(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Erie; a guide to the city and county"

l\ Guide to the City and Count) 







Series 



w 

S 




From the collection of the 



7 n 

m 



P^^^M 
relinger 

v JJibrary 

t P 



San Francisco, California 
2006 



ERIE 



A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 




General Anthony Wayne 



AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 



ERIE 



A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Written and compiled by the Erie County Unit of the Federal Writers' 

Project of the Works Progress Administration for the 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 



SPONSORED BY 

CHARLIE R. BARBER 

MAYOR OF ERIE 



Published by 

The WILLIAM PENN ASSOCIATION 

of PHILADELPHIA, Inc. 

1938 



First Edition 



WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 

HARRY L. HOPKINS, Administrator 

ELLEN S. WOODWARD, Assistant Administrator 

HENRY G. ALSBERG, Director of Federal Writers' Project 



COPYRIGHT 1938, BY 
CHARLIE R. BARBER, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF ERIE 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO REPRODUCE 
THIS BOOK OR PARTS THEREOF IN ANY FORM 




FOREWORD 

This is one of the local guides of the American Guide Series, which, 
when complete, will cover the forty-eight states, several hundred com- 
munities, as well as Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii. 

Erie has a dramatic past, and, because of her strategic position on the 
Great Lakes, the promise of an increasingly important future. This book 
outlines that past, and, by means of tours through the city's industrial 
sections and the county's rich farm lands, it offers a glimpse at its present 
economic life. No guide to Erie would be complete without a section 
devoted to Presque Isle Peninsula State Park, a public recreational center 
with few equals in the middle west. 

Erie: A Guide to the City and County is a book about Erie written by 
Erie citizens. As such, it holds the mirror to still another section of 
present day America. 

HARRY L. HOPKINS 

Administrator 



Erie has long needed a compact, comprehensive guide book that would 
not only be of assistance to the thousands of annual tourists, but also of 
value to residents desirous of knowing more about their city and county. 
This need has been fulfilled in the past by voluminous works, too bulky 
for easy reference, or by brief booklets that often raised more ques- 
tions than they answered. 

It is with considerable satisfaction that the Mayor and the City Coun- 
cilHarry J. Klebes, Joseph Martin, Paul F. Watson, and Gale Ross- 
have sponsored the publication of Erie: A Guide to the City and County, 
prepared by the Federal Writers' Project. 

The book contains a wealth of information on various aspects of Erie's 
growth and development, and it is simply and tersely written. As Mayor 
of Erie, I am pleased that this publication is being made available to the 

public. 

CHARLIE R. BARBER 
Mayor 



PREFACE 



Erie: A Guide to the City and County presents the people, history, 
legends, institutions, and industry of Pennsylvania's only lake port, as well 
as the detailed descriptions of points of interest usually to be found in a 
guidebook. 

The members of the Erie unit of the Federal Writers' Project in Penn- 
sylvania are grateful for the assistance which many Erie citizens have 
given them. The project is particularly indebted to the Henry Mayer 
estate for providing office space during the early stages of the book, and 
to Dana E. Jones, James K. Shields, Prof. John C. Diehl, Miss Alice E. 
Jones, John J. Burgoyne, W. L. Lewis, Rev. Hugh B. Speer, Rev. Alfred 
M. Watson, Walter T. Monahan, Karl E. Morrison, S. P. Bossart, P. J. 
Grant, Ross Pier Wright, Dr. W. W. D. Sones, J. Herman Gross, Miss 
Charlotte M. Evans, and many others for their aid and advice as con- 
sultants. 

Acknowledgment is also due the Public Library for the use of its files; 
to Jacob Bashioum, for aerial pictures; to the Kelly and Green Studios, 
the Schauble Photo Studios, and Walter Jack of the Erie Times, for 
several photographs. Except for these pictures the photographs were 
taken by Frederick Ritter and Chester Brown, staff photographers. Art 
work was done by Herbert Palmer and Edward Giordano. The maps 
were drawn by Henrietta Haines, Edward Migliaccio and Harry 
Nassau under the supervision of William Hagerty of the State Staff. 
Wavil H. See, Zeno N. Tuttler and Forrest J. Alward of the Erie unit 
were responsible for the writing and compilation. 

The volume was produced under the editorial supervision of George B. 
Reeves, Assistant State Director. 

The Federal Writers' Project is part of the Women's and Professional 
Division, Anna M. Lebengood, Director, of the Works Progress Admin- 
istration, under J. Banks Hudson, State Administrator. 



PAUL COMLY FRENCH 

State Director 



Harrisburg, Penna. 
August 25, 1938. 



Table of Contents 



Page 

1 OREWORD 

by Harry L. Hopkins, Ad- 
ministrator, Works Prog- 
ress Administration V 



by Charlie R. Barber, Mayor 

of Erie VI 

iFACE 

by Paul Comly French, State 
Director, Federal Writers' 
Project VII 

rENERAL INFORMATION I 

CHURCH GUIDE 5 

'GOVERNMENT 9 

ANNUAL EVENTS 10 

iERiE: AN IMPRESSION 11 

THE CITY AND ITS SETTING 14 

^HISTORY 17 

The French 17 

The British 20 

The Americans 22 

Growth and Development 24 

"ALES AND LEGENDS 30 

NATIONALITY GROUPS 34 

)USTRY AND COMMERCE 37 

Wholesale and Retail Trade 39 



Page 

TRANSPORTATION 40 
Early Modes of Travel 41 
Lake Navigation 43 
Canals 44 
Railroads 45 
Local and Interurban Trans- 
portation 47 
RELIGION 48 
ARCHITECTURE 52 
EDUCATION 56 
CITY TOUR i 59 
CITY TOUR 2 67 
CITY TOUR 3 73 
OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST 81 
CONTEMPORARY ERIE COUNTY 84 
Government 87 
ERIE COUNTY TOUR i 88 
COUNTY TOUR 2 97 
COUNTY TOUR 3 100 
COUNTY TOUR 4 104 
COUNTY TOUR 5 108 
COUNTY TOUR 6 115 
COUNTY TOUR 7 119 
COUNTY TOUR 8 122 
CHRONOLOGY 125 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 
INDEX 1 29 



List of Illustrations 



GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE 

Frontispiece 
From a painting in the Public Library, 

Erie, Pa. 

Photographs facing page i 
WATERFORD ACADEMY 

Ritter 
OLD CUSTOM HOUSE 

Ritter 

MAJ. GEN. WILLIAM IRVINE 
Courtesy, Frontier Forts & Trails Proj- 
ect (W.P.A.) 
MAJ. ANDREW ELLICOTT 
Courtesy, Frontier Forts & Trails Proj- 
ect (W.P.A.) 

Photographs between pages 

16 and ij 
COMMODORE PERRY'S RESIDENCE 

Brown 
THE PENNSYLVANIA SOLDIERS' AND 

SAILORS' HOME 
Ritter 

SITE OF FORT LEBOEUF 
Courtesy, Frontier Forts & Trails Proj- 
ect (W.P.A.) 

NIAGARA 

Brown 
Photographs between pages 

32 and 33 
WOOD STORAGE 

Brown 
GRAIN ELEVATOR 

Brown 
UNLOADING ORE 

Brown 
Photographs between pages 

48 and 49 
FARM SCENE 

Brown 

GRAPE RAISING 

Brown 
ODIN STOVE MANUFACTURING Co. 

Schauble Studios, 2101 Peach St., Erie, 
Pa. 



BURKE ELECTRIC Co. 
Schauble Studios, 2101 Peach St., Erie, 

Pa. 
Photographs between pages 

64 and 65 
ICE BOATING 
Ritter 

FISHING THROUGH THE ICE 
Ritter 

BEACH SCENE 

Photographs between pages 

80 and 8 i 
A LAGOON 

Brown 
MALLARD DUCKS 

Brown 
PRESQUE ISLE LIGHTHOUSE 

Ritter 
THE LAND LIGHTHOUSE 

Ritter 

Photographs between pages 
96 and 97 

FISH NETS DRYING 

Brown 
A CATCH OF PIKE 

Brown 
DOORWAY, CHURCH OF COVENANT 

Ritter 
Photographs between pages 

112 and 113 
RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH 

Ritter 

ST. LUKE'S EVANGELICAL CHURCH 
Ritter 

WlNTERGREEN GORGE 

Brown 
PERRY SQUARE 

Brown 
Photographs between pages 

128 and 129 
THE PENINSULA 

/. C. Bashioum, Erie, Pa. 
KETTLE 

Ritter 



Waterford Academy, Waterford 




The Old Customs Home, pres- 
ent boine of the Erie County 
Historical Society 





Maj. Gen. William Irvine, 
one of the three Pennsyl- 
vania commissioners 



Maj. Andrew Ellicott, 

who surveyed the site 

of Erie in 1795 




GENERAL INFORMATION 



Location: On southern shore of Lake Erie; 100 m. east of Cleveland and 
93 m. west of Buffalo; longitude 80 5' W.; latitude 42 7' N. 

Population: 1 15,967, 1930; largest 3rd class city in Pennsylvania. 

Railroad Stations: 1 2 1 W. 1 2th St. for Bessemer and Lake Erie R. R.; Union 
Station, W. i4th and Peach Sts. for New York Central R. R. and Pennsyl- 
vania R. R.; 21 1 E. i9th St. for Nickel Plate R. R. 

Bus Stations: 12 N. Perry Sq. for Greyhound Lines, and West Ridge 
Transportation Co. 

Airports: Port Erie: 7 m. W. on State 5, municipally owned. Erie County 
Airport, 12 m. W. on US 20, privately owned. 

Ferries and Motor Launches: Ferries from the Public Steamboat Landing, 
foot of State St., to Waterworks Park on the Peninsula (round trip 25$); 
during summer months launches may be rented by the hour for tours and 
fishing in Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie. 

Taxis: Yellow Cab, W. i4th and Peach Sts., (joj ist m., 5$ each additional 
1 A m.; hourly rate $1.50); Checker Cab, 316 E. 7th St., (30$ ist m., 5$ each 
additional V$ m.; hourly rate $2.00). 

Intracity Bus Line: Erie Coach Co. coaches operate to all points in the city; 
fare 10^; transfers without additional charge. 

Traffic Regulations: Maximum speed 20 m. per hour between intersections; 
10 m. per hour at intersections, and 15 m. per hour in school zones. Right 
and left turns permitted on green light; no turns on red. 

Street Order and Numbering: From the bay front, the northern boundary 
of the city, streets are numbered from First in consecutive order. Even 
numbers are on west side of streets; odd numbers on the east side. House 
numbers in each block begin with a new hundred series. House number- 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



ing on east and west streets begins at State St. Even numbers are used on 
the north side of streets; odd numbers on the south side. 

Accommodations: Hotels, inns, boarding houses, and tourist homes are 
available throughout the city. Lawrence Hotel, W. loth and Peach Sts., 
400 rooms; restaurant, cafeteria, cocktail lounge, bar, ballroom, and ban- 
quet room. Ford Hotel, State St. and N. Perry Sq., 400 rooms; restaurant, 
and bar. Wayne Hotel, 12 W. izth St., 54 rooms; restaurant. Milner 
Hotel, W. 8th and Peach Sts., 40 rooms; Y. M. C.A., W. loth and 
Peach Sts. 

Tourist Camps: Available on all main highways near Erie. 

Shopping: Erie's shopping district is centered at loth and State Sts., and 
extends north to yth St., south to i4th St., one block west to Peach St., 
and one block east to French St. 

Theatres and Motion Picture Houses: The Community Playhouse, 128 W. 
7th St. Plays with amateur casts and professional direction during winter 
season. Six motion picture theatres in business section, with 7 others 
throughout the city. 

Information Service: Travelers' Aid Society, Union Station, W. i4th and 
Peach Sts.; Y.W.C.A., 130 W. 8th St., Erie Chamber of Commerce, 801 
State St.; Erie Motor Club (AAA), Lawrence Hotel, W. loth and Peach 
Sts.; Erie Manufacturers Association, Ariel Bldg., 8th and State Sts., 
Y. M. C. A., W. loth and Peach Sts. 

Restaurants and Ears: Restaurants and night clubs are numerous in busi- 
ness section. Several of the restaurants specialize in fresh water sea foods. 
Most of the hotels have bars. Many of the night clubs offer floor shows, 
but much of the night life occurs in private clubs, to which admission may 
be gained through members. 

Radio Station: WLEU, Commerce Bldg., i2th and State Sts. 

Libraries and Exhibits: Public Library, S. Park Row and French Sts. 
(open 9-9 daily, 2-5 legal holidays; reading room 2-5 on Sundays); Art 
Gallery, second floor of Library building, (usually open Saturday, Sunday, 
and Monday afternoons, closed to the public during July and August; 
free); Erie Public Library Museum, library building basement, (open $-5 
daily; free). Fish Hatchery and Aquarium, foot of Chestnut St., (open 
9-4 daily; -free); Glen wood Park Zoo, (open daily 9-5; feeding time 5; free). 

Hospitals: Hamot Hospital, 2nd and State Sts.; St. Vincent's Hospital, W. 
24th and Sassafras Sts.; Lake View Hospital, 136 East Ave.; Zem Zem 
Hospital, 1501 W. 9th St. 



GENERAL INFORMATION 



Recreation Facilities: Presque Isle Peninsula State Park, 4.5 m. W. on State 
832; 3200 acres of woodland, lagoons, and picnic grounds, with 7 miles of 
guarded bathing beaches with bathhouses; wild life, skating, iceboating 
and hockey (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

Glenwood Park, Shunpike Rd. and Glenwood Drive; 1 1 5 acres, munici- 
pally owned, with a 9-hole golf course, tennis courts and baseball field; 
modern zoo building with many animals, and picnic grounds. 

Waldameer Park, 4 m. W. on State 5 and 832; a commercial amusement 
park, bathing beach, ballroom, concessions, amusement devices, restaurant 
offering music, dancing, floor show, and refreshments. 

Athletic Fields: Erie Stadium, 26th and State Sts.; major athletic events 
with flood lights for night contests; ice skating in winter. 

Roosevelt Field, W. 23rd and Cranberry Sts.; scholastic baseball, foot- 
ball, tennis. 

Glenwood field, Glenwood Park; baseball field, tennis courts, golf 
course. , < 

Strong Vincent High School Athletic field, W. 8th and Washington Sts. 

General Electric Field, Lawrence Park; baseball, soft ball, and amateur 
boxing. 

Swimming: Presque Isle Peninsula State Park beaches, 4.5 m. W. on 
State 832. 

Waterworks Park, maintained on the Peninsula by the Erie Waterworks 
Dept. Only locker and checking service on the Peninsula. Pay station 
telephone. 

Shorewood Beach, 10 m. E. on State 5; cottages. 

Manchester-on-the-Lake Beach, 8 m. W. on State 5. 

Waterworks Pool, at City Filtration Plant, foot of Chestnut St. 

Not far from Erie are other swimming places, such as Lake LeBoeuf at 
Waterford, Conneaut Lake at Edinboro, and Eagley's Grove on Lake Erie 
i m. north of North Girard. These resorts also afford boating and fishing. 

Hunting and Fishing: For rules and regulations governing hunting and 
fishing in Erie County, apply to Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Board 
of Game Commissioners, and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Board of 
Fish Commissioners respectively. Small game abounds; rabbit, squirrel, 
pheasant, duck, and geese. Streams of the county are stocked with game 
fish. Lake waters abound in pike, perch, and game fish. Hunting license 
costs $2.00 for residents, non-residents are charged the same amount as 
Pennsylvanians are charged in the non-resident's home State. Fishing li- 
cense costs $1.50, plus collector's fee of 10 cents. Non-residents are charged 
in the same manner as non-resident hunting license applicants. Licenses 
are procurable at the County Treasurer's office, Erie County Courthouse. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Golf Courses: Glenwood, Glenwood Park, intersection State 505 and State 
99; a 9-hole municipal golf course (daily fee 35$ for 9 holes; 50$ for all day). 

Erie Golf Course, 6 m. S. on State 99; an 1 8-hole municipal golf course 
(75</> all day; }i6 for season; a fee of $ij entitles a member to play on both 
Glenivood and Erie Golf Courses). 

Lake Shore Golf Club, 8 m. W. on State 5; 18 holes; members and 
guests only. 

Lawrence Park Golf Club, Lawrence Park on State 5, 9 holes (green 
fee 7tf). 

Kahkwa Golf Club, 5 m. W. on US 20; 18 holes; members only. 

Tennis Courts: Erie Tennis and Country Club, Willis Rd. near State 97; 
members and guests only. 

Lake Shore Golf Club tennis court, Hardscrabble Blvd., State 5 
(small fee). 
Free Courts: 

Glenwood Park. 

Academy High School, 2 8th and State Sts. 

Strong Vincent High School, 1330 W. 8th St. 

East High School, 1151 Atkins St. 

Technical High School, W. loth and Sassafras Sts. 

McKinley Park, 23rd St. and East Ave. 

Riding: Algeria Riding Academy, 4.5 m. W. on State 5, saddle horses for 
riding on Peninsula bridle trails ( $i per hr.). 



CHURCH GUIDE 



Adventist 

Seventh Day Adventist, 245 E. roth St. 

African Methodist Episcopal 
St. James, 242 E. yth St. 

Baptist 

Bethel Temple, SW cor. Wayne & E. 26th Sts. 
Central, NE cor. W. 2oth & Sassafras Sts. 
Delaware Avenue, Delaware Ave. & W. pth St. 
First, 125 W. roth St. 
Immanuel, SW cor. W. 28th & Plum Sts. 
Russian, 262 E. 4th St. 
Shiloh, 901 E. 5th St. 
Swedish, SE cor. E. yth & Holland Sts. 
Wayne Park Temple, 923 E. 6th St. 
Wesley ville, 2027 Center St., Wesley ville 

Christian and Missionary Alliance 
Gospel Tabernacle, 145-47 W. nth St. 

Christian Science 
First Church of Christ Scientist, Sassafras St., bet. W. 6th & 7th Sts. 

Episcopal 

Cathedral of St. Paul, 131-43 W. 6th St. 
St. John's Memorial, SE cor. Walnut and W. 3ist Sts. 
St. Mark's, NW cor. E. loth & French Sts. 
St. Mary's, 672 Silliman Ave., Lawrence Park 
Trinity Memorial, 916 Liberty St. 

Evangelical 

Christ United, Sassafras bet. W. i6th & i7th Sts. 
St. Paul's United, 1022 Peach St. 
Salem, NE cor. W. i ith & Myrtle Sts. 
Swedish Mission, 301 E. loth St. 
St. Luke's, 120 W. 9th St. 

5 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Evangelical Lutheran 
Grace , 802 E. loth St. 
St. John's, NW cor. Peach & W. 23rd Sts. 
St. Matthew's, NE cor. Cascade & W. yth Sts. 
St. Stephen's, 940 E. 22nd St. 
Trinity, 328 W. iithSt. 

Free Methodist 
Free Methodist, 125 W. iyth St. 

Greek Catholic 

Church of the Nativity, 351 E. Front St. 
St. George Roumanian Greek Catholic, 1711 Plum St. 
SS. Peter & Paul, 321 E. 23rd St. 

Hebrew 

Anshe Hesed Congregation, NW cor. W. loth & Liberty Sts. 
Brith Sholom Congregation, 721 French St. 
Congregation Ohle Jacob, 126 E. i7th St. 

Lutheran 

Christ, 859 Silliman Ave., Lawrence Park 
Luther Memorial, 225 W. loth St. 
Messiah, NE cor. Easter & Gray Aves., Wesleyville 
Mt. Calvary, SW cor. Greengarden Rd. & W. 29th St. 
Bethany Swedish Evangelical, 264 E. loth St. 
Zion, SE cor. Brown's Ave. & Liberty Sts. 
Trinity Italian Lutheran, 635 W. i7th St. 

Methodist Methodist Episcopal 
Asbury M. E., SW cor. US 20 & Asbury Rd. 
Cascade M. E., SW cor. W. 2ist & Cascade Sts. 
First M. E., SE cor. W. 7th & Sassafras Sts. 
Henderson M. E., 2006 Camphausen Ave. 
Kingsley M. E., NE cor. W. 9th & Cranberry Sts. 
Lawrence Park M. E., Cor. Niagara & Rankin Sts., Lawrence Park 
Simpson Methodist, SE cor. W. 2ist & Sassafras Sts. 
Tenth St. M. .,538 E. loth St. 
Wayne St. M. E., NW cor. E. 23rd & Wayne Sts. 
Wesley M. E., 3618 South St., Wesleyville 
Wesley an Methodist, 2900 Liberty St. 
South Harborcreek Methodist, Harborcreek 

Orthodox 
Hellenic Orthodox, 214 W. 8th St. 

6 



CHURCH GUIDE 



Russian Orthodox, 251 E. Front St. 

St. John's Roumanian Orthodox, 1125 Penna. Ave. 

Presbyterian 

Chestnut Street, 1701 Chestnut St. 

Church of the Covenant, W. yth St. bet. Sassafras & Myrtle Sts. 
Eastminster, 503 Lighthouse St. 
Emmanuel, NE cor. E. 28th & Perry Sts. 
First, 1 1 1 W. 5th St. 
Sarah Hearn Memorial, 949 W. 9th St. 
Perkins, 5501 Peach St., Kearsarge 
Westminster, W. Ridge Rd., nr. Powell Ave., Westminster 

Roman Catholic 
Holy Family, 1147 E. 9th St. 
Holy Rosary, NE cor. E. 28th St. & East Ave. 
Holy Trinity, 645 E. 22nd St. 
Sacred Heart of Jesus, 26th bet. Liberty & Plum Sts. 
St. Andrew's, NW cor. W. 7th & Raspberry Sts. 
St. Ann's, NE cor. E. loth & East Ave. 
St. Casimir's, Hess Ave. & Atkins St. 
St. George's, Peach & Bryant Sts., Kearsarge 
St. Hed'wig's, SE cor. E. 3rd & Wallace Sts. 
St. James, Bird Drive, Wesleyville 
St. John's, SE cor. E. 26th & Wallace Sts. 
St. Joseph's, SE cor. W. 24th & Sassafras Sts. 
St. Mary's, 317 E. 9th St. 
St. Michael's, 619 W. lyth St. 
St. Patrick's, 140 E. 4th St. 
St. Paul's Italian, 455 W. i6th St. 
St. Peter's Cathedral, NW cor. Sassafras & W. loth Sts. 
St. Stanislaus, NE cor. E. 1 3th & Wallace Sts. 
St. Stephen's Hungarian, 1247 W. 2ist St. 



First, 149 W. 9th St. 



Unitarian 
United Brethren 



Glenwood, 3125 Peach St. 

United Presbyterian 

Broivn's Avenue, SE cor. Brown's Ave. & W. 22nd St. 
First, 1 1 5-2 5 E. 8th St. 

Miscellaneous 

Assemblia Christiana, 1706 Poplar St. 
Bay view Chapel, NW cor. E. 38th & Burton Sts. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Bethel Tabernacle, 1525 Peach St. 

Brethren Tabernacle, Arena Bldg., E. 2 6th & French Sts. 

Church of Apostolic Faith, 1719 Sassafras St. 

Church of Christ (Disciples), NE cor. W. 9th & Cherry Sts. 

Church of God in Christ, 1615 Holland St. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 124 E. i8th St. 

Church of the Nazarene, Wesleyville 

City Rescue Mission, 1117 Peach St. 

Erie Terrace Chapel, 3503 Taylor Ave. 

First Church of God, 2902 Parade St. 

Samaritan A. M. E. Zion, 1115 Walnut St. 

Gospel Assembly Hall, 2810 East Ave. 

John Huss Center Presbyterian, 922 E. 9th St. 

Lawrence Park Mission, 4020 Main St., Lawrence Park 

Pentecostal, 22 N. Perry Square 

St. Mary's Polish National, SW cor. E. 2ist & Wallace Sts. 

Salvation Army, 202 E. nth St. 

Salvation Army, 245 E. 8th St. 

Salvation Army, 1071 Rankin Ave., Lawrence Park 

Volunteers of America, 1305 Parade St. 

Primitive Wesley an, n E. 2ist St. 

Convents 

Felician Sisters Home, 641 E. 22nd St. 
Sacred Heart Convent, 2512 Plum St. 
St. Benedict's Convent, 327 E. 9th St. 
St. Joseph's Convent, 146 W. 25th St. 
St. Michael's Convent, 611 W. i7th St. 
Sisters of St. Francis Home, 1151 E. 9th St. 
Sisters of St. Joseph Home, 1926 W. 6th St. 
Sisters of St. Joseph Home, Villa Maria, 829 W. 8th St. 
Sisters of the Holy Family of Nazareth Home, 517 E. i2th St. 
Sisters of Mercy, 501 E. 38th St. 



GOVERNMENT 



Erie, the largest third class city in Pennsylvania, operates under the 
commission form of government. It was laid out in 1795, became a bor- 
ough in 1805, and was granted a city charter in 1851. The village of South 
Erie was incorporated as a borough in 1866, and was consolidated with 
Erie in 1870. 

The City Council is composed of four members, each of whom is in 
charge of one or more city departments. Councilmen are elected for four 
year terms. Councilmanic elections are held every two years, two mem- 
bers being elected with the mayor and two at the next councilmanic 
election. The mayor, elected every four years, is the chief executive of 
the city and is head of the Department of Public Affairs. 

One member of city council acts as director of the Department of 
Finance and as vice-president of Council. The city controller, city treas- 
urer, city solicitor, city assessor, and the bureau of assessments and tax 
revision operate under this department. 

Another member heads the Department of Public Safety, which includes 
the fire department, boiler inspection, smoke abatement, building inspec- 
tion, city electrician, and health department. 

A third councilman acts as director of the Department of Streets and 
Public Improvements. The fourth serves as director of the Department 
of Parks and Public Property. 

There are two other elective officers: a city treasurer, and a city con- 
troller. The city treasurer collects city taxes, serves as custodian of funds 
and issues licenses and permits. The city controller controls the expendi- 
tures of the city. The city treasurer and the city controller are elected at 
the same time as the mayor. 

Erie is divided into six wards, each of which elects an alderman who 
serves as a justice of the peace, magistrate, and notary. Under each alder- 
man is an elected constable. The constable serves warrants and legal docu- 
ments issued by aldermen and the county courts. 

Police and fire department personnel are under civil service, as are 
employes of the bureau of health, city engineer's office, and the building 
and boiler inspection service. The civil service board consists of four 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



members. One handles police department personnel and another fire de- 
partment examinations. The mayor's clerk, who is also a member, acts as 
secretary. Clerks, stenographers, typists, and special technicians are hired 
without civil service tests. Many skilled persons are employed by council; 
other workers are appointed by the elected official under whom they 
function. 



ANNUAL EVENTS 



Dates in some of the following events vary annually. Events lacking 
definite dates are listed in the 'week in 'which they usually occur or are 
marked "nfd" (no fixed date) and take place in the month under which 
they are listed. 

under auspices of 



April Easter Sunday- 
June nfd 



July 
July- 



i 



Last Saturday- 



Sept. 
Sept.- 



Sept.- 
Sept.- 



Sunrise service. The Peninsula; 

Erie Inter-Church Federation. 
Booster Cruises; exact dates designated annually by 

Erie Chamber of Commerce (5 to 7 days). 
Erie Yacht Regatta on Lake Erie in collaboration 

with Dominion Day in Canada. 
Waterford Homecoming Day and annual dance of 

high school alumni; 16 m. S. of Erie; US 19 and 

State 97. 

Crossingville Picnic 26.5 m. S. of Erie on State 98. 
German Day, Waldameer Park. 
Irish Day, Waldameer Park. 
Polish Day, Waldameer Park. 
Italian Day, Waldameer Park. 
Albion Ox roast and carnival; 26 m. S. of Erie on 

State 1 8. 
Perry Day. 

North East Fair and Grape Carnival, held in col- 
laboration with street carnival of Lake Shore Post 

No. 105, American Legion. 16 m. E. of Erie; 

US 20. 
Week ending Labor Wattsburg Fair, held during week preceding Labor 

Day Day; 20 m. SE. of Erie on State 8. 

nfd Edinboro Community Fair; 20 m. S. of Erie on 

State 99. 



August ist week- 
August ist week- 
August nfd 
August nfd 
August nfd 
Sept. Labor Day 



10 
nfd- 



10 



ERIE: AN IMPRESSION 



ERIE, in the far northwest corner on the tiny strip of Pennsylvania's 
lake shore line, has developed from a trading post fort to a ranking 
industrial and recreational center largely because of three great physical 
attributes: Lake Erie with its shipping facilities and moderating 
effect upon the local climate; Presque Isle Bay with its landlocked harbor 
affording safe anchorage for shipping; and, more recently, Presque 
Isle Peninsula State Park with its seven miles of sandy beaches and hun- 
dreds of tree-shaded picnic areas offering a cool, breeze-swept recreation 
spot for western Pennsylvania. 

The lake has figured prominently in the vast program of expansion of 
this country as a whole, and more intimately in the history of the city, 
but its great economic value is twofold. The presence of this large body 
of water tempers the climate, prolonging the normal growing season for 
this latitude, making possible the production of grapes and other fruit, a 
substantial part of Erie's resources today. The income derived from 
fruit-growing directly increases the purchasing power of the farmer, and 
therefore the mercantile income of the city. Many of the city's leading 
industries are dependent upon the favorable transportation facilities of 
the lake, or upon the abundant supply of fresh water. Less important 
economically, but of major interest to Erie citizens is the physical beauty 
of the lake as a background for their homes and a setting for a constant- 
ly changing panorama of cloud and storm and sunset. 

The city, lying along a glacial moraine, looks northward across the 
bay and the long, embracing arm of the peninsula that forms and pro- 
tects the bay. This harbor has long been considered, by Erie citizens, 

ii 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



as an index of national business activity a busy, changing scene in sum- 
mer indicates a period of prosperity; anchored, idle ships mean hard 
times. In winter, however, the bay provides a refuge from the lake's 
swift, vicious storms. And, although most of the commercial fishing is 
done in the lake, it is the bay that provides safe harbor for the fishing 
fleets and a base of operations where, along the shore, are docks and 
warehouses and home. 

In the summer the Peninsula becomes a playground, not only for the 
people of Erie, but for much of western Pennsylvania. Long, sandy beaches, 
tree-shaded bridle paths, hundreds of well-equipped picnic groves at- 
tract caravans of cars with thousands of pleasure-seekers. Regardless 
of the weather in the city, or farther inland, there is always a fresh, 
tempering breeze along the Peninsula. On a late summer afternoon, cars 
line the long, looping drive; bright-colored bathing suits mark the favor- 
ite beaches; smoke rises through the trees at the picnic groves; laughter 
carries far across the water. Erie is earning its reputation as the picnic 
city and enjoying it. Yet one whose attention centers wholly on these 
recreation areas will carry away a false impression, for the life of the 
year-round population is rooted in toil. 

The streets of the city are wide and tree-lined, with homes set deep 
in wide lawns the predominating style. Several of these older houses 
have been included in national architectural surveys for their grace of 
design, but the public buildings are not notable from an architectural 
standpoint. However, the brisk modernism of the new Federal Build- 
ing is in refreshing contrast to the prevailing ornate Victorianism of 
public and business structures. There are no skyscrapers, and only a 
few tall buildings, perhaps because, from its beginning, Erie has had 
ample room in which to spread, so that even the business district has a 
spacious look. 

This quality of spaciousness is all the more evident in several of the 
residential areas. Along West 6th Street, in Frontier Place and the Glen- 
wood Park districts attractive homes of varied architectural design are 
set in landscaped lawns. Even in the east side section there has been 
little of the standardization of row houses though the houses are set 
closer together there is always a patch of surrounding lawn and a few 
trees on most of the plots. Southward, as the terrain becomes more 
hilly, the town merges with the country; homes are predominately one- 
acre suburban residences with flower and vegetable gardens set behind 
modest frame homes. 

Although industry plays an important role in the life of Erie it does 
not dominate the physical landscape. Much of the population is foreign- 

12 



ERIE: AN IMPRESSION 



born or first-generation American. Rambling along the streets, the 
visitor will hear the accents of German, Polish, Italian, and Russian resi- 
dents, drawn to the city in the periods when their brawn or skill was 
at a premiumn in its mills and factories. The distinctive characteristics 
of the various nationalities easily identify the sections of the city in 
which they are concentrated. 

Erie, thanks to its three great physical assets, the lake, the bay, and 
the peninsula, is a pleasant place in which to live and looks it. 



THE CITY AND ITS SETTING 



'"P HE city of Erie is situated on the southern shore of Lake Erie in the 
* northwestern tip of Pennsylvania, almost equi-distant from New York 
and Chicago. About 5% miles from east to west, and 4 miles north to 
south, its area of 20% square miles is bisected by State Street, the main 
thoroughfare. Erie occupies a central position in respect to the county, 
being 16 miles west of the New York State line, 25 miles east of the Ohio 
State line, and 19 miles north of Crawford County. 

The city is 1 1 3 feet above lake level and built on a plain, with a gradual 
slope from the lake to the first ridge of foothills south of the city limits. 
This plain is a broad tract of land two to three miles in width, which 
extends along the entire waterfront of the county. 

The physiography of the section is distinct from any other in Pennsyl- 
vania. It possesses three principal characteristics which are not found in 
any other section of the State: lake bluffs, a succession of lake plains 
arising like steps from the lake shore, and a series of ravines or gorges 
formed by streams that empty into the Lake. 

The last glacial period of the eastern Great Lakes area dammed the St. 
Lawrence River outlet and the lake level rose above its banks, forming new 
escarpments and bottoms. Many smaller lakes were formed along the old 
lake shore and as the ice receded, the water levels lowered, leaving dry 
beaches where the old lakes once existed. Many of the deep gulfs in the 
vicinity of Erie were formed in this manner. The streams were swollen 
to a high level and as they fell with the retreat of the ice, deep ravines and 
gulfs were cut. A topographical cross section from the lake south shows a 
profile of a broad step or cliff, a broad flat a mile or more in width, ending 
in another sharp rise of terrain. 



THE CITY AND ITS SETTING 



Across the bay from Erie is Presque Isle Peninsula, a sandy formation 7 
miles in length and about a mile wide. The only one of its kind on the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, it was formed by sand, gravel, and shingle 
washed by water action from the bluffs and accumulated at this point in a 
re-curved sandspit. Some of the bluffs have receded six feet a year over a 
period of years. Sand and gravel washed eastward by the predominant 
west wind are deposited along the shore line of the peninsula. The accumu- 
lation of sand is constantly working the peninsula eastward at a rate of a 
mile every 200 years. 

The cottonwood trees and grasses on the peninsula form hedges as the 
dry sand is blown up from the beaches and piled up along them. The 
eastern shore thus extends slowly, and as more sand gathers, the beach is 
surrounded and becomes a lagoon. Some of these lagoons fill with drift- 
ing sand, and in time nothing is left but a sandy plain between the trees 
and the beach. These sandy plains and lagoons, which once were a part 
of the lake proper, are plainly discernible near the eastern end of the 
peninsula. 

The region is not rich in mineral resources. Two paleozoic formations 
are unusual: the vergent flags and the vergent shales. The vergent flag 
formation is a fine-grained gray sandstone in thin layers, separated by 
alternative bands of shale. The vergent shales are a mass of gray, blue, and 
olive shale and grayish brown sandstone. 

A low grade of bog ore was once mined in Mill Creek Township near 
Erie, and was used in the foundries for a time. Stone quarries have been 
worked in other parts of the county, but Erie was noted only for its brick 
clay and gravel. A superior grade of building and foundation brick was 
made from this clay. 

Gravel banks on an extensive scale have been opened within the city 
limits. The gravel is of excellent quality, and is used in the manufacture 
of concrete blocks and in concrete building work. Because of the scarcity 
of stone, gravel is used locally instead of broken stone for concrete high- 
ways, and as a base for asphalt pavements. 

Wells drilled in the area have yielded little petroleum, but they usually 
have provided sufficient gas for farm and household use. 

The county lies within the common isothermal lines of Pennsylvania, 
but because of the marked influence of Lake Erie on the climate there is 
little sultry weather during the summer months. This condition is some- 
what offset by the frequency of cloudy days and strong winds during the 
winter, spring, and fall months. 

According to U. S. Weather Bureau records, Erie is the second cloudiest 
city in the country. In 1936 there were 4,300 hours of sunshine of a pos- 
sible 8,764, this figure varying from a low percentage in winter to a high 

15 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



of 85 percent in July. The mean annual rainfall is 31.65 inches. The 
average yearly temperature is 48.8. Recordings of over 90 and below 
10 are unusual. 

The refreshing, almost continuous, breeze from the lake during the 
summer months has made Erie a summer resort city. The peninsula is 
another contributing factor to the balanced climate. Storms from the 
west often strike the peninsula and veer from their course, missing Erie 
completely. It is not unusual to have a light rain or snow in Erie, and a 
much heavier storm a few miles away, while the mercury descends even 
lower away from the immediate shores of Lake Erie. 



16 




Commodore 

Perry's 

residence, 181. 
1813 



The Pennsylvania Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Home in winter 





Site of Fort LeBoeuf, Waterford 




The NIAGARA, only remaining ship of Perry's fleet 



HISTORY 



THE FRENCH 

V\T"HILE tradition connects the names of Etienne Brule and Sieur de 
V V Champlain with early exploration in the Erie district, an explora- 
tion party of four French missionaries of the Recollet branch of the Fran- 
ciscan order, 12 French laymen, and four Indians, led by the Reverend 
Joseph LeCaron, made the first recorded expedition to the Erie region 
in 1615. The region was usually referred to in French journals as the 
Niagara valley. They found a tribe of Indians living on the southern 
shore of Lake Erie, known as the Cats or Neutral Nation. The French 
called them Eries. 

The Erie Indians resisted French efforts to civilize them and received 
these Franciscans with distrust. The Jesuit priests who later endeavored 
to establish a post among them were repulsed and all efforts were 
abandoned until the valley was in possession of the Senecas. 

The Seneca Indians wrested control of the rich valley from the Eries 
in a bloody war which culminated in 1654 with the extermination of the 
Eries. The Senecas were friendly to the French, and the first attempts 
at European colonization began shortly afterward. Pere Jacques Mar- 
quette spent several days at Presque Isle in 1673 with Louis Joliet. They 
made the first important chart of Presque Isle Peninsula and the Bay, and 
later explored the other Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. 

In 1679 Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, set out for the western wilder- 
ness to establish military posts along the Mississippi and extend the bound- 
aries of New France. He founded a French colony near the outlet of 
Lake Erie into the Niagara River and built the Griffon, the first sailing 
vessel launched on Lake Erie. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



In the bitter race between the French and English to expand their 
boundaries and wrest control of the rich western country from each other, 
the French extended their activities into the Mississippi Valley, and the 
English moved toward the Ohio Valley. Three savage wars were waged 
between the rival powers, King William's, 1689-97; Q ue ^n Anne's, 1702- 
1713; and King George's, 1744-48, but none of them directly affected the 
region. 

