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Full text of "The Eskimo tribes; their distribution and characteristics, especially as regards language, with a comparative vocabulary and sketch-map"

BERKELEY 

LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORHIA 



EARTH 

SCIENCES. 

UWARY 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.arcliive.org/details/eskimotribestheiOOrinkricli 



< L 



/IJ' 




Meddelelser ora Gronland, 



udgivne af 

Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske 
Undersegelser i Gr-anland. 



Ellevte Hefte med Supplement 
1887—91. 



«The Eskimo tribes, their distribution and characteristics, 

especially in regard to language. With a comparative 

vocabularj». 

Af 
H. Rink. 

Idgivet ved Underst«llelse af Ministeriet for Kirke- og UDdervisningsvaesenet. 



OF THE 
OF 



Kjebenhavn. 
I Commission hos C. A. ReitzeL 

Bianco Lunos Kgl. Hof-Bojtrykkeri (F. Dreyer). 

1891. 



SCIENCES 



THE ESKIMO TRIBES 



THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS, 
ESPECIALLY IN REGARD TO LANGUAGE. 

WITH A COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 
AND A SKETCH-MAP. 



BY 



Dr. H. RINK, 

LATE DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GREENLAND BOARD OF TRADE, 

AND FORMERLY ROYAL INSPECTOR OF SOUTH GREENLAND. 

ArTHOR OF ^. TALES AND TRADITIONS OF THE ESK1M0», «DANISH GREENLAND.., ETC. 



VOL. I. 



[VOL. XI OF THE .-JMeddelelser om Grenland-., 

EDITED BY THE COMMISSION FOR DIRECTING THE GEOLOGICAL 

AND GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS IN GREENLAND.] 



-T— ^== 



COPENHAGEN. LONDON. 

C. A. REITZEL. LONGMANS, GREEN & CO' 

MDCCCLXXXVII. 



COPENHAGEN. - BIANCO LUNG, (F. DREYER), PRINTER TO THE KING. 



THE ESKIMO TRIBES. 



THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS, 
ESPECIALLY AS REGARDS LANGUAGE. 

WITH A COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY, AND A MAP. 

BY ^ 

Dr. HENRY RINK, 

LATE DIUECTOR OF THE ROYAL GREENLAND BOARD OF TRADE , 

AND FORMERLY ROYAL INSPECTOR OF SOUTH GREENLAND 

AUTHOR OF ..TALES AND TRADITIONS OF THE ESKIMO", oDANLSH GREENLAND.., ETC. 



[VOL. XI OF THE ..iMeddeleiser om Gronland.., 

EDITED BY THE COMMISSION FOR DIRECTING THE GEOLOGICAL 

AND .GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS IN GREENLAND.] 




WILLIAMS AND NORGATE, 

14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London; and 

20, South Frederik Street, Edinburgh. 

COPENHAGEN, C. A. REITZEL. 

1887. 



GENERAL 



BIANCO LUNO, (F. DKEYEU), PUINTKU TO THE KING. 



PREFACE. 



I 



J he purpose of the first section of this book is to show 
what conclusions it is possible to draw from the mode of life, 
the customs and usages of the Eskimo, so far as regards the 
migrations by which they have spread over their present territory. 
But it is not intended to go farther back than the commence- 
ment of this dispersion. Especially do our conclusions not 
imply a decided opinion on the question so frequently discussed, 
whether the cradle of the race was in America or in Asia. At 
the same time, however, it attaches a greater importance to the 
New , than to the Old World as a factor in what must be 
considered the ancient history of the Eskimo. In order to trace 
out their origin , the principal source of knowledge will most 
likely have to be finally sought for in their language and traditions. 
As to language, — vocabularies will be required , showing how 
the same idea is expressed throughout the different dialects, 
according to the system now adopted by the American authors 
on aboriginal linguistics (Powell: "Introduction to the study of 
Indian languages"). Hut a comparison of this kind cannot 
attain its real value, without explaining at the same time, how 
the compound words have originated from their stems or elements. 
It is the principal object of the present work to give an idea 
of these elements in the Eskimo language, and the admirable 
construction of words by means of them. We shall then be 
enabled to explain a comparative vocabulary in a subsequent 
volume , by referring to the rules stated in the present one. 



170714 



There is some reason to believe that by that time -also our 
store of Eskimo traditions will have increased, so that much 
belter opportunity will be offered for weighing their historical 
value. 

The means required for publishing this volume have been 
granted by the Ministry for Public Education and Ecclesiastical 
Affairs, and it was found natural to embody it in the series of 
<. MEDDELELSER OM GR0NUND « which since 1879 have been 
issued in Copenhagen and comprise the latest Danish invest- 
igations in Greenland. But on the other hand, as its theme 
can at all events interest only a very limited circle of readers, 
it was preferred to render this contribution more accessible by 
printing it in English. Assistance with this end in view being 
requisite, I applied of course to my friend Dr. Robert Brown 
who had edited two other books for me in England. As readily 
as ever he complied with my request, to revise that part of 
my manuscript which was not merely lexicographical. But for 
several reasons some errors in English style may notwith- 
standing have crept in, during the completion and printing of 
the pages. It is therefore my hope that these circumstances 
being understood, the writer may not unreasonably claim the 
indulgence of his readers. 



'»' 



Christiania May 1887 . 

H. RINK. 



CONTENTS, 



Page. 

I. THE ESKIMO TRIBES, THEIR COMMON ORFGIN, THEIR DIS- 
PERSION AND THEIR DIVERSITIES IN GENERAL 1. 

Inventions for procuring the necessary means of subsistence (6) — 
Dwellings (10) — Dress and ornaments (12) — Domestic industry 
and arts (15) — Religion and folklore (16) — Sociology (21) — 
Distribution and Division (31). 

II. THE ESKIMO LANGUAGE, ITS ADMIRABLE ORGANISATION 

AS TO THE CONSTRUCTION AND FLEXION OF WORDS . . 35. 

The written language, letters and signs (39) — The parts of 
speech, the organisation of the language exhibited in its mode of 
construing and inflecting words (46) — Nouns and their flexion 
(49) — Particular nouns (52) — Verbs and their flexion (53) — 
Particles (60) — Syntax (61) — Construction of words by means 
of the dependent stems or affixes (63) — List of affixes, with ex- 
amples of their use (65). 

III. COMPARATIVE LIST OF THE STEM WORDS OR INDEPENDENT 
STEMS OF THE ESKIMO DIALECTS, WITH EXAMPLES OF 
THEIR DERIVATIVES 77. 



ERRATA, 



'age 


9, 


line 


8, 


for: 


consider 


read: 


consider 


— 


11 


— 


19 


— 


room; 


— 


room, 


— 


14 


-— 


20 


— 


perpendicular 


— 


and perpendicular 


— 


20 


~ 


16 


— 


as 


— 


us 


— 


26 


~ 


27 


— 


disagreableness 


— 


disagreeableness 


— 


27 


— 


26 


— 


bussiness 


— 


business 


— 


32 


~ 


30 


— 


abrul 


— 


about 


— 


33 


~ 


8 


— 


corcerning 


— 


concerning 


— 


39 


— 


7 


— 


Trchukschen 


— 


Tschuksehen 


— 


41 


— 


32 


— 


ni 


— 


in 


— 


51 


— 


31 


— 


merelly 


— 


merely 


— 


55 


— 


16 


— 


atigit 


~ 


atigik 


— 


58 


— 


12 


— 


in finHive 


— 


infmilive 


— 


— 


— 


28 


— 


te 


— 


to 


— 


59 


— 


29 


— 


joq 


— 


joq 


— 


61 


— 


2 


— 


ipagssaq 


— 


igpagssaq 


— 


— 


— 


25 


— 


appliled 


~ 


applied 


— 


63 


— 


12 


— 


sence 


— 


sense 


— 


— 


— 


15 


~ 


enphony 


— 


euphony 


— 


66 


— 


38 


— 


gross 


— 


grass 


— 


71 


— 


16 


— 


voq 


— 


voq 


— - 


82 


~ 


30 


— 


longlaiier 


— 


longlailed 


— 


87 


— 


36 


— 


amarqo 


— 


amaroq 


— 


88 


— 


21 


— 


ane 


— 


ane 


— 


— 


— 


39 


— 


hy 


— 


by 


— 


90 


— 


9 


— 


adglisipd 


— 


agdlisipa 


— 


93 


— 


40 


— 


dolhing 


— 


clothing 


— 


94 


— 


30 


— 


antdlarpoq 


— 


antdlarpoq 


— 


95 


— 


39 


— 


avdlangorpoq 


— 


avdldngorpoq 


— 


96 


— 


11 


— 


inlerjection 


— 


interjections 


— 


99 


— 


2 


— 


spirit 


— 


spirit) 


~ 


106 


— 


5 


— 


iverpd 


— 


iverpd 



Page 


107, 


line 


6, 


for: 


pairoggin 


read: 


qairoggin 


— 


116 


— 


26 


— 


II 


— 





— 


117 


— 


36 


— 


kalivigiva 


— 


kalivigiva 


— 


120 


— 


11 


— 


shoulderhlade 


— 


shoulderblade 


— 


— 


— 


15 


— 


in the 


— 


in it 


— 


— 


— 


33 


— 


tears 


— 


tears, 


— 


124 


— 


29 


— 


humigpd 


— 


kumigpd 


— 


126 


— 


5 


— 


magperpa 


~ 


magperpa 


— 


127 


— 


22 


— 


U 


— 


it 


— 


133 


— 


12 


— 


Wn. 


— 


* Wn. 


— • 


— 


— 


18 


— 


naterpoq 


— 


naterqoq 


— 


134 


— 


21 


— 


comparred 


— 


compared 


— 


135 


— 


9 


— 


pas 


— 


push 


— 


137 


— 


17 


— 


barns 


— 


bnrns 


— 


138 


— 


17 


— 


orotkroga 


— 


orotkroya 


— 


140 


— 


3 


~ 


ar 


— 


as 


— 


141 


— 


32 


— 


handsom 


— 


handsome, 


— 


142 


— 


4 


— 


ihe semicolon 


._ 


a comma 


— 


144 


— 


20 


~ 


scraiches 


— 


scratches 


— 


149 


— 


23 


— 


trashing 


— 


thrashing 


— 


152 


— 


16 


— 


tayplpoq 


— 


tagplpoq 


— 


153 


_.- 


22 


— 


reins 


— 


reins = 


— 


154 


— 


34 


— 


tikipoq 


— 


tikipoq 


— 


156 


— 


34 


— 


tukagfdjoq 


— 


tukagfdjoq 


— 


159 


— 


28 


— 


a baid 


— 


as bail 



Page 8, 21, 101, 123 
practices, read: directly — 



and 138, for: directely — Labrodor 
Labrador — practises. 



I. 

The Eskimo tribes, their common origin, their 
dispersion and their diversities in general. 

— "*• — 



\. i-i^t/ i^J^^ 



// OF THE 

,\t'NlVERS«TY 



As Bering Strait has so frequently been made use of in 
order to explain how America could receive its original inhabit- 
ants from Asia, and as the American side of this sound does 
not show any trace of having been inhabited by other people 
than the Eskimo, this race seems to deserve particular attention 
with regard to all questions touching the prehistoric population 
of America. If their kinship to other nations has to be judged 
from their customs and manner of life, they seem to form a 
natural continuation of their Indian neighbours on the western 
coast of America. It has been assumed, that the latter abori- 
gines have come from the interior of the continent following 
the river courses unto the sea. The same may as well be 
suggested with regard to the Eskimo, only with the addition, 
that having reached the ocean they spread along the coasts to 
the north and the east as far as the same natural conditions 
and the lack of opposition by earlier inhabitants admitted, 
occupying in this way regions of enormous extent. In proposing 
this hypothesis we may leave wholly out of consideration the 
question, whether in a still earlier period the ancestors of both 
the Indians and the Eskimo migrated from Asia or not. But 
certainly we will have still to examine another hypothesis which, 
if even less probable, can not be rejected on the plea that it 
infers an impossibility, namely that the Eskimo came across 
Bering Strait, proceeded to the east and the south where then 
they met with the Indians and in settling finally adopted some 

r 



V 



4 



of their usages and customs. In order to duly consider this 
theory in comparison with the first named it will be necessary 
for want of any real historical sources to examine the Eskimo 
tribes with regard to every peculiarity of their present state of 
culture which may throw light upon their obscure origin and 
wanderings. — 

Recent investigations have revealed differences between the 
Eskimo tribes which indicate, that after having taken their first 
step to being an exclusively maritime people they have still 
during their migrations been subjected to further development 
in the same direction, aiming at adapting them especially for 
the Arctic coasts as their proper home. The farther we go 
back towards their supposed original country, the more of what 
may be considered their original habits we find still preserved. 
In the general history of culture these variations must certainly 
appear trifling, but still I beUeve that a closer examination of 
them will throw light on the question, how the most desolate 
and deterring regions of the globe could become peopled. The 
solution of this problem is facilitated by the fact that the whole 
Eskimo nation has been less exposed to that contact with other 
peoples which elsewhere renders such investigations more 
complicated. These variations are among the Eskimo more 
exclusively due to natural influences, to which the wanderers 
were exposed during their struggle for existence and which 
partly gave rise to new inventions, partly led only to the abolish- 
ment of former habits. In some instances also these external 
influences evidently occasioned decay where the severity of the 
climate in connection with the isolation and the fewness of in- 
habitants almost exceeded the bounds of human endurance. 

In the pages which follow I will try to show, how from 
this point of view the peculiarities of the tribes in the different 
domains of culture agree with the supposition that the original 
Eskimo inhabited the Interior of Alaska, that apart from the 
true Eskimo a sidebranch of them in the farthest remote period 



peopled the Aleutian islands, whereas people of the principal 
race later on settled at the river-mouths, spreading northward 
along Bering Strait and hiveing off some colonies to the op- 
posite shore proceeded around Point Barrow to the east, the 
Mackenzie river, over the Central Regions or Arctic Archipelago, 
and finally to Labrador and Greenland. This dispersion may 
have taken thousands of years; they can only have proceeded 
in small bands, very much as still they are used to move about 
during certain seasons. Their only way of procuring subsist- 
ence in the vast deserts they passed over, excluded the possi- 
bility of national migrations on a larger scale. While in this 
way they continued to discover new countries, some families 
were induced to go farther, others remained and finally gave 
rise to the present scattered settlements. But in proposing 
this hypothesis I consider it a matter of course that Alaska as 
the original home of the Eskimo is not to be taken in the 
strictest sense, absolutely excluding adjacent parts of the con- 
tinent towards the east. Tribes of the same race may have 
come down the Mackenzie or even more easterly rivers, but ix 
amalgamated with the principal stock , learning their inventions 
and adopting their mode of life. But as to the other theory, 
that the Eskimo should have migrated from Asia via Bering 
Strait and found the Indian territory already occupied by the 
same nations as now, this objection must be separately taken 
into consideration in connection with the facts bearing in favour 
of the former. 



N&' 






^y^ 



^'^^^ ^'/ Inventions FOR PROCURING 

jC^^ ^r ^ THE NECESSARY MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE. 

^/> . 

^^^f^ Of the contrivances here in question THE KAYAK WITH ITS 

APPERTENA^T IMPLEMEiNTS AND WEAPONS no doubt occupies the 
first rank. The Inland Eskimo of Alaska like his Indian neighbours 
carries on his fishery in the rivers by means of his BIRCHBARK 
CANOE. In settling at the river-mouth he has exchanged the 
birchbark for sealskin to cover the wooden framework of his 
skiff and at the same time furnish it with a deck to protect it 
against the waves of the sea. This is simply the origin of the 
kayak, but only in its first stage of development. The deck 
alone thus procured was not sufficient; the sea washing over it 
would soon fill the kayak through the hole, in which its occup- 
ant is sitting, if his clothing did not at the same time close 
the opening around him. This ADAPTATION OF THE CLOTHING is 
tried by degrees in various ways throughout the Eskimo count- 
ries, but it does not attain its perfection except in Greenland 
where it forms in connection with the kayak itself a watertight 
cover for the whole body excepting the face. Only in that 
country it enables the kayaker to be capsized or so to speak 
being rolled unhurt by the waves, while in Alaska it serves as 
much to protect him against rain as against the sea. 

The second necessary implement, THE DOCBLE-BLADED PADDLE 
of which the middle part makes the handle, in the same way 
makes its appearance very gradually. In Southern Alaska it 
is unknown among the Eskimo proper who have continued to 
use the onebladed Indian canoe paddle; it is not until we are 
north of the Yukon river that we find the first specimens of it, 
but still accompanied by the other, even on the same kayak. 
At Point Barrow the onebladed paddle still serves for ordinary 



use while the other is also occasionally employed. Indeed it is 
not before we reach somewhat beyond the Mackenzie R. that 
the well known Greenland kayak-oar acquires that right of ex- 
clusive use to which it is really entitled. 

Passing to the weapons used for sealhunting from kayak, 
we see the principal and most original of them, the LARGE HARPOON 
WITH BLADDER AND LINE also gradually invented, being completed 
and duly appreciated in almost the same proportion as the 
former implements. First, as a curiosity, it may be mentioned, 
that in Southern Alaska we meet with harpoons still furnished 
with bird's feathers like the arrows of the landchase. However 
it must have been observed early, that a seal, even when hit 
by a harpoon must be able to escape more easily than a ter- 
restrial animal — namely by diving. To prevent this, a small 
inflated bladder was attached to the end of the harpoon. A 
small harpoon fashioned in this way has also been preserved 
almost unaltered from Kadjak in Alaska to Greenland. It is 
used for smaller seals under the name of BLADDER-ARROW. But 
already in Alaska it was by and by found necessary to enlarge the 
bladder for the capture of larger animals, and at the same time 
of course, the missile, by offering too much resistance to the 
air, grew more and more unfit for being thrown to a suitable 
distance. In fact, specimens are seen in Alaska of so monstrous 
a shape that they would amaze a Greenlander. This incon- 
venience then gave rise to the invention of the large harpoon 
and the bladder to be separately thrown out, only connected 
with the harpoon by means of the hunting line. This contri- 
vance, as a kayak tool, is unknown in Southern Alaska, although 
large bladders are used in the same way for whalefishing by 
the Indians. Even at Point Barrow the large bladder like the 
double-bladed paddle is applied only in peculiar cases, whereas 
the «bladder-arrow» serves for ordinary use. 

One more invention indispensable in completing the large 
harpoon is developed and gradually makes its appearance in 



going from south to north almost side by side with the bladder. 
Experience must soon have shown the usefulness of forming and 
fastening to the shaft the point of the missile in such a manner, 
that after having hit the game it would be detached from the end of 
it and only remain hanging at it by a strap. The use of the large 
harpoon especially required THAT THE POh\T SHOULD GET WHOLLY 
RID OF THE SHAFT which in this way was allowed to remain float- 
ing while the seal ran off with the line and the bladder. For 
this purpose the FOREMOST PART OF THE SHAFT HAS A JOINT 
THAT ENABLES IT TO BE BENT by the Struggles of the animal, 
whereupon the point and the line directely will fall off. The 
same flexibility has also been given to the lance by which the 
seal receives its mortal wounds after being hit with the harpoon. 
Missiles with points able to get loose from the end of the shaft 
are everywhere met with among kayak implements, but the 
appropriate mode of fashioning the point for this aim is only 
found gradually developed as we proceed northward. 

Finally we have to consider that side by side with the amehora- 
tion of the implements the kayak itself is rendered more suitable 
for overcoming the emergencies to which its occupant is exposed, 
and that in this way the marvellous art of HUNTING SEALS FROM 
A KAYAK DOES NOT ATTAIN ITS HIGHEST PERFECTION EXCEPT IN 
GREENLAND. This superiority is manifested in TWO ACCOM- 
PLISHMENTS which in Greenland only are considered indispensable 
to a man who would lay claim to the rank of a sealhunter. The 
first of them is the ART OF RISING TO THE SURFACE AGAIN by 
means of the paddle in case of being overturned. This art is 
but scarcely — if at all — known in Alaska and Labrodor, al- 
though it may be easily imagined how necessary this capacity 
for helping himself must be to a hunter who desires to be 
independent of the assistance of companions. The other ad- 
vantage is the art just mentioned of CAPTURING BY MEANS OF THE 
LARGE HARPOON AND BLADDER which can not be properly learned 
without being educated as a kayaker from early boyhood. It 



9 



might be added as a curiosity that the Eastcoast of Greenland 
can boast of one or two improvements uniinown on the West- 
coast. Small as certainly they are when compared with the 
whole equipment one of them nevertheless deserves to be men- 
tioned. It consists in having the large bladder replaced by two 
smaller ones closely bound together. Besides the security it 
otherwise affords, the usefulness of this contrivance may be 
perceived when we consider the critical circumstances under 
which the capture of a seal is performed;, and especially the 
fact taken into account that the several operations of throwing 
the harpoon and at the same time getting rid of the bladder 
and line, killing the animal with the lance, fastening it for being 
towed and finally restoring and duly fixing the instruments used 
— have all to be done with one hand, while the other must 
keep hold of the paddle, ready to avert the dangers which at 
the same time may arise from the sea. Experience has probably 
shown that the double bladder is easier to handle and especi- 
ally to catch hold of than the large one. It must, as a matter 
of course, be understood that here, as well as in the following 
pages we speak of natives and especially Greenlanders as they 
were before their primitive habits were influenced by contact 
with Europeans. 

This might be sufficient so far as sealhunting from kayak 
is concerned. It is well known that the same animal is hunted 
also by other means, some of which in certain regions more 
or less supplant the kayak. This is the case, where the winter 
ice hinders its use for too long a period of the year. i\Iore- 
over whalefishery is carried on by the Eskimo in different places 
with great expertness, and for this kind of chase as well as in 
pursuing other large cetaceous animals and seals the open skin- 
boat is made use of as much as, or even more so than the kayak. 
But when SEALHUNTING MCST BE PERFOKMEl) ON THE FROZEN 
SEA, the methods practised do not seem to have been subjected 
to the same kind of changes which we have seen in the operations 



10 



when the art of hunting from the kayak is studied in the line 
of Eskimo wanderings from West to East. At least their 
development is not so simply and clearly manifested as in the 
latter case. 

As to HUNTING FROM OPEN BOATS, this likewise is performed 
more uniformly by the Eskimo, but also almost in the same 
way by the Northwest Indians who procure their sustenance as 
much from the sea as from the land and also in other respects 
may be considered a link between Eskimo and Indians. Some 
Indians also catch white whales from the shore and know how 
to use the large bladder for this purpose. On the opposite shore 
of Bering Strait the neighbours of the Eskimo down to Kam- 
schatka have open skinboats for the same purpose. As to 
catching fish , especially salmon , also a remarkable uniformity 
prevails all over the Eskimo countries. Only one curious exception 
is to be noted here: the Easlgreenlanders are totally unacquainted 
with the use of fishhooks or angling, whereas on the other hand 
they have threeforked salmon - spears of a remarkable form, 
exactly the same as is met with in Vancouver Island. 

Dwellings. 

The way in which the inhabitants are distributed, partly as 
inmates of the same house, partly in different houses more 
or less distant from each other, is a question of importance, 
when their social organisation comes to be considered. It will 
be known that the Eskimo during the summer lead a wandering 
life, forming bands of as many as can find room in an umiak 
or who constitute the inhabitants of a tent. But during winter 
— by far the longest part of the year — they retire to certain 
stations usually occupied by the same stock through several 
generations. In comparing THE WINTERHOLSES OF ALASKA WITH 
THOSE OF GREENLAND we instantly observe one broad difference. 
The interior room of the former is a square .surrounded by the 



11 

resting places and on one side the entrance, whereas in Green- 
land the resting places or family benches are all arranged on 
one side, for which reason the houses have a more or less 
elongated form, the length corresponding to the number of the 
inhabitants. Owing to the square form the size of the Alaska i^i^cX ' 
houses varies within narrower limits, the number of their in- S'«u.«ri 
habitants is also more limited than in Greenland. Only some 
tribes in the Interior, described by Glasunow as a mixed race, 
seem to have larger houses, and so had the Aleutians in former 
times. But in Alaska on the other hand, in order to make up 
for the lack of sufficient room for assemblies in the houses 
there are larger public buildings, one or two in each place. 
They are called: kagse^ T^Xwv.kagsit^ also kagge^ kashim, kassigit, 
and as it seems their use continues from Alaska towards the 
East at a rate corresponding to the narrowness of the dwelling 
houses. 

In Southern Alaska the houses resemble those of the In- 
dians by having a hearth in the middle of the floor with a 
smokehole in the roof over it. The inner room; as already 
mentioned, is furnished on three sides with alcoves, affording 
separate open lodges or sleeping rooms, while the fourth af- 
fords the entrance. This construction gives the houses a some- 
what cruciform appearance. Moreover they are comparatively 
spacious and built mostly of wood covered with earth only on 
the outside. Northward on the coast of Bering Strait, WHERE 
WOOD BECOMES SCARCtlR the added alcoves disappear; the size 
of the inner room consequently diminishes. The resting places 
more especially are reduced to the utmost narrowness; the 
hearth for want of fuel is displaced in favour of the blubber 
lamps; and the middle of the room instead occupied by the 
women, serving them as their working place. 

Near the Mackenzie R. we again meet with the cruciform 
construction, but beyond this border it wholly disappears. By 
degrees as wood becomes scarcer we also see SNOW TRIED AS A 



12 



BUILDING MATERIAL, but before we have passed the iMackenzie R. 
snowhuts are only found as serving for temporary use, especi- 
ally on journeys for hunting. In the Central Regions they are 
made regular habitations for a certain part of the year. On 
account of their circular form they must of course be narrow, 
and for this reason they are furnished with siderooms for differ- 
ent uses. In spring and autumn temporary huts of an elongated 
form are built as a transition to THE GREENLAiND HOUSES. It 
is said that the kagsit are — or according to tradition have been 
— built likewise of snow. In Greenland, at least south of Mel- 
ville Bay, dwellings of snow are not known to have existed, the 
houses are REARED MERELY OP STONES AND SOD or turf. The 
Greenlanders quite well know the kagsit from their traditional tales, 
but no doubt mainly, if not entirely as a reminiscence from 
the earlier homesteads of their ancestors. In Disko Island 
certainly a ruin which was recently still in existence was said 
to have been such a public building. But as far as I know 
there does not exist any authentic statement of such buildings 
ever having been observed or known to have been made use of 
in Greenland. Finally one very remarkable custom which the 
Alaska Eskimo have in common with the Indians must be men- 
tioned here in connection with the dwellings. It is the use of 
sweating baths. The kagses generally serve for this purpose, but 
how far the custom passes beyond the shores of Bering Strait 
is not known; certainly, however, it is abandoned before the 
regular use of snowhouses begins. 

Dkess and ornaments. 

The ESKIMO CLOTHING, as well known, is almost the same 
for women as for men, consisting of trousers or breeches and a 
tunic or coat closed round the body and covering the head also 
by means of THE PROLONGATION THAT FORMS THE HOOD. It varies 
of course throughout the different tribes, but the hood especially 



13 



is common to all of them. Southern Alaska only may perhaps 
show some exceptions to the general fashion, as far as can be 
inferred from portraits and specimens of coats. Some of the 
latter resemble those of the Indians, partly by their length, 
partly by their want of a hood, while at the same time a peculiar 
sort of hat is in vogue. 

Another peculiarity is the WIDENING OF THE HEAD COVER for 
women who have to carry children so as to make it A CRADLE 
admirably adapted to the climate and the wandering life of these 
Northern nomads. The mode of carrying the babies in the 
widened legs of the women's boots seems to be only an excep- 
tion proper to Labrador and some places in the Central Regions. 

Some customs connected with dress have a particular ethno- 
logical interest. In the first place the LIP ORNAMENTS OR LABRETS 
and the nose ornaments common to the Indians and the Eskimo 
of Alaska are obviously of American origin. That they were 
invented in more southerly regions and that their wandering to 
the far North only is due to the power of inherited custom is 
indicated also by their way of occurrence among the Eskimo 
tribes. The Thlinkit Indians, as we know, pierce the lower 
lip and insert an ornament of bone or stone in the opening, 
the ceremony being practised after certain rules concerning age 
and sex. This custom is observed by the Eskimo with the 
difference, that they use two smaller labrets under the corners 
of the mouth, whereas the Thlinkits preferred to adorn the 
middle of the lip wilh one of more excessive magnitude. Un- 
doubtedly this difference is occasioned by climatic influence. The 
original Eskimo in being removed to the Arctic Regions have 
felt the necessity of at all events modifying this strange habit. 
In mentioning a labret of extraordinary size found in the shell- 
heaps of the Aleutian Islands, Dall asserts that «no hunter ex- 
posed to the icy blasts and the cold waters of winter could 
have worn such articles which could have subjected the extended 
strip of flesh to freezing and been an insufferable annoyance 



14 



otherwise" -- John Murdoch expressly affirms the same; in 
speaiiing of the Point Barrow Eskimo and their traditional tales 
he says: "The expression: when all men wore one labret — , 
means: a very long time ago — , as the single labret has long 
been out of fashion and a few only are preserved as heirlooms 
or amulets ». 

Nevertheless we cannot but wonder at the perseverance 
with which the natives have still clung to the same ancient 
custom whiiph has braved the arctic winters of Point Barrow and 
is still fashionable at the Mackenzie also. liV THE CENTRAL 
REGIONS, HOWEVER, IT MUST AT LAST HAVE SUCCUMBED. In 
Greenland, strange to say, it is not known, as far as I remember, 
even from the folklore. 

As concerns HAIR-DRESSING a sort of tonsure is generahy 
used by men in the West and at the Mackenzie R. beyond 
which it is sporadic, f. i. on the coasts of Hudson's Strait and 
of Smith's Sound. As for women hair dressing begins in the 
West with DEPENDENT BRAIDS and ends in Greenland with having 
the whole rolled up in a single STRAlTLY TIED TOFT the thickness 
perpendicular position of which is of the highest importance 
among the objects of the toilet. This tuft makes its first appear- 
ance east of Point Barrow, but here combined with the plaits, 
and hereupon it continues alternately in this way and again varying 
with the use of braids alone, until at length in Greenland the 
luft becomes the absolute custom. 

Finally the use of MASKS for dancing festivals and especi- 
ally connected with religious ceremonies is developed in a high 
degree among the Alaska Eskimo and like the labrets links 
them to the Indians. But also like the latter it disappears 
towards the East. 



15 



Domestic industry and arts. 

We know that in general, as far as the raw materials are 
to be obtained, each family fabricates its own utensils and other 
necessaries itself. It is stated that in Alaska not only Indians 
but also some Eskimo tribes know how to fabricate cooking 
vessels out of baked clay. If this assertion is correct, it might 
seem to be of interest in one respect, in as much as the art 
of making pottery has by some ethnologists been fixed as one 
of the chief points designating an advance in culture. But in 
the entire remainder of the Eskimo territory this art is quite 
unknown, and even if tried, the want of fuel as well as the 
nature of the soil generally would interfere with its practice. 
The ordinary material used by the Eskimo for culinary vessels 
and lamps is the well known potstone whose occurrence is 
confined to certain localities scattered throughout the Arctic 
Regions. In connection with a few other commodities it has 
been the chief object of ancient intertribal trade. 

The art exhibited by the Alaska Eskimo in ORNAMENTING , 
THEIR WEAPONS AND UTENSILS is often mentioned in travellers' 
reports from the time when they were first visited by Europeans. 
To their skill in carving and engraving we must join the taste 
displayed in the same way in making their clothing. Again 
when we pass from Alaska to the East, we see this relish for 
the fine arts declining, and in Western Greenland proofs of it 
have been rather scarce. But the latest expedition to the East- 
coast of this country has discovered, that a small isolated tribe - 
here in the vast deserts of the extreme East almost rivals the 
Alaska artists with respect to carving in bone and ornamenting 
their weapons and utensils. The chief difference is, that in ^ 
Alaska engravings iMustrating human life and the animals of 
the country are the most popular objects of the artist, whereas 
the East Greenlanders excell in small reliefs representing for 



16 



the most part animals and mythological beings grouped together 
and fastened with admirable taste and care to the surface of 
wooden implements. 

Religion and Folklore. 

In a stage of culture like that of the Eskimo, religion and 
folklore are closely connected. The traditional tales are interwoven 
with religious ideas and religion is chiefly imbibed through the 
folklore which may be said to represent the elements of science 
and knowledge as a whole. Some light has recently been thrown 
on the religious ideas of the Alaska Eskimo, especially by Dall 
in his excellent work on masks and labrets and by A. Jacobsen 
in the description he gives of festivals and mortuary customs 
in the account of his journey. We learn that even one of the 
poorest tribes is possessed of monumental burial places ex- 
hibiting wooden statues, models of kayaks and such like, as 
well as coloured paintings on wood and thereby sacrificial gifts 
to the souls of the deceased. 

The RELIGIOUS FESTIVALS WITH THE OSE OF MASKS annually 
celebrated in Alaska have chiefly the aim of propitiating and in 
some cases scaring demons, especially those which are thought 
to control the coming' to the shores or up the rivers of sea 
animals. The masks are fitted with symbolic signs for this 
aim, and regular sacrifices as well as general distributions of 
gifts are instituted. 

East of Alaska the mortuary customs just mentioned dis- 
appear and also the festivals are seen gradually to be set aside. 
In Baffin's Land, according to Boas, the latter are still held 
in autumn and have a similar religious character. But in Green- 
land very little of this kind is known ever to have existed. On 
the other hand, especially as concerns the invisible powers who 
rule over the riches of the sea, the angakoks OR SHAMANS HAVE 
WHOLLY TAKEN THE CARE OF PROPITIATING them. In Greenland 



17 



they perform this at once by their often described descent to 
the goddess Amakuagsak who resides on the bottom of the 
ocean and is able at her will to keep the animals imprisoned 
or set them free to the benefit of the sealhnnters. 

Now tradition tells that Arnakuagsak was the daughter of a 
mighty angakok who travelling with her in an umiak (skinboat) 
was overtaken by a gale and in order to save himself threw her 
overboard. As she would cling to the sides of the boat he by 
and by cut of her fingers and hands. But these parts of her 
body were then converted into seals and whales, and she her- 
self entrusted with the sway over them in connection with her 
submarine residence to which she was taken on going to the 
bottom. On the opposite side of Davis Strait we recognise the 
same myth among the traditions collected by Dr. Boas. He gives 
an interesting version of it in which Sedna (Sana?) is treated by 
her father as just described and in dying also becomes a demon 
or spirit but somewhat differing from Arnakuagsak. According 
to Petitot the latter is unknown at the iVIackenzie R.; should it 
be affirmed, that the Greenland myth is also unknown in Alaska, 
we must suppose that it has been invented under the migration 
to Greenland, most likely by the angakoks and founded on elder 
traditions. 

The main material of which the traditional tales are com- 
posed consists of what we may call ELEMENTS OF THE FOLK- 
LORE, namely events, animate beings or persons, properties of 
the same etc., more or less reiterated in different tales. They 
are combined in various ways, and such compilations can be 
taken out of one story and inserted in another. Tinally these 
elements or parts are filled out and cemented by what tends to 
form a new story. As these tales can serve only through in- 
direct inferences to indicate the former homesteads and migrat- 
ions of the tribes, their historical value will be essentially in- 
creased by having collections of them from different localities 
for comparison. Contributions of this kind' have lately com- 
XI. 2 



18 



menced to appear, and very likely they will soon be continued. 
I am informed by Dr. Boas, that eleven of THE TALES HE HAS 
BROUGHT FROM BAFFIN'S LAND are also ; known In Greenland 
while other ten contain Greenlandic elements. That concerning 
Sedna has been published in a German newspaper. 

A few additional tales have been received from the West- 
coast of Greenland since my « Tales and Traditions of the 
Eskimo*) (1875) were published. They are all welcome additions 
to the main collection, but we have especially to express our high 
opinion of THE SERIES ACQUIRED byCapt. Holm and Mr. Knutsen 
during their wintering ON THE EASTCOAST. Their manuscript 
contains 57 stories of which 6 are versions of the same by other 
narrators; 13 are identical with tales from other Eskimo tribes; 
in other 13 more or less elements of the. latter are recognised, 
but 16 must presently still be considered peculiar to the east- 
coast. The remainder are partly songs, and partly of a more 
descriptive character. 

In the narrative of Jacobsen's journeys in Alaska a few 
scattered remarks are given touching the folklore. The most 
interesting of these informs us about the existence of Eskimo 
RUINS ON THE BANKS OF THE RIVER YUKON, not far from its 
outlet. He states that traditions exist about a comparatively 
large Eskimo population having lived here, and he adds that 
in former- times Alaska must have had several times more in- 
habitants than now. He suggests that the site of the ruins 
must be in some way connected with the boundary line between 
the Eskimo and the Indians, though the two nations are not so 
strictly divided here as eastward on the American Continent. 
If, as before suggested, the original Eskimo have come from the 
Interior, their transition to the stale of a sealhunting coast- 
people must of course have taken time. This would give rise 
to a temporary accumulation of inhabitants towards the river 
mouths and in this way agree with the existence of these 
ruins. 



As to the rest of what we know about THK TRADITIONS OF 
THE WESTERN TRIBES an article by John Murdoch in the "American 
NaturaUst') (July 1886) under the title of ..a few legendary frag- 
ments from Point Barrow», must be greeted as the flrst attempt 
to procure the materials hardly to be dispensed with by the student 
of American archaeology. The fragments treat of: (1) How people 
have their origin from a dog as one of their remote progenitors. 
The Eastern Eskimo refer this descent not to their own race 
but to that of the Indians and Europeans as children of the 
same couple. As for the question about the first intercourse 
with these races it will be interesting to know how far from Point 
Barrow this divergeance of evidently the same ideas begins. — 
(2) Another account of the origin of human beings; this seems 
not to be known before. — (3) The origin of reindeer and fish; 
the first part of this is new, the other is also known in Green- 
land. — (4) Thunder and lightening. The Greenland version 
of this, mentioned by Crantz and Egede, is already almost sunk 
in oblivion, but 1 believe that a similar one is still popular in 
Baffin's Land. — (5) The story of Kokpausina. The authors 
suggestions with regard to a relationship between this story and 
some Greenland tales are quite correct, we recognise 3 or 4 
of its principal elements in the latter. — (6) A murder at Cape 
Smith, and (7) the people who talked like dogs, are said to be 
of more recent origin. — (8) The «house-country». The author's 
hints at its resemblance to the mysterious AJdlinek of the Green- 
landers and his added remarks on fabulous men and animals all 
perfectly agree with what 1 have been able to infer from the 
Greenland folklore. 

According to A. Pinart, the Eskimo of Kadjak were at one 
time for a certain period subdued by the Koliushes and adopted 
some of their religious ideas. This gave rise to a sort of 
MIXED MYTHOLOGY, speaking of 5 heavens which the human 
soul had to pass after death before the real death took place, 
and they invoked the Eskimo ^^hlam choua» (Greenland: silap 



20 

inua^ spirit of tiie air) besides the Indian Kanlakpak or « great 
raven ». But the Eskimo myth here about the sun and the 
moon is the same as in Greenland, whereas Veniaminow tells 
us that the Aleutians have a somewhat similar story, in which 
however, the brother and sister were converted into sea otters. 

\ have never ventured on the task of instituting a compar- 
ison of the Eskimo folklore with the whole material of TRADI- 
TION^ FROM THE ADJACENT NORTHERN COUNTRIES which we are 
possessed of. However, I can not abstain from calling attention 
to a few examples of what I have found in them similar to 
Eskimo elements, though apparently almost as much contradicting 
as supporting the proposed theory of Alaska as the cradle of 
the Eskimo race and at all events tending to show how puzz- 
ling the traditions can be on account of a too defective know- 
ledge about them. 

In mentioning the sAMOJED TRADITIONS Castren tells as a 
story about 7 bathing women who had laid off the clothing 
which could transform them into birds, and a man who stole 
one of them by laying hold on her clothes. This event, well 
known also from other countries, exactly agrees with the chief 
episode of a story which P. Egede asserts to have heard in 
Greenland, while on the other hand Powers in his work on the 
CALIFORNIA INDIANS states that he never discovered among these 
any trace of beings like the «swanmaidens of mediaeval legends*). 
But again in Sproat's TALES FROM VANCOUVER ISLAND we re- 
cognise several Eskimo elements, as for instance: men lost in 
venturing to brave the mysterious dangers in the unknown 
interior of a fiord, cliffs able to clasp them, female murderers 
who took the shape of birds, the sun and the moon as a 
married couple. 

While the latter examples indicate a kinship with the Western 
Indians we are again puzzled by discovering similar hints in 
the east, in the IROQUOIS TRADITIONS communicated by E. A. 
Smith. We hear about a monstrous snake, the dismembered 



21 



body of which was converted into various animals ; the hurt- 
fulness of lavishing the game; seven boys who were transformed 
into birds and left their parents ; a youth who went fishing and 
found some boys who had laid off their wings and were swim- 
ming, they gave him wings too that enabled him to follow them, 
but afterwards they took his wings and left him helpless. But 
the most curious coincidence is this: in a lonely place, where 
some hunters had disappeared, a monster was said to sit on a 
rock watching people who passed by, while then he would call 
out: uKimg-ku, kang-kuiim^ i. e. : «l see thee, I see thee»). — 
Now the Greenlanders tell that a girl fled to the (fabulous) 
inlanders , got one of them for her companion and when on 
her wandering with him they got sight of a settlement, he 
shouted: "Kung, hung, kujon (words unintelligible to the present 
Greenlandersl , wherupon people living there directely would 
know who was approaching. 

Sociology. 

In his « Introduction to the study of Indian languages* 
Powell remarks that « among the very small tribes the gentite 
organisation seems to be of minor importance. In fact the 
social organisation and government of these tribes is but poorly 
understood ». The latter assertion is undoubtedly applicable to 
the Eskimo, and that prejudice and pride of race may have 
induced civilised travellers and explorers to overlook the laws 
and social order existing even in the lower stages of culture, 
is especially evident with regard to them. In fact it is not the 
exception but the rule that white men who have stayed for 10 
or 20 years among the Kskimo, return without any real addition 
to their knowledge of the traditional ideas upon which their 
social state is based. The white man, whether a missionary or 
a trader is firm in his dogmatic opinion , that the most vulgar 
European is better than the most distinguished native, that the 



22 



natives are without laws, communists and all on an equality. It 
follows as a matter of course, that he himself alone represents the 
legislator as well as the magistrate to the natives who live with- 
in his precinct. The SOCIAL ORGANISATION WHICH HAS IN THIS 
WAY ESCAPED OBSERVATION IS CERTAINLY ALWAYS SIMPLE, BLT 
WELL ADAPTED to its aim and even indispensable in consideration 
of the conditions to which the subsistence of a sealhunting 
nation is submitted. The extraordinary energy they have dis- 
played in their struggle for life, in braving the most deterring 
physical difficulties necessitates cooperation and for this reason 
laws and discipline. What is termed communism in living, as 
characterising all the earlier steps of culture does not rest upon 
absolute equality, but is regulated with regard lo the number 
and the rights of its members and counterbalanced by strict 
obligations as to the education, the functions and acts of the 
individuals. 

So far as our knowledge extends, examples of an organi- 
sation strictly corresponding to the INDIAN «GENTES« is not as 
yet discovered among the Eskimo. As at present informed the 
Indian "gens« consists of a group of relatives tracing a common 
lineage to a remote, even more or less mythical ancestor. 
This may be either accordingly to father or to mother- right, 
as in some tribes the children belong to the «gens» of the 
father, in others to that of the mother and no man can marry 
in his own gens. If even an organisation of this kind may 
exist in the Western regions, its maintainance elsewhere seems 
to be incompatible with the extraordinary despersion, the scanty 
intercourse between the small communities into which the 
nation always tends to divide. But if the original ideas of the 
«gentes» organisation is that of preventing degeneration by mar- 
riages between too nearly related persons, the same is observed 
as a ruling principle in the Eskimo society. It is well known 
that RELATIONSHIP IS HIGHLY THOLGHT OF BY THE ESKIMO. 
This fact is evident merely from the rather complicated system 



23 



of kinship terms, and their ability in remembering their relatives 
several generations back. If therefore instead of a remote 
ancestor, we suppose one who lived four generations or even 
longer back and if we lay no stress upon the question about 
father or mother-right, the original elements of the gentile 
organisation may be said to exist in Eskimo society. A strict 
rule for a married couple and their children as to living with 
either the relatives of the husband or the wife could not be 
preserved by people whose sustenance was dependant of choos- 
ing the most favourable hunting stations. But on the other 
hand THE ESKIMO DISAPPROVES OF MARRIAGES BETWEEN COUSINS, 
while where mother right prevails among Indians, the gentes 
organisation does not seem to forbid a man marrying his father's 
brother's daughter. 

The next question to be taken into consideration is that 
concerning THE IDEAS OF PROPERTY. The "COMMUNISM OF 
LARGE HOUSEHOLDS EXTENDED BY THE LAW OF HOSPITALITY^ 
is a principle common to Eskimo and Indians. We have al- 
ready touched on this question in mentioning the dweUings. THE 
COMMUNISM IS RESTRICTED in the first place by what may be 
called PERSONAL PROPERTY in the strictest sense, which consists 
of the necessary tools and the equipment for hunting; secondly 
by what belongs to A FAMILY likewise in the strictest sense; 
thereafter in the common stock of provisions or part of capture 
shared with the inhabitants of the same house, with the other 
HOUSES OF THE STATION or perhaps with some of them. A 
body of relatives corresponding to a "gens» generally will con- 
sist of people occupying the same wintering place or some of 
its houses, if there are more of them than usual. The rights 
and obligations connected with the kinship are contained in 
rules concerning marriage, mutual assistance including the 
bloodveng€ance and the duty of every man to learn and carry 
on sealhunting to the best of his ability. The inhabitants of a 



•24 



wintering place have the exclusive right of permitting others to 
settle there. 

When the ESKIMO -TRIBES., are spoken of in works on 
the Arctic Regions, their native names will generally be found 
ending in — mud or -mut which signifies "inhabitants of». — 
The ending is joined to a name which refers either simply to 
a territory or to a particular wintering station, but comprising 
the surrounding territory with the other stations that may be 
found there. The application of the term "TRIBE., is undoubt- 
edly the most correct in this case. As to the Eskimo it will 
imply the possession of a territory and generally of a dialect in 
the strictest sense. Moreover, it will indicate the ordinary limits 
of the "law of hospitality* and defense not only against other 
tribes, but also against individuals dangerous to their own, in 
other words the same to « tribe » as bloodvengeance is to «gens». 

Concerning government it must be remembered that the 
regular ASSEMBLIES OF THE PROVIDERS in each wintering place 
and occassionally LARGER MEETINGS of people from different 
stations have served for councils as well as courts. Recent 
investigations in the extreme East have confirmed what has 
formerly been but vaguely alluded to, namely that EACH LARGER 
HOUSEHOLD COMPRISING SEVERAL FAMILIES HAS A CHIEF, as con- 
scientiously venerated and obeyed as heads of communities or 
magistrates are elsewhere. 

As to the courts and the possibility of maintaining the 
authority of law, it must be remembered that the members in 
these isolated communities are, more immediately dependent on 
their fellow men than the members of a civilised society, and 
that, what is considered at the most a trifling inconvenience 
in the latter, may be a severe punishment in the former. We 
know that anciently in Greenland, public opinion formed the 
real judgement seat, the general punishment consisting in the 
offenders being shamed in the eyes of people. The regular 
courts were the public meetings or parties which at the same 



V. IN I V c. K or I T 

B&ALIFORj^ 



25 



time supplied the national sports and entertainments. The so 
called nith-songs were used for settiini? all sorts of crimes or 
breaches of public order or custom, with the exception of those 
which could only be expiated by death. 

While, as before stated, a MARKED PROGRESS is evidently 
observed in passing from the Western to the Eastern tribes, as 
regards the kayak with its implements and the dexterity in 
using them, THE CONTRARY MAY BE SAID SO FAR AS CONCERNS 
SOCIAL ORGANISATION, a natural consequence of the dispersal 
which renders the preservation of social customs and usages 
more and more difficult, in some cases even impossible. Our 
imperfqct knowledge only permits us to illustrate the social 
order of the different tribes by examples of which a few shall 
be given here. 

We begin with THE EXTREME EAST, the district of Angmags- 
alik on the Greenland coast opposite Iceland. The Danish ex- 
pedition who wintered here in 1884 — 1885 had the opportunity 
of most minutely studying the usages and customs, the lang- 
uage and traditions of the natives who had lived here debarred 
from a contact with Europeans which might influence their way 
of hfe. Their society exhibited most decidedly the character of 
a "tribe » on a small scale and the researches mentioned have 
made it one of the best known, if not the very best known of all 
the Eskimo tribes that have existed unaltered by contact with 
civilisation. They numbered 413 souls, divided into eleven smaller 
communities inhabiting so many wintering stations; the widest 
distance between them being 80 miles. A remarkable feature 
of this distribution (as a rule probably observed nowhere else} 
was that each place had but one house. Consequently no dif- 
ference between housefellows and placefellows could exist. The 
number of inmates of a house in one instance was as high as 
58. The house of the station where the Danish explorers had 
erected their own hut was inhabited by 38 persons constituting 
8 famiHes. The ledge running along the backwall of the room 



26 



measured 28 feet in length and 5 feet in breadth, being devid- 
ed by low curtains into 8 stalls, the size being proportioned 
to the number of persons in each family. The whole room 
including the stalls was 28 feet long and 15 feet broad, the 
greatest height being 6^ feet. The reader may imagine what 
had to be performed in this room offering the only refuge to 
38 persons during the darkness of the Arctic winter, sleeping, 
cooking and eating, working as well as merry making, dancing 
and singing! And yet no quarrel disturbs the peace, there is 
no dispute about the use of the narrow space. Scolding or 
even unkind words are considered a misdemeanour, if not pro- 
duced under the legal form of process, — namely the nith-song. 

It is obvious that this order and domestic peace supposes 
two conditions: in the first place TRADlTIOiNAL RCLES OR LAWS, 
and secondly LEADERS WHO KNOW TO ENFORCE THESE REGU- 
LATIONS. In contrast to what has been most generally assumed, 
we learn by the statement of our explorers that every house or 
station has its chief or patriarch whom the others obey with 
every mark of veneration. Very likely his orders on account 
of their gentle form may have been generally hardly observable 
to strangers, but on certain occasions, f. i. when the moving 
from tents into the house took place he acted as a commander 
very much after the habits of civilised society. Furthermore a 
case of severe punishment was witnessed when a young man 
was turned out of the house in the middle of winter. It is 
evident that between being suddenly abandoned in this way 
without shelter in the depth of an Arctic winter and the disagre- 
ableness of being shamed by a song in an assembly, several 
degrees of punishment may be imagined sufficient to deter 
malicious individuals from ordinary offences or disturbances of 
order and peace. It must be added, that the position as chief 
of the house has no relation to that of oangakok» though both 
dignities may occasionally be united. 

Throughout DANISH WESTGREENLAND the ancient organisation 



of Eskimo-society began to be disturbed by European influence 
more than a century ago. However, the communism in living 
still flourishes, but without being sufficiently restricted by the 
original customary obligations and at the same time without 
being counterbalanced by a satisfactory development of the idea 
of individual or family-property. The natural consequence has 
been impoverishment. 

The explorations of Dr. Boas in BAFFIN'S LAND embody 
another of the few essays calculated to throw light on the so- 
cial organisation of the Eskimo. On account of the scantiness 
of the whole population, the numerous divisions of it here grow 
so small, that in some cases it seems doubtful whether they 
ought to be compared with tribes or with gentes , but that 
tribes exist, is confirmed also by these investigations. In the 
usages observed in their intercourse we recognise very strikingly 
what on similar occasions is related in the traditional tales of 
Greenland. The remarks on intertribal marriages and the pre- 
dominating custom that the husband removes to the home of 
his wife, the use of adoption and the cases of families or in- 
dividuals having disappeared, contain indications of, at least a 
tendency to gentes institutions and on the other hand the hind- 
rance they meet with in the isolation caused by the manner of 
life. At the same time we learn that each tribe has its leader, 
especially during their wanderings, a so called nFimmain'i 
which term resembles what in Greenland signifies: an expert 
man perfect in his bussiness. 

The majority of the LABRADOR ESKIMO have been submitted 
to foreign Influences just as the Greenlanders have. It might 
be noted that the tribes who are not as yet Christianised have 
their chiefs, here called «Angajorkak» , which in Greenland is 
used for: parents. A Norwegian, Mr. Olsen who has lived 17 
years in the Hudson's bay territory has given me information 
about several questions concerning the Labradorians. He says 
that the authority of the Angajorkaks seems to be confined to 



28 



localities, each bay or fiord generally having its own. He must 
always be a distinguished person so far as concerns the ac- 
complishments necessary tor a first rate hunter. When he dies 
his son has the first claim to be his successor, if he possesses 
the qualities required. If not, another is appointed who pro- 
bably has already been elected during the father's life. 

Several facts seem to prove that THE WESTERN ESKIMO 
OCCCPY A HIGHER STAGE OF SOCIAL ORGAiMSATION than the 
Eastern tribes. This is manifested in the more favourable con- 
ditions for the accumulation of individual property. The same, 
however, is on the other hand limited by a remarkable tendency 
to prodigality in distributing gifts in order to acquire reputation. 
This kind of ambition again creates a division with regard to 
social position evidently allied to the rank system of their 
southern Indian neighbours. In connection with warfare among 
the tribes it has even led to the custom of keeping slaves , of 
all habits the one apparently most at variance with Eskimo 
social life 

The Inland Eskimo who inhabit the shores of the river 
Kuskokwim were stated by Wrangell to number 7000 souls. 
They had their fixed dwellings along the river, while they roamed 
about on hunting excursions during the summer season. Each 
village had its Kashim or council house, the interior of which 
was furnished with amphitheatre seats surrounding the stage 
for performances, and in the middle was found the hearth for 
heating the room. This building as to ordinary use was reserved 
exclusively for the adult of male population, partly for working, 
partly for holding council. All public affairs were here dis- 
cussed and decided. Another employment of it was for public 
festivals. The season for these assemblies was opened with an 
exhibition showing what each hunter had earned during the 
course of the past year. Even what children might have caught 
of birds and fishes was not omitted on these occasions, stuffed 
specimens being arranged on extended lines sufficiently Ughtened 



29 

by means of lamps. When people were assembled and every- 
body seated according to his customary rank, one of the prin- 
cipal hunters commenced the ceremony with a song, at the 
same time dancing and beating the tambourine surrounded by 
all the people belonging to his household or his partisans. 
Having ended, he distributed gifts of his game among the as-^ 
sembly. The value of his presents in connection with the 
number of his attendants would then decide the rank which 
public opinion transferred to him. After he had finished, the 
same act was repeated by a new performer and so on, these 
ceremonies being alternated with meals, feasting and merrymaking 
lasting for several days. 

Apart from these festivals councils were held on serious 
occasions to which no woman was admitted unless after being 
solemnly introduced. Bloodvengeance was among the affairs 
decided in this way. Sometimes it gave rise to wars with 
other tribes from which female prisoners and children were 
brought home as slaves. 

A very interesting account is given by the Norwegian 
traveller Jacobsen of his having witnessed a great festival at 
Igniktok close to Bering Strait. Here the Kashim had an 
underground entrance leading to an opening in the middle of 
the floor. The festival was held especially in honour of five 
deceased persons belonging to as many families and here re- 
presented by one relative each. It began with a song where- 
upon a man stepped forward and before the audience shifted his 
clothes, taking on his dancing dress and then assisted by some 
women , dancing and beating the drum he sung in honour of 
the dead, praising their excellent qualities and achievements. 
After three dances had been performed in this way, the whole 
party was copiously regaled and finally a very remarkable cere- 
mony took place, consisting of a distribution af gifts on behalf 
of the dead, as a sign of power and magnanimity. 

The amount of what was given away on this occasion in- 



30 



deed, is astonishing when compared with what may be called 
wealth among Eskimo people. It consisted of articles belonging 
to clothing, tools, weapons, and utensils arranged in 34 bundles 
containing 20, end 2 bundles with 5 pieces each, the whole 
making 690 presents. The bundles were tied to a line and 
lowered through a hole in the middle of the roof and then 
distributed. On the next day the festivities were begun early 
in the morning and when all the ceremonies concerning the 
memory of th€ deceased were finished, the festival passed to 
ordinary merrymaking, singing, dancing and feasting, the male 
performers having the upper part of their body naked, in dan- 
cing and beating the drum. It seems probable that this part 
of the ceremonies has comprised performances like the nith- 
songs of the Greenlanders. 

Mr. Gilbert Sproat, the well known writer on the Indians 
of western Vancouver Island, says in a note: «Was Darwin 
long enough among the Fuegians to be enabled authoritatively 
to affirm that perfect equality exists among the individuals 
composing the Fuegian tribes?» The objection involved in these 
words, as we see, is strikingly applicable to several authors 
on the Arctic Regions also. Some of Sproat's statements con- 
cerning the AHT- INDIANS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND, so near to 
Alaska are too interesting to be wholly omitted here. In speak- 
ing of their mutual intercourse in daily life he says: if struck 
in anger, it must be paid the next day with a present. The 
respect entertained for the head of the family is generally 
sufficient to preserve order within the family circle. Quarelling 
is also rare among children. He has never witnessed a fight 
between two sober natives. The great feasts take place in 
winter, but feasting occasionally with distributions goes on at 
all times. Animated speeches are delivered by various orators, 
praising their forefathers' achievements and skill in hunting, and 
boasting of the number and the admirable qualities of their 
powerful friends. No institution is more specifically defined 



31 



among the Ahts than slavery. The slave is at the absolute 
disposal of his master in all things. The high consideration 
in which rank or actual authority is held, is extraordinary. 
The principal use made of the accumulation of personal chattels 
is to distribute them periodically among invited guests. The 
destruction of certain kinds of property serves the same purpose. 
The person who gives away the most property receives the 
greatest praise and in time acquires, almost as a matter of 
course, but by the voice of the tribe the highest rank obtain- 
able by such means. This rank, however, is not of the loftiest 
class; it is only for life and different from the ancient hereditary 
or tribal rank. The head chiefs position is patriarchal, his 
authority is rather nominal than positive. 

Distribution and division. 

If we comprise the Northern Indians under the chief groups: 
the Northwestern, the Tinne and the Algonkin, the Eskimo must 
be said to wholly encompass the Tinne from the seaside, while 
in the west and the east they abut upon the other two nations. 
On the west side they issue almost as a continuation from the 
Northwest Indians having so to say like these half of their 
subsistence from the land and half from the sea. Where the 
territory of the Inland Eskimo borders on that of the Tinne 
tribes, the transition between their respective villages is like- 
wise almost insensible to the foreign traveller. But by degrees 
as towards the north and east the Eskimo pass to grow an 
exclusively maritime and Arctic people, their relation to the 
Indians takes a decidedly hostile character. Murderous fights 
between them have been customary on the borders of the Ma- 
ckenzie R., and further towards the northeast corner of the 
continent a sort of neutral ground divides them which for fear 
they generally avoid to pass over. 

When nevertheless we have suggested that the pressure by 



32 



which the priscan Inland tribes successively were led to the 
seacoast, took place on the Westside, where more peaceable 
relations between the races seem to have prevailed, this is 
easily explained by the nature of the said pressure as being 
only the same action as that by which the primitive inhabitants 
everywhere have spread over the lands so far as no absolute 
hindrance was met with, while in this instance, moreover, a 
natural instinct drew the farthest advanced tribes of the original 
Inlanders to the sea, as they became aware of its riches. The 
principal roads in this way would be afforded by the rivers 
Athna, Kuskokwim, Yukon, Selawik, Kuwak, Colville. That the 
more easterly disemboguing rivers may have contributed to 
promote the same migrations is, as before said, not excluded. 
The same tendency of expanding then caused the marvellous 
exploration of the Arctic Archipelago , which is testified by the 
ruins and other remains of human existence which are scattered 
over its tortuous shores, but also the peopling of Labrador, 
the almost mysterious discovery of the bridge to Greenland 
which Smith's Sound affords and finally the wanderings down 
to Cape Farewell. No more land being now left to gratify their 
adventurous disposition for discovery, they divided into groups 
of tribes whose roaming generally was restricted to alternately 
removing from one wintering station to another within the same 
precinct, besides the usual summer excursions. For this reason 
we now are enabled to geographically divide them by assigning 
the territories belonging to the different groups as follows: 

1. THE WESTERN ESKIMO comprising 

(a) the SOUTHERN TRIBKS: Ugalachmut, Kaniagmut (Kadjak), 
Ogulmut, Nushagagmut, Kuskwogmut, Magemut and Ekogmut, 
numbering abrut 8300 souls. 

(b) the iNORTHERN TRIBES: UnaUgmut, Malemut, Kaviagmut, 
Okeeogmut, Selawigmut, Kowagmut, Nunatogmut, Nuwukmut, 
rated at 2900. 



33 



(c) the ASIATIC ESKIMO whose number is very doubtful, but 
by Krause believed not to exceed 2000. 

There is still some difference prevailing in the statements 
concerning the classification of these Western tribes. I have 
here followed the distinguished Alaska explorer Dall, the first 
who has laid down their distribution on a map. Some import- 
ant additions may still be expected from later expeditions, especi- 
ally corcerning the Inland tribes (at the Kuwak river by Healy, 
Cantwell and Stoney etc.). 

2. THE MACKENZIE ESKIMO OR TCHIGLIT. 

They are separated from the Western by an uninhabited 
coastline of 300 miles on which, however, they meet from both 
sides each summer for the purpose of bartering. They are 
divided by Petitot into TAREORMICT and KRAMALIT numbering 
together 2000 souls. 

3. THE TRIBES OF THE CENTRAL REGIONS. 

They begin at Cape Bathurst and are said to be sharply 
divided from the former, but as to the whole extent of the 
vast district occupied by them^ our knowledge is more or less 
defectuous. Besides the older renowned explorers, as Parry, 
Ross, Rae, Mc. Clintock, Allen Young and others, we are espe- 
cially indebted to Schwatka and Boas for linguistic contributions. 
The first named states that the SOUTHWESTERN PART is divided 
between the following tribes: (a) Natsilik, (b) Pelly-Bay, (c) Uv- 
kusigsalik, (d) Ukiolik, (e) KideUk (Coppermine river). Boas gives 
a specified list of the inhabitants of BAFFIIN'S LAND, and describes 
the roads by which they have had intercourse with the more 
distant tribes. Some acquaintance with the extreme north 
about SMITH'S SOUND and with the south as far as REPDLSE-BAY 
seems to have been entertained in the middle part by occasional 
native travellers; but between the east and west only a very 
scanty intercourse ever seems to have existed. The western 



34 



part has also but rarely and imperfectly been investigated by 
exploring expeditions. For these reasons we can only have a 
vague idea of the number to which the whole population amounts. 
If we guess it to be 4000, this is very likely too much. 

4. THE LABRADORIANS. 

They ar^ separated from the former by a sound which 
requires the greatest caution in being crossed by open boats. 
Upon the EASTCOAST of Labrador the number of natives is rated 
at 1500 of whom 1163 were Christianised. With addition of 
those on the NORTH and VVESTSIDE the whole Eskimo population 
may amount to between 2000 and 2200. 

5. THE GREENLANDERS. 

Of the inhabitants of Greenland only the small Smith's 
Sound tribe or Arctic Highlanders seem to be more closely 
allied to those of the Central Regions. Between these northern- 
most people of the world and the other West Greenlanders 
no intercourse has existed as far back as we have known the 
latter. Only obscure traditions are told at Smith's Sound about 
excursions having been undertaken to the «Southlanders». WE 
DIVIDE THE GREENLANDERS IN WEST AND EAST GR. In 1880 
the West Gr. amounted to 9752 all of whom were Christianised. 
In 1884 the East Gr. south of 68° N. L. numbered 548. North 
of 68°, as well known, people have only been seen by Clavering, 
who in 1823 met with two families north of 74i°. The people 
who may live in the northern region between 68° and Smith's- 
Sound can hardly by supposed to be numerous, not even on 
an arctic scale. 



II. 

The Eskimo language, 

its admirable organisation as to the 

Construction and Flexion of words. 



.-..Ct- 



1 he peculiarity of the Eskimo language as polysynthetic, 
as well known, is exhibited in the construction of nouns and 
verbs by which other classes of words are made almost un- 
necessary and ONE WORD IS ABLE TO EXPRESS A WHOLE SEN- 
TENCE INCLUDING SUBORDINATE SENTENCES. It is especially 
through the Greenland dialect , and in some degree the Labra- 
dorian that this peculiarity of the language has been thoroughly 
studied and made known. But it must be regarded as. impos- 
sible that a system which evinces such acute and logical thought 
as that exhibited in the rules of the Greenland grammar, should 
have been separately invented by the tribe who peopled Green- 
land. It is not to be doubted that in the main the grammars 
of the other dialects bear the same character as that of Green- 
land. 

The division of the tribes proposed in the preceding chap- 
ter is also applicable in treating of the dialects. Here of 
course we are dependent on the existence of sufficient vocabu- 
laries. As to the Western Eskimo the vocabularies in our 
possession are headed by about 10 names of tribes, nearly, but 
not exactly, agreeing with those given before. But I have pre- 
ferred summing them up under 3 classes: Northern, Southern 
and Asiatic, For several reasons this division seems quite 
natural. Only as regards a tribe called Ekogmut and now 
classed with the Southern, I was somewhat in doubt. Of the 
Mackenzie and the Labradorian only single glossaries exist 



38 



As to the Central Regions certainly lists of words are given 
referring to different tribes , but too incomplete to represent 
different dialects, for which reason the words have been compiled 
as belonging to one tongue. Finally the Greenland language 
always has been treated as one dialect, with remarks now and 
then on « provincialisms". Only recently the Danish expedition 
to East Greenland brought home excellent notes on the words 
used here different from West Greenland. 

With regard to the present linguistic essay I have used 
the following sources: 

(1) Den gronlandske Ordbog, omarbejdet af Sam. Klein- 
schmidt. Kjobenhavn 1871, udgiven af H. F. Jorgensen. 

(2) Kleinschmidt: Grammatik der gronlandischen Sprache 
mit theilvveisem Einschluss des Labradordialekts. Berlin 1851. 

(3) Den grenlandske Ordbog ved 0. Fabricius. Kjebenhavn 
1804. 

(4) . Eskimoisches Worterbuch gesammelt von den Mis- 
sionaren in Labrador, revidirt und herausgegeben von Friederich 
Erdman. Baudissin 1864. 

(5) Vocabulaire Frangais-Esquimau , dialecte des Tchiglit 
des bouches du Mackenzie et de I'Anderson par le R. P. E. 
Petitot. Paris 1876 (in this book words are added from Chur- 
chill by the missionary Gaste). 

(6) Journal of a second voyage etc. ... by W. E. Parry. 
London 1824. 

(7) Schwatka: Search in quest of the Franklin records 
1879—80. 

(8) Narrative of a voyage etc. . . . H. iM. S. Blossom, Capt. 
Beechey 1825—28. London 1831. 

(9) Travels and adventures in the territory of Alaska by 
Frederick Whymper. London 1868. 

(10) Rohbeck's vocabulary in Sarytschefs Itinerary. Leip- 
zig 1815. 



39 



(11) The ethnographical section of Sagoskin's voyage 1843 
— 44 in Erdmann's Archive 1849. 

(12) W. H. Dall: Alaska and its resources 1870. 

(13) Adelung's Mithridates 1816. 

(14) Stalistische und ethnographische Nachrichten etc.... 
von Contre- Admiral Wrangell. St. Petersburg 1839. 

( 1 5) Die Bevolkerungsverhaltnisse der Trchukschen-Habinsel 
von Dr. Aurel Rrause. Deutsche Geogr. Blatter 1883. 

(16) Veniaminow's Aleutian and Kadjakian Grammars (pub- 
lished in Russian) 1846. 

(17) Sauer: Account of Billing's voyage 1785 — 94 Lon- 
don 1802. 

(18) F. Boas: An article on Baffin's Land in «MittheiI- 
ungen aus Justus Perthes geogr. A." 1885, and a list of words 
kindly sent me in manuscript. 

(19) Lieutn. Ray: Report on the Point Barrow Expedition 
Washington 1885. 

Besides occasional notes in other works, and those written 
down by the Danish expedition to East Greenland as well as 
various communications by other Arctic travellers, my original 
collection of written traditions etc. 

The written language, letters and signs. 

On account of the imperfect manner in which the words 
spoken by the natives were caught up and interpreted, the 
first vocabularies naturally exhibited supposed dialectic diff'erences 
which in reality did not exist. The misunderstanding and con- 
fusion came partly from the peculiar sounds, partly and especi- 
ally from the strange construction of the language, which con- 
trasts completely with our way of inflecting words and arranging 
sentences. As to the sounds there can be no doubt, that the 
general character of all the Eskimo talks is uniform enough to 
admit their being expressed by the same system of letters. In 



iO 



comparing the different dialects therefore, strictly spoken it 
might be necessary to transcribe the words of the different 
vocabularies in the same system of orthography, only with oc- 
casional remarks on local diversity of pronunciation. This 
certainly must be considered almost impossible on the present 
stage of our knowledge, as we are not always able to discern 
between what is due to real differences and what merely to the 
accidental deviations or difficulties just mentioned. However, in 
one respect, it will be necessary to transcribe the words con- 
formably to such a more uniform system. It will be shown 
hereafter that a dictionary of the Eskimo language, as to its 
alphabetical order more than any other, REQIIRES TO BE AR- 
RANGED BY MEANS OF THE RADICAL WORDS OR STEMS. In a 
glossary comprising several dialects, it will therefore be neces- 
cary to use one of them as the standard in arranging the stem- 
words alphabetically, each of them heading the list of its deriv- 
atives. Consequently words will happen to be grouped together 
which must be supposed akin to each other, although differently 
spelled according to the pronunciation in the dialect to which 
they belong. 

On account of the want of consistency in all the other 
vocabularies and their mutual disagreement, WE MUST RESORT 
TO GREENLANDISH WITH ITS SERIES OF RADICAL WORDS AS THE 
STANDARD. But at the same time we meet with words in the 
other dialects which can not be referred to any of the latter, 
but require stems to be assumed peculiar to the other dialects. 
In order to have these supposed new stems properly placed we 
shall be obliged to take into consideration how they probably 
might have sounded, if they had occurred in Greenlandish. While 
in this way in the glossary given hereafter the stems are all 
reduced or modified according to the orthography adopted by 
Kleinschmidt for Greenland, on the other hand all the derivatives 
are rendered as they are found in the original works from 
which they are taken, only with the exception of supplanting a 



41 

few, apparently quite superfluous foreign characters by their 
ordinary counterparts, and of restricting the application of ac- 
cents and hyphens, which in some worlds are found obviously 
too abundant while in others they are almost wanting. 

The Greenland language likes full and plain vowels, pre- 
ferring syllables composed of one vowel and one consonant. 
Two consonants are not allowed to be combined, unless suscep- 
tible of perfect coalescence. A Greenlander is unable to in- 
sert half vowels, as in the words: bridge, blow, cloud, he will 
say: berridge, billow, calloud. 

The following list represents the letters adopted by Klein- 
schmidt for the modern orthography and their pronunciation: 

a like a in "father*, sometimes, especially before k and t 
like a in «at». 

e like e in "represent"; strictly spoken it is only an t, 
when this should be placed before a guttural sound or at the 
end of a word. 

/ like f in «ifo , or merely as a sharpened v, turning into 
a V after a consonant. 

g like g in «good»>. 

i like i in «it", or ee in « three •>. 

j like y in -yardn. 

K. (^), called /ca, like a very guttural k, something between 
g, rk and rkr. As it is the only new character that has been 
found necessary for the alphabet, I have preferred to adopt a 
q^ also proposed by others for this sound. 

h^ called ke^ like c in «can» or ck in «lack«. 

I like I in "holyo. 

dl like tl in «softly», is merely an I sharpened after a 
consonant. 

m like m in "men. 

n like u ni «no'>. 

ng a nasal n. 

o like in <«other», is the same to u as e is to i. 



42 



p like p in "poor", but also approaching to b. 

[q see above.) 

r merely as a palatal r. 

[mg ^ merely differing from ng by making the antecedent 
vowel deeper; ng can be used instead of it.) 

[r like a deeply palatal German ch; a simple r may also 
suffice.) 

s like s in «so». 

ss, called eali^ like sh in «short», but something softer. 

t like t in «ten», but also nearly like d. 

M like 00 in "proof'>; before j/ almost like the german ti; 
in South — and especially in East — Greenland like i. 

V like V in « event", but produced with the lips alone, with- 
out the aid of the teeth. 

The letter h is only used in some interjections, and can 
be wholly omitted. 

In Diphthongs the second vowel is always pronounced softly, 
f. i. ae mostly like a, ai like y in «why». 

The accents are: _l short and sharp, I- long and sharp, 
A long and dull. Although their use is of great importance in 
the system adopted for Greenland, 1 have, as already mentioned, 
been obliged to leave out a great many of them in rendering 
words from vocabularies in which they are so profusely and 
indiscriminately applied in connection with the hyphens, that 
copying them would have offered a hopeless labour. 

if we compare this alphabet with that proposed by Powell 
in his "Introduction to the study of Indian languages», it will 
be found to agree tolerably well with it, of course when it is 
considered that the latter comprises what will be required to 
express the sounds occurring in all the American tongues. 

The application of consonants is hmited by strict rules. 
A syllable cannot commence, and a word cannot end, with 
two consonants. No word can begin with /, r, g, v, mg or 
ng ^ nor end with any other consonants than the hard ones 



43 



q, k, p and t. A syllable in a word can end with no conso- 
nant but t, g, r, ng or v. 

If we now examine the methods of spelling employed by 
authors on the other dialects, aud in the older Greenlandish 
literature, with the rules recently adopted in the latter, comparing 
the same words as they have been rendered by different writers, 
we find the characters of our alphabet varied as follows: 

a as OP, a, ae, e, z, aa, ea, o, 
e — ce, ae, z, 0, ee. 
f -h,v. 

i — e, CB, ae, ee, ii, 

j — y- 

fc — k, k\ kr, k\ pk, pkp, cli, p, ng, rn, 

k — g, q, ng. 

I — II. ' 

dl— I, kl. 

ng — 71. 

— a, 00. 

p — b, bb. 

r — p, rr. 

r — rh, ch, j, g, p. 

s — ch, sch, sh, p, tch, dj, dj, dz, tg, z. 

ss — s, rs, rss, j, ts, ds and the same as for s, 

t — n, d. 

u — 0, 00. IV. 

V — b, p, u, w. 

Combinations of letters varied: 
ai as i, e, ee. 
agdl — okl. 
aun — aion. 

am — (in the word arnaq a woman) agn, agan, ahan, an, 
achan, akn, agh, okhan, oghan, aan, ong'n. 



44 

eic as ar, oh, isli, eg, itkp. 

gss — dg, dj, htg, sh, z, rg, hg, tk, g, gg, tg, s. 

gp - tp. 

gdl — tl, II, rgl. 

gs — ptf. 

lugs — lipt. 

rk — kt, khl, rtk, tk, tkr, 

rf — chw, rw, kv, rkb. 

rdl — gg. 

rss — rktf. , 

ts — dj. 

UJ IV. 

vdl — bl, II. 
vk — ppkp. 
vss — dj. 

The majority of these deviations will be found to have 
their origin from the nationality of the writers; it is easy to 
recognise the English, French, German in them , and an addi- 
tion of Russian will not escape observation. Others are owing 
to more individual differences. But of course there is no doubt 
that real diversities exist, which might require exceptions or 
additions to the Greenland rules. Some of the most obvious 
variations of sounds may be noted here: 

The character j in Labradorian often represents, besides the 
j also the ss of Greenland, perhaps somewhat softened. 

The use of k instead of fc (q) in the vocabularies is not 
owing to dialectic differences, as even in Greenland formerly 
k was the only one used of these characters. The same may be 
said about the use of m and n instead of p and t at the end 
of words, when the next word begins with a vowel. 

In certain subordinate Greenland dialects we find k for t 
at the end, and n for m at the beginning of some words, and 
the verbal ending goq instead of voq. 



45 

In Labrador we find marVuk for mardluh, aggaq for agssaq, 
nagfdq for navssdq, pivse for mivse, t sometimes for «, and iv for uj. 

fn the Baffin's Land dialect several sounds seem to be 
nearer to the Labrador than to the Greenland tongue, as f. i. 
; and dj for 5s, gg for gss^ but more peculiar is the use of m 
and ng for q and h at the end of words. 

As Capt. Holm on his recent expedition to East Greenland 
was accompanied by some of the most intelligent natives from 
the West Coast, he had an opportunity of procuring the most 
authentic information about the significance of pronunciation 
as real dialectic peculiarity. The native teacher Hanserak says: 
« Certainly most of the Eastlanders' words are like ours, but 
their strange sounding and hasty pronunciation make them 
more troublesome to be understood by us; also because some 
of their words are like bubbling children's speech. In this 
way they use t for s and dl^ and as they have no /, they use 
p and V instead". — Holm and his interpreter Johan Petersen 
have perused the dictionary in which Hanserak had inserted 
his notes. They found out, that the Eastlanders use d or dg 
for ts, b for p or f, d for i, g for k, i for m, e for o and for 
a, and sometimes j or I for s. 

The well known native Arctic traveller Hans Hendrik de- 
scribes the Smith's Sound dialect as characterised by a profuse 
insertion of the letter r. 

As to the Mackenzie and the Western dialects, we must 
rfefer to the numerous examples given hereafter in the lexicograph- 
ical part. 

No doubt the reader will arrive at the conclusion, that the 
majority of the diversities here in question probably will occur 
within the limits of one of the main dialects itself, that per- 
haps the same deviations may be found in the extreme West 
as in the East, and that at all events authentic investigation 
by a professional linguist will be required to find out, whether 



46 



more general relationships exist between the different tribes as 
regards this question. 

The parts of speech, the organisation of the language 
exhibited in its mode of construing and inflecting words '). 

As in aH languages, the original component parts of the 
words are roots. Out of these roots in the earliest ages of the 
language were formed stems, each of which got its fixed signi- 
fication. Leaving the development of the roots to professional 
linguistic investigation, our considerations in the present volume 
will be limited to THE STEMS as already existing and YIELDING 
THE MATERIAL FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. They are 
divided into two classes: (1) INDEPENDENT OR PRIMITIVE, (2) DE- 
PENDENT OR ADDED, the latter only to be applied in connection 
with the former, producing COMPOUND STEMS OR DERIVATIVES. 
In receiving the affixes the original word embodies notions 
which more or less modify its signification. The repetition of 
this process gives rise to SUBORDINATE STEMS OF VARIOUS 
DEGREES, EACH OF THEM FORMING THE INDEPENDENT STEM TO 
THE NEXT. 

The ADDED STEMS OR AFFIXES are distinguished from their 
counterparts in wellknown European languages by their multi- 
plicity and as to the majority of them, their moveableness or 
capability of being appended wherever the meaning may admit 
or require it, whereas on the other hand composing by adding 
real words to others in unknown. Notwithstanding these ex- 
traordinary means for the construction of derived words, whose 
signification is given immediately by their constituent parts, the 
dictionary must comprise and more closely explain the sense 
of many derivatives, in the first place because not all affixes 



*) Hereafter if none of the other dialects is quoted, the Greenland gramaiar 
always is meant, and generally the latter also applies to the Labrador 
idiom. 



47 

are applicable to every stem, and secondly as a derivative be- 
sides the general signification resulting fronn its composition 
can have a peculiar sense too. The number of affixes existing 
in Greenlandish can be rated at 200. The number which can 
be attached to the same stem or embodied in one derivative is 
restricted by no distinct rule, but hardly exceeds, and very 
rarely reaches 10. 

I have tried TO CALCULATE HOW MANY WORDS IN THIS WAY 
COULD BE DERIVED FROM A STEM, but did not complete the 
experiment on account of the appalling increase of the number 
on each subsequent addition of an affix. I selected the word 
igdlo a house, and running over the affixes I found about 80 
of them able to be added immediately to this stem, giving 80 
derivatives. Again at random I took one of these and found it 
susceptible of 61 immediate additions. I submitted the 61 
derivatives of second, or stems of third degree to the same 
experiment and got 70 derivatives of the third degree out of 
one of them, and so on I got 8 of the 4th, 10 of the 5th, and 
10 of the 6th degree. But here I stopped and considered what 
could have been the result, if each time instead of choosing 
one, I had tried all the others of the same class too, found 
theni equally prolific and finally had summed up all the numbers 
obtained in this way within the limits of each class: THE FOR- 
MIDABLE SUM to which I was led deterred me from completing 
this arithmetical problem, which would have required all the 
combinations in question to be actually tried and for this pur- 
pose all written down excepting perhaps the last class. Such 
a process would be necessary, as several rules have to be ob- 
served with regard to the order in which a series even of 
moveable affixes can be appended to a stem, and especially 
because the applicability of an affix in each case before aH 
depends on its sense. But even if an ample allowance is made 
for these restrictions, the remaining number will still be so 
large THAT ONLY THE AMERICAN SO CALLED POLYSYNTHETIC 



48 



LANGUAGES SEEM TO EXHIBIT A SIMILAR FECUNDITY OF COMPO- 
SITIONS. 

The following examples will probably give a satisfactory 
idea of the process by which the derivatives are produced. 

Stemword: igdlo a house. 

1st class derivatives: igdlorssuaq a large h. , igdlunguaq a 
small h., igdluvoq it is a h., igdluliorpoq he builds a h., igdlo- 
qatd his housefellow. 

2d class: igdlorssualiorpoq he builds a large h., igdlorssua- 
liarpoq he goes to the 1. h. , igdloqatigd he has him for his 
housefellow. 

3d class: igdlorssualiorfik the place where the 1. h., is being 
built, igd.lorssualiortoq he who builds the 1. h. , igdloqatigiumaod 
he wishes to have him for his housefellow. 

4th class: igdlorssualiorfilik one who has a place where a 
1. h. is being built, igdlorssualiortugssaq one who is going to (can) 
build a 1. h. 

5th class: igdlorssualiortugsard he has him as one who 
can b. a. 1. h. 

6lh class: igdlorssualiortugssarsiumavoq he wants to find 
one who will (can) b. a. I. h. 

It is a peculiarity to the language that NOCNS AND VERBS 
ARE ALMOST THE ONLY PARTS OF SPEECH. The nominal stems 
or words are used as nouns in their original state. The verbal 
stems require an addition in order to become real verbs , f. i. 
verbal stem pisuk, verb: pisugpoq he walks. Some stems are at 
once nominal and verbal. 

Closely allied to nouns, if not wholly to be classed with 
them, are some demonstrative words or pronouns, while in the 
main the pronouns are comprised in the verbs and expressed 
by flexion. Finally there are particles and interjections, probably 
also originated from similar stems. But true adjectives hardly 
exist, although nouns placed with nouns can be used as ad- 
jectives. Other kinds of words are comprised in the nouns 



49 



and verbs with their flexions, and in fact these may be said to 
constitute the whole language. 

The FLEXION COMPLETES THE PROCESS BY WHICH THE 
LANGUAGE IS CAPABLE OF EXPRESSING A COMPARATIVLY LARGE 
COMPOUND OF IDEAS IN A FEW WORDS. In general it com- 
prises: 

(1) The number: singular, dual and plural. Plural can be 
used instead of dual. 

(2) For verbs the person. 

(3) As to nouns the relation, and as to verbs the object 
of the action is indicated by additions which have been termed 
SUFFIXES. 

(4) As to nouns whether they are object or subject in the 
sentence (objective and subjective, the latter comprising the 
genitive). 

(5) As to nouns what in other languages is expressed by 

prepositions, answering the questions: where, whence, what way, 

« 
whither and how, by forms or cases which may be called : Lo- 

calis , Ablative, Vialis, Terminalis and Modalis. Their endings 

are called appositions. 

(6) For verbs 7 moods: indicative, interrogative, optative 
(imperative), conjunctive, subjunctive and participle. 

But flexion neither comprises sex nor tense. For the latter 
affixes can be used. 



NOUiiS AND THEIR FLEXION. 

Of THE CASES, THE OBJECTIVE indicates the object of a trans- 
itive verb (accusative) as well as the subject of an intransitive verb. 
In the objective singular, which is to be considered the primitive form, 
all nouns end in a vowel or in §, k or t. Those which end in «, 
when inflected take an auxiliary i or a. THE SUBJECTIVE indicates 
as well the subject to a transitive verb, as our usual genitive when 
referring to possession. 

XI. 4 



50 



The SCBJECTIVE is formed by p, THE DUAL by h, THE PLURAL 
by t, added to the vowel of the final syllable (end-vowel). Al the 
same lime, if the last letter is a consonant, this is dropped, unless 
it constitutes a part of the root, when an exchange of letters takes 
place. The rules for this transformation belong to the most com- 
plicated part of the grammar, and require the words to be divided in 
3 classes. But the transformation is sometimes omitted. Examples 
from these classes , ranged accordingly to the degree of trans- 
formation are: 

(1) nuna (object.) land, nunap (subject.), nunat (plural); qaqaq 
mountain, qdqap, qdqat ; -umat heart, ilmatip, UmaHt ; inuk man, inUp^ inuit- 

(2) sioraq sand, siorqap, siorqat\ ndlagaq master, ndlagkap, ndlag- 
kat: nujaq hair, nutsap, nutsat. 

(3) auveq walrus, aorrup, aorfit or aorrit; aleq harpoon line, 
ardlup, ardlit\ malik sea (waves), magdlup, magdlit. 

The SUFFIXES of nouns, as mentioned above, denote the relation, 
viz. the STATE OF BEING POSSESSED. They are different for: my, 
thy, his, our etc., while each of them like the noun itself, has its 
forms for objective, subjective and number. Of course this gives an 
extraordinary multiplicity of combinations, each with its peculiar form. 
Moreover the th»rd person requires 2 kinds of suffixes, denoting whether 
the subject of the sentence is the possessor (e-suffix) or not (a-suffix). 
Omitting the dual the following table gives a view of the suffix-endings: 





his 


Singular 


Plural 




Objective. 


SnbjectiTC. 


Objective. 


SnbjecHre. 


3d person 


a 


ata 


e 

at) 


isa 


a-suffix 


their 


at 


ata 


it 

ie) 


isa 


e- suffix 


his 
(own) 
their 
(own) 


e 

[ne] 

tik 


me 
mik 


ne 
tik 


me 
mik 


2d person 


thy 
your 


t 
se 


ipit) 

vse 


tit 
se 


vit 

vse 


1st person 


my 
our 


■ga 

{ra) 
put 


ma 1 

vta ! 

1 


ka 
vut 


ma 
vta 



51 



But here also Ihe manner in which the endings are appended 
is submitted to complicated rules requiring them to be divided in six 
classes. 

Examples are: nund his country, nundta his country's, nunaga 
my c, kivfd his servant, kivfane his (own) servant, oqausia his word, 
oqausertik their (own) words, ernera his (my) son, enerpit thy son's 
(subjective). 

As to the (dependent) CASES WITH APPOSITIONS, the nouns 
without suffixes are inflected as follows : 



For 


Singular 


Plural 


Localis . . . 


. . me 


ne 


Ablative . . 


. . mit 


nit 


Vialis . . . 


. . hut 


tigut 


Modalis . . 


mik 


nik 


Terminalis . 


mut 


nut 



When they have to join on nouns with suffixes they are some- 
what transformed, but in both cases the rules are not so complicated 
as those above alluded to. 

Examples are: nuname on land, nunamit from the land, nunakut 
by land, ndlagkamut to the master, siorqamik with or by (means of) 
sand (sioraq). 

The LABRADOR DIALECT only shows a few differences from 
what is here stated. The irregular forms are partly wanting. Some 
suffixes have an ng appended before them, f. i. kivfanga, kivfangit, 
oqausinga for: kivfd, kivfat, oqausia. It seems that the CENTRAL 
DIALECTS also in this respect show nearer kinship to the Labrador 
than to the Greentand tongue. In the MACKENZIE GRAMMAR we 
also are able to trace almost all the Greenlandish forms , although 
more or less disfigured by evident misunderstanding. The most 
striking example of the latter is that of considering the subjective 
merelly as a genitive, without mentioning its relation to a transitive 
verb. It is curious that the word tupeq (a tent) in Greenl. and 
Mack, has the same anomalous plural tovqit, while in Labr. it has the 
regular tupit. In the glossaries of the WESTERN DIALECTS we find 
examples of flexional endings referring to number, possession and 
appositions, with or without suffixes, but they are too incomplete 
for deriving any general rule with regard to their relation to the 
Eastern dialects. 

4* 



52 



Particular nouns. 



DEMONSTRATIVE WORDS. The demonstrative roots are: ma here 
(■v^'here I am), tdss there, uv here, there (pointing), ik or iv yonder, 
av north or right, qav south or left (facing the open sea), pav east 
or landward, also upward, kan here down, also west or seaward, kig 
south, kam inside or outside. 

By themselves, as they are, or merely rendered pronunciable by 
the addition of an a, these roots are only used as interjections. Their 
proper application is in the cases: localis, ablative, vialis and termi- 
nalis, formed by adding: a«e, dnga (Labr. dnyat)^ ■dna and unga^ f. i. 
mane here, ma,nga hence, mauna this way, maunga hither. 

As a rare exception in the language, a prefix here is used in 
putting a ta before these words only to strengthen their demonstrative 
tendency. 

Demonstratives referring to a person or an object are formed 
by adding na to the above roots, excepting tdss and kig ^ f. i. mdna 
this one here, ivna he or that yonder. Their flexion is somewhat 
deviating, f. i. 





Singular 


Plural 


Objective . . 


. . ivna 


ivko 


Subjective . . 


. . ivssuma 


ivhua 


Localis . . . 


. . ivssumane 


ivkunane 


Ablative . . . 


. . ivssumdnga 


ivkundnga 


Vialis . . . 


. . ivssumuna 


ivkukut 


Terminalis 


. . ivssum'iUnga 


ivkun'dnga 


Modalis . . . 


. . ivssuminga 


ivkuninga. 



Somewhat related to this class of words are: nd where?, suna 
what? kina who? 

In the Mackenzie grammar, the principal words belonging to this 
class are called pronouns. 

NUMERALS. In all the dialects they are formed by making 
subdivisions for every fifth number, counting the fingers of hand 
and foot. 

WORDS OF PLACE. By this name are termed some nouns which 
designate a place or space in reference to a certain object, for which 
reason they require a suffix , excepting when used in the terminalis. 
Examples are: 



53 



at with sufT. atd what is below it 
8Ujo — — sujoa — - before i I 
kit — — hitd — - seaward of il. 
PERSONAL WORDS. Pronouns , as often uieulioned, are repre- 
sented in the flexion of the verbs. But if merely the person has to 
be expressed, separate words are required. For the third person we 
find them among the demonstratives mentioned above. The first and 
second person are expressed by uvanga I , and ivdlit thou. Klein- 
schmidl derives these words from the supposed stems uva and He, 
which, with suffixes for my and thy, could signifly : my (being) here, 
thy (being) there. This hypothesis has been confirmed by the Mac- 
kenzie grammar in which ivdlit is Unit i. e. thy He or ilo. 

To the particular nouns might also be counted: hise «aloneness» 
and (itamaq^ whole (see the glossary). 

Verbs and their flexion. 

We have already mentioned the verbal stems, stating that by 
themselves ' they are only serviceable as interjections, whereas in 
order to become words for ordinary use they have to be furnished 
with a formative addition. The flexion' of verbs in one respect is 
less complicated than that of nouns, in as much as only, this for- 
mative addition is altered by it, whereas the stem itself, excepting 
slight modifications of the final sound, is never affected by the flexion. 
But as to multiplicity of forms the flexion of verbs is by far more 
complicated. 

THE FLEXION COMPRISES (i) MOODS (2) PERSONS WITH 
INDICATION OF THE SUBJECT, (3) SUFFIXES OR THE OBJECT BUT NO 
TENSES. What was formerly considered lenses consists of affixes. 
Most commonly it already will be given by the context, whether 
an action is passed or future. 

The first alteration by flexion is for the mood, for which the 
verbs are divided into 5 classes. As the formative addition is the 
variable part, one of its forms has to be considered Ihe standard for 
explaining Ihe olhers. For this use Ihe 3d person o1 the indicative 
with the suffix likewise of the 3d person for transitive verbs, has been 
selected. The formative addition to the stem then is poq, voq or oq, 
with the suffix : pdj vd or a. Including the last sound of the stem 
which is slightly altered we set THE FOLLOWING ENDINGS AS RE 
PRESENTING THE 5 CLASSES OF VERBS: 



54 



(1) rpoqj rpd for stems ending in 5, f. i, ajoq bad, ajorpoq he 
or it is bad. 

(2) gpoq, gpd for stems ending in Jc, f. i. ndlak obeying, ndlagpd 
he obeys him. 

(3) ±.poq, j-pd for stems ending in t which is dropped while at 
the same lime the preceding vowel is sharpened, f. i. tiJcit coming, 
tikipoq he comes. 







Without 


suffix. 




3d perso 






















him 




3d 


Person 


i 


he 


oq 




d 


<a 






they 


nt 




&t 


> 






i 


thou 


utit 




at 


u 


2d 


Person 
















je 


use 




arse 




Isl 


Person 


{_ 


we 


unga 
ugut 


^^ 


ara 
arput 




3d 


Person 


1 


he 


a 




auk 


6C 






they 


at 




aasuk 


C 






1 
\ 


Jhou 


it 




iuk 


« 


2d 


Person 










c 






ye 


ise 




isiuk 








f 


he 


le 




link 




3d 


Person 


\ 


they 


lit 




liastik 


03 








Ihou 


it 




uk 


E 


2d 


Person 












Q. 








ye 


itse 




sink 





Isl 


Person 




1 


langa 




lara 










we 


lata 





larptU 










he 


■ 
lune 


r 






3d 


Person 








lugo 











they 


lutih 




> 








Ihou 


lutit 


\ 




'E 

G 


2d 


Person 




ye 


luse 


i 


lugo 




Isl 


Person 




I 
we 


hmga 
luta 


1 


lugo 



55 



(4) voq, vd for stems ending in a vowel without accent, f. i, 
asa loving, cisava he loves him. 

(5) aoq, a for stems ending in e, f. \. pige possession, pigd he 
owns it. 

Omitting the dual, all the formative additions ordinarily required 
for conjugation may be represented by the following table. 



iffix. 




2d perso 


n's 


suffix. 


1st person' 


5 suffix. 


them 


thee 

1 


you 


me 


us 


ai 

ait 


! 


dtit 




dae 


dnga 




dtigut 


atit 










arma 




avtigut 


ase 










avsinga 




avsigut 


dka 
avut 




avkit 
avtigit 




av8e 








agit 
atigit 


1 


dtit 




dse 


dnga 




dtigut 


igit 
iaigik 










inga 
isinga 


! 


isigut 


ligit 
lisigik 


! 


lisit 




Use 


i 

1 

livga j 


lisigut 


^it 










-Lnga i 


tigut 


sigik 




' 






singa 


sigut 


Idka 
lavut 




lagit 
lavtigit 




lavse 








lugit 




lutit 




Ivse 


lunga 




luta 


lugit 










lunga 




luta 


lugit 




lutit 




luse 









56 





Without suffix. 


1 


3d person's 




a - sufQx 










him 


ihem 




3d Person 


/ he 


mat 


mago 


magit 




(a) 


I Ihey 


mata 


massuk 


matigik 


o 

>■ 

"3 

c 


3d Person 

(e) 


r he 

I they 


ame 
amik 


amitik 
amiko 


amigit 
amikik 


3 

8 


2d Person 


/ Ihou 


avit 
avse 


agko 
avsiuk 


agkit 
avaigik 




Isl Person 


r 1 


ama 


avko 


avhit 
avtigik 




\ we 


avta 


ctvtigo 




3d Person 


/ he 


pat 


pago 


pagit 




(a) 


\ they 


pata 


passuk 


patigik 




3d Person 


( he 


une 


uniuk 


unigik 


1 


(e) 


\ they 


unik 


uniko 


unikit 


3 


2d Person 


i thou 

I ye 


uvit 
uvse 


ugko 
uvsiuk 


ugkit 
uvsigit 




1st Person 


I we 


uma 
uvta 


uvko 
uvtigo 


uvkit 
uviigik 




3d Person 


/ he 




a 


ai 


» 


(a) 


\ they 




at 


ait 


a. 
•5 


3d Person 


/ he 




ne 


ine 




(e) 


\ they 




itik 


itik 


C 


2d Person 


^ thou 
\ ye 




it 

igse 


Hit 
ise 


;^ 


1st Person 


/ I 

I we 




iga 
igput 


ika 

ivta 



II will be seen that the dependent raoods conjunct., subj. and 
panic, have a double form for the 3d person of the subject; of these 
the e- form is used when the subject at the same time is subject in 
the sentence to which the dependent mood refers. 



him 



suffix 
i Ihein 



2d person's suffix. 



Ihee 



you 



1st person's suffix. 



roe 



mane 
mane 



inatik 
matik 



niatit 



manga 



matigtU 



amisit 



amtse 



angne 


agtik 


avsine 


avtik 


avne 


avtik 


avtine 


avtik 



ane 
dne 



avkit \ 

avtigit ) 

1 



amtnga 

angma 
avsinga 



dtik 
dtik 



dtit 



anga 



amisigtU 

avtigut 
avsigut 



pane 


patik 


patit 


1 
pase 


panga 


patigtU 






/ unisit 


icnise 


uninga 


unisigut 


ungne 


ugtik 






ungma 


uvtigut 


uvsine 


uvtik 






uvsinga 


uvsigut 


uvne 


uvtik 


uvkit 


\ 




. 


uvtine 


uvtik 


uvUgit 









dtigut 



ingne 


igtik 


ivsine 


ivtik 


imie 


ivtik 


ivtine 


ivtik 



ivkit 
ivtigit 



tngma 
ivsinga 



ivtigut 
ivsigut 



The participle of ihe language is of a rare and peculiar kind, 
as not only permilling, inU necess^nj^__j:eqmrin^_^n^jt^^ For this 
reason there is another form produced by Ihe ending toq or aogre- 
presenling the usual participle of other languages. In the Greenland 




58 



grammar it is classed among the affixes. But allhough in this way 
certainly having the nature of a noun, it may be inflected like a 
verb in the indicative, as f. i. ajortoq one who is bad, ajoriunga I who 
am bad , ajortutit thou who art bad etc. It is called the nominal 
participle, whereas thai above is the verbal participle. 

The use of the table however still requires some explanation. 
The endings represented in it are called the formative additions. 
Kleinschmidt shows us in a very ingenious way how they are devel- 
oped out of 4 elements: the character, the sign of mood, the sign of 
person and the sign of suffix. Only the first of these elements needs to 
be more closely mentioned here. It is wanting for the optative and 
the infinilive, for which the sign of mood is joined immediately to the 
stem; for the others there are 2 kinds, the principal character used 
for the independent moods, indicative and interrogative, and the con- 
necting character for the dependent moods. With the addition of 
these characters the endings of the stem will be : 

Verbal stems of: chief char.: connecting char.: 

1 class ending m q rp r 

2 ~ — - /.• gp ^h 

3 — — - t _Ljp jJc [jjn] 

4 — — - - -V -g 

5 — — - e d ig 

To one of these 8 kinds of forms, the stem by itself (optative 
and infin.), the stem with the chief char, (indrc. and interr.), and the 
stem with the connecting char, (conj., subj. and participle), Ihe end- 
ings given in the (able have to be added. 

The following examples may serve te explain Ihe use of the 
table: atorpoq it is used, atorpd he uses or has used it, atorpiuk dost 
thou use it?, atorpago if or when he uses it, atord he who uses it, 
atormat as it had been used; ndlagpoq he obeys, ndlagparma thou 
obeyst me, ndlangmatigik as they had obeyed them, ndldkuvdnga if ye 
obey me; tildpoq he comes or has come, tiUle may he come!, tikit- 
dlune he coming; takuvd he sees or saw him, takugangma as thou 
sawst me , takugpanga when he sees me , takugivaigut ye who see or 
saw us; oqarfigd he says to him, tikikame oqarfiydnga as he had 
arrived, he said to me, tikingmat oqarfigdnga as he had arrived, he 
— i. e. another one — said to me. 

Of Ihe optative and the conjunctive some peculiar forms exist 
which are rather frequently used. 



59 



Some verbs are exclusively transitive so as to turn reflexive or 
passive, if used without suffix, f. \. toqupoq he killed himself. Certain 
affixes render these verbs halflransilive, viz. having no definite object, 
whereas an object still can be indicated by the modalis, f. i. inungmik 
toqutsivoq he has killed a man, he is a murderer. 

The passive form is not indicated by flexion, but merely by 
affixes. 

The negation is expressed by a peculiar affix -stem s.ngit added 
to the end vowel of Ihe verb in question and inflected in a some- 
what difTerenl way from the ordinary conjugation. The indicative 
without suffix is: 3d pers. ngilaq, 2d pers. ngilatit, 1st pers. ngilanga. 

As exceptional difTerences in Greenland occur: goq and gd for 
voq and m, in Labrador hoq and kd for poq and pd. In Labr. there 
exist no verbs of (he 5lh class and what appears most remarkable, 
no verbal participle. Certain e-suffixes have also disappeared. 

The MACKENZIE GRAMMAR GIVES a numerous collection of 
forms dilTering from the system here proposed. Most of them spring 
from the usual difficulties in acquiring the first information by quest- 
ioning the natives. In fact the only task I have attempted in this 
part of the grammar is to trace the similarities and lo point out 
among Ihe ditTerences a tew as probably authentic. 

It is said that the verbs without suffix generally end in toaq^ 
joaq, joq, toq, taq, raq\ with suffix in a, ja^ va, ra and ga. 

Five conjugations are said to exist : 

(1) for verbs ending in toaq^ rtoaq and ktoaq- — evidently corre- 
sponding lo the first 3 classes of verbs in Greenl., but with t instead 
of p, reminding us of the nominal participle, 

(2) for -joaq, evidently the ending -voq in Greenl. , where also 
joq exceptionally occurs, 

(3) for -raql ' 

(4) for -oq, apparently the same as 2, 

(5) for 'ik, probably a confounding of nominal and verbal forms. 
The interrogative and optative agree tolerably well with Greenl., 

and so does still more Ihe infinitive. 

It is an interesting fact, that the negative form with its flexions 
has maintained the / of the stem , but as for the rest is quite alike 
the Greenl. 

The scanty sources of information we hitherto have been pos- 
sessed of with regard to the GRAMMAR OF THE WESTERN DIALECTS, 
have received a valuable addition by a list of flexional forms added 



60 



lo the vocabulary in Ray's Eleporl on Ihe Point Barrow Expedition. 
The following examples will serve to show the similarity of the flex- 
ional endings with those from Greenland. But the peculiar signification 
of the nominal participle is here still more dislinctly indicated than 
in Ihe Mackenzie. 



Point Barrow 


Greenland 






1 


[nominal participle] 


I am hungry 


kahtungd 


kdgpunga 


( — tunga) 


Thou art — 


kaktutin 


— putit 


i— tutit) 


Ye are — 


kaktuse 


— puse 


[— tuse) 


He is — 


kakto 


— poq 


(— toq) 


Let him come! 


kaili! 


kaile! 




Come in ! 


isarin ! 


iserit ! 




1 sleep 


siniktungd 


sinigpunga 


(~ tunga) 


Thou sleepsl 


— tutin 


— putit 


(— tutit) 


He sleeps 


— tud 


— poq 


(- toq) 


As he slept 


sinigmut 


siningmat 




Art thou asleep? 


sinikpi? 


sinigpitf 




Is he asleep 


— paf 


-paf 





The grarnmatical notes given by Veniaminow on the Kadjak dia- 
lect are very (rifling. However they contain an example of conjuga- 
tion; it represents the stem: tiguvd he takes it, and evidently exhibits 
a confounding of forms partly from this verb, partly from the half- 
transitive tigusivoq (tgoma and tgotschichka !). 



Particles. 

To this class belong words which, except in a few instances, 
have lost their flexibility or remained inflexible, and at the same time 
difl"er from the interjections by being inapplicable save in connection 
with other words, although in some cases this distinction is not to 
be drawn sharply. They are divided into added and independent 
particles. 

The added particles must always be appended to olher words. 
From the affixes however they ditfer by a less intimate coalescence 
with Ihe main word, especially in permitting this to be inflected 
independent of the addition. The most common are: lo and; le but; 
taoq also; ItLnit or, even; me indeed, to be sure; toq expressing a 
desire; lusoq like; goq one says. 



61 



The independent particles may be divided into: (1) those for 
tinie, f. i. ipagssaq yesterday, (2) having the character of adverbs or 
conjunctions, f. i. agsut very, (3) mostly resembling interjections, f. i. 
sunauvfa only think ! dp yes. 

As for the rest, and especially wilh regard to the other dialects, 
the words of this class will more appropriately be treated of in the 
glossary. 

Syntax. 

Trying to discern the differences which may prevail between the 
dialects concerning the syntax, at present of course is a matter out 
of question. But also in this section of the grammar the peculiar 
organisation of the language is so strikingly manifested, that we can 
not wholly omit mentioning it here, by a few remarks taken from 
the Greenlandish grammar. 

A verb certainly by aid of the suffixes makes a sentence by 
itself, but even if the subject and the object are expressed by part- 
icular nouns the verb nevertheless must indicate both by suffixes, 
f. i. takuvci he saw it, inup igdlo takuvd the man ('s) — the house — 
he saw it, i. e. the man saw the house. 

The use of the e- suffix and the e-form in general is already 
mentioned. When the verbal participle is subordinate to a mafn verb, 
the sentence generally refers to three different personalities: (1) the 
subject of the main verb , (2) its object which at the same time is 
the subject of the participle, (3) the object of the participle. If now 
two of these are identical, it depends on the sense, how the e-suffix 
and the e-form of the verb have to be applited. Examples are: 
oqauiigingild pigingne he did not say that he (himself) possessed it, 
whereas pigigd would indicate: that he (another) possessed it. — 
kivfane oqautigd sorderukdne literally: his (own) servant, him he men- 
tioned, him who abandoned him, i. e. he said that his servant had 
abandoned him, whereas sordernldne would signify: that he had aban- 
doned his servant. 

The conjunctive corresponds to sentences wilh «when, as, 
because », the subjunctive to them with: «if, when, supposed*. The 
a- form is used when the connected sentences have a different, the 
e-form when they have the same subject. The composed e-sufflxes 
of both moods are used almost in the same way as those of the 
participle. The infinitive corresponds almost as much to the part- 



62 



iciple as lo the infinitive of other languages and has a multifarious 
application. 

The verb «il is)) of other languages is rendered by affixes: — 
uvoq is — , and -rd has it for — , f. i. ndlagauvoq he is a chief, 
ndlagard he has him for his chief, it is his ch. 

Finally the arrangement of words is of great importance, while 
at the same the a- and e-sufixes and forms admit of several sen- 
tences being combined in a very compendious form and crossing 
each other without losing the necessary distinctness. Kleinschmidt 
in his grammar gives the following examples of what a careful use 
of these means in a few words is able to express. Certainly they 
are so complicated, that in daily speech they could hardly ever occur, 
but still they are correct and can be understood by intelligent people. 
The examples show about the same words in two combinations. 

(1) suerakame autdldsassoq tusaramink tumngingmago iluaringildt 
they did not approve, that he (a) had omitted to give him (b) some- 
thing, as he (a) heard, that he (b) was going to depart on account 
of being destitute of everything. 

This is composed of 4 sentences: 

suer'dkame autdldsavoq when he was destitute of everything he 
would depart. 

autddsassoq iusarpd him who would depart he had heard of. 

tmaramiuk tuningild as he had heard of him , he did not give 
him anything. 

tuningingmago iluaringildt as he gave him nothing they disapproved 
of him. 

(2) ivna autdlarloq suer'iikame autdldsassoq ningavata tusaramiuky 
unigtikumavdlugo ajorssautainik tuningingmago nunaqataisa iluaringildt — 
literally : him yonder — who has departed — as he was destitute of 
everything — who was going to depart — his brother in law — 
as he heard of him — intending to cause him to remain — with 
his necessaries — as he did not present him — his countrymen 
disapproved of him — viz: as the brother in law of him yonder who 
departed on account of want, had heard that he intended to remove 
and (nevertheless) did not assist him with anything that he wanted, 
in order to make him remain , his countrymen disapproved of his 
conduct. 



63 



Construction of words by means of the dependent stems 

or affixes. 

The nature and use of the affixes in general has already been 
explained. It was mentioned that the greater part of these additions 
are perfectly moveable. But some have become immoveable, their 
application being limited to certain words, or though moveable, cer- 
tain combinations of them with primitive stems have acquired a fixed 
peculiar signification. Moreover Ihere is no sharp distinction between 
the moveable and immoveable affixes. For these reasons the diction- 
ary must continually refer to the affixes. 

Many affixes, although having a more or less distinct signification, 
are often used in a way only slightly afl'ecting the sence of the 
\yord. Especially in narrative — or so to say poetical style — very 
compound words occur, of whose elements some almost seem to be 
inserted merely for the sake of euphony. 

As to their nature and signification , the affixes are divided into 
nouns and verbs. The latter have their formative addition like the 
primitive verbs which lose their addition in receiving the affix with 
the flexion; the same is repealed with the derivatives each time a new 
affix is added. Nominal as well as verbal affixes are again divided 
into transforming, by which nouns are converted into verbs and vice 
versa, and formative which only are appended to stems of their own 
kind. The formative nominal affixes are also grouped as adjeclively 
or substantively formative, f. i. igdMnguaq a small house, and igdlulik 
one who has a house. The formative verbal affixes in a similar way 
are divided into neutral, transitive and intransitive. 

As trying lo extract a tolerably complete collection of the af- 
fixes contained in the words known from the other dialects and 
arranging them, would be a very difficult problem, I have limited the 
following list to the Grenlandish affixes and examples of compound 
words, giving an idea of Ihe application of the same affixes in the 
other dialects. A few examples from the latter containing doubtful 
elements are finally added; only few affixes have been observed in 
them which with any degree of certainly could be considered non 
existent in Greenland. 

The following signs have been adopted by Kleinschmidt for indi- 
cating the rules for adding the affixes to the stems: 



64 



(bd), not perfectly moveable or applicable, but bound to certain stems 
^r] and t], the first consonnant of the affix is variable and can be r, 

gk, h for g, and s, is, ss for t. 
— , to be added lo the last vowel of the stem. 
.., to its last sound, vowel or consonant. 
., to a consonnant (g or r) which has to be intercalated, if the stem 

ends in a vowel. 
: , lo the root or any olher abbreviated form of the stem. 
_L or A, requiring the last vowel of the stem to be respectively 

sharp or long. 
_L — , requiring its last but one syllable to have a sharp vowel or to 

be closed by a consonant. 
: — , the rule to be either abnormal or unknown. 



G, dialects of Greenland, 

L, — - Labrador, 

C, — - the Central Regions, 

M, — - the Mackenzie, 

W, — - the Western. 

Where none of these initials is added, G is meant. The ex- 
amples taken from the other dialects are spelled in the main as they 
are found in the originals. 



65 



List of the Greenlandish Affixes with examples of their 
use taken from all the dialects. 

g]ajugpoq is prone to, usually. — pigajugpoq gets (pivoq) 
frequently (i. e. seals), is a good hunler. 

. aq (bd) and — araq young or small — dtdraq young seal, 
orpigaq a small bush (orpik) — L. akhigiarak young ptarmigan — 
C. eqaluaq a kind of salmon {eqaluk). — M. kurarh^ kuraraluk a 
small river {k-Cik) or brook. — W. piagak a young (G. pik a thing). 

{— aq, see :gaq), 

g]aluaq , g]aluarpoq having been, but is not longer so, rather, 
certainly. — nukarigalua his deceased younger brother (nukaq), taku- 
galuarpdka certainly I saw Ihem (but . . .). 

g]alugtuarpoq suddenly happening, as in falling, coming. 

— aluk of inferior kind, poor — pialuit poor things. — Ex- 
amples from the other dialects seem partly to exhibit a somewhat 
different signification. — C. agtsuadluk strong (wind), eqalucduit large 
salmon. 

: — araoq uses to..., frequently. 

— arpoq (bd) slightly, little. 

— arssuk anomalous , not of the usual kind. — drdluarsmk a 
rare kind of whales — C. kangertluaqdjung local name for a small 
fiord (G. kangerdluk). 

g]asuarpoq hastily. 

: — atdrpoq in earnest, duly. 

g]atdlarpoq just, only first. 

— avoq (bd) a continuation, repetition. 

lerivoq, hrivoq is occupied with something «— vjarqerivoq is 
working in stones. 

— erdluerpd dirties him with ... — pauerdluerpd d. him with 
soot (paoq). 

:erpd^ — lerpd furnishes with. — L. ikkileipd wounds him 
(G. ike wound), akkilerpd pays him (G. ake payment). 

— erpdf ivoq, erserpoq, erupd deprives him of . . . — matuerpd 
opens it {mato covering) — L. ernerpoq has lost his son {G. erneq) 
— M. niarkroertoark cuts off the head (G. niaqoq). 

5 



66 



— gd, — rd (halflransitive: gingnigpoq) has it for ..., finds it 
to be . . . — ernerd has him for , or it is his son , angigd means it 
is large {angivoq); a peculiar prolonged form is — gigput they are 
... to each other. — In L. and probably also in C. and M. this 
affix is — givd, — rivd^ f. i. enerivd, and the Greenland form may be 
merely a contraction. 

— gaq (bd), saq (bd), — ssaq (bd) , ..iaq (bd), — aq (bd), 
a kind of passive participle signifying: he to whom is done so. — 
L. aktugah skinned animal (G. dgtorpd skins il) — M. igitark (G. 
igipd throws it away) thrown away. — W. keepeegah what is cut 
(G. hipivd cuts il). 

— gasdrpoq is very full of, or rich in. A nominal form is 
found in L. and C. nanuragassain having many young bears (G. 
nanuaraq). 

— 9^9POg, — rigpoq has il fine, or is a fine . . . — M. tipi- 
ritorh has a fine smell (G. tipe). 

— gssaq future or intended for — L. alliksak something for a 
hunting line (G. aleq). — W. angutiksa male infant (G. angut a man), 
cmgnuksa female infant (G. arnaq woman). 

— guaq, — ruaq (bd) inferior, insignificant. 

— gugpoq ^ — rugpoq suffers from ..., or is longing for. — 
L. akkigerukpoq is longing for ptarmigan , imerukpunga I want water 
(G. imeq). 

.iaq, — liaq made or wrought. — pHlid the sack (poq) which 
he has made. 

g^iciq what requires to be done so — L. abloriak a step (G. 
avdlorpoq strides). — C. majorariaq a place where the boat has to 
be pulled against the current (G. majorarpoq). 

— iaq, — giaq, — riaq., 'pak (verbal form — iagpoq) plenty, 
a multitude. — igdlorpait many houses. - — L. inugiarput they are 
many people. C. inuiaktunik — W. inyugiuktu « people ». 

— iarpd deprives him of. 

: iarpoq , — liarpoq goes to. — L. eqaluliarpok goes fishing 
salmon. 

g]iartorpoq goes or comes for the purpose of. 

— i?iaq, — inarpoq only, merely. — L. agdloinah only a seal 
hole (in the ice), i. e. without seal — M. iviginark a grassy plain (G. 
ivik gross). 

liorpoq, — liorpoq is making, working... — L. sabviorpok 
he works iron. — M. igluliortoark he builds a house. 



67 



:ipoq (bd), — lipoq has arrived at . . . — nunalipoq has landed. 

— L. inuUpok meets with people. 

— ipoq, — ilaq without... — L. sillaipok stupid (G. aila 
reason), inuilah desert. — C. okomaitpoke is light, not heavy (G. 
oqimavoq) — M. inuitor « nobody ». — W.peeckuk no, not (G.pitsoq 
being without any thing), ukumdiluta «a heavy shaft». 

— isorpoq is gone to fetch or I00I4 for ... 

lissarpoq, — lissarpoq lakes something along with him on 
leaving. 

: — ivd (bd), — ssivd, — Hvd gels it thus done with. — kivi- 
ssivd lost it (f. i. his seal) by sinliing {kivivoq). 

— ivoq a halflransilive form for Irans. verbs. 

:woq^ — livoq makes, works — M. tchuliyoark is occupied (G. 
sulivoq, so something). 

g^ivoq, nivoq, g\ioq, gujoq also, loo. — L. attigivok he is also 
dressed {attivok). 

— jdrpoq early. — L. annijarpok goes out early (annivok). 

— jarssugpoq (bd) indistinctly. 

— javoq is prone to . . . 

— juipoq ^ — ssuipoq never. — L. annijutpok never goes out. 

— iVl. okrayeituark mute (G. oqarpoq speaks), nerretchuitork can never 
eat (G. nerivoq). 

— qaoq the most common eraphalical ending of verbs, frequently 
also used without any signification at all. 

— qarpoq has, or there is. — L. ekallukarpok there are salmon. 

— qat fellow or one of the same kind. — angeqatd one who 
is as tall [angivoq) as he. — M. nunarkat countryman. 

— qdtdrpoq repeatedly. — L. auksarkatarpok it was repeatedly 
thawing. 

— qut^ rqut, rqutaq a remedy. — L. perkut property. {(^. pivoq 
he gels). 

j-kaq having large ... — kigutikdq having large teeth. 

— kaneq somewhat near to . . . — W. dioanikunnd southwest 
{dwani west). 

— karpoq (bd) suddenly. 

— kdrpoq (bd) with long intervals. 

— kasik, — kasigpoq expressing displeasure with a slight degree 
of disdain: in speaking of one's own things merely a phrase of 
modesty. 

— katagpoq has got too much of it. 

5* 



68 



— kipoq, kitdlivoq, herdluh small. — L. akkekipok is low- 
prized. 

— kisarpoq, only used in oplalive: do not! 

— /co , — koq ruined or dissolved in its parts — L. aumako 
charcoal, illako a piece broken ofl". 

— korpoq probably. 

— kulaq clumsy. 

— kuluk miserable — umiakuluk a. m. boat. 

j-kupd (bd) believes it to be . . . — piixkiipd b. it to be useful 
{piiwoq). 

-!-kut (plural) family or companions of . . . 

— Idrpoq a little. 

— lavoq , indicates a certain state of moveableness. — W. 
sukaladu « quick » (G. sukavoq goes quickly). 

— leq, 'dleq farthest towards — L. alleq lowest. — C. akugd- 
lirn middlemost, — M. kingulerk hindmost. — W. kadlik outer 
garment (G. qak surface). 

— dlerpd (I) regales him with ... 

— dlerpd (II) (bd), indicates: bringing in a bad situation. 

— lerpoq begins to . . ., now. 

— lerssdrpoq intends to . . . 

— lertorpoq in a short lime. 

— lik having, or furnished with. — L. aulik bloody {auk blood). 
— - W. omaylik « chief)' (boat- owner) , tungalik « shaman » (having 
guardian spirits). 

. dliorpoq (bd) is incumbered with . . . 

.dlivoq (bd) grows, becomes. — agdlivoq g. larger {angivoq is 
large). 

— luarpoq a little loo much — C. peelooakpoke <aoo little» 
(G. plpoq is poor?). 

.dluarpoq well, right. 

.dlugpoq^ — lugpoq has or is bad. — M. iyaluktoark has bad 
eyes (G. isse eye). 

. dluinarpoq completely. 

. dluk^ — luk bad — M. tsillaluk bad weather (G. sila weather). 

j-tnak , Jjniauvoq skilled in . . . — C. pimmain a skilful man, 
leader. 

— mavoq is in the slate of . . . — L. ikkomavok is burning 
(G. ikipd kindles it). 

— mivoq (bd) perverted, awkward. 



69 



-Ltnivoq however, also. 

A.mwoq a lillle. 

..morpoq (bd), ..mukarpoq (bd), indicaling a direction (sprung 
from the lerminalis: — mut'!). 

.naq, .rnaq (bd) soraelhing unusual. — C. qeqertamaq a pe- 
culiar island. 

.ndq favourite. — L. illanak f. companion. 

— narpd, — ngndrpd makes or finds it loo ... — L. aminarpa 
makes it too narrow. 

..narpoq causes it to be ..., is to grow ... from. — L. 
ihlingnarpoh is delicious (G. igdligd likes it). — M. erktainaktoark is 
dreadful (G. ersivoq is afraid). — W. lihnachtuk hot (G. Hvoq is in- 
jured by fire). 

— nasaerpoq delays to . . . 
..naviarpoq is in danger of . . . 

..neq^ has a multifarious application, expressing: the result of, 
the infinitive of a verb, a comparative or superlative. — uvigdlarneq 
a widow {uvigdlarpoq loses her husband), angneq the grealesi (angivoq). 
— C. anernek breathing. — M. krorlornerk waterfall (G. qordlorpoq 
water runs down). 

..nerarpd says that he . . . 

..nerpoq perhaps . . . 

.nerpoq^ j-nerpoq (bd) is pleasant to ... — L. atoranerpok is 
pleasant to make use of. 

..niarpoq strives to . . . — M. kraniniartoark is approaching 
(G. qanigpoq is near). 

— nigpoq has now appeared, is to be got. 
.nipoq, sungnipoq smells of. 

— ngajak^ — ngajagpoq almost. 

— ngdrpoq in a high degree. 

— ngavoq is in the stale of . . ., is similar to . . . 

— ngerpd lakes from him. — [j. illangerpa lakes a part from 
it, karlingerpok takes off his (reflexive: own) trousers. 

j-ngerpoq is desirous of . . . 

— ngiarpoq is discontented with. 

j-ngilaq not, (he common form for negation — M. siningityunga 
I don'l sleep (G. siningitsunga, nominal partic. I not sleeping). 

— ngnarpoq goes to . . . 

— ngnigpoq (bd), halflransilive form for trans, verbs. 



70 



-Lugorpoq becomes or grows so. — utorqdngorpoq grows old. — 
M. alldngortatoarh is allered (G. avdla other). 
^nguaq, jjnguarpoq small, little, nice. 
j-nyuvoq (bd) suffers from complaint of . . . 

— orpoq (bd), indicates a continuation. 

.pak (I) (bd), .pdk extreme or, most of all. — L. anginerpak 
largest. — M. tingmearpah eagle (G. tingmiaq bird). — W. unakpuk 
walrusharpoon (G. undq harpoonshafl). 

.pak (II) always in plural : pait many. — igdlorpait m. houses, 
a town. 

— paldq, — paldrpoq incapable, awkwardly. 

.palugpoq ^ .paldrpoq, .patdlagpoq has the appearance of . . . 
— C. aoopaluhpoke is red ( G. auh blood). — ]M. ingnerpaluktuark 
flash (G. ingneq fire). — W. knychpaliaguk lightening. 

.parpoq^ .pasigpoq (bd) is so situated. 

— piluk, — pilugpoq bad, vile, rascally. 

.pog, with names of animals: has caught . . ., of clothes: takes 
on. — agpdpoq has c. auks. — L. karlikpok takes on his trousers 
(G. qardlik). — C. harkleehpoke. 

— ralak small, little. 

— rarpoq (bd) repeatedly, several times. 

— rarpoq (bd), with numerals: has got so many. — mardlordrpoq 
has got two (f. i. seals). 

— ratarpoq at length it will ... 
~ r4rpoq has finished. 

— riarpoq goes to..., added to numerals: so many times. — 
mardloriardlune doing it twice. 

j-rigpoq knows well to . . ., is perfectly so — L. erinataiarikpok 
has an excellent voice — C. kikparrikpoke is regular square (G. 
kiparigpoq). 

— rqainiuput they are emulating in ... 

— rqajarpoq had nearly . . . 

— rqdmerpoq a short lime ago. 

— rqarpoq hardly, narrowly. 

— rqarpoq^ — rqdq first. — W. Uingakdrheta «the first sleep »> 
(probably: G. sinig qdr-fi-ata his first time for sleeping, subjective 
ending). 

— rqavoq is almost in the state of . . . 

— rqigpoq, — rqigsdrpoq does it again and better. 

— rqorpoq probably. 



71 

— rqortoq, — rqortuvoq has it large — L. Ijikortovok has large 
eyes. 

— rqupoq, — rqorpd passes by it — L. imakorpok goes through 
the water. 

— rqutd^ halftrans. — rqussivoq coQimands or desires. — 
kivfaminut sanerquvd he ordered his servant to make it (see: sarpd 
and surd). 

— rdldq one who is just now . . . 

— rdloq (bd) what is more . . . 

— rnarpoq (bd) does something the first time. 

— rorpoq (bd) grows more and more ... — L. perorpok is 
fullgrown, aniarorpok feels more and more pain. 

— rpiaq proper or real. — W. tulukpia (G. talerpid) his right 
hand. 

^rpoq grows or becomes so. — qcmmarpoq is gr. light (qauma- 
noq is daylight). 

jLrpoq says or sounds so. 

— rrorpoq is boasting of . , . 

— rujuk, — rujugpoq good for nothing. 

— ruluk somelhing grand. 

— rupoq behind or too late. 
(rusugpoq, the same as — gugpoq). 

..sarpd, ..sdrpd causes or makes it do thus. — M.ilHtsartoark 
leaches (G. ilipd learns it). 

— savoq (bd) is in the stale of . . . 

-Lsatoq will or shall; this affix affords the usual way of ex- 
pressing the future tense, derivatives of it are saerpoq ' ceases to . . ., 
and sangavoq intends to . . . 

. . serpd (bd) makes or causes it to . . . 

..siaq gained or got, but not by one's own labour. — C. 
nunaseang (G. nunasiaq) a settler's new country. 

: — sigpoq (bd) is rather far towards . . . 

..simavoq has or is done so (expressing the past tense) — 
L. illisimavok is learned — M. illitchimayoark (G. ilipoq has learnt 
something. 

..sinauvoq^ ginauvoq can or is able to — 

..siorpoq goes to look for, is occupied with, or travels in . . . 
— L. agloaiorpok looks for seal holes, — C. akbirsiorbing (G. arfei-- 
siorfik) place for whaleflshing. 



..sivoq acquires or meets wilh . . .; added to verbs: has be- 
come so. 

..sord, tord believes that ...; if the principal verb is transitive, 
its subject is placed in terminalis. — kivfaminut sanasord he believed 
that his servant had made it. 

..sugpoq (bd) should like to. 

: — suk, a nominal afOx of this kind, although not found in the 
dictionary, must be supposed to exist, occurring especially in local 
names indicating a likeness. — inugauh a cairn {inuk man). — 
L. imaksuk swamp (imak sea). C innoksoot, inugsuk. 

jLSsdq grand, magnificent. 

— ssdrpoq rather much or many, also repeatedly. — L. 
perorsdrpok grows up quickly, nungusdrpok is soon consumed. 

.ssuaq, -Lssuaq, 8suarpoq great or very — igdlorssuaq a large 
house, pttsorssuag a very poor man. 

..SSUSeq state or condition. — angissusia its size {angivoq is 
large). 

tjailivd, tsailivd deprives him of . . . , hinders or prevents . . . 

..taq (I) (bd), see g\aq^ the passive participle. 

. . taq (11), rarely sag, belonging to . . . — angutitarput our man, 
i. e. the man who accompanies us (women). — M. kreyoktark the 
wood (G. qissuk) belonging to a gun. 

,.tdq, sdq new, newly got. 

.tarpoq^ sarpoq goes to fetch or collect ... 

f]arpoq does it often, uses to, is able to . . . 

. Adrpoq repeatedly with regular intervals. 

t\e he who has done so to him, a kind of participle to transitive 
and halftr. verbs, generally requiring a suffix {id),. — ajoqersortd his 
teacher, toqutsissd his murderer. 

. . terpoq successively. 

..tipd, ..sipd causes to . . . (used like sord). — autdlartipd 
sends him off {autdlarpoq goes away). — M. nipititark glued, nipi- 
titeron glue (G. nipigpoq adheres). 

— tdlagpoq (bd?) a little, for a moment. 

— tdlarpoq , intensifying in conneclion with an idea of motion. 
t]oq, .soq, ssoq, tsoq, the so called nominal participle already 

mentioned: being or doing so. — L. sennajok (G. sanassoq) a work- 
ing man. — C. amitoq narrow (G.amipog^ amitsoq). — M. niuvertork 
a trader (G. niuverpoq he trades) — W. amituk thin. 

— toqaq^ — soqaq old. 



73 



..torpoq, ..sorpoq makes use of . . ., eals or drinks ...; with 
verbal stems a repealed aelion. 
i]6rpoq happens lo . . . 
..torpoq does or behaves like an . . , 

— tsagpoq, indicating excitement. 

— tseriarpoq, .seriarpoq is willing lo . . . 

— tserpd, .serpd wails until . . . 

— tsiaq J .atsiaq tolerable, passable; in some dialects: nice^ 
pretty. 

— luaq^ — suaq only. — ernitua his only son. 
t\uarpoq^ —juarpoq continues lo ... 
t\uinarpoq incessantly. 

— tuvoq, ..suvoq^ — tdq, ..sdq large or in a high degree. ~ 
L. sanatovoh works (G. sanavoq) well, akitovoh is dear, Ijitovok has 
large eyes. — C. aqbirtijung (G. arfertussoq^ nomin. parlic.) rich in 
whales. 

— uarpoq too much. 

g]utndrpoq it will, it shall . . . , like savoq indicating the future 
tense. 

g]umavoq wishes or intends to . . . 

g]ungnarpoq probably or can ... 

: — upd does so to him or with it, imerta^pd fetches water 
(imertarpoq) to him. — L. tikhiupa comes (G. tikipoq) with it, brings it. 

— useq (I) Ihat by which an action is perceived — oqauseq a 
word {oqarpoq says). — L. innosek life (G. inHseq). 

— useq (11) belonging to ... — qajartilseq kayak-clolhes. 
.useq of a special or inferior kind — poruseq skinbag for 

blubber. 

— ussaq similar to. — M. innouyark an image (G. inussaq a doll). 
: — Mf, gut^ ssut, utaq or merely a t the nearest cause, means 

or remedy. — L. aglaut a pen or pencil ( G. agdlagpoq writes), 
innut provisions (invuvok lives). — !M. kapdn a spear (G. kapivd 
stabs). — W. shupun a gun (G. supivd blows at it). 

— ut properly or store; the sharp distinction attached to the 
suffixes often requires the application of this affix. — neqe flesh, 
neqiuta his flesh, i. e. his meal, neqd his (own body's) flesh ; agdlagaq 
a writ, agdlagauta a writ or letter possessed by him, agdlagd what 
he has written. 

: — uvoq is so — agdlagauvoq it is written. 



74 

— vatdldrpoq^ .patdlarpoq too . . ., far too . . ., too much. 

— vfdrik [mdrik), vfdrigpoq lovely, fairly, amiably. 

.fik^ j-vik place or time where or when — isertarfik entrance. 

— L. anguvik hunting time (G. anguvoq catches a seal). 

— vik.) .pik, vigpoq proper, real. — imavik, imarpik the great 
ocean. — L. imarbik. — W. immagpyk. 

— tJkarpd (hd) totally, generally connected vvilh the sense of 
bad or evil. 

— vsdrpoq^ . . sdrpoq excellent superior. — angneruvsdrpoq is 
the greatest [angneruvoq) of all. 

WORDS FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS CONTAINING MORE 
DOLRTFLL AFFIXES. 

LABRADOR: 

aiigupsarpok has again caught a seal. 

— psapsarpok the same several times. 
allupsak soup. 

ablornikpok makes small steps. 

aglivalliavok continues growing. 

pllerkivok wishes to have several things. 

mittilerkivok gels many eiderducks. 

aporsarpok hurts himself a little. 

kaisukpok comes in a bad intention. 

nunalugdk uneven land. 

okauserkisarpok speaks low. 

nerijiva devoures, consumes all for him. 

silairkiva has in him one who is still more stupid than himself. 

qaqqaroldk a hill. 

kattitmngarpeit gathers them the last time. 

adsiluak a complete likeness. 

nunaserpok walks about on the land. 

ingmigolivok to himself alone. 

petovalliavok grows continually poorer. 

apigiarpok there is a little snow. 

annigiarpok goes out only a little or rarely. 

CElNTRAL REGIONS: 

peuwingnahlahyar to dislike. 
p&uweioeyook to like. 



75 



peeokiie lake! 
peterhong'atoo gone. 

MACKENZIE R. : 

tdkumapkarUune going lo look. 
ilitsimanguyalertoark suffering from insanity. 
anmalcerotatsiak oblong. 

WESTERN: 

pinikherit lo give. 

juchliaguk heallhy. 

pinaksiinak may be. 

pinachknygatok can not be. 

pikusju I give. 

peekuturnka lo give. 

peeseekak now. 

nakuruk good, nakurumuk very good. 

pinychtok a good man. 

piliachtu lo beat (flghl?) 

piuchtua I will. 

piuknachtua \ will not.' 

pinachnuigatak it is not feasible, il won't do. 

peedlark I have none. 



HI. 

Comparative List of The Stem -Words 

OR 
THE INDEPENDENT STEMS OF 

The Eskimo Dialects 

WITH EXAMPLES OF THEIR DERIVATIVES. 



This vocabulary comprises all Ihe sleins of Ihe Greenland dictionary, 

showing al the same lime (by the sign: =) how Ihey have been 

recognized in the other dialects, whereas Ihe supposed stems foreign 

lo Greenland are marked: *. 




Explanations. 

The significalion of Ihe term: independent stem or stem -word 
(radical word) as differing from the root or radix has been mentioned 
before. In the following vocabulary I have tried to compile all Ihe 
stems or groups of words bound to Ihem which 1 was able to 
discover in the literary sources quoted above, only omitting some 
words, the real nature or existence of which in the native tongue 
seemed to be doubtful or too little susceptible of any reasonable 
interpretation. It will be seen that the designation of the true stem 
of a group of kindred words must have been no easy task even in 
the Greenlandish dictionary. In a few cases the stem is represented 
by what seems to be the very root itself; more frequently a word 
is resorted to which is evidently a derivative. As to the other dia- 
lects besides the latter expedient it is tried to indicate the supposed 
stem by merely abbreviating a word belonging to the group. 

The stem -words or the derivatives representing them are indi- 
cated by heavy type and are arranged in alphabetical order according 
to Kleinschmidl's Greenland Dictionary. For this reason the supposed 
stem-words peculiar to the other dialects are as far as possible 
transcribed according to his mode of writing (their original form partly 
added in parenthesis), whereas the derivatives excepting a few letters 
and especially the accents and hyphens, are spelt as in the ori- 
ginals. 

The sign «f» signifies that the stem-word is obsolete and pro- 
bably not any longer used in Greenland in this radical form, but 
only known through its derivatives. 

The sign «*» indicates that the stem is supposed to be foreign 
to Greenland. 

The initials which with the sign « = •» immediately follow the 
Greenlandish stem and its translation indicate the other dialects , in 
which it has been found by the author, either in this radical form 
or as contained in derivatives. Then the examples of the latter, 
headed by «Drv.», are subjoined, also comprising tlexional endings 
and various doubtful forms. 



80 



The initials here mentioned are as follows: G. Greenland (Ge. 
East Greenland), L. Labrador, C. Central Regions, M. Mackenzie 
River, W. Western with the subdivisions: n. nolhern , s. southern, 
a. Asiatic. 

[ 1 indicates how some of the foreign words are correctly written 
in Greenlandish. 

(I), (II), (III) are used to separate two or three words which, 
though spelt in the same way are probably of different origin. 

The verbal stems are given with the necessary addition for 
flexion (e. g. atoq as atorpoq) namely in the third person of indicative, 
and as to transitive verbs with the suffix of the third person: he or 
it — him or it. As transitive are considered those which, if used 
without suffix would turn reflexive. Some exceptions however occur. 
In the translation of verbs generally the pronoun, and of nouns 
often the article is omitted. Moreover all the words which in the 
translation have the appearance of adjectives or participles in the 
original language are to be considered nouns; consequently there is 
to be understood: «he or that who or which is ...» 

The German, English and French translations are in general 
rendered in English according to the' originals, though the latter very 
often depend on misunderstanding, especially of the flexional forms. 
Only in comparatively few cases strange translations are marked with 
inverted commas. 

I have met with some words in the Greenland traditional tales 
which I could not refer to Kleinschmidt's stem-words, at least not 
conformably to their usual sense. This may partly depend on a 
mistake , but some of these words are undoubtedly peculiar to the 
traditions, to the so to say poetical language, in some instances coin- 
ciding with the peculiar speech of the conjurers or angakoks. I 
have marked such expressions, they be really peculiar or not, with 
atrad. tales», and in a similar way I have indicated by «Fabr.» 
some words found only in the elder dictionary of 0. Fabricius. 

In alphabetically arranging the stem-words from the other dialects 
which could not be identified with those from Greenland, but had to 
be transcribed conformably to the Greenlandish orthography, I was 
troubled with discerning between e and i, o and m, but especially q 
and k. In the Labrador dictionary only in very few cases q is in- 
dicated by h\ as for the rest simply Jc is used for q. In C. these 
letters have been more carefully discerned by Dr. Boas, and in M. 
q is generally indicated by kr and rkr. But as to the W. dialects 



81 



Ihere is very lillle indicalion of this kind. Consequently Ihe use of 
h and q in many cases depends merely on guessing. 

The most doubtful words are marked by: « — *()•». 

In running over the alphabetical arrangement of the list it must 
be remembered that: dl, ng , ss are but single letters following re- 
spectively after Z, n and s. 



82 



(EXPLANATIONS : G, Greenland (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s, southern — a, asiatic) — * , NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

d. expressing amazement, and a, calling attention, interjections 
occurring with some variation or recognizable in inlerjectional deri- 
vatives = LiMWns. 

Dry. L. aJia, a, ahaila^ ahamarik ^ yes; adjai dreadful. — 
M. ahale just so; aycvi almost; akraU ha. — Wn. anawa cry of pain. 

aggerpoq is coming, approaching = LC. 

agia {igakl}* Wn. aJdat, aghzut star. — Ws. agliia^ agiat 
(plur.) star. 

agiarpoq rubs, files = LCM. 

Dry. G. agiaqMd]e; agiut file. — L. agicik file; agiarut Mdle. — 
C. arreeayaJcpoJce whets a knife; ariak file, stone for sharpening. — 
M. arion, agiun file; ariktoark whets, files, rubbed; ariktUn grindstone; 
agerkrark filings. 

aginak * Ws. acid. 

agiorpoq hangs, soars in the air =^ L? 

Dry. (?) G. ausdrpoq. — L. auksarpok^ about the same. 

agdlaq black bear == L C M Wna. 

INoTE. The existence of this word in Greenland seems doubtful, 
even as for traditional tales. 

agdlak stripe, streak = L C \\'ns. 

Dry. L. aglakpok [agdlagpoq] writes. — C. arglaktook spotted 
\agdlagt6q\ a young saddlebaek-seal. — Wn. agldktua spotted. — 
Ws. aklatuit pendants of earrings. 

agdldt esen (f. i. so much) =^ L. 

agdleq Anas glacialis =-- (Ge. agterajik). — L. (aggek). — 
C {aldigeearioo longlailer, duck). — Wn. {ahadlin^ adyigia). — Wa. 
[agliktschigak). 

agdleroq jawbone = LCM. (Ge. agtcrek). 

agdlerpoq (1) has an abortion. 

agdlerpoq (II) observes certain rules of living according to reli- 
gious belief = L. 

agdleruk * Ws. alreluk, alchehdc, adcha^ one ; alchtok eleven. 



83 



agdlo sealhole in ihe ice = LCWn. 

Dry. G. agdluaq fishing hole (Ge. agtivaq). — L. wilh suffix 
(i(floanga (i. e. his) Ihe moon's ring. — Wn. aglua notch In Ihe end 
of an arrow. 

agdlorpoq dives = LC. 

agdlundq (Ge. agsindq) rope, thong = LCMWn. 

agpa auk, razor bill = L C Wn. {dtpa\. 
Drv. C. akpalliarioo [agpalidrssuh] lillle auk. 

agpd T carries it out = L. 

Drv. G. agsarneq landwind ; agsivoq has spitting of blood; agait 
paunch {ruminant's); agtat dung hill. — L. agsarnek seaward cur- 
rent; aksivik dunghill; ahtarnerlukko rubbish. 

agpaivoq is in agonies of death = L. \akpaivok is dead, also: 
sleeps hard.) 

agpangerpoq * M. akpangertoark buying, purchasing. 

agpik * L. Rubus chamaemorus. — Wn. berry. 

agpipoq begins a song == L. 

agsagpd beats it == M. [aptsatoark). 

agsut strongly, in a high degree = L C M. 
Drv. h. aksorsoak [agsorssuaq] in a very high degree; aksororpok 
does his best. — M. aktsorsoark. 

agssagpd overturns it, digs it out =- LCM. 

Drv. G. agssatdlagpd turns it upside down; agssakavoq rolls. 

— L. aggarpok\ aksarpa turns it upside down; asdvok^ asakdvok rolls. 

— C akseakdmvoke rolls. — M. arktsartoark sinking, falling; aktsayoark 
rolling. — (\Vs. ahayauchtuh round?). 

agssaq f agssartorpoq carries to or from the beach = L. 

agssak a finger = L C i\1 Wnsa. 

Drv. G. plur. agssait hand; agssaut the forearm from the elbow 
to the wrist; agssarqoq upper part of the arm. — L. aggait^ aggaut^ 
aksakok; aggajak, plur. aggajet gloves. — C. argite fingers: adeeyutka 
the band; oksektoo arm; aydgayet gloves. — i\l. aidgeii, adgirark 
hand; aktsakrork arm above the elbow; adjirark, plur. adjirayet gloves. 

— Wn. adrigai; aishet baud; aksatko humerus; assiget gloves. — 
Ws. aiget ach.itsh.it hand; azigak gloves. — W^a. aitanka finger. 

JNoTE. Possibly the words for « gloves » ought to be referred 
to a separate stem. 

dgssik a caterpillar, also : a large fabulous animal. 

agssoq the windside == LM. 

Drv. G. agssumut against the wind; agssortorpd gainsays him; 
agssuard blames him. — L. agorpok is contrary. 

6* 



84 



agiorpd touches ii = LCM. 

])rv. G. agtumavd is in contact with il ; agtoqut what is put 
between two objects in contact. — i\l. aktulayoark touches; ahtulay- 
angiktoark « I m p al p a b 1 e « . 

agunak * \Vs. agunak, aganachok, aganuik (ignyk) day {gyngnyt 
light; ygnygpak, gaunagpak, hommukpak this day). — Wb.. aghynak day. 

Note. This stem seems to be related to , if not identic with 
the next, but the names agaum, agaim, aghat for: «God»i, also oc- 
curring in Wsa., are probably invented by foreigners. 

agut iajut, aguna) mythic name of the sun as a woman (Fabr.) 
in trad, tales. (Ws. akyckta, akchta the sun). 

ai? indeed?, aid (ah!) groaning, interjections == L. {ai is il 
not, ahak look). 

aikuk * Ws. a dog (?). 

ailaq sweat or condensed vapour = LWsa. 

— * {ailava Wn. while gull; aiming Wn. caribou, old horn- 
less doe), 

dipaq , with suffix dipd the other of two following each other, 
his companion =^ LCMWns. 

Drv. L. aipariva \dipard\ has him for his c. — M. aiparilugo 
following him [diparalugo] ; aipane the other year.; aipanitoark "an- 
cient". — Wn. ipar «lwo» . other; aiba two; ip'dnger another; 
aipani years ago. — Ws. aipak two; aipa the other. 

aipat food, eating (in the angakok-language of G. and C). 

aipavoq has a raw taste = L. 

ait! art Ihou willing = M. {am? is il so). 

— * (Wn. aittangna north current). 

aitsarpoq yawns, opens == LMWa. 

Drv. L. aitaukpok yawns, aitarpok gapes; aitangavok is open. 
— IVl. aitoron yawning. — Wa. etaachta to yawn. 

aitsdt now ihe first time, not ere this time. 

aivd fetches il = LCiVIWns. 

Drv. G. dpd brings it, ataorpd infects him. — L. aivok, upa; 
aitorpa shares with him. — M. ayklertoark [aigdlerpoq] goes to fetch ; 
aitortengoark gives a present. — Wn. ivah to bring after ; aichilunga 
to give. — Ws. atschtschuiga give. 

aja mother's sister = L. 

ajagpd repels or presses strongly against il =- LCMWnsa(?). 

Drv. G. ajagaq a toy, the «bilboquet » ; ajagssarpoq puts upon 
a spit; ajagssaut fork; ajagutaq a stick for supporting something; 
ajaupiaq a staff. — L. ajagutak a rainbow; ajak cross piece in the 



85 



kayak; ajaut slick for supporling a boat; ajaupiak. — M. ayayoark 
supports, leans; ayarotark support; ayark cross piece in the k. — 
Wn. aiye posts over jourls supporling sledges. — Ws. ahlutak rain- 
bow. — Wa. ajapun «hand». 

ajarak spit, saliva (angakok-language). 

ajaso interjection: but yet, but look. 

ajorpoq is bad, is unable to — , is sick --= LC>I(W?). 

Drv. G. ajorssarpoq is wanting, suffers from want: ajangilaq is 
good; ajugaq not mastered, invincible. — (Je. ajiunguarpoq is good. — 
C. ajornarpoq is difficult. — !V1. ayorptork \ajortoq\ bad; ayortsaktoark ; 
ayungitork [aj'ungit8oq\ good. 

aji'ipd widens it = L. 

ajuaq a boil = LCWn. 

— ' (Wn. aiyung a whale- harpoon). 

ajuvoq * L runs away. — Ws. aju, age, agui go away! — 
Wa. age going; agitok housedoor — (may be related to avqut, see 
hereafter). 

dq (I), plur, Willi suffix ai side-hooks of the bird-javelin = L C. 
Drv. C. agyia plur. aggidjen antlers. 

dq (II), plur. dtsit sleeves == LCMWns. 

Drv. G. arqat sleeve, mitten. — iVl. aitkratik mittens. — Wn. 
artkutik mittens. — Ws. alik sleeve ; akutuk wittens. 

dq (III)* L. drpok says: "a^" out of weariness; auqtorpok the 
reindeer cries: i^auq^. 

aqago to morrow = L C M Wns. (L. aqqago next year). 

aqajag the lower part of the abdomen = L C i\l Wnsa. 
Drv. L. akkearok [aqajaroq] slomach. — Wn. akearo. — Ws. 
aJcrak slomach ; aksiak belly. — Wa. aktsckakvk stomach. 

aqarpd caresses (the child) ■= L. 

aqasuk* L\1. the soft skin of the face near the nose. 

aqigsseq ptarmigan = L. (akkigek) CM. (arkredjigerk) Wn. 
{arkazigiuk) Ws. [arkaziuk] Wa. akyrget). 

aqipoq is soft = LCMWn. 

aqo hindpart, stern = L CM Wnsa. 

Drv. G. aqiti rudder. — L. aqqut\ aqqovipok squats down. — 
Wn. akaioeeten, akomi sit! — Ws. akomi sit down! — Wa. akum- 
nakunga sitting. 

aquaq * Wn. akiooioowyghne long ago. — Ws. akchuak, ahuavak 
yesterday ; akaaytok evening. — Wa. akuoachtuk evening. 

ak interjection: take it = L CM Wnsa. 



86 

Drv. G. dp yes; angerpoq says -yes". — Ge. im, imild. — 
\j. iikka take it. — C. up, am] angekpoke he nods. — M. angerhtoark 
"believing". — Wn. a.^ ang yes. — Ws. a-kika well! — Wa. 
a! yes. 

aka (I) fathers brother = LWn. [akkaka my uncle). 

aka (II)* Wn. akang, akeuh, Ws. akkaga mother. 

akdq y nice = L. 

Drv. G. akdrd likes it. — L. akkauvok is nice, fine. 

akali . ..* M. akaUark birth. — Ws. akkaljat, aksialut old (?) 

ake opposite, answer, payment = LCiMWnsa. 

Drv. G. akileq right opposile: akilineq the whole opposite 
country; akikipoq is cheap; akilerpd pays it or Ijim; akeraq ennemy ; 
akerog a knot in wood; agdligaq bladder-arrow or javelin. — Ge. 
akisagtoq white. — L. ake, akkikipok , akkilerpa, akkerak; akkerok a 
branch. — M. akia (with suffix), akerark; akerorkr a knot in wood. 

— W. akitsuk, akita for sale; akeechuk sell; aqklegak bone-spearhead. 

— (Ws. akkut a tree?) — Wa. akkuk root; aukuiak ennemy. 

— * (Wn. akia, akano perhaps; akiagoa earlobe). 

akimiak* Wn. fifteen. — Ws. akimak. — Wa. akimiak fifteen. 

ako a smaller object as part of a larger, a river -mouth -= 
LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. akuaq abdomen; akailisaq kayak- halfjacket ; akugdleq 
middle ; akuliaq the pari of the face between the eyes ; akungnagpoq 
is middling, mediocre; akuvd mixes it; akornut hindrance; akuerd 
grants, concedes. — L. akko side-lath of a boat; akkoak, akkoilitak, 
akkulek, akkuliak. — C. akoak abdomen; akongnaimt between them. 

