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,u\ / 




■\' 





6000411 01 D 



From the Library 



>( 



Sir Edward Burnett Tylor. knt., 

The first Reader and Professor of Anthropology 
in the University of Oxford. 



Presented to the Radcliffe Trustees 

by 

Dame Anna Rebecca Tylor. 

June, 1917. 



& 






-^. 



/" 



r 

I 



V r 



ON THE ABORIGINES OF INDIA. 

BY 

'B. H. HODGSON, ESQ. B.C.S. 



Mirantur aliqui altitudinesmontium, ing^entes fiuctus maris, altissimos lapsus fiuminum, 
et g7ro8 sidenim. Reliaquunt seipsos, nee mirantur. — St. Augustine. 

Qaelqu' mterSt que hods ayons a nous connaitre nous m^mes, je ne sais si nous ne 
connaissons pas mieux tout ce qui n'est pas nous.— Buffon. 

The natural History of man is indeed yet in its infancy, so that a complete view of the 
^ subject could not be attempted. . . . Every reptile, bird, beast, mineral, has its histori- 
an, while thpiflaman subject has been completely neglected.— Lawrence. 

Can we hope to proceed safely in legislation, in public institutions, in education, with- 
out a sound acquaintance with the physical and moral qualities, the languages and 
habits, of the subjects for whose benefit they are designed ?— Idem. 

Their langniage and mythology constitute the internal, true, and only History of primi- 
tive races and are by far the best exponents of their real condition as thinking and act- 
infir beings. 



y 



A 



E:SSAY THE FIRST; 



ON THE 



KOCCH, mm AND DUIMAL TRIBES, 



IN THREE PARTS. 



*«\^\j« .\t\^k*\^\,^0 



PARJ I.-VOCABl'LARY. 

PART II.— GRAMMAR. 

PART III.— LOCATION, NUMBERS. CREED, CUSTOMS. CONDITIOV, 
AND PHYSICAL AND MORAL CHARACTERISTICS 

OF THE PEOPLE. 



BY 

B. H. HODGSON, ESQ, 



< 'N^V^^ « ^^% ^^"^^X^X^X^X^^^^ ^^X«^/^^V X^X^X^V/ \^ \^XXV/^^% 



CALCUTTA : 

rRINTKD BY J. THOMAS, BAPTIST MISSION PRESS. 

J 847. 



PREFACE. 

All those who are conversant with ethnology are aware that 
the pagan population of India is divided into two great classes, 
viz.^ the Arian or immigrant, and the Tamulian or aboriginal^ 
and also, that the unity of the Arian family, from Wales to 
Assam, has been demonstrated in our own times by a noble 
series of lingual researches — researches which have done for the 
history of Man a service analogous to that done for the history 
of the globe he inhabits by the fossil investigations of Cuvier. 

The moral and physical condition of the several branches 
of the Arian race having been well known prior to these 
investigations, their sole object was to recover the clue to 
the common connexion and relationship of all the Arians, not- 
withstanding the obliterating effects on speech of ages of di- 
verse social progress and of unrecorded migrations over half 
the globe's surface, and notwithstanding the striking physical 
changes worked in the lapse of ages by settlements in every 
clime, from the Equator to the Arctic circle. What a glorious 
triumph of literature to bridge such a profound and vast gulf ! 

The Tamulian race, confined to India and never distinguished 
by mental culture, offers, it must be confessed, a far less gor- 
geous subject for inquiry than the Arian. But, as the moral 
and physical condition of many of the scattered members of the 
Tamulian body is still nearly as little known as is the (assumed) 
pristine entirety and unity of that body, it is clear that this 
subject has two parts, each of which may be easily shown to be 
of high interest, not merely to the philosopher but to the states- 
man. The Tamulians are now, for the most part, British sub- 
jects : they are counted by millions, extending from the snows 
to the Cape (Comorin) ; and, lastly, they are as much superior 
to the Arian Hindus in freedom from disqualifying prejudices 
as they are inferior to them in knowledge and all its train of 
appliances — a fact of which the extensive and important uses 



^ I. • 



ii PREFACE. 

now making of the K61 or Dhdnger race, offers a valuable ex- 
emplification. Yes! in every extensive jungly or hilly tract 
throughout the vast continent of India there exist hundreds of 
thousands of human beings in a state not materially different 
from that of the Germans as described by Tacitus. Let then 
the student of the progress of society, of the fate and fortunes 
of the human race, instead of poring over a mere sketch of 
the past, address himself to the task of preparing full and faith- 
ful portraits of what is before his eyes ; and let the statesman 
profit by the labours of the student ; for these primitive races 
are the ancient heritors of the whole soil, from all the rich and 
open parts of which they were wrongfully expelled by the 
usurping Hindus.* It is one great object of this research to 
ascertain when, and under what circumstances this dispersion 
of the ancient owners of the soil took place, at least to demon- 
strate the fact, and to bring again together the dissevered frag- 
ments of the body, by means of careful comparison of the 
languages, physical attributes, creed and customs of the several 
(assumed) parts. It is another object, not less interesting, to 
exhibit the positive condition, moral and material, of each of 
these societies, at once so improveable and so needful of im- 
provement, and whose archaic status, polity and ideas offer such 
instructive pictures of the course of human progression. Sure- 
ly a subject so worthy, as this latter one, of the best attention 
and ablest examination ought not to be treated superficially, or 
as if we aimed merely to learn how far the aborigines have a 
common tie of descent. It is the great purpose of my copious 
and systematic vocabulary to display accurately the point of 
advancement which the aborigines have reached in thought and 
in action. And the more I see of these primitive races the 
stronger becomes my conviction that there is no medium of 
investigation yielding such copious and accurate data as their 

* It can hardly be necessary for me to say that I do not entertain the idle 
notion of now ejecting the Hindus and replacing the aborigines, but that of 
drawing well-informed heedfulness to the condition and claims of the latter. 



PREFACE. iii 

languages. Their physical and mental condition is exactly 
pourtrayed in their speech, and he who can analise it and sepa- 
rate the foreign elements, has the key to the amount, and 
sources too, of their civilization. 

I have said that the unity of the Arian race has been demon- 
strated chiefly through lingual means. We have now similarly 
to demonstrate the unity of the Tamulian race, an interesting 
but a difiicult task ; for there is an immense number of spoken 
tongues among the Tamulians, whereof I have already ascer- 
tained not less than 28 in the limited sphere of my own pro- 
posed inquiries ;* and all these, though now so different as to 
be mutually unintelligible to the people who use them, require 
to be unitised, while one of the highest authoritiesf on such 
points fairly declares that he cannot tell what constitutes iden- 
tity of language. It is clear therefore to me that in this inquiry 
we shall require all the helps within our our reach, and that a 
copious vocabulary, as well as a rudimentary grammar, of each 
tongue, will be indispensable. But the rudiments of grammar 
are to be had only with extreme toil, as creations of your own, 
from the crude element of very corrupt sentences supplied by 
unlettered childreu of nature ; and, in proportion as all such 
grammars are likely to be deficient, in the same proportion do 
copious vocabularies become more and more desirable. Besides, 
summary vocabularies are apt to deal with generals, whereas 
particulars embody the character and racy virtue of speech. 
But homebred words are all very particular, and proportionably 
numerous ; while general terms, if more conveniently few, are 
less characteristic and very apt to be of exotic origin. Take 
the English general term to move ; it is Latin and one ; but of 

* I confine myself to the aborigines of the mountains and tarai between 
Kumaun and Assam, a rich and extensive field of research. But I hope that 
other enquirers will, under the auspices of the Society, join me to complete 
the investigation. For the enumeration of the tribes see page 138. 

f H. H. Wilson's preface to the Mackenzie papers. Wilson's scepticism 
ifl somewhat wanton and affected : a sly hit at ignorance ? 



iv PREFACE. 

the numerous sorts of especial motion (to hop^ to skip^ to jump, 
to tumble down, to get up, to walk, to fly, to creep, to run, to 
gallop, to trot,) all are ^^ genuine Saxon, by the soul of Hengist.^* 
Moreover it should be remembered that general terms are pre- 
cisely those which rude races rarely understand or employ, and 
hence by the adoption of such words in a summary ethnological 
vocabulary we shall probably miss the real import of words, and 
with it the power of comparing one language with another, 
since different respondents are not at all likely to give real equi- 
valents or identical terms, unless the precise import of what is 
asked be thoroughly apprehended. There is yet another snare 
incident to vocabularies of a few general terms, even when of ob- 
vious meaning, to wit, that in the case of any general term you 
may get a word expressive merely of sex, age or other incident- 
al distinction, from one respondent, and a word expressive of 
some other such distinction from another, as ox, bull, cow, 
heifer. The only safe plan therefore is to take specific terms, 
and a suflScient number of them, reserving abstract terms merely 
to illustrate grammatical structure, or the mental condition of 
the tribe you are investigating. Now, the long and perfect dis- 
persion and insulation of the several members of the Tamiilian 
body have led to an extremity of lingual diverseness which, 
as contrasted with the similarity of their creed and customs, is 
the enigma of their race ; and for the reasons assigned it is an 
enigma which assuredly no CEdipus will solve except by dint of 
words. In Hindi and Urdu, though structure is the same, voca- 
bles make a difference which is broad and clear, owing to the 
evidently foreign elements of the diversity. Not so, however, in 
the Tamiilian tongues, in which there is very little of foreign 
element : all is homogeneousness in the vocables, and from its 
sameness of kind is less open to distinct separability. A sum* 
mary comparative vocabulary was framed some years back by 
that able and zealous enquirer, the Rev. Mr. Brown, and it has 
been extensively filled up with the dialects of the mountaineers 
round Assam. But, in applying this vocabidary to the uses of 



PREFACE. ▼ 

the present Essay, I have found it quite insufficient to the ends 
in view; to raise, not to solve, doubts ; and in reference to this 
question of the adequacy or otherwise of a very limited num- 
ber of words even of a primitive character, I request particular 
attention to the fact, that the popular opinion of the decisive 
nature and effect of such words, propagated by that able poly- 
glottist, Abel Remusat, has been lately shown to be far from 
decisive by Schott, whose observations on the subject may be 
seen, in lucid epitome, in Prichard's Physical History.^ Mr. 
Brown's words are scarcely of that kind which Remusat justly 
laid stress on as *^ prerogative instances'' of speech.f They 
are also, I think, much too few in number to yield decisive 
results, even had they been quite faultlessly selected. Any 
vocabulary that aspires to be useful, must, however summary, 
contain a fair portion of words belonging to each and all of the 
^' parts of speech," and must also give the cardinal numbers, at 
least down to 10. I am well aware that the prolixity of my 
own vocabulary may be objected to. But let it be remembered 
that I have a high object, wholly extrinsic to the mere lingual 
testing of ethnic affinities, and that is, the ascertainment of the 
physical and moral condition of the primitive races, which are 
the objects of my labours, and that I hold there is no medium 
of such ascertainment comparable with their languages. But 
I have no hesitation in adding my conviction that mere ethno- 
logical affimities cannot be satisfactorily tested by summary 
vocabularies ; that structure as well as vocables must be attend- 

* Vol. TV. p. 395, and the following. 

t For example, light, lux, is a high ahstraction which none of my infor- 
mants can grasp, though they readily give equivalents for sunshine and can- 
die or fire flame. But further, whoever will carefully examine my essay on 
the affinities of the subhimalayan tribes in the Asiatic Journal Bengal for 
December 1847» (vocabularies) will find that the lingual traces of relationship 
between these tribes are by no means correspondent with Remusat's theory* 
Nor differences nor resemblances are in harmony with that theory, and we 
have thus a striking practical proof of the value, and necessity indeed, of 
copious' vocabularies as guides to, and indices of, the status of enoh tribe. 



vi PREFACE. 

ed to ; and lastly, that even the sheer words of languages so 
wholly new to us cannot be safely got at unless we seek them 
in more than one form, and thus obtain means of comparison. 

With regard to the second object of these inquiries, or the 
determination of the moral and physical status of each abori- 
ginal people, it is to be observed that, as the Tamulians have, 
none of them, any old authentic legends, and are all very unin- 
formed, save in what respects their immediate wants and habi- 
tual ideas, it is exceedingly difficult to learn any thing of this 
sort from them directly : their creed especially is a subject of 
insuperable difficulty, through the sole medium of direct ques- 
tioning : their customs, again, are apt to afford but negative 
evidence, because, being drawn . from boon nature, they tend 
to identity in all the several nations ; and lastly, their physical 
aspect is of that osculant and vague stamp, which indicates 
rather than proves any thing ; or rather, what it does prove is 
general, not particular. We are thus driven back through all 
the media of research upon the grand stay of a copious voca- 
bulary. It is my fixed conviction that every distinct effective 
idea must have an appropriate word to express it ; that the 
more important the idea or want (if felt by the parties them- 
selves) the more surely will the correspondent term be forth- 
coming. Now, in regard to the creed of two of these nations 
(the Bodo and Dhim&l,) I have toiled for weeks to come at the 
verity by means of direct questions ; and yet, if at this moment 
I have any distinct notion of the real belief of these people, ^ 
certainly I am as much indebted for it to my ample vocabulary 
QS to all my direct interrogations. In the vocabulary, I find no 
adequate word for God, for soul, for future state, for Heaven, 
for Hell, for piety, for sin, for prayer, for repentance, for par- 
don ; and I apply this broad and sure basis of inference, but 
without exaggeration, to its legitimate purpose I Nothing can 
exceed the vagueness of all direct statement on this most im- 
portant of subjects : the gods (void of godhead : creator, 
lawgiver, judge) are very angry : why ? not because you have 



PREFACE. vii 

sinned, but because ihey are neglected : they must be flattered 
with gifts. This is all ; save what may be surely, if carefully, 
gathered from a copious vocabulary. I have adverted to the 
number of people whose speech is to be investigated, (28) as 
well as to the careful and ample style of investigation which I 
conceive can alone suffice for the realization of the ends in view ; 
for our aim is not to raise doubts but to solve them.* But 
time is the most precious of all things; and as the present in- 
vestigation has cost me six months, I purpose to seek aid and 
help from abroad, furnishing to each of my co-operators the 
present paper as a model, it being indispensable for purposes 
of ready and effective comparison, that all information should 
take a like direction, and that direction a sound and good one. 
In submitting therefore the first of an intended series of pa- 
pers to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, I have the honour to 
solicit its revision of my labours, in order more particularly to 
render the form of the vocabulary and grammar as good as may 
be, containing all that is essential and nothing superfluous. 
Should the Society favour me with any such suggestions, or 
should it practically ratify my present work by printing it, I 
intend forthwith to have 50 blank and 50 full copies of the 
essay printed for distributionf to co-operators ; and meanwhile 
I shall conclude this too long preface with a few explanations 
of the reasons which have led me to give this particular form 
to the vocabulary, the grand stay, as I conceive, in these inqui- 
ries, for the reasons already given. It will be seen at a glance 
that my vocabulary is not alphabetical. I think the alphabeti- 
cal plan liable to two extreme objections ; for we become thus 
entangled amid synonyma that are superfluous or deceptive, 
and among vague words that are worse than useless. But, 
worse than this, the alphebetical plan is void of all that facilita- 
tion which is so indispensable towards the accomplishment of 

* See note at the end of this Preface. 

t Any person desiring a copy can have it by applying to me at Dorjiling 
or to Mr. Laidlay at the Asiatic Society, Calcutta. 



viii PREFACE. 

the end in view, it being at once most difficult, and most neces- 
sary to lend the vagrant minds of our primitve informants some 
helps towards alertness and steadiness of attention in this to 
them so new, so strange, and so tedious, a labour. The prin- 
ciple I have proceeded upon is the association of ideas by simi' 
litude, contrast and habitual connection ; and I have found this 
grand principle, (which is to our cogitative what sympathy is to 
our emotive faculties) when understood and applied with the 
requisite simplicity, to be of great assistance to myself in 
guarding against vague words, whose name is legion, and of yet 
more and more important assistance to my primitive-minded 
respondents. In numberless instances the mutual doubts 
created by the first word were removed by mere utterance of 
the correlative or contrasted term ; whilst in each of the arts 
and crafts the clue furnished by connexion and dependancy of 
parts enabled me rapidly and surely to work onwards with the 
vocables. I purposed also at the same time thus to prepare so 
many distinct pictures of the state of knowledge in its several 
departments,* such as it is within the ken and use of the races 
interrogated (an important part of my plan of absolute as well 
as comparative estimates) ; and, even when no such knowledge 
was to be had in the particular case before me, I have carefully 
preserved the blanks, deeming the negative almost as valuable 
as the positive evidence — not to mention that, having in view 
application to other respondents of different nations, it followed 
that the blanks in one paper might be well filled in another. 
Still, the vocabulary is too large and too difficult ; and it is there- 
fore a great object to reduce it in the complex terms without mu- 
tilation, and also to give the essentials of grammar with the ut- 
most simplicity and conciseness ; and for aid to these ends I 
shall be thankful, though no pains have been spared to render 
the whole paper as it now stands, worthy of the Society's 

* The table of contents at the end of the Volume or the separate headingrs in the body 
of the vocabulary, will show at a glance how tliis object has been souglit to be gained. 
Unhappily the headings or titles have been very imperfectly struck off at press. 



PREFACE. ix 

acceptance and a fitting model for future research. Of the 
three separate people* treated of (the K6ch, the B6d6, and the 
Dhim&l) I have given physical delineations of the B6d6 only, 
because the faintly yet distinctly marked type of the Mongoli- 
anf family is similar in all three^ but best expressed (so to 
speak) in the Bodo features and form. I am not unaware that 
a great deal has been already done in the line of research which 
I have now^ not taken up^ j: but resumed^ and if I have not 
adopted and followed up the method of investigation of any of 
the many able men who have, with reference to my present at- 
tempt, preceded me in this field, it is not because I am insensi- 
ble of the value of those labours, but because their diversity is 
quite opposed to every idea of system, where system is most 
needful, and that the best system : wherefore the corrections of 
the Society are solicited for my own work prior to its dissemi- 
nation (as a model) for being filled up by various co-operators 
either within the limits assigned to myself (if such aid can be 
had), or elsewhere and beyond those limits. 

B. H. Hodgson. 
Barjtelingy JunSy 1846. 



Note. — ^The great Scythic stem of the human race is divided into three 
primary branches, or the TangCis, the M6ngol, and the Ttirk. The first in- 
vestigators of this subject urgently insisted on the radical diversity of these 
three races : but the most recent inquirers more incline to unitise them. 



* I distinguish by language, and assume that wherever there is a broad 
spoken diversity of tongue unintelligible to neighbours, there is distinct peo- 
ple. The value of these spoken diversities will be hereafter determined as 
one general result of the inquiry on foot. 

t Mongolian ? potius Scythic. — See the appended note on the subject. 

X When I went to England in 1844, I possessed vocabularies of all the 
languages and dialects of Nepal : but these, with many other valuable papers, 
were lost owing to circumstances I need not dwell on. I have recovered 
some fragments, and am reconstructing the vocabularies of these dialects 
upon the plan above delineated. 



X PREFACE. 

Certainly there is a strong and obvious character of physical, (if not also of 
lingual,) sameness throughout the Scythic race ; and it is remarkable that 
this peculiar character belongs also to all the aborigines of India, who may 
be at once known, from the Cavery and Yigarti to the Cosi and Bhagarati,* 
by their quasi-scythic physiognomy, so decidedly opposed to the Caucasian 
countenance of the Arians of India, or the Hindus. I apprehend that there 
will be found among the aborigines of India a like lingual sameness, and that 
very extended and very accurate inyestigation will consequently alone suffice 
to test the real nature and import of the double sameness, physical and 
lingual. That all the aborigines of India are Northmen of the Scythic stem, 
seems decidedly and justly inferrible from their physical characteristics. But, 
inasmuch as that prodigious stem is every where found beyond the whole 
Northern and Eastern boundary of India, not merely from the Attok to the 
Brahmaputra, where these rivers cut through the Himalaya, but from that 
point of the latter river all the way to the sea ; and inasmuch as there are 
familiar and trite Ghats or passes over the Himalaya throughout its course 
along the entire confines of India from Kashmir to the Brahma KGnd, it 
follows of necessity that very careful and ample investigation will alone 
enable us to decide upon the question of the unity or diversity of the abori- 
gines of India, in other words to decide upon the questions, whether they 
owe their confessed Scythic physiognomy to the Tangos, the Mongol or the 
TCurk branch of the Tartars or Scythians, and whether they immigrated from 
beyond the Himalaya (" the hive of all nations") at one period and at one 
point, or at several periods and at as many points. Between Gilgit and Chit- 
tagong there are 100 passes over the Himalaya and its south-eastern continu- 
ation to the Bengal Bay i while for the time of passage, there are ages upon 
ages before the dawn of legend and of chronicle. 

I incline to the opinion that the aborigines of the Sub-Himdlayas, as far 
east as the Dhansri of Assam, belong to the Tibetanf stock, and east of that 
river to the Chinese stock — except the Garos and other tribes occupying that 
portion of the Hills lying between Assam and Sylhet ; and that the aborigines 
of the tarai and forest skirting the entire sub-Him&layas, inclusive of the 
greater part of the marginal circuit of the Assam Valley, belong, like those 
last mentioned, to the Tamulian stock of aborigines of the plains of India 
generally. But what is this Tamulian stock ? what the Tibetan stock ? and 
what the Chinese ? and to which of the three grand and well known branches 
of the Scythic tree (Tangfis, Mongol, Tdrk) do the Tamulians, the Tibetans 
and the Chinese;); belong ? — I have now said enough to enforce caution and 
stimulate curiosity, and I pause. 

* Alpine feeder of the Gangres, not its Bengal defluent. So Alpine Cosi. 

t Notices of the Langua^res and Literature of Nepal. 

X 1 he Tartars of China are Mantchiinan Tangiis. I allude to the Chinese proper. 



T C 1 B r L A K Y 



Eii^uk, 



Koch. 



Jr» Creatar, " „ 






Kil, 



M 
» 



uiii i era l, CKaiazi, gunan, 
ImmodoQ or rest, ThirtJ^ BaKin, 
Action, coDSG- 1^,,^^ 
ous modoD. )^««>™» 
Inictioa ditto, ,. 

Light, loz, Jyoti, 

Andh^r, 

Riip, 

Arup, 

Tara, 

Graha, 

Siini, 

Biihaspati, 

Siikra, 

Blongol, 

Giohon, 



Figare iv t onn, 

Fonn* 

Star, 

Planed 

Saturn, 

Jupiter, 

Veniis^ 

Mars, 

Eclipse, 

HeaTen, 



Sworg : D^VB, 

PritbiTi, 
P&t^ Norok, 
L<5k, 



Earth, 
Hades or HeD, 

This world, , 

The next world. Porlok, 

God, BhagaT&[i; 

A God, any. 



AmA^. 



»t 



f» 



•» 



>• 



Khal 

ThaiKchai, 

Thiltti, 

Habha, 

HabbageTa» 

Shring^ 

Khomshi, 

Kup, 

Kupgeya, 

H4thotki, 



» 



iMM«al. 



r NokhoWoig, visible 
\ arch. 



EliaL 

Hanka. 

Hika. 

Kampaka. 

Kimmanthoka. 

Kitikitika. 
Rup. 

Ri!ipintothiika« 
Phiiro. 

M 
9t 
>i 
» 
>t 



» 



B&tho(the Sij 

plant), 
Madai, 



>9 
>t 



\r<lr(ing-B<<r<5ng 
(mas et focui)« 
Dlr, Grtm» 



IMVta, 

c 2 

♦kn*!^® jPHS""®"®* *^^ extentjiTen to thii portion of my work m anhlMd u 
the^Introdaction, p. 2, tnd the principle on which the ^f^^^^lf^l^^l^ 



12 



VOCABULARY. 



English. Koch» 

Devil or Ka- 



Bodo, 



JDhitndl, 



kodemon. 
The Devil, 
Fairy, good, 
Ogre, ^ 
Gnome, >bad, 
Sprite, J 
Ghost^ 

Witch (fern,). 

Sun, 

Moon, 

Dark half of. 
Bright ditto. 

Body, Hmited, 

Shadow, 

Human body, 

Human soul. 

Life, 

Death, 

A being, moving, 

A thing, mo- 
tionless, 

A name. 

An animal, 

A vegetal, 

A mineral. 

Human kind. 

Quadruped, 

Bat kind. 

Bird kind. 

Fish kind. 

Shelled iish kind, 

Testudines, 

Lacertine Rep- 1 
tiles, J 

Batrachians, 

Serpent kind. 

Insect kind. 

Mind, under- 
standing. 

Reason, the 
thinking or- 
gan, 



Dait, Rak- 

shas, Asur, 



9f 



Bhut, 

Dakini, 

B^l^ 

Chand, 

Badi, 

Sddi, 

Gotor, 

Chid, 

Gotor, 

m, 

Jfd, 
Moron, 



} 



»i 



it 



Nam, 

Pasu, 

Trin, 

Dhdtu, 

Mdnushi, 

Chdrpdyd, 

Chdm chUka, 

P6khi, 

Mdchd, 



Sdmp, 
Pokd, 



Mon, 



a 
i> 

t> 

if 



it 



a 



a 



Madai, 
Jomon, 
Gathaicho, 



a 

a 

a 
a' 

a 

a 



{Hdshd-Hinjou, Mhdi B^wal 
Hinjouni Daina, Dhaina. 



Shdn, 

N6khdbir, 

Dan khomshi, 

Din shrdng, 

Modom, 

SdikhMm, 

Modom, 

G6thlng,* 
Gothoi,* 

a 

a 

Mung, 
Gothing, 

a 
a 

Minushi, 



Bdi. 
Tdli. 



Dh6r. 

Dapki. 

Dhor. 



a 



a 



Singlhoka. 
Sikd. 



Ming. 



a 

a 

a 
a 
i» 



Day^ng. 



Ath^ng thdnglr^, Didlong-kh6koi. 
Badamali, „ 

Dduchen or Dau, Jihd. 



Gnd, 



Haiyd. 



99 

a 



Imbd, 

Jibo, 

Impho, 



Gasho ? 



a 
if 

a 

a 



Pdnhid. 
Nhdmoi, 



» 



* Rather alive and dead. 



VOCABULARY. 



13 



t} 



English, Koch* 

Instinct animal, „ 

Reason, 
Meditation, 

thought,reflec- ^ Bhdvana, 
tion, the act 
Consciousness, 
Reasoning, ratio- 

tination. 
Debate, argument, B^da bddi. 
Memory, Phom, 

Forgetfulness, B^phom, 

Sensation, | j^^^^^^^,^ 



Bodo, 



DhimdL 



»9 



99 



>9 
»9 



l> 



t> 



it 



i» 



a 



a 



Dopka warka. 
Phom. 



ion, 1 
I, or, > 
ension, J 



Phom, 






* Britdnt, 
Gati, Dasha, 



/ 



Swobhau, 



physical. 
Perception, 

mental, 
Apprehension, 
Quantity, 
Degree, 

Quality, Gun, 

Number, Ganti, 

Time, limited, B^ld, 
Place, ditto, Thdn, 

Circumstance, 
event, external. 
Condition, 

state, internal. 
Constitution, 
Temperament, 
Nature, 

Manner, the how, Doul, Prakar, 
Occasion, the 1 

when, / 

Object, end in 1 j^.^j^^. 

view, J ' 

Reason, the 1 ^ ^ g^ ^ 

human, why, / * ^ 

Cause, causa 

causans. 
Effect, conse- 
quence, 
FeeUng. affec- j y^,^ 

tion, passion, j ^ 
Parental affection, Mdya, 
Filial ditto, Maya, 

Conjugal ditto, Pr^m, M6h, 
Appetite, Bo- 1 ^^ 

dily desire, / ^ ^" » 



Raijalaiyu, 
Shdtn'mg, 

( ^rT.l f^^' 1 Phommdnth6. 
\ runggeya, J 

Ddsmanno, Disham^nka. 

Gashomanno, Phom. 



E&ran, 



a 



99 



99 



Shanno, 

B^M, 

Nupthi, 



99 



» 



)> 



>> 



» 



>> 



>> 



)> 



>> 



>) 



>* 



» 



Gan6kd. 

B^1&. 

Ch61. 



» 



» 



» 



» 



9> 



99 



» 



» 



>» 



Wanna, 

Wanna, 
Wanna, 
Wanna, 

Gashojdyu ? Mondhdmi. 



99 



99 



99 



99 



14 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



English. 