When King George's War was ended in 1748, the Ohio Company was 
organized by 20 Virginians, among them Augustus and George Wash- 
ington, to develop land in the Ohio River Valley. Christopher Gist and 
ten other families settled in what is now Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 
under authorization of the Ohio Company. The French authorities at 
Quebec immediately dispatched troops to garrison the forts at Presque 
Isle, LeBoeuf, Venango, and Duquesne. 

The first fort was established at Presque Isle in 1753, when 250 men 
under Sieur Marin were sent from Montreal to build and garrison a fort 
and establish a French colony. They built the fort on the west bank of 
Mill Creek, about one hundred yards from its mouth, adjoining the 
grounds of the present Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. A French village 
consisting of one hundred families, a Catholic priest, a school master, and 
a grist mill was established. Land was cleared and cornfields cultivated. 

George Washington was selected by Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia 
to notify the French they must withdraw their soldiers from the territory 
west of the Allegheny Mountains, as it rightfully belonged to the British. 
Washington started out on his journey in 1753 with instructions to com- 
municate with the friendly Indians at Logstown and to proceed to the 
French headquarters and demand an answer to Dinwiddie's letter. He was 
accompanied on his wilderness journey by Christopher Gist, Jacob Van 
Braam, John Davison, and by the Indian chiefs, Jesakake, Tanacharison 
or Half-King, and White Thunder. 

The Indians went along because, as one of their chiefs said, "The Eng- 
lish claim all the land on one side of the river, and the French all the land 
on the other side of the river, so the Indians wonder if the only land they 
own is at the bottom of the river." The Indians were angered at the 
French answer to this conundrum when Tanacharison had protested to 
the French commander at Fort Presque Isle. "The Indians," haughtily 
replied the commander, "are like flies and mosquitoes, and the number 
of the French as the sands of the sea shore. Here is your wampum. I 
fling it at you." 

Washington was treated with great courtesy by Captain Jean Coeur 
at Venango (Franklin) and advised to see the commanders of Forts Presque 
Isle and LeBoeuf. At Fort LeBoeuf, Commander St. Pierre and Captain 

18 



HISTORY 



Reparti of Fort Presque Isle held a council of war, giving Washington 
and his men an opportunity to make notes concerning French fortifica- 
tions and the dimensions or their fort. According to their notes, the fort 
had one hundred men, exclusive of a large number of officers, fifty birch 
canoes, and seventy pine canoes. 

Through the artifice of many presents and frequent resort to the wine 
jug, the French successfully evaded any direct committal of their inten- 
tions. Washington, in his Journal, comments on their dilatory tactics: 

"I cannot say that ever in my life I suffered so much anxiety as I did 
in this affair. I saw that every strategem which the most fruitful brain 
could invent was practiced to win the Half -King to their interests, and 
that leaving him there was giving them the opportunity aimed at. I 
went to the Half-King and pressed him in the strongest terms. He told 
me that the commandant would not discharge him until the morning. I 
then went to the commandant, and desired him to do their business, and 
complained of ill treatment, for keeping them, as they were part of my 
company, was detaining me. This he promised not to do, but to forward 
my journey as much as possible. He protested that he did not keep them, 
but was ignorant of the cause of their stay; tho I soon found it out; he 
promised them a present of guns, etc., if they would wait until morning." 

After many difficulties, Washington, then but a youth, finally com- 
pleted his mission, although its main objective was not achieved. While 
the French treated him with all deference and respect, they politely 
pointed out that they were under orders from a superior officer and had 
no choice but to carry out these orders, requesting the English to com- 
municate with their superior in Canada. However, he did manage to 
obtain vital information concerning French strength at Forts LeBoeuf and 
Presque Isle. 

The Senecas were alarmed by the establishment of a French garrison 
at Presque Isle and sent a delegation to Marin at LeBoeuf (Waterford) 
to inquire whether he was "marching with banner uplifted or to establish 
tranquillity." His tactful answer that he intended to help them "drive 
away the evil spirits (the English) that encompass the earth," appeased 
the Indians and they zealously assisted the French. The French through- 
out exercised more tact than the English in their dealings with the 
Indians, treating them courteously and giving them numerous presents, 
whereas the English aroused Indian resentment because of their superior 
attitude and coldness. DeVaudrail, in a letter from Montreal, August 8, 
1756, wrote: "The domiciliated Massassaugues of Presque Isle have been 
out to the number of ten against the English and have taken one prisoner 
and two scalps and gave them to cover the death of M. de St. Pierre." 

The strategic importance of the Presque Isle site was soon apparent. 

19 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



The portage to LeBoeuf was short, and from there canoes readily could 
be paddled down French Creek and the Allegheny River to link the 
French forts. General DuQuesne, commenting on the importance of the 
fort in a letter to the French Minister, July 6, 1755, wrote: "The fort at 
Presque Isle serves as a depot for all others on the Ohio. . . . The effects 
are put on board pirogues at Fort LeBoeuf. ... At the latter fort the 
prairies, which are extensive, furnish only bad hay. ... At Presque Isle 
the hay is very abundant and good. The quantity of pirogues constructed 
on the River LeBoeuf has exhausted all the large trees in the neighbor- 
hood." His letter continued with high praise of the harbor at Presque Isle. 
The French planned to establish a chain of forts from Quebec along 
Lakes Ontario and Erie and the waters of French Creek and the Allegheny 
River to Fort Duquesne, and from there along the Ohio and Mississippi 
Rivers to the Gulf of Mexico. 

The English were aware of the French strategy and took all possible 
steps to checkmate them. A plan was advanced to block the French in 
their attempts at expansion and control. If they could control the pass 
at Niagara, it would make it impossible for the French to communicate 
with their garrison at Presque Isle except through a tedious and difficult 
passage. If the fort at Presque Isle could be taken, the French then could 
send no supplies or provisions to Forts LeBoeuf and Duquesne. English 
control of Presque Isle would enable them to transport troops and materials 
much more speedily and economically than by sending an overland 
expedition from Virginia to Ohio. 

The English finally managed to win some of the Indian tribes over to 
their side in 1757 and the French were compelled to maintain a garrison 
of one hundred men at Presque Isle to ward off English and Indian attacks. 
General Braddock had lost his life in his futile attempt to capture the 
French forts in 1754, but General John Forbes was successful in driving 
the French from four Pennsylvania forts in 1759. The French abandoned 
Fort Presque Isle after a dramatic parting with their Indian friends, 
promising an early return. But French domination of the Erie country 
was over. 

THE BRITISH 

The French and Indian War closed in 1760, leaving the western country 
under British control. Presque Isle was the last of the French forts south 
of Lake Erie to be abandoned and when the English came into this section 
in 1760, Colonel Bouquet rebuilt the fort, and ordered the forts at LeBoeuf 
and Venango put in good condition. 

The Indians resented English attempts to expand and, because of the 
threat of Indian massacres, no attempts were made to attract settlers to 

20 



HISTORY 



Presque Isle. A band of Senecas, during Pontiac's Conspiracy, captured 
the forts at Presque Isle and LeBoeuf in 1763 and roamed this district un- 
molested until the British lost the western country to the United States 
under the peace treaty of 1783. 

Despite the treaty, the English were reluctant to abandon their forts 
and maintained garrisons at some of them, realizing the importance of 
Fort Presque Isle to their dreams of a western dominion. In order to 
hamper American settlement they instigated the Indians to organize raid- 
ing and marauding parties. 

Pennsylvania acquired title to the northwestern part of the State in a 
treaty with the Six Nations in 1784. A dispute arose over the Triangle 
lands in 1785 between Pennsylvania and New York. Major Andrew 
Ellicott for Pennsylvania and James Clinton and Simeon DeWitt for New 
York were appointed to establish the boundary lines between the States. 
They surveyed the line from the Delaware River to Lake Erie and the 
western boundary of New York was fixed at 20 miles east of Presque Isle. 
A triangular tract of land was left which was not included in the charter 
of either State and which Massachusetts and Connecticut also claimed. 

A later treaty was made between Pennsylvania and the Six Nations in 
1789 giving jurisdiction over the Triangle Lands to Pennsylvania. Gen. 
William Irvine was impressed by the fine natural harbor at Presque Isle 
and interested a number of citizens in trying to obtain it for Pennsylvania. 
New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut ceded their claims to the 
United States. In 1792 the Triangle Lands, embracing 202,187 acres, were 
sold to Pennsylvania for $151,640.25. To adjust Indian claims, Penn- 
sylvania paid them $2,000 and the United States settled for $1,200. Chiefs 
Cornplanter, Half Town, and Big Tree were paid an additional $800. 

The Six Nations were still displeased with the arrangement and dis- 
played open hostility. Joseph Brant, a powerful Mohawk chief, tried to 
organize the Indians in a war, which was averted only through the efforts 
of Cornplanter. An Indian council was held at Buffalo early in 1794 in 
protest against the Presque Isle settlement. Another council was held at 
LeBoeuf on July 4, 1794, when the Indians repeated their intention to 
prevent the establishment of a garrison at Presque Isle. 

The Indians remained sullen in spite of attempts to pacify them, and in- 
dulged in sporadic skirmishes with the settlers. General Wayne, who had 
established a garrison at Erie in his western warfare with the Indians, 
finally crushed the backbone of Indian unrest in the Battle of Fallen 
Timbers on the Maumee River in 1794 and the Indians were quick to 
come to terms. Wayne completed a treaty of peace with the western 
tribes at Greenville, Ohio, in 1795. 

Gen. William Irvine and Maj. Andrew Ellicott had been appointed 



21 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



to construct a road from Reading to Presque Isle in 1794, and to lay out 
a town at Presque Isle. Albert Gallatin, later Secretary of the Treasury, 
was appointed to assist them. Due to Indian trouble, it was necessary to 
send troops to protect the settlers, but preparations for the establishment 
of a town at Presque Isle were suspended because of possible hostilities with 
the Indians. The settlers openly voiced their indignation until Governor 
Mifflin made it plain that he was acting under orders from President 
Washington. 

Captain Denny arrived at LeBoeuf in 1 794 with a detachment of troops 
under instructions to remain there until further orders. Major Ellicott 
revealed the hostile attitude of the Indians in a letter: "The Indians con- 
sider themselves our enemies and that we are theirs. From this considera- 
tion they never come near the garrison except as spies and then escape 
as soon as discovered." 

After strenuous American protests, the British eventually abided by the 
treaty of 1783 and abandoned all claim to the western country, including 
all garrisons, forts, and military posts. A treaty of peace concluded at 
Canadaigua in 1794 removed all final obstacles to the laying out of a town 
at Presque Isle. Ellicott had laid out the town of Waterford in 1794, and 
the following spring proceeded to Presque Isle where he laid out the town 
of Erie in June, 1795. Ellicott was later to redraft L'Enf ant's plan of 
Washington, D. C. 

THE AMERICANS 

Capt. Russell Bissell, with two hundred men from Wayne's Army, 
landed at Presque Isle in the spring of 1795 and built two block houses 
on the bluff overlooking the harbor entrance, just east of the mouth of 
Mill Creek. The men cleared land for a cornfield, built a sawmill to 
supply lumber for the barracks occupied by the troops, and within a 
year completed a warehouse and stockade. 

The first settlers to locate permanently within the county were Thomas 
Rees and John Grubb, who arrived here in the spring of 1795. Later in 
the same year William Miles and William Cook, with their wives, made 
a settlement in Concord Township. Col. Seth Reed, accompanied by his 
wife, and two sons, arrived during the same year and took up lands in 
McKean Township. Other settlers at Erie during 1795 were Rufus S. 
Reed, and George W. Reed, James Baird and children, Mrs. Thomas Rees, 
and Mrs. J. Fairbanks. Among some of the outstanding men who fol- 
lowed them in the next few years were Capt. Daniel Dobbins, Judah Colt, 
Timothy Tuttle, Jacob Weiss, and William Wallace. 

The region was a dense forest at the time the first settlers arrived, 

22 



HISTORY 



Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres and later King of France, was enter- 
tained at the mouth of Mill Creek in 1795 by Thomas Rees and was greatly 
impressed by the beauty of the wilderness scenery. 

Migration to this section was slow during the first five years after laying 
out the town because of Indian opposition. The entire population of the 
Triangle in 1800 was 237, with 81 at Erie. After 1805, the county began 
to be settled more rapidly, and Erie had a population of 394 in 1810. 
Most of the settlers prior to 1 800 came from New England and New York. 
Subsequent migrations were also from the same sections. 

Erie County was made a separate county in 1800 with Erie designated 
as the place for holding court. The first election in the county had been 
held at Erie in 1798 while it was still part of Allegheny County. Erie was 
incorporated as a borough in 1805, and the first election was held on 
May 5, 1806. The boundaries of the borough extended from the bay 
south to 1 2th Street and from Chestnut Street to Parade Street, practically 
forming a one mile square. 

The first act of borough council at their meeting May 9, 1806, was 
to fix the pay of Regulators, or streets commissioners, at one dollar per 
day. All the meetings were held at the village inn. In the 1806 election 
a burgess, five councilmen, and a constable were elected. The newly 
elected officers met at the Buehler Hotel and appointed a town clerk, 
three street commissioners, and a treasurer. The first ordinance passed 
by the borough council was made at the first meeting and provided for 
the examination and regulation of Second Street from the west side of 
Parade Street to the east side of French Street to the north side of Sixth 
Street, the marking of street intersections, driveways, and other matters 
pertaining to the town plan. 

Erie was still a straggling village of around 400 inhabitants when war 
with England was declared in 1812. Western settlers looked with alarm 
at their well organized enemy across the lakes. Erie, while regarded as 
one of the most important points on the south shore of Lake Erie, had 
only a handful of buildings at the time, and the territory between Buffalo 
and Sandusky was sparsely settled. The British were in a favorable position 
to strike a fatal blow at any time. 

Capt. Daniel Dobbins acquainted President Madison with the dangerous 
situation and was authorized to build a fleet. The construction of ships 
was begun under great handicaps, lack of finances, materials, and men. A 
young naval lieutenant, Oliver Hazard Perry, was commissioned to take 
command of the Lake Erie fleet. He arrived in Erie March 27, 1813, and 
personally supervised the building of the two largest ships. 

Considerable difficulty was experienced in getting the two large ships, 
Lawrence and Niagara, over the sand bar at the entrance to the harbor, 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



but they were finally lifted over and the fleet sailed out August izth with 
about four hundred men, their objective being Sandusky where they 
were to meet Gen. William Henry Harrison's army. 

Perry's startling and brilliant victory in the Battle of Lake Erie, Septem- 
ber 10, 1813, routed the British from the Great Lakes and turned the eyes 
of the world upon Erie (see COUNTY TOUR 1). The citations of 
Perry and his men, by a grateful Congress, and the wild acclaim of 
the entire Nation, was reflected directly upon Erie. Large numbers of 
militia, marines, and sailors stationed at Erie strutted around the town, 
basking in the glory of the victory, the only time in naval history that 
an entire British squadron had been made to surrender. Wild rumors of 
marauding Indians and British expeditions marching to burn Erie lent an 
air of tense excitement and confusion to the town. 

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 

The first mode of travel was by foot, horseback, or water. The roads 
were rough, muddy, and impassable at certain times of the year. When 
they were somewhat improved around 1810, the two-horse wagons were 
introduced. These wagons were crude affairs covered with cotton cloth 
stretched over hickory ribs, furnishing shelter for the entire family and 
its goods. Supplies for Perry's fleet were transported in flat boats to 
Waterford and from there by way of the turnpike to Erie. 

The opening of the salt trade in 1800 did much to develop Erie as a 
port and a transportation center. The salt was shipped from Buffalo to 
Erie, then carried to Waterford by ox teams, where it was transported 
down French Creek and the Allegheny River on flatboats to Pittsburgh. 
During the height of the trade, it was estimated that one hundred teams 
of oxen were constantly on the road between Erie and Waterford trans- 
porting salt. Vessels leaving Buffalo for the West were loaded principally 
with salt from 1805 to 1810. Six thousand barrels of salt were registered 
at the Customs House in Erie in 1808, and the figure reached a peak of 
18,000 in 1811. 

Some dissension arose as to whether the salt trade was beneficial to the 
county. An "Old Salt-hauler" gave his views in the Erie Mirror, January, 
1809, stating that, "The farmers were obliged to haul salt to procure the 
comforts, if not the necessities of life, such as sugar, tea, coffee, wearing 
apparel, etc., as salt seemed to be the current medium of trade during the 
embargo; it was the only commodity they had for market or exchange, 
the greater the traffic the more the farmers progressed in the improve- 
ment of the soil." 

The freightage charge from Buffalo to Erie was Sy 1 /^ per barrel, with 

2 4 



HISTORY 



a 12 l / 2 t charge for storage. It cost $1.50 a barrel to haul the salt from Erie 
to Waterf ord and $ i from there to Pittsburgh. The receipts to the trans- 
porters aggregated $42,000 in one year and the trip from Salina, N. Y., 
to Pittsburgh took from four to six months. The salt trade became so im- 
portant that at one time salt was the only circulation medium in the sec- 
tion, with oxen and other commodities being paid for in salt. The dis- 
covery of salt wells nearer Pittsburgh was responsible for the abandon- 
ment of the Erie trade in 1819. 

Sawmills, gristmills, tanneries, and breweries were erected all over the 
county and prospered until shortly after the War of 1812. Every stream 
that could develop power was used to drive from one to a dozen wheels. 
The county at that time was covered with forests but, with the gradual 
cutting of the timber, the streams dried up and the mills fell into disuse. 

The early settlers were a hardy lot of people who lived in a frugal 
manner. Mush, corn, bread, and potatoes were the principal foods, with 
flour, pork, and sugar looked upon as luxuries. Any meat that graced 
the table came from the pioneer's backyard, for the county abounded 
with game. 

Mills were far apart and the roads through the woods mere pathways. 
Small loads of grist were carried on the backs of horses or men, and it 
was not unusual to see men carrying bags of grain on their backs from 
Waterford or farther to be ground at Erie. Few families had stoves and 
cooking was usually done over open fires. Beds were made up by laying 
blankets over boxes or rude frames. Every house had a spinning wheel 
and many were provided with a loom to make home-made clothing. 
Liquor was distilled on most farms and few families were without a bottle 
for the safety of guests that might be bitten by the poisonous snakes 
reported but seldom seen in the county. 

The pioneer's home was usually a log cabin of unhewn logs laid one 
upon the other, the crevices filled in with mud. As conditions improved, 
structures of hewn timber were erected, mortar displacing mud. Wall 
paper was unknown and many houses were without window glass. As 
saw mills increased in number, frame buildings of a better character were 
substituted for the log cabins. An occasional brick or stone structure was 
regarded as an architectural marvel. 

At the "raisings," when a new residence or barn was to be erected, 
neighbors and friends from miles around were invited. Liquor and cider 
flowed freely at these combination community work and merry-making 
events. 

The dense forest covering the county abounded with deer, wolves, 
bears, panthers, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, squirrels, oppossums, minks, 
skunks, martins, and some wild cattle or buffalo. All except the smaller 

25 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



game, and one or two small herds of deer are extinct today. Deer were so 
abundant that hunters lay in wait for them at numerous deer licks within 
the county and slaughtered them mercilessly. The wolves destroyed so 
much stock that a bounty of twelve dollars a head was offered for them. 
Pigeons, ducks, geese, pheasants, partridges, and turkeys were plentiful, 
and the lakes and streams teemed with fish. 

A disturbing factor in the pioneer's life was the Indians. They were 
generally friendly to the settlers except when under the influence of 
whiskey, but the ease with which they obtained liquor from the traders 
made them a constant menace. Most of these red men were good-natured 
friends of the white man, bearing such curious names as Half Town, 
Cheat, Twenty Canoes, Laughing Thief, Surly Bear, and Stinking Fish, 
usually descriptive of a possession or personal characteristic; occasionally, 
as with our nicknames, they marked a childishly frank and brutal humor. 

The city gradually began to expand from its early location around 
Third and French Streets westward. Third Street was the most important 
business thoroughfare until the early iSzo's when it was superseded by 
French Street, which remained the busiest until the i86o's. 

Immigration of the Pennsylvania Germans set in around 1825, followed 
by Irish and German immigrants ten years later, boosting the population 
to 1465 in 1830, more than double that of the previous decade. 

A branch of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania was established at 
Erie in 1837 and sold $200,000 worth of stock in one day. This, coupled 
with the previous surveying of the canal to Beaver, the charter granted 
for a railroad to Sunbury, and Government work in building piers and 
deepening the harbor, gave strength to the belief that Erie was destined 
to become a great city. Prices of real estate skyrocketed, one lot purchased 
for $10,000 selling a month later for $50,000. The speculation lasted 
until 1839, when bank failures throughout the Nation caused a serious 
panic. 

Industries which later were destined to play an important role in Erie's 
development started during this period. The fishing industry, which later 
gave Erie the name of being the largest fresh water fishing port in the 
world, began with the establishment of the Shaw Fish Company in 1821. 
The establishment of the Hinkley, Jarvis Company in 1833 started Erie 
on the road to industrial importance. This company was the forerunner 
of the heavy manufacture of engines and boilers in latter day industry. 

The opening of the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal in 1 844 brought a boom 
to business in the section (see TRANSPORTATION). The canal did a 
profitable business for thirty years and lapsed quietly, despite the protests 
of the canal men, when the Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad bought it to 
eliminate competition. 

26 



HISTORY 



The oilcloth industry began in Erie in 1840 and soon there were a 
dozen such plants in operation. They were shortlived, however, dying 
out during the Civil War industrial scare. 

(Erie obtained its city charter in 1851, a short time before it began 
to vie with other sections of the country in the sometimes mad construc- 
tion of railroad lines in all directions. Short roads were built, later to be 
consolidated into larger lines. The wild period of railroad construction 
reached its peak with the so-called Railroad War, in which Erie citizens 
vigorously protested what they considered a death blow at the town's 
growth (see TRANSPORTATION). 

Despite the Civil War and its effect of frightening away capital invest- 
ment and industry, the decade from 1860 to 1870 saw the largest numerical 
increase in population to that time, when Erie gained from 9,414 to 19,646. 
The first foreign immigration really began during this period with small 
numbers of Germans, Italians, and Poles coming in. Railroad consolida- 
tion began to be felt and national expansion westward bulged over into 
this territory. The village of South Erie was incorporated as a borough 
in 1866 and consolidated with Erie in 1870. 

When oil was first discovered at Titusville in 1859, Erie again saw 
an opportunity to become a large city. Twenty refineries were set up 
in a short time and production mounted from 325 barrels to a peak of 
15,092 barrels in two years. The peculiar structure of the railroads and 
their schedule of rates apparently discriminated in favor of a few and 
the local oil companies were discouraged by being overcharged by the 
roads. Refinery after refinery moved out, and another boom had hit 
Erie and left it without visibly affecting its economic status. 

The oil boom of the 6o's brought a large demand for drills, fittings, pipe 
and oil well machinery, and dozens of little shops that had located here 
with the rise of Northern industry prospered. The factories were first 
set up only to satisfy local consumption; among these were oilcloth fac- 
tories, bakeries, breweries, packing houses, stove works, oil refineries, 
and clothing and textile plants. Erie was termed "the home of cockroach 
industries" because it was a city of small shops. The tendency toward 
small scale production was affected by the manner of development of 
the city's economic life. Craftsmen set up little plants and slowly ex- 
panded them in line with the demand. 

Commodity prices doubled and tripled during the Civil War period be- 
cause of the issuance of script by the local authorities and "greenbacks" 
by the Federal Government. 

Until 1862 employees rarely received as much as a dollar in cash for 
their labor. Workers were paid mostly in printed due bills good for 
merchandise. The State passed a law prohibiting the issuance of these 

27 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



due bills, but the New Furnace Company circumvented the law by 
issuing metal tokens, called pewteringtum. The due bills, which were 
used even during the construction of the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal, were 
called "blue crackee," colloquially called "crackee and be d d." Un- 
certain fluctuations of National currency during this period made the 
blue crackee often preferable to National currency. 

Life in the county during the yo's changed from the colorful, romantic 
life of the boatmen to the uncertain one of politics. Erie became politi- 
cally minded during the 1850*8 and attained sufficient prominence in 1875 
to entertain the only State assemblage of either party when the Democrats 
convened in Erie. The citizens took their politics seriously, and were 
often moved to vigorous action. Newspaper owners and editors were 
political czars, and their offices the center of all prominent politicians. On 
several occasions irate citizens raided newspaper plants and destroyed them 
in the frenzy of a political campaign. 

Erie continued to expand after 1870 and almost tripled its 1870 popula- 
tion during the next thirty years. The gradual influx of immigrants and 
the steady increase in industrial activity were the primary factors in this 
development. The town was caught between the Buffalo trading area, 
with its superior communication and transportation connections with the 
Atlantic coast, and Cleveland, the western railroad division head and 
refinery center. Erie could scarcely hope to compete on equal terms 
with these cities. But its transportational advantages still existed and much 
of the overflow trade from the East and West found its way here. 

In 1885 Erie adopted the electric trolley system, being the second city 
in the United States to do so. With the organization of interurban and 
suburban lines in all directions shortly afterwards, a consolidation of the 
county's population drew the people into a more compact trading group. 

While there were no outstanding local events of major importance, 
exclusive of National development, many industries located in Erie and 
expanded. The Hammermill Paper Company came to Erie in 1898 and 
probably marked the first step in bringing nation-wide attention to Erie's 
industries. Other industries which had been struggling through the for- 
mative years of 1870 and 1880 were firmly entrenching themselves to 
participate in the golden industrial eras soon to follow. 

By 1900 Erie had become nationally known for the manufacture of its 
engines and boilers, which were shipped to all parts of the world. The 
establishment of a branch of the General Electric plant in 1911 once again 
focused attention on the advantages of Erie's location, and its large labor 
reserve. 

War clouds hanging over Europe brought a flood of immigrants to 
the section. Thousands of Italians, Poles, and Germans thronged to Erie 

28 



HISTORY 



as laborers in its many industries. When America entered the World 
War, many of the local plants were easily adapted to the manufacture 
of munitions, and Erie knew a prosperity that it had never known before. 
Workers in crowded factories toiled day and night, drawing fabulous 
wages in comparison to the pre-war period. Money flowed freely, and 
there was a further expansion of industry. 

By 1920 Erie had a population of 93,372. The Mill Creek flood of 
1915, with a loss of 25 lives and property damage of $2,000,000, had, some- 
what paradoxically, led to certain city-wide improvements. A flood con- 
trol tube was built, many new sewer lines were laid, streets and parks 
were beautified, and a school building program was begun that gave 
Erie three well-equipped high schools. 

The significance of industry in Erie's development may be seen from 
a comparison of the total numbers of employees and Erie's population. In 
1900, with a total number of 10,579 employees, Erie had a population of 
52,733. Twenty years later the total number of employees had increased 
to 24,783, or an increase of more than 140 percent, while its population 
had increased to 93,372, or only 66 percent. 

On the momentum of the post-war boom Erie hit an all time mark of 
$40,000,000 in total wages and salaries in 1920, a figure that was not again 
equalled until the banner year of 1929. After 1929 Erie's "durable goods" 
industries were adversely affected by the Depression. However, a measure 
of recovery has been achieved (1938), and today Erie is third in the 
diversity of industries for cities of its size. 



TALES AND LEGENDS 



/COMPETITIVE sports were played between Indian tribes before the 
^-^ coming of the white man. Foot races, wrestling matches, and weight 
throwing contests were quite common. Baseball had its antecedents in a 
game the French named la crosse. Called "boggataway" by the Indians, 
it is probably the oldest sport in America, and the game furnishes a leg- 
endary background for a war between the Eries and Senecas which re- 
sulted in the virtual extermination of the Erie tribe in 1654. 

For years a feud had existed between the two tribes, a feud which had 
never broken into open hostilities because of the peaceful influence of an 
Indian queen, Yagowanea, who was respected and revered by all the 
Indian tribes living in the New York-Pennsylvania region. Attempts of 
the Eries to embroil the Senecas in war had often been halted by this wise 
old woman, and it was not until the Eries insulted the Senecas during a 
boggataway game that open warfare became inevitable. 

The game was played with a curved hickory stick, the loop of which 
was netted with gut and rawhide. The Eries lost a contest to the Senecas, 
and immediately challenged them to a foot race, intending somehow to 
humiliate their rivals. The winners were to scalp the losers with their 
own tomahawks. Again the Senecas won, but they refused to carry out 
the bloody bargain. 

A few weeks after the boggataway game, the legend says, a group of 
Erie warriors went to Yagowanea with an unjustified grievance against 
two Seneca chieftains who were visiting in the Eries' camp. In a moment 
of absentmindedness the queen found the Seneca warriors guilty of the 
trumped-up charge and gave the complaining Erie warriors permission 

3 



TALES AND LEGENDS 



to execute the Senecas, thus bringing about the Erie-Seneca War. The 
Iroquois Confederation joined with the Senecas, and the Eries were com- 
pletely routed. Remnants of the once powerful tribe were split into small 
groups and distributed among tribes friendly to the Senecas. 

There are several stories concerning the fall of Fort Presque Isle to the 
Senecas during Pontiac's Conspiracy in 1763. One of these, exemplary of 
the red man's cunning, states that an Indian appeared at the Fort and told 
the British commander that his canoe, laden with furs from Detroit, had 
sprung bad leaks and could proceed no further. He asked the commander 
if he wished to purchase the furs, as the Indians were anxious to return 
home and would sell the furs at a sacrifice price. The commander was 
suspicious, but the Indian answered his questions readily. Still somewhat 
distrustful, the commander left the fort with two men to inspect the furs, 
giving instructions not to admit anyone to the fort until he returned. 

An hour later, several Indians laden with furs appeared at the gate. 
They asked the garrison to open the gates so that they might deliver the 
furs according to the commander's instructions. They said that the com- 
mander would be back soon. As soon as the gates were opened the Indians 
dropped their furs and drew tomahawks, which had been concealed in 
their clothing, and held the gates open long enough to permit a waiting 
army of hidden Indians to enter and massacre the British garrison. 

One of the stories told about Gen. Anthony Wayne and the Indians, 
which is probably more fiction than fact, tells of the time when Wayne 
and two of his men in a canoe were fired upon by an Indian war party 
on shore. Wayne and his men paddled vigorously in an attempt to get 
out of range of the bullets. But a large Indian war canoe loaded with 
warriors brandishing tomahawks suddenly appeared, blocking their 
progress and heading them towards shore. 

Caught between the two hostile parties, Wayne quickly ordered his 
men to overturn the canoe. While they held on, he swam under water 
to the Iftdian war canoe and, coming up underneath it, gave it a mighty 
shove, dumping its cargo into the Lake. He snatched a tomahawk from 
one of the Indians and attacked them so viciously that they swam away, 
leaving Wayne and his two soldiers to continue their journey unmolested. 

So great was the Indian fear of Wayne that, even after his death, some 
Indians abided by a treaty they had made with the settlers, saying that 
the ghost of Wayne had appeared menacingly before them. It is re- 
grettable that the whites did not show as much respect for this American 
hero, for when his son disinterred Wayne's body in 1 809 in order to trans- 
port it to Radnor for burial he found that some culprit had pilfered 
Wayne's remaining good boot. 

Early borough ordinances reflect the rude civilization of the frontier. 

3* 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



One dated 1810 called out every man to dig out stumps in the main streets. 
Another ordinance required convicted drunkards to dig three stumps 
from the town's streets as punishment. 

Money was scarce among the early settlers. Few of them were able to 
employ labor in accomplishing a difficult task. It became the custom 
among the settlers to combine their labor in mutual assistance. Thus, 
when a family built a log house, neighbors from the vicinity gathered on 
an appointed day, felled trees, and hauled them to the site of the new 
house. Entire families gathered for these events. The women prepared 
the food, and gossiped as they knitted socks, underclothing, and scarves 
for their husbands and children. 

In the cutting of trees a suitable clearing was provided for a garden 
and cornfield. Brush and undergrowth were removed and piled in heaps 
for burning. Stumps usually stood for two or three years after the land 
was cleared, gradually drying out, and becoming seasoned for fuel. 

Following the long day's labor, the settlers gathered at the fireside of 
the new house to drink home-distilled whisky and recount tales of their 
daily lives. As the evening progressed a squeaky fiddle would be brought 
on and a square dance begun. Until early morning, the younger members 
of the group swung and swayed to Money Musk, the Virginia Reel, and 
Turkey in the Straw. The marriage of a young couple furnished sufficient 
excuse for another logging and house building. Few settlers could get 
along without the help of neighbors in the early days. 

Characteristic of the early pioneer life in this section is a tale of a 
"wild boar" hunt. The pioneers were always chasing wolves, panthers, 
and bears, so it did not strike them as unusual when one man reported that 
his cornfield was being ravaged by wild boar. With equal resignation they 
would have picked up their rifles if a Bengal tiger or an African lion had 
been reported in the vicinity. They soon tracked the boar down and shot 
him. 

The hunting party took it to a neighbor's home, dressed it and prepared 
for an epicurean revel. Hardly had the feast begun when another settler 
appeared and claimed that the boar was a pig, and his own pig at that, 
which had strayed off his premises a year ago. The killer insisted on his 
rights and a free-for-all fight followed. The minor riot was finally settled 
with the original owner receiving a quarter of the "wild boar" and the 
feast continued on its merry way. 

Erie first attracted National attention in 1813, when Commodore Oliver 
Hazard Perry arrived to take command of the Great Lakes fleet. The 
period of the building of the fleet and immediately following the great 
victory in the Battle of Lake Erie can properly be called the golden era 
of Erie's history. The influx of sailors and militia gave a boom to the 




Wood Storage, Haimnerwill Paper Co. 







Pennsylvania Railroad 
grain elevator 




Unloading ore, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad dock 



TALES AND LEGENDS 



straggling town, and the intoxication of victory filled the air. The town 
became known as the "mother-in-law of the American Navy," and wed- 
dings and engagements were many. 

The sailors were as quick to fight on land as on sea. Many disputes arose 
about the Battle of Lake Erie, after Perry's departure, and some questioned 
Captain Elliott's conduct during the engagement. Quarrels broke out 
between Perry's and Elliott's adherents, and many duels were fought. 
In one of the duels, Midshipman Senat, who commanded the Porcupine 
during the battle, was killed by Acting-Master McDonald. Some people 
maintained that the dispute was occasioned by the number of buttons 
on McDonald's suit, but most of their contemporaries agreed that the 
argument arose over Elliott's wisdom in hanging back with his large ship, 
the Niagara, leaving Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, to be riddled by the 
British. 

Two marines were shot during this period for desertion, and a seaman 
was hanged to the yard-arm of the Niagara. James Bird was one of the 
marines tried for desertion and executed. A sergeant, Bird had been placed 
in charge of a storehouse, which post he deserted. He was found guilty 
by a court martial and the sentence approved by the President. The story 
goes that Perry, who had left Erie, ordered a pardon to stay Bird's execu- 
tion, but that it arrived after he was shot. One of the most popular of the 
flood of songs which followed Perry's victory was the Ballad of James 
Bird, a lugubrious ditty of Bird's heroism and sad end that was often 
recited at meetings and in barrooms. 

One of the stories coming down from the period following Colonel 
Drake's discovery of oil in 1859 centered around "Coal Oil Johnny" 
Steele. Steele, an orphan, found himself rich overnight when oil was 
struck on his farm. He went on one of the most glorious spending sprees 
Northwestern Pennsylvania had ever seen. It was nothing unusual for him, 
so the story goes, when the proprietor of a hotel insisted that Johnny's 
party had become too boisterous, to buy the hotel and continue the party. 

Another story deals with one of his unusual habits hiring a cab and 
tacking ten dollar bills all over the upholstery. Driving to Erie, he would 
stop in front of a bar room, pluck a ten dollar bill from the upholstery, 
order a drink for everybody, have one himself, and drive off to another 
spot. At the close of the evening's roistering all money left in the cab 
was given to the driver. Steele soon found himself with neither friends 
nor money. But as luck would have it, he came on a forgotten $20,000 
deposit in a bank, and having learned his lesson well began to lead a wiser 
and saner life. 



33 



NATIONALITY GROUPS 



THE French village of 100 families established by French explorers 
near Fort Presque Isle in 1753 was abandoned six years later, ending 
the first European effort to colonize the Great Lakes area. The first 
American settlers arrived in the region in 1795, coming mainly from New 
England, New York, and southern Pennsylvania. 

Foreign immigration began with the arrival of a large number of Ger- 
mans in 1830. The Finns came in 1850, followed by the Italians in 1860. 
In 1865 a few Poles began to arrive, driven from Europe by floods and 
low wages. Many of these immigrants were so poor that they had to 
depend upon relatives already in the country or upon steamship and land 
companies for their passage money. In the post-Civil War period, thou- 
sands of them were brought in to build railroads and work in coal mines. 
Although many of the newcomers were penniless, they represented a 
good investment to land speculators and industrialists. Immigrants con- 
tinued to arrive until 1914. Armenians, Hungarians, and Turks came in 
small numbers, but many Italians, Germans, and Poles arrived. 

According to recent figures, the three largest National groups in Erie 
are the German, with approximately 30,000; Polish, with 20,000; and the 
Italian, with 18,000. 

A city directory published in 1853 reveals that Germans predominated 
in the building trades. The Germans were quick to exert their influence 
on the city. Those of the Catholic faith banded together, breaking away 
from the business section then on French street, to concentrate in the 
vicinity of German and Parade Streets, between 8th and 9th Streets. They 
built a frame church there in 1833 and the present St. Mary's Church on 
the same location. 

34 



NATIONALITY GROUPS 



The Protestant group organized St. John's Lutheran Church in 1835 
and, two years later, the Salem Evangelical Association for Germans in 
America was founded. A German language newspaper, the Zuschauer, 
came out in 1851. This paper became, in turn, the Freie Presse, the Tage- 
blatt, and the present (1938) Deutsche Zeitung. In 1862 the Erie Lieder- 
staf el, the first German singing society, was formed; six years later a 
Turnverein was organized. 

At first the German people favored the neighborhood of German and 
Holland Streets, between 9th and loth Streets. Now they are spread 
throughout the city, predominating in the East and West 2 6th Street 
districts. Many of their stores originally were community centers, where 
only the German language was spoken. Societies were established, and 
after considerable agitation, a German Free School was built. The school 
was abandoned when the public school system had become firmly en- 
trenched in the city. 

The Civil War did much to break down the barriers of misunderstand- 
ing and distrust among nationality groups. There was a prompt response 
on the part of Germans to the call to arms and a regiment went from Erie, 
commanded by Colonel Schlaudecker, with several German officers. The 
patriotic spirit of the Germans in the war was the most important single 
factor in welding together the nationalities. A German, P. A. Becker, 
was elected mayor in 1883. Two of his outstanding acts in office were 
the introduction of electricity in street lighting and the construction of 
a new City Hall. 

