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The E. S.C. Quarterly 

VOLUME 9, NO. 1-2 



North Carolina Newspaper Publishing Has Developed Into 
Important State Industry; Printing Business Expanding 

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Photogi^aph of part of front page first newspaper published in North Carolina (See in^ le cover) 


Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 




Winter-Spring, 1951 

The E. S. C. Quarterly 

(Formerly The U.C.C. Quarterly) 

Volume 9, Number 1-2 

Winter-Spring, 1951 

Issued four times a year at Raleigh, N. C, by the 



Commissioners: Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax; Dr. Harry D. 
Wolf, Chapel Hill; R. Dave Hall, Belmont; Marion W. Heiss, 
Greensboro; C. A. Fink, Spencer; Bruce E. Davis, Charlotte. 

State Advisory Council: Col. A. L. Fletcher, Raleigh, chair- 
man; Mrs. Gaston A. Johnson, High Point; W. B. Horton, 
Yanceyville; C. P. Clark, Wilson; Dr. Alphonso Elder, Dur- 
ham; Corbett Scott, Asheboro; L. L. Ray, Raleigh; Joel B. 
Leighton, Rockingham; J. A. Scoggins, Charlotte. 


BROOKS PRICE __ .Deputy Commissioner 


Unemployment Compensation Division 


North Carolina State Employment Service Division 

M. R. DUNNAGAN Editor 

Informational Service Representative 

Cover illustrations represent typical North Carolina 
industries or business activities under the Employ- 
ment Security Program. 

Cover for Winter, 1951 — Photograph shows part of the front 
page of the North Carolina Gazette, not the first issue, but 
the oldest known issue of a North Carolina newspaper. It 
was published by James Davis in New Bern and is dated 
November 15, 1751. Davis was the first printer in the State 
and published the State Laws for many years. — Photo by 
Miss Dorothy D. Reynolds, Dept. of Archives and History. 

Sent free upon request to responsible individuals, agencies, 
organizations and libraries. Address: E. S. C. Informational 
Service, P. 0. Box 589, Raleigh, N. C. 


North Carolina Publications 2 

Press Association Active in Promoting State Papers 3 

By Henry Belk 
Organization and Early Days of N. C. Press Association 4 

By Clarence Griffin 

Journalism Foundation, UNC, Aids School in Training 6 

Personal Journalism, Editor Feuds, Half Century Ago 7 

By H.E.C. Bryant 
Personalities of Past Among North Carolina Editors 10 

By Roland F. Beasley 
Yesteryear Editors More Vigorous Than Today's Crop 12 

By Dr. Oscar J. Coffin 

Description of State Newspapers Written 28 Years Ago 13 

Editor Daniels Distinguished State Citizen 15 

Printing Industry of the Carolinas, Effective Group 16 

By Henry L. Weathers 

Press Notes: Interesting Items of People and Papers 17 

N. C. Has 41 Daily Newspapers; 7 Morning; 34 Afternoon .... 22 

Thirty-Three Semi-Weekly Papers Published in State 29 

North Carolina Is Well Supplied with 133 Weekly Papers..— 33 

Blum's and Turner's Almanacs Still Printed in State 36 

'Yellow Jacket', Rural Republican Paper with a Sting 37 

John D. Gold Long Publisher of Wilson Times 38 

Heavy Articles, Wit and Humor in College Publications 41 

Religious, Professional, Trade and Special Publications 44 

N.C. Newspapers Fine Training Schools for High Posts 47 

J. Hampton Rich, Editor, Adept Promoter and Ink Hound— 48 

Incident Relating to Press Institute, Carolina, Duke 48 

Progressive Farmer, Notable Magazine 49 

Officers, Meeting Places and Times, N. C. Press Association__..49 
Study Labor Resources for N. C. Industrial Expansion 50 

By Hugh M. Raper 
Amendments Extend Coverage of Social Security Act 51 

By M. D. Dewberry 
Analysis of Unemployed Worker Who Exhaust Benefits 53 

By E. Stanhope Dunn 
Employment Security Compared; 11 Months, 1949 & 1950 ..... 54 

By E. Stanhope Dunn 

Index to Volumes 7 and 8, 1949-50 ____ 57-62 

Note: Articles not credited, with by-line, written by M. R. Dun- 

nagan, Editor. 


North Carolina boasts of considerably more than 
300 periodical publications, about 100 of which are 
classed as trade, church, professional, college, or- 
phanage, labor and other miscellaneous publications. 
More than 200, our count 207, are classed as news- 
papers. Of these, 41 are in the daily field, including 
seven morning and 34 afternoon papers; one is a 
tri- weekly; 33 are semi-weeklies, and 133 are weekly 
papers. The State's papers, generally, are in fine 
condition, prosperous going concerns, but beset by 
the frequently experienced shortage of newsprint. 
Printing firms in the State are equally prosperous 

The ESC records reveal that 139 firms, in the sec- 
ond quarter of 1950, engaged in printing, publish- 
ing and allied activities are subject to, covered by, 
the Employment Security Law, meaning, normally, 
with eight or more employees. Of these, 66 were 
newspaper publishers, who employed an average of 
3380 workers and paid wages for the quarter of 
$2,778,189. This was an average of $63.23 a week, 
considerably higher than the State average of $45.27. 
Commercial printing firms numbered 67, employing 
an average of 1756 workers, with a quarterly payroll 
of $1,210,581, or an average wage of $53.21 a week. 
In other classifications are three engaged in pub- 
lishing periodicals, including two in publishing books 
and one classed as miscellaneous. 

For the year 1949, the last for which complete fig- 
ures are available, the record shows that 132 firms 
engaged in publishing and printing were subject to 
the Employment Security Law, while for the second 
quarter of 1950, the number was 139, an increase of 
seven. Also, the 1949 figures showed average em- 
ployment of 5010 workers, against 5268 for the sec- 
ond quarter of 1950, a gain of 258 workers. This is 
a sizable increase, indicating the increase in the 
number and size of firms and the numbers of work 
ers employed. Gross wages in 1949 amounted to 
$15,644,590, an average weekly wage of $60.05. 

As is generally known, the maximum in payroll 
tax is 3 percent for unemployment, of which the 
State collects 2.7 percent and the Federal Govern 
ment 0.3 percent. Under the Employer Experience 
Rating Plan, employers may earn reduced rates after 
three years of experience. It is interesting to note 
that 12 firms had not operated long enough to be 
considered for a reduction in rates, and six firms 
failed to earn reductions. On the other hand, one 
firm was paying the lowest rate, one-tenth of 1 per 
cent and one was paying two-tenths of one percent. 

Between these rates, 14 firms had earned the 2 
percent rate; 10 the 1.5 percent rate; 26 firms, 1 
percent ; 47 firms, 0.8 percent ; 12 firms, 0.6 percent 
and three firms, 0.4 percent. It is also interesting 
to note that in the second quarter of 1950, the aver- 
age rate paid by the liable publishing and printing 
firms was 0.99 percent, slightly less than one percent 
as against 1.55 percent for all liable firms in tht 
State for that period. It is likely that the rate wil 
remain close to one percent for the full year. 

Less than one-third, 66 out of 207 of the news 
papers in the State are subject to the ES Law. Tha' 
means that about 140 newspapers operate shop; 
employing less than eight workers, exclusive of th< 
owner (if sole owner, and not a corporation) an( 
partners or minor members of the family. 

Winter-Spring, 1951 



Press Association Active in Promoting State Papers 

By Henry Belk, President, N. C. Press Association and Editor, The Neivs-Argus, Goldsboro 

What is the North Carolina Press Association ? 

It is an association whose members are newspa- 
pers of North Carolina. Associate members are 
members of allied fields. 

Membership in the Association is made up of daily 
and non-daily publications. Currently each of the 
daily papers of North Carolina is a member. The 
100 percent mark for dailies was reached recently 
when the Kannapolis Independent joined. Mem- 
bership in the non-daily field is at a high mark. 

The Association holds two meetings a year. The 
annual meeting is held in the summer, generally 
early in July, at the mountains one year and at the 
becah the next. On a few occasions over its long 
history the Association has held its meetings during 
a sea trip. Some of the long-time members still re- 
call a friendly game a bunch of the fellows started 
during a convention at sea only to have a dear sister 
aboard claim the total fund for her Community Chest 
back home. 

The Press Institute is held annually in January 
with the University of North Carolina and Duke 
University as co-sponsors. Duke annually entertains 

the Institute at a dinner meeting on Friday evening 
of the Institute. The Institute was started 27 years 
ago and each of the succeeding sessions has featured 
timely programs with special sessions for shop talk. 
The Associated Dailies of North Carolina regularly 
have a session at the Institute and the non-dailies 
have a separate session at the same time. Each pre- 
sents a program of interest to its particular group. 

High spot of the Institutes is the award of prizes 
for outstanding newspaper writing or pictures of 
the past year. Prizes are awarded both in the daily 
and non-daily fields. This year a new high in entries 
in the daily contests has been reported with more 
than 400 submitted. It is traditional that the Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina make the presentation at 
the dinner at Duke. 

The Association is greatly indebted to Miss Bea- 
trice Cobb of Morganton for services she has ren- 
dered as secretary. Many state press associations 
hire an executive secretary. Miss Cobb, always com- 
petent and gracious, has given the Association with- 
out cost a quality of devotion and service which 
money could not buy. She edits the "North Carolina 

Park Inn, Asheville, July 8, 1950, as retiring President R. E. Price, Rutherford County 
Neivs, turns over gavel to new President Henry Belk, Goldsboro Neivs-Argus. Others, 
seated, I. to r. are: Miss Beatrice Cobb, Morganton Neivs-Herald, secretary-treasurer for 
SO years; Mr. Price, Mr. Belk; B. Arp Lowrance, Mecklenburg Times, vice-president. 
Back row, I. to r.: J. F. Hurley, Salisbury Post, and T. J. Lassiter, Smithfield Herald, 
directors; Clarence Griffin, Forest City Courier, historian; W. Randall Harris, Asheville 
Citizen-Times, and Holt McPherson, Shelby Daily Star, directors. Directors not in group: 
left, Leslie Thompson, News Reporter, Whiteville ; right, Weimar Jones, Franklin Press. 



Winter-Spring, 195 

Press," monthly publication of the Association, and 
attends to multitudinous details with an unusual 
application. She gives her job as unpaid secretary 
of the Association the same capable and outstanding 
attention that has distinguished her as publisher of 
The News-Herald, in Morganton, and in many fields 
of State progress. 

Big project before the Association now (and 
should be for some years ahead) is the raising of a 
$100,000 fund for the Journalism Foundation. The 
response to the drive for the Foundation among 
papers of the State got a good start last year. A 
number have signified intention to make annual con- 
tributions. The Foundation will supplement funds 
for the School of Journalism at Chapel Hill. Idea 
is to raise the School to accredited status as soon as 
possible. Holt McPherson, of Shelby, heads the 

Foundation and D. Hiden Ramsey, of Asheville, is 
its treasurer. 

Already the Foundation has proved its worth by 
making funds available to secure the services of Jack 
Riley for the Journalism School. A special appro- 
priation of $500 to supplement Prof. Riley's salary 
was made. The Journalism School funds from State 
sources were not sufficient to secure this needed 
addition to the School. 

As President of the N. C. Press Association for 
the year, I wish to extend thanks to "Mike" Dunna- 
gan for compiling this newspaper issue. For the 
first time it brings together a great wealth of mate- 
rial about newspapers and newspaper people of 
North Carolina. I predict that future researchers 
into the history of the North Carolina press will 
make use of material in this edition. 

Organization and Early Days of N. C. Press Association 

By Clarence Griffin, Forest City Courier, Historian, N. C. Press Association 

Although the North Carolina Press Association 
was founded in 1873, there were no printed session 
minutes of the Association until 1888. A few years 
ago a pamphlet, giving proceedings of the Associa- 
tion from 1873 to 1887, as copied from contempo- 
rary newspapers, was prepared to supplement the 
annual session proceedings, which have been pub- 
lished each year since. 

The organizational meeting of the North Carolina 
Press Association or "Association of Editors", was 
held in Goldsboro on May 14-15, 1873, with repre- 
sentatives present from 29 of the State's newspapers 
and one represented by proxy. After completing a 
temporary organization, the need for an association 
was discussed extensively, and on the second day it 


The committee, evidently named by J. A. Sharpe or J. F. 
Hurley, one of which was president when the decision was 
reached to compile the earlier records of the N. C. Press 
Association, included J. B. Sherrill, Concord, secretary for 
3 2 years; Josephus Daniels, Raleigh, and Francis D. Win- 
ston, Windsor. The record, compiled from newspaper re- 
ports by Mr. Sherrill, was printed in 1920, a book of more 
than 100 pages. This is in short supply now, although 
copies may be found among the books of members active 30 
years ago. 

When the association held its 50th anniversary celebra- 
tion July 26-28, 1922, at Cleveland Springs Hotel, Shelby, 
with President Sherrill presiding, Mr. Sherrill, J. A. Rob- 
inson, oldest member of the Association; T. B. Parker, State 
Department of Agriculture; Dr. Edgar W. Knight, of the 
State University; M. L. Shipman, Association historian; 
Josephus Daniels, Raleigh News and Observer; David Clark, 
of the Southern Textile Bulletin, Charlotte; H. B. Varner, 
Lexington Dispatch; Wade H. Harris, Charlotte Observer 
(read by J. A. Parham) ; John Paul Lucas, Duke Power Co., 
Charlotte; Governor Cameron Morrison, and others address- 
ed the meeting, largely on the 50 years of development since 
the association was formed. Clyde R. Hoey welcomed the 
guests to Shelby. 

Record of this meeting, the speeches and proceedings, was 
compiled by Miss Beatrice Cobb, Morganton, then and for 
30 years secretary of the Association. This anniversary 
record is in larger supply, but also limited. 

was voted to form the association. A permanent 
organization was set up and a constitution and by- 
laws was adopted. Despite the fact that the con- 
stitution has been in use more than 75 years, it is 
basically the same as adopted on that May day in 
1873, with exceptions of a few amendments, made 
from time to time to meet exigencies of changing 

The members were faced with substantially the 
same problems in the early days as they are faced 
with today. The main concern in those early years 
was advertising rates, prices charged for job print- 
ing, governmental charges for postage and ethics 
in general. 

One of the primary purposes for organizing the 
N. C. Press Association was to improve ethics among 
members of the fourth estate in North Carolina, and) 
the association has perhaps had greater succes 
along this line than any other. 


At the first meeting it was urged that all publish- 
ers adopt a published list of advertising rates, anc 
that each one adhere strictly to this published rate 
or else "this convention will discountenance anj 
editor who may deviate from the same". They als( 
condemned any deviation from published rates foi 
national advertising; and disapproved of any dis 
crimination "in favor of any advertising agency 
North or South". They also made preparation fo: 
publishing the first newspaper directory of Nort 
Carolina, showing name of paper, publisher, adver 
tising rates, size of page and classified rates. The 
condemned the practice of newspapers having "pat 
ent insides or outsides . . . containing advertising 
printed outside the State, and urged that it be aban 
doned. The practice of accepting subscriptions oi 
credit was discountenanced. A resolution was adopt 
ed favoring more immigration into North Carolim 




A representative group of newspaper editors and 
publishers attended the second meeting held in the 
State Capitol in Raleigh on May 13-14, 1874. Forty- 
five newspapers were represented and several new 
members were taken in at this meeting. A resolution 
was adopted appointing a superintendent to investi- 
gate the various advertising agencies of the country, 
and report back giving information on which of the 
agencies were solvent or reliable. A number of 
agencies had "swindled and defrauded the member" 
newspapers by placing advertising and failing to 
pay for same. Steps were taken to systematize rates 
for legal advertising, define legal advertising and 
determine which should be published. Committees 
were appointed to go before the General Assembly 
and secure passage of laws defining legal advertis- 
ing, an object which was not accomplished until 
many years later. 


The matter of sticking by published rates again 
came up. In defense of cutting rates, one member 
remarked that "we cannot always stick by them, for 
many of our people advertise in our weeklies from 
which they realize but little, and it is done by them 
to sustain their paper in order to get the weekly 
current news." In the matter of agency advertis- 
ing it was decided that "if we favor anybody, let's 
favor our own North Carolinians . . . We will get 
as many advertisements and just as many dollars 
from the outside." A visit was then made to the 
office of Governor Todd R. Caldwell, where His Ex- 
cellency "Unearthed his best North Carolina drink- 
ables and toasted the Press." 

At the third annual convention held in Wilming- 
ton on May 11-12, 1875, a resolution of censure of 
the North Carolina General Assembly was adopted. 
Couched in rather strong terms, the resolution con- 
demned the General Assembly of ignoring their 
committee on legal advertising, and at the same time 
spending several thousands of dollars for advertis- 
ing in New York, London and Scottish newspapers, 
setting forth the advantages of North Carolina, and 
ignoring North Carolina newspapers. 

It was at this session that Scott D. Pool, Jr., urged 
a resolution which would make North Carolina news- 
papers free and independent in politics. His rous- 
ing speech pointed out that any progressive news- 
paper was not dependent on the small stipend of 
legal advertising, and that the old system of "offi- 
cial" newspapers be abandoned. He advocated each 
publisher putting out a newspaper for the develop- 
ment of his own community. He stressed commun- 
ity service above politics. This was the first radical 
departure from the idea that a newspaper must de- 
pend on legal advertising as an official newspaper, 
to survive. Consideration of his resolution was 
postponed, as too many editors of that day still 
looked to the court house ring for sustenance when 
the going was hard. But later in the session the 
question was revived, and it was adopted by three 
votes majority, but still later, after much parlia- 
mentary skirmishing, it was laid on the table. The 



The North Carolina Association of Afternoon Dailies, Inc., 
is an organization of the afternoon newspapers in North 
Carolina, the primary purpose of which is to maintain a 
news bureau in Raleigh to supply them with news develop- 
ing in the Capital City of State-wide interest, as well as 
localized news stories. Members pay dues which are de- 
voted almost entirely to maintaining the news bureau in 
Raleigh. G. Lynn Nisbet has been correspondent and man- 
ager of the bureau for several years. 

The members usually hold a breakfast meeting in con- 
nection with the summer and winter meetings of the N. C. 
Press Association and at such other times as is necessary 
to handle the business of the association. The association 
was organized about 25 years ago, and was incorporated in 

Officers elected at the January meeting in Chapel Hill 
are: David J. Whichard, Jr., publisher, the Daily Reflector, 
Greenville, president; J. F. Hurley, publisher, Salisbury 
Evening Post, vice-president; J. P. Huskins, Statesville 
Daily Record, secretary-treasurer; Additional directors are: 
Holt McPherson, Shelby Daily Star, and Floyd Hendley, 
Greensboro Record. 

resolution condemning the use of patent insides or 
outsides was revived, and the original motion was 

The meeting of 1876, scheduled for Goldsboro and 
New Bern, was a failure, due to the appearance of 
only four newspaper representatives. The conven- 
tion was re-scheduled to meet in Raleigh on June 
14th, but developed into a social gathering. 


The meeting of 1880, held in Asheville, the first 
western North Carolina convention, was marred 
somewhat by a general protest of the churches of 
that town over the scheduled ball, which was part 
of the program. Hon. W. W. Holden, former Gov- 
ernor of North Carolina, and a former Raleigh news- 
paper editor, the only Governor to be impeached, 
was elected the association's first historian. His ap- 
pointment met with little approval throughout the 
State, and the NCPA was highly criticized for his 

Substantially the same subjects continued to come 
up for the next few years and were discussed at 
length at each meeting. By 1887, when the conven- 
tion met in Hendersonville in July, evidences that 
it was becoming a social organization were already 

However, despite the fact that the annual conven- 
tions now largely represent a social meeting, with 
its attendant good fellowship of other editors and 
publishers, the North Carolina Press Association, 
across the years, has justified itself. Many of the 
improvements in the profession, the high standards 
of ethics and the daily performances of newspapers 
in North Carolina owe to the NCPA their inception. 
Today, unlike 1875, the NCPA bears weight, and its 
representatives receive a quick and considerate hear- 
ing among the lawmakers of North Carolina. Down 
the years the association has done much to improve 
ethics among its members, and non-members as 
well. It is the voice of the fourth estate in North 
Carolina, and that voice is one which few newspapers 
dare to disobey. 



Winter-Spring, 1951 

Journalism Foundation, UNC, Aids School in Traininj 

{Requested Contribution) 

Not long ago D. Hiden Ramsey, general manager 
of the Asheville Citizen-Times, who serves also as 
treasurer of the School of Journalism Foundation 
of North Carolina, Inc., received from an anonymous 
donor a check for a thousand dollars as a tribute 
to Oscar Jackson Coffin, dean of the School of Jour- 
nalism at the University of North Carolina.* 

It came from a former student of "Skipper" Cof- 
fin, who took that way to articulate his interest in 
the Foundation and the School of Journalism head 
who, working together, are seeking to advance the 
Chapel Hill journalism school to a foremost position 
in journalistic educational ranks of the country. 

Established in 1947, the Foundation is gathering 
an endowment of $100,000, income from which will 
be used to supplement University funds available to 
the School of Journalism for teaching salaries and 
other needed expenses. 


The tribute gift to Skipper Coffin was the third 
such, the North Carolina Press Association having 
launched the fund with a gift of $1,000 as tribute 
to its long-time secretary, Miss Beatrice Cobb, of 
Morganton, and The Hickory Daily Record having 
contributed $1,000 as a memorial to Miss Sara Lee 
Gifford who was fatally injured in an automobile 
accident two years ago. The late W. C. Dowd, Jr., 
who was publisher of The Charlotte News many 
years, left in his will a bequest in excess of $5,000 
to the Foundation, and there have been numerous 
gifts in lesser amounts to help lift the total, but many 
more are needed before the $100,000 minimum fund 
will be complete and the Foundation's usefulness 
developed as its projectors hope will prove the case. 

The Foundation was launched as a child of the 
North Carolina Press Association with 15 charter 
members, including many of the leaders of the news- 
paper and radio business, principally in North Caro- 
lina, but with many from other states. The U. S. 
Treasury approved gifts to the Foundation as de- 
ductible for income tax purposes. 

Already efforts have paid off by advancing from 
status of a department in English to its own School 
with Coffin as dean. Plans are shaping by which 
it will before much longer be adequately housed in 
its own building, where expanded facilities will en- 
hance its usefulness. 


Holt McPherson, Shelby newspaper and radio ex- 
ecutive, is president of the Foundation, which has 
Leslie Thompson, editor of The Whiteville News 
Reporter, as vice-president; William C. Lassiter, of 
Raleigh, as secretary and general counsel ; D. Hiden 
Ramsey as treasurer; Roy Parker, of Ahoskie, as 

•'Another check for $1,000, also anonymously presented, was announced 
at the meeting of the chartering members of the Journalism Foundation in 
Chapel Hill January 19, honoring Professor Phillips Russell, of the UNC 
school of Journalism faculty for several years. The total receipts then 
amounted to $14,505. — Editor. 

assistant secretary, and Dr. Clarence Poe, of Raleigh, 
as assistant treasurer. 

Directors, in addition to the officers, are Miss 
Beatrice Cobb, J. E. Dowd, Jr., J. L. Home, Jr., W. 
K. Hoyt, Richard H. Mason, Frank A. Daniels, John 
W. Harden, William E. Horner, Thomas J. Lassiter, 
Steed Rollins and Ed M. Anderson. (Mr. Anderson 


Founding members of the Journalism Foundation, UNC, 
are: E. H. Abernethy, Atlanta; Walter S. Adams, Asheville; 
Ed M. Anderson, Brevard; Dr. C. W. Armstrong, Salisbury; 
W. J. Arthur, Jacksonville; J. W. Atkins, Gastonia; J. M. 
Bryan, Greensboro; F. Grover Britt, Clinton; Henry Belk, 
Goldsboro; Mrs. James Boyd, Southern Pines; G. W. Brad 
ham, Greensboro; H. Gait Braxton, Kinston; *P. H. Batte, 

H. C. Bennett, High Point; C. H. Crutchfield, Charlotte; 
Miss Beatrice Cobb, Morganton; H. A. Cecil, Thomasville; 
Staley A. Cook, Burlington; Lenoir Chambers, Norfolk, Va. ; 
Miss Addie Cooke, Murphy; *Curtis B. Johnson, Charlotte; 
Douglas Coxe, Lumberton; C. C. Council, Durham; E. C. 
Daniels, Jr., London; H. A. Dennis, Henderson; O. J. Coffin, 
Chapel Hill; 

Frank A. Daniels, Raleigh; Jonathan Daniels, Raleigh; 
M. R. Dunnagan, Raleigh; J. E. Dowd, Charlotte; C. A. 
Eury, New Bern; Gordon Gray, Chapel Hill; Louis Graves 
Chapel Hill; Paul Green, Chapel Hill; Dr. F. P. Graham, 
Chapel Hill; L. C. Gifford, Hickory; B. S. Griffith, Char- 
lotte; John W. Harden, Greensboro; Clyde R. Hoey, Shelby; 

W. K. Hoyt, Winston-Salem; J. F. Hurley, Salisbury; W. 
E. Horner, Sanford; Mrs. W. C. Hammer, Asheboro; P. T. 
Hines, Greensboro; A. W. Huckle, Rock Hill, S. C; Ray 
Hull, Concord; J. L. Home, Jr., Rocky Mount; J. P. Huskins, 
Statesville; John B. Harris, Albemarle; W T . R. Harris, Ashe- 
ville; Gerald W. Johnson, Baltimore; C. O. Jeffress, Greens- 
boro ; 

*Louis I. Jaffe, Norfolk, Va. ; Dr. T. C. Johnson, Raleigh; 
Weimar Jones, Franklin; E. Z. Jones, Burlington; H. W. 
Kendall, Greensboro; Mrs. Rena Lassiter, Smithfield; J. 
Spencer Love, Washington, D. C; H. F. Laffoon, Elkin; B. Arp 
Lowrance, Charlotte; T. J. Lassiter, Smithfield; R. M. Lam 
beth, Greensboro; J. D. Langston, Goldsboro; Isaac London, 
Rockingham ; 

Stahle Linn, Salisbury; J. Paul Lucas, Charlotte; W. W. 
Neal, Atlanta; Lynn Nisbet, Raleigh; W. M. Oliver, Reids- 
ville; R. B. Page, Wilmington; John A. Park, Raleigh; Tal- 
bot Patrick, Rock Hill, S. C; Edwin Pate, Laurinburg; 
W. T. Peacock, Washington; Roy Parker, Ahoskie; Drew 
Pearson, Washington, D. C; Charles J. Parker, Raleigh. 

Dr. Clarence Poe, Raleigh; R. E. Price, Rutherfordton; 
C. Knox Massey, Durham; Holt McPherson, Shelby; Mrs. 
E. F. McCulloch, Elizabethtown; Richard H. Mason, Ral 
eigh ; Spencer Murphy, Salisbury; Mrs. O. C. McQuage, 
Mocksville; John H. Mebane, Atlanta; Santford Martin 
Winston-Salem; G. C. Munden, Morehead City; Dr. Fred 
Morrison, Washington, D. C; R. W. Madry, Chapel Hill; 

Steed Rollins, Durham; Phillips Russell, Chapel Hill; D. 
A. Rawley, High Point; E. A. Resch, Siler City; D. Hiden 
Ramsey, Asheville; K. Craige Ramsey, Salisbury; W. Curtis 
Russ, Waynesville; James Street, Chapel Hill; Don Shoe- 
maker, Asheville; Walter Spearman, Chapel Hill; Forrest 
H. Shuford, Raleigh; Mrs. E. G. Swindell, Wilson; Joe S. 
Sink, Lexington; 

J. A. Sharpe, Jr., Lumberton; W. E. Smith, Albemarle; 
Bill Sharpe, Raleigh; Leslie Thompson, Whiteville; R. B. 
Terry, High Point; John W. Umstead, Chapel Hill; Larry 
Walker, Charlotte; Miles H. Wolff, Greensboro; A. L. M. 
Wiggins, Hartsville, S. C; Capus M. Waynick, Managua, Nica- 
ragua; Tom R. Wolfe, Albemarle; Henry Lee Weathers, 
Shelby; Lee B. Weathers, Shelby; Robert M. Wallace, 


Winter-Spring, 195 



was elected at the January meeting to succeed Curtis 
B. Johnson, deceased. All other officers-directors 
were re-elected.) 

The Foundation has tremendous potentialities for 
usefulness. Already it is supplementing the salary 
of a much-needed teacher who wouldn't otherwise 
be available to the school, and it is the purpose to 
use income from the endowment in succeeding years 
to draw to the School of Journalism staff the best 
available men for its faculty. The program is and 
will continue to be adaptable to current needs. Its 
purpose is to strengthen the training of young people 
to carry on the newspaper and allied radio work of 
North Carolina and general area. 


Everything that contributes to better training of 
men and women for journalism helps the business. 

Gifts to the Journalism Foundation have a greater 
significance than mere assistance to individuals. A 
gift to the Foundation means a contribution to the 
training of those who will operate and control the 
press of the future. Those trained adequately in a 
good journalism school will be the best insurance for 
the continuance of a free and responsible press serv- 
ing the state and nation. Likewise, a free and re- 
sponsible press will be the safeguard, not only for 
public education in the future, but also for all the 
other advantages which we enjoy under our demo- 
cratic form of government. To that end the Jour- 
nalism Foundation will help in every way within its 
means to advance the cause of journalistic training 
— the years will write eloquent testimonials to wise 
giving thereto. 

Personal Journalism, Editor Feuds, Half Century Ago 

By H. E. C. (Red Buck) Bryant, Route 1, Matthews, N. C. 

Asked to contribute a story for the magazine of 
the Employment Security Commission of North Caro- 
lina, I was told : "It would not be bad to compare 
newspapers of 50 years ago with those of today." 
That would be a difficult task. Yet, I do not mind 
pointing out some differences as I see them. 

When I commenced my reporting career with The 
Charlotte Observer in the summer of 1895, under its 
able editor, Joseph P. Caldwell, a capable man or 
woman with a few hundred dollars could have estab- 
lished a paper and maintained it by industry and 
good judgment. He or she could have purchased a 
few cases of type and a press and started in busi- 
ness. But, today, it would require thousands upon 
thousands of dollars to provide the machinery for 
a single issue of a paper ; the cost of production has 
increased tremendously. As a result, a majority 
of newspapers are run from the business office, not 
the editorial sanctum. 

Fifty odd years ago readers knew more about 
ditors than they do now, and editorials, today, are 
not as important as they were then. 

Personal journalism has taken a back seat. 

Once I wrote a letter to the old New York Sun, 
after its remarkable editor, Charles A. Dana, had 
passed away, and asked who had written a certain 
editorial. The response was : "The Sun." Now- 
adays, there is very little curiosity about authorship 
)f editorials. The Danas, Greeleys, Pulitzers, Henry 
Wattersons, J. P. Caldwells, J. C. Hemphills, and 
others of their day are gone. Here and there a 
weekly paper has an outstanding editor whose opin- 
ions attract and influence readers, but they are few 
and far apart. 

Training for my life work came from a grand man 
who believed that "Nothing but the truth endures!" 
His guidance proved a blessing to me. Throughout a 
ong and interesting career I have never had to un- 
earn what he taught me. Today, as a reader of 

papers, if I find that a writer colors news to suit the 
editorial policy of his employer, I lose faith in him 
and hesitate to read after him. 


Mr. Caldwell studiously refrained from putting 
himself or his paper under obligations to anyone, not 
even a friend. Once, when his business manager 
went out and rounded up an extraordinary group of 
advertisers by an appeal that they owed The Ob- 
server something for its great service to the com- 
munity, the boss said : "No, you have done a good 
job, but that will not do; we cannot afford it. We 
must win on merit." 

The spirit of absolute independence was instilled 
into me and all other members of The Observer staff. 

Fifty years ago it was customary to single out 
newspapers and newspaper representatives for spe- 
cial favors, give them lower rates at hotels, free 
tickets to shows, and railroad passes. In Washing- 
ton, where I labored for the greater part of my life, 
there were public men who thought it proper, or 
actually necessary, to give gratuities. One Congress- 
man did not like it because I declined to attend an 
annual dinner he had for "representatives of the 



The Eastern North Carolina Press Association is the 
larger of the three area groups organized under and as units 
of the N. C. Press Association. It covers fully half of the 
area of the State, from Raleigh eastward, and was organized 
three or four years ago. Meetings are held twice a year, 
fall and spring. The last meeting was at Wilson. 

Officers elected at that meeting include Mrs. Elizabeth 
Gold Swindell, Wilson Daily Times, President; Sam Ragan, 
News and Observer, Raleigh, vice-president; Mayon Parker, 
Parker Bros., Ahoskie, secretary-treasurer (permanent). 
Other directors are: W. C. Manning, Williamston Enter- 
prise, immediate past president; Grover Britt, Sampson In- 
dependent, Clinton, and Josh L. Home, Rocky Mount Tele- 



Winter-Spring, 1951 



The Western North Carolina Press Association is an 
active unit in the mountain area of the North Carolina 
Press Association, meeting monthly, usually in Asheville, 
but occasionally at other points in the area. This group has 
been organized for several years. 

Present officers of the group are: Miss Addie Mae Cooke, 
Cherokee Scout, Murphy, president; Noah Hollowe.ll, West- 
ern Carolina Tribune, Hendersonville, vice-president; Mrs. 
J. A. Gray, Sylva Herald, secretary; W. Curtis Russ, Waynes- 
ville Mountaineer, reporter. 

press who had to write about him." After I had 
turned down several of his invitations, he asked me 
why I did not accept. 

I responded : "In the first place, I have a good din- 
ner at home every day; in the second place, you do 
not owe me one, and, in the third place, you may do 
something tomorrow or next day that might make 
a story you would not like to see in print, and I could 
not write it as I should with my stomach full of your 

That viewpoint was difficult for my would-be host 
to see. I told him that, if he would invite me to his 
home with others than reporters, who had to call on 
him daily for news, I could accept and get pleasure 
out of being his guest, but something to be exclus- 
ively eaten by members of the press on his beat did 
not appeal to me. 

In the old days owners of papers had to take all 
sorts of things for pay. A cord of wood, a gallon 
of home-made molasses or liquor, or some corn for 
the livestock was given for subscriptions. But, that 
day has passed. Money rolls in now. Laws prevent 
the presenting of railroad and other passes. 


I recall an editorial written by Mr. Caldwell on 
the subject of such means of transportation. It 
read : "A sub-committee, representing forty railroad 
systems, has agreed to recommend to their roads the 
abolition of the free pass system, and it is stated 
that there is reason to believe that the recommenda- 
tion will be adopted and that after the first of Jan- 
uary next the pass will go. It should. It is both an 
injustice and an evil. Passes are generally to be 
found in the pockets of those who are best able to 
pay fare, and they are not there without reason, but 
to influence those who hold them. The railroads haul 
an immense number of people free. If all who ride 
free were made to pay, railroad fares could be re- 
duced, the railroads still make as much money or 
more, and they would discharge with more equity 
their function as common carriers. The pass is not 
just, and it 'grinds' a poor man or one of moderate 
means, who has paid for his ticket to see a money- 
bags across the aisle pull one on the conductor — a 
money-bags who has no claim to free transportation 
beyond the fact that he is supposed to have 'influ- 
ence.' The railroads ought to put everybody on the 
same level, and if this is ever done it must be done 
by the roads themselves, for it has been demonstrat- 
ed that statute law is inadequate to reach the free 

pass evil. There are all sorts of ways of evading 
such laws." 

I rode all over North Carolina on assignments 
from The Observer, but never on a free pass; Mr. 
Caldwell saw that my way was paid. Two interest- 
ing experiences during my active newspaper service 
convinced me Mr. Caldwell was right in his desire 
for independence. It was intimated, in a hot State 
campaign, that my stories from Washington were 
biased in favor of Senator F. M. Simmons. I was 
able to deny that with emphasis. I had never accept- 
ed as much as a cigar from him. The intimation was 
withdrawn, and an apology extended. There had 
been a veiled suggestion that I was paid to help the 
Senator. That could have resulted in the spilling of 
blood. Senator Simmons might have favored some 
newspaper representatives but not me. All I asked 
of him was news, and he was fair about that. 


Controversies, or feuds, between editors seem to 
have ceased. In my early days there were sharp 
conflicts over prohibition, the Gold Standard and 
Free Silver, and other subjects. Now and then one 
editor would call another a barroom bum, a liar, or 
worse. Nowadays newspaper owners frown on that 
sort of thing; they do not think it helps a paper to 
succeed. In fact, the editorial writers of one paper 
ignore those of a competitor. One struggling for 
existence gets no free advertising from its more suc- 
cussful rivals. In the old days Mr. Caldwell, of The 
Charlotte Observer, and Mr. Josephus Daniels, of 
The News and Observer, were in conflict much of 
the time. Vile names were used, and personal en- 
counters threatened. A castigation Mr. Caldwell 
gave the Rev. A. J. McKelway, then editor of a lead- 
ing church paper, resulted in a law suit. No more 
scathing article has ever been written in the State 
than the one directed at Mr. McKelway. It attracted 
more than State-wide attention because of its fierce- 
ness, and, even today, requests for copies of it are 
made. There have been duels over editorial com- 
ment but such bitter conflicts are unheard of now. 

An interesting feature of newspapers in the nine- 
ties was the use of clippings from well-known writ- 
ers. That sort of enlightenment is of the past. Just 
one paper I see, The Laurinburg Exchange, devotes 
space to worthwhile stories from other publications, 
Papers today are crowded with all sorts of matter, 
and have no room for bright squibs from the othei 
fellow's print shop. 

During my employment by the Washington Bureau 



The Mid-Western North Carolina Press Association, one 
of the three area units of the N. C. Press Association covers 
roughly, the Piedmont area of the State. It has been or 
ganized for several years. Recently the group came to life 
again after a period of suspension. Meetings are held ai 
various points monthly in the area. 

Present officers are: Gordon Tomlinson, Mocksville Enter 
prise, president; Richard H. Byrd, Valdese News, secretary 
treasurer; J. P. Huskins, Statesville Daily Record, vice 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 





During the meetings of the North Carolina Press Asso- 
ciation, both the summer convention and the winter Press 
Institute members divide into daily and weekly field groups 
for sessions to deal with problems relating to their respect- 
ive fields. 

At the January meeting in Chapel Hill, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Gold Swindell, of the Wilson Daily Times, presided over the 
daily paper session. D. J. Germino, Durham Herald-Sun, 
has been secretary-treasurer of this group for a decade or 

In the weekly group meeting Bill Arp Lowrance, Meck- 
lenburg Times, Charlotte, vice-president of the State Asso- 
ciation, presided. Usually the president or the vice-president 
of the association, whichever is in the non-daily group, pre- 
sides at these sessions. 

of the old New York World, I often heard it said 
a half hundred columns or more were thrown away 
late at night to give space for more interesting 
news. A telegram that our bureau chief got once or 
twice a week read like this : "Cut copy to bone — we 
are crowded !" I have seen good stories of a thou- 
sand words reduced to 200. In 1912 I was sent 
through Southern States to get affidavits from col- 
ored delegates to the Republican National Conven- 
tion to show that Theodore Roosevelt and Howard A. 
Taft supporters had offered money for votes in the 
contest for the nomination of the Republican party 
for President. 


The day I left Washington on that assignment a 
leading gambler was killed in New York City. That 
proved to be one of the most sensational murders in 
the history of that great city, and the newspapers 
were full of stories about it for weeks. I went as 
far as Natchez, Miss., and wired a story of a thou- 
sand or more words every night. The trip cost The 
World approximately $1,500.00, and the only story 
of mine used contained 500 words, and that was sent 
in the first day out. Later, as the day of the elec- 
tion approached, with Roosevelt running as the big 
Bull Moose, I was asked to revise my stories and 
hurry them over. On the way to the station to put 
them on a train I saw that Mr. Roosevelt had been 
shot and severly wounded.* Again, my affidavits 
were held up ; they never were published. 

A frequent saying that I heard in my cub-report- 
ing days ran like this : "Here is something for your 
paper — it may not be news, but it will help to fill 

Now, my only concern is over the use of the blue 
pencil or a pair of scissors. With bigger things hap- 
pening than those I can recall, one of my yarns may 
be cut as short as the tail of one of my fast hounds 
who lost part of his because the screw worms at- 
tacked it. Space fillers are not needed. 

I often wonder what some of the leading maga- 
zines of today would do if it were not for the liquor 
advertisements they carry; they must have them to 

*Thcodore Roosevelt was shot by a crank and slightly wounded (con- 
tinued his campaign) at Milwaukee, Wis., October 14, 1912, less than a 
month before the election in which Woodrow Wilson was elected President. 

There has been a wonderful improvement in the 
news features of the weekly papers of the State. 
Such local publications are remarkable for their 
appearance and the character of their printed mat- 
ter. The daily papers are so large that I like to get 
a weekly with its brief summary of the news. North 
Carolina must have more than a hundred good week- 
lies, some of them twice-a-week papers. 

I often think of a request I had forty-odd years 
ago to return from Washington for help to start a 
new weekly in a fine old county. A prominent mer- 
chant of the county seat wrote to ask me to join him 
and others in the establishment of a paper that stood 
for progress. He was evidently very angry at the 
editor of the town paper. He said he was more in- 
terested in tearing down than building up ; his reason 
for that statement was a story printed of a building 
under construction which had fallen down. The 
merchant had announced a three- or four-story build- 
ing for his town, and at that time his structure would 
have been the "sky-scraper" of the place. No such 
pretentious building had been contemplated before 
that. Plans were drawn and erection commenced, 
and after the walls had been put up one of them fell. 
My friend said the local paper had a column or more 
about the collapse of the wall; whereas, he had just 
an inch about the announcement of the project. 

I was told that a committee would meet me at the 
train if I would consent to come and help them with 
their proposed enterprise. The man had my sym- 
pathy but I am afraid had I been on the job when 
the wall tumbled, I might have made more of a story 
than the editor did. New buildings are erected daily 
but new ones seldom fall. 


Some weekly newspapers were very sorry in 
former years. Their editors were great talkers but 
indolent workers. News features were neglected, or 
actually ignored, but editorials were caustic. If the 
editor happened to be a bitter partisan, he spent 
much time going about the streets abusing fellow 
editors. I knew of a case of that kind. 

The owner and editor of the local paper took great 
pride in denouncing my chief. He was a Bryanite 
when Grover Cleveland was concluding his last year 
in the White House. He denounced Mr. Caldwell 
daily to people who would listen to him. He rarely 
devoted time to his office. His paper evidenced his 
lack of industry in the sanctum. Finally, he decided 
to blow the "old Gold Bug" of The Charlotte Observer 
to bits with a two-column editorial. Busy for days 
on his masterpiece, he could not resist the tempta- 
tion to sally forth several times a day to warn people 
he met on the streets of the surprise he was prepar- 
ing for his contemporary. "Thirty" written to his 
piece he turned it over to his printer. It appeared 
in due time full of mistakes, framed in poor type, 
and errors in spelling. But, the punch was there. 
Seeing it, Mr. Caldwell chopped it out and published 
it word for word, mistake by mistake, just as it ap- 
peared, and wrote this line of comment at the bot- 
tom of it: "When you hear nothing, say nothing!" 

PAGE 10 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

The irate editor had not prepared his friends for 
that terse comment. He had purchased an Observer 
daily for a week to see if he had smashed Mr. Cald- 
well. To make a long story short, he sold his paper 
and hired himself out. 

As a Washington correspondent, I kept in some 
sort of touch with the State, and was always inter- 
ested in its newspapers. Fifty or more years ago 
press correspondents had a free hand. Good papers 
took special pride in their representatives there. 
They were anxious to keep track of their own public 
men in that capital city. Good feature stories were 
sent in from writers of ability. Political news was 
far more important than it is today. If a member of 
Congress made a mistake, the fact was published. 
Now, Southern papers are more like those of the 
North — they pay very little attention to their Con- 
gressmen ; a good member gets little credit for what 
he does and a questionable one can get by with mur- 
der without being found out. Of course, weekly 
papers were not expected to be able to pay much for 
their Washington news service. Some of them were 
fooled into employing Tom, Dick or Harry. One 
Democratic paper of fine reputation had for its cor- 
respondent a man in the employ of the Republican 
National Committee. That sort of hireling if a good 
news man would be all right if fair, and the readers 
would never know about his political faith. 


Twice in my life I was asked to color news to fit 
the editorial, or perhaps the financial policy, of the 
paper I was working for. I was never asked by Mr. 
Caldwell to leave out news, or doctor it. News was 
news with him. 

After the first world war, Secretary of the Treas- 
ury Andrew W. Mellon proposed a plan to cut taxes. 
Big taxpayers were for it, hook, line and sinker. A 
feature of it would have reduced the surtax very 
substantially — that suited all men of great wealth. 
Our special tax reporter was being scooped daily on 
that important story. I was asked to take it. I 
wrote seven front page stories for my paper — The 
New York World — after I canvassed the field thor- 
oughly for facts and sentiment. I said the Mellon 
plan would have to be changed — a compromise would 
be the result. That was not my opinion but that of 
the members of Congress who would have the fram- 
ing of a bill to be enacted into law. Our bureau got 
a wire saying my stories were "running contrary" 
to the editorial policy of the paper. That was the 
first and only suggestion of the kind that ever came 
to us in my twenty years with the World. My chief, 
Charles Michelson, ignored the telegram, told me to 
proceed as I had been doing. We had not been scoop- 
ed. I wrote three additional stories and was then 
taken off the job by instructions from the New York 
office. I resigned in a huff. Later, when the paper 
realized that my stories stood up, I was rehired, and 
remained with the bureau until the paper was sold. 

After Mr. Caldwell died, I was asked to refrain 
from suggesting in my Observer reports that there 
might be a candidate against one of our Senators. 
Several names were being mentioned. To my way 
of thinking, that was a suppression of news. That 
took place before the present owners bought the 
paper — it had been floundering about a little, and 
was uncertain what course to pursue. 

No other North Carolina newspaper ever made 
such a suggestion to me. 

Personalities of Past Among North Carolina Editors 

By Roland F. Beasley, Editor, The Monroe Journal 

My entrance into the field of journalism, or as I 
still prefer to call it, newspaper work, was accidental 
and by way of the back door. In 1881 my brother, 
G. M. Beasley, then under twelve years of age, be- 
came a printer's devil. And it was a devil of a job 
then. No genuine printer's devil now exists. I 
heard much about the printing office from him and 
by the time I was in the middle teens I found myself 
writing "pieces for the paper." I never learned the 
printer's side. My brother stuck to that, and I con- 
tinued to try my hand at writing. 

In 1894 while I was graduating at Wake Forest, 
he and I jointly started the Monroe Journal. We 
are still .both working on it. At that time Mr. Jose- 
phus Daniels was coming home to Raleigh to take 
over the News and Observer and "save the State," 
as Dr. Columbus Durham, the belligerent Baptist 
leader of that time, said. Josephus and Durham 
were on different sides of the controversy about the 
support of the University and the supposed injury to 
the denominational colleges. 

Joseph P. Caldwell had not long been come to 
Charlotte to take over The Charlotte Observer. He 
had left his former printer, R. R. Clark, to take over 
the Statesville Landmark, the weekly on which Mr. 
Caldwell had made his reputation. Mr. Clark be- 
came a most able editor. The Charlotte News was 


The North Carolina AP Club, composed of representa- 
tives of newspapers in the State which are members of The 
Associated Press and thus receive its news services, has 
been organized in this State for 10 or 15 years and holds 
its meetings in connection with the meetings of the N. C. 
Press Association. The chief of the Carolinas Bureau of the 
AP, located in Charlotte, serves as secretary of the club. 

Officers elected at the meeting held in connection with the) 
Press Institute at Chapel Hill in January follow: Steed 
Rollins, executive editor, Durham Herald-Sun, president; 1 
Claude S. Ramsey, executive news editor, Asheville Citizen- 
Times, vice-president; Paul Hansell, chief of the AP bureau 
in the Carolinas, Charlotte, secretary. Additional directorsH 
are: Mrs. Elizabeth G. Swindell, business manager, Wilsor| 
Daily Times; Carl O. Jeffress, general manager, Greensborq. 
News-Record; Staley Cook, editor Burlington Times-News i 1 

Winter-Spring, 1 951 


PAGE 1 1 

then a little four-page paper gotten out by Wade 
Harris pretty much all by himself. Carey Dowd had 
not appeared. However, he did appear shortly, 
bought the Mecklenburg Times from Jerome Dowd, 
and in a short time, The Charlotte News, from Mr. 
Harris. The Charlotte Observer was a four-page, 
seven column, paper, just putting in the first linotype 
machine in the State. 

In Greensboro Joe Reece and Harp Elam were 
running the Daily Record, which sometimes had 
some news items in it but only after there was room 
to get in all the ads. Clem Wright was about to 
establish the Greensboro Telegram with C. P. Sapp, 
a very brilliant man, as editor. Asheville, Durham, 
and Winston-Salem were in about the same condi- 
tions as to newspapers. None were getting any tele- 
graphic news except a little snatchy pony service 
of a few paragraphs. No paper in the State had 
over 2,500 circulation. In Goldsboro Col. Joe Rob- 
inson was running the Goldsboro Argus like Joe 
Reece was running the Greensboro Record, a few 
items of local news, if they were not crowded out by 
the ads. Joe Caldwell said that Col. Joe Robinson 
was the cleverest man in North Carolina and had the 
sorriest newspaper. But I never thought he beat Joe 
Reece and Harp Elam in Greensboro. 

In Wilmington, The Star, which had been started 
right after the Civil War by Maj. William H. Ber- 
nard, was still going as a seven column four page 
paper. William H. Bonitz, who had successfully 
operated the Goldsboro Messenger as a weekly and 
made money out of it some way, had gone to Wil- 
mington and started a second or third daily. He 
started the Wilmington Messenger and hired Dr. 
T. B. Kingsbury, who was considered the leading 
editor and scholar in the State, to edit it. He had 
been with The Star. 

Charles A. Dana said when William R. Hearst 
began to sweep things with his New York Journal, 
that its success was due to the fact that Hearst had 
hired all the World's best liars. When Bonitz hired 
Dr. Kingsbury, it was supposed that The Star was 
done for. But it wasn't. It kept right on shining as 
brightly as it had and eventually outlived the Mes- 
senger. While these two dailies were operating in a 
town that could not support one to any extent, there 
was a third paper. This was the Wilmington Re- 
view, operated by Mr. Josh James, who must have 
been as clever a man as he was a sorry editor. The 
Review was four pages, five or six columns. I have 
seen many copies of the Review and I would make, 
oath that I never saw two news items come out in 
the same issue. 

Dr. Kingsbury was a scholar in the classics, in 
history, and theology. I think everyone around Wil- 
mington agreed that he was the greatest editor at 
all, but I doubt if many read what he had to say. It 
is said that in times of political or other excitement 
the doctor was so detached that his leading editorial 
the next morning might be a discussion of who wrote 
the Junius letters. He was a staunch Southern 
champion and always had plenty of ammunition to 

shoot at the Yankees. I was told years ago that his 
salary was $18 a week, which was considered lib- 
eral. I always thought — following J. P. Caldwell — 
that the test of whether a man was an editor or just 
a writer was whether he stayed in the office 'til the 
paper was "put to bed." According to that test Dr. 
Kingsbury was not closely attached to the paper, 
for he left the office about 4 o'clock in the afternoon 
and went home and enjoyed himself in his library. 

Such was the newspaper world into which I was 
born. Joseph Pulitzer was at his zenith ; Charles A. 
Dana, "old vitriol" as Mr. Caldwell called him, was 
spitting brilliancy and venom; James Gordon Ben- 
nett was still running the Herald as a personal organ 
that would never print the name of a person Mr. 
Bennett did not like; W. R. Hearst was just coming 
upon the scene and Adolf Ochs had just acquired the 
New York Times. Henry Watterson was still thun- 
dering loudly in the Louisville (Ky.) Courier-Jour- 
nal. Henry Grady was dead but he left hundreds of 
boys in North Carolina and all over the South with 
his name. The Atlanta Constitution was the leading 
paper of the South and Frank L. Stanton, its poetic 
and humane genius, filled his column of verse daily. 

Most of the weekly papers still used Franklin hand 
presses and I myself was fairly efficient in pulling 
the lever of one. I considered it easier than the job 
of the man who rolled the ink over the forms. When 
you became skillful enough to run off one hundred 
impressions in 22 minutes, you were doing right 
well. Then the papers had to be turned and run 
through again to print the other two pages. Thus 
two men turned out 100 completed four-page papers 
in 22 minutes, if everything went well. 

The dailies and some of the weeklies were printed 
on the old Campbell cylinder presses, and along in 
the nineties the dailies began to get duplex presses 
such as the weeklies now use. 

H. E. C. Bryant and I began writing about the 
same time, he on The Charlotte Observer and I on 
my own paper in 1894. I am now writing more than 
I ever did. - Mr. Bryant, though having retired from 
regular employment, writes for his own amusement 
and the enjoyment of thousands of friends. For 
over ten years he has been writing a column weekly 
for the Monroe Journal, several for other weeklies, 
and a Sunday article for The Charlotte Observer. 
He has an inexhaustible fund of incidents and obser- 
vations running from the grass roots of Providence 
township to the strongest characters in the United 
States Senate for the last 50 years. 

In the early days of the century when Bryant, 
Banks, Avery, McNeil, and Abernathy were inspired 
and directed by Mr. Caldwell, they made what might 
be called the Periclean age in the Observer history. 
Something of the same thing had taken place with 
the News and Observer under Mr. Daniels, except 
that his staff was devoted to politics exclusively, 
while The Observer boys roved over the whole field 
of human interest. 

The creation of rural mail service gave the week- 
lies their first impulse to growth, and the motor 

PAGE 1 2 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

vehicle later did the same thing for the dailies. Along 
with this, of course, was the general increase of 
trade and industry and the necessity for advertising. 
Newspaper publishing now is little more than a 
mechanical industry. With the general trend to- 
wards consolidation and centralization, newspapers 
have lost their individuality and become more and 
more alike. If there were any geniuses left they 

would be smothered in the oceans of mediocrity and 
rubbish with which the papers are crammed. But 
newspapers, like radio, colleges and pulpits, run 
more and more to rubbish as a means of attracting 
numbers. There are no intellectual standards which 
have any weight and newspaper editorials have be- 
come little more than a part of the hue and cry for 
the moment's fad. 

Yesteryear Editors More Vigorous Than Today's Crop 

By Dr. Oscar J. Coffin, Dean, School of Journalism, University of North Carolina 

My arm having been twisted by one M. R. (Mike) 
Dunnagan, I fumblingly set about a bit of a survey 
of newspapers in North Carolina as they were when 
I first met them eye to eye and how they appear now. 

Some 45 years ago when I was busy overcoming 
the objections of the late William Cicero Hammer to 
the employment of what he was wont to refer to as 
"an honor graduate of the University of North Caro- 
lina" at $8 a week, Charlotte had three daily news- 
papers with as many editors, Greensboro as equally 
well supplied, and Raleigh was just recovering from 
the loss of a third one. There were two papers in 
Asheville, Durham, Winston-Salem and Wilmington 
under separate management. Salisbury, Tarboro, 
High Point, Fayetteville, Greenville, Kinston, Wilson 
and Goldsboro had one each. I recall three semi- 
weeklies, one at Statesville, two at Monroe, and there 
may have been another one or so that I have over- 
looked. What with the number of small towns pub- 
lishing dailies — there are two at Statesville, for in- 
stance — the number of dailies has increased although 
there's no longer a city with three, and the ownership 
has been consolidated save in Raleigh and Charlotte. 
The number of weeklies is approximately the same. 
For though several towns have them which didn't, 
a large number have ceased publication. 


The largest circulation of any daily newspaper 
was not above 10,000, but I'm inclined to think that 
the editors were more widely known than at present. 
Journalism was much more of a personal and parti- 
san affair. Josephus Daniels, Joseph Pearson Cald- 
well, Carey Dowd, and Colonel Joe Robinson figured 
far more prominently in public and private conver- 
sation than current editors of the News and Ob- 
server, Charlotte Observer, Charlotte News and 
Goldsboro Argus. Indeed, Judge Rufus R. Clark of 
the Statesville Landmark; Old Man Rights, local 
editor of the Union Republican ; Henry Blount, Wil- 
son correspondent, and Colonel Risden Tyler Bennett 
of Wadesboro were as often spoken of as any of the 
State officials or prominent bankers in the State. 
Red Buck Bryant for the Charlotte Observer and 
Tom Pence of the News and Observer as Washing- 
ton correspondents were known to all who pretended 
to read the papers, and the public was becoming 
acquainted with Tom Bost and Col. Fred Olds at 

Raleigh. Al Fairbrother had Everything ; Don Laws 
with his Yellow Jacket was stinging at will ; D. Scott 
Poole was providing Facts and Figures ; and B. Clay 
Ashcraft and Roland Beasley at Monroe and J. W. 
Noell at Roxboro were in stride. Of these are left 
Roland Beasley, D. Scott Poole, Tom Bost and J. W. 

Their publications were, in the main, poorly print- 
ed but far better spelled. They placed as much em- 
phasis on murder although they were no psychia- 
trists. There was no sex to speak of, but all hands 
were reasonably content with gender. Weddings 
and funerals were less frequent but perhaps more 
thoroughly enjoyed. Certainly no latter-day bride 
received the tributes accorded her by Henry Blount, 
and no patriot is gathered to his reward with as 
eloquent a tribute as those done by Col. Bennett. 

Divorces were left to the courts pretty much and 
were not taken lightly. Mention of those in the 
family way was confined to members of the family. 


Newspaper men more or less just happened. They 
laid no more claim to altruism, but they talked more 
about trade at home. Many of them expected a sub- 
sidy from the party, although the total given the 
whole press of the State probably would not equal 
the advertising receipts of a present daily today 
from the friends of a gubernatorial or senatorial can- 
didate in one Democratic primary. Editors were 
perhaps held in greater respect, but publishers who 
lived hand-to-mouth and met payrolls by weekly 
collections were thoroughly disesteemed. 

Now the editor is written to inform him how little 
he knows and how poorly he thinks, but while he is 
not made a member of the Governor's staff, all the 
civic clubs offer him membership, and a successful 
publisher is almost as much admired as the proprie- 
tor of a drycleaning establishment or a funeral home. 

Reporters, when I began reporting, were suspect- 
ed of not having the with or willingness to engage in 
gainful endeavor. Most of them became reporters 
much after the fashion in which Randolph's Rufe 
Betts made a sale of a coon dog. 

"I tried him for possum," said Rufe, "and he run 
rabbits. I tried him for foxes and he wound up in 
the hog pen. I tried him for squirrels and there was 
nothing doing. I 'lowed any danged dog ought to 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 1 3 

be good for something, so I sold him for a coon dog." 
I don't at the moment recall any reporters of my 
vintage who actually starved to death, but I never 
met one whose wife was wearing a 3-carat diamond. 
Many of them — perhaps the majority — found some- 
thing more lucrative, and some of them even became 
respectable and were elected to public office. 


They all had one thing in common, however, which 
I wish more of their current successors had inherit- 
ed — they believed in the papers they worked for, 
swore they were better than their competitors, sel- 
dom looked at the clock, and wouldn't have accepted 
a wristwatch from Santa Claus. Too, I think re- 
porting of the yesteryears was more objective. To 
be sure, the reporter on a partisan paper was not 
always fair to the political opposition. There may 
have been more unfounded charges made, but there 

was less space given to rumors. The political re- 
porter usually spent his time trying to get a politi- 
cian to say something quotable rather than explain- 
ing how he himself shaped the rough-hewn destinies 
of incumbents of office. 

Way back yonder there were few news photos. A 
live country-seat semi-weekly nowadays will print 
more news pictures in a month than any daily in 
North Carolina produced in the year of 1910. 

Are we getting better ? I wouldn't know. A news- 
paper meant more to the subscriber than now. I 
think it meant more to the newspaper men, but a 
bank will oblige publisher or reporter much more 
quickly than aforetime, and newspaper wives more 
frequently patronize shoe store and hairdressser. 
This, I think, is about as it should be. 

Writing for publication is done for two reasons: 
pleasure and profit. Doggone little pleasure if there 
ain't some profit. 

Description of State Newspapers Written 28 Years Ago 

Since the day on which James Davis, appointed 
postmaster of New Bern by Benjamin Franklin, 
started the North Carolina Gazette, first issued in 
1751, newspapers in the "Tar Heel State" have had 
rough sailing and many of them have perished in 
shallow waters. Davis made four attempts to estab- 
lish newspapers, with indifferent success. His first 
was published for about seven years. In 1784 he 
made a second attempt with "The North Carolina 
Magazine or Universal Intelligencer", which soon 
stopped. He again revived the Gazette in 1768 and 
published it "intermittently" for over ten years. 
Then, with Robert Keith, he established "The North 
Carolina Gazette or Impartial Intelligencer and 
Weekly General Advertiser" in 1783, because "there 
has not been a newspaper in North Carolina for sev- 
eral years". 

Andrew Stewart, a native of Belfast, Ireland, and 
for some time a printer and bookseller in Philadel- 
phia, was the second man to establish a paper in this 
colony, at Wilmington, in 1763 (or '64). His bluff 
of "Printer to the King" worked for a time and se- 
cured for him some of the public printing, but his 
paper was suspended in 1767 "for lack of support". 
He named it "The North Carolina Gazette and Week- 
ly Post-Boy". Later, with Stewart's equipment, 
Adam Boyd began, in 1769, publishing "The Cape 
Fear Mercury", which, although a poor paper from a 
typographical point of view, lasted until the Revolu- 

These early efforts are related for a purpose — to 
show that the ups and downs of North Carolina 
journalistic efforts have continued through the years 
and that these ups and down are based on the pecu- 
liar condition of the population of the State, which 
also explains many other circumstances in its his- 

Note: This article was prepared early in 1923 as an assignment in a 
course in "Development of Modern Newspapers" by M. R. Dunnagan, then a 
student in the Pulitzer Sehool of Journalism, Columbia University, New York 

tory. Without seaport facilities, as a sand bar ex- 
tends from the northern to the southern boundaries 
of the State, cutting off the shore, except for occa- 
sional breaks, direct settlement was impossible, so 
North Carolina was settled by migration from other 
states, largely in groups of many nationals. 


Among the early settlers were the English around 
Wilmington ; the Swiss around New Bern ; the Mora- 
vians around Salem; the Quakers in Guilford; the 
Scotch Presbyterian in Mecklenburg, and numbers of 
other groups in various sections, each with its own 
modes and methods and each a law unto itself. Most 
of these settlers were clannish and lived for many 
years within the limits of their territory without 
intermingling with their neighbors. Later scattered 
home-seekers sought intermediate localities and 
established homes in mountains or coves in the west- 
ern section, on the plains in the center or the sands 
of the east. As a result, there was little in common 
and for many years a glaring lack of homogenity, 
the welding process having covered a long period of 

As a result of this condition, schools, except for 
those able to provide private teaching, were un- 
known in the early days, because of the scattered 
and thinly settled population. After the start for a 
public school system made by Calvin H. Wiley, the 
movement was taken up at the turn of the century 
by the State's "educational governor", Charles B. 
Aycock, whose campaign was made on the slogan of 
placing "a schoolhouse within reach of every boy and 
girl in the State," and his allies, Alderman, Mclver, 
Graham and other practical school men. Their ef- 
forts are bearing a rich fruit, as may be seen by 
the census reports, which placed the illiterate whites 
in the State in 1920 (over ten years old) at 8.2 per 
cent, as compared with 12.3 per cent in 1910, and 

PAGE 1 4 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

illiterate Negroes at 24.8 per cent, against 31.9 per 
cent ten years ago. 

This background, which also is responsible for 
lack of development of large towns, explains the un- 
stable careers of newspapers. It gives additional 
insight to state that less than one-fifth of the popula- 
tion lives in towns of over 2,500, and that 2,068,753 
are classed as rural and 490,370 as urban. Only 
two of the largest towns can be placed in the 50,000 
population class. (1920 census). 


It will be seen readily, therefore, that newspapers 
are restricted in circulation and that, until the past 
decade, such a term as "state papers" could not be 
applied. To revert again to statistics, it is seen that 
there are 290 papers and periodicals published in the 
State. Included in the daily list are 40 papers, all 
of which, except about a dozen, are afternoon papers, 
largely in towns having from 8,000 to 20,000 popu- 
lation. Twenty-nine semi-weekly, 176 weekly, 28 
monthly and nine quarterly papers complete the list, 
except for a few odd-period publications. 

All of the papers in North Carolina, broadly 
speaking, have been conservative and devoted largely 
to the interests of the immediate communities in 
which they are published. Since the State still holds 
fifth place in the nation as an agricultural State 
(value of agricultural products) much space has 
been devoted to the farmers and their interests. The 
past decade has seen such a rapid industrial growth, 
in which North Carolina has taken first place in 
number of cotton mills and is second only to Massa- 
chusetts in value of textile products, and has taken 
first place in tobacco growing and manufacturing, 
trade papers have been established. As a result of 
industrial development, also, and the subsequent or- 
ganization of the workers, labor papers are now 
published in eight or ten of the largest industrial 
centers. These changes have been reflected in the 
straight newspapers, likewise ; in fact, have followed 
the lead of the papers. 


Weekly papers have played an important part in 
the life of the State, because the agricultural pur- 
suits have had the effect of retarding extensive read- 
ing and the weekly survey of the news was sufficient 
for the farmer. The oldest of these, which has since 
become an afternoon daily, is the Fayetteville Ob- 
server. Among the weekly and semi-weekly publi- 
cations that should be noted in passing are the Eliza- 
beth City Independent, "all that the name implies" 
and edited by a very clever writer, W. O. Saunders ; 
the Western Sentinel, the Robesonian, of Lumber- 
ton; the Lexington Dispatch and the Union Repub- 
lican, which is the nearest approach to a party organ 
in the State. (Later reference will be made to party 

Before leaving the weekly field, it is worth while 
to note an unusual situation. At Moravian Falls, far 
back in the mountains of Wilkes County, miles from 
a railroad, has developed a condition unique in the 


The Savory Loving Cup, a trophy presented to the N. C. 
Press Association in 1922 on the occasion of the 50th anni- 
versary of its organization by Walter H. Savory, for many 
years a regular attendant at the conventions as Southern 
representative of the Mergenthaler Linotoype Co., was 
awarded to newspapers in the weekly field for 13 years, 
until all vacant space on the cup was occupied by the names 
of the winners. 

Mr. Savory, popular with all of the members, decided to 
offer the cup in North Carolina only for general excellence 
of newspapers. The award was made at each annual con- 
vention by a secret committee named by officers of the asso- 
ciation. The cup was kept by the winner during the ensuing 
year and was returned to the convention for re-award each 
year. The cup is now proudly displayed in the School of 
Journalism at the University of North Carolina. 

The Hertford County Herald, Ahoskie, won the cup for 
two years in succession and The Elkin Tribune won it twice, 
with an interval between. 

Inscription on one side of the cup, dashes ( — ) indicating 
ends of lines, reads as follows: 

"Savory Loving Cup — presented by — Walter Harriman 
Savory — honorary member — of the — North Carolina Press 
Association — on its — Fiftieth Anniversary — July, 1922 — 
awarded for excellence of typography — make-up and general 
effectiveness — of publication — 1 9 2 2'." 

Inscribed on the other side are the names of winners and 
years won, headed by the word "Awarded", as follows: 

The Smithfield Herald — 1922 

The Pilot, Vass, N. C. — 1923 

Hertford County Herald, Ahoskie, N. C. — 19 24 

Heltford County Herald, Ahoskie, N. C. — 1925 

The Sun, Rutherfordton, N. C. — 1926 

The Roxboro Courier, Roxboro, N. C. — 1927 

The Wilkes Patriot, Wilkesboro, N. C. — 1928 

The Albemarle Press, Albemarle, N. C. — 19 29 

The Cleveland Star, Shelby, N. C. — 1930 

Lenoir News-Topic, Lenoir, N. C. — 1931 

The Elkin Tribune, Elkin, N. C. — 1932 

Rutherford Co. News, Rutherfordton, N. C. — 1933 

The Elkin Tribune, Elkin, N. C. — 1934 

(Thanks to Miss Beatrice Cobb, Roy Parker, and Prof. 
Jack Riley for data.) 

newspaper field. Many years ago R. Don Laws, a 
brilliant writer and bitter partisan, started a small, 
four-page weekly which he named "The Yellow 
Jacket". It is a Republican paper with a sting for 
the opposition in almost every line. Although not 
circulating largely in the State, it built up a mailing 
list that ran up to a hundred thousand or more. So 
successful was the paper that at the village is found 
one of the best equipped newspaper plants in the 
State. Special trucks carry each issue about five 
miles to the nearest railroad station. At the same 
place and developing later, is "The Lash", also a 
weekly paper of somewhat similar proportions, 
which is classed as an independent, but also has the 
sting. Its circulation, scattered over a wide terri- 
tory, is given as 30,000. 


In the afternoon field, passing mention should be 
made of half a dozen of the papers published at the 
larger towns, including the Twin-City Sentinel, Win- 
ston-Salem, considered the most attractive paper in 
the State in make-up and typographically ; the Ral- 
eigh Times, edited by an exceedingly brilliant, versa- 
tile and, at times, sarcastic young man ; the Charlotte 
News, one of the best financial successes in the State ; 
the Asheville Times; the Greensboro Record; the 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 1 5 

Durham Sun and the Wilmington Despatch, the lat- 
ter of which has recently changed hands. These 
papers are all published in towns that have morning 
papers also, some of them suffering from the compe- 
tition and others from limited territory in which to 

The morning field is more restricted, but the 
papers offer a more interesting study. Eliminating, 
for the present, the three leading morning papers, it 
is proper to mention half a dozen others that are 
developing rapidly, in most instances, although all 
have passed through their perilous stages. The Win- 
ston-Salem Journal, published at the largest city in 
the State ; the Asheville Citizen, issued in one of the 
greatest resort cities of the nation ; the Durham 
Herald, in the city made famous by the Dukes and 
other tobacco manufacturers, and the Wilmington 
Star, published at the State's only seaport town and 
at the place at which the State's second paper was 
started, are included in this class. 


And now comes the "triumvirate", the three pa- 
pers that have come to be known as State papers, 
having circulations which cover the entire State, 
even though thin in places. These are the Raleigh 
News and Observer, the Charlotte Observer and the 
Greensboro News, all having the progress and de- 
velopment of the State as their watchwords, but all 
pursuing different lines, going about it in different 
ways, each jealous of the other and frequently taking 
advantage of opportunities to "strike out" at the 
others. While, as stated before, all are for progress 
and development, if "hobbies" may be selected, the 
News and Observer stands for the common people, 
as against the "interests" ; the Charlotte Observer 
stresses industrial development; the Greensboro 
News tends toward the commercial and, as an inde- 
pendent in politics, serves as a check on the others. 
A paragraph on each of these papers is needed to 
complete the story. 

The News and Observer is Josephus Daniels, 
former Secretary of the Navy. After running a 
weekly paper in a smaller town, he, as a young man, 
went to Raleigh and became associated with the late 
Walter Hines Page in publishing the State Chronicle. 
Later he took over the paper and through combina- 
tions, his News and Observer, in the early '90's 
resulted. Located at the State capital, this paper 
has entered into the fights and controversies that 
have developed, fighting for prohibition and white 
supremacy in the notable campaigns around 1900, 
education, opposition to class control and against 
the "interests", including the big tobacco and cotton 
manufacturers, power companies and other "big 
business" activities. Recent fights have been against 
legislation exempting stocks in corporations outside 
the State from taxes and against issuing bonds for 
completing the State highway system. The paper 
claims that the latter fight was based on a desire to 
"see the end" of heavy bond issues, while it has 
brought forth the criticism that the newspaper is an 
obstructionist and is playing politics. Needless to 

say, the News and Observer is a strongly partisan 
Democratic paper. 


The Charlotte Observer has been classed as a con- 
servative newspaper practically all through its more 
than half a century's history. Up to a dozen or more 
years ago, it was edited for many years by the late 
J. P. Caldwell, a virile and able editor of the old 
school, who was both admired and feared. He was 
"wet" and one of the bitterest fights in the history 
of North Carolina journalism was between him and 
Mr. Daniels, into which personality was injected, 
without check. Passing from his hands into those 
of business men, not newspaper men, this paper suf- 
fered a relapse, until it was taken over a few years 
ago and put on a business basis. Incidentally, it is 
probably the best paying newspaper in the Carolinas 
today. This paper plays up as much as it will bear 
all news relating to industrial, educational, agricul- 
tural activities and good roads news and devotes its 
editorial columns largely to such progressive move- 
ments. Politics, of course, is not neglected, this 
paper also being in the aggressive Democratic col- 



Josephus Daniels, who became one of North Carolina's 
most distinguished citizens, was a newspaper man for al- 
most 70 years, from the time he was 16 until his death at 
8 5. This is probably a record in span, although Mr. Daniels 
was away from his editorial desk for some 18 years. As a 
result, numbers of North Carolina newspaper men have had 
longer continuous and unbroken spans at the desk than did 
Mr. Daniels. 

Mr. Daniels started a little paper, The Cornucopia, at 
Wilson in 1878 and two years later acquired an interest in 
The Wilson Advance, control of which he purchased a year 
later and operated for four years. It was while here, in 
1884, that he was elected president of the N. C. Press As- 
sociation, when 22 years of age. He attended his first press 
meeting at Catawba Springs in 1879 as one of half a dozen 
"boy editors" or amateur editors. His attendance was con- 
tinuous after that. 

In 1885 Mr. Daniels moved to Raleigh as editor of The 
State Chronicle. He had his ups and downs and in 1892 he 
was appointed chief clerk in the Interior Department. After 
two years he returned to Raleigh and bought, with the help 
of 100 friends who took stock with him, the News and Ob- 
server, at auction for $6,8 0. Here he remained and re- 
turned from periods of public service, until his death, early 
in 1948. 

Mr. Daniels was a fighter, slugging away with his stubby 
pencil in editorials against privilege and the money barons, 
corruption in high or low places, fighting for the common 
people, for education, for church, for temperance and for 
the Democratic party. It was his political activities that 
resulted in his first clerkship in Washington; his service for 
eight years as Secretary of the Navy under President Wilson; 
his service under his former assistant, F. D. Roosevelt, as 
Ambassador to Mexico for seven years; his post as national 
committeeman for North Carolina for 20 years. 

He was the stub pencil author of close to a dozen books, 
among them "Life of Ensign Worth Bagley"; "The Navy 
and the Nation", "Our Navy at War", "Life of Woodrow 
Wilson", "Tar Heel Editor", "Editor in Politics", "The 
Wilson Era" (in two volumes), "Shirtsleeve Diplomat", and 
had started "Life Begins at 7 5", promising another book 
on the 10 0th anniversary of his birth. 

Mr. Daniels was a Methodist Church lay leader, and a 
leader of the dry forces in the State. He studied law at 
the State University around 1885 and was one of its trustees 
for 46 years. 

PAGE 16 


Winter-Spring, i 951 

The Greensboro News is a later addition to the 
trio. Started some 25 years ago as a Republican 
State organ, it was not many years before it found 
itself "on the rocks". Later reorganization placed 
it in the "independent" category and, as such, with 
progressive and forward looking policies, it has 
reached a place of importance in the State. Many of 
the leading Republicans of the State are supporters 
of this publication, while it finds its way into the 
homes of many of the Democrats who are not strong 
in their partisanship. One feature, which is passing 
off the page of so many papers, is the editorial para- 
graph, which proves an attractive feature of this 


The effect of the new era in North Carolina jour- 
nalism may be seen in no better way than to give two 
instances, one illustrating the value of news-pub- 
licity; the other of advertising. Six months before 
the meeting of the General Assembly of two years 
ago, (1921), T. L. Kirkpatrick, president of the 
Citizens Highway Association of North Carolina, 
suggested and began a fight for a bond issue of 
$50,000,000 to construct a hard-surfaced system of 
roads connecting every county seat and principal 
town. He was laughed at, called a fanatic and even 
a plain fool. He perfected his organization and 
delegated the writer to get out a weekly news letter 

— propaganda — four months before the General As- 
sembly's meeting. From 25 to 100 papers received 
this service weekly, most of them played it up and 
added to it and before the Legislature adjourned, it 
had done what was considered impossible. More- 
over, at the session just ended, (1923), it added 
$15,000,000 to complete the highway system. Coun- 
ties in the State have added probably $40,000,000 
more for developing the roads within their boun- 

The other instance. About the same time, two 
and a half years ago, (1920), the institutions of 
higher education realized they were not keeping pace 
with the development of the common and high school 
systems of the State and were unable to accommo- 
date more than half the students seeking admission. 
A loose organization was formed and a propaganda 
fund of several thousand dollars was raised by 
alumni and friends. This was used to give, in page 
advertisements in all of the leading daily and weekly 
papers in the State, the status of the institutions. 
The institutions asked for $47,000,000, approxi- 
mately, for seven-year building programs. The legis- 
lature, which had sadly neglected these institutions 
in the past, gave its proportional part of the amount 
asked, for a two year program, leaving later legis- 
latures to make the appropriations for succeeding 

Printing Industry of the Carolinas, Effective Group 

By Henry L. Weathers, Shelby Daily Star, President, Printing Industry of the Carolinas, Inc. 

The Printing Industry of the Carolinas, Inc. is 
serving effectively the printers of North Carolina 
and South Carolina today because, about a score of 
years ago, far-seeing and persistent members of the 
industry had the vision of what such an organization 
could mean. Though the association comprises two 
states, this article primarily concerns the North 
Carolina industry and trade organization. 

The history of the association goes back many 
years, to the early part of 1900, when the heads of 
several of the larger printing firms met informally 
on occasions to discuss their mutual problems. In 
late 1931 and early 1932, necessity for cooperation, 
the depression of 1929, and the days that followed 
with NRA, brought the printers together in an organ- 
izational meeting. An association was formed in 
which they could exchange information and opinions 
on better ways of accomplishing their aims and thus 
help the industry as a whole. At that time, the vol- 
ume and prices of printing had dropped to a low level 
in the State: In October, 1932, the first meeting of 
the Carolina Master Printers Association was held 
in Greensboro. Mr. A. G. Gordon of Winston-Salem 
was elected president. 

The first Board of Directors meeting was held in 
March, 1933, consisting of such outstanding indi- 
viduals as Banks R. Cates, C. G. Harrison, Jos. H. 

Hardison, Fred E. Little and W. H. Fisher. These 
men personally subscribed sufficient funds to get the 
association financially established. Through the 
years many others have contributed to the growth 
and progress which is responsible for the present 
strength of the group. Among some of these are 
W. M. Pugh, who served the association for four 
years as secretary-treasurer, and later as president 
for three years ; Norman Foust, who served as presi- 
dent for two years during the second World War; 
Jos. J. Stone, who in 1941 was made an honorary 



Present officers and directors of The Printing Industry of 
The Carolinas, Inc., abbreviated to PICA, composed of 
printing firms of North and South Carolina, are as follows: 

Officers: Henry L. Weathers, Star Publishing Co., Shelby, 
president; Frank R. Kuhn, Jr., Williams Printing Co., Spar- 
tanburg, S. C, vice-president; Guy B. Bphland, Alamance 
Printing Co., Burlington, secretary and treasurer; James 
P. Furlong, John J. Furlong & Sons, Charleston, S. C, ex- 
officio; Eugene H. Salmon, Graphic Knoll, Columbia, S. C, 
executive secretary. 

Directors: Charles E. Stone, Crowson-Stone Printing Co., 
Columbia, S. C; Jord H. Jordan, The Herald Press, Char- 
lotte; Robert A. Little, Wilmington Printing Co., Wilming- 
ton; F. P. Earle, Greensboro Printing Co., Greensboro; A. 
M. Beck, The Graphic Press, Raleigh; J. Wilbur Little, 
Electric City Printing Co., Anderson, S. C. 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 1 7 

member for life, the only such North Carolina mem- 
ber (In 1945 Mr. Charlie Band of Spartanburg, S. C, 
was made honorary member) ; and many more that 
space does not permit naming. 

In 1934 the trade group was incorporated into the 
"North Carolina Master Printers Association, Inc." 
under the leadership of W. H. Fisher. During the 
next few years interest in the association began to 
lag and in September, 1939, it found itself with only 
20 members and a bank account of less than $100. 
Seeing the necessity for strengthening the organiza- 
tion, the directors then approved inviting paper and 
supply firms to become associate members. 

The State was divided into four districts, with a 
vice president in each. A drive was started for new 
members, and by the annual meeting in July, 1940, 
at Wrightsville Beach the membership had grown to 
fifty and a budget of $8,000 was adopted and raised. 
An executive secretary was employed, and new life 
and interest in the association was manifested. 

In 1943 the membership approved an amendment 
to allow South Carolina printers in the association, 
and the name was changed to the "Carolinas Master 
Printers Association, Inc.", including both states. 
It was called this until 1946 when the name was re- 
vised making it what it is today — the "Printing In- 
dustry of the Carolinas, Inc." A plan was approved 
setting up several regional meetings to be held dur- 
ing the year in key cities, throughout the Carolinas. 
J. C. Keys of South Carolina offered it, saying it 
would take the association to the people who were 
not able to attend the annual meeting. This plan 
has been in use for several years with splendid suc- 

The association has continued to grow and develop 
until today there 116 firms which are members and 
about 30 which are associate members. The latter 
are paper houses, ink companies, and machinery 

PICA has done much to promote the industry and 
help both small and large printers. Since World 
War II, many of the printers have greatly enlarged 
their facilities and improved the type and quality of 
their work, and it is estimated the volume of printing 
in North Carolina within the last ten years has 
tripled. There are a number of large and outstand- 

ing printing firms doing work that goes into every 
one of the 48 states. 

North Carolina should be proud of this industry 
and the growth it has made. It continues to bring 
new printing orders to the State and our organiza- 
tion is recognized as one of the best in the South. As 
an industry, it is on top in its wage scale, and from 
an unemployment standpoint it is close to the bot- 
tom. The records will show that there is very little 
labor turnover, and that the percentage of unem- 
ployed printers and claims for unemployment com- 
pensation is as low as any industry in the State. 

In 1947 the association employed a paid executive 
secretary. He was Eugene Salmon, who continues 
in that capacity. He is widely experienced in print- 
ing and its allied branches. This year the PICA be- 
came affiliated with the Printing Industry of Amer- 
ica, a national organization. This gives all North 
Carolina printers the benefits and services of the 
national trade group, which is one of the best 
national trade associations in the country. 

The association has a monthly dues schedule, based 
on the individual firm's volume of business, and today 
is financially very stable. The Board of Directors is 
composed of the officers, plus six directors. 

PICA has grown and strengthened so that today 
the commercial printers of North Carolina can face 
the future with more confidence than ever before, 
and with security and assurance of solving its prob- 
lems and benefiting its members. 

The following have served the association as 
officers : 

Year President Secretary-Treasurer 

193 2' — A. G. Gordon '__ Noble R. Medearis 

1933 — W. H. Fisher C. G. Harrison 

1934 — W. H. Fisher C. G. Harrison 

1935 — W. E. Seeman W. M. Pugh 

1936 — Owen G. Dunn W. M. Pugh 

1937 — J. A. Kellenberger W. M. Pugh 

1938 — W. B. Hall W. M. Pugh 

1939 — W. M. Pugh Wallace Seeman 

1940 — W. M. Pugh George Moore, Jr. 

1941 — W. M. Pugh Robt. C. CarmichaeJ 

1942 — Norman W. Foust E. M. Preston 

1943 — Norman W. Foust Vander Liles 

1944 — Paul Robinson W. B. Hall 

1945 — J. H. Hardison Frank Bynum 

1946 — Claude Rhodes James P. Furlong 

1947 — Robt. C. Carmichael Robt. M. Allgood 

1948 — Hanes Lassiter Norman W. Foust 

1949 — James P. Furlong Claude Rhodes 

1950 — Henry L. Weathers Guy B. Ephland 






Press Notes: Interesting Items of People and Papers 








Publisher Lee B. Weathers, of the Shelby Daily Star, has 
gathered one copy each of at least 12 papers that have been 
published in Cleveland County since its formation 110 
years ago, has them framed and will present them to Gard- 
ner Webb College Library at Boiling Springs. 

The Thomasville Tribune, operated by H. A. Cecil, Sr., 
formerly with The High Point Enterprise, and H. A. Cecil, 
Jr., moved into a modern new building last year, at which 
time they purchased The Thomasville News-Times and merg- 
ed it with The Tribune. The firm also operates a large 
office supply and equipment store. 


The Williamston Enterprise has been operated by the 
Manning family since 1908. W. C. Manning was editor and 

publisher until his death in 1938. Since then W. C. Man 
ning, Jr., and F. M. Manning have operated with W. H. 
Booker as a partner. This firm also publishes The Weekly 
Herald, Robersonville, and The Roanoke Beacon, Plymouth. 
W. C. Manning, Jr., was last year's president of the Eastern 
N. C. Press Association. 

The Shelby Daily Star probably has another record: only 
one former employee has filed a claim for unemployment 
compensation since the Employment Security Law was enact- 
ed in 1936. 


The Wilmington Morning Star was established about two 
years after the Civil War in 18 67 by Major William H. 
Bernard as an afternoon newspaper, becoming a morning 


PAGE 1 8 


Winter-spring, 1951 

paper a month later. It has the distinction of being the 
oldest or second oldest continuous daily newspaper in North 
Carolina with the original name. Since 19 29 The Star has 
been operated by R. B. Page, who acquired The Wilmington 
News and established the Sunday Star-News. 


Roland F. Beasley, editor of the Monroe Journal, and 
H.E.C. (Red Buck) Bryant, Route 1, Matthews, retired (but 
still writing) Washington newspaper correspondent, were 
the center of attraction at the Press Institute at Chapel Hill 
and Duke University in January. Mr. Beasley, 80, has edit- 
ed the Monroe Journal for more than 57 years. Mr. Bryant, 
78, has been writing about as long, first for The Charlotte 
Observer, for many years in Washington, and now for fun. 
Many old-timers, Ralph Graves, Oscar Coffin, Bob Madry, 
your reporter, and many others sat at their feet for hours. 

But even they take off their hats to J. W. Noell, editor 
of the Roxboro Courier-Times, 8 9, who was too busy to 
enter into the Press Institute frivolities, but he "sent a 
hand," his daughter, Mrs. Lee B. Weathers, of Shelby. 

W. Thomas Bost, dean of Raleigh correspondents, is the 
youngest 70-year-old man to be seen. Coming from the 
Salisbury area, he worked in that city, in Durham, in 
Greensboro, and for around one-third of a century he has 
been racing around Raleigh as correspondent, sermon writ- 
er, "blockade" preacher, anti-prohibition teetotaler, candy- 
maker, debunker, and constructive promoter. 

E. A. Resch, Siler City; John B. Harris, Albemarle, and 
Carl C. Council, Durham, were named by President Henry 
Belk, of the N. C. Press Association, at the Chapel Hill meet- 
ing as the Nominating Committee, to present a slate of offi- 
cers at the summer press meeting. 

Dr. Samuel M. Holton was named early in 1951 as editor 
of "The High School Journal," published at Chapel Hill, to 
succeed Dr. W. Carson Ryan. 

Harry Wild Hickey, 47, telegraph editor and editorial 
writer, with the Fayetteville Observer since 1942, died 
Feb. 14, 1951. In the 1920s he had been with the Asso- 
ciated Press in the Raleigh and Columbia, S. C, bureaus. 


Robert S. Jervay, who founded the R. S. Jervay Printing 
Co. in Wilmington 50 years ago as a job shop and printed The 
Cape Fear Journal until his death in 1941, was honored recently 
by the Wilmington Housing Authority when a new Negro 
housing project was named Robert S. Jervay Place. One 
of his sons publishes The Wilmington Journal and another 
publishes The Carolinian, Raleigh, and The Carolinian, 

Santford Martin has been editor of The Winston-Salem 
Journal, and later of The Twin City Sentinel, since 1915, 
continuing his editorial writing even while private secre- 
tary to Governor T. W. Bickett. He was president of the 
N. C. Press Association, 1917-18. 

The Wilkes Patriot, Wilkesboro, was established in 190 6 
and edited for several years, until consolidated with The 
Journal in North Wilkesboro as The Journal-Patriot, by 
Charles H. Cowles, former Congressman, State Senator and 
State Representative. Publisher A. N. Critcher, of the 
Oxford Public Ledger, was with The Patriot for a time 
until the consolidation in 1932. 

The Biblical Recorder, Raleigh, was established in 18 35 
by Thomas Meredith as The North Carolina Baptist Inter- 
preter, started by Dr. Meredith in 1833 in New Bern. The 
publication was moved to Raleigh in 1838 and is said to be 
the oldest corporation in Raleigh, and has a circulation of 
around 42,000. It is the organ of the Baptist State Con- 
vention but was owned privately until 1939. Former prom- 
inent editors were Senator Josiah W. Bailey, Dr. Hight C. 
Moore and Dr. Livingstone Johnson. 

The Carolinian, Raleigh, published by P. R. Jervay, is 
one of the three North Carolina newspapers in which this 
publisher is interested. The Winston-Salem Carolinian is an 
affiliated publication, and the Raleigh print shop prints The 
Wilmington Journal. 

North Carolina Education, Raleigh, organ of the North 
Carolina Education Association, was founded in 1906 by 
Dr. E. C. Brooks and H. E. Seeman, for the State Department 
of Education. Former editors and publishers have been 
Dr. Brooks, W. F. Marshall, Dr. A. T. Allen, M. R. Travue, 
M. L. Wright, Jule B. Warren, Fred W. Greene and Mrs. 
Ethel Perkins Edwards, present editor. John Bikle has 
been business manager some 2 5 years. 

The State, Raleigh, is an unusual type of publication, 
established in 1933 and still edited and published by Carl 
Goerch, former Washington, N. C, newspaper publisher. 
This magazine, with a circulation exceeding 21,0 00, carries 
the usual as well as unusual incidents, past and present, of 
the State of North Carolina. 

The Raleigh Times, established in 1879 as The Evening 
Visitor, has been connected with several other Raleigh pub- 
lications, including The Daily Press, The Press-Visitor, The 
Tim'es-Visitor and The Raleigh Evening Times. John A. 
Park has been editor and publisher since 1911. Three sons 
are now on the staff, John, Jr., Ben, and Albert Park. 

W. E. Rutledge has been editor and publisher of The Yad- 
kin Ripple, Yadkinville, for 41 years. He is now assisted 
by his son, W. E. Rutledge, Jr. Mrs. Mattie Johnson Hall, 
who established the paper at East Bend in 1892, died last 
January in Winston-Salem, age 88. 

Miss Beatrice Cobb, secretary, N. C. Press Association, 
assumed publication of The Morganton News-Herald when 
her father, T. G. Cobb, died in 1916. She established The 
Valdese News in 1939. 


The Lumberton Robesonian, established in 1870 by W. S. 
McDiarmid and later edited by his brother, W. W. McDiar 
mid, for many years, was published for 40 years by J. A. 
Sharpe until his death in 1947. J. A. Sharpe, Jr., is the 
present editor. An asosciate editor in its earlier days was 
Hamilton McMillan, who helped get the Pembroke Normal 
School for the Indians of Robeson County. One of the old 
est businesses in Robeson County, The Robesonian has been 
a weekly, semi-weekly, tri-weekly and became a five-day 
daily in 1940. 

J. B. Benton, former legislator, published The Benson 
Review for more than a quarter of a century until his deatb 
last year. His daughter, Mrs. Margaret B. Smith, continues 
the publication. 

Duke University Archive (Trinity Archive) is said to be 
the oldest continuous literary publication in the South. In 
1943, due to war conditions, it was consolidated with The 
Duke and Duchess, humor magazine, but the two were sep 
arated again in 1945. 

Todd Caldwell was connected with The Moore County 
News, Carthage, The Benson Review, The Kannapolis Inde- 
pendent and The Dunn Dispatch before establishing The 
Independent at Fuquay Springs in 1935. 

Allen J. Maxwell, late State Commissioner of Revenue and 
candidate for Governor, worked on The Wilmington Star 
around the turn of the century and purchased and operated 
The Columbus News (now News-Reporter) at Whiteville 
for several years. 

D. M. Spurgeon, publisher of The Avery Scenic Press 
Newland, with Carl D. Osborne as editor and manager, has 
installed one of the most complete and modern small prinl 
shops in the State. Mr. Spurgeon publishes two other news 
papers, one in Virginia and one in Mountain City, Tenn. 

A. C. Huneycutt, Albemarle, established The Kernersville 
News as successor to The Leader in 1937 with Fred P. Cartel 
as managing editor. Soon afterward Mr. Carter purchased anc 
has since published The News. Mr. Huneycutt is a forme) 
president of the N. C. Press Association but abandoned nub 
lishing to practice law. He formerly published several week 
ly papers. 

The Dunn Dispatch, established in 1914 by L, Busbe< 
Pope, former legislator, has published this paper as a week 
ly, semi-weekly and tri-weekly. During the past four year; 
it has been published by his sons, L. B. Pope, Jr., and Wil 
liam H. Pope, and Hoover Adams, under lease from th< 


Furniture South, High Point, is the only Southern pub 
lication devoted to the important manufacturing and re 
tailing furniture interests. It was purchased in 1947 b: 
N. I. Bienenstock, publisher of Furniture World. Formei 
editors include Noble T. Praigg, executive secretary of As) 
sociated Industries, Inc., High Point; Harold C. Bennett 
president of Bennett, Inc., High Point, handling the State': 
advertising program; and C. B. Houck, head of Houck Ad 
vertising Agency, Roanoke, Virginia. 


Game Fowl News, Asheville, devoted to game chicken: 
and circulated over North America, was sold recently b; 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 19 

R. S. Meroney to northern interests and will be published 
elsewhere. However, Mr. Meroney has plans for a small 
unusual publication starting early this year to be known as 
The Mountain Rattler, described as a non-profit enterprise 
without advertising, with no subscription price, "Agin' ev- 
erything and everybody." A rattlesnake adorns the mast- 

The Southern Pines Pilot is edited and published by Mrs. 
Katharine Boyd, distinguished widow of the distinguished 
author, James Boyd. Other noted former editors were Bion 
H. Butler, Nelson A. Hyde and Carl Thompson. 

The Jones County Journal, Trenton, is a new weekly pub- 
lication established in 19 49, edited and published by Wilbur 
J. and Muriel G. Rider. 

American Newspaper Boy, Winston-Salem, is an unusual 
monthly publication established by Bradley Welfare, its 
editor and publisher, in 1927. It is sold in bulk to approx- 
imately 200 daily newspapers in the United States and Can- 
ada and is distributed free by them to their carrier boys. 

Asheville News, formerly West Asheville News, estab- 
lished in 1926 by Oscar Barrett as The Asheville Advocate, 
now is operated by Frederick Severance as a Republican 
newspaper. Walter A. Ward was publisher for several 
years, and an earlier publisher, Harold Thorns, is now presi- 
dent of Radio Station WISE, Asheville, and WAYS, Char- 

The Carolina Quarterly, U.N.C. College literary publica- 
tion, was established in 1948 by students, as a successor to 
The Carolina Magazine, established in 18 44. Local area 
sponsors include John Sprunt Hill, Betty Smith, Paul Green, 
Dr. Norman Foerster, Josephina Niggle, William M. Prince 
and others. Faculty advisers include Dr. Lyman Cotten, 
Walter Spearman, Charles Eaton, Phillips Russell and Dr. 
Harry Russell. 


The Charlotte Observer in 1916, when it was purchased 
by Curtis B. Johnson and Walter B. Sullivan, had a circulation 
of about 13,000 daily. Last year the circulation was 138,000 
daily and 145,000 Sunday — the largest in North Carolina. 
James A. Parham has been managing editor and associate 
editor for 34 years. Mr. Parham, Ernest B. Hunter, man- 
aging editor since 19 41, and Rupert Gillett, both with the 
paper since 1929, form the editorial board. Former noted 
editors were Joseph P. Caldwell, Wade H. Harris and Dr. 
Julian S. Miller. 

The Carolina Journal of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, establish- 
ed in 1915 by the N. C. Pharmaceutical Association, was 
edited from its beginning until 1940 by the late Dean John 
Grover Beard and since that time by W. J. Smith. Miss 
Alice Noble produced most of the copy used for 20 years. 


The News and Observer, Raleigh, established in 18 65 as 
The Sentinel, by William Pell, has had many prominent 
names associated with it since that time. Josiah Turner 
succeeded Mr. Pell. The News was established in 1872 by 
Jordan Stone and W. H. Uzzell; The Observer in 1876 as a 
successor to The Sentinel. It became The News and Ob- 
server in 1880 with Captain Samuel A. Ashe as editor and 
Fred A. Olds as assistant editor. 

Josephus Daniels, who came to Raleigh from Wilson as 
editor of The Chronicle in 1885, bought The News and Ob- 
server in 18 94 and was editor and publisher until his death 
54 years later in 1948. His son, Jonathan Daniels, has since 
been editor. Other papers absorbed by The News and Ob- 
server, or dropped, included The Conservative, The State 
Chronicle, The Intelligencer, The Farmer and Mechanic, 
The North Carolinian, The Daily Call and The Carolinian. 

Distinguished people connected with the paper were 
Leonadus L. Polk, Walter Hines Page, Edward A. Oldham, 
Hal W. Ayer, Randolph A. Shotwell, D. H. Browder, Thomas 
R. Jernigan, John Wilbur Jenkins, Ben Dixon McNeill, 
Frank Smethurst, John Livingstone, and numerous others. 

William E. Horner, editor and publisher of The Sanford 
Herald for 20 years, has represented his county in the Gen- 
eral Assembly and was twice candidate for Congress. He is 
a former president of the N. C. Press Association. 


The Shelby Daily Star has set some kind of a record for 
prominence of its staff. It was established as a weekly 
paper by the present U. S. Senator Clyde R. Hoey. Its pub- 

lisher, Lee B. Weathers, has been State Senator for four 
consecutive terms. Its managing editor, Holt McPherson, 
is president of the Journalism Foundation of the U. N. C. 
School of Journalism and a director of the N. C. Press Asso- 
ciation. Its business manager, Henry Lee Weathers, son 
of the publisher, is president of the Printing Industry of 
the Carolinas, Inc., (two states). Earlier staff members have 
included Johnny and Pete McKnight; H. W. Kendall, editor, 
Greensboro Daily News; O. L. Moore, publisher, Laurinburg 
Exchange; Ben Roberts, Durham banker; Cameron Shipp, 
noted writer, and others. 


Lassiters have been connected with the operation of The 
Smithfield Herald for 55 years. T. J. Lassiter, Sr., became 
a partner in 1895, was editor for 25 years until his death in 
19 20. Mrs. Lassiter continued in the partnership. Her two 
sons entered the plant as they grew up and are now partners 
with their mother. W. C. Lassiter is Raleigh city attorney 
and attorney for the N. C. Press Association. T. J. Lassiter, 
Jr., editor and publisher, is a former president of the East- 
ern N. C. Press Association and former instructor in jour- 
nalism at Carolina. 

Mrs. Stella H. Anderson, associate publisher and editor 
of the Skyland Post, West Jefferson, and the Alleghany 
News, Sparta, is president of the State Federation of Wo- 
men's Clubs. 

Victor Meekins, former sheriff of Dare County, is pub- 
lisher of The Coastland Times at Manteo, The Hyde County 
Herald at Sv/an Quarter, and The Belhaven Pilot. Mrs. 
Meekins was the daughter of the late Harry P. Deaton, for 
many years publisher of The Mooresville Enterprise. 

The Atlantic Publishing Co., Tabor City, owned by W. 
Horace Carter and Mark C. Garner, publishes The Tabor 
City Tribune and two South Carolina papers, The Myrtle 
Beach Sun and The Ocean Beach News at Ocean Drive, print- 
ing these papers in the Tabor City shop. 

The Reidsville Review has been in the Oliver family since 
it was established in 1888 by R. J. Oliver, Manton Oliver and 
John T. Oliver, all deceased. Present editors of the second 
generation are C. R. and W. M. Oliver. 

The Rockingham Post-Dispatch has been published since 
1917 by Isaac S. London, who bought and consolidated The 
Post, established in 1909, and The Dispatch, established in 
1916, and, the editor admits, is still going strong. Earlier 
he published the Siler City Grit. 

The Rocky Mount Telegram was established in 1910 as 
The Morning Telegram, but after four months shifted to the 
afternoon field. Josh L. Horne, Jr., is editor and president 
of The Rocky Mount Publishing Co., owner. The paper 
started on a seven-day schedule with a Sunday morning 
paper in 1949. 


In 188 6 the two Noells, J. A. and J. W., purchased The 
Roxboro Courier, established five years before. J. W. Noell 
purchased the interest of his brother, John A. Noell, in 1920. 
The Roxboro Courier and The Person County Times were 
consolidated in 1944. So J. W. Noell has been dishing out 
information to the Person County citizenship for 64 years. 
He has also represented his district in the State Senate. 

The Rutherford County News, established by R. E. Price 
and associates, celebrated its 25th anniversary last year 
and the fifth year of the full ownership by Mr. Price. He 
served as president of the N. C. Press Association for the 
year 1949-50. 

J. F. Hurley, who established The Concord Tribune in 
1900 and sold it to John B. Sherrill ten years later, pur- 
chased The Salisbury Post and was editor and publisher 
until his death in 1936. Since that time his son, J. F. Hur- 
ley, Jr., has been publisher and Spencer Murphy has been 


The Sanatorium Sun, published monthly by the Extension 
Department of North Carolina Sanatorium and devoted to 
tuberculosis and health, has subscribers in Ireland, Europe, 
Canada, South America, Mexico, China and Hawaii, in addi- 
tion to many of the United States. 

John M. Gibson, former editor, is director of the Division 
of Public Health Education in Alabama and author of "Phy- 
sician to the World: The Life of General William C. Gor- 
gas," published by Duke University Press last November. 

North Carolina Law Review, Chapel Hill, published quar- 
terly by the University School of Law, was established in 

PAGE 20 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

1923 by Dean Maurice T. VanHeck, who was its first editor. 
Since 193 9 it has been edited by top ranking law students 
with faculty advice. 


Golf World, weekly, established in 1947 by Robert E. 
Harlow at Pinehurst, has a circulation of more than 7,000 
copies going to leading golf players in every state and more 
than 30 foreign nations and territories. This year the pub- 
lication will go on news stands for the first time. Mr. Har- 
low, publisher of The Pinehurst Outlook for 15 years, sold 
that paper and plant last year to devote full time to Golf 
World, setting up a new plant to print it. He was former 
manager for Walter Hagen, nationally known golfer, and 
worked for newspapers and news agencies for several years 
and has been publicity man for Pinehurst, Inc. 

Gordon H. Greenwood, editor of The Black Mountain 
News, is a graduate of the University of Illinois School of 
Journalism and was formerly with The Champaign (111.) 
News-Gazette. He was a psychologist with 96th General 
Hospital in the European Theatre in World War II. 


The Valdese News, published by Miss Beatrice Cobb and 
edited by Richard H. Byrd, is the semi-official publication 
of the Waldensian people who migrated from the Cotian 
Alps (Italy) in 1893 and formed the settlement at Valdese. 
The Valdese News is probably one of the most localized 
papers in the State, devoted almost entirely to the interests 
of the Waldensian community it serves. A former editor, 
Marcel Tron, was a native Waldensian and the paper is 
replete with Waldensian names and reflects the native ways, 
manners and thoughts of the Waldensian people. 

Alfred E. Whitmore, who published the Williamston En- 
terprise for 18 years around the turn of the century, and 
who brought the first two-revolution flatbed printing press 
to Martin County, patented the coupon book system for 
charge accounts. He died not long ago in Virginia. 

The Mr. Dail who established the Williamston Enterprise 
in 1889 is said to have cut the masthead of the paper out 
of a piece of hardwood. 

The composing stone used in publishing The Outlook at 
Yadkinville, started in 1886 by a Mr. Henry and later sus- 
pended, was made into a headstone, properly engraved, and 
still marks the grave of Mrs. Spencer, a cultured woman, in 
the Yadkinville cemetery. 


Mrs. E. F. McCulloch, editor of The Bladen Journal, Eliza- 
bethtown, last year was selected as "Mother of the Year" 
by the Golden Rule Foundation on recommendation of a 
State committee, of which Mrs. Stella H. Anderson, editor 
of The Skyland Post, West Jefferson, and president of the 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, was chairman. 

Edward J. Hale, publisher of The Fayetteville Observer, 
the State's oldest newspaper, served as Ambassador to one 
of the South American countries for several years around 
the turn of the century. 

Weimar Jones, publisher of The Franklin Press, was 
State director of the Office of War Information for a year 
or two during World War II. Previously he had been on 
The Asheville Citizen for 18 years. 

Robert L. Gray, Jr., for several years editor of The Fay- 
etteville Observer, is now in service in the Korean area. He 
also served in World War II. 

The Weekly Southerner, Tarboro, is described in "Non- 
nulla," a book written in 1930 by Bishop J. B. Cheshire and 
published by Edwards and Broughton, Raleigh. 

W. J. McMurray, publisher of Racing Form for many 
years, purchased The Durham Sun and The Fayetteville 
Observer in 19 23 for his son-in-law. Soon after the pur- 
chases the son-in-law was killed in an accident. 


The Lexington Dispatch has been owned, edited, pub- 
lished and written for by many prominent citizens. T. V. 
Eldridge, who established it, was later mayor of Raleigh. 
H. B. Varner, its publisher for many years, also published 
a magazine, "Good Roads," and served as State Commis- 
sioner of Labor and Printing for two years. Col. A. L. 
Fletcher, Raleigh; S. R. Winters, later radio special writer, 
Washington, and George B. Cochran were editors. Gerald 
Johnson, noted author, was a reporter. E. E. Witherspoon 
has been editor for some 3 5 years. Fred O. Sink and his 

sons have been publishers for more than 30 years. 

The name Myrover has long been associated with The 
Fayetteville Observer. John R. Myrover and George G. 
Myrover, Sr., were publishers before the turn of the cen- 
tury. George G. Myrover, Jr., is now managing editor. 

Parker Brothers, J. Roy, former UNC Journalism pro- 
fessor, and Mayon, perennial secretary of the Eastern N. C. 
Press Association, operates one of the real modern news- 
paper and printing plants in the State at Ahoskie. Here are 
printed their four weekly papers: Hertford County Herald, 
Ahoskie; Bertie Ledger-Advance, Windsor; Northampton 
County News, Jackson, and Gates Index, Gatesville; also 
the North Carolina Farm Bureau News, for N. C. Farm 
Bureau, and a lot of commercial job printing. 

Thomas Wolfe, author of "Look Homeward, Angel", etc., 
was editor of the Daily Tar Heel at Chapel Hill while a 
student there. So was Orville Campbell, owner of the 
Colonial Press, who has written several songs, including 
"All the Way, Choo Choo" (Charlie Justice). Rolfe Neill 
is managing editor. 

The 1300 issues of the UNC News Letter constitute the 
greatest body of knowledge about North Carolina to be 
found in any State in the Union, Dr. S. H. Hobbs, Jr., editor, 
believes. It goes to about 11,000 persons fortnightly. 


Louis Graves, Chapel Hill native, for a number of years a 
successful reporter on some of the larger New York news- 
papers, returned home around 19 20 and after a few years 
as head of the Journalism Department of the University, 
started the Chapel Hill Weekly March 1, 192"3. 

The Weekly, a folksy, down-to-earth community sheet, is, 
as the New York Times once said: "unique in American 
journalism". The New York Herald-Tribune said: "What 
this country needs is more papers like the Chapel Hill 
Weekly". Louis Graves decided not to wear himself out in 
New York reporting and editing, but gets a whale of a kick 
out of his Weekly — as do all of his many readers. 

David Clark, Charlotte, editor and publisher of the Tex- 
tile Bulletin, also publishes The Knitter, and the Clark- 
Smith Publishing Co. publishes Southern Hospitals and 
Southern Optometrist. 

Bill Arp Lowrance, Charlotte, editor and publisher of the 
Mecklenburg Times, is also publisher of the Belmont Banner 
and the Mount Holly News, both edited by Bill Barrett. 


Southern Medicine and Surgery, Charlotte, established in 
18 56 by the N. C. Medical Society as the North Carolina 
Medical Journal, is probably the oldest such organ in the 
State. It absorbed the Wilmington Medical Journal and 
the Charlotte Medical Journal along the way. For the past 
30 years it has been the official journal of the Tri-State 
Medical Association of the Carolinas and Virginia, during 
which period Dr. J. M. Northington has been editor and 

Former editors have been Dr. Thomas F. Wood, Dr. Rob-i 
ert Jewett, Dr. W. H. Wakefield, Dr. E. C. Register, Dr. J.| 
C. Montgomery and Dr. M. L. Townsend; and Department 
Editors: Dr. E. J. Wood, Dr. J. K. Hall, Dr. H. J. Crowell, 
Dr. Wingate M. Johnson, Dr. Hubert A. Royster, Dr. Robert! 
F. Lafferty, Dr. Paul Ringer, Dr. William Allan, Dr. O. L. 
Miller, Dr. C. C. Orr. 

The Cherry ville Eagle has been in the same family 45 
years, L. H. J. Houser, editor and publisher until his death, 
and then his son, Fred K. Houser. 

The Caucasian, edited by Marion Butler, later U. S. Sena- 
tor, was a noted paper published in Clinton many years ago. 
It later moved to Raleigh and was suspended. 

The Sampson Independent, Clinton, has been published 
by F. Grover Britt for around a quarter of a century. O. J. 
Peterson, long well-known newspaper man, and L. A. Be- 
thune were former editors. 

The Concord Tribune was established 50 years ago by 
J. P. Hurley, who later established The Salisbury Post. In 
1910 The Tribune was acquired by J. B. Sherrill, for 32 
years secretary-treasurer and for two years president of the 
N. C. Press Association, who published it until his death 
His son, William M. Sherrill, was editor for several years 
A. W. Huckle, a South Carolina publisher, but well-known 
to N. C. newspaper folk, is now publisher. 

The Danbury Reporter, established 78 years ago by Dr 
John Pepper, is now in its fourth generation of Peppers 
never having missed an issue. N. E. Pepper, long publisher 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 21 

and E. Vance Pepper, are editors and publishers now. 

The Durham Sun, established in 1889 by James Robin- 
son, was consolidated in 1929 with the Durham Herald, 
established in 18 94 by E. T. Rollins, long its publisher, and 
J. H. King. Carl C. Council, a former carrier boy, is presi- 
dent of the company and Steed Rollins is vice-president and 
executive editor. 

The South Atlantic Quarterly, literary and historical, 
established in 190 2 at Trinity College (Duke University), 
has had some distinguished editors, including John Spencer 
Bassett, Dr. Edwin Mims, Dr. W. P. Few, Dr. W. H. Gleason, 
Dr. W. K. Boyd, Dr. W. H. Wannamaker, Henry R. Dwire, 
and for many years now, Dr. W. T. Laprade. 

The Elizabeth City Independent, made famous years ago 
by the colorful W. O. Saunders, was published as a weekly, 
semi-weekly and as a morning daily (in 1948-49) by George 
W. Haskett. It was sold by his son, W. F. Haskett, UNC 
Journalism graduate, who started the Albemarle Star in its 
place in April, 1950. About six months later Mr. Haskett 
joined the armed forces and A. J. and Maud McCleland are 
general manager and editor, respectively . 


Ed M. Anderson, former president of the N. C. Press As- 
sociation, is publisher of five weekly newspapers in the 
mountain area. These include Transylvania Times, Brevard, 
with John Anderson in charge; Forest City Courier and 
Spindale Sun, Clarence Griffin editor and general manager, 
and the Skyland Post, West Jefferson, and the Alleghany 
News, Sparta, Mrs. Ed Anderson, associate publisher and 

Associates of Col. Joseph E. Robinson in founding the 
Goldsboro Argus in 1885 were Charles B. Aycock, later 
Governor, and B. W. Nash. Col. John D. Langston and 
associates founded the Goldsboro News in 1922, consolidated 
with The Argus to form The News-Argus in 19 29 by Talbot 
Patrick, publisher. 

The Henderson Gold Leaf, weekly, established in 1881 
by Thad R. Manning, deceased, was published for many 
years by the Henderson Dispatch Co., Henry Dennis, editor, 
has been suspended, at least temporarily. 

The Hendersonville Time-News is the successor to all 
papers published in that city for the past 75 or 80 years. 
Specifically, it was a consolidation of The Times and The 
News, weeklies, semi-weeklies and then dailies, consolidated 
in 1926 by J. T. Fain, still editor. A newer weekly is The 
Western Carolina Tribune, published by Noah Hollowell. 

Capus M. Waynick, now ambassador to Nicaragua, former 
chairman of the State Highway Commission and first acting 
director of President Truman's Point Four Program, is a 
former editor of the High Point Enterprise, established in 
1885 and becoming a daily in 1905. 

The Daily Independent, Kannapolis in a modern home 
and with 50 employees, was started in 19 27 by James L. 
Moore, present publisher, with an investment of $37.50 on 
credit — for a typewriter. It became a daily in 1938. 

The Kinston Daily Free Press was established in 1882 as a 
weekly by the late Josephus Daniels and his brother, Charles 
C. Daniels, and was issued from Wilson for a short time. 
H. Gait Braxton, a former president of the N. C. Press As- 
sociation, has been editor and publisher since 1914. It 
became a daily with the start of the Spanish-American War 
in 1898. (C. C. Daniels, 86, died March 20, 1951.) 

Archibald Johnson, for many years noted editor of Char- 
ity and Children, Baptist Orphanage paper and father of 
Gerald Johnson, widely known writer and author, was 
editor of The Laurinburg Exchange before the turn of the 
century, while it was owned by R. D. Phillips, father of 
Judge Donald Phillips, Rockingham. O. L. Moore, several 
times legislator, has been editor and publisher since 1919. 


The Leaksville News, published and edited by J. S. and 
Richard Robertson, for the textile communities of Leaks- 
ville-Spray-Draper and environs, is delivered primarily by 
carrier boy, plus newsstand sales, with a portion by mail, 
of the 4,500 copies weekly. The News is printed in a mod- 
ern new plant with an up-to-date print shop, which also 
prints three periodicals: The Mill Whistle, each two weeks, 
house organ of Fieldcrest Mills; Cub Reporter, monthly, for 
Leaksville High School; The Tattler, monthly, for Draper 
High School. 

The Harnett County News, Lillington, has gone serenely 
on under the direction of Henderson Steele for 31 years 

while numbers of publications started, flourished and folded. 
His son, Frank Steele, joined him as co-publisher in 1947. 

George S. Baker, founder of the Louisburg Courier (now 
Franklin Times) in 18 70, was a charter member of the 
N. C. Press Association in 1873. J. A. Thomas operated 
from 1875 to 1910, and 40 years ago A. F. Johnson took 
over and is still going strong. His son, A. F. Johnson, Jr., 
a UNC School of Journalism product, joined him recently, 
but is back in the U. S. Navy now. 

