Brahrai characters 
of the Eushaaa type, is partly worn, but the data is quite distinct. Now the sign for the teas 
in thte date of the year is the same as that in tho Suuohi inscription, showing again the vertical, 
-widen is thus proved to be an integrant part of it and not to belong to the following sign. And 
although, unfortunately the text of the inscription contains nothing that would enable us to form 
a positive opinion on the value of the symbol, we may safely assert that it cannot be 20, as we 
find this number expressed by the usual sign in the date of the day. Lastly also the proposal to 
treat the symbol as 60 cannot be said to be convincing, the sign that has hitherto been read as 60 
in fhe inscriptions of the Kushana period 3 certainly being entirely different. I do not want to 
offer a new hypothesis. In my opinion we shall have to wait for fresh materials before we can. 
li ope to arrive at a satisfactory result in this question. In how far the restoring of the king's 
name in, our inscription of S. 74 is influenced by this uncertainty, will be shown below, 

I know that the results arrived at above are partly not in harmony with those deduced from 
the coins of the Western Kshatrapas. The numeral signs occurring in the legends of those coins 
are given in table IX, col. V, of Buhler's Indische Palaograpliie from Professor Bapson's table iu 

1 PerhapR the symbol found in No. 9 forms the intermediate stage "between the pta and the looped sign. A 
I have stated above, its lower part is not quite distinct in the photo-lithograph, but it does not seem to me impoi- 
eible that here also it consists not of the usual fork, but of a loop, though a much smaller one than ia No. 12. 

2 :Ep. Xwt. Vol. I. p. 386, No. 8, and Plate. 

Jflp. Xnd. Vol. I. p. 386, No. 8, and Plate 5 Vol. If. p. 204, No. 19, and Plate; Arch. Sttrv. Zef. VoJ. XX, 
p. 87, and Plate V, fig. 6. 


the Jnnrn. Roy. As. Son. 1800, Plate to p. 6:-;9. Here the St. Andrew's cross has been entered as 
40, and a sign much resembling the pta and another looped sign almost exactly like that of 
No. 12 as 70. I do not wish to throw any doubts on the correctness of these readings, but I 
contend that for such questions inscriptions must bo treated separately according to time arid 

[lajondralak Mitra, Dowson and Cunningham agreed in restoring the name of the king 
as V>l-i>ti'l*t'<isy(i]. When I edited the inscription from the facsimiles published by my predecea- 
ses. I drew attention to the circumstance that the available space is hardly sufficient for the 
three ah-aharas ddva^ija, and I proposed to restore the name as Vilsuslikasya, as this name of the 
king scorned to be attested by two other inscriptions of S. 76 and S. 78, 1 whereas the first 
undoubted record of Vasudeva's reign was dated in S. 80. What I said abont the difficulty of 
supplying three syllables is confirmed by the impression now before me, although owing to the 
frequent irregularity of the writing in these inscriptions it is impossible to speak on this point 
with absolute certainty. Bat the evidence for the existence of a king Vasushka in S. 76 and 
S. 78 is not so strong as it seemed to be formerly. As I have tried to show above, the date of ike 
Sfiuchi inscription mentioning a king Vasashka 2 is quite uncertain, and the Mathnra inscription 
mentioned by Fuhrer as being dated in 8. 7G and recording repairs in the reign of Vaeushka has 
not yet been published. As Dr. Eonow informs me, it cannot even be found now, Piilirer'B 
trenches haviug been filled up again a long time ago and the exact spot where the inscription 
was found being no more known. Under these circumstances a decision is of conrse. impossible 
for the present. If Flihrer's statement after all should prove correct, I should unhesitatingly 
restore Vdsu to VdsusJikasya, otherwise the reading Vdsuddva'sya "will have to be accepted. 

The rest of the inscription calls for few remarks. Talakiya or Talaki seems to be tie name 
of a locality, but I am unable to identify it. The title viaJiddandanclyaltn, is frequent in the 
inscriptions of the Gupta period and later limes. In the Kushana inscriptions it has not yei 
been fonnd before, but the subordinate title of dundandyaka occurs in the Manikyala inscription, 3 
where the correct reading in 1. 2 is, not Laladoda-nayago, but Lala-dadanayayo. 


This inscription was first published, together with a facsimile, in 1870 by Professor DOFSOB 
in. the Jcm-ni. Hoy. As. >S'oc. New Sor. Tol. V. p. 188, No. 29. In 1873 it was published again with 
a facsimile by Cunningham in the Arch. Surv. Hep. Vol. III. p. 30, No. 1. And in 1904 I 
have tried to edit the text from those two facsimiles in.the Ind. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. p. 149, 
No. 24. For the present edition of the record I have made use of an impression, found in 
Professor Hoerole's collection described above. 

Cunningham states that the stone bearing the inscription was found in the Jail Mound at 
Mathura. According- to Dowson, it has been cut through and the first part of it has been 
carried off. On the other hand, the facsimiles distinctly showed that something was missing at 
the right end, and thus I was led to suppose that the stone was damaged on both, sides. This, 
howevei'j is not the case. Nothing is missing at the beginning of the writing on the lef 6, and OB 
the right also only one letter has been cufc off at the end of the first two Hues. With this excep- 
tion the inscription is in an excellent state of preservation. 

1 Matburfc inscription of 8. 76, mentioned by Fuhrer, Progress Rejport for 1895-96 ; SaSchi inscription of 
S. 78, edited by Buhler, JSp. Ind. Vol. II. p. 369 f. 

J This is the reading snggested by Dr. Fleet, Journ. Jtoy. As. Soc. 1903, p. 326, but lie is himself inclined 1ft 
look upon this form as a mere variant of Vlsoshka, if the existence of such a nauio should be prOTed ; see Jnr, 
Hoy. At. Soo. 1905, p. 357 f. 

Jour* As. Ser. IX. Vol. TIL p. 8 f . 


The characters are of the so-called archaic type of the Mathur& inscriptions ; see especially the 
letters da, fa and sha, and the subscript ya. The language ia the mixed dialect. The inscrip- 
tion is not dated. It records varioas gifts of a Brahman of the S&grava (fiaigrava) gokra, the 
treasurer of svd-min mzhdkakatrapa Sondlsa. For details I refer to the remarks below. 


1 Svamisya mahakshatrapaaya Somdasasya 1 gamjavareua brUhnaan&ia S6grava- 
Bftg6trena [p]..A 

2 rani imasham yamada-pushkaranlnarh pasehima pushkarani udapanS arara& 8 
stambho i... 

3 [silsTjpatto* cha-. 


1 As to th.o reading of this name see thaTemarks below. 2 Little is left of the pa, but the 
reading is certain. Restore* pushka-. 3 The outlines of the letters ni udap&no drdm3 are 
more or less touched up -with pencil, but the reading ia perfectly certain. 1 The reading Hid is 
certain, although the letters are entii-ely spoiled by bsing gone over with pencil. 


By the treasurer of the lord, the niahdksJiatrapa, Somdfiga, a Brahman of the l6grava 
(tSaigrava} gotra, a tank, the western tank of these twin tanks, a reservoir, a grove, a pillar 
and this stone-slab (was caused to le made). 


As regards the language, the most interesting form is imdsMm. Apparently in the dialect 
of Mathur& the genitives plur. of the pronoun were, as in Pali, imfoatk and imdsafo, and the 
au.bh.or of tne inscription translated the latter form into inuishdih as he was wont to render 
itnSsam by imfohdm. The nominative sing. maac. of the same pronoun is found at the end of line 
2, but unfortunately nothing is left of it bat the initial . The word jpushkarani shows in the 
tliird syllable the vocalisation of- the Pali poltkharani. Ynm,a$A corresponds to Skt. yamala or 
yamala, as the word would be written in Southern manuscripts. The constractioa of the inscrip- 
tion is rather peculiar, the verb or participle oa which the instrumeatala bfdhmanSnA, etc., 
depend, being omitted. 

The first point to command abtentipn IB the name of the mahakahatrapa, which is generally 
supposed to be Sodasa, In the present inscription there is a distinct sign above the fo. It must 
Kave been found also in the impressdona used by Dowaon and Cunningham, as the former reads 
Qdnddsasya (to? -<i/^oy a) and the latter SauAdsntsya (for Sauffaaaya), although the facsi- 
miles show no trace whatever of anwavdra or at*. The sign cannot be the stroke denoting au, as 
it does not touch the upper line of the h, bat is separated fro ant it by a distinct blank space. It 
can. only be an anusvdra of the sa-ne bulky shape as that in garhjavar&na and in fushkawninafo. 

The form omdasa has not yet "been recognised anywhere eUe. In the second Brahml 
inscription at Mathuri mentioning this mahdkshatrapn 1 Biihler read Sojdscua, but the photo- 
lithograph by no means excludes the reading ^ofofdaasa. Right above the fo there is a white 
spot scarcely less distinct than that above the ma of hdmarktamdtd which BUhler read as 
anusvdra,. In the Mathori lion-capital inscription 3 Mr. Thomas reads the nama as Istufaaa and 
4?ua, and with regard to coins, Professor Rapson has aiated in the Jbum. Soy. As. 800. 1903, 
P. 289, note 3, that whenever the name is legible, the first akshara seems to 'be >o, and that the 
alternative form 1 ? 8u and $aw , given by Bhagvanlal and Cumiingham respectively, oannofc be 

1 J?j). !*, Vol. II. p. 199, No. 2. ^ioc, Vol. IX. pp. 148. 144. 


- .fttou 

ceitainly read on any of the specimens of the British Museum. Bat even if a re-ex** 30 i{ D! , 

should prove the readings oddsa and u$dsa to be correct, this would not iuvalidate tli^ *"** ,. 
of tbe present inscription. Everybody familiar with the records of this period knows 'b.o^' * i 
an anusviira is omitted in writing, and that on that account the reading oth<fdsa, even ^ , 
once only, carries more weight than the reading Soitilsa occurring ten times. In my 1 ' 1 
therefore Son^dsa mast be accepted as the general form of the name. 

Scarcely less interesting is the designation of the donor. Dowson and Canmngb* 11 ^ ,, 
gajavarena, and B iihler, Vienna Or. Jouni. Vol. V. p. I 1 ??, proposed to alter the nnintt^' 1 ^ 
syllables gaja into rajS, " during the reiga.' The new reading gamjavarJna shows that gaftj* 1 *' 1 *'' ' 
' treasurer,' which hitherto WAS known oaly from tlia Rutjataratiriirii V, 177 and Kshfim'' 11 * 
Ld'iapra,lcd'ia t was an official titla in India already ia much earlier times. As recogiti Bt -' 
Benfey, 1 gaftjavara is the Persian ganjivar, and the nse of this title is a new proof of tho trtf& n % 
Parthian influence that made itself felt in Northern India from the time of Asoku * 
beginning of the Gupta empire. 9 

The donor calls himself by his gotra name Segrava, which in correct Sanskrit wo- 1 * 1 * , 
Saigrava. According to the G-j.mp-Uha the Saigrava gotra is referred to by Panini in I f, ^' v '' 7 
and IV, 1, 10-i. I have also no doubt that Professor Kern is right in identifying Suiyrartf v ''* r 
Pdli Siggava? the name of the patriarch who conferred the upasainyadd ordination on the J/'' { ' at 
Tissa Moggalipntta.* 



PathSri in Long. 78 15' and Lat. 23 D 56', w the chief town of the Native State of the 
name in the BaopAl Agency of Central India." Its antiquitie.3 were first described, in 1848, by 
Captain J. D. Cunningham, in the Journal As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. XVII, Parti, p. 305 fE. Aft* i r 
fctoting that the locality of which he w treating includes two good-sized reservoirs or lo-kt'S, 
and that the present town of Path ft ri and the smaller lake are distinguished by a single pillar ml 
a solitary temple, Captain Cunningham. on page 310 proceeds thus : 'Near to the western e*iirJ 
of the smaller lake stands the wand or pillar, now called of Bheem Sen. It is composed of a 
single block abonfc 36 feet in height and 2| thick. The shaft is square in section for a height 
of 8 feefc, and it then becomes circular .... On one side of the square portion *. 
the shaft there ia a long inscription, much obliterated, and of which I failed to make even a tolc-r- 
able impression./ 

The pillar and its inscription were again noticed in 1880, by General Sir A. Cunningham, in 
his ArclicBol. Survey of India, Vol. X, p. 70, thus : ' Inside the town, on the top of the slop*-, 
there is a tall monolith with a bell-shaped capital. The shaft is circular, rising from a base S fc--t 

1 See tha St. Petersburg Xlictionary s. v. 

^ In the Jowrn. Soy. As. Soc. 1903, p. 289 ff., Professor Rapson lias described a coin that shows a (feueral 
similarity to those of So^^sa. With the exception of tlio first bliree aTcsharas the inscription is not quite certain. 
Prof essor Bapson reads j lra^man^[na ffo(?)dct rfl(?)-dA(P). no], Would it be too bold to conjecture fchafc 
Irdhmana mentioned here may have some coanection wibK the Irdhmana Saigraya, the ganjavara of Sondisa, 
that tlie reading niaat be altered accordingly ? 

1 CtescMedenit van het Sudd&isme in Indie, Vol. II. p. 266. 

4 See JXpan. 7, 5? j 69 3 etc. 

[The proofs of this and all subsequent papers by the late Professor Kieihoru Jbave ben, read by me. S, K.l 

1 Constable's Hand Atlas oflndi* Plate 27 D a. 


3 inches high and 2 feet 9 inches square. On the northern face there ia a long inscription of 38 
lines of small letters. It opens with an invocation to Lakshrai-rTarayana, 1 but the greater part 
of the record is BO much worn as to be quite illegible. Many of the letters here and there are in 
good order, and from, their shapes I would assign the monument to somewhere about A.D. 600. 
Close by this pillar there is a small temple, with Vishnu sitting on Gar ad over the door- way.' 

In October 1894i I received from Professor Hultzsch two impressions of the inscription, 
prepared by Mr. H. Cousens, Superintendent of the Archaeological Survey of India, Western 
Circle ; and an excellent photograph 3 of it, taken by tbe same gentleman, was given to me two or 
three years afterwards by Dr. Fleet. From these materials I have already published a short 
account of the contents of the inscription and the tentative text of nine verses of it, in the 
Naciiricliteu der K". (res. der Wissenschaften su Gottingen for 1901, Part I, p. 519 ff. A repeated 
examination of the same materials now enables me to place before the reader, with some confi- 
dence, Try far the greater part of this record, which, though troublesome to read, is not so illegible 
as it may have aeemed to be on the original stone. 

The inscription contains 38 lines of writing which covers a space of about 2 feet broad by 2 feet 
7 inches high. It has certainly suffered greatly from exposure to the weather, especially in the 
middle and at the end of the lines all the way down, and for nearly the whole length of the last 
seven, lines. But fortunately 3 all proper names of importance may be read with absolute certainty, 
at any rate all those that occur in lines 131 ; and the same remark applies to the date of the 
inscription at the end of line 31. The size of the letters is about f inch in tbe topmost lines, but 
less in tne lower part down to line 31, while it is somewhat larger agaiu in linoa 32 33, The 
inscription was written and engraved with great care and skill. The characters belong to the 
northern alphabet such as, speaking generally, we find it e.g. in the Grwalior inscription of the reign 
of Bb,6jadeva of the [Vikrama] year 933, published with a facsimile in ~Ep. Ind. Vol. I. p. 159 f, 
With, our present knowledge of Indian epigraphy, we should assign them at once to about the 9th 
century A.D. They include the rare sign for jh, which has not come ont well either in the 
impressions or in the photograph, in the word jhajiti towards the end of line ] 5. The language 
of the inscription is Sanskrit. The tsxt is remarkably correct, and in respecb of orthography 
th.e only points worth noticing here are that the sign for v is used for both v and 1}, and that tha 
"words atn'ea and dhvathsa are written ans-i and dhvansa, in lines 2 and 8. 

Tne inscription consists of two parts. The first (and chief) part comprises lines 131, 
tlxe second lines 3*2 38. This second part appears to be really a separate inscription, added by 
way of a postscript, which may record the installation of an image of Yishnu, but tbe exact pur- 
pose of which, owing to the damaged condition of lines 32 38, 1 have not been able to ascertain. 
"Wliat I may state with confidence is that, after the words 6m namah at the commencement of line 32 
tliere are five verses, two In the Sragdhara metre, one in the Vasantatilaka metre, one in. the Upajati 
metre, and the fifth perhaps in the same metre. So far as I can judge, the first and probably the 
second of these five verses contain some historical information, and it would therefore seem 
desirable to have a cast taken of this part of the inscription, which would enable one to decipher 
more of the text than I have succeeded in making out from the impressions and the photograph. 4 

"The firab verse of the inscription cominencoa with the words Iinkshmt-niramdhraplna; which were 
apparently misread as LaletTiml-Ndrdyana-. 

3 The aocorapa.Q;. ing facsimile has been prepared unler the superintendence of Prof. EDultzsch from Mr, 
Cotiseus* photograph. A facsimile of the impressions would have been quite useless. 

* Exposed as the pillar has been to all the effects of tbe Indian climate for more than a thousand yearn it 
seems wouderfnl that of these small letters, which wera not deeply eugraved, many should have been preserved so 
welL as we find them to be. 

I am sangnL.s enough to hope that it will indeed some day be possible to make out the names which are hidden 
now in tha second part of our inscription. It will then perhapi also be found that this part likewise euda with a 
date in the 9th century of the Vikrama era, of which in my opiaioa there are traces in the second half of liae 38. 



The first part (lines 1 31) also commences with 6m namah and ends with a date which 
will be given below. Between the two there are 32 verses, the text of more than two-thirds of . 
which may be given with perf ecfc certainty, while there is no doubt about tho general meaning 
of any of the rest. The verses form a prasasti., the main object of which is to record (in verses 
25 and 26) that the king Parabala of some Rashtrakuta family founded a temple of Sauri 
(Hari, Vishnu), before which he erected the Garuda-cvested pillar on which the inscription is 
engraved. The prasaisti opens with four verses which invoke the protection of, and glorify, the 
god Vishau, under the names of Muraii, Krishna and Hari. It then (in verses 5 7) relates 
that formerly there was a king Jej ja, under whom ' this Kashtrakuta vamsa ' was flourishing, 
and whose (unnamed) elder brother, after defeating thousands of Karnata soldiers with their 
arrays of elephants, obtained the LSta kingdom. Jejja's son was Karkaraja (v. 1JL), who put to 
flight 1 the' king M"agaval6ka and invaded his home (vv. 14 and 15). And Karkaraja's son was 
Parabala, represented as ruling the land when the inscription was composed (V. 18). The 
rest records that the pillar was actually set up by the king's chief minister, whose name is not 
clear in the impressions, and that the pradasti was composed by Harsba (v. 29) and engraved by 
the s&tradhara Sahila (v. 31), .while the la'st verse 32 contains the usual prayer that the ting's 
pious work and his fame may endure for ever. The date at the end of line 31 is samvat 917 
Chmttra-Sudi 6 SultrS, i.e. " Friday,' the 6th of the bright half of Chaitra of the year 917." In 
this date the. numeral figures for the year are particularly clear, and cannot be read in any other- 
way. The figure for 9 is the same as e.g. in line 6 of the De6gadh -pillar inscription of the time 
of Bh&jadeva of the [Vikrama] year 919 (Archceol. Surv. of India, Vol. X, Plate xxxiii. 2), and 
in line 22 of the Gurmha plate of Jayadityadeva II. of the [Vikrama] year 927 (Journ. As. Soc t 
Seng. Vol. LXX. Part I. Plate i). The date must of course be referred to the Vikrama era. It 
is one of the earliest dates of that era which admit of exact verification and corresponds 
regularly, for the expired KdrttiMM Vikrama year 917, to Friday, the 21 8t March A.D. 861, 
when the 6th Hthi of the bright half of Chaitra ended 16 h. 44 m. after mean sunrise. 

The prasasti will, I think, be admitted to contain some rather pretty verses. 8 Its author, ao 
far as I can judge, was well acquainted, amongst other poetical works, with Magha's <Sisu<pdla> 
vadha, and in the composition of at least one verse he undoubtedly drew his inspiration from that 
poem. 3 I refer to verse 16, which may be compared with Sis. XIX. 52. The former is : 

Sakalikrita-sarvdngd ndndbharanabliusliitdfy | 

dr-isyante ri'pavo yasya ndndbharanabhushitdh \ \ 

"With their limbs all cut to pieces (and thus) 4 decorated with manifold ornaments 
(Jubliarana), his enemies are seen to abide on various battle-fields (rana-bhu)." 
And M^gha's verse is : 

"Decorated with glorious ornaments (alamlarana) which consisted in the wounds inflicted 
by weapons, another looked like Kavana, though abiding on a battle-field (raa-6M) that was 
not connected with Lanka." 5 

1 The original apparently mentions the place where Nigjivalfika was put to fliyjit, but tie name of it cannot 
be read with confidence. See verse 14 and the tranilatioa-of it below. 

3 Compare e.g. verses 13, 15, 20 and 30. 

8 The praiasti somewhat pointedly ends with the word frimatt, which, hi the case of an author who had 
studied the fryanica maMlcdvya does not seem to me to be without significance. 

* Compare the following note. 

1 Malliuatha explain: aarvdAftrtairdnabh-dslanattiSna Havana 6v=dyam 


Here we not merely have, at the end of each half verse, the synonymous words dbharana- 
Uta and alamltaranalhushita, either of them similarly used in a double meaning, but we 
also find a form of the same verb (drisyante and Aa&riSS) in exactly the same position iu both 
Verses. At the same time the manner in which the verse of the gtiupdlavaAha commences, 
clearly shows how we ought to interpret the first half of Harsha'a verse : the ornaments with 
Vhich the enemies were decorated consisted in the wounds inflicted on them when t\eir limba 
"^ere cat to pieces. I am aware that what I have pointed out here is not of any great value 
**ow, because we have lately learnt from another inscription that Magha lived long before the 
**xiddle of the 9th century A.D. 

Among the contents of the pratasti there are three points of particular interest. The first 
obviously is, that the inscription is one the only one hitherto discovered of a Rashtraku$a 
king Parabala, for whom it furnishes a date in A.D. 861. The second point is, that Parabala's 
Bather Karkaraja defeated, and invaded the territory cf, a king Nagavaldlca. And ^to these 
may be added the. statement that an unnamed elder brother of Karkaraja's father J^jja, after 
Defeating certain- Karnatas, took possession of the Lata kingdom. 

As regards tae first point, we knew indaed from the very earliest Sanskrit inscription 
brought to the notice of European scholars the Mangir plate of Devapala 1 translated by Sir 
Charles WiLkrna in 1731 that the Pala king Dharmapala married ' Rangadevi, a daughter of 
the glorious Parabala, the ornament of ths Rashtrakuta family ;' but as the name Parabala 
could not be traced in any subsequent inscription, scholars conjectured that it was a Mruda, of 
one of the Rashtrakutas of Malkhei, perhaps of G&viadarija III. or Am&ghavarBha I., accord- 
ing to the notions which they had formed regarding the' time of Dharmapila. Now there 
cannot remain any reasonable doubt that the Rashbrakuta Parabala of our Pathfri inscription is 
identical with the Parabala of the Mungir plate, a daughter of whom was married by Dhar- 
taapala. But it does not follow that Dharmapala'a reign must therefore be taken to have com- 
menced so late as the middle of the 9bh century. Many Indian kings have had unusually long 
*eigns, and at present we know nothing about the length of Parabala's reign, while all that we 
know for certain in this respect regarding Dharmapala is that he reigned for at least 32 y%s. 
The zeal and activity displayed by the officials of the Archaeological Survey in the search foe 
epigraphical documents encourage us to hope that before long we shall be in possession of 
materials that will definitely fix both the exact time of Dharmapala's reign and the chronology 
of events generally which took place in Northern India during the 8fch and 9fch centuries. 

The king Nagavaldka 3 who was defeated by Parabala's father Karkar&ja seems to have 
been a ruler of some importance. I have no doubt that he is identical with that Sttg4val6ka who 
is mentioned in verse 13 of the Harsha inscription of Vigrahar&ja, 3 in terms which would imply 
iihat he was the overlord, and who certainly was a contemporary, of the Ghaham&na Guvaka I. 
of ifikatnbhari, whom in my Synchronistic Table for Northern India I have roughly placed at 
the commencement of the 9th century. There has lately been discovered a copper-plate inscrip- 
taon of a Cblhamana MaMidmcmtddMpati, which records a grant that was made at Bhrigu- 
kactchha in the increasing reign of victory of the glorious ITagavaldfca, and which apparently 
is dated in the [Tikrama] year 813 (corresponding to about A.D. 756),* I owe a photograph 
of it to the kindness of Mr. Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, but would wait for impressions-hefore 
expressing an opinion regarding its genuineness and value. 

1 See Jit. Xtt. VoL L p. 128, and Id. J.nt. Vol. XXI. p. 253. ... 

I need hardly point out thafthU name looks like the well-knovra liruda* ending in avaltka of oerUin 
E&ah-^ratiita kings (KhadgdvaWJea, VilcramdvaUlca, etc.), ' f . 

1 See abo*e Vol. IL p. 121, line 13 of the text, where the actual reading of the original i 

* ''' donation recorded in it van probably ma-le on the 28th OctoTier A.D. 766. 


Nor can I say anything definite at present regarding the conquest of the LSta kingdom by 
the elder brother of Parabola's grandfather J&jja. The known names of chiefa connected with 
Lata from about the middle of the 8th century and the available dates will be found above, 
Vol. VIII. App. II. p. 4. It mil be seen there that we have no date, and know little about 
Lata, between A.D. 757 and A.D. 812, which 13 just the period in which, judging from, the date 
of the present inscription, we should have to place Jejja and his elder brother. 

In the text which follows I have indicated by marks of interrogation all passages about 
which I am myself doubtful, and hare left Wanks where I coald have put in only a purely 
conjectural reading. Others may be able to supply what is wanting or to find the correct 
readings where I have failed to do so. I know that I bave shunned no trouble and may perhaps 
be permitted to say 

Harshena nunam rachita prasastir= 

vidhersvaad=ama-tale vilinS | 
prakait=eyam pramadSch=chhramSna 
satam mudam samtatam-atanfrta || 

TEXT. 1 

1 Om' namah || 3 Laksbmi-niramdbrapina[sta]nakalaa-la[sa]t-paHava - Vritra-s'atroa* 


2 shtanas"a-prachandah { d&rddandah 

h[i]mflransadeBa* Daityebha-8thulakumbha[stha]- 

3 ladalaua-d[ri]dhah pamtu vas=t& Murareh 

chakrav[aka]vimala-vy41[a]hat-4ve8htitah 6 karnn [ajl 


4 chchhe^4vadAta-chohhavih | satkarfctasvarakuta-nirggata iva snigdhendranil6pala- 

st&mbhah 8 skandhaga-padmairagayugalah KriBhn6=s^u 

5 vah reyas& || [2*] 9 Tribhuvanabhavana-stambh& nabhastalambh6dhi-sfcur=agBr 

dahansb^ 1 vra(bra)hmamdamamda(da)lamvn(bu)jadanda-ruchir=jjayati 10 Ha- 

6 ri-chara'nah ||[3*J ^Ahimakaraohakra-kuvalayavilasatkamal-alayah sa-dana[vaka]yab [ 

jalanidhir=iva Earir=avatafc=purana-purush6=pi yah sadi nava-k&- 

7 yaij 13 1 1 [4*] 18 Baj=asid=varachafckraladachhita-kar& lakshmf-sanathah pu.v& driptftri- 

prava(ba)ladviBhat-pramathana5=ch^a[dha]ra-bhut6 bhuvah | v^(ba)hftda8t- 

mahidharo [nara]- 

8 ka-hJl tumgadvipadhvansakpt= 1 *K^anigarati-sara&=py=akrishnatanubhrich=chhri-Jfi]*^ 

aryyaih stu[ta]h II[5*] 15 [Ra]mya-prasutir=achchhidras=tarijga^ 

prithur=akamtakah | gri-Baslitra[kfi]- 

9 |a-vam6=yam samtiddhft yattra bhiibhriti H[6*] w Jitv& [vikata]karighat3* 

pra[bhuta]ra-Karnijatabhftta8aha8rS[ni] [ [prifchu?] Ii|;ft]^-akhyam rashfcrarii 
lavdham(bdham) ya8y=figrajen=ajau ||[7*] ^[Vana]- 

1 Prom impressioni and a photogrpb snoplied bj Mr. Cousens. J Denoted by a symbol. 

Metre: Sragdhara. * Bead tf4ihtadgfd. '.Metre: Sard 

Compare drngiv&tha-phanikancJmlba-, above Vol. II. p. 4, v. 22. 
T Originally -kundal6 teeaa to Lave been engraved. 

8 Compare SUwpdlavadha III 11. Metre : Arya. 

Originally -rwcA4r= was engraved. Compare above Vol. I. p. 40, verse 2 : vra^ 

Metre: ArySglfcL 

Compare 8i/updlavad&a ziv. 70 ; avant MA4 yaik purdna-purtuham prachalcsTiaii. 

Metre : ^4rdAl*vikr!dita. M Bead <*4eaA*j*r=. Metre : Sldka (Amuhtabh). 

Metre i Irya. 17 Metre: Malini. 