The Italian influx began in 1860, but did not become pronounced until 
1914. They came from Abruzzi, Campobosso, and Naples in the south; 
and from Rome, Pisa, and Tuscany in the north; with some from Sicily 
and Calabria. Many of the Italians from southern Italy and Sicily are 
concentrated in the district between i5th and i8th Streets, west of State 
Street; and between Myrtle and Raspberry Streets. Those from northern 
Italy have settled along East 25th, 26th, and 2yth Streets and from Penn- 
sylvania Avenue to the southern city limits. 

The census of 1870 lists but 18 Poles, a figure which was increased in 
1930 to 20,000. St. Stanislaus Church, East i3th and Wallace Streets, one 
of the outstanding religious edifices in the city, was begun in 1883. It 
is attended largely by persons of Polish extraction and is a center for 
their community activities. The largest group of Poles is near St. Stani- 
slaus Church. A second group is in the section from East Avenue to the 
eastern city limits, between 6th and i2th Streets, while a third group is 
in St. Hedwig's parish on East 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Streets. 

Other nationalities are scattered throughout the city: Russians largely 
around East Front Street, and on Parade Street, between 2nd and 3rd 

35 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Streets; the Slovaks on Pennsylvania Avenue from 8th to izth Streets; and 
the Greeks on izth, i4th, and Peach Streets. 

Citizenship and literacy classes conducted in various night schools have 
done much toward the assimilation of the foreign born. So successful has 
this been that the second and third generations are completely American 
in speech and manner. 

Erie's population in 1930 was 115,967. The number of foreign born 
and of first generation Americans in Erie in 1936, according to records 
of the International Institute, is shown in the following table: 



Armenian 

Canadian (includes French 

Canadians) 2,481 

Chinese 9 

Czech 91 

Danish 362 

Dutch 1 04 

English 1,831 

Finns 280 

Germans 30,000 

Greek 201 

Hungarian 700 

Irish (Free State and Nor- 
thern Ireland) 3,3 10 

Italian 1 8,000 

Lithuanian 221 

Mexican 95 

Norwegian 18 1 



149 Polish 20,000 



Portuguese 
Roumanian 
Russian . . 
Scotch . 



550 

55 

i,i75 

5 

Slovak 2,512 

Spanish 61 

Swedes 3,126 

Swiss 161 

Yugoslavia (includes Croa- 
tians, Serbs, Slovenes, 

Albanians) 192 

All others Brazilians, Arab- 
ians, Egyptians, Assyr- 
ians, Flemish, Maltese, 

Letts, Welsh, and French 199 

Total 87,050 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE 



RIE ranks third among cities of from 100,000 to 500,000 population 
in the diversity of its manufactured products. In 1936 it had 277 
manufacturing plants, with an invested capital of more than $58,176,000. 
The value of the yearly output was more than $97,643,800, with 21,078 
employes and an annual payroll totalling $29,129,100. 

Among the principal manufactures are power shovels and power ham- 
mers; electric and steam locomotives; writing, printing, and roofing 
papers; machine and hand tools; rubber specialties; boilers, boiler con- 
trolling equipment; sterilizers for hospitals; electrical specialties; building 
hardware, plumbing supplies; heating equipment; kitchen equipment; and 
castings of iron, steel, and non-ferrous metals. Erie imports pulpwood 
from Canada; crude rubber from the Far East; linens from Ireland; and 
other articles for direct consumption from virtually every country of 
the world. 

Although Erie has few consumer-goods industries, it has long been a 
great producer of heavy or durable goods. Its steam boilers and engines, 
electric locomotives, forgings, power equipment, gas meters, gasoline 
pumps, and oil well supplies are shipped to all parts of the world. It has 
a large traffic in iron ore, grain, and coal, and is a leading fresh water 
fishing port. 

The first industry established in what is now Erie was a sawmill, built 
at the mouth of Mill Creek in 1796, by Capt. Russell Bissell of the United 
States Army. The mill supplied lumber for barracks which were built 
to house troops sent here to protect the settlers. The mill dam was just 
east of Parade Street near East 4th Street. 

A second sawmill was built in 1800 by John Cochran near i6th and 
State Streets. Cochran added a gristmill in 1801, the first in Erie. In 1806 

37 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Robert Brotherton built a sawmill on Hill Road, also near State Street, 
and in 1807 or 1808 another sawmill was erected on Mill Creek, at the 
intersection of E. 8th Street, by Thomas Forester and William Wallace. 
About 1 8 10 Rufus S. Reed, later to become Erie's first citizen, built a 
gristmill nearby; somewhat later, he constructed a distillery, the first in 
the city. 

More gristmills and sawmills were built during the early iSoo's, and 
several woolen mills were erected in the 1830*5. Today no sawmills, and 
only two gristmills are operating in Erie. Textile mills are no longer an 
important part of the city's economic life. 

A brickyard was built in 1803 just east of Parade Street between 2nd 
and 3rd Streets. Bricks from this yard were used in the construction of 
the first brick house in Erie County, still standing on German Street be- 
tween Front and 2nd Streets. Other brickyards were established later, 
but only one is still in operation. 

Early in the iQth century a tannery was built by Ezekiel Dunning, on 
Holland Street between 5th and 6th Streets. Later known as Sterrett's 
tannery, it continued in operation until 1852. In 1805 another tannery 
was built, and for years the tanning business was carried on extensively, 
but by 1900 the industry had ceased to exist in Erie. 

A brewery was built in 1815 by Maj. David McNair on Turnpike 
Street, and a distillery was added in 1823. Many breweries were built 
later, of which only two remain in business. At one time small distilleries 
were found in almost every neighborhood of Erie, but in 1830 a great 
temperance wave swept through the county, and whisky became un- 
popular. Erie distilleries thereafter disappeared rapidly; there are none 
in the city now. 

The industry that launched Erie on the road to industrial importance 
was an iron foundry, established in 1833 by Hinkley, Jarvis & Company 
on the west side of State Street at nth Street, and later known as the 
"Old Furnace." The foundry smelted iron from bog ore mined near the 
head of Presque Isle Bay, transported it by wagons to Waterford, and 
from there to Pittsburgh by river boats. Castings, principally for 
stoves and plows, and sawmill machinery were also manufactured. The 
industry continued under various names until it became part of the 
Germer Stove Company. 

The manufacture of engines and boilers, important in the development 
of Erie's economy, was begun in 1855 at the Presque Isle Iron Works, on 
E. loth Street between Holland and German Streets. In 1905 the plant 
was acquired by the Erie City Iron Works. 

With the discovery of oil at Titusville in 1859, a number of refineries 
were established, 15 having been in operation at one time. This business 

38 



INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE 



gradually fell away in the 1870*5, because of various factors, perhaps the 
most important being a lack of cooperation by the transportation com- 
panies. 

The building of Great Lakes boats in Erie dates from the sailing vessel, 
Washington, in 1798, and later many large steamboats were constructed. 
John D. Paasch began building vessels in 1866 at the foot of State Street, 
and the business is still carried on by his son, Frederick. 

Fishing has long been one of the leading industries of Erie, and the 
annual catch frequently exceeds that of any other port on the Great 
Lakes. Thousands of tons of blue pike, white fish, and perch are shipped 
annually. Ciscoes, once caught in large quantities, are now quite rare. 

Lumber was an important factor in lake trade for years; today it has 
been superseded by the coal, grain, iron ore, coke, and pulp-wood trade, 
and by an extensive package freight business. Boatloads of automobiles 
arrive in the early spring for transhipment to eastern markets. Erie has 
adequate and modern equipment for handling these products, including 
several grain elevators and package freight warehouses. 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE 

Approximately 2,000 retail establishments in Erie have a gross business 
of about $50,000,000 annually. The retail area, within a radius of 50 miles, 
contains a population of 300,000 persons, and the city's retail stores com- 
pare favorably in variety of merchandise with establishments in other 
American cities of like size. There are approximately 160 wholesale 
business places, with estimated sales of $30,000,000 annually. 

The first retail store in Erie, a two-story log building, was erected in 
1796 by Col. Seth Reed at the southwest corner of 2nd and Parade Streets. 
The Reeds conducted a store and tavern in the building until it was 
destroyed by fire in 1799. Rufus S. Reed, son of the founder, then rebuilt 
the structure and maintained the business there for many years. 

Third Street was the main business thoroughfare until the early 1820*5, 
when it was superseded by French Street, which, until the i86o's, con- 
tinued to be the busiest thoroughfare in the city, its importance having 
been enhanced by the fact that the post office, the leading business houses, 
and the principal hotels were convenient to it. 

Today, the retail business center is on State Street between 7th and i4th 
Streets. Peach and French Streets and the intervening cross streets from 
7th to 1 4th are part of the principal downtown trading district. The next 
most important business sections are Parade Street from 7th to 1 3th Streets, 
and from 24th to 28th Streets; and Peach Street from 6th to 
Streets and from i8th to 26th Streets. 






39 



TRANSPORTATION 



A 5 EARLY as 1753 the advantages of Erie in regard to transportation 
were recognized by the French, who sent an expedition from 
Montreal to build a fort that was to be a vital link in a chain extending 
to the Ohio Valley. Erie's calm, landlocked harbor, which Duquesne's 
letter of July 6, 1755, to the French Minister of Finance, described as 
one that the largest vessels could enter in safety, is still the central and 
determining factor in the city's transportation system. 

Erie Harbor is protected by a natural breakwall, which provides a 
harbor of adequate depth and anchorage facilities for the largest of 
Great Lakes carriers. Loading and unloading facilities are modern; a 
network of tracks makes possible the immediate conjunction of water 
and rail traffic. Three unloading machines expedite the handling of ore 
from boats a io,ooo-ton boat can be unloaded in less than 10 hours. 
During 1935 more than 600 freight-carrying boats entered and left 
Erie harbor, carrying mostly iron ore, coal and coke, wheat, package 
freight, and pulp wood. 

Erie is the division headquarters of two large railroad systems The 
New York Central, and the Pennsylvania and is a key point for pas- 
senger and freight traffic of the Nickel Plate R. R. and the Bessemer and 
Lake Erie R. R. Erie is also the headquarters of one large inter-state 
trucking concern and a distribution point for a number of others. Its 
location makes it an important point in lake and rail shipments. Large 
ore boats bring cargoes from the upper lakes to Erie, whence the ore is 
shipped by rail to the Pittsburgh and Youngstown steel districts. Coal 
shipped here by rail from the Pennsylvania mines is transported up the 

40 



TRANSPORTATION 



lakes by boats; and package freight from all sections of the country is 
brought to Erie by rail, to be transported by way of the cheaper medium 
of water to Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Buffalo, and Canadian ports. 

EARLY MODES OF TRAVEL 

The first road was built in 1753 by the French from Fort Presque Isle 
to Fort LeBoeuf. Known as the French Road, it was the only one in the 
section for more than 40 years. In 1796 Maj. Andrew Ellicott surveyed 
the Susquehanna and Waterford Turnpike from LeBoeuf to Curwens- 
ville, in Clearfield County, by way of Meadville and Franklin, so that 
a continuous road from Erie to Philadelphia could be built. In 1797 Judah 
Colt built a road from Freeport on Lake Erie to Colt's Station, the first 
in the county after the American occupation. 

In Erie's early years all articles of commerce were landed on the beach 
near the mouth of Mill Creek, where three storehouses were erected in 
1815. In the early days of steam navigation, boats landed freight and 
passengers at the lighthouse piers at the channel entrance to save time. 

In common with other sections of the United States, the region was a 
dense forest at the time the first settlers arrived. The first mode of travel 
was by foot, horseback, or water. The roads were rough and muddy 
until about 1810, when they were widened and gravelled. Then came 
the two-horse wagons, crude affairs covered with cotton cloth stretched 
over hickory ribs and furnishing shelter for family and goods. In 1812 
supplies for Perry's fleet were transported in flat boats from Pittsburgh 
to Waterford, and from there by way of the turnpike to Erie. Another 
mode of travel was by ice. It was not unusual for the early astute business 
man to buy a barrel of whisky at Buffalo and haul it over the lake ice on a 
sled. 

The Erie and Waterford Turnpike (a toll road), now US 19, was 
completed in 1809. The first toll gate was near the southern city limits 
of Erie, the second on the summit between Erie and Waterford. A toll 
road from Erie to Meadville by the way of Edinboro was completed in 
1852. This road, now State 99, was floored with planks. The Erie and 
Waterford plank road, now State 97, had been constructed over an en- 
tirely new route in 1851. 

These roads crossed swamp areas, and, in order to make them passable 
in bad weather, they were "corduroyed." This paving consisted of half 
logs, roughly squared, laid side by side across the road. The chinks were 
filled with small poles and gravel. Though quite rough according to 
modern standards, this kind of road made possible the transportation of 
freight in the region. Plank roads, a refinement of the corduroy, were 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



made of heavy planks eight inches wide by three inches thick, laid cross- 
wise of the road on supporting sills of heavier timbers or logs. Plank 
roads were considered more durable and cheaper to maintain than ma- 
cadam roads. 

Toll roads were abandoned because of their unpopularity with farmers 
who had to use them to haul their produce to market. They boycotted the 
roads by constructing trails and bypasses, and, in one instance, a group 
pulled down the toll gates. The gates were not rebuilt, and the last toll 
road, the Erie and Waterford, was turned over to the township in 1868. 

A weekly mail route, covered by horseback, was opened in 1801 be- 
tween Erie and Pittsburgh by way of Waterford and Meadville. In 1806 
a weekly mail route was started between Buffalo and Erie. The stage 
left Buffalo on Saturday noon and reached Erie on Monday at 6 p. m., 
requiring 54 hours to make the 90-mile journey. In 1827 a line of four- 
horse coaches was placed in daily operation between Cleveland and 
Buffalo, by way of Erie. 

An incident of transportation in those days is related in Sargent's 
Pioneer Sketches about Judah Colt, who later became superintendent of 
the Erie and Pittsburgh Canal. When a young man, Colt was traveling 
through Herkimer County, N. Y., and was stopped near Praker's Bridge 
by Colonel Praker, who told him he must not travel on Sundays; that it 
was his duty to arrest Colt if he continued the journey. 

" 'Well,' said Colt, 'If I have to stop, I must; but I would like to get on 
three or four miles farther to some friends, where I expect to stop, as 
I am about to be taken down with the smallpox and I already feel symp- 
toms of its coming on.' 

'What!' said the old Dutchman, 'You coming down mit de smallpox?' 

'Yes.' 

'Vail, den you must not stop here.' 

'Then you'll have to give me a pass.' 

'Yes, but I write no English. You write de pass in English and I sign it 
in German.' 

Colt wrote a check for $1,000 and Praker signed it. The next morning 
Colt went to the bank, where the check was promptly paid, and resumed 
his journey to Erie. 

Two weeks later Praker went to town, and the banker said, 'Mr. Praker, 
we paid your check for $1,000.' 

'My check for $1,000! I does not know about that.' 

'Come in, it will show for itself.' 

The check was produced, Praker scrutinized it and exclaimed, 'I see, 
it be that d d Yankee's smallpox pass!' 

In that day there were no telegraphs or railroads, and Colt was un- 
molested." 

The author's piece de resistance in a summary of the situation follows: 

42 



TRANSPORTATION 



"And onward thus Colt travels for Erie, 
Through forest, o'er hill, valley and stream, not weary. 
But this man Colt was a sharp undertaker 
In playing his smallpox game with Dutch Praker. 

$1,000 was a big fortune at that day, 

$1.25 per acre for land to pay. 

Across the State Line into Pennsylvania he crosses, 

At Erie he stops to raise young Colts and horses. 

Large streams from little fountains grow, 
From this $1,000 rich did Colt grow. 
It has been said, and it must be so, 
That there are tricks in trades, you know." 

The transportation of salt was a leading industry until 1819. Salt was 
mined at Salina, N. Y., hauled to Buffalo in wagons, then shipped by 
vessel to Erie. From Erie it was sent to Waterford by ox teams, and 
then transported on flatboats down French Creek and the Allegheny 
River to Pittsburgh the same course the French followed in 1753 (see 
HISTORY). 

LAKE NAVIGATION 

The first sailing vessel on Lake Erie was the Griffon, 60 tons, built in 
1679 on the Niagara River by Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, who 
sailed the vessel to Green Bay, Wisconsin. No record has been found of 
any other sailing vessel on the lake until about 1766, when the British 
launched four small ships used chiefly for carrying troops and army 
supplies. 

In 1795 the only sailing vessel on the south shore of Lake Erie belonged 
to Capt. William Lee of Chippewa, N. Y. This ship made infrequent trips 
from Buffalo to Erie. Oars were auxiliary equipment. The first sailing 
vessel built on the south shore of Lake Erie was the 36-ton sloop Wash- 
ington, constructed in 1798 at the mouth of Four Mile Creek, east of 
Erie. The Good Intent, built by Capt. William Lee and R. S. Reed at 
the mouth of Mill Creek in 1799, was the first vessel launched at Erie. 

Prior to the War of 1812 a dozen or more vessels, averaging 60 tons, 
composed the entire merchant fleet on Lake Erie. Salt was the chief 
article of freight, although some business was done in transporting furs 
from the far west to Buffalo. 

The Walk-in-the-Water was the first steamboat to navigate Lake Erie. 
Of 300 tons, it was built on the Niagara River, launched in May, 1818, 
and made regular trips between Buffalo and Detroit, stopping at Erie 
on each trip. The first steamboat launched at Erie was the William Penn, 

43 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



200 tons, in May, 1826. By 1826 three steamboats and from two to ten 
schooners cleared from Erie harbor every week. 

The Vandalia, 150 tons, built at Oswego, New York, and brought 
through the Welland Canal in 1842, was the first boat on Lake Erie oper- 
ated by a propeller. Other propeller vessels soon appeared, and this type 
replaced the old style side-wheel steamboats. 

CANALS 

The Erie Canal of New York, now called the New York State Barge 
Canal (not to be confused with the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal), opening a 
low cost transportation system from New York City to Buffalo, New 
York, by way of the Hudson River to Troy, New York, thence by canal 
to Buffalo, brought an influx of immigration to the western states. Follow- 
ing the opening of this canal large numbers of Germans landed at Erie. 
Their original destination had been Cincinnati, Ohio, and the lower Ohio 
Valley but, attracted by the Pennsylvania farm lands, they remained in 
the Erie region and became an important section of the population. 

The opening of the Erie-to-Pittsburgh Canal in 1844 greatly increased 
the lake trade at Erie. Daily steamboat service was established between 
Erie and Buffalo in 1846. Completion of the Lake Shore Railroad to 
Toledo, Ohio, in 1853, greatly curtailed immigrant travel by way of 
canal and lake, and the steamboats depended mainly upon freight to and 
from the upper lakes. 

In the 1840'$ the State spent more than $4,000,000 in the construction 
of the canal from Pittsburgh to Lake Erie by way of the Ohio, Beaver, 
and Shenango Rivers. 

In 1843 tne State had refused to appropriate the estimated $211,000 
required to complete the canal. The Erie Canal Company was then in- 
corporated. The State ceded to the company all the work that had been 
done, on condition that the corporation finish and operate the canal. 
The additional $211,000 was subscribed by Erie merchants. The first 
boats to reach Erie were the Queen of the West and the R. S. Reed on 
December 5, 1844. The first boat carried passengers, and the second 
brought coal, iron ore, and merchandise. The canal did a thriving business 
and materially assisted in the development of trade. 

The mule-drawn canal boats stopped at any point along their line to 
discharge or take aboard passengers and baggage. The canal did a profit- 
able business for 30 years. With the coming of the steam railroads, the 
Erie & Pittsburgh Railroad bought it to eliminate competition and let 
it lapse quietly into oblivion, despite the strenuous protests of the canal 
men. 

44 



I TRANSPORTATION 



RAILROADS 

A charter was obtained for the Erie & North East Railroad Company 
on April 12, 1842. Stock in the railroad company was sold largely in 
Erie, and construction of six-foot wide gauge track was completed in 
January 19, 1852, and the first train steamed into Erie. This track, now 
standard gauge (4 ft. S l / 2 in.), is now part of the main line of the New 
York Central through Erie County. 

The New York & Erie Railroad Company had been formed to build a 
road from Dunkirk, N. Y., to the Pennsylvania line, and a second road 
was projected by the New York Central from Buffalo, by way of Fre- 
donia, to the State Line. At this period railroads were being built rapidly 
in all sections of the country, and the common practice was to build short 
lines and later sell them at a high profit to continuous lines that merged 
the shorter units. 

Although tentative efforts had been made by citizens of Erie as early 
as the year 1831 to have a railroad extended from Buffalo to Erie, the 
first organization of a company for that purpose was not effected until 
April 12, 1842, when the Erie and North East Railroad Company was or- 
ganized. Surveys were completed in 1849 and contracts were let for 
construction of a six foot gauge track to be laid from Erie to the New 
York State line. The first train entered Erie January 19, 1852. 

In 1852 the Franklin Canal Company completed a railroad from Erie 
to the Ohio State Line, connecting with a line from Cleveland. The first 
train from Erie to Ashtabula, Ohio, was run on November 23, 1852. The 
Pennsylvania State law at that time required all roads entering from the 
east to have a gauge of 6 feet or 4 feet 8 1 / 2 inches. All from the west were 
required to have a gauge of 4 feet 10 inches. This necessitated a break 
and transfer at Erie. 

The change of gauge at Erie was a serious inconvenience to the railroads, 
and on November 17, 1853, the Erie & North East Company entered 
into a contract with the New York Central whereby the former was to 
alter the gauge of its track to 4 feet 10 inches, making a uniform gauge 
from Buffalo to Cleveland. The change, completed on February i, 1854, 
enraged the people of Erie, who had visualized their city as the Lake Erie 
terminus of the New York & Erie Railroad instead of a way station. 
Crowds of citizens, reinforced by Mayor Alfred King and 150 special 
constables, tore down the bridges over State and French Streets, ripped 
up the tracks across all streets east of Sassafras Street, and pelted officials 
of the railroads with rotten eggs whenever they appeared on the streets. 
The enmity of the voting public towards the railroads became so intense 

45 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



that in the elections of 1854, 1855, and 1858, party lines were obliterated, 
and the main political issue was the railroad trouble. 

Erie's angered citizens were successful in preventing the changing of 
track gauge for a time, necessitating the transfer of passengers and freight 
between Harborcreek and Erie by stages and wagons. The city was con- 
demned by railroad travelers. Horace Greeley, one of the inconvenienced 
travelers, declared in the New York Tribune: "Let Erie be avoided until 
grass grows in her streets." Another outbreak occurred in 1855, in which 
several bridges were destroyed and tracks torn up. State and Federal 
officials were compelled to intervene. The controversy was carried even- 
tually to the Supreme Court, which decided that the road gauge as con- 
structed by the Franklin Canal Company was illegal, and repealed the 
company's charter. 

A new charter was granted by the legislature on condition that the 
company, known as the Cleveland & Erie, should subscribe $500,000 to 
the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad and extend its track to the harbor at 
Erie. The charter of the Erie & North East Company was also repealed 
in 1855, but was restored in April, 1856 upon condition that the com- 
pany expend $400,000 towards building a road from Erie to Pittsburgh. 

A few years later, the Erie & North East and the Buffalo & State Line 
Railroads were consolidated under the name of the Buffalo & Erie Rail- 
road. In the early i86o's the Cleveland & Lake Erie Railroad was con- 
solidated with the Cleveland & Toledo Railroad, and later this company 
was merged with the Michigan Southern, placing a continuous line under 
one management from Erie to Chicago. The road became known as the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad Company. In 1869 the Buffalo 
& Erie was merged with this organization, which was owned by the 
Vanderbilts, with Chauncey Depew as legal and business representative. 
This system is now the New York Central Railroad. 

The Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad, a United States Steel Corporation 
subsidiary, runs from Erie to East Pittsburgh. It was the latest railroad 
to enter Erie County and was opened in 1892. It was originally known as 
the Pittsburgh, Shenango, and Lake Erie Railroad. It follows the route 
of the old Erie-Pittsburgh Canal. Its tonnage consists largely of heavy 
freight between the Pittsburgh steel district and the Great Lakes. Ac- 
cording to Interstate Commerce Commission figures, it carries more ton- 
nage per mile of track than any other railroad in the world. 

The first passenger depot in Erie was a rude brick structure built in 
1851. It was replaced by the Union Depot in 1864, which was replaced 
by the present (1938) Union Station in 1927. 

46 



TRANSPORTATION 



LOCAL AND INTERURBAN TRANSPORTATION 

The first franchise to operate horse-drawn street cars was issued to 
Heman Janes and Associates on March 12, 1866. A horse-drawn bus was 
operated in 1867 on the main streets by William Loesch. The Erie Pas- 
senger Railway Company began to operate horse cars in 1868 on virtually 
the same streets as Loesch's bus line. Loesch's franchise was sought by 
others, but he would not sell. One morning he found all his horses dead 
from poison, and unable to operate that day, he had to forfeit his charter, 
as one of its clauses called for operation each day with forfeiture as the 
penalty. 

Erie was the second city in the country to have an electric trolley sys- 
tem, when, in the early spring of 1885, the first electric passenger car 
made its trial trip on State Street. The first rails were wooden stringers 
with steel straps. The cars were operated by the Erie Passenger Rail- 
ways Company which was reorganized in 1888 as the Erie Electric Motor 
Company. 

On April 1 3, 1906, the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Company took over 
all the intercity electric lines, and in August of the same year acquired 
the suburban and interurban lines east of Buffalo Road to Westfield, New 
York, and on New Year's Day, 1909, the company opened a through line 
to Buffalo. This line was bought in 1924 by the Buffalo & Erie Railways 
Company, which was forced out of business in recent years. 

The Erie Street Railways Company, successor to the Erie Electric 
Motor Company, operated the last electric trolley car in Erie. On Decem- 
ber 7, 1925, the Erie Coach Company placed the first motor bus in oper- 
ation and gradually increased this type of service until May 13, 1935, when 
the last street car made its final trip. 

The first bus line to operate in Erie County was the West Ridge Trans- 
portation Company in April 1923 from Erie to Conneaut, Ohio. The 
Great Lakes Stages, now part of the Greyhound Lines, entered the county 
in 1927, with bus service to Cleveland. Two years later it established a 
line to Buffalo, and now operates interstate busses through Erie. 

Besides the privately-owned airport at Fairview, a modern airport, 
Port Erie, was completed in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration 
and the city. Air mail service was inaugurated on May 19, 1938. 



47 



RELIGION 



^CHRISTIANITY was brought to the Erie region in the late summer of 
^-^ 1615, when about 20 Frenchmen landed on the shore of Presque Isle 
(see HISTORY) . They planted a large wooden cross in the soil, sang the 
Te Deum, and the Reverend Joseph LeCaron, a Franciscan friar, cele- 
brated Mass with an upturned canoe for an altar, in a clearing near some 
Indian huts. 

Father Le Caron tried to convert the natives to Christianity, but his 
efforts and those of other friars resulted in scant success. The Indians 
worshipped evil spirits and practiced sorcery, and believed they would 
go to a happy hunting ground at death. The efforts of missionaries were 
also hampered by the fact that the Eries were nearly always at war with 
the Senecas, a neighboring tribe in New York State. 

Medicine men, as the sorcerer-priests of the Indian tribes were called, 
incited so much opposition to the missionaries that no attempt was made 
to found a Catholic congregation in Erie until 1753, when the Reverend 
Luke Collett, a Franciscan, was sent from Montreal as chaplain of the 
French troops who built Forts Presque Isle and Le Boeuf. After the 
French evacuated these forts in 1759, there is no record of Catholic ac- 
tivity in Erie until near the end of the century. 

Because of its early military and political history, the Catholic Church 
in Erie County has been subject to four different ecclesiastical jurisdictions. 
During the period of French occupancy and until 1763, they were under 
the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Quebec. From 1763 until 1784, Catholics 
in America were subject to the Vicar Apostolic of London. After the 
Revolutionary War, Erie belonged to the Philadelphia Diocese. On Au- 







ann scene, 
Erie County 



Grape raising in 

eastern Erie 

County 





Odin Sto-ve Manufacturing Company Plant 



m 










Burke Electric Company Plain 



RELIGION 



gust 15, 1843, the Reverend Michael O'Connor, of Philadelphia, was con- 
secrated first bishop of the newly established diocese of Pittsburgh, and 
Erie became a part of the Pittsburgh Diocese. 

St. Mary's and St. Patrick's Churches are known to have held services 
in Erie in the i83o's. The chapel of St. Patrick's, a two-story structure 
with living quarters for the priest on the second floor, was on German 
Street near 4th Street. The Reverend Charles McCabe was the first priest 
of the parish. The German Catholics founded St. Mary's Church, and held 
service in a log house on the northeast corner of loth and State Streets. 
The first resident priest at St. Mary's was the Reverend Ivo Levitz, who 
probably came to Erie early in 1840. 

The Erie Diocese was established in 1853, when Bishop O'Connor was 
transferred from Pittsburgh. He remained seven months, and was returned 
to the Pittsburgh Diocese. The Most Reverend Tobias Mullen, third 
Bishop of Erie, was consecrated on August 2, 1868. He made plans for 
building the present St. Peter's Cathedral, at W. loth and Sassafras Streets, 
a task requiring nearly 20 years. 

The Most Reverend John Mark Gannon, D.D., present (1938) Bishop 
of Erie, was installed as fifth Bishop of Erie on December 16, 1920. Bishop 
Gannon is regarded as one of the most learned members of the Catholic 
hierarchy. He is frequently called upon to perform important duties as 
a member of the National Catholic Welfare Council. 

The diocese embraces Erie, Cameron, Clarion, Clearfield, Crawford, 
Elk, Forest, Jefferson, McKean, Mercer, Potter, Venango, and Warren 
counties in northwestern Pennsylvania. The Catholic population of the 
diocese is 131,828; number of diocesan priests, 164; priests of religious 
orders, 52; churches with resident pastors, no, to which are attached 47 
missions. 

The first Protestant service of which there is any record was held on 
Sunday, July 2, 1797, at the home of Judah Colt, at Colt's Station in Green- 
field Township. In response to a general invitation, about 30 persons 
came to the service, at which Colt read the sermon, no minister being 
available. The text was from I Corinthians 14:40: "Let all things be done 
decently and in order." This subject was chosen because of land con- 
troversies at the time. 

The Ohio and Redstone Presbyteries sent two missionaries, the Reverend 
Messrs. McCurdy and Stockton, in 1799, who preached in Erie, Water- 
ford, and North East. Two years later McCurdy again visited the region, 
accompanied by the Reverend Messrs. Tate, Satterfield, and Boyd. Ser- 
vices were held in a clearing prepared for the occasion on the west branch 
of French Creek at Middlebrook in Venango Township. 

The work of McCurdy and Satterfield met with the approval of the 

49 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



people and it was decided to build a meeting house at Middlebrook, about 
a mile and a half north of Lowville, on State 89. In 1801 a log structure 
was erected, the first Protestant Church in Erie County. It was known 
as the Middlebrook Presbyterian Church. 

The first Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, according to Protestant 
forms, was administered at North East on September 27, 1801. There 
were about 300 in attendance at the meeting. A congregation with the 
title, "The Churches of Upper and Lower Greenfield," was organized at 
the time. 

The Erie Presbytery was established October 2, 1801, and embraced 
that portion of Pennsylvania west and northwest of the Allegheny and 
Ohio Rivers, including a part of the Western Reserve. The first meeting 
of this presbytery was held at Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, on 
April 13, 1802. The Reverend Messrs. McCurdy, Satterfield, and Mc- 
Pherrin were chosen as missionaries to serve Erie and its environs. 

The Reverend Johnson Eaton held occasional services for several years 
at Colt's Station, Middlebrook, Waterford, and Erie, and organized a con- 
gregation at Springfield in 1806. A church was built at the mouth of 
Walnut Creek, in Fairview Township, in 1810, where Eaton preached 
several Sundays. He also organized a church at Erie in 1815. In 1820 
the minutes of the presbytery showed congregations at Springfield, Fair- 
view, North East, Waterford, Middlebrook, Union, and Erie. 

Meetings of the Methodist Episcopal denomination in Erie were held 
by circuit preachers as early as 1801. A congregation was established 
soon afterwards, but was unable to support a pastor until 1826, from which 
time the First M. E. Church of Erie dates its organization. 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church asserts that it is the oldest re- 
ligious organization in the city, dating from August 18, 1808, although 
the Associated Reform Presbyterian Church also makes the same as- 
sertion, having organized a congregation in October, 1811, with the 
Reverend Robert Reid as minister. This latter organization held services 
in a schoolhouse at what is now E. yth and French Streets until 1816. 

The Reverend Charles Colsom, a Lutheran minister from Germany, 
organized congregations at Meadville, French Creek, Conneaut, and Erie 
in 1815 or 1816. The first Lutheran church in Erie was built in 1836. 

The first organization of Episcopalians in Erie County was effected on 
March 17, 1827, when a number of persons withdrew from the Presby- 
terian church of Erie and became united as St. Paul's Episcopal congre- 
gation, now St. Paul's Cathedral, with the Reverend Charles Smith, of 
Philadelphia, as rector. Services were held in the courthouse at Erie until 
a building was erected in November, 1832. 

The Erie Diocese of the Episcopal Church was established in 1911, 

50 



RELIGION 



with the Reverend Rogers Israel, as bishop. He was succeeded in 1921 
by the Reverend John C. Ward. The diocese includes 13 counties in 
northwestern Pennsylvania and was formerly a part of the Pittsburgh 
Diocese. 

The first Erie County Baptist congregation was organized in Harbor- 
creek Township in 1822. This was followed by churches in Erie in 1831, 
and in North East and Waterford Townships in 1832. 

The first Hebrew congregation was formed in 1853. The Anshe Hesed 
Reformed Congregation originated in 1875. The B'rith Sholom Syna- 
gogue, an orthodox congregation, was organized in 1896. 

Other groups to organize in Erie were the First Christian Church in 
1888, the First Church of Christ Scientist, 1888, and the Russian Orthodox 
Church, 1916. 

The first Sunday School was founded by the Reverend Mr. Morton 
and James Moorhead at Moorheadville in 1817. A year later a Sunday 
School class for girls was established in Erie. Mrs. Judah Colt, who had 
returned from a visit to England, where these schools were being in- 
troduced, was responsible for initiating the movement. Horace Greeley 
was one of the students in the winter of 1830. 

The 25 different denominations in Erie and Erie County now possess 
more than 100 church structures and meeting places in the city and sub- 
urbs and 107 in the county. The churches in the city and suburbs have 
an enrollment of approximately 68,000 members, composed of 26,000 
Protestants, and 42,000 Catholics. 



ARCHITECTURE 



THE history of Erie's development from a pioneer outpost to a modern 
commercial city can be traced through a knowledge of the city's 
architecture. 

During the i8th and early ipth centuries Erie developed slowly from 
an outpost military fort to a small but active frontier town. It was logical 
that her first structures, the forts and dwellings of the militia and the 
early pioneers, should be built of logs, since wood was the most readily 
accessible building material. Unfortunately, none of the original pioneer 
buildings are standing today, but in the History of Erie County, by Laura 
Sanford, there is a description of the first Fort Presque Isle, built by Le- 
Mercier in 1753 for the French Army: "They fell to work and built a 
square fort of chestnut logs, squared and lapped over each other to the 
height of 15 feet. It is about 120 feet square, a log-house in each square, 
a gate to the southward, another to the northward, not one port-hole cut 
in any part of it. When finished, they called it Fort Presqu'ile." 

The Fort Wayne Blockhouse, reconstructed in 1880, is a log fort, two- 
stories high. Above the square ground floor, the octagonal second story 
cantilevers out beyond the walls below. Log houses were the most prac- 
tical form of construction until well into the ipth century. A few ex- 
amples standing today are sheathed over with boarding, such as the Hughes 
Log House at 135 E. 3rd Street. 

The symbol of Erie's emergence from a pioneer settlement to a com- 
mercial city, as well as a symbol of a new cultural age in America, is seen 
in the Old Erie Customs House, 1839. It was designed by William Kelly 
after its parent bank in Philadelphia. The building is faced with Vermont 
marble and is the first marble structure erected west of the Allegheny 
Mountains. It is of Greek Revival design with a finely proportioned por- 

5 2 



ARCHITECTURE 



tico of six fluted Greek Doric columns, supporting a large entablature 
and pediment; it is an outstanding example of the architecture of the 
awakening Republic. 

About 1800, after the bonds which had tied America to England were 
severed, there arose a classic spirit in America. It was an age of interest 
in the culture of ancient Greece. This spirit left its tangible traces par- 
ticularly in architecture that had for its inspiration the ancient classic 
temples. This style asserted itself strongly in western New York State; 
and, with migration southward into Pennsylvania, there appeared numer- 
ous domestic, public, and ecclesiastical buildings whose design was rooted 
in Greek antiquity. While the old Customs House is the outstanding ex- 
ample of the architecture of this period, the Reed Mansion, 1849, is like- 
wise of interest, chiefly for its broad Ionic portico. The third floor is 
arranged like a boat deck with the entrance to all rooms from a corridor, 
with a ship's "railing" on one side. Its adjacent small office, built in 1846, 
simulates a Greek Doric temple. 

St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran Church, 1844, represents a fusion of 
late Greek Revival and early Victorian architecture. Its facade of Greek 
Doric design, surmounted by a box-like belfry, belongs to the former 
period; while the lancet windows represent the Gothic influence of the 
later Victorian era. 

The west wing of the Erie County Court House, 1855, was originally 
of late Greek Revival design. In 1929 the structure was entirely rebuilt 
and enlarged by Walter T. Monahan, Erie architect, to its present "U" 
plan, the west wing retaining the wall structure of the early building. 
Faced with gray, cut cast stone, its two similar Corinthian porticos with 
their tall fluted columns are monumentally impressive. 

The Hoskinson House, 127 W. 6th Street, built in 1840, is an attractive 
early brick residence, notable for its twin Doric doorways, refined ex- 
amples of the Greek Revival style. 

Erected concurrently with the buildings of the Revival Period were 
the simple brick dwellings which were rooted in the early designs of the 
Colonial or American Georgian architecture of the eastern seaboard. 
These include such houses as the Metcalf House on the northwest corner 
of W. 9th and Sassafras Streets, a two-story and attic dwelling of simple 
Colonial proportions. 

The middle of the last century, and particularly after the close of 
the Civil War, was a period of commercial expansion. The comely era 
of the Greek Revival had spent itself. The Victorian architecture which 
followed expressed the new-found wealth of the community. The tur- 
reted mansions of the wealthy, with slate mansard roofs and gingerbread 
detail, are on West 6th and West 8th Streets. Buildings of all styles were 

53 



ERIE: A GUIDED TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



erected, regardless of the suitability or utility of the architecture. 