The Madison Messenger is operated by an experienced 
crew. Russell M. Spear, native of Amherst, Mass., graduate 
of Amherst College, 19 27, in advertising work in Chicago, 
and wife, Marion A. Spear, Univ. of Chicago product and 
daughter of Sherwood Anderson, noted novelist, bought the 
paper in 1934. Charles E. Brown, native Madisonian, 10 
years with Burlington Times-News, joined the partnership 
in 1947. 

The Marshville Home (then Our Home) was established 
in 1892 by J. Z. Greene, who was a prominent farm organ- 
ization leader after the turn of the century. L. E. Huggins 
joined Greene in its early days and continued publication 
for many years. In 1948 George W. Downes and Don L. 
Garver bought the plant and the next year incorporated, 
bringing Mr. Huggins out of retirement as an active official. 
A modern printing plant was installed in 1950. The paper 
operates a photographic department. 

Charles S. Parnell, long secretary of the Six-County Fair, 
Mebane, published The Mebane Enterprise 16 years or more, 
until his death in 1938. His widow, Mrs. Lottie Parnell, 
has continued publication. Their son, C. L. Parnell, was 
editor for about four years. 

Members of the Ashcraft family have been publishers and 
associates in publication of The Monroe Enquirer, estab- 
lished in 18 7 2 by W. C. Wolfe and later published by J. W. 
Boylin, since 1903, when B. C. and Eugene Ashcraft pur- 
chased the paper. Eugene's son, John B. Ashcraft, is now 
editor. It has been a semi-weekly for many years. 

George M. and Roland F. Beasley, brothers, have been 
publishing The Monroe Journal since they founded it in 
1894, nearly all of the time as a semi-weekly. Roland is 
editor and George is Publisher. R. F. Beasley, Jr., is with 
The Journal, while two sons of George are publishers, G. M., 
Jr., of the Montgomery Herald, and John Beasley, of the 
Moore County News, Carthage. John was the first State 
Commander of The American Legion. 

The Mount Airy News, established by T. J. Lowery in 
1880, has been operated by Johnsons since 1904, when J. E. 
Johnson and son, Wm. M. Johnson, purchased the paper. 
W. M. Johnson, managing editor and James E. Johnson, 
advertising manager, have been associated with their father 
for many years. 

The late Homer Brock published the Mount Olive Tribune 
for about 34 years, until his death in 1949. Since then 
Mrs. Brock has been publisher; Cletus Brock editor and 
Elmer Brock business manager. It is the only paper in the 
State operating its own home-made photoengraving plant 
and makes engravings for some 25 eastern N. C. weekly 
and daily papers. 

The Pinehurst Outlook, weekly but seasonal daily, pub- 
lished by Robert E. Harlow for a long time, is now owned 
by three brothers, Paul, Joseph and Thomas Wilson. Har- 
low now edits and publishes The Golf World, printed in 
Pinehurst and circulated internationally. Thomas Wilson, 
UNC journalism product, is editor and publisher of the Nash- 
ville Graphic, established by M. W. Lincke in 189 5 and 
published by him and members of his family many years. 


Three women have been handling for several years the 
business and editorial end of the Catawba News-Enterprise, 
published as The Newton Enterprise and consolidated with 
the Catawba County News in 1919 by Charles H. Mebane, 
father of the two co-publishers, Mrs. Evelyn Mebane Odum 
and Mrs. lone Mebane Mann. Mrs. Helen Ross, on the staff, 
prominent in State YDC politics, joined the staff of Senator 
Willis Smith in Washington recently. G. Weaver Mann, 
husband of Mrs. Mann, was editor for 16 or more years, un- 
til his death in 194 6. 


Charles H. Mebane (1862-1926), editor and publisher of 
the Catawba News-Enterprise for 2'2 years, was probably 
one of the most versatile of editors in the State's history. 
Graduating from Catawba College and UNC Law School, Mr. 

PAGE 22 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

Mebane was a teacher, State Supt. of Schools (1896-1900), 
president of Catawba College (1900-04), supt., Catawba 
County Schools, editor Greensboro Patriot, Catawba County 
News, Catawba News-Enterprise, trustee of WC of UNC for 
30 years, judge of Catawba County Recorder's Court, State 
director of prohibition drive, etc., etc. His son, C. H. Meb- 
ane, Jr., succeeded him, but later established in 193 3 the 
Newton Observer, which he has since edited and published. 


The N. C. Press Association has had only nine secretaries 
in the 78 years since it was organized in 1873 in Goldsboro. 
Miss Beatrice Cobb, Morganton, is about to overtake the 
record made by J. A. Sherrill, Concord, who served 3 2 
years. Miss Cobb is serving her 30th year. In between 
their services, Edwin B. Jeffress, Greensboro, served one 
year, 1920-21. 

First secretary was Julius A. Bonitz, Goldsboro, who 
with John Spelman, Raleigh, were appointed secretaries at 
the organization meeting. Mr. Bonitz was elected recording 
secretary and William S. Ball, Greensboro, was elected cor- 
responding secretary for the first year. Then Major R. T. 
Fulghum, Goldsboro, served three years; Wm. A. Davis, 
Oxford, served two years; Jordan Stone, Raleigh, served five 
years; J. A. Robinson, Winston, served one year, and J. H. 
Lindsay, Kernersville, served three years, until Mr. Sherrill's 
3 2-year span began in 18 88. 


In its beginning years the N. C. Press Association followed 
a plan of re-electing a president to another term, but that 
has not happened but twice since the turn of the century. 
The organization meeting, 12 o'clock, May 14, 1873, in the 
Court House, Goldsboro, was called to order by William 
Biggs, Tarboro. Major Joseph A. Englehard, Wilmington, 
was called to the chair, elected president. He was re-elected 
for a second term. Col. John D. Cameron, Hillsboro, was 
elected for two years, as were Col. W. L. Saunders, Raleigh, 
and Dorsey Battle, Tarboro. Then, in 1881 presidents 
served only one year. J. A. Thomas, Louisburg, was elected 
president in 1891 and again in 1908. H. B. Varner, Lexing- 
ton, was elected in 1903 and succeeded himself. The last 
time that happened was in 1921 and 19 22, when J. B. Sher- 
rill, Concord, secretary for 3 2 years, was elected and re- 
elected to succeed himself as president. 


Two very prominent North Carolina families were editors 
and publishers of The Scotland Neck Commonwealth for 
many years before Eric W. Rodgers became publisher 15 or 
18 years ago. W. H. Kitchin was its founder and a mem- 
ber of Congress. Two of his sons who worked on the paper, 
W. W. Kitchin and Claude Kitchin, were also members of 
Congress. Claude was chairman of the House Ways and 
Means Committee during World War I. W. W. Kitchin was 
also Governor of North Carolina. Later, members of the 

Madry family edited and published The Commonwealth. 
J. T. Madry was editor. Robert W. Madry, news director at 
the State University, got his basic training in The Common- 
wealth office. Norfleet Smith was publisher of The Com- 
monwealth for a decade or more between the periods rep- 
resented by operation by the Kitchin and Madry families. 

Carl O. Jeffress, son of the principal owner of the Greens- 
boro Daily News and the Greensboro Record, E. B. Jeffress, 
became general manager of these newspapers January 1, 
succeeding P. T. Hines, resigned, but retained as consultant. 

William K. Hoyt, with the Winston-Salem Journal and 
later the Twin City Sentinel for 2 5 years, has been named 
publisher of these newspapers by the directors of the Pied- 
mont Publishing Co. He succeeds Gordon Gray, former 
secretary of the Army, now president of the Consolidated 
University of North Carolina. 

The Gastonia Gazette observed two 70th anniversaries 
October 17, last, with a big special edition. One was the 
7 0th anniversary of the founding of the paper; the other 
the 70th anniversary of the birth of the publisher, J. W. 
Atkins. Mr. Atkins relinquished active duties on the paper 
to his two sons, Ben and Stewart Atkins. 

Renn B. Pharr, 71, co-publisher with his brother, W. E. 
Pharr, of the North Wilkesboro Hustler for 45 years, died 
in the Wilkes Hospital in North Wilkesboro October 20, 

In the November, 19 50, issue of The North Carolina Press, 
issued monthly by the N. C. Press Association, Miss Beatrice 
Cobb, secretary-treasurer, announced that the Association 
then had a 100% membership of all daily newspapers in the 
State and a high percentage of those in the weekly field. 


The Daily Record of Dunn made its official appearance 
as a new daily newspaper January 1, with Hoover Adams, 
veteran Dunn newspaper man, as editor. Adams, native of 
Dunn, has been reporter, editor and co-publisher of the Dunn 
Dispatch from youth, except for intervals of military and 
public relations work. The first issue of the five-day paper, 
Mondays through Fridays, was actually issued December 
6, last. 


Following the death of Curtis B. Johnson, publisher and 
principal stockholder of The Charlotte Observer, last fall, 
his interests were left to his widow, with provision for them 
to go to nephews and nieces later. He left $5,000 to each 
of several heads of departments; $1,000 to each employee 
of 20 years or more, and $100 to those with 10 years or 
more of service. Mr. Johnson owned 51V 2 % of the stock, 
the remainder belonging to the estate of Walter B. Sullivan, 
his partner in the purchase of The Observer some 3 5 years 

G. E. Isaacs, Durham publisher, also publishes The Frank- 
lin Post, Franklinton, and The Times, at Hillsboro. 

N. C. Has 41 Daily Newspapers; 7 Morning; 34 Afternoon 

North Carolina now boasts of 41 daily newspapers, 
seven morning and 34 afternoon or evening news- 
papers. The seven morning newspapers have Sun- 
day morning editions, while five of the afternoon 
papers also issue Sunday morning papers. After- 
noon papers are published in all of the cities in which 
morning newspapers appear, and in six cities the 
morning and afternoon papers are owned by the 
same firms. The exceptions are in Charlotte and 
Raleigh, in which the afternoon papers are owned 
by separate firms. 

(NR) means that no definite information was re- 
ceived direct from editors or publishers in the list 
of daily papers, with accompanying data, as follows : 

AHOSKIE — Daily Roanoke-Chowan News, published eve- 
nings except Saturday and Monday. Non-partisan. Estab- 

lished 1944, by The Daily News Co.; F. Roy Johnson, pub- 

This paper was published for several years as a weekly 
and not long ago became a small-size daily. It is published 
in connection with The Northeastern Carolina News, Mur- 
freesboro. (NR) 

ASHEVILLE — Asheville Citizen, published Mornings, 
Independent Democratic, Established 1870 by Randolph A. 
Shotwell; Don C. Shoemaker, Editor. 

Asheville Times, published Evenings except Sunday, In- 
dependent Democratic, Established 18 96, by J. M. and Fred 
A. Johnson and James E. Norton; W. S. Adams, Editor. 

Citizen-Times, published Sunday, Established 1930; C. K. 
Robinson, Editor. 

All three published by Asheville Citizen-Times Co. 

Former publishers and editors of The Citizen include 
Captain Nat Atkinson, Robert M. Furman, Colonel John D. 
Cameron, Captain Thomas W. Patton, W. F. Randolph, John 
P. Kerr, Frank E. Robinson, Julius C. Martin, James H. 
Caine, Robert S. Jones, Robert Lathan, George Stephens 
and Charles A. Webb. 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 23 



As a preliminary move toward getting as complete in- 
formation as possible from all newspapers and periodicals 
in North Carolina for this issue, letters were sent November 
3 to all publications of which the editor had knowledge, in- 
cluding all listed in Ayer's Newspaper Directory for North 
Carolina and any others heard about. Accompanying these 
letters were blanks which gave the data included in the 1950 
Ayer's and indicating the types of data desired for this 
issue. Probably between 40 and 50 percent responded. 

A second letter and plea for response was sent out De- 
cember 1, also containing another blank. Another 10 or 15 
percent responded. Then, on December 29 a third letter 
— a begging letter — was sent out to all who had not re- 
sponded. Another small batch of responses followed this 
request. The editor then attended the Press Institute Jan- 
uary 18-19 and secured information on a few other papers. 

As a result of lack of responses, a check shows that ap- 
proximately 65 newspapers and periodicals did not supply 
information, including approximately six dailies, two semi- 
weeklies, 35 weeklies and 22 other types of periodicals, 
trade, college, etc. Data is being given on these publica- 
tions, but is limited to that supplied by Ayer's, or that and 
such other information as was known to the editor or secured 
from other sources. 

Therefore, data used on the publications may not be accu- 
rate. Some of them may have stopped publication — Press 
Institute checking resulted in finding two such — and there 
may be others. Papers may have changed hands, names 
may have changed, editors or publishers may have changed. 
The information given is complete, as far as the editor 
could learn. 

(NR) was adopted as a symbol and placed at the end of 
the information, indicating that direct information was not 
received from the editors or publishers. This is not to "show 
up" those who failed to respond, but to indicate that such 
information may not be entirely accurate. And, to the 
extent of these failures to respond, this issue is not as com- 
plete and as accurate as hoped and desired. 

Former publishers and editors of The Times, started as 
The Gazette, consolidated with The News in 190 3 and chang- 
ed to The Times in 1916, include George L. Hackney, Walter 
A. Hildebrand, Charles A. Webb, Charles J. Harris, D. Hiden 
Ramsey, P. M. Burdette and Gray Gorham, who sold it in 
192'5 to Don S. Elias. 

The Citizen and Times were consolidated by publishers 

Charles A. Webb and Don S. Elias in 1930. Don Elias is 

president; D. Hiden Ramsey, vice-president and general 

manager; W. Randall Harris, treasurer and assistant gen- 

ral manager, and Claude S. Ramsey, executive news editor. 

Ittractive glass-brick and concrete home of The Asheville 
Htizen, The Asheville Times, the Sunday Citizen-Times, The 
Engraving Plant and Radio Station WWNC. One of the most 
todern neicspaper -plants in the Southeast. 

Showing the five-unit superduty Duplex Press of the 
Charlotte News, afternoon 

BURLINGTON — Times-News, published Evenings, except 
Sunday, Independent, Established in the early 1930's, by 
Times-News Publishing Co., Inc.; R. B. Terry and D. A. 
Rawley, Publishers. Staley A. Cook, editor and general 
manager, and Rudy M. Fonville, advertising director and 
business manager, are stockholders in the business. 

The Times-News grew out of The Burlington Times, week- 
ly and semi-weekly paper, published for many years by 
C. F. Crowson. It started in 18 95. Fire destroyed the plant 
in 1930, and O. F. Crowson, son of the earlier publisher, 
operated the paper for a short time. A paper published by 
Zeb Waller was included in the consolidation. 

CHARLOTTE — News, published Evenings, except Sunday, 
Democratic, Established 18 88, by Wade H. Harris; C. A. 
McKnight, Editor; Thos. L. Robinson, Publisher; J. E. 
Dowd, general manager; B. S. Griffith, executive editor; 
R. J. Alander, advertising director; W. W. Sirmon, circula- 
tion manager. 

In 189 2 W. C. Dowd purchased The News, published it 
until 1927, after which his son, W. Carey Dowd, Jr., was 
publisher until 1947 when it was purchased by a new com- 
pany, Thomas L. Robinson, president and treasurer; J. E. 
Dowd, vice-president and secretary. At that time the late 
W. C. Dowd, Jr., retained the printing business as the Dowd 
Press, still in operation. 

In 1914 The Charlotte News purchased and absorbed The 
Charlotte Evening Chronicle. 

Observer, published every Morning, Independent Demo- 
cratic, Established 18 69, by Smith Watson & Co., printers; 
Observer Co., Publishers; Associate editors J. A. Parham, 
long managing editor, and Rupert Gillett, with Ernest B. 
Hunter, managing editor, form the editorial board. H. A. 
Allen is secretary-treasurer of the company; O. A. Robinson 
is advertising director; J. G. Ward is circulation manager, 
and John P. White is production manager. 

In the early days "Daily" appeared in the name, was 
shifted and then dropped. For a period it was known as 
The Charlotte Chronicle. In 1892, previously suspended 
for a period, it was purchased by Daniel A. Tompkins and 
Joseph P. Caldwell, the latter editor until his last illness, 
about 1910. Word H. Wood and George Stephens purchased 
and operated the paper for a few years, selling it in 1916 
to Curtis B. Johnson and Walter B. Sullivan. Mr. Sullivan 
died and some years later Mr. Johnson sold his Knoxville 
(Tenn.) Sentinel and became active publisher of The Ob- 
server. He died last year. Wade H. Harris and Dr. Julian 
S. Miller were editors, respectively, for a number of years. 

CONCORD — Tribune, published Evenings except Saturday 
and Sunday, Sunday morning, Independent Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1900, by J. F. Hurley; E. Ray King, business man- 
ager; The Concord Tribune, Inc., Publisher; A. W. Huckle, 
president; Ray Hull, editor. 

In 1910 John B. Sherrill acquired The Tribune, publish- 
ing it until his death in 1934. His son, W. M. Sherrill, was 
editor-publisher until his death about a decade ago. The 

PAGE 24 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

Modern home of The Charlotte Observer, State's largest news- 
paper. Recent extensive renovation and equipment cost in 
excess of a million dollars. Further enlargement of the build- 
ing is planned 

Tribune is now owned by a corporation of local people, with 
a daily circulation of 8,750. The Tribune absorbed The 
Herald-Observer, a morning daily, in 193 8. 

DURHAM — Herald, published Mornings and Sunday, Non- 
partisan, Established 1894, by B. T. Rollins and J. H. King; 
Steed Rollins, Editor. 

Sun, published evenings except Sunday, Non-partisan, Es- 
tablished 1889, by James Robinson; J. R. Barry Editor. 

Durham Herald Co., Inc., Publisher of both morning and 
afternoon dailies, Carl C. Council, president, and Steed Rol- 
lins, vice-president and executive editor. 

Mr. Rollins purchased Mr. King's interest a few years 
after The Herald was established, continuing publication 
until his death some 18 or 20 years ago. His estate is the 
principal owner of the corporation. Among its editors have 
been Walter N. Keener, L. S. Laprade, and Dr. Sylvester 

The Sun was published by Mr. Robinson, "Old Hurry- 
graph," until around 1910. It passed through several hands 
until it was purchased in 1929 by The Durham Herald Co. 
Since then both papers have been published in the same 
plant. Earlier members of its editorial staff were Robert 
L. Gray and Irving Cheek, both later with The Raleigh 
Times, and Howard Branch, former Raleigh Chamber of 
Commerce secretary. 

ELIZABETH CITY — Advance, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established 1911; Edwin 
Moss Williams, Editor; Elizabeth City Advance, Publisher. 

The Advance was edited and published for many years 
by Herbert Peele, president of the N. C. Press Association 
1946-47. Mr. Williams purchased the paper about two 
years ago. He also purchased and suspended publication 
of The Independent, published for several years by George 
W. Haskett and previously by the dynamic W. O. Saunders. 

FAYETTEVILLE — Observer, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent, Established 1817, by Emanuel Bing- 
ham; Fayetteville Publishing Co.; R. H. Lilly, Business 
Manager; George G. Myrover, Managing Editor. 

The Fayetteville Observer, oldest newspaper in North 
Carolina, was started as The Carolina Observer. After 
changing hands several times, John McRae sold it in 18 25 
to Edward J. Hale, who changed its name to The Fayette- 
ville Observer. In 1883 his son, Edward J. Hale, Jr., be- 
came publisher and headed The Observer until 1919, except 
for eight years. In this period, 1885-92, publishers in- 
cluded: Robert Bryan, John R. Myrover, George G. Myrover, 
Sr., George H. Haigh and Z. W. Whitehead. 

Briefly, in 1919-2'0, a stock company of Fayetteville citi- 
zens published The Observer. It was purchased by John A. 
Park, Raleigh publisher, who sold it in 1921 to David B. 
Lindsay, Marion, Indiana, who sold it in 1923 to W. J. Mc- 
Murray, New York City. The Fayetteville Publishing Co. 

was formed, with C. R. Wilson as publisher. Mr. Wilcon 
died in 19 49, at which time his son-in-law, R. M. Lilly, be- 
came publisher. The Fayetteville Observer is a member of 
the American Press Century Club. 

GASTONIA — Gazette, published Evenings except Sunday, 
Independent Democratic, Established 18 80, by George W. 
Chalk; James W. Atkins, Editor; Gazette Publishing Co.. 
Inc. The Gazette started as a weekly paper, has been owned 
by the Atkins family for about 45 of its 7 years. 

Early publishers and editors were James E. Page, G. W. 
Chalk, John T. Bigham, W. M. Grier, Jr., and W. F. Mar- 
shall, later of Raleigh. In 190 6 Prof. Ben E. Atkins and 
his two sons, James W. and Emmett D. Atkins, formed The 
Gazette Publishing Co., purchased the plant and began 
publishing a thrice-a-week paper, the first in the State. Hugh 
A. Querry became editor. It was changed into a daily in 

Last fall The Gazette issued a large special edition cele- 
brating its 70th year and the 70th year of its editor and 
publisher, James W. Atkins. Mr. Atkins is easing up and 
his sons are taking over. Stewart Atkins is vice-president 
and advertising director, and Ben Atkins is secretary and 
business manager. Fourth generation Atkins boys are part- 
time workers while out of college. 

GOLDSBORO — News-Argus, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent, Established 18 8 5, by Col. Joseph E. 
Robinson; Henry Belk, Editor; Talbot Patrick, Publisher; 

A. S. Brown, Business Manager; Goldsboro Publishing Co. 
Mr. Belk is president of the N. C. Press Association. 

Partners with Col. Robinson in establishing The Golds- 
boro Argus were Charles B. Aycock, later Governor, and 

B. W. Nash. The Goldsboro News was founded in 1922 by 
Col. John D. Langston and others. After Mr. Patrick pur- 
chased The Argus, he also purchased The News in 19 29 and 
consolidated these papers. 

Former Goldsboro papers included The Weekly Tran- 
script and Messenger, J. A. Bonitz, editor, in the 1880's. 
Marion Butler, later U. S. Senator, once printed The Cau- 
casian in Goldsboro. Nash brothers in the 1880s did a large 
book and periodical publishing business. Nash Printery, 
B. G. Pinckney, owner, continues the name today. The 
Weekly Headlight, A. Roscower, publisher, was discontinued 
about 1915. 

GREENSBORO — Daily News, published daily and Sunday, 
Independent, Established 190 5, by The Industrial News Co.; 
H. W. Kendall, Editor; Carl O. Jeffress, General Manager; 
Greensboro News Co., Publisher. 

Started by Spencer Blackburn, one-time Republican Con- 
gressman, as Editor and Thomas S. Rollins, publisher, as a 
State Republican organ, The Industrial News failed and was 
sold and reorganized. It developed into an independent 
paper with Democratic leanings. In 1911 W. A. Hilde- 
brand purchased the paper, and E. B. Jeffress later that year 

Renovated and modern home of the Durham Herald-Sun Pa- 
pers. Recently acquired annex to the right houses Business 
and Circulation Departments. Engraving Department occupies 
a fourth floor at the rear 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 15 

Home of The Gazette, Gastonia's afternoon newspaper 

became part owner and business manager. Earl Godbey 
and A. L. Stockton, from Asheville, became editor and man- 
aging editor, respectively. In 1918 Mr. Hildebrand sold 
his interest to Mr. Godbey, Mr. Stockton and Archie B. Joy- 
ner, advertising manager, Mr. Jeffress retaining his half 
interest. Mr. Joyner died in 19 23, Mr. Stockton in 1936 and 
Mr. Godbey in 1942. 

Mr. Jeffress became ill in 1934 and has since been in- 
active. Mr. Kendall succeeded Mr. Godbey as editor in 
1942 and James Polk later became associate editor. In 
1911 The Greensboro News Co. bought and merged The 
Greensboro Telegram, a small morning paper, with The 
Daily News. 

The Greensboro News Co. operates Radio Station WFMY 
and Television Station WFMY-TV, the first newspaper-owned 
television station to begin operations in North Carolina. 

Daily Record, published Evenings except Sunday, Demo- 
cratic, Established 18 90, by Harper Elam, Col. Joe Reece 
and John Benson; Colvin Leonard, Editor; Greensboro News 
Co., Publisher. 

The Daily Record, Greensboro's oldest daily newspaper, 
was purchased entirely after a few years by Col. Reece, who 
was editor and publisher for a long time. After his death, 
Col. Al Fairbrother bought The Record and operated it for 
several years, selling it to Julian Price and Parker Ander- 
son. Mr. Price, his daughter, Mrs. Kathleen Price Bryan, 
and Edney Ridge later became owners, with Mr. Ridge as 
operator. The Record was purchased by Bryan-Thompson, 
Inc., an out-of-state firm, in 1927, who operated it for about 
three years. In 19 30 Mr. Price again purchased the paper 
and arranged a merger with the owners of The Greensboro 
Daily News. Capus M. Waynick, now Ambassador to Nica- 
ragua, was editor for a period. A. D. Jones was editor for 
many years until his death in 19 48, when Mr. Leonard be- 
came editor. 

GREENVILLE — Reflector, published Evenings except Sun- 
day, Local, Established 1882; Eh J. Whichard, Jr., Editor 
and Publisher; published for many years by the father of 
the present publisher, whose son, David J. Whichard, is an 

The Reflector was operated for many years in the weekly 
field but has been a daily for a long time. Mr. Whichard is 
president of the North Carolina Association of Afternoon 
Dailies, Inc. (NR) 

HENDERSON — Dispatch, published Evenings except Sun- 
day, Democratic, Established 1914, by local businessmen; 

Henry A. Dennis, Editor; Henderson Dispatch Co., Inc., Pub- 

The Daily Dispatch was launched by the owning company 
in the plant of the Henderson Gold Leaf, a weekly paper, in 
1914. Mr. Dennis joined the staff in 1915 and in 1922 he 
and M. L. Finch purchased the paper. Mr. Dennis is presi- 
dent and editor, and Mr. Finch secretary-treasurer and busi- 
ness manager. 

Fire completely destroyed the plant except for the press 
late in 19 46. The plant was rebuilt, fully equipped and re- 
occupied in May, 1947. The Dispatch was issued from The 
Raleigh Times plant during the five month interval. The 
Gold Leaf has been suspended temporarily. 

HENDERSONVILLE — Times-News, published Evenings, 
except Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established 1925, 
by J. T. Fain; J. T. Fain, Editor; G. M. Ogle, general man- 
ager; published by The Times-News Co., Inc. 

The Times-News is a consolidation, in 19 26, of The Hen- 
dersonville Times and The Hendersonville News. Both pa- 
pers originally were weeklies, then ssmi-weeklies before 
becoming dailies. The Times-News is successor to all of 
several papers published in Hendersonville up to the time 
of consolidation. The plant is modern and entirely up-to- 
date, and the circulation approaches 6,000 daily. 

HICKORY — Daily Record, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established 1915, by the 
late J. C. Miller, general manager, and the late Sam H. 
Farabee, editor, with a group of Hickory business men; L. 
C. Gifford, Editor and Publisher. 

The Daily Record was organized and brought about the 
consolidation and absorption of weekly newspapers publish- 
ed in Hickory about that time. Editor Farabee had been 
editor of the Winston-Salem Journal and later edited a 
paper in Florida. A small "sheet," The Daily Cricket was 
published for a short time around 1880 but never became 
firmly established. 

Earlier publishers of Hickory newspapers included Dr. 
J. R. Ellis, who established The Press and Carolinian in 
1870; J. F. Click, H. H. Crowson, John F. Mullen, W. C. 
Dowd, A. Y. Sigmon and Hugh Murrell. Among the papers 
were: The Mercury, The Democrat, The Times and The 

HIGH POINT — Enterprise, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Sunday morning, Independent, Established 1885; 
Robert Thompson, Editor; R. B. Terry and D. A. Rawley, 

The Enterprise, formerly in the weekly field, became a 
daily in 190 5. Among its noted former editors was Capus 
M. Waynick, later chairman of the N. C. Highway Commis- 
sion and at present Ambassador to Nicaragua. 

KANNAPOLIS — Daily Independent, published Evenings 
and Sunday (except Saturday), Independent, Established 
19 27, by J. L. Moore; J. L. Moore, Publisher; T. H. Wingate. 

Mr. Moore started The Independent without a shoestring; 

Where The Greensboro Daily News and The Greensboro 
Record are edited and published 

PAGE 26 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

he borrowed $37.50 to purchase a typewriter. It started as 
The Kannapolis Towler, issued from a spare room of the 
Moore home. A few years later Publisher Moore attended 
college, forming The Kannapolis Publishing Co., Inc., on his 
return. It then became a tri-weekly paper and a year later, 
in 1938, became a morning daily, The Daily Independent. 

KINSTON — Free Press, published Evenings except Sun- 
day, Independent Democratic, Established 1882, by Josephus 
Daniels; H. Gait Braxton, Editor; Kinston Free Press Co., 
Inc., Publisher. 

The Free Press started as a weekly paper and operated 
for a short time from Wilson. Mr. Daniels sold his interest 
to his associate and brother, Charles C. Daniels. Other 
editors were James Herbert and D. T. Edwards. The Free 
Press became a semi-weekly paper, and in 18 98, during the 
Spanish-American War, became a daily. The semi-weekly 
edition continued for several years. Mr. Braxton purchased 
the paper in 1914 and has since been its editor and pub- 
lisher. (C. C. Daniels, 86, N. Y. atty., died Mar. 20, 1951.) 

Several weekly papers were published in Kinston at dif- 
ferent times and folded up. One morning daily, The Kin- 
ston News, operated from 1914 to 1926-28. 

LENOIR — News-Topic, published Evenings except Sun- 
days, Independent Democratic, Established 187 5, by James 
C. Nutty, Roy R. Wallis, Editor; Lenoir News-Topic, Inc., 

The News-Topic was established as The Caldwell Messen- 
ger and became The Lenoir Topic two years later. In 1919 
through consolidation it took its present name. The News- 
Topic operated as a semi-weekly until 1947 when it became 
an afternoon daily. Mr. Wallis has been editor for 15 or 
more years. The Caldwell Record, established in 1931, was 
consolidated with The News-Topic in 1937. Photo News, 
established in 193 8, was suspended one year later. 

LEXINGTON — The Dispatch, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established in 1882, by 
T. B. Eldridge; E. E. Witherspoon, Editor; The Dispatch 
Publishing Co.; Fred O. Sink Estate, owner. 

The Dispatch was started by Publisher Eldridge as a 
weekly paper, became a semi-weekly some 20 years ago and 
was changed to a daily about two years ago. H. B. Varner, 
good-roads advocate, bought it in the early 1890s and con- 
tinued publication for 18 or 20 years, with Fred O. Sink as 
general manager. An Ohio firm bought and published the 
paper for about two years, and in the early lg^Os it was 
bought by Mr. Sink and Walter H. Mendenhall. Mr. Sink 
acquired his partner's interest and continued publication 
until his death. Mr. Witherspoon has been editor for about 
3 5 years. 

Attractive home of The Enterprise, High Point's 
afternoon newspaper 

For many years the home of "The Old Reliable", The 
Raleigh News and Observer 

Former editors and reporters include: George B. Cochran, 
S. R. Winters, A. L. Fletcher, and Gerald Johnson. 

LUMBERTON — Robesonian, published Evenings except 
Saturday and Sunday, Democratic, Established 18 70, by Rev. 
W. S. McDiarmid; Robesonian, Inc., Publisher; Jack Sharpe, 

The Robesonian was started as a weekly paper, became a 
semi-weekly about 1900, a tri-weekly in 1926 and became 
a five-day daily in 1940. The late J. A. Sharpe acquired the 
paper in 1907 and continued as editor and publisher until 
his death in 19 47. Since that time his son has edited the 
paper. The Robesonian is the oldest newspaper in Robeson 
County and is probably the oldest business in the county 
retaining the same firm name. The circulation is now 
6,500. The print shop was discontinued in 1949. 

Two earlier papers have been absorbed by The Robeson- 
ian: The Lumberton Times, started in 18 80 by James Bon- 
ner, and The Lumberton Argus, established about 1900. 
Another, published in Lumberton by A. S. Johnston, started 
in Rowland and later moved to Clarkton. 

NEW BERN — Sun-Journal, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Independent, Established 1876; T. M. Diggs, Editor; 
Sun-Journal, Inc., Publisher. C. A. Eury has operated The 
Sun-Journal for many years. He is a former president of the 
Eastern N. C. Press Association. 

When Mr. Eury acquired The Sun-Journal a dozen or 
more years ago, The New Bernian was being issued as a 
morning daily. After its suspension, Mr. Eury issued an 
early morning edition of The Sun-Journal. (NR) 

The New Bern Tribune was published as a morning daily 
for a short time several years ago by N. G. Gooding. The 
New Bern Times, weekly, edited by H. I. Crumpler, was pub- 
lished by H. C. Waldrop for a number of years, until it was 
discontinued a year or two ago. 

Small picture of the mod- 
ern home of The Kannap- 
olis Independent, which 
started small with a type- 
writer bought with a bor- 
roived $37.50. 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 27 

RALEIGH — News and Observer, published every Morning, 
Democratic, Established 18 65, by William Pell; Jonathan 
Daniels, Editor; Frank A. Daniels, general manager, Jose- 
phus Daniels, Jr., business manager; R. E. Williams, asso- 
ciate editor; News and Observer Publishing Co., Inc. 

The News and Observer was a consolidation of several 
Raleigh newspapers including The Sentinel, started and 
edited by William Pell and later edited by Josiah Turner. 
The News was established in 1872 by Jordan Stone and W. 
H. Uzzell. Iu 1876 The Sentinel was sold to George A. 
Smith and W. P. Batchelor and later was sold to Peter M. 
Hale and W. L. Saunders, who named it The Observer. The 
News and The Observer were consolidated in 1880, taking 
the present name, with Capt. Samuel A. Ashe as editor and 
Fred A. Olds as city editor. Josephus Daniels came to Ral- 
eigh from Wilson as editor of The Chronicle in 1885 and 
bought The News and Observer in 18 94, serving as editor 
and publisher until his death in 1948. His son, Jonathan 
Daniels, then became editor. 

Other newspapers absorbed by The News and Observer 
or suspended included: The Conservative, The State Chron- 
icle, The Intelligencer, The Farmer and Mechanic, The North 
Carolinian, The Daily Call and The Carolinian. Among per- 
sons associated with these papers were L. L. Polk, Walter 
Hines Page, Edward A. Oldham, Hal W. Ayer, Randolph A. 
Shotwell, D. H. Browder and Thomas R. Jernigan. 

Times, published Evenings except Sunday, Independent, 
Established 1879, by Charles A. Brown and William M. 
Utley; John A. Park, Editor and Publisher. 

The Times started as The Evening Visitor and has suc- 
ceeded or was consolidated with several papers, including 
The Evening Visitor, The Daily Press, The Press Visitor, 
The Times Visitor and The Raleigh Evening Times. Mr. 
Park purchased the paper in 1911 and has since been its 
editor and publisher. His three sons, John, Jr., Ben and 
Albert, are associated with him. Former editors of The 
Times and its predecessors were John Wilbur Jenkins, Rob- 
ert L. Gray, O. J. Coffin, Jule B. Warren, Thomas J. Pence, 
Fred A. Olds, Nell Battle Lewis, A. L. Fletcher, Greek O. 
Andrews and Willis G. Briggs. 

REIDSVILLE — Review, published Evenings except Satur- 
day and Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established 1888, 
by R. J. Oliver, Manton Oliver and John T. Oliver (all de- 
ceased) ; C. R. and W. M. Oliver, Editors; Review Co., 

The Review has been published by members of the Oliver 
family since it was founded 62 years ago. John T. and 
Manton M. Oliver were former editors., and present editors 
are second generation Olivers. 

ROANOKE RAPIDS — Herald, published Evenings except 
Saturday and Sunday, Sunday Morning, Democratic, Estab- 
lished 1914; Herald, Publisher; James Wick and Don Hali 
are key men; published as a weekly for many years by 

Looking down on the front of The Winston-Salem Journal and 
The Twin City Sentinel, with Radio Station WSJS at rear. 
More mailing room space has been provided by an addition at 
left (under construction) 

Modern plant housing modern equipment of the 
Rocky Mount Telegram 

Carroll L. Wilson until four or five years ago; changed to 
a daily three or four years ago. (NR) 

ROCKY MOUNT — Telegram, published Evenings and Sun- 
day Morning, Independent Democratic, Established 1910, by 
Josh L. Home, Jr., its editor and president of the Rocky 
Mount Publishing Co., owners. 

The Telegram started as a morning newspaper but shifted 
to the afternoon field in about four months. The Sunday 
morning edition was started in 194 9. Former editors and 
staff members include: Henry A. Dennis, publisher, Hender- 
son Dispatch; H. Wiseman Kendall, editor Greensboro Daily 
News, and Anthony J. McKelvin (deceased), former manag- 
ing editor of The News and Observer. The building and 
plant are modern, earning a minimum insurance rate. 

SALISBURY — Post, published Evenings except Sunday, 
Sunday Morning, Independent Democratic, Established 1905, 
by John Julian; Spencer Murphy, Editor; J. F. Hurley, Jr., 
Publisher; P. G. Laughridge, Advertising Director; George 
Raynor, Managing Editor; R. H. Bellis, Circulation Man- 

The Post was burned out in 1912 and was purchased and 
re-established by J. F. Hurley who edited and published the 
paper until his death in 1936. His son, J. F. Hurley, Jr., 
has since been publisher, with Spencer Murphy as editor. 
The Yadkin Valley Herald was published semi-weekly until 
19 20, successor to the semi-weekly Post. 

The Western Carolinian, first known publication in Salis- 
bury, started soon after Revolutionary War days, continuing 
until after the Civil War. The Carolina Watchman was 
started in 1832, continuing until 1937. Other early publi- 
cations include: The Herald, dating from around 1885; The 
Sun, and The Truth Index. 

SHELBY — Star, published Evenings except Sunday, In- 
dependent Democratic, Established 1894, by U. S. Senator 
Clyde R. Hoey; Holt McPherson, Editor; Lee B. Weathers, 

The Shelby Daily Star operated in the weekly field until 
193 6 when it became a daily. Lee B. Weathers has been 
publisher for 40 years, since January 1, 1911. Occupying 
a modern new building, The Star has a thoroughly up-to- 
date and high-type commercial print shop. Henry Weathers, 

PAGE 28 


Winter-Spring, 1 951 

son of the publisher, manages the print shop. He is presi- 
dent of the Printing Industry of the Carolinas, Inc. 

STATESVILLE — Daily, published evenings except Sun- 
day, Independent, Established 19 20, by Pegram A. Bryant, 
editor and publisher. Mr. Bryant also publishes The Land- 
mark, semi-weekly, one of the older papers of the State, 
in whose plant he established The Statesville Daily. Among 
his helpers were Mr. Moore and Ben Scronce. 

Daily Record, published Evenings except Sunday, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1930; J. P. Huskins, Publisher. The 
Record was started as a weekly and was made a semi-weekly 
by J. R. McCarthy, publisher for several years. C. E. Mid- 
dlesworth purchased it and changed it into a daily about 
a decade ago. Following his death, Mrs. Middlesworth con- 
tinued operations, Mr. Huskins joining in the publication. 
Ben Scronce was a former editor. (NR) 

TARBORO — Daily Southerner, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Democratic, Established 1889, B. M. Bass, Jr., 
Editor; H. C. Bourne, V. H. Creech, Jr., Business Manager, 
and J. Creech, Publishers; printed by The Tarboro Printing 

The Southerner was started as a weekly in 18 24 in Hali- 
fax by George Howard, who moved it to Tarboro two years 
later. The Weekly Southerner is still published by the 
publishers of the Daily Southerner. Former editors in- 
clude: Frank Powell, Paul Jones, Bertham Brown, Aubrey 
Shackell, P. G. Shackell, Robert Weitick and R. H. Davis. 

TRYON — Bulletin, published Evenings except Saturday 
and Sunday, Independent, Established 1928; S. M. Vining, 
Editor and Publisher. 

The Bulletin is an unusual newspaper, miniature in size 
and attractive in make-up. It has been a publication of 
interest and wide comment during its 2 2 years of existence. 
Mr. Vining also has published The Polk County News, week- 
ly, acquired some 15 years ago. (NR) 

WASHINGTON — News, published Evenings except Sun- 
day, Democratic, Established 190 9, by J. L. Mayo; Ashley 
B. Futrell, Editor; Washington News, Publisher. The News 
started in the weekly field and became an afternoon daily 
in 1909. Former editors include: J. L. Mayo, W. D. W. 
Bishop, Frank Pearson, Charles Thompson, Paul McEvoy, 
Carl Goerch, W. A. Osborn, and Fred Pendleton. 

WILMINGTON — News, published Evenings except Satur- 
day and Sunday, Independent, Established 1896, by R. P. 
McClammy and others; Al G. Dickson, Editor. 

Star, published Mornings except Sunday, Independent, 
Established 1867, by Mayor William H. Bernard; John E. 
Hope, Editor. 

Star-News, published Sunday, Independent, Established 
1929, by R. B. Page; Al G. Dickson, Editor; R. B. Page, 
Publisher, and publisher of The Star and The News. 

The Star started as an afternoon paper but a month later 
entered the morning field and has thus become North Caro- 
lina's second oldest daily with continuous publication under 
the original name. Former editors include: Dr. T. B. Kings- 
berry, Major Patrick F. Duffy, Col. Thomas W. Clawson, 
Robert L. Gray. The Star changed hands in 1919 and in 
1927 the paper was acquired by the R. W. Page Corporation, 
and R. B. Page, member of the firm, became publisher. Two 
years later this firm acquired The News Dispatch, consolidat- 
ing the morning and afternoon papers and establishing the 
Sunday Star-News. In 19 40 R. B. Page purchased the group 
and has since been publisher. His son, R. B. Page, Jr., is 
co-publisher, and J. Walter Webb is general manager of 
the combined papers. 

The News began as The Evening Dispatch, owned and 
edited by four men, James F. Perry, Clayton C. Redd, George 
W. Cameron and R. P. McClammy. Other editors and pub- 
lishers included: R. L. Bryan, Robert M. Haywood, George 
W. Brunson, James Cowan and Louis T. Moore. In 1916 
The Dispatch was acquired by C. C. Bellamy, J. R. Thomp- 
son and Josh L. Home. The Dispatch ceased publication in 
1923, and The News was established as the evening edition 
of The Star. The Dispatch was revived and later in 1923 
the two papers merged, becoming The News-Dispatch. It 
was purchased by the Page interest in 19 29 and became The 

An early competitor was The Evening Review, and later 
1944-48, The Wilmington Post was published by General 
Newspapers, Inc. 

WILSON — The Daily Times, published Evenings except 
Sunday, Democratic, Established 1902', by John D. Gold; 
John D. Gold, Editor; P. D. Gold Publishing Co.; Herbert 
D. Brauff, Publisher; Elizabeth Gold Swindell, Business 
Manager; Paul G. Liles, Advertising Manager; Jim Ful- 
ghum, City Editor. 

The Wilson Daily Times was started as a weekly paper, 
later becoming a semi-weekly, in the shop of the P. D. Gold 
Publishing Co. The print shop was started by Elder P. D. 
Gold, Primitive Baptist minister, in 1867. The Daily Times 
was started in 190 2, and the semi-weekly Times was dis- 
continued in 1945. John D. Gold, founder, continued as 
publisher until 1947 when his firm leased the plant to 
Herbert D. Brauff, publisher. Mr. Gold is still listed as 
editor, but his declining, health does not allow full partici- 
pation. The publication has erected new buildings, installed 
modern equipment and increased the circulation to more 
than 10,000. 

Earlier publications in Wilson include: The North Caro- 
linian, published by Major William A. Hearne in the early 
180 0s; The Wilson Ledger, started in 188 5 by John T. Al- 
britton; The Wilson Advance, later acquired and published 
by Josephus Daniels; The Mirror, published by Jeff Cara- 
way; The Wilson Plain Dealer, a colorful paper edited by 
Col. R. W. Singletary, and The Sentinel, edited by Prof. 

In the spring of 1860 Dr. J. J. Lawrence started The Star 
of Freedom, purchased later that year by John C. Gorman. 
In that year H. Prentice Tuck acquired The Ledger. These 
two papers were consolidated. In the early 18 80's D. S. 
Caraway and Co. published The Wilson Shif tings. In 1925 
Carl Goerch attempted to revive The Mirror but his efforts 
failed. It was published briefly as Wilson's first and only 
morning daily. 

WINSTON-SALEM — Journal, published Mornings except 
Sunday, Independent Democratic, Established 18 97, by 
Charles Landon Knight. 

Journal and Sentinel, published Sundays, Independent 
Democratic, Established 190 2, by D. W. Fawcett and W. 
Lannes Foy. 

Twin City Sentinel, published Evenings except Sunday, 
Independent Democratic, Established 188 5, by Z. W. White- 
head and Peter Doub. 

The two daily newspapers and the Sunday paper are pub- 
lished by The Piedmont Publishing Co., Gordon Gray, presi- 
dent, with Santford Martin, editor, and William K. Hoyt, 

The Twin City Sentinel was established as The Twin City 
Daily. In 18 90 it acquired the weekly Western Sentinel, 
and its name became The Twin City Daily Sentinel. Later 
the "Daily" was dropped. A son of Luther Burbank, noted 
naturalist, acquired and published The Twin City Sentinel 
for a period in the early 1900s. Later it was acquired and 
published by a firm owned primarily by Rufus A. Shore, 
Henry R. Dwire and Bradley Welfare, with Robert C. Car- 
michael as local editor for many years. In 1927 it was 
purchased by Owen G. Moon, then publisher of The Winston- 

One of the most modem and completely equipped neicspaper 
and commercial printing plants in smaller cities of the Nation, 
that of Star Publishing Co., publisher of the Shelby Daily 
Star. Job Department is on third floor. 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 29 

Salem Journal. Previously Mr. Moon had established and 
operated briefly a competing afternoon paper, The Star. 

The Western Sentinel was established in IS 56 by James 
Collins and Francis Eugene Boner. It absorbed The People's 
Press in 1892 and became a semi-weekly in 1907. It was 
discontinued by The Twin City Sentinel in 1926. It was 
edited for many years by John G. Sterling. Earlier prede- 
cessor and merged newspapers in Winston-Salem included: 
The Weekly Gleaner, established in 18 29; The Farmers' 
Reporter, established in 183 2; The People's Press, estab- 
lished in 1851, and The Winston Leader, established 1879. 

The Journal was established as an afternoon newspaper, 
but after about five years, in 1902, it shifted to the morning 
field and the Sunday edition was started. For many years 

this paper was published by a local stock company in which 
the late Henry E. Fries was the principal stockholder. 
Among its editors have been John Paul Lucas, later of 
Duke Power Co.; Sam H. Farabee, later editor of The Hick- 
ory Daily Record; Herbert B. Gunter, later vice-president, 
Pilot Life Insurance Co., and Frank Page, son of Walter 
Hines Page. In 1925 The Journal was purchased by Owen 
G. Moon, its publisher for several years, who built a mod- 
ern publishing plant and consolidated the two daily papers. 
He sold the business to The Piedmont Publishing Co. in 
19 27. Santford Martin has been editor of The Journal 
since 1915 and also editor of The Sentinel since the consoli- 
dation, with time out to serve as private secretary to Gov- 
ernor T. W. Bickett, 1916-20. 

Thirty-three Semi- Weekly Papers Published in State 

North Carolina boasts of 33 strong semi-weekly 
newspapers, in most cases the first issue comes out 
on Mondays or Tuesdays and the second on Thurs- 
days or Fridays. Exceptions are found in a few in- 
stances. Usually these papers are found in com- 
munities which are large enough to support more 
than one paper a week, and yet not large enough to 
support a daily newspaper. 

Most of the present semi-weekly papers were 
weekly papers in the beginning, but a few probably 
started in the semi-weekly field. Many former week- 
ly and semi-weekly papers have graduated into the 
daily field, only a few of the present daily papers 
having started as such. Several passed through the 
tri-weekly stage, but only one paper in the State is 
now published tri-weekly. (See item top of next 

Only two of the semi-weekly newspapers in the 
State failed to respond to requests for information. 
These are indicated by the symbol (NR), meaning 
that no report was received from them directly and 
that data given may not be accurate or up-to-date. 
Information on these 33 semi- weekly papers follows : 

AHOSKIE — Hertford County Herald, published Tuesdays 
and Thursdays, Independent Democratic, Established 190 9, 
by W. G. Smith; Brooks Kiser, Editor; Parker Bros., Pub- 

Home of the printing plant of Parker Brothers, Ahoskie, in 
which is printed their Hertford County Herald, semi-iveekly ; 
their three other iveekly papers: Bertie Ledger Advance, 
Windsor; The Jackson Nerus, and The Gates County Index, 
Gatesinlle, as well as other newspapers and commercial print- 
ing. — Photo by Jensen Hill 



DUNN — The Dispatch, Published Mondays, Wednesdays, 
Fridays; Independent; Established in 1914 by L. Busbee 
Pope; L. Busbee Pope, Publisher; operates commercial well- 
equipped print shop. 

The Dispatch was started as a weekly, operating as such 
until 19 20, when it became a semi-weekly until 1945. At 
that time about all of the boys entered the service and Mr. 
Pope returned to weekly issues. When the boys returned 
from service in 194 6 it became a semi-weekly, entering the 
tri-weekly field in 1948. During the past four years The 
Dispatch has been operated under lease from Mr. Pope, 
owner, by his two sons, L. B. Pope, Jr., and William H. Pope, 
and Hoover Adams, until Mr. Adams entered the daily field 
as of January 1, last. The Dispatch has been an influential 
and progressive newspaper. Its publisher represented Har- 
nett County in the General Assembly. (See item on news- 
papers as training schools for former employees). 

The Central Times was Harnett County's first newspaper. 
The Daily Bulletin was published for a period. The Weekly 
Guide was published for several years by J. P. Pittman, but 
was suspended in 1917, following his death. Other news- 
papers were published for short periods. 

J. Roy Parker, former UNC Journalism teacher, and 
Mayon Parker, secretary-treasurer, Eastern N. C. Press As- 
sociation, have built a splendid printing and publishing 
plant in Ahoskie since J. Roy Parker purchased half interest 
in the paper in 1915. They now operate a large commercial 
business in the plant, which also prints three other news- 
papers in the Roanoke-Chowan area: Bertie Ledger Ad- 
vance, Windsor; The Jackson News, Jackson, and The Gates 
County Index, Gatesville, which Parker Brothers publish; 
also print The North Carolina Farm Bureau News, pub- 
lished by the North Carolina Farm Bureau. Roy Parker is 
president of the firm and writes a weekly column for the 
four papers; Mayon Parker is general manager, and John 
J. Hill is vice-president and mechanical superintendent of 
the plant. 

ALBEMARLE — Albemarle Enterprise, published Wednes- 
days and Saturdays, Independent, Established 1946, by 
Charles A. Reap; Charles A. Reap, Editor; Albemarle-Enter- 
prise, Publisher; operates its own print shop. This paper 
was started by Mr. Reap, former county school superintend- 
ent, as a weekly; recently became a semi-weekly. (NR) 

Stanly News and Press, published Tuesdays and Fridays, 
Independent Democratic, Established 1880, by Dr. P. W. 
Wooley; John B. Harris, Editor; Press Printing Co., Inc., 

The Stanly News and Press is the result of several prede- 
cessor and consolidated newspapers. Dr. Wooley's paper, 
The Second Century, was succeeded by The Stanly Observer, 
the late John R. Elkins, owner and editor. In 1890 The 
Stanly News, a successor to these papers, was purchased by 
the late J. D. Bivens, who continued his connection with 
Stanly County papers until his death in 1943. The Stanly 
News was succeeded by The Stanly Enterprise and later by 
The Albemarle Enterprise. As a result of consolidations, 

PAGE 30 


Winter-Spring, i 951 

Recently completed and modern home of The McDowell News, 

Marion, ivhich also recently moved from the weekly 

to the semi-ioeekly field 

The Stanly News-Herald was started around 1920, with A. 
C. Huneycutt as owner and editor and became a semi-weekly 

In 1922 Mr. Bivens bought the Piedmont Press, a Repub- 
lican paper, edited by the late A. Selders, and changed the 
name to The Albemarle Press. John B. Harris and S. R. 
Andrew became part owners of The Albemarle Press in 
1927, and in that year The Press Printing Co., of which 
Mr. Bivens, Mr. Harris and Mr. Andrew were principal stock- 
holders, bought The Stanly News-Herald from Mr. Honey- 
cutt, consolidating them into The Stanly News and Press. 
Mr. Harris and Mr. Andrew purchased Mr. Bivens' stock 
following his death in 1943. 

The Stanly News and Press has a circulation exceeding 
7,000, said to be the largest of any semi-weekly in the 
southeast. The company has erected a modern press room 
and has installed a 32-page Hoe stereotype press, already 
or soon to be in operation. 

ASHEBORO — Courier-Tribune, published Mondays and 
Thursdays, Independent, Established 1924; Roy Cox, Editor 
and Publisher. 

The Courier was published for many years by the late 
William C. Hammer, Congressman, and members of his 
family; purchased by Mr. Cox and consolidated with his 
The Tribune some 10 years ago. (NR) 

ELKIN — Tribune, published Mondays and Thursdays, In- 
dependent Democratic, Established 1911, by W. E. and H. 
G. Nichols; H. F. Laffoon, Editor; Elk Printing Co., Pub- 
lisher; Alan Browning, Jr., Associate Editor. The Tribune 
has won many State and National awards for excellence. 
Publisher Laffoon was president of the N. C. Press Associa- 
tion, 1945-46. 

H. G. Nichols has been with The Morganton News-Herald 
for many years, and W. E. Nichols was with The Journal- 
Patriot, North Wilkesboro, for many years until his death 
a few years ago. The paper operates a modern and com- 
plete job printing plant, printing on contract The Yadkin 
Ripple, Yadkinville, The Chatham Blanketeer, mill house 
organ, and other publications. Former editors include: Dr. 
Joseph H. Carter, pastor, First Presbyterian Church, New- 
ton, and Franklin Hildebrand, Jennings, La. 

The Elkin Times, a Republican newspaper, suspended 
publication after The Tribune was started in 1911. 

HAMLET — News-Messenger, published Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, Independent Democratic, Established 1907; A. L. 
Way, Jr., Editor; Chester A. Martin, Publisher; Virginia 
McC. Martin, Business Manager; Emily B. Way, Society 
Editor; J. D. Snyder, Shop Foreman; Harold F. Brown, 
foreman of the print shop. 

The Hamlet News-Messenger is the result of the consoli- 
dation in 1920 of The Hamlet Messenger, established in 
1907, and The Hamlet News, established by Ralph Smith 

in 1918. The paper suffered two destructive fires in 1939 
and 1945. Cadieu brothers operated this paper for several 
years. Former personnel include: Robert C. Ruark, inter- 
nationally known columnist who wrote a column, "The Back 
Door," and Lynn Nisbett, Raleigh correspondent for after- 
noon newspapers. Mr. Martin also publishes The East Rock- 
ingham News. 

The Sandhill News was published weekly in Hamlet in 
1946-48 by J. W. Aldridge. 

JACKSONVILLE — Onslow County News and Views, pub- 
lished Tuesdays and Fridays, Independent Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1938, by J. Parsons Brown; Billy Arthur, Editor 
and Publisher. 

News and Views was purchased soon after it was estab- 
lished by Mr. Arthur, diminutive editor, now a proud father, 
who has developed a splendid newspaper and job printing 
plant. In 1947 he purchased and abolished The Jackson- 
ville Record, formerly The Onslow Record. The Globe, 
weekly tabloid publication of U. S. Marines of Camp Lejeune, 
is printed in this plant. 

LAURINBURG — Exchange, published Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, Independent Democratic, Established 188 2, by J. D. 
Bundy and T. T. Covington; O. L. Moore, Editor; Exchange 
Publishing Co., Inc.; operates large job printing plant. 

After a year Mr. Bundy bought Mr. Covington's interest 
and published The Exchange until about 1890, when it was 
bought by R. D. Phillips, father of Judge Donald Phillips, 
who employed Archibald Johnson as editor. Mr. Johnson 
left The Exchange to become editor of Charity and Children, 
Baptist Orphanage paper, at Thomasville, in which he at- 
tained great distinction. Other former editors include: the 
late J. P. Wiggins, Maxton and Fairmont; Frank T. Bizzell, 
Mac Cameron, E. J. Tillman and John L. James, Laurinburg. 
Mr. Moore acquired the property in 1919, and other stock- 
holders are Mrs. Moore and C. A. Trolinger, plant superin- 
tendent. The Exchange was published weekly until 1948 
when it became a semi-weekly. 

Laurinburg had two or three papers prior to the begin- 
ning of The Exchange. Among them was a paper published 
years before by Duncan McNeill, father of the noted poet, 
John Charles McNeill. 

LINCOLNTON — Lincoln County News, published Mondays 
and Thursdays, Independent Democratic, Established 1873; 
Lincoln County News, Inc., Publisher; published for many 
years by J. D. Bivens and later by his son-in-law, A. B. 
Claytor. (NR) 

LINCOLNTON — Lincoln Times, published Mondays and 
Thursdays, Independent, Established 1907; Maude R. Mul- 
len, Editor; Western Carolina Publishing Co., Inc. (NR) 

MARION — McDowell News, published Mondays and 
Thursdays, Independent, Established 1929, by F. A. Slate; 
John W. Setzer, Publisher; Mrs. Rosamond L. Braly, Editor; 
Miss Pat Nesbitt, Societly Editor; Oren Barkley, Sports and 

The McDowell News grew out of The Marion Star, started 
in 1926 by Mr. Slate and later edited by John Samsey. Mr. 
Setzer bought the paper in 1944. Last spring the plant was 
moved into a new modern building, erected and equipped 
for the publication. The occasion was celebrated by issuing 
a special edition of 10 4 pages containing a complete his- 

Modern and new home of The Thomasville Tribune, with its 

newspaper and job printing plant and office supply 

and equipment business 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 3 1 

tory of McDowell County. Mr. Setzer formerly was with 
The Charlotte News and The Columbia (S.C.) Record. 

MONROE — Enquirer, published Mondays and Thursdays, 
Democratic, Established 1872, by W. C. Wolfe; John B. 
Ashcraft, Editor; Enquirer Publishing Co., Inc.; operates 
commercial job printing shop. 

The Enquirer was published for several years by Mr. 
Wolfe and then was sold to J. W. Boylan, who later sold it 
in 190 3 to B. C. and Eugene Ashcraft. After B. C. Ash- 
craft's death in 1921, Eugene Ashcraft entered into the 
partnership with W. C. Correll, H. M. Smith and L. E. Hart. 
After Eugene Ashcraft's death in 1936, his son, John B. 
Ashcraft, entered the business, which at that time was in- 
corporated under the present name. 

Journal, published Tuesdays and Fridays, Democratic, 
Established 1894, by G. M. and R. F. Beasley; R. F. Beasley, 
Editor; G. M. Beasley & Co., Publishers, operates a job 
printing shop. 

The Journal is one newspaper that is still operated by 
the same key personnel, the Beasley brothers, with which 
it started 55 years ago. George M. Beasley handles the 
business and mechanical end, and Roland F. Beasley is one 
of the most versatile and most quoted editors in the State. 
He is a former member of the N. C. General Assembly and 
was the State's first Commissioner of Public Welfare. R. F. 
Beasley, Jr., has grown up in the plant. George M. Beasley. 
Jr., is publisher of The Montgomery Herald, at Troy, and 
John Beasley, a brother, is publisher of The Moore County 
News, at Carthage. 

MOREHEAD CITY — Carteret Co. News-Times, published 
Tuesdays and Fridays, Independent, Established 1912, by 
Lockwood Phillips; Lockwood Phillips, Editor; Ruth Leckey 
Peeling, Executive Editor; Carteret Publishing Co., Inc., 
Lockwood Phillips, President; Eleanore Dear Phillips, sec- 
retary-treasurer; operates commercial printing plant. (See 
special item on Beaufort-Morehead papers.) 

MORGANTON — News-Herald, published Mondays and 
Wednesdays, Independent Democratic, Established 1885, by 
R. A. Cobb and T. G. Cobb; Beatrice Cobb, Editor and Pub- 
lisher, operates modern commercial print shop. 

The News-Herald's immediate predecessor was The Mor- 
ganton Star, which was purchased by and merged with The 
Morganton Herald in 18 90. It was edited by W. C. Ervin 
for the next seven years. In 1901 a merger of The Herald 
and The Burke County News established The News-Herald. 
The Burke County News had been established by T. G. Cobb, 
who had been editor-publisher of The Morganton Star and 
on the staff of The Morganton Herald, and continued as 
editor-publisher of The News-Herald until his death in 
1916. His daughter, Miss Beatrice Cobb, succeeded him 
and has been editor and publisher for the past 3 5 years. 
Also, Miss Cobb has been secretary-treasurer of the North 
Carolina Press Association for 30 years. In 1939 she 
established and has since been owner-publisher of The Val- 
dese News. 

MOUNT OLIVE — Tribune, published Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, Independent, Established 1904, by Fred R. Mintz; 
Cletus Brock, Editor; Mrs. Homer Brock, Publisher; Elmer 
Brock, Business Manager. 

The Tribune was purchased in 1916 by Homer Brock, 
who continued its publication until his death in 1949. Mem- 
bers of his family continue its operation. This is said to 
be the only newspaper in North Carolina operating its own 
home made photo-engraving plant. It also makes engrav- 
ings for some 25 eastern North Carolina newspapers, includ- 
ing several dailies. 

NEWTON — Catawba News-Enterprise, published Tues- 
days and Fridays, Independent Democratic, Established 
1879; Mrs. Evelyn Mebane Odum, Editor and General 
Manager; Mrs. lone Mebane Mann, Bookkeeping, Advertis- 
ing and Circulation; News-Enterprise Publishing Co., ope- 
rates job printing plant; prints Southern Synod Standard, 
semi-monthly official publication of N. C. Synod of Evan- 
gelical and Reformed Church. 

The News-Enterprise resulted from the consolidation of 
The Newton Enterprise, established in 1879, and The Ca- 
tawba County News, established in 1903. Charles H. Meb- 
ane, father of the present co-publishers, consolidated the 
papers in 1919 and published the paper until his death. His 
son-in-law, G. Weaver Mann, husband of Mrs. lone Mebane 
Mann, was editor until his death from a heart attack in the 
office in 1946. He was succeeded by Mrs. Odom, assistant 

Home of The Mountaineer at Waynesville, containing modern 
and complete newspaper and commercial printing plant 

and co-publisher since 193 2. A three-woman organization 
operated the paper until late last year, when Mrs. Helen 
Ross, news editor, joined the Washington staff of Senator 
Willis Smith. Marion H. McGinnis, shop foreman, started 
as printer's devil many years ago under Mr. Mebane. Addi- 
tional modern equipment was added last year. 

Newton's first paper was The Enterprise, started in 1879 
by George Warlick and Judge W. B. Gaither. F. M. Wil- 
liams was publisher for many years, with B. J. Summerrow 
as editor, until the consolidation in 1919. Mr. Mebane had 
acquired The Catawba County News in 190 5, publishing it 
until he consolidated The News with The Enterprise. 

Observer, published Mondays and Wednesdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1933, by Charles H. Mebane; C. H. Mebane, 
Editor and Publisher, operates its own print shop. 

The Observer became a semi-weekly publication early in 
1950. Mr. Mebane, publisher, is the son of the late C. H. 
Mebane, long editor of The Catawba News-Enterprise, 
former State Superintendent of Public Instruction, judge, 
college president and recognized State leader. 

NORTH WILKESBORO — Journal Patriot, published Mon- 
days and Thursdays, Non-partisan, Established 1906, by 
Charles H. Cowles; Mrs. H. L. Carter and Julius C. Hub- 
bard, Publishers, operates modern job printing plant. 

The Journal Patriot is the result of the consolidation of 
The Wilkes Patriot, in Wilkesboro, operated for many years 
by Mr. Cowles, former Republican Congressman, and The 
Wilkes Journal, established in the print shop of D. J. Carter 
some 30 years ago. Mr. Hubbard acquired an interest in 
The Journal, and in 1932 this paper purchased and ab- 
sorbed The Patriot. Mrs. Carter took over her husband's 
interest after his death a few years ago. The paper, mod- 
ern and progressive, became a semi-weekly several years 

OXFORD — Public Ledger, published Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, Independent, Established 1881, by J. T. Britt (?); 
Tom W. Johnson, Editor; A. N. Critcher, Publisher, ope- 
rates its own print shop. Publisher Critcher was former 
publisher of The Wilkes Patriot, Wilkesboro, consolidated 
with The Wilkes Journal in 193 2. Among earlier publica- 
tions in Oxford was The Torchlight. 

ROCKINGHAM — East Rockingham News, published Tues- 
days and Fridays, Independent, Established 194 9, by Chester 
A. Martin; Leverne Prosser, Editor; Chester A. Martin, Pub- 
lisher. Mr. Martin is also publisher of The Hamlet News- 

Richmond County Journal, published Mondays and Thurs- 
days, Independent, Established 1931, by Scott M. Thomas; 
J. Neal Cadieu, Editor and Publisher, operates modern com- 
mercial printing plant. 

PAGE 32 


Winter-Spring, 1 951 

Mr. Cadieu, former publisher of The Hamlet News-Messen- 
ger, purchased The Journal from Mr. Thomas in 193 7 and 
in 1939 converted it to a semi-weekly. In 1948 The Journal 
purchased and absorbed The Sandhill News, of Hamlet. The 
Journal was the third non-daily paper in the State to join 
the Audit Bureau of Circulations, in 1942, and the first 
in the State to be accepted as a Greater Weekly, of which 
there are only 265 in the nation. 

ROXBORO — Courier-Times, published Mondays and Thurs- 
days, Independent, Established 1881, by D. W. Whitaker; 
J. W. Noell, Editor; Courier-Times Publishing Co.; printed 
in its own shop. 

The Courier, older of the consolidated papers, was owned 
in 188 3 by E. C. Hackney, Durham. He employed John A. 
Noell, formerly with The Alamance Gleaner, to take charge 
and operate the paper. In 188 6 Mr. Noell and his brother, 
Joseph W. Noell, who also worked on The Alamance Gleaner, 
purchased the plant, and J. A. Noell continued its operation. 
J. W. Noell joined his brother in operation of the plant in 
1890. In 1920 John A. Noell, senior partner, died and J. 
W. Noell purchased his interest. (Mr. Noell is still going 
strong after 60 years of newspaper publishing and editing 
in Roxboro — and is an avid bridge player with the Rox- 
boro widows.) He is a former president of the N. C. Press 
Association. In 1944 The Courier and The Person County 
Times, long competitors, were consolidated .as The Courier- 

SANFORD — Herald, published Mondays and Thursdays, 
Independent Democratic, Established 192'0; W. E. Horner, 
Editor; Herald Publishing Co., Publisher. 

In 1930 Mr. Horner, former Representative in the N. C. 
General Assembly and candidate for Congress, purchased 
The Sanford Journal, changed its name to The Herald and 
made it a semi-weekly. He is a former president of the 
N. C. Press Association. 

The Sanford Express, published by Mr. St. Clair, was 
discontinued in 1937. An earlier Sanford newspaper was 
The Carolina Banner. 

SHELBY — Cleveland Times, published Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, Independent, Established 1941, by The Cleveland 
Times Publishing Co., Inc.; Ed Post, Jr., Editor, operates 
commercial print shop; corporation owners include: Ed 
Post, Jr., C. C. McMurry, Jr., and Paul B. Arrowood. 

The Times was founded by Will Arey, Jr., now in foreign 
service of U. S. State Dept. in Bogota, Colombia, and Rush 
Hamrick, Jr., now associated with his father in Kendall 
Medicine Co., Shelby. During World War I both were in 
military service, and Mrs. Hamrick operated the paper. 
Former editors and publishers include: J. D. Fitz, now 
managing editor, Morganton News-Herald, and G. Norman 
Benjamin, manager, Arlington (Va. ) Sun. Editor Post 
was in the U. S. Navy during World War II, separated as 

SMITHFIELD — Herald, published Tuesdays and Fridays, 
Democratic, Established 1882; T. J. Lassiter, Jr., Editor 
and Publisher; owned by a partnership, including Mrs. T. J. 
Lassiter, Sr., T. J. Lassiter, Jr., and W. C. Lassiter. 

The Herald was acquired by J. M. Beaty about 1890, and 
in 1895 T. J. Lassiter, Sr., became a partner. Mr. Lassiter 
was editor for about 20 years until his death in 1920. Mrs. 
Lassiter and W. M. Gaskin published the paper until 1934, 
when T. J. Lassiter, Jr., joined the firm, purchasing the 
Gaskin interest. T. J. Lassiter,' Jr., is a former UNC Jour- 
nalism instructor and former president of the Eastern N. C. 
Press Association. W. C. Lassiter, Raleigh, is attorney for 
the N. C. Press Association. 

The Johnston Courier was published in Smithfield in the 
18 70s. The Smithfield Journal, The Smithfield Observer 
and The Johnston County Record were published in Smith- 
field after the turn of the century. 

STATESVILLE — The Landmark, published Mondays and 
Thursdays, Independent, Established 1874, by J. B. Hussey; 
Pegram A. Bryant, Publisher. Mr. Bryant acquired The 
Landmark many years ago, and in 19 20 began publication of 
The Statesville Daily, evening paper, in the same plant. 

Among its former prominent editors were Joseph P. Cald- 
well, later editor of The Charlotte Observer, and R. R. 

The Mascot was established before the turn of the cen- 
tury and published for several years by the late Col. A. D. 
Watts. When he became secretary to Senator Simmons, he 
sold The Mascot, which was later suspended. 

THOMASVILLE — The Tribune, published Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, Established 188 7; Thomas J. Shaw, Editor; 
The Thomasville Tribune, Inc., Publisher, H. A. Cecil, Sr., 
president; H. A. Cecil, Jr., secretary-treasurer; operates 
modern commercial print shop and office supply store. 

The Tribune is the result of several consolidations and 
absorptions. The Thomasville Times was founded in 1887 
and The Chairtown News started in 1920. A consolidation 
of these two in 193 2 resulted in The News-Times, published 
for many years by W. G. Greene. The Thomasville Tribune 
was founded in 193 9 and operated by H. A. Cecil, Jr. Later 
his father, formerly with the High Point Enterprise, joined 
the firm. About a year ago the Cecils purchased The News- 
Times from Mr. Greene and merged it with The Tribune. 
At the same time the Thomasville Tribune moved into a 
modern new home, one of the best semi-weekly newspaper 
plants in the State. 

WALLACE — Enterprise, published Mondays and Thurs- 
days, Democratic; Established 1923; H. L. Oswald, Editor and 

The Enterprise operates one of the most modern com- 
mercial printing plants in the State. In it the publisher 
prints two other weekly newspapers, The Warsaw-Faison 
News and The Pender Chronicle, Burgaw, of which he is 
also publisher. 

WAYNESVILLE — Mountaineer, published Tuesdays and 
Fridays, Independent, Established 1884; W. C. Russ, Editor; 
Waynesville Printing Co., Publisher; operates modern news- 
paper and commercial printing plant, printing college pe- 

In 1931 Mr. Russ purchased The Mountaineer from Thom- 
as M. Seawell, and in 1934 M. T. Bridges, mechanical super- 
intendent, became a partner in the business. Machinery 
and equipment have been added each year until it now has 
the most complete print shop in the Asheville-Knoxville- 
Greenville, Georgia area. The plant is one of the few in 
the weekly field doing four-color commercial printing. The 
Mountaineer became a semi-weekly several years ago. It 
occupies two floors of its three-story building. 

WHITEVILLE — The News Reporter, published Mondays 
and Thursdays, Democratic, Established 1895, by a Rev. 
Mr. Smith; Willard G. Cole, Editor; Leslie S. Thompson, 
owner-publisher; operates commercial print shop. 

The News Reporter is the descendant of The Columbus 
News, founded by a Baptist minister, at Fair Bluff, probably 
before 18 95. Around the turn of the century it was pur- 
chased by Allen J. Maxwell, who moved it to Whiteville. 
Local politicians, who owned The Trucker's Reporter, at 
Chadbourn, purchased it and combined the two papers as 
The News Reporter. It changed hands several times in 
the early 1900s. One brief owner was Roland F. Beasley, 
editor of The Monroe Journal, and for several years it was 
published by W. B. Keziah, of Southport. Mayon Parker, 
of Parker Bros., Ahoskie, was editor for a few years. In 
1938 J. A. Sharpe, Sr., of The Lumberton Robesonian, and 
Leslie S. Thompson bought the paper, Mr. Thompson pur- 
chasing Mr. Sharpe's interest in 19 44. It became a semi- 
weekly in 193 6. James A. Rogers, a former editor, became 
editor of The Florence (S.C.) Morning News. Mr. Thomp- 
son is also co-owner of The State Port Pilot, Southport. 

WILLIAMSTON — Enterprise,- published Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, Independent, Established 18 99, by a Mr. Dail; 
F. M. Manning, Editor; W. C. Manning, Jr., General Man- 
ager; Enterprise Publishing Co., owned by W. C. Manning, 
Jr., W. H. Booker and F. M. Manning; operates commercial 
printing plant. 

After a year Mr. Dail sold the paper to Alfred E. Whit- 
more, who published it until 1908. Then it was bought by 
W. C. Manning, editor and publisher, until his death in 
1938. The business was then taken over by his two sons, 
W. C. Manning, Jr., and F. M. Manning, and W. H. Booker, 
who also edit and publish The Weekly Herald, Roberson- 
ville, and The Roanoke Beacon, Plymouth. 

The first paper in Martin County was The Democrat Ban- 
ner, published in Williamston in 18 56. Other early publica- 
tions were The Williamston Mercury, The Williamston Echo, 
The Eastern Carolinian, The Martin County Sun and The 

ZEBULON — Record, published Tuesdays and Fridays, In- 
dependent Democratic, Established 1923; Barrie S. Davis, 
Editor; James M. Potter, Jr., Publisher; operates modern 

Winter-Spring, )<?5 


PAGE 33 

and complete commercial print shop. Also prints the North 
Carolina Catholic for Nazareth Orphanage, Raleigh, The 
Gold Leaf Farmer, Wendell, and The Wake Weekly, Wake 

The Record Publishing Co., operated by Theo. B. Davis, 
Sr., published The Record until 1945, when it became Theo. 
Davis Sons, purchased by Barrie and Ferd Davis on their 

release from the Air Force. James M. Potter, Jr., pur- 
chased a one-third interest in the business last year. Ferd 
L. Davis was editor until he entered Army service last year, 
when Barrie Davis became editor. The three owners are 
all officers of the N. C. National Guard. Theo. Davis Sons 
owns controlling interests in The Gold Leaf Farmer Pub- 
lishing Co., Inc., Wendell, of which Ferd Davis is president. 

North Carolina is Well Supplied With 133 Weekly Papers 

North Carolina is very well supplied with 133 news- 
papers in the weekly field. This does not include 
numbers of other weekly publications in trade or 
other fields which are not newspapers in the accepted 
sense of the word. The State thus has an average 
of about one and one-third weekly newspapers for 
every one of the 100 counties. Some counties have 
other frequency papers, of course, but even then four 
or five counties in the State have no newspapers. 
They are supplied with their newspaper needs by 
nearby or adjoining county newspapers. 

Generally speaking, the State weekly newspapers 
are now strong and prosperous, a condition which 
has not existed always. Many of them have strug- 
gled through lean years. Even now, they are plagued 
with scarcity of newsprint, as are all newspapers. 

Of the 133 weekly papers, 35 did not respond to 
requests for information. A few of them may have 
suspended and, in other cases, new editors or pub- 
lishers may have taken charge. The symbol (NR) 
indicates no direct report and information given may 
not be entirely complete or correct. The list, pri- 
marily from Ayer's Newspaper Directory, supple- 
mented in some cases, is as follows : 

ABERDEEN — Sandhill Citizen, published Thursdays. 
Democratic, Established 1993; H. Clifton Blue, Editor and 
Publisher, operates Captain Print Shop, job printing". Mr. 
Blue has twice represented Moore County in the General 

ASHEVILLE — Asheville News, published Fridays, Repub- 
lican, Established 1926, by Oscar Barrett; Frederick Sev- 
erance, Editor and Publisher. This paper was formerly 
The West Asheville News, Walter A. Ward, former publish- 
er, and Rom Reid, former editor. 

Southern News, (Negro), published Saturdays, Non-parti- 
san, Established 1936; Eugene Smith, Editor and Publish- 
er. (NR) 

AYDEN — Ayden Dispatch, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1914; Andrews Printing Co., Inc., Pub- 
lisher; operated for many years by the late J. C. Andrews: 
continued by his estate. (NR) 

BAYBORO — Herald, published Fridays, Independent, Es- 
tablished 1931, by J. M. Reel; Dallas Mallison, Editor and 
Publisher. After Mr. Reel retired, the paper was operated 
by Murry W. Munns until 1948. B. B. Ross, Washington, 
was publisher for a time, with Russ Miller as editor. Last 
year Mrs. Mayona T. Noble and son, Richard V. Noble, 
operated the paper for a few months. The son entered 
military service last fall, and Mr. Mallison became owner 
as of January 1, 1951. 

BELHAVEN — Pilot, published Thursdays, Independent, 
Established 1948, by Victor Meekins and printed in his 
Coastland Times office at Manteo; Thomas E. Spence, editor 
and manager. Mrs. Harriet Brown Harris was formerly 
news editor. 

The Belhaven Times, later The Belhaven Times and Hyde 
County Record, was discontinued in the early 1930s. 

BELMONT — Banner, published Wednesdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1936; W. O. Barrett, Editor; B. A. Low- 
rance, Publisher; printed in connection with The Mecklen- 

burg Times and The Mount Holly News, B. Arp Lowrance, 

BENSON — Review, published Thursdays, Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1911; Mrs. Margaret Benton Smith, Editor; Ben- 
son Printing Co., Publisher. J. B. Benton, editor of the 
Mebane Enterprise in 1921-22, acquired The Review soon 
after and operated it until his death in March, 1950, when 
Mrs. Smith, who had been assistant and operator during his 
illness, became editor. The paper operates a print shop. 

BLACK MOUNTAIN — News, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1945, by J. C. Cornelius; Gordon H. 
Greenwood, Editor; Greenwood and Dougherty, Publishers. 

BOONE — Watauga Democrat, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1888, by Robert C. Rivers (Sr.); R. 
C. Rivers, Editor and Publisher; operates job print shop. 
Founder Rivers published The Democrat for around 40 
years. He represented his country in the General Assembly. 
His son is carrying on as publisher. (NR) 

BREVARD — Transylvania Times, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1896; Ed M. Anderson, Publisher; 
John I. Anderson, Editor; Ira B. Armfield, Business Man- 

This is one of the several weekly papers published by 
Ed Anderson in the mountain counties. The Transylvania 
News was established in 1896; The Times was established 
in 1931, and in 193 2' these two papers were consolidated as 
The Times. 

BRYSON CITY — Times, published Fridays, Independent, 
Established 1897; Leroy Sossamon, Editor and Publisher; 
operates job print shop; published for several years by 
J. A. Gray and J. M. Byrd; purchased a few years ago by 
Mr. Sossamon. (NR) 

BURGAW — Pender Chronicle, published Thursdays, Dem- 
ocratic, Established 1896; W. W. Williams, Jr., Editor; H. 
L. Oswald, Publisher. This is one of the three papers pub- 
lished by Mr. Oswald, the others being The Warsaw-Faison 
News and The Wallace Enterprise. All are printed in the 

Attractive snow-covered home of The Watauga Democrat in 

the summer resort town of Boone in Northivestern 

North Carolina 

PAGE 34 


Winter-Spring, 1 951 

modern, new brick building constructed in 1947 and con- 
taining one of the most up-to-date printing plants in this 

BURNSVILLE — Yancey Record, published Thursdays, In- 
dependent, Established 1936, by Dr. R. Fouts, B. B. Penland, 
C. M. Bailey and Mrs. C. R. Hamrick; Arney C. Fox, Editor 
and Publisher. Mrs. Hamrick was editor until last July 
when Mr. Fox purchased and has since published the paper. 
The paper operates a small print shop. 

The Burnsville Eagle was established, edited and pub- 
lished for several years by J. M. Lyon and O. R. Lewis. Mr. 
Lewis still lives in Burnsville, and Mr. Lyon, 90, now lives 
in Knoxville, Tenn. They sold their paper in 193 6 to S. T. 
Henry, publisher of the Tri-County News, Spruce Pine. 

CANTON — Enterprise, published Thursdays, Independent, 
Established 1904; Lura Wright, Editor; Harley E. Wright, 
Publisher. Present owners have operated The Enterprise 
since 192 2. The plant operates a job print shop. 

CAROLINA BEACH — Sim, published Saturdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1939; issued only during summer 
season; Foster Edwards, Editor and Publisher. (NR) 

CARTHAGE — Moore County News, published Thurs- 
days, Independent Democratic, Established 1877; John 
Beasley, Editor and Publisher; printed in connection with 
Montgomery Herald. J. B. Benton, later of the Benson 
Review, was a former publisher. (NR) 

CHADBOURN — Columbus County News, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 1928; B. G. Lewis, Editor and 
Publisher. (NR) 

CHAPEL HILL — Weekly, published Fridays, Non-parti- 
san, Established 1923, by Louis Graves; Louis Graves, Edi- 
tor and Publisher; Joe Jones, Assistant Editor. It is printed 
in its own shop, a modern job printing plant. 

The Chapel Hill Weekly is a homey, folksy type of paper 
reflecting the attitude of its editor. Ordinary and everyday 
incidents are handled in an intensely interesting way. Its 
articles and editorials are probably quoted more often by 
the papers in the State than from any other newspaper. 
Readers devour avidly every item. The New York Times 
described it as "Unique in American journalism" and the 
New York Herald Tribune once announced "What the coun- 
try needs is more papers like the Chapel Hill Weekly." 
Editor Louis Graves made an enviable reputation as a re- 
porter on leading New York papers. He headed the UNC 
School of Journalism for a few years, then decided to lead 
an unhurried life in the weekly newspaper field. 

CHARLOTTE — Mecklenburg Times, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 19 24, by J. Z. Green and B. Arp 
Lowrance; B. Arp Lowrance, Editor; The Mecklenburg- 
Times, Publisher. 

In 1927 Mr. Lowrance bought Mr. Green's interest and in 
1945 purchased Beasley's Farm and Home Weekly, con- 
solidating it with The Times. Mr. Lowrance also is pub- 
lisher of The Belmont Banner and The Mount Holly News. 
He is vice-president of the N. C. Press Association. 

Post, (Negro), published Saturdays, Independent, Estab- 
lished 1920; H. Houston, Editor and Publisher. (NR) 

Southern Textile News, published Saturdays, Textile, Es- 
tablished 1945, by John M. Mullen; John M. Mullen, Editor; 
Mullen Publications, Inc. (NR) 

CHERRYVILLE — Eagle, published Wednesdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1906, by L. H. J. Houser; Fred K. Hous- 
er, Editor and Publisher. The Eagle, established by the 
present editor's father, has been in the Houser family for 
45 years. 

CLAYTON — News, published Thursdays, Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1912; J. Melson Pittman, Editor; Clayton News, 
Inc., Publisher. (NR) 

CLINTON — Sampson Independent, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1914; F. Grover Britt, Editor; 
Clinton Publishing Co., Inc. 

The Independent was established as The Sampson Demo- 
crat in 1893 and was edited for many years by L. A. Be- 
thune and Oscar J. Peterson. The Democrat and The News 
Dispatch were consolidated in 1924 and the name changed 
to The Independent. In 1929 The Independent purchased, 
absorbed and discontinued publication of The Sampson Ob- 
server. An earlier Clinton paper was The Caucasian, estab- 
lished many years before and edited for several years by 

Marion Butler, later U. S. Senator. 

Sampson News, published Thursdays, Republican, Estab- 
lished 19 29, by H. N. McKenzie; James H. Silvertsen, Editor; 
Sampson Publishing Co. 

In 1941 Mr. Silvertsen purchased The News and organ- 
ized The Sampson Publishing Co. He also publishes The 
Roseboro News, which is printed in the shop at Clinton. 

COOLEEMEE — Journal, published Thursdays, Democrat- 
ic, Established 1906; Mrs. J. C. Sell, Editor; Cooleemee 
Journal, Publisher; printed under contract. (NR) 

DANBURY — Reporter, published Thursdays, Democratic, 
Established 1872, by Dr. John Pepper; N. E. Pepper and 
E. Vance Pepper, Editors and Publishers. The Reporter 
has been published continuously, never missing an issue in 
its 7 4 years of operation. It is now in its fourth generation 
of Peppers. 

DENTON — Davidson Record, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1939, by John O. Garner; John O. 
Garner, Editor; Denton Publishing Co. 

This paper was first printed on contract by The News- 
Times, Thomasville. The firm was incorporated in 1943 
and established its own plant with job printing equipment, 
at Denton. 

DURHAM — Carolina Times, (Negro), published Satur- 
days, Independent, Established 1919; L. E. Austin, Editor; 
Carolina Times Publishing Co. (NR) 

News Journal, published Thursdays, Independent, Estab- 
lished 1920; Mattie W. Thaxton, Editor; News Journal, Pub- 
lisher; G. E. Isaacs, owner, also publishes Franklinton Post 
and Orange County Times, Hillsboro. (NR) 

The Public Appeal, published Fridays, tabloid form, inde- 
pendent, established in 1950 by "Wimpy" Jones; "Wimpy" 
Jones, editor and publisher; printed by Union Printers, Inc. 
The Public Appeal was started in April, 1950, but was issued 
intermittently earlier as The Law Enforcement Journal. 
(Incomplete report.) 

EDENTON — Chowan Herald, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1934, by J. E. Bufflap and Hector Lup- 
ton; J. E. Bufflap, Editor; The Chowan Herald, Publisher; 
operates a job printing shop. 

The Edenton Daily News published for a short time with 
John C. Sykes as editor, suspended publication in the early 

ELIZABETH CITY — The Albemarle Star, published 
Thursdays, Independent Democratic, Established April, 
1950, by William F. Haskett; W. F. Haskett, owner and 
Publisher; A. J. McClelland, General Manager; Maud Mc- 
Clelland, Editor. 

The Albemarle Star is a successor to The Independent, 
established in 1908 and edited and published for many 
years by George W. Haskett, father of the present owner. 
It operated as a weekly, then as a semi-weekly, and in 
19 48-49 as a morning daily. This paper was sold January 
1, 1950, and closed out. Mr. Haskett entered service in the 
U. S. Army in September, 1950. 

ELIZABETHTOWN — Bladen Journal, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 1907, by John H. Clark, 
Clarkton; Mrs. E. F. McCulloch, Editor; Norman McCulloch, 
Associate; Clinton Publishing Co., Inc.; printed in The 
Sampson Independent office. F. Grover Britt, Editor, The 
Independent, is part owner of The Bladen Journal. Mrs. 
McCulloch has been editor for 20 years. 

ENFIELD — Progress, published Fridays, Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1905; Eric W. Rodgers, Publisher; James Bate- 
man, Managing Editor; printed in the office of the Scotland 
Neck Commonwealth, also published by Mr. Rodgers. 

FAIRMONT — Times-Messenger, published Thursdays, In- 
dependent, Established 1935, by J. P. Wiggins; Mrs. Alex 
McDaniels, Jr., Editor; Dougald Coxe, Publisher; printed in 
the plant of The Lumberton Post. 

FARMVILLE — Enterprise, published Fridays, Democrat- 
ic, Established 1910; James B. Hockaday, Editor; Rouse 
Printery, Publisher. (NR) 

FAYETTEVILLE — People's Advocate, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 1922; Mrs. Fred W. Vaughan, 
Editor and Publisher. (NR) 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 35 

FOREST CITY — Courier, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1918, by Treylon Brown; Clarence Griffin, 
Editor-General Manager; Ed M. Anderson, Publisher. 

The Courier has won several awards for excellence from 
the N. C. Press Asosciation. It operates a modern print 
shop, in which is printed The Spindale Sun, also an Ed An- 
derson publication. Former editors and publishers include: 
Gary Hiott, J. L. O. Thompson, Howard C. Hull, Clarence E. 
Alcock, who sold the paper to Anderson and Griffin in 1942'. 

Forest City's first newspaper was The News, established 
by Columbus C. Erwin in 1885. After it was burned out, 
another paper, also The News, was started in 1887 by Prof. 
E. O. Thompson. Later it was operated by Charles Scott, 
who suspended publication in 18 8 9. The Forest City Leader 
was established that year by J. C. Green, now of Thomas- 
ville. Prof. J. W. Griffin was editor for several years. Z. 
M. McKinney published The Ledger about a year and sus- 
pended it. Late in 1898 The Forest City Press appeared, 
with Forrest J. Reid as editor and publisher, changing the 
name to The Leader-Vidette and still later to The Enquirer. 
It suspended in 1899. 

Other Forest City papers include: The Forest City Weekly 
Times, started in 1901 by Mrs. Jennie S. Davis; The Forest 
City Progress, Dan Kanipe, publisher, started in 190 2, de- 
stroyed by fire in 1903; Forest City Herald, Z. V. Fowles 
and Gary Hiott, editors and publishers, started in 1908, 
purchased by J. V. Ware in 1912 with B. Arp Lowrance as 
editor. It was sold to Fred W. Amos later that year. It 
became The Free Press, published by Broadus DePriest in 
1914 and was leased to Walter S. Crocker, with Bert H. 
Bridges as editor. The Free Press was suspended in 1918, 
and later that year The Courier was established. 

FRANKLIN — Franklin Press and Highland Maconian, 

published Thursdays, Independent, Established 188 6, by 
Leon Siler; Weimar Jones, Editor and Publisher; Bob 
Sloan, Business Manager; operates commercial print shop. 

The Franklin Press absorbed and continues to use as a 
part of its name The Highlands Maconian, established and 
operated by J. J. Moore for about two years in the early 
1930s. Mr. Jones purchased the paper in 1945 and in 1948 
took in Mr. Sloan as a partner. This is the oldest paper 
west of Waynesville and the oldest establishment in Frank- 
lin. Former editors and publishers include: W. A. Curtis 
and his son, W. E. Curtis, S. H. Lyle, Jr., J. B. Lyle, S. A. 
Harris, Mrs. J. W. C. Johnson and son, Blackburn W. John- 

FRANKLINTON — Post, published Thursdays, Democratic, 
Established 193 9; Lucy B. Holding, Editor; G. E. Isaacs, 
Publisher. (NR) 

FUQUAY SPRINGS — Independent, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 193 5, by Todd Caldwell; Todd 
Caldwell, Editor and Publisher; Jack Ragsdale, Shop Fore- 
man and Advertising Manager. 

The Independent was printed for a period in The Dunn 
Dispatch office, then established its own shop, which also 



A few publications, about which some information has 
been received but not enough for a complete record, are 
being issued in North Carolina. Among them are the fol- 
lowing : 

Eastern Searchlight, published by Laurinburg Institute 
(colored) . 

Wingate Junior College students publish monthly tabloid 

Southern Synod Standard, Newton, semi-monthly official 
publication of N. C. Synod of Evangelical and Reformed 
Church; printed by News-Enterprise Publishing Co. 

The Pinehurst Book Seller, issued by the Pinehurst Print- 
ing Co., publishers of The Pinehurst Outlook. 

Wake Farm News, Raleigh, published by the Wake Farm- 
ers Cooperative. 

Wake Forest Student, monthly, established in 188 2, edited 
and published by students. 

The North Carolina Catholic, Nazareth, N. C. (near Ral- 
eigh), Father Frederick Coch, editor. 

Glimpses, Greensboro, published spasmodically, Chamber 
of Commerce, Greensboro Chamber of Commerce, Publisher; 
mimeographed sheet. 

The Tar Heel Amvet, Durham. 

does job printing. Editor Caldwell formerly worked on The 
Moore County News, Carthage; The Benson Review, The 
Kannapolis Independent and The Dunn Dispatch. 

Former papers include Fuquay Gold Leaf, edited briefly 
by A. J. Fletcher, Raleigh attorney, and Walter Prince. 
Lynn Nisbet, Raleigh afternoon newspaper correspondent, 
operated The Courier-Journal at Fuquay Springs in the 
early 1930s. 

GATESVILLE — Gates County Index, published Wednes- 
days, Independent Democratic, Established 193 2, by Parker 
Brothers, Inc.; Carleton Morris, Editor; Parker Bros., Ahos- 
kie, Publishers. Miss Addie Mae Cooke, now publisher of 
Cherokee Scout, Murphy, was first editor and remained with 
the paper for ten years. 

GOLDSBORO — Record, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1905; J. E. Brown, Editor; C. A. and G. W. 
Brown Estate, Publisher. (NR) 

GRAHAM — Alamance News, published Fridays, Independ- 
ent Democratic, Established 19 24; Ed Hamlin, Editor and 
Publisher; Thos. I. Davis, General Manager. The Alamance 
News was formerly the Alamance County News and the Bur- 
lington Journal, published by H. A. Oliver. It was purchased 
by Roy Parker, and Mr. Hamlin bought it in 1948, changing 
the name. 

Alamance Gleaner, published Thursdays, Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1875, by Capt. E. S. Parker; Alamance Gleaner, 
Publisher; J. D. Kernodle, Jr., Editor and Publisher. It 
operates its own print shop. 

The Gleaner, the oldest newspaper in Alamance County, 
was bought around 1880 by J. D. Kernodle and T. B. Eld- 
ridge. Mr. Kernodle bought Mr. Eldridge's interest about 
1885 and published the paper until his death in 1943. His 
son acquired the paper following his death and has since 
published it. 

Other Graham papers were The Tribune, started around 
18 97 and edited for several years by R. G. Foster, and The 
Messenger, published around 1925-1930 by F. A. Slate, now 
of Leaksville. 

GREENSBORO — Democrat, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent Democratic, Established 1941, by Carson C. Deal; 
Larry T. Queen, Editor; Walter W. Sutton, Advertising 
Manager; Southern Publishers, Inc. 

Mr. Queen, former reporter on The Democrat and UNC 
Journalism graduate, recently became editor, succeeding 
Paige Holder. Mr. Sutton is a former editor of The Greens- 
boro Record and The Greensboro Patriot. Former editors 
include: Enoch Price, Charles Pratt and Charlie Brown. 

Free Press, published Thursdays, Independent, Establish- 
ed 1945; Thos. E. Wagg, Editor; E. D. Broadhurst, Jr., 
Business Manager and Associate Editor; Paige C. Holder, 
Advertising Manager; Robert L. Gray, Circulation Manager; 
Mrs. Thelma Long Wagg, Cashier; E. D. Broadhurst, Sr., 

The Free Press is the result of the consolidation in 1949 
of Greensboro This Week, a free distribution newspaper, 
and The Greensboro Sun, a tabloid weekly. Greensboro This 
Week purchased The Greensboro Sun and then adopted the 
new name. The Free Press has built up a circulation of 
9,600 in Guilford County and was preparing to increase Ihe 
frequency of publication early this year. The Greensboro 
Sun started as The Greensboro Beacon. The Free Press 
operates a modern print shop. 

HENDERSONVILLE — Mountain News (Negro), publish- 
ed Fridays, Non-partisan, Established 1939; Alberta J. 
Mooney, Editor and Publisher. (NR) 

Western Carolina Tribune, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1930; Noah Hollowell, Editor and Pub- 
lisher. (NR) 

HERTFORD — Perquimans Weekly, published Fridays, 
Democratic, Established 1934, by J. E. Bufflap and Hector 
Lupton; Max Campbell, Editor and Publisher. 

A few years after The Weekly was established it was 
purchased and has since been published by Mr. Campbell. 
Former publications include: The Hertford Herald, suspend- 
ed about 1928-29, and The Hertford News, suspended about 

HIGH POINT — The Beacon, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent and Iconoclastic, Established 1942, by Wade Ren 
frow; Wade Renfrow, Editor and Publisher. This paper 
slashes out at crime and corruption. "They wait on the 
streets to buy it on publication days." Mr. Renfrow estab- 

PAGE 36 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

lished The Beacon in Greensboro in 194 6, selling his interest 
to Greensboro people later. 

HILLSBORO — Orange County Times, published Thurs- 
days, Independent, Established 1943; Mattie W. Thaxton, 
Editor; G. E. Isaacs, Publisher. (NR) 

News of Orange County, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 18 93, by W. D. Thompson; Edwin J. Ham- 
lin, Editor; The News, Inc., Publisher. 

News of Orange County was started in Chapel Hill as The 
Chapel Hill News. It was moved to Hillsboro and pur- 
chased in 1944 by Roy Parker. Mr. Hamlin bought the 
paper in 19 48. He also publishes The Alamance News, Gra- 

JACKSON — Northampton County News, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 19 25; Leonard Dudley, Edi- 
tor; Parker Bros., Publishers; printed in The Hertford 
County Herald plant at Ahoskie; former editor, James Bate- 
man, now of The Enfield Progress. 

JACKSONVILLE — The Globe, weekly tabloid, edited and 
published by the U. S. Marine Corps at Camp Lejeune; print- 
ed in The News and Views plant at Jacksonville. 

KENANSVILLE — Duplin Times, published Fridays, Dem- 
ocratic, Established 193 2, by O. G. Carroll; J. R. Grady, 
Editor; operates modern job printing plant in its own brick 
home; Grady Publishing Co. 

In 193 5 Mr. Grady purchased The Duplin Times and 
printed it for a period in his Roanoke News plant, at Weldon, 
until he sold the Weldon paper and moved the plant to 
Kenansville. The Duplin Times was being published in 
Warsaw and was moved to Kenansville early in 1935. Mr. 
Grady also owned and published The Pender Chronicle for 
a period, selling it to his former editor, the late Mrs. Sudie 
P. Miller. Miss Jacqueline Burk, of Pink Hill, UNC Jour- 
nalism graduate, assists him in the advertising department. 
In 1938 The Duplin Times took over The Warsaw Duplin 
Herald, and a few months later consolidated it with The 
Duplin Times, which continues to serve the Warsaw area. 

KERNERSVILLE — NeWs, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1938, by A. C. Huneycutt; Fred P. Carter, 
Editor and Publisher. 

In 193 9 The News was purchased by Mr. Carter, who had 
started as managing editor. The paper was printed in an 
out-of-town plant until 19 40 when the newspaper and job 
printing plant was established in Kernersville. The Leader 
was published for about a year but suspended before The 
News started. T. A. Lyon published another Kernersville 
News in the 1880s. 

KINGS MOUNTAIN — Herald, published Fridays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1889; Martin Harmon, Editor; Herald 
Publishing House. (NR) 

KINSTON — Lenoir County News, published Wednesdays, 
Democratic, Established 19 48; Wilbur Jackson Rider and 
Muriel G. Rider, Editors and Publishers; Lenoir County 
News Co., Inc. The Riders were the founders and are still 
the majority owners of the corporation which publishes The 
News and The Jones County Journal in its Kinston plant. 
Stockholders in this corporation include 7 7 prominent citi- 
zens of Lenoir and Jones Counties. 


Almanacs, musts for most homes in North Caro- 
lina, particularly in the rural areas, in the early 
days, are still published and distributed to many 
North Carolina homes, even though they have lost 
some of their importance in modern times. Even 
now, a leading bookstore reports, "every home should 
have one" for the valuable information given. 

Blum's Farmers and Planters Almanac, started in 
old Salem much more than a hundred years ago, and 
Turner's Carolina Almanac, started in Raleigh by 
Josiah Turner, noted publisher of 80 to 90 years 
ago, are both going strong. Both are now published 
in Winston-Salem by the Blum's Almanac Syndicate. 
These publications are issued by J. B. Goslin, Win- 
ston-Salem, also for many years publisher of The 
Union Republican. Several requests for information 
on both publications brought no details. 

In addition to a prediction of the weather each day 
of the year, accuracy of which may be questioned, 
these almanacs carry a vast amount of valuable in- 
formation, as well as plenty of wit, humor and philos- 
ophy, a la Poor Richard's Almanac, issued by Ben- 
jamin Franklin. Signs of the zodiac, changes of the 
moon, weather, planting time for most vegetables, 
crops and fruit trees, home remedies for all ailments, 
information on cooking, canning, preserving and 
drying fruits and vegetables, measurements, weights, 
— in fact, a huge mass of information frequently 
needed in the home and on the farm is readily avail- 

So far as is known, Blum's and Turner's are the 
only two almanacs published in North Carolina now, 
but most bookstores stock them when they come out 
late one year for the next, and they are ready sellers 
— and repeat orders are frequent. 

LEAKSVILLE — News, published Thursdays, Independent, 
Established 19 24, by J. S. Robertson and others; Richard 
H. Robertson, Editor; J. S. Robertson, Publisher and Busi- 
ness Manager; operates modern well-equipped print shop 
and office supply store. 

Circulation of The News, 4,500 copies, is delivered almost 
entirely by carrier boys, while less than 1,000 copies each 
are distributed through newsstands and by mail. The News 
occupies a modern brick building. The publication is dis- 

horn e of The Leaks- 
ville News, containing 
modern newspaper 
and commercial print- 
ing plant, printing 
several school and 
mill newspapers and 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 37 

tributed primarily to several textile communities in Rock- 
ingham County. Former editors include: E. M. Ezell, W. 
M. Hundley, E. M. Anderson, Garry Willard and David 
Moore. The News plant prints The Mill Whistle, house 
organ for Fieldcrest Mills; Cub Reporter, for Leaksville 
High School, and The Tattler, for Draper High School. 

LILLINGTON — Harnett County News, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 1919, by Henderson Steele; 
Henderson Steele, Editor and Publisher; operates a job 
printing plant. 

The News was Lillington's first and only newspaper ex- 
cept for occasional attempts to establish competitors. Mr. 
Steele is still going strong after 3 2 years as editor and pub- 
lisher. In 1947 his son, Frank Steele, became associated 
with him and continues as co-publisher. 

LOUISBURG — Franklin Times, published Fridays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1870, by George S. Baker; A. F. John- 
son, Editor and Publisher; operates its own print shop. 

The Times was established as The Louisburg Courier. 
After five years it was acquired by J. A. Thomas, who con- 
tinued its operation until 1910. At that time it was acquir- 
ed by Mr. Johnson, who has continued its operation for 40 
years. For a year or two he was assisted by his son, A. F. 
Johnson, Jr., who re-entered navy service last fall. No other 
paper has been published in Louisburg since 1905. 

LUMBERTON — Post, published Thursdays, Established 
1935, by O. J. Peterson; F. P. Gray, Editor; Dougald Coxe, 
Publisher. Mr. Peterson started The Post as The Robeson 
Voice. Later published by J. P. Wiggins, it became The 
Lumberton Voice, and Mr. Coxe changed the name to The 
Lumberton Post. Mr. Coxe also publishes The Red Springs 
Citizen, The Scottish Chief Maxton, and The Fairmont Times- 
Messenger, all printed in the Lumberton Post plant. 

MADISON — Messenger, published Thursdays, Democratic, 
Established 1915, by J. T. Robertson; R. M. Spear, Editor; 
Marion A. Spear, Business Manager; Madison Publishing 
Co.; operates splendid print shop. 

The Messenger was purchased in 1934 by Russell M. and 
Marion A. Spear, who operated it until 19 47 when a three- 
way partnership was formed by the sale of an interest to 
Charles E. Brown, who joined the staff as sports editor and 
production man. 

MANTEO — The Coastlaiul Times, published Fridays, In- 
dependent, Established 193 5, by Victor Meekins; Victor 
Meekins, Editor; Mrs. Catherine D. Meekins, Secretary- 
Treasurer; Times Printing Co., Inc., Publisher. 

The Coastland Times was started as The Dare County 
Times, and Editor Meekins, long sheriff of Dare County, 
changed its name some years later to embrace a larger coast 
area. Sheriff Meekins' two other papers, The Belhaven 
Pilot and The Hyde County Herald, Swan Quarter, are 
printed in his Manteo print shop. 

MARION — Progress, published Thursdays, Independent 
Democratic, Established 1896; S. E. Whitten, Publisher; 
Miss Elizabeth Whitten, News Editor; operates its own print 

The Progress was started as The McDowell Democrat but 
the name was changed in 1909, when Mr. Whitten became 
sole owner. He started as an apprentice in 190 2 and has 


"The Yellow Jacket," a small monthly newspaper, 
published in the secluded village of Moravian Falls, 
about seven miles south of North Wilkesboro, its 
nearest railroad station, issued for more than 55 
years by 82-year-old Dan R. Laws, is unique, unusual, 
living up to its initial announcement that it is the 
only thing of its kind on earth. 

The Yellow Jacket is classified as Republican and 
iconoclastic. It carries a motto of "One flag, one 
school, one people, America for Americans" and 
gives as its aim "To swat liars and leeches, hypo- 
crites and humbugs, demagogues and dastards". It 

carries a column of "Stingers," but just about every 
item carries many stings, most of them directed at 
Democrats and the Democratic Party. It claims 
the "Widest paid circulation of any political paper 
published monthly 25c a year." (That sentence needs 
a comma or two, but where?) 

Although Publisher Laws carried the first issue 
of "The Yellow Jacket" to the postoffice in his coat 
pocket, back in June, 1895, the circulation grew 
phenomenally and has reached as high as 250,000 
copies, going into every state and, it is claimed, to 
every postoffice in the Nation. Large trucks are 
used to transport an issue from Moravian Falls to 
the station at North Wilkesboro each publication 
day. The paper carries no advertising ; only reading 

The publication is of unusual size, 18x12 inch 
pages. It contained eight pages prior to the 1918 
newsprint shortage, but since then has been four 
pages, and probably, on occasions, only two pages — 
one sheet. The paper is printed on a Hoe web press, 
made in London for William Jennings Bryan and on 
which was printed "The Great Commoner's" news- 
paper "The Silver Night Watchman." 

On February 7, 1943, the entire plant went up in 
flames, but the paper continued publication, issued 
for a period by the Commercial Printing Co. in North 
Wilkesboro, but mailed from Moravian Falls. The 
plant was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale. An inter- 
esting note is that former President Herbert Hoover 
sent Editor Laws a check (they say a large one) as a 
contribution toward rebuilding the plant following 
this fire. 

Editor Laws, then a rural school teacher who grew 
up as a farmer and had a fling as a railroad construc- 
tion hand, decided to launch his paper, published the 
first issue in June, 1895, and has continued editing 
and publishing for more than 55 years. He is now 
82 years old. Last March his leg had to be ampu- 
tated and he was critically ill for a couple of months. 
Mr. Laws is now breaking in a new artificial leg and 
while a bit awkward, is still going strong. He had 
never missed a day from his office because of illness 
until his leg trouble developed. His right-hand-man 
is now his daughter, Miss Thelma Laws, whose writ- 
ing also carries a sting. 

This publication has had several contributors to 
its columns. One of the most noted was Rev. Dr. 
Arthur Talmadge Abernathy, of Rutherford College, 
who was a columnist for the paper through most of 
its history, up to about a year ago. 

Editor Laws' brother, L. B. Laws, edited and pub- 
lished another paper with some of the same qualities 
for a few years in the early 1900s. This he called 
"The Lash." 

James Larkin Pearson, since become a noted North 
Carolina poet and operating a printshop at Guilford 
College, published a fun-paper for a few years 
around 1925. This was "The Fool-Killer." 

"The Hornet," a Democratic newspaper, some- 
what along the lines of "The Yellow Jacket," was 
published by W. Henry Davis at Fork Church, Davie 
County, for a few years around 1910. 

PAGE 38 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

thus been connected with this paper for 49 years, 41 years 
as editor and publisher. His daughter is his chief assistant. 

MARSHALL — News-Record, published Thursdays, Non- 
partisan, Established 1901; Jim Story, Editor; H. L. Story, 
Publisher; operates commercial print shop, prints school 

The News-Record is the result of the consolidation of The 
French Broad News and The Madison Record. Mr. Story 
acquired the paper in 19 24, and in 1946 his son, Jim Story, 
became editor. 

MARSHVILLE — Home, published Wednesdays, Democrat- 
ic, Established 1892, by J. Z. Greene; George W. Downes, 
Editor; L. E. Huggins, Advertising Manager; Mrs. Atha E. 
Downes, Society Editor; published by Marshville Home Pub- 
lishing Corp., Mr. Downes, president; Mr. Huggins, vice- 
president; Mrs. Downes, secretary; installed modern news- 
paper plant and equipment early last year; operates its own 
photographic department; prints the monthly tabloid paper 
for Wingate Junior College. 

MAXTON — Scottish Chief, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 188 4; Ottis Layton, Editor; Dougald 
Coxe, Publisher; published for several years by Marshall A. 
Thompson. Printed in The Lumberton Post plant of Pub- 
lisher Coxe. 

MEBANE — Enterprise, published Thursdays, Non-parti- 
san, Established 1919, by W. B. Miller; M. H. Johnson, Edi- 
tor; Mrs. Lottie Parnell, Publisher and Business Manager; 
operates job printing plant. Mr. Miller purchased The Meb- 
ane Leader in 19 20 and consolidated it with The Enterprise. 
It was owned and operated for a year or two each by J. B. 
Johnston and J. B. Benton, later publisher of The Benson 
Review. In 1922 Charles S. Parnell purchased the paper 
and operated it until his death in 1938. Mrs. Parnell has 
published the paper since his death. Their son, C. L. Par- 
nell, was editor for a few years, as was P. N. Thompson, Jr. 
M. H. Johnson has been editor since 1943. 

MOCKSVILLE — Davie Record, published Wednesdays, 
Republican, Established 1899, by E. H. Morris; C. Frank 
Stroud, Editor and Publisher. Mr. Stroud purchased The 
Record in 1907 and has thus been its editor and publisher 
for 4 4 years. 

Enterprise, published Fridays, Independent, Established 
1879; Mocksville Enterprise, Publisher; published for sev- 
eral years by O. L. McQuage, continued after his death a 
few years by Mrs. McQuage; Gordon Tomlinson, Associate; 
operates commercial printing plant; prints The Renfro 
Herald, Yadkinville. 

MOORESVILLE — Tribune, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1933, by T. M. McKnight; T. M. Mc- 
Knight, Editor and Publisher. 

MOUNT AIRY — News, published Fridays, Democratic, Es- 
tablished 1880, by T. J. Lowery; W. M. Johnson, Editor and 
Publisher; William H. Johnson, Managing Editor; James E. 
Johnson, Advertising Manager; operates modern commercial 
printing plant. 

The News was purchased in 1904 from Mr. Lowery by 
J. E. Johnson and son, W. M. Johnson, who have since 
operated the business. Associated with Publisher Johnson 
are his two sons, William H. and James E. Johnson, third 
generation operators. About a year ago The News installed 
a modern press and other equipment. 

Times, published Fridays, Independent, Established 1880; 
R. E. Ashby and W. J. Seigler, Jr., Editors; Times Publish- 
ing Co., Inc.; published by members of the Ashby family 
for many years. (NR) 

MOUNT HOLLY — News, published Fridays, Independent, 
Established 1923; W. O. Barrett, Editor; B. Arp Lowrance, 
Publisher; published in connection with The Belmont Ban- 
ner and The Mecklenburg Times, B. Arp Lowrance, Pub- 
lisher; operates print shop, printing all three papers. 

MURFREESBORO — Northeastern Carolina News, pub- 
lished Thursdays, Non-partisan, Established 1937; F. R. 
Johnson, Editor; Herald-News Co., Publisher. This paper 
is published in connection with The Daily Roanoke-Chowan 
News, Ahoskie. (NR) 

MURPHY — Cherokee Scout, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1887; Addie Mae Cooke, Editor and 

The Scout has been in continuous operation for more than 


The P. D. Gold Publishing Co., established in 1867 
by Elder P. D. Gold, is one of the oldest publishing 
houses in the State and is the same age as John D. 
Gold, son of the founder and connected with the busi- 
ness, including publication of The Wilson Daily 
Times, for three quarters of a century. Elder Gold 
was pastor of the Wilson Primitive Baptist Church 
and was living at Scotland Neck at the time he estab- 
lished the print shop, in which he founded Zion's 
Landmark, official publication of the Primitive Bap- 
tist Church, in 1870. During that year Elder Gold 
moved his family to Wilson, and a few years later, 
as a youth, his son began working in the shop, includ- 
ing setting type for The Landmark. 

In 1896 John D. Gold began publication of The 
Wilson Times, first as a weekly, then as a semi- 
weekly. This paper was discontinued in 1945. John 
D. Gold in 1902 established The Wilson Daily Times, 
published every afternoon except Sunday since that 
time. Due to Mr. Gold's declining health, on January 
1, 1947, The P. D. Gold Publishing Co., Inc., leased 
its publishing and printing business, including The 
Wilson Daily Times, Zion's Landmark and the job 
shop to Herbert D. Brauff, of Vandergrift, Penna., 
who has been publisher since that time. In addition 
to Mr. Brauff, the staff includes Mrs. Elizabeth Gold 
Swindell, daughter of the founder, business man- 
ager; Paul Liles, advertising manager; Jim Ful- 
ghum, city editor ; Karl Fleming, sports editor ; Miss 
Verdalee Norris, Y editor; Miss Elizabeth Peele, 
society editor, and Vernon Morton, farm editor. Mr. 
Gold is still listed as editor and recently was doing 
part of the editorial writing. 

During the four years since Mr. Brauff took 
charge, the publication has purchased a new build- 
ing, erected an adjoining building to house the com- 
posing room and the recently installed 24-page press, 
enlarged the personnel and increased the circulation 
from less than 6,400 to more than 10,000. The Wil- 
son Daily Times is the only newspaper published in 
Wilson County. 

The first Wilson paper, The North Carolinian, was 
established in the early 1800s but it was short-lived. 
Major Hearne moved to Raleigh to join a larger pub- 

Josephus Daniels, for many years editor of The 
News and Observer, and son of Wilson's postmis- 
tress, bought an interest in the Wilson Advance, 
published by James A. Williams, in 1880. When 
Mr. Williams died, John E. Woodard, Wilson attor- 
ney, purchased his interest, later selling it to Mr. 
Daniels and Frank Connor, a printer. Mr. Daniels 
later bought out his partner. During this period 
Jeff Caraway published The Mirror, which came out 
earlier in the week. One of Wilson's most colorful 
weeklies during that period was The Wilson Plain 
Dealer, published by Col. R. W. Singeltary. Mr. 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 39 

Daniels often remarked that he would like to "be a 
good editor like Col. Singeltary." 

One of Wilson's first weeklies was The Wilson 
Ledger, published by John T. Albritton, a printer 
and former Baptist minister, started in 1855. Later 
a Prof. Keenan published The Sentinel. During the 
spring of 1860 Dr. J. J. Lawrence established The 
Star of Freedom. In that year H. Prentice Tucke 
took over The Ledger and John C. Gorman pur- 
chased The Star of Freedom. The two papers were 

Another early Wilson paper was The Wilson Sniff- 
ings, published by D. S. Carraway and Co., with A. 
W. Rowland as local editor. One copy of The Shift- 
ings, dated in 1882, indicates that it and The Ad- 
vance were being published about the same time. 
Carraway published four other papers elsewhere, 
The Star, The Herald, The Observer and The Mes- 
senger. Carl Goerch attempted to revive The Mirror 
in 1925 but his efforts failed. He published Wilson's 
first and only daily morning newspaper. — Informa- 
tion furnished by Mrs. Elizabeth Gold Swindell. 