— lVI. akoark, akHlerk, akoleark; alcullugo [akuvdlugo] mixing. — Wn. 
akolinek second finger; akuto dish of deertallow; ahumgavak Indian 
house for visitors \akungnigtarfik temporary dwelling?] — Ws. agol- 
aremut [akugdlermiut] , akulerpak etc., names of place; akiungavak 
winter habitation. 

akunit slowly = L. 

ala . .* L. alia an Indian; allaniovok is a foreigner. — C. 
adlet inland people. — !\1. allark. — Ws. alia a stranger, alianik. 

Note. At first sight it appeared most natural to identify this 
stem with «avdla» (see hereafter); but in the L. dictionary they are 
expressly separated and differently spelled. 

alarpd turns his face from, or keeps away from it = L\l. 
Drv. G. aldngoq shady side. — iVl. alangoyayoark " passing" (?). 

dlatioq * L. groans, moans. 

aleq harpoonline = LCMWn. 

aleqaq elder sister = Wns. {alkah, aleekaga). 



8' 



alerse sock, inner tool -= LCMWnsa. {dluhair alychtyk, 
achlychta). 

alertoq * Ws. calm (?). 

aliagd grieves, mourns for It = LCWs. 

Drv. G. alianarpoq it is sad, distressing; aliandipoq it is pleasant, 
agreeable. — L. aliagiva delights in it ; alianarpok it is pleasant, 
joyful; alianaipok it is sad dislressing. — C. adlinait! how joyful it 
is!; adlenaipa it gives pleasure. — Ws. angljanluga pleasure (?). 

Note. I have been unable to discover whether (he complete 
disagreement between the use of this stem in G. and C. on one side, 
and h. on the other, might be owing to some misapprehension. The 
words C. are from songs heard by Dr. Boas in Baffin's Land. 

aligd he finds it large. 

aligoq quartz, crystal =-= L. 

aligpd tears it == LCM. 

aliortorpoq sees something surprizing, sees a spectre = L. 
[cdlagaiksarpoh) . 

Drv. G. aliortugaq a spectre. 

dlisaq skin-hangings for walls. 

aliu ...* Ws. aljuhitchak castor. 

alivoq removes, retires = L. (alivakpok). 

Dry. G. cdlkutaq something for diversion or passlime. — L. 
allikut. 

aloq sole of foot or boot =-- LCMWn. 

aliigpd he licks it = L (Wna?). 

Drv. G. alugssaut a spoon. — Ge. alikarpd eats it with a spoon. 
— (Wn. athrotik a spoon. — Wa. adlkotak a spoon). 

alugsoq -j- alugsorpoq she has an abortion == L. {aUptorpok). 

— * (L. allunganek protruding rock or snow wall; cdiucdc a blue 
soft stone. — Wn. alouik a slraighlener, native instrument). 

alutord is fond of it -= L. 

ama again, also =^ LC. {1 amelar yes) \1. (I dmanayo "Obliging-). 
amaivoq* L. it is foggy. — Ws. amehluk clouds; amaglin fog. 
amdq a long thin root — LWs. 
amdma breast of milk == LC. 

amarqo in Greenland a fabulous animal , elsewhere a wolf = 
LCM Wna. 

amarpd carries him on the back = LCiMWn. 
Drv. G. amdrpoq carries a child in the hood; amaut the coat 
with hood for the child; amaulik male eiderduck; amauligaq snow- 



88 



bunting. — L. amdrpok, amaut, aniaulikj amauligak. — C. amowliguoch 
eiderduck. — i\1. amartoark, amarolirark. — Wn. amauHng, amauliga. 

ameq skin = LCiMWns. 

ameo* Wn. an oiler; ameoJctok ollerskin. 

amerdldput ihey are many = LWns. 

Drv. Ws. amalachtelsuot « people » [amerdlas-ut many]. 

ametlega{?)* Ws. walk. 

amila ... * L. amilanikolerpok weaps or cries causelessly. 

amipoq is narrow , iliin =--^ L C M Wnsa. 

Drv. G. amitsoq, amitsuatsiaq narrow, frequent names of place. 

— M. amitoatsark. — Ws. amiduk, amedoak. 

amisut a stioal, a herd = LC. 

— * (Wn. am'atna, amutnasimuk similar). 

amiivd draws it out = LiVI. 

dnagpoq is saved = L. 

anaq excrement = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. Ws. anncdgat [anariaq] a fly. — Wa. anachtok [anartoq] 
a shooting star. 

dnak grandmolher (W"n. ana mother's father?). 

andna mother (in G. as spoken t)y infants) = LCMWs. 
{annaha^ ane), 

Drv. L. andnatsiak grandmolher. 

dnanak* L. beauty; dnanauvok is beautiful. — i\I. andnauwok. 

ana ...*? iVl. anakranan again, directly. — Wn. anakame day. 

— Wa. anakukuk upward; anarinekukdra Yt qeqa middle] noon. 

anauvd beats him — LCMWnsa. 

Drv. M. anaotark a club. — W^n. anauta a whip. — Wa. 
ana'dutak fire steel. 

ane, with suffix ania a sisters elder brother = L C Wnsa. 

dneq f dnerpoq feels pain (once) == L C M Wns. 

Drv. G. dniarpoq suffers from pain; dnildrpoq is terrified. — 
L. aniavok. — IVl. anniarktoark. — Wn. arrdh pain. — Ws. ak- 
naktuk sick. 

anerpoq t anemeq breathing = L C M Wnsa. 

Drv. C. annekseakpoke [anersdrpoq] breaths. — iM. anertsaumiyoark 
sighing. 

Note. As far as can be inferred from the traditional ideas of 
the Greenlanders, the application of this stem to spiritual actions and 
the idea of Ihe soul is evidently imported hy white men. 

anersa! that is well = L. 



89 



anigi ...* Wn. atigimimk an ax. — Ws. anigin halchet; 
anien ax. 

anigo, in G. only in the angakok language as annigovirkssuaq 
snow. — Ws. aniok^ aneg, Wa. a)ngo snow, 

anipa * Wa. a duck (?). 

anivoq goes out =- LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. annirpa [anipd] brings il out. — C. annee go! \anit\. 
— Wa. iwAnga [anivunga] I go oul. 

aningdq (mylhical) name of ihe orioon = C 

ano dog harness =- LCMWns. 

anon . . .* Ws. anonak auni. 

anoraq clothing =^ LCM. 

anore wind =- LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. anordlerpoq il blows. — C. annoklukpoke il blows 
hard. — iM. anordlertoark\ anoreroark, animayoark a gale. — Ws. 
amik wind; anugavak a gale. 

anugpoq looks sulky =-- LM. 

anui ...* W^S. anaignak tallow; anygnak Oil. 

anusikr discouraged --= LM. 

Drv. G. anmingorpoq has been deterred, losl courage. — M. 
anotchingnuitoark " incorrigible » . 

angajo the eldest among children of the same sex and Ihe 
same parents = LCMWns. 

Drv. G. angajugdleq eldest; angajorqdq, plur. with sufflx anga- 
jorqai his parents. — L. angajorkdk Ihe eldest, the chief, plur. — kajet 
parents; angajorkauvok is a chief, a commander. — M. angdyoarpdluk 
a giant. — Ws. angajua «God»(?); angayuka chief. 

dngaq pumice stone. 

angak mothers brother =- LMWn. 

dngak brothers child. 

angdkoq conjurer = LCMWns. {analchtuki) 

angavoq is sitting disheartened in a bent position = M Ws. 
Drv. G. angalavoq is walking about. — M. angalaktortoark lift- 
ing his head. — Ws. angayoorok jumping up and down. 

dngavoq * L. it is bent upward. — M. angadjerit a line; 
angadjark triangle (?). 

angerdlarpoq goes home = LC. 

dngiaq a foster born in concealemenl and grown an evil 
spirit === L. 

angigd conceals il = L. 



90 



dngik a patch. 

angiluk^ inlerjeclion expressing disappoinlmenl = L. (?). 
Drv. G. anyilugtorpoq, L. angenarpok returns without game. 

— * (Ws. anchliugat SaUno alpinus). 

angipd moistens it thoroughly =- LM. 
Drv. M. awrephartiga soaking, steeping (?), 

angi ...*? L. angiujak head of a nail etc. 

angivoq is large = LGMWns. 

Drv. G. adglisipd makes it larger. — I^. agdlisikpok grows 
quickly. — M. angitkr^ja larger than thai [angerqinga]. — Ws. anguk, 
anguserak great, large, 

angmagssaq eapelin (fish) =- LWs. 

angmdq a kind of hard stone = MWn. {anmakak stone in 
general). 

angmalorp7)q is round = LC!M. (Wa. akamliuchtuk round?) 

angmavoq is open -=- LiM. 

— * (\V S. aknak, akhna sea-otter). 

angorpoq is pressed to make water = L. 

ang7)* L. do not! 

anguarpoq pulls wiih a onebladed oar = LMWnsa. 
Drv. Ws. angout, Wa. angiiarutit paddle. 

anguilersavoq * L. is persevering (.\1. angaluktita « opposing « ?). 

angulavd chews it = LC. 

angu . . .*? L. anguhuak a kind of seaweed. — M. dngun bit- 
umen. — Wn. adugun pitch. 

anguso interjection for astonishment. 

angut a man, male -^ [jCMWn. 

Drv. G. with suffix angutd his father; angutisiaq fosterfather. 
— Wn. angota Mmy» father [angutiga], 

anguvd catches or gains it = LJVI. (Ws. angusit warrior?) 

aorpoq is hunting seals by creeping over the ice. 

apart* iVl. father. — Wn. apang father {arpugah father; 
arpeeughih brother?). 

ap . . .*? Wa. apaiipii a spider (Ws. atmaik a spider). 

apdpa children's word in asking for food = C. 

dpapaqutsuk a kind of fish. 

aperd asks him = LM. 



91 



Drv. G. aperqutigd asks about it. — Ge. aperheteh a spirit or 
fabulous being, intermediary between the angakok and Tornarsuk. 
(Ws. aptkah speak?). 

apigsipoq has reached as Tar as it can =^ L. 

aporpoq hurls against something = L!VI. 

apumaq side-lath of the kayak = LiVI. 

aput snow on the ground == LCWn. 

aputdlo * L. a kind of small fish, small trout. 

arajugpoq is tired of something = L. 

arajuisivd did not know (expect) it. 

aramavoq suffers from heat. 

arfaq outer edge of the hand. 

arfeq a whale =^ LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. arferpoq has caught a whale. — C. plur. aqbirit. — 
Wn. aioheebeek \arfivik whale propre]. 

arferpoq (II) passes by (trad, tales) = L. arverpok walks about. 

arfineq six = LCMWns. {aghwinnak, achvinok). 

Drv. G. arfinigdlit "having arfineqy> , i. e. six used as adjective 
or supposing an object, whereas uarjineqo serves for merely counting. 
— Ws. ahvimlin. 

ariak part of the back between the shouldres = LCM. 

are ...* M. arinarkriyoark making muddy; areolik bottom of 
a lake. 

drit now you see! just as I said. 

arqaluaq a sisters elder brother. 

arqaneq eleven = LWa. 
(Drv. analogous to arfineq.) 

arqigpd puts it in order = LM. 

arqunarpoq receives some harm, hurts himself = LM. 
Drv. L. akkunakpa hurts him; akkunak strong wind. — M. 
akimatdhirtoark it blows very hard (?). 

ardlaq wiih suffix ardldt one of them = L. {agga) CM Wns. 
Drv. C. alranee long time ago \ardldgut\. — Wn. adrani 
anciently. 

ardldq after-birth = L. 

ardldrpoq f ardldrsarpd waves something to cool him =-- 
LlVIWs. 

Drv. M. arkle cold wind. — Ws. aklak wind. • 



/" 



92 



drdlerd is anxious about the wealher = M Wns. (?). 

Drv. G. drdlerinartoq doubtful looking weather. — M. alangtark, 
alaraituark a coward. — Wn. alinga afraid. — Ws. aliunackkvk 
dreadful; alinguk, cdanmak, cdaktak coward. 

ardligpo q [a]ks exaggerating and boasting == L. 

drdlorpoq (I) looks upward = L. 

drdlorpoq (II) feels very cold, nearly frozen to death = Wn. 
Drv. Wn. cdlopar cold. 

drdluk swordfish , Orca gladiator = LWn. {arlo killer whale). 

arnaq woman (mother) ^=- LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. with suffix arnd his mother; «rn«i'm(/ female animal; 
arnauneq loose woman. — L. arnuviak eiderduck female; arnaunek 
female of other birds. — C. arngna female of any animal; ahgneuch 
bitch. — \1. arnark grown up woman; arnarenak girl. — Wn. 
[cmgna, okanok woman) ahkeeghuh mother, akoaksa old woman. — Ws. 
aianneak girl; aganuchliuvak old woman. 

arniligpoq is nearly losing his breath from pain. 

arnuaq amulet = L. 

arpagpoq runs — LCiMWn. 

arpik y (a name of place) arpiagpoq is incommodated by some- 
thing (=^ iM. arpik « grain »?) 

arra * L. interjection in commanding the dogs. 

arrivoq he is in a hurry. 

arsdrpd snatches something from his hands = LiVl. 

arsivoq lives in abundance = L. 

arssaq (I) ball (for playing) -=- CM. 

Drv. G. arssarneq (C. arsmq) aurora borealis. 

arssaq (II) ashes = LCWns. (L. argsak^ plur. — set. ashes, 
also: gunpowder. — Wn. agara gunpowder. — Ws. agak ashes). 

artorpd is unable to do it, can not master it = LlVl. 

QSaloq, plur. asatdlut =- L. (assalut, plur. assalutit). 

asavoq loves. 

ase^ indicates something relative to, or part of another thing, 
though distant or separated from it = L. 

Drv. G. aaiane (localis with suffix) in some distance from it; 
asimiut people living in the same district, but in other stations. — 
\j. assiane. 

asiaq * M. atsiyark berry. — Wn. azeeakj aseerat crowberries. 

asiytoq^asertoq * (L. assenak gelling worse, soon dying). — 



Wn. asikhtok good; assetuk, assiruk bad. — Ws. asichtuk, akhshikhtok, 
asertok good ; aseituk, asilok, asiurok bad. 

asik no! I will noi. 

dslt as usually = L. 

aso ho! thai will do = LCWn.? 

Drv. G. asukiaq perhaps^ I don't know. — C. aaauidlak just 
as I believed (ameasoot I don't know) — Wn. aiten I don't know 
(iVF. aklokdn well!). 

asoq * Ws. asok, ashu a kettle. 

assagpd cleans, washes it. 

assdsdkdk interjection expressing astonishment. 

dssik^ with suffix dssinga^ likeness, image = L. (adse) C. (ardj- 
inger) M. 

assorut Leontodon taraxacum (flower). 

at below --= LCMWs. 

Drv. G. with suffix aid what is below it; am-akarpoq sinks down; 
aldleq lowest; arqarpoq goes down. — L. atte, atta, allek, akijarpok. 

— C. atkakpoke dives. — M. atane below; atkratoark. — Ws. 
atlekhka bed; atiea sinking down. 

ata hark! see! ^= LCWns. 

Drv. G. atago only try it. — L. atie, attcek well. — C. attedlo 
and so farther on. — Wn. atago, atatd by and by. — Ws. ataku, 
atai get out! 

— * (Ws. atachuavuk righteous). 

dtdq saddle back seal =-^ C in the angakok- language. 

dtaq grandfather. 

atarqivd venerates him = L. 

Drv. L. atanneq chief, commander. 

atdta father (childrens speech) --= LCMWnsa. 
Note. Excepting G. it seems to be the ordinary expression 
also in usual speech, partly also signifying grandfather. 

atauseq one -= LCMWnsa. 

atavoq is connected with , or remains still forming a part of 
something -=--- LCMWns. 

Drv. G. ataneq, atangmik names of place, for isthmes, tongues 
of land etc. — L. attanek. — Wn. adnek a name of place. 

aieq a name -= LCMWns. 

Drv. G. with suffix arqa his, arqit thy n. — C. attirrif atka. 

— M. atfndja giving a name [atserpd]. — Ws. atcha. 

ativd takes it (dothing) on -= LCMWnsa. 
Drv. Wn. atige, Wa. attiku \atigeq] tunic, coat. 



94 

atdlaq birds breast. 

atdlarpoq it is cloudless == CWn. 

Drv. Wn. aluUuk \atdlartoq\ clear sky. 

atdlarpd dries it by wiping ==== L, 

atorpd uses it = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. atuarpd uses it in following the same, f. i. a road 
exactly, reads the book ; atuagaq a book. — L. atuarpa, atuagak. — 
M. atortoark singing; atoron a song. — Ws. atochtuk singing; aa- 
dunuk a song. 

Note. As all what is known from M. and W. as belonging lo 
this stem merely implies ihe idea of singing, it might possibly be 
divided into (I) and (II). 

aiot) ...*? Ws. attoivch a Indian. 
ats . . .*? L. atsaktatsdjok a kind of small birds. 
atsaq fathers sister = LCMWn. 

Note. Several relationships seem to be confounded in the dif- 
ferent versions of Ihis word. 

atsuilik * L. healthy ; atsuilivok, M. atsmliyoark is healthy. 

atsung ...* L. atsungerpok is fastened. — M. atsulitseutsark 
hardening (the iron); atchiatork hard. — Wn. aitywityud hard. 

Note. This supposed stem might perhaps be related to auk (see 
hereafter), like the derivative aiifuitsoq or ausiUtsoq never rotted or 
melting. 

atumt* L. apart, separately. — M. atunim-ituk (negation?) 
assembled. 

atungaq sole of a boot = LCM(Wn?). 

auk blood, in the derivatives: something in the state of moving 
or being dissolved = LOIWnsa. 

Drv. G. aundrpoq bleeds; augpalugpoq is red; augpoq melts; 
dungarpoq disappears; auvoq is rotten; aulavoq moves; antdlarpoq goes 
away ; aulisarpoq is fishing. — L. aundrpok, aupahikpok, aulasarpok. 
— C. aiopaluktok red. — M. mohtuarh melting; aulaork going; Wn. 
aularoh moves. — Ws. aulachluk going. 

auma{q) coal, live coal = LC. (Wn. auma, Ws. aumak amber). 

aur ...* L. aurakpok, aurungavok is bowed, curved. — JM. 
arongayoark is curved, arched; aormayoark inclines, slopes. — Wn. 
auruktu a small tent ; aurunak a shrew. 

aurswik (Pabr.) temple, side of the head (= M. igoyiwik't) 

ausiaq a spider. 

aussaq summer == LCiVl. 

auvarpoq is hunting reindeer = C. 



95 



auveq, plur. aorfit^ walrus = LCMWnsa. * 

aut> ...* L. auvek, abveh a small black caterpillar. — M. 
auyuverk a worm, caterpillar. 

— * (C. oicik a snoioblock. — Wn. aibtc&kia a sandpiper). 

ava{\)* L. abba a kind of seals found in ihe northern regions. 
— M. abba, plur. abbait, «Phoque k nez poinlu». 

aca (II) north, also: right side in facing Ihe sea = LCMWn. 

Drv. L. avane in the north; a7nna \avna] he in Ihe norlh. — 
Wn. dioani west; dwaniktmnci southwest [avaiiekaneq almost to the 
northside]. 

aedgd is charitable, benevolent against him = L. 

flf? . . .* Wa. avangitunga no! I have not. 

avagut ...* Wn. oovingeeldka my son. — Ws. avaruta son; 
avakutcika my son. 

amq hind part of the head = L\Vns.(?) 

Drv. G. avdrpd beats him on Ihe head; avdlavoq shouts; avdl- 
akiaq dwarf birch (bush). — L. acdrjpa, avdiavok, avalakitsak. — Wn. 
avagarak a hammer. — Ws. avaihulak shouting, crying. 

aval circumference = LCMWa. 

Drv. L. with suffix avata. its membre, outer side. — IVl. 
avalerk universe [avatdleq farthest outward, Ihe horizon}. — Wa. 
avetagdne outside. 

avataq the hunting-bladder = LCWa. {aiouelkak). 

dveq roof beam = L\1. 

avia * C. aviyarak a pol. — M. aria a pot. — Ws. aieevoak 
a kettle. 

atngpoq is divided into two parts --= LMWns. 
Drv. G. avipd divides it into two parts; avingaq a fabulous 
animal (in the other dialects varying as lemming, rat and mouse). 

aviuvoq rings in the ears = LCiVl. 

avqalajok * L. an ant. 

avqutf road, passable? = LMWns. 
* Drv. G. avqusincq Ihrodden path; avssaerpoq goes away. — 
L. apkuk, apkosinek, aguairpok. — Wn. apkotiu trail, path. — Ws. 
ava go away! 

Note, avqut must be a derivative, perhaps related to ajiivoq 
(see above). 

avdla another = LCMWns. (adla, cUia, astlaruk). 
Drv. L. ablatsauvok is changed \avdlangorpoq]. 

avdlorpoq strides =-: LM. (L. ablakatautik Indian snowshoes?). 



96 



avdlumavoq * L. ablomavok is willing to anvlhing. 

dtoq has falling sickness. 

df)6q eiderduck = Wn. {mouck a duck). 

avorqdrd reprimands him hardly. 

avoq * L. roars with laughter. 

avusugpoq * L. is covetous, desirous. 

avungautit * L. women's hair braids. (Ws. avynut a poplar tree). 



e. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Easlgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s. southern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

e, 4ee, ^q, interjection: e expressing disgust; eee calling for 
assistance; eq satirical astonishment. — Ge. eqe, eqila no = L. (e 
surprise; eak irksomness) M. 

Dry. M. errealoartoark shouting, crying. 

eqaluk salmon = LC. {ekkalook fish; ekerloo salmon). — M. 
{itkraluk, fish). — Wn. {ekaluk fish). — Ws. (ekalut fish). — Wa. 
{ikaliut fish, ekadluk salmon). 

Drv. L. ekallugak \eqalugaq] a smaller kind of salmon ; ekalluk- 
soak a kind of shark; ekalluvavak a true shark. — M. itkralukpik 
salmon. — Wn. ekaluguak salmon; erratluak, ekothleivik a sort of 
codfish, "wakniw; ekaluak small codfish. — Ws. ekotleivit fish. 

eqarpoq is stiff = L. 

Drv. L. erqakte \eqarte] the pellicle on the hairside of skin. 

eqeq the corner of the mouth -= LCMWn. 

Drv. L. erkekok \eqerqoq], C. ekkaikok the little finger. 

eqiagd has a dislike of it = LiVlWn. (Ws. ksaiingaf). 
Dry. L. erkeasukpok [eqiasngpoq] is lazy. — Wn. eriheshuck- 
tunga idle. 

eqivoq is easely contracting and extending again == LCM. 
Drv. L. erkungavok is wry. — C. erkeetpoke clenches his fisl 

{eqipd). 

— * {emagemutakshuk Wn. mink). 

enako {-Una) * Wn. red Indian. 

4niarpd * L. angling with blubber for fowls. 

ergata * Wa. eatable seaweed. 



97 



ergut * L. inslrumenl for boring iron. 

eriagd keeps il in preservation. 

erinaq voice, melody = LM. 

erinivoq is waiting impatiently == LM. 

eripd plucks hairs out of it (skin) = LMWn. 
Drv. L. en'tdk [erisdq] skin made hairless. 

erqa* L. bottom of the sea and of rivers: erhngorpok walks 
over the bottom; erkaputihak a water beetle. — M. itkra « ocean ■ ; 
irhratilik earth ; erkredjaralik land (?). 

erqawd remembers = L. 

erqaq environs, vicinity = L. 

Drv. L. erkardlek [erqarclleq] a relative. 

erqacoq f is anxious? = L. 

Drv. L. erkagivd [erqagd] is concerned about il. 

erqav . . .*? li. erkavuk skingloves. — iM. erkaioyarktoark a rag(?). 

erqeq louse egg = LCiMWn? 

Drv. G. erqileq, plur. erqigdlit a fabulous inland people. — 
iM. itkrelit Loucheux Indians. 

— * (C. erkeetyuggeearioo Sabine gull). 

erqo ...*?? L. erkokpok goes into his house; erkottakpok it 
does not slick fast. (iVl. irkroerktatoark a ruminant?). 

erqorpd hits it == CM. (\1. irkroeretkua a rudder. — Ws. 
ikchut an arrow). 

erdlaq fibril = LM? 

Drv. L. erklarpd \erdlaerpoq\ splits il. — lVJ. irklarchimaiitt 
dispersed (?). 

erdleq\ erdlerpoq is widened = LiVl. 
Drv. G. erdligpak jaw tooth. 

evdligpoq is sparing, saving = LM. 
Drv. G. erdlingnartoq precious. 

erdloq rectum (intestines) = LM. 

ernangnak harpoonshaft with wings of bone = Wn? 

erneq (I) son = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. ernikaiak [ernersiaq] foslerson ; trnivok^ M. erneyvark 
is delivered. 

erneq (II) * L. emektovoq is loo big lo be grasped with Ihe 
hand. — M. irnerk the hand used as measure; erncuik concentric? 

ernerpoq does it directly = Wn? 
Drv. G. ermnaq soon. — Wn. uniunhak ({uickly. 
XI. 7 



98 



ernumavoq is anxious, concerned. 

erparpoq * L. goes to pieces. 

erraq * M. errark, plur. erret, mountain. — Wn. erreh mountain. 

— * (iVI. irrerk-ilciga easely upset; erreviorartoarq falls in a 
swoon). 

errorpd washes it = LM. {eckai washing the face?). 

ersagpoq shows the leelh (a dog). 

ersaroq pit of the stomach = L. 

ersivoq is afraid = LCMWn. 

ersorpd prepares (he skin (of a terrestrial animal). 

erssaq cheek (its hindpart) = LC. 

erssik the place between the neck and the shoulders = M. 

erssipoq is visible = L. 

Dry. Ij. ergerpok [ersserpoq] is visible, appears. 

erssugpoq carries something on his shoulders = LM. 

eruipoq is thouroughly wet. 

eruk ...* Wn. erukhga, Ws. erukha legs; Ws. jeroga feet. 



1. 

(KXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland (Ge, Kaslgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s, southern — a, asialic) — * , NOT met wilh in Greenlandish.) 

e, ia, interjections, expressing amazement (Wa. t yes). 

iajdq a drum (angakok-language). 

— * (Wa. jakatUuMsha a fly, muskito, spider). 

iamak * Ws. jamak a small stone. 

iamokutit * Wa. a Iwohanded oar. 

iangavoq is in a doubtful condition , not to be clearly disting- 
uished (L. jagatsivok the boat cruises). 

iga a pot = LMWns. 

Dry. G. igaleq a kitchen ; igalilik (Ge. ingalilik) fabulous in- 
lander. 

Note. The latter name reminds of the Ingalik- Indians of 
Alaska. 



igaldq window = LCMWn. 



99 

iyal ... (eral ....«)* Ws. igaluk, ialo, iralo the moon {igcik an 
evil spirit. — Wa. iralliuk, igablik, igcmk the moon; iralikcUoch, era- 
dlekatak a slar. 

igamak* Ws. sea oiler. 

igarpoq leans backward = LC. {eukukpoke it falls) M. 

igfertorpa * L. invites him to his house. 

iggiaq throat =^ LCiMWnsa. 

igipd throws it away = LMWn. 

igivoq gives off by itself something fluid (oil or moisture) = 
LMWs. 

Drv. Ws. ignyk fat; anygnak oil \igineq\. 

igdlaoq foelus = CMWn, 

igdlarpoq laughs --^ LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. (ijorpok) ijutigiva \igdlautigd] laughs at him. — (Wa. 
iliachtu). 

igdleq bench, ledge =-- LMWn. 
igdleraq a small crustacean. 
igdliaq uterus = L. 
igdligd likes it (eating) = Li\l. 
igdligpoq grows very old. 

igdlo a house = LCMWn. 

Drv. M. igloriyoark [igdluvigaq] a snowhouse. 

igdloq cousin. 

igdluk, with suffix igdlua^ ils other side or pari = LCiMWn. 
Drv. C. itdliuktut [igdlugtut] on both sides. — Wn. idlu \igdl^t] 
a sling. 

igpagssaq yesterday = LCMWnsa? (Wa. insMibak). 

igpigd feels inconvenience or pain from it = LM. 

igpik a sandy or clayey cliff = LCMWn. 
Drv. G. igpiarssuk a bag of while skin with ornamenls. — 
Wn. (ikpik) ikpiaruk a salmon skin bag. 

igsar . . .* L. igsartorpok bends the ribs for a kayak in hot 
water. 

igssorpoq coagulates, grows slifl' == L. 

igssuk testicles = LMWn. 

— * {igta Wa. morning?). 
igiarigpoq * L. is heavy. 

— * {iktortartoark M. goes out, is born?). 



100 



igtorpoq is bashful = L. 

igtuk a rushing sound = LM. 

— * (Ws. ichuha I give). 

igun * Ws. a drillbore. 

igiipd slings him = LlMWns. 

Drv. Wn. igiitijai a bee (humble) [igutseq], — Ws. iytugialc 
muskilo. 

igu ...* Ws. igutuk broad; igvhititk narrow; iuchfulu high; 
iachlcalnayak low. — Wa. ykuchtuh height. 

ijuqarpoq* {ins — ?) L. slips off. — C falling. — i\l. iynhra- 
yoarh going down. 

ika yonder, especially norlhward = LCMWns. 

Drv. G. ikane there yonder; ilcdnga from there y. ; ikunga lo 
there y.; inga, plur. igko that, Ihey yonder; ikeq a sea which has lo 
be crossed; ikerasdq a sound; ikdrpoq goes across to the other side. 

— L. ikunga especially soulhward; ingna, ilck, ikkerasak, ikarpok; 
ikkergak a scaffold for supporling the skinboat elc. — C ikergak. — 
Wn. ikungna noriheastwind. — Ws. igane yonder; ihum he. 

ikagput they are playing, are many. 

ikdpoq is shallow =- LMWns. 

JNoTE. This seems related to erqa bottom, see above. 

ikard feels it pressing or incommodaling his body. 

ike^ interjection in touching something cold or wet. 

ike a wound =- L. 

ikeq a kind of hard driftwood = L. 

ikernuk an antiquated fool gear (trad, tales) = LCWs. 
TNoTE. Excepting in Greenland this foot gear is still used. 

iketojok * L. an owl. 

ikiak what is nearest under Ihe surface = LM. 
Drv. L. ikkiakpa [ikiarpd] cleaves it. 

ikigput they are few — L !V1 Ws. 

ikinyut friend = L. 

ikiorpd helps him = LGM. 

ikipd kindles it =- LCMWnsa., 

Drv. G. ikumavoq it burns; ingneq fire; ingnagpoq he has got 
fire; igscutit Andromeda (plant). — L, ikkoma fire; ingnak fire-steel. 

— C. ikkooma\ ikzeeootit Andromeda. — Wn. ignik; iknayak iron 
pyrites. — Ws. knok, kiknak, knk{}.) fire. 

ikivd lays it down (in its reservoir) = LGWns. 



101 



ikorfaq imderlayer to support somelhing = L. 

ikorpoq slays al a slalion for reindeer hunting == L. 

iku . . ., iju ...*? C. ujuteka hand. ~ Ws. ikurtha hands (??). 

ikusik elbow = LCiVIWna. 

ila (I) lo be sure, only ihink! = L. 

ila (II), wilh suffix ild his companion, part of it = LCiVIVVs. 

Drv. G. ilane once; ilavd adds lo il; ildngarpd lakes a pari 
from il. — Ge. ildngauvoq sleeps. — C. ilarko half pari. — M. 
ilaminik tchimnalik having a slopple of ils own substance, adopted 
just as in G. [ilaminik similik] for a bottle wilh a glass slopple. — 
Ws. illayit family [ilagit kindred or companionsj. 

ilagpoq is disordered, tangled = LGWn. 
Drv. Wn. iyliautit \igdlaigutit\ a haircomb. 

ilejarpd * L. punishes, beats him. — M. ilingnartsamek reproving. 
— Ws. ilaschahu beating. 

ileragd feels remorse for il = LiM. 

— * (M. ilerelikpaluktuark rattling?). 

iliarssuk an orphan == LMWn. 

Drv.? Wn. iliaru orphan; illeeyah a boy; ililigak a young man. 

— * (Wn. iliarik a bluish stone. — Ws. iljachliut peace). 
iligpoq is singed, burnt = LC? 

iligserpd cuts it out, fashions il == L. 

iling . . .*? Ws. ilgnuk, ilgnut birch tree. 

ilik a helper, parlizan = LWn. 

ilimagd expects il = L. 

ilimaq f ilimaussaq a small tenon on ihe harpoon. 

ilimarpoq (the conjurer) performs his spirit- flight. 

ilior . . .? * L. iliorut a drill. — G. eeUiu instrument for making 
holes in the skin. — Wn. edilhem a drill. 

ilipoq has learned somelhing = LiMWs? 

Drv. M. ilUtchimayoark [ilisimavoq] is learned, intelligent. 

ilicd lays il down, places il = LCMWna? 

Drv. G. iliorarpai puts them in order; iliveq a grave. — VI. 
illuvtrk. — Wn. iluwung a dead body. 

ilivoq proceeds wilh regard to time, does, behaves = LGM. 

Dry. L. ilingavok is or does so; iliorpok does it so; ilistpok 
practices witchcraft. 

iluarpoq is right = L. {idluarpok) M. 

Drv. G. ilaaqut what is useful ; iluard approves, praises il. — 
M. (illuartoark) iiluriya good, mild. 



102 



ilulpoq is a whole, entire = LIVIWn. 

Drv. L. illunat the whole [ilunydt the \vh. of Ihemj. — M. 
ilorata ^W of them. — Wn. illohaisa all of Ihcm. 

iluk^ ilo, with suffix ihia its interior == LCIVlWna. 

Drv. G. ilugdleq a shirt; iluliaq iceberg; ilumut truly; ilunger- 
sorpoq exerts himself. — L. ilungertorpoq. — M. ilunertortoark. — 
Wn. ilupa the inner tunic; iluliah a bay. — Wa. idlulaha shirt. 

ima^ taima thus =- LClNIWna. 

Drv. (j.imdipoq so it is; imunga for a long time; ivna, imsuma, 
he yonder. — M. imna that one. — Wo. munna for oIT. — Wa. 
imanni yonder. 

imaingertdk * L. SIrix brachyotus. (Wn. ignazeewyuck ^ Ws. 

igiachtuli owl). 

imaq (1), with suffix imd lis contents = LCM. 
Drv. (j.imerpd fills it; imaerpd empties it. — IM. imalik loaded; 
immaitor empty. 

imaq (11) the sea, ocean = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G.imarorpoq the sea (ice) is opening; imarnersaq opening 
in the ice. 

imaneq a kind of shellfish. 

imeq fresh water == L C M Wnsa. 

Drv. G. mer^og- drinks ; ermigpoq washes himself. — ^\.immerk- 
toark, ermiktoark. — Wn. {eemik) immurunga I want to drink (Ws. 
mmak, mmyk. — Wa. ijnak, mok). 

imerqutaq groin =- LC. 

imigpd gels a dent by being hurt = L. 

imigpoq resounds = LMWn. 

Drv. imangerpoq grows silent. — Wn. imUngiakto a silent person. 

imigsivoq is full moon = Wn. {imigluktua), 

imipd commits a work to his charge. 

imuk milk =- LMWnsa. (ammurk, imung, ittukf). 

imuvd rolls it up, wraps it = LCM 

— * (M. inektigo take!). 

inalo, inaluaq gut (intestines) =^ LCWn. 

indpd commands, orders him = LM. 

inarpoq lies down = LCiVIWsa. 

ine, with suffix ind^ its place, his habitation = LCMWna. 

inequgd finds it nice = L. 

inerpd finishes it = LCMWn. 



103 



inimigd is ashamed of using another man's things. 

inwd hangs or spreads it for drying = L. 

inorpd can not reach or come up with it or him = L. 

inuk man, with suffix inua its owner = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. inuarpd murders him; inororpoq grows up; inwjpoq 
meets with people, also: kills a man; inugsiarnerpoq is friendly, ami- 
able; inungorpoq is born, inuilaq desert; inHsugpoq is young; iniit pro- 
visions; inuvoq lives. — L. innuarpok,innusiarpok,innuilak, innuoksukpol , 
innut. — C. inuoiooke lives. — M. inuitor nobody; inurark^ plur. 
inukat, flnger. — Wn. inuky yuk plur. inuet, yuet. — Ws. plur. 
innuit, juggut, yuet. — Wa. innuk, yuk plur. innuet\ irnoiodget toes. 

Note. 1 have been unable to ascertain, whether the word «2/^^ifc» 
(jvk) really belongs to this stem or is a variation of suk (see here- 
after). 

ingagpoq exceeds, passes the bound == L? 

ingalagpd avoids him == L. 

ingalak* Wn. inaliak ienga) eye. — Ws. ingelik, ingaliak eye; 
inalakha my eye. 

inge female sexual organs (Fabr, and Irad. tales). 

ingerdlavoq moves, travels in a certain direction == LM. 

ingiagd is dazzled by it. 

ingiarpd forestalls him = LM. 

ingik point, top = LMWs. {ingik, ingyt moutains) Wa. {inhrit 
mountain). 

ingilu ...* Ws. ingilluHng, inluUrin, inmoUn, irtgulgin eight. 

ingipoq sits down = LCMWn. 
Dry. M. iktsivavik a seal [igsiavfik], 

ingiulik sea (in moving) == CWn. 

ingma a little. 

ingme self, only used with appositions = LCMWs? 

Drv. G. ingminik, ingmine etc., by, with etc. himself; imnerpoq, 
ivngerpoq sings a nith-song (i. e. invented by himself). — C. imniek' 
poke he sings. — M. inminun to himself. • 

ingminguaq a kind of fish. 

ingneq*t L. ingnek brittle. — Wn. ingnia point of a knife etc. 
{ingik f). — Wa. iknachu power. 

— * (L. ingniaarpa sends him quickly?). 

ingugagtoq * Ws. forest, wood. 

ingumigqd separates its parts from each other, unties a knot = C. 



104 



ingupa speaks ill aboul him. 

ipaq fibre, vein of wood elc. = LiVl. 

iparpd licks il = L. 

Ipat an addition lo, or pari of the ledge, for lamps elc. 

ipe handle (of a lub etc.) = LM. 
Drv. M. ipiuterk \ipiutaq\ an islhme. 

ipeq, wilh suffix evqa, dirlh, filth = LCMWnsa. 

iperaq (I) wick (for lamps) = M. 

iperaq (II) a short harpoon line = LJM. 

iperarpd (I) leaves hold of it = L. 

iperarpd (II) whips him (ihe dog) = LC 

iperdrpoq wades, fords = LiM. 

ipigpd applies a lever for moving il = LCM. 
Drv. lVI. ijpotoark [ipugpoq] rows wilh a boat- oar. 

ipigpoq is sharp = LMWsa. 

ipivoq is suffocated, drowns = LCM. 

ipo shaft, handle = LGMWn. 

ipoq it is (so or (here) = LM. 

— * (\I. idur, plur. ibut iceberg). 

ipumerpoq closes the mouth = L. 

isagpoq stretches out his arms = LGMWn. 
Drv. Wll. isaro, isakuh wing \isaroq\. 

isavoq moults, is gone lo pieces = L. 

isavssoraqj the same as vj-ukuaq (see hereafter). 

ise skin for a tambourine = L. 

iseq smoke = LGMWn. {is-ak). 

iserpoq goes in = L. {itterpok) GMWs. 

Drv. Ws. ittychljuten [iserdlutit] «come with me*. 

isigaq a toe, also: Ihe middle part of the foot; plur. iaigkat 
the fooih = LCMWnsa. 

iso^ wilh suffix isua its end = LGMWn. 
Drv. G. isuipd stretches il out; isungaq Stercorarius (skua, 
bird). — Ge. isugdloq short harpoon for boys. — Wn. i6ungu skua. 

isoq f isorpoq is muddy, not clear = LM. (the stem still pre- 
served in M. as itchorh sedimeni). 

isugutaq dew, moisture (W^n. igesikhtuk rain. — Ws. imoich- 
tuk rain). 



105 



— * (Wn. isukarua whirlepool). 

isuma mind, meaning, ihoughl = LGM. 

Drv. M. itchamaleorktoark \isumaliorpoq\ considers. 

isuvssiigpoq whispers = LCM. 

isse eye = LClMWnsa. 

isserpd conceals, hides il = LCMWs? 

issik the cold, Ihe frost (of wea(her) = LCM. 

issipoq falls in the water from the shore or the edge of the ice. 

issord finds some fault with il. 

issuarpd Imitates it = LMWs. 

— * (Ws. ishshuioi fur seal). 
itagivd * L. is cautious with II. 

— * (Wn. itaun, itagetsau instrument for boring). 

iteq with suffix erqa the anus = LMWn. 

iterpoq wakes, awakes = LCM. 

Drv. L. erkumavok is awake. — M. itibliyoark [itivdligpoq] walks 
in his sleep. 

itigarpd (the weapon) did not penetrate into his body. 

itimneq* L. stones in a river. — C. etnmurkzeach rapids. 

ititev'tgssuaq an eagle, in trad, tales (Ws. issigit eagle), 

itivoq is deep = LCMWn. 

itdl . . .* Ws. islingoak a seal (Nerpa). 

itdldq * L. a kind of fish. — C. illook fish. 

— * (C. iglehyak a squid, «whalefood*. — Wn. edlooadzereyuk 
a crab). 

itdlugpoq has an inflammation of eye = LCM. 

itoq Ihe eldest man of the house = LC. 

itsa inner skincover of the lent = LCMWn. 

itsaq many years ago = LWs. 

— * (M. itsangadja without obstacles; itsautiga up high). 
Usik the white of an egg = Wn. {iktin). 

itsorpoq looks through an opening = LM. 

iluipoq crosses the land from one water to the other = LM. 
Drv. G. itivneq^ iiivdleq low land or depression of a mountain 
chain favourable for such a passage. 

iUik^* L. shout to the dogs. — (Wn. etuk, ituk arms?). 



106 



itumaq the palm (hand) = LMWn. 

tea swallows ii = LCMWn. 

— * (Ws. ivaliul; snow. — Wn. ibvarua earlhquake?). 

ivavoq hatches = M? 

iverpd covers il exaclely, examins it ihouroughly, goes over 
his faults in the nilh-song = L(MWs?). 

wiangeq breast of a woman = LCWn. 

imk grass = LCMWnsa. 

ivisdq red ockre == LMWn. 

ivkulugpoq it rattles, rustles = L. 

ivkik gum (of man or animal) LC. 

ivdlerpoq is careful .with his things = L. 

ivdlit thou = LCMWnsa. 

Dry. Ws. (ilpit) Ipinun to Ihee [ilingnut]. — Wa. edlposki ye 
[ilivse] 

ivnauk, imni . . .?* Wn. ipnauh a goal; imnea mountain sheep. 

ivsaq some days ago. 

wseq juice =- L. 

wsugpd shakes it = LM. 

ivssoq earth, turf = LC. 

ivssuvoq is thick = L. 

ivtoqerpoq stammers = L. 

ivu ...* L. ivujak Anas acuta. — Wn. ivwugu pintail duck. 

ivuvoq * L. the ice is being drifted ashore. 



(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Easlgreenland) — L, Labrador 
C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 
s, southern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met wilh in Greenlandish.) 

qd interjection : now, well, get on = M Wn. 
qaggarpoq * L. grows homesick. 

qaggorpoq * L. cries loudely. — M. krarortoark shouting. 
qagmong* {qang — ?) C. skin-hut wilh flat roof. 
qagujagat* Ws. Plejades (conslellalion). 



107 



fjagvaq * L. drifting ice. — C. qaqhang. 

qaigumumt * C. spruce. — M. kayuwiuvU. — Wn. kaidovit 
log of wood. 

qai . . .*? M. haymayuarh is going loose; kraimitiga gives it a 
handle. 

qairolik* L. Phoca groenlandica, also: a birch -tree. — C. 
plur. pairoggin, Ph. gr. — M. kreirolik. — Wn. kairoling ribbon seal. 

qaivoq he comes = LCMWn. 

Dry. G. qdipd brings il; qdissuk bring il ! — C. kutjuk! — 
!V1 . kraitsun ! ■ 

qajagd Ihinks il frail, fragil and requiring caulion. 

qajaq a kayak, a man in his kayak = LCMWnsa. 

qajar . . .*? l\l. krayangata^ krayarangdn «each limcw ; kraye- 
rotkit «in Ihe same distance ». 

qajaril * Wns. eiderduck. 

qajdrpoq * L. is fine while. — Ws. katsrak, katvigingoak white. 

qajoq sup = L. {kajok blood sup) LClMWns. {kaiook blood). 

qdjorpoq is susceptible of eold = LWn. 

qaqajard speaks with disregard to him = L. 

qaqaraut * Wn. eiderdown. 

qaqarut * Wns. an arrow. 

qaqauloq * Wn. mouth. 

qaqeq widening or opening = L. 

Dry. L. kakkerluk \qaqerdluk\ lower part of the chin. 

qaqita *? Wn. a lub. 

qdqorpd kracks it with the teeth = L. 

qaqorpoq is while = LCMWnsa. 

qaquaq hind part of the javelin = L. 

qaqugo when (future) == LCM.Wns. 

qak^ with suffix qd surface, outside = LCMWnsa. 

Dry. G. qaersoq (without « surface » , i. e. vegetation) a bare 
rock; qagdlo eyebrow; qagsse circular valley; house for assemblies; 
qagsut net for fitshing ; qdqaq mountain; qangatarpoq rises in the air; 
qdngerpd passes by it. — L. with suffix qanga its upper part or 
side. — C. kaypak haired skin; kabloot brows. — M. krangatayork 
perpendicular. — Wn. kabloon eyebrow; kalurua ouler lunic. — 
Ws. kakasek net. — Wa. chablut] kadlik upper garment \qagdleq\. 

qalaq air bubble = LCMWs. 

qaldpoq draws back his stomach = LMWn. 
Dry. Wn. kalasia (his) navel [qalaseq]. 



108 



qalugiaq lance for whaleflshing = L. 

qama inside or outside, respectively as said from outside or 
inside = LCM? 

Drv. G. qavna, kavko he, Ihey i. or o. — C. katkua they. 

qamavoq he watches his game -= LCM. 

— * (M. kramertoark embroidering). 

qamiypoq becomes extinct, goes out (fire light) = L'MWn? 

qamul, only used in plur. qamiuit sledge = LGiVlWns. 

qanaq tenlpole = LCWn? 

qana . . .*? Ws. kanahak {kaninik) Arclomys lilillus; chanaet 
reindeer. 

qaneq mouth = LCiVIWnsa. 
qaniqpoq is near = LCMWsa. 
qanik snow in falling = L C IVI Wns. 
qanimavoq is benumbed with aguish cold == L. 
qan . . .*? Ws. kannik, kunnoka heart. 
qanoq how = LCM. 

— * (Wn. kantak case of a knife?). 

qanga when (prater.) = LCM Wns? 

qangdrpoq'' L. is irksora. 

qangiaq brothers child = L. 

qdngorpoq makes a rumbling noise. 

qaoq forehead = LCiMWns. 

qdpdpoq bows in bending only the back. 

qapasagpoq apropriates to himself something really belonging 
to another. 

qaperpd cleans it with a scraper = L. 

qdpik an animal in Greenland only known from tradition = L. 
kabvik badger. — C. kaioik wolverine carcajou. — iM. kakpik 
wpelolei); kravik carcajou. — Wn. kabviy wolverine; kuftaik carcajou. 
— Ws. kawtschak^ kavak «zobel»? — Wa. kavik fox. 

qapivoq disappears under the horizon. 

qupoq is obliged to turn back for want of a clear road. 

qapuk foam = LM. 

qarajaq a lake closely surrounded by a rocky wall ^-= C. 
qariaq sideroom to a hut? 



(M. karane, karaptin doubling). 



109 



qaraseq brain = LCMWn. 

qardlik Irovvsers = LCMWns. 

qardloq lip = LCMWns. 

qarmaq a wall = L. 

qarmarpd allures an animal by a cracking sound. 

qdrnernaq old skincover of a boat. 

qdrpd makes it burst = Li\l. 

Drv. G. qdrusuk a cave. — L. kairiiauk. 

qarsorpoq turns pale. 

qarsorsaq a fishhook = LC. 

qarssdq Colymbus septendrionalis = LCWn. 

qarssoq an arrow = LCIM. 

qasagd was not satisfied wilh it. 

qasaloq bark of a tree. 

qasigiaq Phoca vitulina = LCIVIWns. (Wa. kasiljak saddle- 
back seal). 

qasilipoq, is sharp, pungent lo sensation =-^ LM? 

qaslngorpoq gives a rattling sound. 

qdsugpoq is ravenous ferocious = L? 

qasuvoq is lired, slack = LMWs. (chadschuungok weak). 

qasserpoq is covered with dust; is gray = Ws? 

qdtaq a pail, bucket, baril = LCMWn. 

qatangut brother or sister = LCWn. {kutunfjuta stepbrother). 
(Ws. kinyukshuk, Wa. kamgojak brother). 

qatel- deep voice? = LC. 

Drv. G. qatituvoq has a diep voice ; qatimdgpoq growls. 

qdteq a ring or cover at the end of a shaft = L. 

qaiik breast bone of a bird = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. kattikak the whole trunk. — C. katigarn [qatigaq] the 
back: koteyeuk the body. — M. katigark thorax; katirark Ihe body 
without the head. — Wn. katigai body. — Ws. katigunga body; 
katienha breast. — Wa. chaatka the back. 

— * (Ws. katzlagak a bad spirit). 

qatsiaq * L. katjah audacious; kafjdrpoq is longing. — Ws. 

kjaukiak couragious. 

qatsorpoq it grows calm = L. 

qat ...* M. kateijmayoark «incolore» — (see: qajdrpoq). 



110 



— * (Wn. kdtu foreshaft of a harpoon. — Ws. katukshut a 
duck; kattungourak hillocky land). 

qauk day. dayllghl = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. qdumat the moon. — Ge. qdumavdq the sun. — L. 
kaujiva he knows ii [qausivd he finds the hghl in il]. — M. kadju- 
nark reason intellect. (Wn. kaumaria blue; koiolok while). 

qaumailitaq * L. a bell (Ws. kappazhutka, kapzun = G. tavsikf). 

qdungoq shore-Ice = L. 

qauserpoq is wei = LGiVI. 

qauvik* Wn. ptarmigan. 

qava south = LWn. 

Drv. L. kavangarnek soulheaslwind. — Wn. kabani east ; 
kaioannikunnd [ — kaneq] southeast. 

qavi ...' iVl. qdvinerk Ihe pleura (of Ihe lungs);- kravik-itork 
thick; kravikitork snubnosed?? 

qavdlundq a foreigner of European race, a while = LCMWn? 

qavdlorutit* Wn. eldest sister. 

qavnguivoq snores = LCiVl. 

qavseq, only used in plur. qavsit how many = LCMWns. 

— * (M. kraptigudja strangling). 
qeq gray hair = L. 
qeqarpoq stands upright = LM. 
qeqertaq island = L C M Wns. 

— * (M. kremileuyartoark rolling?). 
qepe . . .* L. kepeserpok is opposing. 
qeraq Anarrhichas lupus (fish). 
qerivoq is frozen == LCMWn. 
qerquaq seaweed = LC. 
qerdlerpd penetrates it = L. 
qSrdlutoq a duck. 

qernarpoq invokes Ihe invisible rulers for assistance = M. 

qenierpoq is black = L C M. 

qerroq heap of stones = LM. 

qia Ihe outer membrane of the intestines. 

qiavoq cries; weaps = LCMWnsa. 

qiavoq is thouroughly benumbed with cold LCWs. 



Ill 



Diiv. G. qiuvoq freezes lo death. — Ws. kniachtana cold. 
qigdloq a carion on land = L. 
qiydlugpoq regrets the loss of some property = L. 
qigpoq f qigtarqoq the sea rises. 

qigpoq -j- qilavoq is alert = L. 

Drv. G. q7poq dies from longing for an enjoyment which he 
can not obtain; qilerpoq is longing for something. — L. kepoq. Ice- 
dlarpok, 

qigsigd is shy, fears him = LM. 

qiysuk proud flesh in a wound. 

qigtoriaq*' G. keektoeyak^ M.kriktoriark, Wn. keekiagiuk muskito. 

qila-\- qilamik soon = LMWn. 
Drv. L. kiglavok is quick {qigpoq'^). 

qilak the sky -= LCMWDsa. 

qildq the roof, the palate = M Wn. 

qilaliwaq white whale (and narwal) = LCiVIWn. 

qilaut a drum = LCMWn. 

qilavoq practises sorcery, uses charmes = L M. 

qilerpd ties it with a knot = L C M. 

qilik an ivory peg of a kayak tool == Wn. 

qiloriars'woq makes a short cut. 

qilugpoq barks (ihe dog) = LCiM. 

qilucd draws it to himself, bends it (the bow). 

qimagpd leaves it = LiVIWs. 

Drv. G. qimdvoq flees. — W^S. kemuktook running; kimaktok 
coward. 

— * (iM. krimamuraluktuark soft?). 

qimeriaq eyelashes = GWsa. 

qimerdloq dorsal vertebra = LCiVl. 

qimerdlorpd regards, beholds il = LiVl. 

qimlpd strangles him = LiVJ. 

qimugpoq (the dog) drags the sledge = LiMWns. 
Drv. G. qimugseq, plur. — sit, the sledge with its occupant. 
— Ws. kimtigtu a dog. 

qimupd passes il. 

qinerpoq (I) looks about, examins, chooses = LCIVIWn. 

qinerpoq (11) groans = LM. 

Drv. G. qiningavoq grumbles, growls. — iM. krinlingatuyoark. 



112 



qinerseq a swelling, tumor. 

qinoq snow mixed with waler == LM. 

qinugpoq f qinuarpoq cries or hisses on being touched. 

— * (C. keenowyak black moss. — We. kinuik calm). 
qinuvoq begs for something = LM. 

— * Wn. kyodsororoot wave. — Wa. kenhuchta wuves?). 

qingnq noslril, plur. wiih suffix qingai his nose = LCMWnsa. 

Orv. G. qingard dislikes, hates him; qingasorte ennemy. — 
L. kingariva will not have what has belonged to a dead. — IVI. 
kringelireiirniyoark despises. 

qingdq the sharp edge of the shinbone, a protruding rock = 
LCMWna. 

qingaserpoq * L. makes rifts, scratches. 

qingik * Wn. kinging window frame. 

qingmeq a dog == LCIVIWna. 

qingnivoq is careful in gathering winter provisions = L. 

qingnuaq sunbeam through an opening. 

qingoq (I) the inner end of a bay etc. =M? {kreingork a hut, 
a room). 

qingoq (II) part of the face between the eyebrows = L. 

qiorpd cuts, clips it = iM. 

qipaluaq inner corner of the eye = L. 

qiperoq an excavation, 

qipik bedcover, blanket = LC. 

qipivd twists, I wines it = LCMWna? 

Drv. Wn. kajioatak small ivory merlin spike. — Wa. kaipak 
thread. 

qiporaq a furrow = LMWs? 

Drv. G. qiporqaq finwhale. — L. koppugak a stripe. - — M. 
kropkoyark white stripe on boots. — Ws. kpukait stint. 

qiseq spit, saliva = LCMWs. 

qisuavoq gels spasm, cramp. 

qisugpa puts his nails in it = LM. 

qissuk wood, driftwood, fuel = LCMWn. (Ws. kubuehuk, 
kkut tire wood). 

qitaq* {kitaq?) C. kitak rain. — Ws. ketuk, kitak, kitinguk, 
kajtak rain. 



113 



qiteqy with suffix qeqa, Ihe middle ^= LCMWns. 

Dry. G. qiterut a bell; qiterdleq middlemost. — C. Tcitcheruh 
spinal corde. — Wn. katukqlun second finger. — Ws. kitlehnuk 
a bell. 

qitigpoq culs capers, dances, is frolicsom = LMWs. {kjettingi, 
ktchauh jumping). 

qiidluaq inlerslice between the legs. 

qitornaq child = LMWn. {kutunraghiih)^ 

qitiigpoq is flexible = LM. 

qitutpoq chirps, twitters. 

— * (Ws. keetunka intestines). 

qiuvik * Ws. kchiuwek a leaf. 

qivdke male frog fish. 

qiverpoq bends backward = LM. 
Drv. G. qiviarpoq looks round. 

qitio down of a an animals skin == M. 

qivipoq flees in anger from human society = L. («suicide» ). 

qivdlerpoq glistens, shines = LCiVl. 

qivsagpoq makes a sudden pull , pushes somebody away = 
LCiMWs. 

Drv. G. qivsserdlugpoq is drizzly weather. — L. kepsalihtutiva 
pushes him away; kisserivok is drizzling rain. — M. kriptmligiartoark 
besprinkling (see: qitaq). 

qoq urin = LMWn. 

Drv. Wn. kuootoing urinal tub \qugfik\. 

qoqaq land shadow or reflection in Ihe water = L. 

qoqerd likes him. 

qoqerpoq is stunned, stupified by a sound. 

— * (\1. krolonarnitoark 10 commit mean tricks. — Ws. komo' 
lokowak frozen). 

qorqaq Adam's apple. 

qorqugpoq * L. calls loudely. — C. koktooktook yells. — .M. 
kroroktoark calls. 

qordlorpoq the water runs down in a continous stream = 
LCiM. 

qorsagpoq bites his leelh together from pain or anger. 
qorsuk green or yellowish = L M Ws. 
qotWDoq* LC. turns in his toes in walking. 
XI. 8 



114 



quagssuk a sharp edge in ihe direelion of length, a mountain 
ridge = L. 

quai* Ws. chuai there; chonich here. 

quaitsdkdka (? irad. tales) my youngs. 

quaq (f? trad, tales) frozen meat = LC. 

Drv. G. quasaq shppery. — L. koipok glides on slippery ice; 
koajakut black lichen. — C. (quark) koajoivtit a kind of lichen. — 
M. kreyuatatoark sliding. 

— * (Ws. koagh yesterday). 

quaraq a thyrse (flowers) = LMWn. 

qudsarpoq shudders from sudden fear = L. 

quariaq worm of the rectum = LM. 

que house or cave for stores of victuals = M? {kruwaktuartuark 
gathering victuals). 

— * (Ws. kioeket otter). 

querpoq caughs (once) = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. quersorpoq caughs. — Wn. koaktsheenar. — Ws. 
kusgu caughing. 

qugdlugpd makes it double by folding = LM. 
Drv. G. qugdlugiaq a caterpillar. 

qugsavoq f qugsalavog is anxious = LC. (kokseatekpungar to scare). 

qugsugpoq sloops = L. 

qugssuk a swan = LMWns. 

qugtoraq thigbone = LCi\lWn. 

quiagpoq is merry LMWs. [kujimju pleasure) Wa. {kmanku 
glad). 

qiiik the thin bone in the hind legs of a seal. 

qu'ilertavoq fears that the seals will be scared = L. (iVl. 
kruingitcherktoark hastening ?). 

qu'inagpoq feels thickling --= LCM. 

quinarpoq * L. is detestable. — JM. kruinarktuyoark wild. — 
Ws. kuinagtuk bad. 

quinuk* Wns. kioeenuk (tobacco-) pipe. 

qujavoq he thanks -= LCMWs. 

Drv. L. kujanak thank ! kitjanarpok it is to be thanked for. — 
M. kroyanaine! — Ws. koyana! 

quju . . .* M. kruyuyoark watching. 

— * iququgdhiitin Ws. beard). 



UN IV ,.^ 

V^ L / FO RN ^ A=s^ 



115 



qularpoq he doubls = L M ? 

cjule ten, only used in plur. qulit --= L?Ci\IWnsa. 
Drv. Ws. chollunhuin nine [qulailuat]. 

quliartoq*'} M. krolearhtoarh « p refer rl n g » ? hroUarhutsin a man 
of mixed race. 

quloroq a sickly man. 

quluiwoq it sounds clucking = L. 

qumdq an intestinal worm == MWn. 

qumarpoq is shortened by being pressed together = LM. 

qumigd* iM. hrumigiyara loved (may be kamagissara «whom 
1 lovew — see: kamaga). 

qune-f something nice? == MWs? 

Drv. G. qumpoq clumsy. — M. kuno little girl. — Ws. kuno- 
kaqa love. 

qunuvoq he feels himself inferior lo another ■= LMWs. 

qungaseq neck = LCMWn. 

qungiaq a craclt in wood or bone. 

qunyiarpoq regards something from a distance = LiM. 

qungoq reflex of the daylight in the sea = L. 

qungujugpoq smiles, laughs = LCi\lWs. 

qunguleq sorrel, also: cochlearia (plants) = LC. 

qungundrssuk (trad, tales) a faulcon. 

qungusotariaq a merman. 

qupd makes a room narrower by placing its sides nearer to 
each other =- LCiM. 

Drv, G. qoroq a narrow valley; qupanavarsauk a snowbunting. 
— C. kopenoaesau. — M. korrok. 

quperdluk a worm = LCWns. 

qupivd cleaves, splits it = LC?iMWn? 

Drv. L. koppako [q'upako] a piece cut off from something. — 
C. koiopon "break)). — M. krumnerk [quvneq] fissure. — Wn. kope- 
ruk a « split ». 

qupugaqj qapujokl* Ws. a tree. 

qusavoq is bashful = M? {kudjartoark bending his head down- 
ward. 

qusoraq knot on a bootslring. 
qussoq * C. qudjoq while. 
qussungi * Ws. kotshungi running. 



116 



quty qule the upper pari of, or the space above «omelhing 
= LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. with suffix JcoUinga [quid] what is above him: koUek 
the back of a man in a bowing position. — C. hooleetar \qulitseq\ 
a coal. — M. hrolerk \qutdleq\ what is highest, a lamp. — Ws. 
hodlo lamp; hlipseen \qulivsiut] a pot. — Wa. kulachta the back; 
kulimutsha a pol. 

qutef = LM. 

Drv. G. quterorpoq follows Ihe boat walking along the shore. 
L. (the stem still used: kote fine flat ground) koterorpok. — M. 
kroterortoark «lhe reindeers' road». 

qutsimak* JVl. Polygonum (planl). 

qutsoq very small (Ws. kchudoq low). 

— * (Wn. kutye a wall). 

quiuk collar bone == LM. 

quveq * M. kruverk fizzle. — Wa. kuoviljat slinking. 

qumaq * M. kruUark^ Wn. koobrak fish or seal-net. 

quvdlauk * Wn. a mouse. 

quvdle a tear = LM. 

Drv. G. quvdlilivoq sheds tears, — L. kugviorpok. 

quvdlugtoq * M. krohluktoark trembling. 



k. 

(EXPLANATIONS : G, Greenland (Ge, Easlgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s, southern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

kag ... * Ws. kagikhklok [chengiakkk] old. 

kdgak * Wa. great. 

kagdleq thunder = LCMWnsa. 

— * (C. kagpennah afraid). 

kagpd-\- (hurling?) =- LMWn. 

Drv. G.kalugpd breaks it; kajumigpoq finds delight in his work; 
kamipd pushes it forward; kautaq a hammer. — L. kajumikpoq flows 
quiekly; kamipa. — M. kauktoark forging; kmvk shaking. — Wn. 
kaoon a hammer; karoktok hammering; kaudlo a stone [jade'it). 

kdgsorpoq sits down to do his business. 

kagutat * Ws. kachutat hail. 



117 



— * (Wn. kaijangna* northeast current?). 
kaikiggaiak * Wn. Larus Sabini. 
kaingu * Wn. the brown bear. 

— * (Wn. kaiveeklook a forked slick?). 
kaivdl ... * L. kaiblaivok admonishes. 
kajdq groin. 

kajarpoq remains home while Ihe others are going out. 
kajoravoq is tired from exertion. 

kajorpoq is brown, red = LCWnsa? 

Drv. Wh. kabeksua red; kavihak small beads? kaeeyok brown 
fox. — Ws. kavisrak, kavycktschuk red ; kaviak red fox. — W^a. 
kavilnuk red; havilnuarak beads; Tcavilhuriak fox. 

Note. It must be granted that the derivation of these words is 
very doubtful, they also remind of qajoq with regard to the idea of 
colour. 

kajugdleq * Ws. kajukchU, kauhichlit a hare. 

kaqavoq * L. kaqqamajdrpok shouts with joy. — C. kaqagaluar- 
poq is disposed to merry making; kakajoq the child is merry. 

kdk-'r hunger = LCMWns. 

Drv. G. kdgpoq is hungry. — (? L. kavdngovok has no ap- 
petite). — M. kraktoarq. — Ws. kektuden art thou hungry. 

kakagpd carries it on his head =- LCM. 

kakagpoq is extremely bad. 

kakakdrtorpoq the fox cries. 

kdkik snot, snivel = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. kdkiviaq the upper lip. — C. kakkeeveeaga. — Wn. 
kukivia Septum of the nose. 

kakiat* Ws. salmon. 

kakivd pierces it (f. i. in sewing) so as to make the point appear 
again on the same side = LClVIWs. 

Drv. G. kakilisaq a kind of small fish; kakiornerit taltoving; 
kakitdlarnaq a plant with thorns. — L. kakilasak. — C. kakeena 
taltoving. — M. kakkillangnark. — Wn.kakibua [kakiak] a fish spear. 

kaldleq a Greenlander = LWs. {kallaluik, katlalik a Schaman). 

kalangavoq * L. goes bowed. — (Wn. kallauroktok dance ?). 

kalimavok* L. Is calumniated, slandered; kcdivigiva slanders him. 

kalerraq a sound from something = M. 

Drv. G. kalerripoq gets an unsatisfactory information. 

kalganagtuli * Ws. marmot. 



118 



kaligpoq lows, draws = LWns. 

Drv. L. kallut inslrument for lowing. — Wn. kalleeakshooh 
swim. — Ws. halimunik small chain \kalimneq Fabr.]. 

— * (Wa. kaliuhochta gale of wind. — Ws. kalnak, kanneschet 
a raven). 

kalu . . .* M. kalodjat at once. — Wn. kalumjna many. 
kaluseriarpoq * L. goes a roundaboal way. 

kamagd loves him = MWs? 

Drv. M. kammariark «respeclable»> . — Ws. kamgyk love. 

kamagpoq is angry (Ws. kumychtachtukf). 

kamelika * Ws. kayak-halfjackel. 

kamik a boot = LCMWnsa. 

Dry. G. kamiydldrpoq is barefool; kamigpoq puis on his boots. 
L. kammilarpok. — C. kameeykpoke. — (Wns. kmnmuk, kamJiyk). 

kamukale* Wn. I don'i know. 

kana here just below or west, yonder (close by) = LClMWs. 

Drv. G. kanangnarpoq the wind blows from the west. — C. 
kannungnakpoke the w. b. f. the norlh. — M. kanoangnark north- 
wind. — Ws. kanayagtok soulh. 

kanagat * Ws. wolf. 

kanagpoq * (or may be qanagpoq, from qaneq mouth?) Wn. 
kanukktuk tell. • — • Wa. kanachtok speaking. 

kanajajdrpoq is vexed by envy =n L. 

kanajaut diaphragme. 

kanajoq frogflsh = LC. 

kanerpd covers it with dew or hoarfrost. 

kan ... * IM. kanopdlvktoark mud. — Wn. kooioeea. — Ws. 
kagujak. — Wa. kaniak sand. 

kanungneq a sort of drift wood =: LC. 

— * {kdnungra Wn. yolk of eggs). 

kangak * L. the ancle (fool). — Ws. kamuak. 

kange towards the middle, farther from the sea = LCM. 
Drv. G. with suffix kangia\ kangiane on Ihe inland- (east-) side 
of it; kangerdluk a bay or fiord. 



kangeq J with suffix karra^ a promontory, the top of a plant 
= LCM Wns. 

kangesugpoq * L. presumes, suspects something. 

kangn ... * W n. kangneen young woman. 

— * (Wn. kaignenoostrak inslrument for cutting ivory). 



119 

kangnusak copper = LCMWns. {kannujak) Wa. (kaninjak) 

— (Wn. kangnoak black colour. — Ws. Icangyuk lake colour). 

kapaqin * Wn. foam. 

kapiagd is concerned aboul him = L C M. (Ws. kabiyimakak 
bad?). 

kapipd puis the inner into the ouler pari of a double piece of 
clothing, f. i. skin socks into Ihe boots = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. kapitaq waterproof jacket; kapiseq scale (of fish). — 
M. krapisirk. — Wn. kdpise. 

kapivd stabs him = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. kapUt^ iM. kapuna, Wn. kapun spear, lance. 

karqavaq* Wn. kolkabuk, Ws. kalkchabak, ,Wa. kalchapak an ax. 

karre bud of a plant. 

katagpd has dropped, lost it = LCM. 

katak inner end of the doorway = L\IWn. 

katipai unites them = LCM. 

kato drum-slick. 

— * (C. katoioyer halo). 

katsorpoq is quiet, calm =^ LM.? 

Drv. G. katsorsarpd cures (ihe sick). (M. katcJwrtoark «froai 
both sides » ; katchorertoark licentious; katsornikayortoarq grows angry). 

katsuaq muskle of the upper part of the arm. 

kdiungiaq a kind of shellfish. 

kauk walrus hide = LC. 

kauvd puts something in an opening of it = LM. 

kavagpoq * Wn. kovuktmga sleep. — Ws. kavachtuk sleeping. 

— Wa. kaivangnak'&nga sleeping. 

kamq the lop = LMWna.? 

Drv. G.kavseq the crown of the head. — L. kabsek. — Wn. 
kabbra, kabdjaka (my — ). — Wa. A:a«A;o head. 

kdvigpoq runs or turns round = LCMWn. {^.kavitoark good, 
perfectly? — Ws. kaiuksua round?). 

kavirnk * Wn. arrow head of bone. 

kav)dlo a sheet of bone on Ihe end of the paddle. 

kdvoq gels loose. 

kavuar . ..* M. kavuartuark plunders, spoils. 

kavuugnarpoq * L. is hewing wood in the forest. 

ker, kina who = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. kia whose; plur. kikut. 



120 

keavalineq * L. wel spot near a heap of snow. 

keok ... * L. keoksungnilerpok il slinks (from reindeer- buck). 

keora ...* L. keoraliktorpok has fissures. 

k^rsorpoq * L. has faUing sickness. 

kiak heal, warmlh = L C iVl Wnsa. 

Dry. G. kiagugpoq sweats; kissagpoq grows warm; kiagpoq is 
warm. — C. keegtok summer [kiagtoq warm). — M. kidjartoark 
« feels feverheaU. — Wn. kushunyuk hoi. — Ws. kechtuk summer. 
Wa. kehmy summer. 

kiat upper pari of Ihe body =-- LCiMWn. 
Drv. G. kiasik shoulderhlade. — M. keatsik. — Wn. kiasia 
(his — ). — Ws. kukioyk? 

. kiga soulhern (Wn. kukakkal). 

kigdipoq goes slowly = L\l. 

kigarpd makes a notch in ihe = LM. 

— * (Ws. kek a year. — kegartluk sinew for sewing). 

kiggivoq * L. kikkutekarpok makes some joke. — C. kikitoa 
to play. 

kigigpoq* L. stops, ceases; kiggorpd betrays something lo him. 

kigiguaq * M. pyriles. 

kigdlik border, limit == LCIVI. 

kigdlik (11?)* Wn. arrowhead chipper; koglo a stone for shar- 
pening; keegleechea, kigdliak a hard stone. 

kigdlo a fire-place for cooking == LWs. 

kigdloq inverse, wrong = L. 

kigsarpoq desires = L. 
Drv. G. kigsaut (I) a wish. 

kigsaut (II) the net of an animal == L. 

kigserpoq (kirkserpok Fabr.) jumps down =- L. (kiggerpok) M. 

kigssavik'f = L. (kigavik peregrin faulcon) M. {kigiravik faul- 
con) \\ n. {kissigavik fdu\con). Ws. (kjegoet faulcon; keegleoght \u\l\ire). 
Drv. G. kigssaviarasuk faulcon. 

kigtorpdf kigtorarpd tears rends it asunder = LCiM. 

kijik* M. kiiyark picus (bird) — Ws. kiik\, kiikagajak heron 
(bird). 

kikdrpoq turns his arms or wings backward. 
kikergaq * L. crackling. 
kikiavoq * M. UUaorh paddles (?). 



121 



kikiak a nail = LCMWn. 

kikik fy for shame! 

kikipd* L. omits him in dislribuling. 

kikivct cuts a piece of its margin. 

kikuleq seal-hole in the ice = L. * 

kilak hole in the skin, wound = LMWs. 

kiligpd scrapes it = LM. 

Drv. L. hillipa \JciUpd\ cuts it off. 

kilijut * Wn. a hornladle. 

kilwfaq (trad, tales) a fabulous animal = M. (fossil elephant) 
Wn. (fossil ivory). 

kilo the foot end or hind pari of the ledge = LM. 

kiluk seam, hemming = LCIVIWn. 

kilunaq * (kaganat) Wnsa. a wolf. 

kilungna * Wn. soulhwind. 

kimagtut handle of a woman's-knife = L. 

kiTnik(\)-\- acting on, or inflicting? = LM. 
Drv. G. kimigpd has proved effective ; kimigtoq effective, strong. 
— M. kimnartoark medicine. 

kimik (11) * Ws. kemikh, kmyk llesh. — Wa. kymyka flesh, 
kymyk body. 

kimugsuk * L. shelf of a snowheap. 

kinaq face, edge (of a knife) = LCMWnsa. 

kineq tip of a jacket == L. 

kinerdleq* LM. almond of the throat. 

kinerpoq is swampy or thick to get through (f. i. snow in the 
water) = LMWs.? 

kinipd soaks, steeps it = LM. 

— * (Wn. kinjuran voracious). 

kiniva lets the child do its business = L. 

kingaingok* L. frostsmoke. — M. kiyewuk foggy. — Ws. 
kaljaigik fog. 

kingeq the hole where a tooth has been lost. 

kingiat * Wn. kiolya, Ws. kingiat, kichguet aurora borealis. 

kingigpoq is high = LCMWs. 

Drv. C. kiugyi^ kingnak mountain. — M. kinnak mountain. — 
Ws. kanachtuk high; kanachkituk low. 



122 



kingmik heel -= LCMWn. 
kingmungnak * Wn. lake (colour). 

kingo what is behind == LCM. 

Drv. G. kingugdleq last; hingudq successor; kingumiit back, 
again; kingulerit one after another; hingumq space behind, or time 
after. — L.kingurlek, kinguvak. — M. kingomun, kingulereit, kingunerk. 

kingok * Ws. strong. 

kinguk a kind of shrimp = LM. 

kinguvoq, only used in plur. kinguput they are gone. 

klnguvoq capsizes = .M. 

kipipoq dies from longing for seeing one whom he loves = L. 
Drv. G. kipilerpoq is longing. 

kipivd cuts it across, shortens it = LCMWns. 

Orv, L. kippako a piece of something; kiblorpa cuts it several 
limes [kipako ^ kivdlorpa\. — C. kikparikpoke it is regular square 
[kiparigpoq]. — M. kiputik scissors. — Wn. keepeegah « cutting" 
[kipigd Ihat which he has cut]. 

kipU ...* L. kipukpuk they do not meet; kipvjungavok speaks 
abrupledly, can not find the words; kippalivok is violent. — IVl. 
kipuktuark changing, bargaining; kipuktartoark talking, telling. — Wn. 
kipuchuk sell. — W^S. kipusju buy!; kibutschachtschi sell! 

Note. The vocabularies contain several more words like these 
and as difficult to bring in any reasonable relation to each other; 
perhaps a part or even the whole of them have to be ranged under 
kipivd. 

kersagaq, used in Ge. for capelin. 

kisa finally, at length -= C. (L. keta a little?). 

kise the state of being alone, «aloneness)) =- LCMWns. 
Drv. G. kisima^ kiswit^ kisivta I, thou, we alone; kisiane («in 
its aloneness") only, but. — Wn. kissimi «all» ; keimi only. 

kisipai counts them --= LM. 

kissik* a sealskin = LC. 

kissigpoq doubts, desponds of his success. 

kit (opposite to kange), with suffix kitd farther towards the sea- 
side = L C. 

Drv. G. kitsigpoq is far out towards the open sea; kitsigsut 
small outlying islands. 

kita * Ws. yes! 

kitik f kitigarpd fastens his clothing to the kayak. 

kitdlavdq indentation of an edge == L. 



123 



kitdl . . .* C. kidellok a hole. — \Vn. kitdla eddy, a hole. — 
Wa. chylpenuk a hole. 

kitdlit * Ws. cowberry (Vaceininm). 

kitsiak^ kethugak* Ws. a bow. 

kiugut * Ws. an abyss. 

kiuna * Wn. an ivory cup. 

kiuvoq* L. answers; kigusivd a. him; kigusek answer. 

kivd biles him = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. kisorpoq biles often ; kigut toolh ; kigutaernaq blew- 
berry. — L. kigiak a beaver. — M. kigut, kig€ark\ kiruluktoark 
loolh-ache. — Wn. kaiooktoon biling; kigu^ kigutik leelh. — Wa. 
chutit, uutinka [kigutika my leelh]. 

kivateq * L. kivgaluk. — M. kivahrk. — Wn. keebugallok, 
musk-rat. 

kiverpd fills it completely. 

kivfaq servant = LMWsa? 

kivigpd raises, lifts it = LCiVl. 

kivivd sinks it, lowers it = L C M Wn. 

kivkarpd gnaves all the flesh of its bones (Ge. kivkaq bone) 
^ L.\I. 

kivkutuk " C. instrument for discovering seals under the ice. 

kivdligpd the weapon penetrated it, the instrument was applied 
with succes. 

kivdluat . . .* Wn. kibhmtyia shoes. 

kwtairpoq * L. keptairpok is agile, jovial (kehverpok soars with 
spread wings). 

koluagtoq * Wn. noon. 

kotsakalak * Ws. an eagle. 

kovdluaq * C. kobluek large yellow berries. 

kualin . . . * Wn. kooalinookt puffin. 

kuaneq Angelica = L. (eatable seaweed). 

kuggik* LC. hind part (of a body). 

kugsak, kugsataq a kind of small birds. 

kugsagd is anxious to save the remainder of il. 

kugsugpd shortens il, pratices witchcraft. 

kugumja * Ws. whistling. 

kuil ... * Ws. kwilewt a fly. 



124 



kuinga * Wa. a tame reindeer. 

kuingingeq name of a mounlain in Greenland = L. (a pij^. — 
kuinivok is fal) — C. [kovinneetvoke "is lhin», perhaps for kuimpoq 
is not fal). 

kuingitser ... * M. hdngitcherktoark hastens, speeds. 

kujak lower part of the spine = LMWns. 
Drv. G. kutsineq a lower vertebra; kujapigaq a vertebra con- 
nected with a rib. — M. kuyapiyark. — Wn. kmjapikhiia spine. 

kujat south, or the left when facing the sea = Ws. {kyjagum 
tungy = G. kujatip tungd southside). 

kuk running water, river = LCiMWnsa. 

Drv. G. kUgpoq flows; kuivd pours; kuaraq a small river; 

kUgssuaq a large river. — M. [kiiuk) kurark. — Wn. koorook large 
river. — Ws. kuchii to pour. 

kukaq rest of meat left between the teeth = LiVl. 

kukik nail, claw = LCMWii. . " 

kukiss ...* Ws. kukishoak a gull. 

kukugpd sets fire to it ^= LM. 

kukujuk a young one (man or animal). 

kukur ... * M. hikurtiput eatable muscle. 

kukuvoq commits a fault. 

kulavaq a fullgrown female reindeer = x\I. 

— * (Ws. kylchet berry). 

kuimpoq is careful with his things. 

kulumarpuk * L. they are singing against each other. 

kulut * Wn. kulun a ring. 

kuma * Wn. ankle bone. 

kumak an external parasil, a louse = LCMWns. 
Drv. Wn. komeeaktok [kumigpa] scratching. — Ws. kumagutat 
moss or lichen? 

kumuk * Ws. humhyk, koomogik an eagle. 

kunigpd kisses him. 

kur . . .*? M. kuraru a kind of bird. — Wn. kurrauna Lycodes 
(fish); kunaio. kulaio sculpin (flsh). 

kunakat * Ws. a tree. — Wn. kunakin fire wood. 

kunanguaq (trad, tales) penis. 

kuniak * Wn. a goat (?). 



125 

kunigoq * L. eiderdown. 
knnulerpoq it withers, fades. 
kunuvok * L. is unwilling. 
— * (Wn. kungmumi lo day). 
kuseq a drop = L. (hde) M. 
kussagd likes it, is fond of it. 
kutagpoq speaks indistinctly. 
kutsiorpoq asks for assistance. 
kutsuk resin, pitch = LM. 
kuiuvaq* Wn. kid to contain oil. 
kuvdloq thumb = L C M Wns. (?) 



ID. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, norlhern 

— s, southern — a, asialic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

ma that, there = L CM Wns. 

Dry. G. mane^ tamane here; massa^ tamdssa here it is, namely; 
mana now; mdna^ matuma this one. — C. ^mdne: moionga hither 
\rnaunga\ ; manna^ manga now, — M. madja this one. — Wn. mauna 
hither. — Ws. manni here. 

maggangavoq * L. his voice is not clear. 

magdliaq* Wn. muklok large seal. — Ws. makliak large seal. 

— C. angakok language: maqdlaq. 

magsarpoq^ magsdpoq shouting from the shore (L. maksarpok 
appeases the child). 

maiki- hardiness? = L. 

Dry. G. maipoq is dilicate, thinskinned; maigssaq the inner 
skin of whales. — L. mdkjak the thin ouier pellicle on the skin of 
whales. 

majorpoq moves upward, rises = L C M Wn. 

maqdipoqj is absent = L. (the stem still used). 
Dry. G. maqaisivd feels the want of it. 

maqigpoq carries the kayak upon his head over land ==-- LWn. 
Drv. G. marqaq overland road. — L. makkak upper part of 
the head. — Wn. maknek name of place. 



126 



maqivoq it opens = LM. 

Dry. G. marneq the mailer of a boil or blain. 

makf somelhing gelling loose == LCMWns. 

Dry. G. mahipoq rises from where he was lying; mahitdsmseq 
haughliness; magperpa opens il. — JM. maTcitoarh rising. — Wn. 
mukkeetin gel up! — Vf%.maktu gelling up. {L.makkitek hip, hanch. 

— M. makittark II ion). 

makutivd* L. is slronger Ihan he. — C. makkokepoke is young. 

— Wn. makkuchtok is strong. 

malaq front of ihe neck = L. 

malik whal follows, a wave = LCMWn. (maling). 
Dry. G. maligpd follows him. 

malugd observes it = L. 

mamagoq harpoon wilhout bladder (for boys). 

mamarpoq (ihe food) has a good taste = LC. {mamukpoke he 
is good). Wn. {mamagpoke he is good). 

Dry. G. mamard likes it, also: likes lo slander; mamdipoq 
has a bad taste. — C. mamaitpoke he is bad. 

mamarpoq moults (hair, skin) = L? 

mamiagd feels ofTended by him == C. 

mamik flesh-side of the skin == LM? 

mamipoq is closed, healed = LM. 

mamivoq has pollutions. 

mamorqdq jacket of reindeerskin. 

maneq moss used for torches CMWs.? 

manernaq a sort of blain filled with blood. 

manigpoq is smooth = LCMWn. 

Dry. G. mancpoq is uneven. — Wn. monilya ice -hummock 
\mamlaq\. 

manik an egg = LGMWnsa. 

manwd shows, presents il = LM. 

Dry. G. manigupoq is humble, submissive. — M. maniyumi- 
yartoark « s i g h i n g » . 

mano lowest pari of the neck = LM. 

maiiorpoq t manordlorpoq the pain abates, soolhs == L. 

manuhok * C. ball of foot. 

manungnaq * Ws. a quab (fish). 

mangerpoq is hard =- L. 



127 



mangeru * \Vn. armlet. 

— * {mangkaiiga my song, Irad. tales). 

marravdf (makes it muddy?) = LCMWs. 
Drv. G. marralc, L. maehak^ Ws. magayak clay. 

mardluk two =^ LCMWnsa. 

mdrpoq, mdlavoq yells, howls == LM. 

masaky masagpoq is wet == L. 

masik gills = LMWns.? 

massaq* Wnsa. maisak, mutchuk^ madjak. matschak the sun; 
mukacktuk, matchachtuk^ warm, heat. 

— * (L. mutsuk a fold in the boots. — M. madja-kigelerk white 
streak in the boots). 

mdtak the outer skin of whales. 

mdiarpd undresses him, takes ofT his jacket == LCMWn. 

materte band on the trousers. 

mato a cover, a door = LGiVI. 

Drv. G. matuvd closes it. — M. matuyoark. 

— * (M. matcliolortoark tumbled, disorderly). 

maujugpoq is disgusted with something. 

mdiitat Ge. kayak- mittens. 

mauvoq walks through a swampy ground = LCiM. 
Drv. G. mangupd puis or pushes tt in; mangugpoq (he weather 
is getting milder. — L. mangukpd^ mangupok. 

mavto hardness = L. 

Drv. G. mavkorpoq gives the sound of hard against hard; 
mavtuvoq is hard, strong. — L. mapkullukpok gives a sound of hard 
from the roof of the house; mapko the wood in the bottom of the 
kayak. 

mavssaq milt, spleen = LC. 

me, mivoq f man, is born as man? = LWn. 
Drv. G. meraq, merdlertoq. — Ge. merserteq a child. — Wn. 
miikqlilkto. 

meriarpoq vomits = LiVl. 

merqitarpoq * L. the sea moves with breakers against the shore. 
— M. mirkriptcharnerk cleaving. 

— * (M. mirkroyoyork well. — Wa. matschinka well). 

merqoq hair, feather, plant == LCMWns. 

merpd f penetrates and appears again on the same side of it 
= LCMWns. 



128 



Drv. G. merqut a needle; mersorpoq sews. — Wn. mitJcon 
needle. 

merpoqf exertion of slrenglh? = LMWs. 
Drv. G. mingavoq is powerful; merngorpoci is lired. — Ws. 
muganohhtuhtuk is tired. 

merserd fears him, is apprehensive of his superiority. 

metagdlo * Wa. a raven. 

mevqoq a bird's-leg = Wn. (miphivo). 

miaggorpoq howls as a dog = LC. 

mianwoq^ mianersorpoq is cautions == L. 

migdliaq a skin used as underlayer op cloth , also navel string 
(in trad, tales also used for «brolher»). 

— * (Wn. misuetyua a «fair Eskimo » — Ws. muchtatsha son). 

migssik the direction in which something is seen, the straight 
line to it = LC. 

Drv. G. migssigd performs his work like that, has it for his 
guide. 

— * (i\I. mitsipartok travelling. — mijoraluk few). 

miq . . .*? M. mihrorMa meager. — Wa. mchkoruh a skeleton (?). 

mikikmn * Wn. take it ! 

mikivoq is small = LCMWnsa. 

milak a stain = LiVI. 

milarpoq * L. is broken on its edge. 

milik a stopper = M. 

milorpd pelts him with something = LCM. 

milugpoq sucks = LCM. 
Drv. L. milugiak a kind of flies. 

mimek* L. backpart of the thigh. 

minarpoq takes some food along with him in going home 
= LWs. 

mine drizzling rain == L. 

minik train oil by drying converted into a tough substance. 

minipd omits, neglects him in distributing = L. 

rningigpd hurls it accidentally = LM? 

niingoq a water-beetle = L. 

minguk dirlh =-- LlVlWn. 

miperpoq stands waiting as a beggar = LCM. 



129 



mipoq (the bird) goes down and slops = LM. 

misarpoq gives a cracking sound = LM. 

misiarpoq denies, will not confess = L. 

misigd observes, feels il = LM. 

misugpd dips il = LCWn.? 

Drv. C. missomajung a glacier dipping in Ihe sea. — Wn. 
mizoghin kid lo contain water. 

missigpoq * L. hops, jumps. 

mitagpd mocks, ridicules him = LM.? 

milak % plur. mitit Ws. stars. 

- miteq eiderduck = LCWn. 

miterivoq* L. plaits or braids well. — IM. miteretkretsidjara 
• uniting)). 

miiilik * L. ghoast, spectre. 

mitdlik* Wn, mitdling, midelUk a knife. 

mitugdluk * Wn. a raven. 

mituk * L. pieces of ice in Ihe fishing-hole. 

mivse, nivse dried fish = L. (pipse) C. (peipse) M- {piptsi). 

tnimik* (nuah?) Wn. saliva. 

moq , muk ? f morssugpoq disappears by sinking into something 
= L. 

momerenet* Wn. a root. 

morepoq is rounded at its end = L. 

morpar . . .* M' morpariyoarJc «copper»?; morparihtoarh « sound- 
ings?; morpaoyarh 'd bottle? 

mugsorpoq whistles. 

mugtuk * C. black. — Ws. muugtuh blue. 

muka ... * Wn. mukakhiouk rabbit. 

mukut * Ws. mgkut excrement. 

mulaka* Wn. a young imber goose. 

jnulik woman's breast, also a leaf = LlMWn. 

muluvoq slays out, is absent = L. 

mume whale gum = Wn. 

mumerpoq sings dancing and beating Ihe drum = CM. 

mumigpd turns it upside down = LC. 

munauta * Wn. quiver strap. 
XI 9 



130 

munga * Wn. codlings (Osh). 

mungarua* Wn. a lighi? 

mungi . . .* Wn. mungidzing wrist guard. 

mnssaq eatable root of an umbelliferous plant = LMWn. 

(marshan). 

mutura * Wa. mytyratuch struggle. 
muvtegu* W. mupteguh cache (mivsef). 



n. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Easlgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions ~ M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s, soulhern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met wilh in Greenlandish.) 

nd-dj interjection indicating pain = LM. 

ndgga no =■■ L. {naukak, aukak) CWn. 

. ndgpoq hurts something in moving and is stopped. = LMWn. 
Drv. G. ndligpd throws the harpoon and hits the animal. — 
L. naulah harpoon. — IVl. nauliktorh. — Wn. nauliga harpoon. 

nagsarpd carries it along wilh him = LM 

nagseraq a mark to be aimed at in shooting = L. 

nagsiaq * LC. skin-neckcloth. 

nagsigpoq * L. turns up his nose. 

nagswoq slicks in the sea-bottom or being entangled. 

nagsoqipai makes no distinction between them. 

nagssuk horn, antlers = LCiMWn. 

nagssii ... * C. negdjugarun a siring for keeping the dogs. 

nagtoraq a kayak-implement used for lowing = LWs. 

Drv. G. nagtoralik^ Ge. nagtivdlik an eagle. — Ws. nyiygaiojak. 

nagtulik * Ws. iron. 

naguiriak * Ws. noise. 

nai . . .*? iM. n6n6optoark lislening [ndlagpoqf]. — Ws. naintuik 
ears ; neecheewunikin hear ! 

ndipoq is short = LMWns. 

naivd smells it = LCMWns. {Wn. nognuck, Ws. nikch nose?). 

najagaq * Ws. dancing. 



131 



najaq, wiih suffix najd his younger sister = LC.MWna. 

najangarpoq falls asleep in silling = LM. 

najorpd slays there or with him == L. 

najugpd hollows il, scoops it out = L. 

ndq skin of the abdomen ; plur. ndssat, with sufOx nai his whole 
belly, exterior and interior == LCMWn. 

naqigpoq is low = LM.?Wn.? 

naqugpoq * C. nakJcoJcepoke, M. nahrotoarq the moon is full. — 
Wn. naqdkto^ Ws. nauk halfmoon ? 

nakd has pily or compassion with him == LM. 

Drv. G. nagdliugpoq is suffering, is in a pitiful stale of pain 
or want. — L. naiperkutigiva has pity with him ; neglikpa loves him. 
— M. nagdligidjark « loving «. 

nakdpd bends il downward = LM. 
Drv. G. ndkarpoq falls. 

ndkaq* LCM. root of a plant, 

nakasuk blatider == LCMWn. 

nakivoq-\^l meels a hindrance in proceeding = LM. 

Drv. G. nakimavoq loiters, lingers in his undertaking; nagiipok 
it blows; nakerpoq moves quickly in a straight direction. — L. ndki- 
lerivok is inconsistent; nakivoq Ihe wind has become steady. — M. 
nakerktork directly. 

nako f strength = L M Wn. 

Drv. G. nakHvoq is very strong; nakuaq a flrsl rate hunter, a 
powerful man. ■ — \j.nak6kpok is good, faultless; nekkokqok is power- 
ful. — M. nakoyoark is good, excellent. — Wn. nakuruk good. 

ndkord likes him = L. 

nakunak * L. a kind of small fish. 

nakut * L. blewberry plant. 

nakuvoq he squints = LC. 

ndlagpoq he listens, obeys = LCM. 

nalavoq lies stretched out = LM. 

nalik, with suffix nalinga his equal = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. nale^ with suffix nald the direction of, or level to il 
(as to place and lime); nalikdq interstice between the legs or trousers; 
nagdli'upoq it happens, it is its usual lime (f. i. arrival, feslival). — L. 
nelliupok. — M. nalerekturk [naligigsut] equal to each other. — Wn. 
nellikak trousers. 

naliuk * Wn. the moon. 

nalugpd throws it without lifting his arm = CM. 

9* 



132 



nalugpoq swims = LCMWn. 
ndlungiaq an infant. 

naluvoq is ignorant, does not know it = LCiVlWns. 

Drv. G. nalunarpoq is difficult to know ; nalunaerpd makes it 
known. — Wn. wjloogah I don't know [naluvunga]. — Ws. natluara 
1 don't know it [naluvara]. 

namagpoq it is sufficient = LCM. 

nanako * Wn. by and by. 

nanerpd presses it in resting upon it = LCM. 

nanwd finds what was lost = LCMWn. 
Drv. Wn. mneron a candle (or torch?). 

nano the polar bear = LCMWna. 

nanuaq (I)* Wn. neroah, naiwak a lake. — Ws. nannuidk, 
nannah, nanvik a lake; nanvaknak a bay. — Wa. naiioak sea (lake?). 

nanuaq (II)*? Wn. nunoiorunguk bones; nannuaq a bowl of 
"wood. — Ws. nunokut, nenoet bones. — Wa. nynnuku bones. 

nanugpd * L. nennuerpa wets, waters the sledge runner to make 
it slippery. — M. nannktuark welling. — Wn. nunitikh lamp (-oil?). 
— Ws. nahnuk lamp-oil. 

nanuk . . .* Ws. nanughna, nanuktun stand. 

nangagpoq * L. passes by. 

nangarpd refuses, forbids = L. 

nangat * Ws. berries. 

nangeq childs cloth = L. 

nangiarpoq is anxious = LC. 

nangigpoq continues. 

ndngivoq he hops once = C. 

Drv. C. nanneeyakpoke [nangissarpoq] hops (several limes). 

— * (L. nangivarlakpok is not satisfied with the answer. — 
M. nanginerminik prodigy?). 

nangmagpoq carries something on his back. 

nangmik crossbeam in the bottom of an umiak. 

nangmineq self = L. 

napaq f sickness, ndparpoq grows sick. 

napavoq stands upright = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. napdrtoq a roantree (L. firtree) naparut mast. — M. 
nappartork tree, forest. — Wn. napaktu larger timber. — Ws. nabat 
forest. 



133 



naperpd calches in a snare = LMWn. 
ndpipd meets wilh him^ = L. 

napivd breaks it across = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. navdlorpd breaks il into several pieces ; navguaq a 
joinl. — C. nabloote knee. — M. nablon knee; nabgoarh member. — 
Wn. naviktuk broken. 

napo cross piece in the sledge = L. 

naraseq -jr a frog? (Ge. narajarteq a shark) = LM. 

nardluvoq is slraighl == LiMWns. 

narqoq arrow head. 

narnetpoq pulls or paddles wilh all his might. 

narutiguk Wn. backbone. 

narruvoq shows contempt. 

narssaq low and flat land = LG. 

narssugpd crosses his way, approaching him from (he side == L. 

nasaq hood of a man's jacket, cap = L C M Wnsa. 

nasigpoq goes up the hill to have a look out = LM.? 

naterpoq cartilage = LCM. 

nateq, wilh suffix narqa bottom, floor = LCMWns. 

Drv. G. natdrnaq halibut. — L. nettarooik. — C. nateerooik 
snowdrift. — Wn. nateringak flat land; neetarmuck «old wife» (flsh). 
— Ws. notuik sea bottom. 

natseq small seal = L C \1 Wna. 

nauja gull = LCM Wna. 

nauk where is it?, although == LCMWns. 

Drv. G. ndme no. — L. namut. — Ws. natmyn whither. 

naularnaq a kind of shrimps = L M Wsa. 

nautoq grows, appears = LCMWs. 

Drv. G. natissut plants. — Ws. nautt grass. 

ndvd finishes it = L. 

navarkroktuten* M. echo. 

naviagd considers il dangerous, will not venture it = L. 

navdlik, wilh suffix navdlinga adapted for it = L. 

navsoq-^ indistinctness? == ?Ws. 

Drv. G. navsuerpd makes it clear, explains it. — Ws. nasjuag' 
hagni showing {natachichaak « truth »?). 

navssdq somelhing found or discovered without being searched 
for = LM. 



134 



neqe meal, flesh (in Ge. also of one's own body) = LCIVlWnsa. 

Drv. G. nerivoq eats; nerdlerpd regales him; nerpik flesh of 
fish. — IVl. nerkriktsat [negigssat] something to eat. — Wa. nyrnakut 
eating. 

nerinarpoq is square built (man or animal). 

neriugpoq hopes, expects = Li\l„ 

n^rqorpoq it creaks = L. 

nerdleq a goose = LClVIWhs. 

nerdloq the vertebrae of a bird which are grown together = LM. 

nerof spaciousness? = LMWs ? 

Drv. G. nerukipoq is narrow; nerutuvoq is widfe. — Ws. 
njukalmuh narrow {nikilnuk short). 

nersorpd praises him == L. 

nerssui a terrestrial mammiferous animal = LC. 

niaqoq head = LCMWnsa. {naskok). 

nigaq a snare == LCMWn. {neegallok a net). 

nigorpoq avoids something = L. 

nigsdgpoq belches = LM. 

nigsik a hook = LMWn. 

nikavoq considers anything trifling comparred with what he is 
concerned about = L. 

nikipoq has been displaced = L. 

nikuipoq rises from sitting = LCM. 

nilak a piece of of freshwater ice = LCMWnsa. 
Drv. G. nigdleq the cold. — G. niglarpoq it is cool. — Ws. 
nindlyetok cold. 

nileq a fizzle, fart = LCM. 

nimaq bandage, ligature = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. nivnipoq is narrow. — M. nimarodjark bundle, faggots. 

nimdrpoq wails from pain = L. 

mngagpoq is angry = LM. 

ningaiik sister's' or husband's sister's husband = L. (son in 
law) MWn. 

ningeq share in a game = L. (L. ningek snowwall around a 
house?). 

ningioq eldest woman of the house = LM. 

ningipd lowers it by means of a line = LM. 



135 



mnguvoq is lough, nol easely broken = L. 

nio leg = LCIMWn. 

Diiv. G. niutoq long-legged, a spider. M. niululdoarlc [niulugpoq] 
fias a bad leg. — W. neeugha, niunga leg [I. e. niuga ray leg], 

niorpoq has become a lillle crooked = LC. 

Drv. G. niungavoq is benl. — C. neyoohtepook bent. 

niorpoq drills, bores =-= LMWn. 

Drv. G. niort'&t — Wn. nioktun a bowdrill. 

nipagpoq * L. is vanished. — C. neepakpoke pas he does. 

nfpd wears il by rubbing == L. 

nipe voice, sound = LCM. 

Drv. G. nivdlerpoq emits his voice, speaks; nipdrpoq cries 
loudely; nipangerpoq becomes silent. — M. nipaituark keeps silent. 

nipiypoq sticks or adheres to a thing = LiVIWn. 
Drv. (L. nippivok, M. nipiyork)^ y^n. nippeiooke^ nepirok sunset; 
M. nipititeron \nii}ititerut\ glue. 

niporpoq * L. is quiet, content. 

7iisa purpoise = L. 

nisoraq the hollow of the neck = LM. 

nit . . .' Ws. nituk hearing ; nitutenka doest thou hear? 

niu ...* Ws. n6o£tok talking; mMimn ^narrating. 

niumak (trad, tales) a personal name. — L. flesh of the hands and 
feel. — (Wa. niok rope of rawhide line?). 

niurdleq * L. a kind of frogfish. 

niuvd takes il out of the boat or of its repository etc. = LCM. 

niuverpoq trades, barters = LM. 

Drv. G. tiiuvertoq a trader. — M. niuvarektoark [niuverigpoq] 
trades conscientiously. 

nivagpd flings, throws il with the end of his body (f. i. a whale) 
or with an inslrumenl, digs or shovels it out = MWn. 

niverpoq falls backward = LCM. 

Drv. G. nivingavoq. — M. nivingayoark is hung op. 

nwfik the peritoneum (of the intestines). 

nwgo the mucus of fish etc. = M.? 

niviaq'\^ niviaraiaq unmarried woman == LCMWosa. 

nivivd dwells or remains in the vicinity of il = LCMWn. 
Drv. G. niviuvaq a fly. — Wn. nibrarua. 

nivko dried meal = L. 



136 



nivtavoq is dry weather == LCMWa. 

Drv. G. nivtailaq Ihiek weather with snow and rain. — M. 
nipta'ira thick w. — (Wn. niptdkuktua 4th qualer of the moon). 

noqarpd strains it, bends the bow = LC\IWns. 

nordloq a hole with a string or such hke to fetch hold of a 
pot etc. = LM. 

norraq reindeer calf = LGiMWn. , 

norssaq harpoon thrower (wooden) =.- L C M. 

miak spit, saliva, catarrh = LC.MWn. 

nudnerpoq is pleasant agreeable = Ws. 

nuaraluaq (her) sister's child = L. 

— * (G. nugaleenik a poor thing. — Ws. nuivagiut Dentalium. 
Wn. nuchtooUt a snipe). 

nugsagpoq * L. becomes frostbitten. 

nugsaq * Ws. nykioagtugwak spruce, — Wa. nuchsak wood. 

nuwoq makes its appearance = LGMW^n. 

Drv. L. nuisipd offers it for sale; nueq^ plur. nugfit bird's 
arrow; nuvia cloud. — G. nooyooee dart for birds. — M. nuira sun- 
rise. — Wn. nubuja cloud. 

nujaq, plur. nutsat^ hair of the human head = LGMWnsa. 

nujaluk*'^ Wn. nyellook frock made of guts. 

nuk point, end of anything, cape, promontory = LGMWns. 
Drv. G. nUgpd removes it; nujuarpoq is wild. — L. nupok. 
— M. nurutoark removes. 

nukagpoq becomes tired of his work. 

nukaq younger sister or brother to a person of the same sex 
= LGMWnsa. 

nukik sinew, tendon, strength = LMWn. 

nukut* Wn. «yukali», dried salmon. 

— * (Wa. nukutu broad; nymeenkin large). 
nulavoq * L. is grown up, tall. 

nuliaijoq * L, wild celery ; nulUaijunguartok Angelica. 
nuliaq wife, married woman == LGMWnsa. 
nuloq rump, bum = LMWn. 

nuna land, homestead, birthplace = LGMWnsa. 

Drv. G. nunasivoq gets sight of land, settles down ; nuniagpoq 
gathers berries; nunangiaq alder (tree). — Wn. nunangeagit alder. — 
Ws. nunagutat berries. 



nunaneidlarpoq * L. feels pain. 

nnnekameruak * Wn. a child. 

nunuvoq resisis, abstains from speaking, langhing clc. = L. 

— * (Ws. nyknikuh, nuikniklmk sweet; nyknilnuk , nuiknilgak 
bitter). 

nungul ...*? Ws. nyngyljachtua, nuinliachtua laughing. 

nunguk . . .* Ws. nungukhten stand? 

nungutoq has disappeared, is consumed = LlMWs. 

nusikarpoq* L. is leaky, not well joint. 

nusiligpoq * L. dies suddenly. 

— * (IVI. nutsarearvik a seat. — Ws. nussedu to keep, preserve; 
nuachagak name of a river). 

nutagut * Ws. a kind of small fish. 

nuidq a new thing = LCMWns. 

Dry. G. nutaraq a newborn dog (L. a newborn child). 

nulavdleq a natural stain on the skin of men. 

nutigpoq it barns, cracks = LMWn. 

Drv. G. nutardlugpog it sparkles. — iVl. nutdyork sparkling. — 
Wn. nitiktut burn. 

mwf . . .* Wn. ntxhwa one half; nuhoa all? 

nuvnuka* Ws. fingers, toes. — Wa. nyngit hand. 



0. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— s, southern — a, asialic) — * , NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

ogigluaq * Wn. birch. 

ogdlavoq * L runs about in the houses. 

oqaq tongue = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. oqarpoq speaks; oqaitsoq Pelicanus carbo. — iVl. orol- 
ticark talking. — Wn. okdluktuaru a great speaker; okaktuk talk. 

oqipoq is light (not heavy) = LCMWnsa. 
Drv. G. oqilavoq is swiflfooted; oqimdipoq is heavy. — M. 
okrumaUuark heavy. — Wn. aketyua. — Ws. okichtuch not heavy. 

oqoq -\- genial temperature? = LCiVIWs. 



138 



Drv. G. orqoq sheltered place, leaside. — L. oqqorpok is soft, 
keeps warm. — Ws. oohorree skin of birds [oqorut warm clolhing]. 

oquq mould = LCIMWn? 

oqumerpd puis il in the moiilh. 

okuh*^. C. ohohwak a slick. — Wn. ookuh wood. 

olorojuat* M. fading. 

omijdk* Wn. drill socket. 

onui ...* M. onuidj'&n shame; onuiyuayartoarh ashamed. 

opigugpoq* L praises. 

opingaivoq^ L. il surprised; opiunarnak no wonder that. 

opugto * Wn. after or last. 

oriarpd spils it out. 

ordluvoq (Ge. ortuvoq) falls, tumbles = LJVl. 

ordlerpoq aims with a missile. 

oniaq (trad, tales), ornakit thy wings ornane his wings {uneq'i 
arm pit). 

ornigpd goes or comes to him = L. 

— * (M. orotkroga judged; orotkrdun judgement; orotpit wilful). 

orpik tree, bush = LCMWns. {ukpik, orkbit willow). 
Drv. G. orpigaq a small bush. — Ws. opohak firewood. 

orseq a part of the dog harness, a hole to fasten the string, 

orssoq fat, blubber. = LCMW^ns. 

oruJovoq is morose, peewish = !V1. 

orune some intestines of ptarmigan == L. 

— * (Wn. ouligaganik old maiden). 



(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrodor 
C, Central Regions — IM, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 
s, southern — a, asialic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

pagpdf pakasipd plays pulling the arms with him = iM. 
pdgpd fixes it with pegs = L. 
pagunak * Ws. a bear. 



139 

pawoq remains home, watches the house = LM. 

Drv. G. pdrd lakes care of it. — L. pairiva nurses him. 

pajugpd brings or sends him a present = LWn. 
Drv. Wn, patuhturin, pajiiklurin ^ «lhe sharing oul of food», 
name of a constellation [pajugdlugit giving them presents). 

pdq (I) Mergus serrator (bird) = L. 

pdq (II) opening, entrance, kayak-hole = LCIMWs. 

paqumigd has some superstition with it = L. 
Drv. Ge. paqingnarpoq is afflicted. 

pakaluaq butterfly. 

pakatsivoq is ashamed. 

pakerpd (Fabr. ) snatches a thing out of his hands = L. 

(paJcktva). 

palerpd it has made him sunburnt. 

— * (M. palerhtitak «terasse»). 

palugtoq * Wn. palukUuh^ Ws. pdlocfda a beaver. 
paluvoq lies with his face downward = LM. 

— * (M. pamangnartork « properly speaking»). 
pdmdrpoq is slow in working. 

pamioq tail of a terrestrial mammiferous animal. 
pdmigpoq causes a disagreeable feeling, is annoying. 
pana a large knife = LCMWnsa. 
panerfaq second wife (in polygamy). 

panerpoq is dry = LCMWns.? 

Drv. G. parqerpd (the sun) has dried, emptied it. — L. pak- 
karpoh begins thawing. — M. patkreliguniga dying of thirst. — Ws. 
patsnartoh warm. 

panik daughter = LClVIWnsa. 

pangaligpoq runs (a quadruped) == LCiM. {ys^s>. pagaliut a 
worm?). 

pdngnaq Epilobium (plant). 

pangneq fullgrown reindeerbuck. 

paoq soot == LCMWri. 

paorqivd takes care of him. 

paormaq berry (Empetrum) = L C IM Wnsa. 

paorpoq pulls his kayak = LCMWn. 

papaq * L. after-birlh. 



140 



papik bird's lail = LMWn. 

parngutigd (Ge.) has il for his custom or habil. 

parpcif parnaerpd fixes il so ar not to become shaked = LM. 

pdrpd meels him coming from the opposit side = LCiM, 

parsarpoq f parsangavoq has a dehcate health = L. 

pasivd believes him to be the guilty one, suspects him = LM. 

— * (M. patagmyk soon, quickly). 

pateq, with suffix parqa marrow = CLM. 
Drv. M. pakron marrow spoon. 

patigpd keeps resting or lets fall his hand on il = LCIVI. 

patdleq willow, bush, faggots = LM. 

paidligpd approaches it closely = L. 

paukarut crossbeam of a house. 

pauna * Wn. musk-rat. 

pava upward, eastward = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. pavane, tapavane, yonder in the east, up high: pavna 
he up there. — L. pdne^ takpdne^ pangna. — Wn. pugna "the skyo; 
pungmunga \pavunga] upward. 

pdvd fights with him without weapons, wrestles = LMWs.? 

pavdlo * L. a handle. 

pe and pivoq , the nominal and the verbal form of a stem by 
which in some measure the affixes can be made independent, as the 
latter may be used in this connection without essentially altering their 
original sense, pe signifying «a things, SiUd pivoq «does» (but also: 
gets, goes, says, it happens) = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. pia his property; pequt property with its appurtenances; 
perqigpog is healthy; perdlerpoq dies from starvation; perorpoq grows 
up; perpaluk a noise; perpd takes it off; perujuk rubbish; pigd owns 
it; pigigpoq is well off, rich; pilerpoq begins; pilerpd furnishes him; 
piniarpoq strives to gain something, is a sealhunler; pinrdpd provides 
for him; pinguaq toy; pisagpoq is in want for something; piseq a 
song; pissuseq quality, condition; pissut cause; piumavoq wishes; 
piuvoq is a thing, is useful ; piungilaq is to no use. 

L. pekarpok he has, there is; perkuva commands him; perngarpd 
does or gels il the first lime; perorpok is grown up; pigiva owns it; 
pillipa gives him presents; pilliut a gift, present; perlerpok perishes 
with famin; pingilak has not done it, has got nothing; pingilut hind- 
rance; pZtok poor; pitjut cause; piuaek usage; piumavok, pissek. 

C. pikliktoo starving; pelefay give me!; peeuke is it good?; 
piyek a song. 

M. piwok «to be willingn ; pin! it must; pinnago it must not; 
piyara take away; piloriktoark lo be benevolent, amiable; pimartoark 



141 



a essentially » ; pinerluktchimayoark lo be malicious; pinerktut nearly all; 
piktaylinikdjoark to prevent, hinder. 

Wn. pik'pun then ; pinikherit lo give ; peedlo he has none ; peituk 
no, not; pitsingitsok strong? 

Ws. binartua I have got; pjuchtua I will; piuknachtua I will not 
\piungnaertungaf]\ piliachtu beating [pitdlarpd?\, 

Wa. pidlunga to have, to gel; pinygtok a good man?; pinheeha 
healthy? 

Note. The examples of derivatives belonging lo this stem are 
comparatively scanty and imperfectly rendered in the latter vocabularies. 
Their real nature and kinship have hardly been understood by most 
of the foreigners, 

pero a burden , a stone to secure the lent against the wind 
= LM. 

perp^t? = LCiMWn. 

Dry. G. peqipd bends it ; perdlaivd plaits it. — C. pellera a 
line plaited of sinew. — Wn. pidrairuara «lhe little braider, a spidem. 

persoq drifting snow, snowstorm == LCMWns. 

pigdrpoq watches = LM. 

pigpoq f pigdlerpoq jumps = LM. 

— * (Wn. piksun snow shovel). 

pika here eastward, up here = LCM. (similar lo pava). 

pikalujaq * L. pekkalujak, C. pikadlujang an iceberg. 

pikiugpoq f"! = L. pikkiokpok is laying eggs. — The name 
of place pikiugdleq, occurring in G., may be a derivative of this. 

pilagpd cuts it up (the seal etc.) = LCMWnsa. 

pilo a leaf. 

— * (Ws. pinagtok, paschnachtiuk cold). 

pi . . .*? Ws. petneit. — Wa. pidnak mountain sheep (see: 
ivnauk). 

pineq straw for the boots = LGWn. 

pinerpoq is handsom beautiful = LC. 

pingajoq three, in singul. only as pingajuat third, ^\y3iT.pingasut 
= LGMWnsa. 

pingeq a sort of hard driftwood = L. (larch tree) Wn. (flr tree). 

pingo a knoll or little hillock formed out of turf, where birds 
use lo stay = LM. 

pingugpd gives him a buffet, pushes him = L. 

piorpog paddles quickly towards his pray. 

pisigpd shoots it with an arrow = LCMWns. 



142 



pissugpoq walks = LCMWns. 
pissaq strength, power = L. 

— * (Wn. bidsuk the sun). 

pissukak* C. in the angakok- language; pissukang a fox. — 
M.pichukte fox {pirtotchark Lynx). — Ws. piuchta a dog (paichtuchscha 
flsh oiler). 

pitdipoq is lascivious, wanton. 

pitarpd surpasses him, passes it. 

pito lamp-stool. 

pitorarpoq a squall, a gusl of wind comes suddenly. 

pitsaq something excellent, first rate = LGM. 

pitsiulik * L. Uria grylle. 

pitugpd binds, fastens it with a siring. 

pilungo * Wn. a bowl. 

pivdle insane, lunatic. = L. 

pof lifting? = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. portuvoq is high; pi&kipoq is low; puak the lung; 
pualavoq is fat, big; puerqorpoq is cool; ptipoq bows so as to make 
his middle part the highest. — L. poktovok, pokipok ; puije [puisse] a 
seal. — C. puiva emerges; pooivite lungs; poongakpoke [pungavoq] he 
nods. — M. puktuyoark high; puak, plur. puvdit lungs; puoalayoark 
big. — Wn publun bubbles; puive lung. 

pdq a bag, sack, any sort of case or means for enveloping 
= LCMWn. 

poqerpoq is docile, teachable = L. 

porpivoq feels cold. 

pualcitit (Ge.) millens of bearskin = L. {pualo) C. {pooalook 
mittens, po'ahlo gloves) Wn. {p'dalo mittens of bearskin). 

— * {pugdlianuk Ws. the sun. — ^n. poohtaun yellow. — Ws. 
puchtan a baidarka). 

puigorpoq forgets = LCWn. 

pujaq blubber dried on its surface = LM. 

pujoq smoke, vapour, fog = LCMWns. 

pukdk a loose sheet of snow = L. 

— * {pukartortuark to commit a fault). 
pukeq Ihe belly-skin of a terrestrial animal. 
puklpd picks, plucks it = LM. 



143 

pulavoq slips or glides through an entrance, travels into, enters 
= LCMWns.? (Wn. pudlaru echpse; pooluruk dance). 

pumiugtoq (pa ...?)* Wn. an olter. 

puneq sperma ceti = L. 

pungajoq * L. a kind of blewberries. 

punyuaq a dog , in the angakok language of G. , and pungnu, 
in the ang. 1. of C. 

pupik a mushroom, also : eruption (on the skin) = L. 

pusuk the thumb and the forefinger kept together = LMWn. 

puto a hole which goes through = LCiVIWn. 

putugoq the big loe = LCiVIWn. 

— * (Wn. poodoo-ayar to sing; puhira dancing). 

puvaq * M. pioark f y ! 

puvaleren * M. a shovel. 



S. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Easlgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — iM, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— S, southern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

saga .. .* Ws. tschagatyt a kind of plants. 

saggaq having thin hair, a thin sheet of snow == L. 

— * (Ws. tschakai, tschgichna give! — possibly belonging to 
sikik (11), see hereafter). 

sagdluvoq tells a lie = LCWs. 

sagsagiaq * L. a little passerine bird. — Wn. sUksagia. 

sailivoq slays home. 

saimavoq is mild, gentle = LM. 

sajavoq is incapable of working = L. 

— * (Ws. tschaiukmiduk healthy). 

sajugpoq shakes = LM. 

saqivoq walks about. 

sak and sd^ two forms of which the first with suffix also is 
8d, its front side = LGMWsa? 



144 



Drv. G. sayclleq foremosl; saypd turns lo him; sapoq is thin; 
sarqaq sunside; satsigpoq is far seaward. — L. aangane \8dne\ before 
him; sakka^ with suffix sakkanga has visible side; sadjukpok [savs8ugpoq\ 
passes by. — C. seadpoke Ihin he is; sahtook Ihin. — IV1. tsatork 
Ihin; tsayrork a house of wood \sagoq what serves as a shield?]; 
tsarkroarmut forewards; tsatoyark a bow. — Ws. sedlerok a bow; 
saliochpak a cap. 

sakagpd pushes him = L. 

sakan . . .* Wn. chakoonarook crooked. 

sake father or mother in law = LCM. 

sdqek Ge. a women's-knife (ulo). 

sakiak a rib with its apperlinenl flesh, breast = LCMWnsa. 

sakimerd is very fond of him. 

sdko any kind of weapon or tool = LWs. 

salacoq suffers from heal. 

salagi ...* L. salagije vanquisher. 

satak ' Wn. tschallak bad. 

salausuypoq * L. sleeps quietly. 

salissik * Wn. scissors. 

saliva scraiehes the hair of it = LMWn. 

salugpoq is meager = Li\l. 

sama what is lower or seaward (opposite to pava) = ?Wn. 

samik (he left hand. 

— * (Wns. chamme, chammi «salulation». — sanaratuk never). 
sanatoq works, fabricates = LClVIWnsa. 

sane ihe side, Ihe room close by = LMWs.? 
sanik dust covering something = Li\I. 

— * ( Ws. chanjiook to like; tschakuinalgu do not move!; tschak- 
nak a hole. — Wn. sanugsuk I go). 

sangigpd searches for louse. 

sdngivoq he is strong = L. 

sanguit * Ws. tschanguit grass, herbs. 

sanguseq * L. aamgusek refuse, rubbish. 

sanguvoq turns, winds, is tortuous = LM. 

saoq loose earth or snow 'spread over something = L. 

sapangaq a bead, pearl = LG. 



145 

sapangipd leaves hold of it = LM. 

saperpoq is unable to obtain or lo do what he wished = 
LCM. 

sapivd blocks up, slops Ihe way = LiMWn. 

sardpoq f sarajagpoq is slippery = L. 

sarfaq current = LMWns. 

sdrfaq strand snipe, Tringa raarilima. 

sarik * Wn. tsharik, tshegarik gray spotted rat. 

sarqagpoq is getting tainted. 

sarpik tail of a whale = LC. 

sarsarpoq has no fixed place. 

salami * Wa. schatami the moon. ' 

sat . . .* Wa. tschatilmak the swimming snipe. 

sauneq bone = LCIVIWns. 

sauvoq * M. tchauvoark « interring ». 

sana a sheep = LM. 

savaq* M. tsavark tatloving; tsavarkreyoark dressing. 

sav . . .* Ws. ischaue, chowyat a drum. — Wn. chowyauk tam- 
bourine; soivsorouk hoop for a tent. 

savgaq * L. Phalaropus rufus (bird). 

sdvigpoq goes a drift = LM. 

savig ...* M. tsaviktoark a box (?). 

— * (IM. tsavioyartoark talking merrily). 

savik a knife, also: iron == LCMWns. {tachawyk iron, tachawyk 

ulwak knife) Wa. {schaioik knife, tschavykak iron). 

Drv. G. savfiorpoq forges. — M. tsaviliortoark forges. — Wn. 
achebya « knife » \savia his knife]. 

savipd touches it with his hand = ?M. 

savi ... * Wn. choioeetuk to make, work. — Ws. chotveezerukMi 
making. 

savsigtoq * Ws. tschaucTmchtuk making angry. 

segdl ...* Wn. shekhiliuk cache. — Ws. cheklouk a house 
(may belong lo adk). 

seqerpd besprinkles him = L. 

seqineq the sun = LCMWns. 

Drv. C. aakan4ukpoke « sunrise" [aeqinerpoq the sun shines]. 

sequngerpoq closes his eyes = LCM. 
XI. 10 



146 



sequgpd breaks it asunder = LMWs. (G. selliko break?). 

serfaq black guillemol, Cria grylle. 

serqani . . .* M. tserJcaniluktuark grinning, laughing; tsirkrekrealuk 
an assuming person. 

serqoq hindflipper of a seal = LC. 

s^rqoq the knee of man = LClVIWnsa. 

serqorpoq makes a crack = LC. 

— * (M. tserkobtsidjoark removing). 

serdlaq * L. nearly. 

serdlerpoq f serdlernarpoq is hurtful = L. ; in Wa. the stem 
still preserved as sachdlirok bad, ill. 

sermeq ice formed on a solid ground, glacier = LM. 

sernaq * Wn. eagle tail (?). 

seme * M. wale of the kayak. 

sernigd defends, protects him = LM. 

serpeq matter in the eyes = M. 

s&rpoq perceives a sour taste in his mouth = LCM. 
Drv. M. tsernartork [sernartoq] sour. 

serravoq pronounces a magic spell. 

serrivoq * L. is glad, thankful. 

seruk* Wn. tserrunun snare for birds. — Ws. seruk wing; 
serulik, sharuliat bird (see : suluk). 

siagpai arranges them in a row = LM. 

siakut * C. siakkoot a scraper for skin. 

sialuk rain = ?Wns. 

Drv. G. siagdlerpoq it rains. — Wn. sealuktok rain. 

Note. Probably sialugpoq and silardlugpoq (see: sila) «is bad 
weather)) are confounded in the vocabularies, and this may explain 
the want of examples from LGM. here. 

sianwoq perceives, has consciousness, has reason. 

siargwoq * L. slides down. 

siardlivoq * L. is sorrowful. 

sigarpoq* L. it creaks, crackles. — M. aigarialuk Tringa 
alpina. 

sigguk a beak, protruding muzzle = LGMWn. 
sigdlaq a crow-bar = LMWs. {chiklak an ax). 
sigdlat* Ws. tscUglat steep mountains. 



147 



sigdleq* M. tsiglerk name of the Mackenzie- Eskimo. 

sigpd cuts il in Ihe direction of length, especially the belly of 
a seal =- LMWs.? 

sigssaq shore = LCM. 

sigssik (I) several hard substances in the body, as in fish-heads, 
the edge of whalebones = M. 

sigssik (H) a squirrel, a marmot (even as traditional doubtful in 
G.) = LCMWn. (sikarik marmot) Ws. {chukeet ermin) Wa. 

sigut * Wa. mushroom. 

sikagpoq is hard and brittle = LM. 

sika (I)* Wn. sitka backfln. 

sika (II)* M. tchitkayoartoark filled up, full. 

sikersarpoql (trad, tales) sikersarpalulermat as a grinning and 
laughter was heard (sivkerpoq?). 

sikigpoq bends, bows = LCMWn. 

sikik {\)f sikigigpoq is regular eqvilaleral = L. 

sikik (II)* Wn. chikeeka; Ws. cheeke&kha, a gift, a present* 
siko ice upon water = LGMWns. {kjikkok). 
Drv. M. tsikoleark [aikuaq] thin ice. 

sikutaq a blain, blister of the eye. 

sila the visible world, the open air, the human reason = 
LGMWnsa. 

Drv. L. sillaluk «rain» ; sillanerdluk bad weather [silardluk\\ 
aillalek neighbour; sillatovok is prudent, intelligent,; sillaipok is a fool. 
— M. tsillatane [silatdne] outside of, before it (the house). — Wn. 
selame the weather [silame in the open air] ; silalu rain. — Ws. 
tscheljaljuk rain (see : sialuk). 

sileragpoq has taken a wrong direction. 

siligpoq is broad, thick = LGMWna. 

silivd grinds it, sharpens it = LMWn. 

silo a carcass, especially of sea-animals = L. 

— * (M. tsiluartsidjork leaving). 

silugpoq lifts his arm for throwing = L. 

simak* Wn. ckeenmuk rock. — Ws. tscUmak stone. 

simerpd^ penetrates, permeates it (moisture). 

simik a stopple = LCMWn. 

simimf sivneq surplus, excess = LM. 

sinar . . .* L. sinnaungavok is peewish ; sinnamauvok is gray. 

10" 



148 



sine Ihe edge of any thing = LCMWns. 
Drv. ^s. tshaak^ tschnag shore [siMa^]; tschnagmut coa.sl-peo[>\e 
(name of a tribe). 

sinik (I) the sleep = LCMWn. 

Drv. M. tchiniktoark [sinigpoq] sleeping. 

sinik (II)* Ws. scUnik beaver; cUnnikuk otter. 

— * (M. tchinulayoark « explosion"). 

singarpd sqeezes it = L. 

singavoq is envious = LM. 

singeq boot string == LMWn. 

singigpd sweeps or presses it off or out = L C. 

singivoq * C. singeeivoke is big with young. 

sioraq sand (a grain), plur. siorqat = LCMWns. 

siorniorpoq * L. suffers from violent pains. 

sipaq * M. tchippark awake. 

sipilertoq * M. boasting. 

sipivd cleaves, divides it = LM. 

sirak* Wn. a oyourt». 

siranok * Wa. horn. 

sisak hardness = L C Wn. (sisirua hard). 

sisamaq four, when applicated to certain objects always in 
plural: sisamat = LCMWnsa. {stomai). 

sise a fox's den = LM. 

sisuvoq glides, slides = L C. 

sitserpoq the water soaks through = L. 

siUiaq* Wn. tsedooak narwal; seesunuk, seetuuk Beluga; seeshuak 
skull of a purpoise. — Ws. tschtoak Delphinus leucas; tiztuak sturgeon; 
stung Beluga. 

situ ...*? Ws. stut, stunka, tschikuk , tschtat; Wa. ssituaka 
finger nails. 

situgtipoq * L. bleeds from his mouth. 

siugtojoq * L. large woman's-knife. 

siut ear = LCMWnsa. 

siva * Ws. chiva, tschuah, tsckuuvat a fly. 

sif>e-\- lime? duration = LM. 

Drv. G. sivekipoq is of short duration. 

sivfiaq hip, haunch = LM? tcMviark buttock). 



149 



siverpoq f sivingavoq ihe ground slopes = L. 

sivdle lamp sediment. 

sivdlutioq * L. feels offended. 

sivkerpoq * L. it cracks (see : sikersarpoq). 

so some thing, anything, a «whal?» — the same lo lifeless 
objects, as ke (a «who?») is to persons =» LCiVIWns. 

Drv. G. suna, subjective: sUp, what, which; mlivoq is occupied 
with something; aHvoq is something; auvoq is what?; sume where, 
aumit whence. — L. sumut whither; suHaJc work; sokkot cause, effect; 
sujuqpoq is wet, dirty. — M. tchumik [sumik] wilh or of what; suat- 
sark commodity, ware. — Wn. sukluten >yhy [mvdlutit thou being 
what]; sudliving autumn, «time for sewing» [sulivfik time for indoor 
work] ; sume^ sumun. — Ws. tschim why ; tschaugva lo what. — Wa. 
tchunia what; tchamit with what. 

soqulavoq attends at the festivals with nith- songs or singing 
matches = CM. 

sorqaq whalebone = LCMWna. 

sordlaq a root, the root of Sedum rodiola. 

sordluq opening of the nostrils to the palate = LM. 

sorruk a sort of boils. 

sorssugpd attacks, makes war upon him = L. 

suagpoq is harsh, severe (thing as well a person) = LiVlWs.? 
Drv. M. tchuaga, tchuannitoark punishes wilh trashing. — Ws. 
tchuaga friend; tchuagunnitoga ennemy. 

suak spawn (of fish) = LM. 

suarutaq * L. shower, rain. 

sue" Ws. tschue a leaf. 

sugaq arrowhead of iron. 

sugdlugd refuses it as being loo little = L. 

suikak a complete whole without any division or incision (f. i. 
certain mountains. — Ws. tschoah hard. — Wa. tchuekak pain?). 

suinaq* M. tchwinayoark terrible, "committing sin»; tchuXnarh 
wicked, villain. 

suingnipoq emits a smell of foxes. 

suiiDnuik * Ws. low land. 

sujdpd roastes it = L. 

sujavoq "f mjaneq sound of metal == LCM. 

sujo what is straight before = L C M Wsa. 



150 



Dry. L. sivuneh aim; sivurd what he is able lo see, what is 
before him, his view [sujuneq^ with suffix sujorna ils foremost pari, 
Ihe lime before it, aim, notion]. — M. sivulerh the first one [sujugdleq]. 

sujorssuk a whisUing, blustering sound. 

suk * L. sorruseh a child. — Wn. y&kilyua an active person ; 
y&kiasurua a lazy person. — Ws. shuk alive, a man ; shutout they ; 
shwinok twenty: suivogat, schtoaat fingers; ssuk a man, plur. ssut 
people ; schuinak twenty ; tschagaloi child. 

Note. It might seem possible , that this stem was identic with 
«so» , but its importance to the western dialects in connection with 
what is commented upon uinukn (see above) has been decisive in 
giving it a peculiar position. 

sukak a pole for support, a pillar = LCMWns. 
Dry. Wn. sukairo fast, quick [sukavoq moves quickly]. — Ws. 
tschukaladu quick. 

sukardlit * (?) Wn. yukakqlin mokkasins. 

sukit) . . .* Wn. sukibruta ('l]lna». 

sukipoq gels a splint under his skin = LM. 

sukuaguat * Ws. alder (tree). 

sule still, as yet = LMWns. 

sulua * Ws. tschuluah a hut. 

suluUoq * C. dancing (Wn. tsoolootaktok shakes with cold). 

stiluk a wing = LCMWnsa. 

sulut* M. tchulootit, tchuluratsiark a chest, box. — Wn. choo- 
loodit box. 

— * (M. tchumayulktuark '<nol injuring". — Wa. tschumachtachtu 
grief, mourning). 

sumivoq * L. is loo little lo him. 

sunaq *? Wn. tsunarr, tatmak a bear. — Wa. sunar, simar old 
[sunagdlat a claw?). 

sungaq (I) the gall, bile = L. 
Dry. G. sungdrpoq is yellow. 

sungaq (II)* C. shoongoioyat beads. — M. tchunauyark blue 
beads. — Wn. tshungaunik beads (sungaktok yellow). — Ws. tshunagtook 
green or blue ; tschunieskak blue. 

Note. It is not unlikely, that confounding exists between sungaq 
(I), (II) and tungiortoq blue (see hereafter), or between « colour » and 
beads ». 

sungivoq f sungerpoq is unwearied and of good cheer = 
LMWn. 



sungmigpoq scents out something = L. 



51 



supivd blows through a narrow opening = L C M Wiia. 

— * (Ws. tsuzshuteJceto lo strike. — Wa. tschudeegne year?). 

suterpoq * L. he is in danger, also : he gets wet, and : he has 
been successful. — M. tchurehtoarh suffering, agony; tchuralulita having 
pity ; Uihutiginerhtoarh tormenting. 

SUtuat * Wn. tckudooat freshwater. 

siivarpoq feels unwell, ill disposed = M. 

— * (Ws. UchuvigilnuTc flsh otter; tchuvavit coal). 
ssirpoq gives a whistling sound. 

ssit willow bushes used for fuel. 



t. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— S, southern — a, asiatic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

ta that, there. The stem represents one of the few prefixes 
existing in the language. Alone it is used as interjection, in asking 
attention. As a prefix it is used with the adverbial stems: ava, pava, 
qava etc. in order to intensify their demonstrative nature = LC]VIWsa.? 

Drv. G. tdssa there it is; tauva then, thereupon. 

tagiarpd wipes, rubs it. 

tagiug . . .* Wn. takhyuMipuh flsh (salmon). — Ws. tagiogvdk 
Salmo orientalis. 

tagdligpoq * L. dresses skin. 

tagdlut * Indian snowshoe. — M. takelu. — Wn. tugeluh. — 
W^S. tungyuh snowshoes. 

tdgpd takes the inner part out of a double clothing = L. 

tagsdrpoq there is surf on the shore = M. 

tagukak* Wn.tokoyJc a bear. — Ws.tagookat, tahoJcak a bear; 
ttdkuhah red bear. 

tai . . .* Wn. titij tijuk come!; tizhu^ taishki bring! — Ws. 
taigut come!; taidou^ tashjo bring!; tajahu give me; tajikua I come. 

taivd names him, calls him, gives him a name. 

tajaq bracelet = LiM. (Wn. taiaranere wrist). 

tdq (I) darkness, shade == LGMWnsa. 

Drv. G. tarraq shade, reflection. — C. takkaktoot looking 



152 



glass \tarrarssilt\. — Wn. tayaktuen a miror. — Ws. taituk fog 
\tartoq dark ; Ge. tdrteq black] ; tangiaguk miror. — Wa. tanhak shade. 

tdq (II) Ge. man {-inuk). 

Note. The discovery of this word in Easlgreenland was aston- 
ishing on account of its resemblance and apparent relationship with 
the «tow» of the Alaska Eskimo (see hereafter): and taursaq «man» 
in the angakok language of G. 

taqaq a vein = LCMWii. 

taqigpoq is reserved, modest. 

taquaq traveller's provisions. 

takik* L. the moon; takktlak new moon. — C. tatkuk^ Wn. 
takkuk^ Ws. tangik^ Wa. tankiik moon. 

takilik * C. tdkkeelikheeta, Wn. takullookioitak a butterfly. 

takivoq is long = LMWns. 

takuvd sees it = LCMWns. 

Drv. G. tagpigpoq sees well; tayplpoq is blind. — L. takkong- 
iupa sees him again after a long time; tagptpok does not see well. 
— M. takugara « regarding » ; takuyark visible. — Wn. takuvia pupil 
of the eye. — Ws. tauhuh look!] takchuik eye. 

taleq the arm = LCMWnsa. 

talipoq leans against, or is supported by something. 

talo a screen LiMWns. 

talord avoids him, fearing not to be welcome = M. 

tamaq «tolalness)), entirety, used only with suffix = LMWns. 

Drv. G. tamavta (our lolalness) all of us ; tamarmik, tamaisa 
they, them all. — L. tamdt the whole. — M. tamatkerklurit [tamd 
kerdlugit] doing so with them all. — Ws. tammeda tamaita all. 

— * (Ws. tamaridreeh finger; tamardootka thumb). 
tdmarpd has lost it = LCMWns. 
tamorpd chews it, eats it = LCMWs. 

tanagtoq * Ws. tanachtok, tangli black. — Wa. tanachtu, tungilra 
black (Wn. taksibuk black). 

Note. Possibly this stem may be related to, or have been con- 
founded with tungo (see hereafter). 

tanaq* Wn. tanuk. tangajuk water; Ws. tanak water; tanagok 
drink. 

taner . . .* L.tanertovok is great. — MJanerktoyoark [from takivoq?]. 

tanerpd forbids him severely = L. 

tanipd paints it, besmears it == M. 



153 

tan {takfy i\I. tunutmh people. — Wn. tuak a man. — Ws. 
tan man; tagut people; tennuhak boy; tannujak young man. — Wa. 
tannojak child. 

tangajorpoq sneezes = LCM. (Wa. tataachta). 

tangeq solid mailer with which a fluid is mixed, solidity, ground, 
strength = LM. 

tangmdrpoq makes halle in travelling = L. 

tangmigpoq grazes without hitting on being thrown. 

tangnit* Wn. wood. 

taorpd makes good for it, is put in its place by exchange. 

taparpoq dances = L? [tappavok is disobedient, stubborn). 

tapeq surplus given in the bargain" == LM. 

tarajoq saltwater, sail = LClVlWnsa. 

tarfivoq is a lounger, an idler = L. 

iarqigpd makes the lamp burn belter == C. 

tdrqorpoq ^ tarqUmavoq becomes silent. 

tame the soul = L. 

tarnovtik * Wn. the wrist. 

tarorpoq diminishes, dwindles. 

tarparpoq is funnelshaped, widening. 

tartdrpoq the sea ripples. 

tarto kidney, reins LCMWn. 

taseq stagnant freshwater, lake = LCMWn. 

tasiorpd leads him (by the hand). 

tasivd stretches it = LCM. 

tatagpoq is benumbed with soreness and pain = L. 
Dry. G. tatdipoq is terrified by a sight; tatamigpoq is frightened 
to death. — L. tatamipok can die from surprise. 

tataka* Wa. stand!; teto^e far off. 

tate somebody to have confidence in = L. 

tdterdq a kind of small gulls. 

tatik* Wa. nose. 

tativd makes it narrow to him = LCM. 

tdtdlangimik (trad, tales) reindeer == ?C. angakok language 
taitlamikdjuak a whale. 

tatdlimaq, with suffix tatdlimdt the fifl, plur. — mat five = 
LCMWnsa. 



154 



tauto appearance, exterior af a person = L. (Ws. tatyk fore- 
head). 

tavagpoq is fickle, wavering. 

tava . . .* Wn.tahwatai enough; tatuak finished. — Ws.taioatlo 
none (i. e. finished); tawatli enough [ma, taima^ taimaJc?]. 

tavqaq a cross siring on the kayak = LMWn. 

tavdloq the chin = LWn. 

tavsigpd* L. tapsikpa, C. tapsikdktoh feehng. 

tamik belt, girdle = LCMWna. 

tavtaq scale (of fish). 

tav)uk * Ws. window. 

teqerqoq corner = L. 

teqigd dares not pronounce the name of the deceased. 

tengnii ...* Wn. tengmitlcomkto hail. 

teriaqf (a weasel?) = L. (weasel) C. (ermine) Wn. (ermine). 
Dry. G. teriangniaq a fox. — C. terreeaneearioo. — Wn. 
teregunia. 

terigpoq is slender, tiny. 

terqiaq a shade for the eyes == L. 

terdlik security. 

tertipoq* LC. {tertitdk) boiling. 

— * (Wn. dirduh belly of a woman). 

tetsuipoq * L. the skin is torn off. 

tiarpd gives (the dog) a smart with the whip. 

tigdlaq * L. an ax. 

tigdleq the pulse = LM. 

tigdligpoq steals = LCiMWnsa. 

tigdlugpd blows him with the clenched fist = LCMWns. 

tigpik side rib of the kayak = LiM. 

tigpoq-\- feels sexual desire? == L. 

Dry. G. tingavoq copulates ; tiggaq a male seal. 

tiguvd takes it, seizes it = LCMWnsa. 

tikeq the forefinger = LCMWn. 

tikipoq he has arrived, is come home = LCM(Wnsa?). 

tilivd sends him on an errand = L!VI. 

tilugpd cleans it from snow etc. by beating = LCM. 



155 



time body, irunc, central pari = LCMWn. 

Drv. G. timdne {nunap of Ihe lands) farther from the sea; 
timerdleq he who dwells farther up the country. — L. tigvarpd car- 
ries it farther up from the shore. — C. timiUtu with a small body. 

tinagpoq * L. shivers from cold. 

tine ebb, low water = LCWn. 

tinuvoq a swelling or tumor is forming = L. 

tingivoq lakes to move through the air by itself or by the wind 
= LCMWnsa.? 

Drv. G. tigsiarpoq sails; tigssalugpoq wells or springs forth 
(water). — M. tinmiyork flyiug; tinmiark a bird \tingmivoq, tingmiaq], 

— Wn. tingirua he flies ; tingidrauda [tingerdlauta its sail] a sail. — 
Ws. tynmiak a bird. 

tinguk the liver = LCMWn. 

iipdpoqf (is indecent?). 

Drv. G. tipdipoq is joyful, delighted (M. titanguyartoarkf). 

iipik smell --= LCM. 

Drv. M. tipiritork [tipigigsoq] odorous. 

iipivd (the current) brings it on shore = L. 

tirumat * C. a kind of lichen. 

tisigpoq * L. tijikpok has a hard crust, 

iissavoq cuts fish or meat for drying = LM. 

titala* Wn. barbot (flsh). 

iitarpd makes streaks or lines on it = LCM. 

literpoq it creaks, jars. 

tivavoq dances = M.? 

iivflk * L. tibviane, tibvinme etc. in his, my etc. absence. 

tivforpd f tivfuarpd spits it out with one blow = L. 

tivdle dirlh about the mouth = LM. 

tivsigd flnds it ridiculous. 

toqo death = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. L. tokkovoq [toquvoq] is dead ; tokkopa [toqiipd] kills him. 

— M. torkrotark [toqutaq] killed. — Wn. toggongitsok alive [taqring- 
itaoq not dead]. — Ws. torrovok. 

torqorpd lays il by, deposits it = LM. 

tordluk the throat = LCMWna. 

Drv. G. tordlorpoq shouts, cries loudely. 

tdrnaq guardian spirit = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. Ws. tungalik [tornalik having g. sp.] a Shaman. 



166 



torssoq house-passage = L. 

torssuvoq is densily covered with hair, also: il is thick fog 
= L. 

tuagpoq is slander, tiny = M. 

tuapaq pebble, boulder= LWs. 

tuaviorpoq makes hasl = LCM. 

iiigaq tusk, ivory == LCMWns. 

iugiukpuk * Wn. mink. 

tugdlik Golden plover (bird) = LCWn. 

tugsiarpoq begs, prays = L. 

tugto reindeer = LCMWnsa. 

tugulavoq * L. the flesh is loosened from the bones in boiling. 

tujorpd (f?) is charitable to him = CM. 
Drv. G. tujormivoq is without shelter. — C. tugurumidjen a 
visitor. — M. tuorhtitark « introduced ». 

tuikakj tukuk * Ws. urin. 

— * (Wa. tuitlachkiin wedding. — Wn. tyoongme a kind of 
long fish). 

Uijuk * Ws. a chief. 

a rare kind of snipes. 



tuk '\- a radical word or sound indicating a collision between 
two objects = LCMWDsa. 

Drv. G. tugpog^ hurts against something and is stopped or takes 
il along with itself; t'dngavoq is resting upon something; fdngavik 
foundation, basis; torpd pushes thrusts il; tukerpd Ireads on il; tug- 
dleq the next one; tugpatdlersarpd comforts, consoles him; tukaq har- 
poon ; tulagpoq he lands ; tunge side, direction ; tuve shoulder. — L. 
torarpa goes towards him; tuglek^ tokak, tuUakpok, tunge ^ tungavik. 
— C. tokerpd he strikes il; tooiooke [tdq\ icechisel ; ^oovee(/a shoulders 
[my-]. — M. tvkeraya thrusting; tuik shoulders. — Wn. tuku head 
of the walrus harpoon; tudla second. — Ws. tungy direction. — 
Wa. tuichka shoulders. 

tukagpoq is curled (hair). 

Drv. G. tukagfdjoq a land snipe (Wn. tuva-tura curlew. — 
Ws. tuavia Robin snipe). 

iuke* L. sense, meaning; tukkisinek to understand. 

tukik the direclion of lenghl = LM. 

tukuvoq stays for the night in a neighbour house. 

tuli*1 Ws. deep. 



157 

tulimak (f?), tulimdq one of the lower ribs = LCMWn. 

tuluvaq a raven = LCMWns. 

tumarpoq is palsied, palsical. 

lume footstep = LCMWn (Ge. tiimat foot). 

tumo * Wn. toomoe certain small fish. — Ws. tujmt. 

tundq (-}-?) the object of one's hope and confldenc = L. 

tuneq fabulous inlander = LC. (a strange nation formerly 

existing), 

tunerssuk breastbone (of mammalia) = LC. 
iunivd gives him presents = LMWsa. 
tunoq tallow = LCMWns. 
tunuk the backside = LCMWns. 

tunga* Ws. tunha kinsman; tunki cousin; fatchuk, tunchik 
grand child. 

iungo juice of berries etc. = LCM. (Wnsa.?) 

Drv. G. tungujortoq blue. — M. tunguyortoarh (see : tanagtoq). 

— * (Wn. tungyu white man). 

tupagpoq gels astart, is frightened, is waked = LCM.(Ws. 
tuppi 10 rise, get up). 

tupeq tent = LCMWn. 

tupigd wonders at it. 

tupilak a fabulous monster = C. 

tupipoq gets something sitting in the throat, is nearly stiffled 
= LM. 

tuputa* C. toopoota nail of ivory for stopping the wounds of 
seals ; toobetawyer a pin. — M. tuputauyarh pin. — Wn. toopoo- 
tiwyah pin. 

tusarpoq hears = LCMWn. 

tusiagpoq halls, lames = LMWn. 

tusuvoq is envious == L. 

iutdq* M. iutdrk labret. — Wn. tootuk, tutH lip ornament. 

tuterialik * Fuligula mollissima. 

tutsineq a bald spot on the side of the head = L. 

tutuq* L. tuiuvok his hair is entangled. — M. tuturk fllthiness; 
tutoyork unclean, filthy. 

tuvaq* LC. old thick ice (M. tuvartuark bursting?). 



158 



tuvne laltoving = LCWn. 

tuvsimavoq * L. oul of weariness is he unable to walk. 



n. 

(EXPLANATIONS: G, Greenland, (Ge, Eastgreenland) — L, Labrador 

— C, Central Regions — M, Mackenzie — W, Western (n, northern 

— S, southern — a, asialic) — *, NOT met with in Greenlandish.) 

ud take care ! beware ! 

uartaq a wooden stopper to the hunting bladder. 

uavag * L. uavarpok is westwind. — C. ooagnuk west; uang- 
nangmun «norlhweslern». — M. uavarneh west. — Wn. ivaleengnami 
northwest. — Ws. oonulak west. 

uerneq * L. the foremost part of the sledge. 

ugagtoq * Ws. clear; ugalTeoTc white. 

uggorpoq regrets, is vexed = L. 

ugiunarpak * M. swordfish. 

ugpd tries it, makes a trial of it = LM. 

ugpat a thigh = L. 

ugperpoq believes = L. 

ugpik an owl = LMWn. 

ugsiu* Ws. uschkuk head? 

ugsugtoq""^ Ws. oksuktuk dark. 

ugsunaq * L. ugsunak, M. ugiungnark a shrew mouse. 

ugsugpoq licks. 

ugssuk Phoca barbata = L C M Wn. 

— * (Ws. ukhtok yesterday. — ugunsat a bird). 
uiaq young whale => L. 

uiarpd passes by the outside of, rounds it = L. 

uiartorpd tears him asunder, dilacerates him. 

uigo, uio a part added to the length = LM. 
Dry. IM. uiwulereit [uigulerit] arranged in a row. 

— * (Ws. uigpagaga crying; uikak a strait; uiknuiuk bad). 
uiloq muscle, bivalve = LCM. 



159 

— * (C. ooinya dirty he is. — Ws. oimi clown, nelher; uinuk, 
usinuk old man). 

uingiarpoq whistles == LGM. 

uipoq opens his eyes = LM. 

uiverd * L. uiverivd deceives, cheats him. — iM. oiyeyet a de- 
ceiver; loiyiya deceived; o'iniktoark deceiving. 

uwfaq fern plant = C. 

ujagpoq f ujdkarpok stretches in order to get higher = L. 
(the stem still used) M? 

ujajarpd plunders, pillages him = M. (ivayartork). 

ujalo sinew, sinew-thread = LGMWn. 

ujamik neck-lace = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. M. ujamitkrork ivory ornaments or beads. = Wn. uyami 
ivory needle-case. — Ws. ujanut, ujakunka neck. — Wa. ujankunka 
neck. (The latter perhaps are nearer the true stem). 

ujameriak a swarm, a shoal. 

ujaq* [? = iggiaq] M. uyak throat. — Wn. %oeeakkote throat; 
weeakuk neck. 

ujarak a stone = LCMWnsa. 

ujarqerpoq Ge. gets something to eat. . 

vjarpd searches, looks for it. 

ujeq * Wa. line of walrus hide. 

ujorojwoq * L. is not right angle. 

ujoruk (his) sisters child = LGM. 

ujuaq*'? Wn. ungavunga, oonuguk brother. — Ws. ojoara, 
ooyitaga, oyuagok brother (ujuanaka sister). 

— * (Wn. ooyooar squirrel skinfrock. — Wa. ujuchachat raspberry). 

ujukuaq a piec of blubber used a baid for gulls = L. 

ujumiga*^ Wn. a stone knife. 

ujumik vapour from the sea = LM. 

Drv. M. ujumeriaq warm air (Ws. ujutschujuhjak air). 

uqak* Wa. uckak chalk. 

ukaleq a hare = LGMWna. 

ukamarpoq (I) totters, shakes with his body or his kayak. 

ukamarpoq (11) LM. drags the boat along the shore. 

ukarpoq gets loose and falls down. 



160 



ukiluvuk * ? Wsa. a bow (Wn. ookioakta a bowstring. — Ws. 

ulmiuk, usliuvit bow). 

ukineq * L. a cankerous wound. 

ukioq winter = LCiMWnsa. 

ukipd drills a hole in the needle = L. 

iikivoq has become desirous of getting more of the same kind 
= L. 



ukuaq son's or brother's wife, husband's or wife's brother's 
wife = LC. 



ukoq Ge. stepmother. 

uaq son's or brotl 
LC. 