The grey limestone commercial Scott Building, N. W. corner of roth 
and State Streets, of French Renaissance design, followed the design of 
New York's old Court House, and Philadelphia's City Hall. Doric, Ionic, 
and Corinthian columns parade its walls. It was a style popularized by 
architects returning from their studies at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in 
Paris. 

Present day Erie is still characterized largely by the stamp of the late 
1 9th century. This is borne out by a glance down State Street, Erie's 
main business thoroughfare, or down W. 6th Street, its avenue of better 
class homes. 

Many of the modern buildings, however, are recognizably of good 
architecture. Foremost among these is the Presbyterian Church of the 
Covenant, 1931, of which Corbesier & W. E. Foster were the architects. 
It is a large, imposing edifice of English perpendicular Gothic design. 
The delicacy of its rich detail is etched against a background of warm 
rough stone. The Luther Memorial Church, 1926, designed by Alden and 
Harlow, is also English Gothic of rugged proportions. The Mercyhurst 
College, 1926, of modified Gothic architecture, designed by F. Ferdinand 
Durang of Philadelphia, is likewise noteworthy. 

Among the commercial buildings, the six-story, two million dollar 
Erie Dry Goods Company, 1930, Shutts and Morrison, architects, is an 
Erie landmark. It is constructed of steel and concrete with cream brick 
facing trimmed with terra cotta and limestone. The fourteen-story Erie 
Trust Company building, 1925, designed by Dennison and Hirons, is the 
city's lone skyscraper. 

The Lord Manufacturing Company, 1937, is a modern commercial 
building, simply constructed of common red brick and opaque glass 
brick; which, with the lofty concrete grain elevators of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad on the Lake Shore, represent functionalism in industrial archi- 
tecture. 

Beyond the city, the county extends in gently rolling farm country 
with many towns containing much of the picturesque architecture of 
early days. In Waterford, an attractive town of considerable historic 
interest, is the old Eagle Hotel built in 1826; Thomas King, architect. It 
is late American Georgian in character, but bears the rugged stamp 
of the frontier. The Amos Judson house, 1820, of Greek Revival, and 
the Waterford Academy, 1822, topped by a graceful cupola, are also 
notable. 

The towns of North East and Girard also retain architectural remnants 
of their earlier days. The First Baptist Church at North East is a small 
Greek Revival edifice of white clapboard, with a graceful tower and tall 

54 



ARCHITECTURE 



spire. Of more recent times is St. Mary's College on the northern edge of 
the town. It comprises a group of connected buildings of red brick and 
grey stone with high, blue slate mansard roofs, some of Victorian Gothic 
and others of later Tudor architecture. At the western end of the group 
is a French Gothic chapel. 

Since it is not the buildings alone but also their setting within the 
physical pattern of the city which make for their beauty and greatest 
usefulness, it is interesting to study the city plan of Erie. Downtown Erie 
was laid out in 1795 by Andrew Ellicott and William Irvine under the 
influence of William Perm's plan for Philadelphia. They also laid out 
the towns of Franklin, Waterford, and Warren. 

The original plan is divided into four quadrants by its two axial streets 
State Street, running north and south, and Sixth Street, east and west. 
These intersect at Perry Square. The city was divided into blocks by a 
plan of intersecting parallel streets known as the "gridiron" pattern. 

Little was done, unfortunately, to take advantage of the long water 
front of the city. James Parton, in his Life of Horace Greeley, written in 
1869, says, "The people of Erie care as much for the Lake as the people 
of Niagara care for the Cataract, as much as people generally care for 
anything wonderful or anything beautiful which they can see by turning 
their heads. Not one house is built along the shore, though the shore is 
high and level. Not a path has been worn by human feet above or below 
the bluff. Pigs, sheep, cows, and sweetbriar bushes occupy the unenclosed 
ground, which seems so made to be built upon that it is surprising that 
the handsome houses of the town should have been built anywhere else." 

The same can be said for Erie today. The waterfront with its several 
piers and factories presents an uninviting coast line. 

The new and finer residential areas, particularly the well designed Fron- 
tier Place section, near the western limits of the city, Southlands sub- 
division to the southwest, and the Glenwood area to the south, represent 
the present day movement of moderate income and well-to-do groups 
away from more congested areas. Houses in these sections are usually 
substantially built in the style of Elizabethan half-timber houses, Spanish 
patios, French chateaux, and American and English Georgian houses. 

A busy industrial city, Erie's tree-lined avenues, finer residential com- 
munities and well designed structures, both old and new, reflect her com- 
mercial development from an outpost fort to a modern city. The needed 
improvements of the drabber sections, especially the small wooden houses 
of the poorer workers, and the uncontrolled hodgepodge construction 
of the lesser business and industrial neighborhoods, are typical of all 
American cities. They are a challenge to good government, wise planning, 
and architectural ingenuity. 

55 



EDUCATION 



ERIE'S educational system is excellent. Graduates from Erie high 
schools are admitted to leading colleges, in many cases without being 
required to take entrance examinations. Modern well-equipped buildings 
and advanced educational methods maintain a high standard. 

The public school system of the city of Erie is comprised of three senior 
high schools, one technical high school, four junior high schools, and 
twenty-three grade and grammar schools with an enrollment of 19,000 
students in 1937. In addition to the public schools, there are five paro- 
chial high schools and eighteen grade schools with an enrollment of 7,100 
pupils under the control of the Erie Catholic Diocese. The public school 
system of Erie embraces school property valued at $12,000,000, including 
the three large high schools, which were constructed at a total cost of 
approximately $4,000,000. 

Special courses make educational facilities available to the exceptional 
child. Forty-two specially trained teachers are employed in this work. 
Adult education and recreation programs sponsored by the Works Pro- 
gress Administration supplement the activities of the public school system. 

Complementing the public schools are institutions located in the county 
where the students may continue their education. These are the State 
Teacher's College at Edinboro, Villa Maria, Mercyhurst College, and 
Cathedral Preparatory School in Erie. 

The University of Pittsburgh maintains a junior college center which 
offers regular college courses of the freshman and sophomore years. Penn- 
sylvania State College also conducts extension evening classes in Erie. 

56 



EDUCATION 



HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS 

Educational advantages have increased greatly since the inception of 
the "Free Public School Law" in 1834. The early schools had but little 
equipment; many of the classes were held in teachers' homes, or in 
churches. 

The first schoolhouse in Erie was built at the corner of E. yth and Hol- 
land Streets in 1806. Erie was then a village of 100 inhabitants and the 
schoolhouse, constructed of hewn logs and costing about $30, stood among 
the trees on the outskirts of the village. Capt. Daniel Dobbins bought 
the lot with contributions collected from the villagers for the purpose of 
founding the school, which was christened the "Presque Isle Academy." 
The school was known as a "pay school," as were all schools in the State 
during this early period. The 1812 roll list, preserved as a historic relic 
by the Erie Board of Education, named 70 boys and girls. 

The public school law enacted in 1834 permitted each school district 
to decide whether a public school system should be adopted. Erie was 
one of the first to take advantage of this law, which also provided for 
the maintenance of such schools by levying a general tax. Four frame 
schoolhouses were constructed on leased ground in 1837 at a cost of $310 
each. Classes were held in reading, writing, speaking, geography, gram- 
mar, and arithmetic. The four small buildings became inadequate, and in 
1848 two brick buildings were erected. These new buildings were the 
East Ward School, E. 7th and Holland Streets, and the West Ward 
School, W. 7th and Myrtle Streets. 

During 1861 and 1862 the schools were divided into three departments, 
primary, intermediate, and grammar. By 1866 there were five school 
buildings; three in the West Ward and two in the East Ward. 

Central High School was formed in 1866 by consolidating several 
higher-class schools. During that year 144 pupils were enrolled and the 
first graduates of the high school completed their courses in 1869. Re- 
quirements for admittance were simple, comprising examples in common 
fractions, decimals, and U. S. money, the boundaries of two or three 
states and the names of 20 cities and rivers in the United States, and ex- 
amples in mental arithmetic. No tests were made in spelling or grammar. 

Carter W. Trow, wrote of the Erie High School in 1877: 

"The yard was surrounded by a stone wall on top of which was an iron 
fence. There were two gates, one on Holland and one on Seventh 
Street. On the third floor there was a large study room in which the 
whole school assembled and four recitation rooms. In each recitation 
room were from four to six long benches with backs, but without desks. 
Usually the boys sat on one side of the room and the girls on the other, 
with the teacher's desk between them." 

57 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Central High School remained at E. jth and Holland Streets until 
1891, when it was transferrd to W. loth and Sassafras Streets. In 1930 the 
classes were transferred to the new Strong Vincent High School, 1330 
W. 8th Street, and in February, 1931, old Central High School became the 
Technical High School. Other high schools were Academy High School, 
2825 State Street, in 1920, and East High School, 1151 Atkins Street, in 
1921. 

Prominent citizens of Erie working in conjunction with the Erie School 
Board drafted the first law permitting Boards of Education to organize 
and operate public libraries. This law was passed in 1895, and Erie was 
the first city in the State to organize such a library. Previous to this, the 
only library was a privately-supported one at the Y.M.C.A. Branch 
circulating libraries are maintained in all Erie schools. 



CITY TOUR 1 

Downtown Erie, 1.5 miles 



PERRY SQUARE, the central starting point for all city tours, occupies two 
city blocks extending across State St. between N. and S. Park Rows. 
In W. Perry Square is a large fountain consisting of a 15 ft. metallic pedestal 
centered in a concrete basin about 30 ft. in diameter. Surmounting the 
pedestal is an iron crane with outspread wings which spouts water from its 
long bill. Four smaller figures of sea serpents are mounted in each quad- 
rant of the basin. In E. Perry Square there is an eight sided fountain. 
The square is shaded by tall maple trees, and contains iron park benches 
for the convenience of visitors. On the R. side of State Street is a MONU- 
MENT TO GENERAL "MAD" ANTHONY WAYNE. Its base is 6 ft. wide and 6 
ft. high and is topped with two cannon, aimed in opposite directions. 
A bronze inscription faces the street. 

On the L. side of State Street is the SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT, a 
square granite base 7 ft. in height, surmounted by two life-sized bronze 
figures representing the Army and Navy. The monument was designed 
by Martin Milmore and erected by public subscription in 1872. Band 
concerts are held in Perry Square on Saturday nights during the summer 
months. Music is furnished by Campbell's Band. (Perry Square is shown 
as point of interest No. 13 on map.) 

S. from Perry Square on State Street. 

i. The ERIE TRUST BUILDING, 1001-1007 State Street, largest 
office building in the city, is 14 stories in height. The first and second 
stories are of Indiana limestone, and the 1 2 upper stories are of light buff 
brick. Doors and arched entrances are of Romanesque design, and the 
interior sidewalls are of Italian marble. The structure, designed by Den- 
nison-Hirons, architects of New York City, was built in 1926. 

The first floor of the building is occupied by the National Bank and 
Trust Company of Erie. On the walls of the bank are seven murals, painted 
by Edward A. Trumball, of New York, depicting historical events of 
the colonization of Erie. They are: The Visit Of The First White Man 
To Erie and the French Expedition Into The Ohio; Pontiac's Attack 
(1763); Washington's Visit To Fort LeBoeuf (Waterford, 1753); Visit 
Of General Lafayette To Erie (1825); Building Of Perry's Fleet At Erie 
(1813); Battle Of Lake Erie (1813); and Bringing Powder Overland 
From Wilmington, Delaware. The Erie Center of the University of Pitts- 
burgh is on the eighth floor. 

59 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



R. from State Street on W. loth Street. 

2. The ERIE TIMES BUILDING, no W. loth St., is the home 
of the Erie Daily Times, circulation 40,000, the only newspaper in Erie 
which has retained the same name and ownership since its founding. The 
newspaper was founded in 1888 by striking printers from the Evening 
Herald and the Morning Dispatch who pooled their resources. With $225 
in cash, and under the leadership of John Mead, Sr., present president and 
owner (1938) of the Times Publishing Company, they set up a shop at 
the S. W. corner of 9th and State Streets. The Times was published there 
for 36 years, and then was moved to its present location. The paper 
started as an independent evening publication, its first issue appearing 
April 12, 1888. In 1894 the Times absorbed the Erie Sunday Graphic (est. 
May 20, 1880) and the Erie Observer (founded 1886). 

3. The ERIE TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOL, SE cor. W. loth and 
Sassafras Streets, is the seat of vocational training of the Erie public school 
system. Arts and crafts, sheet metal work, and other units requiring 
special equipment are contained in the building, a 4-story structure of red 
brick with a tall, square tower. Shop wings have been added in recent 
years. 

4. ST. PETER'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL, NW cor. 
W. loth and Sassafras Streets, is a Gothic structure of red Medina lime- 
stone, with three spires over the main entrance on Sassafras Street. Built 
during the Most Rev. Tobias Mullen's episcopacy, the Cathedral was 
dedicated in 1893. The architect was C. C. Keely, of New York City. 
On each side of the square central tower are four huge clocks, each facing 
a cardinal direction. Each of the spires is surmounted by a cross; the one 
on the central spire is 11 feet in height. The huge bells in the central 
tower peal, at quarter-hour intervals, the Chimes of Erie, composed by 
Bishop John Mark Gannon. 

The Cathedral interior, seating 2,000, is of lofty proportions and is 
adorned with busts of Erie bishops. The organ was built for the Chicago 
World's Fair of 1893. 

5. The LUTHER MEMORIAL CHURCH, 225 W. loth St., is 
a granite building of English Gothic inspiration. The cross surmounting 
the building is a reproduction of the cross at King's Chapel, Oxford, 
England. The altar is of Botticino marble; the pulpit, baptistry, lectern, 
and altar rail are of oak. The panels of the main north window represent 
the three stages of the ministry of Christ. The building, dedicated in 1926, 
seats 1,000. The architects were Alden and Harlow, of Pittsburgh, and 
H. K. Jones, supervising architect. 

Retrace W. wth St.; L. from W. loth St. on Sassafras St., R. from Sassa- 
fras St. on W. ^th St. 

60 



CITY TOURS 



6. ST. LUKE'S EVANGELICAL CHURCH, 1 20 W. 9 th St., erected 
in 1844 by the Universalist Society of Erie, is a frame structure of late 
Greek Revival and Gothic architecture, with a square, tapered belfry 
overlooking the street. The classic Doric piers and columns of its white 
facade are in contrast to the Gothic lancet windows. The oldest church 
building in the city, it was purchased by the St. Luke's Evangelical Luth- 
eran congregation in 1897. 

L. from W. $th St. on Peach St.; L. from Peach St. on W. *jth St. 

7. The COMMUNITY PLAYHOUSE, 128 W. 7 th St. (open from 
Sept. to June), is operated by public contribution for the production of 
stage plays by local actors, amateur and professional. It is the home of 
a group organized in 1916 as the Little Playhouse. Its name was changed 
to Community Playhouse in 1929. A new building was erected in 1928 
and opened in 1929. The buiulding, a 2-story, red brick structure, is of 
Georgian Colonial design and seats 300. Among recent presentations 
were: The Rivals, Front Page, As Husbands Go, and Murray Hill. 
Retrace W. jth St.; L. from W. jth St. on Peach St. 

8. CITY HALL, SE cor. Peach St. and S. Park Row, is a 3-story 
building of red pressed brick, trimmed in sandstone, with a square tower 
rising from its northwest corner. The basement, which is partially above 
ground, houses police headquarters and the dungeon-like city jail. The 
other floors are occupied by the various departments of city government. 
The cornerstone was laid on July 31, 1884, with Masonic ceremonies. 
The bell of the Queen Charlotte, the British flagship captured by Perry 
in the Battle of Lake Erie, is suspended from the ceiling of the first floor 
corridor, at the foot of the wide oaken stairway. The interior of City 
Hall is somber, the woodwork is dark and heavy, and the lighting is poor. 
Adjacent to City Hall on the east is CITY HALL ANNEX, containing the 
offices of the City Solicitor, and the City Planning Commission. This 
building, a 2 -story, tan colored brick structure, was the home of MUL- 
LIGAN HALL, a relief depot supported by Erie merchants and citizens dur- 
ing the early days of the 1930 depression. Transients and other needy 
persons were given food here before the State and Federal relief agencies 
were sufficiently organized to care for Erie's needy persons. 

9. The STRONG MANSION (private), SW cor. W. 6th and 
Peach Sts., is the most pretentious dwelling in Erie. It is a two-and-a- 
half -story structure of tan brick, with limestone trim. A balcony follows 
the second story level across the W. 6th St. side, railed with delicate iron- 
work. The entrance is of modified Roman pillars, six in number, support- 
ing the ceiling of a recessed foyer. The doorways are topped by pointed, 
limestone arches. The building is of English town house design, with con- 
siderable French chateau influence. Long French windows look out upon 

61 



, 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



the streets. Though in a rectangular form the structure is so broken with 
ells and buttresses as to give an effect of symetry, and of a gracefulness 
seldom found in huge mansions. This effect is accentuated by the height 
of the building and the steep pitch of the roof. It contains 40 rooms. 
It was built by William L. Scott, early Erie philanthropist, railroad mag- 
nate, newspaper publisher, and politician, and presented in 1896 to his 
daughter, Mrs. Anna Wainwright Scott Strong. 

10. The ERIE CLUB BUILDING (open to members and guests), 
NW cor. W. 6th and Peach Sts., was erected in 1849 as the residence 
of Gen. Charles M. Reed, grandson of Col. Seth Reed, the first settler of 
Erie. The Erie Club, incorporated January 10, 1882, purchased the build- 
ing and took possession in 1905. It is two stories in height, and is of red 
brick painted brown, with sandstone trim. Four fluted Ionic columns 
support a pediment facing Peach St. Doric pilasters accentuate the corners 
of the house. 

R. from Peach St. on N. Park Row; R. from N. Park Row on French St.; 
R. from French St. on S. Park Row. 

1 1. ERIE PUBLIC LIBRARY BUILDING (open weekdays, 9 a. m. 
9:50 p. m.; Sun. and holidays 2-5), SW cor. S. Park Row and French 
St., is of Italian Renaissance architecture, two stories in height. The 
entrance on S. Park Row consists of a group of classical columns support- 
ing an extended pediment. The structure is of brick and granite with lime- 
stone quoins. It was built in 1897-99 by the Board of Education and is 
controlled by that body through a board of trustees. Alden and Harlow, 
of Pittsburgh, were the architects. 

The first floor and mezzanine are occupied by a free public library con- 
taining 135,000 volumes. There are reading rooms, reference rooms, a 
periodical room, and the librarian's office. In the basement are complete 
files of all Erie newspapers, and a museum containing historical and scien- 
tific exhibits. 

The library maintains seven branches in the public schools, placing 
books for free distribution in all grade and high schools. The works of 
various writers and authors who were native to Erie city and county, 
or who made their home here at times, are included in the library. Ida 
Minerva Tarbell (1857- ), probably Erie County's most outstanding 
writer, is the author of a History of the Standard Oil Company, an 
authoritative history of the industry and a biography of an organizing 
genius, a Life of Lincoln, and Tariff in Our Times. She was born near 
Wattsburg, in Amity Township, and gave up a teaching career to be- 
come an associate editor of the Chautauquan, a small New York magazine, 
later becoming managing editor of the publication, and afterward quitting 
the post to visit Europe to study the writing of biography. 

62 



CITY TOURS 



Emory A. Walling, 1854-1931, who served a term on the Pennsylvania 
Supreme Court, wrote a biographical history titled Memoirs of the Erie 
County Bench and Ear. This book is the only accurate history of the Erie 
County bench in existence. 

Effie B. Kaemmerling (Aldis Dunbar), born in Philadelphia, Pa., 1870, 
now (1938) living in Erie, was one of the most prolific writers of the 
county. Among her writings are Lightbearers, Once There was a Prince, 
Sons O' Cormac and Tales of Other Men's Sons. 

Baroness Von Hutten (nee Betsy Riddle), born in Erie in 1874 and 
now (1938) living in England, wrote fiction of the early i9oo's, such as 
Bag of Saffron, Halo, Kingsmeade, Lives of a Woman, Miss Carmichaefs 
Conscience, Our Lady of the Beaches, and Pen Decides. 

Sarah A. Reed, born in Ashtabula, O., 1838, died in Erie in 1934, pub- 
lished a number of volumes. Her best were My Grandmother's Story and 
Other Stories, After Fifty Years, Belated Passenger, Dora Bently, Ro- 
mance of Arlington House, and Study Class Programs. 

Francis Newton Thorpe, born in Swampscott, Mass., in 1857 and de- 
scended from Miles and Rose Standish, moved with his parents to North 
East in 1865. In 1889 he wrote The Government of the People of The 
United States, designed as a text book on American institutions, which 
passed through eight editions in the next four years. 

The ART GALLERY, also on the second floor (open Sat. 2 to 5; Sun. and 
Mon. eves. 7:30 to 9), was established in 1898 and has a permanent col- 
lection of 40 paintings covering a general field. The most valuable paint- 
ing is Late Afternoon, Isle of Shoals, by Childe Hassam, painter of the 
impressionistic school. Other noted paintings are White Cliffs of Albion, 
by Edward Moran; Sans Souci, by Gustave Mosler, the elder; The Echo, 
by Mosler, the younger; and Silent Woods, by R. W. ShurtlafF. Two 
interesting paintings by Harry Klopp, done under the WPA Federal Art 
Project, are Robin Hood and The Pied Piper of Hamlin. 

The MUSEUM in the basement ( open 9-5:30 daily except Sim.), contains 
numerous relics, antiques, costumes, and specimens of scientific and 
historical collections, such as a facsimile of Oliver Hazard Perry's flag; 
the kettle in which the flesh was boiled from the bones of Gen. Anthony 
Wayne to make a package for shipment to his old home at Radnor, Pa., 
where his bones were reinterred; a chair used in the blockhouse where 
Wayne died; the side lanterns of Perry's first flagship, the Laurence; the 
surgical kit of Dr. Usher Parsons, surgeon of Perry's fleet; and a letter 
from George Washington to one of his generals in 1777. Other exhibits 
include Indian implements, documents written by Washington, Com- 
modore Perry, and John Brown, and a deed containing the names of 
William, John, and Richard Perm. From time to time various foreign 

63 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



collections are exhibited. The museum is also headquarters for lectures, 
and garden and hobby club gatherings. 

12. The FEDERAL BUILDING, SE cor. S. Park Row and State 
St., is a 3 -story, ell-shaped building of Indiana limestone, trimmed with 
slate, soapstone, and granite. The architect was R. Stanley Brown, con- 
sulting architect of the U. S. Treasury Dept. The building houses the 
federal offices of the district, including the Federal Court. The Perry 
Square station of the Erie post office occupies the first floor. 
R. from S. Park Row on State St. 

14. WOODRUFF RESIDENCE, 417 State St., is a large, simple, buff- 
plastered home with Doric entrance, built in 1839. Samuel E. Woodruff, 
a distinguished Erie citizen, lived here from 1872 to 1881. It is now used 
for commercial purposes. 

15. The HORACE GREELEY BOARDING HOUSE, 416 State St., 
a simple 2 -story brick house is now occupied by a laundry. The famous 
editor, founder of the New York Tribune and Liberal-Democratic nominee 
for President in 1872, worked in Erie during 1830-31, as a printer on 
the Erie Gazette, and boarded in this house. 

1 6. The OLD CUSTOMS HOUSE, 407 State St., was designed by 
William Kelly and erected in 1839. It is of Greek Revival design, with 
a finely proportioned marble portico of six fluted pillars, supporting a 
large entablature and pediment. It was planned originally for the Erie 
branch of the United States Bank of Philadelphia, but before the structure 
was completed the bank had failed. The building was sold in 1849 to the 
United States Government for $29,000, and was used for many years as 
a Customs House, Internal Revenue Office, and Post Office. It was pur- 
chased by Erie County Commissioners in 1937, and leased to the Erie 
County Historical Society, present (1938) occupant of the building. 

R. from State St. on E. 2d St. 

Midway in the block between State and French Sts. is the SITE 
WHERE LAFAYETTE WAS FETED on his visit to Erie on June 3 
and 4, 1825. At an open-air banquet on a hill which at that time over- 
looked Erie harbor, he proposed the following toast to the future city: 

"Erie a name that has a great share in American glory. May this town 
ever enjoy a proportionate share in American prosperity and happiness." 

17. PERRY MEMORIAL BUILDING (open), SE cor. 2 d and 
French Sts., is a 3 -story and basement frame building of gray clapboard 
sides and gabled roof. Entrances are on both streets, that on E. 2d St. 
leading into the basement at street level. The building was erected prior 
to 1812, and was reconstructed by the city in 1923 as a memorial to 
Commodore Perry, who lived here during the building of the American 
fleet in 1812 and following the victory in 1813. 

Retrace E. 2d St.; R. from E. 2d St. on State St. 

64 






Ice boating on Lake Erie 



Fishing through the 
ice, Presqiie Isle Bay 




A beach on the 
Peninsula 






CITY TOURS 



1 8. HAA4OT HOSPITAL, NE cor. zd and State Sts., overlooks 
Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie. Established mainly through the efforts 
of the Reverend James Taylor Franklin, it was chartered on February 
7, 1 88 1, and opened in July of the same year. The older part of the 
structure was formerly the home of P. S. V. Hamot; the property was 
deeded free to the hospital association by its owners, Mrs. Mary A. Starr, 
Charles H. Strong, and Kate Strong, for a general hospital. Several addi- 
tions have been made to the original structure, the last one being in 
1932. It contains 255 beds and is a State-accredited hospital. It is sup- 
ported by full and part pay patients, yearly contributions from the local 
Community Chest, annual appropriations from the State, and occasional 
appropriations from the Commissioners of Erie County. The hospital 
conducts a training school for nurses, and maintains three homes for 
nurses. It is governed by a board of managers, usually elected for three- 
year terms, and chosen from a board of corporators numbering 100. 

19. The PUBLIC STEAMBOAT LANDING, foot of State St., is 
a double-decked steel pier, extending 538 feet into Presque Isle Bay. Used 
for passenger service, it was constructd in 1908 by the State and is main- 
tained by the city. This is a favorite trysting place for Erie citizens, 
hundreds of whom drive down the long hill at the foot of State St. dur- 
ing the evening hours, to park their cars on the edge of the pier and 
watch the sunset over the Peninsula across the bay. 

Restaurants located at the approach of the pier serve special fish lunches 
and dinners. Fish sandwiches are favorite fare for visitors. The windows 
of the restaurants are decorated with aquariums containing specimens of 
brilliantly colored fish of the carp species. 

Boats and fishing tackle may be rented from small establishments along 
the bay front. During the fishing season hundreds of sportsmen are to 
be seen fishing from the docks and angling from boats anchored in the 
bay. Calico bass, pike, and perch are the most common fish to be caught 
from the bay. 

The shriek of the incoming fishing tug's whistles is the signal for hun- 
dreds of gulls to rise from the slips and to gather from the more distant 
inlets, to fly in whirling flocks near the unloading platforms. As the fish 
are cleaned in the fish houses, the heads and other waste portions are 
thrown into the water where the gulls swoop down to feed. 

A Coast Guard vessel docks at the Municipal Pier, as does a training ship 
of the U. S. Naval Reserves. 

Erie Harbor, situated within Presque Isle Bay, provides adequate depth 
and anchorage facilities for the largest of Great Lakes carriers. Harbor 
activities center largely east of the steamboat landing, though there is 
also bay traffic in the western section of the harbor. 

65 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



The PENNSYLVANIA R. R. GRAIN ELEVATOR, east of the Pier, is a mam- 
moth structure built in 1917 and added to in 1930. Of concrete and steel, 
it has a capacity of 2,600,000 bushels, and is equipped with modern 
machinery enabling the unloading of grain from vessels at the rate of 
25,000 bushels an hour. 

The LAKE FREIGHT WAREHOUSE, east of the grain elevator, is a package 
warehouse. This one-story concrete and steel structure, built in 1935, is 
792 ft. long by 100 ft. wide. The warehouse and dock can handle simul- 
taneously two 600 ft. vessels and 48 railroad cars, with direct gangway 
connections. 

Farther east, the PULP WOOD DOCK, serving the Hammermill Paper Co., 
receives 150,000 cords of pulp wood annually. Facilities for handling 
pulp wood for other firms are also available. The coal and ore docks are 
equipped with modern loading and unloading machinery. The coal dock 
handles 2,500,000 tons of bituminous and anthracite annually for Great 
Lake ports, both American and Canadian. The coal dumper has a capacity 
of 1,300 tons per hour. 

The west end of the harbor possesses docking facilities for loading and 
unloading directly from car to boat. Here are one of the Erie Lighting 
Company's plants, several fish companies' headquarters, the Erie Sand & 
Gravel Co.'s dock, the chemical and saturating works of the H. F. Wat- 
son Mills, a pumping station of the Erie Water Works Dept., the State 
Fish Hatchery, and farther west, the Erie Yacht Club. 

Tugs of the various fishing companies, located on both sides of State 
St. approaching the Steel Pier, bustle about the bay to and from the fish- 
ing grounds far out in the lake. The fish company docks are a jungle of 
drying nets and equipment. 



CITY TOUR 2 

Northwest Erie; 7.2 miles 



W. from Perry Square on W. 6th St. 

20. The ERIE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 130 W. 6th St., is a 
U-shaped classical structure of gray stone, rising two stories above a 
high base. The facades of the wings are identical. Each has a portico 
of six lofty, fluted Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature and 
low pediment. Across the open end of the U, a balustraded promenade 
connects the two porticoes at base height. The portico platforms are 
up six steps from the grade. The west wing was constructed in 1855, 
and the east wing in 1929 at which time the entire west wing was rebuilt 
to conform to the new east wing, which follows closely the classical pro- 
portions set down by the Italian architect-archaeologist, Vignola. The 
entire base is of sandstone, and the superstructure of cut cast stone, made 
in Syracuse, N. Y. Walter Monahan, of Erie, was the architect. 

21. The ERIE COUNTY PRISON is to the rear of and connected 
with the courthouse. The grounds of the courthouse and prison are 
spacious and landscaped; lawns surround the buildings; and shrubbery 
plots occupy the corners of the grounds. Near the W. 6th St. sidewalk 
was erected the gallows on which Henry Francesco, the first person con- 
demned by judicial decree in Erie County, was hanged for the murder 
of his wife, in 1838. The tragedy was the result of a suicide pact in 
which the couple took poison. The wife died, but Francesco recovered 
and was found guilty of murder in the first degree. 

L. from W. 6th St. on Sassafras St. 

22. The FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST SCIENTIST, 618 Sassafras 
St., was completed in May, 1922. The church is a dignified structure of 
cream-colored brick. The building, representing a modern adaptation 
of Greek architecture, has a high porch surmounting four fluted Ionic 
columns. The central passageway is through three doorways, opening 
on a large foyer with inlaid tile floor, and decorated with two hand- 
wrought bronze lighting fixtures. Adjoining the foyer are the Sunday 
School rooms and administration offices. At the end of the foyer, wide 
stairways, trimmed in walnut, lead to the main auditorium. The reader's 
desk, pews, and trimmings are of walnut. The auditorium seats 600. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Retrace Sassafras St.; L. from Sassafras St. on W. 6th St. 

23. The CHURCH OF THE COVENANT, W. 6th St. near Myrtle 
St., is a large imposing edifice of English perpendicular Gothic design. 
It is unusual in the contrast of its delicately detailed limestone trim against 
a background of granite ashlar. The front with its delicate porch is 
dominated by a huge recessed window with delicate tracery and flanked 
by tall and ornate buttresses. To the right of the facade is an unusually 
beautiful tall square tower connected to the main structure by an aisle 
extension of the narthex. The cruciform interior is impressive for its 
lofty scale and simplicity, for the exquisite window above the altar and 
for the fine wood beamed ceiling. Architecturally, this Presbyterian 
church is regarded as one of the outstanding edifices in the city. 

The interior stone is a warm buff with a slight purple cast. The 
auditorium seats 1,100 and the chapel 150. The 4-story educational ell 
facing W. yth St. accommodates 1,000 Sunday School students. Two 
organs and a number of pianos are in the building. The stained glass 
windows are by Connick and D'Ascenzo of Philadelphia. The building 
was designed by Corbusier and Foster, of Cleveland. 
R. from W. 6th St. on Chestnut St. 

24. The STATE FISH HATCHERY AND AQUARIUM, on the 
bay front under the bluff that follows the shores of Presque Isle Bay, is 
utilized to propagate fish for stocking Presque Isle Bay and Lake Erie 
with white fish, ciscoes, pike, perch, and bass. The output for the last 
three years has ranged from 130,000,000 to 300,000,000 fish a year. With- 
in the 2 -story red brick structure are exhibits of plants, animals, and fish 
life common to Lake Erie, from salt water, and a few specimens from the 
swamps of southern United States. 

Retrace Chestnut St.; R. from Chestnut St. on W. 6th St. 

25. GRIDLEY PARK, at the corner of Liberty Blvd., was named for 
Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley, who commanded the Olympia, Adm. 
George Dewey's flagship in the battle of Manila Bay on May i, 1898. 
"You may fire when ready, Gridley!" was the terse command given by 
Dewey to this Erie naval officer, who died of natural causes shortly 
thereafter. His body was returned to Erie for burial. The park consists 
of two city squares bisected by Liberty Blvd. and extending between 
Park Ave. N., and Park Ave. S. The two parks are landscaped, with grass, 
shrubbery and trees, and in the center of each is a concrete fountain. 

The MONUMENT TO GRIDLEY, erected by the citizens of Erie in 1913, 
is a round granite shaft, 25 feet high, 30 inches in diameter at the base, 
and 26 inches at the top, set on a five-stepped pyramidal base of granite. 
A bronze plaque, designed by Max Bachman, is affixed to the east side 

68 



CITY TOURS 



of the base. Gridley Junior High School overlooks the park from Park 

Ave. N. 

L. from Gridley Park on Liberty Blvd. 

26. VILLA MARIE COLLEGE AND ACADEMY, 819-26 W. 8th 
St., adjoins old Villa Maria Academy, a part of the institution. The 
college, founded in 1925, is under the jurisdiction of the Most Reverend 
John Mark Gannon, Bishop of Erie, and was the first Catholic college 
for girls in the Erie diocese. It offers 4-year courses leading to degrees 
in arts and sciences, including home economics, music, secretarial train- 
ing, chemistry, physics, nursing, and journalism. It is equipped with 
laboratories, gymnasium, and natatorium. The dormitories and classrooms 
are in Gannon Hall, which also houses Our Lady's Chapel. This building 
is on the campus of the original Villa Maria Academy, founded in 1891, 
the property being the gift of Rev. Thomas A. Casey, who also endowed 
the school. The buildings and grounds are owned by the Sisters of the 
Order of St. Joseph, who comprise the faculty. The college is supported 
by tuition fees of students and contributions of friends. The academy, 
operated in conjunction with the college, is for classes in the elementary 
grades and 4-year high school courses. 

Retrace Liberty Blvd.; L. from Liberty Blvd. on Park Ave. N., R. from 
Park Ave. N., on Cascade St. 

27. The SITE OF SHIPYARD WHERE THE NIAGARA WAS 
BUILT, is on Presque Isle Bay near 2d and Cascade Sts. Three of Com- 
modore Perry's ships, the Lawrence, Niagara, and Ariel, were built in the 
hastily constructed yards. These ships participated in the Battle of Lake 
Erie (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

Retrace Cascade St.; R. from Cascade St. on W. 8th St. 

28. STRONG VINCENT HIGH SCHOOL, 1330 W. 8th St., 
occupies an n-acre tract extending to W. 6th St. and lying between 
Weschler Ave. and Bridge St. Completed in 1930, it is Erie's finest school 
building. Lawns on all sides are terraced, and those at the rear slope to 
an athletic field. The slope is landscaped with shrubs and evergreens. 
The building, of Roman Doric design, has an auditorium seating 1,480. 
Meyers and Johnson, of Erie, were the architects. 

L. from W. 8th St. on Lincoln Ave. 

29. The ZEM ZEM HOSPITAL, 1501 W. 9th St., is an institution 
for treatment of crippled children. It was established in 1927, by Zem 
Zem Temple, Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, con- 
tains 48 beds, and is open to all children between two and 1 2 years of age 
from the nine counties of northwestern Pennsylvania irrespective of race 
or creed. It is supported by bequests; since 1931 it has received aid from 
Erie County and the State. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Retrace Lincoln Ave.; L. from Lincoln Ave. on Lake Shore Dr. 

30. The ERIE YACHT CLUB, at the foot of Kahkwa Blvd., on the 
bay front, was organized in 1894. ^ n addition to the clubhouse there is 
a pier with mooring facilities for motor yachts and sailboats. Yacht races 
are held annually, usually in July. 

L. from Lake Shore Dr. on Kahkiva Blvd., R. from Kahkwa Blvd. on 
W. 6th St. 

31. ST. JOSEPH'S HOME FOR CHILDREN, 1926 W. 6th St., is 
a 4-story brick structure with accommodations for 500 children. It was 
established in 1864, when Sisters of the Order of St. Joseph occupied a 
small frame building on E. 4th St., near St. Patrick's School. Later they 
moved to a house on E. zd St., and in 1872 to a newer building on E. 3d 
St. On July 2, 1924, they moved to the present building which was built 
in 1922-23. The home is supported by the Erie Diocese of the Catholic 
Church, by appropriations from the Board of Commissioners of the 13 
counties in the diocese, and by the Erie Community Chest. It is open 
to orphans of all creeds and races. 

L. from W. 6th St. on Pittsburgh Ave. (City limits); L. from Pittsburgh 
Ave. on W. i2th St. 

32. The HOUSING COMMUNITY, on W. nth St., at Lincoln 
Ave., was erected in 1917-18 by the United States Government for 
World War industrial workers, in its first attempt to house people in 
the lower income brackets. It is a collection of 2 -story, stuccoed houses. 
Often referred to as "Hollywood," it is a community covering two city 
blocks extending southward through i3th and i4th Sts. and one side of 
1 5th St. The group, slightly romantic in design, is influenced by the early 
garden city developments in England. 

33. The LORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY PLANT, (R), 
near the Greengarden Rd. intersection, is Erie's most modern industrial 
building. Constructed in 1937, it is a 2-story rectangular structure of 
common red brick and glass brick. Designed in broad horizontal lines it 
is entirely devoid of ornament. This plant manufactures rubber specialties. 
R. from W. i2th St. on Greengarden Rd. 

34. The ERIE FORGE & STEEL COMPANY PLANT, a group of 
corrugated iron factory buildings, (L), lies between the Bessemer & Lake 
Erie R. R. and the New York Central R. R. and occupies an area of 1 1 
acres. The company was founded in 1914. During the same year it 
absorbed the Erie Forge Co., which had been established in 1872. Pro- 
ducts are steel ingots, forgings, and castings. During the World War it 
produced armament for the Navy. 

Retrace Greengarden Rd.; R. from Greengarden Rd. on W. i2th St. 