Mental desire, 

wish. 
Motive, induce-" 

ment. 
Intention, por- 

pose, design, 

aim. 
Endeavour, at- 
tempt, 
Act or deed. 
Disposition, 

temper. 
Behaviour, 

conduct. 
Demeanour, 

manners. 
Habit, wont. 
Practice, use. 
Custom, usage. 
Use, enjoyment 1 

of, / 

Use, mere act of. 
Disuse, cessa- "I 

tion of, J 

Abuse, wrong use. 
The material 

elements. 
Earth, the ter- " 
2nd rene element, 
^arM. Earth, land, 

terra firma. 
Soil, cultivable. 
Mould, 
Marl, 
Mud, 
Dust, 
Manure, 
Stone, a frag-l 

ment of rock, J 
Gravel, the heap, 
Rock, the mass. 
Clay rock, alu- 1 

mina, j 

Potter's clay. 
Limestone, 1 

rock calx, j 
Chalk, 
Lime, prepared, 



Koch, 


Bodo. 


Bhimdl. 


Iccha, 


Gashojdyd, 


Mondh&ni. 


Sobob, k^ron. 


>> 


99 


Sobob, Nimitt, 


»* 


99 


Ch^shta, Ant, 


a 


99 


R&m, Kormo, 


Habba, 


99 


Mizdg, 


>f 


99 



Chalan, 



99 



99 



Chdl, 
Chdl, 
Bh^s, Dastur, 


99 
99 
99 


99 
99 
99 


Bh6g, 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Panj Bhut, 


99 


99 


Prithivi, 


99 


99 


Mdti, Bhumi, 


H^ 


Bhan6i. 


Sdriik mdti, 
S^dk mdti, 
S^rdk m^ti, 
K^do, 
Dhul^, 
Sdr, 


H^sharh^ 

99 

Habdti, " 

Hdduri, 

H^s^r, 


Bhan6i. 

99 

Kad66. " 

99 

Sdr. 


P^thar, 


Onth^, 


Fnthdr. 


Kankar, 
Pdthar, 


99 

Onthai, 


Unthur." 


99 


99 


99 


Kdmhklennati, 


Aithdlihd, 


CliiktMHBhandi. 


99 


99 


99 


Rhdrimdti, 
Chun, 


99 
9i 


99 
19 



t • 



VOCABULARY. 



15 



} 



JSf^tsk, 

Quick- lime. 

Sandstone rock, 

Sand, loose, 

Flint rock, silex. 

Gun flint, 

Glass, 

^oda. 

Alkali, 

Acid, 

Rock-salt, 

Salt, any. 

Saltpetre, 

Borax, 

Sulphur, 

Antimony, or 

mercury. 
Arsenic, 
Talc, 
Mica, 
Chrystal, 
Mineral ore. 
Gold, 
Silver, 
Iron, 
Copper, 
Tin, 
Zinc, 
Lead, 
Pewter, 
Brass, 
Bell metal, 
A mountain or 

hill, 
A plain, 
A hill top, 
A hill side, 
A hill hase, 
A wooded plain 1 

or weald, j 
A naked plain 1 

or wold, J 

Dry uplands, 
Low flooded 1 

lands, J 

A valley, large, 
A valley, small, 
A ravine. 



Koch. 
Aiwa, Jhdri, 

B^ii, 
P&thar, 
P^thari, 
K&nch, 
it 

n 
ft 



Bodo, 



Dhimdl, 



a 



Ndn, 
Jaikhar, 
Soh^a, 
Gandarak, 

Pdrfi, 



Ab6r, 



it 



} 



B4ld, 



ti 
it 

it 

il 
it 
It 
it 
it 



Sankhri, 



tt 
)) 
it 

a 

it 



Alongbdr, 



B41&. 



D^s^. 



it 

a 

it 
it 
it 
it 
it 
»» 
it 

it 
it 
a 

it 

a 



Bdl&p^t. 



Bilour, 


it 


it 


Dhdtti, 


it 


a 


S6na, 


Sona, 


Sona. 


Rdpd, 


Rdp^, 


Riip^. 


L6h^ 


Shtirr, 


Chfr. 


Tdmba, 


T^mbo, 


T^mbo. 


Ringa, 


i9 


it 


Jasta, 


it 


a 


Sish^ 


it 


it 


a 


it 


a 


Pital, 


it 


tt 


a 


tt 


a 


Parbot, 


Hiijo, 


m. 


Dfinga, 
M^thi, 


Photdr, Hdyen, 
Khr6, 


Dhaidhaika. 
Paring. 


Mdjha, 


G^j^r, 


it 


G6r, 


Khfbo,. 


L61d. 


Jhdrb&ri, 


Hdgrd ?* 


Sing bdri. 


Dhaidhai d^ga, 


Photdr, 


Dhaidhaika. 


D^gi, 


Hdgting, 


Tika. 


D6halla, 


Dohala, 


it 


Khdl, 


Hdkor, 


it 


Khdl, 


H6kor, 


it 


Dhordhora, 


it 


. a 


* Forest, and Siogr b4ri the same. 





16 



VOCABULARY. 



English, 
A forest, 

A jungle, 

Copse or- 

brushwood, 
A sandy waste 

or desert, 
A marsh, or 

swampy plain, / 
. . A quagmire, or 1 
SrflT quicksand, j 
Water. Water, 
' Salt water. 

Fresh water, 
Tide, 

Ocean or sea, 
A river, 
A great river, 
A rivulet. 
Still water, 
Bunning water. 
Coast or bank. 
Bay or inlet, 
A canal, 
Aqueduct, 

small and 

crude, 
A torrent. 



} 






A rapid, 

A water-fall, 
A lake, natural, 
A pond, natural, 
A tank, artificial, 
A wave, 
A stream or ") 

current, J 

A spring, natural, 
A well, artificial, 
A fountain, do, 
A bridge, 
A ferry, 
A ford. 

Ether, the ele- 1 
4tA . ment, J 

^i>., ;Air, do. 

" Wind, moving 1 

air, J 



Koch, 
S£ bdri, 

Jhdr bari. 
Jh^ri, 

Dhiidda danga, 
D^md^vi, 

Dhasna, 

Jal, 

N6na Jal, 
Mitha Jal, 

Nodi, 
Bada nodi, 
Chota nodi, 
Dhi p^ni, 
Bohonti pani, 
Dhddani, 
Gh^nd, 
Ddnra, 

Shdn, 

Tarang, 

Khdrkhiiria or 

Bajna, 

Dhordhora, 

Jhil, 

Kh^ri, Dobha, 

Diggi, Choka, 

Dh^yu, 

Sont, 

Bhiil, 

Chui, 

Dhdrd, 

Khorkhori, 

Ghat, 

Ghat, 

D^w^, 

Batas, 

Bat^s, 



Bodo, 



{ 



DhimdL 
Sing bdri. 



Hdgra md, 

TMrihagrd,or-| ^^^^^^ 
Hagra, J 



Joulia, 



Hagung ? 



Dalbari, 

Hdbrang, 

D6i, 

j> 

fi 
>f 
a 

Doi (water), 
Doi g^d^t, 
D6ish^, 
Dongo, 



» 



Ddijing, 
Miri, 



yy 



} 



Phoiri, 

ajana, 

Dhangi ?' 
Doba, 

Do'i dho. 



>i 



yy 



Biraii, 
D6i khor. 



jj 



Saikhong, 



»i 



yy 



Nokhor^ng, 

B^r, 

Bar, 



Jhdpsi. 
Tikar. 



Chi. 



it 
»t 

yy 



Chi (ditto.) 
Badka Chi. 
Mhoika Chi. 
Dangi, 
Phoika Chi. 
Ch^ngsho. 
Gh^kana. 



»> 



Rdlii, 



)> 



>> 



Dhdngi 1 
D6ba. 



»t 



Chiko dh^. 

Raghd. 

Bh(il, 



Bhirma 
Bhirma 



English, 

Storm, tempest. 

Atmosphere, 1 
weather, J 

Bad weather. 

Good weather. 

Cloud, 

Sunshine, 

Season, 

Spring, 

Summer, 

Autumn, 

Winter, 

The rains. 

Rain, 

Drop of rain, 

Shower of rain. 

Thunder, 

Lightning, 

HaU, 

Snow, 

Frost, 

Thaw, 

Dew, 

Mist or haze, 
5th Fog, 

Fire. Fire(theelement), 
Temperature, 
Ileat, caloric. 

Cold, 

Fire, any. 

Flame, 

Smoke, 

Fire place or 

grate. 
Forge, 
Furnace, 
Kib, 
Oven, 
Still, 
Fuel, 
Wood, 
Charcoal, 
Cinders, 
Ashes, 
Turf, 
Cowdung, 
6tt Straw, 
MmaiiThe human body 



} 



VOCABUTARY. 




Kocch* 


Bodo, 


Dhimdl. 


Diind, 


B&rhurka, 


» 


Samay, 


Din, 


Din. 


Bura samay. 


Hamma din, 


Mi elka din. 


Bhalo samay. 


Ghdm din. 


£lka din. 


M6gh, 


Jam<5i, 


» 


R&yad, 


Shandung, 


Sin6. 


Samay, 


Din, 


Din. 


Basant, 


99 


99 


Grish samay. 


Galam battar. 


Sd k6 din. 


J^ samay. 


it 
Gajdng battar. 


>9 

Chiimko din. 


Barsh k& , 


9> 


99 


P^ni, 


N6khd, 


W6i. 


T6p, 


» 


99 


» 


»9 


99 


Charak, 


Kharammo, 


99 


Deva chilak. 


Mu phlamo, 


Kapli g^. 


P^thar, 


Krothai, 


I/nthur. 


H^m, 


»9 


99 


Pdla, 


» 


99 


Galay, 


»> 


99 


Sit, 


Nihiir, 


Nihari. 


Kiihd, 


9» 


99 


Kuh^ 


99 


99 


Agni, 


Wdt, 


M6n. 


Grish, 


Gddung]' 


99 

Bh6mka. 


J^r, 


Gajdng, 


Chunka. 


Agni, 


Wat, 


M^n. 


Mk, 


Wdt chalai. 


M^tika. 


Dhdna, 


Wakan doi. 


Dhiina. 


Akhd, 


r Dou dap, 
I Wag dap. 


f M^n dhoka. 
\ M6n pondho. 


A'phar, 


Wdt gad^p, 


99 


Bhatti, 


99 


99 


Bh^tta, 


>» 


99 


Akh^ 


Doudap, 


99 


Bhatti, 


Bhdti, 


Bhati. 


Khori, 


B6n, 


Mising. 


Lakri, 


B6n, 


Khuting. 


Augr^, 


Hangdr, 


Angri. 


Miish, " 


Hatopla, 


99 

Chai and L6d. 


Chokri, 


rtha. 


Chapra. 


Chdn, 


Mashokhi, 


Vik koUsha. 


Ldr^, 


Maijigdp, 


Ndrd. 


G6t6r, 


Modom, 


Dh6r. 



17 



18 



VOCABULARY. 



English, Kocch, 

The heady Mdra, 

The limhs, Ang, 

The skm, Chamra, 

The hair of body, Rom, 
The hair of head, Chdli, 



Bodo, 
Kh6r6, 



DhimdL 
Piirin. 



»» 



Big6r, 

Khomon, 

Khanai, 



» 



The neck. 
The throat. 
The arm, dl. 
The true arm, 
The fore arm, 

The hand, 
Thepahn, 



Gardhan, 

Tiitf, 

Hdth, 

Bdhdn, 

Nalli, 

Hdth, 



f» 



{ 



{ 



Gar^g b^ 
N^khdnti, 
Yiigdo, 
Nakh^nti, 
Akhai or Nd- 
khai, 



The back hand 



Hdth^r pith, 
♦Ndkhai or 
Akhai, 
The finger, (any,) Angtil, 









} 



The thumb. 

The wrist. 
Finger nail. 
Thumb nail. 
The leg, all. 
The true leg, 
tibia, 



Bddi angul. 

Hither luld, 
Kh61, 
Khol, 
Th^ng^ 

j M6kchd, 



{ 



The thigh, femur, Ch6rd, 



The knee. 
The ankle. 
The heel. 
The foot. 

The toe, any 

Great toe. 
Toe-nail, 
Sole of foot, 
A joint, any, 
A bone, any. 
Flesh, muscle. 
Blood, 



Hatwa, 
Th^ng^r lulii, 
Gdddr^ 
Bh6ri, 

Th^ng^r angdl, 

Budi angdl, 

Khtilk^ 

T^d, 

Liilti, 

Harw^ 

Mdsang, 

L6hd, 

Sir, 



» 



Blood vessel. 

Sinew or tendon. 

The face, Mtikh, 

The eye, Chakhti, 

The eye-brow, Bhdr, 

The eye-lash, Chakhd n6d. 



Ndshi, 

N^him^ 

N^6d6, 
Ndshi gur, 
Ndshi gdr, 
Gndth^ng, 

Y6doi, 

Ph^ndd, 
Hdnthd, 
Ydgr^ng, 
Ydphd doudoi, 
Ydph^ 

Ndth^ngnashi, < 

Ndshi mi, 

N^hi gdr, 

Tdlkh^ 

J6ra, 

B^^ng, 

Bidat, 

Th6i, 

Sir, 

R6ta, 

Mdkh^g, 

Mogon, 

Mdshdgtir, 

Moishr^m, 



Dhdl^. 

Moishd. 

Poshom. 

Nirga. 

Totoi. 

Khdrb^a. 

Khdr. 

B^d. 

Khdr. 



G&ndi. 

Khdrsing. 
Mengta khur- 
sing. 

Kh61td. " 

Kh61td. 

Kh6koi. 

Kh6koi. 

Whfilt^ng. 
WhdltengTdrhdi. 
Kh6i gdnti. 
Gddni. 
Kh6k6i. 
Kh6koi ko khur- 

sing. 
Amabdndi. 

Khdrsing tala. 

Gdnti. 

H4r. 

B^hd. 

Hitti. 

Jhir6. 

Rhdai. 
Mf. 

Mi pdtd. 
Mimdi. 



* N is frequently a superadded and often a commuted letter. 



VOCABULARY. 



19 



English, 
The nose^ 

The nostril. 

The forehead, 
The cheek. 
The chin. 
The ear. 
The beard. 
The mustache. 
The mouth. 
The lips. 
The teeth. 
The jaws. 
The tongue. 
The palate. 
The chest, male. 
The breast, fem. 

The nipple. 
The hip. 



Kocch. 
Ndk, 

Nak ka bind, 

K6p^, 

G^, 

Thiitdli, 

K&n, 

Dddhi, 

D&dhi, 

Mdkh, 

Th6t, 

D&nt, 

Chouw^ 

Jiyha, 

T^u, 

Btikh, 

Dddhy^, 

Thomona, 
Chord jor6. 



The buttocks. 


Tholmfi, 


The anus. 


K6ti, 


The penis. 


Ch6nt, 


The testes. 


Bicha, 


The vulva. 


M^ng, 


The womb. 


Bacha dhukri, 


The back. 


Pith, 


The belly orfrontj 


, P^t, 


The stomach. 


Bh6ti, 


The bowels, 


L^r, 


The navel. 


L6bhf, 


The liver. 


Kdlj^ 


The lungs. 


Ph^ph^ra, 


The heart, 


Grotma, 


The gall-bladder, 


Pitt, 


The spleen. 


TiUi, 


The bladder. 


P4ni mutdri, 


The kidneys. 


Gila, 



The skeleton. 
The back bonel 
or spinal co- > Lilddrd, 



» 



lumn, 
A rib, any. 
The scull. 
The brain. 
Marrow, 






Panjdr, 
Khopri, 
Gidhd. 
Magaz^ 

D 2 



{ 



Bodo* Dhimdl. 

Gdnthdng, Nh^pu. 

^i"«''^'iNMp6 Phong.. 



ddng, 
Jobom, 
Khoulai, 
Khdkh^p, 
Rhomd, 
DMhi, 
Dddhi, 
Khoug^ 
Kusuthi, 
mthai, 
H^gm^ 
Ch^ai, 
J6rkh6ng, 
Jarb^, 
Jarba : Abii, 






Kop&l. 

Galbung. 

K^t6. 

N&h^thong. 

D^hi. 

D^dhi. 

Ndi. 

Dilvd. 

Sitong. 

Jambai. 

D^tdng. 

Niii-ko-kilo. 

Tumtd. 

Tumtd. 



^Ahithr } ^^^" ^°"^'^^- 

Ph^ndd kani 1 Tiri -ju^ 
K^c^^nc, ) Whdlt^ng.jora. 

Lishura thdm^. 



b^^ng, 
Kithdthdi, 
Khibd, 
Chdchi, 
Ladoi', 
Chiph^ 
BisMkh6, 
Bikhdng, 
irddi, 
Bhanddr, 
Bibd, 

W^thd mai, 
Bikba, 
Sompholo, 

Moikhdn, 

Biklo, 
Nokhabir, 
Chith6p, 
GUa, 



Lishura. 

Tau. 

S^sh6. 

Li. 

Ch&nter^ng. 

G^di. 

H^mang. 

Pdt^m. 

T^r^ng. 

Botereug. 

Tdmsing. 

Khd8l6. 
rM6kcha : khon- 
\ ddng. 

Fitd. 



>i 



Pdni mutdri. 
K^h^ 



>» 



>i 



Chinchiri, 

Khamihdr, 
Kh6r6 b^g^ng, 
M^l^m, 
M^l^m, 



Lild^. 

Panjdr. 

Pdring ko h^r. 
Pd nhui. 
Ddng, 



20 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 

Spittle, 

Phlegm, 

Snot, 

Turd, human, 

Horsedung, 

Cowdung, 

Wild heast's do. 

Urine, human. 

Cow's urine. 

Sweat, 

Semen, animal. 

Menses, 

Pus, 

Bile, 

Fat, 

Grease or Tallow, 

Gravy, 

SUme, 

Spray, 

Moult, of birds. 

Casting hair, 1 
of beasts, j 

Bust, 

Mildew or blight, 

Mouldiness, 

Rot, putrescence. 

Paring, peel. 

Lees and refuse 1 
of expressed > 
seed, &c. J 

Litter, dirt, 
7m Cobweb, 

and (Nakedness, 
pamons. [)old, pain of, 
— ^ Sexual desire, 1 
shnple, J 

Animal heat, fern. 
Libidinousness, 1 
vicious, J 

Gluttony, 
Drunkenness, 
Idle talk, 
Foul-mouthed- 
ness or Abu 
siveness. 



Kocch, 

Thup&, 

Gh6ng6r, 

Singani, 

Gdh, 

L^di, 

Chan, 

Gdh. 

M6th, 

Mdth, 

Jh6ns, 

Brij. 

Mdt^hdsa, 

p<ijh, 

Charbi, 
Charbi, 
Mdsang^rras, 

Ph^n, 
Kdrich, 



{ 



Bodo* 

Jtimddoi, 

H^rdoi, 

Gdng grii, 

Khi, 

Gorainikhi, 

MdshtiBikhi, 

M6ch^nikhi, 

Hdshd dm, 

Miishunihdshli 

doi, 
Galdm d6i, 
Ph6dd, 
Roti chinam, 
Gtim6 do'i, 
Bikl6ni doi, 

i9 
if 

Bidatni d6i, B^h^ ko chi. 



Dkim&l, 

Thopchi. 
Hdkd. 
Nh^thi. 
Lishi. 

O'nhya-ko-lishi. 
Pi^ ko lishi. 
Khdna ko lishi. 
Chicho. 

\ Pid ko chicho. 

Bh6mti. 
Tou ko chi. 



Li-ko-chi. 

Biti. 

Pito-ko-chi. 



i$ 



>9 



*» 



99 



Mtirch^ 

S611d, 

Sdw6, 

P6cM, 

Chh^> 



Mdmiirkhi, 

Mairdng, 

Soyo, 

G6ch^6, 

Bigur, 



9) 
9» 



Sitti : Chhnri, Ch^b^ 



Ktit^ 

J^shi, 

Bhtik, 

Pids, 

L^ngtdpan, 

J4r, 

Rajh, 
Kdm, 



Jdb6r, 
B^m&d6ng, 
UTdddng, 
Gringd6ng, 



Patna. 
Souldng. 
P4ch. 
Dh41^. 

Ch6nchli. 
J4b6r. 



Mhft6. 
Chi^m. 



»> 



{ 



Gajdng, Chdng. 

Hinjouni lubi 1 , , j, > , 
dong, / Mondhdpka. 

Gdnn^ng, 
Chdchi thengai. 



»* 



)i 



99 



99 



4 






{ 



Ph^tph^t, 

Rdi kh^m, 
R^chdd, 



} 



N&ik&. 



V 



VCXJABULARY. 



21 



} 



^} 



English, 

Slander, back- 
biting, 

Censure, blame 

Praise, approval, 

Continence,bodily 

Continence, 1 
mental, j 

Incontinence, 
bodily or sen 
suaUty, 

Incontmence, 1 
mentidt j 

Virtue, 

Vice, 

Error <»* fault, 

Love, charitas, 1 
benevolence, j 

Hate, malevo-1 
lence, j 

Hope, 

Fear, 

Justice, 

Injustice, 

Bight, just, 

Duty, obligation. 

Cunning, deceit ~ 
hypocrisy. 

Candour, open- 
ness. 

Modesty, shame, 

Impud^ce, 

Joy, 

Sorrow, 

Avarice, covet- 
ousness. 

Generosity, K- 
berali<y, 

Pride, vanity. 

Humility, 

Industry, 

Idleness, 

Truth, 

Falsehood, 

Patience, 

Impatience, 

Rage, anger, 

Mercy, gentle- 
ness. 



Kocck, 

Mdkhd, 

Ninda, 

Prasan, 

Jitindrat^ 

Sila, 

Indribas, 

Mattatd, 
Pdn, 

Gh6ti, 
Mob, m&y^ 
Ch^ma, 

Ghin, 

Bh6rs^ 
Hat^, D6r, 
Dharam, 
Adharam, 



)> 



99 



Chhal, 



a 



L&j, sharam, 
Nilajta, 
Ulash, 
Kh^d, 

L6bh, 

D^silta, 
if 



{ 



Bixio. 

Chokhu p<Sra 1 
koth&sonaong / 
Shubudong, 



Dkimdl. 



} 



Bou&, 



99 
>» 



Ninoh&yd, 



Giyfr, 



»9 

»9 

99 



Ldjyo, 
lAji rdngd, 



>» 



Jingd sio. 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 

99 
99 
99 

99 
99 

99 

99 
99 
99 

99 



Chikd. 



L^hi. 



99 

99 
99 
99 
99 

99 
99 



L^d^r, 
L^6r m&ntho. 



99 

99 

99 

99 

99 
99 



} 



Maskat, ki»mat. 


Habba moncho, 


Alas, 


Budong, B4yu, 


Sacchouti, 


Chal^y^ 


Jhtitapan, 


Chal^yo, 


Tdp, 


99 


Asant&p, 


99 


Prdptong, 


99 


Doya, 


Wdnno, 



Kampdka. 



99 



Saccha dopka. 
Micha dopka. 



99 
99 
99 

99 



} 

} 



22 

English. 

Cruelty, sav- "I 
ageness, f 

Bravery, 

Cowardice, 

Good manners, 
politeness, 
grace. 

Bad manners, 
vulgarity. 

Curiosity, 

Indifference, 

Revenge, 

Forgiveness, 

Perfidy, 

FideUty, 

Jealousy, 

Sanity, mental. 

Madness, 

Idiotcy, creta-1 
Sth nism, J 

Food,Food, victuals, 
'^ Eatables, 

Drinkables, 

Animal food. 

Vegetable food. 

Fish meat. 

Fowl meat. 

Flesh meat. 

Grain diet. 

Fruit diet. 

Hot condiments. 

Cold condiments. 

Water, 

Fermcntedliquor, 

Distilled liquor. 

Milk, 

Buttermilk, 

Whey, 

Ghee, 

Curds, 

Roast or gril-1 
led flesh, / 

Boiled flesh. 

Beef, 

Mutton, 

Goat flesh. 

Pork, 

Venison, 



VOCABULARY. 




Kocch, 


Bodo, 


JDhimdU 


K6thd, 


Wann^ 


99 


Hdp, 


Gdhudong, 


Jiv^dhdmka. 


Nihdp, 


Gikho, 


Jiv^ mhoika. 


Sisht^h^r, 


99 


99 


Ddsht^h^r, 


99 


99 


99 


9» 


99 


Bodol, " 


99 
99 


99 
99 


Kh^ma, 


99 


99 


Kapat, 


Chimak, 

99 


99 
99 


99 

P%la pan. 


99 
99 
99 


99 
99 
99 


99 

Kh6r&k, 


99 

Jdnai jinis. 


99 

Chdka jinis. 


Khobar khor&k. 


Jdnai jinis, 


Ch^ka jinis. 


Pivar khordk. 


Longuai jinis, 


Amka jinis. 


M^hong, 


Bidot, 


B^h^ 


Phalhdr, 


M^ong, 


S^r. 


Mdcch mdshong, 


, Gn^bidot, 


Haiyd B^ha. 


Mdrgh m^hong. 


Doubidot, 


Kiya kobeha. 


M^hong, 


Bidot, 


B^h^. 


Phalh^, 


99 


99 


Phalhdr, 


99 


99 


Garam mas^a. 


99 


99 


Thanda mas&la. 


99 


99 


Jal, 


D6i, 


Chi. 


>» 


Jou, 


YU. 


Madh, 


Pitika, 


Phfltika. 


Dddh, 


Dudd, 


Dddh^. 


Mdthd, " 


99 
99 


99 
99 


Ghid, 


Ghid, 


Ghid. 


Dahi, 


Dddd, 


Dahi. 


Bhdj^ 


Manbai, 


Khinka b6hi. 


Jh61, 


Bidai, 


Jh61. 


Gaiko mdsang, 


Mdsho bidot, 


Pi& ko b^&. 


Bheri ko mdsang. 


» M^nda bidot. 


M^nda ko h^hk. 


Bakri ko m^U«ng 


, Bdrma bidot, 


E^cha ko b^hi. 


Sdwar ko m^ang 


, Y6ma bidot. 


P^yd ko b^ha. 


Mrigakom^ng 


, Moini bidot. 


Y^nga ko b&ha. 



VOCABULARY. 




23 


English, Kocch, 


Bodo. 




Dhimiil. 


Breakfast, „ 


Phdnj&ni j&y^ 




Rh^ma chilka. 


Dinner, „ 


r S^jiph(i moi- 
\ kham. 


{ 


M^jh b^ld- 
ch&ka. 


M Snpper, „ 


Bll^yo moikham. 


Ditima-ch^a. 


B«9.Clotlies : dress, Kapra, 


Hi, 




Dh&bd. 


Man's dress, „ 


Hiw&ni Hi, 




W&wal ko Dh&ba. 


Woman's dress, „ 


Hinjomii Hi, 


} 


B^wal ko B6n& 
or bolha. 


Man'shead-dress, Pftgn, 


Phfili, 


^ 


Pdtuka. 


Woman's ditto, Ghungar, 


Kh&kldkdong, 


} 


B^wal ko piicha- ^ 
ra. 


Man's npper vest, Pachura, 


Bdchdla, 


s 


Dh&bd. 


Woman's ditto, ELh^ 


r D6kna matta, 
\ Dokna-glou, 


} 


B61h^. 


Man's lower vest, Dhdti, 


Gdmcha, 




Dh&ri. 


Woman's ditto, Ph6ta, Patan!, 


Dokna matta, 




B61h&. 


Man's foot cover, Jota, 


J6ta, 




Jota. 


Woman's ditto, Jota, 


J6ta, 




Jota. 


Cotton clothes, Sdknld kapra. 


Higuphut, 




Kapaiko Dh&bd. 


linen clothes, „ 






99 


Woollen dothes, Ltii ko kapra. 






99 


— 8ilk or Satin 1 ^.^, , 

tt clothes, jWtko kapra. 


Injini hi, 




99 


f. A sport, game, 1 ^ j^ 
pass tmie, j ""^"*» 


66l^nai, 




GhaU^. 


Chest, „ 






99 


Drafts, „ 


9S 




99 


Dicing, 


99 




9> 


A dice, „ 


>» 




99 


Card playing. 


f> 




99 


A card, „ 


>» 




99 


Kite flying. 


99 




99 


A kite (paper), „ 


99 




99 


Patting the stone, „ 


99 




99 


Hockey, „ 


»» 




99 


Wrestling, „ 






*9 


Fencing or sin- 1 
gle stick, J " 








99 




99 


Bkra fights, „ 


99 




99 


Cock fights, „ 


99 




99 


Uu.^, or the J 3j^,,^ 


99 




99 


Vmtog, so.|s,^^.,^^ 


Lago manno. 




D6hekd. 


An assembly, 1 
soiree, J " 


Gotha jidong; 


» 


Dy^ngjomhi. 


A feast, > Bhoj, 


f Madaihiidung, 1 
\ (sacred,) j 


> N^ydch&pi. 