60 years but never owned its home until after Miss Cooke 
purchased the equipment about a decade ago. Miss Cooke 
erected a modern building and has complete equipment for 
newspaper and commercial job printing. Miss Cooke was 
former editor of The Gates County Index, Gatesville. Earlier 
editors and publishers included: Townes and Meroney, C. 
W. Bailey, B. W. Sipe, L. A. Lee, and Victor Olmsted. 

NASHVILLE — Graphic, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1895, by M. W. Lincke; Thomas Wilson, 
Editor and Publisher; operates commercial print shop. 

The Graphic was operated for many years by Mr. Lincke 
and following his death by members of his family. The 
business was taken over several years ago by Mr. Wilson, 
UNC Journalism graduate and former news editor of The 
Elkin Tribune. Mr. Wilson and two of his brothers, Paul 
and Joseph Wilson, about a year ago purchased and are 
operating The Pinehurst Outlook. A former editor is Jack 
Riley, former Sunday editor of The News and Observer and 
now UNC Journalism instructor. 

NEWLAND — Avery Scenic Press, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1940, by D. M. Spurgeon, Pub- 
lisher; Carl D. Osborne, Editor and Manager; operates com- 
plete and modern small print shop. 

The Press has been developed into a well-printed and at- 
tractive home-county newspaper. Publisher Spurgeon ope- 
rates two other newspapers, one in Virginia and one in 
Mountain City, Tenn., with commercial plant specializing 
in church and school publications. Many years ago a Mr. 
Schumann started and published for a long time The Avery 
Herald, a hand product. He sold the plant to K. L. Haga, 
who published The Herald for several years, then suspended 
publication. The present management took over and ex- 
panded the equipment, changing the name of the paper. 

NORTH WILKESBORO — Hustler, published Wednesdays, 
Democratic, Established 1896; W. E. Pharr, Editor and 
Publisher. The Pharr brothers have published The Hustler 
for many years. R. B. Pharr died last year. (NR) 

PEMBROKE — Progress, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1947; Maurice C. Giraldi, Editor; printed 
in Martin's Print Shop, Hamlet. 

Formerly The Progress was published by Dougald Coxe 
and printed in his shop at Lumberton. Early in 1950 it be- 
came an independent newspaper. Former editors were Lewis 
Barton and Mrs. Ira Pate Lowry. 

PILOT MOUNTAIN — News, published Fridays, Democrat- 
ic, Established 1941; Viola Edwards, Editor and Publisher. 

PINEHURST — Outlook, published Fridays, Independent, 
Established 1897; Miss Virginia Simpkins, Editor; Paul S. 
Wilson, Publisher; Pinehurst Printing Co.; operates a mod- 

ern printing plant, publishing monthly The Pinehurst Book- 

The Outlook was edited and published for 15 years by 
Robert E. Harlow, publicity man for Pinehurst, Inc., who 
sold his publication last year to establish The Golf World. 

The business was purchased by three brothers, Paul S., 
Joseph and Thomas Wilson, the latter publisher of The 
Graphic, Nashville. 

PITTSBORO — Chatham Record, published Thursdays, 
Non-partisan, Established 1878, by Henry A. London; Mrs. 
W. B. Morgan, Editor; Chatham News Publishing Co., Siler 
City, E. A. Resch, president; printed in The Chatham News 
Publishing Co. plant at Siler City. 

Among the former prominent editors and publishers were 
Oscar J. Peterson, prolific old-time writer, and Stacy Brewer. 

PLYMOUTH — Roanoke Beacon, published Thursdays, In- 
dependent, Established 18 89; F. M. Manning, Editor; Roan- 
oke Beacon Publishing Co. ; operates commercial print shop. 

The Roanoke Beacon is owned and published by W. C. 
Manning, Jr., W. H. Booker and F. M. Manning, of William- 
ston, who edit and publish The Enterprise, Williamston, and 
The Weekly Herald, Robersonville. 

RAEFORD — News-Journal, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1911; Paul Dickson, Editor and Publish- 
er. (NR) 

RALEIGH — The Carolinian (Negro), published Satur- 
days, Independent, Established 1941, by P. R. Jervay; P. R. 
Jervay, Publisher; printed in its own modern newspaper 
and job printing plant in Raleigh, which also publishes The 
Winston-Salem Carolinian and prints The Wilmington Jour- 

The Carolinian is a successor to The Carolina Tribune, 
established in 19 20 by Claude E. Whitaker, publisher for 
some 13 years. It was operated during the period 1933-40 
by H. I. Fontellio-Nanton. P. R. Jervay then purchased the 
plant and changed the paper's name. 

RANDLEMAN — The Randolphian, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1945; Carol Fleming, Editor; Jack 
Abernathy, Publisher. (NR) 

RED SPRINGS — Citizen, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1896, by Archibald Johnson; Dougald Coxe, 
Editor and Publisher; printed in office of Lumberton Post. 

RICH SQUARE — Roanoke-Chowan Times, published 
Thursdays, Democratic, Established 1892, by A. J. Conner; 
Esther Conner, Editor and Publisher; printed in Rich 
Square. The Times has been in the Conner family during 
the more than half a century of its publication, father and 

ROBBINSVILLE — Mountain Lake News, published Thurs- 
days, Independent, Established 1947; Lucile Mulkey, Editor; 
Mountain Lake News, Publishers. (NR) 

ROBERSONVILLE — Herald, published Wednesdays, In- 
dependent, Established 1914; F. M. Manning, Editor; Her- 
ald Publishing Co., Williamston. The Herald is published 
by the publisher of The Williamston Enterprise and is print- 
ed in its shop. 

ROCKINGHAM — Post-Dispatch, published Wednesdays, 
Democratic, Established 1917; Isaac S. London, Editor and 
Publisher; printed in its own shop. 

The Post was established in 190 9 and The Dispatch in 
1916. Isaac S. London, former publisher of The Siler City 
Grit, purchased these papers and consolidated them as The 
Post-Dispatch in 1917 and is still going strong after 33 
years there. 

ROCKY MOUNT — News, published Fridays, Independent 
Democratic, Established 1910, by Rocky Mount Publishing 
Co.; J. L. Home, Jr., Editor. The News is issued from the 
plant of The Rocky Mount Telegram, also edited and pub- 
lished by Mr. Home. 

ROSEBORO — News, published Thursdays, Independent, 
Established 1941, by H. N. McKenzie; J. H. Silvertsen, 
Editor; printed by Sampson Publishing Co., Clinton. 

The Roseboro News was established by Mr. McKenzie 
while he was publishing The Sampson News, Clinton, and 
was sold with The Sampson News later that year to Mr. 

RUTHERFORDTON — Rutherford Co. News, published 
Thursdays, Independent Democratic, Established 1926, by 

PAGE 40 


Winter-spring, 1951 

R. E. Price and associates; R. E. Price, Editor; Rutherford 
County News, Publisher; operates a commercial printing- 

Last year Mr. Price celebrated his 2 5th anniversary of 
operation and his fifth year as sole owner of The News, dur- 
ing which time he has doubled the size of the paper and the 
staff. Mr. Price has been active in work of the N. C. Press 
Association and served as its president 19 49-50. 

SAINT PAULS — Review, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 19 22; Julia McNeill, Editor and Publisher. 

SCOTLAND NECK — Commonwealth, published Fridays, 
Independent Democratic, Established 188 2, by W. H. Kit- 
chin; E. W. Rodgers, Editor; Commonwealth Publishing 
Co.; operates commercial print shop; prints Enfield Prog- 
ress, also published by Mr. Rodgers. The Commonwealth 
absorbed The Scotland Neck News in 19 29. 

The Commonwealth was published for many years by 
members of the prominent Kitchin family, including its 
founder, W. H. Kitchin, Congressman, and two of his sons, 
W. W. Kitchin, Congressman and Governor, and Claude 
Kitchin, Congressman Another prominent family, the 
Madrys, published The Commonwealth for several years. 
J. T. Madry was editor. Between these families, Norfleet 
Smith was publisher for a decade or more. 

SELMA — Jbhnstoni&n-Sun, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1916; Jack Honrine, Editor and Pub- 
lisher; operates the only job printing business in Selma. 

This paper was published for many years by M. L. Standi 
and members of his family. It was purchased in 194 6 by 
Mr. Honrine, former New Bern printer. 

SILER CITY — Chatham News, published Thursdays, Non- 
partisan, Established 1923, by J. B. Whitley; E. A. Resch, 
Editor; Chatham News Publishing Co.; operates modern 
commercial print shop. 

The News was the successor to The Siler City Grit, pub- 
lished until 1917 by Isaac S. London, Rockingham Post- 
Dispatch. Later publishers were P. H. Elkins and H. A. 
Oliver. It was purchased some 15 years ago by Mr. Resch, 
formerly of the Winston-Salem papers and president of the 
N. C. Press Association, 1947-48. 

SNOW HILL — Standard-Laconic, published Fridays, Dem- 
ocratic, Established 190 6, by Joseph Eppye Debnam; Mrs. 
J. E. Debnam, Local Editor; Mrs. John C. Andrews, Pub- 
lisher; printed in The Ayden Dispatch office. 

The late J. E. Debnam, founder, was school superintend- 
ent in Greene County for 20 years and Mrs. Debnam con- 
tinued operation of the paper after his death, although the 
plant was purchased by the late John C. Andrews. W. E. 
Debnam, well-known Raleigh radio news commentator, son 
of the founder, received his early newspaper training on The 
Standard-Laconic and was its editor for a few years. 

SOUTHERN PINES — Pilot, published Fridays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1922; Katharine Boyd, Editor; The Pilot, 
Inc., Publisher; operates a commercial print shop; Dan P. 
Ray, Manager-printer; Valerie Nicholson, Assistant Editor. 

Earlier prominent editors and publishers included: Bion 
H. Butler, Nelson A. Hyde, Carl Thompson and James Boyd. 

The Sandhills Daily News was published at Southern 
Pines around the 1930-40 period. 

SOUTHPORT — State Port Pilot, published Wednesdays, 
Independent, Established 1928; J. M. Harper, Jr., Editor; 
News Reporter Co., Inc., Whiteville, Publisher; Leslie S. 
Thompson, Whiteville, owns half interest. A former pub- 
lisher was W. B. Keziah, Southport. 

SPARTA — Alleghany News, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1889; Howard Sexton, News Editor; 
Ed M. Anderson, Publisher; Mrs. Ed Anderson, Associate 

The News, Alleghanv County's only newspaper, absorbed 
The Star-Times in 1941. 

SPINDALE — Sun, published Thursdays, Independent, Es- 
tablished 19 40, by Clarence Griffin, General Manager; Glenn 
James, Editor; Ed M. Anderson, Publisher; printed in The 
Forest City Courier plant. The Spindale Sun is owned by 
the Rutherford County Publishing Co., Forest City, Ed M. 
Anderson, president; Clarence Griffin, secretary-treasurer 
and general manager, also publishing the Forest City 
Courier. The Sun won the National Editorial Association's 
general excellence award in 1944. 

SPRING HOPE — Enterprise, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1946, by R. B. Davis and Allen Bar- 
bee; Allen Barbee, Editor; Spring Hope Enterprise, Pub- 
lisher. The Nash County News, formerly published in 
Spring Hope, was discontinued in 1944. 

SPRUCE PINE — Tri-County News, published Thursdays: 
Independent; Established in 193 5 by Mr. and Mrs. S. T. 
Henry, who are co-editors; operates modern newspaper 
print shop, but does not do commercial printing. Mr. Henry 
was in business paper publishing for more than 40 years, 
most of the time as an executive with McGraw-Hill Publish- 
ing Co. and its predecessor, McGraw Publishing Co. 

The Tri-County News resulted from consolidation of the 
Spruce Fine News (1928) and The Burnsville Eagle (1896) 
and serves the three counties of Avery, Mitchell and Yancey. 
In this area, The Mitchell County Banner was published at 
Bakersville for many years by J. B. Craigmiles, from around 
1900 until it was suspended around 1938, following his 

SWAN QUARTER — Hyde County Herald, published Thurs- 
days, Independent, Established 1939, by Victor Meekins; 
Thomas E. Spencer, Editor; Times Printing Co., Inc., Pub- 
lisher ; printed in The Coastland Times shop at Manteo. 

The Herald was consolidated with The Coastland Times, 
Manteo, in 1947 and was re-established in 1948. Former 
editors include: Charles Bond, Mrs. Nell Wise Wecter and 
Carlton Morris, now editor of The Gates County Index, 
Gatesville. The Hyde County Record was consolidated later 
with The Belhaven Times. The Hyde County Messenger, 
Baptist church monthly, issued for about ten years, Rev. 
E. R. Stewart, editor and publisher, was discontinued about 

SYLVA — Herald-Ruralite, published Thursdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 192'6, by E. E. Brown; J. A. Gray and 
J. M. Bird, Publishers; operates job print shop. 

The Ruralite was purchased by Curtis Russ in 19 43 and 
named The Herald-Ruralite. In 19 44 Gray and Bird, former 
publishers of The Bryson City Times, purchased The Herald- 
Ruralite and continue its publication. 

The Jackson County Journal, published for many years by 
the late Dan Tompkins, was discontinued in 1944. 

TABOR CITY — Tribune, published Wednesdays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 1946, by W. Horace Carter; W. Horace 
Carter, Editor; Atlantic Publishing Co., owned by W. Horace 
Carter and Mark C. Garner; operates commercial print shop, 
in which are also printed The Myrtle Beach (S.C.) Sun and 
The Ocean Beach News, Ocean Drive, S. C, published by 
the same firm. Billy Whitted and Lawrence Ashby formerly 
edited The Tribune under lease. A former newspaper, The 
Tabor City Times, was operated for a few years, closing out 
during World War II. 

TARBORO — The Weekly Southerner, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 18 24, by George Howard; 
B. M. Bass, Jr., Editor; Tarboro Printing Co., Publisher; 
owned by H. C. Bourne, V. H. Creech, Jr., and J. Creech, 
who also publish The Daily Southerner. 

The Southerner was first published in Halifax in 1824 
but was moved to Tarboro by Editor Howard in 18 26. 
Former editors include: Frank Powell, Paul Jones, Bertham 
Brown, Aubrey Shackell, P. G. Shackell, Robert Weitick and 
R. H. Davis. 

TAYLORSVILLE — Times, published Thursdays, Independ- 
ent, Established 1887, by J. W. Babington; R. L. Teague, 
Editor; Conway Sharpe and R. L. Teague, Publishers; ope- 
rates newspaper and commercial printing plant. 

The Times was started as The Mountain Scout and was 
published as such until 1920. Former editors and publish-, 
ers include: J. W. Babington, Thomas Smith, John Mullen 
and John Hart. Teague and Sharpe have been publishing 
the paper for many years. 

TRENTON — Jones County Journal, published Thursdays, 
Democratic, Established 1949, by Wilbur J. and Muriel G. 
Rider; Wilbur J. Rider, Editor and Publisher; Muriel G. 
Rider, Business Manager; printed in the Kinston office of 
The Lenoir County News; published by The Lenoir County 
News Co., Inc., owned by W. J. and Muriel G. Rider. 

TROY — Montgomery Herald, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1893; George M. Beasley, Jr., Editor; 
Beasley Newspapers, Publishers. (NR) 

The Serviceman, published Wednesdays, Independent, Es- 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 41 

tablished 1943; Charles H. Manning, Editor and Publisher. 

TRYON — Folk County News, published Fridays, Inde- 
pendent, Established 18 90; Seth M. Vining, Editor and Pub- 

The News was published for more than 40 years before 
it was acquired, probably 15 years ago, by Mr. Vining, pub- 
lisher of the unique miniature daily newspaper, The Bulle- 
tin. (NR) 

VALDESE — News, published Wednesdays, Independent, 
Established 1938, by Miss Beatrice Cobb; Richard H. Byrd, 
Editor; Beatrice Cobb, Publisher; printed in the Morgan- 
ton News-Herald office. Marcel Tron, native of this Wal- 
densian community, was a former editor, as was Marse 
Grant, now editor of Charity and Children, Thomasville. 

WADESBORO — Messenger and Intelligencer, published 
Thursdays, Democratic, Established 1881; R. B. Boylin, 
Editor; Estate of J. G. Boylin, Publisher. (NR) 

WAKE FOREST— Wake Weekly, published Fridays: Gid- 
eon V. Barbee, publisher; printed in The Zebulon Record 
shop; a college community publication, formerly a farm 
paper. (NR) 

WALNUT COVE — Stokes Record, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1932; Robert J. H. Duncan, Editor 
and Publisher; Mrs. Sallie F. Pepper and Fred Pepper 
former editors. (NR) 

WARRENTON — Warren Record, published Fridays, Dem- 
ocratic, Established 1890, by Howard F. Jones; Bignall 
Jones, Editor; Record Publishing and Supply Co. Three 
sons of the founder, long secretary to Congressman John H. 
Kerr, have operated the paper, including Brodie and How- 
ard, both deceased. Another brother, Duke Jones, operates 
the supply shop. (NR) 

WARSAW — Warsaw-Faison News, published Thursdays, 
Democratic, Established 1947; William S. Leinbach, Editor; 
H. L. Oswald, III, Publisher; printed in The Wallace Enter- 
prise shop. 

The Warsaw-Faison News was formerly The Duplin Citi- 
zen, owned and operated by O. O. Phillips. It was pur- 
chased by the Oswald interests and the name was changed 
last year. W. W. Williams, Jr., now editor of The Pender 
Chronicle, Burgaw, was a former editor. 

WASHINGTON — Progress, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1909, by W. K. Jacobson; Ashley B. - 
Futrell, Editor; News Publishing Co.; also publisher of The 
Washington Daily News. 

Former editors include: Garl Goerch, publisher of The 
State, Raleigh, and Fred Pendleton of the Elizabeth City 
Advance. A former Washington newspaper was The Beau- 
fort County Record, suspended about two years ago. 

WELDON — Roanoke News, published Thursdays, Demo- 
cratic, Established 1866; B. F. Turner, Editor; Roanoke 
News Publishing Co. J. R. Grady, publisher of Duplin 
Times, Kenansville, was a former publisher. (NR) 

WENDELL — Gold Leaf Farmer, published Thursdays, 
Democratic, Established 1911; published by The Gold Leaf 
Farmer Publishing Co., Inc., Ferd Davis, president. Con- 
trolling interest in this firm is owned by Theo. Davis Sons, 
publisher of The Zebulon Record. The Gold Leaf Farmer is 
printed in The Zebulon Record office. 

WEST JEFFERSON — Skyland Post, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Established 1930, by Miss Ruth Reeves; Mrs. 
Ed M. Anderson, Editor; Ed M. Anderson, Publisher; ope- 
rates well-equipped newspaper and job shop, in which The 
Alleghany News, Sparta, is printed. 

The Skyland Post has been owned and operated by the 
Andersons for the past 12 years, during which time it has 
won several State and National awards for excellence. The 

Post is a successor to The Northwestern Herald, published 
by a stock company, started in the early 19 20s. D. C. Nance 
was editor for about five years, and a Mr. Campbell later, 
until Miss Reeves acquired it and changed the name. The 
Herald starred at Jefferson but soon moved to West Jeffar- 
son. The Ashe Recorder was published for several years 
by Mr. Campbell, with Walter Johnson as editor, but sus- 
pended around 1927 when Mr. Campbell went with The 

WILMINGTON — Journal (Negro), published Saturdays, 
Independent, Established 1945, by T. C. Jervay; T. C. Jer- 
vay, Editor and Publisher; R. S. Jervay Printing Co.; print- 
ed by The Carolinian shop in Raleigh. 

The R. S. Jervay Printing Co. was established 50 yeavs 
ago by R. S. Jervay, father of T. C. Jervay and P. R. Jervay, 
publisher of The Carolinian in Raleigh and in Winston- 

The Cape Fear Journal was published for several years 
in Wilmington by P. R. and T. C. Jervay and Thomas Smith. 

WINDSOR — Bertie Ledger-Advance, published Thursdays, 
Independent, Democratic, Established 188 7; H. D. Cuilen, 
Editor; Parker Bros., Publishers; printed in the Ahoskie 
plant. This is one of the four papers in the weekly field 
published by Parker Bros. 

WINSTON-SALEM — The Carolinian (Negro), Established 
1950; Curtis Todd, Editor; published by and printed in the 
shop of The Carolinian, Raleigh, P. R. Jervay, owner. 

YADKINVILLE — Renfro Herald, published Wednesdays, 
Democratic, Established 1938, by Williams Printing Co.; 
Mrs. Virginia White Transou, Editor; Renfro Herald Pub 
lishing Co., Inc.; printed in The Mocksville Enterprise shop. 

The Renfro Herald is a Democratic paper in a Repub- 
lican county. The company is owned by 15 citizens, largely 
of Yadkinville and Boonville. It was published briefly by 
the late O. C. McQuage of The Mocksville Enterprise and 
sold to the present company. Former editors were: Mrs. 
Kate Mackie Waynick and R. Allen Jessup. Mrs. Transou, 
former Hertford bureau manager for The Daily Advance, 
Elizabeth City, became editor about two years ago. 

Yadkin Ripple, published Thursdays, Republican, Estab- 
lished 1892 by Mrs. Mattie Johnson Hall; W. E. Rutledge, 
Editor and Publisher; W. E. Rutledge, Jr., Assistant; print- 
ed by The Elkin Tribune shop. 

The Yadkin Ripple was started at East Bend, near the 
Yadkin River, and a few years later was purchased by E. D. 
Stanford, attorney, and moved to Yadkinville. Later owners 
were H. B. Nelson, Rev. C. M. Warden and Attorney S. C. 
Williams. Editor Rutledge purchased the paper in 1910 
and has since published it. Of the former editors, only the 
founder, Mrs. Hall of Winston-Salem, survives. (Mrs. Hall, 
88, died in January, 1951.) Former employees included 
Santford Martin, editor of the Winston-Salem Journal and 
Sentinel, and M. R. Dunnagan, of The E. S. C. Quarterly. 
The Ripple purchased and absorbed The Yadkin Valley Pilot, 
operated briefly around 1915 at East Bend by Charles E. 
Jenkins, a printer who perished when the S. S. Titanic sank. 

The Outlook, started in 188 6 by Mr. and Mrs. Henry, 
suspended after a few years. The Jonesville Enterprise, at 
Jonesville in Yadkin County, established around 1850, was 
one of the first weeklies in northwestern North Carolina. It 
was published for several years by Mumford Bacon. 

YANCEYVILLE — Caswell Messenger, published Thurs- 
days, Democratic, Established 1926, by W. C. Jones; Erwin 
D. Stephens, Editor and Publisher; operates general job 
printing plant. Mr. Jones continued operation of the paper 
until 1934 when it was taken over by Mr. Stephens, who 
continues as editor and publisher. 

The Caswell Democrat was published by A. Y. Kerr in 
Yancey ville for 40 years or more, until it was suspended 
in 1941. 

Heavy Articles, Wit and Humor in College Publications 

BOONE — Appalachian, published Fridays, College, Estab- 
lished 183 5, by students Appalachian State Teachers Col- 
lege, Editors and Publishers, printed by Rivers Printing 

Former editors include: H. G. Jones, history teacher at 

Oak Ridge Institute; Sloan Hill, news editor, Carroll County 
Georgian, Carrollton, Ga. (These two publish The Blowing 
Rocket, summer publication, at Blowing Rock) ; Rogers 
Whitener, English instructor, Florida Southern College, at 
Lakeland, Fla. 

PAGE 42 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

CHAPEL HILL — Alumni Review, published Monthly, Col- 
lege Alumni, Established 1912, by Alumni of UNC; J. 
Maryon Saunders, Editor; General Alumni Association of 
the University of North Carolina, Publisher; official alumni 
organ; printed by Orange Print Shop, Chapel Hill. 

The Alumni Review is printing 9,200 copies each of ten 
months in a year, approximately 60 % going to alumni in 
North Carolina, but 4 4 states and 3 5 foreign countries are 
represented. Additional weekly issues are distributed dur- 
ing the fall. Dr. L. R. Wilson, librarian, was editor for 
many years; Daniel L. Grant, 1924-27, and Mr. Saunders 
since 1927. 

Carolina Journal of Pharmacy, published Monthly, Phar- 
maceutical, Established 1915, by the William Simpson Phar- 
maceutical Society of the UNC School of Pharmacy; W. J. 
Smith, Editor; North Carolina Pharmaceutical Association, 

After appearing as a quarterly for three years, this pub- 
lication was abandoned but was re-established as a monthly 
in September, 19 2*2, published by N. C. Pharmaceutical Assn. 
John Grover Beard, late dean of the UNC School of Phar- 
macy, was editor from the start until 1940, when Mr. Smith 
took over the publication. Miss Alice Noble was assistant 
editor for about 20 years, 19 20-40. 

Carolina Quarterly, College Literary, Established 1844, 
by the Dialectic and Philanthropic Literary Societies as The 
Carolina Magazine; Students of University of North Caro- 
lina, Editors and Publishers. 

The Carolina Quarterly was established in 19 48 by stu- 
dents of the State University. Present editor is Miss Lyn 
Miller, and it is printed by the Colonial Press, Chapel Hill. 
Sponsors in this area include: John Sprunt Hill, Betty Smith, 
Paul Green, Dr. Norman Foerster, Josephina Niggli, Wil- 
liam M. Prince and others. Roy Moose, William Sessions, 
Harry Snowden, Dr. Lyman Cotten, Walter Spearman, Phil- 
lips Russell, Charles Eaton and Dr. Harry Russell, all mem- 
bers of the Advisory Board, are UNC faculty members. 

High School Journal, published eight times a year, Edu- 
cational, Established 1918, by the School of Education of 
UNC; W. Carson Ryan, Editor; University of North Carolina 
Press, Publisher. Until last year this journal was published 
five times a year, shifting to eight times a year last October, 
October through May. 

North Carolina Law Review, published Quarterly, Legal, 
Established 19 23, by the School of Law, UNC; Univeristy 
of North Carolina Press, School of Law. Prof. Maurice T. 
Van Hecke, later dean, was the first editor. It was edited 
by Law faculty members, with student assistance, 1923-39, 
and has since been edited by top ranking students, with 
faculty advice. It is printed by Seeman Printery, Durham. 

Popular Government, published Monthly, N. C. Govern- 
ment, Established 193 3, by Albert Coates; Albert Coates, 
Editor; Institute of Government, University of N. C, Pub- 
lisher. (NR) 

Southern Economic Journal, published Quarterly, Eco- 
nomics, Established 1933, by Southern Economic Assn.; 
Southern Economic Assn. and the University of North Caro- 
lina, Publishers; G. T. Schwenning, UNC, managing editor; 
Board of Editors: T. C. Bigham, University of Florida; L. 
K. Brandt, University of Mississippi; A. S. Keister, The 
Woman's College of UNC; F. E. McVay, N. C. State College; 
and H. D. Wolf, UNC. 

Tar Heel, published Mornings except Monday, College, 
Established 1892, by student groups; present Managing 
Editor, Rolfe Neill; published by UNC students; printed 
by Colonial Press, Carrboro. 

The Tar Heel claims to be the oldest college daily in the 
South; only collegiate paper in the world with two full wire 
facilities; is Chapel Hill Bureau for the Associated Press; 
rated Ail-American for seven years; completely student- 
produced, including linotype and composition, everything 
except pressroom. 

Former editors include: Thomas Wolf, famous author, 
and Orville Campbell, owner of the print shop, who has 
written several songs, including "All the Way, Choo, Choo." 

University of North Carolina News Letter, published Fort- 
nightly (Wed.), Educational, Economic and Sociological, 
Established 1914, by Dr. E. C. Branson; University of North 
Carolina, Extension Division, Publisher. Dr. S. H. Hobbs, 
Jr., succeeded Dr. Branson as editor in 1923, continuing 
until the present; printed by Colonial Press. 

The News Letter is a fact-reporting sheet dealing with 
all phases of economic and social life of North Carolina. 


The Carolinian, weekly publication of the Woman's Col- 
lege, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, has been 
something of a training sheet to prepare its staff members 
for splendid jobs with newspapers and in other activities. 
In fact, perusal of former editors gives something of a 
"Who's Who" among leading women, as supplied by Miss 
Tempe Hughes, present editor-in-chief. Brief notes about 
some of them follow: 

Ann Cantrell, Mrs. Ben N. White, Jr., society editor 
Greensboro News Record. 

Nell Craig, Mrs. Bruce Strowd, Chapel Hill, director Wo- 
man's College News Bureau, 1942-45. 

Eleanor Vanneman, Mrs. Chase H. Benson, Greensboro, 
politics and civic activities. 

Blanche Armfield, Washington, D. C, working on medical 
history of World War II in office of Surgeon General, Dept. 
of Army. 

Frances M. Gibson, Mrs. Boydston Satterfield, Atlanta, 
Ga., free lance writer for trade journals, formerly with 
Women's Division, Democratic National Committee. 

Mattie Moore Taylor, Mrs. R. G. G. Stanton, journalist in 
Hong Kong, China, at last reports; formerly with Wisconsin 
State Journal and publicity director, Community Union, 
Madison, Wis. 

Betty Brown, Mrs. Carlton Jester, Jr., Greensboro, former 
executive secretary, Woman's College Alumni Asso. 

Margaret Kernodle, Washington, D. C, Associated Press 

Elizabeth Yates, Mrs. Walter King, Jr., Greensboro, works 
for Life Magazine. 

Kate Urquhart, New York City, active executive in public 
relations; formerly with advertising agency; formerly asso- 
ciated with U. S. Camera Annual, associate editor, Traveling 
Camera magazine. 

Maxine Garner, Aberdeen Scotland, doing graduate work 
on Fulbright scholarship; former director of religious activ- 
ities, Woman's College. 

Peggy Dean, Raleigh, continuity script writer, Radio Sta- 
tion WPTF. 

Frances Newsome, Mrs. Latham L. Miller, Raleigh mem- 
ber UNC board of trustees; former News & Observer 

Hal March, Mrs. Bernard Scheffler, for several years exec- 
utive secretary, Phi Beta Kappa edition, The Scholar. 

Betty Anne Ragland, works for Salisbury Post. 

Sarah Denny, Raleigh, associate editor, Carolina Co-opera- 

Ellen Metz, New York City, secretary, Oxford Press, NYC. 

Katherine Taylor, dean of women at Woman's College 
since 1943. 

Each issue is devoted to a central topic of timely interest 
to the people of the State. The publication goes to 11,000 
persons. The approximately 1,300 issues so far constitute 
the greatest body of important information about this State 
to be found in any State in the Union. 

CHARLOTTE — Quarterly Review of Higher Education 
Among Negroes (Negro), published Quarterly, Educational 
(Negro), Established 193 3, by Johnson C. Smith University; 
Hardy Liston, Editor; T. E. McKinney, Managing Editor; 
Johnson C. Smith University, Publisher. This publication 
is a contribution to the promotion of education by the Uni- 
versity. Dr. H. L. McCrorey, President-Emeritus, was form- 
er editor. 

Queens Blues, published Bi-monthly, College, Established 
1922, by Students of Queens College, Editors and Publishers. 

CULLOWHEE — Western Carolinian, published Semi- 
monthly, College, Established 1933, by Faculty and students 
of Western Carolina Teachers College, Publishers. 

This paper resumed publication in January after suspen- 
sion for several weeks due to resigning of the editor; printed 
by the Waynesville Mountaineer Print Shop. 

DAVIDSON — Davidsonian, published Fridays, College, Es- 
tablished 1915, by Students of Davidson College, Editors and 
Publishers. (NR) 

Scripts 'n' Pranks, published four times a year, College 
Literary and Humor, Established 1930, by Students of Dav- 
idson College, Editors and Publishers. 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


Page 43 

This publication was the successor to two former college 
publications — Yowl, a humor magazine published until 1930, 
when it was banned for pornography, and The Chameleon, 
a literary magazine published until 1930, when it died a 
natural death. Scripts 'n' Pranks is well censored. It is 
printed by The Herald Press, Charlotte. Former editors 
include: David H. Gambrell, now at Harvard University; 
David C. Hamilton, present editor, both soon to be in U. S. 
Army, and William J. Hamilton, now in U. S. Air Corps. 

DURHAM — Character and Personality, published Quar- 
terly, Psychology, Established 193 2, by Dr. Karl Zener, 
Editor; Duke University Press, Publisher. (NR) 

Chronicle, published Fridays, College, Established 190 5, 
by Trinity College; Duke University Publications Board, 
Publisher; printed by Christian Printing Co., Durham. This 
publication was started as The Trinity Chronicle and the 
"Trinity" was dropped when the name of Trinity College 
was changed to Duke University. 

Duke Mathematical Journal, published Quarterly, Mathe- 
matical, Established 1935; John H. Roberts, Managing Edi- 
tor; Duke University Press, Publisher and Printer. 

This journal publishes original research papers in the 
field of mathematics. Former editors include Joseph Miller 
Thomas and Leonard Carlitz. 

Duke 'n' Duchess Magazine, published Monthly, College 
Humor, Established 1935, by Students of Duke University, 
Editors and Publishers. (NR) 

Duke University Alumni Register, published Monthly, 
College Alumni, Established 1915, by the alumni of Trinity 
College; Charles A. Dukes, Editor; Alumni Assn. of Duke 
University, Publisher; Seeman Printery, Inc., Durham, 

The name of this publication was changed from Trinity 
Alumni Register in 19 25 when the name Trinity College 
was changed to Duke University. 

Duke University Archive, published Quarterly, College 
Literary, Established 1888, by Trinity College; Duke Uni- 
versity Publication Board, Editors and Publishers; Chris- 
tian Printing Co., Durham, Printer. 

The Archive is said to be the oldest continuous literary 
publication in the South and was the sole publication at 
Trinity College until 1905, when The Chronicle appeared. 
It was published first by the senior class of Trinity College. 

In 1943, due to war conditions, The Archive was com- 
bined with the humor magazine, Duke 'n' Duchess, but in 
1945 the two publications were separated again. 

Ecology, published Quarterly, Scientific, Established 1920, 
by The Ecological Society of America; Donald B. Lawrence 
and E. S. Deevey, Editors; Duke University Press, Publish- 
er; printed by the Lancaster Press. 

Ecology is affiliated with "Bulletin of the Ecological So- 
ciety of America," (Quarterly) edited by the secretary, and 
"Ecological Monographs," published quarterly, scientific, 
established in 1931; H. J. Oosting and W. J. Hamilton, Jr., 
editors; Duke University Press, publisher; Seeman Printery, 
Durham, Printer. 

Journal of Parapsychology, published Quarterly, Scientific, 
Established 1937, by Prof. William McDougald and Dr. J. 
B. Rhine; Duke University Press, Publisher; printed by 
Seeman Printery, Durham; edited for three years by Dr. 
Gardner Murphy, then of Columbia University, now head, 
Dept. of Psychology, College of the City of New York. 

The Parapsychology Bulletin is published quarterly and 
sent to subscribers of The Journal but may be acquired sep- 
arately; Dorothy H. Pope, Parapsychology Laboratory, Duke 
University, Editor. 

Journal of Personality, published Quarterly, Psychology, 
Established 1932; D. Karl Zener, Editor; Duke University 
Press, Publisher. (NR) 

South Atlantic Quarterly, published Quarterly, Lit. & His- 
toric, Established 1902, by 9019 Scohlarship Society of 
Trinity College; Wm. T. Laprade, Editor; Duke University 
Press, Publisher; printed at Seeman Printery, Durham. 

The Quarterly was published by the South Atlantic Pub- 
lishing Co. until the Duke University Press was established 
in 1925. Former editors include: John Spencer Bassett, 
Dr. Edwin Mims, Dr. W. P. Few, Dr. W. H. Glosson, Dr. 
W. K. Boyd, Dr. W. H. Wannamaker and Henry S. Dwire. 

The Hispanic American Historical Review, published Quar- 
terly, Latin-American History, Established 1918, by Ameri- 
can Historical Assn.; Dr. Charles C. Griffin (Vassar Col- 
lege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.), Editor; Duke University Press, 
Publisher; printed by Seeman Printery, Durham. 

The Review was suspended in 1921 and in 1926 was taken 
over and continues to be owned and published by Duke 
University Press. 

ELON COLLEGE — Maroon and Gold, published Bi-month- 
ly (Fridays), College, Established 1919, by Students of 
Elon College, Editors and Publishers. (NR) 

GREENSBORO — Carolinian, published Fridays, College, 
Established 1918, by Student Government Association of the 
Woman's College of University of North Carolina, Publish- 
ers; Tempe Hughes, current Editor-in-chief; printed by 
McCulloch Press, Greensboro. 

The Carolinian uses inter-collegiate and national ACP 
releases; member of N. C. Collegiate Press Assn. and Asso- 
ciated College Press, distributor of Collegiate Digest. (See 
Press Notes for former editors.) 

Coraddi, published Quarterly, College Literary, Estab- 
lished 1897, by Student Literary Societies, Woman's College 
of University of North Carolina, Publisher; student editors; 
printed by McCulloch Press, Greensboro. 

Coraddi was formerly known as State Normal Magazine 
(1897-1919), was published by a board of editors, elected 
from literary societies under the direction of a managing 
editor, chosen by the faculty until 190 7. Since 1914 it has 
been published entirely by a student-elected staff, no longer 
connected with literary societies and independent of the 
faculty. It has been a splendid training school for editors 
and authors. (See Press Notes.) 

GREENVILLE — Teco Echo, published Fridays, College, 
Established 192'5, by Students of East Carolina Teachers 
College, Editors and Publishers. 

Teco Echo is a modern weekly paper distributed to stu- 
dents, faculty and alumni. Last year it was awarded high- 
est ratings for newspapers published by teachers colleges, 
by the Columbia Scholastic Press Association of Columbia 
University. It is printed by the Renfrew Printing Co., 
Greenville. This year's editor is Rexford E. Piner. Former 
editors include: James A. Whitfield, state editor of The 
News and Observer, and Bernice Jenkins, managing editor, 
Wilmington News. The Tecoan is the college yearbook. 

GUILFORD COLLEGE — Guilfordian, published Bi-month- 
ly, College, Established 19 20, by Literary Societies of Guil- 
ford College, Editors and Publishers. (NR) 

HICKORY — Lenoir-Rhynean, published Fridays, College, 
Established 1910, by Students of Lenoir-Rhyne College, 
Editors and Publishers. Editors and business managers are 
elected annually by the student body, the editor receiving 
a $100 scholarship. It is printed by the Hickory Printing 
Co. The Tracer, a former humor magazine, was suspended 
due to faculty pressure. 

HIGH POINT — Hi-Po, published Bi-weekly, College, Es- 
tablished 1924, by Students of High Point College, Editors 
and Publishers. (NR) 

MARS HILL — Hilltop, published Semi-monthly, College, 
Established 1925, by Students of Mars Hill College, Editors 
and Publishers; printed by the Biltmore Press, Asheville. 

The Hilltop took the place of The Laurel, a student lit- 
erary publication whose name was transferred to the college 

Mars Hill College Quarterly, published quarterly by Mars 
Hill College. It carries news of the college and items of 
interest to the alumni and constituency. 

RALEIGH — Rural Sociology, published Quarterly, Rural 
Sociology, Established 193 6; Howard W. Beers, University 
of Kentucky, Editor; Selz C. Mayo, Managing Editor; North 
Carolina State College, Publisher; printed at N. C. State 
Print Shop. 

Rural Sociology is the official organ of the Rural Socio- 
logical Society, devoted to publishing research relative to 
the scientific study of rural life. This journal is used by 
educational institutions in their study of rural life. It was 
published for five years by Louisiana State University, with 
T. Lynn Smith as managing editor after it began in 193 6. 
N. C. State College has published it during the last ten 

State College News, published Monthly, College Alumni, 
Established 19 28, by General Alumni Assn. of North Caro- 
lina State College of Agriculture and Engineering; H. W. 
(Pop) Taylor, Editor; printed under contract. 

This magazine is devoted to acquainting former students 
with activities and services of the college and to helping 

Page 44 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

alumni keep in touch with one another, and is sent to all 
dues-paying members. Mr. Taylor is executive secretary of 
the Association. 

Technician, published Fridays, College, Established 1920, 
by Students of North Carolina State College, Editors and 
Publishers. (NR) 

Twig, published Semi-monthly, College, Established 1907, 
by Students of Meredith College, Editors and Publishers. 

RED SPRINGS — Pine and Thistle, published Quarterly, 
College, Established 1898, by Zetesian and Epsilon Literary 
Societies; Students of Flora MacDonald College for Women, 
Editors and Publishers; present editor, Amanda Smith; 
Carolyn Huneycutt, Business Manager; printed by Edwards 
and Broughton, Raleigh; Dr. Eleanor B. Scott, Faculty Ad- 

This magazine began as 
printed after the first year, 
by the general student body. 

a handwritten sheet but was 

In the 19 30s it was taken over 

Its name comes from the type 

of section and the Scottish heritage. 

SALISBURY — Pioneer, published Fortnightly (Sat.), Col- 

lege, Established 1925, by Students of Catawba College, 
Editors and Publishers. (NR) 

WAKE FOREST — Old Gold and Black, published Mon- 
days, College, Established 1916, by college students; Stu- 
dents of Wake Forest College, Editors and Publishers; 
present staff, Miss Carol Oldham and Dave Clark, Co-editors; 
Bob Holloman, Business Manager; printed by the Progres- 
sive Printing Co., Durham. 

This year Old Gold and Black increased its size to seven 
columns by 20 inches, six pages. It deals with student 
activities and 2100 copies are mailed weekly. Former edi- 
tors include: Dr. E. E. Folk; Robert L. Humber, Greenville 
attorney, and World Federation promoter; and Carroll C. 
Weathers, Raleigh attorney. 

WILSON — Torchlight, published Monthly, College, Estab- 
lished 19 28, by Students of Atlantic Christian College, Edi- 
tors and Publishers. (NR) 

WINSTON-SALEM — Salemite, published Fridays, College, 
Established 19 21, by Students of Salem College, Editors 
and Publishers. (NR) 

Religious, Professional, Trade and Special Publications 


CHARLOTTE — Star of Zion (Negro), published Thurs- 
days, A.M.E. Zion, Established 1876; Rev. W. R. Lovell, 
Editor; A.M.E. Zion Publishing House. (NR) 

GREENSBORO — American Jewish Times-Ontlook, pub- 
lished Monthly, Religion & Democratic, Established 1934, 
by Harry Sabel and David Bernstein; Irving A. Weisler, 
Editor; David Bernstein, Manager; Nathan Kessler, Rich- 
mond Office Manager; Mrs. Min Klein, Carolinas News Edi- 
tor; Mrs. Florence Byers, Virginia News Editor; printed by 
McCulloch Press, Greensboro; published by the American 
Jewish Times-Outlook, Inc. 

The American Jewish Times, Greensboro, and The Ameri- 
can Jewish Outlook, of Virginia, were consolidated in Aug- 
ust, 19 50. Mr. Sabel was owner until his death in April, 
1950, of The Times, which was bought then by David Bern- 
stein. Mr. Sabel and David Bernstein organized The Out- 
look in Virginia in 1945, and Harry N. Bernstein bought 
Mr. Sabel's stock in 1947. Former editors include: Harry 
Bernstein, Mr. Sabel and Marvin Caplan, in Virginia, and 
Chester B. Brown, in Greensboro. The publication dissem- 
inates current international, national, sectional, organiza- 
tional and social news of interest to the Jewry of the South- 

North Carolina Christian Advocate, published Thursdays, 
Methodist, Established 1855, by the Methodist Church of 
North Carolina; C. W. Robbins, Editor; Methodist Board of 
Publications, Inc. 

The Christian Advocate is the result of the merger of the 
Raleigh Christian Advocate, the North Carolina Christian 
Advocate and the former Methodist Protestant publication. 
It is printed by the Piedmont Press, owned by the two 
North Carolina Methodist Conferences. Former editors in- 
clude: Dr. H. C. Sprinkle, Jr., Drs. M. T. and A. W. Plyler, 
twins, T. A. Sykes and Dr. Gilbert T. Rowe. 

JEFFERSON — Ashe Presbyterian, published Quarterly, 
Presbyterian, Established 19 20, by Rev. R. H. Stone; John 
W. Luke, Editor; The Ashe Presbyterian, Publisher; printed 
by the Skyland Post, West Jefferson. 

This publication is dedicated to home mission work, pri- 
marily in Ashe County, and contributors include Presbyte- 
rian ministers and lay leaders in the county. Former editors 
include Rev. R. H. Stone and Miss Kathryn Hunt, both of 

KINSTON — Mission Herald, published Monthly, Protes- 
tant Episcopal, Established 1886; Rev. J. R. Rountree, 
Editor; Diocese of East Carolina, Publisher. (NR) 

RALEIGH — Baptist Informer, published Monthly, Bap- 
tist, (Negro), Established 1878, by General Baptist Con- 
vention of North Carolina, Inc.; Otis L. Hairston, Editor; 
General Baptist Convention of N. C, Publishers; printed by 
the Capital Printing Co., Raleigh. 

This is the official organ of the General Baptist Conven- 

tion devoted to publicizing the work of some 1700 affiliated 
churches and national religious activities and trends. The 
name of the publication has been changed six times in the 
more than 7 years of publication, including African Exposi- 
tor, The Eaptist Highlight, The Chowan Pilot, Baptist Sen- 
tinel, Union Reformer, and the present name, Baptist In- 
former, was given the publication in 19 43 by its present 
editor, Otis L. Hairston. 

Biblical Recorder, published Saturdays, Baptist, Estab- 
lished 1835, by Thomas Meredith; Dr. L. L. Carpenter, 
Editor; Biblical Recorder, Inc., Publisher; printed by the 
Bynum Printing Co., Raleigh. 

The Biblical Recorder was established as the North Caro- 
lina Baptist Interpreter at New Bern in 1833 by Dr. Mere- 
dith, for whom Meredith College was named. It became 
The Biblical Recorder in 18 3 5 and in 18 38 it moved to 
Raleigh. Although the official organ of the State Baptist 
Convention, it was privately owned until 1939 when it be- 
came the property of the Convention. Present circulation 
is approximately 42,000. The Biblical Recorder is said to 
be the oldest corporation in Raleigh and is probably the 
oldest publication in the State. Dr. Carpenter has been 
editor since 1942 and recent editors were: J. S. Farmer, 
John C. Slemp and Eugene Olive. Earlier nationally- 
known editors were: Josiah William Bailey, later U. S. 
Senator; Dr. Hight C. Moore, later editorial secretary of 
the Southern Baptist Sunday School Board, and Dr. Living- 
ston Johnson, editor for 14 years. 

WEAVERVILLE — Southern Presbyterian Journal, pub- 
lished Weekly, Presbyterian, Established 1941, by the 
Southern Presbyterian Journal, Inc., Publisher; Rev. Henry 
B. Dendy, D.D., Editor; Dr. L. Nelson Bell, Associate Editor; 
A. Douglas Reid, Associate and Business Manager; printed 
by the Biltmore Press, Asheville. 

The Journal is the publication of the Southern Presbyte- 
rian Church and has a circulation in excess of 15,000. 

WILMINGTON — Mission Herald, published Monthly, 
Prot. Episc, (Not issued during July and August), Estab- 
lished 1886; Rev. W. R. Noe, Editor; Diocese of East Caro- 
lina, Publisher. (NR) 

WILSON — Zion's Landmark, published Weekly, Estab- 
lished 18 70, by Elder P. D. Gold, Primitive Baptist minister; 
Herbert D. Brauff, Publisher; organ of State Primitive Bap- 
tist Church. 

Zion's Landmark, published several years by Elder Gold, 
was published for many years by John D. Gold, long pub- 
lisher of the Wilson Daily Times and The Times, semi- 
weekly, until the plant was leased to Mr. Brauff in 1947. 

WINSTON-SALEM — Wachovia Moravian, published 
Monthly, Moravian, Established 18 93, by Moravian Church; 
Rev. Walser Allen, Editor; Moravian Church, Southern 
Province, Publisher. (NR) 

Winter-Spring, 1 95 1 


PAGE 45 


CHARLOTTE — Southern Hospitals, published Monthly, 
Hospitals, Established 1932; Andrew Hewitt, Editor; Junius 
Smith, Business Manager; Clark-Smith Publishing Co., Da- 
vid Clark, president, printed in its shop. 

This is the official publication of 14 state hospitals asso- 
ciations in the South and is unique as a regional publica- 
tion. Although devoted primarily to southern institutions, 
material of universal interest is carried. The publication 
goes to approximately 3,000 hospitals administrators and 
department heads. 

Southern Medicine and Surgery, published Monthly, Medi- 
cine & Surgery, Established 1856, by Medical Society of the 
State of North Carolina; J. M. Northington, M. D., Editor 
and Publisher. 

This is the official journal of the Tri-state Medical Asso- 
ciation, embracing the Carolinas and Virginia, for the past 
20 years. It was successor to the North Carolina Medical 
Journal, Wilmington Medical Journal and Charlotte Med- 
ical Journal. Dr. Northington has been editor for some 30 
years. Among former editors were: Drs. Thomas P. Wood, 
Robert Jewett, W. H. Wakefield, E. C. Register, J. C. Mont- 
gomery, M. L. Townsend, and department editors: Drs. E. 
J. Wood, J. K. Hall, A. J. Crowell, Wingate Johnson, Hubert 
A. Royster, Robert F. Lafferty, Paul Ringer, William Allan, 
Oscar L. Miller and C. C. Orr. 

The Southern Optometrist, published Monthly, Establish- 
ed 1947, by Clark-Smith Publishing Co., printed in its shop;' 
David Clark, President; Andrew Hewitt, Editor; Junius 
Smith, Business Manager. 

This publication is devoted to the optometric profession 
and embraces 14 state optometric associations in the South. 

McCAIN — Sanatorium Sun, published Monthly, Tubercu- 
losis and Health, Established 1925, by Extension Dept., N. 
C. Sanatorium; Verniece N. Hatos, Editor; printed by Sand- 
hill Citizen, Aberdeen. 

The Sun is devoted to prevention and cure of tuberculosis 
and the promotion of health. It is distributed in North 
America and several foreign countries. John M. Gibson, 
former editor, is director, Division of Public Health Edu- 
cation in Alabama, and author of "Physician To The World: 
The Life of General William C. Gorgas," published by Duke 
University Press in 1950. 

RALEIGH — North Carolina Education, published Month- 
ly, Educational, Etsablished 1906; Mrs. Ethel Perkins Ed- 
wards, Editor; W. Amos Abrams, Associate Editor; John 
G. Bikle, Advertising Manager; published by the North Caro- 
lina Education Association, printed by Edwards and Brough- 

The North Carolina Education Association was started 
by Dr. E. C. Brooks and H. E. Seeman, directed by an ad- 
visory board representing the State Department of Public 
Instruction, the State superintendents and teachers. 

This magazine, official publication of the N. C. Education 
Association, is published monthly during the school year 
and is devoted to promoting the interest of State teachers. 
Former editors and publishers include: E. C. Brooks, editor; 
H. E. Seeman, publisher; W. F. Marshall, editor and pub- 
lisher; A. T. Allen, contributing editor; M. R. Trabue and 
M. L. Wright, editors; Jule B. Warren, business manager, 
publisher and editor; Fred W. Greene, editor, and Alice 
Paulukas, asosciate editor. 

North Carolina Historical Review, published Quarterly, 
Historical, Established 192'4, by North Carolina Historical 
Commission, now the State Department of Archives and His- 
tory; D. L. Corbett, Managing Editor; N. C. State Dept. of 
Archives and History, Publisher; printed under State con- 

The Historical Review is devoted to publishing original 
articles dealing with the history of the State and is pub- 
lished in January, April, July and October of each year. 
Secretaries of the Archives and History Dept. have served 
as managing editors, including Dr. R. B. House, chancellor 
of the State University, and Dr. A. R. Newsome, now head 
of the History Dept. of the State University. Dr. Crittenden 
was designated as editor in 193 6. 

Southern City, published Monthly, Municipal, Established 
1937, by the N. C. League of Municipalities; Mrs. Davetta 
Steed, Editor; Southern Municipal News Publishing Co., 
Inc.; printed by Edwards and Broughton, Raleigh. 

This publication is devoted to the interests of municipal 
governments, specifically in North Carolina and in the 
southern states in general. Former editors include: Colvin 

E. Leonard, editor of the Greensboro Record, and C. A. Up- 
church, Jr., of the State Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. 
Mrs. Steed, League secretary, has been editor in recent 

Tarheel Banker, published Monthly, Established 1922, by 
N. C. Bankers Assn.; Joseph H. Wolfe, Editor; Jane Las- 
siter, Associate Editor; North Carolina Bankers Assn., Pub- 
lisher; printed by Edwards and Broughton, Raleigh. 

This magazine is published in the promotion of banking 
in the State and other promotional activities in which they 
engage. It is distributed to all of the 4 20 banks in this 
State and their branches, to associate members and to inter- 
ested bankers throughout the nation. Editors have been 
secretaries of the State association, including Alan T. Bow- 
ler, Paul P. Brown, Eddie Wayne, LeRoy Lewis and Fred 
W. Greene. The Association also publishes Trends in Bank- 
ing and Conference Catalog, published each July covering 
the Bankers Conference held annually at Chapel Hill. 

WINSTON-SALEM — North Carolina Medical Journal, pub- 
lished Monthly, Medical, Established 1940, by the Medical 
Society of the State of North Carolina, Publisher; Dr. W. M. 
Johnson, Editor; printed by Carmichael Printing Co., Win- 
ston-Salem. This is the official organ of and is distributed 
to members of the State Medical Society. 


ASHEVILLE — Farmers Federation News, published 
Monthly Agricultural, Established 1920; E. M. Ball, Edi- 
tor; Farmers Federation News, Inc., Publisher, devoted to 
farming in the mountain counties. 

Former editors have been: James G. K. McClure, organ- 
izer and head of Farmers Federation; Blackburn W. John- 
son, editor of N. C. Agricultural Department publications; 
James McC. Clarke and Robert J. Brown. 

CHARLOTTE — Carolina Food Dealer, published Monthly, 
Food Dealers, Established 1938, by N. C. Food Dealers 
Assn., Inc.; J. B. Vogler, Editor; N. C. Food Dealers Assn., 
Inc.; printed by the Dowd Press, Charlotte. 

This publication is devoted to the interest of the retail 
and wholesale trade in North Carolina. It is a member of 
the Food Trade Press of America. 

"Go", published Bi-monthly, Motoring and Travel, Estab- 
lished 1922, by Coleman W. Roberts, president, Carolina 
Motor Club; Thomas H. Broughton, Editor; T. E. Pickard, 
Jr., Associate Editor; Carolina Motor Club, Publisher. Pub- 
lication offices are located at The Carolina Motor Club head- 
quarters, 701 South Tryon St. 

Knitter, published Monthly, Knitting Industry, Establish- 
ed 1937, by Clark Publishing Co.; David Clark, Editor; 
Clark Publishing Co., printed by Washburn Printing Co. 
Affiliated publications are: The Textile Bulletin, Southern 
Hospitals and Southern Optometrist. 

Southern Textile News, published Saturdays, Textile, Es- 
tablished 1945, by John M. Mullen; John M. Mullen, Editor; 
Mullen Publications, Inc. (NR) 

Textile Bulletin, published Monthly, Textile, Established 
1911, by David Clark, Editor; Clark Publishing Co.; printed 
by Washburn Printing Co. Affiliated publications include 
The Knitter and two Clark-Smith Publishing Co. publica- 
tions, Southern Hospitals and Southern Optometrist. 

GREENSBORO — Patriot Farmer, published Semi-month- 
ly, Agriculture, Established 1826; Eugene S. Knight, Editor; 
Patriot Publishing Co. (NR) 

RALEIGH — Carolina Co-operator, published Monthly, Ag- 
ricultural, Established 1922, by N. C. Cotton Growers Coop- 
erative Association; M. G. Mann, Jr., Editor; Carolina Co- 
operator Publishing Co.; printed by Graphic Press, Inc., 

Carolina Co-operator was started in 1922 as North Caro- 
lina Cotton Grower. The name was changed in 193 5, when 
the format was changed from newspaper to magazine. A 
former editor was Roy H. Park, now editor of The Co-op 
Digest, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Carolina Farmer, published Monthly, Agricultural, Estab- 
lished 1946, by J. E. Nicholson; J. E. Nicholson, Editor; The 
Carolina Farmer Publishing Co.; printed by the Graphic 
Press, Raleigh. 

The Carolina Farmer is the official organ of the North 
Carolina Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Formerly 
it was printed in Greensboro but moved to Raleigh October 
1, 1949, due to need for better printing facilities. It is 
printed in magazine form. 

Page 46 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

The Retailer, published Monthly, Merchants and Manufac- 
turers, Established 1923, by Paul Leonard; Thompson 
Greenwood, Editor; N. C. Merchants Assn., Publisher; 
printed by Capital Printing Co., Raleigh. 

The Retailer, formerly the Carolina-Virginia Retailer, is 
the official organ of the North Carolina Merchants Associa- 
tion. Started by Mr. Leonard while he was secretary of the 
Association, it was privately owned until 1927. Willard 
G. Dowell, Association secretary, was editor from 1927 until 
19 50 when he retired, and was succeeded by Mr. Greenwood. 
The Retailer has a circulation of 7,000. 

N. C. Farm Bureau News, published Monthly, Agriculture, 
Established 193 6, by North Carolina Farm Bureau; Joseph 
W. Kilgallen, Editor; N. C. Farm Bureau News, Publisher; 
Roy H. Park, Business Manager; L. C. Rights, Advertising 
Manager; printed by Parker Bros., Ahoskie. This publica- 
tion, located in the Raleigh Building, Raleigh, is the official 
organ of the North Carolina Farm Bureau Federation. 

The Progressive Farmer, published Monthly, Agricultural, 
Established 1886, by L. L. Polk; Dr. Clarence Poe, Editor; 
W. C. LaRue, Associate Editor; William D. Poe, Business 
Manager Carolinas-Virginia edition; Progressive Farmer 
Co., Publisher; principal office and printing plant, Birming- 
ham, Ala.; issues five editions: Carolinas and Virginia; 
Texas; Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana; Georgia, Flor- 
ida and Alabama; and Kentucky, Tennessee and West Vir- 
ginia; magazine type of paper in colors. Issues contain 
from 80 to 150 pages. 

The Progressive Farmer was started and published for 
two years in Winston- ( Salem ) , then moved to Raleigh. Col. 
Polk, its founder and editor until his death in 1892, became 
president of the National Farmers Alliance. J. L. Ramsey 
was editor for seven years, and Dr. Poe has been editor 
since 189 9 — 51 years. During the years Dr. Poe and his 
associates have absorbed and consolidated other farm papers 
until the five editions cover 13 southern states. 

WINSTON-SALEM — American Newspaper Boy, published 
Monthly, Newspaper Boys, Established 1927, by Bradley 
Welfare; Bradley Welfare, Editor and Publisher; printing 
done by Carmichael Printing Co., Winston-Salem. 

The American Newspaper Boy is published for sale in bulk 
to circulation departments of daily newspapers in the United 
States and Canada. Approximately 2"00 newspapers dis- 
tribute it to their carrier boys free each month. 

Southern Tobacco Journal, published Monthly, Tobacco, 
Established 188 6; R. C. Carmichael, Editor; Jackson Pub- 
lishing Co. (NR) 


OXFORD — Orphans' Friend and Masonic Journal, pub- 
lished Semi-monthly, Masonic and Orphanage; Established 
1872, by Oxford Orphanage; Leon Godown, Editor; Oxford 
Masonic Orphanage, Publisher; operates modern, large com- 
mercial printing plant. 

This was a weekly newspaper type of publication until 
1928, when it became a semi-monthly publication, now an 
eight-page magazine type, printed on book paper. J. H. 
Landrum has been print shop manager and printing instruc- 
tor for 24 years. He gives training daily to an average of 
16 boys, working in two shifts, and attending school half- 
a-day. They receive school credit for the print shop work. 
The normal press run exceeds 19,000 copies. John H. Mills 
was the first editor; others have been Miss Kate Herring, 
D. S. Kennedy and Frank M. Pinnix. Mr. Pinnix retired last 
year and was succeeded by Mr. Godown. 

BARIUM SPRINGS — Barium Messenger, Presbyterian Or- 
phanage, Published monthly; established in 1891 by the 
Barium Springs Orphanage, publisher; Rev. Albert B. Mc- 
Clure, editor; operates its own commercial job shop. Barium 
Messenger is a small four-page newspaper, devoted to the 
interests of the orphanage and the 280 children cared for. 
The print shop is a place of training the children in the 
varied arts and trades of writing and printing. 

THOMASVILLE — Charity and Children, Baptist Orphan- 
age; Published weekly; Established in 1887 by John H. 
Mills; Published by The Mills Home; Marse Grant, Editor. 
Mr. Mills, for whom the home was named, was editor most 
of the time from the beginning until 18 95, with J. W. Oliver 
as interim editor. Dr. Archibald Johnson became famous 
as able and vigorous editor for 40 years, 1895-1935. John 
Arch McMillan starting as associate editor in 19 29, became 
editor in 1935, continuing until his death in 1949. His 
daughter, Louise Faye McMillan was acting editor until 

some months ago, when Mr. Grant became editor. 

Doubtless other orphanage papers are published, on which 
information was not received. 


SALISBURY — The North Carolina Federationist, Publish- 
ed monthly, Labor; Established in 1938 by N. C. State Fede- 
ration of Labor; official organ of Federation; C. A. Fink, 
managing editor; E. A. Tarver, publisher and business man- 
ager; printed by Rowan Printing Co. 

Mr. Fink, president of the N. C. State Federation of 
Labor for many years, has been chief editor of The Federa- 
tionist, although at the beginning the publication was under 
contract. The vice-president, the secretary-treasurer, and 
the 18 regional vice-presidents of the State Federation, are 
associate editors. The publication is in magazine form. 

CHARLOTTE — Charlotte Labor Journal and Dixie Farm 
News, Labor, published weekly; established 1931; H. A. 
Stalls, editor and publisher; W. M. Witter, associate editor 
and for many years editor and publisher; Charlotte Central 
Labor Council, A F of L, connection. 

Carolina Labor Journal, published monthly, Labor; H. A. 
Stalls, editor and publisher. 

DURHAM — Durham Labor Journal, published Thursdays, 
Labor, established in 1944 by Tobacco Workers Local Un- 
ions, Numbers 17 6-183; E. R. Williamson, Editor; owned 
by Progressive Printing & Publishing Co., stock in hands 
of Durham A F of L labor unions; official organ of Durham 
Central Labor Council, A F of L. Originally it was named 
Durham Tobacco Workers Journal. A. C. Simpson was 
formerly editor. 

ASHEVILLE — Asheville Advocate, published monthly, 
Labor; A. Liston Sams, editor and publisher; Asheville 
Central Labor Council, A F of L, connection. This is a 
magazine size publication. 

The CIO does not have a publication in North Carolina at 
present. For a few years around the middle of the last 
decade The News Digest, established in 194 2, and with 
CIO connections, was published weekly, Mondays, by the 
Wilmington News Digest. 


ASHEVILLE — The Mountain Rattler, published Monthly, 
due to be started Jan., 1951, by R. S. Meroney; R. S. Me- 
roney, Editor and Publisher; a small 8%xll inch sheet, 
iconoclastic and "Agin' everything and everybody." 

MORAVIAN FALLS — Yellow Jacket, published Monthly, 
Republican & Iconoclastic, Established 189 5, by R. Don 
Laws; R. Don Laws, Editor and Publisher. (See special 
item on "The Yellow Jacket" in this issue.) 

PINEHURST — The Golf World, published Weekly, Golf, 
Established in 1947, by Robert E. Harlow; Robert E. Har- 
low, Editor and Publisher; printed in its own shop at Pine- 

Mr. Harlow, publicity man for Pinehurst, Inc., golf cor- 
respondent for national newspapers and press associations 
and editor and publisher of the Pinehurst Outlook for 15 
years until last year, started The Golf World in 19 47. This 
publication, devoted to professional and amateur golf, has 
a circulation of more than 7,000 throughout this country 
and in 3 foreign countries and territories. The cover is 
printed in colors and the publication is going on newstands 
for the first time this year. 

RALEIGH — The State, published Saturdays, State News, 
Established 1933, by Carl Goerch; Carl Goerch, Editor; 
The State, Publisher; printed by Edwards and Broughton, 

This magazine is devoted to publishing articles of interest 
about people, places and conditions in North Carolina. More 
than 21,000 copies are distributed, many going to former 
residents, now in other states and countries. 

We The People, published Monthly, Economic, Established 
1944, by Citizens Association of North Carolina, Inc.; Lloyd 
Griffin, Executive Vice-President; Jule B. Warren, Editor; 
Printed by Edwards and Broughton, Raleigh. 

We The People carries special articles on government, 
taxation, conservation, industry and general feature articles 
relating to North Carolina, her organization and her people. 

CHARLOTTE — North Carolina Legion News, published 
Monthly, American Legion, Established 1934, by N. C. De- 
partment of American Legion; B. S. Griffith, Editor; Nash 
McKee, News Editor; Wiley M. Pickens, Business Manager; 
official publication of the N. C. Dept., American Legion. 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 47 

N. C. Newspapers Fine Training Schools for High Posts 

Newspapers in North Carolina, particularly those 
in the weekly field, have been proving grounds and 
training units for many men and women who have 
later achieved prominence and importance in news- 
paper fields and in many related and unrelated activ- 
ities. This "school of hard knocks" has tended to 
bring out abilities which have been demonstrated 
in many and divergent fields of activity. Some of 
these are listed below, along with the papers on 
which they served. 

The Robesonian, Lumberton — David J. Whichard, Green- 
ville Daily Reflector; C. H. Hines, Greensboro Daily News; 
A. P. McAllister, Lumberton; Pegram A. Bryant, States- 
ville Daily; Hamilton McMillan, Red Springs. 

The Independent, Red Springs — Hoover Adams, Dunn 
Daily Record. With the earlier Fuquay Gold Leaf — A. J. 
Fletcher, Raleigh attorney; Walter Prince, Louisville, Ky., 
publisher of The Courier-Journal; Lynn Nisbet, Raleigh 
writer for afternoon papers. 

News Reporter, Whiteville — Allen J. Maxwell, former 
State Commissioner of Revenue; Joe and Fred Little, Wil- 
mington; Roland F. Beasley, Monroe Journal; W. B. Keziah, 
"One-Man Chamber of Commerce," Southport; Richard, 
Rone H. and B. Gordon Lewis; Mayon Parker, Ahoskie, 
Parker Bros., publishers and printers; J. A. Sharp, Sr., Lum- 
berton; James A. Rodgers, editor, Florence (S. C.) Morning 

Standard-Laconic, Snow Hill — W. E. Debnam, Raleigh, 
radio news commentator. 

Southern City, Raleigh — Municipal, C. E. Leonard, 
Greensboro Record; C. A. Upchurch, Jr., Raleigh, ABC 

Cleveland Times, Shelby — Will Arey, Jr., in foreign serv- 
ice, U. S. State Department in Bogota, Colombia; Rush Ham- 
rick, Jr., Kendall Medicine Co., Shelby; J. D. Fitz, manag- 
ing editor, Morganton News-Herald; G. Norman Benjamin, 
manager, Arlington (Va.) Sun. 

Farmers Federation News, Asheville — James L. McClure; 
Blackburn W. Johnson, public relations, State Department 
of Agriculture. 

The Appalachian, Boone — H. C. Jones, teacher. Oak 
Ridge Institute; Sloan Hill, news editor, Carroll County 
Georgian, Carrollton, Georgia; Rogers Whitener, English 
instructor, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Fla. 

The Dispatch, Dunn — Byron Ford, Myron Green, Monroe, 
(both deceased) ; Miss Flora McQueen, Dunn; O. J. Peterson, 
Sampson and Chatham County publisher (deceased) ; Jack 
Riley, U.N.C. Journalism professor; George A. Penny, re- 
porter, News and Observer; Wade Lucas, Raleigh corre- 
spondent; Hoover Adams, Dunn; J. Shepard Bryan, Dunn 

The Pilot, Southern Pines — Bion H. Butler; Nelson A. 
Hyde; Carl Thompson; James Boyd. 

Asheville News, Asheville (Asheville Advocate) — Harold 
Thorns, president Radio Stations WISE, Asheville, and 
WAYS, Charlotte. 

The Observer, Charlotte — Isaac Erwin Avery and John 
Charles McNeill, poets; O. J. Coffin, U.N.C. Dean of Jour- 
nalism; H. E. C. Bryant. 

Hertford County Herald, Ahoskie, and its four affiliated 
newspapers — Miss Addie Mae Cooke, publisher, Cherokee 
Scout; W. J. Kelly, Wauchula, Fla., publisher of two weekly 
papers; Rev. C. W. Bazemore, assistant manager and editor 
of The Biblical Recorder; Tommy Davis, manager Alamance 
News, Graham. 

Stanly News and Press, Albemarle — J. D. Bivens, A. C. 

The Citizen, Asheville — Thomas Wolfe (carrier boy) ; 
Captain Natt Atkinson; Robert M. Furman; Colonel John 
D. Cameron; Captain Thomas W. Patton; W. F. Randolph; 
John P. Kerr; Frank E. Robinson; Julius C. Martin; James 
H. Caine; Robert S. Jones; George Stephens; Robert Lathan; 
Charles A. Webb; W. G. (Billy) Bourne; Pat M. Burdette; 
Donald Gillis. 

News, Charlotte — Wade H. Harris, later editor Charlotte 
Observer; W. Carey Dowd, Speaker House of Representa- 
tives; W. Carey Dowd, Jr. 

The Tribune, Concord — J. F. Hurley; J. B. Sherrill; W. 
M. Sherrill. 

The Tribune, Elkin — Dr. Joseph H. Carter, Newton Pres- 
byterian pastor; Franklin Hildebrand, Jennings, La. 

The Times, Raleigh—John Wilbur Jenkins; Robert L. 
Gray; O. J. Coffin; Jule B. Warren; Thomas J. Pence; Col- 
onel Fred A. Olds; Nell Battle Lewis; Colonel A. L. Fletcher; 
Greek O. Andrews; W T illis G. Briggs. 

The Telegram, Rocky Mount — Henry A. Dennis, publish- 
er, Henderson Daily Dispatch; H. Wiseman Kendall, editor, 
Greensboro Daily News; Anthony J. McKelvin (deceased), 
former sports and managing editor News and Observer. 

Coraddi, Greensboro, monthly, student body, Woman's 
College, UNC — Jean Johnson, asst. dir. Contemporary Arts, 
NYC, and Div. Asst., International Exchange of Arts and 
Exhibits, U. C. Dept. of State; Carolyn Coker (Mrs. Warren 
Brandt), asst. to editor of Encore magazine and instructor, 
Washington Univ.; Margaret L. Coit, author of John C. Cal- 
houn: An American Portrait, and articles in Look; Susanne 
Ketcham (Mrs. Roger Sherman), designer of costumes for 
The Common Glory; Julia Blauvelt (McGrane), author of 


Several North Carolina newspapers and periodicals have 
gone out of business or suspended operations during the 
past three or four years. A check of available sources show 
definitely that 16 newspapers and other periodicals published 
a few years ago are not now operating. This list is prob- 
ably not complete. 

At least 50 listed newspapers failed to answer three suc- 
cessive letters and furnish information requested. It is 
possible that at least a few of these are not now being pub- 

The list of those definitely out of business or suspended 

The Beaufort County Record, Washington, suspended 
publication about two years ago. 

The Union Republican, Winston-Salem, established in 
1872, and published for many years by J. B. Goslin, was 
sold a few years ago and about two years ago suspended 

The Independent, Elizabeth City, was published for many 
years by the late and widely known W. O. Saunders. George 
W. Haskett was publisher until about two years ago, when 
the plant was purchased by The Elizabeth City Advance and 
publication suspended. 

The Times, New Bern; H. C. Waldrop was publisher and 
H. I. Crumpler (deceased), editor. 

Tri-City News, Davidson; Thomas H. McKnight, editor 
and publisher. 

Southern Association Quarterly, Durham; Dr. Holland 
Holton, editor, suspended after his death in 1947. 

Clay County News, Hayesville; Mrs. J. Guy Padgette, 
former editor and publisher. 

NCSG Magazine, High Point, establishedl 1945; Sgt. C. 
A. Pierce, former editor. 

Headlight, Norlina; J. C. Hardy, editor and publisher, 

Square Deal, Snow Hill; G. A. Jones, former editor and 

The News, Spencer; A. W. Hicks, former editor and pub- 

The Journal, Sylva, discontinued in 1944. Dan Tomp- 
kins, editor and publisher, died last year. 

The News-Times, Thomasville, edited by R. W. Green; 
purchased by and consolidated with The Thomasville Trib- 

Henderson Gold Leaf, weekly; Henry A. Dennis, editor; 
suspended temporarily. 

Game Fowl News, Asheville, published monthly by R. S. 
Meroney since 1925, for game chicken fanciers in this 
continent and foreign countries, was sold recently to New 
York interests and was to start publication the first of this 
year in Connecticut. 

Union Herald, Raleigh, formerly published Thursdays, 
Labor, established 1918, by Charles Ruffin; Charles Ruff in, 
Editor; Capital Printing Co., Publisher; affiliate A. F. of L. 

Page 48 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

poems appearing in The Saturday Review of Literature, At- 
lantic Monthly, Harper's, etc.; Edith Russell, author of plays 
and poems; Laura B. Weill (Mrs. Julius Cone), author WC 
college song and member, ex. com., UNC board of trustees; 
Mebane Holoman Burgwyn, author of children's books, 
"River Treasure" and "Lucky Mischief". 

News-Messenger, Hamlet — Robert C. Ruark, noted war 
correspondent and columnist; Lynn Nisbet, Raleigh corre- 
spondent for afternoon newspapers. 

The Daily Independent, Kannapolis — Todd Caldwell, pub- 
lisher, Fuquay Springs Independent. 

The Exchange, Laurinburg — Archibald Johnson, long edi- 
tor of Charity and Children; late J. P. Wiggins, Maxton and 
Fairmont publisher. 

News-Topic, Lenoir — Mark Squires, attorney; Johnston 
Avery, Fred S. May. 

Graphic, Nashville — Jack Riley, UNC journalism teacher, 
former Sunday editor, News and Observer. 

Biblical Recorder, Raleigh — Josiah W. Bailey, later U. S. 

Senator; Dr. Livingston Johnson, Dr. Hight C. Moore, later 
editorial secretary, Southern Baptist S. S. Board. 

The Star, Shelby — Johnny and Pete McKnight; H. W 
Kendall, editor, Greensboro Daily News; O. L. Moore, pub- 
lisher, Laurinburg Exchange; Ben Roberts, Durham banker. 

Hyde County Herald, Swan Quarter — Thomas E. Spencer, 
later with Washington Daily News; Mrs. Nell Wise Wecter, 
Stumpy Point, newspaper writer; Carleton Morris, editor, 
Gates County Index. 

The News, Valdese — Marse Grant, editor of Charity and 

The News, Washington — Carl Goerch, publisher, The 
State; Fred Pendleton. 

The Daily, Statesville — Joseph P. Caldwell, later famous 
editor of The Charlotte Observer, and R. R. Clarke. 

Alamance Gleaner, Graham — Junius Parker, noted New 
York attorney; E. S. Parker, Jr., prominent Greensboro 
attorney; Joseph A. and John W. Noell, later publishers 
of The Roxboro Courier- (Times). 

J. Hampton Rich, Editor, Adept Promotor and Ink Hound 

One of the most interesting, if also one of the most annoy- 
ing and aggravating newspaper publishers and editors, if he 
may be so called, to operate in North Carolina in many years 
was the late Joseph Hampton Rich, native of Davie County, 
resident of Winston-Salem and Chapel Hill, promoter of 
Daniel Boone trails and Davey Crockett tours, national and 
international traveler, visitor to practically every news- 
paper office in the State and a perennial attendant at the 
Press Institute sessions in Chapel Hill. 

J. Hampton Rich, as he used it; "J. Hamp.", according 
to Dr. O. J. Coffin's usual use, once edited and published, 
spasmodically and intermittently, a newspaper which, as I 
recall, he called "The Mocksville Herald", although it was 
printed, at least in its latter and weakening years, in Win- 
ston-Salem. His shop for a time was located on North Main 
St. in the rear of the Elks Auditorium. The owner of the 
lease had sub-let the small space and a few pieces of print- 
ing equipment were installed. 

J. Hampton didn't keep up with the rent, and the lease 
holder finally secured a court order and dumped his equip- 
ment on the sidewalk. Then J. Hampton found a vacant 
store room on the other end of Main Street in Salem and 
moved in. This was not far from the home of the man who 
had dispossessed him, and J. Hampton was frequently tell- 
ing the man what he thought of him. One day, the man, 
having enough, opened up and called J. Hampton just about 
everything in the profane language. 

That was what J. Hampton wanted. He hastened to police 
headquarters and swore out a warrant against the man — 
the charge was public nuisance, using profanity in a public 
place, or some such charge. J. Hampton made it a point 
to visit the editor of the morning paper and asked him to 
be sure to have a reporter in Recorder's Court the next 
morning — that he would get a good story. The next morn- 
ing the paper had this type of item in the court report: 

"(Man's name) was taxed with the costs for cussing out 
J. Hampton Rich". The man reported later that many 
people called to congratulate him. 

Newsprint, then, as now, was scarce, especially for J. 
Hampton. On one occasion he took the contract for deliv- 
ering several hundred page ad sheets for one of the large 
department stores, Efird's, I believe, from door to door. It 
was a reprint from one of the daily papers. Before dis- 
tributing the sheets he printed on the other side the then 
current issue of his newspaper and had a group of boys de- 
liver the sheets, street by street. 

He was given credit for selling an ad, setting it up, in- 
serting it in a page already made up, change the date and 
run off a few copies, including a few copies which he 
mailed. He would carry copies to advertisers as proof of 
insertion, and, when asked about the extent of circulation, 
would produce a receipt from the postoffice. And, he would 
accept meal tickets or other trade in exchange for the price 
of an ad. 

Also, he had the reputation of watching items in one of 
the daily papers. When he saw something he would like 


After the election of officers at the annual meeting of 
the North Carolina Press Association in Hickory in 1926, 
I happened to be in a car with President A. C. Huneycutt, 
Albemarle, new president, and three other officers and new 
members of the Board of Directors. The matter of the mid- 
Winter Press Institute at the State University, started in 
1925, was under discussion. The suggestion was made that 
the Institute might be shifted to Duke University, probably 

The result was that the group asked me, then manager 
of the Durham News Bureau, to check with Dr. W. P. Few, 
then president of Duke, and see what Duke would be willing 
to offer. I was asked to get the data and to report at the 
next meeting of the Board of Directors. That meeting was 
later scheduled for Charlotte. I was invited to be present 
to report. 

When my report was asked for, I reported that Dr. Few 
had said that Duke would have a new building completed 
and furnished, but not occupied, at that time, and the mem- 
bers could occupy rooms in the building free; that they 
could eat at the Union at student rates; that Duke would 
arrange and pay expenses for an important nationally- 
known speaker for the meeting, and that Duke would con- 
tribute a sum of money, $400, as I recall, toward the ex- 
penses of the Institute. These were the principal items. 

After my report, Russell M. Grumman, then assistant 
director, soon after and since effective and popular director 
of the University's Extension Division, stated that the In- 
stitute had been started at Carolina with a view of having it 
there permanently and enumerated steps taken to make it 
a success. A. L. Stockton, Greensboro, then vice-president, 
and W. Carey Dowd, Jr., Charlotte, then a director, objected 
to moving the Institute, saying Wake Forest, Davidson and 
other colleges would be wanting to entertain the group, and 
that it would have no permanent home. 

That view prevailed. It left me in an improper light, 
however, as if I were instigator of a movement to shift the 
Institute from my Alma Mater to Duke. I explained that I 
had merely been a messenger and had acted at the request 
of four of the seven officers and board members. 

That incident, however, was undoubtedly the forerunner 
of the later development, the provision of holding one ses- 
sion — the annual dinner — at Duke University, which was 
inaugurated in 1933. Since that time these dinners have 
been one of the delightful features of the annual Press In- 
stitute at Chapel Hill, for several years under direction of 
Henry R. Dwire, formerly editor of the Twin-City Sentinel, 
Winston-Salem, then a vice-president and public relations 
man at Duke, and since his death under the leadership of 
Charles Jordan and Charles A. Dukes, of the Duke Univer- 
sity staff. — M.R.D. 

Winter-Spring, 195 


PAGE 49 

to use in his paper, he visited the plant and borrowed the 
type from the still standing forms. 

A new cub reporter on one of the dalies told his city 
editor that he had a nice little item, started to tell him 
something relating to J. Hampton Rich. "Don't write a 

d line about J. Hampton Rich," he exploded. Later the 

reporter learned why the heat. 

J. Hampton had appeared one night — that was some 40 
years ago — and gave the city editor an account of a meeting 
held that night of automobile owners, scarce at that time, 
who had organized the Winston Automobile Club. In addi- 
tion to five or six directors, Mr. Rich gave the list of offi- 
cers: James A. Gray, Jr., (later president of the R. J. Rey- 
nolds Tobacco Co.), president; John Gilmer, (later vice- 
president of the Greyhound (Bus) Lines), vice-president; 
J. Hampton Rich, secretary-treasurer and general manager. 
Object of the organization was to enroll every automobile 
owner as a member, at so much per. 

Early the next morning the paper's telephone lines were 
busy. All officers and directors, except Mr. Rich, called in 
to find the source of the item. All reported they had at- 
tended no such meeting — and were they mad! So was the 
city editor when he learned of the calls and that no meeting 
was held — except in Mr. Rich's fertile brain. 

Mr. Rich appeared in a daily newspaper office on one 
occasion with written material and pictures for a Sunday 
feature page for the University of North Carolina. The 
editor liked it and used it. A week or two later he submit- 
ted similar material for a page on the present Woman's 
College of UNC. It also was used. Soon he appeared with 
a page for Horner Military School, then in Asheville. The 
editor demurred and declined, since it was a private insti- 
tution. It developed that Mr. Rich spent a week or two at 
Chapel Hill, an eating and sleeping guest of the University. 
It also developed that Woman's College had paid him for the 
"page ad" carried in the paper as a feature. 

J. Hampton Rich had a plausible approach, addressed 
many civic luncheon and other clubs in the State, had many 
reams of publicity wangled out of newspapers for his proj- 
ects; and was a colorful character. He got in to see Presi- 
dent Wilson during World War I and they have not yet de- 
termined how he gained entrance to one of the famous 
Gridiron Club dinners in Washington. Many editors could 
add many incidents. 

Probably all would agree that he got by Saint Peter at 
the Pearly Gate, following his death in Chapel Hill last year. 
— M.R.D. 


The Progressive Farmer, a monthly agricultural maga- 
zine, with a circulation of 1,150,000 copies in its five edi- 
tions for as many groups of 13 Southern States, is a remark- 
able publication with an intensely interesting history 
through its 6 5 years of operation. 

The Progressive Farmer was founded February 10, 1886, 
by Col. Leonidas L. Polk, in the then small community of 
Winston. After two years it was moved to Raleigh and in 
1911 the printing plant was moved to Birmingham, Ala., 
where all five of the editions are printed. During its his- 
tory it has absorbed several other Southern farm publica- 
tions. Its five editions are those for the Carolinas and 
Virginia; Texas; Kentucky, Tennessee and West Virginia; 
Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana, and Georgia, Alabama 
and Florida. It has had only three editors in its 65 years. 

Colonel Polk, in the period around 1875, was publishing 
a small weekly newspaper, The Ansonian, at Polkton, Anson 
County. He had been a Confederate officer, farmer, legis- 
lator, farm organization leader, orator and was North Caro- 
lina's first Commissioner of Agriculture. He became presi- 
dent of the National Farmers' Alliance, with 2,000,000 mem- 
bers, and was a powerful agricultural organization leader. 
He died in 1892, while still editor of The Progressive Farm- 
er. His associate, J. L. Ramsey, became editor, serving until 

Dr. Clarence Poe, who had served a year or more as asso- 
ciate editor, became editor July 4, 1899, and has since 
guided the publication. Late in 1903, Dr. Poe brought in 
as associates T. B. Parker, Dr. B. W. Kilgore, Dr. C. W. 
Burkett and Josiah W. Bailey in organizing The Agricul- 
tural Publishing Co., later renamed the Progressive Farmer 
Co. Dr. Poe became president of this company, a position 
he still holds. In 1908 Dr. Tait Butler and John S. Pearson 
bought the Bailey, Burkett and Parker stock, Dr. Butler 
becoming vice-president of the company and editor of the 
"Mississippi Valley Edition", and Mr. Pearson, secretary- 
treasurer of the company. Dr. Kilgore retained his stock 
and directorate until his death. 

The Progressive Farmer, in 1933, during the depression, 
adopted colored covers and became, in reality, a farm maga- 
zine, rather than a farm paper. The Carolina-Virginia 
edition has a circulation of 277,000 and in North Carolina 
it has 146,000 subscribers. The price was increased re- 
cently to $1 for two years (was five years). All issues run 
from 8 to 150 pages. William Poe, son of the editor, is 
advertising manager for the Carolinas-Virginia edition. 

Officers, Meeting Places and Times of N. C. Press Association 




Joseph A. Englehard, Wilmington 

Joseph A. Englehard, Wilmington 

J. D. Cameron, Hillsboro 

J. D. Cameron, Hillsboro 

W. L. Saunders, Raleigh 

W. L. Saunders, Raleigh 

Dossey Battle, Tarboro 

Dossey Battle, Tarboro 

Capt. S. A. Ashe, Raleigh 

G. S. Bradshaw, Greensboro 

H. A. London, Pittsboro 

Josephus Daniels, Wilson (Raleigh) _._ 

J. A. Robinson, Durham 

J. I. McRee, Raleigh ... 

T. B. Eldridge, Lexington 

Thad R. Manning, Henderson 

W. W. McDiarmid, Lumberton 

J. P. Caldwell, Statesville (Charlotte). 

J. A. Thomas, Louisburg 

E. E. Hilliard, High Point 

Jerome Dowd, Charlotte 

W. C. Ervin, Morganton 

C. L. Stevens, New Bern 

R. R. Clark, Statesville 

J. B. Vhitaker, Jr., Winston 

W. C. Dowd, Charlotte 

D. J. Whichard, Greenville 

Rev. T. N. Ivey, D.D., Greensboro... 

J. G. Boylin, Wadesboro 

W. F. Marshall, Gastonia... 

H. B. Varner, Lexington 

H. B. Varner, Lexington 


Jordan Stone, J. C. Mann, P. F. Duffy.. 

C. N. B. Evans, P. F. Duffy, Geo. W. Nason, Jr._ 

W. A. Davis, P. F. Duffy, W. L. Saunders 

Chas. R. Jones, Dossey Battle, J. S. Tomlinson 

R. M. Furman, W. W. McDiarmid, R. B. Creecy 

R. B. Creecy, R. M. Furman, H. A. London 

C. B. Green, J. W. Goslen, R. B. Creecy 

R. B. Creecy, G. S. Bradshaw, J. W. Goslen 

R. B. Creecy, Frank Powell, J. W. Goslen .... 

J. A. Robinson, Dr. Palemon John, Josephus Daniels. 

E. C. Hackney, E. G. Harrell, Chas. R. Jones 

H. C. Wall, R. K. Bryan, G. A. Frick 

T. B. Eldridge, H. C. Wall, George A. Frick 

Thad R. Manning, H. C. Wall, J. A. Thomas 

J. A. Thomas, C. F. Crutchfield, W. W. McDiarmid.. 

D. J. Whichard, J. D. Kernodle, D. F. St. Clair 

S. A. Ashe, W. W. Scott, Robert Haydn 

E. E. Hilliard, Jerome Dowd, R. A. Deal. 

Jerome Dowd, H. A. Latham, F. M. Williams 

Z. W. Whitehead, W. F. Burbank, R. A. Deal 

C. L. Stevens, W. F. Marshall, W. C. Dowd 

W. F. Marshall, W. W. McDiarmid, W. K. Jacobson. 

J. B. Whitaker, J. T. Britt, W. A. Curtis 

J. T. Britt, W. A. Curtis, W. S. Herbert 

W. S. Herbert, D. J. Whichard, J. D. Boone 

Rev. T. N. Ivey, D. D. Benj. BeU, H. S. Blair 

J. G. Boylin, G. L. Hackney, J. A. Robinson 

J. A. Thomas, H. C. Martin, W. S. Herbert 

M. L. Shipman, Rev. J. 0. Atkinson, J. J. Farriss 

Benj. Bell, Rev. P. R. Law, J. D. Bivins 

M. L. Shipman, R. M. Phillips, J. C. Caddell 


J. A. Bonitz 

R. T. Fulghum 

R. T. Fulghum 

R. T. Fulghum 

W. A. Davis 

W. A. Davis 

Jordan Stone 

Jordan Stone 

Jordan Stone , 

Jordan Stone 

Jordan Stone 

J. A. Robinson 

J. H. Lindsay 

J. H. Lindsay.. 

J. H. Lindsay 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. SherriU 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. Sherrill 

J. B. SherriU 





New Bern 


Catawba Springs 




Elizabeth City 




Morehead City 


Morehead City 





New Bern 




Morehead City 


CaroUna Beach 





Morehead City 

PAGE 50 


Winter-Spring, 1951 




R. M. Phillips, Greensboro 

T. J. Lassiter, Smithfield 

Archibald Johnson, Thornasville 

J. A. Thomas, Louisburg 

Rev. J. O. Atkinson, D. D., Elon College 

M. L. Shipman, Hendersonville 

J. J. Farriss, High Point 

J. H. Caine, Asheville 

Clarence Poe, Raleigh 

W. C. Hammer, Asheboro 

J. H. Cowan, Wilmington 

E. E. Britton, Raleigh 

Santford Martin, Winston-Salem 

Z. W. Whitehead, Wilmington 

J. A. Sharp, Lumberton 

J. F. Hurley, Salisbury 

J. B. Sherrill, Concord 

J. B. Sherrill, Concord 

C. A. Webb, Asheville _, 

H. Gait Braxton, Kinston 

J. W. Atkins, Gastonia 

A. C. Huneycutt, Albemarle 

A. L. Stockton, Greensboro _. 

Lee B. Weathers, Shelby 

W. C. Dowd, Jr., Charlotte ... 

J. W. Noell, Roxboro 

J. L. Home, Jr., Rocky Mount 

John A. Park, Raleigh 

J. Roy Parker, Ahoskie 

D. Hiden Ramsey, Asheville 

F. Grover Britt, Clinton 

C. C. Council, Durham... 

W. Curtis Russ, Waynesville 

Talbot Patrick, Goldsboro 

W. E. Horner, Sanford 

L. C. Gifford, Hickory 

Ed M. Anderson, Brevard 

W. K. Hoyt, Winston-Salem 

John B. Harris, Albemarle 

Julian S. Miller, Charlotte 

Harvey F. Laffoon, Elkin 

Herbert Peele, Elizabeth City 

E. A. Resch, Siler City 

Frank A Daniels, Raleigh 

R. E. Price, Rutherfordton 

Henry Belk, Goldsboro 


T. J. Lassiter, Clvde R. Hoey, W. B. Westlake 

J. C. Hardy, W. B. Cochran, H. R. Kinlaw 

J. A. Thomas, W. J. Jordan, A. S. Carson 

W. C. Dowd, J. Z. Green, Rev. J. O. Atkinson, D. D. . 

M. L. Shipman, J. R. Swann, W. K. Jacobson 

J. J. Farriss, J. H. Caine, T. G. Cobb..- ... 

J. H. Caine, H. C. Martin, J. T. Fain 

W. C. Hammer, A. J. Conner, D. L. St. Clair 

W. C. Hammer, J. H. Cowan, D. L. St. Clair .. 
J. H. Cowan, Bion H. Butler, E. E. Britton ... 

E. E. Britton, Santford Martin, W. B. Harker 

Santford Martin, R. F. Beasley, Z. W. Whitehead 

J. A. Sharp, Z. W. Whitehead, R. T. Wade 

R. T. Wade, Isaac S. London, Miss Beatrice Cobb 

R. T. Wade, J. F. Hurley, Parker R. Anderson 

Mrs. W. C. Hammer, A. W. Burch, H. G. Braxton.. 
R. T. Wade, S. H. Farabee, Mrs. W. C. Hammer. 

R, F. Beasley, Lee B. Weathers, Chas. A. Webb 

A. C. Honeycutt, H. Gait Braxton, Mrs. T. J. Lassiter 

Mrs. T. J. Lassiter, J. T. Perkins, Stacy Brewer 

Lee B. Weathers, Shelby 

A. L. Stockton, Greensboro 

J. W. Noell, Roxboro 

J. L. Home, Jr., Rocky Mount 

Herbert Peele, Elizabeth City 

John A. Park, Raleigh 

I. S. London, Rockingham 

R. E. Price, Rutherfordton 

C. C. Council, Durham _ 

F. Grover Britt, Clinton 

L. C. Gifford, Hickory... 

W. Curtis Russ, Waynesville 

H. A. Cecil, High Point, Thornasville 

Mrs. E. F. McCulloch, Elizabethtown 

Julian S. Miller, Charlotte _ 

W. C. Manning, Williamston 

Herbert Peele, Elizabeth City.. 

John B. Harris, Albemarle. 

Frank Daniels, Raleigh 

Harvey F. Laffoon, Elkin 

Mrs. Elizabeth Gold Swindell, Wilson 

E. A. Resch, Siler City 

P. T. Hines, Greensboro 

Leslie S. Thompson, Whiteville 

W. Randall Harris, Asheville 

B. Arp Lowrance, Charlotte 

J. B. 
J. B. 
J. B. 
J. B. 
J. B. 
J. B. 
J. B. 
E. B. 


















Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Bea trice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Beatrice Cobb.. 
Bea trice Cobb.. 


Chase City, Va. 
Morehead City 
Wrightsville Beach 

Morehead City 

Wrightsville Beach 
Morehead City 

Wrightsville Beach 
Morehead City 

Blowing Rock 
Morehead City 
Morehead City 
Sedge field 
Elizabeth City 
Blowing Rock 
Morehead City 
Banner Elk 
Elizabeth City 
Blowing Rock 
Wrightsville Beach 
High Point 
Atlantic Beach 
Fontana Village 
Nags Head 

Study Labor Resources for N. C. Industrial Expansion 

By Hugh M. Raper, Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

As the planning for defense production progresses, 
the subject of labor availability comes more and 
more to the forefront. 

The collection, preparation and dissemination of 
labor market information is a basic responsibility of 
all levels of employment security operations. The 
Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 
is aware of this responsibility, and constantly is fit- 
ting its program to meet the needs of the State in its 
effort to make known the vast labor potentials await- 
ing new industry. 

As a contribution to the work of these agencies 
promoting the industrial expansion of our State, the 
Employment Security Commission is inaugurating a 
study of the recruitable labor to be found in the State. 
These data will serve to show to industrialists, locat- 
ing engineers, and other interested parties in gen- 
eral terms something of the potential supply avail- 
able and its broad characteristics, e.g., degree of 
skill, color, sex and other related factors. 

These estimates of the recruitable labor in the 
State will include such groups as housewives that 
would join the labor force should a new industry pay 
wages at or above the pattern now prevailing in the 
area. Also included, as such other groups as work- 
ers now commuting to other areas but who would 
likely choose local employment; youths who would 
be drawn into employment; older employables that 
are deemed able to work but currently are not readily 

absorbed ; minority groups that would accept regu- 
lar employment; new groups transferring from 
agricultural to industrial employment because of 
recent crop failures ; and other smaller segments 
deemed recruitable. 

Particular attention is given to the availability of 
the "trainable" portion of the unskilled supply, since 
to the new industry that is looking for a permanent 
location, the segment of workers that can develop 
into skilled operatives is of most importance. Few 
industries today expect to find a sizeable nucleus of 
trained workers. 

These data will be released bi-monthly in a two- 
page release consisting of a shaded map giving in 
broad size groupings the distributions by county of 
the estimated recruitable labor. Accompanying the 
map will be a table giving by county the broad gen- 
eral characteristics of the labor supply. 

Naturally, more detailed data would be required 
by any industry making a final selection of a loca- 
tion, but it is believed that these data will direct the 
interest of locating firms to areas where the greatest 
labor supply exists. 

The map below was prepared to reflect the labor 
supply situation in the State as of January 15, 1951. 
You will note that the estimate for a number of areas 
exceeds 3,500 workers, and conversely other areas 
have a rather small supply of recruitable labor to 
offer new industry. (See map next page) . 

Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 5 1 



JANUARY 15, 1951 

££Q£ A2> 

jj| 3,500 § UP 




■** :* 



Amendments Extend Coverage of Social Security Act 

By M. D. Dewberry, Regional Representative, Region III, Social Security Administration, Washington, D. C. 

On the first of January, Federal Social Security 
entered upon a new and greatly broadened phase of 
service to the American worker. With the advent 
of 1951, in addition to other amendments to the 
Social Security law, old-age and survivors insurance 
protection was made available to approximately ten 
million more of the gainfully employed and to their 
dependent families. 

This does not imply that this Federal system for 
family insurance has gained full stature. Even to- 
pay, it would be extravagant to proclaim it as the 
iall-encompassing social legislation its advocates con- 
ceived and its sponsors hoped for. 

Social Security, like every other kind of social or 
pconomic legislation, is the product of evolution in 
jpublic thinking. A century ago there was little or- 
ganized thought along this line. Not until 1875 
was a single pension fund inaugurated in American 
Industry. We had turned the century without de- 
veloping any public insurance retirement system, 
tt was 1911 before the impact of slowly strengthen- 
ing public opinion on state legislatures brought the 
!irst workmen's compensation law into being. 

You may ask why the long delay in the enactment 
pf this legislation. The answer is a lack of public 
ijlemand. To understand the reason for this apathy 
jve must refer to the past once more. People were 
oo occupied with the materialistic opportunities 
)ffered on every hand to give thought to the prob- 
lems changes were creating. In place of a prepon- 
derantly agrarian economy we now had an industrial 
ystem. The farm with the farm home was no longer 


The Social Security Administration has 480 field offices 
located in the United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto 
Rico. These offices issue Social Security numbers, accept 
and process claims, reconcile wage records and inform the 
public about the program. Thirteen offices are located in 
North Carolina, the cities, street locations and managers 
being as follows: 

Asheville — 20 Battery Park Avenue Don W. Marsh 

Charlotte — 122' E. Third Street Lone T. Proctor 

Durham — Post Office Building Mrs. Nina H. Matthews 

Payetteville — 305 Huske Building Vernon D. Herbert 

Gastonia — Post Office Building Miss Margaret Lowder 

Greensboro — 330 S. Greene Street W. L. O'Brien 

Hickory — Harris-Arcade Building Glenn H. Pittinger 

High Point — Post Office Building E. Clyde Thomas 

Raleigh — 16 W. Martin Street John H. Ingle 

Rocky Mount — Post Office Building Marshal H. Barney 

Salisbury — Post Office Building Louis H. Clement 

Wilmington — Custom House Building Nicholas A. Avera 

Winston-Salem — Nissen Building Warkell K. White 

Norfolk, Va. — Flatiron Building Joe Morrison 

(Last named serves seven northeastern North Carolina 
Counties. ) 

the seat and the security of the average American 
family. A self-sustaining life, with basic necessi- 
ties home-produced, gave way to a wage economy. 
The financial security of a steadily increasing num- 
ber of people came to depend upon the stability of 
the job and their ability to continue in that job. 

The agrarian economy was a fading memory with 
large numbers of American wage earners long be- 
fore they became aware of the problems brought into 
their lives by the expanding industrial system and 

Page 52 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

the urban way of life. There still were wide fron- 
tiers to conquer, however, and rapidly growing cities 
afforded generous opportunities for the man of en- 
terprise. Even the recurrent periods of depression 
left few enduring scars. Industrially, growth was 
spectacular. There were few serious barriers im- 
peding the progress of the truly industrious, the 
thrifty, and the ambitious. 

With the surge of industry, however, the pattern 
of individual and family life changed. Cities, which 
to many, had been places to visit, became places in 
which they must live. Suburban transportation 
was in its infancy; urban congestion was an ever- 
increasing problem. Unrestricted immigration was 
a contributing cause. 

The rural homestead, long an anchor of family 
security, no longer safeguarded the average worker 
and his dependents against the varying tides and 
currents that threatened his new way of life. Sociol- 
ogists quickened to the dangers, and humanitarians 
labored to thwart them. In the spirit of the era, 
however, their efforts were largely directed to the 
moral aspects of the situation. The complexity of 
altered society, that was increasingly to threaten 
the individual's financial security, was not yet con- 
sidered a major problem. The true impact of wage 
economy on family well-being was not fully under- 

Changes in economy outdistanced changes in pub- 
lic thinking. A century had ended, a quarter of a 
new one was history, before opinion on this subject 
began to crystallize. As recently as 1925, authori- 
ties in finance and industry did not hesitate to pro- 
claim openly that the frontiers of our economic ex- 
pansion were limitless, and the wells of universal 
prosperity would never go dry. 

In retrospect, the tragedy of their errors are all 
too apparent. It is wrong, however, to attribute the 
disaster that overwhelmed the worker to the wide 
belief in an eternal boom. You will hear people say 
that the speculative mania of the late Twenties and 
the financial collapse of the early Thirties created 
the need for the family's greater economic security. 
These two equally deplorable events didn't create the 
need ; they pointed up an existing need. 

Today it is hard to believe that the nation for so 
long failed to see the serious implications for indi- 
viduals of the changing economy. Today it is com- 
monly understood that old-age dependency is by and 
large an outgrowth of modern industrial develop- 
ment and that the wage system inherent in that de- 
velopment has made economic security depend large- 
ly upon the stability of the job. Moreover, the de- 
velopment of industry while constantly creating new 
jobs, involves changes in techniques that frequently 
abolish existing jobs and leave the former incum- 
bents ill-equipped to find new ones. Industrial com- 
petition has made necessary greater industrial 
efficiency. This, in turn, had often imposed age 
restrictions on personnel, while increasing life ex- 
pectancy of the individual is steadily augmenting 
the non-employable age group. These are conditions 
that Federal old-age and survivors insurance, as 

established by the Social Security Act, is designed 
in some measure to ameliorate. 

"Some measure" is used advisedly. Those who 
participate in administering this important legisla- 
tion have no illusions about its limitations. In their 
enthusiasm for the Act as a principle, they do not 
consider it an elixir to bring full economic health to 
the American family. As a people, we are still a 
long way from solving the insufficiency of income 
and the insufficiency of material things. Through 
old-age and survivors insurance, however, the spec- 
tre of dire want in old age and abject poverty among 
survivors of the wage earner, is made less fearsome 
— its haunting of the family home a diminished 

While the 1950 amendments to the Social Security 
Act do not assure the average family the standard 
of living most people would like to maintain, they do 
lessen the threat of penury, and lighten the burden 
of charity. Over three million present beneficiaries 
and survivors have received increased monthly in- 
surance payments ranging from 40 per cent to 100 
per cent over their old payments. 

Largest of the new groups to which old-age and 
survivors insurance was extended in January is the 
self-employed. Approximately 4,700,000 self-em- 
ployed persons, excluding farm operators and cer- 
tain professional groups now have Social Security 
coverage. The amended law gives Social Security 
protection also to household employees regularly em- 
ployed in one household. It is estimated that a mil- 
lion workers in this class will be covered for retire- 
ment and survivors benefits. The third largest group 
to which social security was extended on the first of 
the year is the regular farm worker. About 650,000 
regular workers on farms and 200,000 employees 
engaged in food processing and other "borderline" 
jobs have Social Security protection under the new 
law. In addition, workers for nonprofit organiza- 
tions may now have Social Security coverage by 
employer-employee-Federal Government arrange- 
ment. States, too, may now negotiate agreements 
with the Federal Government whereby State and 
local government employees will come under the 
OASI program. 

The new law, moreover, provides wage credits for 
World War II servicemen. This provision of the 
amended act will enable many veterans to regain 
insured status lost during the period of service. The 
veteran who was not in employment covered by the 
act before the war will now gain insured status more 
quickly because of having service-connected wage 

A reduction in the length of the work period re 
quired to qualify for OASI benefits permits pay 
ments immediately or in the near future to many 
workers now at or approaching the retirement age 
Survivors of married women are now more frequent- 
ly eligible for benefits, as a result of changes in the 
definition of dependency of children and the new 
provisions for dependent aged husbands and widow- 
ers. Benefit payments to dependent parents have 
been increased. The amended law provides benefit 

Winter-Spring, i 95 1 


PAGE 53 

payments for a retired worker's wife under 65, if she 
has a child in her care. 

Under the new formula the following benefit 
amounts will be paid. However, the total payment 
to any one family group may not exceed $150 a 
month or 80% of the average monthly wage which- 
ever is the least: 

Monthly Wage 

$ 50.00 

Wage earner at age 65 

Primary insurance 



Wife at age 65 or 
with child under 18; 

child under 18; 
dependent husband 

S 12.50 

Widow with children 

under 18; widow at 

age 65; dependent 

parents: dependent 


S 18.80 

An additional 14 of the primary insurance amount 
is payable to one child or is equally divided among 
all the children where the wage earner has died. 

As has already been pointed out in this article, 
Social Security is the product of evolution in public 
thinking. A decade and a half has elapsed since it 
was just a movement, a hope and an aspiration. In 
this connection, one is reminded of a passage in the 
preface of I. M. Rubinow's "The Quest for Security." 
Writing in 1934, he said : 

"Knowledge and understanding is necessary before in- 
telligent action may be expected — knowledge and un- 
derstanding not only on the part of an academic hand- 
ful but of that larger intelligent public whose judg- 
ment, according to our American traditions, should and 
sometimes does rule the destinies of the people." 

Today it can be said that the people do have 
knowledge and understanding of the need for Social 
Security. The people's judgment impelled the intel- 
ligent action that gave them the original Social Se- 
curity Law in 1935 and the amendments of 1939, 
1946, 1947 and 1950. By these progressive steps in 
the development of family insurance protection for 
greater economic security, the people rule their des- 
tiny in the traditional American way. 

Analysis of Unemployed Workers Who Exhaust Benefits 

By E. Stanhope Dunn, Supervisor, Reports and Analysis, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

Around July 1, 1950, questionnaires were mailed 
to 3,489 unemployment compensation claimants who 
had exhausted their unemployment benefit rights 
during January and February, 1950, referred to in 
this item as "exhaustees." 

The questionnaire covered information regarding : 
personal characteristics, such as sex, color, age and 
marital status ; industry in which regularly employ- 
ed; work status, at time of questionnaire; if then 

'employed, whether work was in customary industry; 

(type of work, if any, obtained since drawing last 
benefit check; number of months since last check 
before getting first regular job; if still unemployed, 
whether again drawing unemployment benefits ; and, 
if still unemployed, the specific reason in the former 
claimant's own thinking for the continued unem- 
ployment. Returns, including a local office follow- 

|up of a sample of non-respondants, were received 

1 from over 95 percent of the January-February 1950 
exhaustees, specifically 3,150 exhaustees, a very high 

J response. 

A worker, who receives a qualifying amount of 

J wages from an employer (s) covered by the Employ- 
ment Security Law during a specific 12-month base 
period, is entitled to a specified amount of unemploy- 
ment benefits in weekly payments for a fixed period 

I so long as he is "partially" or totally unemployed, 
provided he meets certain defined requisites. It is 
obvious, therefore, that the worker must experience 
unemployment for an extended period of time (old 
formula: a minimum of 16 weeks; current formula, 
effective in March, 1949 : 20 weeks) before all bene- 
fits can be exhausted. Thus, a study of exhaustees 
is a study of the critically unemployed workers. 

Who are the exhaustees ? What are their physical 
characteristics? What are their customary indus- 
tries of employment? What happens to them during 
the period immediately following the exhaustion of 
their benefits? How many establish new benefit 
years promptly after exhausting their old year's 
benefits? How long do the claimants draw claims 
before exhausting? Does marital status influence 
the degree of exhaustion? Is there any correlation 
between the level of weekly benefit amount and the 
subsequent employment status of the exhaustee? 
These are only a few of the questions for which 
answers were sought in this study. 


About two-thirds of all exhaustees are women. 

Female exhaustees are younger than male ex- 
haustees because male workers remain in the labor 
force longer. 

White and nonwhite females account for a dis- 
proportionate number of exhaustions, considering 
the relative size of these respective groups in the 
labor force . . . both white and nonwhite males had 
low exhaustion rates. 

Married exhaustees, with a preponderance of fe- 
males, account for a disproportionate number of all 

Single and married female exhaustees remain un- 
employed longer and a larger proportion establish 
new benefit years and draw benefits again than do 
the respective male groups . . . greater job respon- 
sibility of males. 

Of those groups of exhaustees still unemployed 
five months after exhausting their benefits, a rela- 

PAGE 54 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

tively low proportion of married females and a rela- 
tively high percent of married males reported that 
"employers turned me down because of my age" 
. . . which emphasizes the more advanced age of 
married male exhaustees who seek employment 
longer. A proportionately larger number of single 
male exhaustees reported "my qualifications do not 
meet employer's needs" as the reason for their con- 
tinued unemployment five months after exhausting 
their benefits . . . principally because they are less 


A greater proportion of the single and married 
female groups reported "expect to be recalled to old 
jobs" as the reason for continued unemployment 
after exhaustion . . . due in part to the large num- 
ber of out-of-season tobacco processing female work- 
ers included in the sample. 

About twice as many married female exhaustees 
reported that they were no longer interested in an- 

other job (in school, keeping house, etc.) as did the 
other three groups. 

As the age level rises, a diminishing proportion of 
the exhaustees found regular new employment with- 
in five months after exhausting and an increasing 
proportion established new benefit years and were 
drawing benefits again. 

Exhaustees from their customary employment in 
manufacturing establishments, particularly in the 
tobacco and textile industries, accounted for a dis- 
proportionate number of all exhaustions . . . public 
utilities and trade establishments had the smallest 
relative exhaustions. 

One out of every two exhaustees used up all their 
benefits with little or no intervening employment 
while drawing . . . the higher the age level, the 
quicker they exhausted. 

The higher the earnings, the better the reemploy- 
ment experiences subsequent to exhausting and the 
few establishing a new benefit year for additional 
unemployment benefits. 

Employment Security Compared; 11 Months 1949 & 1950 

■ By E. Stanhope Dunn, Supervisor, Reports and Analysts, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

Employment conditions, a direct reflection of busi- 
ness generally, have been unusually favorable during 
1950, particularly in the manufacturing field. Em- 
ployment was on the rebound at the start of 1950 
following the general upturn in business around 
July 1949 which marked the approximate end of a 
six to eight months recessionary period. Of course 
by mid-year 1950 some industries' employment had 
declined seasonally, but construction was at a new 
high level and general trade was good because of 
volume sales of durable goods, particularly automo- 
biles and home appliances. 

News of the invasion of South Korea came June 
25 and immediately thereafter there was a scramble 
for goods likely to become scarce later in a war 
economy ; and manufacturing establishments stepped 
up their employment to meet increased civilian and 
defense demands. In view of the steady improve- 
ment in employment in 1950, it is obvious that the 
first eleven months of 1950 were much more favor- 
able for local office accomplishments than the com- 
parable period in 1949. 

The greater 1950 accomplishments of the Employ- 
ment Security Commission are reflected in the ac- 
companying table, the highlights of which follow : 

A. Local office activities which reflect increasing employ- 

1. Covered employers under ESC numbered 15,021 as- 
of November 30, 19 50, which was a 4.1 percent in- 
crease over the number covered one year before. 

2. Average monthly covered employment during the 
first half of 1950 (latest available) was 630,310, or 

5.2 percent greater than the coverage in the 1949 
comparable period, and this increase does not reflect 
the impetus to rising employment following the start 
of the Korean War. 

3. Job openings received during the first 11 months of 
1950 were 32.4 percent more numerous than in the 
like period of 1949. 

4. In response to increased job openings, nonagricul- 
tural placements increased 31.1 percent over 1949. 

B. Local office activities which reflect declining unemploy- 

1. Registration of new applicants for jobs dropped 17.2 
percent as jobs became more plentiful and fewer 
workers remained unemployed. 

2. The total active file count of registered applicants! 
seeking employment was 21.3 percent smaller as of 
November 2 5 than one year earlier. 

3. Total weeks of unemployment for which unemploy- 
ment compensation claims were filed, declined 19.6 
percent in 1950 from 1949: 11 months in 1950, 
1,307,500; 11 months in 1949, 1,626,075. 

4. New claims taken, indicative of first unemployment, 
declined one-third. 



Liable Employers in Active Status as of November 30th.._ 15,021 
Average Monthly Covered Employment during first half.. 630,310 

Workers with Wage Credits in 1949— Estimated INA 

Fund Balance as of November 30 (000 omitted) $ 161,784 

Average Contribution Rate (est.) 1.55 ;, 







Winter-Spring, 1951 


PAGE 55 




Personal Visits to Local Offices 

New Registrations of Job Seekers 

Job Openings Received - . . 

Total Placements Made 

Placements on Jobs — All Non- 

Placements on Jobs — Handicapped- .. 

Other Placements — Farm Workers 

Counseling Interviews 

Visits to Employers — Nonagricultural. 
Applications on File as of Novem- 
ber 25th 











1 , 350 


Cumulative through 

Nov. 1950 Nov. 1949 













All Weeks of Unemployment Re- 

All Weeks Paid 

Amount of Payment Issued 

Average Weekly Number of 
Claimants Paid 

New Claims Taken — First Unemploy- 

First Payment to Newly Unemployed 

Number Exhausting All Benefit 

Hearings Conducted on Contested 








$ 1,383,800 

























Although it is granted that a real factor in the 
greater accomplishments in 1950 has been the steady 
I improvement in employment conditions, neverthe- 
j less, another factor should not be overlooked, namely, 
i the continuing endeavor of the ESC to render 
j a greater service in the placement field, and, in the 
i absence of jobs, in the unemployment compensation 
j field. Indicative of this effort is the increasing 
| importance of testing activities in local office opera- 
! tions. An increasing number of employers in more 
diversified industries are turning to the ESC to test 
their prospective workers before hiring them. Em- 
I ployers are learning that applicants, who possess 
j aptitudes which are likely to enable them to be suc- 
cessful in specific jobs, are actually "panning out" 
to be the most successful new hires. By using the 
] testing facilities of the ESC, many employers are 
; reducing their cost of labor turnover — that is, the 
j cost of excessive training of new workers and the 
i cost of interruptions and impediments to production 
| that usually occur when a vacancy arises and is filled. 
The figures below point up the steady progress 
being made in the general testing program. No 
doubt, in the not too distant future, a major portion 
of all hires will be made through Employment Se- 
curity local offices if for no other reason than that, 
through testing, local office personnel are in a better 
position to refer those applicants out of a larger 
group who have aptitudes which promote their 
chances of success in specific jobs. 