10 mahisham=asahyam vajin6 161a-nttr& madagalita-kapdlft dantiaah 

ngram | []valitapavana ?]-kirnna vairi-virah Kritlmtam raua-irasi yam=kaih 
menire naika-[rupam. ||] [8*] 

11 1 Eko=p-itas=tatah kurvvann=arati-[lra]lam=akulam | charuch.amikar-6pe[t6 n]il a " 

rupam vi(bi)bb.a[i-tti] yah ||[9*] 2 [Prapt-&ch.chbjaya ?] *~, ^ ^ ^ ^ 
prakampri[n]=nmkt-ali[bh]ih. svanmbima-pratipadanaya | [d^s? ?]nfca[rany=tt]- 

12 pa.sati vikala dilasu. yagya db.vaj& isra sada ripi[v6] bhramanti ||[10*] 

Ta8y=atma]o ripuva(ba)l-[a]nia \s w fc s sri-Karkkaraja iti 
samyati lavdha(bdha)-ldi'ttih. | P [arth-agran ?]i- 

13 r=iva Ya(ba)bb.uva 4 nirasta-galy6 duh^sanariva(ba)la-5asana 

[11*] 5 Vi[bsMpta?]-[>ai?]ri- ....... w ^ na 

ranarbbhSdlii-matliaiie 6 Mandarayitam H[12*] 7 YidtYasta[vai]r 

14 riva[nifca]-nayaiiapranali-aain8akta-kaj]alayiita8raiftla-pva[Tahai]b. | 

cliandramaTicbi-[hari epMtam] va(ba)bb.uva [nann] yasya yal6=tichittrarii 
8 D orvrararati-iDaUadvi [rada] - 

15 ghanaghatatdpasariigliatta-chande samgramS [L.rislita-y6]dIiS [tam]gaklmrarajaS- 

[valga ?]t-palidlivaj[alaii] kah.atacndhi[raga]ritprajya- 
chakrfi Nagavalokaih {jha]titi v>> 9 

16 lav[a]ne 10 yah paravritta-miirttirii ll[14*] n Darvvaravairivaravacana- 

kumb'h.a[!iiakta]-muktaphalapra[kara]-nirnimaladaTafcamal^ j 
[v6^ma]ni viprakirnn^ yasy=6ddhata,m prahasat=iva kripana-p[ali] 

17 ls Sakalikrita-sarvvanga nanabharanabhtlshifcah | dri^yante ripav6 yaaya 

nanabharapabb-iishitah. [16*] 13 ra3y=6fcpalachch.havi[ma]8'b.a B[v]ajal-6anat^Qa 14 
khadg&na tumgatara-bhii[miblirl]- 

18 [tarn gi]rassu | db.iranipata-ian.itair*3yijam. 15 pravahair=ynd(lh.ft 

mahapralaya[kala ?]ghana-[pra,titih ? 16 ] ||[17*] "Abimakara iv=adya tyafcfca- 
d6sb.anushamg6 Mmakara i^a ja[ta]h, 

19 gtiddha-mfi.rttlh kalavau | parava(ba,)ladalau-ftgr6=nagra-chakshuh pratapt 

Parava(ba)la iti puttras=tasya [aast]=ih.a bta[mim] 1 1 [18*] 

18 [Tyaktva?]mayam=adambha3=clia Bakfca-karfctasrar&h sad! [ 

I Metre: S16ta (Anusbtutti). 

* Hetre of verses 10 and 11 : Vasantatilati. 

* The original possibly has ldnt,a,Tca tva m&rttah. 

* Originally vtbhdvn or vdbhiloa was engraved. 

* Metre : S16ka ( Auushtabh). I am unable to restore tne first half of this versa with any confidence, bat the 

probably is tbt the king's hand in battle took away fortune from hia adversary. Compare Gupta 
' Inter, p. 203, 1. 7- 

* Originally ra^dmbMndhi' was enjfr&ved. 

* * Metre : Vasantatilaka. Compare ifa$dlavadha XV. 90. 
6 Metre: Sragdhara. 

' The okshard which is missing here I am unable to restore with confidence. 
10 Of theie three akgh&ras the first and the last uaem to be^ certain, and the second is either va or vu. 

II Metre: Vaiantatilakl. u Metre: S16ka (Anushtubh). See above, p. 250. 
" Metre: Yasantatilaki. 

14 The water o'C the sword-blade (asidfidrd-jcda, JeHadffadh<ird-payat t TeJKtdffadhdrdmb'hai) is oftea gpokea 
of by poets; compare e.g. AlcdvaU, pp. 64 and 168, and above Vol. TL p. 307, v. 21. 

14 The plnrnl of ai^ij is similarly used in SMupdlavatHa xvii, 65 (curinjf). 

14 I have little doubt that this is the correct reading; ; in the original a medial * was originally engmveiJ 
before the alcsTiara which I read as $ra, but it hai clearly been struck, out. 

" MefepB: Malini. l8 Metre : SI6k (Anuahtubh). 

18 This word, being repeated at the commencement of the next line, is superfluous here, Sriftola U used to. 
the double wnBe of ' the fruit of hU prosperity ' and ' BUva fruit,' 


(V. IS.) Now Iiis son Parabala rules here the land, he who ha3 discarded addiction to sin 
and is therefoie like the sun which has severed its connection with, the night; who is born of 
pure body and is versed ia all arts, and is therefore like the moon when she has risen with a 
bright form and Avith all her digits; who, terrible in cutting up the forces of adversaries, is 
geiitlti-lookiug, and full of prowess. 

(V. 24.) At the head of battle the fortune of royalty her garland of pearls covered with 
the blood streaming from the temples of elephauts that were split Tby the round-pointed shafts 
of her strowg bow drawn with a twang 1 of the string, and with rows of arrows resting on her 
creeper-like arms conquered for him pdlidlivajit, banners. 

(V. 25.) He caused to be built this temple of Sauri, 1 resembling the peak of the 
mountain of snow, the white flag on the bright top of which beara the lustre of the river of 
the gods. 

(V. 20.) And like the pillar which, was formerly (erected ?) on the mountain of 
Ganidadhvaja(?), 3 exactly so was this large Garnda-bannered pillar caused to be erected by that 
kisg before (the temple of) Hari. 1 

("V. 27.) Repeatedly deliberating whether this is Vishnu's foot making three strides, or the 
body of Sthanu 3 shaped like a post, or (the serpent) S6sha pnllod out of a hole in the ground 
by the enemy o the serpent-king, 4 the gods on viewing it find out that it is a pillar of pure 
stone proclaiming the fame of king Parabala. 

(V. 28.) His prime minister was [Ksh ?]i . . ., administrator of all laws, bright like 
gold and true o speech, to be saluted with (bowing of j the head by king Parabala. He set up 
before (the temple of) the destroyer 5 of Madhu this Garuda-marked pillar, which with it3 
stone arm raised aloft defies all ages a pillar of him who has paralyzed his foes. 6 

(Line 31.) The year 917, Friday, the 6th of the bright half of Chaitra. 

The Chalukya-Vikrama year Forty-Two. 


On a hillock to the south of Hanumkoada 7 (Anmakonda) near Warangal in the 
Nizam'a State, stands the small temple of Padmakshi which, unlike other buildings 
attributable to the K&katlya period, 8 is devoid of any architectural pretensions. The 
rock close to which, the temple stands, hears on a portion of its dressed surface, sculptures of 

1 I.e. Tishnu. 

* I mn not sure about the meaning of these worcU, the text of which is doubtful iu the origiual. Qantda- 
dhvajddri might ba equivalent to Krishnagiri* 

' Z,e.Siva. 

* These words clearly indicate that there was a figure of Garuda on the top of the pillar. 
1 I.e. Vishnu. 

6 In ray opinion, this might refer either to the ting or to the god Vishnu. 

' This i the form given in Mr. Cousens* Lists of Antiquarian Remains in 3. S. the Nizam's Territorin, 
p. 46. 

b The thousand-pillared temple in the middle of the village of Anmakonda was built by Pr61a's son Rndra in 
or about A.D. 1162-63 (Ind. Ant. Vol, XI. p. 9 f.) and contains some excellently sculptured door-posta. The four 
gate-ways which now stand in the open air at Warangal might have belonged to the palace of the KSkatiya kings at 
that place (Annual Heport on Epigraphy for 1901-2, p. 4). Mr. Cousens, howtrer, thinks that the gatewayi 
must hare belonged to a great temple in the centre of Warangal (Lists of Antiquarian Semoint in S. JET. the 


gome Jaina images seated in a row. In front of the temple is an inscribed quadrangular pillar 
of black granite bearing in relief within a countersunk square, at the top of each of its four 
faces, the figure of a squatting Jaina ascetic with his arms folded over his lap crosswise. On 
the east face of the pillar this figure is flanked by a cow and calf on one side and a dagger 
and shield (?) on the other. The north face of the pillar bears representations of the sun 
and moon on the right and left side.3, respectively, of the squatting Jaina figure. From these 
sculptures and from the inscription on the pillar, which is published below, it appears that 
the Padrnakshi temple was originally dedicated to the Jaina 1 goddess Kadalalaya and that the 
pillar was set up there by the lady who built the lasadi (Jaina temple). At present the 
Brahnaanas of Amnakonda, who have somehow got possession of the temple, worship the goddees 
ia it under the name Padmakshi, which they belieye to be synonymous with Durga. 2 It is not 
clear how or when'the ownership of the temple passed from the Jainas to the Brahmanas, 

Anmakonda, or, as it is called in the subjoined inscription, Anmakunda (1. 16) or 
Armmkunde (1. 75), was originally the capital of the Kakatiya kings and was situated in the 
Andhra country. 3 The neighbouring town of Warangal ( Orumgallu in Telugu or EkasilSnagara 
in Sanskrit) became the seat of government about the end of G-anapati's reign and continued 
as such until the collapse of the Kakatiya family? Anmakonda and Warangal are now stations 

Nizam's Territories, p. 47). The temples near the Eamappa Lake in the "Warangal district arc (Hid, p. 49) of 
the same type as the great temple at Hanuuikonda, but more profusely sculptured. The principal temple of this 
group appears to have been built ia A. D. 1213-14 hy Budra of Recharla, who -was a dependant of the Kakatiya 
king Ganapati. The village Uparpalle iu the Yelgaudal district, is also reported to contain some rained temples 
attributable to the Kakatiya period (ibid. p. 74). The mmdna of the TripuranfcakSSvara temple at Tripurantakam 
in the Kurnool district wag constructed in A.D. 1254-55 under the orders of the Kakatiya king Ganapati 
(Epigraphical collection for 1905, No. 169.) The Padmakshf temple at Anmakonda is the earliest known struc- 
tural monument of the Kakatiya period and. this may account for its being plain aud davoid of the display of 
art which is quite characteristic of the later structures of the dynasty. 

1 Jaina remains are mostly to be seen in the western portion of the Nizam's Dominions, which borders on the 
Bombay Presideucy. Anmakonda is almost on the eastern border ; see the mop accompanying Mr. Cousemj' Lists 
of Antiquarian Remains in H, S. the Nizam's Territories. 

2 Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1901-2, paragraph 7. The goddess Padniakahi to whom the temple is 
dedicated must be one of the twenty-four Sdsana&eds of the Jaina mythology. Ambl or Ambika, the Sdsana- 
divi of tlie 22nd Tli-tliankara Nemiultha, is supposed to be a form of Durga. Padmavatt was the SdsanadM of 
Parsvaiiatha (Dr. Burgess' Archaol. Surv. of Western India, Vol. V. p. 45 f. aud p. 46, note 2). It might, 
therefore, be supposed that the goddess consecrated by Mailama in the lasadi at AnmakondK. was either AmbikA or 
Padmavatt called, in Kanarese, Kadalalaya, the meaning of which I have not been able to trace. 

8 Above, Vol. Ill,, p. 82, and footnote 4. 

* The Ganapeivararn inscription of the time of Ganapati states (T. 9) that Rudra, BOH of JPrflla, destroyed 

miuy towns and founded quarters named after these towns in the city of Orumgallu and peopled them with their 

respective inhabitants; while in the devastated towns he builfc celebrated temples of Rudre^vara and settled /reah 

inhabitants. If bhere be any truth in this statement, it may be inferred that Waran gal, which was already in 

existence as an importinb city (see 1. 95 of the subjoinel inscription also), ros greatly improved by Budra. 

Becharla Eudra, a general of Ganapati (see above, p. 256, note 8) is said to have put to flight king Nagnti 

anl founded the temple of Rudr&vara at the city 06 Orugallu (Warangal) perhaps after his own name. 

Cruihgallu or Oi'ugillu, which was thus improved by the Kakattya, king Rudra, appears to have occupied only a 

subordinate position in tlie time of Pr&la, Budra and Ganipati, while Anmakonda was the capital. No. 273 

o the' Epigraphical collection foi- 1903-06 which bdoag* to the time of Eudra and it dated in Saka-Samvat 

1107, VLSvivasu (= A.D. 1185-86) states that the maTtdman&al&Svcira, Zakatiya Budrad&va.-Maharaja was " the 

lord of AuuQiakoada, the best of towns." Noa. 195 aud 223 of the same collection belong to Ganapati and are 

both dated in Saka-Samvat 1174, Paridha.vin (= A. B. 1252-53). The former refers to Gnnapifci as "the lord of 

Auamtioada, the best of to.vns." In Saka-Samvat 1175 Ganapati still called himself the lord o Auumakonda 

(Mr. Bufctarworth's Nellore Inscriptions, 0. 28). Bat No. 231 of the Epigraphical collection for 1905, 

dated iu Saka-Sarhvat 1176, Anaada, distinctly s-^at-ei that Gan-ipati was ruling wibh Orugallu aa his capital. 

Whether his successor Ruiramade'vi (or, as shs is called in inscriptions, Rudrad&V4-Maaaraja) reigned from the 

newly established capita Warangal or not, it is difficult to say. Her siocjssor Prataparadra tulel over almM* 

the whole of the Teln.?u country aad portioas eveu of the Ta 'nil country from h's throne at 6rurhgalla. He 

is gentrallj known us Orunganti Prataparudrai&va, i.e. Prataparudradeva of Oruringalla. 


on tlie Hyderabad-Bezvada section of the Nizam's State Railway and seem to have been included 
about the beginning of the twelfth century A.D. in the district of Sabbi-sayira 'the Sabbi o0 
thousand,' which formed part of the Western Chalukya empire, and to have been conferred by 
Tribhuvanamalla-Vikraniaditya VI. on his feudatory the Kakatiya chief Tribhuvanamalla* 
BSta. 1 Sabbi-sayira is not mentioned in other published records and, consequently, its extent 
cannot be denned until more lithic records from that part of the iuzam's Dominions a? c 
published. 8 

The subjoined inscription 3 engraved on the four faces of the pillar above referred to, is 
written in bold and clear Kanarese characters of the twelfth century A.D. The written surface 
measures roughly in breadth 1' 3" on the east and west faces and 1' 2|'' on the north and 
south faces, while in height it is 3' 6", 3' 5|", 3' 7", and 3 y 3|" respectively, on the 
east, north, "west and soutU faces. The sculptures -which the four faces of the pillar bear 
have been noted already. Verse 1, which contains the invocation, and the imprecatory verses 
(11 and 12) are in the Sanskrit language. Lines 89 to 91 contain an incomplete Sanskrit 
verse which is evidently meant to be a quotation. The rest of the inscription is in 
Kanarese prose (11. 6 to 24, 70 to 88, 91 to 99, and 111 and 112) and poetry (verses 2 to 10). 
The writing calls for very few remarks. The anusvdra is sometimes, as in ancient records, 
written at the top of the right side of the letter (11. 1, 3, and 4), and sometimes, as at present, 
written on the right side of the letter (11. 86, 98, 100 and 102). The virdina occurs once in I. 62 
where it is marked by a wavy vertical line added to the top of the letter. The e-sign, wliioh ia 
almost similar in form to the virdma, is also attached to the top of the letter, but is horizontal, 
In 11. 40 and 55, however, the e of de in the word perggade and ^ of y in the word Jiridayesvari, 
are marked differently by a curved line attached to the left bottom corner of the letter and 
drawn horizontally to its right. In other cases this sign along with the e-sign first described, 
marks the cci-sign. An attempt is made to distinguish the long 2 from the short i but 
it is not throughout kept up. Among consonants it may be noted, that the length of the 
horizontal stroke in the middle, which in the case of pa ought to be shorter than in 
that of sha, ia in some instances lengthened so far as to make pa look almost like sha. The 
forms krimd? for foama? in 1. 20 and yejna for yajna? in 1. 103 are due to the peculiarities 
of 'Kanarese pronunciation. 

The record begins with an invocation addressed to the feet of Jindndra (v. 1) and refers 
in 11. 6 to ^ to the reign of the maMrdjadhirdja, paran^vara and par amabTialtdrakO', the 
[Western] Chalukya king TribhuvanamalladSva [Vikramaditya VI.] and his feudatory the 
ma~hdman,^alesvara Kakati Beta (1. 19), who had acquired the five great sounds (pancTiamaJid- 
fatda) and who was 'the lord of Anmakunda (1. 16), the best of towns.' The hereditary 
minister of Kakati Betarasa (1. 30) was the dandddhindtha Vaija (v. 2). Verso 3 states 
that Vaija brought his master the manda^ika IQkati Beta (11. 32 and 37) to the feet of the 
Cb.aj.ukya (1. 33) emperor 4 (chakriii) (vis. Vikramaditya VI.) and made him rule the district of 

1 See verse 8 below. 

8 Sebbi or Chliebbi thirty, a small district over which the Western Gaiga Mng Pafichaladcva was rnling in 
A.D. 971, and which took its aame from the village of Clmbbi or Chhabbi in the Hubli talukaof fcha Dharwai 
district (Dr. Fleet's Kanareso Dynasties, p. 307) seems to be different from the Sabbi-sAyirn district which 
was ruled btbe Kakatiya chief B&ta. 

8 JSto. 106 of the Epigraphlcal collection for 1902. Mr. Cousens refers to this as No. 4 of the inscriptions at 
Hanuwtondi and Warangal (Lists of Antiquarian Remains in -5T. &. the Nizam's Territories^ p. 48), 

* In footnote 7 OIL p. 91 of Vol. VI. above, Professor Liiders questions the propriety of the title olakfin 
(diatcravartin) as applied to Vikramiditya VI, in an inscription at Sravana-Belgola, dated in Saka-Samvat 
ICWl. He presumes that the title cJiakrin is based on the analogy of the epithets tarvajuac'ha'kravartin, 
pratdpacJiakravartin and didluTcyadiaTcraoartin assumed respectively by three of Vikramaditya's succesiors, 
tiie. S6mSvara III., Jagadfikflmalln II. and Taila III, The title Chalutya-ofiakrin applied to Vikrama- 
ditya VI. in the snb joined inscription leaves no doubt that this imperial biruda originated with him j 


Sabbi-sayira (1. 34 f.) as a feudatory of that monarch. According to verges $$,nd. 5 Vaija's son 
by Yakamabbe (1. 38 f .) was the pergade Beta, who became the minister of Kakati Prdla 
(1.43). The only act of this Beta which tbe inscription records, is tha.t he constructed ten 
houses for gods (i.e. temples) in his native village (v. 5). The 'Wif e of this loinister Be"ta-*~ 
the son of Yakamambika (1. 53 f.) was Mailama (TV. 6, 7 and 8). Lines 70 to 87 state that 
ahe built the Kadalalaya-basacii on the top of tbe bill (v. yj aad that in the Cb&lukya- 
Vikrama (1. 76) year forty-two, \phioh corresponded 'to the cyclic yftar Hemalambi, on 
tbe occasion of the Uttarayana-sarhkranti, which fell on Monday, therlSth (Jay pf 
the dark half of Paushya, while the king Kakatiya Pol.alarasa.(l. 73), son of the inandalikQ 
Tribhuvanamalla (1. 72) was rTTHrfg^_at - Ammakunde (1. 75), -she gave for the beue&t of 
that temple six tnattar (1. 86) of land balow the tank built and named after hecself, by 
her husband Betana-pergra^e (1. 81 ). 1 The pillar that bears the inscription was also set up 
by Mailama on the same occasion (1. 87). Lines 88 to 99 ^register a gift of ten maiar, - (.l.J?8-f.) 
jifJLand to the same temple by the mahdmandalesvara Melarasa^ of TJgravadi (11. 92to 94), 
a mejnber of thejamily of Madha[Ya3yarma.p. (I. 91) c (who possessed a fabuToli^army) of eight 
thoTisand elephants, tn^^^e^TEOT3eliandnumberles8 foot-soldiers.' _The land w,hich Melarasa 
granted was situated below the Kue^ke^e_tank jl _^.wh Jbolonged to Orojogallu (lT~5J~. Taia 
town was under the~contFol of Mejarasa at the time of the grant. Lines 111 to 112 record the 
assignment of &pdga (haga) coin to the temple sweeper Boya-Padda, to be paid, apparently from 
the proceeds of either of the two grants mentioned above. ~* * 

The late Professor Kielhorn kindly contributed the following remarks pn the date of the 
inscription: " Ch. Y. 42= S. 1039 exp.= H^malamba. The date regularly corresponds to 
Monday, the 24tb. December A.D. 1117. On this day the Uttapayaua-sainkranti took place 14 h. 
55 m. after mean sunrise, daring the 15th tithi of the dark half of Pauaha, which commenced 
h. 38 m. after mean sunrise, and ended h. 13 m. before, mean sunrise ,o.f the following day." 

Seven inscriptions of the Kakatiya dynasty bave been published so .'far. 2 The earliest of 
these belongs to the time of Budra, 3 five to that of .Qa^apati, 4 and one to-thafc -of ;Pffata&flru.djea. 
The first of these and the Kanohl inscription of G-anApati 5 supplement one another in -supplying 
the full name of the first historical person of the Kakatijra dynasty,-*^. TribhnYWja.mlfo ..Bejfcma. 
The Chelbrolu record of Q-anapati 6 and the subjoined inscription give, instead of Befcma, the 'form. 
Beta. The former of these two records and the unpublished Pakhal inscription of about the 
time of Ganapati 7 mention a certain Dur j aya 'in 'the Kakatiya -ancestry-r-the one, as the 
father of Beta and the other as the father of Pr&la. The Pakhal inscription further states that 

chafcrin is also rued in the geuse of 'provincial chief ;' above, Vol. IY., p. 96. 

1 This fcaak ia, porhnps, to be identified with the one at the foot of the. hillock on. which the Psdma.^! 
temple is BJtoated. 

2 NOB. 684 to 589 and No. 1066 of Appendix to Vol. VII. above. 

s This is his Aum&feo^a inscription of Saka-Saifavat 1084, publisheji in Indian Antiquary , Vol. Xt. pp. 9 ft. 
An unpublished record at Tripurantakam ia the Knruool district (No. 273 of the Bpigi^phicftl collection for 
1905) g^ves for him the data Sata-Samv.at llOT". The initial date of the next kjng: Qanapatl beta? now fixed at 
8a.ka-Sa.mvat 1121 (dLntHtal Report on Epigrafhy for 1905-06, "Part XI., paraeraph 43) it follows.that Radra must 
bave ruled from at least Saka 1084 to 1121. However, jthe events recorded in the Amnali.onda inscription of 
Budra presume a much earlier date for his accession ^than Saka 1084. 

-* These sange in date between Saka 1135 aad Saka 1172. The earliest inscription o* Ganapati found at 
TripurS-ntakam is dated in Saka-Samvat 1181 which was probably his 10th year. J3e must have been riling the' 
country roawi Bvfi,d& already in Sata 1125 ; see below, p. 262, note 2. 

Ind. Ant. Vol. XXI. p. 197 ff. ' Above, Vol. V. p, 142'ff. 

f ~Ko. 82 of the Epigraphical collection for 1902-03. ThiB'is not dated, but TffooT.dB the confltmotion <if the 
(Pstkhal) tajxk by Jagadala-Mnmnxadi, eon .of Bayyana-Nayaka*a miniflter of the Kakattya lt!ng Oanpati. One ia 
tempted to connect Jagdalpur, the capital of the Eastar State "vtlie Oential Provinces, with the chief JuKBd&la- 
.Jtummadi. Tlie tradition that the kings of Bastar trace their deaceat from the K(ftatAya king -Pratlpanidra 
(above, p. 164 f.) lends further support to the chief's cqnneotum with Jagdalpor.- 



Karikfi.la-Cb.61a of the solar race was one of the predecessors of Durjaya. The KaficM epigraph 
quoted above, -which, also traces the IQkatiyas, as the Chebr&lu and the P&kMl inscription^ 
do, to the Sun, Mann, Ikshraku, and other mythical kings of the Eaghn family, does not give 
the names of either Karikala-Ch&la or of Durjaya. The appearance of these two names i 
the Kakatiya genealogy is at present difficult to explain satisfactorily. But two facts whict 
may he of some use in this connection have to he registered before passing on to the historical 
portion of the genealogy. As regards the mention of the mythical king Karikala-Chola an 
an ancestor of the Kakatiyas, attention may be drawn to the fact that the TeLugu-Chodas -who 
invariably claim connection with this mythical Chola king, became feudatories of the Eakatiyafl 
"in the time of Granapati. 1 With regard to Durjaya, the name occurs among the ancestors of 
two of the contemporary local families of the Telugu country. 2 The first historical arcestor of 
the Kakatiya family was Tribhnvanaraalla-Beta. He appears to have been a powerful chief who 
held sway over some portions of the Andhra country before he became a feudatory of the 
"Western Chajukyas and the governor of the Sabbi one thousand district. The surname 
Tribhuvanamalla which occurs here as well aa in the KancM and Anmakonda inscriptions, was 
probably borrowed from his overlord Tribhuvanamalla Yikramaditya VI. 

Beta's son, and successor was Prola, Proleraja, Prodaraja or Polalarasa, whose surname 
JagatikSsarin is known to us from the Kanchi inscription of his grandson Ganapati. The 
importance of the subjoined epigraph consists in its being the earliest KSkatlya record 
and the only one of Prola found so far. Like his father Beta, Prola appears to hava 
continued as a fendatory of Vikramaditya VI. 3 The Anmakonda inscription of his son 4 
Budra and the GranapeSvaram record of his grandson Ganapati, mention in detail the 
military exploits of Prola. These have been fully discussed by Dr. Pleet and Professor 
Hultzsch. 5 One of the opponents of Prola was Tailapadeva called " the crest-jewel of the 
Ohalukyas " in the Aumakonda inscription. Dr, Fleet has identified him with the Western 
Chalukya, king Taila HI, (A..D. 1150-51 to 1162-63). This implies a pretty long reign 
for Pr&la from at least the Chalukya- Vikrama year 42 (= A.D. 1117), the date of the 
present record, to at least A.D. 1150-51, the first year of Taila III., unless we suppose that Prola 
fought with Taila while the latter was yet a prince. 6 That Eudra, son of Prola, successfully 
averted a usurpation of the Chalukya throne after the death of Taila III., by a certain Bhlma 

1 See Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1899-1900, p. 18, Genealogical Table of the Ch6das of the Telugu 
country, remarks under 6pilisiddhi II and paragraph 53. 

2 The Kondapadmati chief Bnddharaja and the mahdmandalfavara Nambaya two petty chieftains of the 
Telngu counbiv on the southern side of the Krishaa river -bore the surname ' the lion of the mountain the 
Dnrjaya family ' (above, Vol. VI. p, 268 and footnote 6, anil p. 269). We know from Tehigu records that a family 
of chiefs known by the name Chagi was contemporaneous with the Kondapsdraatis. Nos. 253 and 27^. of the 
Epigraphical collection for 1897 give two or three names in the ancestry of this faunljMuul ea]l it the Dnrjaya-kula 
born from the feet of Vishnu. No. 255 of the same collection, which is dated in Saka-Sarhvat 1148 and which 
belongs to the time of CLagi G-anapaya-Maharaja who was probably a member of this Chagi Durjaya-kula, quotes 
a verse at the beginning in praise of the king which is almost identical with verse 7 of the Yenamadala inscription 
describing the Kakatiya king Gnnapati (above, Vol. III. p. 97 f., text 11. 31 to 3H). Unfortunately the 
inscription is seriously damned; otherwise, it might, perhaps, have been possible to prove ihut the local chiefs of 
the ChSgi Durjayii-kuU wt-r- b.'rrowiuir from the royal Kakattya family of Warangal not only names, but sjiue- 
times even the description of the members of its family. 

3 This may be inferred from the use of the Chalukya- Vikrama era in the dnle portion of tbe subjoined 

* The Pakhal inscription referred to above, states that Eudra was lorn in the family of Prflla, which is quite 
against the testimony of other Kakatiya inscriptions. 

5 lyd. Ant. Vol. XL p. 10 and above, Vol. III. p. 83. 