24 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



lltk English, 
Onuz-An ornament, 

menu, personal, or 
jewel, 
A mirror, 
A bracelet. 
An armlet. 
An anklet, 
A ring, 
An ear-ring, 
A nose ring, 
A necklace, 
A chain of gold, 
A chain of silver, 
A precious stone. 
Diamond, 
Pearl, 
Coral, 
Firoza, 
Animal, 

-' - Mankind, 

JnimaU Quadruped, 
Quadru^ Bat, common, 
.?!r*^- Pteropine or 

frugivorous 

Bats, 
Monkey, Ma- 

cacus. 
Monkey, Sem- 

nopithecus. 
Cat, domestic, 
Male Cat, 
Female Cat, 
Kitten, 
Wild Cat, Vi-1 

verriceps, j 
Chaus Lynx, 
Tiger, 
Leopard, 
Dog, domestic, 
Male Dog, 
Bitch, 

Young or whelp, 
Wild Dog or \ 

Cuon, J 

Hyeena, 
Jackal, 
Wolf, 



Koech, 



Bodo. 



DhimdL 



Gahana, 



» 



>9 



» 



a 



Aini, 

Matha, sakho, Nachang, 

B^hdng, 

Khdrd, 

Angdthi, 

Phulkori kadama, 

Phdl, 

HdsdU, 

Sikal, jhinjiri, 

Sikal, jhinjiri. 



Bahoti. 



Nashithto, 
Onti, karan-phdl, 
Nakha phdl. 



Onti. 
Chatia. 



99 
»» 



Hird, 
Moti, 
Mdng^ 



9> 



99 



} 



Pasd, 
M^ushi, 

Chdrpdya, 

Ch^mchila, 

Bogdor, 

Bandor, 

Hdlm^, 

Bilai, 
Bilai, 
BiUi, 
Bilai^r choa, 

Happa, 



19 



Bag, 
Tdkd b%, 
Kdkdr, 
Kdkdr, 
Kdkumi, 
Ch6d kdkdr, 

Kdhdk, 

Lekr^ 
Siy^, 

99 



{ 



99 
99 
»9 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Mdnushi, 
Gndth^ng 
thdngbr^, 
Badd m^i, 

BiHn, 



Mokhora, 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



} 



Dydng. 

Didlong-khokoi. 

Ch^mchil. 

Bogdor. 
Nh6y^. 



Thid mokhora, Hdlmdn. 



Mouji, 
Mouji j61a, 
Mouji jo, 
Mouji galai, 

Happa, 



M^nkou. 
Dan khamenkou. 
Mahani menkou. 
Menkou ko chan. 

Happa. 



99 



99 



Mdch^, 
Chitia mdcha, 
Cho'ima, 
Cho'ima jold, 
Choimd jo, 
Choisya galai, 

Chikd, 

Ldkra, 
Sfyiil, 



99 



Khdnd. 
Ndkshi khdna. 
Khia. 

Bkakhk khia. 
Mahani khia. 
Khid ko chan. 

Dincha ko khia. 

L^kra. 
Siy&l 

99 



VOCABULARY. 



25 



English. 

Fox, 
Mungoose, \ 

Herpestes, / 
Civet, large, Vi- \ 

verra, / 

Civet, small, 1 

Viverricula, / 
Paradoxurus, 1 

or Screw-tail, J 
Weasel, mustela, 
Marten, martes. 
Otter, Lutra, 
Bear, Helaretos, 
Bear, Prochilus, 
Ratel, Mesobema, 
Hedge-hog, 
Musk shrew or 1 

sorex, / 

Mole, 
Elephant, 
Male elephant. 
Female elephant, 
Elephant's trunk. 
Elephant's tusk. 
Rhinoceros, 
His horn. 
Hog, tame, 
Male hog. 
Female or sow, 
Wild hog, 
Manis, 

Ox, tame. Bos, 
BuU, 
Cow, 
Calf, 

Bibos or Gaur, 
Buifalo, tame, 
Male buffalo. 
Female buffalo. 



Kocch, 
Kh^ki, 

Biji, 

M&tch gai, 
Kat^, 

9» 

9> 
99 

Bhoul, Bhindd, 
Bhindi, 



i» 



» 



Chikfi, 

Pari nmdii, 
Hdthi, 

mthi, 

Hathui, 

Stinr, 

Hdthi dint, 

G^nda, 

Kh^, 

Suvar, 

Pang^, 

Pdthi, 

Banwa su&r, 

K^wat, 

Gorti, 

Andhia, 

G^, 

Bdchru, 

Gouri g46, 

Bhainsa, 

R&ngd, 

Sdral, Dh^nu, 



Bison or Tak, Khopoli, 



Wild buffalo, 1 
male, J 

Ditto female, 

Antelope, black, 
Ditto 4 homed, 
Ditto Goral, 



Amd, 

Ami, 
Latti, 



Bodo. 

Khak si^, 

Nyiilai, 

Mdrii, 

Gandouri, 



DJUwUi. 
Kh^ki. 

Nydl. 



>> 



Kat&s. 



>> 



9> 



9t 



Mathdm, 
Miiphur, 
Khak bh^ii, 



99 

99 
19 



ird. 

Naibhri, 



>f 



>> • 



» 



>5 



» 



Chikd, 



Chikd. 



» 



9f 



Moid^t, 
Moidet jola, 
Moidet jo, 
Sdndi, 

Moidet nipathaiy 
G^nda, 

G^nda ni g6ng, 
Nong yoma, 
Yoma jola, 
Y6ma jo, 
H^rani yoma, 
Kh6otai, 
Miish6, 
Mdsho d&mra, 
Musho jo, 
Musho gal4i. 
Bins bolod, 
Mo'isho, 
Moisho jola, 
Mo'isho jo, 
Bima, Khi^ku-T 

li gio, / 

Hagrini Moi- / 

sho jola, I 

Hagrini Moi- / 

sho jo, I 



99 
99 



9t 



Niria. 

Dinkha niria. 

Mahani niria. 

Sunding. 

Niria ko shitong. 

Liyi. 

Ldyd ko sing. 

Payd. 

D^kha pdyi. 

Mahani piyi. 

Dincha ko piyi. 

K^wata Hiyd. 

Pii. 

Dankha pii. 

Mahani pii. 

Pii ko chan. 

Dincha ko pii. 

DiL 

Dinkha dia. 

Mahani dii. 

Chouri pii. 

Dinkha dii, din- 
cha ko. 

Mahani dia din- 
cha ko. 

s» 

>9 
99 



26 




VOCABULARY. 




EnglUh. 




Koech. 


Bod^. 


Dkmdi. 


Ditto Th6r, 




99 


9> 


9$ 


6oat,domestiCj 
male. 


•} 


Ch£gol, 


Btirmd, 


E6ch§L. 


Ditto female. 




B&kr!, 


Bdrma jo. 


Mahani E^chd. 


Kid, 




Pdtha, p&thi. 


Bdrma galai, 


E^ha ko chan. 


Wild goat 01 
Hemitragas, 


•} 


>9 


M6ish th^ng^y 


99 


Domestic sheep, 


Bh^rd, 


M^ndd, 


M^ndd. 


The ram. 




Bh^ra, 


M^nda phdntd. 


Ddnkha m^da. 


The ewe. 




Bh^ri, 


M^nda jo. 


Maham m^nda. 


The lamh. 




BdcM, 


M^nda galai. 


M6nda ko chan. 


Wild sheep, 




$9 


y$ 


99 


Stag, ElaphuS] 


» 


G6nr, 


99 


G6n6. 


Stag, Kusa, 




G&waj, 


» 


99 


Cervus, all. 


{ 


Harin, 
Mirgft) 


} M6ch6, 


Y^ngh6. 


Axis, chittal. 




Phutka khdtia, 


Khdtia ph^ld, 


Phdtki. 


Stylocerus oi 
Stilt, 


'} 


S6kra, 


M6chdi, 


S6kra. 


Musk Deer, 


J 


Kastdri, 


Kastdri, 


Kostdri. 


Horse, male, 




Ghora, 


Gorai thdngan. 


O'nyhd. 


Mare, 




Ghori, 


Gorai thdngani, 


Thangani onyhi 


Foal, 




Bdchd, 


Gorai galai. 


Onyha ko chan. 


Ass, 




Gadha, 


Gadha, 


Gadha. 


Mule, 




Khachar, 


Khachar, 


ELhachar. 


Rat, 




Inddr, 


Injdd, 


Jdhd. 


Mouse, 




Nakanai, 


InjM ingini. 


Mhoika juhd. 


Marmot, 




a 


99 


99 


Bhizomys, 




M 


Injdr bdnga. 


B6U. 


Lagomjs, 




»i 


9* 


99 


Hare, 




Sasai, 


Sh^sd, 


Sosai. 


Porcupine, 




Ch^da, 


Mdddi, 


Ch^da. 


Squirrel, 




Dil gdnora, 


Mintdp, 


D41 gounra. 


Flying Squirrel, 


ii 


99 


99 


A herd. 




Hdnja, jh^k. 


Phalwa, 


Jhdkwa. 


A flock. 




Hdnja, 


Phalwa, 


Jh^ikwa. 


Tusk, 




Kukdr ddnt. 


99 


99 


Talon, 




Angsd, 


Asigdr, 


Khdrsing. 


Muzzle, 




Thatama, 


Gdthdtri, 


99 


Horn, 




Singh, 


Gong, 


D^. 


Hoof, entire. 




Tiip, 


Yakhdng, 


T(ip, 


Hoof, cloven. 




Khtir^ 


Yakhdng, 


Khdr, 


Tail, 




N^ng6r, 


Lfinjai, 


M^tdng. 


Mane, 




Jhdl, 


Bdbo'i, 


Jhdl. 


Fur, 




Rom, Poshom, 


Khaman, 


Moishd. 


Hair, animal. 




Rom, 


Khaman, 


Moishd. 


Hide, raw. 




Kh^l, 


Bigdr. 


Ch^m. 


Hide, tanned. 




Sdbar, 


9> 


Kh&L 



VOCABULARY. 



«7 



da. 



Peltnr, prepar-1 

edniTs, J 

A bird^ 
Vultures, VulO 

tuTy Lin. 
Eagles, Aqui- 

la, Lin. 
Femes or fish- 
ing eagles, ] 
Falcons, Falco, 
Hawks, acdpiter. 
Kites, Milvus, 
Buzzards, Buteo, 
Owls, all, Strix,L. 
Goat-suckers, 
Swallows and 

swifts. 
Blue throats or 

Eutystomus, j 
Kingfishers, 

Alcedo, Lin. 
Bee-eaters, Me- 

rops, Lin. 
Hoopoes, Upn- 

pa, Lin 
Sun birds 

Nectarines 
Trogons, Trogon, 
Horn bills, Bu- 1 

ceros, J 

Barbets, Bucco, 
Thrushes, Tur- 1 

dus, Lin, j 
Chattering 

thrushes or 

Garrulax, 
Orioles orman- 1 

go Birds, j 
BdMls, 
Harewas orl 

Chloropsis, j 
Fly catchers, 

Muscicapa,L. 

Machariaa, 
Phanbtidi, 

Phtikti, or 

TinySylyians, 

Sylvia anliq^ 



Kotek. 



Bodo. 



DkimH. 



it 



ft 



>» 



P6khi, 
Singni, 

Bij, 

H6k6s, kdrwa, 

B6j, 

Biij, 

Chil, 

Alichapra, 

P^hi, 

Bhirki, 

N^-kata, 
S6n kowl^ 
Mdtchr6ag&, 
Patr6ngfi, 
B^uua b6hd, 
Madh chdsi. 



Douchen, 
Sfgtin, 

Doul^ng^ 

Douph6, 



Jihft. 
Sigdn. 

irw4. 

Kdrwi. 



99 



mkdl kdUi 



99 



} 



B^sw&ri, 

S&th Bhai, 

Haldiar&m, 
D6mn^ 



99 



Th^pi, 



Sila, 



99 



99 



99 



99 
99 
99 
99 



Doukhd, 

Dou thdmphoi, 

Dou bUkhiir, 
Dou khatang, 
Doun&tb&t, 
M&thlanka, 
Dou kh^njong, 



P6di&. 
Th&dar. 

Ndk-kaU. 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



■'■ { 



Dou khthi thdlo, Hdtdk tiki 
Akaisikai, „ 



Golia sin khoudi, Gdiididdi* 



99 



Bdldt, 



u 



99 



it 
9> 
9f 

91 



Choti pokhi, Th^phl6ig, Lati tipa. 



VOCABULARY. 



Duyal, 



^ Bharia, 



Englith. 
Dahils 01 Cop-1 

sychus, J 

S^BSorGril-1 

Uvora, I " 

Stone Cfaats ot^ 

Saxicok Pid- 1 

das, or Si- f " 

koulaa, J 

Wa^ tails, Mo-T 

Dhoubinia, J 
Tit Larks oA 

Anthus Ma- } 

sar^chi. 
Butcher Birda\ _, „,, 

or Lanius. L. f CM*^''- 
Black ditto orl „ , , , 

i:doliftns,CuT / Jh^chfi, 
Cotton Birds 1 „ 

orGrauculus,/ ^apaswa, 
Msgpies, kitta, „ 

Jays, Garrulua, ^^ 

Crows, Corvua, Kfig, Kowfi, 
Grackles or l 

Mainas Gra- } 

cula, Lin. 
Starlings, Stur- 1 

Weavers, 

y&s, PloceuB, j 
AmaJlines, 

Amadina, Sw, j 
Thick billed 

finches Pyr- i- Ram goura, 

rhulines. 

Common finches, Goura, Choneh, 
Sparrows, Passer, Gtonrji, 1 

Finch Larks orl 

Pyrrbulanda, J " 

L„v.,A...a.,{^£*--} 

Parrota, T6ta, Tota, 1 

Parrakeets, Sii-l t, . • , 

Swinging Par-"] 
rakeetaLatkan > Latan S64, 



> S&T6, 



' Eboksiro, 
f Chonch, 



\ Chiifim, 



{Thuni, and 
Donsit, 



VOCABULARY. 



29 



yi 



f» 



Sf 



» 



Pario, 

Bdj6, 

Douth6, 
Dou tai, 



English. Koceh. Bodo. 

"SflS"' } ^^^ ^^' DO" ^^""^ 

Walking CucO 

koos or Ma- Choktil ding,! 

hokaSjPboeni* > K^chkechia, > „ 

cophaus cum I Dema chor, J 

centropus &c. J 
Black Cuckoos 1 

or koils £a- > R6il, 

djnamys, J 
Common Cue- 1 c,e.^ 

Pigeons, com-1 p. . 

mon, J • 

Pigeons, green! h^_^ 

Vihago, Cuv. J *i»"^^» 
Turtle doves, 6hug(!i, 
Peacocks, Pavo, M&ir, 
Pheasants, 1 

Phasianus, j " 

Fowl, Phea-i 

sants or Kali- I 

ches, Euplo- f •• 

comus, J 

Fowls, gallus, Ch6rhd, 
"Wild fowl. Ban chorha, 

Domestic fowl, Cborha, 
Cock, Milrgbd, 

Hen, Murghi, 

Chicken, Ch^ngnd, 

Partridges,per-1 ^j^^^^ 

dix, Lm. j ' 

Quails, Cotumix, Batoi, Bh^ti, 
3-toed quails or 1 

Ldw^s, J 

Bustards, Otis, 
Indian Bus-1 j^. 
tardsorcharaj,/ ^^*^^'' 
(Edicnemusaut ) 
or Carv^nacks, j " 

Curlews, Nu- 1 
menius, / " " 

Ibises, Ibisant, { ^^^ ^**^} K^ogh6ka, 

.... - " , 

* Eapodotis ▼. Sypheotidet. 



Dhimdl. 



Dou gdrtit, 

Dou masbar, 
Dou masbar, 
Dou or Tau, 
Dou jola, 
Dou jo, 
Dou sy^ 

Dou tbitiri, 

Dou batbar, 



a 



99 



Dou d^ber. 



S6tmdr, 



f> 



>> 



Btidb^ng. 



99 



Parbo. 

Harit61. 

Gbugd. 
Khonja. 



» 



91 



Ch§L kid. 
KI4. 

Db^gdi kia. 
Bbdndi kia. . 
K^6 cban. 

Tithfri. 

Mdgt!im. 



99 



91 



Ddber. 



9> 



>9 



Gdng t!ti. 



95 



K^o gb6ka. 



30 

English, 

Tantali, 
Demoiselles, "1 

Anthopoides, j 
Cranes, gras, 
Storks, CicoDia, 
Adjutants or 

Leptoptilos, 
Jabiros or 

Mycteriay 



VOCABULARY. 



Koceh, 



9i 



S^ras, 

Sdras, 
Lagl^, 

H^il, 

Jh&ngil, 

L6h6jdng, 



» 



*9 



» 



ii 



99 



Gaping storks, 1 

Ajiastomus, j 
Herons, Ardea, 
Little white 1 

herons or £• > Bagla, 

grets, J 

Sand-pipers, 1 

Tringa,Lm. / 
Stilts or Hi-1 

mantopus, J 
Snipes or Sco- 

lopax aut, 
GaUinules or 

Water Hens, 
Jacanas or Parra, H66ni, 
Spoonbills or 

D&bn, 
Flamingoes, 

Phoenicopte- 

TUS, 

Gulls, Lams, L. 
Terns, Sterna, L. 
Grebes, Fulica, 
Divers, Plotus, 
Pelicans, 
Corvorants, 
Geese, Anser, 
Ducks, Anas, 
Teal, Querque-1 
dula, / 

Egg, 

Yolk, 

SheU, 

Feather, 

Down, 

Plume or quill, EJ16I, 

Beak, bill, Th6t, 

Wing, D^nfi, 

Tail, Ph^i, 



a 



$9 



»9 



G&ngchila, 



>f 



f* 



Cow&r, 
Hdngs, 
Hangs, 

Gairi, 

Dim^ 
Kdsm^ 
Kholta, 
P^hana, 



» 



Bodo. 



99 

99 
^> 

» 
99 



Doubo, 



» 
9» 

99 

99 



Naishaka, 

Hdngs, 
H&ngs, 



» 



Don doi, 

Glim6, 

Dou doikhon, 

Ging, 

Thdlfi, 

Doug^, 

Khoug^ 

K^khoDg, 

L^jaiy 



Dkimdl. 



Hangs. 
Hangs. 



9f 
>9 

>» 

99 
99 

99 

99 

99 

99 

99 
99 
99 

99 

99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



9t 



T6I. 



Kholta. 

Pakhaiuu 

M(iishii. 



99 



Th6twa. 

Dfim. 

M^tdng. 



VOCABULARY. 



31 



English^ 

Nest, bird's, 
* Den, wild beast's, 
^ • (Amphibia or \ 
(ileg^ Reptiles, J 

Alligator, 

Crocodile, 

Tortoise, land. 

Ditto, water. 

Lizards, generic, 

Monitor or G6h, 

Snakes, 

Python, 

Coluber, 

Cobra, 

Toad, 
. -. ^Frog, 
M, Fish, all. 

Carp, 

Mullet, 

Eel, 

S^ran, 

SouU, 

Boali, 

£kdh6nga. 

Phalli, 

Kdrs^ 

ChittaJ, 

Crustaceans, 

Crab, 

Prawn, 

Oyster, 

Cockle, 

Muscle, 

Snail, any. 

Shelled snail. 

Nude snail. 

Shell, any, 
w/*# Insects, 

Beetle, 

Fly, 

Gadfly, 

Spider, 

Butterfly, 

Moth, 

Bee, 

Wasp, 



Koeck. 

Bh^ 
Khor, 



Bodo. 



Dkimdl. 



»» 



Ktimmlr, 

Thon6 gdi, 

Dtir^ 

P&ni m&tch, 

Khakl^ 

Gdhi, 

S^mp, 

Ajangor, 

Dnamna, B6r^ 

Gohomay 

Kotarai, 

H61i, 

M&tch, 

R^Shi, 



B&mtij, 

Soul, 

Th6nd, 
Phalli, 
Kursd, 
Chittal, 

Kfik6r, 
Nich^ 



9» 



99 



9> 



99 



>» 



Gdztiri, 

S&mbuk, 

Sy^tina, 



» 



>» 



» 



P6kd, 

Dhandhania, 

Mdchi, 

D^s, 

M^kor, 

Chitti, 

Kdkti, 

Mohum^hi, 

Bh^^ol, 



Bithop, 
Mddd6, 



>» 



>> 



9> 



Khtibchdng^ 
G^lt&p, 

L&md khandai, 
M6ph6, 
Jibo, 
Jibo yiit, 
Jibo danda, 
Ridl, 

Imbu chitro, 
Imbd b6ngl6, 
Gn^ 
Rdhi, 



9> 



Ltogddr, 



»i 



9> 



19 



Kh^gkiUi, 
Gn& laibu, 
Karsa, 



99 



>9 



Kan kharai, 
Gndthut, 



99 



Sy&mak, 
Lardi, 
Kh6rikata, 
Jinai khong. 



99 



99 



{ 



{ 



Impho, 

Khf brdma, 

Kibrtitma, 

Thampo'i, 

Ddngso, 

B^md, 

K^teol^ 

K^teol^ 

B6t6, 

Tdmri mdra, 

Chor^ma, 



{ 



99 
99 

99 

99 
99 



Ruh&. 

Ghdkdt. 

Ch^nd66. 

Koiy&. 

Pdnhi&. 



B6r6. 

K6tr&i. 
H61a. 
Hfyu. 
Rdhi. 

B&mi. 



99 



99 



99 



99 



Th6na, 
Gdchi. 
Kurs&. 



99 



99 



99 



KOid. 
T&nhia. 



99 



)9 



} 



Chdd&r. 

Ddddkri. 

L6t^t. 

Jh61 t6ig. 

L6t6t. 

Kh61ti. 

P6kd. 

Bhdnduri. 

Dhikuri. 

Tdnhli. 

Doh&. 

Makra. 

Chitti. 

Chitti. 

Shod. 

Bdghi. 



32 




VOCABULARY. 




English. 




Kocch» 


Bodo. 


Dhimdi. 


Hornet, 




Biighi, 


B6t6 kh^ngrai, 


Tokrd. 


Mosehito, 




Mosho, 


r Thdmphoi 
1 gangjang, 


• 






# 


Bug, 




I/ras, 


Urow, 


ITrtis. 


Louse, 




Nakuni khia, 


/ Th^ma, 
I Tiphi'id, 


' Kbit. 


Flea, 




Chotka, 


Chdtki, 


Chutki. 


Grasshopper, 




Pharing kiikti, 


» Gdmagrdn, 


Jh4ri^. 


Locust, 




Th^rikdkti, 


Gilyong, 


Jhari&p. 


Ant, 




Nuti pipara, 


r Mocha rim, 
\ Hasha brai. 


} Nh& m6i. 


Termite, 




ITri, 


Rai khun. 


l/ri. 


Centipede, 




Chiari, 


Ch6Um]A, 


Tamia. 


Scorpion, 




>j 


» 


99 


Earth worm. 




Ch^rd, 


Khanchiri, 


D6ria. 


Intestinal worm, 


P^t ch^ra, 


Phila, 


Ch^rd. 


Leech, 




J^i^k, 


B^dlou, 


Chamdh^. 


Fish scale. 




Aisha, 


Gnd bigtir. 


Aisha. 


Fish fin. 




D^nd, 


Gnd gdng, 


Bhir. 


Fish gill. 




Kdnkdshi, 


Galphd, 


Kan kashi. 


Spider's web. 




Jdlshi, 


B^ma dung, 


>9 


Cacoon, 




Thrishi, 


Bith6p, 


Thiishi. 


CaterpUlar, 




P6k6, 


Chikri, 


Poka, 


Chrysalis, 




Ldti, 


Bithop, 


>9 


Imago, insect. 




Chitti, 


Chikri, 


9> 


Honey, 




Madhd, 


G6d6i, 


Shdrti. 


Wax, 




M6m, 


Mijshdth^, 


Pdring. 


Beehive, 




Chhdt, 


Bej^lep, 


Chatta. 


Fur, 




Pasham, 


Khouion, 


Moishd. 


Silk, 




R^sham, 


Phdt, Indi, 


R^sham. • 


Wool, 




Rom, 


Khomon, 


Mo'ishd. 


VegetaU. Vegetalia, 




}f 


99 


9> 


Grains. Grains or Ce 
reaha,\ 


•} 


L6khi, 


L6khi, 


L6khi. 


Eice, dhan, 




Dh^n, 


, Mai, 


Bh4ko 6m. 


Bice, choul. 




Choul, 


Mairong, 


ITnkhd. 


Rice, bh^t. 




Bh^t, 


Maikhom, 


Om. 


Wheat, 




Gohom, 


Gohom, 


Gohom. 


Barley, 




Paira, 


Phoira, 


Poira. 


Rye, 




» 


»» 


99 


Buckwheat, 


} 








Fagopyrus, 


>> 


9> 


99 


Millets, 




a 


>> 


)> 


K^driim or 


} 




k 




Ktidrdva, 


>$ 


» 


» 


Jowdr or Karbi, 


» 


» 


» 


Jan6ra, 




99 


5> 


>» 


Bajara or B&jri 


a, 


99 


» 


» 



* Piddiiurton'f glositry of plants wfll give the Bnglirii reader tEe maal 
calequivd^ts,wMch however are too unsettled to hidueemeto poi^wne to them 

th^ iiatire terms. - - 





VOCABULARY. 




English. 


Koeeh, 


Bodo, 


Dhin 


Kodo, 


99 


9> 


99 


MarM or Marwa, Marwa, 


Thekoro, 


M&ndd. 


T^gan or 1 
Tangni, f 








>> 


99 


99 


Kangani, 


>f 


99 


99 


Sam^ 


» 


99 


99 


Chini, 


9* 


99 


99 


Kodai, 


» 


99 


99 


MakaraorMa-1 
kararjSl, / 








» 


99 


99 


Bhatw^, 


91 


99 


99 


Pulse, IMls, 


D^, 


Kalai, 


Kalai. 


Mattar or Peas, 


Motor, 


Shobaima, 


Ghont^. 


Karau, ditto. 


>» 


99 


99 


Channa, 


Bdt kalai. 


But, 


Bdt. 


Biit, 


'»» 


99 


99 


R^hla or Rawla, 


« 


» 


99 


Arhar or Rahar, 


Arhal, p. 


Khokl^ng, 


Tiahftr. 


KUf^ 


Khisiri, 


Khisiri, 


Khisiri. 


ITrid, 


Thdkori, 


Thakori, 


Thakori. 


Kalai, 


M^h, 


W6s6ng, 


99 


Mfish, 


» 


99 


99 


Mdng, 


Mdng, 


Mukh kalai, 


99 


K<irthiorKi^lthi,K<i1thi, 


Kdlthi, 


Kdlthi. 


Mastir, 


Masnri, 


Mdsuri, 


Mdsuri. 


M6t or M6thi, 


>» 


99 


99 


Bhiringa or 1 








9> 


99 


99 




Son, 


Son, 


Son. 


^^rip&t,' 


Wtfi, 


N&rjai, 


Pdtd. 


Bh&ng, 


Bh&ng, 


Bhi^ng, 


Bhdng. 


Mtinj, 


Mdjd, 


99 


99 


Tisi or Alsi, 


Tisi, 


99 


99 


S^mal, 


Simla, 


S^dmli, 
Khun ph&Dg, 


Ldshing. 


Kap^, the plant, Kap^, 


Kapai sin 


Bar6ach, 


>> 


99 


99 


M^wa or M^wa, 


Mdrwd pit, 


99 


_ -. 99 


Resham, 


Resham, 


Jtadi, „ 


Indi. „ 


Tasar, 


>» 


Indi,* 


Indi. 


.. Wool, 


Poshom, 


Khomon, 


Muishd. 


llf. jDil plants. 
Tori, 


91 

Tdri, 


99 

Bishw&r, 


99 
99 


B^ 


Rai, 


99 


99 


Sarsun, 


S6rsyd, 


Bishw&r, 


Jingsh^. 


Tisi, 


Tisi, 


99 


99 


Til,- 


TU, 


Sibing, 


M^h^. 


* Wild silk worm, different 
F 


species from that which yields Tasar. 



33 



34 


VOCABULARY. 




English, 


Kocch. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Ddna or P6st, 


Posot, 


Phosto, 


P6s. 


R^ndi, 


E'nda, 


E'nda, 


E'ndi. 


Kilsum, 


Kdsdm, 


Khusdm, 


f f 


Nimb, 


i> 


» 


w 9 

91 


Mohwa, 


»» 


» 


99 


Ndril, 


Ndriyi'il, 


N^ikhor, 


9$ 


Oremu, Greens, 


Torkdri, 


Moikri, 


S^. 


Karbtiza, 


Khormunj, 


9» 


99 


Tarbuza, 


» 


9> 


99 


Kohara, 


Kumla, 


KhdkM, 


If 


Lowka, 


L^hii, . 


Lou, 


Ldhd. 


Kaddd, 


Kaddd, 


•J 


99 


Khira, 


Sw^, 


Thai syumu. 