Individuals tested 

Aptitude tests 

Proficiency tests.. 

Testing Activities 



in 1950 

Over 1949 








Much can be said about the greater accomplish- 
ments in 1950 that reflect more placements, more 
jobs, more testing, etc., and less unemployment, less 
unemployment compensation payments, less job ap- 
plicants, etc. However, there is one activity that 
has gone contrary to basic economic trends, namely, 
the trend of the number of claimants exhausting 
their benefits. While total weeks of unemployment 
reported for benefits declined 19.6 percent in the 
first eleven months of 1950 below the comparable 
1949 volume; actual weeks paid declined 17.2 per- 
cent; and first payments to the newly unemployed 
declined 32.7 percent, exhaustions increased 3.2 per- 
cent. A total of 32,475 claimants exhausted their 
benefits the first eleven months of 1950 as compared 
with only 31,475 during the same period in 1949. 

Much could have been said to explain the reasons 
for a decline; for example, improved employment; 
more men being drafted into the armed forces, who 
may have been drawing benefits but had not yet 
exhausted ; and extension of the benefit duration 
period from 16 to 20 weeks in March 1949 which 
enabled most 1950 claimants to look four weeks 
longer for work, which, if found, would have pre- 
vented their exhausting. 

One factor, nevertheless, would tend to make 1950 
exhaustions higher and accounts, at least in part, for 
the increase, namely, the new minimum wage law 
that became effective in January 1950. No one, 
however, would have expected this factor to exert 
such a heavy influence on the exhaustion load. Still, 
it should be recognized that a number of workers 
did lose their jobs when the new minimum wage went 
into effect because they were not able to meet re- 
quired production standard commensurate with in- 
creased pay. No doubt the workers in the older age 
groups were affected the most and were the most 
difficult to replace in jobs. The influence of the 
minimum wage factor will naturally diminish during 
the months to come, as an increasing portion of these 
marginal workers will either find suitable new em- 
ployment or will no longer be eligible for additional 
benefits because of insufficient wage credits. 


The Unemployment Compensation Fund balance 
had grown to approximately 162 million dollars as 
of November 30, 1950, an increase of about 7 million 
dollars, or 4.6 percent, during the previous twelve 


PAGE 56 


Winter-Spring, 1951 

months period. As a matter of fact, this fund has 
grown steadily from the beginning of the program 
while at the same time meeting all withdrawals 
adequately, even during recessional periods like 1949. 
Furthermore, the Fund, together with interest and 
additions thereto, appear ample to meet foreseeable 
future contingencies, particularly in view of the 
high level of employment necessary for defense dur- 
ing the next few years. 


The Beaufort Look Out, published around the turn of the 
century, became The Beaufort News in 1912, when it was 
purchased by Frederick Ostermeyer and J. A. Wright, from 
Crothersville, Indiana. In the early 1920s W. Giles Mebane 
bought the paper and published it until his death in 193 4. 
William Hatsell was publisher for almost a decade, selling 
the paper to Lockwood Phillips. During this period Aycock 
Brown was editor for about five years, and Miss Amy Muse 
was editor when Mr. Phillips bought the paper. 

Over in Morehead City The Morehead City Coaster was 
bought around 19 24 by F. C. Salisbury, who changed the 
name to The Carteret County Herald, purchased in 193 5 by 
Herbert Utley. In 193 6 Mr. Utley went to a five-day-a-week 
paper, The Twin City Daily Times. This paper in 1946 was 
purchased by P. T. Hines, general manager of the Greens- 
boro daily papers, and James McEwen, son of the late J. H. 
McEwen, Burlington textile executive. 

The Carteret Publishing Co., Inc., purchased this dailv 
paper in 1947, changing it to a weekly paper. The next 
year Mr. Phillips merged The Twin City Times and The 
Beaufort News into The Carteret County News-Times, pub 
lished on Tuesdays and Fridays. Soon after the merger 
Mr. Phillips built a modern steel and concrete building in 
Morehead City and equipped the plant with the most mod- 
ern machinery and has greatly expanded the circulation and 
influence of the paper. 

26 living former presidents of the N. C. Press Association, 
those who attended the "President's Breakfast'" Saturday morn- 
ing, January 20, in the Carolina Inn, Chapel Hill, a permanent 
feature of the Press Institute. Seated, I. to r., are Roy Parker, 
Ahoskie; Dr. Clarence Poe, Raleigh; R. E. Price, Rutherford- 
ton; Henry Belk, Goldsboro (present president) ; H. Gait Brax- 
ton, Kinston; John B. Harris, Albemarle; L. C. Gifford, Hick- 
ory; Talbot Patrick, Goldsboro and Rock Hill, S. C; Standing, 
I. to ?., Josh L. Home, Rocky Mount; Ed M. Anderson, Brevard ; 
Frank A. Daniels, Raleigh; D. Hiden Ramsey, Asheville; Wm. 
K. Hoyt, Winston-Salem ; Lee B. Weathers, Shelby; E. A. 
Resch, Siler City; W. Curtis Russ, Hendersonville ; F. Grover 
Britt, Clinton; Harvey F. Laffoon, Elkin; Wm. E. Horner, 
Sanford. Seven other former presidents, living but not present, 
are: Santford Martin, Winston-Salem ; J. W. Atkins, Gastonia; 
A. C. Huneycntt, Albemarle; J. W. No ell, Roxboro; John A. 
Park. Raleigh; Carl C. Council, Durham, and Herbert Peele, 
Elizabeth City. — Picture by UNC Photo Lab. 


SCOOPED — AND ALMOST FIRED: The people of Elkin 
held a big celebration on July 4, 1910 — commemorating 
the completion of the first mile of the Elkin & Alleghany 
Railroad in Elkin. The road was completed later for 
several miles toward Alleghany County, to Doughton and 
Thurmond, and operated for several years as a short-line 
road. As a reporter for the Winston-Salem Journal, I was 
assigned to cover the event, and was a guest overnight at the 
home of the late Hugh G. Chatham. Also a guest, and my 
roommate, was R. W. Vincent, then managing editor of the 
Greensboro Daily News. 

On the afternoon of July 3 a terrific thunder and rain 
storm hit the area. It played havoc with the decorations in 
Elkin. Also, it hit heavy at Roaring Gap, where Mrs. 
Chatham and children, Thurmond and DeWitt, now Mrs. 
Ralph Hanes, were staying. Around dark, Mr. Chatham 
received a telephone call that his daughter, DeWitt, had 
been struck by lightning and had been knocked unconscious, 
but for a short time only, apparently not seriously hurt. 

After supper Mr. Vincent and I walked down to the busi- 
ness section and separated. I hotfooted it to the telephone 
exchange. The wires were down, they said, no connections 
east. I hastened to the telegraph office at the railroad sta- 
tion. All wires down, no communication with the east. In 


VOLUMES 7 AND 8, YEARS 19491 950 

The Index on the following pages is so arranged that 
the pages may be clipped out, stapled together and 
kept separately for future reference. 

fact, all lights in Elkin were out. I relaxed and visited 
friends. Then went to the Chatham residence. Mr. Vincent 
came in later. 

"You're fired" was the greeting City Editor Herbert B. 
Gunter gave me when I appeared at The Journal office the 
next afternoon with a good story, I thought, on the celebra- 
tion. Then he showed me a copy of The Greensboro News, 
carrying on the front page a black box, giving the informa- 
tion of Miss Chatham's encounter with lightning. I was 
dumbfounded. Then I related my efforts to get the item to 
The Journal. I was forgiven and the firing withdrawn. 

It developed that the telegraph wires were repaired late 
the night before, and that Mr. Vincent had written the item! 
and held matches, one after the other, so the operator could 
read and send the message. But it was a close squeak for| 
me — and a big scoop for him. 

NO WEDDING; SO, NO NEWS: Some 30 years ago a 
new reporter was added to the staff of one of the Wilming- 
ton newspapers. After very brief experience, it fell to his 
lot and he was thus assigned to cover a wedding. He fared 
forth. After half an hour he returned, but the city editor 
noticed he was not writing the story. He inquired why. 

"No story to it," responded the reporter in disgust. "The 
bridegroom didn't show up." 

EDDIE WOULD GET EVEN: Eddie Brietz was a well- 
known North Carolina newspaper man. He started in his 
native city of Winston-Salem, worked in Charlotte, Ashe- 
ville, Wilmington, High Point and other cities in this and 
other states, before he joined the staff of the Associated 
Press and went high in position, primarily as a nation-wide 
sports writer. In conversation one day, Eddie remarked 
that three men had done him wrong and that he intended to 
get even with them. 

"One is John Smith; another is Bill Jones (not actual 
names) and the third — I just can't remember who that is 
right now, but I'll get even with him, too." 


Index to Volumes 7 and 8, 1949-1950 


Compiled by Mrs. Angie W. Wall, Secretary, Office of Informational Service 

Published by 


(Issues from Vol. 1, No. 1, Summer, 1942, through Vol. 4, No. 4, Fall, 1946, were designated as "The U. C. C. 
Quarterly". When the name of the agency was changed April 1, 1947, the name of this magazine was chang- 
ed also.) 

Vol. No. Page Vol. No. Page 


Plant Food Institute Aids Better Crops, A Poem — North Carolina 7 3-4 138 

More Economy _. 7 2 56 CHARLOTTE BRANCH, FEDERAL RE- 

Plant Food Council Promotes Improvement SERVE BANK OF RICHMOND 7 1 16 

in Farming 7 2 58 First officers and Directors 

National Association Helps in Agricultural Directors of Varied Interests 

Research 7 2 59 Territory Enlarged 

ALLEN, EVERETT: Big Increase in Activities 

Hotels Defined: N. C. Chains; Investment: Modern New Building 

New Fire Laws 8 1-2 74 See Banking 


Incidents in 15-Year Banking Span 7 1 18 Hickory Named for Tavern... 8 1-2 53 

Closed and Reopened— Late COLLINS, DR. E. R.: 

First in Banking Conferences Fertilizer Increases Production of Major 

Largest Negro Bank in World Field Crops 7 2 51 

Two Unusual Presidents Corn Responds to Fertilizer 

Verifies Assets and Liabilities Soybean Yields are Increased 

See Banking Cotton Shows Economic Response 

ASSOCIATIONS: Tobacco Yields are Larger 

See Dowell, Willard L. See Fertilizer 

See Yarbrough, E. S. nmTR4m n Q . 

See Ballentine, Mrs. Bessie B. ^T f .,. '^7' ?" ' , -c „• t.. ■ -, A . 

See Pitts, H. Preston Fertilizer Control Pays Big Dividends to 

See Melvin M M Growers ..... 7 2 46 

Most Producers Meet Guarantee 

BALLENTINE, MRS. BESSIE B.: Grade Numbers Reduced 

N. C. Automobile Dealer Group Most Act- Increase Plant Food Units 

ive in Nation 7 3-4 135 See Fertilizer 


Fertilizer Centennial Marks State's Great ^ .... 'm,.*," ' ™« /-> ^■^. * /v 

PrnQ .„„ oa 7 9 ao Fertilize Tobacco With Quality of Cigar- 

j-rogress ^ ........ 7 l 43 tt . Mi d ? 2 4g 

Lawes Started in England . .-. , T . .. 

Seafowls Furnished Guano ?Xlndlatf Amounts 

Manufacturing in U. S. Starts ^ s ., ^aicate Amounts 

Ruffin Developed Marl Use Limits in Yield, Quality 

±tumn ueveiopea Man use g n T i mpor tant 

Farmers Journal Supports Use Cranh- 

Emmons Discovered Deposits „? ' TT XT .. t ., 

Polk Starts Analyses Sh ™ s . H ™ N ltr °g en Increases the 

Industry Needs Historian See ™ii°zer " 

See Fertilizer bee * ertllizer 


Beginning of Banking in N. C. 7 1 3 Chemical Qualifications of Commercial Fer- 

. N. C. Shares in Nation's Banking Progress . 7 16 tilizer 7 2 49 

N. C. Bankers Asso. Active Since Formed 7 18 Chemical Analysis Gives Content 

State Bank Supervision Since 1887 7 1 11 Twenty-one Chemists Busy 

Notable Progress Made in Trust Business 7 1 13 40,000 Analyses Annually 

Charlotte Branch, Federal Reserve Bank Usually Plant Food Excess 

of Richmond 7 1 16 Earlier Adulteration Cases 

Incidents in 15-Year Banking Span ."".".I""". 7 1 18 Progress Under Control Methods 

Bankers Earn National Honors in Agri- See Fertilizer 

cultural Work 7 1 20 CUMMINGS, DR. RALPH W.: 

Banking is $2,000,000,000 Business. 7 1 21 Why N. C. Farmers Use So Much Commer- 

Industrial Banking History and Activities 7 1 37 cial Fertilizer _. 7 2 48 

BRYANT, H. E. C: Nitrogen and Minerals Needed 

N. C. Hotels 50 Years Ago — Reminiscences Nitrogen for Quick Growth 

of Oldtimer 8 1-2 7 Greater Use Profitable 

What Manner of Man See Fertilizer 


National Asso. Helps in Agricultural Re- Retail Merchants Have Large and Effect- 
search 7 2 59 ive Association 7 3-4 132 

Producer of Quality Crops Retailing Then and Now 

Pamphlets Promote Better Crops Association Objectives 

Gov. Scott Accepts Challenge Categories of Service 

See Agriculture Seven Thousand Members 

Page 2 

index to Volumes 7 and 6, 1 949-1 950 — the e. s. C. Quarterly 

(PAGE 58) 


Convention Cities and Presidents, N. C. 
Merchants Association 7 


Silas F. Campbell Dies 7 

Midyette, Jackson, New Commissioner 7 

Charlotte Mint Coined More than $5,000,- 

000 in Gold 7 

Banking is $2,000,000,000 Business.-. 7 

Wachovia Bank and Trust Co 7 

Wachovia is from Wachau 
Official's Home Safer than Iron Safe 

American Trust Co 7 

Word Wood Started Banking as Run- 
ner, Without Salary 
George Stephens, American Trust 
Founder, Big Builder 

First Citizens Bank & Trust Co 7 

Branch Banking & Trust Co 7 

Security National Bank..... 7 

The Commercial National Bank 7 

The Northwestern Bank 7 

The Union National Bank 7 

Cabarrus Bank & Trust Co 7 

Guaranty Bank and Trust Co _._ 7 

The Fidelity Bank 7 

All Banks in State..... 7 


State Commercial Banks .-. 7 

National Banks in State 7 

State Industrial Banks 7 

See Banking 
Raper Succeeds Campbell as head of Sta- 
tistical Bureau 7 

Mechanics and Farmers, Durham, Largest 

Negro Bank in Nation 7 

N. C. Largest Fertilizer User _ 7 

Fertilizer Makers Operating in and Sup- 
plying State 7 

Home Offices in State 
Offices Outside, Plants in State 
Offices and Plants Outside State 
Modern Operations in Making Ingredients 

and Mixing 7 

Superphosphate Basic Material 
Sulphur Valuable Plant Food 
Modern Hopper System 
See Fertilizer 

Merchandising in State 7 

Kendall Reappointed; New Members; In- 
tegrate Services 7 

Price Deputy Commissioner 
N. C. Retail Trade Exceeds Two Billion 

Dollars a Year 7 


Analysis of Collections and Retail 

Sales by Counties, 1948-9 7 

Analysis of Collections and Retail Sales 

by Types of Business, 1948-9 7 

Analysis of Collections and Retail Sales 

by Large Cities, 1948-9 7 

N. C. Home Base, Large Department Stores 7 

Belk Stores 7 

Efird's Department Stores 7 

J. B. Ivey & Co 7 

Johnson Cotton Co., Inc _.. 7 

Leder Brothers, Inc 7 

The Spainhour Stores 7 

White's Stores, Inc 7 

B. C. Moore & Sons, Inc 7 

N. C. Has 42 Variety Chain Groups Owning 

250 Stores 7 

Rose's 5-10-25^ Stores, Inc 7 


Variety Chain Stores Owned and Ope- 
rated by North Carolinians. 7 

Eagle Stores Co 7 

Wood's 5 & lOtf Stores, Inc 7 

Macks 5-10-25 $ Stores, Inc 7 

Williams' 5 & lOtf Stores, Inc 7 

Pope's 5 ^-$5.00 Stores 7 

Chandler's Inc 7 



























































































Vol. No. 

Nation-wide Variety Store Chains 

Operating in State 7 3-4 

F. W. Woolworth Co.- 7 3-4 

S. H. Kress & Co 7 3-4 

McLellan Stores Co 7 3-4 

W. T. Grant Co.. ..". 7 3-4 

H. L. Green Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Department Store: 

J. C. Penney Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Eight Wholesale Drug Firms, Long, Pros- 
perous Records 7 3-4 

Dr. T. C. Smith Co 7 3-4 

Robert T. Bellamy & Son, Inc 7 3-4 

Burwell & Dunn Co 7 3-4 

Scott Drug Co 7 3-4 

O'Hanlon-Watson Drug Co 7 3-4 

Justice Drug Co 7 3-4 

The W. H. King Drug Co 7 3-4 

Peabody Drug Co 7 3-4 

Wholesale Distributors Have $1,290,000,000 

Business 7 3-4 

J. G. Ball Co . 7 3-4 

The Thomas & Howard Co 7 3-4 

Atlantic Tobacco Co 7 3-4 

Job P. Wyatt & Sons Co 7 3-4 

Barnes-Sawyer Grocery Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Bennett-Lewallen Co., Inc 7 3-4 

J. M. Mathes Co., Inc. 7 3-4 

Thomas H. Briggs & Sons, Inc.. 7 3-4 

N. L. Stedman & Co 7 3-4 

Gray & Oglesby _'. 7 3-4 

Lexington Grocery Co - 7 3-4 

C. W. Howard & Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Simpson-Peacock Co. 7 3-4 

Harvey C. Hines Co . 7 3-4 

J. T. Hobby & Son 7 3-4 

George S. Edwards & Co _ 7 3-4 

Sandlin & Co 7 3-4 

Bilbro Wholesale Co 7 3-4 

Wayne Wholesale Grocery Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Munn, Griffin & Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Garland C. Norris Co 7 3-4 

Egerton Wholesale Co 7 3-4 

W. G. Weeks & Co 7 3-4 

A. L. Raynor 7 3-4 

Charles L. Gray Co... 7 3-4 

Two Big Machinery Equipment Firms 

Started in Raleigh ___.._. 7 3-4 

Dillon Supply Co 7 3-4 

North Carolina Equipment Co 7 3-4 

Ancient, Odd, Interesting Retail Firms in 

Operation 7 3-4 

J. C. Blanchard & Co.. Inc 7 3-4 

A. V. Wray & 6 Sons 7 3-4 

Alfred Williams & Co...... 7 3-4 

James H. Clark & Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Lazarus Brothers 7 3-4 

Memory Company 7 3-4 

Ramsey-Bowles Co. _.. 7 3-4 

Oliver Oscho Rufty 7 3-4 

Glenn Ketner 7 3-4 

Food & Drugs Handled by Large National 

& Local Firms 7 3-4 

Colonial Stores Incorporated 7 3-4 

Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co 7 3-4 

National Food Stores, Inc 7 3-4 

Progressive Stores, Inc 7 3-4 

Milner Stores Co.... 7 3-4 

Stedman Stores, Inc 7 3-4 

Drug Stores: 

Walgreen Drug Stores 7 3-4 

Eckerd Drugs, Inc 7 3-4 

Clothing, Furnishings, Apparel, Shoe, Fur- 
niture Stores 7 3-4 

Winner's Inc. 7 3-4 

Larkins Clothing Stores 7 3-4 

Roscoe Griffin Shoe Co 7 3-4 

Merit Shoe Co., Inc 7 3-4 

Glamor Shops, Inc 7 3-4 

Heilig-Meyers Co. 7 3-4 

Heilig-Levine of Raleigh, Inc I... 7 3-4 

N. C. Hotels and Restaurants . 8 1-2 

3 AGE 59) 




Grand Hotels in Ghost Towns, Sneedsbor- 

ough and Parkwood 

Hotels Named for Noted People, Famous 

Events, Places 

Fleetwood Hotel Skeleton Overawed Area 

Twelve Years _ 

Group of Oldtimers in Operating N. C. 


Everett I. Bugg 

Virgil St. Cloud 

W. G. Tennille 

T. R. Williams 

A. N. Barnett 

Wilbur Devendorf 

W. David Turner 

J. F. Somers 

Joseph B. McCoy 

P. A. Rasberry 
Bluffs Offer Mountain Haven High on Blue 

Ridge Parkway . 

Halfway House, Dismal Swamp 

Many Famous Hotels Operated in State in 


Yarborough Hotel 

Atlantic Hotel 

Old Battery Park 

Salem Tavern 

Raliroad Hotel 
Mineral Springs Hotels Operated 

Springs Hotels Still Operating 

Former Springs Resort Hotels 
Trains Halted While Passengers Ate at 

Famous Rail-side Hotels 

Religious Assembly Grounds Attract Big 

Summer Groups ._ 

Lake Junaluska 


Kanuga Lake 

Park Hill Hotel 

Bon darken 


Fruitland Assembly 

Methodist Youth Camp 

Fort Caswell 

Vade Mecum 
Woodfield's Inn at Flat Rock is Century 

Old This Year 

S & W Cafeterias State's Fine Home-Boy 

Eating System 

Toddle House System 

Bus Terminal Restaurants Co. 

Minute Grill 

Hot Shoppes, Inc. 
Hotels in Central Area Serve Capital and 

Winter Guests .... 

Raleigh ... - 

Wake Forest 
Fuquay Springs 


Southern Pines 

Lake View 


Rocky Mount 





Chapel Hill ., 

Dunn _.... 









Mt. Gilead 

No. Page 

1-2 8 

1-2 9 

1-2 10 

1-2 11 









1-2 18 

1-2 21 
1-2 22 






































Wadesboro .__. ___. 










Pittsboro... _ 

Siler City 



Yancey ville _ 


Piedmont Area Hotels Large Commercial, 

Business Types ..... 






High Point 



Gastonia . 


Dallas . 




Reidsville _ 







Mount Mourne 




Asheboro '. 


New Market 


Mount Airy 





Yadk inville _ 

East Bend 



Walnut Cove 


Haw River 
Mountain Region Lures Vacationists with 

Finest Hotels 


Grove Park Inn, Massive and Majestic 

Black Mountain 





Blowing Rock 























1-2 38 









































































(PAGE 60) 


North Wilkesboro 



Graystone Inn, Roaring Gap. 

Lake Lure 

Chimney Rock - 



Forest City 

Thermal City 



Old Fort 

Round Knob 

Point Lookout 

Little Switzerland 

Wild Acres 




Banner Elk 


Lake Toxaway 





Bryson City 


Jefferson . 

West Jefferson 


Coastal Plain Hotels on Shipping Lanes, 

in Beach Areas 


Wrightsville Beach 

Carolina Beach 

Wilmington Beach 
Morehead City 

Sanitary Fish Market 

Atlantic Beach 


Harkers Island 
Manteo _. 

Nags Head 

Kill Devil Hill Beaches 

Kitty Hawk Beach 



Elizabeth City 


New Bern 

Kinston. __ 

Wilson '. 

Elm City 

Greenville ._ ___ 




Lake Waccamaw 


Fair Bluff 







Scotland Neck 

Roanoke Rapids 






















































































Windsor 8 



Jacksonville 8 


Holly Ridge 


Bayboro ___ 8 



Columbia 8 

Swan Quarter __ 8 

New Holland 





Winton 8 



Hertford 8 

Jackson 8 

Rich Square 

Elizabethtown — 8 

White Lake 

Gatesville 8 

Burgaw 8 

Kenansville 8 





Southport 8 

Trenton ____ 8 


Fontana Village Unique and Popular Sum- 
mer Resort Area 8 

N. C. Flour, Meal, Feed Milling 8 

Wind and Water, Power for Grist Mills.— 8 
Meadows Mill Co. Manufactures Meal and 

Feed Mills 8 

Millstones Caused Boom and Bust of Park- 
wood _. 8 

Flour, Feed and Meal Mills .8 

Articles on 100 Flour, Feed and Meal Mills 8 

Statesville Flour Mills Co 8 

Interstate Milling Co 8 

Siler City Mills, Inc 8 

Laurinburg Milling Co 8 

Earle-Chesterfield Mill Co 8 

Ralston Purina Co 8 

Farmers Mutual, Inc 8 

Goldsboro Milling Co 8 

W. A. Davis Milling Co... 8 

The Randolph Mills, Inc 8 

Austin-Heaton Co. __ 8 

Southern Flour Mills, Inc 8 

Eagle Roller Mill Co...... 8 

Acme Feed Mills, Inc 8 

Cooperative Mills, Inc., of N. C 8 

J. F. Bess and Co 8 

Mocksville Flour Mills, Inc _ 8 

Henderson Roller Mills Co 8 

Southern Crown Milling Co 8 

Clinard Milling Co., Inc _ 8 

Griffin Implement and Milling Co 8 

Gurley Milling Co 8 

Mount Ulla Flour Mills -_ 8 

John W. Eshelman & Sons, Inc.. 8 

Watson Feed Co ;.... 8 

Piedmont Feed Mills, Inc 8 

North State Milling Co... 8 

Upchurch Milling and Storage Co 8 

Cole Milling Co - 8 

Graino Feed Mills 8 

New Bern Oil and Fertilizer Co 8 

Sanford Milling Co., Henderson 8 

Lewisville Roller Mills 8 

J. P. Green Milling Co...... 8 

Mooresville Flour Mills, Inc 8 

Davis Mills 8 

Leco Feed Mills, Inc 8 













(PAGE 61) 

Index to Volumes 7 and 8, 1 949-1 950 — the e. s. C. Quarterly 

page 5 


Pilot Milling Co 8 

Lassiter's Milling Co — . 8 

Wake Farmers Cooperative, Inc.. 8 

Grimes Bros. Milling Co 8 

John H. Moss Industries 8 

J. M. Ostwalt and Sons - 8 

House Milling Co 8 

Clemmons Milling Co - 8 

Lillington Roller Mills, Inc 8 

Raines Milling Co 8 

Hinkle Milling Co 8 

Lincoln Milling Co 8 

Wheeler Industries 8 

Broadway Roller Mills 8 

Autry Bros Mill 8 

Kinston Milling Co 8 

Cross Creek Milling Co 8 

Lakeside Mills 8 

Lee Milling Co 8 

R. B. Williams 8 

China Grove Roller Mills 8 

Cole's Milling Co 8 

Reitzel Milling Co -- 8 

Banner Roller Mills, Inc 8 

Richfield Milling Co 8 

T. J. Smith's Mill 8 

Rockwell Milling Co., Inc 8 

Mount Pleasant Milling Co 8 

Rocky Creek Mills 8 

Grimes Milling Co 8 

Rice and Ratledge 8 

Hickory Flour Mills 8 

Dennis Bros. 8 

River View Milling Co 8 

Stegall Milling Co 8 

Hunting Creek Milling Co 8 

McLamb Supply Co 8 

Honeycutt Milling Co 8 

Yadkinville Roller Mill Co.„_._ 8 

Guilford College Milling Co 8 

Reidsville Flour Mills 8 

S. and S. Roller Mills 8 

Crescent Milling Co _. 8 

Henderson Milling Co 8 

Dixie Feed Mill 8 

Oxford Milling Co 8 

White Milling Co 8 

Walker Milling Co.. 8 

Harmony Milling Co 8 

Carolina Feed Store 8 

Maiden Flour Mill — - 8 

Rowan Milling Co 8 

Greenville Feed Mills 8 

Blount-Midyette and Co 8 

C. T. Hupp Feed Mill 8 

Whitley Milling Co 8 

Montague Feed and Milling Co 8 

Murray Supply Co 8 

Mebane Flour and Feed Mills 8 

Longtown Milling Co 8 

Elkin Roller Mills 8 

Olive Branch Milling Co 8 

Marshville Milling Co 8 

Tarlton Milling Co 8 

Life Guard Warehouse, Inc 8 

Four N. C. Mills Burn 8 

Star Milling Co. 
Wilkes Milling Co. 
Neal Milling Co. 
Germanton Flour Mills 

Biltmore Wheathearts Corp 8 

See Raper, Hugh M. 


Fertilizer Centennial Marks State's Great 

Progress 7 

Fertilize Tobacco With Quality of Cigar- 
ette in Mind — 7 

Fertilizer Control Pays Big Dividends to 

Growers 7 

Why N. C. Farmers Use So Much Commer- 
cial Fertilizer 7 







































































































































3-4 119 









Chemical Qualifications of Commercial Fer- 
tilizer 7 

Fertilizer Increases Production of Major 

Field Crops 7 

Soil Testing Basic for Efficient Fertilizer 

Usage 7 

Early Practices in State, Fertilizer Sale 

and Use 7 

Fertilizer Makers Operating in and Sup- 
plying State 7 

Modern Operations in Making Ingredients 

and Mixing 7 

FLOYD, E. Y.: 

Plant Food Institute Aids Better Crops, 

More Economy 7 

Distributes Scientific Facts 

Sponsors Crop Diversification 

Officers and Directors 

See Agriculture 

State Bank of North Carolina, Erected 1818 7 
Shows Value of Use and Non-use of Fertil- 
izer on Corn 7 

Ivey's Department Store, Charlotte 7 

Carolina Hotel, Pinehurst 8 

Ancient Bowl and Pestle 8 


N. C. Shares in Nation's Banking Progress 7 

Growth Exceeds National Gain 

Strong Capital Structure 

Better Balanced Agriculture 

Hold Industrial Leadership 

Favorable Trade Balance 

Banks Improving Services 

See Banking 

Legislative Changes in N. C. Employment 

Security Law 7 

N. C. Has Greatest Solvency 

Formula Change Boosts Benefits 

Redefines 'Employment' 

Some Classes Eliminated 

Protected More Workers 

Back to 'Master and Servant' 


ES Peaks and Troughs 7 

NRS Group in 1934 7 


State Bank Supervision Since 1887 7 

Banking Department Created 

Early Bank Examiners 

Wood and Hood Commissioners 

Provides Banking Commission 

State's Smallest Bank Building 
Industrial Banking History and Activities 7 

See Banking 


See Dunnagan, M. R. 

Organization and Activities, N. C. Hotel 

Association 8 

Eating Places Attain High Food and Serv- 
ice Standards 8 

Hotels — Builders of Good Will; Historical 

Background 8 

Duncan Hines Finds 31 Fine Eating Places 

in Tarheelia 8 

N. C. Hotels 50 Years Ago 8 

Hotels Defined: N. C. Chains; Investment: 

New Fire Laws 8 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 
INDEX TO VOLUMES 5 AND 6, 1947-1948.. 7 

Millers' Problems Aired at Meetings 8 


See Holoman, W. D. 


N. C. Readjustment Allowance Program 7 












































3-4 120 
3-4 136 



(Page 62) 

Vol. No. Page 


Unemployed and Self-employed 

Penalties in Fraud Cases 

N. C. Veterans Get $94,523,000 

30 % Exhaust Benefits 

Peak Reached in 1946 


Benefits Paid Unemployed Veterans .... 7 3-4 138 

Benefits Paid Self-employed Veterans-.. 7 3-4 138 


Research in Improving Feeds 8 3-4 80 


N. C. Bankers Asso. Active Since Formed—. 7 18 

First Association Officers 
General Organization 
Many Association Activities 

Agricultural Program 
The Carolinas Bankers Conference 
Issues Monthly Magazine 
Officials, Committees N. C. Bankers 
Bankers Standing Committees for 1948-49 
See Banking 


Eating Places Attain High Food and Serv- 
ice Standards 8 1-2 4 

North Carolina Leads in Sanitation 
Officers, Directors, N. C. Restaurant 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 


Research in Improving Feeds 8 3-4 80 

Millers' Problems Aired at Meetings 8 3-4 81 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 


Manager Not Studying Boss, Boss Bounced 
Him Out on Ear 7 

New State Advisory Council of E. S. Coram. 7 

Large Lard Cans Full of Sand Good for 
Inventory — Not Long 7 

Poem, by James Chadwick: 

North Carolina 7 

Duncan Hines Finds 31 Fine Eating Places 
In Tarheelia 8 

Cornell Graduates 8 

Hard Hotel Rules 8 

Uncle Tom Martin, Greensboro Waiter, Had 
Wonderful Memory 8 

Carolina City Hotel Withered After More- 
head City Started 8 

Former County Seats 8 

Old Davis Mill Site Again Hums in Meal- 
Feed Grinding 8 

Couldn't Get Customer's Meal Fine 
Enough; Sand Fixed Him 8 

Martin's Mill Probably Smallest Operating 
in State 8 

Hushpuppy Meal Mix 8 


Measurement-Significance of Labor Turn- 
over in Industry 8 



Trust Legislation 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 


That Social Security Number ._ 7 2 67 

Records by S. S. Numbers 
Change When Woman Marries 
Smiths First — Williams Next 
Can't Disclose Information 


Organization and Activities, N. C. Hotel 

Association 8 1-2 3 

Officers, Board of Directors, N. C. Hotel 

































Vol. No. Page 

Beginning of Banking in N. C, 1804-1860.... 7 1 

Cape Fear, New Bern Banks 
State Bank Chartered 
N. C. Notes in Many States 
'Monopoly" and "Aristocracy" 
Condition of Banks in 1835 
State Bank's Name Changed 
All Banks Closed by War 

Banks Capital Stock, Deposits and Note 

Circulation, 1835-1860 ..... 7 1 

Banks Capital and Note Circulation, 

1830, 1856, 1861. 7 1 

See Banking 
Trading Paths, Packs, in Early Merchan- 
dising in State 7 3-4 87 

Trade with Virginia-England 
Eastern N. C. Merchants 
Indian Trade Caravans 
Store on Roanoke River 
Merchants in Other Activities 
Early Stores Were Crude 
Salem Store Prospered 
Every Teamster a Trader 
Country Store Develops 


See Why "The E.S.C. Quarterly" 


N. C. Covered Employment and Wages 3rd 

Quarter, 1948 7 2 68 

Eliminate Overtime Work 
Mountain Area 

Employment Chart 
Piedmont Area 

Employment Chart 
Coastal Area 

Employment Chart 
Trends by Industry Groups 
Largest Increase in Trade 
Employment Security in North Carolina 8 3-4 124 


Soil Testing Basic for Efficient Fertilizer 

Usage 7 2 53 

See Fertilizer 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 

See Dunnagan, M. R. 


Hotels — Builders of Good Will; Historical 

Background 8 1-2 


Early Practices in State, Fertilizer Sale 

and Use 7 2 I> 

Guano Use Experimental 

Required in Post-War Era 

Credit in Cash Crops Only 

Hard Terms for Growers 

Cheaper, Better — Inspection 

Fertilizer Without Filler 
See Fertilizer 


See March, Mrs. Viola T. 


Printing Funds? 8 3-4 122 


Plant Food Council Promotes Improvement 

in Farming 7 2 

Purposes of the Council 
Promotes Improved Farming 
Notable Contributors 
More, Better Fertilizer 
See Agriculture 

Wholesale Asso. Promotes Interest, Mem- 
bers 7 3-4 134 

ublicalions of Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 


Biennial Report, 1936-1938. 

Biennial Report, 1938-1940. 

Biennial Report, 1940-1942. 

Biennial Report, 1942-1944. 

Biennial Report, 1944-1946. 

Biennial Report, 1946-1948. 

Biennial Report, 1948-1950. 

Annual Report, 1937. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Annual Report, 1938. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Annual Report, 1939. (Mimeographed.) 

Annual Report, 1940. (Mimeographed.) 

Annual Report, 1941. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Employment Security Law as amended (1949). 

Employment Security Neivs (mimeographed — 
weekly), started in 1936 by the North 
Carolina State Employment Service. Not 
issued during Calendar year 1945. 

North Carolina Employment Security Informa- 
tion, Volume I, Numbers 1-12, 1941. (Dis- 

The U. C. C. Quarterly 

Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 (1942-43) 
Vol. 2, Nos. 1,2,3 (1944) 

(No. 4 not issued) 
Index to Vols. 1 and 2 (1942-44) 
Vol. 3, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 (1945) 
Vol. 4, Nos. 1-2, 3, 4 (1946) 
Index to Vols. 3 and 4 (1945-46) 
(Included in Vol. 5, No. 2-3) 

The E. S. C. Quarterly (Name changed April 1, 

Vol. 5, Nos. 1, 2-3, 4 (1947) 
Vol. 6, No. 1, 2-3, 4 (1948) 
Index to Vols. 5 and 6 (1947-48) 

(Included in Vol. 7, No. 2) 
Vol. 7, No. 1, 2, 3-4 (1949) 
Vol. 8, No. 1-2 & 3-4 (1950) 
Index to Vols. 7 and 8 (1949-50) 
(Included in Vol. 9, No. 1-2) 
Vol. 9, No. 1-2 (1951) 
Rules and Regulation. Amended June 14, 1949. 
Index and Digest of Commission Decisions 1-600. 


Benefit Payments for Partial Unemployment. 
Employer Experience Rating in North Carolina. 
Information for Workers about Unemployment 


Employer's Certificate of Coverage and Notice to 

Notice to Workers — Partial Benefits. 
Are You Protected? 


(Current series, mimeographed.) 

Unemployment Compensation Trends (monthly). 
This report began with June 1943, and suc- 
ceeds three of the former monthly series 
reports : 

(1) Summary of Claims Activity 

(2) Summary of Local Office Operations 

(3) Number and Amount of Benefit Pay- 
ments, by Office (monthly). 

(Special Studies, 1944-1945-1946 by Bureau of 
Research and Statistics) 

Changes in Covered Employment 1939-1942-1944, 
by Industry 

Experience Rating in N. C, 1946 and 1947 

Experience Rating in N. C, 1948 (out of print) 

Experience Rating in N. C, 1949 and 1950 

Measurements of Industrialization and Employ- 
ment Stability 

Special Survey of Veterans Readjustment Al- 

Trends in Covered Employment and Weekly 
Wages 1942-1945 

Intrastate Labor Shifts 1942-1945 By Industry 

The Effect of War and Demobilization on Industry 
Turn-over in N. C. 

Evaluation of Local Employment Office and Per- 
sonnel Performance 1946 

Trends in Employment and Wages 1945-1946-1947 

The March of Industrialization 

Trends in Manufacture 1945-1946 

Trends in Employment by Size of Firm 1945-1946 

Analysis of Claims With Benefit Years Ending in 

N. C. Employment and Labor Force, 1947. 

Labor Resources in North Carolina for Industrial 
Development — Bimonthly release begin- 
ning January 15, 1951 

Employment and Wages by County and Industry, 
3rd Qtr. 1947 to 1st Qtr. 1950, Inc. 

Labor Market Information Brief by Industry and 

The Course of Inflation 

Economic Disorder Produces Economic Insecurity 

The Influence of Industry on Population Change 

Industry Turn-Over, 1946-1947 

Research in the Employment Security Program 

Measurements of Employment Instability 

Box 589, Raleigh, N. C. 

Official Business 

_TO _ 


Employment Security Mail 

(Sec. 35.4 (P) (I), P. L. & R.) 

The E. S. C. Quarterly 

VOLUME 9, NO. 3-4 


Vorth Carolina Manufactures More Tobacco Products Than 
\11 Other States Combined; Grows 67.6% of Bright Leaf 

These are 'principal tobacco products manufactured in North Carolina (See list, inside cover page.) 


— wnrrawfl from — 



Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 


PAGE 66 



The E. S. C. Quarterly 

(Formerly The U.C.C. Quarterly) 

Volume 9, Numbers 3-4 Summer-Fall, 1951 

Issued four times a year at Raleigh, N. C, by the 


Commissioners: Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax; Dr. Harry D. 
Wolf, Chapel Hill; R. Dave Hall, Belmont; Marion W. Heiss, 
Greensboro; C. A. Fink, Spencer; Bruce E. Davis, Charlotte. 

State Advisory Council: Col. A. L. Fletcher, Raleigh, chair- 
man; Mrs. Gaston A. Johnson, High Point; W. B. Horton, 
Yanceyville; C. P. Clark, Wilson; Dr. Alphonso Elder, Dur- 
ham; Corbett Scott, Asheboro; L. L. Ray, Raleigh; Joel B. 
Leighton, Rockingham; J. A. Scoggins, Charlotte. 


BROOKS PRICE Deputy Commissioner 


Unemployment Compensation Division 


North Carolina State Employment Service Division 

M. R. DUNNAGAN Editor 

Informational Service Representative 

Cover illustrations represent typical North Carolina 
industries or business activities under the Employ- 
ment Security Program. (See next column.) 

Sent free upon request to responsible individuals, agencies, 
organizations and libraries. Address: E. S. C. Informational 
Service, P. 0. Box 589, Raleigh, N. G. 

CONTENTS ~p~a~a* 

N. C. Tobacco Priority — N. C. Tobacco Products 66 

N. C. Tobacco Products Top Total of All Other States 67 

Factory Payrolls $56,000,000; Low Contribution Rates 68 

Accident Started N. C. on Road to Tobacco Supremacy 68 

N. C. Takes Tobacco Growing and Manufacturing Lead, 1850-1900 69 

Period of 'The Trust' — Duke and Group Form American, 1890-1911 71 

Reynolds Leads in Tobacco Production in North Carolina 75 

How the Camel Got on the Pack 79 

Ecusta Paper Corp. Produces 95% of U. S. Cigarette Papers 81 

American Has Large Tobacco Plants in Two N. C. Cities 82 

Liggett & Myers Has Ultra Modern Durham Tobacco Plant 86 

Brown & Williamson Produces Chewing and Snuff in State 89 

Taylor Brothers State's Only Chewing Plant Exclusively 91 

Cigar Production Limited — Greensboro Leads — El Moro 92 

Earlier Tobacco Manufacturing in N. C. Communities 93 

Durham, Winston-Salem, Reidsville, Greensboro, Statesville, Wilson, 

Rocky Mount, Raleigh, Kittrell, Yadkin, Stokes, Surry, Davie Counties 

N. C. Developed Tobacco Machinery, equipment, Supplies 100 

American Machine Produces Tobacco Industry Equipment 101 

By William N. McDonald, III 
Wright Machinery Co. Makes Tobacco Industry Machinery 103 

By John L. Moorhead 

Golden Belt Makes Tobacco Bags, Print Cloth in Durham 103 

Directory Lists 295 N. C. Tobacco Factories in 1881-82 104 

State College Helps Tobacco Grower in Principal Crop.../ 105 

By R. R. Bennett and S. N. Hawks 
Marketing Requires Skill, Experience ; Specialists Aid 106 

By J. H. Cyrus 
Stabilization Group Holds Price to 90% of Parity 107 

By L. T. Weeks 
N. C. Man Started Acre Allotments, Marketing Quotas 108 

By G. T. Scott 
Wider Markets Developed by Leaf Tobacco Exporters 109 

By J. C. Lanier 
Tobacco Associates Expand Flue-Cured Weed Markets 110 

By M. A. Morgan 
Association Regulates Marketing of Flue-Cured Tobacco 112 

By Fred S. Royster 

300 Tobacco Auction Warehouses 112 

About 100 Leaf Processing Plants in N. C. Market Towns 113 

Amendments in 1951 Increase Benefits, Reduce Taxes 114 

By W. D. Holoman 
Experience Rating Gives Added Savings of $3,500,000 116 

By Hugh M. Raper 
ESC Seeks Fill-in Work for Seasonal Tobacco Workers 118 

By Blanche Lancaster 
N. C. Has Ample Labor Reserves for Industrial Needs .... 119 

By Mrs. Edith D. Hutchins 
Female Employment Should Continue Gain in N. C, 1951 120 

By E. Stanhope Dunn 

Bull Durham Plant Capacity Exceeds 400 Million Bags 121 

Duke Endowment Aids Health, Education, Religion 122 

One Firm Produces Snuff; Started in N. C. 80 Years Ago 122 

Changes — Additions — Corrections, to Publishing Issue .. 122 

NOTE : Articles not credited, with by-line, written by M. R. Dunnagan, 

Editor, some with help of employer representatives. 


Within her borders North Carolina has only thre 
cigarette manufacturing companies. They are Rey 
nolds in Winston-Salem, American in Durham an. 
Reidsville, and Liggett & Myers in Durham. Thes 
three firms in North Carolina manufacture 55.2 per 
cent of the nation's cigarettes (Based on tobacc 
tax stamps sold). These three firms manufactur 
smoking tobacco in the State. One of these and tw 
others, all in Winston-Salem, manufacture chewin 
tobacco — Reynolds, Brown & Williamson and Taylol 
Brothers. One firm manufactures snuff — Brown J 
Williamson. But, within this State these five firm! 
manufacture 34.8 percent of the nation's smokinl 
and chewing tobacco and snuff. One firm, El Morj 
in Greensboro, manufactures cigars in North Caro- 
lina (with three or four other firms with less thai 
eight employees) . Cigar stamp taxes in North Care 
lina amount to only one-third of one percent of thi 
nation's total. 

Yet, with such a small amount of cigars and a re][ 
atively small amount of snuff, North Carolina manuj 
facturers produce enough cigarettes, smoking an 
chewing tobacco to give this State the distinction oi 
manufacturing more tobacco products than all ol 
the other 47 states combined — 52.8 percent of th 
nation's total. Last fiscal year North Carolina mar 
ufacturers paid Uncle Sam $701,593,907.64 foS 
stamps to place on its tobacco products, agains 
$1,328,464,346.23 paid by all manufacturers in a 
of the 48 states combined. This all refers to tobacc 
products sold within the boundaries of the Unite 
States. Products sold in foreign countries do ncL 
require the stamp tax. 

And, North Carolina grows more than two-thirdJ 
67.6 percent, of all the bright leaf grown in th 
United States — the favorite type for cigarettes an 
an ingredient for chewing and smoking tobaccos. 

Verily — the Golden Weed is a broad Golde j 
Stream in North Carolina's economy. 



North Carolina produces a majority of the popular branch j 
of cigarettes, chewing and smoking tobaccos and other t< j 
bacco products including snuff and cigars. The front pag \ 
picture shows samples of the principal brands manufactui j 
ed in this State as included in the following list: 

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. — Cigarettes — Camel, Cavalieiil 
Smoking Tobaccos — Prince Albert, George Washington, Oiil 
Advertiser, Stud, and Top; Chewing Tobaccos — Cash Valv I 
(scrap) — plug — Brown's Mule, Days Work, Apple Sun Cull 
ed, Reyynolds 1 Natural Leaf, Reynolds' Sun Cured, Cujjl 
Schnapps, Honey Cut, Top — twists — Winesap, Micky Twisll 
Strater's Natural Leaf Twist. 

American Tobacco Co. — Cigarettes — Lucky Strike, Pal I 
Mall, Herbert Tareyton, Johnnie Walker, Sweet Caporal j 
Omar, Lord Salisbury, Melachrino, Sovereign, One Elever I 
Smoking Tobaccos — Bull Durham, Drum, Victory, Marylanj | 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. — Cigarettes — Cliesterfiel<J| 
Patima, Piedmont, Homerun, Picayune, Coupon; Smokin 1 
Tobaccos — Duke's Mixture, Country Gentleman and BuffaL 1 

Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. — Chewing Tobaccos- I 
Bloodhound, Red Juice, Sun Cured; Snuff — Tube Rose. 

Taylor Bros. — Chewing Tobaccos — Taylor's Natural Lea J 
Taylor Made, Black Maria, Red Coon, Ripe Peaches, Peac \\ 
& Honey, Bull of the Woods, Bohannon's Favorite, Foo I 
prints, Lucky Joe, Ram's Horn, Taylor's Best and Old Taylc j 
Twist. (Some by tags and brands only). 

El Moro Cigar Company — Cigars — El Moro, El-Rees-S I 
Spanish Maid Crooks, Robert Fulton. 

(Arranged by Mabel F. LaBarr — Photo by Robert M. <3 



PAGE 67 

N. C. Tobacco Products Top Total of All Other States 

North Carolina, again, has achieved the enviable 
istinction of manufacturing more tobacco products 
lan all of the other 47 states in the Nation combin- 
I. This superiority is indicated in the amount of 
samp sales made by Uncle Sam in the fiscal year 
nded June 30, 1950, and includes only that part of 
le manufactured tobacco products which are sold 
l the United States. Tobacco products sold in for- 
ign countries do not require the Federal stamp and 
re not subject to the Federal tax. 

North Carolina manufacturers paid Uncle Sam 
701,593,907.64 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
950. Manufacturers throughout the nation, includ- 
lg those in North Carolina, paid $1,328,464,346.23, 
y which it is seen that North Carolina paid more 
nan 52.8 percent of the total amount paid in the 
Inited States. This also shows that North Carolina 
roducers paid nearly $75,000,000 more than the 
ther 47 states combined, their total being $626,- 
70,438.57. (The $700,721,441.14 shown for North 
larolina in the table below which gives 52.2 percent 
f the nation's total was arrived at by combining 
everal kinds of tobacco taxes, but evidently does not 
iclude some small items ($772,466.50) which shows 
p in the total.) 


Cigarettes, of course, made the big item for North 
Carolina in stamp taxes last fiscal year. This State's 


Information has been secured for this issue from many sources, including 
few copyrighted publications, from which special permission has been se- 
jred, as well as newspapers, individuals and other sources. Credit in many 
f the items is given those who supplied the information. Thanks are extended 
i all who have contributed and cooperated. 

THE BRIGHT-TOBACCO INDUSTRY, 1860-1929, by Nannie May Tilley, 
opyright 1948, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 

HISTORY OF DURHAM, by Dr. W. K. Boyd, Copyright, 1925, Duke Uni- 
srsity Press, Durham. 

THE STORY OF TOBACCO IN AMERICA, by Joseph C. Robert, Copyright 
949, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 

ight by John K. Winkler, 1942, Random House, New York. 

THE TOBACCO KINGDOM, by Joseph Clarke Robert, Copyright 1938, Duke 
niversity Press, Durham. 

Reynolds Feature Articles, by Chester S. Davis, in May 7 and 14, 1950, 
.sues of Winston-Salem Journal and Sentinel. 

Edwin Gill, Collector Internal Revenue, Dist. of N. C, Greensboro, and 
harles J. Valaer, Deputy Commissioner, Bureau of Internal Revenue, Wash- ■, 
igton, D. C. j f. 

three big manufacturers paid Uncle Sam $685,816,- 
639.11, or 55.2 percent of the national total of $1,- 
242,844,931.81 in cigarette stamp taxes. All of the 
other 47 states paid 44.8 percent of the nation's total, 
or $557,028,292.70. (This is for regular sized cigar- 
ettes, not including a negligible amount — $5,861.43 
in the nation — for over-sized cigarettes) . 

In smoking and chewing tobaccos and snuff (lump- 
ed together for tax purposes) , North Carolina manu- 
facturers produce more than one-third of the na- 
tion's total, stamp taxes amounting last year to 
$14,762,680.30. This is 34.8 per cent of the nation's 
total— $42,457,282.20. Since this State has only one 
snuff manufacturer, a relatively small percentage of 
the. total, the percentages of smoking and chewing 
tobacco presumably are larger than for all three. 

And, North Carolina maintains this supremacy 
with a very minor contribution from cigar stamp 
taxes, which, nation-wide, is almost as large as smok- 
ing, chewing and snuff combined. North Carolina 
cigar manufacturers, with only one firm of any size, 
paid only $141,869.73 in cigar stamp taxes last fiscal 
year, which is almost exactly one-third of one per- 
cent of the nation's total of $42,457,282.20. 

North Carolina has manufactured more than half 
of the nation's tobacco products before. In 1930, 
this State paid 56.9 percent of the nation's stamp 
taxes. In 1935 the percentage of the nation's total 
was 50.2. And, although records are readily avail- 
able to us in 5-year periods only, the total must 
have been above 50 percent for North Carolina for 
other years before and during that five-year period, 
1935-40. But the ratio dropped to the upper 40's 
for a few years. Then it went ahead of the nation 
again, 52.8 percent last fiscal year. 


Before the turn of the century North Carolina was 
producing a normal share of the nation's cigarettes. 
In 1900 this State produced 8.7 percent of the na- 
tion's" stamp' tax revenue, or $312,745.25. The per- 
centage continued to gain, but the national produc- 
tion dropped in the next decade. In 1910 North 
Carolina manufacturers paid only $3,510.00 in cig- 

robacco Products manufactured in North Carolina, including cigars, cigarettes, chewing and snuff, total for State, total for 
lation, and State's percentage of nation's total from 1900 to 1950 (fiscal years) at five year intervals as compiled from annual 
eports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. 

Year Cigars Cigarettes Chewing-Snuff Total-N. C. Total-U. S. N. C. % of U. S. 

900 $ 51,309.79 $ 312,745.25 $ 4,798,529.80 S 5,162,584.84 S 59,355,084.27 8.7 

905 48,418.93 96,444.00 4,113,332.43 4,258,496.61 45,659,910.50 9.3 

910 41,478.45 3,510.00 5,728,317.66 5,773,306.11 58,118,457.03 9.9 

915 45,249.01 4,541,250.00 8,436,626.52 13,023,125.53 79,957,373.54 16.3 

920 208,754.51 86,296.125.00 21,637,787.40 108,142,666.91 295,809,355.44 36.6 

325 108,357.68 125,289,858.54 21,278,444.54 146,735,190.76 345,247,210.96 42.5 

330 26,103.88 233,164,412.19 23,100,937.41 256,332,770.98 450,339,060.50 56.9 

)35 52,717.40 209,163,779.03 21,497,622.75 230,773,231.58 459,178,625.46 50.2 

)40.__ 76,523.78 262,611,793.80 22,484,147.75 285,184,784.53 608,518,443.59 46.9 

145 140,676.19 399,952,771.58 20,754,842.09 420,848,709.86 932,144,822.32 45.1 

'50 141,869.73 £85,816,639.11 14,762,680.30 700,721,441.14 1,328,464,346.23 52.2 

Note : Cigars are those weighing more than three pounds per 1000 — smaller cigars negligible ; cigarettes are those weighing not more than three pounds per 

)00 — larger cigarettes negligible. Small cigars and large cigarettes included in totals. 

PAGE 68 


Summer-fall, 1951 

arette stamp taxes. The Federal rate of taxes had 
been reduced and that was a period of low produc- 
tion, yet this State's manufacturers paid 9.9 percent 
of the nation's total that year. In 1915 a huge jump 
was shown. N. C. cigarette taxes went above $4,- 
500,000. Camels had made their appearance and 
Chesterfields and Lucky Strikes were then being 
produced in the State. 

The jump from 1915 to 1920 was from $4,540,000 
to $86,000,000. In the 30 years from 1920 to 1950, 
the increase was more than 150-fold in cigarette 
stamp taxes in North Carolina. 

On the agricultural end, North Carolina farmers 
grow more than two-thirds of the bright leaf (67.6 

percent last year) which is the principal ingredient 
of cigarettes and an important part of smoking and 
chewing tobaccos. 

Virginia, still, is North Carolina's closest competi 
tor. Last year Virginia paid Uncle Sam $321,912, 
712.38 in tobacco stamp taxes, less than half of North 
Carolina's $701,593,907.64. Kentucky, last year 
paid $189,878,389.65 in stamp taxes, more than hall 
of Virginia's amount. 

In fact, the three states of North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky paid last year $1,213,385,009.67 
or 91.3 percent of the nation's entire tobacco stamj 
tax of $1,328,464,346.23. 

Factory Payrolls $56,000,000; Low Contribution Rates 

Six North Carolina tobacco manufacturers paid 
their employees a total of $55,924,354.93 for work 
in this State in 1950, or an average weekly wage of 
$51.56 to the average of 20,859 workers employed. 
These include Reynolds, manufacturing cigarettes, 
chewing and smoking tobaccos ; American, producing 
cigarettes and smoking tobaccos; Liggett & Myers, 
making cigarettes and smoking tobaccos; Brown & 
Williamson, chewing tobacco and snuff; Taylor 
Brothers, chewing tobacco only, and El Moro Cigar 
Co., cigars only. 

The figures mean that the average weekly wage 
of tobacco workers of $51.56 is 12.2 percent higher 
than the average weekly wage of all North Carolina 
workers covered by the State's Employment Security 
Law which last year was $46.80. 

These figures, however, are a bit confusing, due 
to reporting methods of the various firms involved. 
One or two companies have their tobacco buying 
firm, so that no buying and processing workers are 
included in their reports to the Employment Se- 
curity Commission. Other large firms count their 
processing workers with manufacturing workers. 

The processing workers (stemming and redrying) 
are seasonal workers, employed less than six month; I 
in the year. So, at a guess, probably an average o: ! 
10 percent of the average number of the worker.';] 
reported are seasonal workers. 

Seasonal workers also influence the rate of contrilj 
butions paid to the Commission under the Employe: I 
Experience Rating Plan. Many of them file claim;) 
for unemployment benefits when the season ends: 
thus increasing the amount of benefits paid and tend I 
ing to increase the rates of contributions the tobacajj 
firms are required to pay under the formula used. I 

The six tobacco firms last year had taxable pay 1 
rolls, under the E.S. Law, of $49,909,753.85 (amoun I 
of salaries and wages above $3,000.00 a year is no f 
subject to the tax) and paid to the CommissioJ 
$659,474.02. This is at a composite rate of 1.3 per 
cent of payrolls, which is appreciably lower thai: 
the average 1950 State-wide rate on all liable em 
ployers of 1.59. So, even with the payments tfj 
seasonal workers during off-season periods, thest 
tobacco manufacturers have earned a rate lowe[ 
than the State average. 

Accident Started N. C. on Road to Tobacco Supremacy 

An accident started a series of several events 
which allowed North Carolina to surpass Virginia, 
both in growing and in manufacturing tobacco, thus 
becoming a national leader in growing bright leaf 
and in manufacturing tobacco products. Virginia, 
with her aristocratic plantation owners, had domi- 
nated tobacco growing from the founding of James- 
town, in which laws were passed prohibiting citizens 
from growing tobacco in the streets and on public 
lots. The Albemarle section of northeastern North 
Carolina was known to Virginians as Rogue's Har- 
bor and the Virginia Colonial Assembly enacted laws 
which prohibited shipment of the so-called inferior 
tobaccos from this area into Virginia — except in ,. 

payment of debts owed Virginians by North Car(j 
lina growers. This continued until an accident star* 
ed turning the tide. 

This accident occurred in 1856 on the farm c 
Elisha Slade in Caswell County, five miles north c 
Yanceyville and only some 10 miles from the Virgini; 
line. Stephen, a Slade slave, was curing tobaccj 
in the old manner by maintaining a wood fire on trJ 
ground in the tobacco barn. He fell asleep and tti 
fire burned down to a few coals. The wood was tcj 
wet to catch readily, so Stephen ran to the charcoij 
pit at the nearby blacksmith shop, got a sack (| 
charcoal and put it on the fire. It caught readilj 
and he continued to use it. He and his owner noticej 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 69 

;hat the tobacco was curing up a bright yellow in- 
stead of the usual dark brown color. They were 
leased and continued using charcoal. 


That was the beginning of the bright leaf and gave 
ts name to the Bright Leaf Belt. In half a dozen 
>r more North Carolina counties and two or three in 
/irginia in the next few years, tobacco curing was 
•evolutionized by this method. Later, of course, 
lues were built in tobacco barns to prevent smoke 
rom reaching the tobacco leaves. Previously all 
obacco had turned dark, was heavy and gummy 
md was grown in rich dark soil. It was found that 
obacco grown on the poor sandy clay soil in North 
Carolina lent itself readily to the new curing process 
,nd a brighter and lighter leaf was produced. It 
vas also found that the use of commercial fertilizer 
>n the poorer land gave the tobacco plant the plant 
ood needed for this type of tobacco. 

It was then that North Carolina began wresting 
rom Virginia her long held supremacy in tobacco 
Towing. Other improvements, such as the use of 
anvas over the tobacco plant beds and finally prim- 
ng tobacco, that is, stripping it from the stalk as 
t ripens in the field, by which means lower degrees 
f temperature would cure the leaf and the stem 
without having to cure the stalk, added impetus to 
obacco growing. 

Along with improvements in handling leaf tobacco 
ame the urge of many growers to transform their 
2af into chewing and smoking products. Within 
years of the accident which gave bright leaf, at 
jast 350 factories were or had been in operation in 
Torth Carolina. In fact, a directory of manufac- 
turers, compiled in 1881-82 and published in the 
Jnited States Tobacco Journal, listed 295 individual 
aanufacturers. It seems certain that fully 400 dif- 
erent firms had been engaged in tobacco manufac- 
turing during the last half of the last century and a 
ew years at the beginning of the present century. 


Around 1900, following the organization of the 
American Tobacco Co. by James B. Duke and other 
arge manufacturers, the era of consolidation and 
limination was ushered in. Promising firms and 
rands of tobacco were purchased by the larger 
rms, practically all of which in the process became 

units of the American Tobacco Co. These included 
W. Duke & Sons Co. and Blackwell Tobacco Co. in 
Durham, the F. R. Penn Tobacco Co. in Reidsville 
and the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. in Winston- 
Salem. These and other larger firms also had their 
periods of buying up smaller firms and brands in 
their areas. 

As the result of the dissolution of the American 
Tobacco Co. in 1911 by the Supreme Court of the 
United States on the ground that it was a combina- 
tion in restraint of trade in violation of the Sherman 
Anti-Trust Law, three large tobacco corporations 
were established in North Carolina and are still 
growing and prospering. These are the American 
Tobacco Co., with plants in Durham and Reidsville ; 
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co., with plants in Dur- 
ham, and R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. with all of its 
manufacturing operations centered in Winston- 
Salem. One relatively large firm, Brown & William- 
son Tobacco Co., survived until 1927, when it was 
purchased by the British-American Tobacco Co. and 
was reorganized as Brown & Williamson Tobacco 
Corp. It still manufactures several chewing tobacco 
brands and snuff in Winston-Salem, but its cigarette 
and smoking tobacco activities have been transfer- 
red to plants in Louisville, Ky., and Petersburg, Va. 


The only surviving independent tobacco manu- 
facturing firm in North Carolina, other than a few 
cigar plants, is Taylor Brothers, Inc., of Winston- 
Salem, which continues to manufacture plug and 
twist chewing tobacco exclusively. This firm has 
bought up about a dozen or more smaller tobacco 
firms. A few other firms weathered the competi- 
tion until recent years, including F. M. Bohannan 
& Co., purchased in 1942, and Whitaker-Harvey To- 
bacco Co., purchased in 1912, both by Taylor Bros. ; 
R. P. Richardson, Jr., & Co., Reidsville, purchased 
in 1926, and J. G. Flynt Tobacco Co., purchased in 
1923, both by Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. ; 
J. H. McElwee, Statesville, which manufactured 
smoking tobacco until around 1933 when the firm 
suspended operations; L. Ash, Statesville, manufac- 
tured chewing tobacco 45 years until 1935 and the 
firm is still manufacturing by contract now outside 
the State. Its popular surviving brand is Full 

N. C. Takes Tobacco Growing and Manufacturing Lead 


For many years during the first half of the 19th 
entury Virginia was the principal tobacco growing 
nd manufacturing state. In only a few places was 
obacco manufacturing started in North Carolina 
»y 1850. Milton, within a few miles of the Virginia 
ine in northeastern Caswell County, and Henderson, 

some 25 miles south of the Virginia line, are two 
points mentioned around the middle of the century 
as having tobacco manufacturing plants. Before 
1850 and for several years thereafter numbers of 
farmers established small plants to manufacture 
their own tobacco and sometimes that of neighbors. 

PAGE 70 



Before and after the middle of the century many 
growers would prepare their own chewing tobacco 
in crude but effective manner. They would take a 
green maple, poplar, birch, elm and other types of 
logs containing a sweet sap, bore numerous auger 
holes in them, fill these holes with leaf tobacco, tamp 
it in close and drive a blunt-nosed peg into the top 
of the hole, packing the tobacco still closer. After 
a month or two, the log would be split open and 
these hunks of sap-sweetened tobacco taken out and 
stored for the family chewing. 

Around 1850 small factories began to operate in 
villages and rural areas and increased in number 
during the decade. Operation of the North Carolina 
Railroad in the middle 1850s gave impetus to the 
infant industry providing a method of shipping in 
leaf tobacco and shipping out the tobacco products. 
The war halted this activity but also increased the 
demand for tobacco products for the men in military 
service. A small plant in Durham, robbed of smok- 
ing tobacco by northern soldiers, recovered rapidly 
when these same soldiers ordered this type of smok- 
ing tobacco after they had reached home. By 1870 
numbers of small rural plants had been established 
for manufacturing the principal product, chewing 


The machinery used in that period was crude and 
the process was slow. The leaf tobacco was flavored 
with a mixture of licorice, molasses and sometimes 
heavy sugar concentrates in water with which the 
leaf was sprinkled or into which it was dipped. The 
leaf was then stemmed and rolled into lumps which 
were capped with bright unsweetened leaves. These 
lumps were spread on dryers and dried, usually in 
the sun or in a dry house by fire on cloudy or wet 
days. They were then packed away to allow them 
to come to order. Then the lumps were placed in 
wooden frames with wooden sinkers and pressure 
was applied, usually by the screw or lever process, 
later by hydraulic pressure, to flatten them and pro- 
duce the plug. These plugs were then packed in 
wooden boxes and pressure was again applied. The 
boxes remained under pressure for a period to pre- 
vent puffing and then were nailed up. After a few 
weeks they were ready for the market. Because 
these wooden frames would split and get out of 
shape under pressure, steel frames with flat metal 
surfaces on the sinkers were developed and proved 
much more satisfactory. Hydraulic presses were 
also developed, making the prizing process easier. 

Before the days of railroads and even afterward 
for several years, the principal method of market- 
ing was by team and covered wagon. A load of this 
boxed tobacco, 1,000 to 1,500 pounds usually, was 
stamped and loaded. The salesman, with a boy as 
driver-cook, started out and would call on rural 
merchants along the route. These wagons were 
equipped with feed boxes for feeding and buckets 
for watering the stock. In the front of the wagon 
was a provision box, also used as a seat for the 

salesman and the driver. It contained sections for 
salt, sugar, flour, meal, skillets, tin plates and cups, 
knives and forks, along with meat, eggs and other 
edibles. The food could be replenished at stores 
along the route. When night came, the wagon would 
be pulled to a campsite on the side of the road, the 
horses fed and watered, and the driver prepared thef 
evening meal. The two would sleep on quilts on 
top of the load of tobacco. 


As a result of North Carolina's breaking Vir 
ginia's monopoly in growing tobacco by the discov- 
ery of the bright leaf method of curing tobacco 
North Carolina also made extensive inroads in to- 
bacco manufacturing and finally forged ahead oi 
Virginia. It is a bit ironic that many of the Nortr 
Carolina leaders in tobacco manufacturing came tc 
this State from Virginia. These included Reynolds 
Penn and many others. In Durham the Dukes wert 
native sons, but in the main, Virginians blazed the 
tobacco manufacturing trail in North Carolina. 

Early factories were established in the first tiei 
of North Carolina counties south of the Virginit 
line. These included Surry, Stokes, Rockingham 
Caswell, Person, Granville and Vance. The seconc 
tier in which the larger plants were established in 
eluded Durham, Orange, Alamance, Guilford, For 
syth, Yadkin and even Wilkes. Later manufacturer! 
established plants in Wilson, Wake, Davie, Rowan 
Iredell and went on westward into Catawba, Cald 
well, and Buncombe counties. Only a few plant; 
were ever established outside of these counties. 

By 1881-82 North Carolina had listed 295 tobacc< 
manufacturing plants. This listing was made b} 
Oscar Hammerstein, editor of the United States To 
bacco Journal. 

This directory with corrections and counties ia 
which the plants were located in "The Bright! 
Tobacco Industry, 1860-1929" by Nannie May Tille| 
and published by the University of North Carolin;i 
Press, shows many interesting facts. It reveals thai 
these 295 factories were located in 35 North Carot 
lina counties. Davie County topped the list with 2!j 
factories. Forsyth and Rockingham had 27 eachj 
Surry and Vance had 25 each, while Granville ant 
Stokes had 22 each. In order Yadkin had 16 plants 
Durham 12, Catawba 10, Iredell 9, Orange, Persois 
and Buncombe, 7 each ; Guilford and Rowan 6 eachj 
Wilkes 5, Mecklenburg, Alamance and Caswell, 1 
each ; Cleveland and Caldwell, 3 each ; Franklin an! 
Wake, 2 each ; while one plant each was located in thj 
following counties : Cumberland, Robeson, New Harj 
over, Davidson, Randolph, Halifax, Craven, Her1 
ford, Lenoir, Greene, and Rutherford. 


It is entirely possible that in the 20 years whic 
followed that this number reached 500. Certain! 
it must have exceeded 400. This is indicated by th 
facts as given for one county. When this director 
was compiled, Forsyth County was shown to hav 

Summer-fall, i 95 1 


PAGE 71 

lad 27 factories. In 1894 another directory showed 
;hat Winston-Salem alone had 37 and this list does 
lot include the names of some few dozen factories 
mown to have been operating in the period following 
;he time of that enumeration. It is evident, there- 
fore, that Winston-Salem had between 80 and 85 fac- 
;ories up to the period around the turn of the century, 
ncluding combinations and successors. 

After the American Tobacco Co. was organized 
md began its policy of buying up or eliminating 
smaller plants by competition, the number began to 

dwindle. Other prosperous manufacturers followed 
a similar policy. The result is that North Carolina 
has only three cigarette manufacturing firms in 
three North Carolina cities, two smoking and chew- 
ing tobacco firms in two of the same cities and only 
two cigar manufacturing firms that have as many 
as eight employees while 45 tobacco processing firms 
are in operation in North Carolina. Many firms, 
however, have grown to such an extent that North 
Carolina took the lead from Virginia about half a 
century ago and has continued to hold that suprem- 
acy against any state in the nation. 

Period of 'The Trust' — Duke and Group Form American 


After extensive conferences arranged by James 
3uchanan Duke with other leading tobacco manufac- 
;urers in the nation, the American Tobacco Co. was 
>rganized late in 1889 and was incorporated under 
Sew Jersey laws as of January 31, 1890. For 
;wenty-one years, until its dissolution by order of 
;he United States Supreme Court, the American To- 
Dacco Co. dominated tobacco manufacturing and dis- 
;ribution throughout the United States. The cor- 
poration was capitalized at $25,000,000. This cor- 
joration acquired all of the plants, brands, good will, 
chattels and other interests owned by the individual 
mits in the consolidation. 

Ten individuals worked out the consolidation 
3lans. These included James B. Duke, Benjamin N. 
Duke and George W. Watts of W. Duke Sons & Co. ; 
Lewis Ginter, John Polk and George Arients of Allen 
& Ginter ; F. S. Kinney and W. H. Butler of Kinney 
robacco Co.; William S. Kimbell of W. S. Kimbell 
& Co. and Charles G. Emery of Goodwin & Co. J. B. 
Duke was elected president, John Polk and W. S. 
Kimbell, vice-presidents, W. H. Butler, secretary, 
and Charles G. Emery, treasurer. When New York 
iawyers advised that certain legal proposals could 
not be accomplished, Mr. Duke advised that he would 
bring a lawyer to New York who could accomplish 
them. This man was Williamson Whitehead Fuller, 
Durham attorney, who handled legal details for the 
corporation from the beginning and for 20-odd years 


J. B. Duke, founder and president of the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Co., through his first 21 years as presi- 
dent, developed into the greatest tobacco manufac- 
turing, distributing and organizing genius that has 
moved across the American stage. James B. Duke 
was born December 13, 1856, on the farm operated 
by his father, Washington Duke, a few miles north 
of Durham. He had one older half brother, Brodie 
Lawrence Duke, born September 17, 1846, and an 
older full brother, Benjamin Newton Duke, born 
early in 1855. Washington Duke's second wife died 

while her children were young and they were brought 
up by their Aunt Elizabeth Roney. 

When Washington Duke, 45, returned from service 
in the War Between the States, he had a 300 acre 
farm, two blind mules, a quantity of leaf tobacco and 
50/ in good money. He gathered his children to- 
gether, sold his farm and rented a part of it on 
which, to raise a crop. . Meanwhile, he thrashed out 
his leaf tobacco, sifted, sacked and carried it by 
wagon on a trip to the eastern part of the State. He 
bartered the tobacco successfully, returned home, and 
decided to continue and enlarge his production. In 
1866 he manufactured 15,000 pounds, selling it at 
30/ to 40/' a pound. Six years later, in 1872, he and 
his sons produced 125,000 pounds of tobacco. 

At 14 years of age, in 1870, J. B. Duke was super- 
intendent of the home factory. He entered Guilford 
College, but soon afterwards stopped. Later he at- 
tended Eastman National School of Business at 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., completing the bookkeeping 
and accounting courses in six months when 18 years 
old. He returned home and installed a double entry 
bookkeeping method in the plant. In 1874 Washing- 
ton Duke and two sons moved to Durham and built 
a new tobacco factory. The older, Brodie, who had 
started producing tobacco in Durham in 1869, occu- 
pied a part of the new building. Four years later, 
a formal partnership was arranged, George W. 
Watts buying an interest with the four Duke mem- 
bers of the firm. In 1880 R. H. Wright bought Wash- 
ington Duke's interest and became outside salesman. 
J. B. Duke had charge of manufacturing, the other 
members of the firm handling the other duties. 


Although the firm was meeting success, J. B. Duke 
was not satisfied. He felt that they could not com- 
pete with Bull Durham, manufactured by W. T. 
Blackwell Tobacco Co. He decided to enter a new 
field, the manufacture of cigarettes, which had been 
produced in the nation by other manufacturers for 
about 12 years. He established a cigarette depart- 
ment, employed J. M. Seigel to handle it and brought 

PAGE 71 


Summer-fall, 1 951 

about 300 Jews to Durham to do the work by hand. 
In 1884 he installed Bonsake cigarette making ma- 
chines and improved their operation in his plant. 

The cost of producing cigarettes was thus reduced 
to less than half of the hand production cost. A 
heavy reduction was made about this time in the 
Federal tax on cigarettes and the price of a package 
of ten cigarettes was reduced from 10^ to 5^. In 
1884 a new brick plant was erected, later the Liggett 
& Myers plant. With J. B. Duke's manufacturing 
ability and R. H. Wright's salesmanship cigarettes 
soon became popular throughout this country and 
were sold in large quantities on three eastern hemi- 
sphere continents. But there was a fly in the oint- 
ment. The Blackwell firm also started manufac- 
turing cigarettes and continued a strong competitor. 

About that time J. B. Duke was looking for wider 
horizons and was seeing visions of a huge tobacco 
manufacturing and distributing organization. He 
held several conferences with various of his com- 
petitors. Some of them joined in his plan readily, 
others held out. Finally ten men of five large cor- 
porations agreed on his plan and formed the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Co. Practically all of the larger firms 
entered the corporation later, either voluntarily or 
after persuasion and pressure. The head office was 
moved to New York City. 

James Buchanan Duke, native of North Carolina, founder and 

president for many years of the American Tobacco Go. 

and other important tobacco organizations. 


In 1898 the Continental Tobacco Co. was charter- 
ed in New Jersey with an authorized capital of $75,- 
000,000 and J. B. Duke became president at a salary 
of $50,000 a year. In that same year the National 
Cigarette and Tobacco Co., which had been purchas- 
ed in 1896 by Thomas Fortune Ryan, Wall Street 
financier, and his associates, had bought control of 
Blackwell's Bull Durham plant. Ryan and associ- 
ates consolidated these firms into the Union Tobacco 
Co. of America with a capital stock of $22,000,000. 
Ryan, also in 1899, got an option to buy Liggett & 
Myers Tobacco Co. for $11,000,000 for the purpose 
of fighting the American Tobacco Co. However, Mr. 
Duke came to terms with Mr. Ryan, resulting in an 
agreement by which the American Tobacco Co. 
bought Union and also took up the option in the 
purchase of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. In these 
trades, Ryan and his associates made a clear profit 
of $20,000,000 in a few months. 

After a few years in Durham and in the Ware- 
Kramer Tobacco Co. in Wilson, Percival Smith Hill, 
Philadelphia, who later was to become an important 
figure in the American Tobacco Co. after the disso- 
lution, was made a vice-president of the American 
and put in charge of sales throughout the nation. 
Rufus Lenoir Patterson, native of Salem, who was 
principal inventor of an automatic Packing and La- 
beling Machine in Durham in 1896, was made a 
vice-president of the American at 27 years of age. 
Later he organized and headed the American Ma- 
chine and Foundry Co. which was engaged in manu- 
facturing machinery used in manufacturing tobacco 
and which became a subsidiary of the American To- 
bacco Co. Today under direction of the founder's 
son, Morehead Patterson, this company is continu- 
ing independently the production and development 
of tobacco manufacturing machinery. Recently this 
firm established a laboratory in Raleigh for work in 
developing further cigarette and tobacco curing ma-J 


R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. proved one of the hard-f 
est of the independent firms for the American To 
bacco Co. to acquire, and remained undigested.! 
Earlier R. J. Reynolds had sided with the tobacco 
farmers in their opposition to "The Trust". He hadj 
made the statement that "if Buck Duke tries to swai 
low me, he'll have the bellyache for the rest of hisf 
life". At that time Reynolds was making 5,000,000 
pounds of chewing tobacco a year. Finally Reynolds 
succumbed and the corporation was re-organized in 
1898 under a New Jersey charter. American in- 
terests owned a control of the stock. Mr. Reynolds 
explained that he had joined the opposition in order 
to find out what was being done and to get in some 
licks on the inside. It is definite that Mr. Duke 
stood in awe of the independent Reynolds and allow- 
ed him to operate without interference. 

By the end of 1900 the Duke interests were manu- 
facturing 92.7% of the cigarettes, 62% of the chew- 




PAGE 73 

lg tobacco and 59.2% of the smoking tobacco pro- 
need in the United States. Thus the American's 
mtrol had extended to all tobacco products except 
gars. The next year the American Cigar Co. was 
icorporated with a capital stock of $10,000,000 and 
Dught up cigar firms producing one-sixth of the 
ational output. Mr. Duke was elected president, 
l that year the American firms did a business of 
125,000,000 and had approximately 100,000 em- 


The United Cigar Stores Co. was organized in 
900 by J. B. Duke and associates who bought up 
id established hundreds of retail stores in principal 
ties of the country, driving out the smaller units. 
r ithin five years 500 such stores were operating 
id annual business had reached $12,000,000 a year, 
efore the 1929 crash, this organization had 2,500 
;ores and was doing a business of $2,000,000 a 
eek. The American set up plants in Australia, 
ew Zealand, Canada, Germany, China and Japan, 
ames A. Thomas, from Orange and Rockingham 
imilies, was handling China and developed a tre- 
mendous business in that country. George Garland 
lien, native of Warrenton, N. C, handled the ex- 
3rt business. 

About this time Mr. Duke and his Wall Street 
nancial associates decided to invade England. With 
vo men, W. R. Harris and Caleb C. Dula, accom- 
anying him, Mr. Duke landed in London in Septem- 
ir, 1901. Within two weeks he had bought the old 
itablished firm of Ogden, Ltd., Liverpool, for $5,- 

Frightened, thirteen British tobacco houses or- 
anized and formed the Imperial Tobacco Co., a 
75,000,000 corporation, to fight Duke and his asso- 
ates. A terrific struggle followed. The Duke cor- 
Dration adopted a very bold policy of allowing Brit- 
h retail outlets extensive concessions and profits, 
hey were making large inroads into the British 
usiness. Imperial Tobacco Co. officials began 
taking overtures. Finally Mr. Duke, accompanied 
y Thomas J. Ryan, went to England in 1902 for 
mferences. Mr. Duke called in two of his trusted 
eutenants, W. W. Fuller, attorney for the American, 
ad James A. Thomas, his far eastern manager. 


After a few weeks of negotiations, a treaty was 
gned. By its terms Ogden's was sold to the Impe- 
ial for $7,500,000. The British-American Tobacco 
o. was then formed and it and the Imperial, in 
feet, divided the entire world for tobacco exploita- 
on. Outside of the United States, where the Ameri- 
an continued to dominate the field, British-Ameri- 
an was to cover about two-thirds of the remaining 
r orld and the Imperial the remaining one-third, each 
ominant within its area. J. B. Duke was elected 
resident of the British-American, a $30,000,000 
)int stock corporation. 

Thus within the short period of 28 years, J. B. 

Richard Joshua Reynolds, founder and president for 43 years 

of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., largest tobacco firm 

operating exclusively in North Carolina. 

Duke, Durham County boy, had risen from superin- 
tendent of a small country factory to the head of 
tobacco organizations which dominated the major 
part of the entire world. His new corporation was 
the closest approach to a world trust that had ever 
been organized. 


American Tobacco Co. earnings in 1902 were $13,- 
000,000, while Continental earnings were even larg- 
er. In January, 1903, these two corporations were 
consolidated and the directors declared a 20% divi- 
dend, amounting to $16,000,000. Then on October 
10, 1904, the American was greatly enlarged and 
reorganized with an authorized capital stock of 
$100,000,000 and $80,000,000 in preferred stock. 
Total capital obligations amounted to $225,000,000. 
Mr. Duke continued as president with John B. Cobb, 
Caleb C. Dula, Charles C. Halliwell, William R. Har- 
ris and Percival S. Hill as vice-presidents. 

By 1906 the American Tobacco Co. controlled four- 
fifth of the tobacco industries, except for cigars. A 
break-down shows that the firm manufactured 82% 
of all cigarettes, 71% of smoking tobacco, 81% of 
fine cut tobaccos and 96% of all snuff produced in 
the United States. During that year component 
parts of American used 400,000,000 pounds of leaf 
tobacco. Up to that time it had absorbed between 

PAGE 74 


Summer-fall, 1951 1 

200 and 300 smaller tobacco firms, some of which 
continued operation under their own names. During 
the five year period 1903-08 the American earned 
an average profit of 19%, or $31,200,000, annually. 

James B. Duke, with profits rolling in in a great 
stream, purchased Veghte farm, Somerville, N. J. 
This became the Duke farm with 2,200 acres, one 
mile wide and three miles long. This he developed 
into one of the most magnificent estates in the entire 
world at a cost probably in excess of $10,000,000. 
On it he built a mansion containing 50 rooms. Sev- 
eral years later he was to take over the Taylor home 
in the restricted residential area of Myers Park, now 
a part of Charlotte, and develop it into one of the 
nicest homes in North Carolina, but occupied it only 
on rare occasions. 


Meanwhile the trickle of criticism against the 
three almost interchangable objectives — the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Co., "the trust", and J. B. Duke — was 
rising to a mighty torrent. Many independent to- 
bacco manufacturers, who claimed they were forced 
out of business by the American Tobacco Co. policies, 
were full of resentment. Many Southern tobacco 
growers, who felt that "the trust" was forcing down 
the prices of leaf tobacco, railed against the low 
prices they were receiving. In fact, this resent- 
ment took the form in Kentucky of organizing night 
riders who voluntarily burned to the ground many 
warehouses stocked with leaf tobacco. In North 
Carolina indignation meetings were held frequently. 
Two North Carolina publications, Josephus Daniels' 
News and Observer and John R. Webster's Weekly 
in Reidsville, were continually firing vitriolic shots 
at "the trust". 

They were supported quietly and effectively by 
that rugged individualist, R. J. Reynolds, whose com- 
pany in Winston-Salem had been swallowed finally 
but never completely digested by the American To- 
bacco Co. Mr. Reynolds had told Josephus Daniels, 
the independent leader, that he had not quit but had 
joined hands with "the trust" to keep it from ruin- 
ing him and to get an under hold and that he was 
fighting from the inside. "You will never see the 
day," he affirmed, "that Dick Reynolds will eat out 
of Buck Duke's hand". These two strong personal- 
ities clashed several times soon after the American 
had secured control of the Reynolds firm in 1898, but 
after that Mr. Reynolds was given almost complete 
authority over his firm. He too bought smaller com- 
peting firms both before and after the period of 
control by the American Tobacco Co. 


As was the case with other big businesses through- 
out the United States, J. B. Duke feared President 
Theodore Roosevelt with his "big stick". By 1907 
the flood of criticism against the American Tobacco 
Co. had grown so great that the United States gov- 
ernment sued through the Circuit Court of Appeals, 
N. Y. for a dissolution of the American Tobacco Co. 

on the ground that it was a combination in restraint 
of trade in violation of the Sherman Anti-Trus1 

The suit reached the United States Supreme Courl 
in 1910 and in 1911 that body ordered a dissolutior. 
of the American Tobacco Co. The order was to hi 
carried out under the direction of and with the ap- 
proval of the Circuit Court of Appeals of New York 
During the trial of this case, Mr. Duke, from a sicl 
bed at his home, gave testimony for three days irj 
February, 1908. He denied coercion and unfaii 
practices, contending that he had never threatenec 
any firm and had never depressed the prices of lealj 
tobacco. He contended that various firms were pur 
chased in order to round out the business and tha 
the success of the American Tobacco Co. was du< 
to the push, drive and advertising of the individual; 
making up the corporation. 


It was properly admitted that the only persoi 
capable of working out the dissolution of the Ameri 
can Tobacco Co. was the man who had developed i 
in the first place — James B. Duke. He, a group o: 
lawyers, and the court worked on the proposal fo: 
several months during the middle of 1911. He pro 
posed two or three plans which were not accepted ty 
the court. Then one night while in bed his activij 
brain devised a method. This was submitted to tbi 
court and accepted. 

It provided for independent operation of several 
of the auxiliary firms, such as the American Machin 1 
and Foundry Co and other firms engaged in supply U 
ing pipes, licorice, insecticides, fertilizers, tin foil 
boxes, bags and other supplies for the tobacco inl 
dustries. The American Cigar Co. was to be oni 
unit and five others were to be formed out of thl 
existing American Tobacco Co. These were to b 1 
the American, Liggett & Myers and P. Lorillarcl 
which were to be separate corporations, the Unite! 
Cigar Stores Co., and that the R. J. Reynolds Tel 
bacco Co. was to be restored to its former owners J 
It was then that R. J. Reynolds remarked gleefully! 
"Now watch me give Buck Duke hell". 


Although there was more rumbling against thl 
dissolution plan when it was learned that it hal 
been engineered by J. B. Duke, plans for the ne^l 
set-up were carried through as scheduled. The wifl 
dom of J. B. Duke was again displayed. The unit i 
into which the American was divided each has bel 
come a growing successful corporation and the prir 
cipal ones are now larger and more extensive tha 
the original American Tobacco Co. 

After the dissolution Mr. Duke was invited to b( 
come executive head of the British-American Tc 
bacco Co. which he had formed a decade before. H 
went to London and took charge of another of hi 
great brain children. After several months the wa 
in Europe broke and it was only through the hel 
of Walter Hines Page, native of Wake County, th 



PAGE 75 

mbassador to England, that Mr. Duke was able to 
acure his passage to New York. Mr. Duke was 
reatly displeased when he returned home, feeling 
lat the entire bottom had dropped out and that his 
xtensive holding would be wiped out. 


However, Mr. Duke was not long in the doldrums, 
/liile having trouble with his feet, he consulted an 
ninent physician of New York and South Carolina, 
>r. W. Gill Wylie. Dr. Wylie owned a small elec- 
*ic plant in South Carolina. He talked to Mr. Duke 
bout it and interested him in electric power devel- 
pment. W. States Lee, an engineer, worked out 
lans for small electric power developments and 
[r. Duke gave him $50,000 to buy a site on the 
/ateree River near Camden, S C, and developed a 
lant. This was the beginning of the Southern Pow- 
i Co., later to become the powerful Duke Power 
o., serving the Piedmont area of North and South 
arolina and with assets which reached $350,000,000 

around the time of Mr. Duke's death, October 10, 
1925. The story of this latest major development 
of the Durham County farm boy is well known to 
North Carolinians. 

Meanwhile, J. B. Duke became interested in devel- 
oping power at Saguenay Falls in northern Quebec, 
Canada, and spent many millions of dollars in erec- 
tion of two huge plants. George Garland Allen, the 
Warrenton, N. C, man who became head of all of the 
Duke organizations after Mr. Duke's death, was 
president of the Duke Canadian interest, the Quebec 
Development Co. and the Quebec Aluminum Co. It 
was then that Andrew Mellon and his Aluminum 
Co. of America became interested in this develop- 
ment. He sought to ward off competition. Finally 
he bought the Canadian properties and Mr. Duke 
received in exchange a hefty share of the stock in 
the Aluminum Co. of America worth $12,500,000. 

Formation of the Duke Endowment by Mr. Duke 
and its distribution of funds in the Carolinas is 
treated in another item in this issue. 

Reynolds Leads in Tobacco Production in North Carolina 

The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston- 
alem, now one of the largest tobacco manufactur- 
ig organizations in the world, had its beginning in 
375 when Richard Joshua Reynolds erected a small 
lant in Winston at the cost of $2400 and invested 
le remainder of $7400 in leaf tobacco and in wages 
| about a dozen employees — most of whom were 
nployed on a part-time, seasonal basis. Today this 
rm has assets of $550,000,000, annual sales of 
760,000,000 and manufactures three world leading 
)bacco products: Camel cigarettes, Prince Albert 
noking tobacco, and Days Work chewing tobacco. 
Mr. Reynolds was a native of the No Business 
[ountain section (near the community of Critz) 

of Patrick County, 
Va. His father, Har- 
din Reynolds, was a 
large tobacco grow- 
er and began manu- 
facturing tobacco 
that he and some of 
his neighbors rais- 
ed. At that time to- 
bacco was marketed 
by wagons which 
carried the product 
to the rural and 
small town mer- 
chants. As a boy 
Richard Reynolds 
had valuable experi- 
ence in growing, 
manufacturing, and 

,L oa a n * ■-, selling tobacco. He 

imes A. Gray, former president , , . „ 

now chairman of Board of R. J. spent a brief peri- 
Reynolds Tobacco Go. od at Emory & 

Henry College in Virginia and later he attended 
Bryant & Stratton's Business College in Baltimore, 
where his agile mind was quick to grasp business 
methods. The sixth child in a large family he struck 
out on his own at 24 years of age, riding a sorrel 
horse 50 miles to Winston in 1874. 


The first Reynolds plant covered an area equiva- 
lent to that occupied by a tennis court, was two sto- 
ries high and soon after its erection was painted a 
bright red. Mr. Reynolds had his living quarters in 
the upper story of the building. Tobacco manufac- 
turing at that time was conducted for six months 
during the warmer part of the year and the winter 
months were devot- — 
ed to purchasing 
leaf for the next 
year's operations. 
chewing tobacco, 
Mr. Reynolds was 
successful from tne 
beginning. Due to 
his youthful appear- 
ance, Mr. Reynolds 
grew a beard and 
had his picture re- 
produced on num- 
bers of the boxes in 
which the tobacco 
was packed f or se ll- 
ing. His small f ac- 

. John C. Whitaker, president of the 

tory was on a Site r. j. Reynolds Tobacco Go. 

PAGE 76 


Summer-fall, 1 95 1 

now covered by one of the more than 200 large 
buildings in which operations are now carried on. 

Winston, with its 800 people, and Salem, its older 
neighbor, formed a splendid location for this infant 
industry. The railroad had just been constructed 
from Greensboro where it tapped the North Caro- 
lina Railroad and it was only a few years until a 
branch line was built to North Wilkesboro. These 
lines and others built later supplemented and finally 
almost supplanted the wagon as a means of getting 
leaf tobacco to the market and transporting tobacco 
products to their users. Winston also had a leaf 
tobacco auction warehouse. 

Mr. Reynolds was individual owner of the busi- 
ness during the first 13 years. In 1888 he formed a 
partnership taking in with him his brother, William 
Neal Reynolds, and Henry Roan. This partnership 
under the name of R. J. Reynolds & Co., was con- 
tinued until 1890 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco 
Co. was incorporated under the State laws with cap- 
ital stock of $190,000. In 1899 when the R. J. Rey- 
nolds Tobacco Co. became an undigested unit of the 
American Tobacco Co., the firm was incorporated 
under the laws of New Jersey and has since con- 
tinued its organization under this charter. The capi- 
tal was increased to $2,100,000. In 1895 the Rey- 
nolds Company won the highest award on chewing 
tobacco at the big Cotton States & International Con- 
vention in Atlanta, Georgia. 


In the same year, this company began to manufac- 
ture smoking tobacco. The first smoking tobacco 
brands were Our Advertiser, which is still manufac- 

tured, and Split Silk, with which 
were supplied papers to roll- 
your-own, and Razor Back. Al- 
though the volume of smoking 
tobacco gradually increased, 
chewing tobacco continued to ac- 
count for the bulk of the busi- 
ness. For example, from 1900 
through 1906 chewing tobacco 
made up 98% of the sales. 
Whereas sales of the company in 
the middle 'eighties amounted to 
about $200,000 a year, Reynolds 
production was running behind 
production by P. H. Hanes & Co. 
and Brown Bros. Sales had 
reached almost one-half million 
dollars a decade later. 

In 1897 Winston was the third 
largest tobacco manufacturing 
city in the United States, only 
St. Louis and Louisville topping 
her. Principal Reynolds brands about this time weil 
(chewing) : RJR, R. J. Reynolds' Level Best, NatuJ 
ally Sweet, RJR Red, White and Blue, Strawberr 
Twist, Belle of North Carolina, Maid of Athen 
Caromel, Our Advertiser and Schnapps; (smoking); 
Split Silk, Our Advertiser and Razor Back. 

Bird's-eye view of the principal manufacturing plants of t'M 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Go. in Winston-Salem, forming the laru 
est tobacco manufacturing plant in any city in the xoorl\ 
Reynolds buildings are darkened purposely in picture. Upp\ 
left is Reynolds Office Building. Upper center is Reynolf 
Power Plant. Reynolds pays Uncle Bam more than a milli\ 
dollars a day for each day of five day ivork week. 

R. J. Reynolds, 25 
when he established 
his tobacco plant i\ 
Winston in 1875. 

Summer-Fall, 1951 


PAGE 77 

In 1890 the American Tobacco Co. was organized 
by James B. Duke and other large manufacturers 
in states north of North Carolina. Soon after this 
organization the American Tobacco Co. began its 
alleged plan of buying up all promising independent 
companies it could acquire and of allowing smaller 
and less aggressive companies to die on the vine 
through competition. R. J. Reynolds, a rugged indi- 
vidualist, continued his independent operations until 
1899. He had been quoted as saying : "I don't intend 
to be swallowed by Buck Duke. If Buck Duke tries 
to swallow me, he will have the bellyache the balance 
of his life." 


However, pressure was so great that Mr. Reynolds 
joined "the trust", but told the late Josephus Daniels 
that he had joined in order to get in some licks on 
the inside. But, it is of record that Mr. Duke stood 
in awe of this independent manufacturer in Winston. 
Evidence indicates that after they had locked horns 
on a few issues, Mr. Duke had played hands off and 
had allowed Mr. Reynolds to conduct his business 
in his own way, even though the American Tobacco 
Co. had purchased the majority stock in the Rey- 
nolds Company and for a period, from 1899 to 1905, 
Benjamin Newton Duke, older brother of J. B. Duke, 
was first vice-president of the R. J. Reynolds To- 
bacco Company. 

As the rumbling against "the trust" increased in 
the early 1900s Mr. Reynolds must have taken time 
out occasionally to enjoy himself. The rumblings 
and complaints of tobacco growers throughout the 
South grew stronger and louder. In Kentucky, for 
example, it took the form of night riders who would 
pounce upon and burn large stores of leaf tobacco. 
In North Carolina growers held indignation meet- 


Tiny red tins are being made in this department for Prince 
Albert, America's largest selling smoking tobacco. Conveyor 
belt, left, is carrying new tins to manufacturing department 
above where other machines fill them with Prince Albert. 
These are popular departments for visitors taking the Rey- 
nolds guided tours. 

Inspector at one of hundreds of modem machines making 
Camels,, Americas largest selling cigarette. Each machine 
costs more than twice the money with tohich R. J. Reynolds 
started business in 1875. Visitors linger here. 

ings and railed against the low prices they charged 
"the trusts" with paying them for their tobacco. 


These rumblings came to a head by 1907 when 
the Federal Government brought charges against the 
American Tobacco Co. for operating a monopoly in 
restraint of trade in violation of the Sherman Anti- 
Trust Law. Under the leadership of President Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, who shook his "big stick" at big 
business, the case was prosecuted with vigor by At- 
torney General George W. Wickersham with James 
C. McReynolds prosecuting the case. In 1911 the 
courts held that the American Tobacco Co. had vio- 
lated the Sherman Law and ordered its dissolution, 
to be carried out under direction of the Circuit Court 
of Appeals of the State of New York. 

It was an admitted fact that the only man who 
could unscramble the corporation was the man who 
had built it up. J. B. Duke offered one or two plans 
of dissolution and finally worked out the plan adopt- 
ed. This was a breaking down of all of the com- 
panies producing various supplies and equipment 
such as tobacco machinery, packages, boxes, bags, 
tin foil, paper and other requirements for the trade 
and splitting the American Tobacco Co. into four 
corporations: The American Tobacco Co., Liggett 
& Myers Tobacco Co., P. Lorillard, and allowing R. 
J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. to assume and to continue 
its former status. 

Whereas Mr. Duke had planned to segregate the 
manufacture of chewing tobacco in the R. J. Rey- 
nolds Tobacco Co., Mr. Reynolds had gone about a 
plan of developing a new type of smoking tobacco. 
At that time chewing tobacco sales continued to 
dominate the field. In 1906 the Reynolds firm was 
manufacturing 59 brands of flat plug and 14 brands 
of twist chewing tobacco, but numerous tests had 
been conducted in the development of a new type of 
smoking tobacco. 


Prince Albert smoking tobacco hit the market soon 
after the process was patented on July 30, 1907, 
about the time the suit against "the trusts" was 
started, and probably was a bit disconcerting to Mr. 
Duke, who had other plans for the Reynolds firm. 

PAGE 78 


Summer-fall, i 951 

Prince Albert, which resulted from several years 
of experimenting, was produced under a new pat- 
ented process based on fine burley leaf. It was pack- 
ed in a pocket size tin box, on the front of which 
appeared an illustration of a man somewhat resem- 
bling King Edward VII in the style of coat which 
took its name from this popular monarch — Prince 
Albert — and by which name he was known until he 
ascended the British throne in 1901. Under this 
picture were the words "Now King". When King 
Edward VII died in 1910 these words were elimi- 
nated, and "Crimp Cut" (which previously had 
appeared immediately under the brand name) was 
placed in that spot on the tin. 

Earlier brands of tobaccos, both chewing and 
smoking, had been local in their use, but Mr. Rey- 
nolds inaugurated a nation-wide advertising cam- 
paign in promotion of this new smoking tobacco. So 
strong was this advertising campaign and so popu- 
lar was Prince Albert, that it captured the public 
fancy and within a few years it had become the 
nation's largest-selling smoking tobacco — a position 
it has continued to hold in the 40 years that have fol- 

But Mr. Reynolds had still a greater surprise 
coming. He realized that chewing tobacco had about 
reached its crest and that people were turning more 
and more to smoking. If he had created a sensation 
by developing and marketing Prince Albert smoking 
tobacco, probably also opposed by J. B. Duke, he had 
a still greater sensation which broke on the world 
some two years after the dissolution of the American 
Tobacco Co. The staff experimented with various 
types of blends. 


Then on October 19, 1913, he began the manufac- 
ture of Camel cigarettes. After trying many blends 
and making many tests, he and his staff reached the 
agreement "this is it". 

' mad : i 

Section in which Camel cigarettes are put in packages. Any 
of the hundreds of packing machines can form and complete 
an entire Camel package in less than a second — faster than 
a wink. 

Kernersville group of huge leaf storage warehouses in which 
leaf tobacco is slowly aging for use in Reynolds products. 

Camels were the first of the modern type blends 
and other cigarettes of the popular types have fol-j 
lowed Camel's lead. The Reynolds staff had worked 
out a blend of bright leaf with burley, and Turkish, 
with the Maryland type tobaccos added later. Other 
cigarettes were offering coupons, pictures and other 
inducements to help carry the sales. Reynolds broke 
away from this practice and boldly announced on the 
back of the pack : "Don't look for premiums or cou- 
pons, as the cost of the tobaccos blended in Camel 
Cigarettes prohibits the use of them". On the front 
of the pack the picture selected was that of a tall 
Arabian Camel. The oriental theme was carried out 
with a background of pyramids and palm trees on 
the front and with moslem structures and palms on 
the back. 

Never before had any tobacco manufacturer inau- 
gurated such an advertising campaign as was plan- 
ned and carried out for Camels. In advance of the 
day Camels were to go on the market in a particular 
city, newspaper teaser display advertisements an- 
nounced simply "The Camels Are Coming". On the 
day before Camels hit the market, the advertisement 
announced "Tomorrow there'll be more Camels in 
this town than in all Asia and Africa combined". 
At that time practically all cigarettes were made for 
local or area consumption as were smoking and chew-f| 
ing tobaccos. 

The Reynolds Company decided to make Camels! i 
nation-wide and during the first year spent several}] 
hundred thousand dollars in advertising. Camels|i 
were an immediate success. In a very short time 
they sky-rocketed to first place in the nation's salea 
and today Camels lead any other brand by billions,; 
World War I gave Camels the opportunity to seefcji 
world-wide markets. The dough-boys popularized! 
them throughout Europe. 


R. J. Reynolds, the late Josephus Daniels wrote 
later, had "a tremendous interest in getting rich" 
Prince Albert and Camels put him well on the wajj 
to realizing that ambition. In 1913 Camels consti 
tuted less than 1 % of the total business of the com 
pany. In 1918, at the time of his death, Camel! 
accounted for more than 50% of the company's busi 
ness and in 1921, more than 65%. In 1910, aftei 
the modest beginning, the Reynolds firm did a busi 
ness of $12,000,000 a year; for 1919 this busines: 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 79 

reached $188,000,000 and in 1923 it was $233,000,- 
D00 a year. Instead of the dozen employees, mainly 
seasonal, in the first Reynolds plant in 1875, the com- 
pany now has approximately 12,000 regular, full- 
;ime employees and about 4,500 additional seasonal 

In 1949 the Reynolds Company brought out an- 
ther cigarette. Cavaliers were produced and mar- 
keted in selected areas for a period without any in- 
formation on the package as to their origin. They 
ire the long, king-size cigarettes advertised as made 
)f extremely mild tobaccos of the original colonial 
;ype. Cavaliers caught on and are proving a popu- 
ar type of cigarette. 

Now Reyno and Red Kamel cigarettes, manufac- 
;ured in the earlier days, have disappeared. Only 
Camels and Cavaliers are produced. Several early 
grands of smoking tobaccos have also disappeared, 
;he chief brands now being Prince Albert, George 
tVashington, Our Advertiser, Stud and Top. As 
igainst 73 brands of chewing tobacco manufactured 
n 1906 the principal Reynolds brands now are 
3rown's Mule, Days Work, Apple Sun Cured, Rey- 
lolds' Natural Leaf, Reynolds' Sun Cured, Cup, 
Schnapps, Honey Cut, Strater's Natural Leaf Twist, 
iVinesap, Micky Twist, Cash Value and Top. 


Mr. Reynolds directed the destinies of his com- 
)any for 43 years until his death at 68 years of age 
luly 29, 1918. Following his death his brother, Wil- 
iam N. Reynolds, was elected president and served 
mtil 1924 when he became chairman of the board 
)f directors. In 1931 he was elected chairman of the 
executive committee and retired in 1942. He had 
served as second vice-president and later as first vice- 
)resident from 1899 until he was elected president 
n 1918. At a ripe old age, he enjoys his standard 
)red race horses and farming. 

Bowman Gray, who had been with the company 
; or many years and had been vice-president since 
L912, was elected president in 1924 to succeed Wil- 
iam N. Reynolds. He was elected chairman of the 
)oard in 1931 continuing in that office until his 
leath in 1935. S. Clay Williams, in the Legal De- 
partment, who had served as vice-president since 
L924, was elected president in 1931, continuing as 
;uch until 1934 when he was elected vice-chairman 
)f the board, becoming chairman of the board the 
lext year. He became chairman of the executive 
committee in 1943, serving as such until 1946 and as 
chairman of the board until his death in 1949. 


James A. Gray, who had been elected a vice-presi- 
lent in 1919 and placed in charge of the finances of 
;he company, was elected president in 1934. In 1946 
le was elected chairman of the executive committee 
md in 1949 as chairman of the board of directors 
md continues to serve in both of these capacities. 
F. W. Glenn, who had been elected a vice-president 


Original picture of Old Joe, Barnum & Bailey Circus camel 
from which the picture on the pack ivas derived. 

in 1937, was elected president in 1946 serving as such 
until his retirement in 1948. 

John C. Whitaker, who had handled the Manufac- 
turing and Personnel Departments for many years 
and had been vice-president since 1937, was elected 
president to succeed Mr. Glenn in 1948 and continues 
to hold that position. 

Vice-presidents of the Reynolds Company who did 
not become presidents include Benjamin N. Duke, 
elected first vice-president in 1899 when the Rey- 
nolds Company became a part of the American To- 
bacco Co. and served until his resignation in 1905. 
R. S. Reynolds, a nephew of R. J. Reynolds, was elect- 
ed second vice-president in 1911 resigning the next 
year. Percy C. Masten was vice-president from 


R. J. Reynolds wanted a camel picture for use on the 
package of his new cigarette. 

When the Barnum & Bailey Circus came to Winston-Salem 
in the early autumn of 1913 Roy C. Haberkern, then ste- 
nographer for R. J., Walter, and W. N. Reynolds, and now 
a vice-president of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., went to the 
circus to study camels. He contacted John Patterson, head 
of the circus animals, and asked permisison to photograph 
some of the camels. Mr. Patterson told him in "mule skin- 
ner" language that no hick-town tobacco firm could photo- 
graph his camels. Finally, however, he agreed, if Mr. 
Haberkern would present a letter from the company to the 
effect that the name Barnum & Bailey would not appear in 
the advertising. 

The Reynolds firm was observing a holiday for the circus 
and Mr. Haberkern knew the office was closed, but he hur- 
ried back, forced open a window, typed the required letter 
and boldly signed the name of R. J. Reynolds to it. On 
the way back he picked up J. A. Farrell, a photographer 
(whose son, Charles Farrell, is now a photographer in 
Greensboro). Trainer Patterson led out his camels and 
Photographer Farrell took two exposures, one of a two- 
humped bactrian — extremely ugly — and the other an Arab- 
ian camel with one hump. 

This camel was known as Old Joe and Mr. Patterson said 
he was the finest ever brought to the United States. The 
picture was taken in the rain with a trainer wearing a rain- 
coat holding the camel's leash. This trainer and the back- 
ground of the picture were eliminated in the reproduction 
prepared by a Richmond lithographer for use on the Camel 
Cigarette package. Palm trees and pyramids were placed 
in the background. 

And Old Joe is the camel on the front of the pack han- 
dled by so many millions of people daily. 

PAGE 80 


Summer-fall, 1951 

1912 to 1914, when he resigned. C. A. Kent was 
vice-president from 1914 until his resignation in 
1919. Walter R. Reynolds, also a brother of R. J. 
Reynolds, was elected vice-president in 1918 and 
served until his death in 1921. T. H. Kirk served as 
vice-president from 1923 until his resignation in 
1937. R. E. Lasater served as vice-president from 
1931 until his retirement in 1947. C. W. Harris was 
elected vice-president in 1931 serving until his death 
in 1937. 


Present directors of the company, in addition to 
Mr. Gray, chairman of the executive committee and 
of the board of directors, and John C. Whitaker, 
president, are five vice-presidents : R. C. Haberkern, 
P. Frank Hanes and E. A. Darr, all elected in 1946 ; 
H. N. Hardy and Bowman Gray, elected in 1949 ; A. 
H. Galloway, who succeeded the late F. S. Hill, treas- 
urer; W.J. Conrad, secretary; W. T. Smither, man- 
ager, advertising department ; R. G. Vallandingham, 
superintendent of leaf buying; H. H. Ramm, solici- 
tor and assistant to chairman of the board; H. S. 
Kirk, superintendent of manufacturing ; S. M. Scott, 
comptroller; S. B. Hanes, Jr., superintendent of 
leaf processing. 

These officers constitute the board of directors. 
An interesting note is that from the beginning prac- 
tically every officer and member of the board of 
directors has been an employee of the company and 
only on rare occasions has the company had a direc- 
tor who was not on its payroll. In only three in- 
stances has this been broken. One was when B. N. 
Duke served as vice-president for a few years around 
the turn of the century, another when R. J. Reynolds, 
Jr., served as director for a few years several years 
ago, and when there was for a period a statutory 
requirement that one director be a resident of the 
State of New Jersey. 


Many years ago in attempting to show the extent 
of the taxes paid to the Federal Government by the 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., it was related that the 
amount was sufficient in one week to erect the Fed- 
eral Building in Winston-Salem. That week kept 
moving down until it is considerably less than one 
working day. In fact the Federal Government's 
take in stamps in one day now is more than was re- 
ceived for the entire tobacco industry in the United 
States in 1875 when the company was founded. Ex- 
pressed in other terms, every day of the five-day 
work week this firm pays the Federal Government 
well over a million dollars for stamps used on its 
products. Specifically, the company's total of taxes, 
of all types, in 1950 was over $398,000,000 — a valu- 
able contribution to all forms of government. Ex- 
tent of operations is shown in two other ways. The 
company's shipments in and out of Winston-Salem 
require more than a mile of freight cars and highway 
express trucks on an average for every working day. 
The conveyor systems in the Reynolds plant include 

chains, belts, chutes and the like, and are more than 
30 miles in length. 

Mr. Reynolds in the earlier days of operation is 
accused somewhat facetiously of bludgeoning his! 
associates and employees into buying stock in hisj 
company. It is a fact that he encouraged thoseii 
working with and for him to save a part of their); 
earnings and put it in stock of the R. J. Reynolds! 
Tobacco Co. 

Of the approximately 12,000 of the regular em-p 
ployees of the Reynolds Company more than 40001 
have service records of 20 years or longer and morej 
than one-half, over 6000, have service records of 101; 
or more years. All regular employees of the com-] 
pany have benefits of a group life, health and acci- 1 
dent insurance plan, an employee's retirement plan, 
a hospital and surgical service plan, a jury service! 
plan, a vacation plan and paid holidays. In Winston-; 
Salem where the bulk of the employees are centered,? 
the company maintains for them a modern medical 
department, cafeterias, parking lots, the confidential' 
assistance of a legal counselor and a pastor-counsel- 
or. A small private chapel has been completed om 
the mezzanine floor of the Company's office 
for use by the pastor-counselor in his work with 
employees who ask for his services. It is also avail- 
able during the working day to individuals seeking] 
a haven for private meditation and prayer. 


The Reynolds Company has for more than 30 yean I 
made guided tours in its plants available to the pub 1 
lie. During the year 1950 more than 21,700 visitors 
from all 48 states and 42 foreign countries went orl 
one of these tours. Since 1931 a quarter-million] 
visitors have come to see how its products are made I 
The tours are conducted by experienced employees! 
every working day, any time from 8 to 11 in thai 
morning, and from 1 :30 to 3 in the afternoon. This | 
welcoming of visitors has not been the case with all 
tobacco manufacturers. 

From the one building in 1875 the Reynolds Comfl 
pany has enlarged practically every year. By 190(11 
the plant consisted of seven buildings. In years I 
past the Reynolds Company has operated a few faci J 
tories in other states such as one in Richmond, Va.j] 
one in Louisville, Ky., and one in Jersey City, N. J. 
but even then the bulk of the manufacturing wasjl 
done in Winston-Salem. However, some 20 year! 
ago the company centered its manufacturing entirely j 
in Winston-Salem. It now has more than 200 build! 
ings — all the manufacturing plants and a numbe^ 
of buildings for preliminary leaf processing (includ! 
ing two leaf handling and redrying plants), ancj 
many leaf storage warehouses — are at Winstonj 
Salem. A leaf handling and redrying plant is local 
ed in Greensboro; near Kernersville are additional 
leaf storage warehouses ; a leaf handling plant is ii 
each of the following cities : Durham, Fairmont! 
Greenville, Henderson, Kinston, Oxford, Rock? 
Mount and Wilson. In 11 Kentucky cities and townil 
the company has other leaf handling plants and als< j 



PAGE 81 

has leaf storage warehouses in or near Lexington, 
Louisville and Maysville. Two leaf handling plants 
are operated in South Carolina, one in Tennessee, 
and in Virginia are one leaf handling plant (at South 
Boston), and a redrying plant and a group of leaf 
storage warehouses (at Danville). 

SALES 1950 EXCEED $750,000,000 

Annual sales of the Reynolds Company last year 
were in excess of $750,000,000. From a capital of 
about $7400 at the beginning, 75 years ago, the assets 
now are in excess of $500,000,000. In a division 
chart it is shown that in 1950 the company paid 
$645,638,977, or 84.87% of its total income for leaf 
tobacco, wages, revenue stamps, supplies, freight 
and other manufacturing costs. Portion retained for 
requirements of the business amounted to $17,609,- 
254, or 2.31 % of the total income. Selling, advertis- 
ing, administrative, interest and other expenses ac- 
counted for $37,117,017, or 4.88% of the total. Divi- 
dends to stockholders amounted to $22,648,748, or 
2.98% of the income, while taxes on income amount- 
ed to $37,720,890, or 4.96%. of the income. 

A recent encouraging note was sounded in the an- 
nual meeting of the stockholders of the R. J. Reynolds 
Tobacco Co., held April 5, 1951. The report of Chair- 
man of the Board James A. Gray showed that the 
dollar sales of the company, the unit sales of cigar- 
ettes and net earnings showed a splendid increase in 
the first three months of this year as compared with 
the corresponding period last year. 


The Chamber of Commerce of the United States 
at its 38th Annual Meeting in Washington, D. C, on 
May 1, 1950, with programs at the Statler Hotel and 
the Mayflower Hotel honored and saluted the R. J. 
Reynolds Tobacco Co. in its celebration of its 75th 
year of business. Laurence F. Lee, vice-president of 
the Chamber and president of the Occidental Life 
Insurance Co., Raleigh, presided over the division 
held at the Mayflower Hotel. Such recognition is 
given each year by this organization to a unit of 
American business, chosen as a symbol of achieve- 
ment. The special tribute included reference to the 
longevity, growth and service of the R. J. Reynolds 
Tobacco Co., but added: 

"We are honoring this firm for the fine way in which 
it has always recognized, accepted and fulfilled its re- 
sponsibilities to its community down through three 
quarters of a century." 