35. The JARECKI MFG. CO. PLANT, (R), a group of 2-story 
brick factory buildings with glass roofs, opposite Weschler Ave. and 

70 



CITY TOURS 



extending 2 blocks on W. izth St., one of Erie's most widely known 
manufacturing concerns, was established in 1852. Many of the buildings 
were used in wartime by the Brakeshoe Works, makers of Government 
munitions. The plant now produces pipe fittings, compressors, and oil, 
gas, and water well supplies. 

36. The BUCYRUS-ERIE PLANT, NE cor. W. izth and Cran- 
berry Sts., is a 3 -story brick office building covered with ivy and adjoin- 
ing 2 and 3 -story industrial buildings. Formerly it was the Erie Steam 
Shovel Co., but was merged with the Bucyrus Co., of Lorain, O., in 1928. 
Makers of power shovels, cranes, etc., it is called the world's greatest 
builder of excavating machinery. 

37. The GRISWOLD MFG. CO. PLANT, (R), SE cor. W. mh 
and Raspberry Sts., a compact group of industrial buildings, produces 
cooking utensils and household supplies. This plant was the scene, during 
the summer of 1937, f a prolonged labor strike resulting from the refusal 
of company officials to recognize the C.I.O. After weeks of negotiations 
in which city officials and police took an active part, employees went 
back to work. This was the first time in Erie's industrial history that 
labor made itself seriously felt in its demand for better working condi- 
tions and higher wages. 

38. The BESSEMER & LAKE ERIE R. R. parallels W. mh St. on 
the right. Originally known as the Pittsburgh, Shenango & Lake Erie R. 
R., the company was halted on its advance into the city at the telegraph 
office of Cascade, a point on the Nickel Plate Railroad at the western 
boundary of Erie. City officials, prompted by the Scott-Strong railroad 
interests occupying right of way along the lake front, refused to permit 
section crews of the Bessemer Company to enter the city on i2th St. 
The company called hundreds of section hands into service at midnight 
on a Saturday, and began laying tracks into Erie over Sunday, the law 
being that city officials were unable to make arrests on Sunday. Late 
Sunday night the Bessemer Company ran its first train to W. i2th and 
Sassafras Sts., where its passenger station now stands, thus laying claim 
to a franchise. 

L. from W. 22th St. on Liberty Blvd. 

39. The JEWISH TEMPLE, REFORMED CONGREGATION 
ANSHE CHESED, NW cor. W. loth St. and Liberty Blvd., is a tan- 
colored brick building, one story high, of North Italian design. The 
main entrance on the Liberty Blvd. side consists of three massive panelled 
oak doors, with small arches over each and the whole contained in a large 
arch. Surmounting the middle door are the Tablets of the Law and above 
those is a semi-circular window lighting the balcony. The roof is of tile 
in soft shades of red and brown. The vestibule has a vaulted ceiling. 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Three panelled doors lead into the temple, which is an octagonal room 
54 ft. across and 43 ft. high, seating 500. In the upper part of the walls 
are six pairs of stained glass memorial windows, each of which carries 
symbols of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The activities house, reached 
through a lobby to W. loth St., contains the memorial library, rabbi's 
office, educational rooms, and auditoriums. 



CITY TOUR 3 

Northeast Erie 8.5 m. 



E. from Perry Square on E. 6th St. 

40. The PENNSYLVANIA NATIONAL GUARD ARMORY 
AND ARSENAL, NW cor. E. 6th and Parade Sts., is a z-story, red brick 
building. The western half was built in 1920, and the eastern half in 1930, 
at a total cost of $150,000. It is the headquarters of the Wayne Rangers, 
a company of the Pennsylvania National Guard, composed of 20 officers 
and 325 enlisted men. 

L. from E. 6th St. on Ash St. 

41. The PENNSYLVANIA SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' HOME, 
560 E. 3d St. at the foot of Ash St., occupies a tract of 133 acres formerly 
known as Garrison Hill, overlooking Presque Isle Bay. The building is 
three stories high, of red brick. The central part of the main building was 
erected by the State prior to 1885 as a hospital for sick and disabled 
seamen in the Great Lakes service, but it was never so used and was un- 
occupied for many years. In 1885, the State made an appropriation for 
alterations and improvements. The hospital contains four wards with 
accommodations for 80 patients. It has a large reception room and a 
library containing 7,000 volumes. An average of 350 veterans reside in 
the home, the majority having served in the World War. Others are 
Spanish-American veterans, and a few served on the Mexican border in 
1916-17. The home is governed by a board of trustees, appointed by 
the governor of Pennsylvania, and staffed by 50 persons. 

The SITE OF FORT PRESQUE ISLE, erected by the French in 1753 at the 
mouth of Mill Creek, is on the grounds of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home. 
The site was easily traceable by mounds and depressions until 1863. 

42. The GEN. ANTHONY WAYNE MEMORIAL, a blockhouse 
on the site of Fort Presque Isle, is a reproduction of the one in which 
Wayne died. It is square at the base, with an overhanging octagonal 
second story, built of roughly finished logs. Portholes or windows are 
in each of the four lower and eight upper walls. It was built by the State 
in 1880 as a memorial to Wayne, who died here on Dec. 15, 1796 and 

73 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



was buried at the foot of the flagstaff of the former blockhouse on this 
site. 

In 1809 his body was disinterred; the flesh was boiled from his bones 
and reinterred in the same grave. The bones were taken to Radnor, near 
Philadelphia, by his son, Col. Isaac Wayne, for interment. The kettle 
used for this task, and a chair from the blockhouse, are in the public 
museum at the Erie Public Library. 

For a time the blockhouse was used as a barn. Sometime after 1812 
the old structure burned to the ground. Dr. E. W. Germer, Erie health 
officer from 1872 to 1887, became interested in restoring the blockhouse, 
and was instrumental in locating Wayne's grave. When it was found the 
present blockhouse was built over the site in 1880. 

Dr. Germer did much to make Erie a healthful place. He was Erie's 
first health officer, and in that capacity roamed the streets with an ax in 
his hand and fire in his eyes. Pigs and geese in old Erie were allowed 
to wander the streets at will until Germer halted the practice; and if 
his warnings to eliminate unsanitary outhouses and crude sewage gutters 
went unheeded, he put his ax to them. Dr. Germer was also the first 
president of the Pennsylvania State Board of Health, and he acquired 
a national reputation during a health convention in Washington, D. C., 
when he vigorously protested against the importing of rags from southern 
Mediterranean countries where Asiatic cholera was raging. 
Retrace Ash St.; L. from Ash St. on E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. on 
East Ave. 

43. The LAKE VIEW HOSPITAL, 136 East Ave., a 2-story white 
frame building, is municipally owned and operated for the treatment of 
contagious diseases. It succeeded an old hospital established in 1904. In 
1927 a new building was erected on the original grounds in front of the 
old building. It has 85 beds. 

Retrace East Ave.; L. from East Ave. on E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. 
on Dunn Blvd. 

44. The OLD LAND LIGHTHOUSE, foot of Dunn Blvd. in Land 
Lighthouse Park and overlooking the entrance to Erie Harbor, was the 
first land lighthouse erected on the Great Lakes by the United States 
Government. It is a circular structure, about 18 feet in diameter at its 
base, and with a slightly smaller dimension at the top. Built of gray 
stone, it rises 70 feet from its water-table to the focal plane of the lens, 
and about 127 feet above the lake level. It was first erected in 1818, re- 
built in 1858, and again 1866, but was not used as a lighthouse after 1885. 
Retrace Dunn Blvd.; L. from Dunn Blvd. on E. 6th St. 

45. The HAMMERMILL PAPER PLANT (open during office 
hours), lake front between Hess Ave. and Lakeside Cemetery, is inter- 

74 



CITY TOURS 



nationally known as the maker of Hammermill bond paper. The com- 
pany was founded in 1898 by Moritz Behrend and his sons, Ernst R. and 
Otto F. Behrend. 

Hammermill pioneered in the manufacture of sulphite writing papers. 
Principal products at present are writing and printing papers. The plant 
has a floor space of 16 acres on a tract of 211 acres, and employs 1,400 
persons. Most of its pulp wood comes from Canada, and its products are 
exported to all countries. 

Erie was chosen as the site for two reasons. First, the lake furnished 
an unlimited supply of clear water, so necessary to the making of clean 
paper. Second, the Great Lakes offered economical transportation, thus 
making accessible enormous quantities of spruce wood from American 
and Canadian forests. Hammermill received its name in the following 
manner: three generations ago a site on one of the branches of the 
Whipper River in Pomerania, Germany, became known as "The Ham- 
mer," from a small blacksmith shop and trip-hammer forge. Years later 
a paper mill, built on the forge site by Moritz Behrend, took its name 
from the earlier industry, and was called "Hammermuhle." The mill 
founded at Erie was named for the parent mill, but was given the English 
spelling. 

Only northern spruce is used in the manufacture of Hammermill papers. 
During the winter, crews of lumberjacks fell selected trees, cut them into 
four-foot lengths, and pile the logs on the ice of the rivers. During the 
spring thaw, the logs are floated down the rivers to the boats that carry 
them to Erie. 

Most of the spruce comes from Canada, where Hammermill owns a 
timber tract of 128,000 acres on the St. Lawrence River. By cutting only 
selected trees this tract would supply the mill for twenty years; how- 
ever, by using modern reforestration methods the supply can be continued 
almost indefinitely. 

At the docks in Erie harbor the logs are transferred to railway cars. 
Each log is carefully inspected, and the culls are thrown aside. The piles, 
about 14 feet high, are so arranged that a maximum of air circulation 
reaches each log, thus preventing decay. Logs are seasoned for a year 
in the yards before being used. The yards hold about 100,000 cords. 
The logs are then conveyed to the barker, the first operation in paper 
making. 

The barker consists of a long trough with a steel bottom. Steel cams, 
revolving through slots in the bottom alternately raise and lower the logs 
in the trough. The rising and falling motion causes the logs to revolve 
against one another, thus rubbing off the water softened bark. The bark, 
washed away, is removed through the bottom of the barker. The barked 

75 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



logs are inspected, and those imperfectly barked are reprocessed. The 
barked logs are washed and all knots and other imperfections are care- 
fully removed in the wood room. 

The prepared logs are fed against a steel disc four feet in diameter to 
which are affixed four steel knives. The disc, rotating at 300 revolutions 
a minute, reduces the largest logs to chips within a few seconds. The chips 
are conveyed to a series of screens and sorted according to size. Those 
too large are crushed to proper size, and sawdust and small chips are 
burned as refuse. The correct size in inches is about one-eighth thick, 
five-eighths long, and three-fourths wide. It is important they be uniform 
so that they will all cook into pulp at the same time; that is, that some 
will not be over cooked and some under cooked. 

The acid-making plant is a factory in itself. Sulphur is burned and the 
resulting gas, sulphur dioxide, after being cooled, is blown into the bottom 
of a concrete tower, 68 feet high, filled with limestone which absorbs 
the rising gas and forms sulphurous acid, which dissolves the limestone, 
forming calcium bi-sulphite, or "cooking liquor." More than 250,000 
gallons of acid are made daily at Hammermill, requiring about 20 tons 
of sulphur and from 27 to 28 tons of limestone. 

Acid-resisting brick-lined steel tanks, 50 feet high, called "digesters," 
are filled with the chips. These great kettles hold more than 30 cords of 
wood, in chips. The cooking liquor is injected, and live steam allowed 
to circulate in the digester. Chips are "cooked" under varying tempera- 
tures and pressures for 14 hours. 

At the expiration of the cooking, the ligneous and resinous parts of 
the wood have been dissolved, leaving pure cellulose fibres. The contents 
of the digester are then forced by steam into "blow tanks," which have 
slanting tile floors with holes drilled at such an angle that fibres cannot 
pass through them. For several hours the pulp is washed with pure water 
until free from excess acid and dissolved impurities. 

From the time pulp leaves the digesters until it reaches the bleachers, 
it passes through a number of cleaning processes. The first is a series of 
rotary screens or "knot strainers" into which the pulp is pumped. The 
screen meshes allow the fibres of pulp to pass through readily, but are 
too small for particles of uncooked wood and knots which are removed 
at the opposite end. 

The pulp is then allowed to flow over the rifHers. The flow of pulp 
and water causes a circular current under the baffles. The dirt and other 
impurities fall to the bottom, and are washed under the baffles where 
they settle. 

The screens, 75 feet long, are made of heavy bronze plates perforated 
with slots two or three inches long and seven one-thousandths of an inch 



CITY TOURS 



wide. A rubber diaphragm, moving up and down, causes a partial vacuum 
or suction under a screen, and draws the cellulose fibres through the fine 
slots. Heavy dirt and other impurities cannot pass, but work their way 
to the opposite end of the screens and are removed. 

So much water is added during these purification steps that the pulp 
is next run through a series of pulp thickeners to be partially dried. These 
thickeners are finely meshed rotary screens, slightly conical in shape. 

The pulp is mixed with bleaching liquor (a solution of hypochlorite) 
in large glazed tile-lined tanks holding about 15,000 pounds of pulp each. 
It is thoroughly mixed, and kept in circulation for six hours, at a tempera- 
ture of iooF. The fibres have then been bleached from a natural light 
brown wood color to pure white. The bleach liquor is then washed away, 
and the pulp is ready to be beaten, the first operation in the paper mill. 

Old paper makers say, "Good paper is made in the beaters." Paper 
made from pulp as it comes from the pulp mill would be coarse and flimsy. 
It is in the beater room that pulp is given special characteristics fitting it 
for different grades of paper. The beater is a tub partly divided by a 
partition called a "mid-feather." The beater roll, four feet in diameter, 
revolves beside the mid-feather and the side of the beater. Regularly 
spaced around the roll are bronze bars. A "bed plate" of 'similar bars is 
placed under the roll on the floor of the beater. As the roll revolves the 
pulp circulates around the beater, and the fibres repeatedly pass between 
the roll and the bed plate. This reduces the fibres in size, and frays their 
ends, causing them to lock together more strongly in a sheet of paper. 

A device for raising and lowering the beater roll enables the beater en- 
gineer to regulate the intensity of the beating. This device enables him 
to give stock characteristics essential to any particular grade of paper 
desired. The floor of the beater is raised just behind the roll and is called 
the "back-fall." The slope thus given the floor of the beater aids in the 
circulation of pulp and its return to the beater roll. 

Besides beating the stock, which process lasts several hours, the beater 
is a mixing tub where other necessary ingredients are added to pulp. It 
is here the paper is colored the shade desired. The fibres are also sized so 
that the finished paper will not absorb ink like blotting paper. Each fibre 
is a tiny tube, and will absorb moisture by capillary attraction. "Size milk" 
(an emulsion of rosin soap) is added to the pulp, and, when thoroughly 
mixed, a solution of alum is added, curdling the milk and causing fine 
particles of free rosin to deposit themselves on the fibres, sealing them. 

After the beating process the pulp passes through a continuously acting 
machine called a Jordan refining engine. The action of the Jordan is 
similar to that of the beater, its continuous action insuring uniform pulp. 
The pulp is then stored in a "stock chest," ready for the paper machine. 

77 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



A modern Fourdrinier paper machine is more than 200 feet long and it 
converts stock to paper at a rate of 450 feet a minute. Hammermill has 
five of these machines. 

The stock is first mixed with a large quantity of water, and is then run 
over a series of rifflers and screens to remove foreign particles that may 
have mingled with it in the beaters. The pulp and water are retained in 
the "head-box" for a moment, to break any current and to insure a 
thorough, even mixture. From the head-box the stock flows through a 
long, narrow, open gate, called a nozzle, onto the Fourdrinier wire. 

The Fourdrinier wire is an endless bronze screen, 65 feet long (32 feet 
double), of fine mesh (70 wires to an inch), the speed of which is so 
adjusted that the diluted stock gently flows over it as the wire travels 
under the nozzle. The water flows through the meshes of wire, depositing 
fibres on top. At the same time the fibres are thoroughly woven together 
by a shaking motion of the wire. 

More water is removed by suction, and the fibres are gently pressed 
together by a fine wire roll called a "dandy roll." The paper is then about 
20 percent dry (contains 80 percent water). It is next pressed between 
heavy granite rolls, called "press rolls," pressing out more water. 

Deckle straps are heavy rubber strips traveling along with the edge 
of the wire and preventing the stock from overflowing. The weight of 
paper on the machine can be varied in one of two ways. It can be made 
heavier or lighter by making the machine run slower or faster, thus 
allowing more or less stock to flow onto the Fourdrinier wire. Again, 
the weight can be controlled by the amount of stock mixed with water 
as it flows from the nozzle. A greater amount of stock to a certain volume 
of water will make heavier paper, and vice versa. 

The Hammermill watermark, invented by E. R. Behrend, president 
of Hammermill Paper Company, does not noticeably indent the surface 
of the paper thus keeping its printing quality unimpaired. It is applied 
by lettered rolls which press into the soft, wet fibres. After passing under 
the press rolls the paper is run over a series of steam-heated dryer rolls. 
Cotton dryer felts or blankets carry the paper and hold it against the rolls 
which dry the sheet and iron it. After dryer rolls, the paper goes to the 
calendars, chilled cast iron rolls which give the paper a smooth writing 
surface. For a very smooth or high finish the paper is run between all 
the rolls, and is sometimes calendared again on separate machines. Duller 
finish "bond" paper runs through fewer of the rolls. The rolls of paper 
are rewound onto smaller cores for handling, and the rough "deckle" 
edges are trimmed. A roll of paper weighs about 2,500 pounds and is 
completed in 40 minutes. 

46. The LAKESIDE CEMETERY (open weekdays 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.), 

78 



CITY TOURS 



1718 E. Lake Rd. (State 5), borders on Lake Erie. The cemetery covers 
a 45-acre tract planted with trees, shrubbery, and hedges. Burial plots 
receive perpetual care. Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley, commander of 
Admiral Dewey's flagship, Olympia, is buried in a plot called Gridley 
Circle, near the northern edge of the cemetery. It is marked by four 
antique bronze cannon, taken at Cavite when the Spanish surrendered. 
His son, John P. V. Gridley, who was killed by an explosion on the 
U.S.S. Missouri, is also buried there. 

47. The GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. PLANT, E. Lake Rd., between 
Franklin Ave. and Lawrence Parkway, is a large group ot red brick in- 
dustrial buildings occupying more than 800 acres. General Electric is 
the largest employer of labor in the Erie district with 6,300 on the payroll 
in 1938. The plant manufactures electric locomotives, motors, airbrake 
equipment, and refrigerators (see INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE). 
Retrace E. 6th St.; L. from E. 6th St. on East Ave.; R. from East Ave. 
on E. loth St. 

48. The PENNSYLVANIA TELEPHONE BUILDING, 20 E. loth 
St., is a modern, modified Greek Classic structure of simple bold propor- 
tions. It houses an operating unit of the General Telephone Corporation 
of New York, which owns and operates the telephone systems in Corry, 
Union City, North East, Girard, and Edinboro. The Mutual Telephone 
Company, chartered in 1897, took over the Erie Telephone Co., and the 
New York-Pennsylvania Telephone and Telegraph Co., absorbed the local 
subscribers of the Bell Telephone Co. in 1926. The Mutual Telephone Co. 
became the Pennsylvania Telephone Corporation in 1930. The Bell Tele- 
phone Co. in Erie, however furnishes service for all long distance calls. 
L. from E. loth St. on French St.; from French St. on E. i2th St. 

49. The TWELFTH STREET MARKET, SW cor. E. i2th and 
French Sts., housed in a 2-story gray brick building extending to i3th St., 
is one of Erie's most popular market places. From 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. a 
steady stream of customers pass through the aisles to select vegetables, 
groceries, and meats. On Saturdays the regular clientele is enlarged by 
throngs of shoppers from outlying communities. Stalls are rented in most 
instances by farmers who market home-grown produce directly to the 
consumer. A State liquor store occupies the N.W. corner of the building. 

50. The ERIE COUNTY ELECTRIC CO. OFFICE, NW cor. E. 
1 2th and French Sts., is a 2-story red brick building. The company was 
chartered in 1898 as a subsidiary of the United Gas Improvement Com- 
pany, of Philadelphia. It later absorbed the Edison Electric Light and 
Power Company, which Charles H. Strong, an early associate of Thomas 
A. Edison, had established in 1886. Strong was president of both com- 
panies until his death in 1936. The company supplies light and power to 

79 






ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



the townships of Greenfield, Greene, Venango, West Millcreek, and the 
borough of Wattsburg. 

51. The ERIE DISPATCH-HERALD BUILDING, 20 E. izth St., 
occupying an "L" of the Erie County Electric Bldg., is the home of one 
of Erie's two daily newspapers, and the only Sunday newspaper published 
in the city. It has a daily circulation of 40,000, and a Sunday circulation 
of 30,000. Its history involves a series of mergers dating from the found- 
ing of the Gazette by Joseph M. Sterrett, on January 15, 1820. The 
Dispatch, founded in Waterford by James S. Young in 1851, had an im- 
portant part in the Railroad War, or "Peanut War," of 1854. In 1856 
the paper was moved to Erie, where it was operated as a weekly until 
1 86 1, when it became a daily. Not long afterward it was discontinued; 
then, after three years, it reappeared. From 1864 to 1878 it was virtually 
the only English daily in Erie. In 1890 the Dispatch purchased the Sunday 
Morning Gazette, a publication that was started on March 20, 1875, as the 
Saturday Evening Gazette, an outgrowth of the older Erie Gazette. The 
Sunday edition was discontinued in 1894, but the paper was continued 
as the Dispatch Gazette. It was purchased in 1902 by Charles H. Strong, 
Erie capitalist. 

The Erie Herald appeared as an evening paper on July 20, 1876, with 
James R. Burns and H. C. Missimer, Erie high school teachers, as publishers. 
A few months later the paper was purchased by William L. Scott, who 
added a weekly edition. The Lake City Daily, a small paper started in 
1878, was merged with the Herald in 1879. At Scott's death in 1891, his 
daughter, the late Mrs. Anna Wainwright Scott Strong, became owner. 
In 1922 Mrs. Strong's husband, owner of the Dispatch, bought her interest 
in the Herald and merged it with his paper, forming the present Erie 
Dispatch-Herald. The paper is a member of the Associated Press, and is 
conservative in editorial policy. 



80 




lagoon, Presque Isle 
Peninsula 



Mallard ducks in Fox Pond, 
Presque Isle Peninsula 





The Old Land 
Lighthouse 



OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST 



52. The CENTRAL MARKET HOUSE, State St. between i5th and 
1 6th Sts. i? a long, rambling, one-story building of concrete and corrugated 
sheet iron. Stalls are rented to farmers who bring their produce here and 
sell it directly to the public. Sidewalk space is at a premium during the 
summer months, when green groceries are displayed and sold there. 

53. MERCYHURST COLLEGE, 501 E. 38th St., conducted by the 
Sisters of Mercy, is an outgrowth of St. Joseph's Academy, founded in 
Titusville in 1871. The college, built of variegated salmon-colored brick 
and trimmed in limestone, occupies the highest elevation in Glenwood 
Hills, and commands a splendid view of Erie City, Presque Isle Bay, the 
Peninsula, and Lake Erie; on clear days the Canadian shore, 30 miles dis- 
tant, is clearly visible. The buildings occupy the center of a 7 5 -acre tract 
of meadow and woodland. The principal building is a large brown tapes- 
try brick structure with cut cast-stone trim. It is of Collegiate Gothic 
design. The high blue slate roof is pierced with tall dormer windows and 
lofty chimneys. 

The curriculum covers three four-year courses of study leading to 
degrees in arts, home economics, and commerce. In the 1937-38 term, 
212 women students were enrolled. 

54. ACADEMY HIGH SCHOOL AND STADIUM extends from 
E. 26th St. to E. 2oth St., and from French St. to State St. The building, 
of bold Tudor design, is of red brick, trimmed with sandstone, and was 
erected in 1920. It is a public senior high school with educational facili- 
ties for 2200 students, and a faculty of 81. The school was a pioneer 
in the school band and orchestra movement of Erie; and it is also the 
home of an a cappella ^hoir. The stadium adjoining the school to the 
north is Erie's largest outdoor arena. It is used for athletic activities of 
the city's schools and is equipped with electric flood lights for night sports. 
It has a seating capacity of 15,000. The grounds belong to the Board of 
Education, but the stadium was built with funds raised by subscription. 

55. ERIE BREWING COMPANY, 2131 State St., a 4 -story red brick 
building, is partially housed in a plant built by the Eagle Brewing Com- 

81 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



pany in 1846. Ghosts of an older era of beer-making linger about the 
old cellars long and narrow with ceilings low and arched, the brick walls 
glistening with moisture. The office, repair shop, and bottling works are 
on the east side of State St. Great wooden vats, a huge copper kettle with 
a 42o-barrel capacity; a cooperage room, where barrels are repaired; a 
boiler room; and a power house are on the west side of State St. The two 
buildings are connected by a brick-lined tunnel which runs under the 
street. The great kettle was first used on February 22, 1896. After each 
batch of mash is brewed, the kettle is washed and sterilized. As empty 
bottles are returned to the brewery, they are placed on a conveyor which 
carries them to a machine that steams and sterilizes them. They are then 
placed in cleaned boxes and sent on another conveyor to a machine that 
fills and caps the bottles. Again on a conveyor they pass the critical eye 
of an inspector who searches for any defects in contents, bottle, or cap. 
The last step before they are packed in crates to await shipment is pas- 
teurization, during which the bottled beer is put through a heat test. 
The method for handling barreled beer is slightly different; returned 
empty barrels are cleaned and tested for leaks and are then placed under 
the machine that fills them. A nozzle is then fitted over the bunghole, 
and the beer is pumped into them. When the nozzle is removed the bung- 
hole is plugged with a wooden seal. 

The WAYNE BREWING CO., E. iyth and Parade Sts., is the other 
large Erie brewery, the two comprising one of the leading industries of 
the city. 

56. The UNITED STATES (POST OFFICE, Griswold Plaza be- 
tween W. 1 3th and W. i4th Sts., is a light brick structure of Italian Ren- 
aissance inspiration, with an arched colonnade of 1 2 light marble columns 
on the main facade. It was built in 1932. A subway for the transfer of 
mail runs under i4th St. to the Union Station. 

57. The UNION STATION, Peach St. between W. i 4 th and W. 
1 5th Sts., was built in 1927 of rough brown firebrick and sandstone. It 
is modern in design, harmonizing in scale with the Post Office across the 
Plaza. Waiting, baggage rooms, and ticket offices are on the first floor, 
railroad offices and business firms occupy the second floor. The station 
is used by trains of the New York Central and Pennsylvania R. R. 

58. HARRY KELLAR'S BIRTHPLACE, SE cor. Sassafras and W. 
1 6th Sts., a 2-story unpainted frame house, was moved to its present lo- 
cation in 1890. At the time of Kellar's birth in 1849, the house was on 
W. 1 2th St. Kellar, an internationally famous magician, died in 1922. 

59. ST. VINCENT'S HOSPITAL, 2420 Sassafras St., a closeknit group 
of 6-story red brick and limestone buildings, was founded in 1874 by the 
order of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The older part of the building was erected 

82 



OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST 



at that time. The hospital was incorporated on December 10, 1894, as 
the St. Vincent's Hospital Association, which now consists of 60 members. 
These members elect annually a board of 7 trustees. Additions to the 
original structure have increased its capacity to 226 beds. 

61. GLENWOOD PARK, Glenwood Park Rd., is a city-owned Park 
with a ZOO, picnic grounds, and recreational facilities. The zoo houses an 
East Indian elephant, monkeys, birds, and many animals of tropical origin. 
Enclosures on the hill back of the building contain bear, deer, bison, owls, 
and small game native to the county. Along Mill Creek, which traverses 
the park, are picnic and camping grounds (free), and a small open air 
auditorium. A baseball field and a 9-hole golf course (250 a round: $oc 
all day) are among the park's recreational facilities. 

62. ERIE CEMETERY (open daily from 7:30 a. m. to sundown), 
main entrance at 2116 Chestnut St. The cemetery association was formed 
on January 29, 1850 and the grounds were opened the following May. 
The grounds, sloping gently towards the south, are cut into square sec- 
tions by cement roads and walks. Some of the large elm and maple trees 
are a remnant of the original forest that covered the tract. In the NE 
section, near Chestnut St., is a sunken flower garden containing thousands 
of tulips. 

64. ERIE LIGHTING COMPANY OFFICE, 21 W. loth St., is a 
3 -story gray brick building trimmed with granite. The company was 
chartered in 1893 as the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Light, Heat and 
Power Company. The present name was acquired in 1911. It is a sub- 
sidiary of the Pennsylvania Electric Company and serves the boroughs of 
North East, Mill Village, and Wesleyville, and the townships of Lawrence 
Park, Harborcreek, and Millcreek. 



CONTEMPORARY ERIE COUNTY 



Topographically, Erie County consists of a series of ridges following 
a course parallel with the shores of Lake Erie. Beginning at the New York 
State line on the east, the hills rise 1,000 feet above the lake level and 1,500 
feet above sea level. As the ranges extend westward they gradually decrease 
in altitude and the valleys become wider and smoother until, in the 
western half of the county, they flatten into gently rolling tablelands. 

With the exception of Lake Erie there are but three lakes in the county, 
and they are small. Lake LeBoeuf, a mile east of Waterford, is the largest, 
and is widely known because of its historical associations as part of the 
route of early transportation down LeBoeuf Creek to the Allegheny River. 
The lake is about a mile in length and a half mile in width. 

Conneautee Lake in Washington Township at Edinboro is about the 
same size as Lake LeBoeuf, but owes its area to a dam constructed at the 
point where Conneautee Creek pours from the south side of the lake to 
meander southward to join French Creek in Crawford County. Lake 
Pleasant, the smallest of the three, is in the extreme southwest corner of 
Venango Township. 

The ranges of hills running through the county act as a divide for Erie 
County streams, those south of the divide emptying into French Creek. 
The most important of these streams are the Cussewago, Conneautee, and 
LeBoeuf Creeks. Creeks emptying into Lake Erie are: Crooked Creek, 
Elk Creek, Walnut Creek, Trout Run, Mill Creek, Four Mile, Six Mile, 
Twelve Mile, and Sixteen Mile Creeks. Conneaut Creek runs across the 
southwest corner of Erie County to enter Ohio State and flow into Lake 
Erie at Conneaut, Ohio. 

The soil of Erie County is varied. Along Lake Erie, stretching back from 
the bluff overlooking the shoreline, is a fertile plain composed of an alluvial 
sandy loam. This plain sinks to a swampy terrain, the whole floored by 
a stratum of rocky shale or a clay hardpan. There are gravel beds at places 



CONTEMPORARY ERIE COUNTY 



in the foothills ascending from the lake plain. On the hills the soil is a 
heavy clay, hard to till, but made productive by constant working and 
the use of fertilizer. The wider valleys of the southern part are of deep, 
rich soil and are Erie County's most highly prized agricultural lands. 

Most common trees of the area are beech, maple, birch, ironwood, hem- 
lock, elm, ash, and oak, growing usually in woodlots without being segre- 
gated as to species. The ash, elm, and birch are found along streams and 
swamp lands. The others are found on plains and hillsides alike. 

Other trees once plentiful but now few and scattered are: basswood, 
cucumber, whitewood, cherry, tupelo, hickory, walnut, butternut, hazel, 
and two species of poplar. Locust trees are grown by farmers because of 
their adaptability for fence posts. The chestnut, once plentiful but stricken 
by blight, is again increasing in number. 

Among the shrubbery common to the region is dogwood, pawpaw, 
alder, wild plum, water beech, service berry, sumac, and several other 
varieties of swamp vegetation. Blackberries, wild raspberries, wild straw- 
berries, dewberries, and a variety of blueberry, grow profusely in every 
fence corner, along every railroad track, and along highways and byways. 
Hundreds of varieties of wild flowers are scattered over the entire region, 
the most common being violets, anemones, trilliums, may apples, adder 
tongues, bluebells, hepatica, Solomon's seal, and jack-in-the-pulpit. 

Many birds inhabit Erie County's forests and cities. The English spar- 
row, which remains all winter, the migratory robins, bluebirds and finches, 
every type of songbird, warbler, thrush, and ground sparrow is present, 
as well as predatory hawks, crows, and blackbirds. Game birds, quail, 
pheasant, woodcock, grouse, and snipe live in the swales and shrubbery. 
Ducks and geese stop in their long flights to rest and feed in the lakes 
and ponds. 

Wild animals include mink, muskrat, opossum, coon, skunk, rabbit, 
squirrel, weasel, and an occasional fox. Two small herds of deer inhabit 
the county, one in Conneaut Township and one in Peninsula State Park. 

The streams abound in bass, muskellunge, trout, pike, perch, and the 
less desirable carp, sucker, and bullhead. 

The county, exclusive of the city of Erie, is primarily agricultural. 
Although there are several large factories in the various boroughs, most 
of the communities are agricultural Girard and Springfield are known for 
potatoes; Waterford for dairies and cabbage; and North East for grapes 
and cherries. Many acres of Concord grape lands and cherry orchards 
lie along the county's shore line. 

Moisture from Lake Erie moderates the climate so that the region is 
little troubled by early frosts. Grapes, melons, cherries, apples, berries of 

85 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



various kinds, as well as virtually all vegetables, are grown abundantly. 
In recent years tomatoes have become a large crop. 

South of the lake shore plain dairying and general farming are the chief 
agricultural pursuits. Cereal grains, hay, corn, potatoes, cabbage, and 
maple sugar products are raised in large quantities. Erie cabbage is especially 
fine and abundant. Poultry raising is a recent but highly profitable in- 
dustry. Erie County ranks sixth in the State in the production of cabbage, 
peaches, and apples. 

An important activity is the culture of grapes, which in Erie County 
are largely of the Concord variety. Vineyards border the highways in 
eastern Erie County, where hundreds of acres are given over to them. 
Grapes grow well all along the lake, but are most abundant in Harbor- 
creek and North East Townships. Before the depression of 1929, grape 
lands brought high prices. 

Catawba grapes are a very old crop, some vineyards having been planted 
as early as 1857. But intensive grape cultivation did not begin in this 
region until 1866, when Concords became the favorite variety. In 1935 
Erie County had approximately 7,000 acres or 7,384,089 grape vines 
under cultivation. 

The price of Erie grapes has ranged from $20 to $100 a ton. Because 
of this erratic price range, the acreage in recent years has been reduced 
about 20 per cent. Grapes are shipped throughout the United States, and 
even to Europe in recent years, but large percentages of the crop is now 
being processed in the county. Grape juice is the chief product in the 
county, but some of the crop goes to wineries in New York. 

The growing of other fruit is extensive, especially on the lake shore 
plain. Approximately 4,700 acres are devoted to apple trees, 5,100 to 
peaches, 1,165 to cherries, and about 500 acres to plums. 

In 1935 Erie County had 71,158 acres in hay, 23,312 in oats, 4,235 in 
winter wheat, and 9,080 in potatoes. While the potato acreage has de- 
creased somewhat in recent years, the yield is higher, because of better 
seed and methods of production. According to the 1930 census, there were 
6,926 acres in buckwheat, 1,712 in rye, and 568 in barley. 

About 1,500 acres along the lake front and extending across the county 
are devoted to truck farming. Erie County potatoes and cabbage are 
usually marketed in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. Sweet corn is another 
quantity product. 

There were 41,984 head of cattle (of which 24,490 were milch cows), 
8,555 horses, 6,909 hogs, and 3,334 sheep in the county on January i, 
1935, an average year. 

There are only about half as many horses in the county as there were 
15 years ago, the auto and truck having supplanted them. The total value 

86 



CONTEMPORARY ERIE COUNTY 



of Erie County's livestock is approximately $2,500,000; livestock products, 
including dairy, poultry, and wool, amount to an additional $2,500,000. 
The value of all farm lands is approximately $25,000,000, including build- 
ings. There are 5,386 farms, with average value of $4,663. The total 
acreage of farmland in the county is 403,563, with an average individual 
farm of 74.9 acres. 

GOVERNMENT 

The chief instrument of government in Erie County is a board of three 
commissioners elected by the people. The commissioners appoint certain 
minor officials, assess and levy county taxes, appropriate county funds, 
initiate building and road projects, and administer all elections. 

There are 22 townships in Erie County. Lawrence Park, the only first- 
class township, is governed by five commissioners elected by the people. 
They appoint a solicitor, an engineer, police officers, and other employees. 
All the other townships of the county are of the second class. They are 
governed by a board of three supervisors. Other officials are one township 
assessor, three auditors, and one tax collector. Schools in first and second- 
class townships are managed by an elected board of five directors, who are 
responsible to the county superintendent of schools. 

There are three elected judges in Erie County courts. They preside 
over the Court of Common Pleas, the Court of Quarter Sessions, and Or- 
phans Court. Other elected officials of the county government are a county 
controller, a treasurer, a surveyor, a sheriff, a coroner, a district attorney, 
a prothonotary, a clerk of courts, a register of wills, a recorder of deeds, 
and two jury commissioners. 



ERIE COUNTY TOUR 1 



Presque Isle Peninsula State Park 

Erie to Peninsula State Park and return, State 5 and State 832, 22.2 m. 
Paved throughout. Speed restricted to 25 m., 15 m. in Water Works Park reser- 
vation. Cars may not pass on the park highways. 

W. from State St. on W. mh St.; R. from W. 12 St. on Liberty Blvd.; L. from 
Liberty Blvd. on State 5; R. from State 5 on State 832. 

FROM the entrance of Waldameer Park, 4.3 m., a commercial amuse- 
ment center, the highway winds down a cliff overlooking Lake Erie 
and Presque Isle Bay. Tall, slender trees form a canopy over the highway. 
A constant lake breeze sweeps the entire peninsula, cooling the flat, sun- 
swept beach. 

At 4.7 m., near the "Neck," as the narrow approach to the Peninsula 
is called, is the SITE OF THE LAST INDIAN VILLAGE in Erie County. 
The now extinct Massassauga Indian tribe lived here. The remains of the 
Massassauga Hotel, a summer resort of the 1850'$, are on the R., hidden 
by trees and underbrush. 

Along the Neck, brief patches of Lake Erie are visible through the 
trees (L); R. is Presque Isle Bay. The area of woods, lily pads, and mud 
lying between the mainland and the Neck, (R), known as The Marshes, 
is a refuge for ducks and geese. Sandpipers race busily along the water's 
edge, and just off shore large and small mouth black bass lurk in shadows 
of root growth and water-soaked driftwood. 

Willows, poplars, and other fast-growing trees have been planted on 
the Neck as protection against storm damage to the highway, once under 
constant threat of the lake washing a channel through to the bay during 
seasonal storms. 

The BOUNDARY OF PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA STATE 
PARK, 4.9 m.j is just east of Edgewater Beach Restaurant. 

