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Full text of "Esperanto-English dictionary"

UC-NRLF 





B M D17 M77 



GIFT OF 
MICHAEL REESE 




Kun Respektega Dankemo Al nia Komuna Althonorinda 
Majstro Doktoro L. Zamenhof 




ESPERANTO-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY 



l-.V 



A. MOTTEAU, F.B.E.A. 

Diplomito de la S. P. P. Esperanto, 
Tradiikinto dela Ventego, Siklinifas pur Venki. k.t.o. 



THIRD EDITION 



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Kun Respektega Dankemo Al nia Komuna Althonorinda 
Majstro Doktoro L. Zamenhof 




ESPERANTO-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY 



BY 



A. MOTTEAU, F.B.E.A., 

Diplomito de la S. P. P. Esperanto, 
Tradukinto dela Ventego, Siklinigas por Venki, k.t.p. 



THIRD EDITION 



CAREFULLY REVISED AND ENLARGED 



LONDON 
*REVIEW OF REVIEWS' OFFICE 

MOWBRAY HOUSE, NORFOLK STREET, W.C 



HACHETTE AND COMPANY 

l8 KING WILLIAM STjRTiET, ckARING^I\OSS-, W.C. 

AU I'ighi^ .-^stfi'td^ 
1907 




AL ĜIUJ SINDONAJ 

KUNLABORANTAJ AMIKOJ 

TRA LA TUTMONDA ESPERANTISTARO 

KAJ 
AL LA PIONIRO DE NIA KARA LINGVO 

EN GRANDA-BRITUJO 
Sro JOZEFO RHODES 

TIUN ĈI DUAlsr ELDONON 
TUTKORE DEDICAS LA AŬTORO 






PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

This work is an attempt to provide for English- 
speaking students a fuller Esperanto English Dictionary 
than Mr. R, H. Geoghegan's excellent little handbook, 
or even Dr. Zamenhof's Universala Vortaro could 
possibly offer within their limited compass. Based 
necessarily upon the Universala Vortaro with the help 
of the Plena Vortaro (Russian- Esperanto) and embody- 
ing to a large extent many of the excellent features of 
M. de Beaufront's Dktionnaire Esperanto- Frangais, the 
present work will, it is hoped, greatly assist the learner 
in the proper use and formation of derivative words, — 
wherein the auxiliary International Language is so 
copious — and will guide him in the selection of the 
form best suited to express his meaning. 

The compiler has done his work conscientiously and 
well, and what he has accomplished entitles him to 
the gratitude of all who are now studying and pro- 
pagating Esperanto, or who will hereafter approach it 
through the medium of the English language. 

The work contains, in addition to the root-words 
upon which Dr. Zamenhof, our common master, so 
ingeniously founded his system, many of their deriva- 
tives. But, indeed, such is the wealth of the language, 
made available to all by the use of affixes (each of 
which will be found in its due alphabetic place) that 
the book might easily have been made more bulky. 

For instance, the word akurata, accurate, might be 
reinforced by the following : akuratĉ, accurately ; 

iii 

285766 



IT PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

sikaiBiteco, accuracy, etc. And out of the single root 
Sana, healthy, about fifty words may be formed. 

Attention is called to the following points : — 

(1) The part of the word in thicker type is the root- 
idea, to which the proper grammatical ending has to 
be added. 

(2) Words preceded by an asterisk {'^) do not need 
any termination; they are primary words and are 
complete in themselves. However, they adopt a term- 
ination, like other root-words, and can be made, when 
required, nouns, adjectives, verbs, or adverbs, by adding 
to them one of terminations, o, n, i, e. Ex. : antaŭ, 
before ; ancaŭa, preinous ; antaŭe, previously. 

(3) In the formation of compound words, two or 
more roots or elements may be joined together, and 
a grammatical termination added. To assist easy 
articulation, the grammatical ending of the mediate 
word may be left between ; thus : poŝtkarto, or 
poŝtokarto, post-cai-d. If the words are used separately, 
then one of them must, of course, be an adjective : 
poŝta karto. 

The Dictionary might also have been easily swollen 
by the inclusion of many more extraneous words 
which, in slightly altered spelling, have already be- 
come quite international. Such words are to be 
treated like teatro, theatre ; centro, centre. Ex. : 
teatra, theatrical; centra, central, etc., etc. 

May the new work do much to assist the ■ English- 
speaking peoples to appreciate more and more fully 
the value of the new means of international com- 
munication in which they are now beginning to 
manifest an interest ! 

JOSEPH RHODES, F.J.I., F.B.E.A. 

Diplomito de S.p.j^. E. 
Vice- President of the British UsjK'ranto Association. 
President of the Esperanto Society, Keighley. 



PREFACE TO PRESENT EDITION 

This Second. Edition of the Esperanto-English Diction 
ary has been carefully revised and enlarged, and, with 
a view to its improvement, many works, published 
since the First Edition was issued, have, at great cost 
of time and labour, been consulted and compared. 

Amongst others must be specially mentioned 
Fondamenta Kresiamatio, Bictionnaire Esperanto- Frangais, 
Vocabulaire Francis-Esperanto, Esperanto-Svensh Ordbok, 
and Vocahulario Esperanto- Espanol. 

For the many valuable hints and indispensable helps 
derived from the above sources, the compiler begs to 
tender his heart-felt thanks to the following devoted 
champions of, and workers in, our cause ; Dr. Louis 
Zamenhof, Messrs. Louis de Beaufront, Th. Cart, Merck- 
ens and P. Berthelot (France) ; P. Ahlherg (Sweden), 
and S^^^ Lnglada and Villanueva (Spain). 

Also to all true friends of the Esperantist idea who 
have generously proffered their disinterested help. 

Any further suggestions or advice that might contri- 
bute to the perfecting of future Editions, if required, 
and make the Dictionary more and more useful and 
acceptable to our great English-speaking communities, 
will be duly weighed and considered, and may be for- 
warded to the publishers. 



While engaged in the j^reparation of this edition the 
author was seized with a painful disease, and before he 
had completed the revision of his proofs Mr. Motteau 
passed away. With a i^lucky devotion to the cause of 
Esperanto^ which he had so much at heart, Mr, Motteau 
struggled hard to complete his task, but it was not to be. 
The last proofs have been revised by one of the author's 
colleagues. 



HOW TO USE 
THE ESPERANTO-ENGLISH DICTIONARY 

It is of the utmost importance that particular attention be 
paid to the root-meauing of each word. 

The first thing to be ascertained when you meet a word in 
this dictionary is what termination is given to it (whether 
-a, -0, or -i). 

The ending a|^^^^J^^^ ^°°*"}adjectiyal : kara. dear. 

The ending -o ,, substantival: domo, house. 

The ending -i ,, verbal : vid-t, to see. 

{A) From an adjective root (bela, fine, beautiful) you can form 
a noun (beleco, beauty), verbs (beliyi, to embellish), 
(belj^i, to become fine), an adverb (bele, finely), etc. 

(O) 'Etotd. a, substantive root (patro, father), you can form (patra, 
paternal), (patre, paternally), also patrmo, mother), 
patrma, maternal), patnn«, maternally). 

(/) From a verbal root (armt, to arm) you can form (arm»7o, 
weapon), (armi7e;o, arsenal), (armo^o, armour), (ann»7- 
/aristo, gunsmith), etc. 



activ. 

adj. 

adv. 

anat. 

archit. 

arithm, 

astr. 

bot. 

chem. 

conj. 

eccl. 

dedr. 

/. 

fvi. 
geog, 
gecl. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 




represents the 


geom. 


geometry. 


neut. 


neuter. 


repetition of 


gram. 


grammar. 


olj. 


object, objec- 


the root. 


inst. 


instrument. 




tive. 


actively. 


intrans. 


intransi- 


opp. 


opposition 
(in) to. 


adjective. 




tively. 




adverb. 


leg. 


legal term. 


phil. 


philosophy. 


anatomy. 


lU. 


literally. 


phys. 


physics. 


architecture. 


m. 


masculine. 


pi. 


plural. 


arithmetic. 


vMthem. 


mathematics. 


prof. 


professional. 


astronomy, 
botany. 


med., 
medic. 


j- medical term. 


pros, 
relig. 


prosody, 
religious 


chemistry. 


mil. 


military. 




term. 


conjunction. 


min. 


mining, 


se. 


science. 


ecclesiastic. 




mineralogy. 


sing. 


singular. 


electricity. 


mus. 


music. 


subj. 


subject. 


feminine. 


mythol. 


mythology. 


subst. 


substantive. 


future. 


nat. his 


t. natural 


trans. 


transitive 


geography. 




history. 




verb. 


geology. 


naut. , 


\ nautical, 
J navy. 


V. a. 


active verb. 




nav. 


V. n. 


neuter verb. 



ESPERANTO-ENGLISH 
DICTIONARY 

EXPLANATORY NOTES 

The Figures in parentheses found in a few instances in the 
dictionary refer to the following explanatory notes. 

(1) The suffix -ad-. Remember that this suffix represents 
habitual practice and not momentaneous action. For instance 
if we wish to express the faculties of thought, will, touch, 
hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling, etc., we may say ^e??6'|ad|o, 
i;o^|ad|o, palp\d,Ĝ.\o, aŭd\a,d\o, flar\didi\o, gust\d>.Ĝ\o, sent\a.6\o, etc., 
but for an isolated act of such ifaculties, pens\o, vol\o, palp\o, 
aŭd\o, flar\o, gust\o, sent\o, etc. 



La el\pens\o de Esperant\o tre 
help\os la hom\a\Ti pro- 

grre.sjad|o|n. 
La fer^-|ad|o de tiu ci lo)ig\a 
verk\o mi\n midt\e lac\ig\as. 



The invention of Esperanto will 
greatly help human progress 
(general sense). 

The composition of this long 
work much fatigues me. 



*:^* Sometimes art-o is used as a suffix instead of adjo. 
Ex. : t/a7ic|ad|o, or c^anc|art[o(the art of dancing) ; lanl\'a.Ĝ.\o, or 
kant\zx\,\o (the art of singing), etc. 

(2) The suffixes -ec- and -aj- must be carefully distinguished. 
•60- (suffix) shows the abstract quality or state of the root 

idea : — amik\o, friend ; amik\ec\o, friendship ; inir\a, clean, 
pure; pur\e,c\o, purity, cleanliness. 

-a]- (suffix) expresses concrete result, what is made of, or out 
of, the root meaning : kresk\i, to grow ; kresk\Si]\o, a growth, a 
plant ; ramp\i, to crawl ; rawp|aĵ|o, a reptile, a creeping thing ; 
hov\o, ox ; hov\ii]\o, beef. 

(3) Difference between de and da. 

The preposition de expresses possession, use, source, and 
also determines the complement of the passive (if it be the 
doer). Ex. : La plum\o de Mari\o ; glas\o de vin\o, wineglass ; 
de ti\o ci mipensas ke . . ., from this / think that, etc. 

The preposition da must be used (instead of de) when a noun 
or adverb of measure, weight, or quantity precedes the com- 
plement, the latter being naturally in the nominative. Ex. : 
glas\o da, akv\o, glass o/' water ; niank\o dsitemp\o, want o/time; 

A 



EXPLANATORY NOTES 

mi aĉet\ls dek\dH\o\n da,fork\oj, I bought a dozen forks ; don\u al 
li tas\o\n da te\o, give him a cup o/tea ; cu vi /lavas tas\o\7i de teo, 
liave you a tea-cup ? 

(4) A qualifying word does not in Esperanto take the ad- 
jective ending (in -a) unless the said word clearly refers to a 
noun or pronoun duly expressed in the sentence ; in the con- 
trary case the adverbial ending -e is used. Ex. : La veter\o 
est\as varm\di. hodiaŭ, the weather is warm to-day ; esf\as tre 
varm\e hodiaŭ, (it) is very warm to-day. 

(5) Example showing difiference between -ig and -ig : Paŭl\o 

kaj Mari\o edz\\ĝ\is hieraŭ ; la episkop\o edz\is\is ili\n, Paul and 
Mary Avere married yesterday ; the bishop married them. 

(6) Do not confound the meanings of -etol- and -ind-. 

-ebl- is the suffix of possibility, something not unlikely to be. 
-ind- has the meaning of 'worthy of.' 

*^* Difference between -ebl- and -ind- : kred\eh\\a, that may 
be believed ; kred\md\a, worthy of belief, reliable. 

(7) The prefix mal is not to be confounded with a rnere 
negation ; it means the exact contraiy of the stem to wliich it 
is prefixed. 

(8) The accusative -n is not only affixed to direct objects 
(whether nouns or pronouns) but also to all adjectives and 
delerminative words referring to such direct objects ; even ad- 
verbs assume the -n when indicating motion towards, just as 
nouns do in the same case. Ex. : Mi vidas la 6ona|n patro\n, 
I see the good father ; la patrino a'v.as ?v'|n, the mother loves 
you ; li ne havis sia\Q. paJilo\u, he had not his gun ; cu vi vidas 
tiuj\^ grizajn bi7'doj\ii? do you see those grey birds? kiu\n vi 
reiikonfis? whom did you meet? Mi iras tie\n, I go there ; kie\n 
li iras ? whither does he go ? marŝu antaŭe\ji ! march forward ! 

*^* When in doubt whether a verb requires a direct or an 
indirect object, the accusative -n may be used without any 
preposition. Ex. : obeu al viapairo, or obeu via\n patro\n, obey 
your fatlier. 



-a, adjective ending. Ex. : 
kara, pafro, dear father. 

abat-o, abbot (of a monas- 
tery) 



aberaci 0, aberration (astr. 

abi-o, fir ; — aro, fir planta- 
tion. 



abel-o, bee. | Abisen-a, Abyssinian (aJ/.); 

2 



ABISM-0 



AEROMETR-0 



— 0, an Abyssinian ; —iijo, 

— lando, Abyssinia. 
abism-o, abyss, en — igi, to 

sink, to be swallowed 

up. 
abiturient-o, graduate fully 

qualified to leave the 

University. 
ablativ-o, ablative (gramm.) 
abnegaci-o, abnegation. 
abomen-^?, abomination. 
abon-z, to subscribe to ; 

— 0, subscription. 
abort-?*, to miscarry ; — o, 

abortion. 
abrikot-o, apricot ; — ujo, 

apricot- tree. 
abrotan-o, southernwood (a 

plant). 
abrupt-a, (adj.) abrupt, 
absces-o, abscess. 
absint-o, absinthium, worm- 
wood, absinthe, 
absolut-a, absolute. 
absolutism-o, absolutism, 
absolv-?. to absolve. 
absorb/, to absorb, to 

engross. 
abstemi-rt, abstemious, 
abstinenc-o, abstinence. 
abstrakt-6i, abstract (adj.). 
absurd-d, absurd (adj.). 
acer-o, maple (tree or wood). 
acid-a, acid (adj. ) ; — o, an 

acid, 
acet-?', to buy ; suh — i, to 

bribe. 



-ad-, suffix showing dura- 
tion : pafo, shot ; paf — o, 
discharge of musketry, 
fusilade. 

adekvat-a, (adj.) adequate. 

adept-o, an adept. 

■^adiaŭ, adieu, farewell ; 
— a, (odj.) of farewell. 

adjektiv-o, adjective. 

adjutant-o, adjutant. 

administr-i, to administer, 
to manage. 

administraci-o, staff, per- 
sonnel of an establish- 
ment. 

admir-z, to admire. 

admiral-o, admiral. 

admiralitat-o, admiralty. 

admon-i, to exhort. 

adopt-i, to adopt (a child). 

ador-z, to worship, to adore; 
— anto, worshipper. 

adres-/, to address ; — o, 
address ; — aro, direc- 
tory, address - book ; 
— ato, person to whom 
one sends, addressee. 

adult-i, to commit adultery. 

Advent-o, Advent (relig.). 

adverb-o, adverb. 

advokat 0, counsellor, bar- 
rister, advocate. 

aer-o, air (atmosphere) ; 
— a, aerial. 

aerolit-o, aerolite. 

aerometr-o, aerometer, air- 
meter. 



AEROSTAT-0 



AKCIDENT-O 



aerostat-0, aerostat, air- 
balloon ; — isto, aeronaut. 

aerum-i, to air, to ventilate. 

afabl-a, affable ; mal — a, 
surly. 

afekci-o, an affection ; — a, 
affective (phiL). 

afekt-e, to be affected, lack- 
adaisical. 

afer-o, affair, thing, cause, 
object in view. 

afiks-o, affix. 

afiŝ-o, placard, handbill. 

aforism-o, aphorism. 

afrank-i, to frank (letters). 

Afrik-a,(afZ;*.) African; — o, 
Africa; — ano, an Afri- 
can. 

aft-(), thrush (aphtha). 

afust-o, gun-carriage. 

ag-i, to act (intrans.) ; — o, 
action, act; — ema, 
active. 

agac-i, to set on edge (of 
teeth) ; — o, annoyance. 

agap-ĉ), agape, love-feast. 

agarik-6), mushroom, agari- 
cus. 

agat-0, agate. 

agend-o, agenda. 

agent-o, agent. 

agit-e, to agitate; — ado, 



agitation, 
eagle 



agl-o, 

eagle. 
aglutin-z, 

{V. a.). 



rega — o, royal 



to agglutinate 



agoni-o, agony. 

agord-i, to tune (mus.). 

agrabl-a, agreeable. 

agraf-o, clasp, buckle 
(metal). 

agronomi-o, agronomy. 

aĝ-o, age ; matur — a, of 
mature age. 

aĝi-(?, agio. 

aĝiot-^, to gamble in stocks, 
bills ; — isto, stock- 
jobber, etc. 

ajl-o, garlic. 

*ajn, ever : kiu, who ; km — , 
whoever. 

aĵ-, made from, or posses- 
sing the quality of : mola^ 
soft ; mol — 0, the soft 
part of a thing; pentri, 
to paint; pentr — o, a 
picture (2). 

akaci-o, acacia. 

akademi-o, academy; —ano, 
academician. 

akant-(>, acanthus. 

akapar-«, to corner, to 
forestall. 

akar-o, tiny insect, mite, 
tick. 

akcel-t, to hasten; mal — i, 
to slow, to slacken. 

akcent-o, accent (tonic), 
stress. 

akcept-i, to accept, to re- 
ceive, to welcome. 

Siikci-o, share (finance). 

akcident-(^, accident ; — ajo, 



AKCIPITR-0 



ALI-A 



occurrence ; 



-a, acci- 



dental. 

akcipitr-o, hawk, goshaAvk. 

akciz-o, excise. 

akir-i, to acquire ; — o, 
spoil, booty, acquire- 
ment. 

aklam-z, to acclaim. 

akn-o, pimple. 

akolit-o, acolyte. 

akomod-i, to accommodate, 
to accejĵt, to fit. 

akompan-i, to accompany. 

akonic-o, aconite. 

akord-o, chord (harmon.). 

akr-a, sharp, acute, shrill. 

akrid-o, grasshopper. 

aks-o, axis, axle. 

aksel-o, armpit; axil {hot.). 

aksiom-o, axiom. 

akt-o, act (theatre) ; deed ; 
— isto, actuary. 

aktiv-a, active. 

aktor-o, actor (theatre). 

akurat-a, exact, accurate, 
punctual. 

akustik-o, acoustics. 

akuŜ-i, to deliver a wo- 
man; — isto, accoucheur; 
— istino, midwife. 

akut-a, acute (disease). 

akuzativ-o, accusative. 

akv-o, water ; — a, aquatic ; 
— okonduko, aqueduct. 

akvafort-o, aquafortis; 
— isto, etcher with aqua- 
fortis. 



akvarel-o, water-colour 
painting. 

akvari-o, aquarium. 

akvilegi-o, columbine. 

*al, to, towards, al vi, to 
you ; — iri, to go to- 
wards ; — lasi, to admit, 
to allow ; — porti, to 
bring (carrying) ; — doni, 
to add ; — veni, to ar- 
rive. 

al-o, awl. 

alabastr-o, alabaster. 

alarm-6», alarm ; — i, to 
alarm. 

alaŭd-o, lark (a bird). 

albinos-o, — a, albinos. 

album-o, album. 

albumen-o, albumen 

albuminuri-o, 
disease. 

alcion-o, halcyon. 

ald-o, alto (voice). 

ale-o, walk, path (of a gar- 
den, etc.). 

alegori-o, allegory. 

alfabet-o, alphabet. 

alfenid-o, Britannia metal. 

algo-j, algae. 

algebr-o, algebra. 

Algeri-o, Algeria. 

Alĝer-o, Algiers (town) ; 
— lando, Algeria; — ano, 
an Algerian. 

alĥemi-o, alchemy; — isto, 
alchemist. 

ali-ft, other ; also the latter 



Bright's 



ALINE-0 



AMPUT-I 



of two ; — aj, others ; 
— igi, to change, to 
alter; — for/nigo, trans- 
formation. 

aline-o, paragraph, period, 
break. 

aligator-o, aligator. 

alk-6», elk (animal). 

alkali- 0, alkali. 

alkohol-o, alcohol; — a, 
alcoholic ; — igi, to alco- 
holize ; — ulo, man in a 
morbid state through 
abuse of alcohol. 

alkov-o, alcove, recess. 

almanak-o, almanac. 

■^almenaŭ, at least. 

almoz-o, alms ; — ulo, beg- 
gar. 

aln-o, alder (tree). 

alo-o, aloe juice, aloes. 

alopati-o, allopathy. 

Alp-(?/', the Alps; — a, al- 
pine ; — ano, dweller in 
the Alps. 

aipak-o, alpaca. 

alt-rt, high ; — aĵo, height, 
elevated spot. 

altar-(y, altar. 

alte-o, marsh mallow ; — a 
rozo, hollyhock. 

altern-i, to alternate. 

alternativ-o, an alternative. 

alud-i, to allude to. 

alumet-6», match,lucifer,etc. 

alumini-o, aluminium. 

alun-o, alum. 



alvLvi-o, alluvium ; — a, al 
luvial. 

am-?', to love ; — eti, to like 
en — igi, to fall in love 
— isto, lover, sweetheart 
— inda, amiable. 

amalgam-o, amalgam. 

amas-o, crowd, throng. 

*ambaŭ, both. 

ambici-(?, ambition ; — a, 
ambitious. 

ambl-o, amble. 

ambos-c, anvil. 

ambr-o, ambergris. 

ambrozi-^, ambrosia. 

ambulanc-o, ambulance. 

amel-o, starch. 

Amerik-a, America ; — a, 
American (adj.) ; — ano, 
an American. 

ametist-o, ameth3'st. 

amfibi-rt, amphibious. 

amfiteatr 0, amphitheatre. 

amfor-o, amphora. 

amiant-o, amianthus. 

amik-6), friend ; — eco, friend- 
ship. 

amindum-f, to play Ibe 
gallant, to make love. 

amnesti-o, amnesty, pardon. 

amoniak-o, ammonia. 

amorf-fl^, amorphous. 

amortiz-i, to liquidate, to 
pay off by instalments. 

ampleks-o, dimension, ex- 
tent. 

amput-f,- to amputate. 



6 



AMULET-0 



ANTAGONISM-0 



amulet 0, amulet. 

amuz-i, to amnse. 

-an- suffix signifying mem- 
ber of, partisan of, etc. ; 
regno, state ; regn — o, 
subject, citizen ; Krisfo, 
Christ ; Krist — o, a 
Christian; — aro, troop, 
band. 

anagal-o, pimpernel. 

anagram 0, anagram. 

anakronism (?, anachron- 
ism. 

analiz-z, to analyse. 

analogi-o, analogy. 

ananas-o, pineapple. 

anapest-rt, anapestic (poe- 
try) ; — 0, anapest 
(noun). 

anarĥi-ĉ>, anarchy ; — isto, 
an anarchist. 

anarhism-o, anarchism. 

anas-o, duck ; mol — o, eider, 
eider-down. 

anatem-o, anathem, ban. 

anatomi-o, anatomy. 

anĉov-o, anchovy. 

AnĈL-oj, the Andes. 

anekdot-o, anecdote. 

aneks-i, to annex ; — o, an- 
nexation. 

anemon-o, anemone. 

angelik-^?, angelica (bat.). 

angil-o, eel. 

Angl-a, English (adj.) ; — o, 
an Englishman ; — njo, 
— olando, England. 



anglicism-o, anglicism. 

angul-c, angle, corner; tri 
— 0, triangle ; reki — o, 
rectangle. 

anĝel-o, angel; cef — o, arch- 
angel. 

anĝin-o, quinsy, angina. 

anilen-o, aniline. 

anim-fl, soul ; bon—a, kind- 
hearted. 

aniz-o, anise, aniseed; 
— likvoro, aniseed cor- 
dial, anisette. 

*ankaŭ, also. 

ankiloz-^?, anchylosis. 

■^ankoraŭ, yet, still, as yet. 

ankr-o, anchor. 

anobi-o, anobium, death- 
watch, 

anomali-o, anomaly. 

anonc-z, to announce, to 
give notice, etc. ; — o, 
advertisement. 

anonim «, anonymous. 

ans-o, latch, clinch, end of 
bolt. 

anser-o, goose. 

"^anstataŭ, instead of; an- 
statail mi, instead of me ; 
— i, to be in place of ; 
— igi, to be substituted 
for. 

-ant-, present participle 
active : ami, to love; 
am — a, loving ; am — ĉ, 
by loving (adv.). 

antagonism-^, antagonism. 



ANTAGONlST-0 



APOTEOZ-0 



antagonist-o, antagonist. 

antarkt-c^, antarctic. 

*antaŭ, before ; — a, pre- 
vious ; — e, formerly, 
before ; — enirado, for- 
ward movement ; — iri, 
to precede ; — ol iri, be- 
fore going (antaŭ ol re- 
fers to time) ; — ulo, fore- 
runner ; — zorgo, fore- 
thought 

anten-o, antenna ; feeler of 
insect. 

antikrist-o, Antichrist. 

antikv-a, antique, ancient ; 
— ajo, old things ; — isto, 
antiquary. 

antilop-o, antelope (animal). 

antimon-o, antimony. 

antipati-o, antipathy. 

antipod-o/, antipodes. 

antiseps-«, antiseptic (adj.); 
— ajo, antiseptic (noun). 

antologi-o, anthology. 

antracit-o, anthracite. 

antraks-o, anthrax. 

antropologi-o, anthropo- 
logy- 

Anunciaci-o, Annunciation 

(religious festival). 

aort-o, aorta. 

apanag-o, apanage. 

aparat-o, apparatus. 

apart-«, separate, special ; 
— e, separately ; — ajo, 
adoption, choice, devia- 
tion. 



apartament-OjSuiteof rooms 

aparten-?', to belong. 

apati-6>, apathy ; — a, apa- 
thetic. 

apelaci-o, legal appeal ; — i, 
to appeal (legally). 

■^apenaŭ, hardly; scarce- 

Apenin-o/, the Apennines. 

aper-i, to appear ; mal — i, 
to disappear ; — o, — ajo, 
apparition. 

apetit-o, appetite. 

api-o, celery. 

aplaŭd i, to applaud. 

aplomb-o, assurance, self- 
command. 

apog-i, to lean (upon) ; to 
rest (upon). 

apoge 0, apogee. 

apokalips-o, apocalypse. 

apokrif-a, apocryphal. 

apolog-o, apologue. 

apologi-o, apology, vindica- 
tion of. 

apopleksi-o, apoplexy. 

apostat-o, an apostate ; — a 
(adj.); — eco, apostacy ; 
— ido, apostate. 

apostaz-i, to apostatise 
(neut.). 

apostol-o, apostle ; — a, 
apostolic. 

apostrof-o, apostrophe 

{gram.). 

apotek-6», chemist's shop. 

apoteoz-o, apotheosis. 



8 



APOZICI-0 



ARISTOLOKl-0 



apozici-0, apposition 
(cjram.). 

apr-o, wild boar. 

April-o, April ; — a, of 
April. 

aprob-t, to approve. 

apsid-o, apse, apsis. 

*apud, near to, close by, at 
hand ; — a, contiguous ; 
—esti, to be near, present ; 
— mĉto, apposition. 

ar-o, are (100 sq. metres). 

-ar-o, suffix of collection : 
arbo, tree; arh — o, forest; 
arh — eto^ a wood ; arh — 
isto^ forester ; ŝtupo, step, 
degree, rung ; ŝtup — o, 
staircase ; vorto, word ; 
vort — 0, dictionary ; va- 
gono, railway carriage ; 
vagon — o, train. 

Arab-a, Arabic, Arabian 
(adj.) ; — 0, an Arab ; 
— ujo, — lando, Arabia. 

arabesk-o, arabesque, 

arak-o, arrack. 

arane-o, spider. 

aranĝ-i, to arrange. 

arb-o, tree ; — eto, shrub, 
small tree ; — etaro, grove, 
shrubbery; — etajo, bush, 
thicket ; frukt — o, fruit- 
tree ; frukt — ejo, orchard ; 
— hakisto, woodcutter. 

arbalestr-o, cross-bow, bow; 
— isto, crossbowman, 
archer. 



arbitr-a, arbitrary. 

arbitraci-f>, arbitration, 
arbitrament, umpirage : 
juganto, jugisto — a, um- 
pire, referee, arbitrator: 
jugi — e, to arbitrate, to 
act as umpire. 

Sirt-o, bow, fiddlestick. 

arde-o, heron. 

ardez-o, slate. 

ardi-o, Inirn (met.), ardour. 

areometr-o, areometer. 

aren-o, arena, list, cock-pit. 

areopag-o, areopagus. 

arest-z', to arrest ; — o, ar- 
rest, taking into custody. 

arĝent-ĉ), silver (the metal). 

argil-o, clay. 

argon-o, argon. 

argument-i, to argue ; — o, 
argument. 

Argus-o, Argus (mythol.). 

arheologi-o, archeology. 

arhipelag-o, archipelago. 

arĥitektur-o, architecture ; 
— isto, architect. 

arĥitrav-o, architrave 

arhiv-o, archives. 

ari-o, air, tune (music), not 
the atmospheric air. 

ariergard-6», rearguard. 

aristokrat-o, aristocrat ; 
— a, aristocratic. 

aristolok-o, aristolokio sy- 
pho. 

aristoloki-o, aristolochv 
(bot.). 



ARITMETlK-0 



ASKETICISM-0 



aritraetik r), arithmetic. 
ark'O, arc (geom.) ; —((jo, 

vault ; paf — o, bow 

(weapon) ; — efleksi, to 

bend, to arch. 
arkad-(?, arcade, 
arkt-a, arctic. 
arleken-o, harlequin, 
arm-i, to arm ; — ilo, 

weapon ; — Hejo, arsenal ; 

armajo, armour ; — ilfar- 

isfo, gunsmith ; — ilfar- 

ado, manufacture of 

arms, 
arme-o, army. 
Armenia, Armenian {adj.); 

— 0, Armenia; — ano, an 

Armenian. 
arnik-ĉ?, arnica. 
arog-i, al si, to arrogate to 

oneself, 
arogant-a, arrogant, 
arom-o, aroma, fragrance, 
aromat-a, aromatic, 
arorut-o, arrowroot, 
arpeg-o, arpeggio, 
arsenik-o, arsenic, 
art-o, art ; — a, of art ; bel 

— oj, fine-arts (1). 
artemizi-o, wormwood, 

mug wort, 
arteri-o, artery (anat.). 
artez-a, (adj.), artesian ; 

— a pufo, artesian 

well, 
artifik-o, cunning, craft. 



stratagem ; 



sen — a, 



straightforward, up- 

right. 

artik-f», joint ; el — igi, to 
sprain, to dislocate ; 
en — igi, to set, to reset 
(bones). 

artikol-o, article (gram., 
etc.), not goods. 

artileri-o, artillery. 

artist-o, artist. 

artiŝok-o, artichoke. 

a>itnt-o, arthritis (med.). 

— as, present tense termin- 
ation of verbs : esH, to 
be ; mi estas, I am ; Hi 
estas, they are ; la libroj 
estas . . ., the books 
are . . . 

as 0, ace (at cards). 

asafetid-o, assafoetida. 

asbest-o, asbestos. 

asekur-i, to insure (with a 
company). 

asesor-o, assistant judge or 
magistrate. 

asfalt 0, asphalt. 

asfiksi-c, asphyxia. 

asign-?*, to assign. 

asist-i, to assist, to help; 
— anto, an assistant (not 
in the French sense of 
being present). 

askarid-o, ascaris (intestin- 
al worm). 

asket-a {adj.), ascetic; — o, 
an ascetic. 

asketicism-o, asceticism. 



10 



ASKLEPIAD-0 



AŬKCI-0 



asklepiado, asclepiad 
(verse) ; also asclepias 
(swallow-wort). 

asoci-ĉ?, association ; — i, to 
associate ; — into, associ- 
ate, partner, etc. 

asonanc-o, assonance. 

asparag-(?, asparagus. 

asperg-2, to sprinkle ; — o, 
aspersion; — ilo, holy 
water sprinkle. 

aspid-o, asp, aspic. 

aspirant 0, pretender, claim- 
ant, suitor. 

astm-o, asthma. 

astr-o/', stars, heavenly- 
bodies; — oplena, starry; 
— ohuno, starlight. 

astrolog-o, astrologer. 

astrologi-o, astrology. 

astronomi-o, astronomy. 

— at-, passive present par- 
ticiple : fari, to make, to 
do; far — a, being made 
or done (which is being 
made w done at the 
time). 

atak-i, to attack; — anto, 
aggressor ; — egi, to 
charge (the enemy) ; — o, 
an attack. 

atavism-o, atavism. 

ateism-6>, atheism. 

ateist-o, atheist; — a, athe- 
istic. 

atenc-i, to attempt; — o, 
attempt. 



atend /, to wait for; to 
expect, to wait. 

Atene-o, Athenean. 

atent-rt, attentive; —i, to 
attend to ; to pay atten- 
tion to ; — 0, attention ; 
— eco, the state of being- 
attentive sen — e, una- 
wares. 

atest-i, to certify, to attest ; 
— anfo, a witness; — o, 
certificate. 

ating-2, to attain, to reach. 

Atlantik (i Oceano, Atlantic 
Ocean. 

atlas-ĉ), satin. 

atlet-o, athlete. 

atmosfer-(), atmosphere. 

atom-o, atom. 

atoni-(), atony. 

atribut-6>, attribute. 

atripl-o, orach, goosefoot, 
mountain-spinach. 

atrofi-o, atrophy. 

atut-o, trump (at cards). 

*aŭ, or, either, au . . . an, 
either . . . or. 

aud-i, to hear ; --ado, 
hearing (sense). 

aŭdienc-ĉ?, audience, recep- 
tion. 

aŭditori-o, audience, audi- 
tory, assembly (people) ; 
auditorium. 

Aŭgust-o, August. 

aŭkci-o, auction ; — isto, an 
auctioneer. 

1 



AŬREOL-0 



BALDAKEN-O 



aŭreol-0, halo of glory 

aŭrikul-(9, auricula. 

Aŭror-(>, Aurora. 

aŭskult-i, to listen. 

Aŭstrali 0, Australia ; — a, 
Australian (adj. ) ; — ano, 
an Australian. 

aŭspici-o;', auspices. 

aŭtentik-a, authentic. 

aŭtobiografi-o, autobio- 
graphy. 

autodidakt-o, self-taught 
man. 

aŭtografi-o, autography. 

aŭtokrat-o, autocrat ; — a, 
autocratic. 

autokrati-o, autocracy. 

aŭtomat-(9, automaton. 

aŭtomobil-c>, automobile. 

aŭtonomi-o, autonomy. 

aŭtor-o, author. 

aŭtoritat-o, authority. 

autun-o, autumn. 

av-c, grandfather. 



avangard-o, vanguard, van 
(mil.). 

avar-a, avaricious ; — alo, 
a miser ; — i, to be spar- 
ing of (accus.). 

avel-o, hazel- nut, filbert. 

aven-o, oats. 

aventur-o, adventure. 

avert-2, to warn, to 
caution. 

avid-a, eager for; — i, to 
thirst for, to covet; — eco, 
lust. 

aviz-o, notice; — i, to inform. 

azar-o, asarum, asarabaca 
(hot). 

azen-o, ass, donkey 

azil-o, asylum. 

Azi-o, Asia; — a, Asiatic 
(adj.) ; — ana, an Asia- 
tic. 

azot-o, azote, nitrogen ; 
— acido, nitric acid. 

azur-o, the azure (skies). 



B 



babil-i, to chatter, tobabble. 
babord-o, larboard, port, 
bagatel-o, trifle, trifling 



thing. 



bajonet-o, bayonet, 
bak-z, to bake, 
bakteri-o/*, bacteria 

crohes). 
bal-o, ball, dauce. 



(mi- 



bala-^, to sweep ; — ajo, 

sweepings. 
balad-o, ballad. 
balanc-i, to swing (adiv. ) ; 

— igi, to swing (neut.) 
balast-o, ballast. 
balbut-i, to stammer, to 

stutter. 
baldaken-o, canopy. 



12 



BALDAŬ 



BASTON-0 



*baldaŭ, soon; — a, next, 
soon to be. 

balen-o, whale ; — osto, 
whalebone. 

balet-o, ballet. 

balistik-o, ballistics (ariil.), 

balkon-o, balcony. 

balon-o, balloon. 

balot-e, to vote by ballot. 

Balt-a Mar-o, Baltic Sea. 

balustrad-o, balustrade. 

balzam-o, balsam. 

balzamen-o, balsamine. 

bambu-o, bamboo. 

ban-i, to bathe {trans. ) ; 
— igi, to bathe (neut.) ; 
vapor — 0, vapour-bath ; 
— lando, watering - sta- 
tion ; — ejo, bathing- 
establishment ; — ilo, 
tub or bath (to bathe 
in). 

banan-0, banana. 

band-o, band, gang. 

bandaĝ-o, bandage. 

banderol-o, strip of paper- 
wrapper, stre;imer. 

bandit-o, bandit. 

bank-o, bank (financ.). 

bankier-o, banker. 

bankrot-i, to fail in busi- 
ness, to become bank- 
rupt. 

bant-o, bow (of ribbon). 

bapt-i, to christen, to bap- 
tize ; — opatro, god- 
father ; — ofilo^ godson ; 



— 0, christening; — ano^ 
co-sponsor. 

bar-i, to bar to obstruct; 
— 0, bar; — ajo, — ilo, bar- 
rier; plekt — ilo, hurdle, 
hedge ; kreskaj — ilo, 
quickset-hedge. 

barak-o, barrack. 

barakt-i, to struggle, to 
kick about, to wrestle. 

barb-o, beard. 

barbar-o, barbarian; — a, 
barbaric. 

barbarism-o, barbarism. 

barbir-o, barber, hair- 
dresser. 

barĉ-o, beetroot soup (Rus- 
sian). 

barel-o, barrel, keg, cask ; 
— isfo, cooper. 

bari-o, barium. 

barikad-c», barricade. 

bariton-o, baritone (man). 

bark-o, bark (boat). 

barometr-o, barometer. 

baron-o, baron. 

bas-o, bass (voice). 

basen-o, reservoir, basin, 
dock. 

bask-o, coat-tail, skirt. 

bast-o, inner part of the 
bark of trees. 

bastard-o, bastard, illegiti- 
mate child. 

bastion-o, bastion. 

baston-o, stick; — eio, small 
stick. 



13 



BAT-I 



BIGOT-0 



bat-i, to beat ; — iĝo, a 

scuffle ; — 0, a blow (with 

the fist). 
batal-i, to fight ; — o, a 

battle ; — eto, skirmish ; 

ek — 0, engagement ; 

— ilo, weapon ; — ilejo, 

armour}^ arsenal. 
batalion-o, battalion, 
batat-o, sweet potato, 
bateri-o, battery, 
batist-o, cambric, lawn. 
Bavar-a, Bavarian {adj.) ; 

— 0, a Bavarian ; — ujo, 

— lando, Bavaria. 
baz-o (chem.), base, basis. 
bazalt-o, basalt, 
bazar- 0, bazaar, market, 
bazilik-o, basilica, 
bazilisk-o, cockatrice. 
bed-o, garden-bed. 
bedaŭr-i, to regret, to 

lament ; — inde, unfor- 
tunately. 
beduen-o, bedouin, 
bek-o, beak ; — ajo, beakful. 
bel-a, fine, beautiful; — igi, 

to embellish, to makefine; 

— igi, to become fine, to 

improve in looks ; — ulo, 

a beau ; — ulino, a belle ; 

— soneco, melodiousness. 
beladon-o, belladonna, 
beletristik-o, belles-lettres. 
Belg-a, Belgian ; — vjo, 

— lando, Belgium ; — o, 

a Belgian. 



ben-i, to bless; mal — i, to 
curse ; — o, blessing. 

benefic-o, benefice. 

benk-o, form (to sit on) ; 
— eto, footstool. 

benzin-o, benzine. 

benzol-o, benzola. 

her-o, berry (of plant) ; 
vin — 0, grapes ; vin — aro, 
bunch of grapes. 

Berber-o, a Berl)er; — 'ujo, 
Berbery. 

beril-(?, beryl. 

berili-(9, beryllium. 

best-o, animal, beast; sovaga 
— 0, ^vild beast. 

het-o, beet, beetroot. 

betul-o, birch (tree). 

bezon-i, to want ; — a, 
wanted ; sen — a, not re- 
quired ; — 0, need, re- 
quirement; — igi,to make 
urgent ; — igi, to be 
urgent ; — ega, urgent. 

Bibli-o, Bible. 

bibliografi-o, bibliography. 

bibliotek-o, library. 

bicikl-o, bicycle ; — isto, 
bicyclist. 

bien-o, landed estate ; land 
property. 

bier-o, beer. 

biftek-o, beefsteak. 

bifstek-o, beefsteak. 

bigami-o, bigamy. 

bigot-o, -vlo, a l:)igot ; — a, 
bigoted ; — eco, bigotry. 



14 



BIL-0 



BOMBAKD-I 



bil-0, bilet-o, note, ticket ; 

hank — o, banknote, 
bilanc-o, balance-sheet, 
bilard-o, billiards, 
bilion-o, billion. 
bind-?', to bind (books). 
binokl-o, binocular, opera 

glass. 
biografi-o, biography, 
biologi-o, biology. 
bird-o, bird ; — eto, little 

bird ; — ido, .young bird ; 

— nesto^ bird's nest. 
biret-o, biretta. 
*bis, once more, 
biskvit-o, biscuit. 
bismut-o, bismuth, 
bistr-o, bistre (colour), 
bisturi-o, bistoury (surg.). 
bitum-o, bitumen, 
bivak-o, bivouac, 
blank-a, white ; — o, white, 

as a colour ; — ajo, a 

white spot, stain, mark ; 

— eto, page left blank ; 

ov — 0, white of egg. 
blasfem-i, to blaspheme, 
blat-o, weevil, woodlouse. 
blazon-(9, blazonry, her- 
aldry ; — sildo, coat of 

arms. 
blek-i, to baa, to neigh, to 

bellow, to grunt, etc. 

(Speaking of the cry of 

animals.) 
blend-6>, blende, zinc 

ore 



16 



blind-a, blind ; — ulo^ a 
blind man. 

blok-o, block ; — ado, block- 
ade ; — adi, to blockade. 

blond-a, fair, blonde (of 
hair). 

blov-^, to blow ; for — ?', to 
blow away; • — ado, the 
blowing (of the wind). 

blu-a, blue ; — o, blue, as a 
colour ; duhe — a, bluish. 

bluz-o, blouse. 

bo-, prefix of relation- 
ship through marriage ; 
— ĵ^atro, father-in-law ; 
—-Jilino, daughter-in-law; 
— frato, brother-in-law ; 
— patrino, mother-in-law. 

boa-o, boa. 

boat-o, boat, bark ; — islo, 
boatman. 

boben-o, bobbin, reel, spool. 

Bohem-a, Boliemian (adj.) ; 
— 0, a Bohemian; — ujo, 
— lando, Bohemia. 

hoyi, to bark (like dogs). 

bojkot-e, to boycot; — o, 
boy cot (noun). 

boks-i, to box ; — islo, prize- 
fighter, pugilist 

bol-i, to boil. 

Boliv-a (adj.), Bolivian ; 
— 0, a Bolivian ; — ujo, 
Bolivia. 

bomb-o, bomb, shell. 

bombard-z, to shell, to bom- 
bard (a town). 



BOMBON-0 



BRIT-A 



homloon-o, bonbon, a 

sweet. 

hon-a, good; — ega, excel- 
lent ; — anima, good- 
natured ; — fari, to do 
good ; — intenca, well- 
meaning ; — kora, kind- 
hearted ; — eco, good- 
ness; — e, well, good {adv.). 

hoi-i, to bore; — ilo, auger; 
— ileto, gimlet. 

boraks-o, borax. 

bord-o, bank (of rivers, 
etc.), shore. 

border-i, to hem ; — o, bor- 
der of any sort. 

bors-o. Exchange, Bourse. 

bosk-o, grove, bosky. 

boston-o, boston (card 
game). 

hot-o, boot ; — eto, half- 
boot; — isto, bootmaker. 

botanik-ĉ?, botany ; — isto, 
botanist. 

botel-o, bottle. 

hov-o, ox ; — ino, cow ; 
— oviro, bull ; — eto, small 
ox ; — ido, calf ; — idino, 
heifer ; — ajo, beef ; — id- 
ajo, veal. 

bovl-o, wine-cup (the 
liquor). 

brak-o, arm (of the body) ; 
sub — Oy armpit. 

brakiur-^, crab. 

bram-o, bream (fish). 

braman-o, brahman. 



bran-o, bran (of grain). 

branc-o, branch, bough ; 
— ajo, fagot; ■ — aro, the 
branches together; — eto, 
small bough. 

brand-o, brandy ; — faristo, 
distiller ; — far ado, dis- 
tillation of brandy ; 
— farejo, distillery. 

brank-o, gills (fish). 

brankard-o, a litter (to 
carry). 

bras-^, to brace (naut.). 

brasik-o, cabbage ; flora — o, 
cauliflower. 

brav-fl^, brave ; — e ! bravo ! 
— ulo, a brave man ; 
— ega, rash ; — egeco, 
rashness, temerity. 

brec-o, breach (in a wall). 

hret-o, shelf, bracket. 

Breton-a (adj.), Breton; — o, 
a Breton; — uj o,Bnttiiny. 

brev-o, breve ; papal brief. 

brevier-o, breviary 

brid-o, bridle; sen — igi, to 
unbridle. 

brigad-o, brigade (milit.). 

brik-o, brick, tile ; tegmenta- 
— 0, tile for a roof. 

bril-i, to shine ; — egi, to be 
resplendent ; — eti, to 
glow ; — ajeto, gold dust, 
etc. 

briliant-o, a brilliant. 

Brit-rt, British (adj.) ; — o, 
a Briton ; — ujo, — lando^ 



16 



BROĈ-0 



BUŜ-0 



Bri tain ; G-randa — njo^ 
Gh'ci nda — lando, Great 
Britain. 

hrot-o, broach. 

brod-^, to embroider. 

brog-i, to scald. 

brokant-i, to deal in second- 
hand goods, to haggle ; 
— isto, a dealer in second- 
hand goods, etc. 

brom-o, bromine. 

bronk-o, bronchial vessel. 

bronkit-o, bronchitis. 

bronz-o, bronze. 

bros-(?, brush ; — i, to brush. 

broŝiir-o, pamphlet. 

hiov-o, ej^cbrow. 

bnl-^, to make a noise ; 
— ego, great noise; — efo, 
rustling, murmuring, 
like water, leaves, etc. 

brul-i, to burn, to be in 
flames; — eti, to brood, 
to sit on eggs, ek — igi, to 
light ; — v\indo, a burn ; 
— umo, inflammation. 

brun-ft, brown ; — igi, to 
make brown ; dube — a, 
brownish. 

brust-(?,breast, chest, bosom. 

bmt-o, brute, animal ; — oj, 
cattle, sheep ; — aro, 
flock or herd. 

brutt-ĉ {adv.), gross, gross 
weight. 

bub-ĉj, ragamuffin, rude boy; 
a lad. 

B 17 



bubal-o, buff", buff'alo. 

buc-i, to slaughter ; — ejo, 
slaughter-house ; — isto 
butcher. 

bud-o, booth, small shop 
— eta, sentry-box, shed. 

budĝet-o, budget. 

buf-o, toad. 

bufed-o, buff'et. 

bufr-(?, buff"er (rail. carr.). 

buk-o, buckle (metal). 

buked-ĉ?, bouquet, nosegay 

bukl-o, ringlet, curl, lock 
(of hair). 

buks-o, box (hot. ), boxwood. 

bul-o, ball, clod (of earth) ; 
— eto, pellet. 

bulb-o, onion, bulb. 

Bulgar-a, Bulgarian {adj.); 
— 0, a Bulgarian ; — ujo, 
— lando, Bulgaria. 

buljon-o, broth. 

bulk-o, roll of white bread ; 
— viand — o, sandwich. 

bulvard-o, boulevard. 

biin-o, a bun. 

burd-ĉ), humble-bee. 

burĝ-o, a civilian, also a 
burgess; — aro, the body 
of burgesses ; — eco, free- 
dom of a city. 

burĝon-o, bud, young shoot. 

burlesk-a {adj.), burlesque; 
— a/o, a burlesque (piece). 

burnus-o, burnoose. 

busprit-o, bowsprit. 

buŝ-o, mouth; — ego, muzzle, 



BUŜEL-0 



CETER-A 



snout, mouth of big 
animals ; — umo^ a muz- 
zle for a dog, a nose- 
band ; — tuko^ napkin, 
serviette. 

buŝel-o, bushel. 

bust-o, bust. 

buter-o, butter. 



butik-o, shop, warehouse, 

store. 
buton-o, button ; — umi, 

to button ; mat — umi, 

to unbutton ; — truo, 

buttonhole, 
butor-o, bittern, 
buz-o, buzzard. 



car-o, czar. 

ced-i, to yield, to cease re- 
sistance ; to unbend ; to 
grant, to give up, to part 
with. 

cedr-o, cedar. 

cejan-c, cornflower. 