— * (Ws. uhugaltuh big; ujukalnuh narrow. — Wa. ukuiutacUu 
weak). 

ukuvoq is bent together, bent double = LCM. 

ulamerpoq is round = M. 

ulapipoq is pressed with business, is busy = L!V1. 

ularuaq * M. Sperma-celi whale. 

ule a cover, a layer or coal over something, inundation, flood 
= LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. ulivharpoq is full. — L. ulligarpok is inundated; 
uUpkipoq is quite full. — Wn. uligrua blanket ; uliktua flood tide. 

ulerpd-\- uler'apai can not discern them, confounds them == LM. 

uligileq a kind of drift limber. 

uliligit * Ws. uljiligit, uliguik white fox. 

uligpoq trembles = LCMWs. 

ulimavoq hews with an ax = LCMWn. 

uliut loin or part of the back of a seal = L. (uliut sinew 
from the back of a reindeer) CWn. (ooleeooshene tenderloin). 

ulo (I) woman's knife, also: harpoon point = LCMWns. 

ulo (II)* Ws. ulu, uljuj alianuk tongue. — Wa. ulljUj uliu 
tongue. 

uloriarpoq startles out of fear = LM. 

uluaq the cheek = LCMWnsa. 

ulugpd rubs it with the hands for making it pliable = L. 

utnaq * L. a seam on boots. 

umavoq is living, is still aHve = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. {imassoq living, an animal; Umat heart. — M. omayoh^ 
Oman. — Wn. omen heart. — Ws. unayuak^ ongokok alive; unachtuk 
life ; ungoan heart. 



161 

umerpd regards il wilh downpressed eyebrows. 

umiaq an open skinboat = LCMWnsa.? (Ws. anliat, aniak, 
Wa. angiak). 

Drv. Wn. omaylik a chief [umialik boat owner]. 

umigd is very angry wilh \\\m, hales him == LCM. 

umik beard, curtain of a lent = LCMWnsa. 

— * (Wa. uminagtuk reasonable, sensible; uninhachtuk stupid. — 
C. umik-hilik blue. — Wn. umudraktua bUie. — Ws. umunyk an 
owl). 

unajua . . .*? L. unajoalik an animal which just has got hair. 

undq harpoonshaft without the bonefeathers = LCWn. 

unangmivd ventures to try something wilh him, either to make 
him grant a desire, or to emulate, to vie wilh him = L. 

una ... * L. unane eastward , seaward among the islands. — 
Wn. unani north, ununga northward. — Ws. unaliak east. 

unangnipoq moves the head in' dancing = iM? 

unasungiaq the next youngest of small children of the same 
parents. 

unatarpd flogs him, also: kills the seal wilh the lance == L. 

unavoq (the dog) wags wilh the tail = L\i? 

uneq armpit = L IM Wn. 

unerpoq says, tells = LCM. 

uniarpoq drags something = LCMWn. 

unigpoq stops, stands still, does not move = h., 

uniorpd misses his aim = L. 

unugput * L. they are many. — C. oonookpoot great many. — 
M. unurturk perfectly. 

unuk evening = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. unuaq night; unuarorpoq night is selling in. — L. 
unuivok spends the night in the open air. — Wn. oonamin morning; 
oonalagin{7) day before. — Ws. unak morning; oonmaku morning; 
oonuyoo to morrow. — Wa. unua evening; unnjak night; unum kuk- 
dra [qeqa middle) midnight. 

unga-\- extreme? = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. ungasigpoq is far; tmgat with suffix ungatd Ihe space 
beyond il. (C. ungaleago second day afier to morrow). — M. ung- 
asiktork «removing». — Wn. oonaseeshuk far off. 

— * (Wn. ungashark whale -line. — Wa. ungajak reindeer- 
lichen). 



162 



nngal . . .*? M. ungalerkrayoark gust of wind. — Wn. unyalu 
southwest wind; ungaluna whirlwind; ungalakpuk storm. 

ungavoq feels continual attraction to a person or thing = L. 

ungavuk * Wa. eleven. 

ungialigswoq blinks. 

ungilagpoq it itches -=- LM. 

ungna, ungnisut twenty one. 

ungoq a wart = LCM. 

— * (Ws. ugnychkat, ognakak spring). 

ungujungvjorpoq throws something to people for scrambling. 

upd, interjection used wilh infants: look! 

Drv. G. upagpoq stretches out his hand for the meal set be- 
fore him, also: goes whaleflshing. 

upalorpoq is surprised by something without being duly pre- 
pared =- LM. 

uperndq spring LCMWns. 

upernivoq keeps his hand to the cheek. 

upipoq wails, cries out of grief. 

upipoq falls, tumbles down. 

— * (Wn. ohovik spoon, ladle. — oorunnee stone for killing seals). 
us . . .* Ws. usinga, uschchaga cousin. 

use (I) yes, now I remember! =- L. 

use (II) what is loaded in the boat or on the sledge = LC. 

userpd drops, sprinkles water upon it = LM. 

userpoq takes off his boots = LM?Wn. (iiseasu, usilakto 
barefoot). 

usord wishes he was so happy as he. 

us ...*?* Ws. oosewitoh, usuitok , usjuichtuk wise, prudent; 
usjaituk stupid. 

usuk penis, sexual organs = LCiVlWns. 
usulkak, uijulkak* Ws. a child. 
utarqwd wails for him = LMWs. 

ute the way back = LCIVL 

Dry. M. oterhtoark returning [uterpoq]. 

utivoq the hairy side of the skin is gelling loose = L. 

uidlagpd (?) Ge. runs to catch him = L. 
Dry. Ge., L. utdlagtut three stars of Orion. 



163 



utorqaq old = ?CWns. 
utuk furfur of a child. 

uva (ihe root is: u) there (pointing) = LCMWnsa. 

Drv. G. iina that there (derived immediately from the rool), 
plur. iiho, ukoa; uminga by that, umuvga to that. — M. ?/««, okkoa, 
uminga, omnua. — Ws. oona. 

uvd* (7) Wn. wall! icaa! yes. 

fwaq the smaller codfish = LCWn. 

uvakaq* Wn. uakak south, noon. — Ws. mgak, ooagtok south; 
ovagak southwind. 

nvanga I, me, plur. iwagut = LCMWnsa. (ooanga, looonga^ 
cJivjyy chivanga, toy, uankuta). 

uvasaq * Ws. oaschak, ooisiak north: ovasakak norlhwind. 

— * [uvatarigdt they fell in love with him; uvfaserpdt the same 
in a high degree — trad, tales). 

ucatse stop, wail a little! = LCWs. 

iwdvfaq Ge. (snail?) shell {L. tibvertok a small shell, muscle). 

uvCj with suffix uvia her husband = LCiMWnsa. 

uverpoq inclines, slopes -= LiVI. 

uvfarpd washes him (excepting the face) = LiM. 

uvigarpd * L. hits it. 

uvinik flesh of men and animals (alive) = LCiMWn. 

uviu . . .* CWn. ooioeuktoo bark (?). 

uvkaq front wall of a house = LM. 

uvkiisikf (still preserved in the other dialects) a pot = LCM Wn. 
Drv. G. uvkusigssaq potstone, soapstone. 

uvdlo bird's nest, eiderdown == CWnsa. 

uvdloq day = LCiVIWns. 

uvnit although = LM. 

uvoq is boiled, baked, burnt = LCMWnsa. 
Drv. G. ■Cmartoq hot; Ge. unarqit a lamp. — Wn. unaktok 
warm. — Ws. uknaclituk. — Wa. uochnapichtok. 



iwsigpoq is tight = L. 
uvtoqigpoq stammers, stutters = M. 




Meddelelsor oni Greiilaiid 



iidcivne af 



Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske 
Undersegelser i Grenland. 



Supplement til ellevte Hefte. 



^113 K A I? 

*■ O T H : 

UNl^VERSi: 

Kjabenhavn. 

I Commission bos C. A. Reitzel. 

Bianco I.unos Kgl. Hof-nog^rykkori (F !>-•,. v-- 



leddelelser om arenland. 



Meddelelser om Gronland, 



udgivne af 

Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske 
Undersagelser i Gr^nland, 



Supplement til ellevte Hefte. 



«Tlie Eskimo tribes, their distribution and characteristics, 

especiallv in regard to language. With a comparative 

vocabulan^». 

Af 
H. Rink. 

I'dgivel ved Underslallelse af Minisleriet for Kirke- og L'lideivisiiingsvapsenel. 



»H4-««- 



Kjabenhavn. 

I Commission hos C. A. Reitzel. 

Bianco Lunos Kgl. EIof-Bogtrykkeri (K. Dreyer). 

1891. 



MityinniH M 



THE ESKIMO TRIBES. 

THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTIOS, 
ESPECIALLY IN REGARD TO LANGUAGE. 

WITH A COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY. 

BY 
Dr. H. RINK, 

LATE DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL GREENLAND BOARD OF TRADE, 

AND FORMERLY ROYAL INSPECTOR OF SOCTH GREENLAND. 

AUTHOR OF «TALES AND TRADITIONS OF THE ESKIMO.., «DANISH GREENLAND-., ETC. 

SUPPLEMENT OR VOL. IL 



[SUPPLEMENTARY PART TO VOL. XI OF THE 

«Meddelelser om Grenlando, 

EDITED BY THE COMMISSION FOR DIRECTING THE GEOLOGICAL 

AND GEOGRAPHICAL EXPLORATIONS IN GREENLAND.] 



--m—T 



COPENHAGEN. LONDON. 

C. A. REITZEL. LONGMANS, GREEN & CO' 

MDCCCLXXXXI. 



COPENHAGEN. — BIANCO LUNO, (F. DREYER), PRINTER TO THE KING. 



PREFACE. 



Ihe purpose of the present Volume is, in the first place, as 
an introduction, to continue Itie conclusions, which we are able 
to draw from the mode of life, the customs and usages of the 
Eskimo mentioned in the former Volume, adding one apparently 
safe inference from their language, concerning their homestead 
before their dispersion. Then, as the main object follows the 
Comparative Vocabulary of the Dialects, in the former Part 
it is tried to give the elements , out of which the words 
are formed, and the rules for employing this material. In the 
present Volume a selection of the words themselves is compiled. 
The arrangement of this Vocabulary will be found explained 
pp.23 and 113, in connection with some other editorial remarks. 
There is especially rendered an account of the division into a 
General and a Special Part, of which the latter is founded on 
Powell's Introduction to the stddy of Indian Languages, the former 
on Roget's Thsaurus of English Words and Phrases. 



CONTENTS. 



P»fe 

THE ORIGIN OF THE ESKIMO AS TRACED BY THEIR 

LANGUAGE 1. 

New words needed by the Arctic settlers — Culture home 

— Dialects — Names of animals, boats and implements 

— Various words — Safe conclusions — Further con- 
clusions — Alaska — Plan of the vocabulary — Various 
Notes: Dangers of the chase; seals of Alaska; Harpoons 
etc.; long voyages; Cape Bathurst; King William's Land; 
name for „ White man"; the iceperiod; stem words; poly- 
synthetisme. 

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARY 33. 

Explanation. 

General Part 35. 

1) Existence — 2) Relation — 3) Quantity — 4) Order 

— 5) Number — 6) Time — 7) Change - 8) Cau- 
sation — 9) Space — 10) Motion — 11) Matter — 
1 2) Intellect — 1 3) Communication of Ideas — 1 4) Indi- 
vidual Voluntary powers — 15) Intersocial Voluntary p. 

— 16) Affections. 

Special Part 64. 

17) Person — 18) Body — 19) Dress and Ornaments 

— 20) Dwellings etc. — 21) Travelling, Hunting and 
Fishing — 22) Numerals — 23) Division of Time — 
24) Animals — 25) Plants — 26) Land and Sea, 
Lifeless Matter — 27) Firmament, Air, Physical actions 

— 28) Kinship — 29) Sociology and Religion — 30) Sup- 
plement. 

Index 98. 

Specimen of Narrative Style 102. 

Elements of Traditions 107. 

Notes .114. 

1) Literary Sources — 2) Ethnographical — 3) Tradi- 
tional — 4) Linguistical — 5) Additional corrections 
to Vol. I. — 6) Additions to Vol. II. 

Abbreviations 123. 

Errata 123. 



The origin of the Eskimo as traced by 
the language. 

Ihe object of the former volume was, in connection with an 
abstract of the Grammar and a comparative vocabulary to eluci- 
date the question of the origin of the Eskimo by some general 
considerations. The chief result arrived at was a theory, accor- 
ding to which their ancestors originally inhabited a territory 
situated somewhere in the interior of the North American Con- 
tinent, whence they emigrated and following the water courses, 
were led to a littoral of the arctic or subarctic regions, most 
probably that of Alaska. Settled on the shores of that country 
they developed their wonderful art of capturing marine animals 
which culminated in their marvellous capability of facing even 
the most terrible experiences of the arctic clime. From Alaska 
they then should have emigrated, spreading gradually to the 
East and North over the vast regions since tennanted by them. 
In bringing forward this explanation of how even the most for- 
bidding part of our globe could obtain inhabitants, we have, it 
is true, omitted mentioning the possibility of the Eskimo having 
inhabited a more southern littoral, and by simply following the 
coast line reached the higher latitudes. Such a supposition 
however will, on closer investigation prove to be more impro- 
bable. Migrations of this kind could only have been effected 
from three different coastal regions, namely those on the Eastern, 

XI. 2. I 



or Western side of the American continent, or the Eastern of 
the Asiatic (Siberia), and we bad to suppose that the shores 
traversed before reaching the arctic frontier had been found to 
be uninhabited. It must be presumed that the acclimatisation 
and adaptation of the newcomers to this arctic home extended 
over centuries before any generally wide spread diffusion could 
have taken place throughout the arctic regions. During such a 
period the population must have necessarily multiplied and in- 
creased towards the said frontier. An assemblage, or accumul- 
ation, of this nature on the sea shore itself barely agrees with 
their habits of subsistance by fishing and hunting. For like 
reasons we cannot imagine that, if they had come from the 
interior they could have wandered across the land, and not 
followed the river courses. The latter path would lead them 
naturally to a country bordering the sea and including the 
estuaries of rivers which, from their abundance of fish, supplied 
the necessary food for sustaining life during the supposed 
period of transition. 

THE LANGUAGE OF THE ARCTIC SETTLERS NEEDING 
THE FORMATION AND ADDITION OF NEW WORDS. It can 

hardly be denied that the explanation thus offered is supported 
by various facts, but on the other hand we have to bear in 
mind that still we have been confined in the main to bare 
theory, and the writer has searched diligently for some source 
of information on which to base more exact conclusions. Such 
he believes to have found while prosecuting the study of the 
Eskimo dialects, and thereby adopting a proceeding which will 
be found quite simple. On first settling by the arctic waters 
and adopting an altered mode of existence, the newcomers must 
have been compelled to create a number of new words where- 
with to designate or describe the objects of their natural sur- 
roundings, especially the animals which they met with here for 
the first time, and those contrivances and engines which neces- 



sity, in their struggle for existence, had compelled them to 
originate. When compared with the ordinary course of devel- 
opment of the lower races, as shown by the history of culture, 
such transformation must be regarded as having been of a 
somewhat sudden character. From having been the natives of 
sylvan districts, they had to become a people that may be said 
to shun the forrests, and content themselves with the most 
barren and ice clad shores in existence. Their only means of 
sustenance was to be found in the marine animals, the seals 
and the whales , whose peculiar covering of fat (blubber) while 
affording them food, could at the same time furnish them with 
fuel and light, sufficient to the requirements of the severest 
climate hitherto known. But in respect to the capture of these 
animals instruments had to be devised which have, from their 
ingenuity and workmanship, gained the admiration of the civilised 
world. First they had to exchange the birch-bark canoe, adapted 
to lakes and rivers, for the kayak fitted to brave the waves of 
the ocean. Thus there can be but httle doubt as to the nature 
of the objects which gave rise to the formation of new words, 
or expressions, by people subjected to suoh an entire change 
of life as mentioned. 

THE ARCTIC CULTURE HOME. The vast extent of ter- 
ritory over which the Eskimo race is spread has often been the 
subject of discussion. It will be sufficient here to repeat that 
it comprises the littoral and islands of America north of a line 
extending from East to West and varying from 66° to 60° N. 
latitude, including Greenland and a portion of the N. E. corner 
of Siberia. The inhabitants of the opposite ends of this terri- 
tory, to the E. in Greenland and Labrador, and to the W. in 
Siberia and Southern Alaska, in order to visit each other would 
have to travel more than 6000 miles by their ordinary means 
of conveyance, skinboats and sledges. In order to obtain a 
comprehensive view of the populations which lie scattered in 



small communities over tiiis area, we will divide them into two - 
parts, the Eastern and the Western, separated by Cape Bathurst, 
at about the central point of the continental coast, between 
Hudson's Bay and Bering's Strait. The Eastern groups would 
comprise the Greenlanders, the Labradorians and the Central 
tribes. The Western would include the Mackenzie River tribes, the 
Extreme Western or Alaska tribes, and finally the Asiatic Eskimo. 
The intercourse between these head groups is very slight, 
being restricted to the immediate neighbours on either side, and 
then only to certain times of the year. As regards intercourse 
generally between the tribes or communities of each group, 
hunting excursions , or migratory expeditions will occasinally 
lead famihes or individuals to undertake relatively long voyages, 
and in this way enable them to acquire a knowledge of other 
inhabited parts within a distance of two hundred miles or more 
on either side of their usual winter station. But howsoever 
migration and removing of their settlements occasionally still 
may be continued, the Eskimo regions may tolerably well be 
considered as divided into territories now taken in possession 
by their different small tribes or communities. Certainly it was 
an exaggeration when an eminent arctic explorer asserted that 
the Eskimo of Smith's Sound believed themselves to be the only 
human beings that existed, but as a rule it may be maintained, 
that within the borders of a group many of the communities 
or small tribes know but very little about each other and as 
good as nothing about people of the next group. 

The comparatively insignificant differences of language that 
have been met with among so widely dispersed and isolated 
tribes have often been mentioned. In order to more exactly 
ascertain the bounds of this similarity of dialects , the writer 
has compiled a comparative glossary classifying the words 
according to the ideas or objects to which they relate. This 
essay, in a concise form will be given in the present volume. 
First we will call attention to that part of it which should serve 



to guide us in our investigations concerning the obscure history 
of the nation. It is tiie above mentioned new words invented 
during the transition of the Eskimo to their present state as a 
really arctic people, that first have to be objects of our investiga- 
tions. While the uniformity of the language in general must be 
derived from a common source before their migration to the nor- 
thern shores, the subsequent dispersion might be supposed to 
have tended to cause greater differences especially in regard to 
the new designations. But just the contrary proved to be the 
result from duly examining them. The classes into which the 
glossary divided the words in general had no reference to those 
here in question, that had to be picked out and gathered from 
different classes, as for instance parts of the body, animals, 
hunting implements etc. , and it was striking to observe , that 
with regard to the most important of them, the dialects exhibited 
the most complete resemblance or rather identity. Of course 
various doubts can be raised as to the question about what 
might be considered as belonging to the new words etc., but 
even if allowance was given to objections in regard to such, 
the proofs appeared so evident in favour of certain conclusions 
relating to the development of the present Eskimo culture, that 
no doubt could exist about them. They are: 

1. That the original Eskimo, if they have issued from the 
interior continent, have not followed diverging directions, but 
ARRIVED AT THE SHORES OF THE ARCTIC SEA STILL IN WHAT 
MAY BE CONSIDERED ONE BODY. The maritime country which 
here they first occupied, we will call the "Eskimo culture home*, 
to be distinguished from the original cradle of their race. 
THEY CAN ONLY HAVE HAD ONE SCCH.CCJLTCRE HOME, howsoever 
they gained it, along the seashore or directly from the interior. 
Certainly there are several reasons for believing, that after the 
dispersion of the first emigrants issuing from the culture home 
had commenced, bands from the interior may have joined these 
pioneers even in places distant from the culture home, but in 



6 



doing so they wholly adopted the habits of the latter and be- 
came amalgamated with them. 

2. The culture home must have been of SMALL EJiTENT 
in comparison with the inhabited tracts of Eskimo countries and 
their scale of distances in general. In other words its first 
inhabitants must have been able to maintain A CERTAIN DEGREE 
OF MLTCAL INTERCOURSE, sufficient to the development of their 
common inventions, and to the adaptation of their mode of 
living and of their simple social organisation to their future 
arctic homes. A. natural consequence of this co-operation was 
the formation of the series of words mentioned above which we 
might call the <'new» or peculiar Eskimo words. 

COMPARISON OF THE DIALECTS. In the former volume 
the author has tried to give a view of the elements, out of 
which the Eskimo language is constructed, the so called stem- 
words and affixes in an alphabetic order. In the present part; 
in some measure, the opposite order is used, showing how Ihe 
words of the European language are rendered in the Eskimo, 
distributing them, as above mentioned, according to the ideas 
or objects to be designated. This arrangement seemed to be 
conformable to the ethnographic or culture-historical character 
of the investigations here, and is also, as well known, com- 
monly used by authors on languages spoken by native on the 
lower stages of culture. It will be seen that in the present 
case the schedules proposed by Powell in his « Introduction to 
the study of Indian languages-) are followed. However as the 
Eskimo language in connection with the missionary work in 
Greenland and Labrador has been thouroughly studied and 
perfectly described certainly more than most of even the better- 
known aboriginal American idioms, a supplement as a -General 
part" will be inserted, serving to fill out what in the first 
named "Special part- may be wanting, especially in regard to 
words relating to more abstract ideas. 



On proceeding to institute a comparison between the 
eastern and the western dialects in regard to the designation 
of certain objects, the first general difficulty might be expected 
from the relative poorness of the western vocabularies, while for 
Greenland and Labrador we possess regular dictionaries. But 
as to the said new words the western vocabularies nevertheless 
proved to be tolerably well provided. It will be seen that with 
a few exceptions all the principal objects here in question are 
represented in them. Another difficulty might seem to arise in 
trying to discern between what had to be considered new, and 
what had been known to the natives from their life in an earlier 
home in more southern regions. Certain well known birds, for 
instance are very characteristic of the polar sea, but may have 
been known from far-off lakes too , visited by them at certain 
seasons, and it is doubtful whether the invention of the Eskimo 
dog sledge is due to a period after their settling on the northern 
shores or before. But on the other hand it may be with safety 
asserted, that the emigrants from the south can not have be- 
come acquainted with the walrus and the polar bear before 
reaching the arctic sea. However in giving a list of such de- 
cidedly arctic objects there is no sufficient reason for omitting 
others of a similar kind, if even some doubt may be raised 
about their origin. At any rate it must be left to the reader, 
as to how they finally have to be ranged. 

THE NAMES OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ARCTIC 
ANIMALS. After these previous remarks we will turn to the 
appended vocabulary and select the words in question, arranging 
them conformably to their importance for our proposed research. 
The first class of course comprises the arctic mammiferous 
animals, the seals, whales and the polar bear. The vocabulary 
shows, that the following animals and objects relating to them 
have identical names, in the east and the west: I. THE SPOTTED 
SEAL. — 2. THE FIORD SEAL. — 3. THE BEARDED SEAL. — 



s 



4. THE SADDLEBACK SEAL. — 5. THE WALRUS. — 6. THE GREEN- 
LAND WHALE. — 7. THE WHITE WHALE. — 8. THE NARWHAL. — 
9. THE SWORDFISH. — 10. THE POLAR BEAR.— 11. BLUBBER.— 
12. WALRUS- AND NARWHAL-TEETH (IVORY). — 13. WHALEBONE. — 
14. MATAK OR EATABLE SKL\ OF THE CETACEANS. — 15. THE 
SEAL'S BREATHING HOLE IN THE ICE. — 16. A SEAL LYLNG ON 
THE ICE. 

As to details it may be noted, that the saddleback seal has 
a peculiar name in Greenland , unknown in the other dialects 
excepting the angakok (magician's) language in Baffin's land. 
But from Labrador, the extreme southeast, to Point Barrow in 
the extreme north-west the name of this animal is the same. 
In the latter locality however the same animal, so common in 
Greenland, is said to be rather scarce. In a few instances the 
names of seals in the same vocabulary are exchanged, probably 
by mistake. Finally our list does not comprise two, or perhaps 
three seals only mentioned as occurring in Alaska; one of them 
is called Maklak , but it is doubtful , whether this be the name 
of a peculiar species or signifies merely a large seal. Further- 
more an apparently rare seal called abba is omitted, although 
occurring under this name both east and west of Cape Bathurst; 
and the well known Hooded seal of southern Greenland, is not 
mentioned in the western vocabularies. The same is the case 
with several species of whales, well known to the natives of 
Greenland, though of but little value to them, excepting the 
finwhale. While in this way we still possess but imperfect 
knowledge about the occurrence of some species, it is evident 
on the other hand, that in the first named series of species, 
known to the tribes of all the chief groups, are comprised all 
the principal marine animals that have served to support the 
Eskimo in their struggle for existence during their life in the 
arctic regions. It will be sufficient here to point out the im- 
mense quantities' of meat and fat furnished by the Greenland 
whale, the white whale and narwhal, the more regular and 



universal capture of the fiord seal which provides them chiefly 
with clothing and, so to say, supplies the daily food of the 
improvident natives of Point Harrow in the extreme West as 
well as in northern Greenland, and then the largest species, 
the walrus, the bearded and the saddleback seal, from which, 
besides quantities of flesh and blubber, they get the highly 
important skins used in making boats, tents and hunting lines. 
Finally what kind of animals might be considered more closely 
attached to the shores and the drifting ice of the arctic sea 
than the polar bear? Us occurrence in the New World justly 
may be said to correspond almost exactly with that of the 
Eskimo. It will be seen that its Eskimo name is everywhere 
the same, and we may add that it belongs- to the radical words 
of the dictionary. 

WORDS RELATING TO BOATS AND IMPLEMENTS OF 
CHASE. We now pass to consi/ier the products of human 
industry by which the capture of the animals enumerated above 
is performed, in the first place the means of conveyance and, 
secondly, the tools and weapons. In proceeding to discuss 
this class of objects, attention must first be called to the pecu- 
liarity in their designation arising from the development they 
still have been submitted to during the dispersion of the natives 
to their present homes. The changes caused by this develop- 
ment may appear inconsiderable, but still they are not without 
some significance for our investigation, especially as they are 
dependant on the different nature of the territories occupied by 
the settlers which required an adaptation of the contrivances to 
the localities. The same development is already mentioned in 
the former volume, but here it will require to be briefly re- 
ferred to. 

Of the means of conveyance we will, as before said, wholly 
omit those used on the frozen sea, the dogs and the sledge. 
Certainly the origin of this invention might be suggestive of 



10 



several opinions, especially in connection with some very popular 
Eskimo traditions speaking of men who trained wild animals to 
cross the frozen sea with them. But still there seems to be 
such good reason for granting the possibility of the dog sledge 
having been invented by the Eskimo before their becoming a 
maritime arctic people, that we prefer not to complicate our 
research by argueing concerning this invention. Of the two 
kinds of Eskimo skinboats, the large and open Umiak (« family- 
or «wiwes boat"), and the small, and wholly closed Kayak, the 
latter evidently occupies the first rank in regard to culture 
history. Although varying somewhat as to its more or less 
adeqvate construction, it shows no essential difference except 
in the mode of propulsion. When coming from the west and 
south, in Southern Alaska we first meet with the kayak, it is 
propelled with a onebladed oar or paddle just like that used by 
the Indians in their canoes. Not before one reaches northern 
Alaska does the well known double-bladed kayak oar make its 
appearance, and, not before east of the Mackenzie river is the 
former wholly abolished and supplanted by it. Our vocabulary 
shows that the following objects are identically named in the 
eastern and the western dialects: 1) THE OPEN SKINBOAT, 2) THE 
ONE-BLADED PADDLE, 3) MAST, 4) SAIL, 5) KAYAK, 6) KAYAK SIDE- 
LATHS, 7) KAYAK RIBS, 8) KAYAK PROW, 9) KAYAK CROSS-PIECE, 
10) THE DOUBLE OAR. Only the objects 6—9 have been omitted 
in the vocabularies of the Extreme West. 

In passing to the weapons and other instruments of chase, 
we leave out the bow and arrow, the same as they may have 
used in their original home, and similar to those still used by 
their Indian neighbours in the chase ashore. As to weapons 
we therefore only have to consider those for stabbing and for 
throwing. The simplest of them is that which is wielded with 
the hand, and remains in the hand after having been applied: 
viz. the lance or spear for stabbing. The highest development 
on the other hand is exhibited in the large harpoon with the 



n 

bladder and line belonging to the kayak. Between these two 
extremes the other weapons arrange themselves according to 
the operations for which they are intended. 

COMPONENT PARTS OF THE CHIEF IMPLEMENTS OF 
CHASE. In endeavouring to explain the construction and use 
of the weapons and tools, we must refer to the immediate ob- 
jects for which they are intended: 

a) the weapon has to be thrown (a missile); 

b) to be wielded or employed with the hand; 

c) it has to be immediately withdrawn from the wounded 
animal ; 

d) its point has to be furnished with barbs to make it stick 
in the wound; 

e) the shaft has to be immediately loosened from the head, 
but remain attached to it by a strap; 

f ) the shaft is to be wholly detached from the sticking 
head, while a long line still remains fastened to the latter, 

g) the other end of the line or thong (f) has to be fastened 
to an inflated bladder which hinders the animal in trying to 
escape; 

h) the hunter himself has to hold or secure the other end 
of te line (g); 

i) a smaller bladder has to be fixed on the shaft of the 
missile; 

k) the upper or foremost part (foreshaft) of the shaft has 
to be fitted with a joint so as to bend with the motions of the 
animal; the length of the whole shaft will thus be shortened 
so as to free the point (h,g), that is kept tightly pressed over 
its head by the thong; 

i) the missile to be thrown has to be generally kept resting 
in an implement, the "throwing stick », that remains in the hand 
of the hunter; 

m) if the weapon at the same time is intended for the 



12 



purpose of cutting holes or notches in the ice, its hind part 
or lower end has to be fitted as a pick-axe of bone or ivory. 

Omitting a fuller description of the arctic hunter's modes 
of proceeding, which so often has been g4ven in various works, 
we are now enabled to comprise his equipment in the following 
list referring to the above statements: 

For hunting by kayak and partly from open boats or 
from the edge of the ice: 

1. THE LARGE HARPOON WITH THE HUNTING BLADDER, 

see: 



a, 


d, f, g, k. 


3. 


THE ORDINARY KAYAK-LANCE, see: a, C, k. 


3. 


THE BLADDER ARROW OR JAVELIN, see: a, d, 1 


4. 


OTHER SMALLER HARPOONS of various sizes, 



used in 
some localities, see: a, d, e. 

5. THE BIRD-ARROW, see: a, d. 

6. SMALL HAND SPEARS, AND FOR WHALES LARGE LANCES, 
see: a, d. 

7. THE THROWING STICK, see: L 
For hunting on the ice: 

8. HARPOON FOR STABBING, in watching at the breathing 
holes see: b, d, e or f, m. 

9. HARPOON FOR SEALS LYING UPON THE ICE, see: a, d, 6 
or f, m. 

10. LARGE LANCES like 6. 

As already alluded to, the construction and the use of these 
implements in connection with the means of conveyance vary 
somewhat with the different tribes, partly according to their 
different degree of development, but chiefly from the chmate 
and the geographical features of the regions occupied by them. 
Exceptionally even, the natives of Smith's -sound, as is well 
known, have no kayak at all, in other places the umiak is al- 
most, or even wholly, wanting, whereas again in others it is 
preferred to the kayak, and with these differences the imple- 
ments must also vary. 



13 



SOME ELEMENTARY WORDS FOR DESIGNATING THE 
IMPLEMENTS OF CHASE. For the reasons here stated we 
might expect that a similar difference as that just mentioned 
would prevail among the names of these objects in the different 
dialects, especially between those of the extreme east and west. 
But a careful compilation and comparison of all the words that 
are found in the vocabularies relating to the peculiar maritime 
chase nevertheless has revealed a certain simplicity in designating 
the contrivances that in each case are meant. It requires no 
thorough knowledge of the language to discover, in running 
over such a compilation, a limited number of radicals or stem- 
words which make the chief constituant parts of it, the diversity 
in the orthography of the European writers of course apart. 
It may be concluded from this similarity, that in the earliest 
time of the culture home such elementary words have been 
invented or adopted for designating the notions to which the 
new ways of supplying the first necessities of life gave rise, 
and that this material has been maintained and made use of for 
new inventions or modifications during the subsequent develop- 
ment and dispersion of the inhabitants. In examining the fol- 
lowing list of the said elements some words certainly also here 
will be found, that likely may have existed during an earlier 
stage of culture, but as a tolerable completeness was required 
in the series of words to be found in the vocabularies relating 
to the whole mode of proceeding in the operations here in 
question, they could for the sake of plainness not well be 
omitted. 

LIST OF ESKIMO WORDS RELATING TO SEAL- AND VVHALE- 
HCNTING: (Explanation: The eastern dialects: €. = Greenland, 
L. = Labrador, C. = Central. — The western dialects : fl. = Mac- 
kenzie River, W. = Extreme American West, A. = Asiatic.) 

1. G. imdq the shaft of the large harpoon, also a smaller 
harpoon used on the ice; undrsivoq he lifts the (whole) harpoon 



14 



in order to throw. — C. oonar, utiaq harpoon, shaft of the 
harpoon. 

W. oonak "harpoon as thrown •> ; unu harpoon for stab- 
bing; unahpuk harpoon for walrus {-puk large). 

2. C. nauUgpoq he throws and hits (the animal); nauligaq 
a small harpoon for boys. — L. naullak harpoon ; naulerpa throws 
and hits it. — C. naulang harpoon point (for hunting on the ice). 

1. nauliktork throws the harpoon; naulirark harpoon. — 
W. nauligu "retrieving harpoon-) (uncertain whether anciently used); 
naulu loose point of the same. 

3. G. igimaq the flexible foreshaft of the large harpoon. — 
C. igimang « walrus-harpoon". 

W. igimu loose shaft, ugimak. 

4. G. qdteq a cover of bone on the undq^ with a notch into 
which the foreshaft is pressed when secured in its straight 
position. 

W. katu foreshaft, katersak. 

5. G. tukaq harpoon in general, or the loose point, in the 
same way kept pressed upon the head of the igimaq. — L. iiikak, 
tokkak "harpoon-. 

W. tuku, toukak. 

6. G. tikagut a small peg inserted in the harpoon shaft. - 
C. tikdgung. 

W. tika. 

7. G. avataq the loose hunting-bladder. 
W. awertak] A. awuetkak. 

8. G, aleq the long hunting line; L. allek. 
1, allerk. — W. allek. 

9. G. iperaq a shorter hunting line used on the ice. — 
L. ipperak. — C. iperrang. 

W. sdbromia (?) 

10. G. norssaq throwing stick. — L. noksak. 
JB. notsark. — W. norsak, norak. 



15 

11. C. agdligaq bladder arrow. — L. akligah 

W. akligak -seal harpoon »; akligakrak bladder intended 
for sacrifice to the rulers of the sea. 

12. G. nueq^ ^^^Slfi^ bird-arrow. — L. miek^ nugit. — C. nuirn. 
W. nuekf nujapeit. 

13. G. anguvigaq kayak- lance (the ordinary) to be thrown. — 
L. anguvigak, 

E kdpotchin "javeline-). — W. — ? 

14. G. kaput hand spear. — L. kapput. — C. kappun. 
1. kdpona lance. — W. kapun, kapuiit (lance?). 

15. G. qalugiaq whale spear. — L. kalhgiak, — C. kalugiaq. 
W. kalugusit, kalogiak. 

16. G. pana a large double edged knife (obsolete word). — 
C. pana. 

W. pana spear. — A. pannia lance. 

17. G. savigtorpoq he fastens the harpoon point upon the 
end of the foreshaft {savik knife, iron). — L. savikpok. 

W. savdk harpoon; savdkpak walrus-harpoon. 

18. G. toq ice pick or chisel (crow bar). — C. tounga the 
sanie on the lower end of the harpoon. 

W. tooky tun. 
In this list the names of the chief parts belonging to the 
equipments of a sealhunter in Greenland will be found almost 
completely represented also in the statements from the extreme 
west. Only the names for 9 and 13 could not be found. It 
will be observed, that some uncertainty prevails in applying 
the word « harpoon •> in the translation. We have distinct names 
for the single parts of the large harpoon in Greenland , but on 
the other hand we see one of them alone, that for the point, 
in the dictionary also as the « harpoon •>. Probably a separate 
word in this case is but scarcely needed, as either special 
parts are spoken of, or an action is mentioned for which sepa- 
rate words exist, such as for putting the point on, for raising, 



16 



and finally throwing and hitting the object with the harpoon, 
which itself is implied by each of them. 

VARIOUS WORDS RELATING TO ARCTIC NATURE. 

The seabirds, as already mentioned, although contributing largely 
to animate certain parts of the arctic regions during the summer, 
can not with safety be counted with the objects for which the 
arctic settlers had to form new names. Certainly however some 
of them may have got their names in this way. In the appended 
tables no selection of this kind has been tried; they contain: 
the species usually grouped under the common term of geese 
and ducks, and a series of others from the genera Colymbus, 
Larus, Pelecanus, Procellaria. Uria, comprising all those that 
have value in the domestic economy of the Greenlanders and 
showing a striking resemblance of names between Greenland 
and the extreme west. The names of fish are but few in the 
western vocabularies and therefore also but poorly represented 
in our tables, while at the same time we here observe a some- 
what greater diff'erence too. Of course in the present investig- 
ation there is only talk of saltwater fish, and these appear to 
be of much less importance to the Western Eskimo than to 
the Labradorians and Greenlanders; on the other hand salmon 
constitute one of the staple articles of food of the inhabitants 
of Alaska. However one well known name of a saltwater fish 
useful to the northern Greenlanders, the eqaluvaq^ according to 
Jacobsen is met with here in the Extreme West, where its take 
has been rich enough to give the month July its name, and on 
the Asiatic side of Bering-Strait we find named the ilvaq which 
on account of its widely spread occurrence in the course of 
ages has saved many natives of Greenland from starvation. 

As for the rest, in referring to our said tables, we will 
only call attention to some names in the domain of physical 
geography, as relating to the ocean, saltwater, and the tides, 
all of which are identical in the east and the west. One word, 



17 



in relation lo these, the reader perhaps will find undeservedly 
neglected , as it reminds us of apparently the most marvellous 
products of arctic nature, the floating icebergs. They are only 
named in the Greenlandic, Labradorian and Central dialects, it 
is questionable whether they have an adequate name in the 
Mackenzie, and in the extreme western vocabularies none at 
all was met with. The cause must simply be, that the occur- 
rence of icebergs is limited to Davis Strait, Baffin's Hay and a 
part of the northern Atlantic, stragglers occasionally slipping 
into the sounds of the Central Regions. If really the original 
Eskimo have immigrated from the west to the east, parting in 
the Central Regions for Greenland and Labrador, they could 
not have become acquainted with the icebergs before they 
separated. The word for bergs is also quite different in Green^ 
land and Labrador, but of course this fact is too isolated and 
uncertain for serving to support any such conclusion. 

SAFE CONCLUSIONS TO BE DRAWN FROM THE FACTS 
HERE STATED. If now we retrospectively examine what here 
has been stated, at first it is possible, that more complete 
vocabularies from the western dialects would have added con- 
siderably to the number of words contained in our list, espe- 
cially as this material originally has been collected by explorers 
without any idea of what could have been most desirable for 
our research. If this be taken into consideration, our number 
of identical names within the sphere of ideas we have pro- 
posed to investigate, must be found to be somewhat consider- 
able. A comparison of the said names as we have given, with the 
appended and more complete tables, will show, that certainly 
difference is found respecting some objects still belonging to 
those which were new to the original Eskimo settlers, but they 
will prove to be of less importance. It also happens in several 
such cases, that the true Greenlandic word has been discovered 
as being used contemporaneously with the differing counterpart 

XI. 2. 2 



18 



of it, apparently in the same tribal district. The very exact 
and careful investigations recently made of the dialect spoken 
in East Greenland have revealed a custom held in high con- 
sideration and having a remarkable influence on the familiar 
language of the natives there. It is the custom of not ment- 
ioning the names of persons recently deceased. If such names 
have been taken from current words of the language, the latter 
have to be altered. This custom, as we know, has been met 
with among many nations, but the consistency with which it 
is maintained in East Greenland is surprising. If the dialects 
of the extreme west had been submitted to a similar influence, 
the glossaries collected by the foreign travellers there , would 
have been of by far less value than they are now. But it seems 
not unlikely that nevertheless the same custom may have con- 
tributed to the said duplicity of designations. 

Judging the weight of all the facts we here have stated 
concerning the probable creation of a certain class of words 
during a stay in the supposed culture home, we finally still 
have to take into consideration not only, as already mentioned, 
the question whether the objects thus designated have been 
really new to the settlers on the arctic seaboard, but also 
whether the words that have been adopted for this purpose are 
formed out of new invented radical words, or, in the usual way, 
by means of the existing stem words and affixes. As regards 
this question, our tables in connection with the Greenland 
dictionary have to be more closely consulted. But one con- 
clusion may with safety be drawn from what we have already 
asserted; and this is, that the above series of words can not 
have been originated in two or more different places by Eskimo 
tribes , without there was sufficient intercourse. Consequently 
only one culture home can have existed and, within its frontiers, 
an intercourse must have been maintained sufficient for co- 
operation in developing the new inventions and customs, as 
well as adapting and completing the language for this change 



19 



in the stage of culture. Certainly, as already mentioned, new 
emigrants from the interior may then afterwards have joined 
these pioneers even in places distant from the culture home, 
but the new comers in doing so have wholly adopted the habits 
of the latter and amalgamated with them. 

THE POSSIBILITY OF PRESENTLY ARRIVING AT 
FURTHER CONCLUSIONS. Having considered the conclusions 
which we believe may confidently be drawn concerning the first 
settling down of Eskimo inhabitants in the arctic regions, our 
next task will be to try what furthermore may be asserted 
concerning the same question on probability. We have already 
expressed our doubt concerning the opinion, that the immi- 
grants should have reached the arctic or subarctic regions from 
the south along the borders of the sea: We preferred to as- 
sume that they have come from the interior of the continent 
following the courses of rivers discharging into the arctic sea 
or al least under high northern latitudes. This being granted, 
the culture home would have been situated at the mouth of a 
river, or of several rivers, and the nearest coast so as to en- 
able it to receive, during the course of time, settlers from the 
interior, while, on the other hand, emigrants successively spread 
from this home over the arctic regions. The culture home in 
this way would comprise, besides the coastline, the banks of 
rivers in the vicinity of their outlets. The. change of culture 
to which the inhabitants were submitted certainly from a historical 
point of view must be called abrupt, but nevertheless have 
taken centuries. The population during this period must have 
accumulated, and a rich fishery in the rivers seems to afl'ord 
the only means of explanation as to how these people can have 
gained their sustenance during such a period of transition. 

In the former volume an attempt has been made to show 
how the dispersion af the first settlers seems to be indicated 
by traces still to be observed in the state of the present inhabitants, 



20 



continued in a direction from west to east, and pointing to 
Alasiia as the supposed culture liome. The facts alleged in 
favour of this hypothesis were: I) the successive completion of 
the most valuable invention, the kayak, with its implements 
and the art of using the latter, especially the double -bladed 
paddle, the great harpoon with the hunting bladder, the kayak- 
clothes and the hunters capacity of rising to the surface again, 
in the event of being overturned. 2) the gradual change of 
several customs, namely the use of lip ornaments ceasing at the 
Mackenzie river, the use of masks at festivals continuing unto 
Baffin's land, and the women's head gear, gradually altered 
between Point Barrow and Baffin's bay, 3) the construction of 
buildings and, at the same time, in some degree, the social or- 
ganisation and religious customs. The gradual, but, of course, 
still only shght change in all these features of the state of 
culture, seems to go side by side with the increasing natural 
difficulties and the effect of isolation in removing from the ori- 
ginal home. At the same time, the original stock of settlers 
in spreading towards the east, may have been augmented by 
those other tribes of Eskimo race above alluded to who, per- 
haps yielding to the pressure from hostile Indians, and retiring 
to the north by way of the Mackenzie, the Coppermine, and 
the Great Fish-rivers , may have met and associated with these 
immigrants of their own nation who already had reached the 
Central Regions beyond Cape Bathurst. This suggestion may 
explain several diversities between the east and the west, as 
well as the relatively large number of immigrants to Greenland. 
Several facts speak in favour of presuming that Alaska 
was populated by Eskimo in very remote ages. Narrowly 
accumulated ruins, almost like remains of a whole Eskimo 
town are said to stretch along the river Yukon somewhat inside 
of its mouth. Lieut. Ray in his Report on the Point Barrow 
Expedition says: «that the ancestors of those people (present 
Eskimo) made it their home for ages is conclusively shown by 



21 



the ruins of villages and winter huts along the sea shore and 
in the interior. On the point where the station was elablished 
were mounds, marking the site of three huts dating back to the 
lime when <'men talked like dogs» (as their tradition saysi .... 
The fact of our finding a pair of wooden goggles twenty six 
feet below the surface of the earth in the shaft sunk for earth 
temperatures, points conclusively to the great lapse of time 
since these shores were first peopled by the race of man". 

Even the present distribution of the races constituting the 
population of Alaska still exhibits a striking likeness to the 
probable state of the same during the supposed existence of the 
culture home. It has been a well known fact that in this country 
Eskimo were found also in the interior, independent of the sea 
as regards their mode of subsistance, but not before now have 
their numbers and distribution been more distinctly given through 
a regular census (1884). According to this the population of 
Alaska is composed as follows: Arctic division, 3094 Eskimo, of 
whom 800 live in the interior; the Yukon territory, 4276 Eskimo, 
of whom 1343 live along the river unto its delta, besides of 
2557 Indians, and 500 Eskimo on the island ef St. Lorenz; the 
Kuskokwim division, 8036 Eskimo, mostly in the interior, and 
500 Indians; the Aleut division, 1890 Aleuts, 479 Creoles; 
Kadjak division, 2211 Eskimo, 1190 Indians, 917 Creoles; 
southeastern division, 230 Creoles, 7225 Indians. These num- 
bers corroborate the interresting intelligence given already by 
the Russians (1839: Wasiljef and Glasunow) concerning a popul- 
ation of several thousands of such inland Eskimo inhabiting 
the south eastern part of Alaska traversed by ihe Kuskokwim 
river and its tributaries. Not less striking are the discoveries 
made in northern Alaska by Capt. Healy and Lieut. Cantwell in 
1884. Their report has at once thrown light upon the nature 
of this north western corner of America, its inhabitance and 
the remarkable trading intercourse between the Eskimo of the 
western and the northern shores by the inland Eskimo as 



22 



mediators. The way which is used for this intercourse, already 
mentioned by Simpson, is formed by the Nunatak, Kuwak and 
Selavik rivers to the west, and the Golville river to the north, 
in connection with lakes. The Kuwak especially was investig- 
ated into the interior, Eskimo dwellings being met with the 
whole way. On the banks of a tributary river from the south, 
the Umakuluk, inhabitants of the same race were found who 
never had seen white men before. Relatively to the high northern 
latitude, the vegetation here shows an extraordinary luxuriance, 
trees being found measuring two feet in diameter. These 
natives had birch-bark canoes. Along the banks of the said 
three rivers together, they numbered somewhat more than 
800 souls. 

If these facts relating to the distribution of the present 
population of Alaska and its remnants from an earlier period 
are taken into account, it might with some reason be said to 
have still maintained the appearance of a country peopled by 
Eskimo in the interior, as well as on its sea shore, in conti- 
nual intercourse with each other, like that of the supposed 
culture home, with the only difference, that the conflux to the 
latter from a still farther off interior, and, at the same time 
the spreading of emigrants from it over the arctic regions has 
ceased. To the said remnants, properly speaking, ought to be 
added the well known immense refuse heaps on the Aleutian 
islands explored by Dall. Certainly nothing can be ascertained 
concerning the nationality of the ancient settlers to whom the 
remnants are due, but still the latter, at any rate, indicate that 
a tendency to directing their migrations towards the north 
western sea shores has prevailed among a certain part of the 
aboriginal tribes of North America. However, we still must 
bear in mind that, notwithstanding what we have asserted in 
favour of Alaska as the culture home, this as yet remains a 
hypothesis. The origin of the Eskimo from Asia is still not 
suifficiently disproved, and this holds good of the surmise too 



23 

that the culture home may have been situated in the east. We 
dare only maintain that, as not more than one such home can 
have existed, in the former case the emigrants from Asia must 
have crossed Bering's strait as perfectly developed Seaboard- 
Eskimo, and in the latter, that the further gradual modification 
of their habits and customs has been opposite to that above 
suggested. 

TBE APPENDED SYNOPTIC VOCABULARY OF THE 
ESKIMO DIALECTS comprises a General and a Special Part, the 
latter composed conformedly to the schedules given by Powell 
in his Introduction to the study of Indian languages, only 
with some modifications. The said schedules are intended 
for serving as a guide also to explorers whose chief object 
had no reference to language, and, in a similar way, they 
have to be applicable to the vast number of aboriginal 
idioms existing in America. If this is taken into consideration, 
the themes proposed by the schedules could hardly have been 
better selected and arranged than they are. But, if they have 
to be applied to such a special group of the said languages as 
the Eskimo dialects, of which two are as well known as those 
of Greenland and Labrador, some further information may be 
expected than what the rules contained in the schedules are 
intended for. In the first place we may recall the often ment- 
ioned affixes or imperfect words to be connected with the 
radical words and to express in this way a large number of 
ideas, that in other languages require the application of sepa- 
rate words. Secondly we have to call to mind, that the Eskimo 
language consists almost exclusively of verbs and nouns, and 
that pronouns and prepositions generally are rendered by flex- 
ion. If these peculiarities have to be duly considered, the words 
of our European languages in many cases can not be directly 
translated into Eskimo, for a dictionary, save by adding some 
explanation, for which the ordinary synoptical arrangement of the 



24 

tables is less convenient. It will be seen that for this reason 
the arrangement of the words is somewhat modified, and that 
the author moreover has found it necessary to add the said « General 
part" in order to complete the tables. The "Special part*, as 
we will call the tables, according to the plan of the sched- 
ules is limited to certain classes of concrete ideas, and there- 
fore compared with that of a dictionary it must be deficient 
even in several principal points. It is also for the translation 
of words expressing more abstract ideas that the affixes and the 
flexional endings chiefly are required. How this is efl'ected 
will also briefly be shown in the general part, but at the same 
time the writer still must refer to the linguistic sections of the 
first volume, viz Grammar, affixes and stemwords. 

In looking over the vocabularies , above all it must be 
remembered that of the diff'erence which instantly is observed 
between the dialects the far predominating majority is due to 
the heterogenous orthography and the imperfections of appre- 
hending and rendering what originally was heard from the natives. 
In the first Volume are mentioned the letters that have been 
applied, and the confusion arising from the want of rules and 
consistency in regard to them (p. 40 — 45). Secondly attention 
has been called to the influence of the peculiar construction of 
words and sentences, totally unknown to the foreign inquirers. 
To these inconveniences must be added the occasional faults 
in their questions, especially as the language by signs usually 
was resorted to. The foreign investigator, in pointing first at 
his own, then at his companious body, has asked about « beard- 
and "head", but as answers received the words for respectively 
"thy mouth" and <«my hair-); mistakes of this kinds are frequently 
recognised in the vocabularies. If this be the case in regard 
to visible objects, the lack of tolerably sufficient information of 
course is still more felt in trying to compile groups of the most 
necessary designations of more abstract or spiritual ideas 

It follows of itself that in the present considerations we 



2b 



are to abide by the original state of the natives, before their 
contact with the Europeans. The difficulties in following this 
rule are especially perceivable in the sections for Sociology and 
Religion. The translation of the words from civilised languages 
belonging to these domains can hardly be given without adding 
explanation. Habits and customs that to the natives have the 
same importance as laws, nevertheless, if classified as such 
may be misunderstood. A still greater confusion has prevailed 
in the designation of ideas relating to religion. For the name 
of: «God» , in Greenland and Labrador the word simply was 
taken from the Danish language. In the Extreme West we meet 
with several apparently Eskimo words as translation of "God-) 
the origin of which however seems very problematic. In the 
Mackenzie vocabulary a word is formed signifying something 
like "the land its worker". For spirits or the ghostly world in 
Greenland and Labrador words have been applied, connected 
with the idea of breathing, which evidently is Europeism. In 
the Mackenzie we find «Dieu des Esquimaux »• translated as 
"Great breathing" and "Saint Esprit" as «High {takii/ork-long?) 
breath or breathing-. A similar abnormity has prevailed in the 
words referring to moral and physical evil. Some original Eskimo 
designations however have been maintained in the Christian 
instruction. This chapter on the whole also may be of some 
more general interest to the history of culture, by tending to 
show the origin and the earliest development or differentiation 
of certain important ideas. 

The vocabulary offered by the present book of course can 
not be compared with dictionaries, it is but a selection taken 
from a very large store of words. First a suitable series of 
Greenland words had to be set up; then the other dialects had 
to be examined in order to pick out what was really deviating 
from this standard list, and finally a number of words was 
added chiefly as examples, representing diversities either of 
minor importance, or merely originated by the often mentioned 



26 



different modes of spelling. This however especially refers to 
the General Part, whereas the Special Part is intended for more 
completely rendering the same service as the schedules in their 
ordinary tabular form. As the Labradorian and the Central 
dialects deviate very little from the* Greenlandic tongue, only a 
small selection has been taken out of the L. dictionary. Of 
the iMackenzie much is omitted as dubious. A similar doubt in 
regard to correctness as real Eskimo certainly also prevailed 
in regard to many words of the lists from the Extreme West, 
but on account of the scarcity of these sources the have been 
so much more exhausted. Between North and South Alaska a 
peculiar difference seems to prevail, perhaps owing to the contact 
with Aleutians and Indians. 

In the subdivisions of the General Part a peculiar place 
has been assigned to Stemwords and Affixes. This of course 
only refers to those, whose signification, apart from their extended 
application in other sections, is peculiarly related to what is 
indicated by the heading of the subdivision. 

VARIOUS NOTES. 

(1) DANGERS OF THE ARCTIC CHASE. The extraordinary 
dexterity which is required in the critical moment, when the 
kayacker has struck the seal and then with one hand has to 
perform the necessary operations in killing and securing his prize, 
while the other has to wield the paddle, has frequently been 
spoken of. Attention has especially been called to the impor- 
tance of first getting rid of the hunting bladder. In catching 
seals from the ice the hunter may be obliged to let his own 
body perform the service of the bladder in keeping hold of the 
animal. Richardson describes this sport as follows: "The seal 
being a very wary animal, with acute sight, smell and hearing, 
is no match however for the Eskimo hunter who sheltered from 
the keen blast by a semicircular wall of snow will sit motionless 



27 

for hours, watching the bubble of air that warns hiin of the 
seal coming to breathe. And scarcely has the animal raised its 
nostrils to the surface before the hunter's harpoon is deeply- 
buried in its body. This sport is not without danger that adds 
to the excitement of the succes. The line attached to the point 
of the harpoon is passed in a loop around the hunters loins, 
and, should the animal he has struck be a large seal or walrus, 
woe betide him if he does not instantly plant his feet in the 
notch cut for this purpose in the ice, and throw himself into 
such a position that the strain of the line is as nearly as pos- 
sible brought into direction of the length of the spine of his 
back and the axis of his lower limbs. A transverse pull of the 
powerful beast would double him up across the air hole and 
perhaps break his back, or if the opening be large, as it often 
IS when spring is advanced, he would be dragged under water 
and drowned". 

(2) THE SEALS OF ALASKA. Jacobsen has informed me, 
that «Maklak» does not appear to be the name of a certain 
species of seals but rather to signify the skin of larger seals 
im general, that are prepared for covers of umiaks and kayaks, 
for soles of boots etc. The hooded seal of Greenland, he adds, 
does not occur in north western America where tho Fur-seal 
oceupies its place. 

(3) HARPOONS AND OTHER IMPLEMENTS. Petersen relates 
that in Smith's- Sound the lance without barbs, called ^^angeguja^^ 
is the only weapon employed in bear hunting (with dogs). The 
walrus is attacked, when sleeping on the ire, or from the edge 
of the ice, when it emerges from the water, first with a har- 
poon to which is fixed a hunting line, afterwards killing it with 
the angeguja. 

Dr. Boas gives a very plain description of hunting on the ice 
in Baffin's land. A Hght harpoon is used, called unang. Be- 
fore getting iron rods it consisted of a shaft having at one end 
an ivory point firmly attached by thongs and rivets, the point 



28 



tapering toward the end; the point was slanting on one side so 
as to form almost an oblique cone, thus it facilitated the sepa- 
ration of the harpoon head from the unang. On the opposite 
end of the shaft another piece of ivory was attached, generally 
forming a knob. In Alaska he says, a similar harpoon is in 
use. The head belonging to the unang is called naulang. To 
this the harpoon line, iperang is fastened. As soon as a strain 
is put on the naulang it parts with the line from the shaft. 
The point of the kayak harpoon, tokang , is larger and stouter 
than the naulang. 

Cranz (1770) says about the Labradorians that besides the 
five spears used in Greenland they have an mnjah^ with three 
points for birds. Their kajaks are more clumsy than those in 
Greenland, and they are less expert in handling them. 

(4) LONG VOYAGES OF THE ESKIMO. I know, says Rae 
('• Nature*) 1872), the American Eskimo go several hundred miles 
in one season either north or south, if the game moves away, 
and the trespassers are only stopped by some of their own 
countrymen who have had previous occupation. In Repulse 
Bay 1853 we found no natives where a large number had 
wintered in 1846 — 47. In spring 1854 we found that none 
had wintered within 200 miles from our winter quarters. 

(5) CAPE BATHUKST. When for the purpose of obtaining 
a proper view of the Eskimo tribes we have divided them into 
the Eastern and Western, determining Cape Balhurst as the 
boundary line, it was not intended thereby to demonstrate any 
difference between the nearest tribes on both sides of the same 
particularly greater than that existing between several other 
neighbouring tribes of the nation. The change on the whole, 
traceable in going from the Extreme West to the Extreme East, 
as we have tried to show, has the appearance of being quite 
gradual. But as regards the present intercourse, certainly a more 
than usually sudden interruption can be said to exist between 
the inhabitants on both sides of the said limit. 



29 



(6) THE NATIVES OF RUNG WILLIAM'S LAND, accordiog to 
Schwatka (Science 1884), are divided into 5 tribes. Althougt 
wandering and changing their dwelHng places the families or 
individuals belonging to each of them maintain their union. 
One of them, the Kiddelik (Copper-Eskimo nearest to Cape 
Bathurst), live in open hostility to all the others, who on the 
other hand are on more or less friendly terms with each other. 

(7) THE NAME FOR WHITE MEN. In the Journal of the 
Anthropological Institute 1885 I have said: «-lt is curious that 
the natives of Greenland , Labrador and the Mackenzie river 
have agreed in adopting (the name) qavdlundq for white men». 
As to this question Simpson states , that he never could find 
any one among the people of Point Barrow who remembered 
having seen Europeans before 1837, but that they had heard 
of them as Kablunan from their eastern friends; more recently 
they heard a good deal of them from the inland tribes as 
Tanin or Tangin. Simpson mentions at the same time the 
intertribal trade and explains how commodities exchanged in 
this way will take almost 5 years to wander from Bering's 
strait to Hudson's bay or the opposite way. If this be taken 
duly into consideration it does not seem improbable , that the 
report on the arrival of the first whalers in Davis strait can 
during the lapse of years have found its way to Mackenzie 
river. It needs hardly to be added, that the invention of "new 
words » by the first Eskimo settlers on the arctic shores has 
no analogy whatever to the fact here mentioned. 

(8) THE ICE-PERIOD. The origin of the Eskimo has, as 
well known, even been traced back to an earlier geological 
age and placed in relation with the glacial period. It has been 
suggested, that formerly they lived nearer to the north-pole and 
that they retired to the south as the climate became colder. 
Others have conjectured that once they lived as far to the 
south as the New England coast and gradually made their way 
toward the north with the walrus, the great auk and the polar 



30 



bear, following the retreat of the iee. It may suffice here to 
remark that even in discussing the probability of the suggest- 
ions the question about explaining the .similarity or identity of 
what we have called the «new words-) in the different dialects 
offers the same indispensable condition to be complied with as 
in weighing the grounds of the other theories. 

(9) STE.MWORDS. In the above quoted article of the 
Anthropological Institute's Journal 1885 an approximate calcul- 
ation of the so called stemwords or radical words is tried. 
The same has now been repeated, althoug the result must still 
remain but imperfect on account of the defectiveness of our 
sources. It gave: stemwords hitherto discovered, in Labrador 
1153, Central regions 578, Mackenzie river 833, Extreme Western 
and Asiatic 796. Of these supposed stemwords there are in 
Labrador 998 common with those of Greenland, 107 differing, 
and 48 uncertain, making relatively 87, 9 and 4 pr. Ct. ; in the 
other dialects comparatively to this: C. r. 524, 38, 16, making 
90, 7 and 3 pr. Ct ; M. r. 716, 60, 57, making 86, 7 and 7 
pr. Ct.; E. W. &A.: 494, 137, 165, making 62, 17 and 21 pr. Ct. 
For Greenland itself is still computed 1371, although some 
might have been added as concerning East Greenland, while on 
the other hand perhaps some might have been rejected. As 
to the other dialects many of those which, in the former state- 
ment, were counted as uncertain have now been left out as too 
dubious, or at least not representing other radical words than 
those already counted. This especially refers to the Mackenzie 
vocabulary, which may be said, without failing to appreciate 
the worth which its richness in words has to us in other respects. 

ilO) POLYSYNTHETISM. In the "Compte rendu.) of the 
"Congres des Americanists-) in Copenhagen 1883, the well 
known French linguist Lucien Adam communicates a lecture 
delivered by him on the Eskimo language compared with the 
other North American and with the Uralo-Altaic languages. He 
arrives at the conclusion that the Eskimo can not be classed 



/ 

c" 



31 



with either of these groups, but constitutes a peculiar kind. 
His chief objection to its American character is his maintaining, 
that the Eskimo, contrary to the latter, is not at all polysynthetic. 
He asserts that polysynthetism requires that words can be formed 
by juxtaposition of other words or independent stems, and that 
this is a predominating rule in all the other North American ton- 
gues, whereas in the Uralo - altaic languages the same compo- 
sition is executed by adding dependent stems or imperfect words 
to one principal word. Besides this he states about 4 gram- 
matical properties, by which the Eskimo differs partly from the 
Uralo-altaic and partly from the North American languages. As 
I am no linguist 1 am not able fully to judge these assertions. 
But I have always entertained the opinion, that polysynthetism 
refers simply to the multitude of ideas that can be comprised 
in one word, and I can also hardly believe that the contrast 
alleged by L. A. is so complete as he describes. As to the 
former criterion I believe that still the majorety of linguists 
never can hesitate in granting the Eskimo in connection with 
the other North American languages the most decided superi- 
ority to those of the old world. As to the latter 1 expecially 
consider the supposed absence or scarcity of true affixes in 
Indian languages more than doubtful. I could adduce many 
examples occusionally met with, of similarities in the construction 
of words of the Eskimo with the American, and on the other 
hand I know quite well the striking similarity with the Siberian 
languages as to the mode of appending the affixes and the 
dual and plural forms. But fragmentary remarks made on such 
questions in favour of some theory can hardly be of any use. 
A proper solution of these problems can only be expected from 
thorough-going systematical investigation such as that now 
instituted in the United States by eminent linguists and com- 
prising the immense material collected from the numerous 
aboriginal idioms of North America. 



• Of 



O/. 



'df-'OHHM 



Comparative Vocabulary 

OF THE 

Eskimo Dialects. 



XI. 2. 



Explanation. 

The plan of the present essay required to make its text as 
compendious "as possible, keeping it within similar limits as the 
Lists of Stemwords and Affixes in the former Volume (I). Above 
all in the General Part of the present, the former Volume is supposed 
to be at hand, especially concerning the question, how far the 
Greenland words are known in the other Eskimo countries. On 
account of the scarciness of our sources, in judging this occur- 
rence we must resort in the main to its supposed connection with 
the extent of the stemwords , a statement of which is given in the 
above quoted List. As for the rest, under the heading ..Derivata, 
Examples", some words which most decidedly seem to differ from 
Greenlandic are marked „*'', and of others that are less deviating, 
the cognate or in reality even identic Greenland designation, as 
correctly spelled is added within square brackets [ ] , while finally 
those which appear most, dubious are marked ,,(?)". — As to the 
affixes , the signs indicating the rules for appending them and ex- 
plained in Vol. I p. 64 are omitted here , excepting such as are 
necessary for distinguishing some of them from others identically 
spelled. 

ABBREVIATIONS: G. Greenland; L. Labrador; C. Central 
Regions; M. Mackenzie River ; W. Extreme American West (Alaska), 
n. northern, s. southern; A.Asiatic; Stw. Stemwords; Afx. Affixes; 
Drv. ExPL. Derivata and Examples; wsf. with suffix. 

The peculiarities of the Eskimo grammar in connection with 
the necessary simplification of our text have not always allowed to 
give the English word and its translation in corresponding flexional 
forms. Adjectives are partly represented by verbs in their normal 
form (indicative 3*^ P.), as: ,,he or it is . . . .'". Verbs may be given 
in the same form , even if in some cases the English word is 
represented by infinitive or participle. But the reader w^ll soon 
find that this irregularity is restricted to a few alternatives which 
hardly can give rise to misunderstanding. 



u 



General Part. 

(Section 1 — 16.) 



Section 1. EXISTENCE. 

1. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECULIAR AND COUPON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. L) 

1) TO EXIST, TO BE. 

Stw. He is ipoq, an important word, however only applicable 
in referring to the questions ,, where" and ,,how". 

Afx. There is Or are qmyoq; is thus or such uvoq-. has it 
for . . . gd, rd. 

Drv. Expl. How art thou qanoq (pit; he is in the house 
igdlume ipoq (contracted igdlumtpoq) . In the most abstract sense 
is used qarpoq : igdloqarpoq there is a house (existing) , imigtii- 
massoqarpoq cannibals (inugtumassut) are existing (in the world) ; it 
is a house igdluvoq; but if a possessive relation is to be added, 
a transposition is required: igdlugd he has it for his house, it is 
his house. 

2) A THING, TO DO. 

Stw. Thing pe, and its verbal form, does something pivoq; 
something or a „what** so, and its verbal form, does or is some- 
what suvoq. 

Afx. Working or producing ivoq , Uvoq; wrought or made 
laq, liaq. 

Drv. Expl. An extraordinary number of Derivata are formed 
out of the stemwords here named — see Vol. 1 p. 1 40 & 1 49. 

3) NEGATION, AFFIRMATION. 
Stw. No ndgga; take it! ak. 



36 S.l. EXISTENCE. 

Arx. Not ngilaq; without {—)ipoq (not to be confounded 
with the stemword so spelled), ilaq. 

Flexion. Negation is also expressed by the peculiar infinitive 
ending nane, wsf. nago. 

Drv. ExPL. He has not eaten neringilaq {nerivoq); he is poor 
2)1poq (without things pe) ; a desert inuilaq (without people inuk) • 
excepting that pinago (not doing with that) ; yes dp (subj. of ak), 
soruna. If, on being asked negatively ,,is it not", the Greenlander 
answers in the affirmative dp, he means, contrary to us: „(yes) it 
is not". 

4) LIFE, REALITY, VISIBLENESS. 

Stw. Is visible erssipoq; \i\es umavoq; man im/A; (see Sect. 17). 

Afx. Real, proper rpiaq, vik. 

Drv. ExPL. Becomes visible, appears ersserpoq; is born inu- 
ngorpoq ; a real man (no doll, no animal) inorpiaq ; living, also : an 
animal umassoq ; is a man , is born , lives inuvoq (not used for 
animals). 

5) DEATH, VANISHING. 

Stw. Death toqo-, is consumed, has totally disappeared 7iu- 
nguvoq. 

Afx. Is deprived of ( — ) erpoq , eriipoq ; has deprived him of 
iarpd, erpd. 

Drv. Expl. Is dead toqiwoq-, is deprived of everything su- 
erupoq. 

6) NATURE, STATE, CONDITION. 

Stw. Behaves, proceeds ilivoq. 

Afx See Vol.1 p. 65: neq, siorpoq, ssuseq, toq, ssoq, te. 

Drv. ExpL. Nature, quahty ilerqoq, pissuseq; he is in that 
state taima ilivoq; a provider piniartoq (strives to get something 
piniarpoq. 

Note: As to Articles see Section 3,5; Demonstratives S. 9,1 
and 17; Pronouns S. 2 and 17. 

11. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: nip>agpoq 
LC; suk LWns.; tan Wns.A.; tivfik L.) 

L. 4) Lives innovok (man) , omavok (animal) ; man innuk, 
suk* — 5) in his absence {tibvik) tibviane*. 



S,2. RELATION. 37 

C. No, not aqai{?), nami; yes ap — 4) Man innung — 
5) Dead tokkijuk \toqussoq\; vanish neepakpoke*. 

M. 1) To be, is rendered by the Afx. ituark, oyuark; ex- 
istence innutsark [iniiseq\ ; world chiut, avalerk (?) \sujo, avatdleq (?) 
the sea in front, extreme horizon] — 2) Something tsuatsiark — 

4) People tunutsuk* — 5) vanisli taliktoark \talo screen]. 

Wn. 2) Which, what sho , choe, shuma — 3) No nagga\ 
not, none pidla{T\, pinelatit [pingilatit {?)]-, negation by the ending 
necho \nago\] yes dh, ang, angekto \anyertoq\ — 4) Alive yoke*; 
Mwes iyorok, yokealu — 5) Dead toakoro; consumed numero. 

Ws. 3) No pidok \_p7tsoq {^jl; nobody tschutaituk; yes d, aang 
— 4) Life unachtuk, alive unajorak, ongakok{?), man tan* — 

5) Dead torroivok. 

A. 2) To have or ^ei pidlunga [pivdlunga I getting or getting 
me] — 3) No peidok{?), abungeto, ivinga{?); I have not avangit- 
unga* — 4) Child tanajak* — 5) Dead dokumak, tokok; consumed 
dbangeta*. 

Section 2. EELATION. 

I. SELECTION or THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND COHHON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) RELATION IN GENERAL, APPERTAINING, PART, SELF. 

Stw. Companion, the other of two dipaq; companion, part 
ila; environs erqaq; self ingme. 

Arx. Has it for gd, rd; are to each other glgput; likewise 
givoq, gujoq\ proper, just the very rpiaq, pik, vik\ belonging to 
^ag", fellow qat\ family, followers kut. 

Flexion is of the highest importance for relations in general, 
especially by its subjective and objective forms and suffixes (see 
Vol. I, p. 49 — 59). In connexion with some general affixes it offers 
the principal means for supplying the want of reciprocal, relative 
and possessive pronouns. The most common of the said affixes 
are : toq (ssoq) and te , serving as nominal , and gaq (ssaq) , as 
passive participles; galuaq past, gssaq future. As for the rest the 
relation indicated by „who" and „ which" is rendered merely by 
juxtaposition. 

Drv. Expl. He possesses it pigd ; concerning that pivdlugo 
(doing with that — pivd)\ to himself ingminut; thyself ivdlU na- 
ngmineq; has him for his companion dipard-, his housefellow igdlo- 
qatd; the woman of their (the men's) company arnartdt; kills him- 
self toqupoq {-pdk\\\s him); qitornat thy child; ajoqersorte, wsf. -td 



38 S.2. RELATION. 

he who teaches (ajoqersorpoq) him; igdlo pigissara the house 
which I possess; pigissarigaluara which I have possessed; pigissag- 
ssaraluara which I should have possessed. 

2) SEPARATE, DIVIDE. 

Stw. Separate from, but still in some relation to something 
ase; divides itself into two parts avigpoq. 

Afi. Preferred or favorit ngndq. 

Drv. Expl. Is separate from others ingmikorpoq', distant from 
it asidne (in its distance) ; my favorit companion dipangndra ; div- 
orced avitaq (see also Section 3). 

3) EQUAL. 

Stw. Thus ima, taima; eqal w«ZiA; ;. following malik; can not 
reach it inorpd] also ania. 

Afx. Also givoq, gujoq\ eqally, in the same degree qat. 

Drv. Expl. His equal, equivalent to it nalinga; as large as 
that angiqatd (angivoq); his housefellow igdloqatd. 

4) OPPOSITE. 

Stw. Opposite ake; the other side igdluk; reverse kigdloq; 
exchange taorpd (succeeds him); wind side agssoq. 

Arx. Hindrance, tailivd. 

Drv. Expl. In a wrong way kigdlornntt; is his opponent 
agssortorpd. 

5) SIMILARITY. 

Stw. Likeness assik; imitates it issiiarp)d. 

Arx. Has the appearance of palugpoq; similar to ussaq. 

Drv. Expl. Some like them assinganik („of their likeness"); 
resembles him assigd; as if sordlo. 

6) STRANGE. 

Stw. Other, of an other or unusual kind avdla. 

Afx. (.) naq, rnaq, arssiik. 

Drv. Expl. The latter affixes are especially used for names 
of animals and of place, as: agparnaq {agpa an auk), ikerasdrssuk 
{ikerasaq a sound). 

7) FITNESS (see S. 3,4). 

Stw. Hits it erqorpd; adapted navdlik, is sufficient fidmagpoq. 

Afx. adapts it for upd. 



S.3. QUANTITY. 39 

Drv. Expl. Fit for it navdlinga („its navdlif) ; finds it satis- 
factory namagd) forms {livoq) a stone (ujarak) into (upd) a knife* 
(savik) ujarak saviliupd. 



II. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES rROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: amutna, 
muku{?) Wn.; atumt LM.; ijuka Ws. ; tava{?) Wns.) 

L. 1) it belongs to that omunga ilingavoq — 2) Separate 
atiimt* — 5) Is similar to it adsigiva — 6) Peculiar, by Afx. 
luarpok* — 7) Congruous nablivok; well adjusted toqqipok*. 

C. 1) Self inminik — 5) Likeness ardjinger. 

M. 1) Self, by Afx. nina, minarq, added to the „ pronouns" (?) 
— 2) atumt* — 5) Similar taymatsi, kratvna(?), ilhfliyark{?) — 

6) Different, strange allangayork. 

Wn. 1) Companion angyow — 2) Half of a thing iglupea 
[igdhia] — 3) Same tymuna [tamdna?]; thus muntna — 5) Sim- 
ilar amutna, aniutnasimuk', image innemoorok; like miikuchimuk — 

7) Enough taniedli, tavatai*. tusra, [?^«ssa], 

Ws. 5) Similar, like ijuka {issuarpd^ — 7) Enough tatvatli*. 
A. 7) Enough asino. 



Section 3. QUANTITY. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECULIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) MAGNITUDE, DEGREE. 

Stw. Can not reach it inorpd; exceeds ingagpoq, simivd. 

Afx. Makes or finds it too — , ( — )narpd, vatdlarpoq; al- 
most ngajaq, rqajarpoq; more neruvoq; most neq, pak; degree 
ssuseq. — Appended Particle lo and. 

Drv. Expl. How small it is mikissusia (its smallness); still 
more ingangmik\ surplus sivneq; is worse ajorneriivoq {ajorpoq 
is bad). 

2) LARGE, EMPHATIC. 

Stw. Is large angivoq; strongly agsut. 

Afx. Is rich in gigpoq; having large kdq, toq, tui'oq; large 
largely, emphatically ssuaq, rujugssuaq, qaoq, ngdvpoq. 



40 S.3. QUANTITY. 

Drv. ExPL. Having large ieeth kigutikdq; the large country is 
'very mountainous nunarssuaq qaqartuvoq. 

3) SMALLNESS. 

Stw. Is small mikwoq; a little 'mgma\ is narrov^r amipoq; 
cuts, curtails it kipivd. 

Arx. Small nguaq, aq, araq, ralak; a little ldrpoq\ has small 
or little of kipoq; tolerably tsiaq, atsiaq. 

Drv. Expl. A Httle bi.t ingmaraldnguaq; a small house igdlu- 
nguaq; has a small mouth qanikipoq; rather old utorqatsiaq. 

4) WHOLENESS. 

Stw. Is a whole, entire ilulpoq; totalness tamaq; finishes it 
ndvd; unites them katipai. 

Afx. Completely dluinarpoq. 

" Drv. Expl. Altogether katitdlugit ; he entirely ilungarme; they, 
them all tamarmik, tamaisa. 

5) PART, DIVISION, THE ARTICLES. 

Stw. A smaller object as part of a larger ako\ divides itself 
avigpoq; part of any thing ila; contents imaq. 

Afx Ruined, dissolved ko, koq; piece of mineq\ part belonging 
to taq, saq. 

Flexion. The language is devoid af articles, but flexion 
generally supplies this want. The indefinite article, indicating a 
part or some of a whole or of a kind, is rendered by the widely 
used Modalis (appos. mik), especially for the object of halftransitive 
verbs, or more generally explaining the action, f. e. ujarkamik tig- 
usivoq (halftr.) he took a stone; ujarkamik milorpd he pelted him 
with a stone; ujarak (obj. case) tigiivd (trans.) he took the stone. 
If more expressly one individual out of several or many is meant, 
and especially as subject of a sentence, the article „a" requires the 
addition of ila (part) wsf. , f. e. ivssaq tiiluit (pi. of tuluk English- 
man) ildt (one of the) nunalipoq the other day an Englishman 
landed; whereas tuluk nunalipoq means: the E. (of whom was 
spoken) landed. 

Drv. Expl. Having a part or companion ilalik-, comprises or 
contains it ilagd; intermixing, a middle part akuneq; breaks, splits, 
cuts asunder aserorpd, sequgpd, pilagpd. 

6) SIMPLE, SINGLE. 
Stw. The etate of being alone kise. 



S.4. ORDER. 41 

Afx. Only tuaq. 

Drv. Expl. He, him alone kisime, kisiat; my only son erni- 
tuara. 



II. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES VROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords : e7'parpoq\j.\ 
kagak A.; nuvfa Wn.; serdlaq L. ; taner LM.; kita L.) 

L. 1) Surpasses him pikkitipa*, akkipa; compensation ina- 
ngertak* — 2) Is great tanertovok* — 3) Seems him too little 
sumivok*; a little kita — 5) goes to pieces erparpok; Part abvako, 
Hang a [ild part of it]; nearly serlak*. 

C. 1) Comparison, by Afx. nirtseq [nerssaq f. e. angnerssdt 
the largest of them?] — 2) Much main{?): strongly agsict — 
3) small, poor mikkin, kerlu'^ — 4) is full akeetokepoke* (L. 
akikpa?). 

M. 1) More tchikpalik, kUu*{?) — 2) Is great tanerktoyoark* 

— 3) Small, by Afx. dluk, atsiark — 4) All tamaita, tamatkireit 

— 5) Breaks, destroys oruloyork, tchigarnerk. 

Wn. 1) Additional shooley \sule still] — 2) Large, big onga- 
rurum — 3) Small mikkirok; little mikitud, mikarurum — 4) 
All iluhun, tamutktvo, illokaisa, nukwa{?) — 5) One hd.\{ nubtva*, 
awigalukpuk, kupah {j^upd']-, breaks asunder nawikto [navigpd]. 

Ws. 2) Large anguk, anguserak, ang'enirok — 3) Small 
mikilingok — 4) All tamaita. 

A. 2) Great kegak, nymeenkin{?) — 3) ekitochtu. 



Section 4. OEDEE. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECULIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) USUAL, PECULIAR. 

Stw. As usually dsU; again «m«; strange avdla; aloneness 
kise (see also Section 2 & 3). 

Afx. Unusual arssuk , neq; usually tarpoq, araoq; always 
inarpoq. — Appended Particle taoq also 

Drv. Expl. Custom, habit. ^V^rgog; he visits frequently ^//ar- 
tarpoq; is always bad ajuhiarpoq; however, but kisidne (,in its 
aloneness"). 



S.4. ORDER 



Stw. Arranges it drqigpd; places it ilivd; direction migssik; 
frontside sak; arranges them in a row siagpai; hurting against 
tukf; a part added to the length uigo. 

Drv. ExPL. Gathers them katersorpai ; the next tugdleq; they 
form a row tugdlerigput. 

3) DERANGE, DISPERSE. 

Stw. Overturns agssagpd; entangled ilagpoq; inverse, wrong 
kigdloq; turns upside down mumigpd. 

Arx. Awkwardly^ paldrpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Deranges kigdlorpd; breaks off, interrupts it kipivd; 
disperses them siamarpai. 

4) BEGIN, END. 

Stw. Before sujo; extreme point in both directions iso; 
entrance pdq; finishes, ends it ndvd. 

Afx. Begins lerpoq; farthest towards leq, dleq; first or before 
rqdrpoq; does it the first time rnarpd. 

Drv. Expl The first one siijugdleq ; got sight of it takiderpd 
(„ began seeing"); middlemost akugdleq; the end of it naggatd. 



II. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES IROl THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing pecuhar stem words: tuto LlVl.) 

L. 1) Custom illusek; usually, by Afx. pakpok — 2) Gather- 
ing kattimanek; connection ilinganek — 3) Confusion illakemanek; 
is entangled tutuvok*; spreads them erkittiveit* — 4) Beginning iso. 

C. 4) End isso. 

M. 2) Put in order kakkiyorkrork (^}) — 3) Derange wm?c/io/or- 
toark{?), nungrutark; filthy tutogork* — 4) Preceding tsivulerar- 
tuark; succeeding inangiodjuark; ending utseartoark{?). 

Wn. 3) Turn mumeekto; spread fnanochenok (?) — 4) Other 
otla, ipar, aiha ; before or first oolungneakptmgar (?) ; after or last 
opuktu{?): end echoa lisud]. 

Ws. 4) Other aipa ; middlemost (?) akulerpak. 
A. - 



S. 5. NUMBER. . 43 

Section 5. NUMBEB. 

I. SELECTION or THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECULIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemAvords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 
1) SINGLE, ACCOMPANIMENT. 
Stw. One out of several ardlaq; alone kise. 
Afx. Only inaq, inarpoq, hiaq; companions etc. kut. 
Drv. Expl. All etc., see Sections 3 and 4. 

2) MANY. 

Stw. Are many amerdldjmt; swarm ujameriak. 

Afx. Many ^:»a«Y, pagssuit, iaq, iagpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Many amerdldsiit ; many people imiiagtut; a vil- 
lage igdlorpait. 

3) FEW. 
Stw. Are few ikigput. 

Afx. It has, or there are few kipoq. 

Drv. Expl. Few ikigtut , ikigtunguit; there are few people 
inukipoq. 

4) COUNTING. 

Stw He counts them kisipai; how many qavsit. 

Afx. Has got (caught) that number (of them) rdrpoq; does 
it so many times riarpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Number kisitsit; how many times qavsinik (Mod.); 
he has got three (f, e. seals) pingasordrpoq ; doing it four times 
sisamariardhme ; more amalo. 

n. PECILIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DL4LECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: kaliigna 
MWn.; nimaja, momaja LM.; mijoraluk M.; unugput LCM.) 

L. 1) Companion aipak, ingiakatte — 2) They are many 
unnuktovut*, unuksivalliavut*; swarm nimajadlarnek* — 4) He 
counts them kittipeit. 

C. 2) A great many oonookpuf^ — 4) How many qatsining. 

M. 1) At once kalodjat — 2) A group momayut; assembled 
atunin-ituk* (? negation by Afx. ipoq). 



44 S.o. NUMBER. 

Wn. 1) Only kesheme — 2) Plenty amaloktuk; many kalu- 
gna * , tamaun , amadratu ; all iluhutin , tamutkwo — 4) Count 
kepeetkege; how many kapsing. 

Ws. 1) Only towkwun — 2) People amalachtelsut. 

A. 2) nimkakeen, abaelaktuk. 

Section 6. TIME. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND €0}WION. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) TIME IN GENERAL. 
Stw. Duration, time nve-\', (the time or day) proceeds ilivoq. 
Afx. — 

Drv. Expl. The only word that might represent the abstract 
idea of time is the (supposed) stemword sive. The original real 
existence of this word seems proved by the derivata, as ., having 
long" and „ having short sive"" signifies lasting a long and a short 
time; but without Afx. the word is not used (see the subdivisions 
here following). 

2) TIME WHEN AND WHILE. 

Stw. Proceeds ilivoq; coinciding nalik (nale). 

Afx. Letting him, or while he ti^jd; when or while fik, vik. 

Drv. Exi'l. At what daytime did he start? qanoq ilingmat (as 
it had proceeded ^how") autdlarpa? — answer: inia ilivdlune 
(pointing at the place where the sun had been standing) autdlmyoq 
it standing thus, he started; inutitdlugo letting him live, i. e. during, 
his hfetime. 

3) PAST AND PRESENT. 

Stw. This ma\ still sule; now the first time aitsdt; when 
qanga; before sujo. 

Afx. Formerly galuaq; only first gatdlarpoq; begins lerpoq; 
has finished rerpoq; has or is done simavoq. 

Drv. ExpL. Now mdna: the first one sujugdleq; has passed 
(f. e. the day) qd^igiiqjoq (stw. qak surface). Flexion comprises no 
tense; the past tense generally is given by the context, if this not 
appears to be sufficiently clear, then the above named affixes are 
applied. 



S.6. TIME. . 45 

4) FUTURE, SUBSEQUENT. 

Stw. When qaqugo; after, later kingo; continues nangigpoq; 
waits for utarqivd; stop! uvatse. 

Afx. Will or shall (serving as the future tense) savoq, umd- 
rpoq; future, intended for gssaq; strives or intends to niarpoq; 
waits till he serpci, is in danger of naviarpoq. 

Drv. Expl. To morrow we will start aqago autdlarumdrpugut; 
he will not die toqunavidngilaq-, waits till he comes tikitserpd 
(tikipoq) ; hereafter kingorna. 

5) LONG TIME, FREQUENTLY. 

Stw. Is longing, impatient erinivoq-, slowly akunit. 

Arx For a long time mersorpoq; usually, frequently tarpoq; 
incessantly tidnarpoq. 

Drw. Expl. Takes much time erininarpoq (is to make impat- 
ient) ; lasting long sivisoq ; has a long" life inumersorpoq. 

6) SHORT TIME, RARE, NEVER. 

Stw. Soon qila; directly ernerpoq; hastens tuaviorpoq. 

Afx. Suddenly {g)alugtuarpoq\ hastely {g)asuarpoq; never 
juipoq; in a short time lertorpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Of short duration sivekitsoq-, never speaking, mute 
oqajuitsoq; quickly qilamik; instantly erninaq. 

7) EARLY, NEW, YOUNG. 

Stw. New nutdq; forestalls ingiarpd. 

Afx. Young araq-, early jdrpoq; new tdq. 

Drv. Expl. He started early autdlajdrpoq; my new kayak 
qajartdra; young Eiderduck tniteraq. 

8) LATE, SLOW, OLD. 

Stw. Now at last aitsdt: finally ktsa-, is slow pdmdrpoq; old 
titorqaq. 

Afx. old toqaq. 

Drv. Expl Timewasting ^aw^rwar^og' ; an old house igdlutoqaq. 

9) HAPPENING, OPPORTUNITY. 

• Stw. Did not expect it arajutsivd; expects it ilimagd. 

Afx. Happened to torpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Is to be expected ilimanarpoq; he happened to 
fall down ndkartorpoq; uncertain nalunarpoq {naluvoq knows not). 



/i(i S.6. TIME. 

II. PECILIARITIES AND EXAHPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: aquaq 
Wns.A. ; qajangata M. ; kagik, sunar, patagmik Ws. ; kuingitser . . . M.) 

L. 3) Has already arrived tikitsarerpok- past time nelUutoq, 
kangertok — 4) After, by Afx, goarpok — 7) Soon manakut — 
9) It happened him unexpectedly suingarpa* opalliva. 

C. 3) When kanga; once tesmane — 6) Wink koobloo- 
shooktoo — 7) Is young makkokepoke'^ \ child piarak — 9) It is 
time for nellikirpa \iiagdliupoq]. 

M. 2) Each time krayarand, kragangata* — 4) Henceforth 
krakoryaror — 6) Promptly tcharkortoark; to hasten kruingit- 
cherktoark * — 7) Young tsiumuk [sujo . . . ?] — 8) Old innutkro- 
artork. 

Wn. 2) When shupen — 3) Now pukmmni*, pukma*; now 
here mune-, past ages Mpane.; ancient adrane — 4) By and by 
ivanako; wait nanako [nidndkut now]; awhile anakame* — 5) 
Ever sandratuk; slow sikichuk — 7) Young tsiumuk; new mitok 
— 8) Old ootookok. 

Ws. 6) Quick patagmyk* , kjugaluden I? sukavdlutit thou 
hastening] — 7) New^ nutarak — 8) Old akkaljdt, kagikhklok*, 
suuar*, simar. 

A. 3) Now eute{?), wanni — 4) By and by kiwa — 6) Quickly 
unionhak lerntnak? in a moment] — 7) New nutowok — 8) Old ootookwo. 

Section 7. CHAlS^aE 

(see also section 4: Order). 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 
1) CHANGE IN GENERAL. 
Stw. Other avdla; exchange taorpd; extreme point nCik. 
Afx. Grows, becomes ngorpoq, dlivoq, rpoq\ new tag, tdrpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Grows a provider piniartungorpoq; niigpd changes 
its place. 

2) REMAIN. 

Stw. Stands still imigpoq. 

Afx. Always tuinarpoq : never julpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Stability ituinarpoq (ipoq), aulaJuipoq(aulavoqmo\es). 



S. 7. CHANGE. 47 

3) PERSIST. 
Stw. Continues nangigpoq. 
Afx. Grows more and more rorpoq. 
Drv. ExPL. Grows up inororpoq; supplants sivnerpd. 

4) TO STOP, CEASE, RESTORE. 
Stw. Stops unigpoq; turns back uterpoq. 
Afx. Ceases erpoq, saerpoq. 
Drv. Expl. Ceases going out anisaerpoq ; restores it utertipd. 

5) VARIATION. 
Stw, Has no fixed place sarsarpoq. 
Afx. Now and then tarpoq (after: ilane once). 
Drv. Expl. Strolls about angalavoq; Is unsiesidy tamaloqisdrpoq. 

6) FUTURE. 
Stw. & Afx. see Sect. 6 : Time. 
Drw. Expl. Future fate nagdliutugssaq, kingunigssaq. 

II. PECILIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stem words : kigigpokL.; 
kipuk... LMyVns.) 

L. 1) To change (trans.) ablatsangortilugo; growing worse 
asslnak*; exchange taungniarnek \taorniarneq\ — 3) Continue 
piganerlugo (?) — 4) To cease, by Afx. jungnaipoq [gungnaerpoq ?] ; 
stops kigipok * — 5) Unsteady arkpavok. 

C. 4) I feel better pivalikpunga. 

M. 1) Changing kipuktuark'^ ; transforming irkreyoark — 
4) Return otertuark: restore to life aneyoark [dnauvd?]. 

Wn. 1) Other otla — 3) Continue oglanituk — 4) Return 
ootiktook — 5) Turn from mumekto', turn inside out udlilugo 
[uUtdlugo]. 

Ws. 2) Preserving nms€du{?): standing nanuktuni?) 

A. 4) Stand tatako(?). 



48 S.8. CAUSATION. 

Section 8. CAUSATION. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECULIAR AND COniON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) CAUSE. 

Stw. Hurting, pushing kagjid-, believes him or it to be the 
caiise pasivd. 

Afx. Cause or remedy ut , gut , ssut , utaq ; commands or 
desires qtwd; causes it to tipd, serpd, sarpd; can be the cause of 
narpoq-, does so to him or with it tipd. 

Flexion. Because, if, as, are rendered by the conjunctive and 
the subjunctive moods. 

Drv. Expl. Cause pissut , patsit; is inclined or liable to 
kajumigpoq; is to get cold from qtanarpoq; brings it aggiupd 
{aggerpoq comes); why? soq; in order to be loved assarquvdlune 
{assavd loves him). 

2) EFFECT. 

Stw. It (the weapon) is applied with success kivdligpd; 
acting on something kimik\ behind kingo. 

Afx. As passive participle are used: gaq^ saq, ssaq, taq; is 
prone to javoq; the uttering or result neq. 

Drv Expl Captured angussaq {anguvd has caught); offspring 
kingudq; a knot qilerneq {qilerpd binds). 

3) POWER, SEVERITY. 

Stw. Strength nako, nukik; power pissaq\ is strong sdngivoq; 
is severe suagpoq; solid matter, strength tangeq. 

Afx. Duly atdrpoq. Emphatics see Section 3. 

Drv. Expl. A very strong or powerful man pissarssuaq, naku- 
arssuaq; strains every nerve agsororpoq, Hunger sorpoq\ exceedingly 
sualugpoq. 

4) POWERLESS. 

Stw. Is tired, slacked qasuvoq-, exertion of strength me?yoqf', 
powerless sajavoq. 

Afx. Miserable kuluk. 

Drv. Expl. Exhausted merngorpoq; powerless sdngepoq, naku- 
ipoq. 



CAUfO^^S. CAUSATION. 



49 



5) WORK. 

Stw. Lets fall his hand on it 2)ciiigp^t: prepares something 
with his hands sanavoq. 

Afx. Is working livoq.; makes, prepares liorpoq-, does so to 
him or with it npCi. 

Drv. Expl. Works it with the hands passupd; is occupied, 
working sidivoq (so), jnliofyoq [pe)-, accomphshes it inerpd, piarer])d; 
builds a house igdhiUorpoq. 

6) DESTROY, OPPOSE. 

Stw. Is consumed nunguvoq ; can not master it saperpd ; al- 
though nauk, uvnit. 

Afx. Hinders, prevents tailivd. 

Drv Expl. Destroys, wastes «sgror^<^, mm^«<^9a; opposes w-Ar^rar- 
toiyoq-, obstacle pasermit, akornut; however tawiditoq. 

II. PECI LIARITIES A?iD EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords : kingoqWs.; 
makutiva LCWrj.) 

L. 3) Power pitsartunek; is stronger than he makkutiva* — 

4) Tired tutakpok'^\ weak sangqwk, keUusukpok* — 6) Hinders 
agviarpok. 

C. 1) Why soiik [soq] — 3) Strong sangijok — 4) Weak- 
ening piunaernak [pmnertmeql. 

iSI. 1) Weak tsigolayoark \? siggilavoq is brittle]. 

Wn. 1) Exhort katchuga — 3) Strong sJmngirook, pitsmgi- 
sok{?), makkuchtok* — 4) Tired muganokhtuktuk \merngortoq\ — 

5) Make savakto. 

Ws. 3) Strong kingok, tisrak{?); strength oonachkiktook, 
iknachu — 4) Weak arilisrak{?). 



Section 9. SPACE. 

I. SELECTION OF THE CREEINLAND WORDS, PECILIAR A>D COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) PLAGE, DIRECTION. 
As to this subdivision the language exhibits a remarkable store 
XI. J. 4 



50 S.9. SPACE. 

of words derived from peculiar radical terms, while on the other 
hand prepositions, as rendered by flexion, are wanting. 

Stw. : 

(1) Ordinary stemwords: Place, dwelling ine-, stays there 
najorpd; places it ilivd, ikivd; vicinity erqaq; where is it? nauk; 
is sloping slverpoq; straight before sujo; direction of length tukih-, 
direction in general migssik, nale. 

(2) Words of place proper: nether, below at; upper, above 
qiit, qide; front side sak\ before sujo-, behind tuno, kingo; side 
sane; opposite ake; interior iluk; outside, exterior silat, avat; sur- 
face qak. (See Vol. I, p. 52.) 

(3) Demonstrative roots: here ma; there tass, uv; yonder ik. 
(See Special Part and Vol. I p. 52.) 

Afx. The place where fik, vik; inhabitant mio. 

Flexion. The prepositions relating to place are rendered by 
the local cases, formed by the endings (appositions) : on or at me ; 
from mit; through kut; to mut (see Vol. I). 

Drv. Expl. The place from which we started autdlarfigput ; 
in the direction of the island qeqertap migssdne; at the foot of the 
mountain qdqap atdne; here mdne; from here mdnga; hereto 
maunga; from the cape nungmit; to the cape nungmut. 

2) DISTANCE. 
Stw. Extreme unga; near qanigpoq. 

Afx. Farthest towards leq, dleq; rather far towards {pa)slgpoq. 
Drv. Expl. Is far off ungasigpoq. 

3) LARGE, LONG, BROAD. 

Stw. Is large angivoq; thick ivssuvoq; broad siligpoq; long 
takivoq; spaciousness nero-\. 

Afx. Large ssiiaq. 

Drv. Expl. Its (size) largeness anglssiisia; wide neriitusoq; 
large island qeqertarssuaq; long takisoq. 

4) SMALL, SHORT, NARROW. 

Stw. Is small mikivoq; narrow amipoq; makes it narrow to 
him tativd; short ndipoq. 

Afx. Small nguaq, kipoq. 

Drv. Expl. Very small mikissoraldnguaq; is narrow neru- 
kipoq; becomes shorter nailivoq; thin, flat satoq (sak). 



S.9. SPACE. 



5) HEIGHT, TOP, BOTTOM. 



51 



Stw. Top inffik', is high kingyjpoq; is low naqigpoq; upright 
napavoq-, bottom nateq; shallow ikdpoq; deep itivoq; lifting pof; 
pillar sukak — (see Place). 

Afx. — 

Drv. ExPL. Is high portuvoq; very high king igtorssuaq; low 

6) EXTERIOR, INTERIOR. 

Stw. Surface qak; border kigdlik; point, end ndk, iso; is 
open angmavoq ; cover ule, mato ; edge sine ; contents imag' ; central 
part time\ middle qiteq — (see Place). 

Afx. 

Drv. Expl. Inmost ilordleq\ is filled imerpoq\ is empty imaer- 
poq\ outmost qagdleq\ the inland nimap timd; interjacent akuneq. 

7) FORM. 

Stw. Is round angmalorpoq , ulamerpoq ; is sharp ipigpoq ; 
corner teqerqoq : exterior of a person tauto ; straight nardluvoq : 
a hole puto; top ingik; even manigpoq; bending perpd; a stopple 
simik. 

Afx. — 

Drv. Expl. Is bowed peqingavoq; uneven manitsoq. 



II. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stem words : auriing . . . 
L VI Wn. ; igu . . . Ws. A. ; quai (suai) Ws. ; tatake (?) A. ; tuli (?) Ws.) 

L. 1) Behind inganga; whither namut — 3) Enormously, 
by Afx. jovaksoak ; is great tanertuvok [tangneq length] — 4) Narrow 
nerrokipok, igvikipok* — 6) Bottom of the sea erkd*; contents 
illulek — 7) appearance tautu. 

C. 1) Where is it? nau taima — 2) Over there timar\ 
thither tauvunga — 7) Even maniradlu; uneven manilaradlu. 

M. 1) Beneath ilimajara — 6) Filled tchitkrayoartork{?) ; 
excavated patkrertoark — 7) Is curved, arched aunmgagoark*; 
curve amariuk (?). 

Wn. 1) Where? sumi, nah\ which way nutmun; here mani; 
down there kahvuna; dwelling ingin — 2) Near iiniikt{?), konikto; 
distant ahpii^) — 3) Big angidoicruk; long tukasrook — 4) Small 
mikero; short nichuk, thin sliattu — 5) High mukachana (?) ; 

4* 



52 S.IO. MOTION. 

bottom natka; depth etipchung — 6) Outside silatana;' side sane- 
kok ; border okkoora (?) ; full seelatvikto * — 7 Round kaiuksua ; 
square itkaurdij); crooked chakoonarook ; a shrew mirtmak* ', hole 
pootoa; UTpri^hi nupukto. 

Ws. 1) Here chonich; there chuni; down o*««*; thither Ja«r?/^ 
— 2) Far off yaikhtok* — 3) Big tikngaltnk', broad iuguhilu*, 
kauchtnk — 4) Narrow igukimnk*, ujukalmuk — 5) High iugtiihi*', 
low iitchkalnagak* — 7) Open eyeerasha; hole tschaknah{?). 

A. 1) Upwards andkukuk* — 2) Far tatakti; near kiinetoo- 
7'uk — 3) Big nemainkin, ongare; broad nukutu — 5) Height 
ykiicliUik'^ — 6) Outside avatagdne. 



Section 10. MOTIOK 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLANIT WORDS, PECILIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) MOVE, VELOCITY, STOP. 

Stw. Proceeds, travels ingerdlavoq; comes qaivocj; slow aktinit; 
stops imigpoq. 

Afx. — 

Drv. Expl. Moves aulavoq (auk blood) ; m. quickly sukaroq 
(stikak pillar); immoveable aulaj anger poq. 

2) STRIKE, PROPEL. 

Stw. Collision Uik-\; hurts kag2)df; is stopped ndgpoq; 
draws nniaipoq, kalig2)oq; brings it aivd; throws away igipd. 

Afx. Pushes with . . . migjmq. 

Drv. Expl. Thrusts it torpa; pushes it forward kamipd\ trans- 
fers it nugpd {iiuk extreme point); butts with its horns nagssxmg- 
migpoq. 

3) MOTION WITH REFERENCE TO DIRECTION. 

Stw. Lifts it kivigpd^ sinks it kivivd\ nether (?) inoqfi bends 
downward nakdpd; draws out amuvd; hits it erqorpd-, moves 
upward 7najorpoq; turns round kdvigpoq; has passed beyond it 
qimupd. 

Afx. Goes to liarpoq, mukarpoq\ passes by rqiqyoq. 

Drv. Expl. Emerges 2>^//rog' {po-\)', straggles angalavoq; goes 
across ikdrpoq (ik) ; falls down ndkarpoq; travels to the cape nuli- 
arpoq. 



S.ll. MATTER. 53 

4) WITHDRAW, PROCEED, FOLLOW. 
Stw. Goes out anivoq; leaves qimagpit; following malik. 
Arx. — • 

Drv. ExpL. Precedes sujuarpoq; follows maligpd; takes to 
flight qimdvoq; departs autdlarpoq. 

5) ARRIVE, RETURN, ENTER. 

Stw. Has arrived ^*X-i^og' ; is coming aggerpoq, ornigpd, qawoq; 
return tite; enters iserpoq, pulavoq. 

Afx. Has arrived at 



Drv. ExPL. Brings it aggiupd, qdipd\ returns uterpoq; visits 
frequently pulartarpoq\ has landed mmallpoq. 

II. PECILURITIES A^D EXA3IPLES FROU THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: kaivdlu- 
arpd (?) L. ; nangagpoq{?) L.) 

L. 2) pushing forward kaihluarlugd'^ \ hurting t7)kpa — 

3) Straggles arvertarpok — 4) Passes by nangakpok *. 

C. 2) Pushes on serpitipok (?) ■ — 3) Rises majoarpa — 

4) Goes out anivoq — 5) Enters Issivoq. 

M. 2) Throwing igltoark — 3) Turning kaihartoarq [c[ivi- 
atyoq] — 4) Going out aniyoark — 5) Penetrating itertoark. 

Wn. 1) Moves ollaro\ quick kellamanik Iqilamik]] way 
apkiitin [civktit] — 2) push shoopooloa:, drag ooneahah — 3) Fall 
ower olorok \ordliivoq\ — 5) Gome kgle [qaile, opt. may he come!], 
tulld*\ come in echukatm [iserdlutit]. 

Ws. 1) I go ichiika{?); running kymeodhtuk , kiitschengi* ; 
don't move tchakiiinalgo * — 2) Strike tschukscJmtekew (?) — 
4) Go away anova. 

A. 1) Go oivetokto; quick shukivilnuk — 3) Sink kllugoota; 
stand up mukkoovuk [inakipoq] — 5) Gome tug a*. 

Section 11. MATTER 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND COM HON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

I) MATTER IN GENERAL. 
Stw. Is light (not heavy) oqipoq; solidity tangeq; adheres 
nipigpoq; dust sanik; stiff eqarpoq; tough nlngucoq', flexible qitug- 



54 S.ll. MATTER. 

2)oq\ soft aqli)oq] hardness sisak, mangeiyoq; hard and brittle sikag- 
2)oq; wet qmiseiyoq, masak; semifluid kinerpok-, frozen qerivoq; 
running water MA;; vapour, smoke pujoq. 

■ Afx._ — 

Dry. KxPL. Is heavy oqhndipoq; is brittle siggilavoq {sigpd)\ 
runs as a fiuid kiigpfoq^ air as enclosed in a bladder j^utdlaq. 

(See Sections 26 ane 27. For Matter in an abstract sense 
hardly any word exists). 

2) ORGANISM AND LIFE. 

See Sections 1, 17, 18, 24, 25. 

3) SENSATION. 
See Sections 18 & 27. 

II. PECULIARITIES km EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

L. Heaviness okumanek; fluid kTrt'lorsuk: vapour kessifk*, 
pujok; hard sittivok; brittle ingnek'^; wet kauserpok, aijungavok '^ ; 
frozen koaksimavok; soft nerromiki^ok* . 

M. Weighing okrumaytoark', brittle kuineytuark [qajangnar- 
toq\ : hard atclmitork [antsiiitsoq never melting]. 

Wn, Hard sisirtia; dried ^^aweHa; brittle chegokaluktoak ; 
pouring (fluid) koovega, smoke isuk. 



Section 12. lOTELLECT. 

I. SELECTION! OF THE GREE?iLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) INTELLECT, REASON, ERROR, MADNESS. 

Stw. . Thought, mind ismna; reason sila; has sensation, reason 
sianivoq: soul tarne-, straight before sujo; says something untrue or 
incorrect sagdluvoq; insane . _p/z;c?/6. 

Afx. — 

Drv. Expl. Thinks isumavoq; notion, meaning sujtmeq; is 
foolish, stupid poqipoq, sian1p)oq:, mad silaerupoq, j-m-c^/^/'orpo^. 

2) OBSERVATION, INQUIRY, KNOWLEDGE. 

Stw. Has learnt ilipoq ; examines qinerpoq ; perceives mahigd, 



S.12. INTELLECT. 55 

misigd, sianivoq; is ignorant naluvoq; listens ndlagpoq; is cautions 
mianivoq; tries tigpd. 

Afx. Searches, looks for siorpoq-, finds, gets sivoq. 

Drv. ExPL. Observes misigssorpd, sujunersiorpd; knows na- 
lungilaq; neglecting isumdijyoq-, I don't know astikiaq; very learned 
ilisimassorssuaq. 

3) REASONING, EVIDENCE, DEMONSTRATE, RELIEVE. 

Stw. Doubts qularpoq; is conscious sianivoq; suspects pasivd; 
believes ng2)erpoq\ is right, true iluarp)oq\ indistinct navsoq. 

Afx. Probably, perhaps rqorpoq, nerpoq-, so it may be sima- 
roq; believes sord, tipd, ga, rd. 

Drv. ExPL. Reasoning, considering s«7a^a ; e\\dieuce nalunaertd', 
cause 2^isstd; knows, has comprehended it ilisimavd, tusdvd, pdsivd 
(found the entrance); unknown nalunarj^oq; certainly ilumut, ila!; 
explains navsuerpd ; contradicts agssortorpd ; asserts akuerd, angerpoq. 

4) MEMORY, IMAGINATION, EXPECTATION. 

Stw. Remembers erqaivoq\ forgets puigo^jyoq; expects it 
ilimagd\ hopes neriugpoq; did not expect arajtUsivd; wonders at 
it tujngd. 

Afx. Supposes sord, tipd. 

Drv. Expl. Never forget puijuipoq\ supposing it was a fiord- 
seal I wondered at its size natsitisorahigo angissusia tupigdra. 

II. PECILIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: qarane, 
qujavoq M.; kita Ws.; orotkroya M.; tuke L.; uminachtnk A.; 
us ...(?), oosevitok, tisuttok Ws.) 

L. 1) Thinking isumavok, erkaimava; meaning, sense tukke* 
— 2) Comprehend ttikkisilugo*; observes kanmiagiva*; indifferent 
nippungavok * ; knows kaujivok * [qmtswoq has found light] : know- 
ledge kaujimanek, ignorant kaiijimalimgilak — 3) Explain tukkisi- 
nartipa*; surmises kangesukpok*' — 4) Guessing nellmipsarhigo. 

C. 2) Just as I thought assiiidlak\ I don't know ameasut; 
certainly atako \atago\. 

M. 1) Thought, reason kadjiinak* {(qmis^ineql'']', incredible 
onerktsimayoark (?) — 3) Judging orotkrawn * ; doubt karane, 
karaptin*\ believing cmgerktoark — 4) Probably tahliuiT). 

Wn. 1) Foolish kenungokto; mad kinmingaroa [qiningaroq 
ill tempered] — 2) knowing ileechennge; I don't know atchu, 



56 S.IS. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS. 

kanome lqano)-me why not!], kamukccle{?) — 3) Believe echemalu 
[isumaliorpoq]. 

Ws. 1) Wise usiiitok* ^ usjulchtuk* , oosewitok'^; stupid 
Hschjuituituk* ; ir uih paichpiak{?). 

A. 1) Intelligent uminachtuk; stupid iminhachtuk — 2) know- 
ing neshemiik. 



Section 13. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS. 

I. SELECTION OF THE tIREENLAWW WORDS, PECILIAR A?iD COMMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) INTELLIGENCE, CONCEALING, MEANS OF COMMUNICATION. 

Stw. Tells unerpoq; knows not iialuvoq; meaning isuma; con- 
ceals it angigd; lies sagdltivoq; a sound from something kalerraq; 
voice nipe; i\iroa.t tordluk:, tongue oqaq'^ foot step tu me. 

Afx. Says that he nerarpd\ says, or people say goq (particle); 
dissimulates msarpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Gives intelligence nalunaerpd; news tusagagssat 
(to be heard); is silent nipangerpoq; deceives pequserdlugpoq ] 
sign nalunaerut; says oqarpoq. 

2j LANGUAGE. 

Stw. Name ateq; calls taivd; whispers ivsuvssugpoq; stam- 
mers ivtoqerpoq; asking aperd; answer ake:, denies misiarpoq. 

Afx. Orders or h^^s -rquvd. 

Dry. Expl. Word oqauseq; language ogaw^si^ (pi.) ; talks oqa- 
lugpoq ; void of sense sujunerupoq ; intelligible navsoqdngitsoq ; ac- 
cost oqarfigd, sd2)d (turns to) ; answers akivd ; shouts tordlorpoq. 

II. PECULIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: dlavoq\j.\ 
qorqugpoq LCAI.; klggorpd L. ; kanagpok{?) Wn. X.; niu Ws. ; 
uiverd L\I.) 

L. 1) Groans, moans ulavok*; informs him akparlugo*, 
kaujitihigo*; calls loudeley korkukpok*; is false annerpanaipok\ 
conceals angijiariva; heivB.ys kiggorpa* : gesture ibtkiarnek, omilanek; 
deceives uiveriva * — 2) Sense of the word okautsih tiikkinga * ; 
interpreting pijiitserpok\ intelligible Uikkisinarpok* \ speaks little 
napterepok. 



S.U. INDIVIDUAL VOLUNTARY POWERS. hi 

C. — 

\I. 1) iVnounces Mkegoncerark (?) ; listening nenSoptoark*; 
deceiver oiyeyet*; to be sure //iwwariA;; calling crying kokroartork* 
— 2) Answering kangerktsidja'^. 

Wn. 1) Silent imitngiakto [imangertoq]; to lie chuklurune 
[sagdluvcllime]; truly chukloonecho [-nago]; telling kanukhtuk*. 

Ws. 2) Speaking neichtuk, neogtak*; narrating njuivan. 

A. i2) Speaking kanachtok* \?qaneq mouth]. 



Section 14. INDrVIDUAL VOLUNTAEY POAYEES. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLA^iD WORDS, PECILIAR AND lOHMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) FREE WILL AND NECESSITY GENERALLY. 

Stw. Self ingme, nangmineq; chooses qiner/poq; mind isuma. 

Afx. Will umavoq; necessary giaq, riaq, riaqarpqq\ causes, 
brings about tipd, sarpd, rqiivd. 

Drv. Expl. Spontaneously, out of his free will, his oWn mind 
isiimaminik; doing it on purpose piaralugo^, as thou Yikesi piumas- 
sangmik (piumassaq^ wished); is needed pissariaqarpoq. 

2) MOTIVE, AIM. 

Stw. Wishes kigsarpoq; pushes kagpd\; finds fault with it 
issord: finds it dangerous naviagd; is satisfied with ndmagd. 

Afx. Is prone to gajugpoq; should like to siigpoq; motive ut; 
intended for gssaq; goes to iartorpoq; intends to lerssdrpoq-, will 
(future) iimdrpoq; strives to niarpoq; goes to look for siorpoq; 
object, aim fik; to cause, make, incite tijjd, sarpd etc. see above. 

Drv. Expl. Desires kajrmgerd: intends Isumalerpoq (begins 

thinking); leaves {autdlarpoq) on account of {ut-gd has it for his 

motive) autdlautigd\ leaves for travelling to autdlarfigd; irritates 
fiingagsarpd, 

3) DIFFICULTY, OPPOSITION, BAD. 

Stw. Windside agssoq; is bad, useless ajorpoq; hurt, injured 
by accident arqimmyoq; wrong kigdloq; dirt ipeq, minguk; sick- 
ness ndpaq; avoids nigorpd\ can not master it saperpd, artorpd; 
is angry ningagpoq , kamagpoq; attacks sorssugpd; requital ake; 
emulates unangmivd; redicules mitagpd. 



58 S.14. INDIVIDUAL VOLUNTARY POWERS. 

Afx. Inferior aluJc, kasik; bad dhiJc-, vile, detestable p7?//i'; 
hinders tailivd. 

Drv. Expl. Suffering, need, starvation ajorssarijoq 2)erdler])oq\ 
difficult ajornarpoq , artornarpoq; hindrance akormtt; opponent 
ciheraq; revenges akiniaipa. 

4) MEANS, ASSISTANCE. 

Stw. Uses it atorpci; strength nako^-, excellent pitsak; feels 
compassion nakd ; helps ikioiyd ; protects sernigd ; partizan ilik ; 
friend ikingiit. 

Afx. Is or has it fine gtgpoq-, well, right dhiarpoq; does so 
to him or with it itp>d. 

Drv. Expl. Excites pity nakinmpoq; protector sernigssorte; 
availes himself of it ilnaqidigd; provides for him ^/^iwM^^*^. 

5) WORK, TIRED, IDLE. 

Stw. Places it ilivd-, alert ^^l^^^ogf; works sanavoq; is at his 
ease(?) sungivoq-\\ watches ^j/^arpo^; looks sulky anugpoq; lies 
down inmyoq; tired qasiivoq; morose ornlerpoq; sleep sinik\ ex- 
ertion merpoq-\. 

Af^. Is occupied with eriroq; makes, fabricates ivoq, iorpoq; 
hastens asuarpoq; can {s)inm<voq. 

Drv. Expl. Trsiins 2^erorsarp)d; is well trained up for, quite 
accustomed io'ii sun giupd-, is working snlivoq; industrious 2^ikorig2)oq; 
alert qtlavoq ; skilful pimak ; idle eqiasugpoq ; tired meyngotyoq ; can 
master it sap)ingild, piginauvoq. 

6) RESULTS. 

Stw. Is saved dnagpoq; hits it erqorpd; misses unioiyd; 
finishes ndvd, iner2)d\ disappointment angiluk}. 

Afx. Succesfully dhimjmq. 

Dry. Expl. Accomplishes ndmagtipd; not vanquised ajugaq 
{ajorpd can not) ; failure angihigtorneq. 

II. PECILIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stem words: atsuilik 
LiVl.; itagivd L.; kavag poq Vs'u%. k.\ kmjut'an Wn.; kivtaiijyoq L.; 
miitura A.; opigug2)oq L.; salagi . . . 1^.; savi . . . Wns.; sii)ak M.; 
tutnk L!M ; uik Ws. ; uinga C; suma ... MA.; stiterpoq LM.) 

L. 1) Will 2)V0tnanek ; free will ismnainakinek — 2) Inten- 
tion kajiisimnnek — 3) Unwilling kunnuvok\ deficient nakkoe2iok\ 



S.15. INTERSOCIAL VOLUNTARY FOWERS. 59 

misfortune kannoetok, idluitok; dangerous sutairnarpok* \ miserable 
oguarnarpok\ sick kannimavok', dirt allorluk*; entangled (hair) 
tutuvok* — 4) Willing, ready igisimavok, aUosimavok* -, healty 
atsuilik * ; perfect idluarmarikpok ; praises opigukpok * ; well nakok- 
pok — 5) Cautious itagiva * ; work, by Afx. erivok ; agile kihtairpok ; 
audacious katjak; pursue udlalugo, iirred sengnerpok; lazy avdnga- 
voq — 6) Hits it uvigarpa-, false atep tmiingavok; vanquisher 
sulagije. 

C. 3) Want tahoomarwungar (?) ; dirty ooinga*. 

M. 3) hijuring killangneariga : bad tckumark*; plunders, 
spoils kavuartuark', unhealty imcereloktoark ; suffering tchm'erktoark*; 
filthy hitoijork*; quarelling orotkroyat — 4) Healty atsuiliyoark* -, 
harmless tcMimmjmtuark* -, doing well tsavaregto7'k{?) — 5) Awake 
tehippark*; watching natchalerktoark (?) — 6) Revenge tdierna- 
ngiktoark{?). 

Wn. 3) Bad ashoonfk*; sick ananah!; dirty ivahak* — 
4) Good nakooru , areegah * ; excellent nakoo])eakto — 5) Work 
savakto*, chavitka*, choveetuk: couragions ktmtaroa; an idle person 
yukiasurud \inuk eqiasugtoq?]; sleep siniktoga, koviiktunga* \ awaken 
muketin; w^atching towtukuk* \ tired minooktook — 6) Finished 
tdtnah (?), tahivatsi *. 

Ws. 3) kumychtuchtuk (?) , uikmmik*; fighting j*^?«^ac/>aw^w^ 
[2Kiggd2mt'] — 4) Healty tschaiukmiduk (?) — 5) Working choivee- 
zerukhli*; sleeping kavagtuk* — Q) Finished tahwutun. 

A. 2) Hitting tiguok — 3) Bad tschaUok, sukahik-. dirt 
tschuekach; struggle mytyratuk* ; mourning tchtimachtachtu * — 
4) Good opinuktook* — 5) Sleep kavek, kavangnakunga*. 



Section 15. INTEESOCIAL VOLUNTAEY POWEES. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREE^iLAND WORDS, PECllIAR AND COHMON. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) GENERAL INTERSOCIAL RELATIONS. 

Stw. Gomits to his charge imipd ; forbids tanerpd ; sends him 
on an errand tilivd\ commands indptd; leads him by the hand 
tasior'pd; venerates atarqivd\ obeys ndlagpoq', servant qivfaq; beg- 
ging qimivoq; feels himself inferior qunuvoq: is mild, gentle saima- 
voq ; protects, sernigd. 

Afx. Commands or begs rquvd\ does so for his sake iq)d, 

Drv. Expl. Is proud makitavoq {mak\)'. master, lord nohigaq: 



60 S.lo. INTERSOCIAL VOLUNTARY POWERS. 

consents akuerd , iliiard; is servant to him kwfartilpd; consoles 
tugpatdlersarpd {tuk-\)\ invites qaerquvd. 

(See also Section 14,8,4 and ^Special Part"). 

2) POSSESSIVE RELATIONS. 

Stw. Thing pe; gets j^^^oq] catches gains anguvd; payment 
ake; snatches from bim arsdtyd; distributes, sends a present |;a/w^- 
pd; takes it ti(jiwd\ steals tigdligpoq; exchanges taorp^; is care- 
ful with his things erdligpoq] gives, sells tunivd; barters niiioerpoq^ 
gets his share of the game ningerpoq; omits in distributing minipd\ 
has dropped it katagpd; lives in abundanee arsivoq. 

Afx. Furnished with lik; has qarpoq\ has caught poq (added 
to the animals' name) ; acqires, buyes sivoq, sinlarpoq ; goes to fetch 
tarpoq\ property ut; deprives of (— ) erpd; furnishes with (:) erpd, 
lerpd. 

Drv. Expl. Possesses it pigd', precious erdlingnartoq; I have 
nothing to pay with (future payment) akigssaqdngilanga: he gave 
him some blubber begging him to buy house material for it orssumik 
tunivd igdlugssarsiniutlgerqaudlugo; he tries {niar) to sell (deprive 
himself of itvaq) codfish uvaerniarpoq. 

II. PECILIARITIES ANU EXAMPLES FRO)I THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: agpanger- 
polS }A.\ avangitunga A.; avdlumavoq L.; ignlsdypd L. ; kaviiar . . . 
M. :. kiklpd L. ; kipu . . . L M Wn. ; mikikvin Wn. ; sikik .Wn. ; 
tujuk Ws.) 

L. 1) Is willing to anything aUoniavok*; sends him quickly 
ignlsdrpa * ; chief angajokak, attanek ; severe attangimvok * ; punish 
pUsuklugo; haughtiness pijorinek — 2) Rich akluipok* \ poor 
aklavok* , petovok\ saving apkalersarpok\ wasting apkalaiildrtok; 
distributes aituivok: furnishes with, by Afx. likpa\ omits in distri- 
buting kikipa*; sells niorvgosivok. 

C. - 

M. 1) Obeying pingartsidjoark \ shame oniudjun — 2) Buy- 
ing akpangertoark* \ plundering kaniiai'toark* \ possess angiifingni- 
toark{?)\ poor tchualuUoark ; grasping akivardn{?), tigularnitoark; 
trades conscientiously niuvariktoark \jiiuverigpoq, niuvfdrigpoq\. 

Wn. 1) Servant kapegah; protector kaleak: assist nuluwh- 
okto (?) ; leading taksewiva ; hate omechooktoo ; friend nuigilii (?) ; 
enemy talokeneriik* ; I love nakoogara; ashamed egosheto — 2) 
Buying akkea ; sell ahkechuk, kipueJmk * ; getting pelege ; take tiggoo, 
inikkikwin*; give (took, aichilunga; give me ichenie*; gift, present 
diikkeeka^ \ lend ahtuktoa; lost tanmktoa. 



S.16. AFFECTIONS. 61 

Ws. 1) Chief tuiuk'*' — 2) Gift, present cheekeekha*; give! 
atsehtitschiiiga; xnmehwikpiki(k\ hnylkijnisjii*; seW I kibutsachtschi*. 

A. 2) I have not avangitimga*. 



Section 16. AFFECTIONS. 

I. SELECTION OF THE GREENLAND WORDS, PECILIAR AND tOflJION. 

(The common stemwords of the Dialects see Vol. I.) 

1) AFFECTIONS GENERALLY. 

Stw. Perceives sianivoq; observes misigd; temper isuma: 
strength nako; slack qastivoq; security terdlik; starts out of fear 
uloriarpoq; opens the eyes nipoq\ suddenly rising pigpaqf; gets 
astart tupagpoq; wonders tujngd. 

Afx. Excitement tsagpoq. 

Drv. Expl. Is sensible idoriasugpoq; concerned ilungersuavoq; 
nature, habit ilerqoq: is indifferent terdligpoq, j^^^^l^oq; starts up, 
violent 2^ik^9Poq, tiisavoq. 

. 2) ATTRACTION, PLEASURE, BOLD. 

Stw. Finds it nice inequgci, ktissagd; wishes kigsarpoq\ feels 
continual attraction to nngagd\ confidence tate\ hopes neriugpoq; 
is pleasant nudnerpoq\ merry quiag2)oq\ laughs igdlarpoq. 

Arx. Wishes umavoq, rusugpoq, gugpoq, ngerpoq; fairly vfdrik 
— etc. see Section 14. 

Drv. Expl. Is very nice ineqimaqaoq ; my beloved house- 
fellows igdloqatigka ungagissdka; bold, audacious sapTitsoq, ^laviag- 
tditsoq. 

3) DISGUSTING, GRIEF, FEAR. 

Stw. Is disgusted maujiigpoq\ concerned nikavoq, enmmavoq: 
feels remorse ileragd; pain uneq; grieves aliagd; feels soreness and 
pain tatagpoq; iears ersivoq, nangiarpoq\ finds it dangerous naviagd; 
trembles ilUgpoq. 

Afx. Is incumbered with dliorpoq\ got too much of it katug- 
poq — etc. see Section 14. 

Drv. Expl. Suffers hardship ndgdliugpoq\ feels pain dnerpoq; 
is dreadful anildrnarpoq ; frightened to death tatamigpoq\ uggly 
pinlpoq. 

4) SYMPATHETIC AFFECTIONS. 
(See also Section 1 4,4 & 15,2). 



62 S.16. AFFECTIONS. 

Stw. Dies from longing kipipoq\ feels himself inferior 5'?-^^- 
uvoq\ loves asavd, kamagd, ndkord; thanks qujavoq] praises 
nersorpd ; venerates atarqivd ; is bashful igtorpoq ; avoids him talord ; 
fears him merserd; flees from human society qlvipoq\ feels offended 
mamiagd\ is angry kamagpoq\ hates umigd\ shows contempt nar- 
ruvoq\ morose oruluvoq\ envious singavoq. 

Afx. Favourit ndq. 

Drv. ExpL. Enemy akeraq\ }^m\\^ pitdlarpd\ flatters manig- 
orpd ; hates , despises qingarssorpd , qingarqupd (qingaq nostril) ; 
he whom I love and who loves me asassara asassigalo (ssaq 
loved, -sse lover, r{g)a my); suspects him pasitsdupd; reproaches, 
judges erqartupd:, accuses him in a „nith song" of his faults iverpd, 
tainiorpoq. 

5) MORAL AND R-ELIGIOUS AFFECTIONS. 

*■ 
Sl'w. Is righteous , honest lluarpoq ; reason , morality sila ; 

indecently merry tipdpoq; lascivious pitdpoq\ ashamed for using 

another's things inimigd\ blames avorqdrd; wiichraiit kugsungneq; 

invoking qernaineq:, iprsiy'mg serraneq; ahsilnence agdlerneq'., amulet 

drnuaq. • • 

Afx.' Fair, generous vfdrik, glgpoq, dluarpoq\ bad dlugpoq, 
nerdlugpoq; rascally p)iluk. 

Drv. ExPL. Immoral silditsoq\ vice ilerqopiluk; a rascal inu- 
piluk; deceiver perquserdlugtoq; .is licentious naUnginarjwq, arneri- 
voq\ murderer inorersoq, inuartoq; of good morals Uerqorlgpoq; 
just, righteous iluartuvoq\ right-minded isumagigpoq\ sensible, 
modest silagssorigpoq. (See also Sect. 16,4). 



11. PECILIARITIES AND EXAMPLES FROM THE OTHER DIALECTS. 

(Words apparently representing peculiar stemwords: asigtoq, 
asertoq Wns. ; qaggorpoq L!M.; qiiinarpoq L. ; kivtairpoq L. ; nun- 
gul . . . Ws. ; opigugpoq . L. ; serkanl ... M. ; uik . . . Ws.; sipiler- 
toq M.; suinaq M.; qangdrpoq L.; atachuavoq Ws. ; ilejdrpd LM 
Ws.; qutsiaq LWs.; quvdlugtoq M.; kakavoq LC; kangesugpoq 
L. ; omii ... M.; opingaivoq L.; savig ... Ws. ; serrivoq L. ; 
uiverd LM.; sivdluvoq L.; suma ... lM A.) 

L. 1) Feeling nellugosungnek, kangestmgtiek* ; temper isuma- 
nek ; earnest kangatailivok ; surprised sutngarpa, opingaivok * ; ama- 
zing tatamnarpoq — 2) Fair, faultless (it is) nakokpok, (he is) 
nekkokpok\ cheerful keptairpok '^ ; beautiful, nice ananauvoq*, Afx. 
tsiak; glad aliasugpok*, serrlvok*; agile, jovial keptairpok*- \ praises 
opigukpok*; audacious maksuavok'^, katjak*; shouts with joy kak- 
kamajdrpok'^ \ content nipp)orpok — 3) Concerned, anxious siarg- 



8.16. AFFECTIONS. 63 

Uvok'^, kapiaitukpok \ terrified kakkilfxrpoq* ; uggly tekkoran'epok — 

4) Love nceglingnek ; lovely 2>iisiarpoq ; friend illanak ; thanking him 
ojngiltigo*-; respectful opigusiikpok* \ compassion" erklertornek* \ 
proud napkigusiikpok, pijorivok ; irksome sinnangavok, kangdrpok * ; 
is ashamed sillasiorpok \ enemy omisukte; offending kiksartilttgo; 
feels offended sibluvok*; suspects kangesukpok — 5) Greedy imi- 
vok*, ikligukpok\ licentious illokeudlarpok, arnarniarpok\ injustice 
wrong idluinck ; dishonest nellangongilaq , annerpanaiixjk * ; just 
klluarpok ; righteous annerpanaMvok * ; envious annerudsivok * ; 
wicked kassetok ; repenting kakkialerutigilugo * ; witchcraft ilisinek ; 
detestable kmnarpok. 

C. i2) Beautiful adlenaituratta; merry kakajok*, kakamajar- 
pok*^ — 3) Afraid kagpennah* — 4) thankfully qujanamik — 

5) Murderer inuaktu. 

M. 1) Surprise allaniktoark — 2) grinning tserkaniluktoark* ; 
good, excellent nakoyoark — 3) Sad talortork* , porkrHtoarkiJ), 
nellangornek(T)\ terrified krumarktoijoark* ; trembling krobluktoark 
— 4) kriisiie'^ or olotsidjoark; angry, offended ninakptork, tchukart- 
itoark (?) ; an assuming person tsirkrekrealuk * ; boasting sipilertork ; 
harmless tchummjmktuark'^ ; shame onuidjitn*; rough kruhluitchar- 
toark * — 5) Vicious tchuinaoyuark * ; wicked tchuinm^k * ; licen- 
tious katchorertuark , kmjarertuark , umiardluk (?) ; leading a bad 
life kuyorklime omayoark\ benevolent unin\ virtue )iakoi/oark\ 
virtuous nakoorkUme. 

\Vn. 2) Good asikhtok*; glad pelletoorok\ handsome sota- 
Hgerook*; pretty ahrega\ laugh igalok\ fun kooia — 3) Bad asse- 
tuk"^, assiruk*; dislike oorneshooktoo] fear hahneta (?) — 4) Angry 
kunooktoo, kununaroak] hsishiul taluksatuk* — b) Amulet tiqntkwo*, 
koopooktuk*] ill tempered kaptzharook\ I am good nakoo-roo-oh; 
good ndkuruk; good it is nakoorit. 

Ws-. 2) Good asichtok *, asertok ; liking chanjivok (?) ; laughing 
nyngyljacMua* — 3) Bad aseetuk, asiurok — 4) Irritate tschauch- 
sichtuki?) — 5) Righteous atachuavtik* \ had kuiitachtuk'^, nikmiiuk*\ 
rascally kasnujuchtuk*. 

A. 2) Wish alugami{?)\ what do you wish chah(gala(?) — 
3) Mourning tschumachtachtu. 



64 



Special Part. 

(Section 17—30.) 



Section 17. PERSON. i-2i. 
Greenland. 

* 1) Man (homo) inul- — 2) Man (male) angut — 3) Uomaii 
arnaq — 4) Old man (of the house or family) itoq, old Woman 
ningioq, arnarquagssdq — 5) Young people inusiigtiit — 6) Old 
people iitorqait — 7) Boy nnkagjnaraq, nukagpiatsiaq — 8) Young, 
or unmaried man mtkagjnaq — 9) Virgin niviarsiaq — 10) Girl 
niviarsiaraq — 11) Child able to walk meraq, merdlertoq — 

12) Infant ndlungiaq, anerdldq — 13) Eskimo iiwk , kaldleq — 
14) White (man) qavdhmdq — 15) Fabulous inlander, tuneq, erq- 
ileq — 16) Name ateq, wsf. arqa — 17) I, me uvanga — 18) Thou, 
thee ivdlit — 19) We, us uvagiit — 20) Ye, you ilivse — 21) He 
una , tduna (objective) ; iima , tdussuma (subjective) ; they ukoa, 
tdnkua; them uko, tduko; this mdna, tamdna; he yonder ivna; 
he up there pavna; he in the north avna. 

East Greenland. 1) tdq — 2) tiggaq — 3) mdidkaq — 
1-2) tigimiaq — 13) inik — 15) timer seq. 

Labrador. 

1) inmtk — 2) angut — 3) arnak — 4) Itok, ningiok — 
5) innuksuktut — 7) mikapiak — 9) uigastik — 10) niviarsiak — 
11) niitarak — \^) merrajok, sorrusek — li) kablunak — \b) alia 
Labrador Indian — 16) attek — 17) uvanga — 18) igiif — 
\9)uvagut — 20) illipse — 21) una, oma, tamna. 

Central Eegions. 

1 ) innung — 11) pierang — 12) surossirn , nooteraq — 

13) innung — 14) qodlunani — 15) ikkilin — 16) attek, attirn — 
17) oowangd — 18) ilveet — 19) ovagut — 20) ilUpsee. 



S.17. PERSON. 65 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) innuk — 2) anghon — 3) arnarkr — 7) nukutpeark — 
8) nurafchdluk — 9) niviertsark — 10) nmviarktsiark, arnarS- 
nark — 11) pitchukpalernerk — 13) tsiglerk, innok — 14) kra- 
blunark, tchubloarotit — 15) irkrelirk, taordjok, ortsotodyoHtut — 
16) ateng — 17) uvanga — 18) iluit, ilbit — 19) uvarut — 
20) ilUpsi — 21) una, oma, tamdna, imna. 

Extreme American Western '(Alaska). 

Northern. 1) enuk, pi. innuet — 2) angun — 3) angna, 
oonga — 4) angaityokwdkto, akoagsa — 6) Old utoka — 7) nuk- 
utpiaru — 9) niviuksin, kangneen (young w.) — 10) niviuksara 

— 11) muklukto — 12) mukluktuayd — 13) inyu — 14) kabluna, 
ttlnngyin, naloaremut — 15) itkudling — 16) atka — 17) wunga 

18) illepit — 19) wurgut. 

Southern. 1) tan, shuk, juk, pi. tagut, siuut, jugut (people) 
2) nukalniak, nugalpiak — 3) aganak, arnak — 4) uinuk, anuli- 
uvdk, utschimak (old man), aganuchliuvak (old woman) — 7) tan- 
goialivak {?), tannmhak — 11) angutiksa (male), anguksa (female) 

— 15) attdwch — 16) atcha — 17) chwanga — 18) itlepit — 

19) chuankuta — 20) Ipydschi — 21) He um\ they okud. 

Asiatic. 

1) innuk, juk, innuet (pi.), jukulachtu (people) — 7) tannojak, 
nulkelpeach — 10) nuhdchtschak — 12) mukishkak — 11) wy — 
1 8) avulpuk , ilpunnahe (thou art) , eipek (?) — 19) udnkuta — 

20) aulpitschi, edlpdschi — 21) tana, takich. 



Section .18. BODY, (i-iii.) 

(tREENLAND. 
(I. HE.4D) 1) Head niaqoq — 2) Hair nujaq, pi. nutsat — 
3) Crown of head kavsseq — 4) Face ktnaq — 5) Forehead qaoq 

— 6) Eye isse, sight takuneq, blind tagpltsoq — 7) Pupil taku- 
ngnat — 8) Eyelash qimeriaq, pi. -issat — 9) Egebrow qagdlo — 
10) Ear siut, hearing tusarneq, deaf tusilartoq — 11) Nose qingai 
(pi. wfs. of qingaq nostril, his nostrils), smelling naineq, kuningneq 

— 12) Cheek uluaq, erssaq — 13) Beard ungmit (pi.) — 14) 
Mouth qaneq — 15) Lip qardloq — 16) Tooth kigut — 17) Tongue 
oqaq, likes the taste mamard — 18) Jawbone agdleroq — 19) 
Saliva nuak, qiseq — 20) Palate qildq. 

(II. NECK) 21) Neck qungaseq - 22) Throat tardluk - 23) 
Adams apple qorqaq — 24) Swallow iggiaq. 

XI. 2. 5 



66 S.18. BODY. 

(III. TRUNR) 25) Body time, Mat (upper) — 26) Shoulder 

tuve — 27) Shoulderblade kiasik — 28) Collarbone qutuk — 29) 
Breast sahiak — 30) Nipple iviangeq — 31) Hip sivfiaq — 32) 
Belly ndq, aqajaroq — 33) Navel qalaseq — 34) Back tunuk, 
qatigak. 

(IV. ARMS) 35) Arm taleq — 36) Armpit uneq — 37) Arm 
above the elbow agssarqoq; arm below the e. agssaut — 38) Elbow 
ikusik — 39) Hand agssait (pi.) ; Finger agssaq — 40) Palm of 
hand itumak — 4 1). Small finger eqerqoq — 42) Forefinger tikeq 

— 43) Thumb quvdloq — 44) Nail kukik. 

(V. LEGS) 45) Leg nio — 46) thigh ugpat; thigh bone qug- 
toraq — 47) Knee serqoq — 48) Calf of \t% nakasungndq — 
49) Ankle singerneq — 50) Anklebone napassortaq — 51) Foot 
isigkat (pi. of isigak) — 52) Sole of foot aloq — 53) Heel king- 
mik — 54) Toe inuvaq, isigak — 55) Large toe putugoq — 56) 
Shinbone kandq, qingdq. 

(VI. INTERIOR PARTS) 57) Blood auk - 58) Vein or artery 
taqaq — 59) Brain qarasaq — 60) Bladder nakasuk — 61) Caul 
kigsaut — 62) Gall sungaq — 63) Heart iimat — 64) Kidftey 
tarto — 65) Lung puak — 66) Stomach aqajaroq — 67) Rib tuli- 
mak, tulimdq — 68) Pulse tigdleq — 69) Spine, vertebra qimer- 
dlue (wsf.), kujapigaq — 70) Intestins inaluai (pi. wsf.); erdlavU 

— 71) Rectum erdloq — 72) Marrow pateq — 73) Bone sauneq 

— 74) Car tillage natarqoq — Ih) Flesh uvinik, neqe. 

(VII. SEXUAL ORGANS) 76) Penis usuk — 77) Testicle igssnk 

— 78) Vulva utsuk — 79) Uterus igdliaq — 80) Is pregnant 
ndrtuvoq — 81) Navelstring migdliaq. 

(VIII. EATING) 82) Food neqigssaq — 83) Eats nerivoq — 
84) Drinks imerpoq — 85) Is hungry kdgpoq — 86) Meat neqe 

— 87) Juice of meat qajoq — 88) Dried fish mivse — 89) Licks 
it iparpd alugtorpd. 

(IX. SENSATION, SIJ^RNESS) 90) Sensation sianineq — 91) 
Feels cold (benumbed) qtavoq; frozen to death qiuvoq — 92) Feels 
warm kissagpoq, unagpoq, kiagugpoq (sweat) — 93) Feels pain 
dnerpoq — 94) sickness ndpaut — 95) Cough quersorneq — 96) 
Catarrh nuak — 97) Boil ajuaq, qinerseq, maneruaq — 98) Itch 
kilak — 99) Wound ike — 100) Bleeds aundrpoq — 101) Lives 
in^voq, umavoq — 102) Is dead toquvoq. 

(X. VARIOUS WORDS) 103) Speaks oqarpoq - 104) Walks 
pisugpoq — 105) Runs arpagpoq — 106) Skin ameq — 107) Bum 
nuloq — 108) Anus iteq — 109) Excrement anaq — 110) Fizzles 
nilerpoq — 111) Urin qoq, iteroq (old-). 

East Greenland. 1) qaratserfik — 2) qalequtit — 10) sior- 
ssugtaut — 16) nerriseq — 17) alugtut — 21) ndpaleq — 24) 
kajaiteq — 28) ikarild — 29) natarkue — 32) imdrtd. 



S.18. BODY. 67 

39) avatit — 51) tumat — 63) amagd — 65) anernere, 
erdlave — 67) saningassoq, sajungassoq — 69) qilerqive, ikijMit 

— 70) amuvdjai — 71) singiagssaut — 72) kivkaJc. 

76) takana — 77) mdnisdq, aldmak — 80) sdqarpoq — 
87) imaq — 94) sujdrneq — 102) qardlimaerx>oq — 106) j9iA:i- 
%5aA: — 107) igsiavU — 108) M«;a — 109) angiorneq. 

Labkador. 

3) kahjek — 4) kmak, tautungnek — 6) Sees tautukpok, 
tcekkovok — 10) Hears tussarpok — 11) Smelling naivok — 17) 
mamarnek — 27) kiasik, tallek — 29) sagvik, wiangik — 30) 
mulle — 31) makkitek, sibveak — 34) kolUk^ tunno — 39) ag- 
gait — 41) erkekok — 46) nimmek — 54) innogangutsit — 56) 
kingarak — 58) taqqak — 59) karritak — 67) tullimak — 
68) tiglertak — 70) erchavit — 72) pattek — 82) nerkikset, 
pdgitet — 88) pipsit — 91) keujavok^ tinnakpok^ kajorpok, klavok 

— 93) dniavok — 94) kanimasek — 95) kadlartorpok , koertor- 
pok — 97) soggok, puvitok — 109) anndk — 111) itterok. 

Central Eegions. 

1) niakong, makkuk — 6) ije — 9) qedlu — 11) qingaq, 
sookloot (nostril) — 12) udluaq — 13) uming — 14) kanirn, 
kadno — 15) qaqiviaq, qadlo — 18) agdlirok — 21) kungessirn 

— 23) taqojaq — 25) koteyeuk . — 26) tue — 28) qutouq — 
33) qalessirn — 34) qatigarn, qudlik. 

36) unik — 37) aqserqoq, aggaut — 38) ikusik — 39) iyu- 
teka; finger aggaq — 40) itiniak — 42) tikirn — 43) qtidlo — 
44) kuki^ — 46) koketokak (thigbone) — 48) naqisunaq — 49) 
singirniq — 51) issigang — 52) alloq — 56) qingaraq — 63) 
Oman — 64) takto — 70) innialook — 76) ussuk — 78) utjuk' 

— 83) nerrivoq — 85) kaktuk , kak (hunger) — 88) pitse, 
pipse — 95) kooiksuktook — 106) amirn — 107) nudlung — 
108) iterhiluag. 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) komak{??), neakrork .— 2) huyark, nutsat — 4) ktnark 

— 5) krarkroa — 6) iyik, takuyaork — 7) iyarok — 8) tsirk- 
pik — 9) krablut — 10) tsiufif tutchdyork — 11) krengyark ; 
nostril dgmanek (opening ?); naiwork — 12) uluark — 13) umrit 

— 14) umilcerok — 15) krarklo — 16) kigut — 17) okrark — 
18) arglerok, kSatsik — 19) nuvark — 20) kreylark. 

21) krungitsirk — 22) tortuat — 24) iyork, igiark. 
25) time, katlrark — 26) tuik , erdjik — 27) keatsek — 
28) krortok — 29) uyak — 30) ujara-inerk {??) — 31) makitark 

— 32) tingork, akrearork — 33) kralatsierk — 34) tuno. 



68 S.18. BODY. 

35) tdlerk — 37) akkautkok, pernameutuak — 38) ikotsik 

— 39) adgirak (pi. -r««Y); finger i?iurark — 41) krikert — 43) 
kublu — 44) kukek, 

45) k^'anerk, tchulon — 46) kruktorark — 47) tchitkrork —r 
49) achernerk — 51) itigark — 52) alorkr — 53) kimmik — 
54) inurark — 55) pivortork. 

57) awk — 58) tarak (veine) — 59) krareytark — 60) 
nakatsuk — 62) imarorkr — 63) omdn — 64) tartuk — 65) 
puak, puvait — 66) akoark, akudjark, egurk — 67) tulimark — 
68) tiglertuark — 70) erklo, irklot — 73) tsaunerk — 74) kra- 
ropaloga — 75) uvinit (of animals n&rkre). 

80) nadjitartoark. 

82) nerrejoat — 83) nerreyoark — 84) imerktoark — 85) 
kaki (hunger) — 86) nerkre — 88) piptsi, tamoakeit. 

91) nigcelanerk, uvalark, krekrey — 92) onark — 94) ane- 
arktoark — 95) kroe^^ton — 98) kratayoark — 99) killek — 
101) dmayoark — 102) tukroyork. 

103) oraktork — 104) pijuktoark — 105) akpalaartoark — 
106) amerk — 107) nunluk, tchivoark — 108) iterk — 109) 
anarkr — 111) krork. 

Extreme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) neakok — 2) nutye, nutshet ^- 3) nuyugia — 
4) ktnak — 5) kau — 6) issik^ idin, enga; blind tappeko; 1 saw 
tautukkiga — 7) tukuvid — 8) kimmeridyen — 9) kahlun — 
10) siu, Y^l.siutin; I heard tusdrungd; deai tosluktuk — l\)kinga; 
smeUing koneakwa — 12) yioksa — 13) kukuglueten, umngyen — 
14) kanga — 15) umidruin, umni, kdkqlung — 16) kigu, kigutai 
. — 17) okkak — 19) nuwa, miwung. 

21) kungasinga, kakealu — 22) tuaklura — 23) tupkiira — 
24) uyak. 

^b) katigai — 26) tuinyd -- 27) kiasia — 28) kutud — 

— 29) milu, ihiungnid, sutka — 30) mudrga — 31) mukisa — 

— 32) ndddra — 33) kulasia — 34) tunua. 

35) tudlia, katcha — 36) unga — 37) dksutkwa — 38) 
ikusia — 39) adrigai (hand); inyugai (fingers) — 40) ituma — 
41) mikilyera — 42) tikerd — 43) kublu^ ahzoon — 44) kukkin. 

45) niungd — 46) kokpa, kuktud — 47) sitkwunga, mukluk 
48) nakasungnd — 49) singivngnerin — 50) kuma — 51) isigai 
52) ulua, uluna — 53) kingmid — 55) putugua — 56) kinga. 

57) au^ kaoope — 58) tukkung — 59) kaqsa — 60) ndkasu 
61) kdpisiyungd — 62) sung ah — 63) umata — 64) taktu — 
65) puwi — 66) akeaqo — 67) tudlimudrin — 69) kuyapikkun 
70) inaluunga — 73) saund — 75) neka. 



S.18. BODY. 69 

76) usu, usua — 77) iggru — 78) 4ti/a. 

82) niake — 83) nexerud, nugerunger (to eat) — 84) echuga, 
imukto — 85) kakto, nugashuktunga (I am h.) — 86) neka — 
87) ukleru (cooked meat urun). 

91) I feel cold alapdkttlngd, kiyinakt4ngd — 92) I get hot 
unaksirtlnga — 93) annutok — 95) kooikchu — 96) noowuh — 
98) kilge — 101) inyorok, yokealu. 

103) okhcekto^ kanuk — \0i) .pisoakto — 105) akpaiiktud 

— 106) amia — 107) mldlu — 109) onok, pookshaktuk — 111) 
kwiro. 

Southern. 1) naskok, uskuky kamikuk — 2) nujak, nuiat — 

4) chinaw — 5) kauk — 6) ingaldk , vitatuik; look! (imper.) 
tanhu — 8) kmygiat — 9) kablut — 10) tschutuik, naintuik — 

11) kaak, nikch; nostrils patschikuk; smelling nagnak, nansik — 

12) usloak — 13) unik, unhit — 14) kanik — 15) krluk — 
16) kuotitt — 17) ullu, alianuk — 21) ujanut, weeakut — 22) 
yoamun — 24) iglak — 26) tuik — 29) katienha — 32) aksiak 
34) p'kuk. 

35) dalika, ipik — 38) ihusik — 39) Fingers suivogat, 
ikunka, shuvanka; hand aiged, iagautuik — 44) stut , stiit — 
45) irrahka (my 1.) — 47) tschischkuk — 51) iguk, juh, jerroga, 
itkimka — 54) nupnunka. 

57) kajunkak — 63) ungoan, kunnoka, kanniak — 70) kee- 
lunga — 73) ninnod — 75) kmyk — 83) nokhuka; eat! (imper.) 
nuicha — 84) Drink! tschakai — 86) aulchkuk, komik — 88) 
nuikuit (,,Jukola") — 91) patsnartok, nirtgelak, nuinlichtok (frost) 

— 92) kichatuk, marartok, kaltok, oknaktok — 94) anhkuk — 
95) kusgo — 101) unugvak, ongokok — 102) tukumak, torrovok, 
tukoechtuk — 103) kalchtuik (to speak) — 104) auldchluk — 
109) muiku — 111) tuikuk. 

Asiatic. 

1) ndskok, kasko — 2) nujak, niuet — 4) injak, kenaaka — 

5) kivak — 6) iya, jiik — 8) kamhaet — 9) chahlut — 10) 
ssiguta; deaf tusluktuk — 11) kingak; nostrils chynhak — 12) 
utlynhyk — 13) uinka — 14) kantuk — 15) kunyuk — 16) 
chutit, uotinka — 17) ulliu, ooleh — 21) ujdkok, uianhunka — 
24) jaak — 26) tuichka — 29) tschainka, tschakimak, mumuha 
32) aktschaka, oksuk — 34) chaatka, kulachka. 