Thaishi. 


Kankara, 


Bangi, 


Thai b^ng, 


99 


Kar^la, 


Koilla, 


Udishi, 


K6rla. 


S^m or Shim, 


Chima, 


Gorshi, 


Ch^ns^. 


Bokla, 


»$ 


99 


9* 


L6ba or L6bia, 


»i 


»» 


99 


B6r4, 


B6ri, 


Shobaima, 


Ghonta. 


Chicbinda, 


Dudhcdsi, 


n^ngi. 


Dddh cdsi. 


Taroi, 


Toroi, 


Jinkha, 


Toroi. 


Palwal, 


Paral, 


>» 


99 


B^ngan, 


B^ngan, 


Phinthou, 


B^ngan. 


Ninud jDT Ge- 


1 Gh^rd, 


Phalla, 


Gh^ri. 


nora, . 


9 




Pilling, 


P^dng, 


» 


99 


P6lag, 


» 


» 


9» 


V6U 


Poi, 


Mo'i pharai, 


Gh6ng. 


' Chourdyi, 


99 


» 


99 


/JV5er«.Iloots, edible. 


Kandmul, 


Thd, 


Lin. 


' —Toting phalli. 


99 


»* 


99 


P^kcbi, 


99 


» 


99 


Arwi, 


Mdn^ 


'. Mdni, 


Mdni. 


Ali^i, potatoe. 


AM, 


• BiMti Thd, 


Bildti Lin. 


Pind ilu or 


} •• 


r 




Banda, 


» 


99 


Sakarkand, 


Rangdlu, 


Thi gdna. 


fgi lin. 


Spues, Spices and con- " 
diments, &c. 


I Masdla, 


»9 


99 


Haldi, 


Halad, 


Hald6i, 


Ydngdi. 


Adrak, 


Ad^, 


Haijeng, 


Y^nkh^. 


Ukh, 


Kusiyir, 


Kdsiyar, 


Kdsiydr. 


Tambaku, 


T^mku, 


Tamkd, 


Timku. 


Paun, 


Paun, 


Phitai, 


Paun. 


G^tch mirich, " 
or Cayenne, ^ 


► Morich, 


B^njaldt, 


Morchi. 


Large or Cap- 
sicum, J 


Bada 
Morich, 


> Bdnjaldtthopa, \ 


' Bada 
Morchi. 



VOCABULARY. 



35 



English. 

Labsun, 

Pi6z, 

Jird, 

L6ng, 

mchi, 

Kdl4 mirich, 

Jowain, 

J^phal, 

S6mphy 

S6nt, 

Pipal, 

^^ Nil, 

Haldi, 

Tiind, 

Munjit, 

Bakdm, 

Al. 

Sap^ri, 

Kath, 

Tesu or T^ns, 

_ Harra, 
Mf«.^nigs, &c. 
— Bikh (poison), 

Bikhma, 

Singhia Bikh, 

Harina Bikh, 

Dildhia Bikh, 

T^jpdt, 

Lfd chandan, 

Dhupi chandan, 

Charaita, 

Jainti or Bhdt- 1 
k^s, / 

Jata m&ngsi, 

wj Trees, generice, 

Sisti, 

Sakwa, 

Tdnd, 

Sagw&n, 

B^bdl, 

Khair, 

B^s, common, 

Bdns, small, 



Koceh, 

Roshan, 

Pi^j, 

Jira, 

L6ng, 

Ildchi, 

Golraorich, 

Jowni, 

J&iphal, 

G^muri, 

S6nt, 

Pipli, 
Rong, 

Nil, 

Ktisdm, 

Halad, 



{ 



Manjit, 
Bokom, 

Supdri, 
Kath, 



9i 



Harra, 
Bish, 



f» 



99 



»9 



tt 



Singhia, • 

Harina, 

Dddhia, 

Tejp^t, 

Rakt chandan, 

Dhilpi, 

Chirita, 



» 



Jata m&si, 

Gdcch, P^d, 

Sisrong, 
S&l, 



Bodo. 

Pdder, shamb- 
r6ng, 

Pi^i. 



L6ng, 



•• 



•) 



Jiii morich, 
Jowni, 



»» 



Gwdmdri, 
Chimphrai, 



99 



Nil, 

Khdsum, 
Acho (plant), 

Mai jitti, 

$9 

Shdph&ri, 
Kwoi'ro, 



i> 



Silikhd, 
Bish, 



I* 



t> 



Singia, 

Harina, 

Riih, 

Thdjpdt, 

Chandan, 

Chandan, 

Kh&bitita, 



{ 



9> 



99 



} 



Dhimdi. 

Roshan. 
Tdng6. 

L6ng. 



>> 



Golmorchi. 
Jowni. 



>« 



Gwdmuri. 



PipU. 
Nil. 



» 



>» 



» 



Lildhft. 
T4ngwd. 
Mai jatti. 






Shilph&ri. 
Kh^ir. 



5> 



»» 



Hork6ti. 

9: 

Ning. 



i> 



Singi. 
Harina. 
Tdh. 
Th^jpdt. 

Chandan. 
Khdb^. 



Phdng, 
B6n ph&ng, 
Sisrong, 
Sdl, 



} Sing. 



>f 



i> 



Sisrong. 
S&l. 



»i 



>> 



Khair, 
B&ns, 
Bish b&ns, 

f2 



Kwoiro, 
W4, 






9> 



>> 



l> 



Khair. 
P& sing. 



^4 



U 



36 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 


Kocch, 


Bodo, 


Dhim 


B6nt or Cane, 


B^nth, 


Raidong, 


R^dhd. 


Champa, 


Champa, 


Champa, 


Champa, 


S^mdl, 


Simla, 


Sydmli, 


Losing. 


R^ndi, large tree, 


>f 


» 


99 


Mohw^, 


» 


99 


99 


Sahajn^, 


Raikhanjan, 


»> 


99 


Nimb, 


Nim, 


Nim, 


Nim. 


Barr, 


B6r, 


Bdr, 


B6r. 


PIpal, 


Fipol, 


99 


99 


Pakar, 


Pakuri, 


99 


99 


Adambar, 


)i 


9> 


99 


Palfis or Dh^V, 


Pands, 


Phalds, 


Pal^. 


Maddr or Ekonia, 


Mad&r, 


M&nddri, 


99 


Jamalgota or 1 
Bhagr6nda, j 


Kdnikdl, 


» 


99 


Sij or Euphorbia, Sijti, 


B^tho sijo, 


Sijo. 


N6gpham or 1 
Cactus, J 


Nara sijd, 


Maibdng-sijd, 


99 


Asoka, 


9$ 


9> 


99 


T^l, 


Tdl, 


Thdl, 


xa. 


Khajdr, 


Khajdr, 


i> 


99 


Ndril, 


Ndrd, 


NaHk61, 


99 


Si^p&ri, 


Supdri, 


» 


99 


, _ . Adhdsdpdri, 
i-^"«»^pAmorAmba, 


Am, 


Thaikio" 


T6rs^. 


1 ^<?-^**-Amrdd, 


99 


99 


99 


Sharffa, 


» 


99 


99 


Atta, 


Atta, 


99 


99 


Katahar, 


Kathal, • 


Khantal, 


Ddmsh^. 


Barahar, 


Bohor, 


99 


99 


Ndrangi, 


Santala, 


Santara, 


99 


Nimbd, 


J&mir, 


Cholonga, 


Choish^. 


Bair, 


Bobori, 


Boigri, 


Bdgri. 


Tdt, 


99 


99 


9* 


Imli, 


T^t&li, 


Tetali, 


Tet£i. 


Kd&, 


KoUo, 


r Th£i, 
\ Laiph&ng, 


I Y6mphi. 




Parts 


OP Plants. 




Grain, 


Kokhi, 


L6khi, 


L6khi. 


Straw, 


Pdal, 


Jigdp, 


Natan. 


Chaff, 


Patdn, 


Gdbd, 


99 


Bran, 


Ankdri, 


Gdndo'i, 


Akandi. 


Stubble, 


Ndrd, 


Jigdp, 


Nara. 


Husk, 


Tdsi, 


Jdzai, 


Tdsi. 


Pod, long, 


Ch^dr, 


Chocha, Bej^ng, Thdkrd. 


Round capsule. 


Ch^dr, 


99 


99 


Ear of grain. 


Shis, 


Shis, 


Shis. 



* N. B. For the moiutaiiui, moantainoiu species should be added or sabstftuted, 
as Rhododendron, Oak, Chesnut, Pine, Cedar, Cypress, Alder, Willow, Birch, 
Magnolia, Cheqiyj Walnut, Paper-plant, Batter-treci Camelia. 






VOCABULAJIY. 



37 



English. 

Barb or ear. 

Stalk, 

Rind, 

Pulp, 
Core, 

Seed or stone. 

Flower bad. 

Flower, 

Pollen, 

Fruit, 

Root, 

Bole or stem. 

Bark, 



JToccA. 

Siiingi, 

G&tch, 

Oulka, 

M^isd, 

Stos, 

Bichi, 

K6rh4, 

Phtil, 

Bhds6ng, 

Phal, 

Sikor, 

Solsol, 

Chil, 



Wood or timber, Manja, 



Branch, 
Leaf, 

Grass kind. 
Creeper kind. 
Air plant kind. 
Reed kind. 

Rash kind, 



{ 



IHl, 

Pfit, 

Trin, 

N^Sshi, 

Laat, 

Bdt&U, 

Hokola, 

Taranju, 

Atha, 

Ath^ 



Dhun^ 



Gum, 

Glue, 

Nat, resin, ofl 
Pine, J 

Ditto ditto Saul, Dhun^ 

Prepared ex- 
tract. Pitch or 
Tar, 

Juice, anj, 

Grib or gluten^ 



I 



a 



Ros, 
G&b, 



{ 



Bodo. 

Khisling, 
Biph&ng, 
Bigtir, 
Modom, 



9> 



Bigot, 

Tropidong, 

Bib&r, 

Shumd, 

Bithai, 

Rodd, 

Giidui, 

Bigor, 

Bonph^g, 

T&lai, 

Lai, Bilai, 

Taroi, g^gsho, 

£<Sndong, 

R<Stt, BiH 

Khagra, Kh&mi, Batali. 



DhiwM. 

Sung4. 
Sing? 
Ch6nch4. 
B^h6. 

Bichi. 

K6rh6. 

Lh^p. 

Dhdi4. 

Sih&. 

Shik&r. 

G6r4, 

Ch&m. 

D&]6ng. 

Lh&b&. 

Dinchan&im^. 

L^Sshi. 

Alogrot. 



>» 



»» 



f> 



>, 



» 



99 



DhuD^ 



Dhdn4. 



99 



99 



Bidai, 



Singkochf. 



>» 



» 



Natural and Political Ties. 



Beta chod, 
Beti cho^ 



A man, 
A woman. 
An infant^ 

sucking, 
A child, wean- T Chengra, 

ed, \ Chengri, 

A mature man, G&bhiir, 
A mature woman, Gribhiir, 



j Chd6, 



Hfwfi, 
Hinjou, 

Galai,* 

j Gotho,t 

Jholou, 
Sikhlou, 



A dry nurse, 
A wet nurse, 
A midwife, 
A bride, 
A brid^room, 

• An 



D6i, 

Daiy&ni, 

Kwoina, 

B6r, 



,* 



Bima b&tiil. 



W&val. 
B^val. 

Chan. 

Dh&mka-chan. 

Wh&nt€ka. 
Wh&nt^4. 

>» 
Mousi &m6. 



Bihi, 
Bishai, 



»* 



Kaina. 
Bor. 



99 



Human younir only. 



« N. B. Thflta Imdiiigi to tha MTttil parts of the matter should hrn baoa' 
stTea thniag^MnilC I have wibjoined thftm on the maigfa wfaaim daftdant. 



38 



VOCABULARY. 



English, 

A husband, 

A wife, 

A widow, 

A widower. 

An orphan, 

A yirgin, 

A whore, 

A whoremonger, 

A corpse, 

A sexton, buri- 1 

er or burner, J 
A mourner. 
Parent, 
Child, 
Guardian, 
Ward, 
Minor, 
Bastard, 
Adopted child. 
Heir, 
Ancestor, 
Descendant, 
A relation of! 

blood, J 

Do. of marriage. 
Kinsfolk or' 

relatives of 

blood and 

marriage. 
Own family or 1 

household, j 
Other folk. 



Kocch, 

Bhatdr, 

M6ghi, 

Rdnd, 

Rdndrd, 

Mouria, 

Kum^ri, 

N6ti, 

Ldphandar, 

M6ra, 



»9 



a 



Janam jata, 
B^ta, 



>> 



a 



99 



} 



strangers, 

A Householder, 

An ascetic, 

Father, 

Mother, 

Brother, 

Sister, 

Son, 

Daughter, 

Boy, 

Girl, 

Pat. grandfather. 

Grand child, 

Mat. grandfather, 

Pat. grandmo- 
ther, 



} 



Jdrwa, 
Posh b^ta, 
Wdris, 
Pirhi, 
Cho^ r^cho^ 

G6tri, 



Kutumbh, 



Alab^s, 

P6rl6g, 

Giri, 

Bairdgi, 

B^p, 

M^ 

Bhai, 

Bahin, 

B6td, 

B^ti, 

Ch^ngra, 

Ch^ngri, 

Aju, 

N^thi, 

N^na, 

Abo, 



Bodo. 

Bishai, 

Bihi, 

Randi, 

B^luiidd, 

Mouria, 

Sikala, 



Dhimal, 

B^. 

Rdndi. 
R^ndra. 
Mouria. 
Dhdni. 



j> 



Gath6i, 



a 



Sikd. 



Bipha, 
Bisha, 



»» 



» 



Aba. 
Chan. 



99 



>9 



>> 



*» 



Bipha yonga, 
Dharam Bisha, 
Khunigar, 
Pirhi, 



99 



Posbya chan. 
H^khtin. 



99 



99 



** 



H^rkhun, 



Hdrkhun. 



» 



** 






N6oni manushi, Sdko gdthi. 



Malaicho, 


B6omi. 


Giri, Grd, 


Giri, Grd 


Houria, 


i» 


Apha, 

Ayd, 

Bida, 


Aba. 

Amma. 

YoUa. 


Bina nou. 


Rima. 


Bishd, 


Chdn. 


BishA, 


Ch&mdi. 


Hiwa gotho, 
Hinjou gotho, 
Abo, 
Bichou, 


W6jan. 
B^jan. 
Aju. 
Ndthi. 


Abo, 


Ajd. 


Aboi, 


Ajai, 



VOCABULARY. 



39 



English, 



Kocch, 



Bodo, 



Dhinidl, 



Mat. grandmo- ] 
ther. 


' N&ni, 


Aboi, 


Ajai. 


Father's sis- 
ter's hushand, 


* Pisha, 


Amai, 


Pisha. 


Father's sister. 


Pisai, 


Anoi, 


Pisai. 


Father's brothei 


r, J^tho, Khurd, 


Ayong, Adoi, 


J^tha, D&do. 


Brother's son. 


Bhatija, 


Biyaddi, 


Bhatija. 


Mother's brothei 


r, M&md, 


Amai, 


Mdmd. 


Mother's sister, 


M^shi, 


Mad6i, 


Moushi. 


Sister's son. 


Bh^lgind, 


Bauaicho, 


Bhdgina. 


^^:^. }^'^' 


Biyd doi', 


Bhdtiji. 


Sister's daughtei 


r, Bbdgini, 


Bfyd no'i, 
Ada, Agai, 


» 


Pat. Cousin, 


Ddd^, B&ba, 


Dai, YoUa. 


Mat. Cousin, 


D^d^, B&ba, 


Ada, Agai, 


Dai, Yolla. 


Father-in-law, 


Bdb^ji, 


Apha, 


Juwd. 


Son-in-law, 


Jaraai, 


Bija madoi. 


Mh^wa. 


Brother-in-law, 


Sdla, 


Bibn^g, 


S^Ia. 


Sister-in-law, 


Sdli, 


Bibu^ng, 


Sdli. 


Foster brother. 


Dddhia Bhai, 


99 


» 


Foster sister, 


Dudhia Bahin, 


t » 


>» 


Friend, 


S^khi, 


Gdshthi, 


Taikodi^g. 


Enemy, 


Bairi, 


Bairi, 


Bairi. 


Neighbour, 


Pasporsi, 


Gy^ti, 


» 


Stranger, 


Noudhia, 


Aldshi, 


9» 


Patron, 


9> 


»» 


»> 


Client, 


» 


a 


>» 


Partner in 
trade, &c. 


Lddii. 
^ Bh^dra, 


\ Rannai, 


Bdntha pahi. 


Fellow caste man 


i, Ekjatia, 


J6ngui B6t6, 


>> 


Own country, 1 
natal soil, j 


* Janam Bhiim, 


Jongniraijo, 


Tai ko rdjyo. 


Fellow coun- 1 
try man,* J 


> D^sbhai, 


f Jongni, raijoni 
mdnushi. 


. Nals^khd. 


Alien, foreignerj 


, Pord^si, 


Gdbun raijom ' 
mdnashi. 


Bor^jyo-ko- 
dy&ng. 


Host, 


Ghorgrihasth, 


Barthdn hodon^ 


5, Gwoipika. 


Guest, 


Sohor, 


Aldshi, 


Ch4Ul6h6. 


Traveller, 


Porbdsia, 


»> 


99 


Master, 


Mtinib, 


Gr4, 


GrL 


Servant, 


Ch^kor, 


Arpho, 


Chdkor. 


Debtor, 


Dh^rud, 


Dh^rjdya, 


Dhdrchdika. 


Creditor, 


Mah^jan, 


Dh&rhoua, 


Dhdrpukd. 


Freeman^ 


Sadhin, 


»$ 


>f 


Slave, 


Bdndd, 


i> 


)) 


Predial slave. 


9t 


99 


it 


Menial slave, 


B^dd, Bandi, 


>J 


n 


Bom slave. 


>i 


9> 


99 



40 



VOCABULARY. 



Fnglish, Kocch, 

Bought slave, „ 
Domestic servant, Kamdil, 

Male ditto, Kam^l, 

Female ditto, „ 

Mistress of 1 

House, Ma- > Girth&ni, 

nager, J 
Steward, out- 1 

house mana- > D^6ni&, 

ger, J 

Sovereign, B4Ja, 

Subject, Praja, 

King, Raja, 

Noble, K6b'n, 

Peasant, Bour- 1 j^^^^^ 

geois, / 

Gentleman, Kiilin, 

Plebeian, Dh^kara> 

Landlord, Giri^ 

Tenant or 1 j^ .. 

Leaseholder, J •' ' 

PrqfeS' Hunter, Byddhi, 

nonals Fisherman, M^tchd^ 

and XT J f Gwdl, Sapdl, 1 

Frades.^'''^^'^' 1 Majathi, / 

""•"^SlS? } Klrs^. Cbisa. 

Gardener, Mali, 

Hired labourer, Kdmla, 

Ploughman, Halw^d, 

Merchant, 1 -q, . 

wholesale, j * 

Trader, retail, Dok&ni, 

Bankrupt, Khangta, 

Manufacturer, „ 

Artizan. crafts- 1 ^, ^ 

man, J ' 

Artist, liberal, Silpiwdr, 

Priest, cleric, Pdjak pdtak, 

Layman, laic, „ 

Gdrd, Gosain, 

Ch^la, Bhogot, 

Pur6hit, \ Pdrohit, 

Pdjdri, J Pdjdri, 

Witch, male, D&kin, 

Ditto, female, D^kini, 



Bodo, 
Arpho, 



Dhimdl. 



t» 



9f 



>9 



»t 



99 



99 
» 

99 



} 



Raja, 
Porja, 


Raja. 
Porja. 


»» 


9» 


99 


>» 


>9 


9» 


99 


» 


» 

Grd, 


Gin. 


Gr^, 


Giri. 


Mila, J^ua, 


JdluS. 


Gwdl, 


Gw&l. 


Porja, 


Porja. 


Bh^ran boyo. 


B^nihdr. 


Halwa, 


Halwdi. 


M^h^jan, . 


Mah&jan. 


99 


,. 


»> 


>9 


»> 


» 


» 


99 


Digrfi, 


99 


D^6shi, Dhdmi, 


99 

D^6shi, Dhami. 


99 


99 


» 


99 


>» 


99 


D^6shi, Dhdmi, 


D^shi, Dh&mi. 


Hiwa daina, 


Dhaina. 


Hinjou daina. 


Mhfii. 



VOCABULARY. 



41 



{ 
} 



Engliih. 

Sorcerer or ma- 
gidaiiy 

Diviner or nxL- 

Astrologer, 
Fortane-teller, 

Exorcist, 

Clerk, scholar, 
manofletters. 
Teacher, 
Learner, 

Minister of state. 
Prime minister. 
Finance ditto. 
Law ditto. 
Foreign ditto, 

Judge, Lawyer, 
Umpire, single. 
Jury, PancMyat, 
Pleader, attorney. 
Plaintiff, 
Defendant, 
Witness, 
Civilian, 
Soldier, 
Officer, 
Private, 

Commander-in- \ 
Chief, / 

Sailor, Boatman, 
Physicum, 
Surgeon, 
Druggist, 
Poet, 
Painter, 
Ardiitect, 
Sculptor, 

Mniri4 *iim, 

Mason or 1 
House-builder, I 
Miner, quarrierl 

for metal, j 
Stone quarrier. 
Stone cutter or 1 

I^igraTer, j 



Koeeh. 

Khot komi, 
J6d6gar, 
tn. 



omi, 1 
.J6n.^ 



Bodo. 



Dkimdl. 



»> 



Jdtohi, 
Nat, B&nd, 
Jh&r phiink 
komia, 

Pondit, 

Gdrd, 

Sish, 

Mantri, 

Mdl mantri, 

Diw^n, 

Dharmidhikdri, 



} Ojha, 



»» 



>* 



» 



>» 



Dewin, 
Diw6n, 



Ddt, 



>9 



»f 



Sfilis, 

Panch&ti, 

W6kfl, 

Phairidi, 

As&mi, 

Gk>wa, S^, 



Sip&hi, 



ff 



9t 



>9 



Wokil, 



rs&t, 

Siphai, 



S^napati, 

K^nia, Mallih, 
R6jh&, 



»» 
if 

99 

»l 
»> 
>» 
99 
99 
99 

ff« 
9» 

»> 

>9 



»» 



Pasdri, 

Kabir&j, 

M&Uikdr, 



Ojh^ 

Pakh&li," 

MfiH, 



GiSn, 
Mistri, 



99 



9» 



»> 



» 



99 



Thftvui, 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



Ojha. 



Dew&n. 
Diw6n. 



Ditoii. 
Woka. 



99 

99 
99 

99 

99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Fs&t. 



Siphai. 



Qihi. 



M6li. 



99 
99 

99 

99 
99 

99 

99 

99 
99 

99 

99 
99 
99 



D6rf. 



99 



99 



99 



6 



» 



42 

English. 

Metallic engraver, 
Smelter, 
Bricklayer and "I 

maker, j 

Tile msJcer, 
Thatcher, 
Carpenter, 
Potter, 
Smith, 
Ironsmith, 
Coppersmith, 
Brazier, 
Pewterer,' 
Bell maker. 
Gold & silver- 1 ,,, . 

smith, ) *«•"»• 

Cutler, Kdmhdr, 

Cook, Bhandari, 

Barher, Nowa, 

Taylor, Doiji, 

Shoemaker, Chiimdr, 

Currier, Tanner, Chum&r, 
Miller, „ 

Oilman, 
Dyer, 

Confectioner, 
Butcher, 
Baker, 
Distiller, 
Brewer, 
Turner, 
Cloth-printer, 
Spinner, 
Weaver, 
Basket-maker, 
Cordwainer, 



VOCABULA.RY. 




Kocch. 


Bodo, 


Dhim 


f* 


9t 


»» 


9i 


if 


»> 


Kdmh&l, 


Kdmhdl, 


Kiimhdl. 


>> 


t9 


>> 


Ch^, 


Nukhum lapgra. 


S&d&mka. 


Bar6i, 


Shdtdr, 


9> 


Ktimhdr, 


Khiim^r, 


Khdm&r. 


K^mhdr, 


Kh&m&r, 


K^m^. 


K&mhar, 


>9 


99 


K&mhar, 


»9 


>> 


Kdmhar, 


»> 


>> 


Thatfiri, 


Thatdri, 


That&ri. 



T6\i, 
Rangs^, 
Bowri, 
Kassai, 



Stindi, 



» 

99 

» 
99 



T^ti, JoUha, 
H&ri, D6m, 



>> 



>» 



Bdnia, 



Bania. 



» 



Nowa, 
Chum^, 



Nowa. 



» 



>9 

9> 



T^li, 
Bhdj^,' 



Bowri. 



Standi, 



» 



>> 



Khtinlddong, 
D^r^ 



Kapai k&tika. 
Dh&wa thirka. 






>9 



Abstract Forms op Above Nouns. 



Carcase, animal, M6r&, 
Corpse, human, M6rd, 



Sex, 
Male sex, 
Female sex. 
Age, how old, 
Birth, sheer, 
Infancy, 
Childhood, 
Puberty, 



Ling, jdti, 
P6Ung, 
Stri ling, 
Boish, 
Jonom, 
Ch6k b6ish. 



Gothoi, 
Gothoi, 



Sikd. 
Sikdi. 






>» 
»> 
»» 



Bo'ish, 

Jonom, 

GothobUi, 

Chengra b6ish, Khat gtirgtirbli, W&jan boish, 
G&biir bdish, Jholou sin. Whtot^ boish. 



Boish. 
Jonom. 
Diidd&m boish. 



* That is, the nouns from p. 37 or Nat. and Pol. ties. 



VOCABULARY. 



43 



JEnffUsk. 

Old age, decre- 1 

pitude, J 

Youth, 
Parturition, 
Delivery, ac- "I 

couchement, j 
Baptism, naming. 
Weaning, wea-1 

ned state, J 
Toga Tirilis, 1 

comingof age, > 

the mere fact, J 
Marriage, mere 1 

act, J 

Wedlock, state of, 
Celibacy, 
Virginity, 
Whoredom, 
Divorce, 
Courtship, 
Betrothal, 
Burial, mere act, 
Cremation, ditto. 
Mournings 1 

state of, J 

Progenitorship, 
Ancestry, 
Succession orl 

line of Inhe- > 

ritance, . J 
Relationship of 1 

blood, J 

Ditto, of mar- 1 

liage, J 

Ditto, of adop- 1 

tion, J 

Legitimacy, 1 

state of, J 

Bastardy, ditto. 
Adoption, ditto. 
Status by birth. 
Status by voca- 1 

tion, J 

Lineage, race, 

stock, 

tribe, 



Koeeh. 

Bti^ha boish, 

Jdto boish, 
Phor6b6, 

if 
Janam kdshti, 

Bhit chd&ni, 

B^h^ 

Bib&hota, 
Abib&hota, 



f» 



Kosobgiri, 



99 



99 



Somond, 
M6ti d^v6, 
JoUv6, 

Chd^ 



99 

99 

99 



Somond, 
Somond, 
Somond, 



9> 



99 



99 



on, J 

neage, race,i 
ock, sect, > 
ribe, clan, J 



Jdti, 
B6w6sa, 



Bodo. 

Braibla, 

Grothobla, 
Upzidong, 

99 

Miingd6na, 
Maikhamd66, 



99 



Habba, 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Gotiphopnin, 
Goti syounin, 

B&dda, 



J4ti, 



99 



Bongs, kdl, Bodo,* 



* Own name of own race, t. «. M6cch. 
G 2 



Dhimdl. 

Vfktinkg boish. 

Wh&nt^ boish. 
Chanj6nka. 

99 

Mingtapika. 
Omchfta. 



99 



B6hod. 



0w 

Bh6ndipika. 
M6ddk6. 

Chd&. 

99 



Jdti. 



9> 

99 
S> 
99 

99 

99 
99 

99 



Jiti. 



44 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



n, j 

of IWe- > 

* J 



7\ 
I 



Class, order of 
men, 
Yocation, 

means 

lihood. 
Profession, li- 1 

beral art, j 
Craft, art, me- 
chanical, 
Trade, com- 
mercial status. 
Service, menial, 
Friendship, 
Enmity, 
Neighbourhood, 
Partnership, 
Fellowship, an 
Fellowship o 

caste. 
Ditto of trade 

or craft, 
Freedom, 
Slavery, 
Sovereignty, 1 

status or act, J 
Subjection,status, 
Nobility, gen- 1 

try, status, j 
Peasantry, 

Bourgeo 

ditto 
Nomade or 1 

erratic state, j 
Agricultural or 1 

fixed state, j 
Proprietory 1 

ckss, landed, j 
Tenantry, status, 
Priesthood, 1 

status, J 

Laic state. 
Ministry of state, 
Clerksmp, 1 

scholarship, > 

act or status, J 
Guardianship, 
Pupilage, mi- 
nority. 



