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f . 


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The General Editor of The Cambridge Bible for 
Schools thinks it right to say that he does not hold 
himself responsible either for the interpretation of 
particular passages which the Editors of the several 
Books have adopted, or for any opinion on points of 
doctrine that they may have expressed. In the New 
Testament more especially questions arise of the 
deepest theological import, on which the ablest and 
most conscientious interpreters have differed and 
always will differ. His aim has been in all such 
cases to leave each Contributor to the unfettered 
exercise of his own judgment, only taking care that 
mere controversy should as far as possible be avoided. 
He has contented himself chiefly with a careful 
revision of the notes, with pointing out omissions, with 


suggesting occasionally a reconsideration of some 
question, or a fuller treatment of difficult passages, 
and the like. 

Beyond this he has not attempted to interfere, 
feeling it better that each Commentary should have 
its own individual character, and being convinced 
that freshness and variety of treatment are more 
than a compensation for any lack of uniformity in 
the Series. 

Deanery, Peterborough. 



I. Introduction, 

Chapter /. Philippi : St Paul's connexion with it 9—14 

Chapter II, Date and occasion of the Epistle 1 4 — 20 

Chapter III, Authenticity of the Epistle , «o— 2 2 

Chapter IV. Relation of the Epistle to the other 

Epistles of the first Imprisonment ^3~^4 

Chapter V, The Epistle' of Polycarp to the Phi- 

lippians 24 — 28 

Chapter VI, Argument of St Paul's Epistle to the 

Philippians 28 —35 

II. Text and Notes 37 

III. Appendices 125 

IV, Index 135 

* • 

The Text adopted in this Edition is that of Dr Scrivener*s 
Cambridge Paragraph Bible, A few variations from the ordi- 
nary Text, chiefly in the spelling of certain words, and in the 
use of italics, will be noticed. For the principles adopted by 
Dr Scrivener as regards the printing of the Text see his In- 
troduction to the Paragraph Bible, published by the Cambridge 
University Press. 

In thy Orcharde (the wals, buttes and trees, if they could speak, 
would beare me witnesse) I learned without booke almost all Paules 
Epistles, yea and I weene all the Canonicall Epistles, saue only the 
Apocalipse. Of which study, although in time a great part did depart 
from me, yet the sweete smell thereof I truste I shall cary with me into 
heauen : for the profite thereof I thinke I haue fe)te in all my lyfe t3rme 
euer after. 

Bishop Ridley, to Pembroke Hall, (Pembroke College), Cambridge. 

From A letter which he wrote as his last farewel to al his true tutd faythefuU 
frendes in God^ October, 1555, a few days before he stiffered. Transcribed from 
Coverdale's Letters o/Martyrs^ ed. 1564. 





Philippi : St Paul's Connexion with it. 

The site of Philippi is near the head of the Archipelago 
{Mare jEgcBum)^ eight miles north-westward of the port of 
Kavala, or Kavalla, probably the ancient Neapolis. Just south 
of it runs the 41st parallel of north latitude; a little to the west, 
the 24th parallel of east (Greenwich) longitude. The place is at 
present a scene of ruins. A village hard by, also in ruins, still 
bears the name of Philibedjik *. In the first century the town 
occupied the southern end of a hill above a fertile plain, and 
extended down into the plain, so as to comprise a higher and a 
lower city. These were divided by the great Egnatian Road, 
which crossed Roman Macedonia from sea to sea. The higher 
town contained, among other buildings, the citadel, and a temple, 
built by the Roman colonists, to the Latin god Silvanus. The 
lower town contained the market-place, and the forum, a smaller 
square on which opened the courts of justice. Four massive 
columns are still standing at the foot of the hill, probably 
marking the four corners of the forum. A little more than a 
mile to the west of the town the small river Bounarbachi, 
anciently Gangas, Gangites, or Angites, and still called, at least 
at one part of its course, Angista, flows southward into a fen 
which borders the plain of the city, and to the south of which 

* Lewin, Life and Epistles of St Paiil^ vol. I. p. ao8. 


again rise the heights of Mount Pangaeus, now Pirndri, rich of 
old in veins of gold and silver, and covered in summer with 
wild roses. The whole region is one of singular beauty and 

The geographical position of Philippi was remarkable. It lay 
on a great thoroughfare from West to East, just where the 
mountain barrier of the Balkans sinks into a pass, inviting the 
road builders of Greek, Macedonian, and Roman times. It was 
this which led Philip of Macedon (B.a 359—336) to fortify the 
old Thracian town of Daton^ or Crenldes {Fountains). To the 
place thus strengthened he gave his name, and, by pushing his 
border eastward into Thrace, converted it from a Thracian into 
a Macedonian town^. 

This position of Philippi accounts for the one great event 
in its secular history, the double battle in which (B.a 42) some 
ninety-five years before St Paul first saw Philippi, the com- 
bined armies of Brutus and Cassius were defeated by Octavius 
(afterwards Augustus) and Marcus Antonius. Cassius en- 
camped on Pangaeus, south of the town, plain, and fen, Brutus 
on the slopes to the north, near the town ; thus guarding from 
both sides the pass of the Egnatian road. First Cassius was 
routed, and two days later Brutus. Each in succession was 
slain, at his own command, by the hand of a comrade, and 
with them died the cause of the great republican oligarchy of 

Augustus erected Philippi into a colony (colonia^ KoKoplof 
Acts xvi. 12X with the full title Colonia Augtista Julia Victrix 
Philipporumy or Philippensis. A colony, in the Roman sense, 
was a miniature Rome, a reproduction and outpost of the city* 
The colonists were sent out by authority, they marched in 
military order to their new home, their names were stiU en* 
rolled among the Roman tribes, they used the Latin language 

* Lewin, I. 207. 

^ To Philip it was important not only for military strength but as a 
place of mines. He is said to have worked the old and almost 
abandoned mines so vigorously as to have drawn from them 10,000 
talents yearly. Long l^fore the Christian era, apparently, the supply 
of precious ore was finally exhausted. 


and Latin coinage, their chief magistrates were appointed from 
Rome, and were independent of the provincial governors ^ 
These magistrates were two in each colony, Duumviri^ and 
combined civil and military authority in their persons. At 
Philippi we find them assuming the grandiose title of com- 
mandants, praetors, tTrparrjyoi (Acts xvi. 20), and giving their 
constables the title of lictors, pajSdovxoi (ver. 35). They posed, 
in effect, as the more than consuls of their petty Rome. Much 
of the narrative of Acts xvii. comes out with double vividness 
when the colonial character of Philippi is remembered. 

In Acts xvi. 12 we find Philippi called, in the Authorized 
Version, "the chief city of that part of Macedonia/' The better 
rendering of the best-attested reading is, however, " a city of 
Macedonia, first of the district." This may mean, grammati- 
cally, either that Philippi first met the traveller as he entered 
the region of Macedonia where it lay, or that it was the political 
capital of that region. Mr Lewin (i. 202, 206) advocates the 
latter view, and holds that Philippi succeeded Amphipolis as 
the capital of the "first," or easternmost, of the four Roman 
" Macedonias.*' Bp Lightfoot {Philtpptans, p. 50) prefers de- 
cidedly the former view, maintaining that the fourfold Roman 
division was,^ by St Paul's time, long disused. We incline, how- 
ever, to an explanation nearer to Mr Lewin's view ; that Philippi 
is marked by St Luke as first, in the sense of most important, 
of its district ; not officially perhaps, but by prestige. 

We may remark in passing that the geographical position of 
Philippi is incidentally illustrated by the presence there of 
Lydia, the purple-merchant from Asiatic Thyatira, come to this 
important place of thoroughfare between her continent and 
Roman Europe. And the colonial, military, character of Philippi 
explains in a measure the comparative feebleness of its Jewish 
element, with their humhle proseucha, or prayer- house (Acts xvi. 
13), outside the walls. 

On the story of St Paul's work at Philippi there is little need 
to dwell in detail, so full and vivid is the narrative of Acts xvi., 

* Britain, like other frontier provinces, had its colonia; e.g. Lindtim 
Colonia, Lin-coln, 


- - — ■ — — — ~- 

from the unobtrusive opening of the mission (a.d. 52) by the 
Apostle, with his coadjutors Silas, Timothy, and probably Luke^ 
to the moment when Paul and Silas quit the house of Lydia, 
and, probably leaving Luke behind them, set out westward 
along the Egnatian road for Amphipolis. It is enough to say 
here that the whole circumstances there depicted harmonize 
perfectly with the contents and tone of our Epistle; with its 
peculiar affectionateness, as written to witnesses and partners 
of tribulation, with its entreaties to the disciples to hold to- 
gether in the midst of singularly alien surroundings, and, we 
may add, with its allusions to the '^ citizen-life " of the saints 
whose central civic home is (not Rome but) heaven. 

Twice after A.D. 52, within the period covered by the Acts, we 
find St Paul at Philippi. Late in the year 57 he left Ephesus 
for Macedonia (Acts xx. i; cp. 2 Cor. ii. 12, 13, vii. 5, 6), and 
undoubtedly gave to Philippi some of his " much exhortation." 
In the spring of 58, on his return eastward from Corinth by 
Macedonia, he spent Passover at Philippi (Acts xx. 6), lingering 
there, apparently, in the rear of the main company of his fellow- 
travellers, ^ 'Uhat he might keep the paschal feast with his 
beloved converts"*. 

Intercourse with Philippi was evidently maintained actively 
during his absences. Our Epistle (iv. 16) mentions two mes- 
sages from the converts to St Paul just after his first visit, and 
the frequent allusions to Macedonia in the Corinthian Epistles 
indicate that during the time spent at Ephesus (say 55 — 57) 
Philippi, with the other '* churches of Macedonia,*' must have 
been continually in his heart and thoughts, and kept in contact 
with him by messengers. 

On the question of a visit to Philippi later than the date 
of this Epistle, see notes on ch. i. 25, 26. 

Before leaving the topic of St Paul's intercourse with 
Philippi, we may notice two points in which distinctively 

1 The narrative (Acts xvi. i— 17) is in the first person. On the **tve 
sections" of the Acts see Salmon, Introduction to the N, T'., pp. 371 &c. 
We may assume Timothy's presence from Acts xvi. i &c. and xvii. 
14, 15. 

' Lightfoot, p. 60. 


Macedonian traits appear in the Christian life of the mission 
church. The first is the position and influence of women. 
We have women prominent in the narrative of Acts xvL, and in 
Phil. iv. 2 we find two women who were evidently important 
and influential persons in the Church. And similar indications 
appear at Thessalonica (Acts xvii. 4) and Beroea (jb, 12). Bp 
Lightfoot has collected some interesting evidence to shew that 
Macedonian women generally held an exceptionally honoured 
and influential position. Thus it is common, in Macedonian 
inscriptions^ to find the mother's name recorded instead of the 
father's; and Macedonian husbands, in epitaphs upon their 
wives, use terms markedly reverent as well as affectionate. 
The Gospel doctrine of woman's dignity would find good soil in 
Macedonia. The other point is the pecuniary liberality of the 
Philippians, which comes out so conspicuously in ch. iv. This 
was a characteristic of the Macedonian missions, as 2 Cor. 
viii., ix., amply and beautifully prove. It is remarkable that 
the Macedonian converts were, as a class, very poor (2 Cor. 
viil i); and the parallel facts, their poverty and their open- 
handed support of the great missionary and his work, are 
deeply harmonious. At the present day the missionary liber- 
ality of poor Christians is, in proportion, vastly greater than 
that of the rich. 

The post-apostolic history of Philippi is very meagre. We 
know scarcely anything of it with the one exception that 
St Ignatius passed it, on his way from Asia to his martyrdom 
at Rome, about the year no. He was reverently welcomed 
by the Philippians, and his pathetic visit occasioned communi- 
cations between them and Ignatius* friend Polycarp, bishop of 
Smyrna, who then wrote to the Philippian Christians his one 
extant Epistle (see below, ch. v.). "Though the see is said 
to exist even to the present day," writes Bp Lightfoot (^Philip- 
fians^ p. 65), "the city itself has long been a wilderness.... Of 
the church which stood foremost among all the apostolic com- 
munities in faith and love, it may literally be said that not one 
stone stands upon another. Its whole career is a signal monu- 
ment of the inscrutable counsels cf God. Born into the world 


with the brightest promise, the Church of Philippi has lived 
without a history and perished without a memorial/? (See 
further, Appendix I.) 

As we leave the ruins of Philippi, it is interesting to observe 
that among them have been found, by a French archeological 
mission (1864), inscriptions giving the names of the pro- 
moters of the building of the temple of Silvanus, and of the 
members of its " sacred college." Among them occur several 
names familiar to us in the Acts and Epistles ; Crescens, Secun- 
dus, Trophimus, Urbanus, Aristobulus, Pudens, and Clemens — 
this last a name found in our Epistle. 


Date and occasion of the Epistle. 

It may be taken as certain that the Epistle was written from 
Rome, during the two years' imprisonment recorded by St Luke 
(Acts xxviii. 30) ; that is to say, within the years 61 — 63. It is 
true that some scholars, notably Meyer*, have made Caesarea 
Stratonis (Acts xxiv. 23 — 27) the place of writing of the Philip- 
piansy EpJiesiaiis^ and Colossiansj and some who hesitate to 
assign the two latter epistles to the Caesarean captivity assign 
the Philippians to it (see Lightfoot, p. 30, note). But the reasons 
on the other side seem to us abundantly decisive. Bp Light- 
foot gives them somewhat as follows (pp. 30, 31, note), (i) 
The notice of "Caesar's household" (iv. 22) cannot naturally 
apply to Caesarea. (2) The notice (i. 12 &c.) of the progress of 
the Gospel loses point if the place of writing is not a place of 
great importance and a comparatively new field for the Gospel. 
(3) St Paul looks forward, in this Epistle, to an approaching 
release, and to a visit to Macedonia. This does not agree with 
his indicated hopes and plans at Caesarea, where certainly 
his expectation (Acts xxiii. 1 1) was to visit Rome, under what- 
ever circumstances, most probably as a prisoner on appeal 

* His reasons are fully stated and answered in Alford*s Prolegomena 
to the Ef>hesians, 


The chief plea, in the Philippians^ ifor Cse$area is that" 
the \wQixdi pratorium (i. 13) corresponds to Xht prcetoriumy or 
residency, of Herod at Csesarea (Acts xxiii. 35). But here 
again we may remark that the allusion in the Epistle indicates 
an area of influence remarkable and extensive, conditions 
scarcely fulfilled at Caesarea. And Rome affords an obvious 
and adequate solution of the problem, as we shall see at the 
proper place in the text. 

The subordinate question arises, when within the two years of 
the Roman captivity was our Epistle written ? Was it early or 
late, before or after the Ephesians and the ColosHansf which 
are plainly to be grouped together, along with the private letter 
to the Colossian Philemon. 

A widely prevalent view is that the Philippians was written 
late, not long before St Paul's release on the final hearing of his 
appeal. The main reasons for this view are 

(i) the indications in the Epistle that the Gospel had made 
great progress at Rome ; 

(2) the absence in the Epistle of the names Luke and 
Aristarchus, who both sailed from Syria with St Paul (Acts 
xxvii. 2) and who both appear in the Colossians and PhU 

(3) the lapse of time after St PauPs arrival at Rome de- 
manded by the details of Epaphroditus' case (Phil, ii. iv.), 
which seem to indicate that the Philippians had heard of St 
Paul's arrival; had then despatched their collection (perhaps 
not without delay, iv. 10) to Rome by Epaphroditus ; had then 
heard, from Rome, that Epaphroditus had been ill there (ii. 26), 
and had then somehow let it be known at Rome {ibid) that the 
news had reached them ; 

(4) the tone of the Epistle, in its allusions to St Paul's strict 
imprisonment and to his entire uncertainty, humanly speaking, 
about the issue of his appeal ; allusions said to be inconsistent 
with the comparative freedom indicated by the Acts, but con- 
sistent with a change for the worse in the counsels of Nero, 
such a change as would have occurred when (a.d. 62) the 


wicked Tigellinus succeeded the upright Burrus in command of 
the Guard. 

Bp Lightfoot on the other hand takes the view that the 
Philippians was the earliest of the Epistles of the Captivity. 
And he meets the above arguments somewhat as follows. 

(i) There is good evidence, both in the Acts and the Epistle, 
and above all in the Romans^ for the belief that ''a flourishing 
though unorganized Church" existed at Rome before St Paul's 
arrival Already, three years earlier^ he had addressed his 
greatest Epistle ''to all that w^ere in Rome, beloved of God, 
called saints;" and there is strong reason to think that many of 
the Christians greeted in that Epistle (ch. xvi.) were identical 
with "the saints of the Household" of our Epistle (see on PhiL 
iv. 22), and so that those " saints " were pre-Pauline converts, at 
least in many instances. And when he lands at Puteoli, in 61, 
he finds there too Christians ready to greet him. And on the 
other hand the allusions in our Epistle to the progress of the 
work at Rome must not be pressed too far, as if the whole 
population of the City was being stirred. What is meant is 
that a distinct and vigorous " new departure " was being made 
by the Roman Christians, as willing evangelists, and that the 
warders of the Apostle were carrying out the strange and inter- 
esting news of his doctrine and character among their fellow 
Praetorians and " people in general " (ol Xotirol iroirey). But all 
these notes excellently suit a time not long after the Apostle's 
arrival, when the stimulus of his presence among the Christians 
would be powerful in its novelty, and when of course already 
the "soldiers that kept him" would be among his hearers, and 
not seldom, by the grace of God, his converts. Even the allu- 
sion (i. 15) to internal opposition suits such a time better than 
a later, "when... antagonism... and... devotion... had settled down 
into a routine" (Lightfoot, p. 34). 

(2) As regards the absence from the Philippians of the 
names Luke and Aristarchus, this is in the first place an argu- 
ment from silence only, which cannot be conclusive. The 
two disciples may be included under the "brethren" and 
"saints" of iv. 21, 22. But further, it is at least doubtful 


whether Aristarchus, though he sailed from Syria with St Paul, 
landed in Italy with him. He was a Thessalonian, and the 
vessel in which St Paul sailed was an Adramyttian^ from the 
iEgaean, in which Aristarchus may have been on his way not to 
Rome but to Thessalonica^ From Macedonia he may easily 
have joined St Paul in Italy later, associating himself so closely 
there with the imprisoned Apostle as to earn the title of his 
"fellow-prisoner of war " (Col. iv. 10). As for Luke, it is obvious 
that at any time he might have left Rome on a temporary 
errand, to Puteoli perhaps, or some other outlying mission. 
And of course the same remark may be made of Aristarchus, 
supposing him to have been after all in Italy. 

(3) The argument from the case of Epaphroditus is not 
strong. It is not necessary to suppose that a special message 
went from Rome to Philippi to announce St Paul's arrival. 
Very possibly through Aristarchus (see just above), if not by 
some other means, the Philippians may have heard that he was 
far on his way, and may have acted on probabilities. Epa- 
phroditus may even have left Philippi, with the collection, before 
St Paul reached Italy. And a month, under favourable cir- 
cumstances, would suffice for a journey from Philippi to Rome, 
by Brundisium (Brindisi), Dyrrachium (the lUyrian port), and 
the Egnatian road across Macedonia'. Thus if the Philippians 
was written only four months after St Paul's arrival the time 
would amply include all we need infer under this head. 

(4) The tone of the Epistle, with its suspense, its allusions 
lo rigour of confinement, and on the other hand its expectations 
of release, is not conclusive for a late date. The imprisonment 
as depicted in it is after all no less and no more severe than 
Acts xxviii. 16 implies. And the references to the trial and its 
uncertain issue would probably be at least as appropriate in the 
early stages of its progress, or under early experiences of its 
delays, as later. Doubtless the Epistle depicts trials and 

^ Indeed, the first intention of the centurion Julias may have been 
that his prisoners should be conveyed to Rome by way of the iEgsean, 
Macedonia, and the Adriatic (Lightfoot, p. 35, note). 

• See Lightfoot*s interesting proofs, p. 38, note. 

niiLirriANS 2 

i8 iNTkODUCtlON. 

sorrows where the Acts speaks only of opportunity and success ; 
but Bp Lightfoot well remarks that this is perfectly truth- 
like. The historian reviews the sum total of a very fruitful 
period of influence; the letter-writer si^^aks under the immediate 
pressure of the day's, or the week's, chequered circumstances. 
St Paul's expectation of release is discussed in the notes (ii. 24); 
it certainly affords no decisive note of time. As for the pro- 
motion of Tigellinus, Lightfoot justly says that such changes in 
the Imperial court would make little difference, for better or 
worse, in the case of an obscure provincial prisoner, the mis- 
sionary of a cultus which had not yet come to be thought 
politically dangerous. 

If these arguments for a late date for the Epistle may be fairly 
answered thus, we have meanwhile positive evidence for an 
earlier date in the doctrinal affinities of the Philippians* These 
point towards the great central group of Pauline Epistles 
(RomanSy Corinthians, Galatians), and especially towards the 
Romans, the latest written of that group. In Phil. iii. we have 
in prominence the doctrine of Justification, in the precise form 
of the doctrine of Imputed Righteousness, the believer's refuge 
and peace in view of the absoluteness of the Divine Law. 
Now this is the characteristic topic of the Roman and Galatian 
Epistles, and in a minor degree of the Corinthian (i Cor. i. 
30, iv. 4, vi. II; 2 Cor. iii. 9, v. 19 — 21). But it is absent, 
as regards just this form of presentation, from the Ephesian 
and Colossian Epistles, in which St Paul was led by the Holy 
Spirit to deal more expressly with the closely related, but dif- 
ferent sides of truth conveyed in such words as Union, Life, 
Indwelling, Universal Church. This is strong evidence for 
an approximation of the Philippians to the Romans, &c., in 
point of time, as near as other considerations allow. Certainly 
it makes it likely that the Ephesians and its group were not 
interposed between the Romans and the Philippians, 

And on closer examination we find many links of thought 
and expression between the Romans and the Philippians^ 
besides this main link. Bp Lightfoot (pp. 43, 44) collects the 
following parallelisms of this sort : 




. i. 3-8 

with Rom. L 8— 11: 



i. 10 


— u. 18: 


ii. a — 4 


— xii. 10, 16—19: 


ii. 8 — II 


— xiv. 9 — 11: 


• •• 

111. 3 

— ii. 28, i. 9, V. 11: 



iii. 4» 5 

— 'xi. I : 


iii. 10, II, 



— vi. 5 : 

— •_ 

iii. 19 


— vi. 21, xvi. 18: 

iv. 18 

— xii. I. 

And he notes the following words and phrases as occurring 
in the two Epistles, and not elsewhere : diroKapaboKiOy avftfu}p<l>oty 
§( €pi0€iaSf axpi rov pvv^ ifpotrbix'^a'Bai iv Kvpla, See too our note 
on i. 26. 

On the whole, we may date the Epistle, with great pro- 
bability, late in the year 61 or early in 62. See further T/^ 
Epistle to the EphesianSy in this Series, Introduction^ pp. 
19 — 22. 

Of the occasion of writing, little needs to be said; the 
Epistle itself speaks clearly on the subject. The arrival of 
Epaphroditus bringing the Philippian gift, his illness at Rome, 
and his anxiety to return to Philippi, appear to have given the 
immediate suggestion and made the opportunity. We gather that 
besides this Epaphroditus had reported, as the one serious defect 
of Christian life at Philippi, a tendency to party-spirit, or at least 
to personal ailtagonisms and differences, especially in the case 
of two well-known female converts. See i. 2, 27, ii. 2, 3, 14, 26, 
iv. 2, and notes. And meanwhile St Paul takes the occasion 
to warn his beloved Philippians against errors of doctrine and 
practice which, if not already rife at Philippi, were sure to find 
their way there; the errors both of the Pharisaic legalist 
(iii. 2 — 11), and of the antinomian would-be Paulinist (iii. 


So, occasioned on the one hand by present circumstances, 
and on the other guided by the secret working of the Holy 
Spirit to form a sure oracle of God for the Church for ever, 
the Letter was dictated, and the greetings of the Writer's 
visitors were added, and the manuscript was given over to 

2 — 2 


Epaphroditus, to be conveyed across Italy, the Adriatic, and 
Macedonia, to the plain and hill of Philippi*. 

Authenticity of the Epistle, 

No trace of doubt on this subject appears in early Christian 
literature. Amongst direct testimonies, and taking the later 
first, we may cite TertulUan (cent. 2 — 3). He {de ResurrecHone 
CarniSy c. xxiii.) quotes Phil. iii. 11— 13 2, as ** written by Paul 
to the Philippians." He mentions {de Prascriptiane, c. xxxvi.) 
Philippi among the Churches which possessed *' authentic 
apostolic epistles," that is, apparently, letters received at first 
hand from apostles. In his Reply to Marciotty bk. v., taking 
up the Pauline Epistles one by one for evidence against the 
Gnostic theory of Christianity taught by Marcion, he comes, 
(c. XX.) to "the Epistle to the Philippians," and quotes, or refers 
to, i. 14 — 18, ii. 6—8, iii. 5—9, 20, 21. It will be observed that 
this latter evidence is doubly valuable, as it assumes his op- 
ponent's agreement with him about the authenticity. 

Irencsus (late cent. 2) quotes {de HaresibtiSy.vf,^ c. xviii. 4) 
Phil. iv. 18 as the words of " Paul to the Philippians." 

Clement of Alexandria (late cent. 2) repeatedly quotes the 
Epistle. He brings {Pcedogogus^ i., c. vi., ed. Migne) Phil, 
iii. 12 — 14 to refute those who "call themselves 'perfect* and 
'gnostic'." In the Stromata, iv., c. iii., he refers to Phil. iii. 
20, in the words "having obtained citizenship in heaven;" c v., 
he quotes i, 13, 14 as the "words of the Apostle;" c. xiii. he 
quotes i. 7, 29, 30, ii. i, 2, 17, 20, 21, and refers to the Philippians 
as addressed by "the Apostle'* in these passages. 

^ For further particulars of St Paul's life and work at Rome see 
Appendix A. 

* With one curious variation of reading: persequor ad palmatn 
incriminationis; as if reading rh fipapeToif r^; dif€yK\ijff€Ws, 


In the contemporary Letter of the Churches of Lyons and 
VieniUy describing the martyrdoms of A.D. 177*, the sufferers 
are said to have striven to *' imitate Christy who being in the 
form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God" 
(Phil. ii. 6). 

Folycarpy in his Epistle to the Philippians (very early cent. 2), 
both refers (c. iii.) to the Epistle which St Paul had addressed 
to them, and manifestly echoes its phraseology. He speaks 
indeed of "Epistles." But the plural is often used for the sin- 
gular of this word ; see Lightfoot in his Edition of Polycarp 
{Apostolic Fathers^ Pt. ii.; Vol. ii., sect ii., p. 911). Polycarp's 
Epistle is given below, nearly in full ; Introduction, ch. v. 

Ignatius J on his way to martyrdom (about A.D. 1 10), wrote a 
series of Epistles. In that to the Romans, c. ii., he speaks of 
his desire to be "poured out as a libation to God"; to the 
Philadelphians he writes (c. viii.), "do nothing in a spirit of 
faction" (PhiL ii. 3); to the Smymseans (c. iv.) "I endure all 
things, for He, the perfect Man, strengtheneth me"; and (c. xi.), 
"being perfect, be ye also perfectly minded." These passages, 
taken together, are good evidence for Ignatius' knowledge of 
the Epistle. 

All the ancient Versions, including the oldest Syriac (cent. 2), 
and all the lists of N. T. books, of cent 2, contain the Epistle. 

Such evidence, combined on the one hand with the total 
absence of ancient negative testimony, and on the other with 
the perfect naturalness, and intense and tender individuality, 
of the Epistle itself, is abundantly enough to satisfy all but the 
ultra-scepticism which, however ingenious, really originates in 
i priori views. Such surely is the account to be given of the 
theory of F, C. Baur (1796— 1860) — that the Epistle is a fabri- 
cation of the second century, betraying a development of 
doctrine^ and life later than the age of St Paul, and aiming 
at a reconciliation between divergent Church parties (see on 
iv. 2 below). His objections to the Epistle have, however, 

* Preserved by Eusebius, Ilist. EccU^ v. cc. i. — iv. The quotation 
is from c. ii. 

* See further, Appendix F. 


been discarded as futile evea by rationalizing critics, such as 
Hilgenfeld, Pfleiderer, and Renan^. Alford {fireek Test^ iii. p. 27) 
says, ^ To those who would see an instance of the very insanity of 
hypercriticism I would recommend the study of these pages of 
Baur [Paulus, der Apastel Jesu Christie pp. 458 — ^475]. They 
are almost as good, by way of burlesque, as the 'Historic 
Doubts respecting Napoleon Buonaparte' of Abp Whately. 
According to [Baur] all i/j2^a/ expressions prove its spuriousness^ 
as being taken from other Epistles ; all unusual expressions 
prove the same, as being from another than St Paul, &c.'' 
Lightfoot says (PhiLy p. 74}, ''I cannot think that the mere fact 
of their having been brought forward by men of ability and 
learning is sufficient to entitle objections of this stamp to a 
serious refutation." Salmon says (Introd. to N, 71, pp. 465, 6), 
^'Baur has pronounced this Epistle dull, uninteresting, mono- 
tonous, characterized by poverty of thought, and want of origin- 
ality. But one only loses respect for the taste and skill of the 
critic who can pass such a sentence on one of the most touch- 
ing and interesting of Paul's letters. So far is it from shewing 
signs of having been manufactured by imitation of the other 
Epistles that it reveals aspects of Paul's character which the 
other letters had not presented... Elsewhere we are told how the 
Apostle laboured with his own hands for his support, and 
declared that he would rather die than let the disinterestedness 
of his preaching be suspected; here we find (iv. 10 — 19) that 
there was no false pride in his independence, and that when there 
was no likelihood of misrepresentation, he could gracefully accept 
the ungrudged gifts of affectionate converts. Elsewhere we read 
only of his reprobation of Christian teachers who corrupted the 
simplicity of the Gospel; here we are told (i. 18) of his satis- 
faction that, by the efforts even of those whose motives were 
not pure, the Gospel of Christ should be more widely published." 

* Wittichen, a decidedly negative recent critic, admits the Philip- 
plans as genuine. {Lebeii Jesu^ p. 14 ; quoted by Edersheim, Prophecy 
and History ^ ^c»y p. 68, note.) 



Relation of the Epistle to the other Epistles of 

THE First Imprisonment. 

We have pointed out the strong doctrinal link of connexion 
between the Pkilippian Epistle and the Ramans with its at- 
tendant Epistles. We find in the Pkilippians on th^ other 
hand indications of similar connexion with the Ephesiatis and 
the ColossianSf and such indications as to harmonise with the 
theory advocated above (p. 16) that these Epistles were dated 
some time later in St Paul's captivity. 

In two directions chiefly these connexions appear ; {a) in the 
view of the Church as a City or Commonwealth, and {b) in the 
view of Christ's personal Glory, 

Under the first head, cp. Phil. iii. 20, with Eph. ii. 12, 19, 
remembering that nowhere in the Epistles written before 
the Roman imprisonmeut is this view of the Church distinctly 

Under the second head, cp. Phil. ii. 5 — 11 with Eph. i. 17 — 
23, ii. 8, &c. ; Col. i. 15 — 19, &c. And cp. PhiL ii. 10 with 
Eph. i. 20; Col. i. 20. In the earlier Epistles the Apostle was 
guided to the fullest statements of the salvation wrought out by 
Christ, especially in its judicial and propitiatory aspects. But 
this exposition of the grac^ and wonder of His personal majesty, 
personal self-abasement, and personal exaltation after it, is in 
a great measure a new development in the revelations given 
through St Paul. 

Observe in connexion with this the insistence on the blessed- 
ness of ^^ knowing Hini'^ (iii. 10), compared with the glowing 
language of Eph. iii. 19 ("to know the love of Christ, &c."). 
Most certainly the idea is present everywhere in the Epistles of 
St Paul; but it reaches its full prominence in this group of 
Epistles, as other sides of truth do in the Romans and the 


Among minor notes of kinship in these Epistles, observe the 
view of faith as the ''gift af Gad'' (PhiL I 29; Eph. ii. 8); 
the mention of the Divine '' good pleasure^ y or gracious sovereign 
purpose (Phil. ii. 13; Eph. i. 4); the phrase '^preach Christ'* 
(Phil. i. 16, 18; CoL i. 28); the Apostle's ''joy'' in his trials 
(Phil. i. 18; Eph. iiL.13; Col. i. 24); the Divine "inworking" 
in the saints (Phil. ii. 13; Col. i. 29; cp. Eph. ii. 10); and the 
following words or phrases peculiar to these among the Pauline 
Epistles — Ta7r€ivo(f>po(rvvri (Phil. ii. 3; Eph. iv. 2; Col. iii. 12), 
(nrkayxya oticnpfjMv (or nearly so) (PhiL ii. i; Col. iii. 12; cp. 
PhilenL 7, 12^ 20); ocr/i^ fvnabias (Phil. iv. 18; Eph. v. 2); cW 
Xop^yla (Phil. i. 19; Eph. iv. 16; cp. Col. ii. 19). 


The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians. 

This Epistle, the only other extant letter addressed to the 
Church of Philippi, has been already mentioned (p. 21). For 
the text, fully edited with notes, see Lightfoot's Apostolic 
Fathers^ Part II. voL ii., sect. 2, pp. 898, &c. We give a trans- 
lation of the Epistle slightly abridged. It is interesting to 
observe the wealth of N. T. quotations, and the frequent tacit 
allusions to the topics of St Paul's Epistle. All clear Scripture 
quotations are italicized, as well as phrases apparently sug- 
gested by Scripture. 

Polycarp and his elders to the Church of God sojourning at 
Philippi; grace and peace be multiplied from God Almighty 
and Jesus Christ our Saviour. 

L / rejoiced greatly with you in tJie Lordy in your joy on 
welcoming those Copies^ of the True Love, chained with those 
holy fetters which are the diadems of the elect ; and that your 
long-renowned faith persists, and bears fruit to Christ, who for 

^ Ignatius and his companion Confessors. 


our sins died and rose, in wham^ not having seen Him^ you 
rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory ^ 2. joy into which 
many long to enter, knowing that by grace ye have been saved^ 
not ofworksy but by the will of God in Christ. 

ii. So gird up your loinsy forsake the prevalent specious 
errors, believe on Him who raised our Lord from the dead and 
gave Him glory y to whom (Christ) all things in heaven and 
earth are subjected^ to whom every living thing does service, 
who comes to judge the quick and dead^ whose blood God will 
require of the unbelieving. He who raised Him will raise us 
alsoy if we walk in His ways, abstaining from all injustice, 
avarice, and evil-speaking, not rendering evil for evil or railing 
for railing; remembering how the Lord said, fudge noty that 
ye be not judged; blessed are the poor^ and the persecuted for 
righteousness sake^for theirs is the kingdom of God, 

iii. I write thus concerning righteousness, not of my own 
motion but because you have invited me. Neither I nor any 
like me can approach the wisdom of the blessed and glorious 
Paul, who when among you, face to face with the men of that 
day, taught accurately and with certainty the word concerning 
the truth, who also when absent wrote to you letters*, which if 
you study diligently you shall be able to be built up in the faith 
given you ; which faith is the mother of us ally followed by 
hope, and by hope's forerunner, love to God, to Christ, and to 
our neighbour. For if any one is given to these, he hath ful- 
filled the precept of righteousness. He who hath love is far 
from all sin. 

iv. Now the beginning of all evils is the love of money. We 
brought nothing into the worldy and can carry nothing out. 
Let MS put on the armour of righteousness and teach one another 
to walk in the precept. Teach your wives too to walk in the 
faith, love, and purity given them, faithful to their husbands in 
all truth, amiable to all around them in true modesty, training 
their children in the fear of God. Let your widows be sober in 

* See p. 21. 


the faitbj instant in intercession, holding aloof from evil«speak- 
ing, from avarice, and from all wrong. They are God's altar^ 
and He inspects the victim to see if it has any blemish. 

V. God is not mocked J let us walk worthy of His precept 
and glory. Let the deacons {diaconty ministers) be blameless 
before Him, as ministers of God and Christ, avoiding likewise 
evil-speaking, and avarice, and unkindness, before Him who 
was minister of all. If we please Him in this world we shall 
receive the world to come; if we walk (lit., live as citizens) 
worthy of Him, we shall reign with Him^ if we believe. Let 
the juniors too walk in holy strictness. Every lust warreth 
against the spirit; fornicators and such like shall not inherit 
the kingdom. So let them watch and abstain ; let them submit 
to the elders and deacons. And let the virgins walk in 

vL The presbyters should be compassionate, watchful over 
the erring, the weak, the widows, orphans^ and poor, providing 
always for that which is good before God and men^ renouncing 
wrath, partiality, avarice, and rash judgment. If we ask remis* 
sion, we must remit. We must all stand before the judgment 
seat of Christ, and give account each of himself Let us do Him 
bond-service, as He bade us, and His Apostles, and the Pro- 
phets who shewed before of His coming. Be zealous for good ; 
avoid offences, and false brethren, who deceive the careless. 

vii. For whosoever confesseth not that fesus Christ is come 
in the flesh is antichrist. Whosoever confesses not the mystery 
of the Cross is of the devil. Whosoever perverts the Lord's 
oracles to his lusts, and says that there is neither resurrection 
nor judgment, is Satan's firstborn. So let us forsake the 
current vain doctrines, and turn to the once-delivered Gospel, 
watching unto prayer, persevering in fastings, praying the all- 
seeing God not to lead us into temptation ; as the Lord said, 
The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak. 

viii. Let us hold fast to our hope and to the earnest of our 
righteousness, which earnest is Christ Jesus, who bore our sins 
in His own body to the tree; who did no sin, neither was guile 


found in His mouths who bore all that we might live in Him. 
Let us imitate His patience. If we suffer for Him, let us 
glorify Him. — He left us this example. 

ix. All of you obey the word of righteousness, and practise 
true endurance, which you have seen exemplified before you 
not only in blessed Ignatius, Zosimus, and Rufus, but in others 
of your own body, and in Paul himself and the other Apostles. 
You know that they all did not run in vain. They have gone, 
in the path of faith and righteousness, to their promised (lit., 
owed) place, beside the Lord with whom they suffered. 

X. Stand fast then, according to His example, steadfast and 
unmoveable in the faith, kindly affectioned one to another with 
brotherly lovej sharing together in truth, in the Lord^s gentle- 
ness {moderation, Phil. iv. 5) preferring one another. When 
able to do good, defer it not,ybr almsgiving rescuethfrom death 
(Tobit iv. II, xii. 9). All being subject to one another, have 
your conversation honest among the Gentiles, that by your good 
works you may obtain praise, and the Lord be not blasphemed. 
Teach all men true sobriety. 

xi. I am exceedingly grieved for Valens, once made an elder 
among you, that he so ignores the position given him. Do you 
avoid avarice ; be pure, be true. He who cannot steer himself 
aright in such duties, how can he preach them ? If he avoids 
avarice he will be defiled by idolatry, and judged as one of the 
Gentiles. Know we not that the saints shall judge the world f 
as Paul teaches. I never heard of such sins in you, among 
whom the blessed Paul toiled, who were his ^\living) epistles^^^ 
in the first (days of the Gospel). About you he glories in the 
churches which knew the Lord before we knew Him. I am 
deeply grieved for Valens, and for his wife ; God grant them 
repentance. Count them not as enemies, but restore them as 
diseased and wandering members, that your whole body may be 
in safety. 

xii. You know the holy Scriptures perfectly; a knowledge 
* So Lightfoot explains the difficult sentence. 


not granted to me. Only, (I know that) it is there said, Be angry 
and sin not; let not the sun go down upon your wrath. Now 
the God and Father of our Lord, and He, the eternal High- 
Priest, (our) God^, Jesus Christ, build you up in all holiness, 
and give you part and lot among His saints, and to us with you, 
and to all everywhere who shall believe on our Lord and God 
Jesus Christ, and on His Father who raised Him from the 
dead. Pray for all the saints , and for kings and rulers, and for 
them that persecute you, and far the enemies of the Cross, that 
your fruit may be manifest in all things, that ye may be perfect 
in Him. 

xiii. Both you and Ignatius have asked me that, if a mes- 
senger is leaving us for Syria, he may carry your letter with 
ours. This I will do, in person or by delegate. The letter 
of Ignatius to us, and all others in our hands, we have sent 
you, as you desired, attached to this letter. They will greatly 
benefit you spiritually. Report to us anything you hear of 
Ignatius' companions. 

xiv. My letter-bearer is Crescens, whom again I commend 
to you, as a blameless Christian. His sister too I commend to 
you, in prospect. Farewell in the Lord Jesus Christ, in grace, 
with all who are yours. Amen. 



Ch. 1. 1 — ^2. Paul and Timotheus, servants of Jesus Christ, greet 
the Christians of Philippi and their Church-officers, invoking blessing 
on them from the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 

3 — 11. Paul assures them that his whole thought of them is full of 
thanksgiving, his every prayer for them full of joy, in view of their 
warm, steadfast cooperation from the first in his evangelical labours. 

* So Lightfoot; in preference to the reading, "///^ Son of God^^ 
which he thinks to be later. 


He is quite sure [on this bright evidence] that the work of grace in them 
will reach its consummation in glory. His affectionate regard for them 
is but just, so fully have they claimed his heart by their identification of 
themselves with him in the trials of captivity and the toils of Christian 
witnessing and teaching. God knows with what yearning tenderness, 
drawn from the heart of Christ, he misses them and longs for them. 
[And his affection expresses itself above all things in prayer], the 
prayer that their love [of which he for one has had such proofs] may 
increasingly be guided and fortified by a quick spiritual perception, 
sifting truth from error, holiness from sin, and forming a character 
which at the Great Day should prove pure in principle, and rich in the 
fruit [of the Spirit], fruit generated by communion with Christ, and 
bringing glory to God. I 

12 — ^20. As regards his own present circumstances, he rejoices to 
inform them that they are conducing to the advance of the Gospel at 
Rome. [His imprisonment is in itself a mission] ; its connexion [not 
with political or social offences but] with Christ is now well known 
throughout the Imperial Guard [which supplied his warders] and among 
the Romans in general. And the Roman Christians, for the most part, have 
felt a spiritual impetus [after a time of depression]. His captivity has 
nerved them to bear a bolder witness among their heathen neighbours. 
[True, there is a shadow across this light] ; some thus proclaim Christ 
[with new energy] from motives of opposition to Paul, while others do 
so in loyal sincerity. On the one side is love, which sees in the 
imprisoned Apostle a centre of action, set there by Christ, for the 
propagation of the Gospel; on the other side is the spirit of the 
partizan and of self, defiling the motive of the work, actually wishing 
to make his imprisonment doubly trying [by intercepting enquirers 
and converts]. Does it matter to him? [No — and] yes. [No, so far 
as his peace in God is concerned], yes, [happily yes, so far as the spread 
of the primary Gospel truth is concerned]. For thus in every way 
Christ is being proclaimed. Here is cause of joy for Paul ; and here 
shall be cause of joy [even in the eternal future]; for the situation shall 
only animate the Philippians to earnest prayer for him, and this shall 
bring him a new fulness of the Holy Spirit, and so shall promote his 
grace and glory. Yes, it shall forward the realization of his longing 
anticipation, that at this crisis, as at all others, Christ shall be glorified, 
whether through his body's living energies, or through his submission 
to his body's death. 


21 — 26. For indeed life is for him identified with, summed up in, 
Christ; and death, [as the introduction to Christ's fuller presence] is 
gain [even over such a life]. If [it is his Lord's will that] he should 
live on, [the prolonged life] will mean only larger work with richer 
fruit And indeed the case is one of blessed dilemma. Personal 
preference is for dying, dying into the presence of Christ ; a far, far 
better state [than the best here] ; while duty, manifested in the needs 
of his converts, is for living patiently on. And thus he feels sure that 
he will live on, for the spiritual benefit of his converts, and particularly 
in order that his restoration to them in bodily presence may give them 
fresh occasion for triumph in Christ* 

27 — 30. Meanwhile, let them live a life of holy practical consistency* 
Above all, let him see, or let him hear, as the case may be, that they 
are standing firm, and standing together^ cordially at one in Christian 
witness and work, and calm amidst opposing terrors. Such calmness 
[under such circumstances] will be an omen of their opponents* ruin 
and their own coming heaven. God has thus adjusted things, God who 
has granted them not only faith in Christ but also the privilege of 
suffering for Him; a conflict one with that which they had seen in 
Paul's case [at Philippi] and now hear of in his case [at Rome]. 