35) tadlika, eteyet — 38) ikujak, ikuichka — 39) Hand 
myngitt, tadlimat, ajdpun; finger aikanka — 41) etelko — 42) 
tigek — 43) koomluk — 44) ssitunka, stoke — 45) errokhya, 
irago — 47) tschirkuka, schyriskok — 51) jtichka, ytingaka — 



70 S.19. DRESS AND ORNAMENTS. 

54) kundla, irnovaget — 55) kudla — 56) kandgaka — 57) auka, 
owk — 63) ichtschakuk — 73) nynnuka — 75) kymyka. 

84) Drink! (imper.) nyrrakunga — 102) tukko — 103). A:ww- 
achtok. 



Section 19. DRESS AND ORNAMENTS. (1-24.) 
Greenland. 

(I. UPPER PART OP THE BODY) 1) Hood nasaq; woman^s h. 
amaut — 2) Tunic or jacket qulitseq, attgeq, mamorqaq; frock of 
guts kajnseq, ikiaq; coat natseq, qaqorsorqut, dnordq — 3) Takes 
off his jacket matarpoq — 4) Mittens drqat^ pi. drqatit. 

(II. NETHER PART OF THE BODY) 5) Trowsers qardlit; knee- 
breeches serqernit — 6) Boots kamik, pi. kangmit; stocking alerse; 
shoe ikernuk — 7) Takes on boots kmnig2)oq — 8) Takes off boots 
userpoq, kamigdlarpoq. 

(III. RAJAR GEAR) 9) Jacket kapitak, tuvilik — 10) Half- 
jacket akuilisaq — 11) R. sleeye draq (drqdka my si.). 

(IV. ORNAMENTS) 12) Armlet tajaq — 13) Collar ujamik — 
14) Earring iverut, tugdlerut — 15) Hairband (man^s) ^liaqorut — 
16) Woman^s hairtuft qilerte; w^s hairband qilersiut, qaleq — 17) 
Tattoo marks Uwne — 18) Bead sapmigaq. 

(V. VARIOUS DESIGNATIONS) 19) Clothing in general atissat, 
oqurut^ anordq, assut (finery) — 20) Naked tamataerutoq — 21) 
Belt, girdle qiterut^ tavsik — 22) Button dtat — 23) Blanket 
qipik^ ule, ulik — 24) Outer clothing qagdlersaut, qagdleriiaq. 

East Greenland. 1) isisidt , pikivak — 2) dnordq, kapiseq, 
atdsit, kiapetek — 4) tiggit, mdtat, pualdtit (bearskin's — ) — 
5) Knee br. qardligpdt — 6) atertagaq, ilipdq — 9) qdJarsU — 
13) napaleqlt — 14) orssissaq — 15) sujunequtai — 16) kaligsaq 
— 18) nuisagssaq. 

Labrador. 

1) nessak, amaut — 2) natsek, ikkiak (under clothing), attige, 
ailik, anorak — 4) pualo — 5) karlik, serkenek — 6) kamik, 
allerte, tipsalok, . ikerngoak — 9) kappitak (? outer coat) — 1 0) 
Waterproof coat of fur or guts akuilitak. 

14) suvloUk, simniutaq — 15) ko2)periarlkut , sulliwaut — 
16) kelleksiut, kongmmgaut, tuglit^ ingungautit — 17) He tattooes 
him tumneliorpa — 18) sappangak — 20) annorairpok, ussinga- 
vok (see 8) — 22) senneroak — 23) kehhik, ullik. 



S.19. DRESS AND ORNAMENTS. 7| 

Central Eegions. 

1) neiseak — 2) attige^ kappeetegga, kulitang (outer coat) — 
4) poadlo — 5) selepar, atoktok, kardling — 6) kamming, eking- 
oark, ekeekook (,, socks"); enooktoo. 

12) seapanga (bracelet) — 15) makkeedyutik — 16) sulubaut, 
toogleega — 17) kakeena — 18) shongoivyak — 22) seeakote. 

Mackenzie Elver. 

1) natsark, ungSartark (woman's) — 2) atige — 4) ptialuk, 
aitkratik — 5) krarlik — 6) aterkrark , pi. aterkrait ; socks 
alertik, 

12) talirark, tsiapangd — 13) orpatkrey , ujamitkrork — 
14) noyulu, norglat — 17) tsavarkreyoark, tsavark — 18) itchui- 
torpak, tchungaoyark, awmark — 19) Takes on his clothes atik- 
tsortoark, atigiyoark — 20) matartuark — 21) taptsirk — 22) 
poUatsa, tutaoyark — 23) ulik — 24) tunnu-ilU-tark („Manteau 
doublure du dos"). 

Extreme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) nesara , nesu — 2) Tunic atige; outer tunic 
kalurua ; inner tunic ilupd; frock of guts nyelluk ^ silunga — 4) 
aitkati ; bearskin's m. pualo — 5) kakdlik ; women's sheraleng ; 
tr. of a different kind moogwa — 6) kummung, dMksen^ {atounga 
Soles) ; kibluatyid (shoes) — 8) usiasu, usilakto (barefoot) — 12) 
manyeru — 14) nogilu — 17) tablurdtin — 18) schungaurak — 
20) tingunga, muttakto (see 3) — 21) tdpse — 22) Button too- 
atowruk . — 23) uUgrua — 24) kalerua. 

SoDTHERN. 1) naakf saliochpak — 2) Goat aklut; ,,kamleie" 
imagnatuik; ,,parke" atkuk; shirt tulpachak — 5) kchulik, seelahpar 
(deerskin's) — 6) kamuiksiak, ilhuchik (shoes) — 14) aMatyk, 
aklatvit — 15) Head band karrong ; forehead ornament kowtvoot 
— 18) tuichlit, aklut, pinguet — 21) kitlehimk — 22) nichtkutuit. 

Asiatic. 

1) keli, nasdparak — 2) Goat attiku; outer clothing atdschak, 
atkudmdk, adlpdt (bird skin's), kadlik (of guts); under clothing 
idluldka — A)ajapdtrek, laleet — 5) kadliguk — 6) Boot kdmuk, 
kiimrut; stocking achlychta — 12) tolyoa — 14) kwopoivyet — 
1 8) kavilnudrak, simngoivro — 20) motomelkook (see 3) — 21) tapscki. 



72 S.20. DWELLINGS WITH CHATTELS AND TOOLS. 

Section 20. DWELLINGIS WITH CHATTELS AND TOOLS. 

(1—52.) 

GrREENLAND. 

(I. HOUSE) 1) House igdlo — 2) Hut igdluaraq — 3) Snow- 
house igdluvigaq — 4) Doorway torssoq — 5) Entrance, inner 
katak, outer pdq — 6) Fireplace igaleq, kigdlo — 7) Floor nataq, 
wsf. narqa — 8) Pillar sukaq — 9) Roof qule , qildq; timber 
dveq — 10) Wall tgaq^ qarmaq — 11) Window igaldq, inalo — 

12) Window frame ikdq (side post) — 13) Bench igdleq, ipat — 
14) Ventilator qingaq — 15) Village, houseplace igdlorpait, igdlo- 
qarfik — 16) Meetinghouse qagsse (traditional). 

(II. lYm AND STORAGE) 17) T. tupeq - 18) T. pole qanak 

— 19) Curtain mnik — 20) Storehouse que^ qimatuUvik; scaffold 
umiap ndpassue^ pusingave. 

(III. SRIN DRESSING and sewing) 21) Skin dressing amiomeq 
22) Skin scraping qapiarneq^ kilingneq, qavsangneq — 23) Softening 
qitulisarneq — 24) Scraper kiliortut, qapiarfik — 25) Sewing 
merssorneq — 26) Woman^s knife ulo — 27) Needle merqiit; 
thread ujalo — 28) Plaiting perdlarneq. 

(IV. HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE) 29) Bowl ajdnguajdq; meat 
dish pogutaq — 30) Buquet qdtaq — 31) Bag ^og' — 32) Box 
igdlerfik — 33) Cup ermuseq — 34) Oil kid poruseq — 35) Pot 
iga, qulivsiut — 36) Tub napartaq — 37) Drying frame inisaq, 
pi. initsat — 38) Lamp qutdleq — 39) Lamp stick tarqissut — 
40) Wick iperaq — 41) Ladle aliigsaut — 42) Handle, shaft tikau- 
gut, ipe — 43) Urintub qugfik. 

(V. VARIOUS TOOLS etc.) 44) Axe ulimaut — 45) Borer, drill 
niortut — 46) Drill mouthpiece kingmiaq — 47) Icepick sigdlaq, 
toq — 48) Large knife pana — 49) Knife savik; knife edge kind 

— 50) Hammer kautaq — 51) File agiut — 52) Torch nanerut, 
naneruaq. 

East Greenland. 10) ikerferserneq — 12) peqiserfik — 26) 
sdkeq — 29) niulupik — 32) tungmeraq — 34) ingmigaq — 
35) ikiseq, utsit — 36) qeqartaq — 39) unarqit — 48) tarqar- 
mioq — ^9).pilagtoq. 

Labrador. 

1) iglo — 3) iglovigak — 4) torsuk — 5) kattak — 7) nettek 
8) sukkak — 10) karmak, ungate — 11) igalak — 12) ikkak — 

13) iglek — 15) iglugasait — 17) tuppek — 18) kannak, nuertak 

— 20) kemmatuUvik — 21) ikergak — 22) kiliorlugo, mavsarlugo, 
tagliklugo — 24) kissiksiut, killiutak — 25) mersornek — 26) ullo 

— 27) merkut — 28) mitterivok, pergaivok. 



S.20. DWELLINGS WITH CHATTELS AND TOOLS. 73 

29) pogutak, iklervik — 30) kattak ~ 31) pok — 33) erm- 
gusiarsuk — 34) orks4t, ungexdlak — 35) amertak, utkusik -7- 
37) initak — 38) kollek — 39) takkut — 40) mannek — 42) 
^a&Zo tigumiarvik — 43) korvik — 44) tiklak, ulimaut — 45) 
iliorut, ikkotak, ergut, pitikserak — 49) savik ; ktnanga — 50) 
ujaratsiak, kautak (wooden) — 51) aggiak — 54) nenneroak, 
pakkajok. 

Central Eegions. 

1) kagmung (with flat skin-roof) — 3) igdlo — 4) toutsuk 

— 5) katting — 11) igalak — 17) tupik — 21) ikergak. 

30) kattak, kikia — 31) itlerhik — 34) porussirn — 35) 
ootkooseek — 38) kudlirn (upper); adlirn (lower) — 39) tatko — 
44) utlimau — 48) panna — 49) savik — 51) arreyak. 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) iglu — 2) winerk — 3) igloriyoark — 4) kranitat — 
5) pd — 6) iga — 7) naterk, natsitit — 9) todjark, kraa — 
10) tchukkak{S?) — 11) iralerk — 13) iglerk — 14) ayoark — 
17) itsark, tupperk; summer hut tsayrork — 18) krarak — 21) 
tsaluktuark (,, tanner*') — 22) kiligartoark — 25) niirkrorktork, 
mirtsortuark — 26) ulualuk — 27) metkron — 28) irkredjidjoat. 

29) illiveark — 30) purutark — 31) krorlorark — 32) 
tsaviktoark, tchulootit — 35) utkutsik, aria — 36) purutark, 
kattarpark —^ 38) krolerk — 40) iperaktsark — 42) ipun, ipuark 

— 43) krorvik — 44) tukingayork , ulimaut — 45) kinmiak, 
kayhluyark — 49) tsavik — 50) krautark — 51) arion, agiun 
52) nenexron. 

Extreme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) iglu — 2) iglurd, igloyu , shirak (yourt) — 
3) apuydj any ok — 5) kuttu, pang, pa — .6) iga, agarum, ikne- 
kawik — 7) ndtkying , ptlniksd — 8) itkearun (a post) — 9) 
kilising, kiluk — 10) kutye — 11) inalo, igald — 12) kinging, 
itkiing (window stretchers) — 13) iglare, iglisin (bed place) — 
15) inyugiukto — 16) karrigi, kassigit, kagushiml. 

17) tupek, halapkar, uuruktu (small) — 20) shekiliuk (cache) 
22) keeleeaktoktok — 24) ikun, waingneea — 25) keedliarktoouk, 
keeliuktunga , megaruktoa — 26) ulura — 27) mittkon, mittkin; 
thread oowaloo — 28) pilgirok. 

29) nannuak — 30) pillungo, kotogah — 33) kuloot, imuiyu, 
kirona — 34) kottooak, otkokto — 35) ,utkuisin, kolipse — 36) 
kakita, kadliooving — 37) initUn, inisatya — 38) kddlo — 39) 
ipektun — 41) kiliyutH, alutok — 43) kohewik — 44) udleman, 
katlapak — 45) itaun, itugetsau; for fire: niootin , toawach — 



74 S.20. DWELLINGS WITH CHATTELS AND TOOLS. 

46) kengmeak, omeeyak — 47) tuu — 49) choivik, midellik; 
stone knife uyumiga ^ seegootat; e(ige of knife kina — 50) kotvt, 
kusruto — 51) ageaktu. 

Southern. 2) tschuluah, tscheklewit ^ tschikuk, uina; lodge 
tavak — 6) kygtsak, knerivik, agitoakartok — 9) kulmi, nedek — 
16) kashim — 25) minka — 26) uloak — 27) tschikuk, minkuk 
33) valiut (cup) — 35) gant , ganavak — 44) kalkanak, anien 
— 45) iggun — 49) savik, uloak, kishulkak. 

Asiatic. 

2) mandrtik, ennet — 5) kotpok Door — 27) tschikuk — 
31) choklowok — 32) tschadlnauk — 35) kookane, mooha — 
38) kenak — 41) adlkdtak — 44) kakalema — i^) wotlea, chotvik 
50) ijuppa — 51) etamok. 



Section 21. TRAVELLINe, HUNTINa AND FISHING. (1-46.) 
Greenland. 

(I. OPEN SKINBOAT) 1) Open Skb. umiaq — 2) Oar iput; 
paddle angtU — 3) Sail tingerdlaut — 4) mast ndparut. 

(II. RAYAR) 5) R. qajaq — 6) Sidelaths sidrne, apumaq — 
7) Rib tigpik — 8) Prow niutdq — 9) Cross piece masik — 10) 
Cross strap tarqaq — 11) Double bladed oar pautik — 12) Pulling 
the k. ijaorpoq; capsizing kinguvoq; drowning qajauvoq — 13) 
Two kayaks bound together (for transport) qilermigput. 

(111. SLEDGE) 14) SI. qamut, qintuseq (with the dogs included) 

— 15) Dog harness ano — 16) Whip iperautaq — 17) Cross piece 
napo. 

(IV. LANDCHASE AND FISHING) 18) Hunting reindeer tugtuli- 
arpoq — 19) Bow pisigse, pisigseq — 20) Arrow qarssoq — 21) 
Sling igdlCtt, igdlutit (pi, form) — 22) Trap xmtdlat — 23) Snare 
nigaq — 24) Fishing line aulisaut — 25) Angling aulisarpoq — 
26) Fishhook qarsorsaq — 27) Fish spear kakissat (pi. of kakiak) 

— 28) Net qagsut. 

(V. CAPTIRE OF SEALS AND WHALES) 29) Harpoon or shaft 
of the large harpoon undq — 30) Throws the large h. and hits 
nauligpoq — 31) Harpoon for boys nauligaq — 32) Flexible fore- 
shaft of the large harpoon igimaq — 33) Bone cover at the end 
of the shaft qdteq — 34) The loose harpoon point tukaq — 35) 
Bone peg on the shaft tikdgut — 36) Hunting bladder avataq — 
37) Hunting line aleq — 38) Shorter line for hunting on the ice 
iperak — 39) Throwing stick norssaq — 40) Bird arrow (javelin) 
nueq, nugfit (pi. form) — 41) Lance anguvigaq — 42) Bladder 



S.21. TRAVELLING, HUNTING AND FISHING. 75 

arrow (javelin) agdligaq — 43) Handspear for stabbing qaput — 
44) Whale lance qalugiaq — 45) Puts the point on the harpoon 
savigtorpoq — 46) Raises the harpoon for throwing nndrsivoq. 

East Greenland. 1) autdlarit — 5) aarqit — 6) qoqussai 
16) norqartaut. 

. Labeador. 

3) tingergautak — 6) sian'ek, apumak — 7) iikpe — 9) 
massik — 10) tapkak — 18) tuktosiorpok , pissuravok , puipstvok 
(in the water) — 19) fji^^X-^e — 20) karksok; the point nakkok 

— 21) illoreut — 22) mikigiak , aglerok — 23) nerlok, nigak, 
napperniutf kojtgeseksiut — 25) aulasarpok, erkasarpok (from the 
shore) — 26) karusak, niksik, ujukkoak — 27) kakkiviait — 28) 
nuUutjet. 

29) unak — 30) naulerpa; harpoon naullak — 32) iggimak 

— 33) katek — 34) tukak — 36) avatak — 37) allek — 38) 
ipperak — 39) noksak — 40) nuek, nugit — 41) anguvigak — 
42) akligak — 43) kapput — 44) kallugiak — 45) savikpok. 

Centeal Eegions. 

1) oomiak — 5) qajaq — 6) siadnirn — 7) tikping — 9) 
massing — 11) paotik. 

' 29) unak — 30) naulang — 32) igimang (,, whale harpoon") 

— 33) katirn — 34) tokang — 35) tikagung — 36) avatang — 
37) allek — »i8) iperang — 39) nuksung — 40) nuirn — 41) 
anguviang — 43) kappun — 44) kallugiaq. 

Mackenzie Eieee. 

1) umiak — 2) angun, ipon, irkroertkun (stearing oar); padd- 
ling angoark, kikiaork — 4) napparktsin — . 5) krayark — 6) 
tserne, apumak — 7) titperk — 8) niotark — 9) matsik, ayark 

— 10) tapkrein — 11) paotik — 12) paoark, paortoark — 14) 
krematey — 15) ano — 19) pitiksik — 20) krariork; („en os") 
katkrok, kukkikrork, tsiuluk] (,,en fer") torotaoyalik, tchanmiark ; 
(,, prismatic") krienmiulik — 23) nigat, tsaputit — 24) uk^mdun 
(„corde de peche") — 28) kruhiark. 

29) naulirark („Harpon") — 30) nauliktork — 31) nauligcer- 
artok („Darder"?) — 34) tchamiark (,,Dard de Harpon"); kiikia, 
tibia, kranmiark („Dard"?) — 37) allerk — 39) notsark — 40) 
kapona, kdpotchin („Javehn" — 42?) — 43) kdrotckm{?). 

Exteeme Ameeican Westeen (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) wnid, oomiak — 2) angun — 3) tingidrauta 

— 4) napaksa — 5) kaiak — 10) topkok — 12) parhuddin, 



76 S.21. TRAVELLING, HUNTING AND FISHING. 

parhuauk; keenuru (capsize); kiahrook (drown) — 13) kilakmiun 
1 4). kamotin , unid (flat) , ayak (?) — 15) dnun — 19) pisiksi, 
pitiksik; bow string nukakta — .20) kokaru, kakarook ; arrow head 
of stone kukin; do. of bone kookooywait, kaveerak; do. chipper 
kigli — 21) idlu, iglioktook — 23) neyok — 24) ipiuta, epetunga 

— 26) niksin, iukqlung — 27) punnH — 28) kuhra, neegaUik(?), 
akaloona{?). 

29) oonfik (for throwing), unu (for stabbing), unakpdk (for 
walrus); „ Retrieving" H. nauligu, nauM (point of the same); dart 
nalegah; (harpoon kaelro?) — 32) igimu , ugimak — 33) katu, 
katersak — 34) toiikak, savdk, savdkpak (for walrus) — 35) tika 

— 36) awertak — 37) allek — 39) norsak — 40) nuek — 42) 
akligak; ,,sealdart" kukigu; seal spear muksetak , tooka — 43) 
kapun, kaputit — 44) kalugusit; whale spear nowaluk. 

Southern. 1) ongiuk, oniak (,,Baidare") — 2) angout, anva- 
gun — 5) kyak, kaiak, puchtan (,,Baidarke'0 — 10) tdpkak — 
15) anu'iachtuit — 19) tigliuvuik, kitviak — 20) ikchuk, nichtagak^ 
mangoliak — 28) kakasik, kiigia. 

29) olukariuk (Harpoon) — 43) Spear panna; lance amortak 
{imangvik Bladder?). 

Asiatic. 

1) angiak, ungyet — 2) anguarun, jdmukodet (,,zweihandiges'') 

— 3) tingalanukok — 4) napoahyak — 5) kdjak — 14) ikamak, 
kommeke, orogoro — 29) Harpoon dyoukt; spear ooanok (whale), 
tookiva (seal) — 36) awuetkak — 37) Whale line parekt, tapk- 
wok — 43) pannin (lance) — 44) kallovyak (lance). 



Section 22. NUMERALS. (1-24.) 

(tEEENLAND. 

1) One atauseq — 2) Two mardluk — 3) Three pingasut — 
4) Four sisamat — 5) Five tatdlimat — 6) Six arfinigdUt — 
7) Seven arfineq mardluk — 8) Eight arpneq pingasut — 9) Nine 
qulaluat — 10) Ten qulit — 11) Eleven arqanigdlit — 12) 
Twelve arqaneq mardluk — 13) Thirteen arqaneq pingasut — 
1 4) Fourteen a. sisamat — 1 5) Fifteen a. tatdlimat — 16) Sixteen 
arfersanigdlit — 17) Seventeen arfersaneq mardluk — 18) Eighteen 
arf. pingasut — 19) Nineteen arf. sisamat — 20) Twenty inuk 
ndvdlugo — 21) Twenty one inup dipagssdne atauseq — 22) 
Twenty two i. a. mardluk — 23) Thirty *. a. qulit — 24) Fourty 
i. dipagssd ndvdlugo. 



S.22. NUMERALS. 77 

Labrador. 

1) atausek — magguk (agga) — 3) pingasut — 4) sittamat 

— 5) talUmat. 

Central Eegions. 

1) atausirn — 2) mardluk, maqong, aqa — 3) pingassun — 

4) sessifnan — 5) tedliman — 6) akhirnang, argwennak. 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) ataotsirkr — 2) aypak, mallcerok — 3) illaak, pingatsut 

— 4) tsitamat — 5) tallimat — 6) arvinelarit — 7) arvinelarit 
aypak — 8) arv. illaak — 9) arv. tsitamat, krolin-illoat — 10) 
krolit — 11) itiangnerat — 12) itiangnerat aypak — 13) it. 
illaak — 14) it. tsitamat — 15) it. tallimat — 16) igluin itia- 
ngnelcerit — 17) igl.it. aypak — 18) igl. it. illaak — 19) igl.it. 
tsitamat — 20) kroleti, innung nayork — 21) iglut-tchertut — 
22) iglut aipatork — 23) innok krolinik tchikpalik (30) — 24) 
innung mailer ok (40). 

Extreme American "Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) atauzik — 2) mddro, marlerok — 3) pingasun 

— 4) sesamdn — 5) tudliman — 6) ikiekkeret — 7) marlero 
nelligit — 8) pingasut nelligit — 9) kudleinodailek — 10) kddlin, 
kudlik — 11) kudlik atasemik — 1 2) A:, marleronik — 13) k. 
pingasunik — lA) k. sisamanik — 15) akimiak — 16) ak. atausik 

— 17) ak. marlerok — 18) ak. pingasue — 19) innuinaiodailak 
20) innuinak — 21) innuinak atausik — 22) in. marlerok — 23) 
(30) in. kulinik — 24) (40) in. marleronik. 

Southern. 1) alreluk, atausek — 2) aipa, malliat — 3) 
pingaju — 4) sitami, schtaman — 5) taliman — 6) arfilun — 
7) malrulin — 8) inmolin, iulullrin — 9) kuliungan, kulnuian 

— 10) kulin — 11) kulin alrelumik siptok — 12) kula malunik 
siptok — 13) k. pingajumik s. — ^20) schvinak — 23) (30) schvinak 
kulamik kjiplego — 24) (40) schwinak marlok (100 schvinat talimn). 

Asiatic. 

1) attashlik — 2) malkuch — 3) pinhaju — 4) istema — 

5) tadlimat' — 6) atatschimalihin — 7) malhukaweil — 8) pin- 
haju ...? — 9) stamma ...? — 10) kulle — 11) atchand — 
20) jUinak — 23) lissiptaha (30). 



78 -8.23. DIVISION OF TIME. 

Section 23. DIVISION OF TIME. (1-25.) 

GrREENLAND. 

1) Dawn qaulersoq, uvdloq — 2) Morning uvdldq — 3) Noon 
uvdloq qeterarpoq — 4) Afternoon uvalissoq — 5) Nearly evening 
uvaUkut; dusk tdrsilersoq — 6) Evening unuk — 7) Night unuaq 

— 8) Day uvdloq — 9) To day uvdlume — 10) To morrow 
aqago — 11) Day after to morrow aqaguago — 12) Yesterday 
igpagssaq — 13) Two days ago igpagsdne — 14) The other day 
ivssaq — 15) Spring uperndq — 16) Summer aussaq — 17) 
Autumn ukiaq — 18) Winter ukioq — , 19) Anciently itsaq — 20) 
Last year sujorna — 21) Two years ago sujorndq — 22) Next 
year aipdgut — 23) In some days ivsaligame — 24) In many 
years itsaligame (future) — 25) Several years ago ardldgut. 

East Greenland. 2) dke — 15) mangilerneq — 16) mangineq. 

Labrador. 

1) uvlgatarneq, kaulerpok — 2) uvlak, uvlakut — 3) ketter- 
arpok — 5) aullajalernek — 6) unnuk — 7) unnuak — 8) 
uvlok — 9) iivlome — 10) kaupat — 11) Day after to morrow 
ungaleago; two days after to morrow ungalekiago — 12) ipeksak 

— 13) ikpeksane — 15) operngak — 16) aujak — 17) okkieksak 

— 18) okkiok — 19) Usaksoarme — 20) achdne — 22) next 
year achdgo. 

Central Eegions. . ' 

9) uvlume — 10) qaupan^ aqago — 11) akkago, ootigaluane 

— 12) ipoqsang — 13) ipoqsane — 15) opernaqsak , opernang 

— 16) auja — 17) ukieqsaq, ukkiak — 18) okeoke — 19) once 
tesmani; very anciently itadlo — 20) aqane — 21) two or more 
years ago aqane qaniane — 22) aqago. 

Maqkenzie Eiver. 

1) kilaka — 2) krakoara — 3) kiterkparkpan — 4) uata 

— 5) (1 ?) uhlark („qepuscule*0 — 6) unnuk — 7) taark, onuark 

— 8) uhlark, uvlut — 9) ublur-krakimna — 10) krawpdn, akragu 

— 12) ikparktsark — 15) upincerark — 16) angujak; long day 
auyak — 17) okkeaktoark — 18) ugiork — 19) eypane — 25) 
alrait, krangalirami. 

Extreme American "Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) uglu (gyngnyt, hynkak) — 2) oblame, ahkohgo, 
oonamin , oonmakum — 3) kolwachtook — 5) nipiru (dusk) — 



S.34. ANIMALS. 79 

6) onnoktok {nakekilaskak ?) — 7) ta, oongnah, tartok — 8) anna- 
kame? — 9) kUngmunii, oUokpak — 10) uhldxo — 11) ikpHkaa 
— 12) unungmun, ungaliane, ikpakrark {oonaldgen day before) — 
\^) ikpfiksw — 15) oppinerak — 16) oopunrak — 17) okeak — 
18) ukio, okeok — 19) anciently adrdni ~ 20) ukio — 21) ukio 
sibwudni — 22) ipahgo. 

Southern. 6) atahaka, akaatok — 7) imuk — 8) aganvik, 
ignuik — 9) wunnako, oonayoo — t2) ukJitok, koagh, akchuak — 
15) ognakak, ugmjchkat — 20) alchagny , tschudeegne; month 
igalink, tangak ; the whole year uksiuk tamak. 

Asiatic. 

3) anarinekukara — 6) okuoachtuk — ,10) oogottek. 



Section 24. ANIMLS. (1-68.) 
Greenland. 

(I. SEALS AND WHALES) 1) Plioca vitulina q^asigiaq — 2) Ph. 
foetida natseq, tiggaq (old male) — 3) Ph. barbata iigssuk — 4) 
Ph. groenlandica dtdq — 5) Walrus dveq — 6) Ph. cristata natser- 
ssuaq — 7) Balaena mysticetus arfeq — 8) Delphinus leucas qilal- 
uvaq (qaqortaq) .— 9) Monodon monoceros tugalik, qUaluvaq {qerner- 
taq) — 10) Swordfish (killer) drdluk — 11) Purpoise 7itsa — 
12) Baliena boops qiporqaq — 13) Various designations: Seal gen- 
erally pidsse; s. resting upon the ice utoq; narwal and walrus Tusk 
tugdq; Whalebone sorqaq; Blubber orssoq; Skin of whales mdtaq; 
breathing hole in the ice agdlo. 

(II. OTHER MAMIFEROIS AMIALS) 14) Polar Bear nano, 
nanoq — 1 5) Fox teriangniaq ; blue t. qernertaq ; white t. qaqortaq 
— 16) Dog qingmeq — 17) Reindeer higto; fawn norraq; male 
pangneq; female kulavak — 18) Musk ox umingmaq — 19) Hare 
nkaleq — 20) Various kinds known from tradition: agdlaq (cinna- 
mon bear?), amaroq (wolf), qdpik (wolverine), aving'aq (lemming?), 
sigssik (squirrel), kilivfak (fossil mammut). 

(III. BIRDS) 21) Ducks and Geese: Anas spectabilis qingaUk; 
A. bernicla nerdleq ; Eider amaulik, miteq, dvoq; A. glaucion idtm- 
gulik; Harelda glacialis agdleq — 22) Auk agpa — 23) Colymbus glaci- 
alis tugdlik; €. septentrionalis qarssdq — 24) Larus glaucus nauja; 
L. candidus naujavdrssuk ; L. tridactylus tdterdq; Skua isdngaq — 
25) Cormorant oqaitsoq; Tern inter qutailaq ; Procellaria glacialis 
qaqugdluk; Swan qugsstik; Uria grylle serfaq — 26) Eagle nag- 
toralik — 27) 'Faulcon kigssaviarssuk — 28) Owl ugpik — 29) 
Snowbunting qiipanavarssuk, amauligaq — 30) Raven tuluvaq — 
31) Ptarmigan aqigsseq — 32) Bird generally tingmiaq. 



80 S.24. ANIMALS. 

(IV. FISH AND LOWER ANIIALS) 33) Fish generally auUsagaq 

— 34) Shark eqalugssuaq — 35) Cyclopterus napisa — 36) Anar- 
richas lupus kigutilik, A. minor qeraq — 37) Cladus aegletinus eqal- 
uvaq, i*, cailarias saraugdlik, («. barbatus Hvaq — 38) Cottus kan- 
ajoq — 39) Pleuronectes hippoglossus natarnaq; PI. cynoglossus 
qaleralik — 40) Salmo salar kapisilik, S. carpio eqaluk, S. arcticus 
angmagssaq — 41) Perca norvegica sulugpdvaq ; Gasterosteus acule- 
atus kakilisaq; Clupea harengus kapisilik — 42) Crustaceans: ag- 
ssagiaq (crab), naularnaq, kinguk — 43) Fly niviuvak, anariaq; 
Muskito ipernaq; Bee igutsak; Louse kumak — 44) Butterfly pdka- 
luaq; Caterpillar qugdlugiaq — 45) Spider tiusiak, nigssavarssuk 

— 46) Muscle uviloq; Snail siuteroq — 47) Worm kumdk, sang- 
ujdq; Maggot quperdluk — 48) Starfish nerpigsoq. 

(V. YARIOUS WORDS RELATING TO ANIMALS) 49) Antlers 
dgiai (pi. wsf.) ; Horn nagssuk — 50) Beak^ bill sigguk — -51) 
Tail of fish paper oq ; T. of seals pamiagdluk ; T. of terrestrial an. 
pamioq; T. of whales sarpik ; T. of birds papik — 52) Feather 
suluk; Wing suluk, isaroq — 53) Breast fin angut; Back fin sulug- 
ssugut — 54) Bird^s leg mevqoq — 55) Sinew ujaloq — 56) 
Tallow tunoq — 57) Gills masik — 58) Bird^s breast atdlaq, 
qatik — 59) Hair merpoq — 60) Scale of fish tavtaq — 61) 
Hair getting loose utivoq; moulting mamdrpoq — 62) Eiderdown 
uvdlut^ qivio (still adhering) — 63) Skin ameq, Sk. of walrus kauk 

— 64) Oil igineq — 65) Egg manik, shell of egg sauneq, yolk 
tingugtak^ white itsik — 66) Bird^s nest uvdlo — 67) Spawn suak 

— 68) Swimming (terrestrial an.) nalugpoq, running pangaligpoq, 
flying tingivoq. 



East Greenland. 1) nunaq — 2) saggaq — 3) puissers 

— 4) nalaginaq — 8) qiarpalugtoq — 10) qajarniaq — 13) 
kivkd (tusk), sivdleq (wh. bone), aparqdq (blubber) — 15) oqitser- 
naq — 16) kukiak — 21) pigsiqdtarteq (A. bern.) ; malersertak, 
ugpateqortoq (Eider) ; agterajik (H. gl.) — 23) qardlimiortoq (Gl. 
gl.) — 24) quseq, tingmiardluk (L. gl.) — 25) quparniioq (Uria) 

— 27) ndpalekitseq — 28) Malik — 30) tingmiakasik ^ qerner- 
tikasik — 31) erqerniagaq, mileriagaq — 34) narajarteq — 38) 
nagssugtoq — 40) qaniagaq (S. sp.); kersagaq (S. arct.) — 43) 
erniortoq, tingmiatsiaq (Fly); kivivajeq (Muskito) — 46) kilijitaq 
(M.); uvdvfaq (Sn.) — 51) uniakatd (terr. an.) -^ 53) talivai 
(Br. f.) — 55) nukerivuk — 59) qaleqitai. 

Labeador. 

1) kassigiak — 2) netsak, tiggak — 3) ukjuk — 4) kairolik 

— 5) aivek — 6) netsivak — 7) arvek — 8) killalugak — 9) 
10) ardluk — 11) nisa — 13) otok (s.r.u.l), tbgak, sokkak, 
orksuk, maktak, agio; a peculiar sp. of seal abba — 14) nennok 



S.24. ANIMALS. 81 

— 15) terienniak — 16) kingmek — 17) tukto, nochak, angii- 
sallok (male) — 18) umingmak — 19) ukkalek — 20) kapvik 
(„Dachs"), ciklak (,,Landbar"), amarok, avingak, kigiak (,,Bieber'*), 
kivgaluk (,,Moschus Ratte"), pamioktok („Fisch otter"), siksik („Eich- 
hornchen"), terriak (,,Wieser') , ukjunak („Spitzmaus") , illakosek 
(„Stache]sch\vein") — 21) A. acuta ivugak („Krik-Ente") — 22) 
Alca torda dkpa — 25) pitsiulak — 29) amauligak — 31) akki- 
gek — 34) ekalluvak, ekalluvavak, ekalluksoak — 37) God fish 
Zgak — 38) kanajok — 39) natarnak — 40) ekalluk („Lachs 
forelle") — 42) naularnak (,,Krebs"), king7)k (,,Seefloh") — 43) 
niviuvak (Fly), kiktoriak (M.) , igupsak (B.) — 44) sarralikitak ; 
auhvek (Caterpillar) — 45) Spider niksoarpak , asiveit — 46) 
uvilok (M.) — 47) kommak, nimmertok, pamgortok — 49) aggau- 
jet, naksuk — 50) siggok — 51) pamiok, pappik — 52) sulluk, 
isarok^ sulluit — 55) illerset, ivalo, nuke -^ 56) tunnok, pakkut, 
taktorut — 60) kavisek — 62) kunnikut — 63) Seal skin kissik; 
Bear skin nanorak — 65) white of egg kauk — 68) Swinim 
puipsorpok. 

Centeal Eegions. 

1 ) kosheger — 2) nettik — 3) oyuke, ukjuk — 4) kairolik 

— 5) aivik — 6) nettivang — 7) aqhik — 8) kainaloa — 14) 
nannok — 15) tariyaneak, pisugte — 16) kingme, mikkee — 17) 
tooktoo — 19) ukalek — 20) ikik^ siksik (Marmot); kawik (Gulo 
lusciis) — 21 Duck meaiuk ', King duck mitteek; Eider amowliguok ; 
A. bernicla nurgluk — 23) toodleearioo, koksaiv — 24) L. glaucus 
notvodioke; Silver gull noivija • White g. nowyer; Bootswain issmiak 

— 33) ekkaloot, kalilut, Hook — 37) ootvat — 40) kaitilik, ekerloo 

— 43) nivimvak, keektoeyak (M.), koomak (Louse) — 44) takkee- 
Ukheeta (B.) — 46) Glam ootvillow — 48) Starfish adeeyugtiyueyet{?). 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) kratsigeark (Phoque marbre") — 2) natserk („Ph. barbata") 

— 3) ugiuk (,,Veau marin , Ph. vitulina") — 4) kreirolik — 5) 
ayverkr — 7) arverk — 8) krilaluvark — 9) krilaluvark, kilig- 
vak, kraUaluk — 13) otok, turark^ tchurkrark; abba (,,Ph. a nez 
pointu") — 14) ndnnuk — 15) terienniak, pichukte — 16) krey- 
merk — 17) tuktu, pangnerk, kidavak — 19) ukalerk, ikingna — 

20) aklark („ours noire"); tsaugark („mouton, bighorn"); ama- 
rorkr; kravik (Gulo luscus) ; kigiak (Castor); kiligvak (,, Elephant 
fossile") ; pamiortork (,,Loutre") ; tsiktsik („marmotte") ; avingark 
(,,Rat") ; ugiungnark („Maskareigne") ; kivalok („Rat musque") — 

21) Eiderduck tuUrealik ; A. crecca ivurark ; Harelda hdligerk ; 
Anser albifrons tigmerk, tattirigark — 24) Goelland naullak, 
(„k aisles noires") mitkroteylaluk — 25) Swan krorkdjuk — 26) 
tingmearpak , kanerk , SrgmiutH , nektoralik — 27) kigimvik — 

XI. 2. 6 



82 S.24. ANIMALS. 

:28) tipik — 30) tuluvark — 31) Lagopus kangerk, akredjigerk, 
tuterealik (?) , tinmiark — 33) itkraluk , illaok — 40) Salmon 
itkralukpik , tiktdlerk; Trout kaloarpok — 41) Glupea h. krolli- 
lirark; Gorregonus signifer tchulupauwark ; G. lucidus andklerk ; 
Ray natarnark — 42) naularnark, kingok — 43) miluveatsiark, 
niviuvak (Fly) ; kriktoreark (M.) ; igutsiark (B.) ; krummark (L.) — 
45) Spider pilceraytchorktork — 46) Shell utvillow, kukurktiput — 
47) Worm kroarta — 48) Starfish atigaoyat — 49) nagiuk — 
50) Muzzle amilcerork — 51) T. of fish aperkrork, tigiyokrork ; 
t. of terr. an. (wsf.) pamiuva — 52) itsarork — 53) angotik^ taler- 
krork — 55) ivalo, uUon — 57) matsi — 60) kapisirk — 62) 
eretark (,, duvet") — 64) ignerk, ivignerk — 65) fnanik ; aivpe- 
lanera (y.) , kratserncera {w .) — 66) utlut , eretark — 68) akpa- 
ngertoark (,,se dit aussi des animaux"); nahiktuark ; tinmiyoark. 

ExTEEME American "Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) kasigid, kasigooak — 2) natsik, netyi, netyaru 
(young), tixgung — 3) ugrn — 4) kaixoling, eshowuk (,, banded") 

— 5) aiwik, akvuk — 7) abwuk, awheeheek, aruak — 8) kilalya, 
seetuuk , tokuk — 9) tugdling , tsedooak — 1 0) axlo — 11) 
aghibeezeeah — 13) tuak ^ tuga (tusk); shokok , tsockoyt (Whh.) ; 
okzook; muktuk; adlu — 14) ndnu — 15) teregunid ; keenroktura 
(black), kossig ak (wliiie) — 16) kimmer^ kingmuk — 17) tukto^ 
noxa, pungnek — 18) umingmang — 19) okkalik — 20) akqlak 
(cin. b.); Wolf amdxo ; Wolverine kahiving ; Lemmmg dvwingu; 
Marmot siksing ; Musk rat paoona, keehoogalliik ; Otter ameo, amag- 
iHJutakj pumiuktuk; Ermine (mouse) terid ; Mink tereakimk ; Fossil 
Elephant kiligwd ; Sable kahweating — 21) iVnas spectabilis king- 
alik; White fronted goose nuglurua ; White goose kimgo; Longtailed 
duck ahddling ; Pacific Eider amauUng ; Pintail duck iwivdgu ; 
Brani g. negale?L , lukluiki?); Geese generally nerrelik; „a duck" 
ewuk — '2'2.) dtpa — 23) tudling^ kaksau — 24) Gull nawjd; Ivory 
gull naujabwung ; Skua istmgu — 25) Uria sukubtm; Swan 
kugsu; „Geese rising" (?) tatter eeg ak ; Tern toretkoyak, mitkotiluk 
[imerqutailaq]] Snipe taligwait [talivfak'] — 26) tingmiakpuk — 
27) kissigavik {¥.), kisragowik (Hawk) — 28) ukpik, ignazeevijak 

— 29) amaiiliga, nesaudligd — 30) tulung — 31) kamviky akud- 
agin — 32) tingmeak, kahwa — 33) ekkaliik (Yukalu) — 37) 
ekkaluak (Gadus sp., Wakni); kaloogara (Godfish) — 38) kuraio, 
kulaio (Gottus sp., Sculpin) — 39) Turbot natangnok^ ikkohnalook 

— 40) ekkalluruak; ookwadlupuk (Trout) — 41) Burbot (Lota 
maculosa) titale ; Whitefish andkqlung ; „01dwife" netarmak; Lycodes 
kuxraund; Osmerus sp. (Smelt) ithoaning — 42) Grab kinaura — 
43) nibrarod; kiktorid; igutyai ; kumuk — 44) tokalukasak — 
45) Spider pidrairua — 46) Gockle siutigo; Seasnail schalookayok ; 
Shell ooivilu — 47) Maggot kupldro — 48) Starfish ahregaluk — 



S.24. ANIMALS. 83 

49) nogariik — 50) sigo, eedjook — 51) T. of „aniraals" una, 
piimmyooga; T. of birds pupke — 52) isaxo, tulugii — 53) dngutau; 
sitka, okungho (dorsal f.) — 55) Sinew nalooa; Deerfat kownok 
[tunoq] — 57) Gill murshe — 59) mipkwo — 00) kapisi — 65) 
mtinni; saunanga (sli.); kdnungra (y.) ; iktia (wh.) — 66) uglu, 
chappoote — 68) Flying tingirud. 

SoDTHERN. 1) ersuk — 5) asvik, ersvcek — 7) achiUk, achivyk 

— 8) schtoak, schtung — 13) tschuliuk (walrus tusk); tschgunuik 
(fossil ivory); ogokch (fat); makliak („large seal"), isschuvi (fur seal), 
tsUngoak (seal, „Nerpa") — 15) Black f. tunulguit; white f. uli- 
guik — 16) pkiktu, annakuchta — 17) tiintuk (chanaet?)- arne- 
saltik (female); norak — 19) kajukchli , kiyukthluk , ogaech — 
20) Wolf kanaget, kuigliimuik ; Beaver schimik, paloktak, kiniiuli ; 
Porcupine iglakoosuk; ,,Zobel" kachivak ; Brown bear tarrokak ; 
Land otter kapohahak, akojak; Mountain sheep piUieit; Musk rat 
ligvak ; „Hermelin" nasulkak; Mouse avilnat — 21) Geese naklrit, 
nyklyt, mikchlak , nuikliuk; Eiderduck kajarit, (male) pjugatat; 
Duck tainmuit, milkritat — 22) Auk schakudet — 25) Swan 
kukjtik — 26) nuituigaviak, komogik, kotschakalak — 28) isjach- 
tuli, igiachtugali — 30) kolkaguk — 32) tuinmiak — 33) ekalut 

— 37) Codfish large amutat — 40) kakkiet, ekatlo ; S. proteus 
amakak; S. alpinus anchliugat ; S. sp. tagiakoak, kakkiia — 41) 
siilukbaut (?) • ,, Stint" (Smelt?) kpukaat; ,,Quappe" managnat — 
43) tschuvat, kwielewt (Fly); igtugiak ; nikugiak (M.) ; oekuttit (B.) 

— 44) sorroUngatdt — 45) Spider atmaik — 46) ammokt 
(,,Muschel") — 47) Maggot pagaliut. 

Asiatic. 

1) kasiljak (Ph. fasciata) — 2) Common Seal natsiik, mamlekf 
almuchuke — 5) aiwok , cJiitchu — 7) arwuk; Bowhead W. 
okkuhwuk, bozruk — 9) poojak — 10) negane, shimgsho (orca) 

— 13) W. bone shokok, ooklunga ; ,, Ivory" (walrus) toovang — 
14) nanuk — 15) F. white tregu, kotlea, tahotvok — 16) kigmok, 
(itkine — 17) tunktu — 19) ookalik — 20) Marmot seekseek ; 
Wolf kimlaga, ookooa, keilunak, ama ; Wolverine kapse; Cin. bear 
akliak — 21) Eiderduck kwadla, toorzuk; Duck kauvak, metkak, 
aglitschigak , liukali — 22) Auk kobrook — 23) Loon iiwyuwa; 
Golden Plover toolik — 24) Gull naya, narojak, chkodluk — 25) 
Puffm chukivilpuk, kobroa , ^?em«^ — 26) Eagle apuchliuk — 28) 
Owl tokalo , hanejM — 30) Raven kivilivit, muttuklo , metachluk 

— 31) akyrget, talet — 32) Bird kahwaganin — 33) Fish ikah- 
liak — 37) Gadus sp. uukak — 38) kinaga, oorok — 39) Pleu- 
ronectes achnilkak; Turbo colsuguan , ulsereganek — 40) Salmon 
kwadlupe, tooina; Trout ahcho; Salmo sp. ekddluk , tunguju — 
41) Herring kobloora — 42) Crab kangkole , kangkok ; Shrimp 
knngara, kingyak, okshukseruk ; Cancer nyrnat — 43) Fly, Mnskito 



84 S.25. PLANTS. 

jakatlwhisha ; Louse komuk — 45) Spider apaiipii — 46) Clam 
poonoon — 47) Worm kymykym — 48) Starfish taskiville, aska- 
voche — 49) Horn tshirunak — 52) Feather tshulliu — 65) manni 

— 66) unliud. 

Section 25. PLANTS. (1-16.) 
Greenland. 

1) Trees and bushes: Birch orpik, orpigag; Salix orpik, pat- 
dleq, ssersut; Alder nunangiaq ; Roan napdrtoq; Juniperus kakit- 
dlarnakut — 2) Berries: Blueberry kigutaernaq ; Empetrum pavr- 
maq ; Vaccininm vitis idasa kingmernaq — 3) Flowers and various 
herbs: Angelica qiidneq; Leontodon assorut; Polygonum quper- 
dlussat; Cochlearia, Sorrel qunguleq (Sorrel sernaf^ ; Andromeda 
igssutit; Ledum qajaussat; Sedum rodiola tugdlerunat ; Chama^nereum 
niviarsiat , pdngnat (partly plural forms) — 4) Crass ivik; Erio- 
phorum ukaliussaq — 5) Moss ivssuaq, kukiliaussaq^ mcmeq, mer- 
qutaussaq^ orssussaq ; Mushroom pupik , pujualak (Lycoperdon) — 
6) Seaweed qerqussat, qanagdhik, uisuk — 7) Wood qissuk; Drift 
wood different kinds: pingeq, ikeq (hard), orssuerneq (not heavy) — 
8) Bark qasaloq (red), ameraq — 9) Root nukaruaq^ mangoq^ 
dgiaqj amdq, sordlaq — 10) Knot akeroq — 11) Twig avalerqoq 

— 12) Bud. Top, karre, kdvekut, quaraq (Tyrse) — 13) Flower 
assorut; Leaf mulik^ pilo, piloqiit — 14) Resin kiitsuq — 15) Sod 
ivssoq — 16) Plants generally naussut. 

East Greenland. 2) Blueb. tungujortut; Emp. paungaq — 
3) Pol. ivssormiutat ; Sorrel mitagkat — 7) sandvavagssaq ; Dr. d. 
k.peqitsernaq, parqerneq — 9) erqtlUd^ nangeq — 10) dtataq. 

Labrador. 

1) Birch kairolik; Willow shrubs orpik ^ okaujauvallakut ; 
Larch pingek ; Spruce , Trees generally napdrtut , kehlariktut — 
2) Blueb. nakkut; Emp. paungak ; Vacc. sp. kigutmigernak , king- 
minak — 3) Leont. missaktuk; Sorrel kongolek — 4) Gr. ivik, 
iviksuket — 5) Mosses nunamik , mannek; Lichens nerkdgasek, 
tingaujak — 6) anguhoak, illanjak, kerkojak — 7) kejuk; ikkek 
(,,Fichte"); pingiujak, kannungek (,.F6hre") — 8) amerak; kairok 
(Birch b.) — 9) mimernak , amak — 11) akkeroq — 12) Bud 
kuglangajok; Flower nuvagulak — 14) korliak, kutsok. 

Central Eegions. 

1) Birch okepeeyak; Willow flower for tinder hupootik [suputit?] 

— 2) Blueb. kigutangernak ; Emp. paungnang — 3) sorrel kon- 
golek — 4) iving — 5) keenoowtjak (black m.) , ikshootik, teero- 



S.2o. PLANTS. 85 

vj/at, koayowtik^ okoyat — 6) kitkoa — 7) qijuk — 13) atum- 
aujak (Leaf). 

Mackenzie Eieer. 

1) Tree nappartork ; Bush orpik; Birch kreyrolik ; Salix 
kralceroUanerk, krariooyark; Poplar ningork ; Spruce kaiyowiuunt 

— 2) Blueb. ortkroitkootik ; Emp. paornaretkrotik ; Arbutus kirn- 
iiinetkrotik; Gadellus atsiarlut; Strawberry atsidjam tarra — 
3) Angelica korarligit; Polygonum kutsimak — 4) Gr. ivik^ ivit (pi.) 

— 5) pudjudluk — 6) erkloyalmt — 7) Dr. w. tchiamot, krapan- 
giiktat — 12) Bud ommark — 13) Flower nuvujak — 14) km-t- 
chork. 

Exteeme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) Tree, spruce napartok^ Forest napartut ; Fir 
pingek , kerupeak , oonokset; Bush okpeek ; Alder nunangeagit ; 
Willow churety akutok; Birch usJiuk, ooregilik — 2) Black b. 
tangatpit ; Berries aseret , sowhot — 3) Sorrel kongalook — 4) 
ivigit. peniksrait [jnnigssat ? straw for boots] — 5) ?noneak; oomechet, 
nechaht (reindeer m.) ; mushroom ahyook — 7) Wood keru, ekkik 
(hArd), oomachsila, ookut, tangnit ; small W. nakityuakeru ; large 
timber napaktu ; Trunk nunga ; Firewood kunnakin; Knot akkweha 

— 8) ammeraky kottelloo — 9) kiliyenera, momerrenet — 12) 
Flower naurmm — 13) Leaf kingmere^ millukatcet. 

Southern. 1) Tree napa; Spruce miichvagagtuak ; Fir kjerrut ; 
Birch ilgmik; Alder tschukvayuat; Poplar avguiat ; Willow tscha- 
gatiiit, orkpit; Forest napat, ingogachtok^ nigoyachtok — 2) Berries 
nangat, tschanguit ; Vaccinium vitis idaea tumaglit, kitlit — 4) 
nautt — 5) Moss kumaguituit — 7) Wood kahujak , kunnaket, 
opohak — 8) kasnut, kietcett — 9) Roots ammarot — 13) Leaf 
tschue. 

Asiatic. 

1) Tree unechfschak — 2) Berries akivilchak ; paunrak (Emp.) 

— 3) etvuk ('?) — 4) Grass umgak, icook, rhak — 5) Reindeer M. 
ungajak; Agarieus slgut — 6) ergdta — 7) nuchsak, imechtschuk 

— 8) aniihak, ridkaschik (Birch b.) — 9) Root akuk — 13) Leaf 
kchmvek. 



Section 26. LAND AND SEA, LIFELESS MATTER. (1-36.) 

GrREENLAND. 

(I. LAND) 1) L. (ferra firma) nuna — 2) Beach sigssaq ; 
Edge of 1. or Ice sine — 3) Inland (niniap) thud — 4) Landward 

pava, kange — 5) Plat 1. narssaq — 0) Harsh, moor mnratdluk 



86 



S.26. LAND AND SEA, LIFELESS MATTER. 



7) Valley qoroq; qagdlo, iterdlak ; Chasm quvneq — 8) Mountain 
qdqaq; Precipice ivnaq; sandy €liff igpik — 9) Island qeqertaq — 
10) Point, €ape mik, kangeq. 

(II. SEA) 11) S. imaq; by Sea imakiit; Open Sea imaviy- 
ssuaq; Salt water tarajoq — 12) Current smfaq — 13) Ebb tine ; 
tinipd (lowest); Flood ule; ulingavoq (highest) — 14) Shallow 
ikdpoq — 15) Deep itivoq — 16) Bottom nateq, wst narqa — 
17) Swell malik, ingitiUk; Surf qdrpd - 18) Bay, Fjord kanger- 
dluk, tasiussaq, qagsse, qingoq (F. head) — 19) Sound ikerasaq. 

(III. FRESH WATER) 20) Water imeq — 21) Lake taseq — 
22) River kiik ; R. mouth pa — 23) Rapids sarfarssuaq, sujnneq ; 
Waterfall qordlortoq. 

(IV. I€E A^'D SBiOW) 24) Ice formed on the surface of water 
siko; Thin, new I. sikuaq ; Rough I. mantlaq ; Slippery I. quasak; 
Morsel of 1. nilak — 25) Ice formed on a soHd ground, Clacier 
sermeq, sermerssuaq — 26) Iceherg iluliaq ; Blue Gl. I. kagssuk — 
27) Drifting I. large sikorssuit; small pieces navgutit — 28) Snow 
fallen apiit. 

(V. MINERALS etc.) 29) Stone ujaraq; St. heap tuapak — 
30) €lay marraq, qeqoq (Calcareous) — 31) Coal aiima — 32) 
Rock ci'ystal aligoq — 33) Stone for arrow heads angmdq — 34) 
Pot-stone nvkusigssaq — 35) Sand siorqat (pi. of sioraq) — 36) 
Quari (Feldspar?) orssuiaq; Iviiwsavik; (]n\\\}ei' kangnusak; Graphite 
torssonniutaq ; Red earth ivisdq. 

East Greenland. 5) manigseq — 9) mgmikertoq — 29) 
nunaq — 36) Graphite sordlormiutaq. 

Labradok. 

1) nuna — 2) sigjak , sinak — 3) Continent iluilek — 4) 
paunga, kangimut, timut — 5) kote , manerak, naternak — 6) 
immdrsuk — 7) kongnak, korok, itterdlek^ naksak — 8) kakkak^ 
imnaky ikpik ; kakkarolak (hillock) — 9) kikkertak — 10) tikkerak. 
nuvuk , uivak — 11) immak , immarbik , immarlnksoak, immaknt 

— 12) ingergarnek, sarvartouvok — 13) tine, tiningavok , ulle, 
ulingavok — 14) ikkarhik — 15) ittijovok — 16) erka — 17) 
ingiolikpok, kaqarsitaunek — 18) kangerdliik, tessiujak, kingu — 
19) ikerasak — 23) ukiisinjak (,,Struder'), parpalatsuivok — 24) 
sikko; new Ice sermek{?); old, heavy tuvak ; si. koasak — 26) 
pekaUujak — 27) kachvak, ivujok — 28) aput; Snow heap annio 

— 32) alligok — 35) siorak. 

Central Eegions. 

2) kigdlinga [its border] — 3) iluilirn — 6) maxatmig — 
7) nertsek — 8) qaqak, kingyi , innang , ikjnng — 10) uivang — 



S.26. LAND AND SEA, LIFELESS MATTER. 87 

13) tinnipoq, ulipoq — 19) ikarasang — 20) koo — 23) km-d- 
luirn — 24) siko — 25) aujuitung [aujiiitsoq never melting] — 
26) pikadlujang — 30) Clay slate otvwiewmk (?) — 36) Copper 
kanooyak. 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

1) nuna — 2) tsiktsark — 5) natorayark — 6) oriork 
krayoartarktoark imarktsuk — 7) korkenerk — 8) errarkr ; 
„Golline''' kreymerpak — 9) kritigak, krikerktak — 10) nuvuk — 
11) itkra, itkrarun, tareor , imarhiktsoark — 12) tsarvark — 
13) imerutngmiyartoark (?Flood)^ imerktipalayork (?Ebb; ,, Deluge" 
rditoark — 14) ikarok , ikratok — 15) itiyork — 16) tungavik 

— 17) idik, malik (,,Onde"); ingiulik, takoark („ressac") — 18) 
kangerdluk — 19) ikeratsark — 20) kUrk — 21) tatsirk (small L.), 
okeroktork (large L.) — 23) Waterfall krorlonerk — 24) tsiko; 
tsermerk (,,Glace epaisse"); sikoleark (thin); tawark (strong); 
killuk (old, hard); matsark (moisty) ; nianeylork (uneven Ice) — 
25) numyito \nunguitsoq, never wasted] — 26) ibur(?) — 27) 
ingitartoark [ingerdlassoq moving] — 28) apun, dnnigo — 29) 
iiyarak — 30) marak — 31) pdo (nCharbon"); auma (,, ardent") 

— 32, 33) tsatungayork (stone for arrowheads — slate?) krav- 
lork (Quarz) aumark (,,silex") — 34) tchikorktchork (steatite) — 
35) tsiurak — 36) Pyrites kigiyoark; Red earth ivitark. 

Extreme American "Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) Land noona — 2) Beach sina, kahoktuktooit 

— 3) nunatok — 5) natterhigak — 7) Valley nattering auruk — 
8) Mountain errek, ehet, oomen; Cliff ikpik, impni — 10) Cape 
ntlwiik, ulikto{?); isui (,, Peninsula") — 11) Sea oonane; Salt 
water tdxaio — 12) seakbwa; Whirlpole isukauruii — 13) Flood- 
tide tdiktua; Ebb kiniktua — 14) ikato — 15) itira — 16) The 
Ground nund — 17) Surf iniuling ; Wave muling — 18) Bay 
imukazrook, tungukqlun — 19) tedakton — 20) imek^ kuk — 
21) nertvak, nazravok, tashuk, tasiukpung (large 1.) — 22) jyanga 
(R. mouth) — 24) siko, kjiko; Hummocks monilya — 28) apim 

— 29) ojarak — 30) Clay orak immwk{?) — 31) Coal aloa ; 
Ashes okave — 32) dligo; Feldspar alegro(?) — 33) Flint kook- 
shook (fl. dresser kigle, fl. scraper ungmah; Agate ongmuk ; ,,Jade" 
koksookto; ,,Nephrit" ediignok — 34) tunakd (soapstone) — 36) 
Iron savik; Copper konooyok; Graphite ooroksakon , tokoromotok ; 
Pyrite iknek; Mineral red wechok. 

Southern. 1) nuna, nuni — 2) tschna — 7) Valley maak{^), 
kvilkiemek; Lowland tschttivnuik ; Chasm tschachliuk — 8) Moun- 
tain ingik, pnak; Rock uipnat; ,,Hugelland" kartokat — 9) kiko- 
tak, kyfahok — 11) imak, imachpik — 12) tschagvak — 18) Bay 
nanoagnak — 20) Water tanhcek — 21) Lake nannak — 22) 



88 



S.27. FIRMAMENT, AIR AND PHYSICAL ACTIONS. 



River kuik, kbichak — 24) kjikkok — 28) annio — 29) jamek 
(small St.); kraltrok (large St.) — 30) Lime Mhu — 36) Sand 
kanuia; Salt tarrajok ; Iron savik. 

Asiatic. 

1) Earth, Ground nupa{?) -- 8) Mountain, Hill nirek, inhrit; 
GlifY impnet — 9) Island ilir — 11) Sea imak — 17) Waves 
kenhuchta — 18) Bay sm^AoA; — 20) Water emak — 21) Lake 
napeek — 22) River kulhyt — 24) Ice ssiko, seku — 29) «<iraA; 
30) Lime uchak — 33) Grindstone techinna — 35) Sand kunuk, 
kaniak; Salt ^mAiw [tarajoq] — 36) Iron tschavykak, pilwintin ; 
Copper kaniuiak. 



Section 27. FIRMAMENT, AIR AND PHYSICAL ACTIONS. 

(1-50.) 
GrREENLAND. 

(I. SRI AND POINTS OF THE COHPASS) 1) Sky qllak - 2) 
North ava — 3) East pava, kange, timey fmio — 4) South qava, 
kujatj kiga — 5) West kit, kana. 

(II. HEAVENLY KODIES) 6) Sun seqineq — 7) loon qaumat ; 
Full m. q.lmigsivoq; New in. q.nunguvoq; First qu. igdloqalerpoq ; 
Last qu. igdluerupoq — 8) Star uvdloriaq — 9) Shooting star 
«>?« — 10) Names of stares: Ursa major asalussat; Piejades qilug- 
Mssat; Orion siagtiit; Atair as?^. 

(III. AIR) 11) Open air, weather sila — 12) Calm qatsorpoq 

— 13) Wind anore — 14) Light breeze ardldrdoq — 15) Gale 
of wind nagtimavoq; with spray or snowdrift j^ersor^^o^^ — 16) 
North Wind avangnaq — 1 7) NE. Wind tdmaqe — 1 8) East W. 
agsdrneq — 1 9) SE. Wind nigeq — 20) S. or SW. Wind kigdngnaq 

— 21) West W. kanangnaq — 22) Clear sky riivtarpoq, atdlarpoq 

— 23) Dark sky nuisavoq ; Cloud nuia — 24) Fog, smoke pujoq; 
Frostsmoke; vapour ujumik — 25) Snow falling qanik — 26) Rain 
sialuk, siagdlerpoq — 27) Drizzling rain mine, minivoq — 28) Hail 
natarqornaq — 29) Thick Weathen nivtailaq — 30) Expecting bad 
W. drdlerineq — 31) Bad W. silardlugpoq — 32) Air Bubble qalaq, 
puaussaq. 

(IV. TEMPERATURE) 33) Heat kiak; Hot imartoq, kissartoq 

— 34) Sets lire to Ikipd; Burns ikumavoq; Fire ingneq — 35) 
Thawing mangugpoq augpoq — 36) Cold issik, issigpoq, puerqorpoq; 
Freezing qerivoq. 

(V. LIGHT, COLOURS) 37) Daylight qauk; darkness tdq - 
38) White qaqorpoq — 39) Black qernerpoq ,— 40) Blue tungior- 
poq — 41) Green timgiorpoq, korsuk — 42) Yellow sungarpalug- 



S.37. FIRMAMENT, AIR AND PHYSICAL ACTIONS. 89 

poq — 43) Red augpalugpoq, kajorpoq — U) Brown kajorpoq — 
45) Cray qasserpoq. 

(VI. SOIND, SHELL, TASTE) 46) Voice, Sound nipe - 47) 
Roar igtuk, iijtugpoq — 48) Rrack serqorpoq — 49) Noise perpa- 
lugpoq — 50) Smell tipik (especially bad sm.) ; Odorous tipngigpoq; 
Tast good mamarpoq; bad T. mamdipoq. 

East Greenland. 2) orquva — 6) qaumdvak — 7) aningat 

— 10) U. m. pisitdlat; Or. ugdlagtut; PI. ^ii^"^(!^ — \b) parnuar- 
poq — 17) nerrajuq — 28) mdkartarnaq. 

Labradoe. 

1) killak — 2) avane (NE. nigek) — 3) unnane, taunane — 
4) S. ane, angat; SE. kavangarnek, nioksarnek — 5) SW. uarn- 
gnarluangajak ; W. kangimut — 6) sekkinek — 7) takkek — 8) 
uvloriak — 10) Or. udlaktut , siektut; PI. sakkieitsiet — 12) 
ikkuhlearpok, kcesungavok — \h) akkimak, ullalujaksoak {„Wirhe\- 
wind"), perktok, perkidlarnek — 16) attuarnek — 18) tmnangdk^ 
nioksarnilerpoq — 20) South W. uarngnerloak — 21) N.WestW. 
attuarningarnek — 22) agdlarivok — 23) kuvuja ; Thick weather 
kannimorpok — 24) issek^ isserluk, tdktok, pujok ; Foggy tdkserpoq, 
pujarakpok; low Clouds pariit — 25) kannerpok — 27) kisserivok 

— 28) nettarkonak — 34) ikkipa, ikkomavok, ikkoma (Fire) upok 

— 35) pakkarpok — 36) itsekarpok, niglivok, kersorpok, kercherpa 

— 38) kaqqorpok kajdrpok — 39) kernerpok — 40) tungujoktok 

— 42) korsukpok — 43) aupallakpok — 44) cenpallangavok — 
45) sinarngnauvokf kernaingnavok — 46) nippe, kaggorput, kok- 
sudlarput — 47) slorsugpok^ nipqalakpok , iktuUiarpok — 48) 
serkorpok, sipkerpok, kukkerpok. 



Central Eegions. 

1) keiluk — 2) North tapaung, kanungnak — 5) S. W. />?w- 
gungnak; W. oagnak — 6) siqineq — 7) takkik, tukeuk — 8) 
udliiriak — 10) U. m. tuktudjimg: Or. udlaktung ; PI. sakiatjang 

— 15) oquechemik, natteeroovik — 16) ivagdnak ; NNE. wind aqor- 
ute\ NW. gale avangnanirn — \1) kenningnang , kennara, ikirtsuk; 
NE. „F6hn" aqsadnirn — 19) SE. w. nigirn, okutsiirk — 20) S. 
and SW. w. piningnang — 21) WNW. w. uangnang; W. w. ua- 
gnaujang — 22) niptarkto — 23) Thick w. tockseakto — 25) 
qenirpoq, qadnirn — 26) sidlelung, siedlirpa — 28) netakordnain 

— 33) Hot udnerpoq; Warm okko — 34) Fire ikkoma — 36) 
Ikke — 38) qudjoq, kowdlookpoke — 39) kidnirn, muktut — 40) 
tungujugtung , kotvdlookpoke — 41) tungujaingajung — 42) sun- 
gangijok, eiteoivpoke — 43) aupartoq — 44) aupajangipoq — 
45) keierra. 



90 's'.,?7. firmament, air and physical actions. 
Mackenzie Eivee. 

1 ) kreijlark — 2) N. kranungnarmi ; NE. niyerk — 3) tsane- 
raneranermun niyerkmi — 4) kavanikunna ( SE. ) ; piangnanni, 
tsivorkramun (S.) — 5) N. W. ongmiglark ; W. uavarnerk — 6) 
tchirkreynerk — 7) tatkrark — 8) Orion tubatsdn — 11) tsilla 

— 12) tsillariktsiga — 13) dnore — 15) Strong W. akkunark; 
Gale angalerkrayork , akkunnadlartoark — 16) N. Wind kanoan- 
gnark — 17) NE. or E. Wind niyerk — 20) S. or SW. Wind 
piangnark — 21) onganglark — 22) krilarorpaluk (clearing) — 
23) mwiiya, kijevut (cloudy) — 24) Fog nipta'ira; Smoke itsirk; 
Hot air ujuniereark — 25) kranerk — 26) tsillaluk, nipalnk — 
28) natatkronark — 29) niptaira — 32) ^:>w&ZarA- — 33) onark, 
kidjartork — 34) Imeortoark, ikiyoark (,,allumer") ; ikualarktoark, 
ignerk — 35) ingilcerartuark^ arekreyoark (,,degel"); onarktsidja, 
naniarktoark (,,se rechauffer") — 38) krmvlortork, kragartork — 
39) kernertork — 40) tugungyortork — 41) krorktsotork — 42) 
aivtchuartork — 43) awtchak — 44) krenertchilliga — 46) Sound 
tchiviorktsiun — 47) yoraartoark (murmur) — 48) tchingnulay- 
oark (,, detonation"). 

ExTEEME American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) keliik, kohluit — 2) North unani, nega, neyc/k: 
north ward ununyd; N. West walungnami — 3) E. kabani, kevun- 
gnuk, pahmungnah — 4) S. pdni; oongaluk, oomudluk\ SE. kava- 
nekund — 5) W. dwane, katek, nikik; S. W. mvannikund — 6) 
serrinek, sukunyuk, bidsuk, mersuk — 7) tutkun, tatkek — 8) 
ohloktork, uglurid — 9) Meteor eganek — 10) U. m. tuktuoruin; 
PL patukturin ; Altair agru : Vega ogruluUvuk ; Orions belt tuatsan 

— 11) sild — 13) amiore — 15) Gale omalakpuk, annotvakak; 
drifting snow peg su — 17) NE. Wind ikimgd — 19) SE. Wind 
nigyu — 21) S. Wind kiluungnd; SW.Wind ungalu — ^^) alakttm, 
niptoktook — 23) anoivieksaxo, nuhuyd, kalluk (,. Cloud") — 24) 
tuktu^ taptikto; pooeyowkto (,, Vapor") — 25) kanniksok , silagh- 
liktut — 26) silalu, seahiktok — 29) Haze nuveroit; hazy niptili(k 

— 32) publiin — 33) It is hot unakpasilud; Hot unaktud, unak- 
tok] Boilijig kollekto — 34) Burn otuktoo, eliksemeruk [iligsimavoq 
has been scorched] — 36) Gold a%M ; it is cold khjinakpasilyd : 
I am c. allapaktungd ^ keyinaktungd; Frozen kikitka, kivawk — 
37) Dark tapaksilud — 38) Wh. kataktud, kattartok-, Bright kep- 
lukto — 39) mangaktud, kernitok — 40) umudraktud, kdumarua^ 
tawkrektook — 41) umiidraktud, ongesirak — 42) siingaktok — 
43) kaheksud, kaveksok — 44) Br. kaweksuruk — 45) aglilktud 
[agdlagtoq]. 

Southern. 1) killak — 2) ovasakuk — 3) ungalak, tmhahfk 

— 5) silamik, tcManek — 6) tscMnlmlmk, madjak, akchta, ptu^^li- 



S..38. KINSHIP. 91 

anok — 7) tangik, jalok, ihalak — 8) ackiat tnittak (pi. ?mittit) 

— 12) alertok, kunvik — 13) anuka, aklak — 15) pitschkeiduk 

— 16) ovasak — 18) E. Wind iingalak — 20) S. Wind ovagak 

— 21 W. Wind silamik — 22) kiiljak, ugachtok (clear) — 23) 
taligak, amehluk (cloud) — 24) Fog tetuk, umenek ; Smoke pujok ; 
vapour aheila — 25) kamichtschttk, kaningak — 26) tschialiauk, 
kidak; kitingak — 28) kachutat, kachitat — 33) Boiling okknak 

— 34) Fire A:wA;; knak — 36) Frost rynhyla, ningelak — 37) 
Light taukikhtuk — 38) katsrak, katchUik, kataijagiak — 39) 
tannechtuk — 40) tschunieskulc, kijuktakstan — 41) kjungaktok — 
42) etkringaschrak — 43) kaviaviak, kavisrak, kivagok. 

Asiatic. 

1) keilak — 2) nihhak — 3) East matschaivactu — 4) South 
kukaha — 5) West atschivakatachtu — 6) shikinya, matschak — 
7) tenkuh, iralUiik — 8) eradlkdfak^ iralikatoch — 13) anoka. 
aniika, anmka — 15) Gale kaliuhochta — 23) Cloudy killaluk — 

24) Fog kagotook^ tetuk; vapour ajnukut; Smoke poojok — 25) 
Snowing kongek — 26) Rain nipchook, imahnachta — 28) Hail 
tchekutaunachta — 33) Warm matsdtachtu; Hot uochnachtapich- 
tok — 34) Fire eknek, ooktook — 36) Gold rutdnga — 37) Light 
cJita (?) ; dark uniuhuk ; shadow tanhak — 38) kechtschuchtuk , 
katilre — 39) taknilergie, tandchtu — 40) Blue iruka, kajuchtak, 
kerdljumenuk — 41) Green akachkuk — 43) Red kavagtiik — 45) 
Gray kadljaumeruk. 

Section 28. KINSHIP. (1-28.) 
Greenland. 

1) Parent angajorqdq — 2) Father wsf. angutd; atdta (Chil- 
dren's speech) — 3) Mother wsf. arnd ; andna (Ch. sp.) — 4) 
Grand father dtak — 5) Grand Mother dnak — 6) Father^s 
Brother dka — 7) Mother^ s Brother angak — 8) Father^s Sister 
atsa — 9) Mother^s Sister aja — 10) Cousin (wsf.) igdliia — 
11) Elder Sister aleqaq — 12) Younger Sister najaq — 13) Eider 
Brother angajo, ane — 14) Younger Brother nnlcaq — 15) Child 
qitornaq — 16) Son erneq — 17) Daughter panik — 18) Grand 
Child ernutaq — 19) Son^s wife ukuaq — 20) Husband nve — 
21) Wife miliaq — 22) Parent in law sake; Brother or Son in 
law ningank; brother or sister in law sakiatsiaq — 23) Brother 
or Sister qatangut — 24) Step Brother or Sister qatangutisiaq — 

25) Sisters child mmraluq, tijoruk; brothers child qangiaq (his)^ 
dngak (her) — 26) Kindred erqardleq — 27) Orphan iUarsmk — 
28) Wedding mdiarpoq, uvinigpoq, katipnt. 

East Greenland. 5) amariva — 8) ujaq — 10) acta — 21) 
ingiaqatiga. 



92 ' s.28. kinship. 

Labrador. 

^) atata — 3) andna — 4) atatatdak — 5) andnatsiak — 

6) akka — 7) anga — 8) adsa — 9) aja — 11) Elder brother 
or sister angajua — 12) Sister naja (his) — 13) Brother anne 
(her) — 14) Younger brother (his) or y. sister (her) nukak — 
22) Brother's Wife «i; Sister's Husband ningauk; Son's wife 
iikkoak; Daughters H. ningauk-, Parent in law sakke — 23) Br. 
or S. kattangut — 24) nukkamdk — 25) Brother's Child kangiak 
(his), aw^ra (her); Sister's Gh. ujorua (his), nuanga (her). 

Central Eegions. 

2) atatuguh — 3) annanuguk — 4) eetuah — 5) sukeejuk 

— 6) ukuguh — 7) anguguh — 8) utchuguh , aijuguh — 10) 
eethlua — 11) angaijuga — 12) nukwaga — 13) uneejuh — 
14) kaitunguta — 15) kitungaq — 16) frc^/iig' — 17) paneeguh 

— 19) uktiaguh — 20) ?iiw^a — 22) rinahuga (his), akuaga 
(her); shukeeuga (Sister's Husband); ningaukshmia (daughters H.). 

Mackenzie Eiver. 

2) arpungah, angota, arpang^ atdtak — 3) andna, andnark 
4) a^a^a — 5) anana, nigyeorpon — ^6) angrayua, anrayualuk — 

7) anSyok, angaluk — 8) aisark — 11 1 na?/<^^ angoyuma — 12j 
a^*a — 13) angayua — 14) nukka — 15) nutark, iyaye — 18) 
Sons Child >«m^«?/6>«(rA: (?) — 23) kramertoark — 25) inorutiduk, 
miyoraluk — 26) mijoraluki^) — 27) iliark, iliarktsuk. 

Extreme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 2) dngota (my), a^ffiw^ — 3) ongniand (my), aM'^^ 
akang — 4j addta, ana, atatigfi, tootiloa (?) — 5) attiloo — 
6 and 7) Uncle dkkaga , kangayangmea — 8) angnarud; ,,Aunt"' 
nincha — 9) dtaga — 10) Cousin usinga, uschchuga, unakutea — 
1 1 ) kablorotit — 1 2) nookah — 1 1 and 1 2) niyaga (my) , nkja, 
nuka{?), nooga {?) — 13) dninga {m.^), nugatschea, nukarek (?) — 
14) nuka, nooka — 13 and 14) ilyugu, ungarunga, arpeeughut (?) 

— 15) dpa (Adopted tiguonga?) — 16) oovingeelaka — 17) 
punigu (my), paning — 20) owinga — 21) nulianga — 22) M. in 
L. ongunguk; F. in L. ongayokongek — 24) St. Br. kutungutd (?) 

— 27) iliaru. 

Southern. 2) attaha, ate — 3) anaha, ane — 6 and 7) augi 

— 1 1 and 1 2) ojo , arnaceneka — 13 and 1 4) ojnahali , ojoara 

— 16) avaridd, avagutaka, igniak — 17) panlk, paniga — 18) 
tatchuk — 20) uvince ; nullelik (Married) — 21) nuUga; ovelik 
(Married); Widow uilihak — 25) Niece usroa — 26) illabett, 
tunka. 



S.29. SOCIOLOGY AND RELIGION. 93 

Asiatic. 

2) ataka, atoka — 3) anak — 11 and 12) najahak, niyik 
13 and 14) aneehlnchtik, yoope{?) — 16) rinaka — 17) pannika 
20) oovinga, nvika — 21) alikha; Widow uilhatschu. 



Section 29. SOCIOLOGY AND RELMON. (1-13.) 

GrEEENLAND. 

1) Family inoqutigU; Kindred persons erqardlertt; Housefeliows 
igdloqatigtt: Place felloMs nunaqatigtt; Companions associated per- 
sons ilagtt — 2) Head of familly or housefeliows Uoq; master 
ndlagaq: Servant kivfaq — 3) Property pigissaq; joint possession 
2}eqatigigdlutik pigissait; Rich pigigsoq; Poor pttsoq — 4) Dis- 
tributing to them pajtigdlugit ; Omitting in distributing minipd; 
sliare of captnre ningeq — 5) Soul tarne\ Body time; CiraTe iliveq 

— 6) Invisible Ruler (wsf.) inua; Guardian Spirit tornaq — 7) 
Witehraft ilislneq, kugsungneq — 8) Conjurer angdkoq: conjuring, 
exorcicing tornineq — 9) Prayer serrarieq; Invocation qernaineq; 
Amulet drmmq ; Fasting and abstinence agdlerneq; Sacrifices ait- 
suineq, mingiderterineq — 10) Providing piniarneq; Training up. 
educating (providers) perorsaineq^ sungiusaineq — 11) Assembly 
for festival meals qagssimiuartut ; Dancing tivaneq; Singing ivnger- 
poq, ivngerut, piseq; Playing at ball arssartut, arssaq ; Wrestling 
match agsorfineq — 12) Assembly for settling controversies and 
blaming wickedness and crimes sokidassut \ Singing against each 
other iversiity iverpd — 1 3) Revenge (especially blood — ) aMniarneq. 

Labradoe. 

1) Kindred ilia, illaglt; H. f. iglomiokattiglt; PI. f. minakatti- 
glt — 2) Itok ; chief angajokdk — 3) Pr. pigijak — 4) Distributing 
aituineq — 5) tame, time, illuvek — 6) torngak — 7) elisenek 

— 8) angekoky torngevok — 9) Amulet arngoak — 11) S.ingerpok; 
Dr. killaut', B. aksak — 12) S. against e. o. kullumerpuk. 

Centeal Eegions. 

5) tame; eletvah (grave) — 8) „Act of medicine man" 
sukkiu — 11) Song imnyaktoke, ingerit ; Dr. keiliaowtik ; dance 
siduitok; ball aksak — 12) kullnmerput. 

Mackenzie Eivee. 

1) F. kritomarSt; H. f. iglumokat; ,,Proche parent" ilarkro- 
nerk — 2) ,,Ghef" kratSrtik, tunek, nalegak; S. kivgark — 3) R. 
tchualuktuark ; P. tchualmtuark — 5) Soul inulik, tamw, aneniek 



94 S.SO. SUPPLEMENT. 

(, .esprit") — 6) Demon tornrark, kriiiwak; tchiutiUk — 7) kutch- 
ortork, nalutchertortoark — 8) angrekok; ,,Magie*' krilayok — 9) 
Iiiv. kr engineer artoark; Amulet krilakron — 11) Ass. katimayut^ 
numnayut; Song piijiek, atortoark, imyernerktoark ; Drum krilawn; 
Dance tivcerar tchimayoark. 

Extreme American Western (Alaska). 

Northern. 1) F. ilagit — 2) Chief oomelik, umialik — 3) 
Voov mattaktok, apaii^); Kvih amileraktut {„maiYif') — 6) ,, Demon" 
tiiunga, toonrok; Ghoast ekcheroa, toonooriok — 8) ,, Medicine man" 
anutkoot, anuksa, puningiind (M. woman) — 9) ,, Talisman" ongmah 

— 11) Football okarok; Drum kilyown, soivyok. 

Southern. 1) F. illarpit; Relatives illabcett {?) — 5) Dead 
body iluvtm — 6) „God" agajou{?)', „Devil" idk (possibly the 
„Yelk" of the Thlinkit Indians) — 8) Shaman katlalik, tungalik 

— 9) ,,Medicin" schugtiim — 11) Singing atucMuk , Dancing 
tchlielluk. 

Asiatic. 

2) Chief upalikatscha (?), Servant lihak — 5) Soul aniohak 

— 6) ,,God" ahhatt{?) — 11) Song lalugera; Dancing kankaro, 
putura, Drum sowwooguk; Wrestling tooawaik. 

Section 30. SUPPLEMENT. 

I. CERTAIN CLASSES OF WORDS. In Vol. I it is tried to explain 
how, strictly spoken, the language may be said to consist only of 
nouns and verbs. As the only exceptions may be considered the 
interjections, some words classed as ^,, particular nouns", and the 
„particles", the latter apparently rudimentary nouns or verbs, which 
have lost their flexion. How the other classes of words from our 
European languages are represented in Greenlandic, will be found 
occasionally indicated in the present vocabulary, thus especially: the 
articles as rendered by flexion, the adjectives by nouns and verbs; 
the latter most strictly in the shape of the ,, nominal participle", 
pronouns almost only by flexional endings. The adverbs, preposit- 
ions and conjunctions may in some cases be translated by the said 
particles ; but they are by far more generally comprised in the flex- 
ion of nouns and verbs and in the formation of these words out 
of their elements, the stemwords and affixes. 

As a supplement, the rendering of the following words in 
Greenlandic may stiH be added: 

PRONOUNS. 

The POSSESSIVE Pr. , by flexion or transposition (see S. 1 and 
Vol.1). The RELATIVE Pr., by the affixes toq or ssoq (nominal part.), 



S.SO. SUPPLEMENT. 95 

for active, and taq, gaq, ssaq for passive verbs, and as for the 
rest merely by juxtaposition, f. e. The man who departed yesterday 
inuk igpagssaq autcllartoq. The man who was seen y. in. igp. 
takussaq, the latter generally wsf. , L a. takussarput (our seen) 
whom we saw. The REcn^RocAL Pr. are rendered, as regards ex- 
clusively transitive verbs, by using them without suffix or object 
(see Vol. 1 p. 59). As for the rest they are translated by ingme, 
ingminik and nangmineq (see S. 2,1). interrogative Pr., who kina, 
what suna. 

ADVERBS. 

If not in the shape of affixes, they are generally rendered by 
the Modalis mik, f. e. in the first place sujugdlermik, the next time 
kingugdlermik. Than, in the comparative sense, by the Ablative 
mit, f. e. greater than a reindeer tugtumit angineriivoq. Like , by 
Apposition tut, f. e. speaks like a native inugtut oqalugpoq. How 
qanoq. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Not only, by Afx. indungitsoq. Whether (asking), by Afx. sora- 
liigo (meaning) , f. e. I asked him whether he would start aperdru 
mitdldsasoralugo (meaning that he w. s.). Since, by conjunctive in 
connexion with kingorna (afterwards) , f. e. Since we started we 
have taken no rest aiUdlaravta kingorna uningilagut. 

Both — and, by repeating the Particle lo, f. e. arnatdlo angutitdlo, 
both women and men. Or, by the appended Part, luntt. That, by 
flexion and affixes, f. e. He said that the kayacker had not yet 
arrived qajaq sule tikingitsoq oqautigd (the k. , him who st. n. h. 
arr. he spoke about); he pelted it with stones that it might break 
ujarqanik milorpd aserorquvdliigo {quvd causes or wishes, it). If, 
by, the subjunctive mood. Therefore taimd-imat (as it was so). 

PREPOSITIONS. 

The Casus locales or Appositions are used figuratively almost 
just as the corresponding prepositions in other languages. Besides 
them and the ,, words of place'' (see Vol. I p. 52) also several 
affixes are used, f. e. lik with (having) ; ilaq, qdngitsoq (having none) 
without. 

II. THE ANGAKOK LANCiVACiE. In Vol. I occasionally some 
words are inserted from the idiom used by the conjurers in pract- 
ising the invocation of their guardian spirits and other ceremonies. 
To the ancient lists of words from this language in Greenland, by 
P. Egede and Fabricius, the only sources we hitherto have possessed, 
we are now able to add a similar one , procured by Dr. F. Boas 
from Baffin's-land. A comparison of these lists with the ordinary 
language offers several interesting points, especially so far as the 
said magicians, besides exchanging the signification of existing words, 



96 S.30. SUPPLEMENT. 

have maintained others, which now are gone into obHvion or only 
used in traditional tales or recognised in the dialects of foreign 
Eskimo tribes. 



ANGAKOK -WORDS FROM GREENLAND 

BY P. Egede and Fabricius 

(ancient orthography). 

Ian (liomo) taursak. 

Woman kdpalik. 

Young man niviarsiaraq (in the ordinary language signifying 

„young girl"). 
Girl nukakpiak (ord. 1. „young man"). 
Child koeitsiak. 

Mother pdk\ my 1. poga (ord. 1. ,,my sack"). 
Father negovia (ord. 1. „his origin"). 
Head kdujak. 

Eye Ukkuncet^ dual. tekkuncpMk (ord. 1. ,, eye-ball"). 
Ear sudlortdk (suvdloq^ ord. 1., a ,,fistular hollow"). 
Spit ajarak. 

Feet tungmatit {tungmarpd, ord. 1. ,, treads upon it"). 
Eats aipakpok {aipavoq, ord. 1., ,,is raw, not boiled"). 
Food aipatf aipatiksak. 
Headache kdgardlukpok. 

Sea animals mingneriak, pi. -rissat (,, gifts of the sea"). 
Dog punguak. 

Reindeer komaruak {kum.ak, ord. 1., ,,a parasite, a louse"). 
Plants root tarsoarmio (ord. 1., ,,in habitant of the great 

darkness"). 
North tdk, tarrup Umgd (ord. 1. , .darkness, direction of darkness"). 
South kaumatib tungd. 
Air nyovik. 

Wind suvdludrnek (ord. 1., ,, puffing away"). 
Earth tar soak (ord. 1. „great darkness"). 
Mountains ingirksoit (ord. 1., ,, large lofty points"). 
Stone mangersoak (ord. 1., , .great hardness"). 
Water akitsok (ord. 1., ,,a soft matter"). 
Fiord ahloriak (ord. 1., ,, somewhat to stride across"). 
Ice nillakorsoak. 
Snow annigovirksoak. 
House ; tent innerdlak, innet^ak (ord. 1. ,,new^" (?) or ,, small 

dwelling"). 
Kayak aksak. 
Uqiiak ingerluk. 

Pot outsersut {utsivoq, ord. 1., ,,is cooking"). 
Rope ningorak. 



S.SO. SUPPLEMENT. 97 



Drum iajdk; beats the dr. iajdrpok. 

He is Angakok kannhnavok. 

The A. summons the spirit sarkmnersdrpok 

^^%MTrS' '^'"'^ ^''**"*"' *^' ''^''''^' ''^' '^^'"'"''"'^ •'"^^^- 
The A. repairs a soul tarnilerpok. 

Dead kardlomHtsok (ord. 1, „having lost the power of speech") 
Infected by the dead pyorpok, pijodrpok. 

ANGAKOK -WORDS FROM BAFFIN'S LAND 

BY Dr. F. Boas. 

Head qangirtjiiaq. 
Hand issaratinit. 
Knee audlitaik. 
Heart qauktitang. 
Lung aniirtirhing. 
Liver qairaq. 
Kidney taming. 
Intestines siarvaq. 
Bone auviraq. 
Skin oqometa. 
Food ai/9«^. 
Seal skin iqetaq. 
Whale taitlamigdjiiaq. 
White whale 2^^iwkdjuaq, 
Phoca groenlandica a^ail. 

— foetida angmiaitiak. 

— barbata maqdlaq. 
Walrus tiktlarlik. 
Reindeer qilileiliqdjuaq. 
Bear oqtsoredliq. 

Fox pissuqang. 

Wolf singaqte. 

Dog pungmi. 

Bird qangirtang. 

Salmon miugeriaq. 

Sun qaumativtm. 

Moon qatimavut. 

House nuhiq. 

Traces (dog's harness) qelalutik. 

Blanket udlijuviaq. 

Pot utirisiit. 



XI. 2. 



98 



Index 



The numbers indicate the Sections (General 1—16, Special 17—30) 
and Subdivisions (respectively 1—9 and I— X) of the Vocabulary, They 
are not to be confounded with the numbers of each word separately, 
given in the Special Part. In order to ascertam the designation of an 
object in different dialects, the Section and subdivision has to be found 
out in the Index, and the division for Greenland of the same Section, as 
a standard, will show, where the rest has to be sought for. 



Accompaniment 10. 1. 
Affections 16. 1—5. 
Affections in general 16. 1. 
Affirmation 1. 3. 
Aim 14. 2. 
Air 27. III. 

Angakok-language 30. II. 
Animals 24. I-V. 
Animals, various words relating 

to - 24. V. 
Appertaining 2. 1. 
Arms 18. IV. 
Arranging 4. 2. 
Arrive 10. 5. 
Articles 3. 5. 
Assistance 14. 4. 
Attraction 16. 2. 



Bad 14. 3. 
Begin 4. 4. 

Being 1. 1. 
Believing 12. 3. 
Birds 24. III. 



Boat, open 21. I. 

Body 18. I-X. 

Body, interior parts 18. VI. 

Body, various words relating to 

18. X. 
Bold 16. 2. 
Bottom 9. 5. 
Broad 9. 3. 



Capture of Seals and Whales 

21. V. 
Causation 8. 1—6. 
Cause 8. 1. 
Change 7. 1—6. 
Change, in general 7. 1. 
Cease, to 7. 3. 
Chase, Land- 21. IV. 
(Cliattels 20). 
Colours 27. V. 

Communication of Ideas 13. 1—2. 
Communicating Ideas, Means of - 

13. 1. 
Concealing 13. 1. 



99 



Condition, State 
Counting 5. 4. 



1. 6. 



Death 1. 5. 

Degree 3. 1. 

Demonstrating 12. 3. 

Destroy 8. 6. 

Difficulty U. 3. 

Direction 9. 1. 

Direction of Motion 10. 3. 

Disgusting 16. 3. 

Disperse 4. 3. 

Distance 9. 2. 

Dividing 2. 2. 

Division 3. 5. 

DiTision of Time 23. 

Doing 1. 2. 

Dress and Ornaments 19. I— V. 

Dress, nether 19. II. 

Dress upper 19. I. 

Dress, various words relating to 

19. V. 

Dwellings with chattels and tools 

20. I-V. 



Early 6. 7. 
Effect 8. 2. 
Emphatic 3. 2. 
End 4. 4. 
Enter 10. 5. 
Equal 2. 3. 
Error 12. 1. 
Evidence 12. 3. 
Existence 1. 1—6. 
Existing 1. 1. 
Expectation 12. 4. 
Exterior 9. 6. 



Fear 16. 3. 
Few 5. 3. 



Firmament, Air and Physical Act 

ions 27. I-VI. 
Fish and lower Animals 24. IV. 
Fishing 21. IV. 
Follow 10. 4. 
Food (human) 16. VIII. 
Form 9. 7. 
Frequently 6, 5. 
Fresh Water 26. III. 
Furniture 20. IV.. 
Future 6. 4 and 7. 6. 



Going 10 and 18. X. 
Good 14 and 16. 
Grief 16. 3. 



Happening 6. 9. 
Head 18. I. 

Heavenly bodies 27. II. 
Height 9. 5. 
House 20. I. 
(Hunting 21). 



Ice 26. IV. 

(Ideas 13). 

Idle 14. 5. 

Imagination 12. 4. 

Indiridiial Voluntary Powers 14. 

1—6. 
Inquiry 12. 2. 
Intellect 12. 1. 
Intelligence 13. 1. 
Interior 9. 6. 
Intersocial Voluntary Powers 15. 

1—2. 
Intersocial Relations in general 
15. 1. 



Kayak 21. II. 
Kayak Gear 19. III. 



100 



Kinship 28. 
Knowledge 12. II. 



Land 26. I. 

Land and Sea^ Lifeless Matter 

26. I-V. 
Language 13. 2. 
Large 3. 2 and 9. 3. 
Late 6. 8. 
Legs 18. V. 
Life 1. 4 and 11. 2. 
Light 27. V and 11. 1. 
Long 4. 3. 
Long time 6. 5. 



Madness 12. 1. 

Magnitude 3. 1. 

Mammiferous Animals 24. I— II. 

Many 5. 2. 

Matter 11. 1—3 (and 26). 

Matter in general 11. 1. 

Means 14. 4. 

Memory 12. 4. 

Mineral Matter 26. 5. 

Moral Affections 16. 5. 

Motion 10. 1—5. 

Motion in general 10. 1. 

Motive 14. 2. 



Narrow 9. 4. 
Nature 1. 6. 
Necessity 14. 1. 
Neck 18. n. 
Negation 1. 3. 
Never 6. 6. 
New 6. 7. 
Number 5. 1—4. 
Numerals 22. 



Observation 12. 2. 
Old 6. 8. 



Opportunity 6. 9. 
Oppose 8. 6. 
Opposite 2. 4. 
Opposition 14. 4. 
Order 4. 1—4. 
Organism 11. 2. 
Ornaments 19. IV. 



Part 2. 1 and 3. 5. 

Past 6. 3. 

Peculiar 4. 1. 

Persist 7. 3. 

Person 17. 

(Physical Actions 27). 

Place 9. 1. 

Plants 25. 

Pleasure 16. 2. 

Points of the compass 27. I. 

Possessive Relations 15. 2. 

Power 8. 3. 

Powerless 8. 4. 

Present 6. 3. 

Proceed 10. 4. 

Pronouns 17. 

Propel 10. 2. 



Quantity 3. 1—6. 
Question 13. 2. 
Quick 10 and 6. 



Rare 6. 6. 
Reality 1. 4. 
Reason 12. 1. 
Reasoning 12. 3. 
Relation 2. 1—7. 
Relation in general 2. 1. 
(Religion 29). 
Religious Affections 16. 5. 
Remain 7. 2. 
Restore 7. 4. 
Results 14. 6. 
Return 10, 5. 



101 



(Sea 26). 

Sea 26. 2. 

Seals 24. 1. 

Self 2. 1. 

Sensation 11. 3 and 18. IX. 

Separate 2. 2. 

Severity 8. 3. 

Sewing 20. III. 

Sexual organs 18. VII. 

Short 9. 4. 

Short time 6. 6. 

Similarity 2. 5. 

Simple 5. 1. 

Single 3. 6. 

Skin dressing 20. I. 

Sky 27. I. 

Sledge 21. III. 

Slow 6. 8. 

Small 9. 4. 

Smallness 3. 3. 

Smell 27. VI. 

Snow 27. 3. 

Sociology and Religion 29. 1—2. 

Somid 27. VI. 

Space 9. 1 — 7. 

State 1. 6. 

Stop 7. 4 and 10. 1. 

Strange 2. 6. 

Storage 20. II. 

Strike 10. 2. 

Subsequent 6. 4. 

Supplement 30. 

Sympathetic Affections 16. 4. 



Taste 27. VI. 
Temperature 27. IV. 
Tent 20. II. 



Thing 1. 2. 
Time 6. 1—9. 
Time in general 6. 1. 
(Time, division of - 23. 
Tired 14. 5. 
Tools, various 20. V. 
Top 9. .5. 

Travelling, Hunting and rishine 
21. 1-V. ^ 

Trunk (body) 18. III. 



Upper 9. 1. 
Usual 4. 1. 



Vanishing 1. 5. 

Variation 7. 5. 

Velocity 10, 1. 

Visibleness 1. 4. 

(Voluntary Powers 14 and 15). 



Whales 24. I. 
When 6. II. 
While 6. 2. 
Wholeness 3. 4. 
Will, free - 14. 1. 
Withdraw 10. 4. 
Work 8. 5. 
Working 14. 5. 



Yes 1. 3. 
Young 6. 7. 



102 



A SPECIMEN OF THE NABRATIVE STYLE. 

FIRST PART OF A WIDELY KNOWN TRADITIONAL TALE, 

PENNED BY A NATIVE OF GREENLAND. 

(1) Oqalugtuaq Qagssagssuk. nup (2) kangiane (3) gorqume 
The Tale: Kagsagsuk. , East of Nuk at Korok 

(4) uMveqartut (5) sikutarcmt (6) imaerutdlugo 

those who wmtered usually were icebound, making it devoid of open 

(7) igdlume igdloqatigit (8) ilait atautsimik 

sea. In a house the housefellows some of them -having one 
(9) ernigdlit, arnd {\0) ndparame toquvoq ; ama kingorna angutd 
son^z;., his mother as she fell sick died: also afterwards his father' 
(11) toqugivoq sule erningnat (12) mikisunguaq (13) igdloqatdta 
died still their little son a baby their housefellow 

(14) nagdliginermit (15) ernersim'tdrd (16) perorsarumavdlugo 

out of mercy made him his fosterson intending to bring him 

(17) ajimgitsuinarnik (18) atissaqartitdlagnlo nerissaqartipd 

up^ only good clothes making him have and food making him have, 

(19) asanermitdlo angutisidta (20) qiarqungitdluinardlugo 
and out of love his fosterfather letting him feel no cold at all 
sordlo nangmineq /qitornane\ Msa ukiut mardluk qdngiuput stile 
just as his own child. At length two winters^ had passed, still 
(21) agdlimingitsoq Visa angutisidta {^^) asavdluarungnailerpd 

he not growing a bit larger, at last his fosterfather began ceasing 
agdlineq (23) ajormat ildne qajartor- 

really to love him, as he was not good for] growing. Once kayak- 
dhme tikikame nuliaminut ningagsideriarame 

ing , as he came home , upon his wife as he began being harsh, 
oqarpoq {'2i) : unakasik agdlineq C^b) ajnkasigpoq ^ ww« (26) agtamiit^ 
he said : that nasty one to grow he is unable -- he , on the dust 
igeqiuk! (27) 7iiiliata nukigalugo igikiitMngild. 

hillj throw him ! His wife pitying him would not throw him out. 



103 

uviata ^ tigugamiuk anlkamiuk ^ 

Her husband | as he seized him as he brought him out , on tlie 
agtamiit igiph. (28) igdloqataisa . taimailnilisagdt 

dust-hill ) he threw him. His housefellows would begin the same 

ernersiartardngamiko agdlineq 

with him , whenever they made him their fosterson , whenever-he 
'[^^ ajordngat agtamtit igitardt. - '' ^-^ 

u^ was unable to^^pow, on the dust -hill they would throw him. 
ktsa ilane igingmdssuk (29) arnaquagssdrsiiil2J 

at length once as they had thrown him, a very old woman jyho 
igalerme (30) \igdlugdliip (3 1 ) nakigilerdlugo erqtijm 

(^i^ had her house-^ in the doorway room , taking pity on him, brought 
nangniinerrniniit . qdgssagssuk tdssanllerame iniwdlualeqaoq 

himi inside to her own. Kagsagsuk as he began staying here/ /got 
inardngame (32) arnarsiarssuarme i_ ^ 

. an excellent living: when he laid dow^n his fostermothers her breasts 
(33) iviangerssue qipiliutdlugit. (34) angutit piniartut 

them he had for his blanket. The men who where hunters, 
angugdngamik qdgssagssuk qaerqiissardt neriartorquvdlngo 

when they caught seals, Kagsagsuk they would invite' that he might eat. 

qdgssagssuk iserdngat katangmit nulnartoq 

Kagsagsuk when he came in, from the inner entranc9 only emerging 
d -j- mako angutit katmgmit^ qaqikumavdhigol avdldkut jnnago 
lo!/ these men^/t^WisEing to nft'hTmJfrom the entrance otherwise they 
qingdinai§igiit\qaqitardt " "^ (35) mrivdlune [arqala- 
did not; but! by his nostrils they would lift him; when in eating he 
^^vatdlardngat kigutaiarardt. qdgssagssuk 

was too greedy 1 they pulled out (some of) his teeth. Kagsagsuk, ,( 

anigdngame ■\ merdlertoqatine (36) nauligaqatigilerarai 
when he came out,' his fellow children he had for his playfellows 

qissumininguit naiiUgaralugit 

w^ith bird-spear, having small pieces of wood for their spears 

merdleftoqataisa ornigkdngamiko \ ^. nftii^igai navdlo- 

his fellow children [when they came to him] fthey^'woum fcreak-his 

rarait. ' qdgssagssuk ildine (37) kameqaranilumt aner- 

.-«pear to pieces. K. sometimes when^ even without boots he stayed 

ssuardngat itaisa apumut ajagtardlugo atissai tamaisa 

outside, the others in the snow pushing him, his clothes all with 

ap^'imik I kivfiararait ilaisa Mndgut quigdt Kjcisidne 

snow they stuffed , some of them upon his face made water but 

ipivdluinalerdngat j sorderiitardt 

when he began to be totally stifled they woul^ leave him. K. to 

I 



qdgssagssiik agdlineq ajordlune qingarssue kisimik agdlilerput. Msa- 
grow being unable his nostrils only began to grow larger. But at 
mile ildine pisicgtuapaldrtalerpoq (38) quUnguamingmd. lldine 
lengtli sometimes he lounged about a little above them. Once a 

quUnguamingmd pigame avdlamik (39) inugsinane 
little above them when he went meeting with no other people he 
takulerpd imtp (40) ornigkdne ; dsit qimdlerpoq 

saw a man coming towards him. As usually he took to flee, 

{i\) niitautigisangmane aso! saimassumik unerqulerpd; 

because he should mock him. Lo ! in a friendly way he asked him 
tikeriardlugo oqarpoq: (42) ndkinaqigavit ikioru- 

to stop; coming to him he said: as thou art very pitiable, wish- 

mavdlutit ornigpavkit. aqago Iteruvit uvdlunguaq 

ing to help thee I went to thee. To morrow when thou wakest 
(42) pisugtuarniatdlarumdrputit ; pamne takunerpatit 

early, thou must take a walk; up yonder thou mayst see the high 

qdqarssidt akilertgssuit akorndnut perlardlutit ima 
moutains opposite each other, when thou getst between them, thus 
(44) sudrniatdlarumdrputit : pissaup inua qaile! 
thou must call out: Lord of strength may he come forth! 



EXPLANATION, 

showing the Elements, Stemvvords and Aflixes, (see the lists Vol I) of the 
compoiind words, and the Flexion (see Vol. I, grammatical part). 

1) nuk (a point, f. e. of Land; here the name of a settlement 
in Gr.), subjective (or genitive). 

2) kange (a situation more landward or eastward) localis 
wsf. 3. Person (in its -). 

3) qoroq (a narrow cleft, here the name of an inlet) loc, irregular 
declination, instead af qorume. 

4) uktvoq (he winters) -fik-qarpoq-toq, plural 3. P. 
ukiorpoq (it is winter) a peculiar conjunctive form: so often as. 

5) sikiipoq (it is frozen up or imbedded with ice) siku-tarpoq- 
raoq, pi. 3. P. 

6) imaq (open water) -erupd (deprives him or it of, i. e. the 
wtnter or cold had d. it of -) infinitive w^sf. 3. P. (object: the inlet). 

7) igd o-qat-gd {gtgput, as nominal stem: gik, ^\.gU). 

8) ila (part of or belonging to) - wsf. 3. P. („some" means 
here: a married couple). 

9) enieq (son) -Ilk, pi. igdlit (having). 



105 

10) ndparpoq, conjunctive. 

11) toquvoq -givoq (also). 

12) mikivoq (is small) -ssoq -ngiiaq. 

13) igdlo -qat wsf. 3. P. subjective (here supposing: „one of 
them"). 

14) nagdligd (pities him) -neq, ablative. 

1 5) erneq-siaq-tdq-rd. 

16) perorpoq (grows up cleverly fairly) -sarpd (makes him) 
•umavoq (vsrill,) inf. wsf. 3. P. 

1 7) ajorpoq (is bad) -ngiiaq (not) -soq-lnaq, pi. modalis. 

18) ativd takes it on (i. e. his clothing) -ssaq. qarpoq-tipd 
(makes him) - inf. wsf. 3. P. lo and 

1 9) cuigut (man, father) -siaq, wsf. 3. P. subjective. 

20) qtavoq-quvd (allows or orders him) -ngilaq-dluinarpoq inf. 
wsf. 3. P. 

21) agdlivoq (grows larger) -orpoq -mivoq -ngiiaq -soq. 

22) asavoq (loves) -dluarpoq (well) -ungnaerpoq (ceases to) 
-lerpoq, indicative wsf, 3. P. 

23) ajorpoq (is unable to), conjunctive. 

24) una (that one) -kasik (displeasing, contemptible). 

25) ajorpoq -kasigpoq, the verbal form of kasik. 

26) igipd -qaoq (in a high degree or, as here, merely an ad- 
dition without altering the sense of the chief verb), 2. P. optative 
wsf. 3. P. 

27) ndkigd (pities him), inf. wsf. l.P. 

28) taimailiorpd (does so with him) -savoq (will), verbal parti- 
ciple 3. P. pi. wsf. 3. P. sing., (they who . . . him.) 

29) igaleq (a small cooking room), localis. 

30) igdlo -lik subjective. 

31) ndkigd -lerpoq, inf. wsf. 3. P. 

32) arnaq (woman, wsf. mother) -siaq (obtained, acquired) 
-ssuaq, here almost as superfluous addition, wsf. 

33) iviangeq -ssuaq wsf. pi. exceptional form. 

34) pivoq-niarpoq-toq (the common word for seal hunters) pi. 

35) kigut (tooth) -aiarpd (deprives him of) - araoq (uses to) 
indicative pi. 3. P. wsf. sing. 3. P. they . . . him. 

36) nauligarpoq (plays with bird spear) nauligaq-qat-gd-lerpoq- 
araoq , ind. sing. 3. P. wsf. pi. 3. P. he ... them. 

37) kamik (boot) -qarpoq, negative inf. (without having) 
-lunit (even). 

38) qule (the room above or what is above) -nguaq (small) 



106 



wsf. terminalis (to their ,, little above" , viz. a little above their 
dwellings). 

39) muk — sivoq (met with), negative inf. 

40) ornigpd (comes towards him); verbal participle (e-form):, 
him who came towards him, who saw. 

41) mitagpd (mocks him) •nt-c/d-savoq , conjunctive wsf. (as 
he . . . him). 

42) naM-narpoq (is to be -) -qaoq conjmictive. 

43) 2^^8^f9poq — tumyoq — niarpoq — dlarpoq (these af- 
fixes but very little influence to sense) — mndrpoq, indicative 2. P. 

44) suaorpoq — niarpoq — dlarpoq — nmdrpoq. 



\o: 



Elements 
of the (jreemland tales and traditions. 



Next to the language the folk-lore probably will become the 
most important source of knowledge that may throw light on the 
obscure history of the Eskimo race. Some instruction therefore as 
to making use of them for this purpose, perhaps may be appropriate 
here. It is chiefly through the tales or legends that any sort of 
knowledge, either of religious or what may be considered historical 
nature, is handed down through generations by the Eskimo. For 
this reason it is not to be wondered at, that certain elements, more 
or less repeatedly occurring in the tales and partly applied by the 
story-tellers as interpolations . are frequently met with , and that a 
discrimination of the traditions on the whole as to the importance 
of their contents may be found troublesome. The following selection 
is only made for facilitating the comparison of the Greenland 
traditions with those which still might be obtained from other 
Eskimo countries and the neigbouring nations. Consequently it is 
restricted to what appears to be most popular among the story- 
tellers and characteristic to their sphere of ideas, comprizing partly 
some elements, that are repeated in various tales, partly others 
which are peculiar to some of the most favourite or most widely 
known tales. The numbers subjoined refer to the headings in the 
Enghsh edition of Eskimo Tales and Traditions (1875). 



Strong and mighty men, first rate seal-hunters. No equals in 
kayaking far out to sea in all weathers. Thickness of their kayak 
paddles. Dexterity and strength bearing against the influence of 
old age. 

Their great fame, strangers coming from afar to offer them a 
match. Some of them well disposed and modest, others wicked 
persons and manslayers. The kayakers of the surrounding stations 
meeting to deliberate on the punishment of the latter (2:2. 36. 59, 
60, 66, 67, 70, 85, 98). 



108 



,A number «f men" living together, especially meaning five 
brothers, represent envy, haughtiness and brutality, the middlemost 
being the worst of them. They are uncharitable against helpless 
individuals, and, if they have a sister, prone to be inimical against 
her suitors or their brother in law (1, 24, 62, 63, 81, 85, 95). 

A miserable old woman taking care of a poor orphan boy 
whom nobody would help any more (1, 47). 

The foster parents did not love the children; they were scolded 
and left to seek their food on the beach at low water (29). 

A little boy with his stepmother among a number of men . . . 
they suspected and killed her as a witch (62). 

A woman with her fosterdaughter was deserted and left help- 
less by the people of the place (81). 

The poor orphan boy Kagsagsuk in order to aequire strength 
kicked and struck the stones and the very rocks on his way, rolling 
himself on the ground, to make the stones fly about him. He flung 
a large piece of timber on his shoulders and secretly carried it up 
behind the house where he buried it deep in the ground (1). 

The fosterfather encouraged the tw^o orphan boys never to 
forget the enemies of their parents .... exercising themselves in 
order to strengthen their limbs . . . dexterity and perseverance . . . 
killing foxes and ptarmigans by throwing large stones at them . . . 
fixing a javelin deep in the ground and pulling it out again with 
two fingers . . . (the bladders of their javelins they made out of entire 
blown up sealskins (10). 

The widows having lost their supporters suffered much from 
want . . . their neighbours, though prosperous people, did not think 
of assisting them; they therefore admonished their sons to be wise 
and kind to other children lest they should be deprived the scanty 
help, they still might hope to obtain . . . but at the same time trying 
to acquire dexterity and strength (59). 

A father said that, since they had many enemies, his son ought 
not to grow up a good for nothing, but attain strength and vigour, 
lifting and flinging stones, pulling up bushes by the root . . . When 
full grown he could catch a ,, beaked whale" with his ordinary 
kayak-tools. A girdle of whalebone he burst open by pressing 
back his breath (60, 67, 68). 

His fosterfather, the strong man, brought him up and trained 
him according to the rules of strength; early in the morning he 
lifted him off his couch by the hairs only (62). 

The boy grew up under the constant admonitions of his grand- 
father, to revenge his father, and never was he seen smiling (64). 

Ungilagtake was a very giant who lived in the south; nobody 
was ever known to escape him, but even the most valiant put 
to death by him (10). 

Igimarasugsuk , a cannibal, who killed and ate his wives after 



109 



having fattened them, but was stabbed with a lance by the last of 
them (3). 

Sometimes the best friends on apparently trifling occasions 
grow enemies (6, 59). 

Two cousins were very fond of one another, they assisted 
each other early and late and amused themselves in exercising and 
exhibiting their mutual strength (4). 

Two friends loved each other very dearly. One of them used 
to say: „When I have not seen my friend for a whole day, I am 
ready to die with longing (6). 

A famous angakok married a girl who had a number of 
brothers ; after this he grew neglectful, living on what they captured 
. . . but in the midst of winter , when the provisions were brought 
to an end, the brothers in law had given up hunting and all were 
on the point of starvation , then at length he went hunting seals, 
saved the lives of all the inmates of the house, and was now highly 
thought of by them (16). 

Of the two friends who loved each other so dearly the one 
occasionally did not visit the other at the usual time, for which 
reason the other made him go mad by aid of witchcraft (6). 

A woman making people enemies by calumniating them to 
each other (18). 

The women had only put by a piece of the back (meat) in- 
stead of briskets for his mothers brother . . . offended by this want 
of consideration he resolved ... (13). 

As his fosterfather continually had excited him on account of 
his parents having been killed by their enemies ... he put big 
stones in his sling and destroyed three boat's crews and all (25). 

Having killed the murderers of his son, they retired to their 
hiding place under their boat which they had covered ^vith grass 
and shrubs (34). 

All of a sudden he saw his companion whom he believed his 
dearest friend, with raised arm aiming his harpoon at him (59). 

The sons took vengeance on the disturbers of their mother's 
grave (61). 

As he had a quarrel with his wife, her brothers all went up 
and seized him, and at last struck him with a knife (85). 

He sheltered himself behind his protector, the arrows flying 
about him right and left (4, 14). 

The visitors had to try wrestling with the giant, who killed 
the first of them and called out for a rope to hoist the dead man 
up to the roof of the house ... a sound of knives was then heard 
(cannibals?) (16). 

A strong man used to invite strangers to a wrestling and 
fighting match on a plain above the houses covered with many 
projecting stones, which he had chosen on purpose, in order to 
finish off his adversaries by dashing them against the stones (10, i26). 



no 



As he was obliged to follow in a boat the pursuers of his 
brother who fled in kayak, he feigned to be pulling exceedingly 
hard, and in so doing, purposely broke every oar he got in hand, 
in order to delay the pursuit (48). 

The hospitable man at whose house the two travellers had 
put up, said to them, that if they wanted to have wives, they might 
take his daughters; in this way they got married the same day 
(10, 07). 

A man stayed out on a journey so long a time, that his own 
people had given him up, when he returned; meanwhile an old 
bachelor had undertaken to provide for his family, he now feared 
that the man should feel jealous, but on the contrary he earned 
thanks as well as a reward for this service (71). 

The father gave his son several instructions as a new begin- 
ning hunter, admonishing him not to go to the north, because of 
a monstrous reptile. But nevertheless he went to meet with it, 
vanquished and killed it (5). 

The brothers started on an expedition to find and visit their 
sister who lived among cannibals ... in proceeding along the coast 
in search of an inhabited place they kept a look out for ravens, 
where they might be sean soaring ... in this way they discovered 
a number of houses . . . after having secured their sledges and 
waited the fall of night, they went cautiously up to one large house, 
mounted the roof and looked down the venthole . . . recognised 
their sister as being quite white on one side of the head . . . they 
made a sign by spitting down . . . their brother in law then in- 
stantly emerged from the entrance, carrying his bow ready beat in 
his hand ... as they had told him about their relation to his wife, 
he instantly invited them to go in, and ordered a meal to be pre- 
pared for them . . . they learned that all the people of the place 
were cannibals and had made a cannibal out of their sister too 
. . . however their brother in law was very careful for them , and 
in order to save them from being pursued when leaving his house 
the next morning, he cut asunder the lashings of all the sledges 
belonging to his neighbours (9). 

Two brothers in roaming about came to people who suffered 
under the sway of a ,, strong, man''. They vanquished and killed 
him, whereupon his inferiors greatly rejoiced and would make the 
strangers henceforth their masters . . . They also defied and killed 
a giant in another place, who used to stab any stranger, that came 
to him, in fighting matches with lances (10). 

When strangers enter into a house it is customary, in the first 
place to offer them a meal, and secondly invite them to a wrest- 
ling match (23, 25, 26, 36). 

Several men lived together at the mouth of a fjord. All those 
who went kayaking up the fjord disappeared one after another (48). 

A boy fled to the inland and grew „kivigtok'*, because he 



Ill 



was not able to forget his mothers harsh words, though they were 
adressed to his father only (53). 

The man who killed his mother in revenge upon her having 
made him blind became a kivigtok and made his appearance ages 
thereafter, telling that he lived with his sister far off in the interior, 
that she could not move any more, both of them being immensely 
old, and that their housemates were terrible beings with heads like 
seals (2). 

A madman was seen walking on the surface of the water — 
A girl came as kivigtok from the east across the country to the 
westcoast and married the one of two lonely brothers. — A man 
out of despair for having caused his cousin's death went off, inten- 
ding to kill all what he met with. — Child monsters who are able 
to devoure their parents and all their housemates. — A man was 
revived by magic lays sung over his grave, but afterwards retired 
to the underworld people. — An angakok conjuring an „angiak'' 
(child's ghost). — A kivigtok woman with an angiak being sum- 
moned by hearing her favourite song returned to her relatives, but 
afterwards became mother to bear-cubs. — The ,,anginiartok" was 
enabled from his childhood by magic to revive in case of perishing 
in kayak (6, 26, 27, 39, 40, 51, 53, 70, 77, 78, 79). 

Fools or naturals considered as clairvoyants (4, 28). 

A young man in order to take vengeance on a wicked person 
who had mocked him as a poor boy, learned the art of acquiring 
the shape of a walrus whenever he wanted (7). 

The mother of the young kayaker taught him how to avoid 
his enemies: ,,If ever they venture to prosecute thee, take some 
water out of the sea with thy left hand and moisten thy lips 
with it'' (32). 

A bird came flying out of a cave ; one of them quickly got an 
arrow from an orphan boy, who had just been practising bow- 
shooting, and hit the bird with it; and when they came to look 
more closely at it, the bird turned out to be one of the men (their 
enemies, a wizard). They cut him to pieces and at once took out 
his entrails. Part of them were sunk in the depths of the ocean, 
and the rest brought to a place, on which the sun never shone (48). 

In order to find a companion to help him he travelled about 
examining the inside fur of the mans' boots till he found one 
without lice (54). 

The grandmother gave the child as amulet a whetstone from 
the inuarutligaks (dwarfs) saying: „Ghild, be as hard (invulnerable) 
as this stone" (61). 

The approaching enemies were observed in the reflection from 
the water (by means of clairvoyance) (10). 

A man, whose wife had been barren, at last got a son by 
applying himself for help to an old magician (13). 

A man, who ha'd a barren wife, threw a sea-worm upon her, 



112 

according to the advice of an old wise man. She then gave birtli 
to a son endov^^ed with supernatural power as a kayaker (87). 
Revenge by means of a „tupilak'' (24). 

The skull of a seal used for making a boat invisible to people 
on the shore (4). 

The exercises, that had to be gone through by the future 
angakok. The father teaching his son the last of them, which 
was that of opening a grave and putting his hands into the flesh 
of the deceased body. When thereafter a spark of light from the 
setting sun was falling down, he ought to flee at once (45). 

The angakok taken by the bear and the walrus ; his descending 
to the „ai'iiakuagsak" for the purpose of persuading her to send 
the sea-animals to the surface of the ocean (56). 

A man having an amulet hidden in the edging of his jacket, 
able to be sent out and kill whomsoever of his enemies (68). 

The old men otTended by the inhospitableness they had been 
met with, bewitched the house in order to produce discord among 
its inmates (22). 

Minghng reindeer hairs in the drinking water, in order to make 
people be transformed into reindeer (17). 

Filling the boots of a person with reptiles, spiders and vermin 
for some purpose connected with sorcery or witchcraft (43). 

In preparing the skin she practised witchcraft on it and spoke 
thus: ,,when he (her son, with whom she had got angry) cuts thee 
into thongs, when he cuts thee asunder, thou shalt snap and smite 
his face (blind him) (2). 

The widow, in order to be revenged, cut a piece of the loin, 
and after having pronounced a spell upon it carried it to them by 
way of a present, intending to work their destruction (32). 

His friend informed him (concerning witchcraft), that he ought 
to dry a morsel of a dead mans flesh and put it beneath the point 
of the hunter's harpoon, who then from a clever hunter might turn 
into a very poor one. The bladder he was hkewnse to dry, and if 
ever he happened to get an enemy, he was to blow it up, and, 
while the other was asleep, press the air out upon him (57). 

The angakok caught the witch (i. e. her soul or ghost invisible 
to others) by thrusting the harpoon at her and begging the others 
to hold the harpoon string fast (69). 

A man with his family travelled very far southward. They 
wintered with some people, who turned out to have been bears 
in the shape of men . . . their custom, that visitors should lick out 
the oil of the lamps on entering (19). 

The „aniarok'' (wolf) as the „Lord of strength" made the 
poor orphan boy become strong and vigorous by exercises, twisting 
his tail round his body and throwing him down (1). 

The brothers, in order to fetch back their sister from her 



118 



husband, the whale, built a boat of immense swiftness, so as to be 
a match to a flying bird, even able to outdo a gull (5). 

A girl taken by an eagle, who carried her as his bride to the 
top of a steep cliff (8). 

A man mated himself with a seafowl. He saw many women 
bathing in a lake and secured the clothes of one among them, 
whereupon the others changed into birds and flew away (12). 

A girl married an ,,atliarusek" (underworld people). His boat 
was able to dive and continue its course beneath the waves of the 
sea {'20). 

The lost daughter found by her brothers as married with a 
monstrous reptile (21). 

The inlanders in dancing transformed themselves into animals (28). 

The sun and moon originally sister and brother (35). 

Training wild animals for pulling a sledge (37). 

Kayakers in captivity with the underworld-people (46, 65). 

A w^oman mated with a dog. Origin of the Inlanders and the 
White men (148). 

Origin of seals and whales from the daughter of a mighty 
angakok, who threw her in the sea, in order to save himself (see 
Vol.1, p. 17). 

An angakok-flight in order to restore the health to a child by 
fetching back its spirit, which was taken by the inlanders (44). 

Giviok crossed the sea in his kayak for Akilinek; he passed 
the ,, sea-lice*' , which devoured his throwing-stick , and a narrow 
passage between two icebergs, opening and closing. Game to canni- 
bals (15). 

An angakok and his brothers in law drifting upon ice to Aki- 
linek and afterwards back again. Taking the shape of a bear and 
assisted by amulets (16, 23). 

A man coming from Akilinek In a sledge pulled by reindeers (37). 

Angakok-flight to Akilinek; an iceberg turned over and crushed 
a ,,kagse*' (pubhc building) with its assembly (45). 

Travellers to Akilinek give their boat a double coating (82). 

A boy fled to Akilinek in a kayak. The giant-people and the 
monstrous gulls (84). 

Expedition to the inlanders for the purpose af procuring metal 
knives. — A man descended both from the coast people and the 
inlanders, his great deeds. — Onslaught on the coast people. — 
See also Vol.1, p. 16-21. 



XI. 2. 



114 



Notes, 



1. EDITORIAL REMARKS. 

Since the former Volume was written, the author's sources have 
been augmented by the following publications: 
G. Holm: Den ostgronlandske Expedition 1883—85 (Second Part, 

comprising Ethnology). 
F. Boas: The Central Eskimo. Washington 1889. 
H. Abbes: Die Eskimos des Gumberlandgolfs. 

Roger Wells , Ensign , and John W. Kelly : English - Eskimo and 
Eskimo-Enghsh Vocabularies, preceded by Ethnographical Me- 
moranda. Washington 1890. 
Fr. Erdmann: Eskimoisches Worterbuch. Zweiter Theil. Budissin 

1866, 
besides occasional Notes and Articles in other works or Journals. 
Moreover I have been favoured, as usual, with information by letters, 
especially from Holm, Boas and Jacobsen. Their valuable com- 
munications are embodied as far as possible in my Vocabulary, but 
owing to the narrow limits after which it is planned, they could 
not be made use of in this way as amply as they deserved. 

The same necessity of economising in regard to space has 
also required the linguistical explanations to be made more com- 
pendious than the author had intended. In turning up in the Voca- 
bulary and for this purpose applying to the Index, it is supposed 
that the lists of affixes and stemwords in Vol. I are at hand. As 
for the rest .the necessary directions are given in p. 34 and 98. It 
might only be repeated here, that in order to simplify the text the 
flexional forms of the Eskimo word and its English translation are 
not always congruent. As to verbs f. i. the forms : he does, to do 
and doing, may be found in the Vocabulary rendered by the same 
standard form: he does (ending: j^o'g , voq, aoq, or including an 
object: pd, vd, d) , although the infinitive may as well be repres- 
ented in Eskimo (lime, higo, and the affix neq). In the same way 
the English adjective (f. i. large) may be found rendered by a 



115 



verbal form (it is large) while the adequate translation into Eskimo 
would require the application of the nominal participle (ending: 
toq, ssoq: „ which is large"). As for the rest it hardly need be 
remembered, that in most of the Eskimo vocabularies existing the 
flexional forms are but indistinctly indicated, in many cases hardly 
recognisable. 

In the above quoted communication, Kelly announces voca- 
bularies to be in process of preparation by L. M. Turner, which 
will contain over 7000 words of the Koksoagmyut ; 3000 words of the 
Unalit of Norton Sound; 250 words of the Malimyut; besides the Un- 
alaska Alyut Dictionary of 1900 words. Furthermore J. G. Pilling in 
his Bibliography of the Eskimo Language states, that J. Murdoch, now 
librarian of the Smithsonian Institution, has compiled a vocabulary, for- 
ming 132 pp. fol. of manuscript, containing 11 00 words collected by the 
Point Barrow Expedition. The words represent at least 590 radicals, 
are followed by a list of 90 affixes and arranged after the patern of 
Kleinschmidt's Gr0nlandske Ordbog. — I very much regret, not to 
have been able to await the publication of these, undoubtedly important 
contributions from the Extreme West. 



2. ETHNOGIRAPHY. 

J. W. Kelly has given an interesting description of the Eskimo 
tribes inhabiting the extreme Northwest corner of America, the 
shores of Bering-strait and its vicinity as well as the Interior. The 
following extract of it may give an idea of their mutual rivalry and 
the movings and migrations caused by their intertribal hostilities up 
to the present day. 

As to the Asiatic Eskimos, he premises, that the Deerman 
people are gradually crowding them out and almost absorbing them 
by assimilation. They have lived in underground houses, but now 
they live in huts covered with walrus hide. 

The Kavea country on the American side of the Strait is now 
almost depopulated, owing to the scarcity of game. The remnants 
of the Kavea tribe are mostly scattered over the whole of Arctic 
Alaska. Wherever found, they are impudent, energetic and perse- 
vering. What few remain at home rival the Kinegans of Gape 
Prince of Whales in lawlessness. Nearly every year there is a 
report of from one to three being killed. 

The Tigaremutes at Point Hope soon became the centre of 
power. About 100 years ago, as far as can be determined, their 
village on P.Hope had a population of 2000, and 6 council houses (!?). 
At that time the growing Nooatok tribe (Inland Eskimo) began 
pressing them. About the year 1800 a great fight took place 
between them. The Tigaras were overthrown and compelled to 
withdraw from a part of the country. Since that time the popu- 

8* 



116 



lation of the tribe has steadily dedined. They have often attacked 
parties of whalemen who have been on shore after water and drift- 
wood. A chief named Owtonowrok , aspiring to become absolute 
master of his people, passed from tyranny to assasination. For the 
most trivial causes he would sally forth on a shot-gun expedition. 
He was shot dead Febr. 14, 1889, by two brothers whom he had 
exiled, but who returned for the purpose of killing him. During 
his life he killed 5 men and one woman. 

The present century has witnessed the rise and fall of the 
Kinegans of Gape Pr. of Wales. A band, led on by their Unut- 
koots (Angakut) overran the country south and east of the Selawik 
River, sailed across Kotzebue Sound to Hotham and Gape Krusen- 
stern, where they founded colonies, plundering and scattering other 
tribes. Soon after 1867 they captured and plundered a St. Fran- 
cisco vessel. Encouraged by this success they seized and boarded 
a Hawaian brig, commanded by George Gihy. They seized and 
killed one man. But Gilly and the mate took up position at the 
poop and opened fire on the natives who swarmed on deck. 15 
were killed, the number of the drowned is not known. This inci- 
dent broke the power of the Kinegans. 

Bands of Outlaws, called Kevalinyes, have their home between 
the Tigaras and the Nooatoks , from whom the larger number of 
them have their origin. Within the last 3 years they have extended 
their ground to the shore of the Arctic, appropriating the northern 
portion of the Tigara hunting ground. But it must be remembered 
that in no place are hostilities continuous between the tribes, there 
are always seasons of civility, during which they visit each other 
for the purpose of trade. 

The Nooatoks, originally called Napakatamutes (timber people) 
began their existence in the timbered country at the head waters 
of the Nooatok River. They have moved to the east and west 
occupying as much of the territory as suits their purpose. Around 
Point Barrow they have obtained footing, and they promise to over- 
run the whole country. 

There are 3 types observable among the Arctic Eskimo of 
Alaska. First the tall cadaverous natives on Kotzebue Sound, who 
live on fish , ptarmigans and marmots , and always have a hungry 
look; there is a tendency among then to migrate northward. Then 
there is the tall, strongly knit type of the Nooatoks, a gigantic race, 
of a splendid physique ; they live among the mountains of the interior 
and their supply of food is the reindeer, mountain sheep, ptarmigans 
and fish. The third type is the short, stumpy one, probably that 
of the old Eskimo before the admixture with southern tribes; they 
are now found on the Arctic coast. Whale, seal, and deer meat 
are their food staples. 



n 



3. TRADITIONS. 

As an introduction the Ethnographical Memoranda just mentioned 
contain two traditional tales, of which the first one shows a striking 
resemblance to some Indian tales. In the beginning, it says, people 
had heads like ravens, and all the world was wrapped in gloom, 
with no change of day and night. At that time there lived a 
powerful chieftain on the top of the highest peak. Suspended on 
the roof of his hut were two balls , which were considered very 
precious and carefully guarded. One day the guards being asleep, 
some children knocked down the balls with a stick. They rolld 
out through the door of the hut and down the mountain side. 
People rushed after them and a struggle ensued for their possession, 
which ended in breaking them. Light sprang from one and dark- 
ness from the other. This was the beginning of day and night. — 
In the other tale we certainly recognise the Greenland myth of sun 
and moon, but not so completely rendered as in one from Point 
Barrow. 

The rather puzzling similarity mentioned in Vol. I p. 20 , of a 
Samojedic and an Eskimo tradition certainly as yet seems too iso- 
lated to be of any w^eight in questions about a common origin, but 
still it reminds of laying more stress on the study of the relation 
between the arctic folk-lore of the old and that of the new world 
The Greenland version of the said tale (Poul Egede: Efterretninger, 
p. 1 45) says : A reindeerhunter observing a crowd of women bathing 
in a lake , stole the clothes of one among them and got her for 
his wife, while the others by means of their clothing were trans- 
formed into geese. His wife got a son, but later on both of them 
escaped likewise in the shape of birds. He then set out on a 
journey in search of them and met with an old man , who was 
hewing a piece of timber. He wiped up between his legs with 
the chips, and threw them in the river where they turned to salmons. 
The old man said: From what side doest thou come? if from 
behind, thou mayst live, but if from before, thou must die. He 
answered: From behind, I am looking for my wife and son. The 
old man then made a salmon out of a large chip and bade him 
sit down upon it, but with the eyes closed. The fish then oonveyed 
him to his wife and son. 

The Central Eskimo, according to Dr. Boas relate the story 
thus: A man wiio wished to marry, went out in search of a wife. 
He found a lake, in which many geese were swimming which could 
be transformed into women by putting on their boots, which were 
left on shore. The man here got a wife by stealing boots. The 
rest its much like the Greenland tale. Only the salmonmaker allows 
him to approach from before and not from behind; he polishes tlie 
chips in order to make them slippery, and such like. 

Finally we have the Samojede story (M. A. Gastrin : Ethnolo- 



118 

giska Forelasningar, Helsingfors 1857, p. 182). A man set out on 
a journey and met with an old woman, who was felhng birch-trees. 
He said: Thou hewest round it, that is not the way of felhng a 
tree, from two sides thou must hew. He helped her and followed 
her to her tent. She bade him hide himself. Then seven girls 
arrived, had a talk with the crone and withdrew. She said to 
him: In the darkest forest yonder is a lake, there the seven girls 
will go swimming, take the clothes belonging to one of them. So 
he did, and the girls certainly also are spoken of as having their 
home in the air or in heaven, but not in the shape of birds, and 
the rest is quite different from the Eskimo tradition. 

The folk-lore of Eastgreenland is mentioned in Vol.1 p. 18. 
In the Journal of the Danish Geographical Society Gapt. Holm has 
set forth several grounds for not separating the Eskimo from the 
Indians as a true American race. For this purpose he explains 
some traditions and traditional customs existing among the East 
Greenlanders and indicating a relationship between this most isolated 
Eskimo tribe and even the southern North American Indians. The 
chief points of his arguments are as follows: 1) The Eskimo tale 
of Asiak; a heavenly ruler, to whom the Angakut apply for getting 
rain , apparently a reminescense from an earlier southern home. 
!2) The souls of the deceased as ball players. 3) The custom of 
burying in water. 4) Gertain hunting and fishing implements. 

I his work: „Tlie Gentral Eskimo" Dr. Boas has given 17 
traditional tales besides some more fragmentary ones and a similar 
number of songs , a true rarity among the Eskimo spiritual pro- 
ductions we posses. In a comparison with the traditions of the 
other Eskimo tribes about half of the tales are determined as ident- 
ical with tales from Greenland , while elements of the same kind 
are recognised in others. 

As belonging to the Greenland stock but little has to be added 
to the collection of 1875, namely: the origin of the Arnakuagsak, 
of the hooded seal and of the loom (by G. Lytzen in „Fra alle 
Lande" 1874), and as an element in one of the tales: the origin 
of salmons mentioned above. 



4. LINGUISTICAL. 

Stemwords from the Gentral Eskumo - Dialect. In the list of 
stem words Vol. I, those marked with C will be found rather scanty, 
the reason is in fact, that, what existed in the shape of printed 
vocabularies was comparatively poor. But just now I was gratified 
at receiving from Dr. Boas a list of the C- stemwords which he 
considers appropriate to be added to the vocabulary, and I am 
glad thus to be enabled to insert it here: 

agdlerpoq — agssoq — ailaq — dka I — alarpd — aligoq 



119 

— alivoq — alugpd — angmdq — angmavoq — anguarpoq — 
anguvd — aorpoq — apumaq — drdluk — asaloq — assagpd — 
ausiaq — am I — igipa — igdlaoq — igdloq — igsmk — ike 

— ikeq — imuk — inivd — ipe — iperaq — isoq — iteq — 
itsaq — ituipoq — itumaq — ivisdq — ivssuvoq — ivavoq 

— qalugiaq — qdrpd — qdteq — qingoq — qitornaq — quagssuk 

— qungiaq — kcdak — kingeq — kinguk — maqigpoq — mamik 

— mano — masak — masik — mingoq — mitilik — miigtuk — 
naqigpoq — napo — nigsik — ntorpoq — nutdq — pagpd — 
pdgpd — pamioq — pangneq — pero — pingo — pitsiulik — 
pukeq — sdko — samik — serdlaq — suk — suluitoq — taquaq 

— tamaq — tdterdq — tauto — tigdlaq — tigpik — torssoq — 
tuapaq — tujorpd — tunivd — tuputa — uerneq — tigpik — 
uiarpd — uipoq. 

Arrangement of the Sections. Comparing the Special Part of 
the Vocabulary with Powell's schedules, some re-arrangement will 
be found to have taken place. Being too poorly represented in the 
dialects, some sections are embodied in others. For the same reason 
„ Measure" and „ Standard of value" are wholly omitted, and from 
other points of view there was no room for „ Geographical names" 
and „New words". 

As to the special groups , among others it was of particular 
interest to learn, what systems and words relating to „ Division of 
THE year" and „ Quarters of the globe", were applied by the East- 
Grkenl ANDERS, who havc hved almost quite isolated from European 
influence and about whose state of culture we have recently ob- 
tained the most authentic and detailed information. The year they 
divide according to the changes of the moon, and the months are 
designated by their number, counting from the first change after 
the first apearance of the star asU (Atair = a aquilae) in the 
morning twilight. Formerly they began numbering from the first 
change after the shortest day, and this still being maintained in 
some places, it sometimes gives rise to misunderstanding. The 
natives are very skilled in calculating in advance the arrival of the 
shortest day by observing the position of the sun and the said star. 
There was a dispute between one of them and the foreigners, in 
which the native proved to be right. As for the rest, it is well 
known that the Eskimo tribes, moreover divide the year into seasons, 
named after the different occupations and especially the different 
kinds of game to be had, and consequently varying according to the 
localities. 

To indicate the quarters of the globe the Westgreenlanders 
use at once two systems. Besides the ordinary one they derive 
another from the view of the open sea, distinguishing what is to 
the left, qava, and to the right, ava. On the westcoast these terms 
came to signify at the same time, respectively south and north, and 
qavdngarnisaq a man from the south, avdngarnisaq from the north. 



120 



Another very common word for: south (on the Westcoast) kiijat, 
hkewise is referred to: left, and in a similar way some words 
signifying, on one side: upward and landward, and on the other: 
downward and seaward, have passed to represent the ideas of east 
and west too, although perhaps not so commonly as those used for 
south and north, and still more owing to European influence. This 
same duplicity, so natural to people who have their dwellings on 
the very beach, may also in other Eskimo countries have caused 
some of the confusion now met with in the foreign travellers' ac- 
counts. The whole store of words here in question, to which also 
might be added the terms for winds in regard to direction, will be 
found in Sections 9. 1 and 27. I, III, and in Vol.1 p. 52 and the 
list of stemwords. Certainly among them there must be some which 
have direct reference to the ideas of the points of compass, but 
in order to know the true original signification of the above named 
principal radicals , I asked information of Gapt. Holm , whose inter- 
preter also happened to be present now\. and I was told that in 
the eastern dialect qavdngarnisaq was used for denoting a person 
who lives in the north, and avdngarnisaq one wiio lives in the 
south, the latter comprising the inhabitants of the Westcoast, and 
that the East - Greenlanders have no other \vords for north- and 
southlanders. These designations, just the opposite to those of the 
western dialect, evidently confirm, that originally they only related 
to the direction of the sea, and that probably the application to 
north and south is owing merely to European influence. 

It is mentioned above (p. 17 — 18) how the surprising difference 
of many East-Greenland words from the normal dialect originates 
from the custom of not mentioning the names of persons recently 
DECEASED, and for this reason altering, at least provisionally even 
some of the most common words of the familiar language. It was 
suggested that this fact perhaps explains some abnormities in the 
vocabularies of the Extreme West, in which it happens, in several 
cases, that the true Greenland word has been discovered as being 
used contemporaneously with the different counterpart of it, appar- 
ently in the same tribal district. — After these lines had been printed, 
the writer received the vocabulary of Wells and Kelly, in which is 
said concerning the same dialects: ,.The language is difficult to 
understand on account of there being S9 many synonymous terms. 
As many as six different names have been found for the same 
thing in a single tribe. What may bo the traditional name of an 
object in one locality may be the common appellation in another." 



121 

5. ADDITIONAL CORRECTIONS TO VOL. I. 

Page 14, line 19 read: thickness and — 41, 19: an f — 

45, 15: babbling — 51, 25 kivfdt — 53, 2: sujua - 59, 21: 
few — 62, 15: tusarmniuk — 64, 1: stems — 67, 32: kigntikaq 

— 70, 26: (I, II) goes — 71, 35: something) — 72, 16: angi- 
ssusia — 72, 23: got (tdrpoq) — 82, 26: saddleback - 85, 33: 
aqijioq — 88, 8: weeps — 92, 25: saddleback — 97, 39: \Va 

— 103, 23: mountains — 103, 16: igumigpd — 104, 18: ipoq 

— 106, 9: ochre — 107, 5: handle \khnagtut] — 108, 13: qa- 
nigpoq — 109, 19: ravenous — 109, 26: deep — 109, 27: LCM. 

— 110, 35: weeps — 110, 36: qiavoq — 116, 4: qigtarpoq — 
114, 24: merry — 119, 22: muscle — 121, 16: L M (kraimitiga) 
see: q — 122, 14 kivdlorpd — 122, 31: kisipai — 123, 7: 
kiguvoq — 123,23: success — 125,28: outer — 137, 3: laughing 

— 137, 18: myiigitt — 138, 10: is — 140, 3: as — 142, 
36: !M to — 144, 20: scratches — 152, 16: tagpipoq is blind — 
154, 34: tikipoq — 157, 32: M. Fuligula — 159, 27: piece of 
blubber used as bait. 

Insert: Page 68: -niersorpoq for a long time; — mineq a 
piece, a bit of; — mio inhabitant of. — 82: ahha L, see ava (dpa?). 



6. ADDITIONS TO VOL. II. 

Section 1. G. No ndme (stw. naiik). Cie. Man tdq, see 
Vol.1 p. 152. 

Sect. 2. G. ilai, also: „the (his) others" (belonging to him), 
i. e. if more than one. 

Sect. 3. G. Does thus with them all tamaqerpai, divides it 
into two pieces avigpd , crush to pieces aserorpd , cuts asunder 
pilagpd, breaks napivd, cleaves sipivd. Afx. qut, ko, leq, dlarpoq, 
ngajak , tigaoq (see Vol. I). L. Afx. (?) more, too much luarpoq, 
hmdlarpoq; small arssuk; somewhat, a little giarpoq rngoarpoq, 
nearly (also apparently without any signification) lankpoq. 

Sect. 4. G. Begins it autdlarnerpd. 

Sect. 5. G. Swarm (of marine animals) amisut. L. Afx. (?) 
only tovoq, tdvoq; many, almost many gasait, gasakssait. 

Sect. 6. (j. Beginning and End, see Sect. 4. L. Afx. (?) quite 
new gdtsiaq. 

Sect. 7, G. ceases soraerpoq. Afx. gimgnaerpoq. L. Afx. (?) 
continues valliavoq. 

Sect. 9. Place pivfik; front side sak; hind part aqo; is open 
angtnat^oq; cover mato; screen talo (see also Sect. 3). 



22 



Sect. 10. G. Glides sisuvoq; tumbles down ordluvoq, upipoq; 
approaches patdligpd. 

Sect. 11. G. Frail qajangnartoq ; elastic ajoringujuitsoq, 
eqivoq; water imeq. 

Sect. 1 2. G. Teaches , informs ajoqersorpd. Afx. probably 
gungnarpoq. 

Sect. 13. G. He says, or they say, appended particle goq. 

Sect. 14. G. Distress perdluk; is busy ulapipoq. 

Sect. 15. G Fights with him pdvd; watches the house paivoq 
takes care of it pdrd\ store, property jjequt; is lost tdmarpoq; is 
without shelter tujormivoq. 

Sect. 16. G. is angry ningagpoq; is despondent ugguarpoq; 
is desirous pileritsagpoq -, is joyful tipditsugpoq\ wishes to be as 
happy as he usord; a malefactor pinerdlugtoq ; finds it ridiculous 
tivsigd, Afx. awkwardly, nasty kasik. 

As to words designating the ideas of Good and Evil, in dis- 
criminating their physical and their moral signification, some con- 
fusion was caused in G. by the contact with Europeans and the 
Christian instruction. The stem word ajorpoq , signifying ^bad" in 
the sense of inability and sickness, was adopted for „sin''. Per- 
haps the most appropriate radical word for application within the 
sphere of thought here in question is: sila, which signifies reason, 
but comprises willing and doing as well as knowing what is rational; 
silatuvoq is wise and noble-minded, the reverse of sildip)oq. In 
the other dialects apparently, some peculiar stemwords are rendering 
a similar service. In L., M. and W. ^nako^ seems to be used for 
morally good, but it remains uncertain to which of the similar 
words in G. it is related, nako physical and spiritual strength, or 
ndkora loves him. 

Sect. 18. G. swallows it ivd; frozen meat quaq\ feels it as 
an inconvenience igpigd-, is healthy 2^erqigpoq; is suffocated iplvoq. 

Sect. 21. G. Weapon in general, and a small harpoon part- 
icularly used for seal catching on the ice: sako; the rather strange 
apellation in Wn. of the line attached to a horpoon for stabbing 
sabromia, reminds faintly of sdkomio, „ something attached to sako."" 

Sect. 26. Wn. The sea oonane of course is the ^unane'^ in 
L., „yonder or seaward among the islands"; but wiaq certainly 
also must be known, as it is found in Ws. and A. 

Sect. 27. G. Sheltered place orqoq; voice, melody erinaq. 



123 
ABBREVIATIONS 

(see p. 34). 

Siibj. -= subjective (genitive), loc. = localis, mod. =- modalis, 
sing. ^ singular, pi. = plural, trans. = transitive, halftr. = half- 
transitive, ind. =- indicative, inf. = infinitive, nom. part. = nominal 
participle; 1., 2., 3. P. ^^ first, second, third person. 











ERRATA. 










Preface : 


for Thsacrus 


read : 


Thksauris 


'ag 


3 2, 


line 


11 


— subsistance 


— 


subsistence 




4-, 


— 


12 


— occasinally 


-- 


occasionally 


— 


6, 


— 


23 


— native 


— 


natives 


— 


19, 


— 


4 


— new comers 


— 


newcomers 


— 


22, 


— 


34 


— suifficiently 


— • 


sufficiently 


— 


26, 


— 


10 


— the 


— 


they 


— 


27, 


— 


20 


— im 


— 


in 


— 


— 


— 


22 


— tho 


— 


the 


_ 


— 


— 


23 


— occupies 


— 


occupies 


— 


— 


— 


27 


— ire 


— 


ice 


— 


30, 


— 


1 


— iee 


— 


ice 


— 


31, 


— 


18 


— majorety 


— 


majority 


— 


— 


— 


21 


— expecially 


— 


especially 


— 


— 


— 


24 


— occusionally 


— 


occasionally 


— 


40, 


— 


1 


— kigiitikdq 


— 


kigiitikdq 


— 


41, 


— 


24 


~ kegak 


— 


kagak 


— 


-— 


— 


31 


— neq 


— 


naq 


— 


46, 


— 


12 


— tsiumuk (sifjo ?) — 


tsiamitktoark 


— 




— 


17 


— tsiumuk 


— 


nuta 


— 


50, 


— 


30 


— anyissusia 


— 


angissusia 


— 


52, 


— 


25 


— torpa 


— 


tdrpd 


— 


54, 


— 


2 


— kimrpok 


— 


kinerpoq 


— 


— 


— 


7 


— ane 


— 


and 





55, 





15 


— contradicts 


— 


contradicts 





57, 





34 


— rediculous 


— 


ridiculous 


— 


59, 


— 


6 


— tirred 


— 


tired 


— 


— 


— 


7 


— atep 


— 


step 


— 


— 


— 


34 


— qivfaq 


— 


kivfaq 


— 


60, 


— 


8 


- sells 


— 


(sells) 


— 




— 


18 


— . . qavdlugo 


— 


. . qtii'dlugo 


— 


61, 


— 


28 


— katugpoq 


— 


katagpoq 



124 



Page 



i 62, 
63, 


line 


18: 

8 


for invoking read: 
— idluinek — 


invoking 
idluinek 


65, 

72, 


— 


20 
30 
13 


— . . yn'iktoark 

— egebrow 

— scaffold 


— 


. . yuiktoark 
eyebrow 
21) scaffold 




— 


15 
16 


- 21) 

— 22) skin 


— 


22) 
skin 


73, 


— 


18 


— krarak 


— 


kranak 


80, 
88, 
91, 


— 


21 

24 
1 


— merpoq 

— ardUirdoq 

— ackiat 


— 


merqoq 
ardldrpoq f 
ackiat, 


92, 

97, 


— 


36 
25 


— augi 

— atak 


I 


angi 
ataq 


102, 
104, 


— 


35 

17 

18 


— miugeriaq 

— . . dlagulo 

— moutains 


— 


mingeriaq 
. . dluyulo 
mountains. 


110, 


— 


33 

36 
21 


— raoq 

— igdo 

— sean 


— 


araoq 

igdlo 

seen 


117, 


- 


37 


— oonveyed 


— 


conveyed. 



Meddelelser om Gronlaiid, 



udi^ivnc nl' 



Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geographiske 
Underse^elser i Gr^nland. 



Tolvte Heffe. 



Kjebenhavn. 

I Commission hos G. A. Reitzol 

Bianco LuilOS Kl'1. Hof-IJoffivkkori (F nro<.f.r\ 



leddelelser om Grr0iilan(i. 



Meddelelser om Grenland 



udgivne af 



Commissionen for Ledelsen af de geologiske og geograpfiiske 
Unders-egelser i Gr^nland. 



Tolvte Hefte. 



Med Resume des Communications sur le Gronland. 



Kjebenhavn. 

I Commission hos C. A. Reitzel. 

Bianco Lunos Kgl. Hof-Rogtrykkeri (F. Dreyer). 

1888. 



Om Grrenlands Yegetation, 



af 



Eug. Warming. 



1886—87. 



1 8de Haefte af «MeddeleIser om Grenland') har jeg meddelt en 
«Beretning om den botaniske Expedition med oFylla» 1884». I 
den gives tillige naermere Opiysninger om den efterfelgende 
Afhandlings Tilbiivelse og Forhold til Rejseberetningen, hvorom 
jeg derfor iienviser til denne. 

I det efterfelgende forsoger jeg at fremstilie min Opfatlelse 
af Grenlands Plantevaext paa Grundlag af mine egne Erfaringer 
og hvad jeg ellers har kiinnet faa at vide. Det omfatter fel- 
gende Afsnit: 

I. Birkeregionen i Graniand. 
II. Pilekrattene og Urtemarken. 
in. Lyngheden. 
IV. Fjaeldmarken. 

V. Hedeplanternes Tiipasning til Terke. 
VI. De ferske Vande. Kjsrene. 
VII. Havstrands-Vegetationen. 
VIII. Den godede Jords Plantevaext. 
IX. Arts-Statistik m. m. 
X. Vegetationens llistorie. 