Koeeh, 



Bodo. 



Dhimdl. 



Boron, 
R6jgdr, 



fi 



t9 



Rojgdr, 



Rojg4r. 



» 



K&rigari, 

B66p4r, 

Ch^ari, 
D6sti, 
Dnishmani, Bair, 



»> 



99 



3» 



a» 



B6p&r. 



B^ph^, 

CMkari, 

Lagdgaman, 

Gasho br&pdong, Montahika. 



N6lsiikha. 



ti 



»» 



Sangat, 
Ekjdityata, 



,» 



ry, status, j 

^asantry, 1 

bourgeoisie, > 

litto, J 



S&dhint^, 
G6Umi, 

Bijatri, 

Projapan, 

Ktilinta, 

Aj&ti, kaminta. 



P&ik&sht, 

Khodk&sht, 
Grahasthi 






» 



» 



»t 



if 



{ 



99 

99 
» 

» 
I* 

19 



Mantrigari, 



} 



» 



>» 



*i 



>9 
>9 

99 
99 

99 
99 

99 

99 

99 

99 
99 



D^shi bU, 
Dh&mi bla. 


} 


99 






99 






99 




- 


99 






99 
99 



VOCABULARY. 



45 



English, Koceh, 

Profsssions* 



Bodo, DkimdL 

Dbtails. 



'^•ttcUgious ad- 1 
kion, J 



»» 






19 
»> 
>» 
»* 
»» 



ministration. 
Conyocation, 

religious ses- ^ Dharm Sobh&, 

sion. 
Doctrine, 
Discipline, 
Rubric, ritual. 
Heresy, 
True faith, 
Mirade, 
Calendar, 
Date, 

Lucky day. 
Unlucky day, 
FestiTal day. 
Fast day. 
Religion, 
Sin, 



Aschorj, 
Pattra, 
Tdrikh, Tithi, 



9» 
if 



Bhojer din, 
Up&saker din, 
Niyom, Dhorom, 
P6p, 
Repentance, 1 p^^^ 

remorse, J 

Forgiveness, 1 

remission of > „ 

sin, J 

Purification, Shtidan, 

Purificatory rites, Shddh kirya. 
Impenitence, Ogy^, 
Ercommunica-l j^j „^ 

tion, J ' 

Conscience, „ 

Salvation, Raky&, 

Damnation, N&s, 

Biligious rite 1 Korom kiry^ 

or sacrament, j Bhos, 
Natal rites, Jaman kirya. 

Baptismal rites, Nim korom. 

Weaning rites, Bhit chu&ni, < 

Toga virilis 1 Chdra korom, 

rites, J Harin&m, 

Marriage rites, Bibfih kirya. 

Marriage pro-l g^j^ 
cession, j 

Funereal rites, M&ran kirya. 

Ditto procession, SLathdlia, 

Ancestral rites, Shriidh, 



i» 



»$ 
» 

93 
i» 
»> 



» 



99 

99 
99 
99 
» 
9» 
99 
99 
99 



N^m nisht, 
P6p, 

Jing^i6, 



N6m nishti. 
Wp9 



99 



99 



99 



Udraibai, 
Phar&L chdibai, 
Jinga siiy 

Y^t g^bai. 



Shddh&r j^ka. 
D^djal p&tia. 
Ogyto. 

J&ti sihi. 



} 



TiSnL 

NHs. 



} 



Rakya, 
N&sti, 

Bli6s, K&mp&k&. 

Uptan bhos, 
Mdngdono^ 



99 



99 



99 



99 



Habba bhos, 
Boirdti, 
Machou bhos. 



Bihou p6k&. 
Boir&ti. 
Sika bhos. 



99 
99 



99 
99 



46 



VOCABULARY. 



'-] 



English, 

Public worship 1 
at a temple, j 
Offering, 
Bamt-offenng, 
Bloody offering "I 
or sacrifice, j 
Isht pdja or 
domestic wor 
ship, 

Ktil ptija orl 
ancestral pe- > 
nate worship, J 
Prayer,petition 1 
to Grod, 
Thanksgiving, 
thanks to God, 
Church ser- 
vice, prayers. 
Ditto preaching, 
Witchcraft, 

Exorcism, 

2nd 

JPolitica/^esXj, 
War, 
Peace, 
Tax, 

Land tax. 
House tax. 

Capitation tax, 

Customs, tax on 1 
external trade, J 



Kocch, 



Bodo, 



Dhimdl, 



Porsad, 
H6m, 

Bali, 
Isht pdja, 

Sdharan, 
Ttiti, 



Madai hodong, Dir puja. 



99 



>> 



>> 



» 



Thoi h6yii, Hitti. 



99 



>} 



» 



>» 



B6tho sViharan, { "^^^^ ''*'*"« 



99 



99 



Madai hodong, Dir pdja. 



Pdjd pdt, 

P^t, 

D&hinpana, D^n hobba, 

Jhirphunk. { gjJJSXbi { 

Political Administration. 

Dhorom patra, „ 

Larai, Danjalai, 

Saluk, Misha mishi, 

Khajana. Khajana. 

Khajana, Khajana, 
Bhitari khajana, 



» 



Dh^n p&k&. 

Bhdpi, 

N&para6li. 



Larai. 



>» 



99 



Eiiojana. 
Khajana. 



>f 



>» 



{ BdngdTlekha, } ^hongwai. 



M&sdl, 



Ghkt kouri, 



99 



'} 



Tax on con- 
sumption, ex- ^ Abk&ri, 

cise. 
Tax on fairs, 
Tax on manu- 1 

factures. Ex- > 

cise, J 

Transit duty^ 

on internal > 

trade, J 

Tribute from 1 

foreign states, j 
Tax on office- 1 

bearers, j 



Sdndini khajana, Sdndini khajana. 



Gindi, Tola, Gandi, Tola, G^di. 



>9 



>9 



>) 



Sdyar, 



Ghdt kouri. 



Ghdt ko kouri. 



>9 



»9 



» 



9» 



)> 



if 



VOCABULARY. 



47 



English. 

id 

tiiee. Adjudication of 1 

'^ Tights, / 

Pnnishment of 






wrongs. 
Plaint, 
Answer, 
Trial, 
Proof, 
Oath, 
Ordeal, 
Summons, 
Bail, 
Arrest, 

Decree, sentence, 
Punislunent, 1 

corporal, J 

Fine, 

Confiscation, 
Hanging, 
Decapitation, 
Imprisonment, 
Manacle^ fetter. 
Watch and 1 

ward. Police, f 
Watchman, 
Contract, legal. 
Contract of hir-1 

ing» . J 

Ditto of letting, 

Ditto of buying. 
Ditto of selling. 
Ditto of ex- 1 
change, J 

Ditto, of carry- 
ing. 

Ditto of alter- 
ing or manu 
facturing. 

Ditto of service. 

Wages, 
Lease of land, 

the instru 

ment, 
Verbal promise. 
Note of hand. 



ikOCCh* 

Judicial 

Hak, Nis&f, 

S&sti, 

N&Hsh, 

Jawib, 

Tajvij, 

Gaw4hi, 

Kasam, 

P6rik, 

Talab, 

J&mini, 

Dhor pokor, 

Hi!ikum, 

Sajai, 

D6nr, 

Sorbos, 

Ph&nsi, 

Mdtha kata, 

Kaid, 

B^ri, 

Choukidiri, 

Choukid&r, 
Kor^ m&da, 

Bh&ra l^va, 

Bh&ra ddva, 
Eanna koul, 
B^ha koul, 

Bodoli koul, 



Bodo. 
Administration. 

Dharam bich&r, 

S&sti, 
Arddsh, 



Dhimdl. 



■} 



it 



»» 



»> 



Is&tbla, 

Sh6mai, 

Phorika, 

Linghot, 

J&mini, 

Homdong, 



>t 



Sajai, 

Gilinakh&r ? 

Sorbos, 

Phdnsi, 

D&Dg&rd, 

Khot, 

Bfri, 



»» 



»> 



Khor&l, 

Bhdra khoral, 

Bh&ra khoral, 
Baino khoral, 
Phannokhoral, 

Slainokh,U;a^t^ 



>• 



S&sti. 
Ard^sh. 



f» 



»» 



tf 



Isat. 

Kir6. 

Porik. 

Kaik6. 

J6mini. 

Rbim. 

S&sti. 

Ch(n&ra ? 

Sorbos. 

Ph&nsi. 

P61. 

Kaid. 

B^ri. 

Khordl." 

Bh&ra ko-khoral. 

Bh&ra ko-khoral. 
Ch61 ko-khoral. 
PSko khoral. 

S6ko-khX< 




j Bhdrakoul, Bib&nkh,|j||||9>J Bh&r ko-kh.^^^ 



99 



9i 



id,"i 

"J 



Bochorm6ri, 
Dorm&ha, 

Potta, 

Koul, 
R<ikk&, 



{^^T' } B*chor.ko-kh» 



>» 



99 



Phdt^ 
Khogaino jachy^. 



Potta. 



» 



ti 



99 



48 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



English, 

Bond, 

Inherited pro- 1 
perty, J 

Own acquisitions. 

Dower, 

Appanage, 

Testament, will. 

Gift, deed of, 

Sale, ditto. 

Theft, 

Robbery, 

House-breaking, 

Murder, 

Battery, 

Mayhem, 

Adultery, 

Incest, 

Other illicit 
commerce, 
4th False witness, 
|^nn«.Military admi- 
~ nistration or 
arty 

Army, troops. 

Cavalry, 

Infantry, 

Artillery, 

Musket, 

Cannon, 

Powder, 

Shot or ball, 

Sword, 

Shield, 

Bow, 

Arrow, 

Quiver, 

Ensign, flag, 

Mail, armour, 

Spear, 

Battle, 

Victory, 

Defeat, 

Conquest, 

Pillage, plun- 
der, prize, 

Zeft<?r*.xiterature, 



Koeeh, 

Tammastik, 

W&rsl Bh^, 

J6htitidri, 
D^, Dah^j, 



Bodo, 



Dhimdl, 



»i 



D&n potro, 

Ddn potro, 

Kinna potro, 

Chtiri, 

Ddkaiti, 

Sindh, 

Khtin, 

M^rdang, 

Ghdil, 

Chindra, 

Horon, 

HoTon, 

Micha s&ki, 

Shastrer bidya, 

Fonj, 



» 



*» 



} 



Bonddk, 

T6p, 

Bdrtid, 

GtiU, 

Tarwd, 

Dh&l, 

Dhandk, 

Tir, 

Thorko, 

Nishto, 

Ballam, 

J6jh, 

Jit, 

H6r, 

Dokhol, 

Ldt, 



>» 



if 



Johdntia, 
Jophop t&k^ 



ft 

ff 
39 



Khdn, 

Shojalaibd, 

Ph^j^n, 

Dando, 

Dando, 

Dando, 

Ong& Isat, 



>» 



Phoudo, 



Ldt, 



» 



f> 



Kang ko jokitja. 
Bew^ ko t&ka. 



Literary Administration. 



>> 
91 
>» 
99 



Rhdn. 
D&ngshdka. 



99 



Chin&ro. 
Chin&ra. 

Chin&ra. 

M^lk& Isat. 



99 



PhoudA. 



99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 


Shilai, 


Shilai. 


Th6p, 


T6p. 


Bdrtij, 


Bdrdj. 


Gtili, 


G61i. 


Tordl, 


Tor&l. 


Dh&l, 


Dhdl. 


JilUt, 


Dhandk. 


BdlA, 


Tir. 


Th6mka, 


Thomka. 


Nirshan, 


Nirshina. 


99 

J6ng, 


99 

Rh6por. 


D^ jalai. 


Larai. 


D^ habai. 


Jit. 


J^n bai. 


Hdr. 


L&bai, 


Dokhol. 



Lilt. 



if 



a 



99 





VOCABULARY. 




EnplM. 


Koceh, 


Bodo, 


Dhimdl. 


Knowledge, 


Gy4n, 
SULkhi, 


Gvdu, 
Phor6ng, 


Gy&n. 
Dhirk&. 


Educationy 


Langnage, 
The alphabet. 


Bh&kh6, 
Rophil1&. 


Khour&ng, R&i, 

91 


D6p. 

99 


A letter. 


Akh6r, 


91 


19 


A word. 


Shobdo, 


19 


99 


A vowel. 


Phala, 


99 


99 


A consonant. 


Akhor, 


99 


99 


A sentence. 


Kath&, 


99 


99 


Nonn, 


»> 


99 


99 


Prononn, 


99 


99 


99 


Adjective, 


9> 


99 


99 


Verb, 


>9 


99 


99 


Ethics, 


Niti, 


99 


9> 


Politics, 


Rijniti, 


99 


99 


Arithmetic, 


G6nti, 


99 


99 


Geography, 


■99 


99 


99 


Astronomy, 


99 


99 


99 


Astrol(^, 


99 


99 


99 


Medical science. 


Baid^li, 


99 


99 


Grammar, 


Byakoron, 


99 


99 


A continent, 


99 


99 


99 


Island, 


Majhati, 


99 


99 


Peninsula, 


99 


99 


99 


Frontier, 


Sim, 


Sim, 


Sim. 


Boundary, any, 


Sim, 


Sim, 


Sim. 


Boundary mark. 
An epistle, 


Nish&n, 


Nirshan, 


Nirshin. 


I^kh^ 


L6kh&, 


I^kh&. 


A seal. 


Mohor, ch&p. 


Ch&p, 


Chdp. 


A signature, 


SiShi, 


Mdngdan, 


Sohi. 


Beading and 1 
writing, j 


L^khdpori, 


Nitno naino, 


99 


A book. 


Piithi, 


P6thi, 


99 


A pen. 


Kolom, 


Kolom, 


Kolom. 


Ink, 


Km, 


Kh&h, 


K&U. 


Paper, 


K%aj, 


Kh^lgaz, Lekh&, 


Khiigach. 


^th Parchment, 


99 


9, 


• ft 


^^ot^.Naval affairs. 


99 


99 


m 9 

99 


A ship, 


J^h^j, 


99 


99 


A boat, 


Nau, 


Nau, 


Niw6r. 


A baggage 
boat, large. 


Gh6mau, 


Jh&k, 


99 


A baggage 1 
boat, small, j 


S6r6nga, 


Sorongo, 


99 


A pleasure boat, Sorongo, 


99 


99 


A skiff or canoe. 


Sorongo, 


Sorongo, 


f » 


Hull, 


T61i, 


Th^U, 


■ I 


Keel, 


99 


91 


' w 

It 



49 



50 



VOCABULARY. 



Kocch, 



Ag&lddnga, 
Pich donga^ 
N4^r t61i, 
Mastiil, 
Pdl, 
D&ir, 



» 



I Nd6rbh&ra, 



English, 

Head, 

Stern, 

Hulk, 

Mast, 

Sail, 

Oar, 

Radder, 

A voyage. 

Freight or 
charges. 

Cargo or load, N^r bojha, 
7th'^ Insurance, Bima, 

ec^tctfitf. Medical admi-1 
seases. nistration or > Kavir&ji, 
art, J 

Disease, K^Jiil, 

Cure, Ar&m, 

Prescription, „ 

Physic, the drug, D&rd, B6ti, 

A vomit, 

A purge. 

Blood-letting, 

Pulse feeling. 

Pulse, 

Dysentery, 

Diarrhoea, 

Looseness, mere, Jhdra, 

Fever, J6r, 

Ague, Jor, 

Hepatitis, Koljar bish. 

Asthma, S^shi, Hap&ni, 

Pulmona^. 1 r^ 
consumption, j ' 

Other con- 1 

sumption, ge- > Stikana, 

neral wasting, J 

Belly-ache, P^t^r bish. 

Head- ache. Mother bish. 

Ophthalmia, Ch6kdr b^r&ra. 

Itch, Chiilkdni, 

Elephantiasis, 

Leprosy, 



Jdl&b, 



*> 



>9 



Ndri d^khib^r, 
N^ri, 

Jh^a rog, 
LdhA jh&ra. 



>) 



Dropsy, 
King's evil. 
Goitre, 
Measles, 

Small-pox, 



Kiidhi, 

Pdnilagd, 

Karanmiil, 

Gh^g, 

Kh^sara, 

Boson, 



Bodo, 

Agal dinga, 

Gor dinga. 

Toll, 

Khdrkd, 

Phdl, 

Boithu, 

O'di, 

Nder bh&ra, 
N4er bh6ja. 



Dhimdl. 



99 



Gabai, 
Mtili, 



99 



99 



»> 



>9 



Sh6r nain^, 
Sh6r, 

Khinai bi^d, 
Thoi khio, 
ELhigobdyo, 
Ltimd6ng, 
Ltimd6ng, 
Bikha ch&don^, 
Dh&i, 

Kh&sdl^ 

Sdkan, 

ITdi chddong, 
Kh6r6 chddong, 
Mokonhdy^ 
G^chou chorop, 

» 
Khudia, 

Do'in&ng, 



Th61i. 
O'di. 



99 



Tddka. 
Elh^. 

O'shar. 



*» 



»9 



>» 



» 



{ 



Golondo, 
L6nthi, 
Bonthai, 
Binsmaria, 



} 



Shorkhanka. 

Sh6r. 

Moidan gilka. 

Hiti moidan. 

Moidan. 

Misha. 

Misha. 

Tumsing-tuuka. 

Seshi. 

Shdkd. 



Chopka. 

H^man-tddka. 
Pdrin tiidka. 
Mi tddka. 
Kh^ ko tddka. 

Khdcjia." 
Chit^nghi. 

Golondi. 
Kh^sara. 

Boson. 



VOCABULARY. 



51 



EmfiM. 

Pox, Siphilia, 
Piles. 

Cholera, 

Swoon or Syn- 1 

cope, / 

Falling uckness. 

Gravel stone in 



} 



bladder, 
A wonnd or hnrt, 
A ent, 
A braise, 
A boil, 
A pnstnle, 
A pimple, 
A fracture of 1 

bone, J 

A dislocation, 
A plaster. 
An ointment or 



} 



nngnent, 

A hniment. 

An amulet, 1 
charm, talis- > T&yfz, 
man, J 

Spell, incanta- 
tion, bewitch 
ment. 



Koeeh. 

Bau gh&T^, 
Bin^Us6r, 

Bh6d b<Smi, 

Jh&nk, 

T^ri&, 

P&thari, 

Ghau, 
Kata ghau, 
Th^t^ ghau, 
Diimil, 
Phtinsi, 
Ph6tka, 

Bh&ngi, 

J6ra 16ra, 
Patti, 

Malham, 



{ 



Bodo. 

Noti garai, 
Ores, 

H6mh6mi, 1 
Thangan mara, / 

Tai hapmo, 

T^tirifi, 

Akhfr, 

Garai, 

Garai, 

Khiigrdma, 

Gdgdl6, 

Chithot, 

Chithot, 

Baibai, 

J6ra 16didong, 
Miili bilai, 



BkimAl. 

Noti p^chara. 
Bindisor. 

Tanka dh&ri. 

Chothat n6. 

T^dri^. 

P&tharf. 

P^hara. 
Pdchara. 
Khara. 

Yi!imch6. 

Philrk6t&. 

Phdrkot^. 

Bhoik6. 

Jora l^ika. 
T^p&hika. 



j> 



it 



a 



f> 



>» 



'} 



Rhot korom, 

Jontor-montor, 

Mohon, 



} 



Exorcism, Jhir-phiink, > 



:} 



tsar 

md 
odes 



mting 



Omen, 
Auspices, 
Second sight. 

Evil eye, 

Palmistry or 
fortune-tellingj 
Horoscope, 
Pestle, 
Aiortar, 
Bandage, 
Hunter's and 1 
fisher's craft, J 
Grame, the spoil, 
A noose or snare, 
A net, 
•A sling. 



Lokshon, 



Gou kh&s, 

Dain-hobba, 
Madai bom- 
dong, 

Ojba hobba, 
Ojha naino, 

Biphdt, 



} 
{ 



»» 



99 



99 



99 



»» 



» 



Oshor. 

Dhaina p6ka. 
Mhaidi iagaipi. 

Bhilpi. 

Ojha k6m paka. 
mpara 6li. 
J&tra ^li. 



»> 



Khdga n&Dgo, \ ^, . 
Mogon n&ngo, / ^ 



Jonom pattri, 
Lo^ha, 
SO, 
Bandhan, 

Shik6r, 



>» 



>» 



9» 



99 



Gotha, 

Onthai, 

Rhiltop, 

Moih6ni!i, 



Gotha. 
irnthdr. 

Jinka. 

to 

Shik&r. 



» 



>9 



Jhdnt, 
J&l, 
R&m d6ri. 



Kh6i, 

Jy^ 

Ddngdiing, 



Jh6nt. 

Mi. 

Dih6. 



»9 



52 

English, 

A pitfall, 
, A trap, 
2nd iBird-lime, 
\erding. SHerdsman's 1 
craft. 

Rock, 

Herd, 

Fleece, 

Breeding, act of^ 

Shearing, ditto, 

Milking> ditto. 

Churning, ditto. 

Milk-pale, 

Chum, 

Shears,. 

Fodder, 

Grass, 
, Zrd Hay, 
^^rtcieZ-Agricultural 
ture. I art, 

~ Grains, gene- 
ric^. 

Grasses, ditto, 

Oils, ditto. 

Dyes, ditto. 

Textile stuffs, "I 
ditto, J 

Agricultural 1 
products, J 

Farming stocky 

Cart, small. 

Waggon, large. 

Carriage, 

Harness, 

Saddle, 

Bridle, 

Sack, 

Basket, 

Pitchfork, 

Winnow, 

Flail, 

Sickle, 

Scythe, 

Mattock or 
pick-ax. 

Spade, 

Shovel, 

Hoe or spud» 



VOCABULARY. 



Kocch, 

Gddh, 
Dh^rphi, 
Athd, 

G6rd hhdins 
p^an, 

Jhdnk, Hdng4, 

Poshom, 
Piishyd k4m. 



} 



» 



Ch^nkd, 

M6haDy 

Kdndia, 

BAhi', 

K^nchi, 

Chdni, 

Gh^s, 

Khar, 

> Ch^s^ri, 



L6khi, 

Ghds, Trin, 

T^l, 

Rong, 

Sutp^t, 

Khdt^r jinis, 

Grihasth^r s&j, 
Gdri, 
Bojh^ gdrS, 



S6j, 



»i 



y> 



>i 



Dhdkilr, 
Dhdki, 
T&nrd, 
Kdld, 



i9 



K&chi dau. 



} 



X9 



Kh6nti, 

Kdddl, 
B^dhd, 
D&hdki,. 



Bodo. 

Hdk6r, 
Ddrphi, 
A'thd, 

Maishd mdsho 1 
pdshya, J 

Phdld, 

Khomon, 
Poshini hohba, 

it 
Sr6d6i^, 

Kh&n^ia, 

Khfe, ''^ 
G&ngsho, 
Gangsho, 
Jigdp, 

L6khi, 

Gdngsho, 

Thau, 

Rong, 

Khiindung, 
Arjdn, 

Gdri, 



Jhim, 



>f 



9t 



>> 



}> 



Chdld, 
Kh^dd, 
Thdr^ 
Chongrai, 



K^chi, 



}> 



»> 



Kh6nti, 

K6ddl, 

B^d^, 

Doukhi> 



Dhimdf, 

Gddh^. 

Dh^rphi. 

Athd. 

Did pid poshika. 
Moishd. 



>> 



»t 



Chepkd. 



ly 



Khdndia. 



Tt 



Khainch. 



tf 



Naim^. 
S^nkd naim6. 



99 



Lokhi. 

Naim6» 
Chditi. 
Rong. 

sm. 

L^ngko. 



Gdri. 



Jing. 



Chdld. 



Rd. 

Kdchi. 



9r 

99 

99 
)» 

99 
»> 

i> 



Kh6nta. 
K6d^. 



»> 



Gh6ng6iv 





VOCABrL.\RY. 


• 


EmgiM. 


MkOCCMm 


Botiv. 


Di<«W. 


Bill, 1 
Bill hook, i 


Diu, 


*Chekha. 


*Ghoog-Ji. 


Plough, 


Hal, 


Hal 


Hal. 


Harrow, 


Mm, 


MiA, 


Mdi. 


Ploughshare, 


Phalli, 


Phalh, 


Phalli. 


Ditto joke. 


YongA 


Jongc4, 


JoogoL 


Ditto shaft. 


Ninsol, 
MAthia, 


Ntogol, 


Ninsol. 


Ditto handle. 


Muthi, 


Muthi. 


Landed pn^>er-l 
ty or estate, / 


Mrrik, 


•» 


t* 


Freehold, 


MiHk, 


i» 


»» 


Leasehold, < 


Ijara, J-St, 
Gotch, 


} " 


ft 


Farm, 


Ijara, Jot, 


•f 


»t 


Rent, 


Khajana, 


?» 


t» 


Contract of rent. 


Kibuliyat, 


»» 


ft 


Metairie orBa-1 
tdi, J 


Adhiiri b6Dt, 


Phoijini rannai. 


Adhii-ko biiiu 


Horticultural art, 


f» 


»» 


»• 


Ditto products. 


Sos, 


»» 


Sus. 


Flower, 


PhdU 


Bihar. 


Lhep. 


Ath Fruit, 


Phal, 


Bithai, 


Sih^. 




Beuphar, 


Beupar. 


Merchandise 1 








or things in > 


Mahajan^ jinis, Baivijinis, 


Chol-ko-jinis. 


barter, J 








Bale of goods. 


M6C 


Bibah. 


Bokchi. 


Crane, 


f» 


r» 


9» 


Pulley, 


»f 


f» 


• t 


Lever, 


*» 


»» 


»> 


Capital or stock, Punji, 


Ponji, 


Ponji. 
Ol^. 


Profits, 


Mon^ 


Bishi^ 


Price, 


D^m, 


Bhao, 


Bhan. 


Market rate. 


Bhan, 


Xirik, 


Bakam. 


Deamess, 


Sastiu, 


Mongajii, 


Jinka. 


Cheapness, 


Mangii, 


G^^rjai, 


L^ka. 


Barter, 


Adol bodol. 


Slijalai, 


S^ka. 


Purchase, 


Kinna, 


Phan, 


Ch61. 


Sale, 


Bfch^ 


B4i, 


Pit. 


Banker's craft. 


Shar^ 


»» 


»> 


Money, any. 


Tak&kdri, 


Baina jinis. 


Choi ko jinis. 


Coin, 


Kdltaka, 


K61taka, 


K6hi«ka. 


Credit, trust. 


Udhar, 


Dhir, 


Dh4r. 


Silver coin. 


Takd, 


Taka, 


Tli^ka. 


Grold coin. 


Mohor, 


Mohor, 


H6n nri^hor. 


Capital, 


P6nji, 


Pdnji, 


PCifiji. 



3 



* The priocipal and almort only afncuJturai iuijikntt-Lt of tlM; Mec^fli mul Obtm^l 
a sort of bill. 



} 



54 

English, 

Interest, 
Loan, letting, 
Loan, borrowing. 
Pawn or deposit. 
Debit, 1 side of 
Credit, j account. 
Debt, 
Payment, 
Shop-keeper's 

craft. 
Retail trade, 
A measure, 
A weight. 
Dry measure. 
Wet measure. 
Measure of bulk. 
Ditto of extent. 
Land measure, 
A span, 
A cubit, 
A yard, 
A tolah, 
A chatak, 
A seer, 
A maund, 
Scales or balance, 
Steelyard, 
Manufacturer's 1 

craft, J 

, ^ Textile stuffs 1 
bik ! or cloths, j 
if^oN^jArtizan's craft, 
«jp*. I Implement, tool, 
'~ Mason's craft, 
A house, 
A story. 
Ground-story, 
Mid-story, 
Atticks, 
Foundation, 
Wall, 
Roof, 
Roof-tree, 
Supports, 
Door, 
Window, 
Staircase, 
Room or chamber. 



VOCABULARY. 




Koceh. 


Bodo. 


Bhimdl. 


Biiz, 


Bisha, 


Ol6h^. 


Koroj d^n. 


Dhdr la. 


Dhdr rhu. 


Korojl^n, 


Dh6r hot. 


Dh6r pi. 


Bandhak, 


Bandha, 


Bandha. 


>> 


B^ han^ng go. 


Rhdlik&. 


>9 


Imb^ hanang gOj 


, PiUka. 


Koroj, 


Dhdr, 


Dhdr. 


Chtikti, 


Jopbai, 


a 


Dok^ni, 


9f 


» 


Pdikdri, 


>} 


>) 


Ndp, 


Chdyo, 


D6ng. 


Toul, 


Chdyo, 


D6ng. 


D6n, 


» 


>* 


Kdnri^, 


H^chung, 


Ch6nghai. 
Don, kah&. 