Ch. II. 1 — 4. [Yes, let them above all things hold together ^ watching 
against a tendency towards internal dissension; a tendency which he 
fears has shewn itself, however faintly, amongst them]. By the 
common blessings of believers, by the pity of their human hearts, 
he begs them to crown his joy in them with the joy of an assurance 
that they are living in holy harmony; shunning the spirit of self, 
taking each the lowest room, entering with unselfish love into each 
other's needs. 

6 — ^11. Let them remember, and reflect, the supreme Self-forgetfulncss 
of their Saviour. He, [in His preexistent glory,] being and seeming 
God, [looked indeed on the things of others]. He dealt with His true 
and eternally right Equality with His Father [in nature and majesty] 
not as a thing held, like a prize of strength or guile, anxiously and for 
Himself, [but as a thing which admitted of an act of most gracious 
sacrifice for others* good]. In a marvellous "Exinanition" [He laid 
by the manifested glories of Deity], and willed to be, and to seem, 
[as Man], the Bondservant [of God], putting on the visible garb of 
embodied manhood, [while always also more than man]. Aye, and 


having thus presented himself to men as man, He bowed yet lower, 
[in His supreme outlook **upon the things of others,'*] in His supreme 
obedience to His God; He extended that obedience to the length of 
dying, dying on a Cross, [that last degradation in the eyes of Gentile and 
Jew]. [So He *• pleased not Himself," and now, what was the result?] 
The Father raised Him to the eternal throne [in His now double glory. 
Cod and Man], giving to Him [as the once-abased One] the rights of 
supreme Majesty, that all creation in all spheres should worship Him, 
and the Father through Him, all beings confessing that Jesus Christ is 
"I AM," to the Father's glory. 

12 — ^18. [With such an Example in view] let the beloved Philip- 
plans, now as always obedient to Paul's appeals, so watch, so live, 
in tender, solemn earnestness (and more tlian ever now, in the absence 
of their Apostle, [whose presence might have seemed to excuse in them a 
lack of such care] as to realize and carry out the plan of their salvation. 
[And to promote at once their solemn care and their restful hope let 
them remember that] it is God who is personally effecting in them 
[in the regenerate life] both their holy desires and their just works, 
in order to accomplish His own blessed purposes. Let them renounce 
all mutual murmurings and dissensions; seeking to prove their spiritual 
sonship by a perfectly consistent walk, in the midst of a rebellious 
world, in whose darkness they are seen as spiritual stars; offering the 
news of Christ to their neighbours* notice. So Paul would rejoice at 
the Great Day, looking back on his course of toil, that he had not lived 
in vain. [Aye, and that he had not died in vain] ; for what if he should 
after all shed his blood as a libation on the altar at which the Phi- 
lippians offered themselves a living sacrifice? He would rejoice, and 
would congratulate his converts. Let them rejoice, and congratulate 

19 — ^30. [But to turn to another subject;] he hopes to send Timothy 
ere long, to report to him (it will be a cheering report) on their state. 
None of the Christians round him is so entirely in sympathy with 
him and with Philippi. Others of his friends might otherwise go, but 
alas their devotedness to the Lord's will proves too partial. As for 
Timothy, the Philippians know by old experience how he had done 
bondservice to the Lord, with Paul, [in their very midst,] in a perfectly 
filial spirit. Immediately on Paul's learning the issue of the trials 
Timothy shall thus be sent. And he trusts ere long to follow person- 
ally to Philippi. Epaphrodittis meanwhile, Paul's fellow-labourer, and 


the bearer of the Philippians' bounty to him, is to be spared and sent 
immediately, as a matter of daty. That duty is made plain by 
Epaphroditus* state of feeling— his yearning to revisit Philippi, his sore 
trouble at the thought of the grief which must have been caused at 
Philippi by news there of his serious illness. He has indeed been 
ill I almost fatally. But God has spared him the grief [of premature 
removal from his work, and of being the cause of mourning at 
Philippi], and has spared Paul too the grief of bereavement added 
to his other trials. So he has taken pains to send him [in charge of the 
present Epistle], to the joy of the Philippians and the alleviation of Paul's 
own sadness. Let them give their messenger a glad Christian welcome 
back again. Let them shew their value for him and such as him. 
For Christ's work's sake he has all but lost his life; he has run great 
hazards with it, in order to do for them, in their loving assistance to 
Paul, what in person they could not do. 

Ch. III. 1 — 3. Now to draw to a close. Let them rejoice in the 
Lord [as their all in all, cherishing a joyful insight into His fulness as 
tlieir Highteousness and Life]. In effect, he has been sa3ring this all 
along. But to emphasize it again is welcome to him and wholesome 
for them. Let them beware of the Pharisee-Christian, [cruelly exclusive, 
^vhile] really excluding himself from the true Israel; of the advocate of 
salvation by works, himself a bungling work-man; of the assertors 
of a circumcision that is only now a physical maltreatment We 
Christians are the true circumcised Israel, worshipping by the rites 
of the Spirit, making Christ Jesus our boast, renouncing all trust in 

i — 11. If indeed such self-trust ever has just grounds, Paul claims 
it. He can surpass the claims of any such theorists [on their own 
principles,] in point of sacrament, pedigree, education, school of 
ascetic piety, tremendous earnestness, punctilious observance. These 
things were once his hoarded gains ; but he has now decisively judged 
them to be one great loss, in the light of that Christ [to whose glory 
they blinded him]. Yes, and he holds that judgment now, con- 
cerning not these things only, but all things whatever [that can obscure 
his view of] the surpassing bliss of knowing Him as Saviour and as 
Lord. For Him he has been deprived of his all, and treats it now 
as refuse, that he may [in exchange] gain CHRIST for his, and be found 
[by the Judge] in living ucion with Him, presenting to the Eternal 
Holiness not a satisfying claim of his own, based on fulfilment of the 


Law AS covenant of life, but the satisfying claim which consists of 
Christ for him, appropriated by humble trust ; God's way of acceptr 
ance, thus made good for Paul. [And is this to terminate in itself, 
hi acceptance of his guilty person, and no more? No;] its true, 
its necessary issue is that he gets to know his Redeemer spiritually 
[in His personal glory and beauty], and to experience the power of His 
resurrection [as conveying assurance of peace and hope of glory, and 
also in the inflow of His blessed Risen Life], and the joy of entrance, 
[in measure,] into His experience as the Sufferer, [bearing the cross daily 
after Him], growing thus into ever truer conformity to His willingness 
to die. And all this, with the longing to attain [in the path of 
holiness], at any cost [of self-surrender], to the resurrection of glory [in 
Him who died to rise again]. 

12 — ^16. [Meantime — there is reason why he should say it — ] he 
is not yet at the goal, not yet perfected. He is pressing on, aiming 
to grasp that crown which Christ who grasped him [in conversion] 
converted him that he might grasp. [Others may say of themselves 
and their perfection what they will] ; Paul does not think of himself 
as having grasped that crown. His concentrated purpose is to re- 
nounce all complacency in attainment, and to seek for ever higher 
things, and to take for his aim nothing short of that eternal glory which 
is the Divine Arbiter*s award at the close of that life of heavenly 
conversion which is ours in Christ. Are any of us perfect Chrbtians, 
then? [Christians mature and ideal?] Let us shew it [among other 
things] by such humbling views [of our personal imperfection, and 
of the greatness of our goal]. Should their views in this matter still 
differ from his own, he leaves them with calmness to the sure processes 
of God's enlightening grace [in experience]. Only, up to present 
light and knowledge, let harmony of conviction, and so of behaviour 
and action, be cherished by Apostle and converts alike. 

17 — ^21. [Nay, let him solemnly appeal to them to] become iml* 
tators, one and all, of his principles and practice, and to take for their 
visible models those among them who manifestly lived those prin- 
ciples out. For there were many [so-called Christians abroad whose 
life was a terrible and ensnaring travesty of the Gospel of free grace, 
Antinomian claimants of a position in Christ lifted above the holy 
moral law, men] of whom he often warned them at Philippi, and warns 
them now, even with tears [over their own ruin and over the deadly 
mischief they do]. These men are the real enemies of the Cross [which 



won our pardon, but only that we might be holy]. Their end [in such 
a path] is eternal perdition. Their God is [not He with whom they 
claim special intimacy but] their own sensual appetites. They boast 
[of their insight and experience], but their lofty claims are their deepest 
disgrace. Their interests and ideas, [pretending to soar above the 
skies], are really " of the earth, earthy." [Such teachings, and lives, 
are utterly alien to those of Paul and his true followers]. The seat 
and centre of their life is in heaven, whose citizens they are [free of 
its privileges, "obliged by its nobility"]. And from heaven they are 
looking, [in a life governed by that look], for the Xord Jesus Christ, 
as Saviour [of body as well as of soul]. He shall transfigure the body 
which now abases and encumbers us into true and eternal likeness to 
the Body He now wears upon the throne. [Do they ask, how can 
this be?] It is a possibility measured by His ability to subdue to 
His will, and to His purposes, nothing less than all things. 

Ch. IV. 1 — 7. [With such a present, and such a future], let the dear 
and sorely missed Fhilippians [cleanse themselves from all pollution, 
and to that end] let them keep close to Christ, or rather dwell in Christ. 
[Let them in particular renounce the spirit of self; and here] he entreats 
two Christian women, Euodia and Syntyche, to renounce their differ- 
ences. And let his truehearted yoke-fellow [Epaphroditus?] help these 
two persons to a loving reconciliation, remembering how they toiled and 
strove for the cause of Christ, by Paul's side, [in the old days] ; and let 
Clement, and Paul's other fellow-labourers, whose names the Lord has 
marked for heaven, do the like kind service [for Euodia and Syntyche]. 
Let all rejoice always in the Lord ; yes, let them indeed rejoice in Him ! 
Let all around them find them self-forgetful, void of self; the Lord's 
[remembered] presence is the way to this. Let them be anxious in 
no circumstance ; everything must be taken at once to God in prayer, 
with thanksgiving. Then the peace of God, [the glad tranquillity caused 
by His presence and rule in the heart], shall encircle as with walls their 
inner world and its actings, as they dwell in Christ. 

8 — 9. In conclusion, let their minds, [thus shielded, not lie idle, 
but] be occupied with all that is true, honourable, right, pure, amiable; 
with all that man truly calls virtue, all that has the praise of his 

And once more, let them practise the principles they have learned of 
Paul, and seen exemplified in him. So the God of peace, [peace in 
the soul and in the community], shall be with them. 


10 — 20. [He must not close without loving thanks for a gift of 
money, for himself and his work, received lately from them.] It has 
given him holy joy to find that their thought about him has burst into 
life and fruit again after an interval. Not that they had ever forgotten 
him; but for some time (he knows) no means of communication had 
been found. Not, again, that he has been feeling any painful deficiency; 
for himself, he has learned the lesson of independence of circumstances. 
He understands the art of meeting poverty and plenty [in equal peace]. 
He has been let into the secret how to live so. [And the secret is — 
Jesus Christ]. In living union with Him and His spiritual power, 
Paul can meet every incident of the will of God, [to bear it, or to do it]. 
Not that he does not warmly feel their loving participation [by this 
gift] in his trials. But [there was no need of this particular gift to 
assure him of their affection]; they will remember that when he first 
evangelized Macedonia, and was now leaving it, they were the only 
Church which aided him with money ; more such gifts than one reached 
him even when he was no further off than Thessalonica. Do not let 
them think that he is hunting for their money [by such reminiscences] ; 
no, [so far as he welcomes their money at all] it is because such gifts 
are deposits bearing rich interest of blessing for the givers. But he has 
indeed been supplied, and over-supplied, in this contribution now sent 
by Epaphroditus' hands; this sweet incense from the altar [of self- 
sacrificing love to Christ in His servant]. For himself, [he.can^n4 
back no material present, but] his God shall supply their every need, 
out of the wealth of eternal love and power, lodged for the saints 
in Christ Jesus. To our God and Father be the glory for ever. 

21 — 23. Let them greet individually from him every Christian of 
their number. The Christians associated with him greet them. So do 
all the Roman believers, especially those connected with the Imperial 

May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with their inmost being. 

3— * 

If we submit ourselves fairly and honestly to tlie influence which 
the Gospel would bring to bear upon us, we may trust it to verify itself 
by producing inwardly "righteousness, and peace, and joy, in the Holy 
Ghost." There is no manner of question that it was thus with the 
great Apostle, and if the faith he preached is a living reality, it is not 
only capable of producing the like results now, but must and will do so, 
where there is a corresponding hold of it. If in Christ Jesus there is 
forgiveness of sins, and if by Him "all that believe are justified," then, 
most assuredly, that which was offered by St Paul... to all, without 
distinction, is the heritage of Gentile as well as Jew, and may be the 
priceless possession of Englishmen in the nineteenth century after 
Christ, no less than of Greeks and Asiatics in the first. There wants 
but the same tenacious grasp of truth, the same uncompromising zeal, 
the same unflinching boldness, and the ancient message will awaken 
the old response. The same flower will bud and open, will form and 
set, in the mature and golden autumn of Christian experience, into the 
same rich, fragrant... fruit, which will be "Christ in us, the hope of 

Stanley Leatiies, D.D. j T/ic IT/Zness of St Piiullo Chn'stt 
pp. 87 — 8. 





AUL and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to 1 
all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, 


The oldest known form is the briefest, To the Philippians, or, 
exactly, To the Philippesians (see on iv. 15). So in the **Subscrip- 
tlon" to the Epistle, which see. The title as in the Authorized Version 
agrees with that adopted in the Elzevir editions of 1624, 1633. 

Ch. L 1 — 2. Greeting. 

1. Paul] See Acts xiii. 9. The Apostle probably bore, from in- 
fancy, both the two names, Saul {Saou/, Saulus) and Paul, See on 
Eph. i. I, and Romans^ p. 8, in this Series. 

Timotheus] Named 24 times in N. T. See Acts xvi. i for his 
parentage and early home, and for indications of his character as man 
and Christian cp. i Cor. iv. 17, xvi. 10, 11; i Tim. i. 3 ; 9 Tim. i. 
4, 5; and especially below, ii. 19 — 33. His association with St Paul 
was intimate and endeared, and his connexion with the Philippian 
Church was close. See Acts xvi., where it is clearly implied that with 
Silas he accompanied St Paul on his first visit to Philippi (cp. xvii. 14, 
and below, ii. 33), though for unknown reasons he did not share the 
maltreatment of his friends. Later, Acts xx. 4, he appears accom- 
panying St Paul from Macedonia to Asia Minor, and the mention of 
Philippi, ver. 6, makes it practically certain that by then Philippi had 
been visited again. With Macedonia generally, including of course 
Thessalonica, we find his name often connected ; see mentions of him 
in Acts xvii. and xix. 22 ; 2 Cor. (written in Macedonia) i. i ; i Thess. 
iii. 2, 6. — His name is associated as here with St Paul's 2 Cor. i. i ; 
Col. i. I ; I Thcss. \, \; 2 Thess. i. i.^In this Epistle the associatiofi 

38 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. 2. 

3 with the bishops and deacons: grace he unto you, and 

b^;iii8 and ends with this verse, and the Apostle writes at once in the 
singular number. It is otherwise in 2 Cor., CoL, and Thess. 

the servants\ Bondsenrants, slaves. The word is used by St Paul 
of himself (with or without his missionary brethren), Rom. i. i; Gal. 
i. lo; Tit i. i. Cp. Acts xz. 19, xxvii. 23; Gal. vi. 17. He was a 
bondservant, in the absolute possession of his redeeming Lord, not 
only as an apostle but as a Christian; but he loves to emphasize the 
fact in connexion with his special mode of service. On the principles 
and conditions of the believer's sacred and happy bondsarvice see 
e.g. Matt. vi. 34; Luke xvii. 7 — 10; Rom. vi. 19, vii. 6; i Cor. vi. 
90, vii. as; Eph. vi. 7; a Tim. ii. 34. The word with its imagery 
conveys the truth that the spiritual bondservant is altogether and always 
not only the helper, or agent, but the property and implement of his 
Master; having no rights whatever as against Him.. Only, the Master 
being what He is, this real bondage is transfigured always into the 
"perfect freedom" of the regenerate and loving heart. 

of Resits Christ] Better, on documentary evidence, of Chxlst Jesus. 
This order of our blessed Lord's Name and Title b almost peculiar 
to St Paul, and is the most frequent of the two orders in his writings. 
It is calculated that he uses it (assuming the latest researches in the 
Greek text to shew right results) 87 times, and *^yesiis Christ" 78 (see 
The Expositor^ May, 1888). The slight emphasis on ^' Christ*^ is 
suggestive of a special reference of thought to the Lord in glory. 

the saints] Holy ones ; men separated from sin to God. The word 
takes the man, or the community, on profession; as being what they 
ought to be. This is not to lower the native meaning of ithe word, 
but to use a well-understood hypothesis in the application of it. A 
saint is not merely a professing follower of Christ, but a professing fol- 
lower assumed to be what he professes. He who is not. Uiis is in name 
only and not in deed a saint, faithful, a child of God, and the hke. 
See Appendix B. 

in Christ ^esus] Holy ones, because united in Life and Covenant, 
by grace, to the Holy One of God. See further on Eph. i. i, and below, 
on ver. 8. 

Philippi\ See Introduction, p, 10, &c. 

with the bishops and deacons] In this address the laity come before 
the clergy. — " With" because these persons, though merely some of 
"the saints" as men^ were differenced from the others by office. Apart 
from all questions in detail on the Christian Ministry, observe this 
primeval testimony to some already established and recc^ized oider 
and regimen in a young Church; to a special '* oversight" and '* service" 
committed to not all but some. — ^The "bishop" {episcopus) of this 
passage is identical with the "presbyter" of e.g. Acts xx. 17, called 
episcopus there, ver. 28. For further remarks on the offices here 
mentioned, see Appendix C. 

2. Grace be unto you^ &c.] See, on the whole verse, the notes in 
this Series on Eph. i. «, where the wording is identical. — " Grace" as a 

w. 3^4-] PHILIPPIANS, I. 39 

peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus 

I thank my God upon every remembrance of you, always J 
in every prayer of mine for you all making request with joy, 

Scriptural term, demands careful study. In its true idea, kindness is 
always present, with the special thought of entire and marked absence 
of obligation in the exercise of it. It is essentially unmerited and free. 
See e. g. Rom. xi. 6. In its normal application, the word denotes the 
action of Divine kindness either in the judicial acceptance of the believer 
*'not according to his works," for Christ's sake (e.g. Rom. iii. 34), 
or in the gift and continuance of new life and power to the believer 
(e.g. I Cor. XY. 10). And, as the action is never apart from the Agent, 
we may say that grace in the first reference is **God for us" (Rom. 
viii. 31), in the second, "God in us" (below, ii. 13). — In the first 
jsference grace is the antithesis to merits in the second to nature* 

our Father] in the new birth and life, which is coextensive with 
union with Christ the Son. See below, on ii. 15. 

8--U. Thanksgiving and Prayer for the Philippian 


8. I thank] So Rom. i. 8; z Cor. i. 4; £ph. i. 16; Col. i. 3; 
I Thess. i. 2, ii. 13; 3 Thess. i. 3, ii. 13; Fhilem. 4. St Paul's thanks- 
givings for the two Macedonian Churches, Philippi and Thessalonica, 
are peculiarly warm and full. See Bp Lightfoot here. Observe the 
recognition in all these thanksgivings of God as the whole cause of 
all goodness in the saints. 

my God] So Rom. i. 8; i Cor. i. 4; 9 Cor. xii. 11 \ below, iv. 19; 
Philem. 4. Cp. also Acts xxvii. 93 ; Gal. ii. 30 ; and below, iii. 8. 
See too Psal. Ixiii. i, and many other O. T. passages. — Profound per- 
sonal appropriation and realization speaks in the phrase. And we are 
reminded that the salvation of the Church takes place through the 
salvation of individuals, and their personal commg to (Joh. vi. 37) and 
incorporation into Christ. 

upon every remembrance] Lit. and better, In my whole remem- 
brajioe ; as in a habit rather than as in single acts. For such remem- 
brance, and its expressions, cp. Rom. i. 9; £ph. i. 16; 1 Thess. i. 9; 
a Tim. i. 3 ; Philem. 4. 

4. every prayer] every request. The Greek word is narrower than 
that, e. g. £ph. i. 16, which includes the whole action of worship* See 
below on iv. 6. 

for you all] See, for the same phrase, or kindred words, w. 7, 8, 
^5, ii. 17, a6. We seem to see, in this emphasis on the word "a//," 
a gentle reference to the danger of partizanship and divisions at Philippi. 
See Introduction, p. 19. 

reqtust] Lit. and better, the request just mentioned. 

ftf/V/i joy] These words strike the key-note of a main strain of the 

40 PHILIPPIANS, I. [vv. 5,6. 

5 for your fellowship in the gospel from the first day until 

6 now ; being confident of this very Mng, that he which hath 
begun a good work in you will perform // until the day of 

Epistle. — ^They are here the emphatic words of the sentence. He 
illustrates the assurance of his thankfulness for them by saying that 
every request for them is lighted up with happiness. For St Paul's 
joy over his converts' consistency cp. « Cor. ii. 3, vii. 4> 13 ; below, 
ii. 9, iv. i; I Thess. ii. ig, 20, iii. 9; Philem. 7. 

5. For your fellowship in the gospel\ Lit. ^*on account of your 
participation unto the Gospel"; i.e. because of your efforts, in union 
with mine, for the furtherance of the Gospel. See R. V. ; and cp. 
1 Cor. iL 12, and ii. 12 below. The immediate reference doubtless is 
to the pecuniary help sent again and again to the Apostle as a mis- 
sionary. (See iv. 10 — 19.) But the fact and thought would far transcend 
this speciality. 

from the first day until now] See the passage below, just referred 
to, for comment and explanation. 

6. Being confident] , This verse is a parenthesis in the thought, 
suggested by the continuity ** until now" of the Philippians' love and 
labour. The past of grace leads him to speak of its future. The 
English word ^*' confident" happi]y represents the Greek, which like it 
sometimes denotes reliance^ on definite grounds (so Matt, xxvii. 43; 
Mark x. 24; 2 Cor. i. 9; below, ii. 24, iii. 3, 4; Heb. ii. 13, &c.), 
sometimes a more or less arbitrary assurance (so Rom. ii. 19). In 
every case in the N. T. the word indicates a feeling of personal 
certainty, for whatever cause. 

this very thing] A favourite phrase with St Paul; Rom. ix. 17 
(where he varies the phrase of the LXX.), xiii. 6; 2 Cor. ii. 3, v. 5, 
vii. 11; Gal. ii. 10; Eph. vi. 18, 22; Col. iv. 8. Elsewhere it occurs 
only 2 Pet. i. 5, and there the reading is disputed. The words are 
a characteristic touch of keen and earnest thought. 

he which hath begun] Lit. lie that began; at the crisis of their 
evangelization and conversion. ** He" is God the Father (as habitually, 
where nothing in the context defines Either of the Other Persons), the 
supreme Author of the work of grace. 

The Greek verb here occurs also Gal. iii. 3, where the crisis of con- 
version is viewed from the converts point of view; *'^ye began by the 
Spirit." The reference to the Holy Spirit, however, reminds us there 
also that a Divine enabling is absolutely needed in order to man*s 
"beginning" the new life. 

a good work] We may perhaps render the good work. The article 
is absent in the Greek, but the reference is obviously to the work of 
works. Cp. below, ii. 13, and note. 

will perform it] Better, as R.V., wlU perfect it. Cp. again Gal. 
iji. 3 ; "ye began by the Spirit ; are ye now being perfected by the 

For the thought of this sentence cp. Ps. cxxxviii. 8; "the Lord 
will complete (all) for me; O Lord, Thy mercy is for ever; forsake 

v.;.] PHILIPPIANS, I. 41 

Jesus Christ : even as it is meet for me to think this of you 7 
all, because I have you in my heart ; inasmuch as both in 
my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the 

not the works of Thy hands." There the individual believing soul 
expresses the confidence of faith which is here expressed with regard 
to the community (**jfou") of such souls. 

unit/ the dayt &c.] The glorious goal of the redeeming process^ 
because then, and not before, the whoie being of the saint, body (Rom. 
viii. 33) as well as spirit, shall be actually delivered from all the results 
of sin. The mention of this Day here is thus equally in point whether 
or not the Apostle were contemplating a speedy or distant return of 
the Lord. If He returns before the believer's death. His coming is 
of course the final crisis; if otherwise, "the redemption of the body" 
and so far the redemption of the being, is deferred. Cp. Eph. iv. 30 ; 
3 Tim. i. 12. 

The "Day" of Christ is mentioned below, i. 10, ii. 16; and alto* 
gather, in St Paul, about twenty times. For the Lord's own use of 
the word ** Day" for the Crisis of His Return as Judge and Redeemer, 
cp. Matt. vii. 32, x. 15, xi. 22, 24, xii. 36, xxiv. 36; Luke xvii. 24, 26 
("days"), 30, 31, xxi. 34; Job. vi. 39, 40, 44, 54. 

7. meet} Lit., and better, Just, rlffht. 

for f/te] The pronoun is emphatic in the Greek; " for f/te, whatever 
may be right for others." 

to think this] Better, to be Of this mind, to feel the thankfulness 
and joy described above (ver. 3, 4). The Greek verb (a favourite with 
St Paul) almost always denotes not an articulate act of thought but a 
*' state of mind." See, for some passages where this remark is im- 
portant, Rom. viii. 5, 6, 7, 27; xii. 3, 16; below, iii. 15, 19; Col. iii. 2. 
ror another shade of meaning see iv. 10, and note. 

o/yoti] R.V., *^on dehal/qfyou" His joyful thanks were given 
not only ** about " them but "on behalf" of them, as being an element 
in intercessory worship. But the usage of the Greek preposition allows 
either rendering. 

because^ &c.] Such feelings are specially right for him, because of 
the intimacy of affectionate intercourse which has brought him into 
living contact with the glow of their spiritual life. 

/ have you in my heart] The Greek admits the rendering (A.V. 
and R.V., margins) *^you have me in your heart,'* But the following 
context favours the text. — For the warm thought, cp. 2 Cor. v. 12, 
vi. 11, vii. 3; I Thess. ii. 17. 

in my bonds] The first allusion in the Epistle to imprisonment 
Here again the grammar leaves two explanations open. Grammati- 
cally, the Apostle may say either that he has them in his heart both in 
his bonds and in his advocacy of the Gospel; or that in both these ex- 
periences they are partners of his grace. But the latter is the far more 
probable. ^ There is something artificial in the statement that he carried 
them in his heart boih in his imprisonment and in his work ; for to him 


42 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v.&. 

■ I ■ •^'^^•^ II I .II I. 

a gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace. For God is my 
record, how greatly I long after you all in the bowels of 

the two experiences would ran up into one. But it would be natural 
for the Philippians (see next note but one) to isolate the two experiences 
of the Apostle in thought and sympathy. 

the defence and co^rmation\ The two words are linked, in the 
Greek, into one idea. ** Defence^*: — Greek, apologia. For the word, 
see Acts xx. i, xxv. i6; below, i6; and esp. i Pet. iiL 15. Unlike our 
word "apology," in its every-day use, it means the statement of a good 
case against an accuser. Acts xxviii. 17 — 35 shews us St Paul "apolo- 
gizing" in his Roman prison. — The early "Apologies" for Christianity, 
e.g. by Justin and Tertullian (cent. 2), are apologies in this sense. 

ye all are partakers of my grace} This has &en explained to mean 
that they too knew by experience the power of grace under imprison^ 
ment and in evangelistic work. But we have no reason to think that 
"all" (if indeed any) of the Philippian converts had been imprisoned 
at this date. The natural meaning is that their sympathy, and active 
assistance (iv. 10—10), had so united them with both the bearing and 
doing of tne Apostle that in this sense they were bound with him, and 
worked with him, and felt the power of God with him. — ^The word 
<* grace" here (as in Rom. i. 5; Eph. iii. 2, 8) may refer to the gracious 
gift to him of apostolic work and trial, rather than to the internal 
Divine power for service. In this case, still more plainly, the Philip* 
plans were partners in "his grace." — ^A closer rendering of the Greek 
IS, copartners of my grace as you all are. 

8. God is my record] Better, witness; for which word '* record** 
is a synonym in older English, e.g. in Chaucer. — For this solemn 
and tender appeal cp. Rom. i* 9; 1 Thess. ii. 5, 10; and see 2 Cor. 
i. 18. 

long after] The Greek verb is full of a yearning, homesick tenderness. 
It occurs in similar connexions, Rom. i. 11 ; i Thess. iii 6; 3 Tim. i. 
4; below, ii. 26; and its cognates, Rom. xv. 33; 2 Cor. yii. 7, 11 (?), 
ix. 14; below, iv. i. St Paul employs the verb also, with beautiful 
significance, to denote the believer's yearning for heavenly rest and 
glory, 2 Cor. v. « ; St James, for the Spirit's yearning jealousy for our 
spirits' loyalty, Jas. iv. 5 ; St Peter, for the regenerate man's longing 
for the **milk" of Divine truth, i Pet. ii. 2. 

in the bowels of Jesus Christ] MS. evidence favours the order Obrist 
Jesns, see note on ver. i. — **/» the bowels" : — better perhaps in the 
liaart. The Greek word in the classics means, strictly, the "nobler 
vitals," including the heart, as distinguished from the intestines 
(iEschylus, Agam,, 1231). On the other hand the Septuagint in their 
(rare) use of the word do not observe such a distinction, and render by 
it the Heb. rachdmtm, the bowels, regarded as the seat of tender 
feeling. But in any case, the question is not of anatomy, but of cur* 
rent usage and reference; and our word *^ heart** is thus the best 
rendering. — llie phrase here carries with it no assertion of a physico- 
spiritual theory; it only uses, as a modem naturalist might equally well 

W.9, la] PHILIPPIANS, I. 43 

Jesus Christ, And this I pray, that your love may abound 9 
yet more and more in knowledge and in all judgment; that 10 

do, a physical term as a symbol for non-physical emotion. — R.V. para- 
phrases ^* tender mercies.^* 

The phraseology (** wi the heart of Christ Jesus ") is deeply signiB* 
cant. The Christian's personality is never lost, but he is so united to 
his Lord, "one Spirit (i Cor. vi. 17), that the emotions of the re- 
generate member are, as it were, in continuity with those of the ever- 
blessed Head. Tyndale (1534)) Cranmer (1539), ^^^ Geneva (1557) 
render "from the very heart root in Jesus Christ." — ^The ministration 
of His life to the member is such that there is more than sympathy in 
the matter; there is communication. 

9. / prayy He takes up the words, ver. 4, " in every repust for 
you all.'* 

that'\ Lit., by classical rules, "fVf order that,^* But in later Greek 
the phrase has lost its more precise necessary reference to purpose, and 
may convey (as here) the idea oi purport ^ significance. So we say, " a 
message to this effect," meaning, **m these terms." — In Joh. xvii. 3 
(where lit., ** in order to know^ &c."), the phrase conveys the kindred 
idea of equivalence, synonymous description; "life eternal" is, in 
effect^ "to know God." 

your love] Perhaps in its largest reference ; Christian love, however 
directed, whether to God or man, to brethren or aliens.. But the pre- 
vious context surely favours a certain speciality of reference to St Paul ; 
as if to say, " your Christian love, of which / have such warm evi- 
dence." Still, this leaves a larger reference also quite free. 

adotmd] A favourite word with St Paul. In this £p. it occurs 
again, ver. 26, iv. ra, 18. Cp. i Thess. iv. i for a near parallel here. 
— Nothing short of spiritual growth ever satisfies St Paul. "The fire 
in the Apostle never says. Enough " (Bengel). 

in] As a man "abounds in" e.g. "hope" (Rom. icv. 13). He 
prays that their love may richly possess knowledge and perception as 
its attendants and aids. 

knowledge] Greek, epigndsis^ more than gndsis. The structure of 
the word suggests developed, full knowledge; the N.T. usage limits the 
thought to spiritual knowledge. It is a frequent word with St Paul. 

all judgment] ^^AlV\' — ^with reference to the manifold needs and 
occasions for its exercise; judgment developed, amplified to the full 
for fuU use. — ** yudgment** : — lit. "sensation, perception,** The word 
occurs here only in N.T., and cognates to it only Luke ix. 45 ; Heb. v. 
14. — R.V., "discernment" But the word "judgment" (in the sense 
e.g. of criticism of works of art, or of insight into character) is so fair an 
equivalent to the Greek that the A.V. may well stand. — In sq>plication, 
the "judgment" would often appear as delicate perception, fine tact; a 
gift whose highest forms are nowhere so well seen as in some Christians, 
even poor Christians. 

10. That] Better, as better marking a close sequence on the last 
clause, 80 tliat. 

44 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. la 

ye may approve things that are excellent; that ye may 
be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ; 

approve\ Better, in modern English, test. The spiritual "judgment** 
was to be thus applied. 

things that are cxcelUnf\ **the things, &c.'* R.V. An alternative 
rendering is, tbat ye may prove (test) the tilings tbat differ; so 
margin R.V.; "that you may use your spiritual judgment in sepa- 
rating truth from its counterfeit, or distortion.** The two renderings 
come to much the same; for the "approval of the excellent thing'* 
would be the immediate result of the "detection of its difference.'* 
"We prefer the margin R.V., however; first, as giving to the verb its 
rather more natural meaning, and then, as most congruous to the 
last previous thought, the growth of "judgment." 

that ye maybe] It is implied that the process of ''discernment'* 
would never be merely speculative. It would be always carried into 
motive and conduct. 

sincere] The idea of the Greek word is that of clearness, disengage- 
ment from complications. One derivation (favoured by Bp Lightfoot 
here) is military; from the orderly separateness of marshalled ranks. 
Another and commoner one is solar; from the detection of pollution by 
sunlight, with the thought of the clearness of what has passed such a 
test well. — ^The word "sincere** (from Lat. sincerus) has a possible 
connexion with **sin-gle" and so with the idea of separation, disen- 
gagement, straightness of purpose. In Latin, it is the equivalent to our 

without offence] I. e., " without stumbling-block ** (Lat., offendiculum). 
Our common meaning of "offence,** with its special reference to 
grievances and pique, must be banished from thought in reading the 
English Bible. There these words are always used to represent original 
words referring to obstacles, stumbling, and the like. So e.g. t Cor. 
vi. 3, "giving no offence^* means, presenting no obstacle such as to 
upset the Christian principle or practice of others. — " Without offence** 
here (one word iu the Greek) may mean, grammatically, either *•* ex- 
periencing no such obstacle ** or '^ presenting none.** The word occurs 
elsewhere only Acts xxiv. 16; i Cor. x. 3a; and the evidence of these 
passages is exactly divided. On the whole the context here decides 
for the former alternative. The Apostle is more concerned at present 
with the inner motives than the outer example of the Philippians : he 
prays that the simplicity (sincerity) of their spiritual relations with God 
may be such as never to "upset** the inner workings of will and 
purpose. — ^Tyndale and Cranmer render here, "that ye may be pure, 
and such as (should) hurt no man's conscience;** Geneva, "that 
ye may be pure, and go forward without any let.** So Beza*s Latin 

till the day of Christ] Lit. unto, &c.; "against, in view of, the 
great crisis of eternal award.** So ii. 16, where see note. On the 
phrase ''the day of Christ** see note on i. 6, above. 

vv. II, 12. PHILIPPIANS, L 45 

being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by n 
Jesus Christ unto the glory and praise of God. 

But I would ye should understand, brethren, that the la 
things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto 

11. Being filled] Lit. and better, having been filled. He antici- 
pates the great Day, and sees the Philippians as then, completed and 
developed as to the results of grace. His prayer for them is that they 
may be then found "filled" with such results; bearers of uo scanty 
or partial "fruit"; trees whose every branch has put forth the produce 
described Gal. v. 22, 23. 

fruits] Rather, on documentary evidence, ftoit; as in Gal. v. 22. 
The results of grace are manifold, and yet a total, a unity; effects and 
manifestations of one secret, ingredients in one character, which, if 
it lacks one of them, is not fully "itself." 

of righteousness] The phrase *^ fruit of righteousness" occurs in the 
LXX., Prov. xi. 30, xiii. 2 ; Amos vi. 12; and in St James, iii. 18. By 
analogy with such phrases as e.g. "fruit of the Spirit," it means not 
"fruit which is righteousness," but "fniit which springs from right- 
eousness." — "Righteousness" is properly a condition satisfactory to 
Divine law. Thus it often means the practical rectitude of the regene- 
rate will ; and so probably here. But often in St Paul we can trace an 
underlying reference to that great truth which he was specially com- 
missioned to explain, the Divine way of Justification; the acceptance 
of the guilty, for Christ's sake, as in Him satisfactory to the Law, 
broken by them, but kept and vindicated by Him. See further 
below, on iii. 9. Such an inner reference may be present here; 
the "fruit" may be the fruit not merely of a rectified will, but of a 
person accepted in Christ. 

which are] Read, which is. 

by yesus Christ] Throngli Him, as both the procuring cause, by 
His merits, of the new life of the saints, and the true basis and secret 
of it, in their union with His life. Cp. Rom. v. 17. 

unto the glory and praise of God] The true goal and issue of the 
whole work of grace, which never terminates in the individual, or in 
the Church, but m the manifestation of Divine power, love, and holiness 
in the saving process and its result. "To Him are all things; to whom 
be glory for ever. Amen" (Rom. xi. 36). — "Co/" here is distinctively 
the Eternal Father, glorified in the members of His Son. 

12—20. AccoiJNT OF St Paul's present Circumstances 

AND Experience. 

12. But] Better, now, as R.V. 

I would i &c.] More lit. and simply, I wiah 70a to know; I desire 
to inform you. 
the things which happened unto t/ie\ More lit. and simply, my 


46 PHILIPPIANS, 1. [vv. 13, 14. 

13 the furtherance of the gospel ; so that my bonds in Christ 

14 are manifest in all the palace, and in all other places; and 

drctunBtances, with no special reference to the past. Wyclif renders, 
with the Vulgate Latin, *'the thingis that ben aboute me"; so the 
(Romanist) Rhemish version 1582; **the things about me"; Tyndale, 
**my business." He means his imprisonment, which had proved and 
was proving a direct and indirect occasion for Gospel-work. 

raiherl than otherwise, as had seemed so likely a priori, 

furtherance] Better, as R. V., progress. The Greek gives the idea 
01 an advance made by the Gospel. 

13. So that, &c] Render, 80 that my Isonds are lieoome maiil« 
test (as iMiXLg) In Christ. In other words, his imprisonment has come 
to be seen in its true significance, as no mere political or ecclesiastical 
matter, but due to his union of life and action with a promised and 
manifested Messiah. 

in all the palace] Greek, " in the whole Pfcetorittm {firaitSrion) ." The 
word occurs elsewhere in N. T., Matt, xxvii. ay; Mark xv. 16; Joh. 
xviii. 38, 33, xix. 9 ; Acts xxiii. 35 ; in the sense of the residence, or 
a part of it, of an official grandee, regarded as a prator, a military 
commander. (Not that the word, in Latin usage, always keeps a military 
reference ; it is sometimes the near equivalent of the word villa, the 
country residence of a Roman gentleman.) The A. V. rendering here 
is obviously an inference from these cases, and it assumes that St 
Paul was imprisoned within the precincts of the residence of the 
supreme Praetor, the Emperor; within the Palatium, the man- 
sion of the Caesars on the Mons Palatinus, the Hill of the goddess 
Pales. In Nero's time this mansion (whose name is the original of 
all "palaces") had come to occupy the whole hill, and was called the 
Golden House. — The rendering of the A. V. is accepted by high 
authorities, as Dean Merivale (Hist, Rom, VI. ch. kv.), and Mr 
Lewin {Life and Epistles of St Paul, II. p. ^82). On the other hand 
Bp Lightfoot (on this verse, Philippians, y, 99) prefers to render "in 
all the Praetorian Guard," the Roman life-guard of the Caesar; and 
gives full evidence for this ^ use of the v/otS. Pratorium. And there 
IS no evidence for the application of the word by Romans to the 
imperial Palace. To this last reason, however, it is fair to reply, 
with Mr Lewin, that St Paul, as a Provincial, mi^ht very possibly 
apply to the Palace a word meaning a residency m the provinces, 
especially after his long imprisonment in the royal Pratorium at 
Csesarea (Acts xxiii. 35, xxiv. 27). But again it is extremely likely, 
as Bp Lightfoot remarks, that the word Pratorium, in the sense of 
the Guard, would be often on the lips of the "soldiers that kept*' 
St Paul (Acts xxviii. 16); and thus this would be now the more 
familiar reference. On the whole, we incline to the rendering of 
Lightfoot, (and of the R. V.) throvfflumt the (whole) Tnatorian 
Onard. Warder after warder came on duty to the Apostle's chamber 
(whose locality, on this theory, is nowhere certainly defined in N. T.), 
and carrioi from it, when relieved, information and often, doubtless^ 

V. U.] tHILIt>tIANS, 1. 47 

.many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing, confident by my 

deep impressions, which gave his comrades knowledge of the Prisoner's 
message and of the claims of the Saviour. ... 

Other explanations of the word Pratoritim are (d) the Barrack 
within the Palatium where a detachment of Praetorians was stationed, 
and within which St Paul may have been lodged ; {b) the great Camp 
of the Guard, just outside the eastern walls of Rome. But the barrack 
was a space too limited to account for the strong phrase, "in all the 
Proetorium"; and there is no evidence that the great Camp was ever 
called Praetorium. 

Wyclif renders, curiously, **in eche moot (coimcil) halle**; Tyndale, 
Cranmer, and Geneva, ** throughout all the judgment hall." 

in all other places] Better, to all other (men) ; to the Roman 
"public," as distinguished from this special class. The phrase points 
to a large development of St Paul's personal influence. 

14. fiiany\ Better, most. It is noticeable that the Apostle should 
imply that there were exceptions. Possibly, he refers here to what 
comes out more clearly below, the difference between friendly and 
unfriendly sections among the Roman Christians. We can scarcely 
doubt (in view of Rom. xvi. and Acts xxviii.) that the friendly were 
the majority. If so, St Paul may here practically say that a majority 
of the brethren were energized into fresh efforts, by his imprisonment, 
while a minority, also stirred into new activity, were acting on less 
worthy motives. In view of the context, this seems more likely than 
that he should merely imply by this phrase that the revival of activity 
was not universal. 

In any case, this verse implies that a spirit of languor and timidity 
had recently infected the believing community at Rome. 

the brethren in the Lord\ So also R.V. Bps EUicott and Lightfoot 
connect the words here otherwise; ^^the brethren^ having in the Lord 
confidence^ 8:c" Grammatically, either is possible. But to us the 
"rhythm of the sentence," a sort of evidence not easy to define and 
explain, but a real item for decision, seems to plead for the connexion 
in the text. It is true that the precise phrase "brethren in the Lord" 
is not found elsewhere. But a near parallel is Rom. xvi. 13, " Rufus, 
the chosen one in the Lord"; for there too the words "in the Lord" 
are in a certain sense superfluous. See too Rom. xvi. 8, 10. 

waxing' confident] More strictly and simply (for the Greek participle 
is practically, though not in form, a present) j being confident, con- 
fldUig. — The idea is that of a sense of rest and reassurance after mis* 

dj/ my bonds] More closely, perhaps, In my bonds. The "confi- 
dence was, in a sense, reposed "in," or on, Paul's chains, his cap- 
tivity, just so far as that captivity vividly reminded the Roman believers 
of the sacredness and goodness of the cause, and of the Person, for 
whose sake the Apostle unflinchingly incurred it and willingly bore it. 
The heart is the best interpreter of such words. 