The park, now occupying most of the peninsula acreage, was created 

88 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



by an Act of Assembly in 1921, making possible development of the area 
as a recreational center. A commission appointed by the Governor of 
Pennsylvania administers the affairs of the park. Employed by the Park 
Commission are a police detail which patrols the park and a force of life- 
guards for the protection of bathers. Thousands visit the bathing beaches 
during the summer, and the peninsula is thronged on holidays and week- 
ends. 

Bathing suits are not rented at any of the beaches. 

At various points along the shore, a riprap makes bathing dangerous, 
and care must be taken along the unguarded beaches to avoid striking 
large, sharp-edged stones under the surface while diving. 

Both the bay and lake afford good fishing. Many fine catches of black 
bass are taken from the bay. Perch, pike, catfish, and bullhead are caught 
in large numbers from the stone jetties and from the north pier, while a 
mile off the northeastern tip of the peninsula are the famous pike grounds 
which have given Erie a high rating in the fresh water fish industry. 

In Peninsula State Park all animal as well as plant life is protected. Dogs 
must be on a leash. 

The park is open from sunrise until midnight from June through 
September. 

A bridle trail parallels the drive (R), for about 2 m. 

Eastward of the entrance the peninsula gradually widens, forming a 
broad beach on the lake front (L), where picnic tables have been set 
for public use. 

BEACH NO. 1, j.5 m., (L), is the westernmost of the protected beaches. 
Lifeguards are on duty continuously during the summer. A bathhouse 
and a refreshment stand are situated at this beach between the highway 
and the water's edge. 

POLICE BARRACKS, 5.6 m., (R), a newly constructed cottage of 
rust-colored shingles, is the headquarters of the park police. A first-aid 
station is maintained here. 

The beach opposite the police station, though unguarded, is extensively 
used. 

BEACH NO. 2, 6.0 m., (L), is equipped with a bathhouse and refresh- 
ment stand. This beach, one of the most popular on the peninsula, is 
favored by family parties. Tables and simple but serviceable cook stoves 
are provided for picnic lunches. There is a diving board on the break- 
water. Horseshoe courts are R. of the highway. 

The LILY POND, 7.0 m., (R), is named for the yellow and white pond 
lilies along its shores. It is a breeding ground for bass, sunfish, and frogs. 
The narrow inlet leading from the bay is only a few yards in length and 
is crossed by the bridle path. A small rustic bridge arches over the sluggish 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



little stream, making a scene with its flanking trees and bay background. 

At j.i m., is a BASEBALL DIAMOND, (R). Amateur teams of Erie 
industrial plants use this field. 

The highway here gradually leaves the lake shore and approaches the 
bay side. The bridle path crosses the road near the ball diamond and enters 
a forest, (L), through which it meanders for several miles. 

Under the trees on the bay shore, 50 yards to the R., Commodore 
Perry's ship, NIAGARA, 7.4 m., lies patiently in her cradle, awaiting ac- 
tion of the State legislature to be restored. The hull, painted with creosote, 
looms darkly in the shadow of the trees. Devoid of decks or superstructure, 
the old craft presents a sad contrast to her famed record. An appropria- 
tion of $50,000 was passed in 1931 for rebuilding and repairing the 
Niagara, to preserve her as an historical relic. Before restoration work 
was begun, the money was diverted to relief purposes by the passage 
of the Talbot Act. 

With the Lawrence and the Ariel, the Niagara had been constructed 
in Presque Isle Bay near the foot of present Cascade St. (see CITY TOUR 
2). Capt. Daniel Dobbins, prominent Erie citizen, was commissioned by 
President Madison to start building a fleet powerful enough to cope with 
the British. Oliver Hazard Perry, a young Navy lieutenant, arrived in 
Erie on March 27, 1813, to take command. Ship carpenters were few, and 
timber had to be cut in the forests and used green. The Lawrence and the 
Niagara, each of 260 tons, were launched May 24. On August ist, Perry 
received the troops he had awaited, and, after the heavy ships had been 
floated over the sand bar at the channel, the fleet set out for Sandusky, 
Ohio, on August 12. 

The fleet arrived at Sandusky Bay on August 17 and awaited the arrival 
of Gen. William Henry Harrison, who was 27 miles distant with an army 
of 8,000 regulars, militia, and Indians. Perry was informed the enemy 
was short of provisions, and must engage the Americans to open the way 
to Long Point, opposite Erie, in Canada. The British naval force con- 
sisted of 502 men, commanded by Capt. Robert Barclay, who had served 
with Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar Bay. The British squadron 
consisted of six vessels and 63 guns. 

The Americans numbered 490 men, nine vessels, and 54 guns. 

At sunrise, September 10, the British fleet was sighted approaching 
Put-in-Bay. The American squadron cautiously maneuvered to inter- 
cept the British fleet. While the British were still 5 miles distant, Perry 
called the crew about him, raised the burgess on which were the famous 
words of Capt. James Lawrence, "Don't give up the Ship." 

"My brave lads, the flag contains the last words of Captain Lawrence. 
Shall I hoist it?" "Aye, aye, sir" was the ringing answer, and the blue 

90 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



and white flag soon was flying from the main masthead. 

The two squadrons slowly neared each other, and at a distance of 1 1 / 2 
miles a bugle call was heard aboard the Detroit, flagship of the British 
squadron. The ships sailed into battle formation. The slower sailing craft 
among the American vessels were out of their positions and the American 
line overspread the British by i ,000 feet. 

In accordance with his plan to bring the British vessels to close range, 
Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, withheld fire until within canister shot of 
the Detroit. After two hours of fighting the Lawrence was a battered 
wreck, two-thirds of her crew killed or wounded, and Perry abandoned 
her and boarded the Niagara. 

For two hours neither fleet gained a point. The wind had died down 
and the ships were becalmed. With a slight freshening of the breeze, Perry 
turned the Niagara's course toward the enemy's line. The British, still 
unable to gain steerage way, were compelled to sit idly by as the Niagara 
slipped between the Queen Charlotte, British ship of the line, and the 
Detroit, raking them both with grape and canister. So successful was 
(Perry's strategy that the British fleet was soon forced to surrender. 

The shattered Lawrence hoisted her flag amid feeble cheers on her deck. 
The British casualties had been 41 killed and 94 wounded; in the American 
fleet, 27 were killed and 96 wounded. 

That day Perry wrote his famous message to General Harrison on the 
back of an old envelope. 

Dear General: We have met the enemy and they 
are ours; two ships, two brigs, one schooner, and 
one sloop. 

Yours with great respect and esteem. 
0. H. Perry 

Of the American ships which so jauntily sailed into battle, efforts have 
been made to preserve only one, the Niagara. 

Within a few months of the arrival at Erie of the victorious fleet and 
its captives, the Lawrence was scuttled in Misery Bay, being no longer 
fit for service. The Niagara was made a receiving ship, but she too was 
soon sunk beside the Lawrence. 

One hundred years from the time she was sunk, the Niagara was raised 
and rebuilt to take part in the 1913 Perry Centennial at Erie. She toured 
the lakes under sail and was returned to Erie. She passed from the hands 
of the State to the City of Erie, and was beached in Misery Bay, where 
she remained a short time before being pumped out and towed to the 
foot of State Street, at the public dock, where she was visited by thousands 
of sightseers. In 1931, the Niagara was taken to her present location on 
Presque Isle. 

WATER WORKS PARK RESERVATION (175 acres owned by the 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Water Commission of the City of Erie,) and WATER WORKS BEACH are at 
7.5) m. There is a large picnic ground with tables and seats to the R.; the 
bathing beach is to the L. At this beach clothing may be checked free 
of charge. There is a refreshment stand and a public telephone beside 
the roadway. 

The beach is smooth and level, the water ranging from a few inches 
to several feet in depth. The formation of the lake floor along the penin- 
sula beaches is unusual, in that for several yards from the shore the water 
becomes about five feet in depth, then, at a distance of 20 yards or more 
from shore, sandbars parallel the shore and again lessen the depth. 

At the eastern extremity of the Water Works Reservation the peninsula 
again broadens. 

At 8.0 m.j the highway forks to form the loop known as GOVERNOR 
FISHER DRIVE. This driveway leads along the lake beach, circles the 
peninsula and returns along the bay shore. A gray stone marker, com- 
memorating ex-Governor Fisher, to whom the loop was dedicated, stands 
at the entrance of this drive. 

L. at the fork on the lake side. 

The RED CROSS STATION, 8.1 m. (R), is open during the bathing 
season. Great oaks and maples, interspersed with hemlocks, form a 
wooded area (R). Among the trees are clumps of shrubbery and flowers 
and examples of almost every type of flora common to the region. 

STONE JETTY BEACH, 8.4 m. (L), was named for the heavy stone 
jetty that slants out into the lake. The beach is fringed with trees under 
which are laid out attractive picnic grounds with stone fireplaces and 
rustic benches. There is a bathhouse and refreshment stand. 

At 8.6 m.^ is the FOX POND (R), a protected preserve where hundreds 
of wild mallard duck have their nesting places. Mallards seldom permit 
close approach and at the slightest suggestion of danger take to the air. 
These wild fowl of the Fox Pond colony, however their fear of hunters 
now allayed noisily beg titbits from the throngs who gather at the rustic 
fence separating pond from road. Leaving the water they waddle to the 
fence and take food from the hands of visitors. Protected from hunters, 
they enjoy a life of ease and well-fed comfort; and never fail to excite the 
admiration of game lovers with their richly colored feathers and not 
unmusical clamor. 

For nearly a mile the highway leads through a dense forest growth on 
one side, with the blue waters of the lake on the other, before reaching 
the PRESQUE ISLE LIGHTHOUSE, 9.3 m. (R), operated by the United 
States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Lighthouses. The brick por- 
tion, including the square light tower, was built in 1871. The well-kept 

92 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



grounds about the buildings are surrounded by a white picket fence, and 
are tended by the lighthouse keeper's family. 

In the log book kept by the present lighthouse keeper and his predeces- 
sors for more than 50 years, are graphic stories of the life of Lake Erie 
seamen. Made highly dramatic by extreme simplicity are the terse his- 
tories of shipwrecks and human suffering. 

Life for the early lighthouse keeper and his family was one of isolation 
and loneliness. His supplies came weekly from the mainland by boat to 
Misery Bay, and were then packed on sturdy shoulders and carried two 
miles over a narrow path through the forest. There were no highways 
on the peninsula then, and few visitors called at the snug brick cottage. 

The heaviest forest on the peninsula is to the rear of the lighthouse. 
Some of these great trees are the oldest in the county, and in this area are 
found some of the rarest specimens of plant life in northwestern Penn- 
sylvania. A certain variety of mocassin, a flower of the orchid family, 
little known in the western hemisphere, is found here, growing from dead 
logs and stumps partially buried in the ground. Indian pipe and wisteria 
are plentiful. Certain rare types of grasses have interested botanical stu- 
dents. 

Once famous for cranberries, the peninsula attracted hundreds of pick- 
ers seeking the rich, red fruit, and was the scene of an annual celebration, 
Cranberry Day. With the exception of a few small patches along the 
walk running from Misery Bay to the lighthouse, cranberries are now 
gone. 

Cranberry Day, the first Tuesday in October, was once one of the 
important annual festival days in Erie. Thousands of Erie's citizens 
packed picnic baskets and crossed the bay by boat to enter the cranberry 
marshes that were in the center of the peninsula directly opposite the 
Erie Public Dock. The cranberries were used in home made jams and 
jellies, and were occasionally marketed at the public market places. The 
State Legislature, in 1841, made Cranberry Day an Erie holiday. An Act 
of Assembly soberly decreed "that it shall be contrary to the peace and 
dignity of the Commonwealth and subversive of the good order of the 
community, as well as of the great State of Pennsylvania, for any person 
to pick cranberries on the peninsula between the first of July and the first 
Tuesday of October." 

City Council, in order to halt a growing practice of poaching, passed 
an ordinance in 1865 providing that the right to harvest the cranberries 
be sold to the highest bidder, the successful bidder to be empowered to 
prosecute the cranberry poachers. The ordinance proved to be ineffec- 
tive inasmuch no provision was made for enforcement. The poachers 
devised long handled rakes to comb the vines, thus stripping the cran- 

93 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



berry bushes bare of fruit. The successful bidder was thus defrauded of 
the benefits of his franchise. 

Council rescinded the monopoly ordinance after indignation meetings 
were held by Erie citizens who demanded the right to gather the cran- 
berries on the first Tuesday of October. 

Cranberry Day, however, is no longer observed. Affected by a blight 
early in the 1900'$, most of the cranberry bushes died and Cranberry Day 
became an empty occasion. 

THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH BOTANICAL OBSERVA- 
TORY, 9.4 m.> (R), is a small building located in an open field. Here 
students come in summer to study peninsula flora. 

BEACH NO. 3, 10.9 m., (L), lies near the east end of the peninsula. 
It is wide and sandy, has a refreshment stand and bathhouse. Tables and 
benches, cook stoves and firewood are free to visitors. It is the longest 
patroled beach on the lake shore. Just beyond the refreshment stand the 
combined churches of Erie celebrate Easter services annually. 

Two hundred yards L. of the highway is a GULL SANCTUARY. 
These gulls, or terns, flock in thousands on the sandy shore. They are 
a familiar sight as they wheel about over the water, diving for fish. The 
Park and Harbor Commission feeds them in winter. 

THE FOGHORN, n.o m., (L), located half way between the road 
and the beach, is supported high on stiltlike steel columns. On foggy 
days and during the misty early morning hours when navigation is open 
from March until late December, the horn can be heard five to ten miles 
away. Every three minutes three great husky notes roar warning to ap- 
proaching craft that land is near and sandbars endanger the fog-blinded 
navigator. 

At 11.3 m. is a junction with a cinder road. 

Left on this road is THOMPSON'S BAY, 0.4 m. Many people with 
small children use this protected beach for picnics and bathing parties. 
The water is shallow, and is considered safer than the regular beaches. 
THE COAST GUARD STATION, i.o m., (R), is a small reser- 
vation on the lake channel. The few houses are inhabited by members 
of the station and their families. The first United States Coast Guard 
Station on the peninsula was established about 1880, near the old 
foghorn on the north shore. In the early part of this century the sta- 
tion was moved to its present location. The station is manned by 
a crew of 15 regular seamen under the command of a boatswain's mate. 
At /2.7 m.> (R), a cement walk leaves the highway and traverses the 
peninsula to the lighthouse. The two-mile walk was built to facilitate 
the transporting of supplies to the lighthouse. It passes through some of 
the peninsula's heaviest thickets and stands of timber. Poison ivy should 
be avoided. Mosquitoes are also troublesome. Wildflowers are profuse 
during the spring and early summer. 

94 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



In this area are birds of every local kind, small animals, and a herd of 
30 deer. Deer tracks are often seen on the soft banks of the lagoons, and 
occasionally the shy animals may be glimpsed through the underbrush. 
Mink, muskrats, and weasel are plentiful, as are raccoon, skunk, and 
opossum. 

At 12.2 m., is the entrance to the LAGOONS and Captain Cook's Boat- 
house (rates $oc an hour and up). The highway crosses the lagoons 
over a concrete bridge, from which is a view of the westward reaches 
curving around a wooded spit. The boathouse is to the R. The lagoons 
may be explored by boats and canoes. 

The main waterway penetrates the peninsula more than five miles, 
swelling occasionally into ponds. There are four of these ponds between 
the entrance and Fox Pond, the last. The water is shallow, and the bottom 
is of soft mud. Along the shores and extending several feet, sometimes 
yards, into the water are dense growths of lily pads and reeds. Fishing 
is fair; catches consist of bullhead, suckers, carp, and various species of 
bass. Pickerel and muskellunge are sometimes taken. 

During the early spring, redfin suckers and carp invade the lagoons in 
droves to spawn. Fishermen row their skiffs into the lagoons when the 
fish are so numerous that boatmen stun them with their oars and haul 
them into the boats. Some of the carp weigh as much as 50 pounds. 
Small boys wade into the water, grasp the huge fish by the tails and 
wrestle them through the mud to the banks. 

Trees hang over the lagoons on both sides. Along the banks are many 
kinds of plant life. Pink ladyslippers and wild columbine make the open 
places in the forest even more lovely in spring. 

MISERY BAY, 12.5 m., (L), is a body of water covering 50 or more 
acres, extending into the peninsula and connected by a wide inlet in 
Presque Isle Bay. Lieutenant Holdup, an officer of Perry's fleet, named 
it Misery Bay because of the gloomy weather and comfortless living con- 
ditions aboard the navy ships during the winter of 1813-1814, when the 
victorious fleet anchored there. 

In CRYSTAL POINT PARK, 12.6 m., (L), is the PERRY MONUMENT, 
erected, in honor of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. Erected by the 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1926, the monument is a tall quadrate 
shaft of Indiana limestone. Around the base are wide, low steps, which 
visitors climb to read the inscription on a plaque listing the names of the 
ships that took part in the Battle of Lake Erie. It is 50 yards from the 
highway on a narrow point extending between Misery Bay and Presque 
Isle Bay. The plot has been landscaped. Shrubbery, carefully nurtured 
lawns studded with cannon and anchors from Perry's ships, and well- 
trimmed trees furnish the foreground of the memorial. 

95 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



Left of the monument is the old battleship, Wolverine, formerly the 
USS Michigan, the first iron ship of the United States Navy (built 1843), 
and the only warship on the Great Lakes for over 80 years. The Wolver- 
ine was used as a training ship and sailed under her own power until 1923. 
She was then towed to her final moorings near the monument where she 
now lies, listing uneasily in the mud of Misery Bay. Lily pads grow about 
her hull, sunfish and pollywogs play in and out of her paddle-wheel hous- 
ings, her planking is fast rotting, decks are unsafe, and the cabins marred 
and wrecked. 

James Nesbit, who named Crystal Point, was familiarly known as "Skip- 
per Jim." "Skipper Jim" claimed squatter rights, denied by a court rul- 
ing, to a large section of peninsula land. He claimed he obtained these 
rights by occupation of the property over a period of twenty-one years. 
The aged man and his family lived in a rude shelter in a plot which he 
balled "Crystal Point." Although considered eccentric, the skipper was 
big hearted and companionable. 

From Crystal Point there is another good view of Erie. Several hun- 
dred yards off shore from 10 to 20 lake freighters anchor for the winter. 
Presque Isle Bay is an ideal wintering place, because of the shelter af- 
forded by the peninsula. 

At 13.4 m., FLOATING MARSH TRAIL branches to the R. and 
passes through a stand of beech and oak timber to approach the lagoons. 
At Long Pond, one of the largest of the lagoon ponds, the trail forks. The 
L. fork continues along the ridge, and Long Pond Trail turns R. to follow 
the shores of the lagoons. A half mile distant, east, is the only fire tower 
on the peninsula. 

From this point tall trees line both sides of the road. 

At 14.2 m. is the loop intersection. The tour returns to Erie by way 
of State 832 and State 5. 



96 



SHAW FISH f 

m 




w <:, 
" 




Fish nets drying, Public Dock 




A catch of pike 




Doorway, Church of the Covenant 



COUNTY TOUR 2 



This boat tour passes many of the points of interest described in City Tours i, 2, 

and 3 and County Tour i. The usual tour treatment of these points has therefore 

been omitted. County Tour 2 is a trip around Presque Isle Bay, through the lake 

channel, and into Lake Erie. The tour ends at Six Mile Creek, eastward of the 

channel, and retraces to the bay. Most visitors to Erie arrange to take a boat trip, and 

Erie citizens assert that this is the best way to see the city. 

(Boats are available at the Public Steamboat Landing, foot of State St., during the 

summer season. Ro.ivboats, 25$ for ist hour, 15$ for additional hours; motor boats 

50$ ist hour, 30$ an hour thereafter. Better rates by the day.) 

(Motor yachts at the Public Landing offer frequent trips around the bay and on 

the lake. 50$ a person. Guide.) 

THE SHORE line to the left, as the boat moves west from the public Steam- 
boat Landing, is a panorama of boats, drying nets, squat buildings, 
and smokestacks. Great reels of drying fish-nets stand in rows between 
the rambling buildings of the fish houses. This is the scene of an industry 
that for a long period made Erie the greatest fresh water fish center in the 
world. Because of the sudden unexplained disappearance of the ciscoes, 
a fresh water herring, in 1925, Erie has fallen from the production average 
of 30,000 tons a year between 1895 and 1920, to 1,750 tons in 1937. Of a 
fleet of 125 fishing tugs only a dozen remain. Sturgeon, before 1865, were 
considered valueless and were a nuisance to fishermen. The finding of 
several large sturgeon in a net meant that the net was torn and ruined 
by the desperate efforts of the fish to escape. Weighing from 50 to 200 
pounds, they were powerful and their struggles were terrific. After 
their numbers had been considerably reduced they were found to be of 
value in the making of caviar. Their roe, averaging from 20 to 60 pounds 
a fish, was spiced and pickled for that purpose and shipped to eastern 
cities. Isinglass and slunk were made from their bladders. Slunk is a 
tube used in breweries to fasten over brass barrelling taps to direct the 
flow of beer and ale into kegs. 

At the foot of Chestnut St. is the State Fish Hatchery. Millions of 
ciscoe spawn are hatched here annually and released in the lake (see 
CITY TOUR 2). 

West of the Fish Hatchery is a unit of the Erie City Waterworks Pump- 
ing Station and Filtration plant. A concrete bathing pool is maintained 
by the city. Bathing is free to children. The city provides swimming 
instructors. 

97 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



The sand and coal docks of the Pennsylvania Railroad extend 200 yards 
into the bay and are easily identified by the huge piles of sand and the 
hundreds of cars of coal standing on the tracks. 

Behind the docks is visible the 50-foot cliff which overlooks the bay 
and atop which is the city of Erie. On a prominence overlooking the 
coal dock and railroad yards, at the foot of Cascade St., is a marker on 
the site of the shipyard in which ships of Perry's fleet were built (see 
CITY TOUR 2). 

Around the end of the coal dock and snuggled under an overhanging 
cliff, on the shores of a deep cove, is a group of shacks occupied by a 
dozen families who have pre-empted about two acres of city-owned land 
and have built homes thereon. Between the produce derived from their 
gardens and desultory fishing expeditions these people eke a bare living 
without the necessity of holding jobs in Erie's industry. They pay no 
taxes. Efforts on the part of the city to break up the colony have been 
unsuccessful and the squatters continue their occupation unmolested by 
city or county authorities. 

At the foot of Lincoln Avenue, about three miles from the Public Steam- 
boat Landing, is a small community called Eaglehurst. Here, on the 
shores of the bay, is a group of summer cottages owned by Erie residents. 
Here, also, is a company which rents boats and fishing tackle to sportsmen. 

A short distance west is the Erie Yacht Club. Moored to floats in the 
bay are a number of motor yachts and sailing craft belonging to members 
of the club. The three-story, frame clubhouse, standing under the bluff, 
is a favorite recreational spot for socialite members. 

Between the Yacht Club and the head of the Peninsula is an area known 
as The Marshes. This is a favorite bass fishing ground. It is also a 
refuge for migratory birds, geese, ducks, and swan, during their annual 
flights from the far north to winter resting grounds. During the months 
of November and December, before the bay has frozen over, the water 
in this area is black with the resting migrants. During the season, hunters 
may shoot these birds, but must be careful not to hunt within several 
hundred yards of the Peninsula, or shoot towards its shores. 

Hidden by the trees on the head of the Peninsula is an old weather- 
beaten frame building. The exterior is of vertically nailed hemlock boards 
battened with strips of fir. A decorative frieze board and two ornate 
cupolas adorn the shingled roof. This was the old Massassauga Hotel, a 
resort hotel of the i89o's. It was named for an Indian tribe, the last to 
occupy the region (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

The shores of the Peninsula curve eastward around the north side of 
the bay. The entrance to the yacht slip on the Erie Waterworks Park 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



Reservation is marked by a buoy. The Niagara, flagship of Perry's fleet, 
is also on the Reservation (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

At Crystal Point is a small landscaped park containing PERRY'S MON- 
UMENT and the Wolverine (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

The entrance of Misery Bay into Presque Isle Bay is east of Crystal 
Point. Misery Bay is a small body of water connected to the bay by a 
narrow strait. The Niagara, the Lawrence, and a British ship were sunk 
in Misery Bay after the Battle of Lake Erie (see COUNTY TOUR 1). 

The lake channel is at the extreme east end of the Peninsula. The con- 
crete breakwater to the left is North Pier, on which is the U. S. Coast 
Guard Reservation (see COUNTY TOUR 1). The breakwater to the 
right is South Pier. These two piers are the scene of many fishing parties. 
Fishermen daily flock to the piers to still fish for bass, sheephead, and perch. 

When the boat leaves the channel and enters the lake a distinct differ- 
ence in motion is noticeable aboard. The boat rises and falls in a swinging, 
rocking motion. 

To the right is Erie's shoreline. The Soldiers' and Sailors' Home sets at 
the top of Garrison Hill. Wayne Blockhouse is nearby (see CITY TOUR 
3). The Perry Iron Works and the Hammermill Paper Company oc- 
cupy about a mile of the shoreline from the Soldiers' Home eastward. 

Four Mile Creek, with its densely wooded valley, is about two miles 
from the channel. This was once the scene of a large amusement park. 
The coming of Prohibition in 1918 ruined the commercial value of the park 
and the buildings were allowed to deteriorate. 

Eastward the lake bluffs rise higher along the shore line, and the beaches 
are less sandy. Boulders on the lake floor force boats larger than row- 
boats and small motor-craft to take a route farther out into the lake. 

Some distance off shore, in water about 30 feet in depth, are commercial 
fishing nets. The nets are attached to long, slim pilings driven into the 
lake floor, and are suspended from buoys placed between the pilings at 
intervals of six to eight feet. Once a day the nets are emptied by a fleet 
of fishing smacks. 

At Six Mile Creek, a stream favored by fishermen, there is a boat con- 
cession and refreshment stand. The beach, covered with fist-sized, water- 
smoothed stones, is not well adapted to swimming. 



99 



COUNTY TOUR 3 



Erie-Fairview-Girard West Springfield N. Springfield-Erie, US 20, State 5, 52.9 m. 
New York Central and Nickel Plate R.R.'s. parallel throughout; the Pennsylvania 
R.R. system parallels route to Girard. 
Paved throughout. Tourist accommodations available. 

THIS route traverses a farm region ideally adapted to the growing of 
cereal grains and to truck farming. A large number of greenhouses 
and tree nurseries are on US 20. State 5 crosses Erie County near the 
shores of Lake Erie, and, because of the Lake Country climate, is rapidly 
becoming a favored fruit growing belt. Peaches, apples, cherries, and 
numerous berries including a heavy crop of strawberries, furnish an in- 
creasing income to Erie County farmers. Roadside stands offer wide 
choice of farm produce. 
S. from 1 2th St. on State St.; R. from State St. on W. 26th St. (US 20). 

At 5.2 m., is the village of WEST MILLCREEK. 

At S. $ m., is the crest of WALNUT CREEK HILL. This place is known 
locally as Swanville, for Capt. Richard Swan, an early settler. The 
KAHKWA COUNTRY CLUB (L), with a private i8-hole golf course, 
is screened by a hedge and tall rows of Lombardy poplars. 

After descending Walnut Creek Hill, the highway crosses Walnut 
Creek. High sandstone and shale cliffs border the creek. 

The road climbs from the creek and enters FAIR VIEW, u.8 m. (alt. 
717, pop. 459, borough, inc. 1868) on the first terrace-like plain above 
Lake Erie. It was named by early settlers because of its scenic beauty. 

The borough is served by the New York Central Railroad, the Central 
Greyhound Bus Lines, and the West Ridge Transportation Co. The rail- 
road station is half a mile north of Fairview. 

The village, originally called Sturgeonville for William and Jeremiah 
Sturgeon, covers an area of one square mile. William Sturgeon built 
and operated the first hotel, and built the first schoolhouse. Neither is 
now standing. 

Agriculture is the chief industry of the region, and the soil is rich and 
productive. The borough is almost exclusively residential, a small basket 
factory being the only manufacturing enterprise. 

Fairview has four churches Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Epis- 
copal, and Evangelical Lutheran. 



100 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



At 72.5- m.j is B'NAI B'RITH (R), a Jewish home for orphans between 
the ages of 5 and 12. The group of three two-and-one-half story red 
brick buildings is set back from the highway in a wide landscaped lawn. 
Supported by individual contributions, a per capita levy on members of 
the B'nai B'rith lodges, and the Erie County Institutional district, the in- 
stitution provides a home and educational facilities for about 60 children. 

At Z2.j m. 9 (L), is the ERIE COUNTY AIRPORT, privately owned 
and equipped as an aviation school. 

The ERIE COUNTY HOME, 13.0 m., (open Friday) is a 3-story red 
brick structure with two wings fronting toward the highway connected 
with a long, rectangular rear portion. A low pediment over the entrance 
is supported by four fluted columns. The home is maintained by the 
County as a residence for indigent citizens. Connected with the home 
is the County Farm, a large tract of land cultivated by the residents, the 
produce being used to help support the home. 

The SACRED HEART MISSION HOUSE (R), is at 14.7 m. (open 
daily; guide). The main building is a large red brick, rectangular struc- 
ture with the entrance fronting a small circular flower bed. A figure of 
Christ surmounts the low pediment supported by two fluted columns. A 
private roadway over a slightly arched bridge crossing a narrow water- 
way connecting two ponds, leads to the main building. The grounds are 
screened from the highway by tall evergreens. The Mission is conducted 
by Priests of the Order of the Divine Word. It has an enrollment of 100 
students who come from all parts of the United States to train for for- 
eign missionary service. 

At 75.5 m., is GIRARD (818 alt.; 1,554 PP-; borough, inc. 1846). The 
borough and township were named for Stephen Girard, Philadelphia cap- 
italist, who owned a large tract of land in the vicinity. Girard is served 
by the Bessemer and Lake Erie Railroad, the Nickel Plate Railroad, the 
Central Greyhound Lines, and the West Ridge Transportation Company. 

Along the tree-shaded streets of the quiet town are large rambling 
white-painted dwellings of the farmhouse type. 

The first settlers in the township were William Silverthorn and his son, 
Capt. Abraham Silverthorn, who came from Fayette County in 1798. The 
next year Robert Brown settled at the mouth of Elk Creek, nearby. The 
original town was on the west side of Elk Creek and is now known as 
West Girard. When the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal was built in 1844, on the 
east side of the creek, many families built homes on the top of the hill to 
the east. 

Girard residents are largely retired farmers and business men who have 
chosen this pleasant village for their homes. The older stock of the settle- 
ment were English and German, with a sprinkling of Scotch and Irish. In 



101 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



later years there was an influx of Slavs and Russians, who purchased or 
leased farms. 

The HUTCHINSON HOUSE, 155 Main St., was built about 1830 by Myron 
Hutchinson, an Erie County judge. The simple 2 -story red brick build- 
ing is Georgian Colonial in style. 

The DAN RICE SOLDIERS' and SAILORS' MONUMENT, a cylindrical marble 
shaft surmounted by an American eagle, was erected in 1865, by Dan Rice, 
circus owner and clown. Designed by Leonard Volk of Chicago, the 
monument occupies a prominent position in the public square. Rice al- 
ways maintained a residence in Girard, and was considered one of its 
leading citizens. His monument is said to be the first erected to the mem- 
ory of Civil War veterans. 

A weekly, the Cosmopolite-Herald, the only newspaper in the township, 
is published in Girard. The borough has five churches: Presbyterian, 
Methodist Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Universalist, and Evangelical 
Lutheran. 

At 16.5 m.j is a junction with State 440. 

Left on this road 2.0 m., is the Porter Bridge School, a one-room county 
school. (Park car in school yard). South along foot trail to junction with 
Elk Creek. Left, along trail bordering Elk Creek, is the DEVIL'S NOSE, 
o.j m. 

The Devil's Nose, a shale and sandstone formation, is at the convergence 
of Elk Creek and Brandy Run. The bluff, rising 60 ft. from the creek level, 
resembles a human nose. The banks of the creeks are popular picnic places. 

At 7.5 m. on the trail is the DEVIL'S BACKBONE, a long shale and 
sandstone ridge with steep walls rising 200 ft. above creek level. The 
ridge is fringed at its top with maple, ash, and oak trees. At the SE corner, 
where Elk Creek cuts through the ridge, the wall dwindles to a height of 
50 ft. 

EAST SPRINGFIELD (664 alt., 391 pop., borough, inc. 1887) de- 
rives its name from the numerous springs in the area. The Nickel Plate 
R. R., and the Central Greyhound Lines serve the borough. 

Capt. Samuel Holliday, of Franklin County, Penna., came to the town- 
ship in 1796, and settled on 700 acres at the mouth of Crooked Creek. He 
built a cabin and returned to his former home in the fall. The next year 
he returned, bringing his bride. Soon after his arrival, he was joined by 
John Devore, of Bedford County; John Marshon of New Jersey, and 
William Mclntyre and Patrick Ager, natives of Ireland, all of whom be- 
came permanent settlers. Most of the present inhabitants are Anglo-Saxon, 
with a scattering of Germans, Slovaks, and Poles. 

In 1796 the first potatoes were brought from Pittsburgh by James Mc- 
lntyre, who carried them in a sack on his back. Potatoes are still one of 
the chief agricultural products of the area. 

IOZ 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



Holliday built the first sawmill in the township in 1801 and a gristmill 
in 1803, near the mouth of Crooked Creek. Neither is standing. 

There are four churches in the township: the East Springfield Federated 
Church, Baptist, Methodist, and the Methodist Episcopal. 

WEST SPRINGFIELD, 24.-] m., (660 alt., 400 pop., borough) is a 
residential community, with houses of old farmhouse type, and occasional 
modern homes. Rows of tall maples line the road. 

On the road are many poultry farms. Thousands of White Leghorns 
are visible from the highway. 

At 26.0 m.j is the junction with State 5; R. on State 5. 

At 31.9 m., is NORTH SPRINGFIELD, a small community consisting 
of a school, a store, two churches, and about 30 houses. 

At 5j.y m. y is a junction with a dirt road. 

L. on this road is the mouth of Elk Creek z.j m. This is a favorite spot 
for bass and grasspike fishing. Many persons camp here during the sum- 
mer months. Boats are for hire at a store located on the beach at the 
mouth of the stream. 

AVONIA, 40.9 m., is a community of farm homes and commuting 
cottagers. 

The LAKE SHORE GOLF CLUB, 44.3 m., (members only), lies along 
both sides of the highway. It has an i8-hole golf course. 

PORT ERIE AIRPORT, 46.0 m., (R), is a modern air terminal. The 
airport, covering 140 acres, was constructed in 1936-37 by the Works 
Progress Administration and by Erie City and County. Scheduled pas- 
senger and mail service were inaugurated by the American Airlines, Inc., 
in June, 1938 (taxi fare from downtown Erie: $1.25; time, 15 minutes). 

Waldameer Park, 48.6 m., (L), is a commercial amusement park. 

At 48.8 m., is the beginning of PENINSULA DRIVE, L. (see COUNTY 
TOUR 1). 



103 



COUNTY TOUR 4 



Erie Lawrence Park North East Wesleyville Erie, State 5 (East Lake Road), 

State 150, US 20, 42.1 m. 

Roads paved throughout. 

Hotels and tourist accommodations in all the route towns. 

The highways are wide, curves regular and banked; traffic and directional signs 

adequate; kept open by continuous snowplow service in winter; hills, curves, and 

intersections cindered during icy conditions. Pennsylvania Motor Police substation 

at North East. 

Parallels the Nickel Plate and the New York Central R.R.'s throughout. 

STATE 5, until 1937 State 99, follows an old Indian trail from Presque Isle 
to Niagara, and parallels the shore of Lake Erie to the New York State 
line. Crossing the valleys of streams entering Lake Erie, the tour traverses 
rolling country and continues as New York 5 after crossing the Pennsyl- 
vania State line near Ripley, N. Y. US 20, known locally as the Buffalo 
Road, was surveyed in 1805 and opened over most of its route the same 
year. The highway parallels Lake Erie at a distance of from one to two 
miles throughout, following the crest of the first ridge of land above the 
lake. 

E. from State St. on E. izth St.; L. from E. i2th St. on Parade St.; R. from 
Parade St. on E. 6th St. (State 5). 

At 4.0 m., is the General Electric Co. Plant (see CITY TOUR 3). 

LAWRENCE PARK, 4.6 m., (687 alt.; 3,200 pop. township, inc. 1926) 
is an industrial suburb of Erie City, and is the newest and only first-class 
township in Erie County. It was named for Commodore Perry's flagship, 
the Lawrence. 

Freight service is furnished by the New York Central, Nickel Plate, 
Bessemer & Lake Erie, and Pennsylvania R. R.'s. The Greyhound Lines 
and the West Ridge Bus System and Erie City buses serve the township. 

The first extensive development of Lawrence Park began with the com- 
ing of the General Electric plant in 1911. The Federal Government 
erected 400 houses in 1917 for employees engaged in producing wartime 
supplies. These Government houses, in groups of six to eight, are built 
of brick and have four to six apartments. 

The township's outstanding civic activities are the General Electric 
Company's Children's Day, held the second Saturday in September; the 
annual Hallowe'en Festival; and the Community Festival, on Christmas 
Eve. 

104 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



There are three churches, the St. Mary's Episcopal, Methodist Episco- 
pal, and Christ Lutheran. 

At / 7.3 m., is the entrance to Shorewood Beach, a popular bathing place 
(free; no bathhouse). 

At 75.7 m., is the junction with an unimproved road. 

Left on this is ORCHARD BEACH, 0.3 m., a popular summer resort 
and bathing beach at the mouth of Sixteen Mile Creek. (Boats and fishing 
tackle; reasonable rates). Judah Colt, in 1796, maintained a harbor here for 
unloading supplies from ships to be freighted by ox team to Colt's Station, 
a pioneer settlement at the headwaters of French Creek. 

At the foot of a stiff grade to the level of the lake, the route crosses 
TWENTY MILE CREEK at 19.3 m. There is a suggestion of the wilder- 
ness in this rugged, tree-covered area. It once was a camping ground for 
Indians. Game was plentiful and fish easily caught. At the mouth of the 
stream, during Prohibition, many boatloads of illicit spirits were smuggled 
into the State. 

At 20.7 m., is the junction with State 150; R. from State 5 on State 150. 
At 22.0 m., is the junction with US 20; R. from State 150 on US 20 at 
State Line. 

STATE LINE (alt. 871, pop. 300) is a small village on the NEW 
YORK-PENNSYLVANIA BOUNDARY. Eastward from State Line the 
highway passes through a short stretch of level country, paralleled (L) 
by the New York Central and the Nickel Plate Railroads. Along the 
roadside are substantial farms with buildings 50 or more years old. 

On both sides of the road are acres of grapes, peaches, cherries, and other 
fruit. During the spring and early summer fruit trees are in blossom, and 
the foliage of the vineyards creates the illusion of a green sea, with the 
Lake Erie breeze rippling the surface. 