D6n, kdtt^. 


D6n, k&th&. 


Digh61, 


Gallon, 


Rhinka. 


Rassi, 


)) 


» 


Tdkor, 


Khdjdla, 


Tak<$r. 


mth, 


Mdch6, 


Khdr d6ng. 


Gaj, 


Ndldm, 


Bdt6ng. 


Tolah, 


»f 


f> 


Chatak, 


>> 


>> 


S^r, 


Ph61, 


» 


Man, 


Mod, 


9> 


Tardzu, 


a 


» 


T(il, 


Thouli, 


Tdl. 


Bandi, 


f> 


» 


Tenter jinis, 


Ddyfi, Hi, 


Sdj4. 


Klrigari, 


»> 


»> 


Mistrir hathi&r, 


Ydgdjd, 


»» 


Choporbandi, 


N6oniigra, 


S^ d4mk&. 


Ghor, 


N66. 


S^. 


a 


»> 


)9 


a 


» 


J> 


fi 


>> 


9> 


ft 


>» 


>l 


>) 


>> 


y> 


Bdrd, T4ti, 


Injur, 


B^rh^m. 


Chhfil, 


Ndkdm, 


Chdli. 


Mdr61, 


M^d^i, 


M^,nd4l. 


Milli, B6wna, 


Mdddd, 


M61ing. 


Dd&r, 


Dwdr, 


Dd^r. 


Khdrki, 


*} 


99 


M6h 


J&khld, 


Pihiri. 


K6thari, 


99 


>> 



VOCABULARY. 



.'>5 



Engluh. Koeeh. 


Bodo, 


Dhimdl. 


Bed-roora, SiitiW ghar. 


Mudunai, N6d, 


Jim ka 86. 


Cook-room, R&ndhon s&la, 


Nishing, 


Gk ko 9k. 


^^^. } ^^ «»>-. 


M&ndo, 


Choura sk. 


Veranda, portico, Ch^, 


Ch&U, 


Dhdp. 




Necessar7,cloaca, „ 


>» 




}> 


Out-house, B^iri ghor, 


Baira N66, 


Bahira ak. 


Zen^Lna, Bhitar b&ri. 


>) 




99 


Courtyard, -^ginAs 


Ch^th&la, 


S^l^ng. 


» 


Rule or measure, N&p, 


Md, 


D6ng8dl4. 


Plummet or level, „ 


>i 




» 


Trowel, „ 


» 




>9 


Hod, „ 


>> 




>> 


Lime cement, „ 


i> 




99 


Clay ditto, „ 


>» 




>> 


Stone qnarri- 1 
er's craft, J " 


»> 




>» 


Stone grayer'sl 








craft, / " 


>} 




» 


Inscription onl 








stone, J " 


}> 




»> 


Metal grayer'sl 








craft;, / 


9» 




»> 


Inscription onl 
metfJ, / 


»9 




»» 


A moidd or die, „ 


»» 




»> 


A mallet, „ 


» 




» 


A grayer, 4,^ 


w 




>9 


Miner's craft. I- > '^ .. 








A mine, * „ 


$9 


» 


A yein, „ 


» 




» 


A flaw, „ 


» 




» 


A shaft or tunnel, „ 


99 




}> 


A yent, „ 


99 




»l 


Smelter's craft, ,> 


»9 . 




«• 


Native ore, „ 


J> 




>> 


Metal, pure, „ 


» 




9» 


Dross^ „ 


» 




»9 


Matrix, „ 


9> 




It 


BricUayer's 1 ^^,,j^„ ^^ 
craft;, j ' 
Brick, fnth. 


Kumh^ilni hobba. 


9> 


rnt. 


fnt. 




Tile, Khapra, 


»> 




99 


Paving tile, „ 


>> 




» 


Roofis^ tile, „ 


99 




99 


Plain brick, „ 


>> 




99 


Ornamental do. „ 


»9 




99 


Briek mould, „ 


>» 




99 



56 



VOCABULARY. 



'■} 



English, 

Tile mould. 
Smoothing im- 1 

plement, J 

Carpenter's 1 

craft, J 

Carpentry goods, 
Furniture, 1 

Household, j 
A door-frame, 
A window-frame, 
A seat, any, 
Bench, 
Stool, 
Table, 
A chest or box, 1 

large, J 

Ditto ditto small, 
Chest of drawers, 
A drawer, 
A trencher or 

wooden plat 

ter. 
Bedstead, 
OkU Mdsal to 1 

husk rice, J 
Wooden utensil. 
Haft or handle, \ 

any, / 

Knife haft. 
Spade haft. 
Plough haft, 
Ditto body, 
A plank, 
A beam, large, 
A beam, small "I 

cross-beam, j 
A plane, 
An ax, 

A drill or gimblet 
A tumscrew, 
A saw, 
A chisel, 
A hammer. 
Potter's craft. 
Pottery goods, 1 

crockery, &c. j 
A vessel, any. 
Earthen vessel. 



Kocch, 



Bodo. 



Dhimal, 



it 



j> 



Barhoi, 
Sutdr, 
Barhoir jinis, 

Ghar^r jinis, 



} 



it 



19 



»} 



H 



>i 



Asan, Pidha, 

Chdngr^ 

M6r4, 



K6mplai, 
Ch^ngr^, 



if 



» 



>> 



Sandiik, 



a 
a 
a 



Sanduk, 
Iskddor, 






Kdthud, 

Khdt, 

Chdm gdhin, 

Kdth^r hatiydr, 

D6nthd, 

Chun d^nthi, 
K6ddler d^ntha, 
Hal^r mdthiSd, 
Hal^r d6nda, 
Ph^^ 
Ch6krd, 

Jhdngi, 1 

G61 batti, J 

L6ndd, 
Ktir^l, 
Bhdvar, 



Kathu^, 

Kh^t, 
Ular g6in, 

Biph6ng, 

Biphong, 
Biphong, 



a 



9i 



Ph^d, 

S^ b<5nphdng, 

Sili, 



Ru4, 



>> 



Chouras, 
mthdrd, 
Ktimh^er kdm, 

Ktimh^er jinis, 

Pdtrd, 
M&t^r bartan, 



a 



>i 



a 



)i 



a 



a 



» 



>9 



N66ni jinis, Sd ko jinis. 



it 



it 



Tdkhim. 
Ch&ngrd. 



a 



a 



Sanduk. 



if 



Kathou. 

Kh^t. 

Shim khondi. 



a 



D^nthd. 

D^nthd. 
D6nth&. 



a 



a 



Ph&U. 
SiM. 

Sili. 



Duph^/' 
>> 

Chouras. 



Baith^, 

D6kh^i, Danghaishdla. 

Kiimhdni hobba, Chokti bonai. 

Kdmh^Jm jinis, Kilmh^ ko jinis, 

Ydg6j^ng, Bh&ndd. 

H&ni gojeng, Bhonoikobh&nda 





VOCABULARY. 




&: 


Sf^IM. 


MLOCCn» 


Bodo. 




^^% S * M. t 


Wooden vessel. 


Khatirbartan, | 


Bonph6ngni- 


{ 


Khat^ungko bhan< 


Metal vessel. 


DhUt^r bartan. 


>f 




H 


Large earthenl 










vessel to store > 


Gdaina, 


D&bar, 




>» 


gndn, J 










Water jar, large. 


Kdlshi, 


Taihd, 




K^lshi. 


Ditto smaJl, 


Bisona, 


TikU, 




Bftsuna. 


Earthen cook-1 
ing Pot, / 










»> 


»» 




»t 


Earthen dish 1 
or plate^ j 










» 


» 




» 


Potter^s wheel. 


KAmhiler chik. 


f> 




>» 


8haper, 


>9 


>» 




»» 


Smoother, 


>f 


>l 




»♦ 


Glazing sub- 1 
stance, j 










» 


)> 




»» 


Smith's craft. 


iUmh&ri, 


Kimimi hobba, 


>> 


Hardware, any. 


K&mhiler jinis. 


>» 




9> 


Ironware, 


L6h6r jinis» 


Shormi Jinis, 




Ch(r ko jimis. 


Coppeiware, 


Timb^ jinis, 


Thamim jinis. 




Tambft ko jinis. 


Brassware, 


Pitaler jmis. 


jti 




»» 


Pewterware, 


K&nser jinis, 


Khasini jinis. 




>> 


Chain, 


Jinj&ri, 


Jhinj&ri, 




Jhinjari. 


Wire, 


99 


») 




»> 


Nail, 


Jdli, 


KhOi. 




Khfli. 


Screw, 


P^ch, 


»y 




99 


Hinge, 


Kabia, 


n 




» 


Lock, 


T414, 


ChAki, 




T4li. 


Key, 


Chorftni, 


Airi, 




Chor&ni. 


Bolt or Bar« | 


Dwird6v4 Urf 
thi, 1 


Dw&r chdnaiAi 
loathi. 


i 


Dw4r gip-ko-li 
thi. 


Hook, 


K&nUi, 


Angthii, 




i» 


BeU, 


Gh&ti, 


Ghiik, 




Gh^ti. 


Iron vessel, kdrge, K&dhft, 


Kharoo, 




KAAhk. 


Ditto ditto, smul, LiUiia, kadhai. 


Lohora, 




>» 


Copper vessel 1 
large, J 


D^chi, 


Th&mjang, 




Thtoj^. 


Copper vessel 1 
small, / 


IMkchi, 


*» 




9> 


MetalUc cook- 1 


D^chtt, r 
Bogna, < 


Thoa or Doh, 
Kh&nta, 


1 


Tasala. 
L6hia. 


ing pot* J 


Batlohi, I 


Lohara, 


I 


Chokoti. 


Metallic dish. 


99 


»9 




9P 


Matallic plate, < 


Thili, f 
Bh&nda, 1 


Th6rsi, 
Ktirdi, 


{ 


ThlOi. 
Bh&nda. 


Metallic drink- f 
ing cup, J 


L6ta, Ghdta,/ 


Thikli, 


{ 


LoUBiti. 


B&ri, I 


Lota, 


TukurL 



58 



VOCABULARY. 



English, 

A pot, any, 
A potlid, 
A spoon» 
A knife, 
A fork. 

Goldsmith' s craft. 
Jewelry, 
A Janter,. 
A blow-pipe, 
A fan, 
Nippers, 
Bellows, 
Glow, red heat. 
Cutler's craft. 
Cutlery goods, 
Rasor, 
Scissors, 
Shears, 
Tweezers, 
Large knife. 
Pocket knife. 
Sword, 
Dagger, 
Arrowhead, 
Needle, 
packman' 
Needle, small. 
Thimble, 
Grindstone, 
Emery, 
Barber's craft. 
Soap, 
Brush, 
Lather, 

Shaving, the act. 
Shaving head. 
Shaving beard, 
Nailparing, 
Taylor's craft. 

Thread, 

Wax, 

Shoe maker's 1 
craft, / 

Shoe making, 

Shoe mending, < 

Shoe, 



Koeeh, 

Hdndi, 
P6rsun, 
Hata, 
Kdti, 



y> 



B^ni^r k^j, 
Gahana, Fata, 



» 



Chtingi, 

Pdkh^ 

Chimta, 

Bhdthi, 

Tau, 



rr 



r> 



Khi'ir, 
K^nchi, 



Chimta, 
Chdr^, 
Chiki, 
Tarw^, 



»r 



99 



J, large,! 
nan's, / 



Ph61, 

Sili, 

Si'ii, 

Angdshtin, 

San, 



Kh^6ri, 
Sdb6n, 



>* 



99 



Kh^6ri, 



» 



>> 



99 



Boda. 

Dn, 
Shdrai, 
K^ba, 
Ddb^ 



DhimAl 

Chokoti. 
Dhakana. 
Hdta. 
Kathdri. 



»t 



91 



Bdniani habba, Bania ko karo. 



j> 



99 

Wdchiing, 



>t 



M 



99 



Gddung, 



>> 



9> 



Khdr, 
Khdnch, 

L6ph6, 
Ddbd, 

Thordl, " 

Bid, D6ng, 

Mohan, 

Biji, 



S^, 



99 



99 



Khoricbimbai, 
Chdbon, 



}> 



>) 



Khori chimbai. 



If 



99 



Ndngul kdti, 
Dorjerkdm, 

Sutd, sutli, I 

M6m, 

Chamdrer kdm, 

Jdta bandvan, 
Jdta songot 1 
koron, j 

J6ta, 



Sd, 



Chijrd. 
K^nchi. 

Chimti. 



99 

ri 

99 
99 

>y 

9» 

99 
99 



T6rdl. 



Khdp6r. 

B^ndi. 

B^ndi. 



99 



»9 



99 



San. 



9> 



99 



Pushdm. 
Chdbon. 



99 



99 

Pusham. 



99 



99 



Asigurhdn, 
Hishdgrd, 
Kundung or \ 
Dung dung, / 
Mdshdtha, 

Chdmdmi, habba, 

Jota godan, 

Jotaph6sdp, 

Jota, 



Khilrsing ch^mi. 
Dhdbd joka. 

Shut^. 

Mom. 

Chdmdr-ko-kam. 

99 



99 



J6ta. 



TOCABULARY. 



59 



} 



.} 



English. 

Boot, 

Slipper or saiidal. 
Wooden shoe. 
Leather shoe. 
Straw or grass- 1 

shoe, J 

Last, 
Awl, 

€k>bler*s wax. 
Cook's craft. 
Boiling, the act. 
Roasting or 

grilling. 
Frying, 
Fire place. 
Tongs, 
Poker, 

Cnrrier's or 
Tanner's craft 
Peltry goods. 
Leather, any. 
Tanner's Vat, 
Tannin or bark, 
Miller's craft. 
Grinded goodai, 
Floor or meal. 
Bran, 
Mill, 

Windmill, 
Watermill, 
Handmill, 
Oilman's craft. 
Oilman's stores. 
Oil-press, 
Dyer's craft. 
Dyed goods. 
Dyer's vat. 
Dyer's press^ 
Dye, any. 
Red dye. 

Green dye. 

Blue dye. 
Yellow dye, 
Sngar maker's! 
craft, J 

Goor, 
Chini, 



iLocch* 



Bodo. 



Dkimdl. 



>9 



99 



Khorong, 
JoU, 



f9 



Pharma, 
Silt&ri, 



»» 



Randhon, 
Jh61an, 

Bhunjan, 

S^nkhan, 
Akha, 
Chimta, 
Kalchdl, 

Ch&m&rerkam, 

Chlon^r jinis, 
Ch&m, 
Nidh, 
Banda, 

Pis6n, 

Atta, maida, 
Bhiisi, 
J&nta, 



>» 



99 



Jdnta, 
T^li^r k&m, 
Tdi^r jinis, 
Gy^h, Gh&ni, 
Rongdib&r kam, 
Rongil jinis, 
Nddh, 



}9 



Rong, 
L61 rong, 

Hara rong, 

Nil rong, 
Pila rong, 

l/kpiran, 

Groor, 
Chinf, 

I 2 



>> 



9* 



Y&pth6ng, 

9* 

Jota, 



Champhdi. 



Jota. 



99 



99 



99 



(9 



Ch6gra, 
Chongwo, 

Yauvo, 

Hangwo, 
Doudap, 
Chimta, 



Gdka. 



}» 



99 



n 



99 



99 



99 



9* 



• 9 



Chimta. 



99 



99 



C ham&mi-hobba. 



Bigi'ir, 
mbar. 



99 



Dh^^. 
D&bar. 



99 



99 



99 



9» 



99 



Yiindiing, 
Yuna jinis, 



Mhdika. 
Mh6ika jinis. 



B^j^ng, 



99 

99 
99 
99 
99 



Bhus. 



Telini hobba, 
Phiritni jinis, 
Gochd, 



99 

99 
99 
99 
99 
9> 
99 



Ghdni, H. 



99 
99 
99 
99 



99 
99 
99 
99 



{ 



Rong, 
Gaja rong,* 
Khdnghshiir 1 
rong, J 

Grochoni rong, 
Gammo rong, 

Khiisy^h^r^t, 

Mithai, 

99 



Rong. 
Jika rong. 

N^lpd rong. 

Diidka rong. 
Y6nka rong, 

Kusy&rp^rika. 

Mithui. 

99 



60 

English, 

Misri, 
Sakar, 
lUb, 

Sugar-press, 
Confectioner's, 1 
craft, J 

Sweetmeats, 
Cake, 
Comfit, 
Lolly — pop, 
Butchei^s craft. 
Flesh, 
Garbage, 

Slaying Ax, 

Cleaver, 
Block, 
Knife, 

Baker's craft, 
Bread, 

Unleavened bread 
Leavened bread, 
Pough, 

Runnet or leaven. 
Distiller's craft. 
Spirituous li- 
quors, 
StiU, 
Receiveror boiler. 
Condenser, 
Cooler, 
Funnel, 
Pipe, 
Spirits made 

from grain. 
Ditto from 

flowers. 
Ditto from 

juices like 

Toddy, 

Brewer's craft. 
Fermented li- 1 

quor, J 

Brewer's Vat, 
Washerman's 1 

craft, J 

Soap, 
Tub, 



} 



VOCABULARY. 




Kocch. 


Bado. 


DhirndL 


Misri, 


*9 


» 


Sakar, 


» 


» 


N^i, 


Lfili, 


Ldh. 


Gy6ch, 


G6chd, 


Ghdni. 


Bhdj&rer k&m. 


Ladiiddgra, 


L^d bonaika 


Mithdi, 


G6d6i, 


T^ka jinis. 


Malpd^ 


Enkrong, 


Bdb6r, 


Lai, 


Hiiriing, 


Kh<ul&ro. 


Laddd, 


Ph^tta, 


i» 


Kassai^r k^i. 


If 


» 


Masong, 


Bidot, 


B<^h<i. 


» 


Chippika, 


» 


Gars&, 


r Ldmbri, 
\ Thungbri, 


j Ddpki. 


Ch^ps^, 


Ph&th^ng, 


Ddbid. 


G6ri, 


Dmgri, 


Dingri. 


Katbari, 


Ddbd, 


Kathari. 


» 


»9 


» 


R6ti, 


>f 


99 


» 


19 


99 


i> 


» 


99 


Gandhan, 


>f 


99 


»i 


>» 


99 


ChdUvan, 


Choun6, 


SdAk&. 


Modh, 


Pitika, 


Phatika. 


Bhatti, 


Bh&ti, 


Bh&ti. 


Bhatti, 


Bhdti, 


Bhdti. 


Adkar, 


Daihd, 


Ddk(. 


N^dh, 


mbar. 


Hindd. 


9i 


i> 


»> 


Ndli, 


Ndld, 


NdlA, 


Modh, 


Pitikl, 


Phatika. 



99 



»» 



» 



» 



Ubdlan, 


Chongno, 


Katla, 


J6ni jinis or J6, Yu. 


Matka, 


Dii, R6oti. 


Dhdbir kirn. 


M 


Sdbon, 


: Sdbon, S&bon 


Powna, 


»> 



>1 



f> 



» 



99 



» 



VOCABULARY. 



61 



Engluh. 



iLOCCn* 



Bodo. 



nkimdi. 



Beater, 
Block, 

Dirty clothes. 
Clean dothes; 
Tumer's craft. 
Turned goods, 
A lathe. 
Cloth printer's 1 

craft, J 

Printed goods. 
Chintz, 
Coarse chintz. 
Fine chintz, 
A stamp, 
A press, 
Spiuner*s art. 
Span goods. 
Spinner's wheel. 
Thread, 
Skein, 

Knitter's art. 
Knit goods. 
Weaver's art. 
Woven goods, 
A web or piece. 
The warp. 
The woof. 
Fine cotton or 1 

Mulmal, J 
Coarse ditto or 

Calico, 
Fine woolen or . 

broad doth, j 
Coarser or Ma- 1 

Hda, / 

Coarsest or 1 

blanket, j 

Hemp dbth or 

linen. 
Flax cloth or 

Linen,* 
Sack cloth ofl 

San or P&t, J 
Sail cloth finer, 1 

of San, J 



Mogdor, 
Ph£U, 
Maila kapra, 
Safa kapra, 
Ktind&it, 
Kdnd&d jinis, 
Chooras, 

Chap&n, 

Ch&p^r jinis, 

Chint, 

Chfnt, 

Chint, 

Ch&p, 

Stitk&taiC 

Sdt^r jinis; 

Charkha, 

Siit, 

Motha, 

Jabibanfiil, 

Jaber jinis, 

Ban&van, 

Banfiil jinis, 

Tdn, 

P^twan, 
Mulmal, 

6ajb6ri, 

Ban&t, 



II 



K6mb61, 
Bh&ngra, 



>> 



DhokHl, 

Jh&lok, 
M^kh&ri, 



» 



» 



>> 



>f 



Gini Hi, 
Hi gtiphilit, 
Klidndfiin, 
Kdndaini jinis, 
Baithal, 



MfrhiDh&ba. 
M& mirhi dhaba. 
Kdndai katans. 
Kdndai ko jims. 



Chit, 
Chit, 
Chit, 



99 



99 



Chit. 
Chit. 
Chit. 



9» 



» 



99 



>l 



>» 



l» 



» 



Klidnddngluye, 

Khundongni jinis 

Janth^r, 

Khdndting, 

L^mch&, 

J^khana, 

J^ni jinis, 

Hid^in, 

Danai jinis, 

Gangch^, 

Gochong, 

G^h^n, 

Rdbd H(, 
Hi shima, 
Bto&t, 



Sdt^k&tika. 

Siit^ ko jinis. 

Charkha. 

Sdt^. 

Waina. 

Chiting puika. 

Chiting. 

Dh&ba thfrka. 

Thirka. 

Dh&ba. 

T&n&. 

P^twan. 



»> 



»• 



B&n&t. 



>i 



99 



Kdmbali, 



K&mili. 



19 



» 



1* 



)» 



{ 
} 



Phdtta, 
Chola, 



I Dh6kra. 
Jh6lok. 



* The Linum usitatissimain, Tisi or 
used in India save for oil. 



Jh^ok, 
Alsi, however common.and good, is no where 



62 



VOCABULARY. 



in, 1 



English. 

Silk or Satin 

cloth, 
A loom, 
A shattle, 
A paddle, 
A roller for 

winding web. 
Weaving, the ac 
Cord-wainer's 1 

craft, J 

Cord or thick 1 

rope, J 

Twine or thin 1 

rope, / 

Tow, any, 
Oakum, 
Lint, 

R«gs, 

Paper-maker's 1 

craft, J 

Paper made of 1 

bark, j 

Ditto of rags. 
Bleacher's art. 
Basket-maker's \ 

craft, / 

Decorticating, 
The slip or 

strip peeled 

o£f. 

Basket, open plat, 
Basket, close plat. 
Basket, any. 
Deep closed 

basket. 
Shallow open 
- -■ \ ditto, 
JR«««Kiic arts, 
A^r oetry. 
A Poem, ' 
Metre, 
Rhyme, 
A Distich, 
Painting, the art, 
A picture. 
Light and shade, 
Perspective, 
Colouring, 



Kocch. 



a 



S&jd, 

M^u, 

Khdt, 

K^rkhi, 

Ban^il, 

Rasser ban&il. 



{ 



Bodo, 

Injini Hi. 

Hichan, 

Mdkii, 

G6rkh^, 

Gdndai, 

Ddin, 

Doudong, 

Chddong, 



DhimdL 



99 



} 



S^ja. 
Mdku. 
N^ch^ naiti. 

Ddngda-ldnga. 

Thirkd. 

Dihapeka. 



Dor, Rassa, D6ga, Doudong, Bada-Dih&. 



Rossi, 

Pdtd, 
Bdkd, 



99 



Kfigaj, 



II 



99 



} 



Mdth&n. 

Pdti, 

Changdri, 
Dhaki, 
Doura, Douri, 

Sapuri, 
Dhdki, 

Kavit, 
Kavit, 



>* 



>> 



Chittrakdri, 
Chobi, 



91 
99 



D6ga mudui, 
Phatta, 



Hisri, 



fi 



>i 



99 



99 



» 



H^pmd, 
S6in, 

Bishi, 

Kho, 
D6n, 
D6nkho, 



}> 
»> 

99 
19 



M^ini habba. 



99 
99 



Mhoika-Diha. 



>9 



99 



T^kadh&b&. 

Pdikd. 
Koikatang. 

Pdti. 

Dondora. 
Bhiituri. 

»» 

99 
99 
9» 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



-d 







VOCABULARY 


• 






English, 




Koeeh, 




Both, 


Dhim/tf, 


Human portrait, 


Tazvir, 












Landscape, 




» 












Colour box. 




>> 












Fiasel, 




i» 












Brush, 




tt 












Pencil, 




>* 












Musical science. 


Gavan baj&- 
van ilm, 


} 


Raj&pdi 


im. 






Music, 




Gdvanbaj&wan, 


^ 


Raj&pd2 


im, 


L^ika b^'ika. 


Musical note. 




i9 






99 




99 


The gamut. 




» 






it 




99 


Harmonj, 




)* 






l» 




}» 


Melody, 




*i 






>> 




>l 


Vocal music. 




G&wan, G(t, 




Rajdp, 




L^ika. 




Instrumental 
music. 


} 


Baj&wan, 




D&m, 




B^ika. 




A concert. 




Ndtch, 




Mdsdyi! 


t 
», 


Hydk6. 


t 


A fife. 




B^hi, 




Chfphdng, 


Miiharj 


i. 


A pipe. 




Sahan&i, 




Ph6ngph6, 




>> 


A trumpet, 




T«irh6l, 




Tdrhoi, 




Ti'irhoi 


• 


A drum. 




Dh61, Nagara, 




Nagara 


t 


Dh61. 




Cymbals, 




Kort&l, 




Khowaw&ug, 


Jh&il. 




A stringed in- 


{ 


S&ringi, Dot&ra 


{ 


S^nja, 




1 S^nja, 
J Dotdrn. 




strument. 


Bina, 


D6tdra, 




1 


Sculpture, 




Chinni, 






ft 




»f 


A stone statue, 
human. 


'} 


Mdnusher mdrti. 




>> 




>* 


Ditto of a Deity, 


Devater m<!irti. 






>» 




J» 


An idol of cla^. 
Image, playthmg. 


M&tir milrti, 






}9 




»* 


Chobi, 






>> 




»* 


Metallic Idol, 




Dh&tu^r mdrti, 


1 




» 




>> 


Architecture, 
















the science. 


» 






99 




*> 


A pillar or co- / 


Filpay,khamba 


'} 










lumn. 


\ 


Powa, 




>> 




.»» 


A shaft or body, 


>> 






99 




» 


A capital, 




a 






>» 




9> 


A basement. 




a 






>> 




>> 


Entablature, 




j> 






>> 




»» 


Architrave, 




»> 






)> 




J> 


Frieze, 




a 






)» 




J» 


Cornice, 




>i 






*> 




9» 


Facade, 




» 






>> 




>> 


An arch. 




>> 






>I 




>9 


An arcade orl 














colonnade. 


I 


a 






l» 




)» 


A Dome, 




Gumbaj, 






)> 




>> 


A min&r, 




Mindr, 






99 




>> 



63 



64 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 

A minaret, 
A pent roof, 
A fiat roof, 



Time, 

Eternity, 

Day, 

Night, 

Mom, 

Noon> 

Eve, 

Sunrise, 
Sunset, 

Moonrise, 

Moon set, 

A moment, 

A minute, 

An hour, 

A week, 

A month, 

A year, 

A time piece, 

A date, 

Sunday, 

Monday, 

Tuesday, 

Wednesday, 

Thursday, 

Friday, 

Saturday, 

January, 

February, 

March, 

April, 

May, 

June, 

July, 

August, 

September, 

October, 

November, 

December, 



To-day, 



Kocch, 



Bodo, 



DMmAL 



>> 



Bangaler Chat, 
Sobs6ir Chat, 



99 



99 



K&l, 

Anant kdl. 

Din, 

lUth, 

B^rbhdn, 

D6ph6r, 
/ G6riidhtikani 
\ b^la, 

Stiraj tiday, 

Sdraj asti. 



Ch^ndtiday, 

Chdndasti, 

Pal, 

Pal, 

Ghari, 

Ath6ra, 

Md3, 

B6ch6r, 

Ghari, 

Tdrikh, Tithi, 

D^ob^r, 

Sombdr, 

Mongolbdr, 

Bddhb^, 

Bishtib^r, 

Stikalbdr, 

Sdnibdr, 

Mdgh, 

Ph^6n, 

Chaityo, 

Boisdkho, 

Joith, 

Asdr, 

Sawon, 

Bhodor, 

Asin, 

Kortik, 

Oghon, 

Piis, 



Nouns op Time. 
Kh^, 

Shfin, 
H6rr, 
Phdjdni, 
Sdnjdphi^, 

} Bfli, 

Sh^inang khatbai, 
Shdnang hopbai, 
f N6kh&birkhat- f 
1 bai, J 

Nokhdbir hapbai. 