48 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. 15. 

bonds, are much more bold to speak the word without fean 
«s Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and strife ; and 

For the construction in the Greek, cp. Philem. 41, the only exact 
N.T. parallel. It is found, but rarely, in the LXX. 

are much more bold'\ Lit., and better, more alnrndaiitly ventnrd. 
They "venture" more often, more habitually, than of late. — On the 
bearing of such statements on the date of the Epistle see Introduction, 
p. 16. 

to speak the word] "The word of the cross" (i Cor. i. 18); "of 
truth '^ (Eph. i. 13); "of life" (below, ii. 16); "of Christ" (Col. iii. 
16); "of the Lord" (r Thess. i. 8, iv. 15); &c. It is the revealed and 
delivered account of what Christ is, has wrought, &c. — It is observable 
that St Paul regards such "speaking" as the work, not only of the 
class of ordained Christians, but of Christians in general. See further 
on ii. 16. 

16. Some indeed] Here he refers to members of that Judaistic 
party, or school, within the Church, which followed him with persistent 
opposition, especially since the crisis (Acts xv.) when a decisive victory 
over their main principle was obtained by St Paul in the Church-council 
at Jerusalem. Their distinctive idea was that while the Gospel was 
the goal of the Mosaic institutions, those institutions were to be per- 
manently, and for each individual convert, the fence or hedge of the 
Gospel. Only through personal entrance into the covenant of circum- 
cision could the man attain the blessings of the covenant of baptism. 
Such a tenet would not necessarily preclude, in its teacher, a true belief 
in and proclamation of the Person and the central Work of the true 
Christ, however much it might (as it did, in the course of history) tend 
to a lowered and distorted view even of His Person (see further. Ap- 
pendix D.). St Paul was thus able to rejoice in the work of these 
preachers, so far as it was a true conveyance to Pagan hearers at Rome 
of the primary Fact of the Gospel — Jesus Christ. The same Apostle 
who warns the Galatian and Philippian (iii. a) Christians against the 
disHnctive teaching of this school, as a teaching pregnant with spiritual 
disaster, can here without inconsistency rejoice in the thought of their 
undistinctvue teaching among non-Christians at Rome. 

For allusions to the same class of opponents see Acts xv. i— 31, xx. 
30 (perhaps), xxi. 10 — 15 ; and particularly the £p. to the Galatians 
at large. The passages in which St Paul asserts his authority with 
special emphasb, as against an implied opposition, or again asserts his 
truthfulness as against implied personal charges, very probably point in 
the same direction. 

Not that the Judaizer of the Pharisaic type was his only adversary 
within the Church. He had also, veiy probably, to face an opposition 
of a ** libertine" type, a distortion of his own doctrine of free grace 
(Rom. vi. I, &c., and below, iii. 18, 19); and again an opposition of 
the mystic, or gnostic, type, in which Jewish elements of observance 
were blent with an alien theosophy and angelology (see the Ep. to the 

vy. i6, 17J PHILIPPIANS, I. 49 

some also of good will : the one preach Christ of contention, 16 
not sincerely, supposing to add affliction to my bonds : but 17 

Colossians). feut ch. iii. i — 9 fixes the reference here to Christians of 
the type of Acts xv. i. 

even of envy\ A mournful paradox, but abundantly verifiable. — 
Render (or paraphrase) here, some actnally for envy and strife, while 
Qthers as truly for goodwUL 

goodwUl\ The Greek word, eudokia, in N.T. usually means "good 
pleasure," in the sense of choice of what is "good" in the chooser's 
eyes. See Matt. xi. 26; Luke x. ai; Eph. i. 5, 9; below, ii. 13. But 
in the few remaining passages the idea of benevolence appears; Luke 
ii. 14 ;. Rom. x. i ; and perhaps 2 Thess. i. 1 1. Both meanings appear 
in the use of the word in the LXX, and in Ecclesiasticus. There it 
often denotes the favour of God; Heb. rdtsdn. The idea here is 
strictly cognate ; what in a lord is the goodwill of favour is in a servant 
the goodwill of loyalty. 

16. The one preach Christy &c.] There is good critical evidence for 
reading vv. 16, 17 in the opposite order to that of the A.V. Render, 
with R.V., The one do it of love, Imowing that I am set for the 
defence of the Gospel ; bnt the other proclaim Christ of faction, &c. 
It is possible to render, with Bp EUicott, '* Those who are {men) o//ove, 
do it, 8ic,...but those who are (men) of faction^ &c." But this puts a cer- 
tain strain on the Greek, and is not required by the context. 

preacK\ Better, with R.V., proclaim; not the same verb as that 
rendered ** preach" just above. It is a word of slightly greater 

contention] Better, faction, or rather factiousness, partisanship. 
The Greek word means first, **work for hire"; passes thence by usage 
into special political references, denoting hired canvassing, or other 
interested party- work; and lastly emerges into the present meaning. 
It is used similarly Rom. ii. 8; 2 Cor. xii. 20; Gal. v. 20; below, ii. 3 
(where see note); Jas. iii. 14, 16. 

sincerely\ Lit. purely. 

to ctdd affliction to my bonds'] So the Received Text. But a better 
reading gives to raise up. The R.V. gives a good paraphrase ; thinldng 
to raise up affliction for me In my bonds. So Alford. — Lightfoot sug- 
gests the paraphrase, "thinkihg to maJte my chains gallnu^^^ the word 
rendered ** affliction " meaning literally " rubbing" or *^ pressure,^* (The 
Vulgate here has pressura, a word which easily bears, however, a 
non-phvsical meaning.) But the suggestion seems to us not altogether 

How did the persons in question expect to "raise up trouble" for ' 
the imprisoned Apostle? By preventing the access of enquirers or 
converts to him, unable as he was to go after them. Loyal fellow- 
workers would have made it a point to bring their hearers under the 
personal influence of the great Messenger of Christ, and also into a con- 
nexion of order with him. Every instance in which the opposite wpis 



56 PHILIPPIANS, I. [vv. i8, 19. 

the other of love, knowing that I am set for the defence of 
18 the gospel. What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether 

in pretence, or in truth, Christ is preached ; and I therein 
X9 do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. For I know that this shall 

done was fitted to try severely the spirit of St Paul; to afflict him in 
and through his position of restraint. 

17. Iamsei\ Uit.^''Ilie:* But the A.V. and R.V. are right See 
the same verb clearly in the same sense, Luke ii. 34 ; i Thess. iii. 3. 
The thought is as of a soldier posted, a line of defence laid down. 
Still, there may be also an allusion in the word, used in this context, 
to the fact of his liitidX fixture in one spot. 

defence] Lit., *^ apology" apologia; vindication. See on ver. 7 
above. — Perhaps the point of the word here is that the loyal Chris- 
tians recognized in tiieir freedom a call to move about as active 
evangelists; in St Paul's captivity, a call to him rather to clear up 
the (Sfflculties and develope the intelligent faith of enquirers brought 
in by them. The **men of faction" might affect to see in St Paul's 
chain a sign of Divine prohibition and displeasure; the "men of love" 
would recognize in it a sign of designation to a special and noble work. 

18. What then?] *»What matters it? QuUmporte?" The right 
order of the two previous verses gives full force to such a question. 

notwithstanding] Better, cnly. "With beautiful significance he modi- 
fies the thought that it matters not. There is one respect in which it 
matters; it promotes the diffusion of the Gospel. 

R. V. reads, only that; an elliptical phrase, for "only I must confess 
that," or the like. The documentary evidence for the word "/^fl/" 
is strong, but not decisive. 

pretence] The Judaists would "pretend," perhaps even to them- 
selves, that their energy came of pure zeal for God. 

preached] Better, proclaimed. See second note on ver. 16. — In 
modem English the Greek (present) tense is best represented by is 
lieing prodalined. 

/ therein] Better, therein I, &c. There is no emphasis on *'/" in 
the Greek. 

will rejoice] Better, perhaps, with Alford, Ellicott, and Lightfoot 
(but not so R* v.), shall rejoice; an expectation, rather than a resolve. 
He is assured that the future vnW only bring fresh reasons for re- 

No long comment is needed on the noble spiritual lesson of this 
verse. The interests of his Lord are his own, and in that fact, realized 
by the grace of God, he finds, amidst circumstances extremely vexatious 
in themselves, more than equanimity — ^positive happiness. Self has 
yielded the inner throne to Christ, and the result is a Divine harmony 
between circumstances and self, as both are seen equally subject to Him 
and contributing to His ends. 

19. For I know] A development of the thought implied in "I 
shall rejoice," just above. Subordinate to the supreme fact that 
** Christ is being proclaimed," comes in here the delightful certainty 

V. 20.1 THILIPPIANS, I. 51 

turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of 
the Spirit of Jesus Christ, according to my earnest expecta- 20 

that the attendant discipline wiU further his own spiritual and eternal 
good, always in connexion with service rendered to his Lord. 

that this shall turn to my salvation] Rather more closely, in view 
of the Greek idiom, tbat I BbaU find this thing result in salyatlon. 

** Salvation" : — ^here, probably, final glory. The word sdtiria in- 
cludes, in its widest reference, the whole process of saving mercy, from 
the gift of the Saviour to the ultimate bliss of the saved. More defi- 
nitely, in the life of the Christian, it points sometimes to his first know- 
ledge of and faith in the Saviour (3 Cor. vi. 3), sometimes to the life- 
long process of his Divine preservation in Christ (1 Tim. ii. 10; i Pet. 
i. 9), more frequently to the heavenly issue of the whole in glory (Rom. 
xiii. 11; I Thess. v. 8; Heb. ix. 28; i Pet. i. 5). The same may be 
said of the cognate verb, only that it more often than the noun refers 
to the lifelong process. 

In a few passages (e.g. Acts xxvii. 34) the noun refers to bodily 
preservation. But this meaning is precluded here by the reference 
just below to the "supply of the Spirit" 

through your prayer\ He is sure of the coming blessing, and equally 
sure of the efficacy of the means to it — intercessory prayer. For St 
Paul's high estimate of the worth of intercession for himself and his 
work cp. e.g. Rom. xv. 30; 3 Cor. i. 11; Col. iv. 3; 1 Thess. iii. i. 

the supply] The Greek word slightly indicates a supply which is 
laige and free. — For the thought cp. Joh. x. 10. 

of the Spirit of Jesus Chris/] Here first, what is "the Spirit of 
y^tis Christ*^} Certainly not merely "His principles and temper." 
So vague a meaning of the word "Spirit" is foreign to the N; T. 
The amdogy of e.g. Rom. viii. 9; GaL iv. 6; i Pet. i. 11 ; taken along 
with our Lord's own teaching about the personal Paraclete who was 
to be His Divine Representative and Equivalent in the true Church 
(Joh. xiv. — xvi.), assures us that this is the Holy Spirit, the Third 
Person of the blessed Trinity. He is "the Spirit of Jesus Christ" 
because in the eternal relations within Deity He "proceeds" from 
the Eternal Son, and is sent by Him Qoh. xv. 26) as well as by the 
Father (xiv. 16, 36), and is so one with Christ that where the Spirit 
comes Christ comes (xiv. 18). His whole work for and in the Church 
and the soul is essentially and entirely connected with thie glorified 
Lord. He regenerates by effecting our vital union with Christ; He 
sanctifies and strengthens by maintaining and developing it. We 
possess the Spirit because of Christ; we possess Christ, in the sense of 
union, by the Spirit. 

Secondly, what is "the supply of the Spirit"? Grammatically, the 
phrase may mean either, "the supply which is the Spirit," or, "the 
supply which the Spirit jpves," Happily the two practically con- 
verge. But we prefer the former, in view of Gal. iii. 5, where the verb 
"ministerethy" k.V. ^^supplieth," is cognate to the noun ** supply" 
here. The Apostle thus anticipates, in answer to the Philippians* 



52 THILIPPIANS, I. [vv. 21, 22. 

tion and my hope, that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but 
iliat with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ shall be 
magnified in my body, whether // be by life, or by death. 
For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. But if / 

prayers, a new outpouring within him of the power of the blessed 
Paraclete, developing there the presence of Jesus Christ. Cp. his own 
prayer for other converts, Eph. lii. 14 — 19. 

20. According to] He describes this "supply of the Spirit" by 
its longed for and expected results, which would thus prove the test 
*' according to" which it would be known as present. 

earnest expectation] Lit., ** waiting with outstretched head**; one 
forcible word in the Greek. It occurs here and Rom. viiL i^. 

ashamed] I.e. practically, disappointed; as often in Scnpture lan- 
guage. See Psal. XXV. 3; Zech. ix. 5; Rom. v. 5, ix. 33; 2 Tim, 
i. 12. 

boldness] More precisely, IsoldnesB of speech. See Eph. iii. 12, 
vi. 19, and notes m this Series. He looks to *Hhe supply of the 
Spirit" to maintain in him an unwavering testimony to the Lord and 
His truth. Cp. Joel ii. 28 with Acts ii. 17, 18; i Cor. xii. 3. — Such 
testimony might or might not be literally verbal; but it would be 
utterance^ whether in speech or act. 

in my body] The body is the spirit's vehicle and implement in 
action upon others. Sec Rom. xii. i, and note in this Series; and 
cp. 1 Cor. iv. 10. The impression made on others, the "magnifi- 
cation" of Christ in the view of others, " whether by means of life or 
by means of death," would have to be effected through bodily doing 
or suffering. 

by lifCi or by death] We gather hence, and from ii. 23, that the 
Epistle was written at a time of special suspense and uncertainty, 
humanly speaking, regarding the issue of the Apostle's trial. See 
further just below. 

21—26. The same subject: the Alternative of Life or 

Death: Expectation of Life. 

21. For^ &c.] He takes up and expands the thought of the alterna- 
tive just uttered, and the holy "indifference" with which he was able 
to meet ik 

to me] Strongly emphatic in the Greek. It is not self-assertion, 
however, but assertion of personal experience of the truth and power 
of God. 

to live is Christ] Luther renders this clause Christus ist mein 
Leben; and so Tyndale, *' Christ is to me lyfe"; so also Cranmer, and 
the Genevan version. The Vulgate has vivere Christus; and this, 
the rendering of A.V. and R.V., is undoubtedly right. For the 
Apostle, undoubtedly, Christ was life, in the sense of source and 
secret ; see Gal. ii. 20 ; Col. iii. 4. But what he is thinking of here is 


live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour : yet what 
I shall choose I wot not For I am in a strait betwixt two, 23 

liot the source of life, but the experiences and interests of living. 
Living is for him so full of Christ, so preocc^ipied with Him and for 
Him, that "Christ** sums it up. Hence the ** eager expectation '* just 
expressed ; eager, because it has to do with the supreme interest of life. 

What the Apostle experienced in his own case is intended to be the 
experience of every believer, as to its essence. See Col. iii. 17; and 
cp. Eph. iii. 14 — 21. 

to die is gain] This wonderful saying, uttered without an effort, yet 
a triumph over man's awful and seemingly always triumphant enemy, 
is explained just below. 

22. Buf if I live in the fleshy &c.] The Greek construction here is 
difficult by its brevity and abruptness. R.V. renders ^^But if to live 
in this flesh — if this is the fruit of my work^ theft &c. *'; and, in the 
margin, " But if to live in the flesh be my lot, this is the fruit of my 
work; and &c. ; a rendering practically the same as A.V. This latter 
we much prefer, for grammatical reasons. It requires the mental inser- 
tion of ^^be my lot t ox the like; but this is quite easy, in a sentence 
where the words "/<? live" are obviously echoed from the words 
** to live is Christ^* just above. As if to say, " But if this 'living* is still 
to be a * living in the fleshy this is fruit &c." 

this is the fruit of my labour] Rather better, in view of the Greek 
idiom, this I sliaU find fruit of work. This ** living in the flesh,*' as it 
will be ** Christ," so will be " fruit, " result, of lifelong work. He means 
that work for Christ, the being employed by Christ, is for him the pulse 
of life on earth ; is life for him, in a certain sense. And this he ex- 
presses with additional force by saying not merely "work" but "fruit 
of work." For the work is of course fruitful: he who abides in 
Christ "beareth much /rwiV," fruit that shall "remain" (Joh. xv. 5, 
16), whether or no he sees it. It is only the "works of darkness " that 
can be "unfruitful" (Eph. v. 11). 

yet] Lit. and better, and. The simple word suits the great rapidity 
of transition. 

vjo(\ An old English present indicative, of which the infinitive is to 
wit. It was probably a past tense originally. See Skeat's Etymological 
Dictionary. — Wyclif has "knowe**. — The Greek here is, precisely, "I 
recognize not"; " I do not see clearly" (EUicott). 

23. For] Read But^ with conclusive evidence. The word here 
marks addition rather than distinction. An English writer would have 
dispensed with a transitional particle, probably, 

in a strait betwixt two] More precisely, with R.V., tbe two; the 
two alternatives just spoken of, life and death. — ^The imagery is of a 
man hemmed in right and left, so as to be stationary. Quite literally 
the words are, "I am confined yh^r/t the two (sides)"; the position is 
one of dilemma, vinvedfrom whichever side. 

Wonderful is the phenomenon of this dilemma, peculiar to the 
living Christian as such. "The Apostle asks which is most worth 

54 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. 2^ 

having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ ; wAic/i is 

his while, to live or to die. The same question is often presented 
to ourselvest and perhaps our reply has been that of the Apostle. 

But may we not have made it with a far different purport? Life 

and death have seemed to us like two evils, and we knew not which 
was the less. To the Apostle they seem like two immense blessings, 
and he knows not which is the better." (Ad. Monod, Adimx, No. ii.) 

To the question, "Is life worth living?" this is the Christian answer. 

having a desire] Lit., the desire. That is, the whole element 
of personal preference lies that way, not merely one desire among 
many. — We may paraphrase, "my longing being towards depar- 
ture &c." 

to depart] The verb [attalueiti) occurs only here and Luke xii. 36, 
where A. V. and R.V. render ** when he shall return from the wedding," 
but where we may equally well render, "when he shall depart^ set out 
homewards, from the wedding." The cognate noun analHsis^ whence 
our word analysis is transliterated, occurs a Tim. iv. 6, in a connexion 
exactly akin to this ; "the time of my departure is at hand." The root 
meaning of the verb has to do with loosing, undoing ; and by usage it 
can refer to either {a) the dissolution of a compound (so the Vulgate here, 
cupio dissolvi)i or {b) the unmooring of a ship, or striking of a tent 
or camp. It does not occur in the LXX., but is not infrequent in the 
Apocrypha, and there usually means to go away, or, as another side 
of the same act, to return (cp. Tobit ii. 8; Judith xiii. r). Such a 
meaning is doubtless to be traced to the imagery of {b) above, but 
appears to have dropped all conscious reference to it. This apocryphal 
usage, and the comments here of the Greek expositors (St Chrysostom 
paraphrases our text by *^ migration from hence to heaven"), are de- 
cisively in favour of our Versions as against the Vulgate. St Paul 
desires to leave for home; to break up his camp, to weigh his anchor, 
for that better country. See the same thought under other phraseology 
1 Cor. V. I — 8; where we see a "tent taken down," and a wanderer 
•'going to be at home with the Lord." 

Suicer (Thesaurus, under aVaXvw), says that Melanchthon on his 
death-bed called the attention of his learned friend Camerarius to this 
word, dwelling with delight on the passage, correcting the " dissolu- 
tion" of the Vulgate, and rendering rather, " to prepare for departure," 
**to migrate," or "to return home." — Luther renders here o^i/- 
scheiden, "to depart." 

and to be with Christ] The other side of the fact of departure,. and 
that which makes its blessedness. From this passage and 2 Cor. v. 
(quoted above we gather that as it were not a space, but a mathematical 
Ime, divides the state of faith this side death from the state of sight that 
side; see esp. 2 Cor. v. 7, in its immediate context. — "Those who 
blame as... presumptuous the fervours and speciality of devout affection, 
such as eminent Christians have expressed in their dying moments, 
know probably nothing of Chrbtianity beyond the bare story they read 

vv. 24, 25.] PHILIPPIANS, I. 55 

far better : nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more need- 94 
ful for you. And having this confidence, I know that 1 25 

in the Gospels, and nothing of human nature... as aflfected by religion, 
beyond what belongs to the servile sentiments of a Pelagian faith, better 
called distrust... Christianity meets us where most of all we need its 
aid, and it meets us with the very aid we need. It does not tell us of 
the splendours of the invisible world ; but it does far better when, in 
three words, it informs us that (wo^wrai) to loosen from the shore of 
mortality is (<r^ Xptarf c2yat) to be with Christ.'* (Isaac Taylor, Satur^ 
day Evenings ch. xxvi.) 

It is divinely true that the Christian, here below, is "with Christ," 
and Christ with him. But such is the developed manifestation of that 
Presence after death, and such its conditions, that it is there as if it had 
not been before. — Cp. Acts vii, 59; words which St Paul had heard. 

which is far beUer\ Probably read, for It Is &c. And the Greek, 
quite precisely, is *^much rather better" y a bold accumulation, to 
convey intense meaning. R.V., for it is very fax better. 

Observe that it is thus "better" in comparison not with the shadows 
of this life, but with its most happy light. The man who views the 
prospect thus has just said that to him "to live is Christ." Death 
is **gain" for him, therefore, not as mere escape or release, but as 
a glorious augmentation; it is "Christ'' still, only very far more of 

. 24. to abide in tlu flesh] Quite lit., as Bp Lightfoot, to abide by 
the fleBh, to hold fast to its conditions of trial, for the sake of the Lord 
and His flock. 

more needful] More necessary. Desire, and the sense of better- 
ness, lie on the side of death; obligation, in view of the claims of 
others, lies on the side of life. 

for you] Lit. and better, on account of yon. 

26. having this confidence] The Greek is the same as in ver. 6 
above, where see note. 

/ know] An unqualified assertion, made more explicit still by the 
next verse. We have ihe strongest ground, from the merely historical 
point of view, for saying that this expectation was verified by the event; 
that the Apostle was released, and enabled to revisit his missions. 
See I Tim. i. 3 for an intimation of a visit to Macedonia^ later in date 
than the writing of this passage. 

It has been asked how this *^I know^^ is to be reconciled with the 
"I know that ye all shall see my face no more^" of Acts xx. 25. Were 
both verified by the event? We believe that they were, and that only 
our necessary ignorance of the history in detail makes the difficulty. 
We believe tliat the guidance of the Divine Spirit, however His action 
worked through a perfect freedom of mental processes in St Paul, 
secured the veracity of his deliberate forecasts in a way quite super- 
natural. But apart from this ground of inference, we think that 
Acts XX. 25 has natural evidences of its fulfilment. The narrative 

56 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. 26. 

shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance 
a6 and joy of faith ; that your rejoicing may be more abundant 
in Jesus Christ for me by my coming to you again. 

there, vv. 37, 38, calls special and pathetic attention to the prediction; 
and it seems hardly credible that if it had been contradicted by events 
within a few years the passage should have remained intact; some 
sort of intimation that St Paul had after all met them again would 
have crept in. And we have seen that there is good evidence for 
the fulfilment of the present anticipation also. It seems reasonable, 
then, from the merely historical point of view, to assume that events 
did prevent an after-visit of St Paul's to Ephesus, though he did revisit 
Miletus (2 Tim. iv. 20) ; or at least that there was no such after-visit 
as allowed him to meet that body of presbyters again. 

and continue with you all] Better, with K.V., jrea, and abide With 
you all. The word ** abide" is repeated: it will be not only con- 
tinuance, but continuance with you, — Quite lit, "abide by you all"; 
as side by side in Christian life and labour. 

furtherance] R.V., progress ; more accurately. The A.V. suggests 
St Paul's helping them on, which is not the point of the Greek word 
here. See above on ver. n. 

joy of faith] Lit., ''joy of the faith,'' R.V. *'joy in the faith:' 
But Rom. XV. 13 ('*joy...t« believing'*) seems to us to favour the A.V., 
and Marg. R.V. The definite article quite naturaUy may mean ''your 
faith," your act and experience of believing. For the deep connexion 
between joy and faith see Rom. quoted above ; Acts xvi. 34 ; i Pet. i. 8. 
— Both "progress** and "joy" in this verse have relation to the word 

26. rejoicing] Better, with'R.V., glorsrlnff; not the same word 
as that just previous, nor akin to it. The Greek word is a favourite 
with St Paul, especiaUy in the Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, 
and Galatians. This fact is an item in the evidence for the time of 
writing of this Epistle. See Introduction, p. 14. 

may be more abundant] On the Greek word thus rendered we may 
make'the same remark precisely as on "glorying"; see last note. 

tn Jesus Christ] Read, with all the evidence, in Christ Jesus; and 
see note on ver. i above. — Observe here, as so often (see above, on 
ver. 8), how the whole action of the Christian's life is carried on "iVf 
Christ.'* This glad exultant pleasure, this "glorying," was to be ex- 
perienced as by men in vital union with their Lord by the Spirit. 

for me] Lit. and better, in me. — Here, on the other hand, 
•*i«" bears its frequent meaning of "in the ccue of" "on occasion 
of" Cp. e.g. Gal. i. 24 (not Gal. i. 16) and 2 Thess. i. 4, a close 
parallel. This change of interpretation of the same preposition in one 
passage is not arbitrary. The phrase "in Christ" is, so to, speak, 
stereotyped; not so this latter. — St Paul was to be their occasion for 
"glorying," as a living example of the Lord's faithfulness and love, 
restoring him to the needing disciples. 

V. 27.] tHlLlPPlANS, t. 57 

Only let your conversation be as it becometh the gospel aj 
of Christ: that whether I come and see you, or else be 
absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye sts^nd fast in one 

5y my coming to ycni] R. V., *^ through my presence tvUh you.^ Better, 
perhaps, tlirougli my coming to you. The word (parousia) rendered 
** coming" is lit. "presence"; but. by usage it very frequently means 
"coming to be present," as especially in the case of the "Parousia" of 
the Lord at the Great Day. 

27 — 30. Entreaties to cherish Consistency, and especially 
Unity, more than ever now in the Apostle's absence. 

27. Onlyj &c.] The mention of his anticipated coming and its 
joyful effects leads him to speak by way of caution and entreaty of 
the unvarying law of Christian duty, the same always whether he visited 
them or not We trace in this Epistle, along with the Apostle's desire 
that they should in a general sense live consistently, a special anxiety 
that the consistency of holy and unselfish mutual love should be more 
prevalent among them. 

let your conversation be &c.) Lit., "//w your citizen-life, in a way 
worthy of &c." The verb represented by *Uive your citisen-life^' 
occurs, in N.T., here and Acts xxiii. i; where A.V. simply^ "I 
have lived,'*'* A cognate noun occurs below, iii. 20, an important 
illustrative passage ; see note there. The verb is used in 2 Maccabees 
(vi. I, xi. 35) in the same sense of living a life, living according to 
certain laws or principles, without emphasis on the "citizen" element 
of the word. R.V., like A.V., here drops that element out of its 
rendering; let yoTur manner of life be worthy &c. It is interesting 
to find the same verb in Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians, ch. v. 
(Introduction, p. 27). — *^*^ Conversation*^ in A.V. is used in its old and 
exact sense, still apparent in our word ^Uonversant" It is the whole 
active intercourse and business of life, not merely the exchange of 
words. See note in this Series on Eph. ii. 3. The Gospel is meant, 
by its essential principle, to rule and leaven the whole of human life. 

or else be absent] Words which are perfectly consistent with the two 
previous verses. He bids them live the life of holy consistency at once 
and always^ not waiting for his presence in order to begin. See further, 
in the same strain, ii. 12. 

/ may hear] Strictly, of course, this refers only to the alternative 
of his prolonged absence. If he "came and saw them" hearing would 
be superseded. But this is obviously implied in the whole sentence. 

your affairs] Better, with R. V., your state. The literal rendering 
is **the things concerning you^'* The phrase occurs also, in St Paul, 
Eph. vi. 22, and below ii. 19, 20. 

stand fast] The Greek is one word, a verb not found earlier than 
the N.T., where it occurs eight times; here, and Mark xi. 25; Rom. xiv. 
4; I Cor. xvi. 13; Gal. v. i; below, iv. i; i Thess. iii. 8; 1 Thess. ii.. 

58 PHILIPPIANS, I. [v. 27. 

spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the 

15. In Mark it appears to mean simply "to stand^^i but in all the 
other places the idea of good foothold b conspicuous. 

in one spirit^ For the precise phrase see (in the Greek) i Cor. xii. 
13; Eph. ii. 18. In both these passages the reference is clearly to 
the Holy Spirit, "in" whom the saints have been baptized with new 
life, and "in" whom they approach the Father througn the Son. We 
therefore explain this place also of Him, as the surrounding, pene- 
trating, Giver of life and power to each saint and to the commu- 
nity. On the word "Spirit" see notes in this Series on Rom. viii. 4; 
Eph. i. 17. 

Manifestly, in the two places quoted above, the point of the word 
"one" is that the Unity of the Divine Agent must have its holy counter- 
part in the unity of the saints' action *' in Him." 

with one mind] Lit and better, with one soul. So Tvndale and 
Cranmer. Latin Versions, unanimes, — Cp. in this Epistle the ad- 
jectives **ofi€'Souled" (ii. a, where A.V. and R.V. ** of one accorJ"), 
**€qual'Soitled" (ii. 20), and notes. The phrase *' one soul" occurs also 
Acts -iv. 32 ; a close parallel to this passage, in which as in many 
others (see e.g. Matt. xii. 18, xxvi. 38; Luke ii. 35; Joh. xii. 37; 
Acts xiv. 32; Eph. vi. 6; Heb. vi. 19, xii. 3), the word soul {psycM) 
is associated with ideas of sensibility, as manifested either in suffering 
or action. It is possible that the word ** Spirit** suggested, humanly 
speaking, the word **soul** to the Apostle, by the law of association. 
See Isai. Ivii. 16; i Thess. v. 23; Heb. iv. 12. If so, it may be 
further possible that he uses the two words in a significant connexion. 
"Soul" in Scripture appears often to connote life embodied, organized* 
Now here in the first place is the Divine Life-|;iver, the One Spirit; 
then we have the result and manifestation of His presence, the organi- 
zation of it, as it were, in the "one sout** of the believing company. 

strknng together] The same word occurs below, iv. 3, and only 
there in N.T. By derivation it refers to the athletic^ or prize-seeking, 
contests of the games; the races, wrestlings, and boxings of the 
Greeks; favourite similes and metaphors with St Paul. See e.g. i Cor. 
ix. 24, 27 ; 2 Tim. ii. 5, iv. 7, and cp. Conybeare and Howson, Life &*c, 
of St Paul, ch. XX. at the beginning. But the reference is quite 
subordinate to the general one of dose and vigorous encounter with 
complex obstacles. 

for the faith] It is possible to render "with the faith** ^ and Lightfoot 
adopts this version. But not only does it involve a personification 
of "the faith" bolder than any parallel personification in St Paul 
(Lightfoot adduces for parallels i Cor. xiii. 6 ; 2 Tim. i. 8, itself a 
doubtful case ; 3 Joh. 8), but the whole stress of the passage lies on 
the cooperation of the Christians not with an3rthing else but with one 
another, Tliis is lost in the rendering in question. 

^^The faith of the Gospel**: — i.e. the faith which embraces the 
Gospel. Cp. "faith of (the) truth," a Thess. ii. 13. They were to 

vv. 28, 29.] PHILIPPIANS, I. 59 

gospel; and in nothing terrified hy your adversaries: which as 
is to them an evident token of perdition, but to you of 
salvation, and that of God. For unto you it is given in 89 

strive, side by side, for the object of bringing men to believe the Gospel 
of their Lord. — The objective meaning of the word "faith," the body 
of truth, the Christian's creed, b a meaning very rare, to say the least, 
in St Paul (see note on £ph. iv. 5 in this Series); and this other suits 
both context and construction better. 

2a. terrified] More precisely, scared. The verb (found here only 
in N.T., and nowhere in LXX. and Apocrjrpha) is used in classical 
Greek of the starting, or ** shying," of frightened animals, and thence 
of alarm in general. The word would specially suit the experience of 
the " little flock " in violent Philippi. 

which is to them &c.] He means that the whole phenonienon of this 
union, stedfastness, energy, and calm of the saints in face of seemingly 
hopeless odds, is in itself an omen of the issue. Of course the statement 
is made not in the abstract, but in the particular case of the Gospel. 
Many a false and finally losing cause may conceivably be maintained for 
a time courageously and calmly. But the Apostle assumes that the 
Gospel is the eternal truth, sure of ultimate victory, and then says here 
that the realization of this fact, in the convictions of both its foes and its 
friends, will be all the more impressive the more the Church acts in the 
spirit of calm, united, decisive resolution. 

perdition] in its deepest and most awful sense; the eternal loss and 
ruin of all persistent opponents of God and His truth. So below, iii. 19 ; 
and so always in N.T., excepting only Matt. xxvi. 8; Mark xiv. 4; 
where the word means waste, spoiling, loss of a material thing. 

salvation] This word also bears its deepest sense here. The faithful 
believer, witness, and worker, is on the way to eternal glory ; and the 
prospect brightens in anticipation and realization as the company of 
such disciples imites around, and in, the cause of Jesus Christ. On the 
word *^saivation" see note above, on ver. 19. 

and that] " That" in the Greek, refers not immediately to the word 
"salvation" but to the whole previous idea, of opposition met in atvay 
to encourage faith, God Himself has ordained the circumstances, and 
given the union and courage. See next note but one. 

of God] Lit, '^from God*'; so R. V. But the older English of the 
A.V. (and all previous English versions) is scarcely mistakable. 

89. For, &c] He carries out the statement just made (see last note 
but one), by saying that not only the grounds of faith in Christ, and 
the power to believe, but the occasion of suffering for Christ, and the 
power to meet the suffering, are things of Divine grant and gift. 

it is given] Lit. *'// was given," But the A.V. is true to English 
idiom. The verb rendered **give" denotes specially a grant of f^ee 
favour or kindness. It is thus often used of free forgiveness, e.g. Luke 
vii. 41; 3 Cor. ii. 7, 10; Eph. iv. 32; sometimes of the work of free 
grace and salvation, e.g. Rom. viii. 32; i Cor. ii. 12. (In Acts iii. 14, 

6o PHILIPPIANS, 1. 11. [vv. 30; I. 

the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also 
30 to suffer for his sake ; having the same conflict which ye 
2 sa^w in me, and now hear to be in me. If there be therefore 

XXV. II, 16, it is used of an arbitrary, extra-legal, giving up of a 
prisoner to others, either for liberation or penalty.) Thus the word 
here, with its associations of sovereignty, favour, boon, forms a noble 

on the behalf of Christ] The structure of the Greek indicates that 
the Apostle was about to write simply, **/*/ is granted you to suffer on 
behalf of Christ^\ but that he suspended the thought and phrase to 
insert, ^*not only to believe on Him but to suffer on His behalf." Thus 
** on the behalf of Christ " anticipates here the close of the verse, where 
it is repeated. 

to believe on him] Lit., *Unto IFim^^ a phrase suggesting the direct- 
ness and holdfast of saving faith. But this speciality of meaning must 
not be pressed far, for the phrase occurs here and there in connexions 
not naturally adapted to such thought ; e.g. Joh. ii. 23, xii. 42. — ^Thc 
Greek verb is in the present tense, and points to the continuousness of 
the action of faith, llie Christian, having once believed, lives by still 
believing. See Rom. xi. ao ; Gal. ii. 20 ; Heb. x. 38. — Faith in 
Christ is here incidentally spoken of as a grant of Divine grace. See 
further on this, Eph. ii. 8, and note in this Series. 

for his sake] Better with R.V., in His behalf; to mark the con- 
nexion of thought with the **in the behalf of Christ " just above. 

80. Having &c.] The Greek construction, if strictly taken, points 
back to the first clause of ver. 28, and leaves the intermediate words 
as a parenthesis. But it is much likelier that the construction here 
is free, and that this verse accordingly carries out the last words of ver. 29 
into detail. 

conflict] Greek agdn^ a word suggestive of the athletic arena rather 
than the battle-field. See above on ^* striving together j^ ver. 27. It 
recurs Col. ii.i (perhaps for the "wrestlings" of prayer) ; i Thess. ii. 2; 
I Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 7; Heb. xii. i. Our blessed Lord's great 
"Wrestling" in Gethsemane, His sacred "Agony," is called by ihe 
kindred word agdnia^ Luke xxii. 44. 

ye saw] in the streets and in the court-house at Philippi; Acts xvi. 
One of the probable recipients of this letter, the Jailer, had not only 
"seen " but inflicted other sufferings in the dungeon. 1—4. The subject continued: appeal for self- 
forgetful Unity. 

1. therefore] The connexion of thought with the previous sentences 
is close. He has pressed on them the duty and blessing of concord 
and cooperation, and now enforces it further, with a special appeal 
to them to minister happiness to himself, as to a Christian brother, 
by obedience. 


any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any 
fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies, fulfil 
ye my joy, that ye be likeminded, having the same love, 

comolaium] R.V. eomfort, which is better. The Greek word, in 
its prevailing meaning, denotes rather encouragement, strengthening, 
than the tenderer ''consolation"; and the word "comfort , by its 
derivation (caniorUUio), may fairly represent it. The thought of the 
mutual love and union of the Philippians would cheer and animate their 
Apostle and friend. 

in Christ'] Getting its motive and virtue from the union in Christ 
of the Apostle and tl^ Philippians. 

comfort of love] Better, consolation, &c. See last note but one.--^ 
The word occurs here only in N.T. A closely similar form occurs 
in a kindred connexion, i Cor. xiv. 3. — ^*' Of ioz/a**: — Clove's result and 

fdUnvship of the Spirit] Cp. 1 Cor. xiii. 14 "the communion of the 
Holy Spirit." In the Greek here the word pneuma (spirit) is without 
the article, and many scholars hold that in all such cases not the 
Divine Spirit as a Person, but His gift or gifts, is meant ; and that 
thus here the meaning will be *'if there is a participation, on your 
part and mine alike, in the same spiritual love, joy, peace, &c.'' 
^ut the presence or absence of the article in these cases is a very 
precarious index of meaning, when the substantive is a great and 
familiar word. Context and parallels are necessary to the decision 
in each place. And in this place the parallel (a Cor.) quoted, seems to 
us to point clearly to the highest reference — to '*the one and the self- 
same Spirit** (i Cor. xii. 11), the promised Paraclete Himself, Whom 
all die saints '* share" as their common Life-Giver, Strengthener, and 
Sanctifier. — ^^ Fellowship of^* might grammatically-mean * 'union of heart 
and interests, prompted by.** But usage is decisively for the meaning 
** participation in^^ 

bowels and mercies] Better, with R.V., tender mercies and com- 
passions. No English version before 158a has the word ** bowels.*^ 
On that word see note above on ver. 8. — He appeals with pathetic 
directness and simplicity, last of all, to their human emotions as such. 

2. Fulfil ye my joy] Lit. "_/?// ** it. He already rejoices in them 
(i. 4) ; but the manifestation in them of the unity of holy love would 
complete the reasons and the experience of that joy. — "He felt small 
anxiety for himself, if but the Church of Christ might prosper'* 

thai ye be] The Greek construction (see on i. 9) denotes (in N.T.) 
sometimes ihtjffurpose (as in the phrase "we ask, to test your kindness**), 
sometimes iht purport (as in the phrase *'we ask, to be forgiven**). 
A modification of the latter meaning appears here. In the words 
" fulfil ye,** &c. the Apostle is practically ctsking them to be what he now 

likeminded] R.V., of the same mind, for the sake of uniformity 


62 PHILIPPIANS, II. [vv.3,4. 

3 being of one accord, of one mind. Let nothing be dotu 
through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let 

4 each esteem other better than themselves. Look not every 

with the last clause of this verse. — ^We have here the weak point of the 
Fhilippian Church plainly indicated. 

the same love\ on both sides; i.e. practically, general love, holy cliarity ^ 
in all towards all. 

. of one accord^ More literally, ^^one-souledJ'* See on ver. «7 

. of one f/iind} A similar expression to that just above, "of the same 
mind*\ but somewhat stronger. — The word (phronetn) represented by 
"mind" in these clauses obviously denotes not so much intellectual as 
moral action and attitude. — See on L 7. 

8. Let tiothing be done] The briefer original, in which no verb 
appears, is very forcible, but would be exaggerated in a literal rendering. 
— Observe the totality of the prohibition. It is a rule for all Christian 
lives at all times. 

through] Lit. *^ according io%^ on the principles of. 

strife] The same word as above, i. 16; see note. And see p. 16 
for Ignatius* use of the word. — R.V. "faction,^* Only, the word may 
denote not merely the combined self seeking of partizanship, but also a 
solitary ambition, working by intrigue. 

in lowliness of mind] The Greek (dative) may be more precisely re- 
presented by In respect of lowUneBS, &c. Their lowliness was to be 
embodied in, and proved by, what he now describes. 

** Lowliness of mind**: — essentially a Christian grace. The word itself 
(one Greek word is represented by the three English words) is not found 
in Greek before the N.T. And kindred words in the classics are always 
used in a tone of blame, as of a defect of proper courage and self- 
assertion. This fact is deeply suggestive. In its essential principles 
the mighty positive morality of the Gospel is based oH the profound 
negative of the surrender and dethronement of self before a Redeeming 
Lord who has had compassion on perfectly unworthy objects. The 
world's *^poor spirited f** and the Lord's **poor in spirit ^^ are phrases 
used in very different tones. 

let each esteem other] lit., " mutually counting others superior to (your-) 
selves,** — ^The precei)t is to be read in the light of the Holy Spirit's 
illumination of the individual conscience. Even where one Christian 
might see another to be manifestly less gifted than himself, spiritually 
or otherwise, yet **if the endowments, and the obligations connected 
with them, were properly estimated, they would rather conduce to 
humble than to exalt * (Scott). And in any case, where the man ha- 
bitusdly viewed himself in the contrasted light of the Divine holiness, 
with that insight which belongs to self-knowledge alone, he would 
respond instinctively to this precept. 

4. Look] Better, with documentary evidence, looking. — "Look.,, 
en" becomes in R.V. *Wook..,to" a change not greatly needed. — ^The 

vv. 5, 6.] PHILIPPIANS, IL 63 

man on his own things, but every man also on the things of 
others. Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ 5 
Jesus: who, being in the form of God, thought it note 

look is the look of sympathy, kindly interest, self-forgetful coopera- 
tion. This short verse is a noble and far-reaching lesson in Christian 

every man,„every man] The Greek here, in the first case probably, 
in the second certainly, gives "each" in the plural; a phrase which may 
be paraphrased "eadi circle ^^ "each i^*/," or the like. If cliques or 
petty factions were the bane of the Philippian Church this language 
would have a special point. 

6 — 11. The appeal enforced by the supreme Example of the 
Saviour in His Incarnation, Obedience, and Exaltation. 

5. Let this mind be] R.V., Have tills mind; adopting a reading 
dififerent in form but scarcely so in import from that taken for the A.V., 
which fairly represents either reading. 

In the great passage which follows we have a suggestive ex- 
ample of Christian moral teaching. One of the simplest and most 
primary elements of duty is being enforced, and it is enforced by 
appealing to the inmost secrets of the truth of the Person and Work 
of Christ. The spiritual and eternal, in deep continuity, descends into 
the practical. At the present time a powerful drift of thought goes 
in the direction of separating Christian theology from practical Chris- 
tianity; the mysteries of our Lord's Person and Work from the great- 
ness of His Example. It may at least check hasty speculations in this 
direction to remember that such a theory rends asunder the teaching of 
the New Testament as to its most characteristic and vital elements. 
The anti-doctrinal view of Christianity is a theory of it started strictly 
and properly de novo. See further Appendix E. 

which was] The verb is not in the Greek, but is necessarily implied. 
Meanwhile the sacred character which came out in the mysterious past 
("wof") of the Lord's pre-temporal glory, still and for ever is His 
character. His "mind." 

in Christ Resits] It is observable that he calls the Lord not only 
"Christ" but *' Jesus," though referring to a time before Incarnation. 
Historically, He had yet to be *' anointed" {Christ), and to be marked 
with His human Name (yesus). But on the one hand the Person who 
willed to descend and save us is identically the Person who actually 
did so ; and on the other hand what is already decreed in the Eternal 
Mind is to It already fact. Cp. the language of Rev. xiii. 8. 