Cek-o, Czech. 

cel-i, to aim, to intend, to 
purpose; — o, aim, goal, 
end ; — tahulo, target ; 
sen — a, aimless. 

celeri-o, celery. 

cembr-o, cembra pine, 
Swiss pine. 

cement-c», cement, lute, 
builders^ clay ; — ^, to 
cement. 

cend-o, cent (a coin). 

■^cent, hundred ; — estro, 
centurion ; — jciTO, cent- 
ury; pro — 0, percentage, 
interest ; pro — ego, usury ; 
pro — egisto, usurer. 

centezimal-ft, centesimal. 

centigram-o, centigram. 



centilitr-o centilitre. 

centim-o, centime (100th 
part of a franc). 

centimetr-o, centimetre. 

centr-o, centre. 

centraliz-i, to centralize ; 
— ado, centralization. 

centrifoli-o, centrifolia. 

cenzur-o, censure ; — i, to 
censure ; — isto, censor. 

cerb-o, brain. 

cercedul-o, teal. 

ceremoni-o, ceremony ; sen 
— e, unceremoniously. 

cerezin-o, ceresene. 

ceri 0, cerium. 

cert-t7, certain, sure; — e, 
certainly ; — igi, to cer- 
tify, to vouch, to affirm. 

cerv-o, stag ; — ino, hind ; 
— ido, fawn ; norda — o, 
reindeer. 

ceter-a, the remaining, 
other ; la — aj, the others ; 
— e, besides, further- 
more, and again. 



18 



CEZI-0 



ĈAMBELAN-0 



cezi-0, caesium. 

*ci (thou, thee), diri 'ci,' 

to ' thou ' and * thee.' 
cianacid-o, "iPrussic 
ciana-a acid-o,/ acid. 
cibet-6», civet; — hito, civet 

cat. 
cidoni-o, quince, 
cidr-o, cider, 
cifer-o, cipher, numerical 

figure ; — plato, dial, face 

of a clock, 
cigan-o, gipsy. 
cigar-o, cigar; — ingo, cigar 

mouthpiece; — vjo, cigar 

box ; — ejo, cigar depot, 
cigared-o, cigarette, 
cign-o, swan, 
cika.d-0, cicada (large 

green grasshopper not 

English). 
cikatr-o, scar, cicatrice, 
cikl-o, cycle ; — isto, cyc- 
list ; — i, to cj^cle, 
ciklon-o, cyclone, 
ciklop-o, cyclop, 
cikoni-o, stork. 
cikori-o, succory, endive, 
cikum-o, common brown 

owl. 
cikut-o, hemlock, 
cilindr-o, cylinder. 



cim-o, bug (insect). 

cimbal-o, cymbal. 

cinabr-o, cinnabar. 

cinsLm-o, cinnamon. 

cindr-o, ash, cinder; also 
ashes (mortal remains). 

cinik-a, cynical ; — ulo, a 
cynic. 

cipres-6>, cypress. 

cir-o, blacking (for boots). 

cirk-o, circus. 

cirkel-o, compass (inst. 
geom.). 

cirkonstanc-o, circum- 
stance. 

cirkul-i, to circulate. 

cirkiiler-o, a circular (noun). 

cirkumfleks-a (adj.), cir- 
cumflex ; — 0, a circum- 
flex accent. 

cistern-o, cistern. 

cit-i, to quote. 

citadel-o, citadel. 

citat-(?, citation, quotation. 

citr-^, zither, Ij^-e. 

citron-o, lemon; — ujo, 
lemon-tree, 

civil-a, civil (opp, to milit. 
and ecclesiastical). 

civiliz-i, to civilize. 

civilizaci-o, civilization. 

col-o, inch (measure). 



Ĝagren-i, to grieve, to vex ; | Ĉam-o, chamois (animal). 
— igi, to fret, to be vexed. I cambelan-o, chamberlain, 

19 



ĜAMBR-0 



^ĈI 



ĉambr-0, room, chamber ; 
antaŭ — o, ante-room. 

campan-o, champagne wine. 

ĉau-o, cock (of a gun, etc.). 

cap-o, cap, bonnet. 

capel-o, man's hat, lady's 
bonnet. 

capitr-o, chapter (books). 

*Ĝar, because, since, 
(argumt.) for {con].). 

car 0, chariot, car ; — eto, 
cart. 

carlatan-o, quack, mounte- 
bank. 

carm-a, charming, delight- 
ful ; — 0, charm ; — i, to 
charm, to delight, to 
captivate. 

carnir-o, hinge. 

carpent-i, to do carpenter- 
ing ; kun — i, to as- 
semble together by car- 
pentering ; — isto, a 
carpenter. 

carpi-o, lint. 

cas-i, to hunt (venery) ; 
— ajo, game ; — korno, 
hunting-horn. 

ĉast-a, chaste ; mal — a, 
dissolute ; mal — i, to 
lead a dissolute life ; 
mal — igi, to debauch, 
to corrupt. 

*ĉe, at, in, with : — ni, at 
our house ; — via patro^ 
at your father's house ; 
— V pordo, at the door. 



— esti, to be present at; 
— esto, presence at. 

cef-, chief, head, principal ; 
— urbo, chief town, capi- 
tal ; — episkopo, arch- 
bishop ; — angeloj arch- 
angel ; — i, to head, to 
command ; — a, princi- 
pal (adj.). 

tek-o, cheque ; — o strekita, 
crossed cheque. 

te\-o, cell (nat. hist.), also 
in honeycombs. 

cemiz-o, shirt, chemise. 

cen-o, chain ; — ero, link of 
a chain. 

ĉeriz 0, cherry ; — ujo, 
cherry-tree. 

cerk-o, coffin. 

cerp-i, to draw (water) ; 
el — i, to select. 

Ĝes-^, to leave off, to cease 
{neuter) ; — igi, to cause 
anything to cease ; sen 
— a, continuous, inces- 
sant. 

Ĝeval-(?, horse ; — ino, 
mare ; — o mro, stallion ; 
— eto, small horse, 
pony ; — ido, foal, colt ; 
— idiiio, filly ; — ejo, 
stable ; — estro, horse- 
man ; — ajo, horseflesh. 

Ĝevron-o, chevron (arch, and 
milit.). 

*ĉi, the nearest ; tiu, that ; 
tiu ci, this ; tie, there ; 



20 



^eiA 



*DA 



*ĉie, 



tie ci, here; tien, thither; 
Hen ci, hither ; ĉi tiea, 
local. 

*ĉia, each (each kind of) ; 
every (every kind of). 

■^ĉiam, always, ever; — a, 
everlasting (adj.). 

everywhere ; — a, 
ubiquitous, omnipresent 
(adj.). 

*ciel, in every way (in- 
variable). 

Ĝiel-o, heaven.^ sky; — arko, 
rainbow; Cieliro, Ascen- 
sion. 

■'^ĉies, everybody's. 

cif-i, to crumple, to ruffle. 

ĉifon-o, rag ; — ajo, tat- 
tered things, rags ; 
— isto, rag picker, rag 
dealer. 

cikan-i, to chicane, to 
cavil ; — e7na, addicted 
to wrangle about trifles. 

*Ĝio, all (sing.), everything; 
— pova, almighty. 

*ĉirkaŭ, round, about ; 
— ajo, environs, neigh- 
bourhood ; — e, round 
about (adv.) ; — i, to 
surround, to encircle ; 
— ma no, 



— 0, circuit 



bracelet; — kola, collar, 
parure ; — preni, to em- 
brace; — skribi, to cir- 
cumscribe. 

6irp-i, to chirp, to twitter. 

*ĉm, each, every, all {sing. ) ; 
—j, all {pi)', —taga, 
daily {adj.) ; — tage, 
daily (adv.) ; — monata, 
monthly {adj.); — monate, 
monthly {adv.); — jara, 
yearly, annual ; —jare, 
yearly {adv.). 

tiz-i, to chisel ; — ilo, a 
chisel. 

-6j-, after the first (2-5) 
letters of a man's name, 
used as an endearing 
diminutive : Mihaelo, 
Michael; Milcjo, Mike; 
pafro, father ; pacjo, little 
father, papa. 

cokolad-o, chocolate. 

*ĉu, sign of interrogation : 
vi parolas, you speak; 
— vi parolas? Do you 
spe^ak ^ 

*^* Cu is also used in in- 
direct query : • — vi venos, 
— vi ne venos, whether 
you (will) come, whether 
you (will) not come. 



*da is used instead 
de (of) after words 



of 
ex- 



21 



pressingmeasure, weight, 
quantity definite or iiide- 



DAKTIL-0 



DECILITR-0 



finite. Ex. : taso da teo, 
cup of tea ; funto da 
viando, pound of meat ; 
delcduo daforkqj, a dozen 
forks; kelke da pomoj, 
a few apples ; multe da 
knaboj, many boys (3). 

daktil-o, date (fruit). 

dali-o, dahlia. 

Dalmat-a (adj.), Dalmatian; 
— 0, a Dalmatian ; — ujo, 
Dalmatia, 

dam-o/, draughts (game) ; 
— a tabulo, draught- 
board. 

damask-o, damask. 

damcerv-o, deer. 

Dan-a, Danish (adj.) ; — o, a 
Dane ; — ujo ; — lando, 
Denmark. 

danc-i, to dance ; — ado, 
dancing ; — arto, the art 
of dancing; — o, a dance. 

dand-o, dandy; — i, to 
play the dand}^ 

danĝer-c», danger; sen — a, 
safe from danger. 

dank-i, to thank; mi estas 
tre — a, I am very thank- 
ful ; sen — a, thankless ; 
ne — a, ungrateful ; ne 
— ema, ingrate, never 
thankful ; — eco, thank- 
fulness. 

Dardanel-o/, Dardanelles. 

dat-o, date ; — umi, to date; 
— revenOj anniversary. 



dativ-o, dative. 

datur-o, datura (thorn 
apple). 

daur-i, to continue, to last 
(neut.) ; — igij to con- 
tinue something, to go on 
with something ; — igo, 
continuation of some- 
thing; — 0, duration. 

*de, of, by, since, from 
(marks the genitive, ab- 
lative, possessive, start- 
ing point, use) : la libro — 
Petro, the book of Peter, 
Peter's book; si estas 
laŭdaia — ĉiuj, she is 
praised by all ; — tiu 
tempo, since (or from) 
that time ; — sabato ĝis 
mardo, from Saturday 
until Tuesday; taso 
— teo, tea-cup (3). 

debat-o, debate. 

debet-o, debit ; — konto, 
debtor account. 

debit-o, debit (opp. to 
credit); ready sale. 

dec-i, to be proper, decent, 
fit, suitable : — as, it is 
right, it is proper, etc, 

Decembr-o, December. 

decid-i, to decide, to re- 
solve ; — eco, decision ; 
— igi, to bring about a 
decision ; — iga, deci- 
sive. 

decilitr-o, decilitre. 



22 



DECIMETR-0 



DENT-0 



decimetr-0, decimetre. 

deĉifr-i, to decipher, to un- 
ravel. 

dediĉ-i, to dedicate; — o, 
dedication. 

defend-i, to defend, to 
protect. 

deficit-o, deficit. 

definitiv-a, definitive. 

degel-t, to thaw (neut.) ; 
— igi, to cause to thaw, 
to thaw something : 
— ado, a thaw ; — ajo, 
anything that is thaw- 
ing, water, snow, etc. 

degener-i, to degenerate. 

degrad-i, to degrade, to 
deprive of rank. 

deism-o, deism. 

deĵor-2", to be on duty, as 
an attendant. 

*dek, ten; — a, tenth. 

dekadenc-o, decadence. 

dekagram-o, decagram. 

dekalitr-o, decalitre. 

dekametr-o, decametre (10 
metres). 

dekan-o, dean (of faculty). 

deklam-z, to declaim, to 
recite; — o, recitation. 

deklaraci 0, declaration. 

deklin z, to decline, to fall 
off: 

deklinaci-o, declension 
(gram.). 

dekliv-o, declivity, slope ; 
— a, sloping. 



dekoraci-o, decoration, or- 
nament. 

dekret-o, decree ; — i, to 
decree. 

dekstr-a, right (opp. to 
left). 

deleg-i, to delegate ; — ito, 
delegate, deputy, proxy. 

delegaci-o, delegation. 

delfen-o, dolphin (animal). 

delikat-a, delicate, nice, 
dainty ; mal — a, rough, 
rude, unmannerly. 

delir-i, to be delirious. 

delt-o, delta. 

demagog-o, a demagogue. 

demand-i, to ask, to query. 

demokrat-o, democrat; — a, 
democratic. 

demokrati-o, democracy. 

demon-o, demon. 

demonstrativ-o, demon- 
strative (gram.) ; — a, 
demonstrative (adj.). 

denar-o, denarius (an old 
coin); la — o de I'vidvino, 
the widow's mite. 

dens-«, dense, thick; — igi, 
to condense ; mal — a, 
thinly spread ; mal — igi, 
to become thinly 
spread. 

dent-o, tooth ; — a, notched, 
dental, dented ; sen — a, 
toothless, not indented ; 
sen — igi, to break the 
teeth of a saw or other 



23 



DENUNOI 



DIAMANT-0 



such object; tii — o, tri- 
dent. 

denunc-i, to denounce. 

departement-o, department 
(administr. ). 

depend-i, to depend. 

depeŝ-o, despatch. 

deput-'i, to depute ; — ato^ 
— ito, deputy. 

*des . . . pli . . . the more . . . 
the more : ju pli mi legas 
despli mi lernas, the more 
I read, the more I learn, 
ju pli oni skribos en Es- 
peranto, despli ĝifaciliĝos, 
the more one writes in 
Esperanto, the easier it 
becomes. 

desegn-i, to draw, to design. 

desert-o, dessert. 

despot-o, despot. 

despotism-o, despotism. 

destin-z, to destine; antail 
— i, to predestine. 

detal-o, detail ; — a, de- 
tailed, circumstantial ; 
— i, to give details of ; 
— e, by retail. 

determin-i, to determine. 

detra-i, to destroy ; — egi, 
to demolish. 

dev-i, must, to have to ; 
— igi, to feel compelled ; 
— igi, to compel ; — ige, 
compulsorily; — o, duty. 

deven-o, origin ; — ajoj, de- 
rivatives. 



deviz-o, emblem, motto. 

dezert-o, desert; — a, waste, 
deserted; — ulo, an- 
chorite. 

dezinfekt-4, to disinfect ; 
— 0, disinfection.' 

dezir-z, to wish, to desire ; 
— egi, to desire ardently, 
to be very anxious to ; 
mi — as at vi bonan tagon, 
I wish you good day. 

Di-o, God ; — a, divine ; 
— eco, divine nature; 
— igi, to deify; — servo, 
divine ser\ice ; — ino, 
goddess; — o volu ! may 
God, would to God ! 

diabet-o, diabetes ; — a, 
diabetic. 

diabl-o, devil. 

diadem-o, diadem. 

diafan-a, transparent; 
— eco, transparency; 
— igi, to become trans- 
parent. 

diafragm-o, diaphragm. 

diagnostik-o, diagnos- 
tics. 

diagnoz-i, to diagnose; — o, 
diagnosis. 

diagonal-o, diagonal ; — a 
linio, diagonal line. 

diakon-o, deacon. 

dialekt-o, dialect. 

dialektik-o, dialectics. 

dialog-^^, dialogue. 

diamant-o, diamond. 



24 



DIAMETR-0 



DIS 



diametr-0, diameter. 

diant-o, pink, dianthus. 

diapazon-o, pitch, dia- 
pason. 

diboĉ-i, to be a debauchee ; 
— igi, to debauch, to 
corrupt ; — o, debauch, 
debauchery. 

didaktik-a, didactic. 

didelf-o, kangaroo, did el- 
phis (zoolog.). 

diet-o, diet (medic). 

difekt-i, to damage, to 
spoil, to vitiate. 

diferenc-i, to differ, to be 
different from; — igi, to 
distinguish, to make dis- 
tinct. 

difin-i, to define, to intend, 
to give the meaning, etc.; 
— i por, to destine for. 

difteri-o, diphtheria. 

difterit-o, diphtheritis. 

diftong-o, diphthong. 

dig-o, dike, dam. 

digest-z, to digest; — ado, 
digestion. 

dik-a, big, thick, corpulent; 
mal — a, thin, slender, 
lean ; — eco, bulk, thick- 
ness; nial — ega, slim, 
lank; — korpa, squat, 
corpulent. 

dikt-i, to dictate ; — ado, 
— ajo, dictation. 

diktator-o, dictator. 

dilem-o, dilemma. 



dilet-^, to delight in ; 
— anio, dilettante, ama- 
teur. 

diligent-fl, diligent, atten- 
tive ; — 0, diligence ; 
mal—o, negligence. 

dimanc-o, Sunday. 

diminutiv-o, diminutive 
{gram.). 

dinamik-o, dynamics. 

dinamism-o, dynamism. 

dinamit-c>, dynamite. 

dinamometr-o, dynamo- 
meter. 

dinasti-o, dynasty. 

diplom-o, diploma. 

diplomat-o, diplomatist. 

diplomati-o, diplomacy. 

dii-i, to say (to tell); antaii 
— i, to foretell, to pre- 
dict ; kontraŭ — i, to con- 
tradict; — 0, a saying; 
el — 0, dictum, statement, 
sentence. 

direkci-o, management 
(manager's office), body 
of directors. 

direkt-i, to direct, to in- 

- struct; — 0, the direction 
(to be followed); — ado, 
management of any- 
thing ; — ilo, helm ; — il- 
isto, pilot, helmsman. 

direktor-o, director. 

direktori-o, directory. 

dis-, separating affix : 
— hari, to obstruct ; 



25 



DISCIPLlN-0 



DOG-0 



— bati, to knock down ; 
— doni, to distribute ; 
— igi, to separate {active) j 
— igi, to separate (mutu- 
ally) ; — igo, schism, dis- 
union ; — igo, — iro, 
separation ; — jeti, to 
throw ; — jefi, to throw 
about ; — peli, to dis- 
perse persons or things ; 
— porti, to carry here 
and there ; — premi, to 
crush to pieces; — rompo, 
disruption ; — salti, to 
break in splinters ; 
semi, to sow ; — semi, 
to scatter, to dissemin- 
ate ; — seiidi, to send 
right or left ; — ŝiri, 
— pecigi, to tear to 
pieces ; — suti, to shoot 
out solids ; — vastigi, to 
spread (news), to dis- 
seminate ; — vendi, to 
sell largely ; — verŝi, to 
spill, to pour out liquids ; 
— volvo, devolution. 

disciplin-o, discipline. 

disenteri-o, dysentery. 

disertaci-o, dissertation. 

disk-o, disc. 

diskont-o, discount ; — i, 
to discount. 

diskret-a, discreet ; — eco, 
discretion. 

diskut ?, to discuss; — ebla, 
debatable, disputable. 



dispepsi-o, dyspepsia ; — a, 
dyspeptic. 

dispon-i, to dispose (not to 
arrange). 

disput-i, to dispute; — o, 
quarrel, altercation. 

distil-?!, to distil ; — ejo, 
distillery; — ilo, alembic, 
still ; — isto, distiller. 

disting-i, to distinguish ; 
— igi, to distinguish one- 
self, to become famous ; 
— iga, distinctive. 

dltiramb-o, dithyramb. 

distr-z, to take away the 
attention ; — o, the act 
of taking away the at- 
tention ; — ajo, want of 
attention ; — eco, state 
of inattention ; — iia, 
absent-minded. 

distrikt-o, district. 

divan-o, divan. 

diven-?', to guess. 

divers-a, diverse, varied. 

divid-i, to partake, to 
share ; — ado, division 
(arithm.) ; ne — ita, un- 
divided ; 71Ĉ — ehla, in- 
divisible. 

dividend-o, dividend. 

divizi-o, division (milit.). 

*do, therefore, consequent- 
ly, then (argumentative). 

docent-o, tutor (in a uni- 
versity). 

dog-o, bull-dog, mastilT. 



26 



DOGM-0 



DRINK-I 



dogm-Oj dogma ; — a, dog- 
matic. 

doĝ-o, doge. 

doktor-(5, doctor. 

doktrin-o, doctrine. 

dokument-o, document. 

dolar-o, dollar. 

dolĜ-a, sweet; — ema, 
— ega, pleasant (in man- 
ner); — igi, to sweeten, 
to assuage. 

dolor-z, to cause pain 
(trans.); — o, pain, ache, 
grief, sorrow. 

dom-o, house ; — eto, cot- 
tage, small house; — ano, 
one belonging to the 
house ; — e, at home ; iri 
— en, to go home. 

domaĝ-o, pity [i.e. regret- 
table affair) ; estas — o, 
it is a pity. 

domen-o, domino. 

don-i, to give ; sin — a, 
self-sacrificing, devoted ; 
al — i, to add ; el — isio, 
publisher, editor; el — i, 
to publish, to edit ; dis- 
— i, to distribute. 

donac-z, to make a gift; 
— 0, a present, a gift. 

dorlot-i, to coddle, to 
pamper, to fondle. 

dorm-z, to sleep; — eti, to 
doze; — eto, a nap; 
— egi, to sleep heavily ; 
— ema, fond of sleep; 



mal — ema, wakeful; mat 
— i, to watch, to sit up ; 
ek — i, to fall asleep ; 
— ocamhro, bedroom; 
— igi, to lull to sleep. 

dom-o, thorn. 

dors-o, back (the). 

dot-i,to endow; — o, dower, 
portion. 

doz-o, dose (med.). 

dragon-o, dragoon. 

drak-o, dragon. 

drakm-o, drachma. 

drakon-a, draconic, dra- 
conian. 

dram-o, drama; — a, drama- 
tic ; — aŭtoro, dramatic 
author, playwright. 

dramaturgi-o, dramaturgy. 

drap-o, cloth. 

drapir-i, to drape. 

drast-a, drastic. 

draŝ-i, to thrash (corn); 
— ilo, flail. 

drelik-6', drilling, heavy 
cotton, twilled goods. 

dres-z, to train (for some- 
thing) ; to adjust, to 
dress, etc. 

driad-o, driad. 

drink-^, to drink to excess ; 
— e?na, addicted to 
drink ; — anto, drinker ; 
— ulo, drunkard ; — ejo, 
drink-shop ; — ejmastro, 
keeper of a drinking 
bar, or tap-room. 



DRO(>-0 



CH- 



drog-0, drug; — isto, drug- 
gist. 

dromedar-o, dromedary. 

dron-i, to get drowned ; 
— igi, to drown (i.e. to 
cause to drown). 

drmd-ĉ>, druid. 

*du, two ; dua, second ; 
— e, secondly ; — o, — efo, 
duet (also a two at cards) ; 
— ono, half (noun); — ona, 
half (adj.) ; — ojje, two 
together; — obla, double; 
— opa, double (collective- 
ly); — ohligi, to double ; 
— onpafro, stepfather (i.e. 
half-father). 



dub-e, to doubt; — o, doubt; 
sen — a, undoubted ; ne 
— Ĉ, sen — (?, without 
doubt, no doubt. 

duel-i, to fight a duel ; — o, 
a duel ; — isto, duelist. 

duk-o, duke. 

dukat-o, ducat. 

■^dum, during, whilst, while; 
— e, meanwhile, mean- 
time. 

dung-i, to hire (men, etc.); 
— ato, hired man. 

duplikat-o, duplicate. 

dwc-o, douro (Spanish coin). 

duŝ-o, douche, shower- 
bath. 



-e, mark of the derivative 
adverb ; bona, good ; — e, 
well ; granda, great, 
large ; —e, greatly, 
largely; siucera, sincere; 
— e, sincerely (4). 

eben-ft, even; — ajo, a 
plain; — igij to make 
even. 

-ebl-, shows possibility : 
kredi, to believe ; kred- 
— a, credible ; kred — e, 
possibly, likely; iravidi, 
to see through ; travid- 
— a, transparent ; fleksi, 
to bend ; fleks — a, flex- 



ible ; — e, perhaps ; 
— eco, possibility ; — igi^ 
to enable (6). 

ebon-o, ebony. 

ebri-a,inebriate, intoxicated 
(also figuratively); — eco, 
inebriety ; — igi, to in- 
toxicate ; — igi, to get 
intoxicated ; — ulo, an 
intoxicated man. 

ec-, suffix of abstract quality- 
(good or bad) ; hela, fine, 
beautiful; 6ĉZ—ĉ>, beauty; 
virino, woman ; vii'in 
— 0, womanliness; a/niI:o, 
friend, amik — o, friend- 



28 



ECM) 



EK- 



ship ; granda, great, 
large ; grand — o, size, 
dimension (2). 

ec-o, a distinctive mark or 
quality, 

*eĉ, even (adv.). 

Eden-o, Eden, 

edif-i, to edify. 

edikt-o, edict, 

eduk-f, to bring up, to 
educate ; — ato, pupil ; 
— ado, education given ; 
— iteco, education re- 
ceived ; — isfo, educator. 

edz-o, married man ; — iiio, 
wife ; doktoro, doctor, 
doldor — mo, doctor's 
wife ; lavistino, washer- 
woman, laundress ; lav- 
istin — 0, laundress's 
husband ; — igo, wed- 
ding ; — eco, matrimony; 



— 0, the act ; — eco, effica- 
ciousness ; — atajo, .the 
etfect produced, 

-eg-, shows intensity : 
varma, warm ; varm — a, 
hot ; pordo, door ; poi'd 
— 0, gate, portal ; bona, 
good ; bon — a, excellent; 
granda, great, large ; 
grand — a, huge; pafilo, 
gun ; pafil — o, cannon, 
big gun. 

egal-a, equal; — eco, equal- 
ity ; — pezo, equilibrium, 
equipoise ; — ulo, an 
equal ; egali, to equal; 
— igi, to equalize. 

Egid-o, ^gis (mytholog.), 

Egipt-a, Egyptian (adj.); 
— 0, an Egyptian ; — ujo, 
— lando, Egypt, 

eglefin-o, haddock. 



— tgi, to get married j eglog-o, eklog-o, eclogue, 
(man) ; — inigi, to get i egoism-o, egotism, selfish- 
married (woman) ; — igi, ness, 
to marry a couple. egoist-o, egotist ; — a, 

efekt-o, efTect ; fari -on, to ^ selfish, 
produce an effect. eh—o, echo. 

efektiv-a, effective, real, -ej-, shows place allotted 



actual ; — ajo, reality, re- 
alization ; — e, indeed, 
effectively ; — igi, to give 
effect, to realise; — igi, 
to be effected, to be 
realized. 

efemer-a, ephemeral. 

efik-i, to have effect, to act ; 



to : kuiri, to cook ; kuir 
— 0, kitchen; pregi, to 
pray ; preg — o, house 
of prayer, church or 
chapel ; lerni, to learn ; 
lern — o, school ; cevalo, 
horse ; ceval — o, stable, 
ek-, shows beginning or 



29 



EKLEKTIK-A 



EKVACI-0 



short duration : kanti, 
to sing ; — kanti, to start 
singing ; brili, to shine ; 
— brili, to flash ; ridi, 
to langh ; — ridi, to 
burst out laughing ; krii, 
to cry ; — krii, to ex- 
claim, to cry out ; 
— tusegi, to run against. 

eklektik-a, eclectic ; — o, 
eclectics. 

eklekticism-o, eclecticism. 

eklezi-o, the church (not 
the building). 

ekliptik-o, ecliptic. 

ekonom-o, superintendent. 

ekonomi-o, economy; 
— isto, economist ; — ema, 
addicted to economy. 

eks- (ex), who has been, 
formerly; — kolonelo, 
ex-colonel ; — igi, to re- 
move, to discharge from 
an employment ; — igi, 
to resign a position ; 
— edzigo, a divorce. 

Ekscelenc-o, Excellency 
(title). 

ekscentr-o, excentric ; — eco, 
excentricity. 

eksces-o, extravagance, 
excess. 

ekscit-i, to excite, to move 
inwardly. 

eksklusiv-a, exclusive. 

ekskomunik /, to excom- 
municate. 



ekskrement-o, excrement. 

ekskurs-o, excursion. 

ekspansi-o, expansion; — a, 
expansive. 

eksped-i, to expedite, to 
dispatch. 

eksperiment-i, to experi- 
ment. 

ekspertiz-o, survey (by ex- 
perts). 

eksplod-i, to explode; — igi, 
to cause explosion, to 
explode something. 

ekspluat-i, to work out, to 
improve, to work some- 
thing for profit. 

eksport-?', to export ; — o, 
exportation. 

ekspozici-o, exposition, ex- 
hibition. 

ekspres-a, express (adj.). 

ekstaz-o, estacy. 

ekstemporal-o, extempori- 
zation. 

^ekster, outside, external, 
outer : — e, outwardly ; 
— 0, the outside; — ajo, 
the exterior arrange- 
ment ; — ordinara, ex- 
traordinary ; — en sendi, 
to export. 

eksterm-i, to exterminate, 
to crush out. 

ekstr-a, extra. 

ekstrakt-o, extract (noun). 

ekstrem-a, extreme. 

ekvaci-o, equation. 



30 



EKVATOR-0 



ELEVATOR-0 



ekvator-0 equator. 

ekvilibr-o, equilibrium; 
- — isto, equilibrist. 

ekvilibrism-o, equilibrium, 
rope-dancing. 

ekvivalent-o, equivalent 
{noun). 

ekvivok-(i, equivocal {adj.) ; 
— 0, —eco, equivocation. 

ekzamen-^, to test, to ex- 
amine. 

ekzantem-o, exantliem 
{med.), (eruption). 

ekzegez-o, exegesis. 

ekzekut-i, to put to death, 
to execute. 

ekzem-o, eczema. 

ekzempl-o, example. 

ekzempler-o, copy (of a 
book). 

ekzerc-^, to exercise ; — o, 
exercise. 

ekzil-^, to banish, to exile. 

ekzist-i, to exist ; — ajo, a 
being of any sort. 

*el, out of, from among ; 
extraction, issue ; iri, 
to go ; — iri, to go 
out ; jeti, to throw ; 
— jeti, to throw out ; 
veni, to come ; — veni, 
to come from, to result 
from ; flui, to flow ; 
— flui, to flow from ; 
tiri, to draw ; — tiri, 
to extract from; — igi, 
to retire from, to with- 



knowing 
about things 



draw; — turnigema, 

how to set 

-acefi, to 

]my;—acetinto,liedeen\vv. 

*el as a prefix also has a 
meaning of thorough- 
ness, completion : lerni, 
to learn; —^6T?w, to study, 
to master thoroughly ; 
labori, to work ; — labori, 
to achieve, to work out 
thoroughly ; ĵ)eiisi, to 
think ; — pensi, to in- 
vent ; sendi, to send ; 
— sendi, to export ; 
— sendo, export. 

elast-a, elastic. 

elefant-o, elephant; — osto, 
ivory. 

elegant-a, elegant. 

elegi-o, elegy. 

elekt-i, to choose. 

elektr-o, electricity ; — a, 
electric; — eco, state of 
electricity; — igi, to elec- 
trify. 

elektrofor-o, electrophor- 
us. 

elektroliz-o, electrolysis. 

elektromotor-o, electro- 
motor. 

elektroteknik-c, electro- 
technics. 

elektroterapi-o, electro- 
therapy. 

element-o, element. 

elevator-o, lift, elevator. 



31 



ELF-0 



EPIFANI-0 



elf-0, an elf. 

eliksir-ĉ), elixir. 

elips-o, ellipsis. 

Elize-c, Elysium. 

elizi-^, to elide; — o, elision. 

elokvent-a, eloquent; —eco^ 
eloquence. 

-em-, propensity, disposi- 
tion : babili, to chatter ; 
babil — a, loquacious, 
kredi, to believe ; kred — a; 
credulous; — o, tendency. 

emajl-o, enamel; — a, of 
enamel ; — i, to enamel. 

emancip-i, to emancipate ; 
— 0, emancipation. 

embaras-o, encumbrance, 
hindrance ; — i, to hin- 
der, to be in the way. 

emberiz-o, bunting (bird), 
yellow-hammer. 

emblem-o, symbol, emblem. 

embrazur-6», embrasure. 

embri-o, embryo 

embriologi-o, embryology 

embusk-o, ambush. 

emerit-o, emeritus. 

emfaz-o, emphasis. 

emigraci-o, emigration. 

Eminenc-o, Eminence 
(title). 

eminent-a, eminent; —ulo, 
eminent personage; 
— ularo, the elite. 

empiri-«, empirical. 

empirism-o, empirism. 

■^en, in, into ; used as a 



prefix in many words : 
iri, to go ; — iri, to go 
in, to enter; meti, to 
put; — meti, to enclose, 
to put in; presi, to print; 
— presi, to print in, to 
insert ; havi, to have ; 
— havi, to have in, to 
contain ; — haw, con- 
tents ; — artikigi, to set 
(a bone). 

enciklopedi-o, encyclopedia. 

endivi-o, endive. 

energi-o, energy ; sen — a 
I sluggish. 

I engraŭl-6>, northern an- 
i chovy. 

1 enigm-o, enigma, puzzle. 
I enket 0, inquest. 

entomologi-o, entomology. 
I entrepren-z, to under- 
take. 

entuziasm-o, enthusiasm ; 
— a, enthusiastic; — igi 
to enrapture, to cause 
enthusiasm. 

enu-i, to feel dull, to be 
wearied ; — o, weariness ; 
— iga, tedious, weari- 
some ; — igi, to weary 
others, to be tedious, 
tiresome. 

envi-i, to envy. 

eparhi-o, diocese. 

epidemi-o, epidemy. 

epidenn-6», epidermis. 

Epifani-o, Epiphany. 



32 



EPIGRAF-0 



ESTIM-I 



epigraf-0, epigraph. 

epikurism-o, epicurism. 

epikurist-o, an epicure. 

epilepsi-o, epilepsy. 

epilog-o, epilogue. 

episkop-o, bishop ; hĵ — c>, 
archibishop; — ejo^ 
bishop's palace ; — ĉco, 
episcopacy. 

epistol-o, epistle. 

epitaf-o, epitaph. 

epitet-o, epithet. 

epitom-o, epitome. 

epizod-o, episode. 

epizooti-o, murrain. 

epok-o, epoch, period. 

epolet-o, epaulet, shoulder- 
strap. 

epope-^, epopee. 

epos-o, epic (poem) ; — a, 
epic {ficlj.)] — isto, epic- 
poet. 

-er-, unit of whole ; sahlo, 
sand ; sahl — o, grain of 
sand ;fajro, fire ;/cyV — o, 
spark ; mono, money ; 
mon — 0, coin; hajlo, hail; 
hajl — 0, hail-stone. 

erar-i, to err; — o, error, 
mistake ; — lumo, will o' 
the wisp ; ignis fatuus. 

erik-o, heather ; — ejo, 
heath. 

erinac-o, hedgehog. 

erizipel-o, erysipelas. 

ermen-o, ermine ; — felo, 
ermine (fur) 



ermit-o, hermit. 

erotik-a, erotic. 

erp-f, to harrow (the 
ground) ; — ilo, a harrow. 

enipci-o, volcanic erup- 
tion. 

escept-2, to except; — o, 
exception. 

esenc-o, essence (philo- 
sophy). 

eskadr-ĉ?, squadron (naval). 

eskadron-o, squadron 
(mil it.). 

eskarp-o, escarpment. 

Eskim-o, Esquimo. 

eskort-o, escort. 

esper-i, to hope ; — o, hope ; 
7nal — i, to despair. 

esplor-i, to explore, to scru- 
tinize, to look through ; 
to investigate ; — ema, 
fond of scrutinizing ; 
— isfo, an explorer ; — Oj 
scrutiny ; — emo, in- 
quisitiveness. 

esprim-i, to express by 
word, or sign. 

est-i, to be; — ajo, a being; 
— ado, existence ; — ant 
eco, the present; — int 
eco, the past; — onteco, 
the future. 

establ-e, to establish ; — o, 
establishment. 

estetik-a, esthetic (adj.). 

estim-i, to esteem; — inda, 
estimable ; mal — i, to 



33 



ESTING-I 



EZOK-0 



despise ; — o, esteem ; 
mal—o, contempt ; —egi, 
to think highly of. 

esting-i, to extinguish ; 
— igi, to die out ; — igo, 
extinction undergone. 

-estr-, chief, leader, head ; 
ŝipo, ship ; sip — o, cap- 
tain ; regno, state ; regn 
— 0, head of the state ; 
regimento, regiment ; 
regiment — o, head of 
the regiment ; lernejo, 
school; lernej — o, school- 
master; — aro, the staff; 
the chiefs as a body. 

estr-o, a chief ; — ino, a 
matron. 

estrad-o, rostrum, plat- 
form. 

eŝafod-o, scaffold (for execu- 
tions). 

-et-, diminutive ; knabo, 
boy; knah — o, little boy; 
knabino, girl ; knabin 
— 0, little girl : varma, 
warm ; varm — a, tepid ; 
rido, laughter ; rid — o, 
smile ; rid — ^, to smile. 

et-a, little, small (adj.). 

etaĝ-o, story (of a house) ; 
inter — o, entresol. 

etat-o, social standing, 
status. 

etend-i, to extend ; — o, ex- 



tension ; — ebla, duc- 
tile, 
eter-o, ether, 
etern-a, eternal ; — eco, 

eternity ; je — e, for ever, 

for eternity. 
etik-<9, ethics. 
etiket-o, etiquette. 
etimologi-o, etymology. 
etiologi-o, etiology. 
Etiop-fl^ (adj.), Ethiopian; 

— 0, an Ethiopian; — ujo, 

Ethiopia, 
etnografi-o, ethnography. 
etnologi-o, ethnology. 
eŭdiometr-o, eudiometer. 
eŭdiometri-o, eudiometry. 
eŭfemism-6», euphemism. 
Eŭkaristi-o, Eucharist. 
Eumenid-q;", Eumenides 

(myh.). 
eiinuk-o, eunuch. 
Eŭrop-a, European (adj.) ; 

— ano, a European ; — o, 

Europe, 
evangeli-o, gospel, evangel, 
eventual-ĉ', contingently ; 

— a, contingent upon 

necessity. 
evident-a, evident ; — eco, 

evidence, 
evit-i, to avoid, 
evoluci-c, evolution, 
ezofag-o, oesophagus. 
ezok-o, pike (a fish). 



34 



FAB-0 



FANATIK-A 



fab-0, bean. 

fabel-o, story, (made up) 
tale. 

fabl-o, fable; — isto, fabu- 
list. 

fabrik-o, factory ; — anto, 
maker ; — ado, manu- 
facture, making ; — a, of 
the factory. 

facet-o, facet; — i, to make 
facets. 

facil-6^, easy ; — mora, 
active, nimble. 

faden-o, thread ; metal — o, 
wire ; silka — o, silk- 
thread. 

faeton-o, phaeton. 

fag-o, beech, beech-tree. 

fajenc-6», earthenware ; — a, 
made of earthenware. 

fajf-i, to whistle ; — ilo, a 
whistle. 

fajl-^, to file ; — ilo, a 
file. 

fajr 0, fire ; — ero, spark. 

fak-o, compartment, section, 
division, shelf; la firmo 
havas kvar — ojn, the 
firm has four depart- 
ments, etc. 

fakir-o, fakir. 

faksimil-o, facsimile. 

fakt-o, fact. 

faktor-o, printer's overseer, 
or foreman. 



faktori-c?, factory, depot, 
business agency. 

faktur-(?, invoice, bill of 
lading. 

fakultat-o, faculty (of medi- 
cine, law, etc.). 

fal-i, to fall ; — o, fall ; 
en — i, to fall into ; 
— eti, to stumble, to 
falter, etc. 

falang-o, phalanx. 

falbal-c, furbelow. 

falĜ-i, to mow ; — ado, 
mowing ; — ilo, scythe ; 
— masino, a mowing 
machine. 

fald-z", to fold ; 7nal — i, to 
unfold; — i a/, to tuck up. 

falk-o, falcon. 

fals-2, to falsify, adulterate, 
debase, forge ; — ajo, 
falsification, adultera- 
tion, a forgery ; — ado, 
forger}^ (state) ; — info, 
a forger, a falsifier ; 
— luJcsa, tawdry. 

falt-o, wrinkle (forehead). 

fam-o, noise, public rumour. 

famili-o, family ; — a, fam- 
iliar, of the family. 

familiar-^, familiar ; — eco, 
familiarity. 

fanatik-«, fanatical; — eco, 
fanaticism ; — nlo, a 
fanatic. 



35 



FAND-I 



FEDERALISlM-0 



fand-i, to smelt, (ad.); 
— iĝ% to melt (neut.); 
— ejo, a foundry ; — ajo, 
an ingot; kun — igo, 
union by fusion. 

fanfar-o, fanfare, flourish 
of trumpets. 

fanfaron-i, to boast. 

fantazi-^?, fancy, imagina- 
tion. 

fantom-o, spectre, ghost. 

far-z, to make, to do ; to 
render, to give (pleas- 
ure) ; — 0, act, doing ; 
— igi, to be done, to be- 
come, to take place ; 
— igo, an occurrence, an 
event ; al — i, to adapt ; 
al — 0, adaptation ; el — i, 
to achieve. 

Fara-o, Pharaoh ; — o, title 
applied to ancient rulers 
of Egypt. 

fara-o, faro (card game). 

farael-o, pintado, guinea- , 
fowl. I 

faring-o, pharynx, throat, j 

farize-o, pharisee. | 

farm-i, to farm, to take on i 
lease, etc. j 

farmaci-o, pharmacy (the i 
art) ; — isto, a chemist, j 

fars-o, farce. ; 

fart-?', to be in good or bad i 
health ; — o, state of i 
health. 

fsLTun-o, flour. 



fasad-o, facade, front of 

building, 
fascin-ĉ), fascine, hurdle, 

ifortif.). 
fask-o, bundle, truse (of 

hay, straw, etc.). 
fason-o, shape, cut (of coat, 
i etc.). 

j fast-o, fast (abstinence) ; 
I granda — o, Lent. 
I fatal-a, fatal ; — o, fate, 
I destiny. 
I fatalism-o, fatalism. 
j faŭk-o, jaw, opening, orifice. 
! faun-o, fawn. 

. fav-o, ringworm, of the 
I scalp ; — a, suffering 

from ringworm of the 
I scalp; — ulo, one that 
i suffers from it. 
1 favor-ft, favourable, pro- 
j pitious ; — 0, favour ; 
! mal — 0, disgrace. 
' faz-o, phase (astron.). 
, fazan-o, pheasant ; — ejo, 
I pheasant-preserve. 
! fazeol-o, haricot bean. 
I febr-o, fever; — a, feverish; 

— ulo, one suffering from 
j fever. 

j Februar-o, February. 
j fet-o, dregs, lees. 
• feder-2, to federate ; — o, 
i federation ; — a, federal. 
\ federaci-o, federation. 
; federal-ft, federal. 
i federalism-o, federalism. 



36 



FElN-0 



FIKS-I 



fein-0, fairy (/.), (the root 
being fe); feo, a male fay. 

fel-Oj hide (skin of animals) ; 
de — isto, a skinner; — 
porparadi, to tan, to 
dress white leather for 
gloves. 

felic-a, happy ; — o, happi- 
ness ; — ega, blessed, 
most happy ; — eco, state 
of happiness ; — ego, 
blessedness ; — egeco, 
state of bliss ; — ulo, a 
happy man ; — egulo, a 
blessed one. 

felieton-o, feuilleton. 

felp-o, A^elveteen. 

felt-o, felt (material). 

feminism-o, feminism. 

feminist-o, feminist. 

femur-o, thigh ; — osto, 
femur. 

fen-o, Swiss warm south 
wind. 

fend-?, to split ; — o, slit, 
crevice, chink ; — eto, a 
fissure, a crack. 

fenestr-o, window. 

fenikopter-o, flamingo. 

feniks-o, phoenix. 

fenkol-6>, fennel. 

fenomen-o, phenomenon. 

fer-o, iron ; — a, made of 
iron ; rojo, way ; — vojo, 
railway. 

ferdek-o, deck (of a ship). 

ferm-i, to close, to shut ; 



37 



mal — i, to open; — o, 
closing; mal — o, opening. 

ferment-i, to ferment; 
— ilo, leaven, yeast. 

fervor-o, zeal, fervour. 

fes-o, fez (cap). 

fest-i, to celebrate, to enter- 
tain ; — 0, celebration. 

festen-z, to banquet, to 
feast ; — o, banquet. 

feston-o, festoon. 

fetiĉ-o, fetish. 

feud-a, feudal ; — o, feudal 
tenure. 

feŭdal-a, feudal. 

^fi ! fie ! 

fiakr-o, hackney-coach, cab. 

fianc-o, betrothed (m.) ; 
— igo, betrothal; — ijio, 
betrothed (/.). 

fiask-o, fiasco. 

fibr-o, fibre. 

fihrin-c, fibrine (chem.). 

fid-i, to rely ujDon ; — ebla, 
reliable ;. mem — o, self- 
reliance ; mem — a, self- 
reliant ; — erna, confid- 
ing. 

ŭdel-a, faithful. 

fier-a, proud, haughty. 

ŭg-o, fig; — ujo, fig-tree. 

figur-f, to represent ; — o, 
natural image ; — aĵo^ 
image by painting, draw- 
ing, sculpture, etc. 

fiks-i, to fix ; — a, station- 
ary; — ita, fixed; — ecOj 



FIKTIV-A 



FLAM-0 



fixity ; — ado^ fixing, 
— ilo, fixator (instru- 
ment). 

fiktiv-ct, fictitious. 

fil-o, son ; — igi, to adopt ; 
ho — Oj son-in-law ; duon 
— 0, stepson ; ho — ino, 
daughter-in-law. 

filantrop-o, philanthropist ; 
— eco, philanthropy. 

filantropi-o, philanthropy. 

filharmoni-o, philharmony; 
— a, philharmonic. 

filatel-o, philately ; — (i, 
philatelic; — isto, phila- 
telist. 

fili-o, branch house, branch 
affiliated to. 

filigran-o, filigree. 

filik-o, fern ; — ejo, fern 
plot. 

filistr-o, philistine, vul- 
garian. 

filokser-o, phylloxera. 

filologi-o, philology ; — isto, 
philologist. 

filozof-o, philosopher; — ^, 
to philosophize. 

filozofi-o, philosophy. 

filtr-i, to filter ; — ilo, a 
filter. 

fin-i, to finish, to end 
{active) ; — igi, to end 
(neut.); — o, ending, end. 

final-o, finale. 

finano-o, finance; — a, finan- 
cial ; — istOj financier. 



fingr-o, finger; diJca 
thumb ; montra — o, fore- 
finger; longa — o, middle- 
finger ; ringa — o, ring- 
finger ; malgranda — o, 
little finger ; — ingo, 
thimble. 

Finland-a, Finnish (adj.) ; 
— ano, a Finlander; 
— 0, Finland. 

Finn-o, a Finn; — a, 
Finnish ; — ujo, — lando, 
Finland. 

Firenz-o, Florence. 

firm-c^, firm, strong; — ajo, 
solid earth, dry ground. 

firm-o, commercial house, 
firm. 

fisk-o, fisc, public treasury. 

fistul-o, fistula. 

fiŜ-(9, fish ; — isto, pisci- 
c u 1 1 u r i s t ; — kwptisto, 
fisherman ; — Tcaptanto, 
amateur fisherman, ang- 
ler ; — vendejo, fish-mar- 
ket ; — vendisto, fish- 
monger ; — hoJco, fish- 
hook ; — oleo, fish oil ; 
— aro, shoal of fishes. 

fizik-o, physics ; — a, physi- 
cal. 

fiziologi-o, physiology. 

fizionomi-o, physiognomy, 

fjord-o, fjord, fiord. 

flag-o, marine flag, banner. 

flam-o, flame ; — a, in 
flames ; — i, to be burn- 



38 



FLAMAND-A 



FOJ-0 



ing, to be flaring ; ek — i, 
to begin to barn ; — eco, 
ardour ; — igi, to en- 
flame ; — igi, to ignite, 
— igema, inflammable. 

Flamand-a (adj.), Flemish ; 
— 0, a Fleming; — ujo, 
Flanders, 

flan-o, custard, flawn, pan- 
cake. 

flanel-o, flannel. 

flank-o, side ; antaŭa — o, 
front, fa9ade ; iri la 
— on, to step on one 
side ; — en I make 
way ! ; per — o, on one 
side; — ajo, wing of a 
building. 

fla^-^, to smell, to scent; 
— tabako, snufF. 

flat-e, to flatter ; — ema, 
addicted to flattery ; 
— ulo, a flatterer. 

flav-a, yellow ; — ruga, 
reddish. 

ŭeg-i, to nurse the sick. 

flegm-o, phlegm ; — a, 
phlegmatic. 

fleks-2, to bend, to bow ; 
— 0, bending (noun) ; 
— ebla, flexible. 

fleksi-o, flexion. 

flik-i, to patch up, to mend. 

flirt-i, to flit about, to 
flutter, to flirt. 

flok-o, flake (of snow, etc.). 

flor-^, to flower, to bloom ; 



— 0, flower ; — eto, 
floweret, little flower ; 
— ado, efflorescence, 
flowering season ; — isto, 
florist ; ek — i, to blow 
into flower; — ejo, flower 
garden ; — ujo, flower 
vase ; — vazo, vase of 
flowers. 

floren-o, florin. 

ŬOS-0, raft; — i, to float 
wood. 