K^. 



}> 



D4n, 
Bochor, 



9> 



Nhitima. 
Nhishing. 
Rhima. 
B^la g6nka. 

Bil^mi. 

B^lal<Shika. 
B^lahad^ka. 

T&lilohika. 

T&lihadeka. 

99 



99 



M&sh&. 
Bochor. 



99 



99 
99 



99 



99 



D66, 

Som, 

Mongol, 

Budh, 

Bishti, 

Sdkal, 

Sdni, 

M%h, 

Ph^giin, 

Choit, 

Boisdkh, 

Jait, 

As^r, 

Srdwon, 

Bhodor, 

Asin, 

Kortik, 

Oghon, 

Poush, 



Indeclinables op Time. 
Aji, Dinai, 



D^6. 

S6m. 

Mongol. 

Bddh. 

Bishti. 

Sukal. 

Stini. 

M%h. 

Ph%un. 

Choit. 

Bois^kh. 

Jait. 

As^. 

S^won. 

Bhodor. 

Asin. 

Kortik. 

Oghon. 

Poush. 



N&ni. 





VOCABULARY. 


65 


English. 


Eoeck. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


To-morrow, 


K^, 


G&bun, 


Jumni. 


Yesterday, , 
Previously, 


P^hila r6j. 


Miy& or Mia, 


Anji. 


Agfi, 


Si^g, 


Ldmp&ng. 


Now, 


Elai, 


D&n6, D^ 


E'l&ng. 
Nhdch6. 


Afterwards, 


Pich^ 


Yiin6, D^nlmg, 


Always, ever. 


Sodd, 


Orai, 


Elod. 


Never, 


Konol(il6 nahiUj 


» Oraineg^yd, 


Elou mdnths. 


Seldom, 


K6nok6nob^/ 


H^nob^la h.4n6 
bela. 


1 Th6r&ng. 


Often, 


B&r6 b&r^. 


Yh6U ph^l^. 


Ghaninggh&ning. 


Sometimes, 


Konokonob^U, < 


H^nob^laUeno 
bela. 


\ Thor&ng. 


Now, recently. 


E'i kliarai, 


Bind, 


Idom B^l&. 


Long ago. 


Bhd^ dm^. 


Gub&n choi. 


E'shito, 


When, 


J^ld, 


J^lai, 


Jda. 


Then, 


S6]&, 


S^lai, 


K6U. 


When? 


K6nb^la, 


Mdbilai, 


H61ou. 


At once, together 


, E'kchak. 


Phakch^, 


Edo s&ng. 


Gradually, one V 
by one, j 
Slowly, 


£k6 Ek^, 


H^hing, 


E'm^ Em^. 


DhK 


L^hi lashi. 


Dhjr^. 


Quickly, 


Dh6r, 


Gakr^ gakr^. 


Dhimpd. 


Instantly, 


S6t, 


D6n6, 


Eadng. 


Late, 


BQdm^, 


Y<in6, 


Y^rh6 


Early, 


Jogot^, 


Gakr6, 


Jogotdng. 


Daily, 


9f 


99 


99 


Weekly, 


99 


19 


99 


Monthly, 


» 


99 


99 


Yearly, 


y> 


99 


99 


Once, 


»9 


99 


99 


Twice, 


99 


99 


»9 


Thrice, 


9$ 


99 


99 




Numbers.* 




One, 


£k, 


Man-ch^, 


EMong. 


Two, 


D<i, . 


Man-gn6, 


Gnd-long. 
Sum-long. 


Three, 


Tin, 


Man-th&m, 


Four, 


Chdr, 


Man-br6, 


Dik-long. 


Five, 


Pdnch, 


Man-b^ 


Nd-long. 


Six, 


Choi, 


Man-d6, 


Tdlong. 


Seven, 


Sdt, 


Man-sini, 


Nhii-long. 


Eight, ' 


Ath, 


99 


Y6-long. 


Nine, 


Nou, 


99 


Kdbd-long. 


Ten, « , 


Das, 


99 


T^-long. 


Eleven, Bodo 


Egdro, 


99 


•99 



* The M^ch prefix (Man,) and the Dhfmal postfix (Long,) are sometimes omitted, 
and both are hable to variations, for which see Grammar. 



66 


VOCABULARY. 




English, 


Kocch, 


Bodo, 


DhimdL 


Twelve, 


Bdr6, 


f Chokai-bd, 


99 
1 


Twenty, 


Bis, 


< Thai-khon, 
1^ Bisha-ch^, 


> E-long Bisha, 


Twenty-one, 


Eki^is, 


» 


99 • 


Thirty, 


Tis, 


9i 


99 


Forty, 


Chdlis, 


Bisha-gn6, 


Gn6-16ng bisha. 


Fifty, 


Pach&s, 


99 


99 


Sixty, 


S^t, 


Bisha-thdm, 


Siim-16ng bisha. 


Seventy, 


Sohotor, 


>9 


99 


Eighty, 


Assi, 


r Bisha-br6, 
\ Phanai-ch6, 


1 Did-long bisha. 


Ninety, 


Nobbi, 


99 


99 


One hundred. 


Sou, 


Bisha-b^ 


Nd-16ng bisha. 


One thousand. 


Hdj&T, 


99 


99 


Ten thousand. 


Dashaj&r, 


99 


99 


A Lack, 


Lakh, 


99 


99 


A crore, 


Kr6r, 


99 


99 


Rrst, 


Pahilo, 


99 


99 


Second, 


D6sr6, 


99 


99 


Third, 


Tisrd, 


99 


99 


Fourth, 


Chouth^ 


99 


99 


Fifth, 


Plichfn, 


99 


99 


Sixth, 


Chatin, 


99 


99 


Seventh, 


S^tin, 


99 


99 


Eighth, 


Athin, 


99 


99 


Nmth, 


N6hin, 


99 


99 


Tenth, 


Doshin, 


99 


99 


A numeral sign 
or cypher. 


} Ankh6, 


99 


99 




Nouns of Place. 




A place. 


Th(in, Jdgah, 


N6pthi, 


Ch61. 


Presence, 


Hdjari, 


99 


99 


Absence, 


Ghairhdjiri, 


99 


99 


A level. 


S6bs6ir, 


99 


99 


A slope. 


H^kakdra, 


Kh^ngUp, 


Ch%6r. 


Acclivity, 


Ch6rti, 


Gdnd, 


Tdnka. 


Declivity, 


L&mti, 


XTnkhat, 


Kht'ika. 


The centre, 


Bich, 


G^j^r, 


Mdjhata, 


The side. 


Bdg61, 


Ging, 


J^ngsh6. 


The comer, 


K6n^ 


n 


99 


The top. 


Mathi, 


Khr6, 


Puring. 


The bottom. 


H6nt, 


Khibo, 


L6ttd. 



A nation or 

kingdom, 
A province or 

Sdbah, 



I I^J9 

I Sdbah, 



Rdijo, 



lUjyd. 



99 



99 



VOCABULARY. 



67 



Sngliih. Koeek, 

A gufld-hall, 1 

} 

> R&j sobhuy 



Bodo. 



DhitndL 



»> 



i> 



Bondor, 



Bondor. 



trader^Sy 
A town-hall, 

mmiicipal 

court, 
A palftce, 
A coondl- 

chamber, 
A temple or 

church, 

A burial place. 



Prodh&ner-ka- 
ch^ri. 



{ 



}> 



MoDdolni-ka- 
ch^ri, 

B4jb&ri, 



} 



»» 



Mondolko-S&. 
R&jb&ri. 



f> 



i> 



»9 



A burning place, S&s&n, 



A public office 1 

or court, J 

Court of justice. 

Ditto of reve- 






nue, 
A jail, 

A village court, < 

A college, 
A school, 
A hospital, 
A library, 
A bank. 
An arsenal for 

making arms, 
A magazine for 

storing arms, 
A fort, 
A cantonment, 
A camp, 
A warehouse, 1 

merchant's, j 
A shop, retailer's, 
A factory or 

workshop, 
A smithy, 
A tannery, 
A dye-house, 
A distillery, 
A brewery, 



Kach^r(, 

Ad^ter Kacheri, 
Ch^al^r Kat-1 

cheri, j 

Fh&tok, 
Prodhtoer Ka- / 

cheri, \ 



Madain6d, 1 
Bdthoninoo, j 
Gothoiphop 
Dongni niipthi, 
Gothoi syou- 
dongni ndpthi, 

Kach^d, 



DSrko sd. 
Lfpko-chol. 
Dii-ko-chol. 
Kach^rf. 



99 



1> 



»» 



>1 



Bondon s&ld, 
Mondolni Ka- 1 
cheri, j 



K6ts-&. 
Mondolko-s&. 



if 

it 
a 
it 
f* 

if 
if 



a 
if 
if 
>> 

if 



if 
if 
if 
a 
a 

a 
if 



} 



Gorh, 
Chouni, 


Khot, 
Siphai thdna, 


Killa. 
Siphai jomka. 


*> 


if 


*> 


K6thi, 


*i 


» 


Ddkin, 


Dokdn, 


Dokdn. 


a 


if 


if 


Mdrd'i s^, 
Ch&m&r^r th&n, 


Kh&m&minoo, 


Kdmhdr-ko-sd. 

if 


Bhdtti kMna, 


if 
Sundininoo, 


Sundi-ko-sd. 


>» 


n 


if 


k2 







68 



VOCABULARY. 



UnglUh. 




Kocek. 




Bodo. 


Bkimdl. 


A farm house. 




» 




if 


99 


A farm yard. 




if 




if 


99 


A granary. 




Khaly&n, 




Kholto, 


Khani&r. 


A stack. 




Khaly&n, 




Kholto, 


Khani&r. 


An Inn, 




Ddndi ghor. 


{ 


Mando, 
Noukh^i, 


> Chour& sd. 


A stable. 




Gh6r6r ghor. 


^i 


Goraininoo, 


Ghora ko si 


A cow house. 




G6hMi, 




Gwalninoo, 


Gw^llisi. 


A dairy. 




99 




99 


99 


A sheep cote. 




Bh^rfr s^a. 




Bdrma g6gra, 
Y6ma yogrong, 
Y6ma g6gra. 


E'chd ko 9k. 


A pigstye. 




Sdarer kh6r. 


{ 


\ P&yd ko s&. 


A dwelling house. 


Ghor, 


V 


N66, 


S&. 


A machlin to 
watch crops. 


} 


Kdda, 




Noochd, 


99 


A cottage. 




Kh6pr6, 




N66, 


s&. 


A hut. 




Khopra, 




99 


99 


A city. 




Shohor, 




99 


99 


A town. 




Shohor, 




99 


99 


A village. 




G&6n, Bondor 


f 


Ph^, 


D^r6. 


A street. 




Gali, 




99 


99 


A square. 




Chouk, 




99 


99 


A road, high. 




Pod, sorok. 




L&m^ 


mmd. 


A road, bye, 
A footpath. 




»» 




99 


99 




mg6r. 




Degor, 


D^g6r. 


An estate,the ubi, 


if 




99 


99 


A farm, ditto. 




if 




99 


99 


A garden. 




B^iche, 




99 


99 


An orchard 
Homestead, 


} 


Bdri, 




B&rf, 


Bdri. 


Flower garden, 


1 


Phdl bdri, 




Bihar b^ri. 


Lh^p kos4. 


Kitchen gar- 


1 










den or cale- 


\ 


S^ b&ri. 




Moikong-b^ri, 


S&r b&ri. 


yard. 


J 










Field, garden. 




Kh^t b&ri, 




HdbM, 


Tiing b&ri. 


Field, any. 




Kh^t, 




Hd, 


Ling. 


Arable field. 




Bhumi b^ 




Hd, 


Ling, 


Grass field, lea^ 
or meadow, 


■} 


Khouna, 
R&yana, 


} 


Phdthir, 


Pi&ling. 


Hay field. 
Fallow field. 




9» 




99 


9> 




N6tkhila, 




H%r6,* 


L6ngdh6. 


Ridge, 




G6hl, 




99 


99 


Furrow, 




Ghds, 




99 


99 


Hedge, 
Ditch, 




B^dh^ 




Ch^kh6r, 


Ch&ti. 




P6ri, Pdghdr, 




Phoiri, khoui. 


Ani. 



* H6gr&, the waste, jangle \ no fallow. 
» See note at p. 139. PWW (P&ri) and p6;& are Hfadi wordsj 



VOCABULARY. 



69 



Engluk. Kocck. Bodo, 

Indsclimablbs OF Place. 

Separately, apart» 6^61, Alog, Gub^D, 

Towards. Ti, 

Up to, to, unto, Tako, 



Logoch^, 



As far. 
So far. 

Beyond, over. 
In, at. 
On this side. 
On tliat side, 

<ftn both sides. 

About, around. 

All round. 
On, upon, 

Here, 

poz. 




Where, 
There, 

Where? 



rel. 



Every where. 
No where. 
Hence, 
Thence, 

Whence ? 

Whence, 

Before, 

Behind, 

Between, 

Above, 

Beneath, 

Near, 

Far, 

Within, 
Without, 



J6ith^, 

S6ith^ 

Pir, 

T^, 

Y^dr, 

Wfipir, 

W6rpir, 

Agolbogol, 

Ch&ro bhitti, 
P6r, 

Hitti, 
Hdtti, 

Kdnti, 

Eithi, 
S^ithi, 



} 



{ 



Kunthi, 

Sokolthi, 
Konothi n^in, 
£ ith^ hatti, 
J6ith6 hatti, 

K6nth^ hatti, | 



Ag, 
P6ch, 

Bich, 

U'par, 

Tola, 

Nikot, 

Ddr, 

Bhitiri, 
B^Oiiri, 



if 



Chim or Sim, < 

J^ong, 

SUp, 

B&t, 

Sing, h&, ou, 

Imb^ jing, 

Hobe jing, 

Y^jungwojung, 1 

M^bub^bdjing, j 

Jing jing, 

M^bd b^bd,* 

Chamcham, 

Chou, 

Jung, 

Imboh^ 

Hob6h&, 

Hujdng, 

Mouhd, 

Bojong, 

J^rdno, 

Bydno, 

Bojdng, 

Mouka, 

Boiyaubo, 

Jirobo g^y^ 

Imboni phrk, 

Hoboni phr&, 

Bojong phr&9 

Mourn phr&, 

J6jong, 

Shig&ag,t 

Ydn6,t 

G6z6r, 

Ch^ 

Sing, 

ELhatai, 

Gaj^g, 

Singou or sing, 
Bahirou, 



DhimdL 

Bhin^g. 

Fd6sdng. 

S6? 

Thfkd. 

Th^kapa. 

J6so. 

K6s6. 

P^n. 

T&. 

Y^p6r. 

Wdpdr. 



»> 



Ch^ngsho bh^ng- 

sho. 
Ora paring. 
Rhdtd. 



I Isho, ltd. 



} 



U'sho, Utk. 

H^sho. 
Het&, 
J^tdn. 
Kdtdn. 

H^td. 



Ora paring. 
H^tabd mdntho. 
Ita song. 
U'ta song. 

> Hota song, 

J^t* sho. 

Ldng, Ldmpd. 

Nhd chopa. 

Mdjhata. 

Rhdtd. 

L^ttd. 

Ch^ngs6. 

Ddr^. 

Sdl^ng. 

Lipta, 

B&hira. 

Sdtdng. 



* M6b6 b^b6 here and there, corruption of Imb^bd hob^bu, this side and that, 
t In place or time, as io English. So Dhim41. 



70 



VOCABULARY. 



English, Kocch. Bodo, Dhimdl. 

Nouns of Quality, and Condition, &c. 



Health, 


Ardn, 


Gakhr^gbld, 




Elkap^ka. 


Sickness, 


Bir&m, 


Jobrabl^ 




M&elkap&ka. 


Knowledge, 


Gy4n, 


Gy&n, 




Gydn. 


Ignorance, 


Ogyan, 


Gy4ng g6y6. 




Ogyan. 


Fatigue, 


Thak^« 


M^ngbai, 




M^ka. 


Rest, 


Jir6n, 


Jir^bai, 




Maishdka. 


Occupation, 


Korom, 


99 




99 


Leisure, 


Jirdn, 


99 




99 


Liberty, 


Chhdtti, 


H6g6r. 




L&ppika ? 
Kaid. 


Restraint, 


K^d, 


How&l, 




Society, 


D6s6r, 


1 
99 




99 


Solitude, 


»> 


99 




99 ■ • "< 


Crowd, 


Bhir, 


99 




Didng j6m. * 


Strength, bodily. 


, Bal, 


Balo, 




Balo. *' 


Weakness, ditto. 


Nibal, 


Balg6yd, 




Balm&nthdka. 


Ability,, mental. 


Btiddhi, 


99 




»9 


Inability, ditto. 


Ktibdddhi, 


99 




99 


Power, general. 


Sak, 


Hdyd or Hdd, 




D6^g. 


Powerlessness, 


Nisak, 


Haagai, 




D6&ng mdntho. 


Lameness, 


L6ngr6 pan. 


L^ngran matno? 


1 

99 


Blindness, 


Kana pan. 


K^an matno 1 


t 


99 


Deafness, 


Bahira pan. 


B^nga slo ? 




99 


Dumbness, 


Gungd pan. 


Ph%l&slo? 




tf 


Stutter, stammer j 


, Thotala pan, 


T6tla slo ? 




99 


Wealth, 


Dh6n, 


Dh6n, 




Dh6n. 


Poverty, 


Nidhon, 


Dh6n g^y^. 




Dh6n mdnthdk 


Scarcity, 


Akdl, 


Ankhdl, 




AkH. 


Plenty, 


Satti kdl, 


Satti kdl, 




Satti k^. 


Famine, 


Ak^, 


Ankh^l, 




Akdl. 


Drought, 


9> 


99 




99 


Inundation, 


Bdn, 


Bdn, 




G6d&. 


Happiness, 1 
Pleasure, j 


Sdkh, 


Sdkh, 




Sdkh. 


Misery, pain. 


Ddkh, 


Ddkh, 




Ddkh. 


Beauty, 


• 


r Mach&nean 
\ matno ?* 


1 


99 


Ugliness, 


99 


Shapman matno ? 


1 

99 


Straightness, 


Sidhapana, 


99 




99 


Crookedness, 


T^r^pana, 


99 




»» 


Fullness, 


99 


99 




99 


Emptiness, 


99 


99 




99 


Heaviness, 


99 


Ulitnan matno 


9 


99 


Lightness, 


99 


J R^ch^ngan 
\ matno. 


• 


99 


Greatness, 


Ba4^« 


G^ddtnan matno. 


99 



*# 



* Machang for majang : So Dou for Tau and Gorai for Korai : Euphonic* 



VOCABULARY. 



71 



English, 

Smallness, 
Length, 

Shortness, 

Depth, 
Shallowness, 
Width, 
Narrowness, 
Height, 
Lowness, 
Aronnd body, 
A square, 
A triangle, 
An angle or 
comer. 
Area, 

Circamference, 
Diameter, 
A half, 

A quarter, 
A third. 



Kocch. 

Chot^, 
Lamb^', 

Ch6t^, 

G^Jiir pana, 



if 



Chou4^, 



99 



} 



ITcch^, 

Nichai, 

Go], 

Chouk6n, 

Tr!k6n, 

K6nl^ 

Par6st, 
B^r, 
Bf&s, 
Adh6, 

P66, 
Tih6i, 



A part, piece, Tdkr^ 



The whole, 

Redness, 
Whiteness, 
Blackness, 
Sound, 
Noise, 
Silence, 
Echo, 

A cry, scream, 1 
human. ) 

A roar, bestial, 
A low, boTine, 
A bleat, sheep's, 
A bark, dog's, 
A whistle, man's, 
A whistle, bird's, 
A hiss, snake's, 
A mew, caf s. 
Savour or flavour. 
Good savour, 
Bad savour, 
Sweetness, 



Samdchft, 
L6lf, 



» 



9» 



Sobd, 
Gondogol, 
Nibh&va, 
GhiSng, 

^h6r, Pdkir, 

D&k, 

D6d&ri, 

Bh6lbh6li, 

Bhdnk, 

Sdsk&ri, 

Sitti, 

Sds&ri, 

M6m&ri, 

Sw&d, 

Acha sw&d, 

Bdrd sw&d, 

Mith^f, 



{ 



Bodo, 

Mud6yan matno, 
Gall6van matno, 
Gdchiiman \ 
matno, / 

%* 

Gudran matno, 
G^h6pan matno, 
Gaj6van matno, 
Gah&yan matno, 
Tolot or Dolot, 
K6na manbr^, 
K6na manth&m, 

K6nd manch6, 

99 
99 
99 

Khou (ch^-one), 
Khousilingche, \ 
(ch^-one), / 
Ph&n th&m, 
Khou thdm ? 
Thdmd, 
Ch6ch^, 
Bimaino, 
Boibo ? 

99 
99 
99 

Shodop, 
Gondogol, 
D6rshi, 
Chatta, 

Gapchi, 

Th^tnd, 

Dod&ya, 

Gapmo, 

Chdngno, 

Mdshdt, 

Gapmo, 

N^rti, 

Gapmo, 

Gathou, 

Gathou, 

Thouwd, 

Gadoi matno ? 



Dhimdl, 



99 
99 

« 

9> 

99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 

99 

99 
99 
99 



E'phala. 
E'p<Sd (^ one). 



99 



Thdmd. 
T&m6n6ng. 



99 



99 



99 



Hinka. 
Gondog6l. 
Chipakd. 
Chatta. 

Rhikai. 

Dikh&r. 

D6dai. 

M^mai. 



99 



Sdsk&ri. 

Kh&rka. 

Pbopai. 

Dhtif. 

Tda. 

Elka Tdd. 

Mdelka Tii. 



99 



72 



VOCABULARY. 



English. 

Sonrness, 

Bitterness, 

EipeuesSf 

BAwness, 

Soundness, 
Rottenness, 
Odour, smell, 

Perftime, 

Stink, 

Roughness, 

Smoothness, 

Hardness^ 

Softness, 

Dryness, 

Wetness, 

juiciness fruit, 

Sappiness 

greenness, 

wood. 



Less irui^ 
ness 1 
oness, > 

I. J 



} 



Pressure by 
own weigh 



Kocch, 

Kh&tapan, 
Kh^tapan, 



Bado, 
Gakhoi matno ? 



DhimdL 



f» 



»$ 



» 



i% 



$9 



»>. 



99 



Gandh, 
Acha gandh, 

Bdra gandh, 

Rdkhdj, 

Chikon^, 

Sakhti, 

Sdkhdpan, 

Bhijdpan, 

Rosilta, 

Gil&pana, 



{ 

{ 
{ 



99 



99 



9« 



Gam&nan matno ? 
GathdnMn 1 
matno ? J 

Gh&m matno ? 
G6chd6 matno? „ 

Man&mo, Nh&mki. 

Man6mo-mada.|j.ika„htoik.. 
mo, J 

^^°-''''^- } Mdelka nhfimka. 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 

99 



Nouns of Motion — ^Things. 



Appearance, 
Disappearance, 
Ascent, 
Descent, 
Advance, 
Retrogression, 
Vibration oscil- 
lation, 

. ..} 

Depression, ac- 1 
tive, J 

Compression, do. 
Relaxation, 1 
loosening, J 
Increase, self, 
Decrease, do. 
Addition, others. 
Subtraction, do. 
Expansion, self. 
Contraction, do. 
Opening, other's. 
Shutting, do. 
Conjunction, self, 

Disjunction, do. 



99 
99 
99 
99 



99 

99 



Gkidong, 
Unkhat, 



Aga gaman, 
Pdch^ hatan, 
Hilat, 
K&mp, 

Ddb, 

Daban, 

Chip, 

Dhilau, 

Barhti, 

Ghotti, 

Barh&wan, 

Shatt&yaqu 

Phutan, 

Munjan, 

Khdlan, 

Bond koron, 

Sanjog, 

Bijog, 



99 
99 



V Moud&ng, 

Kichin, 

Ndchin, 

Chip, 

Sh6ngrop, 



{ 



99 



99 



Ph6d^tin, 

Phdddm, 

Barsara, 

Khopjop, 

Kh^6m, 

Jokhlop, 

Lagomano, 

Gdbtinslo,. 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 

99 



99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 



Phirka. 
L^^ka. 

Rh^pkk. 

Rh^ pdk&. 

Chip. 

Dha pdkd. 

Dh&m6. 
Shimh6. 



L&gal n^uka. 



VOCABULARY. 



73 



English, 


Kaeeh. 


Bodo. 


DhmM. 


Ruptui^ burst. 1 pj^^ 
mg, self, J ' 


Gauwo, 


Dh^flci. 


Fracture, break- 
ing others, 

Melting, self. 


► T6rph6r, 


Ch^pai, 


Bh6ika. 


GaUn^" 


Gilfin, 


Gal^hi. 


€k>ngea]ing, do. 


Jam&n, 


Dakhiii), 


J6m hi. 


Melting, other's, 


GraUyan, 


GQi h<$in, 


Gal6 pik^. 


Congeding, do. 


Jamivan, 


99 


J6m piki. 




Nouns of 


Action — Persons. 




Approach, 


Nikot &n. 


Khatiou phoin. 


J^ngshol^. 


Retirement, 


Ddr j&n. 


Gajan th^uagin. 


Ddr^ had^. 


Amval, 


Poh^ch, 


Chobai, 


Dhi. 


Departure, 


Prasthdn, 


ITnkhat. 


Uad6ki. 


Entry, 


Bhitor &n. 


Sing hap. 


Saleng wing, 


Exit, 


Btiiirjim, 


B&Ur thing, 


Siting61^. 


Preservation, 


Rakya, 


R4khi, 


Bincha piki. 


Destruction, 


Nis, 


N6s, 


Nasht piki. 


Injury, spoiling, Bigtoin, 


>» 


99 


A journey. 


J&tr^ 


Jdtr^ 


Jitri. 


A stage or 1 
day's journey, J 
Expedition, haste 
Delay, 


Monjil, 


Sh&n ch^nikima. 


£'-nbi-ko-dimi. 


jT6p, 


Gakhri? 


Dhimpi. 


D^H, 


Dirong, 


Bilombh. 


A wiuk, the act. 


99 


»» 


99 


A pace, stride. 


Pan, kodom, 


Agin? 


Titar. 


A run, race. 


Dour, 


Khat, 


Dhip. 


A gallop, animal's 


' » 


>9 


99 


A trot, do. 


>i 


99 


91 


A leap, jump, 


Ph^n, 


Bat, 


T6nka. 


A hop, skip, 
A kick. 


Ktid, 


Bajalo, 


Hydka. 


L4t, 


J6yu, 


Lit. 


A scratch. 


Achuran, 


Khdr6, 


Rhaika. 


A bite. 


K^tan, 


Wit, 


Chiika. 


A sting, 


Bin, 


J6, 


Chdka. 


A blow of hand. 


M&r, 


Sh6, 


Chour. 


Ditto of stick. 


D6ng, 


Sh6, 


Dinghai. 


A cut. 


Kat&van, 


Hiyti, 


Pil. 


A thrust or push, 


Dhak^l, 


NijWt, 


Dhikaika. 


A pull. 


K^nch, 


Biibti, 


Tinika. 


A cast or throw, 


Ph^nk, 


Gdrh6t, 


Jhit^ki. 


A pinch. 


Chim, 


Kh^p, 


Chim. 


A laugh. 


Hongsi, 


Mini, 


L^nki. 


A smile. 


Miishki, 


Minislu, 


Atoisa l^nka. 


A weeping, 


R6wan, 


Gip, 


Khir. 


A sneeze. 


Chikan, 


Hichd, 


Hichd. 


A cough. 


Kh^si, 


Gujii, 


Shd. 



74 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



EnglUh, 

A gulp or swal- 
low, 
A belch, 
A fart, 
A spitting, 
A chewing orl 
mastication, j 
A talking. 
Talk, 
A kiss, 

Seeing, the fa- 1 
culty, J 

Hearing, ditto. 
Smelling, ditto. 
Tasting, ditto. 
Touching, ditto. 
Pissing, the act. 
Shitting) ditto. 
Eating, ditto, 
Drinking, ditto. 
Sleeping, 
Waking, 

Dreaming, 

A dream. 