8 The second alternative seems to be the more probable one, for Pr61a is actually stated to hare cartured Tailn 
in battle and to have released him out of 'loyalty and love' (ITtaTcty-dnurdtjdt). This may imply tha existence 
of a sovereign on the Chaltikya throne different from TaiJa. Cbdlulcya-cMddmtini seems to have boon a title 
of Western CliajukyB princes who, before succeeding to the throne, generally served as governors of provinces. 


capital was at Vardhamananagarl, 1 shows the extent of the power wielded by this feuda- 
^ the last days of the Chalukyas. Pr&la's other enemies referred to in the Anma- 
inscription were Jagaddeva, G-ovinda (or G-ovindadande'sa, as he is called in the 
p6svaram inscription), Gkmda and Udaya or Chddodaya. Jagadde"va has been identified 
Tribhuvanamalla Jagadd6va, the Santara chief of Patti-Pombuehchapura, who was a 
atory, first of Tribhnvanamalla Vikramaditya VI, and then of his grandson JagadSkamalla 
He must have " stool eacompassing the city of Anumakoada " on behalf of the Chalukya 
roL' in order to avenge himself upon Prola, who, it may be supposed, was trying to throw 
Hi s allegiance to the Chalukyas. It was, probably, as the first step in this direction, that 
inflicted the defeat on prince Taila III. as stated above. Indeed, Prola appears to have 
ex 'fcen<3ed his military operations into the modern Kistna district as well. For, the next opponent 
of hi B -^g Go^da, the lord of the city of Mantbena or Mautrakuta which is probably identical 
-the village of Mantena 2 in the Nuzvid Zammdari of the Godavari district. Gdvinda or 
'sa, I would identify with the G6vin.daraja of the Ablur inscriptions, 3 who was the 
^v of Anantapala, the general -of Vikramaditya VI. and with the dandandyaJea G6vindarasa, 
in the Chalukya-Vikrama year 51, corresponding to A.D. 1126-27 was ruling the Kondapajli 
three hundred district according to an unpublished inscription at Tripurantakam. 4 Here we are 
told, that this dandandyaka Govindarasa " burnt Bengipura (VSngi ?) " and conquered Gonka. 5 
This. Gonka is apparently identical with the Velanandu chief Gonka II., father of Raje'ndra- 
OtLodLa. 6 Udaya or Oh&d6daya, whom Prola first defeated and then reinstated in his dominions, 
is according to Professor Hultzsoh perhaps " to be connected with Kul6ttunga-Ch6d.a-Gon.ka 

Vira. ISfolamba PalUva Permanndi Jayasinghadeva, younger brother of Tnbhuvanatnalla- Vikramaditya VI, had 
oticli a biruda. Perhaps Taila's defeat by Pr61a took place while the former was yet a prince, somewhere in 
the latter part of the reign of Jagadekamalla II. 

1 2nd. Ant. Vol. XL p. 11. Vardhiimananagari is said to have been burnt by Rudra after marching ( a few 
steps * from his capital Aamakonda. Dr. Fleet suggests, nccordingly, thitt it should be looked for somewhere in the 
IS iza-na*s dominions not far from Atiraakcmd*. There are two places with either of which Vardhamjinanagnri may 
"be Identified. Oue is V.irdhAtmpet, about 20 milas south-west of Anrmtknnd* and the other is Waddamarri, about 
BO miles south-west of Anvnakonda in the direction of Kalyana. A lator chief of Vardhamananagari is mentioned 
In an inscription engraved o the fort wall t Raichur, as a feudatory of Prataparudra. The record is dated in 
A.D. 1294 which is the earliest date for PwtLpurudr* derived from inscriptions (Annual Report on Epigraphy 
for 1905-00, Part II., paragraph -14). I quote this from a brief note on the -inscription made by the Officer 
In charge of Archaeological Besearches in Mysore in his Annual Keport for the year ending 30th June 1907, 
paragraph 56. 

3 There is a place called ManUm in the Yelgandal district of the Nizam's State which is about 60 miles north 
of A-nmakonda. 

Above,' Vol. V. p. 213 ff. 

* No. 258 of the Epigraphical collection for 1905. 

6 Annual Report on Epigraphy for 1905-06, paragraph 40. 

* Above, Vol. IV. p. 35. On p. 38 of the same volume, Professor Hultzsch refers to the Mradu GhdluJcya- 
r&jyct.-'bhava.na-milastamltTia of Gonka IT. and states that he was a tributary to one of the two branches of the 
Ch.alu-kya dynasty. I think thut, in spite of the fact that the Velanandu chiefs became the feudatories of the 
Western Chalukyas subsequent to the death of Kaiattariga-Ch6da I. (ibid. p. 37), the title lorne by. Gonka II. 
was a. formal hereditary title and did refer only to the Eastern CMlukya dynasty. N"o. 227 of the Epigraphical 
collection for 1905 at Tripnrantakaw in the Knrnool district records a erift by Tclananti-Gonka in Sa-ku-Snrhvat 
1O28 (-A.D. 110G-07). This Gonka is identical with Gonka I. in the Genealogical Table of the Velanagdu chief s. 
The Inscription states that he bnre the tide ChdluTcya-rdjya-'bhavana-m'&lastaml'hci, but does not mention the 
overlord to who'n he w.is subordinate. No. 151 of 1897, however, which is dated in Saka-Samvat 998, the cyclic 

Nala, corresponding to the [7]th year of Vishnuvardhana-Miiharaja [Kul6ttunjja-Ch61a I] registers a 
by Velananti-Gonkava (i.e. Gonka I.), the commander of all forces (samasta-sSnddAipati) of the king, 
sh'-ws that the title ChMuJcya-rAjya-bhavana-m'tllastatiilbJia assumed by Gonka I. when he had become 
or less independent in the Telugu country, meant that he was n supporter of the Eastern Chllukya kingdom. 
W"e also learn from No. 151 of 1897 that Gonka 1. was tie son of GundambikH. He wa a irigat$ttara'ia.batrdvant- 
yi<3,t7t.a ' the lord of the one thousand nnd three hundred country ' (No. 277 of 1905), while his gmndson Gonka II. was 
0, ff<fj(tt6ttara-shotsa'hasr&'vani-ndthci ' .he lord of the ix thousand and three hundred country ' (No, 274 of 1898). 


of Velananda." 1 Thus Pr6la who, in his early career, was a Chalukya feudatory, appears to 
have gradually grown powerf al and to have thrown off the imperial yoke in the latter pavt of 
the reign of the Western Chalukya king Jagadekamalla II., preparing, thereby, the way for 
Rudra's extensive conquests, which according to the Anmakonda inscription, reached in the east 
to the shore of the Bait sea and in the eouth as far as Srlsaila. 3 

The other facts mentioned in the subjoined inscription do not call for any remarks. 
Melarasa of Ugravadi who belonged to the family of Madhavavarman, is not known from 
other inscriptions. A feudatory family of the time of the Vijayanagara king Krishnaraya 
whose members claim to have been lords of Bszvsida and were ruling a portion o'f the Udaya- 
giri-rajya, traces ics origin to a, certain Maihavavarman of the Solar race and the Vaeiahtha- 
g6tra. 3 It is doubtful if this Mftdhavavarman could be connected with the mythical 
Madhavavarman referred to in the subjoined inscription as an ancestor of Melarasa of Ugravadi, 


Bast Face. 

1 Srfmaj-Jittemdra-pada-padinam=a- 

2 sSsha-bhavyan=avyat=tril6ka-nri- 

3 patimdra-munirhdra-vamdyam | nih- 

4 ssha-d6sha-pari khamdana- cham da- ka- 

5 ndarh ratna-traya-prabhavam=udgha- 

1 Above, Vol. HI. p. 83. If this surmise of Professor Hultzsch is granted, Ch6d61aya may be identified with 
the Velanandn ehief Kaldttunga-Cho'da-Gonka III (No. 17 of the Genealogical 'J'able of the Velanandu chiefs oa 
P. 35 of above, Vol. IV.) whose inscriptions range between A.D. 1188 and A.D. 1157. And the word CMdSday*, 
which literally means ' (one who is) born of Ch6da' may very aptly be applied to Kuldfctunga-Cho'da-Gonka III, 
whose father Ve!an4nti-Bajendra-Chdda is called Chflda of Velanandu in one of his inscriptions at P41ak6l, dated 
in A.D. 1135 (STo. 624 of the Epigraphical collection for 1893; and is referred to as king Ch8di in an inscription 
at Nidubr61u, dated in A.D. 1132 (No. 163 of the Ej)i?raphical collection for 1897, text line 27 f,), and .probably 
also in the Gartap&Svaram inscription as king Ch6di, the overlord of the Ayja chief Narayanal. who was the 
grandfather of Jayana, the general of Ganapati. This identification of Ch6d6daya with Gonka III. whose latest 
date as stated above, is A.D. 1157, if correct, would render probable the statement made in the Aamakonda inscrip- 
tion that Ch&d&daya died out of fear of Pr61a's successor Rudra, who burnt his city, 

3 This is uo boast so far as the southern boundary of Kudra's dominions is concerned. The existence of an 
'inscription of his time at Tripuraatakam in the Knrnool district (No. 273 of the Epigraphioal collection for 1905) 
clearly shows that the actual southern boundary of his kingdom extended even beyond Sris"aila. Kudra appears 
to have strengthened his position in the Telugu country by a political intermarriHRe in the race of Kand6r6daya- 
Ch6da (above, Vol. III. p. 83). Ganapati did likewise by taking to wives Narambiand P^ramba, the two sisters 
of his general Jayana (ibid. p. 84). A Tripurantakam inscription (No. 204 of the Epigraphioal collection for 
1905) states bhiit Ganapafci's sister MSlambika married Yakkadimalla Budra, jthe second son of Buddha 'lord of 
Mtavati-vishaya/ The same relationship is established by an inscription at Bezvada which is dated in Saka- 
Samvat 1123 (above, Yol. VI. p. 159, text line 8) where Natavadi JSndra (not his father Buddha a Professor 
Hultzsch takes it) is called the ma^andi ' brother-in-law ' of Ganapati. Ganapati's daughter Ganapamba was given 
' in marriage to the K6ta chief BSta of Amarivati (above, Vol. III. p. 94). The Kdfca chief Ke^ta 'll., -whose mother 
Sabbami waa the sister of the Velanandu chief Gonka III. (above, Vol. VI. p. 148), had five .queens who were select- 
ed from the several petty families which at that time appear to have divided among themselves the country south of 
the Krishna river. Two unpublished inscriptions from Amaravati in the Guntur district (Nos. 261 -and 262 of the 
' Epigraphical collection for 1897) give the names of these five queens as Vinjaml of the. family of. .the. chiefs of 
Onginim|rga (perhaps identical with Onge"r,umarga over which JSTambaya of the Durjaya family was, ruling; .see 
above,, Vol. VI. p, 224) j Sabbama of the family ruling the country "to the west of the hill,", i.e. the Kondapad- 
matia; Pirvati of the family of the chiefs of KSna-Kandravadij Xdgama of the family of the .chiefs of Kakafa 
and Komaraml, another pripcess of .the Kondapadnrati family. It is doubtful if the Kabati family here mentioned 
has to be connected with the KSkatlyas of Waraugal or if it has to be distinguished as -a purely local family 
adopted the name Kakati in consequence of its relationship with the Kakntfyas either directly oc indirectly. 
1 Annual Beport on ^pigrayhy for 1906-07, Part II.,.paragraph 78. ' 

' * From two ink-impressions prepared by me in 1902. 

Anmakoncla inscription of Prola. 

East face. 

Chalukya Vikrama 42. 

N ort h face. 





50 , 

Sten Konow. 

Collotype by Gebr. Plettner. 

Scale -15 

West face. 

South face. 


6 gun-aika^anam || [1*] Svasti samasta- 

7 bhuvanasraya gri-pri(pfi)thyivallablia 

8 maharajadhiraja paramsvara 

9 paramabhatfcaraka Satyasraya-ku- 

10 la-tilakatii Chaluky-abharanam srima- 

11 t-[T]iblmvanamalladevara vijaya-ra- 

12 jyam=uttar-&ttar-abhivriddbi-pravarddba- 

13 manam=a-cbamdr-arkka-taram salutta- 

14 m=ire [||*] Tat-padapadm-&pajrvi samadhi- 

15 gatapamdaamaMgabda mahamarii[da]- 

16 16vai'an=Anmakunda-puravar-4varam 

17 parama-Mab&svaraih pati-hita-cba- 

18 rifcam vma[ya]-ribliGBbanaih srima- 

19 n-mab.amaridale^vara[m] Kakatl-Beta-[bM]- 

20 pala-kula-kri(kra,)magatam tadiya-ra- 
2 1 jya-bbara-nirupifca-maliamatya-pa- 

22 davi-Yirajamana man-onnata pra- 

23 bb.u-mamtr-o[t]sab.a-sakti-traya-sam- 

24 pamnan-a[gi] || Ghana-sauryy-at6pa[di]rii 

25 mantanada mabimeyim diam-cbari- 

26 tradim[d=o]lpina telpirh sat-kala-kaua- 

27 ^adi[n=o]david=acliaryya'[eau]in- 

North Face. 

28 daryyadithd=a[rttlii]nikaya-prartthit-arttb.a- 

29 [pra]da-vitaraiLa-[vi]khyatan=adam dbaritri- 

30 [vi]nutath sri-Kakati-B&tarasana saobi- 

31 vam Vaija-damdadbinafcb.a II [2*] Aganita-gauryya,- 

32 dim. negadda(lda) K^kati-BSta-nar^mdranam jagam 

33 pomgala 1 Ciialukya-ckakri-cbaranaia sale ka- 

34 nisi tat-praaadadim bageg9le Sal>bi-s- 
S5 yiraman-alisi[d=u]dgba-ya6- 

36 dkinatbanam pogaladar=aro mamda[|i]- 

37 ka-Kakati-B^tana mamtri Vaijana || [3*]. A- 

38 tamgach vikasita-kamjat-anaixe Ya- 

39 kamabbegam janiyisidara khyataih 

40 dhareyolu perggade Betam marh- 

41 tii-]ana-makuta-cliTidaratna || [4*J 

42 Atam Mam [dh] ata-Ram- &pama- 

43 n=enisida ^ri-Eakatl-Prola-bkii- 

44 pa-khyat-amatyam viv&k-agrani 3 

45 sakala-kala-k&vidam sacli-cliaritra- 

46 pritam sabitya-vidya-ni[dli ] bu- 

47 da(dha)-vibudh.-6rvvirub.am satya-dharram-&- 

48 p6tam sva-gramad61=madidan=ati-mia- 

49 dadim hattu d6valayamga} 8 || [5*] 

50 AtiSaya-Jaina"db.arrama-samay-6cbita- 

51 asanad&vi Bharati-sati asi( 

1 Bead poga\e t 

* IQ the translation I have taken this word to be synonymous -with viv4ky-a$rai)i. 

8 About the bore and 11. 55, 68, and 69, which Dr. Fleet thinks to.jbe a- form of tie virdma, sec above, 
r l. V. p. 237. 


52 dasana- ckchhade uddba-suvarnna(nna)-kumbb.a-sanmita-t: 

53 nuvarnna(rnna)-pivara-[pa]y6dliai'i Maila[ma Ya]- 

54 [ka]mathbika-su[taj-tad-amatya-[Be]ta-[bri]- 

55 day-esvaii ni^cBala-Lakshini bhavisal[| !][<>*! 

West Face. 

56 Padadimd=a-lulit-alakam barega[m=aih]g i -6- 

57 pamgamam paihcha-ratnadin=amg-6cliita:m-age' 
53 nirnamiei sura-stri-bb.[a]gya-Baubb.agya- 

59 Bamma[da]-saurfa[da]ryyaman=aydu tivi 

CO padedam Kamjata-samjatan=i eu[dati]- 

61 ratnamati=emdu Mailamanan=ar=ar=bba[ntii](nui)aa- 

02 rJl&kadol || [^7*] Nufca-rupavati kala[va]- 

t'3 ti rairi-Rati Sri-sati Ghatantaki-sati Ya- 

64 nJ-satiy=emd=amS.tya-Betana satiyadi 

65 kshitiy=ellam=eyde nutiyisut=irkku [m ||] [8*] 

66 Madadimd=eiie tiegalda [Ra]m-dspade ATai- 

67 lama bibaktiyimde madisi tanag=abbyuda- 

68 3 t akaram=agiralw bettada [m^Jgana 

69 Kadalaiaya-basadiyan=eseyaltt[[|][9*J 

70 Adarkke nitya-piijegam dhflpa-dipa-[iii]v6dya- 

71 kkam p(ijarg=alia[ra] 1 -vasti.'adigalgarh 

72 artmat- [Tlribliuvanaraalla-mamdalika-bliu [pa ] - 

73 la-pntraB-appa KSkatiya-Polalarasana ra- 

74 jyaniantta[r] -ottar- a[bM]vri(vri)ddlii-pi avarddhamaMani-5.- 

75 g=Ammakumdeyal-a-cliaihdi i -ark[ka]-ta,rarii sa- 

76 luttum=ire srimacb.- Oha}iikya"Vikraina-va[r]aha- 

77 da nalvatt-erade(da)neya H6malambi-[sam]- 

78 vatsara Pausliya-Tbah.u}.a 15 Somava- 

79 rad-amdin-Uttaraya^a-saihkramti-niim- 

80 ttam dbara-p6rwakam-agi tan[na] vaHabban-appa 

81 B^tana-perggade tanna pesariradam madi- 

82 sida kejey-^riya ke]agan=eradu.m 

83 Hs-are-ga[l*]lngalft nadu(da)vana gardhde(rdde) l r ya] 

84 mattar=eradum mattam=a-kejt;eya pa- 

85 du(^n)vana nela doneya tenikalereya 

86 mattar=nnalakuiii karambam ma[ttajr-alu(ju)- 

87 mata kottu nudsidaj=i-sa[sa]na-garfablia || 

South Face, 

88 Mattatn=i dbarmmakke tellatiy-flge[||*] 
S9 Afshtau] danti-sahaai-ani daa-k6- 

SO ti cha Yajinain.= [(*] anantam pada-sam- 

81 gliatam=ity=4t6 M,dha[va*]varmma- 

S2 ramS-odbhavar-appa ^riman-maha- 

98 matidal6avaran=0'grava[d.i]- 

94 ya Mfilarasam tann=a[li]ke- 

In the original the syllables gdhdra. look like g6hamta. 


95 y=0rumgalla Kuchikere- 

96 y-eriya kelag[e] kaluveya 

97 modala garddeya Tnattar=ond=a sa- 

98 mipadale "karambam matta- 

99 ra hattuman=itta || Nirutam=i- 

100 dan=alidavam sasira-kavi[le]- 

101 yan=ali[da] papamarix [po]rddu- 

102 gatn=adaradim rak8hi[si*]daiii aa- 

103 sira-ye(ya)jrvada palaman=eydi 

104 Sabha[ma]m padegu[m*] || [10*] Sva-da- 

105 ttam para-dattam va yo haretn 

103 vasumdharaih [|*J 8hashtir=vvar6ha-8ahasr[a]- 

107 ni vishthayarh jayatS krimih || [11*] 

108 Bahubb.it -vvaaudha dattft rajabhis=Sa- 

109 gar-adibhilj [|*] yasya yasya ya- 

110 dA bhumis=tasya tasya tadA plialarh [| [12*] 

111 Alii basadiya kasam ge(ga)leva B6- 

112 ya-[Pa]ddamge paga vomdu || 


(.Verse 1.) May the lotna-foot of the "blessed Jinfindra, vhiclx (like the lotas) is worthy of 
being praised by the lords of kings and the lords of ascetics (residing') in the three worlds, whose 
powerful doctrine completely destroys (all) sins (just as the powerful stem of thelottis completely 
cures the patienb of his doshi 1 ), which, is the origin of the ratna-traya? (as the lotus ia the birth- 
place of gems 3 ) (ani) w'aio'a his its attsatiou fixed on. excellent virtues (j/una) only (as the stock 
of the lotus is made up entirely of delicate fibre), protect all Bhavyas !* 

(Line 6 f .) Hail ! While the victorious reign of the glorious Tribhuvanamallade'va, 
tlae asylum of the whole world, the glorious Prithvivallabha, MabdrdjUdhirdja, Paramesvara , 
^drcklfa, the front ornament of the Satyaaraya family, the jewel of the ChSJtikyas, 
flourishing with perpetual increase (to last) as long as the moon, sun, aud stars. 

(L. 14 f .) A dependent on his lotus-feet (was) the prosperous mahdtnan^alesvara, the chief 
KSkatl Betarasa who had acquired the five great sounds, (who was) a mahdmantfaUtvara, the 
lord of Anmaktmda the best of towns, a great devotee of MahMvara (iiva), (one) whose 
actions were (directed) for the good of (his) master (and) whose ornament was modesty. 6 

(L. 20 f.) Resplendent in (his) position as the hereditary prime minister (mahdmdtya) 
entrusted w.th the administration of the kingdom of that king (i.e. Beta), great of self-respect 
(and) possessing the triple qualifications of pre-eminence, counsel and energy, 

(V. 2.) the dantfddhindtha Vaija, minister of the glorious king Kakati Beta, worshipped 
by (all the people of) the world for (his) liberality which bestowed desired objects on. crowds 

is a medical term and means, according to Dr. Eittel, 'black or red spoia on the tongue foreboding 
death.' It may be that according to Indian medical science, the lotus-stem ia s powerful agent in 'removing thi 
ddsha. v 

a See above, Vol. VIII. p. 134, note 3. 

8 These are the lotus seeds which as sacrel beads are worn round the neck nd are called idvare-mani 
(lotus-gema) in lianarese. 

* I.e. the Jama community j see Mr. Eicd'a Sptgraphia Carnation, Vol.. II., p. 69, paragraph 6. 

5 The original appears to have vinayi- in which case the phrase may bo translated " the jewel among the well- 
behaved }*' bal as vintyu'vibhilshaQa is the form which generally ocenra iu inscriptions, I prefer to read ya instead 
of yi. 



of supplicants, for (Ms) surpassing beauty which, amazed (those who saw him), for his high 
proficiency in the sciences, for (his) refined goodness, for .(his) charming behaviour, for the 
greatness of (his) pride 1 (and) for the display of (his) dauntless heroism, became famous. 

(V. 3.) Who does not extol the minister of the mantfaUka Kakati Beta, Vaija, that 
master of prodigious fame, who by (his) immeasurable prowess made, amidst the applauses of 
the world, the renowned king Kakati Be'ta to successfully visit the feet of the Chalukya emperor 
(ahaltriri), (aud) to rule by the favour of that (emperor) the Sabbi (one) thousand (district) (in 
such a way) as to attract the attention (of the world) . 

(V. 4.) To him aud to (his wife) the blooming lotus-faced Y,kamabbe was born pergade 
B6ta who, famous (as he was) in the world, was a head-jewel in the diadems of the minister- 

(V. 5.) He (Beta), the exalted minister of the prosperous king Kakati-Pr&la, who was 
counted as equal to Mandhata and Rama, the foremost among the wise, proficient in all 
sciences, an admirer of good behaviour, a mine of literary lore, a celestial tree to learned men 
possessing truth and virtue, built, with great delight, ten houses for gods (i.e. temples) in his 
own village. 

(V. 6.) The wife of the minister Beta, the eon of [Ya]kamambik&, (was) Mailama, whose 
face was (as pleasant as) the moon (and) whose lips were (red like) the bimba (fruit), the colour 
of whose body was praised as being fair (and her) u# breasts as being golden pots, (who was) 
the (veritable) lady Bharati, a Sasanadeva (par excellence) acceptable to the doctrines of the 
Jaina religion (and) decidedly, (the goddess) Lakshmi (but) without (the latter 's) fickleness, 

(V, 7.) Who, who in this world does not extol Mailama saying : " The lotus-horn (Brah- 
man) having produced, out of the five gems (such) as best suited the. portion of the body (under 
creation), the (several) limbs with (their) adjuncts from the feet right up to those tremulous 
ourls, (and) having filled (them) with happiness, grace, joy (and) beauty (which he) culled 
from among the celestial nymphs, (he) loved (to see) this gem of womankind ( his own 

(V. 8.) The whole world would praise deservedly the wife of the minister Beta saying : 
" She possesses praiseworthy beauty | she is full of lustre ; (she) is a Bati in dalliance ; (she) 
is the lady Sri (i.e. Lakshmi), (she) is the lady Ghatantakl ; a (she) is the lady Vani (i.e. 
Sarasvati)." . 

(V. 9.) The thus-praised abode of Ram& (i,e. Lakshmi) Mailama having caused to he 
built with delight and devotion the resplendent Kadalaiaya-basadi (temple) on the top of the 
hill in order that it may bring prosperity to her 

(L. 70.) for the daily worship, incense, lights (and) oblations (in the temple) (and) for 
food, clothing, efc., of iihe temple priest, 

(L. 72.) while the reign of Kakatiya Polalarasa, Son of the glorious king, the Manfalilca 
Tribhuvariamalla, was continuously prosperous and successful, at Ammakunde, (to last) as loag 
as the moon, sun aad stars in the forty-second year of the prosperous ChaJukya-Vikrama 
years, corresponding to the Hma\ainbi-saiiivatsara ; on account of the Uttarayana-samkrSnti 

1 The word mdnfana, is not found in Dr. Kittel's Kannada- English Dictionary. Perhapa it is a poetical 
form for m4ataa. 

a The Jaina saint Akalanka is said in the Mallishe'na epitapb (above, Vol. III. p. 200) to hare overcome, 
along with tlie Bauddhas, the Buddhist godderfs Tara who had secretly descended into a pot as dwelling place. 
According to the RAjdvctW-lcalTia (Mr. Bice's EpigrayUa Caratica, Vol. II. p. 46) Akalanka was helped in his 
disputation against the Bauddhas by "the Jaina goddess Kilslimandini and eventually kicked over the pot with bia 
left foot and smashed it. In the present inscription Mailama is apparently compared to the goddess 
^holielnsd Akalanka to smash the pot in which the goddess Tara had taken her abode. 


(wMcli happened) on Monday, the 15th day of the dark fortnight of Paushya (of that 

(L. 80.) gave to that (temple), with libations of water, two matter of wet land (lying) 
between two flat slabs below the band of the tank built in her name by her husband Betana- 
pergade, and four mattar of black-soil land (lying) south of the pond (done) on the -west side of 
the same tank and six mattar of uncultivated land, 1 (and) set up this inscribed pillar. 

(L. 88 f.) And as a (subsidiary) gift to this charity the prosperous maMmantfaUsvara 
Melarasa of Ugravadi, -who was born in the family of Madha[vav]arma 3 (whose army con- 
sisted) of " eight thousand elephants, eight_crores of horses and endless crowds of foot (soldiers) 
eta.," gave one mattar of wet-laud at tSThaad of the canal below the band of Kuchifcere (tank) 
which belonged to OrumgaUu (included) within his rule, (and) ten mattar of miscellaneous 
land close to the same (laud) . 

(V. 10.) He that destroys . this (charity) shall always incur the sin of having killed 
thousand tawny cows ; (and) he that carefully protects it, shall ever enjoy (that) happiness 
(which is) acquired as the fruit of a thousand sacrifices (yajna). 

L1. 104 to 110 contain two of the usual imprecatory verses.] 

(L. lllf.) One pdga? (is assigned) to Boya-Padda who removes the sweepings in that 



These plates were sent in May 1893 by the Deputy Com i xtissioner of BS13,gh,t, a district in 
the Nagpur Division of the Central Provinces, to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, to which they 
now belong. In the letter which accompanied them, it was stated that they had been found in 
the district, ' some time ago, hanging to a tree in the jungle.' They were entrusted to me by 
Dr. Hoernle in 1905, with the request that I should edit the inscription which is engraved on 
them. Other work has prevented my doing so before now. 

The plates are five in number, each between 6|" and 6f" long by between 3|" and 4" high ; 
two of them contain no writing whatever, while of the three others (here described as plates i, ii 
and iii) the second is engraved on both, sides and the first and the third on one side only. 
Though the plates have no raised rims and are not fashioned thicker near the edges, the engrav- 
ing on them is throughout in a perfect state of preservation. The five plates are strung on a 
ring, which passes through a hole about i" distant from the middle of the proper right margin 
of each plate. This ring is circular, about |" thick and between 3" and 3j" in diameter. The 
ends of it are flattened off and joined by a bolt, which had not been cut when the plates came 
into my hauds. On the ring described there slides a smaller ring, made of a band of copper, 
the ends of which are fastened by a rivet which also passes through, and firmly holds, a flat disc 
of copper about 2f '' in diameter. Undoubtedly this disc was meant to serve as a seal and to bear 
some writing, but nothing has been engraved on it. 8 

Tke plates clearly were intended to record a grant of the VSkatafca king Prithivi|ihena II., 
bat they actually give only the genealogy of the king and break ofE at the point where his order 

1 I have taken Tcarambam to be synonymous with Tamil karambu, which, according to Dr. Window, means 

' hard and sterile ground.' 