6. }Vho] in His pre-existent glory. We have in this passage a 
N.T. counterpart to the O.T. revelation of Messiah's "coming to do the 
will of His God** (Psal. xl. 6—8, interpreted Heb. x. 5). 

being] The Greek word slightly indicates that He not only "wax,** 

64 PHILIPPIANS, II. [v. 7. 

7 robbery to be equal with God : but made himself of no 

but ^^ already was^^ in a state antecedent to and independent of the 
action to be described. R.V. margin has **Gx. originally being**; but 
the American Revisers dissent. 

in the form of God] The word rendered ^^form*' is morphi. This 
word, unlike our **form'' in its popular meaning, connotes reality along 
with appearance^ or in other words denotes an appearance which 
is manifestation. It thus differs from the word (schhnds rendered 
^^ fashion** in ver. 8 below; where see note. See notes on Rom. xii. a 
in this Series for further remarks on the difference between the two 
words; and cp. for full discussions, Abp Trench's Synonyms^ under 
fiopifdit and Bp Lightfoot's Fhilippians, detached note to ch. ii. 

Here then our Redeeming Lord is revealed as so subsisting " in the 
form of God'' that He was what He seemed, and seemed what He 
was — God. (See further, the next note below, and on ver. 7.) "Though 
[morphf\ is not the same as [ousia, essettce], yet the possession of the 
[morphi] involves participation in the [ousia] also, for [morph^ implies 
not the external accidents [only ?] but the essential attributes" 

thought] The glorious Person is viewed as (speaking in the forms 
of human conception) engaged in an act of reflection and resolve. 

robbery] The Greek word occurs only here in the Greek Scriptures, 
and only once (in Plutarch, cent. 7) in secular Greek writers. Its 
form suggests the meaning of a process or cut of grasp or seizure. But 
similar forms in actual usage are found to take readily the meaning of 
the result^ or material ^ of an act or process. **An invader's or plunderer's 
prize** would thus fairly represent the word here. This interpretation 
IS adopted and justified by Bp Lightfoot here. R.V. reads **a prize** 
and in the margin ** Gr. a thing to be grasped** Liddell ana Scott 
render, **a matter of robbery t** which is substantially the same; Bp 
Ellicott, "a thing to be seized on, or grasped at,** — The context is the 
best interpreter of the practical bearing of the word. In that context 
it appears that the Lord's view of His Equality (see below) was 
not such as to ivithstand His gracious and mysterious Humiliation 
for our sakes, while yet the conditions of His Equality were such as to 
enhance the wonder and merit of that Humiliation to the utmost. 
Accordingly the phrase before us, to suit the context, (a) must not imply 
that He deemed Equality an unlawful possession, a thing which it would 
be robbery to claim » as some expositors, ancient and modern, have in 
error explained the words (see Alford's note here, and St Chrysostom 
on this passage at large) ; (^) must imply that His thought about the 
Equality was one of supremely exemplary kindness towards us. 
These conditions are satisfied by the paraphrase — '*He dealt with His 
true and rightful Ek^uality not as a thing held anxiously, and only 
for Himself, as the gains of force or fraud are held, but as a thing 
in regard of which a most gracious sacrifice and surrender was possible, 
for us and our salvation." 

The A.V.| along with many interpreters, appears to understand the 


reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and 

Greek word as nearly equal to **usurfaiion"\ as if to sajr, **He knew 
it was His just and rightful possession to be equal with God, and 
yet " &c. But the context and the Greek phraseology are unfavourable 
to this. 

to be equal with God] R.V., to be on an equality with God, a phrase 
which perhaps better conveys what the original words suggest, that 
the reference is to equality of attributes rather than person (Lightfoot). 
The glorious Personage in view is not another and independent God, 
of rival power and glory, but the Christ of God, as truly and fully 
Divine as the Father. 

Let us remember that these words occur not in a polytheistic reverie, 
but in the Holy Scriptures, which everywhere are jealous for the 
prerogative of the Lord GoD, and that they come from the pen of a 
man whose Pharisaic monotheism sympathized with this jealousy to 
the utmost. May it not then be asked, how — in any. way other 
than direct assertion, as in Joh. i. i — the true and proper Deity of 
Christ could be more plainly stated? 

The word **God'* on the other hand is here used manifestly with a 
certain distinctiveness of the Father. Christian orthodoxy, collecting 
the whole Scripture evidence, sees in this a testimony not to the view 
(e.g. of Arius, cent. 4) that the Son is God only in a secondary and 
inferior sense, but that the Father is the eternal, true, and necessary 
Fountain of the eternal, true, and necessary Godhead of the Son. — 
For this use of the word GoD, see e.g. Joh. i, I ; 2 Cor. xiii. 14; Heb. 
i. 9; Rev. XX. 6, xxii. i. 

7. Bttt made hitnself of no reputation] "But" here introduces the 
infinitely gracious action of the Saviour as the contrary to what it 
would have been had He "thought His Equality with God a prize," 
We may paraphrase, "That He did not so think of it. He shewed 
by making Himself," &c. See Bp EUicott's careful note here, in 
which this explanation is advocated against that which would para- 
phrase, "Although He thought it no usurpation to be equal with God, 
yet He made, &c." 

^^ Himself^ is slightly emphatic by position, laying a stress on the 
sacred free will of the Lord in His Humiliation. 

^^ Made himself of no reputation'*^: — lit., as R.V., emptied Himsell 
The (Romanist^ Rnemish Version, 1582, verbally following the Vulgate 
{semetipsum extnanivit)y has, ^^exinanited Himself" From the Greek 
the word kendsis {Khwyii) has passed into theological language, ap- 
pearing here and there in the Fathers, frequently in modern treatises. 
Of recent years much has been said upon this great mystery in the 
direction of proving or suggesting that during "the days oif His Flesh" 
(Heb. V. 7) the Lord {practically) parted with His Deity; becoming 
the (Incarnate) Son of God only in His glorification after death. Such 
a view seems to contravene many plain testimonies of the Gospels, 
and most of all the pervading tofU of the Gospels, as they present to 
us in the Lord Jesus on earth a Figure "meek and lowly^' indeed, 


66 PHILIPPIANS, IL [v- 8- 

8 was made in the likeness of men : and being found in 

but always infinitely and mysteriously majestic; significanUy depen- 
dent indeed on the Father, and on the Spirit, but always speaking 
to man in the manner of One able to deal sovereignly with all mans 

It is enough for us to know that His Humiliation, or to use the word 
here, Exinanition, JCendsis, was profoundly real; that He was pleased, 
as to His holy Manhood, to live in dependence on the Spint; whUe 
yet we are sure that the inalienable basis of His Personality was always, 
eternally, presently, Divine. The ultimate and reasoned analysu ot 
the unique Phenomenon, God and Man, One Christ, is, as to Us actual 
consciousfussy if we may use the word, a matter more for His knowledge 
than our enquiry. Bp Lightfoot's brief note here says nearly all that 
can be said with reverent certainty: " * He divested Himself not of His 
Divine nature, for this was impossible, but of the glories, the preroga- 
tives, of Deity. This He did by taking upon Him the form of a 

and took upon him] Lit. and better, with R.V., taking. The 
thought is that the Exinanition was the " taking; "; not a process 
previous to it. In the word ''taking' the Lord^s free choice and 
action is again in view. 

the form of a servant'] Lit. and better, of a bondservant, a slave. 

The word rendered ''form'' is the same as that in ver. 6, on which 

see note. Here, as there, the thing implied is not semblance but mam- 

festation. He became in reality, and in consequent appearance, a 


With what special reference is the word "bondservant" here used? 
Does it point to His stooping to serve men in great humiliation? 
Or to His undertaking, in the act of becoming Man, that essential 
condition of man's true life — bondservice to God? The order of words 
and thought is in favour of the latter. The Apostle goes on to say, in 
effect, that His taking the slave's "form" was coincident with His 
coming "in the likeness of men" generally, not of specially humiliated 
or oppressed men. As Man He was "bondservant. And this points 
to a bondservice related directly to God, as Lord of man. In this as in 
other things He was the archetype of all His true followers. 

True, our blessed Lord made Himself the servant of all, and on 
one occasion Qoh. xiii.) took literally the place and work of a 
menial attendant; a fact to which much allusion is made by St 
Chrysostom here. But all the while He was far more Lord than 
servant, certainly than bondservant, in His relations with men, even 
in His most tender and gracious relations. Literal "slavery" toman 
He certainly did not enter upon; royally descended as He was, and 
toiling as a free artificer, and commanding and teaching always with 

and was made] Lit., coming to be, becoming. The fact is stated 
as coincident with the last statement. See previous note. 

tn the likeness oftfiett\ A double suggestion lies in the words; (a) that 

V. 9.] PHILIPPIANS, II. (i1 

fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient 
unto death, even the death of the cross. Wherefore God 9 

He was really like man, as He truly was man; accepting the conditions 
involved in a truly human exterior, with its liabilities to trial and 
suffering; and {p) that He was also moi-e than man^ other than man, 
without which fact there would be not resemblance but mere identity, 
Cp. a somewhat similar case, Rom. viii. 3, where lit. ''in the likeness of 
the flesh of sin." 

** Of men,^* not ^*of pian": — as if to make the statement as concrete 
as possible. He appeared not in the likeness of some transcendent 
and glorified Manhood, but like men as they are. 

8. found] as one who presented Himself for inspection and test. 
See Appendix F. 

fashion] See third note on ver, 6 above. The Greek word schema 
denotes appearance 7vith or without underlying reality. It does not 
negative such reality any more than it asserts it; it emphasizes ap^ 
pearance. In the context, we have the reality of the Lord^s Manhood 
abundantly given; and in this word accordingly we read, as in the 
word "likeness" just above, an emphatic statement that (a) He was 
Man in guise, not in ^i>guise ; presenting Himself to all the conditions 
of concrete life as Man with man ; and that {b) all the while the scMma 
liad more beneath it than its own corresponding reality : it was the veil 
of Deity. 

as a man] Better, perhaps, as man, though R.V. retains ^*^as 
a man** As the Second Man, our Lord is rather Man, the Man of 
men, than a Man, one among men. — Yet the assertion here is rather 
as to what He was pleased to be in relation to those who "found" 
Him, came into contact with Him, in His earthly walk; and to such 
He certainly was *'a man." And so, with wonderful condescension, 
He speaks of Himself as *'a utan that hath told you the truth" (Joh. 
viii. 40). 

he humbled himself] in " the acts of condescension and humiliation 
in that human nature which He emptied Himself to assume" (Ellicott). 
More particularly the reference is to the specially submissive, bearings 
life, under the afflictive will of His Father, which He undertook to lead 
for our sakes; see the next words. The Greek verb is in the aorist, 
and sums up the holy course of submission either into one idea, or into 
one initial crisis of will. 

and became] Lit. and better, beoomlsg; an aorist participle coin* 
cident in reference with the previous aorist verb. 

obedient] to the Father's will that He should suffer. The utterance 
of Gethsemane was but the amazing summary and crown of His whole 
sacred course as the Man of Sorrows. His '* Passion," standing in some 
vital respects quite alone in His work, was in other respects only the 
apex of His "Patience." 

unto death] R.V. rightly supplies even before these words. "Unto** 
means (by the Greek) *Uo the length of** He did not "obey" but 
"abolish" death (1 Tim. i. 10); He obeyed His Father, "even to the 

63 PHILIPPIANS, II. [v. 9. 

also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which 

extent of* dying, as the sinner's Sacrifice, at the demand of the holy 
Law, and '*by the determinate foreknowledge" (Acts ii. 33) of the 

of thecro5s\ **Far be the very name of a cross not only from the 
bodies of Roman citizens, but from their imagination, eyes, and ears " 
(Cicero, pro Rabirio^ c. 5. Cp. Gibbon, Decline and Folly ch. xx.). 
Every thought of pain and shame was in the word, and was realized 
in the terrihc thing. Combining, as we should do in the case of our 
Redeemer's Crucifixion, the significance to the Jew of any death by 
suspension, with the significance to the Roman of execution on the 
cross, we must think of this supreme "obedience" as expressing the 
holy Sufferer's submission both to "become a curse for us" (Gal. iii. 
13, with Dcut. xxi. 23) as before God the Lawgiver, and meanwhile 
to be "despised and rejected of men" (Isai. liii. 3) in the most extreme 

On the history of thought and usage in connexion with the Cross, 
and Crucifixion, see Zockler's Cross of Christ* 

9. Wherefore^ From the point of view of this passage, the glorifi- 
cation of the Crucified Lord was the Father's recognition and reward 
of His infinitely kind and gracious "looking upon the things of others." 
The argument is, of course, that similarly the Christian who humbles 
himself shall be exalted. 

hath highly exalted] Better, with R.V., highly exalted; at Resur- 
rection and Ascension. Cp. Joh. xvii. 4, 5 ; Acts ii. 93, 34, 3a, 33, 36, 
iil. 13, V. 30, 31; Rom. i. 4; Eph. L 20 — 22; i Pet. i. 21, &c. 

*"*" Highly exalted": — one compound verb in the Greek. Compounds 
expressive of greatness or excess are a characteristic of St Paul's 
style. Of about seventeen of them in the N.T. quite twelve are found 
in St Paul's writings only, or very rarelv elsewhere. 

given hini\ Better, as again R.V. (see last note), fi^ve. The verb 
indicates a gift of Iffve and approval, 

a name] Lit. and better, the name. What is this Name? Is it the 
sacred personal Name Jesus? (Alford, EUicott). Or is it Name in 
the sense of revealed majesty and glory? (Lightfoot). The difficulty of 
the former explanation is that Jesus, the human Name of the Lord, 
was distinctively His before His glorification, so that the "giving" of 
it on His glorification is a paradox. The reply will be that its elevation 
for ever into the highest associations, in the love and worship of the 
saints, was as it were a new giving of it, a giving of it as new. Still 
the usage is unlikely. And it is to be noticed that in the Epistles 
and Revelation, compared with the narrative parts of the N.T., the holy 
Name Jesus is but sparingly used alone. (See, as examples of such 
use, Rom. x. p ; i Cor. xii. 3 ; Heb. ii. 9, iv. 14 ; i John v. 5 ; Rev. xzii. 
16, 20; cp. Acts vii. 55, 59, viii. 16.) Very much more frequent is 
Jesus Christ. And on the other hand there are clear cases for 
the use of the word "Name" in the N.T. to denote recognized 
dignity or glory; sec especially Eph. i. 21. We believe that 

V. lo.] PHILIPPIANS, II. 69 

is above every name : that at the name of Jesus every knee ^ 
should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and 

the true explanation lies in this direction. The "Name, given" is 
the supreme Name, The Lord, Jehovah. In other words, the 
lowly and sufiering Jesus is, as the abased and slain One, now to 
be found and worshipped on the eternal Throne; recognized there 
by all creation as He who for man's sake, in preexistent glory 
and Godhead, willed to be humiliated even to the Cross. — As in 
the study of the whole mystery of the Incarnation of the Eternal 
Son, so here, we trace throughout the wonderful progression a perfect 
Personal Identity, while the unique presence in the Incarnate One 
of two Natures, with each its will, under one Personality, allows a 
range of language which speaks of the eternally glorious Son of God as 
being de novo glorified and exalted after the Humiliation which in His 
Second Nature He underwent. 

above evefy name] Cp» Eph. i. ai just referred to. On St Paul's 
view of the altogether unique exaltation of the Lord, in comparison 
with every created existence, see Liddon*s Bampton Lectures^ Lect. V, 
§ IV. a. 

10. at the name of Jesus] Lit., with R. V., in tbe name of Jesus, 
or as far as grammatical form goes, **«« the name yesus" " It is not 
*the name Jesus* but *the name of Jesus*" (Lightfoot). This must 
mean that the context decides it thus; the grammar is ambiguous. 
But the previous argument (see last note but one), if valid, is decisive 
for the rendering of the R.V. 

**//! the name.,. should bow^ &c." Does this mean, "all should wor- 
ship Him,** or "all should worship through Hwi*^'^ Doubtless the 
latter is Divine truth. But the context is wholly in favour of an imme- 
diate reference to His enthronement; and particularly the very next 
verse speaks distinctly of the recognition of Him as "Lord.** So Light- 
foot; and he gives proofs from the LXX. (e.g. Psal. Ixii. 5 (Heb. 
Ixiii. 4) ; I Kings viii. 44) that the phrase " in the name of^^ may imply, 
in proper contexts, the adoration of Him who bears the Name. We 
may thus paraphrase, " that before the revealed Majesty of the glorified 
Jesus all creation should adore.** — The ancient custom of bowing at 
ihe mention of the Name Jesus (see Canon xviii. of the Church of 
England) derives no direct sanction from this passage. 

every knee should bow\ An implicit citation of Isai. xlv. ^3 ; and as 
such a powerful testimony to St Paul's view of the proper Deity of 
Jesus Christ. — ^The context of the passage in the prophet contains the 
phrases "a just God and a Saviour'* (ver. 21; cp. Rom. iii. 26) ; "in 
the Lord shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory*' (ver. 
25 ; cp. Rom. viii. 30). May we not suppose that the Apostle of Justi- 
fication was thus specially guided to the passage, and to its inner refer- 
ence to the Son? — The same passage is directly quoted Rom. xiv. 11 
(where in ver. 10 read, ^* of Christ**)* 

ihm^ in heaven.,. in earth... under t/ie earth] Created existence, in 
its heights and depths. Cp. Rev. v. 13 for close illustration ; words 

70 PHILIPPIANS, ir. [v. II. 

XX things under the earth; and thai^veiy tongue should confess 
that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. 

whose whole context is a Divine commentary on this passage. In yiew 
of the language there, in a scene where angels have been already men- 
tioned, it is better not to divide the reference here, e.g. between angels, 
living men, and burie<l men (Alford), or angels, men, and lost spirits 
(Chrysostom). Not only animate and conscious but inanimate existence 
is in view ; Creation in its total ; the impersonal and unconscious ele- 
ments being said to '* worship," as owning, after their manner, theyS'a/ 
of the exalted Jesus. 

11. every Umgite should cofifess\ Again an implicit quotation of 
Isai. xlv. 33. 

The verb rendered *^ can/ess,''^ as Lightfoot points out, has in Scrip- 
tural Greek almost resigned its literal meaning of open avowal, to take 
that of praise and thsmksgiving. Our Lord Himself uses it. Matt. 
xi. 35; Lukex. ai; ("I thank Thee, O Father, &c.") Every tongue 
shall "give thanks to Him for His great glory." — It may b« asked, 
how sh5l this be fulfilled in the case of the lost ? We reply, either 
there is no explicit reference here to any but the subjects of final 
redemption, as in £ph. i. 10, where see note in this Series; or the 
mysterious state of the lost may admit, for all we know, such a re- 
cognition that even their hopeless woe is the ordinance of "supremest 
Wisdom and primeval Lovev' manifested in Jesus Christ, as shall be 
tantamount to the adoration indicated here. 

Jesus Christ is Lord'\ Cp. i Cor. xii. 3 ; a passage which teaches us 
that the Lordship in question is such as to be known only bv Divine 
revelation. It is supreme Lordship, a session on the eternal throne. 
(Cp. Rev. iii. ai, and see xxii. 3.) He "who being in the form of God 
took the form of a bondsen'ant" of God, and "obeyed even unto the 
cross," is now owned and adored as " God, whose throne is for ever and 
ever" (Heb. i. 8), and as exercising His dominion as the Son of Man, 
The Person is eternally the same ; but a new and wonderful condition 
of His action has come in, the result of His Exinanition and Passion. 

It is observable that the Valentinian heretics (cent. 2), according 
to Irenajus (Bk. I. ch. i. § 3) ascribed to Jesus the title Saviour, but 
refused Him that of Lord. 

For proof that in apostolic doctrine the supreme Name, Jehovah, 
was recognized as appropriate to the Person of the Christ, cp. Joh. xii. 4 
with Isai. vi. 5. In that passage, as here, we have presented to us the 
personal identity of the Pre^xistent and the Humiliated Christ. 

to the glory of God the Father] the ultimate Object of all adoration, 
inasmuch as He is the eternal Origin of the eternal Deity of the Son. 

* " Tustice the Founder of my fabric moved, 
To rear me was the task of power diviue, 
Supremest wisdom and primeval love. 
All hope abandon, ye who enter here." 

Dantb, Fn/emOf canto iii (Gary). 

V, 12.] PHILIPPIANS, n. 71 

Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as " 

Cp. Joh. V. 23, xiii. 31, 32, xvii. i ; i Pet. i. «i 5 for this profound rela- 
tion between the glory of the Son and the glory of the Father. But no 
isolated references can properly represent a subject which is so deeply 
woven into the texture of the Gospel. 

In the light of the Scriptural truth of His Nature, a truth sum- 
marized with luminous fulness in the "Nicene'* Creed ^ we see the 
Christ of God as at once properly, divinely, adorable, and the true 
Medium for our adoration 01 the Father. 

St Chrysostom here in a noble passage shews how the attribution of 
full and eternal Godhead to the Christ enhances, not diminishes, the 
Father's glory. "A mighty proof it is of the Father's power, and good- 
ness, and wisdom, that He hath begotten such a Son, a Son nowise 
inferior in goodness and in wisdom... When I say that the Son is not 
inferior in Essence to the Father, but equal, and of the same Essence, 
in this also I adore the Lord God, and His power, and goodness, and 
wisdom, that He has revealed to us Another, begotten of Himself, like 
to Him in all things, Fatherhood alone excepted" (Horn, viu in Ep. 
ad Philipp. c. 4). 

Thus closes a passage in which, in the course of practical exhortation, 
the cardinal truth of the true Godhead and true Manhood of Christ, and 
that of His example, are presented all the more forcibly because inci- 
dentally. The duty of unselfish mutual love and self-sacrifice is enforced 
by considerations on the condescension of Christ which are quite mean- 
ingless if He is not preexistent and Divine, and if the reality of His 
Manhood is not in itself a sublime example of unforced self-abase- 
ment for the good of others. All merely humanitarian views of His 
Person and Work, however refined and subtilized, are totally at 
variance with this apostolic passage, written within fresh living memory 
of His life and death. 

12 — ^18. Inferences from the foregoing passages : the Great- 
ness OF the methods of Salvation : the consequent Call 
TO A Life reverent, self-forgetful, fruitful, joyful. 

12. Whereforel The Apostle has now pressed on them the duty 
and blessing of self-forgetting sympathy and love, above all by this 
supreme Example. He here returns to the exhortation, in a measure, 
but now only subordinately ; his mind is chiefly now possessed with the 
greatness of salvation, and it is through this^ as it were, that he views 
the duty and joy of Christian humility and harmony. 

my beloved] So again iv. i, Cp. i Cor. x. 14, xv. 58 ; 2 Cor. vii. i, 
xii. 19 ; where this tender word similarly introduces earnest practical 
appeals. See too Heb. vi. 9; Jas. i. 16; i Pet. ii. ti, iv. 12 ; 2 Pett 
iii. r, 8, 14, 17 ; I Joh. iii. 3, 21, iv. i, 7, 11 ; Jude 3, l7, 20. 

* And more elaborately in the *' Definition" of the Council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451. 

72 PHILIPPIANS, 11. [v. 13. 

in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, 
13 work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For 

ye have always t^eJ\ So too R.V. Lit, ye did always otioy; the 
aorist. And so better here. The Apostle views as one past experi- 
ence his personal interconrse with them of old at Philippi. See the 
next words, where sndi a retrospect is implied. 

nai as in my presence only &c.] The Greek shews that these words 
are to be joined with what follows; '* work out your own salvation, 
now in my absence, not only m my presence." 

*M/ in my presence'^: — "<w" sug^^ests the thought, or point of view, 
of the agent ; ** influenced by the fact of my presence." 

work out your oivn salvatuni\ "Your oton" is strongly emphatic. 
The Apostle is in fact bidding them "leam to walk alone," instead of 
leaning too much on Ais presence and personal influence. "Do not 
make me your proxy in spiritual duties which must be your own." 
Hence the ** much more** 01 the previous clause ; his absence was to be 
the occasion for a far fiiller realization of their own personal obliga- 
tions and resources in the spiritual life. 

*^ Salvation" : — see above on i. 19. The main reference here is to 
final glory (see remarks just below). But as life eternal is continuous 
and one, here and hereafter, a side- reference may well be recognized 
to present preservation from falling and sinning. " In this way of 
diligence we receive daily more and more of * salvation' itself, by 
liberty from sin, victory over it, peace and communion with God, and 
the earnests of heavenly felicity" (Scott). 

" IVork out": — the verb is that used also e.g. Rom. iv. 15 ("the law 
worketh wrath"); 2 Cor. iv. 17, a close and instructive parallel. As 
there the saint's "light affliction" "works out for him a weight of 

flory," so here his watchful, loving, reverent consistency, for his 
<ord's sake, "works out," issues in the result of, his "salvation." 
There is not the slightest contradiction here to the profound truth of 
Justification by Faith only, that is to say, only for the merit's sake of 
the Redeemer, appropriated by submissive trust; that justification 
whose sure issue is "glorification" (Rom. viii. 30). It is an instance 
of independent lines of truth converging on one goal. From one point 
of view, that of justifying merit, man is glorified because of Christ's 
work alone, applied to his case through faith alone. From another 
point, that of qualifying capacity, and of preparation for the Lord's 
mdividual welcome (Matt. xxv. 21 ; Rom. ii. 7), man is glorified as 
the issue of a process of work and training, in which in a true sense 
he is himself operant, though grace lies below the whole operation. 

with fear and trembling\ not of tormenting misgiving (cp. i Joh. iv. 
18), but of profound reverence and wakeful conscience. So i Cor. ii. 3; 
a Cor. vii. 15; Eph. vi. 5. Chrysostom quotes Psal. ii. 11, ** Serve 
the Lord in fear, and exult unto Him in trembling." — The Douay 
(Romanist) Bible here has a note: — *'This is against the false faith 
and presumptuous confidence of modem sectaries " ; a reference to the 

V. 13.] PHILIPPIANS, n. 73 

it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of 

doctrine of a personal assurance of present Divine favour and coming 
glory. But this is both to mistake the meaning of St Paul's phrase 
"fear and trembling,'* and to forget such passages as e.g. Rom. v. i, 
2, 9, viii. «8 — 39. — ^It is the formulated tenet of the Church of Rome 
that ** no man can know, with a certainty under which nothing false 
can lurk, that he has attained the grace of God" (Cattones ConciL 
Trident,^ Sess. vi. cap. ix.). See further just below. 

13. For it is God &c.] Here is the reason for the ' ' fear and trembling." 
The process of *' working out" is one which touches at every point the 
internal presence of Him before whom "the stars are not pure" (Job 
XXV. 5). Meanwhile the same fact, in its aspect of the presence of His 
tffiver^ is the deepest reason for strength and hope in the process ; and 
this thought also, very possibly, is present here. 

God which worketh in yoti\ The Immanence, Indwelling, of God in 
His saints, in deep and sacred speciality and reality, is a main doctrine 
of the Gospel. The Paraclete is not only " with'* but ** in" them (Joh. 
xiv. 17 ; and see below, on iv. 23). By the Paraclete's work, in 
giving new birth and new life, "Christ, who is our life'* (Col. iii. 3), 
**is in them*' (cp. esp. Rom. viii. 9 — 11, and see 2 Cor. iv. 10, 11, xiii. 
5 ; Col. i. 27) ; and "in Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead** 
(Col. ii. 9). See further on this all-important subject Eph. iii. 17. — In 
the light of a passage like this we arrive at the animating truth that the 
" grace** which is present in the Christian is not only a power, or influ- 
ence, emitted as it were from above ; it is the living and eternal God 
Himself, present and operating at '*the first springs of thought and 

^^Workelh'^ — ^the Greek word has a certain intensity about it, 
"worketh effectually,'' 

to will] I.e. His workii^ produces these effects, not merely tends 
towards them. EfTectetli in yon your willing would be a fair render- 
ing. Here, though in passing, one of the deepest mysteries of grace is 
touched upon. On the one hand is the will of the Christian, real, per- 
sonal, and in full exercise; appealed to powerfully as such in this very 
passage. On the other hand, beneath it, as cause beneath result, if the 
will is to work in God's way, is seen God working, God "effecting." 
A true theology will recognize with equal reverence and entireness of 
conviction both these great parallels of truth. It will realize human 
responsibility with "fear and trembling"; it will adore the depths of 
grace with deep submission, and attribute every link in the chain of 
actual salvation to God alone ultimately^. 

and to do] Or, as before, and your doing, or better, your worldng ; 
the verb is the same as that just above. The "will" is such as to 
express itself in "effectual work." 

* Oa the philosophy of the subject see some excellent suggestions In M'Cosh's 
InimtioHS oftht Mind^ Blc iv. ch. uL 

74 PHILIPPIANS, II. [vv. 14, 15. 

14 his good pleasure. Do all things without murmurings and 

15 disputings : that ye may be blameless and harmless, the 
sons of God without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and 

of his good pleasure^ Better, with R.V., for His good pleasure ; for 
its sake, to carry it out. The saint, new created, enabled by grace to 
will and do, is all the while the implement of the purposes of God, and 
used for them. Cp. £ph. ii. 10 for a close and suggestive parallel in 
respect of this last point. 

14. Do &c.] The general principle of holiness of life in the power 
of the Divine Indweller is now carried into details, with a view to the 
special temptations and failings of the Philippians. See above, on ii. 2. 

all things] Observe the characteristic totality of the precept. Cp. 
liph. iv. 15, 31 ; and see 1 Cor. ix. 8. 

without murmurings and dispuiings\ amongst and against one ano- 
ther. For the word ^^ mitrmuring^^ in a similar connexion cp. Acts 
vi. i; I Pet. iv. 9; and for ^^ disputing^"* Jas. ii. 4. This reference 
suits the context, and the indications of the whole Epistle as to the 
besetting sins of Philippi, better than the reference to murmurs and 
doubts as towards God. And such sins against one another would be 
prevented by nothing so much as by the felt presence of "God working 
in them." See below, on iv. 5. 

*^^ Disputings''^ : — for example, about the duties of others and the 
rights of self. The older Latin versions render detractiones. 

15. be\ Better, with the true reading, l)ecome, prove; a gentle 
intimation that a change was needed. 

blameless^ Secure against true charges of inconsistency of temper and 

harmless'] So too R.V. But this can be only a derived rendering. 
The literal and ordinary meaning of the Greek is **unmixedy unadul- 
terated, pure." The character denoted is simple as against double; 
single-hearted in truth and love. It occurs elsewhere, in N.T., only 
Matt. X. 16; Rom. xvi. 19 ; but often in secular writers. 

the sons of God] More exactly, with R.V., children of Ood. The 
Greek word rendered "children points more specially than the other 
to the nature and character of the family of God ; the izm'^y -likeness. 
The precise phrase *' children of God," occurs elsewhere (in the Greek) 
Joh. i. 12, XI. 52; Rom. viii. 16, 17, 21, ix. 8; i Joh. iii. i, 2, 10, v. 2. 
Here the evident meaning is, "that you may prove the fact of your 
spiritual sonship to God by your spiritual likeness to Him, which is its 
one true proof. As a rule, Scripture tends to use the words " Father," 
"son," "child," as between God and man, to indicate not the con- 
nexion of creation but that of new-creation, as here. 

without rebuke] One Greek adjective; the same word (in the best 
attested reading here) as that in £ph. i. 4, v. 27; Col. i. 22 ; passages 
in this same Roman group of St Paul's Epistles. 

This word is closely connected with the preceding words ; we may 
paraphrase, "children of God, blameless as such." — ^There is an im- 

V. i6.] PHILIPPIANS, II. 75 

perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the 
world ; holding forth the word of life ; that I may rejoice x6 
in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither 

plicit reference in the phrase to Dcut. xxxii. 5, where the LXX. reads, 
** They sinned; Ihey were not children to Hitity but blanteioorthy chil- 
dren ; a generation crooked and perverse. ^^ The "true Israelites" of 
Philippi were to be the antithesis of the ancient rebels. 

/;/ the midst of &c.] A continued allusion to the words (see last 
note) of Moses; a beautiful inversion of them. "A crooked and dis- 
torted generation" is still in view, but it is now not the Lord's Israel, 
but "they which are without" (Col. iv. 5), whose moral contrariety was 
both to bring out the power and beauty of grace in the saints, and at 
length to yield to its blessed charm. 

**/« the midst of*"*: — not in selfish or timid isolation from the duties 
and difficulties of life. The Gospel has no real sanction for the 
monastic idea. Cp. Joh. xvii. 15 ; and the tenor of the Epistles at 

ye shine] Better, ye appear, ye are seen (R.V.). The Greek verb 
is used of the rising and setting of the stars, the " phanomefta^* of the 
heavens. Perhaps this is meant to be remembered here. The saints, 
in the beautiful light of holiness, were to rise star-like upon the dark 
sky of surrounding sin. See next note. 

lights'] Better, llglit-bearerB, luminaries (luminarta^ Latin Ver- 
sions). The word appears in both secular and Biblical Greek as a 
designation of the heavenly bodies; see e.g. Gen. i. 14, 16. It occurs 
again, in N.T., only Rev. xxi. 11, apparently in the very rare sense of 

Cp. Isai. Ix. I ; Matt. v. 14, 16; Eph. v. 8. 

16. Holdingjorth] as offering it for acceptance ; presenting it to 
the notice, enquiry, and welcome, of others. The metaphor of the 
luminary is diopped. — It is intimated that the faithful Christian will 
not be content without making direct efforts, however humble and un- 
obtrusive, to win attention to the distinctive message of his Lord. 

the word of life] The Gospel, as the revelation of eternal life in 
Christ. Cp. Joh. vi. 68; i Joh. i. i (where the reference of the phrase 
is not to the personal Logos; see Westcott there); and see also, in 
illustration of the meaning of "word" here, i Joh. v. 11, 12; and 
above, on i. 14. 

thai I may rejoice] Lit., **to (be a) rejoicing for /;/^." For the 
thought, cp. I Thess. ii. 19. He looks forward to a special recogni- 
tion of his converts at Philippi, at the Lord's Coming, and to a special 
"joy of harvest" over them. 

in the day of Christ] Lit., " !////<? the day &c."; in view of it, till I 
am in it. On the **day^^ see note on i. 6. 

that I have not run] Better, that I did not run. He speaks as if 
already looking back on life as on one collected past. — "i?////"; — a 
favourite metaphor with St Paul, to represent the energy and progress 

^e PHILIPPIANS, ir. [v. 17. 

17 laboured in vain. Yea, and if I be offered upon the sacri- 
fice and service of your faith, I joy, and rejoice with you 

of life, moving towards its goal. Cp. Acts xiii. 45, xx. 44 (both Pauline 
passages) ; i Cor. ix. 34, a6 ; Gal. ii. 2 (a close parallel), v. 7 ; 3 Tim. 
IV. 7. See also Rom. ix. 16 ; a Tliess. iii. i ; Heb. xii. i. 

laboured^ Better, did labour ; see last note. Cp. i Thess. iii. 5 for 
nearly the same words. 

in vain\ Lit., "/tf what is g/n/iy," in vacuum. The phrase is 
peculiar to St Paul in N.T. 

17. K», and //&c.] He takes up the last word, characteristically. 
" Laboured for you, did I say? Nay, if I have to say also died^ poured 
out my hearts blood, it is only joy to me." 

be offered up>oh\ Lit. and better, am being shed as a libation upon. 
The imagery is sacrificial. He views the Philippians as an altar-sacri- 
fice, a burnt-offering, in their character of consecrated believers ; and 
upon that sacrifice the drink-offering, the libation, the outpoured wine, 
is Paul's life-blood, Paul as their missionary martyr. On the libations 
of the Mosaic ritual, cp. Num. xv. 3 — 10, where the drink-offering 
appears as a conspicuous detail in the rite of the burnt-offering. Bp 
Lightfoot thinks that a reference to the pagan ritual of libation is more 
likely, in an Epistle to a Church of Gentile converts. But surely St 
. Paul familiarized all his converts with O.T. symbolism; and his o^i'n 
mind was of course deeply impregnated with it. — The same word, but 
without any detail of imagery, appears again 1 Tim. iv. 6, on the 
then actual eve of St Paul's death by the sword. — "The present 
iensit[^ am being shed^'\ places the hypothesis vividly before the eyes: 
but it does not... refer to present dangers... comp. e.g. Matt. xii. 26'* 
(Lightfoot). — Ignatius {To the Romans^ c. 2) speaks of being *^libafed 
to God**; probably an allusion to this phrase. 

the sacrifice and service of your faith^ As we have just explained, 
their faith in Jesus Christ, resulting in their living self-sacrifice to 
God (Ronu xii. i), constituted them as it were victims at a spiritual 
altar, and their lives a sacerdotal ritual or ** service." Cp. for an 
instructive parallel Rom. xv. 16, with note in this Series. — These 
are the only two passages in his whole writings where the Apostle 
applies the language of sacerdotalism to the work of the Christian 
ministry. (See Appendix C.) It is remarkable that in each place 
the language is obviously that of figure and, so to speak, poetry. 
In the Ep. to the Romans, "the Gentiles" are "the oblation," and 
"the glad- tidings " is the matter on which his ** priest-work" is 
exercised. In this passage the Philippians are both "sacrifice" and 
** altar-ministers," while Paul is the "libation." 

I ioy,t ami rejoice with you all] Again the warm and significant 
words, **you all** — His willing death for Christ, viewed as a last 
contribution to their spiritual good, a last aid in their life of believing 
self-consecration, would be a personal joy to him, and an occasion of 
united joy with them or (as Lightfoot explains the phrase here) con- 
gratulation of them. The Apostle assumes that they would rejoice, 

w. 18—21.] PHILIPPIANS, 11. • 17 

alL For the same cause also do ye joy, and rejoice with xs 

But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly 19 
unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I 
know your state. For I have no man likeminded, who will ao 
naturally care for your state. For all seek their own, not ax 

with the deep joy of men who shared the martyr spirit. Cp. Eph. 
iii. 13 for a somewhat similar thought. 

Polycarp's Epistle (see our Introduction, ch. v.) almost b^ins with a 
phrase which is a reminiscence of this sentence and iv. 10. 

18. For the satne cause] Better, with R.V., In tbe same manner. 
The same phrase occurs Matt, xxvii. 44. 

do ye joy &c.] A loving imperative. He bids them be glad, and 
share their joy with him as he with them. It is an emphatic reitera- 
tion of what he has implied in the words just above, that his death 
would be their joy, as being, if the Lord so willed, their spiritual 

19 — 30. He pRorosEs soon to send Timotheus: He sends 


19. But I trust &c.] Lit., But I hope &c. He refers back to the 
allusion to his absence from them, ver. la. That trial, while it brings 
them its special calls and opportunities, is yet to be relieved* 

in the Lord ^esus] See last note on i. 8. 

Timotheus\ See on i. i. 

/ cU5d\ as well as you. He affectionately assumes that they, in 
accordance with his entreaties above (ver. 12 &c.) will be "strong and 
of a good courage*' in the Lord. lie would share this, through the 
joy of hearing of it. 

be of good comfort'] More lit., ^^be of good (happy) soul" A single 
word (verb) in the Greek. 

20. For] He gives his reason for sending Timothy. 
likeminded] Lit., ^^ equal-souled ;" a slight echo, in form, of the 

verb just above. Timothy's **soul," his loving and willing self, was 
*' equal," level, to St Paul's, in pure, cordial, interest in the Philip- 
plans. — The Greek adjective occurs nowhere else in the N.T., and m 
the LXX. only Psal. hv. 13 (Heb., Iv. 14), for the Hebrew ** after my 
scale^ or standard"; a good parallel. The A.V. margin, **j^ dear 
unto me" is certainly mistaken^ 

naturally] R.V. ^^truly** But the A.V. well conveys the meaning. 
The word is literally, genuinely; so that heart corresponds to action. 

care] Better, take careful, anxious thonght. The verb (merimndn) 
is traced by recent philologists into connexion with root-words giving 
the idea ot mindfulness^ earnestness of thought, not, as according to the 
once current etymology, division of thought. — It is the same verb as 
that below, iv. 6, where see note. — ^The apparent contradiction of the 
two passages has a beautiful harmony beneath it. Timothy's "anxiety" 

yS PHILIPPIANS, II. [vv. 21— 23. 

aa the //it'/igs which are Jesus Christ's. But ye know the proof 

of him, that, as a son with the father, he hath served with 

83 me in the gospel Him therefore I hope to send presently, 

was in fact painstaking thought for others; the "anxiety" forbidden, 
iv. 6, is the result of our failurei as each felt burthen comes, to pass it 
on to the love and care of the Lord. — ^The verb (or its cognate noun) 
rendered ** care*'* here occurs in the sense it bears here, i Cor. vii. 32, 
34, xii. 25 ; 2 Cor. xi. 28. In all other places its reference is to anxiety 
in an unfavourable sense of the word. 

21. all\ The Greek would be more exactly represented by they all, 
or all of them ; all of a definite group in question. This is a severe 
censure on the persons really indicated. St Paul must have suffered 
grave disappointments where he had a special right to expect ready 
help. Demas (2 Tim. iv. 10) had his precursors; indeed he may 
have been included in this censure, for he was at Rome about this 
time (Col. iv. 14; Philem. 24). But we must not assume that St Paul 
here (or even 2 Tim. iv. 10) excommunicates, so to speak, those whom 
he refers to; the true disciple may have his weak, because faithless 
and selfish, hour. See Acts xiii. 13, with xv. 38, and contrast 2 Tim. 
iv. II. And again common sense bids us interpret the " they aW* with 
a reserve. He must mean not "all the Christians around me," but 
**all the possible Christian messengers around me." "The saints of 
Caesar's household" (iv. 22), for example, could not be in question; 
nor was Epaphroditus (ver. 25, &c.). 

seek their own\ thingSy literally ; their own ease or safety ; perhaps 
their own preferences in toil and duty. See i Cor. xiii. 5 for the oppo- 
site choice as the choice of holy Charity. 

tJu things which are Jesus Chrisfs^ The interests of His disciples 
laid upon them by His Apostle. 

22. the proof of Aim] The test of him ; the practical evidence of 
what he is. This thgr "knew," by eyewitness at Philippi. 

as a son with i\it father] Better, as child with father. The Greek 
word rendered "child" is a tender one. See above on ver. 15. For 
St Paul's paternal love for Timothy cp. 2 Tim. L 2, and that whole 

he hath served with me] More precisely, with me (slightly emphatic, 
suggesting the speciality of his devotion in Christ to Paul) he did 
Ixmdservioe. The reference is to the labours of Timothy (gathered up 
by the aorist into one recollection) at Philippi, See above, on i. i, 
note 2. — Grammatically, we might render, **with me he accepted bond- 
service*^ ; with a reference to Timothy's first dedication to missionary 
work under St Paul, Acts xvi. 1—3. But he evidently refers to their 
own observation of Timothy and so to a later period. 

in the gospel] Lit., ''unto the Gospel*' ; well paraphrased by R.V., 
in ftartherance of the OospeL See note on 1. 5 above.— For "M^ 
Gosper in the sense of "the work of the Gospel*' cp. below, iv. 3. 

vv. 24,25.] PHILIPPIANS, II. 79 

so soon as I shall see how it will go with me. But I trust 24 
in the Lord that I also myself shall come shortly. Yet 1 25 
supposed it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my 

23. presently] Better, with R.V., forthwith, promptly, on ascertain- 
ing the issue of his trial. 

so soon as I shall see\ He is sure, au fond^ of the prospect of conti- 
nued life (i. 25 and note) ; but this leaves him as much as ever obliged 
to wait the development of the Roman legal process. And it needs 
no very subtle psychology to see the possibility of the presence, in the 
same person, of certainties and uncertainties about the same event. 
— Observe that Divine inspiration is far from conveying universal 

how it will go with me] A good paraphrase for the lit., " /he things 
around me,*^ my circumstances. 