ŬVi-i, to flow ; — 0, current ; 
— a, fluid ; — ajo, a fluid 
(scienc.) ; al-—o, high 
water ; foi' — o, low water; 
en — 0, mouth of river ; 
kun — iĝo, confluent ; de 
— ilo, trench, culvert, 
gutter; de — ilego, sewer. 

flug-i, to fly (birds) ; fai' — i, 
to fly away; — ilo, wing, 
pinion ; al — i, to fly to- 
wards ; — -jjor^i, to waft. 

fluid-a, liquid {adj.); — ajo, 
liquid (noun) ; — igi, to 
liquefy ; — igi, to be- 
come liquid. 

fluor-o, fluorine. 

flut-o, flute. 

foir-c), fair (market). 

foj-o, (occasion, time): — e, 
once, one day (indefinite); 
unu — e, once, on a cer- 
tain time (definite); unua 
— e or unuan — on, 
first time ; ia — e, at 



39 



FOJN-0 



FORTIK-A 



times {indefinite) ; Tcellca 
— e, sometimes ; multa 
— e, many times ; ciu 
— e hiam or ciun — on 
kiam, whenever. 

fojn-o, hay. 

fok-o, seal, sea-dog. 

foken-o, porpoise. 

fokus-o, focus. 

fold-f, to fold (bookbind- 
ing)- 

foli-o, leaf; — ego, folio; 

tri — 0, clover, trefoil. 

fomeIlt-^, to foment (med.) ; 
— 0, fomentation. 

fond-i, to found, to estab- 
lish ; — 0, founding, cre- 
ating, establishing. 

fonetik-fl^, phonetic {adj.). 

fonoffraf-o, phonograph. 

fonometr-o, phonometer 

font-o, spring (of water). 

fontan-o, fountain. 

fontanel-f), fontanel. 

*for, away from : — de tie 
ci, fripono ! get thee 
hence, rascal ! — iri, to 
go away ; — porti, to 
carry away ; — igi, to 
omit, to do away with ; 
— i(ji, to withdraw ; 
— preni, to take away ; 
— kuri, to run away ; 
— permesi, to grant leave 
of absence. 

forfikul-o, earwig. 

forges-i, to forget; — o, 



forgetfulness 



forgetful 



bel — a, 
re — i, 
—igi, 



— ema^ 
■emo, in^ 
clination to forget. 

forĝ-i, to forge at the anvil; 
kun — i, to weld; — isto, 
farrier. 

fork-o, fork; — eto, small 
fork ; — ego, pitchfork. 

form-o, shape; — i, to shape, 
to give a shape; — igi, 
to take shape ; — a, relat- 
ing to the shape ; pir — a, 
pear-shaped ; rond — a, 
round shaped ; fiŝ — a, 
in the shape of a fish ; 
finely shaped ; 
to reform ; ali 
to transform ; 
ado, formation. 

formaci-o, formation {geol.). 

formal-a, formal ; — ajo, 
formality. 

format-o, size, shape (of a 
book). 

formik-o, ant ; — ejo^ ant- 
hill. 

f ormul-o, formula ; — i, to 
draw up in due form ; 
— aro, formulary. 

forn-o, stove, oven, furnace. 

fort -ft, strong; — o, 
strength, force ; per — o, 
violence ; per — i, to do 
violence, to force. 

fortepian-o, pianoforte. 

fortik-a, solid, robust ; 
— igi, to strengthen, to 



40 



FORUM-0 



FRIPON-0 



consolidate ; — ajo, for- 
tress. 
forum-o, forum. 
fos-i, to dig, to delve ; 

— ilo, spade ; svh — ^, to 

undermine, 
fosfor-o, phosphorus, 
fost-o, post, stake. 
fotograf-i, to photograph ; 

— ado, photography; 

— ajo, a photograph ; 

— isto, a photographer, 
frag-o, strawberry ; — ujo, 

strawberry plant. 
fragment-o, fragment, 
fraj-o, spawn, 
frak-o, evening dress 

coat, 
frakas-?', to break to pieces, 

to shatter. 
frakci-o, fraction ; — a, 

fractional. 
fraksen-o, ash, ash-tree. 
framason-o, freemason; 

— aro, freemasonry, 
framb-o, raspberry ; — ujo, 

raspberry cane. 
Franc-ĉi, French {adj.) ; 

— 0, a Frenchman ; 

— ujo, — lando, France, 
frand-i, to be fond of 

sweets ; — ema, fond of 

sweets ; — ajo, sweets, 

dainties, delicacies; 

— eco, daintiness, state 

of what is delicate, 

dainty. 



frangol-o, black alder. 

franĝ-o, fringe. 

frank-o, frank (silver 
coin). 

frap-^, to knock; — o, a 
knock ; — ado, knock- 
ing ; — anta, striking, 
impressive. 

frat-o, brother ; — ino, 
sister ; — a, fraternal ; 
— eco, fraternity ; — igi, 
to fraternize ; duon — o, 
half-brother. 

fraul-c, single man, bache- 
lor ; — ino. Miss, single 
woman, young lady ; 
— eco, celibacy. 

fraz-o, phrase, sentence. 

fregat-o, frigate. 

fremd-fl^, foreign {adj.) ; 
— ulo, foreigner ; — o 
lando, foreign country. 

frenez-a, mad {adj.); — ulo, 
madman ; — eco, mad- 
ness ; — ajo, an act of 
madness; — igi, to 
grow mad ; — igi, to 
madden. 

fresk-o, fresco. 

freŝ-a, fresh (recent): 
— eco, novelty ; re — igi, 
to freshen, to renew. 

Frigi-o, Phrygia. 

fring-o, chaffinch. 

fringel-o, canary bird. 

fripon-(), rogue, knave, 
cheat ; — i, to act as a 



41 



FRIS-0 



FURIOZ-A 



rogue, knave, cheat, to 
cheat. 

fris-o, frieze (cloth) ; also 
arch (archit.). 

fnt-i, to fry; — aĵo, fried 
things. 

friYol-a, frivolous. 

friz-^, to curl (hair). 

fromaĝ-o, cheese ; — ejo, 
cheese dairy. 

front-o, front (of an army). 

fronton-o, fronton. 

frost-o, frost ; — a, frosty ; 
— i, to freeze (ad. ) ; 
— iĝi, to freeze (neut.): 
irem — o, cold fit, feverish 
shiver. 

frot-^, to rub ; de — i, to 
take away by rubbing ; 
de — ajo, scratch, excoria- 
tion ; — lavi, to scour. 

*fru-e, early; — a, early 
(adj.) ; mal — a, coming 
late ; mal — eco, tardiness; 
mal — i, to be late ; mat 
— iĝi to be belated ; 
mal — igi, to delay ; 
— matura, ripening 
early, precocious. 

frugileg-o, rook ; — ejo, 
rookery. 

frukt-o, fruit ; — igi, to 
fertilize ; — iĝi, to grow 
fertile ; — odona, fruit 
giving ; — oporto, fertil- 
ity ; sen — a, fruitless, 
barren; sen — eco, barren- 



ness ; — ejo, fruit-gar- 
den; — arhejo, orchard; 
— otenejo, fruit-store; 
— obutiko, fruiterer's 
shop; — ajo, jam, etc. 

frunt-o, forehead ; — ajo, 
frontage. 

ftiz-o, phthisis, consump- 
tion. 

fug-o, fugue (mus.). 

fuk-o, wrack, fucus, sea- 
weed. 

fuksin-o, fuchsine. 

fulard-o, silk handkerchief. 

fulg-o, soot. 

fulm-o, lightning ; — otondro, 
thunderstorm ; — o sen 
tondra, heat lightning. 

fum-i, to smoke (a pipe, a 
cigar, etc.); — igi, to 
smoke (intr.) ; la kameno 
— igas, the chimney 
smokes. 

fund-o, bottom. 

fundaments, foundation. 

funebr-o, mourning ; — a, 
funereal. 

funel-o, funnel. 

fung-o, mushroom ; — ejo, 
mushroom-bed. 

funkci-o, functions ; — i, 
to act, to operate, to 
do. 

fiint-o, pound (weight). 

furag-o, forage. 

Furi-o, fury (mythol.). 

furioz-a, furious, raging ; 



42 



EURORO 



GARNIZON-0 



—i, to be in a rage ; — o, 
rage, fury ; — eco, state 
of fury. 

furor-o, furore. 

furunk-o, a boil. 



fusten-o, fustian, 
fuŝ-i, to bungle, to 

work, 
fut-o, foot (measure), 
fuzilier-o, fusileer. 



spoil 



G 



gabi-o, gabion (mil). 

gad-o, cod, stockfish. 

gaj-a, gay, merry; —eco, 
mirth, gaiety ; mal — a, 
morose ; mal—i, to grow 
morose; — igi, to en- 
liven ; — i, to be merry. 

gajl-o, gall-nut, oak-apple. 

gajn-i, to gain ; mal — i, to 
lose. 

gal-o, bile, gall. 

galant-o, snowdrop (flower). 

galanteri-o, articles of mil- 
linery, toilet requisites. 

galantin-o, galantine (cook- 
ery). 

galen-o, galena (sulphurate 
of lead). 

galer-o, galley (ship). 

galeri-o, gallery. 

galicism-o, gallicism. 

galium-o, gallium. 

Gall-wyo,Gaul (the country); 
— a, Gallic. 

galon-o, galoon, gold-lace. 

galop-?', to gallop; — ĉ, at 
a gallop. 

galoŝ-o, galosh. 



galvan-ĉi, galvanic; — igi, 
to galvanize. 

galvanism-o, galvanism. 

gam-o, gamut, musical scale. 

gamaŝ-o, gaiter. 

gangli-o, ganglion (med.). 

gangren-o, gangrene. 

gant-o, glove. 

garanti-i, to warrant, to 
guarantee ; — ajo, pledge, 
forfeit; — ulo, hostage. 

garb-o, sheaf ; —ejo, a barn. 

garcini-o, garcinia {hot.}. 

gard-z, to watch over; 
— anto, one who watches; 
— isto, warder, keeper, 
guard ; — ostaranto, sen- 
tinel, sentry ; antau — i, to 
preserve ; sin — ema, care- 
ful, watchful, prudent ; 
sin — emo, circumspection. 

gardeni-o, gardenia. 

gargar-z, to rinse, to gargle. 

garn-i, to trim, to garnish ; 
— ajo, trimmings. 

garnitur-c», garniture, fit- 
tings. 

garnizon-o, garrison, 



43 



GAROL-0 



GLACE-A 



garol-0, jay. 

gas-o, gas ; — a, of gas ; 
— ometro, gasmeter ; 

— forma, in the form of 
gas. 

gast-o, guest; — i, to be a 
guest at ; — amo, hospi- 
tality ; — ado, stay as a 
guest; — ama, hospitable. 

gastronomi-o, gastronomy, 

gavot-o, gavotte. 

gaz-o, gauze. 

gazel-o, gazelle. 

gazet-o, gazette ; — aro, the 
press. 

ge-, persons of both sexes 
together : ^m^?-^, father; 
— patroj, parents ; mas- 
tro, master ; — mastroj, 
the master and mistress; 
edzo, husband ; —edzoj, 
married pair ; — sinjoi'oj, 
Mr. and Mrs. 

gehen-o, gehenna. 

gelaten-o, gelatine. 

gem-o, a gem. 

gencian-o. gentian. 

genealogi-o, genealogy. 

generaci-o, generation (de- 
scendants). 

general-o, general (milit. 
chief). 

Genez-o, Genesis. 

geni-o, body of military 
engineers; genius; genie. 

genitiv-o, genitive. 

Geno-o, Genoa 



genot-o, genet (little animal 
of the weasel kind), 
ratoon. 

gent-o, tribe ; sam — ulOi one 
of the same tribe. 

genu-o, knee ; —flekso, 
genuflexion; — fieksi, to 
kneel. 

geodezi-o, geodesy. 

geognozi-o, geognosy. 

geografi-o, geography. 

geologi-o, geology. 

geometri-o, geometry. 

gerani-o, geranium. 

German-a, German {adj.); 
— 0, a German ; — ujo, 
— lando, Germany. 

gerundi-o, gerundive. 

gest-o, gesture. 

gicet-o, wicket, turnstile, 
ticket-office window. 

gig-o, gig. 

gigant-o, giant ; — a, gigan- 
tic. 

gild-o, guild. 

gilotin-o, guillotine. 

gimnastik-a, gymnastic ; 
— <?/o, gymnasium (phy- 
sical training). 

gimnazi-o, gymnasium (col- 
lege of learning). 

gine-o, guinea (coin). 

gips-o, plaster, gypsum. 

girfalk-o, gerfalcon. 

girland-o, garland, wreath. 

gitar-(>, guitar. 

glace-a, glac^. 



44 



GLACI-0 



GRAF-0 



glaci-0, ice ; — ajo, ice, (con- 
fection) ; — tenejo, ice- 
house ; — igij to turn 
into ice ; — vendisto, ice- 
dealer ; — umi, to polish 
like glass or ice; — ejo, 
heap of ice in moun- 
tains. 

glad-^, to iron (linen) ; 
— ilo, an iron. 

gladiator-o, gladiator. 

glan-ĉ), acorn. 

gland-o, gland. 

glas-6>, tumbler, drinking- 
glass. 

glat-a, even, smooth ; mal 
— a, uneven, rough, 
rugged ; mal — ajo, rough- 
ness, rugosity, uneven- 
ness. 

glav-o, sword. 

glazur-o, varnish. 

glicerin-o, glycerine. 

gliciriz-ĉ>, liquorice. 

glikoz-o, glucose. 

glim-o, mica. 

gliptotek-o, statuary mu- 
seum. 

glit-i, to glide, to slide, to 
slip ; — iga, slippery ; 
— umi, to skate ; — ilo, 
a skate ; — ejo, a slide ; 
— veturilo, a sledge. 

gldb-o, globe; — a, globular; 
— eto, globule. 

globus-o, globe (geog.). 

glor-i, to glorify, to cele- 



brate ; Dio estas — a, God 
is glorious ; — a, glory ; 
mal — 0, infamy, ignom- 
iny ; mal — e, ignomini- 
ously. 

glos-o, gloss ; — arc, glos- 
sary. 

glu-^, to stick ; al — iĝi, to 
stick to ; kun — igi, to 
stick together; — o, 
glue. 

glut-i, to swallow, to gobble 
down; en — i, to swallow 
up, to gulp down. 

gnom-o, gnome (elf). 

gnomon-o, gnomon (ast.). 

gdbi-o, gudgeon. 

golet-o, schooner. 

golf-o, a bay ; — eto, small 
bay (geogr.). 

gondol-o, gondola. 

gonore-o, gonorrhea. 

gorĝ-o, throat. 

goril-o, gorilla. 

got-a, gothic ; — o, gothic 
style (noun). 

graci-a, graceful (of propor- 
tion) ; -^eco, grace of 
make; mal — a, ungrace- 
ful, awkwardly made. 

grad-o, degree; — eco, gra- 
dation ; — e, gradually ; 
— igo, graduation. 

graf-o, earl, count ; — ino, 
countess ; — lando, terri- 
tory under a count or 
earl. 



45 



GRAFIT-O 



GROS-0 



gr&ŭto, graphite (lead for 
pencils). 

grajn-o, grain, pip, stone (of 
fruit). 

grsik-i, to croak (ravens, 
etc.). 

gram-o, gram (weight). 

gramatik-o, grammar ; — a, 
grammatical. 

gran-o, a grain, a particle. 

granat-o, pomegranate; 
— ujo, pomegranate tree. 

grand-a, great, large; — igi, 
to enlarge ; pli — igi, to 
grow larger; — igi, to 
grow in size ; — egulo, a 
giant ; mal — egulo, a 
dwarf ; pli — igo, the act 
of enlarging ; pli — igo, 
the act of growing; — eco, 
greatness ; — anima, mag- 
nanimous ; mal — ajo, a 
trifle ; po — e, wholesale. 

grandioz-a, magnificent, 
o^randiose. 

granit-0, granite. 

gras-o, fat (noun) ; — a, fat 
{adj.) ; — igi, to fatten 
(ad.) ; — igi, to get fat ; 
— ega, obese, stout; mal 
—a, lean, thin ; mal — eco, 
leanness ; mal — igi, to 
grow thin ; mal — ega, 
emaciated, fleshless. 

grat-2, to rub, to scratch. 

gratifikaci-o, gratuity. 

gratul-z, to congratulate ; 



— 0, congratulation; 
— ado, congratulations, 
rejoicings, etc. 

grav-a, important, serious. 

graved-a, enceinte, preg- 
nant; — igi, to conceive. 

gravur-i, to engrave; — ilo, 
graving tool, graver : 
— isto, engraver; — o, act 
of engraving; — ajo, an 
engraving. 

Grek-a, Greek, Grecian 
(adj.); — 0, a Greek; 
— ^jo, — lando, Greece. 

gren-o, corn ; — ejo, corn- 
loft, granary; — ujo, box 
or chestfor keeping corn. 

grenad-o, grenade (milit.). 

Grenland-o, Greenland; 
— ano, Greenlander. 

gri-o, gruel, oatmeal, 
groats. 

grifel-o, slate-pencil, stylus. 

gril-o, cricket (insect). 

grimac-o, grimace ; — i, to 
make faces. 

grimp-i, to creep up, to 
climb up. 

grinc-'i, to grate ; — igi la 
dentojn, to grind one's 
teeth. 

grip-o, influenza. 

griz-a, grey; —harha, grey- 
bearded. 

grog-o, grog. 

gros-(9, gooseberry ; — ujo, 
gooseberry bush. 



46 



GROŜ-0 



ĜINECE-0 



groŭ-0, groschen. 

grot-o, grotto. 

grotesk-ĉt, grotesque. 

gru-o, crane (bird). 

grum-o, groom. 

grumbl-i, to grumble. 

grunt-i, to grunt. 

grup-o, group. 

gruz-o, slack, fine gravel. 

guan-o, guano. 

guberni-o, government (in 
the sense of province). 

gudr-o, tar ; — i, to tar. 

guf-6>, large kind of oavI. 

gulden-o, gulden (coin). 

gXLm-o, gum (material). 

gumgut-o, gum-drop, ju- 
jube. 

gurd-o, barrel-organ. 



gust-o, taste ; hon — a, sa- 
voury ; — umi, to taste ; 
— umado, the sense of 
taste, tasting. 

gut-i, to drip ; — o, a drop ; 
— eto, a tiny drop ; 
- — ado, act of dropping, 
falling by drops ; el — i, 
to fall drop by drop, to 
drip. 

gutaperk-o, guttapercha. 

guvern-i, to educate pri- 
vately ; — istino, a pri- 
vate governess. 

gvardi-o, the guard (body 
of troops). 

gvid-z, to guide; — anto, one 
acting as guide ; —isto, 
professional guide. 



G 



garden-o, garden ; — lahor- 
ado, gardening ; — kul- 
turo, horticulture. 

gem-i, to groan ; ek — ^, to 
sigh ; — egi, to wail. 

ĝen-i, to hindei', to incom- 
mode; sin — i, to take 
personal trouble; sen — a, 
unceremonious, easy- 
going. 

gendarm-o, gendarme. 

ĝeneral-a, general {adj. ), 
common to all. 

Genev-o, Geneva. 



ĝentil-fl^, civil, courteous ; 
— eco, civility, polite 
attention, courtesy ; — e, 
civilly, politely, courte- 
ously. 
1 ĝerm-6*, germ ; — i, to bud, 
I to sprout. 

■'^ĝi, it ; gin {accusative) ; 
gia, its, its own. 

gib-o, hump, bump, hunch ; 
— a, hunchbacked ; 
— ulo, a hunchback. 

ĝin-o, gin (spirit). 

ĝinece-o, gynecium, harem. 



47 



ĜIR-0 



HARING-0 



ĝir-0, endorsement ; — i, to 
endorse; — anto, endor- 
ser ; — ato, endorsee ; 
— banko, transfer bar.k. 

ĝiraf-o, giraffe. 

*ĝis, till, until, as far as, 
down to, up to. 

ĝivr-o, hoar-frost. 



soyo, joy; —a, joyful, 

joyous ; — i, to rejoice ; 

— igi, to gladden, to 

cause joy. 
ĝu-i, to enjoy, to rejoice in. 
gust-a, just, exact; — eco, 

exactness, accuracy; 

ĝustatempa, opportune. 



^ha ! ah ! ha ! 

Haban-o, Havanah. 

Hades-o, Hades. 

hajduk-o, Hungarian foot- 
soldier. 

hajl-o, hail {noun) ; — as, 
it hails. 

hak-z, to hack, to chop with 
a hatchet; — ilo, axe, 
hatchet; tra — i, to cut 



through with an axe or 
hatchet. 

hal-o, covered market-place. 

haladz-o, bad exhalation ; 
— i, to give bad smells ; 
en — igi, to suffer from 
inhaling bad smells ; 
en — ita, asphyxiated. 

halebard-o, halberd. 

lialt-z, to stop; — igi, to 
cause to stop; — o, a 
halt ; — ado, a long halt ; 
— u ! stop ! — igilo, a 
break (to stop machines, 
vehicles) ; sen — a, with- 



out a break, without 
stopping {adj.), continu- 
ous. 

halter-o, dumb-bell; insect- 
balancer. 

halucinaci-o, hallucination. 

hamak-o, ) , ^ 

•u ^ 1 )■ hammock. 
namok-o, j 

hamstr-o, hamster. 

hans-a, hanseatic. 

har-o, hair ; okul — oj, the 
eyelashes; lip — oj, 
moustaches ; vang — oj, 
whiskers ; kol — qj, mane 
(of animals) ; — aja, 
hairy, hirsute ; — plena, 
shaggy ; sen — a, bald ; 
sen — ulo, bald man ; — ego, 
bristle ; — ligo, plait of 
hair, tress. 

haradri-o, plover. 

hard-i, to harden ; — ita, 
hardened. 

harem-o, harem. 

haring-o, herring. 



48 



HARMONI-0 



HERB-0 



harmoni-0, harmony. 

harmonik-o, harmonica, ac- 
cordion. 

harmonium-o, harmonium. 

harp-o, harp. 

harpi-o, harpy. 

harpun-o, harpoon. 

haŭbiz-o, howitzer 

haŭt-o, hide, skin. 

hav-i, to have ; — o, pro- 
perty, possession; — igi^ 
to provide, to procure ; 
en — I, to contain, to en- 
close within itself, etc. ; 
senen — a, empty ; en — o, 
contents. 

haven-o, port, harbour, 
haven. 

hazard-o, hazard. 

*he ! hey ! halloa ! 

Hebre-a, Hebrew, hebraic, 
Jewish {adj.); — o, Jew, 
or Hebrew. 

hebreism-o, Hebraism. 

h.ebreist-0, hebraist. 

heder-o, ivy. 

hejm-o,home; — a, of home, 
homely, homelike ; - — e, 
at home ; mi iras — en, 
I am going home {ace. 
of motion towards), 
(8). 

hejt-i, to heat (a stove, 
etc.); — ado, heating; 
— isto, stoker. 

hekatomb-o, hecatomb. 

heksametr-o, hexameter. 



hektar-o, hectare (super- 
ficial measure). 

hektograf-o, hectograph. 

hektogram-o, hectogram 
(100 grams). 

hektolitr-o, hectolitre (100 
litres). 

hektometr-o, hectometre 
(100 metres). 

hel-a, clear, bright, lumin- 
ous ; mal — a, dark ; —igi, 
to get clearer (speaking 
of light) ; la cielo — iĝas, 
the sky is getting clearer. 

helebor-o, hellebore, night- 
shade. 

helenism-c), hellenism. 

helenist-o, hellenist, 

helik-o, edible snail. 

heliotrop-o, heliotrope. 

helium-o, helium. 

help-z, to help, to aid, to 
assist; — o, help, aid ; 
— anto, an assistant, a 
help; — a, helpful; 
— ema, obliging ; mal — i, 
to hinder, to prevent 
doing; mal — o, hin- 
drance. 

hemikrani-6>, neuralgic 
headache. 

hemorojd-o, the piles, he- 
morrhoids. 

hepat-o, liver ; — a, of the 
liver, hepatic. 

heraldik-o, heraldry {sc.). 

herb-c, grass, herb; — oman- 



49 



HERBARI-0 



HISTRIK-0 



ĝanta, herbivorous; — ejo, 
meadow, grass field. 

herbari-o, herbarium. 

hered-i, to inherit ; — anto, 
heir ; — o, heritage, in- 
heritance. 

herez-o, heresy. 

hermafrodit 0, hermaphro- 
dite ; — a, of double 
sex. 

hermetik-a, air-tight. 

herni-o, hernia, rupture. 

heio-o, hero ; — ajo, heroic 
deed ; — eco, heroism ; 
— ino, heroine. 

herold-o, herald. 

heterogen-(i, heterogeneous. 

hetman-o, Cossack com- 
mander. 

hiacint-o, hyacinth. 

hidr-o, hydra. 

hidrarg-o, mercury. 

hidraulik-o, hydraulics. 

hidrofobi-o, hydrophobia. 

hidrogen-o, hydrogen. 

hidrometri-o, hydrometry. 

hidropati-o, h\^dropathy. 

hidrops-o, dropsy. 

hidrostatik-(9, hydrostatics. 

hidroterapi-o, hydrothera- 
py- 

hidroskop-o, hydroscope. 

hien-o,^ hyena. 

hierarhi-o, hierarchy. 

■^''hierau, yesterday ; an tan 
— , the day before yes- 
terday. 



hieroglif-o, hieroglyph. 

higien-o, hygiene. 

himn-o, hymn. 

Hind-a (adj.), Indian ; 
a Hindoo, or Hindu ; 
— ujo, India, Hindus- 
tan. 

hiperbol-o, hyperbole. 

hipnot-a, hipnotic ; — eco, 
hypnotic state ; — igi, to 
hypnotize. 

hipodrom-o, hippodrome. 

hipoĥondri-o, hypochon- 
dria ; — a, hypochon- 
driac (adj.). 

hipokrit-e, to pretend ; to 
play the hypocrite ; — a, 
hypocritical ; — ulo, a 
hypocrite ; a dissembler. 

hipopotam-o, hippopota- 
mus. 

hipotek-o, mortgage (bond). 

hipotenuz-o, hypothenuse. 

hipotez-o, hypothesis. 

hirt-a, scrubby, bristly. 

hirud-o, leech. 

hirund-o, swallow (bird). 

hiskiam-o, henbane. 

hisop-o, hyssop. 

Hispan-ci, Spanish ; — o, 
Spaniard ; — ujo, — lando, 
Spain. 

histerik-ĉ>, hysteria, hys- 
terics; — a, hysterical. 

histori-o, history; — skrib- 
anto, historian. 

histrik-o, porcupine. 



50 



HISTRION-0 



HUMIL-A 



histrion-o, buffoon, clown. 

*lio ! oh ! ho ! 

hoboj-o, oboe, hautboy ; 
— isto, oboist, hautboyist. 

*liodiaŭ, to-day ; — a, of 
to-day , — matene, this 
morning. 

hok-o, hook ;pord — o,door- 
hinge ; fis — o, fish-hook. 

Holand-d, Dutch (adj.) ; 
— ano, Dutchman ; — o, 
Holland. 

homo, human being ; 
— aro, mankind ; — a, 
human (adj.); sen — a, 
unpeopled ; kvazaŭ — o, 
scarecrow ; — amulo, phil- 
anthropist. 

homeopati-o, homeopathy. 

homogen-d, homogeneous. 

homologi-ci, homologous. 

homonim-tt, homonymous. 

honest-a, honest ; mal — eco, 
dishonesty ; mal — ajo, 
dishonest act ; mal — a, 
dishonest. 

honor-i, to honour; — o, 
honour ; — a, touching 
honour ; — ebla, that 
may be honoured; 
— inda, honourable, 
worthy of honour; mal 
— i, to dishonour ; mal 
— a, dishonourable ; pro 
mia — 0, upon my 
honour ; sen — a, dis- 
honourable. 



honorari-o, honorarium, 
hont-i, to be ashamed; — o, 

shame ; — a, of shame ; 

— inda, deserving 

shame ; — iyi, to put 

to shame ; to shame ; 

— iga, shameful; — anta, 

feeling ashamed; sen — a, 

barefaced, shameless ; 

— emo, bashfulness; 

—ema, bashful ; —indajo, 

turpitude. 
hor-o, hour. 
horde-o, barley. 
horizont-o, horizon, 
horizontal-a, horizontal. 
horlog-o, clock ; |;on — o, 

watch; — isto, clockmaker. 
horoskop-o, horoscope. 
hortensi-6>, hortensia. 
hortulan-o, ortolan, 
hospital-o, hospital, 
hosti-o, host (consecrated 

wafer). 
hotel-o, hotel, 
ho ve ! alas ! 
hub-o, hide of land ; — ulo, 

the owner of same, 
huf-o, hoof. 
hulul-o, howlet. 
hmn-o, humus, garden 

mould. 
human-a, humane, 
humanism-c, humanism, 
humanist-c, humanist. 
humer-o, humerus (anal.). 
humil-a, humble ; — eya^ 



51 



HUMOR-0 



IDEALIST-0 



vile, low, cringing ; mal 
— a, arrogant, proud, 
haughty. 

humor-o, humour, temper; 
—ajo, witty saying, 
humorous trait; — isto, 
a humorist. 

hund-o, dog ; — ino, bitch ; 



rviro, male dog; — eto, 
small dog; — ido, puppy; 
— ejo, kennel ; — isto, 
hound-keeper. 

hupup-o, hoopoo (bird). 

■^hura ! hurrah ! 

huz-o, large sturgeon. 

huzar-o, hussar. 



ĥameleon-o, chameleon, 
ĥaos-o, chaos. 

Ĥaron-o, Charon (mythol.). 
ĥemi-o, chemistry ; — isto, 

chemist, 
himer-c, chimera. 
Hin-a, Chinese (adj.) ; — o, 

a Chinese; — vjo,—lando, 

China. 



ĥimrg-o, surgeon. 

ĥirurgi-o, surgery (science). 

ĥoler-o, cholera. 

ĥor-o, choir (voices); — ejo, 
the place where choris- 
ters sit; — isto, choris- 
ter. 

horal-o, chorale (music). 



-i, ending of infinitive ; 
kanti, to sing. 

*ia, whatever, any kind of. 

*ial, for any reason or 
cause. 

*iam, once upon a time 
(ever), as in : se — mi 
venos, if ever I come 
(fut.) ; se li — parolos, if 
ever he speaks (fut.). 

ibis-o, ibis. 

•id-, young of, descendant, 
issue : Izraelo, Israel ; 



Izrael — o, Israelite ; hovo, 
ox ; hov — 0, calf ; koko, 
cock ; kok — o, chicken ; 
kok — eto, a chick ; cevalo, 
horse ; ceval — o, colt, foal; 
ŝafo, sheep ; saf — o, lamb. 

ide-o, idea, opinion ; sam 
— ano, one sharing our 
opinions. 

ideal-o, ideal {noun); — a, 
ideal {adj.). 

idealismc, idealism. 

idealist-o, idealist. 



52 



IDENT-A 



ILEKS-0 



ident-a, identical ; ■ — igi, 
to identify. 

ideografi-o, idcography. 

idili-ĉ?, idyl. 

idiom-(?, idiom. 

idiot-o, idiot (noun). 

idiotism-o, idiotisni,idiotcy . 

idol-o, idol. 

*ie, somewhere, anywhere. 

*iel, in any way. 

*ies, somebody's. 

-ig-, to cause, to make : 
morto, death ; mort — i, 
to kill, to cause death ; 
bruli, to burn ; brul — i, 
to set on fire ; pura, 
clean ; pur — i, to clean, 
to cleanse ; veni, to come ; 
vfM — i, to cause to come ; 
scii, to know; sci — i, to 
make known, to apprize, 
to inform ; kredi, to be- 
lieve; Jcred — i, to cause 
to believe ; ven — o, the 
compelling to come (5). 

ig-e, to make (used alone): 
tiu ci hezono — as sin tre 
forte senti, this want 
makes itself very strong- 
ly felt; — u sin veni al nia 
danco, make her come to 
our dance; al — i al, to 
intend for ; en — i en, to 
cause to go in, to enter ; 
el — i el, to turn out of ; 
eJcs — i, to dismiss ; in- 
tern — i, to sink into, to 



inculcate ; hin — i hm, 
to unite with. 

ignam-o, yam (bot), 

ignor-e, to ignore, to cut 
acquaintance. 

-ig-, to become, to be made, 
to get, etc. : pala, pale ; 
pal — i, to grow pale ; 
maljuna, old ; maljun 
— i, to get old ; fluida, 
liquid ; fluid — i, to be- 
come liquid ; rica, rich ; 
ric — ^, to grow rich ; la 
sun/) lev — as, the sun 
rises ; nia Jcus — o, our 
bed-time ; la glacio fluid 
— as, the ice is thawing; 
eJcs — i, to resign ; la 
fluid — de V glacio, the 
thawing of the ice ; al — i, 
to adhere ; al — ulo, an 

^ adherent (5). 

iĥtiokol-o, isinglass. 

-il- (the tool or instru- 
ment) : haki, to hack^ 
to hew ; liak — o, an axe, 
a hatchet ; kombi, to 
comb; komb — o, a comb; 
kudri, to sow; kudr — o, 
a needle ; pofl, to shoot; 
paf — 0, a gun ; tranci, to 
cut; tranc — o, a knife; 
bona — 0, good way, good 
medium; — aro, set of 
tools. 

ileks-o, holly, ilex, holm- 
oak. 



53 



^ILI 



lNDUKCI-0 



*ili, they ; ilia, tlieir, 
theirs ; ili7i, them. 

ilumin-i, to illuminate. 

iluminaci-o, illumination. 

ilustr-^, to illustrate ; 
— ajo, illustration. 

iluzi-o, illusion, delusion. 

imag-i, to imagine, to fancy. 

imit-i, to imitate. 

imperativ-o, imperative 
(gram.). 

imperfekt-o, imperfect 
(gi'am.). 

im'peri-o, empire (state) ; 
— a, imperial ; — estro, 
emperor; — estrino, em- 
press. 

imperial-o, roof, outside of 
a vehicle. 

imperialism-o, imperialism ; 
— isto, imperialist. 

implik-z, to implicate, to 
entangle. 

impon-z, to impose (neuter). 

import-i, to import. 

impost-o, tax, imposition. 

impotent-a, impotent 
(med.). 

impres-o, influence, impres- 
sion felt. 

impresari-o, impresario. 

improviz-i, to improvise ; 
— 0, improvisation. 

impuls-o, impulse 

-in- (shows the feminine) : 
patro, father; — ino, 
mother ; frato, brother ; 



— ino, sister; cevalo, 
horse; — ino, mare; 
viro, a man ; — ino, a 
woman ; sinjoro. Sir, 
Mr., gentleman ; — ino, 
Madam, Mrs., lady. 

m-o, a female ; — a, temin- 
ine (adj.). 

inaŭguraci-o, inauguration. 

incit-2^, to incite, to pro- 
voke. 

-ind- (shows worth, merit): 
kredi, to believe ; kred 
— a, worthy of credit; 
laŭdi, to praise ; laud — ttj 
worthy of praise ; me- 
mori, to remember; 
memor — a, memorable ; 
honoro, honour ; honor 
— a, honourable ; honor 
— eco, honourableness ; 
ridi, to laugh ; rid — a, 
laughable (6). 

ind-o, merit, value, worth. 

Indian-o, American Indian. 

indien-<?, chintz. 

indiferent-rt, indifferent, 
unconcerned, callous. 

indig-o, indigo. 

indign-i, to be indignant. 

indiĝen-o, native, aborigine. 

indikativ-o, indicative 
{gram.). 

indium-o, indium. 

individu-ĉ>, individual. 

indukci-^, induction (met.), 
and (eledr.). 



54 



INDULG-I 



INSTANC-O 



indulg-i, to spare, to be 
indulgent to ; — o, leni- 
ency. 

indulgenc-o, indulgence 
(Catholic religion). 

industri-<9, industry, busi- 
ness; — a, belonging to 
trade, industry, manu- 
factures, etc. ; — isto, 
trader, manufacturer. 

inerci-o, inertia. 

infan-o, child ; — a, childish; 
— eco, infancy ; — aro, 
children as a whole ; 
— ajo, childish act, or 
play. 

infanteri-o, infantry. 

infekt-i, to infect ; - 
fectious ; — ado, 
tion. 

infer-o, hell, inferno ; — a, 
infernal, hellish. 

infinitiv-o, infinitive 
(gram.). 

muni, to influence ; — o, 
influence. 

inform-i, to give informa- 
tion ; — igi, to take in- 
formation, to inquire 
about ; — o, informa- 
tion. 

infuz-i, to infuse; — o, in- 
fusion ; — ajo, the bever- 
age made by infusion. 

-ing- (shows holder) : kan- 
delo, a candle ; kandel 
?, candlestick ; plumo, 



-a, m- 
infec- 



pen ; plum — o, pen- 
holder ; fingro, finger ; 
fingr — o, thimble. 

ingven-o, groin. 

inĝenier-ĉ), engineer. 

iniciat-?, to initiate, to 
begin something. 

iniciativ-o, introductory 
step. 

ink-c, ink; — ujo, ink- 
stand. 

inklin-^/, inclined to; — o, 
tendency, inclination ; 
— igi, to predispose to ; 
— igi, to incline to. 

inkognit-o, incognito. 

inkub-o, incubus, night- 
mare. 

inkvizici-o, inquisition. 

inkvizitor-o, inquisitor. 

inokul-i, to inoculate. 

insekt-o, insect. 

insid-2, to ensnare, to put 
snares, to insidiate ; — o, 
snare, ambush. 

insign-o, insignia, coat of 
arms. 

insist-f, to insist. 

insolvent-a, insolvent. 

inspekt-i, to inspect; — isto^ 
inspector. 

inspektor-o, inspector. 

inspir/, to inspire, to sug- 
gest. 

illstal-^, to install ; — o, 
installation. 

instanc-o, instance. 



55 



INSTIG-I 



INTERPELACI-0 



instig-*, to instigate; — o, 
instigation. 

instinkt-o, instinct ; — a, 
of instinct. 

instituci-o, institution. 

institut-o, institute. 

instru-i, to teach ; —a, 
that belongs to tuition ; 
— ado, teaching, tuition ; 
— iteco, learned ness, state 
of the learned ; — anto, 
occasional teacher; 
— isto, teacher by pro- 
fession. 

instrukci-o, directions 
given as to certain 
things to be done. 

instminent-o, instrument; 
blov — 0, wind instru- 
ment ; Jcord — o, string 
instrument. 

insul-o, island, isle ; — ano, 
islander ; — aro, group 
of islands, archipelago. 

insult-e, to insult, by using 
bad language. 

-int- (past participle active); 
doni, to give; don — a, hav- 
ing given ; don — e, after 
having given (adv.). 

integral-a, integral (ma- 
them.). 

intelekt-o, intellect ; — a, 
intellectual; — ulo, a man 
of intellect. 

inteligent-a, intelligent ; 
intellect; — eco, 



quality of the intelligent 
man ; intelligence. 

intenc-z, to intend ; — o, 
intent ; — a, intended, 
purposed ; hon — a, well- 
meaning; ek — i, to decide 
upon, to project ; sen — e, 
unintentionally. 

intendant-o, superinten- 
dent. 

^inter, between, among ; 
— ligo, alliance; — regno, 
interregnum ; — linio, 
space between lines ; 
— spaco, interval of dis- 
tance; — tempo, interval 
of time ; — nacia, inter- 
national ; — seJcva, suc- 
cessive. 

interdikt-o, interdict. 

interes-i, to interest ; — a, 
interesting ; — o, in- 
terest ; — igi, to take an 
interest in. 

interjekci-o, interjection. 

intermit-i, to occur inter- 
mittently. 

intern-a, internal, inward ; 
— e, inwardly; — o, in- 
side {noun) ; — ajo, that 
which is inside ; — igi, 
to push in, to drive in, 
to inculcate ; — igi, to 
get into, to sink in ; 
el — e, from inside. 

interpelaci-o, interpella 
tion ; — i, to interpellate. 



56 



INTERPRET-I 



-IT- 



interpret-i, to interpret. 

interpunkci-o, punctuation. 

intest-o, intestine. 

intim-a, intimate {adj.) ; 
— eco, intimacy ; — ulo, 
intimate friend. 

intrig-i, to intrigue, to 
plot ; — 0, intrigue, plot; 
— ema, fond of in- 
trigues, and plots ; — ulo, 
plotter, trimmer. 

invalid-o, invalid (noun) ; 
— a, invalid (adj.). 

in ventar-o, inventory, 
schedule. 

inversi-o, inversion. 

investitur-o, investiture. 

invit-^, to invite. 

*io, something ; doni — n, 
to give something. 

''^iom, somewhat, a little ; 
— da vino, a little wine ; 
— dafloroj, a few flowers; 
— eto, the least of ; — ete, 
to some extent. 

ir-i, to go ; de — i, to go 
away from ; /w — i, to 
go away, to depart; 
— igi, to propel ; ek — i, 
to start, to set out ; sur 
— i, to mount up, to 
ascend upon ; en — z, to 
enter ; deen — i, to retire; 
el — i, to go out; p'eter 
— i, to pass by ; tra — i, 
to go through ; tra — ejo, 
a path through; sub — i, 



to set (the sun, moon, 
etc.) ; — iloj, stilts ; re — t, 
to go back, to refer back. 

irid-o, iris (hot.). 

iridium-o, iridium. 

iris-o, iris (anat.). 

Irland-o, Ireland ; — o, 
Irish (adj.) ; — ano, 
Irishman. 

ironi-o, irony; — a, ironical. 

-is (ending of past tense) : 
doni, to give; mi donis, 
I gave, I have given, 
I did give, I was giving ; 
la hirdoj kanfis, the birds 
sang. 

Islam-o, Islam. 

Island-o, Iceland ; — a, 
Icelandic ; — ana, Ice- 
lander. 

-ist- (profession, trade, con- 
stant occupation); hoio, 
boot ; hot — 0, bootmaker ; 
kuraci, to heal, to attend 
the sick professionally; 
kurac — o, doctor, medical 
man ; steli, to steal ; 
stel — 0, thief ; lavi, to 
wash; lav — ino, washer- 
woman ; ])ordo, door ; 
pord — 0, doorkeeper, 
hall-porter. 

istm-6>, isthmus. 

-it- (past participle passive) ; 
porti, to carry ; ptort — a, 
carried, having been 
carried. 



57 



ITAL-A 



JESU-0 



Ital a-, Italian {adj.); — o, 

an Italian; — itjo, — lando, 

Italy. 
*iu-, somebody, some one ; 

cu vi vidas — n ? Do you 

see any one 1 



izol-i, to isolate ; — o, act 
of isolating; — eco, state 
of isolation. 

Izrael-o, Israel ; — ido, 
Israelite. 



-j- (plural sign) : flwo, 
flower; floroj, flowers; 
hela, fine; hela floro, 
fine flower; belaj flow], 
fine flowers ; kelkaj 
homoj, a few men. 

*ja, in fact, indeed, assur- 
edly. 

jaguar-o, jaguar. 

jaĥt-o, yacht. 

jak-o, round jacket. 

*jam, already, as yet ; jam 
... Tie, no longer, not 
now ; si — ne ijloras^ she 
does not cry now, she 
no longer cries. Also : 
si ne 2>loras plu, as ne . . . 
plu, means no longer. 

jamb-o, iambus. 

janicar-o, janizary. 

Januar-(?, January. 

Japon-a, Japanese {adj.) ; 
— 0, Japanese {noun) ; 
— ujo, — lando, Japan. 

jar-o, year ; cent — o, cen- 
tury; mil — 0, millenium; 
— libro, annual (book) ; 
ciu — a, annual, yearly 



{adj.); super — o, leap- 
year; en la nuna — o, in 
the present year. 

jard-o, a yard (3 feet). 

jasmen-(7, jessamine, jas- 
mine, 

*je, a linking preposition 
without any exact mean- 
ing, but used occasion- 
ally when in doubt 
about what other pre- 
position to use. Li 
ridas — mia eraro, he 
laughs at my mistake, 
or, Li ridas mian eraron. 

*jen, behold ; jen estas^ 
here is, here are ; jen . . . 
jen, now . . . now, or 
sometimes, ... at other 
times ; jeno, that which 
follows ; jena, subse- 
quent ; jene, as follows ; 
— Hal, for that reason. 

■^jes, yes ; jesa, affirma- 
tive ; diri jes, to say 
yes ; jesi, to answer 
affirmatively. 

Jesu-o, Jesus ; — o-KristOy 



58 



JEZUIT-0 



ĴET-I 



Jesus Christ ; — «, of 
Jesus {adj.). 

jezuit-o, Jesuit. 

jod-ĉ?, iodine. 

*ju pli . . . des pli, the 
more . . . the more. 

jubile-o, jubilee. 

Jud-a, {adj.) Jewish ; — o, 
a Jew; — ujo, Judea, 
Judah. 

Judaismo, Judaism. 

juft-(?, Russian leather, 
Muscovy hides. 

jug-o, yoke. 

jugland-o, nut, walnut. 

juĝ-i, to judge ; — o, judg- 
ment; — anto, acting as 
judge ; — ido, a judge 
(profession) ; — antaro, 
a jury ; — istaro, a court 
of judges; — ejo, justice 
room, law-court ; al — i, 
to adjudicate ; antail — o, 
prejudice. 

juk-«, to itch ; — 0, itching. 

Juli-o, July. 

jun-a, young, juvenile ; 
— ecOj time of youth ; 



— ulo, youth, young 
man; — ulino, maiden; 
— ularo, young people 
in a body ; ne — a, no 
longer young ; mal — a, 
old; mal — ulo, old man; 
Timl — igi, to get old. 

jung-i, to harness ; — ajo, 
harness. 

Juni-o, June. 

juniper-o, juniper. 

junk-ĉ?, reed. 

junkr-(?, Prussian lordling; 
signo — o, cornet, ensign. 

jup-o, skirt ; sub — o, petti- 
coat. 

jurist-c, jurist. 

just-a, just, upright; — eco, 
righteousness ; — ulo, 
righteous man ; mal — a 
unjust, iniquitous; mal 
—eco, iniquity, injustice; 
mal — ajo, iniquitous act, 
injustice done. 

jut-o, jute. 

juvel-o, jewel ; — isto ; 
jeweller; — aro, set of 
jewels, parure. 



ĵak-o, morning-coat. 

ĵaket-o, jacket. 

ĵaluz-ft, jealous; — o, jeal- 
ousy ; — eco, state of 
jealousy ; — ema, in- 
clined to jealousy. 



ĵargon-o, jargon, lingo. 

ĵaŭd-o, Thursday. 

jet-z, to throw, to cast, to 
fling ; ek — i, to begin to 
throw ; en — i, to cast 
into ; sur — i, to throw 



59 



ĴOKE-0 



KAL-0 



upon ; kun — i, to throw 
together ; de — i, to throw 
down ; dis — i, to de- 
molish ; el — i, to spurn ; 
re — i, to throw back, to 
reflect (light). 

ĵoke-o, jockey. 

ĵongl-z, to juggle ; — isto, 
a juggler;— 0, jugglery, 



legerdemain ; — ado, the 
art of legerdemain. 

ĵur-i, to swear; je — i, to 
conjure, to conspire ; 
— inta, sworn. 

ĵurnal-o, newspaper, jour- 
nal. 

■^ĵus, just (adv.) ; mi—vidis 
sin, I have just seen her. 



k. c, abbreviation of kaj 

cetera], and the rest. 
k. s., abbreviation of kaj 

similaj, and others 

similar. 
k. sekv., abbreviation of 

kaj sekvantaj, and follow- 

k. t. p., abbreviation of kaj 
tiel plu, and so forth, etc. 

kab-6), cape, promontory. 

kabal-o, Cabala ; — ajo, 
cabalistic act or words. 

kaban-o, cabin, hovel, hut. 

kabinet-o, cabinet, closet. 

kabl-o, cable ; tren— o, 
hawser, painter (naut.). 

kabriolet-o, cabriolet, cab. 

kaĉ-o, batter, pap for in- 
fants. 

kadavr-o, corpse, carcass. 

kadenc-o, cadence. 

kadet-o, cadet (milit.). 

kadmi-o, cadmium. 



kadr-o, frame ; en — igi, to 
frame (pictures). 

kaduk-a, decayed, decrepit; 
— eco, decay. 

kaf-o, coff'ee; — ejo, a 
cafe ; — arbo, coffee- 
tree ; — ki'uco, coffee-pot; 
— ujo, coffee-box. 

Kafr-o, Kaffir. 

kaftan-o, kaftan. 

kag-o, cage. 

kahel-6>, paving tile 

*kaj, and. 

kaj-o, quay, wharf, jetty. 

kajer-o, copybook, paper- 
book, No. or part of a 
work ; — eto, book of 
tickets. 

kajut-o, cabin, hut. 

kaka-o, cocoa. 

kakatu-o, cockatoo. 

kakt-o, cactus. 

kal-o, corn (on feet), hard 
corn ; — a, callous. 



60 



KALOI-0 



KANASTR-0 



kalci-0, calcium. 

kaldron-o, cauldron, cal- 
dron, kettle, boiler. 

kalejdoskop-o, kaleido- 
scope. 

kalendar-o, calendar. 

kalendr-i, to calender, to 
mangle ; — ilo, a mangle. 

kalendul-o, marigold. 

kaleŝ-o, carriage. 

kalfatr-i, to calk. 

kali-o, potass (calium). 

kalibr-o, calibre. 

kalif-o, caliph ; — regno, 
dominion of the caliph. 

kalik-o, cup, chalice, bowl. 

kalikot-ĉ>, calico. 

kalk-o, lime ; — stono, lime- 
stone. 

kalkan-(?, heel (of the foot); 

kalkanum-o, heel of boot, 
etc. ; also clog, patten. 

kalkul-i, to calculate, to 
reckon ; — o, account, 
bill to pay ; — ado, cal- 
culation ; al — i, to put to 
the account; kun — ^, to 
reckon with other items; 
el — i, to leave out of the 
account ; ne — ehla, in- 
calculable ; — isto, ac- 
countant. 

kalomel-o, calomel. 

kalson-o, pair of drawers, 
pants. 

kalumni-i, to slander, to 
calumniate. 



kamarad-o, comrade, 
kambi-o, bill of exchange, 
kame-o, cameo, 
kamel-o, camel, 
kameli-o, camelia. 
kamen-o, fire-place, fire- 
grate ; — tubo, flue ; 

— tubisto, chimney- 
sweep, 
kamer-o, box-room, 
kamerling-o, camerlingo. 
kamfor-o, camphor. 
kamizol-o,shortnight-dress. 
kamlot-o, camlet. 
kamomil-o, camomile, 
kamp-o, field ; —aro, country 

(as opposed to town) ; 

— ara, of the country, 

country like, 
kan-o, rush, reed, 
kanab-o, hemp ; — ejo, 

hemp-field; —semo, hemp 

seed. 
kanaben-o, linnet. 
Kanad--o, Canada ; — a 

(adj.), Canadian ; — ano, 

a Canadian, 
kanajl-o, scoundrel; — aro, 

rabble, rascaldom. 
kanal-o, canal, 
kanaliz-i, to canalise; — ado, 

canalisation. 
kanap-o, sofa, couch, 
kanari-o, canary, canary 

bird. 
kanastr 0, canister (tobao- 

co). 