* This small coin, more popularly pronounced Mga, is equal to ' one-fourth of a hana.' 
8 Compare the descriptions of the three sets of plates of PravarauSua II. in Gupta Inter, pp. 285 and 

248 and ahove, Vol. III., p. 258. 


commences. The four inscribed sides contain 35 lines 1 of well-engraved writing. Tl t! f ' * 
the letters is between * and |". The characters belong to the ' box-headed ' variety ^ , 6 
southern class of alphabets and are similar to, but less angular than, those of the Duili** *_/ c ' 
of the Vakataka Pravaraaena II., published with a facsimile above, Vol. III. p. 2 GO- t ^ 
include the subscript sign of the rare jh, in Ajjhiia , 1. 31, the sign of the jinvdmuliya, iii lf * t ," l!! 
Kuntalu?, \. 30, and forms of the final ?, in sainrdt, 1. 4, and of the final t (which doea iu , ^ 
in the facsimile), in i-achaniiU, 1. 35. 3 The conjunct 7171 is everywhere written by a sign >s'J |J l3 
really the sign for nn (in sanwivi-s'ita-, 1. Q, utpannasya, 1. 23, and elsewhere) 5 vi&arga i* <* t; J . 
by two hook-shaped lines (e. 0. in siijioA, 11. 11 and 20) ; the signs for d and 4 are well ^ tB 1!1 * 
guished. e.g. in -viisakdd=, 1. 1, and $hd$asy-, 1. 2 ; and there are two forms of the letter *' 1 e 'S' 
in -U(tsa7i!f2t2=, 1. 1, and vachan<.tt, 1. 35.- The language is somewhat nugrammatical H:i* J! ^ * 
and the test is all in prose. In Hue 10 a passage of no less than 27 aksharas has through c ' rtt(!l 
lessness been omitted by the writer. As regards orthography, the rules of samilhi are con^"* v 
neglected (as in the three cognate grants) ; the (long) d is several times written where this vow 
should be short } and (the short) i is throughout employed for both i and ; the vowel n it* u ^ 
instead of ri in -pautrinah, 1. 16, and -sriyah, 1. 27, and instead of ri in sVt-, II. 17 ft**'* *" J)| 
Besides, the dental and lingual nasals are confounded in. kdrunya-, I. 12, mano-, 1. IIS, ft! "* 
-dnusdrinah, 1. 20; the word a Asa is written as arwa in line 6, and vamsa as vansa in linen ^ "*' 
27 and 33; s/i is doubled after r in vwshsha,-, 1. 14, and <^/i before y in -addliyalcsha, 1. 35. 
<patir-aWiyct for paty-al>hya in line 28, where the r of po^ir- looks like a sawjcZH-coni 
we may compare -bbalam'aitvaryya- for -bbalaisvaryya- in line 15 of the Dudia plates, 
Vol. III. p. 261, where m is used in a similar way. 3 

With two exceptions, the text down to the word Pravarasenasya in line 26 is practicnlty 
identical with that of the three published grants 4 of the Vakataka king Pravaras&na II. ; li^o 
those grants, it gives the genealogy of this king, commencing with Fravarasena I., arid 
rating after him his son's son Budrasena I., his sou Prito,ivisheaa I., his eon Budrasanft 
and his son (from Prabbavatigupta, the daughter of the Mahdrdjddhirtija Devagupta) 
sena II. Of the exceptions referred to, one is that our inscription commences with V<ln 
vdsakdd=, 'from (his) residence Veinbara, 5 in the place of which the Chammak and Dudia 
of Pravaraaena II. have Pravarapuntt, ' from Pravarapura.' Our grant therefore was to have 
been issued from VSmbSra, a place which I have not been able to identify. The other poit o 
difference is that, whils the grants of Pravarasena II. commence with drishfam, or drishfmti 
8vasti,o drishfam siddham, this inscription contains no such expression, but at the beginning fcf 
line 1, before the word Vvibdra~, leaves an empty space just where one would have exptfrtfrl 
something like drishtam. The omission and th% vacant space, in my opinion, are rather signi- 
ficant. Contrary to what I have said in my remarks on the Dudia plates, above, Vol. III. p, 251?, 
lam convinced now that drishfam (and the Prakrit ditham of the Mayidavolu and Him-' 
hadagalli plates 6 ) must really be taken in its ordinary sense of ' seen,' and that it is similar to the 
modern. ' true copy ' or ' examined ' of official letters or Government orders. 6 Such a remark 

1 In preparing the accompanying facsimile, the last line on the first side of the second plate unfortunately w *t 
first overlooked ; it is really line 18, and the lines marked in the facsimile KB lines 1834 are really lines l>-~8$ 

2 There is a final m in line 27 (line 26 of the facsimile), but ifc seems to be oat of place where it stands, 

8 Other passages where TO looks distinctly like a tamdhi- consonant are tSna ma,n4ka- for ttn4n6ka~ in <T*rf. 
jint. Vol. XIXi p. 309, line 10, and pravifayitavyti manyathd for prat6$ayitavyd anaythd in Gupta JTw^. 
p. 257, line 18. 

* See above, p, 267, not* 2. 5 Nos. 617 and 618 of nay Southern List. 

Compare the remarks of the late Prof. Buhler, above Vol. I, pp. 9 and 10, and of Prof. Hultzsch abor, 
Vol. VI, p. 88. Sir W, H. Sleeraan, speaking of certain kings of Oude, in his Journey tArguffA the Kingdom 
Oude, Vol. I, p, 179, saysthat to their orders a seal was affixed in their presence bearing the inscription 

shud, *it has been Been.' Like dfifhfafm, jiidtam is u-?ed in the body of an inscription in Journ, As. Soo, 
Vol. LXIX, Part I, p. 02,1.21 (jMtam^malidmantri-trt-Mdhalctnct). 


could of course have been affixed or prefixed to a document only when it was finished, and it is 
missing here because our grant was not completed. The engraver apparently acted just as a 
writer or copyist of the grant -would have done. 

After Pravarasfina II. our inscription iu lines 26-35 mentions his FOH, the Malwraja 
Narendrasgna, and after him Hi son born from, the queen (mahdl-'vl') Ajjhita-baattarika, 1 
a daughter of the lord of Kuntala the Maharaja Prithivishena [II,], a, devont worshipper 
of Bhagavat (Vishnu).' Narendrasena, 'from confidence 2 in the excellent qualities previously 
acquired by him, toot away (or appropriated) the family's fortune ; Ms commands were honoured 
by the lords of Kosala, Mekala and Malava, and he held in check enemies bowed down by his 
prowess.' Prithivishena II. is described as ' being a receptacle of splendour ami forbearance, 
who raised (hia) sunken family.' The name Prithiuish 'n<isija, in line 35. is followed by vadtandt, 
* at his command ' ; bat of the king's order only the words ' all superintendents * are given by 
these plates. 

In the Vakataka stone inscription published in Arrliccol. Survey of W. India, Vol. IV. 
p. 124 ft!., the verses 10 and 11, which would have given the names of the successors of 
Pravaraseua II., are unforfcunatuly much mutilated. The name of Pravar'asena's son and suc- 
cessor, 'who, having obtained the kingdom when, eight years of ago, ruled well,' has quite 
disappeared, and the aon of that unknown king according to the published text was Devasena. 
As has been stated above, according to our grant Pravarasena's son Narendrasena took a way 
the kingdom (pi'obably from an elder brother), married a daughter of the king of Zuntala, 
and was succeeded by his son Prithi.vish.ena II. The stone inscription, in verse 8 records 
the defeat of! a lord of Kuntala by apparently Prithivishena L, and in verso 18 speaks of 
Kuntala, Avanti, Kalinga, Kosala, Trikuta, Lata, Andhra .... [as bavin"- been 
subjected by one of the later Vakataka^]. According to the present inscription Narcndrasona 
had bis commands honoured (or obeyed) by the lords of Kosala, Mekala and Malaya. The 
first and last of these three countries are well known. The situation of Mekala (according to 
the Topographical List of the BrihatsamMta in Ind. Ant. Vol. XXII. p. 185, a mountain or a 
people) is indicated by the fact that the river Narmada is called Mekala -k any d, ' the daughter of 
M&kala, and that that river springs from the hill Amarakantak (in Long. 81 48' and Lat. 22 
40') in the ancient Chedi country. 3 

Here and in the cognate plates the V akataka kings have the title mahdrdja followed by the 
word rl prefixed to their names, and before the title there stands in each case the genitive 
"Vdkctfakdndm ; e.g. VdMtalcdnum mahdrdja=sri-PravarasSnasya. Such passages have been 
hitherto translated as if the genitive Valid} akdndm were governed by the title maKdraja : ' the 
illustrious Pravaras&na, the great king of the Vakatakas, J or ' the Mahdrdja of the Vakatakas, 
the illustrious Pravarasena.' The matter is not of great importance, but it may be as well to 
state that from the grammarian's point of view such, a construction would be objectionable. In 
my opinion, the genitive must be taken to qualify, not the title mahdrdja, but the whole phrase 
mdhdrdja-srl- Pravarasena, and more especially the word Pravarasdna, the chief component of the 
phrase, so that the meaning would be ' the Mahdrdja, the illustrious Pravarasena of the 
V&katakas,' i.e. 'of the family of the Vakatakas.'* I have already had occasion to point out 
titat we similarly have the genitive Maitrakdndm in the Valabhi plates, where there is no title by 
which this genitive could be governed ; Vishnukundindm above, Vol. IV. p. 195, 1. 2 ; and 

1 The name JjjhitadSvi we also find in the K&ritalai plates of the Mah&Taja Jayanitba; Gupta, Insor, 
p. 118. 

2 The reading of the original text is not absolutely certain here. 

8 Compare Arcliaeol. Survey of India, Vol. XVII., Plate L, and the varae cited by Dr. Bhandarkar above, 
Tol. IV., p. 280. 

.* The aaino remark applies to thi genitive BbdrajiodnAm in line 10 of the inscription, 


Kadamldndm in Ind. Ant. Vol. VI. p. 26, 1. 5 and Vol. VII. p. 35, 1. 4, and above, Vol. VI. p. 14, 
1. 4, and p. 18, 1. 5. 

The inscription, not having been finished, contains no date of any kind, but it may bo 
assigned with probability to about the second half of the 8th century A.D. 

TEXT. 1 

First Plate. 

1 ... 2 Venibara-vasakad=agni3ht&m-apt6i7yam-6kthya- 

2 shodagy-atiratra-vajapeya-brihaspatisava-sadya- 

3 skra-chaturavamedha-yajinah s Vishnuvriddha-sagotra- 

4 sya samrat^ Vakatakanam=maharaja-iri- 5 Pravaras- 

5 nasya 6 sun6s=sun6h atyanta-Svami-Maha- 

6 bhairava-bhaktasya 7 ansa- 8 bhara-Banniv6sita- 9 Siva- 

7 liag-&dvahana-Siva-suparitu9hta-samutpadita- 

8 rSjavansanam 10 =parakram-adhigata-Bhlgiratthy-amala- 11 

9 jala-^murddhnabhiahiktan an=dasag vame 1 dh-a va- 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

10 bhntha-8natanam=Bharasivanam=. 13 maharaia^ri- 14 Budrase- 

11 nasya sun&h atyanta-mahesvarasya saty-arjjava- 

12 karunya(nya) -3anryya-vikrama-naya-vinaya-maha- 

13 tmya-dhiniatva-patragatabhaktitva-dharmmavijayitva- 15 niari[6]- ls 

14 nainnmaly-adir- 17 guna-satnuditasya varshsha-s'ata- 

15 m=abhivarddhamana-kdsa-danda-sadhana- sanfcana-pntra- 

16 paubfi(tri)nah Tudhighthira-vritter= 18 Vvakatakaaammaha" 

17 raja-s"n(ri)-PritMvisn.$nasya aun6[h*] bhagavata- 

18 's=Chakrap&ne-[h*] prasad-oparjjita-sri- 19 

Second Plate ; Second Side, 

19 samudayasya Vakatakanamamahara]a-^ri- 20 -Budra- 

20 sSnasya sun&h 91 purvvaraj-anuvfitta-ma[r*]gg-anu(nti)sa- 

1 From the original plates. 

1 At the fflnnmeacement of this line ther& is an empty space sufficient for about three alesbaras. One would 
have expected here the word dfighfam, with which the three grants of PrararasSna II. begin. 

J This sign of visarga is clearly visible in the original. Here and in other places below the rules of sartidhi 
have not been observed. 

* The plates of Pravaraaua II. have svmr&tL- (?), sashraf, and samrAjah. Bead samrdjah (or tamrdjtf), 

s Read -jrt-. B Tb. fi aTcshara s4 is clear in the original. 

1 Here is a mark in the original which looks like the upper half of a visarga. 


In this word and everywhere, below the conjunct n is denoted by a sign which is really the sign for 99, 
10 Bead "vaAfAndin-. " Ked -Bkdgfoathy-amala-, 

14 ftead vdrdd&dlh? ; compare Gvpta. Inter, p. 237, 1. 6. 
M Here th^ words inaldrdjcf-M'^^vaikiffa'dauhitratyct Gautantiputratya putnuya VfledfaJtAiiAm of "the 

plates have erroneously been omitted. 
l * Bead -Sri-. 

14 Bead -dMttMUoa-pAtrdffatal^aJetatva^hafminavyayitvct-. w Bead -mand-. 

" Bead nairmmaly-ddi-. M Originally w was engrayed. 

18 Qne.w<n4d iave expected prasdddd=ufd. Head -4rt-. ao Read -Sri-. 

21 Of the fkwee grants of Pravarastoa II., only the Siwani grant has the paesage from here to <frH>Aa#.; -see 
Gupta !*,, p. 246, lines 1,4 and 1&. 

Balaghat plates of Prithivishena II. 

11 a. 


17 a 

E. Hultzsch. 

Collotype by defer. Plettner, Halle- Saale. 

Scale -95 

in a. 


21 rinaJj aunaya-bala-par^kram-^mobliinna-^anrvadvi- 

22 shah ma1iSa:ajadhiT&ja-gri- 2 I>dvagapta-sutaja> 

23 m=Prabhavatiguptayatix*ntpauijasya V&3ta$a- 

24 8 kavaas^alankarabhtttasya Sambhoh prasadad=dhra(dhri)- 

25 Ha-karttayugasya 5 Vakatakana[m*]mah.ar4jia(ja).^|i(gr!:)- 

26 Pravarasdnasya sun6b, pfovvadhigata-guna- 

27 8 vi0 > Y 

Third Plate. 

28 Mkala 9 -Maiav-a.dhipatir-abtLyarclichata- 10 3aaana8ya pra- 

29 tapa-pralatarisanasya 11 Vakatakanammaha- 

SO raja-Sri- 13 Nardndrasdna8ya auaSn^Kujitaladhipati- 

31 Butay^m*]=maliadSvyam=AJ3hita-bhatt;aTikayanxu- 

32 tpannasya tejah-kshama-sannidblnabhiifca- ls 

33 Bya 14 dvimagra-vans'ay 15 =oddharttnji VakatakanH- 

35 aasya vachanat 17 asmatsantaka 18 sarvv-addhyaksha; 


Tliere is no information as to where or when thesa plates were first obtained. IE 1887 they 
belonged to Mr. 0. T. Metcalfe, Ootnoiifisioner of the Orissa Division, and the insorintion 
which is engraved on them was published in that year, with a facsimile, by the late Dr. 
Baj&adralal Mitra, in the Journ. As. 8oc. Be</. } Vol. LVI. Part L, p. 154 ff. In November 
1895 the plates were presented by the Commissioner of Orissa, through Mr. C. L. Qriesbaoh, 
to the Asiatio Society of Bengal, and they have now been entrusted to toe by Dr. Hoornle, with 
the request to re-edit the inscription. 

^Phere are threo subatantial copper-plates, the edges of which are slightly raised, and 
of which each measnres between 6^" and .6|" long by between 3|* and ^ high. They slide 
op ft copper ring, which .passes through a hole, which is about f distant from the middle pf 

1 Bead -dfc>&&*a-. * Bead -frt-. * Betd 

* Instead of this to- the Ch&mmak and Slwani grantfl of PfavMaeAna II. liave tf, which wmb( to B>D 

* Here lome tikAara (perbapB the initial tj iris engraved, bat hu been erased. 

The leading U doubtful The first -akthara of the line te vi, the irapHeript * of which, thoogn fin M 
dUtinctly visible in. the original ; and the second appears to be f-vd. The- third cfttfciMt look* more 1"V yd than. 
td, nd ia followed by a aign wbioh looks like a form of final , and haa probably been atrtiek oat The- * 'tod 
what f ollowa iti clear. 

*Ptbap Motfrafc^ ha* actually 1>een engrared j 

v Hare aain there IB a mark which look* like part of the niorgar. 
" BifcA' ^(rVv*"*-^*?*"' W-BeadWr** 

whfchii try itnall.U wAllj-VU^e In th 


i f Bead "taittaJsdt' t and compare abore, VoL IIL p. 281, 1. Ife ' 


the proper right margin of each plate. The ring, which had already been cut when the plates 
came into my hands, ia between T V and f thick and about 3'' in diameter, and on to it is soldered 
a roaghly circular metal seal, between 1^" and 1|" in diameter. The seal contains in relief 
on a countersunk surface, in the upper half, & coaching lion facing to the proper light, and in the 

lower half the legend 

Sri- Vidyddkara- 

in northern characters which are between y/ and '' high. 

Before the pUtes were used for the grant now engraved on them, they had already 

served for another grant, the four laafc lines of which, though faint, are almost completely 

hgiblo on the first siie'of the first plate, and of tha writing of which more or leas distinct 

traces remain also on the other Bides of the plates. The characters of this earlier grant belong 

to what I hare elsewhere 1 called the Cranjam variety of the northern alphabet; and the Knee 

with which it ended, compared with the end of the Gnmsur grant 2 of Ne'tribbanja, published 

in Jbur. As. Soc. Seng. Vol. VI. p. 669 f . and Plate xxxiii., would seem to show that the 

grant was issued by a chief of the same family. The four lines (on the first' side of the first 

plate), so far as I am able to read them, are : 

L. 1. Svayam=adisht6 rajf& dutak6=tra [Mar]tamdah || Likhitarim=cha J 

2. gr&Mka-Arfcka[de"v&ia]* I! Lanchhitam [rajjni-sri-Manikya-mahadfi- 

3. vy& [| TJtkirnnam oh=akBha[sa]li-Kumara[datteaa] 1J ' 5 samvat , . . 

4. di - . . j| 

The grant now recorded on these plates is engraved on the second side of the first plate 
and; on both sides of the two others. The engraving is deep and well done, and in a perfect state 
of preservation. In three places (in lines 10, 22 and 35) there is some donbfc about the actual 
wording of the text, either because the engraver altered what he had originally engraved, or 
because portions of the letters of- the earlier grant spoken of above are mixed up with the new 
writing ; the rest may be read withoat any difficulty. The size of the letters is about ,./. The 
characters telong to that variety of the northern alphabet which we find, e.g. on the Bnguda 
plates of Mfcdhavavarman, treated of above, Vol. VTZ p. 101 f. Of the consonant signs the 
most characteristic are those for W (s.g. in Harasya Seshdhsr*, L 4), { and ft 0-0- pnhta-, 
1. 9, and "vighattitt, 1. 6), and n (e.g. in -vdnn-p rdna-, 1. 1), of which the last, in combinatioa 
with palatals, also serves for the palatal nasal (e.g. in Bhanjdmala?, 1. 14, =uk1;afi*cha, 1. 27, and 
, L 35). Among other conjuncts attention may be drawn to the aigns for TesH, gg,gbh, 

1 8w abort. Vol. YIL, p. 101. 

The publJfted text, which was furnished to Mr. Prinep by Kamaiakaata Vidy&taihkara, is quite unttorf. 

worthy. AcctffaiixgtoMi. Prhuep's Lithograph of Lieutenant Kittoe'i copy, tha pasiage with which wa are 

floncttnd hew, to fr as I flan make it oat, would be gvayctm=ddi*ht& rdjnd d&ta,Tc6*tra - 



Etd Zrt.W*-. 

Bkd .***< ; ti three aktharti* by which this word ii followed are illegible. 

This (Kii followed by a iign which powibly- is aletter-nnmeral for 10; and before the sign of pnnctwtki 
than U *no*heriign which looks like the eymbol for <5A. The two wgoaiho* fairly well in the accompanying; 
fctmnile I may dd thit there are letter-namerals also ia the lafc line of the BSmmighati grant of Eanallafijsj 
publiihed with f*cimile in fount. At. 800. Banff. Vol. XL. Part I. p. 165 f., and ia lines 35 and B6 of one of 


The Mm* ign for A (which inot gwe.n by our palseographic TaWes) we find in the Bngndaplatem 
MadharaTaniUd, in the Quauor plates of Hfitribhafija, and on the second side of the plate of DindtowMM 
above, Vol. VI. p. 188. It was alo used in the grant originally engraved on these plates. A similar fora of 
A w find in. tarentl mietiei of the wuthern alphabet. 


dbh and mbh (e.g. in -vikshobha-daksham, 1. 1, vargga, 1. 10, -Digbhctnjadfoasya, 1. 12, =udbhd~ 
at the end of line 4, and -Stambhadeva-, 1. 36). There is a special sign for final t, in -dnyat, 1. 
18, wt/oi, at the commencement of line 19, 'jdvat, 1. 21, and rddhdt for rodhdt, 1. 22. Of initial 
vowels the text contains orly a (for ), 4, u and ^, in achandrd?, 1. '21, t'ua, 11. 5 and 6, &t, 1. 33, 
ZTjpcwianj/lX]"* 1. 23, rfcin?na, 1. 38, and ead, 1. 19. As regards medial vowels, d is some- 
times denoted by a short superscript stroke or by a small hook on the right of the consonant- 
sign, as in Idbhafija at the commencement of line 13, and in Bhanjdmotla , 1. 14 ; and there are 
two signs 1 of the subscript , one of which may be seen e.g. injayatu, 1. 1, and Ihuvana , 1. 2, 
and the other in -euro, , 1. 7, -ripu, 1. 10, Va&julvakd-, 1. 8, and =yca7wZ>7w=, I. 27, etc. ; the 
former of the two signs is used, also to denote medial tl, for which, there is no separate sign in 
these plates. Two forms of medial i may be seen e.g. iu tfeshdher^atyua ye, 1. 4, and 
pra(prd)leydchala-,l. 5; and similarly two forms of medial o, e.g. in kirttayo viU, 1. 35. 
Tie sign of anusvdra is sometimes placed after the consonant-sign, as in padam yafharham, 
1. 17. The signs of virdma and avagraha, do not occur, and a sign of punctuation ia found 
only in lines 20 and 25 (where in either case it is out of place) and at the' end of the grant. The 
language of the inscription is Sanskrit. There are two verses in lines 1-8, and four imprecatory 
Terses in lines 27-35 ; the rest oE the text is in prose. Ag regards orthography, the sign for 
v demotes both and 6 ; visarga at the end of a word is ten times omitted ; and single consonants 
are used instead of doable ones in chatusimd' for chatussimd-, 1. 19, -annrodlid eha for 
anurodhdch^cha, 1. 26, and five or six times in the words data and dati for dattct and datti. 
(lines 25, 28, 29, 31, 32 and perhaps 23). There is besides some confnaion of the short and 
long vowels, especially in the case of t aud i, where is used instead of t no lesa than nine 
times (e.g. in nikasha, 1. 3, ripu, 1. 10, salila, 1. 21, etc.) ; and &, as has been already stated, is 
everywliere written by the sign for a. A few times the writer or engraver has omitted an 
afofcora, as in Vidyddhabhanjcf foir VidyddharaWiafcja , 1. 15, the chief name of the inscription 
Which, is correctly given oa the seal ; and altogether the grant has been written rather 

The inscription is one of the devout worshipper of MahMvara(Siva), the ornament of the 
spotless family of the Bhafljas, 8 the MaMrdja VidyadharabhafLjadeva, also called Jring 
Dh.arnu*kalasa(?), who was a son o gilabhaftjadSva, 5 grandson of 

it opens witih two verses which, glorify the (third) eye of Hara (Siva) aud invoke the protection 
of the waves of the divine Q-aiiga. Iu lines 15-27 the king informs the Sdmantas, Sh6gins^ 
and others, the [lords of] vishayas, and the people generally who dwell in the Bamalawa, 
vishay a, that with pouring oat of water he give tha village of Taudarava in that district, 

til* two signs is used, depends on the coasonant to which the siga is attached ; thni, fc and 
tafce the curve-shaped rign and J> and * always th* straight or hook-shaped gign. In line 17, where the 
eurv-Aped * attached to p, the aktlmra, iuterded to be denoted is $& (of pdjayatf), not pu ; the same wmrnrk 
applica to thfl * of ntoddhitta (for nirddhMs ) iu line 11. Bat iu the case of bhu and 6A4 * suad 4 are both' 
denoted "by the aame (corre-shaped) sign. 

a Compar* e.g. Gangdmalakulafilaka, ahove, Vol. III. p. 18, 1. 12, and Eadamei(mt><t)imlal:*latiltJca,-ito<l. 

P " ~* In" line 6 of the Qafijam plates mentioned ia Mr. Sewell'i XAttt of J.*tiquitiet, Vol. II. p. 83, tfo. 218 
(and. of which Dr. Fleet has given me an impression), the name It spelt SildlJMtjadfati. Alwve, Vol. IIL p. 853, 
1 88 a plmca ildlh<t*japdtt, which was in 6tr<tJ,Ua (Orissa), is mentioned. 

* The name IXgUanja also occurs in the Bamangbatt plates of Ranabhafija, where fcbere can be no doabt 
about the reading of it. 

* The original has vifaya-'P'a&jvJixiJcAt. 

* Compare #. 'above, Vol. VI. p. 298, 1. 18 s -i&*Mi(t(t-l>J>6gi'ka'i>i*teyap*ti-i ibid. p. 142, 1. 25 (in on o 
iHu^almaib&d^TPt grants) ve have the tfrm Ifi 


rent-free, 1 to the IJiaffa Darukhandi--a son of urideva(?) and grandson of 

of the Upamanyu gttra and Bahvricha Aft&d (of the Rigveda) ; and he enjoins future ^ fl 

(r(2jofo) to protect this gift, and (in lines 27-35) quotes four imprecatory verses from * 


The inscription (in lines 35-38) ends with four statements, introduced severally by & 6 
participles Z<cMifcwn, prtw&itam, l%kUtam, t and utUrnam. About the meaning of the *** 
last there can be no donbt : the grant was -written "by the adndTiivigratiika (or 

peace and war) Khambha, and engraved by the akshasalin* (on goldsmith) Kn 
The term prcwSiitam I have nofc f onnd in similar surroundings in any other grant ; bat 
this word takes the place here of the phrase 8vayam=ddis'ht6 rdjfid dMako=tra> of the G 
grant of Nefcrihhanja and of the earlier -giant on these very plates 8 (where that phrase in t# th 
oases appears in company with IdftcTihitam, Ukhitam, and ufkirna,m\ I think that it &$* 
likewise be taken to refer to the business of the dutaka and that the words pravttaih S&W^ 
must be translated 'brought (to the donee's) home by (the messenger) Kesava.' 10 
passage commencing with IMcKMt am I am. unable to explain properly. According .to Dr. Ilee^ 
above Vol. VIE. p. 227, IMclihana denotes the device used on the seals of copper-plate charter** 
etc., and Idfichhita, therefore probably means ' furnished with euch a device * or ' marked with 
a seal' (mHdraydiMtdritam). 11 "We nd the word in the Buguda plates of MadhavavannftJ 1 ) 
above, VoL TTT_ p. 46, 1. 50, IdfichUtam JayasingJiena; in ihe Gafijam plates of Prith 
madeva, above, Vol. IV. p. 201, L 35, IdfitncKhitathfo-cha M-md(ma)7iddvyd ; ' in the 
which was originally engraved on these plates, above, p. 272, laftchhitam [rd^jfit-fri-Md 
maJidctevyd, ' marked with a seal by the queen, the glorious Manikya-mahadevi ;* and it 
also in the GKunsur grant of NetfibhaSja, where the words by which it is followed cannot ba 
made out with confidence. 6 In the present case our text appears to give us IdfichhtiaA itv 
T<nkdU*ga*nakAdfr)'y& t 'marked with a seal by the glorious Trikalinga-mahadevi,' 8 which 
would be similar to what we find in, the earlier grant on these plates ; but these worda are 
followed by t$ja$ik$iM t which may be corrupt and the meaning of which is quite obscure, and 
after that again we have the instrumental 4ribhatta-Stamb'hadt}va~mantrind i * by the mini&ter, 
the Wiaffa Stambhadeva,'? which, for want of the meaning of the obscure word, I see no "way of 
connecting with what precedes. It is curious that in at least two of the passages where ihe 
word IdAckhitatit occurs the marking with the seal is stated to have been performed by a queen. 
Our inwriptibn contains no date of any kind, and for the present it seems impossible to 
fix its age even approximately, because we know nothing that is certain, about the chiefs of the 
Bhafija family during the Middle Ages, 8 and possess no dated inscriptions with the same 
alphabet With all due reserve I would say that the inscription may perhaps be assigned to the 
12th or 13th century AJ>. , 

1 In the voiding the .grmnt th prdon* wjiich. we chuacterutic of the locality to which ibe gnat 
belong! ua *tmlx*4la (in line 19, nwdin tta wtwe of satriaddAa), *aliladAdrd~pvrafitart*a vidJtind, ind 
akaratvfaf (for which by mittoke JutraMna bar been engntved). Compare t&. above, Vol. III. p. 4ft 1. 8fl, 
ad Vol. VIL p. 101. . . 

> Oo thu void, which inBuiikrit ! genenUjr spelt akthafdli* (e.g. in I*d. Art. Vol. XXIL p. 
and Vol. XVHL p. 145, L 36), we now Prof. Hnltuch, aboTe, Vol. VII. p. 107, note 4. 

* See stave, p. 272 and note 2. 

* According to Yijfinaky 1. 810, ihe fdtana of king iheald be twtmfHhrdparifflFihnitcH* (i.<; na 
Garii^w4M4i^p<y^p^iaW<*i**it**<*litam). And above, Vol. lit p. 802, 1. 74, there is a ten* 
according to which a charter become* faultteas when it IB m*drd-t*ddha t < faultless as regards the seal,* ate. 

* Bee abore, p. 372, note 2. 

* Similar lume* are Cl6\a-mol4dM and &atgo-i*ok&dM. 

^ In the Onnvftr grant of ITetribbanja the ftiofto, ihe illustrious gtambhadgrag isjmeatioDed as rfWa *o. 
JLtradttuwaldataintbe ^afcayeu 754 (A.D. 833) i givea for on* of the Bhfcfija (Bhnaxu) 
Mr. SeweU'a JLittt tf JMtiymitut, 


As regards the localities, the .inscription mentions Vanjulraka, from where "both this 
grant and the Ghrmsur grant of N&ribhafija were issued, the Ramalawa viahaya and in it the 
village of TtLBdurava. I have not found the names of these places on the sheets of the Indian 
Atlas where I have looked for them. 

TEXT. 1 

First Plate ; Second Side. 