I. Birkeregionen i G-renland. 

Af Skandinaviens forskjellige Regioner mangle Naaletrae- 
Regionerne (Wahlenbergs Regio sylvatica^ eller Granregionen, og 
Regio suhaylvatica eller Fyrreregionen) aldeles i Granland, skjent 
dette Land naar ned til en Breddegrad, der svarer til det 

r 



mellemste Skandinaviens. Kun Birkeregionen {Regio sub- 
alpma) og Alperegionen (Begio alpina) mod dennes Under- 
afdelinger (Vidiernes, Alpeurternes og maaske Lavernes Region) 
findes i Grenland; den allerstorste Del af Grenland mod- 
svarer Alperegionen, og blot i det allersydligste findes 
Birkeregionen repraesenteret i det indre af de dybe Fjorde. 

Da jeg ikke selv bar set denne Del af Grenland, maa jeg 
holde mig til de danske Naturforskers trykte og mundllige Med- 
delelser, samt Vahls.og Wormskjolds Dagbeger; men disss 
give ikke de Details, sonj ere fornedne til eu Skildring af Birke- 
regionens enkelte Vegetationsformer, der vel for evrigt temmelig 
neje stemme med Alperegionens, naar selve Birkeskovene og 
Grgesmarkerne undtages; jeg kan derfor heller intet naermere 
meddele om Bunden i Birkeskovene, om de Urter, som saerlig 
slutte sig til dem , om deres Liken- og Mosflora m. m. Det 
folgende i dette Kapitel er derfor blot nogle Meddelelser om 
Birkevegelalionens Forekomst og om de Urter, der ere ejen- 
dommelige for Sydgrenland i det hele. ' 

I sit klassiske Arbejde over wGrenland, geografisk og sta- 
tistisk bcskrevet" ^), skriver Rink om Julianehaabs Distrikt: 
(•Yderkysterne ligne det nordligste Grenland, fordi Drivisen ved 
sin kolde Taage standser Sneens Optening og kuer Vegeta- 
tionen, men ej langt derfra, i det indre af Fjordene og i de 
snaevre Dale af Fastlandet opnaaer denne den sterste Frodighed 
som Grenlands Klima tilsteder»; «omtrent to Mil indenfor Fjor- 
denes Munding tiltager det grenne i en forbavsende Grad. Her 
seer man endog smilende gronne Klefter eller Dale, fra hvilke 
Vegetationen fortsaetter sig som en jaevn Bedaekning endog over 
1000 Fod hojt .... Den grenne Kolorit hidrorer fra intet 
mindre end Grenlands Skove, som man bar for sig, fornemme- 



Den meat benyltede Literatur Andes anfert ved Slutningen af denne Af- 
haodiing. 



lig Pilebuskene, men tildels ogsaa Birken». Og i -Danish 
Greenland* skriver han: •Hvis vi taenke os vandrende ind i en 
af de sydlige Fjorde, ville vi ferst traeffe en Plantevaext med 
samme Udseende som 0erne og Forbjaergene i det yderste 
Nord; komme vi lidt iaengere ind, til Fjordmundingen, traeffe vi 
Egne, der ere lig de mest frugtbare og beskyttede i Nord; og 
endelig fremstiller Fjordens Bund et Ydre, der er ejendomme- 
ligt for Syden». 

AUerede Hans Egede skrev 1741: «Den bedste Skov bar 
jeg fundet imellem 60 og 61 Gr., hvor der er Birketraeer 2 k 3 
Favne heje og nogel tykkere end en Arm eller et Been; smaa 
Enebaer-Traeer voxer her ogsaa i Maengde, hvorpaa Baerrene ere 
saa store som graa ^rter». Og J. Vahl siger i sine efterladte 
iManuskripter: «Da den (o: Birken) baade bar vaeret brugt meget 
til Braendsel og endnu bruges dertii, er den i flere Fjorde meget 
udhugget; dog finder man hist og her adskillige Steder, hvor 
den danner smaa Skove, men da Traeerne staa noget langt fra 
hinanden, ere disse ikke meget skyggefulde, ikke heller ere 
Traeerne meget heje og naa som oftest kun en Hojde af 7 Fod 
og en Tykkelse af 3 til hen imod 4 Tommer i Gjennemsnit. 
Ved Roden beje Stammerne sig i Almindelighed mod Jorden 
og stige derpaa op; dog findes ogsaa nogle, hvor Stammen 
stiger lige op, men det er sjaeldnere. Stammerne ere ogsaa 
meget vredne og knudrede». 

Som Kortet viser, findes der mellem 60—62° N. B. en 
iVIaengde fra Syd og Sydvest i Landet langt indskydende Fjorde, 
hovedsagelig folgende, naevnte i Orden fra 0st mod Vest: Ta- 
sermiut, Sermilik, Agdluitsok, Igaliko, Tunugdliarfik , Arsuk- 
Fjord, Narsalik. Det er disse Egne, hvor den beremte «0ster- 
bygd* laa. — Om nogle af disse Fjorde foreligger der speci- 
ellere Meddelelser. Rink meddeler om Tasermiutfjorden : I 
Almindelighed ligge Stammerne paa Jorden, halvt begravede i 
Mos, og fra dem skyde Grene paa 2—3 Tommers Tykkelse 
8—10 Fod i Vejret. De sterste og smukkeste i hele Grenland 



ere saa heje, at en Mand kan stige 5 Fod op og dog endnu 
have Grene 2—4 Fod over sig». Lignende Skildringer giver 
Vahl i sin utrykte Dagbog fra 1828 fra samme Fjord: <*Betula 
alba (o: B. odorata)^) fandtes paa flere Steder, men de fleste 
vare isa?r ved Roden noget krogede, hvorpaa flere haevede sig 
omtrent til 6 Fods Hejde med V2 Fods Tykkelse; dog saa jeg 
ogsaa enkelte, som vare fuldkomment ranke». Et fortrinligt 
Billede af disse Birke bar Kornerup meddelt («Geogr. Tids- 
skrift»), Bd. 4, S. 6), hvor ban ogsaa naermere omtaler Vegeta- 
tionen (se ogsaa «MeddeleIser om Gronlando, Bd. II, S. 12.). 

I A gdluitsokfjorden fandt Vahl 1828 «en Maengde 
BirketrsBer, af hviike nogle vare temmelig heje; dog vare de nu 
meget udhuggede, da der i mange Aar bar vaeret bugget BriEnde 
til BVug ved Lichtenau». Efter Rink naaede de endnu paa 
bans Tid 12 Fods Hejde i Licbtenaufjorden. 

Om Tunugdliarfikfjorden skrev Vahl 1828: «Elven leb 
her gjennem en liden Dal, der var opfyldt med et naesten 
uigjennemtraengeligt Birkekrat, hvoriblandt der fandtes flere store 
Traeer, der fra del Sted, hvor Stammen begyndte at baeve sig i 
Vejret (tbi de vare alle mere eller mindre krogede) vare 6 til 8 
Fod beje og undertiden ved Roden 1 Fod tykkew. Og om den 
samme Fjord lyder Kornerups Vidnesbyrd: «en yppig Plante- 
vaext med naesten uigjennemtraengeligt Birke- og Pilekrato. Tracer 
taler ban ikke om, men hvor meget kan der ikke vaere bugget 
bort og er der sikkert bugget bort mellem 1828 og 1876. 

Paa bgnende Vis lyde ogsaa Beretningerne fra Erik den 
Redes Bostad, Igalikofjorden, og ved. Narsalik faar man 
efter Rink bge saa udmaerket Birkebraende som ved Julianebaab 
(Rink, Grenland, III, S. 332, 355). 

Hvor langt Birkeregionen straekker sig op paa Vestkysten, 
kan jeg ikke sige; men den synes ikke at naa belt op til 



*) 1 alle Bestemmelser holder jeg mig til Langes "Conspectus florae Groen- 
landicae» i Meddelelsernes 3die Bind og Supplementet hertil Hans No- 
menklatur er maaske med et Par Undtagelser overall anvendt. 



7 



Frederikshaab (61° 59' N. B.). Paa Ostkysten synes den ikke at 

Andes. Heller ikke bar jeg bestemte Oplysninger om den Hejde 

over Havet, til bvilken Birkeskoven stiger op, men den er 

aabenbart meget ringe og synes ifelge Data, der findes bos 

Vahl, naeppe at vaere over et Par Hundrede Fod, selv om 

enkelte Individer i forkreblet Form skulde naa langt bojereM- 

Der findes sikkert ikke nu saa tykke Slammer som i aeldre 

Dage, og naeppe naar Birken ber den 'Sterrelse, som Forboldene 

virkelig tillade den. Her, i Egnene for Islaendernes 0sterbygd, 

bar der vist baade paa deres Tid og ikke mindre i det seneste 

Aarbundrede vaeret bugget voldsomt i Skoven, og det gaar 

naturligvis isaer ud over de tykkeste og bejeste Traeer. De 

sterste Dimensioner, jeg finder angivet fra dette Aarbundrede, 

ere: Betula odorata 12—15 Fod, sjaelden 18 Fod bej, og 

6— 8(— 12) Tommer tyk. 

Der ligger for mig en Raekke Stamme-Tvaersnit, sendte til 
Botanisk Museum af Kolonibestyrer C. Lytzen i Juiianebaab; 
de vise felgende Slerrelser*. 

Aarringenes Gjen- 

nemsnitsbredde paa 

sterste Radius. 

0,66 
1,35 
1,60 
1,10 



1,63 

1,48 
1,36 



IVIn 


Aar- 


Sterste 


Maalte, omtr. 


iir. 


ringe. 


Diameter. 


slerste Radius 


1 . 


. 81 


95 Mm. 


54 Mm. 


2 . 


. 66 


190 — 


88 — 


3 . 


. 58 


105 — 


61 — 


4 . 


. 57 


115 — 


63 — 


5 . 


. 56 


105 — 


65 — 


6 . 


. 54 


160 — 


88 - 


7 . 


. 46 


140 - 


68 — 


8 . 


. 36 


100 — 


47 — 


9 . 


. 35 


95 — 


45 — 



10 . . 88 70 — 38 — 6,43 

11 . . 25 95 — 32 — 1,28 

Nr. 1—9 ere fra Tasermiut, 10—11 fra Kirkeruinen ved 
Kakortok. Den tykkeste Aarringbrede er altsaa 1,63 Mm., den 
mindste 0,43; Gjennemsnitstykkelsen 1,2. 



») I det Dordlige Finmarken er det efter N. Lund 3—500 Fod; paa Island 
fandt Grenlund «Biriiekrat. paa Vindbelgr til 1660 Fods Hejde. 



8 



Der er saaledes i Sydgrenland en Vegetation af Traeer, 
som jeg ikke tror, at man vil frakjende Navnet Skov vegetation; 
lad ogsaa vsere, at Staramerne ved Grunden ere nedliggende og 
bugtede, lad Grenene vaere krummede, lad det hele vaere aabent, 
trykket og kuet, det er dog Birkeskoven, saaledes som den 
fremtraeder paa dens Nordgraense i Skandinavien og Lapland, og 
ikke en Bu sk vegetation M. 

De bredbladede Arter af Birke, som her spille en Rolle, 
ere i Felge Langes Conspectus og Tillaegget til dette (Med- 
delelser cm Grenland, Bd. Ill): Betula odorata var. tortuosa og 
Betula intermedia. Derimod er B. alpestris meget sjaelden. 

Ved Siden af Birkene optraede folgende andre Traeer ind- 
blandede mellem dem. 

Kennen (Sorbus americana Willd.). Den « Andes spredt 
mellem Birkene og de sterre Vidiearter, ved Fjaeldene i Fjordene 
ved Julianehaab . . . . ; skal have Nordgraense i Fiskernaessets 
Distrikt» (Vahl). Ligesom den saaledes gaar noget hajere mod 
Nord end de bredbladede Birke, saaledes gaar den aabenbart 
ogsaa hejere op paa Bjaergene (til 800 Fod efter Kornerup). 
Oftest er den blot en 5 Fod hej med 2 Tommer Tvaermaal; 
den holder sig rank, hvorefter den bar faaet sit grenlandske 
Navn «Napartok»). 

Ellen [«Gr0n-Ellen« , Alnus ovata (Schr.) var. repens 
(Wormskj.)]. Ogsaa denne gaar langt uden for Birkeregionen 
(op til 67° N. B.), og paa Bjaergene stiger den op til mindst 
300 Fod. Oftest er den 5—6 Fod hej med 2 Tommer i Tyk- 
kelse, Grenene ere krogede og knudrede, og isaer i Naerheden 
af Jorden bejede ned mod denne, hvorpaa de skyde op i Vejret, 
siger Vahl; den angives at kunne naa 9 Fods Hejde og en 
Arms Tykkelse^). 



*) I Inari Lapmark er den .saedvanlige Hejde af Betula odorata i Birke- 
regionen 2Va— 3V2 Met (9—11') med en Tykkelse af 6—8 Cm. (2V3— 3"); 
i de fleste Fald udgaa 3—6 Stammer fra samme Rod (Kihiman S. 83). 

') Se f. Ex. Crantz •Fortsetzuog der Historic* S. 199. 



9 

En en (Juuiperus communis L. og isaer var. nana) har om- 

trenl samme Udbredning som Ellen, men medens denne nappe 

gaar uden for den frodige Jord og vel altid findes i Krat, findes 

Enen ofte espaiierformig paa tor, solrig Bund. Stammerne naa 

i Birkeregionen i Almindelighed blot 2—3 Tommer, sjaelden 

5-— 6 Tommers Tykkelse (Rink). 

Fra Kolonibestyrer C. Lytzen bar jeg modtaget 10 Stam- 
mer af Ene med felgende Forhold: 

Aar- 
rioge. 

1 . . 380 

2 . . 370 

3 . . 360 

4 . . 290 

5 . . 265 

6 . . 230 

7 . . 210 

8 . . 200 

9 . . 154 
10 . . 150 

Disse Stammer vare altsaa gjennemgaaende meget gamle, 
fra 150—380 Aar, og havde dog en ringe Diameter, knap saa 
stor som Birkenes, hvis h^jeste Alder var «8; Aarringene ere 
derfor meget smalle, paa sine Steder naesten ikke til at taeile, 
selv med Loupe. Stammerne vare tillige meget excentriske, 
bvad der fremgaar af Forholdet mellem Diametren og Badius. 
Dette tyder paa, at de have vaeret mere eller mindre nedh'ggende. 

Pilene {Salix glauca L.) kunne aabenbart optraede i denne 
Region i stor Maengde og med ret betydelig Hojde, og rime- 
ligvis danne de ogsaa Krat, rene eller med indblandet El og 
andre Buske. Om S, Myrsinites ved jeg intet naermere. 

Endelig maa af buskagtige Planter til sidst naevnes den 
kjerttede Dvaergbirk (Betula glandulosa MIchx.), der i Syd- 
grenland indtil omtrent 62° N. B. traeder i Stedet for B. nana^ 
men laengere Nord paa afleses af denne. 

Undersoge vi, bvor Birkene andensteds danne Skov- 
vaextens Polargraense , ville vi blot finde felgende lille 
StrsBkning: Island og Skandioavien med Lapland. Fra 



Sterst 


Maalte, omtr. 


Gjeiinemsnitsbr, 


Diameter. 


sterste Radius. 


af Aarringe. 


? Mm. 


98 \lm. 


0,21 Mm. 


125 — 


97 - 


0,27 — 


145 — 


106 — 


0,29 — 


? - 


60 - 


0,21 — 


90 — 


47 — 


0,18 — 


100 — 


60 — 


0,26 — 


110 - 


82 — 


0,4 - 


90 — 


52 — 


0,26 — 


90 — 


60 — 


0,.38 — 


145 — 


106 — 


0,29 - 



10 

Davisstraedet til del hvide Hav er det Birken og udelukkende 
denne, som er det laengst mod Nord og hejest op paa Bjaergene 
gaaende skovdannende Trae. Gaa vi 0st for det hvide Hav, er 
det ferst Gran (indtil Ural), derefter Laerk gjennem hele Sibirien 
til Behrings-Straedet, og gaa vi over til Amerika, saa er det 
gjennem hele dette Land atter Gran (Hvidgran, Picea alba), om 
end med indblandet Birk {Betula papyracea) som underordnet 
Bestanddel , der danner Skovgraensen. At Skandinaviens og 
Laplands nordligste og hejeste Skovregion er Birkeregionen, er 
vel bekjendt; derimod kan det vaere, at man vil bestride Rig- 
tigheden af at henlaegge Island under Birkeregionens Omraade. 
Island herer imidlertid efter min Mening ubetinget til det sub- 
arktiske Omraade, naturligvis med sine hejere Egne gaaende op 
i Alperegionen. Fra aeldre og fra nyere Tid forehgger der Be- 
retninger om Skovvaexten paa Island, og disse Skove ere Birke- 
skove^). Jeg skal anfere nogle faa af disse Angivelser til Sam- 
menligning med Grenlands Birkeskove. Saaledes skriver Gran- 
lund: «Den smukkeste og bedst vedligeholdte Birkeskov, som 
jeg selv saa, var Fnjoskadals-Skoven i Nord-Island, i hvilken der 
fandtes Traeer paa 12 — 18 Fods Hojde, og efter Thoroddsen 
er den storste Skov i Island, isaer hvad Traeernes Slorrelse an- 
gaar, ubetinget Skoven ved HallormstaSir paa 0stlandet. Birken 
haever sig over det mindre Krat i ranke Stammer til en Hejde 
af 25—30 Fod; en Maengde Stammer have en Fod over Jorden 
et Omfang af 15—16 Tommer, nogle over 20 Tommer, og 
Omfanget af en var 28 Tommer ». Grenlands Traeer naa altsaa 
ringere Hojder end Islands. 

Tager man endvidere Hensyn til, at der aarlig omhugges 



Naermere vil kunne Andes i Olafsen og Poulsens Rejse, S. 90, hos 
J. Anderson (1748, S. 23 i «Nachrichten von Island etc.», hos Thorodd- 
sen (Islands Beskrivelse, oversat af A. Helland, Kristiania 1883; S. 67, 
68); hos Chr. Grenlund (Karakterislik af Plantevsexten paa Island, i 
Naturhistorisk Forenings Festskrift; Kjbhvn. 1884, S. 13— 14), og hos A. 
Feddersen (Geografisk Tidsskrift 9de Bd. 1887). Babington har ogsaa 
samlet nogle Data i sin •Revision of the Flora of Iceland*. 



n 



og braendes, isaer til Kul til Brug for Smedene, en Maengde 
Traeer, og at dette bar gaaet for sig i Aarbundreder, og at, 
hvad Prof. Jobnstrup bar gjort mig opmairksom paa, Hus- 
dyrene odelaegge al Opvaext i slor Maalestok , vil man kunne 
forstaa, at Sagaerne ikke fare med Usandbed, naar de fremstille 
Island som adskillig rigere paa Skov paa Landnamstid end nu. 
Ogsaa Naturen udrydder undertiden sit eget Vaerk; jeg kan soni 
Exempel benvise til Feddersens Skildring af en i Gejsirdalen 
ved en vaeldig Flom i Sand og Grus begravet Skov; et i Botanisk 
Museum vaerende Tvaersnit af en Stamme, der er udgravet af 
Gruset, er aldeles frisk, Tvaersnittet er c. 19 Cmt. og bar 80 Aar- 
ringe, der i IVIiddeital ere 1,7 Mm. tykke paa den sterste Radius 
(0,6 Mm. mere end Greniands). J)et synes i ovrigt at vaere isaer 
paa Nord- og 0stlandet, at Birkeskovene findes, og bele Island 
maa derfor aabenbarl ligge inden for Birkeregionens Omraade. 

Ogsaa Faereerne maa laegges ind under dette, skjent ingen 
Birke nu til Dags voxe der. Sandsynligvis er det ogsaa ber Men- 
nesket, der bar udryddet TraevaBxten (Stammer findes i Moser)^ ). 

Der er saaledes i det store en betydelig Ligbed mellem 
Grenlands Sydkyst fra c. 60 — 62° N. B. og Island, Skandinaviens 
og Laplands nordlige Dele. Det kunde se ud, som om Hooker 
bar Ret, naar ban ("Outlines of tbe distribution of arctic plants*) 
regner Grenland for i plantegeografisk Henseende at bere til 
Europa. Og det er jo ikke blot Birkeskoven, som de naevnte 
Lande bave paa Traevaextens Nordgraense, men med Birkene 
felge overall de s'amme andre Traeer og Busker Ren, El, Ene, 



^) At Traegraensen i Skandinavien og Lapland for evrigl flyttes nedad i vor 
Tid , er iagttaget af mange. I Vest-Finmarken og Nordland saa jeg selv 
mange Birke-Lig oven for den nuvaerende Traegraense. Om noget saa- 
dant ogsaa skulde kunne findes i Syd-Grenland, maa fremtidige Rejsende 
oplyse om. Om Forklaringen af detle Faenomen er man naeppe enig. 
Naermest llggende er vel en Forandring i Klima. I Hjelts og Hulls 
Afhandling om Vegetationen i Kemi Lapmark antages detle, og der hen- 
vises S. 82 til Blytts Tlieori om, at vor Tiri skal vaere fiiUigere paa 
Fugtighed end den naermest forudgaaende. 



12 

Pil; derimod findes i Grenland ikke de i Finmarkens Birke- 
region almindelige to Traeer: Baevreasp (Populus tremula) og 
Haeg (Prvnus Padus). 

Ved naermere Betragtning svinde imidlertid disse Ligheder 
betydelig, thi Arterne ere kun delvist de samme. Allerede her 
viser det sig, at Island og Faereerne i plaotegeografisk Hen- 
seende slutte sig neje til Europa, medens derimod Gronland er 
langt mere forskjelligt. Ganske vist ere de storbladede Birke 
de samme, thi de grenlaridske Birke ere ostlige Typer, der 
ikke findes i Nord Amerika; «Bjaergbirken.) (B. odorata) er paa 
samme Maade skovdannende i Norge, oven for og Nord for 
Naaletraeernes Graense, og B. intermedia er i Norge en «Busk 
paa 5—12' Hojde, hist og her ikke sjaelden paa IVlyrene og 
naesten altid i Seiskab med B. odorata og B. nana i Landets 
subalpine Egne» (Blytt, Norges Flora S. 403), hvorimod det 
maerkelig nok paa Island er B. intermedia^ der bliver et TraB 
og er skovdannende (efter Grenlund, Islands Flora, Kjeben- 
havn, 1881, og Naturh. Foren* Festskrift). Ogsaa den tredje 
grenlandske bredbladede Art, B. alpestris^ er jo baade islandsk 
og skandinavisk. Men derimod er Sydgronlands Dvaergbirk en 
amerikansk Type. Salix glauca og Myrsinites samt Enen {Juni- 
perus) findes baade 0. og V. for Grenland, men Salix groen- 
landica er amerikansk, og Grenlands Ren og Gren-El ere iige- 
ledes amerikanske Typer, forskjellige fra Islands og Skandinaviens 
Ren og Graa-EIM. Saaledes ere af de trae- og sterre buskagtige 
Planter i Sydgrenland 4 Arter amerikanske og 3 Arter euro- 
paeiske, medens Resten (3) er faelles for Amerika og Evropa. 

Allerede paa dette Sted maa jeg pege paa en anden stor 
Ejendommelighed for Grenland i Henseende til denne Busk- 
vegetation, nemlig dets Faltigdom paa sterre Pile. For- 



M Maerkeligt er, at den grenlandsk-amerikanske El ogsaa findes i Alperne 
dannende frisk grenne Krat af Mands Hejde over Traegraensen, i den 
alpine Region, og at den ligesaa Andes gjennem hele Sibirien og i Japan 
iChrist, Schweiz, S. 329). 



13 

uden Dvaergpilene {Saltx herhacea og reticulata) kjendes der 
med Sikkerhed blot 4 Arter, af hvilke alter blot de to, S.glauca 
og groenlandica ^ ere almindelige , saa at de kunne Iraeffes i 
enhver Egn; af de to andre er den ene, S, arctica^ hidtil blot 
med Sikkerhed funden under 76° N. Br. (af Nathorst), og den 
anden, S. Myrsinites L. var. parvifolia And., paa omtrent 10 
Steder mellem 60—69° N. B. Belt anderledes er Forholdet i 
Skandinavien, hvor der findes talrige. Arter i og oven for Birke- 
baeltet [S. Lapponum, S. phylicifolia^ S. arhuscula, S. nigricans^ 
S. lanata, S. glauca, S. Myrsinites , S, ovata, S. hastatOj S, 
caprea, S. cinerea o. fl.) med mange Yarieteter og Mellemformer. 

Fra Island kjendes dog ikke mange flere Arter end fra 
Gr0nland, men af disse er den for Gronland tvivlsomme S. la- 
nata ^almindelig udbredt» , og den i Grenland manglende iS. 
phylicifolia ligesaa; denne sidste er endog Islands hejeste Busk 
eller et lille Trae (efter Gronlund). 

Hvad N. Amerika angaar, er ogsaa dette Land rigt paa 
Pile. De britiske Besiddelser have endog ikke mindre end hen- 
ved 50 Arter, men det er overvejende belt andre Arter end i 
Skandinavien. 

Skulde denne Grenlands maerkelige Faltigdom paa Pile- 
Arter ikke kunne saettes i Forbindelse med, at Pilenes Fre ikke 
have let ved at vandre over sterre Have, skjont indrettede til 
Vindtransport, fordi de ualmindelig hurtig tabe SpireevnenM? 
Dog naermere om Indvandringen af Grenlands Plantevaexl i Slut- 
ningen af Afhandlingen. 

IJrleTegetationeii i Birkeregioiien. Jeg er desvaerre nsBsten 
kun i Stand til at give en Liste over de i Birkeregionen 
forekommende urteagtige Planter, uddraget af Lileraturen, og 



1) Coaz opiyser i Mittheil. d. naturf. Gesellsch. in Bern 1887, at Pilene i 
Schweiz ferst indfinde sig langt senere paa den ved Gletschernes Til- 
bagevandring blottede Bund end de fleste andre Planter; ved Rhone- 
gletscheren f. Ex. fandtes de i Aaret t883 ferst paa det for 7 Aar siden 
(1875—76) blottede Baelte og blot i 3 Arter, skjent der er mange Pile- 
arter der i Eenen. 



14 

paa denne Liste at basere nogle sammenlignende Betragtninger 

uden at kunne meddele naermere om Vegetationen. Felgende 

Urter findes ikke i Vest-Grenland Nord for de sydligste to 

Breddegrader, allsaa ikke uden for del Omraade, i hvilken 

Birkeregionen er repraesenteret. 

Lathy rus maritimus. Vicia Gracca. E-Rubus saxatilis. 
E-Callitriche polymorpha. E- Geranium silvaticum. Cerastium 
vulgatum f. alpestre. Sagina procumhens; S. nodosa. E-Stel- 
laria glauca\ S.uliginosa. ^X-Parnassia Kotzebuei. Viola camna. 
G- Arabia Breutelii. Subularia aquatica (paa 0stkysten dog 
ved 65° n. B,). k-Primula Egaliksensis. {\-)CastilleJa pallida? 
Limosella aquatica. Oentiana aurea; G. serrata. Gnaphalium 
uliginosum. E-Hieracium atratum; E-H. prenanthoides ; E-H. 
strictum. Leontodon autumnalis. Matricaria inodora. Rumex 
Acetosa] R. domesticus. Potamogeton heteroplujllus. k-Pla- 
tanthera rotundifolia. J uncus alpinus] J. bufonius] J. fili- 
formis\ E-J. squarrosus. Gar ex ampullacea\ G, atrata\ G. 
cryptocarpa\ E-G. hcematolepis\ G-C. ?iigritella] G. Oederi \ 
G. panicea ; G-C reducta ; G. vulgaris. Eleocharis palustris, 
Agrostis alba. Anthoxanthum odoratum. Festuca duriuscula. 
Glyeeria maritima. E-Nardus stricta. Poa annua. Lycopodium 
clavatum. Blechnum spicant. Botrychium lanceolatum. Lastrcea 
Filix mas. Polypodium alpestre. Asplenium viride^). 

Af disse 55 Arter ere 4 vestlige Typer (maerkede A)^), 

10 estlige (maerkede E); Resten er enten faelles for Amerika, 

Granland og Europa (38) eller ejendommelige for Grenland (3, 

maerkede G). Tages de oven naevnte 3 europaeiske og den ameri- 

kanske traeagtige Birk, som ere indskraenkede til Sydgronland, 

med i Beregning, bliver Forholdet der mellem det vestlige 



^) Oxalis acetosella er i •Conspectus" opfert med Nr. og ?, da Giesecke 
har angivel den fra Igaliko og Frederikshaab. Jeg formoder, at det er 
en Distraktionsfejl, og at det er Oxyria, han mener; denne kalder han 
nemlig •Sauerkleew; det maa f. Ex. vaere Oxyria, han taler om, naar han 
S. 263 i sin 'Rajse* skriver: "Die Andromeda tetragona und die Sauerklee 
finden sich in grosser Menge» nemlig ved Asuk paa Disko. At Oxyria 
ved Distraktion kan biive til Oxalis, se vi et Exempel paa hos Berg- 
gren, der i sit Arbejde om Gronlands Mosflora siger om Dicranum 
scoparium (S. 17): "allman, ymnigast pa kalla sluttningar, dar snon 
langa liggar qvar, tillsammans mod Oxalis och Salix herbacea*. 

*) Gastilleja bor for Grenlands Vedkommende vist betragtes som en vestlig 
Type. 



15 

og 0stlige Element som 5:13 eller 1:2,6. Forhoidsvis sterre 
er del vestlige Element, naar man tager Hensyn til alle i Birke- 
regionen voxende Karplanter, idet der nemlig er 18 vestlige og 
30 estlige Typer; Forboldel mellem dem er altsaa I : 1,7. Af 
Resten ere 228 faelles og 7 gronlandske Typer. 

En Sammenligning mellem Urtevaexten i Skovene paa Trae- 
gra*nsen i IN. Amerika og i Grenland kan jeg ikke anstille, da 
der ikke i Literaturen findes det nedvendige Grundlag herfor. 
Noget bedre lader der sig anstille en Sammenligning mellem 
Grenland og Skandinavien, og denne bliver saa meget mere 
naturlig, som det begge Steder er med Birkeskovene, vi have 
at gjere. Den fyldigste Skildring af Norges Birkeregion, 
som jeg kjender, er N. Lunds (Botaniska Notiser, 1846, S. 36); 
det er Finmarken, som ban omtaler, altsaa netop den Del af 
Skandinavien, som ber have sterst Lighed med Grenland. 
Birkeregionen gaar her op til 1200 — 1500' i det sydlige, men 
blot 3 — 500' i det nordlige. Han skjelner for 0st-Finmarkens 
Vedkommende mellem den nedre og den ovre Birkeregion, hin 
karakteriseret ved: Birken som skovdannende Trae og et sam- 
menhaengende, af Graes (Gramineer) dannet Grensvaer; denne ved 
mere spredte og buskformede Birke, samt Grensvaerets Fortraengen 
af Lyngplanter [Vaccinium Myrtillus og Vitis idaea, Phyllodoce 
coerulea, Arctostaphylos uva ursi^ Pyrola minor ^ Empetrum, 
Cornus suecica o. a.). Herefter skulde jeg, uden at kjende 
personligt noget til Sydgronland, tro, at dette dog endnu har 
en Del lilfaelles med det nedre Birkebaelte; saerlig vil jeg frem- 
haeve Graesvaexten. Det sammenhaengende af Gramineer dan-' 
nede gronne Taeppe, som vi har saa hyppig i Mellemeuropa 
paa vore Marker eller Enge, er aabenbart ogsaa karakteristisk 
endnu for Birkeregionen eller dog dens nedre Del; jeg slutter 
det af Literaturen og af det, jeg selv har set i Norge. Graes- 
vaext er ogsaa karakteristisk for Island, og paa Graesset -bygges 
Landets Velfaerd», siger Thoroddsen; de almindeligste Arter 
ere i Island: Anthoxanthum odoratum, Alopecurus genicuiafua, 



Aira ccBspitosa, Poa trivialis og pratensis, Agrostis alba — 
Arter, som enten belt mangle i Grenland, eller ere meget 
sjaeldne og isaer da findes i den sydlige DeP). 1 alle de Dele al 
Grenland, som jeg selv bar set (64—69° N. B.), kan der blot 
paa faa og smaa Pletter tales om Graesmark i den Forstand, 
at man bar et tait, overvejende af Graes (Gramineae) dannet 
Daekke, i bvilke andre Blomsterplanter spille den underordnede 
Rolle. Saadanne Pletter findes mest paa gedet Jord ved Kolo- 
nierne. iVlen i Sydgrenland er det sikkert anderledes. De 
Rejsende lale ofte om Graesrigdom ; nu maa man ganske vist 
vaere lidt varsom med strax at tro, al der da altid er Tale om 
et "Graminedaekkeo, tbi Navnet « Graes » bruges aabenbart af 
mange arktiske Rejsende (ligesom og i Biblen, naar Peter skriver: 
• alt Kjed er Graes » , «Graesset visner og Blomsteret derpaa 
falder af») i en mindre stringent Forstand om en Urte vegeta- 
tion, bvor der godt kan vaere meget lidt af egentligl Graes, men 
som i det bele er taet og frodig, frisk gren, samt skikket til at 
«afgraesses» af slerre Graesaedere'^). Men naar f. Ex. Kornerup 
fortaeller, at der ved Igaliko, om Erik den Redes gamle Hjem, 
er en Plantevaext med et hjemligt Praeg, at man «kan vade lange 
Strffikninger i bejt Graes, som naar til Hofterneo saa er ber dog 
sikkert Tale om Gramineer; — eller naar ban (Meddel. om 
Grenl. 2, S. 12) skriver om Tunugdliarfikfjorden : «en yppig 
Plantevaext med naesten uigjennemtraengeligt Birke- og Pilekrat, 
. . . og Bjaergskraaningerne ere bedaekkede med frodige Graes- 
gange» o. s. v., og naevner «Engstraekninger . . . med alenbojt 



*) Inspekter Feilberg bar godhedsfuldt meddelt mig, at Aira ccespitosa 
paa Island fortraenger den Rigdom af Juncus, Carex og Eriophorum, der 
er udbredt over de sumpede Engstraekninger, naar en passende Ud- 
greftning og Overrisling finder Sted; — men dette Graes er endnu ikke 
t'undet i Grenland; en maerkelig Forskjel mellem de to Landes Flora er 
udtalt allerede heri. 

^) •Grasnarbe* kalder Buchenau et Daekke af Kokleare, Lepigonum, Sctgina 
maritima, Aster, Leontodon autumnalis, Triglochin o. a. foruden fire Graes- 
arter. Se ogsaa f. Ex. Giesecke p. 171. 



17 

Grass og Overfledighed af BloDister». — Endnu bestemtere Data 
giver V ah 1; han skriver, at hvor Calamagrostis staar i IVlaengde, 
slaaes den tillige med andre Graesarter og terres til He* til de 
•her i Landet vaerende Keer og Geder, som da (o: om Vinteren) 
spise den meget begjaerligen, da de derimod om Sommeren lade 
den staa urertw. Ved Nenese fandt han en hoj og taet Graes- 
vaext af Poa flexuosa^ Poa pratensis ^ Poa arctiea og Phleum 
alpinum. Ogsaa Giesecke taler om de graesrige Dale ved 
Igaliko, hvor Graesset flere Steder naar til Knaeene, og Worm- 
skjold naevner flere Steder «god og taet Graesbund» i Juliane- 
haabs Distrikt, siger endog bestemt, at ved Storfjaeldet (Juliane- 
haab) «var overalt god Graesgang, som konstitueredes mest af 
Anthoxanthum og Holcus>> foruden Carices o. a. At ogsaa de 
gamle islandske Kolonister i Sydgrenland holdt Kvaeg, er jo til- 
strffikkelig oplyst. — Jeg slutter altsaa heraf, at der i Sydgren- 
lands Birkeregion fmdes en frodig og aegte Graesvegetation , og 
at der heri er Lighed med Island og med Norges Birkeregion, 
skjent de fremherskende Arter til Dels synes at vaere andre. 
Saaledes naevner f. Ex. N. Lund, at Graesvaexten ved Tana i 
Ostfinmarken , der er urimelig frodig, dannes af Calamagrostis 
lapponicaj stricta og phragmitoides \ Poa pratensis og alpina; 
Hierochloa borealis\ Anthoxanthum odoratum^ Festuca ovina og 
rubra ^ Phleum alpinum — altsaa blot til Dels de samme som 
i Grenland. 

Hvad ellers Arterne af Blomsterplanter angaar, som spille 
en Rolle i Grenland og det nordlige Norges Birkeregion, er 
der en Del i 0jne faldende Forskjelligheder. Visse for Skandi- 
navien og Lapland yderst almindelige Arter mangle aldeles i 
Grenland, f. Ex. den lille gule Viol [Viola bifiora), Skovstjaerne 
[Trientalis europcea)^ Kabbeleje (Caltha palustris), Engblomme 
{Trollius europceus), vild Kjervel {Anthriscus silvestris), Ranun- 
culus auricomus og repens^ Stellaria nemorum og graminea^ 
Myosotis silvatica og coespitosa og mange andre; hvor vidt 
alle disse Urter egentlig tilhere Birkeregionen i Norge eller 
XII. 2 



18 



ikke, kan jeg ikke afgjere, men for Fuldstaendigheds Skyld vil 
jeg dog naevne flere almindelige, da det i alt Fald vil vise, hvor 
stor Forskjel der er mellern det nordligste Norges og Gren- 
lands Vegetation. 

De ere bl. a.: Oxalis acetosella, Circaa alpina, Parnassia palitstris, Geum 
rivale, Spiraea idmaria, Potentilla Tormentilla, Bubus arcticus, Fhaca frigida, 
Astragalus alpinus, Trifolium repens, Chrysospleniuvi alternifolium, Melandrium 
silvestre, Stellaria graminea, Silene inflata, Erysivium cheiranthoides, Saussurea 
alpina, Solidago virga aurea, Mulgedium alpinum, Cirsium- Arter, Crepis mul- 
ticaulis, paludosa o. a., Chrysanthemum segetum, Tanacetum vulgare, Carduus 
crispuSf Hieracium umbellatum o. a., Melampyrum pratense og silvaticum, 
Pinguicula alpina, Pedicularis palustris og Sceptrum carolinum , Veronica 
serpyllifolia o. a., Galium boreale, Glechovia hederaceum, Slaegteme Vale- 
riana, Paris, Majanthemum, Chamceorchis, Epipactis, Coeloglossum og Orchis, 
Luzula pilosa, Eierochloa borealis, der f. Ex. endog paa Kola danner Enge 
(Brotherus i Botan. Centralbl. 26, 237), Melica nutans, Melium effusum (der 
efter Brotherus Andes bl. a. i den isser at" Graesser dannede Skovbund ved 
Srednij paa Kolas Kyst), Carex chordorhiza, irrigua, Buxbaumii, jiava, fiUfor- 
mis 0. s. V. Hertil kan endnu laegges nogle Smaabuske, saasom Hedelyngen 
(Calluna vulgaris)^ Blaabaerbusken {Vaccinium myrtillus], Ribs [Ribes rubrum 
og alpinum), Hindbaer [Bubus idceus). Gaa vi ind i Lapmarken og laengere 
mod 0st, komme andre Arter til, eller nogle af de naevnte blive almin- 
deligere. 

Andre i det nordligste Europa almindelige Planter ere vel 
fundne i Grenland, men sjaelden, tildels endog yderst sjaelden, 
f. Ex. Geranium silvaticum j Rubus saxatilis , Bubus Chamce- 
morus, Primula strieta, Viola palustris^ Cornus suecica, Achillea 
Millefolium, Ranunculus acei\ Rumex acetosa, Rhinanthus minor, 
Antennaria dioica, Equisetum silvaticum, Selaginella spinosa, 
Colpodium latifolium, Carex atrata, C rotundata, Vicia cracca^ 
Aira ccespitosa^ o. s. v. 

Derimod har Granland i sin sydlige Del kun faa Arter, som 
ikke hore hjemme i Skandinavien, og disse ere endda sjaeldne 
og spille ikke nogen i Landskabet fremtraedende Rolle. 

Urtevegetationen i Sydgrenland afviger altsaa meget fra det 
nordlige Skandinaviens , saaledes at forstaa, at den kun har en 
ringe Del af dennes Planter og deriblandt mangier netop nogle 
af dens mest almindelige, men uden at den vaesentlig erstatter 
denne Mangel ved noget fra Amerika hentet eller noget endemisk 



19 

Element. Dog synes det mig, at der i et Punkt er stor Lighed, i 
den Rigdom paa Arter af Stargraes (Cances), som udmaerker begge 
Lande i alt Paid sammenlignet med ostlige (nordasiatiske) Egne. 

Selv naar Grenland og Island sammenlignes, er der ikke 
faa Forskjelligheder at paavise; saaledes, foruden det om GraBs- 
serne anferte, at Caltha palustris er meget almindelig i Island, 
men hidtil ikke er funden i Grenland ; mere eller mindre al- 
mindelige i Island ere fremdeles en Maengde andre, hvad jeg 
senere skal komme tilbage til. 

Der er allsaa i Enkelthederne meget store Forskjelligheder 
mellem Skaudinaviens og Islands Birkeregion paa den ene Side 
og Gronlands paa den anden Side, saa store, at der naeppe kan 
blive Tale om en Landforbindelse mellem Grenland og Europa som 
postglacial Indvandringsvej for den grenlandske Flora; men naegtes 
kan det ikke, at de skandinaviske Elementer ere overvejende i 
Sydgrenland, saaledes som Lange bar paavist i sin vaerdifulde 
lille Afhandling i Botan. Tidsskrift 1880, og altsaa, som paavist, 
2 — 3 Gange saa byppige som de amerikanske {bvilket For- 
bold dog sikkert vil aendres, naar Nord Amerika bliver bedre be- 
kjendt). Naegtes kan det beller ikke, at der mellem de naevnte 
Lande er den maerkelige Overensstemmelse, at Birkeregionen 
findes i dem som den laengst mod Nord gaaende Trae- 
vaext- Region. Endnu paa Mager0 flnde vi Birkeregionen med 
dens •angar med frodigt gras" og dens «spridda bjorkar af 
mans hojd och derofver», og Ronnen, skjont knap mere end 
en Alen hej, udvikler endnu der sine Blomster (Tb. Fries, i 
Botan. Notiser, 1865, S. 31); om vi taenke os Gronland lagt ud 
i Havet N. f. IMagere, vil det naesten danne en umiddelbar Fort- 
saettelse af Norge i Henseende til Plantevaexten i det store. 

Det ligger naer at sege en Grund til denne interessante 
Overensstemmelse mellem de naevnte Landstraekninger fra 
Davis-Straede til det bvide Hav. Jeg kan ikke tro paa, at den 
alene skulde bero paa noget historisk geologisk Moment, f. Ex. 
en tidligere Landforbindelse mellem Skandiuavien og Grenland 

2* 



20 



land, hvad jeg laengere nede skal komme tilbage til; men jeg 
finder ogsaa en, som mig synes, fuld gyldig Forklaring i kli- 
matisk Overensstemmelse. 

De hosf0jede meteorologiske Tabeller, som Kjebenhavns 
meteorologiske Institut velvilligst bar stillet til min Disposition 
(nogle Summer og Middeltal bar jeg selv udregnet), vise for 
det forste : 

at Aarets Middelvarme i Ivigtut i Sydgrenland (61" 12' n. B.) 
temmelig noje stemmer med Middelvarmen i det allernordiigste 
Norges Kystland under 71 — 70° n. B. (Gjasvar — Varde); Hosten 
og Vinteren ere lidt koldere, Vaaren 1—2° varmere, Sommeren 
omtrent med ens Varmegrad. Paa Island er det Grimsey, der i 



niddelYfl 



Gronland. 

1874—1883: 
Ivigtut (61"12'n.B.) .... 

Godthaab (64° 11') 

Jakobshavn (69° 13') .... 
Uperoivik (72° 47') 

Norge. 
Bergen (60°24'n.B.) .... 

Christianssund 

TromsB (60°39'n.B., 18°58'L. 
Gjasvar (71°7'n. B.) .... 
Varda (70°22'n. B.) .... 
Karasjok (69° 1 9'«.B.,25°55'L. 

Island. 

Reykjavik (12 Aar) 

Stykkisholm (38 Aar) . . . 
Grimsey (10 Aar) 



CO 

3 M _; _. 

^ M 'E .-^ 'c 

Qj CB Q, CO — 

c2 s -« s ° 



7.4 


— 6.9 


— 4.9 


0.7 


, 4.7 


9.6 


-10.1 


— 8.3 


— 3.0 


1.0 


15.0 


-17.8 


— 15.7 


— 7.2 


0.2 


21.1 


-23.5 


—21.1 


— 13.1 


- 3.7 


0.6 


0.2 


1.5 


5.0 


9.0 


0.9 


0.3 


1.1 


3.7 


7.1 


3.5 


- 4.3 


— 3.5 


— 0.7 


3.7 


4.1 


- 5.3 


— 4.2 


— 1.7 


2.5 


5.7 


- 6.5 


— 5.0 


— 1.8 


1.5 


16.6 


— 16.0 


— 10.6 


— 3.9 


2.9 


1.0 


- 0.1 


0.0 


3.7 


6.6 


2.2 


- 2.7 


— 2.3 


0.7 


4.4 


- 3.0 


— 3.2 


- 4.3 


— 1.3 


1.7 



8.3 
44 
4.6 
1.6 



12.7 
10.9 
8.5 
6.3 
5.9 
9.8 



10.0 

7.8 

5.0 



21 



Aarets Middelvarme stemmer naermest med Ivigtut, men i Var- 
mens Fordeling er der stor Forskjel, Host og Vinter ere var- 
mere, Vaar og Sommer koldere; Grimsey har mere 0klima. 

For det andet vise de, at Middelnedberen i Iviglut opnaar 
den betydelige Sterrelse af 1145,5 Mm. eller omtrent det samme 
som paa det mellemste ^orges Vestkyst, hvor Aalesund (med 
1090 Mm.) kommer naermest. Nord paa aftager Nedberen saa 
vel i Norge som i Grenland; men selv saa langt nord paa 
som ved Tromse (69° 39') er Nedberen kun lidet ringere. Paa 
Island er det Berufjord, der kommer naermest (1142); Slykkis- 
holm stemmer med Godthaab, Grimsey har mindre Nedaer end 
denne Koloni, men meget sterre end Jakobshavn og Upernivik. 



5 




o 
Id 

O 


1 

s 

> 


s 


2 

c 

> 


CO 


u 

E 
1 

1X1 


IS 


i 

so 


.2 


5.3 


1.1 


— 2.2 


— 4.7 


— 6.3 


0.2 


8.7 


1.4 


1.0 


.9 


3.0 


— 1.2 


— 3.8 


— 7.3 


— 9.0 


- 3.4 


5.7 


—0.7 


— 1.8 


.0 


1.9 


—3.9 


-7.5 


— 11.3 


-15.0 


— 7.6 


6.0 


-3.2 


-4.9 


.0 


0.9 


—4.2 


— 8.3 


— 14.7 


— 19.8 


— 12.6 


3.5 


—3.9 


—8.2 


.1 


11.5 


7.2 


3.0 


1.0 


0.6 


5.2 


13.7 


7.2 


6.6 


•l 


10.6 


6.8 


2.9 


1.2 


0.8 


3.9 


12.3 


6.8 


5.9 


L8 


7.5 


2.3 


— 1.1 


— 3.1 


— 3.6 


— 0.2 


102 


2.9 


2.3 


.0 


6.7 


2.3 


— 1.5 


— 2.9 


- 4.1 


— 1.1 


8.8 


2.5 


1.5 


1.4 


6.4 


1.6 


— 2.4 


- 4.4 


— 5.5 


- 1.8 


8.0 


1.9 


0.6 


'.;') 


5.4 


— 1.9 


— 10.9 


— 16.1 


— 16.2 


— 3.9 


11 9 


-2.5 


—2.7 


ll 


8.3 


4.3 


1.8 


- 1.2 


— 0.8 


3.4 


10.9 


4.6 


4.6 


.2 


6.9 


3.2 


0.6 


— 1.1 


— 2 


0.9 


8.9 


3.6 


2.8 


f.l 


5.8 


3.0 


0.1 


— 1.7 


— 2.6 


— 1.3 


6.3 


2.9 


1.3 



22 



Middel-Net 



Orenland, 

Ivigtut 

Godthaab 

Jakobshavn . . . . 
Upernivik 

Norge. 

Bergen 

Aalesund 

Christianssund . . 

Tromse 

Alien 

Karasjok 

Island. 
Stykkisholm . . . ; 

Berufjord 

Grimsey 



68.3 

21.5 

8.2 

15.4 



159 

102 

73 

103 

18 
14 



71 
135 

29 



59.9 I 

26.4 j 

9.4 

19.0 



141 
87 
62 
93 
20 
21 



65 

100 

36 



83.3 
41.9 
16.8 
27.3 



111 
73 

69 
85 
15 
20 



53 
92 
23 



65.5 
23.7 

7.7 
18.0 



97 
52 
56 
75 



12 



38 
90 
17 



116.8 


90.6 


61.7 


43.8 


13.2 


21.0 


9.8 


14.3 


91 


108 


65 


57 ' 


57 


46 


40 


51 


10 


16 


30 


35 


35 


40 


57 


74 


23 


26 



Ivigtuts Klima stemmer altsaa i Varmeforholdene noje med 
det allernordligste Norges Kyster, i Nedber med det mellemstes ; 
det bar et fugtigt eg forboldsvis mildt Klima. De samme kli- 
matiske Forhold maa vi vente i de andre dybe Fjorde af Syd- 
grenland, rimeligvis med en noget sterre Middelvarme, maaske 
ogsaa med en noget anden Nedber^). Gaa vi i Grenland laengere 
mod Nord, bliver, som Tabellen viser, Middelvarmen mindre, 
Differenserne mellem den koldeste og den varmeste Maaned eller 



^) Denne Overensstemmelse mellem Grenlands Kyst mellem 60 — 62° og 
Island og Norge bar i evrigt allerede Rink uden naermere Details frem- 
heevet (Danish Greenland, p. 56). 



23 



imeter). 



1 




1^ 

a 
i 


1 

o 


1 

>■ 

o 
z; 


a 


> 




i 

eg 


1 


1 
^ 


6.9 


132.8 


145.8 


140.2 


83.9 


212.1 


256.6 


253.0 


424.8 


1145.5 


2.3 


106.5 


66.8 


63.0 


31.6 


79.5 


1173 


198.6 


226.3 


621.7 


3.5 


41.0 


16.6 


16.8 


12.1 


29.7 


37.7 


77.1 


74.4 


218.9 


8.9 


21.8 


19.4 


19.1 


18.1 


52.5 


65.1 


69.3 


60.3 


237.2 


e 


189 


199 


151 


170 


470 


299 


416 


539 


1724 


6 


116 


128 


111 


118 


307 


190 


238 


355 


1090 


7 


90 


100 


98 


102 


237 


182 


184 


288 


891 


1 


87 


96 


41 


87 


283 


200 


204 


254 


941 


7 


29 


24 


19 


25 


63 


38 


101 


72 


274 


7 


43 


23 


28 


49 


84 


62 


118 


94 


358 


S 


68 


71 


52 


67 


203 


126 


116 


• 
191 


j 635 


7 


116 


126 


108 


110 


345 


239 


208 


350 


1142 


i 


40 


67 


53 


33 


98 


63 


86 


160 


407 



mellemVinter eg Soramer sterre^) ogNedberen endog forbavsende 
ringere^); med aiidre Ord: vi faa et mere arktisk, tert Klima. 



^) 17,0° i Ivigtut; 16,8 i Godthaab; 25,3 i Jakobshavn; 28,3 i Upernivik. 1 
Bergen er den kun 14,1, i Gjasvar 15—16, i Kaiasjok 30,3 sono Felge af 
Beliggenheden langt inde i Landet. Mindst er den i Stykkisholm eg 
Grimsey, henholdsvis 12,s eg 11,4. 

') Kapitajn G. Holm, Chefeu for 0stkystexpeditionen, bar ferst gjort mig 
opmaerksom paa, at de meget lave Tal for Nedberen i det nordlige muligvis 
skyldes Vanskelighederne ved at maale Snefaldet nejagtig. iMen det frem- 
gaar af saa mange andre Data, synes' mig, at Hejnorden bar et saerligt tert 
Klima, og at man i alle Fald med Sikkerbed kan sige: jo iaengere Nord 
paa 1 Gronlaud, des mindre Nedber og des mindre Luftfugtighed. For- 
uden at Rink f. Ex. anferer, at Regn og Sne falder i sterre Msengde 1 
Syd- end i Nordgrenland (Gronland 111, 114, se og 1. 49 o. a. St.), skal 



24 

At det er Sydgrenlands mildere og fugtigere Klima, der er 
Grunden til, at Traevaext har kiinnet udvikle sig i de mod Hav- 
vindene beskyttede Dale, kan der ikke vaere Tvivl om, thi Traeer 
fordre som bekjendt en lang Vegetationstid for at Veddet kan 
«modnes»; og at det er de klimatiske Overensstemmelser, som 
har sat Birkeskoven paa Traevaextens yderste Poster saavel i 
Grenland som paa Island og i Skandinavien, er der for mig heller 
ikke Tvivl om. Birken er aabenbart et yderst nejsomt Trae, der 
kan taale megen Fugtighed, baade i Jorden og i Luften, og som 



jeg saaiedes anfere, at Mineralogen Joh. Steenstrup fandt, at For- 
dampningen i Umanak (70° 40' n. B.) fra Vs 1879— ^Vs 1880 havde over- 
skredet Nedberen med 355 Millimeter (Meddel. om Greniand, iV, S. 76). 
I Upernlvik (72° 47' N. B.) klage de europcfiiske Beboere almindelig over, 
at deres Mobler revne paa Grund af Terhed (meddelt mig af Cand. 
V. Ussing). I mange Beretninger af arktiske Rejsende klages der over 
den staerke Terst, som de lide under, isaer paa Slaedefarter. "1 believe, 
the true cause of such intense thurst is the extreme dryness of the air, 
when the temperature is low» siger S'utherland fra Cornwallis Island 
(se I, p. 404 og 492). Isens og Sneens hurtige Fordampning i Hojnorden 
under Vinteren, isaer naar der blaeser terre Vinde og ved en Temperatur, 
som kan vaere langt under 0°, omtales af Nares (I, p. 225; II, 134 og 
O.St.); Fugtigheden fordampede af Jorden under Lebet af Vinteren, saa 
at det Bverste Jordlag i 2—3" Dybde blev et lest Pulver; fremdeles af 
Payer (I. c. p. XXVI); Pansch (1. c. p. 8), Richardson (11, p. 98, 100), der 
siger om Fordampningen, at den er "going on with a rapidity that would 
scarcely be credible to one ignorant of the extreme drynes of the air in 
an arctic winter*; Hayes p. 218, o. a. Ogsaa D. Grantz taler, uden dog 
at naevne Egnen, om den tarre Luft i Grenland, og om, at der om Som- 
meren danner sig Salt i VandhuUerne paa Klipperne ved Vandets Fordamp- 
ning (I, 57, 58). Om Terheden i det Indre af Isfjorden paa Spitzbergen 
skriver Nathorst (Spetsb. Karlvaxter S. 51). — At Snefaldet i Hojnorden 
virkelig er ringe, udtales bestemt af forskjellige; under Discoverys Over- 
vintring paa 81°44'N. B. oversteg det efter Hart naeppe iVa Fod. Nares 
omtaler den samme ringe Maegtighed og Hejdernes Snebarhed allerede i 
Februar og Marts i sin Voyage I, 188, 232, 273, 275, 312. Se ogsaa 
Pansch i Petermanns Mittheilungen 1871, S. 217 og den botaniske Del 
af «Zweite deutsche Nordpolexpedition» , S. 6; Heuglin, .Reisen nach 
dem Polarmeercii, I, S. 152. — Jeg ved ikke om Blytt har vaeret helt 
opmaerksom paa, at Polarlandene have en saa tor Luft, men i alt Fald 
er hans Paavisning, at de arktiske Planter have holdt sig der paa 
Norges Fjajlde, hvor der er mest Kontinental-Klima (se Englers Jahrb. 
II, 3) vel i fortrinlig Overensstemmelse hermed. 



25 

kan trives godt i et insulaert Klimas fugtige, mere ens varme Luft. 
Derfor trives den i de tre naevnte Lande; men aftager Luft-Fug- 
tigheden og voxer Kulden, viger den tilbage og bukker under i 
Kampen med Naaletraeerne. Derfor viger den tilbage for disse 
i det nordiige Riisiand fra det hvide Hav af og gjennem hele 
Sibirien og Nord - Amerika. Rimeligvis vil i disse Egne et 
mere kontinentalt Klima, en ringere Luftfugtighed og kolde, fra 
Polarhavet blaesende Vinde vaere Grimden til, at den ikke laengere 
kan staa sig over for Granen og Laerken, og ferst syd for disses 
Nordgraense, i Lae af dem faar Kraft nok til at haevde sig en 
Plads. Jeg kan i evrlgt ikke undlade at henvise til Midden- 
dorffs interessante Studier over Trsevaexten og TraBerne i den 
gamle Verdens nordligste Egne i bans beremte Rejsevaerks 
4de Bind. 

At det baade i Granland og i Island-Skandinavien er den 
samme Faktor, der fremkalder den klimatiske Overensstemmelse, 
er jo aabenbart; det er Atlanterhpets varme Vand eller Arme 
af Golfstremmen ; og at Grenlands Klima i Henseende til Var- 
men staar saa langt tilbage for Norges paa de samme Bredder 
bar jo sin vel bekjendte Grund i dels Isdaekning og Polar- 
strommen langs dets 0stlige og sydvestlige Kyst. Aars-Isotbermen 
0° gaar derfor ogsaa efter Berghaus's Atlas fra Labrador over 
Sydspidsen af Grenland nord om Island og nord om Norge, 
idet den ferst ved Varangerfjord bejer ind i Europa. 



Birkeregionen indtager i Grenland kun en lille Brekdel af 
det hele af Plantevaext optagne Land; alt det evrige maa vi 
henfere til den alpine Region; denne striekker sig saa langt 
i Hejden over Havet og saa langt mod Nord, som Jorden er 
blottet om Sommeren , og er naturligvis ikke et ensartet Vaext- 
omraade. Der er en ikke ringe Forskjel paa Plantevaexten paa 
de forskjellige Steder, alt efter de klimatiske Forhold, Jord- 
bundens fysiske Natur, Haeldning og Exposition m. m. 1 store 



26 



Traek kunne vi adskille felgende Vegetationsformer, der til Dels 
betegne en i Overensslemmelse med Klimaet gradvis aftagende 
Kraft efter den Orden, hvori de n«Evnes, og som derfor tillige 
maa kunne betegnes som Underafde linger af Alperegionen: 

Krattene, mest Pilekrat (Kap. II), paa beskyttede Steder, 
hvor der er Yarme nok til, at Forvedningsprocessen kan gaa 
for sig, og hvor Havvindene ikke trykker Vegetationen ned til 
Jorden. Til dem slutte sig, hvad jeg vil kalde Urtemarken ^). 

Lyngheden (Kap. Ill), endnu for sin overvejende Del 
dannet af Planter med forvedede Slaengler, men lave Buske med 
krummede og forvredne Grene. 

Fjaeldmarken (Kap. IV) med en spredt Vegetation af Urter 
og kun faa og mest til Jorden trykkede Planter med traeagtige 
Grene. Den stutter sig naermest til Lyngheden, men fortjener 
saerlig Omtale og Navn, bl. a., fordi den er saa stor. 

Dertil komme endnu felgende Vegetationsformer: 

Kjaerene, Havstrandsfloraen, den gedede Jords 
Flora, der ikke skylde de klimatiske Forhold saa meget som 
Jordens fysiske og kemiske Natur deres Tilbliven^). 

Pilekrattene modsvare Norges Vidieregion (Wahlen- 
bergs: Regio alpina inferior); Lyngheden maa vel ogsaa naer- 
mest regnes med til dette Baelte, modsvarende hvad Wahl en- 
berg for Norges Vedkommende kalder «Alpium latera inferiorai) 
og de hedeagtige Marker med Empetrum, Boiler og andre Eri- 
cineer, Urter, Mosser, Laver, som findes paa saa store Straek- 
ninger af Norges Bjaerge; Fjaeldmarken modsvarer derimod naer- 
mest Sneregionen ((Regio nivahs, Wahlenbergs «Alpes su- 



') Jeg har gjort mig Umage for at flnde iNavne for de enkelte Formationer, 
der paa en Gang ere karakteristiske og korte; del sidste er nedvendigt, 
for at man i Rejseskildringer let kan betegne dem. Jeg haaber, at disse 
Fordringer nogenlunde skuUe vaere tilfredsstillede. 

2) I de folgende Skildringer maa jeg naturligvis isaer holde mig til mine 
lagttagelser fra den Del af Grenland, som jeg selv bar set, altsaa Egnene 
mellem 64—69° N. B. Senere Rejsende maa fuldstaendiggjere og be- 
rigtige dem. 



27 

periores)>, i Norge «Alpium latera superiora*). Tillige indbefatter 
jeg under Lynghede og Fjaeldmark, hvad Wahlenberg vil kalde 
«Alpes marilimae.., det vil sige 0erne og de yderste Forbjaerge, 
der faa deres alpine Natur mere paa Grund af Biaesten end af 
Hejde'n over Havet. Allerede i IVlellemgroniand vil man finde 
mange Exempler paa, at Plantearter, der af Wahlenberg be- 
tegnes som karakteristiske for Sneregionen i Norge, naa ned til 
Havets Niveau, f. Ex. Banunculns nivalis og pygmceus^ Pedicu' 
laris hirsuta og flammea^ Alsine biflora, Erigeron unifiorus, Car- 
damine bellidifoUa o. a. En Lav region med «IV1asserigdom» 
som i Norge kjender jeg derimod ikke fra Grenland. 

Sammenlignes Granlands eller i det hele Hojnordens alpine 
Region med Schweiz's, da er der flere i 0jne faldende Forskjel- 
ligheder, som jeg her blot skal pege paa. I Alperne findes 
endnu op til 8—9000' Hejde, oven for Traegraensen, et sammen- 
haengende taet Gronsvaer, dannet af Grais og Alpeurter, mellem 
hvilke der er mange bredbladede eller heje og bladrige Urter, 
foruden de lave og dvaergagtige Alpeplanter, som Hejnordens Alpe- 
region alene kan fremvise; og medens de buskagtige Jord-Laver 
spille en fremragende RoUe i Hejnorden, ere de sjaeldne i Al- 
perne, hvor de fleste Laver ere haeftede til Sten. For evrigt 
henviser jeg til Christs «Pflanzenleben der Schweiz». 

II. Pilekrattene og TTrtemarkeii. 

Inde i Runden af Dalene, i Saenkninger mellem Bjaergene, 
hvor Vandleb ile ned, paa lune, solrige Steder ved Foden af 
Klippevaegge , hvor Muld bar kunnet samle sig, og hvor Jorden 
holdes fugtig af det fra Klipperne nedsivende Vand, finder man 
en Kratvegetation ikke blot i Birkeregionen, men mange Bredde- 
grader nord for denne og stigende meget hejere op paa 
Bjaergene. 

De kratdannende Buske ere felgende. 

Ellen {Alnua ovata var. repens) spiller en ringere Rolle, 



28 



isaer fordi den ikke gaar saa hejt mod Nord (omtrent til Polar- 
kredsen) og sandsynligvis heller ikke saa hejt op paa Bjaergene 
(blot nogle faa hundrede Fod) , og ikke synes almindelig. Grev 
Raben omtaler Krat ved Fiskernaisfjorden dannede af Pile 
[Salix glauca) og EUe paa 6 — 1' Hojde, og efter Hink afgive 
navnlig disse et godt Braendsel for Kolonien; endnii ved Godt- 
haab findes meget Ellekrat, fornemlig i Godthaabsfjorden , dog 
ogsaa lidt i Kobbefjord^), men nordligere synes del at vaere 
meget ubetydeligt; den eneste El, jeg selv saa i 1884, var et 
i Amerdlokfjorden S. for Holstensborg paa Stranden opskyllet 
Exemplar paa 5 — 6' Laengde. 

En en [Juniperus communis var. nana) anfores ogsaa fra 
Krattene, og langt Nord for Birkeregionen skal den i disse 
endnu opnaa naesten de samme Tykkelser som i denne. Jeg 
selv saa den blot i Espalierform paa Heder og i enkelte Urer 
og Klippeklefter og af meget ringe H0jde , om Stammen end 
vilde have flere Fods Laengde, naar den blev rejst op. Den 
naar kun op til c. 68° N. B. 

Nsest den maa Dvaergbirken naevnes, i det sydlige (indtil 
62°) den kjertlede [Betula glandulosa Michx.), derpaa, med Nord 
efter tiltagende Maengde, Betula nana L. Den storste Hojde, 
som den naar til, er vistnok 2 — 3'; saadanne Hojder saa jeg 
den opnaa i Itivnek-Dalen 0. for Holstensborg. Det angives, 
at den saerlig fremhersker i Krattene paa Ostsiden af Disko- 
bugten, uden dog ofte at staa taet samlet. Ved Upernivik skal 
den kunne faa Stammer paa 2" Tykkelse (Rob. Brown i Flo- 
rula Discoanai. 

IVlen den Plante, som fremfor alle disse bidrager til Krat- 
dannelsen, er en Art Pil, Salix glauca L."). Fra Sydgrenland 

^) Se ogsaa Giesecke p. 205; og Kornerup Medd. om Gronl. I, p. 110. 

At der er rene Ellekrat eller endog Krat overvejende dannede af El, maa 

jeg dog tvivle paa. 
2) Den anden almindelige Art, S. groenlandica, holder slg lavt og i Almin- 

delighed endog ligefrem nedliggende; mest findes den i Kjsereoe, men 

for evrigt ogsaa 1 Krattene, iseer paa de fugtigere Steder. 



29 



fortaeller Rink om «en to Mil lang Vej, for sterste Delen gjen- 
nem en Kratskov af Vidier» , hvis Hejde angives til 8'. Ved 
Graedefjorden (63° 20' N. B.) findes taette Krat af Pil , Birk og 
El, der laegge Hindringer i Vejen for Vandringen (J. A. D. 
Jensen), og Krattene ved Fiskernaesset omtaler Rink som 
oBuskads af Vidier paa 3 Alens Hojde, mellem hvilke den lysere 
og mere tykstammede El saa vel som Kvanen og temmelig heje 
lyse grenne Bregner danne en smuk Afvexling». Ved Sendre 
Isortok-Fjord (taet S. for Sukkertoppen) saa Rosenvinge Pile- 
krat paa 8 Fods Hejde, og lidt INord for Polarkredsen, i Itivnek- 
dalen maalte jeg nogle Pile, der vare fuldkomment ranke og 
oprette, og snarere maatte kaldes Traeer end Buske; de vare 
8' heje og godt 2" tykke. Endnu laengere N. for Polarkredsen, 
f. Ex. ved Nordre Stremfjord (67^/4° N. B.) findes Krat af over 
en Mands Hejde og med armtykke Stammer (J. A. D. Jensen i 
Meddel. om Grenland, II). Om Frodigheden paa Disko fore- 
iigger der mange Beretninger fra de Rejsende (Giesecke, 
f. Ex. S. 292— 293 i sin Dagbog, Rink, Th. Fries, Rob. 
Brown o. a.), og ikke mindst betegnende er Grenlaendernes 
bekjendte Fortaelling, som Hans Egede anferer (Grenlands 
Perlustrat. 33), at en maegtig Trold eller «Torngarsuk» skal have 
buxeret Disko Sonden fra did op, hvor den nu er. Dog siges 
der bestemt af Rink, at Pilene naa 4 Alens llejde, «naar 
man rejser dem op», saa at de dog allerede her synes at 
vaere mere nedliggende. 

Laengere Nord paa blive Pilekrattene lavere og sjaeldnere, 
og den <'Skov» («Orpik»), som skal findes i Bunden af Laxe- 
fjorden ved Upernivik, og i hvilken et Rensdyr fortaelles at have 
skjult sig for sine Forfelgere, er dog ikke mere end omtrent 
1 Alen hej (efter Cand. V. Ussing i Geogr. Tidsskr. IX, S. 29). 
Hvor langt Nord paa man endnu kan traeffe en Vegetation, der 
forljener Navn af -Pilekrat'), ved jeg ikke; men Pilene som 
saadanne findes jo ikke blot paa Hederne og hist og her paa 



30 



Fjaeldmarken i IVlellemgrenland, men gaa ogsaa op til det aller- 
nordligste som espalier-dannede Biiske. 

Heller ikke ved jeg sikkert, til hvor stor Hojde over Havet 
Krattene gaa op ; nord for Holstensborg traf jeg et Par Timers 
Vej inden for Bunden af Sondre Kangerdluarsuk et saerdeles 
frodigt Kratj der efter Aneroidbarometret maa ligge c. 726 Fod 
over Havet. 

Grenlands 0stkyst synes i sin sydlige Del at have lige saa 
frodige Krat som Vestkysten; Graah taler om en yppig \aext 
af Vidier med Stammer paa 2" Tykkelse, voxende sammen med 
Kvaner og andre Planter. Selv ved Franz Josefs Fjord bliver 
Pileni) 1—2 M. (3—6') lang med et Tvaermaal af 3 Ctm. (c. 1''), 
men kratdannende er den naeppe , da Stammerne ligge ned, 
bugtede ud og ind i Slangeform (Buchenau S. 48). 

Jeg bar allerede ovenfor (S. 13) peget paa den maerkvaerdige 
Forskjel, der er mellem Nord-Amerika og Skandinavien paa den 
ene, Gronland paa den anden Side i Henseende til Artsantallet 
af Pile. 

Det taetteste og hojeste Pilekrat, jeg selv saa i 1884, var 
det omtalte ved S. Kangerdluarsuk nord for Holstensborg. Ved 
Foden af en hoj og stejl Bjaergvaeg havde der mellem sterre 
og mindre Klippeblokke samlet sig en Maengde Forvitringspro- 
dukter, der havde givet Plads for en med Tiden rimeligvis 
yppigere og yppigere Plantevaext. Bjaergvaeggen vendte, saa vidt 
jeg skjenuede, mod Syd-Vest eller Vest, men ellers havde alle 
de Krat, jeg bar set, en sydlig Exposition, Pilene voxede i 
dette Krat saa taet, at man kun med stort Besvaer kunde bane 
sig Vej mellem dem, og i Reglen kom man lettest frem ved at 
bukke sig ind under dem. Deres Hojde var indtil 6 — 8', og 
Tykkelsen som et Haandled. Den merke, rige Muld, i hvilken 
de voxede, var ganske fugtig og vaad, paa sine Steder naesten 



^) Salix arctica Pall., maaske identisk med S. groenlandica; se Langes 
Conspectus p. 109. 



31 

mudret, da Nattefrosten , der uden for Krattet (det var mellem 
Kl. 0—7 om Morgenen den 5te Aug.; se 8de H., S. 192i havde 
daekket alle Planter med Rimfrost og lagt Isskorpe over alle 
Vandhuller, ikke havde kunnet traenge herned. Mellem og 
under Pilene var det fremfor alt Kvanerne (Archangelica offLci- 
nalis Hffm.), der tiltrak sig Opmaerksomheden ved at voxe til 
en Hejde af et Par Alen og derover og med en Frodighed, som 
jeg ikke for havde set; de stode forst nu i Blomst, men skjont 
vi vare saa langt fremme i Sommeren , maa de dog kunne faa 
tilstraekkelig Tid til Frugtsaetning, thi Kimplanter i alle Aldere 
og Storrelser fandtes rundt om paa Jorden under dem. Mel- 
lemrummene mellem disse Planter udfyldtes atter af andre, saa- 
som Oxyria i Maengde og i gigantiske Exemplarer, alle fulde af 
Brandsvampe; hoje Exemplarer af Polygonum viviparum lige- 
ledes med Brandsvamp i omtrent hver eneste Blomsterstand; 
heje og slanke Exemplarer af den klaebrige Form af Cerastium 
alpinum] Taraxacum officinale^ der i de tidlige Morgentimer 
endnu stod med lukkede Kurve; den blaagronne Form af Al- 
chemilla vulgaris i Exemplarer paa en halv Alens Hojde; Tha- 
lictrum alpinum\ Potentilla maculata\ Luzula parvifiora\ To- 
fieldia borealis\ Chamcenerium angustifolium i overordentlig 
IMaengde, men endnu ikke i Blomst; Saxifraga cernua; Arabia 
alpina; Stellaria longipes i langstrakte Exemplarer, og en Ce- 
rastium^ der af Prof. Lange er bestemt til G. arvense^ saaledes 
for forste Gang funden i Grenland; Sibbaldia\ Veronica al- 
pina] Cystopteris fragilis] Equisetum scirpoides i stor Mangde; 
af Graes Poa alpina i kraftige, bredbladede Exemplarer, Trise- 
tum subspicatum^ Poa glauoa, og i stor Maengde en Carex^ 
hvis Artsnavn jeg desvaerre ikke kan opgive, da den senere er 
bleven sammenblandet med de ovrige Samlinger fra Kangerd- 
luarsuk. Paa Klippeblokkene i Krattet og paa aabne Straekninger 
i og om det fandtes taette, blode Mospuder af Hypnum uncina- 
tum, Hylocomium splendens, Dicranum palustre v. juniperifolium^ 
Climacium dendroidesj der i Gronland borer til de sjaeldnere, 



32 

Aulacomnium turgidum^ Sphagnum, recurvum, Jungermannia al- 
pestris o. a. 

Jeg har valgt at omtale denne Lokalitet lidt omstaendeligere 
for at give et Billede af Pilekrattene. Mere eller mindre ligne 
de andre dette; selv det ferste, som jeg fik at se, paa Turen 
til Kobbefjord ved Godthaab i det tidlige Foraar den 28de— 29de 
Juni, havde stor Lighed hermed, skjent det kun var en 2—3 
Fod h0jl. Det laa ligeledes paa den skraanende Fod af en 
naesten lodret Bjaergvaeg, og mellem de endnu negne Pilebuske 
voxede on Bregne [Aspidium Lonchitis) rned friskt grent Lev 
fra forrige Aar; Kvanen skjed netop sine ferste Blade frem af 
Knoppen og havde knap faaet en Fods Hejde, men Potentiller 
og Levetand, Stargraes {Carex scirpoidea) og Lavefod [Alche- 
milla vulgaris) og enkelte andre Planter blomstrede dog allerede. 

Strax i dette lave Krat bemaerkede jeg en Ejendommelighed ved 
den sorte Muldjord, nemlig at der blandt dens Beboere fandtes 
ikke faa Regnorme (efter mit Skjen to Arter); naar man ved, 
hvad RoUe disse Dyr spille i Naturen , tror jeg det vaerd at 
fremha3ve deres Forekomst, isaer da den mange Gange mere 
udstrakte Lynghede i sin magre Maarjord naeppe har en eneste. 
Ogsaa fandt jeg Skallerne af en Snegl, Vitrina Angelicce, der 
netop, som Navnet viser, holder til paa Kvanerne og jo sikkert 
ogsaa bidrager sit til iVlulddannelsen. Krattene skulle ogsaa, 
isaer naar de have Kvaner, vaere et yndet Opholdssted for Barer 
og Ryper, mest Best og Vaar. En les, frodig, af Regnorme 
gjennemrodet Muld, hvis sorte Farve jo i saerlig Grad vil drage 
Solvarmen til sig, og som er saa dyb og saa rig paa Fugtig- 
hed, at den ikke udtorres, som godes af det affaldne Lev og 
af de heje Urters raadnende Skud foruden af de forskjellige 
Dyrs Exkrementer, og som paa Grand af sin Beliggenhed i sol- 
rige, lune Dale tidlig bliver snefri og derfor kan skaffe Plan- 
terne en laengere Vegetationsperiode — saadan er Jorden i 
Pilekrattene, i alt Fald i de frodigere. 

I mange, sagtens de allerfleste Krat findes smaa Vandleb; 



Jordens Fugtighed er jo netop ogsaa en vaesentlig Betingelse 
for denne Vegetations Udvikling, og langs med Baekbredderne 
staa alle Urter taettere og hejere, iVlospuderne ere fyldigere, 
mere svulmende, det hele friskere gront. I Lyngmarken og de 
andre Dale ved Godhavn Andes der mange Baekke, og her var 
Plantevaexten saerlig frisk og yppig, som alt omtalt i Rejse- 
beretningen (S. 188). 

Der Andes dog ogsaa mere terre Pilekrat, hvor baade 
Urter og Mosser ere faerre «g mindre frodige, saaledes som 
min Rejseberetning alt vil have omtalt, og at der findes Over- 
gange mellem Krat og Lynghede, maa jeg ogsaa antage, skjent 
jeg kun har set faa Antydninger deraf (se 9de Afsnit). 

Urtenie. En Maengde Urter ere knyttede til denne Jordbund 
mellem Pilene, naar ikke Krattet er saa taet, at Jorden blot 
daekkes af raadnende Blade. Forst vil jeg naevne K van en 
{Archangelica officinalis)^ skjent den ikke kjendes laengere Nord 
paa end til c. 70° N. B. og heller ikke fmdes i alle Pilekrat, 
men fordi den er den storste og tillige spiller en stor RoUe for 
Grenlaenderne som en Slags Delikatesse. Af de Rejsendes 
Skildringer (f. Ex. Gieseckes Dagbog, Wormskjold, Graah, 
Raben, Kornerup o. a.) fremgaar, at den er meget almin- 
delig i det mellemste og isaer det sydlige, og ogsaa gaar langt 
op paa OstkystenM. 

De evrige Urter, der findes i Pilekrattene , gaa selvfelgelig 



1) Th. Holm har i "Beitrage z. Flora Westgrenlands* kaldt den Formation, 
som jeg i min Rapport og senere i •Botan. Meddelelser* kaldte •Krat- 
tenes og Baeklejernes» , for ^die Archangeiicaformation*. Dette er en 
besynderlig Benaevnelse , naar man erindrer, at han selv skriver: -Die 
Archangelica selbst ist ubrigens durchaus nicht in Grenland gemein, 
trotzdem dass man haufig geeignete Standorte findet». I Laoges Tillaeg 
til Conspectus findes den dog nu opfert som «Almindelig i Fjordene 
indtil 69° », hvilket utvivlsomt er rigtigt. Naar Lange tidligere opferte 
Voxesteder for den, beroede dette sikkert paa, at den er sjselden I Herba- 
rierne, dels fordi den er saa stor og vanskelig at terre, dels fordi den 
er saa bekjendt for alle Rejsende, at de undlade at samle den. Men 
XII. 3 



34 



heller ikke lige langt Nord paa. Efter "Conspectus florae groen- 
landicaew bliver Forholdet omtrent folgende: 

Beeltet 60 — 62°n. B. Her antager jeg, at der i Pile- 
krattene findes omtrent de samme Arter, som i Birkeskovene 
og Birkekrattene. De for Baeltet ejendommelige Arter naevntes 
S. 14. 

Baeltet 62 — 64° n. B. I dette ophore: Viola palu- 
stris^ Galium palustre, Galium trifiorum, Hieracium vulgatum^ 
H, alpinum, H. Dovrense, Achilleel> millefolium ; men dette Baelte 
er kim lidet undersegt, og muligen gaa flere af det sydligste 
Baeltes Urter op i dette. 

Baeltet 6 4 — 6 7° n. B. Her ophore Stellaria borealis^ 
der maa regnes til Kratfloraen, Viola Miihlenhergiana ^ Alche- 
milla alpina (gaar lidt laengere mod Nord) , Ranunculus acer^ 
Coptic trifolia, Cornus suecica^ der vist ogsaa naermest herer 
Krattene til, Rhinanthus minor ^ Pyrola minor ^ Streptopus, 
Garex canescens og vitilis^ Air a alpina^ Selaginella spinosa, 
Lastrcea spinulosa, Polypodium Phegopteris, 

Paa hele Straekningen fra 60—70° N. B. fmdes der paa 

Grenlands Vestkyst foigende mere almindelige Urter, som kunne 

findes i Pilekrattene og mere eller mindre maa siges at here 

dem til: 

*Alckemilla vulgaris ^ *Potentilla maculata og undertiden 
tridendata, *Sibhaldia procumhens, *Epilohium angustifolium, 
*E. alpinum^ E. latifolium^ E. lactiflorum^ *E. alsinefolium^ Al- 
sine hiflora^ *Cerastium alpinum^ og paa fugtige Steder *C. tri- 
gynum^ Stellaria longipes , Viscaria alpina^ *Arahis alpina^ 
Draba aurea , *Dr. liirta ^ Dr. incana^ Dr. Wahlenbergii , o. a., 
*Thalictrum alpinum, Ranunculus- kviQT ^ Saxifraga decipiens^ *S. 
cernuaj *S. stellaris o. a., Rhodiola rosea ^ * Archangelica offici- 
nalis, *Bartsia alpina, Euphrasia officinalis, *Pedicularis fiammea, 



af alle Beretninger fremgaar, at den maa va?re almiudelig, isaer i det 
sydlige. og findes over alt, hvor Terrainet er fiodigere og mere beskyttet. 
Den findes i evrigt ogsaa i stor Frodighed i de store Fjorde paa Diskos 
Vestside (efter Giesecke og Th. Fries), vistnok op til 70° N. Hvorfor 
det er mindre heldigt at opkalde en Formation efter den, bar jeg om- 
talt i Englers Jahrb. Bd. IX. 



35 

*P.h{r8uta^ * P. lapponica^ * Veronica alptna, *V. saxattlis, Pyrola 
minor, P. sefiunda, *Cas8iopehypnoides, ''Campanula rotundifolia, 
Antennaria alpina, Hieracium atratum, *Gnaphalium norvegicum, 
G. supinum^ * Taraxacum officinale^ *Oxyria digyna, * Polygonum 
viviparum , Corallorhiza innata, Habenaria albida, Listera cor- 
data, Platanthera hyperborea, *Tofieldia boreah's , Juncus arc- 
ticus, biglumis og triglumis paa de fugtigere Steder, *Luzula 
parviflora , multifiora og *spicata, Car ex scirpoidea, C. f estiva, 
C. alpina, C. rarijiora, *C. hyperborea, C. lagopina, G capiLlaris 
0. s. v., Calamagrostis phragmitoides , C. purpurascens , Festuca 
rubra, *Trisetum subspicatum, *Phleum alpinum, *Poa alpina, *P. 
glauca, P. nemoralis, *P. pratensis, P. flexuosa, *Aspidium Lon- 
chitis, Botrychium Lunaria, * Polypodium Dryopteris, *.Cystopteris 
fragilis, *Equisetum scirpoides , *E. arvense, E. silvaticum, E. 
variegatum, Lycopodium- krier. Af stor Vigtighed er endelig 
ogsaa Salix herbacea. Til de sjaeldnere Arter maa henregnes 
Anemone Richardsoni og Vahlodea atropurpurea. 

Ved og Nord for 67° tilkomme desuden enkelte nyei 
Krattene, f, Ex. Alopecurus alpinus og Potentilla emarginata, 
der ikke findes i det sydlige eller ere yderst sjaeldoe der. Om 
de anferte gjaelder naturligvis, at de ikke ere lige almindelige 
eller lige karakteristiske; de i Mellemgrenland paa Kratbiind al- 
mindeligste ere udliaevede med Stjaerne. iVlange af disse Andes 
dog ogsaa anden Steds, paa beslaegtede Lokaliteter. 

I Krattene ere Likenerne meget tilbagetraengle ^1, men af 
frisk grenne fflosser er der alt efter Omstaendighederne flere eller 
faerre, isaer paa Baekkenes Bredder. Flere Steder, hvor der er 
Kildevaeld, fremhersker Philonotis fontana, hvis taette Masser af 
fine, lange, sammenfiltrede Staengler, og hvis frisk gulgrenne Farve 
ikke kan undgaa saerlig at tildrage sig Opmaerksomheden; imel- 
lem dem finder man saedvanlig Cerastium trigynum indfiltret og 
haevende sine hvide Blomster lidt over Mosset; som Exempel 
paa en karakteristisk PMowo^es -Vegetation kan henvises til 



^) Da saa mange Opgaver frerabyde sig under den Rejsendes flygtlge Op- 
hold, har jeg ikke haft Opmaerksomhed henvendt paa Traelikener. Lind- 
say bemaerker i Aim. (Edinb. Bot. Soc. X, 1069), at Manglen paa Skov 
medferer Manglen af en Maengde Crupper af Likener (Graphideae, Uanea, 
etc. etc.). Sydgrenlands Birkeskove fortjene i saa Henseende neje Under- 
sugelse. 



S* 



Krattene i Lyngmarksdalen og anden Steds ved Godhavn. 
Sammen med den findes der her Webera albicans, ligeledes 
beklaedende store Straekninger, W. nutans o. a. Arter, Au- 
lacomnium palustre, Paludella squarrosa, Hypnum Kneiffii^ H. 
uncinatum 0. a. Arler, og efter Berggren end videre dels ved 
Baekkene dels paa mere tor Bund i Krattene: Brachythecium 
salebrosum, refiexum og glaciate, Timmia austriaca, Climacium 
dendroides, Thuidium abiednum, Scapania undulata o. a. Og- 
saa saa jeg Marchantia polymorpha i store Maengder ved Baek- 
bredderne ved Godhavn og anden Steds ^). Lyngmarkens Kilder 
kaldes jo «varme», fordi de have en ens Temperatur hele 
Aaret rundt og lebe om Vinteren neden under et Isdaekke; 
«varme» ere ogsaa Kilderne ved Tasiusak et Par Mil fra Egedes- 
minde, som jeg besegte d. 29. Juli; her fandtes en yderst frodig 
Mosvegetation med store Maengder af Philonotis fontana, omtrent 
som den ved Godhavn, men uden F{rat; de lange gulgronne 
Mosstaengler laa bejgende i Kildernes Vandstrom hen over den 
til Dels af Klippen dannede Bund i store Masser, og mellem 
dem voxede som saedvanlig Cerastium trigynum-) 

Paa Stene i Baekkene finder man andre Mosser, saasom 
Hypnum polar e, ochraceum, alpestre o. s. v. 

Krattenes Urter gjenfindes, vel i en lidt anden Blanding 
end ellers, imellem de store Stenmasser, der ligge ophobede 



^) Yderligere i Berggrens "MossfloranK, S. 1 — 13. Se ogsaa ovenfor S. 31. 

2) Disse Kilders Varmegrad er efter Rink 5V2° C. Den lille Se, som er 
dannet af dem, skal aldrig fryse til. Om de varme Kilder i Sydgrenland 
paa »Unartok., se P. Eberlin i Geograf. Tidskr. Bd. 9, S. 18. Cohn 
bar i .Bericht iib. die Thatigkeit d. botan. Section d. Schles. Gesellsch.. 
1886, S. 196 skrevet en Notits "tJber eine gronlandische Thermalalge- 
fra disse Kilder: Lyngbya thermalis Rub. Maerkvaerdig nok anferer ban 
Sagina maritima Don og Equisetum palustre som voxende samme Steds, 
hidtil ej kjendte fra Gronland. En varm Kilde omtales af Dr. N. 0. Hoist 
(Sveriges geolog. undersokniug, Ser. C., no. 81, S. 25) ved Frederikshaab. 
Dens Temp, var 4° C. i Slutn . af Aug. 1880, og nogen anden Grund til 
Benaevnelsen «varme» end, at den under Vinteren ikke er tilfrosseii, 
kunde ber ej findes. Om varme Kilder se for ovrigt Rink i "Gron- 
land* I, S. 77— 78. 



37 

om Foden af Diskos Basal tbjaerge , og som ganske svarer til 
Nordmaendenes Urer. Ved Engelskmandens Havn saa jeg saa- 
danne saerdeles karakteristiske. Mellem de mod Syd vendende 
Stenmasser bar der paa mange Steder i Tidernes Leb samlet 
sig .\luld, i hvilken der i Lee af Stenene og Klipperne trives 
mangen en Plante med saerdeles Frodighed, Planter som here 
hjemme i Kratfloraen, blandede til Dels med andre. Paa sine 
Steder voxede Taraxacum i store Pletter, der skinnede i lang 
Afstand ved de gule Kurve ; Epilohium angustifolium^ Alchemilla 
vulgaris fandtes ligesaa paa sine Steder i Maengde, men des- 
uden kunde der findes indblandet paa de noget torere Steder 
Planter, som here anden Steds hjemme f. Ex. Drab<z^ Pkyllodoce, 
Empetrum, o. s. v. 

Krat-Orter optraede ligeledes i skyggefulde Huler inde 
under store Klippeblokke og Sten , men her er det dog kun et 
lille Udvalg af Arterne, der trives vel, saerlig Bregner som Cy- 
stopteris fragilis og Polypodium- Arler , en og anden Potentilla^ 
Taraxacum, Saxifraga stellaris og Oxyria, der mest holde af 
de fiigtigere, medens Bregnerne sege de mere terre Steder. 1 
saadanne Huler under fremspringende Klipper ved Kobbefjord, 
fra hvis Vaegge Vand sivede og dryppede ned, samlede jeg en 
Del meget frisk grenne Mosser, saasom Bartramia ithyphylla, 
Philonotis fontana i en taet og tuet Form , Conostomum horeale 
rigt frugtbaerende, a. a. 

Men dernaest findes Krattenes Urter, Kratbunden, men 
uden Buskene, ofte i saa stor Udstraekning, at disse Lokali- 
teter vel turde fortjene et eget Navn. Man kunde kalde dem 
«Blomstermark)) , hvis dette Navn ikke allerede fandtes anvendt 
af Kj ell man paa en Vegetationsform , der vist er en Del for- 
skjellig fra denne; man kunde ogsaa kalde dem «Blomsterlier» 
eller maaske «llrtelier»> ^), men bedst er det maaske at kalde dem 



') Ordet -Li* er, som bekjendt, norsk; det bruges efter Meddelelse af Blytt 
til at betegne en •Skraaoing, som er bevoxet enten med Tracer eller 



38 



Urteniark (det er denne Vegetation, som jeg oprlndelig, i min 
Rapport og i Botan. Foren. iVIeddelelser 1886, kaldte «Baek- 
lejernes»). Hvor Krattene hore op, barer nemlig ikke altid ogsaa 
Kralbunden op ; tvaertimod , man traeffer mange Steder enten i 
Fortsaettelse af Krattene eller belt adskilt fra dem og hejt oppe 
paa Bjaergene frisk granne Pletler, lave Saenkninger med god 
Muldjord, isaer langs Vandlobene, bvor Jorden er omtrent belt 
daekket med et Taeppe af fleraarige Urter og Graes, men medens 
Graesserne ere de overvejende og andre Blomsterplanter i 
Mindretal i en egentlig Graes mark, ere de ferste ber i Begelen 
i Minoritet og de sidste de fremberskende ; derfqr synes de mig 
at fortjene et eget Navn, bvormed jeg ingenlunde vil sige, at 
der ikke er Steder, bvor de naerme sig staerkt til Graes mark. 
H0jt op paa Praestefjaeldet og Ornefjaeldet ved Holstensborg tindes, 
f. Ex., saadanne Steder dels sluttende sig til og folgende Baekke, 
der Sommeren igjennem ile ned fra Bjaergene, dels i lave For- 
dybninger og Klofler, bvor der blot i den tidlige Vaar og 
Sommer findes et svagt Vandlob, men bvor Jorden dog er en 
saa dyb Muld, at den senere ikke bliver belt tor. Ved Godbavn 
saa jeg saadan Urtemark umiddelbart op til den stenede golde 
Havstok; faa Alen fra Strandkanten voxede ber tre Arter Orcbi- 
deer, Pinguicula^ Kvan og mange andre Planter i broget 
Blanding. 

Dette friske Gronsvaer dannes af omtrent de samme Arter 
som i Krattene, enkelte ere udelukkede, enkelte andre komme 
til, men Plantevaexten er i det bele temmelig lav. Dvaergpilen, 
[Salix herbacea) er meget almindelig paa denne Bund og op- 
traeder ofte i store Pletter, sandsynligvis dannede af en eneste 
Plantes talrige, fra de underjordiske Staengler opskydende Skud; 
naesten aldrig manglende Arter ere endvidere: Taraxacum offi- 
cinale, Alchemilla vulgaris^ og i de sydligere Egne A. alpina^ 



Buske eller Graes (Urter) ». «Til Begrebet Li herer, at Marken skraaner, 
flad Mark kan aldris kaldes Li». 



39 

Sihbaldia procumhens, Arahis alpina^ Oxyria^ Tofieldia^ Luzula 
parvifiora^ spicata o. a. Arter, Potentilla maculata^ P. trtdentata, 
Campanula rotundifolia^ Thalictrum alpinum^ Cerastium alpi' 
num, ISaxifraga cernua^ stellaris o. a., Polygonum viviparum, 
Equisetum scirpoides^ variegatum og arven8e\ her findes ogsaa 
Salix groenlandtca , Ferowica - Arterne, flere Pedicularis - Arler, 
isaer P. hirsuta, lapponica og flarrimea^ Bartsia^ Erigeron uni^ 
fiorus^ Antennaria alpina^ Rhodiola^ Epilohium alpinum og at- 
sinefolium. Paa Disko saa jeg Ranunculus nivalis flette sine 
gule Blomster ind i dette Taeppe; ogsaa den beskednere R. 
pygmcBus findes her, undertiden ved Havets Niveau; sjaelden er 
derimod R, acer. Paa Praestefjaeldet var der desuden en anden, 
sjaelden Urt, der ved sine smukkelgule Blomster prydede det 
grenne Daekke, nemh'g Anemone Richardsoni. Af Lynghedens 
Planter vil man undertiden traeffe Phyllodoce coerulea, og de 
smaabladede Staengler af Cassiope hypnoides^ fulde af hvide eller 
blegt rosenrode Blomster, brede sig over starre og mindre Pletter 
mellem den evrige lave Plantevaext, samt forskjellige andre. 
Frisk gronne Mosser, som Eypna og Aulacomma, udfylde ofte 
Mellemrummene, alt efter Forholdene i sterre Maengde eller 
blot sparsomt indstreede. 

Graesserne og Halvgraesserne ere omtrent de samme som 
i Krattene; isaer traeffes Poa alpina, pratensis og glauca^ men 
de holde sig lave og spredte mellem de evrige Blomsterplanter. 

Til denne Vegetationsform maa sikkert ogsaa knyttes den, 
som Vahl fandt paa udterret Sebund ved Tunugdliarfikfjorden, 
og hvor der bl. a. fandtes felgende for Sydgrenland ejendomme- 
lige eller dog for Grenland sjseldne Planter: Gnaphalium uli- 
ginosum, Sisymbrium palustre, Alopecurus geniculatus og Limo- 
sella aquatica^). 



1) Graah skrlver om Ekalumlut paa Oslkysten: •mange Steder var Vegc- 
tationen yppig, .... imellem dette Krat fandtes hyppig Engstrsekninger 
bevoxede med fint Graes; rundt om Elven voxede Graessel smukt og tat. 
dog havde det langt fra ikke alle Steder Hejde til at siaas* — forskjellige 



40 

Jeg kan ikke undlade at omtale den lille fugtige, sten- og 
klipperige Dal, der 0. for Sukkertoppen f0rer ned til Koloniens 
Kirkegaard. Jeg besegte den ferste Gang d. 3. Juli (Rejsebe- 
retningen S. 179); da daekkede Snemasser endnu det meste af 
den, hist og her redfarvede af Snealgen {Sphcerella nivalis); 
hvor Sneen var smeltet, fandt jeg de endnu friske aargamle 
Blade af Lastrcea spinulosa, en enkelt blomstrende Potentilla 
maculata^ Sihhaldia og Antennaria alpina\ kun faa Graes vare 
brudte saa langt frem, at de kunde gjenkjendes: Poa flexuosa 
og Poa alpma] ogsaa Luzula spicata og multiflora vare vidt 
udvikiede. Omtrent 6 Uger senere, d. I6de Aug., gjensaa jeg 
den samme Dal; en overvaeldende Forandring var sket; Tu- 
sender af Planter vare i Blomst og stode endnu dryppende 
vaade af den nysmeltede Sne, som var falden Dagen iforvejen; 
paa mere fugtige, sumpede Steder var der udstrakte, blaagrenne 
Pletter af Carex rariflora\ ogsaa Carex rigida var meget alminde- 
lig ; fremdeles : Ranunculus pygmtzus^ Stellaria humifusa^ Koenigia 
i Maengde, Triglochin palustre, Eriophora^ Juncus articus o. a. 
Mellem Stenene og Klipperne stod en frodig og broget Blanding 
af Blomster; Coptis trifoUa var i fuld Blomst; Cornus suecica 
udfyldte hist og her aldeles en Klippespalte med sine nydelige 
smaa Skud fulde af de gulhvide Blomsterstande med den sort 
purpurrede Plet i Midten; Chamcenermm angustifolium saa jeg 
for ferste Gang i Blomst, og ogsaa CK latifolium fandtes blom- 
strende M; fem Bregnearter i store kraftige Exemplarer {La- 
strcea spinulosa , Polypodium Dryopteris og Phegopteris , Cy- 
stopteris fragilis og Woodsia ilvensis) voxede mellem og paa 



Blomster vare ikke sjaeldne, hvoriblandt "den vellugtende Lychnis • 
(o: Viscaria alpina). Denoe Lokalitet synes at vsere en Mellemform mel- 
lem Sydgrenlands Graesmarker eller Enge og Urtemarken. 
Epilobium (Chamcenerium) latifolium trives bedst paa en gruset og slenet 
Bund ved Bredden af Elve; da dens Redder krybe vidt omkring og danne 
talrige Rodskud, voxer den selskabelig, og ofte daekker den saa taet store 
Pletter, at disse under dens Blomstringstid i lang Afstand tiltraikke sig 
Opmaerksomheden ved deres rede Farve. 



41 

Klipperne o. s. v. Men Krat var her ikke Tale om; det var en 
frodig, blomsterrig Kratbund, en Urtemark. [ Lebet af en 2—3 
Timer noterede jeg her ikke mindre end omtrent 60 Karplanter, 
der med Undtagelse a et Par Lyngplanter (Empetrum og Bellen), 
samt de naevnte og nogle flere Sumpplanter, alle maa henregnes 
til Kratbiindens Vegetation. Aaret derpaa, i Juli 1885, besagte 
jeg Vasbottenfjaeld i Vest-Finmarken; under Bestigningen kom 
jeg op gjennem en Kl0ft i 7 — 800' Hejde, i hvilken der endnu 
laa store Snedriver. Af de her optegnede, nogle og 50 Arter, 
fandtes omtrent Halvdelen ogsaa i bin Dal ved Sukkertoppen, 
og desuden mange andre, som ogsaa kunne findes i Grenland 
og som jeg til Dels regner med til Lyngheden, men kun nogle 
ganske faa, som slet ikke findes der, f. Ex. Viola hifiora, Vacci- 
mum Myrtillus^ Melandrium diurnum^ Astragalus alpinus. Lig- 
heden med Grenland var derfor saerdeles stor. 

Pllekratteiies og Urtemarkeiis geografiske I'dbrediiiiig. Pile- 
krattene findes aabenbart ikke under meget heje Bredder, men 
Pletter af Urtemark vil man rimeligvis traeffe hejt mod Nord; 
med stor Frodighed synes den endnu at findes i Grenland ved 
76° n. B., at domme af Nathorst's Ord: «dar rannilar genom- 
skara den rika grasmarken, synes ofta ett hvidt band af Saxi- 
fraga cernua^ nagon g^ng blandadt med gult af Ranunculus sul- 
phureusn^ — men maaske var dette dog snarest et GraBskjsr. 

Se vi OS om i andre nordlige Lande efter lignende Vegeta- 
tionsformer som dem, der ere behandlede i dette Afsnit, da maa 
vi naturligvis for det ferste sammenstille Norges Vidieregion 
med Grenlands Pilekrat. Forskjellen i Busk- Vegetationen er 
allerede fremhsevet (S. 13). Hvad Urtevegetationen angaar, da er 
Norges aabenbart langt rigere, thi de i Birkeskovene forekommende 
Arter ville vijo til Dels gjenfinde i Krattene. Jeg behever blot 
at henvise til N. Lunds, Brotherus's, Fellmanns og andres 
Skildringer fra Norge og Lapland. I Krattene og ved Baekkene 
i 0st-Finmarken Andes f. Ex. felgende almindelige Planter, som 



42 

slet ikke ere fundne i Grenland: Viola biflora^ Valeriana offi- 
cinalis^ Chrysosplenivm altemifolium^ Ooeloglossum viride, Orchis 
maculata , Myosotis silvatica , Sceptrum carolinum , Finguicula 
alpina, Caltha palustris, Trollius, flere Arter Ranunculus, Salix 
polaris, Petasites frigida^ Melandrium diurnum, Trientalis, Blaa- 
baerbusken (Vaccinium Myrtillus) og mange andre (se ovenfor 
S. 18), foruden flere, der i Skandinavien og Lapland ere meget 
almindelige, men i Grenland meget sjasldne {t^\.Rubus Cha- 
mcemorus o. a.) 

Meget betegnende for den store Forskjel, der er mellem 
Grenlands og Islands Vegetation, er den Lisle over Planter, 
som Grenlund meddeler fra den varme Kilde, Laugarne, ved 
Reykiavik: *Trifolium repens, Potentilla anserina, Sagina nodosa, 

* Galium uliginosum, *Plantago major, *Callitriche stagnalis, 

* J uncus lamp rocar pus , J. hufonius, Potamogeton rufescens, P. 
gramineus [= lieterophyllus) , P. pusillus, Ueleocharis palustris, 
*Equisetum limosum. Af disse 13 Arter ere ikke mindre end 6 
(maerkede med *) ikke fundne i Grenland, og de andre ere 
sjaeldne der og hovedsagelig indskraenkede til del allersydligste. 

Hvorledes Kratvegetationen er i Nord-Amerika n. f. 
Skovgraensen bar jeg desvaerre naesten intet kunnet finde om; dog 
fremgaar det f. Ex. af Kichardsons og See mans Skildringer, 
at der er mange Slaegter, som ikke findes i Grenland og til 
Dels heller ikke i N. Europa, f. Ex. Sierversia, Dianthus, Dodeca- 
theon y Anthericum , Rosa, Rihes , Lupinus, Aconitum, Sangui- 
sorha, Kalmia, Corydalis, o. s. v., og Pilene ere fortrinsvis andre 
Arter end i Nord-Europa. 

Urtemarken vil vel i Nord-Europa naeppe have faaet noget 
eget Navn og er maaske ogsaa i Almindehghed saa graesrig 
der, at den simpelthen gaar under Navn af Grapsmark eller 
Grajs-Li. Dog saa jeg paa Tronfjaeld i Selskab^med Doc. E. 
Rostrup og anden Steds aegte Urtemark, hvor der knap fandtes 
et Graesblad. Den grenlandske Urtemark modsvarer maaske 
ogsaa, hvad Middendorff og v. Baer have beskrevet fra Si- 



43 

birien og Novaja Semlja, og jeg vil med den ogsaa naermest 
sanimenstille Schweiz's «Alpenmatten», skj^nt disse jo ere meget 
rigere og taeltere og i andre Henseender forskjellige (se 
ovenfor S. 27). Naar jeg nemlig laeser IVl iddendorffs Skil- 
dringer af Tundraernes «Oaser» (i Bd. I, S. 76 og i IV, S. 733, 
af bans Rejsevffirk), kan jeg ikke slutte andet end, at det er 
samme Vegetationsform vi have i Grenlands «Urtemark»; bine 
Oaser findes f. Ex. paa Flodbrinkerne ved Taimyrfloden og paa 
andre Skraaninger, der ere vaernede mod raa Vinde, men 
udsatte for lodrette Solstraaler, og som bave les og sort 
Jord; ikke er der ber paa Skraaningerne noget Graesdaekke, 
frembaever ban udtrykkeb'g, men desto mere overraskende er 
Farvepragten og Formrigdommen i Modsaetning til den merke 
Jord; man ser ofte mere Blomster end Lev. Sierversia glacialis^ 
Ranunkler, Caltha palustris^ Potentiiiaer og Loveland, alle med 
gule Blomster, Saussurea, Polemonium og Eritrichium med blaa, 
Oxytropis og Pedicularis med rode; ber findes Saxifragd'eT, 
Armerta, Polygonum Bistorta^ Matricaria inodora^ Erigeron uni- 
•florus^ Papaver nudicaule^ Delphinium Middendorfiii o. a. Ar- 
terne ere, som man ser, for storste Helen forskjellige fra Gren- 
lands, men Vegetationsformen er aabenbart den samme; blot en 
Art vil jeg bestemt regne til Lyngbeden og Fjaeldmarken, nemlig 
den gule Valmue. 

Den samme Vegetationsform skildrer Baer fra Novaja 
Semlja, bvor baade Krattene og Lyngbeden mangier, og den 
hajeste Busk, Salix lanata, kun baever sig et Spand eller saa 
over Jorden; Bjaergfoden kan paa samme Maade vjere en 
«Blomsterbave» eller et "Blomsterbed». Betegnelsen skal ud- 
trykke den store Mangel paa Ensartetbed i de sammensaettende 
Planter, deres forskjellige Farver, og den temmelig aabne Be- 
voxning med Tilbagetraengen af Graesset og Frembersken af 
«Stauder». Ogsaa Heuglin skildrer disse frodige Plelter med 
et tykt Humusdaekke, bvor man paa et Rum af faa Kvadralalen 
kan samle en 50 Arter Blomsterplanter. Belt overensstemmende 



44 

med Grenlands «Urtemark'» ere disse <'BIomsterbede» dog maaske 
naeppe; thi i Grendland synes Plantedaekket at vaere taettere, i 
alt Fald saa vidt jeg bar set, og noget af Fjaeldmarkens Natur 
have «Blomsterbedene» aabenbart ogsaa. 

Hvad Kjellman kalder .»Blomstermark» og Nathorst taler 
om under Navn af «Sluttningar» paa Sibiriens Nordkyst og paa 
Spitsbergen synes mig derimod bestemtere at vaere en frodig 
Fjaeldmark (se senere). 

III. Lyngheden. 

Traeagtige Plantedele fordre som bekjendt en betydelig Varme- 
grad for at fuldende deres Udvikling, for at Vedet kan «modnes», 
og Planter med forvedede Staengler gaa i det hele derfor beller 
ikke saa langt mod Nord eller saa hajt op paa Bjaergene som 
de urteagtige. Fra Birkeskovene i Sydgrenlands lune , solrige 
Dale saa vi Vegetationen synke ned til Pilekrattenes mere 
haardfere Formation; det naeste Skridt nedad ferer os til en 
Vegetationsform , som er lav og naesten trykket ned til Jordens 
Overflade, men dog endnu bar forvedede Grene, og som skylder 
for en stor Del Jordbunden, men for en Del vist ogsaa Klimaet 
sin Tilbliven, nemlig Lyngheden. 

Lyngbeden giver en betydelig Del af Grenlands Overflade 
dens Praeg; den daekker de terere Steder af Bjaergenes Fod og 
Sider, naar de ikke ere alt for stejle, og den giver store Straek- 
ninger af det gronlandske Landskab den samme alvorlige, merkt 
brune Farvetone, som vi kjende saa godt fra vore nordeuro- 
paeiske Heder og som bolder sig uforandret hele Vegetations- 
tiden igjennem, fra Snedaekket er svundet, og til det laegger sig 
over Jorden paa ny. Jo fladere og jaevnere Terrainet er, desto 
mere vil man finde opbobet af Bjaergenes Forvitringsprodukter, 
desto taettere og bejere Lyngheden , i Fald der ikke er alt for 
raat og blaesende koldt, og i Fald Vandet ikke bliver staaende. 
Hvor den er taettest, kan den danne et ganske sammenbaengende. 



45 

foddybt Taeppe over Jorden, som det kao vaere helt besvaerligt 
at vandre igjennem, ganske som paa vore frodigere Heder (se 
Rejseberetningen S. 191 — 192). IMed Terrainets Jaevnhed felger 
ogsaa sterre Ensformighed i Daekket, isaer paa Steder, hvor 
Empetrum er fremherskende. Lyngheden er vel ogsaa den 
Vegetationsform, der spiller den storste Kolle for Grenlaendeme; 
fra den faa de deres Braendsel, ikke blot fra de sterre Buske 
som Pi! og Dvaergbirk , men ogsaa og isaer fra de lave Buske, 
Empetrum^ Cassiope tetragona og Ledum^ og naar de Rejsende 
slaa Telt, skaffes ferst og fremst nogen «Lyng» til Stede til at 
koge Maden ved; Koner og Piger sendes fra Kolonierne ud at 
henle «Lyng», og Navnet «Lyngmarken») er vel bekjendt for 
alle Polarfarere, der have besogt Godhavn, skjent denne Del 
just ikke nu kan siges at vaere rig paa Hede. 

Jeg benaevner denne Vegetationsform «Lynghede», dels fordi 
den, som nedenfor naermere skal vises, for en meget stor Del 
dannes af Planter, der here til Lyngfamilien i videste Forstand, 
dels og isaer fordi den habituelt og biologisk aldeles stemmer 
med vore europaeiske Lyngheder. Jeg vil fremhaeve navniig fel- 
gende Overensstemmelser^). 

De fremherskende og karaktergivende Planter ere smaa 
Buske («Ris» vilde Finner og Svenske vist naermest sige), der 
have brunlige, mere eller mindre krummede og forvredne Grene, 



^) Benaevnelsen .Hede. bliver ogsaa brugt af Rink; jeg bar tilfaeldigvis 
noteret et Sted i Etzels Bearbejdelse (S. 288). hvor det hedder .unter 
Haide versteht man alle kleineren Buschgewachse, die man abrelssl, 
um sie ganz zu verbreiinen.. Af alt det anferte synes det klart at 
fremgaa, at .Lynghede* maa vaere et passende Navn, meget heldigere 
end det ogsaa yngre Navn .die Ericaceenformation*, som Th. Holm bar 
givet den samme Vegetationsform i Englers Jahrbucher, eller .Ericlne- 
localiteter. , som ban kalder den i Geograf. Tidskr. IX. Hvor lldet kor- 
rekt ban bar opfattet Hedens Natur, fremgaar af, at ban i Geograf. Tidskr. 
helt og i Englers Jahrb. omtrent helt forbigaar den allervigtigste Hede- 
plante , Empetrum. Paa det sidst naevnte Sted anferer ban , formodentlig 
rettet mod min Benaevnelse, at .egentlig Lynghedc, ikke Andes i Gron- 
land. Ja hvad forstaas ved .egentlig Lynghede?- Terrainets Fladhed er 
jo ikke afgjerende, thi vi have jo ogsaa bakket Hede i Jylland. 



46 



og som oftest ikke haeve sig mere end omtrent et Spand over 
Jorden. Alting holder sig lavt paa Hederne, mere eller mindre 
trykket ned til Jorden, isaer iivor de kolde Havvinde blaese lien 
over den. Nogle Arter, som Pil, Dvaergbirk og Ene, laegge sig 
i Espalierform hen over Jorden, ofte meget tydeiig og vist nok 
altid vendende sig Jjort fra den Himmeiegn, hvorfra de koideste 
Vinde blaese og segende Lae bag Sten og i smaa Fordybnin- 
ger, i det alle de Grene, som haeve sig lidt hejere, saa at sige 
paa tvaers af Vinden, udterres af denne og de M. Andre, som 
Empetrum^ Cassiope tetragona, Dry as , Rhododendron^ Ledum ^ 
danne mere eller mindre taette og sammenhaengende og mere 
eller mindre udstrakte Tuer, undertiden tykke, sammenhaengende 
Puder af en enkelt eller nogle Kvadratfods Sterrelse og blot nogle 
faa Tommers Tykkelse. Grunden er, at de have kun en kraftig 
Rod og nedUggende, hos nogle i det hejeste svagt rodslaaende 
Grene, saa at de ikke kunne krybe vidt omkring. Med denne 
Tueform felger, at Jorden, ganske som Tilfaeldet er paa den 
magrere Hede i Nord-Europa, ikke altid bliver daskket med et 
sammenhaengende Taeppe, men skimter frem mellem Buskene, 
naar Mellemrummene ikke, hvad der naturligvis kan vaere Til- 
faeldet, blive udfyldte af Urter, JMos og Lav. Taettest er Vege- 
tationen paa det lavere og fladere Terraen, som alt er berert, 
isaer hvor Empetrum fremhersker. Selvfelgelig vil Klippebunden 
mange Steder bryde frem gjennem Heden med sterre eller 
mindre, afrundede Toppe, og Rullestene i alle Sterrelser ville^ 
naturligvis ogsaa bidrage til at bryde Daekket, hgesom det felger 



M lierggren har noteret den interessante lagttagelse, at naer vetl Isbraeerne 
og Iskanten rette Betula nana og Salix glauca deres nedliggende Stammer, 
paa Grund af Braevinden og Fugtigheden bort fra Isen (1. c. 865). 
Naar Kjellman (Pol. Lif. S. 486) mener, at Espalierformen af arktiske 
Buske skyldes «en strafvan att undvika de kallare luftlagren et stycke 
ofvan'marken», er dette naeppe helt rigtigt; ikke Kulden som saadan, men 
de kolde og terre Vinde ere ferst og fremst Grunden. Kerner vil for 
Alpebuskenes Vedkommende ikke heller give Kulden, men Sneens Tryk 
Skylden. 



47 



af sig selv, at det bjaergrige Grenland ikke frembyder saadanne 
Hedesletter som. Nord-Europa. 

Fremdeles ligner Lyngheden vore Heder deri, at dens Buske 
have fleraarige, "Stedse grennen Blade, hvormed dog 
ikke skal vaere sagt, at de ere fuldt saa frisk grenne om Vin- 
teren, da forevrigt Sneen paa de fleste Steder daekker dera, 
som i Vegetationstiden. Overvintrende Blade have ikke mindre 
end 15 af Hedens omtrent 20 Arter, nemlig: Empetrum nigrum^ 
Cassiope tetragona og hypnoides ^ Phyllodoce coerulea ^ Azalea 
procumhenSj Diapensia lappomca^), Jumperus communis s.nana^ 
Ledum palustre og groenlandicum ^ Rhododendron lapponicum, 
Dnjas mtegrtfolta, Arctostaphjlos uva ursi^ Vaccimum vitis idcea^ 
Linncea^ Thymus Serpyllum. Disse stemme altsaa i delte Punkt 
med vore Heders Karakterbuske, Hedelyng [Calluna vulgaris)^ 
Klokkelyng [Erica Tetralix) og Revling [Empetrum)^ den eneste 
almindeh'ge, som er faelles med Grenland '-^l. Andre stemme 
med vore Heders Pil [Salix repens), Gyvel (Sarothamnus) og 
Visse [Genista) i at vaere levfaeldende, nemlig: Pil {Salix 
glauca og den paa de egentlige Heder dog sjaeldne 8. groen- 
landica)^ Dvaergbirk [Betula nana) samt Belle [Vaccinium uli- 
ginosum /9, microphjllum)'^). Ogsaa af Lynghedens Llrter ere 
nogle stedsegrenne, hvad senere naermere skal blive omtalt 
(S. 58). Det behever naeppe at fremhaeves, hvad der alt af 
andre, f. Ex. Grisebach i «Die Vegetation der Erde», er gjort 
opnioBrksom paa, hvor nytttgt det maa vaere for Planterne i et 
arktisk Land, hvor Vegetationstiden er saa kort, at de strax efter 



M Hvis Blade efter Wormskiold om Vinteren antage en purpnrred Farve 
ovenpaa, medens de neden under ere aldeles grenne, hvilket stenimer 
med, hvad jeg selv saa i Norge. 

') Andromeda polifolia er sjaelden baade i Danmark og i Grenland; den 
er jo ogsaa isaer knyttet til Hedemoser. Melbserrissen (Arctoataphylos uva 
ursi) er meget sjaelden i Grenland. 

3) •Einige Exemplare aus Kaiser Franz Josephs Kjord haben anschelnend 
neben den heurigen auch noch vorjahrige Blatter* skriver Buchenau, 
men om de virkelig vare i Stand til at assimilere, er vel tvivlsomt. 



48 



Snesmaeltningen eller, hvis de staa blottede om Vinteren, eje- 
blikkelig, saa snart gunstigt Vejr indtraeder, ere i Stand til at 
optage Assimilationsarbejdet; «kein Tag geht verloren»; dog 
maa jeg gjare opmaerksom paa, at der ikke er gjort tilstraekke- 
lige tlnders0gelser til at fastslaa dette, men efter de anatomiske 
Undersegelser, som jeg bar anstillet paa gamle Blade af stedse 
grenne Planter, tvivler jeg rigtignok ikke paa, at saadanne, 
i alt Fald bos mange Arter, kunne assimilere efter Over- 
vintringen ; Sporgsmaalet er naermest, naar de begynde Assi- 
milationsarbejdet^). 

Jordbiiiideii i Lyiighcden vil naturligvis frembyde nogen For- 
skjel efter Undergrundens Beskaflfenhed, men i det store og 
hele fmde vi en maerkelig Lighed med vore europaeiske Heder; 
den er en tor, mager og sortfarvet Sand, paa mange Steder 
noget terveagtig og ganske svarende til, hvad vi kalde «iVlaar- 
jord». Grunden til den ubetydelige Mulddannelse er vel forst 
at S0ge i Lidenheden af Bladene og de smaa Maengder af orga- 
nisk Masse, som leveres Jorden ved Lovfaldet, ogsaa af den 
Grund, at de ievfaeldende Planter ere saa faa, og at Bladene 
blive siddende paa Staenglerne flere til mange Aar efter, at de 
opberte at tage Del i disses Liv. Dette sidste gjaelder ikke 
blot om de stedsegrenne Buske, men ogsaa om mange af Lyng- 
hedens Urter^). 



*) Notitser om stedsegrenne alpine og arktiske Planter findes rundt om i 
Literaturen ; se f. Ex. Kerner Abhangigkeit der Pflanzengestalt o. s. v. 
S. 36 ff., Grisebach I.e., Kjellman Polarvaxt. lif. S. 516. 

^) Af disse skal jeg naevne: Sihhaldia procumbens, Silene acaulis, Viscaria 
alpina, de Ire Melandrium- Xrier, Alsine biflora og andre Alsineer, Poten- 
tilla Vahliana og andre Poteniiller^ Draba- Xrlerne, Vesicaria arctica, 
Papaver nudicaule, alle Saxifragce, som fmdes paa Heden , naermest S. 
decipiens , triciLspidata , oppositifolia og Aizoon, Artemisia borealis, An- 
tennaria alpina, Erigeron compositus, Pyrola grandijlora, Hedegraesserne, 
saa som isaer Festuca ovina og Bierochloa alpina o. fl,, derunder Cype- 
raceerne medregnede, Lycopodiaceerne. Det samme gjaelder vist ogsaa 
om Alchemilla alpina, Z/WzwZa-Arterne og andre. 



49 

Bladene blive da altsaa laenge siddende, indterrede og kun 
til Dels suksessivt faldende hen i Stev, der bliver blaest bort af 
Vinden til lavere, mindre vindaabne Steder, og som bidrager til 
Mulddannelsen i Krattene og paa Urtemarken, men til Dels ogsaa 
samler sig om Moderplanten og dens nedre Grene. Rink bar 
med sin skarpe lagttagelsesevne vaeret opmaerksom paa delte 
og baade i «Gr0nland» og i «Dan. Greenland » fremhaBvet, at 
Hedebuskene og andre Planter i Heden ikke gro sea meget i 
egentlig Jord, som i et taet Vaev af uddede Planterester. At 
disse langtfra undergaa de Forraadnelsesprocesser, som de dede 
Plantedele i Krattene f. Ex., eller i et varmt og fugtigt Klima, 
skyldes den Mangel paa Fugtighed, der findes paa Heden frem 
for i Krattene, og ogsaa det kolde Klima i det hele; Kiilde og 
Torhed modvirke Forraadnelse, Varme og Fugtighed tillade der- 
imod Bakterierne at saette Oplesningsarbejdet i Gang. Traut- 
vetter bar ievrigt sikkert Ret, naar han som andre Grunde til 
Plantedeles lange Bevaring i arktiske Egne naevner ogsaa Vin- 
terens Stadigbed, idet der ikke findes en saadan Vexel af Te 
og mildt Vejr med Kulde, og ikke saadan Slud, som i vore 
regnfulde Vaar- og Hestmaaneder, samt desuden Vinterens tid- 
lige og pludselige Indtraeden ^). 



') Det felger naesten af sig selv, at ogsaa mange andre arktiske Rejsende 
have vaeret opmserksonime paa de gamle Blades lange Bevarelse og 
Vedhaengen ved Moderplanten; v. Baer omtaler det fra Novaja Semija; 
Trautvetter for Taimyrplanterne; Hart fyldigere fra Robeson Channel 
under 8t — 82° n. B. i Nord-Grenland, og senest har ogsaa Kjellman 
omlalt det. Han vil i den taette KIsedning af dede Planterester se et 
Middel for Planterne til at vaerne sig mod Hejnordens Kulde, 
navnlig til at vaerne de unge Skud mod de Farer, der felge med Op- 
teningen, efter at Planten har vaeret frossen; Naturen skulde omsorgs- 
fuldt ligesom pakke dem ind, ganske som vi indpakke vore hejstammede 
Rosenbuske til Vaern mod Vaartidens Farer. Den samme Tanke har 
for ovrigt allerede tidligere Trautvetter og Grisebach udlalt; den 
ferste kalder hint Daekke ^eln willkommener Schutz*. Uden at villa 
benaegte, at en saadan Klaedning kan have nogen Betydning i nsevnte 
Henseende, maa jeg dog meget betvivle, at den kan betragtes som nogen 
virkeiig •Tilpasningi af Naturen. Vi kuune flnde ganske det samme 
xu. 4 




■ Of THE 

UNIVERSITY 




50 

Felgen af alt dette er nu, at der danner sig isaer paa 
fladere og lavere Bakker en Vegetations- Masse, der kan be- 
nyttes og faktisk ogsaa benyttes ganske som Lyngterven i 
Jylland. Rink, f. Ex., omtaler en saadan Terv, dannet af 
sammenfiltrede Grene, Redder, halvt opleste Bladrester, IVlos og 
Lav, der skaeres i Stykker paa Ve— Vs Kubikfods Slerrelse, og 
det er saerlig Vs— V4 Mil fra Kysten, at man trseffer den bedste, 
laengere inde i Fjordene bliver den slettere; jeg formoder, at 
Grunden bl. a. er den, at Empetrum trives saa overordentiig 
frodig paa Yderlandet^). Der er rimeligvis en Maengde sure 
Humusstoffer i denne Maarjord, som baerer Hedevegetationen; 
P. E. M tiller betegner Maardannelsen som «en Tervedannelse 
paa det Terre*), et Udtryk, som synes mig aldeles traeffende, og 
som tillige passer godt paa Grenlands Lynghede. 

At man i denne Hedebund heller ikke finder noget Dyre- 
liv, der er vaerd at tale om, ikke nogen Regnorm, knap nogen 
Bille eller andet Insekt, er jo ogsaa betegnende og i Overens- 
stemmelse med den ajgte Maarjord; i alt Paid saa jeg aldrig 
en eneste Regnorm, naar jeg foretog Gravninger, skj0nt jeg 
med Tanken paa Mullers smukke Arbejder stadig havde min 
Opmaersomhed henvendt paa dem. Man bar desuden i mang- 
foldige Tilfaelde saa kort ned til den faste Klippe, og Jorden vil 
derfor yderst let blive udterret og gjennemhedet i Sommertiden, 
naar den smsltede Snes sidste Rester for laengst ere lobne til 
Havet eller fordampede. Hedebunden er i Virkeligheden som 



Faenomen paa terre og varme Steder, f. Ex. hos Draha-kxi^x paa Lille- 
asiens Bjaerge, og dernaest er det jo langt fra hos alle, at de yngste 
Dele, der netop mest maa behove Vaern, ere daekkede. 
M Ogsaa gamle Crantz taler om denne Terv og kalder den "der rechte 
Torf • , som er -mit vielen Wurzein, verwestem Moos und Gras durch- 
wachsen*. 1 allernyeste Tid omtales den alter, nemlig af Dr. Hoist 
(Sveriges geolog. Undersokning, Ser. C, no. 81, S. 67): .Ljungtorfven 
bildas af krakris [empetrum], som stundom ganska rikligt beklader berg- 
sluttningarna, och som formultnad kan bilda visserligen icke maktiga, 
men dock ganska goda torfaflagringar-. Han meddeler kemisk Analyse 
af denne og andre grenlandske Torvedannelser 



61 

vore Heders en yd erst ter og mager Jord; naar Solen har 
gjennemvarniet den, og Laverne og Mosseme staa sprede og 
t0rre, gaar det som paa vore Heder, naar man i Sommertiden 
Iffinge har vandret over dem, Stevlesaalen bliver glat poleret og 
Foden glider paa den knasende BiindM. 

Om der i denne Hedebund findes Svampetraade, som efler 
Mtiller hos os, er mig ubekjendt. 

Nord for Vajgattet skal Torvedannelsen blive sparsommere, 
vel sagtens fordi Lyngheden bliver sjaeidnere og mindre frodig. 

Lyiighedeiis buskformede Blomsterpianter ere folgende, alt til 
Dels naevnte i det foregaaende. 

Kraikkebaer- eller Revlingplanten (Empetrum nigrum) 
maa naevnes ferst som den alleralmindeligste. Den dominerer 
isffir i det yderste Kystland , hvis kolde Havtaage og Storme 
den er haardfer nok til at udholde. Der er derfor isaer her 
Steder, hvor den som Hedelyngen [Calluna) ofte hos os, naesten 
alene danner Plantedaekket, fortraengende alle andre Buske; disse 
Steder ere lidet blomsterrige, men friskere gronne end de andre, 
hvor Vegetationen er mere aaben og andre Buske traede op 
med. Men Empetrum findes ogsaa i utrolige iVIaengder langt 
inde i Landet, og skjent den oftest holder sig lavt, kan den 
dog mange Steder paa gunstigere Pladser danne et fodhejt 
Daekke. Den gaar ogsaa hejt op paa Bjaergene, men synes for 
saa vidt fordringsfuld , som den ikke ynder staerkt skraanende 
eller grusede Steder. Den er saa almindelig udbredt i alle de 
sydligste og mellemste Dele af Grenland, at Grev Raben siger: 
• man kan naesten ikke gjore et Skridt uden at trsede paa den». 



^) Dette maa imidlertid ikke forstaas saaledes , at Hedebuskene ikke ogsaa 
kunne voxe paa fugiig Bund; i denne Henseende forholde de gren- 
landske sig som vore egne, og jeg har set Steder med temmelig vaad, 
naesten moseagtig Bund, der var daekket af Empetrum og Ccusiope 
ietragona sammen med Pil og Dvaergbirk forudeo Mos, Lav, m. m. 

4* 



52 



Ogsaa paa 0stkysten er den almindelig; «jeg skylder Kraekke- 
baerrene, at jeg ikke fandt min Ded paa 0stkysten», skriver 
Graah. Endnu saa langt Nord paa som ved Cap Sabine (den 
amerikanske Kyst af Smiths Sund; 78° 45 n. B.) er den efter 
Hart meget almindelig og gaar op til 800' over Havet; men 
laengere nord paa saa ban den ikke, og den mangier andre 
Steder ganske, f. Ex. efter Sutherland paa Cornwallis Island 
ved Barrow Strait (1. c. I, 363). Dog laenge for denne Bredde 
synes dens Kraft at vaere briidt. Vahl skriver om Uperniviks 
Distrikt: «flere Straekninger ere vel ber, som i sydligere Zoner 
bedaekkede med Mosser blandede med Lavarter og med Empe- 
trum^ men naesten aldrig er Empetrum saa frodig og frembringer 
saa store Baer som i Syden, og undertiden komme disse endog 
ikke til Modenhed». 

Grundene til Kraeklingens Herredemme ere rimeligvis flere; 
en af dem er dog vist nok den, at den i bejere Grad end de andre 
Hedebuske bar nedliggende og langstrakte Grene, der nogen- 
lunde let slaa Redder (fra den lille Salix herbacea ser jeg bort); 
den breder sig derfor ogsaa lettere til Siden, saa at den enkelte 
Plante kan omspaende et starre Areal, og naar de forskjellige 
Tuer vaeve Grenene ind mellem hverandre, maa Daekket blive 
meget taettere. En anden Griind kan maaske seges i dens 
Frugters kjedede Beskaffenhed, saa at de seges af flere Dyr, og 
derved spredes de stenbaarde smaa Fro vidt omkring^). 



*) Ltnt. Ryder har meddelt mig, at om Vinteren ere Polarraevens Exkre- 
menter redlige af de mange Kraekkebaer, som den spiser i Mangel af 
bedre. ^'mpeirum-Frugterne anferes udtrykkelig af Macoun som 'the 
chief article of food for young geese in the north, and large flocks of 
boot old and young have been seen feeding upon its berries on Anti- 
costi» (Canad. pi. p. 458). Paa Jyllands Heder har jeg mange Gange set 
Fugleexkrementer ligge mellem Hedebuskene, eller f. Ex. hen i Hjul- 
sporene af Hedevejene, opfyldle af Empetruvi-Fre , og jeg har 1886 ud- 
saaet saadanne sammen med Pre af Frugter, som Fuglene ikke havde 
fortaeret, for om muligt at erfare, om Buchenau har Ret i sin For- 
modning om, at Empetrumr-Fre skulle gaa gjennem en Fuglemave for 
at kunne spire. Fremskynde Spiringen kan delte jo sikkert, efter hvad 



53 

Den naeste Art, som jeg vil naevne, er Caasiope tetra- 
gona. Den er meget sjaelden eller mangier belt i det sydligste 
Gronland, ligesom den jo ogsaa i Skandlnavien farst findes i det 
allernordligste (omtrent fra den 67 de Breddegrad; se Blytts 
Flora S. 840). Ved Godlhaab (c. 64° n. B.) begynder den at 
blive almindelig i Gr0nlandM. Ved Holstensborg, f. Ex. ved 
Tatsip-ata nogle Mile inde i Amerdlokfjorden, saa jeg den paa 
sine Steder gjore Empetrum Kangen stridig, og det endog 
naesten ved Havets Niveau. Den tager saa til i Udbredning og 
iMaengde Nord efter, og paa Grund af sin Maengde og sin Harpix- 
holdighed bliver den i JNordgrenland et meget vigligt Braendsel. 
Efter mundtlig Meddeielse af Cand. V. Ussing er den ved Uper- 
nivik den almindeligste Hedeplante, hvorefter felge Empetrum 
og Beller. Den vides at gaa op til 81—82° n. B. (Grinnell 
Land efter Greely) og er meget almindelig i det nordestlige 
Grenland; i (hele?) det arktiske Amerika fmde vi den ligeledes 
almindelig omtalt og anvendt af de Rejsende. 

En lille Busk, der vist aldrig mangier paa nogen Hede, 
men bvis Grene dog ere for spinkle og lave og tillige, da den 
er lovfaeldende, for negne til, at den faar nogen videre Betyd- 
ning som Braendsel, er Be II en {Vaceinium uliginosum /9, 
microphyllum) ^ af mange Rejsende kaldt «Blaabaer» (den aegte 
Blaabaerplante er ikke funden i Grenlandi. At den er saa al- 
mindelig, maa bl. a. skyldes lignende Forhold som bos Kraek- 
ling: den bar Baerfrugt og den udbreder sig ved vandrette i 
Jorden krybende Skud. iMedens Bellen ber i Landet naesten 



man ellers ved om Fuglemavers Indvirkning paa haardskallede Fre, men 
abaolut nedvendigt er det dog ikke, i alt Fald spirede begge mine Fre- 
prever, den ene imidlertid meget rigeligere end den anden. Ved en 
iMisforstaaelse af den, der saaede dem , var det desvserre ikke blevet 
noterel paa Etiketlen, hvilken Prove der havde passeret Fuglemaverne. 
I) Vahl skriver i sit efierladte Manuskript om den: 'den findes i Grenland 
ferst i Godfhaabs Distrikt, hvor den bedaekker store Stykker af de hejeste 
Fjaeldplateauer i NaBrheden af de dervaerende store Snepletler .... 
under 1000' forekommer den ikke her; men i Holstensborgs Distrikt 
stiger den ned til Havet". 



54 

blot findes i Hedemoser, finde vi den maerkvaerdig nok i Gren- 
land paa Hederne, selv de terresle. Ogsaa Berggren og 
senere Kj ell man have, saa vidt jeg mindes , fremhaevet denne 
Maerkelighed hos denne og andre af vore Sumpplanter, saasom 
Ledum ^ Pedicularis palustris og Saxifraga Hirculus, at de i 
Hejnorden kan voxe paa terre og varme Bjaergskraaninger. I 
Norge voxer Bellen som hos os isaer i Moser og Sumpe, men jeg 
har i Vest-Finmarken og paa Dovres Hojfjaelde ogsaa set den paa 
lignende Lokaliteter som i Gronland og til Dels i den samme 
smaabladede Form som der. Grunden til denne Forskjel i Lo- 
kalitet maa vist nok snarest S0ges i Konkurrencen med andre 
Arter; i de sydligere Egne traenges den af disse ud til Sumpene, 
i de nordligere, hvor Konkurrenterne mangle, bemaegtiger den 
sig tillige andet Terrain. Med Birkene se vi jo til Dels det 
samme M. At BoUen i Grenland ogsaa voxer paa fugtige Steder, 
ber dog ikke forglemmes; den ligner i denne Henseende f. Ex. 
Calliina vulgaris^ der lige frodig kan voxe paa en tor Hede 
eller en solvarm Klit og i den vaadeste Sphagnum-Mose. 

Den naeste, som kan omtales, er Post {Ledum) med dens to 
Arter (palustre var. decumbens , og groenlandicum eller lati- 
folium)'^). Om den gjaelder det samme som om Bollen, at den 
fmdes baade paa Hede og i Kjaer, men den holder sig dog vist 
noget mere til de vaadere Pletter i Hederne, til Spalter og 
Revner i Klippen, hvorfra Fugtigheden mindre let fordamper. 
Dens krummede og krogede, indtil fodhoje Stammer, med de 



*) At ogsaa aiidre aegte Sumpplanter i Hejnorden komme paa ter Bund 
om Sommeren, kan laeses hos Hart, f. Ex. S. 1 11 : ^an other check to 
the natural growth of many plants is that all, even marsh plants, such 
as Eriophora, Carices etc. must be prepared for a thorough baking and 
drying before the end of the season, though it opens with a wide-spread 
deluge*, og om de samme p. 77, at de "have to subsist on soil as dry 
and hard as iron during most of the summer-. 

') Jeg kan naeppe tro, at de virkelig ere to Arter; hvad Bladformerne an- 
gaar, er der i alt Fald stor Variation og alle Overgange, og samme 
Exemplar kan baere baade meget brede og meget smalle Blade. Ogsaa 
i Vest-Finmarken saa jeg Bladene variere betydelig. 



55 

staerkt lugtende Blade spille naeppe nogen stor Rolle som 
Braendsel, fordi den ikke er i saa store Masser som Empetrum 
og Cassiope tetragona. 

Rhododendron lappomcum Ran naBvnes sammen med 
Ledum, thi baade habituelt og i Henseende til Udbredning ligner 
den den meget; men den bliver dog ikke saa hej som Ledum, 
og den er en langt mere udpraeget Hedebusk. 

En Hedebusk, der paa sine Steder pletvis optraeder I Maengde, 
er Phyllodoce coerulea. \ Egnen om Holstensborg saa jeg 
den i saadan Maeugde, at der dannedes rede, i laengere Afstand 
synlige Pletter paa den terre Hede mellem den for evrigt domi- 
nerende Empetrum, som den ligner habituelt og endog i en 
maerkelig Grad i Bladform. Paa lignende Maade saa jeg den i 
Vest-F'inmarken, men desuden kan den Gndes ved Bredder af 
Baekke, i fugtige Klefter og i Crtemarken. 

Den lille Cassiope hypnoides spiller ikke nogen stor 
Rolle; dens fine, moslignende Skud findes ganske vist pletvis bist 
og ber i Heden, men saa lave og saa spredt, at den ingen Rolle 
kan spille i Landskabets hele Karakter. Den optraeder ogsaa 
mest paa fugligere, mosrigere Steder nar Vandlab, ofte i Sel- 
skab med Dvaergpilen, og ligesom Phyllodoce ogsaa i Urte- 
marken. 

De Buske, der udvikle de tykkeste og lajngste Stammer, 
ere Dvaergbirken , Pilene og Enen , men som ovenfor anfert 
findes de paa Heden mest i Espalierform. 

Dvaergbirken [Betula nana og i Sydgrenland B. glan- 
dulosa, men om dennes Forekomst belt modsvarer den ff»rste 
Arts, ved jeg ikke). Den er den eneste Birkeform nord for 
62° n. B. I Lyngbeden er den meget almindelig og kan daekke 
store Pletter, men da den er levfaeldende og oftest staerkt trykket 
ned til Jorden, gjer den ikke det taette og kompakte Indtryk 
som Empetrum og daekker ikke Jorden som denne. Den findes 
dels som en lav, forkreblet Busk med forvredne Grene, dels i 
Espalier med Redderne fastbidte i en Klipperevne og med de 



56 

bugtede Stammer og Grene udstrakte paa Jorden, mere eller 
mindre skjulte af Mos, Lav og Hedens andre Planter. Dens 
Stammer blive da ofte 2—3 Alen lange og derover, med en 
Tykkelse af en Tomme eller mere^). Paa gunstigt Terrain retter 
den sig op og kan naa omtrent en Alens Hejde. Saaledes saa 
jeg den i den to Dagsrejser 0st for Holstensborg liggende Dal 
Itivnek. 

Af Pilene er det ligesom i Krattene Salix glauca, der er 
den vigtigste; thi S, groenlandica herer mere hjemme paa fugtig 
Bund i Moser og ved Baekke, og den meget hyppige Salix her- 
bacea kan vel ved sine fra de underjordiske Staengler opskydende 
Skud dann6 friskt grenne Pletter paa Hedens isaer lidt fugtigere 
Terrain, men er for liden og spaed til at kunne regnes til de 
egentlige Buske. I Espalierform naar S. glauca betydeligere 
Sterrelser end Dvaergbirken, 2 — 3 Alens Laengde, Rink naevner 
endog til 5, med 1. — 2 Tommers Tykkelse. Hist og her mellem 
de andre Buske finder man et Exemplar som en lav opret Busk 
eller som Espalierbusk ; men jeg har dog f. Ex. ved Holstens- 
borg set Steder, hvor den og Empetrum dannede Hovedmassen 
af Hedens Buske. Dens Rolle i Pilekrattene er naevnt ovenfor. 
Naar der fra meget hoje nordlige Bredder i G'renland og det 
arktiske Amerika tales om Pile, er det vistnok saedvanlig enten 
denne eller S, arctica R. Br., hvorom Talen er. 

Langt mindre almindelig end Birken og Pilen, men lig- 
nende dem i Henseende til Espalierformen, optraeder En en 
[Juniperus communis var. nana) paa Hederne. Den gaar ej 
heller saa langt mod Nord, omtrent til 68°. 

F0lgende tre Arter: Loiseleuria procumhens^ Dryas integri- 
folia og Diapensia lapponica, ere alle meget almindelige paa 



^) Rob. Brown angiver at have set en 2 Tommer tyk Birkestamme fra 
Sydest-Bugten (Diskobugten) og en lignende fra Upernivik. Ved Franz 
Josefs Fjord vare Birkene mest 12—16" heje, men det var kun Side- 
grene, thi Hovedstammerne laa paa Jorden, indtil vel 3 Fod lange. Den 
staerkeste var c. IV*" tyk. (Buchenau, Zweite deutsche Pol.-Exped.) 



67 

Hederne, og bidrage meget til at skaffe Afvexling til Veje ved 
deres ofte store Rigdom paa i 0jne faldende rede, gulhvide og 
hvide Blomster; men de voxe, isaer de to sidste, spredt i meget 
lave og taette Tuer, i Regelen med et kun ringe Omfang, som 
ikke kunne gjere sterre Virkning i Landskabet^). 

Til sidst maa endelig felgende Hedebuske naevnes, som 
ere sjaeldne i Grenland: Vacctmum vitis idcea j3, pumilum 
(jeg bar kun set den paa fugtig Bund); blot om Diskobugten 
optraeder den almindeligere. Arctostaphylos uva ursi, hidtil blot 
funden i Holstensborg Egnen (se Rejseberetningen S. 185). Arc- 
tostaphylos alpina, funden paa et Par Steder. Linncea borealia^ 
ligeledes (se Rejseberetn. S. 191), og endelig er Thymus Serpyl- 
lum var. decumbens, en Mellemting mellera Busk og Urt, funden 
en Del Steder. 

Alt efter Jordbundens fysiske Beskaffenhed og Haeldning, 
Hejden over Havet og Breddegraden , Expositionen m. m. er 
snart en, snart en anden af de naevnte Arter fremherskende og 
Blandingen forskjellig. iMan finder Steder med overvejende Eri- 
cineer, andre med overvejende Empetrum^ alter andre, hvor 
denne, samt Dvaergbirk og Pil ere de toneangivende o. s. v. 
Ligeledes er der Forskjel i Henseende til : 

Irterue I Lyiighedeu. Indstreede mellem Buskene, der danne 
Grundlaget og det om Vinteren blivende Daekke over Jorden, 
findes en Maengde Urter. Nogle af disse ere ligeledes grenne 
om Vinteren, f. Ex. Pyrola grandiflora^ der naeppe mangier i 
nogen Hede og findes saa vel paa de terreste, mest solaabne 



Paa Novaja Semlja synes Dryas octopetala at vaere mere fremherskende ; 
den skal efter Baer overtraekke terre Bjaergskraenlers Grus med et V 
tykt Lag, der som en Paryk lader sig traekke af; den er der 'die einzige 
wahrhaft gesellige* Art. Den er ogsaa Spitsbergens •allmannaste busk* 
(Nathorst), hvis Stamme kan blive 10 Mm. (4''') tyk og et Par Fod lang. 
Dryas integrifolia i Grenland saa jeg altid meget spredt i smaa Tuer, 
men Rosenvinge bar meddelt mig, at ved Upernivik og Preven syntes 
den ham almindeligere end laengere Syd paa, og kunde der pletvis vsEre 
dominerende. Ogsaa Loiaeleuria kan efter ham spllle en betydeligere 
Roile og hist og her komme naer efter Empetrum. 



58 

Steder, som paa fugtig, mere skyggefuld Bund. Da dens over- 
jordiske Skud ere fleraarige, naermer den sig iovrigt til Buskene. 
Med den ber naevnes Lycopodium- Xrierne , af hvilke man hist 
og her vil se de oprette, med Yngleknopper besatte Skud af 
L. Selago, medens L. annotmum's og L. alpmum's Slaengler 
krybe om paa Jorden. En Del andre Urter have ogsaa om 
Vinteren frisk grenne Levblade, i alt Fald i visse gunstige 
Tilfaelde; de ere i efterfelgende Liste udhaevede med Stjaerne^). 
Felgende urteagtige Planter forekomme paa Heden , men 
naturligvis ikke alle lige almindelig eller alle udelukkende knyt- 
tede til Heden; 

Potentilla (*?}nivea, (*?)-?. Vahliana ^ *P. tridentata\ ogsaa 
P. maculata og ("i)Sibhaldia kan findes her; [*'i) Alchemilla al- 
pina\ *Saxifraga tricuspidata^ der er almindelig nord for Poiar- 
kredsen og kan farve store Pletter guUighvide; (*?)/S. decipiens^ 
overalt meget almindelig; * S. oppositifolia, ligeledes almindelig*^); 
*S. nivalis^ sjsldnere ere *S. Aizoon og i Klipperevner C. cev' 
nua\ *S. hieraciifolia horer vist ogsaa til denne Lokalitet; 
(*?)Papaver nudicnule , den gule Valmue; de fleste (*?)Draba- 
Arter, Dr. nivalis ^ alpina, Wahlenbergii^ corymhosa^ arctica o. a. ; 
ogsaa Dr. crassifolia bor maaske nsevnes her; Dr. aurea fandtes 
paa Hedebund mellem hoj Empetrum ved Holstensborg; *Car- 
damine hellidifolia\ *Arabis Holboellii\ Vesicaria arctica \ *Stel- 
laria longipes \ *Cerastium alpinum, isaer Formen lanata, og 
vel ogsaa C. arcticum\ *Alsine bifiora] A. hirta\ Silene acaulis\ 
*Viscaria alpina] *Melandrium apetalum] *M. involucratum /? 
affine\ *M. trifiorum] Rhodiola rosea isaer i Bevner i Klippe- 



*) Af Urter, sum isaer have hjemme paa anden Lokalitet og som have vinter- 
grenne Blade, kan naevnes Arabis alpina, A. Hooheri, Armeria sibirica, 
Aspidium Lonchitis , Cochlearice, om hvilke Crantz fortaeller, at man 
gjemnier dem Vinteren over bedaekkede med Sne, og Freene spire om 
Vaaren -noch unter dem Schnee», Coptis, Equisetum scirpoides og varle- 
gaium, Halianthus peploides (?) , Lastrcea spinulosa , Tofieldia borealis, og 
vist mange Cyperaceer og Gramineer. 

^) Bemaerkningcr om vintergrenne Blade hos Saodfraga har jeg meddelt i 
botanisk Tidsskrift, Bd. XVI; til det der citerede vil jeg her feje fel- 
gende; Nares skriver: «on examining a plant ol Saxifraga oppositifolia, 
which has not been protected by any snow, and therefore has been 
exposed to the severest temperature, green buds were distinctly visible •. 



59 

bunden; Pedicularis hirsuta^)^ lapponica ^ flammea^) (isaBr paa 
fugtige Steder) og den sjaeldnere A lanata^\; Euphrasia offict- 
nalts] Campanula uni-fiora^ C.rolundifolia sd,T. arctica\ ("1) Arte- 
misia horealis\ Anlennaria alpina og den sjaeldne A. dioica\ 
Erigeron compositus og undertiden uniflorus og alpivus\ Arnica 
alpina ; Polygonum viviparum ; J uncus trifidus ; *Luzula arcuata 
og L. arcuata *confusa\ L. arctica\ L. 8picata\ Scirpus ccespi- 
tosus isaer paa fugtige Sleder; Elyna Bellardi\ Kobresia cari- 
cina'j Car ex nardina\ C. rupestris] C. hyperborea\ C. rigida\ 
C scirpoidea] C. capillaris] C. lagopina] C. supina o. a. Carex- 
Arter; Hierochloa alpina \ Festuca ovina\ F.rubra\ Aira flexuosa\ 
Poa flexuosa] P. glauca\ Trisetum subspicatum\ Agrostis rubra] 
Calamagrostis'^Tier, f. Ex. phragtnitoides , skjont de mere here 
hjemme paa anden Bund; (*?)Lastrosa fragrans] Woodsia ilven- 
sis samt de sjaeldnere W. hyperborea og glabella. 

En hel Del af disse Urter bidrage allid til lidt Afvexling i 
Lynghedens i det hele alvorlige Grundtone; de redblomstrede 
Tuer af Saxifraga oppositifolia^ de gulhvid-blomstrede Pletter 
af S. tricuspidata^ eiler de smaa gule Tuer af Potentillaer, 
Campanula rotundifolias blaa Kroner, Artemisia' qus hvidgraa 
Lev, de hvide Blomster af Polygonum viviparum^ Cerastium 
alpinum, Stellar ia longipes o. a., den blegrode Pedicularis 
hirsuta^ de svovlgule Kroner af P. lapponica og af Papaver 
nudicaule^ Arnica qw?> store gule Kurve o. s. v. o. s. v. — alle 
disse Farver kunne i Forbindelse med selve Lyngplanternes 
rede {Loiseleuria ^ Vaccinium uliginosum, Phyllodoce^ Rhodo- 
dendron)^ hvide eller lyst rede (de to Cassioper^ Ledum, 
Diapensia) eller hvidgule [Dryas) og saa Pyrolaens sniukke 
blegt rosenrede Blomster dog altid bringe noget Liv til Veje 
i den triste Natur. 

En modsat Virkning gjere Mosserne og Laverne, der i 
mange Arter og Individer kunne vaere til Stede og udfylde Plad- 
serne mellem de hejere Planter. Det er til Dels de samme 
graa og gulbrune og graagrenne Toner, som ogsaa Lav 
og Mos paa vore Heder fremvise. 



') Snylter f. Ex. paa Vaccinium uliginosum og Salix herbacea efter Rosen 
vinges lagltagelse. P. lapponicas Vaertplanler ere ukjendle. 



60 

Af IBosser er det isaer de graalige eller graagranne Raco- 
mitrier, de straagule eller bleggrenne Eypna^ samt de kraftige 
grenligbrune Polytrichum-Arier, der ere almindeligst paa Jorden 
i Heden. 