61 



KANCELARI-0 



KAPRIC-0 



kancelari-0, chancellor's 
house, or office. 

kancelier 0, chancellor. 

kand-o, candy, sugar- 
candy. 

kandel-o, candle ; — ingo, 
candlestick; vaJcs — o, wax- 
candle. 

kandelabr-o, candelabrum. 

kandidat-o, candidate. 

kanel-i, to chamfer ; — o, 
— ajo, groove, fluting, 
etc. 

kanibal-o, cannibal. 

kanibalism-o, cannibalism. 

kankr-o, craw-fish, cray- 
fish. 

kanon-o, canon (church 
law). 

kanonik-o, canon (church 
dignitary). 

kant-i, to sing.; — adi, to 
keep singing ; — o, a 
song, a chant; — ado, 
singing (the art) ; re 
— ajo, burden, refrain ; 
— eti, to hum a tune ; 
pri — i, to celebrate in 
song, 

kantarid-o, cantharis (ĵjI. 
cantharides). 

kantat-o, cantata. 

kantin-o, canteen. 

kanton-o, canton. 

kantor-r), chanter, pre- 
centor. 

kanul-o, canula. 



kanvas-o, canvas (tapestry). 
kap-o, head (of the 

body). 
kapabl-a, capable, able ; 

— 0, the power to do ; 

— eco, the ability to do ; 

mal — ulo, an incapable 

man, a man of no capa- 
city. 
kapel-o, chapel. 
kaper-i, to seize as a prize ; 

sip — i, to capture a ship. 
kapital-o, capital (money) ; 

— isto, capitalist. 
kapitan-c, captain (milit.). 
kapitel-o, capital (archit.). 
kapitol-o, capitol. 
kapitulac-i, to capitulate. 
kapon-o, capon. 
kapor-o, caper-bush ; — ero 

caper. 
kaporal-o, corporal (drill 

sergeant). 
kapot-o, capote, hooded 

cloak. 
kapr-o, goat ; — ino, she- 
goat ; — viro, he-goat ; 

— eto, small goat; — ido, 

a kid ; — ajo, goat flesh; 

—idajo, kid flesh ; — isto, 

goat^herd. 
kapreol-(?, roebuck ; — ino, 

roe ; — ido, the kid of 

the roe. 
kapric-o, caprice, whim ; 

— a, capricious ; — i, to 

have whims. 



62 



KAPRIKORN-0 



KART-0 



Kaprikorn-0, Capricorn. 

kaprimulg-o, goat-sucker 
(bird). 

kapriol-o, capriole. 

kapsik-o, capsicum. 

kapstan-o, capstan. 

kapsul-o, cap (fire-arms), 
capsule. 

kapt-z, to catch ; ek — i, to 
seize ; — ito, captive, 
piisoner ; — iteco, capti- 
vity ; milit — ito, prisoner 
of war; — ilo, snare to 
entrap. 

kapucen-o, capuchin friar. 

kapuc-o, hood, cowl. 

kar-a, dear, prized ; — ceo, 
clearness, high price ; 
— ulo, one held dear ; 
mal — a, cheap ; mal 
— eco, cheapness ; pli 
— igo, rise in ])rice. 

karaben-o, carabine. 

karaf-o, decanter. 

karakter-o, temper, 

humour, disposition. 

karakt eriz-?', to characterise. 

karambol-i, to cannon 
(billiards). 

karamel-o, caramel. 

karas-o, crucian (fish). 

karat-o, carat. 

karavan-o, caravan. 

karb-o, charcoal ; ter — o, 
coal. 

karbol-o, carbolic (noiin) ; 
— a acido, carbolic acid 



karbonad-o, carbonade, 
chop, cutlet. 

karbunkol-o, carbuncle. 

karcer-d, prison, gaol, car- 
eer (detention in school, 
etc.). 

kard-o, thistle. 

kardel-o, goldfinch. 

kardinal-o, cardinal. 

kare-o, a square (of). 

kares-i, to caress; — a, 
caressing ; — ema, fond 
of caressing. 

karier-o, career. 

karik-o, sedge, rush. 

karikatur-z, to caricature. 

kariofil-o, clove. 

kariol-o, cariole, carry -all. 

karmezin-o, crimson. 

kannin-o, carmine. 

karn-o, flesh; tiU — o, calf 
of the leg ; dent — o, gums 
(dental). 

karnaval-o, carnival. 

karo-o, diamonds (at cards). 

karob-o, carob-bean ; — w/o, 
carob-tree. 

karot-o, carrot. 

karp-o, carp. 

karpat-q/, Carpathians. 

karpen-o, horn-beam, yoke- 
elm ; — ejo, yoke-elm 
plantation; — aleo, yoke- 
elm avenue ; — lauho, 
yoke-elm arch, arbour. 

kart-o, card ; — eto, visiting 
card ; lud — oj (or simply 



63 



KARTAV-I 



KAUCI-0 



—oj), playing - cards ; 

lud — aro, pack of cards ; 

— geografia, map. 
kartav-e, to speak thick 

(as many Parisians do), 
kartel-o, cartel. 
kartilag-o, cartilage, gristle. 
kartoc-o, cartridge ; — ujo, 

cartridge pouch ; — fa- 

briko, catriclge factory, 
kartografi-o, cartography, 
karton-o, pasteboard. 
kartuŝ-(?, cartouche, scroll, 

tablet, medallion. 
karusel-o, carousal, tourna- 
ment, 
kas-o, till, money-box, etc. ; 

— isto, cashier ; en — igi, 

to encase, to pocket 

cash, 
kasaci-o, cassation ; — i, to 

quash, to annul, 
kaserol-o, saucepan, 
kask-o, helmet. 
kaskad-o, cascade, 
kasket-o, cap (boy's) or 

(man's), 
kast-o, caste, 
kastel-o, castle ; — mastro, 

lord of a manor, 
kastor-o, beaver, 
kastr-?', to emasculate, to 

geld. 
kaŝ-i, to hide ; — ema, liking 

to conceal, dissembling ; 

— emo, inclination to 

hide, dissimulation ; ne 



— ema, frank, open, un- 
reserved; — ate, in sec- 
ret ; — ejo, hiding-place ; 
— eco, secrecy ; igi, to 
skulk; mal — i, to dis- 
close. 

kaŝtan-o, chestnut ; — ujo, 
chestnut-tree ; — kolora, 
nut-brown, auburn. 

kat-o, cat; — ino, she-cat; 
— eto, small cat; — ido, 
kitten ; — idino, she- 
kitten ; — ineto, small 
female cat. 

katafalk-o, catafalque. 

katakomb-o, catacomb. 

katalepsi-o, catalepsy. 

katalog-o, catalogue. 

kataplasm-o, plaster. 

katar-(9, catarrh. 

katarakt-o, cataract (of the 
eye). 

katastr-o, register of land 
assessment. 

katastrof-o, catastrophe. 

katedr-d, cathedral (adj.) ; 
— a pregejo, cathedral 
church ; — o, seat of 
authority. 

kategori-(?, category. 

kateĥism-c, catechism. 

kateii-(9;', fetters. 

katetiko, cathetics. 

katolik-a, Catholic. 

katun-o, cotton cloth 

kaŭci-o, caution, caution 
money (Scotch law). 



64 



KAŬĈUK-0 



*KIOM 



kaŭĉuk-0, iiidiarubber, 

caoutchouc. 
kaŭr-i, to cower, to squat, 
kaŭteriz-i, to cauterize. 
kaŭz-«, to cause ; • — o, 

cause. 
kav-o, cavity, hollow, hole, 

pit ; — ajo, hollow part ; 

-~aĵa,\\o\\ow {adj. ) ; —igi, 

to excavate ; rad — o, 

wheel-rut. 
kavaleric, cavalry ; — ano, 

cavalryman, horse- 
soldier, 
kavalir-o, knight, 
kavalkad-o, cavalcade. 
kavern-(?, den, cavern, 
kaviar-c, caviare, 
kaz-o, case {gram.). 
kaze-<9, curd cheese, curds, 
kazein-o, caseine. 
kazemat-o, casemate. 
kazern-o, barracks. 
■^ke, conjunction ' that.' 
kegl-o, skittle ; — aro, set 

of skittles. 
kel-o, cellar ; — isto, cellar- 

ist, cellarman ; butler. 
^kelk-e, some, a few; post 

kelka tempo, in a little 

while ; — aj amikoj, a 

few friends ; or, — e da 

amikoj (3). 
kelner-o, restaurant or cafe 

waiter. 
ken-(?, very resinous 

wood. 

E 65 



kep-o, a peaked cap {French 
' kepi '). 

kepr-o, huckaback, tAvill. 

ker-o, hearts (at cards). 

kern-o, kernel (fruit- stone). 

kerub-o, cherub. 

kest-o, chest, coffer ; tir — o, 
drawer. 

kestrel-o, kestrel. 

■^kia, what kind of, what 
sort of. 

^kial, why, wherefore. 

*kiam, when ; tvj kiam, as 
soon as (lit. immedi- 
ately when). 

■^kie, where ; — n, whither. 

*kiel, how, as : - — eble plej 
bone, as well as pos- 
sible. 

^kies, whose : — libro estas 
tin ci? whose book is thisi 
La patrino — infano est- 
as moiiinfa, the mother 
whose child is dead. 

kil-o, keel (of a boat). 

kilogram-o, kilogram. 

kilolitr-6>, kilolitre. 

kilometr-o, kilometre. 

Kimr-« (adj.), Welsh ; — o, 
Welshman; — •w/o, Wales. 

kinematograf-o, cinemato- 
graph. 

kinin-o, quinine. 

*kio, what (thing); — n 
vi faras? what are you 
doing? 

*kiom, how much, as much 



KIRAS-0 



KLISTER-0 



as ; — a {adj.), what in 
quantity ; — kodas tio ? 
how much does this cosf? 
— vi scias, as far (much) 
as you know ; — li povos, 
as much as he can. 
(fuL). 

kiras-o, cuirass, armour ; 
— ulo, cuirassier ; testuda- 
— 0, tortoise-shell. 

kirl-i, to wisk (eggs) ; — ilo, 
a wisk. 

kirŝ-o, kirschwasser. 

kis-^, to kiss; — o, a kiss; 
—ado, a long kiss; — eto, 
a little kiss ; — ema, 
fond of kissing. 

kitel-o, gabardine, work- 
man's blouse. 

■^kiu, who, which, that 
(subj.) ; — n, whom, 
which, that (object) ; — j, 
plur. (subj.) — jn, pi. 
(obj.); la homo—parolas, 
the man who speaks ; 
la libro — n vi legas, the 
book which you read. 

klaft-o, a Russian measure. 

klak-^, to clap, to flap, to 
rattle, to clatter ; — o, 
rattle, clatter, etc. ; — ilo, 
a rattle. 

klap-o, plug, valve. 

klar-«, clear, distinct; — ĉco, 
clearness : mal — a, ob- 
scure, dark ; ne—a, want- 
ing in clearness ; — igi, 



to make clear, to explain ; 
— igo, explanation ; — ig- 
ebla, that may be ex- 
plained ; ne — igebla, in- 
explicable ; — igi, to be- 
come clear ; mal — ajo, 
ambiguity. 

klarnet-o, clarinet. 

klas-o. class, category. 

klasifik-i, to classify ; — o, 
classification. 

klasik-d, classic ; — ulo, 
partisan of the classics. 

klav-o, key of a piano, 
organ, etc. ; — aro, key- 
board. 

klemat-o, clematis. 

kler-a, enlightened, well- 
informed ; — ulo, a well- 
informed man ; mal — a, 
ignorant ; — eco, the 
quality of the kleriilo; 
— igi, to enlighten ; — igi, 
to become enlightened. 

klerik-a, clerical ; — ulo, a 
cleric. 

klient-6>, client. 

klimat-o, climate ; al — igi, 
to acclimatize. 

klin-i, to incline, to bend, 
to cause to lean (trans.) ; 
igi, to bend, etc. (neut.) ; 
de — igi, to deviate from. 

kling-o, blade (of a knife, 
etc.). 

klinik-a, clinical. 

klister-o, clvster. 



66 



KLIS-I 



KOLER-I 



"kliŭ-i, to stereotype; — ajo, 
stereotyped plate. 

kloak-o, cloaca, drainage, 
sewer system. 

klopod-'^, to take trouble 
for anything; to take 
steps towards an end in 
view ; to undertake the 
initiative work, etc.; — o, 
proceeding, initial steps; 
— igi, to cause to under- 
take such trouble. 

klor-o, chlorine. 

kloroz-o, chlorosis (med.). 

kloŝ-o, bell (not a ringing 
bell), bell-shaped object. 

klub-o, club, circle, group. 

kluk-^,to cluck (hens). 

kluz-o, sluice, lock (stream). 

knab-o, boy ; — ino, girl. 

knar-^, to creak, to grate. 

kned-i, to knead. 

knut-o, knout. 

koaks-o, coke. 

koalici-o, coalition. 

kobalt-c, cobalt. 

kobold-o, goblin, hobgoblin, 
imp. 

kocenil-o, cochineal. 

ls.oc.-o, code. 

kodeks-o, codex. 

kodicil-o, codicil. 

koeficient-(), coefficient. 

kofr-o, coffer, travelling 
trunk. 

koincid-i, to coincide. 

kojn-o, wedge. 



! kok-o, cock ; — ino, hen ; 
t — eto, cockerel ; — ido, 
I chicken ; — ineto, small 
I hen; — ideto, chick; 
— ejo, fowl-house, roost. 

kokard-o, cockade. 

kokcinel-o, ladybird. 

koket-a, coquettish ; — eco, 
coquetry ; — idino, co- 
quette. 

koklus-o, whooping-cough. 

kokon-o, cocoon. 

kokos-o, cocoa, cocoa-nut. 

koks-o, hip ; meti la man- 
ojn al la — oj, to put 
one's arms akimbo. 

kol-o, neck ; ĉirkaŭ — o, col- 
lar (parure) ; ^haroj, 
mane ; — tuko, fichu, 
neckerchief. 

kolbas-o, sausage ; — eto, 
small sausage ; sango 
— 0, black-pudding. 

koleg-o, colleague, comrade. 

kolegi-o, college. 

kolekt-i, to gather, to col- 
lect ; — 0, collection, re- 
union, gathering ; — isto, 
tax-gatherer ; — igi, to 
gather together, to as- 
semble; — anto, collector 
of curios. 

kolektiv-ĉi, collective ; — e, 
collectively. 

koler-i, to get angry ; 
— igi, to make angry : 
—a, angry; —o, anger; 



67 



KOLERIK-A 



KOMISI-I 



— ema^ easily angered ; 
ek — emo^ irascil)ility. 

kolerik-fl^, choleric ; — ido^ 
choleric man. 

kolibro, humming-bird. 

kolik-o, colic. 

kolimb-o, diver (bird). 

kolizi-c», collision. 

kolofon-o, black rosin 
(colophony). 

kolomb-ĉ>. pigeon, dove ; 
— ejo, pigeon-house, 
dovecot. 

kolon-o, column, pillar ; 
— aro, colonnade. 

kolonel-o, colonel. 

koloni-o, colony ; — ano, 
colonist. 

kolor-o, colour, natural 
colour ; — i, to colour ; 
— ilo, paint, colour (to 
colour with) ; — iĝi^ to 
assume colour; — igi, to 
colour, to paint; — igo, 
colouring ; — igisto, a 
colourist; ro.z—a, pink 
{adj.). 

koloratur-o, colorature 
{mus.). 

kolos-o, colossus ; — a, co- 
lossal. 

kolport-i, to hawk about; 
— isto, hawker. 

kolubr-o, adder. 

kolum-o, shirt collar. 

kolz-o, rape, rape-seed, 
colza. 



kom-o, comma. 

komand/, to command 
(milit. and navy) ; — o, 
command, order. 

komandit-o, "commandite." 
— Company in which the 
acting partners are respon- 
sible without limit, but the 
sleeping partners only to 
the extent of their sliares. 

komandor-0, commander 
(of an Order). 

komb-z, to comb; — ilo 
a comb. 

kombin-?', to combine. 

komedi-r>, comedy ; — isto^ 
comic actor; — anto, an 
actor. 

komenc-i, to begin (trans.); 
— iĝi, to commence 
{neuter) ; en la — o, in 
the beo^innincj, at first. 

komentari-0, commentary. 

komerc-/, to trade ; — isto, 
trader; — aĵo^ merchan- 
dise, goods ; — 0, trade, 
business. 

komet-o, comet. 

komfort-o, comfort ; — ĉ, 
comfortably. 

komik-a, comic, droll ; 
— ulo, a comic ; — eco, 
comicalness. 

komisi-i, to entrust with, 
to order to; — o, man- 
date, charge undertaken; 
— isto, agent doing busi- 



ness on commission 



68 



KOMlSAR-0 



KOMUNIK-I 



komisar-6>, commissary. 

komitat-o, committee. 

komiz-o, assistant (shop or 
office), clerk, employe. 

komod-o, chest of draw- 
ers. 

kompakt-a, compact, solid, 
close. 

kompani-6», company (busi- 
ness or other concern). 

kompar-z, to compare ; 
— ajo, similitude. 

komparativ-o, comparative 
(f/ram.). 

kompas-(?, mariner's com- 
pass. 

kompat-i, to pity ; — o, 
pity, compassion ; — a, 
compassionate, merciful; 
— ema, of a feeling 
nature. 

kompendi-(), compendium. 

kompens-i, to compensate ; 
— 0, compensation ; perdo 
— 0, compensation for 
losses, damages, 

kompetent-a, competent, 
qualified (adj.). 

kompil-i, to compile; — o, 
compilation. 

kompleks-», complex. 

komplement-o, object, com^ 
plement (gram.). 

komplet-o, a suit (of 
clothes). 

komplez-o, kindness, oblig- 
ingness. 



komplik-i, to complicate; 
— ajo, complication. 

kompliment-7, to compli- 
ment; — 0, compliment. 

komplot-o, plot, complot. 

kompost-i, to compose 
(printing) ; — isto, com- 
positor. 

kompot-o, compote. 

kompozici-(?, composition 
(mus.). 

kompren-^, to understand; 
— igi, to make under- 
stand ; reciproke —igi, to 
understand one another; 
— ajo, conception of an 
idea ; — eti, to half 
understand ; 7nal — igo, 
misunderstanding ; — 
eble, of course, naturally. 

kompres-o, compress 
(med.). 

kompromis-o, compromise. 

kompromit-?, to jeopardise, 
to implicate. 

komun-a, common to sev- 
eral; — eco, community; 
— umo, a parish, a com- 
mune ; — ema, sociable. 

komuni-x, to communicate, 
to give the sacrament; 
• — 0, act of giving the 
sacrament ; — igi, to 
receive the sacrament ; 
— igo, the act of receiv 
ing the sacrament. 

komunik-z, to communi- 



69 



KOMUNISM-0 



KONFES-I 



cate (something to some- 
body) ; — 0, communica- 
tion; — aĵo, the thing 
communicated ; — iĝi, 
kun, to put oneself into 
communication with ; 
— igo, action of being 
in communication about 
something of mutual 
interest; inter — i, to ex- 
change communications ; 
inter — igi, {neuter). 

komunism-o, communism. 

komunist-o, communist. 

kon-i, to know, to be 
acquainted with ; — o, 
knowledge,acquaintance, 
with ; — igi; to cause to 
know; — ato, an acquaint- 
ance (person) ; — ateco, 
notoriety; — igi, to make 
one acquainted with an- 
other ; — igi kun, to get 
acquainted with ; ek — i, 
to begin to know ; re — i, 
to recognise ; ne — ata, 
ulterior ; ne — ato, an un- 
known person. 

koncentr-a, concentric 
(adj.) ; — igi, to concen- 
trate (ad.). 

koncept-o, concept (phil.). 

koncern-f, to concern, to 
relate to. 

koncert-c», concert. 

koncesi-o, concession. 

kondamn-^, to condemn ; 



— ito, a condemned per- 
son. 

kondic o, condition, stipu- 
lation ; — i, to stipulate. 

kondicional-o, conditional 
(gi^am.). 

kondolenc-^, to condole 
with; — 0, condolence. 

kondor-o, condor. 

konduk-*, to conduct, to 
lead ; — anto, conductor ; 
al — i, to bring (not 
carrying) ; de — i, to lead 
away ; for — i, to lead far 
away ; kun — i, to lead 
away together ; en — i, 
to bring in, to introduce; 
en — 0, preface, introduc- 
tion ; — ilo, rein. 

konduktor-o, kondukist-o, 
conductor (professional). 

kondut-i, to behave; — o, 
behaviour; bon — o, good 
behaviour; bon — a, well- 
behaved. 

konfeder-i, to confederate. 

konfederaci-o, confedera- 
tion. 

konfekci-o, making of 
clothes, tailoring, out- 
fitting, etc. 

konferenc-o, conference 
(diplomat.). 

konfes-i, to confess, to 
avow ; — 0, avowal ; con 
fession ; — anto, a peni- 
tent; — p-enanto, a priest, 



70 



KONFID-I 



KONSENT-0 



confessor ; mal — i, to re- 
tract or disavow. 

konfid-i, to trust; — ema, 
confiding ; mal — i, to 
distrust; ni plene — as 
al vi car ri estas sin dona, 
we fully trust you be- 
cause you are devoted ; 
— atesto, power of at- 
torney; — ato, he who has 
power of attorney. 

konfidenci-rt, confidential. 

konfirm-i, to confirm, to 
assure ; — o, confirma- 
tion, assurance. 

konfirmaci-o, confirmation 
(by a bishop). 

konfisk-i, to confiscate. 

konfit-i, to preserve, to 
pickle ; — ajo, jam or 
preserves ; — isto, con- 
fectioner, jam - maker, 
etc. 

konflikt-^?, conflict. 

konform-a, conform ; — igi, 
to conform ; — eco, con- 
formity ; esti — a al, to 
be in accordance with. 

konfuz-?*, to confound, to 
confuse; — o, confusion; 
— a, troubled, confused ; 
— igi, to get confused, 
embarrassed; — eco, state 
of being confused. 

konglomerat-o, conglom- 
eration (geoL). 

kongregaci-o, congregation. 



kongres 0, congress. 

kongru i,to congriie(77ia/A.); 
— a7i^a,congruent(77ia//i.). 

konifer 0, conifer. 

konjak-o, cognac. 

konjekt-i, to conjecture. 

konjugaci-i, to conjugate. 

konjunkci-o, conjunction. 

konk-o, shell, shells; — ajo, 
shell-work. 

konkav-a, concave. 

konklud-^, to conclude ; 
— 0, conclusion. 

konkret a, concrete. 

konkur-i, to compete ; — o, 
competition ; — anto, 
competitor. 

konkurs-o, competition (act 
of placing one's name 
among competitors for a 
prize, an appointment, 
etc.). 

konsci-i, to be conscious ; 
re — igi, to recover con- 
sciousness ; sen — a, un- 
conscious. 

konscienc-o, conscience ; 
— a, conscientious ; 
— dubo, qualm, scruple. 

konsekvenc-o, consequence; 
— a, consequent. 

konsent-o, consent, assent; 
— i, to consent, to agree; 
— a, in agreement; — e, 
by consent ; — ema, con- 
descending; mal — o, 
dissent; inter— i, to agree 



71 



KONSERV-I 



KONTOR-O 



mutually; — igi, to make 
a mutual arrangement. 

konserv-i, to conserve, to 
preserve, to keep; 
— anto, a preserver 
(occasional) ; — isto, a 
guardian, keeper, pre- 
server ; — aĵokulvitroj, 
preservers (spectacles) ; 
— 0, retention, preserva- 
tion. 

konservativ-a, conserva- 
tive {adj.) ; — ulo, a con- 
servative {politics). 

konservatori-o, conserva- 
toire. 

konsider-i, to consider ; 
— 0, act of considering. 

konsil-^, to advise ; — o, 
advice, counsel ; — igi 
kun, to consult with ; 
— igo, consultation, de- 
liberation ; popol — igo, 
popular assembly, diet; 
religia — igo, a council. 

konsist-i {el), to consist. 

konsistori-o, consistory. 

konsol-i, to console, to 
comfort ; — a, consoling ; 
ne — ehJa, disconsolate. 

konsonant-o, consonant 
(letter). 

konspir-?', to conspire. 

konstant-a, constant; 
— eco, constancy. 

konstat-t, to declare, to 
verify, to attest. 



konstelaci-o, constellation, 
galaxy. 

konstern-i, to dismay, to 
amaze, to dishearten ; 
— 0, amazement, con 
sternation. 

konstituci-o, constitution. 

konstru-?', to erect, to 
build, to construct ; — o, 
act of constructing ; 
— ajo, a construction ; 
— ita, built, constructed. 

konsul-o, consul ; — ejo, 
consulate. 

konsum-z, to consume, to 
exhaust ; — o, consum- 
mation ; — ado, exhaus- 
tion ; — iteco, state of 



exhaustion ; — anto, a 
consumer ; — igi, to get 
exhausted ; — igo, com- 
sumption. 

kont-o, account {book-keep- 
ing). 

koutakt-o, contact. 

koatant-o, ready-money, 
cash down. 

kontent-a, satisfied ; — igi, 
to satisfy ; — e, con- 
tentedly ; — eco, satisfac- 
tion ; — igo, act of giving 
satisfaction ; — iga, satis- 
fying, satisfactory ; — igi, 
to become satisfied. 

kontinent-o, continent. 

kontingent-c^ contingent. 

kontor-o, counting-house ; 



72 



KONTRABAND-0 



KORB-0 



branch establishment of 
a bank, etc. ; govern- 
ment agency abroad, 
etc. ; office (business). 

kontraband-o, smuggling. 

kontrabas-o, base-viol. 

kontrakt-i, to contract ; 
— 0, contract ; — anto, a 
party to any contract. 

kontrapunkt'O, counter- 
point. 

kontrast-o, contrast. 

*kontraŭ, against, towards, 
facing, over against, 
opposite to (never ' by 
the side of); — e, on the 
contrary, opposite to, 
facing {adv.); — a, con- 
trary, adverse to ; — ajo, 
— igo, impediment; 
— stari al, to be opposed 
to ; — 7neti, to oppose ; 
— hatali, to resist; — diri, 
to contradict ; — diro, 
contradiction ; — paroli, 
to object; — veneno, 
antidote ; — vole, against 
one's will ; — ulo, oppon- 
ent, vis-a-^as. 

kontribuci-o, contribution 
{milif.). 

kontrol-t, to control. 

kontur-o, outline, contour. 

kontuz-?', to bruise ; — o, 
contusion. 

konus-^, cone; — a, conical. 

konval-(?, lily of the valley. 



konveks-fi, convex. 

konven-?', to suit; to be 
proper ; — a, fitting, 
suitable, decent ; — eco, 
fitness; mal — a, un- 
seemly. 

konvenci-6>, convention. 

konverĝ-2, to converge ; 
mal — i, to diverge. 

konversaci-o, conversation. 

konvert-i, to convert; — o, 
conversion of others ; 
— igo, conversion of one- 
self. 

konvink-i, to convince ; to 
persuade ; — a, convinc- 
ing, persuasive ; — igi, 
to get convinced. 

konvolvul-ĉ>, convolvulus. 

konvulsi-o, convulsion; 
— a, convulsive. 

kopek-o, kopeck. 

kopi-i, to copy ; — o, a 
copy ; — isto, copyist ; 
re — i, to copy over 
again. 

kor-o, heart ; — a, hearty, 
from the heart ; bon — a, 
kind-hearted ; bon — eco, 
kind-heartedness ; — tus- 
anta, affecting, touching, 
pathetic ; — tuseco, emo- 
tion; — tmigi, to become 
tender. 

koral-o coral. 

Koran-o, Koran. 

korb-c», basket. 



73 



KORD-0 



KOV-I 



kord-c, chord (of music). 

kordon-o, cordon {mil.). 

korekt-^, to correct, to rec- 
tify ; — 0, — ado, act of 
correcting; — a, correct; 
— eco^ correctness; — ajo, 
the correction made ; 
— isto, a corrector ; — igi, 
to become correct, to 
mend. 

korelativ-a, correlative. 

korespond-i, to correspond; 
— 0, — ado, correspond- 
ence; — anto, corres- 
pondent. 

koridor-o, corridor, a pas- 
sage. 

korife-o, coryphaeus, chorus 
leader. 

kork-o, cork ; — tirilo, cork- 
screw. 

korn-c>, horn ; ais — o, hunt- 
ing horn. 

korne-o, cornea. 

kornet-o, cornet; — isto, 
cornet player. 

kornic-ĉ?, cornice. 

kornik-o, jackdaw. 

korp-o, body ; — a, bodily 
{adj.) ; — igi, to take a 
body, to become incar- 
nate; — 2^0, incarnation; 
— ogardisto, life -guards- 
man; vast — a, corpulent ; 
vast — eco, corpulency. 

korporaci-^?, corporation. 

korpus-o, corps (army). 



kors-o, corso. 

korsaĵ-o, bodice, body of 

dress. 
korsar-o, corsair, pirate, 
korset-o, corset (stays). 
kort-o, courtyard ; — ego, 

court of a king, etc. ; 

— ega, of the court ; 

— egulo, courtier. 
korv-o, crow, raven, 
korvet-o, sloop of war; 

French navy corvette. 
kosm-o, cosmos. 
kosmetik-o, cosmetics 

{art.). 
kosmogoni-o, cosmogony, 
kosmografi-o, cosmography, 
kosmologi-o, cosmology. 
kosmopolit-a, cosmo- 
politan. 
kost-^, to cost; — o, cost; 

multe — a, of high price, 

precious, 
kostum-o, costume, 
kot-o, mud ; — a, muddy ; 

— isto, scavenger, 
kotiz-i, to pay a certain 

amount individually for 

a common purpose, to 

assess oneself ; — ajo, a 

common payment, 
kotlet-o, cutlet. 
koton-o, cotton; — eca, 

downy, cottony ; — ujo 

cotton-tree. 
koturn-(9, quail (bird). 
k Y-i, to brood ; — ado, 



74 



KOVERT-0 



KREST-0 



act of brooding; — aĵo, 
a brood ; — itaro, the 
whole hatched chickens. 

kovert-o, envelope (letters). 

kovr-z, to cover ; — ilo, 
cover, the thing used to 
cover with; mal — i, to 
uncover, to unveil, to 
discover. 

Kosak-o, Cossack. 

krab-o, crab (zool.). 

krabr-(9, hornet. 

kraĉ-i, to spit ; — ajo, sal- 
iva ; — ujo, spittoon. 

krad-o, grate. 

krajon o, pencil. 

krak-i, to crack, to clap, to 
clack ; — igi, to cause to 
crack, etc. ; — eti, to 
crackle, to crepitate, to 
gabble ; — etado, crack- 
ling, crepitation ; — etilo, 
a rattle. 

kraken-(9, cracknel (pastry). 

kramp-o, fulcrum, prop, 
click, etc. 

kran-o, tap. 

krani-o, cranium. 

kratag-o, hawthorn. 

krater-o, crater. 

kravat-o, cravat. 

kre-i, to create ; — o, crea- 
tion (creating) ; — into, 
the creator (having 
created) ; — ito, a created 
being; — itaro, the 
created universe ; — ii- 



ajo, a thing created, 
creature. 

kred-i, to believe ; — igi 
to make believe ; — ebla, 
credible, likely ; — inda, 
worthy of belief ; — ema, 
credulous ; — emo, cred- 
ulity ; — ajo, belief, the 
thing believed; —o, 
creed ; mal — eco, unbe- 
lief. 

kredit-o, credit ; sen — igi, 
to discredit. 

kreditor-o, creditor. 

krejcer-o, kreutzer. 

krem-o, cream ; — ujo, 
cream-jug. 

kren-o, wild horse-radish. 

kreol-o, creole. 

kreozot-o, creosote. 

krep-o, crape. 

krepusk-o, twilight ; — igas, 
twilight is coming. 

kres-o, cress. 

kresk-i, to grow ; —o, —ado, 
growth, aho stature ; 
ĵ)len — a, adult; hel — a, 
of fine size, growth ; 
alta — a, tall grown; 
— ajo, plant, any sort of 
growth ; — ajaro, the 
flora ; sur — o, excres- 
cence ; ek — i, to bud ; 
al — i, to grow to. 

kresp-(9, pancake. 

krest-o, crest, cock's comb, 
or tuft of birds, etc. 



75 



KRESTOMATI-0 



KRUC-0 



krestomati-o, anthology of 
literary models. 

kreto, chalk. 

kreten-o, a cretin. 

krev-z, to burst; — igi, to 
burst something, to cause 
bursting; — iga malvar- 
7)10, very severe cold 
weather. 

Isxi-i, to cry ; — o, a, cry ; 
et — 0, a little cry ; ek — i, 
to exclaim ; — eii, to 
gabble, to brawl : — egi, 
to howl ; —ema, addicted 
to crying; — egulino, a 
termagant. 

kribr-i, to sift ; — ilo, a 
sieve. 

krim-o, crime ; — ulo, a 
criminal. 

kriminal-a, criminal 
(adj.). 

kring-0, biscuit in shape of 
a ring. 

kripl-a-, crippled (adj.) ; 
— ulo, a cripple ; — igi, 
to cripple. 

kript-o, crypt. 

krisp-o, mesentery ; also 
frill (on clothes, etc.). 

Krist-o, Christ; — ano, 
a christian; — ana, 
christian (adj.) ; — nasko, 
Christmas. 

kristal-o, crystal ; — igi, to 
crystallize ; — igi, to be- 
come crystallized ; — ig- 



cry- 



ehla, that may be 
stallized. 

kristianism-o, christianism, 
Christendom. 

kriteri-o, criterion. 

kritik-i, to criticize; —anto, 
one that criticizes; —isto, 
a critic. 

kriz-o, crisis. 

krizalid-o, chrysalis. 

krizantem-o, chrysanthe- 
mum. 

kroc-i, to hook ; al — i, to 
suspend to ; al — igi, to 
get hooked ; kun — ?', to 
hook together; — ilo, 
hook. 

krokodil-o, crocodile. 

*krom, except; — tio, ex- 
cepting that ; — virino, 
mistress, paramour. 

krom-o, chrome, chromium 
[col). 

kron-o, crown ; — eto, cor- 
olla (hot.); — i, to crown; 
flor — 0, crown or wreath 
of flowers. 

kronik-o, chronicle. 

kronologi-o, chronology. 

kronometr-ĉ), chronometer. 

krop-o, crop (birds). 

kroz-?', to cruise ; — isto, 
cruiser. 

kruc-o, cross ; — a militiro, 
crusade ; — isto, crus- 
ader ; — igi^ to lay across, 
to cross ; — igi, to cross 



KRUCIFIKS-0 



*KUN 



each oth er, a t h w art; 
— igo, crossing. 

krucifiks-(>, crucifix. 

krucum-i, to crucify ; — o, 
crucifixion. 

ls.iVLc-0, jug ; kaf — o, coffee- 
pot ; te—o, tea-pot. 

krud-ft, raw, crude, un- 
cooked. 

kruel-a, cruel ; — ega, fero- 
cious. 

knip-o, croup (medic). 

krur-o, leg. 

krust-o, crust. 

krut-6^, steep ; — eco, steep- 
ness; - — ajo, steep (noun); 
~ega,^ cragged ; —egajo, 
cragginess. 

ksilofon-ĉ>, xylophone 
(nius.). 

ksilograf-i, to xylograph ; 
—ftĉ/o, xylography; —isto, 
xylographist. 

kub-6>, cube. 

kubut-(>, elbow. 

kudr-i, to sew ; — ado, sew- 
ing (noun); kun — ^,to sew 
together ; kun — o, seam ; 
— ilo, needle ; — ilego, 
bradawl, awl; — ejo, sew- 
ing workroom ; — isiino, 
dressmaker. 

kuf-o, woman's cap. 

kugl-(), bullet (gun); — ego, 
cannon ball; — etajo, shot 
(for gun). 

kuir-z, to cook (act.) ; —ejo, 



kitchen ; — istino, cook 

(/•)■ 

kuk-o, cake; — ajo, pastry. 

kukol-o, cuckoo. 

kukum-o, cucumber. 

kukurb-o, pumpkin. 

kul-6», gnat. 

kuler-o, spoon. 

kulis-o, side scene, theatre 
wings. 

kulminaci-o, culmination ; 
— i, to culminate. 

kulip-a, guilty (adj.); — 2ilo, 
the guilty party, the 
culprit ; kun — ulo, aii 
accomplice ; — o, fault ; 
konfesi la — 07i, to plead 
guilty ; — igi, to accuse, 
to declare guilty ; —igito, 
accused (sw&s/.); — igi, to 
become guilty. 

kult-6>, cult. 

kultur-o, culture; — a, cul- 
tivated. 

kumin-o, cumin. 

^kun, with (never in the 
sense of instrument) ; 
— igi, to couple, unite, 
join ; — igi, to become 
coupled, united, joined; 
— igo, union, junction, 
copulation ; — meti, to 
form a whole of several 
parts ; — metitaj vortoj, 
compound words; — meto, 
— metado, action of com- 
pounding ; — meteco, the 



77 



KUNIKL-0 



KURJER-0 



manner by which a thing 
has been composed or 
made; — ligi, to tie to- 
gether ; — preni, to take 
with oneself ; — veni, to 
come together, to as- 
semble ; — labori, to col- 
laborate ; — vojiranto, a 
fellow-traveller ; — milit- 
anto, comrade-in-arms ; 
—kaptito, fellow-prisoner ; 
— uloj, associates ; — e, 
jointly ; mal — e, separ- 
ately ; — e — ; at the 
same time, together with ; 
— tiri, to pull together. 

kunikl-o, rabbit. 

kup-o, cupping glass. 

kupe-o, coupe, compart- 
ment in carriage. 

kupol-o, cupola, dome. 

kupon-o, coupon 

kupr-o, brass; —a, of brass; 
— i, to cov^er with brass ; 
flava — 0, latten, brass 
wire. 

kur-i, to run ; al — i, to run 
to, to have recourse to ; 
for — i, to run away ; to 
fly away ; for — anto, a 
fugitive ; — isto, runner ; 
trans — into, deserter. 

kurac-i, to treat the sick ; 
— ado, treatment ; — ilo, 
remedy ; — isto, doctor, 
medical man. 

kuraĝ-a, courageous; — o, 



courage ; — ^, to dare, 
to have the courage of ; 
—igi, to encourage ; —igi, 
to become courageous ; 
— e ! courage ! — ulo, a 
courageous man; sen — a, 
discouraged, dispirited ; 
— eco, prowess, bravery ; 
sen — eco, prostration, de- 
jection ; mal — a, coward- 
ly ; mal — o, cowardice ; 
sen — igi, to discourage ; 
sen — igi, to get discour- 
aged ; mal — igi, to cow 
down ; mal — igi, to grow 
cowardly; sen — igo, the 
act of becoming discour- 
aged ; sen — eco, the state 
of being discouraged ; 
mal — ulo, a coward ; re 
— igi, to take heart again ; 
— ega, intrepid ; — ego, 
intrepidity. 

kurant-a (monato), instant. 

kurator-o, curator, trustee. 

kurb-o, curve; — a, curved; 
— eco, curvature ; — igi, 
to bend, to curve ; — igi, 
to get curved ; — igo, the 
act of bending. 

kuri-o, curia, papal court. 

kurier-6», mail, despatch ; 
— isto, courier ; — sipo, 
mail-boat. 

kurioz-a, uncommon; —ajo, 
a curiosity. 

kurjer-6>, courier. 



78 



KURS-0 



KVIET-A 



kurs-0, course (lessons). 

kursiv-ti, cursive {adj.). 

kurtag-o, brokerage. 

kurten-o, curtain ; lit — o, 
bed-curtain ; pordo — o, 
door-curtain ; rul — o, 
rolling-blind ; flank — o, 
side-curtain. 

kusen-o, cushion ; lit — o, 
bolster ; hap — o, pillov.^ ; 
— ego, eiderdown bed. 

kuŝ-i, to be lying down, to 
be situated ; — ejo, couch, 
bed ; — ujo, bed of a 
river; —emulo, sluggard, 
idler, one fond of his 
bed; sub—i, to lie un- 
der; — iĝi, to get into 
bed. 

kutim-i, to get used to ; 
— 0, habit ; — a, usual, 
accustomed ; —igi, to ac- 
custom ; mat — i, to get 
unused to ; — e, usually. 

kutr-o, cutter (nav.). 

kuv-6), tub, vat, copper ; 
ban—o,h8Lthing tub; —eto, 
small vat or tub. 

kuz-o, cousin (m.); — ino, 
cousin (/.). 

kvadrant-o, quadrant. 

kvadrat-o, square {noun) ; 
— a, square (adj.). 

kvadratur-o, quadrature. 

kvadrig-o, quadrige (four 
horses abreast). 

kvadril-o, quadrille. 



kvaker-o, quaker. 

kvalifik-z, to qualify. 

kvalit-o, quality. 

*kvankam, although 
though. 

kvant-o, quantity. 

■^kvar, four ; — a, fourth ; 
— igi, to divide into four 
parts ; — obla, quadruple 
(adj.); — ohligi, to make 
four times larger; — ob- 
ligi, to grow four times 
larger ; — ono, fourth 
part ; Jcvarope, four to- 
gether (adv.); — foje, four 
times (adv.). 

kvaranten-o, quarantine. 

kvarc-6>, quartz. 

kvart-o, fourth (mus.). 

kvartal-o, quarter of a 
town, section. 

kvartet-o, quartetto, quar- 
tet. 

kvast-o, tuft, tassel, knot. 

*kvazaŭ, as if, as it were. 

kver-z, to coo. 

kverk-o, oak. 

kvestor-o, quaestor. 

kvidprokv-o, quid pro quo. 

kviet-a, calm, peaceful, 
quiet ; — igi, to calm, to 
tame, to appease, to as- 
suage ; — igisto, a tamer 
(of animals); — igi, to 
get calm, to be molified, 
to be appeased ; — eco 
calm, quietude, serenity; 



79 



*KVIN 



LAKON-A 



mal — a, agitated, turbu- 
lent, quarrelsome ; mal 
— eco, restlessness ; tur- 
bulence; mal — i, to get 
uncontrollable, to rage. 
*kvin, five; — «, fifth; 
— obla, fivefold (adj.) ; 
— obligi, to make five 
times as large ; — obligi, 
to get five times larger ; 



—ono, a fifth part ; —ope, 

five together (adv.) ; 

— foje, five times (adv.) 
"kvint-o, fifth (mus.). 
kvintesenc-o, quintessence, 
kvit-rt, quit. 
kvitanc-i, to give a receipt ; 

— 0, receipt. 
kvocient-o, quotient. 
kvodlibeto, quodlibet. 



*r for la, after preposi- 
tions, de, je, ce, and in 
certain other cases (es- 
pecially in poetry). 

*la, definite article {the}. 

labirint 6>, labyrinth, maze. 

labor-i, to work, to labour ; 
— 0, work, labour ; —ema, 
working, fond of work; 
mal— ema, lazy ; mal—emo, 
laziness ; — anto, one 
working ; — isto, working 
for a livelihood ; man—o, 
manual labour ; el — i, to 
elaborate ; el — ajo, work 
produced (not literary 
nor musical) ; p-i — i, to 
cultivate certain work ; 
per — i, to acquire by 
one's labour; kun — i, to 
collaborate ; tag— isto, day 
labourer ; pun — o, penal 
servitude ; — ejo, work- 



shop, workroom ; lu—isto, 
hired labourer. 

lac-a, tired, fatigued ; -igi, 
to tire ; — iga, tiring ; 
— igo, the act of tiring 
others; — igi, to get 
tired; — igo, the state 
of growing tired ; — eco^ 
state of fatigue ; sen — a, 
sen — iga, indefatigable. 

lacert-o, lizard. 

laĉ-o, string, gin, springe ; 
— i, to lace. 

lad-o, tin, tin-plate. 

laf-c, lava. 

\2bg-o, lake ; — eto, pond. 

lagun-o, lagoon. 

laik-(9, layman ; — a, lay 
{adj.). 

lak-o, varnish ; — i, to var- 
nish. 

lake-o, lackey. 

lakon-a, laconic 



80 



LAKONISM-0 



LATIN-A 



lakonism-ĉ), laconism. 

laks-o, diarrhoea ; — ilo, 
purgative ; — igi, to 
purge. 

lakt-6», milk ; — umo, milt, 
melt, soft roe. 

lam-a, lame ; — ulo, lame 
man ; —igi, to lame some 
one ; — igi, to become 
lame , — bastono, crutch ; 
— ^, to walk lame. 

lam-o, llama. 

lama-o, lama. 

lamaism-o, lamaism. 

lamp-o, lamp. 

lampir-o, glow-worm. 

\a.n-o, wool ; — eca, woolly ; 
— a, of wool ; saf — o, 
fleece ; —kovrilo, blanket. 

lanc-o, spear, lance. 

lancet-o, lancet. 

land 0, country; ban — o, 
bathing station ; en — a, 
indigenous, native ; en 
— ulo, a native ; sam 
— ulo, a compatriot ; 
all — a, exotic; ali — ulo, 
foreigner ; ali—o, foreign 
country. 

lang-o, tongue (organ). 

langust 0, spiny lobster. 

lani-o, shrike (bird). 

lantan-o, lantana (bot). 

lantern-o, lantern. 

lanug-(9, down, tender hair ; 
— a, diowny. 

lap-o, bur. 



lapis-o, lapis (w lapis lazuli); 
lunar caustic. 

lar-o, sea-gull. 

lard-o, lard ; — i, to lard. 

larĝ-a, wide; — o, width, 
breadth ; — o, latitude 
(geog.) ; — eco, width; 
opp. to length ; pli~igi, 
to widen ; laŭ — e, trans- 
versely ; laŭ — a, trans- 
versal ; mal—a, narrow ; 
mal — eco, narrowness; 
mal — igi, to become nar- 
row ; plimal—iĝi, to grow 
narrower ; plimal—igi, to 
make narrower. 

larik-o, larch. 

laring-o, larynx. 

larm-o, tear (of the eye). 

larv-o, larva (grub). 

las-t, to leave, to let go, 
etc. ; al — i, to admit ; 
al — ebla, admissible: 
el — i, to let go ; de — i, 
to allow to leave; siir — i, 
to let go on . . . ; en — i, 
to let enter, to let go in ; 
tra — i, to let go through; 
preter — i, to allow to pass 
on ; for — i, to vacate, to 
abandon ; nefor — ebla, 
indispensable; el—o, 

vent-hole. 

last-a, last ; antaii — a, last 
but one. 

lat-o, lath, batten. 

latin-a, latin (adj.); —a 



81 



I.ATlNISM-0 



T.EPR-0 



linijvo, latin language ; 

— ajo, latin \yriting. 
latinism-o, latinism. 
latrin-o, latrine, cesspool, 

closet. 

1 X f h lettuce, 
latuk-oj 

latun-o, latten. 

*laŭ, according to; in ac- 
cordance with ; — wle, at 
will; — longe,, in length. 

laub-o, arbour, green 
arbour. 

laud-i, to praise, to laud ; 
— 0, — ado, praise ; eh — i, 
to begin praising ; — egi, 
to exalt; mal — i, to 
blame. 

laiintenis o, lawn-tennis. 

laŭr-o, laurel. 

laŭreat-(9, laureate. 

\aŭt-ĉ, aloud, loudly ; — a, 
distinct, clearly heard ; 
mal — a, indistinct, low 
toned, muffled ; mal — e, 
in a low voice. 

lav-?, to wash ; sin — i, to 
wash oneself ; rjo, wash- 
house, laundry; — istino, 
laundress ; — vjo, wash- 
ing-stand, lavatory ; 
— vazo, basin for washing 
in. 

lavang-o, avalanche. 

lavend-o, lavender. 

lazur-o, azure ; — a i^lono, 
lapis lazuli. 



lecion f, lesson ; doni leci- 
onon, to give a lesson. 

led-^, leather; — pretigisto, 
tanner ; — rimeno, a 
thong. 

leg-i, to read ; ek — i, to be- 
gin to read ; — o, -^ado, 
reading; tra — i, to read 
through ; — anto, reader; 
— isto, public reader. 

legat-o, legacy. 

legend- 0, legend. 

legi-o, legion. 

legitim-i, to legitimize ; 
lawful ; — ado, le- 



gitimization. 
legom-o, vegetable ; — a 

_(7ar6?e7io, vegetable garden. 
legumino, legume ; — ajo, 

legumen. 
lego, law ; — o scienco, 

science of law ; — igi, to 

legislate, 
lek-i, to lick. 
lekant-o, marguerite; — cto, 

daisy. 
lekci-o, lecture, 
leksikon-o, lexicon, 
lektor-o, lecturer, 
lent-o, lentil. 
lentug-o, freckle. 
leon-o. lion. 
leontod (?, dandelion, 
leopard-o, leopard, 
lepor-o, hare. 
lepr 0, leprosy ; — ulo, a 

leper. 