1 Om a [||*] 8 Jayatu Knsu:mava(ba)na-prai3a-viksh&bha-dakBham svaki- 

2 *rapaparivesh6rJiitya- 5 jirrinSnduldkhaHi [(*] tribhuvanahhavan-S- 

3 ntar=dy6tabhasvat-pradipam 6 kanakani(ni)kaaha-gatiraih vihhrn 7 nfitraih 

4 Haraaya [||*] 8 Seshahlr=ava fl y& phana[h*] pravilasanty-udbha- 

5 avarendu-tvisha[h*] prXpra)leyachaIa-$ringak&tta(ta)ya iva tva- 

6 figanti ya(ye)=tyunnata[h*] [)*] uritt&t6pa-vighattitH iva bhuj& ra- 

7 janti yS a[ro;jbhavaB=tS sarvvagha-vighatina[li*] surasa- 

8 rit[t*]6y-6wnmaya^ pantfti] vah [||] Svasti [|*]Vijaya-Vanjtavak- 10 

Second Plate ; First Side. 

9 d=aBti i:t Sri-vrjaya-nilayah prakatagu^agana-gra- 

10 8ta-sam.astari(ri)piiTargga[h*] 13 ls [ri-Dharmma PjkalaSa-nama ri- 

11 ja nirddhaW 4 -kalikalashalcalmasha[h*] Sri-RanabhafijadSva- 16 

12 sya prapautra[h*J firi-DigbhafijadSvasya 16 napt& irt-Si- 

13 iabh,afijadvasya sata^i paramamahsvar6 matapi- 

14 tri-padantLdityat& Bhafij&malakulatf-tilakd mahara- 

15 ja-5ri-VidyadhaCra*]bhanjadavasya" kusali Bamalawa- 19 

I Prom tha original plates. * Denoted by a symbol. * Metre : MAlint. 
* Originally ra^ayiri was engravedj but the t' of pi has been struck out. 

B Read "shaurjjitya. Compare JRaffhuva&fa v. 74 : tvakiravapafioStMdbMda-rtnydh pradtpdl. 

8 Bead -pfadtpa^. ' 

' Bead babhru.; this word is synonymous with pingalct, and Siva is fitgaldlcsha. Compare also above, 
Vol. VI. p. 200, 1. 1 of the text. The Gumste grant has ehdrtt. [In a letter which never reached the author 1 
suggested that vibhru is correct and should be translated " brow-less.'* S. K.] 

8 Metre -. SardHlayikri^ita. . . * Ead. **'. 

10 These Eour dksharas are quite clear in the original. Dr. R&j&adralal's text has Vetljalvakd. The Gunnur 
gtant appears to have Vdnjv,lvakdt t which- by Kamalakinta was misread VdfolutUTcdrtv. 

II Bead t \ Atti trt~. 

1 > The vitarya which I haye added here and below before fri is not absolutely necessary. 

" The words in these brackets are conjectural. As will be seen from the facsimile, four attharat were 
originally engraved here, but they were partly struck oat or altered ; and the difficulty is enhanced by the fact 
that remnants of letters, which were originally engraved on these plate* are mixed tip with th new letter*. I consider 
it certain thftt the first ajcthtr.* is intended tobe /r< (for frt), and that the lart, contained the oonjnnotW. 
The corresponding passage of the Gomsur grant is : 

14 Bead nirddhtta. 


" In the facsimile the first aktba, (fa) of this name might be read era (and wa read so by Dr. Rajendrattl), 
but in the original it is distinctly **, and what looks like i* a wmnant of what w* originally engrarod on the 

"This name U clear ia the original j. and so it the next Dr. Bftjendralal read the two names Dtooiftofyi 


Dr. Rijeudralal r^a4 ma,******** 1 *" ' " Bead , ,_... ^ W4 ' 

The first three aktlwat o this name are clear in the original ; the last might b re*d tdko. Dr. B4jn- 
read ramalabhtmja*, bnt iegrded the lettera &s doubtful, 



Second Plate ; Second 

16 visb.ay-8 yathaniv^Bi-s4manta-bli6gi-bh.6gyadi 1 -vi- 

17 sbaya-janapadaih yatharham mfcnayati pu(p&)jayati v6(b6)- 

18 dhayaty=adisati 9 ch=anyat sarvvatab. 8 fiivam=asmakam-a- 

19 nyafc 4 etad[v]i3haya-samvandha" 5 Tund[u]ra7ft^rama 6 clatosima- 

20 paryantah 7 gr&in6=yam || matapitr6r=tin#iiag=cba puny-a,- 

21 bbivriddbayS 8 aobandrarkka-samam kalam y&vat sall(li)ladha- 

22 ra-parabsarSua vidhina gan-fomradlat 9 karatvSna 10 [bh6gya P] 

23 Upamanya- 11 g6traya dat-pravaraya 12 Ba(ba)bvricba-syakba- 13 

Third Plate ; First Side. 

24 ya'G&richandrab 14 napt& Snridevasya euta bhatta-Daru- 

25 kbandi || namnS pratipadit6=sinabb.is=tad=3ah& dati=ddh.a,- ls 

26 rmma-gauravM=asmikamaaimr6dh.a 18 cha bbavishyad-rajafcaifl?*] 

27 pratipalaniy=ety= 17 uktaa=cha dharmma-dstrair:vvahubbir=vva- 

28 BttdM data 18 rajabhi[h*] Sagar-adibMr=yasya yasya yad4 

29 bhu(bb.ii)mis=ta8ya tasya tada phalam [||*j Svra-dftttam para-data 19 
80 y6 baryta vasundharam [|*J sa vislithaya[iix*J kfimi ?0 bbutvd pi- 

Tkird Plate; Second Side. 

31 ipbbi[b*] saba pacltya^ [((*] Ma blm(bh.u)d=apbala-Saak!l vab para-dat=6- sl 

32 ti pftrtMvab. [|*] 8va-danat=phalam='&ntyam 2s paradat-anupala- 

i The akshara 6Ad of bMgyddi has not come out well in the facsimile, but is quite clear in the original. 
Itt my opinion, the word Witgi before lUgy&di is superfluous and haa been engraved by mistake ; and for the 
following vittaya-janapadamj. should have expected something liie vislkayapattn=jdna$addt r f*o?ia. 
Bead cha I Anyat. The Gumsftr grant npparently has : ddifatt ckatarwataj) tiwtm 


1 Originally fivims was engraved, but the of t-i has be'ea struck out. 
*Tbis jecond *avyai is superfluous. 

Bead -samlandha- (for -tamladdha-). R ea d 

1 Read paryantd, The following grdm6=yam and the sign of punctuation are superfluous. 
8 Bead "dAhaya d-chandr&rJcka-scHna-ledlam ; the following ydvat is superfluous 
Bead r6dhdL 

Instead of ktratvtna, we require aTcaratvAna, which (like aTcariJefitya} occurs often iu other inscriptions 
and is quite distinct in the lithograph of the Gumsur grant (though Kamattkanta's text gives dkararatntna). 
The following two alc9\ar<ft are conjectural. In the Gumeur grant akaratvfaa is possibly followed by 
UiwHja^lfiili (for wliich the text has tTntihjddri). 
11 Bead UjpamanyU". 

Ai the word datta below is several times written data, this might stand for dattt- (or perhapi <fa.) 

pravardya ; but I am unable fco explain the expression. In Ind. Ant., Vol. XXL p. 256> 1. 43, we hw 

A.tpcmanyava-s^trdya \ Afltyana-tavraAmacMritf Wattapravara-rtMlkardtamifrctya, where bAatfapravara 

it equally obscure. The Upamanyavas had three pravarat Vasish^ha, Abhamdvasu and Indrapramada \ compare 

, M. MQller, Sitiory of Ancient Satufoit Lit., p. '385. 

" Qaitrio^andratya naptri &4ri$)d4i;atya ttitdyu Ihatta- 
. ' " Bead dattir=ddAa-. " i Bead" dhdcT>, 

Bead^=i I Uktan*oha dkctrmma-/<ittraih | 3atulMr'=. Metre of the verses' up to the commencement 
of line 83 : S16ka (Aaushfubh). 

"Read dcfttd. " Read -dattdfo, 

*o Bead Te^imir^bMtvd, ai Bead ~datt=S-. 

Bead 4a#f yaA ^radati-, as ^. above, Vol. III., p. 45, 1. 48 ; p. 843, 1. 26 ; otf. I'nriad otdumtyai* 
grauta have ^aa^yaA (above, Vol. III., p. 848, 1. 19, p. 853, 1. 46),. or ananfaih (Vol. Ill,, p, 867, L 50), or 
. Till., p. 142, 1. 2B). " 

Orissa plates of Vidyadharabhanjadeva. 






33 na(ne)Q|*] Iti 1 kajmladal&nvu(mbu)vfodu-l&la[m*] riyam=aiincb.i- 

34 ntya zna,n[n]shya-jivitamn=cha a [|*] sakdam4(i) dam=udalnntan=cba 

35 Ha hi [pu]rushaih para-kirttay6 va&[pyah||*]L&nchhitam firi-Tri[ka 

36 nga-ma(ma)hadevy[a] t6jadikena 5 Srf.bhatta-Stambhadeva-mantj 

37 prav6sita[m*] Ke'a'av&na? likhitam %anddhivigrihMri-Khainbhe- 
33 na urtkimna 9 ch-akshasali(li)-Kumarahamdena 10 H tba 11 [||] 

Br D. B. BHANDARKAR, M.A. ; Poosri. 

The subjoined inscriptions are all engraved on a column standing in situ in GhatiyalS, 
twenty-two miles west-north- west of Jodhpur. The column, is not far distant from an old 
rulntid Jaina structure, now called M&td-U-sal, which contains an. inscription edited by Prof. 
Kielhorn in the Journ. JB. As. Sou. 1895, p. 516. Further particulars in connection with, these 
ruins will be found in the Progress Report of the Archceological Swvey of India, Western OwclA, 
for the year ending 3 1st March 1907. Inscription. No. I is engraved on the eastern, and the 
remaining ones on the western, face of the pillar. The inscriptions are so -weather-worn that it ia 
not possible to take good impressions. With patience and perseverance, however, almost the 
wh.ole of the inscriptions can be deciphered with certainty on the original atone itself. 

Inscription No. I contains 20 linea of writing, which covers a space of 2' 3|* high by 
1' 6'' broad. The characters agree with those of the inscription found in the j&dtd-ki-s&l. The 
language is Sanskrit. The first seven lines are in prose. Lines 8 16 contain five verses. 
Th.en the date is given in prose in 1. 17. Then a verse occurs which, is followed by a line in 
prose. As regards orthography, the letter & is only once denoted by the sign for , in 
kutumvakarh, 1. 8 ; consonants are doubled after r ; visarga followed by s has been once changed 
to that letter in d&vyds=sut&, 1. 7 ; the dental nasal has been used instead of an anusvdra before 
in vansa, 1. 1 ; is doubled in conjunction with a following r ; and visargci has been omitted 
once before the following sta in ayam=usta i mbJiita stamblio, 1. 16. 

The inscription, opens with obeisance to Vinayaka (Qanapati) , Then is set forth in prose 
a genealogical list of the feudatory Pratihara family which is brought down to Kakkuka, to 
whose reign the inscription belongs. It agrees with the lists furnished by the inscription in the 
Mi dt&-M-sal and the epigraph of Bauka found in the J6dhpur oity wall. It is followed up by five 
verses, the first two of which merely contain conventional praise of Kakkuka without giving way 
lustorical information. The third verse says that Kakkuka obtained great renown in the countries 
of Travani, Valla and Mada, amongst (the people known as) Arya, in Gurjjarattra, and ia 
3?arvata in the L&ta country. Most of these names are repeated in verge 16 in the other 

I Metre : Pushpititgr&. 2 Read -jlvitam eTia. 

*B,oad Srt-Trikali-, A sign of the medial t, which was prefixed to the akihara tri t ha bean attack oai Ia 
the place of lea (?) another letter was originally engraved. 

* With the exception of the d ia brackets, the nine ciktharas at the beginning of the line ate cleat ia the 

4 Tbe vd at the end of the line and the md at the commencement of tbe next line,, which show ia the fac- 
simile, seem to me to be remnants of the inscription which was previously engraved oh. these plates. 

i The afcaiora* Sa-at of this word contain certain marks which were not engraved by the engraver of the 
present inscription aui Which were struck out by him 

8 Bead sandhivigrahi-trt- or sdndhivigrabilca-irt'* 

9 Readi**Mrn9ah. 10 Bead "chandr tita* 

II For this mark, which is distinctly tha, compare e.g. Ind. Ant. Vol. XVII., p. 140, note 4b. 


inscription of Kakkuka in the Mdtd-Tci-sdL Thus, Travanl is the same as Tamanl there, and 
also occurs in this tuiftltered form in verse 18 of the Jodhpur inscription of Bauka. Similarly 
Valla is mentioned in both these inscriptions. Mada is given in the Mdtd-U-sdl inscription 
conjunction with Maru (Maru-Mdja). Je'salmfir, is still called Mada, and Mara proper can onl 
be the Sheo, Mallaui and PacbpadrA districts of the Jodhpur State. Arya and GnrjaratrA an 
doubtless the Ajja and Gnjjaratt& of the Mdtd-M-sdl inscription. Arya is unidentifiable 
but is perhapa the same as that mentioned in Varahamihira's Brihat-samhitd, Cap. V, v. 42 

1 1 

Gurjaratra, as has been shown by me elsewhere, 1 comprised the districts of Pidwana 1 and Par- 
batsar of the Jodhpur State. L&ta, as was also pointed out by me, embraced about this time the 
larger portion of the present Gujarat of the Bombay Presidency. 9 Parvata, which is apparently 
eaid to be in LUta, is unknown to me. Does Parvata, however, here simply mean a mountain 
and refer to Borne such inroad of Kakknka as that mentioned in the expression qahiftu 
gohandim giriwmi in verse 17 of the Matd-U-sdl record ? Or perhaps Parvata may be taken to 
be a distinct country, and connected with the Pdrvattyas of the Brihat-samhitfi, Cap XVII 
v. 16. 

Verse 4 of our inscription tells us that Kakkuka erected two columns, one at Edhimsaka 
and the other at Maddddara, Exactly the same information is conveyed by verse 21 of the 
Mdtd-kt-sdl record, excepting that for Bohimsaka we have there Bdhimsakfipa. Rdhimaaka is 
undoubtedly the same as this Rohimsakupa or the Rohimsakupaka of our inscription. No. 2 
and is to be identified with Ghatiyaja. Maddddara, it can scarcely be seriously doubted, is 
Mand&r, five miles north of Jodhpur, whioh is locally believed to have been a seat of Pratihlra 
power and is full of very ancient ruins, and where a fragment of a Pratihara inscription was 
discovered by me last season. 8 The next verse informs us that the column on which the inscrip- 
tion has been incised was erected by Kakkuka. Precisely the same information is given by verse 
21 of the Mdtd-ki-sdl inscription. Then follows the date Sarfavat 18, Chaitra-dudi a budhS 
Hasta-nakshatr6, the same as ^hat mentioned in the latter inscription. And further we are 
told that hero a market was established, and the village peopled with mahdjana, i.e. big folk. 
The very same thing is alluded to in verse 20 of the Mdtd-M-sdl record. The inscription really 
ends here so far as the purport of it is concerned, but a verse follows which has something of 
the character of a subhdsMa. Its chief interest, however, lies in the fact that it was composed 
by Brl-Kakkuka himself, as the line in prose at the end informs us. 

Inscription Wo. II contains 11 lines of writing covering a space of 1' 3" nigh by 1' '2fc* 
broad. Excepting the opening words Om siddhty, it is in verse up to 1. 9, and the rest in prose. 
The palaeography and orthography do, not call for any remarks other than those made in 
connection with inscription No. I. The first verse invokes the blessings of Vinayaka (Ganapati) 
who, we are told, \ras placed on the column to ensure prosperity, and, as a matter of fact, the 

1 Jour*. So, At. Soo. Vol. XXI., pp. 414415. Ibid., pp. 418-414. 

Another ancient name of Mandor in Mafadavyapur mentioned in versa 10 of the Jddhpur inscription of the 
Pratthara Banka. In the Preset* Report of the Archaological Survey of India, Wtrtern'Circle, for the jest 
ending 31st March 1907, p. 80, 1 have said that though this inwrlption stone was found in the city wall of JMh- 
pur, it nut originally have heen at Manddr, M all itonei for the fortification of tbe fort had been broiight from the 
latter place. This conclusion is confirmed hj the first y4da of the vewe just referred to, which is Mdvdtvyapun- 
d*rfftt*mt*. The word atmin show, that the stone originally was at Mau<javyapnra, '.. Magddr, Maij'davyapura, 
agnin, is spoken of hoth us a city and fort, and Manddr remained BO till tlie prince Jodha removed his capital 
from there to Jodhpur. Even to this day some of the portions of the ramparts of Manddr have been preserved. 
As the verse m question states that certain Pratthara brother princes erected ramparts round Mftndavyapura foii, 
It Is plain that it wa* in the possession of the feudatory Pratihlra princes. This is also corroborated by the fsct 
mentioned m the text that last season I found a part of a stone inscription belonging to the Pratlhlras. In it the 
nwne of Kakka could be distinctly read, and torn* reference to his son made therein could al.V be traced. But 
?*, J? ^ "IT / ther KakkuKi **nk is not certain. The name Mandavynpura occnri even so hto 
T. B. 1319 in the Sundhl hill inscription of Chlohigadera (above, Vol. IX.. p. 78, L86). 


pillar is surmounted at the top by a quadruple image of Ganapati, facing the cardinal 
directions. The next vexse informs us that the village of Rdhinsakfipaka (Ghatiyala) liad 
formerly become unsafe on account of the- Abnlras (Ahirs), 1 and had consequently not been a 
place of residence for good people. Verses 8 and 4 tell us that Kakkuka, the favourite son 
of Kakka, of the Bratlhara race, constructed a market place decorated with variegated streets, 
W gnt to the houses of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas (prakriti)* and VaiSyas, and, promising them 
means of livelihood, established the maJidjana,, the big folk there. We thus fully understand 
what the Mdtd-ki-sdl^ epigraph and our inscription No. I mean by saying that Kakkuka 
established a 7iaf? a and mahdjana at Kohimsaka or Rohimsakupa. Owing to its being infested 
by the Abhiras, whose predatory instincts even to the present day are not quite extinct, the place 
must have become deserted, but it was re-peopled by Kakkuka by inducing men of the three 
principal castea to come and reside there, after he had defeated and ousted the Aliirs. The verso 
following expresses a wish for the permanence of the prosperity of the mahiijui.-a, and o the 
fame of Kakkuka. Then follows the date Samvat 818 Chaitra Sudi 2 which, though tht 
farther details of it are not given, is, it will bo seen, identical with that specified in our inscrip- 
tion No. I and the Mdtd-kt-ttdl epigraph. Noxt, wo are informed that the inscription was writ; on 
by a Maga, called WEatpiravi, and was engraved by the goldsmith Krishnesvaia, doubtlos -.In 
same who incised the Jodhpar inscription of tho Pratihara Bivuka. It is followed up by t.li", 
name of the s&tradhdra, or muson who probably dressed the stone and erected tho column, but 
the name is lost, 

The fact that Matriravi is called a Maya is very interesting. On the original stone the 
.etters wto and gtl are quite distinct, and, though nu is not so distinct, it is clear enough. No 
uasonable doubt need, therefore, bo entertained as to Msitriravi being spoken of as a Maga. 
tfaga is another name for the iSdkailvtpiya Bi-iihrnanas, about whom the late Professor Weber 
vrote a very learred and exhaustive paper. Round about Jodhpar there is a^claas of Brahtaaaas 
:novm as Sfivaks, most of whom are religious dependants of the Oeval Sravaks. They call 
hemselves Sakadvipa Brahmanas, and know that their story is told in the Namagrantha of the 
Wrya-pwdna and also in the Bhavishya-purdna. That the Sakadvlpiyas were originally 
oreignera has been clearly shown by Professor "Weber. But it is only our inscription that f ur- 
liflheu a specific date, via, V. E. 918, when we can positively assert that Magaa lived and were 
known by this very name in Bajputana at least. 

Inscription No, III is of two lines containing nothing but verse 5 of Inscription No. I. 
Inscription. No. IV consists of four lines containing two verses. They possess the flavour of 
tvbhdshitas, and have each one and the same last pdda, saying that six things are dear to 
Kakk.uk.ft. What those six things are has been specified in the verses themselves. 

No. I. 


D*] ^- __ 


For MM remark, ou Ahi, we Jtam. a* ^ Sac. Vol. XXI. pp. 430-483; for filler information 
we my monograph contributed to the Ethnographical Survey of Bombay, 

JP^WwMflh i tb wrae a. ji^t ia vewe 20 of the Mdtd-kt..dl xnscnptioa, beta doubtless Bigmfte. the 
K.htriya- claw, a> i dirtiugtliahed both from th <jpr* (BraMn*>) *"<i *'* (Vatfiya) classes. Tbu is ratter 
aa wwraal MDM of the word, and w far I have iwUeea it wed iu thi. sense my where el8 * 

rrom the original atone. * Bead ^' ^^'^ *T**. 


5 wrefH^; [i*] *nr"* 'sfaftspir: [i*] 

6 ^tf*rirf^r: [i*] 


8 *RT: iiz* 5 ^ 1 w f%rc: TOT: ftrtf 

9 fatprr t; 9rcra 2 <^f5<i^"fl gW*<$ u [^*] 

10 ^Fwt ttfttftift ^tfxr ^rawL^J i 

11 apw^j OT ?ror ^w ^-liisi^ H 0*] 

12 UTHT 4^l<&ufa*st3^i ^UTTWt: I ^1^" 

13 g ^<^^i ^TTStsi ^ ^S II U*] 


18 wfaft: ^t [i*] 

19 fcrerr i g^vn^rg ^m^r ?T^I srfa 

20 ^raf ^Iw; ^^fii^T ^^n; 4 n 

No. TI. 




8 5R; s* s 7 ijf?r: i 


1 Bead $%^ 2 I do not mideratnud the potiti.m of -q<rf heix- 

8 Eead ^fWRT. * Head qq gfj^j ; the anvgvdra, of >o e mrut bare bwn inadvertently 
placed over ''k^i*. 

' vmm the original stone. Ecftd 



11 *** i^id* fa 

No. Ill, 


No. IV. 
TEXT. 1 

K*4fn *TMfl\ tl 


Sarang&rh is tho capital of a feudatory State of the same name in the Chhattfegarh divi- 
sion of the Central Provinces, 82 miles south of Raigarh, the capital of another .State and a 
station on the Bengal -STagpur Railway. The chiefs of these two States are R&j-Gftnds. The 
plates in question are in the possession of the Rij family and first came to my notice in the begin- 
ning of the year 1903 at my last visit to Sasangarh. As they were looked uj> and the keys were 
not available at the time, the then Superintendent of the State, Rai Sahib AJam Chaaid, prom- 
ised to s nd them to :ae when I asked for them, but my reversion to the executive duties 
before I could return to head-quarters, followed by Pandit llam Chand's retirement from 
service, left them where they were, until the present Superintendent, Munsht Akbar Khan, took 
active steps in the matter at the instance of Rai Bahadur PandA Baijnafch, B.A., Dlwin of the 
Bastar State, and sent them on to me on the 7th January 1908. Thus the recovery of the plates 
first discovered over forty years ago ia as much due to the interest of the above gentlemen as to 
the readiness of Raja Jawahttr Singh to lend the<n for examination. 

The exact date and the detaila of t&e first disoovez^ are not now forthcoming, but the 
platei are laid to nave reached the Bengal Asiatic Society on th* 7th December 1864 s Dr. 
Rajendra Lai Mitra, published them in that Society's Journal in 1806* where he stated that they 
were presented to the Society by Lieutenant G. Bowie of the Sainbalpur Police Corps, but when 
Dr. Fleet wrote Ha Gupta inscriptions about 1888, and searched for -the plates, he could not 

1 Fifom tilie original atone. * Bead 

8 See Jour. Stuff. As> SM. Vol XXXV,, 

282 EPIGRAPHIA , INDIOA. [Voi. &. 

find them. He then recorded that as the published version was not sufficiently reliable to lie 
reproduced he was unable to include this inscription in his volume. 1 

The fact appears to be that the plates were never presented to the Society. They were 
simply lent by and finally returned to the owner, the Sarangarh family, whose State was in 
those days included in the Sambalpttr district, now transferred to Bengal. 

These facts combined with the absence of a facsimile copy of the record in Dr. BdjSndra 
Lai's notice, together with certain miareadings of the text, afford, I venture to think, sufficient 
reasons for re-editing this inscription. 

There are two copper platea, each measuring 6| W X 3|", and the weight of the two together ig 
12 ozs, 5| drs. About 1* from the proper right margin each plate has a hole, roundish 
on one side and squarish on the other, the diameter being about T y . These were intended for 
stringing the plates on the ring, the loss of which has deprived our inscription of its last por- 
tion, which must have been engraved on a third plate. The lost plate must have contained about 
5 or 6 lines B which can almost be restored from other inscriptions of the same king, and of 
Maha-Jayar&ja, all of which are composed in exactly the same wordings, the names of villages 
granted and the donees being of course different. In our inscription only some of the impreca- 
tory verses are lost as also the date at the end, which of course cannofc be restored. Judging from 
other inscriptions of this king the date must have been in regnal years, so that it could not 
have been of much help beyond fixing the priority or otherwise of oar inscription as compared 
with others. 

The plates recovered are in an excellent state of preservation. One is inscribed on one 
side and the other on both in. characters of the box-beaded variety of the Central Indian 
alphabet. The letters are very neatly and well formed, their average size being about '. 
The accompanying plate gives a facsimile copy, from impressions kindly taken for me by 
Mr. T. G. Green, Superintendent of the Government Press, Nagpur. 

The language is Sanskrit prose except the usual imprecatory verses, here attributed to 
Vyasa. As regards orthography, there is very little to be noticed beyond what haa been 
already done by Dr. Konow with regard to another inscription at the same king recently found at 
Khariar. 3 As the composition is almost identical, the peculiarities are common, to both. The 
upadhmdniya occurs in line 8 in ~prada^yarama^. The same sign, via, 2 dote, has been used 
for vitarga and a pause. Ordinarily mdtrds for , r* and ft alone are attached at the foot of 
letters, but in this inscription there is a curious example in Hoe 12 where the sign for 6 in 
anumdditah is partly exhibited by a top and partly by a foot stroke, all other 6's being 
represented by the top strokes for d and 6; compare vikkramfyanata* of line 1. 

The inscription was issued from the town of flarabhapnra and records the grant of 
a Tillage named Chullaacjaraka situated in, the Mukti or subdivision of Tundaraka, b.y 
the Queen and the royal family of Baja MabJUSudeva and assented to by him, to a number pf 
learned priests, t. Bhaskarasvami, PrabhAkarasvaxni, Barbbarisvami, B&fcasvami, 
Dattasvami, Vishousvami, Phalgusvami, &vamik!rltiavami and Samkar&svami, all of the 
KauSika gfara. One of these, Vishnasvami, is apparently identical with the donee 
of the Khariar plates. He also belonged to the Kautika gdtra and received a village in the 
Khariar zammd&rl from this king. Neither these two nor the third charter of this king, 
which was obtained from Raipur, throw any light on the dynasty to which he belonged o* on 

1 Gupta Intoriftiotu, p. 198, footnote 2. * 

Eighteen lines of our inwripfcion remain r the Kharlw pUtw bT* 38 linen, the Irug plate of J.yulja i 

and tie Baipar P ltes O f Sudeva 28, bat time Iwt one. re much im*llr in dit than tb otoeri. Out pte* W 

lightly t> igger than all the three let*. 
* See above, pp. 170 and fl. 

Sarangarh plates of Maha-Sudrva. 


HO. 39- J . , .._._ _ - ^ 

T) Konow has conjectured that the Sarabhapura kings might have been Rashtrakutas. 
^ ' Bcendant in the Central Provinces about the 8th century to which period the charao- 
They were k B oription belong. But Dr. Konow, for reasons pointed out by him, regards the 
^0^ as yet very doubtful. 

the geographical names occurring in the inscription Sarabhapura, which recurs 

v ther two grante of Maha-Sndeva, and in the Arang plates of Maha-Jayaraja, has not 
k 'i{ t'fied. I identify Tundaraka with the present Tundra, about 6 miles south 
yetbeen ide^i ^ ^ ^ Mahanad! and about 85 miles west of Sarangarh. It is now 
^ & l& n the Bal6da Bazar tahstt of the Raipur district. The village Chullandaraka 
"^ t v ?beeu somewhere oloee to Tundra, but I am at present unable to trace it. If it 

i w nld now find the name in a form like Ohulandur, a characteristic Chattisgarhl 
easts we wo ^^ ^.^ j remember ^^ M^^d^ p a Undur, Kachandur, eto. 

TUT to me that another village granted by MaU-Sudeva in his Baipur charter 


of Tundra. Maha-Jayarija of the Arang plates, who belonged to the same 
us to have granted a village in the same part- of i* kingdom, w .. Pamva, 
ith P&mgarh, about 21 miles north of Tundra and included in the Janjgir 
and risahik& are stated to be included m the 

county, and we know from the Khariar plates that to the south the 

Kb*riar. This leads to the inference that the territories of 

5*. of Maha-Sosala, or ro.ghly speaking Chat^h 

division' TBXT.* 


Plate ;.*** ^ 

u n^^^^^^STK i^-ii-ii^**-^*"- 

12 ihtO Wi4tT-AmHiiJsiuimMili [IP] '"' y?"" __ 


_ ________________________-__.^_________________ 

/Second Plats ; Second Bids. 