The Tribute includes a resolution adopted by the 
Board of Directors of the Winston-Salem Chamber 
of Commerce in which recognition was given to the 
vital role played by the company in the growth and 
development of Winston-Salem. Bowman Gray, a 
vice-president of the Reynolds Company and son of a 
former Chairman of the Board and nephew of the 
present Chairman, acknowledged the tribute. 


Establishment of the Ecusta Paper Co. at Pisgah Forest, 
near Brevard, proved to be one of the most important steps 
taken in many years as an adjunct to the vital cigarette 
industry in the United States as well as provided a large 
new industry in North Carolina. The industry started pro- 
ducing paper in 1939, about two years before the United 
States became involved in World War II, and practically 
saved the cigarette industry in this and other states. It 
was organized by Harry H. Straus who had represented 
firms in France in handling cigarette paper for manufac- 
turers in the United States. Mr. Straus realized the calam- 
ity to manufacturers in this country if war eliminated the 
transportation of paper across the Atlantic. 

Cigarette manufacturers in the United States also real- 
ized what could happen — they too remembered the situa- 
tion during World War I when satisfactory cigarette paper 
was not available and inferior substitutes had to be used. 
They were ready for Mr. Straus' suggestion of a huge plant 
in this country. After huge sums of money had been spent 
in research and tests, it was found that the flax straw fiber, 
a waste substance grown in quantities in Minnesota, Cali- 
fornia and other states, produced a splendid cigarette paper. 
Now Ecusta produces fully 95% of the cigarette paper used 
in this country in the production of around 500 billion cig- 
arettes yearly, as well as paper for roll-your-own cigarettes. 

Recently plans have been made for a $20,000,000 addition 
to the Ecusta plant in which cellophane will be manufac- 
tured under the du Pont patent. 

In addition to the 1400 workers employed in making cig- 
arette paper, about 500 workers will be engaged in the 
manufacture of cellophane, much of which will go into the 
cigarette manufacturing industry as wrappers for cigarette 

John W. Hanes, native of Winston-Salem, a former under- 
secretary of the U. S. Treasury, was elected president of the 
Ecusta Paper Corp. following the death of Mr. Straus on 
February 27 of this year. Mr. Hanes is a son of the late 
J. W. Hanes, who was a partner in the firm of P. H. Hanes 
& Co., the largest tobacco manufacturing firm in Winston 
prior to and around the turn of the century, and a younger 
brother of Robert M. Hanes, president of the Wachovia 
Bank & Trust Co., Winston-Salem. 


Tobacco grown in Virginia and North Carolina 
was the cause of at least two rebellions and was an 
important factor leading up to the Revolutionary 
War and American independence from Great Brit- 
ain. England restricted or prohibited shipments 
to other countries and levied heavy taxes on the 
bulk of the crops which she manufactured. Low 
prices paid in the 1870s brought on Bacon's Rebel- 
lion in Virginia. In 1879 the Virginia Assembly 
prohibited shipment of tobacco into Virginia from 
Rogue's Harbor (Albemarle section) which led to 
the Culpepper Rebellion. Aristocratic Virginia 
planters looked down their noses at North Carolina 
grown tobaccos. Yet under English monopoly they 
were constantly and increasingly going into debts 
to English firms for fine clothing and expensive 
items. As these debts mounted, dissatisfaction of 
the colonists increased and this situation contribut- 
ed much toward events leading to the Revolutionary 
War. Many Virginia planters fought in that war to 
relieve them of the debts they owed British firms. 

PAGE 82 



American Has Large Tobacco Plants in Two N. C. Cities 

The American Tobacco Co., Executive offices at 
111 Fifth Avenue, New York City, and with two of 
its principal manufacturing units at Durham and 
Reidsville, N. C, established a sales volume of more 
than $871,000,000 for the year 1950, second largest 
ever recorded in the tobacco industry, being exceeded 
only by American Tobacco Co. sales of $873,000,000 
in 1948. This record was achieved in a highly com- 
petitive industry, based on sales of Lucky Strikes, 
manufactured in both of its North Carolina plants, 
and several hundred other brands of tobacco prod- 
ucts manufactured 
here and in other 
plants operated by 
the company outside 
the State. 

This is a far cry 
from this firm's be- 
ginning in the mid- 
dle 1860's when 
Washington Duke 
began the hand pro- 
duction of "Pro 
Bono Publico "smok- 
ing tobacco on a 
farm in Durham 
County and then 
erected a log build- 
ing, 20 by 30 feet, 
in which to produce 
that brand. He was 
assisted by his two 
sons, Benjamin Newton Duke and James Buchanan 
Duke, the latter of whom went on to form the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co., which became one of the nation's 
greatest industrial enterprises. 

Early operations of the American's predecessor, 
W. Duke Sons & Co., of Durham, are recounted in 
an article in this issue on the early days of tobacco 
manufacturing in Durham. Operations of the form- 
er American Tobacco Co. during its first 21 years, 

following its organ- 
ization on January 
31, 1890, by James 
B. Duke and other 
manufacturers, are 
related in still an- 
other article in this 
issue. This article 
deals with the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co. 
during the past 40 
years, during which 
it has continued as 
the leader in the to- 
bacco manufactur- 
ing industry in this 
nation. This article, 
too, is primarily de- 

Paul M. Hahn, president of the 
American Tobacco Co. 


This log cabin, a few miles north of 
Durham, was the first tobacco fac- 
tory operated by Washington Duke 
and, eventually, developed into the 
American Tobacco Co., largest to- 
bacco organization in the nation. 
Original picture in Duke University 

voted to this firm's 
operations in North 




James B. Duke, 
native of Durham 
County, who gained 
the description as 
the greatest tobacco 
organizer, manufac- 
turer and salesman 
the world has pro- 
duced, continued as 
president of the for- 
mer American To- 
bacco Co. and its 
successor of the 
same name through 
its merger with the 
Consolidated Tobacco Co. and the Continental Tobac- 
co Co. on October 19, 1904, and through its dissolu- 
tion in 1911. He resigned February 14, 1912, 
leaving direction of the company to the efficient 
group of associates he had selected and trained. Mr. 
Duke soon turned his genius to developing electric 
power, resulting in the formation of the Duke Power 
Co., operating in North and South Carolina. His 
formation of the Duke Endowment, devoted to edu 
cational, religious and health promotion in these two 
states, is related elsewhere in this issue 

Following Mr. Duke's resignation, Percival Smith 
Hill, a former vice-president, was elected president 

J. F. Strickland, recently elected 
president of the American Suppliers, 
Inc. His headquarters has been Dur 
ham for 22 years. 

Preston L. Fowler, vice-presi- 
dent and chief of manufac- 
ture of the American Tobacco 
Co. His official residence 
is Durham. 

W. H. Ogsbury, director and 
assistant chief of manufac- 
ture, American Tobacco Co., 
in charge of Durham, Reids- 
ville, Richmond, Louisville 
plants. Resident of Durham. 

.UMMER-FALL, 1951 


PAGE 83 

V. D. Hager, manager of Dur- 
ham plant of the American 
Tobacco Go. 

J. W. Williams, manager of 
Durham Division, Ameri- 
can Suppliers, Inc. 

>f the American Tobacco Co. Mr. Hill, native of 
Philadelphia, became associated with the American 
robacco Co., as a young man and gained his tobacco 
sxperience in two North Carolina plants. He was 
vith the Bull Durham plant in Durham for a few 
rears and also an official of the Wells-Whitehead 
robacco Co. in Wilson for a period. He served as 
resident of American until his death late in 1925, 
ifter which his son, George W. Hill, a former vice- 
resident, was elected to succeed him and served 
mtil his death, Sept. 13, 1946. Vincent Riggio suc- 
;eeded Mr. Hill, serving until April 7, 1950. 


Paul M. Hahn, who became president of the Amer- 
can Tobacco Co. last year, is 55 years of age, a 

D. J. Anderson, manager of R. W. Sands* manager of the 

the Reidsville plant of the Reidsville Division of the 

American Tobacco Co. American Suppliers, Inc. 

native New Yorker, graduate of the College of the 
City of New York and law graduate of the Colum- 
bia University Law School in 1917. He practiced 
law in New York City until 1931, when he joined 
the American as a director and assistant to Presi- 
dent Hill. Mr. Hahn, particularly active in develop- 
ing the sales of Lucky Strike cigarettes, was elected 
vice-president of the American Tobacco Co. in 1932 
and, in addition, in 1940, was elected president of 

Aerial vieio of American Tobacco Co. buildings in Durham. 
White building, center front, contains Durham offices and 
wrapping material storage. Toward left are Lucky Strike 
plant, a stemmery, the redrying plant and at upper left the 
Bull Durham factory. Back of these buildings are another 
stemmery and the Pall Mall group of factories. 

PAGE 84 


Summer-Fall, 1951 

the American's 
principal subsid- 
iary, the Ameri- 
can Cigarette & 
Cigar Co. This 
firm produces Pall 
Mall cigarettes 
and in 11 years of 
Mr. Hahn's pres- 
idency this cigar- 
ette increased its 
volume 12 - fold, 
now holding fifth 
place among the 
popular brands. 

The American 
has five vice-presidents, including Preston L. Fowler, 
Richard J. Boylan, James R. Coon, John A. Crowe 
and Edmund A. Harvey. 

Mr. Fowler, still officially a resident of Durham, 
is chief of manufacture, as well as vice-president. 
He has been in the tobacco industry more than 40 
years, joining the present American Tobacco Co. in 
1930. In 1931 Mr. Fowler was made manager of 
the Durham Branch, continuing as such for ten 
years, until he went to New York as chief of manu- 
facture. He became a director in 1941 and was 
elected as a vice-president in 1945. 


W. H. Ogsbury, assistant chief of manufacture, 
joined the company in 1923 and has resided in Dur- 
ham since 1930, serving first as plant manager until 
1932, when he was appointed as an assistant to the 
vice-president in charge of manufacture. Mr. Ogs- 
bury supervises manufacturing operations in the 



Leaf storage warehouses of the American Tobacco Co. 
near Durham. 

Lucky Strike plant of the American Tobacco Co. in Reidsville. 
White building, center front, is the Reidsville office. Toward | 
left are stemmery, redrying plant, power plant, garages, leafi 
storage and leaf and wrapping material storage. Back of them 
office is another cigarette factory. 

Durham, Reidsville, Louisville, Ky., and Richmond, 
Va., branches and has been a director of the com- 
pany since 1930. 

V. D. Hager, manager of American's Durham!) 
branch, has been with the company for 21 years, I 
his first job having been with the American Cigarette ] 
& Cigar Co. in Louisville, Ky. He went to Rich-|j 
mond, Va., in 1931 and was connected with the re-fj 
search laboratory and with cigarette manufacture.'! 
Since moving to Durham in 1933, Mr. Hager hasjl 
been engaged in the manufacture of cigarettes and I 
smoking tobacco. He was appointed branch man- J 
ager in 1941. 

D. J. Anderson, manager of American's Reidsvillej 
Branch, has been with the company since 1909, serv-I 
ing for several years in the Durham Branch. Hej 
has been in the Reidsville Branch since December,}! 


American Suppliers, Inc., is the subsidiary which! 
buys, processes, stores and otherwise handles the 
leaf tobacco and other supplies required by the! 
American Tobacco Co. in its manufacture of tobacccj 

J. F. Strickland, who was elected President m 
American Suppliers on May 29, 1951 has been irj 
charge of the company's eastern leaf operations! 
with headquarters in Durham, for the past 22 years! 
He started with the American Tobacco Co. 30 yeartj 
ago, spending eight years in Louisville, Ky., befor<| 
locating in Durham. Mr. Strickland has been i\ 
director of American Tobacco Co. since 1946. 

R. W. Sands, manager of the Reidsville Divisioi 
of American Suppliers, joined the American Tobacc< 
Co. at Greensboro in August, 1913. He became ; 
buyer on the Mount Airy market in 1916 and late 
was buyer or head buyer on the Fairmont, Wilson 
Kinston, Richlands, Smithfield, Durham and Win 
ston-Salem markets, as well as on markets in Soutl 
Carolina, Virginia, Georgia, Tennessee and Ken 

Summer-Fall, 1951 


PAGE 85 

tucky. He has 
headed the Reids- 
ville Division 
since May, 1932. 

J. W. Williams, 
manager of the 
Durham Division 
of American Sup- 
pliers, joined the 
American Tobac- 
20 Co. in 1922 and 
was associated 
with the Reids- 
rille Stemmery in 1924-25. After about a year in 
Richmond, Va., he returned to Reidsville. He has 
oeen located in Durham since 1928 and became man- 
ager of the Durham Division in 1939. 


The Durham plant of the American is located on 
a plot of about 14 acres in the heart of Durham's 
industrial area, an enlargement of the site of a 
former Bull Durham plant, and near the railroad 
lines. On its storage area of about 116 acres, some 
;hree miles from the plant, are located some 48 ware- 
houses for storage of leaf tobacco. 

The Reidsville plant, in which Lucky Strike cig- 
arettes are the exclusive product, is on a plot of about 
iy% acres, an enlargement of the former F. R. Penn 
robacco Co. plant. The storage area, about two 
niles away, contains 107 acres on which 56 leaf 
storage warehouses are located. 

Lucky Strike cigarettes, the firm's most popular 
3rand, are manufactured in Durham, as well as in 
Reidsville, and also in the Louisville, Ky., and Rich- 
mond, Va., plants. Other popular cigarettes manu- 
factured in the Durham plant include Pall Mall, 
Herbert Tareyton, Johnnie Walker, Sweet Caporal, 
Lord Salisbury, Melachrino, Sovereign and One 
Eleven (111 — for the New York headquarters ad- 
dress — 111 Fifth Avenue). 

Bull Durham smoking tobacco, of course, had its 
Deginning as such in Durham soon after the end of 
;he Civil War. John Ruffin Green, whose plant had 
3een raided by Federal soldiers stationed nearby in 
:he winter and spring of 1865 and who recovered 
from apparent ruin when those same soldiers began 
ordering "That good Durham tobacco" in letters to 
:he mayor, the postmaster, the station agent and 
Dthers, was making the bright yellow leaf into smok- 
ing tobacco. John Y. Whitted, a friend, is said to 
have pointed to a jar of Coleman's Mustard, made 
in Durham, England, and bearing the picture of a 
bull, suggesting that Green have a picture made of a 
bull with Green sitting on his back and use that as 
a brand for his smoking tobacco. 


The suggestion was followed, minus Green on the 
bull's back. That bull was painted on sheet iron 
by James E. Berry, a refugee painter and buggy 
maker from New Bern. The bull was facing east. 

Leaf storage warehouses of the American Tobacco Co. 
near Reidsville. 

General Julian S. Carr, Durham industrialist and 
partner in the Bull Durham firm, had another bull 
painted, looking west. It was this bull that J. Gil- 
mer Korner, of Kernersville, N. C, under the pseu- 
donym of "Reuben Rink", with crews of assistants 
pasted big and little sheets on thousands of barns, 
fences, trees and other points of vantage through- 
out the United States and foreign countries, and even 
plastered it on the Pyramids of Egypt. 

Bull Durham, which topped all smoking tobaccos 
manufactured and was copied by other producers 
for many years, is manufactured today in Durham 
and near the site where it had its beginning. And 
it was Bull Durham that did most to make "Durham 
Renowned the World Around". Other smoking to- 
baccos manufactured in Durham by the American 
are Drum, Victory and Maryland Club, all popular 
brands. Other principal and popular brands of 
smoking tobacco manufactured by the American in 
its plants in other states include Half and Half, 
Tuxedo, Cutty Pipe, Five Bros., Peerless, Ivanhoe, 
Liberty and Honest Long Cut, and such high grade 
smoking tobaccos as Blue Boar, Old English Curve 
Cut, Pinkussohn's Pot pourri, Herbert Tareyton and 
Serene. Popular chewing brands include Cotton 
Boll, Penn's Natural Leaf, Ivy, Piper Heidsieck, 
Yellow Tag and Spearhead. Many of these brands 
have been popular for several generations. 


The cigar business of the American has been 
equally successful and the company produces many 
of the nation's leading cigar brands. La Corona con- 
tinues as a standard of excellence in Havana cigars. 
Almost an equal reputation is enjoyed by the Antonio 
y Cleopatra brand. In the popular priced field El 
Roi Tan is one of the leaders in the industry in vol- 
ume of sales. 

In addition to the plants in Durham and Reidsville, 
the American Tobacco Co. operates plants located in 
Richmond, Va., Charleston, S. C, Nashville, Tenn., 
Louisville, Ky., Trenton, N. J., and in Philadelphia, 
Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Ashley in Pennsylvania. 
In these ten plants the company manufactures sev- 
eral hundred brands of cigarettes, smoking tobacco, 
plug and twist chewing tobacco, cigars and other 
types of tobacco products. 

PAGE 86 


Summer-fall, i 95 1 


Indicative of the continuing success of the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Co. are the figures shown in its Annual 
Report for the year 1950. Total company receipts 
in 1950 amounted to $872,663,000. Operating profit 
during the year amounted to $86,617,000. Income 
before taxes in 1950 amounted to $76,724,000 and 
net income, after State and Federal income taxes 
and Federal excess profit taxes had been paid and 
other adjustments made, amounted to $41,732,716. 
Net income for the year thus reached $7.17 per share 
of common stock, a slight reduction from the rate 
in 1949, due to increased income and excess profits 
taxes. Dividends distributed among the 64,565 com- 
mon stockholders at $4.00 and the 8,588 preferred 
stockholders at $6.00 per share amounted to $24,- 
676,000 in 1950. Federal and State income taxes 
paid by the American amounted to $6.96 per common 

The American Tobacco Co. increased its authoriz- 
ed common capital stock at its 1951 annual meeting 
from 6,000,000 to 10,000,000 shares. Only 5,472,138 
shares of common stock had been issued by the end 
of last year. The authorized preferred capital stock 
is 540,106 shares, of which 526,997 had been issued 
up to December 31, 1950. 

A breakdown of the receipts and expenditures of 
the American Tobacco Co. for last year reveals in- 
teresting information. Company receipts in 1950 of 
$872,663,000 included $871,621,000 in goods sold and 
$1,042,000 from dividends, interest and other 
sources. This total was used or was set aside for 
the following purposes: revenue stamps and taxes, 
$453,453,000; tobacco, with applicable expenses, 
$238,529,000 ; wages, goods, services, etc., $127,249,- 

000 ; depreciation, $2,902,000 ; bond and bank inter- 
est, $8,797,000 ; dividends to stockholders, $24,676,- 
000; addition to surplus for future needs, $17,057,- 


The American Tobacco Co. operates a retirement 
plan for all of its employees by which they receive 
compensation after retirement on the basis of length 
of service and salary rates. This supplements the 
amount received from the Federal Old Age and Sur- 
vivor's Insurance Plan. 

In addition, provision is made for retirement in 
the event of disability. Each employee receives two 
weeks vacation and six paid holidays annually. The 
company provides and pays for a Group Life Insur- 
ance Policy for each employee, maintains doctors and 
extensive medical facilities at its plants and has 
in effect a plan which provides benefits in case of 

The American Tobacco Co. is one of the country's 
largest national advertisers, promoting the sale of 
its products through newspapers and magazines, 
billboards, on radio and television shows and in many 
other forms. Particularly does the company push 
the sale of Lucky Strike cigarettes, introduced to the 
public in 1916 and one of the increasingly popular 
brands in the nation. Advertising campaigns have 
included such well-known phrases for Lucky Strike 
cigarettes as "It's Toasted", "Reach for a Lucky", 
"L.S./M.F.T. (Lucky Strike Means Fine Tobacco)", 
and the present slogan "Be Happy — Go Lucky". 
By the quality of its products and its promotion the 
company has continued to supply a large share of 
popular brands of tobacco products during the 40- 
odd years of its operations. 

Liggett & Myers Has Ultra Modern Durham Tobacco Plant; 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co., with headquarters 
at 630 Fifth Avenue, New York City, is one of the 
three or four larger tobacco companies operating in 
the United States. One of its three principal tobacco 
plant cities is Durham and among its most popular 
brands are Chesterfield and Fatima (King size) cig- 
arettes and Velvet and Granger smoking tobaccos 
which are among the leading brands in the popular 
priced field. 

Although not originally a North Carolina firm, 
Liggett & Myers has a definite North Carolina flavor. 
During the past forty years of its operation as now 
organized two of its four presidents have been na- 
tives of North Carolina and another educated and 
developed in this State. In addition, several of its 
vice-presidents, one chairman of the board and num- 
bers of other high officials were and are natives of 
North Carolina. 

Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. was organized in 
St. Louis, Mo., around the Civil War period and dui- 

ing its 40 years became one of the largest chewing! 
tobacco manufacturing firms in the nation. 

Christopher Foulks was a tobacco manufacturer! 
in St. Louis. His daughter, Elizabeth Foulks, mar-j 
ried George Liggett who had come from London- 1 ; 
derry, Ireland. Their son, John Edward Liggett,! 
entered the plant of his Grandfather Foulks at 181 
years of age and later became a junior partner.' 
Later his brother, W. C. L. Liggett, bought into the; 
firm which then became J. E. Liggett & Bro. Later! 
Henry Dausnon bought the brother's share and the* 
firm then became Liggett & Dausnon. Still later;, 
George S. Myers bought Dausnon's interest and tha 
firm became Liggett & Myers. 


By 1884 Liggett & Myers was one of the big three 
chewing tobacco manufacturers in the nation. Dur- 
ing that year it produced 27,000,000 pounds of to 
bacco, the chief brand of which was Star. During 
the 15 years that followed it resisted combinations 

Summer-fall, i 95 1 


PAGE 87 

Benjamin F. Few, recently elected 
president of Liggett & Myers Tobac- 
co Go. Native of Grier, S. G.; edu- 
cated and trained in Durham. 

of tobacco manufac- 
turers and during 
the last half of that 
period the firm was 
fighting absorption 
by the American To- 
bacco Co. 

Meanwhile, Thom- 
as Fortune Ryan 
and his Wall Street 
associates had or- 
ganized the Union 
Tobacco Company 
of America and ab- 
sorbed two large 
firms, one manufac- 
turing smoking to- 
bacco and the other 
cigarettes. In 1899 
Mr. Ryan informed 
James B. Duke, 
president of the American Tobacco Co., that he 
had paid $200,000 for an option to buy Liggett 
& Myers for $11,000,000. He had thus secured plants 
to manufacture the three main tobacco products — 
cigarettes, smoking and chewing — with which to 
fight the American Tobacco Co. and Mr. Duke. Mr. 
Duke had tried every way possible to bring Liggett 
& Myers into the American Tobacco Co. and this in- 
formation was very distressing to him. Mr. Duke 
and Mr. Ryan were at dagger points. However, they 
finally came to terms, under which Liggett & Myers 
became a part of the American. When the American 
Tobacco Co. was dissolved in 1911, Liggett & Myers 
became one of the 

five independent to- / f / 

bacco manuf actur- •-.../ / / V> 

ing units. / / / //// 


Caleb C. Dula who, 
with his brother, R. 

B. Dula, had been 
with the Hammond 
Tobacco Co. in St. 
Louis, Mo., became 
the first president of 
the reorganized Lig- 
gett n : Myers Tobac- 
co Co. Mr. Dula, a 
native of Lenoir, N. 

C, had demonstrat- 
ed his fine executive 
ability to Mr. Duke. 
He had been one of 
the men to accom- 
pany Mr. Duke to 
London in 1901, as 
a result of which 
trip the British- 

American Tobacco Co. was formed. By 1904 Mr. 
Dula had become vice-president of the American To- 
bacco Co., a position he held until its dissolution. He 
continued as president of Liggett & Myers for about 
15 years. 

Clinton White Toms, one of the three superin- 
tendents of the Durham City Schools to become high 
officials of Liggett & Myers, was the second presi- 
dent. Mr. Toms joined the Durham plant in 1904 
and in 1911, following the dissolution of the Ameri- 
can, he became vice-president of Liggett & Myers 
and was made president succeeding Mr. Dula. He 
served as president until his death in 1936. James 
W. Andrews succeeded him as president, serving 
until this year when he retired on January 31. 


Benjamin F. Few, native of Grier, S. C, was 
elected president of Liggett & Myers to succeed Mr. 
Andrews. Mr. Few, a nephew of Dr. William P. 
Few, for many years president of Duke University 
(Trinity College), received his AB and MA degrees 
from that Durham institution. Following his grad- 
uation in 1916, he started in the Durham cigarette 
factory and later represented the company in the 
Orient. He returned to the New York office, became 
a director of the company and later vice-president in 
charge of advertising. He was senior vice-president 
at the time of his promotion to president. 

At the same time the directors elected Zach Toms, 
son of the former president, C. W. Toms, as vice- 
president of the company. He had been with Liggett 

Recently completed plant of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. in 

Durham. Said to be the most modern tobacco 

factory in the world. 

PAGE 88 


Summer-fall. 1951 

J. Camden Hundley, director James E. Farley, director in 

and manager of the Durham charge of leaf buying for Lig- 

j)lant of Liggett & Myers To- gett & Myers Tobacco Co. Na- 

bacco Co. Native of Oxford; tive of Person County ; resident 

long a resident of Durham. of Durham. 

& Myers since 1922, a director since 1945 and secre- 
tary since 1947. He continues as secretary. Loy 
D. Thompson, son of Rev. L. D. Thompson, of the 
Western North Carolina Methodist Conference, who 
had been with the company since 1930 and had been 
head of its purchasing department for several years, 
was elected as a director. 


In fact, three of the vice-presidents of Liggett & 
Myers, one of them also secretary, the treasurer, 
and seven of the 11 directors, exclusive of President 
Few, are North Carolinians. W. A. Blount, Wash- 
ington, N. C, a director and vice-president, in charge 
of sales, was superintendent of manufacture in the 
Durham plant for several years and went to New 
York around 1930 as assistant to William W. Flow- 
ers. Hugh E. White, native of Warrenton, who join- 
ed the firm in 1911, is a director and vice-president, 
in charge of finance, and William L. Perry, native 
of Missouri, but former resident of North Carolina, 
is director and treasurer. As noted, Zach Toms is 
vice-president and secretary, and Loy D. Thompson 
is a director. 

J. C. Hundley, also a director, is in charge of the 
Durham plant. He is a native of Oxford, but long 
a resident of Durham. He is a younger brother of 
the late George W. Hundley, for many years presi- 
dent of the Golden Belt Manufacturing Co. of Dur- 

J. E. Farley, a director in charge of leaf buying, 
is a native of Woodsdale, Person County, and joined 
Liggett & Myers in 1911. 


T. Curtis Gary was president of the Gary Tobacco 
Co., Turkish buying organization of Liggett & Myers 
until his retirement. He now lives in Spring Lake, 
N. J. He was succeeded by his brother, Charles B. 
Gary, who also became a director. He died in 1949. 
Both were born in Hudson, Caldwell County. 

Charles A. Livengood, native of Davie County and 
graduate of Duke University, went to work for the 
former American Tobacco Co. in Durham in 1904. 
He worked up through the ranks and became man- 
ager of the Durham plant of Liggett & Myers in 
1925, succeeding W. D. Carmichael. He continued 
as manager for 20 years until he retired in 1945 
and continues to live in Durham. 

Previously, W. W. Flowers, native of Taylorsville, 
former Durham school superintendent and older 
brother of Dr. Robert L. Flowers, recently retired 
president of Duke University, was manager of the 
Durham plant for several years. He went to New 
York as secretary to the executive committee, serv- 
ed as vice-president for the period around 1920-30, 
and as chairman of the board until his death about 

W. D. Carmichael, also a Durham school head, 
joined the tobacco firm around 1912 as assistant to 
Mr. Flowers and succeeded him as manager of the 
Durham plant. Mr. Carmichael also went to New 
York around 1925 as director and later became vice- 
president in charge of advertising. He retired 
around 1944 and is now enjoying life at Chapel Hill. 
His son, W. D. Carmichael, Jr., is controller of the 
Consolidated University of North Carolina. 

SALES EXCEEDED $305,000,000 

Continuing success of Liggett & Myers is indi- 
cated, as shown in the 1951 annual report to the 

New and thoroughly modern laboratory building of Liggett dc 
Myers Tobacco Co. in Durham 

Cigarette making machine in the Durham plant of 
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 89 

Cigarette packing machine in the Durham plant of 
Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. 

stockholders, by the fact that the 1950 net value of 
sales of its products amounted to $305,547,000, con- 
siderably more than twice the amount shown for 
the year 1940. Stability is shown by the fact that 
the current assets at the end of 1950 reached $414,- 
588,000, which was at a ratio of five to one of its 
current liabilities — $82,841,000. Earned surplus at 
the end of 1950, to which was added slightly more 
than $8,000,000 in earned surplus for the year 1950, 
amounted to $103,558,000. 

Liggett & Myers in 1950 showed profits from ope- 
ration of $59,754,000, which, plus other income and 
minus interest paid, amounted to net profits of $55,- 
550,000. This amount was reduced by provision for 
Federal income and excess profits taxes and State 
income and franchise taxes amounting to $26,492,- 
000, leaving a net income for 1950 of $29,058,000. 
Slightly more than $8,000,000 of this was added to 
the earned surplus, after $21,018,800 had been paid 
in dividends to stockholders. Dividends included 
$1,461,000 to holders of 7% cumulative preferred 
shares, and $19,557,000, or 5%, to holders of com- 
mon shares. The stock is held by approximately 
31,600 shareholders. 

Total capital stock of Liggett & Myers Tobacco 
Co. is $118,662,125. This is embraced in 3,911,521 
shares of common stock issued, of the 5,000,000 au- 
thorized, par value $25, and in 225,141 shares of 
7% cumulative preferred shares issued, of 341,398 
authorized, par value $100. 

The three Liggett & Myers units in Durham, St. 
Louis and Richmond employ approximately 8,200 
regular employees, in addition to hundreds of sea- 
sonal workers in its stemming, redrying and packing 
plants and storage warehouse operations. The com- 
pany maintains a retirement system for its em- 
ployees, supplementing retirement benefits accumu- 
lated under the Federal Old Age and Survivors' In- 
surance plan. 


Chesterfields, leading cigarette brand of Liggett 
& Myers, was put on the market in 1912. Later it 
was built up on a blend of Bright Leaf, Burley and 
Maryland tobaccos with a dash of Turkish tobacco 
and became one of the best sellers among the na- 
tion's leading brands. Chesterfields, along with Fa- 
timas (King size), Piedmont, Home Run, Picayune 
and Coupon cigarettes, as well as Duke's Mixture, 
Country Gentleman and Buffalo smoking tobaccos 
are all manufactured in the Durham plant of Lig- 
gett & Myers. 

These and other popular brands manufactured in 
other plants of the firm in St. Louis, Mo., and Rich- 
mond, Va., include Spur and Cycle cigarettes; Vel- 
vet, Granger, Buck Horn, Corn Cake, Dinner Bell, 
Everyday Smoke, Harmony, King Bee, Masterpiece, 
Plow Boy, S & M, Summertime, Sweet Tip Top and 
Virginia Extra smoking tobaccos ; Spark Plug, Star, 
Horse Shoe, Drummond Natural Leaf, Fish Hook, 
J. T., King Pin, Masterpiece, Pick, Tinsley's Natural 
Leaf, Uncle Sam, W. M. T. Natural Leaf and Union 
Standard plug tobaccos ; Red Horse, Pay Car and 
Red Man scrap tobaccos, Sterling Sweet Burley and 
Sweet Cuba fine cut tobaccos; Granger, Honey Dip 
and Picnic twists and Recruit little cigars. 

Brown & Williamson Produces Chewing and Snuff in State 

Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., organized as 
Brown & Williamson, began manufacture of chew- 
ing tobacco in Winston (-Salem) in a rented build- 
ing on February 1, 1894. This firm was incorporat- 
ed as Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. in 1906 and 
in 1927 it was reorganized as Brown & Williamson 
Tobacco Corp. The new corporation acquired and 
erected new plants in Louisville, Ky., moved its cig- 
arette manufacturing into the new plants and to a 
plant in Petersburg, Va. In January, 1929, the main 
office was moved from Winston-Salem to Louisville. 
Smoking tobacco manufacturing was later moved to 
the Louisville plant. 

In Winston-Salem chewing tobacco and snuff are 
still manufactured in some of the earlier buildings 

but most of the activities are now carried on in Louis- 
ville and Petersburg. Principal chewing brands 
manufactured in Winston-Salem are Bloodhound, 
Red Juice and Sun Cured. Tube Rose is the princi- 
pal brand of snuff manufactured in Winston-Salem 
and is one of the leading snuff brands in the nation. 
In the plants in Louisville and Petersburg of Brown 
& Williamson, Raleighs, Kools, Viceroy, Wings, 
Avalon and Life cigarettes and Sir Walter Raleigh, 
Golden Grain, Old North State, Target, Bugler and 
Kite smoking tobaccos are manufactured. Most of 
these cigarettes and smoking tobaccos had their ori- 
gin in Winston-Salem with the earlier Brown & Wil- 
liamson Tobacco Co. or were acquired by this com- 

PAGE 90 


Summer-Fall, i 951 

George T. Brown, organizer and for 
several years president of Brown & 
Williamson Tobacco Go. He died in 

pany through the 
purchase of local to- 
bacco manufactur- 
ing firms. 

Organization of 
the original Brown 
& Williamson firm 
in 1894 followed the 
panic of 1893. 
George T. Brown, 
with $10,000 given 
him by his father, 
had purchased some 
100,000 pounds of 
leaf tobacco in South 
Boston, Va., for 
speculative purpos- 
es. Robert L. Wil- 
liamson had worked 
in his father's plants 
both in Yanceyville 
and in Winston and 
had held a job as superintendent of the plant of T. L. 
Vaughn & Co. These two men, one with the capital 
and the other with the know-how, got together and 
formed a partnership. During their first year of 
seasonal operation they made a clear profit of $10,- 

Mr. Brown was the son of R. D. Brown and nephew 
of Dr. William Brown, who had operated a small fac- 
tory in Mocksville and around 1875 moved their 
business to Winston, operating as Brown Bros. Mr. 
Williamson had worked in his father's small plant 
near Yanceyville and his father, T. L. Williamson, 
also moved to Winston and opened up a plant there. 

Brown & Williamson began business in a small 
plant rented from Harbour H. Reynolds which the 
firm purchased two years later. The business ope- 
rated by Mr. Williamson's father, the T. F. William- 
son Tobacco Co., was taken over during the first 
year of operation. With it they secured the trade- 
mark brands of Golden Grain, Red Juice and Red 
Crow. Meantime they had started brands of their 
own including Bugler, Bloodhound, Kite and Shot. 

In 1906 the business was incorporated under North 
Carolina laws as Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. 
with Mr. Brown as president and Mr. Williamson 
as vice-president. During the next year the firm 
began the manufacture of snuff under the direction 
of a Mr. Miller under the brand names of Tube Rose, 
Granny and Polly. Tube Rose is still manufactured 
in the same plant. 

Brown & Williamson purchased several small to- 
bacco firms. Casey & Wright was purchased in 
1904. The J. G. Flynt Tobacco Co., which, with its 
predecessors, had been in business since 1884, was 
acquired in 1925. With this business came the trade- 
marks, Sir Walter Raleigh, part of which name is 
given to Raleigh cigarettes; Ox, Pride of Winston 
and Black Jack. Again in April, 1926, the firm pur- 
chased the brands of R. P. Richardson, Jr., & Co., 
of Reidsville, an old firm, and acquired with it the 

Old North State brand of smoking tobacco which 
dates back to 1873. 

A year after the reorganization of the firm in 1927 
as the Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., the firm 
introduced the well-advertised and well-known Ral- 
eigh cigarettes (again "with a coupon on the back") . 
Bugler, the half -century old trademark, was revised 
for use as a roll-your-own tobacco, as was the fifteen- 
year-old Target. Kool cigarettes, inseparably asso- 
ciated with the performing Penguin, indicating cool- 
ness, appeared in 1931. 

Due to its location near the center of population 
of the country and its consequent shipping advan- 
tages, Louisville was selected as a point for addi- 
tional plants and as the location of the head office. 
Cigarette manufacturing was transferred to Louis- 
ville and Petersburg and later smoking tobacco man- 
ufacturing was transferred to Louisville, leaving 
chewing and snuff manufacturing activities exclus- 
ively in the Winston-Salem plant. 

Mr. Brown, one of the organizers and first presi- 
dent, continued to buy tobacco and look after the 
business end of the firm until his death in 1916. Mr. 
Williamson, vice-president and brother-in-law of Mr. 
Brown, continued to superintend the manufacturing, 
succeeding Mr. Brown as president of the firm. 
After Mr. Williamson and his associates sold the 
bulk of the business in 1927, he continued as vice- 
president and general manager of the plant for 
about two years. He died in 1938. Robert Barton, 
brother of Bruce Barton of advertising firm fame, 
was manager of the plant for about two years while 
Mr. Williamson was still active. 

J. H. White, who had been with Brown & William- 
son in an earlier period, returned to Winston-Salem 
in 1927 as assistant manager. In 1929 he was made 
manager of the plant and continued as such until 
1948 when he was made general leaf supervisor for 
the corporation. Mr. White retired in 1950. He 
is a native of Greenville, N. C, and had engaged in 
tobacco activities 
for varying periods 
in Greenville, Pe- 
tersburg, Va., Can- 
ada, Mexico, Jamai- 
ca, Venezuela and 
other Central and 
South American 
countries. He con- 
tinues to reside in 

Charles R. Frost, 
who succeeded Mr. 
White as manager, 
is a native of West 
Virginia. He start- 
ed in Richmond, Va. 
with the Export 
Leaf Tobacco Co. as 
a buyer. Mr. Frost 
snpnt a fpw vpars Charles R. Frost, general manager, 
bpenu d iew yectib Winston-Salem branch of Brown & 
each in Oxford and Williamson Tobacco Corp. 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 91 

Tarboro and joined Brown & Williamson in 1932. 
In 1940 he was transferred to Louisville as assist- 
ant manager of the leaf department. After a tour 
of duty in the Army, he returned to the Winston- 
Salem plant in 1945 as assistant manager and was 
appointed manager March 1, 1948. 

With the beginning of operations of Brown & 
Williamson in 1894, Walter Leak, brother-in-law of 
Mr. Williamson, became treasurer, continuing in that 
position until about 1925. He "was succeeded by C. 
A. Kent, who was treasurer until around 1930. Wil- 
son Gray, of the present firm of Gray & Creech, was 
secretary from around 1910 until about 1925. 

R. J. Parrish, who was with Taylor Bros, as a 
young man, joined Brown & Williamson on the sec- 
ond day of operation, February 2, 1894, and was 
placed in charge of the rolling room. Later he was 
made assistant superintendent and in 1907 was pro- 

moted to superintendent and became a director in 
charge of manufacturing. Early in 1930 Mr. Par- 
rish was transferred to the Louisville plant where 
he directed the manufacture of Sir Walter Raleigh 
and other brands of smoking tobacco for a few years. 
He was a director until he retired January 1, 1942, 
and lives in Winston-Salem. 

The Winston-Salem plant has had and still em- 
ploys workers who started their careers with the 
firm in its earlier days. Mr. Parrish was an em- 
ployee, official and director for 48 years. Mr. Leak 
was treasurer for 31 years. Mr. White was plant 
manager for 21 years. C. W. Hutchins, chief ship- 
ping clerk, has been with the firm for 34 years. Ed 
N. Ellis, general utility man, started work with the 
plant when he was eight years old, has never missed 
a pay day in 57 years, and is still going strong at 64 
years of age. Many other employees have served 
Brown & Williamson for 25 years or more. 

Taylor Brothers State's Only Chewing Plant Exclusively 

Taylor Bros., Inc., Winston-Salem, manufacturer 
of chewing tobacco, is the only relatively small inde- 
pendent tobacco manufacturing firm still in opera- 
tion in North Carolina. It is one of the few firms 
surviving the "trust" days around the turn of the 
century and the only one that has lasted until now. 
Although this firm passed through bad years when 
cigarettes were replacing chewing tobacco, it man- 
aged to pull through and continues to be a success- 
ful and fairly stabilized producer. 

A striking example of this independence was dem- 
onstrated by the late William B. Taylor, one of the 
founders, when he was approached by the late R. J. 
Reynolds, founder and long president of the R. J. 
Reynolds Tobacco Co., on the subject of a merger. 
The story goes that "Old Man Bill" asked "Old Man 
Dick," as they were generally known at the time, 
"Dick, if I come in, who's going to be boss, me or 
you?" Old Man Dick replied, "Well, Bill, I'd be the 
boss here." "I won't join. I'll stay boss in my little 
puddle," said Old Man Bill firmly and decisively, 
and he did. 

W. B. Taylor, principal founder of Taylor Broth- 
ers, was a native of Virginia, near Richmond. As a 
young man he was plant manager for Cameron and 
Cameron in Richmond. Before long he went to Aus- 
tralia to buy and install tobacco manufacturing ma- 
chinery for an English firm. After a year he re- 
turned to Virginia to marry Miss Elizabeth McCaw 
Boggs. He had planned to return to Australia but 
decided to enter into a partnership with Col. Graves 
in Bedford, where they manufactured plug tobacco 
for several years. Then he moved to Lynchburg, 
forming a five-year partnership with a Mr. Gish. 
In their first year they earned $22,000 and reinvested 
it in tobacco, which was lost in a fire. Their contract 
was dissolved. 

In 1883, Mr. Taylor decided to move to Winston. 

He raised $10,000 
and started his long 
career as a tobacco 
manufacturer in 
that city. He brought 
in as a partner his 
brother, Jacquelin 
P. Taylor, who had 
attended Richmond 
College and was well 
equipped to handle 
the office. W.B. Tay- 
lor devoted his ener- 
gies to buying and 

In the same block 
in which the Taylor 
Brothers plant was 
located, on First 
Street at Patterson 
Avenue, were two 
other tobacco facto- 
ries operated by Kerner Bros, and W. B. Clary. 
These three buildings are now embraced in the plant 
of Taylor Brothers. 

In 1916, J. P. Taylor died and in 1921 his sons 
retired from the business. In 1921, also, the business 
was incorporated under its former partnership 
name. W. B. Taylor continued its operation, bring- 
ing into the business his two sons, Harry Taylor 
and Arch B. Taylor. In 1933 the founder of the 
business died and Harry Taylor became president, 
serving as such until 1947, when he died. Arch Tay- 
lor, who had been secretary and assistant treasurer 
and later vice-president, became president and sec- 
retary of the corporation. He continues as presi- 
dent and secretary. F. D. Pfaff is vice-president and 
Miss Flora Murray treasurer. 

Arch B. Taylor, son of founder, W. 
B. Taylor, and second generation 
president of Taylor Bros., Inc., Win- 

PAGE 92 


Summer-fall, i 95 1 

Taylor Brothers employs approximately 200 work- 
ers and has enjoyed a stable and steady growth dur- 
ing the past decade or more. This firm advertises 
that it produces chewing tobacco for people in field, 
factory, forest and mine. 

Principal chewing tobacco brands originally man- 
ufactured by Taylor Brothers include such popular 
brands as Taylor's Natural Leaf, Taylor's Best, Tay- 
lor Made, Ram's Horn Twist, Black Maria, Old Tay- 
lor Twist and others. In 1912, Taylor Brothers 
bought out the Whitaker-Harvey Tobacco Co., tak- 
ing over its leaf supply and brands, continuing Red 
Coon, Ripe Peaches, Peach and Honey and Bull of 
the Woods. In 1942, Taylor Brothers purchased the 
stock and brands of F. M. Bohannon, continuing the 
manufacture of Bohannon's Favorite, Foot Prints, 
Lucky Joe and others. 

Taylor Brothers today continues the fine spirit in 
its organization which has marked it from the be- 
ginning. As W. B. Taylor, through his long life, 
knew the names and characteristics of each of his 
employees, so does Arch Taylor today. This close 
alliance between owners and employees has resulted 
in close cooperation with a minimum of friction. 
Many of the present Taylor Brothers employees have 

spent the most of a lifetime in the service of the 
firm. Many employee benefits are included in the 
plan of organization. 

The founders of Taylor Brothers were deeply re- 
ligious men of the Presbyterian faith, extending 
their independence and outspoken attitudes into their 
church activities. An interesting note is that early 
in the days of Taylor Brothers they inaugurated a 
plan of beginning work each day with a brief reli- 
gious service. This* included brief talks, songs and 
prayers led by one of the Taylor brothers or their 
employees. These services usually lasted ten min- 
utes, but were extended to 20 or even 30 minutes 
when visiting ministers or religious leaders came in 
to conduct services. This ritual is continued until 
today, but the time has been changed to the period 
just before the lunch hour. 

An interesting incident is related of the earlier 
days. An old Negro was offering a fervent prayer. 
In it he said, "And, Oh Lord, touch the hearts of Mr. 
Bill and Mr. Jack and cause them to pay us more 
wages." One version had Mr. Bill vigorously stat- 
ing, "That's enough. That's enough. Time to go 
to work now." 

Cigar Production Limited in State - Greensboro Leads 

North Carolina has never engaged extensively in 
the manufacture of cigars, cheroots and little cigars, 
due primarily to the fact that cigar tobacco has never 
been grown in any quantity in this State. However, 
cigars have been produced in a dozen or more North 
Carolina communities in the past and one city, 
Greensboro, had continued for more than 50 years 
as the center of the cigar making industry in North 
Carolina. One large and one small cigar plant are 
now operating in that city while two or three other 
small ones are producing handmade cigars in other 

Raleigh formerly boasted of at least three cigar 
manufacturing plants at different times. One of 
these was Plumadore & Green, who operated proba- 
bly briefly in the early 1880s. Another firm operat- 
ing for several years in Raleigh was J. M. Norwood, 
cigar manufacturer in the period around 1900-1910. 
This was in a small backyard building. Briefly, in 
1925-26, Frank Garcia, a Cuban, operated a cigar 
plant in the Lightner Building, a few employees 
making hand-made cigars. 

Durham, in the 1870s and 1880s, had four firms 
manufacturing cigars and cheroots. They were 
Samuel Kramer & Co., Mallory Cheroot Co., W. P. 
Henry & Co., and Lyon & Reed. 

Records indicate that a small cigar plant was ope- 
rated in Wilson in the early 1880s for a few years. 
Another cigar manufacturer was Thomas Sullivan, 
forerunner of N. D. Sullivan & Co. and Sullivan & 
Booe, who began the manufacture of tobacco, includ- 
ing cigars, in a small plant at Sullivantown, about 

two miles northeast of Walkertown in Forsyth 

References indicate that cigars were manufactur- 
ed in probably half a dozen other communities in the 
State but all were small operations. 


Greensboro, N. C. 

El Moro Cigar Co., plant at Greene and Edwards 
Streets, office 337 S. Greene St., Greensboro, had its 
beginning in 1915 when John T. Rees began to man 
ufacture cigars by hand. The firm's name at that 
time was El-Rees-So Cigar Co. Mr. Rees operated 
the plant for several years and the El-Rees-So Cigar 
Co. was taken over by Pennsylvania people and 
continued operation until 1932 when the business 

Meantime Mr. Rees operated the Rees-Mitchell 
Cigar Co. from the early 1920s until 1926. At that! 
time, he organized the El Moro Cigar Co., a $15,000 
corporation, with John T. Rees as president and 
treasurer, J. C. McDowell, Mrs. Rees' father, vice-j 
president, and Mrs. Rees as secretary. Taking stocil 
in the new corporation were R. B. Lloyd and F. W 
Lloyd, brothers, who were engaged in the wholesak 
tobacco business and supplied the tobaccos going 
into the cigars. 

Following the death of Mr. Rees a few years ago 
R. B. Lloyd was elected president of the corporation 
C. W. Lloyd, son of the other of these brothers, be 
came executive vice-president; D. L. Webster, vice 
president in charge of production; R. B. Lloyd, Jr. 

Summer-fall, 1 95 1 


PAGE 93 

vice-president and general counsel; J. I. Lloyd, son 
of R. B. Lloyd, treasurer; and Mrs. Rees continues 
as secretary. These officers are the principal stock- 
holders in the company. 

El Moro Cigar Co. has increased its authorized 
capital stock to $150,000 with paid in capital of 
$105,000. In 1933 the firm installed machinery for 
a part of its operations and in 1948 machinery was 
installed to do all of the processing business in a 
cigar plant. The firm now has 16 cigar making Pat- 
terson machines operated on a rental basis from the 
International Cigar Machinery Co., a subsidiary of 
American Machine and Foundry Co. 

In its three story building containing 18,000 
square feet of floor space, El Moro Cigar Co. pro- 
duces approximately 150,000 cigars daily. The plant 
employs 135 workers working in two shifts and 
has an annual payroll of approximately $225,000. 

Principal brands are El Moro cigars priced at 
two for 15^, El-Rees-So cigars sell for 5<f: ; Robert 
Fulton and Spanish Maid crooks are other popular 
5^ brands. The firm also produces other brands 
popular in certain of its trade areas. Cigars are 
distributed largely in about ten of the Southeastern 
states. Wrappers for the cigars are secured from 
certain areas in Florida while the fillers are a blend 
of foreign and domestic tobaccos purchased from 
Puerto Rico, Ohio, Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and 
other points. 

An interesting fact in connection with manufac- 
turing cigars by machinery is that the machines are 
rights and lefts. That is, one machine uses the left 
half of the wrapper leaf and the other the right half 
after the "bunch" has been prepared and wrapped 
in a rough leaf by another machine. The rights and 
lefts are used in order to allow the fibers in the leaf 
to extend up and down the cigar, rather than around 
the cigar. The cigars are wrapped in cellophane and 
the label applied, after which they are placed in 
the boxes. These boxes are placed under screw 
pressure where they are allowed to remain for a 
sufficient time to prevent puffing. 

A member of the El Moro firm owns and operates 
the Greensboro Cigar Box Co. which manufactures 
cigar boxes for it and other cigar manufacturers. 


Greensboro, N. C. 

Guilford Cigar Co., Lee Street, Greensboro, has 
been in operation for ten or 15 years, owned and 
operated by Swannie Ingold. This plant is hand 
operated entirely. Principal brands are Big Henry 
and OK-Crooks. 

Former Greensboro Plants 

Dixie Cigar Co. was operated in Greensboro for 
ten years or more by H. E. Holderfield and ceased 
activities about a year ago, following Mr. Holder- 
field's death. This firm was hand operated during 
most of its life, but machinery was installed a short 
time before Mr. Holderfield's death. Principal brands 
were El Necco, Rum-O-Crooks and Van-Tampa. 

Foster Cigar Co. was in business for about five 
years, around the 1941-46 period, owned and operat- 
ed by Thomas Foster. This firm also produced hand 
made cigars. Its principal brands were Van-Tampa 
and El Necco, which brands were taken over by the 
Dixie Cigar Co. when the Foster brand went out of 

Clegg Cigar Co., operated by W. F. Clegg was 
another popular cigar manufacturing firm for 25 
years or more. The plant closed in the early 1930s. 
One of its popular brands was Brown Betty. 

Also in the earlier days the American Tobacco Co. 
through its subsidiary, the American Cigar Co., 
operated a large plant in Greensboro. The plant 
started around 1900 and closed out in 1929. 

Henry Wellington Cobb, known as "Welly", a to- 
bacco manufacturer in Greensboro, also had an in- 
terest in this cigar plant. Mr. Cobb was a brother 
of John B. (Jack) Cobb who was one of J. B. Duke's 
right-hand men in organization and operation of the 
American Tobacco Co. during the first quarter of 
the century. 

Richlands — Sal Aragona, formerly a Greensboro 
restaurant operator, opened up a cigar plant in 
Richlands, Onslow County, not long ago and re- 
ports are that he is operating the industry satisfac- 
torily and successfully. 

Earlier Tobacco Manufacturing in N. C. Communities 


Durham, "Renowned the world around", primarily as the 
home base of James Buchanan Duke, probably the greatest 
tobacco genius in the history of the world, and also as 
the home city of Bull Durham smoking tobacco, was the 
earliest of the North Carolina communities to win distinc- 
tion as a tobacco manufacturing center. Although tobacco 
manufacturing of a type was carried on in isolated commun- 
ities in North Carolina, probably in advance of Durham's 
start, the "bull city" soon became the best known of the 
tobacco mafnufaturing centers in the State. Many of Dur- 
ham's earlier tobacco manufacturers shifted from one firm 
to another, and although Durham started manufacturing 
tobacco some 15 years ahead of Winston, it never had any- 
thing like as many manufacturing plants as were operat- 

ing in Winston up to and around the turn of the century. 

In fact most of the early firms that later moved to Dur- 
ham started in rural areas largely in Durham and Orange 
counties. A small plug tobacco factory was operating in 
18 50 at Round Hill in rural Durham County and between 
1850 and 1860, plug and smoking tobacco manufacturing 
was conducted on small farms and plantations. Comple- 
tion of the North Carolina railroad to Durham in 1854 
served to strengthen that community and to develop it as 
a tobacco manufacturing center. 

In 18 58 Robert F. Morris moved to Durham, and there 
he and his son began manufacturing tobacco in a small 
house on the present site of the Bull Durham factory. Soon 
afterwards, W. A. Wright moved from Virginia to Durham 
and joined Morris in the firm of Morris & Wright. They 
produced "Best flavored Spanish smoking tobacco". In 

PAGE 94 


Summer-fall, 1951 

1861 Mr. Wright withdrew from the firm and started a 
small plant a short distance east of Durham, but entered 
the army later that year. Around 18 60 Dr. Richard Black- 
nail moved from Rougemont to Durham, and about two 
years later joined Morris, forming the firm of Morris & 
Blackmail. Soon they sold out to John Ruffin Green from 
Person County and W. A. Ward from eastern North Caro- 
lina. Ward soon sold out to Green. 


It was Green's factory near Durham that was raided by 
both Confederate and Federal soldiers in 1865 to the extent 
that Green felt that he had been completely ruined. It 
was not long, however, until letters began to arrive, ad- 
dressed to the mayor, the postmaster or other public offi- 
cials, inclosing money and asking for more of that good 
smoking tobacco. A friend suggested to Green that he use 
the picture of a bull on his label, and this suggestion was 

In 1867 William T. Blackwell, native of Person County, 
who had made and peddled smoking tobacco, moved to 
Durham and became Green's partner. He bought Green's 
interest for about $2,000 some two years later, after Green's 
death. Blackwell took in as a partner James R. Day in 
1871, and soon afterwards admitted General Julian S. Carr 
as a partner. After law suits over the name of the smoking 
tobacco brand against the successor to W. A. Wright, former 
partner of Green, and against J. H. McBlwee in Statesville 
in 1879, with the attendant publicity, Bull Durham tobacco 
became very popular. It won a gold medal and Certificate 
of Merit at the Pennsylvania Centennial Exhibition in 187 6. 

J. Gilmer Korner of Kernersville, as "Reuben Rink", set 
several crews operating throughout the country plastering 
Bull Durham on every available space. In fact Mr. Korner 
went into foreign countries and incidentally spread the Bull 
Durham on the pyramids of Egypt. Sales increased rap- 
idly and production was pushed to meet the growing demand. 


In 1871 Blackwell & Co. opened the first warehouse for 
the sale of leaf tobacco in Durham. Within a few years 
eight or nine such warehouses had been opened. Mean- 
while several tobacco producing firms began operation, in- 
cluding Kramer & Webb (later Albert Kramer), Pinnix 
& Walker, H. J. Bass, Thomas H. Martin, and Thomas D. 

General Carr learned that a machine had been invented 
to shred and grind smoking tobacco. He soon had one in 
the Bull Factory. William H. Kerr, backed by General 
Carr, invented a bag machine which would bag 25,000 bags 
a day. This machine is still used. The Golden Belt Manu- 
facturing Co. was then formed, making tobacco bags. In 
1896 Rufus L. Patterson of Salem joined Kerr and, after 
Kerr's death by drowning, completed the manufacture of a 
tobacco bagging machine known as the "Automatic Bagging 
and Labeling Machine" which would bag 25 bags a minute. 
This machine was perfected in the Bull Factory — and that 
was the beginning of the American Machine and K'oundry 
Co., organized later by Mr. Patterson and still in the Pat- 
terson family. 

Blackwell & Company's assets in 18 71 were less than 
$30,000. In 1874 the east wing of the present Bull factory 
was built, and in 1886 the present west wing was erected. 
In that year Mr. Day retired. Three years later E. M. Mc- 
Dowell & Co., Philadelphia, succeeded Blackwell and in- 
corporated as Blackwell's Durham Tobacco Co. with capital 
stock of $500,000. Blackwell and General Carr sold out 
to this corporation, but General Carr bought new stock and 
became president of the company. In 1887 the firm was re- 
chartered as Blackwell's Durham Corporated Tobacco Co. 
with capital stock of $2,000,000, soon increased to $4,000,- 
000. In 1891 it returned to the former name of Blackwell's 
Durham Tobacco Co. 


In 18 67 Robt. F. Morris was manufacturing Euroka smok- 
ing tobacco, and a few years later had snuff manufacturing- 
equipment, producing Ladies' Choice Scotch Snuff. W. H. 
Willard and S. F. Tomlinson purchased this business in 
1872 and continued it until 1903 when it was sold to the 
American Tobacco Co. Eureka smoking tobacco is still 
made by the American Tobacco Co. and Ladies' Choice 
Scotch Snuff is still made by the American Snuff Co. 

Z. I. Lyon & Co. (his son, J. Ed Lyon) started a smoking 
tobacco plant near Durham producing Pride of Durham 
smoking tobacco. The plant was moved to Durham the next 
year, and a few years later the business was purchased by 
Edward J. Parrish. J. Ed Lyon later joined John R. Green. 
Also in 1869 John S. Lockhart began manufacturing tobacco 
and in 1871 R. W. Faucette started making smoking to- 
bacco, continuing until 1881. Other plants started soon 
included W. R. Hughes & Co., Hughes & Link, W. H. Pat- 
terson, and Lucius Green, son of John R. Green, who was 
manufacturing Indian Girl smoking tobacco. In 1875 R. 
H. Wright & Co. was manufacturing Orange of Durham 
smoking tobacco and by 1880 this was one of the largest 
plants in Durham. Several firms were producing cigars 
and cheroots in the 1870s and 1880s including Samuel 
Kramer & Co., Mallory Cheroot Co., W. P. Henry & Co., 
and Lyon & Reed. 

Hillsboro in 1872 had five tobacco factories, but Hillsboro 
was too aristocratic to encourage such activities. Here, as 
at other places, tobacco factory owners also owned general 
stores, and since money was scarce, they tried to pay for 
supplies and work with due bills honored at their stores. 
When the road to Durham had been completed, growers 
continued on to that city. Tobacco plants either moved to 
Durham or suspended operations. In 18 75 Webb & Roulhac 
moved to Durham and was later sold to W. L. Lipscomb. 
The next year, E. H. Pogue moved his plant to Durham and 
began manufacturing tobacco. Sitting Bull was his main 
brand. J. Y. Whitted also moved to Durham in 1884. 


Meanwhile, after the surrender in 1865, Washington Duke, 
then 4 5 years old and a widower with several children, was 
released from the army in New Bern and walked 137 miles 
to his home a few miles north of Durham. He gathered 
his children together, including Brodie Duke, who had also 
been in the army, and his two younger half brothers, Ben- 
jamin Newton and James Buchanan Duke. He sold his 300 
acre farm and then rented part of it to raise a crop. AddL 
tional capuital included 50^ in good money and two blind 
mules and a small stock of leaf tobacco. This tobacco was 
beaten and sifted into smoking tobacco and put in bags 
labeled Pro-Bono-Publico. This and 200 pounds of flour 
were loaded on a wagon and taken into the eastern part 
of the State. In exchange Washington Duke received bacon 
and 20 pounds of cotton which he sold in Raleigh. 

On his land, he and his two sons, B. N. and J. B. Duke, 
decided to continue manufacturing and selling tobacco. 
They built a small factory of logs, 20 x 30 ft., producing 
about 400 pounds a day. In 1866 they processed about 
15,000 pounds, which sold from 30^ to 40^ a pound. By 
1872 they were producing 125,000 pounds a year. Mean- 
while Brodie Duke had raised a crop on land rented from 
his uncle, William Duke. His profits were so small that 
he became discouraged and joined his father and brothers. 
Then in 18 69 Brodie Duke moved to Durham and bought 
an old building containing two rooms, one over the other. 
He lived and kept his supplies in the upper room and start- 
ed manufacturing smoking tobacco on the first floor. His 
chief brand was Semper Idem and later he added Duke of 
Durham. Meanwhile Pro-Bono-Publico was finding a ready 

Then in 18 74 Washington Duke and his two sons, Ben 
and Buck, moved to Durham and bought a factory on the 
lot later occupied as the east wing of the Liggett & Myers 
factory. Brodie operated in a part of this building sep- 
arate from his father and brothers. Later as business 
prospered, two buildings were erected, one for Brodie and 
the other for Washington Duke and his two sons. 


W. Duke & Sons Co., the first formal partnership, was 
formed in 18 78, consisting of Washington Duke and his 
three sons and George W. Watts, whose father bought for 
him an interest which furnished the first outside capital. 
Two years later R. H. Wright, who had been successful in 
the manufacture of Orange of Durham smoking tobacco, 
joined the firm by purchasing Washington Duke's share. 
Mr. Wright, a natural salesman, handled the outside distri- 
bution. J. B. Duke had charge of the manufacturing. B. 
N. Duke handled the office and correspondence and Mr. 
Watts was treasurer, handling the financial affairs. Al- 
though reasonably successful, the Duke brands could not 

Summer-Fall, 1951 


PAGE 95 

compete with Bull Durham. J. B. Duke, dissatisfied, stated, 
"My company is up against a stone wall. I cannot compete 
with the bull. As for me, I am going into the cigarette 

So, in 1881 cigarette manufacturing was started in Dur- 
ham. Their manufacture had started in Europe around 
1860 and by 1869 their production had been started in 
.the United States. They were still made entirely by hand 
and to produce them, 300 Jews were brought to Durham 
by W. Duke, Sons & Co. J. M. Seigel, Russian, was put in 
charge of the cigarette department, and within a very short 
time Blackwell's firm had employed his brother, David Sei- 
gel to head its cigarette department. Two years later these 
brothers established their own plant and began manufac- 
turing cigarettes, the chief brand being Cablegram. 


In 1884 the Duke firm installed two cigarette making 
machines which had been invented by James Bonsake. 
These were not too efficient, but William T. O'Brien, Bon- 
sake mechanic, was employed to make improvements and 
changes. As a result, the cost of producing cigarettes was 
reduced from 80^ to 30 4 per 1000 cigarettes. A little later 
the tax on cigarettes was reduced from $1.75 to 50<£ per 
1000. Due to these reductions in cost and because the 
Duke plant was over-producing, the cost of Duke of Dur- 
ham cigarettes was reduced from 10^ to 5^ for a package 
of 10. J. B. Duke had worked out a sliding cardboard 
package for these cigarettes. 

Meanwhile to dispose of this large production Mr. Wright 
had taken to the field and used many novel methods in 
introducing and popularizing cigarettes. He also visited 
27 large foreign cities in 19 months promoting the sale of 
cigarettes, and by 1889 the Duke market extended well 
into Europe, Asia and Africa, and cigarettes were shipped 
to more than 35 foreign cities. Due to expansion needs, a 
new brick plant was erected in 1884, later the Liggett & 
Myers plant. In 188 5 Wright sold his interest to Washing- 
ton Duke, and the firm was incorporated as W. Duke & 
Sons Co. 


James B. Duke, in 1890, following extensive conferences, 
joined with four rivals in states north of North Carolina 
and formed the American Tobacco Co. with a capital stock 
of $25,000,000. This was the beginning of an organization 
which dominated tobacco manufacturing in the United States 
for 21 years and came to be known somewhat odorously as 
"the trust". The American Tobacco Co. purchased the 
more promising of the small tobacco firms and left others 
to die on the vine through competition. In 1898 the Black- 
well Company, with its popular Bull Durham brand, was 
sold to the Union Tobacco Co., owned principally by Wall 
Street financiers. And in a short time the American To- 
bacco Co. took it over. 

The 21 years of operation of the American Tobacco Co. 
forms another interesting chapter in the history of tobacco 
in North Carolina and the nation. 


Winston, the younger and more vigorous of the two 
municipalities which joined in 1913 to become Winston- 
Salem, started on its career as a tobacco manufacturing 
center around 1870 and in the 40 years that followed, was 
the site of close to 85 individual tobacco manufacturing 
firms. Unlike Durham, its strongest competitor, Winston 
went in for numbers of firms. Durham centered around 
two or three large firms, never had one-fifth as many differ- 
ent manufacturers as did Winston. 

Tobacco growing started in Forsyth County in 1855 when 
Mr. Loesch and Mr. Banner bought "a couple of hundred 
tobacco plants". By 1858, nine years after Winston was 
incorporated, several farmers were growing the yellow leaf. 
In 1870 almost 2'50,000 pounds were grown in the county. 
The first tobacco factory of record was operating in this 
community of 300 to 400 people in 1870. Major Hamilton 
Scales had converted a small carriage house' into a tobacco 
plant. Two years later Major T. J. Brown added a skylight 
to an old frame stable and opened up as the first tobacco 
sales warehouse in Winston. 

In that same year, 1872, two Davie County brothers, 
Pleasant Henderson Hanes and John Wesley Hanes, started 
a small factory in Winston. This, P. H. Hanes & Co., devel- 


Tobacco firms that have operated in Winston-Salem from 
1884 to 1951 as remembered by R. J. Parrish, retired offi- 
cial and director of Brown & Williamson Corporation, in- 
clude 3 6 firms. These with notes about some of them are 
as follows: 

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. (State's largest) 

P. H. Hanes & Co. (Sold to R. J. Reynolds — shifted to 

Brown Bros. (Fathers of George T. Brown (Rufus D. 
Brown) and William Brown (Dr. William T. Brown) 

Taylor Bros. (Started in 1885 by W. B. & J. P. Taylor- 
still operated by second generation) 

F. M. Bohannon (Bought by Taylor Bros, in 1942) 

Bailey Bros. (M. D. & P. S. Bailey — suspended in 1920s 
after a cigarette bubble) 

T. F. Williamson (Father of R. L. Williamson of the 
Brown & Williamson) 

S. A. Ogburn (Bought by Taylor Bros.) 

Ogburn, Hill & Co. 

Lockett-Vaughn & Co. 

R. L. Candler & Co. 

Leake, Beall & DeVaughn 

W. A. Whitaker & Co. (Later Whitaker & Harvey Tobacco 
Co., bought in 1912 by Taylor Bros. — -Father of president of 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., John C. Whitaker) 

Frank Butner (Father of General Butner — Camp Butner) 

W. W. Wood & Co. (Father of Word H. Wood, long head 
of American Trust Co., Charlotte) 

Will Reid (Father of Will Reid, men's clothing merchant) 

Casey & Wright (Sold in 1904 to Brown & Williamson) 

J. L. Casper Co. (Shifted to whiskey manufacturing) 

W. B. Ellis (Father of William B. Ellis, Duke Power Co., 
manager in Greenville, S. C.) 

W. S. Clary (Sold to Taylor Bros.) 

B. F. Hanes & Co. (Associate, Philip Hanes — brothers of 
P. H. Hanes, Sr., and John W. Hanes, Sr. ) 

W. T. Gray (Smoking) 

Harbour H. Reynolds (Brother of R. J. Reynolds) 
W. S. Scales (Member of firm of Liipfert-Scales Tobacco 

T. L. Vaughn & Co. 

C. A. Reynolds (Republican Lieutenant Governor of N. 
C. in Russell Administration) 

Kerner Bros. 
H. B. Ireland & Co. 
J. L. Newton & Co. 
Bynum & Cotton 

Brown & Williamson Tob. Co. (Still operating) 
Liipfert-Scales & Co. (Sold to R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.) 
P. W. Dalton & Co. 

Hamilton Scales (First Winston manufacturer, started 
in 1872) 

Ebert Payne & Co. 

Walker Bros. 

B. J. Gladstone (On Hollow Road, near Winston) 

N. D. Sullivan (Walkertown, near Winston) 

oped into the largest tobacco manufacturing firm in the 
community in the 18 80s. In 18 91 the firm was sold to R. J. 
Reynolds Tobacco Co. and the Hanes Brothers entered the 
textile field. In that year, too, a branch railroad line was 
completed to Salem from Greensboro where it tapped the 
North Carolina Railroad. This, and an extension of this 
line a few years later to what is now North Wilkesboro, 
added extensively to the growth of the community and the 
expansion of the tobacco industry. 

HAD 37 PLANTS IN 1894 

R. J. Reynolds, then 24 years old, rode a horse sixty 
miles to Winston in 1874 and opened in 18 75 the first small 
unit of the present far-flung R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 

By 1894 thirty-seven factories were listed in a directory 
as operating in Winston (one in Salem). All except one of 
these plants were manufacturing chewing tobacco, most of 
it flat plug, but some twist, and about ten plants also pro- 
duced smoking tobacco. Two of them produced nothing 
but smoking tobacco. Only one plant, W. F. Smith & Son, 
was listed as manufacturing cigarettes as well as smoking 

PAGE 96 


Summer-Fall, 1951 

tobacco. These firms listed in 18 94 alphabetically and 
with the types of tobacco produced are as follows: 

Bailey Bros., plug; George H. Beal & Co., plug, twist; 
Bitting & Hay, plug; Blackburn, Dalton & Co., plug; 
Brown Bros., plug, twist, smoking; Brown & Williamson, 
plug, twist; S. Byerly & Son, smoking; Bynum, Cotten & 
Co., plug, twist; R. L. Candler & Co., plug, twist, smoking; 
W. S. Clary & Co., plug, twist; Elbert Payne & Co., plug, 
twist; W. B. Ellis & Co., plug, twist, smoking; Hamlen 
Liipfert & Co., plug, twist, smoking; B. F. Hanes, plug, 
twist; P. H. Hanes & Co., plug, twist; Harvey & Rintels, 
plug, twist; Hodgin Bros. & Lunn, plug, smoking; Jones, 
Cox & Co., plug; Kerner, Newton & Co., plug, twst; T. P. 
Leak Tobacco Co., smoking; Lockett, Vaughn & Co., plug, 
twist; Ogburn, Hill & Co., plug; M. L. Ogburn, plug; S. A. 
Ogburn, plug, twist; Reynolds Bros., plug; H. H. Reynolds, 
plug, twist, smoking; R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., plug, 
twist; W. F. Smith & Son, smoking, cigarettes; Taylor 
Brothers, plug, twist, smoking; T. L. Vaughn & Co., plug, 
twist; Walker Brothers, plug; W. A. Whitaker, plug, twist, 
smoking; T. F. Williamson & Co., plug, twist; Williamson 
Tobacco Co., plug; N. S. & J. J. Wilson, plug; W. W. Wood, 
& Co., plug, twist; J. S. Nissen, plug, twist, smoking 


Soon after the turn of the century several large buying, 
processing and exporting firms established offices and plants 
in Winston and have continued operations through the 
years. Among these were Imperial Tobacco Co. of Great 
Britain, which began operations there in 1904; the Export 
Leaf Tobacco Co., Richmond, Va., established a plant in 
1912. In 1914 the Piedmont Leaf Tobacco Co. (starting 
earlier as Wright-Hughes) was incorporated and in 19 21 
the Winston Leaf and Storage Co. was organized and began 
operations. Around 1910 only four tobacco warehouses 
were being operated in Winston. These were: Brown's, 
operated by Major T. J. Brown, later by Simpson & Glenn 
and others; Star warehouse, operated by Robert M. and 
Peter A. Gorrell, Rex Gass and others; Former's, operated 
by the Gorrells and others; Piedmont operated by James 
K., George S. and Charles M. Norfleet. Now the Twin-City 
has 11 warehouses. 

An interesting sidelight is that in Durham in the 1880s 
the Southern Tobacco Journal was being issued by E. C. 
Hackney. Some two years later this publication was moved 
to Winston. For many years there it was edited and pub- 
lished by Garland E. Webb who had started as a young 
man as a tobacco auctioneer in Danville, soon moved to Dur- 
ham and a few years later took up his residence in Winston. 
Col. Webb, as he was known, may have carried this pub- 
lication with him to Winston. He continued its operation 
until about the time of his death in 1932. Since that time 
R. C. Carmichael has been editor and continues its publica- 

From the turn of the century the process of consolidating 
tobacco firms and the elimination of others proceeded rap- 
idly in Winston. The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. absorbed 
P. H. Hanes & Co. and Brown Bros., two of the larger firms, 
later bought Liipfert-Scales Tobacco Co. and other firms. 

Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. absorbed Casey & 
Wright around 1904; J. G. Flynt & Co., with its Sir Walter 
Raleigh smoking tobacco, was purchased in 1923 and in 
1926 R. P. Richardson, Jr., & Co., of Reidsville, with its 
Old North State smoking tobacco, was bought. 

Taylor Bros, took over and continues to operate as a part 
of the firm's plant, the buildings operated in the same block 
by Kerner Bros, and W. B. Clary & Co. In 1912 Taylor Bros, 
bought the Whitaker-Harvey Tobacco Co. and in 194 2 pur- 
chased the F. M. Bohannon brands. 

R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., operating the largest tobacco 
business in the State, has all of its manufacturing activities 
centered in Winston-Salem. Brown & Williamson Tobacco 
Co. was purchased in 19 27 by the British-American Tobacco 
Co. and reorganized as Brown & Williamson Tobacco Cor- 
poration. Only its chewing tobacco and snuff operations 
are now carried on in Winston-Salem. Its cigarette and 
smoking tobacco activities are in Louisville, Ky., and Peters- 
burg, Va. Taylor Brothers, Inc., manufacturing chewing 
tobacco exclusively, is the only one of the smaller inde- 
pendent tobacco firms to survive in Winston-Salem and in 
the State. 

Kernersville, in Forsyth County, on the Winston-Salem- 
Greensboro highway, was once an important tobacco manu- 
facturing center, boasting half a dozen plants in the 25 
years up to the turn of the century. Around 1900 they 
shifted from tobacco to textiles, largely knitting mills. One 
tobacco factory became a textile mill and is now a unit of 
the Burlington Mills. Another textile mill started around 
that time is now a unit of Adams-Miliis Corp. 

Probably the first tobacco plant was Leak Brothers, start- 
ed by William Leak in his backyard, soon after 1875. After 
a few years a factory was built on Main Street and operated 
until around 1895. Part of the time it was Leak Bros. & 
Hastings, John Hastings. 

Another, started around 1880 was operated by B. A. 
Brown. After some 15 years of operation he shifted into 
textiles, operating the Vance Mill, now a Burlington Mills 

Kerner & Greenfield, Theodore E. Kerner and John M. 
Greenfield, started a factory in the Philip Kerner home, 
later erecting a brick building, now the Crawford Machine 
Shop site. When Mr. Kerner died, Robert Galloway took 
his place in the firm, named Greenfield & Galloway. Later 
Mr. Greenfield operated alone, until around 1900. His 
son, Kohler Greenfield, now operates a feed store in Ker- 

W. A. Lowery & Son, Will and Will, Jr., operated a to- 
bacco plant from around 1885 to 1900, a frame building 
with a brick foundation. 

Adkins & Shore, James P. Adkins and Henry E. Shore, 
operated a tobacco factory in Kernersville for about a 
decade, roughly, 1890 to 190 0. 

Beard & Roberts (James Beard, father of the late Dean 
John Grover Beard, UNC Pharmacy School, and J. C. Rob- 
erts) manufactured tobacco there from around 18 8 5 to 
19 00. John G. Kerner bought the plant and changed it 
into a knitting mill. 

Also, in Kernersville, lived the redoubtable Julius Gilmer 
Korner (spelling changed along the line), artist, painter, 
who, under contract for W. T. Blackwell & Co., plastered 
the picture of Bull Durham on almost every wall and 
signboard in this country, also taking this noted animal 
picture to the Rock of Gibraltar, the Pyramids of Egypt, 
and many other far-away places. His home, named "Kor- 
ner's Folly" because every floor is on a different level and 
every door a different kind, still stands as the chief Kerners- 
ville show place. 

Large tobacco storage plants are now operated in Kerners- 
ville by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 

WaLkertown — Thomas Sullivan began the manufacture 
of tobacco around 18 50 in a log building in Sullivantown, 
about two miles northeast of Walkertown, Forsyth County. 
He also manufactured cigars later. Nat D. Sullivan, a son, 
later operated a tobacco factory about one-fourth of a mile 
away. His daughter, Sally Sullivan, married Phillip Booe 
and Booe became a partner, the firm operating as Sullivan 
& Booe. W. N. Poindexter married Elizabeth Sullivan, an- 
other daughter of N. D. Sullivan, and became a partner in 
the business also, the firm's name becoming N. D. Sullivan 
& Co. Sullivan's Best was one of the chewing brands 

Earlier M. C. Crews of Kernersville had married Sally 
Sullivan, daughter of Thomas Sullivan. Their two sons, 
Thomas A. Crews and James W. Crews, formed a partner- 
ship as the Crews Manufacturing Co. and manufactured 
tobacco in Walkertown. This firm manufactured one well 
known brand, Yellow Jacket. This brand and probably 
some of the equipment was purchased by Liipfert-Scales 
Tobacco Co. in Winston-Salem and in turn this company was 
taken over by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., which com- 
pany still manufactures Yellow Jacket. The Crews brothers 
later started a knitting mill in Kernersville. — Data from 
Thomas A. Crews, Winston-Salem. 

Iiethania — In this Forsyth County community, then 
called Hausertown, a tobacco factory was operated around 
190 by O. J. Lehman, John Kapp, of Kapps Mill, Surry 
County, and Frank Butner, (father of General Butner, for 
whom Camp Butner was named). Part of this factory is 
now used as the Bethania postoffice. 


Reidsville, home of the Lucky Strike cigarette plant of 
the American Tobacco Co., the only tobacco product manu- 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 97 

factured in that city now, has been engaged in tobacco 
manufacturing for almost a century. Among its well-known 
products have been Old North State smoking tobacco, and 
its fellow-product, Old North State cigarettes, still manu- 
factured by the Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. at its 
Louisville, Ky., plant, and Pride of Reidsville smoking 

Probably the first Reidsville tobacco manufacturer was 
William Lindsey, who owned at one time about half the 
land on which Reidsville is located. His was a going firm 
in 1858, and probably a few years before. He produced 
"Lindsey's Level Best", a chewing tobacco, which brand 
a Winston firm disputed his right to use. He showed that 
he was producing this brand in 18 58 and continued opera- 
tion until his death, when his sons, William and Josef Lind- 
sey took over and continued the business for several years. 

Apparently Robert P. Richardson started tobacco manu- 
facturing, probably on a small scale, around the end of the 
War Between the States. His son continued as R. P. Rich- 
ardson, Jr., & Co. and started the "Old North State" brand 
of smoking tobacco. The factory burned in 1917. In 1926 
the brand "Old North State" and equipment and supplies 
was bought by Brown & Williamson in Winston—Salem, 
which firm continued the smoking tobacco and started a 
brand of cigarettes by the same name, still manufactured 
in Louisville. R. B. Williamson III joined the Brown & 
Williamson firm and directed production of the smoking 
tobacco for a time. He is a substantial citizen of Reidsville 

Major Mortimer Oaks, who superintended construction 
and was an official of the Piedmont Air Line Railroad, Dan- 
ville, Va., to Greensboro, via Reidsville, in 18 63, bought 
100 acres of land from William Lindsey in 18 70, moved 
to Reidsville and became active. The next year he and 
Captain James Dalton began the manufacture of plug to- 
bacco in a small building. Buying leaf from the barns was 
inconvenient, so Major Oaks decided to do something about 
it. Early in 187 2' he and James Allen opened the first ware- 
house in Reidsville, the Piedmont, soon followed by four or 
five others, for the sale of leaf tobacco. 

Decatur Barnes and Bedford Crafton, in mid-18 71, built 
a factory, 3 4x5 2 feet, and began manufacturing tobacco. 
Their capacity, on a seasonal basis, was 50,000 pounds a 

Then, in 1874, S. C. Penn, from Penn's Store, Va., came 
to spy out the land, was soon joined by his older brother, 
Prank R. Penn, and in a small frame building, they launched 
the P. R. Penn Tobacco Co., destined to become an impor- 
tant Reidsville industry. It was a success from the start. 
This firm made plug tobacco, probably a leading brand, 
Penn's No. 1. During the early years John N. Watt, Reids- 
ville, a cousin of the Penn brothers, became asosciated with 
the firm, and a smoking tobacco department was added. 

Under the firm name of Watt, Penn & Co. the plant pro- 
duced two brands of smoking tobacco, Gold Crumbs, an 
expensive product, and Queen Quality, popular priced, which 
was a competitor of Bull Durham. One of the popular and 
heavy sellers was Red J chewing tobacco. After a number 
of years Mr. Watt sold his interest to the Penns and again 
the firm name became F. R. Penn Tobacco Co., continuing 
as such until it was sold in 1911 to the American Tobacco 
Co., a short time before its dissolution. Charles A. Penn, 
of the second generation, became a vice-president of the 
American Tobacco Co., serving until his death in 1941. His 
brother, Jefferson Penn, who died in 1945, was with the 
Reidsville firm. 

In the late 1870s or early 1880s another important firm 
was organized, Robert Harris & Bro., H. C. Harris. This 
firm manufactured the popular Pride of Reidsville smoking 
tobacco, a strong competitor in the granulated field. Due 
to the death of H. C. Harris and poor health of Robert Har- 
ris, the firm was dissolved in the early 1900s. 

The A. H. Motley Co. operated for many years in Reids- 
ville and developed an important export trade, particularly 
in China. Its principal smoking tobacco was Dixie Queen, 
which was a strong competitor of Penn's Queen Quality and 
other popular brands. The Penn firm bought the brand 
and suppressed it. The Motley firm went out of business 
not long after this sale. 

Other firms that operated for varying periods in the 18 70s 
and 1880s in Reidsville were O. L. Bailey & Co., R. A. El- 
lington & Sons, and Denny-Lyle & Co., the latter manufac- 
turing smoking tobacco. — Most of data supplied by Mrs. 

Bettie Sue Gardner, deputy collector, Internal Revenue, 

Stoneville — R. T. Stone, who had been a member of the 
tobacco manufacturing firm of Joyce, Garrett & Stone (R. 
P. Joyce, T. J. Garrett) at Price (Grogansville) , just inside 
the N. C— Va. line in Rockingham County in the period 
1885-96, moved to Stoneville and organized the firm of R. 
T. Stone & Co. (his brother, R. L. Stone, a partner) and 
manufactured chewing tobacco from 1896 to 1905. The 
plant was converted to a warehouse, now operated as the 
Stone wholesale grocery firm by Clarence T. Stone. W. P. 
Grogan & Co. was engaged in tobacco manufacturing at 
Price in those early years. 

Madison — Penn & Pegram (Harry J. Penn, related to 
Reidsville Penns) manufactured tobacco in Madison around 
the period 1885-1903. The plant burned in later years. 
Also a Mr. Mangrum operated a tobacco factory in Madison 
around the period 1890-95. The factory was later used as 
a leaf house. 

Yanceyville — C. D. Vernon & Co. operated a factory pro- 
ducing chewing and smoking tobacco in Yanceyville around 
the period 1880-90. It was located in front of a Baptist 
church. The plant was torn down and moved to Milton 
and there used as a distillery. J. A. Poteat, father of Dr. 
W. L. Poteat, long president of Wake Forest College, also 
manufactured tobacco in Yanceyville before the turn of the 
century. T. L. Williamson operated a small chewing to- 
bacco plant near Yanceyville, probably in the 1880s. He 
moved to Winston and operated there until 1894, when his 
plant was taken over by Brown & Williamson which was 
organized that year with his son, Robert L. Williamson, as 
a partner. Still further back, a tobacco plant was operated, 
probably before the War Between the States, near Yancey- 
ville by either the Longs or the Lees. — Data from Sterling 
Graves, Yanceyville. 

Milton — This village was once a thriving tobacco manu- 
facturing community. Three plants are listed as having 
been in operation there in the early 1880s: Thomas E. Cobb, 
Ottaway Hatcher, and R. E. Withers. A little later Reuben 
Miles Oliver, grandfather of Charles R. Oliver, of Reids- 
ville Review, was manufacturing tobacco at Milton. Along 
then or soon afterwards Winsted & Winsted (Ed Winsted 
and his uncle) were manufacturing tobacco in Milton in 
a five-story building. During that period one factory was 
moved from Milton to Yanceyville and continued operation 
for a period. 


Greensboro around the turn of the century, was a thriv- 
ing tobacco market and manufacturing center, producing 
plug tobacco, cigars and snuff, industries which date back 
to around 1845. The plug and snuff activities disappeared 
completely, sales warehouses also disappeared for a number 
of years, to be revived during the past decade. Cigars, how. 
ever, continue to be an important tobacco item in Greens- 
boro, the only city in North Carolina in which cigar making 
continues in force. Only a few cigar plants, all small, are 
operated elsewhere in the State. 

Reuben Dick was the first man recorded as a tobacco 
manufacturer in Greensboro, operating a plant producing 
cigars, snuff and plug tobacco on a site near the First Pres- 
byterian Church. In 18 59 Col. E. P. Jones, from Yancey- 
ville, settled in Greensboro and began manufacturing plug 
tobacco in South Greensboro. He bought leaf from the 
few growers in Guilford County, among them Col. D. G. 
Neeley and Thomas Buchanan. Col. Jones manufactured 
about 250,000 pounds of tobacco in 1860, the first man to 
ship the product from Greensboro. In 18 61, he had on 
hand more than 10,000 pounds, which the Confederate 
Government took over for the Army, paying him in bonds. 
This halted the activity, since no tobacco was grown, the 
few farmers left raising foods needed by the Army. 

Again in 18 74 Col. Jones opened a plant in the old Cald- 
well Institute and later in a brick building where the Gate 
City Laundry stands (or stood in 1904). He also operated 
a warehouse in which Col. Neeley, Mr. Buchanan and Thomas 
Donnell were the first to sell tobacco. In 187 6 Eugene 
Morehead built a large warehouse on Ashe Street, about 
opposite Buchanan Street, but it was not a success and 
sales were discontinued. W. E. Bevill, in 1882, built the 
Farmers Warehouse and developed a good business which 
continued well beyond the turn of the century. 

PAGE 96 


Summer-fall, 1951 

James W. Albright and David Scott opened the Star Ware- 
house in 1883 in the old Patriot office which stood where 
Rankin Brothers' store stands (stood in 1904) on South 
Elm Street. Houston Brothers bought this property and 
built a nice warehouse on the back lot on Davie Street, 
which continued for several years until it burned. Banner 
Warehouse was built on West Market Street in 1885 by J. 
Henry Gilmer & Co., operating successfully for several 
years under different managements. Mr. Hagan built Plant- 
ers Warehouse at East Washington and Davie Streets. 

Henry Wellington (Welly) Cobb, brother of John B. 
(Jack) Cobb, a vice-president of the American Tobacco Co., 
was manufacturing tobacco in Greensboro before the turn 
of the century, one factory, probably his, having been on 
the site of the O. Henry Hotel annex. He developed a hunt- 
ing lodge later to become Sedgefield Inn. 

A cigar factory operating in Greensboro was purchased 
around 190 by the American Cigar Co., subsidiary of 
American Tobacco Co., and continued large operations un- 
til 19 29, when it was closed out. H. W. Cobb also had an 
interest in this plant. Other leaders in the tobacco indus- 
try in Greensboro around that period and before were J. L. 
King, J. H. Whitt, J. F. Jordan, John Parker, Bray Brothers 
and W. E. Bevill. 

In the 190 5-10 period W. P. Clegg started the Clegg Cigar 
Co., operating for about 25 years, until the early 1930s. 
One of his popular brands was "Brown Betty". In 1915, 
John T. Rees started the El-Rees-So Cigar Co., operating 
it for a few years. It had hard sledding, went into bank- 
ruptcy and later was bought by Pennsylvania interests, 
operating until 193 2, when it closed out. Meanwhile, Mr. 
Rees organized the Rees-Mitchell Cigar Co. in the early 

19 20s, continuing until 1926. Then Mr. Rees formed the 
El Moro Cigar Co., with Mrs. Rees and R. B. and F. W. 
Lloyd, operating a wholesale tobacco sales firm, as mem- 
bers of the firm. The two Lloyd families and Mrs. Rees are 
still operating the industry satisfactorily. (See El Moro 
item in this issue) . 

Another small but going firm is the Guilford Cigar Co., 
operated by Swannie Ingold for the past 10 or 15 years. 
Principal brands are "Big Henry" and "OK-Crooks", all 
hand-made by a few employees. A successful business for 

20 years or more was the Dixie Cigar Co., owned by H. E. 
Holderfield. Products were "El Necco", "Van-Tampe" and 
"Rum-O-Crooks" cigars. Mr. Holderfield hand-made his 
cigars, putting in some machines two or three years ago. 
He died a year or more ago and the business was suspended. 
Foster Cigar Co., owned by Thomas Foster, made Van-Tampa 
and El Necco cigars, brands later taken over by Dixie Cigar 
Co. The firm operated for about five years, 1941-46. — Most 
data taken from "Greensboro 1808-1904" by James W. 
Albright, Atty. R. D. Douglas and El Moro folks. 


Statesville became famous for its tobacco manufacturing 
plants in the last 25 years of the last century primarily as 
a result of the manufacture of Anti-Bellum smoking tobacco 
by J. H. McElwee, as well as through the activities of half 
a dozen or more important firms. In fact Statesville, even 
if in name only, still manufactures tobacco by proxy. 

J. H. McElwee started manufacturing tobacco in the 
1870s and continued until around 1933. In fact his firm 
was involved in a law suit with Durham manufacturers over 
the use of a bull on the label of Anti-Bellum smoking to- 
bacco. This brand was in strong competition with Bull 
Durham and other popular brands for many years. Mr. 
McElwee also manufactured Indian Girl, a cheaper grade 
of smoking tobacco, which was started around 1925, and 
a few years before the plant closed, the firm was also manu- 
facturing Indian Girl Cigarettes. In fact cost of equipment 
for cigarette manufacturing was probably one of the reasons 
why the plant closed a few years later. Most of the time 
the business was handled largely by Mr. McElwee's son, 
Thomas N. McElwee. 

L. Ash (Ludwig, called Lou) operated a rather large 
plug tobacco manufacturing plant for a period of about 45 
years, 1890-1935. He had a large four story brick build- 
ing and produced probably 100,000 pounds of tobacco a 
year in his seasonal operation for six or eight months. 
Among his brands were Full Bloom, Choice, Select and 
Good Chew. His son continued the business until about 
15 years ago. In fact members of the family still have Full 
Bloom manufactured by contract. Taylor Bros, in Win- 

ston-Salem did this job by contract for several years. 

Adams-Powell Co. purchased the plant operated by Alf 
Turner, who had moved the plant to Statesville from River 
Hill. This firm, operating in a four story brick building, 
probably manufactured as much as 150,000 pounds a year 
during most of the period from 1900 to 1925. The build- 
ing is still standing. Benjamin Ash & Sons operated for 
several years before the turn of the century, producing 
probably 100,000 pounds of chewing tobacco a year in a 
three-story frame building. 

Irvin & Poston (George Irvin and Calvin Poston) operated 
in the 1890s a chewing tobacco plant in a four-story brick 
building, now a furniture plant. 

Iredell Tobacco Co., operated by a Mr. Charles, manufac- 
tured chewing tobacco for a period in a three-story brick 
building. One of its brands was Iredell's Best. L. Harrill 
operated for a short time in the late 1880s, selling his plant 
to L. Ash. J. Stephany manufactured tobacco for a short 
time in the 18 90s. H. Clark & Sons operated a chewing to- 
bacoc plant in the late 18 90s and early 1900s. — Data from 
M. E. Ramsey. 

Mocksville — Brown Bros., composed of Rufus D. and Dr. 
William T. Brown, started the manufacture of tobacco in 
Mocksville in a plant in which the firm also operated a tan- 
nery. Later this firm moved to Winston and at one time 
in the 1880s was manufacturing more tobacco than was 
produced by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 

M. D. Bailey and his brother, R. P. Bailey, were natives 
and residents of Mocksville but moved to Winston and start- 
ed Bailey Bros., a successful tobacco manufacturing firm 
for many years. 


Wilson did not remain long above the North Carolina 
tobacco manufacturing horizons, but this community cut 
a wide swath for a very few years soon after the turn of 
the century. Due to the personalities, incidents, produc- 
tions and other factors this community was in the spotlight 
for a brief period before all manufacturing stopped and 
Wilson developed into one of the largest tobacco markets 
and processing communities in the State. Only two local 
firms were involved in these events and they were the only 
tobacco manufacturers ever to operate in Wilson, except 
for a small cigar hand plant operated for a brief period 
around the 18 80s. 

The Wells-Whitehead Tobacco Co. was organized around 
1901-0 2 on the proverbial shoestring but within a year had 
attained extensive fame for its brand of Carolina Brights 
cigarettes and to a larger extent for its Carolina Bright and 
Coaxer smoking tobacco. The firm consisted of Stephen C. 
Wells and his brother, R. S. Wells, and H. G. Whitehead. 
The leaf stock and the organizing capital was only $15,000, 
but with this start they bought one small cigarette machine 
and by pooling additional funds, secured two or three others. 

By its second year, the business was eminently success- 
ful and by the end of that year, the American Tobacco Co. 
had cast its eyes on the firm and soon after purchased con- 
trol and the business for $150,000. The sale was kept 
secret and continued under its original name. All mail was 
handled addressed in plain envelopes to a fictitious name 
at a specified address in New York City. H. G. Whitehead, 
at about 25 years of age, was president of the company, 
S. C. Weeks was secretary-treasurer, and W. M. Carter was 
manager of the plant. Whitehead and Carter had estab- 
lished a few years before and were operating a leaf to- 
bacco buying and processing firm, and decided that Wilson 
should also receive some of the profits from the manufac- 
turing process. 

However, the chief promoter of the business was Frank 
D. Ware. Mr. Ware, a promoter type of man with some 
tobacco experience and ambitious ideas, probably came from 
Virginia. For a time he was in Winston and while there 
attempted to organize a tobacco manufacturing firm in 
nearby Thomasville. This effort failed and he visited Wil- 
son and struck fertile soil. When the Wells-Whitehead 
Tobacco Co. resulted, he became factory manager and cig- 
arette producer. Probably a year after this business start- 
ed, he pulled out and carried with him a former salesman 
of the company to form the Ware-Kramer Tobacco Co. They 
produced another popular brand of cigarettes in that period 
— White Rolls. Some time after this firm started and stop- 
ped, Ware brought suit against the American Tobacco Co 
charging unfair methods of competition. The Ware-Kra- 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 99 

mer firm was awarded nominal damages. Before the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co. had bought Wells-Whitehead Tobacco Co., 
it had begun to smart under the competition offered by 
Carolina Brights and tried to overcome it by starting an- 
other brand, Virginia Brights, manufactured in Virginia. 

Soon the American closed up Wells-Whitehead Tobacco 
Co. and withdrew from that area. Meanwhile, the Ware- 
Kramer Tobacco Co. was sold and soon folded up. Mr. Ware 
later went to some of the West Indies Islands, probably 
Jamaica. Mr. Whitehead, the more active of the Wells- 
Whitehead owners, turned again to buying and processing 
leaf tobacco and continues to operate as such under the 
firm name of Whitehead & Anderson. Wilson today is one 
of the largest centers in the State for sales warehouses and 
processing plants including one or both of stemming and 
redrying operations. 

An interesting incident in connection with the Wells- 
Whitehead Tobacco Co. is that about the time it was pur- 
chased by the American Tobacco Co. Percival Smith Hill 
was sent to Wilson to look after the interest of the Ameri- 
can. Previously he had handled certain phases of operation 
of the Bull Durham plant which the American finally secured 
after it had passed through other hands. Mr. Duke later 
claimed that Mr. Hill was his "find". It was not long before 
Mr. Hill was made vice-president of the American Tobacco 
Co. and after its dissolution in 1911 became and remained 
president of the American for many years. He was succeed- 
ed as such by his son, George Washington Hill. — -Data from 
H. G. Whitehead, president of the company. 

Wilson, one of the early markets in the New Bright Belt, 
began tobacco sales in 1890, when the first warehouse was 
built and operated by Woodard & Bobbitt, later enlarged 
and still in operation. Since then it reached the point of 
asserting that it is "the greatest tobacco market in the 
world". Within its limits are some 18 tobacco warehouses 
and some 10 or 12 processing plants, operated by the prin- 
cipal buyers and numbers of smaller dealers. 

Rocky Mount — Amelia Stone, owner of Stone Tobacco Co., 
Rocky Mount, manufactured both chewing and smoking to- 
bacco for several years around the turn of the century. His 
chief smoking brand was "Stone's Mixture". 


The Capital City did not go in strong for tobacco, but 
did have a few manufacturers and also operated three or 
four warehouses for leaf sales from 188 4 until after the 
turn of the century. Fuquay-Varina and Wendell have 
operated sales warehouses for many years, as did Zebulon 
until the market closed in 1932'. 

James E. Pogue, who was operating a factory in Hender- 
son in 1881-2, moved his plant to Raleigh later and operated 
it for many years, until his death. Three cigar manufac- 
turers operated in Raleigh for varying periods. Plumadore 
& Green operated in the early 1880s, probably briefly. J. M. 
Norwood made cigars by hand with a few workers for sev_ 
eral years, around the 190 0-10 period in a small backyard 
building. Garcia Cigar Co. operated by a Cuban, ran for 
a year or two, 1925-26, in the Lightner Building. 

Raleigh became a tobacco market Sept. 26, 1884, when 
the Pioneer Warehouse was opened by W. C. Stronach & 
Co. at formal ceremonies at which Governor Jarvis spoke 
and hundreds of visitors were present. It was successful. 
A second, Capital Warehouse, was opened by T. N. Jones 
& Co. less than two months later. Two days before Christ- 
mas, 1884, the third was built at Bloodworth and Davie 
Streets by Capt. T. L. Love and leased to Moore & Proctor. 
This lease was sold later to E. R. and W. H. Aiken, from 
Granville County. This was Farmers Warehouse. 

In April, 1885, W. C. Stronach built a larger and finer 
warehouse and it was operated for a few months, then 
closed. It was opened and operated by O. H. Poster & Co. 
as Foster's Warehouse. Again it closed, and then an ex- 
perienced tobacco man, Thomas B. Moseley, from Durham, 
took it over and operated it successfully as Stronach's. The 
Raleigh market then was handling about 3,000,000 pounds 
of leaf. One prize house, built by Latta & Myatt, was 
operated by Reid & McGee. Lipscomb & Faison, tobacco 
buyers, filled several buildings and floors with leaf. 

The prediction in 1887 that Raleigh would become "the 
greatest tobacco centre on earth" failed, and all sales and 
processing of leaf finally disappeared. 

Kittrell — This former metropolis, now a mere shadow of 

its former self, once had 15 different tobacco factories. That 
number was listed in an 1881-2 directory. Probably about 
the same time the Kittrell Springs Hotel was flourishing and 
the community was a gathering place for the well-to-do for 
rest and diversion. Kittrell even had more tobacco plants 
than its present thriving neighbor, Henderson, which had 
nine factories. Sales warehouses and tobacco processing 
plants are operating in Henderson now. 

Yadkin County had more than 20 factories in the last 
quarter of the last century, extending up into the present 
century, most of them small, working from 10 to as many 
as 50 employees, and all operating six to eight months in 
the year. A directory in 1881-2 showed 16 plants, two 
in Yadkinville, four in Huntsville, two in Jonesville, four 
in East Bend, and one each at Richmond Hill, Boonville, 
Mount Nebo and Hamptonville. 

Two of the Huntsville manufacturers later moved to 
Yadkinville. J. D. Hamlin moved in the mid-1 8 80s and 
later the firm became Hamlin & Dunnagan, operating until 
about 1905. Chewing and smoking tobacco were produced, 
"Bachelor's Delight" the principal smoking brand. W. L. 
Kelly also moved to Yadkinville, continuing his plant until 
the early 1900s. Hauser Bros, operated a small plant at 
Yadkinville around the turn of the century- J- E. Zachary 
built and operated a small plant for several years, until 
around 1910, in Yadkinville. 

At Jonesville, Gwyn, Wood & Co. and J. F. Bryan had 
plants. Warwick W. Wood manufactured a chewing to- 
bacco, named "Old Oaken Bucket", and packed in a bucket- 
shaped container. He later moved to Winston and operated 
as W. W. Wood & Co., selling later to R. J. Reynolds To- 
bacco Co. He was the father of Word H. Wood, long head 
of the American Trust Co., Charlotte. William Reeves later 
operated a plant in Jonesville, probably taking over the 
Gwynn, Wood building. 

In 1881-2 at East Bend four firms were listed, A. Home, 
J. Henry Jenkins, Martin & Glenn and William Y. Poindex- 
ter. Mr. Jenkins, operating around 1880 to 1889, sold his 
plant to John A. Martin. His sons, James and Robert 
Jenkins, formed Jenkins Bros. Shoe Co., Winston-Salem, 
now the Alexander Apartments building. Otis Wade ope- 
rated a small smoking tobacco plant and Morse & Wade 
(Thomas E. Morse) operated a tobacco bag stringing agency 
and also manufactured a smoking tobacco packing machine. 
Later Mr. Wade moved to South Carolina and continued 
to make smoking tobacco for several years. 

Boonville had two tobacco plants. Abner Davis & Co. 
operated a plant for several years, starting in the early 
1880s. Around 18 90 Isaac Shugar started manufacturing 
tobacco continuing for about a decade. Both produced 
chewing tobacco. 

Stokes County — Stokes County had 2 2 factories in 18 81- 
8 2. Some later W. W. Dodd, at King, manufactured a chew- 
ing tobacco brand he called "Dodd's Damdest". 

Surry County — Surry boasted 2 5 factories in 1881-2. 
Sparger Bros, had a large plant in Mount Airy, and three 
miles away at Green Hill was the Patterson Tobacco Co. 
plant, a four-story building later used by H. O. Woltz for 
storing two million gladiola bulbs. Henry Snow had a 
plant in Dobson in the 1890s. 


"Tobaccoland, U.S.A." artistic publication of Lig- 
gett & Myers Tobacco Co., was first issued in large 
magazine form in 1940. The current issue is the 
14th edition. In colors, it depicts the activities in 
raising, priming, curing, sorting, marketing, proc- 
essing, packing and manufacturing the leaf into 
its various products, cigarettes, smoking and chew- 
ing and others. Pictures are numerous, including 
the modern Liggett & Myers plants and laborato- 
ries. The publication announces that it is used in 
the Library of Congress and as a textbook in schools 
and colleges and for study and research in agricul- 
ture, geography, political economy and other sub- 

PAGE 1 00 


Summer-fall, 1951 

N. C. Developed Tobacco Machinery, Equipment, Supplies 

Important machinery, equipment and supplies for 
the tobacco industry have been developed in North 
Carolina through the inventive genius and organizing 
capacity of many North Carolina citizens. As a 
result of such activities several large auxiliary firms 
have been organized and developed and many con- 
tributions have been made to inventions developed 
in this state for producing, packing and shipping to- 
bacco products. 

Chief among the corporations is the American Ma- 
chine & Foundry Co. in New York and chief among 
the inventors was Rufus Lenoir Patterson, a young 
man from Salem, N. C, who founded this firm and 
made millions of dollars out of the machinery he 
invented, developed and marketed to aid in the manu- 
facture of tobacco products. Mr. Patterson com- 
pleted the development started by him and William 
H. Kerr of Concord of the "Automatic Packing and 
Labeling Machine" in the Bull Durham plant in Dur- 
ham around 1880. Later he invented and developed 
an automatic cigarette packing machine and still 
later perfected a workable cigar making machine. 
Mr. Patterson's research and study had been under- 
written by General Julian S. Carr of W. T. Blackwell 
& Co., Durham, but after a short time, as his achieve- 
ments became known, James B. Duke secured his 
services and entered into an organization which 
meant millions of dollars for them and many million 
of dollars saved and made for the tobacco industry 
of the country. At 27 years of age Mr. Patterson 
became vice-president of the American Tobacco Co. 
— (See article on American Machine and Foundry 
Co. next page.) 

Richard H. Wright, an important tobacco figure in 
Durham, established the Wright Machinery Co. 
there in 1893, producing tobacco packing machines. 
He had been engaged in tobacco manufacturing for 
several years. In 1875 he was producing Orange of 
Durham smoking tobacco and by 1880 had one of 
the largest plants in Durham. During that year he 
bought Washington Duke's interest in W. Duke & 
Sons Co., a partnership, and became outside sales- 
man. Mr. Wright worked out novel advertising 
stunts, visited 27 foreign cities in 19 months, and 
popularized the new cigarette made by his firm. In 
1885 he sold his interest to its former owner, Wash- 
ington Duke. Soon Mr. Wright turned his attention 
to smoking tobacco machinery and organized the 
firm which his nephews, Richard and Thomas, en- 
larged and expanded. Recently it was sold to The 
Sperry Corporation. (See article page 103). 

John L. Jones, Oxford, was one of many other 
North Carolinians making contributions to machin- 
ery for tobacco manufacturing. Early in 1873 he 
patented a machine for making plug tobacco on the 
endless chain principle. Warrick W. Wood, Winston 
manufacturer, soon afterwards, announced the in- 
vention of a machine for packing plug tobacco. La- 
fayette and James B. Smith of Danbury, Stokes 

County, contributed much to the industry by invent- 
ing and patenting iron "shapes" for manufacturing 
plug tobacco. Henry C. Hatcher, Milton tobacco 
manufacturer, invented a better plug shaping ma- 
chine in the 1880s which was generally used in the 
1890s. Around 1880 James R. Lawrence of W. T. 
Blackwell & Co. invented a "Smoking Tobacco Pack- 
er" which proved an important step in the produc- 
tion and success of Bull Durham smoking tobacco. 
This machine was manufactured and sold by (J. R.) 
Lawrence & (S. R.) Carrington in Durham. 

After Elisha Slade and his young negro slave, 
Stephen, accidentally discovered a method of curing 
tobacco with charcoal which gave a bright yellow 
color to the leaf on his farm in Caswell County in 
1856 thus starting this method of curing in the 
Bright Belt, many improvements were made in pro- 
cessing tobacco on the farm. Soon after the flue 
system was developed. Upton Thomas Bowden from 
South Boston, Va., moved to Caswell County in 1871 
and soon moved to Oxford where, in 1872, he received 
a patent for the "Bowden Flue". Apparently this 
flue was manufactured later in Company Shop (Bur- 
lington). James Morgan Smith of Milton, Caswell 
County, patented a "tobacco dryer" in 1873 which 
was an improvement on Bowden's and soon was used 
generally. T. B. Lyon, Jr., Durham, became an im- 
portant flue producer around 1875 and "Dick's Pat- 
ented Flue Furnace" eventually was manufactured 
in Greensboro. 

An important step in growing tobacco was reach- 
ed in the early 1880s when it was discovered that 
canvas stretched over the tobacco plant bed saved 
the small plants from the flea beetle or fly and also 
protected them from late frost. In the early 1880s 
Samuel Garard, a planter near Durham, secured 
patent rights on such a plant protector. Later, J. W. 
Tatem, a Durham merchant, secured patent rights 
and sought a monopoly in the production of this 
plant bed canvas. For his activities, he was given 
the title of "Bug Tatem", by which name he was 
called the rest of his life. E. J. Parrish, Durham, 
was another producer of plant bed cloth. 

Another side industry which developed in connec- 
tion with the manufacture of smoking tobacco was 
the production of tobacco bags in which to pack it. 
This activity was carried on for several years as a 
department of the factory. In 1899, however, the 
Golden Belt Manufacturing Co. was organized in 
Durham and began manufacturing bags as well as 
the print cloth from which the bags were made. 
This firm also produced bags for shipping small 
machinery parts. Also it now prints the brands and 
other data on the paper from which the cigarette 
packages are made. 

An important recent addition to a side industry 
was the organization in the years before World War 
II of the Ecusta Paper Corp. at Pisgah Forest. (See 
article on Ecusta page 81). 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 101 


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American Machine Produces Tobacco Industry Equipment 

By William N. McDonald, III, Public Relations Assistant to the Vice 
President, American Machine and Foundry Co. 

Recently American Machine and Foundry Co., 
world's largest manufacturer of tobacco machinery, 
established an engineering research laboratory in 
Raleigh to bring about closer cooperation with cig- 
arette manufacturers in the design and testing of 
new processing equipment. 

While today creating and producing electronic 
and mechanical products for a number of industries 
and the Armed Forces, AMF still considers the to- 
bacco industry its prime customer and chief bene- 
ficiary of its engi- 
neering. The setting 
up of the new re- 
search laboratory is 
another step in this 

In the words of 
Morehead Patter- 
son, chairman o f 
AMF's board of di- 
rectors and presi- 
dent f t h e com- 
pany, the labora- 
tory is an "on the 
spot" operation in 
the heart of the to- 
bacco products' re- 
gion t o facilitate 
better field test 
study of new devel- 
opments for the in- 
dustry before the 
production design stage. "Closer association with 
operating personnel of the manufacturers," he says 
"will also serve to step up research into all aspects 
of instrumentation and electrical control in the manu- 
facture of cigarettes." 


First president of American Machine and Foundry 
Company and one of its founders in 1900 was Rufus 
Lenoir Patterson II. He was>born in Salem, N. C, 

on June 11, 1872, 
the son of a North 
Carolina lawyer- 
planter. Mr. Patter- 
son gave up formal 
schooling at the age 
of 15, worked a 
short while for a 
railroad, then spent 
a year studying 
science at the Uni- 
versity of North 

Latest model AMF Cigarette Packer Carolina. 

packs 135 packs a minutes. He left the Uni- 

Catcher end of cigarette machine 
showing location of measuring elec- 
trodes. Machine is making cigar- 
ettes and microfeed regulator is 
weighing and kicking out ofj-ioeight 

Rufus L. Patterson Morehead Patterson 

Father, left, founder and president for many years of American 
Machine & Foundry Co.. and son, right, present president of 
this far-flung tobacco machinery organization. Father native 
of Salem; son native of Durham. 

versity to associate himself with a North Carolina 
inventor, William H. Kerr, who manufactured a 
machine to make tobacco bags. In 1891, Mr. Patter- 
son went to England to introduce the Kerr machine, 
and he remained there two years studying machine 

On his return, he began to experiment with to- 
bacco handling machinery. At the age of 26, he per- 
fected a complicated new machine which did auto- 
matically what had previously required four sepa- 
rate machines. The new machine, known as the 

Installation of latest model AMF Standard Cigarette machines, 
each capable of making 1250 cigarettes a minute. 

PAGE 1 02 


Summer-fall, 1 95 1 

Battery of AMF leaf stemmers, sep- 
arators and stemmer-separators. 

Patterson Packer, 
weighed, packed, 
labeled and stamped 
smoking tobacco. 


By the time he 
was 28, Rufus Pat- 
terson was the fore- 
most authority on 
tobacco machinery 
in the United States. 
His leadership in 

the field made him the logical choice for president of 
American Machine and Foundry Co. The new firm 
was organized under the laws of the State of New 
Jersey on March 26, 1900. 

AMF's contributions to the technological progress 
of the tobacco industry have been important and 
manifold. The year 1908 was a major milestone in 
AMF history, for it saw the introduction of three 
important items of automatic tobacco processing 
equipment. One was the Standard Tobacco Stem- 
mer, which performed mechanically the heretofore 
laborious and costly manual operation of removing 
the stems from leaf tobacco. 

Also that year AMF made what has perhaps been 
its greatest contribution to the cigarette industry in 
the Standard Cigarette Machine. This machine 
manufactured cigarettes in an endless rod of paper- 
wrapped tobacco, cutting it into standard cigarette 
lengths at the then rapid rate of 300 cigarettes a 
minute. Today's model of this machine produces 
cigarettes at the rate of 1,250 a minute. 


Almost simultaneously with the cigarette machine, 
the company put on the market the Cigarette Pouch 
Packer which, for the first time, packaged cigarettes 
automatically. Its output was 45 packs a minute. 
The 1951 AMF Standard Cigarette Packer operates 
at a speed of 135 packs a minute. 

The ingenuity of Rufus Patterson brought about 
the mechanization of the cigar industry in 1918 
after years of trial and error in the development of 
a machine which would automatically manufacture 
cigars. While the tobacco stemmer and cigarette 
machines were being developed in the early years 
of the century, AMF was concurrently working for 
International Cigar Machinery Co. on a machine 
which many tobacco men declared to be an outright 
impossibility — a machine to make cigars. 

On January 14, 1901, International Cigar Machin- 
ery Co. was organized to specialize in the develop- 
ment of machinery for the cigar industry. The late 
Rufus Patterson was elected head of the company 
which eventually became an AMF subsidiary. 


This development process took years of difficult 
experimentation and the expenditure of $8,000,000. 

Finally, on November 19, 1918, six newly-developed 
long filler cigar machines were installed in the plant 
of the Puerto Rican-American Tobacco Co. for test- 
ing. The machines were successful and today more 
than 5,000 cigar machines are in operation. Machine 
speed of today's long-filler cigar machine is 13 cigars 
per minute. The machine can be adapted to manu- 
facture several hundred types and sizes of cigars 
by modification of operating elements. 

Through the years AMF added other equipment 
to make other contributions to improving further 
the processing of tobacco. Its present-day 4-16 Stem- 
ming Machine handles a continuous flow of whole 
leaf and can stem more than 6,500 pounds of U. S. 
leaf in eight hours. The AMF 4-18 Standard Sepa- 
rator achieves separation of tobacco strips of any 
size at a rate of from 1,000 to 2,500 pounds per hour. 
Combined stemming and separating within a single 
unit, the new AMF 4-19 Standard Stemmer-Separa- 
tor produces a high yield of clean strip while auto- 
matically collecting and discharging all dust and 


Two years ago AMF brought on the market a new 
type of tobacco curer known as the AMF Jet Tobacco 
Curer. Employing the basic principles of jet com- 
bustion, it enables the tobacco farmer to cure his 
tobacco at less cost since it uses home-type fuel oil 
as against higher-priced kerosene consumed by most 
other tobacco curers. 

AMF's most current development for the tobacco 
industry is an item of electronic equipment known 
as the Microfeed Regulator and Rejector. Designed 
to serve as an attachment to the AMF Standard Cig- 
arette Machine, the new product controls cigarette 
weights electronically thereby permitting the manu- 
facturer to get better uniformity in cigarette pro- 


Widow of the late Rufus Patterson, Mrs. Patter- 
son, now living in New York, was Miss Margaret 
W. Morehead of Durham, N. C. A memorial to the I 
Morehead and Pat- 
terson families, the 
bell tower on the 
campus of the Uni- 
versity of North 
Carolina at Chapel 
Hill, was presented 
jointly by the late 
Mr. Patterson and 
John Motley More- 
head, cousin of Mrs. 
Patterson. Mr. Pat- 
terson also gave a 
wing of the Three 
Sisters building at Jet tobacco curer of AMF installed 
Salem Academy in outside a n. c. tobacco bam. its 
memorv of his i et combustion fires from No. 2 oil 
^ are said to save 30 percent of cur- 

(Cont. on page 111) % n g cost. 