Jeg bar efter de gjorte Samlinger og Berggren («Moss- 

floran») optegnet feigende: 

Racomitrium lanugt'nosum og fasciculare, sjaeldnere cane- 
scens, Grimmia funalis^ ovata^ alpestris og apocarpa, der dog 
mere findes paa Klipper, Polytrichum strictum^ hyperhoreum og 
juniperinum ^ samt den yderst aimindelige Pogonatum alpinum^ 
Dicranum hyperhoreum^ elongatum, fuscescens og Blyttii^ den 
sidste i lave, marke Tuer, den redbrune Ceratodon purpureus, 
Conostomum boreale, BrachytJieeium salebrosum ^ men ogsaa en 
Del mere grenne Arter findes her, isaer paa fugtigere Steder, 
f. Ex. den lyst gr0nne Aulacomnium turgidum samt undertidea 
A. palustre, flere Hypnum- kviev ^ f. Ex. H. rugoswni^ uncinatum^ 
revolutum og Schreberi^ Hylocomium splendens paa ikke alt for 
blaestrige Steder, Bryum arcticum^ Tetraplodon mnioides. Ogsaa 
Halvmosser findes indblandede, f. Ex. den brune Ptilidium citiare^ 
flere J ungermannia\x {J. minuta^ lycopodioides^ attenuata^ Floerkei^ 
setiformis)^ Gymnomitrium concinnatum o. s. v. 

Af Laveriie er det ferst og fremst de buskagtige, paa 
Jordvoxende, der spille en Rolle. Feigende ere de almin- 
dellgste: 

Cladonia rangiferma, pyxidata^ uncialis^ bellidiiiora^ digi- 
tata, gracilis^ furcata^ squamosa og deformis\ af Cetrariae den 
gullighvide C. nivalis, den brunlige C. islandica, begge meget 
aimindelige; fremdeles C. Fahlunensis, cucullata, aculeata] den 
sortebrune Bryopogon jubatus\ Cornicularia divergens i sorte- 
brune Buske paa to Tommers Hejde; de staerkt forgrenede graa 
Stereocaulon- k\'{QV (St. paschale^ S. tomentosum, S. denudatum, 
S. alpinum)\ Sphcerophoron coralloides og fragile i lave, taette, 
brunliggraa Tuer; den lysegule Alectoria ochroleuca hist og her 
meget almindelig. 

[ngen af alle disse Laver optraadte dog paa de Steder, hvor 
jeg var, i saadanne store, taette og ensartede Selskaber som 
f. Ex. Rensdyrlav paa vore Heder eller Laverne i Norges Lav- 
region , saa at Bunden over store Straekninger blev et graahvidt, 
taet Taeppe, end ikke paa de likenrige Grusmarker ved Hol- 
stensborg, der omtaltes i Rejseberetningen S. 187. 



61 



Af bladagtige er det isaer den hvidgra Parmelia saxatilis 
og dens brune Varietet omphalodesj der ogsaa sidde rundt om 
paa Stenene ; endvidere Nephroma arcttcum med sine store 
hvidllg bleggule Lev; Peltigera aphthosa og rufescens, Solorina 
crocea og flere andre. De lysegraa Skorper af Lecanora tar- 
tarea ere meget hyppige og undertiden med nieget store, kjed- 
farvede Apothecier; ikke sjaelden brede de sig pletvis over Jord, 
Mostuer, Graesser og Lyngris. 

De mange lese Stene af hejst forskjellig Sterrelse, der 
ligge streede omkring paa Heden, og de mange gjennem Lyng- 
taeppet frembrydende Dele af Klippebunden baere derimod 
andre Mosser og andre Laver, der egentlig rettest burde nsevnes 
under Fjaeldmarken, men for Sammenhaengens Skyld naevnes her. 

Mosserne, som voxe her, ere fortrinsvis sorte eller 
so rte brune; de ere isaer Andrecea - Arier (A. petrophila, A. 
alpestrts)j der voxe i lave, taette, sorte Tuer isaer paa Klipper, 
som overrisles af Vand; endvidere Grimmia apocarpa^ Weissia 
crispula^ sortebrune Jungermanma'er {J. minuta, alpestris og 
divaricata), Sarcoscyphus emarginatus var. arctzca, Oymnomitrium 
concinnatum o. fl. 

Men talrigere ere dog Lav erne. For det ferste er der de 
fra Nord-Amerikas "barren grounds*) og andre nordlige Egne be- 
kjendte sorte eller graasorte « tripe de roche», Gyrophora- 
Arter {G. prohoscidea^ G, polyphylloy G. cylindrical hyperborea, 
arctica^ vellea o. s. v.), stive og sprede i tort Vejr, blade og slatne 
i vaadt. End videre Parmelia saxatilis i dens forskjellige Farver, 
P. pulverulentOj P. olivacea o. a., og en Maengde skorpeagtige. 
Af de meget almindelige og mest i 0jne faldende af disse maa 
naevnes Buellia geographica, som jeg dog for evrigt sjaelden saa 
saa stor og skinnende gul, som jeg bar set den i Skandinavien; 
fremdeles Buellia atro-alba^ Lecanora' qv af forskjellig Art (ved 
Sukkertoppen f. Ex. L. varia i mange Varieteter, L. hadia^ cenisea^ 
cinereo-rufescensj atro-sulphurea, gibbosa^ ventosa, oculata), Le- 
eidea'er (f. Ex. paa Klipperne ved Sukkertoppen Lecidea poly- 



62 



carpa^ atrobrunnea^ alpestris^ lithophila o. a.), og endelig den 
redgule Xanthoria eleganSj men kun i ringe Udstraekning ^). 

Den vigtigste Rolle synes dog Likenerne at spille paa de 
vejrbidte, hyppig i fugtige Taager indhyllede Yderoer og maaske 
ogsaa i Sydgrenland i den h0jere Fjaeldregion, men dette vil jeg 
omtale under Fjaeldmarken, hvor det naermest horer hen. 

Lynghedens geografiske Idbrediiiiig i Grenland og andre hej- 
nordiske Egne. 

Hvor hejt Lyngheden i Grenland straekker sig mod Nord, 
og hvor hojt den naar op paa Bjaergene, derom ved jeg intet 
sikkert, men den gaar naeppe meget langt i begge lietninger. 
Endnu i 1000' Hejde kan JEmpetrum vaere dominerende, blandet 
med andre Buske. Men det fremgaar dog tydelig, at i en 2 — 3000' 
Hojde kan der i IMellemgronland naeppe laenger blive Tale om vir- 
kelig Hede. Paa Noursoak-Halveen (under 70° n. B.) saa Berg- 
gren Empetrum med indblandet FaccmzMw? uliginosum ^ Salix, 
Ledum m. fl. danne en «brungr0n» Vegetation, uen region som 
fran hafsstranden stracker sig til en hojd af 800 — 1 000 fot», 
og paa andre Sleder siger han, at den stiger hejere; oven for 
denne Graense bliver den sparsommere, og det er mest Cassiope 
tetragona, der repraesenterer den. Paa « Jensens Nunatakker» 
(4—5000' 0. H.) fandtes ingen Lyng, saa at Expeditionen ingen 
Braendsel fik. Efter Hart synes sammenhaengende Vegetation 
at ophere nord for Upernivik (se senere hen). Paa Ostkysten 
af Gronland er f. Ex. Clavering 0en (c. 74V4° n. B.) daekket af et 
taet Felt «von wenige Zoll hohen Birken, Weiden, Grasern und 
Andromeda*) (Payer). 



M Visse Steder synes den at viere i stor Miengde, saa at Klipperne faa en 
redgul Farve. Jeg har vel ogsaa set saadant, men det synes at vaere 
meget mere vidt strakt f. R\. ved ivsugigsok efter Nathorst og ved 
Kap York, ikke langt derfra, efter Nares og Ingle field. Kornerup 
naevner den fra Julianehaabs Distrikt som isaer voxende paa Syenitklip- 
perne. 



Vende vi os til andre af de hejnordiske Egne, da har 
Skandinavien en Lyngvegetation, der habituell ligner Gr0nland8, 
men til Dels har en anden Artssammensaelning. Saaledes sigcr 
BIytt (Englers Jahrb. p. 2), at i 3000 eller 3500'— 4000 eller 
4500' H0jde i den sydlige Del af Norges Bjaerge bedaekke 
graagrenne Pile af et Par Fods Hejde, i Forbindelse med Dvaerg- 
birke og Ene store Straekninger; «diese wechsein mil haide- 
artigen Abhangen, auf welchen Empetrum^ Vacclnien und ein- 
zelne zur Eamilie der Ericeen gehorige Gebirgspflanzen neben 
Moose [Racomitrium) und Flechten auftreten», og strax ved 
min ferste Bjaergbestigning i Nordland ved Tromse fandt jeg en 
Vegetation, der om end ikke typisk Hede, dog naermede sig til 
den og havde mange gr^nlandske Arter. Senere saa jeg Heden 
meget typisk paa V. Finmarkens og Dovres Bjaerge. Ogsaa fra 
«SIattfjallsregionen» i 0st-Finmarken talerTh. Fries om «magra 
hedar») og de derfra naevnte Planter gjenfindes naesten alle paa 
Grenlands. C. P. Laestadius skildrer "tjallslatter») fra Torne&- 
Lappmarks «Fjallregion») , hvor Marken er daekket af Dvaergbirk 
og Ericineer. Lignende Skildringer findes fra Finland hos Hjelt 
og Huit (1. c. S. 78), fra Inari Lapmark hos Kihiman (I. c. S. 86). 
Endnu bedre tillade Broth erus's Skildringer fra Kola (Botan. 
Centralbl., Bd. 26i os en Sammenligning medGrenland: «Auf den 
trockenen Tundren besteht die Unterlage aus Torf, der theils 
von Flechten, theils von Moo%en {Polytrichum strictum, Dicra^ 
num elongatum^ scoparium^ congestum^ Hylocomium splendens^ 
parietinum^ Blepharozia ciliaris) bedeckt ist. Betula nana und 
Empetrum ^\n6^ massenhaft; andere Arten, die beobachtet wurden, 
waren Arctostaphylos alpina, Myrtillus uliginosa^ Azalea pro- 
cumbens^ Phyllodoce coerulea, Diapensia lapponica, Dry as octo- 
petala, Stlene acaulisn o. s. v. ; der naevnes nu en Maengde andre, 
urteaglige Arter, der for en stor Del ligeledes gjenfindes i Gren- 
land. Det er ret interessant, at ban benaevner disse hede- 
agtige Straekninger for •Tundra'er-, el Navn, som Midden- 
dorff ogsaa anvender paa Nord-Europas egentlige Calluna- 



64 

Heder, «en ejendommelig Form af Hejtundrao M, der skylder, 
mener han , Jordens Fattigdom sin Tilvaerelse og saedvanlig 
daekker gamle Havklitter. Spidsen af Krestovajagora baerer lige- 
ledes en Hedevegetation , som hvis Arler Brotherus naevner: 
Arctostaphylos uva ursi og alpina^ Azalea procumbens ^ Phyllo- 
doce coerulea, Vaccinium vitis idcea^ Diapensia lapponica^ Em." 
•petrum nigrum.^ Juncus trifidus ^ Festuca ovina^ lave Buske af 
Juniperus communis samt forkreblede Birke og Fyr, men La- 
verne vare ikke i stor Maengde. 

Det Punkt, som her omtales af Brotherus, herer til 
Fyrreregionen (Bot. Centralbl. 26, p. 201). Det er ganske inter- 
essant, at Lyngheden paa en Maade synes knyttet til 
Fyrreskoven paa lignende Vis som Urtemarken til 
K ratten e (og maaske yderligere til Birkeskoven , hvis ikke 
de grenlandske Birkeskove voxe paa Hedebund). Jeg havde 
flere Sleder baade i det midterste Norge (avre 0sterdal, Foldal, 
Dovrepartiet o. s. v.) og i Vestfinmarken Lejlighed til at be- 
maerke, at Bunden i de magre og aabne Fyrreskove er en Lyng- 
hedebund, dannet af de samme Arter, som man finder hede- 
dannende uden for Skoven, og den Fortegnelse, som Zetter- 
stedt (Ofversigt af K. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandlingar 1874, no. 10) 
giver af Bunden i Fyrreskoven ved Alten indeholder, som jeg 
ogsaa selv bar set, aegte Hedeplanter ; han naevner Betula nana^ 
Empetrum nigrum , Calluna vulgaris , Myrtillus uliginosa og 
nigra., Vaccinium vitis idcea, Agrostis vulgaris og rubra., Poa 
pratensisj Equisetum silvaticum^ Linncea borealis^ Melampyrum 
pratensCj Phyllodoce coerulea^ Azalea procumbens., Arctostaphylos 
alpina, og adskillige Laver, saasom Cladonia, Stereocaulon og 
Nephroma. Grunden maa aabenbart seges deri, at Fyrreskoven 
og fledens Planter kunne nejes med den selv samme terre og 



*) De Ord, Fellmann lader falde om •Likentundraen», tyde ogsaa paa, at 
denne har betydelig LIghed med Lyngheden, eller rettere med Fjaeld- 
marken (se naeste Afsnit). 



65 

magre Jordbund, og de aabne, lyse Fyrreskove give da Lyng- 
heden Plads under sig. 

Der er imidlerlid en ikke ringe Forskjel i Henseende til 
Artsammensaetningen mellem det nordligste Europas og Gren- 
lands Heder. I Grenland ere folgende Arter iiidtil ikke fundne 
eller ere nneget sjaeldne, medens de ere almindelige I Nord- 
Europa: Blaabaer (Vaccimum Myrtillua)^ TyttebsBr {Vaccinium 
vitis idcsa)^ Arctostaphylos alpina og uva ursi^ Calluna vulgaris^ 
Linnosa horealis (i Finmarken finder man den midt i den aabne 
Hede; endog naer Toppen af Skaadavara omtr. 1000' over H. 
bar jeg set den), Dryas octopetala, Aniennarta dioioa, AndrO' 
meda polifolia (isaer paa fugtigt Terrain), Rubua Chamcemorua 
(findes endog inde i Heden , mest dog paa lidt fugtige Sleder), 
Trientalis europcea^ Viola btflora, Coeloglossum viride o. a. 

Ogsaa paa Sibiriens Nordkyst, men forst i det nordest- 
lige Asien, synes Hedestraekninger at forekomme, f. Ex. efter 
Kjellman naer Vegas Vinterkvarter; om Hojlandet her bedder 
det: «man sag der laga piibuskar, vidstrackta mattor af 
krakris (Empetrum) och iummerlyng [Andromeda tetragona) samt 
stora tufvor af en Artemisia- kvU . Men hverken i Taimyrlandet 
eller paa Novaja Semlja^ synes der at findes Hede^), og det 
samme gjaelder om Spitzbergen, skjont denne bar det fremfor 
sidst naevnte Land at bave baade Empetrum og Ericaceer; en 
lille Antydning af Hede findes der dog her efter Nathorsls 
Skildring (Spetsb. Karlvaxter p. 61): Androw.eda tetragona og 
Empetrum here til de faa Arter, der kunne danne virkeiige 



M Baer, Bull, scientlflque, 3, p. 172. Middendorff i 4de Bind. 

') Kjellman s «tufmark» har naeppe sit modsvarende i Greniand; en 
saadan tuel Mark med indiil 2 Fod heje Tuer overvejende af Eriophorum 
vaginatum har jeg ej set. Den synes ganske vist at have nogen LIghed 
med Lyngheden, men med^is Buskvaexter ('Ris.) ere i Majorilet i denne, 
ere de i Minoritet paa .Tufmarken.. Denne kan gaa over i Likenhede 
(se p. 245), og paa andre Steder i noget, der mere ligner Lynghede. Se 
Kjellman, Nord-Sibirien. p. 245 ff. 
XII. ^ 



sammenhaengende «mattor»), Empetrum f. Ex. i Mimers Dal og 
ved Kolbay. 

Om Nord-Amerikas Lynghede kan jeg kun meddele 
ganske lidt. Der maa efter Kichardsons Skildringer fra «the 
barren grounds- findes aegte Hedestraekninger, og det er alter 
til Dels vore garnle grenlandske Bekjendte, der komme igjen, 
issBr Vaccimum uliginosum , Empetrum , Ledum , Cassiope tetra- 
gona, Arctostaphylos uva ursi^ Rhododendron lapponicum o. a. ; 
men mellem dem er der ogsaa et og andet belt nyt, saerlig 
Kalmia glauca'^). 

Vi skuUe endnu til sidst kaste et Blik paa Islands Heder, 
hvis Sammensaetning vil vaere saa meget interessantere at laere 
at kjende, som vi i Baggrunden have Sp0rgsmaalet om en 
prse- og postglacial Landforbindelse med Gronland. Ordet 
«Hede') bruges i Island om Straekninger af meget forskjellig 
Natur; der er dog ogsaa aegte Lyugheder. Grenlund omtaler 
dem S. 31 i "Planlevaexten paa Island-): Efterhaanden som Ra- 
comitrinm lanuginosum baner Vejen for flere og flere Blo?nster- 



Fra Fort Chepewyan skriver han (Searching Expedit. I, p. 137): •On the 
barren lands indeed the heath has representatives in the Lapland 
Rhododendron, the Azalea, the Kalmia and Andromeda tetragona , but 
these arc almost hurried among the Cornicularice and Cetraria nivalis of 
the drier spots, on the Cetraria islandica and Mosses on the moister 
places* — Og paa et andet Sted fra 'the barren grounds*: "In places 
where the soil is formed of the coarse sandy debris of granite, and is 
moderately dry, the surface is covered by a dense carpet of the Corni- 
cularice tristis , divergens , ochroleuca and puhescens, mixed in damper 
spots with Cetraria islandica and cucullata. In more tenacious soils 
other plants flourish; not however to the exclusion of lichens, except 
in tracts of meadow ground. The Rhododendron lapponicum, Kalmia 
glauca, Vaccinium uliginosum, Empetrum nigrum. Ledum palustre , Ar- 
butus uva ursi, Andromeda tetragona and several depressed or creeping 
willows lie close to the soil , their stems short and twisted and con- 
cealed, with only the summits of the branches showing among mosses 
and lichens'). — Dette er, saa vidt ses kan, en fuldkommen aegte 
tlrenlands-Hede nied et Par smaa Arts-Afvigelser. — Ogsaa i Frank- 
lins Beretning om bans 2den Rejse, 1825 — 27, omtaler Richardson en 
Maengde Hedebuske som naaende endog til Polarhavets Kyst. 



67 

planter, bliver Hraunet til Hede; ved Lj6savatn saa ban en 
karakteristisk Hede; som nogle af de mest i 0jne faldende 
Planter noterede ban fra Hesteryg f^lgende: Empetrum nigrum, 
Galluna vulgaris, Arctostaphyloa uva urai, Bartsia 
alptna, Betula nana, Salix phy'licifolia og andre Salices, 
Jum'perus alpi'na. Allerede ber bave vi nogle store Afvigelser 
fra Gronland, nemlig de spatierede Arter , og af Planter, som 
anferes fra en anden Hede , kan naevnes Dryas octopetala, Ara- 
bia petrcea, Saxifraga hypnoides, Galium sylvestre og Salix la- 
nata, bvilke alle mangle eller ere yderst sjaeldne i Gronland. 

Sammenligne vi Grenlands og Islands Heder med Hensyn 
til de risagtige Buske, findes felgende : 

Hyppige i begge Lande synes at vaere : Loiseleuria procum" 
bens, Cassiope hypnoides, Vaccinium uliginosum, Empetrum, Salix 
glauca. Sjseldnere, men vist lige byppige i begge Lande 
ere Tyttebaer ( Vaccinium vitis idcea) og Enen (Juniperus com- 
munis var. nana). 

Meget almindeiigere i Grenland ere Ledum (paa Island 
blot funden af Steenstrup) og Diapensia (for hvilken Voxesteder 
anferes i lslandsfloraen>. 

Belt mangier paa Island: Cassiope tetragona. Rhodo- 
dendron lapponicum og Phyllodoce coerulea; de to sidste ere 
almindelige over bele Grenland, den ferste optraeder ferst n. f. 
Godtbaab, men er derefter yderst almindelig. 

Meget almindeiigere paa Island ere Vlelbaerris (Arcto- 
staphylos uva ursi), i Grenland meget sjaelden. 

Helt mangle i Grenland felgende : Hedelyng [Galluna 
vulgaris), der er meget almindelig paa Island, og Blaabaer | Vac- 
cinium Myrtillus), der er funden mange Steder paa Island, samt 
Klokkelyng [Erica Tetralix) , der dog er meget sjaelden paa 
Island. 

Resultatet af denne Sammenstilling maa blive delle, at 
Heden paa Island, selv om den (som alle andre Heder) bar 
samme fysiognomiske Praeg, dog i sin speciellere Sam- 



68 

mensaetning er meget forskjellig fra den gron- 
landske, et Kesultat der ikke synes gunstigt fpr Theorien om 
en postglacial Landforbindelse. Paa samme Maade forholder 
det sig med den skandinavlske og laplandske Hede, ikke at tale 
om andre nordeuropaeiske, og aabenbart ogsaa med den nord- 
amerikanske. Lyngheden er en Vegetationsform, der udvikler 
sig med et ensartet Fysiognomi, under visse ydre Belingelser 
paa den nordlige Halvkugle og i avrigt ogsaa andre Steder^), 
men som i Henseende til de den dannende Arter frembyder 
store plantegeografiske Forskjelligheder. St erst Lighed have 
Grenlands Heder dog med Nord- A merikas, saa vidt den 
sparsomme Literatur tillader at demme. 

IT. Fjaeldmarkeii. 

Til Betingelserne for Lynghedens Dannelse eller Trivsel 
herer aabenbart en ikke staerk Haeldning af Terrjenet, men dog 
en saa staerk, at Vandet ikke samler sig og bliver stillestaaende, 
og Jorden let kan udterres; fremdeles en ikke betydelig Hejde 
over Havet og vist heller ej nogen hej Bredde, med mindre de 
lokale Forhold ere saerlig gunstige. Hvor disse Betingelser 
mangle, faa vi en anden Vegetation; paa det flade, fugtige 
Terrain danne sig Kjaer (se Afsnit VI); men hvor Haeldningen 
bliver sterre, saa at Klippegrundens Forvitringsprodukter skylles 
eller blaeses bort og der kun i Saenkninger, Spatter og Huller i 
Klippen kan samle sig lidt Jord; eller hvor Jorden er stenet og 
gruset og kold, fordi Sneen laenge bliver liggende, eller hvor 
Hejden over Havet eller Bredden bliver for stor, formaa Buskene 
ikke at dominere, og her faa vi ikke laenger nogen sammen- 
haengende, om end tynd og aaben. Vegetation; det, der her 
giver Jorden dens Farve paa de snebare Steder, bliver Klippe- 



*) Se f. Ex. min Skildring af en Udflugt til Serra da Piedade i "Tidsskr. for 
popul. Fremstillinger af Naturvidenskaben*, 1869. 



bunden selv eller den gnisede og lerede Mark i det h«jesle med 
Laver og Mosser; hist og her flnde» en Hlle lav Tue af en 
Blomslerplante Jord og Plads til at saelte sine Rodder, eller der 
findes en lille Plet, hvor flere af dem have kunnet faeste Bo, 
men de formaa ikke at g'ive Landskabet nogen Tone, 
saaledes som Lyngheden. I denne triste Natur, hvor der her- 
sker en storslaaet I\o og 0de, naar Ikke Slormene pidske 
Marken og feje Sten og Sand hen over den, kan man vel endnu 
finde Exemplarer af Hedens Buske, men spredte og forkuede; 
det overvejende Antal Arter er Urter. 

Denne Del af Gronlands Overflade vil jeg foreslaa at kalde 
FjaBldmarken^); den er sikkert den mesl vidt strakte af alle 
Vegetationsformer, og indtager et langt slorre Areal end Lyng- 
heden; de sterre Bjaerghejder og mange lavere, hele det yderste 
Nord og alle Skjaergaardseerne samt andre Dele af Kysten have 
kun Fjaeldmarksflora. 

Dens Ejendommeligheder ere allsaa de lyngagtige Buskes 
Tilbagetrsengen og en meget spredt Vegetation af de nej- 
somste og haardforeste af de arktiske Urter med Mosser 
og Laver. Dog er der alligevel en vis Mangfoldighed i Hen- 
seende til Arterne; blandt Lynghedens Buske er der egentlig 
blot to, som vise nogen sterre Selskabelighed, nemlig Empe- 
trum og naest den Cassiope tetragona; men paa Steder, hvor 
disse ikke dominere, er Vegetationen meget blandet, og det 
samme gjenfindes paa Fjaeldmarken. 

I denne Vegetationens Aabenhed fremtraeder en stor For- 
skjel mellem Hojnordens og Alpernes alpine Region; thi denne 
udmaerker sig ved Maengden af sine Urter og forst i de aller- 
hojeste Egne, i «Sneregionen», traeflfe vi en grenlandsk Fjaeld- 
mark med dens "Flora nivalis*; «das ist», siger Christ, «der 
Vorzug der europaischen Alpen und im hochsten Grad unserer 



») I botan. Forenings .Meddelelser 1886. brugte jeg Naviiet •FjaelduiUrnM 
Flora.. 



70 

schweizerischen Ketten vor alien anderen Gebirge: diese weit 

gedehnten Grunde und-Hange vom dichtesten Sammet des 

Alpenrasens umhiilll, den das rastlos der Schneeregion , ent- 

fliessende Wasser den ganzen Sommer frisch erhalt»>. 

Kjieldmarkeiis Urter. Det er naeppe andre Arter, der op- 

traede paa Fjaeldmarken , end i Heden, men overvejende de 

samme, som vi ogsaa kunne finde der; Fjaeldmarken er paa en 

Maade Hedebunden uden Lyngbuskene eller blot med 

spredte Exemplarer af disse. Dog trives visse Arter, saa vidt 

jeg bar set, bedre i Heden end i Fjaeldmarken og ere derfor 

almindeligere hist, medens andre forholde sig omvendt. Saa- 

ledes anser jeg felgende for almindeligere i Heden: Pyrola 

grandijiora ^ Lycopodium annotinum og alpinum , samt Fedicu- 

laris lapponica] Grunden maa sikkert soges i, at disse ere 

Arter med vidt krybende, til Dels endog underjordiske Staengler, 

som derfor ikke finde nogen gunstig Plads i den aabne Fjaeld- 

markM. Andre Arter ere meget almindeligere her end i Heden, 

f. Kx. Papaver nudicaule, Potentilla VaJdiana. Til Fjaeldmarkens 

Urter maa jeg saerlig henregne felgende Arter foruden de 

naBvnte og andre, som findes anferte S. 58 — 59. 

Melandrium apetalum samt affine og triflorum^ Viscaria 
alpina^ Alsine stricta^ groenlandica og hiflora\ Arenaria ciliata\ 
Sagina nivalis', Silene acaulis\ Cerastium alpinum isaer var. 
lanata\ Stellaria longipes] naesten alle grenlandske Draba- 
Arter (sjaeldnest ere vel incana og aurea)] Cardamine bellidi- 
folia; og langt Nord paa den ferskenblomstrede Parrya og 
Vesicaria arctica\ [CocJdearia kan forekomme b0Jt til Fjaelds, saa- 
ledes paa Toppen af Praestefjaeld ved Holstensborg, 1700' ov. H., 



^) Trautvetter siger, at de underjordiske Dele i Hejnorden ere maegtigere 
end de ovcrjordiske. Egentlig underjordiske ere dog kun faa Staengler, 
men mange overjordiske kunne blive aldeles overvoxede af Mos og Lav. 
Selv i nyeste Tid bar jeg set det fremhaevet som ejendommeligt for den 
arktiske Vegetation , at den skal have maegtige Rhizomer under Jorden 
0. i. Grisebach bar dog alt naevnt i sin Plantegeografi, at de ark- 
tiske Blomsterplanter have Staenglerne over Jorden, de alpine mest under 
Jorden, og Kjellman gjer ogsaa opmaerksom paa det urigtige i det 
anferte. 



71 

men herer naturligvis ikke til de egentlige Fjaeldurter) ; Poten- 
tilla nivea , tridentata og i det nordligsle Grenland emarginata\ 
Undertiden Sibbaldia procumbens , der dog mere herer til Crte- 
markeri ; Ranunculus nivalis og pygmceus isuer paa lidt fugtigere 
Steder, hvorimod den i Skandinaviens Fjaeldmark ret almindelige 
R. glacialis er meget sjaelden i Grenland ; Saxifraga oppositi- 
folicij Aizoon^ tricuspidata, nivalis, stellaris, cernua o.a.; Rnodiola 
rosea (der dog ikke synes at gaa Nord for Diskobugten); Pedi- 
cularis liirsuta o. a. Arter; Oentiana nivalis', [Diapensia lappo- 
nica); Campanula unijlora og rotundifolia var. arctica\ Arnica 
alpina\ Artemisia borealis\ Erigeron compositus, uniflorus og 
den sjicldne eriocephalus ] Antennaria alpina\ Oxyria digyna] 
Polygonum viviparum] Salix herbacea\ Woodsia ilvensis, hyper^ 
borea og glabella; Lastrcea fragrans , isaer i Klipperevner; Ly- 
copodium Selago o. a. After; Equisetum scirpoides o. a.; for 
Graeslypen findes et ringe Antal Repraesentanter, og de danne 
ikke noget Grensvaer eller Graestaeppe; saerlig maa naevnes: 
Hierochloa alpina, der synes at trives fortriniig netop paa de 
mest aabne og koide, vejrbidte Fjaeldmarker; Festuca ovina og 
rubra; Agrostis rubra] den naesten kosmopolitiske Trisetum 
subspicatum ] Aira flexuosa\air. monlana; Poa flexuosa^ P.glauca, 
P. alpina P. pratensis varr. alpigena og rigens, Calamagrostia 
phragmitoides ] af Cyperaceer isaer: Kobresia caricina\ Elyna 
Bellardi] Car ex nardina, rupesiris, rigida, scirpoidea, su- 
pina, kyperborea o. a. Efter Berggrens Skildring af Steder 
omkring Diskobugten maa C. rupestris endog kunne optraede i 
en saadan Maengde, at den naesten danner et Taeppe, i hviiket 
andre Planter indstrees; af Juncaceer Juncus trifidus, Luzula 
arcuata med forma confusa og L. spicata. 

Det felger af sig seiv, at de naevnte Planter ikke alle ere 
tilstede paa enhver Fjaeldmark eller i samme Maengdeforhold 
overall. Fjaeldmarkens fysiske BeskafTenhed er jo langt fra ens- 
artet, og dermed felger Forskjellighed i Plantevaext. Saaledes 
bar Steder, hvor Sneen laenge holder sig, og hvor Jorden der- 
for er kold og ofte fug tig, sarlig visse Arter f. Ex. Ranun- 
culus pygmceusj Oxyria, Salix herbacea, Saxifraga rivularis, 
Lycopodium Selago o. a. |se S. 90—91); den meget terre 
og varme Bund bar et andet Selskab, isaer f. Ex.: Saxi- 
fraga tricuspidata , Dryas , Potentilla nivea, Agrostis rubra, 
Poa glauca, Festuca ovina, Cerastium alpinum, o. s. v. Den 
staerkt grusede Mark har alter forlrinsvis andre Arler, og af 
dem synes f. Ex. Papaver nudicaule. Campanula unifiora, Poten' 



72 

tilla Vahliana at trives bedst; ikke sjaelden findes der her 
Planter, som ellers mest optraede paa vaad Bund, f. Ex. Carex 
misandra^ Saxifraga stellaris f. comosa o. s. v. Paa de lidt 
frodigere Steder tilkomme f. Ex. Ghamoenerium latifolium^ der 
ogsaa trives fortrinlig f. Ex. i dc grusede Elvbredder, Bartsia 
alpina o. a. Alle saadanne Variationer i Fjaeldmarkens Ydre 
maa fremtidige Rejsende oplyse os naermere om. 

Del ligger i Sagens Natur, at Fjaeldurterne i ydre og 
iiidre Byguiug rnaa praeges af de Na turforhold , under 
hvilke de leve. Jeg vil paa dette Sted fremdrage nogle Traek 
fra den ydre Bygning, der selvfelgelig ogsaa findes hos de 
samme Planter selv om de voxe i en frodig Lynghede. 

Tueformen. Alle for Pjaeldmarken ret karakteristiske Urter 
have opretle Skud, i Reglen taet samlede 1 Tueform. Saedvanlig 
er Tuens niorfologiske Bygning den, at den blot bar en eneste 
mere eller mindre kraftig Rod (Primroden), det faelles Ernaerings- 
og Fasthaeftningsorgan , som i enkelte Tilfaelde understettes af 
svage Biredder; den baerer for oven en kortleddet, uregelmaessig 
forgrenet Rodstok, fra hvis blivende Staengelrester nye Skud 
aarlig udvikles. Hos nogle Arter naa Tuerne kun en lille Lld- 
straekning, hos andre en storre, naar Skuddene nemlig ere 
nogel nedliggende og mere straktleddede ved deres Grund, 
hvormed undertiden felger en svag Biroddannelse. Naar Vinden 
ferer Jorddele hen i en saadan Tue, saa at Skuddenes Grund- 
dele mere eller mindre begraves deraf foruden af deres egne 
Bladaffald, kan det faa Ldseende af, at der er mange adskilte 
PlanteindividerM. 



1) Midden dorff og v. Baer have observeret det samme i Sibirien og 
paa Novaja Semlja; de have fundel 15 — 20 tilsyneladende selvslsendige 
Skud saaledcs forbundne af og ernaerede af en telles Rod. Payer 
synes at have misforstaaet den rette Sammenhaeng og opfatter -das enge 
haufeuartige Zusammenstehen gleicher Individuen» som et Vaern i 
Kampen mod den barske Natur, i det de «vereint» tage den op. Det er i 



73 

Arter med en typisk «mangehovedet Rod» som den be- 
skrevne ere i Hede og Fjaeldmark f. Ex. Silene acaulis, hvis 
Primrod kan naa en Laengde af I — IV2 Fod og ofle Ivinges af 
Klippegrunden til at lobe vandret; Viscarta alpina, de ire Me- 
landrier, og vist nok alle de andre Caryophyllaceer paa Hede og 
Fjaeldmark; Papaver nudiCQule\ alle korsblomstrede {Draha-kv- 
terne , Cardamine bellidifolia 0. s. v.) ; mange Saxifrager , f. Ex. 
S. oppostttfoh'a , decipiens 0. a.; Rkodiola rosea 0. fl. Der er 
end videre Arter, hvis Primrod til sidst forsvinder og som faa 
en lodret eller skraatliggende, undertiden «mangehovedet Rod- 
stok« med talrige Biredder, f. Ex. Erigeron umfiorus, Arnica 
alpina 0. a. Til Arterne med kort lodret Rodstok, ernaeret af 
mange Biredder, bore: Ranunculus pygmceus^ nivalis^ glacialis^ 
Erigeron- krier, Arnica 0. s. v. 

Denne tueformede Bygning af Fjaeldurlerne synes mig naer- 
mest at maatte saeltes i Forbindelse med Fjaeldmarkens Natur: 
de for Blomsterplanter egnede Steder ere saa indskraenkede i 
Omfang, at kun Planter med et tilsvarende ringe Omfang trives 
vel der; eller ogsaa er Bunden saa fast, at Udlebere ikke let 
ville kunne danne sig. 

En anden Ejendommeligbed er, at der bos saa mange After 
findes Blad rosetter, idet Levbladene for starste Helen eller 
endog udelukkende ere samlede taet over Jorden paa en 
meget kortleddet Staengel, en Ejendommeligbed, der i lige saa 
haj Grad gjenfindes bos Alpernes Planter^). Medens Blomsterne 
og Blomsterstandene i Reglen leftes mere eller mindre bejt op 
over Jorden, for at blive synlige eller rystes af Vinden, forblive 
Vegetationsorganerne taet ved denne. Nogle faa bave kun meget 
kort stilkede Blomster siddende mellem eller kun lidet over de 
taet traengte Blade, f. Ex. Silene acaulis (og af Buskene Dryas). 



evrigt neeppe almindeligt at flnde de grenlandske Heders og Fjsld- 
markers Urler brede sig saa vidl, som del efter disse Skildrlnger ajfoes, 
at de gjere i andre arktiske Lande. 
') Se Kerner, Abhangigkeit der Pflanzengestalt etc. p. 40. 



74 



Hos nogle sidde alle Levblade ved Jorden, og Blomsterne eller 
Blomsterstandene baeres af et meget langt og nogent Skaft, 
f. Ex. Papaver nudicaule ^ de fleste Drabd'eY ^ Saxifraga fiivalis, 
Pyrola grandiflora o. a. Her kan ogsaa mindes Armeria sibi- 
rica^ Levetand {Taraxacum officinale) og Oxyria, som mere here 
andre Formalioner til. Hos andre sidder Hovedmassen af Lev- 
blade i Koselter ved Jorden og nogle faa findes paa den 
straktleddede Staengel, der baerer Blomsterstanden, f. Ex. Viscaria 
alpina^ Melandrierne, Saxifraga decipiens^ fiagellaris o. a., Pe- 
dicularis hirsuta^ lanata og andre Arler, Draba rupestris o. s. v. 
Til disse Urter med rosetstillede Blade here ogsaa de paa 
Heden og Fjaeldmarken voxende Planter med graesagtigt Ydre 
(Graesser, Halvgraesser, Juncaceer). 

Selv om der nu ogsaa i vor Flora findes mange Arter med 
en lignende Arkitektonik, vover jeg dog at paastaa, at det rela- 
tive Antal er langt betydeligere i Hejnorden, og gaar jeg til 
f. Ex. Brasiliens Camposegne, finder jeg uden for de graesagtige 
Planters Type naesten ingen andre med en lignende Bygning. 
I Virkeligheden have de arktiske Kejsende for laenge siden lagt 
iMaerke til og fremhaevet dette Forhold, f. Ex. Trautvetter, og 
fra dem er det optaget af andre Forfattere, f. Ex. Grisebach. 
Trautvetter opregner de taimyrske Arter, der ere byggede 
paa denne Maade, og furuden en hel Del, som er faelles med 
Grenland, findes ogsaa andre Arter eller Slaegter med samme 
Bygning, f. Ex. Androsace, Neogat/a, Sieversia, Oxytropis^ Clay- 
tonia^ Hesperis Hookeri^ Braya alpina^ der ikke findes i 
Grenland. 

Det er tydeligt, at her maa vaere en Tilpasning af Plan- 
terne til de ejend ommelige Naturforhold. Hvad Naturen 
i Virkeligheden synes at kunne naa herved er, at Levbladene, 
Plantens vigtigste Organ for Assimilation og Transpiration , ere 
samlede i det Luftlag, der er varmest, og hvor Lyset dog, paa 
Grund af hele Vegetationens ringe Hejde i tilstraekkelig Grad 
kan komme lil at paavirke dem. For Blomsterne gjailde der- 



75 



imod andre Hensyn : de maa leftes op over Marken for at blive 
synlige for Inseklerne eller at blive rystede af Vinden M. 

En anden Ejendornmelighed, som traeder frem ved denne 
Rosetdannelse er, at Skuddene udstrajkke deres Liv over 
mere end et Aar; i det ferste udvikle de, ligesom de to- 
aarige Planter, blot en Bladroset; i nasste og undertiden vei 
endog i flere felgende Aar sker maaske det samme, indtil de 
til sidst blomstre og derpaa de, blot med Undtagelse af en 
nederste lille Stump, fra hvilken Forgreningen fortsaettes; under- 
tiden indtraeder Blomstringen alt med det andet Aar. Jeg bar 
tidligere omtalt denne «di-» eller «pleiocykliske» Skudbygning i 
Almindelighed''^), og Kjellman bar i «Ur Polarvaxlernas lif» 
(S. 515) saerlig fremdraget den biologiske Betydning heraf: Vaar- 
og Sommertiden anvender Skuddet i det ferste eller endog i 
flere Aar til Ernaerings- Arbejde, forberedende Blomstringen; 
endelig anlaegges om Hesten Blomsterne og tilbringe (hvad for 
evrigt andre arktiske Hejsende for ham have gjort opmaerksom 
paa) Vinteren indeslultede i Knopperne for ved fersle Vaartegn 
at Iraede frem og udnytte den korte Sommertid til Blomstring 
og Frugtsaetning. Jeg kjender kun faa arktiske Land-Blomster- 
planter, der i en Vaextperiode bringe Skud, som baade er vege- 
tative og blomstrende, fra det lukkede Knopstadium til fuld Ud- 
vikling og Afslutning, \.^\. Bartsia alpina, vist nok ogsaa Fe- 
ronica saxatilis og alpina, Cham cenertum - Arlerue , vist ogsaa 
CampawM^a- A rterne, Cornus suecica^ Orchideer. 

Endelig maa i Forbindelse hermed anferes, at bos mange 
af disse Urter holde Bladene sig frisk grenne Vinteren 
over; disse udpegedes oven for S. 58 — 59. Hvad Betydning for 



») Dog maa det ikke glemmes, hvad Kerner antager om Alpeurteroe, at 
en Grund til den lave Vasxt ogsaa kan vaere, at de paagjaeldeude Planter 
begynde deres Vtext forst paa en Tid, da SoUyset, der jo haemmer 
Laengdevaexten, varer laenge og Natten er kort. 

•) Om Skudbygning, Overvintring og Foryngelse. Naturhlst. Forenings 
Festskrift. Kjebcnh. 1884. 



76 

Livet dette Forhold har, ber naermere underseges; hos mange 
tjene disse Blade vist naermest som Magasin for Oplagsnaering 
og visne, saa snart de have afgivet denne, hos andre kunne de 
maaske som hos visse Buske paa ny deltage i Assimilationen. 

Den hele grenlandske Flora udmaerker sig for evrigt ved 
visse Mangier sammenlignet med varmere Landes, f. Ex. IVlan- 
gelen af Knold- og Legvaexter, af slyngende, og naar Vicia 
cracca undtages, klatrende Planter, af giftige Planter og af Planter 
med Tome eller endog blot stive og stikkende Haar. I omtrent 
alt dette ligne de Alpeplanterne. 

nosser og Laver spille, som vi nys saa, en vigtig RoUe i 
Lyngheden; det samme er ogsaa Tilfaeldet i Fjaeldmarken , hvad 
Laverne angaar, hvorimod jeg tror, at iMosserne her i Regelen 
blive faerre isaer i den hejere liggende Fja3ldmark , thi den, der 
Andes lavt nede, vil vel vaere iige saa rig som Heden. 

Flere Mosser holde sig fortrinsvis til de terre Klipper 
og Klippevaegge, f. Ex. Cynodontiuia polycarpum^ Dicranum Blyttii 
og hyperboreum^ Grimmia torquata^ ovata^ alpestris ^ og i H0J- 
fjffldsregionen isaer Or. contorta^ Myurella apiculata og julacea, 
Orthofrichum f. Ex. Breutelii^ Amphoridium, lapponicum^ Bryum 
pendulum., Hypnum revolutum^ Gymnomitrium concmnatum, Jun- 
germannia attenuata 0. a. I Klipperevner, hvor lidt Muld har 
samlet sig, findes til Dels andre, f. Ex. foruden den i det hele 
almindelige graagrenne eller brunsorte Grimmia apocai-pa ogsaa 
Distichium capillaceum^ Desm>atodon latifolius., Barbula ruralis 
Plagiothecium denticulatum^ Weber a cruda, Bartramia ityphylla., 
Brachythecium tr achy podium. 

De eneste Steder, hvor jeg har set Laverne meget talrige 
og frodige, navniig Busklaver, saa at der naesten dannes Pletter 
at' Likentundra er i Skjaergaarden eller oYdereerne*). Fra 
disse med deres kolde Vinde og hyppige, taette Havtaager vige de 
fleste baade Urter og Buske tilbage; Empetrum er en af dem, 
der trives bedst, men selv denne skal efter Worms ki old 
endog kunne kues, saa at den paa de alleryderste 0er sjaeld- 



77 



nere saetler Blomst og modner Frugt. Sammen med den Andes 
her en og anden Salix glauca og nogle faa andre Blomster- 
planter, der faeste Rod i Kllpperevnerne eller i lave Saenkninger 
mellem de af den ganile Isbedaekning afrundede Toppe. Men 
her trives Laverne godt; den store Luflfugtighed , og de Solen 
saa ofte tilslerende Skyer og Taager tiltale dem saerlig, og her 
kan man finde Steder, hvor Busklaver i sammenhaengende \la88er 
eller Tuer udfylde de smaa Fordybninger mellem Klipperne, 
naturligvis med sparsom Indblanding af smaa Tuer af Hiero- 
chloa alptna, Luzula arcuata ^ Silene acaulis o. a., eller et og 
andet Exemplar af Empetrum, Belle og Pii, medens de frem- 
stikkende negne Klipper i det hojeste baBre de saBdvanlige sorte 
og brunsorte Laver og IVIosser^). Havde Terrainet vaeret fladere, 
vilde vi her vel endog have faaet store Liken-Eleder. Det er 
ferst og fremmest de samme Busklaver, som findes i Heden, 
isasr Cetraria islandica og nivalis^ Cladonia rangiferina o. a., 
Stereocaulon , og af Mosser isaer Racomitrier og Polytricha, 
som spille en RoUe. Indivlderne staa taettere og ere hojere 
og bledere end paa den torrere Hede. Ved Amerdlokfjorden 
og 0st for selve Holstensborg (se 8. Hefte, S. 187) saa jeg 
Steder, hvor der pletvis var saadanne laette og blede Liken- 
taBpper, med lidt Mos indblandet; Overtladens Tone bliver her 
en anden end Lynghedens brunlige, nemlig en graalig. Paa 
Egedesmindes Ydereer saa jeg andre ganske lignende Pletter, 
saadanne som fiiesecke skildrer fra denne Egn^). 

Pletvis synes saa en saa en anden Art at kunne dominere. 
Saaledes skriver Kornerup (Meddel. om Grenl. 2. Bd.): "De 
eneste Planter, jeg erindrer at have set paa de talrige Grus- 



') En Sklldring af de c. IOC heje Kook-0er ved Godthaab Andes hos Grev 

Raben 1. c 3, p. 289. 
2) «Es wachsl hier trefflich felte Cochlearia anglica In grosser Menge; 

islandisches Mos, Mariegras, Lichen rangiferinus und proboscideus bedecken 

beinahe die ganze Insel. Letzterer sowie der Lichen jvbatm und capt/- 

laris haben alie P^elsen schwarz uberzogen>. 



78 

bakker ved Smallesunds Sydside er en Lavart, Stereocauton de- 
nudatum, og den gule Papaver nudicaule; men de forekom og- 
saa i stor iVIaengden. Paa Ydereerne ved Fiskernaesset fandt 
Worms kj old Lecanora tartarea i store Vlaengder og som 
tykke Skorper paa de hejere Klipper hen over Mos og Empe- 
trums gamie Grene, og den saa vel som Qyrophorce og andre 
Arter udmaerkede sig ved deres usaedvanlige Sterrelse. Leca- 
nora tartarea saa jeg intet Sled sterre og med sterre Frugter 
end paa de kolde, grusede Dalstreg ved Holstensborg ikke langt 
fra Havet (Meddel. om Gr^nland, 8. H., S. 187). 

Nede fra Frederikshaabs Distrlkt skriver Giesecke: «Um 
den Tindingen herum wachst schener grossblaltriger Lichen is- 
landtcus in unbeschreiblicher Mange «, og om Arsuk skriver 
ban: "nirgends babe ich so schonen, breitblattrigen Lichen is- 
landiGus wie hier geseben«. — Fra Egne langt nord paa lyde 
lignende Vidnesbyrd; om det nogne Upernivik noterede Hart 
«an especially luxuriant growth of lichens », og at der ogsaa i 
det hejeste Nord maa vaere en frodig Liken-Vegetation paa 
gunstige Steder i de lavere Egne, synes mig at fremgaa af det 
Dyreliv, som her findes, navniig de Hjorde af Rener, ^om ere 
trufne flere Steder. 

Det er vist nok et for mange , maaske alle arktiske Lande 
faelles Karakterlraek , at de yderste Kyster have en yppig Lav- 
Vegetation, men ere fattige paa hejere Planter. For Spitz- 
bergens Vedkommende se f. Ex. Nathorst «Spetsbergens Karl- 
vaxterw p. 44; paa Franz Josefs Land fandt den esterrigske Ex- 
pedition taette «Gespinste» af Cetraria nivalis^ desuden Brijo- 
pogon juhatus, Usnea melaxantha, o. a. Dog synes Novaja 
Semija at vaere meget fattigere, hvad Busklaver angaar. 

At det isaer er de yderste Kyster, der ere saa likenrige, 
skyldes vist nok isaer L uftfugtigheden , som direkte fremmer 
Lavernes Vaext, og lader andre Planter bukke under i Kampen 
med dem. Det er bekjendt f. Ex. for Spitzbergen, at i det 
indre af Fjordene virker Solen med langt anderledes Kraft end 



ude ved Havet, og Luften er meget tor (se Nathorst iSpetsb. 
Karlv.). Ganske paa samme Maade er del med Vestgrenlands 
Fjorde. Allerede Hans Egede skriver fra Vestgrenland : .Men 
endskjent der i Grenland er megel kaaldere end i Norge, saa 
falder der dog ikke saa meget Sne som i Norge, besynderlig 
indtil Fjordene, hvor neppe nogen Steds er at finde, at Sneen 
ligger en halv Alen lyk over Jorden.>, og efter Rink er Aarels 
iMiddeltemperatur ved Umanak, en 6—7 Mil inde i Godthaabs- 
fjorden, omtrent den samme som ved Godlhaab, men Sommeren 
er afgjort varmere og Vinteren afgjort koldere end i Godthaab. 
At Indlandet allerede nogle \Iile fra Kysten er langt fremme- 
ligere i sin Vegetation samt paa Grund af den sterre Varme 
og mindre Taage og Slud bar rigere Plantevaext end del yderste 
Land, bar jeg i min Rejseberetning (S. 186) anfert et Exempel paa. 

Her maa jeg paa ny mindes Gy ropb orerne. Alt under 
Heden omtalle jeg dem som saa almindelige paa Sten og Kllpper, 
der rage frem , men saerlig bar de dog fremdrages her, bvor 
Talen er om Fjaeldmarken. Lindsay bar rigtig opfattet Be- 
tydningen af disse kulsorte eller graasorte Laver i Landskabets 
Farvning og bar anfert en Del Citater, der vise dette^); deres 
Maengde er «tbe only prominent feature of ibe Licben-flora of 
Greenland". For evrigt vil man i den aegte Fjaeldmark og sserlig 
paa de stejiere og derfor mere negne Klipper kunne finde 
Parmelier, Lecidea'er og Lecanora'er, Buellia geographica og 
atro-alba og andre Skorpelaver, der i sammenbangende Lag 
daekke sterre eller mindre Pletter; Psora atro-rufa og Xanthoria 
vitellina slutte sig efter Rosenvinge til dem paa Jord ; men 
jeg kjender for lidet til Fjaeldmarken, navnlig dens bejere Dele 
til at kunne give noget detailleret Billede af dens Lavvegetation. 

Inde paa Fjaeldplateauet i Norge, f. Ex. paa Bjaergene om 
den evre Del af Osterdalen og i Dovrefjaeldene ser man, som be- 
kjendt, iVIarken oven for Skovgraensen mange Steder dtekket med 



') .On Ihe Lichenflora of Greenland. (Edinb. Bot. Soc Transact. X. 1869). 



80 



et yderst taet og bledt Taeppe af Laver, som gjer, at disse 
Steder i Frastand se skinnende graa ud, som om de vare saerlig 
solbelyste. Noget saadant mindes jeg ikke at have set paa 
Bjaergene i Grenland; i den Tanke, at her forelaa en lagttagelses- 
fejl, har jeg forespurgt en af de svenske Grenlandsfarere, Likeno- 
logen Th. Fries i Upsala, om han kjendte saadant fra Grenland, 
og han har velviUig meddelt mig, at heller ej han der har set 
saadanne vidt strakte «Liken-Heder» som de i Sveriges, Norges, 
Finlands og de russiske Lapmarkers Fjaeldegne forekommende, 
og han tvivler ogsaa paa, at de Andes der, uden maaske i Syd- 
grenland. Heller ikke Andes saadanne paa Spitzbergen, med 
Undta^else af Prins Charles Foreland paa Vestkysten, hvor han 
saa noget lignende, men langt fra saa storartel. «Lavregionen» 
i Skandinaviens Alperegion med dens «IVIasserigdom» synes saa- 
ledes at mangle i Grenlands mellemste og nordlige Dele, 
naar undtages Yderoerne. 

Jeg troede at have iagttaget, at disse Heder i Norge holde 
sig fjaernede fra Kysterne, og jeg fik af Likenologen, Forstmester 
Norman i Laurvig Bekraeftelse derpaa; men desuden har han 
meddelt mig, at der er store Straekninger af det indre Norge, 
hvor Laverne selv oven for Traegraensen ikke ere saerlig domi- 
nerende, nemlig hvor "Fjaeldene har en mere udpraeget Alpe- 
karakter», «men fremfor alt er Jordbunden af stor, ofte afgjerende 
Betydning; hvor den bestaar af Glacialgrus eller Sand, overalt 
i Indre Finmarken , er Lavvegetationen absolut dominerende, 
overalt hvor Jorden er t0r». Endvidere skriver Norman: »naar 
Laverne i Gronland optraede i selve Kysterne i lignende Masse, 
som de i Norge kun gjore i Indlandet, da er dette i fuld 
Overensstemmelse med en Raekke af fanerogame Planters Ud- 
bredningsforhold i Norge. Jo laengere mod Nord, naturligvis 
dog knn inden en vis Graense, desto mere tyer en hel Del Fa- 
nerogamer, som fuldstaendig skyer det sydligere Norges Vest- 
kyst, ud mod Havet, selv ud i det ydre Obelte. De Planter, 
som i sydligere Trakter var mere eller mindre Indlandsplanter, 



81 

bliver henimod sin Nordgraense Kystplanter. !V1ed andre Ord: 
laengere mod Word faar Klimatet en mere kontinental Karakter- M. 

Fjieldinarkeiis Idbreduiiig I Uejdeii afhaenger af de .evige» Sne- 

og Ismasser. Jeg selv bar ingen lagttagelser over Sn eg raen sens 
Beliggenhed. Denne er jo altid en IVIiddelvaerdi af mange for- 
skjellige Hejdemaalinger og kan selv under sydlige I3redder vaere 
meget forskjellig paa forskjellige Sider af den samme Bjaerg- 
kjaede; den skal f. Ex. ligge 3400' hejere paa den terere Nord- 
side af Himalaya end paa den sydlige, og det bliver endnu 
vanskeligere at udpege en Snegraense i de arktiske Lande, isaer 
fordi det direkte Sollys spiller en saa overordentlig Rollc; 
der er jo anf0rt Exempler paa, at Lavlandet kan vaere meget 
snedaekket, mens naerliggende Hejder paa op til 3000' alt ere 
snefrie. 

At der naturligvis ikke maa tages Hensyn til de egentlige 
Isbraeer, bar allerede f. Ex. Rink anfert. Men selv bortset 
fra dem, er den Hejde, i hvilkeu Jorden Aar efter Aar ved- 
bliver at vaere snedaekket, ydersl lorskjellig; i langt bejere Grad 
end f. Ex. paa Alperne gjare de lokale Forbold deres Indflydelse 



) Det forekommer mig at vjcre af stor Interessa i denne Sammenhaeng at 
kjende Likenologen og Forstmesteren Normans Udtalelse om Lavernes 
Vegetationsbetlngelser, og jeg tillader mig derfor at afskrive dem her: 
• De buskagtige og bladagtige Laver (Cladoniece, Alectoriece, Stereocaidon, 
Cetraria nivalis og cncuUata) tiltraenger ingcn Fugtighed fra Jordbunden 
og kan, som alle Laver, undvaere selv den atmosfaeriske Fugtighed gjen- 
nem ubegraenset lange Tidsrum, hvor deres vegetative Liv aldeles hviler. 
Lige saa lidt liltraenger de Humus. Men denne deres UafhaBngighed af 
disse to for den Bvrige konkurrerende Vegetation nedvendige Betingelser 
giver dem en afgjerende Overmagt i Kampen om Pladsen, naar Jord- 
bunden er yderst humusfattig og tillige ter. Selv i Lavlandet I det 
sendenfjeldske Norge fremkalder de samme Terrain forhold et ligoende 
Resultat. Paa Bsterdalens furuklaedte Sandmoer bestaar jo Skovbunds- 
daekket ofte over store Flader af absolut dominerende Cladonia. Llge- 
som i det indre Finmarken (f. Ex. Karasjok) voxer altsaa disse i Selskab 
med Furuen, der har det tilfaelles med dem, at den mere end noget andel 
at vore Skovtraeer kan nejes med et Minimum af Jordfugtighed og af 
Humus*. 

xn. 6 



82 



gjaeldende i Polarlandene ; Forskjel i Henseende til Expositionen og 
Afstand fra Havet, hele Terralnets Forhold, den herskende Vind- 
retning o. s. v. faar efter talrige Rejseiides samstemmende Vid- 
nesbyrd den sterste Betydning (se f. Ex. Rink Danisii Greenl. 
p. 64—67). 

Folgende Angivelser bar jeg fundet for Grenlands Ved- 
kommende: 

Om Sydgronland er det ved vore Expeditioner, isaer ved 
Steenstrup, Kornerup og Kaptain G. Holm oplyst, at det 
er et storartet Alpeland, hvor Isbraeerne ere i Minoritet over for 
det om Sommeren blottede Land; men bestemte Angivelser om 
Hajden for Snegraensen kjender jeg ikke herfra; Rink saetter 
den vist i Almindelighed til 2 — 3000'. Paa Kiporkakfjaeldene 
(omtr. 60° 17' n. B.) er der efter mundtlig iMeddelelse af Kapi- 
tajn Holm Plantevaext i omtrent 4000' Hejde. 

Ved Fiskernaesset (c. 63° n. B.) er Snegraensen efter Grev 
Raben 2275', og i det hele saetter ban den for det sydlige 
Gronland til 2200'. Ved Isortokfjorden (c. 65° 20' n. B.) efter 
Vabl c. 3000'. Paa Diskos Bredde (69— 70°n. B.) saetter Rink 
den til 2000 — 2200', men i denne Hejde findes den langt fra 
overalt. Saaledes fandt Rink paa den est for Vaigaltet liggende 
Nursoaks Halve en Hede- og Fjaeldmark med endog tykke 
Puder af Plantevaext indtil en 2 — 3000' Hejde; ferst da begyndte 
Plantevaexten at blive tyndere og Mosser at traede i Stedet for 
Blomsterplanter; ved c. 4000' dannedes intet sammenhaengende 
Daekke, Planterne stode spredt i Gruset, og ved 4500 traf ban 
endelig den faste Skal af Is. Endelig angiver Steenstrup, at 
for Nordgrenlands Vedkommende kan den ikke saettes under 
3000' 1/. 

Gaa vi endnu laengere Nord paa, op til Smitbs Sund, 
Kennedy Kanal o. s. v., da fmde vi aabenbart mange Steder, 
bvor der ligger evig Is og Sne ned til Havets Niveau, isa3r bvor 



Meddelelser om Grenland, 4, p. 74. 



83 

Landet er lavt og fladt; men hvor det er bjaBrgfuldt og den 
arktiske Sol kan komme til at virke med naesten lodrelte Straaler 
paa Bjaergsiderne, kan Snedaekket smaelte bort endog til betyde- 
lige Hajder. I saa Henseende bar Greelys Expedition bragt 
interessante Resultater. Mellem den 81— 82de Breddegrad fandt 
ban Overfladen i Grinnell-Land snebar over en vid Slraekning; 
«paa en Vandring af over 150 (eng.) Mile ind i Landet bererte 
min Fod aldrig Sne, og Plantevaexten var rigelig, ja yppig i 
Sammenligning med Kysterne ved Smiths Sundn o. s. v. Linlen 
for den evige Sne laa paa Bjaerget Arthur i c. 3000' Hojde. — 
Ved Discovery bay (8l"42'n.B.) anslaar Hart Snegraensen til 
14—1500' over Havet; men snebare Pletter findes til sterre 
Hejder, «and these will still support a few of the hardier flo- 
wering plants*). 

Herefter skulde man tro, at Snegraensen over alle Bredde- 
grader fra 60° til 82° n. B. paa Vestkysten laa naesten i den 
samme Elejde, og hvis dette er rigtigt, maa Grunden vel seges 
deri, at den i det sydlige saenkes ved den staerkere Nedber, 
men i det nordlige haeves ved den staerkere Fordampning. 

Vende vi os til Grenlands 0stkyst, kjender jeg ingen lagt- 
tagelser fra den sydlige Del; men fra det nordligste er der 
enkelte Angivelser. Scoresby gjer Bemaerkninger om, at selv 
hoje Bjaergtoppe kunne vaere snefrie. Payer skriver: Hvem der 
om Sommeren ser Spitzbergen , Grenland eller Novaja Semlja, 
forbavses i Begyndelsen over at se sammenhaengende Sne blot 
daekke de hojere Gletschergebeler, ligesom i Alperne. Firn- 
linien ligger her i 3—4000' Hejde over Havet; selv hejt Bjaerg- 
land bliver om Sommeren fuldstaendig snefrit med Undtagelse 
af de hejere Gletscherrevierer, smaa Snedriver o. s. v. (se Payer 
1. c. S. 560, 562, 565). Herefter ligger Snelinien her hejere end 
paa Vestkysten, hvad der ogsaa er ret sandsynligt paa Grund 
af det aabenbart meget terre KlimaM- 

*) Til Sammenligning skal jeg anfere Snegraenserne I nogle andre hej- 
nordiske Lande: I Lapland 3300', paa Spitsbergen UOO' ved 77° n. B. 

6* 



84 



rjseldmarkens Plantevseit efter llejdeii. Yderst faa lagltagelser 
herover foreligge, og rimeligvis er der kun faa Forskjelligheder; 
de flesle Planter, der kunne voxe paa de hejeste Toppe, gaa 
vist ogsaa ned til Havets Niveau , om ikke just i del sydlige, 
saa dog laengere Nord paa. Derimod gaa aabenbart ikke alle 
lige h0jt op paa Bjaergene. 

De Arter, der gaa hejest, laere vi f. Ex. at kjende fra de 
Nunatakker, som Kapitajn J. A. D.Jensen 1878 besegte i Naer- 
heden af Frederikshaabs Isblink (omtrent 62° 50' n. B. ^). Prof. 
Lange bar efter de af Jensen og Kornerup gjorte Sam- 
linger givet mig hosstaaende Oversigt over Blomsterplanterne 
paa disse (en Streg betegner, at Pianten er funden paa det paa- 
gjaeldende Stedc 



Lycopodium Selago . • . . 

— alpinum . . 

Trisetum subspicatum . . 

Poa filipes 

— flexuosa 

— alpina 

Hierochloa alpina 

Carex nardina 

— rigida (hyperborea?) 
Juncus trifldus 



2-; I 

CO »0 O 

2; o ' 



■i-1 s 

i2 t; "S 3 



so «n 



^ 23 > 
CO . « 



2r ff-* _ 
•^ «S — 



(spars. 



(i Msengde) 



og 1000' ved 80° n. B. 1 Kranz Josefs Land er Gletschernes •Firngrenze- 
efter Payer ved 1000'. Paa Jan Mayen er Snegraensen efter Scoresby 
1220', paa Island efter Gronlunds Angivelse i det sydlige naesten 
3000', i det nordlige omtrent 500' lavere, eller •! Almindelighed* 2800' 
(Thoroddsen). Om Planter i betydelige Hejder paa Island, indtil 4140', 
se Grenlund «Plantevaexten» S. 28 fl'. 
^) iMeddelelser om Gronland I, 150. 



85 



Luzula hyperborea (confusa) . . 

— spicata 

Juniperus alpina 

Salix glauca 

— — var. angustifolia . . 

— herbacea 

Oxyria digyna 

Polygonum viviparum 

Anteonaria alpina 

Gnaphalium supinum 

.Erigeron uniflorus /?, pulchellus . 

Taraxacum ofQcinale 

Campanula uniflora 

Cassiope hypnoides . 

Loiseleuria procumbens 

Phyllodoce coerulea 

Pyrola grandiflora 

Vacclnlum ulig. /9, microphyllum . 

Veronica alpina 

Armeria sibirica 

Saxifraga oppositifolia 

— rivularis 

— decipiens f. uniflora . . 

— cernua 

— nivalis 

Coptis Irifolia 

Ranunculus pygmseus 

Sedum Rhodiola 

Papaver nudicaule . . . 

Draba alpina 

— incana 

Sisymbrium humifusum 

Arabis alpina 



*J o -a 






CO S O 
a c8 o 
» a o 



c .22 S 

^ 2 



= « « O 
Z «, - 



— (aim.) 



- (ijn 



- (4200') 



(4200' 



(4200') 
(4300') 



— (4800' 



^ 



Cardamine bellidifolia 

Silene acaulis 

Alsine bifioia 

— \erna /?, rubella 

Cerastium trigynum 

— alpinum /3, lanatum . 

Empetrum nigrum 

Potentilla maculata 

— nivea 

Sibbaldia procumbens 

Alchemilla alpina 

— vulgaris 



9 O I 



(1 Expi. 



S b. 



-2 ^ 






26 



27 



27 



De Blomsterplanter, som efter alt det hidtil opiyste gaa op 
til eller over omtrent 2000' i den danske Del af Gronland, som 
altsaa kunne siges at danne Gronlands ^^ Flora nivalis^ eller 
i'Sneflorai), ere efter Langes « Conspectus » felgende^): 

*Drya8 integrifolia 2420 (1500), * Potentilla Valiliana 4500, 
*P, emarginata 3000, *P. nivea 4000 (1400), P. tridentata 2000, 
Empetrum. nigrum^ «Snegr8ensen», {Epilobium latifolium 1200), 
Sibhaldia procumbens 2700, * Silene acaulis 4500, Viscaria al- 
pina 2000, *Melandrium apetalum 2900 (1000); ""M, involucra- 
tum /9 afjine 1890 (500); Alsine biflora 2600; M. verna 4400 
(1000) *A. groenlandica 2000; *Stellaria longipes 1890 (1500); 
Cerastium trigynum 2200; *C. alpinum 4000 (1500); C. arcti- 
cum 3000; *Vesicaria arctica 3000 (1000); *Draba alpina 4100 



Breddegraden findes naesten aldrig angivet; en Maengde af de nyere Data 
skyldes Prof. Nathorst, Kapt. Jensen, Eberlin o. a. og findes i Til- 
laeget til •Conspectus*. De i hosstaaende Liste i Parenthes tilfejede Tal 
angive den Hejde over Havet, i hvilken Hart og Greely i Grinnell Land 
(81°— 82° n. B.) have iagttaget de sarame Arter. 



87 

(2000); *Dr. nivalis 3000; Dr. Wahlenbergii 2500; *D. hirta 
2000 (500); *D. arctica 4400; *Dr. rupestris 1500 (500); *6'ar- 
damine hellidifolia 4100; Arabia alpina 1200; A. Holboellii 2000 ; 
Sisymbrium humifusum 4100; *Papaver nudicaule 4800 (2000); 
* Ranunculus pygmoeus 4100; *R. nivalis 3000 (2000); R. lap- 
ponicus 3000; R. altaicus 2900 (1800); [i?. af finis , 1800 ved 
Fort Conger]!); *Saxifraga nivalis 4300 (1400); */S\ siellaris f. 
comosa 2500; *i8'. cerwwa 4200 (1800); *8. rivularis 4100; *8. 
decipiens 4500 (2000); *iS\ tricuspidaia 4500 (1900); *s! fla- 
gellaris ved Foulke Fjord, 78° 18' indtil 1500, Grinnell Land ved 
81° 44' 1800; S. Aizoon 2500; *8. oppositifolia 4500 (2000); 
Rhodiola rosea 3000; Archangelica officinalis 2500; Armeria 
sibirica 4100; Veronica alpina 2700; F. saxatilis 2000'; Petfe- 
cularis *lapponica 2020; P. fiammea 2040; *P. hirsuta 2500 
(1000); *P. toa^fl 2100; *(P. capitata 700); Oentiana nivalis 
2000; Diapensia lapponica 2800; *Pyrola grandifiora 2230; 
*Cassiope tetragona 2500 (500); C hjpnoides 4100; Loiseleuria 
procumbens 2000; Rhododendron lapponicum 2500; Phyllodoce 
coerulea 2000'; Ledum palustre 2000; *Facc2WMW uliginosum 
2300; * Campanula uniflora 4100; 6\ rotundifolia 2000; ^r/e- 
wma borealis 2500; "Taraxacum officinale (800); Gnapkalium 
norvegicum 2000 \ *Antennaria alpina 4100; Erigeron compositus 
2900 (900); ^. «/p2nw« 2000; ^. unifiorus 4100 (800); ^. mo- 
eephalus 2900; * Arnica alpina 2000 (1500); * Polygonum vivi- 
parum 2000 (800); *Oxyria digyna «Snegraensen») (2000); /Sa^/a; 
herbacea <«Snegraenseni), /S. glauca 2000', iS. groenlandica 2200 
(900); (Salix arctica 1800); Betula nana 2500; 5. glandulosa 
3000; *Juncus biglumis 2000 (800); J. ^n^Jwa 4100; Lw^wZa 
multiflora 2000; *X. arcwam 2000 (800); *Z. confusa 4300; 
Z. arctica 2000; *Z. spicata 2000; Scirpus ccespitosus 2500; 
* Eriophorum iScheuchzeri 2hOO\ (E. angusiifolium 1200); Kobresia 
caricina 2500; *Car€x nardina 4500; 6\ scirpoidea 2300; C 
rigida «Snegraenseno ; 6\ lagopina 2000; C misandra 2000 
(600); C. ;)e^aj5a 2500; C. a^ra^a 2500 (1200); 0. hjperborea 
2000; Hierochloa alpina «SnegraBnsen»; *Alopecurus alpinits 
(1400); Calamagrostis stricta var. borealis 2000; *Trisetum 
subspicatum 4000 (800); Glyceria Vahliana 2000; *Poa a/piwa 
2000; P.filipes 4100; *Poaflexuosa 1600 (1500); *Festuca ovina 
4500; Juniper us communis /9 nana 2500; Lycopodium Selago 
4100; L. alpinum 2b00] Cystopterisfragilis 2000 (\ WO); Wood- 
sia ilvensis 2000; Equisetum variegatum (700). 

Det er saaledes ikke faa (112) Planter, som stige op til elier" 

over 2000' Hejde paa Bjaergene, og fremlidige Undersegelser villa 



Jeg formoder, at del er denne Art, der ho8 Greely benavne* R.n\vai\$ 
R. Br. var. sulphurea Wahl. 



88 



forage deres Tal Det gaar i Grenland som i Alperne, at der langt 
oven for Snegraensen tindes Pletter, i Alperne kaldte «Firninseln», 
hvor Jorden er snefri om Sommeren, enten fordi Terrainets Haeld- 
ning eller Vinden eller begge i Forening ere Grunden til, at 
Sneen ikke kan blive liggende, eller maaske ogsaa fordi For- 
dampningen paa Grund af Luftens Terhed overgaar Nedboreu. 
Og over alt, hvor der er snefrit Land, er der ogsaa Plante- 
vaext, ej blot Mos og Lav, som altid findes paa de hejeste 
Steder, men ogsaa Blomsterplanter. 

Vi vide jo ogsaa fra Kapit. J. A. D. Jensens Expedition 
1878, at selv Nunatakker, der ligge langt inde paa Indlandsisen, 
kunne have forholdsvis mange Blomsterplanter^. 

De i Listen anferte Planter have iovrigt en egen Interesse, 
den nemlig, at om dem maa vi trostig kunne antage , at de 
kunde holde ud i Grenland under Istiden , naar der da var is- 
frit Land. 

Med Hensyn til Lavernes Udbredelse i Hejden har jeg 
truffet et Par Notiser, sem jeg vil anfere her. Saaledes siger 
Hart om det nordligste Gronland, at Laverne ere «IVlost abun- 
dantly at from five hundred to a thousand feet above it 
(d: Havets Niveau), an altitude at which most flowering plants 
have disappeared". Den 2den tyske Expedition fandt i endog 
7000' Hojde ved Franz Josefs Fjordtykke Puder af et flere 
Tommer langt IMos [Grimmia lanuginosa var. arctica) og des- 
uden praeglige Laver. IMen Hejnordens terre fdima vil dog 
naeppe tillade Laverne at udvikle sig med saerlig stor Frodighed. 

Et andet Sporgsmaal er, om der ogsaa i Vegetationen af 
lilomsterplanter er bestemte Forskjelligheder efter Hejden paa 
det til Fjaeldmarken horende Omraade. 

Det fremgaar bestemt af Langes « Conspectus •> , hvad man 



') Se den ovenstaaende Liste og Kornerups •Om det organiske Liv paa 
den 0stlige Nunatak*. Meddel. om Grenland, I, p. 150. 



89 

jo paa Forhaand kunde vide, at ikke alle Arter gaa lige hojl op 
paa Bjaergene, og det er absolut urigtigt, i alt Fald for det syd- 
lige- og mellemste Grenlands Vedkommende, at alle Laviandets 
Arter gaa op paa heje Bjaerge, hvad der af Grisebach o. a. 
angives at gjaelde for Polarlandene. Men rimeligvis er det i 
hejere Grad Tilfaeldet med det nordligste (se Pansch'a Bemaerk- 
ninger i Petermanns Mittheilungen 1871). At Plantevaexten i 
det hele tager af.i Fylde og Artsantal med Hejden, er jo 
sikkert nok; dog kan bemaerkes en Ytring af Th. Fries: 
«den vac-kraste vaxtligheten fann jag 2 — 3000 fot hogt uppe 
paa ett fjdll i Nordfjorden paa Disko-0en»). Men der fore- 
ligger alt for faa Optegnelser til, at noget almindeligere Billede 
lader sig tegne. Heller ikke foreligger der nok oplyst om, 
hvor vidt visse Arter ere indesluttede inden for visse Hojde- 
grsBnser, navniig have en nedre Graense, hvad vi jo isaer 
kunne vente at finde Exempler paa i Landets sydligere Egne; 
saaledes findes Cassiope tetragona efter Vahl ved Godthaab 
blot i storre tJejde over Havet, og Berggren fandt f. Ex., Ca- 
rex nardina ikke under 600'; ogsaa Campanula unijiora IraBffes 
i iVlellemgrenland saedvanlig ferst paa hojere Steder. Rosen- 
vinge traf ved Proven (72° 22') begge disse ved Havets Niveau. 

De eneste smaa Bidrag til Kjendskabet af Udbredningen i 
Hejden, som jeg selv er i Stand til at give, ere folgende Op- 
tegnelser fra to Bjaergbestigninger i 1884, og det oven i Kjebet 
blot til ringe Hejder. 

Praestefjaeldet ved Holstensborg; den 2. Aug. 1884. 
Toppen, paa hvilken der er rejst en Varde, er 1770' over Havet; 
den er en fladere, mod Syd svagt haeldende Straekning, med 
gruset og leret Bund; Plantevaexten er her mest Laver, isaer 
Stereocaulon ^ Cetraria nivalis og islandica^ og Mosser, der 
voxe ind mellem hverandre, mest Racomitrium^ end videre Di- 
cranum fuscescens, Jungermannia lycopodioides, Floerkei og se- 
ttformisj og mellem dem staar der hist og her Tuer af Saxi- 



90 

fraga tricuspidata^ Luzula multifiora f. congesta og arcuata^ Si- 
lene acaulis^ Salix herbacea^ Polygonum viviparum^ Antennaria 
alpina^ Cerastium alpinum\ Papaver^ Dry as ^ Draha nivalis^ Po- 
tentilla Vahliana^ Rhodiola^ Arnica^ Carex nardina, scirpoidea, 
capillaris ^ capitata, Erigeron uniflorus ^ Festuca ovina, Poa 
flexuosa , . Hierochloa alpina , Pyrola grandiflora , Vaccinium 
uliginosum fi. micropliyllum , Camjjanula unifiora , Pedicularis 
hirsuta og fiammea^ Alsine hiflora^ Cochlearia groenlandica. 

Et Par Hundrede Fod lavere noteredes: Taraxacum offi- 
cinale, Potentilla maculata^ Sibbaldia, Saxifraga decipiens, Draba 
Wahlenbergii, Salix glauca. 

Ved 1500': Empetrum, Ranunculus hyperboreus. 

Ved 1200': Alchemilla vulgaris^ Gentiana nivalis. 

Ved 1000': Chama^nerium angustifolium. 

Ved 8 — 900': Anemone Richardsoni^ Thalictrum alpinum^ 
Melandrium involucratum /9 affine^ Potentilla nivea, Viscaria, 
Stellar ia longipes o. a. 

Lyngmarksfjaeldet ved Godhavn; d. 22. Juii 1884. 
H0jdeu af Plateauet blev af Kapitain Norm an n after mine Op- 
tegnelser ved Aneroidbarometret beregnet til 2230'. Plateauets 
svagl belgede eller naesten vandrette Flade er paa store Straek- 
ninger aldeles daekket med Riillesten; paa andre var der en 
naesten for al Vegetation blottet leret Bund med Grus og mindre 
Sten, der da i Almindelighed var saa gjennemtraengt og opblydt 
med smaeltet Snevand, at Foden sank dybt ned. Snepletter laa 
endnu tilbage og afgav Bidrag til de mange Baekke, der leb ned 
ad Fjaeldet. Plantevaexten var yderst fattig og dannede langtfra 
noget sammenhaengende Daekke; der var kun faa og spredte 
Exemplarer af de optegnede Planter. 

I 2000—2200' Hejde (selve Plateauet) fandtes : Oxyria, 
smaabladet og endnu saedvanligvis redbladet, sjaelden i Blomst; 
Alsine biflora^ blomstrende; Trisetum subspicatum^ visnede Tuer 
fra forrige Aar; Ranunculus nivalis^ blomstrende og paa sine 



91 

Steder i Maengde; Ceraatium alpinum i Levspring; Saxifraga 
nivalis blomstr. , Silene acaulis med aargammel Frugt, men ej 
blomslrende ; Gassiope tetragona forknyt og ej blomslrende, 
Salix herbacea^ S. glauca; endelig felgende blomslrende: Draba 
IVahlenbergn, Saxifraga decipiens og oppositifolia^ Papaver nu- 
dicaule og Potentilla emarginata. Af Mosser felgende: Pogo- 
natum alpinum^ Polytrichium hyperboreuni^ P. piliferum\ Bryum 
pseudotriquetrum ; Dicranum fuscescens^ Distichium capillaceum, 
Weissia crispula i taette Puder, Brachythecium salebrosum^ We- 
bera eruda, Jungermannia Floerkei^ J. divaricata var. incurva^ 
Bacomitrium canescens^). Af Laver mest Stereocaulon. 

Under Nedstigningen noteredes, ved 2000—1900': Pohj- 
gonum viviparum , Saxifraga tricuspidata , Pedicularis hirsuta, 
Dryas integrifolia^ Pyrola grandifiora^ Arnica alpina^ Vaccinium 
uliginosum /?. microphyllum^ Saxifraga cernua. 

Ved 1500—14 00' fandtes en flad Strajkning med Vand- 
leb, i hvilke Alger allerede havde udviklet sig trods Sneens 
Naerhed; der laa endog Snepletter ganske taet ved. Her dan- 
nede Aulacomnium palustre og andre Mosser store blede gul- 
grenne Flader, hvori var indblandet Salix herbacea og glauca^ 
der dog ikke haevede sig synderlig over Mosserne, ChamcBnerium 
latifolium^ Arabis alpina^ Poa glauca. Polygonum viviparum^ 
Draba Wahlenbergii ^ Pedicularis hirsuta^ Saxifraga ccBspitosa^ 
rivularis og nivalis^ Ranunculus nivalis i stor Maengde, R.pyg- 
mceus, Papaver nudicaule, Oxyria, o. fl. Desuden fandt Berg- 
gren her Catabrosa algida og Carex lagopina. De andre Mosser 



1) Mosbestemmelserne skyldes Chr. Jensen. 

Berggren giverS. 10— 11 i .Fanerogamnorao. en Fortegnelse over 
Mosserne fra et Plateau af samme Hojde ved Rittenbenk; de ere for 
sterste Delen andre Arter; endvidere fandt ban samme Sted: Carex nar- 
dina, Festuca ovina, Poa casia, Luzula arcuata, Campanula unifiora, 
Alsine bifiora og vema. 



92 



vare isaer Wehera nutans^ cruda og albicans^ Pogonatum alpi- 
nunij Polytrichum strictum^ Bryum ohtusiflorum ^ Brachijthecium 
salebrosum^ Hypnum revolutum^ Weissia crispvla^ Jungermannia 
alpestris, m. tl. Af Laver var her ingen og ej heller Empetrunij 
Birk, Belle eller andre Hedebuske fandtes her. 

Ved 12—1100' tilkom: Cassiope hypnoides ^ Equisetum ar- 
vense^ Sibbaldia^ Draba crassifolia^ Lycopodium alpinum^ Lu- 
zula arctica o. s. v., og her begyndte Empetrum med spredte 
Exemplarer, og lidt efter lidt gjorde Hedevegetationen sig mere 
gjaeldende, jo laengere man kom ned; J^ikener bleve alminde- 
ligere, R.hododendron o. a. Buske indfandt sig. Se iovrigt 
Berggrens Optegnelser fra samme Fjaeld (Mossfloran S. 891). 

Endnu skal jeg anfore en Bjaergbestigning til, nemlig Kor- 
nerups af Nausaussak ved N. Isortok-Fjorden (c. 67° 25 n. B.) 
d. 20. Juni 1879, hvortil Prof. Lange har givet mig de fornodne 
iVlanuskripter: 

tJojden er 3130 Fod (987.7 Meter). 



Hojde. 
3120 (985 M.) 



3103 (980 M.) 

2850 (900 M.) 

2837 (886 M.) 

2724 (860 M.) 

2460 (777 M.) 

2346 (740 M.) 

2153 (680 M.) 

1932 (610^1.) 

1820 (575 M.) 

1745 (551 M.) 



Uden Blomster. 



Pap aver i Knop; Arme- 
ria i Knop. 

Lycopodium. Car ex. 

Cassiope tetragona. 

Pyrola. 

Vaccinium uliginosum og 
Pedicularis i Knop. 

Z)/*ya5-Buske. Polygo- 
num. Dvaergpil. 



Betula nana. Bregne. 
Gnaphalium. 



Blomstrende. 

Potentilla.^ Draba ^ Eri- 
geron, Luzula, vel alle 
i Blomst, men meget 
forkroblede og kun i 
Dvaergexemplarer. 

Saxifraga, enkelte i 
Blomst. 



Saxifraga oppositifoUa. 

I Salix med rode Rakler. 
Rhododendron. 



Dry as. 

Diapensia lapponica^ Ca- 
rex. 



Hejde. 
1488 (470 M.) 



9:37 (296 M.) 

760 (240 M.) 



93 

Uden Blomster. 



Ledum i [{nop. 

Vaccinium Vitis idcea. 
Derefler almindelig 
Dalvegetation. 



Blomstrende. 

Birkebuske med Rakle. 
Gulrod Pedicularia^ 
Vaccinium idigino- 
8um , Empetrum , Si- 
lene acaulis, Graesser. 
Store Pile. 

Cassiope tetragona i 

Blomst. 



Det eneste, der kan udledes af denne Liste, er, at Udvik- 
lingen er desto fremmeligere , jo laengere man kommer ned, 
samt, skjent mindre tydeligt, at Buskene ere faa eller mangle i 
de h0jere Egne. 

Og sluttelig skal jeg henvise til Berggrens Skildring af 
Vegetationen paa et Sted under c. 70° n. B. paa Nursoak-Halveen 
(Fanerogamfl. S. 888). Paa Sydsiden af Bjaergene ved IVlajoriari- 
soeitsiak gaar Vegetationen af de «ljunglika vaxlerna« op til 
omtrent 200u', men paa det omtalte Sted fandtes ved 1800' 
blot spredte Exemplarer af Salix herbacea, Andromeda tetragona 
eg Luzula arcuata , foruden tynde Mospletter. Laengere nede 
tilkomme Carex lagopina og Cassiope hypnoides\ ved 1500': 
de samme foruden Carex rigida^ Vaccinium uliginosum^ Dia- 
pensia^ Empetrum, Salix glauca, Poa cenisia (o: glauca), Poly- 
gonum viviparum , Azalea procumbens, Silene acaulis, Lycopo- 
dium SelagOj -men annu ej bildande ndgon sammanhiingande 
matta, som tacker marken, utan denne dr stallevis bar». En 
taet Vegetation optraeder ferst ved 1000', hvor Betula nana, 
Saxifraga tricuspidata , Poa alpina, Cerastium alpinum, Vero- 
nica alpina og Sibbaldia tilkomme. Ved 800' trajffes endvidere: 
Arnica alpina , Bartsia alpina , Trisetum subspicatum , Campa- 
nula rotundifolia og Dryas integrifolia. Det Praeg, som ban 
fandt Vegetationen bave her ved 1500-2000', sammensliller ban 



94 

selv med det, som Rink fandt paa Halveens Nordestside ved 
Omenak i 2—3000'. 

PlaiitcTaexteu i det yderste Nord. Her findes aabenbart Fjaeld- 
marken i sin skraekkeligste 0de og Goldhed, et Land, der mod- 
svarer Sneregionen paa det sydligere Grenlands Bjaerge. Men 
Planter er der hist ligesom tier, derom vidner blandt andet 
Dyrelivet. I det nordligste Grenland og i det lige over for lig- 
gende, langt bedre undersegte Grinnell-Land findes ikke mindre 
end tre Arter af plantesedende Pattedyr: Moskusoxen, Haren og 
Lemmingen, og i alt Fald ikke meget sydligere paa Ostkysten 
findes ogsaa Renen, og to andre Arter naere sig alter til Dels 
af disse Dyr, om just ikke udelukkende, nemlig Hermelinen 
og Raeven^). Moskusoxens og Renens store Flokke pege hen 
paa en rigelig vegetabilsk Fode. For Renens Vedkommende er 
denne vel isaer buksagtige Laver, men Moskusoxen synes at fore- 
traekke Blomsterplanter, af hvilke der da maa gives en ikke ringe 
Maengde^). Hart skriver: «! cannot agree with Prof. Th. Fries 
who (Linnean societys journal of botany, vol. 17, 1879) speaks 
of lichens as "belonging to the flora that approaches nearest 
to the North-polo. Certain phanerogames surpassed them in 
vertical range ». 

Medens vi endnu efter Harts Skildringer traeffe Jorden 
••uniforraely covered with vegetation for any extent* ved de af 
ham bes0gt§ Kolonier Egedesminde, Disko, Rittenbenk og Pre- 



Af Fugle findes jo et stort Antal. Rypen og Snespurven ere vel de 
eneste egenllige Pianteaedere, men mange Vandfugle ernaere sig i For- 
aarstiden af Fre eller andre PJantedele, f. Ex. af Saxifraga oppositifolia 
(Nares, 2, p. 210, 212). 

Se en Udtalelse af Kapt. Feilden i Linnean Soe. Journ. , Botany, XVII, 
S. 349: "Ovibos moschatus, as far as my experience goes in Grinnell land, 
does not feed on lichens ; the stomachs of all these animals that 1 examined 
contained grasses, willows, and other phanerogamic plants, Mosses 
[Hypnum], but not lichefls*. 



95 

ven, en Vegetalion af Lyngplanter og Fjaeldiirter, gjennem hvis 
"brownish green carpet, which is about the hue of an Irish 
mountain bog, conspicuous and beautiful blossoms of Rhodo- 
dendron etc. are lavishly scatteredu, saa tager Plantevaexten efter 
ham hurtig af, naar man kommer Nord paa, og efter at have 
forladt Upernivik, traeffer man sjaelden Steder dtekkede med Urter, 
og blot lavt nede. Selv paa de mest begunstigede Steder ved 
Fouike Fjord (78° 18' n. B.), Hayes Sound (c. 79° 20 n. B.) og 
Discovery Bay (81° 42' n. B.) er den plantebterende Overflade 
meget indskraenket, blot Smaapletter, som ere lette at se i Af- 
stand. Men der kan, som Hart fremhaever, forekomme be- 
graensede Lokaliteter, i hvilke alle de Arter kunne findes sam- 
lede, der for evrigt findes der omkring i flere Breddegraders 
Udstraekning; en saadan saerllg begunstiget Plet er Discovery 
Bay, hvor der paa Bellot Island er fundet ikke mindre end 69 
Arter, eller omtrent lige saa mange som i hele del nordlige 
Grenland n. f. 76°. 

Nathorst bar i «Nordvestra Gronland» givet en Forteg- 
nelse over de 88 Blomsterplanter, som hidtil ere iagttagne i 
Gr0nland n. f. Melville Bay, til hvilken jeg derfor kan henvise. 
De findes omtrent alle i den ovenstaaende Liste over de Planter, 
der gaa hejest op paa Bjaergene (og ere paa denne betegnede 
med Stjaerne); blot nogle faa mangle, enten fordi de ikke findes 
i det sydligere (danske) Gronland, eller fordi jeg ikke bar trufi'et 
Hejdeangivelser for dem paa over 2000' eller af andre Grunde, 
f. Ex. at de ere Strandplanter; disse ere: 

[Pedicularis Kanei]^ Vaccinium Vitis idcea^ Potentilla ansertna, 
P.pulchella^ [P. maculataf]^ Dryas octopetala^ Epilohium latifo- 
lium, Hesperis Pallasii^ Braya alptna, [Draba corymbosa?]^ (Jo- 
chlearia fenestrata^ [Ranunculus nSabbinei af -finis ^\ Melandrium 
triflorum^ Stellaria humifusa^ S. arctica, Festuca brevifolia^ Poa 
pratensis^ P. glauca , Olyceria angvstata^ G. vilfoidea^ Cata- 
brosa algida^ Pleuropogon Sabinei^ Colpodium latifolium^ Aira 
brevifolia^ Agrostis canina^ Eriophorum angustifolium^ E, vagi" 
natum, [Carex doicaf\. (Parenthes er sat om 5 mindre sikre). 



96 



Altsaa 28 (23) Arter af 88, og det maa jo vist nok ventes, 
at dette Tal vil formindskes ved fremtidige Undersegelser, saa at 
blot de egentlige Slrandplanter blive tilbage som ejendommelige 
for det yderste Nord sammeniignet med Bjaergenes Sneregion. 

Der er saaledes , som rimeligt er, en betydelig Overens- 
stemmelse mellem «Snefloraen» paa det sydlige og mellemste 
Granlands Bjaerge og Plantevaexten i det h0Je Nord i Henseende 
til Arterne, og jeg maa antage, at Individerne ogsaa ville frem- 
byde visse ydre Ligheder, navnlig i Henseende til Livskraft. 
Enkelte Arter, saasom Saxifraga oppositifolia ^ Silene acaulis^ 
Papaver nudicaule ville vise en usvaekket Livskraft lige til de 
yderste Graenser for Livet, og ville med Sikkerhed kunne ventes 
fundne under selve Nordpolen , saafremt der overhovedet her 
findes Betingelser for Planteliv; selv under 81° 42' (Discovery 
Bay) optra3der S. oppositifolia daekkende «many square yards 
with its magnificient sheets of red-purple » og den «remains 
in blow from the earliest spring to the latest summer» (efter 
HartiM- Men andre ville vaere hensygnende, og naeppe formaa 
IfEuger at saette Blomst eller endnu mindre moden Frugt, f. Ex. 
Epilohium latifolium^ Arnica^ Gardamine pratensis ^ Polygonum 
viviparum^ Arenaria groenlandica, Saxifraga rivularis^ om flere 
af hvilke Hart siger, at de gjore «no effort to fIower». Nogle 
blive rene Dvaerge, f. Ex. Cerastium. alpinum^ Papaver nudicaule 
0. a., hvorom jeg henviser til Harts interessante Arbejde. 



Ligeledes fortjener det at freinhaeves, at 8alix gro&alandica eller S. arctica 
endnu ved 82° 25' n. B. kan frembringe Stammer af V Tvaermaal (Hart). 
Th. Fries (Linn. Journ. XVII, 351) omtaler en anden (den samme?) 
Stamme som havende 1 — 2 Centim. i^A") Diam. og 40 Aarringe. Maal af 
spitzbergensiie Buske findes anferte af Nathorst "Spetsb. Karlv.». 1 
• Die zweite deutsche Nordpollahrt" anferes S. 668 Maal paa en Del 
Stammer af Pil og Dvaergbirk. Salix arctica opviste Stammer paa over 
6 Fods Leengde; Aarringene vare indtil iVa Millim. tykke, medens 
0,1 — 0,3 Mm. ellers var det saedvanlige. Dvaergbirken fik 2—3' Hejde; 
en Stamme paa I Centim. Tveermaal havde 67 Aarringe. 



97 

Denne Vanskelighed for mange Arter ved at formere sig ved 
Fre er naturligvis en af de vigtigste Grunde til, at Individ- 
antallet i del yderste Nord er laget saa betydelig af. 

Grenlands Blomsterplanter n. f. 80° n. B. ere: Saxifraga 
oppositifolia ^ S. decipiens^ Papaver nudicaule^ Alopecurua al- 
pinus , Salix arctica^ Draba alpina , Dr. corymbosa [t) ^ Dr. 
hirta^ Cochlearia groenlandica, Cerustium alpinum , Dry as inte- 
grifolia^ D. ociopetala^ Potentilla nivea^ P. parviflora^ Poa al- 
pinaj Poa jiexuosa. Bray a glabella^ Taraxacum officinale^ Fe- 
stuca brevifolia , Oxyria digt/na , Polygonum vivij)arum , Carex 
nardina og rigida. C. dioiea (??|, Luzula arcuata^ Juncus biglu- 
mtSj Ranunculus nivalis, Pedicularis hirsuta^ Melandrium invO' 
lucratum /? affine , M. apetalum {?| , Vesicaria arctica , Hesperis 
Pallasii, Eriophorum vaginatum^ — i alt 33 (3 mindre sikre). 
Nord for 83° n. B. er der fiindet: Papaver nudicaule, Saxi- 
fraga oppositifolia og Alopecurus alpinus. 

Spergsmaalet om, hvor vidl der er Plantevaext om selve 
Nordpolen, vedkommer os straengt taget ikke her, da det jo 
ikke synes rimeligt, at Grenland skulde straekke sig endnii 7 
Breddegrader laengere mod Nord, end man hidtil med Sikkerhed 
ved, at det straekker sig^). Men jeg kan dog ikke undlade at 
anfere som min personlige Anskuelse, at hvis der ved selve 
Nordpolen er el Bjaergland , ville vi sikkerlig ogsaa have en 
Plantevaext ikke blot af Mos, Lav, men ogsaa af de haardfereste 
Blomsterplanter eller rettere af dem, der nejes roed den ringeste 
Sommervarme og hurtigst kunne afslutte deres Udvikling, saa- 
som Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. decipiens, S, nivalis, S. cernua, 
Cerasiium alpinum , Papaver nudicaule , Cochlearia fenestrata, 
Ranunculus nivalis, Alopecurus alpinus, Catabrosa algida, Poa 

») Lint. Lockwood af Greely's Expedition naaede paa Grenlands Vesl- 
kyst op til 83° 24' n B. og saa derfra Landet endnu ved 83'' 35' n. B., 
38° V. L. bejende sig fremdeles mere og mere mod 0st. Se •Nature* 
1884, vol. 30, p. 438. 
XII. 7 



flexuosa^ Silene acaulis, hviike man har truffet paa det nord- 
ligste og vist mest ugjaestmilde LandM, som Mennesker have 
besegt, Kaiser Franz Josefs Land, og desuden flere andre, saa- 
som Saltx giauca og Cardamine bellidifolia. Thi er der et 
Hjaergland, ville vi sikkert finde stejlere Steder, hvor Sneen ikke 
kan blive liggende eller hvor den dog blot danner et tyndt 
Lag, som Luftens Terhed eller Solens Varme snart fjaerner, 
og al snebar Jord vil ganske sikkert baere Planter; foruden 
Pansch har f. Ex. ogsaa Kjellman laert os, at Polarplan- 
terne godt taale Barfrost. Nares udtaler som sin Mening, 
at saa laenge Solen ikke kommer hojere end 30°, vil ingen Op- 
toning finde Sted ved dens Kraft umiddelbart (men vel f. Ex. 
ved varme sydlige Vinde); nu kommer Solen ganske vist \Iid- 
sommerdagen ikke hojere end 23° 28' over Horisonten, eller 
saa hojt som her i Kjobenhavn (55° 41' n. B.) d. 20. Februar, 
men dens Straaler vilie dog vist nok vaere i Stand til at opvarme 
den Bjaergside, som de kunne traeffe naesten lodret, saa meget, 
at de lave Fjaeldurter kunne vaekkes til Liv^). Dertil kommer, 
at Temperaturen Dognet igjennem bliver meget mere ensformig 
end under lavere Bredder, hvor den om Natten falder betydelig 
under Dagens ; Nares fandl f. Ex. d. 29. Juli 1876 blot 3 eller 
4 Graders Forskjel mellem Middagens og «Midnattens') Tem- 
peratur, og denne stadige, jaevne, om end lave, Varme i For- 
bindelse med det stadige Lys vil fremme Ldviklingen, navnlig 
Assimilationsarbejdet. Endelig kommer hertil, at der er en 



Se Payer I.e. og Petermanns Mittheilungen 1876, 208; Leigh Smiths 
Expedition i •Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society*, III, 1881, 
p. 134. 

Under de allerhejeste Bredder vil Vegetationen kunne blive rigest paa de 
mod nord vendende Skraaninger, tvaert imod hvad der er Regel laengere 
syd paa; saaledes fandt Kapt. Fell den Forholdet ved Floeberg beach 
(Nares Expeditionens Vinterkvarter, under 82"^ 27' ii. B.), og i alle Fald 
maa Modsaetningen mellem nordlige og sydlige Skraaninger blive mindre. 
Floeberg beach vender ud mod selve Polarhavet, strygende N.NV. 



99 

Mulighed for, at de Lysslraaler, som gaa gjennem Atmosfaeren ved 
Nordpolen, eller under vore Bredder naar Solen slaar lavl paa 
Himlen, ere af en egen og for Vegetationen saerlig gunslig Art. 
Til sidst skal jeg alter fremhaeve det udpraeget kontinentale 
Klima, den staerke Terhed i Luften og Fordampning fra Jordan 
og af Sneen og Isen, saasnart der er en lille smule Vind og 
vel ogsaa udendenne, saaledes som ovenfor omtaltes iS. 24); 
dette vil have til Folge, at Jorden tidlig befries for Snedaekket, 
saa at Solvarmen strax med hel Kraft kan komme den og 
Planterne tilgode^). Laegges alt dette sammen, synes den Slut- 
ning mig berettiget, naar vi se hen til, hvor langt Nord paa 
Plantevaexten er bleven funden, og f. Ex. se hen til Discovery 
Bay med dens 69 Arter, at et bjaergrigt Land under Nordpolen 
maa have endog et ikke ringe Antal Blomsterplanter. 



Temperaturen i Skyggen giver naturligvis Ingen Forestilling om den 
Varme, som kommer den i Solen staaende Plantevaexl til Del Det er derfor 
ogsaa ofte blevet fremhsevet , at Botanikerne enske Maalinger i det direkte 
Sollys og i Vegetationens Hejde; Katies og Nares Expedltioner have ogsaa 
anstillet iMaalinger med sort Kugle i Solen; Taylor ligeledes (Edinb. Bot. Soc. 
VII, p. 323). 1 Nathorsts Spetsb. Karlvaxter Andes som Bilag p. 87 nogle 
Maalinger udferte 1883 paa Spitzbergen isaer af R. Gyllencreutz, dels af 
Varmen Va Meter over Jorden i Sollys niaalt med svaertet Thermometer, dels 
af Varmen 1 Skyggen. Til Fyllas Togt 1884 havde jeg af Kommissionen ud- 
bedt mig og erholdt nogle Thermometre med og uden svaertet Kugle. Med 
dem foretoges en Del Maalinger af Temperaturen i Sollys og i Vegetationens 
Hejde, idet Thermometrene anbragtes paa et dertil konstrueret Stativ, Disse 
desvaerre lidet omfangsrige og alt for ufuldstaendige Maalinger meddeles her 
omstaaende (S. 100—101). 



') I Virkeligheden har man jo truffet langt mere snefrit Land paa heje 
Bredder, end man havde taenkt sig. t Beretningen om •Polaris* Expedit. 
til Kennedy og Robeson Channel siges: "During the summer the entire 
extent of both lowlands and elevations are bare of snow and ice excep- 
ting patches here and there in the shade of the rocks. The soil during 
this period was covered with a more or less dense Vegetation of Moss, 
with which several Arctic Plants were interposed. (.Nature*. 1873, VllI, 
p. 218); se ogsaa mine Citater S. 24 og 102, og 2. deutsche Nordpolfahrl 
S. 318. 



100 



Yaruiemaaliiiger i direkte Solskiii. 1884. 



Sted. 


Tid. o "3) 

1 ^ 


1 = 


AnmajikningerM. 


Kobbefjord ^^k • • • 


Kl. 12i p.m. 


25 


16 


1 Baaden. 


— — . . . 


— I — 


\n 


131 




— — . . . 


- 2 — 


18 


12 


1 liaaden. 


— — . . . 


— 4 — ; 23 


m 




— — . . . 


— 41 — 21 


16 




— — . . . 


- 7 - 9i 


n 


Vajidet i Fjorden 4V2° C. 


— - . . . 


- 8 — 8 


7 




— — . . . 


- 9 - 1 71 


6 


■; 


— — . . . 


- n - \ H 


5 


Solen forsvinder. 


- — . . 


- 10 - i 3^ 


H 




— — . . 


— U — 1 







"/g . . 


I 
— 7 a m. 1 6| 


55 




— — . . 


- 10 — 21 


16 




— — . . 


— 11 — 181 


141 


Fjordens Varme 6°. 


Ikamiut *h .... 


- 31 p in..l 61 


5 


Naesten ingen Sol. 


- V7 


— 8 a. m. 


7 


5 


— 


Sermersok '/? . • 


— 9 — 


H 


4 


j 


— — . . . 


-101 - 


9 


5 


1 Solen noget 


— — . . . 


. -12 - 


9^ 


n 


I Baaden. / lilsleret. 


— — . . 


- 4 - 


14 


n 


- 1 


Sukkertoppen ^h . 


. — 12 m. 


16 


12 


Paa Vandet. 


— - . 


. — 1 p. m. 


34 


24 




— — . 


. - 11 - 


24 


19 




— — . 


. - 21 - 


26 


22 




— — . 


. - 31 - 


24 


17 




Holstensborg ^^/t • 


. - 31 - • 
. - 5 - 
. ~ 21 - 


20 
24 

26 


— 




Kerortusok ^V? • • 


20 


4* 


— — . . 


. — 3 - 


27 


22 




Sarfanguak "/t . • 


. — 9 a ni 


26 


24 


Biaest. 



') Hvor intet andel er bemaerket, ere Maalingerne gjorte i Land og i Vege- 
tatioiiens Hejde. Angivelserne ere Celsius. 



101 



Sted. 




L. 


..1 






1 o ei. 


3 M» ' 


, C/3 3 


^ 3 


, =* 


"H 



Anmaerkoinger. 



Sarfanguak *^/7 

Ikertok ''/t . 
Ilivnek ^^h . 
Godhavn ^^h 



Jakobshavn ^\ 



Kristianshaab '■^^h 



Tesuisak =*»/? • 

PraestefjaeM Vs 
Kangerdluarsuk */« 



KI. 11 
— 2 



a. m. 
p. m. 



a. m. 
p. m. 



— n - 

— 3 — 

— H - 

— 5 — 
-12 — 

'-2 

— 2 ^ 

— 4 — 

— 91 - 
-101 - 

— 01 a. m 

— 71 - 

— 81 - 

— 9 — 

— 1 p. m 

— 4 — 

— 111 a. m. 

— 121 p m, 
-121 _ 

— 21 - 

— 12 tn. 



32 
30 
31 
21 
25 
28 
24 
31 
19 



18 

221 

23 

30 

33 

35 

311 

31 

40 

31 
22 
31 



28 
25i j 

26 I 

m I 

17 
19 
17 
17 
16 
20 
27 
22 
25 
9 
8 
15 
20i 
19 
241 
30 
31 
27 


361 
24 
15 
26 



Luften dirrer af Varme. 



I Baad. 



Vandet i Fjorden 12°. 
/ I Lae af eo Sten. Svag Vind. 
\ Derpaa faldl Varmeo staerkl. 

I c. 900' Hejde. . 

— 1700' — 

_ 6—700' Hejde. 



Cand. Rosenvinge, der var udsendt af Kommissionen med .Fylla. 
1886 gjorde en enkelt ligner.de lagUagelse. der er anfert S. 213 i Bolao. 
Tdsskr. Bd. 16. 

De anferle Maalinger vise, til hviike betydellge Hejder Varmeo kan »Uge; 
den hejeste Varmegrad iagttoges ved Tesuisak. d. 29. Juli: 40° og S6'/,oc. 



102 



FJieldmarkeiis geografiske Idbrediiiiig. Fjaeldmarken og Sne- 
regionen paa Bjaergene indlage det allerstarste Omraade i Hej- 
norden. Vi ville finde den gjennem hele Grenland fra det 
sydligste til det nordligste, fra de yderste Kyster ved Havets 
Niveau og til de hejeste snebare Pletter paa Bjaergene. Fjaeld- 
marken danner Overfladen af en stor Dei af det arktiske Nord- 
amerika, dets likenrige "barren grounds*, hvor Rener og 
Moskusoxer finde rigelig Fode, og af 0riget nord derfor; det er 
en rig Form af den , som Greely-Expeditionen traf i det indre 
af Grinneli Land mellem 81 — 82°, og som omtales saaledes 
(se «Nature» 1884, p. 438): Landet var i Juli fuldstaendig snefrit, 
undtagen i (defter og lignende Steder, hvor Solen ej kunde 
virke, og paa Bjaergtoppene; paa over 150 eng. Mile ind i det 
indre rorte min Fod aldrig ved Sne; Vegetationen var rig, 
(•exceedingly luxuriant" i Sammenligning med Kysterne ved 
Smiths Sund etc. Pile, Saxifrager, Graes og andre Planter groede 
i saadan Overfledighed., at hele Straekninger af Grunden fuld- 
staendig daekkedes; der var udmaerket Foder for Moskusoxen, 
som graesser langs Kysterne om Sommeren, men traekker sig 
tilbage til det indre om Vinteren. 

Det er Fjaeldmarken i dens goldeste Form, som Payer 
omtaler fra Kaiser Franz Josefs Land, der i Ode og Gold- 
hed langt overgaar Grenland og Spitzbergen, og sterste Delen af 
Spitsbergen maa, saa vidt jeg kan se, regnes derhen. Hvad 
Nathorst kalder «Sluttningarne'> og som vi maaske kunne be- 
naevne "Haeldernew, og hvis Blomsterrigdom saerlig fremhaeves, er 
efter Arterne at demme naermest Fjaeldmark, skjent frodigere og 
rigere end jeg i Almindelighed har set den i Grenland, hvortil 
vel isaer bidrager, at i Grenland er det mest de haarde og lidet 
forvilrende granitiske o. 1. Bjaergarter, der danne Klippebunden 
i de fleste af mig besogte Egne, medens det paa Spitzbergen er 
andre, lettere forvitrende Bjaergarter, hvorfor der dannes dybere 
Grus og LerlagM, sandsynligvis ogsaa frugtbarere paa Grund af de 

M Se Nathorst Spetsbergeus Karlv , p. 58. 



103 

forvitrende Bjaerges Natur^), i hviike Planterne udvikle 8ig endog 
til «luxurierende» Former. Disse «.HaeIders« Planter ere for 
sterste Delen netop saadanne, der i Grenland have hjemme paa 
Fjaeldmarken, f. Ex. Saxifraga oppositifolia, decipiens^ Draba erne 
f. Ex. D. alpina^ Wahlenhergii^ hirta med Formen rupeatris, 
Ranunculus altaicus og pygmceus ^ Cardamine hellidifolia^ Pa- 
paver nudicaule , Silene acaulis , Stellaria longipes , Luzula ar- 
cuata f. confusa^ Melandrium apetalum og involucraium f. affine, 
Festuca rubra ^ Poa flexuosa^ Erigeron unifiorus^ Arnica alpina^ 
Andromeda tetragona og Empetrum, Pedicularis hirsuta, Cam- 
panula umfloraj Potentilla nivea^ Dryas^ Catabrosa algida o. s. v. 
0. s. V. Og deraf slutter jeg, at de komme naermest til den 
grenlandske Fjaeldmark, selv om Fysiognomiet mest formedelst 
Bundens Beskaffenhed bliver lidt forskjelligt. For evrigt ere jo 
ikke faa Arler forskjellige, eller optrade langt talrigere paa 
Spitzbergen end paa Grenland, hvis Plantevaext i «vasentlig man 
afviker») fra hint Lands, som Nathorst har anmaerket^). 

Komme vi derimod til Skandinaviens med i alt Fald den 
sterste Del af Grenland mere overens stemmende Fjaeldbund, da 
skjenner jeg ikke rettere, efter de Rejsendes Skildringer og 
hvad jeg selv har set, end at vi der finde en Fjaeldmark, der i 
Fysiognomi aldeles overensstemmer med Grenlands, og med 
Skandinavien stemmer Lapland efter de mange Skildringer fra 
denne interessante Del af Nordeuropa, som findes hos isaer 
de finske Botanikere Hjelt og Hull, Brotberus, Kihlman, 
Fellman; hos nogle af dem finde vi Navnet -terre Tundraer* 
eller «Likentundraer»> briigt om en Vegetation, der i sin Arts- 
sammensaetning meget ligner Grenlands Fjaeldmark. Arterne ere 
for den allerslerste Del de samme, og i del hele er det mest 
paa Fjaeldmarken, at de cirkumpolaere arktiske Planter have 



') Sutherland angiver, at i Vest -Grenland og paa Melville-6en ere 
Planterne meget kraftigere end paa Cornwallis-lsland og seger Grundeo 
til Dels i Jordbunden. 

») Nordvestra Gronland, S. 37—38. 



104 



hjemme, men enkelte Forskjelligheder findes dog; saaledes ere 
felgende Arter 

langt aim indeiigere i Skandinavien med Lapland 
end i Grenland: Arctostaphylos alpina, Ranunculus glacialis, 
Draba alpina , Sagma nivalis , Gnaphalium supinum , Linncea, 
Dry as octopetala, Nardus stricta^ Salix reticulata^ Asplenium 
viride, Polemonium pulchellum. 

Andre ere slet ikke fundne i Gran land, saasom Salix 
polaris^ Trientalis europcea^ Vaccinium Myrtillus^ Carex erice- 
torum, Viola hifiora, Pedicularis Oederi, Luzula spadicea var. 
Kunthii^ Sceptrum carolinum, Astragalus alpina og oroboides^ 
Saxifraga Cotyledon, Oxytropis campestris^ Pinguicula alpina o.a., 

medens omvendt andre synes meget almindeligere i 
G re n land end i Skandinavien og Lapland, f. Ex. Hierochloa 
alpina^ Potentilla nivea^ Melandrium affine^ Trisetum subspica- 
tum, Carex seirpoidea^ Stellaria longipes, Rhododendron lappo- 
nicum, Cassiope tetragona, Draba crassifolia^ Pedicularis hir- 
suta, P. flammea, Campanula uniflora, 

eller slet ikke fin{des i Skandinavien, saasom Dryas 
integrifoiia, Potentilla emarginata, P. pulchella^ P. tridendata, 
P. Vahliana, Epilobium latifolium (der dog er nordrussisk), Al- 
sine groenlandica, A. Rossii, Melandrium triflorum, Sagina cce- 
spitosa, Arabis Holboellii, A. Hookeri^ Draba arctica^ Dr. co- 
rymbosa, Eutrema Edwardsii, Hesperis Pallasii^ Vesicaria arc- 
tica, Ranunculus af finis, Saxifraga flagellaris, Pedicularis lanata, 
Pyrola grandifiora (findes maaske), Artemisia borealis, o. fl. 

Novaja Semlja har for aller sterste Delen Fjaeldmark. 
Biisklaver trives kummerlig og ere, som v. Baer siger, langt 
fra at have den «freche Uppigkeit" som i Lapland, men Skorpe- 
laver overtraekke hver Sten; Mosserne synes heller ikke at op- 
traede med Yppighed, men rundt om paa Fjaeldmarken findes 
frugtbare Pletter paa Bjaergfoden , Haelder, som Solstraalerne 
formaa at opvarme, hvis af blaa Eritrichier, guldgule Ranunkler 
og Draba alpina, ferskenrode Parrya'er, blaa Polemonier, hvide 



105 

Cerastier o. s. v. dannede Plantevaext v. Baer sammenligner med 

en «von kunstreicher Hand angelegten-» og «sorgsam gereiniglen 

Garten.), netop fordi Planterne siaa spredt og blandede, med 

Jorden overall synlig mellem sig (se for evrigt ovenfor S. 43; 

Forholdet til Urtemarken er ikke altid klart). 

Hvad endelig Sibiriens Nordkyst betraeffer, da have vi 

der aabenbart paa sine Steder en Form af <«klippmark«) (se 

Kjellman, S. 240 i «Vaxtligheten pa Sibiriens Nordkusto), der 

kommer Grenlands Hede og Fjaeldmark overmaade naer; Plante- 

vaexten dannes ej af Laver alene, men ogsaa af Blomslerplanter, 

blandt hvilke findes smaa Buske som Dvaergpil, Empetrum 

nigrum^ Dryas octopetala, Arctostapkylos alpina^ Vaccinium vitis 

tdcea, Ledum palustre. 

Rude- eller Polygonmarken. v. Baer omtaler (Bull. sc. Ill, 174), at 
naar Lerbunden paa Novaja Semlja om Sommereii udterres, deles den ved 
1—3" brede Revner i •Polygoner*; Revnerne blive Udgangspunkt for Vege- 
tation, som efterhaanden brede sig paa Polygonerne selv. Arterne syoes at 
vaere de samme som paa Fjaeldmarken. Heuglhi omtaler ogsaa Polygonmarken 
fra Novaja Semlja, og Kjellman giver den Navnet •Rutmark*. Den Andes 
efter ham og Midden dorff over hele Sibiriens Nordkyst, og Scoresby skal 
have omtalt dens Forekomst paa Spitzbergen, hvor den efter Nalhorst dog 
• ej ar fullt utbildad*. Jeg kjender intet lignende fra Grenland, men dog er 
der Antydninger af, at Kane har set noget saadant ved Kap York. Ved visse 
store Elve findes jo Lersletter (se f. Ex. J. A. D. Jensens Skildringer i -Med- 
delelser om Grenland", 8. H.), og der var det vel muligt at flnde .Rude- 
marken. Paa Shannon-0en fandt den 2. tyske Pol.-Exped. Jorden udterret, 
■ dabei oft von klafienden Spalten vielwinklig durchzogen*. 

T. Hedeplanternes Tilpasning til Terke. 

Lyngheden og Fjaeldurterne leve for en stor Del under de 
samme fysiske og klimatiske Vilkaar; til visse Tider, navnlig 
i Snesmaeltningstiden, have de Overfledighed af Fugtighed isaer 
i Jorden; men hen paa Sommeren ere de udsalte for at lide af 
det modsatte, Terhed i Jordbund og i Luft. Hedens og Fjaeld- 
markens tynde Jordlag gjennemvarmes af Solen under den lange 
Polardag, den Rest af Fugtighed, som ikke er Iwbet bort, for- 
damper, og Luften kan i lang Tid vaere meget ler; Laverne 



106 



staa knasende terre og smuldre hen, naar man traeder paa dem, 
og de hejere Planter ere ikke mindre iidsatle for staerk Cd- 
terring. Saa besynderligt det end lyder, at Plantevaexten i et 
Land som Granland kan blive udsat for staerk Terke, og at 
der er Vegetationsformer, hvis Planters anatomiske Bygning 
minder om f. Ex. de libysk-aegypliske Orkenplanters, saa er detle 
dog Tilfaeldet. Jeg bar alt ovenfor omtalt, at Klimatet biirtig 
bliver mere og mere tort, jo laengere man avancerer nord paa 
(se S. 22), og at det samme er Tilfaeldet, jo mere man fjaerner 
sig fra den yderste Kyst og rykker ind i Landet (se S. 79). 
Jeg kommer ad alle Veje til det Resultal, at den arktiske Flora 
maa vaere tilpasset til et tert Klima for at kunne holde ud, et 
Resultat, som til en vis Grad stemmer med Blytts Theori, 
at de arktiske Planter i Norge «sky Kystklimatet" ^|. 

Disse Resultater med Hensyn til Klimatet finder jeg fuld- 
staendig bekraeftede, naar jeg ser hen til Bygningen af de 



') I Englers Jahrbiichar, 2, p. 3, skriver Blytt: . . . «Aus derselben er- 
hellt, dass die hierher gehorenden Pflanzen das Kustenklima scheuen*. 
. . . "Die reichsten derartigen (a: arktischen) Pflanzen-Kolonien treten 
in den eigentllch kontinentalen Gibiigsregionen auf, wo sie durch unsere 
hochsten Bergzuge und ansgedehntesten Firnmassen gegen die Seeluft 
geschutzt sind, welche sonst durch die lierrschenden Sudwestwinde uber 
das Hochland hineingeliihrt wird». Jeg kan i evrigt ingenlunde tro, at 
denne Theori, udtrykt som den er f. Ex. paa det citerede Sted, er helt rigtig; 
lagttagelsen er jo utvivlsomt rigtig, den nemlig, at de Egne i Norge, bag 
de store Bjaerghejder, hvor hine Planter have kunnet holde sig, have en 
mere konlinenlal Karakter, og at delte vel i Forbindelse med storre Kulde, 
kortere Sommer o. a., er Grunden til, at de have holdt sig, dog saaledes 
at forslaa: at her have de vaeret staerke nok til at holde de andre Stangen; 
hvis der ingen andre var, vilde de arktiske Planter sikkert rykke ud til 
Kysten og ned til Havet trods den fugtige Luft; se forevriet ogsaa Blytts 
egne Bemaerkninger om Planters fortrinlige Trivsel under aldeles frem- 
mede Forhold, naar Medbejlere holdes borte (1. c. p. 9, Anm.). Jeg kan 
heller ikke tro, at det isaer er Kulden, der skader deres unge Spirer, thi 
i den arktiske; Vaar- og Sommertid kommer der mangen en bidende 
Frostnat, hvad jeg selv bar oplevet. Jeg vilde derfor hellere sige: de 
arktiske Planter have holdt sig paa Dovre, fordi de her vare staerkere end 
de senere indvandrede Arter, og en af Grundene dertil er sikkert deres 
sterre Tilpasning til et kontinentalt, tert Klima med kort Sommer. 



107 



paagjaeldende Planters Vegetationsorganer, speciell 
Blade Is. I nyere Tid er det jo blevet et Yndlingsthema at 
behandle Forholdet mellem Vegetationsorganernes anatomiske 
Bygning og den Lokalitet, paa hvilken de paagjaeldende Planter 
voxe^). Det er naturligvis de under extreme Forhold voxende 
Planter, som isaer have vaeret Gjenstand for Sludium, Vand- 
planterne og de i Skygge og fugtig Luft voxende Arter paa 
den ene Side , 0rken- og Steppeplanter paa den anden Side, 
og Grundlraekkene ere nu saaledes fastslaaede, at vi med stor 
Sikkerhed kunne drage Sluininger af Bygningen med Hensyn til 
de ydre Forhold. 

Det er i Grenland Lynghedens Buske med fleraarige 
Blade, der tale tydeligst til os, og som det derfor er inter- 
essantest at studere. Gruppere vi Hedebuskene efter de for- 
skjellige Maader, paa hvilke de soge Vaern mod Udtorring, 
kunne vi opstille felgende Griipper. 




Fig. 1. Evipetrum nigrum L. (fra Upernivik). 

A. Tvaersnit gjeiiDem et Blad; L, det store Luftrum. B. Et Stykke af 

Yderfladens Overhud i Tvaersnit; c, Kutikula; v, Vaeg; I, Cellerummet; 

g, Gummose af Inder-Vaeggen. 

Iste Type. Arter med Blade af Lyngtypen («ericoide» 
Blade). Hertil here: Empetrum nigrum (Fig. 1) og Cassiope 



*i Jeg skal blot henvise til K. A reschoug's Koredrag paa det skand. Nalur- 
forskermede 1880, oversat i Englers Jahrb. II; til Undersegelser af Volkens 
over den iibysk-arablske 0rken (Jahrb d. botan. Gartens zu Berlin, III, 
1884; som saerligt Vaerk 1887); Tschirch i Llnnaea 9, p. 176 og i 
Pringsheims Jahrbucher 13, p. 544; Vesque i Annales agronomiques, 
t. IX, Ann, d. sciences nat. 6 Ser., XIII. 



108 



tetragona (Fig. 2). Disse Planter have mange smaa, smale og 
mere eller mindre liniedannede , «lyngaglige», Blade, som ere 
udpraeget bit'aciale (med Palissadevaev paa Oversiden og Svampvaev 





D 



Fig. 2. Cassiope tetragona (L.) Don. 

A og C, blomstrende Skud; g, ungt Skud. B, Gren i Tvaersnit, 

saa at Bladene ses neden fra. D, Blad-Tvaersnit. 

paa Undersiden, der her endog har meget store Luftkamre)^), 
men Bladrandene ere bejede saa staerkt tilbage^), at der dannes 
et langagtigt, stort Luftrum , af Tschirch kaldet «Vindstille 
Rum», paa Bladets Rygside, saaledes som hosstaaende Tvaersnit 
(Fig. 1 og 2) vise; dette Bum er endog saa staerkt tillukket, at 
kun en snaever Spalte ferer ind til det, og denne Spalte lukkes 
oven i Kjebet yderligere derved, at Randene ere besatte med Haar. 
Alene i det hule Rum paa Bladets Ryg ligge Transpirationsfladerne, 
thi alene her udmunde Spalteaabningerne, der som i andre lig- 
nende Tilfaelde rage frem over Overhudens Niveau; mellem 
Spalteaabningerne sidde tiilige Kjertelhaar og hos Cassiope og- 
saa mere bersteformede. De frit udad vendende Sider af Bladet 



M Dog er at maerke at Cassiope ikke uddanner Palissadevaev paa den mod 
Staengelen taet Irykte ene Side af Bladet (Fig 2 Z>). 

^) Saaledes vil jog for Korthods Skyld udtrykke mig. Se iovrigt Ljung- 
strem, Bladets bygnad inom familjen Ericineae. Lund 1883. Gi belli 
i Nuovo giornaJe italiano, VIII, 1876; Mori, ibid. IX, 1877. Gruber 
Anatomie u. Kntwickelung des Blattes von Empetrum etc., Konigsberg, 
1882. 



109 

have tyk og staerk kutiniseret Overhud uden den ringesle Spalte- 
aabning, og hos Empetrum ere Overhudscellernes Indervaegge 
oven i Kjobet opsvulmede (Fig. 1 B) og meget lykke (.forsll- 
mede.)) ligesom hos Calluna- og Erica- kn^v. Da Spalleaab- 
ningerne, Udgangene for den ved Transpiralionen i Bladets 
Indre dannede Vanddamp, saaledes "ere indesluttede i et naesten 
helt tillukket Rum, fra hvilket Vanddampenes Undslippen yder- 
ligere hindres ved de paa Hladrandene staaende Haar, og da 
Fordampningens Sterrelse naturligvis afhaenger bl. a. af den Hur- 
tighed, hvormed den dampfyldte Luft kan passere ud af Planten, 
er del klart, at Fordampningen i en saerlig betydelig Grad vil 
vaere nedstemt hos disse to Planter. Det er jo endvidere en 
vist nok rigtig Antagelse, at den hos ikke faa Planter forefundne 
Forsliming af Indervaeggen i Overhudsceller ogsaa slaar i For- 
bindelse med klimatiske Forhold, naermest sigtende til at danne 
et Vandreservoir for Assimilationsvavet i terre Tider elier til at 
haemme Transpirationen ligesom et Gelatinelag, der lajgges paa 
en svagt fordampende Vandflade^). Saadan Slimdannelse findes 
ogsaa hos Loiseleuria procumhens (Fig. 6 B). 

Til denne Type slutter sig ogsaa 
Phyllodoce coerulea (Fig. 3), men dens 
Bladrande ere ikke saa staerkt tilbage- 
bejede, det Rum, i hvilket Spalteaabnin- 

,. J , J . J J ui ^'g- 3. Phyllodoce coerulea 

gerne ligge nedsaenkede, mmdre dvbt, ,,° , , ^ j ,., . 

^ ^^ ' - ' (L) Gren & Godr. — Blad- 

men til Gjengjaild er det helt over taet- ivaersnii. 

tere besat med bersteformede Haar. 

2deu Type. Blade af mere almindelige Former, d. e. med 
sterre Flade, men med talrige hvide eller brune Daekhaar 
paa Undersiden. Ogsaa hos disse ligge Spalteaabningerne alene 
paa Undersiden mellem Haarene, der hindre Vanddampenes 
raske Udgang. En Overgangsform fra forrige Type er Ledum, 
fordi den i Grenland dels optraeder med meget bredbladede 




M Se Vol kens. Die agypt-arab. Wuste, S. 43— 14. 



110 



Former [Ledum groenlandicum, Fig. 4 B ; Bladpladerne ere under- 
tiden 8—13 Mm. brede og 2—3 Ctm. lange) og meget smal^- 
bladede, hvis Plader ere ganske lyngaglig smalle, f. Ex. I Mm. 
brede (Fig. 4 A, L. palustre var. decumbens), forbundne ved aile 




Fig. 4. Bladtvaersnit af A, Ledum palustre var. decumbens 
og B, Ledum groenlandicum. 

Mellemformer; hos de ferste ere Bladrandene iiike naer saa staerkt 
tilbageruUede som hos de sidste. Oversiden er glat, Under- 
siden taet daekket af lange, brune, sammenfiltrede Haar foruden 
af kortere rette og af Kjertelhaar (naermere se Botan. Tidsskr. 
15, 1885, p. 41). 

En ganske lignende Bygning findes dernaest hos Dryas 
integrifolia (og octopetala) Fig. 5. PalissadevaRvet er meget hejt 




Fig. 5. Bladtvaersnit af Dryas integrifolia J. Vahl. 

som hos andre af Hedeplanterne, hvilkel antyder et Liv i staerkt 
Sollys. (Jndersiden baerer lange, sammenfiltrede Haar, mellem 



in 

hvis Griind Spalteaabningerne ligge. Oversidens Hud bar megel 
tykke Ydervaegge. 

Her kan ogsaa Loiseleuria procumbens naevnes, der bar to 
vidt skille Furer med Assimilalionsflade i bver overdaekkel af 
Haar (Fig. 6 A)] tiUige bar den en i sit midterste Lag forslimet 
Indervaeg i den evre Overbuds Celler, samt en saerdeles tyk og 
staerkt kutiniseret Ydervaeg (Fig. 6 B). 




Fig. 6. Loiseleuria proeumbena Desv. 
A, Bladtvaersnit. B, Snit gjennem Oversidens Overhud og det tilgraensende 
Palissadevsev; c, Kutikula; V, Ydervaeggen ; B. Cellerum ; g, Forslimning 

i loderveeggeii. 



Dernaest maa hertil fejes Salix glauca, bvis Bebaaring for 
0vrigt varierer betydelig i Styrke ; dens Blade kunne vaere 
ligesaa taet baarede som mangen en 0rkenplanles. 

Til sidst vil jeg her naevne Rhododendron lapponicum, fordi 
dens Daekbaar have en saa usaedvaniig Bygning. Jeg bar 
allerede i Botan. Tidsskrift Bd. 15 orntalt, at Haarene ere 
skjoldformede, og at Stilken af hvert enkeit af dem slaar saenket 
ned i en Mile Grube meilem de evrige Overbudsceller. Formen 
af disse Haar ses af Fig. 8 C (ovenfrai og A (Laengdesnit); de 
stemme fortrinlig med dem bos Rhododendron ferrugineum og 
hirautum efter De Barys Afbildning (Anatomie, Fig. 4, p. 102). 

Som en bile Solskaerm daekker hvert Haar paa Bladets 
Underside over sin Grube (se Fig. 7) og de i denne liggende, 
som saedvanlig under saadanne Forbold fremspringende Spalle- 
aabninger [st \ Fig. 8 .^ og Fig. 8 Bu Skjaermenes Rande gribe 
paa Bladets Underside, bvor de staa saa Iset, ind over eller under 



112 



hverandre og danne et taet Skjoldtag, der i belydelig Grad maa 
kunne hindre Vanddampene i at slippe ud. Paa Oversiden af 
Bladet findes blot faa Stjaernehaar; Gruberne, i hvilke disse slaa, 




Fig. 7. Rhododendron lapponicum. L, BladtvaersDit. 




Fig. 8. Rhododendron lapponicum L. 

A, af et Bladtvaersnit, Underfladens Overhud ses med en Grube, hvori Spaite- 

aabninger (st) og et Dsekliaar i Laengdesnit; I, Celleniellemrum. B, en 

Spalteaabning i Tvaersnit. C, et Daeiihaar ovenfra. 

ere lavere og have ingen Spalteaabninger. Oversiden bar en 
tykvaegget Overbad over det maegtige Palissadevaev. 

Det er vel bekjendt, at i Middelhavslandenes regnfattige 
Egne, ja selv i Alpernes, blive de Planter, som voxe paa klippe- 
fulde Steder eller anden ter Bund, der er udsat for staerkt Sollys, 
graahaarede, selvglinsende, hvidfiltede eller paa anden Maade for- 
synede med Daekhaar, og i endnu hejere Grad er dette Tilfaeldel 
med Brasiliens Campos, Aslens Stepper, Afrikas Orkener o. s. v. 
Grenlands og de andre arktiske Landes Lyngheder fremvise ait- 
saa Exempler paa det samme. 

3dje Type. Naaletraetypen («pinoid» Bygning efter 
Vesque's Terminologi). Herhen here folgende Hedebuske: 



113 

Juniperus og Cassiope hypnoides^ samt af Urterne isaer Silene 
acauUs og Ujcopodierne. Ejendommelig er for del ferste Blad- 
formen: den smale, naale- eller liniedannede Flade; men der er 
ingen Daekhaar og heller ingen Purer eller store Gruber for 
Spalteaabningerne. Dernaest er Pladen naermest cenlrisk i Byg- 
ning eller dog svagt bifacial; der er ingen usaedvanlig slierke 
Luftkamre. 

Fig. 9 A og C vise Tvaersnit af Juniperus communis var. 
nana fra Grenland. Mekanisk Vffiv {mv) findes over hele Bladels 




Fig. 9. A, Juniperus communis var. nana; Bladtvaersnit. H, Harpixsaog. 

B, J. communis, Hovedformen (fra Danmark), Bladtvaersnit. C, en Del af 

Tvaersnitlet af A, visende de nedsaenkede Spalteaabninger (ved at); kr, Kry- 

staller i Vapggen. 



Yder- og Inderside, undtagen midl paa den sidste; her er der 
levnet Flads til Spalteaabningerne, st, der, som Fig. C viser, 
ere saMikede ned under de evrige Overhudscellers Niveau. Kx- 
emplarer fra Aliens Bjaerge stemme ganske med de grenlandske. 
Sammenlignes hermed Hovedformen af Juniperus communis^ 
taget i r(j0benhavns bolaniske Have, Fig. 9 )5, vil man findc, 
ai Bladene gjennemgaaende ere lyndere, om end ikke alle saa 
tynde som det tegnede (heller ikke alle nana- Blade ere saa 
lykke som del tegnede), men Fordelingen af Vaevene er den 
samme. 

Cassiope hypnoides (Fig. 10) har el langt mindre, derfor 
ogsaa langt svagere bygget Blad; dels Tvaersnit er omlrent 
halvkredsformigt, dels Mesofyl temmelig ensformigt; under 

XII. » 



114 



rnr^K:^ 



KarstriEHgen ligger en Straeng 
af Sejbast. 

Vi finde et lignende Hlad- 
tvaersnit hos Silene acaulis og 
Lycopodium- kvWvn^^ hvad jeg 
bedst Iror at kiinne omtale her. 
Af deu ferste afbilder jeg her 
(Fig. II) niadlvaersnit, der vise 
et ritESten ensartet iVIesofyl og 
svagt PalissadevaBv paa Oversiden 
af niadet. Overhuden iian have 
h0jere Celler paa Oversiden end 
paa Undersiden [B] eller om- 
vendt [A). Spalteaabningerne ere her ikke nedsaenkede (Fig. 0), 
hvilket rimeh'gvis staar i Forbindelse med, at disse Blade ikke 
leve saa Isengc som Enens. He findes paa begge Sider. Bladet 
maa vist beskyltes mod Fordampning isaer ved sin Overhuds 




Fig. 10. Cassiope hypnoides. (^/i) 





Fig 11. Silene acaulis. A og B, Bladtvaersnit. C, Spalteaabning. 



Natur foruden som i alle andre Tilfaelde ved Spalteaabningernes 
Evne til at lukke sig, naar der bliver Fare for for staerk For- 
dampning. 

Spalteaabningerne ere altsaa kun lidet nedsaenkede hos den 
mest udpraegede af de herhen horende Planter, Juniperus^ og 
som det vigtigste Vaern mod Fordampningen maa her vist nok 
sgsttes det, at de ere faa i Antal , og at Bladets st0rste Flade 



Ho 

er beskyttet mod Pordampning ved sin lykvaBggede og kutini- 
serede Overhud foruden ved sil mekaniske Vaev. Men der 
synes mig at vaern endnii et belt andet Middel, hvorved For- 
dampningen ber kraftig maa kiinne nedstemmes, nemlig selve 
Bladenes Retning. 

Den alpine og arktiske Varietet nana afviger fra Hoved- 
formen af Junipems communis ved sine kortere , opadretlede 
og tillrykte Blade, medens disse ere h'ge udspaerrede bos Hoved- 
formenM; Forskjeilen er fremstillet paa Fig. 12. I del Bladene 
bos den alpine Form saaledes paa en \laade permanent for- 
bllve i deres Knopleje, bebolde de de spalteaabningsbaerende 
Flader vendte indad mod de andre Blade eller mod indelukkede 
luftfyldte Bum mellem Bladene. 

Jeg t0r ikke paastaa, at denne Betningsforskjel netop bar 
til Formaal at nedstemme Fordampningen ; den er maaske frem- 
kommen ved rent ydre Indvirkninger, uden at der er nogel til- 
straebt «beskyttende» eller "formaalstjenligt») derved, soni Nutiden 
er saa ivrig i at finde over alt. iVIen jeg skal dog ikke und- 
lade i denne Sammenbaeng at gjore opmaerksom paa, at bos 
Lycopodium - Slaegten , bvis Repraesentanter jo ogsaa bere til 
Hedens og Fjaeldmarkens byppige, stedsegronne Beboere, gjen- 
findes det samme. 

Lycopodium Selago optraeder i Grenland mest i en tillrykt- 
bladet Form, som Berlin bar \,M\. alpestre^ og L.annotinum findes 
ligeledes naeslen altid i den tiltrykt-bladede Form, som Hartman 
bar kaldt alpestre\ Forskjellen mellem de to Former og Hoved- 
formerne ses af bosstaaende Figurer 13 og 14; det er klarl, at 
der er en parallel Udviklingsraekke bos alle disse tre Arler med 
«pinoTde» fleraarige Blade. \\{is> Silene acaulis og Cassiope hyp- 



) Lange bar de to Former som to Arler i sin Conspectus; efter min Op- 
faltelse er det blot to klimatlske Varieleter. Der Andes de javnesle 
Overgange mellem dem; Sanio fandt dem beege i 0stpreus«en med 
Here andre Varletetcr forbimdne Indbyrdes ved alle Overgange. Se 
Deutsche bolan. Monatsschr. 1883, I, ref. I Centralblalt 18, p. 43. 



116 



noides har jeg ikke bemaerket noget lignende , derimod er der 
mullgvis en parallel Form hos Calluna vulgaris var. atlantica 




Fig. 12. Juniperus 

communis ; ^4 er var. 

nana 



Fig. 13. Lycopodium 

Selago; A er var. 

alpestre. 



Fig. 14. Lycopodium, 

annotinum ; J er var. 

alpestre 



(se Journ. of botany, 1866, p. 305), oft lilhge kan der erindres 
om, at Cassiope tetragona har permanent opadrettede Blade, og 
at visse Juniperus- Xrier ligeledes have saadanne i Forbindelse 
med Skaelform^i. 

At el stairkt Lys skulde fremkalde den hos ovennaevnte 
Planter paapegede Retningsforskjel llgesom hos andre, i syd- 
lige Lande voxende Planter, kan der naeppe vaere Tale om. 



*) Cfr. for evrigt Stall Is lie.mairkDinger om Juniperus virginiana S. 22 I 
• tJber den Einfluss. des sonnigen od. sehattigen Standorts*. Volkens 
gjer opmserksorii paa, at visse Planter i den aegypt. - arab. 0rken have 
en nieget karakleristisk •Zusammendrangen der Vegetationsorgane zu 
einem kugelformigen Haufveik", og betragter dette •ohne Zweifel» som 
«ein w'irksames Sehulzmittel gegen die lebensfeindliche Diirre* (se hans 
Vaerk om 'Die agypt.-arab. Wuste» S. 42 ff.). Det synes mig, at vi i 
liile Stil have det samme paa Grenlands Hedcr. 



117 

4de Type. Bladplader af saedvanlige Kormer, men med 
Vox-Overtraek. Ved fysioiogiske Forsog er del godlgjort, at 
Voxovertnek i betydelig Grad nedstemme Fordampningen. HIandt 
Lynghedens Buske flnde vi en med udpraeget Voxbelaegning, 
nemlig Vaccinium uliginosum. Jeg bar mange Gange, selv 
Dagen efter en Regn, set Vanddraaber som lysbrydende Ferler 
fastholdle mellem dens Lev uden at rulle ned og uden at ad- 
haerere ved Bladene paa Grund af Voxet; og Bellen var den« 
enesle af alle Hedebuskene, der bar saadanne Draaber. Del 
samme bar jeg ogsaa ofte set paa Rkodiola rosea. En Vox- 
belsegning findes ogsaa paa Bladene af Saltx groenlandica, 

5te Type. Bladfladerne have almindelige eller dog ikke meget 
afvigende Former, men have en staerkt forlykket og kuliniserel 
Overhud paa Overfladen , hvorfor de vise sig staerkt glinsende. 
Dette Bygningsforhold opfattes jo som ha;mmende for For- 
dampningen, men det maa selvfwlgelig ogsaa virke afslivende. 
Hertil slutter sig en svag Udvikling af Intercellular- Kummene 
0. 1. Hos en Del af de i det foregaaende omtalte Planter fandtes 
allerede en Overhud som denne, men hos disse Planter synes 
Overhudens Bygning at vaere det vigllgste eller eneste Vaern; 
de ere derfor de svagest melamorfoserede af Hedebuskene i 
Henseende til Bladene. 

Herhen here af de aegte Buske de to sjaeldne: Arctosta- 
phylos uva ursi og Vaccinium vitis idcea samt vistnok den 
ligeledes meget sjaeldne Linnma borealis. Ogsaa maa Dvaerg- 
birkene (Betulanana og glandulosa) henferes hertil, idet jeg dog 
ikke ved, om et harpixagtigt Stof ikke tilkommer hos disse. 

Naar Bladene i evrigt ere tyndere og slerre hos disse og 
llgesaa hos Belle og Pil (S.glauca) end hos de andre alminde- 
Kge Hedebuske, staar dette i Forbindelse med, at disse Planter 
ere levfaeldende, hvilket ogsaa er et krafligt Vfiern mod Ud- 
terring om Vinteren paa snebar Mark. 

Ogsaa Pyrola grandifiora kan naevnes her, skjent den nseppe 
er en Busk; dens Mesofyl er meBrkvaerdig udifferenclerel. Og 



118 



ligeledes maa lierhen fajes Diapensia layponica^ der ogsaa 
skitter sig til den 3dje Type, fordi dens Blade ere saa smalle ; 
de ere imidlertid saa laederagtig faste og stive, at Wahl en- 
berg siger om dem , at man naesten stikker sig, naar man 
saetter sig paa en Tue. 

Det heje Palissadevaev hos en stor Dei af Hedens r5uske 
viser bestemt lien til, at de ere Solplanter (se Stall Is, Picks, 
Volkens' o. a. Cndersegelser). 

De grenlandske Hedebuske besidde saaledes alle liver isaer 
et eller andet eller flere end et Middel til at beskytte deres 
Assimilations- og Transpiralionsorganer, Bladene, mod en alt 
for staerk, for Livet farlig Fordampning. Som en Ejen- 
dommelighed, der er faelles for alle Arter og isaer fremtraedende 
hos de stedsegrenne, kan endnu anferes Bladenes ringe 
Storrelse. Alle Blade, som here til Lynglypen, ere jo smaa 
og liniedannede; ligesaa Bladene af Naaletrae-Typen, og Bladene 
af Juniperus communis var. nana ere korlere end Hovedformens. 
Bladene af Dryas integrifolia ere smaa og vist i Begelen mindre 
end Dr. octopetalas ; Rhododendron lapponicum bar meget mindre 
Blade end dens Fraender i Alperne og paa Himalaya; og om 
end Ledum er en maerkelig variabel Planle i Henseende til 
Bladenes Form og Sterrelse , saa er dog den almindelige gren- 
landske (og arktiske) var. decumbens saa smaabladet, at den 
er en ren Dvaerg ved Siden af vor nordeuropaiiske Ledum (en 
udmaerket Figur findes i Kjellmans: Ur Polarviixternas lif, 
p. 505). Bladene af Salix glauca ere vist ogsaa som Kegel 
ikke lidt under Middelsterrelse af, hvad de opnaa i sydligere 
Egne. Vaccimum uliginosum findes paa Heden blot i Formen 
microphyllum (hvorimod jeg i et Krat to Dagsrejser inde i 
Landet fra Holstensborg saa den storbladede, hos os fore- 
kommende Form), og Vaccinium Vitis idcea ligeledes alene i 
den smaabladede Form pumilum. 

Her kan ogsaa mindes om , at en af Kjaerbuskene , Oxy- 
coccus p>alustr{s ^ i Hojnorden fortrinsvis herer til de meget 



119 

smaabladede Former microphjllua og microcarpua Turcz., der 
ogsaa findes i Gronland. Andromeda polifolia liar ligeledes 
en smaabladel arktisk Form, acerosa C. Hii.; ogsaa Pyrola gran- 
difiora er mindre i sit Blad end P. roiundifolia, som den staar 
saa naer. Fremdeles have de to Dvaergbirke, B. glanduloaa og 
B. nana meget smaa Blade, mindre end de andre i Skov og 
Krat voxende Arler. 

Kj ell man omtaler i sin inleressante, oven for anferle Af- 
handling denne Rediiktion I Bladsterrelserne hos arktiske Planter, 
og synes heri at ville se en Bestraebelse hos Planten for at spare 
Maleriale (se isair S. 504 ff.); f. Ex. siger han: «Ett annat uttryck 
for denna sparsamhet ar den arktiska vegetationens litenhet.. 
Den viser sig i Aarsskuddenes ringe Laengde, og den viser sig 
i Bladenes ringe Sterrelse (S. 507 flf.), mest tydelig hos Bu- 
skene. Ogsaa de arktiske Egnes Fattigdom paa enaarige Planter 
skal maaske slaa i Forbindelse med ^0dvendigheden af at spare 
(S. 510 ff.). 

Jeg tror ikke, at denne Opfattelse er rigtig; Planten vil 
naeppe af Sparsommelighedshensyn gjore de Organer, af hvis 
Arbejde netop dens Ernaering og hele vegetative L'dvikling og 
Kraft afhaenger, mindre, end den af de ydre Forhold Ivinges til 
at gj0re dem. Den Tilbejelighed til Nanismus i Polarlandene, 
som er tydelig nok , og som forskjellige Rejsende have omtalt, 
f. Ex. v. Baer, Trautvetter, Middendorff, vil jeg ferst og 
fremst saetle i Forbindelse med de vanskelige Ernaeringsforhold; 
det er ved fysiologisk Experiment vist, at Blades Brede og 
Laengde blive sterre ved rigere Naeringstilfersel, at Spalteaab- 
ningernes Antal tage til absolut og relativt med en krafligere 
Erna;ring; men de arktiske Planter, saerlig Hedens og Fjaeld- 
markens, maa ofte eller som Kegel have knap Tilgang til Nsering. 
Endvidere vides det jo, at fuglig Varme virker gnnslig paa 
Vaexten; men naar der bydes Hedens og Fj«ldmarkens Planter 
Fugtighed, er der sjselden nogen Varme, og naar der er Varme, 
er der knap med Fugtighed; «Skyggeblade« blive efler Slab I 



120 



sterre og tyndere end «So!blade>), fordi disse ere iidsatte for en 
staerkere Fordampning, og hvad der nedsaetter Turgoren hindrer 
ViExten; men Hede- og I'jaeldplanlerne leve jo paa et aabent 
Terrain med staerk Fordampning, og naar Planterne anden Sleds 
i de arktiske Lande blive saa dvaergagtige, skjont der er Fugtighed 
nok, er del Kulden, der haeoimer Vaexten. (Sporgsmaalet om 
den stadige Belysnings Belydning for Vaexten er vel endnu for 
lidet opiyst). 

, Alle disse Forhold — Naeringsmangel, Kulde, Torke, slaerk 
Fordampning ~ maa nodvendigvis, og det selv om de ikke alle 
komme til at virke, fremkalde Nanismus, iiden at der deri kan 
ses nogen saerlig Bestraebelse for Sparsommelighed hos Plan- 
terne M. 

Den paa Griind af de ydre Betingelser fremkaldte ringe 



Jeg kan ikke undlade at benytle Lejligheden til at gjere en Bemaeikoing 
om Blomsterdannelsen, som ikke var faldet mig ind, da jeg skrev min 
lille Aihandiiiig «0m Bygningen og den formodede Beslevningsmaade af 
nogle grenlandske BIom8ter> (Det kgl. Danske Vldensk. Selsk. Oversigt 
1886), hvor jeg S. 22— 24 omtalte Blomsteines Sterrelse og Maengde. Det 
er bekjendt nok, at Polarplanterne til Trods for deres dvaergagtige Vaext 
kuiine frenibringe forbavsende mange Blomster, saa mange, at Staengier 
og Blade naesten skjules under disses Maengde. Heri er dog naeppe noget 
usaedvanligt ; det staar tvaertimod i fortrinlig Overensstemmelse med 
Gartnernes Erfaringer og Kunstgreb. Der existerer et vist, endnu ganske 
gaadefuldt Modsaetningsforhold mellem Vegetatlonsorganerne og Blomster- 
dannelsen. Det er vel bekjendt, at rigelig ernaerede Skud danne lange 
Led og store Blade, men blive golde; og det er fra gammel Tid bekjendt, 
at ved Indskraenkning af Voxcplads, f. Ex. ved Indplantning i meget snaevre 
Urtepolter, ved mangelfuld Ernaering o. 1. fremmes Blomstring. Gart- 
nernes forskjellige Kunstgreb, der tilsigte at fremtvinge Blomstring og rig 
Frugtsaetning, bero for en stor Del paa Beskaering og Afklipning afGrenene 
eller Nedbejning og Nedbinding af dem, saa at "Safternes Tilstremning 
kommer til at foregaa langsommere- ; endvidere anbefales at bortskaere 
eller i Vaartiden borthugge mange af R^dderne, eller Dele af dem blottes, 
og ved Ringsnit i Barken fjaernes Dele af denne; et -svagt voxende 
Underlag" er Maalet for Gartnerens Bestraebelser over for Frugttraeerne, 
og man anstraenger sig faktisk for, indtil en vis Grad , at svaekke Traeet 
eller Busken i vegetativ Henseende (herom se f Ex. Vechtings 'Or- 
ganbildung im Pflanzenreiche»). Kan man da egentlig undre sig over, 
at de arktiske Planter kunne vise en saa forbavsende Blomsterrigdom? 



121 

Sterrelse af HIadene er hos nogle aabenbart nii aldeles kon- 
stant, f. Ex. hos Empelrum, hos andre skulde man naesten tro, 
at de endnii vare i IJegreb med at tilpasse sig og forel«big ikke 
have t'undet noget Hvilepunkt; jeg taenker isaer paa Ledum^). 
Men at denne ringe Bladslerrelse maa passe godt til en Iwr 
Bund og en ter Luft, fordi den fordampende Flade er 
saa betydelig form in ds ket, er klart nok, og derfor se vi, 
som bekjendt, ogsaa Formindskelse af Bladfladerne lige ned 
tii fuldstaendig Bladleshed optraede rundt om paa Heder, Stepper 
og Orkener^). 