13 na-vidh6y& bhfttva yathochitarfx ^k&ga-bhjaniupanayani8 

prativatsyatha [||*] 

14 Bhavighyatas^cha bhumipau='auudar8ayati II l Dantdavis^Bh^m=ajm 

15 ragfcmh 9 dhannmfishu :nioMtadhiyahpr*vadanti dhartamaih 

dvijaya suvi- 

16 finddha-kuhvSrataya dattArfx bhuvarfi bhavatu v& matireva 


17 r=apy=esh& dattir*annpalayitavya [|] Vyasa-gitlni8=oh-atHfc e 

18 nti II 8 Agner=apatyarix prathamarfx auvar^oaih (||) bburwaiehnavi 

Om ! HaU ! From Sarabhapura. The iUustriou* Hafca-Sudftvft Raja, whose two feet aw 
washed by the water which is the flowing forth of the lustre from the crest jewels in the tiaras of 
the chiefs who have been subjugated by (his) prove** } who is the cause for the doing a* ay ^ 
the parting o the hair of the women, of hi enenaie ; who is the giver of riches, of land 
and of cows ; who is a devout worshipper o the Bhagavafc ; who meditates on the feet of lis 
mother and father issues a command to the hotuwholdewi living in Ohulla^idaraka in the 
territorial sub-division (&7wto) of Tun4araJfca : 

Be it known to you that this village, the source (by this grant of it) of (our) ensuring 
the happiness of the abode of (Indra), th* lord of the goda -which hai been oonvejed by 
a copper charter accompanied with (pouring) ol water, by the Eoyal Consort? and the Bojal 
Family to Bhaskarasvaini, who knows the h*e thousand* (verses P) Prabhakarasvftmi, 
Barbbarisvami, BSfasvami, Dattasvami, Vishousvami, PhalgtisvaTni, Svflmikhitigy&ffii' 
(and) ^ankarasvami (all) of the Kautfka g6tret, to be enjoyed as long as the world endures 
having the terrible darkness dispelled by the rays of th* Sun, the Moon and the Stars, together 
with ita treasures and deposits, not to be entered by the district officer" and soldiers ; (and), free 

1 Metre Vnttillc&. Bwd jntnf^ M*t 

^ ^t^^W^rt^ventbi .froAtfdeaH ^atM^tray^lt^ HwM Md ya1> 
gam aha ntahtik CM dadydt B, 

* I, 1 ^ av fraely adopted the Un a e * ob** fewwlnto^ of fimllr i*criptUm*, p*cSlly ot Dr. Konow 
and Fleet. * * 

. It 

occurs ,a other i***V* ( O*pt* IvoriftU**, p. 218, Mt ft) and wmettam bacouM pffmawmtly ittvM 
to name, .aoh Jiabhuttt, the ancient nanw o Bu^kWnd, whW w oorraptad into jj^tt in 
' 1B * (W<! * ' VoL *" p> 2I8 ' "^ *' *l *rw"* l/* VoL L, o, 02), 

Df ' B*j6a4Ul hn. t*kx ta U pt of tke ^oper MM. 
P^ wibg 
, oojuudered M a gntet aohlv*mat in tiuMt mt, 

tamtalte I *^d in 

b*d of a 
Tk* Wr collect, tin 

-* ^ *M| <xf the 

w jmMWd to u, J^ual B*rt of tk. 

(1902-03) I hnre therrfor. r*odwd tte ww4 by 'dlrtrlrt oft^r.' It w 



from all taxes, has been sanctioned by us, for the increase of the religious merit of (our) parents 
and of onrself. Being aware of this you should be obedient to their commands, and should 
dwell in happiness rendering in proper manner (their) share of the enjoyment. 

And he enjoins upon f afeare king*. The ancients whose minds are fixed upon religion say 
that the virtue that arises from the preservation (of a grant) is greater than (that which 
arises from making a grant) j therefore your mind should verily incline to preserve land that 
haa been given to a Brahman of very pure family and holy learning, Therefore this gift 
should be preserved by you also. 

And they cite on this point the verses that were snug by Yyasa : Gold is the first 
offspring of fire ; the earth belongs to the God Vishou and (cows are) the daughters of the 
saa : (therefore the three worlds are given by him who gives gold, and a oow and land;. 1 

[GUPTA] SAMVAT 283. ' 


This inscription, which is edited here for the first time, was discovered several years ago by a 
peasant in a cornfield in the zamindarl of Pati&kella in the district of Cuttack in Orissa. It is 
the property of an Oriyft Br&hman, who, I hear, regularly worships it. The Raja of Patiakella 
made it over to Babu Nag&ndra Natha Vasu, the Honorary Archaeological Surveyor to the 
May&rbhafija Estate, tSTag&ndra Babu, made it over to me some six or seven months ago for 

The inscription, ia engraved on a single plate of copper, measuring 7J" by 2|". To the left 
there is an oval projection, 1$* Jong, to which a lump of brass or bell metal is attached. On the 
top of this lump there is an. oval cavity, showing traces of the seal. But no letters or symbols 
are discernible at present. Both sides of the plate are inscribed. Altogether there are eighteen 
lines of writing in this grant. The writing was fairly well-executed, but its preservation is 
not very good. One corner of the plate is missing and has carried away portions of the dates 
with it. Fortunately the date can be made out correctly from the j-ortious still remaining. 
In this grant the date was given twice. First of all we read in the second line tryadUk&tittyv 
Mara , . , and secondly at the end of the eighteenth Hue Samvat 200 . . Thus tens 
and hundreds are all fairly certain. I am indebted to Dr, Koaow for the reading of the symbol 
for two hundred. 

The characters belong to the northern class of alphabets and are in every respect similar to 
those of the Mupdeflvar! inscription of Ud*yasena, from the Shahabad district. The MuadSSvarl 
inscription is dated in the [Harsha] year 30 (635 A,DO* i The peculiarities of the characters 
of our grant are as follows ? 

(a) Among &M ligatures the only noticeable feature is to be found in the d mark, which 
is expressed in two different ways while attached to the same letter na, Cf. 

privilege of importance that the bead of the dirtrict WM not allowed to interfere with the granted land ; ia 
other wwrde, he ** not allowed to ooUetft labourer* or to demand lapplies, etc., oa fx&alf of the State." 

1 The* word, which mut have been <mg*ed ift the third plate have been supplied to make ense. 

* IrW'Mnrtttmt Vraipftm h* bcei fooivd In two pieces. The Becond portion was preimted to the Indita 
.Mtwenm > f back u 1891. The firrt portion contain* the date was found among the Mb** wound the temple 
and sent to the Indian Mnwum in 1904. Ppr the Mu^eSrari temple, ate Lvtt of Ancient Xonimunti t Seng al 
(1896), p. 870. Dr.Bloohhw referred to thtl inKaiption Wiee. ,6<* Annual Eepofi tf ** Ar'teologwl 
8*w f > Senffal Circle, 1902-08, p. 20, and J&**1 Rtpwt of ih ArclaologiMl Survty of JM 190.3-03, 
pp. 42-18. The inwription will be published belew, pp, 289 and ft. 



t in 1. 8 with vrihadbb$gikddhikaravdnymfa a> j t 17, T , 
is unusual in -p&rovak$n-d* in 1. 9. ' * 

(5) It is interesting to noto that this Cuttack grant shows a greater affinit 

Mundesvart inscription than does the Ganjfim grant of 6aanka 1 while ft 1 
shows a marked affinity to the B6dh Gaya inscription of Mahtoin,. * 
Gupta year 269." Thus the ya in the B6dh GayA inBcription and the QafiL i 
is bipartite, while in the Muud&vari inscription and the present trrant it ft 
uaual early Gupta type, *.. tripartite. Similarly tho lingual aha in 
and the MundesVarl inscription shows a cursive base line unlike the * ^ 
type of the B&dh Gayfi and GanjAm inscriptions. ThUform of 
found in the Nepal inscription of tho year 316.* ' 

(c) The presence of the acute angle is noticeable only in the dental g a and ma 
the case in the Mundesvari inscription. But some letters elbow 
acute angle at their lower extremities in alternative oases- e 
-MMgam*. (1. 5) with %tin MUM* in 1. 3, and 

(<*) The eharacters of our grant differ from those of the Mt^eivarf inscription in BO fc, 
SB the bagoal ^u in the latter is exactly aimilar to tfce ^ of the early Gupta tn 

/ ^ m, W ^ pa m ur grant *** lar & er ^P* 06 ** the right and left carves 
(0 The characters of this grant show a greater affinity to the G6Imadhit61 iasortotion rf 
the Gupta year 316 than to the contemporary K^i^pBoi ^& 
of the epoch begmning with the last half of tbe 6th and ending wTh L Z 
half of the 7th cen ury A.D, can notrhere be .tudiod with^rTter adyanZ 
than m Nepal. The inamptiona of the Haraha year 84, the Oupta year 316 T 
Harsha years 39 and 45 show very clearly the ohlng, wl^Z^^gJJ 
characters m tibe last half of the 6th century and the 50 j*** following that, i 
the ^Imadhxtol nation of ifce yea, 3X0 .how. in ft, oharaoter; very m 
departure from those of the Mandarir intcripidou of YModhaman* The Pa J 
mscnpton of the year 34 eochibit. a farther rtep cmwmrdi, M it i. morealliedTo 
the Gafijam grant of Sarfanka than oiur grant or the 
nextn.scnpi.on, ihat of the H*wh yea, W ^d t 
of ^e same era, aw i mioribed in chiwotm whwh ar 
Gayamsc^tion of Mahiaam** and fb 

(/) The letters da and * resemble each other very 
t/., 1. 7, looks like 

auohakin to the B6dh 
Bwwkhdra grants of 


-* - 

" * 

which clearly 
1 Above, Vol. 


l poritioa. Th tb <rf th. .utab ! Jhe ,, f tti 

'atktkclla Plate of Sivaraja. [Gupta] Samvat [283]. 

l *'^i 






Patiakella Plate of Sivaraja. [Gupta] Stunvut [283]. 



donor points to aivism, but the names of several donees such as Vishnusvami, , 

(}6palflsvami, etc., show a Vaishuava taiat. The document was issued f torn Vorttandka, 
ffflich was the Imperial capital (1. 4) as well as the residence of the feudatory chief (1. 8). 
The grant consisted in the village Tap-dralvalu. It was given to several Brahmans belonging 
to separate gfttraa and charanaa. The date has already been discussed. There can be little 
donbt about the fact that it is a Gupta year. Thus our grant was incised after the B6dh Gaya 
inscription and before tho Gaujam grant, the Nepal inscription of the year 316, and the 
MundSsvari inscription. The second line mentions the kings of the MSna race, Mdnavanfa* 
rdjydk&U. This dynasty has been mentioned, in two 12th century inscriptions only, vis. the 
Nawadft inscription of the laka year 1059, 1 which has been recently purchased by the 
Arohjeologioal -Survey and brought to the Indian Museum, and in the Dudhpaui rock 
inscription, 8 

I am afraid it is beyond ray power to identify the geographical position of the village 
mentioned in the Patoakelld grant. Neither the vishaya nor the bhukti or the mantfala has 
been mentioned in tho grant, but in lines 5-6, we find asminn=6va visliayS, which probably 
indicates that the name of the wishaya was also V&rtfcan&ka. 8 I now edit the inscription from 
the original plate ;*~< 4 


First Side, 
1 Om 6 evasti [1*] salila-nidhi-v61a-vala[yita-oha]la-tarang-abharaoa-ruohira-maih.gura 

2 pattanavafcya[m] vaaumatya[m] pravarttamana-Mana-vauia-rajya-ktLU tryadhifc-asltty- 

ntta[ra] . . 

3 Maudgal-amala-kulfe gagana-tala-aitadidhiti-nivate Bita-charit6 

4 fiasati 


5 ni^har-adhigama.pratihata(h)-kaliyug-agata-dttritarniohayah(y6) maharaja- 

Sivarajal? kuSall asminnva 

6 viehay6 6am upagat-&bnavisiiyat-samajxte-raia-raiasfchaniy-6parika-kum&raraatya- 


7 vrihadbhdgikadhikarauanyeva rajapadSpajivl yafcharha[m] .Sravayafa manayati oha 

viditam-a[atu] bhavatarii ya[th&> 

8 ttra Yiehay^ sambaddha-Tan4ralralu8-grama(m&) Vdrttan6k-9[avav&sa- 

g6(P)]hatt6-smibbilji matapitbr6ratmanafi-oha puny-a- 

9 bhivyiddhaye Ba lil ft .dhAra-p^vvaken=achandr4rka.sama.kaKy.akshflyamn(nS^ 

dharmm^na 10 nana-gdttra- __ 

rf DtanlL B MO. 

that could be obtained. S. TS..J 

i " Bi ' thtal 

. . . 
Kd .)>.*<. Compm above, V.I. VI., ?. I . Til, P. 101 


Second Side, 

10 charane"bhya AntiraddhaBV&mi-G6taid6vaBvSmi-- T g V 

11 Harungaav^aiti-01mndraBv&mi-Bhadrasvami-Chliddiavami-Pushyas74iai- 




13 Ana[nta Pjavami-Prabhalcarasvami-Nava . .raavaml-Dlpiavami-Jara[vu]Bv4nii.G6 ' 

Vaksvami- ^ 

14 Jyfishthaflvami-Adariiana^va-Dhanadfiva-Kumarasvattu-JyftBhthaavami-R 

Praya(P)avami- ' 

15 Pushyasvami-Chhediavlmi-Vappadsvimi^^ 


16 -patti-kritya sampradattalji [|] Ptorwarajafcritd dharmm[&] *nupalanlyaiti(ya '\ 

matv^ bliavadbliit[l f j Dliarmma6aaia:$8liv*apl druyatd [|*J 

17 Va(ba)hubhir=vvaBndH datU rajabMfc -Sagar&dibbil? [|*j ya8 y a yasva vdA 

bhftmv^tasTa tasya [tada plxalata] [||] [Shaah^uh] varsha- 

18 sahasrani svarggd tialithati bhftmidat [|*] IkshfipU ob.antiinaniA oha fft n 

67a narakfi vasSt [||] Samvati 200 ..... any= 

In the [two hundred] and eighty-third year of the rale of the Mftna family on the earth 
full of cities, which has the shores of the ocean aa its bracelet, the moving waves an its trinkets and 
the radiant maAgura fishes as its ... In the apotleaa family of Mudgala, when the great 
worahipper of Mah^fivara (Siva), the iUnstrioas Saggnyayyana, whose character was white and 
who was tmdiaturbed like the moon in the sky, was ruling in southern Tdsall, Jfo&Ma 
Sivarftja, whom the aoonnmlation of sins oonld not approach on account of his obtain^ from 
the lotus-like feet of the Paramabhattaraka, the God of Goda, the spotleas position of a ruin of the 
^'J?? g in r, g d health> fromVdrt ^^ honors all present and fature feudatory chiefs, 
KdjastUmyas, Vpanltas, officers of tae heir-apparent, OVMyWa&af, great nobles, tax-oolleotors 
and other dependanta of the king in this m'riaya due form and proclaims :- Be it 
known to you that the village Tandralvalu, belonging to this Maya, from (the residential 
house at P) V6rttan6ka,fortheinoreaBeof the merit of my father and mother and myself 
after having poured out water, to last as long as the Sun and the Moon subsist*, everlaetiU, 
as a permanent endowment, is given by writing on copper plated to Anuruddhasrami, 
G6nndevasvami, Surasvami, Vftppasvami, Pitrisvami, Haruigasvami, Ohandrasvami, 
Bhadrasvami, ^ Chhedisvami, Pushyasvami, . .karaevami, Kohinluvami, Vu(Bu)ddbasvami, 
Mahasfi 9 asvami, Vishuusvami, Yadusvomi, Matra^asvami, Nagaavimi, Blxdgasvami, An(aM- 
T ^ f A T &mi ' f ftvaraav&mi Dlpisvftmi, J ft m(vu)svami, Gfimisyami, Valasvami, 
^shthasvami, Adarfianad^va, Dhanadeva, Kumaraayami, Jy^hthasvami, B^vatisvami, 
Prayasvami, Pushyasvamz, Ohh&disvami, Vappaavftmi, Sravasvami, G&p&lasvami, Gfimisvami, 
belonging to vanous gdtn, and chan^u. A law laid down by former kings Bhould be 
observed thinking so (you should obaerve my gift). It is heard m the laws (two of the 
ordinary benedictory verses follow). Saravat 200, 

1 Bead 

Mundesvari inscription of the time of Udayasena. [HarshaJ Samvat 30. 



Scale -3 


THE [HAESHA] tfiAB 30. 


This inscription, was discovered among the d$bria which had. aooumulated arqund tlxe 
temple of MundeSvari in tho Bhlbua subdivision of the Shahabad district. 1 Ifc seems that some- 
time after the incision of the inscription some ignorant person sawed it lengthwise in halves, 
Tlie two halves of the inscription were discovered and brought to the Indian Mnaenm at differ- 
ent dates. The second half seems to have been discovered by the late Babn Puma Chandra 
Mukh&rji so far back as 1891-92. The first half, which is the more important part of the in- 
scription, as it contains the date, was discovered in 1902. 8 Impressions on tin foils were then 
sent to Dr. Blooh. The inscription was finally bronght to the Indian Mnseum in the beginning 
of 1904. The two halves have now been joined together and placed on a masonry pedestal in 
the Inscription, gallery ot the Museum. 

The stone measures 2' 8 V by 1' 1'' and contains eighteen lines of well-executed writing, la 
the first half o the inscription the first fifteen lines are clear, but the sixteenth line has been 
much damaged and the seventeenth and eighteenth lines have been lost altogether. With the 
exception of the last two linos, .which contain one of the usual imprecatory verses, the whole of 
the inscription is in prose, 

In a previous paper I have fully diacassed the palaeography of this inscription. 8 The only 
orthographical peculiarities are the substitution of ba for va in satribatsara, and the use of 
instead of m before L Letters with a superscribed rdpha. have been doubled. Final forms of 771 
4,re to be found in 11. 2, 4i and 18, and of t in 1. 15. The sign of avagraha has not been used at 
all, though it -would have been in its place in 11. 14 and 18. Note also the form Mritakum inl. 6. 

The inscription records a grant of two prasthas of rice and a pala of oil to the god Manual- 
ttvara by a kulapati* narned Baftgudalaua, It is dated In the year 30 in the reign of the 
Matidsdmanta, MaMpratihdra, MMr&ja, UdayaaSaa, who is not known from other sources. 
Judging from, the affinity of the characters of this inscription with those of the years 34 and 39 
from Nepal, 6 the era is most probably that established by Haishavsrdhana. The mutilation of 
the central portion of the inscription by sawing the stone into two halves has caused a series 
of gaps. Soma of these can bo filled up, bat lines 11 and 15 are quite unintelligible. I now 
edit the inscription from the original stone. 


Satoba(dava)tsar trinfiati[tam3 Kftrttika-divasS dvavinSatim6 

2 a8min^mba,(mva)t3ara-maaar[diva]sa-purvvayam firl-Mah&samauta- 

3 Mahapratthira-Mahlraj-CddftlyasSaB-rajy^ kulapati-Bhagudalana-? 

4 Bsa devanikayom dandatnajyaka-aSmibha^aa prartthayitv& 

5 m&tapittr&r*atmanaSoha pu[nya]bhivriddhay6 VinlteSvara-mathaaama- 

6 vSiarh matiham&tatkarifcakaxh [Sri-]NarAyana-devakulasya 

ttif of A*l**t Monu**t, to Suf* (paT^hcd ty the Pablio Works Department, 1895) pp. 670-371 
rf Report of Me Afohtioloyiottl 8*rvty of India (1902-08), pp. 42-48. 
A.n*wd Report oftte Arehaologiaatl Survey, Bengal Circle, 1903, p. X. 


-m. , 

BendU'i Jownty to Mjwl, pp. 72-78. 6 Exprewod by a symbol 

The final no. of tljju word uw buen added abo the line. 


7 gri-Ma9daI^vara-svami-[pftd^]ya fcoshthikatafc a-ehandr-arkka-sama- 

8 k&ryam=afcshayam prati[dinam] naivedyarttham tandula-prastha-dvayam 

9 dipa-tafla-palasya oh=6[pani]bandhah karitah firf-MandaJefivara" 

10 svami-padanam viohchM[tti-vi]fir&ntartantra*84dharai?ara paiiahaaatam 

11 dinaran&m g6ba . . . ja-bhaktady-upafcara^ani 1 

12 devaiiikayasya datta[m s =6tad=e]vam viditvA yathalcal-adhya [sibhij- 

13 r=ap&vanikair 3 =w& ya[thani]baddhasya vighatd na ka[rya] 

14 evam=abhifiravit6 y6[=nyatha]ktu74t=sa mahapatakaisBa[ha] 

15 [nara]k6 vaatM e"vam . . . vadharanaya tnadhya 

16 ..... bhaka . , , tam=iti || Ukta[n cha] 

17 ....... yatnftdaraksha Ttidhishthira 

18 ..... 


Hail. Intheyear30,onthetw0nty.seoonddajrof Kftrttika, otx the above-men* 
year, month and day, in the reign of the great feudatory, fhe XafalpratfMra the Jfj"? 
[UdaJyasSna, the Jtulapati Bhagudalana, having applied to the Council of go 
through the dan^an%afca Odmibha^a built this ma^a of the Mvukula of rvana 
crease the merit of his father and mother and of his own self, near the temple of VinttlU 
For the lord MandaleSvara provision b*s been made every day, afl long as the Snn T 
Moon last everkstmgly, to pronde two ymthu of rice for the votive offering 
oil for the lamp from the treasury. Fifty ttntrae current up to the frontiers 
of the Lord Maadal^vara- ..... wit h rice and other ingredient*. ' 
ag^oftheOouncilof goda, the merchants who trade on the watersfP) and 
the proper tme* B hould not hinder this arrangement. Having heard thia, whoever 
contrary shall hve on hell wxth great Bins .... 0! T ndhishthira, p^erve 
....... preservation is preferable to gifte, 


Br T. BLOOH, P0.D, 

The stone bearing iOm inaoription diaoovered by Rikhal Das BaaerjJ in April, 1908, fa 
theLuoknowMnBeum As Dr. Vogel tella , it i. a rod aandatone slab, 3' l^Mgh 1 1? 
wxde and 4f thxok. "It is broken off at the top, ** where the ootogon^ portion 
Her, tixe four corners are p^vided with an ornament in the Mathura 8 tyT The lower 
of the slab carved with a seated female figure, apparent^ nnfinS^. The baok^f 
column cut off straight'' The photograph of the ttoue, snppUad to me 

f T, g d ^y tetterS ^ the W0ond ^ of tixe inscription 

the first half has become almost entirely obliterated by sharpening knives on it. 

Oleftr ^^ ^ inscription was 
epigraph on pedosUlof tho large Ending BodhLttva from 

1 [I read tdp6vaniTea\r*. 8. K,] 

* [I W ould trandate ; tho3e who come wd w,r*hip frott , *> w ttf ^^ ^ ^ te ^ W)M ,_S, K.] 

Buddliist inscription from Set Alaiirt. 

Scale '35 



, which has been edited by me, above, Vol. VIII. pp. 180-181. This fact is of con- 
siderable interest. First it shows that I was right in explaining the word ddndas^cTia, in 
line 2 of the Sah&t Mah&t imago inscription as " a staff for supporting the umbrella over the head 
O f&e Bodbisattva" (L c. p. 180). Secondly, and this is by far the most important point 
connected with, this inscription, wo now know for certain that the Sahet Mahet statue was 
found by Cunningham *' ##, or, in other words, that no possible doubt can be raised 
against the correctness of Cunningham's identification of Sahet Mahet with Sravastl. 1 For 
although .the records of tbe Luoknow Museum are not as clear as one would have expected them 
to he in regard to the provenance of the stone, Dr. Vogel has pointed ont to me some very 
conclusive evidence, which in my opinion makes it certain that the stone -was found by Dr. 
Hoey during Ms excavations at SabJt Mahe't in 1885. The only possible doubt that could be, and 
has been, raised against tbo bearing of the Sahe"t Mah&t, now Calcutta Museum, statue upon the 
Question of the identity of Sah&t Mahet with Sravasti, turned around this point : did Cunningham 
find the B&dhisattva imago at SahtSt Mah6t in its original position, or had it been shifted to this 
place from somewhere else ? Strange though such a transportation would appear to us primd 
facie, it still has been, as far as I know, an assumption that seemed to recommend itself to 
certain scholars. I am afraid their position has now become definitely weakened by the 
discoveries above referred to. 

Unfortunately no f urtber help is given to us by the new inscription for restoring the 
missing words in tbe beginning of the inscription on the pedestal of the BSdhisattva statue in 
the Calcutta Museum, Only the two lotters vapw in the beginning of line 2 show that I was 
right in restoring tbe second word in tbe Calcutta inscription a3 dfoaputr asya, and further in 
ascribing the Calcutta statue to tho time of either Kanishka or Huvishka. However, this is a 
very amall matter, for which hardly any additional proof was required owing to the occurrence 
of the pa O f tbe Trfyifaka Bala, tho donor of tbo Calcutta image, in a Mathurfc inscription 
of the year S3 of Huviabka. 9 

I now edit tbo inscription from impressions and a photograph, kindly supplied to me by 

1 .......................................... [] 

2. vapu[traBya] ..... .......... ...... ..... - ---- 

3. .............. ...................... [vliharEi]- 

4. [aya] ................................... [bhikshu]- 

5. sya [Balasya tr6pi$a]kasya 

6. danarb B6dbi[sa]tv6 chbCa]tram3 dau<M=oha 
7. avastiy& [Bhagavato oham]ka[m]e Kosamba- 

8. [kutfyS aoha]r[yy][nani Saryva]8[t]ivadina[m] 

9. [p*]r[i]gTa[b&]. _ _ _ 


BT Surer Kouow, 
During tbe excavations in Sarnath in February 1907, I found 

between 1be 

Konaj, the twdlttottl identity ot tle two p 
pp. Wl had ft. 

See abore, Vol. VHI., p. X82. 

the word wa. written *&*,- 

on the pedestal. However, the next 


vaied by Mr. Oertel in 1905. On the inner cavity of the fragment a Brahml inscription 
engraved in four lines, the fourth running along the rim. The inscription, which ia complet 
covers the whole inner surface of the fragment, and the umbrella had therefore probably bee' 
1 roken when it waa engraved. 

The fragment is I7f " long and 5|" broail, and tho umbrella to which it belongs must have 
bad a diameter of neaiiy six feat. The letters are deeply cut, and their height varies from 1 to 
f inches. 

The characters are Brahmi of the second or third century A. IX The forma of ma and sa ate 
ancient, and the same ia the case with ya. The shape of individual letters is not, however, con- 
stant. Thus the na of tVi2tn, 1. 1, difforo from the na in gttinint, 1.4; the du in dukJehn in lines 
2, 3 and 4 has different shapes ; the dha of nirudh<\ 1. 3, is angular, while it has been rounded in 
1. 4* etc. The form of the compound kkha is of some intorottt, i'io kha, Ixjlng open at "hetottom 
In bhikkhavS, 1. 1, however, tho bottom line has apparently bv<>-i attUod by mistake under the 
following vu. The two kkhaa in 1. 2 differ from each other and on c* -.vholc, tho form of this 
ligature is not the same in any two places. 

The language is the Pali of Buddhist literature, bat with several misspellings, and other 
mistakes. Thus in 1. 2, we find dikkhavd instead of bhikkhav$, and antyaf-ichcham, 1. 3 uriyayach. 
ehaih, and in 1. 4 arisachchath, all instead of uriyasaahoham. Those slip- takr-n together with 
the uncertainty in the formation of the individual letters, can only be accounted for by the sup- 
position that the inscription waa out by an engi-avor who did not understand the orginal. The 
occasional introduction of the Sanskrit safadlii u -Sinnudaya artya-ya(aa)chc}taj>t, 1. 3, points in 
the same direction. 

The inscription contains a short enumeration of the foor ariymtackchfis, the fundamental 
doctrines of the Buddhaa. These four truths form the essence of the famous Benares aermon, 
and oar inscription is accordingly very appropriate in the spot whoro the Buddha, first " turned 
the wheel of the law." In this connection it is of interest to note that the great majority of the 
stitues unearthed in Sarnath represent the Buddha in the Dharmachakramudrd, delivering hia 
first sermon. The enumeration of the four noble truth* or axiom* IB of the same conventional 
kind which is so common in Pali literature, and though I hare not found the exact quotation, I 
do uot. -loubt that the passage out on the stone is meant as a quotation from the Oanon. Our 
inacrjptiojj, therefore, furnishes a valuable vpigraphioal proof for the existence of a Pali Canon 
in ttip second or th'i'd century A.D. It is also of inter&afc a# the first old Pitt inscription fonnd 
:; !S T ox-fch India. I here take the word Pali to mean the l*ngtkge of tho Southern Canon, the 
only use of the word which I consider as justified, 

TEXT. 1 

1 Chatt[a>=iraani bhifckhavo ar[i*Jyjxachchftni 

2 katamani chhattari dukkha[nij di(bhi)kfchftTe ara(ri)ytwachcha[m] 

3 (Tukfchasamudaya 9 ariyaya(sa)cnohLm dukkbanirMha 1 ariyasachoham 

4 dukkhanirodha-gaminl 

Four, ye monks, are the noble axioms. An<l which are these four P The axiont (about) 
ffcring, ye monks; the axiom (about) the cause o" suf& i the axiom (about) the Boppre*- 
m 01 dufE^.uig, and tho axiom (ab ut) *fo ath leading to suppireijwon f iaJffr*ng 

1 < iwri IK- ari^iual stone, a Re , 

< T! ,- ,toue puthap, Las -nirMJta. * The ud , ; tfc^,^ MOB. to te 

Sarnath stone umbrella inscription. 

by Oebr. Pleltner. 

b^^frFW.^',-. ,.--, ';. vf . > 
fe^p^'^fc'^ v^.-V 1 ' ; 
^^ ^ i ^F v '^ ' * " ;t '''' 

J5;)5f;n'-'rfV, i.l'-t 1 ' ' '"/* 

mk-^^.-; : ; 



Another inscription written in PjUi was discovered during the 

Marshall and myself in the winter of 1908, on the back of a slab c^tain^ 8 ^"^ U by 
stations of scenes of tho Buddha's life. I publish it here from im pws ^f Convenional . 

office. The writing covers a space of 12" x 9', and the height of the individT^ J"^ 6 *" 1 7 

^""nai letters is ^ -1 

The characters belong to the 4th, or, perhaps, the 3rd century A D 

almost identical with the ya of the Allahabad prageuti, while the sa has"^ tn P arfate ya " 
hook, and not wifcb. a loop. Tho date of the inscription is of interest for , \* ! f & * 
iconography. ^e history of Baddhist 

The language is mixed Pali, the forms -yrabhavd in line 1, and -tramanS 16 i, - 
to the dialect. Tho iuscription contains the common formula ye dhammd etc ' bel( > D g 1D g 


1 Y6 dhamma h&u-prabhava 

2 tosam hfitum tathfiga- 

3 to avocha tfisam cha 
4t y5 nir6dh& 6- 

5 vam v&dl maha- 

6 ramau6. 