Summer-fall, i 95 1 


PAGE 103 

Wright Machinery Co. Makes Tobacco Industry Machinery 

By John L. Moorhead, Harvey-Massengale Co., Inc., Durham 

R. H. Wright, founder in 1893 of 
Wright Machinery Co., Durham, Im- 
portant Maker of Machinery for To- 
bacco Industry. 

Wright Machinery 
Co., of Durham, one 
of the nation's oldest 
suppliers of auto- 
matic packaging 
machinery for the 
tobacco industry, 
was founded in 1893 
by the late R. H. 

Wright established 
the company for the 
purpose of introduc- 
ing in America a 
machine which auto- 
matically packaged 
smoking tobacco. 
Success of the ini- 
tial installations led 
to the machine's 
general acceptance and soon practically every smok- 
ing tobacco, except granulated types which could re- 
main fresh in a bag, was being sold in machine- 
wrapped packets. 

Meantime, Wright and his associates continued to 
seek improvements on the original machine and to 
design still other tobacco packaging, labeling and 
stamping machinery. 

Today, Wright machines are used by a steadily 
growing number of industries other than tobacco, 
but the company maintains a prime interest in to- 
bacco and throughout the years has retained its 
North Carolina flavor. For example, the president 
and chairman of the board of The Sperry Corpora- 
tion, of which Wright Machinery Co. is now a sub- 
sidiary, is Thomas A. Morgan, native of Henderson, 
N. C. 

Wright's pioneer work in tobacco equipment has 
served as key background for the company's ma- 
chines used by other industries. The experience 
gained in developing machines for tying bags of 

"Duke's Mixture" and other bagged tobaccos was 
invaluable in the development of the first commercial 
tea bag machines. Because of Wright's experience 
in developing machines which applied revenue 
stamps to tobacco pouches and tins, the firm was 
encouraged to build machines which automatically 
apply revenue stamps to liquor bottles. 

More recently, Wright marketed weighing ma- 
chines which incorporate for the first time the prin- 
ciple of "positive displacement" and permit a degree 
of accuracy at high speeds superior to conventional 
beam or spring scale weighers. These new type 
weighers are known as "Hy-Tra-Lec" and have been 
hailed by packaging experts as one of the century's 
most significant advances in weighing engineering. 
Hundreds of the machines are now used throughout 
the world. Here again, Wright's early work with 
the tobacco industry provided a solid background. 

Wright has repaid, in part at least, the debt it 
owes to the tobacco industry and to North Carolina, 
by helping prove to the nation at large that Southern 
workmen are capable of doing high precision ma- 
chine work. 

This came about during World War II when 
Wright expanded its facilities and personnel and 
converted to the production of precision instruments 
for the Armed Services. Wright's outstanding rec- 
ord indicated that work of this nature could be per- 
formed in the South as well as it was done in more 
established industrial Eastern and Middle Western 
industrial centers. Since that time other precision 
manufacturing plants have located in the South, 
including North Carolina. 

Today, Wright is again turning a portion of its 
facilities to defense production. The flavor of to- 
bacco, however, still remains and a visitor to the 
company's plants in Durham is impressed with the 
large quantity of machines now being produced 
there for one of the major tobacco companies. 

President John B. Wilson commented, "Wright 
and tobacco grew up together; they intend to stay 
closely allied." 

Golden Belt Makes Tobacco Bags, Print Cloth in Durham 

Golden Belt Manufacturing Co. of Durham began 
its corporative existence in 1899 but its actual be- 
ginning dated back some 30 or 40 years when the 
smoking tobacco business in Durham was in its 
infancy although tobacco bag making had been an 
adjunct of the tobacco industry. 

From its beginning it developed into an impor- 
tant phase of the industry in the late 1870s and early 
1880s when increasing quantities of Bull Durham 
Smoking Tobacco were being distributed nation- 
wide and beyond by W. T. Blackwell & Co. Bags in 

which this tobacco was packed were made for many 
years in extra space in the factory and for many 
years in the basement. 

Incidentally, stringing tobacco bags for several 
years before and after the organization of the Gold- 
en Belt Manufacturing Co. was an important rural 
industry. Tobacco bags in sacks of hundreds and 
thousands were distributed through a dozen or more 
agencies to many thousands of homes in central and 
northwestern North Carolina, covering some 30 or 
40 counties. Balls of yellow twine were distributed 

PAGE 1 04 


Summer-Fall, 1951 

with them and the process of stringing the bags was 
carried on by members of many thousands of North 
Carolina families. Although the pay for stringing 
bags was low, it actually meant the difference be- 
tween hunger and sufficiency of daily food and prov- 
ed a Godsend to many thousands of rural families. 
This work was varied later by the looping of the 
little cardboard tag in the string. This important 
rural industry finally disappeared less than two 
decades ago when machinery was developed and 
took over the operations. 

Golden Belt Manufacturing Co. was incorporated 
in 1899 by the late General Julian S. Carr, important 
business and industrial figure in Durham for many 
years and a part owner at the time of W. T. Black- 
well & Co. Thomas B. Fuller, cousin of W. W., 
Frank, and Jones Fuller, became president and was 
actually in charge of the business until he resigned 
in 1920 and died three years later. He was succeed- 
ed by G. W. Hundley, Sr., who served as active head 
of the business until his death in 1939. He was a 
brother of J. Camden Hundley, now manager of the 
Durham plant of Liggett & Myers Tobacco Co. 

J. M. McNutt, who started with the Corporation 
in 1906 as manager of the stringing agency in South 
Boston, Va., later joined the firm in Durham, mov- 
ing up through the ranks and becoming president 
in 1939, a position he continues to hold. Other of- 

ficers, in addition to President McNutt, are G. R. 
Parks, vice-president, H. L. Hilyard, treasurer, Jo'm 
W. Hanlon, secretary, and C. M. Davis, assistant 
secretary and assistant treasurer. 

After its incorporation, the Golden Belt Manufac- 
turing Co. operated for two years in rented quar- 
ters while its plant on East Main Street was be'n ? 
planned and constructed. In this new plant, sin°~! 
enlarged, the manufacture of print Cloth, from wh>h 
the bags are made, was started and the Textile Plant 
has continued as an important part of the activities 
The plant now supplies the tobacco trade the smok- 
ing tobacco bags and also manufactures parts bags 
for shipping bolts, nuts, and other small mechanical 
parts. After cigarettes became a more important 
tobacco product, Golden Belt began printing the 
cigarette wrappers and now supplies The American 
Tobacco Co. with a part of its requirimenets in 
which cigarettes are wrapped. The plant normally j 
employs about 600 workers in all of its activities. 

After W. T. Blackwell & Co. was acquired around 
the turn of the century by the American Tobacco 
Co., the Golden Belt Manufacturing Co. became a 
subsidiary of the American Tobacco Co., and has 
continued as such, although it supplies smoking to- 
bacco bags to the tobacco industry generally. Golden 
Belt for more than 50 years has been an important 
adjunct to the tobacco industry and to the economy 
of Durham in which it has operated. 

Directory Lists 295 N. C. Tobacco Factories in 1881-82 

North Carolina had 295 tobacco factories in opera- 
tion in 1881-2, according to a directory published in 
the United States Tobacco Journal, Oscar Hammer- 
stein editor. In her book "The Bright-Tobacco In- 
dustry, 1860-1927", published by the University of 
North Carolina Press, 1948, Annie M. Tilley re- 
produces this list, placing the plants in their re- 
spective counties. The list follows: 

Forsyth (27) — Winston-Salem (18) — Bitting & Whita- 
ker, Brown & Bro., Brown Bros., Bynum, Cotton & Jones, 
Martin Grogan, Hairston, Grogan & Co., P. H. Hanes & 
Co., D. R. Leak & Son, Ogburn, Hill & Co., R. J. Reynolds, 
W. P. Reynolds, H. Scales, H. Subbett, Winston Smoking 
Tobacco Co., W. W. Wood, Hairston & Pay, E. F. Hall, C. 
Hamlin & Co.; Salem Chapel (Z) — G. H. Crews, Reuben 
G. Crews; Kernersville (2) — R. B. Kerner, J. L. King; 
Bethania (2) — O. J. Lehman, C. R. Orrender; B. S. Brown, 
Belew Creek; J. F. Fare, White Road; N. D. Sullivan, Wal- 

Durham (12) — Durham (11) — W. T. Blackwell & Co., 
J. R. Day & Bro., W. Duke, Sons & Co., Durham Tobacco 
Co., R. T. Faucette & Co., Lucius Green, Hunt & Thomas, 
Isaac N. Lenk, Z. I. Lyon & Co., R. F. Morris & Son, W. S. 
Roulhac & Co.; William Lunsford, Flat River. 

Rockingham (27) — Reidsville (10) — D. Barnes, J. S. Dal- 
ton, A. H. Motley, S. C. Penn, R. P. Richardson, Jr., H. 
Sampson, R. W. Smith, J. N. Watt, T. F. Williamson & Co., 
Williamson & Vernon; Leaksville (6) — Dillard & Moir, Dyer 
& Millner, C. W. Guerrant, J. B. King, L. J. Martin, C. A. 
Reynolds; Madison (5) — J. Z. Dalton, G. W. Webster, W. 
A. Webster, R. D. Williams, and S. B. Ziegler; Wentworth 
(3) — J. B. Ellington, L. B. Hall, R. A. Ellington & Sons; 
Stoneville (2) — W. P. Grogan, R. H. Lewis; Henry Snow, 
Aspen Grove. 

Iredell (9) — Statesville (3) — Julian Allen, Calvert & Mc- 

Kee, John F. McKee; Eagle Mills (3) — N. T. Cooper, Dalton 
& Kennedy, Gaither and Colvert; J. L. Calvert, Williams- 
burg; Peter Claywell, Snow Creek; Alf Turner, River Hill. 

Davie (29) — Mocksville (7) — Booe & Payne, George M. 
Foster, Gaines, Davies & Sons, T. H. Gaither, H. B. How- 
ard & Sons, Robert Jordan, Kelly & Stewart; Smith Grove 
(5) — Bailey & Dulin, Chaplin & Howard, M. Kimbraugh, 
John Taylor, William M. Taylor; Fulton (4) — William T. 
Ellis, John H. Peebles, Robertson & Howard, Robertson & 
Taylor; County Line (3) — D. L. Dyson, John M. Foster, 
J. H. Tatem; Calahaln (2) — A. A. Anderson, Charles An- 
derson; Cana (2) — Booe & Furchess, Ebenezer Frost; Fork 
Church (3) — Spencer Chaplin, James M. Hendricks, As- 
bery Howard; Ellis & Ward, Elbaville; Farmington (2) — 
C. A. Hartman, E. Johnson. 

Yadkin (16) — Yadkinville (2) — J. Conrad Danthill 
(probably Douthitt), William K. (L.) Kelly; Huntsville 
(4) — G. W. Burwis (probably Burrus), J. D. Hamlin, Squire 
Boone Harding, T. A. Steelman; Jonesville (2) — J. F. Bryan, 
Gwyn, Wood & Co.; East Bend (4) — A. Horn (Home), J. 
H. Jenkins, Martin & Glenn, William Y. Poindexter; Clay- 
well & Bros, Richmond Hill; Abner Davies & Co., Boone- 
ville; Albert Ireland, Mt. Nebo; I. L. Reaves, Hampton- 

Vance (25) — Kittrell (15) — George W. Averill, James 
Beckham, E. G. Blacknall, O. W. Blacknall, William H. 
Blacknall, Wiatt Bradford, Capehart, Davis & Co., Charles 
Cawthorne, Hilliard Cook, D. B. Duke, Carter H. Gay, P. F. 
Gordon, Phil B. Key, David Pool, Stephen A. White; Hen- 
derson (9) — William Daniel, Isaiah Fuller, W. E. Gary & 
Co., W. H. Hughes, Jr., W. L. Meadows, Perry Bros., James 
E. Pogue, William Richardson, N. G. Whitfield; H. H. Jenk- 
ins, Williamsboro. 

Granville (22) — Oxford (9) — C. R. Blackley, Cooper & 
Williams, Alph Dement, Robert E. Elliott, William P. Har- 
ris, C. P. Hester, Alb Hobgood, J. W. Hobgood, Daniel Os- 
borne; Wilton (9) — James Fuller, M. W. Jenkins, Eveston 
Mitchell, J. W. Mitchell, James L. Mitchell, William A. Mit- 

Summer-Fall, 1 95 1 


PAGE 105 

chell, Eugene Morris, John E. Purgason, Lewis Strothers; 
Tally Ho (2) — Alexander H. Bragg, Sol Mitchell; W. W. 
Cozart, Dutchville; James B. Elliott, Young's Cross Roads. 

Surry (25) — Mount Airy (12) — G. W. Ashby, J. L. Ashby, 
Brower & Co., J. H. Pulton, J. R. Gilmer, R. L. Gwynn, 
William Haines, Robert Hithes, Jr., G. M. Mitchell, W. E. 
Patterson, L. F. Smith, B. F. Sparger; Pilot Mountain (3) — 
Virgil Boyles, E. W. Culler, Daniel Marion; Rockford (2) — 
G. M. Burrus, Harden Holyfield; Siloam (2) — O. E. Marion, 
R. E. & M. C. Reeves; State Road (3) — R. C. Hanby, J. T. 
Murray, James H. Maxwell; John H. Dix, Tom's Creek (loca- 
tion in Surry questioned); W. R. & R. A. Doss, Copeland; 
R. W. Foard & Sons, Elkin. 

Stokes (22) — Germanton (5) — Samuel Blackburn, W. A. 
Chaffin, G. W. Nichelson, S. F. Slate, N. G. Westmoreland; 
Walnut Cove (2) — W. P. Covington, Spencer Isom; Wilson's 
Store (4) — J. T. Green, Daniel Kiser, James H. Leak, J. H. 
Vaughan; Danbury (3) — Asa Neal, John Neal, A. M. Simp- 
son; Francisco (2) — Davis Smith, Milton Smith; D. N. 
Dalton, Dalton; J. A. Fare, Prestonville; William S. Franz, 
Westfield; D. S. R. Martin, Ayersville; J. W. Preston, Pres- 
tonville; J. S. Rierson, Sauratown. 

Orange (7) — Hillsboro (6) — L. C. H. Brown & Co., H. P. 
Jones & Co., L. H. Lambeth, E. H. Pogue,.Webb & Co., J. Y. 
Whitted; J. M. Corbin, Chapel Hill. 

Person (7) — Woodsdale (2) — Larkin Brooks, R. U. 
Brooks; Mount Tirzah (2) — J. I. Cothran, J. H. Gooch; 
Roxboro (3) — J. S. Long, William C. Satterfield, W. H. 

Rowan (6) — Salisbury (4) — Booe, Payne & Lunn, Keene 
& Kennedy, James B. Lanier, Payne, Lynn & Co. ; South 
River (2) — J. B. Foard, William H. Hobson. 

Wilkes (5) — Newcastle (2) — J. S. Green, Green Bros.; 
George B. Reeves, Roaring River; William H. Reeves, 
Wilkesborough; Isaac Taylor, Roaring Gap (River?). 

Catawba (10) — Hickory (9) — P. H. Abernethy, Cobb & 

Son, Hall & Daniel, George C. Lanier, H. C. Latta, A. W. 
Marshall, Nicholas Martin, Martin & Warren, Tomlinson & 
Harris; L. W. Cochran, Catawba. 

Buncombe (7) — Asheville (6) — M. J. Fagg, H. C. France, 
Holmes & Cherbrough, John E. Ray & Co., Ray, Miller & 
France, Shelton, Jordan & Worth; C. W. Beale, Arden. 

Caldwell (3) — Lenoir (2) — William P. Bell, R. M. Tuttle; 
Little, Coffee & Puett, Collettsville . 

Cleveland (3) — Shelby (2) — J. W. Gedney & Co., D. D. 
Smith; James G. Bland, Mooresboro. 

Guilford (6) — High Point (2) — O. S. Causey, W. P. 
Pickett; Thomas M. Angel, Bruce Cross Roads; Jones Bros., 
Greensboro; Hubbard Parrish, Summerfleld; R. H. Stanley, 
Battle Ground. 

Caswell (4) — Milton (3) — Thomas E. Cobb, Ottaway 
Hatcher, R. E. Withers; C. D. Vernon, Yanceyville. 

Alamance (4) — J. D. Corbin, Company Shops (Burling- 
ton); J. H. & T. H. Fowler, Mebane (sville); J. W. Lea, 
Pleasant Grove; S. G. McLean, Graham. 

Mecklenburg (4) — Charlotte (4) — James Heineman, 
R. Leak, R. M. & R. E. Miller, Miller & Leak. 

Wake (2) — A. L. Page, Cary; John H. Rogers, Apex. 

Cumberland (1) — Allen & Whitted, Fayetteville. 

Franklin (2) — Franklinton (2) — Hy. A. Bobbitt, R. 

Robeson (1) — James Bodenhamer, Shoe Heel. 

New Hanover (1) — Cape Fear Tobacco Co., Wilmington. 

Davidson (1) — Dale & Jordan, Yadkin College. 

Randolph (1) — Mc. K. Gray, Bush Hill. 

Halifax (1) — Joseph H. Lawrence, Scotland Neck. 

Craven (1) — Miller & Walker, New Bern. 

Hertford (1) — David A. Owen, Winton. 

Lenoir (1) — Amos Harvey, Kinston. 

Greene (1) — Yancey T. Ormond, Ormondville. 

Rutherford (1) — A. Lynch, Green Hill. 



State College Helps Tobacco Growers in Principal Crop 

By R. R. Bennett and S. N. Hawks, Extension Tobacco Specialists, N. C. State College 

Tobacco is the foremost cash crop in North Caro- 
lina. It accounts for more than half of the total 
cash farm income for the farmers of the state. In 
1950 there were 636,000 acres planted to flue-cured 
tobacco, 9,540 acres were planted to Burley tobacco, 
and 150 acres were planted to Aromatic tobacco. 
This acreage of tobacco sold for about $477,000,000. 
The crop has a far-reaching effect on the economy of 
the State. 

Tobacco is produced by about 135,000 land owners 
in North Carolina. There are in addition thousands 
of families who depend on their income from work 
in the tobacco factories, curer manufacturing plants, 
textile plants making tobacco twine and tobacco 
plant bed canvas, insecticide and fungicide plants, 
farm equipment plants, producing fuel (coal and 
oil) for curing, manufacturing fertilizers for the 
production of tobacco, etc. 

From the grower's standpoint, the soil type and 
weather conditions play an important part in determ- 
ining whether the crop will be a partial failure or a 
great success — these things the farmer has no con- 
trol over. On the second hand, there are many, many 
things that the farmer must know and do if he hopes 
to make a success of being a flue-cured tobacco pro- 

First of all, the farmer must know which variety 
of tobacco suits his conditions best. Generally the 
broad leaf types such as 402, 400, Yellow Special, 

and Bottom Special have given the greatest returns 
per acre, where the major tobacco diseases are not 
a problem. On black shank and Granville wilt soil 
Dixie Bright 101 is suggested. After the variety 
has been chosen, the correct time to sow the seed in 
the plant beds must be determined so that the plants 
will be ready for transplanting in the field at the 
right time. If the plants are ready to go in the field 
too early or too late, the acre profit will be reduced. 

As soon as the plants come up in the bed, the 
farmer has the responsibility of protecting them 
against diseases, insects, and drought. All of these 
hazards can be controlled. Probably two of the 
worst plant bed hazards are drought and blue mold. 
In locating the plant bed, the available water supply 
should be considered. The blue mold can be effect- 
ively controlled by using Fermate, Diathane Z-78, 
Carbarn Black, or Parzate. 

Fertilization is a very important operation because 
underfertilization will result in reduced yield and 
possibly poor quality, while overfertilization will re- 
sult in heavy, thick, dark tobacco which is poor in 
quality so far as cigarette production is concerned. 
At the present time, 3-9-6 is the most commonly used 
analysis of fertilizer under tobacco, with some 4-12-8 
and 3-9-9 being used ; however, on the heavier, more 
fertile soils, it is advisable to use a 2-10-6 fertilizer, 
which will reduce the total amount of nitrogen ap- 
plied. Excessive amounts of nitrogen is the thing 

PAGE 1 06 


Summer-fall, i 951 

that is quite often responsible for the poor quality 

Fertilizer placement is also important. If the 
plant roots are placed in the fertilizer and the soil 
becomes dry soon after transplanting, severe fertiliz- 
er burn may occur. Fertilizer burn may retard 
early plant growth or in bad cases, it may result in 
poor stands. The best method of applying fertilizer 
is to place it in the soil in two bands about six to 
eight inches apart, and then set the plants between 
the bands. If band placing equipment is not avail- 
able, the next best practice is to mix the fertilizer 
with the soil by stirring it with a plow before ridg- 
ing the land for transplanting. Splitting the appli- 
cation will also help reduce root injury caused by 
fertilizer burn — put on two-thirds of the fertilizer 
before planting and the other one-third as a topdress- 
ing not later than the first cultivation. 

At the present time, one of the major threats to 
the production of tobacco in North Carolina is to- 
bacco diseases. There are many diseases that are 
causing losses in the State, but black shank, root 
knot, and Granville wilt are three of the worst. Most 
of the losses from the major tobacco diseases can 
be avoided with proper crop rotations and the use 
of resistant varieties. One of the problems in con- 
trolling these diseases is failure to have the disease 
properly identified when it first appears and apply 
the proper control measure immediately rather than 
lose a sizable portion of the crop before attempting 
to control it. County Agents in the counties and 

Extension Specialists are available to the grower to 
assist with the identification of diseases. 

Again in the curing process the farmer has con- 
siderable control over the results he gets. Three 
things are necessary, before the actual curing starts, 
to make it possible for the grower to obtain good 
cures. First, the barn should be so constructed 
that an excessive amount of heat is not lost through 
the wall and the ventilators should be built so that 
the ventilation is under control at all times. Second, 
the heating unit should be under control at all times 
and it should be of such capacity that it can produce 
the desired heat when it is needed. Third, the to- 
bacco should be uniformly ripe when it goes into the 
barn. Green tobacco and ripe tobacco cannot be 
cured in the same barn at the same time satisfac- 
torily. After the tobacco is uniformly spaced in the 
barn, the actual curing process will vary depending 
upon the kind and condition of the tobacco. Gen- 
erally, the tobacco should be yellowed and tne leaf 
about dried with the top ventilator open and for the 
remainder of the cure the top ventilator should be 

The flue-cured tobacco producer must be well vers- 
ed in many things if he hopes to produce top yield 
of high quality tobacco. He must be a plant patholo- 
gist, a soil chemist, a carpenter, an engineer, and 
agronomist, and entomologist, a salesman, and many 
other things. Briefly he must be a good farmer — 
one who does his job well and on time. 

Marketing Requires Skill, Experience; Specialists Aid 

By J. H. Cyrus, Tobacco Marketing Specialist, N. C. Dept. of Agriculture 

North Carolina's largest and most valuable agri- 
cultural crop, flue-cured and burley tobacco, is very 
efficiently and systematically moved from the farm 
into the channels of trade through the network of 
about 310 tobacco auction warehouses which are lo- 
cated on 47 markets in the State, with 17 million 
square feet of floor space for displaying tobacco. 
During the 1950-51 marketing season 76 sets of buy- 
ers bidding competitively at auction sales bought 
850,000,000 pounds of tobacco from flue-cured and 
burley producers for about $475,000,000, which was 
the largest amount of money ever paid North Caro- 
lina growers for their tobacco crop. 

From the time the Border Belt opens about the 
first of August until the Burley Belt closes in late 
January, the chants of the tobacco auctioneer can 
be heard throughout the different belts in North 
Carolina. The growers of this valuable crop look 
forward all through the year to the season when 
they can place their tobacco on sale at their favorite 
auction market, and see it auctioned off to the high- 
est bidder, who is generally a representative of one 
of the major tobacco companies or independent deal- 
ers. The auction system has proved to the growers 

through the years to be the most satisfactory method 
in sight for marketing tobacco. They know that 
through competitive bidding they are able to get the 
highest possible price for tobacco properly prepared 
for market. 

Properly handling tobacco for market requires 
more experience and skill than any other agricul- 
tural crop grown. Therefore, a tobacco project was 
outlined in the Division of Markets, N. C. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in cooperation with the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, under the Research and 
Marketing Act, to help the growers increase their 
knowledge and skill of preparing tobacco for mar- 
ket. The object of the project is to conduct a service 
program and to perform such services and activities 
as will facilitate the marketing of flue-cured and 
burley tobacco. 

The methods of buying and the standards under 
which tobacco is marketed placed a great responsi- 
bility on the growers in preparing tobacco for mar- 
ket. Therefore, growers must become more familiar 
with their deficiencies if they expect to get the high- 
est price for their crops. At the present a long range 
service program is being conducted to help the grow- 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 1 07 

ers better understand what their problems and de- 
ficiencies are in marketing, and assist them in mak- 
ing adjustments to meet the situation. 

Most of the tobacco grower's trouble in preparing 
tobacco for market can be traced back to one basic 
factor, and that is the failure of many growers to 
recognize the Groups of tobacco that grow on their 
plants. For flue-cured tobacco those groups are : the 
lug group with its sub-group of primings or plant 
bed leaves, the cutter group, and the leaf group with 
its sub-group of smoking leaf or over-ripe leaf to- 
bacco. The grouping of tobacco is the basic or start- 
ing point in learning to do a better job in preparing 
tobacco for market. 

The Group, which is the first element in a U. S. 
Standard Grade, is the first thing that one has to 

know in order to put a Standard Grade on any lot of 
tobacco. Each of these groups has definite charac- 
teristics which distinguish one from the other, and 
when a grower becomes familiar with the character- 
istics found in the different groups and is able to 
recognize the group, then he will have a basic foun- 
dation to which he can apply the knowledge gained 
through experience each year relative to qualities 
and colors within the groups. Thus, by starting at 
the base and working up, many growers will grad- 
ually increase their knowledge and skill of preparing 
tobacco for market so that they can get the true 
market price for their entire crop of tobacco. 

Many other services are rendered to the tobacco 
growers, warehousemen, dealers and processors in 
the various functions of marketing tobacco as the 
situation demands from year to year. 

Stabilization Group Holds Prices to 90% of Parity 

By L. T. Weeks, General Manager, Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corporation, Raleigh. 

The Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization 
Corporation was organized by the farm organiza- 
tions (namely, the Farm Bureau and the Grange) 
in 1946 for the purpose of supporting the price of 
flue-cured tobacco to the producer at 90% of parity. 
This is accomplished by making available the 90% 
of parity support price as provided for by the Com- 
modity Credit Corporation. This is the only pur- 
pose of Stabilization Corporation. It does not deal 
in any other phase of the tobacco industry other than 
selling such tobacco as is received by it in adminis- 
tering the support price program. 

Stabilization Corporation was incorporated under 
the Cooperative Marketing Act of North Carolina 
and domesticated in the states of Virginia, South 
Carolina, Georgia and Florida, thus serving the en- 
tire flue-cured tobacco producing area of the United 

All flue-cured tobacco growers are eligible to be- 
come members of Stabilization Corporation by pur- 
chasing one share of common stock with a par value 
of $5.00. To date, there are more than 390,000 to- 
bacco growers who have become members of Stabil- 
ization Corporation and who are common stockhold- 
ers in it. Stabilization Corporation is owned, operat- 
ed and controlled by its common stockholders. 

During the period of time Stabilization Corpora- 
tion has been in operation, it has handled in excess of 
585 million pounds of tobacco which was offered for 
sale on the auction warehouse floor and which failed 
to bring as much as the 90% of parity support price 
to the members. Today, it has less than 79 million 
pounds of this tobacco on hand. All of the 1946 and 
1947 crop tobaccos have been sold and a distribution 
of net gains in the amount of $3,779,654.19 has been 
made on the 1947 crop to producers who delivered 
tobacco to Stabilization Corporation in 1947 for the 
support price. It appears now that a distribution 

will be made on both the 1948 and 1949 crops as soon 
as each of these crops is sold. No distribution of 
net gains can be made until all of any given crop 
is sold. 

Contrary to the opinion expressed by many peo- 
ple who do not really understand the principles of 
Stabilization's program, it has not cost the taxpay- 
ers one cent; as a matter of fact, the operations of 
the Stabilization Corporation has netted in excess 
of $2,500,000.00 to Commodity Credit Corporation 
which is a Federal government lending agency. This 
has been brought about due to the fact that Stabil- 
ization Corporation has paid 3% interest on all 
money borrowed from Commodity Credit Corpora- 
tion, with only l 1 / 4% of this amount being actual 
interest on the money and 1%% being a guaranty 
charge made by Commodity Credit Corporation for 
assuring the loan. 

The policies under which Stabilization Corpora- 
tion operates are made by its Board of Directors who 
are elected at the Annual Stockholders meeting held 
the last Friday in June of each year in Raleigh, N. C. 
The management is charged with the responsibility 
of carrying out the policies which are made by the 
Board of Directors. 

In 1949 the Corporation erected its own building 
as headquarters at 522 Fayetteville St., Raleigh. 
This building is of brick, three stories high and is 
60 by 120 feet. An average of 57 people are employ- 
ed in its staff, members of which cover the five states 
in which flue-cured tobacco is grown. One-half, or 
more, of its activities are carried on in North Caro- 
lina, leading flue-cured tobacco growing state. 

Officers and members of the Board of Directors of 

the Corporation are: Carl T. Hicks, Walstonburg, 

president; H. G. Blalock, Bakersville, Va., Joe 

Blount, Loris, S. C„ and D. F. Bruton, Adele, Ga., 

(Continued on page 118) 

PAGE 1 08 


Summer-fall, 1951 

N. C. Man Started Acre Allotments, Marketing Quotas 

By G. T. Scott, State Director, Production and Marketing Administration, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 

The tobacco acreage adjustment program was in- 
stigated by the late L. V. Morrell, Jr., of Snow Hill, 
N. C, in 1933, at which time he prevailed upon the 
Governor of North Carolina to close the warehouses 
due to the starvation prices which were being re- 
ceived by farmers producing tobacco. As a result of 
the closing of the warehouses, Federal legislation was 
passed putting into effect for the first time, control 
over the production of tobacco. 

The Production and Marketing Administration, a division 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, has the 
responsibility of administering the acreage allotments and 
marketing quotas on tobacco. The Secretary administers 
the tobacco program under the Agricultural Adjustment Act 
of 1938, as amended. In each state the Secretary of Agri- 
culture has a committee which administers the Production 
and Marketing Administration programs. The committee 
is appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture and is known 
as the State Production and Marketing Administration Com- 
mittee. The Secretary, in selecting his committee from 
each state, usually appoints a good farmer engaged in the 
production of one or more of the agricultural commodities 
pertaining to the PMA programs. 

In North Carolina the State PMA Chairman is G. T. Scott, 
who is a large tobacco and cotton producer in Johnston 
County, Selma, N. C. The Vice-Chairman is W. A. Kitchin, 
who operates a tobacco, peanut, cotton, and livestock farm 
in Halifax County, Scotland Neck, N. C. The three regular 
members of the State PMA Committee are Eli S. Seawell, 
a poultry and small grain farm operator from Randolph 
County; Boyce Wilson, a tobacco, cotton, small grain, and 
dairy farmer from Rutherford County; and Bill Hooks, a 
large tobacco and cotton farmer from Columbus County, 
Whiteville, N. C. D. S. Weaver, director of Agricultural 
Extension, is ex-officio member. James H. Potter is head 
of the Tobacco Division of the State Production and Market- 
ing Administration program. Under the direction of the 
State PMA Committee, Mr. Potter directs County PMA 
Committees in carrying out the provisions of the Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Act relating to the tobacco program. Mr. 
Potter is a tobacco and peanut farmer and is a native of 
Greene County, Snow Hill, N. C. The tobacco work has 
been under the direction of Mr. Potter on the state level 
since 1942. 


In each county there is a committee known as the County 
PMA Committee which is responsible to the State PMA Com- 
mittee for administering the Production and Marketing Ad- 
ministration programs at the county level. This committee 
is composed of a chairman, vice-chairman, and one regular 
member. Ecah county is divided into communities which 
have three community PMA committeemen to represent the 
farmers in their community. These community committee- 
men are elected by the farmers in the community and they, 
in turn, elect a delegate to a county convention which elects 
a County Committee. With this type of committee system, 
the Secretary of Agriculture can reach each individual farm 
by contacts through the State, County, and Community 

Tobacco farmers, being widely scattered throughout the 
country, are not in position to organize as can labor and 
industry through unions and corporations in which they 
receive government protection and sanction. In view of this, 
farmers are unable to control effectively the production and 
orderly marketing of tobacco without Federal assistance. 


Federal assistance in the form of tobacco marketing 
quotas was put into effect in 193 4 under the Kerr-Smith 
Tobacco Act. Supplies at that time far over-shadowed de- 
mand and farmers were receiving starvation prices. In 
1934, the first year of the Federal tobacco program, produc- 
tion was reduced 175 million pounds from 1933 but returns 

increased 40 million dollars, at an average price almost 
double that of 1933. Quotas continued through the 1935 
marketing year but the Kerr-Smith Tobacco Act was declared 
unconstitutional and there were no quotas in 193 6 and' 
193 7. Under this Act, the tobacco adjustment program is 
a farmers' program. It provides that a referendum be held 
and that two-thirds of the tobacco farmers voting must 
favor acreage allotments and marketing quotas before they 
can be put into effect. 

Another referendum was held in 193 8 at which time 
farmers did not favor quotas. As a result, prices slumped 
to the 193 3 level. Farmers voted in another referendum 
in favor of quotas for 1940 and have voted more than 90 
percent in favor of quotas in each referendum held since 
that time. 

After the beginning of the marketing year and prior to 
December 1, the Secretary of Agriculture is required to 
make a finding of the relationship between the total actual 
supply of tobacco and the reserve supply level therefor 
(each kind of tobacco is treated separately in the finding). 
If it is found that the actual supply of tobacco exceeds the 
reserve supply level computed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the Act, a national marketing quota for the crop 
of tobacco produced in the next calendar year and market- 
ed in the succeeding marketing year is proclaimed, except 
that "The Secretary shall proclaim a national marketing 
quota for each marketing year for each kind of tobacco for 
which a national marketing quota was proclaimed for the 
immediately preceding marketing year, and beginning on 
the first day of the marketing year next following and con- 
tinuing throughout such year, a national marketing quota 
shall be in effect for the tobacco marketed during such mar- 
keting year." 


The national marketing quota is apportioned by the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture among states producing such tobacco 
on the basis of historical production and the volume of to- 
bacco so apportioned to each state is converted to a state 
acreage allotment on the basis of average yield. 

The total of all preliminary acreages for farms in each 
state is adjusted pro-rata to come within the respective 
acreage allotment apportioned such state by the Secretary. 
Under certain conditions, farms with an acreage allotment 
which will produce a number of pounds below a certain 
figure, are given "a small farm adjustment" by increasing 
the acreage allotment by a certain percentage, depending 
upon the size of such allotment. The maximum increase 
amounts to 20 percent. In some instances, a minimum acre- 
age allotment must be established for any eligible farm 
regardless of the size of the computed acreage allotment. 

Shortly after planting season, the County and Community 
Committeemen determine by actual measurement the acre- 
age of tobacco planted on every farm within the county. 
This planted acreage is compared with the acreage allotment 
previously determined for the respective farm to establish 
whether or not the acreage of tobacco grown is within or 
exceeds the farm acreage allotment. After the above men- 
tioned performance is determined and prior to the opening 
of the tobacco markets, marketing cards are prepared for 
each farm on which tobacco is being grown during the year. 
The marketing quota for a farm is the actual production 
on the farm acreage allotment. 


Two types of marketing cards are prepared (a) a Within 
Quota Card is prepared for each farm on which the acreage 
planted to tobacco is within the farm acreage allotment 
(b) an Excess Card is prepared for those farms for which 
it is determined that the acreage planted to tobacco exceeds 
the farm acreage allotment. The percentage of excess on 
the farm is recorded upon the farm marketing card so that 
the appropriate amount of penalty under the Act may be 
collected at the time the producer receives proceeds from 
the sale of any tobacco produced on the farm. At the time 
the tobacco is sold, the producer presents his marketing 
card to the auction warehouse or the individual purchasing 

Summer-fall, 1951 


PAGE 1 09 

the tobacco, for execution of a memorandum of sale. In 
the event penalty is due by the producer because of the 
sale of tobacco produced in excess of the allotment, the 
penalty is collected by warehouseman or purchaser. The 
purchaser remits periodically such penalties collected to 
designated Department of Agriculture offices, which, in 
turn, forward such penalties to the United States Treasury 

The penalties collected to April 14, 19 50, on excess flue- 
cured tobacco for the 19 50 crop in North Carolina were 
$1,556,156.61, and the penalties collected on burley were 
$37,027.37. This is a total of $1,593,183.98 penalty col- 
lected in North Carolina alone on excess tobacco and re- 
turned to the U. S. Treasury Department. The total amount 
of penalty collected in North Carolina greatly exceeded the 
cost of the operation of the tobacco marketing quota pro- 
gram in the state. On this basis, the tobacco program does 
not in any way cost the taxpayers any extra tax for its 


The above brief description covers the general procedure 
which has been used in the administration of tobacco acre- 
age allotments and marketing quotas. Over the years cer- 
tain amendments to the original legislation have required 
modification of the conditions under which national market- 
ing quotas may be proclaimed and modification of the pro- 
cedures for establishing farm acreage allotments. However, 
the above described mechanics of administering marketing 
quotas, after the proclamation of quotas and acreage allot- 
ments, has remained fairly constant. 

It is very significant from all available figures on produc- 
tion and price that the Federal tobacco adjustment pro- 
gram has been a great advantage to North Carolina tobacco 
farmers since all records show a continuous yearly increase 
in average prices with the present average more than three 
times what it was at the time quotas were first put into 
effect. Also, farmers have a feeling of protection against 
a slump in prices such as that which occurred during 19 20, 
1933, and 1939. 

Wider Markets Developed by Leaf Tobacco Exporters 

By J. C. Lanier, Executive Secretary Leaf Tobacco Exporters Association, Inc. 

The Leaf Tobacco Exporters Association, Inc., is 
a corporation engaged in the business of fostering 
and promoting the sale, distribution and consump- 
tion of American grown leaf tobacco in this country 
and in foreign countries. 

It was organized in the Fall of 1941, and its mem- 
bership embraces practically every firm engaged in 
the exportation of flue cured and burley tobacco. 
Any American citizen, firm or corporation engaged 
in the leaf tobacco business is eligible for member- 
ship in the Association. At the present time there 
are 89 member firms from all the areas where to- 
bacco is produced and sold at auction, excepting the 
cigar type areas. 

For the current fiscal year officers are W. C. War- 
wick, Universal Leaf Tobacco Co., Richmond, Va., 
president, C. A. Carr, Dibrell Bros., Danville, Va., 
vive-president, and J. S. Ficklen, E. B. Ficklen To- 
bacco Co., Greenville, N. C, treasurer. J. Con Lanier 
is executive secretary and general counsel, and has 
held these positions continuously since the organiza- 
tion of the corporation. The executive offices are 
located at 111 E. Third Street, Greenville, N. C. 

The business of the Association is directed by an 
executive committee composed of nine members who 
hold office for three years and are not permitted to 
succeed themselves. Members of this committee are 
H. R. Pettus, chairman, L. L. Strause Co., Richmond, 
Va. ; Leroy Parker, China American Tobacco Co., 
Rocky Mount ; W. C. Paxton, James I. Miller Tobacco 
Co., Wilson; A. P. Thorpe, Jr., Thorpe & Ricks, Inc., 
Rocky Mount; J. E. Covington, Universal Leaf To- 
bacco Co., Richmond, Va. ; J. B. Rountree, White- 
head & Anderson, Inc., Lumberton, and officers War- 
rick, Carr, and Ficklen. 

For many years the leaf tobacco dealers have pro- 
moted the sale of American tobacco in almost every 
country of the world, and have built up substantial 
markets in many foreign countries. In 1941, due to 
the Second World War, practically all foreign out- 

lets were closed, and the entire industry faced a 
serious financial problem. It was essential that the 
industry be preserved, so that, when peace came, the 
world markets for American tobacco could be re- 
gained and the consumption of American tobacco re- 
sumed in foreign lands. The Association was form- 
ed for this purpose. 

During the war days the Association redried, 
packed and stored approximately 100 million pounds 
of Lend-Lease tobacco yearly. Since the war, the 
members of the Association have redried and packed 
the purchases of Stabilization Corporation. 

At the close of the Second World War, the Asso- 
ciation again turned its energies towards the re- 
sumption of trade with former customers abroad. 
It has worked closely with Economic Cooperation 
Administration in providing tobacco for Marshall 
Plan countries. 

The members of this Association are tobacco mer- 
chants who buy and sell leaf tobacco, but do not man- 
ufacture tobacco products. Some purchases are 
made on the auctions by its members as agents for 
domestic and foreign customers. Other purchases 
are made on the auctions for purposes of resale. 
Most members carry stocks of leaf tobacco from 
which prospective purchasers can make selections 
of the kind and quality desired. 

In the calendar year 1950 approximately 900 mil- 
lion pounds of flue cured tobacco were produced in 
North Carolina. Of this amount approximately 30% 
or around 270 million pounds go into the export 

The Association has never had a resignation 
among its members, and each year the membership 
has increased. It is the medium through which the 
entire industry works for the expansion of world 
markets for U. S. leaf tobacco. 

The Association works closely with warehouse 
organizations, farmer organizations, and govern- 
mental agencies in improving the system of selling 
tobacco at auction. 

PAGE 1 1 



Tobacco Associates Expand Flue-Cured Weed Markets 

By M. A. Morgan, Field Representative, Tobacco Associates, Inc. 

Tobacco Associates, Incorporated, something new 
in a commodity program, is an outstanding example 
of what can be done by an interested group of farm- 
ers and their allied interests to help themselves with- 
out running up to Washington to ask Congress to 
do something for them. 

Formed four years ago by farmers through their 
farm organizations, together with warehousemen, 
export leaf dealers, bankers, fertilizer manufactur- 
ers and merchants, Tobacco Associates' main object- 
ive is to promote, develop and expand the export 
market of flue-cured tobacco, upon which its growers 
depend for the sale of at least 40 per cent of each 

year's crop. 

The organization has met with so much success that today, 
agricultural leaders throughout the Nation term it the most 
outstanding and forward-looking program ever developed 
for any commodity. It is also an ideal example of allied 
groups cooperating with government agencies to develop 
programs that will assure a fair return to those who pro- 
duce and handle the Golden Weed. 

At its fourth annual meeting held in February of this 
year, James E. Thigpen, head of the Tobacco Branch of the 
United States Department of Agriculture's Production and 
Marketing Administration, pointed out that "Tobacco As- 
sociates has given the whole tobacco industry an organiza- 
tion through which all tobacco interests may work to im- 
prove export markets." 

"Government agencies," Thigpen said, "while vitally in- 
terested in tobacco exports, cannot solve all the problems 
facing the industry." Citing the new market in Germany 
as an example of the objective work that has been done by 
the organization in its four years of operation, he added, 
"we have found Tobacco Associates an organization through 
which we in government and all other segments of the in- 
dustry can work together to remove some of the obstacles 
standing in the way of the movement of our tobacco into 
foreign countries." 


Early in 19 47 representatives of farm organizations met 
with tobacco dealers, warehousemen, and business leaders 
to discuss the flue-cured tobacco problems. With an all- 
time high in domestic consumption of flue-cured tobacco, 
they found that all hopes of maintaining or expanding pro- 
duction of the flue-cured leaf depended largely on the amount 
that could be exported. Prior to World War II, England 
was our largest export market. But after the war, due to 
her shortage of dollar-exchange, she was buying less and 
less of American-grown tobacco, and China, our second 
largest user, was taking practically none. In fact, the war 
had left all countries that were users of American-grown 
tobacco with many new and complex trade problems. While 
total consumption of tobacco in those countries was in- 
creasing, and the people preferred the United States grown 
flue-cured leaf, economic trade problems were causing them 
to look to other countries for their tobacco requirements. 

The Stabilization program which was undertaken for the 
1946 crop of flue-cured tobacco and which included pro- 
visions for keeping production adjusted to demand, proved 
to be a price-protection lifesaver for the tobacco growers. 
And though growers appreciated fully the importance of the 
floor price at 90 percent of parity provided by the Stabiliza- 
tion program, they realized, too, that a good market was 
the very life of the tobacco business — "production of to- 
bacco without a market is futile," they said. 


The need for more adequate knowledge of world condi- 
tions and trends in the uses of tobacco became the important 
factor and reuslted in the organization of Tobacco Asso- 
ciates, Inc., to promote, develop and expand the export mar- 
ket for flue-cured tobacco. 


Officers and members of the Board of Directors of Tobacco 
Associates, Inc., for the year 1951 are as follows: 

J. B. Hutson, president, and J. C. Frink, assistant to the 
president, Washington, D. C; E. Y. Floyd, Raleigh, secre- 
tary; Mrs. Irby S. Walker, Greensboro, treasurer; M. A. 
Morgan, Raleigh, director of field services; and L. A. Mc- 
Innis, Florence, S. C, fleldman. 

Members of the board of directors include J. Henry 
Vaughan, R-l, Elm City, chairman; J. E. Winslow, Green- 
ville, N. C; P. N. Taylor, White Plains; Thomas W. Allen 
Creedmoor; Claude T. Hall, Roxboro; W. S. Adkisson, Jr. 
Clover, Va.; Melville Bennett, Clio, S. C; Abe T. Minchew 
Axon, Ga. ; W. W. Singletary, Lake City, S. C. ; Claude B 
Strickland, Winston-Salem; J. S. Ficklen, Greenville, N. C. ; 
H. W. Jackson, Jr., Richmond, Va. ; Gordon C. Hunter, Rox- 
boro; Tom F. Bridgers, Wilson, and Judson H. Blount, 
Greenville, N. C. 

Tobacco Associates was financed at its beginning by vol- 
untary contributions from growers, warehousemen, leaf 
dealers, bankers, merchants, and fertilizer manufacturers, 
who fostered its organization. In North Carolina the first 
year, the farmer's part was raised through county units of 
the Farm Bureau and the Grange. Later in North and 
South Carolina enabling acts were passed by the State Legis- 
latures permitting growers to vote to assess themselves 10 
cents per acre to continue their support. The states of 
Virginia and Georgia have since passed similar acts. 

In addition to helping to finance the operation of the 
organization, warehousemen perform the very valuable serv- 
ice of collecting from the growers the 10 cents per acre 
assessment when the tobacco is marketed. 

The membership of Tobacco Associates is made up of rep- 
resentatives of the various groups responsible for its organ- 
ization: Farm organizations (all states) 200 members; 
warehousemen, 50; export leaf dealers, 50; bankers, 25; 
fertilizer manufacturers, 25; and merchants, 25, making a 
total of 3 75 delegated members, who are appointed yearly 
by the respective groups. The delegated membership, at 
their annual meetings elect a 15-member Board of Directors. 
Each supporting group is entitled to one board member for 
each 2 5 delegated members. 


Representatives of the organization felt indeed fortunate] 
in being able to obtain the services of J. B. Hutson, Wash- 
ington D. C, a former Under Secretary of Agriculture and! 
a man thoroughly experienced with tobacco matters both| 
here at home and abroad, to head the organization as presi- 

The Marshall Plan for aid to European countries came[< 
about shortly after the formation of Tobacco Associates! 
and if we had not had a man of the caliber of Mr. Hutsonl 
at the head of the organization, our efforts to have tobacco! 
included in the Marshall Plan shipments to foreign coun-| 
tries would have been much less effective. Through him,| 
with his invaluable contacts among governmental and to-I 
bacco trade agencies in the United States and abroad, to-1 
bacco was given a definite place in the list of commodities! 
European countries were allowed to import. 


Tobacco Associates maintains an office in Washington^ 
through which periodic studies are made of all trade policies 
and legislation that affects foreign trade, especially tobacccH 
trade. Surveys are also constantly made in foreign counf 
tries to determine problems and policies that affect ouiS 
tobacco. Representatives of the organization also wort] 
with foreign manufacturers, dealers, merchants and otheifl 
agencies to keep abreast of the ever changing conditions. 

The organization cooperates with all government agenj 
cies and departments charged with any responsibility foil 
developing, handling or promoting the export trade of th<| 
United States, and in particular the export of flue-curec] 

Summer-fall, i 951 


PAGE 1 1 1 

tobacco, and cooperates with responsible heads of all such 
departments and agencies in an effort to expand further 
and more fully the export market for these products. In 
addition, Tobacco Associates provides a medium of informa- 
tion for tobacco growers and the tobacco trade generally 
as to developments in foreign markets as affecting the export 
of American flue-cured tobacco and examines and studies 
national policies at the time they are being formulated and 
advises tobacco growers and the tobacco trade as to the prob- 
able effect of these policies on foreign trade in general and 
on tobacco exports in particular. 


A look at the total exports of flue-cured tobacco from the 
United States and the percentage of these totals that Eng- 
land and China — long the two leading users of United States 
grown flue-cured tobacco — have taken as compared with 
all other countries will show some definite results of the 
work that has been done on export markets. Prom 193 5 
to 193 9, the average total of flue-cured tobacco exports 
from the United States was 359,196,000 pounds, with Eng- 
land taking 5 4 percent of the total, China nine percent, and 
all other countries 37 percent. 

The 1940-46 average was 353,431,000 pounds with Eng- 
land taking 60 percent; China five percent, and all other 
countries 35 percent. In 1947 with 459,399,000 pounds 
exported, England took 4 2 percent, China six percent, and 
all other countries 52 percent. In 1948 with 383,410,000 
pounds exported, England again took 4 2 percent, China only 
two percent, and all other countries 5 6 percent. In 1949 
with 436,138,000 pounds exported, England's purchases 
dropped to 37 percent, China to .03 percent with 62.07 
percent going to other countries. 

These figures clearly indicate that even though England 
and China have found it necessary to reduce their pur- 
chases of American-grown tobacco, our flue-cured leaf ex- 
ports have increased. This has been due, of course, to the 
work done in helping other countries secure our tobacco 
to meet the demands of the people in those countries who 
desire it. 


An outstanding example of this work can be seen in the 
purchases of our tobacco made by Germany. Prior to 1947, 
Germany used practically no United States flue-cured to- 
bacco. Studies of trends and consumer demands in Germany 
by Tobacco Associates showed a strong preference for our 
tobacco. German manufacturers were willing to change 
their blends to meet these demands. Tobacco Associates 
brought this to the attention of the proper authorities and 
was able to help work out a program whereby flue-cured 
tobacco was shipped to Germany. Now Germany is the 
second largest user of our leaf. And through this program 
the Stabilization Corporation is also able to move large 
quantities of its takings. 

Through the development of new markets in other coun- 
tries, we have been able to more than offset Great Britain's 
fewer purchases. This means that our export market is 
now on a much broader base and that we are no longer so 
dependent upon any one country for the sale of our tobacco. 


Promoting and developing export markets for our flue- 
cured tobacco remains a continuous job. Foreign taxation 
policies, government monopoly practices of many foreign 
countries, and difficulties in maintaining satisfactory trade 
relations between other countries and the United States 
have been major problems. 

Even though United States imports of all merchandise 
still is not as much as our exports, the improvement in the 
trade balance position of the United States was probably 
the most important single development in 1950 affecting 
the export of United States flue-cured leaf. The dollar 
position of many foreign countries has improved to the ex- 
tent that they are no longer required to search the non- 
dollar areas of the world for substitutes for the commodities 
desired and normally purchased from the United States. 


Another factor worthy of note is the expansion in pro- 
duction of flue-cured tobacco in foreign countries. Southern 
Rhodesia, which before World War II produced less than 
25 million pounds of flue-cured tobacco annually, harvested 
104 million pounds in 19 50 and has an expansion program 
underway to reach 140 million pounds in the next three or 

four years. India is also reported to be increasing the pro- 
duction and export of flue-cured tobacco, with the United 
Kingdom the major importer of the Indian leaf. 

In 19 50 Canada harvested about 50 percent more flue- 
cured leaf than in prewar, and reports indicate that a sub- 
stantial increase is planned in 1951. Canada now produces 
practically all the leaf used in that country and, for several 
years, has been exporting from 15 to 20 million pounds 
annually, most of which goes to the United Kingdom. Leaf 
tobacco from Canada, India and Southern Rhodesia is ac- 
corded lower rates of import duties by the United Kingdom 
and other British Commonwealth countries than leaf from 
the United States. 

In Turkey, production is now nearly double that of pre- 
war years. In Greece, production is approaching that of 
pre-war years. 


Since the trend in consumption is toward the cigarette 
types, however, most of these countries are experiencing 
difficulties in producing desirable types of tobacco, and are 
therefore finding it difficult to satisfy consumers with the 
domestically produced tobaccos "as they prefer the Ameri- 
can-grown leaf. But in addition to expanding their produc- 
tion, they are also concentrating on quality improvements 
in the tobacco they produce. 

Because of foreign exchange controls and tariff barriers, 
we do not have equal opportunities in some markets. There 
are still large competitive areas, however, and very little 
of this foreign tobacco could be sold in world markets in 
which the better qualities of tobacco grown in the United 
States are available. The shift from other tobacco products 
to cigarettes is continuing throughout the world. Tobacco 
of lemon color, porous texture, light body, low nicotine and 
high sugar content, and good burning qualities is sought 
for cigarettes. The market for other qualities of flue-cured 
tobacco is gradually disappearing. There is no doubt that 
it is to the best interest of United States producers to take 
advantage of all available information and every opportunity 
to increase the output of the desirable grades and decrease 
the output of the undesirable grades, thus capitalizing on 
our natural advantage of production, flavor and aroma. 


The effectiveness of Tobacco Associates work has been 
felt in all phases of the tobacco industry — production, mar- 
keting and distribution of United States-grown tobacco 
have profited by the program. The organization has ac- 
complished much in its four years of operation, but there 
is still a big job to do before every consumer who desires 
American-grown tobacco is permitted reasonably free access 
to it. 

Each year farmers have voted overwhelmingly for the 
assessment. So, for the small cost of 10 cents per acre paid 
each year by flue-cured tobacco farmers, together with 
yearly contributions by tobacco warehousemen, dealers, 
merchants, fertilizer manufacturers and bankers, Tobacco 
Associates, Inc. continues to serve the purpose for which it 
was organized — to create and maintain a continued market 
for our Golden Weed by the people of foreign countries 
who prefer it over all other tobaccos. 


(Continued from page 102) 
mother, Mrs. Mary Fries Patterson. His brother, 
the late Dr. Andrew H. Patterson, was dean of the 
University of North Carolina. 

Morehead Patterson, now chairman of the board 
of directors and president of American Machine and 
Foundry Co., is a native of Durham. 

W. Stanley Whitaker, who joined Liggett & Myers 
Tobacco Co. in the Leaf Department in Danville, 
Va., in 1928 and was in leaf and factory operations 
in Durham and Wilson, has been made general 
manager of the western territory of the company, 
embracing seven states and with headquarters at 
San Francisco, Calif. 

PAGE 1 1 2 


Summer-fall, i 951 

Association Regulates Marketing of Flue-Cured Tobacco 

By Fred S. Royster, Henderson, President, Bright Belt Warehouse Association, Inc. 


North Carolina, growing 67.6 percent of the na- 
tion's bright flue-cured leaf tobacco and a relatively 
small amount of burley in the mountain area, has 
in 47 of her communities about 300 auction sales 
tobacco warehouses with 17,000,000 square feet of 
sales space. Of the 1950 crop these warehouses 
sold 850,000,000 pounds of tobacco for $475,000,- 
000. List of the warehouses, by belts and communi- 
ties, follows : 


Burlington — Cobles, Farmers and Carolina. 

Greensboro — Greensboro 1 & 2 and Guilford County. 

Madison — Carolina, New Brick, Big Star, Planters and 
Sharpe & Smith. 

Mebane — Farmers, Piedmont and Planters. 

Mt. Airy — Simmons, Va. -Carolina, Nichols, Liberty and 
Planters & Jones. 

Reidsville — Brown's, Farmers, Leader, Watts and Smoth- 

Roxboro — Hyco, Planters, Pioneer, Farmers and Win- 

Stoneville — Brown's, Farmers, Slate Bros. 1 & 2 and 

Winston-Salem — Glenn's & Banner, Brown's, Carolina, 
Planters, Liberty, Pepper's, Piedmont, Taylor's 1 & 2, Dixie 
and Farmers. 


Aberdeen — Planters, Aberdeen, and New Aberdeen. 

Carthage — McConnell's and Smothers Bros. 1 & 2. 

Durham — Liberty, Planters, Mangum's 1 & 2, Star Brick, 
Star and Roycroft's 1 & 2. 

Ellerbe — Richmond Co. and Farmers. 

Fuquay Springs — Varina Brick 1 & 2, Southside, Central 
1 & 2, Farmers, Talley Bros., Planters and New Deal. 

Henderson — Banner, High Price, Carolina-Cooper's, Farm- 
ers, Planters and Liberty. 

Louisburg — Southside, Planters and Union. 

Oxford — Banner, Mitchell, Farmers-Mangum, Fleming's 

1 & 2, Owen's 1 & 2, Planters and Johnson's. 

Sanford — Wilkins, Big Sanford, 3-W 1 & 2 and Farmers. 
Warrenton — Boyd's, Centre, Farmers and Currins. 


Ahoskie — Basnight and Farmers. 

Clinton — Bass, Big Sampson, Carolina, Centre, Ross No. 

2 and Farmers. 

Dunn — Big 4-Country, Farmers and Growers. 

Farmville — Bell's, Monk's 1 & 2', Planters, Farmers and 

Goldsboro — Tin, Victory, Carolina and Farmers 1 & 2. 

Greenville — Cannon's, Dixie, Center Brick, Keel Planters 
Cooperative Inc., Smith & Sugg, Gold Leaf, Star 1 & 2, 
Morton's, Empire, New Carolina 1 & 2, Victory, Farmers, 
Growers, Harris Rogers and McGowan's. 

Kinston — Brooks, Central, Eagle, New Carolina, Farmers, 
Sheppard's 1 & 2, Knott's, The Star, Knott's New, New Dixie, 
Planters, Inc., Tapp's and Kinston Cooperative. 

Robersonville — Adkins & Bailey, Planters 1 & 2 and Red 

Rocky Mount — Cobb & Foxhall 1 & 2, Farmers, Fenner's, 
Inc. 1 & 2, Mangum's 1 & 2, Tobacco Planters, Inc. 1 & 2 
& 3, Works, Easley's and Smith's 1 & 2. 

Smithfield — Big Planters, Little Dixie, Gold Leaf 1 & 2, 
Perkins Riverside, Wallace 1, 2 & 3, Farmers 1 & 2 and 
Dixie Growers. 

Tarboro — Clark's 1 & 2, Victory 1 & 2, and Farmers 1 
& 2. 

Wallace — Hussey's 1 & 3 and Blanchard & Farrior. 

Washington — Knott's, Sermon's 1 & 2 and Gravely's. 

The Bright Belt Warehouse Association, Inc., was 
organized April 12, 1945. It is a trade association 
representing all flue-cured tobacco warehousemen 
in the States of Florida, George, South Carolina, 
North Carolina, and Virginia. 

The Association is governed by a Board of Gov- 
ernors consisting of 36 members, six members from 
each of the flue-cured tobacco belts. The present 
officials are: president, F. S. Royster, Henderson; 
vice president, W. Wesley Singletary, Lake City, 
S. C. ; secretary and treasurer, Guy E. Barnes,] 
Rocky Mount, N. C. 

The objectives of the Association are to promul- 
gate rules and regulations for the orderly market- 
ing of the flue-cured tobacco crop, to cooperate with 
farm organizations and other groups interested in 
the tobacco industry for the continuation and pro- 
tection of the present flue-cured tobacco program 
upon which the well being of the tobacco industry 
is dependent. 

Since the warehouseman provides the marketing 
agency for all flue-cured tobacco, the maintenance 
of marketing conditions fair to both buyer and 
seller is of the utmost importance. This the Bright I 
Belt Warehouse Association is endeavoring to do. 

The success of the flue-cured tobacco program! 
and the healthy condition of the industry during re- 1 
cent years is attributable to close cooperation be-i 
tween the component parts of the tobacco industry]! 
The Bright Belt Warehouse Association, realizini 
this fully, desires to make its contribution towards| 
the continued success of the tobacco program. 

Nineteen of the 36 members of the Board of Govjj 
ernors of the Bright Belt Warehouse Association 
Inc., are residents of North Carolina. The lisl 
follows: T. A. Jones, Mount Airy; H. M. Bouldin 
Winston— Salem ; John S. Watkins, Oxford; A. L 
Carver, Durham; Fred S. Royster, Henderson; G 
E. Smith, Reidsville; C. E. Ford, Louisburg; W. F| 
Wood, Sanford; A. R. Talley, Fuquay Springs; W| 
B. Falkner, Rocky Mount; Dixon Wallace, Smith 
field; J. C. Eagles, Jr., Wilson; Joseph H. Bryant] 
Clarkton ; George Knott, Kinston ; J. C. Carltonfi 
Farmville; B. B. Sugg, Greenville; J. E. Johnsonj 
Lumberton; Frank Davis, Fairmont; and R. E. Will 
kins, Lumberton. 

Wendell — Farmers, Northside, Planters, Producers Co| 
operative Assoc, Inc., Star and Banner. 

Williamston — Farmers-Carolina 1 & 2, Planters and 
Roanoke Dixie. 

Wilson — Big Dixie Sales Co., Inc., Big Star, Carolina! 
Wainwright's, Inc., Centre 1, 2 & 3, Clark's, New Planter!] 
1 & 2, Watson's 1 & 2, Smith's A,B,C, Growers Cooperaj 
tive Inc., Banner and Farmers. 

Windsor — Farmers. 


Chadbourn — New Brick, Carters 1 & 2 and Myers. 
Clarkton — Banner, Bright Leaf, Big "L", Brick, Bi 
"5" and New Bladen. 

(Continued on page 121) 

Summer-fall, i 95 1 


PAGE 1 1 3 

About 100 Leaf Processing Plants in N. C. Market Towns 

North Carolina, dominate in two important 
phases of tobacco for about a century — growing 
bright leaf tobacco and manufacturing tobacco prod- 
ucts — is thus active in all phases from growing to 
manufacturing. Operation of tobacco sales ware- 
houses and processing plants, involving stemming 
and redrying, have long been important activities. 

Processing plants not only handle leaf tobacco 
for domestic companies but also prepare enormous 
quantities for the export trade. R. J. Reynolds 
Tobacco Co. and the American Suppliers, represent- 
ing the American Tobacco Co., buy and process for 
their own firms. Imperial and Export Leaf To- 
bacco Co. purchase leaf for export to England and 
other foreign countries. Numerous other buying 
and processing firms handle leaf for both the do- 
mestic and the export trade. Among these are 
Dibrell Brothers, Inc., Danville, which has asso- 
ciate firms on most of North Carolina's leaf tobacco 
market cities, the Universal Tobacco Co. of Rich- 
mond, and others. 

Firms engaged in buying and processing leaf to- 
bacco on the various markets of the State by towns 
and cities include the following: 

OXFORD— W. A. Adams Co., Inc., A. S. Ballou 
& Co., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Export Leaf To- 
bacco Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

DURHAM — American Suppliers Inc., Central 
Leaf Tobacco Co., Inc., Flower Brothers, Liggett & 
Myers Tobacco Co., W. L. Robinson Co., Inc., The 
Venable Tobacco Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco 
Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

WINSTON-SALEM— J. E. Bohannon Co., Brown 
& Williamson Tobacco Corp., Piedmont Leaf Tobacco 
Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Taylor Broth- 
ers, Inc., Winston Leaf Tobacco & Storage Co., Inc., 
Export Leaf Tobacco Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., 

SMITHFIELD— Bright Leaf & Burley Tobacco 
Co., Inc. 

FUQUAY SPRINGS— Brown Tobacco Co., North 
State Tobacco Co., Inc. 

REIDSVILLE— J. H. Burton & Co., Inc., Carolina 
Virginia Tobacco Co., Inc., Reidsville Tobacco Co., 
Inc., American Suppliers, Inc. 

ROXBORO— Central Leaf Tobacco Co., Inc., 
Reidsville Tobacco Co., Inc. 

ROCKY MOUNT— China-American Tobacco Co., 
G. R. Garrett Co., Inc., W. B. Lea Tobacco Co., Inc., 
Maus & Company, Inc., Thorpe & Ricks, Inc., R. J. 
Reynolds Tobacco Co., Export Leaf Tobacco Co., 
The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

WILSON— W. T. Clark & Co., Jas. I. Miller Tobac- 
co Co., Inc., Standard Redryers, Inc., R. P. Watson 
& Co., Inc., Whitehead & Anderson, Inc., Wilson To- 
bacco Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Export 
Leaf Tobacco Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

KINSTON— T. H. Covington, Dealer Leaf Tob., 
V. C. Dickenson, Dixie Leaf Tobacco Co., Inc., L. B. 
Jenkins Tobacco Co., Inc., Kinston Tobacco Co., E. 
V. Webb & Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., Ex- 
port Leaf Tobacco Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., 

FARMVILLE— Farmville Leaf Tobacco Co., Inc., 
A. C. Monk & Co., Inc., Scott & Bright Tobacco Co. 

GREENVILLE— E. B. Ficklen Tobacco Co., Inc., 
Greenville Tobacco Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco 
Co., Person-Garrett Co., Inc., Export Leaf Tobacco 
Co., The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

ROBERSONVILLE— The Fields Tobacco Co., Inc. 

RALEIGH — Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative Sta- 
bilization Corp. 

GOLDSBORO— Goldsboro Tobacco Co., Inc., J. 
P. Taylor Co., Inc., Wallbrook Tobacco Co., Inc. 

HENDERSON— The Henderson Tobacco Co., Inc., 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., J. P. Taylor Co., Inc. 

FAIRMONT — International Planters Corp., Per- 
son-Garrett Co., Inc., R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 
The Imperial Tobacco Co., Ltd. 

LUMBERTON— Interstate Tobacco Co., Inc., 
Person-Garrett Co., Inc., J. B. Rountree & Co., White- 
head & Anderson, Inc. 

WILLIAMSTON— King Tobacco Co., W. I. Skin- 
ner & Co., Inc. 

NEW BERN— A. C. Monk & Co., Inc. 

WENDELL— Monk-Henderson Tobacco Co., Inc., 
Renfro Leaf Tobacco Co., Inc. 

ASHEVILLE— Mountain Burley Tobacco Co. 

FAYETTEVILLE— Reidsville Tobacco Co., Inc. 

SANFORD— Sanford Tobacco Co. 

WASHINGTON— Washington Tobacco Co., Inc. 

WHITEVILLE— Whiteville Tobacco Co., Inc. 

GREENSBORO— R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. 


An interesting incident in connection with the 
sale of the Blackwell Tobacco Co., maker of Bull 
Durham smoking tobacco, to the Union Tobacco 
Co., composed largely of Wall Street financiers, 
and the sale of this firm soon after to the rela- 
tively new American Tobacco Co., is a matter of 
record. A North Carolina lawyer owned one share 
of the Blackwell stock, par value of $25, market 
value at that time of $16.50. This lawyer let it 
be known that he as a minority stockholder was 
ready to bring suit to try to prevent the sale. He 
was visited by an important American Tobacco 
Co. official and after a long conference, his one 
little share of stock was sold for $5,000. This prob- 
ably prevented an injunction and receivership and 
allowed the sale to the American Tobacco Co. 

Page 1 1 4 


Summer-fall, i 95 1 

Amendments in 1951 Increase Benefits, Reduce Taxes 

By W. D. Holoman, Chief Counsel, ESC 

The Employment Security Law was amended in 
several respects by the 1951 Legislature. Most of 
the changes were recommended by the State Advis- 
ory Council and by the Employment Security Com- 
mission on which there are representatives of em- 
ployers, employees and the general public. Some of 
the changes were material ; others were of an ad- 
ministrative nature which will enable the Commis- 
sion to administer the law better and were brought 
about through experience and study. 

North Carolina employers will save approximately 
three and one-half million dollars during the calen- 
dar year of 1951 and unemployed workers will enjoy 
additional benefits of approximately the same amount 
during 1951 as a result of the recent amendments. 
The estimate, in respect to the savings by employers, 
is based upon payrolls for the year 1950 and the esti- 
mate in respect to increased benefits to workers is 
based on an annual benefit payment activity in the 
same volume as prevailed for the period from Octo- 
ber 1950 to February 1951 which is approximately 
60% of the payment experience for the calendar 
year of 1950. 

These savings to employers will result from a 
revision of the experience rating formula or schedule 
by providing a lower rate class for each of the rate 
groups with the exception of the standard rate class 
of 2.7 per cent which is fixed by Federal conformity 
requirements. Rates are varied with relation to 
the past employment experience of each eligible 
employer over a period of three years, and the varia- 
tion of an employer's tax rate by these methods is 
known as "experience rating." The avowed objec- 
tives of experience rating are the prevention of 
unemployment by inducing employers to stabilize 
their operations and the allocation of the social costs 
of unemployment to the individual business concerns 
responsible for those costs. 

The average contribution rate effective in North 
Carolina in 1950 was 1.55 per cent. Had the new 
formula been effective in 1950, the average rate 
would have been approximately 1.22 per cent, thus 
placing North Carolina in a better relationship as to 
the National average and with neighboring states. 
It appears that the average North Carolina rate for 
1951 for those eligible employers will be approxi- 
mately 1.42 per cent which is somewhat higher than 
the 1.22 rate derived from the application of the 
revised schedule to the 1950 computation payroll 
data, but economic factors which account for the rise 
in this State will likely alter the rate pattern equally 
as much, if not more, in each of the other states. 

During 1950, the North Carolina reserve fund had 
one of the highest degrees of solvency of any state 
in the nation in relation to its contingent liability. 
The State Advisory Council, the Employment Secur- 
ity Commission and those of us administering the 

program felt that we could safely further reduce the 
rate of contributions and also increase benefits to 
unemployed workers without endangering the solv- 
ency of the fund. The savings are distributed to 
approximately 8,172 employers who presently enjoy 
a rate reduction. 

Eligible unemployed workers will be entitled to 
additional benefits because of the revision of the 
benefit schedule or formula, the elimination of the 
waiting period requirements and the extension of 
the duration of benefits for those workers with pro- 
longed unemployment. Prior to the recent amend- 
ments, payments to totally unemployed individuals 
started with the second week of unemployment or 
with the third week if partially unemployed. In 
cases of total unemployment, the payment normally 
reached the claimant sometime during the third 
week following separation; and in cases of partial 
unemployment, during the fourth week following 
separation. Under the law as now amended, no 
waiting period is required and a claimant will re- 
ceive payment for his first week of unemployment. 
Therefore, the completion of the first week in a bene- 
fit year for which an eligible claim is filed, now be- 
comes the first compensable week. 

The benefit schedule or formula was revised by the 
amendments to provide that the qualifying wage 
during the base period was raised from $200.00 to 
$250.00. The latter figure represents the minimum 
annual earnings necessary during the base period 
for a claimant to qualify for benefits. The minimum 
annual qualifying earnings of $250.00, therefore, 
yields a $7.00 minimum weekly benefit payment in- 
stead of a $6.00 minimum payment which existed 
prior to the amendments. Maximum weekly pay- 
ments are increased from $25.00 to $30.00 per week 
for individuals earning $3000.00 or more per year. 

It is estimated that the revised formula will yield 
an average weekly payment of $17.02 as compared 
with an average payment of $15.68 prior to the 
amendments. As a result, payments to North Caro- 
lina's unemployed will bear a close relationship to 
the Nation's average payment, taking into account 
variations in wage scales prevailing. The maximum 
benefit is based on the full annual taxable wage of 
$3000.00 instead of the first $2500.00 under the law 
prior to the amendments. 

The amendments likewise extended the duration 
of benefits from 20 to 26 weeks. About half of the 
states now provide more than 20 weeks protection 
to unemployed workers experiencing prolonged un- 
employment; more than a fourth offer protection 
for 26 weeks. During 1949, a year of more than 
average unemployment, only about 30 percent of the 
unemployed workers used all benefit rights; thus, 
it is estimated that this provision will affect less 
than a third of all claimants. 

Summer-fall, i 95 1 


PAGE 115 

The fund, even with these changes, will remain 
adequately solvent to take care of any and all con- 

Another amendment was adopted in which em- 
ployers will be interested. Under the law, prior to 
this amendment, an employing unit which, as an 
example, during the year 1946 worked eight or more 
people in employment, but inadvertently failed to 
report such fact to the Commission and who was 
discovered by a representative of the commission 
during the year 1950, would become liable for the 
years 1946, 1947, 1948, 1949 and 1950 even though 
such employing unit did not work as many as eight 
individuals in any year other than during 1946. 
This worked a hardship upon some small employers 
who unintentionally and unknowingly failed to re- 
port their coverage and who, therefore, did not 
apply for termination of coverage as provided for 
in the statutes. 

The amendment referred to expands the condi- 
tions under which an employer may terminate cov- 
erage and is designed to provide a means of pro- 
tection for the employer who inadvertently fails 
to report his coverage to the Commission or who 
is not discovered by the Commission for a period 
of several years. Under the provisions of the 
amendment an employer who became subject to 
the Act, as an example, in 1946 and who has not 
worked as many as eight individuals in as many 
as 20 weeks in any year since that date and who 
was not discovered by the Commission until 1951, 
may terminate coverage effective January 1, 1948 
by filing a written application for termination of 
coverage or protest within 90 days from the date 
that he is notified of his liability. In such case, he 
would not be compelled to pay taxes for the years 
1948, 1949 and 1950 but could be relieved and only 
required to pay for two years, which is the mini- 
mum years of coverage provided by the law. This 
provision does not, however, apply to those em- 
ployers who willfully and intentionally attempt 
to evade the payment of contributions under the 

A further amendment was adopted for the pur- 
pose of eliminating the possibility of double taxa- 
tion brought about by reason of an interpretation 
of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act which was 
contrary to an interpretation of the State Employ- 
ment Security Law. In certain instances, the Fed- 
eral Act has been interpreted so that an "em- 
ployee" under the Employment Security Law of 
this State, is an "independent contractor" under 
the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and, there- 
fore, an "employer" under that Act, provided such 
individual or contractor had the requisite number 
of individuals in employment for the requisite 
number of weeks in a calendar year. 

Under such circumstances, the Commission is 
required to collect contributions on the wages earn- 
3d by such individual, agent or employee as well as 
;hose individuals employed to assist him in the per- 
formance of the work for the principal ; whereas, the 

Federal authorities require that individual or con- 
tractor to pay taxes under the Federal Unemploy- 
ment Tax Act as an "employer" on the remuneration 
received by those individuals assisting him in per- 
forming the services. Therefore, in these cases, 
there was actually double taxation for the same 
services. The amendment is for the purpose of pre- 
venting the assessment and collection of contribu- 
tions under the North Carolina Law from a principal 
employing unit, provided the agent or employee is 
an "employer" subject to the provisions of the Fed- 
eral Unemployment Tax Act and liable for contri- 
butions thereunder. 

Another amendment was adopted which further 
liberalizes the law by extending the period of time 
in which an employer may protest his contribution 
rate and request a recomputation of such rate, due 
to erroneous charges or other reasons. Under the 
law prior to the amendment, an employer's contribu- 
tion rate became final unless there was a protest 
within 30 days from the date that the rate became 
effective. All rates are effective January 1 of a 
calendar year, therefore, an employer's rate became 
final unless a protest was made by January 31 of a 
calendar year. The amendment provides that an 
employer may protest his rate at any time prior to 
May first following the effective day of such rate. 

The time within which an employer make make 
a voluntary contribution has been extended. Under 
the law an employer is permitted to make a volun- 
tary contribution for the purpose of affecting his 
rate during the next calendar year. Prior to the 
amendments, the contribution was required to be 
made within 10 days after the Commission mailed 
to such employer the statement of charges for the 
quarter ending July 31. Under such circumstances, 
an employer did not have a composite statement 
showing the balance of his reserve account, state- 
ment of credits thereto, charges against such ac- 
count or a computation of his rate for the next year. 

The amendment will permit an employer to make 
a voluntary contribution within 15 days after the 
mailing of the notification of the rate for the follow- 
ing year which is contained in a statement showing 
his reserve account balance, his statement of credits, 
and the charges to his reserve account. (The em- 
ployer can easily determine from such statement 
whether a voluntary contribution will be to his 
advantage.) The employer will have before him 
all of the necessary information upon which an 
accurate computation can be made so that he can 
determine whether a voluntary contribution will 
be to his best interest, and if so, the amount of such 
contribution necessary to secure a lower rate. 

A further amendment which was adopted pro- 
vides that the Commission may, within its discre- 
tion, withhold the issuance of an execution for a 
period not exceeding 180 days after the docketing 
of a judgment against an employer. Under the law 
as it existed prior to the amendment, the Commis- 
sion had no right or authority to extend the time 
of payment of contributions or to withhold the issu- 

PAGE 1 1 6 



ance of an execution after a judgment had been 
docketed. This was found to have caused undue 
hardships in certain cases, and although the Com- 
mission is still required to docket a judgment when 
contributions are unpaid, after an employer has 
been given notice of the delinquency, it would not, 
under the amended law, be mandatory for the Com- 
mission to issue an execution immediately on such 

The Commission is making every effort possible 
to combat and prevent fraud in connection with the 
Employment Security Program in North Carolina. 
A special Fraud Detection Unit has been estab- 
lished within the framework of the agency, and 
claimants who are detected or suspected of being 
guilty of fraud, are being prosecuted. An amend- 
ment was adopted which makes it a misedemeanor 
for an individual, who is filing a claim for bene- 
fits in this State against another State, to make 
a false statement or representation knowing the 
same to be false, or who knowingly fails to dis- 
close a material fact to obtain benefits. Hereto- 
fore, when a claimant filed a claim for benefits in 
this State against another State and made false 
statements or misrepresentations for the purpose 
of drawing benefits against such other state, he 
could not be prosecuted in either this State or the 
other State. 

Under the amendment referred to, such claim- 
ant may be prosecuted in this State for making 
false statements or misrepresentations, even 
though he is filing for benefits against another 
State. It is understood that many of the other 
states are adopting comparable legislation which 
will permit those states to prosecute a claimant in 
those states who makes a false statement or mis- 
representation for the purpose of drawing bene- 
fits against North Carolina. 

The law was also amended to authorize specific- 
ally an adjustment in the account of a claimant 
who filed in another State against the State of 
North Carolina and has received benefits from 

the North Carolina fund by reason of a willful 
misrepresentation or a failure to disclose a mate- 
rial fact in connection with his eligibility for bene- 
fits, and as a result, has received benefits. The stat- 
ute was also amended so that a person who has know- 
ingly made a false statement or misrepresentation 
to obtain or increase any benefit under the Employ- 
ment Security Law, shall not be entitled to receive 
benefits for the remainder of any benefit year during 
which he has made such misrepresentation or false 

That section of the law which provided an ap- 
propriation by this State in the amount of $75,000.00 
annually to be used in carrying on the functions of 
the Employment Service Division of the Commission 
was repealed. Such section was originally written 
into the Employment Security Law in accordance 
with a provision of the Wagner-Peyser Act which 
required the various states, in order to secure grants 
for the maintenance of employment offices, to match 
federal funds appropriated for that purpose. Such 
provision in the Wagner-Peyser Act was repealed 
on September 8, 1950 and, therefore, since the re- 
peal of the section of the North Carolina law here- 
inabove referred to, the Federal Government now 
bears all of those costs. 

Another amendment was adopted excluding from 
the definition of employment, all services performed 
by newsboys selling or distributing newspapers or 
magazines on the street or from house to house, re- 
gardless of the age of the individuals performing 
those services. Under the law prior to the amend- j 
ment, only such services performed by individuals 
under the age of 18 were exempt. 

Certain other amendments were adopted, however, 
they were technical or administrative. 

It is felt that the amendments liberalized the Act 
considerably both from the standpoint of employers 
and employees. It is also felt that the law has been 
considerably clarified and has been made much more) 

Experience Rating Gives Added Saving of $3,500,000 

By Hugh M. Raper, Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

Unemployment compensation benefits are financed 
by means of contributions collected on taxable wages 
of covered employers. The normal or standard em- 
ployer tax rate is 2.7 percent of taxable wages. The 
Federal Unemployment Tax Act, however, permits 
States with "pooled funds" to vary this rate for in- 
dividual employers if such variation is based on not 
less than three years of experience bearing a direct 
relation to unemployment risk. Rate variation pur- 
suant to this provision of the Federal Act is known 
as experience rating. 

There are a great variety of experience rating 
provisions among the States. North Carolina along 

with 28 other States (in 1950) uses the reserve ratio 
plan. With this type formula, an employer's unem- 
ployment experience is measured by the ratio of his 
reserve — broadly cumulative contributions less bene- 
fit charges — to taxable payroll for a base period. A| 
high reserve ratio indicates favorable experience 
with unemployment and qualifies an employer for 
lower contribution rates. The rates of contribution 
in North Carolina vary from .10 to 2.7 of the tax 
able payroll. 


The unemployment trust fund balance as of MarcrL 
31, 1951, was $165,250,720. In the two-year periocf 



PAGE 1 1 7 

atween April 1, 1949, and March 31, 1951, there 
as a net gain of more than $9,260,000 in the fund 
alance as the result of contributions collected and 
iterest earned on the fund exceeding benefit pay- 
lents. During this same two-year period benefit 
ayments exceeded $35,000,000. 

The Fund solvency seemed assured with the fund 
l excess of $165,000,000, particularly since the 
ross payments in the 13-year period (1938-1950) 
'ere less than $80,000,000. 

As an outgrowth of the study of the financial struc- 
lre in terms of contributions, rates, and benefit pay- 
tents, changes in the experience rating plan and 
le benefit schedule were submitted for considera- 
on by the 1951 General Assembly. 

This study of the experience rating reflects the 
isult of legislative changes made by the 1951 Gen- 
ial Assembly in connection with rate schedules but 
le changes in the benefit formula do not enter into 
lis computation. Had no legislative action been 
iken, the rates assigned would have been appre- 
ably higher because of general economic factors, 
he Employment Security Commission and its State 
dvisory Council developed and proposed to the 1951 
eneral Assembly certain amendments which modi- 
ed the formula for deriving employer contribution 
ites. The revised schedule was constructed so as 
) maintain the same ratio requirements contained 
i the 1949 amended Act but permits lower rates 
)r each ratio class above the 2.5 percent qualifying 
itio prescribed by Federal standards. 

The over-all effect of the revised formula is to 
ive lower rates while maintaining the safeguard 
1 adequate reserve ratios. The decrease in rates, 

is estimated, will more than offset rate increases 
lat would have been inevitable because of the opera- 
on of economic factors. 

The "recessionary" period in mid-year 1949 and 
le first half of 1950 had a measurable effect on the 
sperience rating computation made for 1951. The 
ivel of employment dropped from an average month- 
' total of 651,000 in the third quarter of 1948 to 
92,000 in the second quarter of 1949. Unemploy- 
lent was at the highest level since the 1938-1940 
eriod. Benefit charges made against accumulated 
sserves entering into the 1950 computation amount- 
I to about $13,000,000 and those entering into the 
951 computation exceeded $19,500,000. Even 
lough it is beyond the scope of this study, it is well 
) point out that the effect of the heavy charges, 
ithout formula modification, would have produced 
n average contribution rate of 1.69 and required 
bout $3,500,000 more in contribution payments 
'om employers. 

The estimated average contribution rate for the 
dendar year 1951 is expected to be 1.42 percent, 
2., contributions for the average employer will be 
imputed by multiplying the taxable portion of the 
lyroll by 1.42 instead of the 1.55 rate applicable for 
)50. Thus, the net effect of the revised formula is 

to overcome the effect of the larger charges against 
reserves prior to computation and give an 8.4 percent 
further reduction in average rate, or said in another 
way, the average rate in 1951 is about 16 percent 
lower than it would have been had the formula not 
been changed. 

1951 SAVINGS $16,500,000 

A significant measure of the real meaning of the 
plan of experience rating is shown by the fact that 
for the 8,172 employers earning a rate reduction, the 
average rate is .695 instead of the over-all State-wide 
average of 1.42. The total saving through experi- 
ence rating to the 8,172 employers as a result of the 
application of experience rating plan amounts to 
almost $16,500,000, a saving through reduced rates 
averaging $2,009 for each qualifying employer. 

The schedule of contribution rates applicable to 
1951 payrolls ranges from .10 percent to 2.70 percent 
of the taxable payroll. 

Under the amended schedule, three times as many 
employers (1667 employers) qualified for the lowest 
rate, .10 percent, as did in the 1950 computation. In 
1950 about three-eighths of the rated accounts were 
assigned a rate of less than one percent; in this 
computation five-eighths qualified for a rate of less 
than one percent. 

Despite the over-all decline in average rate, it is 
significant to note that 1,213 firms with reduced 
rates in 1950 had higher rates assigned for 1951. 
This rise in some rates reflected the influence in some 
instances of benefit charges, and in other cases, of 
higher payroll levels for the three years entering 
into the computation. 

The unrated accounts, those not having payroll 
experience for three calendar years — declined from 
1,629 in 1950 to 1,571 in the computation for 1951. 
In addition, the 2.7 standard rate was assigned to 
3,018 rated accounts which failed to meet the reserve 
ratio requirements or the test with respect to reserve 
in terms of multiples of benefit charges. Actually 
almost 36 percent of all rated accounts retain the 
2.7 rate for 1951, and these employers, oddly enough, 
have 36 percent of the State's taxable payroll. 

There were 3,018 accounts that were rated but 
because of benefit charges against reserves, delin- 
quency in payment of contributions and similar fac- 
tors, these firms failed to have sufficient reserve bal- 
ance to qualify for a reduced rate. An analysis 
made of these accounts indicates that size of firm 
is not a controlling factor in experience rating ; how- 
ever, the 1951 computation shows a greater propor- 
tion of ineligible accounts in the $100,000 and over 
payroll class than is found in any previous computa- 

In a detailed study the rated accounts are classi- 
fied according to major industry and rate class. The 
number of rated accounts increased by 606 from the 
1950 study. The gain in the number of rated ac- 
counts is distributed generally among the major 
groups, e.g., Construction, 8.6% ; Trade, 6.5% ; Serv- 

PAGE 1 1 8 


Summer-fall, 1.951 

ice, 6% ; Manufacturing, 3.4% ; and Transportation, 
Communication and Utilities, 4.2%. 

The tabular arrangement in this detailed study 
shows that some variations are found in the rate 
pattern in different major industries. 

It is shown that in every principal group, the num- 
ber of accounts assigned the minimum rate of .10 
nearly trebled the number in 1950 ; the number of 
accounts with a rate under 1.0 likewise increased by 

80 percent; but paradoxically, the number of rated 
accounts failing to qualify for reduced rates increas- 
ed by a fourth. The new schedule had the effect of 
giving lower rates to those accounts whose reserve 
ratios exceeded 2.5 percent and the result was a re- 
duction in the number of accounts with rates be- 
tween 1.0 and 2.7 from 4,264 to 1,175, a reduction of 
about 75 percent. 

Note: The more detailed study is available on request to 
the Commission. 

ESC Seeks Fill-in Work For Seasonal Tobacco Workers 

By Blanche Lancaster, Chief Occujmtional Analyst, ES Division, ESC 

Full utilization of seasonal workers has long been 
a problem of the Employment Security Commission. 
During World War II, at the request of Dr. J. S. 
Dorton, State War Manpower Director, the Occupa- 
tional Analysts prepared a statewide industry study 
entitled "Tobacco in North Carolina, Growing, 
Marketing, and Processing". This work was done 
to determine the skills of workers in the tobacco 
industry and to discover where these skills could 
be utilized in other industries, preferably those 
which would demand workers in the off-season of 
the tobacco industry. Another purpose of this study 
was to furnish local E. S. offices with occupational 
information on one of the major industries in this 

Most of the workers in this industry are non- 
white and a large percentage female. The men 
seem to be more able to pick up odd jobs in the off- 
season than the women. About the only job oppor- 
tunities for the latter are in domestic jobs. Few 
of them are trained for this type of work and rarely 
make good domestic workers. Most of them would 
prefer other types of work, if it were available. 

Approximately 100 different jobs were observed 
in 30 establishments in preparation of this study of 
the tobacco industry. In analyzing the skills of the 
workers in these jobs according to the Dictionary 
of Occupational Titles, 86 %> of them were classed 
as unskilled. However, further analysis showed 
that most of the jobs in the processing plants called 
for a fairly high degree of manual dexterity and 
eye-hand coordination. Comparable fields of work 
were found to be Simple Visual Inspecting, Simple 
Machine Operating or Tending, Equipment Serving, 
Miscellaneous Food Handling or Preparing, or any 
light elementary work. 

On a recent visit to two Eastern North Carolina 
towns it was learned that around 700 and 2000 of 
these workers, respectively, would be out of work 
from six to eight months due to the closing down 
of tobacco processing plants for the season. Some 
of these workers would not be re-employed next 
season due to technological changes or labor saving 
machinery installed in the meantime. This pool of 
available labor could be used by an industry six to 
eight months in the year. Some groups in Eastern 

North Carolina towns have hesitated to invite or 
encourage other industries to develop for fear of 
disturbing the labor supply of the tobacco com- 
panies which have depended upon these workers 
for a number of years. And in turn, the workers 
seem to enjoy this type of work and prefer it to 
any other. It pays well and provides a congenial 
atmosphere for large numbers working together 

This situation is serious enough in normal times 
but in a war-time economy all available manpowei 
is needed. Labor market figures show that severa 
thousand of these tobacco processing plant workers 
are out of work approximately 50% of the year 
It would seem that some off-season industry coulc 
be established to utilize these workers without up 
setting the already established tobacco industry 

Some industries to fit into this off-season patterr 
have been suggested — food processing such as can 
ning or freezing early vegetables, further process 
ing of peanuts, soy beans, grains or feed for farn 
animals. Others might be found. It is hoped tha 
some North Carolinian will come forward with th< 
necessary plans and funds to take up this lag ii 
our State's economy .- 

'Tobacco in North Carolina 
Processing", has proved t 
be of major interest not only to E. S. offices n 
North Carolina, but has been requested by 30 othe 
States and three foreign countries ; 49 tobacco com 
panies have requested copies for use of their per] 
sonnel, as well as 23 libraries outside the State. Th 
number of copies distributed to date totals 1547 
A limited number of copies still may be obtaine 
from the Employment Security Commission o 
North Carolina. 

Note: This study, 
Growing, Marketing, 


(Continued from page 107) 

vice-presidents ; L. T. Weeks, Raleigh, secretary an 
treasurer and general manager; W. T. Joyner, Ra 
eigh, general counsel; E. Y. Floyd, Raleigh, publi 
director, and other directors : T. W. Allen, Creec 
moor ; George Sockwell, Elon College ; W. W. Eagle 
Macclesfield; George L. Pate, Rowland, and J. 1 
Winslow, Greenville, N. C. 

,UMMER-FALL, 1951 


PAGE 1 1 9 

N. C. Has Ample Labor Reserves for Industrial Needs 

By Mrs. Edith D. Hutchins, Sr. Statistician, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

North Carolina's position ivith respect to man- 
ooiver reserve is enviable for there is a sizeable labor 
"eserve to meet further expansion needs. Despite 
;h increasing absorption of the labor surplus in its 
ndustrialized areas, North Carolina continues to 
"emain an area of supply, not only for its own de- 
nands but also for shortage areas in other States. 
Indicative of its labor resources is the State's marked 
ndustrial growth in the past ten years; for example, 
covered employment under the Employment Security 
Lau) is now almost 50 percent higher than in 194-0. 
Vorth Carolina is reducing the outflow of migrant 
vorkers to other States for better paying jobs be- 
cause of increased job opportunities at home. Fur- 
thermore, the preparedness program is augmenting 
he State's potential labor supply which is currently 
estimated to be in excess of 100,000 workers. 

It is readily accepted that manpower resources set 
i ceiling on employment expansion ; however, this is 
i minor consideration in North Carolina for the po- 
;ential recruitable labor supply is not only quite large 
)ut is subject to further expansion in times of na- 
;ional emergencies. It should be recognized, how- 
ever, that with the expansion in all types of industry, 
Darticularly the rapid expansion in our defense, es- 
sential civilian, and war-supporting industries (espe- 
cially textiles), the additional labor demands made 
ipon our economy may cause temporary shortages, 
rhese shortages, whether they be lack of materials, 
shortages of specific occupational skills, inadequate 
;ransportation facilities, fuel, etc. may slow the pace 
)f industrial expansion but are not likely to stop it. 

Over 50,000 skilled and semi-skilled workers in 
;his State are believed to be currently and poten- 
;ially available for employment with new or expand- 
ng industries which pay wages and offer work con- 
litions equal to or slightly better than the present 
ndustrial pattern. This supply includes potentially 
available workers not now in the labor force and 
commuting workers as well as workers currently 
memployed and seeking work in the area. About 
30 percent of these workers are trained in the follow- 
ing basic trades : (1) mechanical, (2) textiles, (3) 
furniture, (4) needle trades, and (5) construction. 
These workers are the best immediate source of 
workers for essential jobs because the skills and 
work habits of its members are superior to those of 
the bulk of the persons, who can in an emergency 
be drawn into the labor force. 

In addition to those workers with recent employ- 
ment background, there is an equal supply of un- 
skilled recruitable workers who are under 45 years 
3f age and deemed trainable for jobs requiring skills. 
This recruitable labor supply consists of: (1) high 
school graduates seeking jobs; (2) housewives who 
would welcome the opportunity of supplementing 
;he family income due to the rising cost of living; 

(3) older men and women and handicapped workers 
who had experience in defense industries during 
World War II and who are anxious to become a 
part of the labor force again; (4) draft exempt 
young men anxiously searching for more gainful 
employment; and (5) agricultural workers who are 
available for more stable employment plus other 
agricultural workers who have been released from 
the farm due to increasing mechanization in agri- 

Today North Carolina is better off from the 
standpoint of the available skills of its workers than 
before World War II because of the work experi- 
ences acquired in military service and in war in- 
dustries. It is estimated that around 250,000 North 
Carolinians migrated to other states during the 
War and acquired many skills some of which were 
and are still foreign to North Carolina industry. 
Many of these workers returned to their home state 
bringing with them new skills developed elsewhere. 

Conversely, approximately 115,000 workers from 
other states migrated to North Carolina during the 
same period and local labor working along side of 
them in war plants profited through on-the-job as- 
sociation with these skilled workers. The armed 
forces during the war period claimed over 300,000 
men and women from the State and upon their re- 
turn, these servicemen and women brought still 
more skills acquired during their period of service. 

The population growth of North Carolina during 
the decade following 1940 was accompanied by a 
quickened expansion in the labor force. The State's 
population was 3,571,623 in 1940, a rank of eleventh 
in the Nation and the largest southeastern state. 
North Carolina ranked tenth among all states in 
its population of 4,061,929 in 1950, a gain of 13.7 
percent for the decade. Covered employment in- 
creased 44 percent during the same period from a 
monthly average of 469,204 in the third quarter of 
1940 to 675,555 in the comparable period of 1950. 

Contributing factors for these large increases in 
both population and covered employment are (1) 
the State's high birth rate and (2) the increase in 
economic opportunities which has reduced the out- 
migration from the State and increased the flow of 
in-migrants, although it is believed that the State 
still has a net migrant loss. A definite indication 
that ample manpower reserves for production ex- 
pansion are still available is the slight percentage 
gain during the decade in that portion of the pop- 
ulation in covered employment. Covered employ- 
ment in North Carolina during 1940 represented 
approximately 13 percent of the total population; 
whereas, it had increased only to about 17 percent 
in 1950. 

In contrast, covered employment in comparable 
industrialized states (Michigan, Indiana, Missouri 

PAGE 120 


Summer-fall, 1951 

and West Virginia) 2 comprises between 19 and 24 
percent of their 1950 populations. Thus, North 
Carolina could very readily increase its working 
force to the point where covered employment under 
the Employment Security Law would rise from 17 
to 22 or 23 percent of the total population. A rise in 
covered employment to 22 percent of population 
would alone add over 200,000 more workers than 
were covered in the third quarter of 1950. 

During September 1940, there were 9,176 active 
employers covered under the Employment Security 
Program. By the comparable period of 1950 the 
number of covered establishments had increased by 
62 percent to 14,886. The growth of the manufac- 
turing portion of this covered employment during 
the decade has been very significant — increasing 
from an average monthly total of 2,845 units em- 

ploying 319,721 workers in 1940 to 4,092 units (44 
percent gain) employing 408,761 (28 percent rise) 
in the third quarter of 1950. 1 Finally, the success 
of the State in attracting new manufacturing indus- 
tries is evidenced by the fact that in 1950 alone 
31 major new manufacturing establishments with 
an estimated peak employment of over 9,700 and 
annual payroll of $24,700,000 were located within 
the State's boundaries. 

In perspective, North Carolina's labor resources 
for industrial development should not only be ample 
to meet the foreseeable demand of its industries, 
but they should also be sufficient to afford a very 
significant further rise in number of new estab- 
lishments and industries in the State. 

latest Employment Security data available. 
^Selected states with comparable coverage provisions. 

Female Employment Should Continue Gain in N. C, 1951 

By E. Stanhope Dunn, Supervisor of Reports and Analysis, Bureau of Research and Statistics, ESC 

The over-all employment level in North Carolina 
is expected to rise during the year 1951 as the huge 
defense appropriations result in a rapid expansion 
in the production of a wide range of goods that are 
to be needed in a war economy. The question then 
arises : How will the general level of employment 
rise to meet these production goals when we know 
that the armed forces will be a constant drain on 
the male labor supply, and that the reservoir of 
unemployed workers is already abnormally low? 
The most creditable answer, and possibly the only 
answer other than a great increase in the work- 
week of all workers, is the expansion of the female 
employed labor force. 

North Carolina's prospects, and national pros- 
pects for that matter, are not as favorable for an 
employment expansion now as they were in 1940 
before World War II. At that time unemployment 
was far above the present level. It is estimated 
that now the number of unemployed workers in the 
labor force in North Carolina is about 50,000 as 
compared with the more than 125,000 unemployed 
in 1940. Fortunately, the source for obtaining 
additional workers is not confined to those unem- 
ployed workers already in the labor force, for 
actually the greatest potential source of additional 
workers is the supply of employable women not 
now in the labor force, who can be attracted to 
jobs. Here again, the picture is not as bright in 
1951 as in 1940. 

Ten years ago women comprised only 26 per- 
cent of the labor force, whereas during the war 
women workers comprised about 40 percent of the 
labor force. Since that time, and particularly in 
1946 right after the war, a number of women re- 
tired from the labor force, but the proportion of 
female to the total labor force has not dropped 
back to 26 percent, the 1940 level, by any means. 

Today it is believed that female workers consti- 
tute about a third of the labor force. 

The following charts point up the trend of wo- 
men in the labor force during the period 1943- J 
1950 as depicted by two selected local office activi- 
ties; namely, the proportion of nonagricultural i 
placements of female to total placements, and the; 
proportion of female applicants to all active appli- 
cants seeking jobs: 

chart I 

Percent of Female Placements to Total Nonagricultural j 
Placements: 1943-1950 

1944 — 37.8 
1945 — 37.7 
1946 — 30.4 
1947 — 33.7 
1948 — 35.5 

30 1949 — 43.9 
1950 — 41.1 


143 144 145 146 147 14a »49 150 

Chart II shows the rapid rise in the percent of 
female active applicants seeking work to the total 
of all applicants. Following the last war female 
active applications dropped to 6,354 or to only 22.5 
percent of total applications at the end of 1945. Dur- 
ing the first year after the war the level of femak 
applications was comparatively stable, and stood a1 
7,000 or 23.8 percent of the total at the end of 1946 
In each of the succeeding years the female propor- 
tion to the total rose steadily as follows: Januarj 

)UMMER-FALL, 1951 


PAGE 121 


'ercent of Female Applications to Total Applications on 

File: Jan. 1, 1946-1951 

Percent Percent 

50 | ===—150 

1946 — 22.5% 
1947 — 23.8 
1948 — 28.1 
1949 — 39.9 
1950 — 43.1 
1951 — 48.9 



i- 40 





• • 

• • 

• ■ 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


> • 



• • 




• i 



• i 


• < 





• < 


. • _ 


• < 

» i 


• » 



t t 


• 4 

» 4 






— • 1 



• 1 


— . • 







■ « 


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20 . 

10 _V- 


•46 '47 »48 »4J '50 ^1 

948, 28.1 percent; 1949, 39.9 percent; 1950, 43.1 
'ercent; and January 1, 1951, 48.9 percent. 

It is interesting to note that the total number of 
ctive applicants seeking jobs on January 1, 1951 — 
mounting to 37,522 — was only 8,099 more than the 
umber seeking work at the end of December 1945 ; 
/hereas 11,363 more women were seeking job in 
anuary 1951 than in January 1946 (18,363 as com- 
pared with 7,000). Obviously, for the past several 
ears, as revealed by the second chart on applica- 
ions, women have not fared nearly as well as men 
n obtaining jobs or else women have been constantly 
owing back into the labor market and thereby swell- 
rig the labor force. 

The fact that for the two-year period, 1949-50, 
emale nonagricultural placements have comprised 

much greater proportion of all nonagricultural 
'lacements than ever before tends to support the 
econd premise; i.e., women have been flowing back 
tito the labor market in increasing numbers. The 
pparent reason for this trend is the rising cost of 
iving which has necessitated an increase in wage 
arners; also, many women have already responded 
o the recent rise and expected further increase in 
ttractive job opportunities arising from the pre- 
iaredness program. 

North Carolina is fortunate to be a big labor sup- 
>ly area which will permit it to bear a greater share 
f the total defense production. A survey, just re- 
ently completed, reveals a potential supply of over 
5,000 females a large portion of whom are not now 
n the labor force but who are available for expand- 
ng employment and to offset the steady drain of men 
o the armed forces. 

If a forecast had to be made of the one major 
conomic development for the year 1951 — other than 

general rise in employment and production particul- 
arly in defense industries — it would be "The Great- 
r Emphasis Placed on Recruitment of Female Work- 
rs and the Steady Rise in Female Employment." 


Bull Durham smoking tobacco, made from bright yellow 
Carolina leaf, made its appearance some 85 years ago and 
soon became known as "the makings of a nation". In fact 
the familiar "bull" on the package carries a very accurate 
outline of the map of the United States on his side. 

However, Bull Durham was soon to become known in all 
areas of the world in which smoking tobacco was used, due 
to the nation-wide and world-wide activities of J. Gilmer 
Koerner of Kernersville and crews of workers in pasting 
a picture of the bull on every available space and even plas- 
tering the famous bull on the famous Pyramids of Egypt. 

During World War I the Durham Sun in February, 1918, 
described the departure of the first train load of Bull Dur- 
ham smoking tobacco pulling out of Durham freight yards 

Bull Durham plant of American Tobacco Co. at Durham. 

on its first lap of the long trip headed for the doughboys 
"somewhere in France". Mayor M. E. (Gene) Newsom of 
Durham delivered a patriotic address on the occasion of the 
departure of this train of 30 freight cars, describing it as 
containing 11,000,000 sacks of tobacco, enough tobacco bags 
to stretch 900 miles and enough tobacco to make a cigarette 
that would reach entirely around the world. The shipment, 
it was stated, was a supply for only half of a month, indi- 
cating that 2'2,000,000 sacks were to be shipped for the boys 
in France each month. 

In World War II and also in the current Korean hostilities 
members of the United States Armed Forces have carried 
the familiar Bull Durham bags to many places. Today Bull 
Durham is manufactured in the modern plant in Durham 
which has an annual capacity of more than 400,000,000 bags. 

EDITOR'S NOTE : — In May, 1951, after a funeral service and on the edge of 
the attendants in a Raleigh Cemetery, I saw a man rolling a cigarette and 
asked him what kind of tobacco he used. He replied : "Bull Durham — I've 
been rolling it into cigarettes and smoking it for more than 50 years." He 
responded to a query that he probably would let the American Tobacco Co. 
know about his record. 


(Continued from page 112) 

Fair Bluff — Planters 1 & 2, Dixie and Powell. 

Fairmont — Mitchell-Davis, Davis, Big Brick, Farmers, 
Big "5", Holiday's, Dixie, Frye's 1 & 2, Peoples, Robeson 
County, Twin State 1 & 2, Star-Carolina 1 & 2, Planters 
1 & 2 and Square Deal 1 & 2. 

Fayetteville — Big Farmers 1 & 2 and Wellons. 

Lumberton — Britt's, Hedgepeth No. 2, Liberty, Carolina 
1 & 2, Dixie, T. J. Smith's No. 2 and Planters (new). 

Tabor City — New Farmers-Carolina, Garrell's and Plant- 

Whiteville — Brooks, Motley's, Crutchfield's, Farmer's, 
Tuggles, Lea's No. 1, Nelson's, Moore's, Planters 1 & 2 and 
Perkins & Newman 1 & 2\ 

Asheville — Carolina, Farmers, Dixie 1 & 2, Planters 1 
& 2, Bernard-Walker 1 & 2 and Haneys & Walker. 

Boone — Mountain Burley 1 & 2 and Farmers Burley. 

West Jefferson — Tri-State Burley and Planters. 

PAGE 122 


Summer-fall, i 951 


Most North Carolinians are familiar with the ac- 
tion taken by James B. Duke on December 10, 1924, 
when the announcement was made of the establish- 
ment of the Duke Endowment. This Endowment 
provides benefactions amounting to many millions 
of dollars to numbers of organizations and individ- 
uals in North and South Carolina through the years 
to come. Its assets of $40,000,000 to begin with 
were increased through Mr. Duke's will and ac- 
cruals to $80,000,000 and continues to increase un- 
der the terms specified under its provisions. 

The name of Trinity College at Durham was 
changed to Duke University, honoring his father, 
Washington Duke, and the college plant was greatly 
enlarged and heavily endowed. This institution 
was the chief benefactor. Sizable sums were to be 
distributed annually to Davidson College at David- 
son, Johnson C. Smith University at Charlotte and 
Furman University at Greenville, S. C. 

Other provisions devoted extensive funds to build- 
ing and helping support new and established hos- 
pitals and in providing free beds at hospitals in both 
North and South Carolina; construction and main- 
tenance of Methodist churches and in the care and 
support of retired ministers of Methodist churches 
in North Carolina, their widows and orphans. 

The board of directors of the Duke Endowment is 
self perpetuating and includes about fifteen mem- 
bers, with George G. Allen as chairman. Other pres- 
ent members are Mrs. J. B. Duke, their daughter, 
Doris, and former business friends and associates of 
Mr. Duke, largely in New York and North Carolina. 

Through this instrumentality James B. Duke, who 
accumulated a vast fortune by his own unsurpassed 
ability and skill in developing huge tobacco and elec- 
tric power corporations, has thus provided for dis- 
tributing large sums of money through the years for 
the education, health and comfort of thousands of 
individuals in the two states in which his chief activ- 
ities were performed. 


Snuff has been manufactured in North Carolina for 80 
years or more but usually in small quantities and only by a 
few firms. The present Brown & Williamson Tobacco Cor- 
poration, Winston-Salem, is the only firm now producing 
snuff, the principal brand being Tube Rose. Probably the 
first snuff manufacturer in the State was John Ruffin Green, 
Durham, who started making snuff probably around 1870. 
His brand was Ladies' Choice Scotch Snuff, which is still 
being manufactured elsewhere by the American Tobacco 
Co. Other firms in the State have manufactured snuff at 
various times and for varying periods. Mr. Miller started 
snuff making at Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. in 1907. 

Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco, produced either from 
tobacco stems or from stems with varying amounts of leaf 
tobacco. It took its name from the way in which it is used 
by the sophisticated elite classes in England, France and 
other European countries. From the gold and silver snuff 
boxes in the earlier days a pinch of snuff would be taken 
between the thumb and forefinger, held to the nostrils and 
snuffed up into the nose. That method, in vogue more than 
a hundred years ago has probably passed out entirely. An- 
other method of use was to pull out the lower lip and put 
a pinch of snuff between it and the gums. 

"Dipping" has for many years been the most popular form 
of use, particularly among southern and western farm 
and factory women who continue as the principal users. The 
use of snuff, although supplanted in large part by the in- 
creasing use of cigarettes among women, has become fairly 
well stabilized and continues to be a minor but important 
adjunct of the tobacco industry. 

Manufacturing snuff involves several processes. One is 
that the stems and parts of the leaf used in its manufacture 
are allowed to mold and damage in order to give the 
strength and base demanded in the production. Piles of 
stems are moistened and allowed to heat in the damaging 
process. These piles are shifted, moistened and allowed to 
heat two or three times. When the molding process has 
reached the proper point, the stems are dried thoroughly and 
ground and bolted into a fine powder. This powder is then 
flavored and sweetened to suit the taste. Some of the brands 
are strong and others sweet with variations between these 
extremes. The snuff is then packed in tin boxes or in paper 
"bales", sometimes referred to as "bladders" of snuff to be 
sold at varying prices according to the amount. The pack- 
aged snuff is then stamped, boxed and prepared for shipping 
to wholesale and retail outlets. 

Principal implement used in "dipping" snuff is a small 
limb between one-fourth and one-half inch in diameter and 
five or six inches long usually pulled from gum and other 
suitable bushes. The big end torn from the larger limb is 
usually trimmed and chewed until it becomes a sort of 
small mop. This mop is moistened, dipped into the snuff 
and placed in the mouth where it is kept until another "dip" 
is desired. 


from and to preceding issue on 

The Duke University Dinners, as a feature of the annual 
Press Institute of the North Carolina Press Association at | 
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in January 
of each year, were inaugurated in 1931, instead of 1933, as 
indicated. These annual Duke events were worked out and 
arranged by Josh L. Home, Rocky Mount, Duke alumnus, 
while he was president of the North Carolina Press Associa- 
tion, and the late Henry R. Dwire, vice-president and in 
charge of public relations for Duke University, who had 
charge of these dinners until his death a few years ago. 

Greensboro Daily News — Initials of William T. Polk, as- 
sociate editor, were confused with those of his distinguished 
kinsman, President James K. Polk. 

Elkin Tribune — In the item on former publishers the 
names of two brothers were reversed. W. E. Nichols has 
been for several years and continues with the Morganton 
News-Herald; H. G. Nichols was with the North Wilkesboro 
Journal-Patriot for many years until his death a few years 

Lincoln County News — The name of the late J. D. Bivins 
was used as a former publisher, when the name should have 
been John T. Perkins, whose son-in-law, A. B. Claytor, sue 
ceeded him. Mr. and Mrs. Perkins, now enjoying retire- 
ment and roving, are regular attendants at N. C. Press As 
sociation meetings. 

Miss Nell Battle Lewis has conducted a folksy, informa- 
tive and intensely interesting column "Incidentally" in the 
Raleigh News and Obbserver for some 15 years, with a brief 
period out for a stint as associate editor of The Raleigh 

The Raleigh News Bureau of the N. C. Association of 
Afternoon Newspapers, Inc., organized about 25 years ago, 
had two or three correspondents for a year or two, then John 
C. Baskervill became correspondent and manager, remain- 
ing on the job for about a dozen years. Baskervill was sec- 
retary of the Lenoir Chamber of Commerce for several 
years, then went with an insurance firm in Hickory. Henry 
Averill handled the bureau for about four years, and Robert 
L. Thompson, now editor of the High Point Enterprise, han- 
dled the job for some months. G. Lynn Nisbet has been in 
charge of the bureau for the past several years. 

North Carolina Almanac and State Industrial Guide — 
This is a new almanac. This first issue appears for 19 50-51. 
It contains 652 pages, largely information about North Caro- 
lina, its industries, agencies and activities. It is published 
by the Almanac Publishing Co., Raleigh, Mrs. Carl Goercb 
and Mrs. J. C. B. Ehringhaus, editors and publishers. 

Publications of Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 


Biennial Report, 1936-1938. 

Biennial Report, 1938-1940. 

Biennial Report, 1940-1942. 

Biennial Report, 1942-1944. 

Biennial Report, 1944-1946. 

Biennial Report, 1946-1948. 

Biennial Report, 1948-1950. 

Annual Report, 1937. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Annual Report, 1938. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Annual Report, 1939. (Mimeographed.) 

Annual Report, 1940. (Mimeographed.) 

Annual Report, 1941. (Mimeographed.) Out of 

Employment Security Law as amended (1951). 

Employment Security News (mimeographed — 
weekly), started in 1936 by the North 
Carolina State Employment Service. Not 
issued during Calendar year 1945. 

North Carolina Employment Security Informa- 
tion, Volume I, Numbers 1-12, 1941. (Dis- 

The U. C. C. Quarterly 

Vol. 1, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 (1942-43) 
Vol. 2, Nos. 1,2,3 (1944) 

(No. 4 not issued) 
Index to Vols. 1 and 2 (1942-44) 
Vol. 3, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 (1945) 
Vol. 4, Nos. 1-2, 3, 4 (1946) 
Index to Vols. 3 and 4 (1945-46) 
(Included in Vol. 5, No. 2-3) 

The E. S. C. Quarterly (Name changed April 1, 

Vol. 5, Nos. 1, 2-3, 4 (1947) 
Vol. 6, No. 1, 2-3, 4 (1948) 
Index to Vols. 5 and 6 (1947-48) 

(Included in Vol. 7, No. 2) 
Vol. 7, No. 1, 2, 3-4 (1949) 
Vol. 8, No. 1-2 & 3-4 (1950) 
Index to Vols. 7 and 8 (1949-50) 
(Included in Vol. 9, No. 1-2) 
Vol. 9, No. 1-2, 3-4 (1951) 
Rules and Regulations, amended June 19, 1951. 
Index and Digest of Commission Decisions 1-600. 

Circulars and folders: 

Benefit Payments for Partial Unemployment. 
Employer Experience Rating in North Carolina. 
Information for Workers about Unemployment 


Employer's Certificate of Coverage and Notice to 

Notice to Workers — Partial Benefits. 
Are You Protected? 



Current Series 

"Trends" — A monthly mimeographed activity re- 
port first issued in June 1943. Data for period 
1938-1943 found in other series now out-of-print. 

"Employment and Wages in Covered Employment 
by County" — A quarterly mimeographed release 
giving employment and wage data in covered em- 
ployment for each county for five broad industry 
groups. First release First Quarter of 1948. 