De stedsegrenne Planter ere jo om Vinteren udsalle for 
en for Livet lige saa farh'g Fordampning som om Sommeren, og 
maaske en endnu farligere, fordi del da er dem saa yderst van- 
skeligt at faa Vandtabet erslattet; dette have fysiologiske Forseg 
af f. Ex. Wiesner og andre vist, og del kjender den Landmand 
saa godt, der har gjort Bekjendtskab med Barfrostens Felger. 
Da det nu kan haende og haendes rundt om i Polariandene , at 
store Plelter Vinteren over forblive snebare eller meget tidlig 
blottes for Sne, er det klart, at det isaer maa vaere de mere 
end et Aar levende Blade, der maa beskyltes mod Fordamp- 
ningen. At de laederagtige , vandfattige Blade maa vsere 
saerlig skikkede til at udholde ikke blot staerk Fordampning, 
men ogsaa staerk Kulde, er indlysende. Ogsaa mange Alpenrter 
have lignende Blade og af de samme Grunde, hvad Kerner 
fremhaever (ikke mindre end 1 1 % af de alpine Blomster- 
planter). 

(iaa vi over til Lynghedens og Fjaeldmarkens Urter, da 
kunne vi ogsaa hos disse finde Beviser for, at vi have med en 
Bund og en Luft at gjore, der i alt Fald til visse Tider kan 
vaere saerdeles terre. 

Vi finde Arter, der slutte sig til den Iste Type og gjemme 



*) Andromeda polifoUa varierer vist paa lignende Maade som Ledum; Formen 

acerosa synes mig at modsvare Ledums var. decumbens. 
M Se isffir Vol kens, Die Flora der aegypt.— arab. VVuste, S. 41 o s. ▼. 



122 



deres Spalteaabninger i dybe Furer, navniig Grssserne. Vi 
kunne efter Bladformen dele disse i Enggraes og Steppegraes. 
De ferste have flade Blade, som ikke eller dog sjaelden gjare 
noget for at overdaekke Spalteaabningerne, og som ikke mile sig 
ind i tert Vejr, og af saadanne Graes finde vi ogsaa mange i 
Grenland, naar vi gaa til Krattene, Urtemarken og Sumpene; 
exempelvis afbilder jeg el Tvaersnit af del rent arktiske, maerke- 
lige Graes Pleuropogon Sahinei (Fig. 15), samlet af Nathorst 




Fig. 15. Pleuropogon Sahinei R. Br. 

A, Bladtvaeisnit; B, Midterpartiet af samme; C, Overhud fra Oversiden. 

a,' Ledceller; b, tyndvaegget farvelest Parenkym; c, Epidermisvorter. 



naer Kap York i Nord-Greniand (ved 76°7'n.B.). Pladen er 
temmelig flad, dog med en staerkt fremragende K0I paa Midten; 
Spalteaabningerne (se C) findes meget fritliggende blot paa Over- 
siden , hvis Celler have smaa koniske Vorter; af mekanisk Vaev 
er der blot svage Sejbaststraenge (sorte paa A)^ og i de to 
Furer ved a ligge « Ledceller" [i^cellules hulliformesn). Dette er 
en Bygning, der antyder et Liv som et Enggraes's med varig 
Fugtighed , og man ser intet Spor til , at F'orholdene saa h0jt 
mod Nord ere andre end under vore Bredder. 

IMen Steppegraesserne have for det ferste smale, ofte endog 
trinde eller traadformede Blade, som ere rendeformede eller 



123 

have flere dybe Purer paa Bladets Overttade, og i disse Purer 
ligge Spalteaabningerne gjemte, ofte lillige med Dskhaar over; 
dertil kommer, at de fleste eller maaske alle Arler ere i Stand 
til at rulle Bladene sammen under stigende Torke, saa at Por- 
dampnlngsapparatet yderljgere indelukkes, og aabne dem , naar 
Luftfugtigheden bliver sterre; Bladet regulerer altsaa selv sin 
Pordampning efter Luftens T0rhed. Ilos de fleste ville Hladene 
lillige vaere mere eller mindre lodret stillede. 

Til disse Steppegrtes here de mest karakterisliske af 
Grenlands Hedegraes. Jeg afbilder her Tv^rsnit af Festuca 
ovina i to Pormer, den ene fra en lav Mark ved Sukkerloppen 
(Pig. 16 5), don anden {A\ fra en hojt llggende, ter llede; Teg- 




Fi£ 



16. Tvaersnit af Blade af Festuca ovina (A og B), og C, Aira fleruosa 
/?, montana (fra Sukkerloppen). 



ningerne vise nogle af de Variationer i det mekaniske Vaevs 
Maegtighed, som Hack el bar paapeget (hos Bladet tVa den ter- 
reste Bund, A, er det staerkest), og at Spalteaabningerne (hvis 
Plads er antydet ved Tvaerlinier hen over Overhudeni ligge gjemte 
i Purerne og Kenden paa Bladets Overside; Renden kan, som 
Pigg. vise, vaere mere eller mindre aaben log kan sandsynligvis 
ogsaa i Grenland aabnes eller lukkes efter Porholdenei. 

Til denne Type herer fremdeles Aira Jlexuosa /? montana, 
hvis Bladtvaersnit er afbildet Pig. 16 6'; mekanisk Vaev («i) ligger 
i Stra*nge eller smaa Baand rundt i Omkredsen af det nssten 
Irinde Blad; paa dettes Overside findes en Bende med to Purer, 
og blot i detle indsaenkede Parti findes Spalteaabningerne. 



124 

El af de almindeligste Hede- og Fjaeldmarksgraes er Hiero- 
chloa alpma'j for at vise, hvorledes dette i sin Bygning ud- 
trykker disse Vegetationsformers Natur, liar jeg her afbildet 




Fig. 17, Hierochloa horealis fra Tromse (69° 6' n, B.); A, Tvtersnit af et 

Blad; det mekaniske Vaev er som saedvanlig sort; B, et lille Stykke af samme 

staerkere forsterret. 




Fig. 18, Bladtvaersnit af Hierochloa alpina fra Upernivik {A samlet af 
Rosenviuge) og Sukkertoppen {B); C, el Stykke af ^, staerkere forsterret. 



Tvaersnit baade af dets Blad (Fig. 18i og til Sammenligning af 
den naerstaaende Arts, Hierochloa borealis (Pig. 17). Denne voxer 
paa frodig Jord, i Graesmark og Krat, hvor der vil vaere Fug- 



125 

tighed og ofte Skygge; dens Blad herer til Enggraessernes Type, 

fladt, uden eller blot med meget svage Purer, uhaaret o. g. v. 

Dens Spalteaabninger ligge meget frit (Fig. MB), paa de svage 

Ribbers Sider mellem Haekkerne af Ledceller. Den anden Art 

viser sig tydelig tilpasset til sterre Terke; Bladpladen er ikke 

flad, men enten rendeformet {A) eller endog sammenrullel (B), 

hvilket niaaske, hvad jeg ikke ved, vexler med Luftfugtighedens 

Mffingde og kan fiudes hos samme Blad til forskjellig Tid; 

Furerne og ligesaa Ribberne ere meget staerke, der er Haar 

paa Ribbernes Kamme og lidt ned paa deres Sider, og der er 

saaledes godt lukket over Transpirationsfladen (Spalleaabningernes 

Pladser ere belegnede ved Tvaerlinier gjennem Overhuden paa 

A og B, og ses med deres Biceller i C). 

En Del andre Hede- og Fjaeldurler med graesagtigt Ydre, 

nemlig Juncaceerne og Cyperaceerne, have dels mere flade 

Blade, saasom Luzula- Arlevne, dels bersteformede og trinde, 

saasom Juncus trijidus, Jeg vil ikke gaa nsBrmere ind paa disse 

Planters Tilpasning til Omgivelserne, da jeg venter delte ud- 

ferlig bearbejdet af andre i en naer Fremlid; blot for Cype- 

raceernes Vedkommende kan jeg ikke undlade den lille Be- 

maerkning, at tre af de mest udprasgede Hede- og Fjaeldurler, 

Oarex nardina^ Elyna Bellardi og Kobresia caricina have ganske 

traadformede, mere eller mindre op- 

relte Blade, hvis Tvaersnit er omtrent 

som hosstaaende af Garex nardina 

(Fig. 19). Spalleaabningerne [st] ligge 

her belt ubeskyttede paa Ydersiderne. 

Men denne hos disse Uede- Planter 

fundne Bygning llndes lillige hos flere 

af deres naermeste Slaegtninge, Arter af pjg, 19, Biadivarsoit af 

Carex-Gruppen Monostachya, til Trods C<^r^ nardina. as. Assimi- 

,- ,, ^, lationsvaev; b, tyndvaecgel 
for at de ere Sumpplanler (f. Kx. C. ^^^^^ .vandvav; *. Kar- 

dtoica, C. paraUelttj C. pulicaris j C. stripnge med Sejbast. 




126 



microglochin^]. Herat' synes den Sliitning at fremgaa, at denne 
Bygning intet har med Lokalileten af gj^re, men er en for disse, 
de aeldste Carices og deres naermeste Siaegtninge ejendommellg. 
Disse sidst naevnte Planter sliitte sig i ovrigt nffirmest til den 
ovenfor anferte 3dje Type, til hvilken ogsaa saadanne Urter 
som Saxifraga tricuspidata maa henferes. 

Til Typen med Daekhaar horer en Maengde af Hede- og 
Fjaeldurterne; nogle ere taethaarede, andre i svagere Grad og 
paa forskjellig Maade; jeg skal minde om Z>m Ja- A rterne, Pa- 
paver nudicaule, Aniennann alpina ^ Artemisia borealis , Poten- 
tilla nivea^ P. Vahliana o. s. v. ; men om disse Haardannelser 
aitid have Betydning af Daikhaar, om de ikke tillige have for- 
skjellig anden Betydning og hvilken , skal jeg ikke indlade mig 
paa at besvare. 

Voxovertraek findes jo ogsaa hos nogle enkelte Arter, saa- 
ledes som alt naevnt hos Rhodiola^ og rimeligvis er det ogsaa 
en Voxdannelse, der gjor Bladene blaagronne hos Chamoenerium 
latifolium; Foa giauca Imr VoxbeI<egning, og af Strandplanterne, 
der ogsaa undertiden gaa hojt op i hede- og klitagtigt Terrain, 
kan naevnes Elymus arenarius. 

ltd over disse Antydninger af Bladenes Tilpasning til Om- 
givelserne hos de urteagtige Planter vil jeg ikke gaa her; Ur- 
terne tale ikke naer saa tydelig som Planterne med forvedet 
Staengel , maaske fordi de lettere end disse finde den fornodne 
Fugtighed i Klipperevnerne, mellem Grus o. 1.; men vi finde dog 
altsaa ogsaa hos dem de samme Midler bragte til Anvendelse 
som hos Buskene. De fleste af Naturens .Midler til at gjore 
steppe- og hedelignende Egne beboelige for Blomsterplanter 
ere altsaa, som nii paavist, bragte til Anvendelse ogsaa i Gren- 
land. 



M C. microglochin afviger fra sine naermeste SlcEgtninge og de andre Carices, 
saa vidt jeg kjender dem, ved at have Ira de andre afvigende Celler 
omivring sine i Slriber ordnede Spalleaabningers Aandeliuler. «Van(l- 
vsevet* (?) straekker sig tien mod disse Particr. 



121 



TI. De ferske Tande. Kjarene. 

Jeg har i de foregaaende Kapitler sugt at skildre den 
Plantevaext, som er kiiyttet til de frugtbare Steder med strem- 
mend 6 Vand og til de magre, lorre Steder; en belt anden 
Plantevaext udvikler sig der, bvor Terrainet er fladere og 
Fugtigbeden bliver staaende uden belt at kunne faa Atlob. Alt 
after Vandels Hejde bliver Plantevaexten imidlertid forskjellig; 
vi faa enten en Se (Dam) eller et Kjaer. 

Om de ferske Soer og Damme bar jeg ikke meget at 
meddele. I Snesmaeltningstiden traeffer man i Heden og anden 
Steds uendelige Maengder af Huller fyldte med et klart, koldt 
Vand; intet Dyreliv, ingen Alger findes udviklede i dem, ingen 
saeregne Sump -Planter; det er Vandbuller, der snart udterres 
og bvis Plantevaext, om de senere faa nogen, vaesentlig slutter 
sig til Hedens og Fjaeldmarkens. iVIen mange Lavninger findes 
selvfolgelig ogsaa, som ere vandfyldte Aaret rundt; i Egnen est 
for Jakobsbavn saa jeg en Maengde saadanne Seer; nogle bavde 
Klippen til Bund, og her spillede det klare Vand mod Breddens 
negne, kolde Sten, og intet Spor af Plantevaext fandles; andre 
bavde en gruset eller sandet Bund og Bred, men syntes ligesaa 
fattige i Vandet selv. Men andre Steder var Bredden sumpet 
og Bevoxet, og ude i Seen selv kunde der findes Vegetation 
f. Ex. af Mosser, der daekkede Bunden med et friskt grent Taeppe, 
undertiden endog langt ud, naar Dybden var ringe. De saa- 
ledes optraedende Mosser ere isaer Hypnum ftuitans ^ der paa 
sine Steder, f. Ex. i en So ved Tasuisak , var til Slede i store 
Maengder, H. exannulatum, scorpioides ^ trifarium og revolvens, 

Det eneste Sted, bvor jeg bar set Pile paa Bredden af et 
sterre Vand, var ved Elven i Itivnekdalen, og de vare, om end 
beje, saa dog meget faa ; maerkeligt nok bar jeg ikke set Pilekrat 
paa Se- eller Elvbred, men blot ved smaa Baekke fornden i 
Lavninger o. I. 



128 



De talrige Damme paa Sletten ved Itivnek-Elven vare rigere 
paa Plantevaext. Her fandtes f. Kx. store Bevoxninger med 
Hippuris vulgaris /9, maritima\ ogsaa Ranunculus hyperboreus^ 
der underliden kan voxe fra en Sebred langt ud i Vandet, og 
Saxifraga rivularis vare almindeiige, ligesom Alger i store 
sammenhaengende Masser drev om paa Vandene, og talrige 
AW^oc- [(lumper indtil Diieaegs Sterrelse dels fled omkring dels 
laa opskyllede paa Rredderne til dels bristede og blot havende 
eflerladt sig tynde Hinder M- Jeg bar allerede i Rejseberet- 
ningen S. 185 omtalt det Dyreliv, der fandtes i disse Damme. 

Andre Vandplanter, som kunne findes i VandhuUer og smaa 
Damme, ere: Myriophyllum spicatum og alterni-florum ^ Batra- 
cliium confervoides ^ Callitriche hamulata, Montia rivularis^ 
Subularia aquatica ^ Menyanthes trifoliata^ Utrtcularia minor, 
Potamogeton pusillus, marinus og rufescens, Sparganium hyper- 
boreum og Isoetes echinospora, men omtrent alle disse ere 
meget sjaeldne Planter. Aldeles mangle i Grenland af Vand- 
planter endog hele Familier f. Ex. Nympbaeaceer, Alismaceer, 
Lemnaceer, Hydrocbarideer, af hvilke vi dog endnu i Lapland 
have Kepraesentanter. 

Om Kerskvandsalgerne kan jeg Intel meddele; det ind- 
samlede Materiale er endnu ikke bestemt-). Hen paa Sommeren 
udvikler der sig ikke laa Gronalger i Vandbuller og paa Sten i 
de stillestaaende og rindende Vande. I Vandpytter om Bo- 
ligerne staar der ofle stinkende, daarligt Vand opfyldt af Oscil- 
larier og andre blaagrenne Alger, og sammen med eller i 



*) Nostoc synes at vgere en cirkumpolaer, almindelig Planteslaegt, men om 
Arterne ved jeg intet. Den er fra Gronland hjembragt ogsaa af Kaptf 
A.Jensen og Kornerup; den omtales fra Cornwallis Island af Su- 
therland; Midden dorff fandt den i saadanne Masser i Taimyrlandet 
under 74V2° n. B., at han i en eneste Mile Dam i en Tundra i faa Timer 
vllde have kunnet samle hundreder af Kubikfod; ^Enderne naerede sig 
der af dem. 

') De af svenske Kxpeditioner samlede Ferskvandsalger blive bearbejdede af 
Dr. Boldt i Helsitigfors. Om Gronlands Ferskvandsdiatomeer har Cleve 
skrevet en Afhandling i Ofvers. Kgl. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. 1S8I no. 10. 



129 

Naerheden af dem findes ofte Saxifraga cemua og rivulartHj Ra- 
nunculus hyperboreuSj Montia rivularis^ Koenigia tslandtca, o. a. 
I det hele ere de stillestaaende Vande altsaa meget plante- 
fattige og golde i den Del af Gronland, som jeg har set, i alt 
Fald i den ferste Halvdel af Vegetationstiden , og formodentlig 
ere de det endnu mere laengere Nord paaM. 

Den anden og, i alt Fald paa Fndivider, langt rigere Vege- 
tationsform, som jeg maa omtale, er ogsaa knyttet til stille- 
staaende, men lavt Vand, eller en af Vand gjennemtraengt 
Jordbund; det er Kjsereiie, af Grenlaenderne i Folge Rink kaldte 
«Immeriksok» o: hvad der er rigt paa Ferskvand. Hist og her 
findes Kjaerstraekninger rundt om i Heden og Fjaeldmarken, ofte 
er det kun Pletter paa faa Kvadratalens Sterrelse, en lille Lav- 
ning i Terrainet, som beholder Vandet i lang Tid eller Sommeren 
igjennem; men andre Steder opnaa Kjserene i Dalene og langs 
Elvenes og S0ernes Bredder, hvor Jordbunden er flad og lav, 
en hetydelig L'dstraekning, saaledes 0st for Jakobshavn (se 



^) Sneens og Isens Flora kunde vel omtales her i Tilslutning til de 
ferske Vaiides Algeflora, hvis jeg liavde noget nyt at meddele om dem. 
Jeg kan blot aDfere, at jeg 1884 i Juni og Juli Maaned ved Godthaab, 
Sukkertoppen og Holstensborg, paa ikke faa Steder saa red Sne med eo 
Dybde af en 2 — 3 Tommer. Men om den farvende Alge og de evrige 
paa Sneen og Isen forekommende Planter henviser jeg i evrigt til Witt- 
rocks Afhandling "Om snons och isens flora, saerskildt i de arktiska 
trakterna». Stockholm 1883 («Nordenski61d8 Studler^ etc.). Rundt om 
i de arktiske Rejseberetninger Andes herhen herende Notiser, som turde 
fortjene at erindres; f. Ex. hos Sutherland felgende: i en Vandpyt 
med aldeles klart og rent Vand paa Cornwallis Island vare de smaa 
Stene paa Bunden overdaekkede med den 'rede Sneplante*; nogle terre 
Stene vare lige saa rade. Ligesaa paa Beechey Island. 

Paa Nares Expeditionen 1875 observeredes af Dr. Moss ogsaa en 
Alge. 'Nostoc aureum* after Dickie, mellem .Kryokoniten*. som fludes 
paa den store Driv-la (Nares 11, p. 61). 

Af .Fjaeldstev. (.Kryokonit.) findes kemiske Analyser hos Witt- 
reck I.e.; det omtales endvidere udferlig af N 0. Hoist i bans Rejse- 
beretning S. 37. Se fremdeles Meddelelser om Grenland 1, 61 og 122, 
Nares-Expeditionen II, S. 61. 

XII. ^ 



130 



Rejseberetningen S. 189); Jordbunden er paa saadanne Steder 
dyndet og briin , sandsynligvis rig paa Humussyrer, og den 
Plantevaext, der her frernkomnier, ligner i Ydre aldeles den, 
som findes hos os paa lignende Steder, det er de samme Fa- 
milier, de samme Slaegter, ja til Dels de samme Arler, der her 
som hist spille en Rolle. 

Der kan skjelnes mellem to Slags Kjaer: Grgeskjaer og 
Moskjaer, de ferste dannede isaer af Halvgraes, de sidste af Mos. 

Gr%skj%r. Paa det allervaadeste Terrain er det Kjaeruld 
Eriophorum angustifolium ^ der med sine hoje, kraftige Tuer og 
de derfra udgaaede Udlebere anmassende breder sig; ved Siden 
af den er den spinklere og lavere E. Scheuchzeri med mere 
enlig stillede Skud ogsaa meget almindelig. Saa slutte sig hertil 
Stargraessernes i Gronland saa talrige Skarer; til Carex- 
Slaegten herer V? — Vs af alle Grenlands Karplanter. De alminde- 
ligst i Kjaer forekommende Arter ere vel : Carex rarifiora og 
hyperborea\ fremdeles optraede 0. alpina^ stans^ misandra^ der 
endnu oppe under 80 — 82° n. B. kan optraede i frodige Masser, 
holostoma ^ capitata^ pulla og flere andre isaer i Sydgronland 
(se Langes Conspectus). Flere Steder saa jeg Carices optraede 
dominerende og danne et Graestaeppe af en ret frisk gren Farve. 
Berggren naevner ogsaa «angar med fotshogt gras" af Carex 
hyperhorea^ medens C. rarifiora paa andre Steder naesten alene 
danner Vegetationen. Endvidere findes ret almindelig Scirpus 
C€espitosuSj og hist og her en Juncus {J. higlumis^ triglumis^ 
arcticuSj castaneus) eller Poa. 

Alt efter Omstaendighederne stroes flere eller faerre andre 
Karplanter ind i dette Daekke af graesagtige Arter. Jeg skal 
fremhaeve folgende: Pedicularis - kviQvnQ [kirsuta, lanata, fiam- 
mea og lapponica)] Ranunculus lappomcus, hyperboreus ^ ni- 
valis , Saxifraga stellaris f . comosa , Tofieldia borealis , Oxyria 
digyna^ Pinguicula vulgaris^ Copiis trifolia^ Cardamine pratensis^ 
Equisetum arvense^ variegatum og scirpoides^ den temmehg sjaeldne 
Triglochin palustre^ Lycopodium Selago og hojt mod Nord f. Ex. 



131 

Colpodium latifolium, Ogsaa en Del Buske ere ejendommelige 
for disse side, sumpede Strajkninger, forst og fremst: Salix 
groenlandica , der saedvanlig ligger ned rodslaaende paa selve 
den vaade Bund og derfra haever sine redlige, til sidst meget 
lange Bakler lige i Vejret; den spiller, som Berggren be- 
maerker, en lignende RoUe som Tranebaerplanten {Oxycoccus 
palustris] i vore Kjaer. Denne sidste findes for evrigt ogsaa, 
men blot sjaelden i GranJand. 

Mange Steder ere Kjaerene staerkt fyldte med Tuer, og paa 
saadanne findes ofte en rigere Vegetation af Urter og Buske; 
isaer her indfinde sig af de sidste f. Ex. Salix glauca^ Rhododen- 
dron^ Dvaergbirken , der godt taaler en vaad Bund, Empeirum, 
Ledum J Vaccimum vitis idcea^ og andre Planter, som snarest 
h0re Heden til. Til Kjaerene maa ogsaa de meget sjasldne An- 
dromeda polifolia og Rubus Chamcemorus henferes. 

Oraeskjaerenes Fysiognomi er det samme, som vi kjende fra 
vore egne Graeskjaer, til Dels f. Ex. fra den for de kjebenhavnske 
Botanikere saa vel bekjendte Lyngby-Mose. Det er en paa Indi- 
vider rig Vegetation, maaske naesten den rigeste, og Bunden 
kan vaere ganske daekket, isaer naar Mosser hjaelpe med og ud- 
fylde Mellemrummene (Laverne ere i hojeste Grad tilbagetraengte). 
Der hviler ofte en smudsiggren Tone over Graeskjajret, og sent 
kommer det til Udvikling; naar Vaaren alt er vidt fremskreden 
paa Heden og i Fjaeldmarkeu samt i Krattene, staa Kjaerene 
endnu langt tilbage, de ferste grenne Spirer begynde maaske 
netop at titte frem over den fugtige og kolde Bund mellem 
forrige Aars visne Straa og Blade. Saaledes isaer i Eriophorum- 
Kjaerene; men der er andre, hvor, som anfurt, friskere grenne 
Carices ere overvejende og Fysiognomiet lidt andet. 

nwskjser. Alt efter Forholdene blande Here eller faerre 
Mosser sig ind mellem de andre Planter; mest er det de gul- 
grenne Aulacomma, de robuste brunlige Polytricha og de hvid- 
lige eller redlige Sphagna; paa en Lokalitet faar ofte den ene 
Slags, paa en anden ofte den anden Slags Overhaand og giver 

9* 



132 



Overfladen sin F'arvetone, og endelig kunne Mosserne optraede 
i saa store Maengder, at hejere Planter i vasentlig Grad trsnges 
tilbage og der dannes, hvad jeg vil kalde et Moskjaer. 

Det ferste meget udpraegede af saadanne, som jeg saa, var 
paa Rypeeen ved Godlhaab. Jorden paa dennes Nordende er 
en dyb Ler, der med en flere Alen hoj Skraent stoder op til 
Havet, paa hvis Bred de udvaskede talrige Rullestene ligge; 
Terrainet skraaner meget svagt mod Havet og holdes fugtigt af 
det fra Hojderne nedsivende Vand; Mosdaekket var saa taet, at 
Jorden intet Sted var blottet, og saa hejt og svampeagtigt bledt, 
at Foden ved hvert Skridt sank dybt ned og Gangen blev be- 
svaerlig; det var Artor af de naevnte Siaegter foruden Dicranum 
og Hypnum^ der vare fremherskende, og mellem dem stak 
hist og her en hlle Empetrum eller ynkelig Dvaergbirk og 
Ledum Hovedet frem , naesten overvoxede af det yppige !Mos, 
eller en og anden Urt som Lycopodium Selago ^ Carex hjper- 
borea, Poa fiexiiosa, Luzula arcuata^ Salix Jierbacea] ogsaa 
enkelte Lavarter fandtes indblandede, f. Ex. Cetraria islandica og 
Cladonia rangiferina. 

Saadanne iMoskjaer saa jeg senere mange andre Steder i 

st0rre eller mindre Udstraekning langs Elvenes og Seernes 

Bredder og i Saenkninger mellem Bjaergene. De almindeligste 

Arter ere: 

Aidacomnium turgidum ^ palustre^ Campiothecium nitens^ 
Brachythecium salebrosum^ Conostomum horeale^ Dicranum pa- 
lustre og var. juniperifolium^ D. elongatum, D. arcticum^ scopa- 
rium^ den meget almindelige Hypnum intermedium^ H. badium, 
exannulatum , sarmentosum , revolvens , stramineum , turgescens^ 
scorpioides o. fl., Cynodontium virens og Wahlenbergii , Philo- 
notis fontana ; Paludella squarrosa , Bryum pallescens , Meesia 
tristicha , Cinclidium subrotundum , Polytrichum strictum , juni- 
perinum^ Splachnum Woi^mshjoldii^ Sphagnum acutifolium^ acu- 
tiforme^ strictum^ squarrosum^ fimbriatum^ teres, Lindbergii, men 
Sphagnum har jeg dog intet Sted set optraede i saa vidt strakte 
Taepper som Tilfaeldet kan vaere hos os; af Hepaticeer findes isaer: 
Jungermannia minuta, plicata var. gracilis, bicuspidata] Scapa- 
nia undulata, o. s. v. 



133 

Nogle Urter trives saerlig vel mellem Mossernes vaade, lese 
Masser; man kan vist inlet Sted finde Ranunculus lapponicus 
krybende om saa frodig som der; af andre Arter, som jeg har 
set indblandede, kan naevnes: Ran. nivalis og hyperboreus, Saxt- 
fraga stellaris f. comosa^ S. rivularis^ Salix herbacea^ glauca og 
groenlandica , Fedicularis- \rierne, Carex rariflora o. a., og at' 
Laver isaer: Cetraria nivalis og islandica^ Cladonia rangiferina, 
Peltigera. Ved Godhavn saa Rosenvinge Epilobium Home- 
manni saerdeles almindelig paa en saadan Lokalitet. 

Der er selvfeigelig de jaevneste Overgange mellem det ud- 
praegede Moskjaer og det udpraegede Slarkjaer. 

Disse Moskjaer kunne findes hejt oppe paa Bjaergene ; saa- 
ledes saa jeg paa Lyngmarksfjaeld ved Godhavn en lille Plet i 
1500' Hejde omkring en Baek, der ved sin guigrenne Tone kon- 
trasterede staerkt mod Omgivelserne; den var mest dannet af 
Aulacomnium palustre, men desuden fandtes flere andre foruden 
Blomster'planter (se S. 91). Ved Isortokfjorden fandl Vahl i 
2000' Hejde et Plateau, hvor der var «en ret god Vegetation, 
mest af Mos, mellem hvilke blot faa andre Planter*, og Rink 
har ved Omenakfjorden fundet sammenhaengende Mosvegetation 
i sumpede Pletter med megen blomstrende Ranunculus nivalis 
I 3000' Hejde. 

Til Betingelserne for Dannelsen af saadanne mosrige Kjaer 
synes mig at here en ikke alt for van d rig .Mark, og ofle 
har denne vist en svag Haeidning, saa at Vandet ganske lang- 
somt siver hen mellem Mosdaekket. En vaesentllg Hjaelp er det 
vist ogsaa, at det gjennemsivende Vand er rigt paa Humussyrer, 
idet det kommer fra et Starkjaer. Men over dette og meget 
lignende her mere detaillerede Studier gjeres. 

En Mosbevoxning af en ejendommelig Art kan maaske bedst 
omtales her. Jeg saa den paa Nordsiden af Praestefjseld ved 
Holstensborg og lignende Andes sandsynligvis mange andre 
Steder paa de skyggerigere, fugtigere og keligere, mod Nord 
vendende Bjaergsider i Landets sydligere og mellemste Dele. 



134 



Da jeg d. 2. Aug. 1884 besteg dette Bjaerg, var hver Sneplet 
forsvunden fra Sydsiden , og Vegetationen var ler og paa sine 
Steder naesten forbraendt undtagen i Saenkningerne og Klofterne, 
langs Vandlebene o. s. v. iVleri paa Nordsiden, der er. lemmelig 
stejl , laa Sneen endnu i vidt strakte Plader lige til Varden paa 
Toppen, og hvor den var smaeitet, var der blottet en Vegeta- 
tion med en usaedvanlig frisk gron Farve — et naesten rent, 
blodt og sammenhaengende Mostaeppe af h0je, frodige Individer. 
Jeg samlede her folgende Arter: Dicranum fuscescens^ sco- 
partum , palustre var. juniperifolium , elongatum , brevifoUum ; 
Aulacomnium turgidum ; Bryum pseudotriquetrum ; Webera nu- 
tans , annotina] Uypnum Schrebert; Racomitrium lanuginosum \ 
Pogonatnm alpinum ; Polytrichum strictum ; Ptilidium ciliare^ 
Jungermannia Floerkei og plicata var. gracilis. En Bryolog, 
der havde kunnet anvende mere Tid end jeg, havde sikkert 
fundet mange flere. iVleilem Mosserne bredte sig nogie Busk- 
laver og Peltigera i store Tlader. 

Det er aabenbart saadanne Mosmarker, som Kapit. J. A. D. 
Jensen omtaler i «iVleddel. fra Gr0nland» (II, S. 134): «En 
Ejendommelighed, som mange Steder i Gronland tildrager sig 
ens Opmaerksomhed og i Begyndelsen fremkalder Forbavselse, 
var her i Egnen (Isortokfjord, n. f. Holstensborg) meget frem- 
traedende; man ser nemlig, at de Fjaeldsider, der vende mod 
Nord , ere iklaedte et friskere og yppigere Orent end de, der 
vende mod Syd»; Forklaringen soger han ogsaa i den Over- 
risHng, som Nordsidernes langsommere smaeltende Sne i lang 
Tid vedligeholder. Ogsaa Berggren omtaler gronne Steder, 
hvor Sneen laenge bliver hggende , og anforer, at man der kan 
finde hele Felt af Webera cucullata^ Paludella squarrosa^ 8ca- 
pania undulata^ Uypnum stramineum o. a. 

Paa dette Sted er der ogsaa bedst Lejlighed til at naevne 
de Dannelser af Jlostery, som Andes i Grenland. Rink omtaler 



135 

dem gjentagne Gange i sin «Gr0nland», f. Ex. II, 96—97, 105, 
og ogsaa Giesecke naevner dem. 

Jeg havde Lpjlighed til at besege en lille -Tervee. ved 
Egedesminde, der blot haever sig faa Fod over Havnaden. Paa 
dens Overflade fandtes et Mosdaekke, der var indtil 2 — 3' tykt 
og hvilede paa Klippebund. Det var selvfelgelig blot levende. i 
de alleryderste Spidser, som vare udsatte for Luft og Lys; 
Resten var en lyst brun, meget let og svampet iVlasse, saaledes 
som den maa danne sig af Mosser, hvor der er fugligt og koldt. 
Denne Mostorv er meget let i Forhold til sit Volumen og bar 
selvfelgelig meget ringe Braendevaerdi ; den finder Anvendelse 
bos Grenlaenderne som Lampevaeger, hvilket er betegnende for 
dens F3eskaf!'enbedM. Den Art, som dannende den omtalte Terv, 
er efter Chr. Jensens Bestemmelse Webera nutans-, den var 
fruktificerende , og da ingen eller naesten ingen andre Planter 
vare indblandede i Daekket, frembyder den et maerkeligt Exempel 
paa selskabelig Vaext i Hejnorden. 

Jeg formoder, at det er den samme Slags Terv, som 
Giesecke S. 89 omtaler fra Kronprinsens Eiland: «braun 
und leicht , docb nicht fiber einen Fuss dick , findet sich in 
Menge, Irocknet aber des ewigen Nebels wegen sebr scbwer-. 
Ogsaa fra Kooks-0erne ved Godthaab naevner ban Tervedannelser 
paa indtil Vs' Maegligbed (ibid. S. 104, 114). 



1) I Porbindelse hermed kaD naevnes, at et i Egedes Herbarium vaerende 
Mos, ved hvilket fandtes bemserket, at det bruges til Lampevaeger, af 
Jensen er bestemt at vaere Dicranum elongatum. Fra etnograflsk Mu- 
seum bar jeg erlioldt 4 Prover af de der opbevarede grenlandske Lampe- 
vaeger, som ban ligeledes bar bestemt; de vare af felgende Mosser; fra 
0stkysten (Kapt. G. Holms Expedition) 1) Dicranum fuscescens og Hyp- 
num. uncinatuvi (samme Prove); 2) Sphagnum Oirgensohnii f. tenella og 
stricta; 3) Sphagnum Jimbriatum f, stricta; 4) fra Grenland uden nar- 
mere Angivelse: Dicranum elongatum og Folytrichum strictuvi (samme 

^ Preve). 

Tilfejes kan, at ved Kotzebue Sund finder Sphagnum angusti/olium 
Anvendelse til det samme (See man i Hook. Journ. 2). 



36 



En fastere Tervemasse eller Moser, hvis Bundmasse over- 
vejende og i stor Udstraekning er dannet af Tervemos {Sphagnum), 
har jeg ikke selv set i Grenland, om der end hist og her er 
Pletter, hvor Tervemos er fremherskende; men den synes dog 
at forekomme. Jeg skal henvise til Nathorsts Beskrivelse 
(Nordvestra Grenl. p. 21) af en saadan ved Ivsugiksok : «Nagra 
af vattensamlingarne aro i begrepp att ofverga till torfmossar, 
hvilka nastan uteslutande torde vara bildade af vattenmossor. 
Sd val paa dalens norra sida som vid glacieren p4 den sodra 
finnas maktiga fardigbildade torfmossar; sa som vanligt i de 
arktiska trakterna aro de genom smala kanaler sonderstyckade 
i rutor och mellanrummen mellan rutorna upptagas ett obetyd- 
ligt stycke fran ytan af is». Fra Egne endnu laengere Nord paa 
i Grenland naevner Hart « an excellent turf)) dannet af Splachnum 
Wormskjoldn og andre Mosser samt Dryas integrifoUa og 
Saxifraga decvpens. Nathors t har ogsaa meddelt mig, at aegte 
Terv fmdes flere Steder paa Spitzbergen, f. Ex. ved Sauriehook 
med en Maegtighed af i Almindelighed 2 iMeter, hejst 2,25 Met. 
og dannet af Mosser (for en Del Tervemos, men ligesaa meget 
andre Arter), Blade med Grene og Stammer af Salix polaris, 
Dryas m. fl. , og Torven ved Ivsugiksok synes ham vaere af 
lignende Art; en af Matroserne tog Stykker op for at gjere lid 
med^). Endvidere omtaler Geologen Dr. Holst^) «vanlig torfdy 
(Gronlandarnes «ivssut»)») som forekommende paa en i Naer- 
heden af Sukkertoppen; dervaerende Mtorfmosse» har et Areal 
af c. 10000 Kvadratfod og sagdes at vaere 5 — 10' Dyb. Terven 
er saa god, at Mosen er halvt temt; lignende Tervedannelser 



*) Nathorst henviser for evrigt om Spitzbergens Terv til Heers Afhandl. 

• Die miocene Flora und Fauna Spitzbergens » (Sv. Vetensii. Akad. Handl. 

Bd. 8, no. 7, S. 24— 25 og 80). iMaegtigheden er dog efter ham opfert for 

stor. Den af Heer angivne Dryas integrifoUa er Dr. octopetala og 

Salix retusa er S. polaris. 
2) Sveriges geol. Undersoiin., Ser. G, no. 81, S. 67. 



137 



skulle findes paa andre Steder. Jeg formoder, at de ere dannede 
fortrinsvis af Mosser. 

Kjaereiies geografiske Idbredelse. I Grenland vil man sikkert 
finds Kjaer under naesten alle Breddegrader, men dog vel spar- 
somst i Nord, og hejt op paa Bjaergene som alt anferl. At 
aegte Graeskjaer findes i Nordest-Grenland under c. 74° n. B. kan 
ses af ttZweite deutsche NordpoIfahrt» S. 652^). 

Overall paa den nordlige Halvkugle synes der at danne 
sig Kjaervegetaion af selv samme Ydre, naar Betingelserne ere 
de samme; vi finde dem i Sibirien, hvor «Karrmarken» efter 
Kjellman indtager «den ojamforligt storsla delen af det nord- 
sibiriska kustlandetw ; Mosser og Laver indgaa altid til en vis 
Procent, Sphagnum mangier aldrig, men en betydelig Del af 
Vegetationen udgjores af Cyperaceer, isaer tre Arler Eriophorum 
(de to gronlandske og E. russeolum), men ogsaa Graesserne ere 
staerkt repraesenterede isajr af Dupontia Fisheri^ Hierochloa pati- 
cifiora, Alopecurus alpinus, som paa sine Steder findes i saa 
stor Maengde, at de bestemme Vegetationens Udseende; desuden 
andre Graes og graeslignende Planter, saasom Colpodium lati- 
folium, Catabrosa algida, et enkelt Sted Pleuropogon Sabinei, 
Arctophila pendulma, Luzula hyperborea o. a. De tokimbladede 
ere derimod faatallige. Heraf fremgaar en stor Ulighed 
mellem Sibiriens og Grenlands Kjaer, nemlig Sibiriens store 



') Jeg maa dog gjere opmaerksom paa en maerkelig Fremslilling i •Zweile 
deutsche Nordpolfahrt* af Mosvegetationen i Nordest-Grenland: •im 
Allgemeinen war der Eindruck so, als ob diese Pflanzen nicht aus einem 
nordischen, an Feuchtigkeit nicht armen Lande, sondern aus der odesten 
Wuste kamen , wo sie kaum von feuchten Niederschlagen genetzt, kum- 
merlich ihr Lebcn gefristei halten» siger Pansch om Mosserne; "fast 
alles hatte sich in dichte, vollkommen kompacte Rasen gefluchtet, die 
. . . durch den dichtesten Wurzelfilz gleichsam zusammengekiltet wareo*. 
Hvis dette er et almindeligt Fsenomen, maa vist den staerke LuTtterhed 
vaere Skyld i denne aabenbart noget afvigende Vegetation , og Terheden 
stammer aUer fra den kolde Isstrem og de fremherskende Nordvlode, 
der ikke kunne fere megen Fugtighed med sig. 



138 

Rigdoni paa Graes, af hvilke flere af de anferte Arter endog helt 
mangle i Grooland ; og omvendt er dette sidste Land langt 
rigere paa Carices. Ogsaa Fellman fremhaever f. Ex. den 
store Mangel paa Carex- Arier, Orchideer og Potamogeta^ som 
udmaerker ostre Laplands Birkeregion (1. c. p. L.), «etl faktum, 
som endast tjener till att yiterligare foroka beroringspunkterna 
mellan ostre Laplands samt Samojediens och Sibiriens floror, i 
hvilka enahanda forhallande ger sig gallandeM- 

Vi fmde endvidere Kjaer i Nord- A m erika, f. Ex. efter 
Seemans Skildringer, men Artsbeslanden er til Dels forskjellig. 
Ligesaa i Skandinavien. Kjaerene i det nordlige Norge og Lap- 
land have mange almindelige Planter, der helt mangle eller 
dog ere meget sjaeldne i Grenland, f. Ex. Menyanthes trifoliata^ 
Spircea Ulmaria^ Cornus suecica^ Andromeda polifolta, Eriopho- 
rum vaginatum, alprnum og yracile^ hvortil ogsaa kan fejes rus- 
seolum] Caltha palustris] Trollius europceusy Comarum palustre\ 
Scheuchzeria palustris\ Oxycoecus palustris; Rubus Ohamce- 
morus ; Epilobium palustre ; Calla palustris ; Drosern rotundi- 
folia\ Chrysosplenium alternifolium\ Viola palustris og biflora] 
Valeriana officinalis og dioica; Galium palustre og uliginosum\ 
Sceptrum carolinum] Pedicularis palustris] Pinguicula alpina, 
Parnassia palustris^ Orchis maculata o. a.; Carex ampullacea^ 
dioica^ acuta ^ aquatilis^ canescens ^ irrigua, rotundata ^ limosa, 
chordorhiza, Buxbaumii, fiava, vulgaris o. a, Equisetum limosum, 
o. s. V. Der er dernaest en anden Forskjel mellem Gronlands 
og Skandinaviens Kjaer, den nemlig, at de ferste blot have et 
Par Pilearter og det ingenlunde i stort Individantal, medens 
^'ord-Europa, som omtalt S. 12 — 13, er meget rig paa saadanne 
med Masser af Mellemformer; Pilene kunne ogsaa fylde «Myrene»> 
op i JNorges Fjaeldregion. 

Jeg bar for faa Details til at kunne sammenligne Kjaerene 



') Denne Sjaeldenhed af Cyperaceer i Nord-Asien og ogsaa i nordvestlige 
Amerika omtales alt af Hooker i « Outlines*. 



i Island med Grenlands, men jeg maa antage, at de temmelig 
meget stemme med INorges. Derimod kan man efter Nat- 
horst's Skildring sammenligne Spilzbergens med Grfjniands. 
Det fremgaar heraf, at Kjaer i hint Land ogsaa Andes paa Skraa- 
ninger med ikke alt for staerk Haldning, fordi der Sommeren 
igjennem er saa meget sagte nedsivende Snevand; saadanni* 
findes vel ogsaa i Gronland; hin nys omtalle Mosmark paa 
Praestefjaeldet er jo el Fingerpeg hen derimod. Kjaerene synes 
at have Kigdom paa Mosser. Naeslen udeiukkende henviste til 
Kjaerene ere: Eriophorum Scheuchzeri, Carex pulla^ C. lagopma, 
Calamagrostis stricta^ Arctophila effusa^ Colpodium latifoliurn^ 
Petasites frigida ^ J uncus triglumis^ Rubus Ohamoemorus^ Ranun- 
culus lapponicus^ Pallasii og hyperboreus^ Cardamine pratensis] 
men desuden forekomme mange andre der, hvilke ligesom de 
nffivnte til Dels mangle eller ere sjaeldne i Grenland, saa at 
Porskjellighederne i Artsammensaetning maa vaere temmelig store; 
ogsaa over for Spitzbergen er Grenland maerkvaerdig rig paa 
Carices; i Falge Nalhorst's Liste udgjere Varices c. ^Ii2 
af hele Floran paa Spitzbergen, medens de paa Grenland ere 
V: — Vs. Del er klart, at Cyperaceerne sky de koldeste Egne; 
derfor ere de ogsaa faa i Tal i det nordligste Grenland, medens 
det mellemste og sydlige netop synes at vaere snarere tdgangs- 
steder for nye Arter. Ogsaa andre Hejsende som Keilhau og 
Heuglin omtale det tykke blade Mosdaekke (af Hypnum cuspi- 
datum J Mnium turgidum o. a.). 

Naar Novaja Semija undlages, der efter v. Baer's Ytringer 
ikke synes at have Moskjaer, ja ikke engang el sammenhaengende 
iVlosdaekke, uden maaske i den sydligste Del ved Jugor Shar 
(se ogsaa Heuglin), ere saadanne meget almindelige ogsaa i 
INordeuropas Faslland, og de naa her en .saa meget sterre 
IJdstraekning, som Terrainet mange Steder er fladere. Bro- 
th ems giver en Skildring af dem fra Kola i bans "Wiesen- 
mooren»; der dannes de isaer af Paludella squarroaa, Cincli- 
dium stygium , Catoscopium nigritum , Meesea triquetra , og frt- 



140 

diodes^ Astrophyllum cinclidioides ^ Splachnum vasculosum og 
Wormskioldii (meget sjaelden) o. a., men Sphagna ere spar- 
somme, og ere i Henseende til Arterne vist temmelig forskjel- 
lige fra Gronlands. 

Gaa vi ind i Sibirieu, finde vi jo der Moskjaer i sterste 
Udstraekning i Tundraen. v. Baer skjelner mellem terre og 
vaade Tundraer efter som Jorden om Sommeren terrer ud eller 
beholder sin Fugtighed; de forste ere isaer bevoxede med Laver, 
de sidste med Mos, og af disse er der efter Middendorff alt 
efter Ftigtighedsgraden to Slags; Po^y^nc/mm- Tundraen, en 
t0rrere Form, der til Dels endog najsten maa kunne kaldes Hede, 
og /Sp/«a^wt^m-Tundraen, der er «schwappende» med Vand over- 
maettede Mosflader. Men i evrigt synes ban at tage Begrebet 
«Tundra» i langt videre Forstand, mere i Overensstemmelse med 
jNavnets Oprindelse; "tunturw kalder den fmske Stamme nemlig 
«icke allenast de nakna fjelltopparne, utan afven hvarje af na- 
turen skoglos trakt, som icke betackas af en gronskande gras- 
matta, utan ar bevaxt med lafvar och mossoro (Fellman). Eu- 
ropas Lynghede er saaledes en Slags «Hochtundra)). efter Mid- 
dendorff, og Laplands «Tundra» er hovedsagelig karakteriseret 
af Diapensia lapponica med Laver o. s. v. De store Mostundraer 
i Sibirien skyldes Jordens og i Vegetationstiden ogsaa Luftens 
Fugtighed samt den flade Bund; i Lapland og paa Norges 
Fjaelde bliver Tundraen aabenbart terrere , gaar over til Hede, 
og det bjaergrige Grenland eller de med det vist meget overens- 
stemmende « barren grounds" i Nord-Amerika have ogsaa kun 
pletvis « Moskjaer'), men ellers isaer Hede og Fjaldmark. Havde 
Grenland haft Sibiriens Overfladeforhold , vilde Mostundraerne 
vel ogsaa vaere komne til Udvikling der, i alt Fald i visse Egne. 



141 



VIL Havstrand-Vegetationen. 

Strandnoraerne opnaa altid deres mest karakterisliske Praeg, 
hvor Stranden er en sterre Flade. Efler Jordens Beskaflenhed 
optraede de da hovedsagelig under to Former, enten som Sand- 
flora, naar Jordan er las Sand, eller som Marskflora, naar den 
er staerkt lerholdig. 1 de af mig besegte Egne af Grenland 
spiller Strandfloraen i det hele en meget underordnet Rolle, thi 
i Almindelighed gaa Klipperne enten lige ned i Vandet, daekkede 
paa deres Pod af en mere eller mindre rig Vegetation isaer af 
Brunalger, eller ogsaa efterlade de mellem sig og Havet blot 
en faa Alen bred Havstok, paa hvilken en Strandflora kan udvikle 
sig, og blot paa faa Steder saa jeg noget, som bestemt mindede 
om vor Sand- eller Marskvegetalion. Strandfloraen vil derfor 
heller ikke spille nogen Rolle i Landskabet, og den tillraekker 
sig naeppe andres Opmaerksomhed, end den specielt uddannede 
Botanikers. Efter som Jorden imidlertid er enten mere sandet 
eller mere leret, er der dog ogsaa paa den gronlandske smalle 
Havstok nogen Vegetationsforskjel. 

Saiidfloraen er knyttet til en af fint og bevaegeligt Sand 
dannet Bund, der let lader Vandet lobe gjennem sig og let ud- 
terres. Vi kjende den rundt omkring fra vore egne flade Kyster. 
1 en saadan Bund kunne underjordiske Slaengler let udvikle sig, 
og derfor finde vi , som bekjendt, meget ofte netop Arter med 
vidt krybende Rodstokke ved Stranden. De sterste Sandflader, 
som jeg saa i Gronland, vare ved Holstensborg om Foden af 
Prffstefjaeld. Her bar der dannet sig en Sandflade med 40—80' 
Hejde over Havet, og som flere Steder falder med stejle Skraenter 
ned mod Havet; der var endog hist og her af Vinden dannet 
smaa Tilleb til Klitter^). Paa disse Sandmarker noterede jeg 
felgende Planter: Marehalm [Elymus arenarius var. villosus) 



') Koruerup omtaler disse Sanddannelser i •Meddel. om Grenland*. II,. 
183; Giesecke i sio Dagbog S. 106. Se min Rejseberetnlng S. 191. 



142 



voxede her i stor Maengde baade paa Sandfladerne og Skraen- 
terne; paa Skraenterne stod Equisetum arvense i heje frisk 
grenne Exemplarer og dannede paa visse Steder Hovedmassen; 
indblandede fandtes endvidere: Taraxacum offvcinale^ Stellaria 
longipeSj Cerastium alpinum^ Arahis alpina^ Chamcenerium 
angustifolium og latifolium^ Rhodtola, Poa alpina i store, kraf- 
tige Tiier, Draba nivalis o. a. Paa Sandfladerne selv voxede 
til Dels de sarnme, desuden Poa tridentata og maculata, Arnica 
alpina, Salix glauca, Empetrum, Pijrola^ Veronica alpina^ Hie- 
rochloa alpina^ Armeria sihirica^ Viscaria, Calamagrostis plirag- 
mitoides o. a. Dette var saaledes en Plantevaext, der naermede sig 
til Heden, og paa sine Steder gik over i den, idet lave Empetrum- 
Buske dannede et temmelig tael Daekke ; ligesaa gjorde Dvaerg- 
birken paa andre. Ogsaa af Hedens Mosser og Laver fandtes 
her Repraesentanter (Racomitrium lanuginosum, Cetraria nivalis 
0. a., isaer dog Stereocaulon). 

Neden for Skraenterne paa selve Strandbredden voxede isaer 
Carex glareosa og incurva , Rokieare, Stellaria humifusa og 
Marehalm; dertil kom Arter, som here til andre Lokaliter, saa- 
som Salix giauca (nediiggende) , Poa glauca, Carex rarifiora^ 
Cerastium alpinum og i Vaudpytter Ranunculus hyperhoreus. 

Lignende, men mindre Sanddannelser saa jeg tlere Steder 
i Amerdlokfjorden f. Ex. ved Narssak; her voxede xMarehalmen 
ligeledes som paa vore Klitter, og mellem dem Rhodiola i store 
Tuer^), Kokleare og Here Hedeplanter saasom Pyrola grandi- 
flora i Maengde , Empetrum , Hypna og Jungermannia , Pohj- 
gonum viviparum , Stellaria longipes , Cerastium alpinum , Vac- 
cinium uliginosum o. fl. 

Fremdeles saa jeg saadanne Sanddannelser ved liolonien 
Sukkertoppen og paa Sermersok N. f. denne, ved Godhavn og 
andre Steder; overalt vil man traeffe \Jarehalmen. Denne er 



^) Ved Alten Elvs Munding i Vest-Finmarken saa jeg denne ligesaa i Maengde 
i Strandsand. 



143 

vist en meget almindeligere Plante, end man after Laoges 
« Conspectus" skulde tro. Den holder sig heller ikke til Kysten 
alene, men gaar ogsaa ind i Landet og op paa Ivlipperne, f. Kx. 
ved Kristianshaab til c. 100' over Havet, naar blot Sand har 
samlet sig. Rink skildrer den frodige Vaext i gamle Nordbo- 
ruiner i Sydgrenland. 

En anden aegte Sand- (og Grus-)plante er Halianthua pe- 
ploides] den fjaerner sig naeppe fra selve Stranden. Den er 
funden hist og her langs hele Kysten og voxer aldeles som 
hos OS. Endvidere Mertensia maritima, der dog er langt sjaeld- 
nere, hvilket vel til Dels kan bero paa dens Voxemaade; den 
har nemlig ingen underjordisk krybende Staengler som de andre, 
men er stavnsbunden ved en Rod. Om Vaigattet og Disko er 
den almindeligstM. Fremdeles: Lathyrus maritimus (Sydgren- 
landl, Carex incurva^ Armeria sibirica^ Carex hyperborea^ Fe- 
stuca rubra og ovina, foruden flere andre (se ovenfor), der som 
flere af disse ogsaa kunne voxe paa andre Lokaliteter. Carex 
glareosa er en af de mest udpraegede Slrandplanter, der voxer 
i taette, afrundede, graagrenne Tuer, men kan findes baade 
paa Sand- og Lerbund. 

Harskttoraeii har en fastere, mere eller mindre leret Bund, 
som vanskelig lader Vandet lobe igjennem. Her blive Planter 
med underjordiske Udlobere sjaeldnere, eller i alt Fald ere Ud- 
loberne meget kortere end hos Sandplanterne. Jeg har kun set 
svage Antydninger af denne Flora i Grenland, mest som en faa 
Alen bred Braemme langs Stranden. Kornerup taler dog et 
Sted om Lerslelter, og Kapit. A. Jensen fortaeller-) om Isortok- 
elvens Masser af finl delt Ler, der hvirvles op ved Breddeme 



^) Ved Godhavn saa jeg, at saa laenge den blaagrenne Dug (Vox) fiodes paa 
dens Blade, lade disse sig absolut ikke vaede, selv om de holdes ned- 
dykkede i Vandet; gnides Duggen af, haefler Vandet med Lelhed ved 
dem. Det samme var Tilftpldet med .Marehalmen (Bladoversideii). Heri 
maa man vistnok med Kerner se et Middel til bl. a. at holde Transpira- 
tionsaabningerne frie for Vand. 

') Meddel. om Grenland, II, 115— 147. 



44 



o. s. V. Muligvis vil der paa saadanne Steder fmdes sterre 
Flader med Marksvegetation naermest ude ved Havet. 

Smukkest udviklet saa jeg en Marskflora ved Bredden naer 
Mundlngen af Itivnek-Elven. Itivnekdalens Bund er en bred 
Slette, der i alt Fald flere Steder tydelig er dannet af stiv, 
meget fin Ler (se ogsaa Rejseberetningen S. 184); Elven bar i 
sit nedre meget bugtede Lob skaaret sig dybt ned i Leret, saa 
at Bredderne mange Steder staa som stejie Skraenter, men paa 
andre Steder ere styrtede ned og udjaevnede af Vandet. Paa 
saadanne Lerflader fandtes en Art «Slikflora') , et taet og lavt 
Daekke af et fint, frisk gront Gra^s [Ohjceria vilfoidea)\ dens 
paa Jorden liggende Skud krybe om mellem bverandre og filtre 
sig ind i bverandre, hvorved et virkeligt. men taet og lavt, 
Grensvaer fremkommer. !VIed den fandtes faa andre Planter, 
f. Ex. Potentilla anserina^ Cochlearia groenlandica ^ Taraxacum 
officinale^ Carex glareosa og Stellaria humifusa. 

Paa lignende fugtig og mere eller mindre leret Bund finder 
man andre Steder ogsaa andre Glyceria- Xrier , der dog mere 
voxe i Tueform og maaske isaer paa bejere Strand, undtagen 
G. maritima, der bar lignende Voxemaade; f. Ex. G. vaginata, 
arctica, angusfata (se f. Ex. Buchenau 1. c. S. 20), og med disse 
felge ofte flere andre Strandplanter, isaer: Stellaria humifusa, 
Glyceria vilfoideas «oskiljaktiga foljeslagare» (Natborst), hvis 
nedliggende og rodslaaende, tykbladede Staengler flette sig ind 
mellem Glyceriaflltet og baeve de smaa bvide Blomster op over 
dette. Fremdeles Cochlearia- Xrler, Potentilla anserina^), Plan- 



*) Prof. Nordenskiold benytter Fundet af Potentilla anserina ved Kap 
Dan paa Grenlands Ostkyst som Stette for sin Theori om, at Nord- 
boere fordum have boet i denne Egn (se •Ymer* 111, Stockholm 1883, 
S. 252). Naar han stoUer sig til Ordene i Langes •Conspectus- S. 5, 
synes han for det ferste at overse, at Lange blot siger: «Hovedarten 
findes ved beboede Steder mellem 60— 69° n. B. sjaeldnere*, men ikke 
anfeier noget om , at den almindeligere Form /? groenlandica er knyttet 
til disse, og for det andet underseger han ikke, hvorledes Arten i det 
hele er udbredt. Den findes i Grenland i Virkeligheden ofte langt fra 
beboede Steder; Vahl fandt den f. Ex. langt inde i Isortokfjorden , jeg 



145 

tago maritima og horealis, Koenigia islandica, Equiaetum ar- 
vense, i Sydgrenland Haloscias tscoticum. Af graesaglige Planter 
maa fremdeles navnes Catabrosa algida, der dog ogsaa gaar 
hejt og paa Bjaergene og isaer ynder gedet Jord (om Fuglenes 
Rugesteder, Grenlaenderhusene o. 1.), og foruden Carex glareosa 
og incurva ogsaa 0. starts^ subspathacea og ursina. Alopecurus 
alpinus kan ogsaa findes paa Stranden, ligesaa Phleum alpinum^ 
Festuca duriuscula o. a. Af Mosser er det efter Berggren uaer- 
mest Pottia Heimii^ der kan findes paa Strand, paa leret Bund, 
men den voxer ogsaa andre Steder, f. Ex. paa fugtig Isbrae-Ler. 

Denne Strandvegetation kan gaa op til 30—40 Fods Hejde 
over Havet, saaledes paa lave 0er i Skjaergaarden ved Egedes- 
minde. Berggren fandt flere Sleder i Egedesmindes Distrikt 
en Art Raekkefolge af Arterne, nemlig: naermest Havet Glyceria 
vilfoidea^ efter den Carex glareosa, og saa Elymua arenariua 
ledsaget af Plantago borealis^ Gyceria vaginata og Cochlearia 
fenestrata. 

I Sydgrenland vil Strandfloraen vistnok frembyde en Del 
Ejendommeligheder, bl. a. ved de der oplraedende Arter, f. Ex. 
Haloscias scoticum og Lathyrus maritimus. Oentiana serrata 
maa rimeligvis regnes til Strandfloraen. I Nordgrenland saa 
Rosenvinge Sagina nivalis indblandet i Strandvegelationen. 

Havstraiidfloraeii i audre arktiske Laude. Jeg kjender for faa 
og lidet detaillerede Skildringer fra de andre arktiske Lande til, 
at det er mig muligt belt at kunne sammeniigne Grenlands 
Strandflora med disses. 

En Sandflora findes dog aabenbart for det fersle paa Spitz- 
bergen; Natborst omtaler en "sandig strandmark* hist og 
her med ringe Udstraekning, men den er meget grusblandet og 
fugtig og gaar umaerkelig over i Kjaerene og Lavlandsmarken. 
De egentlige Slrandplanter ere meget faa, og naeslen alie fore- 



som Dsevnt to Dagsrejser 0. f. Holstensborg; Rob. Brown fandt den 6 
eng. Mil fra Kristianshaab 0.8. v., og den maa kunoe belegnes som en 
cirkumpolaer Plante. 
XIL 10 



146 



komrnende i Grenland {Mertensia^ Halianthua , Carex glareosa, 
C. ursina, C. incurva^ C. salina^ Stellaria kumifusa^ Olyceria 
vilfoidea). I 0st- Lapland bar man efter Fell man en fra 
Norges vidt forskjellig Kyst: her en Skjaergaard med utallige 
Klippeeer og Holme og dybe Fjorde, hist yderst faa Holme og 
paa store Strajkninger idel Sand, og at der ogsaa laengere hen 
langs Sibiriens Kyst findes Sanddannelser, ligefrem «lavkullede 
Sandklittert) laere vi af Kjellmans Skildringer; det er her isaer 
Marehalm [Elymus mollis) og Halmnthus, der fremberske. Og- 
saa Nordamerikas Polarbavs Kyster have en Sandflora, og alter 
er det som i Grenland Elynms, Lathyrus maritimus o. a., men 
desuden naevner Richardson f. Ex. Polemonium coeruleum^ for- 
skjellige blaa og gule Astragler, flere Artemisia ^v paa «the 
sandy shore of the sea-), saa at der vist nok er betydelig Ulig- 
hed med Grenlands. 

Ogsaa Straekninger med marsklignende Natnr findes andre 
Steder; saaledes saa jeg Steder i Vest-Finmarken, som jeg vil 
regne herhen. 

Hvis de arkllske Fjaeldurter i det hele og vist mere end de 
andre tidligere naevnte Formationers Arter ere cirkumpolaere, 
saa synes Strandfloraerne at have mindst lige saa store ind- 
byrdes Ligheder over hele det arktiske Omraade, men ikke alle 
Egne ere lige rige. Grenlands Strandflora er f. Ex. meget 
fattig i Sammenligning med det arktiske Norges; den bar kun 
et Udvalg af dennes Arter og knap nogen egen, i alt Fald tone- 
givende Art. 

Alle de oven naevnte gronlandske Arter forekomme i Norge 
a^ Lapland, men desuden findes her f. Ex. Stellaria crassifolia, 
Silene maritima^ Salicornta herbacea^ Atriplex patula, Primula 
sihirica^ Aster tripolium^ Cenolophium Fisheri, Triglochin mari^ 
timum, Carex maritima og salina , J uncus Oerardi^ Scirpus 
rufus og maritimus, Atriplex crassifolia o. s. v., hvilket sikkert 
staar i Forbindelse med disse Egnes gunstigere Klima; Halo- 
scias scoticum, der findes belt rundt til Kola i det mindste, er 



147 

i Gronland sjaelden og indskraenket til den sydligste Del, og 
det er da let at forstaa, at mange andre belt mangle her. 

VIII. Ben gedede Jords Plantevaext. 

De arktiske Lande have visl blot en eneste Vegetationsforma- 
tion, hvis Sammensaetning og Fylde er paavirket kunstig, det vll 
sige ved Mennesker og Dyr. Paa aile de Steder, som ere eller 
have vaeret beboede for laengere eller korlere Tid af Grenlaenderne, 
altsaa ikke blot deres Vinlerpladser, men ogsaa de Steder, hvor 
de opslaa deres Sommerlelte, danner der sig en Plantevsext af 
en egen Beskaffenhed , der naliirligvis ikke bar nogen stor Ud- 
straekning, tvaert imod endog kun optager ganske smaa Pletler, 
men som dog paa Grund af sin frisk grenne Farve i lang 
Afstand tiltraekker sig OpmsBrksombed. Jordbunden er her paa 
disse «K0kkenm0ddinger« gjennem maaske Aarhundreder 
bleven slaerkt g^det med de utrolige Masser af Affald fra Jagt- 
udbyttet, som henkastes, Indvolde, Blod, Ben, Exkrementer af 
"Mennesker og Uiinde o. s. v. En dyb, gedningsrig, merk Jord- 
bund omgiver alle Grenlaenderboliger; Vandet siver kun lang- 
somt gjennem den, vel niermest fordi den er saa fast trampet, 
og i Regnvejr er dens Overflade fuld af Dynd og iMudder. 

Da ikke blot Jorden er saa staerkt gedet, men da disse 
Lokaliteter tillige i Regelen ligge mere eller niindre lunt og be- 
skyttede, og da den merke Jord begjaerlig suger Solvarmen til 
sig, er det intet Under at her trives en Plantevaxt, der er saa 
frodig, taet, hwj og frisk gren, som den er, ja ligefrem kan vaere 
en frodig Graesmark. Den allerfrodigste saa jeg ved Krislians- 
haab paa en fiiglig Mark ved Kolonien; her var en taet, fodhej 
Vegetation af Alopecurus alptnus, Poa pratennis og flexuosa^ Cera- 
stium alpinum i en meget straktieddet kjertelhaaret Form, Poly- 
gonum aviculare^ Stellaria media i store Maengder mellem Gr»ssel 
og paa Husene, Draha hirta i fodheje Kxemplarer, fodheje Ca- 
reic-Tuer o. s. v. 

10^ 



148 



De Arter, som danne det egentlige lille Selskab paa saa- 
danne Pladser, ere ikke mange og heller ikke here de ude- 
lukkede hjemme her, naar nogle hist og her i Gronland fore- 
kommende indferte Planter undtages; heller ikke ere Arterne 
overall ganske de samme, der gjor sig tva^.rt imod endog nogen 
Forskjel gjaldende efter Breddegraden. Paa Straekningen fra 
Godthaab til Holstensborg var det isaer Arter af Poa (P, pra- 
tensis var. domestica , P. alpina og P. fiexuosa) og i mindre 
Grad Glyceria [O. arcttca, Borreri, vaginata) samt Phleum air- 
'pinum^ Trisetum suhspicatum og Festuca rubra ^ der dannede 
Hovedmassen af Graes , og kun paa de nordligsle l.okaliteter 
(Holstensborg) begyndte Alopecurus alpinus at spille en Holle; 
men paa alle Steder om Disko-Buglen vare Poa'erne i Minoritet, 
og det var det sidst naevnte hoje, friskt blaagronne, bredbladede 
Graes, hvis taette Tiier fremherskede; det forekommer derfra 
Nord efter indtil op til 83° n. B. , f. Ex. ved Kap York, Foulke 
Fjord 0. s. V. I de nordligere Egne ere bl. a. ogsaa Glyceria 
vaginata meget almindelig; den danner ved Upernivik og Preven 
taette, yppige Graestaepper paa og om Gronlanderhytterne (Rosen- 
vinge). Af andre Graes, der jaevnlig forekomme paa disse 
Steder, kan naevnes den lille Catahrosa algida] ogsaa Carices 
kunne indblandes. 

Endvidere trives her med stor Yppighed Cochlearta - Ar[e,r ] 
Cerastium alpinum^ isaer den straktleddede, slaerkt kjertlede Form ; 
Arabis alpinas frisk gronne Skud med hvide, i 0jne faldende 
Blomster findes isaer, hvor Jorden er lesere eller Graesterven 
nylig taget bort, saa at dens Fre have fundet en Plads at spire 
paa; fremdeles meget almindelig: Stellaria longipes^ Taraxacum 
officinale^ Saxifraga cernua. Polygonum viviparum^ Oxxjria di- 
gyna^ der isaer findes paa de fugtigere Steder og der kan naa 
I — 2 Fods HejdeM, og Rhodiola rosea. 



^) Paa Husene ved Nenese (Oslkysten) voxede den i stor Maengde, og syntes 
at fortrjEnge Koklearen, der paa Vestkysteci var almindeligere, skriver 
Vahl i sin Dagbog. 



149 

Hvor Jorden er mere fuglig eller i de smaa Vandpylter, 
som danne sig i den fede .lord, og hvor grenlig sorte Oscil- 
larier pleje at iidvikle sig i Maengde, finder man nogle andre 
Blomsterplanter, f. Ex. Cerastium trigynum ofte i stor iMaengde, 
Ranunculus hyperboreus^ Saxifraga rwularis^ Koenigta islandica, 
der paa disse Steder efter Wormskjold kan blive sine 3" 
lang og ret staerkt forgrenet, medens ;den paa Tjaeldene er meget 
mindre og mindre red, Montia rwulariSj Equisetum arvense o. a., 
og selv en Strandplante som Stellaria humifusa kan findes her; 
ogsaa Cyperaceer kunne traeffes, isaer Eriophorum Scheuchzeri 
og anguatifolium. 

Den til gedet Jord knyltede Plantevaexts biologiske Saer- 
praeg synes at vaere: Tueform og oprette Skud, ingen Udlebere 
eller Ranker, men h^rmering ved Pre eller Bulbiller. 

Ogsaa visse Mosser synes isasr at holde sig lil saadanne 
Lokaliteter, efter Berggren f Ex. Mnium affine^ Hypnum 
Knetffii, H. cordifolium , H, stramineum^ Geratodon purpureus, 
Barbula ruralis, Splachnum Wormskjoidii ^ der isaer synes at 
ynde animalsk Substrat («K0kkenm0ddinger»). 

Ved dennc Lejlighed kan under et naevnes de Blomster- 
planter, som kunne formodes at vaere indferte med Men- 
nesker og jo sikkert ogsaa alle findes netop paa disse 
Steder. De ere maaske ^) felgende: Stellaria media ^ Cerastium. 
semidecandrum J Capsella bursa pastoris(?)y Sisymbrium Sophia j 
Matricaria Chamomilla^ Leontodon antumnalisCf), Xanthium stru- 
murium (paa Gieseckes Tid), Polygonum aviculare{?), Blitum 
glaucum, Urticn urens , Poa annua,(i) og muligvis ogsaa en to 
eller tre andre Graesser, der anses indvandrede i Nord-Amerika, 
f. E. Anthoxanthum og et Par Alopecurus- Xrier'^). 



^) For en Del Arters Vedkommende er jeg i stor Tvivl, om de ere Indferte 
eller opriodelige. De ere forsynede med et ?. 

') At derimod Vicia cracca skulde vare indfert, som Vahl og Lange for- 
moder, aoser Jeg for usikkert; Vahl skriver. at deo fandtea dels indeo 
for, dels uden for Gjaerdet af et gammelt Tuo*; •bar formodentlig vcret 



160 



De indferte Planter kunne let vaere komne med Havefre, 
Vareforsendelse og Indpakningsmateriale o. 1., nogle maaske 
endog saa laenge siden son) i de gamle Islaernieres Tid; disse 
havde jo Kvaegavl i Sydgrenland (Osterbygden)^), og med KvaBget 
maa der jo ogsaa vaere fert Foder til Landet, foruden at der 
sandsynligvis paa anden Maade blev fort Halm , Ho o. 1. dertil. 
Ogsaa senere ere Kreaturer vist nok gjentagne Gange forte til 
Gronland, f. Ex. 1759 Faar til Herrnhutermisionen i Godthaab^). 

1 nyere Tid bar man faaet en saerlig Kilde til Indforsel 
af Planter i Gronland, nemlig Skibsfarten paa Ivigtut i 
Sydgronland. Idet omtrent 30 Skibe aarlig gaa ballastede 
til dette Sted for at hente Kryolith, er det nalurligt, at der med 
Ballasten indfores en Maengde Fro eller hele levende Planter, 
og dernaest er der fort en Maengde iMuldjord derover til 
Havebrug. Kapit. Normann , der er en gammel Ivigtutfarer, 
bar meddelt mig, at der til Ivigtut er kommet Skibe fra Eng- 
land, derunder Irland og Skotland medregnede, Holland, Tysk- 
land (isser Hamborg, Stettin og Danzig), Danmark {isa^r Born- 



dyrket for Kvaegets Skyld*. Den er jo imidlerlid almindelig i andre 
iiordlige Lande, f. Ex. i Lapmarken efter Fellrnan, og er vild i New- 
Foundlatid og andre Dele af det estlige Nord-Amerika. Heller ikke aoser 
jeg det for sikkert, at Juncua bufonius er indfert ved Mennesker. 

Efter at ovenstaaende var nedskrevet, er Fortsaittelsen af 'Conspectus 
florae groenlandicae- udkommet. I denne har Lange stregef flere af de 
her anforle Planter som alter forsvundne af Grenlands Flora. 

*) Hans Egede skriver endog: «Det kand nogenledes eragtes af de Ganiles 
Beskrivelser, hvori der meldes, at paa Colonierne feddes og fandtes alle- 
haande Quajg og Chreaturer, hvoraf de fik Melk, Smor, Ost etc. i saadan 
Abundanze , saa at der af og en stor Deel blev fert over til Norge, og 
for sin synderlig Bonite blev lagt til Kongens Mensai eller Fad-Bord». 

») Ligesom dette gik i Trykken udkom i Saertryk en Afhandling af Eberlin 
i det norske "Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab* : «Blomster- 
planterne i dansk 0stgr0nland». S. 332 udtaler ban, at Vestgrenlands 
Flora ikke laengeie er ren, men indeholder adskillige Arter, der ere iod- 
komne ved Mennesket. Heri samslemmer jeg med ham, som man ser-, 
men han synes mig at antage, at disse Arter skulde vsere mange og 
Floraens Karakter endog derved forandret. Dette er naeppe Tilfaeldet; 
de ved Mennesker indferte Arter ere vist meget faa. 



151 

holm), Amerika, og en enkelt Ladning fra Norge og muligen 
Sydeuropa; Havejord er indfert isitr fra Danmark og Skolland. 
Det er derfor ikke underligl, at Dr. Herlin 1883 ved sit Heseg 
der I'andt ikke mindre end 32 Arler, som sikkerl alle cUer dog 
for allersterste Delen saaledes ere indferle. De ere: Ghelido- 
nium majus^ Brassica Napus, Sinapis arvensis^ Thlaspi arvense^ 
Spergula arvensis^ Erodium ctcutarium, Medtcago lupulina^ Tri- 
folium repens , Vicia saliva , Ervum hirautum , Bubus idceua, 
Galium Aparine, Senecio vulgaris, Anthemis arvensis, Matri'- 
caria inodora (Hovedformen), Artemisia vulgaris^ Lappa tomen- 
tosa, Cirsium arvense, Centaurea jacea, Sonchus oleraceus, Ly- 
Gopsis aroensis, Verbascum Thapsus, Lamium purpureum , L. 
amplexicaule , Plantago major ^ Chenopodium album, Polygonum 
Convolvulus^ P. lapathifolium , Cannabis sativa, Uriica urens, 
Cochlearia officinalis, Capsella. Af disse 32 Arter ere de 27 en- 
eller loaarige, og af de fleraarige formere to sig ved Kodskud. 
Hvor mange der vil formaa at liaivde deres Plads, hvor mange 
der vil forsvinde, maa Fremtiden vise. (Se i evrigt Ilerlin I.e.). 
Kuglefjieldetie o. 1. Saa langt Nord paa som Eskimoerne 
have elier have haft Bopladser, forekommer der en Planlevaext 
som den omtalte; den findes f. Ex. ved Hayes Sund og Disco- 
very bay og hejt oppe i Ostgrenland (c. 75°) efter Hart og 
Payer.' Men desuden udvikier den sig endnu paa en anden 
Lokaiitet, nemlig ved Fuglefjaeldene og «\laagetuerne'.. Jeg selv 
har blot en Gang set Euglefj«ide, nemhg ved Sermilinguak 
(Rejseberetningen S. 180), men da de gik lodret ned i Havet, 
gik Pugiegodningen mest til Spilde; oppe paa de sraaa Afsalser 
og i Hevner paa Klippen havde dog Rhodiola og Cochlearia 
groenlandica slaaet sig ned og vare voxede op til frodige, rigt 
blomstrende Exemplarer. Men fra andre foreligger der Berel- 
ninger om Planlevaexten under saadanne Kjfflde. Nathorst 
omtaler den fra Ivsugiksok og Hart fra det ntprliggende Cap 
York under c. 76° n. B. Vegetationen skildres som yppig, men 
ensformig: Poa fiexuosa danner englignende Taepper, hist og 



152 

her erstattel af Alopecurus alpinus; ogsaa Stellaria longipes kan 
der danne virkelige «falt»j og hvor Baekke lebe gjennem Marken, 
ses ofte et hvidt Baand af Saxifraga cernua^ undertiden blandet 
med gult af Ranunculus altaicus (frodig Urtemark?). End videre 
trives Poa glauca i store Tuer og Glyceria angustata, og Hart 
naevner desuden f. E\. Cerastium alpinum^ flere Saxifrager og 
iVllosser, isaer Splachna. Ogsaa ved Foulke-Fjord (78° 18') danner 
der sig under Fuglefjaeldene «a rank and rapid vegetation ». 

Den samme Vegetation gjenfindes i andre arktiske Lande, 
f. Ex. Spitzbergen. Efter Nathorst trives her paa de 
Haelder, der godes af Sofuglene, frodige Graesser, saasoni Pocej 
Alopecurus alpinus , Oxt/ria, som bliver mere end fodhej, Coch- 
learia i utrolig Maengde paa denne dens «alsklingsplats'>, Ra- 
nunkler i Storrelser som intet andel Sted; endvidere Saxifraga 
cernua og rivularis^ af hvilke den ferste der kan danne «riktigt 
sammanhangande mattor», Polygonum viviparum^ — altsaa, som 
man ser, det selv samme Selskab som i Grenland blot paa 
en Art nasr [Ranunculus altaicus^ der i Grenland er saa sjaslden). 
Denne yppige Vegetation under P^uglefjaeldene omtales endvidere 
af Th. Fries fra Beeren Eiland. . 

Ganske det samme findes i Sibirien, men her, i Taimyr- 
landet, er det efter lVI iddendorff Samojederne og Raevene, 
der g0de Jorden; om disses Boliger finder man "tfeffliche 
Rasenstiicke'), der allerede i det fjaerne kjendes paa den yppige 
Vaext af isaer Grass. Paa Novaja Semlja er det Raeve og 
Lemminger, paa Jan Mayen efter Reichardt Raevene, der frem- 
kalde Ugnende frodige Pletter, og endelig naevner Richardson, 
at man ved Amerikas Polarkyst finder Steder, gedede af Hval- 
olje 0. 1., hvor Graesser trives med 1 — 2' Hejde. 

Vi have altsaa Polen rundt og op til meget heje Bredder 
den samme Vegetationsform , yderst ringe i Udstraekning, men 
maerkvaerdig ved sin Frodighed og frisk grenne Farve , og til 
Dels dannet af det samme faatallige Selskab. Sterst Lighed 



153 



synes der efter det foreliggende at vaere mellem Gronland og 

Spitzbergen. 

Det ligger ikke i mln Plan at sanimenstille her, hvad der er kjendt med 
Hensyn til Havedyrkning i Grenland; jeg skal dog give nogle Llteraturhen- 
visDinger: Riuk i -Grenland* og .Tidsskr. f. popul. Fremst. af Nalurvlden- 
8kaben>, 4.R., 2. Bd. Kornerup i Indledning til •Conspectus flors groen- 
landicae* S. XXXIV. Erslev i geogr. Tidsskr. I. 



IX. Overgange mellem Tegetationsformationerae; 
Arts-Statistik m. m. 

Orergange ineliem Vegetatioiisforinationerue. 1 de foregaaeode 
Kapitler har jeg forsegt at begrunde en systematisk Inddeling af 
Vegetationsformationerne naermest i den Del af Grenland, med 
hvilken jeg selv har gjort et desvaerre meget flygligl Bekjendt- 
skab , og at danne Benaevnelser for dem , ved hvilke de let 
kunne betegnes i Vegetationsskildringer og af de rejsende. Som 
ved al Systematik har jeg opstillet visse Typer, nemlig dem, 
der syntes mig bedst karakteriserede og almindeligst udbredte, 
og skildret disse. Men derved vil jeg naturligvis ikke have ud- 
talt, at de staa skarpt afgraensede over for hinanden; tvaertimod 
er der her, som alle Vegne i Naturen , talrige Overgange, og 
alt efter den uendelige iVIaengde af Kombinationer, som findes 
mellem Jordbund, Fugtighed, Lys, Varme, Exposition, Haeldning 
0. s. v., flyde de forskjellige Vegetationsformationer I hinanden, 
og Melleml^d opstaa. Andre dejsende ville derfor maaske opfatte 
Vegelationen paa anden Maade end jeg og laegge Vaegten paa 
andre Forhold; delte maa Fremtiden vise, og ligeledes er det 
den forbeholdt i det enkeite at rette og fuldstaendiggjere de 
Billeder, som jeg har udkastet i store Trsek. 

Jeg har allerede i min Rejseberetning peget paa nogle in- 
teressante Vegetationsformationer, som jeg blot en enkelt Gang 
traf paa. Jeg skal her omtale dem lidt naermere. De fandtes alle 
paa den Exkursion, paa hvilken der var Lejiighed for mig til 
at fjaerne mig langst fra Kyslen, nemlig i llivnekdalen, i ret 



154 



Linie en halv Snes Mil 0. f. Holstensborg, og jeg er overbevist 
om, at man i de fjaernest i'ra llavet liggende Egne af det brede 
Kystland vil finde mange andre interessante Vegetalioner. 

Den ene af dem , jeg saa, var en Art Mellemform mellem 
Hede og Krat, der fandtes paa den flade Dalbund; den dannedes 
af et lille Udvalg af Hedens Buske, nemlig isaer Dvaergbirk 
og Pil (Saltx glauca)^ dernaest ogsaa Belle, Alperose [Rho- 
dodendron]^ Post [Ledum, mest palustre var. decumbens), medens 
Raevling [Empetrum] i en maerkvaerdig Grad var tilbagetraengt. 
Bunden var dannet af Hedens Urter, og der var lillige mange 
Busklaver; for saa vidt var det en aegte Hede; men det af- 
vigende var, at de levfaeldende og mere bredbladede Buske 
fremlierskede, og at de.vare oprette og naaede Hejder, som 
de aldrig naa i Heden; Dvaergbirken var nemlig omtrent 2' og 
Pilene 2 — V hoje. Det var saaledes naermest et Slags Krat, 
men meget aabent. Ganske lignende synes der at findes i 
Kaiser Franz Josephs Fjord efter Payers Skildringer^), 

En anden Mellemform, som rakte Haand hen imod denne 
for at forbinde Hede og Pilekrat, men som stod Krattene naermest, 
fandtes paa de lave Bjaerge nord for Dalen; den var et Pilekrat 
paa meget tar Bund, dannet af flere Fod hoje Exemplarer af 
Saltx glauca, desuden af Dvaergbirk, Bolle (saerlig fandt jeg her 
den i Grenland sjaeldne storbladede Form, der mere ligner vore 
Belleplanteri, Leduni o. s. v., og ogsaa her var Bunden mest 
overensstemmende med Hedens ; der manglede Fugtighed til, at 
Kratbundens Urter her kunde trives. 

I den samme Dal fandtes f. Ex. ogsaa Steder med flad Ler- 
bund (se Rejseberetningen S. 184), hvor Plantevaexten var dannet 
af spredt staaende, men taette, fodhaje Tuer af Graes isaer (Poa 



*) •Was die Birke {B. nana) anlangt, so stand dieselbe , dichte Gestriippe 
bildend , namentlich an der Seite der alten Moriine . . . Sie erhob sich 
zu 2 — 3 Fuss .... Die einzelnen Zweige waren iheilweise dicht mit 
einander verflochten, .... Von einem eigentlichen Stamme konnte man 
kaum reden; es traten aus der Wurzel sogleich mehrere Zweige heraus*. 



155 

glauca og pratensts, dernaesl Festuca ovina og Trisetum subapt- 
catum), desuden at" kraflige Exemplarer af Melandrium a/fine, 
Arahis Hookeri^ Drabce o. s. v. , — en Vegetalion, der hverken 
kao regnes til Hede eller saedvanlig Uriemark , nttrmest dog til 
den sidste. Lignende usaedvanlige Plantesammeuslillinger vil 
man vistnok ogsaa traefTe paa de Lersielter og Lerskraenter, der 
paa mange Steder ere iagttagne af Kapit. J. A. D. Jensen, eller 
f. Ex. ved Auleilsivikfjorden af Berggren^). 

Arterues Fordeliiig efter Breddegradeii. De laveste Planters Id- 
bredning er endnu saa lidt kjendt for Grenlands Vedkommende, 
at jeg maa lade dem ligge, og blot holde mig til Bloraster- 
planterne. 

Spergsmaalet cm Arternes geografiske Fordeling i Grenland 
er overordentlig simplificeret derved, at der paa den ene Side 
blot er Tale om to ved Indlandsisen vidt fra hinanden adskilte 
Kyststraekninger, og paa den anden Side derved, at hver af disse 
naesten er at betragle som en eneste, smal, i Nord-Syd slrygende 
Linie; det er da Fordelingen efter Breddegraden , som spiller 
den storste Rolle, thi der vides endnu saa saare lidt om den 
Belydning, som den yderste Kyststrands insulaBre og de fra 
Havet laengst fjaernede Egnes mere kontineniale Klima bar paa 
Fordelingen i ast-vestlig ftetning, men det bliver ievrigt sikkert 
meget ringe Differenser, om hviike det her vil dreje sig. 

Blandt J. Vahls efterladte Papirer findes ogsaa nogle Brud- 
stykker af et af bam holdt Foredrag, hvori ban forseger at ind- 
dele Grenland i "Zoner^ efter Bredden. Hans Iste (sydligste) 
Zone paa Veslkysten maa vist nok modsvare omtrenl min 
Birkeregion ; desvaerre er det netop Begyndelsen af iManuskriptet, 
der mangier, saa at jeg kun kjender bans Opfatlelse af bans 
Resume i Manuskriptels Slulning, saalydende: -den Isle Zone 



1) Af 6renlands Vegetalionsformationer er endnu Hav- Vegetatlonen lil- 
bage; denne vil forhaubentlig blive skiidret af Rosen v Inge. 



156 



af Grenland er i plantegeografisk Henseende at sammeiiligne 
med den subalpinske Region i den nordligste Del af det tem- 
pererede Klima og navnlig med Islands Fiora». Han synes at 
have delt den i 2 Distrikter, men paa hvilket Grundlag kan ikke 
ses (maaske regnede han dette Baelte til Godthaab, og dels syd- 
ligsle Afdeling kom da til at modsvare Birkeregionen). Vahls 
2det Baelte naar op til 69° (Disko) og er ligeledes afdelt i to Di- 
strikter med den 67° Breddegrad (Holstensborg) som Skillelinie. 
Hans 3dje Zone er endelig hele det nordlige, regnet fra d. 69de 
Breddegrad; om denne Zone siger han, at den er at henfere til 
den egentlige Polarflora og har i Melviile-Oens og Spitzbergens 
Floraer sit naermeste Sammenligningsled. 

Da det forekom mig af Interesse at faa et Overblik over 
vore Kundskabers nuvaerende Slandpunkt med Hensyn til Blom- 
sterplanternes Udbredning i Grenland, har jeg udarbejdet Lister 
over denne og sogt at uddrage nogle Resultater af disse. 
Selve Listerne ville blive publicerede i den naturhistoriske For- 
enings «Videnskabelige Meddelelser)) for 1887, og til disse hen- 
viser jeg dem , der have Interesse af at studere disse Forhold 
grundigere , idet jeg tillige beder om , at man godhedsfuldt vil 
meddele mig de Mangier eller Fejl, som maatte opdages i dem. 
Her meddeler jeg en Oversigt over de indvundne Resultater. 

Vestkysten har jeg delt i 7 Baelter nemlig: 

A. "Sydgrenlandw regnet fra Sydspidsen og.op til 62° n. B. paa 
Vestsiden, og til 60° (Prins Kristians Sund) paa Ostsiden, 
fra hvilket Punkt P. Eberlin i Overenstemraelse med 
selve Gronlaenderne ferst regner, at den egentlige 0stkyst 
tager sin Begyndelse^). 

B. Straekningen 62— 64°n. B., «Fiskernaesbaeltet»). 

C. Straekningen 64 — 67° n. B., omfattende Kolonierne Godthaab, 
Sukkertoppen og Holstensborg (med S. Kangerdluarsuk); 
«Sukkertop-Baeltet» kunde det kaldes. 



^) Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, Bd. 12, Kristiania 1887. 



157 



». Straekningen 67—71° med Disko, Diskobugten og Noursoak- 
Halv0en ; «'I)iskobaellet». 

E. Straekningen 71 — 73°, altsaa fra Umanak og op til iidl nord 
for Upernivik; «Upernivik-Baeltel». 

F. Stykket 73-76°; Melvillebugtens Baelte. 

d. Hele det nordlige n. f. Meiviliebugten, svarende til den af 
Nathorst i •nord-veslra Gronland» behandlede Stra?kning, 
«Nordvestgr0nland)>. 

0stkysten, regnet fra Prins Kristians Sund, bar jeg delt 
i 3 Baelter: 
S, det sydlige, op til knap 64° (Igloluarsuk); «Syd0stgr0niand» 

. eller Frederik d. 6tes Land. 
Mf det mellemste, Angmagsalikpartiet, eller Krigtian d. Sdes 

Land. 
N, Nord0stgr0nland, den bekjendte Straekning nord for 70° n. B. 
Mine Resultater ere f0lgende. 

I. Artsrigdommeii i de forskjellige Baelter er nu for Tiden 
udtrykt ved f0lgende Tal: 

Vestkysten: 



BaBlte 

Absolute Antal 



pCt. af alle Grenlands 
386*) Karplantcr . . . . 



A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


285 


176 


264 


252 


141 


95 


88 


73 


45 


68 


64 


36 


24 


22 1; 



Hele Kysleii 
381 Arter. 



Oslkysten: 



Baelte 

Absolut Antal 

pCt. af alle Grenlands Kar- 
planter 



s 


M 


N 


160 


Ml 


100 


4, 


28 


25 



Hele Kysten. 
226 Arter. 



Heraf fremgaar, at Artsantallet paa Vestkysten aflager 
stadig nord efler, saaledes som maatte vente det, blot med en 



M Lange saetter Tallet til 395; Forskjellen fremkommer naviilig derved. 
at jeg bar udeladt en Del Arter, som ikke vldes fundne med fuldstaendig 
Sikkerhed. 



58 



eneste Undtagelse, nemlig FiskernaesbaBltet (B). Den maerke- 
Jige Fattigdom, som dette I3aelte udviser baade overfor det syd 
derfor og de to naermest nord derfor felgende Baelter, maa for- 
klares dels deraf, at denne Straekning er mindre godt undersegt, 
hvortil Mangelen af store, hyppig og let besegte Kolonier er 
medvirkende, dels deraf, at Indlandsisen gaar iaengere ud, den 
isfri Kyststrand er smallere, tillige mindre bjaergrig, og derfor 
plantefattigere. 

At Baeltet C (Sukkertop- Baeltet) og D (DIskobaeltet) ere saa 
rige og kun staa lidt tilbage for Sydgronland , Jigger dels i 
Landets Beskaffenhed (den indtil c. 25 \lil brede Kyststraekning, 
det bjaergrige paa liine Dale rige Land), dels deri, at disse 
Stra?kninger have vaeret undersegte af saa mange Expeditioner, 
maaske for Diskobaeltets Vedkommende ogsaa deri, at lettere 
forvitrende Stenarter, Skifre, Basalt o. a. optraede her. 

Nord derfor gjor baade Naturens Straenghed og den ringere 
Undersegelse sig gjaeldende ^). 

Hvad Ostkysten angaar, kommer dels rigeste Baelte endog 
lerst naermest til Upernivikbaeltet paa Vestkysten (41 pCt. mod 
36 pCt.), mens dens to andre Baeller ere rigere end Vestkystens 
to nordligste, hvilket synes at tyde paa, at de maa vaere fro- 
digere end disse , da de jo ere meget mindre unders0gte end i 
alt Fald Nordvestgronland. Denne Fattigdom stemmer med 
Vahls Besultat: «Efter hvad jeg selv bar haft Lejlighed til at 
se af Ostkysten, nemlig fra Sydspidsen til 62°, er den langt 
fattigere paa Planter end Vestkysten, hvilket liar sine gode 
Gninde, idet den sterste Del af Kysten er daekket med evige 
Sne- og Ismasser. Den ringe Vegetation, som man bemaerker 
paa de enkelte Sleder, hvor Isdaekket er borte , er fiildkommen 
den samme, som den i Jiilianehaabs Distrikt eller i den Iste 



^) Nathorst opferer S. 36 i «Nordvestra Gronland- 88 Arter som fundne 
nord for Melville Bay. Jeg har udeladt Pedicularis Kanei, Ranunculus 
"Sabinei af finis* og Carex dioica som for usikre, men efter Kane tilfejet 
Loiseleuria iirocumhens, Salix glauca og Beiula nana. 



159 

Zone at' Vestkysten... At 0stkyslen vil vise gig at have mange 
flere Planter, fremgaar imidlerlid af de efterMgende statistiske 
SammenstiilingerM. 

II. Om de l'oraudiiug«r I Artshestaiideii, der foregaa fra Baelte 
til Baelte, opiyse feigende Tal os: 




Vestkysten : 





Ostkysten : 



VII 

S — 65 



VIII 
S4-M — 126 



Tallene i Raekken i betegne feigende: naar Baeltet A sammen- 
lignes med Baeltet B, finder jeg, at A har 119 Arter, som ikke 
findes i B, og B blot 10, som ikke findes i A; Totalantallet af 
Arter, der findes i begge Baelter er 295. B's Ejendommelighed 
bliver == c. Vn. 

Paa samme Maade betegne Raekken II , at B blot har 9 
Arter, som ikke findes i G, men dette Baelte ikke mindre end 
97 , som ikke findes i B. B's Ejendommelighed kan ogsaa her 
udtrykkes ved V/n. Baeltet B viser sig altsaa alter her at vaere 
ikke blot fattigt, men tillige lidet ejendommeligt. 

Om vi derimod sammenligne Sydgrenland (A) med Sukker- 
topbaellet C (64 — 67°), ville de vise stor Forskjel i Hensyn til 
Artsbestanden ; begge ere rige, som ovenfor vist, og til sammen- 
lagte de to rigeste |338 Arter), men A har 73 ejendommelige 
at stille op mod 55 i C. 



>) Nsermere om 0slkysteii se Eberlin I.e. 



160 



En iignende stor Forandring foregaar der med Artssammen- 
saetningen, naar vi gaa fra C lil I), som HI viser; tilsammen 
have de 307 Arter, men heraf er 66 ejendommelige for C og 
48 for D. 

Raekkerne IV og V vise overensstemmende Ejendommelig- 
hed: en betydelig Nedgang i Antallet af ejendommelige Arter ved 
Overgang fra et sydligere til et nordligere Baelte. IVledens i IV 
Diskobaeltet (D) sammenlignet med Upernivikbaeltet (E) bar 114 
ejendommelige at stille op imod blot 3 i dette , bar Upernik- 
baeltet sammenlignet med Melvillebugtens 51 mod 5. Der er 
altsaa ber en ringe Antydning af en Fremgang i Henseende til 
ejendommelige Arter, men denne bliver endnu staerkere i Nord- 
vestgr^nland (Baeltet G), tbi sammenlignet med F bar dette sidste 
kun 24 ejendommelige over for et saa stort Tal som 16 i GM- 

Resultatet er altsaa: i Sydgronland en rig og ejen- 
dommelig Flora; i Fiskernaesbaeltet en fattig og yderst lidt ejen- 
dommelig; i Straekningen 64 — 71° Rigdom og mange ejen- 
dommelige Arter; derpaa Fattigdom og JVIangel paa Ejendomme- 
ligbed, indtil denne, til Trods for den stigende Fattigdom (der 
udlrykkes bl. a. ved Totalsummerne af Arterne og ved Procent- 
tallet, S. 157), alter voxer i Nordve stgrenland. 

0stkysten frembyder et ejendommeligt Trsk, nemlig den 
store Forskjel i Artssammensaetningen af det sydligste, regnet 
op til 66°, og det nordestiige, regnet fra 70°. Forskjelligbeden 
er ber saa stor (126 mod 50), at den naeppe er naturlig, 
men i alt Fald til Dels maa bero paa den meget ufuldstaendige 
Unders0gelse. 



^) Dette maa naturligvis ikke forstaas saaledes at disse 16 nye i Nordvest- 
gronland ere absolut nye for Grenland, ligesom Meningen jo heller ikke 
har vffiret, at de for et hvert enkelt Baelte nye, naar det sammenlignedes 
med et andet, vare absolut nye og ikke forekom i andre Baelter. Men 
med Hensyn til Nordvestgrenland er Forholdet dog saaledes, at 6 af 
de 16 kun findes i dette Baelte. 



161 



III. Unders0ges, hvor mange Arter der ere absolut 
ejendommelige for de enkelte Baelter, faas felgende 
Resultater: 

Vestgrenland (taget for sig): 



A 

59 ») 



B 

2>) 



Ostgreniand itaget for sig): 



s 

53 



N 
50 



Alter her viser sig Sydgronlands store Ejendommelighed 
og Rigdom, Fisiiernaesbaeltets Fattigdom, Sukkertopbaeltets og 
Diskobaeltets Rigdom og Kjendommelighed, de derpaa felgende 
Baelters Armod og lidet ejendommelige Artsbestand, indtil Nord- 
vestgronland alter viser en foreget Ejendommelighed. Forskjeilig*- 
hederne mellem 0slkystens Baelter ere saa store, at de maa 
vaere kunstige o: de hero paa mangelfuld Undersegelse. 

Tages Grenlandsomethele, er Forholdet mellem de 
enkelte Baelter felgende i Henseende til absolut ejendomme- 
lige Arter: 



Sammenholdes delte med de for de to Kysler givne Tal, 
fremkommer der ret inleressante Resultater; Sydgrenland bar af 
alle Baelter paa Vestkysten mistet flest, nemlig 15 Arter eller V4 
(0,26), d. e. saamange af de 59 gaa om paa Ostkysten; de fel- 
gende rigere Vestkyst-Baelter miste noget mindre, nemlig 3 Arter 
hver, del vil sige c. Vs (C 0,2 og D 0,18). Fra de meget fattige 
Baelter B, E og F bortses. Nordvestgrenland beholder 4 af sine 6. 



M Se s. 14— 15. 

') Catabrosa aquatxca, Poa ^ipes. 

XII. 



162 



For 0stkystens Vedkommende er Resultatet langt felellgere. 
Syd0st-Gr0nland mister alle sine, har altsaa ikke en eneste 
absolut ejendommelig Art; Kristian d. 9des Land beholder blot 
1 Art [Campanula groenlandica) ^ men Nordast-Grenland be- 
holder dog 5 af sine 50. 

Af alle ti Baelter har altsaa Sydgr0nland de fleste ejen- 
dommelige Arter og 3 — 4 Gange saa mange som de to 
andre Baelter, der fremvise nogen st0rre Ejendommelighed, 
Straekningen 64— 71°n. B. Alle andre Baslter ere fattige paa 
egne Arter, men en kjendelig Tilvaext vise dog Nordvest- 
og Nord0st-Gr0nland , det allernordligste. Om Betydningen 
af disse Ejendommeligheder i plantegeografisk Henseende vil 
naeste Tabel oplyse os (se IV). 

IV. Rigdom i Henseende til estlige og vestllge Typer. I et 

hvert Baelte kan Floraen opl0ses i 4 Typegrupper: de vestlige 
Typer, de 0stlige, de for 0st og Vest faelles og de blot i Gr0n- 
land forefundne Arter. Det har sin meget store Interesse at 
sammenligne Gronlands Flora med andre nordiske Landes, navn- 
lig overfor de i naeste Afsnit behandlede Sp0rgsmaal om dens 
Oprindelse. Til vestlige Typer henregner jeg de Arter, som for- 
uden i Gr0nland ere fundne alene i Amerika eller i Amerika og 
Asien, f. Ex. Anemone Ricliardsoni^ Ooptis trifolia o. s. v. , selv 
om de ogsaa findes paa Spitzbergen; jeg medregner dertil i det 
hele de Arter, hvis Hjem maa S0ges i vestlig Retning snarere 
end i Europa. Under 0stlige Typer sammenfatter jeg alle do 
Arter, der findes foruden i Gr0nland alene i Europa, om det 
saa blot er paa Island eller i Alperne, eller i Europa og Vest- 
sibirien eller paa Novaja Semlja. Til de for Vest og 0st faelles 
Typer regner jeg f. Ex. Streptopus og Alnus^ da de i Europa 
ere fundne paa de sydlige Bjaerge. 

Naar jeg her altsaa regner Spitzbergen som anf0rt, faar jeg 
f0lgende Tal for de enkelte Baelter: 



163 



Vestkyslen: 



Baelle. 



A (—62°) . . . 
B (62—64°) . 
C (64—67°) . 
D (67—71°) . 
E-f F (71—76^ 
G (76—83°) . 



OB *^ 



i> 



as 



a ; M 



18 
12 
24 
27 
16 
13 



! 30 


230 


7 


! 12 


151 


1 


21 


214 


5 


1 20 


199 


6 


7 
1 


123 

74 


— 



0stkysten : 



S (60—64°) 
M (64—66°) 

N 170—75°) 



7 


17 


132 


4 


— 


6 


104 


1 


.0 


4 


85 


1 



285 
176 
264 
252 

146 
88 



160 
111 
100 



Resultatet heraf er: 

Vestkysten: i Sydgrenland (A) er der naesten 2 Gange 
saa mange astlige som vestlige Typer, eg flest endemiske (se 
S. 15). I Fiskernaesbaeltet, (B), er Tallet af vestlige eg estlige 
Former lige; derefter ere de vestlige Former stadig i Overvaegt 
over de osllige, ferst lidt (24:21), saa st«rkere (27:20) og 
staerkere (16 : 7), indtil de i det nordligste blive aldeles over- 
vaeldende (13:1). De nordligste to Baelter have ingen endemiske 
Arter. 

Ostkystens Forhold er ikke mindre markeligt. Medens 
der i det sydlige Baelte (S) er 2 — 3 Gange saa mange estlige som 
vestlige Typer (7 vestl. mod 17 estl.), er der i det mellemste (M), 
paa det Sted hvor Grenland er Europa naermesl, slet ingen 
vestlige mod 6 estlige, men derpaa i Nordest-Grenland 2—3 
Gange saa mange vestlige som estlige (10:4). Paabegge 
Kyster ere de vestlige Typer altsaa staerkt reprae- 
senterede i det allernordligs te. Jeg kan ikke andet 
end heri at se en Stette for den Formodning, at Gren- 

ir 



164 



land er en 0, hvis Nordende omtrent er ved 83 — 84° n. B., 
saa at Plantevandringer og Plantebytninger nnellem de to Kyster 
blive forholdsvist lelte; muligvis have Yandringer af Moskusoxer 
og andre Dyr og maaske Eskimoernes med^) bidraget til at 
bringe Lighed tilveje mellem de to Floraer. 

I hele Grenland findes der efter rnin Beregning 386 sikre 
Karplanter; af disse ere 40 vestiige, 44 estlige Typer og 15 
endemiske. 

Skj0nt jeg ved den Maade, paa hvilken jeg, som anfort, 
bar gjort Skjel mellem 0stlige og vestiige Typer, snarest bar 
forurettet det vestiige Element, netop af Hensyn til den moderne 
Hypothese om en stor Plantevandring fra Europa til Grenland 
efter Istiden, vil maaske dog en eller anden mene, at jeg til astlige 
Typer biirde regne ogsaa de paa Spilzbergen forekommende, fordi 
bin Hypothese gaar ud fra, at direkte Indvandring fra Spilzbergen 
til Grenland ikke bar kunnet finde Sted over Land, men vel 
fra Spitzbergen til Europa, og Spilzbergen altsaa snarest skulde 
slutte sig til denne Verdensdel. Af Hensyn hertil, og da det 
jo dog i alt Paid er af Interesse at se, hvormange af de som 
amerikanske eller vestiige Type betegnede Arter, der maa gaa 
ud, naar Spitzbergen betragtes som esllig, har jeg undersegt 
hvor stort dette Antal er, og jeg har fundet blot 5. Drages 
dette Tal fra de vestiige Typers, idet disse Arter altsaa betragtes 
som faelles for Vest og 0st, faas: 35 vestiige mod 44 estlige 
Typer; Differensen bliver altsaa: 9. Men hvad har en Dififerens 
paa 9 Arter at sige over for en Flora paa hen imod 400, isaer 
naar man tager Hensyn til, at en nejere Undersegelse af Nord- 
amerika aldeles sikkert vil bidrage til at udjaevne den-)! Og 



^) Se p. Eberlin i Geograf.- Tidsskr. 1887 om Sundet mellem Vest- og 
Ostgrenhind. 

") Det Materiale, hvorpaa jeg stetter mine OpgjBieiser, vil som anfert blive 
publiceret i naturhistorisk Forenings •Videnskabelige Meddelelser* for 
1887. Da jeg eiidnu mangier nogle plantegeografiske Oplysninger om 
en Del Alter, vil mulig et og andet Tal aendres lidt, men Hovedsagen vil 
silvkert blive uforandret. 



165. 

selv om man yderligere vilde forage de estlige Typers Aotal 
med f. Kx. Leontodon og Hieracium murorum, der muligen ere 
indvandrede i Nordamerika, kan der paa den anden Side naevnes 
Planter, som med storre Ret henferes til de vestlige «'nd til de 
estlige eller faelles Typer, f. Ex. Platanthera hyperhorea (udbredt 
fra det vestlige Amerika gjennem Gronland til Island), Pleuropogan 
Sabinei^ CastiUeja pallida^ Carex scirpoidea, C. ursina. Strep- 
topus amplexifolius^ Arctophila effusa, Draba craaaifolia o. s. v. 
Med andre Ord: det estlige og det vestlig.e Element i 
Grenlands Flora holde hinanden alligevel omlrent i 
Ligevaegt — et Resultat, der stemmer med Professor Langes 
i 1880 udtalte \i. Dette er saa meget maerkeligere , som det 
Materiale, der den Gang stod til Professor Langes Raadighed, 
siden den Tid bar undergaaet store Forandringer, dels derved, 
at Grenlands Flora er bleven beriget, dels ved at Arter ere op- 
dagede i Europa, der forben blot kjendtes fra Grenland-) og 
vestlige Egne, men dels og issBr derved, at Nordamerikas Flora 
er bleven os bedre bekjendl; navniig skylder jeg Prof. Macoun 
Tak for en Raekke Opiysninger om Nord- Amerikas Flora, der 
ere af sterste Betydning for Sammenligningen mellem Floraerne. 
Af de i Langes 3dje Liste (grenlandske Arter, der Andes i 
Skandinavien eller Nordrusland, men mangle i Amerika) op- 
regnede 57 Arter, f. Ex., maa ikke mindre end nogle og tyve 
udgaa, fordi de nu vides at voxe i Nord- Amerika; men paa den 
anden Side er der ogsaa foregaaet lignende Forandringer med 
bans andre Lister iNr. 4— 7 : grenlandske Planter, som Andes 
i Nord-Amerika, men ikke ere fundne i Skandinavien o. s. v.| 
hvoraf det kommer, at det endelige Resultat til Trods for vore 



M "Man ter derfor naeppe formulere dette Spergsmaal anderledes paa vore 
Kundskabers mivaerende Standpunkt end. at Grenlaiids Vegetation 
har omtrent llge stor Lighed med Amerika og del arktiske 
Europa*. (Botan. Tidsskrift, Bd. 12). 

3) K. Ex. Carex holostoma, om hvilken Foratmester Norman har meddelt 
mig, at hail har fundet den paa 3 Indbyrdes langl fra hverandre llggende 
Lokaliieter i dtt arkliske .Norge. 



166 



forskjellige Talsterrelser dog bliver det samme for os begge. 
Tallet af de endemiske Arter er ogsaa blevet forandret ; af L a n g e s 
19 Arter udgaa ikke mindre end 10, af hvilke de fleste ere 
fundne i Amerika, andre i estlige Egne. Men andre Arter ere 
til Gjengjaeld tilkomme, saa at Tallet nu er 15. Naar Grenland 
og isaer britisk Nordamerika blive endnu bedre undersagte, ville 
Forskjellighederne i evrigt sikkert udjajvnes mere. 

Et andet af Langes Resultater var det, at «de ameri- 
kanske Typer isaer ere overvejende i det nordlige, de europaeiske 
i det sydlige». Som man ser, stemmer mit Hesultat ganske 
med bans. For Tiden se vi altsaa, at Floraen paa begge Gren- 
lands Kyster bar flest vestlige Typer i det nordlige , paa Vest- 
kysten 13 vestlige mod 1 estlig, paa 0stkysten 10 vestlige mod 
4 0stlige, allsaa et forboldsvis sterre estligt Element paa den 
ostlige Kyst. Lad os nu endog fradrage de spitzbergenske 
Former, saa bliver det alligevel en paafaldende JVlaengde vestlige 
Typer, som Nord-Grenland bar (9 vestl. : 1 ostl. i Nordvest- 
grenland , 6 vestl. : 4 0stl. i Nordwstgronland), og denne Det af 
Gr0nland maa siges at bave et arktisk-amerikansk Praeg, 
naermest stemmende med Grinnell LandM. 

V. I oven naevnte Afbandling bar Lange endvidere givet en 
Oversigt over Plante-Familiernes Forbold til bverandre efter 
deres Artsantal. Det nuvaerende Forbold findes udtrykt i hos- 
staaende Liste over Grenlands 63 Familier af Karplanter. 

Med denne Liste stemmer i det bele Langes; ogsaa efter 
denne er Kaekkefolgen af de 6 storste Familier den samme, 
nemlig: \) Cyperacece; 2) Graminece] ?>) Caryophyllacece'^ A) Cru- 
ciferce; 5) Compositce] 6) Rosacece. De derpaa feigende fern, 
der staa binanden saa naer i Antal, bytte lidt om, og saa ind- 
traeder alter Lighed. 

I sit Vaerk «Die Vegetation der Erde» angiver Grisebach 



^) Se ogsaa Hooker i Nares-Exped. II, 310. 



16: 



Cypeniceae , . . 
Gramineae . . . 
CaryophyUaceae 
Cruciferae . . . 
Compositae . . . 
Rosaceae . . . . 

Filices 

Ranunculacese . 
Scrophulariaceae 
Juncaceae . . .. 
Saxifragaceae . . 
Ericaceae . . . . 
Oenotheraceae . 
Polygonaceae . . 
Gentianacea- . . 
Salicaceae . . : 
Betulaceae . . . 
Lycopodlaceae . 
Fluviales .... 
Orchideae .... 
Pyrolaceae . . . 
Equisetaceatj . . 
Halorrhageae . . 
Callitrichacpa- . 
Violaceae .... 
Crassulaceae . . 
Vacciniaceae . . 



3 ~ 

o 2 



56 
50 
28 

22 
18 
15 
14 



14,51 
12,95 
7,26 

5,70 
4,66 
3,88 
3,60 



" 


" 


It 


II 


12 


3,11 


10 


2,51 


7 


1,81 


« 


II 


6 


1,55 


fi 


II 



1,30 

II 
1,04 

II 
0,78 



Campanuiaceae .... 

Papilionaceae 

Umbellatae 

Piantagineae 

Primulaceae 

Lentibalarlaceae .... 

Rubiaceae 

Pomaceae 

Geraniaceae 

Empetraceae 

Portulacaceae 

Parnassiaceae 

Papaveraceae 

Cornaceae 

Plumbaginaceap 

Polemoniaceae 

Boragineae 

Labiatae 

Dlapensiaceae 

Caprifoliacpfe 

Typhaceae 

Jnncagineae 

Colchicacea- 

Convallariaceffi 

Coniferaf 

Isoetaceae 

Kamllier 53. Arter 



0^2 



0^ 



386 



Familiernes Raekkefelge for hele den arkliske Flora at vare: 
Cyperacece, Oraminece^ Cruciferce^ Caryophyllacece^ Ranunculacece, 
Rosacece^ SaxifragacecB ^ Ericacece og ComposttcB med de Pro- 
centtal, der ses af Kolonne IX i omstaaende Tabel. — 
Sammenholde vi Grenlands Flora hermed, finde vi et hejere 
Procenttal for Cyperaceer, Gramineer og kurvblomslrede, men 



68 



et lavere for Ranunculaceer, Saxifragaceer og Ericaceer. Saa- 
ledes for hele Grenlands Flora; for dens enkelte Dele stiller 
Forholdet sig lidt anderiedes, saaledes som det ved naermere 



Cyperaceae ... 
Gramineae . . . 
Caiyophyllaceae 
Crucifer« .... 
Compositae ... 
Rosaceae .... 

Filices 

Ranunculaceae . 
Scrophulariaceae 
Juncaceae .... 
Saxifragaceae . . 
Ericaceae .... 
Salicaceae .... 
Papilionaceae . . 



14,5 

12,9 
7,2 
7,2 
5,7 
4,6 
3,9 



3,6 
3,1 
2,5 
1.5 
0.5 



III 



15 

11,3 
7 
5 
6 

3,5 
4.6 

2,4 
3,5 
4,2 
2,8 
2,1 

1,4 
0,7 



IV 



VI 



VII 



VIII IX 



13,9 


9,7 


10.1 


112 


12 


19 5 


15,7 


9,8 


10,7 


9,7 


7,1 


5,4 


9,5 


12,2 


10,7 


5,7 


4,4 


4,1 


7,1 


4,6 


5,7 


5,7 


3,5 


4,1 


3,8 


1,6 


0,5 


4,1 


4.4 


6,5 


5,1 


2,7 1 


4,4 


1,6 


2,0 


3,3 1 


3,8 


4,8 


3,0 


4.9 1 


6.3 


8,9 


5,1 


3,0 i 


4,4 


1,6 





2,7 ; 


4,2 


1.6 


6.6 


1,9 





« 


2.0 


1,9 



1185 

9,61 
6.3 

4,3 

7,98 
4.5 
2^3 
4,3 
3,9 
3 
2 
3 

3,7 
2.8 



6,6 
12.7 

6,4 

10.9 

8,2 

4,4 

7,1 

4,4 

2,7- 
7,7 
2,7 

4,9 
3.8 



10 
10 

7 
8 
4 
6 



I, Hele GreDland. II, Sydgr0nlan(l. Ill, Vestgrenland n f. 71°. iV, Spitz- 
bergen. V, Novaja Zemija VI, Island. VII, 0st-Lapland (Fellman)^). VIII, Si- 
biriens Nordkyst^. IX, Arktiske Omraade (Grisebach). 

Betragtning fremgaar af hosstaaende label, der er grundet 
paa Opgivelser hos Nathorst (IV), Th. Holm (V), Gren- 
lund (VI), Fellman (VII), Kjellman (VIII) og Grisebach 
{IX) foruden Lange (I — III)^). Hvad der udmaerker Grenlands 
Vestkyst n. f. 71° sammenlignet med Sydgronland, er isaer: Til- 
bagegang i Cyperacece (der dog endnu ere meget talrige sam- 
menlignet med andre arktiske Lande), Compositce og Filices, men 
Fremgang i Caryophyllacece, Gruciferce, Rosacece, Saxifragacece, 



^) Karkryptogamerne ere fraregnede. 

') Procentforholdet bar jeg naesten i alle Tilfaelde selv maattet beregne; 
kun Fellman angiver det selv. Men uden dette kan man naturligvis 
ikke faa nogen exakt Sammenligning mellem forskjellige Floraer. 



169 

Ericacece^ Salicacece o. fl. andre Familier, der allsaa here til de 
haardfereste. I Virkeiigheden er der ikke mindre end 30 Fa- 
milier faerre i Nordvestgrenland end i Sydgrenland. En 
Sammenligning med Grisebachs Normal-Lisle for Polarlandene 
|IX) viser, at Nordgrenland naermer sig mere til denne end 
Sydgrenland. 

Sammenlignes Grenland med de anforte andre nordlige 
Lande, finder jeg, at det i Henseende til Familiernes Rakke- 
felge og Procenttal mest stemmer med Island og Lapland, og 
for saa vidt som der i delte er udtrykt nogen Overensslemmelse 
i Naturforhold i det hele, skulde det allsaa stemme bedsl med 
disse. Navnlig stemme de i det store Cyperace- d. e. naermest 
Carex'kni'd], medens Klinggraff angiver, at Gramineerne over- 
alt i Polarzonen ere den arlrigeste Familie. 

Afvigelserne ses les af Tabellen; de angaa navnlig kors- 
blomstrede, kurvblomstrede, Bregner, Saxifrager, File og sBrte- 
blomstrede, for Laplands Vedkommende Kanunculaceer, og Jun- 
caceer for Islands. Det synes at vaere isaer Nordgrenland (Vest- 
kysten nord for 7F^), som der er Lighed med. 

Spitzbergen og Novaja Zemija iidmaerke sig blandt de aodre 
arktiske Egne ved deres Rigdom paa Graesarter; ogsaa paa 
Sibiriens Nordkyst staa disse overst. Omvendt ere disse tre 
Lande og isaer, hvad Kjellman allerede bar paapeget, Sibirien 
maerkvjerdig fattig paa Cyperaceer. For denne Familie synes 
Slraekningen Nord-Europa— Grenland at vaere el forjaetlet Land, 
et Centrum, fra hvilket nye Arler af SlaBglen Carex udgaa 
(Cyperaceerne udgjere c. V? af alle Grenlands Karplanter, og af 
dels 15 endemiske After er der ikke mindre end 6 Carex-Xrier). 



X. Tegetationens Historie. 

Til sidst vil jeg berere et indviklet Spergsmaal, hvis Be- 
svarelse kraever Belysning fra meget forskjellige Sider, nemiig 
delte: Hvorfra fik Grenland sin nuvaerende Flora? 



170 



Hermed er det dog ingenlunde min Uensigt al gaa tilbage 
til Tidsrum, der ligge laenge for Istiden og f. Ex. naermere drefte 
Hypotheserne om Polarplanternes Oprindelse i det heie, om Polar- 
landene som Udgangspunkter for visse Arter eller visse Floraer 
0. 1. Idet jeg tager mit Udgangspunkt fra Istidens Begyndelse, 
gaar jeg ud fra den Antagelse, at der fer denne existerede en 
Laviands- og en Bjaergflora i Granland, og at den ferste var 
naermest beslaegtet med den af Heer efter de fossile Rester 
skildrede Tertiaerflora^), medens den sidste sikkert tor saettes 
lig med eller i alt Fald betragtes som det umiddelbart forud- 
gaaende Udviklingstrin af den nuvaerende Polarflora. Thi lige- 
som vi nu under alle Breddegrader finde en Forskjel mellem 
Plantevaexten i forskjellige Bjaerghejder, og finde, at der paa 
alle tilstraekkelig hoje Bjaerge, selv under iEkvator, bar ud- 
dannet sig en alpin P'lora, saaledes maa man nodvendigvis 
ogsaa antage, at der i Polarlandene kom et Tidspunkt, da 
en alpin Flora fremkom paa deres Bjaerge ; en saadan maa have 
existeret i Grenland i alt Fald lige for Istiden , men sandsyn- 
ligvis endnu meget tidligere. Intet Polarland frembyder vel saa 
gunstige Vilkaar for denne alpine Floras Tilbliven som netop 
Gronland med sine store Bjaerghejder og med sin store Udstraek- 
ning i Nord — Syd , hvori intet andet hojnordisk Land overgaar 
det; jeg maa endog antage, at Gronland derfor i hojere Grad 
end alle de andre, maa betragtes som Polarfloraens iModerland. 

Hvordan gik det nu denne Grenlands Flora, da 
Istiden (eller Istiderne) begyndte? Svaret kan kun lyde: 
den maatte nodvendigvis fortraenges, udryddes af Kulden og 
Isen, i alt Fald delvis. Hvad den tertiaere Laviands flora 
angaar, er det jo bekjendt, at den belt fortraengtes fra Gren- 
land, og at dens Rester nu findes i visse Dele af Nord-Amerika 
(INy England, Ny \ersey, Rocky Mountains o. s. v.) og vel ogsaa 



') Meddelelser om Grenland, Hefte V. Heri behandles ogsaa Sporgsmaalet 
om Polarlandene som Udgangspunkter for Floraer, der straaleformig ere 
vandrede Syd paa efter forskjellige Meridianer. 



171 

Europa og AsienM- Alpefloraen rykkede nalurligvis ferst ned 
fra Bjaergtoppene og blev til Dels (^n Lavlandsflora, men blev 
nil ogsaa den til sidst belt udryddet? Blev Grenland en plante- 
tom Is- og Sneerken, saadan som dels store Indre er endnu 
den Dag i Dag? Dette er der naeppe nogen, der bar paastaaet, 
men om JVlaengden af Planter, der bleve tilbage, ere Videnskabs- 
maendene ingenlunde af samme Mening. Jeg finder f. Ex. felgende 
Udtalelser, dels saerlig om Grenland, dels om andre ligoeude 
Lande, for hvis Vedkommende det samme Spergsmaal rejser sig. 
Engler tror, at visse gamle Glacialplanter i Hejnorden overlevede 
Istiden og forklarer deraf f. Ex. Forekomsten af endemiske Polar- 
arter, saasom Dupontia Fisheri^ Pleuropogon Sabinei og nogle 
andre 2); den sidste fandtes i Grenland ferste Gang 1883 af Nat- 
horst (ved Kap York), den synes ikke at vaere sjaslden ved Baffins- 
bays og Davis Straits Vestkyst, og er for evrigt blot kjendt fra Mel- 
ville-0en, Sibiriens Nordkyst og det nordestlige Europa. Denne 
Art skulde altsaa vaere en urgammel Polarplante med cirkum- 
polaer og forhen mere almindelig IJdbredning; men blot paa 
nogle faa Punkter skulde den have overlevet Istiden. Nathorst 
udtaler som sin iVlening, at «inga eller belt fa vaxter» under 
denne kunde holde ud i Grenland, og ligeledes antager ban, at 
blot et ringe Antal Planter boldt sig paa Spitzbergen, saa at 
dennes Flora maa vaere indvandret after Istiden fra den gamle 
Verden^). BIytt mener, at nogle af de baardfereste Arter 
overlevede Istiden paa Norges Nunaiakker, men at Skandinaviens 
Hora i sin Helhed er indvandret efter denne*). 



') Heer skriver: •Vi maa gaa 20 — 25 Breddegrader Isengere mod Syd for 
i Europa, Nordamerika og Asien at traeffe en lignende Planteverdeo. 
Men her traelfe vi naesten aile det tertiaere Grenlaods Slaegler. skjent 
ganske vist gjennemgaaende i andre, men dog til Dels nsrbeslagtede 
Arter» (Meddelelser om Grenland, V, Hefte, S. 183. 

') •Versuoh einer Entwicklungsgeschichte o.s v • 1, 146. 

») Sp. Karlv. S. 73—75; Botan. Centraibl. 19, S. 18; Polarforsknlngens Bldrag. 

♦) Englers Jahrb. II, 7, 46. BIytt anferer som Stette herfor, at Skandi- 
navien ikke bar en eneste Art, der ikke Andes i andre Lande. Delle 
beviser efter min Meninc ikke det ringeste. da Floraen jo godt havde 



172 



Andre Naturforskere ere tilbejelige til at antage, at mange 
Polarplanter overlevede Istiden i deres Hjemstavn, f. Ex. Heer. 
Han bar udtalt, at uder Grundstock fur die arktische Flora* holdt 
sig der under Istiden M, og for Schweiz's Vedkommende, at 
dets 337 Sneregions-Planler ievede der ogsaa ozur Zeit der 
grossten Gletscherentwickelung», saa at de af Isen fremskydende 
Kiipper heller ikke den Gang nianglede et Blomstersmykke. Det 
anses jo endog af forskjellige for rimeligt, at Istiden ikke var 
saa forskraikkelig kold ; John liall f. Ex. er efter et Par Aar- 
tiers plantegeografiske Studier kommen til det Resultat, at 
Istidens eneste Virkning i Alperne var at saenke Vegelations- 
baelterne 1000—2000 Eod (4—600 .\Ietr.); det var Nedberens 
Sterrelse i Forbindelse med en vis — «for evrigt ringe» — 
Sainkning af Varmegradeh, der fremkaldte Isbraeernes maegtige 
Vaext paa Nord- Europas Ujaerge. En Maengde Planter maatte 
da godt kunne holde sig endog lige ved Siden af Braeerne. Og 
ligesaa findes der hos Hooker en Udtalelse, der tyder paa en 
lignende Anskuelse for Grenlands Vedkommende; ban mener, 
at mange Arter gik til Grunde, men andre holdt sig i Sydgron- 
land, hvorfra de — uden at have dannet nye Varieteter eller 
Arter — efter Istiden vandrede nord paa'-^). Til dem, der ikke 
antage nogen postglacial Indvandring, synes ogsaa Buchenau 
og Focke at bore^). Endelig udkom just som dette gik i 
Trykken (December 1887) en lille Opsats af Eberlin om 0st- 



kunnet holde sig der og sukcessivt spredt sine muiig nydannede Arter i 
alle Verdens Relninger. 

^) Flora nivalis S. 34. 

') «ln Greenland many species would, as it were, be driven into the sea, 
that is exterminated; and the survivors would be confined to the sou- 
thern portion of the peninsula, and not being there brought into com- 
petition with other types, there could be no selection of better- 
adapted varieties. On the return of heat, these survivors would simply 
travel northwards, unaccompanied by the plants of any other country* 
(Outlines, S. 254). 

*) -Wir finden in Gronland noch die unvermischte Flora der Kiszeit vor». 
(Die zweite deutsche Nordpolfahrt», 2, S. 24 — 25. 



173 



grenlands Planter, hvori han udtaler sig for, at Floraen i det 
hele har holdt sig i Sydgrenland paa isfrit Land; en Del er 
senere indvandret isaer ved MenneskelM- 

Nogle Forfattere antage altsaa, at i det hejeste blot en 
ringe De\ af Grenlands Planter holdt sig i Landet under Utiden, 
den evrige sterre Del maa da vaere indvandret efter denne 
og specieit fra Europa. Disse Forfattere ere netop dem, som 
i nyeste Tid have syslet mest med den arktiske Vegetations Hi- 
storie og saerlig den store Plantevandring til Grenland oTer Land 
fra Europa, og deres Anskuelser synes paa Vej til at blive al- 
mindeligere; de vigtigste af dem ere Blytt og Nathorst. 

Denne Hypothese om Indvandring af Grenlands Flora over 
Land fra Europa stetter sig naermest paa to Raekker af Kjends- 
gjerninger, den ene hentet fra Plantegeografien , den anden fra 
Havbundens Dybdeforhold. Dens Udviklingshistorie synes niig 
at have vaeret felgende. 

Allerede 1839 rejste Ch. Martins Spergsmaalet om, hvor- 
fra Oraekken Shellandseerne — Faereerne — Island — Grenland havde 
faaet sin Vegetation ^j. Han viste, at disse 0er danne en 
Kjaede, som i Henseende til Plantevaexten knylter Europa til 
Amerika, og at de maatte have faaet deres Plantevaext ved Van- 
driuger fra begge Sider, dels fra Europa mod Vest, dels fra 
Amerika mod 0st; gaar man fra Shetlandseerne til Island, tage 
de europaeiske Typer af, og omvendt tage de amerikanske Typer 



') Naermere i Archiv f. Malhem. og Naturvidenskab, 12. Bd. — Rberlio 
siger endog: Weg skal haevde som et subjektivt starkt indtryk den 
meniDg, at slerste delen af blomsterplanterne i dansk Ostgrenland ere 
levninger af en af det nutidige •vaade* Klima staerkt decimeret syd- 
greolandsk istidsflora*. — Af andre Udtalelser om Istidens Betydning for 
Plantevaextens Idryddelse vil jeg anfere felgeiide. Kj el I man antager, 
at Novaja Semija aldrig har vaeret belt isdaekket, nien under Istideu 
lignede Nutidens Grenland, hvorfor Vegetation holdt sig der (S. 360 I 
• Fauerogamfloran paa Novaja Semija etc*.). Rob. Brown (Campst.) og 
Kingby antage, at der i Istidens England var Toppe, hvor Floraen holdl 
sig; efter Journ. of botany i, 1872, p. 56. 

') Voyages en Scandinavie, en Laponle etc. Bd. II. 



174 



af, naar man gaar fra Vest mod 0st; «mais la migration euro- 
peenne est evidemment predominante'). Martins liar dog 
ingen Tanker om gamle Landforbindelser mellem disse 0er 
iskjent man kan finde dette angivet) ; bans Plantevandringer 
foregaa over Havene ved Stromme, Vinden og Fuglene. 

Efter at Forbes's Theori om Plantevandringer fra INord 
mod Syd som Felge af Istidens Komme (saa vidt jeg veed i 
Forbindelse med Hypotheser om store Landforbindelser mellem 
Atlanterhavets 0er) var bleven mere detailleret udviklet af Dar- 
win M, der endog lader dem straikke sig ud over ^Ekvator og 
ned til den sydlige Halvkugle, blev Gronlands Plantegeografi og 
dels Vegetations Historic i 1860 Gjenstand for en indgaaende 
Behandling af Hooker i bans bekjendte Arbejde : "Outlines 
of tbe distribution of arctic Plants"^). Hans Anskuelser ere 
kortelig folgende: Den arktiske Flora danner et cirkumpolaert 
Belte uden nogen pludselig Afbrydelse («no abrupt break or 
changed undtagen ved Baffinsbays Meridian, hvis to modsatte 
Kyster fremvise en pludselig Overgang («a sudden change-)) fra 
en naisten ren europaeisk Flora paa dens Ostkyst til en Flora 
med staerk Indblanding af amerikanske Planter paa dets Vestkyst. 
Granlands Flora betegnes som naesten udelukkende laplandsk 
med en yderst svag Indblanding af amerikanske og asiatiske 
Typer (« almost exclusively Lapponian, having an extremely slight 
admixture of American or Asiatic types»), og staerkt betones 
det, at skjont Gronland ligger saa gunstigt for Indvandring af 
den amerikanske arktiske Vegetation og saa ugunstigt for Ind- 
vandring fra Europa, frembyder det ringe Overensstemmelse 
(ttlitlle trace of the botanical features") med Amerikas Flora og 
en naesten fuldsttendig Overensstemmelse med Europas («an 
almost absolute identity with those of Europe •>). Disse maerke- 
lige plantegeografiske Resultater forklarer ban saaledes: Darwin 



^) Origin of Species, Kap. XI. 

^) Transactions of the Linnean Society XXIII. 



176 

har Ret i, at den skandinaviske Flora er meget gammel, og at 
den for Istiden var mere ensformig udbredt over Polarzonen 
end nu; endvidere, at den under Istiden blev dreven Syd paa 
under alle Meridianer; efler Istiden vandrede den tilbage, Nord 
paa, men i de store Fastlande var den bleven blandet med 
disses oprindelige Flora, Arter af denne vandrede med, dens 
egne Arter havde til Dels forandret sig under Kampen for Til- 
vaerelsen i de nye Omgivelser, og i Amerika og Asien ttk den 
arktiske Flora derfor et nyt Praeg. I Grenland skete detle Ikke; 
det kunde ikke ske paa Grund af Landets geografiske Beliggen- 
hed, og derfor er Grenlands Flora for det ferste saa ren "skan- 
dinavisk", for det andet saa fattig. I Skandinavien med Lap- 
land bevaredes ligeledes Floraens Karakter og deraf kommer 
Overensstemmelsen med Grenland. 

Jeg kan ikke undlade at fremhajve del urigtige i Hookers og andres 
BetegDclser af Greulands Flora som •skaodinavisk* eller •laplandsk* 
eller at' den hele arkliske Flora som "Scandinavian*, f. Ex. at 'the Scandinavian 
flora is present in every latitude of the globe*; sehans •OuUines* og •Introduct. 
Essai to the Flora of Tasmania.. Ogsaa Blytt har baade tidligere og I allernyeste 
Tid gjentaget deUe: .Even the Greenland flora consists principally of Scandi- 
navian plants* (Skandin Naturforskermede 1886, se Journ. of botany 1887). 
Der er naeppe et eneste Faktum, som beviser, at Skandinavien i hejere Grad 
end f. Ex., Grenland er Moderlandet for den arktiske, cirkumpolaere Flora, der 
danner den faelles Grundmasse af dels og de andre arktiske Landes Flora, og 
allerede Christ har gjort opmaerksum paa det urigtige i Hookers Angivelse, 
at ingen Flora rummer saa stor en Part af de arkUske Arler, som Skandi- 
navien; Hookers egne Lister vise, at iNord- Asien omfatter et sterre Aotal. 
Skulde jeg udpege noget enkell Land af de os hidtil bekjendte Polarlande, 
hvilket jeg naermest maalte taenke mig som Polarplanlernes Hjemstavn (naar 
dette overhovedet er i Hojnorden — Christ, f. Ex., henlsegger det til Hej- 
asiens Bjaerge) — , maaHe det netop, som all naevnt, blive Grenland, hvis 
BjaBrge til Dels ere dannede af lignende urgamle Stene som Norge, men som 
dernsEst baade naar langt lasngere mod Nord og haever sig hejere over Havet 
end Norge, og altsaa tidligere end dette turde have frembudt Betingeiser for 
en arktisk (alpin) Flora. Det retteste er vislnok at anlage, at alle arktiske 
Lande med betydelige Hejder og den nordlige Halvkugles hejeste BjaergkjaBdcr 
(Altaj, Rocky Mountains o. s. v.), have vaeret Dannelsessteder for alpine Arter, 
der derpaa senere have spredt sig til alle SIder og opnaaet en sterre eller 
mindre Udbredning Polen rundt. 

Den Overensslemmelse mellem Plantevaexten paa bin Europa 
og Amerika forbindende 0raekke og i Europa, som all Ch. Mar- 



176 



tins havde opdaget, blev for Fae re ernes Vedkommende stad- 
faestet ved Rostrup, 1870, idet ban viste, at af disses 307 
Blomsterplanter er der blot i det hejeste 5, som mangle i 
Skandinavien, og lige saa frappant er Ligheden mellem Lenbo- 
planterneM, og derpaa for Islands Vedkommende ved G ren- 
in nd: af de 317 for Island sikre Blomsterplanter er der blot 
6 Arter, som ikke Andes i Skandinavien'-^). Heraf synes disse 
0ers europaeiske Karakter at vaere klar: de ere plantegeo- 
grafiske Provinser af Europa. 

Artsantallet paa de naevnte 0er er nu ikke ganske det samme som den 
Gang; isaer for Islands Vedkommende; se Rostrup i Botan, Tidsskrift, 1887, 
Bd. 16. Dog er det plantegeografiske Forhold saa temmelig uforandret, saa 
vidt mine statistiske Opgjerelser hidtil vise. I evrigt giver det ikke i en 
Undersegelse som denne det retle Blik og fuld Klarhed paa Forholdet, naar 
Tallene anfores som her ovenfor (hvad Blytt gjor). Efter min Opgjerelse er 
Forholdet for Faereernes og Islands Floraer omtrent det samme, nemlig 
felgende: Halvparten af alle deres Arter have en meget vidtstrakt Udbredning 
efter Laengdegraden, og deres Hjemstavn vil det vaere vanskeligt at paavise; 
c. V4 findes baade i Amerika og Europa, men en stor Del af disse have 
rimeligviB hjemme i dette sidste Land og ere med Mennesket indvandrede til 
Amerika, og den resterende 'A er europaeiske Typer. Af amerikanske 
Arter har Faereerne slet ingen, Island blot 2. Ore n lands Forhold opfertes 
til Dels ovenfor (S. 164); Vs er faelles for Europa og Amerika, Vn er ostlige 
Typer, Vs — Va vestlige, og Resten er vidt udbredte eller endemiske Arter, naar 
man stiller Sagen gunstigst for det estlige. Rigtigst er det vist at stille Vs 
estllge mod Vs vestlige. Ved en saadan Opstilling kommer ferst det sande 
Forhold til syne. Naermere herom i Naturhistorisk Forenings « Videnskabelige 
Meddel.i., naar jeg har faaet de nedvendige plantegeografiske Oplysninger. 

Imidlertid fremkom der nu ogsaa et andet Moment som 
Grundvold for den nye Vandringshypothese, nemlig vort for- 
bedrede Kjendskab til Dybdeforhold ene mellem 0erne i 
bin Kjaede. Det sidste Tiaars Dybdemaalinger i det nordlige 
Atlanterhav, deriblandt navnlig den norske Nordpolsexpeditions 
1876 — 78 og vore egne med «Ingolf» under Kapit. Mourier 
1879 i Danmarksstraedet^) la?rte os en Raekke interessante Fakta 



M Botanisk Tidskrift, 1870, Bd. 4. 

2) Ibid. 11 R., Bd, 4. 1874. 

3) Geografisk Tidsskrift. Her udtales, at "del nordvesUige Island synes for- 
bundet med Grenlands 0stkyst ved en undersoisk Ryg med hejst 300 
Favnes Vanddybde». 



177 

at kjende, som af MohnM resumeres saaledes: «Det europaBi'ske 
Nordhav er i Dybet fuldkommen adskill fra Atlanterhavets Dyb. 
Kun i de everste 300 Favne kunne disse Have udvexle sine 
Vandmasser. Maerkelig er den ringe Forskjel, der er paa Maxi- 
mumsdybderne i de tre Aabninger mellem begge Have — FaBre- 
Shetland-Renden , Faere-lsland-Flakket, Danmarksstraedet: hen- 
holdsvis 330 — 227 — 319 Favne... Der beheves altsaa blot 
en Haevning af lidt over 300 Favne for at denne underseiske 
Ryg, som saaledes forbinder de nasvnte 0er indbyrdes og raed 
Grenland, skal blive terlagt i hele sin Udslraekning, og Hybden 
mellem Skotland og de nordlige engelske 0er er endnu mindre. 
Disse Forhold blive nu benyttede som Grundlag for en Hypo- 
these om en gammel Landforbindelse mellem Europa og (iren- 
land paa denne Straekning. Lad en Landhaevning foregaa paa 
hele Straekningen , og Planterne kunne over Land vandre fra 
Europa til Grenland. 

Tanken om en Landforbindelse paa den naevnte Straekning 
er i nyere Tid udtalt af Rob. Brown (1880)^) og Geickie 
(1881)^), men del er, saa vidt jeg ved, Blytt, som paa Grund- 
lag af de to Raekker af Kjendsgjerninger (Floraernes Overens- 
stemmelser og den underseiske Ryg) ferst, nemlig 1882, har 
formuleret Hypothesen bestemtere. Blytt tillaegger Vandringer 
over Havene en ringere Retydning, idet ban navniig fremhaever, 
at kun ved en langsom Vandring over sammenhaengende Land- 
straekninger kunne vi taenke os hele Grupper af Arter eller 
Floraer bevarede saa uforandrede, som Tilfaeldet er med islands 



') I8de Bind af •Deii norske Nordhavsexpedilion's* Undersegelser, 1887, S. 6. 

') Jeg skylder P. Eberlin at vaere gjort opmaerksom paa en (Jdtalelse af 
ham i Encyclopaedia britannic«, 9de IJdg., 1880, IX, S. 168: ahe islands 
between Norway and Greenland are remains of a land-brlgde, over 
which the Lapland plants and animals found their way to Greenland*. 

=*) 1 .Praehistoric Europe., London 1881, efter et Citat af Nathorst (Spelsb. 

Karlv.): .The existing floras of Spitzbergen, Greenland, Iceland and Faerde, 

seem to establish the fact of a postglacial land -connection with iNorth- 

west-Europe., dog under en Tid, der skulde yme mildere end Nutlden. 

XII. 12 



178 



og Faereernes; ved tilfaeldige Indvandringer over Havet vilde 
disse derimod lig visse oceanlske 0er, der formenllig aldrig have 
vaeret forbundne nied Fastlande, have faaet en anden Sammen- 
saBlning af Floraen end Moderlandet Kuropa, og navniig vilde 
nye Arter under saadanne Indvandringsforhold vaere opstaaede. 

Idel han end videre anlager, at der for og efter Istiden 
existerede en Landforbindelse mellem Europa og Grenland, der 
senere ved Saenkninger I Jordskorpen og vel ogsaa ved Havets 
nedbrydende Kraft er afbrudt, har han fuldstaendig forklaret 
hine plantegeografiske Overensstemmelser mellem Oraekken Gren- 
land — Island o. s. v. og det europaeiske Pastland; over bin Bro 
kunde Floraen efter Istiden Skridt for Skridt indvandre fra Eu- 
ropa til det af Istiden for Plantevaext vaesentlig blottede Gron- 
land 1). 

Til dem , der ligeledes haevde tidligere Landforbindelsers 
Nodvendighed for at forklare Overensstemmelsen mellem Flo- 
raerne i de nordlige Lande (foruden den her omtalte f. Ex. og- 
saa mellem Spitzbergen og Beeren Eiland paa den ene Side og 
Europa med det nordvestlige Asien paa den anden) og som 
F0lge deraf ogsaa maa antage store postglaciale Niveauforan- 
dringer, herer isaer Nathorst^). Endelig har ogsaa Drude 
varmt sluttet sig til Hypothesen om bin nordvestlige Broforbin- 
delse med Grenland (dog maaske ikke postglacial^). 

At der en Gang, maaske endog i den pliocene Del af 
Tertiaertiden var et stort sammenhaengende Land omkring Polen, 
at Grenland den Gang var landfast med Europa, hvad flere 
(Forbes, Darwin o. a.) antage, vil jeg her hypothetisk antage; 
hvis dette var saaledes, kunde det blandt andet forklare 



') En kortfattet Fremstilling af denne sin Vandringshypothese har han givet 

i Englers Jahibucher, II, 1882. 
2) Spptsbergens Karlvaxter; Polarforskningens Bidrag; o. s. v. 
2) Pflanzengeographische Anhaltspunkte fiir das Bestehen einer Landbriicke 

zwischen Gronland und West- Europa zur Eiszeit (Das Ausland, 1883, 

S. 325). 



179 

de store Overensslemmelser i Plantevaext, som Andes mellem 
Eiiropa og Amerika, ligesom del ogsaa kan Ijene til at for- 
klare, at de samme Snyltesvampe ftndes baade hist og herM. 
Hvad det da drejer sig om, er naermest dette: Naar blev 
Landforbindelsen mellem Europa og Grenland over 
Faer«erne — Island afbrudt? for eller efter Istiden? 

Spergsmaalet om Shetiandseernes, Faerwernes og Islands 
floristiske Forhold til hinanden indbyrdes og til Europa og om 
Muligheden af en fordums Landforbindelse paa denne Slraekning 
af 0raekken, vil jeg her ikke berere videre end alt gjort^i; jeg 
vil her blot holde mig til det os naermest liggende Spergsmaal 
om Gronlands Forhold til sine Nabolande. Jeg betragter da 
Hypothesens to Fundamenter i felgende Orden, farst de geo- 
logiske, derpaa de botaniske. 

Er der Sandsynlighed for en postglacial Land- 
forbindelse mellem Grenland og Island? At Niveau- 
forandringer i Jordskorpen paa indtil en 300 Favne (1800') kunne 
have fundet Sted mellem bine tit naevnte 0er, vil vel ingen 
Geolog bestride Muligheden af, da vi jo med Sikkerhed vide, 
at saadanne, og endnu staerkere, have fundet Sted endog i en 
saa ny Tid som Tertiaertiden; og det er vel ogsaa en Kjends- 
gjerning, at Skandinavien efter Istiden bar baevet sig 600 Fod 
over Havet. Heller ikke vil vel nogen benaegte iMuligheden af, 
at Havet og Luften i Forening kunne have nedbrudt og borlferl 
store Straekninger af en gammel Landforbindelse; vi vide jo dog 
med Sikkerhed, at Faeroerne kun ere en Hob Ruiner, Kester af 
en stor sammenhaengende Hjaergmasse (men dog naeppe af et 
stort Fastland)^), samt at der er den sterste Overensstemmelse 



M Om Snyltesvampeoes Betydning i plantegeografisk Heoseende har Blytt 
gjort nogle intereasante Bemaerkninger. til hviike jeg henviser. (Eoglers 
Jahrbiicber 11, S. 42). 

') Se i Bvrigt i Naturh. Foren. Vldenskab. Meddel. 1887. 

3) Se r. Ex. He) land i Geograf Tidsskrift, 3. Bd., S. 149 etc. 

ir 



180 



mellem Faereernes, Nordvestskotlands og Islands geologiske 
Bygning, saa at en Forbindelse mellem dem vel maa have exi- 
steret i gamle Dage paa en eller anden Maade. Og i alt Fald 
maa det med Hensyn til Muligheden af saa store Omdannelser 
paa Jordens Overflade, som FJypothesen forudsaetter, vaere nok 
at henvise til, at aedruelige Geologer som Nathorst anlage den. 

Men med Hensyn til Landforbindelsen mellem Jsland-Gron- 
land er imidlertid at bemaerke, at en undersoisk Ryg, som den 
der synes at findes mellem Island og Grenlands naermest liggende 
0slkyst (Kristian den 9des Land), og hvis Existens jo anskue- 
liggj0res ved de mange Isbjaerge, der her komme paa Grund, 
vel i og for sig intet beviser med Hensyn til en postglacial 
Landforbindelse. Hvorfor skal denne Ryg, som no skiller Nord- 
Havet fra de sydligere Dele af Alanterhavet, absolut have vaeret 
meget hojere paa de havdaekkede Steder? Kan den ikke lige- 
som enhver anden }3jaergkjaede have sine store Ujaevnheder i 
Hejden fra ferst af, af hvilke nogle aldrig have vaRret over Havet? 
Men hvis saa derlil kommer, at Bjaergdannelsen er aldeles af- 
vigende paa Danmarksstra^dels to modsatte Kyster, bliver hin 
Bro vel endog gjort mindre sandsynlig. Og saaledes er det 
netop her; i Grenland have vi i Felge vore 0stkystexpedi- 
tioners Lndersegelse paa Straekningen op til 66°, allsaa paa den 
Del, med hvilken Broen skulde vaere forbunden, det saedvanlige 
gronlandske Urfjald, medens Islands Bjaerge ere mest af nyere, 
vulkansk Oprindelse, navnlig Basalt. Ferst laengere mod Nord 
i 0slgr0nland traeffes der lignende Dannelser som paa Island, 
(og pletvis paa Grenlands Vestkyst, f. Ex. ved Disko), men 
mellem disse og Island har man et saa dybt Hav, at Tanken 
om en postglacial Landforbindelse der vel nappe kan optages. 

At hin underseiske Bro kan have en hel anden Oprindelse, 
kan man vel heller ikke naegte Muligheden af; hvis f. Ex. New- 
foundlandsbankerne kunne vare opstaaede ved Bundfaldet fra 
smaeltede Isbjaerge, hvad vel almindelig antages, kunde vel ogsaa 
denne Ryg vaere dannet paa samme Maade her i Danmarks- 



181 

straedets smalleste Sted, hvor Polarslremmens Ismasser mede 
Irmingerstremrnens varme Vand. Nordenskiold siger jo 
endog, at Havbunden mellem Island og Grenland er pakket fuld 
af Sten, som Trawlen hvert 0jeblik steder paa, hvilkel jo ogsaa 
peger hen paa Bundfald fra Isbjarge, om del end intet beviser. 

Hvis imidlerlid den af Hooker givne planlegeografiske 
Grundvold for Landvandrings-Hypothesen var rigtig, burde 
man maaske endda laegge nogen Vaegt paa bin Rygs Exislens, 
men dette er den imidlerlid absolul ikke. Hookers Opfallelse 
er omlall ovenfor. Mod dennes Riglighed gjorde Prof. Job. 
Lange Indsigelse allerede for syv Aar siden^). Hans Resultat 
er, som anfert S. 165, al Grenlands Vegetalion bar omlrent lige 
stor Lighed med Amerikas og del arktiske Europas, men al de 
amerikanske Typer ere overvejende I del nordlige (paa Vest- 
kyslen), de europaeiske i del sydlige Grenland. 

Delte Langes Resultat er rkke ubekjendl for Blytt, men 
ban laegger ikke tilberlig Vaegt paa del, og opfatter del urigligt, 
naar han^) siger: ^Gronland besitzl nacb J. Lange 378 Gefass- 
pflanzen, von welcben der grosste Theil als skandinaviscbe 
Arlen bezeichnel werden kann, wabrend nur ungefabr 60 ameri- 
kaniscbe Typen vorstellen, die in Europa feblen* — som om 
de andre 318 Arler vare -skandinaviskew ! Fakliim er, al Lange 
siger: der er i Grenland 67 Arler, som findes i Skandinavien 
eller del nordlige Rusland , men mangle i arklisk Amerika, og 
der er paa den anden Side 60 Arler, som findes I del arktiske 
Amerika, men mangle i Skandinavien eller Rusiands nordligsle 
Dei. Af BIylls Resume ser del ud , som om der i Grenland 
var 60 amerikanske Typer, med^ns bele Reslen, (378 -r- 60 =) 
318 Arler, er «skandinavisk» og ikke findes i Amerika. Jeg bar 
S. 164—65 vist, al efter vort nuvarende Kjenskab lil Floraeme 



>) .Studler til Grenlands Flora. I Botanlsk Tidsskrift, Bd. 12. 
') Englers Jahrb. II, 39. 



182 



er der 40 vestlige, 44 astlige og 15 endemiske Arter, medens 
Resten (287) findes baade est og vest for Grenland. Disse Tal 
ere selvfelgelig ikke absolut exakte, og muligen ville andre drage 
et Antal fra de vestlige, saa at disse komme i lidt mere Mino- 
ritet (som omtalt 1. c. og S. 176). IVlen de ere del i tilstraekkelig 
Grad til at vise, at det er et yderst spinkelt Materiale, man maa 
bygge Bro af — i gunstigste Tilfa;lde af 386 Arter c. 9 flere 
estlige end vestlige, hvilke Hesultat skyldes navnlig Sydgren- 
lands Forhold (se Tabellerne S. 163). Blytt bar derfor heller ikke 
Ret i at slaa Grenland sammen med Island og Faeroerne som 
havende en naesten ren europteisk Flora. 