SAMVAT 806. 


At the request o! Mr. 0. TT, Wills, I.O.S., ZamindHil Settlement O^cer, Bilaspnr Die- 
frict, I have examiwidi a copper plato in the possecsion of a Zamind&r at Mphal named Dahir&i 
Singh, who is over sixty ycara of age and whom I had the pleasure to meet. He was good 
enough to lend it to mo for taking an impression to accompany this note. He informed me that 
the plate was given to one of his ancestors, who first came from Delhi and took service at Eatan- 
pur aa one of the gato-keopers of the B-atanpur Fort and also as a guard of the Rani's palace. He 
used to live in the BU6dina{ldApara one of the quarters of Batanpnr town. This portion of the 
town was eventually givon to him as ft m&'dfi, and afterwards the present copper plate grant 
is said to have been given bestowing on him 120 villages belonging to the Lph& Port. The 
present Zamindari contains only 76 villages and the Zamindar informed me that before 
Mr. Ohisholm's settlement in the year 1868, there wete only 60 villages in it. 

The plate is rectangular, measuring 9J* X 4f", having a smooth surface, inscribed on one 
side only. There are two small holes on the top. The writing covers 7f * x 3*, leaving out 
the Sri at the top. 

The record oonsisie of 8 lines surmounted by a prefatory one, the middle portion of which 
is spaced down, apparently for ornamental purposes. This line and the word fci at the top 
together with, M 5 at the commenoement and fubham=afa and the date in ficrures at tho end ar& 
in prose. The rest is in verse, consisting of 5 anitshtabli ilSkas which are numbered, except th 
ast. There are altogether 206 letters including 9 figures. 

The style of writing is Oyiya, and there are not less than 25 letters which are distinctly 
borrowed from the alphabet of that language. All the m&rds or vowel signs have been marked 
according to what is in vogue in the present Qriyi writing. Tho letters ja, da and va hare been 
invariably vmlton in tho Criyft form. The language is Sanskrit with spelling mistakes. Thus 
inverse 2 we find tffira&fcnattfa- instead of /4ra4wn<o-. 


The inscription purports to record the gift of 120 villages^ appertaining to the Lampha 
(Lilpha) fort to a noble named Lunga, who had come from Delhi, by the Haihaya Hog Prithvl. 
deva, on the 1st day of the dark fortnight of BLflgha in Samvat 806. For what serving 
the gift was made and on what conditions, is not stated, but it was to be hereditary and it was 
given because the king's " mind was pleased with the Kwravtya" 1 which apparently means that 
he was pleased with the Kawar tribe, to which the donee belonged, presumably for their mili. 
tary services. What strikes one most at tho drab glance is the freshness of the metal, the 
clean cut and the modern characters, and this rouses suspicion. The intermixture of Oriy& 
letters is in itself suspicious. They might, however, bo old and indicaie that the plate ia an 
old one. On looking for the date such an idea gets partially conBrmod, but tho suspicion again 
revives as soon as wo learn from the Zamdndar that, since the grant was made, only 27 gene- 
rations have supervened. The Zamindftr thinks the dato to be of the Vikrama era, so that the 
plate would be about 1,159 years old. This would give, on tho average, 43 years to a gene- 
ration, which is absurd. A critical examination of the record affords as easy an evidence of ita 
being spurious. The characters are in reality all modern, having boon taken from the Hindi and 
Oriya alphabets. The inscriptional alphabet of tho Chhattfagarh Haihayos haa a peculiarity of its 
own, not easily describable, but which distinguishes it from the modem alphabet. The most 
distinctive letters arc aha, ja, dhit, 6/J and sa, but in all instances whore those letters occur in 
the present plate, they have no such distinctive features. Tho ntyle of the reoordis also modern. 
I have not come across any Haihaya inscription with a Sr% at the top, which modern writers 
usually put in. Again tho word M KnshnwJmndra, whiob is apparently meant as an invoca- 
tion, is a modernism, uinular phrases being tr$-Rdma, M-(h$tta, etc. la all Haihaya inscrip- 
tions, the invocation is 6& namah &iudya, i.e. I bow down to Biva. The forger, who, I believe 
had seen many of the Haihaya inscriptions, forgot tho distinctive Haihaya invocation owing to 
the story of 8rl- Krishna being uppermost in hiu mind, and he thought that as Krishna was so 
well pleased with Mayuradhvaja, the supposed ancestor of tho Hftihayaa, an invocation, to that 
Jcity would be most appropriate. The next phrase, calling the record vijaya-Ukha or the 
victorious writ, meaning royal record, is another novolty of the Oriya type, in which, as in 
Dravidian languages, the addition of vijaya or victory to every act done by a high personage 
is a matter of etiquette. A Mja does not go, he conquers vijaya karwhhanti, he does not 
cat, he conquers tho kitchen, he does not answer the oall of nature, he conquers the latrine, 
and so on. I bave not come across any other grant beiog distinguished ae vijaya-Ukka, The 
next phrase refers to a seal, which is nowhere to be found, Tha prefatory phrases done, 
the record proper again begins with a modenxiam, w. M 6. Thia remind* one of a Hindi 
letter-writer which was used in schools, some years affo, in which there was a couplet to 
the effect that 6 Ms should bo recorded for a preceptor, 5 for a master, 4 for an enemy, 3 
for a friend, 2 for a servant, and 1 for a wife or eon. Thia must have occurred to the writer's 
mind, more particularly because he wan, as I suppose, a Bohool-maater himself and was 
probably teaching the PattrakitaisMnl to hia pupils, 

Now with regard to the date, the Yikrama year 80C or 749 A.D. ia impossible, It goes 
back to a period when probably the Eaihayae had not at all ooma to Ohhattfcgarh, From in- 
Hcriptions we have a date 1114 of Jajalladeva* I, who ww fifth in descent from Kaltogaraja, 
the first Haihaya, who is said to have conquered DftfashigmJcfcata, Taking then the date of 
KalingarSja to be 1000 A.D., the present grant wonld have been made by the Haihayas 250 
years before they began to rule in Chhatttegarh. Kveix if we Buppoae that it refers to the 
Kalachuri ora, it would be equivalent to 1054 A.D., a almott oontempornneouB with the 
commencement of Haihaya rule. Prithviraja was fourth in descent from Kalingarftja and waa 
tho father ot Jujalladihra I. The date of this phvte would place a difference of 60 year* between 

i [Perhaps Kanraniya v intoaded.-S. K,] 

y ol j^ . g^ 

JLapha spurious plate of Prithvideva.- Sam vat 806. 


father and son, if we suppose tliat both records were written in the first year of their reigns 
This is again improbable. Those kings moreover had not then gone to Ratanpnr. 

On the whole, I come to the conclusion for reasons stated above that this grant to Lungd is 
a Zsf* 1 affair and was perpetrated somewhere between 1860 and 1870 by a Sanskritist of Batan- 
pur> whom I do not dpsiro to name out of respect for his Sanskrit learning. I suppose 
' chill ponury ' induced him to undertake a work which he would not have otherwise done. The 
record does not show any adequate cause for the grant being made, and it is noteworthy that 
exactly double the number of villages of thoae which the Zamindari contained before Mr. 
Chisholm's settlement were recorded as granted by the Haihaya Raja. It may be noted that 
when this record waa written the change of the tribal name of the donee or his descendants 
from Kawar to Tawar had not been mooted or at least had not been seriously taken up, other- 
wise we should not have had the phrase Kauravfya-prasannadhfy in. verse 3. There is a 
family genealogy of the Lapha Zamindar, written in the year 1927 or 1870 A.D., -which shows 
that the tribal name had thon been- changed to Tawar. 

TEXT. 3 

flrl Kriehuachandra vijayalfikha 

firl-lfikhaka-mndrd ohatnrasrS. 

1 r!5 || Svasti srlmau-maharajadhirajah kshiti-nvekarat 3 || <|) Prithvidevo ma- 

2 hoddarfii-raaulyudbhasi-padamvu(bu)jah || 1 || Haihayamnara]a*-savit& sura-samanta-' 

3 sfivitalji 11(1) mahodbhata-bhAlakiroa-sainya vairigauapraha || 2 |j Dily-iig&ta- 

4 eusurya ft IiTiiig-akhyttya inahatmanS ||(|) dad& vritim 7 vamsaparfim 


5 dhth || 3 (I Lanipha-durgamayi(pi) grama- vunl6ttaralat6nmitam ||(|) samvatsar 
G ras-abhr-ash^-atlte Magn-asit-adikS || 4 || y6 bhavishyamti bh^pSl^ pa- 

7 lanjya sad=Gti tai^i ||(l) maddattft likhita tamra-patre Madhavasuri- 

8 na || Subhamafitu || Maghe vadi || 1 1| Saininansare* 808. 



The iUtmtrioua Kriehnacnandra, The Victorious writ. 

The illustrious writer's regular seal. 

Sri 5. Hail. 

(Terse 1, ) The illustrious Mahfodjddhirdja. Prithvldeva, the king of many "untne 
(is) very intelligent. (His) lottts feet are Bhining with the diadems (of kings prostrating 
before him)- 

(T. 2.) (He is as it were) the sun amongst the descendants of the Haihayas and w served 
by his brave feudatories. His army is full of very extraordinary soldiers, He is the destroyer 
of his enemioa, 

1 The word in Hindi means '* miwhievona." * From 




(V. 3-4.) His mind being pleased with the KauravSyas 1 (Kawara) ho gave to the very 
brave noble named Lnngft, who had come from Delhi, 120 villager with the Lampha fort 
for maintenance from generation to generation, on the first day of tho dark fortaight 
of the Magha month in the expired year (symbolically expruBsol by) flavour (6) sky (o 
and eight (8). 

Future kings should always respect my gift written on tlm copper plait; by Madhava Sfiri. 
Let good fortune attend. The first day of the dark fortnight of Mugha in the year 808. 


These two plates belong to a Bajput family residing at Abkftna, a village in the Kalavana 
talnka of the Nasik distriot, I obtained them on loan through my friontl Mr, N. 0. Kelkar 
They are inscribed on one aide only, and measure 9|*x7*. Tho writing ia carefully engraved 
and is in a good state of preservation. 

The characters belong to a variety of the southern a!phb<K.*t which m well-known from 
the Sarsavyi plates of BuddharAja edited by Dr. Kiolhoru in thU Journal, Vol. VI, pp, 291 
andff. They include numerical symbols for 300, 40, 7, 10 and 5 in lino Hk The language 
df the inscription is Sanskrit, and with the exception of five imprecatory und bonodietivc 1 vei-si- 
in lines 28-33, the text is in prose. 

The inscription h one of Saftkaragaij^, the son of Krlsfryar&ja, of the family of the 
Kfltachohiiris. It records an order of jSankaragar^a, iMtusi from hi camp at Ujjayinl, to 
the effect that he granted a hundred nivarttana* of land in th? village (>f VallieikA situated 
in the district of Bhogavarddhana to Brlhmava name<l AhtuatyiiavAmin, of tho Gautama 
<j<',tr<i, belonging to the Taittiriya itOeM, who wg a resident o{ KalUvuixa, at the request of 
G6gga. The inscription is dated, in words and numeric*! Hymb K oa the Ifith day of 'the 
bright half of Sravana of the yew 847,* which must bj rofurreJ to the Kalaohnn era, so that 
the date corresponds to the 27th July A JO. 505, 

The Kaiaohchuri ankaragana is identical with the father of Buddhftrftja, who issued tie 
Sarsavoi grant. The wording of the two iuaoript&ma is practically identical, with the 
exception of the portion referring to the grant* themselves, Thoitt i*, of coarse, nothing in our 
inscription to correspond to lines 14-17 of the Swwvo! plates, which refer to Bnddharaja. 

Of the localities occurring in our inscription, E^llftvanft i tho modern Kalavana in the 
Nasik district. Valliaikft and Bhdgftrardhan* I c*nnot identify. 

In line 20 of the present iasmptwn we find the technical expression a-cMfa-Wiata- 
prdvtiyam, which so frequently occurs in other mioriptfoa*, und which has nsually been 
rendered " not to be entered by iCTegokp od regular soldiers" I invite the attention of 
Sanskrit scholars to the following- passage, in which Saniarichirya/ uses it, 8 

tasmdt tdMMMta-bfafa~rdj-dprwMyam abfoyafa durgam Mam. alpabuddhy-agamyatk 

Sfotrfrgwuyratdfa-rabtiati aha, lu*nojSio gim the following explanntion,- 

advaiM ^ w^fatw-&>hfa&*\ tdrkil&iamai/awrAdte**Mty*Ma*lty*dha tomtit 

M I pramdnaiurtdh-dbJukM tach-dihabd~itrtfut \ drytinutryddttk 

* *"* C J^^ m ^ : f^ ** '^^Prf^^t^^ 3 ^-?. K!l irW) "'"^ U ***" 

,, j,p, Sll luul (t 

Abhdnt Plates of Sahkaragana. [Kalachuri] Samvat 247. 

<o > 

Ko. 45.] 


it vivakshyantc \ Wiatds tu sevdka, initliydrWiashin.as ti-slunh mrri'elunh 
tiirkikds ta'r nprwi'syiim andkramaniyam idaih brahinuiku'ruiii Hi 


First Plate ; Ncwl Side. 

* * - 

7 sj:wfst 





13 M^<a^^<HM^!^ 

17 Mft<i^i*i^^mtfa^triwh 


Rvmml Plntc; First tfitti: 







29 ^Wt^Tl ^"Mtfldi4Hfti^! [l*] 9Q|1V^ Pf 

Tcfa t ii r^ftr4- 

30 ^IT ^jurr ^rfii^nnf<fa [i*] ?rei TO 

tfir*( u ^?fit 

31 ftdiifaifr *rerrw fftrftr< [i*] 

32 ^rfrfsi -HKT ^'t^iTTf'r H'HlfaHlflKiftr [l*] 

i The gamvjpi pUte. md t<tm<t*y< 




Line 1. Om ! Hail ! From the victorious camp pifohed at tTjjayinl. In the lineage of tie 
Katacbchftris, which, Kke the great ocean, is extensive and spotless as the firmament, dear 
on the approach of autumn, illumined by the mass of the rays of the excellences of many 
jewels of men (as the ocean is adorned by fbe rays of its gems); which is difficult to be 
crossed, because it is the home of men of great vigour (as the ocean is of large animals), 
fall of gravity and desirous of keeping within the bounds of what is proper (just as the ocean 
is fall of depth and desirous of keeping within its shores), there was the glorious KrlshBarftja, 
who illumined the world with his fame, as the moon with light, agreeable to all men; who was 
from his birth solely devoted to PaSupati (iva), just as the moon solely reeia on Siva; who 
(though) free from defects, yet like the moon (who has a spot) revives the beauty (prosperity) 
of his family resembling a forest of night lotuses ; who was resorted to by all virtues which 
attract 3 men to a king and by other qualities, as if through a desire to obtain a very suitable 
abode ; who was endowed with all the constituent parts of royalty ; who had properly enjoyed 
the fruits of his regal powers ; who resplendent with his illustrious family, the flow of Ma 
liberality being ceaseless and the majesty of his power well-known, roaming fearlessly, subdued 
the regions, as the chief in a herd of wild elephants, with the ceaseless flow of its rutting jnice, 
displaying the greatness of its strength, roaming about fearlessly breaks down rows of forests ; 
whose sword was used fco protect the helpless } whose wars were made to humble the pride of his 
enemies ; whose learning aimed afc modesty j who acquired wealth to make gifts ; who made gifts 
in order to acquire religious merit, and acquired religious merit in order to obtain final bliss. 

(L. 10.) Hia son, the glorious dankaragana, a great devotee of Siva, the lord of countries 
bounded, by the eastern and western ocean, and other lands, who meditated on the feet of his 
parents ; who had no rival in the world ; whose fame was tasted by the waters of the four 
oceans ; whose might was equal to that of Kubera, Varuna, Indra and Tama ; who acquired 
the fortune of great kings by the strength of his arm j to whom, by reafou of the excess of 
his prowess, the circle of all feudatory kings bowed ; who enjoyed religious merit, wealth and 
pleasure without allowing them to encroach upon one another ; whose profound and lofty mind 
was satisfied with mere submission ; who performed religious acts by giving away, in charity, 
the immense wealth acquired by properly protecting his subjects; who re-instated families of 
kings who had long been dethroned ; who uprooted those that were too proud ; who granted 
to the afflicted, the blind and the poor, the object of their desires which exceeded their sanguine 
expectations, issues this order to all kings, feudatories, lUgikas, heads of provinces, districts, 
and villages, officers and others : 

Be ifc known to you, For the increase of the religious merit and fame of our parents and 
ourselves we have granted, at the request of G6gga,3 with pouring out of water, a hundred 
nivarttanas of land, by a nwarttema measuring forty on both sides, in the village of Vailisikft 


for aslong as'the" moon, the sun, the ocean and" the earth endure,-to Ihmanasvftmin, a 
resident of KaUAvaua belonging to the Gautama gdtra, and a student of the Taittiriya 
iMhd, for the maintenance of bali, cfcaw, vaiiwMw, agniMtra and other rite3,-wheref ore future 
kings and governor*, whether of our own family or others, reflecting that this world of living 
beings is as unstable as a wave of the waters of the ooean, moved by a strong gale, that 

1 [Compare the tevnalafcioa of the Sarsa^t plates and the note* aocompanybg it, above, Vol. VI. pp. 299 
and ff.~8, K.] 

Kdmandaktya nititdra, chap. IV. verses 6-8. +.!,- ;f,wb,^rr remarks 

waa probably the name of the queen of Saukaragan*. * See the mtroductorj- lour* 

ft Q a 



riches are perishable and unsubstantial, and that virtues endure for a long time,. w 
participate in the fru.it of a gift of laud, which is an object of enjoyment by ail, 'and 
to accumulate fame as bright as the rays of the moon for a long time, should consent to 
our gift of land and preserve it. Whoever, with hia mind covered by the veil O f th 
darkness of ignorance should take it away, or allow it to be taken away, shall be guilty of th 
five great sins, And it is said by the venerable Vyasa, the arranger of the VMaa-~~rH> 
follow five well-known imprecatory verses.] 

(L. 33) In three hundred years increased by forty-seven, cm the fifteenth day O f th 
bright half of SrSvana, this edict, the ddtaka of which in the Mahdpilupati Pftsupata 
was written by the Mahdsandhivigrahddhiharanddhikrita Vatohaiin. Sam 800 40 7 Sravan ' 
su 10 6. 



ir'gom is a village in the Nagam pargana, 74 45' long., 88 56' lat, about 15 miles south- 
west of Srinagar, as the crow flies. Dr, Stoin, in hia note on th Ittijatttrutirjitf I. 340, identifies 
Ir'g6m with Hadigrama, where G&paditya U said to have CBtablmhtHl an ayrahdra, and states 
that some remains of temples were traced thore by Papdit KI81 Ram in 1891. Hadigrama in 
further mentioned by Kalhana (VIII, 672) as one of tho 8tronghoUl of tho P&mara Prithvlhara. 
In the troubled times following on the accession of Jayaahhha in A.T). 1128, " Hadigrflnm, 
where King Sussala and those of his aide had lost thi-ir nmowu, waa burned by Sujji, whose 
valour was mighty" (VIII, 1586), and tho place is further rauntiomxl in connexion with 
the incursion of kbg Lfithana during the same period (VIII, 2195). 

In June 1908, Paudit Mukund Ram, who had with great courtesy boon plaood at my dis- 
posal by the Kashmir Darbar, was informed by a friend of tho exintoncso of an inscribed stono in 
the house of a Brahmai? in Jlr'g&m, and at my request ho wont up to inspect it. According to 
information gathered by him on the spot, the atone in question was fotmd aboot twelve years ago 
in a piece of uncultivated land near the Masjid Malik Sahib by a cultivator, who was digging 
there, and sold to a Brahmaij for some corn. The Brahmagt kept tho utono for some time and 
did p&jti to it. But people who saw it, told him that the writbg probably contained information 
about hidden treasure, and that the stone therefore properly belonged to the Maharaja. He got 
frightened, and first hid the stone under the wall of hia house, but later on he threw it into a pit 
at the entrance of his g&ldld and covered it up with oowdnng. Pandit Mukond Bam farther 
informs me that images, pedestals, stones and bricks are found all over tho place, and it is pro- 
bable that eicavations would yield interesting resulte. 

^The stone mentioned above is square, measuring 20* each way, and being 4J* high. On the 
top is a raised circle, apparently the base of an image. Ono of tho four faces of the stono is 
inscribed with five lines in BaradA letters, 

The writing covers a space of 17f x 3", and the height of fcho letters average* f , They are 
distributed over five lines, the fifth of which contains the date. Tho beginning of the first two 
lines and the last letter in lines 1-3 and the throe last letter* in line 4 have di5ap|wared. 

The characters are arad a , and they are very well cut, Ja has tue older form as in tho 
Baijnath prajatti. The final form of m oocors in line 3, The diphthong S has been marked iu 
two different ways, by means of a horizontal line above, an in bhagavatj, 1 1, or by a vertical before 
the consonant as in M, 1. 2. Similarly 6 is sometimes marked by adding a horizontal above, some- 
times by prefixing a vertical to the consonant accompanied by toe sign for <2, 

-Arigom Sarada inscription o# Ramadeva, I-aukika Sam vat 73. 


, 1. 1, and 26kandtJidya, 1. 2. A third method occurs ia Zofcd ...... at the end 

of line 1, where a wavy line has been added above the sign for la. Of initial vowels only & 
occurs in wryd-, 1. 1. Among ligatures I may note fcya, 1. 1, fcfcra, 1. 3, feva, 1. 4 ; nga, 1. 2 j <fya, 
1. 3 ; rya, 1. 1 ; and perhaps Z/Z-TKI, 1. 3. The numeral symbols for 7, 3 and 5 occur in line 5. 

The language of this inscription is Sanskrit, and, with the exception of the invocation of 
Aval&kit&vara in 1. 1, and the date in 1. 5, the whole is in verse. There are altogether two 
verses, The first is apparently a 3Ukct. The second pdda,, however, contains three syllables too 
much, but these aksJwras are probably simply a repetition of part of p&da 1. The second verse 
is a Jdrdulavikrijita. The object of the inscription is to record the construction of a vihdra, 
built of pukka bricks, by K&mad.6va, the son of Kulladeva, in order to replace a wooden structure 
which had beeri built by a vaidya, whose name I read tTlh.ua, and which had been burnt down 
by king Simha. This Simha must be identical with Jayasimha (from A.D. 1128), in whose 
reign Hadigrama vras burnt down by Sujji. 1 It then becomes highly probable that the vai&ya 
TJlhna is identical with Ulhana, the son of Sahadeva, who was a supporter of Sujji. 9 Sahadeva 
is described as a Rdjaputra, 3 which fact can of course be well reconciled with hia son. Ulhana's 
being a vaidya. The constructor of the brick vihcbra was Ramadeva, whom I cannot identify. 
His father Kulladeva was perhaps in charge of the old wooden vihwra, if 3 I am right in interpret- 
ing tad-rata (1, 4) as " devoted to, attached to him, vie., Aval&fcitee"vara." 

The word viluira is used with moro than one meaning. In our inscription, however, there 
cannot "be much doubt that it signifies a shrine, as it has been characterized as " the abode of 
L6kanatha." The stone upon, which this epigraph has been incised is most probably the 
actual base of the statue of L6kanatha here alluded to. Lfikanatha is, of course, identical with 
Aval6kifcevara, who is invoked in lines 3-2. Our inscription thus furnishes valuable proof of 
the fact that Buddhism, was still lingering in Kashmir in the 12th and 13th centuries. 

The mention of the materials used iu buildiug the old and the new shrines, is also of interest. 
Wo learn that tho formor was constructed from wood, while the latter was built f rovapakka bricks. 

The old mhilrn is stated to have been built in the vicinity of Ganges'vara. This is now 
called Oaufisvara, and is the place where the present inscription was dug out. The modem cor- 
ruption of the name ia not of very old date. The old name was at least remembered about 40 
years ago. This is proved by a janmapattra, which Paudifc Mukund Bam found in A^gdm, 
and -which wa written by Pandit Ganefia Khusrao in Laukika Samvat 4939, t.e^ A.D. 1862- 
63. It apcaka of a person aa GangSSvara-pddamuU Arigrdme^dstavya residing iu Ar'g6m at the 
feet of GaugeSvara. GaugSfivara was originally probably a Siva temple, and it is not unlikely 
that it co aid be identified by means of excavations. 

Tho inscription is dated Sarhvat 78, Marga fiati 6. This date must be subsequent to the 
burning of Ar l g&m during the reign of Jayasimha. Now Jayasimha's father was murdered iu 
the Laukika year 4203, and the burning of Ar'gdm took place in the first part of his reign. It 
w therefore as good as certain that we have to understand the date of our inscription as 4273 on 
the fifth tithi of the bright fortnight of Harga&rsha, corresponding to Sunday, the leth 

November 1197. 


, VIII. 1586. ^Ibidem, vv, 2066, 2092, 3097. s Ibidem, v. 193. 

* I caanot restore the begiaavug. The atokwa preceding ^ look like W. P*4it Makund 

auggests to read ^ft- 

& Metre -. Sl6ka. TUere U aoinethiug wrong in tlie second pdda. 



Line 1. Salutation to the exalted noble Aval6ktt6vara. 

(Verae 1). Salutation to fchee, the Lord of tho WorW, who hat bocomo a light to the 
three 'worlds, ...... who destroys transmigration, tho moon of delight to the world. 

(V, 2). Formerly the vaidya TJlbnadeva 9 by name mewit) a wpotloss vihdra of wood, an 
abode for the Lord of the World, in tho vicinity of tho Q&fcgSfivawv (tumple). After this, by 
the will of fate, had been burned by king Si&fca, B&naade'va, tho won of Kttlladfiva, who was 
devoted to him (Aval6kiteflvara), mvle yonler (ui/tifra) oxoolloat with burnt bricks, 

Line 5. Sariivat 73, the 8th day of tUo bright (half) of Mftrga(llrsha). 

8AMVAT 1148. 

Br STSH Koow. 

, The plate containing this inscription waft found oo tho itmar slope of the left bank of 
the Ganges, near the water's edge, under the fort at Gnandravat?, in the Benares District. 
Mr. Chhote Lai, the District Engineer of Benaroe, informs me that, owing to tlia erosive action of 
the river, portions of the fort wer uud^rmined mad fell dovm f jcoca tinie to time. The plate fell 
into the river along with the walla of the fort, and wa* twen aod picked up bj the Public Works 
Department^ boatman, who deposited it ia the Diifcriot Bngioeor's ofEoe at Benares. In Match. 
1908 it was then finally handed over to the Director General of Arebwotogy ia India. 

The plate, which is inscribed on one Bide only, raewranw 15 1* x I If. The edges are 
fashioned thicker and raised into rims. In the upper part of the plate ia a hole, through which 
passes a ring, about \* thick and 8* in diameter, On the ring Hdee ft bell-ahaped seal, 2f 
from top to bottom. The surface of th seal ia circular aad 2|" ia dbraefcer. It represents in 
relief, on a slightly countersunk surface, a Garuda, with the body of ft man and the head of a 
bird* kneeling and facing the proper right. Aorow the centre the legend irwadaok-(friinaoh)- 
Ohafadradtoah, and at the bottom a ooooh ihell. 

The plate contains 23 lines of writing. Parts of it are nauob, worn, and the portion 
containing the date cannot be made oafc with certainty, Tho obejracfcere are Nigarl, and the 
language is Sanskrit. With regard to orthogwpUy I shall only note that va is used both for 
a and for ba, and that the dental sibilant ia often used instead of the pU**l one j thus, 

Metro s S&riiaiavlkityita, * It t poih!e iUn,t Oi# 



for ft# fo-> 1- ! ****- f or -<**'*-, 1. 2. There are several other misspellings and slips, especially 
towards the end. 