82 



LERN-I 



LIBR-0 



lern -^, to learn ; — anto, 
pupil, apprentice ; — ejo, 
school; mem — ito, self- 
taught man; — o lihro, 
handbook, instruction 
manuel ; — i parkere, to 
learn by heart ; tra — i, 
to learn through ; el — ^, 
to study ; kun — anio, 
fellow-student. 

lert-a, clever, dexterous, 
etc. ; — eco, cleverness, 
smartness ; — ulo, clever 
man ; mal — a, awkward, 
not clever; — igi, to 
make clever; — igi, to 
become clever ; — ega, 
of consummate alnlity. 

lesiv-o, wholesale washing 
of clothes. 

letargi-o, lethargy. 

leter-o, letter, epistle ; 
— isfo, postman. 

leŭk-o, league (old itinerary 
measure). 

leŭtenant-o, lieutenant ; 
sub — 0, under-lieutenaut, 
sub-lieutenant. 

lev-/, to lift, to raise ; — ilo, 
lever ; horn — ilo, lift ; 
mrgo — ilo, hoist or lift 
for goods ; pi ad— ilo, lift 
for plates, dishes, etc. ; 
re — i, to raise again, to 
put upright what had 
fallen; —igi, to rise, to 
get up, also speaking of 



the sun, moon, and stars; 
re — igi, to get up from 
being down ; — igo, the 
getting up; mal — i, to 
lower ; 7nal — o, lowering; 
mal— igi, to bend down, 
to sink ; mal — igo, the 
act of sinking down, 
crouching. 

levid-o, levite. 

levkoj-ĉ^, gilliflower, wall- 
flower. 

■'^li, he, him ; lia, his ; lin, 
him (accus.). 

lian-o, bindweed. 

libel-o, dragon-fly. 

liber-a, free, exempt ; — eco, 
liberty, freedom ; mal 
— a, captive, not free, 
caught ; mal — eco, de- 
privation of freedom, 
captivity ; mal — ulo, a 
captive, a prisoner ; mal 
— ejo, a prison ; — igi, 
to free, to deliver, to 
exempt; — igi, to get 
free, to become ex- 
empted ; — a loko, a 
vacant place ; — igo, 
— igo, exemption. 

liberal-«, liberal ; — eco, 
liberality ; — ^do, liberal 
(polit.). 

liberalism-o, liberalism. 

libr-o, book ; — efo, pam- 
phlet, small hook; 
— otenado, book-keeping; 



83 



LICE-0 



UTOGRAF-I 



— otenisto^ book-keeper ; 
— ejo, bookseller's shop ; 
— isto, bookseller. 

lice-o, lyceum (French col- 
lege). 

licenciat-o, licenciate. 

lien-o, spleen. 

lig-i, to tie; — 0, alliance, 
league, tie ; — ano, lea- 
guer, member of a league 
or alliance ; — ilo, a tie, 
that which ties or binds ; 
— ajo, bundle ; al — i, to 
tie up, to attach ; al 
— igita, attached, tied up ; 
al — igiteco, attachment, 
etc. ; inter — i, to bind 
together; inter — o, con- 
nection, mutual alliance; 
Jcim — i, to tie together. 

lign-o, wood (the substance) 
timber ; — isto, timber- 
merchant ; dealer in 
wood; — ajisto, joiner; 
— aro, heap of wood, 
wood stack. 

lignr-o, greenfinch. 

liken-o, lichen ; also herpes, 
dandruft\ 

likvid-i, to liquidate ; — o, 
liquidation; — anto, 
liquidator. 

likvor-o, liqueur — isto, 
liqueur maker, or dealer. 

lili-o, lily. 

lim-o, limit, boundary ; 
— igi, to limit; sen — a. 



unlimited, boundless ; 
sam — a, adjacent; 

— tempo, term, time when 
due. 

limak-o, snail (not edible). 

limf-o, lymph ; — a, lym- 
phatic. 

limonad-o, lemonade ; — isto, 
one who makes and sells 
lemonade. 

lin-o, flax. 

linari-c, red linnet. 

linc-i, to lynch. 

lingv-o, language ; — ajo, 
speech (the faculty). 

lingvistik-o, linguistics. 

lini-o, line ; — ilo, a ruler 
(to trace lines). 

link-6>, lynx. 

li'p-o, lip ; — haroj, mous- 
tache. 

lir-o, lyre. 

liiik-o, a lyric (poetry) ^ 
— isto, a lyric poet ; — a, 
lyric (adj.). 

lit-o, bed (in a house) ; 
— ajo, bedding, bed-fur- 
niture; — kovrilo, counter- 
pane. 

litani-o, litany. 

litargiro, litharge. 

liter-o, letter (alphabet). 

literatur-o, literature ; — a, 
literary ; — isto, writer. 

liti-(9, lithium. 

litograf-i, to lithograph ; 
— a, lithographic ; — isto^ 



84 



LITOLOGI-0 



LONG-A 



lithographer; — ado, 
lithography ; — ejo, 
lithograph printing esta- 
blishment. 

litologi-o, lithology. 

litotrici-Oj lithotrity. 

litotripsi-o, lithotripsy. 

Litov-a (adj.), Lithuanian; 
— 0, a Lithuanian ; — ujo, 
Lithuania. 

litr-o, litre ; deci — o, deci- 
litre ;heJcfo — (3, hectolitre. 

liturgi-o, liturgy. 

liut-o, lute. 

liver-i, to deliver, to supply ; 
— anto, a provider, a 
tradesman, a supplier ; 
— 0, — ajo, delivery. 

livr-o, pound (sterling). 

livre-o, livery. 

lod-o, half-ounce. 

log-i, to allure ; de — i, to 
entice, to seduce by 
allurements ; /w — z, to 
entice away by allure- 
ments ; al — i, to attract, 
by allurement ; de — isto, 
seducer. 

logaritm-o, logarithm. 

logik-o, logic [noun) ; — a, 
logical. 

logogrif-o, logogriph, 
riddle. 

loĝi, to dwell, to inhabit, 
to lodge ; — ado, domi- 
cile ; — ejoj dwelling 
place ; — anto, inhabi- 



tant; hm — anto, fellow 
lodger; — igi, to place 
any one in an abode; 
— igi, to settle in a 
dwelling place. 

loĝi-o, box (at a theatre) ; 
lodge. 

lojal-a, loyal; —eco, loy- 
alty. 

lojt-o, lote (fish). 

lok-o, place, spot; — a, 
local; — i, to place; dis 
— i, to place in various 
places ; trans — i, to dis- 
place, to transfer; trans 
— igi, to move from one 
place to another, to 
transfer oneself; gnst — a, 
in its proper place, in 
the right place ; negust 
— a, displaced, not in the 
right place ; ali — e, else- 
where ; ia—e, anywhere. 

lokomobil-o, locomotive 
engine for agricultural 
uses. 

lokomotiv-o, locomotive 
engine on rails. 

lol-o, tares. 

long-a, long ; — o, length ; 
— eco, the quality of 
being long ; laŭ — e, 
lengthwise ; ■ — igi, to 
lengthen ; pli — igi, to 
make longer ; — igo, 
action of lengthening 
— igi, to grow long ; pli 



85 



LONICER-0 



LUTR-0 



— iĝi, to grow longer; 
— igo, act of growing 
long ; pli — igo, act of 
growing longer ; mal 
— igi, to shorten, to 
curtail; mal — igi, to be 
shortened, to get cur- 
tailed ; mal — igo, the act 
of shortening ; mal — igo, 
abbreviation undergone; 
mal — e, briefly ; antaŭ ne 
— e, not long ag i ; laŭ^e, 
in length. 

lonicer-o, honeysuckle. 

lorn-o, telescope, spy -glass; 
— efo, opera-glass. 

lot-i, to draw lots ; — umi, 
to allot. 

loteri-c>, lottery ; — a bileto, 
lottery ticket. 

lozanĝ-6), lozenge (blazon. 
and geoiii). 

lu-i, to hire; — anto, tenant; 
— igi, to let; — iganto, 
landlord, owner ; — ehla, 
to let, to be let. 

lucern-6>, lucern. 

lud-i, to play ; — o, game, 
action of amusing one- 
self ; action, play of an 
actor, of a musician, etc. ; 
— anto, player ; — ema, 
addicted to play, gam- 
bling. 

luks-o, luxury; — a, sump- 
tuous ; — i, to live sump- 
tuously. 



lul i, to lull to sleep ; -ilo, 
cradle. 

lum-i, to shine ; — o, light ; 
mal — 0, darkness ; — a, 
luminous ; mal — a, dark, 
tenebrous ; —eco, quality 
of being luminous ; sen 
— eco, obscurity ; ek—i, 
to begin to shine ; —eti^ 
to cast a feeble light; 
— igi al, to give light 
to ; — igilo, a luminary ; 
— ingo, candlestick, flam- 
beau, link ; — turo, light- 
house ; radi — a, radiant ; 
7nal — igi, to cause dark- 
ness ; mal — igi, to grow 
dark ; 7nal — igo, eclipse ; 
— ŭrmilo, screen. 

lumb-o, loins, lumbal re- 
gions ; — ajo, loin of 
beef, etc. 

lun-o, moon ; — a, lun- 
ar. 

lunatik-o, lunatic. 

lund-o, Monday. 

lup-o, wolf ; — ino, she- 
wolf. 

lupen-(?, lupin {hot.). 

lupol-ĉ>, hop (plant). 

lustr-o, lustre, chande- 
lier. 

lut-2, to solder ; al—i, to 
solder to ; kiin — i, to 
solder together. 

luteran^, lutheran. 

lutr-o, otter. 



86 



MAC O 



^MAL 



M 



mac-o, unleavened bread. 
inaĉ-(?, to masticate ; — ado, 

mastication, 
madon-o, madonna. 
Madrid-o, Madrid ; — ano, 

Madrileno. 
magazen-o, warehouse, 

shop. 
magio, magic ; — a, magic 

{adj.) ; — isto, magician. 
magistro, magister, M.A., 

etc. 
magistrate?, magistrate, 
magna to, magnate, 

grandee. 
magnet-o, magnet ; — i, to 

rub or touch witli a 

magnet. 
magnetisms, magnetism ; 

—a, magnetic. 
magnetiz-i, to magnetize ; 

— anto, magnetizer 

(occasional) ; — isto, a 

professional magnetizer; 

— ato, the person magne- 
tized, 
magnezi-o, magnesium, 
magnoli 0, magnolia. 
mahagon-o, mahogany. 
mahometan-o, mahometan 
maiz-o, maize. 
Maj-o, May. 
majest-a, majestic ; — o, 

majesty. 
majolik-o, majolica. 



major-o, major (milif.). 

majstr-o, master of his art, 
profession ; — eco, qual- 
ity of master; sub — o, 
foreman, usher. 

makadamo, macadam; — i, 
to macadamize. 

makaron-o, macaroon. 

makaroDi o, macaroni. 

makler -/, to do the business 
of a broker ; — a, of a 
broker ; — isto, broker ; 
— ajo, brokerage. 

makrocefal-(>, spermaceti 
whale. 

makrop-o, kangaroo. 

maksim-o, maxim. 

maksiraum 0, maximum. 

makul-o, spot, stain ; — i, 
to soil, to stain; sen — a, 
spotless, immaculate ; 
forigi — ojn, to take away 
the spots ; sen—igi, to 
render spotless. 

makulatur-o, printer's 

waste sheet. 

makzel-o, jaw ; — a, max- 
illary. 

*mal-, shows the opposites; 
bona, good ; — bona, bad, 
wicked, evil ; estimi, to 

' esteem ; — estimi, to de- 
spise ; — a, contrary ; 
— e, contraril}^, on the 
contrary ; — bonvole, re- 



87 



MALAJ-0 



MANOMETR-0 



luctantly; — facila, diffi- 
cult, abstruse ; — sup- 
reniri, to descend ; 
— rapidire, by goods 
train. 

Malaj-o, Malay. 

malakit-o, malachite. 

malari-o, malaria. 

maleol-o, ankle. 

■^malgraŭ, in spite of. 

malic-a, malicious ; — o, 
malice; — eco, state of 
the malicious. 

malt-o, malt. 

malv-o, mallow (hot.) ; — a, 
— kolm'a, mauve (adj.). 

malvarmum-i, to catch 
cold ; — 0, a cold. 

mam-o, breast ; — p}into, 
teat, nipple. 

mamut-o, mammoth. 

man-o, hand ; — a, manual, 
of the hand; — laboro, 
manual labour ; — farita, 
hand-made ; — radiko, 
wrist; — platOj palm of 
the hand; plen — o, hand- 
ful ; — premo, hand- 
shaking. 

mana-o, manna. 

mandaren-o, mandarin. 

mandat-o, money -order 
(post). 

mandolin-o, mandolin. 

mandragor-o, mandrake. 

manego-o, riding-school. 

mangan-o, manganese. 



mang-t, to eat ; — egi, to 
eat to excess ; — egema, 
gormandising ; — egemo, 
gluttony ; — egulo, gor- 
mandizer ; — 0, eating ; 
— ado, repast ; — ajo, 
food ; — ejo, refectory ; 
— ujo, manger:— oramiro, 
dining-room ; — eti, to 
take a slight repast; — eto, 
light repast; maten — i, 
to breakfast; maten — o, 
breakfast ; tag — o, mid- 
day meal ; vesper — i, to 
dine (at night) ; vesper 
— 0, late dinner ; nokto 
— i, to take supper; 
nokto — 0, supper; — rest- 
ajo, the table leavings; 
— ilaro, table utensils, 
dinner service, etc. 

mani-o, mania ; — ulo, 
maniac. 

manier-o, manner, way ; 
tia — Ĉ, in this way. 

manifest-o, manifesto. 

manik-o, sleeve. 

manipul-^, to manipulate; 
— ado, manipulation. 

mank-i, to be wanting; —o, 
want, absence of some- 
thing ; sĉTim^er — a, which 
has no flaw or miss, 
continuous ; seninter — e, 
without intermission, 
continuously. 

manometr-o, manometer. 



88 



MANOYR-0 



MASTODON-0 



manovf 0, manoeuvre (mili- 
tary or naval). 

mansard-o, garret, attic. 

mantel-o, mantle, cloak. 

mantil-o, mantilla. 

manufaktur-o, manufac- 
ture ; — isto, maker. 

manum-o, cuff, wristband. 

manuskript-^, manuscript. 

mar-o, sea ; — a, apud — a, of 
the sea ; — isto, seaman ; 
— istaro, the navy (the 
men) ; — Jcolo, strait ; 
— veturo, travelling by 
sea, sea-passage ; —taŭga, 
seaworthy ; — soldaio, a 
marine ; — Moneto, a 
pebble. 

marasm-o, marasmus (med.), 
atrophy. 

marcipan-o, marchpane. 

marc-Q, marsh, swamp; — a, 
marshy, swampy ; —ejo, 
swamp, bog. 

marcand-i, to bargain. 

mard-o, Tuesday. 

margaren-o, margarine. 

marĝen-o, margin. 

marin-i, to marinate, cure, 
souse and preserve ; 
— ajo, preserves in vine- 
gar, etc. 

marionet-o, marionette. 

mark-o, mark ; posta — o, 
postage stamp ; — i, to 
mark. 

markez-o, marquee. 



markiz-o, marquis. 

markot-o, layei* (branch 
attached to a plant laid 
in the ground until it 
takes root) ; — i, to mul- 
tiply by layers. 

marli-o, catgut. 

marmelad-o, marmelade. 

marmor-o, marble. 

marmot 0, marmot. 

maroken-o, morocco. 

maron-o, edible chestnut. 

Mars-o, Mars (the god). 

mars-i, to march, walk on 
foot; — 0, — ado, march 
(subst.) ; bord — ejo, quay; 
elc — i, to begin walking. 

marŝal-o, marshal. 

Mart-o, March (the month). 

martel-o, hammer ; —iimi, 
to hammer. 

martingal-6), martingale. 

martir-o, martyr ; — eco, 
martyrdom. 

mas-o, mass (large agglom- 
eration). 

masaĝ-o, massage ; — i, to 
massage ; — isto, masseur. 

masiv-a, massive; — o, solid 
mass, group. 

mask-o, mask ; sen — igi, to 
unmask. 

mason-^, to do mason's 
work ; — isto, mason. 

mast-6», mast. 

mastik-6>, mastic. 

mastodon-o, mastodon. 



89 



MASTR-0 



MELODRAM-0 



mastr 0, (master of a house); 
host, etc. ; — mo, mis- 
tress (of a house) ; host- 
ess, etc.; ge — oj, master 
and mistress — ajo, 
household ; — iimi, to 
manage the household ; 
— umado, household 

management. 

maŝ-o, mesh (of a net). 

masin-o, machine ; —isto, 
machinist. 

mat-o, mat, matting. 

matador-o, matador. 

matematik-a, mathemati- 
cal ; — isto, mathema- 
tician. 

maten-o, morning. 

materi-o, matter ; — a, ma- 
terial (adj.). 

material-o, material (noun). 

materialism-o, materialism. 

materialist -(?, materialist. 

matrac-(?, mattress. 

matric-6», matrix, mould, 
die. 

matrikul-o, matriculation. 

matronin-o, matron. 

matur-«, ripe ; — eco, ripe- 
ness ; — igi, to ripen 
(active) ; —iyi, to ripen 
(neuter). 

Maŭr-o, Moor;— tt, Moorish. 

maŭzole-c, mausoleum. 

mazurk-o, mazurka. 

mebl-o, piece of furniture ; 
— i, to furnish (house) ; 



sen — igi, to take away 
the furniture ; — isto, 
cabinet-maker ; — aro, 
complete set of furni- 
ture ; sen — igi, to un- 
furnish. 

meĉ-6», wick. 

medal-6» medal. 

medalion-c», medallion. 

medicin-o, medicine (the 
science) ; — isto, physi- 
cian. 

medikament-o, a medi- 
cine. 

medit-i, to meditate. 

medium-6>, medium (spirit- 
ualism). 

meduz 0, jellyfish, medusa. 

mehanik-o, mechanics ; 
— isto, mechanician. 

mehanism-o, mechanism. 

mejl-o, mile. 

Meksik-o, Mexico ; — ano, 
a Mexican. 

mel-o, badger. 

melankoli-f, melancholia ; 
— a (adj.), melancholy. 

melSiS-o, molasses. 

meleagr-o, turkey (genus) ; 
— ino, turkey-hen. 

melis-o, garden-mint, balm- 
mint. 

melk-f, to milk. 

melodi-o, melody ; —a, 
melodious. 

melodram 0, melodrama ; 
— a, melodramatic. 



90 



MELON-0 



MES-0 



melon 0, melon ; akvo — o, 
water-melon. 

melope-f, melopa3ia ; the 
art of melodizing. 

meloplast-(?, meloplasty 
(chir.) ; also musical 
table. 

*mem, self, selves ; fi venu 
— , come yourself ; si 
parolos — , she herself 
will speak ; respondu 
li — , let him answer 
himself ; de sia alveno — , 
from his very arrival ; 
ce V'pordo — , at the very 
door ; — stara, indepen- 
dent; — stareco indepen- 
dence. 

membr-o, member, limb 
(also figuratively) ; di/c 
— a, strong - limbed ; 
— aro, the whole of the 
limbs. 

membran-o, membrane ; 
— efo, skim of milk. 

memor-i, to remember ; 
— 0, remembrance; —(^/o, 
token ; — a, of memory ; 
— ebla, that may be 
remembered ; — iiula, 
worthy of being remem- 
bered : re — o, a thing 
remembered ; re — igi, 
to recall to some one a 
thing forgotten; re — icji, 
to remember somethinc; 
that had been forgotten ; 



re — igo^ act of recalling 
to some one a thing for- 
gotten ; re — iĝo, act of 
remembering something 
forgotten. 

mend-i, to give an order 
(to a manufacturer, etc.) ; 
— 0, an order ; — anfo, 
he who gives the order ; 
— ilo, an order form. 

mensog-i, to tell untruths, 
to lie ; — 0, untruth ; 
— a, lying ; — ema, ad- 
dicted to lying ; — emo, 
habit of telling untruths ; 
— anfo, a liar ; — into, 
one who has lied ; — ulo, 
an habitual liar. 

menstruaci-o, menstruation, 

ment 0, mint. 

menton-6», chin. 

mentor-o, mentor. 

menu-o, menu. 

menuet 0, a minuet (dance). 

meridian-o, meridian. 

merinos-o, merino ; — lano, 
merino wool ; — a ŝfofo, 
merino stuff (cloth). 

merit-2, to deserve ; — o, 
merit. 

meriz-o, wild cherry, maz- 
ard, small black cherry. 

merkred-ĉ?, Wednesday. 

merl-o, blackbird. 

merlang-(9, whiting (fish). 

mes-o, Mass (church office); 
fari meson, to say mass. 



91 



MEST 



MIASM-0 



M.esi-0, Messiah. 

mespil-o, medlar. 

mestizo, half - breed, 
(Spanish or American 
Indian). 

met-^, to put, to place ; 
sur — i, to put on ; sur 
— u vian capelon, put 
on your hat ; eji — i, to 
insert, to put in ; el — i, 
to exhibit, to put in 
sight; al — i, to apply 
to, to put to ; al — i la 
manon al sia brusto, to 
put one's hand on one's 
breast ; al — o, the ap- 
plying ; de — i, to take 
off ; de — u vian mantelon, 
take off your cloak or 
mantle ; dis — i, to dis- 
perse, to disarrange ; 
kun — i, to assemble, 
to compose ; kun — eco, 
composition, arrange- 
ment of certain things ; 
kun — ifa, compound; 
tra—i, to thread ; to 
push through ; re — i, to 
put back ; intei' — o, in- 
tervention. 

metafizik-o, metaphysics. 

metafor-o, metaphor. 

metal-o, metal; — a, metal- 
lic ; — fosisto, miner. 

metalurgi-o, metallurgy. 

metamorfoz-o, metamor- 
phosis. 



mete or- 0, meteor. 

meteorologi-o, meteorol- 
ogy. 

meti-o, handicraft ; — ejo, 
workshop ; ne — isto, an 
amateur. 

metod-o, method. 

metr-o, metre : deci — o, 
decimetre ; centi — o, 
centimetre ; hekfo — o, 
hectometre ; Jcilo — o, 
kilometre ; — a, metric. 

metrik-o, metrification, 
metrics; — a, metric. 

metropol-o, metropolis. 

mev-o, sea-gull, sea-mew. 

mez-o, midst, middle ; — a, 
middle ; — e, middling, 
moderately; fag — o, mid- 
day; nokfo— 0, midnight; 
— aj centjaroj, mediaeval 
ages ; — onombro, aver- 
age number ; — e de, in 
the midst of ; — epoko, 
mediaeval times. 

mezalianc-o, mesalliance. 

mezur-i, to measure ; — o, 
measure ; — ilo, some- 
thing to measure with ; 
al — i, to adjust; sam — a, 
of the same size, dimen- 
sion, height, etc. ; sam 
— igi, to make of same 
size. 

■^mi, I, me; min, me (ace); 
mia, my, mine. 

miasm-o, miasma. 



92 



MIAU-I 



MINlSTR-0 



miaŭ-i, to mew (cats). 

miel- 0, honey; — kuko, 
gingerbread. 

mien-o, air, appearance (of 
the face), mien. 

migdal-o, almond ; — iijo, 
almond-tree. 

migr-i, to travel far and 
wide ; en — anto, immi- 
grant ; el — anto, emi- 
grant; — axtejo, refuge 
for travellers. 

mikrob-o, microbe. 

mikrometr-o, micrometer. 

mikroskop-o, microscope ; 
— a, microscopical. 

miks-i, to mix ; — o, — ado, 
the act of mixing; — ajo, 
the things mixed ; al — i, 
to mix with; kun — i, 
to mix together; en — i, 
to mix in ; en — iĝi, to 
mix itself (oneself) with, 
to meddle with; inter — i, 
to muddle things ; en 
— igipri, to tamper with. 

*mil, thousand ; — o, thou- 
sand as a measure 
(noun) ; — jaw, mil- 
lenium, millenary. 

milemetr-o, millimetre. 

mili-o, millet. 

miliard-6», milliard. 

milici-o, militia. 

*milioii-o, million. 

milit-i, to fight ; — o, war ; 
— a, of war, military ; 



— iro, a campaign ; 
— isto, military man, 
professional soldier; 
— anto, he who is fight- 
ing ; — istaro, army ; 
— estro. army chief ; 
— kapito, prisoner of 
war; al — i, to conquer 
by arms. 

milv-o, kite (bird). 

mimik-o, mimicry ; — isto, 
a mimic. 

mimoz-o, mimosa. 

min-o, mine (coal, silver, 
gold, etc.); — a, belong- 
ing to a mine ; — ejo, 
the excavation made to 
draw from the earth, etc. 

minaret-o, minaret. 

mineral-o, mineral {noun): 
— a, mineral (adj.). 

mineralogi-o, mineralogy j 
— a, mineralogic ; — isto, 
mineralogist. 

minac-i, to threaten; — o, 
threat; —a, threatening. 

mini-o, minium (red lead), 
vermilion. 

miniatur 0, miniature. 

minimum-o, minimum. 

ministr-o, minister; — ajo, 
office, function ; — ejo, 
office of the minister 
(locale) ; — aro, the body 
of the ministers, the 
ministry, the govern- 
ment. 



93 



mNus-0 



MOK'l 



minus-6>, deficit (minus). 

miniit-6', minute (time). 

miogal 0, musk-rat. 

miop-a, short-sighted; 
— ulo, short-sighted 
man ; — eco, short- 
sightedness. 

miozot-o, myosotis. 

mii-i, to be astonished, to 
wonder ; — o, astonish- 
ment ; — iga, astonish- 
ing ; — igi, to astonish ; 
— inda, wonderful ; — in- 
dajo, wonder ; — indajisto, 
M'onder-maker ; — egi, 
to wonder at ; — ego, 
great astonishment ; 
— egigi, to strike with 
wonder ; — egiga, as- 
tounding ; — egindajo, 
prodigy" _ 

mirabel-o, mirabelle (plum). 

mirakl-o, miracle ; — a, 
miraculous. 

mirh-o, myrrh. 

miriad-o, myriad. 

miriametr-o, myriametre. 

mirmekofag-o, great ant- 
eater. 

mirmeleon (9, ant-lion (in- 
sect). 

mirt-o, myrtle. 

mirtel-o, bilberry, whortle- 
berry- 

misal-r), missal. 

misi 0, mission ; — i.'if(f, 
missionary. 



mister-o, mystery. 

mistifik-?', to mystify ; — o, 
mystification. 

mistik-ĉ?, a mystic; — a, 
mystic {adj.). 

misticismo, mysticism. 

mit-o, myth. 

mitologi-o, mythology. 

mitr-o, mitre. 

mitul-o, mussel. 

mizex-o, misery; — a , 
wretched; — ulo, \vretch, 
jJOverty stricken man. 

mobiliz-^, to mobilise ; — o, 
mobilisation. 

mod-6», mode (fashion), 
mood (gram.). 

model-o, model ; — i, to 
model ; — ilo, mould ; 
— isto, modeller. 

moder-a, moderate, tem- 
perate ; — eco, modera- 
tion ; — igi, to moderate, 
to temper ; — if/i, to 
get moderate, to restrain 
oneself ; mal—a, exces- 
sive, immoderate. 

modern-a, modern. 

modest-a, modest ; — fxo, 
modesty; mal — a, boast- 
ful ; mal — eco, boastful- 
ness. arrogance. 

modul-?', to modulate. 

modulaci-o, modulation. 

mok-i, to mock ; — o, 
— ado, mockery ; — ajo, 
act of mockery in words 



94 



MOL-A 



MORD-I 



or deed ; — ohirdo, mock- 
ing-bird. 

mol-a, soft ; — igi, to 
soften ; — igi, to get 
soft ; — igo, the state 
of getting soft ; — eco, 
indolence, softness; 
— ega, flabby, flimsy ; 
mal—a, hard ; mal — igi, 
to harden, to make hard; 
mal — igi, to grow hard, 
to coagulate ; mal — igo, 
coagulation; — anaso, 
eidei'down ; — ajo the 
soft part. 

molekul-o, molecule. 

molibden-ĉ?, molybdenum. 

molusk-o, mollusc. 

moment 0, moment. 

mono, money; — a, pe- 
cuniary ; — ofero, pecuni- 
ary sacrifices ; — oferaclo, 
subscription in money; 
— ujo, purse ; — era, coin ; 
— lielpo, subvention, sup- 
port. 

monaĥ-o, monk; — ejo, 
monastery ; — eco, mon- 
achism. 

monarĥ-o, or monark-o, 
monarch ; — ajo, mon- 
archy (the state); — isto, 
monarchist. 

monat-o, month ; ciu — a., 
monthly; — ajo, menses. 

mond-o, world ; — a, of the 
world, also mundane. 



-iloj, hands 



moned-o, jackdaw. 

monitor-o, monitor. 

monogram-o, monogram. 

monokl-o, monocle (eye- 
glass). 

monolog-o, soliloquy, 
monologue. 

monopol-o, monopoly. 

monstr-o, monster ; — a, 
unnatural. 

mont-o, mountain ; — eto, 
hill ; — aro, chain of 
mountains; — ano, 
mountaineer ; inter — o, 
defile, ravine. 

montr-z, to show; — o, in- 
dication ; el — i, to show 
signs of ; - 
of clock, etc 

monument-o, 
ment. 

mops-o, pug dog, 
mastiff. 

mor-o;', manners, 
hon — oj, good 
morality, decency. 

moral-a, moral {adj.)] — eco, 
morality: — aĵo, a moral, 
a morality; ne — a, im- 
moral. 

morbil-<9, measles. 

morcel-o, morĥel-o, moral, 
moril (mushroom), 
edible fungus. 

mord-z, to bite; — o, a bite; 
— a, biting; — ema, 
inclined to bite; — eti, 



monu- 



young 



morals ; 
morals. 



95 



MORFIN-0 



MUĜ-I 



to gnaw; — eto, a small 
bite, a gnawing. 

morfin-(9, morphine. 

^morgaŭ, to-morroAv; post 
— , the day after to- 
morrow. 

mort-z, to die; — anto, a 
dying man ; — into, the 
deceased ; — o, death, 
decease; — a, mortal, of 
death ; — ema, liable to 
die ; — ado, mortality 
in a given time ; — eco, 
liability to death ; sen — 
a, ne — ema, immortal ; 
sen — eco, immortality ; 
— igi, to die out; — igi, 
to kill, to cause death ; 
— iga, deadly ; — igo, 
murder; — iganto, mur- 
derer ; mem — igo, sui- 
cide; mem — igi, to com- 
mit suicide; mem — iginto, 
a suicide (person); 
— intajo, carrion. 

morter-6>, mortar (building). 

moru-o, cod-fish. 

morus-o, mulberry ; — ujo, 
mulberry-tree. 

mosk-o, musk. 

moske-o, mosque. 

moskit-o, mosquito. 

most 0, unfermented wine, 
must. 

most (), general title of 
politeness ; Vht rega 
Mosto, Your Majesty ; 



Via generala Mosto, 
General ; Via episkopa 
Mosto, My Lord Bishop; 
Via Mosto, Your Hon- 
our, Your AVorship, etc. 
etc. 

mot-o, motto, device. 

motacel-o, wagtail (bird). 

motiv-o, motive, ground 
for doing. 

motor 0, motor. 

mov-i, to move, to put in 
motion; — o, movement, 
motion; — ado, the 
power of motion; — ehla, 
mobile ; sen — a, motion- 
less ; sen — eco, immo- 
bility ; sen — igi, to render 
motionless; — ema, in- 
clined to move, restless, 
active ; for — i, to move 
. . . away, to turn away 
(act.); — ilo, motor. 
— forto, motive force; 
propra — ^, spontaneously. 

mozaik-o, mosaic, mosaic 
work. 

mucid-a, mucid, mouldy, 
musty ; — eco, mucidity, 
age. 

muel-z, to grind (corn) ; 
— ilo, mill (the machine); 
— ejo, mill (the build- 
ing) ; — isto, miller. 

muf-o, muflf. 

muĝ-i. to roar (wind, waves, 
etc.). 



96 



MUĈ-O 



NAĜ-I 



muk-0, glair, mucus. 

mul-o, mule; — ino, (/.); 
— isio, muleteer. 

mult-o, -a, -ĉ, much, many, 
numerous ; — o da, or 
— e da pano, much 
bread ; — aj infanoj, 
many children ; — o, a 
large number ; — ego, 
infinite number ; — igi, 
to multiply ; — igado, 
multiplication ; — igi, to 
be multiplied ; — iganto, 
multiplier ; — igato, mul- 
tiplicand ; j^/i — igi, to 
become more multiplied ; 
la pli — 0, the most part, 
the majority ; la malpli 
— 0, the minority ; mal 
— igi, to lessen the quan- 
tity, to make it little. 

mumi-o, mummy. 

munici-o, munition. 

mur-o, wall; — ego, thick 
wall. 

murmur-z, to murmur, to 



grumble ; — o, murmur ; 
— eti, to murmur softly. 

mus-o, mouse. 

musk-o, moss. 

muskat-o, nutmeg. 

musked-y, musket. 

muskol-o, muscle. 

muslin-o, muslin ; 7« ?/Z — 0, 
mull muslin. 

mustard-o, mustard ; — ujo, 
mustard-pot, or cruet. 

mustel-o, martin, sable. 

muŝ-o, a fly (insect). 

roMt-a, mute, dumb; — ulo, 
dumb man ; — igi, to 
become dumb ; — igi, 
to make dumb ; — eco, 
dumbness ; surda — ulo, 
deaf and dumb man. 

muz-o, muse. 

muze-o, museum. 

muzik-o, music ; — i, to 
have music ; — anto, 
musician (occasional) ; 
— isto, professional musi- 
cian. 



N 



-n, marks the direct object 
or accusative, also the 
direction or movement 
towards a place : li 
amas sian landon, he 
loves his country ; ni 
iras Bristolon, we go to 
Bristol. (8) 

o 97 



naci-o, nation ; — a, nation- 
al ; — eco, nationality ; 
infer — a, international ; 
inter — eco, internation- 
ality. 

nadir-o, nadir (astron.). 

naft-o, naphtha. 

naĝ-^, to swim ; — ado, 



NAIV-A 



NEKROLOGI-0 



swimming ; — ada, nata- 
tory ; for — i, to flee by 
swimming. 

naiv-a, artless, ingenuous ; 
— eco, artlessness ; — ajo^ 
ingenuous act ; ■ — ega, 
silly. 

najbar-o, neighbour; — a, 
neighbouring, near {adj. ) ; 
— eco, vicinity (the situ- 
ation) ; — ajo, the en- 
virons, the neighbour- 
hood (the places). 

najl-o, nail (metal). 

najtingal-o, nightingale. 

nanken-6», nankeen. 

nap-o, turnip. 

narcis-o, daffodil, narcissus. 

narkot-a, narcotic. 

nask-i, to give birth to, to 
bring forth ; — o, birth ; 
— igi, to be born ; — ifjo, 
given birth (the coming 
to life) ; Krist — o, Christ- 
mas ; du — ito, twin. 

natur-o, nature ; — a, natur- 
al ; super — a, superna- 
tural; — scienco, natural 
history; — is^o, naturalist. 

*naŭ, nine ; — a, ninth 
(adj.) ; — ono, the ninth 
part. 

naŭz-e, to sicken, to naus- 
seate; — o, nausea; tio 
ci — as al mi, this makes 
me sick ; mi sentas — on, 
I feel sick. 



naz-o, nose; — a, nasal; 
— umo, pince-nez, eye- 
glass, purigi la — on, to 
blow one's nose ; — tuJco, 
handkerchief ; — eto, 
spout (of a vase). 

*ne, no, not ; — i, to deny; 
— igehla, that may be 
denied ; ne . . . plu, no 
further, no longer. 

nebul-o, fog, mist; — a, 
foggy, misty _; —eco, 
fogginess, mistiness; — i, 
to be foggy ; — as, it is 
foggy, misty ; —ego, 
haze, white fog; — ega, 
hazy. 

neces-a, necessary ; — o, 
necessity, want : — eco, 
quality, character of 
what is necessary — ujo, 
dressing case, work box: 
— ejo, water-closet; — ega, 
indispensable. 

neĝ-o, snow ; — i, to snow ; 
— as, it snows. 

negliĝ-o, deshabille, undress, 
negligee. 

negoc-o, business, transac- 
tion ; fari — on hin iu, 
to do business with any 
one. 

negr-o, negro. 

*nek, neither, nor ; — ... 
— , neither . . . nor. 

nekrologi-o, necrology ; 
— a, necrologic. 



98 



NEKTAR-0 



NOBEL-0 



nektar-0, nectar. 

■^neni-o, nothing ; — igi, to 
destroy completely, to 
reduce to nothing ; — iĝi, 
to vanish ; — igo, the 
reducing to nothing ; 
— igo, vanishing. 

■'^nenia, none, not any. 

^nenial, for no reason. 

■*^neniam, never. 

■^nenie, nowhere. 

*neiiiel, by no means, not 
at all, in no way. 

■^nenies, nobody's no 
one's. 

■^neniom, nothing at all. 

*neniu, nobody, no one. 

neologism-ĉ), neologism. 

aep-o, grandson ; ge — qj, 
the grandchildren of a 
grandfather; — ino, 
grandaughter ; ^;?'a — o, 
great-grandson. 

nepotism-o, nepotism. 

nepr-^, unfailingly ; — eco, 
infallibility. 

nerv-o, nerve ; — a, nervous ; 
— aro, the nervous 
system ; — doloro, neu- 
ralgia. 

nest-o, nest, den, lair, bur- 
row ; konstru — i — on, to 
build one's nest; — o de 
urso, bear's den or lair, 

net-o, clean copy ; 77ial — o, 
rough copy, scribble. 

neŭralgi-c, neuralgia. 



neŭtr-fl, neuter (adj.) ; — a 
verho, neuter verb ; — a 
seJcso, neuter gender. 

neutral-a, neutral (adj.) ; 
— ulo, neutral (noun). 

nev-o, nephew ; — (710, 
niece ; ge — oj, nephew 
and niece ; pra — 0, grand- 
nephew. 

^ni, we, us ; nia, our, ours ; 
nin, us (ace). 

nic-o, niche. 

nigr-a, black; — 0, black 
(the colour) ; — eco, 
blackness ; — igi, to 
blacken ; — igi, to be- 
come black ; — ablua, 
blue-black. 

nikel-o, nickel. 

nikotin-o, nicotine. 

niks-o, nixie, nix, water 
sprite. 

nimb-o, nimbus, halo. 

nimf-o, nymph. 

niobi-o, niobium. 

nivel-o, level ; — ilo, level 
(instrument). 

niz-o, sparrow-hawk. 

-nj-, after the (1-5) first 
letters of a feminine 
noun used as an en- 
dearing diminutive : 
Mario, Mary ; Manjo, 
Polly, little Mary ; jpatr- 
ino, mother ; panjo, little 
mother, darling mother. 

nobel-c, nobleman ; mal — 0, 



99 



NOBL-A 



NUANC-0 



commoner ; — eco^ no- 
bility (quality of noble- 
man) ; — aro, the whole 
nobility; — igi, to raise 
to the peerage ; — ulo, a 
noble. 

nobl-ft, noble ; — eco, no- 
bility, nobleness (of what 
is above common things); 
— igi, to ennoble. 

nokt-o, night; — a, noc- 
turnal, of night ; — e, at 
night, during the night ; 
—igo, the approach of 
night, twilight ; —igas, 
night is coming; — omezo, 
midnight. 

noktu-o, moth, night moth. 

nom-o, name ; — i, to name ; 
— e, namely ; — festo, 
patron saint's day ; sam- 
— ulo, homonym ; sam- 
— a, homonymous; a-/ — o, 
nickname ; al — i, to nick- 
name ; si estas — ata, she 
is called. 

nomad-a, nomad (adj.) ; 
— 0, nomad (noun) ; — ulo, 
a gipsy. 

nombr-o, number (quan- 
tity) ; — a, of number ; 
unu — 0, singular (noun) ; 
muUe — 0, plural (noun) ; 
granda — e, in large 
quantities. 

nominal-o, nominal. 

nominalism-o, nominalism. 



nominativ-o, nominative. 

nord-o, north ; — a, north- 
ern ; — e, towards the 
north, in the north. 

norm-o, rule, type, stand- 
ard ; — a, normal ; kon- 
traŭ — 0, abnormal. 

normal-fl^, regular. 

Norveg-o^, Norwegian (adj.); 
— ujo, — lando, Norway; 
— ano, a Norwegian. 

nostalgi-0, homesickness. 

not-i, to note, to quote; 
— 0, a note. 

notari-o, notary. 

nov-a, new (novel, fresh) ; 
— eco, novelty, newness ; 
— ajo, a new thing ; 
— igi, to renew ; re — igi, 
to become renewed ; 
re — igo, renovation ; re 
— igo, renovation under- 
gone ; re — iga, renovat- 
ing; re — iganto, renova- 
tor ; re — igebla, that may 
be renewed ; mal — a, 
ancient ; mal — eco, an- 
cientness; mal — ajo, old 
things ; — latina, neo- 
latin ; — ulo, a novice. 

novel-o, novel ; — isto, 
novelist. 

Novembr-o, November. 

novic-o, novice ; — eco^ 
noviciate. 

*nu ! Well ! 

nuanc-o, shade, hue, tint; 



100 



NUB-0 



Oir^sTtr^-A 



— iy to shade, to tint; 

— igiy to get shaded, 

tinted, etc. 
nub-o, cloud, skies ; — a, 

cloudy, of the clouds ; 

fari — an vizagon, to 

assume a gloomy face ; 

— ego, large white cloud, 
nud-a, nude, naked, 
nuk-o, nape of the neck. 
nuks-P, nut (of any kind). 
nul-o, zero, naught; — igi, 

to cancel, to annul ; 

— igo, cancelling, 
numer-o, number (No.). 
numeral-o, a numeral. 



numismatik-o, numisma- 
tics. 
*nun, now ; — a, present ; 

— a (monato), instant ; 

— eco, the present state ; 

— ajo, something at 

present occurring ; — e, 

at present, 
nunci-o, nuncio. 
*nur, only, but (meaning 

only). 
nutr-z, to feed, to nourish ; 

— ado, act of feeding ; 

— ajo, the food provided; 

mam — i, to suckle. 



-0-, shows the noun or 
substantive : homo, man 
(in general) ; akvo, 
water; libro, book. 

oaz-o, oasis. 

obe-i, to obey ; — o ; obed- 
ience ; — a, obedient, of 
obedience ; maZ — i, to 
disobey ; mal — o, dis- 
obedience. 

obelisk-o, obelisk. 

6biekt-o, object, thing, 
matter (in question). 

objektiv-o, objective 
(gram.). 

-obi-, shows multiple 
numerals : du, two ; du 



— a, double; du — igi, to 
double. 

oblat-o, wafer. 

obligaci-o, bond (finance), 

oblikv-a, oblique, slanting. 

ohol-o, obolus, obole. 

observ-f, to observe ; — o ; 
— ado, observation, 

watching ; — ema, in- 
clined to watch, observe ; 
— emo, habit of obser- 
vation ; — anto, one 
who watches, observes ; 
— isto, an observer, a 
Wiitcher (professional). 

observatori-ĉ>, observatory. 

dbstin-a, obstinate ; — i, to 



101 



•OBSTRL'KCO 



OKUL-0 



be obstinate, — o, action 
of the obstinate ; —eco, 
obstinacy. 

obstrukc-o, obstruction ; 
— i, to obstruct. 

ocean-o, ocean. 

Oceani-o, Oceania. 

0Ĝ.-0, ode. 

odor-z, to smell (of some- 
thing) ; — 0, odour ; hon 
— 0, perfume ; hon — i, to 
exhale a pleasant per- 
fume ; malhon — o, bad 
smell ; malhon — i, to have 
a bad smell. 

ofend-z, to offend ; — o, 
offence ; — a, offensive ; 
— anto, offender; — into, 
one who has offended. 

ofer-i, to sacrifice ; — o, 
sacrifice ; — enia, ad- 
dicted to sacrifice ; 
— emo, inclination to 
sacrifice ; mon — o, money 
gift; mon — ado, subscrip- 
tion ; pli — i, to outbid. 

ofic-ĉ?, functions, employ- 
ment ; — isto, employe, 
officer ; — ejo, office, 
(place, building), bureau. 

oficial-a, official; — igi, to 
make official. 

oficir-c?, officer (land or sea 
forces). 

oft-ĉ, often ; — a, frequent ; 
mxd — a, rare ; mol — eco, 
rarity ; — igi, to render 



frequent ; — iĝ% to be- 
come frequent; Tnal — igi, 
to make rare; mal — igi, 
to become rare ; pli — igi, 
to make more frequent ; 
jili — igi, to become more 
frequent ; mal — aĵo, a 
rare thing ; plej — e, 
generally. 

ogiv-o, ogee, ogive. 

ojstr-o, gadfly. 

"^^ok, eight ; — a, eighth ; 
— ono, the eighth part 
(noun). 

okaz-z, to occur^ to take 
place ; — o, occurrence, 
occasion, case ; — a, acci- 
dental ; — Ĉ, accidentally; 
se — e fariĝus ke . . ., ii 
perchance it happened 
that . . . 

okcident-o, west ; — a, 
western. 

okr-o, ochre. 

okshoft-o, hogshead. 

oksid-c», oxide ; — i, to 
oxidize. 

oksigen-o, oxygen. 

oksikok-o, cranberry. 

oktant-o, octant. 

oktav-o, octave (music). 

Oktobr-o, October. 

okul-o, eye; — a, of the 
eye, ocular; —6, ocularly, 
— isto, oculist ; — haraj; 
eye-lashes ; — vUrojj 

spectacles. 



102 



OKUP-I 



OPTATIV-0 



okup-z, to occupy ; ek — i, 
to take possession ; — o, 
— ado, occupation (of 
time) ; ek — o, occupation 
(taking possession) ; 
— ata, busy (present) ; 
— ita, that has been 
occupied ; sen — a, idle ; 
sen — 0, idleness; ne — ata, 
vacant. 

okzal-o, sorrel. 

*ol, than (in comparison). 

ole-o, oil ; — a, of oil ; 
— eca, oily ; —fahriko, 
oil-manufactory ; — isto, 
oil-maker ; — ujo, oil- 
cruet, oil-bottle ; — ^, 
to oil ; sankt — o, sacred 
oil; sankt — i, to anoint 
with sacred oil. 

oleandr-o, oleander. 

oligarĥi-o, oligarchy. 

Olimpo, Olympus. 

oliv-c;, olive ; — ujo, olive 
tree; — forTna, olive 
shaped. 

omar-o, lobster. 

ombr-o, shade, shadow. 

ombrel-o, umbrella ; sun — o, 
parasol, sunshade. 

omnibus-o, omnibus. 

-on-, shows fractional num- 
bers: kvar, four; kvar — o, 
a quarter, a fourth part. 

ond-o, wave; — ego, billow 
(sea) ; — olinia, M'-avy. 

onglet-o, bookbinder's 



guard ; — libro, guard- 
book. 

■^oni, one, they, people 
(indefinite pronoun). 

oniks-o, onyx. 

onkl-o, uncle ; — ino, aunt ; 
ge — oj, uncle and aunt 
(together). 

onobrik-o, sainfoin. 

-ont-, shows participle fu- 
ture active ; fari, to do, 
to make ; far — a, having 
to do, to make. 

ontologi-o, ontology. 

-op-, shows numeral collec- 
tives : du, two ; du — a, 
by two ; kvar — e, by 
fours, four together ; 
— a, collective (adj.). 

opal-a, opal. 

oper-o, opera. 

operaci-o, operation ; — i, 
to operate, to perform 
an operation. 

opi-o, opium. 

opini-^, to opine ; — o, 
opinion. 

oportun-a, handy, easy of 
use ; — 0, commodity ; 
— eco, state of being 
handy, easy of use ; pro 
— 0, for the handv use 
of. 

opozici-o, opposition ; — ^', 
to oppose ; sen — a, un- 
opposed. 

optativ 0, optative (gram.). 



103 



OPTIK-0 



OKTODOKS-A 



optik-o, optics ; — a, optic ; 
— isto, optician. 

optimism-o, optimism. 

optimist-o, optimist. 

oi-o, gold (metal) ; — a, 
golden, of gold ; — ajo, 
object made of gold ; 
— ajisto, goldsmith; — i, 
to gild ; — stofo, cloth of 
gold, brocade. 

orakol-o, oracle. 

orangutang-o, orang-ou- 
tang. 

oranĝ-o, orange ; — ujo ; 
— arbo, orange-tree. 

oranĝeri-o, hot-house. 

orator-o, orator. 

oratori-o, oratory, oratori- 
um, oratorio. 

ord-o, order; — a, orderly, 
in order; — igi, to put 
in order; — igo, putting 
in order; bon — a, in 
proper order ; mal — a, 
disarranged, in disorder; 
mal — igi, to disarrange ; 
mal — igo, the disarrang- 
ing; sen — eco, state of 
disorder ; — ema, of 
orderly habits ; mal 
— ■emcc, of disorderly 
habits, without order. 

orden-ĉ^, order of knight- 
hood. 

ordinar-a, ordinary ; ne — a; 
ekster — a, extraordin- 
ary. 



ordon-t, to order, to bid, to 
prescribe ; — o, order, 
bidding, prescription. 

orel-o, ear ; — ringo, ear- 
ring 

oif-o, orphan; — ino, or- 
phan girl; — a, orphaned ; 
— eco, orphanhood ; — ejOy 
orphanage. 

organ-o, organ. 

organism-o, organism. 

organiz-i, to organize ; — o, 
— ado, organization ; 
re — i, to reorganize. 

orgasm-o, immoderate ex- 
citement imed.). 

orgen-o, organ {mus.). 

oigi-o, orgy, revel, carouse. 

orient-o. East ; — a, eastern. 

origin-o, origin ; — a, orig- 
inal. 

originai-o, original (nomi) ; 
— a, original. 

oriol-o, oriole, loriot (bird). 

orkestr-(9, orchestra. 

orkide-o, orchid. 

ornam-i, to adorn, to de- 
corate ; — igi, to adorn 
oneself ; — o, ornamenta- 
tion ; — ajo, adornment 
(what adorns) ; — isto, 
decorator. 

omat-o, clerical robes, 
vestments. 

ornitologi-o, ornithology. 

orografi-o, orography. 

ortodoks-a, orthodox. 