24. / trust] For the Greek and its force see on i. 25, with the 
reference there to i. 6. 

in the Lord] See last note on i. 8. 

shortly] The word is of course elastic ; it may mean a few weeks, 
or many months, as relations of comparison vary. What he is confi- 
dent of is that Timothy's arrival would be followed at no great interval 
by his own. — Bp Lightfoot compares i Cor. iv. 17, 19, for a curiously 
close parallel to the language of this passage, without any connexion 
of events. 

25. Yet I supposed] Better, But Z bave counted, or, Z count.— 
" Yet" is too strong a word of contrast or exception. 

^* I have counted : — the Greek verb is an aorist, but an "epistolary* 
aorist, in which the writer of a letter puts himself mentally at the 
time of its reception. And this we often express in English by the 
perfect or the present. — Epaphroditus was probably the bearer of the 

necessary] as against the less obligatory conditions of Timothy's 
intended mission. Thctt concerned St Paul's comfort, this, the Phi* 
lippians*; and in his view, on Christian principles, the latter was of 
course more urgent. — For the phrase cp. 2 Cor. ix. 5. 

Epaphroditus] We know him only from this Epistle, indeed only 
from this passage, for the mention iv. 18 merely adds the fact that he 
was the conveyer to St Paul of the Philippians* present. But the 
few lines now before us are enough to shew us a Christian full of 
spiritual love and practical devotion to Christ and the flock. — Epa- 
phroditus has been identified with Epaphras (Col. i. 7, iv. 12; Philem. 
23). But this is improbable. The snorter name is indeed only an 
abbreviation of the longer; but '^Epaphras" always denotes the con- 
vert and missionary of Colossse, "Epaphroditus'* ihe messenger from 
Philippi, two widely separated mission-stations. And the man in 
each case appears to be a native of, or resident in, the station. Both 
names were very common at the time. — It is observable that this 
Christian's name embodies the name of the goddess Aphroditi* No 

8o PHILIPPIANS, II. [v. 26. 

brother, and companion in labour, and fellow-soldier, but 

26 your messenger, and he that ministered to my wants. For 

he longed after you all, and was full of heaviness, because 

scruple appears to have been felt among the primitive Christians 
about the retention of such pre-baptismal names. See note on Rom. 
xvi. I in this Series. 

my brother^ &c.] The loving commendation is most emphatic. 
Epaphroditus had evidently at some time toiled and striven *'in the 
Gospel," along with St Paul, in no common way. This may have 
been in past days at Philippi, or, as Lightfoot suggests, just recently 
at Rome, since his arrival from Philippi. — ^^ Fellow-soldier^* : — cp. 
Philem. 1, and see 2 Cor. x. 3; i Tim. i. 18; 2 Tim. ii. 3, 4. The 
Christian "worker" is a ''^soldier''* as having to deal with "all the 
power of the enemy" (Luke x. 19) in his work. 

your messenger^ In the Greek, '^vour aposlolos" Some have ex- 
plained this to mean "your chief pastor," in fact "your bishop," leader 
of the **episcopV* and ^^diaconV* of i. i. But there is no real Scripture 
parallel for such a meaning; and meanwhile % Cor. viii. 23 gives a 
clear parallel for the meaning **^ your delegated messenger {lo me). The 
Cireek wording of the clause fully confirms this; it may be paraphrased, 
"messenger, and minister of need, sent by you to me." R.V. jronr 
mesBenger and minister to my need. Meanwhile the word apostolos 
seems to have had from the very first a certain sacredness and speciality 
about it. Even when not used of the Lord's Apostles, it has borrowed 
something of greatness from His use of it (Luke vi. 13) for them; it 
is not merely (as by derivation) "one sent," a messenger; it is a sacred 
and authoritative messenger. — We may perhaps reverently trace here 
a slight play upon the word, as if the Philippians were the superior 
party ana Paul the inferior. As if he said, "One whom you have sent 
fi&your missionary to »/^." 

he that ministered to my wants'] Lit. and better (see above) [yoar] 
minister of [to] my need. The Greek word is leitourgos, which again 
is a word of dignified and oflen sacred connexion, exactly represented 
by our "minister." See Rom. xiii. 6 for its use of magistrates; Heb. 
viii. 2 for its use of priests. We see here again a certain affectionate 
play upon the word : Epaphroditus bore an office and authority given 
by — the Philippians' love.- 

26. For] Here lay the " necessity," in St Paul's view, of his friend's 
return to the Philippians; in Epaphroditus' longing for them, and their 
love and anxiety in regard of him. 

he longed] The Greek is full and emphatic, be was (in a state of) 
longing, of home-sickness. See note on u 8. — Doubtless the feeling 
was a recent if not a present one; and in an English letter we should 
say accordingly, ^*he has been in a home-sick condition." 

after you all] A reading which has considerable support is **to see 
you all" The precise phrase thus formed occurs Rom. i. 11; i Thess. 
iii. 6; 2 Tim. i. 4. Perhaps this is a reason for deciding against it here, 
as it might be a transcriber's reminiscence. 

V. 37, 38.] PHILIPPIANS, 11. ^t 

that ye had heard that he had been sick. For indeed he 37 
was sick nigh unto death: but God had mercy on him; 
and not on him only, but on me also, lest I should have 
sorrow upon sorrow. I sent him therefore the more care- 29 

Observe the still recurring **y0u a//,** Epaphroditus may have 
been in some way involved in those differences between sets and 
circles at Pbilippi (see above, on i. 27, &c.) which gave St Paul 
anxiety. So he emphasizes Epaphroditus' imparticU affection for 

was fitU of heaviness\ Better, [has lieen] sore tronUed. The word 
is used of our blessed Lord's **sore trouble" in the Garden, Matt. xxvi. 
37; Mar. xiv. 33. By derivation (see Lightfoot here) it probably 
suggests the restlessness of profound dislike^ shrinking from loathed 
pain or grief. — We see a character of great sensitiveness and ten- 

ye had heard^ &c.] An English letter-writer would more naturally, 
say yon have beard tliat be lias been ill. The reference is to com- 
parative recency, and present results. See Introduction, p. 16. 

27. For indeed^ &c.] Epaphroditus would have made light of the 
illness ; St Paul assures them that the report was seriously true, and 
that the illness had a generous origin. 

he wasl He has been. 

God had mercy on him] Though for him also "to die*' would have 
been "gain" (i. ai), yet death in itself is a dark passage, even to 
the Qiristian (see Joh. xxi. 18; and 1 Cor. v. 4). And meanwhile 
great are the joys of service on the pilgrimage, and deep their con- 
nexion with the coming joys of the heavenly country. '•TTiose who 
are departed this life," says St Chrysostom here, "can no longer 
win souls*^ But perhaps the immediate thought is simply that death 
would have bereaved the Philippians of their friend, to whose loving 
heart it was thus "a mercy," for their sakes, to recover. 

on me also] Here, as so often in St Paul, a heart glowing with holy 
and generous affection expresses itself in a recognition of the im- 
portance of his friends to Mm. See e.g. Rom. xvi. 4. 

sorrow upon sorrow] A sore bereavement would have been added 
to the grief caused him by the "brethren" of i. 15, 16, and to the 
pervading grief of his separation by imprisonment from so many beloveu 
friends. — Observe the perfect naturalness of his language. He abides 
in "the peace of God*'; he **has strength for all things" (iv. 7, 13). 
But that peace is no frost, or torpor, of the heart ; that strength is 
not hardness. He is released from embitterment and from murmurs, 
but every sensibility is refined by that very fact. It was so with his 
Lord before him ; Joh. xi. 33, 35, 38. 

This passage among others (e.g. 1 Tim. iv. 16) shews that the 
mysterious **gift of healing,** used by St Paul at Melita (Acts xxviiL 
8), was not at the absolute disposal of even the faith of its recipient. 


83 PHILIPPIANS, IL [vv. 29, 30. 

fully, that, when ye see him again, ye may rejoice, and that 
99 I may be the less sorrowful Receive him therefore in the 
30 Lord with all gladness ; and hold such in reputation : be- 
cause for the work of Christ he was nigh unto death, not 

28. I seni\ In an English letter it would run » I liaye sent, or I am 

carefully] Better, with R.V. diligently; taking pains to arrange. 

less sorrowful] A beautiful touch of character. Among[ his sorrows, 
he intimates, was his being the unwilling cause of separating Epaphro- 
ditus from the Philippians, and bringing him into risks at Rome. To 
think of him as safely returned to Philippi would be a solace, though it 
would be a new separation for himself. — Under the shadow of that last 
thought, perhaps, he says not "happier^^ but ** less sorrowful " 

29. Receive him therefore] ^* Therefore^*: — as the consequence of 
my sending him. The whole verse supports the suggestion that the 
internal friction among the Philippians had somehow made Epaphro- 
ditus unacceptable to some. See above on ver. 26. 

in the Lord] See above on i. 8. 

With cUl gladness] The cloud in his own sky interferes not in the least 
with this holy soul's interest in the joy of others. 

in reputation] R.V., in bononr. The word occurs Luke vii. 2, of 
the centurion*s ^* highly-valued slave"; and i Pet. ii. 4, 6, of the **/r^- 
cious stone." — There was a slight risk, we gather here (and see iii. 17, 
and note), lest such unobtrusive and devoted holders of, and workers 
for, the Gospel should fall out of favour at Philippi. Cp. i Thess. 

80. the work of Christ] One most ancient MS. (C) omits **</ 
Christ^*; and some other evidence is for ^^ of the Lord*^ instead. R.V. 
retains the reading of A.V., mentioning in the margin the reading "^ 
the Lordy Alfo^ and Lightfoot advocate the omission. — For the 
phrase ** the work" used without further definition, cp. Acts xv. 38. 

he was nigh unto death] Lit., **he drew near, up to decUh,* a pecu- 
liar but unmistakable expression. 

not regarding his life] R. V. , liaganllTig Ills Ufe. The two renderings 
represent each a different reading, the difference lying in the presence 
or absence of a single letter in the Greek {parado{u)leusamenos). On 
the whole that represented bv R.V. has the better support. In the 
more ancient LAtin Version this Greek word is almost transliterated : 
'^paraMatus de anitnA sud; words which might almost be rendered, 
** Saving played the desperado with his life." The verb (found here 
only) is formed on a common Greek verb of which one meaning is 
"to wager in a game of chance," and so to run a risk. Bp Light- 
foot renders here, ** having gambled with his life^ — From the same 
root comes the ecclesiastical word (Greek and Latin) paraholanus, a 
member of a " minor order" devoted to nursing the infected, and 
similar hazardous duties. The order originated in Constantine*s time. 


regarding /lis life, to supply your lack of service toward 

Unhappily it soon degenerated into a notoriously turbulent sort of 

**I/ts It/e": — ^lit., **/tts sotiV* For the very frequent use of the 
Greek word/jr^rA^in the sense of bodily life cp. e.g. Matt. ii. 20. 

fo supply your lack &c.] More lit., ** that he might fill up your defi' 
ciency in the ministration designed for me" '* Your" is slightly em- 
phatic. Obviously, the Apostle means no reproof to the Philippians, 
whose "ministration" of supplies he so warmly appreciates below (iv. 
10 — 19). He means that they, as a community , were of course unable 
to aid him by a personal visit, without which however their " minis- 
tration" would have "lacked" a necessary condition of success. That 
condition Epaphroditus had supplied ; he had undertaken the journey, 
and doubtless had thrown himself at Rome into the Apostle's interests 
and efforts. And somehow, whether by accidents on the journey, or 
by risks run at Rome, or by both, he had incurred dangerous illness. — 
See for a close parallel to the language here i Cor. xvi. 17; and cp. 
the important phraseology of Col. i. 24, and notes there. 

Ch. III. 1—3. Let them cultivate Joy in the Lord, as 



1. Finally] lAi.y ^* For the rest"; ^* For what remains?^ See Eph. 
vi. 10, and note in this Series. In 2 Cor. xiii. i ; i Thess. iy. i ; 2 
Thess. iii. i; below iv. 8; and (in a slightly different form) Gal, vi. 17; 
the phrase appears to mean **t« conclusion" But it is plainly 
elastic, and in 1 Thess. we have an example, as here, of its use (and 
of course of its retention by the writer on review of his writing) 
some time before the actual fareivell. As a fact the Apostle is just 
about to open the last large topic of his letter, the topic of the dif- 
ference between a true and a false Gospel; all else in the remaining 
paragraphs is only accessory. Hitherto he has been dealing, in effect, 
with the duty and blessedness of unity, secured by humility and watch- 
fulness ; bringing in some all-important doctrinal statements, but only 
by the way. He will now close with a definite and solemn message of 
spiritual truth, in a matter of present urgency. 

The connexion of this passage has been much debated, and particu- 
larly the bearing of the phrase **to write the same things unto you.'* 
What does he refer to ? To a previous Epistle ? To a previous similar 
statement in this Epistle? But there is no other hint whatever of a 
previous letter; and in this present letter there is no previous injunc- 
tion to rejoice. The solution offered by Bp Lightfoot is as follows : — 
"The same things" are the exhortations to unity so often made 
already, and which the Apostle ivas about to reinforce. But he was 


84 PHlLIt^PlANS, 111. [v. 1. 

3 Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the 
same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but for 

interrupted in his work, and not till after an interval of days, perhaps, 
did he resume it. He then dropped the intended appeal, and turned 
instead to the yet more serious subject of doctrinal error. 

This ingenious suggestion offers, however, a serious difficulty, by 
assuming that St Paul, with his scribe beside him, would have sent 
out an Epistle in a state so disjointed, simply for lack of revision. No 
view of Divine inspiration demands it ; and certainly all considerations 
of thoughtful authorship are against it. 

We offer the following theory: — The Apostle sees before him, as 
he thinks of Philippi, the danger of doctrinal error ; error which in 
one way or another undervalues Christ and Him crucified. The 
true antidote to such error is a developed and rejoicing intuition into 
Christ and His work, such as had been granted to himself. This he 
will now make his theme. But he has, in a sense, done so already, 
by the oft-repeated allusions to the Lord's sovereign and vital con- 
nexion with His people ("m the Lord^^^ ^Un the heart of Christ^'* &c.), 
and above all by the opening passages of ch. ii. So he is '* writing the 
same things" when he writes now "finally" about "rejoicing in tJu 
Lord'*'* as their righteousness, life, glory, stren^h, and peace. All 
'* other Gospels" were obscurations of that great joy. 

Thus the special injunction to ^*^ rejoice'*'* has regard to the past and 
coming context at once. In particular, it anticipates ver. 3 below, 
{''glory in Christ Jesus'"), 

A suffrage in one of the Litanies of the venerable Church of the 
Unitas Fratrum (**the Moravians") is in point here: — '^ From the 
loss of our glory in T/tee, preserve and keep us, gracious Lord and 

rejoice"] R.V. margin, ** or, farewell " But the evidence of iv. 4, 
which plainly takes this phrase up, and adds the word ^^always^"'* is 
altogether for the text R.V., and A.V. * 'Farewell always^'* is an im- 
possible formula of conclusion ; we are constrained to render ''Be glad 
always" there. And already ii. 18 he has used the same Greek word 
in that sense beyond doubt. See the last note. 

in the Lord] See last note but one, and that on 1. 8. 

To write the same things] See last note but two, for a reference of 
this to "the things" already written in this Epistle about the glory and 
fulness of Christ. 

to nie indeed... safe] The Greek words form an Iambic trimeter, a 
verse corresponding in the Greek drama to our blank heroic, and may 
thus be a quotation by the way^. In i Cor. xv. 33 we almost certainly 
have such a quotation from a Greek dramatist, Menander or perhaps 
Euripides; "/// converse withers fair morality^"* We may render here, 
with a view to the rhythm, To me not Irksome, It is safe for you. — 

* I owe this remark to a friend. 

w, 2, 3.] PHILIPPIANS, III. 85 

you // is safe. Beware^ of dogs, beware of evil workers, 9 
beware of the concision. For we are the circumcision, 3 

St James (i. 17) appears sim'ilarly to adopt a Greek hexameter; ^^ Every 
giving of good and every boon of perfeciionP 

2. Beware of\ Lit., "j^^." For this use of the verb, cp. Col. iv. 
17; 2 John 8. 

dogs[ Lit. and better, tbe dogs. He refers to a known and defined 
class; and these evidently were those Judaistic teachers within the 
pale of the Church to whom he has referred already (i. 15) in another 
connexion and in a different tone. These Pharisee-Christians very 
probably called the uncircumcised, and (from their point of view) 
non- conforming, converts, "dogs," as the Pharisees-proper called 
all Gentiles ; cp. Matt. xv. 26, 27, for words alluding to this use of 
the term. The habits and instincts of the dog suggest ideas of unclean- 
ness and wantonness ; and its half-wild condition in Eastern towns 
adds the idea of a thing outcast. Thus everywhere in Scripture the 
word "dog" is used in connexions of contempt, reproach or dread: 
see e.g. i Sam. xxiv. 14; 2 Sam. xvi. 9; 2 Kings viii. 13; Psal. 
xxii. 16, 20, lix. 6; Eccl. ix. 4; Matt. vii. 6; Rev. xxii. 15. — The 
Apostle "here turns the tables" on the Judaist, and pronounces //t/// 
to be the real defiled outcast from Messiah's covenant, rather than 
the simple believer, who comes to Messiah not by way of Judaism^ 
but direct. The same view is expressed more fully Gal. v. 2 — 4. — It 
is just possible that the word "dog'' refers also to positive immorality 
underlying, in many cases, a rigid ceremonialism. But this is at most 
secondary here. See below vv. 18, 19, and notes, for another "school*' 
more open to such charges. 

evil workers] Better, tlie bad work-men. He refers to the same 
faction under another aspect. Very probably, by a play on the 
word " worker," he censures them as teaching a salvation by "works,'* 
not by faith. (See e.g. Rom. iii. 27, iv. 2, 6, xi. 6; Gal. ii. 16, 
iii. 2; Eph. iL 9; 2 Tim. i. 9; Tit. iii. 5.) As if to say, "They are 
all for working, with a view to merit; but they are bungling work' 
men all the while, adjusting \vrongly the fabric of the Gospel, and 
working not rightly even what in itself is right." Cp. 2 Cor. xi. 13 for a 
passage where the same double meaning seems to attach to this 
word. — For the other side of the truth of "working" see ii. 12, and 

the concision] " TJte gashing, the mutilation** By this harsh kindred 
word he satirizes, as it were, the rigid zeal of the Judaist for bodily 
circumcision. In the light of the Gospel, the demand for the con- 
tinuance of circumcision in the Church, as a saving ordinance, was in 
fact a demand for a maltreatment of the body, akin only to heathen 
practices ; cp. e.g. i Kings xviiL 28. 

Cp. Gal. v. 12, with Lightfoot's notes, for a somewhat similar use of 
words in a kindred connexion. Lightfoot here remarks on the frequent 
occurrence in the N.T. of verbal play. See e.g. the Greek of Acts 
viii. 30; Rom. xii. 3 ; 2 Thess. iii. ir. 

86 PHILIPPIANS, III. [v. 4. 

which worshipGod in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, 
4 and have no confidence in the flesh. Though I might also 

Wyclif curiously, and without any support in the Latin, renders this 
clause, **seye dyuysioun"; Tyndale and Cranmer, ** Beware of dis- 
sencion (dissensyon).*' 

3. we are the circumcision'] ^ See the previous note. For the thought, 
cp. especially Gd. iii. 7, 29, vi. 16; £ph. ii. 19; Col. ii. 11. 

which worshif God in t/ie spirit] K. V. , who worsliip by tbe Spirit 
of Ck)d. This is based on the better-supported reading of the Greek, 
and should be adopted. The word "worship" is thus used without an 
expressed object, as Luke ii. 37 ; Acts xxvi. 7 ; (in both which places, 
in A. v., the word **God" is in italics). The verb here (latreuein) ori- 
ginally imports any sort of service, domestic or otherwise ; but usage 
gives it in the N.T. a fixed connexion with the service of worship, and 
occasionally (Heb. viii. 5, ix. 9, x. 2, xiii. 10) a special reference to the 
worship 01 priestly ritual. Very probably this last usage is in view 
here. The Judaist claimed to be the champion of the true ritual of 
worship, as well as of the true initiation into covenant. The Apostle 
replies that the spiritual Christian is as such the ideal worshipper, the 
priest of the true rite. 

^*By the Spirit of God*^: — cp. for the phrase in St Paul, Rom. viii. 
9, 14; I Cor. ii. 10, II, 12, 14, iii. 16, vi. 11, vii. 40, xii. 3; 2 Cor. iii. 
3. The effect of the whole work of the Blessed Spirit in the regenerate 
Christian was to bring him into right relations of worship with God 
who "is Spirit" (Joh. iv. 24); to make him a "worshipper in (the) 
Spirit and in truth." 

and rejoice in Christ Jesus] R.V., and glory &c. Better so, for the 
Greek is not identical with that in i. 18, ii. 17, 18, 28, iii. i, iv. 4, 10. It 
means a joy emphatically triumphant ; such as would find its parody 
in a proud and eager boastful ness (as e.g. Rom. ii. 23, iii, 27 ; i Cor. 
iv. 7 ; 2 Cor. v. 12 &c. ; Gal. vi. 13 ; Jas iv. i6). 

What national and ritual privilege was, in his own distorted estimate, 
to the Judaist, that the true Messisdi, the Incarnate Son of God, Christ 
Jesus, was to the spiritual Christian — at once pedestal and crown, 
righteousness and life and glory. 

For the thought cp. Rom. v. 11 ; i Cor. i. 31 (observe previous con- 
text); Gal. vi. 14. 

have no confidence in the flesh] Quite lit., *' not in the flesh are confix 
dent"\ with the implication that we are confident, on another and a 
truer ground. 

" The flfsh^^: — a most important word in the distinctive teaching of 
St Paul. A fair popular equivalent for it would be **self," as far as 
that word expresses that attitude or condition of our moral being which 
is not subject to God's law or reliant on His grace. The " flesh " is 
sometimes that state, or element, of man in which sin predominates ; 
whatever in man is not ruled and possessed by the Holy Spirit ; the 
unsanclified intellect, the unsanctified affections, The "flesh" is some- 


have confidence in the flesh. If any other man thinketh 
that Ae hath whereof he might trust in the flesh, I more : . 
circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the 5 

times, again, as here, anything other than God taken by man as his 
trust and strength, e.g. religious observances regarded as occasion for 
self-confidence. In this latter case the word "flesh" is, as here, 
shifted, so to speak, by a natural transition of language, from the 
chooser to the thing chosen. 

See further on this word Rom. viii. 4 ; £ph. ii. 3 ; and notes in this 
Series. See also Dickson, On St PauVs Use of the Terms Flesh and 
^/r?^ (the Bain Lecture, 1883). 

This short verse gives us one of the deepest and most inclusive 
descriptions of the true Christian to be found m Scripture. 

4—11. His own experience as a converted Pharisee: Jus- 
tification BY Faith: its spiritual and eternal issues. 

4. Though I might also &c.] The Greek seems to assert that he 
not only might have, but has, such confidence. But the whole context, 
and St Paul's whole presentation of the Gospel, alike assure us 
that this is but a " way of speaking." What he means is to assert, 
in the most concrete form, his claim, if any one could have such a 
claimi to rely on privilege and observance for his acceptance. Render 
accordingly with R.V., Though I myself might have confldence even 
in the flesh. So the Latin versions ; Quanquam ego hcLbeam &c. 

thinketh\ R.V. margin, *• seemeth,^^ But A.V., and text R.V., are 
certainly right. The ** seeming" or "appearing" is to the man's self; 
he thinks it to be so. Cp. for this (frequent) use of the Greek verb 
(dokein) e.g. Luke xxiv. 37 ; Acts xii. 9. And see esp. Matt. iii. 9, 
*^ Do not think {seeni) to say in yourselves &c."; where common sense 
gives the paraphrase, *^Do not think that you may say." So here, 
»< thinketh that he may have confldence &c." 

I more] ** I, from his point of view, think that I may have it more." 
Cp. 2 Cor. xi. 21, 22, a passage closely akin to this. 

5. Circumcised &c.] Quite lit., "as to circumcisiony eight days old,^ 
See Gen. xvii. 12; Luke ii. 21. He was neither a proselyte, circum- 
cised as an adult, nor an Ishmaelite, circumcised (as Josephus tells us. 
Antiquities, XII. i. § 2 ; see Gen. xvii. 25) at thirteen, but a member of 
the covenant from infancy. 

Israel] The name may refer here either to the original and indivi- 
dual Israel, Jacob (Gen. xxxii. 28 &c.), or to the collective Israel, the 
chosen nation. The former is more likely, in view of the next clause, 
and would besides be the more vivid and emphatic reference ; '* one of 
the race descended from God*s Prince." 

The words Israel, Israelite, indicate specially the sacred privileges 
and dignity of the Covenant People as such; see Trench, V.Z*. Syno* 
nyms, § xxxix., and Lightfoot, on Gal. vi. 16. Cp. Rom. ix. 4, xi. i; 
% Cor. xi. 22; £ph. ii. 12; and see Joh. i. 47, 49. 

88 PHIUPPIANS, III. [v. 6. 

tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touch- 
e ing the law, a Pharisee ; concerning zeal, persecuting the 

Bmjaminl So he had previously said, Rom. xi. i. See Acts xiii. 
91 for another mention by St Paul of his tribe, though in another con- 
nexion* He names his tribe, not only to emphasize his nationality^ 
but no doubt because the Benjamites, descendants of the last and much 
loved son of Jacob, had given the nation its first lawful king (whose 
name the Apostle bore), and had with Judah remained " faithful among 
the faithless" at the great Disruption (i Kings xii. 21). Ehud early 
in O.T. history (Judges iii.), and Mordecai late (Esther ii. 5), were 
Benjamites. It is interesting to trace in St Paul's character some of 
the characteristics of this small but remarkable tribe ; stem courage 
and persistent fidelity. But certainly it was something better than 
Benjamite ''obstinacy and persistency" (Smith's Bible Dict-^ s.v. Bett' 
jaminS which made him resist the entreaties of the disciples and avow 
himself ready to die for the Lord (Acts xxi. 12, 13). — See further, 
Conybeare and Howson, Life 6*r. of St Paul, ch. ii. 

a Hebrezu of the Hebrews] With R.V., omit **///^." Cp. again 
9 Cor. xi. 22. The words mean that he was a Hebrew and of Hebrew 
lineage. — What is a "Hebrew" in N.T. phraseology? In O.T. the 
word is the distinctive national term, as against other national terms, 
as Egyptian, Philistine &c. ; and is thus the term by which a heathen 
would aesienate an Israelite. By the N.T. era its bearing had changed, 
and in the N.T. (not in later Christian writers, or in Jewish and pagan 
writers,) it designates the Jew who retained, more or less fully, his 
national language and manners, as against the ''Hellenist" who habi- 
tually spoke Greek and largely conformed to Gentile customs. See 
Acts vi. I. The "Hebrew would thus naturally regard himself as 
one of the ^lite of his race, from the historical and traditional point of 
view. See further, Trench, as quoted just above on "/rra^/," and 
Conybeare and Howson, ch. ii. 

the law] Lit., **law**; but here, as often, the article is omitted 
because not needed before a word defined by use or context. Obviously 
the Mosaic ordinances are mainly intended. 

a Pharisee] So he declares himself Acts xxiii. 6, xxvi. 5. And see 
Acts xxii. 3; Gal. i. 14. " The Pharisees... were the enthusiasts of the 
later Judaism" (Conybeare and Howson, as above); the zealous and 
rigid votaries of religious legal precision, elaborate devotion, vigorous 
proselytism, and exclusive privilege. St Paul was " the son of Phari- 
sees '* (Acts xxiii. 6; though Lightfoot suggests that this means "dis- 
ciple of Pharisees"; improbably, as it seems to us), and the student- 
follower of the Pharisee (Acts v. 34) Gamaliel, probably "Rabban" 
Gamaliel, grandson of Hillel. Cp. Acts xxii. 3. 

6. zeal] "of God, but not according to true spiritual knowledge 
(epigtidsisV* Rom. x. 2. Cp. Acts xxvi. 9 — 11. He implies here 
that this *'zeal" was perfectly sincere, though sinfully conditioned by a 
moral blindness. See in this connexion Acts xxiii. i ; 2 Tim. i. 3. 

vv. 7, 8.] PHILIPPIANS, III. 89 

church; touching the righteousness which -is in the law, 
blameless. But what things were gain to me, those I 7 
counted loss for Christ Yea doubtless, and I count all 8 

persecuting the churcJi\ Cp. i Cor. xv. 9 ; Gal. i. 13, 23 ; i Tim. 

i. 13- 

the righteousness which is in the /aw] Lit., again, **in law"; see 
fifth note on ver. 5. The reference is to completeness of observance 
and privilege, 'from the point of view of the Pharisaic legalist The 
most rigid mquisitor in this direction could not have found fault with 
Paul's title. See further on ver. 3. — ** In (the) law": — ^included within 
its terms. 

blamelessi Better, with R.V., foimd blameless, a good paraphrase 
of the Greek, which is literally, ^^ having become blcwteless" 

His title, or temptation, to *' confidence in the flesh" was thus com- 
pounded of a natal right to the seal of the covenant ; hereditary and 
educated loyalty to the purest Jewish life and practice ; personal devo- 
tion to the strictest Jewish religionism ; the utmost practical energy in 
its defence; the most minute attention to its rules. Of its kind, the 
position was perfect. 

7. what things] The Greek might almost be paraphrased, **the 
kind or class of things which"; including anything and everything, as 
ground of reliance, other than Christ. So more fully, ver. 8. 

gcuni Lit. and better, gains. The plural suggests the proud and 
jealous care with which the religionist would count over the items of 
liis merit and hope. One by oneht had found them, or had won them ; 
each with its separate value in the eyes of the old self. 

those] There is emphasis and deliberation in the pronoun. 

/ counted] Lit. and better, I have counted. The perfect tense 
indicates not only the decisive conviction, but its lifelong permanence. 

loss] A singular noun. The separate and carefully counted gains 
are heaped now into one ruthless estimate of loss. From the new 
point of view, they all sink together. 

He does not mean that he discovered his circumcision, ancestry, 
energy, diligence, exactness, to be in tJumselves evil things. But he 
found them evil in respect of his having used them to diut out the 
true Messiah from his obedience, faith, and love. As substitutes for 
IIiM they were not only worthless, but positive loss. Every day of 
reliance on them had been a day of delay and deprivation in regard 
of the supreme blessing. 

Wyclifs word here is " apeiryngis," and just below "peirement"; 
i.e. impairings^ losses. 

for Christ] Lit. and better, on aooonnt of the Christ; because of 
the discovery of Jesus as the true Messiah, and of the true Messiah as 
no mere supreme supernatural Jewish Deliverer, but as Son of God, 
Lamb of God, Lord of Life. He cast away entirely all the old reli- 
ance, but, observe, for something infinitely more than equivalent. 

8. Yea doubtless, and &c.] Better, perhaps, Yea rather I even 6cc» 

90 PHILIPPIANS, III. [v. 8, 

things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ 
Jesus my I^rd : for whom I have suffered the loss of all 

He adds a twofold new weight to the assertion; "/ count''* (not only 
^^ I have counted'''*)^ emphasizing the presentness of the estimate; and 
" all things^* not only specified grounds of reliance. Whatever, from 
any j)oint of view, could seem to compete with Christ as his peace 
and life, he renounces as such ; be it doings, sufferings, virtues, inspira- 
tion, revelations. 
for'\ Better, again, on account of. 

the excellency] More lit., the surpaflBlngness. For St Paul's love 
of superlative words see on ii. 9 above. 

the knowledge &c.] He found, in the light of grace, that ''this is 
life eternal, to know the only true God, and Jesus Christ " Qoh. xvii. 3). 
On the conditions and blessedness of such ''knowledge" cp. e.g. Matt. 
xi. 2*j (where the word is kindred though not identical); Joh. i. 10—12; 
X. 14, xiv. 7, xvii. 25; 2 Cor. v. 16, x. 5; Gal. iv. 9; Eph. iii. 19; 
2 Pet. iii. 18; I Joh. ii. 3—5, iii. 6, iv. 7, 8. The Apostle sometimes 
speaks with a certain depteciation of "knowledge*' (e.g. i Cor. viii. i, 
xiii. 2, 8). But he means there plainly a knowledge which is con- 
cerned not with Chrl&t and God, but with spiritual curiosities, which 
may be known, or at least sought, without Divine life and love. The 
knowledge here in view is the recognition, from the first insight eter- 
nally onward, of the "knowledge-surpassing" (Eph. iii. 19) reality and 
glory of the Person and Work of the Son of the Father, as Saviour, 
Lord, and Life ; a knowledge inseparable from love. See further on 
ver. 10. 

Observe the implicit witness of such language as that before us to 
the Godhead of Christ. Cp. Eph. iii. 19, and notes in this Series. 

of Christ Jesus my Lord] Note the solemnity and fulness of the 
designation. The glorious Object shines anew before him as he thinks 
out the words. Observe too the characteristic "/;/y Lord" (see note 
on i. 3 above). There is a Divine iiuiividualism in the Gospel, in deep 
harmony with its truths of community and communion, but not to be 
merged in them. "One by one" is the law of the great ingathering 
and incorporation (Joh. vi. 35, 37, 40, 44, 47, 51 &c.); the believing 
individual, as well as the believing Church, has Christ for "Head 
(i Cor. xi. 3), and lives by faith in Him who has loved the individual 
and given Himself for him (Gal. ii. 20 ; cp. Eph. v. 25). 

for whom] Lit. and better, on account of whom; in view of the 
discovery of whom. 

I have suffered &c.] Better, I solfered &c. ; a reference to the crisis 
of his renunciation of the old reliance, and also of the stem rejection 
with which the Synagogue would treat him as a renegade. This one 
passing allusion to the tremendous cost at which he became a Christian 
is, by its very passingness, deeply impressive and pathetic ; and it has 
of course a powerful bearing on the nature and solidity of the reasons 
for his change, and so on.the evidences of the Faith. See on this last 


thif^Si and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, 

subject, Observations on the Character ^c, of St Paul, by George, first 
Lord Lyttelton (1747). 

The verb rendered *^ I suffered toss,** "I was Jitted, mulcted^* is akin 
to the noun **loss** used just above, and takes it up. There is a certain 
verbal "play" in this; he reckoned his old privileges and position loss, 
from a spiritual point of view, and he was made by others to feel the 
loss of them, in a temporal respect. 

all things] The Gr. suggests the paraphrase, my ftll. 

dung\ Better, refufle, as R.V. margin. The Greek word is used in 
secular writers in both senses. Its probably true derivation favours 
the former, but the derivation popularly accepted by the Greeks ("a 
thing cast to the dogs**) the latter. And this fact leans to the inference 
-that in common parlance it meant the leavings of a meal, or the like. 
See Lightfoot here. 

that I may win] Better, with R.V., that I may gain; the verb 
echoes the noun of ver. 7. There was no merit in his coming to a true 
conviction about ** confidence in the flesh*'; but that conviction was so 
vital an antecedent to his possession and fruition of Christ that it was 
as it were the price paid in order to " gain" Him. Cp. the imagery of 
Rev. iii. 17, 18. 

*'*'That I may**: — practically, we may paraphrase, "that I might**; 
with a reference to the past. The main bearing of the passage is obvi- 
ously on the crisis of his conversion ; on what he then lost and then 
gained, but he speaks as if he were in the crisis now. Not unfrequently 
in N.T. Greek the past is thus projected into the present and future, 
where certainly in English we should say '•^ might,** not **f?tay** Cp. 
e.g. (in the Greek) Matt. xix. 13; Acts v. 26; i Tim. i. 16; i John 
iii. 5. It is true that the Apostle here uses the present, not the past, 
in the adjoining main verb ("/ count**). But this may well be an 
exceptional case of projection of the whole statement about the past, 
instead of part of it, into the present. — Or may not the words **anddo 
count them refuse** be parenthetic? In that case he would in effect 
say, what would be a most vivid antithesis, " I suffered the loss of my 
all, (and a worthless *aU* I now see it to be,) that I mv^igain Christ." 

He thus * 'gained'* nothing less than Christ; not merely subsidiary 
and derived benefits, but the Source and Secret of all benefits. The 
glorious Person, "who is made unto us of God wisdom, even righteous- 
ness, and sanctification, and redemption " (i Cor. i. 30), was now his 
own, in a mysterious but real possession. 

9. be found in him] at any moment of scrutiny or test ; alike in life, 
in death, and before the judgment-seat. The truth of the believer's 
deep incorporation in his Lord and Head, and identification with Him 
for acceptance and life, is here full in view. In the surrender of faith 
(Eph. ii. 8 — 10 ; cp. John iii. 36) he becomes, in the deep laws of spi- 
ritual life, a true **limb" of the sacred Head; interested m His merits, 
penetrated with His exalted Life. In the Epistles to Colossae and 

92 PHILIPPIANS, III, [v. 9. 

9 and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, 

Ephesus, written from the same chamber as this, we have the large 
development of this truth ; and cp. John xv. i — 8 ; i Cor. xii. 12. 

Lightfoot remarks (on Gal. ii. 17, and here) that the verb *^io find*^ 
is very frequent in Aramaized Greek, and has somewhat lost its dis- 
tinctive meaning. StiU, it is seldom if ever used in the N.T. where 
that meanii^ has not some place. 

mifte awn righteousness] Rather more precisely, with R.V., a right- 
eoiumess of mine own. The word ^^ righteousness^^ is highly charac- 
teristic, and of special meaning, in St Paul. In very numerous pas- 
sages (examine Rom. iii. 5 — 26, iv. 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, vL 16, x. 3; 
I Cor. i. 30 ; 2 Cor. iii. 9 ; and cp. Tit iii. 5) its leading idea evi- 
dently is that of acceptance, satisfactoriness, however secured, to law ; 
whether to special or to general law as the case may be. (See Grimm's 
Greek-Eng. Lexicon of the N.T., Thayer's edition, on the word d^irai- 
o<r(^i7, for a good statement of the matter from the purely critical point 
of view.) "A righteousness of mine own" is thus a title to accept- 
ance, a claim on Divine justice, due to my own doings and merits, sup- 
posed to satisfy a legal standard. 

which is of the law] Literally, again ^*of law^ But R.V. retains 
the definite article, as practically right in translation, as it was in 
ver. 6. — How shall we define the word **Law" here? Is it the 
Mosaic law from the Pharisee's point of view, as in ver. 6? Or 
is it the far larger fact of the Divine preceptive moral code, taken 
as a covenant of life, in which the terms are, "Do this, truly and 
perfectly, and live; do this, and claim acceptance as of right"? 
We take the answer to be that it means here this latter as an exten- 
sion of the former ; that the thought rises, or developes itself, in this 
passage, from the idea of special ordinance to the idea of universal 
covenanting precept. And our reasons lie, partly in this context, 
partly in the gfreat parallel passages in the Epistles to the Romans, 
Galatians, Ephesians and Colossians. In the present context the ideas 
immediately contrasted or opposed to that of ''the law" are ideas not 
of "work," in any meaning of that word, but of " faith." And for ex- 
position of this we turn to the argument of Rom. i. — v., and of Galatians 
li. iii., and of £ph. ii. i — 10, and (a passage closely parallel to this ; 
see notes in this Series) 13 — 17; and of Col. ii. 8 — 14. In this whole 
range of teaching it is apparent that the idea of Law, as a whole, 
cannot possibly be satisfied by explaining it to mean merely a Divine 
code of observances, though that is one of its lower and subsidiary 
meanings. It means the whole system of Divine precept, moral as 
well as ceremonial, eternal as weU as temporal, tahen as a covenant to 
be fulfilled in order to acceptance of the person before God. The im- 
plicit or explicit contrary is that such acceptance is procured for us by 
the merits of the Redeeming Lord, appropriated to the sinner by the 
single profound means of faith, that is to say, acceptance of Him as 
Sacrifice, Saviour, Lord, on the warrant of God's word. Such faith, 
in the spiritual order of things, unites to Christ, and in that union the 


which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of 

"member" receives the merit of the "Head" for his acceptance, and 
the life and power of the Head for obedience. That obedience (see 
esp. Eph. ii. 8 — lo) is now rendered not in fulfilment of a covenant for 
acceptance, but in the life, and for the love, given to the believer under 
the covenant in which he is accepted, from first to last, for the sake of 
his meritorious Lord and Head. Cp. further, Heb. x., esp. 15 — 18; 
with Jerem. xxxi. 33, 34. 

Such is the general Pauline doctrine of acceptance, a doctrine such 
as to give its opponents or perverters, from the very first, a superficial 
excuse to make it out to be antinomian (Rom. iii. 8, vi. i); a fact of 
the utmost weight in the estimate of its true bearing. 

Such a general doctrine assists us in interpreting this great incidental 
passage. And we infer here accordingly that the primary idea is that 
of acceptance for Ckrisfs sake, as against acceptance on the score of 
any sort of personal merit. The spiritual development of the regene- 
rate being comes in nobly here, as in the other and larger passages 
referred to ; but it comes in upon the basis, and as the sequel, of a 
gratuitous acceptance for Christ s sake alone. See notes on ver. 10. 

that which is through the faith of Christ"] So lit., but better, in 
regard of English idiom, that whicb is tbroufiTli Dedtli in OliriBt. 
For the Greek construction {^^ faith of,* meaning ^^faith in**) cp. e.g. 
Mark xi. 42; Acts iii. 16; Gal. ii. 16, 20; Eph. lii. 12; 2 Thess. ii. 13. 
Here again, as with the words **law" and "righteousness," St Paul's- 
writings are a full commentary. See especiaUy Rom. iii. 22 — 28, a 
passage most important as a parallel here. It brings out the fact that 
*' faith," in the case in question, has special regard to Christ as the 
shedder of His sacred blood in propitiation, and that the blessing 
immediately received by faith thus acting is the acceptance, the jus- 
tification, of the sinner before the holy Lawgiver and Judge, solely 
for the Propitiator's sake. See further Rom. iv., v., viii. 33, 34, ix. 33, 
X. 4, 9, 10; Gal. ii. 16, iii. i — i^, 21 — 24; Eph. ii. 8, 9. 

Much discussion has been raised over the true meaning of " faith " 
in Scripture doctrine. It may suffice to point out that at least the 
leading and characteristic idea of the word is personal trust, not of 
course without grounds, but on grounds other than " sight." It is cer- 
tainly not mere assent to testimony, a mental act perfectly separable 
from the act of personal reliance. Setting aside Jas. ii. 14 — 26, where 
the ailment takes up and uses designedly an inadequate idea of 
faith (see Commentary on the Romans in this Series, p. 261), the 
word "faith" consistently conveys in Scripture the thought of per- 
sonal reliance, trustful acceptance of Divine truth, of Divine work, 
of the Divine Worker and Lord*. And if we venture to ask why 
such reliance takes this unique place in the process of salvation, 
we may reply with reverence that, so far as we can see into the 
mysterious fact, it is because the essence of such reliance is a going 

1 Fides est fiducia (Luther). See this admirably developed and illustrated by 
J. C. Hare, Vtctory oj Faitk^ pp. 15— a2(ed. 1847). 

94 PHILIPPIAXS, III. [v. la 

fo Christ the ri|^iteoiiSDess wbkh is of God by fidtfa : diat I 

forth from tdf to God« a bracing of nothii^ in order to leoenrc evoy- 
tbtog. There is thus a moial^iuxr in laith to be the ssving contact 
and recipient^ while jet all ideas of moial woriimess and daeru- 
ingness axe dednrely banished from it. It b ^ to l ece i ve the Divine 
gift, just as a hand, not clean perhaps but empty, is fit to leoeiYe amate- 
rial gift. Certainly in the reasonings of St Panl every efibrt is made 
to bring ont the thoi^t that salvation by £uth means in efiect salva- 
tion by Christ only and wholly, received by sinfiil man, as sinful 
man, simply and directly m and by personal reliance on God*s word. 
The sinner is led oS, in a happy oblivion of himaeU, to simple and 
entire rest in his Saviour. 

fA^ rightamsnas which is of Cod\ On the word " righteousness " see 
above, note i on this verse. Here, practically, it means acceptance, 
welcome, as a child and saint, in Christ and for Christ's sake. 