NORTH EAST, 24.6 m., (alt. 805, pop. 3,670, borough, inc. 1834) is 
the center of the Pennsylvania grape industry. The dwellings, built near 
the street, are rather old, although there are a few modern cottages of 
Georgian Colonial architecture. All are neat, well painted, and have large 
lawns dotted with shrubbery and flower beds. 

North East derives its name from its geographical position in the ex- 
treme northeast sector of the original 16 townships of Erie County. Be- 
fore 1800 the section was known as Lower Greenfield. 

South of North East is a chain of hills with cultivated slopes and wooded 
summits. A mile and a half north is Lake Erie. 

The Greyhound Lines, West Ridge Transportation Co., Martz Bus 
Lines; also the New York Central and the Nickel Plate Railroads provide 
interurban transportation facilities. 

The first dwelling at North East was a log house built in 1801 by Wil- 

105 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



liam Dundass, a short distance to the east of the present cemetery on Oak 
Hill. In 1806 Henry Burgett purchased the Dundass property and con- 
verted the house into a tavern. Two years later Lemuel Brown opened 
a tavern at what is now Lake and Main Streets, and for several years it 
was a stopping place for stages running between Buffalo and the West. 

By degrees a village developed around the taverns. The community 
was first known as Burgettstown. From 1819 to 1834 it was called Gib- 
sonville. Originally it covered 275 acres. The limits were extended in 
1852, and another expansion in 1894 increased the acreage to 540. 

The first church in North East was organized by the Presbytery of 
Ohio in 1801. The borough now has nine churches: Baptist, Emanuel 
Evangelical, Free Methodist, Holy Cross Episcopal, St. Gregory's Roman 
Catholic, St. Paul's German Lutheran, St. Peter's English Lutheran, Meth- 
odist, and Presbyterian. 

The largest manufacturing plant in North East is the Eureka Tempered 
Copper Company. A major industry is the nationally known Welch 
Grape Juice Company, with its home office in nearby Westfield, N. Y. 
North East, is, however, predominantly an agricultural district. 

The North East Community Fair Association holds a fair and grape 
carnival for three days each September in the high school building. A 
flower show and street carnival, sponsored by the American Legion, is 
held at the same time. 

North East is a little town with shaded streets and quiet neighborhoods, 
where the tempo of life is not too swift and where the people have leisure 
to enjoy the amenities of social intercourse. 

ST. MARY'S COLLEGE, Lake and Division Sts., is a Catholic educa- 
tional institution. The college buildings, of red brick and granite, are 
Victorian and Tudor Gothic in design. The chapel is French Gothic in 
design, and its interior was decorated by Gonipo Raggi, painter and 
decorator. The first building of the present group was erected on a 
5-acre tract of land by the Methodist Church in 1869, and was named 
Lake Shore Seminary. It closed because of financial difficulties. The 
building stood unoccupied until February 1881, when it was sold to the 
Redemptorist Fathers and dedicated by the Most Reverend Tobias Mullen. 
The Reverend Joseph Schwarz was the first rector of the college, which 
also has a preparatory school for youths desiring to enter the Redemptor- 
ist Order. It offers four years of high school, accredited, and two years 
of college courses. When purchased by the Redemptorist Fathers there 
was but one building, a 3 -story brick structure on a 5-acre plot. Since 
then the grounds have been enlarged to 101 acres. The college now has 
an enrollment of 220 students and a faculty of 18. 

At 30.6 m., is the small community of MOORHEADVILLE (pop. 

106 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



195). Several dwellings erected in 1850 and earlier are still standing. 
Some of the doorways are classic in appearance, with Ionic columns and 
old green wooden shutters. The houses are built square, many of them 
of brick. In a few instances, a small square cupola rises above the center 
peak of the roof. Later day builders have erected small, comfortable 
cottages. In addition to the fruit and grape industry, many farmers have 
specialized in poultry raising. Along the highway are flocks of White 
Leghorn hens, a prolific egg layer; and heavier meat-producing breeds. 

At 33.9 m., is the residential village of HARBORCREEK. 

WESLEYVILLE, 57.0 m. (731 alt.; 2,840 pop.; borough, inc. 1912) 
was named for John Wesley, founder of Methodism, by early settlers, 
followers of his faith. 

The borough is served by the Greyhound Lines, the West Ridge Bus 
System, and the Erie Coach Company. 

Wesley ville was laid out in 1828 by John Shadduck, a farmer, who 
built a gristmill in 1823 and two years later erected a sawmill, both on the 
banks of Four Mile Creek, which runs through the borough. 

First settlers were William Saltsman, Amasa Prindle, and Andrew 
Elliott, in 1797. They were followed by Hugh McCann and Alexander 
Brewster in 1 800. 

Industries are the New York Central Railroad car shops, Nickel Plate 
Flour Mills, and General Electric Co. 

The Wesley Methodist Church was built in 1828 and rebuilt in 1866. 
Other churches are the Baptist, Messiah Lutheran, Church of the Nazarene, 
and St. James' Roman Catholic. 



107 



COUNTY TOUR 5 



Erie-Wattsburg-Corry-Union City-Edinboro-Wellsburg-Girard-Erie, State 8, US 
6, US 6N, State 18, and US 20, 72.0 m. 

Highway is paved throughout. Bus lines connect the county towns. The various 
highways are kept open by snowplow service through the winter months. Patroled 
by the Pennsylvania Motor Police. Tourist accommodations in all route towns. 

STATE 8, also known as the Wattsburg Plank Road, was opened in 1809 
from Erie to Wattsburg. In 1851 the Erie & Wattsburg Plank Road 
Company was organized, and in 1853 the planking was completed. The 
road was not profitable and was permitted to deteriorate, though toll 
charges were continued. A group of irate farmers tore down the toll- 
houses in 1865, ending the career of the company. 

E. from State St. on E. 1 2th St. R. from E. 1 2th St. on Parade St. L. 
from Parade St. on Pine Ave. (State 8). 

At 1.6 m., is the crest of the first ridge overlooking the city. There 
is a fine view of the lake, bay, Presque Isle Peninsula, and the city. 

BELLE VALLEY, ^./ m. (alt. 1,007, PP- 200 ) 1S a group of houses 
scattered along Mill Creek. Many of the houses are from 50 to 75 years 
old, and most are of heavy timber frame construction. 

The village of HAMMETT, 7.0 m., is a few dwellings scattered along 
the highway. 

The highway follows the valley of the west branch of Elk Creek to the 
village of LOWVILLE, 16.9 m. (alt. 1,325, pop. 200). The one-story 
farmhouses, built of wide hemlock planks nailed vertically to hewn 
framework, are set along the sides of the road in small, neatly kept lawns. 
The land was cleared in 1796 by Thomas Smith and the town was named 
for Samuel Low who located there in 1822 and established a gristmill, a 
sawmill, and a woolen factory. 

The hills tower above the West Branch Valley on the L., and small 
meadows lie in the curves of the stream. Huge river willows lean over 
the creeks, and to R., the hills rear above the west side of the valley. At 
one time these hills were covered with tall, slender hemlock and pine 
trees. The best of the trees were cut, stripped of bark, and sold to ship- 
builders of New York and Philadelphia to be used as masts. Lesser grade 
timber was milled into boards and planks, and millions of feet went down 
French Creek, the Ohio, and the Mississippi to be sold in New Orleans. 

108 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



Not one tract of the original timber stands today. The hills are now cov- 
ered with second growth timber. 

WATTSBURG, 18.7 m. (alt. 1,340, pop. 256, borough, inc. 1833), is a 
sleepy borough near a fork of French Creek. Wattsburg was named for 
David Watts of Carlisle, Pa., father-in-law of William Miles, who laid out 
the original site in 1828. Miles built a storehouse for furs and as a depot 
for the surrounding country. A weekly mail route was inaugurated in 
1828 between Erie, Pa., and Jamestown, N. Y., by way of the village. 
The mail was carried by a man who walked the entire distance, approxi- 
mately 50 miles. 

Wattsburg is in the center of a dairying section, and "Wattsburg But- 
ter" is widely known. 

The Wattsburg Fair, started about 1885, is held annually and attracts 
from 25,000 to 40,000 persons. One of the best poultry shows in north- 
western Pennsylvania is held here. The only horse races held in Erie 
County are run during this fair, with purses amounting to $3,500. 

The highway winds slowly upward out of French Creek Valley, to 
the crest of a high ridge, 22.6 m., from which there is a wide view of hills 
and valleys. Occasional old apple orchards, noted for their russets, north- 
ern spies, greenings, and Baldwins, border the route. 

UNION CITY, 2J.2 m. (1,312 alt., 3,788 pop., borough, inc. 1863), is 
a town of small industry and agriculture on the south branch of French 
Creek. The borough was originally named Miles Mills for William Miles, 
who surveyed the section in 1785. The name was changed to Union Mills 
in 1863, and to Union City in 1871. 

The founder of Union City, William Miles, a native of Ireland, came 
to this country with his parents at the age of eight. In 1800 he came to 
Union and erected a gristmill and a sawmill. Miles cleared the land, 
opened roads, secured a mail route, had a post office established, and was 
the first postmaster. Until 1855 the settlement consisted of a few build- 
ings, adjacent to the Miles mills. 

The Philadelphia & Erie Railroad was built through the town in 1858, 
and the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad, now the Erie Railroad, was 
laid down in 1862. 

The discovery of oil at nearby Titus ville in 1859 gave farther impetus 
to the town's growth. Oil wells were drilled in Union City the same 
year, but the field was not productive. 

The recent growth of Union City is due to agriculture and to several 
small manufacturing plants. The region has a climate adapted to raising 
hardy products, in addition to excellent facilities for dairy farming, an 
important industry of the region. 

The Presbyterians of Union City formed a congregation in 181 1, and in 

109 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



1831 built a church which was replaced in 1874 by a larger building. The 
Methodist Episcopal congregation was organized in 1817, and its first 
church building was erected in 1847. St. Theresa's Roman Catholic 
Church was organized in 1857. The Baptist Church was founded in 1859, 
and the United Brethren Society in 1872. Present churches in Union 
City are the Baptist, Free Methodist, Methodist, Presbyterian, St. Ther- 
esa's, and the United Brethren. 

Union City is served by the Pennsylvania and Erie Railroads. It is also 
on the route of the Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Transporta- 
tion Co. 

The Union City Times-Enterprise, a weekly, is the borough's only 
newspaper. 

At Union City is the junction with US 6. 

L. from State 8 on US 6. 

The STATE FISH HATCHERY o.y m. (L), is a breeding place for 
bullhead, bass, and other fish common to the streams of the area. The 
buildings are of yellow stucco, and the grounds are landscaped with ever- 
greens and shrubbery. 

At 4.9 m., the highway skirts the northern boundary of ELGIN (alt. 
1,361, pop. 130). Originally known as Halltown, for Joseph Hall, who 
operated a sawmill and a gristmill there, the name was changed to Concord 
Station when the Philadelphia & Erie Railroad was opened. The village 
was incorporated as a borough in 1876, and given its present name. 

CORRY FISH HATCHERY, 9.0 m., (L), is State owned and operated 
(open 7 to 5 daily). There are hemlocks and maples about the buildings 
and a fountain near the highway at the entrance. Trout are raised here 
for stocking streams in Erie and Warren counties. 

CORRY, 9.8 m.j (alt. 1,427, pop. 7,152, 3rd class city, inc. 1866), was 
named for Hiram Corry, early landowner. Second in size to Erie in the 
county, Corry is a busy mercantile and industrial city. Situated on level 
ground, it has attractive residential sections and a compact business district. 

The first settler in Corry was Michael Hare, a soldier in the Revolution- 
ary War, who, in 1795, built a log cabin on the bank of Hare Creek, on a 
tract of land given to him by the government. The land on which the city 
stands was originally a swamp. Familiarly known as the City of Stumps 
and legally as Atlantic and Erie Junction, Corry experienced a brief boom 
in 1859 with the discovery of oil at nearby Titusville. 

In the summer of 1862 an oil refinery, several factories, two hotels, a 
theatre, a church, and a number of storehouses and residences were erected. 

The panic of 1873 checked Corry's advance, and the shifting of oil pro- 
duction to nearby Bradford had further adverse effect. 

A public library building, erected in 1917 at North Centre and Franklin 
Sts., was a gift of the Carnegie Endowment Fund. 

The Evening Journal, a daily, is the only newspaper. 

Corry is served by the Pennsylvania and the Erie R.R.'s. The Grey- 
hound Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co. also enter the city. 

The greater proportion of the citizens of Corry are of Anglo-Saxon 
origin, descendants of the New England pioneers who were its first settlers. 

no 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



At junction in Union City State 8 and US 6 join; straight ahead on US 
6-State 8; at edge of town R. on US 6. 

The rolling valley of French Creek is to R. The hills are dotted with 
small woodlots, pastures, and farms. Small streams meander through shal- 
low ravines and empty into French Creek. 

At 52.57 m., is a settlement of five houses and a church. Late in the 
1 8oo's this promised to be a thriving community and was called New Ire- 
land, a name remembered by a few of the older residents of the vicinity. 

The highway passes through a dense hardwood forest along the top 
of a ridge, 34.9 m. 

MILL VILLAGE, 35.8 m. (alt. 1,217, PP- 2 33 borough, inc. 1870), 
was originally named Milltown for three sawmills, a gristmill, and a cheese 
factory on Mill Run. 

Mill Village occupies part of a 2,875 acre tract granted in 1791 by the 
State to the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel 
among the Heathens commonly known as the Moravians. The Mo- 
ravians did not settle the land, but sold it in 1850 to James Miles and N. 
Blickensderfer. 

The chief industry of the town is a cheese factory. The countryside 
is an extensive dairying section. 

To L. of the highway and paralleling it, is a double row of river wil- 
lows, planted by the early settlers to prevent erosion. The great trees 
add much to the beauty of this section of the highway. 

At 57.0 m. US 6 turns L.; straight ahead on US 6N. 

The highway gradually ascends the hills overlooking the west side of 
French Creek Valley. 

A panoramic view of Conneautee Lake (Edinboro Lake), some distance 
to R. of the highway unfolds from the top of a hill, 42.4 m. 

EDINBORO, 43.6 m. (alt. 1,500, pop. 789, borough, inc. 1840), is the 
seat of the Edinboro State Teachers College. The town presents a clean 
and livable appearance, of white clapboard houses with green shutters. 
There are no important industries, the State Teachers College providing 
the chief source of income. 

Edinboro was founded by Scotch-Irish colonists from eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. It was named by William Culbertson, who divided a portion of 
his farm into town lots. Culbertson came from Lycoming County in 
1796 with his friend, Alexander Hamilton (not the famous Secretary of 
the Treasury), to look for desirable lands. Here they found an attractive 
little lake which the Indians called Conneauttee, or Little Conneautee (pro- 
nounced by them Kon-ne-yantee), or "the snow place." 

Culbertson took up 500 acres of land, embracing virtually all the present 
borough. In 1801 he built a gristmill, the third in Erie County, on Con- 

iii 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



neauttee Creek a short distance below the outlet of the lake. A year later 
he built a sawmill. The sawmill in time passed into new hands and larger 
mills were built, but eventually the timber became scarce and the mills 
less active. The ancient gristmill with its old wheel is still standing (R), 
on Conneautee Creek at the western limits of Edinboro. 

Edinboro settlers were mostly from the eastern part of the State, of 
Scotch-Irish descent or of New England Anglo-Saxon stock. The first 
school was built of planks in 1815, now destroyed, and was called the 
"Old Plank School." The building was also used for town meetings. 

The Greyhound Lines and the West Ridge Transportation Co. serve 
the borough. 

Edinboro has four churches. The Presbyterian church was organized 
in 1810; the Methodist Episcopal, in 1829; the Baptist, in 1838; and the 
Adventist, in 1863. 

EDINBORO STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, Meadville St., a group 
of 2- and 3 -story red brick buildings set in a broad, tree-shaded lawn, was 
founded as an academy in 1856. Four buildings were constructed by 
1860. In the next year, the State, under the Normal School Act of 1857, 
authorized the training of teachers, and the name of the school was 
changed to Edinboro State Normal School. In 1914 the school property 
was bought by the State, and in 1926 the present name was adopted. 

The four original buildings are still in use. Loveland Hall, an art build- 
ing, was added in 1930. At present (1938) an auditorium, gymnasium, 
training school, and power house are under construction. The college 
normally enrolls 300 students. 

At Edinboro is the junction with State 99. 

R. on this is Conneauttee Lake, 0.5 m., more commonly known as Edin- 
boro Lake. It is a pleasure and fishing resort. Summer cottages line its 
shores, and camping grounds are available (information at boathouse). 

After leaving Edinboro, the highway enters an almost flat, and fairly 
fertile farm region. The serrated terrain of eastern Erie County grad- 
ually becomes ironed out, and the topography is monotonous with its low 
hills and shallow valleys. In the i Soo's this area was covered with a heavy 
hemlock and hardwood forest and sawmills flourished. There is no virgin 
timber remaining, and the second growth trees are of little lumber value. 
The region excells in dairying and agriculture. 

WELLSBURG, 53.6 m., (alt. 954, pop. 415), was named for the Wells 
family and was once a center of industry for the southwestern Erie County 
area. Near the road, in a small tree-filled park, is the Universalist Church 
(R), a simple frame building, erected in 1853. 

At Wellsburg is the junction of US 6N (see COUNTY TOUR 8) 
with State 18; R. from US 6N on State 18. 

112 




Russian Orthodox 
Church 



St. Luke's 
Evangelical Church 




I V "inter green 
Gorge, Four 
Mile Creek, 

near 
Weslewille 




Perry 
Square 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



CRANES VILLE, 54.7 m. y (alt. 965, pop. 487), was founded in 1800 
by Fowler Crane, and named for his father, Elihu Crane, the first settler. 
A general store operated by Charles Kennedy, a prosperous storekeeper 
of earlier days, occupies a choice site on the main cross street. This store 
is one of the few remaining general stores of the past century. Its stock 
includes everything from a toothbrush to a horse blanket, a keg of nails 
to a baby's wardrobe. 

PLATEA, 57. / m., (alt. 955, pop. 249, borough, inc. 1870), was form- 
erly known as Lockport, from the fact that there were 28 locks in the 
Erie and Pittsburgh Canal within two miles of the town site. 

Platea owes its origin to Silas Pratt, who went there in 1840 with a 
contract for building 28 locks for the canal. Foreseeing the need for a 
town at this point, he built a general store, a church, hotel, and several 
dwelling houses. The canal brought a period of prosperity and the town 
flourished. The borough is largely populated by retired farmers and a 
few persons who work at a local planing mill. 

As early as 1762 the construction of a canal from the Delaware River 
to Lake Erie had been suggested. An Act of Legislature in 1823 provided 
for appointment of commissioners to survey a canal route between Lake 
Erie and French Creek. A convention of delegates from 46 counties met 
in Harrisburg in August, 1825, and urged the construction of a canal from 
the Susquehanna River to the Allegheny River, and thence to Lake Erie. 
The State made an appropriation and began construction. 

Two routes were proposed from the Allegheny River to Lake Erie, the 
one to use the Allegheny River and French Creek, the other the Ohio 
River and the Beaver and Shenango rivers. The Beaver River route was 
chosen. The canal was built to follow Lee's Run into Presque Isle Bay 
on the west side of Erie. In 1832 the State ceded 2,000 acres of land to 
Erie to be used as a terminus. 

On December 5, 1844, two boats from Pittsburgh entered Presque Isle 
Bay (see TRANSPORTATION). 

At fS.y m., is FARM OF FRANK BARNEY (R). Barney, a life-long 
resident of Erie County, believed that potatoes could be raised in Erie 
County on a large scale. Neighboring farmers scoffed at his plans, telling 
him there could be no profit in such a scheme; that the soil, climate, and 
cost of production were against him. For many years he experimented 
with many varieties of potatoes and potatoes from many sources, seeking 
one that would flourish under local conditions. Several years ago he de- 
veloped a potato plant of his own and planted a large field. They pros- 
pered, and as the years went by, Barney enlarged his fields and improved 
on the quality of his product. Annually his crop became greater in quan- 
tity and better in quality. Today, Barney is known as the "Potato King 

"3 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



of Erie County." Thousands of bushels are shipped annually from his 
acres to the markets of Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York. 

At 59.9 m. is the junction with US 20; R. from State 1 8 on US 20 (see 
COUNTY TOUR 3). 



114 



COUNTY TOUR 6 



Erie Kearsarge Waterford Cambridge Springs Edinboro Erie, US 19 and State 99, 
55.7 m. 

The tour is paved throughout. Winter driving, during periods of ice and snow, is 
made safe and expeditious by continuous State snowplow service and by spreading 
cinders at intersections, curves, hills, and other perilous places. Traffic regulations 
are enforced. Accommodations and meals are available in any of the route towns 
at reasonable rates. 

RISING from the level of Lake Erie at Erie, US 19 reaches successively 
the various land levels ascending from the lake, and attains the highest 
altitude in Erie County. The hills are covered with second growth stands 
of maple, oak, beech, and other hard woods. The valleys are broken up 
into small farms. From Waterford south the route follows historic Le- 
Boeuf and French Creek Valley. 

W. from State St. on W. mh St.; L. from W. i2th St. on Peach St. 
(US 19). 

The road climbs a long, steep hill to NICHOLSON HEIGHTS, 3.6 m., 
named for the family who owned the farmland before its development. 
Now a residential suburb, it is sparsely built with modern homes. A long 
row of tall Lombardy poplars line the highway at the top of the hill. 

KEARSARGE, 4.6 m., first known as Walnut Creek, is a small com- 
munity of frame houses and cottages straggling along the highway, its 
only street. Col. Seth Reed, first settler to locate permanently in Erie, 
also established a settlement at Kearsarge, 1796, making this village one 
of the oldest in Erie County. 

From Kearsarge the highway traverses gently rolling farm country. 
Hedges of osage orange planted by early settlers enclose several of the 
older farmhouses. Aged pine and spruce trees, and old apple orchards 
are near the farm buildings. 

At 13.2 m. is STRONG SCHOOL (R), a typical Erie County rural 
school. The one-story, one room frame building is painted white, with 
three windows on each side. A bell tower rears above the shingled roof 
of "third pitched hip" variety. In the one classroom, common to all 
grades, seats are so arranged that students sit facing the back of the 
building and the teacher's table-topped desk. The seats become gradually 
larger toward the entrance. At the rear of the room is a huge wood- 

"5 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



burning stove, and shelves where lunch boxes are placed. A blackboard 
covers the entire end of the room behind the teacher's desk. 

At 16.0 m. is WATERFORD (alt. 1,193, PP- 7 6 9 borough, inc. 
1833), a rural community noteworthy for its history. It is the site of old 
Fort LeBoeuf (see HISTORY). 

The streets are wide, and lined with tall maple trees. The homes are 
rural in aspect, and set decorously in large, grassy lawns. Occasional old 
brick dwellings intersperse the rows of small frame houses. The business 
district adjoins a large public park and consists of a number of 2-story 
brick structures joined closely together. 

Waterford was so named in 1794 when Maj. Andrew Ellicott, under 
authority of the Pennsylvania State Legislature, surveyed the town. It 
was the first town to be laid out in Erie County; the second, Erie, was 
not surveyed until the following year. 

Often referred to as the historical center of N. W. Pennsylvania, Water- 
ford's past is unusual and spectacular. Prior to 1749, the French claimed 
the territory by right of discovery but failed to settle the land. Formal 
occupation began in 1753 when Sieur Marin, Major Pean, the Chevalier 
Mercier, and about 500 men, marched by land from Niagara to Presque 
Isle (Erie). On August 3, 1753, Fort Presque Isle was complete, the 
portage road to LeBoeuf was ready for use and Fort LeBoeuf was nearly 
completed. During the autumn of 1753 Commander Sieur Marin died, 
leaving Fort LeBoeuf in charge of Legardeur de St. Pierre who received 
Washington during his visit there in the winter of 1753. 

Washington, in his journal, described the French Fort LeBoeuf as being 
on the west fork of French Creek, near the water, almost surrounded by 
the creek and a smaller branch of it. He said: "Four houses comprise the 
sides; the bastions are poles driven into the ground, are about twelve feet 
high and sharpened at the top, with ports out for cannon and small arms. 
Eight six pounders were mounted on each bastion, and one four pounder 
before the gate. In the bastions are a guardhouse, chapel, surgeons' lodg- 
ings, and the commandant's private store." 

Fort LeBoeuf was evacuated by the French in August, 1759, after their 
defeat in the French and Indian wars and it was garrisoned by the English 
until 1785. 

During the British occupancy, LeBoeuf was raided by Indians June 17, 
1763, and the blockhouse burned. The American Fort LeBoeuf built in 
1794 consisted of four blockhouses surrounded by pickets, with a 6 pound 
cannon on the second floor of each building and a swivel gun over each 
gate. 

A memorable incident in the history of Waterford was the visit of the 
Marquis de LaFayette in 1825. He remained there overnight, June 2, 

116 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



1825, at the hotel of George W. Reed which stood just east of the Judson 
Block. 

At the close of the Indian wars, many soldiers settled in Waterford, tak- 
ing advantage of the donation law which provided land for them as bonus 
from the State in recognition of their military services. Lieut. John 
Martin, commander of the post, was one. He opened the first tavern. 

Amos Judson came from New England the same year and started a 
general store. Robert Brotherton built the first sawmill in 1797 and the 
first gristmill in 1802. 

The WATERFORD ACADEMY, Walnut and 5th Sts., was incorporated in 
1811 and building started in 1822. The school was opened in 1826. It is 
a 2 -story dressed stone building with an unusual arched doorway, pedi- 
ment, and graceful cupola. A brick addition was built in 1859, and the 
structure is still in use as a high school. 

The WASHINGTON MONUMENT, in the center of the main street, US 19 
and State 97, is a life-sized statue of Washington. The monument was 
erected in 1922 to commemorate Washington's visit in 1753. 

The EAGLE HOTEL, SW cor. First St. and US 19, was built in 1826 by 
Thomas King. A 2-story-and-attic building of gray fieldstone and white 
cut-stone trim, the structure is American Georgian in design. Flat arched 
windows, white cut stone quoins, and an elliptical arched central door- 
way overlook the main highway. Within the hallway is a glass display 
case showing artifacts excavated from the French and English Forts Le- 
Boeuf. A few clay pipes used by the soldiers, a mass of military buttons 
of the period, several rusted, broken bayonets, and some decayed Indian 
blankets comprise the exhibition. Further excavations of the site, south 
of the hotel, were made by the Frontier Forts and Trails Survey (W.P.A.), 
who uncovered the old baking ovens, and the foundation walls of the 
two forts (French and English). 

The AMOS JUDSON HOUSE, SE cor. First St. and US 19, is of Connecticut 
design. It is of the post-Colonial period, built in 1820. The rambling, 
unpainted, 2-story frame structure has corner Doric pilasters, and within 
the broad pedimented gable front is a lunette window. The side wing, 
built for Judson's general store, now occupied by a restaurant-tavern, has 
quaint dormer windows. 

The population of Waterford has varied but slightly during the last 80 
years, hovering around the 800 mark. The area is mainly agricultural or 
dairying country. The raw milk supply of the city comes chiefly from 
the Waterford area, and the Carnation Milk Company's plant at Cam- 
bridge Springs processes Waterford milk to be shipped all over the world. 
The Pennsylvania R. R., Central Greyhound Bus Lines, and the West 
Ridge Bus Company serve the community. 

"7 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



The first newspaper was the Waterford Dispatch, begun in 1831. In 
1856 it was moved to Erie and became the Erie City Dispatch. The 
Waterford Museum was launched shortly after the Dispatch was removed 
to Erie. It became the Inquirer in 1 857. The Waterford Leader, a weekly 
newspaper, is now the only publication in the borough. 

The Methodist, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, United Presbyterian, Naz- 
arene, and Roman Catholic denominations have churches in Waterford. 

South of Waterford the highway descends a slight grade to the LeBoeuf 
Creek Valley. At the edge of town is SENTINEL TREE (R), a time- 
beaten hemlock that legend says George Washington climbed while re- 
connoitering the French Fort LeBoeuf. 

At 13.5 m. is the junction with State 97 (see COUNTY TOUR 7). 

LAKE LEBOEUF, 75.7 m. (R), is the site of a small amusement park 
open in summer with fishing, boating, and swimming. It is noted for 
muskellunge fishing. 

At 20.6 m. is a junction with US 6N; R. from US 19 on US 6N (see 
COUNTY TOUR 5). 

At 34.2 m. in EDINBORO (see COUNTY TOUR 5), is a junction with 
State 99; R. from US 6N on State 99. 

The Conneautee Valley, W. of Edinboro, is rolling. The hills, with 
their growths of brush interspersed with hardwood stands, are laid out 
in small farms. Numerous small creeks cross and recross the highway. 

McLANE, 37.9 m. (pop. 100), straddles the peak of the range, and 
sprawls along the highway for about a mile. 

Over the crest of the ridge, the community of BRANCHVILLE, 39.9 
m., overlooks the headwaters of Elk Creek. 

MIDDLEBORO, 42 m. (alt. 1,470, pop. 300, borough, inc. 1861), is 
a small community of a number of houses, stores, a church, and a school- 
house. Its postoffice designation is McKean. 

McKean has an unusually high altitude for Erie County, its surround- 
ings are hilly with numerous deep ravines along small streams. The valleys 
are highly productive in grains. Above the valleys the land is heavy clay 
but fertilizers make it fairly fruitful. Dairying is the chief industry. 

The Central Greyhound Bus Lines and the West Ridge Transporta- 
tion Co. serve the borough. 

Churches are Baptist, Methodist, St. Francis' Roman Catholic, St. Peter's 
Lutheran, and Trinity Lutheran. 

At //./ m. is a junction with US 19; L. from State 99 on US 19. 



118 



COUNTY TOUR 7 



Erie- Wesleyville Colt's Station Lowville Union City Eric, State 399 (Station Road), 
State 89, State 8, State 97, 56.1 m. 

STATE 399, Station Road, was laid out in 1813 to provide a road from 
Erie, to Mayville, N. Y., and was named from having become a main 
route into the village of Colt's Station, which was an important depot for 
goods shipped down French Creek to the Allegheny River. 

S. from 1 2th St. on State St. L. from State St. on E. 26th St. (US 20). 
At 6.1 m., in Wesleyville is a junction with State 399. R. from US 20 on 
State 399. 

South of Wesleyville Borough (see COUNTY TOUR 4), the highway 
passes through a residential district. 

The highway turns abruptly east at the outskirts of Wesleyville and 
crosses Four Mile Creek. 

The village of BROOKSIDE is at 6.6 m. This subdivision was built by 
the smaller wage earners of the General Electric Company, and is com- 
posed of one-family dwellings. A modern brick schoolhouse stands L. 
from the highway, and a frame church houses a small congregation. Fruit 
trees and small grape vineyards grow in vacant lots and along the roadside. 
The highway follows an undulating route to cross a wide valley. 

GOSPEL HILL, 7.0 m., is the first elevation above the lake plain and 
offers a wide view of Lake Erie. To the northwest are the buildings of 
the General Electric Company, Erie Works. The long arm of the Pen- 
insula, jutting into the blue expanse of Lake Erie, is visible (L). In 
the valley below are the headwaters of Six Mile Creek. 

From the top of Gospel Hill the road curves L. and descends to the 
valley of Four Mile Creek. 

HORNBY, 14.5 m., is a small group of houses built around a general 
store and post office. The community was the shopping center of the 
farm area before improved highways and automobiles gave the farmer easy 
access to larger towns. 

OLD GRANGE HALL, 14.6 m., (L), stands at the crest of a knoll 
overlooking a small valley. The building was once the social center of the 
community and the scene of agricultural fairs. 

COLT'S STATION, 16.6 m., is a crossroads community of a few houses 
and a general store. This section, Greenfield Township, was one of the 

119 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 






first settled in Erie County. Attracted by the beauty of the hills and 
streams, a number of settlers built homes around the community which 
became Colt's Station, named for Judah Colt, one of the first settlers. The 
settlement became important as a supplies depot. Merchandise shipped 
from Buffalo was landed at Freeport, near the present location of North 
East, and thence transported to Colt's Station. The village was the head 
of flat boat navigation on French Creek. 

In a small log building Judah Colt conducted first Protestant services 
in Erie County. The sermon, which became a weekly event after July 
2, 1797, drew settlers from the entire township. 

At 16.6 m. is a junction with State 89. R. from State 399 on State 89. 

The West Branch of French Creek is crossed at 24.5 m., and the road 
ascends the south side of the valley to LITTLE HOPE, 25.0 m. The com- 
munity consists of a few scattered homes, and a tiny frame church. The 
settlement was founded in 1798 by Leverett Bissel. 

The road wanders over the hills for the next few miles, passing many 
old farmhouses, with huge barns overshadowing the adjacent buildings. 
From the top of the hill at 26.7 m. there is a wide view of French Creek 
Valley, R. French Creek is crossed at Lowville, 30.1 m. (see COUNTY 
TOUR 5). 

UNION CITY is at 32.1 m. (see COUNTY TOUR 5). 

At 32.1 ?n. is a junction with State 97. R. from State 89 on State 97. 

State 97 was originally the old portage road between Presque Isle (Erie) 
and LeBoeuf (Waterford), built by the French in 1753 (see HISTORY). 
It follows the course of a small stream that winds back and forth across 
the valley, edged with rows of willows. Pastures occupy the level stretches 
between the curves. The Erie and Pennsylvania railroads follow the south 
side of the valley. 

At 36.2 m. is the crest of the divide overlooking Elk Creek Valley. To 
the R. is rolling country, the hills wood-covered and torn by the valleys 
of creeks running into French Creek. On each side of the road are 
many old farmhouses with huge bank barns. These barns are of early 
Dutch farm construction. 

The early settlers planted willow slips along the streams to protect their 
land from erosion. Today, as stately trees, their gnarled roots washed 
naked, they make a graceful screen across the valley. They are more 
numerous near Waterford. 

At 41.2 m. is WATERFORD (see COUNTY TOUR 6). 

The terrain for the next few miles is somewhat swampy at the right of 
the highway. To the L. the hills rise above the valley. Hemlocks grow 
densely on the hillside and offer haven to pheasant, quail, and many 
smaller birds. 



120 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



CAMP KLINGER, 46.8 m. (R) is a camping spot (small fee) on Le- 
Boeuf Creek. Fishing is excellent along the creek, which is stocked with 
bass every year by the State Game Commission. The hillsides abound 
in season with blackberries. 

The highway rolls over a series of gentle hills out of LeBoeuf Creek 
Valley. For five miles the road passes farm land and nondescript rural 
pasturage. 

The highway enters Erie on Parade St. 



121 



COUNTY TOUR 8 



Erie-Fairview-Lavery's Corners-Albion-West Springfield-Erie, US 20, State 98, US 
6n, 62.3 m. 

STATE 98, improved throughout, traverses Fairview, Franklin, and Elk 
Creek Townships from Fairview to the Crawford County line, passing 
through some of the best farmland of Erie County. There is little roadside 
advertising and no sizable towns on the route. The highway follows the 
valleys of Elk Creek headwater streams, crossing the main stream near 
Fairview, and, after passing through Lavery's Corners, enters the valley 
of Cussewago Creek. 

S. from i zth St. on State St., R. from State St. on W. 26th St. (US 20). 

At 11.8 m., is a junction with State 98; L. from US 20 on State 98. 

At 12.6 m., the crest of a ridge, the road enters a wooded area, crosses 
Brandy Run, and traverses a short stretch of level country before descend- 
ing into Elk Creek Valley. Elk Creek is crossed at 14.8 m. The shale 
formations on both sides of the narrow valley tower 50 to 100 feet above 
the road. 

At 18.5 m., is FRANKLIN CENTER (pop. 100), a crossroads village 
of a few frame houses and a general store. 

The ridge a short distance south of Franklin Center marks the division 
of the county watersheds. Elk Creek and its smaller tributaries gather 
water from the north of Franklin Center to drain into Lake Erie. Cusse- 
wago Creek, on the south side of the ridge, flows into French Creek at 
Meadville. 

LAVERY'S CORNERS, 22.4 m., is the intersection of State 98 with 
US 6N. This is a particularly dangerous crossing. US 6N is a through 
traffic highway and cars approaching the intersection on State 98 are con- 
fronted by sign after sign, starting 3,000 feet from the crossing, painted 
in letters two feet high, warning travelers of the crossing, and stating that 
State 98 traffic must stop. 

R. from State 98 on US 6N. 

At 26.8 m., is WELLSBURG (see COUNTY TOUR 5). 

ALBION, 29.3 m. (alt. 857, pop. 1,681, borough, inc., 1861), is atop a 
short but rather steep hill. With modern homes and well-kept lawns, the 
town presents a pleasing appearance. 

The borough is served by the Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, Pennsyl- 

122 



ERIE COUNTY TOURS 



vania Railroad, the Greyhound Lines, and the West Ridge Transporta- 
tion Co. 

Albion derives its name from a poetic name for England. Originally 
the community was known as "Jackson's Crossroads." 

Johnathan Spaulding, who came from New York State in 1795, was 
the first settler in the area. Two years later the Pennsylvania Population 
Company sent Col. Dunning McNair as its agent in surveying and selling 
lands in the district. 

Albion's early growth was rapid. It was a freight station and terminal 
of the Erie-Pittsburgh Canal. Sawmills and flour and feed mills and other 
small plants prospered. Its later development was influenced by the 
Bessemer & Lake Erie Railroad, which maintains its northern terminal in 
the borough. The Bessemer, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, transports millions of tons of iron ore yearly to the Pittsburgh 
district steel mills. Most of the ore is shipped to Albion from the lake 
port at Conneaut, Ohio. Great quantities of ore are stored here every 
year and hauled to the mills during the winter months; 9,600,000 tons were 
hauled in 1937. The Bessemer normally employs about 2,000 men in 
Albion and nearby Cranesville and Conneaut Townships. 

Rogers' Trailer Works is located there. It employs about 30 men and 
constructs heavy duty overland hauling units. 

Albion has four churches: Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, United 
Brethren, and St. Lawrence Roman Catholic. 

The community is served by the Albion News, a weekly newspaper. 
The Airport Journal, national stamp collector's trade magazine, is edited 
and published by the News. 

The American Legion Labor Day ox roast and picnic is an annual Albion 
affair. The town is thrown open to the Legion for the day, and thousands 
of visitors from northwestern Pennsylvania and western Ohio flock to the 
festival. 

At 30.0 m., the highway passes over the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

CONNEAUT CREEK, crossed at 30.2 m., courses through a fertile 
valley which produces rich crops of hay, wheat, corn, oats, and buck- 
wheat. The creek is deep and wide and affords excellent muskellunge and 
bass fishing. In March, when the spring rains melt the snow of the valley, 
the creek often rises to flood stage and deposits a fine silt over the fields, 
contributing to their fertility. 