104 



ORTOGRAFI-0 



PAF-1 



ortografi-0, orthography. 

ortopedi-o, orthopedics. 

-OS, mark of the future ; 
ami, to love ; mi arnos, 
I shall love. 

osced-^, to gape, to yawn ; 
—0, gaping, yawning. 

osifrag-o, osprey, fish- 
hawk. 

osmi-(9, osmium. 

ost-o, bone; — iĝi, to get 
ossified ; — igo, ossifica- 
tion. 

ostr-o, oyster ; — ujo, oyster 
bed. 



ostracism-o, ostracism, 
-ot-, shows participle future 

passive ; y?<(/i, to judge; 

jug — a, that will be 

judged, that is to be 

judged. 
ov-o, egg; — ajo, omelet; 

— blanko, white of egg; 

—flavo, yoke of egg; 

— foi'ma, egg shaped ; 

— ujo, ovary. 
ovaci-o, ovation. 
oval-o, oval {noun) ; 

oval, {adj.). 
ozon-o, ozone. 



pac-o, peace ; — a, of peace ; 
— ema, of peaceable dis- 
position, inclined to 
peace ; — ido ; — emulo ; 
peaceful man, man of 
peace ; — e, in peace, 
peacefully ; — igi, to 
pacify, to reconcile ; 
— iĝi, to make peace, to 
be reconciled ; mal — o, 
discord, quarrel; mal — i, 
to disagree, to quarrel ; 
mal — igi, to embroil, to 
cause discord ; mal 
— ema, of a quarrelsome 
disposition ; mal — ulo ; 
mal — emulo, quarrelsome 



man ; inter — o, truce, 

armistice, 
pacienc-o, patience ; — a, 

patient, of patience ; 

— ulo, patient man ; 

havi — on, to have 

patience ; — e ! patience ! 

be quiet ! 
pacj-o, papa, 
paĉul-o, patchouli, 
paf-?", to shoot; — isto, 

marksman ; — ilo, gun ; 

— ilego, cannon ; — arko, 

bow (weapon) ; — arkisto, 

bowman, archer; — o, a 

shot ; — ado, musektry 

discharge. 



105 



PAG-I 



PAP-0 



pag-e, to pay; —o, pay- 
ment ; — a, of payment ; 
— ota, payable ; — e, by 
paying ; sen — a, gratui- 
tous ; sen — e, gratis ; 
el — i, to fully discharge 
a debt ; de — o, tribute ; 
— okapabla, solvent. 

pagod-o, pagoda. 

pag-o, page (of a book). 

paĝi-ĉ?, page boy. 

pajl-o, straw, thatch ; — a, 
of straw ; — a tegmento, 
thatched roof. 

pak-e, to pack ; — ado, 
packing ; — o, packet, 
parcel ; — eto, small 
parcel; —ajo, luggage; 
en — i, to put into a 
parcel ; — anto, one who 
packs up ; — isto, packer. 

pal-ft, pale (adj.) ; — igi, 
to make pale ; — igij to 
grow pale ; — eco, pale- 
ness ; — ega, wan, pallid ; 
— egigi, to grow pallid ; 
— egeco, pallidness. 

palac-ĉ), palace ; — a, pala- 
tial. 

paladi-o, palladium. 

palinur-o, rock lobster. 

palanken-(9, palanquin. 

palat-o, palate ; — a, of the 
palate. 

paleografi-o, paleography. 

paleontologi-o, paleonto- 
logy. 



paletr-o, palette (of artist), 
palis-o, stake; — aro, palis- 
ade ; — eto, stamen (hot.). 
palisandr-o, rosewood. 
palm-6>, palm tree ; 

— obranco, palm. 
palp-z, to feel about, palp ; 

— ado, the sense of 

touch; — e, by feeling 

about (in the dark) ; 

— ehla, palpable, 
palpebr-o, eyelid ; — a, of 

the eyelids; — umi, to 

wink, 
palt-o, greatcoat, 
pamflet-o, pamphlet, 
pan-o, bread ; — isto, baker ; 

— farado, baking ; 

— komerco, bread-selling ; 

— hutiko, baker's shop ; 

— fermentilo, yeast. 
panegir-a, {adj.) panegyric ; 

— 0, panegyric {noun) ; 

— ulo, flatterer. 
panel-o, panel, wainscot, 
panik-o, a panic, 
panikl-o, panicle (hot.). 
panj-c, mamma, 
panoram-o, panorama, 
pantalon-o, trousers, pair 

of trousers. 
panteism-o, pantheism, 
panteist-o, pantheist, 
panter-o, panther. 
pantofl-o, slipper, 
pantomim-o, pantomime, 
pap-o, pope. 



106 



PAPAG-0 



PAROKSISM-0 



papag-0, parrot. 

papav-o, poppy. 

paper-c, paper; — a, of 
paper ; — vjo, pocket- 
book ; — faristo, . paper- 
maker ; — isto, stationer ; 
— far ado, paper-making ; 
— komerco, paper trade ; 
— butiko, stationary, 

stationer's shop ; — rulo, 
a scroll. 

papili-c», butterfly. 

papirus-o, papyrus. 

par-o, pair, brace, couple ; 
— a, even (number), 
similar; — nombro, even 
number; ne — a, odd. 

para-c, Servian coin, etc. 

parabol-o, parabola (mathe- 
matics). 

parad-i, to parade, to show 
off; — 0, military review. 

paradigm-o, paradigm. 

paradiz-o, paradise. 

paiadoks-o, paradox. 

paraf-o, flourish, paraph. 

parafin-o, paraffin. 

parafraz-ĉ>, paraphrase. 

paragraf-(9, paragraph. 

paralel-a (adj.), parallel ; 
— e kitn, parallel with. 

paralelogram-c, parallelo- 
gram. 

paraliz-i, to paralyze ; — o, 
paralysis ; — ito, paraly- 
tic. 

parapet-o, parapet. 



parazit-o, parasite ; —a, 
parasitical. 

parcel-o, lot of land. 

parciinoni-(?, parsimony ; 
— a, parsimonious ; — e, 
parsimoniously. 

pardon-i, to forgive ; — o, 
forgiveness ; tic — ebla, 
unpardonable ; — ebleco, 
state of what can be for- 
given ; — u ! excuse me ! 

parenc-(?, relative {noun) ; 
— a, related to; — aro, 
the relatives as a body ; 
— eco, relationship ; —igi, 
to make relatives ; — igi, 
to become relatives. 

parentez-o, parenthesis. 

parfum-o, perfume; — i, to 
imjĵregnate with per- 
fume ; — isto, perfumer ; 
— farado, perfume-mak- 
ing ; — butiko, perfumer's 
shop. 

parget-o, floor, flooring. 

park-o, park, pen for sheep, 
etc. 

parker-e, by heart, from 
memory, by rote. 

parlament-o, parliament ; 
— ano, member of parlia- 
ment ; — a, belonging, 
relating to parliament. 

parodi-o, parody. 

paroĥ-o, parish ; — estro, 
vicar ; — ana, parishioner. 

paroksism-o, paroxysm. 



107 



PAROL-I 



PAŜ-I 



parol-e, to speak ; 

word spoken ; — anto, 
the one speaking ; — isto, 
an orator ; — ado, speech, 
discourse; el — % to pro- 
nounce, to articulate ; 
el — ado, pronoun ciation ; 
inter — i, to converse ; 
inter — o, conversation ; 
inter — anto, interlocutor ; 
kontraŭ — i, to object ; 
antaŭ — o, preface ; — ejo, 
parlour ; ventro — isto, 
ventriloquist ; al — o, 
message, address ; al 
— adi, to parley ; pri — i, 
— adi, to refer ; pro — adi, 
to plead. 

part-o, part, share; — opi'eni, 
to participate, to take 
part; — oprenanto, parti- 
cipator, sharer ; — opreno, 
participation ; — isto, co- 
partner ; — umo, fraction 
(mathem.). 

parter-o, pit (theatre). 

parti-o, party; — a, of 
party, partial ; — ceo, 
partiality ; seji — a, im- 
partial ; sen — eco, im- 
partiality ; — ano, a 
partizan. 

particip-o, jjarticiple. 

partikul-o, particle (gram.). 

part-itur-r), score (mus.). 

pam-o, titmouse, tomtit. 

pas-i, to pass (neuter) : la 



te^npo — as, time passes ; 
— anto, passer-by ; — igi, 
to pass {ad.), to carry 
over, to transmit ; tra — i, 
to cross, to traverse; 
trans — i, to pass beyond. 

pasaĝer-o, passenger. 

pasament-o, lace-work, 
trimming; — i, to lace 
(clothes, furniture) ; 

— isto, lacemaker. 

paser-o, sparrow. 

Pasi-o, (the) Passion. 

pasi-o, passion (not suffer- 
ing) ; — a, of passion, 
passionate ; — e, with 
passion, passionately. 

pasiv-a, passive. 

Pask-o, Easter. 

paskvil-o, libellous writing. 

pasport-ĉ?, passport. 

past-o, paste. 

pastel-o, lozenge, pastille. 

pastec-o, pie, tart; ■ — eto, 
small tart or pie. 

pastinak-o, parsnip. 

pastoral-(9, pastoral play or 
poem. 

pastr-o, pastor, priest, 
clergyman ; — aro, the 
clergy ; — ara, clerical ; 
— eco, sacerdotal cha- 
racter. 

paŜ-^, to step, to make 
steps ; — 0, step ; — ado, 
gait, way of stepping; 
al — i, to approach, to 



108 



PAŜT-I 



PEL-I 



step near ; en — % to step 
in ; trans — i, to go be- 
yond bounds, to trans- 
gress, to violate; — egi, 
to stride ; — ego, stride ; 
— post — 0, step by step. 

paŝt-i, to feed (a flock) ; 
sin — i, to feed, i.e. to 
graze, to feed upon ; 
— ejo, pasture-land ; 

— isto, shepherd. 

paŝtel-o, pastel crayon ; 
— isto, crayon or pastel 
draughtsman. 

pat-o, frying-pan. 

patent-o, patent ; — ulo, 
patentee. 

patologi-o, pathology. 

patos-(?, pathos ; — a, pa- 
thetic, passionate. 

patr-o, father ; fonda — o, 
founder of a family ; 
— ino, mother ; ge — oj, 
parents ; — a, paternal ; 
— eco, fatherhood; 
— ineco, motherhood ; 
— ujo, fatherland ; — uja, 
belonging to the father- 
land ; sam — ujano, a 
fellow-countryman; pra 
— oj, ancestors, fore- 
fathers. 

patriark-o, patriarch. 

patrici-o, patrician ; — a, 
patrician (adj.). 

patriot-o, patriot. 

patriotism-o, patriotism. 



patrol-o, patrol. 

patron-o, patron, 

pauz-o, pause ; — % to make 
a pause. 

pav-o, peacock ; — ino, pea- 
hen. 

pavian-o, baboon. 

pavilon-o, pavilion. 

pavim-o, pavement ; — i, to 
pave ; — ero, a brick or 
tile of the pavement. 

pean-o, pean (shout of 
victory). 

pec-o, bit, morsel, piece; 
unu — a, all in one piece ; 
divers — a, made of vari- 
ous pieces ; dis — igi, to 
undo, to take or tear to 
pieces. 

peĉ-o, pitch. 

pedagog-o, pedagogue. 

pedagogi-o, pedagogy. 

•pedal-o, pedal. 

pedant-o, pedant ; — ino, 
pedant (female). 

pedel-o, beadle, apparitor. 

pedik-o, louse. 

peg-o, woodpecker. 

pejzag-o, landscape. 

pek-^, to sin ; — o, sin ; 
— ido, sinner; — igi, to 
lead to sin. 

Pekin-ĉ?, Peking. 

pekl-?', to pickle; — ita, 
viando, salt meat. 

pel-^, to turn away, to chase 
from ; for — i, to frighten 



109 



PELERIN-0 



PERCEPT-I 



away ; el — i, to expel ; 
el — 0, expulsion ; el~—ito, 
an expelled one. 

pelerin-o, tippet, pelerine, 
cape. 

pelikan-o, pelican. 

pelt-o, pelisse ; — isto, fur- 
rier; — farado, peltry. 

pelv-o, basin. 

pen-i, to try to, to endeav- 
our to ; — 0, effort ; 
— ado, long endeavour; 
— a ; — ema, pains- 
taking. 

penc-o, penny. 

pend-i, to hang (neuter) ; 
— igi, to become pendant, 
hanging ; — igi, to hang 
somebody or something ; 
— igo, the hanging ; mem 
— igo, hanging of self; 
— iginda, deserving 
hanging ; de — i, to de- 
pend ; de — eco, state of 
dependence ; sende — eco, 
independence ; — glacio, 
icicle ; el — ajo, sign- 
board. 

pendol-o, pendulum. 

penetr-ii*, to penetrate ; 
— 0, penetration ; — ebla, 
that may be penetrated ; 
ne — ehleco, impenetrable- 
ness ; — igi, to be pene- 
trated. 

penik-c, brush, hair-pencil. 

pens-t, to think ; — o, a 

1 



thought, an idea ; — ado, 
the faculty of thinking ; 
ek — i, to take into one's 
head ; pri — -i, to reflect, 
to ponder, to consider ; 
el — i, to invent; el — o, 
invention. 

pensi-o, pension ; — ulo, 
pensioner. 

pent-i, to repent; — o, re- 
pentance; — fari, to do 
penance. 

pentametr-o, pentameter. 

Pentekost-o, AVhitsuntide, 
Pentecost. 

pentr-2, to paint; — ado, 
painting (art) ; — ajo, 
picture ; —isto, painter. 

peoni-o, peony. 

pep-i, to chirp ; to pip, to 
twitter, to pule ; — ado, 
chirping, puling, twitter. 

pepsin-o, pepsine. 

pepton-o, peptone ; — a, 
peptic. 

■^per, by, per, by means of, 
through; — a, indirect, 
mediate ; — e, mediately, 
indirectly ; sen — a, im- 
mediate, direct; sen — e, 
in a direct way ; — i, to 
intervene, to interpose ; 
— 0, aid, medium ; — ilo, 
a medium, or means of. 

percept-i, to perceive 
{phil.) ; — 0, perception ; 
— ebla, perceptible. 

10 



PERĈ-0 



PES-I 



perĉ-o, small kind of perch, 
barse. 

perd-i, to lose ; — igi, to be 
lost, to disappear ; — o, 
loss, deprivation. 

perdrik-o, partridge. 

pere-i, to perish ; — igi, to 
cause to perish ; — o, 
ruin, perishing; — ema, 
perishable ; - — ifja, that 
causes to perish. 

perfekt-ft, perfect ; — eco, 
perfection ; — igi, to 
perfect ; — igi, to be- 
come perfect ; — igo, im- 
provement caused; — igo, 
improvement under- 
gone ; — ebla, perfect- 
ible ; ne — a, imperfect ; 
ne — eco, imperfection. 

perfekt-o, perfect (gram.). 

perfid-i, to betray ; — o, 
betrayal ; — a, treacher- 
ous ; — eco, treachery ; 
— ajo, treacherous deed; 
— ulo, traitor. 

pergamen-o, parchment. 

periferi-o, periphery. 

perige-o, perigee. 

perimetr-(?, perimeter. 

period-o, period ; — a, peri- 
odic ; — eco, periodicity. 

peristil-6», peristyle. 

peritone-o, peritoneum. 

perk-o, perch (fish). 

perl-o, pearl. 

perlamot-o, mother of pearl. 

1 



permes-z, to allow, to per- 
mit ; — 0, permission, 
leave; mal — i, to forbid; 
mat — 0, prohibition ; mal 
— a, prohibitive ; — ebla, 
allowable ; permissible ; 
w<e — ebla, not permis- 
sible ; /w — 0, leave to 
go ; peti for — on, to take 
leave. 

peron-o, steps before a 
house, perron. 

perpendikular-ĉ7, perpendi- 
cular. 

persekut-i, to prosecute, to 
persecute ; — o ; — ado, 
suit or action at law, 
also persecution. 

persik-o, peach ; — ujo, 
peach-tree. 

persist-i, to persevere, to 
persist ; — o, persever- 
ance, persistance ; — a, 
persevering, persisting ; 
— eco, quality of per 
severing. 

person-o, person (indivi- 
dual) ; — a, of a person ; 
— igo, personification ; 
— e, personally. 

perspektiv-o, perspective. 

Peru-o, Peru ; — a (adj.) 
Peruvian ; — ano, a 
Peruvian. 

peruk-o, peruke, periwig. 

pes-z, to weigh a thing ; 
— 0, the whole of the 
11 



PESET-0 



PIKED-0 



things weighed ; 



-ilo. 



the scales, the weighing 
machine, 
peset-o, Spanish coin 

(=if.). 

pesimism-o, pessimism. 

pesimist-o, pessimist. 

pest-o, plague. 

pet-i, to ask, to request; 
— 0, asking, request ; 
— egi, to beg instantly ; 
— sh'ibo, petition ; p'o 
— anto, intercessor ; mi 
petas, I beg, (if you 
please). 

petard-o, petard. 

petol-i, to be saucy, petu- 
lant, to behave as a 
ragamuffin ; — a, mis- 
chievous, perverse, un- 
ruly, waggish ; — eco, 
mischievousness, unruli- 
ness; — iilo, scape-grace. 

petrol-o, petroleum. 

petromiz-o, lamprey. 

petrosel-o, parsley. 

pez-e, to weigh, to have a 
certain weight ; — o, the 
weight of anything ; 
— ilo, the weight (the 
mass to weigh with) ; 
— a, heavy ; multe — a, 
of great weight ; egal — o, 
equilibrium ; pli — i, to 
be heavier ; pli — o, over- 
weight ; — 0, South 
American dollar. 

1 



pfenig-o, pfenning. 

pi-a, pious, religious ; — eco, 
piety ; — ulo, a pious 
man ; mal — a, impious ; 
mal — eco, impiety. 

piastr-o, piastre (coin). 

pice-o, fir-tree. 

pied-o, foot ; — iri, to go 
on foot; — iranto, foot- 
passenger, pedestrian ; 
— ira, pedestrian (adj.) ; 
— ire, on foot; nud-—a, 
barefooted ; — a signo, 
footstep mark ; 

— frapadi, to stamp 
one's feet ; — frapado, 
stamping of feet ; — vesto, 
foot covering, shoe or 
boot; — ingo, stirrup. 

piedestal-o, pedestal. 

pietism-o, pietism. 

pietist-o, pietist. 

pig-o, magpie. 

pigme-o, pigmy. 

pigment-o, pigment. 

pik-i, to prick, to sting; 
— 0, spades (at cards); 
— a, pricking, piquant; 
— ema, inclined to be 
piquant ; — ilo, sting (of 
insects, bees, etc.); 
stimulus (fig.) : tra — i, to 
pierce through ; tra — a, 
which pierces through ; 
fosilo, pick-axe. 

piked-f, picket ; piquet 
(game). 
12 



PlLASTR-0 



PLATA 



pilastr-0, pilaster. 

pilgrim-z, to go on a pil- 
grimage ; — ; — anto, a 
pilgrim. 

pilk-o, ball (for playing) ; 
— raketo, battledore. 

pilol-o, pill. 

pilot-o, pilot. 

pin-o, pine (wood). 

pinĉ-z, to pinch ; — o, pinch- 
ing. 

pingl-o, pin ; — o pa?' haroj, 
har — 0, hairpin. 

pini-o, fir. 

pint-o, pinnacle; summit; 
top (of a tree); — a, 
pointed ; — igi, to make 
pointed, to bring to a 
pointed end. 

pioĉ-o, pick-axe. 

pionir-o, pioneer. 

pip-(?, pipe; — a tuho, pipe 
stem. 

pipr-ĉ?, pepper; — z, to 
pepper ; — vjo^ pepper- 
cruet, or box. 

pips-(9, pip (bird's disease). 

pir-o, pear; — ujo, — arho, 
pear-tree. 

piramid-o pyramid. 

pirat-(?, pirate. 

Pirene-o/', Pyrenees. 

pirit-o, pyrites (gravel).- 

pirol-o, bullfinch. 

piroteknik-o, pyrotechnics ; 
— isto^ pyrotechnist. 

piroz-o, pyrosis (med.). 

H 1 



pist-t, to pound, to crush ; 

— ilo, pestle. 
pistak-o, pistachio, pis- 
tachio-nut. 
pistel-o, pistil (flower). 
pistol-o, pistol, 
piŝt-o, piston (mech.) ; 

sucker of a pump, etc. 
piton-o, a python, 
piz-o, pea. 

pizang-o, plantain (pizang). 
plac-o, public open space, 

public square, etc. 
plac-z, to please ; — a, 

pleasing, pleasant. 
plad-o, dish ; also course at 

dinner; — eto, saucer, 
plafon-o, ceiling, 
plagiat-o, plagiarism ; — isto, 

plagiarist, 
plan-o, plan, scheme, draft. 
pland-o, sole of the foot ; 

sole ; at — o, inner sole of 

a shoe or boot, 
planed-o, planet, 
planimetr-o, planimeter. 
planimetri-o, planimetry. 
plank-(9, floor, flooring ; 

— frotisto, floor-rubber, 
plant-i, to plant ; — o, 

—ado, planting ; — ejo, 

plantation (place), 
plantag-o, plantain, 
plastik-o, plastic art; — a, 

plastic. 
plastr-^, plaster. 
plat-«, flat, plane {adj.) ; 
13 



PLATAN-0 



TLI 



a plane {geom.) ; 
— ajo, flat surface ; — eco, 
flatness ; platitude ; — e, 
flatly {adv.) ; sur la — a 
flanko, on the flat side ; 
— igi, to flatten, to make 
flat ; — igi, to become 
flat; — igo, the making 
flat ; igo, flattening 
undergone ; lada — o, tin 
plate or plaque. 

platan-o, plane tree. 

plate-o, spoonbill (bird). 

platen-o, platinum. 

plaŭd-i, to splash water 
with the hand, or any 
liquid. 

plebej-o, plebeian (noun) ; 
— a, plebeian (adj.). 

pled-c, plea ; — i, to plead ; 
— ado, counsel's address, 
speech. 

*plej, most, the most ; la 
plej hela el ciuj, the finest 
of all ; vi agis plej sage, 
farante Hon, you acted 
most wisely by doing 
this (or that) ; mal — , 
least, the least ; — e, 
most, most often (adv.) ; 
si pleje donis, she gave 
most ; pleje mi forgesas 
Ir, most frequently I 
forget that . . . ; mal — e, 
least (adv.); li mal — e 
donis, he gave least; 
mal — e vi vidos he . . ., 

1 



very seldom you will see 

that . . . 
plekt-i, to weave, to plait, 

to interweave, etc. ; kun 

— i, to weave together; 

inter — i, to intertwine, 

to interweave, etc. ; 

— harilo, hurdle fence ; 

— ajo, the things inter- 

weaved. 
plen-«, full, complete ; 

— eco, plenitude ; — ega. 



overfull ; 



-tgi, 



to fill 



up, to complete ; — igi, 
to get completed, to get 
full ; — umi, to fulfil, to 
accomplish ; — umiĝi, to 
get accomplished, ful- 
filled ; — aga, of age ; 
— ago, full age ; tide 
— e, fully ; — ege, super- 
abundantly. 

plend-^', to complain; — o, 
complaint. 

pleonasm-o, pleonasm. 

plet-o, tray, waiter, etc. 

pleuresi-o, pleuresy. 

pleŭronekt-o, dab, flat-fish, 
plaice. 

plezur-o, pleasure ; — e, or 
kun — 0, with pleasure. 

■^pli, more ; — kaj — , more 
and more ; — aŭ mal — , 
more or less ; muUe — , 
much more ; — e, more- 
over, more and more ; 
7nal — e, less and less ; 
U 



PLIK-0 



POLlGAMI-0 



— aliigij to elevate, to 
make higher ; — beligi, 
to embellish; — grandigi, 
to enlarge ; — multo, the 
greatest part ; — fore, 
further on. 

plik-o, plica (med.). 

plomb-o, sealing-lead ; — i, 
to seal with lead. 

plor-i, to shed tears; — eti, 
to whimper; — egi, to 
sob. 

plot-o, roach (fish). 

■^plu, further, farther, more, 
beyond ; ini ne faros unu 
pason phi, I shall not go 
one step farther; — a, 
which follows subse- 
quently ; — e, subse- 
quently ; ne . . . plu, no 
longer. 

plug-?, to plough ; — ilo, a 
plough. 

plum-o, feather, also pen ; 
— a, of a feather, 
feathery ; —ingo, pen- 
holder ; sen — igi, to 
pluck the feathers^ sen 
— iiji, to moult, lose one's 
feathers ; — ajo, pinion ; 
— pilJco, shuttlecock. 

plumb-o, lead ; — i, to lead, 
to cover with lead. 

pluskvamperfekt-o, pluper- 
fect (gram.). 

pluŝ-o, plush. 

plutokrati-o, plutocracy. 



pluv-o, rain ; — i, to rain ; 
— ego, downpour, heavy 
shower ; — sirmilo, um- 
brella. 

pluvi-o, plover (bird). 

pneŭmatik-o, pneumatics, 
pneumatology. 

*po, at the rate of, in the 
proportion of : Mi pagis 
ciun el Hi po 2 silingoj, I 
paid each of them at 
the rate of 2 shillings. 
Se mi skribos po 3 pagoj 
ciutage. If I write at the 
rate of 3 pages daily ; 
poduone, by half ; 
— grande, wholesale ; 
— detale, wholesale. 

podagr-o, gout (disease). 

podi-(?, podium (arch.). 

poem-o, poem. 

poent-o, point (at cards) ; 
mark. 

poet-o, poet. 

poetik-o, poetics. 

poezi-o, poetry. 

pokal-o, cup, goblet. 

Pol-«, Polish ; — 6>, a Pole ; 
— iijo, Poland. 

polemik-(>, polemics ; — i, 
to wage a polemic. 

polic-c^, police ; — isfo, officer 
of police ; — estro, chief 
of police ; — ano, police- 
man. 

polifon-ff, polyphonic. 

poligami-o, polygamy. 
15 



POLIGLOT-0 



PORT-I 



poliglot-0, polyglot, lin- 
guist. 

poligon-o, buckwheat. 

poliklinik-o, polyclinics. 

polip-o, polypus. 

polis-o, insurance policy. 

politeism-o, polytheism. 

politeknik-o, a polyteclinic, 
polytechnics ; — a lernejo, 
polytechnic school. 

politik-o, politics ; — a, 
politic; — isto, politician. 

polk-o, polka. 

poluci-o, pollution. 

polur-o, polish ; — i, to 
polish. 

polus-o, pole (north or 
south). 

polv-o, dust; — era, atom 
of dust. 

pom-o, apple ; — ujo, —arbo, 
apple-tree ; ter — o, po- 
tato. 

pomad-o, pomatum. 

pomolog-o, pomology. 

pomp-o, splendour, pomp ; 
— a, pompous, magni- 
ficent. 

ponard-o, poniard, dagger; 
— ego, pike, spear. 

pont-o, bridge ; — eto, foot- 
bridge. 

pontifik-o, pontiff, ponti- 
f ex ; — a, pontifical. 

ponton-o, pontoon. 

pop-o, pope (in the Greek 
church). 

1 



popl-(7, poplar. 

poplit-o, ham, hock, hough, 
knee-joint. 

popol-o, people ; — amaso, 
populace, mob ; — amas- 
ulo, a plebeian, a com- 
moner. 

popular-ft, popular, known 
of all classes. 

■^por, in order to, for the 
benefit of, for (such and 
such purpose). 

por-o, pore ; — a, porous ; 
— eco, porosity. 

porcelan-o, porcelain, 

china. 

porci-o, portion, share. 

pord-(9, door; — ego, gate, 
very large door, coach- 
house door ; — isto, door, 
or gate-keeper; — hoko, 
door-hinge. 

pore-o, leek. 

porfir-o, porphyry. 

pork-o, hog, pig ; — ino, 
sow; — o-viro, male hog 
or boar ; — ido, sucking 

pig- 
port-^, to carry, to bear; 

— 0, — ado, carriage, car- 
rying (the act) ; al — i, 
to bring, to convey (car- 
rying) ; al — 0, bringing 
(act) ; /w — i, to carry 
away ; dis — i, to carry 
here and there ; dis — igi, 
to spread oneself here 
16 



PORTA L-0 



POZITIVISM-0 



and there ; el — i, to 
bear, to endure; el — ebla, 
endurable ; flug — i, to 
waft; neel — ehla,unenduT- 
able ; trans — i, to trans- 
port (carry) ; trans — o, 
transit ; re — i, to carry 
a thing to the place 
where it was before ; 
— ajo, burden, weight 
carried ; — ilo, stretcher; 
— anto, one who carries ; 
— isto, a bearer by trade ; 
en — i, to im[)ort. 

portal-o, portal. 

portepe-o, swordbelt. 

porter-o, porter (beer). 

portik-o, portico. 

portret-o, portrait. 

Portugal-ft (adj.), Portu- 
guese; — 0, a Portuguese; 
— ujo, Portugal. 

posed-i, to possess ; — o, 
possession ; — a, posses- 
sive ; — a pronomo, pos- 
sessive pronoun ; — anto, 
possessor. 

posesiv-(?,possessive(^raw.). 

■'^post, after, by (prep.); 
— a, subsequent ; — e, 
afterwards ; — o, the 
back, the posterior part ; 
— ajo, rear (of buildings, 
etc.); — eulo, a, descend- 
ant, a successor; — eularo, 
posterity. 

posten-o, military station, 



guard-house ; antaŭ~o, 
outpost. 

postul-i, to require ; — o, 
requirement ; — ella, 
exigible; — ebleco, exig- 
ibleness, exigibility. 

poŝ-o, pocket ; — horlogo, 
watch. 

poŝt-o, post (letters, etc.) ; 
—e,hy post ; — a, postal; 
— a kesto, letter-box ; 
— a marko, — marJco, 
postage stamp ; — a 
oficejo, post-office ; — a 
mandafo, money-order; 
— a Jcarto, post-card ; 
— a stampo, postmark ; 
— a qficisto, post-official ; 
— isto, postman ; — estro, 
post-master ; — pdketo, 
parcel post. 

pot-o, pot; — isto, potter; 
— farejo, pottery (place); 
— farado, pottery (the 
art) ; — a peco, potsherd. 

potas-o, potash. 

potenc-«, powerful ; — o, 
power, potency; — i, to 
dominate ; — ulo, a 
powerful man. 

pov-^. to be able (can) ; 
—0, mighty cio — a, al- 
mighty ; — iga, poten- 
tial. 

poz-i, to poze ; — o, posture. 

pozitiv-a, positive. 

pozitivism-o, positivism. 



117 



POZITIVlST-0 



PRKN-I 



pozitivist-0, positivist. 

pra-, rear ; — ne'po, great 
grandson ; — avo, great 
grandfather ; — nevo, 
grandnephew ; — patroj, 
ancestors. 

pragmatik-tt, pragmatic. 

praktik-6), practice ; —a, 
practical ; — e, practi- 
cally ; — ^, to practice. 

pram-o, ferry-boat. 

prav-f^, right (adj.) ; viestas 
prava, you are right; 
— eco, the quality of 
being in the right ; — igi^ 
to prove one right, to 
justify; — ado, justifica- 
tion. 

prebend-o, prebend. 

precip-e, chiefly ; — a, prin- 
cipal. 

preciz-a, precise ; — ecu, 
precision ; — igi, to state 
precisely ; — igi, to be- 
comeclear; — e, precisely. 

predik-i, to preach ; — o ; 
— ado, preaching; — anto, 
an occasional preacher; 
— isto, a preacher (pro- 
fessional). 

prefekt-o, prefect; siib — o, 
subprefect. 

prefer-f, to prefer; — o, 
preference; — inda, pre- 
ferable ; — indeco, prefer- 
ableness ; — e, preferab- 
ly, rather. 

1 



prefiks-o, prefix. 

preĝ-i, to pray ; ^o, a 
prayer ; sonigi al — o, to 
ring for prayer; — ejo, 
church or chapel (build- 
ing) ; — ejeto, small chap- 
el, oratory. 

prelat-o, prelate. 

prelud-ĉ), prelude. 

prem-i, to press, to squeeze ; 
— 0, pressure ; — egi, to 
crush by pressure ; dis- 
— i, to crush with dis- 
ruption of parts; al — i, 
to press against ; sul) — i, 
to oppress, crush under ; 
kun — ^, to compress ; 
Imn — ebla, compressible ; 
kun — ebleco, compressi- 
bility; — a, tight. 

premi-o, premium, prize, 
reward. 

premis-o, premiss. 

pren-^, to take ; — o, taking 
(act) ; — i sur sin, to un- 
dertake, to take charge ; 
de — i, to take from ; for 
— i, to take off; kun — i, 
to carry away ; — eto, a 
pinch ; — ilo, pincers, 
— ileto, small pincers ; 
fajro — ilo, tongs ; — i in- 
decan mienon, to assume 
an air of dignity ; al — i, 
to adopt ; ek — i, to take 
hold of ; el — i, to snatch, 
take out. 

,8 



PREPAR-I 



TRO 



prepar-?', to prepare ; — o\ 
— ado, preparation ; — i 
siUj to get ready ; — a, 
of preparation ; — anfŭj 
preparatory ; sen — a, im- 
provised. 

pvepost-o, provost ; — ejo, 
provost's office {huildfj.). 

prepozici-o, preposition. 

prepucic, prepuce. 

prerogativ-o, prerogative. 

pres-i, to print ; — o, — ado^ 
printing; — a, of print- 
ing ; — isto, printer ; 
— ejo, printing-office. 

presbiter-o, presbyter ; 

— aro, presbytery. 

presbiterian-o, presbyter- 
ian. 

presbiterianism-o, presby- 
terianism. 

*preskaŭ, almost. 

pret-a, ready ; — igi, to 
make ready ; — igi, to 
get ready ; — eco, readi- 
ness. 

pretekst-o, pretext ; — i, to 
pretend, to sham, to 
affect. 

pretend-z, to pretend ; — o, 
pretension. 

*preter, (beyond) ; — iri, 
to go beyond ; — pasi, to 
pass {or go) further ; — 
/asi, to let pass, to allow 
to escape, to miss catch- 
ing up. 

1 



preterit-^, preterite (gram.). 

prez-o, price; — aro, price 
lists;/^5a — o, fixed price; 
modera — o, moderate 
price. 

prezent-^', to present, to 
offer, to represent; — o, 
— ado, presentation, re- 
presentation, (theatr.). 

prezid-?', to preside ; — o, 
presidence ; — anto, pre- 
sident. 

*pri, concerning, respect- 
ing, as to, about, of ; 
paroli pi libroj, to speak 
of books (about). 

prim-o, soprano, first part 
{mus.). 

primadonin-o, prima don- 
na. 

primol-ĉ>, primrose. 

primitiv-a, primitive. 

princ-o, prince (sovereign) ; 
— ino, princess ; — idOy 
young prince; — lando^ 
principality ; — idino, 
young princess. 

princip-o, principle. 

printemp-o, spring (season); 
— a, of spring. 

prior-o, prior. 

prism-6», prism ; — oforma, 
prismatic ; tra — igi, to 
polarize (light). 

privat-a, private. 

privilegi-o, privilege. 

■^pro, because of, on account 



19 



PROBLEM-0 



PROKSIMA 



of, ill place of, on behalf 
of, for. 

problem-o, problem. 

proced-i, to proceed ; — o, 
process, proceeding. 

procedur-o, procedure. 

procent-o, interest (percent- 
age); —ego, usury; — 
egisto, usurer. 

proces-o, lawsuit; — % to 
bring an action against, 
to be a party in a law- 
suit; — a, of a lawsuit; 
— ema, fond of law- 
suits. 

procesi-o, procession. 

produkt-i, to produce ; — o, 
— ado, production ; — ajo, 
produce, product; re — i, 
to reproduce. 

profan-i, to profane ; — o, 
— ado, profanation. 

profesi-o, profession, occu- 
pation ; — a (adj.), pro- 
fessional; — isto, a pro- 
fessional (noun). 

profesor-o, professor; — a, 
professorial ; — eco, pro- 
fessorship. 

profet-o, prophet ; — ^, to 
prophesy. 

profil-o, profile ; duon — o, 
three-quarter faced por- 
trait. 

profilaktik-a, prophylactic 

profit-i, to profit, to benefit; 
— 0, profit; — ema, fond 



of gain; ne — ema, disin- 
terested ; pro la — o de, 
for the benefit of; mal 
— 0, loss, detriment. 

profund-a, deep ; — o, 
depth ; — eco, profund- 
ity ; — igi, to search in- 
to; — egaĵo,cha,sm,8,hyss. 

prognoz-o, prognosis ; — i, 
to make a prognosis 
(med.). 

program-o, programme. 

progres-i, to progress ; — o, 
a progress ; — ado, pro- 
gress (in general) ; — ema, 
a friend of progress. 

projekci-o, projection; — i, 
to project (geom.). 

projekt-^, to project; — o, 
project. 

proklam-i, to proclaim ; 
— 0, proclamation. 

prokrast-i, to delay ; — o, 
procrastination ; — ebla, 
which may be deferred ; 
ne — ebla, not to be de- 
layed. 

proksim-a, near(ac?;.); — eco, 
proximity ; — e de, near ; 
— e, ncsiV (adv.) ; mal — e, 
far off; — igi, to bring 
near ; mal— igi, to dis- 
tance ; al — igi, to ap- 
proach; — ulo, our neigh- 
bour ; — uma, approxi- 
mate ; — ume, approxi- 
mately. 



120 



PROKUR-E 



PROVINCIALISM-0 



prokur-ĉ, procuration ; — 
isto, procurator, attor- 
ney. 

prokuror-o, procurator, 
proctor. 

proletari-o, proletarian ; 
— a, proletarian (adj.). 

prolog-o, prologue. 

promen-i, to promenade, to 
walk ; — igi, to take out 
for a walk ; — o, —ado, 
walking exercise ; — ejo, 
place for promenading; 
— anto, promenader. 

promes-i, to promise; — o, 
promise. 

promoci-o, promotion ; —i, 
to promote. 

promontor-o, promontory, 
cape, headland. 

pronom-o, pronoun ; — a, 
pronominal. 

propagand-{?, propaganda. 

propon-i, to propose, to 
offer; — o, proposal, offer. 

proporci-o, proportion ; — a, 
proportional. 

propozici-o, proposition 
(gram.), sentence, state- 
ment. 

propr-6j, own (one's own) 
(adj.) ; mal — a, belong- 
ing to others; — eco, 
propriety ; — ajo, what 
IS possessed ; — igi al si, 
to appropriate to oneself. 

proskripci-o, proscription. 



prospekt-o, prospectus. 

prosper-^, to succeed to, to 
have success ; prosperis 
al mi trovi, it was my 
fortune to find; I suc- 
ceeded in finding ; — o, 
success ; mal — o, failure. 

prostit-i, to prostitute ; 
— ado, prostitution ; sin 
— i, to be a prostitute. 

protagonist-o, protagonist. 

protekt-i, to protect; — a, 
protection ; — anto, pro- 
tector ; — ato, protĉge. 

protest-i, to protest; — o, 
protest; — anto, protest- 
ant. 

protestant-o, a protestant; 
— a, protestant (adj.). 

protestantism-o, protest- 
antism. 

protokol-o, report, authen- 
tic minute in writing 
made immediately on 
the spot. 

protoplasm-(9, protoplasm. 

prototip-o, prototype. 

protuberanc-o, protuber- 
ance (anat.). 

prov-i, to try, to attempt 
to ; — 0, trial, endeavour, 
proof. 

proverb-o, proverb ; — a, 
proverbial. 

provinc-o, province. 

provincialism-o, provincial- 
ism. 



121 



PROVIZ-I 



PUN-I 



proviz-?', to provide ; — o, 
provision ; — oj, provi- 
sions ; — ejo, room where 
provisions are kept. 

provizor-o^, provisional. 

provos-o, provost. 

proz-o, prose; — a, prosaic. 

prozelit-o, proselyte. 

prozelitism-6>, proselytism. 

prozodi-c, prosody. 

prudent-^, reasonable ; — o, 
reason ; — eco, the qual- 
ity of a reasonable man ; 
sen — a, deprived of rea- 
son ; mal — a, foolish (not 
mad) j — igi, to render 
reasonable ; — igi, to be- 
come reasonable. 

prujn-o, white frost. 

prun-6>, plum ; — ujo, — arho, 
plum-tree. 

prunel-o, sloe ; — ujo, sloe- 
tree. 

prunt-ĉ, on loan (adv.) ; — i, 
to lend ; — o, loan ; 
— anto, an occasional 
lender ; — isto, a money- 
lender; — e preni, to 
borrow, 

Prus-a {adj.), Prussian; — o, 
a Prussian ; — ujo, — lando, 
Prussia. 

prusblu-6i {adj.), Prussian 
blue; — {noun), Prus- 
sian blue. 

pruv-i, to prove; — o, 
proof. 

1 



psalm-o, psalm ; — aro, 
psalter ; — isfo, psalmist. 

pseŭdonim-o, pseudonym. 

psik-a, psychical, psychic. 

psikiatri-o, psychiatry 

{med.). 

psikolog-(?, psychologist. 

psikologi-o, psychology. 

publicist-(7j publicist. 

publik-6), public (the) ; — a, 
public {adj.) ; — igi, to 
publish. 

pudel-o, spaniel. 

puding-o, pudding. 

pudr-o, hair-powder, etc. ; 
riz — 0, rice-powder; — i; 
to powder. 

puf-o, puff; — igi, to pufl' 
out (trans.) ; — igi, to puff 
out {neut). 

pugn-o, fist. 

pul-o, flea. 

pulĉinel-o, punch, punchi- 
nello. 

pulin-(?, lung ; — a, pulmon- 
ary. 

puls-o, pulse ; — bafo, pul- 
sation. 

pulv-o, gunpowder. 

pulvor-o, dust; — igi, to 
reduce to dust, to pul- 
verise. 

pumik-o, pumice-stone. 

puInp-^, to pump; — ilo, a 
pump. 

pun-z, to punish, to chast- 
ise ; — 0, punishment, 
22 



PUNC-0 



RABAT-I 



chastisement ; mona — o, 
a tine. 

punc-oi, crimson-red (noun); 
— a, crimson-red (adj.). 

punĉ-o, punch. 

punkt-o, point, full stop ; 
du — 0, colon ; — o de- 
manda, note of interro- 
gation ; — ekkria, note 
of exclamation ; — o komo, 
semicolon. 

punt-o, lace; point lace. 

pup-o, doll. 

pupil-o, pupil (the apple of 
the eye). 

pupitr-o, desk, writing- 
desk. 

■pvLY-a, clean, pure ; — eco, 
cleanliness, purity; —igi, 
to clean, to purify ; — igi 
to become clean, to get 
purified ; mal — a, un- 
clean, dirty ; mal — eco, 
uncleanness, dirtiness ; 
mal — ajo, foul thing, 
dirty act; mal — igi, to 
soil, to dirty ; mal — igi, 



to dirty oneself, to get 
soiled ; el — ajo, excre 
ment. 

Purgatori-o, Purgatory. 

puriten-o, puritan (noun). 
— a, puritan (adj.). 

puritanism-o, puritan- 

ism. 

purpur-o, purple (noun) ; 
— a, purple (adj.). 

pus-o, pus (corrupt matter). 

pustul-o, pustule. 

puŝ-z, to push ; — 0, a push ; 
re — i, to repulse, to push 
back ; tra — i, to push 
through, to force through; 
inter — o, a melee, con- 
fused scuffle. 

put-ĉ>, a well. 

putor-o, polecat. 

putr-i, to rot to be in a 
state of putrefaction ; 
— 0, — ado, state of putre- 
faction ; — ajo, rotten 
things, anything in pu- 
trefaction ; — igi, to get 
putrid. 



B 



rabarb-o, rhubarb. 

rab-i, to pillage, to seize 
and carry by force ; to 
rob, to plunder ; — ado, 
pillage, brigandage ; 



— isto, robber, brigand ; 
for — 0, rape, 
rabat-i, to abate, to deduct 
to take off; — o, discount, 
deduction. 



123 



RABEN-0 



RAPID-A 



raben-o, rabbi. 
rabio, rabies, rabid- 
ness; — a, mad, rav- 

rabot-i, to plain ; — ilo, a 
plane ; — aĵo, shavings 
(of wood). 

raci-o, sense, rationality 
(only applied to words or 
deeds); — a, rational. 

racionalism-o, rationalism. 

rad-o, wheel; — spinilo, 
spinning-wheel; — kavo, 
wheel-rut. 

radi-o, ray (of light), spoke 
of wheel, radius of cir- 
cumference; — i, to radi- 
ate, to shine. 

radik-o, root ; — a, radical ; 
en — i, to root, to incul- 
cate deeply ; — vmio, — o, 
root-word ; — parto, the 
root. 

radikal-a, radical (adj.) ; 
politics. 

radikalism-o, radicalism. 

radium-o, radium. 

rafan-o, horse-radish; — eto, 
radish. 

rafin-i, to refine ; — ejo, 
sugar refinery ; — isto, 
refiner. 

raj-o, ray, skate (fish). 

rajd-i, to ride; — anto, a 
rider occasionally; — isto, 
horseman. 

rajt-o, right to something; 



rightly, properly; 
— igi, to give right to 
some one ; — igo, power 
to act for another, power 
of attorne}^ 

raket-o, fusee, rocket. 

rakont-^, to relate, to tell; 
— 0, narrative ; mir — o, 
fairy tale. 

ral-o, crake, rail (bird). 

ramp-e, to creep, to climb ; 
sur — i, to creep upon, to 
climb upon ; — ajo, rep- 
tile ; for — i, to creep or 
climb hastily away. 

ran-o, frog. 

ranc-a, rancid. 

rand-o, edge, border; — ajo, 
all the part on the edge 
or border. 

rang-o, rank, grade, dignity; 
grand — a, alt — a, of 
high rank or grade ; 
grand — ulo, alt — ulo, dig- 
nitary, man of high 
rank. 

ranunkol-f?, ranunculus. 

rap-o, long-radish. 

rapid-a, rapid, quick, 
prompt; — ^, to hasten 
(neut.); — igi, to hasten 
(trans.)', — eco, rapidity, 
quickness, promptitude ; 
— aga, expeditive ; — ega, 
one that goes full speed; 
mal — a, slow ; mal—eco, 
slowness ; tro — a, hur- 



124 



RAPIR-0 



REFERAT-0 



ried ; tro — eco, too great 
a hurry ; — ire, at 
full speed, by express; 
mal — ire, per slow train. 

rapir-o, foil {fencing). 

raport-i, to report; — o, a 
report; — anto, reporter. 

rapsod-o, rhapsodist 

rapsodi-Oj rhapsody. 

ras-o, race. 

rasp-z, to rasp, to grate ; 
— ilo, grater. 

rast-i, to rake ; — ilo, a 
rake. 

rastral-<?, music-pen (for 
lines). 

rat-o, rat. 

raŭk-«, hoarse; — eco, 
hoarseness ; — igi, to 
make hoarse, to cause 
hoarseness ; — igi, to get 
hoarse ; — igo, hoarse- 
ness suffered. 

raup-o, caterpillar; si//ja — o, 
silkworm. 

rav-i, to enrapture, to 
exalt; — a, enchanting, 
ravishing. 

raz-i, to shave; — ilo, razor. 

re-, again, anew, back : re- 
donu al mi la lihron Jciun 
mi pruntis al vi, return 
me the book which I 
lent you ; refaru vian 
ekzercon, do your exer- 
cise over again ; — paroli, 
to reply ; — diri, to re- 

1 



ply ; — doni, to give 
back; — jeti, to reject, to 
throw back ; — salti, to 
rebound ; — juniĝi, to 
grow young again; ree, 
anew (adv.). 

reakci-o, reaction ; — ulo, 
reactionary. 

real-a, real ; — eco, reality. 

real-o, Spanish coin, 
real. 

realism-o, realism. 

realist-o, realist. 

rebus-o, rebus. 

recenz-i, to revise ; — o. 
recension ; revision ; 
— anto, reviser. 

recept-o, doctor's prescrip- 
tion, receipt, recipe. 

reciprok-a, reciprocal, mu 
tual ; — eco, reciprocity ; 
— e, reciprocally. 

recitativ-o, recitative. 

redakci-o, editorship, edi- 
torial department. 

redakt-i, to edit ; — o, 
— ado, editor's duties ; 
— anto, editor. 

redaktor-o, sub-editor; cef 
— 0, chief editor. 

redingot-o, frock-coat. 

redukci-o, reduction ; — i, 
to reduce. 

redut-o, redoubt (fortif.). 

lef-o, reef (of sail). 

referat-o, report on refer- 
ence. 
25 



REFERENOO 



REKT-A 



referenc-0, reference. 

referendari-o, referee. 

refleksiv-a, {adj.), reflexive. 

reflekt-i, to reflect; — o, 
reflection ; — a, reflex, 
reflexive. 

reformaci-o, reformation. 

refut-f, to refute. 

re.g-^, to govern, to rule, to 
reign; super — % to pre- 
dominate ; — anto, re- 
gent ; — ato, subject ; 
— istaro, the ministry, 
or political government 
of the state ; — ado, 
governing, rule (ac- 
tion). 

regal-^, to treat, to feast 
(some one); — o, a treat 
(eating and drinking) ; 
— a, pertaining to a 
feast. 

regatt-o, regatta. 

regeneraci-o, regeneration. 

regi-o, state monopoh\ 

regiment-o, regiment. 

region-o, region, country. 

registr-z, to register; — o, 
register, list ; — olihro, 
book in which registra- 
tion is entered ; —ado, 
registration of title. 

reglement-o, regulation. 

regno, State; — estro, head 
of the State ; — a, of the 
State; — ano, a citizen 
of a republican State, a 



subject of a monarchical 
State. 

regol-o, wren. 

regres-o, regress, regres- 
sion. 

regul-o, rule (to be followed 
in conduct, study, etc.); 
— aro, body of rules ; 
— a, regular, conform to 
rule ; — igi, to regulate ; 
— eco, regularity. 

reg-o, king; — ido, crown 
prince; regno — a, king- 
dom ; — i, to be king, to 
reign ; — eco, kingship ; 
demeti la — econ, to abdi- 
cate ; la Tri — oj, Twelfth 
night. 

region-o, system of govern- 
ment, regimen. 

regisor-o, stage-manager. 