** OfGod^: — ^lit., "<w/ of God" originating wholly in Him, oncaosed 
by anything in man. Its origin is the Father's love, its reason and 
secnrity, the Son*s merits, its conveyance, the Holy Spirit uniting the 
sinner in faith to the Son. 

For some good remarks, of caution as well as assertion, on justifying 
righteousness, see G. S. Faber's Primiiiue Doctrine of Justificaiion^ ch. 
L, pp. 45 — ^3«, with footnotes (ed. 183^). 

by faith] Lit., upon fBAVi ; in view of, under circumstances of, 
faith. We may render, *^on condition of faith." But faith, in the 
Pauline view, is not a nure condition ; it is the recipient act and state. 
It is a condition, not as paying for a meal is a condition to getting good 
from it, but as eating it is a condition. 

On the doctrine of this verse cp. the Sermon of Salvation (being the 
third in the First Book of Homilies), referred to in Art. xi. as "the 
Homily of Justification"; and the short treatise of Bp Hopkins, of 
Londonderry (cent. 17), The Doctrine of the Two Covenants, See 
further Appendix F ; and cp. at large O'Brien, Nature and Effects of 
Fait hi and Hooker's Discourse of Justification^ esp. §§ 3 — 6, 31 — 34. 

10. That I may know him] In order to know Him. For the con- 
struction, cp. e.g. I Cor. X. 13. — Observe the sequence of thought. 
He embraces "the righteousness which is of God on terms of faith," 
and renounces ** a righteousness of his own" as a means to the end here 
stated — the spiritual knowledge of Christ and of His power to sanc- 
tify and glorify by assimilation to Himself. In order to that end, he 
thankfully "submits Himself to the righteousness of God" (Rom. x. 3; 
cp. I Pet. i. 2) ; accepts the Divine justification for the merit's sake of 
Jesus Christ alone; Knowing, with the intuition of a soul enlightened 
by ^race, that in such submission lies the secret of such assimilation. 
Welcoming Christ as his one ground of peace with God, he not only 
cnlere at tne same time on spiritual contact with Christ as Life from 
God, but also gets such a view of himself and his Redeemer as to 
affect profoundly his whole intercourse with Christ, and the effects of 
that intercourse on his being. 

V* lo.] PHILIPPIAN'S, III. 95 

may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the 

Ver. 10 is thus by no means a restatement of ver. 9. It gives an* 
other range of thought and truth, in deep and strong connexion. To 
use a convenient classification, ver. 9 deals with Justification, ver. 10 
with Sanctification in relation to it. 

•* That I may know ffim": — the Greek seems to imply a decisive act 
of knowledge rather than a process. A lifelong process is sure to result 
from the act; for the Object of the^act "passeth knowledge" (Eph. 
iii. 19). But the act, the decisive getting acquainted with what Christ 
is, is in immediate view. A far-reaching msight into Him in His 
glory of grace has a natural connexion with the spiritual act of sub- 
missive faith in Him as our Sacrifice and Righteousness. Cp. Joh. 
vi. 56. 

On this "knowledge" of recognition and intuition, cp. ver. 8, and 

the power of his resurrection"] A phrase difficult to exhaust in expo- 
sition. The Lord's Resurrection is spiritually powerful as (a) eviden- 
cing the justification of believers (Rom. iv. 24, 25, and by all means cp. 
I Cor. XV. 14, 17, 18); as {b) assuring them of their own bodily resur- 
rection (f Cor. XV. 20, &c. ; i Thess. iv. 14); and yet more as (c) 
being that which constituted Him actually the life-giving Second Adam, 
the Giver of the Spirit who unites the members to Him the Vital Head 
(Joh. vii. 39, XX. 23; Acts ii. 33; cp. Eph. iv. 4 — 16). This latter 
aspect of truth is prominent in the Epistles to Ephesus and CoIosssp, 
written at nearly the same period of St Paul's apostolic work ; and we 
have here, very probably, a passing hint of what is unfolded there. 
The thought of the Lord's Resurrection is suggested here to his mind 
by the thought, not expressed but implied in the previous context, of 
the Atoning Death on which it followed as the Divine result. 

This passage indicates the great truth that while our acceptance in 
Christ is always based upon His propitiatory work for us, our power 
for service and endurance in His name is vitally connected with His 
life as the Risen One, made ours by the Holy Spirit. 

Cp. further Rom. v. lo, vi. 4 — 11, vii. 4, viii. 11; 2 Cor. iv. 10; 
Eph. ii. 6; Col. iii. i — 4; Heb. xiii. 20, 21. 

the fellowship of his sufferings'] Entrance, in measure, into His 
experience as the Sufferer. The thought recurs to the Cross, but in 
connexion now with Example, not with Atonement. St Paul deals 
with the fact that the Lord who has redeemed him has done it at the 
severest cost of pain ; and that a moral and spiritual necessity calls His 
redeemed ones, who are united vitally to Him, to "carry the cross," 
in their measure, for His sake, in His track, and by His Spirit's power. 
And he implies that this cross* bearing, whatever is its special form, 
this acceptance of affliction of any sort as for and from Him, is a deep 
secret of entrance into spiritual intimacy with Christ; into "knowledge 
of Him." Cp. further Rom. viii. 17, 37; 2 Cor. i. 5, iv, 11, xii. 9, 10; 
Col. i. 24; 2 Tim. ii. 12; i Pet. iv. 13; Rev. iii. 10. 

96 PHILIPPIANS, III. [v. la 

fellowship of his suflferings, being made conformable unto 

being made conformable^ Better, with R.V., becoming conformed. 
The Greek construction is free, but clear. — The Lord's Death as the 
supreme expression of His love and of His holiness, and the supreme 
act of His surrender to the Father's will, draws the soul of the Apostle 
with spiritual magnetic force to desire, and to experience, assimilation 
of character to Him who endured it. The holy Atonement wrought 
by it is not here in direct view ; he is full of the thought of the revela- 
tion of the Saviour through His Passion, and of the bliss of harmony 
in will with Him so revealed. No doubt the Atonement is not for- 
gotten ; for the inner glory of the Lord's Death as Example is never 
Silly seen apart from a sight of its propitiatory purpose. But the im- 
mediate thought is that of spiritual harmony with the dying Lord's 
state of will. Cp. i Cor. iv. lo. 

11. if by any means] For the strong langjtiage of contingency 
here cp. i Cor. ix. 27. Taken along with such expressions of 
exulting assurance as Rom. viii. 31 — 39; 2 Tim. i. 12; and indeed 
with the whole tone of "joy and peace in believing" (Rom. xv. 13) 
which pervades the Scriptures, we may fairly say that it does not 
imply the uncertainty of the final glory of the true saint. It is 
language which views vividly, in isolation, one aspect of the "Pilgrim's 
Prc^ess** towards heaven; the aspect of our need of continual 
watching, self-surrender, and prayer, in order to the development 
of that likeness without which heaven would not be heaven. The 
other side of the matter is the efficacy and perseverance of the grace 
which comes out in our watching; without which we should not 
watch; which "predestinates" us "to be conformed to the image of 
the Son of God" (Rom. viii. 29). The mystery lies, as it were, 
between two apparently parallel lines ; the reality of an omnipotent 
grace, and the reality of the believer's duty. As this line or that is 
r^arded, in its entire reality, the language of assurance or of contin- 
gency is appropriate. But the parallel lines, as they seem now, prove 
at last to converge in glory (Joh. vi. 39, 40, 44, 54, x. 27 — 29 ; Rom. 
viii. 30; I Thess. v. 23, 24). 

See Hooker's Sermon Of the Certainty and Perpetuity of Faith in 
the Elect, especially the closing paragraphs. 

/might] Lit., and here better, with R.V., I may. 

the resurrection of the dead] The better supported reading gives, as 
R.V., the resuxrectlon firom the dead. The phrase implies a certain 
leaving behind of "the dead"; and this is further emphasized in the 
Greek, where the noun rendered "resurrection" is the rare word exan-* 
astdsis, i.e. the common word {anastdsis) for resurrection, strengthened 
by the preposition meaning " from." This must not, however, be pressed 
far; later Greek has a tendency towards compounding words without 
necessarily strengthening the meaning. It is the setting of the word 
here which makes an emphasis in it likely. — It has been inferred that St 
Paul here refers to a special and select resurrection, so to speak, and 
that this is "the 6rst resurrection" of Rev. xx. 5, 6, interpreted as a 

w. II, 12.] PHILIPPIANS, III. 97 

his death ; if by any means I might attain unto the resunec- « 
tion of the dead. Not as though I had akeady attained, 13 

literal resurrection of either all saints or specially privileged saints, be- 
fore that of the mass of mankind. (Such an interpretation of Rev. xx, 
appears as early as TertuUian, cent. 3, tfg Monogamid, c. x.). But 
against this explanation here lies the fact that St Paul nowhere else 
makes any unmistakable reference to such a prospect (i Cor. xv. 23, 
^24 is not decisive, and certainly not i Thess. iv. 16); and that this 
^ makes it unlikely that he should refer to it here, where he manifestly 
is dealing with a grand and ruling article of his hope. We explain it 
accordingly of the glorious prospect of the Resurrection of the saints 
in general. And we account for the special phrase by taking him to 
be filled with the thought of the Lor<Vs Resurrection as the pledge and, 
so to speak, the summary of that of His people ; and His Resurrection 
was emphatically ^^from th6 dead." — Or it may be that we have here 
to explain "the dead*' as a term of abstract reference, meaning prac- 
tically " the state of the dead," the world of death. — In any case, the 
phrase refers to "the resurrection of life" (Dan. xii. 2; Joh. v. 29); 
**the resurrection of the just" (Luke xiv. 14); differenced from that of 
"the unjust" (Acts xxiv. 15), whether or no in time, certainly in an 
awful distinction of conditions and results. The blessed resurrection is 
here called **M^ resurrection" as the blessed life is called *'Hhe life" (e.g, 
I John v. 12). The antithesis is not non-resurrection, and non-exist- 
ence, but such resurrection, and such existence, as are ruin and woe. — 
It is observable that the Apostle here implies his expectation of death, 
to be followed by resurrection; not of survival till the Lord's Return. 
Cp. 2 Cor. iv. 14. 

12—16. On the other hand, his spiritual condition is 

ONE of progress, NOT PERFECTION. 

12. Not as though &c.] This reserve, so emphatic and solemn, 
appears to be suggested by the fact, brought out more fully below 
(vv. 18, 19), of the presence of a false teaching which represented the 
Christian as already in such a sense arrived at his goal as to be lifted 
beyond r€»5ponsibility, duty, and progress. No, says St Paul; he has in- 
deed "gained Christ," and is "found in Him, having the righteousness 
of God ; he " knows" his Lord, and His power ; but none the less he 
is still called to humble himself, to recollect that the process of grace is 
never complete below, and i]MXfrom one point of view its coming com- 
pletion is always linked with tne saint's faithful watching and prayer, 
the keeping open of the "eyes ever toward the Lord" (Psal. xxv. 15). 

attained^ Setter, reoelved, or, with R.V., obtained; for the verb 
is not the same as that in ver. 11. (It is the same as that in Rev. iii. ii.^ 
The thought of "M^ crown" is probably to be supplied. See below, 
on ver. 14. — R.V. renders, rather more lit., ** Not that I have already 
(ittainedJ* But the construction of A.V. well represents the Greek. — 
Some documents here add "<7r have been already justified^^ ; but the 
evidence is decisive against this insertion. 


98 PHILIPPIANS, III. [v. 15. 

either were already perfect: but I follow after ^ if that I 

may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of 

13 Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself to have ap- 

were already perfecf] Better, have l)6en already perfected. The 
process was incomplete which was to develope his being for the life of 
glory, in which **we shaU be Uke Him" (i Joh. iii. 3 ; cp. Rom. viii. 
29) ; a promise implying that we are never so here, completely. Cp. 
the Greek of Rom. xii. 2; 2 Cor. iii. 18; in which the holy "transfor- 
mation" is presented as a process, advancing to its ideal, not yet arrived 
there. And see further below, on ver. 15. 

The Greek verb, and its kindred noun, were used technically in later 
ecclesiastical Greek of the death of martyrs (and of monks, in a remark- 
able passage of Chrysostom, Horn. XIV. on i Tim,)^ viewed as spe- 
cially glorious and glorified saints. But no such limitation appears in 
Scripture. In Heb. xii. 23 the reference plainly is to the whole com- 
pany of the holy departed : who have entered, as they left the body, on 
the heavenly rest, the eternal close of the state of discipline. Cp. 
Wisdom iv. 13; "he [the just man], in short (season) ^effecUd, fulfilled 
long times." 

I follffw after] R.V., I press on. The thought of the race, with its 
goal and crown, is before him^ Cp. i Cor. ix. 24 — 27; Gal. ii. 2, v. 7; 
2 Tim. ii. 5, iv. 7; Heb. xii. i. 

if that I may\ Better, if indeed I may. On this language of con- 
tingency, see note above on ver. 11. 

apprehend^ i. e., grasp. Cp. i Cor. ix. 24. All the English ver- 
sions before 161 1 have *Uomprehend*^ here. Both verbs now bear 
meanings which tend to mislead the reader here. The Greek verb 
is that rendered ^^ receive" or ^* obtain,* just above, only in a stronger 
(compound) form. He thinks of the promised crown, till in thought 
he not merely "receives" but "grasps it, with astonished joy. 

that for which also &c.] The Greek may be rendered gmmmatically 
either {a) thus, or (b) *^ inasmuch as I was even &c." Usage in St Paul 
(Rom. v. 12; 2 Cor. v. 4) is in favour of (b)\ context is rather forj(a), 
which is adopted by ElUcott, and Alford, and in R.V. (text; margin 
gives (b)), Lightfoot does not speak decidedly. We recommend (a) for 
reasons difficult to explain without fuller discussion of the Greek than 
can be offered here. — The meaning will thus be that he presses on to 
grasp the crown, with the animating thought that Christ, in the hour 
of conversion, grasped him with the express purpose in view that he, 
through the path of faith and obedience, might be glorified at last 
Cp. Rom. viii. 30; where we see the **caU" as the sure antecedent not 
to justification only but to glory; but antecedent in such a way as 
powerfully to cheer and strengthen the suffering saint in the path of 
the cross, not to leave him for a moment to fatalistic inaction. The 
rendering (b) gives a meaning not far distant from this, though less 

Christ yesusi Read, with the documentary evidence, Christ. 

vv. 14, IS-] PHILIPPIANS, III.^/ ^.^^^ jI 99 

prehended : but this one thing I do^ forgetting those things 
which are behind, and reax:hing forth unto those things 
which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize oif 14 
the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. Let us therefore, is 

13. Brethren\ A direct loving appeal, to restate and enforce what 
he has just said. 

/ count not, myself] **I" and "myself" are both emphatic in the 
Greek. Whatever others may think of themselves^ this is his deliberate 
estimate of himself. He has in view the false teachers more clearly 
indicated below, w. 18, 19. 

but this one thing I do] " One thing** is perhaps in antithesis to the 
implied opposite idea of the *^many things,** of experience or attain- 
ment, contemplated by the teacher of antinomian perfection. 
' fo^g^^^^g] Avoiding all complacent, as against grateful, reflection. 

behind] He does not say "around** or "present.** The unwearied 
runner is already beyond any given point just reached. 

reaching forth] The Greek (one compound verb) gives the double 
thought of the runner stretching out his head and body towards his^ 
goal. Lightfoot remarks that the imagery might apply to the racing 
charioteer, bending, lash in hand, over his horses (Virgil, Georg. in. 
106) ; but that the charioteer, unlike the runner, would need often to 
look backi and that this, with the habitual use by St Paul of the simile 
of the foot-race, assures us that the runner is meant here. 

those,,, before] "more and more, unto the perfect day** (Prov. iv. 18). 
Each new occasion, small or great, for duty or suffering, would be a new 
"lap** (to translate technically St Chrysostom*s word here) of the 
course ; would give opportunity for " growth in the grace and know- 
ledge of the Lord Jesus Christ** (1 Pet. iii. 18). "To increase more 
and more" (i Thess. iv. 10) was his idea of the life of grace for others; 
but above all, for himself. 

14. the mark] R.V., *^the goal J** But the Greek word is, like 
''mark,** a general rather than a special one, and used in the classics 
rather of archery than of racing. The verse might be roughly but 
closely rendered, "mark- wards I haste, towards the prize &c. *; I run 
with a definite aim, and that aim is to win the prize. Cp. i Cor. ix. 
a6 ; "I so run, not as uncertainly,** 

the prize] The same word occurs i Cor. ix. 24, and not elsewhere 
in N.T. It is very rare in secular Greek, but is connected with the 
common word for the arbiter or umpire who awarded the athletic prize. 
In Christian Latin (e.g. in the Latin versions here) it appears trans- 
literated, as bravittm (or brabium). The "prize** is "the crown,** 
glory everlasting as the blessed result and triumph of the work of 
grace, of the life of faith. Cp. Rev. ii. 10; and esp. i Tim. iv. 7, 8. 

the high calling] Lit., *^ the upward, or upper calling** The Latin 
versions have superior vocation superna vocatio. The word rendered 
*^high'* is the same as that rendered Gal. iv. 26 as "Jerusalem which 
is above**: and cp. Joh. viii. 23, "I am from (the things) above."** — The 



loo r^^r ''l^^.^ \.^PHILIPPiANS, III. [v. 15. 

as many as ^e perfect, be thus minded : and if in any tAing 
ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even this unto 

''calliDg" in St Paurs case was doubtless to be an Apostle (Alford), 
but it was first and most to be a Christian, and the whole tone~ of this 
great passage is in favour of this latter thought. He is dealing with 
his own spiritual experience as a general model. — ^This "calling'*- is 
*' celestial," at once in origin, operation, and final issue. Cp. Col. iiL 
I, 2; 2 Thess. ii. 14. In the Epistles the words "call," "calling," 
denote not merely the external invitation but the internal and effectual 
drawing of the soul by grace. See in illustration i Cor. i. 23, 2^. 
It corresponds nearly to the common use of the word **conversion/| 
— Contrast the use of "call" in the Gospels; Matt. xx. 16, xxii. 14. 

of God in Christ Jesus] The Father is the Caller (as Rom. viii. 29, 
30; Gal. i. 15 ; 2 Tim. i. 9; i Pet. v. 10 &c.), and the call is "in" 
the Son; it is conveyed through the Son, and takes effect in union 
with Him, in embodiment in Him. For the pregnant construction cp. 
I Cor. vii. 22. 

15. perfect] An adjective, not a perfect participle, as was the kin- 
dred word (** perfected^*) in ver. 12. — Is there a contradiction between 
" this place and that? On the surface, but not really. The Apostle 
appears to be taking up the favourite word of teachers who upheld 
some phase of " perfectionism," and using it, with loving irony, on the 
side of truth; as if to say, "Are you, are we, ideal Christians, perfect 
Christians, all that Christians should be? Then among the things that 
should be in our character is a holy discontent with, and criticism of, 
our own present attainment. The man in this sense *perfect* will be 
sure to think himself not perfected" — And it is important to remember 
that the Greek word rendered "perfect" is an elastic word. It may 
mean "adult," "mature," as against infantine; cp. Heb. v. 13, 14. 
A ''perfect" Christian in this respect may have spixitazl faculty well 
developed, and yet be very far from "perfected" in spiritual character, 
— Such considerations, in the light of this whole passage, will do any- 
thing for such a Christian rather than teach him to tolerate sin in 
himself; they will at once keep him humble and contrite, and animate 
him to ever iresh developments in and by Christ. 

be... minded] The same word as that in i. 7, ii. 2, 5, where see notes. 

God shall reveal] by the action of His Holy Spirit on heart, mind, 
and will, amidst the discipline of life. There need not be any new 
verbal revelation, but there would be a new inward revelation of the 
correspondence of the inspired Word with the facts of the soul, and 
so a fresh light on those facts. — Such language implies the Apostle's 
certainty of his commission as the inspired messenger of Christ; it 
would otherwise be the language of undue assumption. Cp. Gtd. i. 
6 — 12. 

le. Nevertheless] Better, with R.V., only; a word, like the Greek, 
of less contrast and easier transition. 

attained] Not the same Greek verb as that in ver. 12, though R.V. 
(with A.V.) gives the same English. The verb here is properly used, 

vv. 1 6, 17.] PHILIPPIANS, in. lot 

you. Nevertheless, whereto we have already attained, letx^ 
us walk by the same rule, let us mind the same thing. 
Brethren, be followers together of me, and mark them 17 

in classical Greek, of anticipation (so i Thess. iv. 15), arrival before- 
hand, rapid arrival. Later, and so ordinarily in N.T., it loses much 
at least of this speciality, a^d means little besides "to reach," "to 
arrive." Still, a shadow of the first meaning may be traced in most 
places; a suggestion of an arrival which is either sudden, or achieved 
m spite of obstacles. The latter idea would be in place here, where 
the metaphor of the race with its diflSculties is still present; as if to 
say, "whereunto we have succeeded in arriving." — The verb is in the 
aorist, but the English perfect is obviously right. 

let us walk by the same &c.] The Greek verb is in the infinitive, " to 
walk"; a frequent idiomatic substitute for the mood of command or 
appeal. Apparently this construction is always used in address to 
others (see Alford here), and thus we should render ^""tvalk ye &c." — 
The verb here rendered "walk" means not only movement on the feet 
in general, but orderly and guided walking, stepping along a line. The 
appeal is to take care of Christian consistency in detail, up to the full 
present light, on the unchanging principles of the Gospel, which are 
essentially "the same" for all. And there is a reference, doubtless, 
in the words "the same," to the Philippians* tendency to differences of 
opinion and feeling. 

The words after ^^hy thesame^* are an excellent explanation, but not 
part of the text. Read, in the same [path or principle]. 

17—21. Application of the thought of progress : warning 
against antinomian distortion of the truth of grace : 
the coming glory of the body, a motive to holy 


17. Brethren] A renewed earnest address, introducing a special 
message. See above, ver. 13. 

be followers together of me] More lit., become my united imitators. 
For his appeals to his disciples to copy his example, see iv. 9 ; i Cor. 
iv. 16 (a passage closely kindred in reference to this), x. 33 — xi. i ; and 
cp. I Thess. ii. 7, 9; « Thess. iii. 7 — 9; and Acts xx. 18 — 21, 30 — 35. 
Such appeals imply not egotism or self-confidence, but absolute confi- 
dence in his message and its principles, and the consciousness that his 
life, by the grace of God, was moulded on those principles. In the 
present case, he begs them to "join in imitating" him, m his renun- 
ciation of self-confidence and spiritual pride, with their terrible risks. 

mark] Watch, for imitation. The verb usually means the watching 
of caution and avoidance (Rom. xvi. 17), but context here decides the 
other way. The Philippians knew Paul's principles, but to see them 
they must look at the faithful disciples of the Pauline Gospel among 
themselves; such as Epaphroditus, on his return, the "true yokefellow" 
(iv. 3)» Clement, and others. 

I02 PHILIPPIANS, in. [v, i8. 

i8 which walk so as ye have us for an ensample. (For many 
walk, of whom I have told you often, and now tell you 

walk] The common verb, not that noticed just above. It is a very 
favourite word with St Paul for life in its action and intercourse. See 
e.g. Rom. xiii. 13, xiv. 15 ; 2 Cor. iv. 2 ; Eph. ii. 10, iv. i ; CoL i. 10, 
iv. 5; I Thess. iv. i, 12; 2 Thess. iii. 6. Cp. i Joh. i. 7, ii. 6; a Joh. 
4 ; Rev. xxi. 24. 

** Walk so as &c.": — more lit., with R.V., 80 walk even as &c. 

fAf] " Shrinking from the egotism of dwelling on his own personal 
experience, St Paul passes at once from the singular to the plural" 
(Lightfoot). Timothy and his other best known fellow-workers, Silas 
certainly (Acts xvi.), if still alive, would be included. 

ntsamp/e] An "Old French" and "Middle English" derivative of 
the Latin exetnpittm (Skeat, Etym, Diet,), The word occurs in A.V. 
elsewhere, i Cor. x. 1 1 ; i Thess. i. 7 ; 2 Thess. iii. 9 ; i Pet. v. 3 ; 2 Pet. 
ii. 6 ; and in the Prayer Book (Collect for 2nd Sunday after Easter). 

18. many\ Evidently holders of an antinomian parody of the Gospel 
of grace; see on ver. 12. That there were such in the primeval Church 
appears also from Rom. xvL 17 — 18 (a warning to Rome, as \^v&from 
Rome); i Cor. v., vi. To them Rom. iii. 31, vi. i, refer, and 
Eph. V. 6. 

There may have been varieties under a common moral likeness; 
some perhaps taking the view afterwards prominent in Gnosticism— 
that matter is essentially evil, and that the body therefore is no better 
for moral control ; some (and in the Roman Epistle these surely are in 
view), pushing the truth of Justification into an isolation which per- 
verted It into deadly error, and teaching that the believer is so accepted 
in Christ that his personal actions are indifferent in the sight of God. 
Such growths of error, at once subtle and outrageous, appear to cha- 
racterize, as by a mysterious law, every great period of spiritual 
advance and illumination. Compare the phenomena (cent. 16) of the 
Libertines at Geneva and the Prophets of Zwickau in Germany. Indeed 
few periods of Christian history have escaped such trials. 

The false teachers in view here were no doubt broadly divided from 
the Judaists, and in most cases honestly and keenly opposed to them. 
But it is quite possible that in some cases the '*the extremes met" in 
such a way as to account for the mention here of both in one context, 
in this chapter. The sternest formal legalism has a fatal tendency to 
slight "the weightier matters of the law," and heart-purity among 
them ; and history has shewn cases in which it has tolerated a social 
libertinism of the worst kind, irrevocably condemned by the true 
Gospel of free grace. Still, the persons referred to in this section were 
those who positively ^^ gloried in their shame"; and this points to an 
avowed and dogmatic antinomianism. 

The ^*fnany** of this verse is an instructive reminder of the formid- 
able internal difficulties of the apostolic Church. 

/ have told you] Lit. and better, I used to teU yon, in the old 
days of personal intercourse. This makes it the more likely that the 

V. 19.] PHILIPt>IANS, 111. 103 

even weeping, that they are the enemies of the cross of 
Christ : whose end is destruction, whose God is their belly, 19 
and whose, glory is in their shame, who mind earthly //^/«^j.) 

antinomians were not of the gnostic type of the later Epistles, but 
of that of the Ep. to the Romans, perverters of the doctrine of free 

weeping^ Years had only given him new and bitter experience of the 
deadly results.— For St Paul's tears ^ cp. Acts xx. 19, 31; 1 Cor. ii. 4. 
We are reminded of the tears of his Lord, Luke xix. 41 ; tears which 
like these indicate at once the tenderness of the mourner and the 
awfulness and certainty of the coming ruin. See a noble sermon by 
A. Monod (in his series on St Paul), Son Christianisme, ou ses Zarmes, 
An extract is given. Appendix G. 

t^e enemies of the cross'\ As deluding their followers and themselves 

into the horrible belief that its purpose was to give the reins to sin,. 

and as thus disgracing it in the eyes of unbelieving observers. " The 

j cross" here, undoubtedly, means the holy propitiation of the Lord's 

' Death. For the Divine connexion of it as such with holiness of heart 

and life see the argun>ent of Rom. iii. — vi.; Gal. v. 

19. end'\ A word of awful and hopeless import. Cp. Rom. vi. 21; 
« Cor. xi. 15; Heb. vi. 8; 1 Pet. iv. 17. 

destruction^ R.V. , perdition. See on i. 28. 

their belly] Lit. and better, tlie lielly. Cp. Rom. xvi. 18 for the 
same word in the same connexion. See too i Cor. vi. 13. The word 
obviously indicates here the sensual appetites generally, not only glut- 
tony in food. Venter in Latin has the same reference. See Lightfoot. 

The Antinomian boasted, very possibly, of an exalted spiritual liberty 
and special intimacy with God. 
i whose glory is in their shame] It is implied that they claimed a 

" glory"; probably in such •* liberty " as we have just indicated. They 
set up for the true Christian philosophers, and advanced dogmatists. 
(Cp. Rom. xvi. quoted above.) But in fact their vaunted system was 
exactly their deepest disgrace. 

* who mind earthly things)] For a closely kindred phrase, in the nega- 
tive, see Col. iii. 1 ; and observe the context, ver. 5 &c. And for the 
meaning of "mind " here see notes on i. 7, ii. 2, above. 

The Antinomian claimed to live in an upper region, to be so conver- 
sant with celestial principles as to be rid of terrestrial restraints of 
letter, and precept, and custom. As a fact, his fine-spun theory was 
a transparent robe over the corporeal lusts which were his real 

The Greek construction of this clause is abrupt, but clear. 

20. For] The A.V., by marking vv. 18, 19 as a parenthesis, con- 
nects this *' for" with ver. 17. But there is no need for this. A sup- 
pressed link of thought is easily seen and expressed between vv. 19, 20; 
somewhat thus: "such principles and practices are wholly alien to 
ours; for &c" In a grave oral address or dialogue such links have 

I04 PHILIPPIANS, 111. [v. 20. 

to For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we 

oflen to be supplied, and the Apostle's written style is a very near 
approach to the oral. 

A reading "iff«/," or **Ai7w," has much support in early quota- 
tions, but none in MSS. See Lightfoot here. 

our] He refers to the "ensamples" mentioned ver. 17, as distin- 
guished from their opponents. Or perhaps we should say, from their 
false friends. For very possibly these antinomians claimed to be the 
true disciples of Pauline truth, the true exponents of free grace as 
against legalism. 

conversa/ion] R.V. **ciiieenship*^; mai^in, *' commonwealth,^^ The 
A.V. is the rendering also of all our older versions, except Wyclifs, 
which has "l3ruyng." It represents the conversatio of the Latin ver- 
sions, a word which means not *' mutual speech" but "the intercourse 
of life" (see on i. 17); and the meaning is thus, in effect, that *'a/^ live 
on earth as those whose home is in heaven" — ^The same English is 
found (in A.V.) Psalm 1. 23 ; a Cor. i. 12; Gal. i. 13 ; Eph. ii. 3, iv. 22; 
above i. 17 (where see note); &c. But the Greek in all these places 
is quite different from the Greek here, where the word is poltteuma 
(connected with polis, city, politis^ citizen), a word which occurs no- 
where else in N.T., nor in LXX., nor in the Apocrjrpha. In classical 
Greek it denotes («) a ** measure" or ** policy" of state; {b) the 
governing body of a state, its *^ government "\ (c) the constitution of 
a state, mcluding the rights of its citizens. On the whole, this last 
meaning best suits the present context, or at least approaches it most 
nearly. What the Apostle means is that Christians are citizens of 
the heavenly City, enrolled on its register, free of its privileges, and, 
on the other hand, "obliged by the nobility" of such a position to live, 
whether in the Cit^ or not as yet, as those who belong to it and repre- 
sent it. "Our citizenship, our civic status, is in heaven," fairly gives 
this thought. In the anonymous Epistle to Diognetus^ a Christian 
writing of cent. 2 (printed with the works of St Justin), a sentence 
occurs (c. 5) which well illustrates this passage, and perhaps refers to 
it, and is in itself nobly true: *' Christians, as dwellers, are on earth, 
as citizens, in heaven." — ^The verb cognate to the noun here is used 
there ; see, on the verb, note on i. 27 above. 

f>] More strictly and fully, sulraiBts. See second note on ii. 6 
above, where the same word occurs. The thought is that the " citizen- 
ship" is at any moment an antecedent and abiding fact, on which the 
citizen may fall back. 

in heaven] Lit., in (the) heaveiiB; as often in N.T. On thb plural 
see note on Eph. ii. 10, in this Series.—Cp. Gal. iv. 26; Heb. xii. 22; 
Rev. iii. la (where see Abp Trench's full note, Epistles to the Seven 
Churches^ lay* 183—187), xxi., xxii., for the revealed conception of the 
heavenly City, the Our&nopolis, as it is finely called by St Clement 
of Alexandria (cent. 2), and Eusebius of Csesarea (cent. 4); and 
other Greek Fathers use the word ouranopolttis of tlie Christian. — The 
great treatise of St Augustine (cent, 4—5), On the City (Civilas) 


look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: who shall 21 

ofGod^ contains a wealth of illustration of the idea of this verse. To 
Augustine, writing amidst the wreck of Old Rome (about A.D. 4^0), 
the Christian appears as citizen of a State which is the antithesis not 
of human order, which is of God, and which is promoted by the true 
citizens of heaven, but of "the world," which is at enmitjr with Him. 
This State, or City, is now existing and operating, through its members, 
but not to be consummated and fully revealed till the eternity of glory 
shall come in (see Smith's Diet* of Christian Biography^ i., p. 221). 
The thought of the Holy City was dear to St Augustine. The noble 
medieval lines. 

Me receptet Syon illd, 

Urbs beata^ urhs tranquilla^ 

(quoted at the close of Longfellow's dflden Legend)^ are taken almost 
verbally from Augustine, de Spiritu et Anifnd, c. Ix. See Trench, 
Sacred Latin Poetry ^ p. 332 (and cp. pp. 312 — 320). 

from whence} Lit., **out of which (place).^* The pronoun is singu- 
lar, and so cannot refer directly to the plural noun, "the heavens,'\ 
The construction must be either {a) a merely adverbial one, an equiva- 
lent for the adverb "whence''; or {b) the pronoun must refer back to 
the noun politeuma (on which see above). In the latter case, we must 
suppose that the idea of citizenship suggests, and passes into, that of 
city^ the local home of the citizens, and the word denoting citizenship is 
treated as if ii denoted city^. The solution (a) is no doubt simpler, 
but clear evidence for the usage (where ideas oi place are in view), is 
not apparent, though the fact is asserted (e.g. by Winer, Grammar of 
AT. T, Greek, Moulton's Ed., p. 177). Happily the grammatical pro- 
blem leaves the essential meaning of the clause quite clear. 

we look fori Better, with R.V., we wait for. The form of the verb 
implies a waiting full of attention, perseverance, and desire. The verb 
occurs elsewhere, Rom. viii. 19, 23, 25; i Cor. i. 7; Gal. v. 5; Heb. 
ix. 28 ; I Pet. iii. 20. Of these passages all but Gal. (?) and i Pet. refer 
to the longed for Return of the Lord, the blessed goal of the believer's 
hope. Cp. Luke xii. 35 — 38 ; Acts i. 11, iii. 20, 21 ; Rom. viii. 18, 23 
— 25, xiii. II, 12; I Cor. xi. 26, xv. 23, &c.; Col. iii. 4; i Thess. i. 
10, ii. ip, iii. 13, iv. 14 — ^v. 10, 23; 2 Thess. i. 7 — 10; i Tim. vi. 14; 
2 Tim. ii. II, 12, iv. 8 ; Tit. ii. 13; Heb. x. 25, 37; Jas. v. 7, 8; i Pet. 
!• 7> i3» iv. 13, V. 4 5 2 Pet. iii. 4, 9, 13 ; i John ii. 28, iii. 2, 3 ; Rev. 
ii. 25, xxii. 20. 

the Saviour &c.] There is no article in the Greek ; and therefore 
render, perhaps, as our SaTionr, the Lord &c. The A.V. is by no 
means untenable grammatically, but the word "Saviour" is so placed 
as to suggest not only emphasis but predicative force. And the deep 
connexion in the N.T. between the Lord's Return and the full and 
final "salvation" of the believer's being (cp. esp. Rom. xiii. 11) gives 
a natural fitness to this use of the holy Title here. 

1 Wc might thus perhaps render, or explain, politeuma by " jm/ of citizenship?* 

to6 PHILIPPIANS, III. [v. 21. 

change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto 

. **Tke Lord Jesus CArist*\-—this full designation of the Blessed 
Person suits the tone of solemn hope and joy in the passage. 

21. ckange] The Greek verb is cognate to the word scAhta, on 
which see second note on ii. 8. It occurs also 2 Cor. xi. 13, 14, 15, 
and, with a different reference of thought, i Cor. iv. 6. Its use here 
implies that, in a sense, the change would be superficial. Already, in 
the **new creation" (2 Cor. v. 17; Gal. vi. 15) of the saint the essen- 
tials of the glorified being are present. Even for the body the pledge 
and reason of its glory is present where the Holy indwelling Spirit is, 
(Rom. viii. 11). And thus the final transfiguration will be, so to speak, 
a change of "accidents," not of "essence. ^*Now are we the sons of 
God ; and it doth not yet appear what we shall be" (i John iii. 2). 

our vile body] Lit., and far better, the body of our humiliation. 
Wyclif has "whiche schal refourme the bodi of oure mekenesse"; 
the Rhemish version, "the body of our humilitie"; Bezas Latin 
version, corpus nostrum humile; Luther, unsertt nichtigen Leib, All 
paraphrases here involve loss or mistake. The body transfigured by 
the returning Lord is the body *'of our humiliation" as oeing, in 
its present conditions, inseparably connected with the burthens and 
limitations of earth; demanding, for its sustenance and comfort, a 
large share of the energies of the spirit, and otherwise hindering the 
spirit's action in many directions. Not because it is material, for the 
glorified body, though "spiritual" (i Cor. xv. 44), will not be spirit ; 
but because of the mystenous effect of man's having fallen as an em- 
bodied spirit. The body is thus seen here, in its present condition, to 
be rather the "humbling" body than "vile" (Lat., vilis, "cAeap"), 

Observe meanwhile that peculiar mystery and glory of the Gospel, 
a promise of eternal being and blessedness for the body of the saint. 
To the ancient philosopher, the body was merely the prison of the 
spirit ; to the Apostle, it is its counterpart, destined to share with it, in 
profound harmony, the coming heaven. Not its essential nature, but 
Its distorted condition in the Fall, makes it now the clog of the 
renewed spirit; it shall hereafter be its wings. This is to take place, 
as the N.T. consistently reveals, not at death, but at the Return of 

The bearing of this passage on the error of the libertine, who "sinned 
against his own body" (i Cor. vi. 18), is manifest. 

t/iat it may be fashioned like] One word, an adjective, in tke Greek ; 
we may render, nearly with R.V., (to be) conformed. The word is 
akin to morpJiiy ii. 6, where see note. It is implied that the coming 
conformity to our Blessed Lord's Body shall be in appearance because 
in reality; not a mere superficial reflection, but a likeness of consti« 
tution, of nature. 

unto his glorious body] Lit. and belter, the body of His glory; 
His sacred human body, as He resumed it in Resurrection, and carried 

V. 21.] PHILIPPIANS, III. 107 

his glorious body, according to the working whereby he 
is able even to subdue all things unto himself. 

it up in Ascension^, and is manifested in it to the Blessed. — *' Of His 
glory^' ; because perfectly answering in its conditions to His personal 
Exsdtation, and, so far as He pleases, the vehicle of its display. A 
foresight of what it now is was given at the Transfiguration (Matt. 
xvii. 2, and parallels) ; and St Paul had had a moment's |;limpse of it 
as it is, at his Conversion (Acts ix. 3, 17, xxii. 14; i Cor. ix. i, xv. 8). 

Our future likeness in body to His body is alone foretold here, without 
allusion to its basis in the spiritual union and resemblance wrought in us 
now by the Holy Spirit (e.g. 2 Cor.iii. 18), and to be consummated then 
(i John iii. 2): But this latter is of course deeply implied here. The 
sensual heresies which the Apostle is dealing with lead him to this 
exclusive view of the glorious future of the saint's body. 

It is plain from this passage, as from others (see esp. i Cor. xv. 42 — 44, 
53), that the saint's body of glory is continuous with that of his humilia- 
tion; not altc^ether a "new departure" in subsistence. But when we 
have said this, our certainties in the question cease, lost in the mysterious 
problems of the nature of matter. The Blessed will be **the same," 
body as well as spirit; truly continuous, in their whole being, in full 
identity, with the pilgrims of time. But no one can say that to this 
identity will be necessary the presence in the glorified body of any 
given particle, or particles, of the body of humiliation, any more than 
in the mortal body it is necessary to its identity (as far as we know) 
that any particle, or particles, present in youth should be also present 
in old age. However, in the light of the next words this Question may 
be left in peace. Be the process and conditions what they may, in 
God's will, somehow 

"Before the judgment seat, 
Though changed and glorined each face. 

Not unremembered [we shall] meet, 
For endless ages to embrace." 

(Christian Year,, St Andrew's Day.) 

according to the working whereby &c,] More lit., according to 
tbe worldnff of His being able. The word ** mighty'' in the A.V. 
(not given in the other English versions) is intended to represent the 
special force of the Greek word energeia (see note on the kindred verb, 
ii. n); but it is too strong. "Active,'* or even *^ actual," would be 
more exact; but these are not really needed. The ** working*' is the 
positive putting forth of the always present ^^ ability'' 

even to subdue all things unto himself^ "Even" precedes and in- 
tensifies the whole following thought. 

Elsewhere the Father appears as ** subduing all enemies," "all 

'The Ascension may well have been, as many theologians have held, a further 
clorification, the crovoi of mysterious processes carried on through the Forty Days. 
We see hints of the present majesty of the Lord's celestial B<^y in the mystical 
language of Rev. L 14— x6. 

io8 PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. i. 

4 Therefore, my brethren dearly beloved and longed for, 
my joy and crown, so stand fast in the Lord, my dearly 

things," to the Son. Cp. i Cor. xv. 25 (and Ps. ex. i), «7 (and" 
Ps. viii. 6). But the Father **hath given to the Son to have life 
in Himself" (John v. a6 — 29), and therefore power. The will of the 
Father takes effect through the will of the Son, One with Him. 

*^ All things*^ : — and therefore all conditions or obstacles, impersonal 
or personal, that oppose the prospect of the glorification of His saints. 
Cp. Rom. viii. 38, 39; i Cor. iii. 21 — 23. 

** Unto Himself , — so that they shall not only not obstruct His 
action, but subserve it. His very enemies shall be — *-^ His footstooly"* 
and He shall "be glorified in His saints" (2 Thess. i. 10). And 
through this great victory of the Son, the Father will be supremely 
glorified. See 1 Cor. xv. 28 ; a prediction beyond our full understand- 
ing, but which on the one hand does not mean that in the eternal 
Future the Throne will cease to be "the throne of God and of the Lamb''* 
(Rev. xxii. i, 3), and on the other points to an infinitely developed 
manifestation in eternity of the glory of the Father in the Son. Mean- 
while, the immediate thought of this passage is the almightiness, the 
coming triumph, and the present manhood, of the Christianas Saviour. 

Ch, IV. 1—7. With such a prospect, and such a Saviour, 


1. Hiereforel In view of such a hope, and such a Lord. 

dearly 6 f loved ] Omit ** dearly," which is not in the Greek; though 
assuredly in the tone of the passage.. The word "beloved" is a favourite 
with all the apostolic writers; a characteristic word of. the Gospel of 
holy love. St Paul uses it 27 times of his converts and friends. 

longed for] The word occurs here only in N.T., but the cognate 
verb occurs i. 6, ii. a6, and cognate nonns Rom. xv. 13 ; 2 Cor. vii. 7, 
II. The address here is full of deep personal tenderness, and of 
longing desire to revisit Philippi. 

my joy and crown] Cp. the like words to the sister Church in 
Macedonia, i Thess. ii. 19, 20, iii. 9; and see a Cor. i. 14. The 
thought of the Day of glory brings up the thought of his recognition of 
his converts then, and rejoicing over them before the Lord. Mani- 
festly he expects to know the Philippians, to remember Philippi. 

j^J In such faith, and with such practice, as I have now agsun 
enjoined on you. 

standfast] The same verb as that i. 27, where see note. And here 
cp. especially i Cor. xvi. 13; Gal. v. i; i Thess. iii. 8 (a close 
parallel, in both word and tone). The Christian is never to stand 
still, as to growth and service; ever to stand fast, as to faith, hope, 
and love. 

in the Lord] In recollection and realization of your vital union -with 

vv. 2, 3-] PHILIPPIANS, IV. 109 

beloved. I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche, that a 
they be of the same mind in the Lord. And I entreat thee 3 
also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured 

Him who is your peace, life, hope, and King. Cp. Eph. vi. 10, and 
note in this Series. 

my dearly beiaved] Lit, simply, t>eloved. His heart overflows, 
as he turns from the sad view of sin and misbelief to these faithful 
and loving followers of the holy truth. He cim hardly say the last 
word of love. 