"Covered Employment and Total Wages in North 
Carolina" — An annual report for calendar years, 
issued in two parts as follows: 

1. Summary data for State by two-digit industry 
and employment and wages by counties, 

2. County data by three-digit industry. First re- 
leased in 1943. 

"Experience Rating in North Carolina" — An annual 
study of the experience rating plan and its opera- 
tion. First release in 1946. (1948 issue out of 
print. ) 

"Labor Resources in North Carolina for Industrial 
Development" — A bimonthly release begun in 
January 1951 showing recruitable labor by coun- 

"Labor Supply — Labor Demand" — a labor market 
digest released in February, June, and October 
based on sample employment trends in over 700 
reporting establishments in 14 selected areas. 
First release entitled "Employment Trend in Re- 
porting Establshments" first issued in 1946. Out- 
of-print prior to 1949. 

"Labor Market Digests" — An employment security 
office release showing labor market conditions in 
office area. Only current releases available. Re- 
leased as follows: 

1. Bi-monthly for Asheville, Charlotte, Durham, 
Greensboro, High Point, Raleigh, and Winston- 
Salem, and 

2. In October, February and June for Burlington. 
Gastonia, Morganton, Reidsvile-Spray and Wil- 

"Annual Report of Employment Service Division" 
— A mimeographed release dealing primarily 
with activity summary data by office, presenting 
data graphically for evaluating purposes. A sim- 
ilar graphic presentation is prepared for each 
January- June period. For limited distribution 

Special Studies (Limited Number Copies Available) 

"Measurements of Industrialization and Employ- 
ment Stability" (1945) 

"Trends in Covered Employment and Wages 1942- 

"Trends in Manufacture 1945-1946." 

"The Course of Inflation" (1948) 

"The Influence of Industry on Population Change" 

"Research in the Employment Security Program" 

"Measurements of Employment Instability" (1948) 

"An Analysis of Exhaustees — January-February 

"North Carolina Employment and the Labor Force, 

oh ? i 'd '(i) (d) t-'se -0 ?s) 


aaiNnooDV aovisod saivis a3iiNn 


sssNisng ivioijjo 

3 N 'HOiaiva '68S x0 

"«• >.aiunna orare Liorary 

T&e E. S. C. (Quarterly 

VOLUME 10, NO. 1-2 


S. C. Tops All States in Production of Bedroom, Dining 
Room Wooden Furniture; High in Living Room, Office 

Examples of fine quality dining room (top) and bedroom (bottom) furniture manufactured in North Carolina 


Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 




Winter-Spring, 1952 

Tho.,E, ;'S.-,C. Quarterly 

' (Formerly The U.C.C. Quarterly) 

Volume.-'lO'iNu'mbers 1-2- Winter-Spring, 1952 

Issued four times a year at Raleigh, N. C, by the 


Commissioners: Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax; Dr. Harry D. 
Wolf, Chapel Hill; R. Dave Hall, Belmont; W. Benton Pipkin, 
Reidsville; C. A. Fink, Spencer; Bruce E. Davis, Charlotte. 

State Advisory Council: Col. A. L. Fletcher, Raleigh, chair- 
man; Mrs. Gaston A. Johnson, High Point; "W. B. Horton, 
Yanceyville; C. P. Clark, Wilson; Dr. Alphonso Elder, Dur- 
ham; Corbett Scott, Asheboro; L. L. Ray, Raleigh; Joel B. 
Leighton, Rockingham; J. A. Scoggins, Charlotte. 


BROOKS PRICE Deputy Commissioner 


Unemployment Compensation Division 


North Carolina State Employment Service Division 

M. R. DUNNAGAN Editor 

Informational Service Representative 

Cover illustrations represent typical North Carolina 
industries or business activities under the Employ- 
ment Security Program. 

Sent free upon request to responsible individuals, agencies, 
organizations and libraries. Address: E. S. C. Informational 
Service, P. 0. Box 5S9, Raleigh, N. C. 


N. C. Furniture Manufacturing (Editorial Summary) 2 

Pipkin New Commissioner ; Hall and Fink Reappointed 3 

Furniture, Started Early, Among State's Leading Industries 5 

N. C, With 42 Active Counties, Leads in Wooden Furniture 7 

Sturdy Pioneers Started Huge Furniture Industry in State 7 

Southern Furniture Exposition Building Permanent Market 8 

State Furniture Progress Due to Woods, Labor, Initiative 9 

By H. C. Philpott 

.1. T. Ryan Has Devoted 40 Years Promoting Furniture Industry 9 

Important Industries Develop to Supply Furniture Needs 10 

By Fred Flagler, Jr. 

Furniture South Magazine Has Served Industry for 40 Years 10 

Furniture Foundation Aids Instruction at State College 11 

By Henry A. Foscue 

Henry Foscue Again President of Furniture Foundation, Inc 11 

State College Offers Only Four- Year Course in Furniture 12 

By E. S. Johnson 
High Point Known as Hub of Southern Furniture Industry.- 13 

(World's Largest Bureau) 

Sylvania Acquires High Point Plant to Produce T/V Cabinets 22 

Thomasville Famous as World Leader in Chair Production. 22 

("The Chair of Thomasville", Page 23) 

Lexington, Home of Large, Small Furniture, Novelty Plants.. 25 

Lenoir Forging Ahead in Quality-Variety Furniture Making 28 

Hickory-Newton-Conover Important Furniture Producers 33 


Morganton-Drexel Boast of High Quality Furniture Plants 38 

Asheboro, Nearby Towns Large Furniture Manufacturers 41 


Siler City-Liberty Lead in School Furniture Production 42 

Statesville Extensive Furniture Producer for 50 Years 44 

Winston-Salem Early and Important Furniture Producer 47 

(Rural Hall— Mocksville) 

Mount Airy and Elkin Early Northwestern Furniture Makers 50 

North Wilkesboro and Ronda Furniture Producing Area 52 

Charlotte Adds Furniture Making to Her Other Activities 54 

Mebane First Site of Continuing Furniture Making Plant 56 

Sandhills Area Has Several Progressive Furniture Firms 58 

(West End — Sanford — Vass — Troy) 
Lincolnton, Page 59 — Marion, Page 60 

Thirty Scattered N. C. Counties Have Active Furniture Plants 61 

Community Handicap Shop, Elizabeth City, Is Acclaimed 62 

By Norman L. Pendleton 
Manpower — Industrial Characteristics of Major N. C. Areas 63 

By Mrs. E. DeKay Johnson 
Employment Office Services ; Record and Outline of Work 65 

By John C. Mullen 
Job Study Made of Processes in Furniture Manufacturing 66 

By Blanche Lancaster 

Tobacco Issue Sparks Move for Huge Tobacco Celebration 67 

Note : Articles not credited with By-Line written by M. R. Dunnagan, Editor 


Furniture manufacturing, described as cabinet 
makers shops, was one of the nine industries listed 
for North Carolina in the first U. S. Census in 1790. [ 
The 1950 Census Bureau report shows that furniture j 
manufacturing is the fourth industry in importance 
in the State, topped only by textiles, tobacco and! 
lumber and timber products. The value added to 
furniture and fixtures in 1950 was placed at $106,-1 
501,000. Sales of furniture in 1951 are estimated; 
conservatively at $250,000,000. 

North Carolina probably has 450 furniture plants,! 
including numerous small novelty shops in homes 
and schools. The Labor Department list includes! 
more than 350 plants. Records in the ESC officel 
show that 305 firms are covered by the Employment! 
Security Law; that is, having eight or more em-j 
ployees, although two or more plants often are re-! 
ported under one employing firm. The ESC figuresji 
for 1947 show that 345 plants were covered andjj 
operating, indicating reduction in number. How- 
ever, average monthly employment in furniture man-! 
ufacturing in 1950 was 32,793, which is 12.5 % 
greater than the figure of 29,141 for 1947, only three j 
years before. More important, the 1950 figures show! 
that furniture factory payrolls in the State aggre-ji 
gated $78,685,816, an increase of 40.9% over the 1947 
figure of $55,848,796. 

Furniture manufacturing is not the most stable of 
North Carolina's industries. Like textiles, it reflects 
business conditions. In good times the sales are! 
good. Few householders buy furniture in depressed; 
periods. This is reflected in the average annual con- j 
tribution rate of 1.82 for 1950, against the maximuir I 
of 2.7% and as compared with the State-wide rate] 
of 1.59% for all employing firms. The past year, oij 
a part of it, was a hard one on the furniture industry I 
as a whole, due to lack of orders. However, num I 
bers of well-established firms and novelty furniturqj 
producers have maintained normal full-time opera 
tions for several years, some of these even operating 
on over-time bases. 

In this issue an effort is made to cover the furni 
ture industry as completely as conditions permit 
North Carolina has approximately 140 furnitur< 
plants that employ 50 or more workers, located large 
ly in the Piedmont area. The Editor has visitec 
offices or officials of more than 90%- of these large: 
plants, seeking information for individual article; 
on these plants. As a result 120 articles describ 
operations of as many individual plants. A few o: 
these were secured through correspondence with of 
ficials, when time and conditions did not allow visits 

Furniture manufacturers were asked to furnisl 
only such information as they were willing to hav 
publicised, but were requested to supply enough t< 
give the importance, size and extent of their opera 
tions. Many of them gave full information, withou 
restraint. Others gave such as they desired. Ii 
some instances, officials promised to send the in 
formation, but failed to do so. In rare instances, the; 
did not care for publicity. In one case, the Edito 
visited the office four times (conveniently located 
and wrote four letters — without contacting or evei 
hearing from the principal official. 

This statement is made to indicate the efforts o 
the Editor to make this a complete issue. If article 
are missing on some firms which should be included 
the reason is with officials of such firms, not us. 

inter-Spring, 1952 



Pipkin New Commissioner; Hall and Fink Reappointed 

Willis Benton Pipkin, Reidsville, new member, and 
Dbert Davidson Hall, Belmont, and Charles Allison 
ink, Salisbury, each completing 10 years of service, 
ere appointed last fall by Governor Scott to four 
>ar terms as members of the Employment Security 
Dmmission of North Carolina. The three were ad- 
inistered the oath of office November 16, 1951, in 
overnor Scott's office by Associate Justice Itimous 
alentine of the North Carolina Supreme Court. 
Mr. Pipkin, a textile executive, succeeded Marion 
I Heiss, Greensboro, as an employer representa- 
ve. Mr. Hall, also a textile executive, is the other 
nployer representative on the Commission and Mr. 
ink, president of the State Federation of Labor, 
FL, is an employee representative. 
The other four members have appointments which 
intinue until July 1, 1953. They are Chairman 
enry E. Kendall; Mrs. Quentin Gregory, Halifax, 
id Dr. Harry D. Wolf, Chapel Hill, both represent- 
ig the general public, and Bruce E. Davis, Char- 
tte, state official of the CIO, representing em- 

Biographical sketches of the one appointed and 
vo reappointed members of the Commission are 
iven below. Similar sketches of the other four 
tembers appear in earlier issues of this publication : 
hairman Kendall in the Summer, 1946, issue; Mrs. 
regory and Mr. Davis in the Summer, 1949, issue, 
nd Dr. Wolf in July, 1941, issue (in predecessor 


Willis Benton Pipkin was born in Reidsville, Feb- 
iary 6, 1905, son of the late J. B. and Mary C. Pip- 

embers of the Employment Security Commission of North Carolina. Left to right : Bruce E. 
avis, Charlotte; Dr. Harry D. Wolf, Chapel Hill; Charles A. Fink, Salisbury; Mrs. Quentin Greg- 
~y, Halifax; Chairman Henry E. Kendall, Raleigh; R. Dave Hall, Belmont ; W. Benton Pipkin, 
eidsville, new member. 

kin. He graduated from the Reidsville High School 
in 1922 and received his B.S. degree in Commerce at 
the University of North Carolina in 1926. In his 
senior year at Carolina he was president of the Phi 
Beta Kappa, an honor attained as the result of lead- 
ing his class in scholarship during his three previous 
years there. In 1928 he was awarded the degree of 
Master of Business Administration by the Business 
School of Harvard University. 

After a year's work in the Credit Department of 
the South Carolina National Bank at Charleston, S. 
C, he was appointed in 1929 as a teacher of Business 
and Economics in the College of Commerce of Tulane 
University, New Orleans, La., becoming professor 
of Business Finance. In 1932 he resigned to return 
to Reidsville and join his father in the operation of 
the Edna Mills Corporation, serving as treasurer un- 
til 1946. At present he is manager of the Eagle 
Fabrics Co., and vice-president and a director of the 
Bank of Reidsville. He and his sister, Miss E. Edith 
Pipkin, are owners of the Belvedere Hotel in Reids- 

Mr. Pipkin is a past president of the Reidsville 
Rotary Club, a trustee of the Baptist Church, chair- 
man of the Industrial Committee of the Reidsville 
Chamber of Commerce, a former member of the 
Penn Memorial Hospital board and chairman of the 
committee to raise $85,000 locally for a new hospital 
wing. Last year he was county chairman of the 
Crusade for Freedom, has been a member of the 
Reidsville Community Chest and at present is a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors of the North Carolina 
Children's Home Society of Greensboro. 

On September 19, 1931, 

Mr. Pipkin married Miss 
Ruth Petty Pringle of 
Charleston, S. C. They 
have two sons, John, 16, 
and Pringle, 13. 


Robert Davidson (R. 
Dave) Hall, Belmont tex- 
tile mill executive, was 
reappointed to a four- 
year term as a member 
of the Employment Se- 
curity Commission by 
Governor Scott, after he 
had completed ten years 
of service on this com- 
mission by appointments 
by three former govern- 
ors. He has continued as 
one of the two employer 
representatives since the 
present type of commis- 
sion was established by 
the 1941 General Assem- 

Mr. Hall is a native of 
Belmont, born July 3, 
1897, son of M. N. and 
Annie Denny Hall. He 
graduated from the Bel- 



Winter-Spring, 1952 

mont High School in 1915 and was awarded the A.B. 
degree in 1919 at Davidson College, where he was a 
member of the Phi Gamma Delta social fraternity. 
During World War I he served as a Second Lieuten- 
ant and after the war became active in the work of 
the American Legion, culminating in his election 
and distinguished service as Commander of the State 
Deportment of the Legion in 1940-41. 

Working as a day laborer during his vacations 
from his - h school and college in textile mills in Bel- 
mont, Mr. Hall took his first full-time job as book- 
keeper for the Climax Spinning Co. and the Majestic 
Manufacturing Co. in Belmont in 1919. Moving up 
the ladder, he is now secretary and treasurer of these 
two mills, secretary and assistant treasurer of the 
Stowe Thread Co., assistant secretary and treasurer 
of the Sterling Spinning Co., president of the Bel- 
mont Hosiery Mills, Inc., and president of the Bel- 
mont Knitting Co. 

In affiliated activities, Mr. Hall served two terms 
as president of the Southern Combed Yarn Sninners 
Association, was president of the North Carolina 
Cotton Manufacturers Association, was a director of 
the American Cotton Manufacturers Institute, Inc.. 
was spinner delegate to the National Cotton Council 
of America and during World War II was chairman 
of the Advisory Committee on Combed Yarns for the 
Office of Price Administration. 

Other present activities are as director of several 
companies, including the Blue Ridge Insurance Co., 
Shelby; R. S. Dickson & Co., Charlotte; Bank of Bel- 
mont and Belmont Building and Loan Association. 
In civic affairs Mr. Hall is a former president of the 
Belmont Rotary Club, a past master of the Masonic 
Lodge, a former member of the Belmont School 
Board, a member of the Patriotic Order, Sons of 
America, and a member of the First Presbyterian 
Church of Belmont, having served for 15 years as 
superintendent of its Sunday School. 

In 1935 Mr. Hall married Miss Mary Howe, of 
Belmont. They have one son, Robert Davidson, Jr. 


Charles Allison Fink, Spencer, president of the 
State Federation of Labor and an original member of 
the Employment Security Commission (U. C. C.) 
as it was formed by amendments adopted by the 1941 
session of the General Assembly, has been reappoint- 
ed to a new four-year term by Governor Scott. Prior 
to his ten years a member of the Commission as em- 
ployee representative, Mr. Fink had served for two 
years as a member of its State Advisory Council. 

This perennial president of the State Federation 
of Labor was born on a farm in Rowan County Aug- 
ust 7, 1889, one of seven children of Jacob Caldwell 
and Nettie Fesperman Fink. He attended the near- 
by log cabin school, getting little more formal educa- 
tion than the three Rs afforded, since money was 
scarce in the family. He continued work on his 
father's farm until after he was 21 years of age. 
Then, in 1911, he took a job as streetcar motorman 
in Salisbury-Spencer, holding that post for less than 
three years. 

In 1913 Mr. Fink became an apprentice in the 
Electrical Department of the Southern Railway's 
shops at Spencer, and moved up to handling head- 
light and train control work. He continued in his 
job through several years as president of the State 

Federation of Labor, until 1947, when his labor union 
duties required full time. He still has his railroad 
job, but each year his leave of absence is extended 
another year — when he is reelected as head of the 
State labor organization. 

Electricians in the Southern's shop organized a 
labor union in 1917, affiliating with the International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. Mr. Fink served 
as treasurer of this local union for nine years and in 
1931 was elected president of the Salisbury-Spencer 
Central Labor Union, a position he held for six years 

As a result of the split in the State Federation of 
Labor in 1937, Mr. Fink was appointed as State pres 
ident to fill out an unexpired term and at the annual 
convention that year was elected president for one 
year. In the 14 years since, he has been reelected 
president at every State convention, usually without 
opposition, As State president, Mr. Fink has super 
vision of the 450 local unions making up the State 
Federation, which handles such matters as labor re- 
lations, education, legislation and others dealing with 

Mr. Fink also edits the official organ of the State 
Federation, The North Carolina Federationist, a 
monthly magazine. He attends all sessions of the 
General Assembly, looking after the interests of his 
organization. Much of his time is spent in travel 
visiting the local unions and Central Labor Unions in 
the various cities of the State. Seldom has he missed 
one of the 60-odd meetings of the ESC in his ter 
years as a member. For two years Mr. Fink alsc 
served as president of the North Carolina Railroad] 
appointed by the Governor. 

Mr. Fink, in 1913, married Miss Dora Wilhelm, oi 
Salisbury. They have two sons: Raymond, 35, ar] 
M.A. graduate of the University of Michigan ii) 
accounting, a CPA now back in the Navy after serv- 
ing as an officer in World War II, and Clarence, 32 
graduate of the University of North Carolina, now 
radio and household appliance salesman in Cali- 


North Carolina's furniture industry sales in 1950 amount 
ed to $218,000,000, an increase of about 37% over 1049, th| 
Bureau of the Census reported recently. The figures shov 
that North Carolina produced 10.17% of the nation's furni 
ture sales of $2,144,000,000, which is about 33% more thai 
in 1949. 

This places North Carolina in second rank among the 4! 
states, Illinois leading with $222,000,000 in shipments 
Other states following North Carolina are Indiana, third 
with $211,000,000 in sales; New York, $205,000,000; Cal 
ifornia, $145,000,000; Pennsylvania, $137,000,000, and Vii 
ginia, $120,000,000. 

Wooden furniture shipments of North Carolina factorie 
were valued at $157,534,000 in 1950 and $119,269,000 i 
1949; upholstered household furniture in 1950, $52,063,00 
and $34,587,000 in 1949; bedding products in 1950, $5,304 
000 and $3,686,000 ill 1949. 

Total figure for 1950 used elsewhere in this issue is $210 

Exposition Building Officers 

Officers of the Southern Furniture Exposition Buildinj 
High Point, are: Doak Finch, Thomasville, president; Henr 
A. Foscue, High Point, first vice-president; R. B. Terr; 
High Point, second vice-president; Paul W. Casey, Hig 
Point, secretary-treasurer and general manager. 

T. L. Lingerfelt, general manager of the Ramseur Furn 
ture Co., Ramseur, was elected president of the compai) 
recently. He will continue as general manager. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 



Furniture, Started Early, Among State's Leading Industries 

Furniture manufacturing in North Carolina, mov- 
ing forward from colonial days through the home 
shop, the cabinet shop, the furniture factory and the 
huge furniture plant, has placed this state at the top 
in the entire United States in the production of cer- 
tain types of wooden household furniture. Furniture 
manufacturing is now North Carolina's fourth rank- 
ing industry, topped only by textiles, tobacco and 
lumber products. The 1950 report of the Bureau of 
the Census shows that $106,501,000 were added dur- 
ing that year to the value of the manufactured furni- 
ture products. Total value of furniture manufac- 
tured in this state last year is estimated at $250,- 

In 1950 North Carolina's sale of furniture amount- 
ed to $210,000,000 according to figures compiled by 
The Blue Book of Southern Progress, Manufacturer's 
Record, Baltimore, Md. These figures were broken 
down to show that the value of home furniture was 
$195,000,000 ; office furniture, $6,000,000 ; public and 
professional furniture, $3,000,000 ; partitions and 
fixtures, $3,000,000 ; additions and buildings, screens, 
$1,000,000 and miscellaneous furniture, $2,000,000. 
This publication shows that the State had 455 active 
furniture establishments ; employed 33,000 ; value of 
active plants, $25,000,000; income from payroll and 
profits $90,000,000 ; cost of materials and services, 
$120,000,000; sales, $218,000,000. 

North Carolina, according to this Blue Book, pro- 
duced approximately one-fourth of all of the furni- 
ture manufactured in 17 southern states, including 
the District of Columbia and the four border states 
of Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. 
From a breakdown of these figures it is shown that 
North Carolina had 49.4% of the active furniture 
establishments and 28% of furniture plant employ- 
ment, both figures indicating larger furniture plants 
in North Carolina; 26.6% of the value of active 
plants, almost 25% of the income from payrolls and 
profits; 24.3% of the cost of materials and services 
and supply more than 24% of the gross sales of these 
17 southern states. 

Compilations from other Blue Book figures give 
the relative importance of the furniture industry in 
North Carolina as compared with that of all other 

manufacturing enterprises of both durable and non- 
durable goods. In active plants, the furniture in- 
dustry operates 6.8% of the state's total and employs 
practically 8% of the total number of workers in all 
manufacturing enterprises. In relation to the total 
of all other industries, furniture manufacturing 
operates 4% of the value of active plants; has an 
income from payrolls and profits of 5.4% of the 
total ; spends as costs for materials and services 
3.5% of the total, and the sales of its products amount 
to 4.2%. of the total. 

James T. Ryan, executive vice-president (former 
executive secretary) of the Southern Furniture Man- 
ufacturers Association, estimates that North Caro- 
lina's furniture production last year amounted to 
$250,000,000. Actual figures on comparisons are not 
available for any year since the Bureau of the Cen- 
sus report of 1947. At that time North Carolina led 
the nation in wooden household furniture of all kinds 
except upholstery, accounting for 15% of the total 
production and was second in the production of up- 
holstered furniture, which amounted to 9% of the 
total. At that time North Carolina stood first in the 
production of bedroom furniture with 24% and first 
in dining room furniture with 28%. 

The North Carolina figures compiled by the Em- 
ployment Security Commission show that in 1950 the 
state had 305 furniture firms which were subject to 
the Employment Security Act (employed eight or 
more workers) in contrast to the 345 such plants in 
1947. Further figures show that the average month- 
ly employment in 1950 was 32,793, an increase of 
12.5% over the 29,141 in 1947. Payrolls of furniture 
firms showed an even greater increase, amounting to 
40.9% in the three years. In 1950 total payrolls in 
the furniture industry amounted to $78,685,816 as 
against $55,848,796 in 1947. This comparison indi- 
cates a splendid development in the furniture indus- 
try in this three year period, even if no consideration 
is given to an advance in production through more 
modern equipment and increased skill or any increase 
in the price that may have been experienced during 
this period. 

Looking backward, it is interesting to recall that 
the furniture industry had its small beginning with 

£ CQ C ft 3> 




itSl 4 . 000 s UP 


■ ,.„..,„, 

R*X : ! -000 -2.4 99 

County distribution of ESC covered employment in furniture. Second Quarter, 1951. 



Winter-Spring, 1952 

the beginning of the settlement of North Carolina. 
Except for the wealthier citizens who were able to 
buy furniture from distant markets and ship it in, 
the furniture required by the early settlers was made 
with crude tools by the householder. As size of com- 
munities increased, the methods of producing furni- 
ture changed. Small cabinet shops sprang up espe- 
cially in the Piedmont section of the State. 

When the Constitution of the United States was 
adopted in 1787, North Carolina was the third state 
in wealth and population. The first census in 1790 
shows that industries in the State included blast 
furnaces, hollow ware factories, cotton mills, foun- 
dries, potteries, woolen mills, wagon factories and 
cabinet makers' shops. The settlers, including Eng- 
lish Quakers, Scotch, Irish, Germans and other na- 
tionalities, found the hardwoods good, water power 
for their lathes and saws, intelligent labor and some 
prosperous homes to demand their products. In the 
early half of the last century expert craftsmen would 
take up their abode in the homes of the prosperous 
farmers and spend several weeks or months produc- 
ing the furniture needed in the home, frequently 
with the help of slaves or members of the family. 

Among earlier names of furniture producers are 
those of Peter Thurston, High Point, "Uncle Billy" 
Pickard and Gus Jones of the former Browntown, 
near High Point; Henry Payne, who operated a 
furniture factory in Caldwell County before the Rev- 
olutionary War and whose descendants are still 
furniture makers in Lenoir, Hickory and Statesville. 
Abner Payne succeeded his father and produced 
many fine pieces of furniture still found in Caldwell 
and Catawba Counties. Henry Payne had served an 
apprenticeship in Lincolnton under a cabinet maker 
named Houser who had learned the trade in South 
Germany. Michael Healen, an Irishman, learned the 
trade in England and settled in Stokes County in 
1792. He produced many fine furniture items, still 
found in Stokes, Surry and Forsyth counties, before 
his death in Surry County. 

Furniture making in North Carolina continued 
primarily in the cabinet shop stage until after the 
War Between the States. Extensive credit is given 
to Captain W. H. Snow, of the Union Army, who 
settled in the High Point community and provided 
the vision and energy which gave impetus to furni- 
ture making. In High Point the High Point Furni- 
ture Co. was organized in 1888 
by T. F. Wrenn, J. H. Tate and 
E. A. Snow. Prior to that in 1881 
the White Furniture Co. had 
been started in a very small plant 
by Will and Dave White in an 
industry that continues in suc- 
cessful operation. Although cab- 
inet shops had operated in all of 
these places, actual factory pro- 
duction was begun in Lenoir in 
1889, in Elkin in 1894, in Mount 
Airy in 1896, in North Wilkes- 
boro in 1901, in Morganton in 
1904, and in Statesville in 1909. 
By 1890 six small factories were 
manufacturing furniture in 
North Carolina and by 1900 
forty-four plants were in opera- 


Principal furniture markets with permanent exhibit spaces 
are: American Furniture Mart, Chicago; New York Furni- 
ture Exchange, New York City; Southern Furniture Expo- 
sition Building, High Point; Los Angeles Furniture Ex- 
change, Los Angeles; and in Boston; Kansas City; San Fran- 
cisco, and others. Special displays are made in these mar- 
kets in January and July. 

When reference is made in this issue to permanent ex- 
hibits in Chicago, New York, High Point and Los Angeles, 
and others, it means generally that the exhibit spaces are 
in the building or groups of buildings making up the markets 
in these cities. Occasionally, however, the manufacturer will 
have permanent exhibit space in a building close to the 
markets listed. In addition, furniture manufacturers in the 
different groups have what is termed pre-season or off- 
season displays usually in late October or early November, 
particularly designed to allow representatives of department 
stores to purchase and have made up furniture supplies for 
their January sales. 

During these pre-season showings displays are held in the 
Community Center in Hickory, the Southern Furniture Ex- 
change Building at High Point, and also in the show rooms 
maintained by the manufacturers in Lenoir, Hickory, Mor- 
ganton, High Point, Thomasville, Lexington, and at other 
central points in the State. 

tion, one-fourth of them in High Point. 

This, sketchily, is the beginning of the huge furni- 
ture industry in North Carolina. Additional names 
are included in an article listing many of the furni- 
ture pioneers of the State. 


(Continued from page 7) 

tures; (5) window and door screens, shades and 
Venetian blinds; and (6) miscellaneous furniture and 
fixtures items. Not included are firms engaged in 
sawmilling, millwork, woodworking on individual or- 
der and reconditioning and repairing furniture. 

Available information indicates that last year 
North Carolina's employment in the furniture and 
fixture industry was third in the nation, headed by 
New York and Illinois, with Indiana as poor fourth. 
Naturally these figures refer to metal as well as 
wooden furniture. These figures indicate, but do not 
show definitely, that North Carolina leads the entire 
nation in the production of wooden furniture and 

Hy-Lan Furniture Co. plant, Hickory, was damaged by 
fire a few weeks ago, loss estimated at more than $10,000. 

Furniture employment, rising steadily, is now 50 percent over 1939 (ESC covered employ- 
ment by month: Jan., 1939, through June, 1951) 

Winter-Spring, 1952 



N. C, With 42 Active Counties, Leads in Wooden Furniture 

North Carolina, in 1950, had 305 firms engaged in = 

manufacturing furniture which were subject to the cTiinrw niAkirroc CTAD-rrr\ unrc 

Employment Security Law, which means that they bTURDY PIONttKb blAKItU HUtjt 

employment £%£^n?S3%%3£%% FU RN ITU RE I N DUSTRY FOR STATE 

mean that as many as 40,000 workers were employed North Carolina lias had numbers of pioneers in the (level- 
lull time or part time in these plants. The total an- opment of the important furniture industry in the State 
i „ 11 •„ inrn a>no roe: o-i/^ many of whom have already passed to their reward, but 
nual payroll in 1950 was $78,685,816. numbers of whom continue their earlier activities. Many 
Average weekly earnings Of furniture workers in f these pioneers and "greats" of the furniture industry 

North Carolina, covered by the Employment Security started in very modest ways, with little capital and few work- 
program, Was $46.13, as Compared with $41.83 in ers - Numbers of them, through industry and native ability, 
1Q4Q an inrrPa^P of 10 3% This inrrpasp is ar- developed their plants into large industries, making nullion- 
IJ4J, an increase 01 W.6/c. inis increase IS ac- aires of their founders or executives. 

Counted for largely by wage advances and by a longer Among those who may be classed among the pioneers and 

work schedule. The Employment Security Commis- who are still active in their further development of the furni- 

Sion records show that in 1950 the average COntribu- ture industry are J. Sam White, long head of the White 

firm rafp naid hv fiirnitiirp pmnlovprs tn thp Com Furniture Co., Mebane; A. C. Chaffee, chairman of the board 

tion rate paid oy iurniture employers to tne com- q± Morganton tyn . niUire Co ., Morganton; t. h. Broyhiii, of 

mission was 1.82% of the payrolls, as compared With the B royhill Furniture Factories, Lenoir; R. L. Prevost, of 
the base rate of 2.7% and with an average rate of Unagusta Manufacturing Co., Waynesville; J. A. Martin, Lih- 
1.59% for all covered employment in the State. This erty Chair Co., Liberty; W. T. Powell, Myrtle Desk Co., 
indieafps that prnnlnvrnpnt in fiirnitiirp was Ipss High Point; C. R. Barrier, Globe Parlor Furniture Co., High 
maicates tnat employment m iurniture was less po Q w BoUck southern Furniture Co., Conover; 
Stable than the average for all state employment. George F. Ivey, Southern Desk Co., Hickory; A. B. Johnston 
North Carolina had 14 counties in which more and J. R. Hix, American Furniture Co., North Wilkesboro; 
than 500 workers Were employed in the production M. K. Bailey, Elkin Furniture Co., Elkin; K. C. Bobbins, 
Of furniture. It is interesting to note that Davidson Hibriten Chair Co., Hickory; John Sobotta, National Furni- 
-, , , t j.1 t i -ii iii ture Co., Mount Airy; L. S. Gilliam, Carolina Parlor Funu- 
County topped the list With an average monthly em- ture Co-> statesviUe; Charles L. Creech, Sr., Unique Furni- 
ployment in excess of 5,000. Thomasville and Lex- ture Makers, Winston-Salem; John 1). Stockton, Fogle Fur- 
ington are the two principal furniture cities. Guil- niture Co., Winston-Salem; J. S. Lynch, B. F. Huntley Fur- 
ford ranked second in furniture employment, even niture Co., Winston-Salem; Doak Finch, Thomasville Chair 
, n n ., , . ,! i - •! .j. £ Co., Thomasville; O. E. Kearns, ot former Reams Furniture 

though it contains the principal furniture city of Co ' mgh I>oint now in textile illdustrv; c . c. Cranford, 

High Point. Also interesting is the fact that Cald- former Randolph Furniture Co., Cranford Furniture Co., and 

well County had average employment of only 30 less others, Asheboro, now in textiles. 

than Guilford County, which WOUld seem to mean Among those who loomed large in the furniture industry 

that Lpnoir tormpd HiVh Point in thp avprao-p nnmbpr in North Caio,i,,a an(1 accomplished important goals in the 

tnat Lenoir toppea mgn roint in tne average s numoer state's industrj — those who have now gone to their final 

Of employees engaged m furniture making. Catawba rewards— are: Fred N. Tate and Roland T. Holton, The 

County with the Hickory-Newton-Conover-Clare- Continental Furniture Co., High Point; S. H. and C. F. Tom- 

mont area was four on the County list in furniture linson, of Tomlinsons of High Point; William E. White, 

pmnlnvmpnt White Furniture Co., Mebane; F. H. Coffey, Kent-Coffey Mfg. 

empiuymem. ..,**, » ., Co., Lenoir; George O. Graves and J. C. Siceloff, Mount Airy 

The number of firms in the 14 larger furniture Mantel & Table Co.; B. F. Huntley, B. F. Huntley Furniture 

Counties, the average monthly employment and total Co., Winston-Salem; A. E. Smith, National Furniture Co., 

payrolls in those Counties With 500 or more workers Mount Airy; J. R. Finley, Forest Furniture Co., North 

in 1 950 follow ' Wilkesboro; E. H. Koehtitzky, C. R. Merritt and J. A. Yokley, 

Mount Airy Furniture Co. 

No. Of Av. Monthly Total Frank Huffman, Drexel Furniture Co., Morganton; Frank 

TOTALS Firms Employment Payrolls s - Lambeth, James E. and Charles Lambeth, Standard Chair 

Co., Thomasville; G. F. Harper, Harper Furniture Co., Le- 

State Total 305 32,793 $78,685,816 noiv; J. M. Earnhardt, Barnhardt Furniture Co., Lenoir; 

T. Garland Shelton, StatesviUe Chair Co.; R. A. Williams, 

Davidson 27 5,036 12,133,988 Williams & Brower, Siler City; M. A. Biggs and A. C. Click, 

Guilford 75 4,693 11,778,114 Elkin Furniture Co.; J. D. Moore, Home Chair Co., North 

Caldwell 18 4,653 11,789,886 W T ilkesboro and Ronda; L. E. Rabb and J. H. Beard, Cald- 

Catawba 48 3,817 9,084,096 well Furniture Co., Lenoir; T. F. and M. J. Wrenn, J. H. 

Burke 5 2,409 6,084,265 Tate and E. A. Snow, High Point Furniture Co.; J. E. Kirk- 
Randolph 13 1,437 2,638,803 man, Giant Furniture Co., High Point. 

Iredell... 19 1,344 2,994,663 T. J. and C. F. Finch and T. Austin Finch, Thomasville 

Forsyth 12 1,056 2,826,602 Chair Co.; Charles Hackney, Hackney Chair Co., Lexington; 

Surry 6 1,155 2,518,734 Henry Eraser, Myrtle Desk Co., High Point; J. E. Marsh, 

McDowell 1,024 2,405,039 Marsh Furniture Co., High Point; J. J. Welch, W. S. Pickett 

Wilkes r 10 992 1,901,630 and J. W. Harris, Welch Furniture Co., High Point, and 

Buncombe 4 610 1,683,276 Others. 

Alamance 7 585 1,682,404 

Mecklenburg 12 541 1,694,243 

Other 28 47 3,441 7,470,073 

ham, Rowan, Stanly, Union, Wake and Wayne. 
These 28 counties, each with less than 500 workers Data in this item relate to the major industrial 
in furniture and having about one-tenth of the State's group specifically designated as furniture and fix- 
furniture employment, are : Ashe, Alexander, Beau- tures under the following broad types of production : 
fort, Chatham, Cleveland, Cumberland, Davie, Dur- (1) household furniture; (2) office furniture; (3) 
ham, Edgecombe, Franklin, Gaston, Haywood, Lee, public building and professional furniture ; (4) par- 
Lincoln, Montgomery, Moore, Nash, New Hanover, titions, shelving, lockers, and office and store fix- 
Orange, Pasquotank, Richmond, Robeson, Rocking- (Continued on preceding page) 



Winter-Spring, 1952 

Southern Furniture Exposition Building Permanent Market 

The Southern Furniture Exposition Building, lo- 
cated in High Point, the acknowledged hub of the 
furniture industry in the South and a natural devel- 
opment of one of the state's largest industries, was 
started in 1920. It opened in 1921 a ten story build- 
ing containing a little more than 200,000 square feet. 
This furniture building or furniture mart now con- 
tains 463,890 square feet of display space, making it 
one of the larger furniture exposition buildings in 
the entire nation. 

This furniture building remains open during the 
entire year and is filled largely with exhibits of furni- 
ture and rugs produced by southern furniture and 
rug manufacturers. Twice each year in January and 
July the furniture mart is open to the hordes of buy- 
ers for furniture and department stores operating 
throughout the United States and many foreign 

The High Point furniture market was developed 
by furniture manufacturers throughout the South as 
a central point for displaying their products to rep- 
resentatives of purchasers. In 1940, after 18 years 
of operation, it was found that additional space was 
needed. Four additional floors were constructed on 
top of the 10-story building, giving an additional 
140,000 square feet of floor space. During the war 
period, December, 1942, to April, 1946, the building 
was leased and occupied by the Demobilized Records 
Branch of the Adjutant General's Office. After- 
wards the building was reconverted and renovated 
and in 1950, when additional space was acquired, an 
annex was constructed containing approximately 
124,000 square feet. 

The idea of erecting the Southern Furniture Expo- 
sition Building was conceived by Charles F. Long, a 
successful glass manufacturer and furniture sales- 
man. Its erection was a significant service to the 
furniture industry of the South and to national trade. 

Paul W. Casey 
general manager and secre- 
tary-treasurer of the South- 
ern Furniture Exposition 

Twice enlarged Southern Furniture Exposition Building show- 
ing recent ten-story addition. Permanent furniture 
displays with special shows in January and July 

The building stands as a 
monument to Mr. Long's 
vision and foresight. 

A few figures indicate the 
importance of this furni- 
ture mart. In the first spe- 
cial display in July, 1923, 
the registration was only 
772. In July, 1939, 16 
years later, the attendance 
had reached 2,229. In the 
first post-war market in 
January, 1947, attendance 
had climbed to 5,147 and in 
January, 1950, the registra- 
tion had increased to 6,379. 
A breakdown of the attend- 
ance in 1947 shows that the 

5,147 dealers present represented 3,543 stores from 
956 towns in 34 states and two foreign countries. It 
is expected that when figures for the January, 1952, 
display are compiled they will show that all previous 
records have been broken. 

In the 10-story annex completed in 1950, three new 
automatic passenger elevators were installed, in addi- 
tion to a new hydraulic truck elevator 12 feet wide 
and 42 feet long with a capacity of 35,000 pounds. 
This elevator is capable of lowering the largest truck 
vans now operated from the street level to the base- 
ment unloading area and is one of the largest ever 
built. The basement is large enough so that six 
trucks can be unloaded at the same time. 

It is significant that within the four states touched 
in a radius of 150 miles from High Point is concen- 
trated the greatest wooden household furniture area 
in the entire world. In this area is produced one- 
fifth of all of the wooden household furniture in the 
entire United States and this area accounts for more 
than 40 % of all bedroom and dining room furniture 
produced in the nation. 

Stated in another way the States of North Caro- 
lina, Virginia, Tennessee and South Carolina pro- 
duce 48.72% of all bedroom furniture and 39.5% of 
all the dining room furniture manufactured in the 
United States and produces 62%% of the dollar vol- 
ume of all household furniture manufactured in the 

The Southern Furniture Mart has become so well 
attended that means of taking care of the visitors 
poses a real problem. The splendid hotels in High 
Point and nearby Greensboro, Winston-Salem and 
Sedgefield are filled to capacity during the two weeks 
period twice a year. Overflow crowds frequently 
use the hotel space in Lexington and Asheboro, many 
of them going as far as Salisbury, Burlington and 

The Southern Furniture Exposition Building in 
High Point has developed into an important economic 
factor for the furniture industry in the South and 
especially in North Carolina, which produces ap- 
proximately one-fourth of all the furniture produced 
in 17 southern states, counting the District of Colum- 
bia and including the border states of Maryland, 
West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri with Okla- 
homa and Texas on the western border. 




State Furniture Progress Due to Woods, Labor, Initiative 

By H. C. Philpott, High Point, Former President, now Chairman of Board of 
Southern Furniture Manufacturers' Association 

H. C. Philpott 

In reviewing the history 
)f the Southern furniture 
ndustry, the question aris- 
es as to why furniture fac- 
;ories were built in this par- 
;icular section of the coun- 
ty. The answer lies, I 
;hink, in the fact that be- 
? ore the turn of the century 
;here were in most areas of 
;he South large boundaries 
)f timber, making lumber 
ivailable at low prices, and 
he fact that there was also 
in abundance of cheap labor. 

A generation ago it was not an uncommon practice 
'or large trees to be cut down and stripped of their 
)ark and the lumber, itself, left to rot in the woods, 
rhere was a market for bark at the tanneries, but 
sometimes no market for the lumber. In some areas 
t was a common practice to make rail fences from 
valnut. It is difficult for us today to realize that 
umber was so plentiful not too many years ago. 

When the first plants were built, furniture pro- 
luced in the South was, generally speaking, made 
vith cheap labor and materials, and was consequently 
sold at a very low price. As was to be expected 
mder such conditions, the quality of the product did 
lot compare to that produced by factories in such 
)ld established areas as Jamestown, New York, Rock- 
lord, Illinois, and Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

In many instances furniture factories were a nat- 
iral outgrowth of a timber or lumber operation in 
vhich the saw mill operators eventually became man- 
ufacturers of furniture on a small scale. In prac- 
tically every instance, these factories started opera- 
ions on a very modest scale, without access to out- 
side capital, and as profits were earned, these were 
)lowed back into the business, resulting in gradual 
mlargement of plants and facilities, from year to 
fear. Because of this slow but steady growth and 
;he lack of outside financing, the industry is still, by 
xmiparison, made up of small units, most of which 
ire located in small towns and rural communities, 
ocally owned. Even today absentee ownership is 
;he exception rather than the rule throughout the 
Southern furniture industry. 

By virtue of the rather wide dispersion of furni- 
;ure plants throughout North Carolina, employment 
las been made available to thousands of people who 
night otherwise not have found employment. The 
ndustry has in this respect played an important role 
n the development of a balanced industrial economy 
n North Carolina. 

The industry experienced its period of greatest 
expansion during the boom era of the 1920's. During 
;his period there was a tremendous demand for fur- 
liture, due to the home-building program after 
tVorld War I. Many new plants were built in an 

James T. Ryan 


James Thomas Ryan, High 
Point, executive vice-president 
of the Southern Furniture Man- 
ufacturers' Association, has de- 
voted more than 40 years of his 
eventful, effective and interest- 
ing life to the promotion of the 
interests of the furniture indus- 
try in the South. In addition to 
the many forms of recognition 
of his services to the industry 
where two or more furniture 
manufacturers are gathered to- 
gether, a permanent honor was 
bestowed upon him about three 
years ago when the "James T. 
Ryan Furniture Professorship" 
was established in the School of 

Furniture Manufacturing and Management at State College 
of Agriculture and Engineering in Raleigh. 

Mr. Ryan became secretary of the Southern Furniture 
Manufacturers' Association on January 1, 1912, following 
the organization of this association in August, 1911. The 
Association was a successor to the North Carolina Casegoods 
Association and the North Carolina Chair Association, both 
of which had been organized around 1902. When the South- 
ern group was organized, it was little more than a railroad 
freight bureau, its chief interest being in freight rates, 
shipment conditions and the like. Mr. Ryan's qualifications 
included a background in railroad rates. He was then trav- 
eling freight agent at Charlotte for the Clinchfield Railroad 
aivd had previously been in the Rate Department of the 
Southern Railway. 

When Mr. Ryan began his furniture duties the association 
was composed of about 40 furniture manufacturers, largely 
in North Carolina, a few in Virginia. As the furniture in- 
dustry enlarged and expanded, due in no small part to his 
activities, Mr. Ryan's duties increased. In 1942 his posi- 
tion was changed to that of executive vice-president. His 
office, with its picture gallery of furniture greats, pioneers 
and present, is located on the first floor of the Southern 
Furniture Exposition Building in High Point. Here his 
staff of helpers hold the fort when it is necessary for him to 
be away at frequent furniture conventions, exhibits and 
conferences. His association now has 400 members in 14 
southeastern and southwestern states, representing 90% of 
the furniture production in the South. 

The first secretary of the Southern Traffic League, Mr. 
Ryan was elected president of that rate organization of ship- 
pers in 1922. In 1929 he was awarded the privilege of a 
practitioner before the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
and later was elected vice-president of the Association of 
I.C.C. Practitioners. Recently Mr. Ryan spent much time 
in Washington with various Government agencies working 
out and preparing the final regulations governing the furni- 
ture industry. 

Mr. Ryan's experience and industry cause the furniture 
industry to lean heavily on him for advice and counsel and 
his ability and integrity are well and favorably known to 
railroad traffic men, Government officials and others who 
come in contact with him in any of his varied activities. 

effort to meet the demand for household furniture. 

From the time the industry was started, until the 
late '30's, few radical changes had taken place in 
machinery and in operating techniques throughout 
the industry, other than the speeding up of individual 
machines and changes such as converting from a 

Worth Carolina State Library 



Winter-Spring, 1952 

belt driven to a motor driven operation. Indeed, a 
person familiar with furniture manufacturing in the 
early 1900's would still have known his way around 
a furniture manufacturing plant in the early 1930's. 
During the late '30's, however, it became apparent 
that if certain intricate and complex products, such 
as automobiles, could be produced on a mass produc- 
tion basis, there was no reason why the same tech- 
niques might not also be applied to the furniture 
manufacturing process. Great strides have been 
made, therefore, within the past fifteen years in the 
design of woodworking machinery, in furniture fac- 
tory layout, and in the manufacturing technique it- 

For example, the drying of lumber was in former 
years a hit or miss process, sometimes requiring 
weeks and often resulting in waste of good lumber 
because of improper drying methods. Modern dry 
kilns have now reduced drying time to a matter of 
days and are controlled scientifically and automatic- 
ally so that the lumber is not only dried to the properj 
moisture content, but waste in the drying process has) 
been practically eliminated. 

The discovery, and widespread use, of waterproof 
resin glues have also had an important impact on 
the furniture manufacturing process. Gluing opera- 
( Continued on page 61) 

Important Industries Develop to Supply Furniture Needs 

By Fred Flagler, Jr., Associate Editor, Furniture South, High Point 

Supplying the various needs of the furniture in- 
dustry in North Carolina involves many, diverse en- 
terprises, from logging, lumbering, box and con- 
tainer making on through to the final coat of wax for 
the gleam that brings out the best in wooden house- 
hold furniture. 

Textile mills in North Carolina find markets for 
their wares in the furniture factories. Many yards 
of material are consumed by upholsterers. Cotton 
batting enters the picture here too as padding is 
needed for upholstered lines of furniture. 


While many of the suppliers have factories right 
here in North Carolina from which the furniture 
plants are serviced, there is still a great segment of 
the supplies that come to North Carolina furniture 
plants through branch warehouses and distributing 
points. Sandpaper and abrasives, finishing mate- 
rials, such as stains, lacquers and varnishers are 
imported from out of state. Many lacquer and paint 
plants have located in North Carolina, however, to 
service the furniture industry. And in the High 
Point area in particular one will find a great number 
of manufacturing and servicing establishments 
whose primary customers are the furniture manu- 

North Carolina of course purchases much of its 
materials, goods and services from other sources. 
But even in the machinery field, one might be sur- 
prised to learn that machine shops, and rather large 
ones at that have grown with the furniture industry, 
designing and making machinery to fill the bill of 
faster, more economical and quality furniture pro- 

Hardware for furniture is made in North Caro- 
lina too, although not on a large scale. Springs for 
seating, veneers and plywoods, glues and resins, 
screws, nails and shipping tags are all necessary for 
the modern furniture plant to produce. In fact it is 
hard to realize that one suite of furniture might rep- 
resent mahogany from the Gold Coast, core stock 
from the native lumber stocks, sandpaper from some 
northern state, screws from Ohio, stains and lacquers 
from North Carolina. 

North Carolina produces a large volume of mirrors 


In 195 2, Furniture South magazine, with executive offices 
in the Exposition Building at High Point, embarks upon its 
31st year of publication. Now a monthly journal, the pub- 
lication is devoted to the Southern furniture industry. First 
known as the Southern Furniture Journal, the publication 
was founded to serve the interests of furniture manufactur- 
ers and retailers in the southeastern states. 

Many of its editors have gone on to greater heights, in 
eluding Al Resch, now newspaper publisher in Chatham 
County; Harold Bennett, now head of Bennett Advertising 
Agency in High Point, and C. B. Houck, now operating his 
own advertising agency in Roanoke, Va. 

Present editor is Howard B. Easter and associate editoi 
is Fred Flagler, Jr. Publisher is N. I. Bienenstock. 

The magazine, though not officially connected, works 
closely with the Southern Retail Furniture Association and 
the Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association, two in 
dependent trade groups whose offices are also situated ir 
the Exposition Building. John H. Tobin is executive vice 
president of the retail group and J. T. Ryan, prominent fig 
ure in the furniture industry for many years, is the executive 
vice-president of the manufacturers' organization. — By F' 
F., Jr. 

both for retail consumption and use by manufactur 
ers on bedroom furniture, chifforobes, vanities 
chests and other similar pieces of furniture for the 

Springs alone constitute a rather healthy busines; 
in North Carolina too. Steel is fabricated by spring 
plants for springs in bedding and upholstered furni 
ture. The bedding field alone is no small operatioi 
with several native plants in operation making mat 
tresses and bedsprings with branch units of nationa 
companies doing the same thing. 

Take away the allied industries related to the proc 
esses of furniture manufacturing in North Carolina 
and you would wipe away a total amount of energy 
and activity almost equivalent in size to that of th< 
furniture industry itself. It takes many material 
to process wood into the dining room suites, bedroon 
groupings and chairs that literally pour out of Nortl 
Carolina week by week. And, as the furniture indus 
try grows in the North Carolina section, bolstered b: 
the growing prominence of the Southern Furniture 
Market, new industries will follow to serve the fur 
niture making plants. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 1 1 

Furniture Foundation Aids Instruction at State College 

By Henry A. FOSCUE, President, Furniture Foundation, Inc.; Chairman, Educational 
Committee, Southern Furniture Manufacturers' Associaltion 

Henry A. Fosctje 

An Educational Commit- 
tee was appointed by the 
Southern Furniture Manu- 
facturers' Association in 
the late summer of 1945, 
with Henry A. Foscue, High 
Point, as chairman. This 
committee worked to the 
end of establishing in the 
South an educational pro- 
gram with a two-fold pur- 

To offer young men who have a desire to enter 
the furniture industry and who have the apti- 
tude for it an opportunity to prepare them- 
selves better. 

To furnish a reservoir of technically trained 
and educated young men to which the indus- 
try may look as a source for recruits in tech- 
nical and managerial fields. 

The Committee made visits to all interested schools 
in the area, and after careful consideration of facili- 
ties and other factors, decided that the program 
should head up at North Carolina State College. The 
furniture training course was announced on October 
30, 1946, and became operative with the opening of 
the winter quarter at State College in January, 1947. 

While North Carolina State College was most co- 
operative and while the combined facilities of all 
branches at the University at Chapel Hill, Raleigh, 
and Greensboro, were placed at the disposal of the 
Educational Program, it was evident from the begin- 
ning that in order to give the course proper leader- 
ship and direction, a really top place, full time man 
should be employed to head up the program. Such a 
man could not be secured at the prevailing state sal- 
ary schedule, and after a meeting of interested per- 
sons, the Educational Committee was requested to 
try to raise funds to establish a Foundation to be 
known as the "Furniture Foundation, Inc." 

The Furniture Foundation, Inc., a non-stock, non- 
profit corporation, was formed and a charter was 
granted in December of 1947. In April of 1948 a 
meeting was held in High Point with the purpose of 
accepting the charter, adopting by-laws, and the elec- 
tion of officers and directors. The following officers 
were elected and still serve in their respective capaci- 
ties : Henry A. Foscue, president ; S. H. Millender, 
vice-president; H. C. Philpott, secretary; Tom A. 
Finch, treasurer. 

On May 28 a dinner meeting was held at the Sir 
Walter Hotel in Raleigh for the purpose of announc- 
ing formally and officially the program at North 
Carolina State College and as a testimonial honoring 
the Executive Vice-President of the Southern Furni- 
ture Manufacturers' Association, for whom the 
James T. Ryan Furniture Professorship is named. 

In announcing the James T. Ryan Professorship, 
Mr. Foscue paid Mr. Ryan the following tribute : 

The James T. Ryan Furniture Professorship, 
supported by the Furniture Foundation, Inc., 
is fittingly named for the Executive Vice- 
President of the Southern Furniture Manu- 


Henry A. Foscue, president of Globe Parlor Furniture Co. 
in High Point, was reelected president of the Furniture 
Foundation, Inc., at a meeting in High Point recently. 

Other officers include S. H. Millender, White Furniture 
Co., Mebane, vice-president; H. C. Philpott, United Furni- 
ture Co., Lexington, secretary, and Tom A. Finch, Thomas- 
ville Chair Co., Thomasville, treasurer. 

Members of the board of directors include F. J. Bolings, 
Siler City; T. L. Lingerfelt, Ramseur; J. C. Hooker, Martins- 
ville, Va. ; G. Maurice Hill, Drexel; J. W. McDowell, Mem- 
phis, Tenn.; D. L. Jordan, Roanoke, Va. ; Hampton Powell, 
Altavista, Va.; W. A. Tomlinson, High Point; J. S. Lynch, 
Winston-Salem, and C. T. Bost, Hickory. 

James T. Ryan, executive vice-president of the Southern 
Furniture Manufacturers' Association, has been honored by 
the Foundation which established the James T. Ryan Pro- 
fessorship at State College in Raleigh, which gives engi- 
neering training in the furniture manufacturing industry. 

facturers' Association, who for the past 37 
years has consecrated his time and talents to 
the progress of the Furniture Industry in the 

The quality of the things he has clone reveals 
the character of the doer. His careful impar- 
tiality in approaching problems; his inex- 
haustive patience in establishing facts; his 
open-minded and receptive attitude towards 
new ideas; his courageous and consistent ef- 
forts in accomplishing a wisely adopted course 
of action; and his high quality of character as 
a man, shining through them all, have moved 
us to honor him with this affectionate tribute, 
richly deserved. 

Mr. E. Sigurd Johnson was awarded the James T. 
Ryan Professorship and appointed to head up the 
program in "Furniture Manufacturing and Manage- 
ment." Mr. Johnson is well qualified for this posi- 
tion, having received his B.S. degree in Wood Util- 
ization at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. From 
1939 to 1942 he was plant superintendent of the 
Thomasville Chair Co. In 1942 he became Plant 
Superintendent and Production Engineer for the Air- 
craft Division of the H. J. Heinz Co. of Pittsburgh, 
where he developed methods of production for ply- 
wood aircraft frames. In 1943, at the request of the 
British Air Commission, he became assistant general 
manager of the Commonwealth Plywood Co., Ltd., 
in Quebec, where he was in charge of production of 
aircraft plywood and sub-assemblies. Since that 
time he has done consulting engineering work in 
woodworking in various factories in the Southern 

The program in Furniture Manufacturing and 
Management at North Carolina State College is now 
in its fourth year, and at the present time there are 
60 students enrolled. The first graduating class in 
the program will be available for employment in the 
Furniture Industry in June, 1952. It is anticipated 
that most of these students will be employed by fur- 
niture manufacturers, but there is an apparent de- 
mand for them by the furniture supply industries as 
well as other industries seeking men with general 
engineering and technical knowledge. 

PAGE 1 2 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

State College Offers Only Four-Year Course in Furniture 

By E. S. Johnson, Associate Professor-in-Charge, Furniture Manufacturing and Management Curricu- 
lum, Department of Industrial Engineering, N. C. State College, Raleigh. 

Complementing North Carolina's status as the 
leader in the production of furniture, North Caro- 
lina State College is the leader in educating men for 
the furniture manufacturing industry. State Col- 
lege is the only university in the United States offer- 
ing a four-year course leading to the Bachelor of 
Science degree in Furniture Manufacturing and 
Management, although two northern universities of- 
fer a furniture option in their Wood Technology de- 
partments. State College also offers a degree in 
Wood Technology, conducts extension courses for 
men in the furniture industry and conducts research 
on furniture problems. 

The furniture manufacturing program at State 
College was developed through the cooperation of the 
Southern Furniture Manufacturing Industry and 
State College. The present day leaders of this former 
craft industry realize that recent technological ad- 
vances and changing labor relations have created an 
unusual demand for trained technicians and admin- 
istrative personnel. 

Recognizing the need for an educational program 
to furnish such trained personnel, the members of the 
Southern Furniture Manufacturing Industry have 
established on a voluntary basis the Furniture Foun- 
dation, Inc. The purpose of this Foundation is to 
provide educational and research facilities for the 
Furniture industry. The Foundation is now support- 
ing the James T. Ryan Furniture Professorship at 
North Carolina State College. 

It is the purpose of the four-year curriculum offer- 
ing the degree of Bachelor of Science in Furniture 
Manufacturing to prepare graduates for technical, 
supervisory and management positions in the furni- 
ture industry. 

The program of study is arranged so as to empha- 
size the basic and fundamental principles essential to 
an engineering college program, yet provide broad- 
ening courses in the humanities. Graduates of this 
program will not only be prepared for engineering 
responsibilities and positions of trust in the furni- 
ture industry, but will have an appreciation and con- 
sciousness of human problems in community and in- 
dustrial life. 


Because of the present lack of trained engineers in 
the furniture industry to give on-the-job training to 
the newly employed graduates, the college must em- 
phasize strongly the application of engineering prin- 
ciples to the problems peculiar to the furniture in- 
dustry. Therefore, the entire program has been 
especially designed to teach the basic fundamentals 
of every phase of furniture manufacturing. Al- 
though existing courses are used wherever they ful- 
fill the requirements of this program, new courses 
have been developed, or existing courses modified 
where necessary, to give the students the education 
needed in furniture manufacturing. 

The program is administered by the Industrial 
Engineering Department in the School of Engineer- 
ing. A number of courses are given in the Industrial 

Engineering Department, while others are given by 
the Mechanical Engineering Department, the Elec- 
trical Engineering Department, the Division of 
Forestry, the School of Textiles and the Division of 
Basic Studies. 

The first year students take the regular basic cur- 
riculum required of all freshman engineering stu- 
dents at State College. The second year students 
continue their study of the basic sciences, and begin 
their training in the fundamentals of woodworking 
and industrial engineering. The third and fourth 
year students continue the study of woodworking 
and industrial engineering with particular emphasis 
on the application of these subjects to the furniture 

Labor relations, accounting, marketing and other 
business management courses complete a curriculum 
which gives the graduate a sound preparation for an 
engineering, supervisory or management position 
with a furniture manufacturer. 

The laboratory facilities at North Carolina State 
College are particularly well suited for instruction in 
furniture manufacturing. The Industrial Engineer- 
ing shops teach machine shop practice and saw filing 
and knife grinding. The engineering Motion and 
Time Studv and drafting laboratories are well eauip- 
ped for efficient instruction. The Forestry College 
has a modern dry kiln, veneer and plvwood and fin- 
ishing equipment for instruction in these processes. 
A new wood shop is now being built which will be 
iointlv operated bv the Industrial Engineering and 
Wood Technology departments. 

To supplement the classroom lectures and labora- 
tory work, the students are required to visit furni- 
ture plants to see how the theories of furniture manu- 
facture are carried out in practice. After a particu- 
lar subject has been covered in class, plants are vis- 
ited to see how that problem is handled in actual 
operation. Upon return to the college, the subject 
is reviewed in the light of both theory and practice. 


In addition to these short visits to plants, students 
are required to work a minimum of six weeks in a 
furniture plant during the summer. This experience 
not only gives practical meaning to and understand- 
ing for the classroom work, but also affords the stu- 
dent and the industry opportunity to get acquainted 
with each other. 

To emphasize the practical problems of furniture 
manufacture, visiting lecturers are brought to the 
college at periodic intervals. Recognized authorities 
in the furniture industry lecture, illustrate and dis- 
cuss such subjects as furniture design, pricing, mar- 
keting, plant layout, equipment, production, material 
procurement, accounting, safety, wages, training and 
other industrial management matters. An aware- 
ness of these existing problems enables the student 
better to understand and profit by the courses of 
study dealing with these subjects. 

Upon completion of the four year course, gradu- 
ates are prepared to go into a furniture factory as a 



PAGE 1 3 

rainee for production engineering or production 
upervision or to become a sales engineer for one of 
he companies supplying the furniture industry with 
naterials or equipment. 


The first regular class graduates in June, 1952. 
/[anufacturers have indicated so much interest in 
hese men that they all will be employed in the f urni- 
ure industry if they so desire. 

In addition to the regular four year course, a per- 
on with particular interest in certain subjects can 
nter the furniture program as a special student, 
^.ny mature person whose educational needs are not 
net by prescribed curricula may be admitted as a 
pecial student to pursue courses of study which suit 
lis purpose, provided the purpose is serious and the 
tudent can supply evidence of capacity to complete 
he work satisfactorily. Courses elected by special 
tudents do not carry credit toward a degree and 
nust have the approval of the Dean. Special stu- 
lents are on probation to pass all their work each 

The Extension Division at State College, in coop- 
eration with the academic departments, offers a 
variety of special educational services for those 
vhose situation does not permit or require registra- 
ion as a regular student. 

These services include on-campus short courses, 
nstitutes, work shops, and conferences running from 
t few days to several weeks. Short courses are held 
>n the campus when use of regular university in- 
stallations is necessary for successful instruction. 
>uch courses are especially built to fit particular 
leeds. They do not carry college credit, and they 
lave their own schedule of expenses. 

Projects are worked out in cooperation with the 
'urniture industry. Conferences and short courses 
ire planned on the management and control of furni- 

ture manufacture. Courses given have included 
Methods-Time-Measurement, Lumber Grading, Kiln 
Drying, Gluing and Furniture Finishing. 

In addition to on-campus short courses, the Exten- 
sion Division organizes evening classes for on-the- 
job employees when the demand warrants and facili- 
ties permit. Such classes are usually held in a con- 
venient industrial center — sometimes in public build- 
ings, sometimes in an industrial plant. 

Finally, the Extension Division offers industrial 
correspondence instruction in a limited number of 
fields. Correspondence courses usually carry college 
credit of a specified amount. 

Graduate students in engineering and forestry 
engage in directed research as part of their training. 
Many scientific findings of value to the industry can 
come from the support of graduate study. 


Regular faculty members and special investigators 
carry on advanced research projects with the finan- 
cial assistance of industry. The Department of En- 
gineering Research at North Carolina State College 
contracts for research projects with industry. The 
Southern Furniture Manufacturers' Association 
sponsored such a research project during 1950-1951. 
This project covered cost savings possible from the 
accurate machining of wood parts to definite toler- 
ances. Research programs of this type should pay 
long term dividends to the furniture industry. 

Throughout this report on the educational program 
at North Carolina State College the cooperation of 
the Furniture Manufacturing Industry was repeated- 
ly mentioned. The program is definitely pointed to- 
wards the needs of industry and is industry sponsor- 
ed. In addition to the illustrations already mention- 
ed, the furniture industry offers several scholarships 
to young men going into this program. The influx 
of technically trained young men into the furniture 
industry should help considerably in improving the 
efficiency of furniture manufacture. 

High Point Known as Hub of Southern Furniture Industry 

High Point, long recognized as the hub or the cen- 
er of the furniture industry in North Carolina and 
he South, with its far famed Southern Exposition 
Building, was once known as the "Grand Rapids of 
he South". Since High Point has far surpassed 
ler mid-western namesake, the city can well be dub- 
)ed the "High Point of the United States" in furni- 
ure manuafcturing. 

High Point has been engaged in the manufacture 
>f furniture since 1888. Even before that time it 
seems that Peter Thurston and two nearby neighbors 
)f the near and now extinct Browntown, "Uncle 
Billy" Pickford and Gus Jones, were operating cab- 
net shops. Local citizens interested in erecting a 
'urniture factory in High Point were able to secure 
i superintendent from a plant in Charlotte that had 
'ailed and the present vast furniture industry had 
ts real beginning. Development of the industry has 
)een rapid and substantial. High Point now pro- 
luces a complete line of wooden household furniture 
is well as office and institutional furniture. 

Guilford County has a list of 83 furniture plants, 
f5 of which are covered by the Employment Security 
^.ct, which means that they have eight or more em- 


The picture shows the world's largest bureau, a symbol of 

one of High Point's most 
important industries. 
This bureau was built in 
1926 and from Septem- 
ber of that year until 
January, 1951, served as 
the office of the High 
Point Chamber of Com- 
merce. This bureau is 
32 feet high, including 
the 16 foot high mirror 
on the top, is 27 feet 
wide and 14 feet deep. 
Due to action of wind 
and rain the mirror 
broke from its fasten- 
ings and fell on top of 
the bureau in 1949. The 
High Point Chamber of 
Commerce moved into more commodious quarters the first of 
last year and last August the bureau was presented to the 
High Point Junior Chamber of Commerce. It was loaded on a 
huge truck and moved five blocks to Hamilton Street at Howell 
Street. The mirror has been more permanently attached and 
the bureau is now being used as both State and local offices for 
the Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

PAGE 14 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Darby group in nylon fabric, Furniture by Tomlinson 
of High Point. 

ployees. Of these plants, 69 are in High Point, 11 in 
Greensboro, two in Pleasant Garden and one in 
Jamestown. Records show that 24 of these plants 
had from 50 to 100 employees ; nine had from 101 to 
250 employees; two had between 251 and 500 em- 
ployees and one plant employed more than 500 work- 

Payroll figures from Employment Security Com- 
mission records show that Guilford County in 1950 
had an average monthly employment of 4,693 furni- 
ture workers with total annual payrolls of $11,778,- 
114. Probably 90% to 95% of this is in High Point. 

Even with its reputation as a furniture center, 
High Point has become even more important as a 
hosiery and textile city. Only around one-third to 
one-fourth of the city's manufacturing employment 
is engaged in furniture production. 


Tomlinson of High Point, Inc., nationally famous 
furniture firm, had its beginning in 1900 with the 
organization by Sidney Halstead Tomlinson of the 
Tomlinson Chair Manufacturing Co. The paid-in 
capital was $8,000, operations beginning in a one- 
story sheet iron building containing 18,000 square 
feet of floor space and employing eight workers. The 

From Master Meter Pattern, 24 exact duplicates can be made by 
this multiple carving machine, Tomlinson of High Point. 

first year the volume of business was $48,000. 

In 1904 Sidney H. Tomlinson persuaded his bro- 
ther, Charles F. Tomlinson, to join him as secretary- 
treasurer. This started a partnership which lasted 
39 years and was terminated by the sudden death 
of C. F. Tomlinson early in 1943 while he was pre- 
siding over a directors' meeting of the High Point, 
Thomasville and Denton Railroad. Sidney H. Tom- 
linson continued to head the company until his death 
in 1949, following a stroke in 1944 while on a busi- 
ness trip to Philadelphia. 

Assembling and finishing chairs was the principal 
activity in the beginning. During its successful 
operation the company in 1911 bought the Globe- 
Home Furniture Co., then the largest furniture pro- 
ducing firm in the South. The Tomlinson plant, then 
occupying a city block, was completely remodeled 
in the next four years. In 1916 Tomlinson began to 
design matched period suites for dining room and 
living room, one of the leading firms to sense the 
broadened American tastes leading toward that 
trend. Finer adaptations of 18th Century, English, 
French and American styles were developed, thus 
preserving the American traditions and transmitting 
it into modern life. 

Tomlinson developed in 1918 the idea of display 

mm J&m 

Aerial view of the Tomlinson of High Point plant containing more than 500,000 square feet of production space in producing qualiti 

living room, dining room and bedroom furniture 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 15 

Modern plant of 53-year-old firm, Myrtle Desk Co., High Point 

ng this fine furniture in gallery form, thus originat- 
ng a method which influenced the entire furniture 
ndustry. In 1927 the present exhibition and main 
•ffice building of Tomlinson on High Street, High 
3 oint, was completed, making it one of the furniture 
how places of the South. In 1934 Tomlinson be- 
ame the first furniture tenant of the largest display 
wilding in the world, the Merchandise Mart, Chi- 
ago. Tomlinson's own display area now comprises 
!5,000 square feet of floor space, set up in room 
cenes in living room, dining room and bedroom fur- 
liture on constant display ; of this more than 10,000 
quare feet are utilized in the permanent display at 
he Chicago Merchandise Mart. 

In 1946 Tomlinson craftshops, woodworking and 
nachine shops, located on both Hamilton and High 
Streets, were consolidated into one operation in the 
nam plant on High Street. In following years 
ground $1,000,000 was spent for improvements, the 
)lant now being considered one of the most efficiently 
danned in the furniture industry. All phases of pro- 
luction, from receiving raw lumber in the yards to 
he finished creation on the exhibit floor, are per- 
ormed in light, bright, modern craftshops. 

A fine spirit of enthusiasm and teamwork exists 
;t Tomlinson, resulting from several important de- 
r elopments in the plant relations program. Four 
ervice groups for those who have served the firm 
ontinuously for five years or more in plant, offices 
ind sales work were founded. The present 200 em- 
)loyees in these groups have a record of 3,233 years 
if continuous service with the firm. Top honor group 
s the Diamond Guard, workers with record of serv- 
ce for 30 years or more, several of whom have been 
ontinuously employed for 40 years or more. Tom- 
inson's payroll list more than 500 craftshop em- 

The team spirit, existing at Tomlinson, resulted in 
vinning the National Security Award and made pos- 
ible a National Woodworking Record of nearly three 
nillion man hours without a loss 
>f time accident. Incentive for 
hinking on the job, as a result 
>f the suggestion system in oper- 

ition for many years, results in ^btjpppl 

food idea awards ranging from 
>5 to as much as $2,280. Other 
>enefits to Tomlinson employees 
nclude a plant site canteen 
»wned by the employees, vaca- 
ion with pay, publication of the 
)lant newspaper "Tomlinson Fluorgraphic view of the plant of the Alma Desk Co., High Point. 

News", group insurance and hos- 
pitalization at an extremely low 

All furniture by Tomlinson is 
fabricated from raw lumber to 
the finished product. Base woods 
include Honduras and Philippine 
mahogany, African mahogany 
veneers, cherry, walnut, oak, 
poplar, maple and hackberry, 
with veneers of Celtis, Korina, 
cherry, walnut and comb-grain. 

Present leading products in 
Furniture by Tomlinson include 
American Informal group for 
living room, dining room, bed- 
room ; Parkway Terrace groups for living room, din- 
ing room, bedroom; Standard of Value sofas and 
chairs; Darby group sofas and chairs; Canterbury 
group sofas and chairs; Modern dining room and 
bedroom groups; Traditional bedroom groups; the 
Gainsborough chair ; the Cinderella bedroom group ; 
the Essex group sofas and chairs. 

Tomlinson's high position in the furniture world 
has been obtained through substantial and steady 
growth from its modest beginning. A visit through 
the buildings, including the impressive offices, the 
artistically designed display rooms and galleries and 
into the craftshops, impresses the visitor of this 
wonderful development. 

Among Tomlinson "firsts" was a four-color review 
of the Tomlinson exhibit in the Merchandise Mart by 
Fortune magazine. The display of furniture by 
Tomlinson at the Merchandise Mart was also the 
scene of the first television program covered on fur- 
nishings and furniture at the International Market 
in January, 1948. Many leading home and women's 
magazines have featured Tomlinson editorially as 
examples of good design and value for the American 
way of life, including Life magazine, House Beauti- 
ful, House and Garden, Woman's Home Companion, 
Ladies' Home Journal, Today's Women and others. 

Furniture by Tomlinson is distributed from coast 
to coast, extending also into Canada, Puerto Rico, 
the West Indies and Hawaii. A field staff of more 
than 20 salesmen cover the entire area in contacting 
furniture outlets. 

Present officers of Tomlinson of High Point in- 
clude William A. Tomlinson, who has been a member 
of the organization since 1922 and served as director, 
vice-president, and executive vice-president from his 
father's illness in 1944 until he became president in 
1949 ; Sidney H. Tomlinson, Jr., member of the or- 
ganization since 1924 and director and vice-president 
since 1938 ; P. J. Neal, with the organization since 
1930 and secretary-treasurer since 1947. 

PAGE 1 6 


Winter-Spring, 1952 




■ i &&MMMi&&4 

Widespread plant of The Continental Furniture Co., High Point. 

Tomlinson has followed the precept of its founder 
in its program of establishing customer confidence in 
these words : 

"He who builds for progress builds not for 

himself alone but for posterity". 

(Data from Robert Barr, Advertising Manager) 


Myrtle Desk Co., Inc., was organized in 1899 by 
Henry W. Fraser as Myrtle Furniture Co. The origi- 
nal plant employing less than 50 workers manufac- 
tured bedroom suites, oak china closets, and ladies' 
writing desks. In about a year the firm changed its 
production to roll-top and flat-top office desks of the 
old full base variety then in vogue. Five years after 
it started, Myrtle Desk Co. products took first prize 
at the St. Louis World's Fair in 1904. 

Present stockholders purchased the company from 
Mr. Fraser in March, 1923. Since that time opera- 
tion of the company has been in charge of W. T. 
Powell who continues as secretary, treasurer and 
general manager. In the 28 years of operation Mr. 
Powell has built up a strong production and execu- 
tive organization. In the staff are John W. Austin, 
Jr., general superintendent in charge of production; 
E. A. Hatcher, Jr., auditor, in charge of purchasing 
and accounting departments; C. T. Latimer, Jr., han- 
dling institutional furniture sales; and T. R. Pitts, 
sales manager, in charge of office furniture sales. 

Myrtle Desk Co. has continued to expand through 
the years until it has a thoroughly modern and com- 
plete plant occupying 250,000 square feet of floor 
space. In 1926 a wing increased the capacity of the 
machine room and cabinet room. A new finishing 
and shipping building with 60,000 square feet of 
floor space was erected in 1928. In 1947 a new 
brick and concrete building with about 40,000 square 
feet of floor space was erected to house the plywood 
department which was equipped with thoroughly 

French Provincial bedroom suite, solid magnolia, fruitwood 
finish, by The Continental Furniture Co., High Point. 

modern machinery. A new pow- 
er plant with two 250 horse 
power boilers was erected in the 
same year. In fact in the past 
five years the company has spent 
one half a million dollars in mak- 
ing the Myrtle Desk Co. one of 
the most complete and thorough- 
ly modern plants in the nation. 

Myrtle Desk Co. manufactures 
a complete line of office furniture 
ranging from square leg clerical 
desks to executive suites in both 
Modern and Traditional designs 
and finishings. Institutional 
furniture of various types also is 
produced. The company pioneered in developing a 
cigarette burn-proof wooden desk top and used it ex- 
clusively in all items in the Pacemaker Series until 
the first of this year when government regulations 
prevented the use of aluminum foil in manufacturing 
these tops. 

Offices of the company are models in modern office 
furniture and its show rooms, containing 2,000 
square feet of floor space, illustrate how many types 
of offices should be furnished. 


The Alma Desk Co., Inc., of High Point, located on 
a site which has been devoted to woodworking since 
1881, is the successor of the Alma Furniture Co., 
which was purchased by the late Charles E. Hay- 
worth in 1923. Soon thereafter, the name was chang- 
ed to the Alma Desk Co. and for more than a quarter 
century has been recognized for its leadership in the 
production of fine wood office furniture, living up to 
its slogan "Wise Economy". 

Following the death of Charles E. Hayworth in 
1928, the management responsibilities were assumed 
by his wife, Mrs. Myrtle Hayworth, who carried out 
his objectives until she relinquished them to the four 
sons of the late Charles E. Hayworth. 

Officers of the corporation are the mother, now 
Mrs. Myrtle H. Barthmaier, president, and her four 
sons : Charles B. Hayworth, Jr., secretary and treas- 
urer; John Richard Hayworth, vice-president; Jos- 
eph A. Hayworth, assistant general manager ; David 
Robert Hayworth, assistant sales manager. 

The firm has expanded and extended its operations 
until it now utilizes about 125,000 square feet of floor 
space and employs approximately 300 workers. 

The Alma Desk Co. manufactures a complete line 
of office desks with companion pieces, principally in 
oak, walnut and mahogany with occasional deviation 
as the market demands. Its products are distributed 
throughout the United States, being carried as stock 
items by practically all leading office furniture 
stores. Permanent displays are maintained in High 


The Continental Furniture Co., High Point, last 
year celebrated its 50th anniversary, having been 
organized and incorporated November 30, 1901. The 
key man in the organization and a civic leader for 
half a century was Fred N. Tate, who served as presi- 
dent, treasurer and general manager from 1901 to 
1945. Mr. Tate interested other High Point citizens 
in his enterprise which had an original authorized 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 1 7 

capital of $30,000, of which $15,000 was paid-in. 
The first order of "Continental Superior Quality" 
furniture was shipped in August, 1902. Fire de- 
stroyed the main building six months after business 
was started. Mr. Tate brought in additional capital 
and a new building was erected. 

After successful leadership in the enterprise and 
many other community projects for 45 years, Mr. 
Tate relinquished leadership in 1945 to Roland T. 
Holton. Mr. Holton had joined the firm in 1916 as a 
salesman and soon after became assistant general 
manager. In 1920 he was elected vice-president 
continuing as assistant general manager and later 
became general manager. Following Mr. Tate's 
death in 1946, Mr. Holton was elected president of 
the company and continued to serve as general man- 
ager until his death in 1950. 

Continental's third president is Alan W. Detweiler, 
who became president and general manager January 
1, 1951, following Mr. Holton's death. Mr. Detweiler 
had been with Continental since 1947, having been 
the firm's eastern representative in New York. Stock 
in the corporation is closely held primarily by mem- 
bers of the Tate and Holton families. Other officers 
include Mrs. Kathryn Tate Mann and Mrs. Roland 
T. Holton, vice-presidents, and Mrs. Mary A. Dick- 
ens, secretary-treasurer. 

Continental takes just pride in its long history of 
successful operation and in the large number of em- 
ployees who have been with the firm through many 
of its notable years. Last November 30 a dinner was 
held honoring old members, chief of whom was 
James M. Teague, general superintendent, who had 
been with the firm during all of its 50 years of opera- 
tion. The firm boasts of 13 father-and-son combina- 
tions, some of whose period of service range as high 
as 80 years. Among individual workers five have 
more than 40 years of service ; 33 have served more 
than 20 years ; 55 have service records exceeding 10 
years, and more than 100 have been on the payroll in 
excess of five years. 

Continental designs and manufactures fine bed- 
room furniture exclusively and in solid woods only. 
Products include 18th Century, Early American and 
French Provincial styles, produced from Honduras 
mahogany, solid cherry, solid maple and solid mag- 
nolia. Continental has a splendid nation-wide repu- 
tation for quality bedroom furniture at moderate 

Continental furniture is sold throughout the Unit- 
ed States, 22 salesmen covering the area. Permanent 
displays are maintained in Chicago and in High Point 
in Continental's show rooms, covering 3000 to 4000 
square feet of space. 

It is noteworthy that the Continental Furniture 
Co., operating on the same site on which it started, 
has been operating on an overtime basis of 50 hours 
a week for the last eleven or twelve years. 


Globe Parlor Furniture Co., High Point, was or- 
ganized and incorporated in 1906 by Allen Tomlin- 
son, who served as president until his death a few 
years later. He was succeeded by A. S. Caldwell, 
who continued to head the firm until his death in 
1935. At that time T. V. Rochelle, who had served 
for many years as secretary, was elected president, 
serving as such for 15 years until his death in 1950. 

Pinehurst Provincial sofa, by Globe Parlor Furniture 
Co., High Point. 

C. R. Barrier, who had started early with the firm, 
became secretary, later was elected treasurer also, 
and in 1935 became vice-president, a position he still 

Henry A. Foscue, who joined Globe Parlor in 1926 
as sales manager and who had become secretary also 
in 1935, was elected president in 1950 to succeed Mr. 
Rochelle. Mr. Barrier continues as vice-president 
and treasurer of the firm and Mrs. C. R. Barrier is 
secretary. These officers with Mrs. Henry A. Foscue 
compose the Board of Directors. 

Globe Parlor started with an authorized capital of 
$100,000, about $25,000 of which was paid in when 
the plant started operation. Today capital assets are 
approximately $350,000 while annual sales have now 
reached in excess of $2,000,000. The plant occupies 
about 111,000 square feet of floor space and employs 
around 200 workers with an annual payroll of ap- 
proximately $750,000.00. 

Globe Parlor's important line of "Colony Court", 
living room furniture is produced in both Traditional 
and Modern, and is largely of solid Honduras ma- 
hogany but with some lines in gum and other selected 

Globe Parlor products are sold over the entire 
United States, 20 salesmen covering the area. Per- 
manent displays are maintained at the Southern Fur- 
niture Exposition Building in High Point and in the 
company's own show rooms. 

Henry A. Foscue, president of Globe Parlor, is 
also president of the Furniture Foundation, an or- 
ganization of Southern furniture manufacturers 
which supports and promotes the furniture courses 
conducted at North Carolina State College, Raleigh. 
Mr. Foscue, in an article in this issue, describes the 
origin and organization of the Furniture Foundation. 

Colony Tables, Inc. 

Colony Tables, Inc., High Point, owned and con- 
trolled by Globe Parlor Furniture Co., was organized 
and incorporated in 1947 for the purpose of manu- 
facturing tables for the parent organization. Colony 
Tables manufactures living room tables only, em- 
ploying about 40 workers in the plant. Officers are 

D. O. Ward, president and treasurer, C. R. Barrier, 
vice-president, and Henry A. Foscue, secretary. 


Heritage Furniture Company, Inc., was organized 
in 1937 by Elliott S. Wood, and operations were be- 
gun in an upstairs rented space with only a few em- 

PAGE 18 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Living room suite of the Heritage-Henredon line by Heritage 
Furniture Co., High Point. 

The firm was incorporated in 1939 with Mr. Wood 
as president and general manager, a position he still 
retains. Other officers are : John K. Dwyer, vice- 
president and sales manager ; Melvin A. Binney, vice- 
president in charge of merchandising; Tilman B. 
Thomas, secretary-treasurer; and Mrs. Juanita T. 
Barber, assistant secretary-treasurer. 

The company's main offices and High Point show- 
room are located at 1690 English Street and occupy 
approximately 7,000 square feet. The upholstery 
plant which produces upholstered living room furni- 
ture is located at 911 Broad Street and covers ap- 
proximately 60,000 square feet. 

The table plant, which was originally located at 
the English Street address now occupied by the 
offices and showroom, moved to a new plant in 
Mocksville in 1947. This plant was designed and 
built to provide the utmost efficiency and is said to 
be one of the most modern manufacturing plants in 
the South. There, a complete line of living room and 
occasional tables is manufactured. The table plant 
building contains approximately 85,000 square feet 
of floor space. 

Heritage Furniture is sold nation-wide to Depart- 
ment and Furniture stores and has its own sales 
staff. In addition to the High Point showroom, the 
firm maintains a permanent display at the Merchan- 
dise Mart in Chicago. 


Silver Craft Furniture Co., 914 Millis St., High 
Point, was organized in 1944 as The Craft Shop, en- 
gaged in making a low priced line of chairs. After 
about a year, the plant was purchased by Phillip A. 
Silver and his wife, Mrs. Sylvia Silver, and in 1945 
the plant was enlarged. It had started with about 20 
employees. In 1950 a larger plant was purchased 
and the next year the firm was incorporated. Officers 
include P. A. Silver, president and general manager, 
Mrs. Sylvia Silver, vice-president, and Norman H. 

Silver, a son, became secre- 
tary-treasurer on entering 
the business after complet- 
ing his college course. 

Silver Craft has an au- 
thorized capital of $100,000 
with $65,000 outstanding. 
The plant and equipment is 
valued at around $75,000. 
Annual sales of the firm 
have increased until they 
rincess chair, hand approach $1,000,000 The 
tufted by SilverCraft Fur- firm occupies about 27,000 
niture Co., High Point. square feet of floor space 

and employs around 
100 workers, the an- 
nual payroll ranging 
between $150,000 
and $160,000. 

Silver Craft pro- 
ducts are made in 
the popular and 
higher priced rang- 
es, including chairs, 
sofas, love seats and 
sectionals. Products 
are high styled in 
both Traditional and 
Modern lines. Oak 
used for the 


Foam rubber club chair manufactur- 
ed by Carson's, Incorporated, 
frames and poplar High Point. 

and maple for the exposed and finished parts. Silver 
Craft products are shipped to every state in the 
Union and 18 salesmen cover the area. About 75% 
of the distribution is through department stores and 
25 % through the high type furniture stores. Perma- 
nent displays are maintained in Chicago, High Point, 
and San Francisco. 


Carson's, Incorporated, Prospect Road, High 
Point, was organized in 1944 by Carson C. Stout as 
individual owner, after 10 years as superintendent of 
a plant of the National Upholstery Co., owned and 
operated by his uncle, R. B. Culler. In 1946 Carson's 
was incorporated with Carson C. Stout as president, 
Mrs. Helen M. Stout, his wife, as vice-president, and 
Walter E. Crissman (inactive), secretary. 

Carson's has an authorized capital of $100,000, 
owned almost entirely by the Stout family. Annual 
sales have developed until they are now close to 
$1,000,000. The plant employs about 100 workers 
with an annual payroll of around $170,000. The firm 
utilizes 45,000 square feet of floor space, including 
a new building containing 12,000 square feet of 
space which was completed by the end of last year. 

Living room furniture is produced exclusively, 
largely of the promotional type, by means of which 
retailers are enabled to increase their volume of 
sales. Products include also club chairs, love seats 
and odd sofas. 

Carson's covers the entire United States in its 
sales direct to retailers and syndicated retail stores, 
15 salesmen covering the area. A fleet of four trucks 
delivers practically all of the products. Permanent 
displays are maintained in Chicago and New York 
and in the plant's display space of 2,000 square feet. 


Dallas, Incorporated, was organized in 1932 as the 
Furniture City Upholstering Co. by J. Sanders Dal- 
las. Mr. Dallas, who had started with the Knox 
Furniture Manufacturing Co. and had also worked 
for Williams-Norris Corp., started the new plant in 
rented space with about a dozen employees. The 
name was changed in 1945 to Dallas, Incorporated. 
Present officers are the same as those elected under 
the earlier corporative name, including J. Sanders 
Dallas, president and general manager; Mrs. J. S. 
Dallas, vice-president, and J. D. McCrery, secretary 
and treasurer. 

The firm employs 140 workers. The plant occu- 
pies 135,000 square feet of floor space. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 19 

Dallas lays claim to being the 
largest firm in the southeastern 
area devoted exclusively to the 
manufacture of living room fur- 
niture. Products of the firm cov- 
er the southeast and southwest 
while sales are extending rapid- 
ly into the mid-west and far 
west. A sales force of 18 covers 
the area of distribution. Perma- 
nent display spaces are maintained in High Pont 
and in the firm's own show rooms, covering about 
7,000 square feet of floor space. 

Dallas living room furniture is produced in 18th 
Century, Modern and Contemporary, the latter an 
adaptation of Traditional lines to present day uses. 
This furniture ranges from moderate to high priced 
lines. Products are made from selected hardwoods, 
including Honduras mahogany, oak and hackberry 


(Article prepared; omitted at request of manage- 
ment) . 


Welsh Furniture Co., 118 Mallory St., High Point, 
was organized in 1900 and operated for about 35 
years by members of the Welsh family. The firm 
was incorporated a year after its organization. In 
1935 the firm was purchased by J. S. Pickett and is 
still owned by his estate and relatives. Present offi- 
cers include Mrs. Flossie Shaw, whose husband was 
a stockholder and officer, president ; Mrs. Pearl West, 
widow of J. S. Pickett, secretary-treasurer, and J. B. 
Lovelace, vice-president. J. L. Beck, formerly with 
Tomlinsons of High Point, is general manager of the 

Welsh Furniture Co. has an authorized capital 
stock of $100,000 with about $65,000 outstanding. 
Annual production is around $750,000. The firm oc- 
cupies 68,000 square feet of floor space and employs 
from 115 to 120 workers with an annual payroll of 
approximately $200,000. 

This firm produces bedroom furniture only, includ- 
ing 18th Century, Colonial and Borax, among them 
heavy solid wood four poster beds. Principal wood 
used is tupelo gum, but the firm has also developed 
a popular line in Western Carolina white knotty pine. 

Welsh products are sold largely in the southeastern 
states, 12 salesmen covering the area. Permanent 
displays are maintained in High Point and in the 
plant's own show rooms. 

Convertaicay bed, opening into full size bed with, inner spring 
mattress, by Burton Upholstery Co., High Point. 

Large living room furniture plant of Dallas, Inc., High Point. 


Burton Upholstery Co., Inc., High Point, was or- 
ganized in May, 1933, with R. Allen Burton as pres- 
ident and general manager ; C. L. Burton, his brother, 
as vice-president, and N. W. Bean as secretary. When 
the firm started, it had capital of less than $1,000, 
had six employees, and operated in a building 30 x 75 
feet. The Burton brothers continue as principal offi- 
cers and L. J. Monroe, who joined the firm soon after 
it started, is now secretary and treasurer. These 
three officers compose the Board of Directors. 

The Burton firm has developed until its annual 
sales reach approximately $900,000. The firm now 
occupies about 27,000 square feet of floor space and 
the plant and equipment are entirely modern. The 
firm employs an average of 75 workers and its annual 
payroll is approximately $140,000. 

Living room furniture is produced exclusively, in- 
cluding two or three piece suites and sofa beds, pro- 
duced from solid hardwoods, largely oak with some 
gum and poplar. 

Burton Upholstery Co. sells its products over the 
southeastern states, eight salesmen covering the ter- 
ritory. Permanent displays are maintained in High 

President R. Allen Burton is also president of four 
other firms, two of which furnish supplies for Bur- 
ton and other plants. These are Johnson Frame Co. 
and Johnson Hinge Co., and also of Bur-Mon Uphol- 
stering Co. and Security Upholstering Co., all located 
in High Point. 


Universal T/V Furniture Manufacturing Co., Inc., 
409 Reed Street, High Point, was organized in 1946 
as the Universal Co. as a partnership owned by Mur- 
ray J. Abeles and C. A. Troutman. It is a successor 
to Briggs Manufacturing Co. and is using the rebuilt 
plant occupied by this firm. In April, 1950, the firm 
was incorporated with Murray J. Abeles, president, 
C. A. Troutman, secretary and treasurer, and J. E. 
Lyons, vice-president. These officers form the Board 
of Directors. 

Universal T/V, said to be 
the world's largest manu- 
facturer of television ta- 
bles, produces tables from 
mahogany and gum and Ap- 
palachian oak with lime fin- 
ish and television bases and 
cabinets of the same mate- 
rials. This firm produces 
television furniture for all 
of the leading television 
manufacturers, including mmmmmsmsmmm 

Philco. Crosley General ^t^le^VvZ 
Electric, Westinghouse, CB versa i T/v Mfg. Co., 

S, Sylvania and Spartan, as High Point. 

PAGE 20 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

well as to all authorized distributors for these firms. 
It has also added a special line of television tables 
for department stores. 

Universal T/V distributes its products nationwide, 
18 salesmen covering the area. Warehouses are op- 
erated in Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco, 
and permanent displays are maintained at television 
and furniture marts in Chicago, New York, High 
Point and San Francisco. 


Casard Furniture Mfg. Corp., 507 E. Russell St., 
High Point, was organized and incorporated in 1948 
by Arthur Cassell, who is secretary-treasurer, and 

Herman W. Bernard, who is 
president. The name comes 
from the first part of Cas- 
sell's and the latter part of 
Bernard's names. 

The Casard plant and 
equipment has a valuation 
of around $100,000, and an- 
nual sales approach $1,000,- 
000. The firm employs from 
80 to 90 workers and the 
annual payroll is in the 
neighborhood of $250,000. 
This firm produces tele- 
vision tables and accesso- 
ries but no cabinets. It pro- 
duces an assortment of ta- 
bles for television sets in- 
cluding the swivel type in 
decorative styles. Also produced are an assortment of 
occasional tables, including coffee, lamp, end, step, 
commode, and tea carts, telephone benches and rec- 
ord album cabinets. Occasional tables are made from 
mahogany veneers and gum and poplar rails and 
legs, some also having plastic tops. Similar woods 
are used in television tables and accessories. 

Casard products are sold over the entire United 
States but largely in the southeast, east and mid- 
west, fewer shipments going to the far west. Twelve 
salesmen cover the area of distribution. Permanent 
exhibits are maintained in Chicago and High Point. 


Moffitt, Incorporated, 300 Mallory St., High Point, 
was organized late in 1945 and operated for five 

Step table, mahogany ve- 
neered, by Casard Furni- 
ture Mfg. Co., High Point. 

Drop leaf table with cork inlaid top and chairs with upholstered 
backs, all solid ash by Moffitt, Inc., High Point. 

years in a building containing 12,000 square feet on 
the Greensboro Road, outside High Point- Early last 
year the business moved into its present quarters, 
formerly occupied by Kearns Furniture Co. Officers 
are J. S. Moffitt, president and sales manager, H. A. 
Moffitt, vice-president and treasurer, and J. B. Love- 
lace, secretary. These officers with Ed Mendenhall 
and M. L. Patrick compose the Board of Directors. 

The present Moffitt plant contains 65,000 square 
feet of floor space. The firm is capitalized at $100,- 
000. In contrast to annual sales of $92,000 in its 
first year, five or six years ago, the firm has increased 
its annual business to approximately $500,000, last 
year's increase amounting to $100,000. The firm 
employs 75 workers with an annual payroll of around 

Moffitt produces a correlated dining room and liv- 
ing room group in addition to a full line of occasional 
tables, all in Modern types. Solid structural parts 
are made from American white ash finished in ve- 
neered, leather and tile cork tops. 

Products are sold throughout the 48 states, 16 
salesmen covering the area. Permanent displays are 
maintained in High Point and Chicago and seasonal 
shows are conducted in Boston and San Francisco. 


National Upholstery Co., 601 S. Hamilton St., High 
Point, was organized in 1934 by R. B. Culler as indi- 
vidual owner. Mr. Culler started with five employees 
in a rented space of 3,000 square feet. In 1937 Mr. 
Culler purchased a . Ns ^ 

building which he _ 

enlarged ten years 
later, his plant now 
occupying 6 0,000 
square feet of floor 

National Uphols- 
tery Co., a family 
owned industry, was 
incorporated in 1946 
with R. B. Culler as 
president and treas- 
urer; R. B. Culler, 
Jr., vice-president 
and now general 
manager, and Mrs. 
R. B. Culler, secretary. It has an authorized capital 
stock of $110,000, all outstanding. Annual production 
has developed until it has reached approximately 
$750,000. About 100 workers are employed with an 
annual payroll in the neighborhood of $175,000. 

National produces upholstered living room furni- 
ture exclusively, primarily the promotional lines, 
which are used in retail units as medium priced items 
to attract the customers. Semi-modern designs are 
produced in sofas and matching chairs and sofa beds. 

National covers the Atlantic Seaboard with its 
products and is moving into middle, west territory. 
Fifteen salesmen cover the area, selling to unit stores 
and to syndicates of unit stores. 


Carolina Upholstering Co., Inc., High Point, was 
organized and incorporated in 1940 by Jay Williard 
and two of his brothers. The officers are Jay Wil- 
liard, president and treasurer; Levi Williard, vice- 
president, and Coy Williard, secretary. These offi- 

Chair, semi-modem design, by Na- 
tional Upholstery Co., High Point. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 21 

King Sleeper, patented hide-away bed, innerspring mattress 
and spring seat, by Carolina Upholstery Co., High Point. 

cers compose the Board of Directors. 

When Carolina Upholstering Co. started in busi- 
ness it had a paid-in capital of $1,650, operating with 
six or eight employees in a rented building containing 
about 3000 square feet of floor space. At present the 
company has more than 2000 accounts with annual 
sales ranging from $650,000 to $900,000 and has a 
floor space of 63,000 square feet. The firm employs 
60 workers and has an annual payroll of approxi- 
mately $140,000. 

Carolina Upholstering Co. produces living room 
furniture in all types and at popular prices, includ- 
ing sofa beds, hide-away beds, ottomans, chairs and 
platform rockers, produced largely from oak, mahog- 
any, gum and poplar. From earlier production of 
Borax and Period types, the firm has been shifting 
more to Modern furniture, the bulk of its products 
now being in this type. 

Carolina Upholstering Co. distributes its products 
over about 10 states, largely in the southeastern area. 
The firm has eight salesmen in the area and operates 
its own fleet of trucks in delivering its products. Per- 
manent display space is maintained in High Point 
and in the plant's own show rooms. 


Reliable Manufacturing Co., 1917 Tate Street, 
High Point, was organized in 1940 by C. J. Lambeth 
as individual owner. In 1947 the company was in- 
corporated with C. J. Lambeth as president, Mrs. 
Annie Lee Lambeth, his wife, as secretary-treasurer, 
and C. S. Lambeth, his son, as vice-president and 
general manager. President Lambeth is not now 
active in the firm due to the condition of his health. 

Reliable Manufacturing Co. has an authorized cap- 
ital stock of $100,000. Its plant equipment and sup- 
jplies today have a valuation of approximately $275,- 

Regency sofa produced by Reliable Manufacturing Co., 
High Point. 


High Point 

Carolina Seating Co., Vance St. 

Englander Co., Inc., The, 30 9 E. Thomas St. 

National Springs Corp., 401 E. Green St. 

Talmar-Jamestown Co., The, S. Main St. 

American Upholstery Co., Inc., 1517 S. Main St. 

Art Chair, Inc., 123 W. Chester Dr. 

Auman Mfg. Co., 527 S. Hamilton St. 

B. & B. Upholstery Co., Route 4 

B. & W. Frame Works, Prospect St. 

B. & W. Upholstering, Inc., 311 E. Green St. 

Beauchamp, Inc., 2427 English St. 

Biltrite Upholstering Co., Reed St. 

Boulding Upholstery Co. 

Carolina Master Craftsman, Inc., 21 1 Roy St. 

Carrick Mfg. Co., 1309 Tryon St. 

Central Upholstery, Inc., 216 Wise St. 

Colonial Furn. Co., 5 28 S. Hamilton St. 

Davis Upholstery Co., 115 E. Davis St. 

Dinette Parts Mfg. Co., 240 W. Russell St. 

Eastern Chair Co., Inc., Prospect St. Ext. 

Fagg Upholstery Co., 812 Mangum St. 

Frye Mfg. Co. 

Garner Upholstery Co., 30 S. Main St. Ext. 

Glenola Frame Works, Inc., Asheboro Highway, Rt. 3 

Guilford Parlor Co., 40 6 Tate St. 

Hawks Upholstery Co., Centennial Ave. Ext. 

Henderson & Mooney Mfg. Co., Inc., 19 24 Kivett Dr. 

High Mfg. Co., 2 600 English St. 

Hodgin Turning & Carving Works, Hodgin St. 

Holton & Son Mfg. Co., 615 E. Green St. 

James Mfg. Co., Burton St. Ext. 

Johnson Frame Co., Inc., English St. Ext. 

Junior Mfg. Co., Inc., Hood St. 

Kee Mfg. Co., 13 28 Potts St. 

Kirkman Furniture Co., Inc., 70 9 W. Green St. 

McGhee Upholstering Co., Inc., English St. Ext. 

Modern Upholstering Co., Greensboro Rd. 

Quality Chair Co., Inc., 503 W. High St. 

Rabhan Mfg. Co., 410 E. Russell St. 

Security Upholstering Co., 431 S. Hamilton St. 

Tar Heel Upholstery Co., 110 Springdale Ave. 

Thomas Furniture Co. 

Triangle Mfg. Co., 615 E. Green St. 

Triangle Upholstery Co., 717 S. Hamilton St. 

Walker Furniture Co., Inc., 307 W. Green St. 

White, P. E. & Son Chair Co., 1036 Fairfield Rd. 

Wright Frame Works, R. F. D. 

Young's, Inc., Kivett Dr. 

Allen Cabinet Works, Inc., 101 Dockery St. 
Beaman's, Inc., 1060 Battleground Ave. 
Benbow Reproductions, Inc., Friendly Rd. 
Better Built Wood Products Co., 1904 Sullivan St. 
Builders Products Co., 1648 Sullivan St. 
Dixie Bedding Co., Inc., 1931 Freeman Mill Rd. 
Greensboro Mattress Co., 3201 Church St. 
Guilford Industries for the Blind, 920 W. Lee St. 
Kelly Furniture Co. 

Southland Wood Products Co., Inc., 1707 Gatewood Ave. 
Spence Furniture Co., Spring Garden & Oakland Sts. 
Westwarren Mfg. Co., 22 3 2 Westbrook St. 
Crouch Mfg. Co., Jamestown 
Old Mill Mfg. Co., Pleasant Garden 

000. Annual sales have developed until they now 
reach around $1,250,000. The plant occupies 65,000 
square feet of floor space and employs from 100 to 
110 workers, with an annual payroll ranging around 

This firm produces the large overstuffed Borax line 
in three piece living room suites, sofa beds, hide-away 
beds and occasional chairs. It produces promotional 
lines of products at medium prices, all frames of solid 
oak and all materials used are bought within a radius 
of 50 miles of the plant. 

All Reliable products are distributed through unit 
and chain furniture stores in the East, eight sales- 

PAGE 22 


Winter-Spring, 1952 


Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., with probably 50 plants in 
the United States and Canada manufacturing lighting fixtures, 
fluorescent tubes, light bulbs, photo lamps, radio tubes, picture 
tubes, electronic products and radio and television sets, has 
purchased the former Strickland Furniture Co. plant in High 
Point for approximately $450,000 and expects to begin the 
manufacture of television cabinets in March. 

Information from R. W. Brooks, Sylvania personnel super- 
visor, and other sources indicate that the plant will start 
operation with about 150 workers and will build up the plant 
gradually as demand increases. The plant contains 55,000 
square feet of floor space on a 10% acre site with private rail- 
road side track. The television cabinets to be produced will 
be shipped to Buffalo, New York, headquarters for the radio 
and television division, where television sets will be assembled. 
Intimations are, however, that in the future the firm will 
transfer this assembly operation to the plant purchased in 
High Point. 

Sylvania, established in 1901, started the manufacture of 
television sets about three years ago, sets which are now among 
the most popular on the market. Up to now the firm has pur- 
chased its television cabinets from other manufacturers but 
plans to produce its own cabinets in the High Point plant. This 
will be the only plant manufacturing these cabinets. 

If in the future Sylvania Electric Products moves its entire 
television assembly operation to the Hisch Point plant, it is 
expected that several hundred workers will be employed finally. 
When the firm begins its production of cabinets, expected in 
March, with a production force of around 150, this will give 
employment to practically all of the surplus furniture workers 
now living in the High Point area. Officials of the company 
were in High Point early in February with a staff of workers 
cleaning up the plant and installing machinery and equipment. 
— Data from Ralph E. Miller, Manager, High Point Employ- 
ment Office. 

men covering the territory. The firm operates a fleet 
of seven trucks in delivering its products to purchas- 
ers. Permanent displays of Reliable products are 
maintained in High Point and New York. 


(Pleasant Garden) 
Founders Furniture, Pleasant Garden, almost un- 
der the shadow of the huge High Point furniture in- 
dustry, was organized in 1943 as the P. G. Novelty 
Works by Elliott S. Wood and John R. Miller as a 
partnership. In 1947 E. K. Thrower bought into 
the industry and the name was changed to the pres- 
ent name. In June, 1951, the partnership shifted 
and since then the three partners have been Mr. 

Thrower, general manager, John R. Miller (inact- 
ive), and Wayne Davis, plant superintendent. 

The plant has been completely modernized and the 
size doubled in 1950, giving present floor space of 
30,000 square feet. The firm employs 65 to 70 work- 
ers with an annual payroll of around $125,000. 

Principal production of Founders Furniture is 
tables, but it has recently been engaged in producing 
a coordinated bedroom and dining room group. These 
quality products are produced largely from Appa- 
lachian white oak and Philippine mahogany. Also 
a recent line of knotty pine case goods products is 
proving popular. 

Founders Furniture is distributed largely to de- 
partment stores, 14 salesmen covering the area. Per- 
manent displays of the moderate priced tables and 
chests are maintained in Chicago and High Point. 


Monarch Furniture Co., 
Inc., 311 E. Green St., High 
Point, was organized in 
1946 by Mose Sammet as 
individual owner. In 1949 
the firm was incorporated 
with Mose Sammet, presi- 
dent and treasurer; H. M. 
Gutterman, vice-president 
and general manager; T. O. 
Gray, vice-president, and 
Mrs. Elsie Sammet, secre- 
tary. These officers com- 
pose the Board of Directors. 

Monarch Furniture Co. 
has an authorized capital 
stock of $100,000. Annual 
sales now reach approxi- 
mately $400,000 and around 
50 workers are employed 
with an annual payroll of about $125,000. The 
firm utilizes 27,000 square feet of floor space. This 
firm produces office upholstered chairs and home up- 
holstered chairs and sofas. It makes a specialty of 
top grain leather coverings but also uses plastic and 
cloth coverings. Products are sold nationwide, 10 
salesmen covering the area. A special line of prod- 
ucts is manufactured and is handled exclusively by 
a New York jobbing firm. Permanent displays are 
maintained in New York City. 

Genuine top grain leather 

chair, solid mahogany ex- 

posed parts, by Monarch 

Furniture Co., High Point. 

Thomasville Famous as World Leader in Chair Production 

Thomasville, with a huge chair as the symbol of 
its principal industry, will celebrate this fall its 
100th anniversary as a community. Even though 
cabinet shops were undoubtedly in operation from 
the early days of the town, available records indicate 
that the first chair factory was actually started in 
1865. The founder was D. S. Westmoreland, who 
came from Stokes County and who evidently was 
influenced probably indirectly by the activities of 
Michael Healen, famous furniture producer who set- 
tled in Stokes County in 1792. 

Mr. Westmoreland had his shop in his yard on 
Randolph Street, employing 10 or 12 workers and 
making two or three dozen chairs daily. In 1879 
Mr. Westmoreland built a larger factory on the pres- 

ent site of the Wall Box Co. In this plant he em 
ployed about 25 workers and produced oak and hick- 
ory rockers, arm chairs, and "ladies' " chairs, all 
hand turned. After his death in 1891, his sons con 
tinued to operate the plant until it burned in 1897. 
(One of these sons, Emanuel F. Westmoreland, 90, 
died in Thomasville February 2, 1952.) In 1898 the 
Standard Chair Co. was started by Col. Frank S. 
Lambeth and continues as an important industry, 
now operated by grandsons of the founder. 

Within the next few years several furniture plants 
were in operation in Thomasville. Among these was 
the Thomasville Chair Co., started in 1904 by G. A.' 
Allison and bought in 1907 by T. J. and C. F. Finch 
This firm, long known as the largest chair factor} 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 23 




"The Chair of Thomasville" has long been the symbol of 
the principal industry in the City of Thomasville. The first 
chair, located in the center of the community between the 
railroad and the main street, was erected in September, 1922. 

Because of deteriora- 
tion, this chair was re- 
moved in the 1935-36 
period and in 1949 the 
construction of a larger 
and a more permanent 
chair was begun and has 
been completed. 

The first chair con- 
tained enough lumber to 
manufacture 100 ordi- 
nary chairs. It was 13 
feet high, with the seat 
six feet above the foun- 
dation; front legs were 
six feet high, six feet 
apart in the front and 
six and one-half feet 
apart in the back. Con- 
struction of this chair required three men working 10 hours 
a day for one week in the plant of the Thomasville Chair Co. 
Expense of making this chair was borne by Col. Frank S. 
Lambeth, secretary and treasurer of the Standard Chair Co., 
and Charles F. Finch, vice-president and manager of the Thom- 
asville Chair Co. 

The new chair of steel and concrete is an exact duplication 
of the original Duncan Phyfe as displayed in Washington and 
is built six times as large as the original in all proportions. 
The back legs are 18 feet high and the front legs are nine feet 
high; the front legs are 9 3/4ths. feet apart and the back legs 
are 10 % feet apart. The chair is built on four steel and con- 
crete pedestals two feet by four feet and 12 feet from the 
ground. Around these pedestals is built a base 22 feet square 
with concave corners; 16 inch solid brick wall veneered with 
eight inch limestone blocks, with carving and molding and 
around the top are eight carved eagles, one in the center of 
each of the four sides and one in the center of each of the con- 
cave corners. 

This new chair was built by a local commercial artist and 
one full-time and one part-time helper. It is hand molded 
around a steel frame with a mixture of concrete and granite 
dust, with openings to fill the inside, thus making a solid 
structure. The time required for construction was approxi- 
mately ten months. This new project, supervised by the Thom- 
asville Chamber of Commerce, was made possible by the coop- 
eration of the city, industry, local business firms and individual 

On the floor of the base is a bronze plaque bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription: 

"The Chair" of Thomasville — The Chair is an exemplar 
and an inspiration for the future generations to emu- 
late and perpetuate the achievements of our time-hon- 
ored furniture designers and craftsmen. . . . The orig- 
inal chair was the creation of the famous American 
designer, Duncan Phyfe. 

Thomas Johnson, Del. 
James Harvey, Sculp. 

David S. Westmoreland, who started the first chair plant in 
Thomasville in 1865, built the factory shown above on Ran- 
dolph Street in 1879. His sons continued this plant after his 
death in 1891 until it burned in 1897. Part of small building 
shown at left ivas the office of the first Thomasville newspaper. 
The Thomasville Times, started in 1887 by John T. Westmore- 
land, brother of David. Picture owned by Mrs. Nan Stone of 
Thomasville, daughter of John Westmoreland. 

in the country, purchased many of the Thomasville 
plants in the succeeding years and is still operated 
by sons and grandsons of the original Finch pur- 
chasers. Among the earlier plants bought by this 
firm were the Bard Lumber Co. plant, the Cramer 
plant and the Williams-Nottis plant. Another earlier 
plant was the Thomasville Furniture Co., established 
in 1898. 

Thomasville, a listing shows, has 15 furniture 
plants, 12 of which have eight or more employees 
and are thus subject to the Employment Security 
Law. These 12, the Employment Security Commis- 
sion records show, had in 1950 average monthlv em- 
ployment of 3,171 with a 1950 payroll of $6,726,807. 
Incidentally, Davivdson County had a larger number 
of employees and a larger payroll than did Guilford 
County, in which High Point is located. 


A visit was made to this firm, information secured, 
an article written and submitted for approval ; omit- 
ted at the request of the management. 


Standard Chair Co., Thomasville, was organized 
in 1898 by Col. Frank Lambeth and has remained in 
the Lambeth family during the 53 years of its opera- 
tion, now continued by third generation Lambeths. 
Col. Lambeth's brother, John Lambeth, was a part- 
ner in the business for a short time after its organ- 
ization. In 1901 the firm was incorporated with an 
authorized capital stock of $100,000 which remains 
today the same as in the original charter. Col. Lam- 
beth continued to operate and develop this small in- 
dustry for almost 30 years, bringing it up to a place 
of importance in the community. He retired in 1927 
and died two years later. 

Composite picture of the far-flung Thomasville Chair Co. with Sl 1 ^ acres under roof. 

PAGE 24 



Following Col. Lambeth's retirement in 1927 his 
two sons took over and operated the industry for 20 
years. Charles Lambeth succeeded him as secretary- 
treasurer of the firm, handling sales and correspond- 
ence. James E. Lambeth became president and han- 
dled the plant and production. Both continued in 
these positions until their deaths in 1947. At that 
time James E. Lambeth, Jr., became secretary-treas- 
urer and has since served in the capacity as general 
manager. His brother, Frank S. Lambeth became 
president, but has been relatively inactive in this 
firm, devoting most of his time to the operation of his 
radio station WMFR in High Point. Other members 
of the Lambeth family own smaller amounts of the 
stock in the corporation. 

Even with its continued small capitalization Stan- 
dard Chair Co. now has sales in excess of $1,000,000 
a year. Recently the firm has installed new equip- 
ment costing $125,000. The capacity of the plant 
has been doubled in the last decade. The five plants 
owned by the firm have a combined floor space of 
130,000 square feet. The firm employs approxi- 
mately 225 workers, the annual payroll amounting 
to around $360,000. Probably half of the employees 
have worked for the firm for 10 years or more, while 
a sizable number have reached or exceeded 20 years 
of service. 

The company has a comprehensive insurance pol- 
icy covering life, health, accident, hospital and surgi- 
cal costs ; one half of the premium for it is paid by 
the employees. 

Regular production of the Standard Chair Co. in- 
cludes cricket chairs, (boudoir) upholstered chairs, 
rockers, platform rockers and such novelty furniture 
as end tables, side tables and telephone benches. The 
firm has a large order for the United States Govern- 
ment, including desks, tablet arm chairs and other 
items which embraces approximately 50% of pres- 
ent production. 

The Standard Chair Co. covers the entire nation 
in its sales and has 20 salesmen covering the area. 
Permanent displays are maintained at the principal 
furniture markets in the nation. 

J. E. Lambeth, Jr., who operates Standard Chair 
Co., is also president of Erwin-Lambeth, Inc., of 
which his wife, Mrs. Katherine C. Lambeth, is secre- 
tary-treasurer and general manager. 


Thomasville Furniture Corp., Thomasville, is one 
of the few firms in the southeast which devotes prac- 
tically all of its time to the production of television 
cabinets. This firm has been in operation for close 
to 50 years and was owned until about five years ago 

by Thomasville people. The 
new firm was organized and 
bought the plant in 1946 
and has developed the in- 
dustry to the point of pro- 
ducing approximately 600 
radio and television cabi- 
nets a day. 