Rejn-o, Rhine. 

rejs-o, reis (coin). 

reklam-o, advertising. 

rekommend-^, to commend 
(persons or things) ; — o, 
recommendation . 

rekompenc-i, to reward ; 
— 0, reward. 

rekord-o, record. 

rekrement-o, dross, spume 
(brewers' grain). 

rekrut-o, recruit ; — igOj 
recruiting ; Jcolektado de 
— oj, conscription. 

rekt-a, straight, direct, un- 
deviating ; — ĉ, straight- 



126 



RKKTOR-0 



RESPOND! 



forwardly, directly ; 

— eco, rectitude, up- 
rightness ; — ig% to 
straighten; mal — a, de- 
viating, not straight ; 
mal — igi, to deviate ; 
mal — igo, deviation (act); 
mal — ecOj state of devia- 
tion ; — a komplemento, 
direct object (gram.). 

rektor-o, rector ; — eco, 
rectorate; — ejo, rectory. 

rekviem-o, requiem. 

rekvizici-o, requisition 
(milit.). 

rekvizit-o, requisite. 

lel-o, rail. 

relativ-a, relative (gram.). 

relief-o, relief, relievo ; 
— igi, to emboss, to 
work in relief. 

religi-o, religion ; — a, re- 
ligious ; — ulo, religious 
man. 

rem-i, to row ; — ilo, oar. 

rembvLT-i, to stuff (chairs, 
etc.); — 0, — ado, act of 
stuffing, padding ; — ajo, 
result of the padding. 

remiz-c, coach-house, lock- 
up, garage. 

remont-^, to supply cavalry 
horses ; — o, remount, 
supply to cavalry. 

rempar-o, bulwark. 

remter-o, refectory (mon- 
astery, etc.). 



ren-o, kidney; — a, renal. 

rendevu-o, rendezvous. 

renegat-o, — a, renegade. 

renesanc-o, renaissance. 

renkont-^, to meet; — o, 
meeting ; iri al la — o de, 
to go to meet ; — igi, to 
meet together. 

renovig-o, renovation. 

rent-o, income ; — ulo, one 
who lives on his in- 
come, independent man; 
— lima, interest of 
money ; dumviva — o, 
— umo, life annuity. 

renvers-i, to upset; — igi, 
to get upset; el — i, to 
tumble. 

repertuar-o, repertory, 
stock of . . ., list of . . . 

reprezent-i, to represent. 

reputaci-o, reputation. 

reskript-o, rescript. 

respekt-i, to respect ; — a,- 
respect ; — a, respectful ; 
— inda, respectable; 
— indeco, respectability ; 
— egi, to venerate ; — ego, 
veneration, reverence. 

respektiv-e, respectively ; 
— a, respective. 

respond-?', to respond, to 
answer ; — i pri, to be 
responsible for ; — o, 
response, answer ; — a, 
answering to, for, etc. ; 
la vorto — aal . . . estas .... 



127 



RESPUBLIK-0 



RIĈ-A 



the word answering to ... 
is ... ; vi estas — a pri tio 
ci, you are answerable 
for this ; — eco, response, 
responsibility, la tuta 
— eco ; nenia — eco. 

respublik-o, republic; — a, 
republican. 

rest-^, to remain ; — o, 
remainder; — ajo, what 
remains ; la — ajo de mia 
kuko, the remainder of 
my cake ; — ado, the act 
of remaining, staying, 
stagnation. 

rest oraci-ĉ), restaurant; 
— estro, restaurant- 
keeper. 

resum-i, to sum up; — o, 
summary. 

ret-o, net, netting. 

retin-o, retina. 

retor-o, rhetor. 

retorik-o, rhetoric. 

retort-(?, retort (chem.). 

retroaktiv-a, retroactive. 

retrospektiv-a, retrospec- 
tive. 

reŭmatism-o, rheumatism ; 
— ulo, one suffering from 
rheumatism. 

rev-i, to dream (awake), 
to fancy ; el — igi, dis 
— igi, to get disen- 
chanted, to lose one's 
illusions; — eti, to 
ponder. 

1 



reveng-o, revenge. 

revizi-o, revision; — i, to 
revise ; — isto, reviser. 

revoluci-o, revolution; 
— ulo, revolutionary 
(noun). 

revolver-o, revolver. 

revu-o, review (journal). 

rezed-o, mignonette. 

reze^v-^, to reserve; — o, 
act of keeping in re- 
serve ; — ajo, what is 
kept in reserve. 

vezign-i, to resign; — o, 
resignation. 

rezignaci-o, resignation. 

rezin-o, rezin. 

rezoluci-o, resolution. 

rezon-i, to reason ; — ado, 
reasoning. 

rezult-i, to have for result ; 
— ato, result. 

vib-o, currant; — ujo, cur- 
rant bush ; blankaj — oj, 
white currants. 

libel-?', to rebel; — o, re- 
bellion ; — igi, to incite 
to rebellion ; — anto, 
rebel. 

ricev-i, to receive, to ob- 
tain ; to get, to derive ; 
— 0, reception, obtain- 
ment. 

ricin-o, castor-oil plant. 

riĉ-a, rich; —-eco, wealth 
— igi, to grow rich 
— igo, the getting rich 
28 



RID-I 



RISK-T 



— igi, to eiii'ich ; — igo, 
the act of enriching ; 
mal — a, poor ; mal — igi, 
to impoverish ; mal — igi, 
to get poor ; — ulo, a 
rich man ; mal — ulo, a 
poor man ; mal — ulejo, 
shelter for the poor, re- 
fuge ; mal — eco, poverty. 

rid-z, to laugh ; — o, laugh- 
ter ; — eti, to smile ; 
— eto, smile ; — egi, to 
guflaw ; — inda, laugh- 
able ; — indfi. risibly ; 
— indajo, ridiculous 
thing ; — indeco, risi- 
bility. 

rif-6>, reef, breaker. 

hfugi, to take refuge ; — o, 
refuge ; — ej-o, asylum, 
shelter. 

rifuz-?', to refuse; — o, re- 
fusal. 

rigard-i, to look ; — o, look ; 
ek — i, to cast a look ; 
tra — i, to look right 
through ; — adi, to con- 
template; eJc — 0, a glance. 

rigid-a, stiff, rigid ; — eco, 
stiffness, rigidity. 

rigl-i, to bolt : — ilo, bolt. 

rigor-tt, rigorous ; — eco, 
rigour. 

rikan-i, to grin, to sneer ; 
— 0, — ado, a grin, a 
sneer. 

rikolt-2, to gather, to reap ; 
I 1 



, harvest; il — o, 
sickle ; hon — a jaro, a 
fertile year. 

rilat-i, to relate, to be re- 
lated to ; — 0, relation ; 
inter — o, to have mutual 
relation ; — e al, in re- 
gard to ; concerning ; in 
respect of. 

rim-o, rhyme ; — i, to 
rhyme. 

rimark-i, to remark; — o, 
remark ; — inda, remark- 
able. 

rimed-o, means, way out of. 

rimen-o, strap, thong. 

rimes-2, to remit (funds) ; 
— 0, remittance. 

ring-o, ring ; — ego, hoop. 

rinocer-o, rhinoceros. 

rip-o, rib. 

ripar-?', to repair, to mend 
(trans.) ; — o, — ajo, 
amend, reparation, mend- 
ing. 

ripet-t, to repeat ; — o, 
— ado, repetition. 

ripoz-i, to repose, to rest ; 
— 0, — ado, rest, repose ; 
— igi, to cause to rest. 

riproc-z, to reproach; — o, 
reproach ; — inda, de- 
serving reproach ; ne 
— inda, irreproachable. 

risk-i, to risk ; — o, risk ; 
sen — a, without risk 
(adj.), sure, safe. 
29 



RISM-0 



RUIN-OJ 



rism-0, a ream (of paper). 
risort-o, spring (mach.). 
rit-o, rite, ritual; — libra, 

a ritual, 
ritm-o, rhythm, 
river-o, river, stream ; 

— eto, brook, rivulet ; 

— egOy huge river, 
riverenc-o, reverence ; — ^, 

to make an obeisance. 
riz-o, rice. 
rob-o, robe, gown. 
rod-o, roadstead (sea). 
rodium 6), rhodium, 
rojalism-o, royalism. 
rojalist-o, royalist. 
i'6k-o, rock. 
rokoko, rococo, debased 

style of art, 
rol-o, role, part in a 

play. 
roman-o, novel (a). 
romanc-o, ballad, song, 
romantik-o, romanticism ; 

— a, romantic ; — ulo, 

romanticist. 
romb-o, rhomb ; — -fiso, a 

turbot. 
romp-z, to break ; — o, rup- 
ture ; dis — ^, to part by 

breaking. 
rond-o, circle ; — a, round ; 

— eco, roundness ; — igi, 

to make round. 
ronk-^, to snore ; — o, 

snoring (noun). 
Tos-o, dew. 



rosmar-o, walrus. 

rosmaren-o, rosemary. 

rost-i, to roast; — ajo, roast- 
meat ; pan — ajo, toasted 
bread. 

rostbef-o, roastbeef. 

rostr-o, trunk (of an ele- 
phant, of insects); — eto, 
stigma (bot.). 

rot-o, company {milit.). 

rotond-o, rotunda. 

roz-o, rose (flower); —koloro, 
pink (noun), — kolora, or 
— a, pink (adj.), — o, 
sovaga, hip, eglantine ; 
altea — o, hollyhock. 



head- 



rozan-o, rosary. 

rub-o, rubbish (from de- 
molitions). 

ruband-o, ribbon. 

ruben-^?, ruby. 

rubidi-o, rubidium. 

rubl-o, rouble, ruble. 

rubrik-o, rubric, 
line. 

rubus-o, blackberry. 

rug-a, red ; — o, red (noun), 
— igi, to make red ; — igi, 
to blush ; — eco, redness ; 
— ajo, red marks, reddish 
spots ; dube — a, reddish ; 
sin 
one's face 

ruin-o/, ruins ; — a, in 
ruins ; — igi, to cause 
ruin of anything; — igo, 
the act of ruining; 



tgi, to use rouge on 



130 



RUKT-I 



SAĜ-A 



— iĝi, to fall into ruins ; 
— igOy the act of falling 
into ruins. 

rukt-f, to eructate ; — o, 
eructation. 

ral-i, to roll, to cause to 
roll : — i barelon, to roll 
a barrel; — o, roll, roller ; 
— ado, act of rolling; 
— igi, to roll on itself 
(like a wheel, a ball, 
etc.) ; — iganta stono 
muskon ne kolektas, a roll- 
ing stone gathers no 
moss ; de — i, to distance 
from one point to an- 
other by rolling; kun — i, 
to roll together : mi 
kun — as cigaredon, I 
am rolling a cigarette ; 
— kurteno, roller blind. 

mlad-o, roulade (mus.). 

rum-o, rum. 



Ruman-a(ar/y. ), Roumanian; 
— 0, a Roumanian ; — ujoy 
— lando, Roumania. 

Rus-a, Russian (adj.) ; — o, 
a Russian ; — iijo, — lando, 
Russia ; — iijano, mem- 
ber of the Russian 
empire. 

rust-i, to rust; — o, — ado, 
rusting ; — ajo, rust ; 
— igi, to get rusted ; 
— igo, the getting rusted. 

rvLŬ-o, ruche, ruching. 

rut-o, rue (bat.). 

rutenium-o, ruthenium. 

rutin-o, routine; — a, rou- 
tinary ; — ulo, routine 
follower. 

TViZ-a, cunning; — i, to use 
cunning; — o, cunning, 
ruse, stratagem ; — ulo, 
a cunning man. 



sabat-o, Saturday. 

sabelik-6>, savoy cabbage. 

sabl-o, sand; — ejo, sand- 
pit ; — eto, small sand ; 
— eca, sandy ; — i, to 
sand, to cover with sand ; 
— ero, grain of sand ; 
— ajo, sandbank. 

sabr-o, sabre; — i, — abati, 
to sabre. 

13 



safir-o, sapphire, 
safran-o, saffron, 
sagac-a, sagacious ; — eco, 

sagacity, 
sag-o, arrow; — njo, quiver. 
sagu-o, sago. 
s&ĝ-a, wise ; — o, sense, 

wisdom : la — o eterna, 

the eternal wisdom ; 

— eco, quallity of the 
1 



SAK-0 



SAN-A 



wise; — ulo, a wise man ; 
a sage ; — igi, to make 
wise ; — igi, to become 
wise ; mal — a, foolish, 
silly ; mal — eco, foolish- 
ness ; mal — ulo, a fool ; 
mal — ajo, folly (not mad- 
ness). 

sak-o, sack; — eto, bag, 
small sack. 

sakr-o, sacrum, sacral bone. 

sakrament-o, sacrament. 

sakrilegi-o, sacrilege. 

sakristi-o, sacristy ; — ano, 
sacristan. 

Saks-a, {adj.), Saxon ; ■ — o, 
a Saxon ; — ujo, — lando, 
Saxony. 

sal-o, salt; — a, salt (adj.); 
— i, to salt; — igi, to 
salify ; — igehla, salifi- 
able; — vjo, salt-cellar. 

salajr-o, salary, wages, pay. 

salamandr-o, salamander. 

salamoniak-o, sal ammo- 
niac. 

salat-ĉ>, salad. 

sald-o, balance of account ; 
— i, to settle an account. 

salik-6», willow ; — ejo, wil- 
low plantation ; — ajo, 
wickerwork. 

salikari-o, willow-herb. 

saliv-o, saliva. 

salm-o, salmon. 

salon-o, saloon, drawing- 
room, reception room. 



132 



salpetr-o, saltpetre. 

salt-i, to jump ; 

jump, a leap ; — egi, to 
caper, to frisk, to skip ; 
— ego, a bound ; el — -ulo, 
a parvenu. 

salut-i, to salute ; — o, salu- 
tation, salute. 

salv-o, sah'o, volley, dis- 
charge. 

salvi-o, sage (plant). 

sam-a, same ; — tevipe, at 
the same time {adv.) ; 
idcano, partisan, follower, 
sympathiser ; mal — eco, 
dissimilarity. 

samari-ĉ>, samarium. 

sumbuk-o, elder (tree). 

samovar-o, samovar (Rus- 
sian tea-urn). 

san-a, healthy, in good 
health ; — o, health (in 
a general sense) ; — eco, 
state of good health ; 
— i, to enjoy good 
health; — iga, health giv- 
ing; mal — a, ill ; mal—o, 
illness ; mal— eco, state 
of illness ; mal — ema, 
sickly ; mal — ulo, a 
patient; mal — ulisto, 
sick nurse (professional) ; 
mal — ulejo, hospital, in- 
firmary ; re — igi, to cure ; 
re — igi, to get cured; 
re — igo, convalescence ; 
re — iganto, convalescent ; 



SANDAL-0 



8CI-I 



remal — o, relapse; remal 
— igo, relapse experienc- 
ed ; re — igebia, curable ; 
nere — igehla, incurable. 

sandal-o, sandal wood. 

sandr-o, perch, pike. 

sang-o, blood ; — a, of 
blood, sanguineous; 
— ado, hemorrhage; 
— verso, effusion of blood ; 
— ellaso, bleeding (noun), 
blood letting ; j^erdi — on, 
— adi, to bleed ; — adi el 
la nazo, to bleed from the 
nose ; — ema, bleeding 
easily ; — avida, sangui- 
nary ; — adulto, in- 
cest. 

sangvin-a, sanguine ; — ulo, 
sanguine person. 

sankci-f», sanction ; — i, to 
sanction. 

sankt-ft, holy, sacred ; — eco, 
holiness, sacredness; 
— igi, to sanctify ; — igi, 
to be sanctified; — ejo, 
sanctuary, temple; — ido, 
a saint; — alvvjo, holy 
water basin. 

sanskrit-o, Sanscrit. 

santal-ĉ?, sandal- wood. 

sap-o, soap ; — eca, soapy. 

Sard-a {adj.), Sardinian ; 
— 0, a Sardinian ; — ujo, 
Sardinia. 

,. ' sardine. 
sardin-o, j 

1 



saturate. 



sark-^*, to weed. 

sarkasm-o, sarcasm ; — a, 
sarcastic. 

sarkofag-c, sarcophagus. 

sat-a, satiated ; — igi, to 
satiate; ma/ — a, hungry, 
mal — 0, hunger; r)ial — i, 
to hunger ; gis — e, till 
satiety (is reached). 

Satan-o, Satan. 

satir-o, satire. 

satirus-o, a satyr. 

satrap-o, satrap. 

satur-i, to 
{chem.). 

saŭc-f>, sauce. 

sav-i, to save ; — antu, 
saviour (who saves) ; 
— into, saviour (who has 
saved) ; — o, salvation. 

scen-o, scene, stage (the- 
atr.). 

sceptr-^j, sceptre. 

sci-i, to knoA^' {verb) ; — o, 
— ado, exact knowledge 
of certain things; sen 
la - — de, unknown to ; 
— igi, to advise, to give 
notice ; — igo, advice, 
notice, information ; 
— igi, to learn, to be 
apprised of something ; 
antaŭ—igi, to let it be 
known beforehand ; ne 
— ato, something un- 
known ; — awza, studious; 
ne — i, to be ignorant of. 
33 



SCIENC-0 



*SEN- 



scienc-0, science ; — ulo, 
scientist. 

sciur-o, squirrel. 

■^se, if, whether. If in 
indirect query, cu must 
be used : Dim al mi, 
cu via fratino venos, Tell 
me whether (?) your 
sister will come. 

seb-o, tallow ; — a, of 
tallow ; — i, to tallow ; 
— eca, sebaceous. 

■^sed, but. 

sag-*, to saw ; — ilo, a saw. 

segment-o, segment. 

seĝ-o, chair; — ego, arm- 
chair, bralc — 0, armchair. 

sek-a, dry ; — eco, dryness ; 
— igi, to dry, to drain ; 
— igi, to dry up, to waste 
away ; mal — a, wet 
(adj.) ; mal — eco, wet 
(noun) ; mal — igi, to get 
wet. 

sekalo, rye. 

sekc-i, to dissect; — o, 
— ado, dissection ; — anto, 
dissector. 

sekci-o, section (part of 
something). 

sekret-o, secret {noun) ; 
— a, secret, clandestine ; 
— igi, to secrete, to 
make secret, to keep 
secret. 

Bekretari-f>, secretary ; 

— ecOy secretaryship ; 



134 



ejo — , the office (place) 
of a secretary. 

seks-o, sex; — a, sexual. 

sekst-o, a sixth (mus.). 

sekt-o, sect. 

sektor-o, sector (geom.). 

sekulariz-i, to secularize ; 
— 0, secularization. 

sekund-o, second (of time). 

sekundant-o, second (in a 
duel). 

sekv-i, to follow ; — anta, 
following, which follows; 
— anfaro, the suite, the 
cortege ; — o, the con- 
sequence ; — e, conse- 
quently ; inter — e, con- 
secutively. 

sel-o, saddle ; — i, to saddle ; 
sen — igi, to unsaddle. 

selakt-o, whey. 

selen-o, selenum. 

sem-z, to sow ; — o, seed ; 
— ado, sowing time ; 
dis — i, dis — adi, dissem- 
inate ; — ilo, corndrill 
for sowing wheat. 

semafor-o, semaphore. 

semajn-o, week ; ciu — a. 
weekly (adj.) ; ciu — e, 
weekly (adv.). 

semid-o, semite ; — a, 
Semitic. 

seminari-o, seminary ; 

— an/), seminarist. 

■'^'sen-, without ; — riska., 
sure, safe; — honta, 



SENAT-0 



ŜEVER-A 



shameless ; — igi je, to 
strip of, to deprive of ; 
— maskigi, to unmask ; 
— kajpigi, to behead ; 
— vestigi, to undress : 
— laborulo, idle man ; 
— taŭgulo, good for no- 
thing fellow ; — atente, 
unawares ; — eco, penury. 

senat-o, senate ; — ano, 
senator. 

senc-o, sense, meaning 
(never applied to per- 
sons); sen — a, meaning- 
less; sen — ajo, nonsense. 

send-e, to send ; — o, send- 
ing (noun) ; — ajo, the 
things sent; — ito, an 
envoy, a special messen- 
ger ; dis — i, to send 
right and left. 

sensaci-o, sensation ; — a, 
sensational. 

sent-i, to feel, to experi- 
ence ; — 0, feeling ; 
— ema, sensitive ; — ama, 
sensual; — ebia, sensible; 
— emOj sensibility ; akre 
— a, acutely sensitive ; 
antaŭ — i, to have a pre- 
sentiment of. 

sentenc-o, sentence (judg- 
ment). 

sentimental-a, sentimen- 
tal. 

"*^sep-, seven ; — a, seventh : 



— onoj seventh part. 



135 



sepi-o, cuttle-fish. 

Septembr-o, September. 

septet-o, septett (mus.). 

seraf-o, seraph. 

serajl-o, seraglio. 

Serb-a (adj.), Servian ; — o, 
a Servian; — 2ijo, — lando, 
Servia. 

serĉ-i, to seek, to look for. 

seren-a, serene, fair, un- 
ruffled ; — eco, serenity. 

serenad-ĉ?, serenade. 

serĝent-o, sergeant. 

seri-o, series. 

serioz-a, serious ; — eco, 
seriousness. 

serpen t-o, serpent ; son — o, 
rattlesnake. 

serur-o, lock; — isio, lock- 
smith. 

serv-i, to serve ; — a, 
service ; fari — on, to 
do a service ; — isto, 
servant ; — ema, ser- 
viceable ; — emo, ser- 
viceableness, usefulness ; 
— emulo, fawner, go-be- 
tween, an officious man ; 
Di — divine service ; 
Di — anto, servant of God. 

servic-o, courses (at table). 

servut-o, servitude; — ulo, 
a serf. 

*ses-, six ; — a, sixth ; 
— ono, sixth part. 

sever-a, severe ; — eco, 
severity; mal—a, too 



SEVRtJG-0 



SIMIL-A 



indulgent ; mal — ^, to 
be too indulgent ; — ege, 
very strictly. 

sevrug-<?, starlet sturgeon. 

sezon-o, season. 

sfer-c, sphere. 

sfinks-o, sphinx. 

sfinkter-o, sphincter (auaf.) 
muscle. 

*si, self (oneself) ; sia, his, 
her, hers, its, its own 
(when the possessor is 
the subject of the clause). 

Siberi-(9, Siberia ; — a (adj.), 
Siberian ; — utw, a 
Siberian. 

sibl-i, to hiss, to whistle 
(as the wind). 

sid-i, to be sitting, to sit, 
to be perched ; — igi, to 
cause to sit ; — igi, to sit 
down ; — ejo, seat, place 
where one sits ; kun — o, 
sitting, seance. 

sieĝ-z, to besiege ; — o, a 
siege ; — antoj, the, 
besiegers ; — atoj, the 
besieged. 

sifilis-(7, syphilis. 

sifon-ĉ?, syphon. 

sigel-i, to seal ; — ilo, seal ; 
sen — igi, to unseal ; 
raks — 0, sealing-wax. 

sign-o, sign, mark ; — i, to 
mark ; post — o, trace, 
track, footsteps, vestige ; 
pied — 0, footprint. 



signal-o, signal ; — diro^ 
password. 

signif-^, to signify; — o, 
signification ; sen — a, in- 
significant. 

silab-c», syllable; — i, \o 
spell. 

silent-i, to be silent; — i 
pri, to be silent about; 
— 0, silence ; — a, silent ; 
— igi, to quiet, to cause 
to be silent ; — igi, to 
become silent. 

silf-o, carrion-beetle, black- 

fly. 

silici-0, silicium. 
silik-6), flint, silex 
silk-o, silk ; — a, 

— eca, silky, 

— a raŭpo, silk- worm, 
silogism-o, syllogism, 
siluet-o, silhouette, 
silur-o, silurus (fish), shad, 
silvi-o, warbler (bird), 

hedge-sparrow, 
simbol-o, symbol, 
simbolik-o, symbolics, 
simetri-o, symmetry ; 

symmetrical. 
simfoni-o, symphony, 
simi-o, ape, monkey ; 

simian, 
simil-a, similar, like ; - 

resemblance, similarity; 

— i, to resemble ; — igi, 

to assimilate ; — i^i, to 

become like. 



of silk; 
silken ; 



a, 



— a. 



-eco, 



136 



SIMPATI-O 



SKARLAT-0 



simpati-0, sympathy ; — a, 
sympathetic; — i, to 
sympathise. 

simpl-a, simple, single, 
mere ; — eco, singleness ; 
— igi, to simplify ; — igi, 
to become simple ; 
pli — igi, to simplify 
more ; pli — igi, to be- 
come simpler; pli — igo, 
the getting simpler ; 
— anima, ingenuous ; 
inal — a, compound ; 

mal — igi, to complicate; 
— ani?mdo, a simpleton. 

simptomo, symptom. 

sinagog-o, synagogue. 

sinap-o, mustard plant, 
charlock. 

sincer-(i, sincere, 
— eco, sincerity, 
ness. 

sindik-o, syndic. 

sindikat-o, syndicate, 

sindon-a, devoted ; 
— ^co, devotion. 

sinedri-o, sanhedrim. 

singardem-(i, cautious ; — o, 
prudence. 

singult-i, to hiccup; — o, 
hiccup. 

sinjor-o, Mr., sir, gentle- 
man ; — ino, Mrs., 
Madam, lady ; la Siiijoro, 
the Lord (God). 

sinkop-o, syncope. 

sinod-o, synod. 

1 



open; 
open- 



smonim-o, synonym. 

sinoptik-rt, synoptic, synop- 
tical ; — ulo, synoptist. 

sinovi-a, synovial (anal). 

sintaks-o, syntax. 

sintez-o, synthesis ; — a, 
synthetic. 

siren-o, siren (myth.), mer- 
maid. 

Siri-a, Syrian (adj.) ; — o, 
Syria ; — ano, a Syrian. 

siring-o, lilac. 

sirop-o, syrup. 

sistem-o, system. 

sitel-o, pail. 

situaci-o, situation, posi- 
tion. 

skabel-ĉ>, stool, footstool. 

skaben-o, alderman, juror. 

skabi-(9, itch, scab, etc. 

skadr-o, squadron (army). 

skal-o, scale ; la — o de via 
karto, the scale of your 
map ; la — o de lia voco, 
the scale of his voice. 

skalp-o, scalp. 

skandal-o, scandal ; — ^, to 
scandalise. 

skandi-o, scandium. 

skandinav-a, Scandinavian. 

skapol-o, shoulder blade, 
omoplate. 

skarab-r>, beetle. 

skarifik-i, to scarify, to 
cup ; — 0, cupping ; — ilo, 
scarificator. 

skarlat-o, scarlet. 
37 



SKARLATIN-0 



SKULPT-I 



skarlatin-o, scarlatina. 

skarp-o, scarf. 

sk.a>t-o, skating-rink. 

skatol-o, small box or case. 

skelet-o, skeleton. 

skem-o, schema ; — a, 
schematic; — i, to sche- 
matize. 

skeptik-ĉi, sceptical {adj.)-, 
— eco, scepticism. 

skerm-i, to fence ; — o, 
fencing ;profesoro de — o, 
fencing master. 

skerz-o, scherzo. 

skism-o, schism ; — a, schis- 
matic. 

skiz-^, to sketch; — o, 
sketch. 

sklav-o, slave ; — a, of 
slave, servile ; — ema, 
cringing, slavish ; — emo^ 
servility ; — eco, slavery ; 
— igiy to reduce to 
slavery. 

skolastik-a, scholastic 

{adj.). 

skolop-o, woodcock. 

skolopendr-o, centipede. 

skombr-6», mackerel. 

skorbut-ĉ), scurvy. 

skori-o, scoria, dross, slag. 

skorpi-o, scorpion. 

skorzones-o, black salsify. 

Skot-a, Scottish ; — o, a 
Scot, a Scotchman ; 
— lando, Scotland. 

skrap i, to scrape, to 



scratch ; — ilo, eraser, 
scraper, etc. ; ungo — i, 
to scratch with the 
finger-nails; — o, — ado, 
erasure, scratching (the 
act) ; de — ajo, the part 
scraped off, or scratched. 

skrib-t, to write ; — o, writ- 
ing (what is written); 
J a sank t a — o, holy writ; 
— ado, the art of writ- 
ing; bel — ado, calli- 
graphy ; — a, in writing 
(adj.) ; — e, in writing 
(adv.) ; — isto, a scribe, a 
copyist, etc. ; de — i, to 
extract, to copy from ; 
trans — i, to transcribe, 
al — i, to ascribe ; en — i, 
to inscribe, to write in ; 
en — 0, inscription in ; 
siir — i, to write on; 
sur — 0, placard, bill 
stuck on ; sur — eto, label, 
ticket; sub — i, to sub- 
scribe; sub — 0, subscrip- 
tion ; jjri — i, to describe ; 
pri — 0, description. 

skrofol-o, scrofula. 

skrupul-o, scruple ; ^a, 
scrupulous. 

sku-i, to shake; — o, a 
shake ; — igi, to shake, 
to be shaken ; ne — ebla, 
that cannot be shaken. 

skulpt-^, to sculpture, to 
carve ; — ado, sculptiu:e 



138 



SKUN-0 



SOMNAMBULISM-0 



(ait) ; — ajo, sculpture 
(the work done) ; — a, 
sculptural ; — isto, 

sculptor ; — ilo, chisel 
of sculptor. 

skun-o, schooner. 

skurĝ-o, whip, knout ; — i, 
to scourge. 

skvam-o, scales (of fish). 

Slav-a, Slavonic, Slavic 
{adj,) ; — 0, a Slav. 

smerald-o, emerald. 

smilak-o, sarsaparilla. 

smirg-o, emery ; — i, to rub 
or polish with emery ; 
— a pajpero, emery- 
paper, 

sobr-«, sober ; — eco, 
sobriety ; mal — a, in- 
temperate; mal — eco, in- 
temperance ; mal — igi, 
to be intemperate. 

social-a, social (not sociable). 

socialism-o, socialism. 

socialist-o, socialist. 

societ-o, society ; — a, of 
society ; — ema, sociable. 

sod-o, soda. 

sof-o, sofa. 

sofism-(?, sophism. 

soif-i, to be thirsty ; to 
thirst ; — a, thirst ; sen 
— ig% to quench the 
thirst ; sen — iga, which 
quenches the thirst. 

sojl-o, threshold. 

sokl-o, socle, plinth. 



sol-o, solo (mus.) ; — isto, 
soloist. 

sol-a, sole, alone ; — e, 
solely; — eco, seclusion. 

sold-o, military pay. 

soldat-o, soldier, pawn (in 
chess) ; — ejo, barrack ; 
mar — o, a marine. 

sole-o, sole (fish). 

solecism-o, solecism. 

solen-a, solemn ; — o, solem- 
nity, solemn festival ; 
— igi, to solemnize. 

solid-a, solid, sedate, ster- 
ling, respectable ; — eco, 
solidity, soundness, re- 
spectability. 

solidar-<i, conjointly liable 
(adj.). 

soliter-o, tape- worm. 

solv-t, to solve, to resolve ; 
la vaporo — ita en pluvo, 
vapour resolved into 
rain ; la p'ohlemo estas 
— ita, the problem is 
solved ; — o, solution ; 
— ehla, that may be 
solved, soluble ; — ebleco, 
solubility; ne — ehla, in- 
solvable; — igi, to be 
solved, or dissolved. 

somer-o, summer; — a, of 
summer; — e, in summer. 

somnambul-o, somnambu- 
list. 

somnambulism-o, somnam- 
bulism. 



139 



SON-I 



SPECIFIKACI-0 



son-f, to resound, to give 
a sound ; - — igi, to cause 
to sound ; — o, sound ; 
— a, sonorous ; multe — a, 
that has much sound ; 
re — a, sending back the 
sound ; re — i, to send 
back sound ; hon — a, bel 
— a, harmonious, melodi- 
ous. 

sonat-o, sonata. 

sond-f, to sound, to fathom. 

sonet-o, sonnet (poem). 

sonĝ-o, dream (during 
sleep) ; — ^, to dream 
(during sleep). 

sonor-i, to ring, to produce 
a sound by prolonged 
musical vibrations ; — ilo, 
bell ; — ileto, small bell ; 
— igi, to ring a bell, etc. ; 
sonorigu al la servistino, 
ring for the servant- 
maid ; = — igisfo, b e 1 1- 
ringer. 



sopi^-^, to sigh for 



li sojnras 

feliceco, 

his lost 

— ado, a 



je sia perdita 
he sighs after 
happiness ; — o, 
sigh for, a regret, a de- 
sire ; — anto, a wooer. 

sopran-o, soprano. 

sorb-^, to absorb, to suck 
up ; — igi, to imbibe ; 
— igi, to become imbued; 
— igo, action of imbib- 
ing ; — i(ĵo, act of getting 

1 



imbued ; — a impero^ 
blotting paper. 

sorc-i, to practise witch- 
craft ; — 0, witchcraft ; 
— a, of witchcraft; en 
— ^, to bewitch ; en — o, 
bewitching (now?!) ; — isto, 
sorcerer; — arto, sorcery. 

sorik-o, shrew-mouse. 

sorp-o, sorb ; — ujo, sorb or 
service-tree. 

sort-o, fate, destiny. 

sortiment-o, assortment. 

sovaĝ-a, wild ; — ulo, 
savage (man) ; — eco^ 
savagery ; mal — a, tame. 

spac-o, space {not duration); 
en — ^, to contain within 
its bounds ; inter — o, dis- 
tance between places. 

spad-o, spada, flat broad- 
sword. 

spalir-o, espalier. 

spasm-o, spasm. 

spat-o, spa (min.) ; spavin. 

spec-o, species ; U7iu — a, of 
a single species or kind ; 
diver sa — a, of varied 
kinds ; — ajaro, assort- 
ment. 

special-a, special ; — ajo, 
speciality. 

specifik-?', to specify ; — a, 
specific; — o, specification. 

specifikaci-o, specification 
(patents, etc.) ; — ?', to 
specify (patents, etc.). 





SPECIMEN-0 



STABL-0 



specimens?, specimen, 
sample. 

spektr-ĉ>, spectre, 

spegul-6», mirror, looking- 
glass. 

spektakl-o, sight, view, 
stage representation. 

spekulaci-o, speculation ; 
— i, to speculate. 

spekulativ-tt, speculative. 

sperm-c, sperm, semen, 
seed. 

spermacet-o, spermaceti. 

spert-a, experienced ; — o, 
experience. 

spez-c, clearing (of funds) ; 
el — 0, disbursement, ex- 
penditure ; el — i, to 
to spend, to disburse ; en 
— 0, receipt (the funds 
received) ; en — i, to re- 
ceive funds. 

spic-o, spice ; — a, spiced, 
tasty ; — i, to season. 

spik-o, ear (of corn). 

spil-i, to tap, to broach 
(casks) ; to spill, to shed ; 
— ilo, spigot. 

spin-o, spine (dorsal). 

spinac-o, spinach. 

spion-o, spy; — i, to 

spy- 

spir-i, to breathe ; — o, 
— ado, the breathing ; 
— add, respiratory ; en 
— i, to breathe in ; — egi, 
to pant for breath ; el 



— ajo, the breath ; —chla, 
respirable. 

spiral-o, spiral {noun) ; — a, 
spiral {<J^dj.) ; — ajo, 
volute, scroll. 

spirit-o, spirit; — a, spirit- 
ual, intellectual. 

spiritism-o, spiritism. 

spiritualism-OjSpiritualism. 

spiritus-o, alcoholic spirit. 

spit-ĉ, in spite of ; spite cio, 
in spite of everything. 

splen-o, spleen. 

split-ĉ), splint, splinter ; — i, 
to split. 

sponde-ĉ?, spondee (pros.). 

spong-o, sponge. 

sporad-rt, sporadic. 

sport-o, sport; — a, sport- 
ing; — ido, sportsman. 

sprit-a, witty ; —eco, wit ; 
— ajo, witticism ; — ulo, 
a wit (man) ; mal — a, 
stupid ; mal — ajo, stupid 
act or saying ; mal — ulo, 
a stupid fellow; mal — ceo, 
state of silliness or 
stupidity. 

spron-o, spur. 

sprot-o, sprat. 

sput-i, to spit (blood or 
glair) ; —o de sango, 
spitting of blood. 

stab-c, staff (the), army 
j officers. 

' stabl-o, bench, easel, loom, 
j frame, etc. 
41 



STACI-0 



STOF-0 



staci-0, station (railways, 
omnibuses, boats, etc.) ; 
— donw, railway-station. 

stadi-o, stadium. 

stal-o, rude shed (made of 
wood). 

stalagmit-o, stalagmite. 

stalaktit-o, stalactite. 

stamen-o, stamen, stamina 
(bot.) ; stamin, tammy 
(cloth). 

stamp-o, stamp - mark, 
official stamp ; — i, to 
stamp, to mark officially. 

stan-o, tin, pewter ; — i, to 
tin. 

stanc-o, stanza. 

standard-o, flag, standard ; 
— isto, flag-bearer. 

stang-o, pole (wood). 

stapeli-o, fritillary (genus), 
coxcomb. 

stapl-o, pile, heap ; — ero, 
staple, commodity. 

star-i, to stand ; el — i, to 
jut out ; , — igi, to raise, 
to put, or set upright ; 
— igi, to get up ; kontraŭ 
— i, to stand against, 
to oppose ; kontrail — o, 
opposition ; mem — a, self- 
reliant, independent. 

stard-o, bustard (bird). 

stat-o, state of being ; bon 
— a, in good condition. 

statik-o, statics ; — a, static 



(adj.). 



^ statist-o, statist. 

statistik-ĉ?, statistics. 

statu-o, statue. 

statur-o, physique, stature, 
form. 

stearin-o, stearin (chem.). 

steb-i, to stitch; — o, — ado, 
stitching; — ilo, sewing- 
machine. 

stel-o, star ; — aro, con- 
stellation. 

stenografii-o, shorthand. 

step-o, waste land, moor, 
steppe. 

stereoskop-o, stereoscope. 

sterotip-o, stereotype. 

sterk-o, dung, manure ; — i, 
to manure (the ground). 

sterled-o, sterlet (fish). 

sterling-a funt-o, pound 
sterling. 

stern-i, to stretch or sprawl 
on one surface; Hi — is 
la malsanulon sur la lito, 
they stretched the 
patient on the bed. 

stertor-i, to make a raucous 
noise. 

steven-o, stern, stern-post. 

stil-o, style. 

stilistik-(9, stylistics ; — a, 
stylistic (adj.). 

stimul-i, to stimulate. 

stip-o, broom (shrub). 

stipendi-o, stipend. 

stof-o, Russian mea- 
sure. 



142 



STOIK-0 



SUBSTANTIV-0 



stoik-0, — ulo, a stoic ; —a 
(adj.), stoic. 

8tol-o, stole (eccles. vest- 
ment). 

stomak-o, stomach ; — a, 
stomachic. 

stopl-o, stubble (agric). 

strsib-i, to squint ; — a, 
squinting ; — ulo, a 
squinting man ; — eco, 
squinting (noun). 

strang-ĉi, strange, peculiar; 
— eco, strangeness, pecu- 
liarity ; — ajo, strange 
demeanour, etc. 

strat-o, street; — eto, by- 
street, lane, alley. 

strategi-o, strategy; — isto, 
strategist. 

streĉ-z, to stretch, to ex- 
tend with force ; to wind 
up (clock or watch). 

strek-2, to streak, to stripe; 
— 0, a streak, a stripe, a 
traced line ; suh — i, to 
underline. 

stri-o, wide streak, or stripe. 

strig-o, owl ; paser — o, 
screech-owl. 

strigl-i, to currycomb ; 
— ilo, currycomb. 

strik-o, strike (of work- 
men). 

striknin-o, strychnine. 

strof-o, strophe. 

stronci-^, strontium. 

struktur-o, structure, build. 



strut-o, ostrich. 

stud-?', to study ; — o, ado, 

— ajo, study ; — anfo, 

student. 
student-o, student, 
stuf-i, to stew, to fry, to 

stuk-i, to stucco, to plaster; 
— 0, — ajo, stucco. 

stump-o, stump, trunk, 
fag end. 

stup-o, tow. 

sturg-o, sturgeon. 

stum-o, starling. 

*sub, under ; — e, beneath ; 
— en, going beneath 
(motion) ; — kusi, to be 
lying under ; — meti, to 
subdue, to put under; 
— forgi, to shoe a horse ; 
— taso, a saucer. 

subaltern-tt, subaltern 
(adj.) ; — ulo, subaltern 
(noun). 

subit-a, sudden; — e, sud- 
denly. 

subjekt-o, subject (of verb). 

subjektiv-a, subjective 
(adj.); — eco, subject- 
ivity. 

subjunktiv-o, subjunctive 
(gram.). 

sublimat-o, sublimate. 

subretin-o, abigail, sou- 
brette. 

substanc-o, substance. 

substantiv-o, substantive. 



143 



SUBTIL-A 



*SUPEK 



subtil-a, subtle ; — eco^ sub- 
tlety. 

subvenci-o, subvention. 

suc-z', to suck ; — o, — ado^ 
suction ; — iĝi^ to pene- 
trate by suction ; — ilo^ 
sucker , — ajt», spot made 
by sucking. 

sud-o, south; — a, southern; 
— u\o^ southerner. 

sufer-i, to suifer, to bear, 
to endure ; — o, suffer- 
ing (noun) ; — ehla, bear- 
able. 

sufic-a, sufficient ; — ^, to 
suffice ; — e, enough 
sufficiently ; — ega, a- 
bundant. 

sufiks-o, suffix. 

suflor-o, prompter ; — i, to 
prompt. 

sufok-i, to suffocate, to 
smother ; — o, suffoca- 
tion inflicted ; — a, suffo- 
cating ; — igi, to suffo- 
cate (neuter) ; — igo, suffo- 
cation undergone. 

sufragan-o, suffragan. 

sugest-i, to suggest ; — o, 
suggestion ; — a, sug- 
gestive. 

suk-o, sap (of plants) ; — a, 
juicy, succulent; — ^9Zĉ?ia, 
full of sap, vigorous ; 
sen — igi, to dry up, to 
perish, to lose sap. 

sukcen-o, amber. 

1 



; — acido, 

wrinkle ; 
furrow, 
— igi, to 



sukces-?, to have success, 
to prosper ; — o, success. 

suker-o, sugar; —i, to 
sugar ; — ujo, sugar- 
basin ; — far ado, sugar- 
making ; — faristo, sugar- 
maker; — farejo, sugar- 
factory. 

sulfur-o, sul[)hur 
sulphuric acid. 

sulk-o, furrow, 
— eto, small 
small wrinkle ; 
wrinkle, to frown ; — igi, 
to get wrinkled, to be- 
come frowning ; to 
shrivel up. 

sultan-o, sultan. 

sum-o, sum ; — i, to make 
up the amount ; re — i, to 
resume; re — o, resume. 

sun-6», sun ; — floro, sun- 
flower. 

sup-o, soup ; — ujo, soup- 
tureen. 

*super, above; — i, to 
surpass, to exceed ; 
— mezura, excessive ; 
— natura, supernatural ; 
— ruzi, to surpass in 
cunning ; — regi, to sur- 
pass in domination ; 
— satigi, to gorge ; — akvi, 
to inundate ; akvego, 
deluge ; — Jluo, super- 
fluousness; — Jlua, super- 
fluous ; — rego, prepon- 
44 



SUPERLATIV-0 



SVIS-A 



derance ; — a, superior 
(adj.); — oferi, to outbid. 

superlative, superlative 
(gram.). 

superstiĉ-o, superstition ; 
— a, of superstition, 
superstitious ; — ulo, 
superstitious man. 

supoz-i, to suppose ; — o, 
supposition. 

supr-e, above ; — a, upper, 
above {adj.) ; — e, being 
above, up ; de — e, from 
above ; — en, the place 
above (to which cue 
goes) ; mal — a, from be- 
low, below ; nuil — e, be- 
low, from below ; {adv. ) ; 
de mal — e, coming from 
below ; mal — en, the 
place below (to which 
one goes) ; — o, the sum- 
mit, the top part ; mal 
— 0, the lower part ; 
— ajo, surface ; — aja, of 
the surface, superficial ; 
— aje, superficially ; mal 
— eniri, to descend (from 
a carriage). 

^sur, on, upon ; metu la 
robon — la tahlon, put the 
dress on the , table ; 
— rampi, to climb ; 
— bordo, a quay, wharf : 
— versi, to water, to 
spray. [Do not confound 
sw with super.] 



surd-a, deaf ; — ulo, a deaf 
man ; — eco, deafness ; 
— a-muta, deaf and dumb 
(adj.) ; — a-mutulo, deaf 
and dumb man ; — igi, 
to deafen ; — igi, to be- 
come deaf; — igo, the 
act of becoming deaf. 

surogat-o, surrogate. 

surplis-o, surplice. 

surpriz-i, to surprise ; — o, 
surprise ; — e, by sur 
prise, with sui-prise. 

surtut-o, overcoat. 

suspekt-i, to suspect; — o, 
suspicion; — a, suspect; 
— ema, suspicious. 

sutan-o, soutane, cassock. 

suveran-o, sovereign ; — a, 
sovereign {adj.) ; — eco, 
sovereignty. 

svarm-i, to swarm with, 
to be alive with ; - — o, a 
swarm ; — ado, a throng. 

svat-i, to intermeddle in 
matchmaking, to act 
as a marriage-broker ; 
— isto, matrimonial 
agent. 

sved-a, Swedish {adj.) ; — o, 
a Swede ; — ujo, —lando, 
Sweden. 

sven-i, to swoon. 

sving-i, to swing. 

Svis-a, Swiss {adj.) ; — o, 
a Swiss ; — ujo, —lando, 
Switzerland. 



145 



ŜAF-0 



ŜEL-0 



ŝ 



ŝaf-0, sheep ; — ino, ewe ; 
— o-viro, ram ; — eto, 
small sheep ; — ido, 
lamb ; — ideio, tiny 
lamb ; — aĵo, mutton ; 
— idaĵo, lamb (meat). 

Sah-o, shah. 

ŝajn-i, to seem, to appear ; 
— a, seeming (adj.), ap- 
parent ; — 0, appearance, 
seeming (noun) ; sub — o, 
under the appearance ; 
— e, seemingly ; — igi, 
to feign, to pretend; 
— iga, pretended, 
feigned ; ver — o, likeli- 
hood ; never — a, un- 
likely. 

sak-q/', chess ; — a tabulo, or 
— tabulo, chess-board. 

ŝakal-o, jackal. 

ŝakr-i, to chaffer, to haggle; 
— isto, haggler, an old- 
clothes' man, huckster. 

ŝakt-o, shaft, pit {mines). 

ŝal-o, shawl. 

ŝalm-o, shawm, stalk of 
corn, straw, pipe, reed. 

ŝalup-ĉ?, sloop, gunboat. 

ŝam-(7, shammy (leather), 
— kolora, chamois col- 
oured. 

ŝanc-o, hick, chance. 

ŝancel-i, to cause to vacil- 

1 



late, to shake, to cause 
to hesitate; — igi, to 
hesitate, to oscillate ; 
— igo, hesitation, oscilla- 
tion ; — iga, hesitating, 
undecided, oscillating. 

ŝanĝ-i, to change, to alter 
(active) ; — o, change, 
alteration ; inter — i, to 
exchange; inter — o, ex- 
change, barter ; — igi, to 
change, to be altered ; 
— ema, fond of change ; 
— iga, changeable. 

ŝankr-o, chancre, canker ; 
— a, cankerous, cankered. 

ŝarad-o, charade. 

ŝarg-i, to load (a gun, etc.). 

ŝarĝ-i, to place a burden 
on ; — 0, burden, load ; 
— ego, heavy load ; — a, 
heavy, burdensome ; sen 
— igi, to unload ; — 
veturilo, dray, dray-cart. 

ŝark-c, shark. 

sat-/, to prize, to like ; 
7nal — i, to disdain, not 
to appreciate ; — inda, 
reputable. 

ŝaŭm-ĉ?, froth, foam ; — i, 
to foam, to be frothy. 

ŝel-o, shell, peel, bark ; sen 
— igi, to shell, to peel, 
etc. 
46 



ŜELAK-0 



ŜOVEL-I 



ŝelak-0, shellac. 

ŝelk-o, brace (for trousers, 
etc.). 

Sem-o, Shem ; — ido, Se- 
mite ; — ida, Semitic. 

ŝenopraz-(9, chives, bladed 
leek. 

ŝerc-i, to joke, to pun, etc.; 
—0, joke, fun, etc.; — ido, 
a wag. 

ŝei-oj, shears ; dock or ship 
cranes. 

*ŝi-, she, her ; — a, her, hers 
(poss.) ; — n (accusative) 
her. 

ŝild-6>, shield. 

ŝiling-(3, shilling. 

ŝim-i, to get mouldy, rancid. 

ŝind-(?, shingle. 

ŝink-o, ham. 

ŝip-o, ship, boat, vessel ; 
— a, naval, of the fleet; 
— aro, the navy, the 
fleet ; — etaro, flotilla ; 
— irebla, navigable; 
— postsigno, wake of a 
ship. 

ŝir-i, to tear; — o, tearing 
(noun) ; de — i, to part ; 
by tearing; de—o, act 
of parting by tearing; 
de — ajo, a tear (in a gar- 
ment) ; de — igi, to be 
torn from ; de — iyo, the 
being torn from ; dis — i, 
to tear to pieces ; dis — o, 
the tearing to pieces ; 



dis — igi, to be torn to 
pieces ; dis — igo, the be- 
ing torn to pieces ; el — i, 
to uproot, to extract; 
kor — anfa, heartrending. 