S. Jbeseechi R.V., I othort. But the tenderer English word well 
represents Uie general tone here, and the Greek fully admits it as a 
rendering. See e.g. 2 Cor. xii. 8. Observe the repetition of the word. 

Euodias.,, Syntyche] Read certainly Eu5dia, a feminine name. In 
the versions of T3mdale and Cranmer the second name appears as 
^^Sintiches" intended (like Euodias) to be a masculine name. But 
such a name is nowhere found in Greek inscriptions, nor is Euodias, 
though this might be contracted from the known name Euodianus. 
Both Euodia and S3mtych6 are Vjiovm feminine names, and the persons 
here are evidently referred to as women, ver. 3. — ^Of these two Christians 
we know nothing but from this mention. They may have been 
* 'deaconesses," like Phoebe (Rom. xvi. i); they were certainly (see 
ver. 3) active helpers of the Missionary in his days of labour at Philippi. 
Perhaps their activity, and the reputation it won, had occasioned a 
temptation to self-esteem and mutual jealousy ; a phenomenon unhappily 
not rare in the modem Church. — Bp Lightfoot (on this verse, and 
p. 55 of his edition) remarks on the prominence of women in the 
narrative bf the evangelisation of Macedonia; Acts xvi. 13—15, 40, 
xvii. 4, 12. He gives proof that the social position and influence of 
Macedonian women was higher than in most ancient communities. See 
above. Introduction, p. 13. The mention here of two women as import- 
ant persons in the Philippian Church is certainly an interesting coinci- 
dence with the Acts. — As a curiosity of interpretation, Ellicott (see also 
Lightfoot, p. 170) mentions the conjecture of Schwegler that Euodia and 
Syntyche are really designations of Church-parties^ the names being 
devised and significant This theory, of course, regards our Epistle 
as a fabrication of a later generation, intended as an eirenicon, *' What 
will not men affirm?" 

of the same mind in the Lord] They must lay aside pique and 
prejudice, in the power and peace of their common union with Christ. 

8. And I entreat] Better, Tea, I request, or beg (as in oiu: polite 
use of that word). 

also] Paul was doing what he could to '*help" his two converts; his 
friend at Philippi must "help" too. 

true yokefdlcw] This person can only be conjecturally identified. 
He may have been a leading episcopus (i. i) at Philippi. He may 
have been Epaphroditus, as Bp Lightfoot well suggests; chaiged with 
this commission by St Paul not only orally, but thus in writing, as a 

no PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. 3. 

with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other 

sort of credential. One curious conjecture, as old as St Clement of 
Alexandria (cent. 2) is that it was St PauVs wife^\ and it is curious 
that the older Latin version has dilectissitne conjux^ *^ dearest partner,** 
But the word conjux^ like *' partner," is elastic and ambiguous, and the 
adjective is masculine. Both the form of the Greek adjective here, and 
the plain statement in i Cor. vii. of St Paul's celibacy a few years 
before, not to speak of the unlikelihood, had he been married, of his 
wife's residence at Philippi, are fatal to this explanation* Another 
guess is that the word rendered "yokefellow," syzjfgus^ or synzygus 
is a proper name, and that we should render ^^Syeygus, truly so called" 
But this, though possible, is unlikely; no such name is found in 
inscriptions or elsewhere. 

Wydif's rendering, "the german felowe," looks strange to modem 
eyes; it means "thee, germane (genuine) comrade." 

help those women] Lit, lielp them (feminine). ''Them** means 
Euodia and Syntyche. The help would come in the way of personal 
conference and exhortation, with prayer. 

which] The Greek is well represented in R.V., for they. 

laboured with me] Lit, ''strove along tuith me** The verb is the 
same as that i. 27, where see note. Euodia and Sjmtyche had aided 
devotedly in the missionary work in their town, perhaps as sharers of 
special "gifts " (see Acts xxi. 9), or simply as exhorters and instructors 
of their female neighbours, probably also in loving labours of mercy 
for the temporal needs of poor converts. Like Phoebe of Cenchrese 
(Rom. xvi. i) they were perhaps deaconesses. See Appendix C 

in the gospel] Cp. i. 5, ii. 22; and below, on ver. 15. 

with Clement] Does this mean, "Help them, and let Clement and 
others help also," or, "They strove along with me in the gospel, and 
Clement and others strove also"? The grammar. Is neutral in tne ques- 
tion. On the whole, the first explanation seems best to suit the context, 
for it keeps the subject of the difference between Euodia and Syntyche 
still in view, which the second explanation scarcely does; and that 
difference was evidently an important and anxious fact, not to be lightly 

'^Clement** Greek, CUmtsx — we have no certain knowledge of his 
identity. The name was common. It is asserted by Origen (cent. 3) 
that he is the Clement who was at a later time bishop of Rome, and 
author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, probably the earliest of extant 
patristic writings. Eusebius (cent. 4) implies the same belief. There 
is nothing impossible in this, for a Philippian Christian, migrating to 
the all-receiving Capital, might very possibly become Chief Pastor there 
in course of time. But the chronology of the life and work of Clement 
of Rome is obscure in detail, and some evidence makes him survive till 
quite A.D. 120, more than half a century later than this: a length of 
labour likely to be noticed by church historians, if it were the fact. In 

1 Renan translates the words here {Saint Paul, p. 148), ma chhe ipoitse. Seo 
Salmon, Introduction to N. T., p. 465, note. 

vv. 4, 5] PHILIPPIANS, IV. in 

my fellowlabourers, whose names are in the book of 

Rejoice in the Lord alway : and again I say, Rejoice. 4 
Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord 5 

his Epistle (c. xlvii.) he makes special and reverent mention of St Paul ; 
and this is perhaps the strongest point in favour of the identity; but 
certainly not decisive. See Lightfoot, Philippians^ p. 168. 

the book oflife\ Cp. Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx, 12, 15, xxi. 07 ; and 
Luke X. 20. And see £xod. xxxii. 32, 33; Ps. Ixix. 281 Ixxxvii. o; Isai. 
iv. 3; Ezek. xiii. 9; Dan. xii. i. The result of comparison of these 
passages with this seems to be that St Paul here refers to the Lord's 
'* knowledge of them that are His" (2 Tim. ii. 19; cp. Joh. x. 27, 28), 
for time and eternity. All the passages in the Revelation, save iii. 5, 
are clearly in favour of a reference of the phrase to the certainty of the 
ultimate salvation of true saints; particularly xiiu 8, xvii. 8; and so too 
Dan. xii. i, and Luke x. 20. Rev. iii. 5 appears to point in another 
direction (see Trench on that passage). But in view of the other 
mentions of the **Book" in the Revelation, the language of iii 5 may 
well be only a vivid assertion that the name in question shall be found 
in an indelible register. £xod. xxxii. and Ps. Ixix. are of course definite 
witnesses for a possible blotting out from **a book written" by God. 
But it is at least uncertain whether the book there in view is not the 
register of life temporal, not eternal. — Practically, the Apostle here 
speaks of Clement and the rest as having given illustrious proof of their 
part and lot in that *'life eternal" which is **to know the only true God, . 
and Jesus Christ whom He hath sent'* (Joh. xvii 3). — The word 
*^names^^ powerfully suggests the individuality and speciality of Divine 

4. Rejoice in the Lord] Cp. iii. i, and note. 

ahuayi This word is a strong argument against the rendering **Fare' 
wellf** instead of *^ Rejoice.^^ ** Always" would read strange and un- 
natural in such a connexion. And cp. i Thess. v. 16. 

He leads them here above all uncertain and fluctuating reasons for 
joy, to Him Who is the supreme and unalterable gladness of the be- 
lieving soul, beneath and above all changes of circumstances and sen- 

6. moderation] 'R.Y.t*\/brbearanee**; mBi^n,"£:efttleness";Vlycli(, 
** patience" i Tyndale and Cranmer, "softeties"; Geneva, **pcUient 
mynde"i Rheims, **modestie"\ Lat. versions, modestia; Beza, ceguitas; 
Luther, Lindigkeit, The word is full of interest and significance, and is 
very difficult of translation. Perhaps fort)earaiioe, though inadequate, 
is a fair rendering. It means in effect considerateness, the attitude of 
thought and will which in remembrance of others forgets self, and wil- 
lingly yields up the purely personal claims of self. The ^^ self-less" man 
is the *' moderate" man of^this passage; the man who is yielding as 
air in respect of personal feeling or interest, though firm as a rock 
in respect of moral principle. See an excellent discussion, Trench, 

112 PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. 6. 

6 is at hand. Be careful for nothing ; but in every thing by 
prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests 

Synonyms^ §xUii. — The editor may be allowed to refer to a small book 
of his own in further illustration, Thoughts on the Spiritual Life, ch. iii. 

be known^ &c.] Trench (quoted above) shews that the quality here 
commended is essentially, by usage as well as etymology, a thing having 
to do with life, action, intercourse. For its existence, so to speak, 
society is necessary. **Men" must be met and dealt with, and so must 
**know" it by its practical fruits. 

*^ The Lord is at haniP\'—'m the sense o( presence, not of coming, 
Cp. Psal. cxix. (LXX. cxviii.) 151, **Thau art near, O Lord**; where 
the Greek is the same. And for the spuritual principle, see Psal. xxxi. 
19, 20, cxxi. 5. Not that the deeply calming expectation of the Lord's 
approaching Return is excluded from thought here; but Psal. cxix. 
decides for the other as the leading truth. 

6. Be careful for ftothing\ Better, in modem English, In notlilnf: be 
anxious (R.V.). Wyclif, **be ye no thing bisie"; all the other older 
English versions are substantially as A.V.; Luther, Sorget nichls; Latin 
versions, Nihil solliciti sitis (fueritis)» On the etymol<^ of the Greek 
verb, and on the thought here, see note above, ii. 20. There the mental 
action here blamed is commended ; a discrepancy fiilly harmonized by a 
view of different conditions. Here, the saints are enjoined to deal with 
every trying circumstance of life as those who know, and act upon, the 
fact that "the Lord thinketh on me" (Psal. xl. 17). Cp. Mark iv. 19; 
Luke viii. 14, x. 41, xxi. 34; i Cor. vii. 32; i Pet. v. y. 

The English word ^Uare** is akin to older Teutomc words meaning 
lamentation, murmur, sorrow, and is not connected with the Lat. cura 

iSkeat, £iym. Diet,), English literature, from "Piers Plowman" 
cent. 14) to Shakspeare and the A.V., abounds in illustrations of 
the meaning of the word here. E.g., Vision of Piers Plowman^ v. 76 : 
"carefuUich Ptea culpa he comsed to shewe"; i.e. "he anxiously com- 
menced to unfold'' his sins in the confessionaL So, in the same 
writer, a mournful song is "a careful note." 

in every thing] An all-inclusive positive, to justify the all-inclusive 
n^ative just before. — Observe here, as so often, the tendency of Chris- 
tian precepts to a holy universality of scope. Cp. Eph. iv. 29, 31, v. 3, 
and notes in this Series. 

by prayer and supplicationi We might almost paraphrase the Greek, 
where each noun has an article, ^^hy your prayer &c."; by the prayer 
which of course you offer. 

"Prayer*' is the larger word, often including all kinds and parts of 
"worship"; "supplication" is the more definite. Cp. Eph. vi. 18, and 
note in this Series. The two words thus linked together are meant, how- 
ever, less to be distinguished than to include and enforce the fullest and 
freest "speaking unto the Lord." 

with thanksgiving^ " The temper of the Christian should always be 
one of thanksgiving. Nearly every Psalm, however deep the sorrow 
and contrition, escapes into the happy atmosphere of praise and grati- 

v.;.] PHILIPPIANS, IV. n^ 

be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which 7 
passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds 

tude. The Psalms, in Hebrew, are the Praises, All prayer onght to 
include the element of thanksgiving, for mercies temporal and spiritual'' 
(Note by the Dean of Peterborough). — The privilege of prayer is in 
itself an abiding theme for grateful praise. 

be made known\ Exactly as if He needed information. True faith 
will accept and act upon such a precept with very little questioning or 
discussion of its rationale. Scripture is full of illustrations of it in prac- 
tice, from the prayers of Abrah3.m (Gen. xv., xvii., xviii.) and of Abra- 
ham's servant (Gen. xxiv.) onward. It is for the Eternal, not for us, 
to reconcile such humble but most real statements and requests on our 
part with His infinity. 

This verse is a caution against the view of prayer taken by some 
Mystic Christian thinkers, in which all articulate petition is meiged in 
the soul's perpetual ^^Thy will be done,** See Mme. Guyon, Moyen 
Court de /aire Oraison^ ch. xvii. Such a doctrine has in it a sacred 
element of truth, but as a whole it is out of harmony with the divindy 
balanced precepts of Scripture. 

7. And'\ An important link. The coming promise of the Peace of 
God is not isolated, but in deep connexion. 

the peace of God] The chastened but glad tranquillity, caused by 
knowledge of the God of peace, and given by His Spirit to our spirit. 
Cp. Col. iii. 15 (where read, *'the peace of Christ"); Joh. xiv. 27. The 
long and full previous context all leads up to this; the view of our ac- 
ceptance in and for Christ alone (iii. 3 — 9) ; the deepening knowledge of 
the living Lord and His power (10); the expectation, in the path of 
spiritual obedience, of a blessed future (11 — 21); watchful care over 
communion with Christ, and over a temper befitting the Gospel, and 
over the practice of prayer (iv. 1—6). 

Here is the true "Quietism" of the Scriptures. 

all understanding] * * All mind^ " * * all thinking power, " Our truest 
reason recognizes that this peace exists, because God exists ; our articu- 
late reasoning cannot overtake its experiences; they are always above, 
below, beyond. Cp. Eph. iii. 19. 

shall heep] Observe the definite promise; not merely an aspiration, 
or even an invocation. Cp. Isai. xxvL 3. The Latin versions, mis- 
takenly, read custodial, 

R.V., shall guard. This is better, except as it breaks in on the im« 
memorial music of the Benediction. All the older English versions 
have **heep,** except the Genevan, which has *^defend,** "Guard" (or 
•*defend") represents correctly the Greek verb, which is connected with 
nouns meaning ** garrison," **fort," and the like, and also prevents die 
mistake of explaining the sentence — **sha}l heep you in CnnsU prevent 
you from going out of Christ." What it means is that, **i» Christ 
Jesus," who is the one true spiritual Region of blessing, the peace of 
God shall protect the soul against its foes. 


114 PHiLIPPIANS, IV. [v. S. 

8 through Christ Jesus. Finally, brethren, whatsoever things 
are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things 
are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are 
lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any 

hearts\ The word in Scripture includes the whole "inner man"; 
understanding, affections, wiU. 

minds] Lit. and better, thouglits, acts of mind. The holy serenity 
of the believer's spirit, in Christ Jesus, shall be the immediate means 
of shielding even the details of mental action from the tempter's power. 
Cp. Eph. vi. 1 6, where the "faith" which accepts and embraces the 
promise occupies nearly the place given here to the peace which is the 
substance of the promise. 

through Christ yestis] Lit. and better, in. — See last note but two. 


8. Finally] A phrase introducing a precept, or precepts, more or 
less based on what has gone before. See above, on iii. i. 

He begs them to give to their minds, thus "safeguarded" by the 
peace of God, all possible pure and healthful material to work upon, 
of course with a view to practice. Let them reflect on, take account of, 
estimate aright, (see note below on ** think on these things"), all that 
was true and good ; perhaps specially in contrast to the subtle perver- 
sions of moral principle favoured by the persons described above (iii. 
1 8, 19), who dreamed of making an impossible divorce between the 
spiritual and the moral. 

true] Both in the sense of irvL^-speaking and truth-^^'w^. Truthful- 
ness of word, and sincerity of character, are absolutely indispensable to 
holiness. Nothing is more unsanctified than a double meaning, or a 
double purpose, however ** pious" the " fraud." 

honest] Margin, *'2;^^<a^/f"; R.V., honourable. The adjective is 
rendered ^^grave,** 1 Tim. iii. 8, 11; Titus ii. 1. It points to serious 
purposes, and to self-respect; no small matter in Christianity. In older 
English ** honest^* bore this meaning more than at present. 

just] Right, as between man and man; scrupulous attention to all 
relative duties. 

pure] Perhaps in the special respect of holy chastity of thought and 
act as regards the body. There may be more in the word : see 2 Cor. 
vii. 11; and cp. i Joh. iii. 3. But most surely this is in it. See Trendi, 
Synonyms, ii. § xxxviii. 

lovely] Pleasing, amiable. Cp. for the English in this meaning, a Sam. 
i. 23. It is a meaning rare now, if not obsolete, but it was still common 
a century ago. — ^The Christian is here reminded that his Master would 
have him attend to manner as weU as matter in his life. Grace should 


virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things. 
Those things^ which ye have both learned, and received, d 
and heard, and seen in me, do: and the God of peace 
shall be with you. 

make gracious. Cp. i Pet. iii. 8. — The Rhemish version has ** amiable^* 

of good repor{\ Better, probably, sweet-spoken; *' loveliness" in the 
special respect of kindly and winning speech. So Lightfoot. Ellicott 
explains the word, however, in a dilerent direction ; " fair sounding,** 
•* high-toned*'; with a special reference to elevated \.x}xi}D& and principles. 
R.V. retains the rendering of A.V., with margin *^ gracious** 

i/ there he any virtue] "Whatever virtue there is.'* To complete 
his meaning, he bids them exercise thought on whatever is rightly 
called "virtue," even if not expressly described in the previous words. 
. The word rendered "virtue (arhi) occurs here only in St Paul, and 
elsewhere in N.T. only i Pet. ii. 9 (of God, and in the sense of 
** praise,*' as always in LXX.); 2 Pet. i. 3 (of God, as rightly read), and 
5 (twice), of an element in Christian character. It is remarkable that a 
favourite word of Greek ethics should be thus avoided 5 but the reason 
is not far to seek. By derivation and in usage it is connected with 
ideas of manhood, courage, and so self-reliance. The basis of good- 
ness in the Gospel is self-renunciation, in order to the reception of 
GRACE, the undeserved gift of God. 

Here however the Apostle concedes a place to the word, so to speak, 
as if to extend in every direction the view of what is right in action. 
In a Pet. i. 5 it is used with the quite special meaning of vigour in the 
life of grace. 

any praise] ** Whatever praise there is," justly given by the general 
human conscience. Here again he is, as it were, conceding a place to 
an idea not quite of the highest, yet not at discord with the high- 
est. It is not good to do right for the sake of the selfish pleasure of 
g raise; but it is right to praise what is rightly done, and such praise 
as a moral beauty, and may give to its recipient a moral pleasure not 
spoiled by selfishness. St Paul appeals to the existence of such a 
desert of praise, to illustrate again what he means when he seeks to 
attract their thoughts towards things recognized as good, ** There is 
such a thing as right praise ; make it an index of the things on which 
you should think.* 

think on] Literally, *^ reckon^ calculate**; see above, first note on 
this verse. 

9. Those things &c.] On the apparent egotism of this appeal, see 
on iii. 17. R.V. renders, somewhat better, Tlie tilings &c. 

have both learned &c.] Better, l)otli learned &c. The verbs are 
aorists, and the reference is to his long-past residence at Philippi. 
^^ received] Cp. i Cor. xi. 23, xv. i, 3; Gal. i. 9; Col. ii. 6; i Thess. 
ii. 13, iv. I. In all these cases the verb is used of learning a truth 
passed on by another. 

seen] Saw. See note i on this verse. 


li6 PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. la 

lo But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last 
your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were 

in pte] As specimen and model. See note on i. 26. Strictly 
speaking, the **in me** refers only to the "saw,** 

dd\ Practise, as a holy habit. 

and'\ See first note on ver, 7. 

the God of peace] Author and giver of the peace of God. Cp. for 
the phrase Rom. xv. 33, xvi. 20; 2 Cor. xiii. 11; i Thess. v. 23; 
Heb. xiii. 20. And see 2 Thess. iii. 16. In i Cor. xiv. 33 we have, 
**God is not the author of confusion, but of peace"; and there the 
** peace" is evidently Christian social peace, rather than that which 
resides in the spirit of the saint, or has to do with his personal relations 
with God (and cp. 2 Cor. xiii. 1 1). But the two are closely connected ; 
the Divine peace in the individual tends always, in its right development 
and action, to the peace of the community, for it means the dethrone- 
ment of the spirit of self. St Paul may thus have had in view here the 
need of more harmony among the Philippians, and of a nobler moral 
and spiritual tone (ver. 8) as an aid towards it. But the whole context 
is so full of the highest aspects of Christian experience that we take the 
present phrase to refer primarily, at least, to God as at peace with His 
people, and making peace within their hearts; the '*Lord of the 
sabbath" of the soul. 

10—20. He renders loving thanks for their Alms, 
brought him by epaphroditus. 

10. But"] The directly didactic message of the Epistle is now over, 
and he turns to the personal topic of the alms, for himself and his 
work, received through Epaphroditus from Philippi. 

I rejoiced] R.V., I rejoice; taking the Greek aorist as "epistolary." 
See on ii. 25. The aorist may refer, however, to the joy felt when the 
^ift arrived, the first thankful surprise; and if so, A.V. represents 
It rightly. 

in ike Lord] See last note on i. 8. — ^The whole circumstance, as 
well as the persons, was in deep connexion with Him. 

at the last] Better, with R.V., at lengtb; a phrase of milder 
emphasis. — ^^ At the last*^ (cp. Gen. xlix. 19) is ^^ at last** in an older 
form. The Philippians had sent St Paul a subsidy, or subsidies, 
before; but for reasons beyond their control there had been a rather 
long interval before this last. 

your care of me Iiath flourished] Better, you liave shot forth thought 
(as a branch or bud) for me; or, less lit., you have hurgeoned into 
thought for me. — The verb, only intransitive in the classics, is also 
' transitive in LXX. (see Ezek. xvii. 24) and Apocr3rpha (see Ecclus. 
1. 14). The poetic boldness of the phrase is noticeable; our second 
alternative translation fairly represents it. Perhaps the courteous kind- 
liness of the Apostle's thought comes out in it; an almost pleasantry 
of expression. 

wherein] Or, whereon; "with a view to which"; i. e., as the pre- 
vious words imply, with a view to an effort to aid him. 

w. II, 12.] PHILIPPIANS, IV. 117 

also careful, but ye lacked opportunity. Not that I speak n 
in respect of want : for I have learned, in whatsoever state 
I am, therewith to be content. I know both how to be xa 
abased, and I know how to abound: every where and in 
all things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, 

ye were careful] Te took thou^rht. The verb {fhronetn) is auite 
different from tliat in ver. 6. It bears here (and just above, where 
its infinitive is represented by the English noun ''thought'') the unusual 
meaning of definite thinkings not, as usual, that of being in a mental 
state. See on i. 7. 

The gracious, sympathetic recognition of good intentions is indeed 

lacked opportunity] Particularly, a suitable bearer had not been 

11. want] Better, perhaps, need, as less extreme in meaning. The 
Greek word occurs elsewhere only Mark xii. 44; of the great poverty of 
the Widow. 

T] Slightly emphatic. He implies an appeal to them to learn 
his secret for themselves. 

have learned] Lit., *'^did learn**; but probably the A.V. (and 
R.V.) rightly represent the Greek. It is possible, however, that he 
refers to the time of waiting for their aid as his learning time; ''I 
learned, in that interval, a lesson of content." 

He implies in any case that the pause in their assistance had been a 
time of some privation, though not from the higher point of view. 

content] Lit., ^* self-sufficient" \ in the sense oi omnia mea mecum 
porto. He did not depend upon circumstances for satisfaction. Such 
''sufficiency," but on very different principles, was a favourite Stoic 

12. to be abased] "To be /itzc;," in resources and comforts. The word 
is used in classical Greek of a river running low. 

to abound] as now, in the plenty the Philippians had provided. 
This experience, as well as the opposite, called for the skill of grace. 

every where and in all things] Lit., in evdrytUng and In all 
things ; in the details and total of experience. 

/ am instructed] I have 1)een initiated ; " / have leartted the secret " 
(R.V.). The Greek verb is akin to the words, mystis, mystirion^ and 
means to initiate a candidate into the hidden tenets and worship of the 
"Mysteries"; systems of religion in the Hellenic world derived 
perhaps from prehistoric times, and jealously guarded by their votaries. 
Admission to their arcana, as into Freemasonry now, was sought even 
by the most cultured ; with the special hope, apparently, of a peculiar 
immunity from evil in this life and the next. See Smith's Diet, of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities. It is evident that St Paul's adoption 
of such a word for the discovery of the "open secrets" of the Gospel 
IS beautifully suggestive. Lightfoot remarks that we have the same 
sort of adoption in his frequent use (and our Lord's, Matt xiii. 1 1 ; 

Ii^*; PHILIPPIAN'S, IV. [vT. 13,14. 

*$ both to abo'drA snd to sufier need. I can do all things 

M throng Chiist whidi strengtfaeneth me. Notwithstandii^ 

ye have well don^ that ye did commnnkate with my afllic- 

Kaik tr* II ; Luke TiiL 10 ; and see Reir. i. 20, x. 7, xvii. 5, 7) of the 
word ^^myttery** for a revealed secret of doctrine or prophecy. 

to be /ul[\ R.V., to lie filled. The Greek Tob is the same as e.g. 
Matt« r* 69 xiv, 10. St Panl uses it only here. Its first meaning was 
''to gire fodder to cattle," bnt it lost this lower reference in lat» 
Greek (Liditfoot). 

hungry \ No doubt often in stem reality. Cp. i Cor. iy. ii. 

18. / can do all things] More exactly, I liavB strength fas all 
tSllngi; whether to do or to bear. The Latin versions, beantifidly, 
render, omnia possum. The ''all tlungs" are, of coarse, not all things 
abfolutely; he is not the Omnipotent. They are "all things" with 
which he has to do, as the will of God brings them to £m; not 
the boundless field of possibilities, but a stra^ht line across it, the 
actual j>ath of duty and suffering, chosen not by himself but by his Lord 
and Master. The reference is thus limited and practical; but within 
that reference it is, observe, not ^*some'^ but "a//" things that he can 
meet in peace and strength. Cp. i Cor. x. 13; Eph. ii. 12. 

through Christ which strengtheneth me'\ With the best attested 
reading, and more exactly, in Him who enahleth me. The verb 
occuri elsewhere in the active, i Tim. i. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 17. It occurs 
in the middle or passive, Acts ix. 22; Rom. iv. 20; £ph. vi. 10; 
9 Tim. ii. i ; Heb. xi. 34. It imports the supply on the one hand and 
reception and realization on the other of a supernatural ability 
{dynAmis)^ coming out in action. 

Observe the phrase, *'»'» Him.*' It is in vital union with his Head 
that the ''member" is thus able for '*all things," and in no other way 
(cp. Joh. XV. ^, 5; 2 Cor. ix. 8, xii. 9, xo). But this way is open 
to the submissive faith of every true Christian, not of Apostles and 
Martyrs onlv. 

The word **Chnst** is not in the true text, but is manifestly a 
true * 'gloss.** 

14. Notwithstanding] "Again the Apostle's nervous anxiety to 
clear himself interposes" (Lishtfoot). We would rather call it loving 
care than nervous anxiety. He is tender over their fedings, as he 
ttiinks how "their deep poverty has abounded to the riches of their 
liberality" (2 Cor. viii. i, 2), in love to him and to the Lord; and not 
even his testimony to the power of Christ shall make him seem to slight 
their collection. 

yi havi wtii dom] Better, perhaps, ye did well; when you gave and 
sent your alms. 

ttmmnHicali with] Better, as more intelligible to modem readers, 
takA a ihAM In. For the thought, cp. on i. 7. Their sympathy, coming 
out iu selfsieiiial, 6i^ftl their exj^erience ^th that of the imprisoned and 
im|iovcrishcd A^xvitlc. 

vv. 15—17.] PHILIPPIANS, IV. 119 

tion. Now ye Philippians know also, that in the beginning 15 
of the gospel, when I departed from Macedonia, no church 
communicated with me as concerning giving and receiving, 
but ye only. For even, in Thessalonica ye sent once and x6 
again unto my necessity. Not because I desire a gift : but 17 

16. //oTv] Better, But. He suggests, with the same delicacy of 
love, that their previous gifts would have sufficed, without this gift, to 
witness and seal their hearts* cooperation with him. ''You have done 
well in such participation; dui indeed you had assured its existence 

ye Philippiam ktuw also] Better, ye yourselves too know, ShUip- 
plans; ye, as well as I. — ^^ Philippians^^ : — the form used by St Paul is 
**" Philippesians^\ one of several forms of the civic adjective. The same 
appears in the ancient "TiUe" (see above) and in the "Subscription" 
below. See Lightfoot here. 

the gospel] I.e. his evangelization (of their region). For this mean- 
ing of "the Gospel" cp. 1 Cor. x. 14 (and perhaps viii. 18) ; Gal. ii. 7; 
I Thess. iii. 2; and above, i. 5, 7, 12, iv. 3. 

when I departed from Macedonia] He refers to about the time of his 
advance into "Achaia," Roman Southern Greece; just before and just 
after he actually crossed the border. For the narrative, cp. Acts xvii. 
I — 15. This is a reminiscence after an interval of about ten years. 

communicated with me] Better, took its sbare witb me. See last 
note on ver. 14. 

as concerning] Better, with R.V., In the matter of. 

giving and receiving] I.e., their giving a subsidy to him, and his re- 
ceiving; it from them. The Greek phrase is a recognized formula, like our 
"credit and debit." See Lightfoot here. To bring in the thought of 
their "giving temporal things" and "receiving spiritual things" (i Cor, 
ix. 11) is to complicate and confuse the passage. 

ye only] No blame of other Churches is necessarily implied. The 
thought is occupied with the £Eict of a sure and early proof of Philippian 

16. even in Thessalonica] "Even when Iwcu there." — Thessalonica 
was just 100 Roman miles (about 9a English) from Philippi, on the 
Via Egnatia, Amphipolis and Apollonia were the two intermediate 
road-stations, about 50 miles from each other, and apparently Paul and 
Silas passed only a night at each, hastening to Thessalonica, where 
probably they spent some weeks, or even months (Acts xvii. i — 9; and 
cp. Conybeare and Howson, Life and Epistles &c., ch. ix.; Lewin, Z. atui 
E» &c., vol. I. chap. xi.). Thus Thessalonica was practically the 
Apostle's first pause after leaving Philippi ; and it was in Macedonia. 

once and again] Within a short stay at the longest. In Acts xvii. 
only "three sabbaths" are mentioned; but the Epistles to Thessalonica 
seem to imply that he stayed somewhat longer, by their allusions to the 
impression made at Thessglonic^ by his and his companions' life and 
example. See i Thess. ii. i — 12; % Thess. iii. 7, 8» 

I20 PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. i8. 

1 8 I desire fruit that may abound to your account But I 
have all, and abound : I am full, having received of Epa- 
phroditus the things which were sent from you, an odour of 
a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well pleasing to God, 

my necessity\ The profits of his hard manual lahour at Thessalonica 
(see I and 2 Thess. just quoted) evidently left him still very poor. He 
would take nothing of the Thessalonians, while still actually introducing 
the Gospel to them. 

17. Not &c.] Here again see the sensitive delicacy of love. Tliis 
allusion to the cherished past, begun with the wish to shew that he 
needed no present proof of sympathy, might after all be taken to be 
"thanks for future" liberality. It shall not be so. 

desire\ Better, with R.V., seek. The verb occurs e.g. Matt. xii. 39; 
Rom. xi. 7. Both its form and usage suggest here the appropriate 
meaning of an active, restless search; a "hunting for** the object. 

a gift] Lit. and much better, the gift ; the mere money of the col- 

desire\ Again, seek : the same idea, with a beautiful change of refer- 
ence. A 

fruit that may abound] Lit. and better, tbe firult &c. — St Chrysos- 
tom*s comment here, in which he uses the Greek verb akin to the noun 
(tokos) meaning interest on money ^ seems to imply that he, a Greek, un- 
derstood the phrase to be borrowed from the money-market. If so, we 
may translate, the interest that is accruing to your credit. The 
imagery, by its very paradox, would be appropriate in this passage of 
ingenious kindness. The only objection to the rendering is that the 
precise Greek words are not actually found in special pecuniary con- 
nexions, though they would easily fit into them. 

" That may '* ; — ^that does is certainly right, and in point. He regards 
it as as a present certainty that "Gcxl is well pleased'* (Heb. xiii. 16) 
with their gift of love, and that the blessed ** profit'* of His "well done, 
good and faithful** (Matt. xxv. 11) is secure for them. 

18. Bui] He carries on the correction, begun in ver. 17, of a pos- 
sible misunderstanding of his warm words. He must not be thought 
to "spell" for future gifts, least of all now, so amply supplied as he is. 

I have all] The Greek verb is one used in connexions of pajrment, to 
express a full receipt. We might almost paraphrase, "you have paid 
me in full in all respects.** 

and abound] It is enough, and more than enough; I "run over" 
with your bounty. See ver. i«, above. 

Epaphroditus] See on ii. 25, 30. We learn definitely here that he 
was the bringer of the collection. 

the ^ings] He seems to avoid the word ^^ money,** It was more 
than money; the coin was the symbol of priceless love. 

an odour of a sweet smell] See Eph. v. 1, for the same Greek 
phrase. It is common in LXX. as the translation of the Heb. rSaeh 
ntchSachy a savour of rest ; the fume of the altar, smelt by the Deity, 

w. 19, 20.] PHILIPPIANS, IV. 121 

But my God shall supply all your need according to his 19 
riches in glory by Christ Jesus. Now unto God and our 20 
Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

(in the picture language of t3rpical sacrifices), and recognized as a token 
of welcome aU^ance or propitiation. See note in this Series on £ph. 
V. 2. — Here the fragrance is that of either the "burnt-offering" of self- 
dedication (see Lev. i. 9), or the *'meal offering," or "peace offering," 
of thanksgiving (see Lev. il 2, iii. 5), or of both combined, as they are 
combined in our Liturgy of the Holy Communion. 

a sacrifice acceptable &c.] Cp. last note, and Heb. xiii. i(5* See also 
£ph. vi. 8, and note in this Series. 

19. But\ R.V., ''And:' But surely there is a slight contrast 
meant, to an implied wish that he could send back some material requital 
of his own to alleviate their "deep poverty" (a Cor. viii. a). 

my God] Words deeply characteristic of St Paul. See on i. 3 above. 
Bp Lightfoot well remarks that the phrase is specially in point here; 
the Apostle is thinking of what God on his behalf ^asSi do for others. 

shall supply] Promise, not only aspiration. He is sure of His faith- 
fulness. — ''Supply*': — lit., "^//," pouring His bounty into the void of 
the "need.** 

all your need] R.V., somewhat better, every need of yonrs. See 
again, 2 Cor. viii. 2, where the exceptional poverty of the converts of 
Northern Greece is referred to. The prominent thought here is, surely, 
that of temporal poverty. Cp. particularly 1 Cor. ix. 8, where the 
first reference seems to be to God*s ability to supply to His self- 
denying servants always more from which they may still spare and give. 
But neither here nor in 2 Cor. are we for a moment to shut out the 
widest and deepest applications of the truth stated. 

his ric/ies in glory] His resources, consisting in, and so lodged in. 
His own "glory of Divine power and love. Cp. Rom. vi. 4, and note 
in this Series, for a similar use of the word "glory." — Bp Lightfoot 
prefers to connect "shcUl supply ^ in glory ^ your need^ according 
to His riches,*' and he explains the thought to be, "shall supply 
your need by placing you in glory,** But we venture to think this 
construction needlessly difficult. — Anything in which God is "glorified" 
(see e. g. Gal. L 24) is, as it were, a reflection of His holy glory, and a 
result of it. Tender providential goodness to the poor Philippians would 
be such a result. 

On St Paul's love of the word "riches" in Divine connexions, 
cp. Eph. i. 7, and note in this Series. 

in Christ Jesus] "in whom dwelleth all the fulness of the God- 
head," "in whom" the saints are "filled," as regards all their needs 
(Col. il. 9, 10). The "glory" of both grace and providence is lodged, 
for His people, in Him. 

20. God and our Father] Better, our Ck>d and Father; the ultimate 
Source of all faith, love, and hope in the brethren and members of His 
Son. — ^'Oitr**: — **It is no longer [*///y'], for the reference is now 

122 PHILIPPIANS, IV. [W. 21, 22. 

SI Salute every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren which 
33 are with me greet you. All the saints salute you, chiefly 


not to himself as disdngaished from the Philippians, bat as miited 
to them" (Lightfoot). 

fiory] lit and better, tlie gloiy; the adorii^ praise due in ^iew of 
this their act of love, and of the certainty of a full sopply of all their 

for ever and ever] Lit., **la the ages of the ages^ The A.V. (and 
R«V.) are a true paraphrase. On the woid ai^ (age) see notes in this 
Series, on Rom. xvi. 25; Eph. i. ai. The idea conveyed by the phrase 
here is of circles of duration consisting of, embracing, other drdes 
ad infinitum. 

Amen] Probably, but not quite certainly, to be retained in the text. 
The woixl is properly a Hebrew adverb {"surely**), repeatedly used as 
here in O. T. See e.g. Deut. xxviL 15; Psal. Ixxii. 19; Jer. xi. 5 
(marg. A. V.). 

21—28. Salutations and Fajlewell. 

21. Salute] Cp. Rom. xvL 3 — 16. 
saint] See on i. i. 

in Christ Jesus] See on i. i. — ^The words may grammatically be 
connected with either ^^salute,^ to which Lightfoot indines, or ''*■ saints 
In view of i. i, we recommend the latter. See on the other side (with 
Lightfoot) Rom. xvi. 22; i Cor. xvi. 19. 

the brethren which are with me] ** Apparently the Apostle's personal 
companions... as distinguished from the Christians resident in Rome, 
who are described in the following verse " (Lightfoot). 

greet] Better, with R.V., salute. The verb is the same as that just 

22. chiefly] More exactly, but Chiefly. There was something 
marked and emphatic about this message. 

they of Cesar' s household] "Probably slaves and freedmen attached 
to the palace*' (Lightfoot). It has been sometimes assumed that these 
persons, on the other hand, were members of the imperial family, and 
this has been used either to prove the remarkable advance of the 
Gospel in the highest Roman society during St Paul's first captivity, 
and incidentally to evidence a late date in that captivity for the Epistle, 
or to support a theory of the spuriousness of the Epistle. Bp Lightfoot, 
in an "additional note," or rather essay {Philippians, pp. 171 — 178), 
has shewn with great fulness of proof that the "household of Caesar" 
was a term embracing a vast number of persons, not only in Rome but 
in the provinces, all of whom were either actual or former slaves of the 
Emperor, filling every possible description of office more or less domestic. 
The Bishop iUustrates his statements from the very numerous burial 
inscriptions of members of the '* Household" found within the last 170 
years near Rome, most of them of the period of the Julian and Claudian 
Emperors. And the names of persons in these inscriptions afford a 

V. 23.] PHILIPPIANS, IV. 1^3 

they that are of Cesar's household. The grace of our Lord aj 
Jesus Christ de with you aU. Amen. 

It was written to the PhUippians from Rome hy Epaphroditus. 

curiottsly large number of coincidences with the list in Rom. xvi. ; 
among them being Amplias, Urbanus, Apelles, Tryphaena, Tryphosa, 
Patrobas, Philologus. And it appears by the way to be very probable 
that both AristobiUus* and Narcissus' *' households" (Rom. xvi. lo, 
ii) were in fact the slave-establishments of the son of Herod the 
Great, and of the favourite of Claudius, respectively, transferred to the 
possession of the Emperor. Bp Lightfoot infers from this whole 
evidence the great probability that the "saints" greeted in Rom. xvi. 
were, on the whole, the same "saints" who send greeting here from 
Rome. Various as no doubt were their occupations, and their native 
lands, the members of the Household of Caesar as such must have had 
an gsprii de corps^ and, for their rank in society, a prestige, which made 
it humanly speaking likely that a powerful influence, like that of the 
Gospel, if felt among them at all, would be felt widely, and that they 
would be in the way to make a distinctive expression of their faith and 
love, when occasion offered. 

The view thus given of the saints here mentioned, their associations 
and functions, not only in the age of Nero but in the precincts of 
his court, and probably for many of them within the chambers of his 
palace, gives a noble view in passing of the power of grace to triumph 
over circumstances, and to transfigure life where it seems most impos- 

A certain parallel to the Household of Caesar appears in the vast 
Maison du Roy of the later French monarchy. But the Maison was 
for the noblesse alone. 

23. The grace] So every Epistle of St PauVs closes, or almost 
closes. In the Ep. to the Romans this benediction occurs twice ; xvi. 
Qo, «4. The exact form found here occurs also Gal. vi. i8; Philem. 25. 
— Observe the deeply implied testimony to the Divine glory of the 
Saviour, who is mentioned here alone, and in conclusion, as the 
Fountain of grace. 

miA you ail] Read, with your spirit : the inmost basis of the life 
and will of man, and here of regenerate man. That ** spirit" is not 
annulled, or absorbed, by the Divine power; the "grace" is to be 
"w/M" it (cp. I Cor. XV. 10). But it is also to be ''in" it (see ii. la 
above), possessing, assimilating, transforming, into the likeness of Ilim 
whose presence and power is grace. 

Atneti] The word is probably to be omitted from the text. Cut 
though the Apostle did not write it, the reader can supply it as his 
own response. 

The Subscription. 

// was written.,. by Epaphroditus] ^* Written by^^ is, of course, 
**sent by meam ofy by the hand of,*^ — ^The words obviously give the 
facts of the case correctly. It is equally obvious that they were not in 

124 • ^^^- PHILIPPIANS, IV. [v. 23. 

the original copies. Of the many Yaiying "Sahscriptions'* in extant 
MSS., the shortest appears to be the oldest ; To the Phiuppians 
(Philippesians ; see on iv. 15 above). Others are, It was written 
FEOM Rome; It was written &c bt Epaphrodffus, or, in one 
case, by Epaphroditus and Timotheus. In one MS. appears 
[The Epistle] to the Phiuppians is fulfilled, in another, is 

On the Subscriptions to St Paul's Epistles, see Scrivener's Introduce 
turn to the Criticism of the N, T. (Ed. 1883, p. 61). They are ascribed 
(in their longer form) to Euthalius, a bishop of the fifth century. See 
further, note in this Series on the Subscription to the Epistle to the 



A. St Paul's Residence at Rome F. Robert Hall on Phil. ii. 5—8. 

(Introd. p. so) zas — Baur's theory (Ch. il 6) ... zjt 

B. ** Saints and faithful brethren ** G. Ad. Monod on St Paul's Tears 

(Ch, i. x) Z28 (Ch. ui. 18) 133 

C Bishops and Deacons (Ch. i. x) X28 H. Family Affection of Christi- 

D. £bionite(niristology((^i. X5) X3Z anity (Ch. iv. i) 134 

£. Christology and Christianity I. Philippi and the Epistle (Ch. iv. 

(Ch.ii;5) Z33 x8) 134 

(Introduction, p. 20») 

"St Paul arrived in Rome, from Melita, in the spring of a. D. 61, 
probably early in March. There he spent *two full years' (Acts 
xxviii. 30), at the close of which, as we have good reason to believe, he 
was released. 