After the invocation to Sri common lu other plates of the same family, our inscription 
proceeds to give the genealogy of the donor in f onr verses, which are well known from other 
inscriptions. We are told that Tafidvigraha had the son Mahlchandra, whose son again was 
Chandradva, the issuer of the present grant. The inscription then goes on in prose, stating 
that the viotorions king Chandradeva issnes the following order to all the people assembled, 
residing in the Vadagavft-village in the Vavana-jpa^aZd, and also to the Rdjas, RdjAig, Yuvardjas, 
councillors, chaplains, warders of the gate, generals, treasurers, keepers of records, physicians, 
astrologers, superintendents of gynseoeums, messengers, the officers in charge of elephants, 
Horses, towns, mines, sthdnas and gdkulas : 

" Be it known to you that the aforesaid village, with its water and dry land, with its mines 
of iron and salt, with its fishing places, with its ravines and saline soil, with and including 
its groves of madh'&kcL and mango, grass and pasture land, with what is above and below, de- 
nned as to its four abuttals, up to its proper boundaries, has today, on the . . . day of 
the bright fortnight of Karttika, Bath vat 1148, been given by us for as long a time as moon 
and sun endure, with the pouring out of water from the palm of our hand, purified with 
gSkaa-na 1 and fcttfo-grasa, to the Brahman VartmSsvayasarmau (-svarasarman), the son of 
Var&hasv&mi, the grandson of Auarudha, of the Vasishtha g6tra, and whose only pravara, is 
Vagishtha, for the increase of the merit and fame of our parents and ourselves^ after having today 
bathed here in the neighbourhood of Sauri (Saiuri)-]Srarayana, after having duly satisfied the 
sacred texts, divinities, saints, men, beings, and groups of ancestors, 3 after having worshipped 
the sun whose splendour is skilled in rending the veil of darkness, after having worshipped 
Vfisudeva, the saviour of the three worlds, and after having sacrificed to the Pipe an oblation 
with abundant milk, ribe and sugar." 

The first point here that is worthy of notice is the date, which is the earliest known for 
Chandradeva, the other copper plate of hi* time being dated in Samvat 1154A It will ba 
seen that the portion of it containing the *ttW and the week day is illegible. Mr. : 0hhote Lai, 
who has examined the original, writes about this point, 

" Ordinarily, it might be thought that the excessive corrosion and incrustation of rust at 
this particular part of iihe plate was purely accidental, but from a minute examination of the 
imperfect and damaged letters which are still discernible, I am lad to conclude that the exces- 
sive incrustation at this point was due to the fact that the surface of the plate was already 
damaged by Bomebodj t Us endeaeow to mdk* a correction in the date- It is remarkable that 
the name of the plaoe or thai of the stream in which the donor took his batiks not awntioned 
in the inscription, Nor is there any mention of the' oooasum (eclipse, *aMrati, etc.) at which 
the gift was made. It would appear that gauri-Narayana was in those days a very well-known 
place of pilgrimage retiring no further defcrfls far loft** it, that the occasion pretty was 
L ordinary IMrltika-mdna, and &at tit. date originally entered on the plate mjpAdofefyte 
but was afterwards attempted to be corrected iafo AM*****!* The^of the latter 
' of the former} .Mof^W*bdg^^^^~*^ 

nd to cover ti* space occupied by * of the former; ^ <* 
of the former has been utilised for the rather clumsily large da of tiw -latter. 


of normal .u*. was subsequent occupied by *e muoh larger let**, , M !^ f ' d f^ 
being no mor^ available for the final syllable ^*, i* ^ oimtied. Similarly, ft ra of 



ravau overlaps the gu of gurau and rati of the latter ha boon deformed into something lii e 
van of the former. Now the question arisen, " Why was th date corrected ? " The reason may 
be that the grant was originally intended to be mado on tho paArJutduii, on the occasion of a 
/nor eclipse which was expected to take place on that date. A little calculation will show that 
the eclipse did actually occur on the specified date (corresponding to Thursday, the 7th of 
November, 1090 AJ>.) but as the time of its occurrence was early iu the following morning 
(according to calculation), it must have been very doubtful whether it would be visible at the 
place visited by Chandradeva. This circumstance may have been anticipated, and it may have 
been decided to make the donation on the preceding Prabodhini fiktldasi (Sunday, the 8rd of 
November, 1090 A.D.) which was a most suitable day for tho purpose, being the day on which 
Vishnu the deity worshipped by ChandradSva risen from hia foar months' nloep, I say 
all this may have been the cause of the alteration in tho date, for there is no a priori reason 
against this supposition. But I consider it very unlikely that a Maharaja, who changed ton 
mind about the actual day of performing a religious ceremony, could have allowed a correction 
and a clumsy correction at the best to be made in tho copper plato inscription recording the gift 
of a whole village, when the entire inscription could havo been out on a new plate in a day's 
time. The fact seems to be that it is no honour to a Brihraan to receive a gift on the occasion 
of an eclipse, and there are certain sects of Brahmans, e.g. Sarjup&ris and Kanaujiyas, vfho 
would promptly exoommunioate any member of their community who was known to have 
received a gift on account of u eclipse. The BrAhmag who received ih munificent gift from 
Chandradflva probably belonged to one of these secta, *nd, after the king had made the gift and 
departed, he seems to have thought of concealing his disgraceful conduct and to have caused the 
original and genuine date to be altered as explained above." 

Mr. Ohhote Lai further identifies Va4agav& with the present Bftr&gfuro, a village 14 miles 
north-west of Benares. He thinks it, however, also pcnuubie that it was the old name of 
Chandravatt, which was afterwards changed in honour of king Chandradeva. 

After the mention of the grant, we find some of the uiuaJ tmpr eoatory verses, and, at the 
end, the name of the writer, the (hakkura Mahat^anda, 

1 Cm* Bvasti || 3 a^mth-6tka^^-Vaikaxbfhfc-kBj?^v-pUliA-lQtliat- kwrah | samrambhah 

2 ti- 

bharidhamna nimn& YaAovigrmlu ityodir*fr {{ Haa^atA.bhfit(n)- Mahlchaifaara- 

^1 s= cha[m*]dradhAmA-nibham nijtuh | yfen- ftpArmakapara-pir6 ryapAritatii ' yaiah I 

%Mya 4bh{lt-tanay6 

a6&aha-prajopftdjravft[h ^" i is<l''C^ft<ihiT v n)'-jMbirlt-jj r ^y" >*xmi mti dorvikra" 
m6narjitam || Htrthani BIAli-Kuik(-lik)-Ot4a*k6^al(*l)-Endra(h)8tha^Takani 


6 yentaamkitft vammafci iata(|ft)i^ulAbbih |{ " ** oh* ' 

dhiriia-paramesv( fiv) r-pajramamahAtv(*T&) r-nijftbhuj 6pA[r* ]|lfc.4rf-Kft- 

7 nyikuvKli 


Vrom tlw orlgiiul pUU. Bxpwmd by a .jmbol * Mt* . 

4 Metre : IndrTjrt. > Matr* i Ajuidbtobh. * Metr : 

Thkilgnof lntrpunctioo i wpftttmi. 

Chandravati plate of Chandradeva.-Sanwat. 1148- 




9lMliik&ripurTiBTi&ii&jfiipay&(ya)ty=&aifiati oha yatbi viditara=aBta bhavatam 

yath&pa[riiifcbi]ta-gTaTnapj*] sa-jala-athalah sa-l6ha-lavatj-akarab aa-ma- 
10 [t*>y-akarab. Ba-garfct-taharalj sa-madli(lTc.amra.Taiia-vafci]d.trina.yiiti.g5oluira. 

paryamtab, s-6rdtUxfv*]-adhagoIiatiir4gliata.Yi8u(u)ddhaV ' sYa-flima-paryantab 

11 1148 Kftrttika mi di ...... ady=6b,a Sau(Sau)rf-narftyima- 

gnatva vidMvanTQQamtra-d6va-pu(mu)ni-manu]Vbt<ite-pitipiga^ihgfcarppayitva ti- 

12 mira-patala- pA(?ana-pa[tu-iaa]liaBaih8(Bam=)[tLsh9a-r6chi]Bliam samabkyarckya tribhu- 

varia- 1 tr&ttir='V"&sadftvasya ptjam vidhaya praohura-payasfina haviahfi 
havirblmjaiii [liu]tva 

13 mftt4pitr6ratmana[fi=cha] pujjya-pra(ya)[s6-bhiv?iddhaya] p Yasishthag&traya I s 

Aqtaradha-paafcraya Var[a*]ha8vami-putraya | s 

9aya g6kar8(r5a)-ktialata-p4ta-karatal-6dat6n=asmal)hiii 
achaihdrArkkaiii yavaw(cb.=o1ih)aaftnlkyiiya pradattah | matva yathadtyamana- 

15 gaka*a-pravft?i^i ? ^* 1I ^8lika^aiii4a-kumaT^^ [n* 

niyat-adiyaix- ajfi(ik)-vidh&yl-Wiftya dasyatha 

16 Hi 1| bhavaiiiti obafcta paura9ifca[^*] |16kah || || 3 bkiiimm ya^ 

yai"oba bhframh prayaohobliati | ubhan tan punyakarmmapati ni- 

17 yatau svargHA(rgga)- gaminau. || sa(fia)ihkbatix bbadraaanaih cbohhatrath* var&gvi 

(iva) varaviMm&b. { bb.ilm.i- d&nasya ohiknlni phalam= 6 a(S)tat=Paramdara || 

18 pi svarggd vasati bhftmidati [I*] aohotMttft cb=airamaTitft cha tan[y*]fiva 

narakam(k6) va6t U BY&dattArh paradatiam va yd har6d(ta)=vaaumdliftrim | 
aa YiRh^bAyiA lqfijnirbb.fttvA 

19 pitfibhit b.a xoajjti |j TariblnAflliT^ata^y^ti gusKkark6tararvauinat | kyishpa- 

arppftfiTft(olx) jayftxfatfi d6?A-rra(bra)hma-8va-hAri9ah II na visham vi[slia]m 

20 hn[rj vm(bra)bma*rmii viliam-iicliyata(t&) | 

vra(bwk)hmav<wix puvrapauti3iakaih(ptitrapaiitrikaiii) 

6kam bliiimftr-py^1tQiiiigttlatb | 3iaiii(liaran) narakam=apn6ti yavada- 

21 bhfita-a[ifa*}plavftth H tadaganarfi uahagra^i ^yftm^db-aaatani cla | gaviifa 

na Buyati(fiitdhyati) 11 ya(ba)lMi.blur 

bbtdctt, rajftbli% 01ia(Sa)ga- , 

22 raaibbift] U (|) ywya ywy JdA btflmw-taBya taaya, tedi pialam j|_ 

li* dattani pxuA aard[n*Jdtfti[r] danftni 'wmm&piyasaakar^i [l*J m- 

- Mahaiiftiixda li 

1 The cngtTr origbally wtot Mt**v<no~, trat corrected ft. 
9 ThM igiui o! interpmictafction *re upr 
!Ww & *tib$. 1 aiai.lolUw^Y^t 
* The **trok h be& put orer 10 j> of 




SAMVAT 1646. 


Borhinpar in the Nimftr district of the Central Provinces is an ancient historical site. 1 ft 
was the chief seat of the Far&qi kings. They ruled over Khtacttsh, which name the 
Muhammadans derived from their title of Khan. Their rule lasted from 1370 to 1600 
A.D., when it was displaced by the Mughal*. One of these Faruqt kings built the Jum'a 
Masjid, in which besides Arabic inscriptions he had one carved in Sanskrit, which gives his 
genealogy and the date of the construction of the mosque. This inscription is in the northern 
corner and is written within an arch, so that the linea, which, are in number, are of unequal 
length. They contain fire verses, besides the invocation $r2 erithfikartri n'amah in the 
commencement and the date in the end, both of which are iu prose, 

The letters are Nagari and are raised, not indeed, in the same fashion as Persian letters are 
usually found carved. Orthography hardly calls for any remarks, Tho sign of avagrafa 
has been omitted throughout. Over the no of -fcftuna- (1. 3) we find the Arabic sign of tashdid 
or double consonant. 

The date is recorded in great detail, giving both the Vikrutna and fiaka years, which 
are stated to be 1848 and 1511 respectively, the oyolio year being Virddhi. The mosque ia 
stated to have been completed on Monday, the llth of tha bright fortnight of the month 
Fausha, the exact moment in tjlmfis and the nakthzira, la.gna> yihja, karaa, etc., being added 
most precisely. 8 The date in the Hijra eta ia givea ao 007 in Arabic above the inscription. 
Its English equivalent was kindly calculated for me by the late Professor Kielhorn, C.I.E., 
who found it to be Monday, the 5th January 1690. The astrological details are unique in a 
Mohammadan mosque and show the religious tendency of the later Firftq? kings. In Burh&Dpfr 
much of the beliefs of the two religions (Hinduism and Ifl&m) got mixed up, trace* of which are 
still conspicuously present there. As an instance may be rated the preachings of the Pinddas, 
who are Musalmans and who say that Gtod will now become iaoaraate a> JVwA&tfaiiAf. 8 The 
Jfar&qJs undoubtedly believed in astrology, aa this ia&aription show, and although the builder 
of the mosque took every care to erect it in the mot t auspioioa* moment completing it exactly in 
one year (as an Arabic inscription cawed in the middle of tube Maijid discloses) and wished by 
his pious act to ensure the long continuance of his dynasty, yet unoompromisfog destiny 
snatched away the crown from them, only ten years after the oocuifcraotion of the edifice, In fact 
Bahadur Khan, the builder's son, was so much infatuated with aperttlfclott, that, in spite of hia 
possessing the impregnable Aslrgarh fort with ten years' provisions, enormous treasures and 
numerous horses and cattle, he felt convinced that he ooaid not hold bis own against Akbar, of 
whom he believed that he wa a necromancer and that magicians aooompanied Mm to reduce the 
fort. A pestilence which broke out among the animalt, wa attributed to bhe black art, and he 
saw no way bat to surrender to the mighty wward, Thin mofque wa thus deaiined to recede 
another inscription, which Afcbar triumphantly oaoaed to be carved recording his victory of 
Khandesh in A.H. 1009 (A.D. 1000), aunihilaiiug the glory of the mosque builder's dynasty 
for ever. This inscription is in Persian and is oaaspiottoutly imcribed on th oatflide wall of the 
left hand znin&r. 

1 It was here that the t wnou MwBtfta Mahall (Arjn**iad Btafl JMgatu) btmlt&d bw hut 

9 For detail* Me trauilation at the end. 

'aye teen tome Saukfit m&naceriptji in Pwniim ^HKijftottf In tb* povMtiSoa of font 
prmrved & hdrloomi from their Mcetor, who Appmtly toail tton WM* State e 
telj njot of the raloable recwdi have b<m drtroyd by titt Aret of 187 and W06 

the extent Of ahnnf HI f^Ll. U~.JJ T.. i; 

<lwuage to the extent of about 67 lakb betldw IQM of lif . 

. 48.] 



The chief interest of our inscription lies in the genealogy of the, Farftqis given in it 
According to it the first king was Baja Malik, whose son was Ghaznl ;(Khan). His son was 
Kaisar Khan, whose son was Hasan, from whom was born Adil $hah, whose son was 
Mntaarath. Adil Shah, the constructor of the mosque, was the son of ihia Mubarakh. This 
genealogy differs from those given by Firishta and Abul Fazl. According to the former 
Idil Shah was the 6fch descendant from Malik Raja, and according to the latter the 8th, while 
according to our inscription he was the 7th. The tables given below will show at a glance how 
matters stand ; ___ 

Sanskrit inscription. 

Raja Malik. 
Gaznl (Kb&n). 
Kaisar Khan. 

Briggs' JNrislita, Vol. IV., 
p. JJ80, 

Adil Shah, 


Adil Shah. 

Malik Raja. 
Nasir Khan. 

Hasan Khan. 

Adil Khan. 


Raja All Khan, 

Jwrrett's Ain-i-4.klarl, Vol. II., 
p. 226. 

Malik Raji. 

Ghizni Khan, title Nasir Khan, 
Miran Shah alias Adil Shah. 
Mubarik SMh Chaukhandi. 

Adil Shah Ayna alias Ahsan. 

Adil Shah. 

Mubarik Shah. 

Raja All Khan, title Adil Shah, 

fte third 

M t the direct a.ca.xa^toi ita , lt 
Mirwi SMVs line up to iil ShJh Ayn4, 
fl Mte V* to Boa GhamS 
Ml dM-x* -*fa. 
only -omi^l. GhMnl Ktta Irfk no * 
JU. iffl SMlx or Adil Xbta. *he *T * 
Aynl were not than direct wwendanto of Bij. , 
out of oon.ider.tion and * 

Khan (who was the son of Raja All Khan) was 9th 
,nel Jarrett, 1 as it would indeed lead others, to 
and that Ahsan, Khan, the fifth king, was 
, as a matter of fac<> was never a king. Hasan Khan belonged 
Inuly, whose sou became king on the failure: o* -male zssue m the 

genealogical table. MlranShah, 
point missed IB that he was 

D4w M 



Adfl, Shh 

UH Aould 

8 W **-Ww4. Vol ll " ? sa ^ 6otaote - 
Brigg' Jf" W, Vol. IV., p. 808. 

Lpe. *, 




venerations, which is an unlikely Buppoaition, There is nothing to show that Adii KHn 
masan'B son) was extraordinarily long-lived. 1 It, therefore, seeins very probable that there ww 
an intervening generation between Nasir Khan and Hasan Khan, and the missing lfa k 
supplied by the Sanskrit inscription in the person of Kaisar Khan, son of Nasir and father of 
Hasan Khan. In the inscription Kaisar Khan is merely called a vira or hero and not a king, 
and although Hasan was also never a Eng, the epithet of kahiitia waa apparently added to fr 
name by way of courtesy, to tickle the ruling prinoe. Kegarding the sources of his information 
Firishta records* that when he visited Burhtopflr in A.H. 1018 (A.I). 1604), he asked Mirzft 
Ali Isfahan! if any history existed of the Faruqi family. Tho MM replied that he knew o 
none, but said that he onoe saw a genealogy 8 of the family down to Malik Raja, which to 
copied and took along with Tarn, It would thua appear that no history of the kings later than 
Malik Raja existed at all. So the information he collected wan apparently from traditions or 
other casual records, while x-he writer of the Sanskrit inHCi-iptiun must, cortainly have been 
supplied with information from the royal family, an it was intondod to bo a permanent record- 
in one of the greatest works the king built. It in. therefore, moro reliable than Firishta and 
leaves no room for doubt as to its authenticity.* A revised gtmaalogy of the Faruql Hng B will 
be found below on p, 310. 

2 fi? ffrffl: <iHK4<i<l4($) 0*] 

% II^H 
: [i*] 



1 The average lor a generation in the line of which Qfe*kt>t Khin WM tb but, i* S3 yrari, while in the line 
of B&jft All Kh&n it li 29 yew*. According to tlu 8aai>rtt inatjriptloo tint TBnm:a for th* latter it reduced to less 

than 26, taking the reckoning up to the d*ath of Mtr*a Mttbfcmmad In 1670, bat for tta miaority of whou ion 
Hnttin Khln, Bija Ali Kbia would h*r had no opportunity 60 nit on hi* btuttar** throa*. 

It may be noted that th* viilt wai paid 1* ymi *f tit oar InwHp&ion w ear? d. 

1 Firishta given thii as followi ; 

Malik B&jm the m of Ebin JahAn, the ton of Alt Khio, th n f Dthmin Khin, the n of Simion 
Shah, the ion of Ahab ahlb, the ion of Armta Shlh, th* m uf IbrAhlm &bkb of Btlkb. the aoa of Idim Shih, ; 
the son of Ahmad Shah, the ion ot Mahmiid 8h4b, th* sou of Jf ttbamnwd Shib, fch foa of Alm Shlb, the ion of 
Ashghar, the on of Muhammad Ahmad, the soo of tht Imftm Nattr AblnlU, the *m of OmM-ttl-Patuq tffaQti , 
Khaltfl or representative of the last of tbe prophets, 

If anybody would awert tbat tbe 8*oikrit oompofcr might hart m*d A mi*t*k in and*ntndlng tbe : 
genealogy> all doubts would vanish by reading the Arabic lo*cript*oo ou tlm top of tbt 6*u*krit <m reprodaotd in ; 
the accompanying plate. Line 8 u deoipbared by Maaihl InimnlUb Kuto, Matwf^ rf $ ICotqne, readi wj 
follows i-~'4Ml Shdk Ifa MutxtraJe 8Mk U <A&1 8Mb kirn JBw* JCWw *i* <!'** JTJWn 6t 

From 'my perwiwl transcript from the original amd two bqteot otx kiadly tnpplWlby 
krishna Bhlte, Headmaster, Middle School, Burblnpttr, aad a pbofcogTpb, 
Bed -q$ 9^: T Tfci, an d ^ M 

" Th a and the next are in the Upajiti metre, 

Burhunpur inscription of Adil Shah. Samvat 1646. 







: ftrafaw. ]i*J 

6 nat w ^ 8^ gffi 


(Line 1). Salutation to the glorious Greater of the world. 

(Verae 1), I bow down to the Imperceptible, the (All-)pervading, eternal (one who ia) 
past (all) qualities, whose essence is mind, who ia the cause of what ia manifest to that God 
who is both manifest and non-manifest. 

(V. 2). A.S long as the moon,, the sun and the stars, etc., exist in the firmament, so long may 
this Pftrukl family live happily on the face of the earth. 

(V, 3). In that family there was fiiut the lord of Farukis by name Rajfi, Malik, whose son 
was king GHiaznl 5 (Khan) who was of an exalted mind, the diadem of the family. 

(V. 4). From him. waa (born) the hero Kaisar Khan whose son was Hasan (Khan), the 
lord of the earth. Irom him was born king Adil Shah, whose son was lord Mubarakh. 

(V. 5). Victorious is his son, the illustrious king Adil, the crest jewel of (other) kings, 
whose lotus feet are rubbed by the diadems in the crowns of kings (prostrating themselves 
before him), (who is) of good reputation, and whose enemies have submitted to his prowess, (who 
is) the lord of kings (and) vrho bows day and night to the Supreme Being who is past ail 

(LI. B 6). Hail! Prosperity! This mosque was built by the king $ri 7 Idil Sbih, son 
of the illustrious Mnb&rakh Shdh, for fostering his own religion, in the Samvat year 164e, 
Saka 1511, in the Virddhi sathvatsara, in the month of Pausha, in the bright fortnight, 
on the 10th titbi (lasting for) 23 ghatis, followed by the eleventh iiffct, on Monday, in 
the KrittikA (nafahatra lasting for) 33 gfaffe with (t.. followed by) E6hinl in the Subha 
yoga lasting up to gkafi 42, in the Vanija fearano, at the time when 11 ghaty <* the night 
on this day had passed and in the Kanya lagna. 



of Nrtr Khftu, the title wEioh he adpptod on a-cendmg the throne 

**** Kin 8 o Qh zul ^ ^T,?Vl ,T t 
Fimhttt omitted U* name, tolf Ahol Ad ha. mentioned >t 

j*rmw*jH*-i-Aieoarii Vol. 1J p. J426). ... , , n t.{~v^* 

The number of frfc written for BtyM Dually 108, but here a .ingle figure .tandf !or the bighMt 

ai 6 are written for * preceptor, 5 for a roaster, 4 for *u eemy, 3 for friend, 2 for aervant, wid I for 

or a gou. 



. IX. 








Narayanpai is a village 23 miles northwest of Jagdalpur, the capital .of tlie Bastar feudatory 
state attached to the Chhattlsgapb. Division of the Central Provinces. It is situated on the 
right hank of the splendidly picturesque " Indravatf, one of those minor rivers of India than 
ifhich none is more interesting, 1 It traverses the most untrodden regions of the peninsula. 
Here in the deepest recesses of the wild forests which cover the Mardian hills, is the home of 
the G&nd racesone of the aboriginal Dravidian peoples, whose origin is indistinct ; a people who 
still ereot rude stone monuments and use stone implements, unwitting of the procession of the 
centuries and the advance of civilization to their borders." And yet the very place which has 
today all fcho signs of a primeval forest, may a thousand years hack have compared favourably 
with any of the civilized provinces of those times. At least such seems to be the irresistible 
conclusion from the discovery of the antiquarian remains left by the forgotten Nagavamsi kings 
of that little known state. Narayanpal is one of those places which enjoyed celebrity in their 
times, a place to which " people of various countries resorted," and which instead of having a 
long row of wooden peg gods, which now adorn the village turf, possessed the temple of 
NUrayana, " the basket of the gems of knowledge" which no doubt the residents duly picked up. 
The Indravati was to Bastar what the Narmad& has been to India, the separating boundary 
between, the Aryan and the Dcavidian peoples. It is therefore no surprise to find all the in- 
scriptions to the north of the Indravati written in Nagarl characters, while all to the south are 
written in Telugu. It appears that the Nagavamsi kings, though ruling on both sides of the 
Indravati, had fixed that river as the ethnic oc at least the linguistic boundary for the con- 
venience of the Aryan and the Dravidiau peoples under their sway. Oar inscription being found 
in Narayanpal on the north bank of the river is therefore iu Sanskrit characters. It$ dis- 
covery is due to the efforts of Rai Bahadur Pand& Baijnath, B.A., who kindly sent me five im- 
pressions. Another impression has since been prepared by Mr. Venkoba Rao of the Madras Arch- 
aeological Survey, I have made use of all these materials for my edition. The inscription is 
engraved on a stone slab, standing near the temple of Narayana, to which it belongs. In this 
temple there is still an exquisite image of Narayana, 2' high. Above the ground the slab 
measures 7' S x 2' 3", and the writing covers a space 5' 9" X 2' 2", including the imprecatory 
figures and the additions to be referred to presently, but leaving out the top rl moM,. The 
original inscription apparently contained only 35 lines, beginning with Svasti sahafoa-phandinani 
and ending with ma.rn.gala, <mahd-srl, underneath which the usual imprecatory figures of a cow 
and a calf, the dagger and shield, the sun and moon and the Siva Hnga, the meanings of which 
I have elsewhere s explained, were carved. The additional 11 lines, marked (a), (b), (c) and 
(d) by me, appear to be later additions, and are either interpolations or were inserted when the 
ownership of the land changed hands either by succession or otherwise. They generally give 
the names of persons to whom the land was apparently transferred. The lines marked (a), (b)j 
(c) have bean inserted in the blank spaces between or on the sides of the imprecatory figures. 
Under all these a straight line has been drawn, and the four lines marked (d) have been 
inserted. These give the name of a queen different from the donor of the inscription proper. 
This may have been done when the land changed hands after the death of the original donor, 
when, in the ordinary course, the successor of the donor would be shown as the transferor or 

1 Imperial Qazrttr-.r of India, Vol. I. (.N'ew Edition, 1807), pasjc **. 
4 Above, pp, 164 and 175. 


The language of the inscription is Saiwkrit prone, except the two imprecatory 
lines 33 to 35, and the characters as stated before art) Nagari, They are boldly written, b t 
size is not uniform throughout. While in tho top lint) tiri-muhii, they are as big as 21" ti, 6 
average size in the first four lines is 1", Tho ougravor apparently finding them too big red I 
them to 1" in line 5, but in subsequent linos ho again Ixsgan to ium>ano the size mai 

average of lj" throughout the rest, which ferine tho major porti<m of the inscription, 
later additions also, marked (a), (b), () and (dj, tho "i/.u varies. In (a) it is loss than an { \ 
and in (d) it ia 1|" and in (b) and (c) midway botwweu, t.huHO two, 

As regards orthography, I ifl not dietiTigtiiahed from 7' and thero is a confusion in th 
iof s and ; for instance, we have on tho one baud Kihyn^tt (II, !$, 1H), Karanitgata (11. g 10 IR\ 
sfoana (11. 7, 37 (b) and 46 (d), fla&a- (1. 10), -wtfiiMti (I. #!>), twnniu'tlliti' (1. 34), sudhyatin 35!', 
on the other hand we have tivarggati; (1,17) and mhttira (H. I and 34). The anwswdra is tisuall 
preferred to the class nasals, though tho latter arc miftieiontly represented through nt 
Letters with a superscribed ripha have been invariably d(iabltJ, The loiters Ttsha t dha, ra and 
in most places, bha appear in their antiqttatod fonrn, ttnd the top vititrd for <?, and aw is BO ' 
times placed vertically before the letter to which it in attached, an in dhauta- (1. g), *iai)t(ro 
hritottarndthgi . . , pdrthivt-thdra.' (11. 8-9), ~xitvjuyti> (1. 10), -mturif%-a- (1. 11), e to I 
B&mSSvaradfoa (1, 17) me has the top Htroko, whilo <!/ IIJVH tho vortical stroke preceding cZu 
In line 23 in -stMtyudactlri- tho wcZfnc of u IB peculiarly attached in tho middle of the letter as 
we at present attach it to the letter ra alone. 

The inscription records the grant of tho village W&rftyai?apura to the god Naitya^a and 
some land near the Kharjuri tank to the god LukGiivara, tttul it i cUtiui in the Saka year 1083 on 
Wednesday, the full moon day o! the K&rtttka month in th Khara saifavataara, corresponding 
to the 18th October 1111 A.B. The donor was Ouo4a Mahftdtivl, tho ohiof quocn of the MaMr% 
Dharavarsha, the mother of S6me" Svaradeva and th grttdmufchr of Kanharade>a,who was theu 
ruling after the death of his father, as stated ia lino 1 7. Tho djunHty claims to be KAgavaihti 
of the KaSyapa gutra and to have a tiger with a calf H tlum- orest and to be the lords of 
Bh6gavatl, tho best of cities. There can be little doubt that it wna connected with the Sinda 
family of Yelburga. Tho bvrudas of the two are wtrikingly Himilttr. Tho Bindaa also claim to be 
NdgavamtidWiava, born of the raoa of tho NigafoohraJ^aiKl the lord* of Bhogavatl, which oity ia 
a mythical place in the nether world. The discoveriew hitherto made show