Thomasville Furniture 
Corp. is a subsidiary of 
Capehart-Farnsworth Tele- 
vision Corp. and Radio and 
Brunswick model decorated TpWi^irm Tnr whiVVi nwnc 
television cabinet by Thorn- ^ l^i in( T' Y S 
asville Furniture Corp., 75 % 01 the stock. The re- 
Thomasviiie. maining 25% is owned by 

The Pamanuse, a Chippen- 
dale model television cabi- 
net by Thomasville Furni- 
ture Corp., Thomasville. 

other television firms. Cape- 
hart quality cabinets, form- 
erly built at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., have been built in the 
Thomasville plant since 
1947. "Brunswick" all qual- 
ity cabinets are manufac- 
tured for Radio and Tele- 
vision, Inc., and all have 
decorative designs. All ra- 
dio combination and tele- 
vision cabinets are made of 
mahogany and all sizes are 

This firm employs approx- 
imately 300 workers and has an annual payroll in 
the neighborhood of $600,000. The plant contains 
92,300 square feet. Employees are trained in this 
new work in the plant and half of those employed 
have been in furniture for 20 years or more. The 
firm pays all of the cost of a comprehensive insurance 
policy, covering life, health, accident, hospital and 
medical costs. 

In addition to its radio combination and television 
cabinets the Thomasville Furniture Corp. is now fill- 
ing a government contract for 3,000 desks, produc- 
ing approximately 100 of these desks each day. Pre- 
viously this firm has filled government contracts for 

R. C. Jenkins, vice-president and general manager 
of the organization and Ralph Rains, acting comp- 
troller, are the only two Thomasville officers. Henry 
Roemer, New York, its president, is also vice-presi- 
dent of the International Telephone and Telegraph 
Co. Most of the other officials and directors live in 
New York and are officials of other large communi- 
cations organizations. 

Mr. Jenkins was manager of manufacture for the 
Capehart organization for 10 years and was also 
manager of the radio division of the General Elec- 
tric Co. for 10 years prior to moving to Thomasville 
to take over the management and operation of the 
Thomasville Furniture Co. when it was reorganized 
in 1946. 


Commercial Carving Co., Thomasville, was organ- 
ized by Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Rothrock and started 
business in 1943 on a small scale. Meeting with 
immediate success this firm was incorporated in 1947 
with L. L. Rothrock as president and treasurer, Mrs. 
Vonnie C. Rothrock, his wife, vice-president and sec- 
retary, and Mrs. Blanche Rothrock Fritts, his sister, 
as an additional member of the Board of Directors. 
Authorized capital stock is $100,000. 

Principal part of the present plant was erected in 
1944-45 and additions have brought the plant equip- 
ment and stock to a valuation of approximately $225,- 
000. The plant contains about 35,000 square feet of 
floor space and approximately 110 workers are em- 
ployed with an annual payroll of about $240,000. 

Commercial Carving Co. won distinction two or 
three years ago by winning first place in North Caro- 
lina and second place in the nation in percentage of 
disabled veterans employed in the plant. The firm 
still employs 60 veterans, 30% of whom are dis- 
abled and especially screened and selected to handle 
jobs in which their disabilities do not hinder opera- 
tions. The firm has a staff of Polish hand carvers 

Winter-Spring, 1952 



who are specialists in carving models for the decora- 
tions and other special decorative parts of all types 
of furniture. 

This firm manufactures decorations for 60% of 
the furniture trade in the South. These decorations 
include specially carved chair backs, posts, mirror 
crowns, feet for living room and parlor furniture 
and any other types of carving needed and desired 
for the furniture trade. Most of the woods used are 
mahogany, gum and poplar, with smaller quantities 
of maple and walnut and any other types of woods 
that the trade requires. 

All carvings are done by hand and then hand 
pieces are used as patterns in machine set up and 
adjusted for multiple carving, a dozen or more pieces 
being produced at the same time. This firm supplies 
carvings for practically all furniture plants in the 
South which do not have their own carving equip- 
ment. Products of the plant are displayed perma- 
nently in High Point. 


The Thomasville Upholstering Co., Thomasville, 
was started as a result of the desire of H. C. Edinger 
to produce wooden furniture, beginning with the 
lowly footstool. In 1932 Mr. Edinger started the 
Furniture Novelty Co. as individual owner, produc- 
ing various items of novelty furniture and odd chairs. 

In 1938 the firm was reorganized and incorporated 
as the Thomasville Upholstering Co., with members 
of the family as officers and directors. Charles C. 
Edinger, son of the founder, is president ; H. C. Ed- 
inger, the founder, is secretary-treasurer and gen- 
eral manager; Mrs. Kila Edinger Barnes, daughter 
of the founder, is vice-president, and Mrs. K. C. Reid 
and Mrs. H. C. Edinger, daughter and wife of the 
founder, respectively, are additional directors. The 
firm has an authorized capital stock of $200,000. In 
1945 a new and completely modern plant was erected 
and modern machinery was installed. The plant now 
covers 55,000 square feet, employs about 65 workers 
and has an annual payroll of approximately $120,000. 
Annual production amounts to $800,000. 

Thomasville Upholstering Co. manufactures several 
types of upholstered furniture of quality and medium 
grades. Six salesmen represent the firm in about 10 
southeastern states over which the bulk of the firm's 
output is distributed. 


Erwin-Lambeth, Inc., Thomasville, offers definite 
proof that a woman can have both a career and a 
family. This firm was started in 1946 as a partner- 

Recently enlarged plant of the Thomasville 
Upholstering Co., Thomasville. 

ship entered into by Mr. and Mrs. J. E. Lambeth, Jr. 
Mrs. Lambeth's business name is K. C. Lambeth. 

In 1947, a year after the firm started, the industry 
was incorporated (Erwin is Mr. Lambeth's middle 
name) with J. E. Lambeth, Jr., as president, Mrs. J. 
E. Lambeth, his mother, as vice-president, and Mrs. 
K. C. Lambeth, his wife, as secretary-treasurer and 
general manager. Mrs. Lambeth, the former Kath- 
erine Covington, daughter of the late Richard D. 
Covington, for many years treasurer of the Mills 
Home at Thomasville, has continued to operate this 
industry from the beginning although she is the 
mother of four children, three sons and one daugh- 
ter, one of which was born since the business started. 

The Erwin-Lambeth plant is one of the most mod- 
ern furniture structures in the nation, a one story 
building constructed of steel, brick and concrete. 
The original building erected in 1946 was 80 x 400 
feet. In 1950 a 200 foot addition was constructed, 
making the plant 80 x 600 feet, thus giving 48,000 
square feet of floor space. The machinery and equip- 
ment are thoroughly modern and complete, providing 
straight line mass production. 

Production of the Erwin-Lambeth firm exceeds 
$1,000,000 a year. It employs 125 workers with an 
annual payroll of approximately $225,000. Products 
include the top grade line of upholstered chairs, 
sofas and novelty tables as matching pieces for the 
sofas produced. Products are distributed nation 


Brookdale Carving Co., 605 Hyde St. 
Carolina Seating Co., Vance St. 
Colonial Mfg. Co., 829 Blair St. 
Frank's Novelty Plant, 110 Moore St. 
Glenda Table Co., Inc., 18% Peace St. 
McMillan, S. F., & Co., 105 Julian Ave. 
North State Mfg. Co., 90 Blair St. 
Thomasville Bedding Co., 201 Taylor St. 
Thomasville Cabinet Works, Julian Ave. Ext. 

Lexington, Home of Large, Small Furniture, Novelty Plants 

Lexington, through the years, has developed into 
an important furniture manufacturing center, con- 
taining a list of 18 plants producing both regular and 
novelty lines of furniture. Both large and small 
plants operate in this progressive Davidson County 

Employment Security Commission records show 
that Lexington has 14 plants covered by the Employ- 
ment Security Law — with eight or more employees. 
In the covered plants a monthly average of 1,775 
workers were employed during the year 1950 and 

the total wages of all these firms during that year 
amounted to $5,246,428, which is only about $1,500,- 
000 less than the payroll of its neighbor, Thomasville. 
These figures probably mean that 2000 or more 
workers are employed part time or full time in the 
Lexington furniture plants. 


Every effort was made to secure information for 
articles about these firms, without success. 

PAGE 26 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Modern plant of United Furniture Corp., Lexington. 


United Furniture Corp., Lexington, was organized 
and incorporated in 1936 by B. C. Philpott, an expe- 
rienced furniture man. Mr. Philpott served as pres- 
ident of the firm until 1947 when he became chairman 
of the Board of Directors. His son, H. C. Philpott, 
formerly secretary-treasurer, succeeded him as pres- 
ident. Two other sons are officers, J. A. Philpott, 
vice-president, and J. R. Philpott, secretary-treas- 
urer. R. L. Myers is superintendent of manufacture. 
These officers, along with J. V. Moffitt, Jr., C. C. 
Wall and J. A. Messer, Jr., form the Board of Direc- 

United produces high types of modern bedroom 
furniture and ships its products to every state in the 
nation. Recently this firm has completed a thorough 
renovation program, installing entirely new and 
modern furniture making machinery. A splendid 
business is enjoyed by this firm which employs ap- 
proximately 400 workers. (See front page for bed- 
room suite finished in light mahogany color.) 

H. C. Philpott, president of the firm, is immediate 
past president of the Southern Furniture Manufac- 
turers Association and is now chairman of its Board 
of Directors. He has written an article on the fur- 
niture industry in North Carolina which is included 
in this issue. 


Lexington Chair Co., Lexington, changed names 
several times before it reached its present name and 
new ownership in 1936. The plant first started op- 
eration in 1895 as the Oneida Chair Co. Later it 
was purchased by Charles Hackney, during whose 
ownership the plant burned and was rebuilt, reopen- 
ing and operated as the Hackney Chair Co. until 
about 1930. For about six years it was operated by 
J. T. Hedrick as the Lexington Novelty Co. and was 
purchased in 1936 by J. 0. Burke and B. H. Thom- 

The plant started in May, 1936, under the corpora- 
tive name of Lexington Chair Co. with between 50 
and 60 employees. At present an average of from 
400 to 450 workers are employed with an annual pay- 
roll ranging between $1,000,000 and $1,250,000. 
Present officers are B. H. Thomason, Sr., president; 
Mrs. J. O. Burke, vice-president, and J. B. Burke, 
secretary-treasurer and general manager. 

Through various enlargements and expansions the 
Lexington Chair Co. buildings now contain approxi- 
mately 175,000 square feet of floor space, including 
a recently completed warehouse containing 16,000 
square feet. Annual sales are now in the neighbor- 
hood of $4,000,000 and the firm's products are sold 

Modern blonde gossip 
bench, one of many novelty 
items produced by Lexing- 
ton Chair Co., Lexington. 

throughout the United 
States and in large areas in 
Canada, a sales force of 
about 50 covering the entire 

Lexington Chair Co. has 
achieved continuous opera- 
tions with practically no 
loss of time in the 16 years. 
The employer-employee re- 
lationships in the plant 
have been unusually fine 
and cooperative. One rea- 
son for this is that the firm 
operates on a profit shar- 
ing plan agreement by which the plant's employees 
receive 25% of the gross profits. In addition, paid 
vacations are furnished all employees with the re- 
quired length of service of one week at Christmas 
and one week during the summer. Also the company 
pays the premiums on a blanket insurance policy for 
all employees, covering life and hospitalization. 

Lexington Chair Co. products include occasional 
chairs, drop leaf and console extension, occasional 
and novelty tables, gossip benches, cocktail, coffee 
and lamp tables and other furniture novelty lines. 
Styles include 18th Century, Provincial, Modern and 
casual country pine. These products are made of 
veneers and selected hardwoods, materials including 
mahogany, cherry, knotty pine and oak veneers. 

Lexington Chair Co. maintains a New York office 
at 206 Lexington Avenue, New York, and displays 
its products permanently in Chicago, San Francisco 
and High Point, with seasonal shows in Boston, and 
in the plant's own show rooms which contain between 
5,000 and 6,000 square feet. 


Hoover Chair Co., Lexington, was organized in 
1903 as the Queen Chair Co., Inc., in Thomasville. 
The organizers were Charles M. Hoover and his 
brother, George M. Hoover. The firm started in a 
small plant with 50 to 75 employees. In 1915 the 
name was changed to Hoover Chair Co. and three 
years later the Thomasville plant was destroyed by 

Following the fire the Hoover brothers bought its 

Junior dining room furniture, slightly smaller for modern 
homes, made by Hoover Chair Co., Lexington. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 17 

present plant from the Dixie Furniture Co. in Lex- 
ington in 1919 and continued the manufacture of 
mairs exclusively until 1928 when dinette furniture 
was added. Later dining room furniture, both regu- 
ar and junior (made smaller for smaller modern 
lomes) was added and gradually became important 
aarts of the production. Present products include 
Doth regular and junior dining room furniture and 
mairs and dinette suites. In 1939 C. M. Hoover and 
Charles Hoover, Jr., bought the G. M. Hoover interest 
n the firm. 

Present officers are Charles Hoover, in the firm 
since 1922, who became president following his 
father's death in 1946 ; James B. Hoover, a younger 
Drother who joined the firm following World War II, 
§3 secretary and treasurer; Mrs. Theresa Hoover 
Harris, a sister, is vice-president and Charles E. Wil- 
iams is assistant secretary and treasurer. These 
Dfficers are also the directors and stockholders. 

Hoover Chair Co. produces both period furniture, 
including 18th Century mahogany plywood and Mod- 
3rn furniture of oak and mahogany, both solid and 

Hoover Chair Co. now has annual sales that range 
oetween $1,500,000 and $2,000,000. It employs from 
200 to 250 workers and has an annual payroll that 
ranges between $400,000 and $500,000. Present 
plant space is 120,000 square feet, approximately 
double, by enlargements through the years, since the 
firm began its operations in Lexington in 1907. 

Hoover products are sold throughout the United 
States, 25 salesmen covering the nation and selling 
to chain, department and unit furniture stores. Per- 
manent displays are maintained in Chicago, New 
York, High Point, Los Angeles and in the firm's own 
factory show rooms. 


Franklin Shockey Co., Lexington, was organized 
in 1941 by Franklin Shockey and George H. Ennis, 
the latter of Rancho Santa Fe, California, as a part- 
nership. In 1941 the company was reorganized and 
incorporated with Franklin Shockey as president 
and general manager and Mrs. W. P. Shockey, his 
mother, as vice-president. The authorized capital 
stock is $100,000. 

Franklin Shockey Co. has developed annual sales 
in excess of $1,000,000. The firm has floor space of 
ipproximately 48,000 square feet, employs around 
140 workers and has an annual payroll of about 

The firm produces correlated groupings of bed- 
'oom, dining room and living room furniture, pri- 
narily of the rustic types. Sales are made over the 
mtire United States, about 30 salesmen covering the 

Permanent displays of Franklin Shockey furniture 
ire maintained in Chicago, San Francisco and High 
~oint and in the plant's own show rooms. 


Three different Lexington men rode hobbies until 
ach developed nice small remunerative industries — 
manufacturing novelty furniture. These three firms 
roduce furniture items ranging from popular 
hrough medium and quality types of furniture lines 
nd all have become successful enterprises. 
Kirkman Novelty Furniture Co. 

Kirkman Novelty Furniture Co., Inc., Lexington, 

Dining room suite, including Lazy Susan table, sideboard buf- 
fet, Captain's chairs and China hutch, made by 
Franklin Shockey Co., Lexington. 

was organized in 1941 by Mr. and Mrs. T. V. Kirk- 
man, Sr., after Mr. Kirkman had been with the 
United Furniture Corporation for 15 years as sup- 
erintendent and part of the time as secretary-treas- 
urer of the firm. The new business was started with 
six employees. 

As of January 1, 1946, this firm was incorporated 
with authorized capital stock of $100,000, half in 
preferred and half in common stock. The three fam- 
ily officers of the corporation are T. V. Kirkman, Sr., 
president; Mrs. T. V. Kirkman, vice-president, and 
T. V. Kirkman, Jr., secretary-treasurer. The firm 
now has plant and equipment valued at around $258,- 
000, has 40,000 square feet of floor space and employs 
55 workers. 

The Kirkman firm produces living room tables of 
mahogany and plywood in the medium priced field. 
Sales are made all over the United States, in Alaska 
and part of Canada. For some time the Kirkmans 
have been producing tables for hospitals, nurses' 
homes and officials' headquarters for the United 
States Government. 

Model Furniture Co. 

Before the Model Furniture Co., Inc., Lexington, 
became a reality, L. M. 
Grimes, Jr., followed his 
hobby in his home wood- 
working shop producing 
custom made furniture of 
wood, including corner cab- 
inets, cedar chests and din- 
ing room tables and side- 
boards. When this infant 
industry got out of hand in 
1946, Grimes gave it a name 
and in 1950 incorporated it 
as the Model Furniture Co. 

This, too, is a family in- 
dustry with L. M. Grimes, 
Sr., as president, John G. 
Grimes, vice-president, and 
L. M. Grimes, Jr., secre- 
tary-treasurer and general 
manager. The firm has an 
authorized capital stock of 

$100,000, uses 34,000 square THpU Uer taMe made by 
feet of floor space, employs Model Fu miture Co., 
about 47 workers and has Lexington. 

PAGE 28 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

annual sales that approximate $800,000. 

Model now produces a full commercial line of occa- 
sional tables, novelties and dining room tables, all 
of mahogany and in medium and high priced ranges. 
Permanent exhibit spaces are held in Chicago, New 
York, Los Angeles and High Point. Furniture is 
sold in all 48 states and in Canada, 21 salesmen cov- 
ering the area, one of them in Canada. 

Streetman Novelty Furniture Co. 

Streetman Novelty Furniture Co., Lexington, was 
started as a hobby in 1943 by J. H. Streetman, who 
served as superintendent for the Carolina Panel Co. 
for 17 years. In 1945 Mr. Streetman left this com- 
pany to devote full time to producing furniture nov- 
elties. He now employs about 30 workers, has an 
annual payroll of around $55,000 and has an annual 
business of approximately $275,000. His plant oc- 
cupies about 14,000 square feet of floor space. 

Mr. Streetman produces about 30 different styles 
of living room tables, all in moderate and popular 

priced ranges. He ships his products to all of the 
48 states. 

Peerless Mattress Co., S. State St., also operates 
in Lexington. 


Biltwell Chair and Furniture Co. 

Biltwell Chair and Furniture Co., Inc., Denton, 
started in business in 1925 with Allen L. Penny and 
M. T. Lambeth as the principal owners and opera- 
tors. In 1930 the business was bought by new own- 
ers who compose the officers, including C. L. Kearns, 
president; Mrs. C. L. Kearns, secretary-treasurer, 
and H. A. Sexton, vice-president, with M. A. Morris 
as superintendent of the plant. Capital and reserve 
amount to approximately $100,000. 

Plant and equipment of this firm have a valuation 
of approximately $50,000 and from 85 to 100 work- 
ers are employed. The equivalent of a carload of 
furniture is produced each working day. Principal 
products of the firm are dinette and breakfast suites 
(five pieces) and other chairs. 

Lenoir Forging Ahead in Quality- Variety Furniture Makin; 

Lenoir has been a furniture manufacturing center 
since Colonial days. It is of record that Henry Payne 
operated a furniture factory in Caldwell County at 
the mouth of Little River before the Revolutionary 
War. He had served an apprenticeship in Lincoln- 
ton under a cabinet maker named Houser who had 
learned the trade in South Germany. His son, Abner 
Payne, later produced many fine pieces of furniture 
still to be found in Caldwell and Catawba Counties, 
and descendants are still among leading furniture 
producers in several Piedmont cities and towns. 

Through the years the furniture industry has de- 
veloped and increased until Lenoir, including several 
plants built around the municipality, now probably 
takes first place in furniture manufacturing in North 
Carolina. Employment Security Commission rec- 
ords show that Caldwell County has 18 firms which 
are covered by the Employment Security Law — hav- 
ing eight or more employees. These firms employed 
a monthly average of 4,653 furniture workers in 
1950, a number that is only 40 lower than is shown 
for Guilford County which contains several small 
plants in Greensboro and other towns as well as in 
High Point. It is possible, however, that the method 
of reporting includes some workers in other counties 
employed in subsidiary plants of Lenoir firms. 

It is interesting to note that total payrolls of cov- 
ered furniture firms in Caldwell County in 1950 
amounted to $11,789,886, which is $2,000 larger 
than the total Guilford County furniture payroll for 
that year. Here, too, the reporting method may 
make a difference in the figures. 

Lenoir started and other far western North Caro- 
lina towns have joined with holding pre-season mar- 
kets at the individual furniture plants. These sell- 
ing seasons are usually held in late October or early 
November and attract hundreds of buyers from 
many of the larger purchasing units throughout the 


Broyhill Furniture Factories, Lenoir, is the man- 
agement and sales organization marketing the output 

of six affiliated Broyhill furniture manufacturing 
firms and as many subsidiary and supply plants. Tht 
six furniture factories are as follows : 

Lenoir Furniture Corp., Lenoir, manufacturers o1 
bedroom furniture (occasionally dining room) ; Rich 
ard Isaac, general superintendent. 

Lenoir Chair Co. No. 1, Lenoir, makers of uphol 
stered chairs and benches for bedroom plants ; R 
Maynard Teague and R. H. Winkler, superintendents 

Lenoir Chair Co. No. 2, Newton, manufacturers o: 
bedroom furniture ; Homer Scruggs, superintendent 
A. F. Clark, general superintendent. 

Otis L. Broyhill Furniture Co., Marion, producer! 
of bedroom furniture ; Frank Jump, superintendent 

Conover Furniture Co., Conover, manufacturers o 
dining room furniture and kneehole desks ; Clarena 
Canroberts, Superintendent; A. F. Clark, gen. supti 

Harper Furniture Co., Lenoir, producer of Tradi 
tional bedroom furniture and secretaries ; Ray Walk 
er, superintendent; Richard Isaac, general supt. 

In addition to these furniture plants, the subsid) 
iary and supply plants operated by the Broyhill orj 
ganization include Lenoir Veneer Co., Lenoir, mak 
ing rotary veneers and crossbanding ; National Vej 
neer Co., Lenoir (part interest) , making rotary vej 
neers for crossbanding; United Veneer Co., Conovei 
matching and taping veneer faces for furniture pre 
ducing plants; Lenoir Furniture Forwarding Co 
Lenoir, furniture warehousing; Allied Furnitur! 
Co., Lenoir, building and leasing; Crating Mill, Le 
noir, subsidiary of Lenoir Furniture Corp., makin! 
furniture crating. 

These six furniture plants and six auxiliary plant 
make Broyhill Furniture Factories one of the larger 
furniture manufacturing organizations in the Unite! 
States. Sales force of 85 representatives sells fj 
more than 15,000 stores throughout the United Stat* 
and goods are also shipped to Mexico and Hawaii. 

All of the Broyhill plants are equipped with mo( 
ern buildings and machinery for high speed an 
quality production. Back in 1935 Broyhill plan' 
installed overhead chain conveyors to speed produ 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


Page 29 

China by Broyhill. 

tion. Other equipment includes water-wash spray 
booths, hot plate presses, automatic steam heated 
core machines and other high speed machinery. Top 
quality production and modern equipment permit a 
line range of furniture from low to medium price. 

Each plant produces sepa- 
rate lines combining to 
make a complete furniture 

T. H. Broyhill, founder of 
the first plant, was born in 
rural Wilkes County in 
1877. With limited educa- 
tion he engaged in farming, 
logging and merchandising. 
Acquiring a small sawmill, 
he cut timbers to pay his 
$2,000 share of the original 
stock of the Lenoir Furni- 
ture Corp. when it started 
in 1905. In 1912 he bought 
out the remaining stock- 
holders and started this ail- 
ing firm on its successful 

Meanwhile, J. E. Broyhill, 15 years younger than 
his brother, acquired a high school education at 
Boone. After World War I service, he became an 
office clerk in the Lenoir Furniture Corp., later mov- 
ing up to sales manager. In 1926 J. E. Broyhill 
started a period of expansion equal to any in the 
furniture industry and still in progress. It was then 
that he began making 3-piece living room suites in 
a former blacksmith shop in Lenoir. This plant, 
today Lenoir Chair Co. No. 1, produces a complete 
line of upholstered lounges and occasional chairs and 
platform rockers, as well as dining room chairs. 

These brothers, selling their lines together, bought 
controlling interests in 1929 in Harper Furniture 
Co., Lenoir, one of the oldest furniture organizations 
in the South. This plant, started in 1889, still pro- 
duces a quality line of mahogany furniture, including 
bedroom groups, secretaries and desks. This plant 
makes the top quality products of the Broyhill or- 
ganization in the medium priced field. 

Expansion of the Broyhill plants continued. The 
plant at Newton, now Lenoir Chair Co. No. 2, was 
purchased in 1934 and began operation in 1935. In 
1941 the Conover Furniture Co., Conover, was added 
to the list and in the same year the McDowell Furni- 
ture Co., Marion, was purchased and the named 
changed to Otis L. Broyhill Furniture Co. Veneer 
plants and other auxiliary units were added as the 
need arose. 

Broyhill has put up new and enlarged buildings 
for all of the plants purchased and is constantly re- 
tooling and reconditioning to bring operations up to 
top efficiency and quality. Top management is con- 
tinually adding able and efficient personnel to insure 
high quality production. Aggressive production and 
sales organizations have made the Broyhill factories 
one of the most complete and thorough furniture or- 
ganizations in the entire country. 

Harper Furniture Co. 

Harper Furniture Co., Lenoir, one of the oldest 
furniture firms in the South, became a part of the 
Broyhill organization in 1929. The original firm 

was a partnership organized in 1889 by G. F. Harper, 
J. M. Bernhardt and G. L. Bernhardt. 

This firm is a part of the Broyhill Furniture Fac- 
tories, Lenoir, with T. H. Broyhill as president; Vir- 
gil D. Guire, vice-president, and James A. Marshall, 
secretary and treasurer. Ray Walker is plant super- 
intendent and Richard Isaac, general superintendent. 

Harper Furniture Co. produces quality bedroom 
suites and secretaries. The plant occupies about 
200,000 square feet of floor space including condition- 
ing sheds and employs about 345 workers. Its prod- 
ucts are sold nation-wide through Broyhill Furn'ture 
Factories and are displayed at several of the lead^^ 
furniture markets. 

Lenoir Chair Co. 

Lenoir Chair Co., Lenoir, one of the several Broy- 
hill plants, is known generally as Lenoir Chair No. 1. 
No. 2 is located in Newton. The firm employs 294 
workers and occupies about 120,000 square feet of 
floor space, including conditioning sheds. 

J. E. Broyhill is president and treasurer of the 
firm ; Sadie L. Broyhill, vice-president, and E. C. Mc- 
Call, secretary. 

The plant produces a complete line of upholstered 
lounges and occasional chairs and platform rockers. 
Activities are divided into two parts. One is the 
plant proper, of which R. H. Winkler is superin- 
tendent, and the upholstering department, which is 
under the supervision of R. Maynard Teague. 

Products of Lenoir Chair Co. are sold on a nation- 
wide basis through the sales organization of Broyhill 
Furniture Factories. Displays are maintained at 
several of the leading markets in the nation. 

Lenoir Furniture Corp. 

Lenoir Furniture Corp., Lenoir, was approaching 
bankruptcy in 1912 when T. H. Broyhill bought out 
the other stockholders. Today it is one of the largest 
producers of case goods in the country. The plant 
contains 523,000 square feet of floor space and em- 
ploys 511 workers. 

This plant produces high quality Modern bedroom 
groups. It is equipped with modern machinery and 
methods, including cafeteria service for employees. 

T. H. Broyhill is president of the corporation. 
Other officers are Otis L. Broyhill, vice-president; 

Extensive enlargement of Harper Furniture plant in Lenoir, 
one of the Broyhill units. 

page 30 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Lumber going through the cut-off saws in the Lenoir 
Furniture Corp. plant. 

J. E. Broyhill, secretary; R. T. Broyhill, treasurer. 
Richard Isaac is general superintendent. 


Kent-Coffey Manufacturing Co. is one of the older, 
larger and more successful of the furniture manu- 
facturing firms in Lenoir. The firm was organized 
and incorporated in 1907 by F. H. Coffey and started 
on the site of an old veneer plant. Original capital 
was $33,800. Original officers were Dr. A. A. Kent, 
president, (inactive) and F. H. Coffey, secretary- 
treasurer and general manager. In 1910 Mr. Cof- 
fey was elected president, serving as such until 1943. 
He represented Caldwell County in North Carolina 
General Assembly at one time. W. L. Minish suc- 
ceeded Mr. Coffey in 1911 as secretary-treasurer, 
serving as such until his death in 1937. 

Harold F. Coffey, son of the founder who had 
been with the firm since 1917, was elected vice-presi- 
dent in 1918 and was elected president in 1943 to 
succeed his father, still serving in that position. D. 
Archie Coffey, another son who joined the firm in 
1923, was elected vice-president in 1925 and has 
been executive vice-president since 1943. W. Clyde 
Suddreth, who went to work for the firm in 1920, 
was made assistant secretary-treasurer in 1927 and 
became secretary-treasurer in 1937, following the 
death of Mr. Minish. W. H. Maynard, also an old- 
timer with the firm, has been sales manager since 

Kent-Coffey manufactures bedroom furniture of 
the medium to better grades in both Modern and 
Traditional styles. Annual sales are in excess of 
$5,000,000, products going to every one of the 48 
states and extensive shipments to Canada, Mexico 
and Hawaii, 28 salesmen covering the area. 

Kent-Coffey plant has a floor space of 8 81 acres. 
The plant has been rebuilt and modernized and mod- 
ern furniture machinery installed during the past 
two or three years. In this process, additions were 
built, giving about 50,000 more square feet. The 
plant employs over 500 workers and has an annual 
payroll of over $1,500,000. 

In addition to its own show rooms at the plant, 
Kent-Coffey maintains permanent display spaces in 
Chicago, New York, and in High Point. 


Spainhour Furniture Co., Inc., in the Joyceton 
community near Lenoir, was organized in 1943 by 
W. J. Spainhour, who, as individual owner, took over 
the patterns, designs and other equipment formerly 
operated by the Jennings Furniture Co. The firm 

was incorporated in 1945 with W. J. Spainhour, 
president and general manager; A. J. Jones, vice- 
president (inactive), and B. L. Johnson, secretary 
and treasurer. These officers and W. J. Furbish, 
Atlanta, Norman Warner, Asheville, and R. W. Buc- 
hanan, Selma, Ala., form the Board of Directors. 

Spainhour Furniture Co. has an authorized capital 
stock of $200,000 with $90,000 outstanding. Annual 
sales have been developed to around $900,000. The 
firm occupies a floor space of approximately 25,000 
square feet and employs 130 workers with an annual 
payroll in the neighborhood of $260,000. 

Bedroom and dining room furniture are produced 
in Early American and Colonial styles. All pieces 
are of solid wood made largely from pine and maple. 

Spainhour products are sold over the entire na- 
tion, 20 salesmen covering the area. Permanent dis- 
plays are maintained in Chicago. 


Caldwell Furniture Co., Lenoir, was organized and 
incorporated in 1909 by a group of a dozen or more 
Lenoir citizens led by W. J. Lenoir. Original officers 
were W. J. Lenoir, president; T. H. Broyhill, vice- 
president, and L. E. Rabb, secretary-treasurer and 
general manager, a position he held until his death in 
1929. J. H. Beard, who had started early with the 
plant and came up through the ranks, served as vice- 
president and general manager from 1936 to 1949. 

Present officers are A. L. Moore, president; J. M. 
Gossler, vice-president and treasurer ; J. M. Gossler, 
Jr., secretary and assistant treasurer ; John R. Beard, 
son of J. H. Beard, general manager and sales man- 
ager, and T. H. Shuford, Jr., assistant to the general 

Caldwell Furniture Co. manufactures bedroom 
furniture exclusively, its annual sales amounting to 
$5,000,000. The firm has a floor space of 400,000 
square feet, employs approximately 500 workers and 
has an annual payroll of about $1,500,000. It ope- 
rates its own veneer mill near the plant. 

Caldwell Furniture Co. sells its products through- 
out the United States, 20 salesmen operating in the 
area. It maintains permanent show rooms in New 
York, Chicago and High Point and in its own show 
rooms in the plant. 

Canopied four-poster bed, by Spainhour Furniture Co.. Lenoir. 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


Page 31 

Dining room suite including buffet, table, arm chairs and side 
chairs, produced by Bernhardt Furniture Co., Lenoir. 


Bernhardt Furniture Co., Lenoir, was organized as 
the Lenoir Furniture Factory in 1889 by J. M. Bern- 
hardt and is said to be the first furniture factory 
established in Lenoir, the second west of High Point 
and the third started in the entire State. Its begin- 
ning was very modest, the plant employing only 
about 25 workers. In 1909 the plant was bought and 
the name changed to Bernhardt Manufacturing Co., 
specializing in bedroom furniture. In 1925 the plant 
divided its activities beginning the production of din- 
ing room furniture, the first suites of which were 
manufactured on chair machinery. The plant burn- 
ed in 1926 and in 1927 a thoroughly modern furni- 
ture plant was erected. 

The firm was incorporated in 1931 as the Bern- 
hardt Furniture Co., with J. M. Bernhardt as presi- 
dent; his son, George H. Bernhardt, as vice-presi- 
dent; another son, J. C. Bernhardt, as treasurer and 
Henry Wilson who married a daughter of the presi- 
dent, as secretary. The original president of the 
firm, J. M. Bernhardt, died in 1934 and his son, G. 
H. Bernhardt, succeeded him as president, serving 
until his death in 1947. 

J. C. Bernhardt, former treasurer and later vice- 
president, became president following the death of 
his brother in 1947. Other officers now are Mrs. 
George H. Bernhardt, vice-president and assistant 
secretary and treasurer, and Mrs. T. Henry Wilson, 
secretary and treasurer. 

Bernhardt announces that it's the "Largest Manu- 
facturer of Dining Room Furniture Exclusively in 
the World". The firm produces a complete line of 
Eighteenth Century, Informal Early American types 
and a modern line of ranch oak groups which is ad- 
vertised in "Life for Young Homemakers". The firm 
works out and develops its own designs. 

The Bernhardt plant, entirely modern and com- 
pletely conveyorized for mass production, is a large 
factory, containing about 325,000 square feet of floor 
space, and employs around 600 workers with an an- 
nual payroll of approximately $1,500,000. Sales 
cover the entire area of the United States, parts of 
Canada, Mexico and Hawaii, the firm's 50 salesmen 
covering the entire country. 


Fairfield Chair Co., located in the Fairfield sec- 
tion of Lenoir, was organized and incorporated in 

1921, taking over the plant of the Ethel Chair Co., 
which had been in operation since 1912. J. H. Beall, 
Lenoir bank president, is president of the company ; 
A. G. Foard was vice-president until his death in 
1943 when he was succeeded by J. A. Marshall, and 
G. F. Foard continues as secretary-treasurer and 
general manager. 

Fairfield produces living room chairs, lounges and 
occasional chairs, its products having a wide repu- 
tation in all of the 48 states and in Canada. Perma- 
nent displays are maintained in New York, Chicago, 
High Point, and in the plant's own show rooms. 

Fairfield Chair Co. has capital assets of well over 
$500,000 and its annual sales range between $1,500,- 
000 and $2,000,000. Approximately 100,000 square 
feet of floor space is utilized and the firm employs 
around 175 workers with an annual payroll of about 


Hammary Manufacturing Corp., Joyceton, on 
Hickory Highway No. 321, four miles from Lenoir, 
was organized in November, 1942, by Hamilton L. 
Bruce and started operation in a leased building on 
an alley off Harper Avenue in Lenoir. Only two 
men were employed by Mr. Bruce to assist him in 
the manufacture of lawn chairs. Within three 
months the force had grown to 12 workers and had 
reached 18 during the first year of operation. 

Because of splendid increase in sales and lack of 
available quarters in Lenoir, Mr. Bruce purchased a 
site at Joyceton and erected a new plant which has 
since been tripled in size. The plant continued to 
manufacture lawn chairs until 1946 after which a 
small dinette group was produced for about two 
years. In 1948 the plant started producing tables, 
including mahogany and gum tables with leather 
and mahogany tops, shifting the next year to leather 
tops exclusively with all genuine Honduras mahog- 
any. At present the firm produces 34 numbers in 

Hammary Manufacturing Corp. lines have been so 
well accepted that last year the firm shipped tables 
valued at approximately $1,000,000. The plant and 
equipment are valued at approximately $300,000. 
The firm employs around 125 workers in the factory 
and 10 employees in 
the office with an 
annual payroll of 
around $700,000.00. 
Mr. Bruce is presi- 
dent and general 
manager and direc- 
tors include sales- 
men who represent 
the firm in key sec- 
tions of the country. 

Hammary prod- 
ucts are sold nation- 
wide, 20 salesmen 
covering the coun- 
try. Permanent dis- 
plays are maintain- 
ed in the firm's own 
show rooms at Le- 
noir and in Chicago 
and Hiffh Point Oval book drum table of Honduras 
■n • n .-I fi ' mahogany, with swivel mahogany 

rSUSiness OI tne Urm sides and front, made by Hammary 
has been particular- Manufacturing Corp., Lenoir. 

Page 32 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Galvin Furniture Co. plant near Lenoir. (Galvin Stables, riding 
promenade grounds located below plant sit 

ly satisfactory during the past two years and espe- 
cially on the recent markets. Distribution is on a 
very strict quota and allotment basis. 


Galvin Furniture Co., Inc., originally organized in 
1922 by R. C. Robbins as the Star Furniture Co., lo- 
cated near Lenoir, was reorganized and incorporated 
in 1935 with J. B. Galvin as president and general 
manager ; Mrs. J. B. Galvin, vice-president and treas- 
urer; Miss Joan Houston, second vice-president, and 
J. B. Houston, Jr., secretary. Mr. Galvin was presi- 
dent of the Caldwell Furniture Co. at Lenoir for 
seven years before organizing his own company. 

Galvin Furniture Co. has developed annual sales 
to around $2,000,000. The plant contains approx- 
imately 300,000 square feet of floor space and em- 
ploys about 235 workers with an annual payroll in 
the neighborhood of $400,000. 

This firm produces bedroom furniture only, largely 
in Modern and Early American styles in the medium 
priced range. Products are sold all over the United 
States and in parts of Canada, 30 salesmen covering 
the area. Permanent displays are maintained in 
Chicago and New York and in the factory's own 
show rooms. 

As an interesting sideline, Mr. Galvin operates the 
Galvin Stables of fine riding horses. 


Blowing Rock Furniture Co., Lenoir, was organ- 
ized and incorporated in 1934 as a selling organiza- 
tion for the Blowing Rock Chair Co., Lenoir, and the 
Sherrill Furniture Co., Statesville. Officers are R. 
B. Triplett, president, D. M. Bower and Flake Sher- 
rill, Statesville, vice-presidents, and W. Clyde Sud- 

The Blowing Rock Chair Co., Inc., Lenoir, was in- 
corporated in 1945 with D. M. Bower as president, 
R. B. Triplett, vice-president, and R. H. Stevens, sec- 
retary-treasurer. This plant is one of the most mod- 
ern and up-to-date furniture factories in the coun- 

horses, with riding ring, 


Air view of plant of Blowing Rock Chair Co., near Lenoir. 

try, constructed entirely of steel, 
concrete and glass and equipped 
with entirely modern conveyor 
system. It contains about 70,- 
000 square feet of floor space. 
The plant manufactures modern 
dining room furniture. 

The authorized capital stock is 
$1,000,000. Annual sales reach 
approximately $2,500,000. The 
firm employs 180 workers and 
has an annual payroll of around $500,000. Blowing 
Rock Chair Co. sells its products through the Blowing 
Rock Furniture Co. over the entire United States, 
employing 30 salesmen to cover this area. Perma- 
nent displays are maintained in New York, Chicago, 
High Point, and in the plant's own show rooms. 


Hibriten Chair Co., Inc., Lenoir, was organized in 
1930 by R. C. Robbins as individual owner. Since 
that time two of his sons have joined him, Orin R. 
Robbins in 1935 and George C. Robbins in the early 
1940s. In 1946 the firm was incorporated with R. C. 
Robbins as president and general manager, G. C. 
Robbins as vice-president, and Orin R. Robbins sec- 
retary and treasurer. These officers form the Board 
of Directors. 

Hibriten Chair Co., named for the nearby Hibriten 
Mountain, has a paid in capital of $151,000, the plant 
has an annual output of approximately $1,500,000, 
has a floor space of about 90,000 square feet and em- 
ploys about 200 workers with an annual payroll of 
around $500,000. 

This firm produces high grade living room, dining 
room and bedroom chairs which are sold throughout 
the entire United States. Representatives of the 
firm cover this entire area. Show space is maintain- 
ed permanently in Chicago, High Point, and in the 
plant's own show rooms. 

Mr. Robbins had developed several furniture 
plants in and around Lenoir. In 1922 he organized 
the Star Furniture Co., which is now the Galvin Fur- 
niture Co. In 1924 he organized the Hibriten Fur- 
niture Co. along with his brother, Dr. C. L. Robbins, 
who now operates this firm. Also, he organized the 
Jennings Furniture Co. with associates, now the 
Hibriten plant. 


Kincaid Furniture Co., at Hudson, a few miles 
south of Lenoir, is probably the only furniture plant 
in North Carolina which is devoted exclusively to 
the manufacture of cedar furniture and only a few 
other plants in the State produce any cedar furniture. 
The firm was organized and incorporated in August, 
1946, with authorized capital stock of $100,000. The 
firm is a family industry with George Kincaid, 
father, as president ; J. Wade Kincaid, son, vice-pres- 
ident and general manager, and Mrs. Ruth K. Rob- 
bins, daughter, secretary-treasurer. 

Kincaid Furniture Co. produces nothing except 
cedar wardrobes and cedar chests. It is said to pro- 
duce the largest line of cedar wardrobes of any plant 
in the United States and has the capacity to manu- 
facture from 800 to 1000 units a week. The plant 
is entirely modern in machinery and equipment and 
operates on a production line basis. The plant has 
approximately 40,000 square feet of floor space, em- 

Winter-Spring, 1955 


PAGE 33 

ploys 85 workers with an annual 
payroll of around $210,000. An- 
nual sales range around $1,000,- 

Kincaid sells its products over 
the entire eastern half of the 
United States and has about 15 
salesmen covering this area. 


Hibriten Furniture Co., Le- 
noir, was organized in 1924 by 
Dr. C. L. Robbins and his broth- 
er, R. C. Robbins. Later R. C. 
Robbins organized and now ope- 
rates the Hibriten Chair Co. Dr. 
Robbins is president, treasurer 
and general manager of the furniture firm with O. R. 
Robbins as vice-president (inactive) and H. B. Jen- 
nings, secretary. 

Note : Further information not supplied. 


Southeastern Cabinet Co., Inc., located on Highway 
#821, eight miles south of Lenoir, was operated for 
several years as the Period Furniture Co., but was 
taken over by the RFC. In 1950 the Southeastern 
was organized and incorporated, purchasing the 
plant to manufacture wooden television cabinets. The 
authorized capital stock is $200,000. The officers 
are J. J. Hennessy, president; M. P. Hendrix, sec- 
retary, and M. R. Wasman, Miami, Fla., the principal 
organizer, treasurer. 

Plant of Kincaid Furniture Co., Hudson, near Lenoir. One of few cedar wardrooe 

and cedar chest makers in State. 

The new firm manufactures wooden television cab- 
inets entirely of wood and according to specifications, 
selling its products to Motorola, Du Mont, Emerson, 
Olympic, CBS, Tele King and other television manu- 
facturers. Both solid and veneer cabinets are pro- 
duced, usually with poplar as the core and with ma- 
hogany, fir, poplar and gum veneers. 

The plant contains 70,000 square feet of floor 
space and when in full operation, employs as many 
as 200 workers with an approximate payroll of $500,- 
000 annually. Annual sales reach as high as $2,000,- 


Lenoir Cabinet Works, Wilkesboro Rd., Lenoir 

Smith, D. A., Chair Co., Lenoir. 

Johnston Furn. Mfg. Co., Mill St., Granite Falls. 

Hickory-Newton-Conover Important Furniture Producers 

Hickory, even from the days it was known as Hick- 
ory Tavern, was making furniture out of the abund- 
ant hardwood in the area. With the advent of the 
Western North Carolina Railroad passing through 
the then small town, emphasis was given to making 
and shipping furniture to other areas. 

Furniture manufacturing in Catawba County has 
developed until Catawba now stands fourth among 
the North Carolina counties in the number of work- 
ers engaged in producing furniture. Hickory has 
enlarged and expanded its furniture industry and 
several other smaller communities in the county are 
large furniture producers. Among these are Con- 
over, Newton, Claremont and Maiden. 

Employment Security Commission records show 
that Catawba County has 48 furniture plants which 
are covered by the Employment Security Law — that 
is, they have eight or more employees each. Of these 
about 20 plants have 50 or more employees. Cataw- 
ba, therefore, has more furniture plants than any 
other county in the State except Guilford. Average 
monthly employment in the 48 Catawba County 
plants in 1950 was 3,817, which means that probably 
4,500 workers are employed either full or part time 
in Catawba plants. The payroll for 1950 was $9,- 


Southern Desk Co., Hickory, was organized as a 
partnership in 1908 by George F. Ivey and John Hice. 
In 1913 Mr. Ivey bought out his partner's interest 
^nd continued operation as individual owner until 

1948. He and members of his family continue to own 
controlling stock in the organization. 

Southern Desk Co. was incorporated in 1948 and 
has an authorized capital of $1,112,000 with surplus 
of around $600,000.00. Annual production runs 
around $5,000,000. The firm employs approximately 
480 workers with an annual payroll close to $1,500,- 
000. Officers of the Southern Desk Co. are George 
F. Ivey, president and general manager ; Mrs. George 
F. Ivey, vice-president ; Leon S. Ivey, their son, treas- 
urer; and A. N. Spencer, secretary. 

During its period of operation 17 additions have 
been made to the plant, the last one recently finished 
being a bui!d ,-1 ig 16 x 120 feet. The plant includes 
seven acres under cover in two, three, and four story 

Southern Desk Co., manufactures public seating 
and institutional furniture which includes seating 
for schools, churches and theaters, also chairs and 
tables, church pulpits, cabinets, storage cases, display 
cases, combination tables, study tables and chairs 
and other types of furniture for public and institu- 
tional buildings. Sales are made direct to schools, 
churches and theaters. The firm produces furnish- 
ings for an average of nine churches a week and re- 
cently completed an order for all of the furnishings 
for the new Baptist church in Greensboro. 

Products of this firm are distributed throughout 
the United States, but principal sales are made in 
the Southeastern states in which area the 13 full 
time salesmen operate largely. Permanent displays 

PAGE 34 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Huge plant of the Southern Desk Go. with seven acres of floor space in Hickory 

are maintained in the plant's own show rooms. 

This is one of the oldest, largest and most success- 
ful of the furniture plants in North Carolina. 


Hickory Chair Co., Hickory, was first established 
as the Surry Chair Co. at Elkin soon after the turn 
of the century by George Bailey. In 1911 Mr. Bailey 
moved his business to Hickory and reorganized as a 
local stock company under the name, Hickory Chair 
Manufacturing Co. Mr. Bailey continued to operate 
the business until 1944 when he retired. During this 
period, 1911 to 1944, K. C. Menzies served as presi- 

In 1931 the Hickory Chair Manufacturing Co. was 
merged with the Hickory Furniture Company and 
the Martin Furniture Company continuing under 
the name, Hickory Chair Manufacturing Co. In 1944 
this firm split into two new firms, this division be- 
coming the Hickory Chair Company with an author- 
ized capitalization of $300,000 ; the other section be- 
came the Hickory Manufacturing Company. W. B. 
Shuford served as president from 1944 until 1950. 

E. M. Fennell, who had been with the firm since 
1930 and formerly had served as executive vice-pres- 
ident and general manager, succeeded Mr. Shuford 
as president and general manager. Other present 
officers are Ralph L. Bowman, vice-president and 
plant manager ; R. Walker Geitner, secretary, and 
A. H. Burgess, treasurer. These officers, with B. R. 
Merrick of Charlotte, compose the Board of Direc- 
tors. Mrs. Jessie L. Shelby is assistant treasurer. 

Approximately half of the Hickory Chair Co. pro- 
duction is in dining room and desk chairs and the 

Air view of the home of the Hickory Chair Co., Hickory. (New 
building added since picture was taken.) 

other half in upholstered living room furniture. The 
entire plant has been modernized and in 1951 a new 
building was added containing 22,500 square feet. 
This gives the entire plant floor space of approxi- 
mately 160,000 square feet. The firm employs 335 
workers and has an annual payroll of more than 

Products of the Hickory Chair Co. are sold 
throughout the United States with a sales force of 
twenty covering the area. 

Permanent show space is maintained in Chicago 
and in High Point and in the plant's own show rooms. 


Hickory Manufacturing Co., Hickory, was formed 
in 1944 as the result of a split in the Hickory Chair 
Manufacturing Co. Part of the older firm was sold 
and was incorporated under the new name with an: 
authorized capital of $200,000. 

Walker Lyerly was elected president, A. Alex Shu-i 
ford, Jr., vice-president, and C. T. Bost, treasurer! 
and general manager. When Mr. Lyerly died in J 
1947, Mr. Shuford was elected president. 

The Hickory Manufacturing Co. produces bedroom! 
and dining room furniture in the medium priced! 
range, all period furniture, including Georgian,- 
Early Colonial, and Hepplewhite. All is from Afri-i 
can mahogany, both solid and veneer with southern! 
hardwoods as the cores of some of the products.! 
Annual production is around $2,500,000. The Hick-j 
ory Manufacturing Co. plant and equipment are 
entirely modern and the plant is frequently referred! 
to as a "Model of Cleanliness". Around 300 workers; 
are employed in the plant and the annual payroll is 
about three-fourths of a million dollars. This is one 
of the few furniture plants in the State which ope- 
rates on a profit-sharing plan for all employees and 
pays all of the premiums on a group life and hospital 
ization insurance plan for all of the workers. Ap 
proximately 250,000 square feet of floor space is 

Annual production of the Hickory Manufacturing 
Co. is around $2,500,000 and the products are distrib- 
uted throughout the United States, a sales force of 
20 covering this area. Permanent display space is 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 35 

maintained at Chicago and in the plant's own show 


Hy-Lan Furniture Co., Inc., Hickory, started the 
business in 1922 as the Yeager Manufacturing Co. 
The industry was purchased in 1933 by Walker Lyer- 
ly, Sr., and incorporated as Hy-Lan Furniture Co., 
the name coming from Highland, in which section 
the plant is located. Mr. Lyerly operated the busi- 
ness as president until his death in 1947. The son, 
Walker Lyerly, Jr., who was treasurer of the firm, 
died in June, 1951. 

Mrs. Walker Lyerly, Sr., succeeded her husband as 
president of the firm. Other officers are Mrs. C. T. 
Bost and Mrs. Walker Lyerly, Jr., vice-presidents, 
John L. Lyerly, treasurer, and Mrs. James Aderholdt, 
secretary. C. C. Bost, Jr., is general manager of the 
plant. These officers compose the Board of Directors. 

When Hy-Lan Furniture Co. was started as such 
in 1933, it employed only 56 workers. Now 350 
workers are employed and the annual payroll is about 
$765,000. In its first year the firm produced only 
$300,000 in sales, a figure that has increased 10-fold 
in the 18 years of operation to around $3,000,000 a 
year. The plant, entirely modern with a complete 
conveyor system, contains about 195,000 square feet 
of floor space. 

Until recently this firm produced only 18th Cen- 
tury dining room furniture. Now production of 
Modern dining room furniture is being expanded as 
conditions permit. This furniture is sold in every 
State in the nation, 20 salesmen covering the entire 
country. Permanent show rooms are maintained in 
Chicago, New York, and High Point and in the 
plant's own show rooms. Samples are also sent for 
the annual display in Boston. 

Hy-Lan Furniture Co. provides a $500 life insur- 
ance policy for all of its 350 employees. 


Century Furniture Co., Hickory, was organized 
and incorporated in 1948 by Harley F. Shuford, prin- 
cipal owner. The building, one of the most modern 
furniture plants in the entire nation, was completed 
and production started toward the end of that year. 
The plant is all on one floor with a complete con- 
veyor system and all of the most modern equipment. 
Because of the type of structure and other improve- 
ments, this plant earns the lowest possible insurance 

Associated with Mr. Shuford, president, are the 
following officers: E. L. Woodard and L. S. Wal- 
worth, vice-presidents; S. M. Hemphill, treasurer; 
and Young M. Smith, secretary. These officers, with 
A. T. Cashion, Hickory, form the Board of Directors. 
Phifer M. Smith is production manager. The firm 
has authorized capital of $1,500,000. 

Century produces modern and traditional living 
I room, dining room, and bedroom furniture in three 
clasifications. Sales amounting to approximately 
I $4,000,000 a year in volume are made throughout 
the entire United States, the firm's sales staff cover- 
ing the entire area. 

Permanent show spaces are maintained in High 
Point, Chicago, San Francisco, Kansas City, and 
Jamestown, New York, in the Hickory Community 
Center and in the firm's own show rooms. 

About two years ago Century Furniture Co. pur- 
chased the Longview Furniture Co., also located in 
Hickory, completely remodeled and enlarged this 
plant, tripling its production. This unit does up- 
holstering for the Century plant which handles case 
goods production and upholstering. W. T. Council, 
Jr., is superintendent of the Longview plant. Offi- 
cers of both corporations are the same. 

Combined floor space in the Century and Long- 
view plants is approximately 150,000 square feet. 
Combined employment is between 400 and 500 work- 
ers and the annual payroll is approximately $800,000. 


Western Carolina Furniture Co., Hickory, was or- 
ganized in 1943 by Charles A. White and four other 
partners and was reorganized and incorporated in 
March, 1950, with an authorized capital stock of 
$200,000. Officers are Charles White, president ; R. 
O. Dees, Jr., treasurer, and Claude T. Davis, vice- 
president, these men forming the board of directors, 
and Mrs. Louise Mosteller, secretary. 

This firm has reached annual production of ap- 
proximately $750,000, utilizing 17,000 square feet of 
floor space in its operations. It employs 65 workers 
with an annual payroll of around $150,000. The firm 
manufactures upholstered furniture including sofas, 
occasional and lounge chairs, and love seats of Tradi- 
tional and 18th Century styles, produced from gum 
and beech woods primarily. Products are distributed 
over 40 states and a sales force of 11 representatives 
cover this area. Permanent show places are main- 
tained in Chicago and High Point. 


Jones Chairs, Inc., Hickory, was organized in 1946 
by John L. Jones as individual owner. In 1951 the 
firm was incorporated with John L. Jones, president ; 
Mrs. Virgie E. Jones, wife, vice-president; Mrs. Lu- 
cille B. Andrew, secretary, and Terry V. Crouch, 
treasurer and general manager. These officers, with 
Emmett Willis, form the board of directors. 

Jones Chairs has an authorized capital of $500,000 
and annual sales approximate that figure. About 
25,000 square feet of floor space is utilized. 

This firm produces highly styled occasional chairs 
of many types. Sales cover the entire United States 
and parts of Mexico and 25 salesmen cover the area. 
Products are displayed in the Hickory Market. 

Jones Chairs operates on employer-employee par- 
ticipation basis through an annual Christmas bonus 
plan, and life insurance and hospitalization plans are 
provided for all employees, also financed by employ- 
er-employee participation. 

Upholstered living room set, chair, sofa and wing chair, made 
oy Western Carolina Furniture Co., Hickory. 

PAGE 36 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

"Rockaway" chair, plat- 
form rocker without look, 
made by Maxwell-Royal 
Chair Co., Hickory. 


Maxwell Royal Chair Co., Inc., Hickory, was or- 
ganized and incorporated in 1945 by D. D. Grainger, 
Joe A. Moretz and B. E. Correll with an authorized 
capital stock of $100,000. Later the Correll interest 
was purchased by another local businessman. 

Maxwell Royal officers 
include O. Leonard Moretz, 
President; D. D. Grainger, 
vice-president, and Joe A. 
Moretz, secretary-treasur- 
er and general manager. 
These officers, with Thom- 
as P. Pruitt, form the 
Board of Directors. In the 
six years of its operation 
annual sales have grown to 
approximately $600,000. 

The firm produces uphol- 
stered furniture in popular 
priced lines, largely club 
chairs, "Royal Rest" and platform rockers, produc- 
ing both the frame and the upholstery. One of the 
recent and popular types in both modern and colon- 
ial design is the "Rock-a-Way" in seven models which 
is a platform rocker, but without the platform rocker 

Maxwell Royal covers the East and Middle West 
with its products, 20 salesmen covering this territory. 
Frequent shipments are made to far distant places. 
The plant contains about 25,000 square feet and 
about 75 workers are employed, the annual payroll 
running around $160,000. Permanent display spaces 
are kept in Chicago and High Point and in the mid- 
season shows in the Hickory Community Center. 


P & G Chair Co., Inc., Hickory, was organized and 
incorporated July 1, 1950, by N. A. Pearson, Char- 
lotte, and M. W. Garrett, Hickory, the name coming 
from the initials of the two principal owners. Mr. 
Pearson is president and sales manager, Mr. Garrett, 
secretary-treasurer and general manager, and R. L. 
McCraven is vice-president. These officers are the 
directors of the company. 

The P & G Chair Co. has an authorized capital of 
$100,000. Annual production during the first year 
amounted to about $600,000. The firm has approx- 
imately 20,000 square feet of floor space, employs 72 
workers and has an annual payroll of approximately 

Principal products are platform rockers and sofa 
beds in the modern priced field. Practically all 
sales are in North Carolina and three surrounding 
states. Three salesmen cover this territory. The 
firm operates its own fleet of three delivery trucks. 

The P & G Chair Co. is affiliated with the Queen 
City Mattress and Upholstering Co., Charlotte, which 
is owned entirely by Mr. Pearson. 


Sherrill Upholstering Co., Inc., Hickory, was or- 
ganized in 1944 as Sherrill & Kaylor and the next 
year O. T. Sherrill purchased the interest of his 
partner. Four years later, in 1948, the firm was 
reorganized and incorporated with T. F. Cummings 
as president and Eugene Cloninger as vice-president, 
both inactive, and Mr. Sherrill as secretary-treasurer 
and general manager. 

The firm has an authorized capital of $100,000 and 
annual sales reach about one-half million dollars a 
year. Payroll for its 60 workers ranges around 
$100,000 annually. The firm produces upholstered 
living room furniture from modern to high priced, 
including Lawson sofas, Duncan Phyfe Club chairs, 
and several types of leather and fabric coverings. 

Last year the firm added a new building, giving 
1200 additional square feet of floor space, total floor 
space now amounting to 16,000 square feet. Sales 
are made direct to large department stores in ap- 
proximately 25 states, seven salesmen covering this 


Cox Manufacturing Co., Hickory, was established 
in the 1932-35 period by William Cox, individual 
owner and operator. Sales amount to approximately 
$380,000 a year. Mr. Cox employs 50 to 60 workers 
with an annual payroll of around $95,000. 

Principal products are boudoir chairs, platform 
rockers and chaise longues which are sold all over 
the United States, primarily to large department 
stores. Twelve salesmen cover the area. Perma- 
nent display spaces are maintained in Chicago. 


Conover Furniture Co., Conover, now a unit of the 
large Broyhill Furniture Factories with headquar- 
ters at Lenoir, was owned and operated in the early 
1900s by C. R. Brady and later by his son-in-law, 
Mr. Barker. In 1941 it was purchased by the Broy- 
hill interests and has since been replaced and en- 
larged by a modern building and modern equipment. 

The firm was incorporated with an authorized 
capital of $500,000. E. C. McCall is president; J. E. 
Broyhill, secretary and treasurer; C. E. Beach, di- 
rector and production manager, and C. A. Holden, 
director and purchasing agent. The plant manufac- 
tures dining room furniture, for which chairs are 
produced by another Broyhill plant, Lenoir Chair 
Company No. 1 at Lenoir ; desks, kneehole desks, in 
the low priced field, and chairs. Approximately 
180,000 square feet of floor space are utilized in the 

The Broyhill sales force of 67 men sell the prod- 
ucts of this plant along with those of the other five 
furniture plants in the organization. Around 320 
workers are employed. C. W. Canrobert is superin- 
tendent of the Conover Furniture Plant. A. F. Clark 
is general superintendent of the three plants operated 
in the Conover-Newton area, including the Lenoir 
Chair Company No. 2 at Newton and the United Ve- 
neer Company at Conover, which produces face ve- 
neer of walnut, oak, mahogany and korina for other 
Broyhill furniture plants. Howard Whisnant is 
superintendent of the veneer plant. 


The Southern Furniture Co. was organized in 1925 
by O. W. Bolick, Sr., as individual owner, starting in 
a small plant 60 x 150 feet and with eight employees. 
Business of this firm has increased 35-fold since its 
earlier years. Mr. Bolick has been joined by two of 
his sons, O. W. Bolick, Jr., and Norman Bolick, and 
a third son, Jerome Bolick, expects to join the firm 
when he finishes college. 



PAGE 37 

Large plant and part of lumber yard of Southern 
Furniture Co., Conover. 

Southern Furniture Co. now employs 275 workers 
with an annual payroll of about $625,000. Floor 
;pace is approximately 160,000 square feet. 

The firm manufactures upholstered chairs and 
sofas and boudoir chairs, all produced from solid oak, 
ish, gum and birch. This large and prosperous com- 
pany ships its products into all of the 48 states, prob- 
ibly 90% of its business being done direct with many 
arge department stores. The firm has permanent 
? urniture display space in Chicago and also in its 
)wn show rooms in the plant. 


Conover Chair Co., Conover, was organized in 1927 
oy A. L. Bolick as individual owner under the firm 
lame of Conover Mattress Co. Later the firm be- 
:ame the Conover Upholstering Co., and in 1940 the 
name was changed to the present Conover Chair Co. 
In 1946, due to the condition of Mr. Bolick's health, 
Charles C. C. Bost, who became Mr. Bolick's son-in- 
law, took over the business and has since operated it 
as owner and general manager. W. P. Bost is assist- 
ant general manager and designs all of the chairs 
produced. James J. Martin is sales manager for the 

Conover Chair Co. employs about 60 workers and 
has an annual payroll in excess of $100,000. The 
firm specializes in occasional chairs in the moderate 
priced bracket, selling direct to many of the leading 
department stores throughout the entire country, 
except on the west coast. This territory is covered 
by 18 salesmen. The plant occupies about 40,000 
square feet of floor space and between 15,000 and 
20,000 units are produced each year. The firm main- 
tains permanent display space in New York and also 
shows its products in Chicago. 


Lenoir Chair Company No. 2, Newton, now a unit 
Df the extensive Broyhill Furniture Factories with 
headquarters at Lenoir, was organized and construct- 
sd around 1924 and operated for a decade as the 
Newton Furniture Co. by J. E. Yount. 

The Broyhill interests purchased the plant in 1934 
and has rebuilt the plant and modernized the equip- 
ment since that time. J. E. Broyhill is president and 
;reasurer, E. C. McCall is secretary and H. E. 
Scruggs is plant superintendent. A. F. Clark is gen- 
eral superintendent of the three Broyhill plants in 
:he Newton-Conover area, including the United Ve- 



Brown Manufacturing Co. of The Carolinas, Inc. 

Carolina Industries, Inc., Highway 70 East 

Comfort Chair Co., Inc., 1245 3rd St., N. E. 

Conner Furniture Co., Inc. 

Custom Craft Furniture, Inc. 

Fulbright Cabinet Co., 19 2'2 First Ave., N. W. 

Hickory Bench Co., Inc., Springs St. 

Hickory Cabinet & Furniture Co., Inc., Conover Rd. 

Hickory-Fry Furniture Co., Hgw. 70-A 

Hickory Furniture Shop, Inc., Longview 

Hickory Tavern Furn., Inc., Highland Ave. 

Hickory Upholstering Co., Inc., Hgw. 70 

Keith Mfg. Co., S. 12th St. 

Messick Mfg. Co., Inc., Valdese Hgw., Route 4 

North Hickory Furn. Co., 509 11th St., N. W. 

Puritan Furniture Mfg. Co., Hgw. 7 0-A 

Suggs & Hardin Upholstering Co., Inc., 911 10th Ave., N. E. 

Terry Crouch Furn. Shops, Inc., Longview, 7 Center St. 

Newton — Conover — Maiden 

Bolin Mfg. Co., Inc., West C St. Ext. 
Newton Mfg. Co., Inc., North College Ave. 
Bolst Parts, Conover 
Catawba Upholstering Co., Claremont 
Maiden Upholstering Co., Maiden 
Pendleton's, 408 W. Finger St., Maiden 
Superior Chair Co., Inc., Maiden 

neer Co. 

This firm produces bedroom furniture which is sold 
throughout the United States by the large Broyhill 
sales force. The plant occupies about 132,000 square 
feet of floor space and employs around 245 workers. 


The Haupt Manufacturing Co., Newton, was or- 
ganized in 1946 by Ed Haupt as individual owner, 
and for a few years was engaged primarily in the 
production of plastic furniture for hotels and odd 
chairs. In 1950 the firm was incorporated and shift- 
ed to the manufacture of high grade upholstered liv- 
ing room furniture, including sofas and chairs. 

When reorganized in 1950, the authorized capital 
stock was $100,000. Officers include Ed Haupt, pres- 
ident; Mrs. Ed Haupt, vice-president; J. D. Barnes, 
secretary and treasurer, and C. M. Sherrill is plant 
superintendent. The plant equipment and supplies 
are valued at around $200,000 and annual production 
reaches about $750,000. 

The Haupt plant employs around 75 workers with 
an annual payroll of approximately $150,000. The 
plant contains about 35,000 square feet of floor space. 
Twelve salesmen represent the firm, distributing the 
products in about 45 of the 48 states. The firm main- 
tains permanent show space in New York and in its 
own show rooms in the plant. 


Scales Furniture Co., Claremont, was organized 
and incorporated in 1946 by Matthew Scales, A. O. 
Hollar and M. G. Kindle. In the next year H. H. 

Furniture plant of Haupt Manufacturing Co., Neivton. 

PAGE 38 



Hollar, brother of A. 0. Hollar, purchased the Scales 
interest, and in 1949, M. S. Kiesler, who owned and 
operated an upholstering plant, joined the corpora- 
tion, making his plant one of the units. 

Officers of the company are M. G. Kindle, presi- 
dent, M. S. Kiesler, vice-president, and H. H. Hollar, 
secretary and treasurer, with A. 0. Hollar as an addi- 
tional director. The firm has an authorized capital 
of $100,000 and embraces 25,000 square feet of floor 
space with its three units, one of which makes 

springs, another upholstering furniture, and the 
third handling both processes. 

Scales Furniture Co. produces upholstered living 
room furniture entirely, its annual production of 
around 40,000 units, bringing it approximately $1,- 
000,000 a year. About 90 workers are employed, 
the annual payroll ranging around $200,000 a year. 
Its force of 12 salesmen cover a large part of thej 
country. Permanent show rooms are maintained in 
Chicago and New York and also in the plant. 

Morganton-Drexel Boast of High Quality Furniture Plants 

Morganton's furniture industry has developed pri- 
marily during the last half century, although small 
cabinet shops and a few small factories were in 
operation before the turn of the century. Small 
plants at Morganton and Drexel, eight miles away, 
were started soon after the turn of the century and 
have developed into some of the State's largest and 
most important furniture firms. 

Drexel Furniture Co., with plants at Drexel and 
Morganton, as well as at Marion, has expanded into 
what is probably the largest furniture manufactur- 
ing firm in the State. Morganton Furniture Co. is 
the oldest of the plants in Morganton. The Henredon 
Furniture Industries, organized only five years ago, 
has developed a remarkable reputation for fine fur- 

Employment Security Commission figures show 
only six firms operating in Burke County, one of them 
embracing three or four plants. Average monthly 
employment in these covered plants — those with 
eight or more employees — in 1950 was 2,409, which 
may mean that fully 3,000 people were employed in 
furniture plants either full or part time. The an- 
nual payroll of the furniture plants in Burke County 
in 1950 was $6,084,265. 


Drexel Furniture Co., now recognized as the 
"World's Largest Manufacturer of Quality Bedroom 
and Dining Room Furniture", with several plants 
at Drexel, Morganton and Marion, had its beginning 
48 years ago at what was then little more than a pas- 
ture crossing of the railroad near the postoffice of 
Drexel, a small station on the Western North Caro- 
lina Railroad. The Drexel Furniture Co. was organ- 
ized in 1903 by Samuel Huffman, father of the pres- 
ent president, and two small frame buildings con- 
nected by a tramway comprised the original plant. 
This plant operated for about two years and then 

Morganton plant, one of several large units operated by Drexel Furniture Go 

burned down. Within two weeks work was started 
to replace the factory and part of this plant still 

The first secretary, treasurer, and general man- 
ager of Drexel Furniture Co. was J. S. Abernethy. 
who, after two years of service, resigned. He was 
succeeded by Frank O. Huffman, eldest son of Samuel 
Huffman, who served as secretary, treasurer, and 
general manager until 1932 when he was elected 
president and general manager and served as such 
until his death in 1935. Samuel Huffman served as 
first president of Drexel until 1906 when he relin 
quished his office and became vice-president, serving 
as such until his death in 1922. 

Others serving as president of the corporatior 
were A. M. Kistler, serving from 1906 until his death 
in 1931, and Sterling R. Collett who succeeded A. M 
Kistler and served until his death in 1932. Neithei 
Samuel Huffman, A. M. Kistler, or Sterling R. Colletl 
were ever actively engaged in the management of th< 
company. When Frank O. Huffman died in 1935 
Robert O. Huffman, youngest son of the founder 
became president, which office he now holds. 

Other present officers in addition to Presiden 
R. O. Huffman are A. L. Harwood, Jr., vice-presi 
dent; Burton R. Tuxford, vice-president and sale, 1 
manager; Virginia S. Moore, secretary; Robert Li 
Connelly, treasurer; L. D. T. Cox, assistant treas} 
urer, and G. Maurice Hill, manager of production! 
Directors include R. O. Huffman, A. L. Harwood, Jr.j 
Burton R. Tuxford, Virginia S. Moore, Robert L 
Connelly, G. Maurice Hill and Leon M. Little. 

Drexel Furniture Co., with its modest beginning! 
has developed through the years until it has becomj 
the largest furniture manufacturing plant in Nortli 
Carolina and one of the larger industries of the na( 
tion, with an authorized capital stock of $10,000,00'! 
of which slightly more than 55% is outstanding! 
Drexel had capital assets in 195; 
of approximately $10,654,09| 
excluding its Table Rock Furn: 
ture Co., a separate corporatio 
which was purchased in Jam; 
ary, 1951. Annual sales durin 
1951 exceeded $18,300,000 an 
earned a net profit of more tha 
$1,871,000 for its more tha| 
1,250 stockholders, also exclusiv 
of the Table Rock Furniture C< 
operations. Drexel owns appro? 
imately 160 acres of land c 
which 26 acres is under roof, gr> 
ing a combined floor space of a 



PAGE 39 

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'Precedent" living room suite of modern silver elm in natural 
finish by Drexel Furniture Co. 

most 1,140,000 square feet. Its greatest growth has 
Dccurred during the last 10 years in which it has be- 
come one of the acknowledged leaders in its field. 
During the past five years Drexel's total net sales 
volume increased from $8,816,000 in 1946 to consid- 
erably more than $18,000,000 in 1950. 

Drexel now employs 2600 people. Splendid em- 
ployer-employee relationships are traditional with 
Drexel due in large part to the concern the officials 
have felt and exercised in the welfare of the em- 
ployees, resulting in extremely high employee morale. 
For a number of years Drexel has provided a year- 
end bonus, based on the company's earnings and vir- 
tually amounts to a profit sharing plan. In 1950 the 
amount was the largest in the history of the company 
up to that time. Drexel and its employees share in 
the costs of a group life insurance program, in effect 
since 1919, providing $2500 in case of non-occupa- 
tional accidental death as well as sick benefits, and a 
hospital insurance plan, in operation since 1938, 
under Blue Cross provisions. 

Since 1945 Drexel has provided paid vacations for 
all employees, one week for those with one year of 
continuous service and two weeks for those with 
five years of service. Annual service award ban- 
quets are held each spring and service pins are pre- 
sented to all employees with two years of service and 
at five year intervals from five to forty years of 
service. Gold watches are awarded to all employees 
with 25 years of service. The Pension Plan was 
adopted in 1950 allowing all employees with 25 years 
of continuous service to retire at age 65 on one-half 
their annual basic pay, including Social Security 
benefits. The company provides first aid stations, 
trained nurses and canteens and snack bars in all 
of the plants. The morale of the employees of the 
"Drexel family" is traditionally high. 

Drexel with its up-to-date plants, latest machinery, 
modern methods, and skilled craftsmen produces fine 
furniture on a mass production basis. The average 
weekly output is about 60 freight cars of furniture 
or approximately 260 cars each month — equivalent to 
a train more than three miles long. Drexel Furni- 
ture products, sold only to retail furniture and de- 
partment stores, are distributed over the entire Unit- 
ed States, Canada and some foreign countries. Per- 
manent show rooms are maintained in Chicago, High 
Point, New York, San Francisco and in the firm's 

plant at Drexel. Payrolls of the three principal 
plants at Drexel, Morganton and Marion are larger 
than those of any other industry located in those 

The Drexel line of furniture from its various 
plants consists of from 10 to 12 groups with from 20 
to 90 pieces of bedroom, dining room and living room 
in each of the groups. Bedroom and dining room 
suites are also manufactured. These groups or suites 
are produced in 18th Century, Early American, 
French Provincial, Casual Modern and Modern. Spe- 
cific individual pieces consist of dressers, chests, 
vanities, dressing tables, night tables, beds, bedroom 
chairs, kneehole desks, occasional tables, buffets, va- 
rious china cabinets, dining room tables, serving ta- 
bles, dining room chairs and living room chairs and 
sofas. Principal woods used in Drexel furniture are 
beech, gumwood, chestnut, poplar, elm, pine and 
maple, some of which are purchased locally. Mahog- 
any and other woods of its nature are purchased 
from Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, Africa and Philip- 

The general offices of the corporation are located 
at Drexel, about eight miles west of Morganton, the 
name of the town and of the industry coming from 
the prominent Drexel family in Philadelphia, mem- 
bers of which aided in building the Western North 
Carolina Railroad on which the town of Drexel de- 
veloped. The main office employs approximate! v 121 
persons and in addition 25 sales representatives cover 
the area of distribution of the company's products. 
Manufacturing plants are located at Drexel, Morgan- 
ton and Marion, including the Table Rock Furniture 
Co. at Morganton, purchased in January, 1951. Drex- 
el also has a plant at Kingstree, South Carolina, 
which supplies the other plants with rotary cut ve- 
neers used extensively for drawer bottoms and cross 
paneling and other basic wood requirements. (See 
Drexel — Marion). 

Drexel at Drexel 

The Drexel plant is the oldest of the plants operat- 
ed by the Drexel Furniture Co. and is located around 
the point where the original factory was built in 
1903. It consists of several brick buildings with 
only small portion of the wooden buildings built fol- 

Traditional mahogany dining room suite made by Drexel. 

PAGE 40 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

lowing the fire in 1905. The wooden building is to 
be replaced with larger and more modern brick struc- 
tures when building conditions improve. 

The Drexel plant contains approximately 226,000 
square feet of floor space and employs around 415 
workers. That plant manufactures bedroom furni- 
ture exclusively, usually of 18th Century or French 
Provincial design. 

Drexel in Morganton 

In Morganton the Drexel Furniture Co. operates 
three distinct plants under the same roof. These 
three plants contain floor space of 347,000 square 
feet and employ approximately 870 persons. These 
plants are referred to as Plant No. 3, Plant No. 5 
and the Sample Plant. 

The Morganton Dining Room Plant or Plant No. 
3 is one of the largest of the Drexel organizations 
and at this plant the company's highest priced line 
of mahogany dining room furniture is produced. 
This plant produces the remarkably successful Travis 
Court dining room group. 

Morganton Chair Co., Plant No. 5, manufactures 
all of the chairs and benches to go with the furniture 
produced in the other plants. It is regarded as one 
of the most modern and up-to-date plants in the en- 
tire country and was one of the first to install a 
change conveyor system in its Finishing Department. 

The Sample Plant of Drexel is relatively small but 
is fully equipped with all machinery necessary to 
produce all samples required by the other plants. In 
conjunction with the Sample Plant the company 
operates a modern machine shop which makes cut- 
ters, knives, jigs, templates and other machinery 
used by the other plants in the production of furni- 
ture pieces after they have been worked out from 
the designer's drawings by the Sample Department. 

Table Rock Furniture Co., Morganton, is the most 
recent addition to the extensive Drexel organization, 
having been purchased in January, 1951. Table Rock 
is wholly owned by Drexel but is operated as a sep- 
arate corporation. It is located just one block from 
and in sight of Drexel's other Morganton plant. This 
plant contains more than 122,000 square feet of floor 
space and employs approximately 290 workers. 


Henredon Furniture Industries, Inc., Morganton, 
using the "Heritage-Henredon" trade-mark, started 
in 1947 as an unusual furniture plant. It was a 
dream of long standing come true — an ideal that 
became an actuality. A new modern factory was 
planned for the manufacture of really high grade 

Novel groupings of dining room, bedroom furniture icith other 

units of the Heritage-Henredon lines, made by 

Henredon Furniture Industries, Morganton. 

furniture in streamline production. Three men with 
plenty of know-how initiated an enterprise, selected 
a rural site near Morganton, landscaped the area andj 
transferred their vision of a large plant to this site.j 
After careful study the plant, covering about 150,- 
000 square feet, all on one floor and under one roof,> 
was constructed as laid out in a "U" shape. At one 
end are the saws and machinery. At the other end 
is the packing room and loading platform. Between 
these are the various processes of machining, veneer- 
ing, sanding, assembling and finishing and rubbing 

The founders and present officers are Henry Wil- 
son, president and treasurer; Ralph Edwards, vice- 
president and sales manager ; Donnell VanNoppen 
vice-president ; Sterling Collett, vice-president anc 
assistant treasurer, and C. W. Hoyle, secretary. Th( 
name HENREDON was coined by taking HEty 
from Henry Wilson's name, RE, Ralph Edwards 
initials, and DON from Donnell VanNoppen. This 
combination is intriguing to buyers and others wh( 
had known Henry, Ralph and Don for many year; 
prior to the erection of the new factory. 

Henredon Furniture Industries was incorporated iij 
1945. A little more than a year was necessary foj 
grading, building and equipping the plant. In Aprili 
1947, the first few pieces of manufactured furnitur<; 
were shipped. Today, about five years later, annua; 
production and sales amount to several million doll 
lars. Approximately 300 workers are employed. Thin 
plant started operations on the "high end" rathe:j 
than progressing from modest origins and front 
cheaper products into better quality furniture. ThJ 
organization prides itself on using the best material! 

Modern new one-floor building on beautiful rural landscaped site, Henredon Furniture Industries, Morganton 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 41 

and the finest workmen in the area. Recognition of 
the best quality products is given by purchasing 
agencies throughout the country. 

"Heritage-Henredon" products are known and 
handled by many of the finest stores in the country. 
These products have been largely 18th Century and 
adaptations of all pieces with the flavor of Chippen- 
dale, Sheraton, Hepplewhite and Duncan Phyfe. 
More recently, with the increasing popularity of 
modern styles, the Henredon line has become more 
diversified and now includes a group of casual mod- 
ern in cherry veneers. The plant is equipped with 
the most modern and efficient machinery. Economy 
of production is possible not only because of the mod- 
ern machinery but also because of the layout and 
planning requiring less handling and moving of the 
materials in processes from one operation to another. 

Henredon Furniture Industries and Heritage Fur- 
niture, Inc., High Point, employ the same salesmen. 
Products of the two firms are merchandised as Heri- 
tage-Henredon fine furniture, a name that is be- 
coming more popular as time passes. 


Morganton Furniture Co., Morganton, organized 
in 1904, is said to be the oldest manufacturing plant 
at Morganton and is frequently referred to locally as 
"Old Shop". The plant was founded by J. Hall and 
a partner and was operated as such until 1914. Then 
it was purchased by A. C. Chaffe and 0. W. Slain, 
who also operated the plant as a partnership until 
Mr. Slain died in 1931. The firm was then incorpo- 
rated under the old name with A. C. Chaffe as presi- 
dent and general manager, H. L. Shuey as vice-presi- 
dent and sales manager and W. H. Hall, a brother of 
the founder, as secretary and treasurer. 

In 1941 most of the stock was sold and Mr. Chaffe 
retired, becoming chairman of the Board. Mr. Shuey 
was elected president and general manager ; Fred 
Slain, brother of one of the earlier partners, became 

■*=- 'It"* 

Plant of Morganton Furniture Co., expanded from the oldest 
manufacturing plant in Morganton. 

vice-president and W. H. Hall was continued as secre- 
tary and treasurer. These are the present officers. 

The Morganton Furniture Co. manufactures a 
quality line of traditional mahogany bedroom and 
dining room furniture, nationally known and adver- 
tised. Its products are sold in every State in the 
Union and in Canada and Mexico. Twenty salesmen 
cover the nation with this firm's lines. Recently the 
plant has brought out open stock groups of bedroom 
and dining room furniture made of all cherry and 
cherry veneer. These groups are advertised nation- 
ally as "Cherry Ranch", styled especially for ranch 
type homes and casual living. (See front page for 
"Cherry Ranch" dining room suite.) 

In the past 20 years annual production has increas- 
ed from half a million dollars to well over four mil- 
lion dollars. The plant, with 185,000 square feet of 
floor space, is modern and is equipped with modern 
machinery. It employs approximately 600 people 
with an annual payroll well in excess of $1,000,000. 
Permanent displays of its products are maintained 
in Chicago and High Point and in the factory's own 
show rooms. 

Asheboro, Nearby TownsfLarge Furniture Manufacturers 

Asheboro has been a furniture manufacturing 
center since around the turn of the century. One of 
the earlier plants was the Randolph Chair Co., start- 
ed by C. C. Cranford, who also later operated the 
Cranford Chair Co. His son, E. D. Cranford, was 
also a furniture manufacturer operating the Clarence 
Chair Co. 

Records of the Employment Security Commission 
show that 13 firms were engaged in furniture manu- 
facturing in Randolph County in 1950. These firms 
had average monthly employment of 1,437 and the 
annual payroll for 1950 was $2,638,803. Nine of 
these plants were at Asheboro, three were at Liberty 
and one was at Ramseur. 

Articles on three firms at Liberty are included 
under Siler City-Liberty head. 


Lucas National, Inc., Asheboro, formerly National 
Chair Mfg. Corp., and earlier National Chair Co., 
was started in 1908 as the Randolph Chair Co. by 
C. C. Cranford and engaged in chair manufacturing. 
Mr. Cranford, an important figure in Asheboro's fur- 
niture and textile industry, also organized the Cran- 
ford Chair Co. in 1923, selling this industry to the 

Regal Chair Co. in 1946. He was also interested in 
the Piedmont Chair Co. which was leased in 1939 
to W. C. Lucas, who had managed National Chair 
Co., Inc., for Mr. Cranford since 1933. Prior to that 
his son, E. D. Cranford, had operated this business 
as the Clarence Chair Co., which was organized un- 
der the name National Chair Co., Inc., in 1933. 

W. C. Lucas, who had grown up in the furniture 
business, thus began to acquire by lease and purchase 
what has developed into one of the important fur- 
niture organizations in the State. He now operates 
what is known as Plant No. 1 on South Fayetteville 
Street and Plant No. 2 on Academy St., both in 

In 1945 Mr. Lucas built a large furniture plant, 
known as the Lucas plant, on South Fayetteville 
Street, and moved into this new plant from the Cran- 
ford plant. This plant has been operated for the past 
two or three years under lease to Imperial of Ashe- 
boro, Inc., manufacturing high quality bedroom 
suites. Late in 1951 Mr. Lucas sold this building to 
the General Electric Co., which planned to open early 
in the new year and begin the manufacture of elec- 
tric blankets. 

PAGE 42 



Lucas National continues to operate plants No. 1 
and 2 with plans for greatly enlarging and modern- 
izing Plant No. 1 by moving machinery and equip- 
ment from the plant recently sold into Plant No. 1. 

Officers of Lucas National, Inc., include W. C. 
Lucas, president and general manager; A. P. Cox, 
vice-president; Mrs. Pearlie M. Lucas, wife of the 
president, secretary and treasurer, and Mrs. Kath- 
leen Shaw, assistant secretary. These organizations 
combined, have authorized capital stock of more than 
one-half million dollars and capital assets in excess 
of one-half million dollars. 

Lucas National Plant No. 1 manufactures living 
room, dining room and kitchen furniture and tele- 
vision tables and plans soon to begin the manufac- 
ture of bedroom furniture. In Plant No. 2 the same 
types of furniture are manufactured, in addition to 
bedroom furniture, office desks and television tables 
and cabinets. The firm employs between 200 and 
300 workers in both plants with an annual payroll 
ranging around $750,000. When the movement of 
the equipment from the plant sold to General Elec- 
tric is completed and installed in Plant No. 1, em- 
ployment will be given to probably 100 or more addi- 
tional workers early in 1952. 

Lucas National products are sold throughout the 
United States, largely by contract, and a large force 
of salesmen cover the entire country. Permanent 
displays are maintained in Chicago, New York, High 
Point and in the firm's own show rooms in Plant 
No. 1. 

Previously Mr. Lucas and his organization one- 
rated a plant at Coleridge for about five years. This 
plant is now idle. Previously plants for chair manu- 
facturing, veneer manufacturing and a square plant 
were operated for about 10 years at Society Hill, S. 
C, but these plants were sold about two years ago. 

P & P Chair Co., Asheboro, was organized and in- 
corporated in 1926 with a paid-in capital stock of 
$25,000 with A. E. Presnell and W. C. Page as the 
principal stockholders, from whose initials the firm 
takes its name. In 1940 Mr. Page purchased the 
stock owned by Mr. Presnell. 

Present officers of the firm are W. J. Armfield, Jr., 
president ; J. H. Crutchfield, vice-president ; and Wal- 
ter C. Page, secretary and treasurer and general 
manager. His son, W. C. Page, Jr., has joined him 
and is assuming increased responsibilities in the 
operation of the plant as assistant secretary and 

P & P Chair Co. produces solid oak chairs from 
woods secured in Piedmont North Carolina, round 
post cane seat chairs and rockers and sag seat chairs, 
ranging from adult to kindergarten sizes. The plant, 
with about 40,000 square feet of floor space, is mod- 
ern and new equipment has been added as needed. 
From 50 to 60 workers are employed and the annual 
pavroll ranges around $65,000. 

P & P Chair Co. products are distributed through- 

Sag seat rocker by P & P 
Chair Co., Asheboro. 

the United States, princi- 
pally in the South, and 10 
salesmen cover the area. 
Permanent displays are 
maintained in High Point 
and in the plant's own show 


Ramseur Furniture Co., 
Inc., was started in 1905 by 
a group of Ramseur citizens 
with E. C. Watkins as man- 
ager and secretary-treasur- 
er o fthe firm until his death 
in 1931. T. Ashley Dent 
was the first president, 
serving until 1927 when he 
was succeeded by Henry H. 
Simmen of New York, 
who continued as president 
until the firm was purchased and reorganized in 1946. 

With the purchase of the firm, largely by New York 
interests, in 1946, Ralph Deutsch of New York be- 
came president and Herbert Wallack became vice- 
president. These New York officials organized the 
Ramseur Furniture Co. of New York and operate it 
as the sales organization for the Ramseur Furniture 
Co. At the time of reorganization, C. E. Brady, who 
operates the Brady Furniture Co. at Rural Hall, be- 
came treasurer and E. B. Leonard, Jr., Ramseur, 
became secretary and assistant manager. T. L. Lin- 
gerfelt came to the Ramseur plant in 1949 as general 
manager. These constitute the officers and princi- 
pal executives of the firm. (Mr. Lingerfelt was 
elected president recently). 

The Ramseur plant and equipment has a valuation 
of around three-fourths of a million dollars and con- 
tains about 110,000 square feet of floor space. An- 
nual sales range around $1,250,000 and the plant em- 
ploys about 200 workers with an annual pavroll of 
around $340,000. 

Ramseur Furniture Co. manufactures bedroom 
furniture exclusively, including beds, dressers, 
chests, vanities, night stands, benches and chairs. 
Probably three-fourths of the firm's products are 
made of plywood, consisting primarily of native pop- 
lar, Appalachian oak and some pine. Distribution is 
over the entire United States, about 25 salesmen cov- 
ering - the area and making sales to department and 
furniture stores. The products are displayed in per- 
manent show rooms in New York, Chicago and High 
Point and in the plant's own show rooms. 

Other North Carolina firms in which Paramount 
Furniture Industries have interests are Bradv Fur- 
niture Co.. Rural Hall; Alliene Furniture Corp.. 
Trov, and Lovelace Johnston Furniture Corp., Wen- 


Craven. F. M.. Chair Co., N. Park St., Asheboro. 
Dreamland Mattress Co.. 515 Fayetteville St., Asheboro. 
Wright Furniture & Cabinet Works, Rt. 1, Asheboro. 
Marley, A. C, Chair Plant, Staley. 

Siler City-Liberty Lead in School Furniture Production 

Siler City and Liberty, located less than a dozen 
miles apart and within a few miles of the determined 
geographical center of the State of North Carolina, 
claim the distinction of manufacturing more school 

furniture than any other section in the State, with 
one exception, and the same statement is said to apply 
just as forcibly to the entire Southeastern States. 
Production in this classification includes school 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


Page 43 

shairs, desks and tables, including items from kin- 
dergarten to adult sizes. Office chairs and other 
furniture items also are produced. 

Moreover, the Siler City-Liberty products are not 
confined to these items. Parlor pieces, dinette suites, 
as well as chairs, tables and other items for hospitals, 
nurses' homes and other group users are produced. 
Distribution of many of the items is nation-wide and 
advertising is on a national basis. Displays are 
maintained in leading regular and special display 
markets in leading centers. 

In the Siler City group are High Point Bending 
and Chair Co. and Williams & Brower, Inc., while 
the Liberty group includes Gregson Manufacturing 
Co., Liberty Chair Co., Inc., and Stout Chair Co., Inc. 


High Point Bending & Chair Co., Siler City, was 
started in 1901 by M. J. Boling, engaged in bending 
chair parts for other chair manufacturers. About 
three years later the firm started manufacturing 
chairs itself and was said to have been the first bent- 
wood chair manufacturing firm in the South. In its 
earlier days the firm was owned in part by High 
Point interests and the office of the firm was located 
in High Point. Its incorporators in later years were 
M. J. Boling and J. Wade Siler of Siler City and S. 
H. Tomlinson of High Point. Mr. Boling was presi- 
dent and general manager of the firm until his death 
and was succeeded by C. B. Thomas as president. 

F. J. Boling, son of the founder and former presi- 
dent, was elected president in 1931 and later also 
became general manager, positions he still holds. 
J. K. Boling is vice-president; K. G. Clapp is treas- 
urer, and H. E. Stout is secretary. All officers are 
active in the firm. These officers and Mrs. R. F. 
Paschal compose the Board of Directors. 

The High Point Bending & Chair Co. employs 
around 250 workers. In 1949 it purchased a plant 
at Azalea, N. C, which produces the dimension stock 
for the chairs. This plant employs about 25 workers. 
Products are distributed throughout the United 
States and about 15 salesmen call on dealers through- 
out the nation. 

High Point Bending & Chair Co. manufactures 
chairs exclusively for business, homes, schools, or- 
phanages and other institutions. All of its products 
are solid hardwoods, largely of oak and pecan. Per- 
manent displays are maintained in High Point and 
in the plant's own show rooms, for the convenience 
of dealers. 


Williams & Brower, Inc., Siler City, was organized 
in 1920 by R. A. Williams and C. L. Brower as a 
partnership and was engaged in producing bent fur- 
niture stock for other furniture manufacturers. In 
1928 it started production of household furniture in 
its own name. In the beginning, the plant had only 
6,000 square feet of floor space and was employing 
only 45 workers in 1930 when the firm was reorgan- 
ized and incorporated. 

Prior to the incorporation and reorganization in 
1930, Mr. Williams bought out the interest of Mr. 
Brower and became president and treasurer of the 
firm. In 1942 Mr. Williams died and Mrs. Williams 
became president of the corporation. She and her 
j^wo sons, Russell A. Williams, vice-president, and 
R. V. Williams, secretary-treasurer, are the directors 


Modern desk and chair produced by 
Willia7ns & Brower, Inc., Siler City. 

and principal stock- 

After various in- 
creases in capacity 
during the years, 
the firm now has 
100,000 square feet 
of floor space and 
employs 165 work- 
ers with an annual 
payroll of approxi- 
mately $250,000.00. 
The firm produces 
around 1200 pieces daily. 

Production includes desks and chair units includ- 
ing kindergarten and adult size chairs, tablet armed 
chairs, cafeteria and library tables and kindergarten 
pocket tables. All products are of hardwood lumber, 
principally beech. 

Williams & Brower sells its products practically 
all over the United States through local distributors, 
and the bulk of it is delivered by the firm's fleet of 
four trailer-trucks. Williams & Brower belongs to 
the Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association 
and to the National School Service Institute in Chi- 
cago and displays its products at this institute's an- 
nual shows in December. It also maintains perma- 
nent displays in its own show rooms. 


Chatham Novelties Co., Sanford Hgw., Siler City. 
Sears Cedar Chest Co., Rt. 2, Siler City. 


Gregson Manufacturing Co., Liberty, was organ- 
ized in 1925 by B. G. Gregson and was incorporated 
as B. G. Gregson, Inc. The firm with only five em- 
ployees started out in a small plant located near the 
present site of the company and manufactured picker 
sticks for the textile industry. After two or three 
years, the plant began making chairs and also added 
tables, expanding until it was making a fairly com- 
plete line of office and school chairs and tables. 

In 1938 the business was taken over by three chil- 
dren of the organizer and became a partnership own- 
ed by J. D. Gregson, J. G. Gregson and Mrs. Anna 
Lee Baldwin and the name was changed to the pres- 
ent name. School furniture is produced in the orig- 
inal plant and office furniture is manufactured in a 
new unit built in 1946 to take care of the increasing 
production of the firm. 

Gregson produces furniture now to the extent of 
approximately $1,500,000 valuation a year. Around 
200 workers are employed and the annual payroll 
is around $330,000. Floor space is approximately 
110,000 square feet, a recent addition containing 
about 1400 square feet. 

Office and school chairs and tables manufactured 
include lines of Chippendale chairs with a large vol- 
ume of Modern pieces. Sales cover the entire coun- 
try, 14 salesmen working the area. Office furniture 
is distributed through retailers and distributors han- 
dle the school furniture. Permanent displays are 
maintained in Chicago, New York and Los Angeles. 

Liberty Chair Co., Inc., Liberty, was organized in 
1910 by J. A. Martin and associates as the Liberty 
Picker Stick and Novelty Co. and was engaged in 
manufacturing supplies for the cotton mill industry. 
In 1916 the firm shifted to chair manufacturing and 

PAGE 44 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

changed its name to Liberty Chair 
Co. From the beginning Mr. Mar- 
tin has been general manager and 
secretary and treasurer of the firm. 
In the earlier days C. R. Curtis was 
president and W. P. White, a sales- 
man, was vice-president. 

Present officers of Liberty Chair 
Co. are J. G. Coward, president and 
superintendent, M. E. Johnson, 
vice-president (inactive), J. A. 
Martin, secretary-treasurer and 
general manager. Two of Mr. Mar- 
tin's sons are taking over impor- 
tant position in the organization, 
including D. W. Martin, assistant 
secretary-treasurer, and K. A. Martin, cost and pro- 
duction manager. The officers and H. P. Coward, 
shipping superintendent, form the Board of Direc- 

Since Liberty shifted to chair making in 1916, it 
has also extended its activities to include novelties 
and dinettes. Its products include bedroom, dining 
room and school chairs, odd chairs and stools. Prin- 
cipal woods used are tupelo, gum and oak. 

Hardwood desk 

chair made by 

Liberty Chair 

Co., Liberty. 

Liberty's outstanding capital stock is $111,000 
and annual sales are in the neighborhood of $1,000,- 
000. The plant embraces about 40,000 square feet 
and 150 workers are employed with an annual pay- 
roll of around $300,000. 

Sales of Liberty products cover the entire United 
States, 22 salesmen working the area. Permanent 
show places are maintained in New York, Chicago 
and High Point. 


Stout Chair Co., Liberty, started as B. G. Gregson, 
Inc., was bought by a group of individuals and in- 
corporated in 1939 as the Stout Chair Co. Officers 
are F. J. Boling, president, J. K. Boling, vice-presi- 
dent, K. G. Clapp, treasurer, and H. E. Stout, sec- 

The Stout Chair Co. manufactures chairs for of- 
fices, homes, schools and institutions and sells its 
products throughout the United States direct to dis- 
tributors. Its products are made of hardwoods, 
largely oak. The firm employs more than 100 work- 
ers. Its products are displayed in its own show 
rooms for dealers who come to the factory. 

Statesville Extensive Furniture Producer for 50 Years 

Furniture, after a period as a home shop and cab- 
inet shop activity, had its beginning as an industry 
around the turn of the century. The first furniture 
plant evidently was operated by the Statesville Fur- 
niture Co., formed by a group of local citizens headed 
by J. T. Shelton. This firm made bedroom furniture, 
but was burned in 1903. Also in 1903 the Imperial 
Furniture Co. was formed by another group of local 
citizens headed by C. E. Keiger. This plant is now 
owned by Thonet Industries, Inc. and is operated as 
North Carolina Furniture, Inc. Following these, 
among the early furniture and woodworking plants, 
were Kincaid Furniture Co. which burned in 1927 
on the present site of the Statesville Plywood and 
Veneer Co. ; the Kennedy Plywood Co. ; the States- 
ville Safe & Table Co., later Diamond Hill Furniture 
Co. and now the Statesville Chair Co. ; the Stimpson 
Veneer Co. ; the Carolina Parlor Furniture Co., and 
the Sherrill Furniture Co. 

The furniture industry has grown in Statesville 
to the extent that it almost equals the textile indus- 
try. Furniture and its allied industries employ 1800 
or more workers and has an annual payroll approach- 


Air vieio of the modern plant of the Statesville Chair Co. 

ing $4,000,000. Practically all types of wooden fur-j 
niture are produced. The Employment Security 
Commission records have furniture alone show that 
19 plants were in operation in Iredell County in 1950 
all but one of them in Statesville, with average 
monthly employment of 1344 and total payrolls of 
$2,994,663 in 1950. 

Among the pioneers in the industries were J. 
Shelton, P. K. Kennedy, Clarence Stimpson, W. 
Thomas, C. E. Keiger, A. E. Welborn, J. C. Steele 
L. C. Wagner, W. D. Turner, Lee Kincaid and Toirj| 


Statesville Chair Co., Statesville, was organizec} 
and incorporated in 1919 with T. Garland Shelton 
as principal organizer for the purpose of making 
chairs to be sold primarily to the two furniture! 
plants then operating at Statesville to go with then 
furniture suites. Mr. Shelton served as secretary 
and treasurer and general manager until 1940 when 
as mayor of Statesville, he died while presiding oveij] 
exercises in which James A. Farley, Postmaster Genjj 
eral, was dedicating Statesville'! 
new Post Office. 

When the Statesville Chaii 
Co. was first organized it wa; 
capitalized at $60,000 and em! 
ployed probably 30 workers h 
the early days. 

Most of the officers of thj 
Statesville Chair Co., except Mffl 
Shelton, were inactive. The firsj 
president was T. N. McElwee; 
who was succeeded following hi 
death by his brother, Dr. Rosi 
S. McElwee, who served until hi! 
death in 1948. John A. Scot) 
then became president, servin; 

Winter-Spring, 1952 


PAGE 45 

Louis V design chair made 

by Statesville Chair Co., 


until his death in 1950. Na- 
than 0. McElwee, son of 
Dr. McElwee, was then 
elected president, still hold- 
ing that position. 

When Mr. Shelton died in 
1940, G. P. Scott, who had 
started with the firm soon 
after its organization in 
1921, became secretary and 
treasurer, positions he still 
holds. Other present offi- 
cers include Henry R. Long, 
first vice-president and 
plant superintendent; John 
S. Raynal, second vice-pres- 
ident; H. C. Brett, third 
vice-president ; Julian S. 
White, assistant secretary, 
and Miss Sadie Alexander, 
assistant treasurer. 
Present authorized capital of the Statesville Chair 
Co. is $1,000,000, approximately one-half of which 
is outstanding. Annual sales amount to approx- 
imately $2,500,000. The firm has about 150,000 
square feet of floor space, employs approximately 
300 workers with an annual payroll of around $500,- 

Spreading out from its original operations in pro- 
ducing chairs for other furniture manufacturers, 
Statesville Chair Co. now produces chairs for bed- 
room, dining room and living room, including 
straight chairs, rocking chairs and platform rockers. 
Most of the chairs produced are Eighteenth Century 
designs, although Modern and Provincial types are 
also produced. Materials used are genuine and Phil- 
ippine mahogany, gum and oak, both in solid woods 
and plywoods. 

Statesville Chair Co. sells its products over the en- 
tire United States, 25 salesmen covering this area. 
Permanent displays are maintained in New York, 
Chicago, High Point, and in its own show rooms in 
the plant. 


North Carolina Furniture, Inc., Statesville, a sub- 
sidiary of Thonet Industries, Inc., 1 Park Avenue, 
New York, was established around 1940. When this 
firm purchased the local plant, formerly operated as 

the Imperial Furni- 
ture Co., it moved 
out most of the old 
machinery and 
equipped the plant 
with the most mod- 
ern furniture man- 
ufacturing machin- 

The parent organ- 
ization, Thonet In- 
dustries, Inc., estab- 
lished as a furni- 
ture manufacturing 
organization in 
1830, handles the 

entire production of 
Modern bent-ply chair made by + ^ Q+ofocnn'llo unit 

North Carolina Furniture, Inc., ni + j + 

Statesville, subsidiary of Thonet as J- nonet products. 

industries, inc. Additional plants 

are operated in this country at Sheboygan, Wis., 
and York, Penna. Sales offices are maintained 
in New York, Chicago and Statesville. Leopold Pil- 
zer, New York, president of the Statesville corpora- 
tion, is also president of Thonet Industries, Inc., New 
York. Bruno R. Weill, Mr. Pilzer's stepson, of 
Statesville and York, Penna., is vice-president ; E. B. 
Halward is secretary and general manager of the 
Statesville plant; R. Delt is treasurer and production 
manager and Miss Elizabeth Holshouser is assistant 

North Carolina Furniture has annual sales of $1,- 
500,000 or more, all to and through Thonet Industries 
and under the Thonet trademark. The Statesville 
plant has approximately 150,000 square feet of floor 
space, including 25,000 square feet added in a build- 
ing completed about a year ago. It employs around 
250 workers and has an annual payroll of approxi- 
mately $600,000. 

Thonet products, manufactured by the Statesville 
firm, include bentwood chairs for hotels, restaurants 
and institutions, such as schools, hospitals and libra- 
ries. All chairs are of modern type, produced from 
bentwood or electronic moulded plywood. Principal 
woods used are soft elm, soft maple, hard maple and 
birch. Due to bent features, the manufacturers 
claim that the chairs are both stronger and lighter. 

Sherrill Furniture Co., Statesville, was organized 
in 1936 as a partnership by Flake Sherrill and W. 
Clyde Suddreth. The firm was incorporated in 1947 
with an authorized ,~ 

capital stock of 
$100,000. At that 
time it became af- 
filiated with the 
Blowing Rock Chair 
Co. in Lenoir and 
both firms sell their 
products through 
the Blowing Rock 
Furniture Co., Le- 
noir. Officers are 
Flake Sherrill, pres- 
ident, W. Clyde Sud- 
dreth, vice-presi- 
dent, and Joe M. 
Sherrill, secretary- 

The Sherrill Fur- 
niture Co. manufac- 
tures Traditional 
dining room furni- 
ture of cherry, ma- 
hogany, and pine 

Hi i > O 1 

HI W m 

■■:■■■'• . i 

:■■'''■ ■ ' ' - : ; 

■ ■ '■■:: 

Mahogany breakfront with gold 

carving used as china cabinet or 

living room piece, by Sherrill 

Furniture Co., Statesville. 

and of veneer and plywood. Its products aro sold 
throughout the nation and 30 salesmen, these also 
selling Blowing Rock Chair products, cover the 
entire United States. Permanent show spaces are 
maintained in New York, Chicago, High Point and in 
the Blowing Rock Furniture Co. plant at Lenoir. 

This firm has capital stock of $50,000 and annual 
production reaches approximately $1,100,000. The 
annual payroll for the 150 employees is approximate- 
ly $330,000. 


Carolina Parlor Furniture Co., Statesville, was or- 
ganized and incorporated in 1909 by L. S. Gilliam 

PAGE 46 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

Living room suite of Gilliam furniture made by Carolina Parlor 
Furniture Co., Statesville. 

and associates, with an authorized capital of $200,- 
000. The plant was small, starting with 12 employ- 
ees, and in the first year produced and shipped parlor 
furniture valued at $50,000. In its processes of ex- 
pansion, this firm has made three moves, each time 
into larger quarters. 

Officers of the firm are L. S. Gilliam, president and 
general manager ; L. S. Gilliam, Jr., assistant general 
manager; C. E. Keiger, vice-president, and Miss 
Nancy Gilliam, niece of the president, secretary and 

Carolina Parlor Furniture Co. now has annual 
sales ranging from $800,000 to $900,000 of its prod- 
ucts under the trade name of Gilliam Distinctive 
Furniture. The plant now occupies about 66,000 
square feet of floor space, employs around 150 work- 
ers and has an annual payroll of about $225,000. 
Products are distributed largely in the southeastern 
area covering 12 or 15 states and 13 salesmen work 
this area. Two nearby plants are operated, Plant 
No. 2 making the frames and Plant No. 1 upholster- 
ing and shipping the products. 

Products are exclusively living room furniture in- 
cluding 18th Century, Early American, French Pro- 
vincial and Modern lines, including sofas, wing 
chairs, barrel and occasional chairs, love seats, rock- 
ers and sofa beds. The products are from solid 
woods, including domestic hardwoods and Honduras 

Carolina Parlor Furniture Co. displays its prod- 
ucts in the High Point Mart. 


Bylo Furniture Co., Statesville, manufacturers of 
baby furniture, taking its name from Bye-Low, a 
lullaby or hush tune, was organized in 1925. The 
plant was purchased by W. H. Allen in 1933, and 
under his management the company has enjoyed a 
splendid growth. 

Bylo Furniture Co. was incorporated in 1946 with 
W. H. Allen as president, treasurer and general man- 
ager; C. N. Steele, vice-president, and Mrs. W. H. 

Allen, secretary. 
The authorized cap- 
ital stock is $100,- 

The plant after 
several enlarge- 
ments now contains 
approximately 55,- 
000 square feet of 
floor space, and is 
filled with the latest 
machinery suitable 

. . T> , for the manufacture 

Baby crib of tupelo veneer, Bylo » , , „ ., 

Furniture Co., Statesville, maker °* Daby turniture. 

of children's furniture. Annual sales are in 


the neighborhood of $700,000.00. The firm employs 
from 80 to 90 workers with an annual payroll of 
about $135,000.00. 

Bylo-Line of juvenile furniture is sold primarily in 
the Southeastern States, but sales are spreading into 
the Middle West and East, with particularly large 
shipments to Puerto Rico. The territory is covered 
by salesmen calling on the retail furniture trade. The 
Bylo-Line is widely known and is outstanding in the 
territory that it covers. The company enjoys the 
most pleasant relations as to management and work- 
ers. It joins its employees in paying premiums on 
group insurance covering health, accident and hos- 
pitalization, and gives vacation with pay in July and 
December each year. 

The Bylo Furniture Co. is recognized as the largest 
manufacturer of juvenile furniture in the South, pro- 
ducing such items as screen cribs, cribs, youth beds, 
chests, and other baby furniture. Permanent dis- 
play is maintained in High Point. 


Home Made Chair Co., Statesville, was organized 
and incorporated in 1935 by Dr. L. O. Gibson and F 
J. Murdock. Later the Mur- 
dock stock was purchased ^mm®^ 

by Dr. Gibson. The officers 
consist of Dr. L. O. Gib- 
son, president; Dr. M. W. 
Gibson, his brother, vice- 
president (both inactive), 
and M. B. Brosius, secre- 
tary-treasurer and general 
manager. Guy Allie is 
foreman of the finishing 

Home Made Chair Co. 
utilizes approximately 50,- 
000 square feet of floor 
space and the average num- 
ber of employees is around 
85. The products are sold 
over the United States, largely in the North Central 
states, and in Cuba, Hawaii and Canada. Shipments 
are made largely to individual stores. 

Home Made Chair Co. manufactures dinette drop 
leaf tables and ladder-back chairs to match and juv-t 
enile chairs, rockers and table sets. All are producedj 
from local hardwoods, including beech, birch, poplar) 
and oak, practically all in solid woods. 

Displays of the products of this firm are made in 
the New York Toy Show. 


Troutman Chair Co., Troutman, was organized and| 
incorporated March 15, 1924, with H. J. Murdock as| 
president ; F. J. Murdock, general manager, and Her-i, 
man Brown, secretary and treasurer. Later the! 
majority stock in the company was acquired by Her-j 
man Brown and his father, L. N. Brown, was electecj | 
president and his brother, S. A. Brown, vice-presi- 
dent. Herman Brown continues as secretary anc 
treasurer and became general manager of the firm. 

The two units of the plant contain about 30,00( 
square feet of floor space and the firm employ! 
around 64 workers with an annual payroll ranging 
around $150,000. The firm distributes its product: 

Sag seat rocker of May- 
flower line finished in 
Bradford maple, by Home 
Made Chair Co., Statesville. 


Winter-Spring, 1 952 


PAGE 47 

over six or eight states in the southeastern area 
which is covered by three salesmen. 

Troutman Chair Co. produces cane seat chairs and 
porch rockers, all produced from local hardwoods 
and selling at moderate prices. It maintains a per- 
manent exhibit at High Point. 


Builtwright Chair Co., Connor St. 

Custom Chair Co. 

Dixie Seating Co. 

Jack & Jill Furniture Co., Armfield St. 

Ross Furniture Co., Inc., Shelton Ave. 

Shaver, A. L., & Sons, Charlotte Hgw., Rt. 1. 

Statesville Upholstering Co., 129 Water St. 

Winston-Salem Early and Important Furniture Producer 

When the Moravians first settled at Bethabara 
(Old Town) in the 1750s and began a decade or more 
later the foundation for Salem, among them was an 
artisan designated as a cabinet maker. He and his 
successors made many pieces of furniture, some of 
which are still in use in the modern city of Winston- 
Salem. This furniture was made of solid wood and 
much of it heavy and cumbersome, numerous items 
surviving after use by many generations. 

The oldest continuing firm is the J. C. Spach Wag- 
on Works established in 1854 and continuing in the 
same family under the tradename of Unique Furni- 
ture Makers. More than 30 years ago this firm shift- 
ed from wagons to furniture and is now one of the 
modern furniture manufacturers in the State. In 
1871 Fogle Bros. Co. was started as a lumber firm. 
A descendant of one of the Fogle brothers, Fred A. 
Fogle, and John D. Stockton organized Fogle Furni- 
ture Co. who produced hand woven fiber furniture 
shifting to matched living room furniture in 1928. 

In 1898 Oakland Furniture Co. began operation 
and later was taken over by B. F. Huntley Furniture 
Co., organized in 1906, and now one of the largest 
furniture plants in northwestern North Carolina. 
The Mengel Company, Louisville, Kentucky, estab- 
lished a plant in Winston in 1913 to manufacture 
wooden tobacco boxes and has added to its products 
fiber containers, store fixtures, wall cabinets and 
closets. Furniture plants are also operating at Rural 
Hall and Kernersville, also in Forsyth County. 

In addition to several smaller firms, Forsyth Coun- 
ty last year contained 12 furniture plants which were 
subject to the Employment Security Law, thus em- 
ploying eight or more workers. Average monthly 
employment in these plants was 1,056 and the total 
payroll in 1950 was $2,826,602, Employment Security 
Commission records reveal. 


B. F. Huntley Furniture Co., Inc., Patterson Ave. 
& East 12th St., H 

Winston-Salem, N. 
C. is one of the older 
furniture manufac- 
turing plants in 
Northwestern North 
Carolina, having 
been organized and 
incorporated as the 
Oakland Furniture 
Co. in 1900. The or- 
ganizers were the 
members of the re- 
tail furniture firm 
of Huntley - Hill - 
Stockton Co. with 

B F "Rhyi+Ipv n« Triple dresser, Modern, in American 
. i . numiey db walnut veneers, by B. F. Huntley 
president and gen- Furniture Co., Winston-Salem. 

eral manager ; W. P. 
Hill as vice-presi- 
dent, and M. D. 
Stockton as secre- 
tary-treasurer. An- 
other important 
stockholder was R. 
J. Reynolds who had 
come to know the 
members of the re- 
tail furniture store 
through his purch- 
ases of furniture 
items offered in ex- 
change for various 
numbers of tags 
from the Reynolds 
Tobacco products. 
The firm was capi- 
talized at $25,000, 
each of the founders 
purchasing around 
$5,000 in stock. 

Chest on chest, French Provincial 
dresser in cherry veneers, French 
light walnut finish, made by B. F. 
Huntley Furniture Co., Winston- 

The first plant occupied the building in North Win- 
ston now owned by the Mengel Co. and used as its 
box plant. Meanwhile the Winston Desk Co., which 
had failed, was bought in at a receiver's sale bv B. 
F. Huntley and consolidated. Meanwhile the B. F. 
Huntley Furniture Co. was organized and incorpo- 
rated and absorbed the earlier Oakland Furniture 
Co. The authorized capital stock was increased to 

In 1916 J. S. Lynch joined the firm and became 
assistant to President B. F. Huntley. Four years 
later he became a director and vice-president. The 
business at that time had increased to around $750,- 
000 a year. In 1920 the B. F. Huntley Furniture Co. 
increased its authorized capital stock to $1,000,000 
and bought the Forsyth Furniture Plant, known as 
Plant No. 2, which burned in 1934. Again in 1923 
the authorized capital stock was increased to $2,500,- 
000, with $1,500,000 in common and $1,000,000 in 
preferred stock. By that time sales had increased 
to $3,000,000 a year. 

J. S. Lynch was elected president of the company 
in 1925, following the death of Mr. Huntley, and 
also became general manager of the plant. B. F. 
Huntley, Jr., was elected vice-president and Mr. 
Stockton continued as secretary-treasurer. Then in 
1929 the B. F. Huntley Furniture Co. was sold to the 
Simmons Company of New York and became a sub- 
sidiary of that company without any change in name 
and officers. Mr. Lynch continued as president and 
general manager. 

J. S. Lynch and associates in 1935 bought the in- 
dustry from the Simmons Company, Mr. Lynch con- 
tinuing as president and general manager. Ralph 

PAGE 48 


Winter-Spring, 1952 

M. Stockton, son of one of the founders, became vice- 
president ; Charles L. Creech, Sr., treasurer, and Sam 
H. Pinkston b