** In the long delay before his trial* he was of course in custody ; 
but this was comparatively lenient. He occupied lodgings of his own 
(Acts xxviii. 16, 23, 30), probably a storey or flat in one of the lofly 
houses common in Rome. It is impossible to determine for certain 
where in the City this lodging was, but it is likely that it was either 
in or near the great Camp of the Praetorians, or Imperial Guard, out- 
side the CoUine Gate, just N.E. of the city'. In this abode the 
Apostle was attached day and night by a light coupling-chain to a 
Praetorian sentinel, but was as free, apparently, to invite and maintain 
general intercourse as if he had been merely confined by illness. 

**The company actually found in his rooms at different times was 
very various. His first visitors (indeed they must have been the 
providers of his lodging) would be the Roman Chrbtians, including 

1 Due probably to procrastination in the prosecution and to the caprice of the 
Emperor. See Lewin, vol. 11. p. 336^ for a parallel case. 
« See Bp Lightfoot, PAUip/fans, pp. 9 &c., 99 &c ; [and our note on Phil. i. 13], 


all, or many, of the saints named in a passage (Rom. xvi.) written only 
a very few years before. Then came the representatives of the Jewish 
community (Acts xxviii. 17, 23), but apparently never to return, 
as such, after the long day of discussion to which they were first 
invited. Then from time to time would come Christian brethren, 
envoys from distant Churches, or personal friends ; Epaphroditus from 
Philippi, Aristarchus from Thessalonica, Tychicus from Ephesus, 
Epaphras from Colossae, John Mark, Demas, Jesus Justus. Luke, 
the beloved physician, was present perhaps always, and Timotheus, 
the Apostle's spiritual son, very frequently. One other memorable 
name occurs, Onesimus, the fugitive Colossian slave, whose story, 
indicated in the Epistle to Philemon, is at once a striking evidence 
of the perfect liberty of access to the prisoner granted to anyone 
and everyone, and a beautiful illustration both of the character of 
St Paul and the transfiguring power and righteous principles of the 

"No doubt the visitors to this obscure but holy lodging were far more 
miscellaneous than even this list suggests. Through the successive 
Praetorian sentinels some knowledge of the character and message 
of the prisoner would be always passing out. The right interpretation 
of Phil. i. 13^ is, beyond reasonable doubt, that the true account of 
Paul's imprisonment came to be * known in the Praetorian regiments, 
and generally among people around'; and Phil. iv. 22 indicates 
that a body of earnest and affectionate converts had arisen among the 
population of slaves and freedmen attached to the Palace of Nero. 
And the wording of that passage suggests that such Christians found a 
welcome meeting place in the rooms of the Apostle; doubtless for 
frequent worship, doubtless also for direct instruction, and for the 
blessed enjoyments of the family affection of the Gospel. Meanwhile 
(PhiL i. 15, 16) there was a section of the Roman Christian community, 
probably the disciples infected with the prejudices of the Pharisaic 
party (see Acts xv., &c.), who, with very few exceptions (see Col. 
IV. 1 1 and notes), took sooner or later a position of trying antagonism 
to St Paul; a trial over which he triumphed in the deep peace of 

"It is an interesting possibility, not to say probability, that from time 
to time the lodging was visited by inquirers of intellectual fame or 
distinguished rank. Ancient Christian tradition^ actually makes the 
renowned Stoic writer, L. Annseus Seneca, tutor and counsellor of 
Nero, a convert of St Paul's ; and one phase of the legend was the 
fabrication, within the first four centuries, of a correspondence between 
the two. It is quite certain that Seneca was never a Christian, though 
his language is full of startling superficial parallels to that of the 
N.T., and most full in his latest writings. But it is at least very likely 
that he heard, through his many channels of information, of St Faurs 
existence and presence, and that he was intellectually interested in 
his teaching; and it is quite possible that he cared to visit him. It 

I See 6p Lightfoot, PhilippianSt pp. 99 &c., [and our notes on 
* The first hmt appears in TertuUian, cent. 3 — 3. 

Phil. L 13]. 


is not improbable, surely, that Seneca's brother Gallio (Acts xviii. 11) 
may have described St Paul, however passingly, in a letter; for 
Gallio*s religious indifference may quite well have consisted with a 
strong personal impression made on him by St Paul's bearing. Festus 
himself was little interested in the Gospel, or at least took care to seem 
so, and yet was deeply impressed 1^ the personnel of the Apostle. And, 
again, the Prefect of the Imperial Guard, A.D. 6r, was Afranius Burrus, 
Seneca's intimate colleague as counsellor to Nero, and it is at least 
possible that he had received from Festus a more than commonplace 
description of the prisoner consigned to him^. 

"Bp Lightfoot, in his Essay, 'St Paul and Seneca* (PhilippianSt 
pp. 270, &c.), thinks it possible to trace in some of the Epistles of the 
Captivity a Christian adaptation of Stoic ideas. The Stoic, for 
example, made much of the individual's membership in the great Body 
of the Universe, and citizenship in its great City. The connexion 
suggested is interesting, and it fails quite within the methods of Divine 
inspiration that materials of Scripture imagery should be collected from 
a secular region. But the language of St Paul about the Mystical 
Body, in the Ephesian Epistle particularly, reads far more like a 
direct revelation than like an adaptation ; and it evidently deals with 
a truth which is already, in its substance, perfectly familiar to the 

** Other conspicuous personages of Roman society at the time have 
been reckoned by tradition among the chamber-converts of St Paul, 
among them the poet Lucan and the Stoic philosopher Epictetus^. 
But there is absolutely no evidence for these assertions. It is in- 
teresting and suggestive, on the other hand, to recall one almost certain 
case of conversion about this time within the highest Roman aristo- 
cracy. Pomponia Grsecina, wife of Plautius the conqueror of Britain, 
was accused (a.d. 57, probably), of * foreign superstition,' and tried 'by 
her husband as domestic judge. He acquitted her. But the deep 
and solemn seclusion of her life (a seclusion begun A.D. 44, when her 
friend the princess Julia was put to death, and continued unbroken till 
her own death, about A.D. 84), taken in connexion with the charge, as 
in all likelihood it was, of Christianity, * suggests that, shunning 
society, she sought consolation in the duties and hopes of the Gospel'*, 
leaving for ever the splendour and temptations of the world of Rome. 
She was not a convert, obviously, of St Paul's; but her case suggests 
the possibility of other similar cases." 

Commentary oft the Epistle to Ephesians (in this Series), Intro- 
duction, pp. 16 — 19. 

^ We cannot but think that Bp Lightfoot {JPhilippinns^ p. 301) somewhat under* 
rates the prol^tbility that Gallio and Burrus should have given Seneca an interest in 
St Paul 

* It appears in the First £p. to the Corinthians, written a few years before the £p. 
to the Ephesians. See z Cor. xii. 

* For the curiously Christian tone of Epictetus' writings here and there, see 
Bp Lightfoot, Philippians^ pp. 31^ &c. The Manual of Epictetus is a book of gold 
in its own way, but still that way is not Christian. 

4 Bp Lightfoot, PhilippianSf p. ax. 



**It is universally admitted... that Scripture makes use of presump- 
tive or hypothetical language.... It is generally allowed that when all 
Christians are addressed in the New Testament as 'saints,* * dead to 
sin,* * alive unto God,* * risen with Christ,* * having their conversation 
in heaven,' and in other like modes, they are addressed so h3rpotheti- 
cally, and not to express the literal fact that all the individuals so 
addressed were of this character; which would not have been true.... 
Some divines have indeed preferred as a theological arrangement a 
secondary sense of [such terms] to the hypothetical application of it in 
its true sense. But what is this secondary sense when we examine it? 
It^ is itself no more than the true sense hypothetically applied.... 
Divines have... maintained a Scriptural secondary sense of the term 
* saint i as * saint by outward vocation and charitable presumption' 
(Pearson on the Creed^ Art. ix.) ; but this is in very terms only the real 
sense of the term applied hypothetically.*' 

J. B. MozLEY: Review of Baptismal Controversy^ p. 74 (ed. 1862). 


These words have suggested to Bp Lightfoot an Essay on the rise, 
development, and character, of the Christian Ministry, appended to his 
Commentary on the Epistle (pp. 189 — 269). The Essay is in fact a 
treatise, of the greatest value, calling for the careful and repeated study 
of every reader to whom it is accessible. Along with it may be use- 
fully studied a paper on the Christian Ministry in The Expositor for 
July, 1887, by the Rev. G. Salmon, D.D., now Provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 

All we do here is to discuss briefly the two official titles of the 
Philippian ministry, and to add a few words on the Christian Ministry 
in general. 

Bishops^ Episcopiy i.e. Overseers, The word occurs here, and Acts 
XX. 28; I Tim. iii. 2; Tit. i. 7; besides i Pet. ii. 25, where it is used 
of our Lord. The cognate noun, episcopi, occurs Acts i. 20 (in a 
quotation from the O.T.); i Tim. iii. i ; and in three other places not 
in point. The cognate verb, episcopetn^ occurs Heb. xiL 15 (in a 
connexion not in point) ; i Pet v. 2. 

On examination of these passages it appears that within the lifetime 
of SS. Peter and Paul there existed, at least very widely, a normal 
order of Church-officers called Episcopi^ Superintendents. They were 
charged no doubt with many varied duties, some probably semi-secular. 
But above all they had spiritual oversight of the flock. They were 
appointed not by mere popular vote, certainly not by self-designation, 


but in some special sense **by the Holy Ghost" (Acts xx. 28). This 

Ehrase may perhaps be illustrated by the mode of appointment of the 
rst "deacons" (Acts vi. 3), who were presented by the Church to the 
Apostles, for confirmatory ordination, as men already (among other 
marks of fitness) **full of the Holy Ghost.'* 

The episcopus was evidently not an official comparatively rare; there 
were more episcopi than one in the not very large community of 

Meanwhile we find another designation of Church-officers who are 
evidently in the same way shepherds and leaders of the flock; Presbyteri, 
Elders. They are mentioned fitst, without comment, at the time of the 
martyrdom of James the Great. See Acts xi. 30, xiv. 23, xv. 2, 4, 6, 
22, 23, xvi. 4, XX. 17, xxi. 18; I Tim. v. i, 17, 19; Tit. i. 5; Jas. 
V. 14; I Pet. V. I (and perhaps 5). See also 2 John i; 3 John i. 
These elders appear Acts xiv. 23; Tit i. 5; as "constituted** in local 
congregations by an Apostle, or by his immediate delegate. 

It is clear that the N.T. episcopus and presbyterus are in fact 
the same official under diffisring designations; episcopus^ a term 
borrowed mainly from the Gentiles, with whom it signified a super- 
intending commissioner; presbyterus^ from the "Eldership** of the 
Jews. This appears from Acts xx. 17, 28, where St Paul, addressing 
the Ephesian *'elders,** says that they have been appointed "bishops** 
of the flock. In the Pastoral Epistles it is similarly plain that the 
titles coincide. See also i Pet. v. i, 2, in the Greek. 

Whether both titles were from the first in use everywhere we cannot 
be sure. But it is not improbable. In the very earliest post-apostolic 
writings we find ** presbyters** at Corinth (Clem, Rom. to the Corinth- 
ians, i. cc. 42, 44), and "bishops** (with ^* deacons" as in Phil. i. i) 
in the further East (Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, c. 15). 

We trace the same spiritual officials under more general desig- 
nations, I Thess. V. 12, 13; Heb. xiii. 17; and perhaps i Cor. xii. 28 
{^^ governments^^, and Eph. iv. 11 {^^ pastors and teachers"). 

Deacons, Diaconi, i.e.. Workers. The title does not occur in the 
Acts, nor an3rwhere earlier than this Epistle, except Rom. xvi. i, 
where Phcebe is called a diaconus of the church at Cenchreae^. 
Here only and in i Tim. iii. 8, 12, is the word plainly used 
of a whole ministerial order. But in Acts vi. we find described 
the institution of an office which in all likelihood was the dia- 
conate. The functions of the Seven are pust those which have 
been ever since in history, even till now, assigned to deacons. And 
tradition, from cent. 2 onwards, is quite unanimous in calling the 
Seven by that title. 

Deacons are very possibly indicated by the word ''''helps" in i Cor. 
xii. 28. 

The deacon thus appears to have been primarily the officer ordained 

^ There is evidence of the existence in apostolic times of an organized class of 
female helpers in sacred work (see z Tim. v. 3 — z6). A little later the famous letter 
of Pliny to Trajan shews that such helpers (wintstra!)wcn known in the Churches.of 
Asia Minor. The order was abolished before cent. 12. 



to deal with the temporal needs of the congregation. But he was 
assumed to be a '^spiritual man," and he was capable of direct com- 
missioned spiritual work. 

It thus appears then that daring the lifetime of SS. Peter and Paul 
the word episcofus did not yet designate a minister presiding over and 
ruling other mmisters; a '* bishop" in the later and present sense. The 
episcopus was an ** overseer'* of not the shepherds but simply the flock, 
and might be (as at Philippi) one of several such in the same place. 

This fact, however, leaves quite open the question whether such a 
presiding ministry, however designated at first, did exist in apostolic 
times and under apostolic sanction. That it did so may be inferred from 
the following evidence, very briefly stated. 

It is certain that by the close of cent. 2 a deflnite presidential 
"episcopacy" (to which the word episcopus was then already appro- 
priated, seemingly without the knowledge that it had once been other- 
wise) appears everywhere in the Church. As early probably as A.D. 
no we find it, in the Epistles of St Ignatius, a prominent and im- 
portant fact of Church life, at least in the large circle of Churches 
with which Ignatius corresponded^. Later Church history presents us 
with the same constitution, though occasionally details of system vary*, 
and the conceptions of function and power were highly developed, not 
always legitimately. Now between Ignatius and St John, and even 
St Paul, the interval is not great; 30 or 50 years at the most. It 
seems, to say the least, unlikely that so large a Church institution, over 
whose rise we have no clear trace of controversy or opposition^ should 
have arisen quite out of connexion with apostolic precedent. Such 
precedent we find in the N.T., [a) in the presidency of Apostles during 
their lifetime, though strictly speaking their unique office had no 
"successors"; {b) in the presidency of their immediate delegates or 
commissioners (perhaps appointed only pro tempore), as Timothy and 
Titus; (c) in the presidency of St James the Less in the mother-church 
of Christendom ; a presidency more akin to later episcopacy than any- 
thing else in the N.T. 

We find fiirther that all early history points to Asia Minor as the 
scene of the fullest development of primitive episcopacy, and it con- 
sistently indicates St John, at Ephesus, as in a sense its fountain-head. 
It is at least possible that St John, when he finally took up his abode in 
Asia, originated or developed there the regime he had known so well at 

Meanwhile there is every reason to think that the episcopate, in this 
latter sense, rather grew out of the presbyterate than otherwise. The 
primeval bishop was primus inter pares. He was not so much one 
of another order as the first of his order, for special purposes of 

^ He does not mention the bishop in writing to the Roman Church. But there 
is other good evidence for the then presence of a bishop at Rome. 

' At Alexandria, till at least a.d. 260. the bishop was chosen and ordained by the 
presbyters. In the Church of Patrick (cent. 5) in Ireland and Columba Tcent. (5) in 
Scotland, the bishop was an ordainer, but not a diocesan ruler. See Boultbee, Hist, 
o/the Ckurch ofEnglarui, p. 25. 


government and ministration. Such, even cent. 5, is St Jerome's 
statement of the theory. And St Jerome regards the bishop as being 
what he is not by direct Divine institution, but by custom of the Church. 
Not till late cent. 2 do we find the sacerdotal^ idea familiarly attached 
to the Christian ministry, and not till cent. 3, the age of Cyprian, 
do we find the formidable theory developed that the bishop is the 
channel of grace to the lower clergy and to the people. 

On the whole, the indications of the N.T. and of the next earliest 
records confirm the statement of the Preface to the English Ordinal that 
**from the Apostles' time there have been these orders of ministers in 
Christ's Church, Bishops, Priests, and Deacons." On the other hand, 
having regard to the essentially and sublimely spiritual character of the 
Church in its true idea, and to the revealed immediate union of each 
member with the Head, by faith, we are not authorized to regard even 
apostolic organization as a matter of the first order in such a sense as 
that we should look on a duly ordained ministry as the indispensable 
channel of grace, or should venture to unchurch Christian communities, 
holding the apostolic faith concerning God in Christ, but differently 
organized from what we believe to be on the whole the apostolic models 
On the other hand, no thoughtful Christian will wish to forget the sacred 
obligations and benefits of external harmony and unity of organization, 
things meant to yield only to the yet greater claims of the highest spiri- 
tual truth. 


The allusion in our note to "lowered and distorted views'* of the 
Person of our Lord on the part of later Judaizers more or less Christian, 
has regard mainly to Edtontsm, a heresy first named by Irenaeus (cent 
2) but which seems to have been the direct descendant of the school 
which specially opposed St Paul. It lingered on till cent. 5. 

It appears to have had two phases; the Pharisaic and the Essene. 
As regards the doctrine of Christ's Person, the Pharisaic Ebionites held 
that Jesus was bom in the ordinary course of nature, but that at His 
Baptism He was "anointed by election, and became Christ" (Justin 
Martyr, Z?w/., c. xlix.); receiving power to fulfil His mission as 
Messiah, but still remaining man. He had neither pre-existence nor 
Divinity. The Essene Ebionites, who were in fact Gnostics, held (at 
least in many instances) that Christ was a super-angelic created Spirit, 
incarnate at many successive periods in various men (for instance, in 
Adam), and finally in Jesus. At what point in the existence of Jesus 
the Christ entered into union with Him- was not defined. 

See Smith's Diet, of Christian Biography ^ dbc^ art. Ehionism, 

> It will be remembered that the word Uat^^y sacerdcsj is never in N.T. a 
designation of the Christian minister. 

* This was fully owned by d^e sreat Anglican writers of cent. 17. See Bp Andzewes 
writing to Du Moulin; Bp Cosin to Basire; and Bp Hall's Peace Makers § 6. Op. 
J. J. 5. Perowne, D.D., CHurchf Ministry, oftd SacramentSi pp. 6, 7. 



"A Christianity without Christ is no Christianity; and a Christ 
not Divine is one other than the Christ on whom the souls of Christians 
have habitually fed. What virtue, what piety, have existed outside 
of Christianity, is a question totally distinct. But to hold that, since 
the great controversy of the early time was wound up at Chalcedon, 
the question of our Lord's Divinity has generated all the storms of the 
Christian atmosphere, would be simply an historical untruth. 

"Christianity... produced a type of character wholly new to the Roman 
world, and it fundamentally altered the laws and institutions, the tone, 
temper and tradition of that world. For example, it changed profoundly 
the relation of the poor to the rich... It abolished slavery, and a 
multitude of other horrors. It restored the position of woman in society. 
It made peace, instead of war, the normal and presumed relation 
between human societies. It exhibited life as a discipline... in all its 
parts, and changed essentially the place and function of suffering in 
human experience... All this has been done not by eclectic and arbitrary 
fancies, but by the creed of the Homoousion, in which the philosophy 
of modem times sometimes appears to find a favourite theme of ridicule. 
The whole fabric, social as well as personal, rests on the new type of 
character which the Gospel brought into life and action." 

W. E. Gladstone {^Nineteenth Century^ 
May 1888; pp. 780—784). 


The Rev. Robert Hall (1764 — 1831), one of the greatest of Christian 
preachers, was in early life much influenced by the Socinian theoloM?y. 
His later testimony to a true Christology is the more remarkable. The 
following extract is from a sermon " preached at the (Baptist) Chapel in 
Dean Street, South wark, June 27, iSi ^** {fVbrks, ed. 1833; vol. vi., 
p. 112): 

**He was found in fashion as a man: it was a wonderful discovery, 
an astonishing spectacle in the view of angels, that He who was in the 
form of God, and adored from eternity, should be made in fashion as a 
man. But why is it not said that He was a man? For the same 
reason that the Apostle wishes to dwell upon the appearance of our 
Saviour, not as excluding the reality, but as exemplifying His con- 
descension. His being in the form of God did not prove that He 
was not God, but rather that He was God, and entitled to supreme 
honour. So, His assuming the form of a servant and being m the 
likeness of man, does not prove that He was not man, but, on the 


contrary, includes it; at the same time including a manifestation of 
Himself, agreeably to His design of purchasing the salvation of His 
people, and dying for the sins of the world, by sacrificing Himself upon 
the Cross.** 

Baur {PauluSy pp. 458 — ^464) goes at length into the Christological 
passage, and actually contends for the view that it is written by one who 
nad before him the developed Gnosticism of cent. 7, and was not 
uninfluenced by it. In the words of ver. 6, a consciousness of the 
Gnostic teaching about the ^on Sophia, striving for an absolute union 
with the absolute being of the Unknowable Supreme ; and again about 
the ^ons in general, striving similariy. to * 'grasp'* the plerdma of 
Absolute Being and discovering only the more deeply in their effort 
this kendma of their own relativity and dependence. 

The best refutation of such expositions is the repeated perusal of the 
Epistle itself, with its noon-day practicality of precept and purity of 
affections, and not least its high language (ch. iii.) about the sanctity 
of the body — an idea wholly foreign to the Gnostic sphere of thought. 
It is true that Schrader, a critic earlier than Baur (see Alford, N,T, 
III. p. 27), supposed the passage iii. i — iv. 9 to be an interpolation. 
But, not to speak of the total absence of any historical or docu- 
mentary support for such a theory, the careful reader will find in that 
section just those minute touches of harmony with the rest of the 
Epistle, e.g. in the indicated need of internal union at Philippi, which 
are the surest signs of homogeneity. 


"What is the Gospel of St Paul? Is it but a refined deism, an- 
nouncing as its whole doctrine the existence of God and the immortality 
of the soul, as its whole revelation the fatherhood of God and the 
brotherhood of man, as its only mediator Jesus Christ living as prophet 
and dying as martyr? Or is this Gospel a religion unlike all others 
{une religion tout d /ar/)... proclaiming a God unknown, promising 
an indescribable deliverance, demanding a radical change, compassion- 
ate and terrible at once,... high as heaven, deep as hell? You need 
not, for your answer, consult the writings of the Apostle; you have 
but to see him weeping at your feet.** 

Saint Fault Cinq Discours (ed. i859)» p. 62. 



** While the great motives of the Gospel reduce the muliiplicity 
and confusion of the passions by their commanding force, they do, 
by the very same energy, expand all sensibilities ; or, if we might 
so speak, send the pulse of life with vigour through the finer vessels of 
the moral system : there is far less apathy, and a far more equable 
consciousness in the mind, after it has admitted Christianity, than 
before ; and, by necessary consequence, there is more individuality, 
because more life. Christians, therefore, while they understand each 
other better than other men do, possess a greater stock of sentiment to 
make the subject of converse, than others. The comparison of heart 
to heart knits heart to heart, and communicates to friendship very 
much that is sweet and intense.... 

*• So far as Christians truly exhibit the characteristics of their Lord, 
in spirit and conduct, a vivid emotion is enkindled in other Christian 
bosoms, as if the bright Original of all perfection stood dimly revealed. 
...The conclusion comes upon the mind... that this family resem- 
blance... springs from a common centre, and that there exists, as its 
archetype, an invisible Personage, of whose glory all are, in a measure, 

Isaac Taylor, of Ongar; Saturday Evenings ch. xix. 

essay by Prof. J. Agar Beet, in The Expositor (January, 18^9), I 
extract the closing sentences : — 

" With this reply [the Epistle], a gift infinitely more i)recious than 
that he brought from Philippi, Epaphroditus starts on his homeward 
journey. The joy caused by his return, and the effect of this wonderful 
letter when first read in the Church at Philippi, are hidden from us. 
And we may almost say that with this letter the Church itself passes 
from our view. To-day, in silent meadows quiet cattle browse among 
the ruins which mark the site of what was once the flourishing Roman 
colony of Philippi, the home of the most attractive Church of the 
apostolic age. But the name and fame and spiritual influence of that 
Church will never pass. To myriads of men and women in every age 
and nation, the letter written in a dungeon at Rome and carried 
along the Egnatian Way by an obscure Christian messenger, has been a 
light Divine, and a cheerful guide a^ong the most rugged paths in life. 
As I watch, and myself rejoice in, the brightness of that far- shining 
light, and glance at those silent ruiiis, I .see fulfilled an ancient 
prophecy : Tfu grass withereth, the flower fadeth : but the word of our 
Goa shall stand for ever,** 



*** From this Index (to subject-matter, and to names of Authors) are omitted 
for the most part such references as are obviously indicated by chapter and verse of 
the Text 

affection, christian, 134 

Alford, Dean, 14, ss, 49, 50, 64, 68, 70, 

82, 98, 100, loi, 103, 133 
Andre wes, Bp, 131 
antinomianism, 48, zoa 
Alius, 65 
assurance, 72, 73 
Augustine, St, X04, Z05 

Baur, 2x, 22, 133 
Beet, Professor, 134 
Bengel, 43 

bishops, 38, 80, 128 — 13X 
body, destiny of the, 106 
bondservice. Christian, 38 
Boultbee, Dr, 130 
braviumf 99 
Burrus, z6, 127 

Camerarius, 54 

Chalcedon, "Definition" of, 71 

Christ, eternal reign of, xc^ 

Godhead of, 65, 70, 71, 90, 123 

Christ yesus^ 38 

Christian Year, Z07 

Chrysostom, St, 54, 64, 71, 73, 8x, 98, 99^ 

1 30 
Cicero, 68 
Clement, St, of Alexandria, ao^ 104, 110 

— — Rome, no, 129 

colonies, Roman, 10 

Columba, St, 130 

commerce, metaphors from, 120 

Conybeare and Howson, 58, 88, 119 

Cosin, Bp, 13X 

Cyprian, St, 131 

Dante, 70 

Day of Christ, 41 

deacons, 38, 129 
deaconesses, izo, 129 
Dickson, 87 
Dictionary of the Bible^ 88 

— Christian Biography y\o^ 

— Classical Antiquities ^ 117 

Diognetus, Epistle to, 104 

doctrine and practice, 63, 71, 133 

Ebionism, X3Z 
Edersheim, 22 
Ellicott, Bp, 47, 49, 50, 53, 65, 67, 68, 

98, 109, lis 
Elzevir, 37 
Epictetus, 127 
episcopacy, 130, 131 
Euripides, 84 
Euseoius, 3x, 104 
Euthalius, 124 
Expositor^ The, 38, 128, 134 

Faber, G. S., 9^ 
Fatherhood, Divine, 74 
faith, nature of, 93 
Festus, 137 
flesh, 87 

Gallic, X27 
Gibbon, 68 

Gladstone, W. E., 132 
gnosticism, 133 
God the Father, 133 
grace, 39, 73 

— and will, 73 
Grimm's Lexicon ofN. T., ga 
Guyon, Mme, 1x3 

Hall, Bp. 131 

— Robert, 13a 



Hare, J. C, 93 
Hilgenfeld. 23 
Homilies, 94 
Hooker, 94^ 96 
Hopkins, Bp, 94 

Ignatius, St, 13, 2X, 27, 28, 62, 76, 130 
indwelling, 73 
Irenaeus, St, 20, 70 
individualism of the Gospel, 90 

joy, spiritual, 50 

Joseimus, 87 

Judaists, 48, 85, Z26 

justification, 18, 45, 69, 72, 92 — 94, 102 

Justin, St, 42, 13Z 

kenAsis, 65, 66 
knowledge, 90 

Leathes, Dr, 36 

Lewin, 10, 11, 46, 119 

Liddon, Dr, 69 

.Lightfoot, Bp, XI, 14, 16 — x8, ax, 22, 24, 
27. 28, 39, 44, 46, 47, 49, so, 64—66, 
68, 69, 76, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 87, 91, 99, 

103, 109, III, 115, 117— 119, 121, 122, 

X25 — 128 
Longfellow, 105 
lost, state of the, 70 
Lucan, 121 
Luther, 93 
Lydia, xx 

Lyons and Vienne, E^tUsfrom^ ax 
Lyttelton, Lord, 9X 

Macedonia, xx 

Macedonian characteristics, 13 
M'Cosh, 73 
McdsoH au Roy^ X23 
Melanchthon, 54 
Menander, 84 
Merivale, Dean, 46 
metrical N.T. quotations, 84 
Monod, Adolphe, 54, 103, X33 
Mozley, J. B , 128 

Nineteenth Century^ The^ 132 

O'Brien, Bp, 94 

Parabolaniy 8a 

Patrick, St, 130 

Paul, St, at Rome, 125—127 

Pembroke Hall, 135 

perfectionism, zoo 

Ferowne, Dean (of Peterborough), 1x3, 

perseverance of the saints, 96, 97, xzz 
Pflelderer, 22 

Philip of Macedon, iz 
Philippi, o— X4, 134 

batde ofj xo 

party spirit in Church of, zg, 39^ 

92, 63, 74, 8x, 82, xox 
Philippians, Epistle to the, 

its date, 14 

'—— — occasion, X9 

—— — authenticity^ 20 

— ^* —doctrinal afionities, x8, 

X9, 23, 24 

— ar^:ument, 28 — 35 

— spuitual power, 134 

Philippians, Epistle of Polycarp to, X3, 

21, 24—28, 57, 76 
Phoebe, X29 
Piers Plowman^ xz2 

?lay, verbal, 85 
*lutarch, 64 

Pomponia Graecina, xvj 
Praetorian camp, 46—7, X25 
Polycarp, St, Z3, 2Z, 24—28, 57, 76 

Renan, 22, izo 
Ridley, Bp, Z3S 
righteousness, 93 

sacerdotal language, 76 

sacerdotalism, Z3Z 

Salmon, Dr, 12, 33, zzo^ 128 

Schrader, 133 

Schweeler, Z09 

Scott, X'homas, 62, 73 

Scrivener, Dr, 124 

self*abnegation, 62, zz5 

Seneca, Z26 

Skeat, Professor. 53, 102, zza 

sonship, spiritual, 74 

soul and spirit, 58 

•• Spirit,"^* the Spirit,*' 6x 

Stoicism, Z37 

Suicer, 54 

Taylor, Isaac, 54i i34 

Teaching of the Twelve Arties, 

TertulUan, 20, 42, 97 

Tigellinus, z6, 18 

Trench, Abp, 64, 87, 105, zo6, zx2, 1x4 

Trent, Coimcil of, 73 

union with Christ, 42, 91, xx8 
l/mtas Pratrum, Churdh of the, 84 

Valentinians, 70 
VirgU, 99 

Westcott, Professor, 75 

Winer. 105 

Wittichen, 2a 

woman, at Philippi, z6^ X09 





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IL Bftmuel. A. F. Kirkpatrick, M.A. " Small as this work is 
in mere dimensions, it is every way the best on its subject and for its 
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** In the course of a long introduction, Dr Davidson has presented 
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book. Its contents, the nature of its composition, its idea and purpose, 
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space to examine fully the text and notes before us, but we can, and do 
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but to Bible students and teachers generally. As we wrote of a previous 
volume in the same series, this one leaves nothing to be desired. The 
notes are full and suggestive, without being too long, and, in itself, the 
introduction forms a vsuuable addition to modern Bible literature," — TAe 
Educational Times, 

"Already we have frequently called attention to this exceedingly 
valuable work as its volumes have successively appeared. But we have 
never done so with greater pleasure, very seldom with so great pleasure, 
as we now refer to the last published volume, that on the Book of Job, 
by Dr Davidson, of Edinburgh.... We cordially commend the volume to 
all our readers. The least mstructed will understand and enjoy it; 
and mature scholars will learn from it." — Methodist Recorder. 

Psalms. Book I. ''His commentary upon the books of Samuel 
was good, but this is incomparably better, shewing traces of much more 
work and of greater independence of scholarship and judgment.... As a 
whole it is admirable, and we are hardly going too fiair in sajring that it 
is one of the very ablest of all the volumes that have yet appeared in the 
'Cambridge Bible for Schools*." — Record. 

"Another volume of this excellent Bible,- in which the student may 
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mirable. We know of nothing in so concise a form better adapted for 
Sunday-School Teachers." — Sunday-School Chronicle, 

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the English reader the results of the latest scholarship bearing upon the 
study of this ever new book of the Bible. The Introduction of eighty 
pages is a repertory of information, not drily but interestingly given." — 
Methodist Recorder. 

"For a masterly summary of all that is known and much that is 
hazarded about the history and authorship of this book of religious 
Ijrrics we can point to that with which Mr Kirkpat&ick prefaces his new 
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sionable indeed if he rise not convinced of the vitality imparted to the 
Psalter by a systematic study of its literary character and historical 
allusions.... In conclusion, we may say that for a work which is handy, 
and withal complete, we know none better than this volume; and we 
await with considerable interest the next instalment." — Education, 

"It seems in every way a most valuable little book, containing a 
mass of information, well-assorted, and well-digested, and will beusdfol 
not only to students preparing for examinations, but to many who want 


a handy volume of explanation to much that is difficult in the Psalter, 

We owe a great debt of gratitude to Professor Kirkpatrick for his 

scholarly and interesting volume.*' — Church Times* 

"In this volume thouehtfiil exegesis founded on nice critical scholar- 
ship and due regard for the opinions of various writers, combine, under 
the influence of a devout spirit, to render this commentary a source of 
much valuable assistance. The notes are 'though deep yet dear,' for 
they seem to put in a doncentrated form the very pith and marrow of all 
the best that has been hitherto said on the subject, with striking freedom 
from anything like pressure of personal views. Throughout the work care 
and pains are as conspicuous as scholarship." — Literary Churchman, 

Job — ^Hosea. ** It is difficult to commend too highly this excellent 
series, the volumes of which are now becoming numerous. The two 
books before us, small as they are in size, comprise almost everything 
that the young student can reasonably expect to find in the way of helps 
towards such general knowledge of their subjects as may be gained 
without an attempt to grapple with the Hebrew ; and even the learned 
scholar can hardly read without interest and benefit the very able intro* 
ductory matter which both these commentators have prefixed to their 
volumes. It is not too much to say that these works have brought 
within the reach of the ordinary reader resources which were until 
lately quite unknown for understanding some of the most difficult and 
obscure portions of Old Testament literature." — Guardian, 

EocleBlasteB ; or, the Preacher. — "Of the Notes, it is sufficient to 
say that they are in every respect worthy of Dr Plumptre's high repu- 
tation as a scholar and a critic, being at once learned, sensible, and 
practical.... Commentaries are seldom attractive reading. This little 
volume is a notable exception." — The Scotsman, 

Jeremiah, by A. W. Streane. "The arrangement of the book is 
well treated on pp. xxx., 396, and the question of Baruch's relations 
with its composition on pp. xxvii., xxxiv., 317. The illustrations from 
English Uterature, history, monuments, works on botany, topography, 
etc., are good and plentiful, as indeed they are in other volumes of this 
series." — Church Quarterly Review, 

M alaohl. "Archdeacon Perowne has already edited Jonah and 
Zechariah for this series. Malachi presents comparatively few difficulties 
and the Editor's treatment leaves nothing to be desired. His introduction 
\& clear and scholarly and his commentary sufficient. We may instance 
the notes on ii. 15 and iv. 1 as examples of careful arrangement, 
clear exposition and graceful expression." — Academy, 

** The Gospel aooordlng to St Matthew, by the Rev. A. Carr. The 
introduction is able, scholarly, and eminenUy practical, as it bears 
on the authorship and contents of the Gospel, and the original form 
in which it is supposed to have been written. It is well illustrated by 
two excellent maps of the Holy Land and of the Sea of Galilee." — 
English Churchman, 

** St Mark, with Notes by the Rev. G. F, Maclear, D.D. Into 
this small volume Dr Maclear, besides a clear and able Introduc- 
tion to the Gospel, and the text of St Mark, has compressed many 


hundreds of valuable and helpful notes. In short, he has given u» 
a capital manual of the kind required— containing all that is needed to 
illustrate the text, i. e. all that can be drawn from the history, geography, 
customs, and manners of the time. But as a handbook, giving in a 
clear and succinct form the information which a lad requires in order 

to stand an examination in the Gospel, it is admirable I can very 

heartily conmiend it, not only to the senior boys and girls in our High 
Schools, but also to Sunday-school teachers, who may get from it the 
very kind of knowledge they often find it hardest to gcX» -^Expositor. 

'* With the help of a book like this, an intelligent teacher may make 
* Divinity' as interesting a lesson as any in the school course. The 
notes are of a kind that will be, for the most part, intelligible to boys 
of the lower forms of our public schools; but they may be read with 
greater profit by the fifth and sixth, in conjunction with the original 
text."— 77ie Academy, 

"St Luke. Canon Farrar has supplied students of the Gospel 
with an admirable manual in this volume. It has all that copious 
variety of illustration, ingenuity of suggestion, and general soundness of 
interpretation which readers are accustomed to expect from the learned 
and eloquent editor. Anyone who has been accustomed to associate 
the idea of 'dryness' with a commentary, should go to Canon Farrar 's 
8t Luke for a more correct impression. He will find that a commen- 
tary may be made interesting in the highest degree, and that without 
losing anything of its solid value.... But, so to speak, it is too good for 
some of the readers for whom it is intended." — The Spectator, 

The Gospel acoordlng to St John. "The notes are extremely 
scholarly and valuable, and in most cases exhaustive, bringing to the 
elucidation of the text all that is best in commentaries, ancient and 
modem." — The English Churchman and Clerical J oumcd, 

"(i) The Acts of the Apostles. By J. Rawson Lumby, D.D. 
(ii The Second Epistle of the Corinthians, edited by Professor Lias. 
The introduction is pithy, and contains a mass of carefully-selected 
information on the authorship of the Acts, its designs, and its sources. 

The Second Epistle of the Corinthians is a manual beyond all praise, 

for the excellence of its pithy and pointed annotations, its analysis of the 
contents, and the fulness and value of its introduction." — Examiner, 

"The Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A., has made a valuable addition 
to The Cambridge Bible for Schools in his brief commentary on 
the Epistle to the Romans. The 'Notes' are very good, and lean, 
as the notes of a School Bible should, to the most commonly ac- 
cepted and orthodox view of the inspired author's meaning ; while the 
Introduction, and especially the Sketch of the Life of St Paul, Is a model 
of condensation. . It is as lively and pleasant to read as if two or three 
facts had not been crowded into well-nigh every sentence." — Expositor, 

"The Epistle to the Romans. It is seldom we have met with a 
work so remarkable for the compression and condensation of all that 
is valuable in the smallest possible space as in the volume before us. 
Within its limited pages we have *a sketch of the Life of St Paul,' 
we have further a critical account of the date of the Epistle to the 
Romans, of its language, and of its genuineness. The notes are 


numerous, full of matter, to the point, and leave no real difficulty 
or obscurity unexplained." — The Examiner, 

** The First Epistle to the Corliitbians. Edited by Professor Lias. 
Every fresh instalment of thb annotated edition of the Bible for Schools 
confirms the favourable opinion we formed of its value from the exami- 
nation of its first number. The origin and plan of the Epistle are 
discussed with its character and genuineness." — The Nonconformist, 

Qalatlans. ''Dr Pbkownb deals throughout in a very thorough 
manner with every real difficulty in the text, and in this respect he luis 
faithfully followed the noble example set him in the exegetical master- 
piece, his indebtedness to which he frankly acknowledges.** — Modem 

**The introductory matter is very full and informing, whilst the 
Notes are admirable. They combine the scholarly and the practical in 
an unusual degree.... It is not the young students in 'schools and 
colleges' alone who will find this Commentary helpful on every 
page. ** — Record, 

'*This little work, like all of the series, is a scholarly production; 
but we can also unreservedly recommend it from a doctrinal standpoint; 
Dr E. H. Perowne is one who has grasped the distinctive teaching of 
the Epistle, and expounds it with clearness and definiteness. In an 
appendix, he ably maintains the correctness of the A. V. as against the 
R. V. in the translation of II. i6, a point of no small importance." — 
English Churchman, 

The Epistle to the Ephesians. By Rev. H. C. G. Moule, M.A. 
" It seems to us the model of a School and College Commentary — 
comprehensive, but not cumbersome; scholarly, but not pedantic. — 
Baptist Magaxine, 

The Epistle to the Philippiaos. '* There are few series more valued 
by theological students than 'The Cambridge Bible for Schools and 
Colleges,* and there will be no number of it more esteemed than that 
by Mr H. C. G. Moule on the Epistle to the Philippians:' ^Record, 

Thessalonlans. "It will stand the severest scrutiny, for no volume 
in this admirable series exhibits more careful work, and Mr Findlay is 
a true expositor, who keeps in mind what he is expounding, and for 
whom he is expounding it. — Expository Times, 

*'Mr Findlay maintains the high level of the series to which he has 
become contributor. Some parts of his introduction to the Epistles to 
the Thessalonlans could scarcely be bettered. The account of Thessa- 
lonica, the description of the st^le and character of the Epistles, and t^e 
analysis of them are excellent m style and scholarly care. The notes 
are possibly too voluminous ; but there is so much matter in them, and 
the matter is arranged and handled so ably, that we are ready to forgive 
their fulness.... Mr Findlay's commentary is u valuable addition ta 
what has been written on the letters to the Thessalonian Church.** — 

**0f all the volumes of this most excellent series, none is better 
done, and few are so well done as this small volume.... From b^[in- 
ning to end the volume is marked by accurate grammatical scholarampr 
delicate appreciation of the apostle's meaning, thorough investigation 


of all matters open to doubt, extensive reading, and deep sjrmpathy 
with the spiritual aim of these epistles. It is, on the whole, the best 
commentary on the Thessalonians which has yet appeared, and its 
small price puts it within reach of alL We heartily recommend it." — 
Methodist Recorder » 

"Mr FiNDLAY has fulfilled in this volume a task which Dr Moulton 
was compelled to decline, though he has rendered valuable aid in its pre- 
paration. The commentary is in its own way a model — clear, forceful, 
scholarly — such as young students will welcome as a really useful guide, 
and old ones will acknowledge as giving in brief space the substance of 
all that they knew." — Baptist Magazine, 

Hebrews. ** Like his (Canon Farrar's) commentary on Luke it 
possesses all the best characteristics of his writing. It is a work not 
only of an accomplished scholar, but of a skilled teacher." — Baptist 

The Epistles of St Jolm. By the Rev. A. Plummer, M. A. , D.D. 
**This forms an admirable companion to the 'Commentary on the 
Gospel according to St John,' which was reviewed in The Churchman 
as soon as it appeared. Dr Plummer has some of the highest qualifica- 
tions for such a task ; and these two volumes, their size being considered, 
will bear comparison with the best Commentaries of the time." — The 

Revelation. "This volume contains evidence of much careful 
labour. It is a scholarly production, as might be expected from the pen 
of the late Mr W. H. SiMCOX....The notes throw light upon many 
passages of this difHcult book, and are extremely suggestive. It is an 
advantage that they sometimes set before the student various interpre- 
tations without exactly guiding him to a choice." — Guardian, 

"Mr SiMCOX has treated his very difficult subject with that con- 
scious care, grasp, and lucidity which characterises everything he 
wrote." — Modem Church* 

W^i Sbmallet (ZDambttlKse aSfble for Sbc^ools* 

' ' We can only repeat what we have alreculy said of this admirable 
series^ containing-, as it cbes, the scholctrship of the larger work. For 
scholars in our elder classes ^ and for those preparing for Scripture exami" 
ncUionSy no better commentaries can be put into their hands,** — Sunday- 
School Chronicle. 

*^ Despite their small sizct these volumes give the substance of th€ 
admirable pieces of work on which they are founded. We can only hope 
that in many schools the class-teaching will proceed on the lines these com- 
mentators suggest** — Record. 

" We should be glad to hear that this series has been introduced into 
many of our Sunday-Schools^ for which it is so admirably culapted,** — 
Christian Leader. 

*^All thcU is necessary to be known and learned by pupils in junior 
and elementary schools is to be found in this series. Indeed, much more 
is provided than should be required by the examiners. We do not know 
what more could be done to provide sensible, interesting, and solid Serif' 
tural instruction for boys and girls. The Syndics of the Cafnbridge