ŝirm-e, to shield, to shelter, 
to screen ; — ilo, screen ; 
— ileto, peak of a cap, 
vizor ; vent — ilo, large 
folding screen ; fajro 
— ilo, fire screen ; lamp 
— ilo, lamp shade. 

ŝlim-(?, slime, mud ; — hava, 
muddy, slimy ; — ejo, 
bog. 

ŝlos-i, to lock ; ■ — ilo, key ; 
— ilosfo, clavicle, collar- 
bone. 

ŝmac-f, to smack, to kiss 
loudly ; — o, a loud kiss. 

smir-'i, to anoint, to rub 
with ointment ; — o, 
unction, anointing ; 

— ajo, ointment. 

ŝnur-6>, string ; — ego, cable, 
rope ; — eto, twine, thin 
string ; — armi, to rig ; 
sen — igi, to unrig. 

ŝose-o, embankment, with 
wide roadway, large 
esplanade. 

ŝov-i, to push a thing; 
al — i, to push towards ; 
sur — i, to push upon ; 
en — i, to push into. 

Ŝovel-?', to shovel ; — ilo, a 
shoveL 
47 



ŜOVINISM-0 



§VIT-I 



ŝovinism-0, chaiiviiiism. 

ŝovinist-o, chauvinist. 

ŝpar-?, to spare, to be 
thrifty ; mal — i, to be 
a spendthrift ; — ema, 
thrifty; mal — ema, pro- 
digal. 

ŝpic-o, Pomeranian dog, 
Spitz-dog. 

ŝpin-^, to spin ; — ajo, dis- 
taff; — ilo, spindle; rad 
— ilo, spinning wheel ; 
— antino, a spinneT* 
(occasional) ; — istino, a 
spinner {or spinster). 

ŝpruc-i, to spurt, to spout, 
to gush; — 0, gushing 
forth (noun) ; — igi sur, 
to splash or spurt upon ; 
— igilo, holy water 
brush ; en — igi, to 
syringe ; en — igilo, a 
syringe ; el — i, to 
spurt. 

ŝrank-ĉ), cupboard ; sankta 
— 0, tabernacle (of the 
altar). 

ŝrapnel-o, shrapnel. 

ŝraŭb-(?, screw ; — i, to 
screw. 

ŝtal-(7, steel. 

ŝtat-o, state ; Unuigitaj 
Statoj, United States. 

ŝtel-^, to steal ; — isto, 
thief ; sin en — i, to enter 
like a thief. 



ŝtip-o, block of wood; 
—aro, pile of logs. 

ŝtof-o, tissue, material, 
stuff; — ego, sackcloth; 
— rando, salvage. 

ston-o, stone ; — ego, rock ; 
— eto, flint, pebble ; 
— hava, — plena, stony, 
very stony. 

ŝtop-i, to stop up, to ob- 
struct, to cork; — ilo, 
plug, stopper, pad. 

strump-o, stocking ; — etOj 
sock ; — ligilo, garter. 

ŝtup-(?, step, round (of a 
ladder) ; — aro, stair- 
case, ladder. 

ŬU-0, shoe ; sin sen — igi, to 
take off one's shoes. 

ŝuld-i, to owe, to be in- 
debted ; — 0, debt ; 
— anto, debtor ; — igi, 
to make one indebted ; 
— atesfo, promissory note. 

ŝultr-o, shoulder. 

ŭut-i, to shoot (sand, rub- 
bish, mould, stones, etc.); 
dis — i, to spill solids 
about. 

ŝvel-i, to swell, to get 
swollen ; —o, swelling, 
tumour, etc. 

ŭvit-i, to perspire, to sweat ; 
— 0, perspiration, sweat; 
hanejo, vapour baths 
(establishment). 



US 



TANTAL-0 



t. e., abbreviation for tin 
cstas, that is. 

tabak-o, tobacco ; — ejo, 
tobacco plantation ; 

— vendejo, vendejo de — o, 
place where tobacco is 
sold ; — tenejo, tenejo 
de — 6», tobacconist's shop 
(wholesale) ; — buti/:o, 
retail tobacconist's shop ; 
— ujo, box for tobacco, 
snufF-box ; Jcanastro, to- 
bacco jar ; — saketo, 
— poŝo, tobacco pouch. 

taban-o, ox-fly, gadfly. 

tabel-o, table, list, state- 
ment, index. 

tabl-o, table (piece of fur- 
niture). 

tabul-o, plank ; — eto, small 
plank. 

taburet-o, tabouret, tabret. 

taĉment-o, squad (milit.). 

taft-o, taffeta. 

tag-o, day ; — igi, to dawn, 
to begin to be daylight ; 
simpla — 0, week-day ; 
— labmisto, day labour- 
er; laŭ — e, by the day, 
per 24 hours ; ciu — e, 
daily (adv.) ; plen — o, a 
full day of 24 hours ; 
— noktegaleco, equinox. 

tajlor-o, tailor. 



—a, 
with 



taks-^, to estimate, to rate, 

to value ; — o, valuation; 

— aro, tariff, price-list, 
taksus-o, yew (tree), 
takt-o, bai" (mus.). 
taktik-o, tactics ; — isto, 

tactician. 
talar-o, talar, (eccles. gown 

or robe), 
talent-o, talent ; 

talented ; — ĉ, 

talent, 
taler-o, thaler, 
tali-o, waist; bon — a, bel — a, 

finely shaped, with 

shapely waist. 
talisman-^?, talisman, 
talium-o, tsallium. 
talmud-o, talmud. 
talp-o, mole (animal) . 
tamarind-o, tamarind. 
tambur-o, drum ; — z, to 

beat the drum ; — ado, 

drum beating, 
tamburin-o, tambourine, 
^tamen, however, never- 
theless, yet. 
tamtam-<9, tom-tom, gong, 
tan-z, to tan ; — isto, tanner, 
tandem-o, tandem, 
tangent-o, tangent. 
tanin-6>, tannin, 
tantal-o, tantalum, tanta- 

lium. 



149 



TANTIUM-0 



TEMP-0 



tantium-o, percentage com- 
mission upon agreed 
proportion. 

tapet-o, tapestry ; — i, to 
hang with tapestry. 

tapiŝ-o, carpet; w — o, tem- 
porary carpet. 

tar-o, tare (weight allow- 
ance) ; sen — a, nett 



weight ; kun—a^ 



gross, 
(adjec- 



gross weight 
lively). 

tarantel-o, tarantella 
(dance). 

tarantul-o, tarantula 

tarif-o, tariff. 

tarok-o, taroc (card game). 

tartar-o, wine cask deposit. 

tas-o, cup ; sub — o, saucer. 

task-o, task. 

Tatar-ft {adj.), Tataric; — o, 
a Tatar, or Tartar; 
— ujo, — lando, Tartary. 

tatu-i, to tatoo ; — ajo, 
tattoo. 

taŭg-i, to be fit (for) ; sen 
— ulo, good-for-nothing 
wretch ; — eco, fitness. 

taŭz-i, to tease (wool), to 
maul about. 

tavol-o, layer ; — i, to ar- 
range in layers ; — eto, 
thin layer; — eli, to 
arrange in thin layers. 

te-o, tea ; — arho, tea plant ; 
— kruco, teapot; — maŝ- 
ino, tea-urn, samovar ; 



— ujo, tea-caddy ; — ejo, 
tea plantation. 

tesiti-o, theatre ; — a, 
theatrical. 

ted-i, to be tedious ; — a, 
tedious ; — eco, tedious- 
ness. 

teg-?', to cover entirely ; 
— 0, a cover for furni- 
ture, etc. 

tegment-o, roof ; — ajo, 
roofing. 

tegol-o, roofing tile. 

teism-o, theism. 

teist-o, theist. 

teknik-o, technics ; tech- 
nique (mus.). 

teks-z, to weave ; — isto, 
weaver ; — ajo, tissue, 
web, woof. 

tekst-o, text; — a, laŭ — a, 
textual ; — e, laŭ — ĉ, 
textually. 

telefon-o, telephone. 

telegraf-o, telegraph. 

teler-o, plate ; — vieblo, 
sideboard ; — luko, dish- 
cloth. 

teleskop-o, telescope. 

telur-o, tellurium. 

tem-o, subject for discus- 
sion or development, 
musical theme. 

temp-o, time ; kelka — a, 
temporary ; Urn — o, term, 
period agreed; sam — e. 
at the same time ; sam 



150 



TEMPERAMENT-0 



TESTUD-0 



— a, contemporary ; nun 
— a, present ; aniaŭ — a, 
premature ; inter— o, in- 
terval ; gusta — e, oppor- 
tunely ; gusta — «-, oppor- 
tune ; havi — on por, to 
have time for. 

temperament-o, tempera- 
ment. 

temperatur-o, temperature. 

tempi-o, temple (anat.). 

templ-o, temple (building). 

ten-i, to keep, to hold ; 
— ilo, handle ; — ejo, 
depot, warehouse ; libro 
— ado^ book-keeping ; 
libro — isto, book-keeper ; 
sub — i, to sustain, to up- 
hold ; sub — 0, support ; 
sub — ajo, prop ; de — i, 
to detain ; de — i sin, to 
contain oneself ; de — a, 
de — ema, abstemious, 
continent ; de — o, de 
— emo, abstemiousness, 
continence ; en — i, to 
include ; en— a, inclu- 
sive ; en — e, inclusive- 

ly- 

tend-0, tent ; — aro, en- 
campment under tents. 

tenden-o, tendon. 

tendenc-o, tendency. 

tendr-o, tender (locomo- 
tive). 

teni-o, tapeworm. 

tenor-o, tenor. 



tent-^', to tempt ; — o, temp- 
tation ; — anto, tempter. 

teologi-o, theology. 

teorem-o, theorem. 

teori-o, theory ; — a, theo- 
retic. 

ter-o, earth ; — a, earthl}^, 
of earth ; en — igi, to 
bury, to inter ; en — igo, 
burial ; — kolo, isthmus ; 
— porno, potato ; planta 
— 0, vegetable mould. 

terapeŭtik-o, therapeutics. 

tei&T^i-o, cherapy. 

teras-o, terrace. 

tevc-o, tercet-o, trio {mus.). 

terebint-o, turpentine. 

teritori-o, territory ; — a, 
territorial. 

termin-o, term, definition 
expressed by means of 
one or more words ; 
— aro, terminology. 

termit-o, termite. 

termometr-o, thermometer. 

tern-?', to sneeze ; — o, 
sneezing (noun). 

terur-o, terror, fright, hor- 
ror; — a, terrible, fright- 
ful, awful ; — igi, to 
render terrible ; — igi, 
to become terrible, 

testament-z, to bequeath 
by will ; — o, a will. 

testik-o, testicle. 

testud-o, tortoise ; kiraso 
de — 0, tortoise-shell. 



151 



TETAN-0 



TINKTUR-0 



tetan-0, tetanus ; — a, of 
tetanus. 

tetr-o, grouse. 

tetra-o, hazel-hen. 

tez-o, thesis. 

*tia, such, such a kind : 
donu gin al mi tian, kia gi 
estas, give it to me such 
as it is. 

*tial, therefore, accord- 
inglj^, for that reason : 
li neniam volis sekvi mian 
konsilon, Hal mi forlasis 
tin, he never would fol- 
low my advice, therefore 
I forsook him; — ke, 
since (argumentative). 

*tiam, then, at that time ; 
— a, of that time, of 
then ; — ulo, a man of 
that time, a man living 
then. 

tiar-o, tiara. 

tibi-o, til)ia ; — karno, calf 
of the leg. 

*tie, there, yonder ; — a 
(adj.), yonder, over there ; 
— ulo, a man from 
yonder; — ci, here, 
ci — a, of here; ci — ulo, 
a man of here. 

'^tiel, thus, in that way; 
like that, so much so ; 
- its correlative in com- 
parison of equality is 
kiel : li estas — foi'ta, kiel 
vi, he is as strong 05 you 



(are) ; — . . .ke, so much 
so that ; li kriis — , ke li 
raŭkiijis 2wo Ho, he cried 
so much that he grew 
hoarse through it. 

tif-o, typhus. 

tigr-o, tiger ; — ino, tigress. 

tik-(9, tick, ticking (cloth). 

tikl-i, to tickle ; — 0, tick- 
ling; — osentema, ticklish. 

tili-o, linden, lime-tree. 

tim-i, to fear, to be afraid 
of ; — 0, fear ; — inda, 
to be feared ; — erna, 
timid, easity frightened ; 
— emo, timidity, timid 
disposition ; — ulo, a 
coward ; mal — 0, bold- 
ness ; mal — ulo, a bold 
man ; mal—ema, bold ; 
mal^ego, audacity ; mal 
— egulo, an audacious 
man ; sen — e, fearlessly ; 
sen — a, fearless ; sen — eco, 
self-possession ; — igi, to 
frighten ; — igilo, scare- 
crow. 

timian-o, thyme. 

timon-o, pole, shaft (of a 
>ehicle). 

tin-o, coop, wine- vat ; 
— isto, cooper, cellarman. 

tindr-o, tinder, touchwood. 

tine-o, moth. 

tink-o, tench. 

tinktur-o, tincture ; — i, to 
dye, to tinge. 



152 



TINT-I 



'"TIU 



tint-2, to jingle, to clink, 
to chink : mi sonorigis la 
sonorilon, vi sonoretigis la 
soiLorileton, kaj li — igis 
siajn — ilojn, I rang the 
(church) bell, you rang 
the little bell (house), 
and he jingled his 
hawk's bells; — ilo, tiny- 
round bell. 

■^tio, that {pron.) indef. 
absolute, tio^ kio ; tion, 
kio : that which ; tio, kio 
placos al vi, placos al mi, 
or, kio placos al vi, Ho 
placos al mi, that which 
will please you will 
please me. Frenu tion, kio 
estas sur la tahlo. Take 
that which is on the 
table. Tion, kion : Vi 
prenos tion, kion vi deziros, 
or, kion vi deziros, Hon vi 
prenos, you will take 
what you please. 

*tiom, as much, so much ; 
as many, so many ; the 
correlative is kiom. Li 
— laboris, kiom vi, he 
worked as much as you ; 
donu al mi — da akvo, kiom 
da vino, give me as much 
water as wine ; — da 
homoj, so many men. 

tip-o, type. 

tipografi-o, typography. 

tir-i, to draw, to pull ; — o, 



traction ; al — ?, to draw, 
to attract towards ; 
al — igi, to be di-awn 
towards ; sur — i, to draw 
on, to stretch on ; mi 
sur — as g anion sur mian 
manon, I draw (stretch) 
a glove on my hand ; 
kun — i, to contract, to 
pull together; kun — igi, 
to get contracted ; for — i, 
to take away by trac- 
tion ; re — i, to draw 
backwards ; el — i, to 
extract from ; koi'k — ilo, 
cork-screw ; huton — ilo, 
button-hook ; el — aĵo, 
cut from paper, etc. 

tiran-o, tyrant ; — eco, 
tyranny. 

Titan-o, Titan. 

titani-o, titanium. 

titol-o, title ; — i, to entitle. 

■^tiu, that one ; iiuj, those ; 
tiu ci, or ci, tiu this one ; 
tiuj ci, or ci iiuj, these : 
— estas pli bona, prenu 
gin, that one is better, 
take it ; cu vi vidas — n 
knahon ? do you see that 
boy % — j ci knabinoj estas 
pli altaj ol — j, these girls 
are taller than those. 

— , kiu ; — n, kiu ; — , 
kiun, — n, kiun, — , kiu 
deziras felicon devas . . . 
or, kiu deziras felicon^ 



153 



TIZAN-0 



TRAF-I 



— devas, he who desires 
happiness, must ; alfortu 
— 7?, kiu estas ajpud vi, 
bring that one, which is 
near you ; — , kiun vi 
vidas, the one which you 
see ; li prenu — -jn, kiujn 
li volos, let him take 
those which he will 
(prefer). 

tizan-o, decoction, tisane. 

toast-o, toast. 

tog-o, toga. 

tol-o, linen-cloth ; — ajo, 
linen. 

toler-?, to tolerate ; — o, 
tolerance ; — a, of toler- 
ance ; — ema, tolerant ; 
— ebla, tolerable ; ne 
— ebla, intolerable. 

tom-o, tome, volume. 

tomat-o, tomato. 

tomb-o, tomb, grave ; en 
— igi, to entomb. 

uombak-o, tombac, alloy of 
copper and zin^.. 

tombol-o, tombola (lottery). 

ton-o, tone (mus.). 

tond-i, to shear ; — o, shear- 
ing ; — isto, shearer (pro- 
fessional); — ilo, scissors, 
shears ; — masino, shear- 
ing machine. 

tondr-i, to thunder; — o, 
thunder ; fulmo — o, 

thunderstorm. 

tonsur-o, tonsure. 



topaz-o, topaz. 

topografi-o, topography. 

toit-o, torch. 

tord-i, to twist ; — o, twist- 
ing, wringing (noun) ; 
— a, crooked ; — eco, 
crookedness. 

toreador-o, toreador. 

torent-o, torrent. 

torf-o, peat, turf. 

tori-o, thorium. 

torn-f, to turn with a lathe; 
— isfo, turner. 

tornistr-o, knapsack. 

torped-o, torpedo. 

torso, torso. 

tort-o, tart, fruit-pie. 

*tra, through, across ; — e, 
' right through ; — iri, to 
traverse, to go through ; 
— piki, to pierce through 
and through ; — irejo, a 
passage. 

trab-o, beam (wood) ; — eto, 
cross-beam; —a/o, timber- 
work, framework; — aro, 
raft of wood. 

tradici-o, tradition. 

traduk-i, to translate ; — o, 
— ado, translation ; — isto, 
translator ; — anto, the 
one translating then ; 
— into, he who has trans- 
lated. 

traf-i, to reach, to attain 
the goal ; — o, the act 
the aim ; 



of reaching 



154 



TRAGEDI-0 



TREF-0 



mal — i, to miss one's 
aim. 

tragedi-o, tragedy; — r/, tra- 
gical ; — isto, tragedian. 

tiaĥe-o, trachea, wind-pipe. 

trajn-o, artillery train. 

trajt-o, feature, lineament, 
trait. 

trakt-i, to treat of (a sub- 
ject, a matter) ; pri — i, 
to touch upon. 

traktat-o, treatise, essay ; 
convention. 

tram-o, tram ; — vojo, tram- 
way ; — veturilo, tram- 
car ; — caro, tram-truck. 

tranĉ-i, to cut, to sever; 
—0, the act of cutting, 
severing; — ajo, a cut, a 
slice, etc. ; — ilo, a knife ; 
— ilego, big knife, cut- 
lass ; — ilefo, penknife ; 
al — i, to cut to required 
size and form ; al— isto, 
a cutter ; —ado, pro- 
longed cutting, acute 
colic ; — rando, the sharp 
edge of any cutting tool 
or knife. 

tranĉe-o, trench (milit.), en- 
trenchment lines. 

trankvil-a, calm, tranquil, 
easy in mind ; — o, calm, 
tranquility (in general) ; 
— eco, state of calmness ; 
mal — a, uneasy, restless ; 
mal — 0, uneasiness, rest- 



lessness ; mal— eco, state 
of uneasiness ; — igi, to 
tranquillise, to calm ; 
— icji, to get calm, to 
become easy in mind ; 
mal — igi, to make un- 
easy; mal — igi, to be 
uneasy, to fret. 

^trans, across; — a, from 
the other side ; — e, 
across {adv.) ; — en, 
across (where one goes) ; 
— pmii, to transfer ; 
— loki, to displace ; 
— migri, to emigrate ; 
— logigi, to transplant, 
to move somebody to 
another residence ; — iri, 
to cross over ; — sargi, 
to tranship ; — jeti, to 
throw across, to throw 
over; — skrihi, to tran- 
scribe ; — igi, to trans- 
mit ; — fluganta Mr do, 
bird of passage ; nĉ 
— irehla, impassable. 

transcend-a, transcend- 
ental. 

trapez-o, trapezium. 

trat-f, to draw (a bill) ; 
— anto, the drawer of , 
— ato, the drawer. 

travesti-o, travesty. 

*tre, very, much ; mi tre 
amas lin, I like him 
much ; — ege, extremely. 

tief-o, clubs (at cards). 



155 



TREM-I 



TROPIK-0 



trem-?, to tremble ; — o, 
— ado, trembling, shak- 
ing ; eh — ^, to wince, to 
begin to quake ; — eti, to 
shudder ; — frosto, cold, 
tremor, feverishness. 

tremolo, aspen (tree). 

tremp-f, to dip, in a liquid, 
to immerse ; — <?, immer- 
sion. 

tren-i, to crawl, to drag 
oneself along; — ic/i, to 
crawl, to drag along ; 
— ajo, tail, train (of 
dress, etc.) ; post — i, to 
tug ; — sipo, tugboat. 

trezor-o, treasure. 

■^tri, three ; — o, trio ; — a, 
third ; — ono, third part ; 
— obla, triple ; — dento, 
trident; — piedo, tripod ; 
— uno, trinity ; — folio, 
clover, trefoil ; — angiiJo, 
triangle ; — angula, tri- 
angular, 

tribun-o, rostrum, gallery. 

tribunal-o, tribunal. 

tribut-o, tribute. 

tricikl-o, tricycle. 

trifoli-o, trefoil, clover. 

trigonometri-o, trigonome- 
try- 

trik-z, to knit ; — ilo, knitt- 
ing needle ; — antino, a 



knitting woman. 



trikot-o, piece of knitting, 
knitted work. 



tril 0, trill [mm.). 

trink-i, to drink ; — ejo, 
watering pond, horse 
pond ; — igi, to water 
animals, to give to 
drink. 

trip-*?;', tripe. 

tritik-o, wheat. 

triumf-o, triumph ; — a, 
triumphal ; — ĉ, trium- 
phally ; — i, to triumph. 

trivial-a, trivial ; — eco, 
triviality. 

"*^tro, too, too much ; — a, 
excessive ; — e, in ex- 
cess {adv.) ; — rapida, 
hurried ; — fidema, too 
sanguine (of success,etc.); 
— memfida, presumptu- 
ous, self-confident; 
— grandigi, to exagger- 
ate ; — grandigo, exag- 
geration ; — uzi, to abuse 
of, to use with excess ; 
— uzo, excessive use. 

trofe-o, trophy. 

trog-o, trough, manger. 

troke-o, trochee (pvs.). 

tromb-o, water-spout. 

trombon-o, trombone. 

tromp-^, to deceive; — c, 
deceit ; — anto, deceiver ; 
— igi, to be mistaken. 

tron-o, throne. 

trop-o, trope. 

tropik-o, tropic; — a, trop- 
ical. 



156 



TROT-I 



TURMENT-I 



trot-r, to trot; — o, trotting 

(7l6>//7l). 

trotuar-0, pavement, side- 
walk. 

trov-i, to find ; — igi, to be 
found, to find oneself, to 
be situated ; — ajo, a 
find ; el — i, to discover 
el — 0, discovery ; hon — i, 
to think proper to. 

tru-o, hole ; huton — o, 
l>uttonhole ; naz — o, 

nostril ; — eto, pore (of 
the skin). 

trud-^, to impose, to force 
upon ; — erna, importun- 
ate, insisting in trying 
to force upon ; al — i, to 
impose, to insist upon 
making one take ; — peti, 
to importune, to worry. 

truf-6>, truffle. 

trul-^, trowel. 

trump-o, large horn. 

trumpet-^?, trumpet ; — i, 
to blow the trumpet ; 
— isto, trumpeter. 

trunk-(7, trunk (of a tree) ; 
— eto, stem (of a plant, 
etc.). 

trup-6», company of actors. 

trut-o, trout. 

tualet-o, toilet; — ejo, dress- 
ing-room. 

tub-o, tube, pipe, flue ; 7>?^>rt 
— 0, stem of a pipe ; — eto, 
faucet, small pipe or tube. 



tuber-o, bulb, knot (in 
trees) ; ligno — c, a knot 
in wood. 

tuberkul-o, tubercle, tuber- 
cule. 

tuberkuloz-o, tuberculosis. 

tuf-o, tuft. 

*tiij, at once, immediately; 
- — a, immediate. 

tuk-o, piece of linen ; tahlo 
— 0, table-cloth ; kol — o, 
fichu, neckerchief ; bus 
— 0, serviette ; tualet — o, 
towel ; naz — o, handker- 
chief ; antau — o, apron. 

txu-o, tulle. 

tulip-6>, tulip. 

tumult-o, tumult; — a, 
tumultuous. 

tunel-o, tunnel. 

tunik-o, tunic. 

tup-o, a top (toy). 

tur-o, tower; cef — o, dun- 
geon ; — eto, turret. 

turb-o, periwinkle (small 
shell-fish). 

turban-o, turban. 

turbin-(?, turbine. 

turd-(?, thrush. 

turism-^, tourism 

turist-o, tourist. 

Turk-fl^, Turkish (adj.); — o, 
a Turk ; — ujo, lando, 
Tuikey. 

turkis-o, turquoise. 

turment-i, to torment ; — o, 
torment. 



157 



TURN-I 



UM- 



turn-i, to turn ; sin — i, to 
turn oneself; — iĝi, to 
revolve as on a pivot, 
or axis ; el — igi, to get 
through, to extricate 
oneself ; el — igo, subter- 
fuge ; el — igema, able 
to extricate himself ; 
ŝraŭh — ilo, screw-driver ; 
— kruco, turnstile; 
— akvo, vortex. 

turnir-o, tournament. 

turt-o, dove ; — ino, female 
dove. 



tus-t, to cough; — 0, 
cough. 

tuŝ-i, to touch ; — anta, 
touching ; kor — anta, 
moving (emotional) ; 
kor — eco, emotion ; kor 
— igi, to be moved ; — eti, 
to touch lightly; inter — 
igi, to touch one an- 
other. 

tut-fl, entire, total, intact; 
— eco, total, whole (noun); 
— 0, the whole ; — e, 
quite, entirely. 



-u, shows the imperative- 
mood : Amu vian pat- 
ron, love your father ; 
si venu, let her come ; mi 
volas ke vi venu, I wish 
that you come (i.e. I 
wish you to come). 

-uj-, suffix of bearing, etc., 
containing: p-uno, plum; 
prun — 0, plum tree; 
Anglo, Englishman; 
Angl — 0, England ; 
sukero, sugar ; suker — o, 
sugar-basin. 

uj-o, a receptacle (noun). 

ukaz-o, ukase (of the Czar). 

-ul-, suffix showing the per- 
son characterised by the 
root-word : beta, fine ; 



bel — 0, a beau ; hel — ivo, 
a belle ; sankta, holy, 
sainted ; sankt — o, a 
saint ; rica, rich ; ric — o, 
a rich man ; malrica, 
poor ; malric — o, poor 
man. 

ulan-o, uhlan. 

ulcer-o, ulcer. 

uleks-o, furze, gorse, whin. 

ulm-o, elm. 

uln-^, ell (measure). 

ultimatum-o, ultimatum. 

ultramar-a (ddj-), ultra- 
marine (colour). 

um-, suffix not much used, 
which like ye among pre- 
positions, has not any 
definite meaning as an 



158 



UMBILIK-0 



URN-0 



cos- 



— a, 



affix : kolo^ neck ; kol — o, 
collar ; kruc — o, cross ; 
kruc — i, to crucify. 

umbilik-o, navel; — asnuro, 
umbilical cord. 

unc-o, ounce. 

ung-o, nail (of finger) ; 
— ego, claw, talon. 

uniform-o, uniform, 
tume. 

univers-o, universe , 
of the universe. 

aniversal-a, universal. 

universitat-o, university ; 
— a, of university ; — ano, 
one belonging to a uni- 
versity. 

*unu, one; — a, fi r s t, 
initial ; — e, firstly, first ; 
— 0, unit ; La — o de longo, 
de suprajo, de ampIeJcso, de 
pezo, the unit of length, 
surface, volume, weight ; 
— eco, uniqueness, unity ; 
la dogmo de V — eco de Dio, 
the dogma of the unity 
of God; also union: — 
la plej intima — eco, the 
most intimate union ; 
— eco donas fortecon, 
union gives strength ; 
— igi, to unite : IJanimo, 
estas — igita hin la kmyo, 
the soul is united to the 
body ; La — igitaj ŝtatoj 
Amerikaj, the United 
States of America; 



— igita familio, a united 
family ; — igi also means 
to unify, to make one; 
igi, to unite together, to 
be combined ; not in the 
sense of marriage which 
is edzigi; — igo, union, 
unification that one 
operates ; — igo, union, 
or unification under- 
gone ; — olila, single, 
simple, not multiple ; 
— voce, unanimously, 
with one voice; — forma, 
uniform {adj.) ; — seksa, 
unisexual; tri — o. 
Trinity ; — igo jmta 
universa la, universal 
postal union. 

upup-o, hoopoo. 

ur-o, vu'e-ox. 

uragan-o, hurricane. 

uran-o, uranium. 

urb-o, town, city ; — a, 
urban, of town ; cef — o, 
capital, chief city ; antaŭ 
■ — 0, suburb. 

vocg-i, to be urgent or press- 
ing ; — a, — anta, ur- 
gent. 

urin-i, to make water ; — o, 
urine ; — a, urinous ; 
— ejo, urinal ; — tuho, 
urethra ; — ajo, urea. 

urjadnik-t), Cossack sub- 
officer. 

urn-(9, urn. 



159 



UROGAL-0 



VALS-I 



urogal-0, heath-cock, sort 
of grouse. 

urs-o, bear (animal) ; — iiio, 
she-bear. 

urtik-o, nettle. 

-us, is the termination of 
the conditional : Hon ci 
mi far — , se mi pov — , 
this I would do, if I 
could. 

uter-o, womb ; — a, of the 
womb, uterine. 

util-(i, useful ; — o, advan- 
tage, interest ; la lingvo 
inter nacia celas la — on 
de riiomaro,, the inter- 
national language aims 
at the advantage of man- 
kind ; — eco, usefulness ; 
— i, to be of use ; inal 
— i, to be noxious ; mal 



— a, noxious, prejudicial; 

sen — a, useless ; mal — o, 
eco, 
ajo, 



inconvenience ; sen- 



uselessuess; sen 
useless thing. 

utopi-(?, Utopia ; — isto, 
utopist. 

uvertur-(>, overture (mus.). 

uz-i, to use, to employ ; 
— 0, — ado, use, employ ; 
fari — on el, to make use 
of ; mi faros — on el la 
oJcazo, I shall take this 
opportunity; — a/o, uten- 
sil ; ti'o — -i, to abuse ; 
tro — 0, abuse, excess in 
anything; el — ita, worn 
out by excessive use. 

uzurp-^, to usurp ; — o, 
usurpation; — ulo, 
usurper. 



vad-^, to wade. 

vafl-o, waffle. 

vag-i, to roam, to wander 
about ; — isto, tramp, 
vagabon d, vagran t. 

vagon-o, railway carriage ; 
— aro, train. 

vak-i, to be vacant ; — anta, 
open, vacant, void : 
—antaĵo, vacancy. 

vakcini-o, whortleberry, 
cowberry. 



— tolo, oil- 
-0, sealing- 



-eto, a 



vaks-o, Avax ; 

cloth ; sigel- 

wax. 
val-o, a valley ; 

vale. 
valerian-o, valerian (bot.). 
valiz-o, portmanteau, valise, 
valor-i, to be worth ; — o, 

value. 
vals-z, to waltz ; — o, a 

waltz — anio, waltz- 

er. 



160 



Vi^LUT-O 



VAST-A 



valut-0, value, standard 
valuation. 

vampir-o, vampire. 

van-a, vain, fruitless ; — ĉ, 
in vain ; — ĉco, vanity, 
uselessness. 

vanadi-o, vanadium. 

vandal-o, vandal ; — eco, 
vandalism. 

vandalism-o, vandalism. 

vanel-o, lapwing, peewit. 

vang-<?, cheek ; — haroj, 
whiskers ; posta — o, but- 
tock. 

vanil-o, vanilla. 

vant-d, futile, empty of 
value ; si havas la gusion 
de V — aj aferaj, she is 
fond of frivolous things ; 
— eco, frivolity, futility ; 
— ajo, futile thing, frivol- 
ous act. 

vapor-o, vapour, steam ; 
— a, vaporous ; — igi, to 
vaporize ; — igi, to be- 
come vaporous ; — igo, 
vaporization; — sipo, 
steamboat. 

varb-f, to enlist, to recruit ; 
— 0, ado, enlistment, re- 
cruiting ; — ito, a recruit. 

variaci-o, variation. 

variant-o, variant. 

variol-o, small-pox, variola ; 
— ulo, one suffering from 
small-pox. 

varm-ti, warm ; — o. 



warmth, heat ; -^eco, 
state of warmth; — igi, 
to warm ; — igi, to get 
warm, to warm oneself ; 
mal — a, cold ; mal — o, 
cold (noun), coldness ; 
mal — eco, cold state ; 
mal — igi, to cool some- 
thing, etc. ; mal — igi, to 
get cold ; mal — umi, to 
catch cold ; mal — umx), 
a cold ; — ejo, a hot- 
house ; — ega, hot, burn- 
ing ;_ —egigi, to grow 
burning hot ; — eg eco, 
state of what is burning 
hot ; — eta, cool. 

vart-i, to nurse (a child) ; 
— isiino, nurse for chil- 
dren. 

vasal-o, vassal ; — eco, vas- 
salage. 

vast-«, vast, spacious, ex- 
tensive ; — eco, vastness, 
extent ; — igi, to spread, 
to make vast ; — igo, ex- 
tension that one gives ; 
— igo, action of expand- 
ing; — e, spaciously, ex- 
tensively ; mal — a, of 
small extent ; mal — eco, 
small extent; mal — igi, 
to limit the size ; plimal 
— igi, to make more 
limited in extent; mal 
— igo, the act of making 
limited in size ; mal — igo, 



161 



VAT-0 



VEND-I 



the becoming limited in 
size or area ; plimal — igo, 
the making more limited 
in extent ; plimal — igo, 
the becoming m.ore 
limited in size, area, 
extent ; plimal — iga, re- 
strictive. 

vsbt-o, wadding ; — i, to 
pad, to wad. 

7atikan-o, Vatican. 

vaz-o, vase ; lav — o, basin 
(for ablutions). 

vazelin-{?, vaseline. 

vazistas-o, casement win- 
dow. 

■^ve ! woe ! (ho ve I alas !), 

veget-i, to vegetate ; — ado, 
vegetation ; — ajo, vege- 
table (noun) ; — aja, 
vegetable (adj.) ; — iga, 
vegetative. 

vegetar-rt (adj.), vegetarian ; 
— isto, a vegetarian. 

vegetarism-o, vegetarian- 
ism. 

vejn-o, vein ; — a, veinous, 
veined, venous, venal ; 
— i, to vein ; — eto, small 
vein. 

vek-i, to awake, to cause 
to awake from sleep ; 
— 0, act of waking some 
one ; — igi, to awake ; 
— igo, awakening; 
— horlogOf alarum 

clock. 



vekt-o, beam (between 
scales) for weighing. 

vel-c/, boat sail. 

velen-o, vellum. 

velk-i, to fade, to fade 
away. 

velociped-o, velocipede. 

velur-o, velvet. 

ven-i, to come ; — o, the 
coming ; de — i, to come 
from, to derive from, to 
be the result of ; de — o, 

• origin ; de — a, original ; 
de — igi, to make derive 
from, to cause to come 
from ; de — igado, deri- 
vation ; vorto de — igita, 
a derivative word; el — i, 
to come out of, to pro- 
ceed from ; el — o, the 
fact of coming out of, 
etc. ; al — i, to arrive ; 
al — 0, arrival ; en — i, to 
come into ; kun — i, to 
assemble together; Jcun 
— 0, assemblage, meeting 
together ; vesperkun — o, 
evening reunion; inferkun 
— 0, rendezvous ; senre 
— 0, without return. 

vend-z, to sell ; — o, — ado, 
sale ; — ebla, saleable ; 
Tie — ebla, unsaleable; 
— isto, vendor, trades- 
man ; re — i, to sell again ; 
re — isto, second-hand 
dealer ; detala — isto, re- 



162 



VENDRED-O 



VERM-0 



tailer ; puhlika — o, sale 
by auction ; pogrande 
— isto, wholesale dealer. 

vendred-o, Friday. 

venen-o, venom, poison, 
virus ; — a, venomous, 
poisonous ; — i, to poison. 

vener-a, venereal. 

venĝ-i, to avenge ; — u min, 
avenge me ; li — os sin al 
vi, he will avenge him- 
self on you ; — ema, vin- 
dictive, vengeful ; — emo, 
propensity to take re- 
venge ; — ebla, that may 
be avenged ; — inch, that 
deserves vengeance. 

venk-i, to vanquish, to 
conquer, to overcome ; 
— 0, victory ; — anto, 
victor, conqueror; — into, 
one that has conquered ; 
— signo, trophy. 

vent-o, wind ; — ego, tem- 
pest, hurricane; /wr?zo — o, 
whirlwind ; — o favora, 
fair wind ; — as, it is 
windy ; — umi, to ven- 
tilate, to use a fan ; 
— umilo, fan ; — oflago, 
weathercock, vane ; — eto, 
a breeze. 

ventol-z, to air, to ventilate, 
by draughts ; — ilo, ven- 
tilator. 

ventr-o, belly, abdomen ; 
— a, abdominal ; dik — a. 



dube — a, greenish. 



big-bellied ; — oparolisto, 
ventriloquist. 

ver-a, true ; — o, truth : 
— eco, truthfulness ; — e, 
truly ; — sajno, likeli- 
hood ; — ŝajna, likely ; 
— ema, veracious ; ne 
— sajna, — e, unlikely. 

verand-o, veranda. 

verb-o, verb. 

verben-o, yerbena, vervain. 

verd-a, green ; — o, green 
(the colour) ; — ajo, 
verdure ; — i, to be ver- 
dant ; — anta (adj.), 
verdant; — igi, to grow 
green 

veidigX'O, verdigris. 

verdikt 0, verdict. 

veig-o, birch, rod; — ajo, 
small branches ; — i, to 
birch, to cane ; — eto, a 
sprig, a small rod. 

verk-z", to compose (literary 
or musical work) ; — o, 
work {liter, or mus.) ; 
— ado, composition (the 
act) (liter, or mus.); — isto, 
composer or writer (pro- 
fessional) ; — anto, one 
in the act of composing ; 
— into, the composer of 
any such work finished. 

verm-o, worm ; — eto, small 
worm ; — forma, worm- 
like ; — etforma, ver- 
micular; kontrail — a, ver- 



163 



VERMlĜEL-0 



VEZIK-0 



mif uge ; kontraŭ — aĵo, 
vermifuge (noun). 

vermicel-o, vermicelli. 

vermut-o, vermouth. 

vers-(?, verse; — ajo, piece 
of verse ; — ^, to write 
verse, to versify ; — isto, 
versifier. 

verst-o, verst (Russian 
measure). 

verŝ-e, to pour; dis — ^, to 
spill ; sur — i, to water ; 
— ilo^ watering can ; 
ofer — 0, libation. 

vert-o, sinciput, forepart of 
the head. 

vertag-o, terrier, badger- 
dog. 

vertebr-o, vertebra ; — a, 
— hava^ vertebrate {adj.). 

vertikal-a, vertical. 

vertrag-(?, greyhound. 

veruk-o, wart. 

vesp-(?, wasp; — ejo^ wasp's 
nest. 

vesper-o, evening ; — e, je 
V — 0, in the evening 
during the evening, at 
eventide ; — a, of the 
evening. 

vespert-o, bat (animal). 

vest-i, to dress, to clothe ; 
— 0, coat ; —ado, act of 
dressing ; sen — igi, to 
undress ; sen — igi, to 
undress oneself; mi — as 
la jpiedojn, I put on boots 

1 



or shoes; mi sen — igoA 
la piedojn, I take off my 
boots or shoes ; — ejo, 
vestiary; — otenejo, ward- 
robe ; — ajo, clothing. 

vestibl-o, vestibule. 

veŝt-o, vest, waistcoat. 

vet-i, to bet ; — a, of 
bet ; — 0, bet ; — e, emu- 
lously ; — batali, to com- 
pete. 

veter-o, weather; — a, of 
the weather ; la — o estas 
bela hodiaŭ, or estas bele 
Jwdiau, the weather is 
fine to-day, or it is fine 
to-day. 

veteran-o, veteran. 

veterinar-a, veterinary. 

vetur-i, to go anywhere 
by means of a vehicle 
(carriage, rail, boat, 
etc.) ; — ilo, carriage or 
ordinary vehicle ; pvs 
— ilo, wheelbarrow ; 
glit — ilo, sledge; — ilaro, 
a train of waggons, 
etc. ; — igi, to cart, to 
drive ; — igisto, coach- 
man, driver ; tra — i, to 
go through by carriage, 
rail, boat, etc.; ek — i, to 
start (by carriage, rail, 
boat, etc.) ; man — ilo, a 
truck. 

vezik-o, bladder ; — eto, 
vesicle. 
64 



VEZIR-0 



VIOL-0 



vezir-0, vizier. 

*vi, you, thou, thee; via, 
your, yours, thy, thine. 

viadukt-o, viaduct. 

viand-o, viand, edible flesh ; 
— manganta, carnivor- 
ous. 

vibr-i, to vibrate; — ado, 
vibration. 

viburn-o, viburnum, guel- 
der-rose. 

vic-o, rank, line, turn; — e, 
in turn ; lau — o, in turn ; 
— prezidanto, vice-presi- 
dent. 

vici-o, vetch (vicia). 

vid-i, to see; — o, sight, 
view; — ado, sense of 
sight ; — ilo, a spy -glass ; 
— ajo, things seen ; ek — i, 
to perceive ; — igi, to be 
seen, to be noticed; 
— iĝo, aspect; bon — iga, 
bel-—iĝa, of fine, beauti- 
ful aspect, seemly ; 
— ebla, visible ; — eble, 
visibly ; ne — ebla, in- 
visible ; ne — ebleco, in- 
visibleness; — inda, 
worth seeing; — indajo, 
thing worth seeing (curi- 
osity) ; antau — i, to fore- 
see ; antau — o, foresight ; 
inter — igo, interview ; 
ce — e, ce — a, at sight. 

vidv-o, widower ; — ino, a 
widow ; — eco, widow- 



hood ; — a, man or 

woman in a state of 
widowhood (adj.). 

vigl-a, alert, wakeful, 
nimble ; — igi, to make 
alert, nimble, etc. 

vikari-o, curate. 

vikun-o, vicuna ; — lano, 
vicuna wool. 

vil-o, hairiness. 

vilaĝ-o, village ; — ano, 
villager. 

vill-o, a villa. 

vin-o, wine; — bero, grapes; 
— berejo, vineyard ; ber- 
ujo, vine ; — berkulturo, 
culture of the vine ; ber- 
kulturisto, vine-grower ; 
sek — bero, dry grapes, 
raisins ; — vendisto, — isto, 
wine merchant; —far ado, 
wine making. 

vinagr-o, vinegar. 

vind-i, to swaddle ; — o, 
swaddling cloth. 

vinjet-f?, vignette. 

vink-o, periwinkle (ever- 
green creeper). 

vinkt-i, to rivet; — o, 
clinch, rivet. 

vintr-o, winter; — a, of 
winter, wintry, winterly; 
tra — i, to hibernate. 

viol-o, violet ; — koloro, 
violet (noun) the colour ; 
—a, violet 



— kolora^ 
{adj.). 



165 



VIOLON-0 



VOJAĜ-1 



violon-0, violin ; — isfOy 
violin-player. 

violonĉel-o, violoncello ; 
— isto, violoncello 

player. 

vip-o, whip ; — i, to whip. 

viper-o, viper. 

vir-o, man (male) ; — ino, 
woman; — igo, puberty; 
— igi, to become a man ; 
— inigi, to attain woman- 
hood. 

vivg-a, virginal (odj.); 
— eco, virginity ; — ulo, 
virginal man ; — ulino, 
a virgin ; mal — igi, to 
violate. 

virt-o, virtue ; — a, of vir- 
tue, virtuous ; mal — o, 
vice ; 7nal — a, vicious, of 
vice. 

virtuoz-o, virtuoso ; — eco, 
virtuosity. 

visk-o, mistletoe. 

viski-o, whisky. 

vist-o, whist. 

vis-?, to wipe ; de — i, to 
wipe with ; — ilo, towel, 
piece of linen to wipe 
with ; man — ilo, hand- 
towel. 

vitr-ĉ), glass (material) ; — i, 
to glaze ; — igi, to 
vitrify ; ohd — oj, spec- 
tacles. 

vitriol-o, vitriol. 

viv-i, to live; — o, life; 



'>, of life, alive, lively; 
diim — a, for life, life 
(adj.); mal — a, dead 
(adj.), gis — i, to live to, 
till ; post — i, to sur- 
vive ; t7'a — i, to live 
through ; dum — a rento, 
dum — a rentumo, life an- 
nuity. 

viz-^, to rise, to sign, 
countersign a passport, 
etc.; — 0, vise. 

vizaĝ-o, face, visage 

vizi-o, a vision. 

vizier-o, vizor (of a helmet). 

vizit-z, to visit, to go and 
see ; — adi, to frequent ; 
— 0, visit; — a?i^o, visitor. 

VOĜ-0, voice, vote ; — a, 
vocal, of the voice ; laŭt 
— a, loud of voice ; 
— doni, to vote; — don- 
ado, act of 
— done, by voting. 

voj-o, way, road ; — eto, 
path ; — iri, to go 
journeying, to journey 
along ; — iranto, the one 
who journeys. 

vojaĝ-i, to travel ; — o, 
voyage, travel, journey ; 
— a, of voyage ; — anto, 
the traveller on his way; 
— emxi, having a taste 
for voyages ; — emo, 
taste for travelling ; — 
isto, commercial traveller. 



voting 



166 



VOJEVOD-0 



ZENIT-0 



fOJevod-0, wayvode (Scla- 
vonic commander or 
ruler). 

vok-i, to call ; — o, a call, 
a summons ; al — i, to 
call to oneself; al — o, 
a call towards oneself; 
el — i, to excite ; kun — i, 
to convene, to convoke ; 
Jcun — 0, convocation. 

vokal-o, vowel. 

vokativ-o, vocative (gram.). 

vokt-o, bailiff, warden. 

vol-i, to will, to be willing ; 
— 0, will ; — ado, faculty 
of will ; sen — a, involun- 
tary ; sen — e, involun- 
tarily ; mem — a, volun- 
tary ; malbon — a, reluc- 
tant ; mem — ulo, volun- 
teer; mul — a, compelled; 
Tcontrau — e, against one's 
will (adv.); laŭ — e, at 
will, at one's option ; 
laŭ — a, optional ; laŭ 
— eco, option. 

volfram-o, wolfram. 

volont-ĉ, willingly ; — a, 
done willingly. 

volum-o, volume (book). 

volupt-o, volupty; — ema, 
— ama, voluptuous. 



volv-i, to roll something 
round another thing ; 
mal — i, to unroll ; en — i, 
to envelop; hun — i, to 
roll together ; dis — o, 
devolution. 

vom-i, to vomit ; — o, 
— ado, vomiting ; — ilo, 
vomitive (nmin). 

vort-o, word ; — a, of word ; 
— aro, dictionary ; radik 
— 0, radiko, root word, 
root ; — farado, word- 
formation ; per malmultaj 
— oj, in a few words ; 
per unu — o, in one word ; 
la — 0, the Word. 

vost-o, tail ; — a, caudal ; 
— hava, with a tail. 

VTial-o, veil ; — i, to 
veil. 

vulgar-a, vulgar, common ; 
— igi, to vulgarise. 

vulkan-o, volcano ; — a, 
volcanic. 

vulp-o, fox ; — ino, female 
fox. 

vultur-o, vulture. 

vund-i, to wound ; — o, 
wound; — ehla, vulner- 
able; hrul — 0, a burn, 
burning. 



zebr-o, zebra; — mo, female 
zebra. 



zelat-o, zealot, fanatic. 
zenit-(>, zenith. 
167 



ZIBEL-0 



ZUM-I 



zibel-0, sable-martin; — ino, 
(female). 

zigzag-o, zigzag, 

zingibr-o, ginger. 

zink-c, zinc; — i, to cover 
with zinc; — isio, zinc- 
worker. 

zirkon-o, zircon. 

zirkoni-o, zirconium. 

zizel-o, zizel. 

zoark-o, blenny. 

zodiak-ĉ?, zodiac. 

zon-o, girdle, belt; — i, to 
gird on. 

zoologo-o, zoology. 



zorg-i, to care for, to be 
anxious about, to be 
mindful of ; — anto, 
guardian; — ato, ward; 
— itaro, spiritual flock ; 
— a, careful, mindful ; 
sen — a, neglectful, care- 
less ; antaŭ — o, precau- 
tion, forethought. 

zoster-o, sea-wrack, sea- 
weed. 

zuav-o, zouave. 

zum-i, to hum, to buzz 
(like flies). 



Printed by T. and A. Constable, Printers to His Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 



.7- K^ 



?0^ 



Tlbc ffiritiĉb iĉeperanto aĉBociation 



FOUNDED 14th OCTOBER 1904 



IIo?t. President 
Dr. LOUIS ZAMENHOF. 

President 
Lt.-Col. JOHN POLLEN, CLE., V.D., LL.D. 

Offices of the Association, where all communications should be 
addressed: 13 Arundel Street, London, W.C. 



The British Esperanto Association is the Union of all Esperanto 
Societies throughout the Empire, and has been established for the 
following purposes {inter alia) : — To promote in every way the spread 
of the Auxiliary International Language ' Esperanto ' by — 

{a) Promoting the formation of new local Groups. 

{b) Distributing information and publishing propaganda literature. 

{c) Organising examinations and granting certificates of proficiency. 

(d) Promoting lectures and arranging for loans of collections of 

literature, correspondence, etc. 

(e) Promoting arrangements for Congresses at home and abroad. 



There are some 60 Country Groups and Societies affi/iated 

to the above Association, particulars of which can 

be obtained at the Offices 



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