Nalhorst, som ogsaa holder paa Landvandringen, slulter 
sig til Blytt og betragler det som fastslaaet, at Grenlauds 
Vegetation bar «en ofverraskende mangd europeiska element». 
Han udtaler 1884 (Nordvestra Gronl. S. 36), at «i alia bandelser 
kan man numera icke anse det amerikanska elementet i Gron- 
lands Flora vara sa stor, som af Lange antagits», blandt andet 
fordi en Del af de bos Lange som amerikanske opferte Planter 
i de senere Aar ere blevne bekjendte fra Novaja Semlja og 
Nord-Sibirien. Denne Indvending synes mig at have mindre 
Betydning , for saa vidt disse Arter dog fremdeies vedblive at 
have deres Hjem nairmest i vestlig Retning for Grenland, og 
ikke ere trufne i Europa eller i alt Fald i Skandinavien og 
Europas vestlige Dele, fra hvilke Indvandringen til Grenland 
skulde vaere sket. 'VW Grenland maa de da vaere komne fra 
Amerika (hvis de overhovedet skulle betragtes som Indvandrere 
i Grenland). 

Hermed kunde jeg egentlig slutte, thi naar Landvandrings- 
bypothesen ligesaa lidt bar nog^n sikker Grundvold i Planternes 
Udbredning, som i geologiske Forhold, er den ikke meget vaerd. 
iVIen jeg indremmer, at ikke alle plantegeografiske Forhold alle- 
rede nu ere kjendte, som de ber vajre, for at kunne tjene til 
Grundlag for Sliitninger. Jeg skal naturligvis ikke undlade at 
frembaeve, at alle de nu anferte Data blot gjaelde Blomster- 



183 

planterne, og at hele Floraen heist burde tages med i Betragt- 
ning; men Kryptogamernes Udbredelse er vel endnu alt for lidet 
kjendt til, at Slutninger ter baseres derpaa. Lindsay udtaler, 
at saa vidt vi kunne demme efter de ufuldkomne Kjendsgjer- 
Dinger, synes Grenlands Likenflora naermere beslaegtel med 
Europas end med Amerikas, men han anferer selv, at «no proper 
comparison" kan allerede nu anstilles mellem Grenland og 
arktisk AmerikaM- 

Laenge efter at ovenstaaende var skrevet bar Lektor N. C. 
Kindberg, der i de senere Aar saerlig bar syslet med Nord- 
Amerikas Mosser, foretaget en Sammenslilling af Mosserne i 
delte Land, Gr0nland, Island og ostligere Egne. Resultatet af 
bans Sammenstillinger er, at i Henseende til Mosfloraen er 
Grenland mest overensstemmende med Norges Fjaeldegne, Island 
og Faereerne med Norges og Britanniens Kyster; men det er 
dog blot et « fatal Arter« , som endnu ikke ere blevne fundne 
i Amerika af dem, som tilhere Grenland, Island og FsBreerne-). 

Paa samme Maade vil ogsaa den grenlandske Fauna kunne 
give sine vigtige Bidrag til Spergsmaalet, om Grenland i natur- 
historisk Henseende herer til Amerika eller er blot en europaeisk 
Provins. Rink siger i wDan. Greenl.* S. 424 , at Grenlands 
Fauna vwsenllig er en europaeisk, og ikke en amerikansk. Jeg 
maa dog betvivle Rigtighedeu heraf; den grenlandske Land- 
Fugleverden angives bestemt at have mest Slaegtskab med den 
amerikauske. Land- og Ferskvandsbleddyrene ville kunne give 
mindst lige saa gode Vidnesbyrd som Planlerne^i; efter Etalsraad 
Steenstrup ere Islands og Faereernes Limnaeer estlige Typer, 



') On the Lichennura of Greeolaiid, i Transact. Bot. Soc. Edinb. X; cfr. 
Jones' Manual, 8. 284. 

^) l)a del har sin store plantegeograflske Interesse at faa fold Rfde paa, 
hvilken Hypothese der er den rigllge, vll jeg se at faa Kindbergs Lister 
publicerede ligesom mine egne i den Naturhistoriske Forenings 'VldeD- 
skabelige Meddelelser- for 1887 til Brug for dem, der viii«i syile med 
dette SpergSDiaal. 

») Se min Instrnx. Meddel om Grenl. VIII, S. 176. 



184 



Limnofyserne i Granland udelukkende amerikanske Typer^. I 

sin Afhandling om den islandske Mus anferer Steenstrup^), 

at [sland i Nutiden ikke har noget vestligt (amerikansk) , men 

et 0Stligt Praeg. 

Han siger S. 64: tDermed falder altsaa enhver som heist Grund bort til 
at anlsegge Island paa Kortet som herende i Nutiden ind under Lemlernes 
Udbredningskreds, og ligesaa til at fere Island ind under de Lande, der i 
Nutiden have en vestlig, mere amerikansk Landpaltedyrfauna, thi saa fremt 
den islandske Mus tor betragtes som et forud for Befolkningen til 0en an- 
kommet Landpattedyr, da kan der formentlig ikke vaere Skygge af Tvivl om, 
at den ligesdm Helix-Arterne og de evrige Land- og Fersksvandssnegle samt 
den hele Landflora peger imod Skandinavien og Lapland — og fjerner 0en 
fra Greniand og Nordamerika. Lige over for delte estlige Praeg i Nutidens 
Flora og Fauna paa Island var det ogsaa, at det bestemt udtalte vest lige 
eller amerikanske Pr<Eg , som jeg fandt i den islandske tertiaere Plante- 
verden i Surturbranden, allerede den Gang blev mig saa paafaldende* '). 

Forhaabentlig ville vore Zoologer snart tags omfattende fat 
paa GrenJands Zoogeografi, hvilket i mere end en Henseende 
vil vaere af stor Betydning. 

Fra en anden Side kan der imidlertid kastes Lys over den 
granlandske Floras Forhold til den islandske og derigjennem til 
den europaeiske, nemlig fra selve Vegetationen. 

Den iMethode, som almindelig har vaeret anvendt til at be- 
domme Polarlandenes (og for ovrigt ogsaa andre Landes) naermere 
og fjaernere indbyrdes Slajgtskab i naturhistorisk Henseende, som 
har vaeret anvendt af Ch. Martins, af Hooker i bans « Out- 
lines »>, af Nathorst, Kj ellman, Lange o. a., og som jeg og- 
saa har anvendt til at faa de i 9de Afsnit anforte og nu nyhg be- 



^) Se Malakozoologische Blatter. I. 1879. S. 17. — Kaptajn J. A. D. Jensen 
fandt i Egnen om Holstensborg og Godthaab en Del Ferskvandssnegle, 
endog i stor Maengde: 4 Arter, alle amerikanske: Fisidium Steenbuchii, 
Planorbis arcticus , Limnophysa Holboelli, Limnophysa Vahlii (Meddel. 
om Gronland, VIII, S. 66): 

2) -Den oprindelige islandske Landpattedyrfaunas Karakter% Videnskabelige 
Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening 1867, S. 51. 

3) I samme Bind af Vidensk. Meddelelser findes en Opsats af March om 
Faereernes Mollusker. Af de 117 faereiske Arter findes 109 i Skotland, 
90 i Danmark, 81 i Island, men kun 42 i Grenland. 



186 

nyttede Resultater, synes ved fersle Ojekast saa paalldelig, fordi 
den belt og holdent stetter sig paa Tal; man opgjwr Lister over 
alle de Arter, som ere fundne i et Land og underseger derpaa, 
hvor mange eller hvor stort et Procenllal af dem der findes 
i de andre Lande, med hviike Sammenligning enskes anstillet, 
og Tallene giver da umiddelbart Resultatet. Denne Methode 
bar imidiertid sin meget store Mangel. «Des erreurs sonl ine- 
vitables » siger allerede Cb. Martins, idet ban da bar de let 
indlebende Konfusioner af Navne og After for 0je, og Forskjel- 
lighed i Artsopfattelsen o. 1.; allerede herved kan der fremkomme 
Fejl; men langt vaesentligere, fordi det ligger i Methoden selv, 
er det, at alle Arter faa samme Vaerdi paa disse Lister; 
bvad enten en Art er overmaade almindelig i et Land eller 
overmaade sjaelden, taeller den lige meget, som f. Ex. den greo- 
landske Draba crassifolia^ der er funden et Sted i Norge (Tromsel 
og det sparsomt, eller den i Gronland saa almindelige Carex acir- 
poidea^ der i JNorge ogsaa er yderst sjaelden, eller den i Norge 
vel endnii sjaeldnere, i Grenland hyppige Siellaria longipes, eller 
den i Grenland sjaeldne, i Norge saa almindelige Rubus Chamce- 
morus o.s. V. Det er da klart, at de udledte Tal maa kunne give et 
aldeles urigtigt Billede af de sammenlignede Vegetationers For- 
bold til bverandre. Man taenke sig f. Ex., at Island og Greuland 
havde nejagtig samme Arter, men at den ene Halvdel beraf var 
yderst almindelig i Gr^nland, men meget sjaelden i Island, den 
anden netop omvendt sjaelden i det ferste, almindelig i det sidste 
Land; Listerne erklaerede da de to Landes Vegetationer for absolut 
identisk, medens Sandbeden var, at den var bejsl forskjellig. Me- 
tboden kan altsaa fere til meget urigtige Resultater; dens Betyd- 
ning er, at den overskuelig viser os Landenes floristiske Indhold 
efter vort Kjendskab til et givet Tidspunkt, og at den midlertidig, 
saa lajnge de paagjaeldende Lande ere ufuldkomment kjendte, 
er det eneste Middel til Bedemmelse af deres Slaeglskab. Men 
saa snart Landene ere saa godt kjendte, at man ved, bvad der 
i bverl er sjaeldent, og bvad almindeligt, ber en anden Sammen- 



186 



ligning finde Sted, nemlig mellem Vegetationens Grundbestand- 
dele, dens Karakter-Planter. Medens hver ny Expedition kan 
ventes at bringe nye (sjaeldne) Arter tilveje og saaledes forandre 
Listernes Udseende og derigjennem Opfattelsen af Slaegtskabet, 
holder Kundskaben til Karakterplanterne sig langt mere ufor- 
andret, naar den ferst er bleven kjendt. 

Greuland og Nordamerika kan jeg desvaerre ikke 
sanimenligne paa denne Maade; dertil har jeg fundet alt for faa 
Oplysnlnger om dette Land, specielt dels nordiigere Dele, liied 
hvilke Sammenligningen burde foretages. Men Grenland og 
Island kunne vi derimod sanimenligne, da begge Landes 
Floraer dog ere saa godt kjendte, at vi nogenlunde vide Besked 
med , hvilke Planter der ere de almindelige. For Islands Ved- 
kommende have vi i Grenlunds forskjellige Arbejder, specielt 
« Islands Flora«, fortrinlig Vejledning. Jeg har med Hjaelp af 
Gran land opsat Lister over de paa Island almindelig fore- 
kommende Karplanter, og naar jeg nu sammenligner disse 
Planters Forekomst paa Island og paa Granland, faar jeg 
felgende Resultater. 

A. Almindelige paa Island, men hidtil ikke 
f u n d n e i G r n I a n d : 

Silene maritima; Viola tricolor ; Parnassia palustris ; Bairachium Drouetii ; 
Caltha i)alustri!i ; Saxlfruga hypnoidea; Calluna vulgaris (meeet tvivlsom for 
GiHiiland); Veronica ojficinalis; V. serpyllifulia ; Myosotis arvensis; Gentiana 
campestris; G. Amarella; Galium veruvi, G. ailvestre; Salix lanata (? ikke 
sikker for Gronland), -S'. phylicifolia ; Luzula campestris; Juncus balticus; 
Carex vayinata Taiisch.; Aira ccespitosa: Poa trivialis; Equisetum palustre 
= 22. 

B. Almindelige paa Island, men i Gronland 

m e g e t s j ae I d n e : 

1 Grenland fuuden : 

Rubus aaxatilis; blot i Godthaabsegnen , sjaelden og oftest 

uden Krugt. 

Dryas octopetala; blot i det nordligste, paa becce Sider mel- 

lem 73— 76"N. 

Geranium silvaticum; Frederikshaab; 1 Gang. 

Sagina procnmbens; laa Steder niellem 60 — 61°. 

Arab's petrtea; I Exemplar: Nord«st-Gr«nland 



187 



Capsella bursa pastoris; 
Saxijraga Birculus; 
Arctostaphylos uva ursi ; 
Leontodon autumnalis ; 
Carex vulgarif; 

— cryptocarpa ; 
Anthoxanihum odoratum ; 
Agrostis alba; 
Poa annua; 
Selaginella spinosa : 
Bumex domesticus; 



I Grenland fundne: 
4 Steder op til 66° 10'. 
blot Nordest-Grenland. 
HoUtensborg (66° 50*). 
et Par Steder ved 61°. 
funden et Par Steder mellem 60--61° N. 
Jgaliko (61° N.). 
mellem 60—61°, sjaelden. 
et Par Steder, ved 61°. 
faa Steder I Sydgrenland. 
et Par Steder, ved 61 og ved 64°. 
faa Steder i det sydiigste 

= 16. 



C. AlmiDdelige 
Grenland: 

Comarum palustre; 
Potentilla anaerina; 
Epilobium palustre; 
Arenaria ciliata /S humifusa; 
Cerastium vulgatum ; 
Banunculus acer; 
Sedum villosum; 
Viola canina; 
Rhinanthus minor; 
Piuguicula vtdgaris ; 
Gentiana nivalis; 
Thymus Serpyllum; 
Hieracium murorum; 
Achillea Millefolium; 
Rumex Acetosa; 

— Acetosella ; 
Polygonum aviculare; 
Betula intermedia; 
Triglochin palustre; 
Alopecurus geniculatus ; 
Calamagrostif stricta ; 



paa Island, temmelig sjaeldne i 

op tU 67°. 

hist og her op til 70°. 

op til 70°; faa Steder. 

mellem 69^^,-73°. 

mellem 60—61° (nicslen blot (i, alpestrei. 

op til c. 67°. 

— 7l<^. 

blot Sydgrenland. 
op til 64°. 

— 69V«°. 

— 68°. 

— 67°. 

— 68°. 

— 64°; i det sydiigste hyppigst. 



— c. 61 

— 73°. 

— 69V3° N. 
SydgrtfolaDd. 
op til 70°. 

— 70°. 

— 70°. ' 



N. 



21. 



D. Almindelige i begge Lande vist i samme Grad^^: 

Potentilla maculata; Alchemilla vulgaris, A. alpina; Empetrum nigrwn; 
Silene acaulis; Cerastium alpinum, C. trigynum; HaHanthv^ peploidet; Draba 
incana, D. hirta; Cardamine pratensis; Banunculus hyperboreus; ThaUetrum 



Grenland Andes de naturligvis langtTra hyppig under ille br«dder 



188 



alpinum; Saxifraga nivalis, S. stellaris, S. oppositifolia , S. rivularis, S. de- . 
cipiens; Vaccinium uliginoaum var. microphyllum ; Bartsia alpina; Veronica 
saxatilis, V. alpina; Taraxacum officinale; Gnaphalium norvegicum ; Erigeron 
alpinus; Armeria sibirica ; Polygonum viviparum ; Koenigia islandica; Oxyria 
digynu; Salix glauca, S. herbacea; Betula nana; Luzula spicata, L arcuata ; 
Juncui trifidus, J. triglumis; Tojjeldia borealis; Eriophorum Scheuchzeri, E. 
angustifolium ; Carexrigida, C. rariflora; Elyna Bellardi(?); Elymus arenarius ; 
Agrostis rubra; Phleum alpinum; Trisetum subspicatum; Foa alpina, P. pra- 
tensis; Festuca ovina, F. rubra; Cystopteris fragilis ; Equisetuvi ar venae = 53. 

E. Ret almindelige paa Island, ikke fundne i 
G r n 1 a n d : 

Fragaria vesca; Geuvi rivale; Spergula arvensis; Sedum acre; Brunella 
vulgaris; Galium boreale; Hieracium floribundum; Plantago major; Orchis 
maculata; Coeloglossum viride; ./uncus lampocarpus; Equisetum umbrosum ; 
hertil kunde vel ogsaa lejes: Spircea Ulmaria = 12 (13?). 

F. Ret almindelige paa Island, sjaeldne eller 
endog meget sjaeldne i Gronland: 

I Grenland: 

SteUaria media; hist og her til 69V2°. 

Sagina nodosa; Igaliko (Vahl). 

■ Montia rivularis; hist og her til 72°. 

Pyrola minor; op til 67°. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus; tvivlsom. 

Gentiana tenella; en Gang fundeu. 

Alenyanthes trifoliata; spredt op til 68°. 

Gnaphalium supinum; hist og her op til 70°')- 

Matricaria inodora; faa Steder i det sydligste. 

Gentiana aurea; faa Steder i det sydligste. 

Heleocharis palustris; Igaliko (Vahl). 

Poa nemoralis; spredt op til 69° 20'. 

Botrychium Lunaria ; spredt op til 69° 20'. 

Carex ampuUacea; et Par Steder i det allersydligste. 

= 14. 

Resullatet af disse Sammentaellinger er, at af 112 Arter, 

der ere almindelige paa Island, mangle 22 helt i Grenland (A); 

16 ere vel fundne i dette Land, men yderst sjaeldent eller blot 

paa et enkelt eller nogle faa Steder, fortrinsvis i Sydgronland 

(B); 21 ere vel fundne oftere og over et sterre Areal, men 

kunne dog naeppe kaldes almindelige i Grenland, og spille i alt 



') Er maaske saa almiDdelig i Grenland, at den her saettes under D. 



189 

Fald ingen Rolle i Vegetationens Pysiognoml (C). Disse Ire 
Crupper tilsammen taelle 59 Arler, mod hviike der blot slaar 
53 (D) som almindelige i begge Lande. 

Gruppen E omfatter 12 Arler, der altsaa slel ikke ere 
fundne i Grenland, og F 14, der dog i alt Fald ere sjaeldne i 
dette Land. Da del jo kan vaere vanskeligt at skjelne mellem 
hviike der ere «almindelige» og hviike «ret almindelige-, og da 
del er rimeligt, at mange, der nu staa som -ret almindelige*, 
ville vise sig at vaere «almindelige» , turde det vaere rigtigt at 
forene E og F med A og 13. Gjere vi delle , og slaa vi tillige 
af samme Grunde C sammen med D, faa vi 74 lige almindelige 
i begge Lande, 34 almindelige islandske Arler, der belt mangle 
i Grenland, og 3u almindelige islandske, der ere sjaeldne, eodog 
til Dels meget sjaeldne i Grenland, tilsammen 6i mod 74. Man 
maa^indremme, at der er en me gel stor Forskjel pa a de 
to Landes Vegetation. 

Til Islands Ejendommeligheder over for Grenland barer 
dels Rigdom paa Arler af Hegeurt [Hieracium] ^ hvori Sydgren- 
land dog kommer det naer; Vandax {Potamogeton)\ Siv {Juncu8)\ 
Padderokker {Equisetum)^ Baelgplanter; Vejbred (Planiago); Ru- 
bladede; Laebeblomslrede og Pile; og visse Familier mangle belt 
i Grenland (Grenlund, Plantevaexten , S. 11 — 12). Endvidere 
dels sterre Anlal paa 1— 2-aarige Planter, efler Grenlund 53 
mod 287 fleraarige, medens Grenland bar omtrent 30 mod 353. 

Fra el andet Synspunkt her denne Sag imidlerlid ogsaa 
ses; bvorledes gaar det med Grenlands Karakter- 
planler eller dog almindelige Arler i Island? Vi 
kunne her opstille lignende Grupper som ovenfor. 

A. Planter som ere mere eller mindre almindelige i 
Grenland (i all Fald under visse Bredder), men slel ikke 
ere fundne i Island (de med * maerkede ere vestlige Typer). 

*Dryas integrifolia, en Karakterplante for hele Vestcrenland; *PotentiUa 
tridentata, ligeledes; F. nivea; *P. emarginata; *P. pulchella; *!'. Vahliana; 
*Sorbu8 Americana, Karakterplante for sydllge Bailer I Orwoland; Melandrixtm 



190 



of fine; *M. triflorum; Siellaria longipen; St. humifusa; *Coptis trifoUa) 
[Draba arctica; ^Dr aurea; Dr. corymbosa; Dr. Wahlenbergii; ^Vesicaria 
arctica (« overall ved Vaigattet"); ^'^^iola Miihlenbergiana; *Saxifraga tricuspi- 
data; Pedicularis Icinata; *P. euphrasioides (sjaeldnere); P. lapponlca \ P. hir- 
suta; Pyrola grandiflora^]; Cassiope tetragona; * Ledum groenlandicuni ; Phyl' 
lodoce coerulea; Rhododendron lapponicum- Artemisia borealis; Arnica al- 
pina; *Salix groenlandica; Alnus ovata; *Betula glandulosa; Streptopus am- 
plexifolius ; Luzula parviflora; Carex scirpoidea; C. rupestris; C. misandra; 
Alopecurus alpinus; Catabrosa algida; Hierochloa alpina; Calamagrostis 
phragmitoides ; =: 42. 

lalt er der altsaa 42 mere eller mindre almindelige gren- 
landske Planter, som hidtil slet ikke ere fundne i Island. 

B. Hertil kan fejes nogle i Grenland almindelige Planter, 
der hidtil blot ere fundne nogle faa Gange i Island, f. Ex. : 

Stellaria humifusa; Campanula unijlora; Arnica alpina; Antennaria al- 
pina; Diapensia lapponica; Saxifraga Aizoon; Ledum palustre. 

Desuden findes en hel Del andre, der synes meget alminde- 
ligere i Gronland end i Island f. Ex. Chamcenerium latifoUum, 
og mange, som ere mindre almindelige eller sjaeldne i Gron- 
land , men slet ikke ere fundne paa Island , f. Ex. Lastnza fra- 
grans, Sagina ccBspitosa., Erigeron compositus o. s. v. o. s. v. 

Der er altsaa ogsaa en stor Maengde af Gronlands alminde- 
ligste Planter, og netop de, som give Praig og Karakter til Vege- 
tationen, mest amerikanske, f. Ex. Cassiope tetragona.^ Dryas inte- 
gnfolta, Saxifraga tricuspidata .^ som mangle aldeles i Island. 
Dette har sin store Interesse, thi medens man maaske kunde falde 
paa at sige: Tilstedevaerelsen af mange for Island ejendommelige 
og der almindelige Arter, som mangle i Grenland, viser ikke, at 
disse to Lande ikke vare indbyrdes landfaste after Istiden, thi 
Landforbindelsen mellem dem blev maaske afbrudt, for disse 
Arter vare indvandrede til Island fra Europa, hvorved deres 
videre Vandring over til Grenland forhindredes; — saa vil man 
dog vel vanskelig finde paa at mene, at alle disse granlandske 
Karaklerplanter skulde vaere passerede fra Europa over Island 
til Gronland uden at efterlade Spor efter sig paa Overvandrings- 



') Eiidog Pgr. rotundifolia er "inegel sjaelden* paa Island. 



191 

stederne, smaa Kolonier hist og her i Island eller paa Skollands 
og Faereernes Bjaerge, o. I. 

Jeg har nu paavist gjennemgribende Forskjelligheder mellem 
Islands og Grenlands Floraer og Vegetation; de fremtraadte I 
Antallet af de to Floraers Arter, i IJeskaflfenheden af de to Vege- 
tationers almindeligste og mest karakteristiske Arter, og jeg har 
under Vegetationsformationerne fremhaevet disses Forskjelligheder, 
saa vidt det er mig muligt at domme (Birkeregionens S. 12 flf., 
Pilekrattenes S. 42, Lynghedens S. 67 o. s. v.), og jeg har tillige 
saa vidt muligt draget Skandinavien foruden andre nordlige 
Lande ind i Sammenligningen. Resultatet bliver det, at der er 
saa store Forskjelligheder mellem Grenland og de naermeste est 
for det liggende Landes Floraer^ at en stor postglacial Ind- 
vandring fra 0st og en Landforbindelse med Europa i nyere 
geologisk Tid er en Urimelighed. Om de mulige miocene eller 
pliocene Landforbindelser i Norden have skaffet Grenland Planter 
fra Sydest (Europa) kan ingen vide noget om nu ; det er naeppe 
rimeligt. Min subjektive Opfattelse er, at Grenland i lange 
Tider har haft sin nuvaerende Begraensning i alt Fald i den 
sydlige Halvdel. Grenland maa efter Istiden have faaet Hoved- 
massen af sine Karplanler fra Nord og Vest, hvis den da ikke 
har holdt sig i Landet selv; — men det er netop det 
sidste, som synes mig det rimeligste, og som jeg vil sege at 
vise i det efterfelgende. 

(jreiiUiid havde isfrit Land under Istiden. Af de danske og 
audres Undersegelser i Grenland fremgaar med Sikkerhed for 
det ferste, at Isbedajkningen tidligere har ligget til langt sterre 
Hejder i Grenland end nu, men tillige for det andet, at der 
blev isfrit Land tilbage. 

For Sydgrenlands Vedkommende meddeler f. Ex. Sleen- 
strupM: I Julianehaabs Distrikt var Landet dakket til 2500— 



') Meddelelser om (.renland, II. S. 33. 



192 



3000' Hejde, men f. Ex. <<Redekammen», der er 4000', bar aldrig 
vaeret belt daekket. Sylow sigerM: Isdaekningen har naaet til 
2 — 3000' Hejde, men de hojere Partier have aldrig vaeret is- 
skurede, og i det hele har her blot vaeret Lokalbraeer, intet 
sammenhaengende Daekke. Af almindeligere og sterre Betyd- 
ning ere Kapit. G. Holms Udlalelser^): Medens hele Indlandet 
nord for Olde Breddegrad er bedaekket af en «evig», sammen- 
haengende Ismasse med spredte Nunatakker, saa dominere 
Fjaeldene i Sydgronlands maegtige Alpeland , og Isen spiller den 
underordnede Rolle, optraedende blot som lokale Is- og Sne- 
marker uden at danne noget sammenhaengende Hele, og medens 
der nu er omtrent -/3 isfrit Land, var i 1st i den dog endnu 
Halvdelen isfrit^). 

Fra Vestkysten laengere Nord paa indtil Disko foreligger 
der ligeledes en Raekke Beretninger om isfrit Land under Is- 
tiden, f. Ex. af Kornerup^) og af Steenstrup^). Jeg kan 
heller ikke tro andet end, at de beje Bjaerge i Egnen n. f. 
Sukkertoppen aldrig have vaeret isdaekkede (se min Rejsebe- 
retning S. 180). 

Ogsaa fra Nordest- Granland lyde samstemmende Beret- 
ninger. Payer anferer, at der i Tyrolerfjorden (74V2° n. B.) 
en Gang fandtes en Gletscher, som udfyldte hele Fjorden op til 
5 — 700' Hojde, hvort.il Klipperne ere afslebne; «oberhalb dieser 
Schlifi'e erscheinen die Felsen rauh.und kliiftig, so dass auf den 
ersten Blick die Hohe zu erkennen war, bis zu welcher der 
einstige Glelscherstrom gereicht hatte». Noget lignende paa 
Kuhn-0en; her fandtes Istids-Spor indtil 170' i en nu belt 
isfri Dal. Ogsaa paa den sydlige Del af Ostkysten fmdes der 



*) Meddelelser om Grenland, VI, S. 178. 

*) Meddelelser om GrenlaDd, VI, S. 175 og i "Den danske Konebaadsexpedi- 

tion- S. 75. 
') Se ogsaa P. Eberlin 1. c. 

*) Meddelelser om Grenland, I, S. 105, 112; II, S. 130, 190. 
*) Meddelelser om Grenland, II, S. 215 i\. 



193 

efter Eberlin flere Bjaergpartier , som aldrig have v»rct is- 
daekkede. 

Der var saaledes rundt omkring isfrit Land, og mon for- 
uden Sydgrenlands Alpeland ikke ogsaa det maegtige og som del 
synes saa planterige Alpeland i Nordestgrenland (70—76° n. B.) 
var den vigtigste isfrie Del? 

Kiiude dette isfrie Laud under Istiden vedblire at ba>re Piante- 
vajit? Der er ikke den ringeste Grund til at tvivie lierpaa. 
Jeg har netop med dette Spergsmaal for 0je ovenfor under 
Fjaeldmarken sammenstillet en Del Data, der vise, at isfrit, om 
Sommeren plantebaerende Land findes til store Hajder og saa 
langt i Nord, som Mennesker ere komne, og at vi navnlig maa 
vente saadant Terrain i Bjaerglandene ; de arktiske bjaergfulde 
Lande , Alperne og lignende Bjaerges allerhejeste Regioner vise 
OS mange Steder, hvor Sne og Is ikke kan blive liggende, eller 
hvorfra den snarl forsvinder formedelst Fordampningen eller af 
andre Grande; — overalt paa saadanne Steder er der 
Plantevaext. 

Vi trasffe nu til Dags hist og her i de arktiske gne endog 
en og anden paa Grund af Forholdene saerlig begunstiget Plet, 
hvor naesten alle Arter i mangfoldige Miles, eller endog flere 
Graders Omkreds kunne vaere sammenhobede; en saadan er i 
Felge Hart Discovery bay med Bellot Island og Fort .Conger 
(81°44' n.B.I, Greely Expeditionens Station. Og hvilken maerkelig 
snebar og planterig DalstrsBkning tfaf ikke Greely ferende 
tvaers over Grinnell Land (se S. 102)1 

Paa saadanne Steder kan Plantevaexten holde sig, og de 
kunne, som Hart skriv6r, blive Ldgangspunkter for Plante- 
vandringerM. 



1) Hans Ord lyde (Journ. of bot, 9, 1880, S. 112): .These circumstances are 
especially interesting, showing as they do in what marwellous manoer 
one sheltered and favoured locality will preserve a Hora for an enormous 
area: let the climate improve, and the Discovery Bay flora may spread 
by seed etc. in all directions*. 
XII. »3 



Vi ter derfor med Sikkerhed sige, at da Grenland havde 
isfrie Bjaerge under Istiden , holdt Plantevaexten sig ogsaa paa 
disse, paa nogle Pletter maaske rigere end paa andre. 

Jeg finder endvidere i visse Planiearters Udbredningsforhold 
en Stette for denne Anskuelse, det er de «sj»ldiie» Plainer. Saa- 
danne ere enten nye Indvandrere, der endnu ikke have formaaet 
at udbrede sig over sterre Straekninger, eller de ere Rester af 
«Autochthonerne», Landets gamle Indbyggere. I Gronland have 
vi for det ferste mange sjaeldne Planter i det sydiigste, se Ta- 
bellen S. 161. Disse lader jeg her ude af Betragtning, da de 
maaske eller rimeligvis ere indvandrede i postglacial Tid, hvorom 
strax nedenfor. Men gaa'vi hojere op paa Vestkysten, traeffe vi, som 
Tabellen viser, mange ejendommelige Arter i de midterste Baelter, 
og saa trajffe vi atter ejendommelige Arter isaer i det allernord- 
ligste. Om mange af disse maa jeg antage , at de ere gamle 
Beboere, som have overlevet Istiden der, hvor de nu findes 
eller der i Naerheden. Dette gjaelder f. Ex. Nordostgrenland ; 
dets ejendommelige og sjaeldne Arter, f. Ex. Polemonium hu- 
mile ^ Arabis petrcea^ Draba altaica, Saxifraga Hir cuius og 
hieraciifolia , Taraxacum phymatocarpum , Salix arctica , Poa 
abbreviata^ Ranunculus glacialis^ o. fl. kunne maaske vaere ind- 
vandrede fra Nord-Amerika (seS. 163 — 64) eller Spitzbergen eller 
andre ostlige Egne efter Istiden, men langt rimeligere er det 
dog, at det maegtige Alpeland her, hvor Isdaekket maaske aldrig 
naaede hejt op (se S. 192), netop har vaeret et Tilflugtssted for 
mange Arter; her have vi maaske netop fremfor alle andre 
Steder "den rene Istidsflora». 

Lignende gjaelder maaske for Nordvestgrenland med dets 
ejendommelige Arter, men her kan en Indvandring fra Amerika 
endnu letlere have fundet Sted over de meget smalle , om 
Vinteren isdaekkede Straeder, som skille de to Lande. Heller 
ikke er der her et saa maegtigt Alpeland med saa mange Til- 
flugtssteder for Planter, men dog synes der som anfort (S. 102) 
i Grinnell Land og ved Smiths Sund pletvis at vaere maerk- 



195 

vaerdlg gunstige Vilkaar for Vegetation M. Til de sjaldne eg 
rimeligvis overlevende here Pleuropogon Sabinei og Salix arctica 
fundne 1883 ved 76° 7' af Nathorst, og Hesperia Pallasii; maBrk- 
vaerdigt er ogsaa Fundet af Androsace septentrionalis ved Nares- 
Expeditionen i Grinnell-Land, mange Grader fra dels naermeste 
i^jendte Voxesteder. 

Gaa vi til sydligere Baelter i Gronland, finde vi f. Ex. 

Ranunculus glacialis ved Nord-Preven, samlet af Kane; den 
fmdes ogsaa i Nordestgrenland , arktisk Amerika, Spltzbergen 
og Europa. 

Eutrema Edwardsii^ funden ved 70° 47 af Vahl; cirkum- 
polaer. 

Taraxacum phymatocarpum \ 70 — 7l°. — Desuden INord- 
estgrenland, Spltzbergen, arktisk Rusland og Sibirien. 

Glyceria Kjellmani^ funden 1883 af Nathorst ved 70° 27'. 
Ellers blot kjendt fra Nowaja Semlja. 

Olyceria Vahliana fra Umanak og nordlige Disko; 70 — 71°. 
Ellers Spltzbergen og Nowaja Semlja. 

Poa ahhreviata^ c. 70° lO' paa Disko, funden af Th. Fries ; 
foruden Ostgronland ogsaa i arktiske Amerika og Spltzbergen. 

Utricularia minor \ funden ved 68° 21' og 69°. Ellers Eu- 
ropa (ogsaa Island), Ural og Altaj. 

Scirpus parvultis] to Steder ved 68 — 69°; europaeisk. 

Ranunculus af finis funden ved Isortok af Kornerup; ellers 
naeppe sikker. Naermest circumpolaer-arktisk. 

Cerastium arvense; funden af mig 1884, under 67° 5' n. B. 
i Bunden af Sondre Kangerdluarsuk; zonal-tempereret. 

Carex helvola, funden 1886 ved 67° af Th. Holm; europaeisk. 

Linncea horealis, ved 67° (Holstensborg) funden af mig 1884, 
og ved Ivigtut, 61° 10', funden af Nathorst 1883. 

Arctostaphylos alpina\ enkelte Steder mellem 70° og 65°. 
Zonal-boreal. 

Arctostaphylos uva ursi\ blot kjendt fra Holstensborgegnen, 
hvor den trives vel. Circumpolaer. 

Sisymbrium humile, funden 1884 af Kapit. J. A. I). Jensen 
ved Sendre Slremfjord, c. 66° 30'. Naermeste Voxesteder: Nord- 
Amerika o^ Vestsibirien. 

Oentiana tenella; 1884 funden sammesteds af Kapit. Jensen. 
Er cirkumpolaer. 

Arctophila efusa; funden ved 65° 25' og 64° 10'; findes 
ellers fra Spltzbergen og Novaja Semlja gjennem Sibirien til 
Nordvest-Amerika. 



I) Se ogsaa Hookers Bemarkninger I Nares'-Expcditionen, II, S. 308. 

13* 



196 



:r Vahlodea atropurpurea; af Vahl funden ved 64° 10; 1886 
funden af Rosenvinge og Th. Holm ved 65° 25 og af Rosen- 
vinge ved 65° 15'. Findes ellers: Nordvest-Amerika, Sibirien, 
Lapland og Skandinavien. 

Andromeda poUfolia] Ire Steder mellem 62° 20' og 74°. 
Er ikke funden i Island, ellers ringformig over den nordlige 
Halvkugle. 

Catahrosa aquatica\ fra 65° 25' og 62° 28'. Naesten cir- 
kumpolaer. 

Ruhus ChamcBmorus; blot funden ved 64° 10', hvor den 
ofte ikke saetter Frugt; den mangier paa Island, men er ellers 
cirkumpolaer. 

Af alle disse spredt paa Vestkysten forefundne Planter ville 
nogle rimeligvis senere vise sig meget mere udbredte, og del 
er blot vort ufuldstaendige Kjendskab til Floraen, der gjar, at de 
nu synes saa sporadiske; andre ville maaske dog beholde deres 
isolerede Stilling. Hvorvidt de nu ere indvandrede ved et eller 
andet Tilfaelde, f. Ex. ved Fugle, hvad man isaer kunde taenke 
om dem med kedfulde Frugter, eller de have overlevet Istiden 
paa Vestkysten, er naturligvis saare svaert at afgjere, isaer saa 
Igenge Grenland og Nord-Amerika ikke ere bedre undersegte, 
end de ere; dog synes mig rimeligt, at en Del, f. Ex. de to af 
Kapit. Jensen 1884 fundne, og flere andre ere Rester af den 
gamie Flora. 

At Granlands endemiske Arter skulde vaere Levninger af 
den praeglaciale Vegetation, som Nathorst, om jeg forstaar 
ham ret, antyder (Polarforskningens Bidrag S, 280), er dog vist 
mindre sandsynligt, i all Fald for Fiertallels Vedkommende'. 
De 15 endemiske ere 3 Arler Potenttlla, Epilohium amhiguum^ 
Arahis Breuteh'i, Campanula groenlandica, 6 Arter Carex, Ca- 
lamagrostis hyperborea , Olyceria Langeana , Poa filipes. Man 
vil heraf se, at de isaer here til store og systematisk vanske- 
lige Sla3gter, hvor Arterne ere svaere at holde ude fra hverandre. 
De ere vel isaer Arter af nyere Data; vare de urgamle, vilde de 
sikkert staa mere isolerede. Derimod synes det mig snarere, 
at de anlyde, at der i meget lange Tider har vaeret Vegeta- 



197 

tion i Grenland, siden den har faael Tid til at danne nye 
Former M. 

Hvis de navnte og andre meget spredt og sjselden forf^fiindne 
Arler skiilde vaere Rester af den gamie Vegetation, saa laere de 
OS indirekte, at mange andre Arler kunne og maa vaere blevne 
belt udryddede af Istiden. Forsl^jeliige Botanikere (Hooker, 
Gray) have jo i Virkeliglieden ogsaa gjort opmaerksom paa den 
gronlandske Floras Faltigdom, idet Landet efler sin Be- 
liggenhed, naaende fra 83° n. B. ned til 60°, maatte kunne huse 
mange flere Arter; Gronland mangier jo endog flere Slaegler, 
der enlen i Amerika eller i Europa gaa saa langl mod Nord eller 
saa hejt op paa Bjaergene, at de maatte kunne findes der, f. Ex.: 
Chrysosplenium (der efter Taylor findes i Cumberland); Caltka 
(saa almindelig paa Island), en hel Raekke Baelgplanter {Oxy- 
tropisj Astragulus^ Hedysarum^ Lupt'nus, Phaca), Fragaria^ Spt- 
rcea, Allium^ o. s. v. 2). I lioj Grad maerkvaerdigt er del, at 
Polar-Pilen (Saltx polaris) hidtil ikke er bleven funden i Gren- 
land, da den dog voxer paa Spllzbergen, i Skandinavien, nordl. 
Rusland, Novaja Zemlja, Nord-Sibirlen lige til Berings-Straedet 
og endelig i det arktiske Amerika med Labrador. Man skulde 
derfor snarere tro, at den var udryddet fra Grenland, end at 
dens Mangel her er af praegjacial Oprindelse. 

Lange har 3) ikke kunnet indromme, at Grenland skulde 
vaere et fattigt Land, idet han mener, at man paa Grund af dets 
store Isbedaekning ikke kan forlange saa meget af det; fraregnes, 
siger han, det af Isen daekkede Areal, bliver det bevoxede mindre 
end noget af de Arealer, med hviike Sammenligning er anstillet; 
saaledes er f. Ex. det arktiske Sibirien i Areal sterre end Gren- 
land, og dog angiver Hooker dets Artsanlal til kun 233, 



') Nogle vllle vel for evrlgt blive fundne andcn Stedg, ligesom f. Ex. Carex 
holoatoma betragtedes som endemisk, Indlil den fandies I Norge af 
Norman (se S. 165). 

») Se Hooker OuUlnes p. 273. 

3) Studier til Grenlands Flora. 



198 



medens Granland har flere, nemlig 378. Jeg synes dog, at 
Hooker maa have Ret; det arktiske Sibirien bor ikke sammen- 
stilles med hele Gr0nland, thi da det ferste har en Udstraek- 
ning efter Laengden , men kun gaar gjennem faa Breddegrader, 
kan man vel ikke vente en saa varieret Flora som i et Land, 
der naar gjennem nogle og tyve Breddegrader. Grenland er i 
Virkehgheden den forholdsvis fattigsle arktiske Provins. For 
mig staar det som en planlegeografisk iVIaerkelighed, at saa 
mange Slaegtstyper mangle i Grenland, ikke at tale om Arter, 
som i Nabolandene (Europa-Amerika) ere almindeUge (Hooker 
naevner 203, af hvilke nogle dog maa gaa ud) , og jeg kan kun 
finde Forklaringen af denne Grenlands plantegeografiske Ejen- 
dommelighed i Istidens Udryddelser og Vanskeligheden ved nye 
Indvandringer paa Grund af, at det er omgivet af Hav til de 
Sider, fra hvilke Indvandring af Nybyggere snarest maatte finde 
Sted, saaledes som Hooker, Gray og andre have fremhaevet M. 

Plaiite-lndvaudrhig i Sjdgreiilaiid. Jeg maa altsaa antage , at 
Hovedmassen af Grenlands Arter holdt sig der under Istiden 
paa de isfrie Steder, og senere har udbredt sig, efter som nye 
Straekninger bleve afdaekkede. At Indvandring til Landets for- 
skjellige Dele fra Nabo-Landene har fundet Sled, er dog meget 
sandsynligt. Saerlig maa jeg antage, at en vis Del af Grenland 



*) 1 «Den andra Dicksonska Expeditionen- anferer Nordenskiold S. 387 
— 88, at Expeditionens Zoologer trods ivrig Segning ikke fandt Biller af 
de Alter, om hvilke Entomologerne sige: -habitat in stercore bovino», og 
som kunde vaere indferte med Kvaeget fra Europa! (Hvorledes dette skal 
gaa til, begriber jeg for ovrigt ikke, da Skarnbasser o. 1. jo ikke findes 
paa eller i Kvaeget, og Godniiig eller .lord med Dyr eller JEg i forte iNord- 
boerne vel ikke over fra Island). Da der nu i det nordlige Norge er 
langt flere LaiidmoUusker og Biller end i Gronlaud baade hvad Arter og 
Individer angaar, «kan man*, siger Nordenskiold , «hvad som eljest ar 
sjelfklart, haraf sluta, att Sydgronlands kuster under en mycket kortare 
tid an Norges varit fria fran glacialperiodens istacke». Det selvklare kan 
jeg ikke indse; mig tykkes den Slutning ligge langt naermcre, at de ikke 
ere komne til Grenland, fordi de in gen Lejlighed fandt til Rejsen, 
og det selv om Gronland saa langt tidligere blev isfrit end Norge, hvilket 
Nathorst vel naermest antager. 



199 

har erholdt en betydelig Maengde Indvandrere, nemlig Sydgren- 
land, Birkeregionens Omraade. Thi selv om blot del halve 
Land her nede, syd f. 61°, var isdaekket under Istiden, og selv 
om Istiden ikke var saa forskraekkelig kold , maa vi dog vist 
antage, at Klimatet var for ugunstigt for mange af de nu der 
forekommende Arter, og at disse selvfelgelig postglacial I 
maa vaere indvandrede over Havel. I alle Fald er det jo 
rimeligt, at Landets sydligere Egne maatte vaere de, der ferst 
bleve skikkede til at niodtage INybyggereM. 

Fra hvilke Lande kom Nyjbyggerne til Syd-Gren- 
land? Til at lose dette Spergsmaal have vi intet andet Middel 
end at studere Arternes (Jdbredeise i Nuliden og deraf drage 
vore — desvaerre temmelig hypothetiske — Slutninger. De 
nedvendige Sammentaellinger findes allerede anferle ovenfor, S. 14 
og i 9de Afsnit. Af det anforte kan kun sluttes, at, saafremt 
en postglacial Indvandring fandt Sted, maa hele Grenland have 
faaet omtrent lige mange Arter fra Vest og fra 0st, men Syd- 
grenland have faaet godt Vs af sine ejendommelige, altsaa 
vistnok kjaelneste Planter, fra Vest (Amerika) og knap Va fra 
0st, hvorved Tanken naturligst ledes hen paa det naermest 



') Berggren har udtalt Kormodniog oin en Landforbindelse mellem Gren- 
land og det paa Amerikas Kyst liggende Cumberland: • under 66-bredde- 
graden , der en stor bank ligger ulanfor land och der afdtindet till det 
uiidtemot liggande Cumberland ar kortast. ^am^da forh&lianden hauvisa 
pa en fordom existerande forbindelse mellan Gronland og Amerikas land. 
Afven vegetatloneu tyckes tala harfor. Det ar nemligen just mellan 64 
och' 68 breddegraden som de fiesta med norra Amerika, men ej med 
norra Curopa gemensamma arter forekomma. Men det kan arven vara 
en foljd af spridning med isbergs tilhjelp-. (FanerogamflDran S. 855). 
Den naBvnte Baiike er vcl Fiskebankerne ved C.renlands Kyst, men disse 
naa ikke over til Amerika, saa vidt jeg ved, og ere maaske gamie 
Morsenedannelscr eller Uundfaid af de med Polarstremmen fra Sydgren- 
land (lord paa langs Vestkysten gaaetide Ismasser; muligvis ere disse 
tidligere blevne ferle lasngere mod Nord end nu saedvanllg Tllfaeldel er. 
Eberlin har gjort mig opmserksom paa, at denne hypothetiske Laod> 
forbindelse kommer Igjen hos Wester I und i •Vepaexpedllionens Veten- 
skapl. lagttagclser.. IV, S. 167, men ellers ved jec Ikke, at den har 
fundet Antagelse. 



200 



liggende Land, Island. Sydgrenlands Chance for at faa Ind- 
vandrere fra Island skiilde altsaa vasre omtrent dobbelt saa stor 
som for at faa fra Nord-Amerika. 

At det Antal Arter, som 0st bar mere end Vest — i gun- 
stigste Tiifaelde 9, naar bale Grenland betragtes, — er lovlig 
lidt til at basere en postglacial Landforbindelse paa, er vel ind- 
lysende nok. Men da Sydgrenland dog bar relativt flere, vil 
man maaske alligevel mene , at dette er Bevis for en Landbros 
Existens. Jeg onsker derfor at gaa endnu et Skridt videre i 
denne Tankegang og sege at besvare det Sporgsmaal: Kan 
der paavises bestemte, naturlige Grunde til, at Syd- 
grenland og Ostkystens sydlige Dele (se S. 163) have 
et saa meget sterre europaeisk Praeg? Thi kan der det, 
bliver det endnu urimeligere at antage en postglacial Landfor- 
bindelse. Saadanne naturlige Grunde mener jeg nu virkelig ogsaa 
at kunne paavise. 

En ferste Grund er hine klimatiske Orereusstemmelser , som 
jeg ovenfor fremhasvede som Grund til Birkeregionens Optrseden 
i Sydgr0niand (S. 20 — 25). Denne Del af Landet bar aabenbart 
meget betydelige Ligheder, for ikke at sige fuldslaendig Ligbed 
med Island, Faereerne, de britiske 0er og Norge i Henseende 
til det fugtige Kystklima, og Nordamerikas Kyst frembyder, saa 
vidt mig bekjendt, naeppe noget tilsvarende. Jeg anser den 
floristiske Overensstemmelse at vaere af en lignende Art som 
den, der existerer mellem Jyllands og Norges Vestkyst; et Be- 
S0g i Jyllands vestlige og nordhge Egne, og paa Norges Jaeder 
eller andre Straekninger af den sydvestlige Kyst vil belaere om 
betydelige Ligheder i Planteverdenen {Narthecium^ Lobelia^ Erica^ 
J uncus squarrosuSj Ilex, Hypericum pulchrum, Lycopodium in- 
undatum^ Oentiana Pneumonanthe o. a.), der skyldes klimatisk 
Overensstemmelse; thi laengere mod 0st mangle disse (atlan- 
tiske) Planter eller blive meget sjaeldne. Tidligere vilde man alene 
ved Jordbund og Klima sege at forklare Artsgraenserne; nu 
synes mig, at man gaar til den modsatte Yderlighed og alt for 



201 

ensidig seger at forklare dem ved geologiske (hisloriske) Griinde 
samt Konkurrencen med andre Arter og tager for lidet Hensyn 
til de klimatiske Vilkaar. 

En naeste Grund maa S0ges deri, at Indvandriiigen fra Island 
over Havet er lettere eud fra Amerika. At Naluren virkelig er i 
Stand til at flytte Planter over vide Havstraekninger, meget videre 
end dem, hvorom her er Tale, vise mange oceaniske 0er os. 
Skjent en stor Maengde af disse ere af vulkansk Oprindelse eller 
skylde Vulkaner og Koraller i Forbindelse deres Tilbliven og 
aldrig have vaeret landfaste med noget stort Faslland, have de 
dog alie en Plantevaext, og denne stemmer mest overens med 
det naermest liggende Fastlands paa Grund af Fndvandrlngen 
derfra^; jeg skal minde om Galapagos-0erne, Ny Georgien, 
Juan Fernandez, St. Helena, o. s. v. eller for at tage et os her 
naer liggende Exempel : Jan Mayen; omgivet af enorme Hav- 
dybder (1000 — 2000 Favnei og vaerende af vulkansk Natur maa 
denne antages at vaere dukket op af Havet (dens BjsBrgarter ere 
yngre end Faeroernes og Islands) uden nogensinde at have vaeret 
landfast med noget Land; den er fjaernet fra Grenland c. 60 
Mile, fra Island c. 75, fra Spitzbergen og Norge c. I20-); dog 
bar den til Trods for sine yderst ugunslige Vilkaar for al Vege- 
tation skaffet sig en Flora af 26 Blomsterplanter i det mindste^). 
Disse Arter, der alle ere gamle arktiske bekjendte, maa selv- 
felgelig vajre indvandrtide over Havet. 

At her ingen endemiske Arter ere fundne, llgesom ej heller paa Faer- 
aerne og Island, medens oceaniske 0er som bekjendt ere rige paa saadanne, 
kan naaaske forkiares blandl andet deraf, at Indvandrerne traf en Natur, der 
i hejeste Grad liguede den, hvorfra de kom. I nyere TId gjerea den Hypo- 
these gjaeldende, at Planternes Vandringer foregaa Skridt for Skridl over 
Land, naar der er Tale ona hele Floraer eller dog sterre Plante-Selskaber. 
Baade Blytt og Drude ere Tilhaengere af denne Hypolhese. .Pllanzen- 



M Se ievrigt Darwins Origin of species, Kap. Xli. 

2) Island ligger c. 40 Mile fra Grenland. 60 fra Faereerne, 100 fra SkoUand 
og 130 fra Norge. 

3) Keichardt, Flora der Insel Jan Mayen (Die oeslerreich. Polar-statiou. 
III. Wien 1886). 



202 



genossenschaften von rein ausgepragtem Character konnen , vi'ie es scheint, 
nur durch Landverbindungen auf weite Streeken sich ausdehnen*, siger 
Drude, og *we may conclude from all this that whole groups of species 
migrate only step by step, and not at once across large tracts of country*, 
siger Blytt. Jeg begriber ikke Nodvendigheden heraf. Lad f. Ex. Rockall- 
Grundene, der ligge omtrent lige saa langt vest for de britiske 0er som 
Faereerne nordvest for disse, dukke op af Havet, og der vil naeppe gaa lang 
Tid, fer de blive befolkede af Planter; en efter en indfinde Arterne sig, og 
efter Aartusenders Forleb ville de sikkert have en Flora, der, hvad Arts- 
bestanden angaar, kun vil vaere lidet forskjellig fra de britiske 0ers, eller 
staa i et lignende Forhold til disse som f. Ex. Faereerne. Lad ogsaa vaere, 
at nogle faa i Begyndelsen okkupere hele Landet; naar deres gamle Med- 
bejlere fra Moderlandet indfinde sig , ville de sikkert ogsaa her bukke under 
for dem , netop fordi alle ydre Vilkaar efter Forudsaetningen ere de samme 
som i Moderlandet, indtil hver Art har lagt Beslag paa det Terrain, hvor den 
er staerkest; den samme Kamp, som vi opleve rundt om i de gamle Lande, 
naar Forstyrrelser i Overfladens Natur ere indtraadte, ville vi opleve paa et 
saadant nyt Land. Fordelingen af Arterne vil i det hele blive en Gjentagelse 
af den i Moderlandet, og Overensstemmelserne med dette desto storre, jo 
flere Arter af dettes der indvandre, og jo mere overensstemmende de ydre 
Forhold ere. Som med disse af Havet opdukkende Grunde — eller som med 
Jan Mayen — vil det gaa med det Land, hvis Iskappe smaelter bort for et 
mildere Klimas Varme. Om BIytts afvigende Anskuelser se f. Ex: «0m 
Indvandringen af Norges FIora» (Nyt Magaz. f. Naturvidenskab , 21, 1876), 
• Om Vexellagring o. s. v.» (Kristiania Videnskabsselsk. Forhandl. 1883), og 
efter at denne min Afhandling var faerdig, er udkommet: «0n the distribu- 
tion of plants» (Foredrag ved Naturforskermodet i Kristiania 1886, trykt i 
Journal of botany 1887, Bd. XXV). Saramenlign i evrigt ogsaa Hult: "Ble- 
kingens Vegetation* (Meddelanden af Soc. pro flora et fauna fennica, XII, 
1885), en Raekke interessante lagttagelser af Kampen mellem Arterne, naar 
Ligevaegten er forstyrret. 

Naar Blytt anlager, at nye Arter let maa kunne dannes ved de •tilfael- 
dige» eller enkeltvise Indvandringer, fordi Krydsning med andre Individer af 
Arten da er udelukket, kan bl. a. bemaerkes, at Selvbestovning i udstrakt 
Maal Andes hos de nordiske alpine og arktiske Arter. 

I evrigt antager selv Blytt, at f. Kx. Gaiapagoseerne, der 

ligge 160 geogr. IMile vest f. Sydamerika, have faaet deres ferste 

Flora ved «zufallige Transport iiber dem Meere»> i Aartusenders 

Lob. Men kan ban antage dette, maa ban ogsaa gaa ind paa 

en Indvandring til Gronland over Havet fra de langt naermere 

liggende Nabolande. 

At IndTaiidriiigeu fra Island til det sydligere Greulaiid ei be- 
guiistiget frem for den fra Nordamerika, fremgaar af felgende. 



203 

Som Vandringsmidler have Naturforskerne saerlig udpeget 
felgende: Dyr, saerlig Fuglene; Vinden; Havstremningerne, og 
for de h0jnordiske Egnes Vedkommende Isen og Drivtraeel, som 
baeres af disse. Mennesket lades her ude af BetraglningM- 

I'uglene. Blytt vil ikke tildele disse nogen synderHg Rolle 
ved Plantevandringer-), fordi kun Slandfugie pleje at vasre Fre- 
aedere, og Traekfuglene ere Insektaedere. Hertil kan erindres 
for det fprste, at mange Fugle, og derimellem naturUgvis ogsaa 
Freaedere, ofte forslaaes af Storme enorme SiraBkninger, og at 
for Grenlands Vedkommende er Snespurven vel i Begelen en 
Standfugl, men den kan ogsaa traeffes paa vide Vand ringer'*); 
dernaesl er der mange Gaes, som drage til Hojnorden i Vaar- 
tiden, i ^It Fald i det arktiske Amerika, og disse ere jo Plante- 
aedere, og endelig kan henvises til den S. 94, Noten, anferte 
lagttagelse, at Insektaedere paa deres Vandringer Nord paa i 
den tidlige Vaartid maa ty til Piantefre; da deres Fordejelses- 
organer ikke ere indreltede til saadan Fede, vil vel netop mange 
Fre gaa ufordejede iid. 

Hvis nogen mener, at Freene odelaegges i Fuglemaverne*), 
maa det erindres, at mange Fre netop ere indrettede til at gaa 
uskadte gjennem disse og ogsaa gjere dette (jvfr. hvad der 
S. 62, Noten, anfertes om Empetrum^]\ dernaest vides det jo. 



•) Om alle disse Vandringsmidler, hvis Betydning i Plantegeografien er 

overordentlig stor, har Darwin en Maengde Opiysninger I "Origin 

of species* Kap. XI, til hvilket jeg her henviser. 
*) Se Englers Juhrb. II, S. 41. 
3) ynennersledt angiver at have flere Gange set den langt fra Land I 

det novdlige Allanterhav formentlig paa Flytningsrejse til Bst-Grenland. 
♦) Se f. Ex Caspary: Welche Vogel verbreiten die Samen von Wasser- 

pflanzen (Schriften phys. ocon. Gesellsch. Konigsberg, 1870, Sluungs- 

ber., S. 9). 
») Nathorst angiver, at Empeti'um paa Spitzbergen aldrig blomstrer. og 

tror derfor, al den er en Levning fra den varmere interglaciale Tid 

og nu netop blot er i Stand til at havde Tilvaerelsen ad vegetallv Vej. 

Jeg finder ikke denne Antagelse nedvendig; Empetrumt Kr« kunne slk- 

kerllg udmaerket godt vaere indferte mod Traekfuglene III alle de Steder. 

hvor Planten nu voxer paa Spitzbergen. og indfares niaaske fremdeles 



204 



at ved Overfyldelse af Fordejelsesorganerne gaa mangfoldige 
Fro uangrebne gjennem disse, og Fuglene flyve saa hurligt, 
(Gaessene efter Richardson, t. Ex., 10 — 12, andre endog indtil 
20 Mile i Timen), at de i faa Timer kunne saette over de Hav- 
straekninger, hvorom lier er Tale. Og hvor mange Fugle (og 
Ferskvandsflsk) fortaeres ikke af Rovfugle, hvis Maver sikkert 
ikke fordeje de Fre, der komme med ned. Nathorst har 
sammenstillet en Del lagttagelser om Plantetransport ved Dyr, 
til hvilke jeg henviser^). Her skal jeg endnu blot gjere opmaerk- 
som paa en, som det synes, lidet bekjendt lagttagelse af Ouval- 
Jouve om Fretransport imellem Fuglenes Fjer: paa Vildtmar- 
kedet i Strasburg har ban ofte bemaerket Dele af Vandplanter 
og Fre (indtil af 12 Arter) faslklaebede paa Brystet og isaer Fed- 
derne af Vandfugle^), hvormed ogsaa Darwin s lagttagelser 
stemme^). Hojnordens fleste Fugle ere Havfugle, og man vil 
vel derfor mene, at Fuglene her ingen Rolle kunne spille ved 
Transport af vedhaengende Fro; dette er dog urigtigt. Berg- 
gren har f. Ex. iagttaget paa Spitzbergen, at Maager ofte sege 
Naering, sandsynligvis Insektlarver, ved Vandsamlinger i Moskjaer 
mellem Mosset og derved oprive hele Mostuer; der er da let 
Lejlighed til at faa Fre og Sporer klaebede ved sig. Over 
st0rre Have ville Maagerne dog naeppe fore Planter. 

Idet jeg altsaa gaar ud fra, at Fugle. virkelig kunne trans- 



om ikke aarlig, saa dog mange Gange i Aarhundredet. Lige saa lidt 
finder jeg det nedvendigt med Berggren at antage visse Mosser paa 
Spitzbergen for saadanne Levninger; skulde Sporer ikke meget vel kunne 
indleres endog den Dag i Dag, spire og grundlcEgge Planter, som For- 
holdene dog tvinge til at forblive sterile og forkuede? 
») -Spetsb. Karlvaxter», S. 76. 

2) Bull, de la Soc bot. de France XI. 

3) Det nordliae Jylland har en Del sjaeldne Plantearter, der ere almindelige 
i Norge og sikkert lierfra ere ferte derhen ; i de fleste Tilfalde er det 
maaske Vinden (Selaginella spinosa f, Kx.), men i andre Fuglene, der 

• have bragt dem herned ; Etatsraad Steenstrup har meddelt mig, at 
f. Ex. Draha incana fmdes netop isaer paa de Bakker, hvor Fringilla 
Jiavirostris , Emberiza nivalis og andre pludselig ankommende Vinter- 
gjaester skareyis slaa sig ned. 



205 

porlere Fre vide Straekninger over Havene, bliver del nsste 
Spergsmaal, hvilken Holle delte Ran spille for Grenlands Flora. 
Efter ReinhardlM bar Grenland baade europaeiske og ameri- 
kanske Fugletyper, men de sidste ere i Overvaegt, der bliver 
endnu sterre, naar man tager Hensyn til de tilfasldig lil Gren- 
land kommende Arter. Herefter skulde man altsaa vente, at 
Indvandringen fra Amerika var begunstiget i Sydgrenland. Men 
dette viser sig dog naeppe at vaerc Tilfaeidet, naar man laeser, 
hvad den dygtige Ornitholog Holboil bar iagttaget under sit 
mangeaarige Ophold i Grenland^). Grenland faar, siger ban, 
sine fleste Traikfugle fra Amerika, og er man kommen ind i 
Davis-Straedet* faar man andre Fugle at se , og i Maengde ses 
de eller komme om Bord i Skibene isaer med Taage og Mod- 
vind. De traekke Nord efter op langs Amerikas Kyst og 
ferst paa den Breddegrad, paa bvilken de sege Redeplads, gaa 
de tvaers over Davis-Straedet; de fleste yngle i det nordlige. 
Om Efteraaret Iraekke de Syd paa langs Grenlands Kyst 
og vente med at saette over Havet saa laenge som muligt; 
derved komme de til Sydgrenland om Efteraaret, medens de 
mangle der om Foraaret. Nanortalik er om Efteraaret meget 
rig paa Traekfugle. Dette Fugletraek bringer altsaa ikke direkte 
Piantearter til Sydgrenland. Af de for Europa og Amerika 
faelles Arter er der efter Holbell blot 5, som komme fra Eu- 
ropa, og Vejen laegges over Atlanterbavet syd for Faereerne 
og Island. Paimen angiver, at Fuglelraekket mellem Europa 
og Grenland gaar over de britiske 0er og Island; v, Homeyer 
derimod stoler paa Holbells Angivelser og antager, opponerende 
mod Paimen, en direkte Vandring fra Europa lil Grenland, 
kalder Vandringen over Island "uur eine Annabme», der er 
grundel paa "uberlebte Vermutbungen» ^i. Ornithologen Cand. 



1) Kreyers Tidsskrift, IV, S. 72. 
») Kreyers Tidsskrift, IV, S. 375. 

») Paimen: Om foglarnes llyllningsvagar; 1874. Homeyer: Die Wan- 
derungen der Vogel, 1881. Det har slo Interesae at se disse Angivelser 



206 



0. Winge har meddelt mig: at af Grenlands regelmaessige Traek- 
fugle er det kun et Par Arter, der nedvendigvis maa komme fra 
Europa; af de europaeiske, tilfaeldig forekommende Fugle, findes 
de fleste, men ikke alle, paa Island og Faereerne og komme vel 
oftest netop derfra til Gronland; en Motacilla alba^ som Kapit. 
G. Holms Expedition hjembragte, er naesten ganske sikkert 
kommen derfra; Nogle faa Arter, der yngle meget langt nord 
paa, men berere Island under Traekket (Anser hemicla^ Tringa 
canutus, Calidris arenaria) gaa maaske til Dels derfra til det 
nordestlige Grenland. 

Af de foreliggende lagttagelser maa man i alt Fald slutte, 
at Chancen for Indvandring af Planter ved Fugle til Sydgren- 
land og de sydlige Dele af Ostgronland snarest er storst for 
de islandske eller de europaeiske Planter i det hele. 

Viiideii er et andet Vandringsmiddel. Der foreligger faa 
direkte lagttagelser over den Betydning, som Vinden har for 
Plantetransport over Havene, og over meget store Straekninger 
formaar Vinden naeppe at baere mange Fre, selv af de lettere. 
Blytt gaar endog saa vidt, at ban stiller sig skeptisk over for 
Vindens Betydning for Spredningen af Kryptogamernes Sporer. 
iMen om saa lette Gjenstande som disse, smaa Alger, Svampe, 
Konidier o. 1., maa jeg dog absolut antage en vidt strakt Trans- 
port hele Jorden over, hvoraf mange Arters naesten kosmopoli- 
tiske IJdbredning og visse Snyltesvampes hurtige Vandring alene 
kan forklaresM- 

Der angives dog af Grisebach, at Frugterne af en syd- 



over for den i nyere Tid af Konservator Steineger o. a. haevdede Hy- 
pothese, at naar Fugletraekket gaar over sterre Havstraekninger, hvilke 
Fugleoe umulig kunne overskue belt, skyldes deUe Nedarvningen af 
Mindet om de Laiidveje, der i gamie Dage existerede her! 
^) Blytt har i Ei)glers Jahrb. peget paa den store Betydning, som de 
parasitiske Svampe have i plantegeografisk Henseende; thl det synes jo 
dog rent umuligt, at Sporer skulde vaere saa heldige at falde ned netop 
paa deres Vaertplanter i andre Lande. Umuligt er dette naeppe, men for 
evrigt skyldes det vel snarest geologiske Grunde (praeglaciale Landfor- 
bindelser), naar f. Ex. Grenland og Norge have samme Snyltesvampe. 



207 

europaeisk Kurvblomst, Erigeron dubius, efler en staerk Storm i 
Maengde faldt ned paa Tenerifla, blaeste derhen fra Syd-Europa, 
og snart voxede Planter af den op i Maengde. Om andre Til- 
faelde henviser jeg til den botaniske Literatur, idet jeg her 
dog vil omtale et hidtil ikke offentliggjort. Stationsforvalter 
V. Skovby i Grenaa indberettede til vort Universitet, at d. 12 Fe- 
bruar 1881 blev Jorden eller Sneens Overflade efter et staerkt 
Uvejr med staerk estlig Storm og Nedfald af Sne og Is i ikke 
smaa Stykker bedaekket med et Lag Fro. Han sporede Freet 
fra Grenaa Havn til et Stykke Vest for Byen, altsaa omtrent 
i en halv Mils Udstraekning, og det meddeltes ham, at det be- 
maBrkedes endnu laengere borte. Da Jorden overalt om Grenaa 
var snedaekket, maatte Freet vaere fort dertil andensteds fra 
med Stormen. Der blev sendt forskjellige Prover af de ned- 
faldne Plantedele her til Kjebenhavn til Undersegelse. Hoved- 
massen var Ijorgamie Blomster (med Frugter) af Hedelyng (Cal- 
luna)y men der fandtes f. Ex. ogsaa Blomster af Klokkelyng. Om 
Vindretningen har Direkteren for meteorologisk Institut, Hr. A. 
Paulsen, meddelt mig felgende: I Lobet af d. 10 Febr. blaeste 
Vinden i Grenaa-Egnen op til en stormende Ruling mellem 08t 
og Nordost; i 'Lebet af d. 1 1 drejede Vinden mere nordlig, 
mellem Nordost og Nord. Kulingen var til Dels stormende. 
Den 12 var Vindretningen nordlig, men Styrken var kun frisk 
til stiv. — De nedfaldne store Maengder af Plantedele maa efler 
Vindretningen sikkert vaere komne fra Sverige, da Anholt ikke 
har Ertcttj og Calluna er saa sparsom der, at deu ikke danner 
Lyngtaepper (efter J.P. Jacobsen i Botan. Tidsskr. IX); de ere 
altsaa forte over en Straekning af mindst c. 16 Vlil (eller c. Vs 
af Vejen mellem Island og Gronland). 

Kunne vore svage Storme fere saa meget af Sted med sig 
og saa langt, hvad vil saa en arktisk Storm ikke kunne udretle? 
iVlan laese blot Beretningerne fra Nordest-Grenland (i Zweile 
deutsche Nordpolfahrt) om Stormene der, eller fra Nordvest- 
Grenland hos Greely; den 16 Jan. 1882 iagttog han en Storm 



208 



fra NO., hvis hejeste Hurtighed var 65 engelske iMIl i Timen, 
med St0d af endnu langt sterre Kraft (Three years, I, 182). 

Ved denne Lejlighed skal jeg ikke undlade at henvise til, 
hvad Nalhorst anf0rer om Snestormo hen over Isbraeer og 
snedaekket Land, om «yrsno» M, thi rauligvis kunne Planlevan- 
dringer paa denne Maade etableres tvaers over Grenland, og 
maaske er det netop saaledes, at det hidtil blot fra Ostkysten 
kjendte Graes Foa -fiUpes er fort over til «Jensens Nunatakker^. 
Der foreligger en bestemt lagttagelse af Frevandring over Sneen, 
idet Kapt. Osborne (efter Richardsons «Polar Elegions») saa 
talrige Fro, hvoriblandl han gjenkjendte dem af Valmue, Pil og 
Saxifraga, feres hen over de jaevne Is- og Sneflader drevne af 
Vinden, da han i Juni Maaned vandrede over Isen mellem 
0erne N. f. iVlelville-Sund. «The northern islands are thus sup- 
plied with sead in seasons, when the plants growing far north 
have not heat enough to bring their own fruit to maturity*). 
Disse lagttagelser ere af stor Interesse, fordi de vise Mulig- 
heden af en livlig Plantevandring under selve Istiden mellem 
de da med Planter daekkede og maaske om Vinteren med Is 
forbundne, nu til Dags med sterre Havstraekninger adskilte 
Lande, — maaske endog nelop mellem de i denne Afhand- 
ling saerlig omhandlede 0er (Faeroerne f. Ex. havde efter H el- 
land hlot lokale Gletscher; andre 0er maaske ligesaa, i alt 
Fald var der vel mange Steder plantebaerende Land). At Stor- 
mene kunne fere Jord og Stene «milevidt» hen over Isen, for- 
taelle baade Pansch og Nares. 

idet jeg altsaa gaar ud fra, at Vinden (staerke Storme, og 
paa saadanne er der jo ingen Mangel i Hejnorden) maegter at 
transportere lette Plantefre og Sporer gjennem Luften over Hav- 
straekninger, bliver Sporgsmaalet dernaest det, om Planter saa- 
ledes ville kunne indvandre til de naevnte Dele af Grenland fra 
Island lettere end fra Amerika. Svaret bliver Ja. Efter Op- 



') Se •Spelsbergens Karlvaxter», S. 76— 77. 



209 

givelser, som jeg skylder vort meteorologiske InslHut, er den 
fremherskende Vindretning paa Veslkyslen af Island iStykkis- 
liolm): ENK og ved Angmagsalik lige over for paa Grenlands 
Kyst NNE (efter Kapit. G. Hoi ms lagUagelser i 8 Maaoeder). 
Disse Vinde blaese allsaa ind mod Gronland. Omvendt ere de 
fremherskende i del nordestlige Amerika (Kanada etc.) NW, og 
i Sydgr0nland K, ofle dog WNW; disse ville altsaa ikke kuone 
tilfore Grenland Pre, i alt Paid ikke af saadanne kjaelnere 
Planter, som dem der ere ejendommelige for Sydgrwnland , og 
som vi her saeriig have for 0je. 

HaTstremme. Vi vide med Sikkerhed, at spiredygtige Fre 
kunne feres fra Vestindien til Norges KysterM, og kan sligt 
ske med nogle enkelte , maa det ogsaa kunne ske med mange, 
saa fremt de opfylde de samme Betingelser: at kunne flyde i 
lang Tid i Havvand uden at miste Spireevnen. Om Tres Flyde- 
evne og Evne til at ligge laenge i salt Vand, uden at Spire- 
kraften gaar tabt, er der hidtil kun blevet anstillet Lindersogelser 
af Ch. Martins, Thuret og Darwin'-^l. Den sidste mener, at 
mindst 10% af en Flora ved Slromme vil kunne blive transpor- 
teret 900 — 1000 Somil (se naermere i "Origin of Species, kap.XI). 
Det faldt mig ind, at en saa lang Serejse som den til Grenland 
1884 fortrinlig egnede sig til at gjere saadanne Experimenter, 
som kunde kaste yderligere Lys over dette interessanle og i 
planlegeografisk Henseende vigtige Sporgsmaal. Jeg lagde ved 
Rejsens Begyndelse et sterre Antal Freprever i Saltvand, der 
daglig skiftedes, og da Hjemrejsen fra Grenland tiltraadtes, 
lagdes en ny Portion i Saltvand; den ene Raekke Prever henlaa 
saaledes i c. 3V2 Manned, den anden i 3 Uger. Efter Hjem- 
komsten udsaaedes de, og det viste sig, ligesom ved Mar- 



') Lindman: Om driTved och andra af hafsstrommar uppkastade iiatur- 

foremfti vid Norges kusler. (ioleborg 1883. 
=»j Om Klydeevneu har And re sen anstillet llndersegelser (Klilformalionen. 

Kjebenliavn 1863). Se ogsaa Literatur i Schenck: Die Biologie der 

Wassergewachse. 
XII. U 



210 



tins's og Darwins Forsog, at mange Arler havde mere eller 
mindre bevarel deres Spirekraft. Paa Togtet 1886 fortsatte Ro- 
senvinge disse Fors^g og vil senere berette naermere om dem. 

Spergsmaalet bliver da naermest, om Havstremmenes Lob 
begunstiger en Transport fra det ene eller andet Land til Gren- 
land. At Goifstremsprodukter kunne feres til Grenlands endog 
vestlige Kyster er sikkert nokM; men rimeligvis er det ad meget 
store Omveje, maaske over Norge og Spitzbergen , at de ere 
komne derhen-). Ved Golfstremmen vil der derfor naeppe til- 
feres Grenland spiredygtige Pre, og saadanne vilde vel ej heller 
finde Betingelser for Spiring og Trivsel. Langs Nordamerikas 
0stkyst gaar som bekjendt en sydgaaende Polarstrom; denne vil 
heller ikke fere Fre til Grenland, og Udsigten til, at saadanne 
skulle tilferes fra Nord-Amerika, ere saa slette som muligt. 

Ikke lidet bedre ere Forholdene for Islands Vedkommende. 
Vel vil Irminger-Stremmen, der gaar op langs 0ens Veslkyst, 
fere alt nord og ester paa, men den er ikke bred, og den 
langs Grenlands 0stside sydgaaende Polarstrem breder sig jo 
undertiden saa slserkt og naar saa taet over til Island, at jeg 
ikke kan se nogen Vanskelighed for Vinden i at fere lettere 
Fre ud i den. Islands Elve ville vel ogsaa fere mange Fre 
med sig, der muligen ville finde Lejiighed til at komme over i 
Polarstremmen. 



^) Fra Laege G. Lindemann i Julianehaab har jeg gjennem Kolonibestyrer 
Lytzen modtaget en af Vandet meget medlageti Kokosnod, der i Efter- 
aaret 1885 fandtes drivende i Julianehaab -Bugten, og Orlogs-Kapitajn 
J. A. D. Jensen har tidligere hjembragt en ganske lignende, samlet 
V7I884 \ed Stranden ved en Arm af Ikertok (c. 66°50' n. B.). Ltnt. Ryder 
har mundtlig meddelt mis, at der i Upernivik er inddrevet et ¥10, efter 
Beskrivelsen af Guilandina Bonduc, og efter P. Eberlin drive Fre af 
Entada gigalobium ogsaa ind i Julianehaab-Bugten. 

^) I Angmagsalik inddriver der efter Kapitajn G. Holm Exemplarer af de 
Glaskngler, der bruges ved Fiskerierne i det nordlige Norge, og bekjendt 
er jo ogsaa det msBrkelige Fund af Sager fra «Jeannette-, som Koloni- 
bestyrer Lytzen gjorde i Julianehaabsbugten (se Geogr. Tidsskift, Bd. 8, 
49), efter at de havde drevet i 3 Aar en Straekning af 2500 Semil. 



211 

Ere Stramningerne saaledes i og for sig ikke saa ugunRlfge 
for en Frelransport fra Island, som fra Amerika, saa kommer 
der et megel gunstigt iMomenl til, som forhejer deres Betyd- 
ning: nemlig Ismasserne, som de baere. Af mine i Sallvand 
nedlagte Fro flode efter 3 Maaneders Forlab endnu visse Arters, 
men ikke mange {Lathyrus maritimus ^ Comarum ^ Menyanthea, 
Bumex — Strand- og Sumpplanten, og lignende Resultaler 
have de tidligere Forseg givet. Om Froene derimod faa et 
Legeme at baeres af eller indlejres i, ville de kunne fores om i 
megel laengere Tid og over langt sterre Straekninger M. Driv- 
trae er et saadant baerende Legemer, og Kjellman «vrlgar af 
erfarenhet intyga», at en Frelransport over Havel ved Drivlrae 
sker i Polarlandene-). Parry skal, hvad der er endnu maerke- 
jigere, have fnndet Bladlus {Aphis borealis Curlis> paa Trae i Isen 
n. f. Spilzbergen^). Men Drivlrae kan dog ikke komme til at 
spille en Rolle i del her behandlede Spergsmaal. En saa meget 
sterre maa Isen spille, dels Isbjaergene, dels Storisen. At Is- 
bjaergene kunne medfere store Masser af Slen, Grus og Jord 
og selvfelgelig ogsaa Masser af Planter og Plantefre, er der 
anferl saa mange Exempler paa, at del kan belragles som en 
sikker Kjendsgjerning. 

Da det maaske kan have nogen Interesse at kjende nogle af Vidnes- 
byrdene om Isbjaergenes Traiisportevne, vil jeg anfere iiogle af dem , jeg er 
truffen paa i den arkliske Literatur. Sutherland saa Slene af Granit og 
Gliejs dybt indlejrede i Isbjaerge foruden liggende bloUede paa deres 0?er- 
flade. — Inglefjeld skriver: "Some of the Icebergs seen in the Davis-Strait 
are so sharged and impregnated with earthy matter, that by an inexperienced 
person they may be mistaken for land itself, and we often observed large 
masses of rocks, each upwards of one hundred tons weight lying on the 
surface of the iceberg or deeply imbedded in its substance-. Se ogsaa I. c. 



M Efter alt hvad fysiologiske Erfaringer tillade os at slulte, maa Fre i 

meget iange Tider kunne taale at vaere indeslultede i Is. 
*) Han bar fundet Fra fastsiddende i Klefler og Revner af Barken paa 

Drivlrae, og efter det ydre at demme vare de splredygtige (•vallbcb4IIna») 

(Vega-Exped. Vetenskapl. lagttag. I, 351). 
3) Efter Aurivillius, S. 430 i .Insektiifvet i arktiska lander. (NoidcnskiOlds 

• Studier etc.«). 



212 



p. 37. — Payer naevner, at Isbjaergene kunne va3re saa bedaBkkede med Jord 
02 Grus, at de i Afstand ligne Klipper (I. c. S. 416; item: S. 16, 326, XLV); 
ved Franz Josefs Land traf ban endog to MorjEner paa et Isbjaergs brede Ryg 
med Stene af Kalk og Lerglimmer-Skifer. — Se fremdeles: Rink, •Grenland-, 
111, 22, 72, 329. — Hammer. Meddel. om Greniand, IV, 31. — Steen- 
strup, ibidem IV, 80, 208, 209. — Darwin, Note on a rock seen on an 
iceberg in 16° south Latitude (Journ. Geogr. Soc. 9, 1839, S. 528). — Franklin, 
Journey I, 21. — Greelys, Three years of arctic service, Kap. 32. Hertil skal 
jeg foje fwlgende: i vort botaniske Museum (indes et Stykke af en Tra;- 
stamme, som Prof. Japetus Steenstrup har foraerPt det, og som er 
maerket: -Taken from an Iceberg, in ''^hich it was imbedded, April 24*'' 1858, 
Arksut, Greenland. Length 9V2 ft., smal diam. 3^4 inch.» Den ene Ende 
har tydelig nok raget frem og er atslidt af Vand og Is: den anden Del er 
derimod endog saa vel bevaret, at Barken sidder paa den. Den er af et 
Levtrae. 

Det maa i lioj Grad anbefales de Rejsende at medtage en heist stor 
Prove af den paa Isbjaerge eller Drivis fuiidne Jord til Kultur under gunstige 
Vilkaar — den eneste sikre Maade til at erfare, om den indeholder spire- 
dygtige Fro, og hvilke Arier disse tilhore. 

I Isbjaergenes Indhoid ville Planter dog kun kuune trans- 

porteres f. Ex. fra Nordgronland til Sydgrenland men ikke saa 

let fra Island til Greniand, skjendt det jo ogsaa haender, at de 

komme ned til denne 0. Den vaesenlligste Baerer for Planter 

fra Island til Gronland maa vislnok Drivisen, "Grenlandsisen" 

vaere. Den meste Is, der naar over til Island, er jo sikkert 

dannel paa Havet og derfor umiddelbart fri for Sten og Plante- 

dele, i alt Fald Fro 0. 1., men at Luften deponerer Masser af 

Fjicldstov (Nordenskiolds "Kryokonil") ^) paa den, har f. Ex. 

Nares, Stitherland, «Hansa»-V1a3ndene^) og Fr. Nan sen 

oplyst OS om^). Skulde da ikke ogsaa lette \'\'0 kunne komme 

med? Gronlandsisen ligger jo sjaeldent langt borle fra Islands 

nordlige og nordvestlige Kyster, kan jo endog fylde Fjordene 

der og faa F'ro 0. 1. paa eller ind i sig, hidf«rt dels ved Vind 

og dels ved Elvene fra Landel, og om end det meste gaar bort 



') Nordenskiold er ikke Opdageren af dotle, som nogle synes at tro; 

men ban har iEren af at have baseret en Hypothese om det, som dog 

nok ingen Tilslutning har fundet. 
'^) Laube troede, at det 'Stenstov", de fandt, var kommet fra Islands Vul- 

kaner. 
3) .Naturen-, IS87, 216. 



213 

med lrminger.Str0mmen mod 0st, vil dog vel ofle en Del, der 
har va-ret Kysten naer, f. Ex. v^d Storm feres over ad firenland 
til og der kunne afgive sit Indhold, udsaa del paa Kyslen, naar 
Isflagerne skrues op paa denne o. s. v. Man vil maaske mene, 
at de Frw o. I., der falde paa r)rivi8en, ville skylies borl af 
Ijeigerne; men lad dem f. Ex. blive dcEkkede af Sne slrax efler 
Nedfaldet, vil del jo kunne blive indlejret i Is og der holde sig 
uforandret i lange Tider. Selv Blytt mener, at om Drivisen 
end ikke er nogen virksom Transporfur, spiller den dog en 
Rolle. 

Jeg skal dog anfere nogle Exempler paa Transport af Jord ra. ni. ved 
Drivis, som jeg har optegnet. Hart skriver fra Robeson Ctiannel: .opportu- 
nities of interciiangc of species must occur; summertorrenls commonly carry 
blocks of frozen soil laden with plants to the icefoot or to the marine 
ice . . .; ice rafts may then carry them to other shores as the wind or tide 
directs, and once having reached till land, they will often be forced ... to 
ii distance of the sea and in safe position to form a new colony* (Hart I. c. 
p. 73 — 75). Nares omtaler ogsaa, hvorledes Ferskvandsstremme kunne fere 
el tykt Lag Sten og Jord ud paa Isen ved Kysterne. — I Davis-Stra?det n. f. 
Holstensborg Iraf Bessels Drivis smudsig af Jord; Quennerstedt og 
Chydenius omtaler del samme fra Spitzbergens Havomraade; mere end en 
Gang hiev et at Jord svaertet hnjt Isslykke naer Baaden anlaget for Land, 
fortaeller den sidste. — «Han sa< -Expeditionen fandt i Sommeren 1869 
Saxifraga flagellaris fort af Storm ud paa Isen langl fra Kysten Pilelignende 
Blade fandtes 8 Semil fra Land. 

Efter at ovenstaaende var nedskrevet, har P. Eberlin i 'Naturen*, Marts 
1887, meddelt en Del interessante lagtiagelser og sammenstillet Lileralur om 
Isen som Transpojter. 

Jeg anser det saaledes langt fra at vaere en Umulighed for 
Flanlefre at vandre fra Island til Grenland ved Is, Vind, Hav- 
stremme og Fugle (man erindre Jan \layen!), og vil man saa 
indvende, at det maa vaere saa urimelig sjaelden , at delte sker 
i Naturen, vil jeg dertil blot svare: vi bar T id en for os. 
Selv om det Tidsrum, der er forlebet siden Istiden, ikke er 
mere end f. Ex. 80000 Aar, og selv om der saa ikke kom mere 
end blot 1 Nybygger til Grenland i bvert Aartusende, saa bliver 
det dog flere, end vi har IJrug for efter min Hypolhese om 
Vegetationens Historie. 

Af det foregaaende fremgaar altsaa, at de forskjellige Slags 



214 



Transportmidler, som Naturen raader over, alle ville begunstige 
en Plante- Vandring fra Island til Syd- og Ostgrenland fremfor 
fra Amerika lil denne Del af Landet, og dermed er da givet en 
naturlig Forkiaring af, hvorfor disse Dele af Grenland have saa 
mange flere europaeiske Arter end amerlkanske: at naturlige 
Forbihdelser ere knyttede mellem beslaegtede Kli- 
mater, er Grunden. 

Interessant kunde det maaske endnu vaere at undersege, 
om de ejendommelige Planter i Sydgrenland i en saerlig Grad 
let ville kunne transporteres over Havet. Disse 59 Planter for- 
dele sig saaledes: omtrent Vi> — Vs ere Vand- eller dog Fugtig- 
hed elskende Planter; omtrent Vs have Sporer eller meget smaa 
Fr0, eller Fro (og Frugter) med Flyveapparater, f. Ex. BirkeneM. 
1 Art bar kjodfuld Frugt, 2 ere Strandplanter, som rimeligvis 
let udbredes ved Havstromme, og 13 (Vs — V4) ere Landplanter 
med lidt sterre Fre (nogle ville maaske kalde dem smaa, f. Ex. 
Fr^ene af Arahis^ Matricaria) eller temmelig tunge Fre (f. Ex. 
Vicia Cracca). I det hele syues disse Fra og Frugter derfor 
meget lel at kunne vandre; lil de let vandrende maa nemlig de 
fleste Vandplanters sikkert henfores, hvormed stemmer Vand- 
planlernes vide Udbredelse. Man kunde endnu have undersogt, 
om Sydgronland i det hele har flere Fro og Frugter med sterre 
Vandringsevne end de andre Dele af Gronland, og gjort andre 
lignende Undersogelser, men da jeg ikke Iror, at de udvundne 
Resultater ville blive synderlig tydelige eller sikre, har jeg ikke 
indladt mig paa dette ret vidtloftige Arbejde. 

Mine i det ovenstaaende udviklede Resultater ere alt- 
saa felgende: 

Der er intet til Hinder for, at Hovedmassen af Grenlands 
Karplanter kan have overlevet Istiden i Landet selv; efter denne 

M Om GruDdeu til, at saa faa Pile ere indvandrede i Sydgrenland se mln 
Gisning S. 13, Noten. Man kunde maaske endog herl se en Stette for 
den Antagelse, at der ingen Landbro har vaeret. 



216 

have de sukcessivt bredt sig ud over del afdaekkede Terrain. 
Indvandring fra andre Lande kan desuden have forepaaet over 
Havet til alle Landets Egne, lettesl dog lil del nordligste og til 
Syd- og Sydeslgronland. Der er ikke nogen Grund til at antage 
en postglacial Indvandring over en sammenhaengende LandslraRk- 
ning fra Enropa. Del ringe Overskud af europaiske Typer over 
amerikanske, som findes i Grenland, skyldes Sydgrenlands sterre 
Rigdom paa europaeiske Typer; deres Naervaerelse her forklares 
fyldeslgjorende ved Klimatels Overensstemmelse med Vesteuropa 
og ved en slerre Lelhed for Plantevandring fra navniig Island 
til Sydgrenland end fra Amerika til Grenlands sydligere og 
mellemste Egne. Grenland er saaledes ikke nogen europaeisk 
Provins i plantegeograflsk Henseende, har ingen udviklings- 
historisk Forbindelse med Europa, i alt Paid postglacialt; del 
sandsynligste synes mig endogsaa at vaere, at del, scerlig dels 
sydlige Dele, slet ingen har haft med detle Land siden endog 
maaske Midten af Tertiaertiden. Gronland vil sikkerl vise sig i 
del hele at slaa Nordamerika naermest, men liar dog saadanne 
Ejendommeligheder, at det maa saetles som noget for sig. 



Jeg har endnu en kjaer Pligl, nemlig at bringe en Tak til 
de mange, som velvillig have slaaet mig hi med Oplysninger i 
Anledning af detle Arbejde; saerlig maa jeg naevne Prof. Sv. 
Berggren i Lund, der har gjennemset det raesle, som handler 
om iMosfloraen, hvilken ban kjender af Aulopsi; Dr. H. Rink; 
Prof. Job. Lange; Forstmesler Norman i Laurvig; Prof. Th. 
Fries i Upsala; Cand. mag. L. Kolderup Rosenvinge; Cand. 
P.Eberlin; Laboratorieforslander Chr. Grenl and; vorl mete- 
orologiske Insliluls Direkler, Hr. Ad. Paulsen, og Underdlrekter, 
Hr.Willaume-Jantzen; Cand. 0. Winge; Apotheker Chr. 
Jensen. 

De store Vanskeligheder, der ere ved paa Basis af en saa 
ringe Literatur og en saa ringe egen Erfaring at tegne el kor- 



216 



rekt Billede af Grenlands Vegetation — saa vi ikke blot faa et 
sandt Billede af Vegelationsformationerne eller en sand Analyse af 
Vegetalionsdaikket, men ogsaa faa Rede paa Aarsagerne til dem 
og deres Fordeling — ere vel ikke blevne belt afhjulpne ved 
al denne HjcElp, men dog er vist meget blevet rettel. Jeg beder 
nu om, at man vil vaere overbaerende med mit Arbejdes Mangier 
og godhedsfuldt meddele mig, hvad man finder at bemaerke; 
det bar kostet baade Tid og Meje, og saa meget haaber jeg 
dog at opnaa, at det vil vare fremtidige rejsende i Landet en 
lettere Sag end f0r at orientere sig i dets Vegetationsforma- 
tioner og tilfere deres Rettelser. iVled llensyn bertil beder jeg 
de rejsende at laegge Maerke til, hvad en af de betydeligste 
Plantegeografer, Grisebach, bar sagt om den videnskabelige 
rejsende, at bans Forberedelse eller Foruddannelse «auf den 
Werth seiner Leistungen (i plantegeografisk Henseende) einen 
weniger bedentenden Einfluss ausiibe als in anderen Gebieten 
der Naturwissenschaft, wenn ihm nur die naturliche Begabung 
zu Gebote stehe, den landscbaftlichen Charakter eines Landes 
aiifzufassen und durch die Vergleicbung mit heimathlichen Na- 
tureindriicken in der .\lannigfaltigkeit der Einzelheiten das Kigen- 
thlimlicbe zu erkennen». Enhver, der bar denne Begavelse. 
kan altsaa vaere min Kritiker^). 

INaar jeg bar gjort et lille Forsog — det ferste, saa vidt 
jeg ved, der overhovedet er gjort — paa en sammenlignende 
arklisk Flantegeografi, hvad Vegetationsformationerne i hele det 
arktiske Omraade angaar, da kan dette selvfolgelig ikke vaere 
andet end meget ufuldkomment; thi det er for det ferste 
overmaade vanskeligt uden ved Autopsie at danne sig en kor- 
rekt Forestilling om, hvordan der egentlig ser ud i andre Lande, 
og vi have desuden hidtil meget faa fyldige Vaerker om de 



) Enhver kan ogsaji, selv om han ikke er egentlig Botaniker, gjere Plante- 
samlinger, og har han en skarp lagttagelsesevne, kan han finde Arter, 
der i plantegeografisk Henseende ere at' sterste Interessc, hvad f. Ex. 
Kapitain J. A. U. Jensen og Kornerup have visl. 



217 

arkliske Vegetationsformationer (af aeldre isaer iMiddeodorff 
og V. Baer, af nyere Kjellmann og Nathorst). Men del 
kan maaske dog Ijene til at udliaeve en Del Forskjelligheder 
mellem Grenland og andre hejnordiske Lande, som FremlideD 
maa stille i et klarere Lys. 

Jeg har haft Fornemmelsen af at vaere bleven for vidlloflig, 
vist Dok fordi den paagjaldende LIteratur og JEmnei i del hele 
var mig saa nyt; men efter at Arbejdet var udfert og dog 
nogenlunde blevet en Helhed , var det inegel vanskeligl at for- 
korte det. Jeg trester mig med, at det drejer sig om maaske 
det interessanteste og dog endnu saa ufiildstaendig kjendle Land 
i Hejnorden , om hvilket enhver Opiysning maa have Interesse, 
og jeg skal anfere et Ord af Etatsraad Steenstrup i et Brev 111 
mig: "Forstaaelsen af Gronlands Flora vil altid danne et af de 
vigtigste Midler til en forstandig Opfattelse af den markvaerdige 
Istid — dens Forberedelse og dens Folger og Eflerveer*. 



Til Slutning den historiske Opiysning, at Manuskriptet efler 
mange Forarbejder er udarbejdet fra Foraaret 1886 til Maj 1887, 
da det omtrent var renskrevet. Den 1 8 Marts 1887 foredrog 
jeg et Udtog i Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab og i Marls 
og April holdt jeg Ire offentlige Forelaesninger i «den Nalur- 
hisloriske Forening-. over dette ^mne. Da Trykningen imidler- 
lid ferst kunde fmde Sled i Efteraaret og Vinteren 1887—88, 
har en Maengde Tiifejelser kunnet indskydes. 



218 



Tilf0jelser og Rettelser. 



S. II. Ellen staar opfort, som om den ogsaa forekom paa Island, men efter 
Grenlunds •Flora* er den ikke funden der. 

S. 16. Dr. Bink (der godhedsfuldt har meddelt mig nogle Bemaerkninger 
til denne Afhandling) mener dog, at de Bejsendes Skildringer af 
Graisvaexten er for optimistisk, og at 'gedet Jords- Plantevaext i 
visse Tilfaelde, saa som ved Igaliko, har vaeret med i Spillet. 

S. 20. TromsBs Bredde er 69° 39', ikke 60° 39'. 

S. 24. Om det i Noten omtalte Forhold, at de danskes Mabler i Huseoe 
revne af Terhed, har Kapit. G. Holm meddelt mig, at han ogsaa i 
Sydgronland har hert Klage herover, og Dr. Bink har gjort mig 
opmaerksom paa, at dette Forhold skyldes den store Forskjel om 
Vinteren mellem Temperaturen inde i og uden for Husene, hvorom 
jeg ser, at han ogsaa har udtalt sig i "Grenland* I, S. 52. 

S. 26. 1 Begyndelsen af Afhandlingen har jeg benyttet Navnet -Vegetations- 
former" til Betegnelse for det, som Tyskerne kaide • Vegetations- 
formationen-. fordi det forekom mig ikke blot at sige ganske det 
samme, men tlllige at vaere mere velklingende og kort. Da det 
imidlertid synes, at Navnet -Vegetationsform-* vil blive almindelig 
anvendt i samme Betydning, som Grisebach har brugt det i, 
nemlig til at betegne, hvad jeg hellere vilde kalde -Planteform- 
(fysioguomisk Form), har jeg senere aendret det til Vegetationsforma- 
tion, hvilken Betegnelse jeg bruger i Overensstemmelse med Drude 
og andre. 

S. 33. Assistent Steenstrup har meddelt mig, at Kvanen ogsaa voxer i 
den store Dal, der bag Ujaragsugsuk i Vaigattet gaar ind til Midter- 
bugten, og han mener, at han ligeledes har set den eller hart Tale 
om den fra Nugsuaks Halvo. 

S. 38. Dr. Bink har gjort den Bemaerkning, at Urtemarken efter bans Op- 
fattelse snarest er et Mellemled mellem Pilekrattenes Formation og. 
Lynghedens, "Udgaaende fra bin og strejfende over i denne*. Det 
er mig ogsaa sandsynligt, at der er Mellemformer mellem den Urte- 



219 



mark, som jeg har haft for 0je, op som jeg ubellnpet vil regiic 
naermesl til Kratlene, og Lyngheden eller FjaBldmarken ; se ogaaa 
mine Bemaerkninger om Forholdet til Kjellmana .Blomslermark. 
og Nalhorsts •sluttningar- S. 44, 102 og 104—105. Men hvor 
udbredte og ejeiidommelige de ere, ved jeg inlet om. Del er I 
Virkeligheden , som Rink skriver, .ikke let at gjere del ferste Ud- 
kasl» til el System, som del, jeg her har segt at fremsiille, navnlig 
fordi der overall er Overgange, og der skal el langt Kjendskab til 
Landet for nied Sikkerhed at kunnc demme om, hvlike Vegetations- 
formatioiier der ere de almindeligst udbredte og mest gelvstaendlgc, 
som derfor bur opslilles som Hovedformationerne, og hviike der 
naermest maa betragtes som sjaeldnere og mere tilfaeldige Variatloner. 

S. 7i. Jeg er efterhaandeii bleven mere overbevist om, at hvis •Fjald- 
marken» end niaaske kan blive staaende som en Hovedvegetations- 
formation , bor den i alle Kald vist i hejere Grad end de andre 
Formationer underafdeles. Fn af (Jnderafdelingerne turde passende' 
kaldes -Grusmarken- — en stajrkt gruset, mest lerel, fuglig og 
kold Mark, paa hvilken visse Fjajidurler optrsedc med sterre For- 
kja;rlighed end andre. 

S. 80. L. 1 1 fra neden: overall, lies: som. 

S. 96. Noten. Tilfojes kan en Henvisning til: Kraus, 'Cher Alter und 
Wachslhumsverhaltnisse ostgrenlandischer HoIzgewachse», i -Zweite 
deulsche iNordpolfahrt., 2, S. 133— 137. 

S. 127. I Anledning af min Bemaerkning nederst paa denne Side bar 
Dr. Rink gjort niig opmajrksom paa en Meddelelse af J. A. D. Jensen 
i -Meddel. om Gronland-, II, S. I4l, hvilken jeg ikke har lagt til- 
slraekkelig Maerke til. 

S. 179. I Slykket med Petit ere Ordene «vestlig» og •estlig- blevne om- 
bytlede der, hvor der tales om Grenlands Forhold. Der skulde selv- 
folgelig staa: \'n ore vestlige Typer, Vs— '/» esllige. 

Del er heldigvis lykkedes mig at faa de manglende plante- 
geografiske Opiysninger saa lidligt, at jeg ved at forhale Rentryk- 
ningen af dette sidste Ark kan tilfoje mil endelige Resultat. Efter 
dette stiller Sagen sig saaledes: tilffelles med Amerika eller Amerika 
og Sibirien har Grenland 36 Arler, Island kun 3, Faeroerne 0; med 
Europa eller Europa og Sibirien eller Europa og Spitsbergen eller 
med alle disse tre Lande har Grenland 42, Island 77 og Faeroerne 
77. Herefter er der altsaa blot 6 BStlige Typer flere end vesUlge i 
Grenland, medens der i Island er 74 flere. Der er altsaa c. */io 
vestlige og ^1% osllige Former i Grenland. Men saa har Jeg 
vist del esllige Element den Faver hell at regne SpllzbergeD med 
til 0st og lade de Arter, der llndes i Amerika og Spitxbergen 
eller Amerika, 0stasien og Spitsbergen, men ikke anden Sleds. J all 
dog blot 4, iide af Betraglning som va-rende falles for 8si og Vest. 
skjenl jog ikke ser nogen fornuftig Grund til at belragte dem som 
virkelig esllige Typer; ligesaa godt kunde de vel v«re grenlandske 
eller endog amerlkanske. Og llgeledes lader jeg de ? After ude af 



220 



Betragtninji, som foruden i Grenland ogsaa ere fuiidne i Sibirien, 
men ikke i Europa eller Amerika, skjanl ogsaa disse snarest ere at 
betragfe som vestlige Typer. Laegges disse 6 Arter til de vestlige, 
bliver der 4 2 af disse mod 4 2 ostlige. Naar herved endvidere 
erindres, at der til ostllge Former er blevet henregnet et ikke ringe 
Aiilal Arter, der i Europa blot Andes paa Novaja Zemija eller i det 
nordlige Rusjand og Finland ind i Halvoen Kola, og som utvivlsomt 
1 Virkeligheden ere asiatiske Former, der aldrig have vaeret i 
Vesl-Europa og som selvfeigelig heller ikke ere indvandrede til 
Grenland fra Vesleuropa, men rimeligvis tra Asien over Amerika, vil 
man se, at jeg bar indrommet det estlige Element meget mere, end 
der egentlig kan tildeles det. Det vil selvfelgelig egenllig komme i 
en, vist endog ret belydelig Minoritet over for det vestlige. Alle de 
andre Arter, der her lades ude af Betraglninc, ere enten cirkum- 
polaere eller zonale (a: spredte den hele Zone rundi) eller de ere i 
det mindsle faelles for Europa og Amerika, altsaa neutrale eller 
uklare over for det Spergsmaal, hvorom del her drejer sig. 

Jeg skal endnu gjere opniiBrksom paa, at da nogle Tilhaengere 
af Indvandringen over Landbroen fra Europa maaske ikke med Be- 
stemthed vilie htevde dens postglaciale Existens, men antage. at 
den opherte at existere med Istiden, ja at dens Gjennembrud vel 
endog skulde vaere en Grund til Istidens Ophor (man finder ikke 
alle Vegne Meningerne tilstraekkelig klart udlalte), saa vilie disse og 
de evrige plantegeograflske Data vel vaere tilstraekkelige til at vise 
det aldeles lese og ubegrundede ogsaa heri. Der var sikkert heller 
ingen Landforbindelse ved Istidens Begyndelse, thi saa vilde Islands 
og Gronlands Floraer vist nok ligiie hinanden langt mere end de 
gjore. Det er maaske muligt, at der i endnu eeldre Tid har vaeret 
Landl'orbindelser mellem Gronland og Europa, men mon de da 
ikke snarest maa laegges langt nordligere end Island — Faero-Broen? 
Skal vl imidlertid ind paa saa gamle Landforbindeiser, komme vi 
ind i saa mange Hypotheser, at Grunden bliver aldeles les og 
gyngende. 
S. 196. Lector Scheutz har opiyst mig om , at Calamagroatis hyperborea 
findes i Vestsibirien (naermere vil vel Andes i bans endnu ej publi- 
•cerede Arbejde om Jenlsei-Omraadets Flora); den udgaar altsaa af 
de endemisk-gronlandskes Tal. Derimod bor blandt disse vist nok 
optages: Poa laxiuscula, der naeppe er sikker for Skandinavien. 
Totalantallet bliver altsaa uforandret t5. 



221 



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til hvilken der isar er henvist i Texten. 



V. Baer, Expedition k Novaia-Zemblia et en Laponie (Bulletin scientifique 

public par I'Academie imper. des sciences de Saint-Petersbourg, Hi. 

1838). 
Sv. Berggren, Bidrag till kannedom om Fa nerogam f loran ved Dlsko- 

bugten och Auleitsivikfjorden paa Gronlands vestkusl. lOfverslgt af 

K Vetensk. Akad. FOrhandl. 1871, S. 853—897). 

Undersokning af Mossfloran vid Disko-Bugten och Auleitsivikfjorden 

i Gionland. (K Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl. XIII. 1875.) 

A. Berlin, Karlviixter, insamlade under den svenska expeditionen till Gron- 

land 1883 (Ofversigt af Kgl. Vet. Akad. Forhandl. 1884). 
A. BIytt, Die Theorie der wechselnden kontinentalen und insularen Klimale. 

(Englers Jahrhncher, II, 1882, S. 1—50.) 
V. F. Brotherus, liotanisciie Wanderungen aiif der Halbinsel Kola. (Botan. 

Centralbl. 1886.) 
Rob. Brown (of Campsl.), Florula Discoana. (Transact. Botan. Soc. , IX, 

1867; reprinted in Arctic manual). 
F. Bu die nan und W. 0. Focke, Gefiisspflanzen Nordostgronlands (Zweile 

deutsche Nordpolfahrl, II, 8.12—69). 
Christ, Das Pllanzenleben der Schweiz. Zurich 1879. 
Crantz, Historic von Gr6nlan<l. 1765. 

Fortsetzung der Historic, 1770. 

Egede, Hans, Det gamie Gronlands nye Perlusiration eller Naturel-Hislorie. 

Kjobenhavn 1741. 
N.J. Felimann, Planla' vasculares in Lapponia orientali spunte nascentes 

(Notiser or Piillskapels pro Fauna et flora Fennica etc. H. 7, 1867|. 
Th. Fries, F.n botaiiisk resa i Finmarken 1864. (Botan. Notiser 18651. 
Gieseckes niineralogiske Rejsc i Gronland ved F. Johnslrup. Kjeben- 

havn 1878. 
A. Greeiy, Three years of arctic service. Vol. I et II. London 1886. 
Grlsebach, Die Vegetation der Erde nacli ihrer klimaiischen Anordnuns. 

Leipzig 1872. 



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Grenliind, Chr., Karakteristik aC Pla ntevaexten paa Island. (Nalur- 

historisk Forenings Festskrift, 1884; 39 Sider med I Kort.) 
— — Islands Flora. Kjebenhavn 1881. 
H.C.Hart, On the Botany of the British Polar Expedition of 1875-76. 

(Journal of Botany. New Series vol. IX. 1880.) 
Hayes, The oppn polar sea, London 1867. 
Hjelt og Hull, Vegetationen og floran i en del af Kemi Lappmark och 

nofra Osterbotten. (Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora fennica. 

Hafte 12. 1885.) 
J. D. Hooker, Outlines of the distribution of Arctic plants. (Trans. Linn. Soc. 

XXllI. 1860.) 
.1. A. D. .lensen, Forskjellige Rejseberetninger i «Meddelelser om Grenland-. 
Inglefield, A summer search for Sir John Franklin. London 1853. 
Kihlman, Floran i Inari Lappmark (Soc. pro Fauna et Flora fennica. 11. 

1884). 
Kjeilman, «0m vaxtligheten pji Sibiriens nordkust», og andre Afhandlinger 

i "Vega-Expeditionens vetenskapliga lagttagelser.«, Bd. I, 1882. 
L'r polarvaxternas lif. (.Nordenskiolds studier och forskningar. Stock- 
holm 1884. S. 461.) ' 
A. Kornerup, Forskjellige Afhandlinger og Beretninger i -Meddelelser om 

Grenland* og i -Geograph. Tidsskrift». 
Job. Lange, Conspectus tloriE groenlandicae i 111 H. af "Meddelelser om 

Grenland". 1880 og 1887. 

Studier til Gronlands Flora (Hotan. Tidsskrift 1880, Bd. 12.) 

N.Lund,- Forelebig Beretning om en botanisk Reise i Ostfinmarken i Som- 

meren 1842. (Botaniska Noliser. 1846). 
Middendorff, Sibiriske Reise. St. Petersburg. 

Nares, Voyage to the North Polar Sea during 1875—76, 2. vol. London 1878. 
A. G. Nathorst, Botaniska anteckningar Iran nordvestra Gronland. 

(Ofverslgt af K. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. 1S84, Stockholm). 

Nya bidrag till kaiinedomen om Spetsbergens Karlvaxter oeh dess 

vaxtgeografiska forhallanden, (K. Sv. Vet. Akad. HandL XX. 1883). 

Polarforskningens bidrag till forntidens vaxtgeograti (Nordenskiolds 

studier og forskningar; Stockholm 1884). 

A. Pansch, Rlima und Pflanzenleben auf Ostgronland; ("Zweite deutsche 

Nordpolfahrt., II, S. 5 — 11.) 
Jul. Payer, Die oesterr.-ungar. Nordpol-Expedltion in den Jahren 1872—74 

nebst einer Skizze der zweiteu deutschen Nordpol-Expedition etc. Wien 

1876. 

Afsnit af -Zweite deutsche Nordpolfahrt* (se denne). 

Raben, Greve Fr. Chr., Udtog af en Dagbog, holdet paa en Reise i Gren- 
land i Sommeren 1823 (Tidsskrift f. Naturvidenskaberne, Bd. 3, 1824, 
og Bd. 4, 1826). 

Richardson, Search expedition ihroug Ruperts Land. 

H. Rink, Gronland, geographisk og statistisk beskrevet. Kjebenhavn 1857. 
2 Bd. 



223 



H. Rink, Danish Greenland, its people and its products; edited by Dr. Rob- 
Brown. London 1877. 

Suttierland , Journal of a voyage in Baffins Bay and Barrow Straits in the 
years 1850—51. London 1852. 

Trautvetter, i MiddendorfTs Sibirisclie Heise, Bd. 1. 

(Die) zweile deutsche Nordpnlarfalirt in den Jahren 1869 und 1870. 2 Bd. 
Leipzig 1873—74. 



Sur la v6g6tatioii du Grrenland. 

Par 
M. Eug. Warming. 



Lie memoire qui precede est base en parlie sur les observalions que 
j'ai eu roccasion de faire pendant un voyage au Grenland, en 1884 (sur 
lequel un rapport a el6 publie dans le VHP volume des "Meddelelser 
om Grenlandw), en parlie sur differentes notices manuscriles de voya- 
geurs el de bolanisles danois, Wormskjold (1813) el Jens Vahl 
(1828 — 1836), qui se Irouvenl dans les archives du Jardin Bolanique 
de Copenhague, en parlie enfin sur toules les observalions que j'ai 
pu recueillir dans la lillerature. On trouvera p. 220 — 223 la lisle 
des ouvrages auxquels je me reffere dans le lexle danois. 

I. La region des bouleaux au Gronland. 

Le Grenland ne poss^de que deux des regions bolaniques de la 
Scandinavie: la region des bouleaux el la region alpine. La der- 
niere occupe presque toule la surface qui n'cst pas couverle par la 
glace, la premiere ne se Irouve que dans la parlie la plus meridio- 
nale du pays, environ jusqu'au 61 — 62° Lai. N., dans I'inlerieur des 
nombreux fjords qui du Sud el du Sud-Ouesl penelrenl profondemenl 
dans les terres. L^ se renconlrenl encore des forftls de bouleaux 
(Betula odorata var. tortuosa el B. intermedia^), donl les troncs , il 
est vrai, sont decombanls dans leur parlie inferieure, el, de merae 
que les branches, sonl courb6s el lordus, mais qui cependanl peuvenl 



*) Pour les dinomlnalions des esp^ces, j'ai sulvl rimportanl et precleux 
travail de M. Joh. Lange sur les Phanerogames dans le Conspectus 
floriE gronlandlcffi, III Vol. des .Meddelelser cm Grenland* 1880 et 
1887. 
XII. • 16 



226 



alleindre des hauteurs de 4 — 5 — 6 metres el un diamelre de 20 
cenlira. On Irouvera p. 7 un tableau indiquanl pour 11 Irones le 
nombre des couches annuelles , leur plus grand diaraetre , leur plus 
grand rayon el la largeur raoyenne des couches pour ce rayon. 
Outre ces deux especes de bouleaux, on Irouve, mais rarement, 
le B. alpestris , el k cote des bouleaux , le Sorbus americana Willd. 
(ordinairemenl haul de 1 ^ 2 m. sur une epaisseur de 5 cm.); 
VAlnus ovata (Schr.) var. repens (Wormskj.), avec des dimensions ana- 
logues; il peul cependanl alleindre une hauteur de 3 m. el I'epais- 
seur d'un bras; le Juniperus communis var. nana^ qui n'a d'ordinaire 
qu'une epaisseur de 6 — 8 cm., rarement de 16 environ (voir p. 9 
un tableau qui donne les mesures de 10 Ironcs). Enfm on rencontre 
aussi des saules [Salix glauca el le petit S. Myrdnitis) ainsi que le 
bouleau nain [Betula glandulosa). 

Pour ce qui regarde la vegetation herbacee dans les forets el 
les laillis de bouleaux el les plantes qui croissenl sur le sol foreslier, 
on ne sail encore rien de precis. Mais il n'y a pas moins de 55 
especes de plantes herbacees qui ne se trouvent que dans ces parties 
les plus meridionales du Grenland (vers le 62° Lat. N. sur la cote 
occidenlale el au 60° sur la cote orienlale), el il est a supposer 
qu'elles sonl liees plus ou moins k la region des bouleaux ; on en 
Irouvera la lisle p. 14 (les lellres qui precedent les noms signifienl: 
E^ que I'espece esl un type europeen; A^ qu'elle est americaine et 
G^ qu'elle esl endemique). La grande abondance des Graminees 
semble aussi caracterislique de la region des bouleaux; on y Irouve, 
parail-il, de veritables paturages el des prairies oil les Graminees 
sonl vigoureuses et predominent (voir p. 15 — 17). 

Dans tout I'heraisphere nord, I'etendue comprenanl le Grenland, 
rislande, la INorvege et la Laponie jusqu'a la mer Blanche, esl la 
seule oil le bouleau forme la limite polaire des forets; de la mer 
Blanche h. travers la Russie, la Siberie el TAmerique, ce sonl les 
Coniferes (voir 0. Drude «Allas der Pflanzenverbreilung)) dans Berghaus 
"Physikalischer Atlas »). L'Islande appartienl evidemmenl au domaine 
du bouleau; on y Irouve encore dans I'Esl et le Nord de beaux 
resles de forets de bouleaux. Le Grenland semble ainsi se rallacher 
a I'Europe, mais devant un examen plus approfondi, la ressemblance 
disparail ; les especes des plantes ligneuses sonl en parlie difTerentes 
(le Grenland a 4 especes americaines el 3 europeennes , v. p. 12); 
il est de plus singulieremenl pauvre en saules par rapport a la 
Scandinavie (v. p. 13), et la vegetation herbacee y esl en parlie Ires 



227 

dillerenle. Parmi les 66 planles herbacees qui croissenl seulemenl 
dans le Sudgronland, il y a 4 especes americaines el 10 europ^enncs, 
el en tenant compte de loules celles qui croissenl au sud du 62° sur 
le cole ouesl el au sud du 60° sur le cole esl, on Irouve 18 especea 
americaines el 30 europeennes. Ln grand nombre des planles her- 
bacees les plus comnrjunes de la Scandinavie manquent au Greoland 
(elles sent en parlie nommees p. 17 el 18). 

Si ce sonl les for^ls de bouleaux qui , au Gronland comme en 
Islande el en Scandinavie, formenl la limile nord de la vegetation 
forestiere, il faut en chercher la cause dans la similitude du climat. 
Les tableaux, p. 20—23, montrenl que le climat du Sudgrenland (Iviglul) 
correspond exactement pour la temperature avec celul de i'lslande el 
de la Norv^ge septenlrionale el pour la quantity d'eau lombee avec 
la parlie moyenne de la cole occidenlale de la Norvege; celte quantile, 
a Iviglul, alleint en moyenne la hauteur ^norme de 1146,6 millim. 
Si les Coniferes, sur d'autres points de I'hemisphere boreal, delogenl 
le bouleau de la limile des for^ts, la raison en est probablemenl 
que, dans ces regions, I'air est moins humide, le froid plus intense 
el le climat plus continental. 



Je ne puis enlrer dans aucun detail sur les formations vege- 
tates dans la region du bouleau; mais elles sont certainemenl pour 
la pluparl analogues a celles de la region arclique ou alpine. J'y 
distingue les formations principales suivantes: les oseraies (Pilekrat) avec 
les pacages herbeux (Urtemark), les bruyeres, la flore rupeslre (Fja;ld- 
mark), qui correspondent a la force graduellemenl decroissanle du 
climat, la flore des marais, celle du littoral et celle de la terre furaee, 
lesquelles dependent moins du climal que de la nature physique el 
chimique de la terre. Les oseraies correspondent surloul k la •Regie 
alpina inferior* de VVahlenberg et la flore rupeslre a sa -Regio 
nivalis" (voir p. 26 — 27). 

II. Oseraies (Pilekrat) et pacages herbeux (Urte- 
mark). (P. 27—44). 

Dans la region du bouleau et au nord de celle-cl jusqu'au 73° 
Lai. N. on Irouve des oseraies dans les endroits abrites , exposes au 
soleil, au fond des valines, \k oil de I'hunms a pu se rassembler el 
oil des ruisseaux I'arrosenl pendant Teie. Les arbrlsseaux suivanU 

15* 



228 



croissenl dans ces oseraies: VAlnus ovata var, repens, qui est Ires 
abondani, k coup sur, dans les parlies meridionales du pays, mais ne 
va que jusqu'au cercic polaire environ ; le Jimiperus communis var. nana, 
qui ne depasse pas le 68°; les bouleaux nains : le Betula glandulosa, 
dans le Sud jusqu'au 62°, el plus haul vers le iV(ord, le Betula nana', 
mais surloul le Salix glauca qui, a 67 — 68° Lat. N., forme encore 
des taillis a hauleur d'homme; a Upernivik, il alleinl seulemenl une 
hauleur de 0"',50 a 0°^,66. 

La lerre dans les oseraies est un humus noir el ferlile oii vivenl 
des vers de lerre; elle esl ordinairemenl humide, raais il y a aussi 
des laillis a lerrain sec, el la vegelalion herbacee varie un peu avec 
le degre de secheresse, comrae aussi avec la lalitude. Les planles 
herbacees qui disparaissenl enlre le 62 el le 64° el enlre le 64 el 
le67°Lal. N. sur la cole occidentale, sonl enumerees p. 34; sur loule 
la cole occidenlale, du 60 au 70° Lai. N., on trouve celles qui sonl 
enum6rees p. 34 — 35, mais elle ne sonl pas loules egalemenl com- 
munes. Celle qui alleinl la plus grande hauleur est V Archangelica offi- 
cinalis', parmi les plus ordinaires nous cilerons les suivantes : Alche- 
milla vulgaris, Potentilla maculata, Sibbaldia procumbens, Cerastium 
alpinum , Arabis alpina , Thalictrum alpinum , Taraxacum officinale , 
Luzula parvifiora, Bartsia alpina, Carex scirpoidea, Poie, Oxyria digyna, 
Trisetum subspicatwn, Aspidium Lonchitis, elc. elc. 

Le sol des oseraies esl riche en mousses, qui croissenl le long 
des ruisseaux comme dans les parlies plus seches ; les plus ordi- 
naires sonl menlionnees p. 35 — 36. Par conlre, il y a Ires peu de 
lichens. 

Les espaces lapisses d'une basse vegelalion , souvenl conligus 
aux oseraies, mais parfois aussi isoles a une grande allilude sur les 
montagnes, dans les depressions ou de la lerre vegelale a pu se 
rassembler el se trouve arrosee par des fllels d'eau , consliluenl une 
formation vegelale parlicuiiere. On pourrait les appeler des champs 
de graminees si celles-ci pr6dominaienl, mais elles sonl ordinairemenl 
refoulees el parfois a un lei point qu'elles onl presque enlieremenl 
cede la place a d'aulres herbes vivaces («Slauden)'). Ce sonl des 
champs verts, riches en fleurs et oil croissenl environ les memes 
especes que dans les oseraies, mais sans arbrisseaux ni herbes haules. 
Je les ai appeles «(Jrlemark» (p. 38 — 39). 

Dans d'aulres pays du Nord, nous Irouvons des formations 
vegelales analogues. Les oseraies de I'lslande renfermenl beau- 
coup d'especes de saules, el la vegelalion herbacee y est bien plus 



229 



europeenne (p. 42) ; celle de la Scandinavie a 616 en parlie men- 
lionnee plus haul (voir aussi p. 41— 42). En Siberie, on Irouve ce 
que Middendorff appelle les ..Oasis- des Toundras, qui serablenl 
etre des «l]rlemark.. (p. 43); il en esl de mfinie, d'aprfes v. Baer, 
^ la Nouvelle-Zemble. Par eonlre, les uSIullningar» de iNalborsl 
ail Spilzberg et les « champs de neurs- («Blomslermark.) de Kj ell- 
man dans le nord de la Siberie paraissenl 6lre plus difT6rents. 



III. La bruyere. (P. 44— 68). 

Cne Ires grande parlie de la surface du Grenland esl couverle 
d'une v6getalion qui peul elre continue et serree el riche en indl- 
vidus, el qui se compose principalement de pelils arbusles bas, 
hauls d'un pied loul au plus, k branches courbefes el lordues, 
d'herbes, de mousses el de lichens; les arbusles sonl en grande 
parlie loujours verls (des 20 esp6ces exislanles les 15 menlionnees 
p. 47 sonl loujours verls) ; il en est de m6me d'un grand nombre 
de planles herbacees (marquees d'un aslerisque dans la lisle p. 58 — 59), 
el aussi donnenl-elles au lerrain la meme leinle Irisle vert brun 
fonce qu'onl nos bruyeres europeennes. Comme les pelils arbusles 
rappellenl en parlie par leur aspect les bruyeres ou apparliennenl 
meme aux Ericin6es, j'ai donne a celle formation le nom de landes 
k bruyeres, ce qui ne doil pas faire croire qu'elles s'etendenl sur 
de grandes plaines comme dans le nord de I'Europe, car il n'en 
exisle guere au Grenland. Mais les collines et les monlagnes basses 
peuvent en elre couverles sur de grandes elendues, surlout ]k ou le 
lerrain est assez plat. La terre des landes k bruyeres esl seche, noire 
et sablonneuse, souvent aussi graveleuse; souvenl le fond de roches 
est irhs pres de la surface, I'eau s'6coule vile ou s'6vapore el la 
terre s'echaufTe facileraenl sous I'aclion du soleil; on n'y Irouve 
guere de vers de terre, k ce qu'il me semble. II y a de plus k 
remarquer que uon seulemenl les feuilles morles reslenl pendant des 
annees sur les branches de \k plupart des arbusles des landes , en 
se reduisant lenlement en poussi6re que le vent emporle dans des 
lieux silues plus bas, oil elle forme de I'humus, mais que c'esl 
aussi le cas pour beaucoup de planles herbacees (voir p. 48, nole2); 
si Ton ajoule k cela que des mousses et des lichens sees rem- 
plissenl les inlervalles entre les racines enchev6lr6es et les liges des 
planles vasculaires, on comprendra qu'il peul se former une •lourbe 



230 



des bruyeres qui, comme en Jutland, par exemple, peul elre coupee 
en morceaux el brAlee. 

Les arbustes les plus frequents sonl VEmpetrum nigrum (p. 51 
— 52); le Cassiope tetragona, qui se monlre k parlir du 64° Lai. N.. 
devienl de plus en plus predominant en avan^anl vers le Nord , et 
eonslilue comme VEmpetrum une precieux combustible pour les 
voyageurs arcliques; le Vaccinium uliginosum var. microphyllurn ^ le 
Ledum palustre var. decumbens, le L. gr0nlandiciim ^ le Kliododendron 
lapponicum, le Phyllodoce coerulea et le Cassiope hypnoides', le Loise- 
leuria procumbens, le Dryas integrifolia el le Diapensia lapponica, ces 
Irois derniers croissant en louffes basses el serrees, Les arbustes qui 
alleignenl la plus grande longueur, mais qui pour cela sonl couches 
en couvranl la terre en forme d'espalier ei en se delournanl des points 
d'oii soufflenl les vents froids , sonl le Betula nana^ le Salix ylauca 
el le Juniperus communis var. nana. Viennenl enfln les petits arbustes 
suivants qui sonl rares en Grenland: le Vaccinium vitis idcea var. 
pumilum, V Arctostapliylos uva-ursi, VA* alpina, le Linnoea borealis el le 
Thymus Serpyllum var. decumbens. 

Les planles herbacees qu'on Irouve dans les landes soul enu- 
merees p. 57 — 59, les mousses el les lichens p. 60, en tanl qu'ils 
croissenl sur la lerre me me. Mais on rencontre dans les landes 
une grande quanlile de pierres de grosseur Ires variable, de meme 
que le rocher s'y fail jour en beaucoup d'endroits , et la croissenl 
d'autres mousses et d'aulres lichens. Bien qu'a vrai dire ils appar- 
tiennent a la «flore rupestro) («Fjaeldmark»), je les raentionne cepen- 
danl a propos de la lande a litre de comparaison (p. 61 — 62). 

Distribution geographique (p. 62 — 68). La lande de 
bruyere peul se renconlrer encore sous le 70° Lat. N. k une altitude 
de 2 — 3000 pieds, el elle s'elend loin vers le JNord. On Irouve des 
landes d'un aspect lout semblable en Islande, en Scandinavie (et dans 
d'autres parties du nord de I'Europe), dans le nord-est de la Siberie, 
en Laponie, dans I'Amerique du Nord (sur les « barren grounds «), 
mais il ne semble y en avoir ni k la Nouvelle-Zemble , ni au Spitz- 
berg, nl dans la parlie la plus septenlrionale du Grenland. Toulefois 
les arbustes qui croissenl sur ces landes sonl en partie des especes 
Ires differentes; les landes du Gronland ne different pas peu sous ce 
rapport de celles de I'lslande et du reste de I'Europe (voir p. 67), el 
semblent surlout se rapprocher de celles de TAmerique du Nord. 



231 



IV. Flore rupestre (Fjaeldmark) (p. 68—105). 

La oil le terrain s'6I^ve el devient plus escarpe , ou I'allilude 
au-dessus de la mer est Irop grande ou la lalilude irop seplenlrionale, 
oil le roc est partoul k nu ou desagrege sous forme de gravier, le sol 
n'esl plus couverl, corame dans les landes, d'arbusles el d'herbes 
formant une vegetation continue. La vegetation ne donne ici aucune 
couleur au passage, car toutes les planles y sont diss6rainees k de 
grands inlervalles; celles a branches lignenses onl en grande partie 
disparu; en dehors des mousses el des lichens, la pluparl sonl des 
planles herbaeees vivaces. Nous avons ici la Flora nivalis du Gren- 
land. Les herbes qu'on y rencontre sonl essenliellemenl les memes 
que celles des landes, mais quelques-unes sont plus rares, nolam- 
uienl les planles a stolons comme le Pyrola grandijlora , d'aulres 
plus communes, comme par exemple le Papaver nudicaule el le 
Potentilla Vahliana. On en Irouvera la lisle p. 70 — 71. La nalure 
physique du terrain e.tanl loin d'etre uniforme, il en resulte des diffe- 
rences quanl aux especes dominantes, el il faudra sans doule v 
inlroduire des subdivisions. Les planles phanerogames presenlenl ces 
particularites, que la pluparl croissent en forme de louffes, chaque 
individu avec une seule el forte racine (p. 72—73), que les feuilles 
sonl reunies en rosettes tout pres el au-dessus du sol (p. 73 — 74), 
el que les pousses, la premiere ou les premieres ann^es, d^veloppent 
de pareilles rosettes vegelalives, el ne fleurissent que I'annee ou les 
annees suivanles; plusieurs en outre sonl loujours verles (voir p. 
68—59). 

Les mousses du « Fjaeldmark* sonl enumerees p. 61 el 76, el 
les lichens p. 61 — 62 et 76. Ln grand nombre sonl noirs ou d'un 
brun noir, comme les Andrecea el les Gyrophora. Sous le rapport 
de la vegetation des lichens, il semble y avoir une assez grande 
difference entre la Scandinavie el le Grenland; en Norvege, par ex- 
emple, dans les monlagnes de Dovre, on voil au-dessus de la linaile 
des forels, de vastes etendues couvertes d'un lapis rooelleux el Ires 
epais de lichens {Cetrariae^ Cladonice^ Alectorice , etc.) qui meme a 
grande distance brille d'un 6clal blanchitre ou grisAlre. RIen de 
pareil ne semble exisler au Gronland. Les seuls endroils oil j'ai vu 
de ces lapis de lichens, c'est dans les 6cueils ou les iles le long 
des cotes , mais ils ne formaienl Qh el I^ que des laches relalive- 
menl d'une petite elendue. 

La limile des neiges perp^luelies (p. 82), sur la cdte occidenlale 



232 



du Grenland danois, semble elre siluee enlre 2 — 3000 pieds , mais 
on pent Irouver des regions sans neige el avec de la veg6lalion a 
des hauleurs bien plus grandes, par exemple a 4 — 4500 pieds sous 
le 70° Lat. N. Dans le <«Grinnell-Land» , la limile en question elail 
a 3000 pieds sur le nnonl Arthur, el dans le nord-esl du Grenland 
(70 — 76°), elle parail elre encore plus elevee. 

On sail peu de chose sur la difference de la vegetation suivant 
rallitude. Les plantes qui, dans la celebre expedition du capilaine 
Jensen sur la glace conlinentale, en 1878, furent lrouv6es sur les 
«Nunatakker» (sommels de rnonlagnes emergeant de la glace) a une 
altitude de 4 — 5000 pieds, sonl enumerees p. 84 — 86. Quanl aux 
plantes vasculaires donl on sail qu'elles croissenl jusqu'a une altitude 
de 2000 pieds, on en irouvera la lisle p. 86 — 87- La pluparl se irouvenl 
aussi dans I'extreme nord; Nalhorst a donne une lisle de 88 plantes 
vasculaires recueillies au nord du 76°, el donl seulemenl 28 (p. 96) 
n'ont pas ete Irouvees dans le Grenland danois au-dessus de 2000 pieds. 
Les Phanerogames du Grenland au nord du 80° sonl menlionnees 
p. 97; il y en a 33 especes. S'il peul encore croilre des vegetaux 
si haul vers le Nord, el si meme, dans des localites favorables, par 
exemple dans Discovery Bay, sous 82° 42' n. Lat., N., d'apres Hart, el 
dans I'interieur du Grinnell-Land, d'apres Greely, on peul Irouver 
une vegetation relativement riche, cela est du a la lumiere directe el 
en meme temps si permanenle du soleil, qui echauffe la lerre el les 
basses couches de Talmosphere a une temperature donl les mesures 
des raeleorologistes, prises ordinairemenl k I'ombre, ne donnenl au- 
cune idee. Des mesures prises directement au soleil onl done une 
grande importance pour la geographic vegelale, mais nous n'en avons 
que Ires peu; j'ai, p. 100 — 101, donne une petite s^rie de tempera- 
tures mesur6es au soleil avec un Ihermomelre a bouie tant noircie 
que non noircie. 

Distribution geographique. Le «Fjseldmark» occupe cer- 
lainemenl la surface la plus considerable dans le haul Nord. Bien 
que la pluparl des especes soienl circorapolaires, il y a cependant 
que^que difference entre la flore du Spitzberg ou de la Scandinavie 
el la Flora nivalis du Grenland (pour plus de details voir p. 104). 

V. Adaptation des plantes des landes 
a la se Cher esse. 

A certaines epoques, pendant el immedialemenl apres la fonle 
des neiges, les plantes des landes el du «Fja^ldmark'> onl une sur- 



UNIVERSITY 

OF 




23a 



abondance d'humidile; raais en Me elles sonl expos^es k souffrir de 
la grande secheresse du sol et de I'air. La minces couches de lerre 
des landes el du «Fja;ldmark» sonl 6chaulTees par le soleil , le peu 
d'humidil6 qui leur resle s'^vapore, el I'air peul pendanl longlempg 
eire Ires sec; les lichens sonl complfelemenl dess6ch6s el se r6dul- 
sent en poussiere lorsqu'on marche dessus, el les planles d'un ordre 
sup6rieur sonl de la m6rae maniere exposees a la secheresse. Quelque 
singulier que cela paraisse, il esl cependanl posilif que la v6gelalion 
dans les rochers el les landes du Grenland, mais specialenienl dans 
ces dernieres, presenle une slruclure analogue a celle des planles 
des deserls el des sleppes, par exeniple du d^serl arabique, slruclure 
qui leur permel de resisler au climal. J'ai, k eel egard, parliculiere- 
inenl eludie la slruclure des feuilies chez les pelils arbusles des landes, 
el constate que celle adaptation se manlfesle surtoul chez les arbu- 
sles loujoiirs verts. On trouve les l.ypes suivants pour la slruclure 
des feuilies des arbustes: 

I. Arbusles k feuilies cricoi'des: Empetrum nigrum (p. 107, Fig. 1), 
Cassiope tetragona (p. 108, Fig. 2). Les bords des feuilies sonl lei 
Ires fortemenl recourbes en arriere. de maniere k former sur la face 
dorsale de la feuille une grande chambre remplie d'air dans laquelle 
aboulissenl les stomales, et qui n'a d'autre ouverlure qii'une fente 
etroile donl les bords sonl garnis de polls , disposition qui diminue 
beaucoup la transpiration. Le Fhyllodoce caridea (p. 109, Fig. 3) a 
aussi une chambre analogue, mais plus petite el ouverte. 

n. Feuilies donl la face inferieure porte de nombreux polls 
lecleurs enlre el sous lesquels sonl les stomales. Les bords des 
feuilies, chez quelques planles, sonl plus ou moins recourbes en 
arriere: Ledum gr0nlandicum et palmtre (p. 110, Fig. 4); Dryas inte- 
grifolia (Fig. 6) el octopetala; Loiseleurta procumbens (Fig. 6); Salix 
glauca; Rhododendron lapponicum (p. 112, Fig. 7 — 8). Ce revfttement 
de polls, on le salt, diminue egalemenl la Iranspiralion. 

ill. Feuilies a structure "pinoide" (Vesque): Jtmiperua eommuni* 
(p. 113, Fig. 9) et Caaaiope hypnoides (p. 114, Fig. 10). Chez le pre- 
mier, les stomales formenl une bande longitudinale sur la face supe- 
rieure de la feuille. ParmI les planles herbacees, on trouve la m6me 
forme chez le Silene acaulis (p. 114, Fig. 11) et les Lycopodium. Les 
stomales ne sonl que peu ou pas du loul enfonces, el les feuilies ne 
porlenl pas de polls. La Iranspiralion dolt 6lre alTaiblie par la nalure 
de Tepiderme ou le petit nombre des stomales ; mais il esl aussI 
possible qu'une autre particularite agisse dans le m6me sens, k savoir 



234 



que les feuilles des formes grenlandaises du Juniperua (var. nana) el 
des deux Lyeopodes a feuilles elalees [L. Selago var. alpestre el L. 
annotinum var. alpestre) sonl beaueoup plus droiles el apprimees que 
Chez les formes principales (p. 116, Fig. 12), ce qui doil diminuer 
I'evaporalion. Je ne connais pas de varialions analogues chez d'aulres 
especes. 

IV. Feuilles avee un enduil de cire: Vaccinium uliginosum, el 
parmi les planles herbacees, la Rhodiola rosea. 

V. Si les feuilles n'onl pas aulre chose, elles onl en loul cas 
un epiderme Ires epais el culinise qui doil enlraver I'evaporalion. 
A celle calegorie apparliennenl V Arctostapliylos uva ursi^ le Vaccininm 
vitis idcea, le Linncea borealis ^ le Diapensia lapponica , le Betula nana 
el glandulosa, el on peul aussi y rapporler le Pyrola grandifiora. 
Les feuilles donl il s'agil sonl plus larges el onl des formes plus 
ordinaires. 

Les arbusles des landes el du «Fjffildmark» se dislinguenl en 
general par la pelilesse des feuilles; elles sonl plus peliles que celles 
des memes especes dans d'aulres pays. Le Vaccinium uliginosum ne 
se Irouve guere que sous la forme microphyllwn ^ de meme que le 
Vaccinium vitis idcea sous la forme pumilum, le Ledum palustre sous 
la forme decumbens, le Juniperus sous la forme nana; d'aulres especes 
onl egalemenl des feuilles plus peliles que celles d'especes voisines, 
p. ex. le Dryas integrifolia compare au Dryas octopetala, ou le Rhodo- 
dendron lapponiciim el les Betula nana el glandulosa compares k d'aulres 
especes plus raerldionales des memes genres. Les feuilles sonl aussi 
plus peliles chez quelques planles des marais , par exemple chez les 
deux varieles microphyllus el microcarpus de VOxycoccus palustris. 

Ces caracleres des feuilles el en general des parlies vegelalives 
des planles arcliques sonl dus a leur alimenlalion defeclueuse, ou au 
froid, ou a la secheresse el a la forte evaporalion a laquelle elles sonl 
exposees, el non a quelque economic parliculiere de maleriaux. 

Les planles herbacees des landes el du «Fj«ldmark» pre- 
senlenl une slruclure foliacee en parlie analogue a celle des arbusles, 
par exemple les graminees; landis que, par ex., le Pleuropogon Sabinei, 
Irouve en Grenland au 76° Lai. V. (p. 122, Fig. 15), el VHierockloa 
borealis (p. 124, Fig. 17) apparliennenl au lype des graminees des 
prairies, la Festuca ovina (p. 123, Fig. 16), VAira Jlexuosa /? montana 
(Fig. 16) el VHierockloa alpina (p. 124, Fig. 18) apparliennenl aux gra- 
minees des sleppes, caraclerisees par les parliculariles conslalees par 
Duval - Jo uve, Tschirch, etc. On peul Irouver de pareils conlrastes 



235 

dans les families des Juncac6es el dcs Cyp6rae6es; mais, quanl k la 
derniere, il est cependanl k remarquer que qiielques Cyperac^es qui 
croissenl dans les landes el sur les rochers arides, le Carex nardina, 
VElyna Bellardi el le Kobreaia caricina , ne difTerenl pa$ beaucoup 
dans leur slruclure (p. 125, Fig. 19) des Carex dioica, pareUela, puli- 
caris el du C. microglochin, qui croissenl dans les marais. Quelque* 
plantes herbacees des landes el des rochers sonl munies de polls en 
assez grande quanlile {Draba, Fapaver nudicaule, elc, p. 126). 



VI. Eaiix douces. Marais. Etangs. 

Dans beaucoup de lacs , le fond el les bords sonl nus el ne 
laissent voir que des rochers ou du gravier el du sable ; dans d'autres, 
on trouve une riche vegetation de mousses (voir p. 127, en bas). En 
general les eaux douces ne sonl riches ni en especes ni en Indivldus. 
Les Phanerogames sonl enumerees p. 128; la pluparl sonl rares. On 
ne sail encore rien sur les algues d'eau douce. 

La vegetation des marais est de deux sorles. Dans les uns, elle esl 
form6e surloul d'Eriophores el de Carex, auxquels se joignenl quelques 
autres phanerogames; en plusieurs endroils, surlout sur des lertres. 
on trouve des arbustes apparlenant aux especes des landes (p. 131). 
Dans les aulres, elle se compose de mousses diverses qui formenl un 
tapis conlinu epais el moelleux , dans lequel peuvenl 6tre parsemees 
des Phanerogames (voir p. 133, en haul); les mousses les plus com- 
munes sonl cil6es p. 132. Quelquefois on rencontre un frais el verl 
tapis de mousses sur les versanls de montagnes exposes au ^o^d, 
parce que la lerre, pendant I'ete, peul y 6lre mainlenue humide par 
la fonte lenle des neiges , tandis que les versanls exposes au Slid 
sonl sees el brules (on en Irouvera un exemple p. 134). Dans quel- 
ques localiles il se forme une lourbe spongieuse el legere de Webera 
nutans. 

Distribution geographique. Enlre la vegetation des marais 
de la Siberie el du Grenland, il y a une difference; la premiere 
semble Sire plus riche en gramin6es el plus pauvre en Carex. Dans 
les marais de la Norvege, on trouve une quanlile de Phanerogames 
qui manquenl au Grenland (voir p. 138). La composilion de la flore 
du Spitzberg differe egalemenl de celle du Gronland (voir p, 139). 



236 



VII. Vegetation du littoral. 

II n'existe pas au Gronland, que je sache, de grandes etendues 
de coles, sur lesquelles une flore lillorale puisse se developper avec 
son cachet particulier, et la vegelalion du lilloral y est Irfes peu 
caraclerislique. La flore des sables est surtoul caracl6ris6e par VEly 
muq arenarius, V Halianthus peploides, la Mertensia maritima, le Lathyrua 
maritimus, le Carex incurva. etc., el celle des sables argileux (p. 144)^ 
par la Glyceria vilfoidea, la Stellaria humifusa^ les Cochlearioe, le Carex 
glareosa et autres especes , VAlopecurus alpinus , le Plantago matitima 
et borealis^ elc. Les especes lillorales du Spilzberg sont essenlielle- 
menl les mernes que celles du Gronland; celles de la iVorvege arclique 
sont beaucoup plus norabreuses. 

VIII. Vegetation de la terre fumee. 

Autour des habitations des Gronlandais, la lerre a peul-elre pen- 
dant des siecles ele fumee avec des resles provenanl de la chasse, 
du sang, des excrements, des os , elc. Aussi s'y developpe-t-il une 
verte, fraiche el vigoureuse vegetation de Foce^ de Glycerice, 6,'Alocu- 
perus alpinus^ A' Arabia alpina, de Taraxacum officinale^ etc. (voir p. 148 
— 149). On y trouve aussi des planles inlroduites par I'homme; 
celles qu'on peul presumer avoir peut-elre ceKe origine sont indlquees 
p. 149, en bas. Dans les derniers temps, les navires qui vonl charger 
de la Kryolile a Ivigloul (61° 10' Lai. N.) — il y en a environ 30 
par an — y apporlent avec leur lest de la lerre vegetale, et y onl 
inlroduil 32 especes de Phanerogames (voir P. 151). Dans les ilols et 
sous les rochers habiles par les oiseaux de mer, la lerre est aussi forle- 
ment fumee, et on y Irouve en parlie les memos planles, avec la meme 
physionomie, qu'aulour des demeures des Gronlandais. Celle vegetation 
n'est du resle pas parliculiere au Gronland, car dans loute I'etendue 
de la zone arclique on rencontre de ces coins de lerre fertilises soil 
par I'homme, soil par les oiseaux, les renards el les lemmings. 

IX. Transitions entre les types de vegetation. 
Statistique des especes. 

On Irouve naturellement toules les transitions imaginables, 
entre les types de vegetation que nous venons de passer en revue, 
suivant les combinaisons sans fin du sol, de Thumidite, de la lumiere, 



237 

de la temperalure, du Texposjlion, du I'inclinaison, elc. II faiil s'al- 
leudre a des types assez difT^rents de ceux que j'ai deerils, surloul dans 
I'inlerieur des fjords profonds , par exemple dans I'elendue de cdles 
qui, sous le cercle, polaire, a une largeur de 25 milles (voir p. 154|. 
Si Ton divise en zones les deux c6les est el ouesl du Grenland, 
on Irouvera que le nombre des especes y est Ires different. J'ai 
divise la cole occidenlale en 7 zones : A. "Sudgrenland* depuis le 
cap Farvel jusqu'au 62° Lai. N. sur la cdle occidenlale el jusqu'au 
60° (delroil du prince Krislian) sur la cdle orienlale; B. 62 — 64°; 
C. 64-67°; D. 67—71°; E. 71-73°; F. 73—76°; G. du 76° a 
la plus haule lalilude qui ail ele alleinle, c. 84°, el la c6le orien- 
lale eh 3 zones: S. du 60 au 64°; M. la region d'Angmagsalik, oil 
le capilaine G us lav Holm a hiverne, 64—66°; N. 70 — 76°. 

•I. Richesse en especes. Elle esl indiquee dans les tableaux 
de la p. 157. Ah 285 especes ou 73 % de loules les 386 especes 
du Grenland; B en a 176, elc. II resulle du tableau que la richesse 
en especes decroil k niesure qu'on s'avance vers le Nord except^ 
enlre B el C; la pauvrete de B esl due au peu de largeur de la c6le, 
a I'elendue plus grande de la glace conlinenlale el sans doule aussi 
a une exploration moins complete. La cdle orienlale esl singuli^re- 
menl pauvre en especes, el cela doll lenir a ce qu'elle a ele beau- 
coup moins exploree. 

II. Les change men Is dans l'6lal des especes sonl exposes 
dans les tableaux de la p. 159. La colonne I indique que la zone A 
comparee k B & lid especes qui ne se irouvenl pas dans 5, mais 
que B n'en a que 10 qui ne sonl pas dans A; les deux zones onl 
295 especes communes. Les colonnes suivanles doivenl 6lre inler- 
pretees de la meme maniere. Le resullal esl celui-ci: la zone -4 
(Grenland meridional) a beaucoup d'especes qui lui sonl parliculieres, 
B en a Ires peu, C el D renfermenl chacune beaucoup d'especes 
parliculieres; les colonnes IV el V monlrenl une diminution conside- 
rable du nombre des especes parliculieres dans le passage d'une zone 
plus raeridionale a une zone plus septenlrionale; enfin ce nombre va 
de nouveaii en augmenlanl dans le nord-ouesl du Gren- 
land, colonne VI. Sur la cdle orienlale, les differences enlre les 
zones sonl si grandes qu'elles doivenl 6lre seulemenl apparenles el 
reposer sur une exploration incomplete. 

III. Les tableaux de la p. 161 indiquenl combien rl v a d espe- 
ces absoluraenl parliculieres aux differenles zones. En con- 
sideranl la cdle occidenlale k part (tableau sup^rieur), le Grenland 



238 



meridional A (jOsqu'au 62°) a 59 especes qui lui sonl parliculieres 
(voir p. 14 — 16); les zones C al D sonl ensuile les plus riches; il 
est reraarquable que dans la zone la plus seplenlrionale, (r, il y ait 
une augmentation d'especes particulieres. La edle orientale consideree 
k part (tableau inferieur) donne 53 — 12 — 50 especes parliculieres h 
chacune des Irois zones; ces differences sont si grandes qu'elles doi- 
venl elre arlificielles. 

En prenant le Gronland en enlier, on Irouve indique dans le 
dernier tableau de la p. 161 le nombre absolu des especes qui sonl 
parliculieres aux differenles zones. Le resullal est celui-ci : le Gron- 
land meridional el le Gronland central, sur la c6te occidenlale, et les 
zones les plus seplentrionales sur les deux cdles , se dislingiient par 
un nombre plus grand d'especes particulieres (respeclivement 44 espe- 
ces, 12 — 13 especes et 4 — 5 especes). 

IV. Rapport enire les especes orientales et occiden- 
tal es. Le caraclere que nous venons de constater dans les Irois 
parlies du pays repose en partie sur leur richesse differenle en types 
occidentaux et orientaux. J'enlends par types occidentaux ceux qui 
se Irouvent en Amerique, ou en Amerique el dans TAsie orientale ou 
la Siberie, ou donl I'habitalion doit en general elre cherchee vers 
rOuesl; les types orientaux sont ici les types europeens, y compris 
ceux de la Nouvelle-Zemble , quoique evidemment la Russie seplen- 
lrionale jusque dans le Kola comprenne un nombre assez conside- 
rable de types asiatiques. Les types europeens predominenl dans le 
Gronland meridional (30 centre 18 occidentaux et 7 endemiques, voir 
p. 163), et sont egalemenl en grande majorile sur la cole orientale 
depuis le 60 jusqu'au 66° (17 centre 7 occidentaux dans la zone S 
et 6 centre dans la zone M); les zones C et D (64 — 71°), sur 
la cole occidenlale, onl beaucoup de types parliculiers lanl occiden- 
taux qu'orienlaux , mais les premiers sont plus nombreux ; plus au 
Nord le nombre des formes occidentales croil loujours par rapport 
a celui des orientales; enfln, dans le nord-ouest du Gronland, les types 
occidentaux sonl en Ires grande majorile (13 centre 1 oriental), et 
corame il en est de meme dans le nord- est du Grenland (10:4), 
tout le JNordgronland doit elre regarde comme ayanl une 
vegetation arctique-americaine (c'est sans doute un indice que 
le Grenland est une ile donl I'extrernile nord est silu6e au 84° environ) 
de meme que le Sudgronland et la cote orientale jusqu'au 
66° onl un grand melange d'especes europeennes. 



239 



Dans lout le Grenland, on Irouve 386 especes donl 15 endeml- 
ques, 44 orientales et 40 occidenlales, ou en faisanl k relemenl 
oriental la part la plus favorable possible, 35 occidenlales. ^ La diffe- 
rence entre les types orientaux et occidentaux est done de 9, diffe- 
rence qui nalurellement sera compensee h mesure qu'on connallra 
mieux la flore de I'Amerique du Word. Ce r6suUat est en d6saccord 
avec ceux de Hooker (1860), de Blytt et d'autres auleurs plus 
recenls, mais s'accorde avec ceux auxquels M. Job. Lange est arrive 
en 1880 (voir p. 165—166). 

V. On Irouvera p. 167 un tableau des families avec le nombre 
de leurs especes el la proportion relative de ces derniferes par rapport 
a la flore entiere. Le tableau de la p. 168 elablit une comparaisoD 
entre la composition de la flore du Grenland et celle de la flore 
d'autres pays du Nord. 

X. Histoire de la vegetation. 

II est a supposer que la flore des terres basses du Grenland a 6te 
entieremenl delruile au commencement de la periode glaciaire; on en 
trouve maintenanl les restes k 20 — 25 degres plus au Sud, par exemple 
dans I'Araerique du Nord. La flore alpine qui sans doule exislail sur les 
hautes monlagnes du Grenland avant I'epoque glaciaire devinl d'abord en 
parlie une flore des terres basses, mais disparut-elle m6me k son lour? 
Les opinions sonl partagees a cet egard. Tandis que quelques auteurs 
(Hooker, Buchenau, Focke, Heer, cites p. 172) croient que 
beaucoup de plantes survecurent au Grenland k