Conneaut Creek winds through a valley cut and cross-cut by old stream 
beds. Its course has changed many times, leaving backwaters and dead 
ponds. Muskrats have found shelter in these small ponds and schoolboys 
trap these small fur-bearing animals each winter. Mink, skunk, and weasel 



ERIE: A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY 



are also caught and it is not uncommon for amateur trappers to earn several 
hundred dollars each during the season. 

At 36.6 m., in WEST SPRINGFIELD, is a junction with US 20 (see 
COUNTY TOUR 3); R. from US 6N on US 20. 



124 



CHRONOLOGY 



C. 1615 French missionaries arrive. 

1634 Erie Indians defeat Seneca Indians in poisoned arrow warfare. Hundreds 

killed or wounded on each side. 
1654 Senecas exterminate Erie tribe. 
1753 French troops build Fort Presque Isle and Fort LeBoeuf. 

December 11-16. George Washington visits Fort LeBoeuf (Waterford). 

1758 French settlers abandon village at Presque Isle. 

1759 French troops evacuate and burn Fort Presque Isle. 

1760 British troops occupy and rebuild Fort Presque Isle. 
1763 June 1 8. Indians capture Fort LeBoeuf. 

June 20. Indians capture Fort Presque Isle. 

1783 Great Britain cedes western district, including Erie County, to U. S. 

1784 Treaty with Six Nations gives Triangle lands to Pennsylvania. 

1785 General Assembly of Pennsylvania authorizes David Watts and William 

Miles to survey Tenth Donation District, which included Erie. 
1789 General Assembly authorizes payment of $2,000 to Half -Town, Corn- 
planter, and Big Tree in settlement of claims to part of Triangle lands. 

1791 Pennsylvania pays Seneca Indians $800 to quit Triangle lands. 

U. S. Government sells Triangle lands to Pennsylvania, after considerable 
litigation. 

1792 General Assembly enacts bill to lay out towns at Presque Isle and LeBoeuf. 

1794 Andrew Ellicott surveys and lays out town of Waterford. 

1795 Treaty of peace with Six Nations at Canandaigua, N. Y., removes re- 

maining obstacles to settlement of Presque Isle. 

Andrew Ellicott and William Irvine lay out town of Erie. Thomas Rees 
and John Grubb, with their families, settle in Erie. Colonel Seth 
Reed erects first dwelling in Erie. Louis Philippe, afterward King 
of France, visits Erie. 

1796 December 15. Gen. Anthony Wayne dies and is buried in Erie. 

1798 Sloop Washington, first sailing vessel built in Erie, launched at the mouth 
of Four Mile Creek. 

1800 March 12. Erie County established by Act of General Assembly. First 

county census taken; population 1,468. First public school built at 
Waterford. Salt industry established. 

1 80 1 First mail route opened between Erie and Pittsburgh, by way of Water- 

ford and Meadville. 
1803 First county officers elected. First court held in Erie County, the Hon. 

Jesse Moore, presiding. Opening of court announced by blowing of 

horn, a custom followed until 1823. 
1805 Erie incorporated as borough. 
1808 The Mirror, first newspaper in Erie County, started by George Wyeth. 

Gen. Anthony Wayne's body disinterred and removed. 

'25 



CHRONOLOGY 



1813 March 27. Perry arrives in Erie to build fleet. 

Sept. 10. Battle of Lake Erie. Perry captures British fleet. 
1818 First U. S. lighthouse on Great Lakes built on Presque Isle. 

May 28. Walk-in-the-Water, first steamship to sail on Great Lakes, 
launched at Erie. 

1825 June 3. Marquis de LaFayette visits Erie. 

1826 May 1 8. The steamboat William Penn, 200 tons, of the Erie & Chautauqua 

Steamship Company, launched at Erie. 

1830 First major influx of German population. 

1831 Horace Greeley works as printer on the Erie Gazette. 

1832 Girard Township incorporated. 

1833 Waterford incorporated as borough. 

1834 North East incorporated as borough. 
Wattsburg incorporated as borough. 

1836 Proposed canal connecting Erie with Pittsburgh quadruples price of real 

estate within few weeks. Sales in February exceed $1,000,000. 
1839 Building constructed for Erie branch of United States Bank; used later 

as customs house. 
1841 August 9. The steamship Erie burns near Silver Creek, N. Y.; 249 

persons drowned; 26 of whom were from Erie; and $180,000 in gold 

and silver lost. 

1843 November 9. U.S.S. Michigan (Wolverine) launched on Lake Erie. 

1844 December 5. Queen of the West and JR. S. Reed, first boats to enter 

Erie on new Erie & Pittsburgh Canal, dock at foot of Sassafras St. 

1846 Girard incorporated as borough. 

1847 First telegraph line opened in Erie County. 

1851 Erie incorporated as city. 

1852 January 19. First passenger train enters Erie, on 6-foot gauge tracks 

of the Erie & North East Railroad. 

1854 Railroad War. Popular resentment against standardizing the gauge re- 

sults in a riot. 

1855 Police department organized in Erie. 

West wing of county courthouse completed. 
1858 City divided into four wards. 
1 86 1 Albion incorporated as borough. 

Abraham Lincoln visits Erie. 

1863 October 22. First newspaper in Corry, the Carry City News, established. 
1866 South Erie incorporated as borough. 

Gen. U. S. Grant and Andrew Johnson visit Erie. 

1870 South Erie Borough annexed to Erie City. 

1871 Erie Canal to Pittsburgh abandoned. 
1874 St. Vincent's Hospital dedicated. 

1876 Perry's original flagship, Lawrence, raised from Presque Isle Bay and 

rebuilt. 

First telephone exchange opened. 
1878 First labor union, Typographical Union, receives charter. 

1880 Wayne Blockhouse rebuilt. 

1 88 1 July i. Hamot Hospital dedicated. 

1891 W. L. Scott, Erie industrial magnate and philanthropist, dies. Grover 

Cleveland attends funeral. 
1896 Public Library built. 

126 



CHRONOLOGY 



1898 Hammermill Paper Company founded. 

May i. Capt. Charles Vernon Gridley of Erie fires first shot in Battle 
of Manila Bay. 

1910 March 18. President William H. Taft arrives in Erie and speaks for 

Y.M.C.A. 

191 1 General Electric Company builds branch in Erie. 
May 17. St. Peter's Cathedral consecrated. 

1914 Erie Forge & Steel Company founded. 

1915 August 3. Mill Creek flood causes 25 deaths and large property loss. 

1916 Erie National guardsmen take part in war on Mexican border. 
1918 July 14. Erie troops participate in Battle of Marne in France. 

1920 Academy High School constructed. 

1921 Presque Isle made a State Park. 
East High School finished. 

1926 Mercyhurst College constructed. 
1931 Buses replace trolley cars on streets. 

Church of the Covenant built. 

Strong Vincent High School constructed. 

1936 President Franklin D. Roosevelt speaks at mass meeting. 
1938 Erie Municipal airport opened, and mail and passenger service inaugurated. 



127 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Cornell, William Mason. The History of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, John Sully & 
Co., 1876. 

Dutton, Charles J. Oliver Hazard Perry. New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1935. 

Godcharles, Frederick A. Daily Stories of Pennsylvania. Milton, Pa., published by the 
author, 1924. 

Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office. Vol. 30, part i. (Fourth Impression, 
September, 1912). 

Merrell, Edna Huntington, compiler. Survey of the Foreign Language Groups of 
Erie, Pa. Erie, MSS. 1919-1920. 

Miller, John. A Twentieth Century History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Chicago, 
The Lewis Publishing Co., 1909. 2 v. 

Reed, John Elmer. History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Topeka-Indianapolis, 
Historical Publishing Co., 1925. 2 v. 

Sanford, Laura G. History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippin- 
cott & Co., 1861; and edition, published by the author, 1894. 

Sargent, M. P. Pioneer Sketches. Erie, Herald Printing & Publishing Co., 1891. 

Sipe, Chester Hale. The Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania, Ed. 2. Harrisburg, The Tele- 
graph Press, 1929. 

The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Butler, The Ziegler Printing Co., Inc., 1927. 

Whitman, Benjamin, compiler and editor. Nelson's Biographical Dictionary and His- 
torical Reference Book of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Erie, S. B. Nelson, 1896. 
History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Chicago, Warner, Beers & Co., 1884. 



128 




The Peninsula. The city of Erie to the right. 




Kettle used hi boiling flesh from 

General Wayne's skeleton 

after dis'mterinent 



INDEX 



Academy High School and Stadium, 58, M 

Accommodations, 2 

Ager, Patrick, 102 

Agriculture, 86, 87, 113 

Airports, 1, 101, 103 

Airport Journal (magazine), 123 

Albion, 122 

Albion News (newspaper), 123 

Alden & Harlow, 54, 60, 62 

Allegheny County, 23 

Annual Events, 10 

Anshe Chesed Reformed Congregation, 51, 71 

Artel (ship), 69, 90 

Armenians, 34 

Associated Press, 80 

Athletic fields, 3 

Avonia, 103 

Bachman, Max, 68 

Baird, James, 22 

Ballad of James Bird (song), 53 

Barclay, Capt. Robert, 90 

Barney, Frank, Farm of, 113 

Baseball, 30 

Baseball Diamond, 90 

Battle of Fallen Timbers, 21 

Battle of Lake Erie, 24, 32, 33, 61, 69 

Becker, P. A., 35 

Behrend, Ernst R., 75, 78 

Behrend, Moritz, 75 

Behrend.Otto F., 75 

Belle Valley, 108 

Big Tree, Chief, 21 

Bird, James, 33 

Bissel, Leverett, 120 

Bissell, Capt. Russell, 22, 37 

Blickensderfer, N., Ill 

B'nai B'rith Home for Orphans, 101 

Boat Building, 39 

"Boggataway," 30 

Bouquet, Colonel, 20 

Boyd, Rev., 49 

Braddock, General, 20 

Bradford, 110 

Branchville, 118 

Brandy Run, 122 

Brant, Joseph, 21 

Breweries, 25, 27 

Brewster, Alexander, 107 

Brick clay, 15 

Brickyards, 38 

Brookside, 119 

Brotherton, Robert, 38, 117 

Brown, John, 63 

Brown, Lemuel, 106 

Brown, R. Stanley, 64 

Brown, Robert, 101 

Brule, Etienne, 17 

Bucyrus Erie Company, 71 

Buffalo & Erie Railways Co., 47 



Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction Co., 47 

Buffalo Road, 47, 104 

Burgett, Henry, 106 

Burgettstown, 106 

Burns, James R., 80 

Bus lines, 1, 47, 105 

Campbell's Band, 59 
Camp Klinger. 121 
Carnation Milk Company, 117 
Casey, Rev. Thomas A., 69 
Cathedral Preparatory School, 56 
Catholic Diocese, 48, 49, 70 
Catholics, 34, 48, 49 
"Cats," 17 

Cavelier, Robert, 17, 43 
Central High School, 57, 58 
Central Market House, 81 
Champlain, Sieur de, 17 
Cheat (Indian), 26 
Chimes of Erie (music), 60 
Churches, 5 

Anshe Chesed Reformed Congregation, 51, 71 

Associated Reform Presbyterian, 50 

B'rith Sholem Synagogue, 51 

Church of the Covenant, 54, 68 

First Baptist, 54 

First Christian, 51 

First Church of Christ, Scientist, 51, 67 

First M. E., 50 

Luther Memorial, 54, 60 

Middlebrook Presbyterian, 50 

Presbyterian Church of the Covenant, 54 

Russian Orthodox, 51 

St. John's Evangelical Lutheran, 35, 50 

St. Luke's Evangelical Lutheran, 53, 61 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic, 34, 49 

St. Patrick's Roman Catholic, 49 

St. Paul's Episcopal, 50 

St. Peter's Roman Catholic, 49, 60 

St. Stanislaus, 35 
City Charter, 27 
City Council, 9 
City Hall, 61 
City Hall Annex, 61 
City Planning Commission, 61 
Civil War, 27 
Climate and Clothing, 15 
Clinton, James, 21 
Clothing and Textiles, 27 
Cochran, John, 37 
Coeur, Capt. Jean, 18 
Cook's, Capt., Boathouse, 95 
Collett, Rev. Luke, 48 
Colsom, Rev. Charles, 50 
Colt, Judah, 22, 41, 42, 49, 105, 120 
Colt, Mrs. Judah, 51 
Colt's Station, 41, 49, 50, 105, 119, 120 
Community Chest, 65, 70 



I2 9 



INDEX 



Community Playhouse, 61 

Concord Station, 110 

Concord Township, 22 

Conneaut Creek, 84, 123 

Conneaut Township, 123 

Conneautee Creek, 84, 112 

Conneautee Lake, 84, 111, 112 

Connick & D'Ascenzo, 68 

Convents, 8 

Cook, William, 22 

Corbesier & W. E. Foster, 54, 68 

"Corduroyed" Roads, 41 

Cornplanter, Chief, 21 

Corry, 110 

Corry, Hiram, 110 

Corry Evening Journal (newspaper), 110 

Corry Fish Hatchery, 110 

Corry Public Library, 110 

Court of Common Pleas, 87 

Court of Quarter Sessions, 87 

Cranberry Day, 93, 94 

Crane, Elihu, 113 

Crane, Fowler, 113 

Cranesville, 113, 123 

Crooked Creek, 84, 102, 103 

Crystal Point Park, 95, 96, 99 

Culbertson, William, 111 

Cussewago Creek, 84, 122 

Dan Rice Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, 59, 

102 

Davison, John, 18 
de La Salle, Sieur, 17, 43 
Denny, Captain, 22 
Dennison and Hirons, 54 
Department of Public Affairs, 9 
Department of Finance, 9 
Department of Parks and Public Property, 9 
Department of Public Safety, 9 
Department of Streets and Public Improvements, 9 
Deutsche Zeitung (newspaper), 35 
Detroit (ship), 91 
De Vaudrail, 19 
Devil's Backbone, 102 
Devil's Nose, 102 
Devore, John, 102 
Dewey, Adml. George, 68, 79 
DeWitt, Simeon, 21 
Dinwiddie, Governor Robert, 18 
Dobbins, Capt. Daniel, 22, 23, 57, 90 
Drake, Colonel, 33 
Drama, 2, 61 
Dundass, William, 106 
Dunning, Ezekiel, 38 
Duquesne, Fort, 18, 20 
DuQuesne, General, 20 
"Durable Goods," 29 
Durang, F. Ferdinand, 54 

Eagle Hotel, 54, 117 

Eaglehurst, 98 

East High School, 58 

East Springfield, 102 

East Ward School, 57 

Eaton, Rev. Johnson, 50 

Ecole des Beaux Arts, 54 

Edgewater Beach Restaurant, 88 

Edinboro, 41, 84, 118 

Edinboro Lake (Conneautee), 111, 112 

Edinboro State Teachers College, 56, 111, 112 

Edison, Charles A., 79 

Electric Trolley System, 28 

Elgin, 110 



Elk Creek, 84, 101, 102, 103, 108, 118, 122 

Elk Creek Twp., 122 

Elk Creek Valley, 120, 122 

Ellicott, Maj. Andrew, 21, 22, 41, 55, 116 

Elliott, Captain, 33 

Elliott, Andrew, 107 

Episcopalians, 50 

Erie and Pittsburgh Canal, 26, 42, 44, 46, 113, 

123 

Erie and Pittsburgh Railroad, 26, 44 
Erie Art Gallery, 63 
Erie Board of Education, 57. 62 
Erie Brewing Company, 81 
Erie Canal Company, 44 
Erie Cemetery, 83 

Erie City Dispatch (newspaper), 118 
Erie City Iron Works, 38 
Erie City Waterworks, 97 
Erie Club Building, 62 
Erie Coach Co., 47, 107 
Erie County Airport, 101 
Erie County Courthouse, 53, 67 
Erie County Electric Company, 79 
Erie County Historical Society, 64 
Erie County Home, 101 
Erie County Prison, 67 
Erie Daily Times Building, 60 
Erie Dispatch (newspaper), 80 
Erie Dispatch-Herald Building, 80 
Erie Dry Goods Company, 54 
Erie Electric Motor Company, 47 
Erie Evening Herald (newspaper), 60, 80 
Erie Forge & Steel Co., 70 
Erie Gazette (newspaper), 64, 80 
Erie Harbor, 40, 65, 74 
Erie Indians, 17, 48 
Erie, Lake, 11, 14, 15, 17, 65 
Erie Liederstafel, 35 
Erie Lighting Co., 66, 83 
Erie Mirror (newspaper), 24, 125 
Erie Morning Dispatch (newspaper), 60 
Erie Passenger Railway Company, 47 
Erie Presbytery, 50 
Erie Observer (newspaper), 60 
Erie Public Library, 62, 74 
Erie Public Library Museum, 63 
Erie Sand & Gravel Co., 66 
Erie School Board, 58 
Erie-Seneca War, 31 
Erie Street Railways Co., 47 
Erie Sunday Graphic (newspaper), 60 
Erie Technical High School, 58, 60 
Erie Trust Building, 54, 59 . 
Erie Waterworks Park Reservation, 92 
Erie Yacht Club, 66, 70, 98 
Eureka Tempered Copper Company, 106 
Exports, 37, 38, 39 

Fairbanks, Mrs. J., 22 
Fairview, 47, 100, 122 
Fairview Township, 50 
Fayette County, 18, 101 
Federal Building, 64 
Federal Government, 64, 82 
Ferries, 1 
Finns, 34 

Fisher, Governor, 92 
Fishing, 39, 97, 98, 99 
Floating Marsh Trail, 96 
Flora and fauna, 85 
Foghorn, The, 94 
Forbes, Gen. John, 20 
Forester, Thomas, 38 



I 3 



INDEX 



116 



Foster, W. E., 54 

Four Mile Creek, 43, 84, 99, 107, 119 

Fox Pond, 92, 95 

Francesco, Henry, 67 

Franciscans, 17 

Franklin, 55, 122 

Franklin Canal Company, 45, 46 

Franklin Center, 122 

Franklin, Rev. James Taylor, 65 

Freeport, 120 

Free Public School Law, 57 

Freie presse (newspaper), 35 

French and Indian War, 20, 

French Colonization, 18 

French Creek, 20, 24, 43, 49, 50, 84, 105, 109, 

111, 115, 119, 120 
French garrison, 18 
French missionaries, 17, 18 

Frontier Forts and Trails Survey (WPA), 117 
Frontier Place, 12, 55 

Gallatin, Albert, 22 

Gannon Hall, 69 

Gannon, Most Rev. John Mark, 49, 60, 69 

Garrison Hill, 99 

General Electric Co., 28, 79, 104, 107, 119 

Geology, 15 

Germans, 26, 27, 28, 34, 44 

Germer, Dr. E. W., 74 

Germer Stove Company, 38 

Gibsonville, 106 

Girard' ' Cosmopolite-Herald (newspaper), 102 

Girard, Stephen, 101 

Girard Township, 54, 101 

Gist, Christopher, 18 

Glenwood Park, 12. 55, 83 

Golf, 4 

Good Intent, (ship), 43 

Gospel Hill, 119 

Gov. Fisher Drive, 92 

Great Lakes, 17, 24, 34 

Greeks, 36 

Greeley, Horace, 46, 51 

Greeley, Horace, Boarding House, 64 

Greeley, Horace, Life of, (book), 55 

Greenfield Township, 49, 119 

Gridley, Capt. Charles V., 68, 79 

Gridley, Capt., Monument of, 68 

Gridley, John P. V., 79 

Gridley Junior High School, 69 

Gridley Park, 68 

Griffon (ship), 17, 43 

Gristmills, 25, 38 

Griswold Manufacturing Co., 71 

Grubb, John, 22 

Gull Sanctuary, 94 

Half-King (Indian)", 18, 19 

Half-Town, Chief, 21, 26 

Halltown, 110 

Hamilton, Alexander, 111 

Hammerhill Paper Co., 28, 66, 74, 99 

Hammett, 108 

Hamot Hospital, 65 

Hamot, P.S.V., 65 

Harborcreek Township, 46, 51, 107 

Hare Creek, 110 

Hare, Michael, 110 

Harrison. Gen. William Henry, 24, 90, 91 

Hassam, Childe, 63 

Hebrews, 51 



Hinkley, Jarvis & Co., 26, 38 

Holdup, Lieut., 95 

Holliday, Capt. Samuel, 102, 103 

Hornby, 119 

Hoskinson House, 53 

Hospitals, 2 

Hotel, Buehler, 23 

Housing Community, 70 

Hughes Log House, 52 

Hungarians, 34 

Hunting, 3 

Hutchinson House, 102 

Hutchinson, Myron, 102 

Immigrants, 25, 26 

Imports, 37, 38, 39 

Indians, 17, 23, 31 

Indian Village, site of last, 88 

Industry 

Boat-building, 39 

Brickyards, 38 

Clothing, 27 

"Durable Goods," 29 

Fishing, 39, 97, 99 

Lumber, 39 

Oilcloth, 27 

Packing houses, 27 

Refineries, 27 

Salt, 24, 43 

Sawmills, 25, 37, 38 

Stove Works, 27 

Textiles, 27, 38 

Tanneries, 25 
Industry, early, 24, 37 
Information Service, 2 
International Institute, 36 
Irish, 26 

Iroquois Confederation, 31 
Irvine, Gen. William, 21, 55 
Israel, Rev. Dr. Rogers, 51 
Italians, 27, 28, 34, 35 

"Jackson's Crossroad," 123 
ames, Heman, 47 
arecki Mfg., Co., 70 
esakake (Indian), 18 
esuits, 17 
oliet, Louis, 17 
ones, H. K., 60 
udson, Amos, 54, 117 
udson House, 117 

Kaemmerling, Erne (Aldis Dunbar), 6J 

Kahkwa Country Club, 100 

Kearsarge, 115 

Keely, C. C, 60 

Kellar, Harry, Birthplace of, 82 

Kelly, William, 52, 64 

Kennedy, Charles, 113 

King George's War, 18 

King, Mayor Alfred, 45 

King, Thomas, 54, 117 

King William's War, 18 

Klopp, Harry. 63 

LaCrosse, 30 

La Fayette, Marquis de, 64, 116 

Lake Freight Warehouse, 66 
Lake Pleasant, 84 
Lakeside Cemetery, 78 
Lake Shore Golf Club. 103 



INDEX 



Lake View Hospital, 74 

Land Lighthouse Park, 74 

La Salle, Robert Cavelier Sieur de, 17, 43 

Laughing Thief (Indian), 26 

Lavery's Corners, 122 

Lawrence (ship), 23, 33, 63, 69, 90, 91, 99, 

104 

Lawrence, Capt. James, 90 
Lawrence Park, 87, 104 
LeBoeuf Creek, 84, 118, 121 
LeBoeuf, Fort, 18-21, 41, 48, 116-118 
LeBoeuf Lake, 84, 118 
LeCaron, Rev. Joseph, 17, 48 
Lee, Capt. William, 43 
LeMercier, 52 
Levitz, Rev. Ivo, 49 
Libraries, 2, 62, 74 
Lily Pond, 89 
Little Hope, 120 
Lockport, 113 
Loesch, William, 47 
Logstown, 18 
Long Point, 90 

Lord Manufacturing Plant, 54, 70 
Loveland Hall, 112 
Low, Samuel, 108 
Lowville, 50, 108, 120 
Lumber trade, 39 

Madison, President James, 23, 90 

Manufactures, 27, 29, 37, 38, 75, 78 

Marin, Sieur, 18, 19, 116 

Marquette, Pere Jacques, 17 

Marshes, 88, 98 

Marshon, John, 102 

Martin, Lieut. John, 117 

Massassauga Hotel, 88, 98 

Massassauga Indian Tribe, 19 

McCabe, Rev. Charles, 49 

McCann, Hugh, 107 

McCurdy, Rev. 49, 50 

McDonald, Acting-Master, 33 

Mclntyre, James, 102 

Mclntyre, William, 102 

McKean, 118 

McKean Township, 22 

McLane, 118 

McNair, Major David, 38 

McNair, Col. Dunning, 123 

McPherrin, Rev. 50 

Mead, John, Sr., 60 

Meadville, 42, 50, 122 

Medicine men, 48 

Mercier, Chevalier, 52, 116 

Mercyhurst College, 54, 56, 81 

Metcalf House, 53 

Methodist Episcopal, 50 

Meyers & Johnson, 69 

Michigan (ship), 96 

Middleboro, 118 

Middlebrook, 49, 50 

Mifflin, Governor, 22 

Miles, James, 111 

Miles Mills, 109 

Miles, William, 22, 109 

Mill Creek, 18, 22, 23, 29, 37, 41, 43, 73. 83. 

84, 108 

Mill Creek Township, 1?' 
Mill Run, 111 
Milltown, 111 
Mill Village, 83, 111 
Milmore, Martin, 59 
Mineral products, 15 



Mineral resources, 15 

Misery Bay, 91, 95, 99 

Missimer, H. C, 80 

Monahan, Walter T., 53, 67 

Moorhead, James, 51 

Moorheadville, 51, 106 

Moran, Edward, 63 

Moravians, 111 

Morton, Rev. 51 

Mosher, Gustave, 63 

Motion Picture Houses, 2 

Motor Launches, 1 

Mount Pleasant, 50 

Mullen, Most Rev. Tobias, 49, 60. 106 

Mulligan Hall, 6l 

Municipal Pier, 65 

National Bank & Trust Co., 59 

National Catholic Welfare Council, 49 

"Neck," 88 

Nesbit, James, 96 

New Ireland, 111 

New France, 17 

New Furance Company, 28 

New York State Barge Canal, 44 

New York-Pennsylvania Boundary, 105 

New York Tribune (newspaper), 46 

Niagara (ship), 23, 33, 69, 90, 91, 99 

Nicholson Heights, 115 

Nickel Plate Flour Mills, 107 

North East, 49, 54, 105, 106, 120 

North East Community Fair Association, 106 

North East Township, 51 

Oak Hill, 106 

O'Connor, Rt. Rev. Michael, 49 

Ohio Company, 18 

Ohio Valley, 18, 40 

Oil Boom, 27 

Oil Refineries, 27 

Oilcloth, 27 

Old Customs House, 52, 53, 64 

"Old Furnace," 38 

Old Grange Hall, 119 

Old Land Lighthouse, 74 

"Old Plank School," 112 

"Old Salt-Hauler," 24 

Olympia (ship), 68, 79 

Paasch, Frederick, 39 

Paasch, John D., 39 

Packing Houses, 27 

Paintings, 59, 63 

Paper, 75, 78 

Park Commission, 89 

Parson, Dr. Usher, 63 

Parton, James, Life of Horace Greeley, 55 

Pean, Major, 116 

"Peanut War," 80 

Peninsula, 12, 119 

Penn, John, 63 

Penn, Richard, 63 

Penn, William, 63 

Peninsula Drive, 103 

Pennsylvania Germans, 26 

Pennsylvania National Guard Armory and Arse- 
nal, 73 

Pennsylvania Population Company, 123 

Pennsylvania R. R. Coal Docks, 98 

Pennsylvania R. R. Grain Elevator, 66 

Pennsylvania Soldiers' and Sailors' 'Home, 18, 
73, 99 

Pennsylvania State College, 56 



132 



INDEX 



Pennsylvania Telephone Building, 79 

Perry, Oliver Hazard, 23, 24, 32, 61. 63, 64, 

90, 95 

Perry Centennial, 91 
Perry's Fleet, 41 
Perry Iron Works, 99 
Perry Memorial Building, 64 
Perry Monument, 99 
Perry Square, 55 
"Pewtenngtun," 28 
Philadelphia & Erie Railroad, 46, 109 
Phillipe, Louis, 23 
Physiography, 14 
Pioneer Sketches (book), 42 
Pittsburgh, 24, 25 
Pittsburgh, Shenango, & Lake Erie Railroad, 

46, 71 
Platea, 113 
Plays, 2, 61 
Poles, 27, 28, 34 
Police Barracks, 89 
Pontiac's Conspiracy, 21, 31 
Population, 1, 23 
Porcupine (ship), 33 
Port Erie, 47 
Port Erie Airport, 103 
Post-Civil War Period, 34 
"Potato King of Erie County," 113 
Praker, Colonel, 42 
Pratt, Silas, 113 
Presque Isle, 17-22, 48, 120 
"Presque Isle Academy," 57 
Presque Isle Bay, 11, 38, 65, 68, 69, 73, 88, 99 
Presque Isle, Fort, 18-21, 31, 34, 41, 48, 52, 

73, 116 

Presque Isle Iron Works, 38 
Presque Isle Lighthouse, 92 
Presque Isle Peninsula, 15, 65, 108 
Presque Isle Peninsula State Park, 11, 88, 89 
Prindle, Amasa, 107 
Protestant Episcopal Diocese, 50 
Protestants, 49, 50 
Public Library, 63, 74 
Public Steamboat Landing, 65, 97 
Pulp Wood Dock, 66 
Put-in-Bay, 90 

Queen Charlotte (ship), 61, 91 
Queen of the West (ship), 44 

Radio Stations, 2 
Radnor, 31, 63, 74 
Railroads, 1 

Atlantic & Great Western, 109 

Bessemer & Lake Erie, 40, 46, 70, 71, 101. 

104, 122, 123 
Buffalo & Erie, 46 
Buffalo and State Line, 46 
Cleveland & Erie, 46 
Cleveland & Lake Erie, 46 
Cleveland & Toledo, 46 
Erie, 109 

Erie & North East, 45, 46 

Erie and Pittsburgh, 26, 44 

Lake Shore, 44 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 46 

Michigan Southern, 46 

New York Central, 40, 45, 46, 70, 100, 104, 

105, 107 

New York & Erie, 45 
Nickel Plate, 40, 71, 101, 102, 104, 105 
Pennsylvania, 104, 110, 117, 123 
Philadelphia & Erie, 46, 109 



Pittsburgh, Shenango & Lake Erie, 46, 71 

Railroad stations, 1 
Railroad War, 27, 80 
Recollet, (Franciscan Order), 17 
Recreation Facilities, 3 
Red Cross Station, 92 
Reed, Gen. Charles M., 62 
Reed, George W., 22, 117 
Reed Mansion, 53 
Reed, Rufus S., 22, 38, 39, 43 
Reed, R. S. (ship), 44 
Reed, Seth, Col., 22, 39, 62, 115 
Reed, Sarah A., 63 
Rees, Mrs. Thomas, 22 
Rees, Thomas, 22, 23 
Refineries, 27 
Regulators, 23 
Reid, Rev. Robert, 50 
Religion, early, 48-51 
Reparti, Captain, 19 
Restaurants and Bars, 2 
Revolutionary War, 48 
Rice, Dan, 102 
Riding, 4 

Roads, early, 22, 41 
Rogers' Trailer Works, 123 
Russians, 35 

Sacred Heart Mission House, 101 

St. Joseph's Home for Children, 70 

St. Joseph's Academy, 81 

St. Mary's College, 55, 106 

St. Patrick's School, 70 

St. Pierre, Commander, 18 

St. Pierre, Legardeur de, 19, 116 

St. Vincent's Hospital, 82 

Salem Evengelical Association, 35 

Salina (N. Y.) 25, 43 

Salt, 24, 43 

Saltsman, William, 107 

Satterfield, Rev., 49, 50 

Sawmill, 25, 37, 38 

Schlaudecker, Colonel, 35 

Schwarz, Rev. Joseph, 106 

Scott, William L., 62, 80 

Scott Building, 54 

Senat, Midshipman, 33 

Seneca-Erie War, 31 

Seneca (Indians), 17, 19, 21, 48 

Sentinel Tree, 118 

Shadduck, John, 107 

Shaw Fish Company, 26 

Shopping, 2 

Shorewood Beach, 105 

Shurtloff, R. W., 63 

Shutts and Morrison, 54 

Silverthorn, Capt. Abraham, 101 

Silverthorn, William, 101 

Six Mile Creek, 84, 99, 119 

Six Nations, 21, 31 

Sixteen Mile Creek, 84, 105 

"Skipper Jim," 96 

Slovaks, 36 

Smith, Rev. Charles, 50 

Smith, Thomas, 108 

Society of the United Brethren for Propagating 

the Gospel among the Heathens, 111 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, 59 
South Erie, 9, 27 
South Pier, 99 
Spaulding, Jonathan, 123 
Springfield, 50 
Squatters, 98 



'33 



INDEX 



State Fish Hatchery & Aquarium, 66. 68, 97 

Starr, Mrs. Mary A., 65 

State Line, 105 

State Teachers' College (Edinboro). 56 

Station Road, 119 

Steele, "Coal Oil Johnny, 33 

Sterrett, Joseph M., 80 

Stinking Fish, 26 

Stockton, Rev. 49 

Stone Jetty Beach, 92 

Street order and numbering, 1 

Strong, Charles H., 65, 79 

Strong, Mrs. Anna Wainwright Scott, 62, 80 

Strong, Kate, 65 

Strong Mansion, 61 

Strong School, 115 

Strong Vincent High School, 58, 69 

Stove Works, 27 

Sturgeon, JeremiaK, 100 

Sturgeon, William, 100 

Sturgeonville, 100 

Sunbury, 26 

Supreme Court, 46 

Surly Bear (Indian), 26 

Susquehanna and Waterford Turnpike, 41 

Swan, Capt. Richard, 100 

Swanville, 100 

Swimming, 89, 94 

Tageblatt (newspaper), 35 

Tanacharison (Indian), 18 

Tanneries, 25 

Tarbell, Ida M., 62 

Tate, Rev., 49 

Taxis, 1 

Te Deum, 48 

Tennis, 4 

Textile mills, 38 

Theatres and Motion Pictures, 2, 61 

Thompson's Bay, 94 

Thorpe, Francis Newton, 63 

Times Publishing Co., 60 

Titusville, 27, 38, 81, 109, 110 

Toll Houses, 108 

Tourist Camps, 2 

Triangle Lands, 21, 23 

Traffic Regulations, 1 

Treaty of 1783, 22 

Trolley System, 28 

Trout Run, 84 

Trow, Carter W., 57 

Trumball, Edw. A., 59 

Turks, 34 

Turnverein, 35 

Tuttle, Timothy, 22 

Twelfth Street Market, 79 

Twelve Mile Creek, 84 

Twenty Canoes (Indian), 26 

Twenty Mile Creek, 105 

Union, 50 

Union City, 109, 111 

Union City State Fish Hatchery, 110 

Union City Times^Enterprise (newspaper), 110 

Union Mills, 109 

Union Station, 46, 82 

Universalist Society of Erie, 61 

University of Pittsburgh, 56 59 

University of Pittsburgh Botanical Observatory, 

94 

U. S. Coast Guard, 94, 99 
United States Bank of Pennsylvania, 26, 64 
United States Post Office, 82 
United States Steel Corporation, 46, 123 



Van Braam, Jacob, 18 

Vandalia (ship), 44 

Vanderbilts, 46 

Venango, Fort, 18, 20 

Venango, 18 

Venango Township, 49, 84 

Villa Maria College, 56, 69 

Volk, Leonard, 102 

Von Hutten, Baroness, 63 

Waldameer Park, 88, 103 

Walk-in-the-Water, (ship), 43 

Wallace, William, 22, 38 

Walling, Emory A., 63 

Walnut Creek, 50, 84, 100, 115 

Walnut Creek Hill, 100 

War of 1812, 23, 25 

Ward, Rt. Rev. John C, 51 

Warren, 55 

Washington (ship), 39, 43 

Washington, Augustus, 18 

Washington, George, 18, 19, 22, 63, 116, 118 

Washington's Journal (diary), 19 

Washington Monument, 117 

Washington Township, 84 

Waterford, 22, 24, 25, 38, 41-43, 49-51, 54, 

55, 115-117, 120 
Waterford Academy, 54, 117 
Waterford Dispatch (newspaper), 118 
Waterford Inquirer (newspaper), 118 
Waterford Leader (newspaper), 118 
Waterford Museum (newspaper), 118 
Waterford Township, 51 
Water Works Beach, 92 
Water Works Park Reservation, 91, 92 
Watson Mills, H. F.. 66 
Watts, David, 109 
Wattsburg, 62, 108, 109 
"Wattsburg Butter," 109 
Wattsburg Fair, 109 
Wattsburg Plank Road, 108 
Wayne, General Anthony, 21, 31, 63 
Wayne, Monument of, 59 
Wayne, Col. Isaac, 74 
Wayne Blockhouse, 52, 73, 99 
Wayne Brewing Company, 82 
Wayne Rangers, 73 
Weiss, Jacob, 22 
Welch Grape Juice Company, 106 
Welland Canal, 44 
Wellsburg, 112, 122 
Wesley, John, 107 
Wesleyville, 107, 119 
West Branch Valley, 108 
West Girard, 101 
West Millcreek, 100 
West Springfield, 103, 124 
West Ward School, 57 
Western Reserve, 50 
Westmoreland County, 50 
William Penn (ship), 43 
Wolverine (ship), 96, 99 
Woodruff Residence*, 64 
Woodruff, Samuel E., 64 
Works Progress Administration, 47, 56, 63 
World War, 29 

Yagowanea (Indian), 30 
Young, James S., 80 
Y. M. C. A., 58 

Zem Zem Hospital, 69 
Zem Zem Temple, 69 
Zuschauer (newspaper), 35 




w 




STATE GUIDES PUBLISH! 

Connecticut, 

A Guide to Its Roads, Lore and Peo 
Delaware, 

A Guide to the First State 
Idaho, 

A Guide in Word and Picture 
Maine, 

A Guide "Down East" 
A4assachusetts, 

A Guide to Its Places and People 
Mississippi, 

A Guide to the Magnolia State 
New Hampshire, 

A Guide to the Granite State 
Rhode Island, 

A Guide to the Smallest State 
South Dakota Guide 
Vermont, 

A Guide to the Green Mountain Sta 

CITY AND COUNTY GUII 

Albany, N. Y. 

Auburn, Mass. 

Augusta, Ga. 

Cedar Rapids and Northeastern Iowa 

Chillicothe and Ross County, Ohio 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Dutchess County, N. Y. 

Galena, 111. 

Lexington and the Blue Grass Country 

Lima and Allen County, Ohio 

Lincoln City, Neb. 

Martin's Ferry, Ohio 

Matawan, N. J. 

McGregor, Iowa 

Mitchell, S. D. 

New Castle on the Delaware 

New Orleans, La. 

New York Panorama 

North Little Rock, Ark. 

Old Bellvue, Neb. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pierre, S. D. 

Rochester and Monroe County, N. Y. 

St. Cloud, Minn. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

San Diego, Calif. 

Savannah, Ga. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Warren and Trumbull Counties, Ohio 

Washington, D. C. 



OBTAINABLE THROUGI 

The WILLIAM PENN ASSOCIA1 
of Philadelphia, Inc. 



"ERIE, A GUIDE TO THE CITY AND COUNTY" is a member of the Ameri- 
can Guide Series. The series will include a guide for each State and 
many of the larger cities and counties in the Nation.