Breathing, 

Breath, 

Sweating, 

Sweat, 

Palpitation, 

Coitus, Im- 
pregnation, 
generating, 

Conception in I 
womb, J 

Digestion, 

Indigestion, 



} 



Kocch, 

Dh6k, 

Dh^k&r, 

Pdt, 

Thiik, 

Chaboun, 

B61an, 

B61i, 

Chum^, 

D6khan, 

Sdnan, 

Sdngan, 

Chatan, 

Chiiiyan, 

Mtitan, 

H&gan, 

Khlvan, 

Piwan, 

Sdtan, 

Jagan, 

Soponkoron, 

Sopon, 

Sansph^kan, 

Sans, 

Pasijan, 

Pasina, 

Kdpan, 



Gaubh^ri h6n, 

Pach, 

Apach, 



Bodo, 

Gr6tch^, 

Molong, 

Kiphoi, 

Muju, 

Chouin, 

lUin, 

Khdddm, 

Kh6n^n, 

Manamchdm, 

Ch6Mn, 

Ddngnd'in, 

Hdshdin, 

Khiyin, 

Jain, 

Ldngin, 

Mddum, 

Simdng nd'in, 

Sim^g, 

H&ngl^, 

H4ng, 

Galdmin, 

Galamdo'i, 

Mouin, 



Choda-chodi, Khoin, 



Bishdphdlin. 
Gilin, 
Gilya g^n 



{ 



Dhimdl, 

Nil. 

Hito. 

U, 

Thdp. 

Rh6 katang. 

D6p katang. 

D6p. 

Chdmd. 

Khdng katang. 

Hinkatang. 
Nhd katang. 
D66 katang. 
y^r katang. 
Chicho katang. 
Lishi katang. 
Chd katang. 
Am katang. 
Jim katang. 
Ch^t katang. 
Sopon lih6ng ki 
tang. 
Sopon. 
S^slho katang. 



» 



{ 
{ 



Bhim katang. 
Bhimka. 
Phir katang. 

Ld katang. 

H^mingdham- 
katang. 

P6ch p^ katang. 

P6oh m&pa ka- 
tang. 



Nouns of Resemblance, Affirmation, &c. and of Generai. 

Import. 

Soman ta, 

Osomanta, 

E'kt^, 



Resemblance, 

Difference, 

Identity, 

Otherness, 

Doubt, 

Certainty, 

Assent, 



>> 



» 



» 



San d6hi, 
Nichoita, 
K&bdl, 



j> 



}) 



9) 



ti 



H 



9* 
»9 



VOCABULARY. 



75 



English, 

Dissent, 

Affirmation, 

Denial, 

Offer, tender. 

Acceptance, 

Rejection, 

Aid, help. 

Hindrance, 

Adyice, counsel. 

Difficulty, 

Easiness, 

£xpedient,con- 1 
triyance, j 

fitness. 

Unfitness, 

Danger, risk. 

Escape, safety. 

Protection, re- 
fuge. 

Abandonment, 
desertion. 

Change, muta- 1 
tion, J 

Immutableness, 

Luck, hap, for- 1 
tune, J 

Good luck. 

Bad luck, 

Accident, con-1 
tingency, J 

Meeting, the act. 

Parting, ditto. 

Necessity, fate. 
Free will. 
Necessity, "I 

compulsion, j 
Choice, option, 
Residue, what! 

left, / 

Model, pattern. 
Method, mode. 
Original, 
Copy, 
Share, lot. 
Prop, support. 
Instrument, 
Process, 



Koech. 

Nikabdl, 

Sohi, 

Ink^r, 

Char&Ydn, 

Kabdl, 

Ndkabul, 

Modot, 

Hoij, 

Prdmus, 

KathintI, 

Sohojt^, 

Jugti, 

f> 

91 



Bodo. 



DkimAi. 



ft 



Saran, 

Tyfig. 

Bodol, 

Abodol, 

Bh6g, 

Sd bh^, 
Kdbh%, 

Daiv', Gati, 

MiUn, 

Jdda j^van, 

Daiv, 

Siich6tan, 

Jardrat, 

Khdsi, 

Bdki, 

Noksha, 

Doul, 

Asal, 

Nakal, 

Bakra, 

Pow^ 

Hathi&r, 



it 



Ongo, 

Onffd, 

J&chiyu ? 

R6yo, 

R&yd, 

Chdmphd, 



»> 



Sanjalaiyd, 

Gabr^p, 

Alth6i, 

Jdgthi, 

Somaiyo, 
Somaiy^, 
Gabr&p, 
G6wach6, 

Kirph&t. 

N£g4r, 

Slai, 

D& slai, 

Bhdg, 

Gam bh^, 
Hammabh%, 



tf 



Lagomano. 



»» 



J^nghi. 

M&j^nghi. 

K6rhd. 

Rhdka. 

M^rhdkd. 

Moidhop. 



99 



Bdddhip^^. 



99 



99 



r Gdbdn gdbdnl 
I thfing, / 



Jdgthi. 

Sobaikd. 
M& sobaika, 
L&chi. 
B^chi. 

Soron. 

Tyfig. 

Shdoka, 

Mi sh66ka. 

Bh^. 

Elka Bhis. 
Mi Elka BMg. 

99 

99 
99 



thtog, 

DMv', Daiv6. 

Gouini khdsi, Td) ko khdsi. 



99 



99 



Khdsi, 
Adrd, 



Khdsi. 
Adr&. 



99 
99 
99 
99 



99 
99 
99 
9f 



Bh^, 

Thongth&ng, 

Giigdjd, 



Bdntha, 
Powa. 
Ghon go'i. 



99 



99 



99 



L 2 



} 



} 



76 

English. 

Product, 

Order, 

Disorder, 

Benefit, 

Injury, 

Loss, 

Search, 

Discovery, 

Gain, advantage. 

Loss, disadvan- 
tage. 

Question, 

Answer, 

Promise, 

Breach of pro- "I 
mise, J 

Job, piece of 
work. 

Joke, 

Knot, 

Cleft, crack. 

Hole, 

Quake, 

Earthquake, 

Point, 

Edge 

Back 

Pair, mas et foem. 

Pair, sorted. 

Fee, douceur. 

Atom, 

Inventory or 1 
list, J 

A mark, any, 

A stain, 

A label. 

Errand of busi- 
ness, . 

Message, sim-' 
pie. 

News, intelli- 
gence. 

Essence, 

Equilibrium, 

Bias, 

Excess, 

Deficiency, 

Sufficiency, 



*'l ofwea- 

;;/pon. 



VOCABULARY. 




Kocch, 


Bodo, 


Dhimdl. 


93 


»» 


99 


Rlti, 


Japdong, 


99 


Anriti, 


Clulai bilai, 


99 


Hit korom. 


Khaichen bhal. 


Jaiba elka. 


Ddsht korom. 


Khaichen mando 


, Jaiba ma elka. 


mr&il. 


Gamaiy^ 


Mh^mh^. 


Kh6j, 


Naigro, 
Maibai, 


Bh6o. 


P&wan, 


mnkL 


L6bh, 


Bisha, 


99 


Hdni, 


Loksto, 


99 


Saw^, 


99 


99 


Jaw&by 


» 


99 


Kar^l, 


Kharfil, 


Kar^l, 


» 


>» 


99 


K^m, 


Hobba, 


99 


Thatta, 


Sikrai, 


Rouchi. 


G&nthi, 


Gdnthi, 


Gilnthi. 


Chir, 


Gouwo, 


Dh^ikd. 


G^dha, 


mk6r. 


99 


K&mp, 


Mou, 


Phirka. 


Bhdi k&mp. 


Hd mouwo. 


Bhan6i phirka. 


G6j§, 


G6phdt, 


99 


Dh&r, 


Dh6r, 


Dh^. 


Pithi, 


G^, 


G^ndi. 


J6r^ 


J6ra, 


J6r&. 


Jora, 


J6r&, 


J6ra. 


In&m, 


n&m. 


mm. 


M 


» 


99 


F^rist, 


99 


99 


Chin, 


Chin, 


Chin. 


Dagh, 


Dfigh, 


D&gh. 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



99 



Khobor, 


Khopor, 


Khopor. 


M^ja, 


M^ja, 


Mdnja. 


99 






99 

Jyddati, 

Ghotti, 

Bos, 







VOCABULARY. 



11 



Engli%k, 



Koeeh. 



Bodo, 



Dhimdl, 



Iia>ECI«INABI«K8 OF AFFIRMATION, QUANTITY, MODE, &C, % 

INCLUDING Conjunctions. AND Prepositiqns. 
K<inUl6. jMithia? 
Kh&ti, Nichoi, 
NaniD, 



Periiaps, 
Certainly, 



No, 

Geiienl priyitiTe, „ 

Do noJ^wrW 1 jj jj^^ 
pimtire, j 
Wheieforel '^- f J^i tka^ 
Therefore, J corrd I S^i t^^. 



Why? 
Much, 
Many, 
Little, 
Few, 



More, 
Enough, 
More,!^ 
Most, Jm 



rigns of r 
compari-S 
•on, ^ 



Kit&n6, 

Bh^6la, 

Bh^l^la, 

66tik, 

Gdtik, 

Kdn^k, 

Arfir, Phai, 

B68, 

Tdt^, 

Sab4 t^, 



As much. 
So much. 
How much ? 
How many? 
Too much. 
Too little. 
Very much, 
most. 

Than, 

As, 

So, 

Thus, poz. 
How? 



Joto, 

Toto, 

Koto. 

Kiti, 

Phai? 

Olop, 

} Oti, 



9t 



J^m6n, 
T^m6n, 

W^ mon, 

K^m6n, 



Like, in man- 1 t 1 1. 

*^f > Jokho, 

ner oi. 

Unlike, other- 



wise. 
Verily, indeed. 
Only, merely. 
As long. 
So long. 
Until, 



N& jokho, 

Thikthik, 
Kh^i k6val, 
Joto khiin. 



{ 



BU, 

Ongthdrgo, 

Ongo, 

Ongii, 

G^y6, 

D6, 

D& khldm. 



{ 
{ 

{ 



} 



$• 



19 



M&ab, 

G6h4ng, 

G6bing, 

Kitisi or Tisi, 

Kitisi, 

Kitisi, 

Aro, 

Thdbai, 

Binbo-shin, 

Boinobo-shin, 



36 chibang, 
U chibang, 
B^hi chibang, 
B^h^bd, Pich6, 
Gab&ng ? 
Kitisi? 



j Ndgh^.- 

Nich6i. 

H6. 

Ah6. 

M^thd. 

M&. 

M&P&. 

J6i p^i. 

S^ip^. 

Hai p^i. 

E'shuto. 

E'shuto. 

At6isa. 

At6isa. 

At6isa. 

Aro. 

J6h6. 

0'k6nhdd6ng. 

Sogimingko-nh&- 

dong. 
J6 iokho. 
U'aong jokho. 
H6 jokho. 



S6p&. 



} 



39 



H 



Sokap^ S6k&. 
Saiko sopa. 



Boinobo-gab- 
ang shin, 

^£.N6. } NMorNhiidong. 

J^dong. 



»> 



9» 



Jirin, 
U'rin, 
Worin, 
Eisha, Idi, 
Br6, 

Pds^ 
D& pdsa, 

B^n6, 
J^ch^ bon, 
Woch^ bon, 



{ 



K6dong. 
Udong, 
Us^g. 
H6s&. 

Bhaika. 

Md Bhaika. 

» 
>» 

Jejokhobilombh. 
Sejokhobilombh- 
Kola. 



78 



VOCABULARY. 



English, 

Because, 

If, 

Then, 

But, 

And, 

Also, 

Again, 

Or, 

Both, 



Kocch. 



Bodo, 



i» 



» 



J6kh6n, J^di!!, 

T6kh6n, T^, 

Kiutu, 

E'vong, O, 

Aro, 

Bdri, 

Kf, 



D6no, 

Kdh6ng, 
K^ongn^, 

\ Ndt^, 

Jhit mdr, 
D6kh^k, 



Either, 

Neither, 

Or not, other- 

wiscy 
Hush ! 
Lo! 

Hurrah ! 

Alas, Hai hai, 

With, cum, Dosor, sdth6, 

Without, sine, Bin^, 
By, instrument, Diy^, 
Except, unless, „ 

Moreover, be-1 ^ 

sides, J ' 

Notwithstanding, Tdh6n, 
According to, Ba mojim. 
Almost, nearly, Atit, 
Quite, entirely, Tam6m, 
Partially, in part, Kdcch kucch. 
Rightly, well, Acha koria. 



Kola, 

Kintu, 

Bi, R6 ? B6 ? 

Aro, 

Phin, 

N6, 

{San-gne,* 
Man-gn^, 

Bibo nang& ? 
Ddt6, 



DhimdL 
Kon&ng. 



9t 



} 



Shrithd, 

Nai h6t or N6i, Khang." 
Dhanyo dhanyo, Khanomathai, , 

Habap, Hai hai. 

Logo, Dosa. 



Kintu nd. 

E'd6ng ? 

Aro. 

Nh6 chota. Gn6chota 

Nd. 

Nh^mi. Gn&ni. 

H&shdngiiuaitiho. 

M£t6. 
Dhiki p&. 



J6ng, 



,9 



i» 



99 



Aro, 
Tobldb6, 



Sh6, Dong. 
A'r. 



99 



9» 
99 



Khati6, H^h6, Thor^. 
Boinobo ? D6ngh^. 

Khaich^, 



Wrongly, ill. 

Violently, 

Gently, 

I. 

Thou, 



Mondo koria, 
Balibal, 
Dhire dhire. 



99 



Balohan^n6, 
Ldshi l^hi. 



99 
99 
99 



Jorm&jor. 



99 



He, she, it, that, Oni, 



Pronouns, Personal. 

Mill, Ang; 

Tdi, Nang, 



We, 

Ye, 
They, 



Mine, 

Thine, 

His, her's, its, 

Our^s, 



H&mi, 
T(imi, 
ITni, 



B.', 

Jong (cht!ir), 
Nang chdr, 
Bi chur. 



Possessive Pronouns. 

Mor, Angni, 



T6r, 
Or, 
H&maro, 



Nangni, 

Bini, 

Jongni, 



m. 

Wfi. 
Ky^l. 
Ny6L 
Ubal. 



Kdng. 
Ndng. 
0'k6,Wimg. 
King. 



* Sango^, 2 people, MangD^, 2 animals. 
* For more prepositions we Grammar p. 108. Add thoice Of»To, In, On, 
.^'-_ ^^T P'^ponUoxia will be fonnd under lndec^nab\eft ol^^an^ 



r* " ! ■» ■-*J 



^ 



VOCABULARY. 



79 



English. Koceh. Bodo, DMmdi. 

Tour's, Tumaro, 

Their's, ITnn^r, 

Relative Demonstrative Pronouns, &c. 



Nangshiimi, 
Bichiirni, 



Ning. 
I/balko. 



Self, Ap, 

Own, Apn^r, 

This, Ydhi, 

That, V6hi, 

Who, rel. J^, 

"Who, correL S6i, 
Who ? Kdi, 

What, that which. 
What? 
Any, 

All, 



{ 



Goui ? 

Gouini, 

Bith&ni, 

Imbo, 

Hobo, 

J6, 

Bi? (He, it,) 

Chdr, 



99 



9f 



} 



Ki, 

K&h6, kono. 

Sob, 
K&h6, 

K&ho nahin, 
Kdcch, 



Anybody, \ 

Somebody, J 

Nohody, 

Anything, 

Some thing, 

Whoever, 

Like, 

Like this, such. 

Like that, such, W6m6n, 

Like what 7 K6m6n, 

Other, another, Xr6, 



J6hi, 
S^ M6n, 
£'m6n. 



{ 



Mtingbo ?* 
Boino, 

Chdr, 

Chdr 6ng^ 
Chur g6y&, 
Jishl^, 
Mongbo, 

P^s&, 
RipdsS, 
Un j^dsk, 
Br^ piis^, 
Gdbun, 



Good, Bhalo, 

Bad, Mondo, 

Virtuous, moral, Pdni, Dhormi, 
Vicious, immoral, P&pi, 



Adjectives. 

Gh^, 



Hamma, 

Gh^m, 

Htoma 



Religious, 

Irreligious, 

Penitent, 

Impenitent, 

Modest, 

Impudent, 

Hopeful, 

Hopeless, 

Joyful, happy. 



Dhormi, 
Adhormi, 



99 



» 



Lajdd, 

Niloj, 

Bhor6si, 



} 



{ 



\ 



NiHisi, 
Horkit, 



Sor™^, «n-| ^^, 



Laji ganang, 
Laji yongd, 
B6rsa ganang, 

Borsa g^y^, 

Khds, 

Khds g6y^ 

* Mongbo, to things only. 



{ 



T^ko. 

Jti or Idong. 
l/ti or l/dong. 
J6ti or Jdd6ng. 
S^ti or Kodong. 
H^i or H^hd. 

99 

Hai. 

K^bo. 
Saik6? 
Sogiming. 

Hdshii. 

M& hashd. 
H^hdmanthuka. 

Haidong. 

J^dong kodong. 

Bhaika? 

Ts^a. 

Usika. 

H6saka. 

Bhin&ng. 



Elka. 
M& 6lka. 
Dharmi. 
P^pi. 

99 
99 
99 
99 

Laji hika. 
Laj m^thuka. 
Bh6rsa hika. 
Bhorsa mluithd- 
ka. 
Rhus. 

Khus m^nthuka. 



80 




VOCABULARY. 




English, 




Kocch* 


Bodo, 


DhimdL 


Cunning, 




Phaktia, 


Phakta, 


Phakta. 


Candid, 




Sidha, 


S6dha, 


S6dha. 


Malicious, 




Ghin&ha, 


Mdgwino, 


Chikaka. 


Benevolent, 




Doyasfl, 


Wanjino, 


** 


Enyious, 




Hinsok, 


Moson chanai. 


Hiska. 


Content, 




San tushtit. 


it 


Hiska mdnthuka. 


Proud, vain. 




Diphongi, 


Ddnai, 


Dim phuUa. 


Humble, 




Garfb, 


Thdng jang. 


S6jha. 


Industrious, 




Mahinati, 


Mou chiino. 


Kisri p&ka. 


Idle, 




Alsia, 


Alsia, 


Alsia. 


True, 




Saccha, 


Bobra, 


Bobra. 


False, 




Jhlita, 


Kholai, 


L&ppa. 


Impatient, 


1 








Passionate, 


\ 


R^dh, 


» 


» 


hasty. 


J 








Placid, quiet, 
patient. 


I 


Dhir, 


>4 


19 


Merciful, 




Doyasil, 


Wan gondng. 


99 


Cruel, 




Dusht, 


Wan g^y^. 


99 


Brave, 




Sdhosi, 


Gironga, 


Mala chiika. 


Cowardly, 




D6rtik, 


Gikho, 


Hat^ia. 


Constant, steady, 


Sthir, 


Ghoidiria, 


Gongouda. 


Inconstant, 
Capricious^ 


■ 


Asthir, 


Kholai, 


Sh&t montina. 


Wasteftd, pro- 
fuse. 


1 


Dhiilia, 


Phutiia, 


Kh6i niLsia. 


Niggardly, 




Kirpini, 


Kostia, khale. 


Koshdi. 


Kind, gentle^ 




Sdsil, 


Ghftra, 


Dhilaka. 


Unkind, harsh 


> 


KdsQ, 


Hamma, 


Chdkka. 


Good natured. 




Sdsil, 


Gdroi, gham. 


Elka. 


111 natured. 




Kdsil, 


Hamma, 


Md elka. 
Ddndda. 


Polite, well bred. 


Sisht^ch^ri, 


>> 


»9 


Rude, ill bred, 


1 


Khada, 


>9 


99 


Obedient, 




Maini, 


Giin ganang. 


99 


Disobedient, 




maini. 


Giin g6yd. 


99 


Grateftd, 




>> 


99 


99 


Ungrateful, 




i> 


9> 


99 


Mad, 




Pdgla, 


Phagla, 


Phagla. 


Idiotic, 




Pagla, 


Phagla, 


Phagla. 


Licit, morally. 




Kortobya, 


» 


99 


Illicit, ditto. 




Okortobya, 


» 


99 


Legal, 




» 


>» 


99 


Illegal, 




» 


» 


9» 


Physical or 
material. 


} 


Bhoutika, 


» 


99 


Immaterial, 


m 


Aitmika, 


99 


99 


Precise, 




Thik thik, 


>9 


99 





VOCABULARY. 


S\ 


English. 


Koeeh. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Vague, 


f» 


ft 


9f 


Hungry, 


Bhukil, 


Y6kidong, 


Mhitdka. 


Thirsty, 


Pi6si, 


Doi k^^ong. 


Chi&m lihika. 


Naked, 


N^gta, 


Hi g6y^ 


Dhdha miinthd 


Clothed, 


t9 


Hi gandong. 


Dh&ba giikavel hika. 


Libidinous, 


K6mi, 


Chiiltia, 


Kokhoihika. 


Gluttonous, 


P^tii, 


Jacho^9 


Shopa ch&ka. 


Drunken, 


Sharkbi, 


M6th6], 


Yd &mk&. 


Foul-mouthed, 1 
Abusive, j 


Mdkhch6r, 


Khuga sh&pma, 


Naika. 


Alive, 


J$wat, 


Gothdng, 


Singlhoka. 


Dead, 


M6r&, 


Gothoi, 


Sik&. 


Sick, 


Kiihila, 


Haiya, J6bra, 


M&d6nka. 


Healthy, 


» 


Gakhrting, 


D6nka. 


Asleep, 


Nind^il, 


Mtidd Ungdong 


;, Nindal^kha. 


Awake, 


J6gil, 


Sidi mondong, 


Ch^t^ka. 


Mature, 


mx\(i. 


Jholau, 


Whdntika. 


Young, 


Ch6ng6r, 


Gothoni, Galaini, Chan hika« 


Old, 


Bddha, 


Brai,Blirol 


War&ng. 
. Ber&ng. 


Strong, 


Bali, 


Balo gr&. 


Bal hika. 


Weak, 


Nibali, 


Balo g^ya. 


Bal m^thdka. 


Free, 


>» 


J> 


»> 


Confined, 


>» 


>» 


19 


Handsome, 


Songot, 


M6jdng, 


Elka? 


Ugly. 


Baiya, 


ShdpmS, 


M& elka. 


Short, r human 
Tall, \ beings, 


Bdngri, 


Gah^, 


Bdngra. 


T^ngha, 


Gajou, 


Dhdngfi. 


Fat, 


M6ta, 


Guphdng, 


r Dh^mka. 
\ Ch6pka. 


Thin, 


SdkuR, 


Gaham, 


Mhoika. 


Tired, weary, 


Thakit, 


M^ng choo. 


M§ika. 


Fresh,; utttilf^ 


Athakit, 


M6ugy& gai, 


M& m&ika. 


liame. 


L^ngra, 


Kh6ra, 


K6hra. 


Bhnd, 


K^a, 


K&na, 


K&na. 


Deaf, 


Bahira, 


B^nga, 


Bahira. 


Dumb, 


Gdnga, 


R^6nga, 


Gdnga. 


Alone, 


Ekala, 


H^hing, 


Ekal&ng. 


Companioned, 


Dosor^r, 


Lagol^ 


Dosorhi. 


Learned, 


Gy6ni, 


Gy^ ganang. 


Gy&n hika. 


Ignorant, 


Ogydni, 


Gy&n g6ya, 


Gyan m^thdka* 


Wise, 


Gydni, 


Sydn, 


Gy&n hika. 


Foolish, 


Ogyini, 


Gydn g^y^ 


Gy&n m&nthdka. 


• 

Poor, 


Nidhoni, 


r Houiia,Thaka 

I geya, 

Dhon ganang. 


I Dhon m&nthdka. 
Dhon hika. 


Rich, 


Dhoni, 


Noisy, talkative, 


, G^ngedia, 


Phidua, 


Phidua. 


Silent, 


Obola, 


Rdya, Thindd, 


, Chika pdka. 



M 



82 


VOCABULARY. 




English. 


Koceh, 


Bode. 


DMmdl. 


Dirty, 


Mails, 


Gini, 


r Mirhi. 
\ M&chikan. 


Clean, 


Safa, 


Gdphdr, 


Chikan. 


Married, 


Bih^ta, 


Noha j&bai. 


Mougia. 


Single, j 


Akdm&ri, 
Akw&ri, 


r Jholou (mas.) 
\ Sikala (fcem.) 


1 Dh6nd. 


Highborn, 


Klilin, 


»f 


99 


Lowborn, 


Aktilfn, 


if 


»> 


Dependent, 

Independant, 

Taxed, 


Porbos, 


Malaini, 


Bod^. 


Aponbos, 
Mi%uz&ri, 


Grouini khusi, 
Girini, 


T4ides. 
Girini. 


Exempt, 


M&&fi, 


M^fi, 


MiUifi. 


Designed, 
Acddental, 






if 
a 


Old, 


Pdr^uia, 


Goz&m, 


tt 


New, 


N6ya, 


God&m, 


it 


Present, 


H6jir, 


it 


i} 


Absent, 


Ghair H&)ir, 


>i 


99 


Ready, 


Tfy6r, 


» 


ii 


Unready, 


» 


»» 


tt 


Scarce, rare. 


Thora, 


a 


tt 


Comnion, Vulgar, Bohut, 


a 


ii 


Public, 


» 


a 


ii 


Private, 


>» 


» 


>* 


Prosperous, 


if 


it 


ii 


Unprosperous,' 


99 


it 


it 


Saleable, 


99 


a 


it 


Purchaseabk, 


99 


it 


it 


Valuable, 


Kimati, 


it 


tt 


Worthless, 


Mond, 


tt 


it 


Habitual, usual. 


» 


It 


it 


Unusual, strange, „ 


it 


ii 


Similar, 


Som^n, 


it 


it 


Dissimilar, 


Asomdn, 


Giibiiu, 


Bhindng. 


Same, 


Fkhi, 


tt 


99 


Different, 


Jiida, 


Gubun, 


Bhindng. 


Doubtful, 


Sand6hi, 


it 


99 


Certain, 


Nichoi, 


it 


99 


Deserted, 


Chon, 


tt 


Ditog m&nthiika 


Frequented, 


Besot b^ri. 


a 


Di^g yonka. 


£a^. 
Difficult, 


Sohoj, 


Altda, 


99 


Kosor, 


Gobrilp, 


Kar&kard, 


Changeful, 


Asthir, 


Kholai, 


Lapha. 


Changeless, 


Sthir, 


Bobrai, 


Bobrai. 


Lucky, 


Siibh^ya, 


it 


» 


UnluckYf 
Original, 


Obh^a, 


tt 


99 


Asali, 


99 


99 


Copied, 


Nokoli^ 


it 


tt 





VOCABULARY. 


83 


JSnfflM. 


Koech. 


Bodo. 


Dhimdl. 


Methodical, 


Doul s^. 


Doul ganang, 


Doul HUca. 


Immethodical, 


Andoul se, 


Doul gfya. 


Doul maothdka. 


Fit, suitable. 


Laik, 


Shomaiyo, 


Sha baika. 


Unfit, 


Na l^k, 


Shomaiyi^ 


M&shabaika. 


Orderly, 


S&ri, 


>> 


S^ka. 


Disorderly, 


Osloi, 


Chilai bilai, 


M&s6rika, 


Profitable, 


PhaUt, 


ITdaigo, 


)) 


Unprofitable, 


Ophalit, 


Udaiy6, 


tt 


Possessed tenens, „ 


Akhai ou. 


t* 


Dispossessed, 
ousted. 


} •• 


Akhai ou g^ya 


f tt 

• 


Ornamented, 


Rongil, 


Rong gon^. 


Ronghika. 


Plain, 


S&dha, 


Rong g^ya. 


Rong mtothdka. 


Useful, 


Phalit, 


Hamsin, 


>9 


Useless, 


Ophalit, 


Hamm&sin, 


tt 


Quick moving, 
active. 


1 Ch&l&k, 


Gakhrai mouin, Dhimka chukka. 


Slow moving, 
inert. 


j Gorchi^l&k, 


G6n^ mouin. 


/ M& dhimka. 
\ M&chdkka. 


Cheap, 


Sosta, 


Gh^r, 


L&nkft. 


Dear, 


Mh&nga, 


Mongo, 


J&nki. 


Pure, 


Pabitor, 


a 


Chik&nka. 


Impure, 


Opobitor, 


>» 


Mirhi. 


Wholesome, 


Pochya. 


Gilinai, 


P6ch p&ka. 


Unwholesome, 


N&pochya, 


GiHy^ 


Poch mi pftka. 


Edible, 


Kh&bar, 


Janaini, 


Ch&ka. 


Inedible, 


Nakhibar, 


J&y6ni, 


M& ch&ka. 


Manufactured, 
wrought. 


\ Banail, 


Daanai, 


tt 


Raw goods. 


f» 


it 


tt 


Sharp^ged, 


Ch6kha, 


Crobbo, 


Chtik&. 


Blunt, 


Bhotora, 


Bowa, 


M& chtika. 


Grindedf 


Gdra, 


Gandoi, 


T6dUka. ' 


Woven, 


Baniil, 


Shdnai, 


Joka. 


Spun, 
Platted, 


ft 


Khdnd6ng, 


** 


»» 


H^pnai, 


Pdika. 


Spacious, wide, 
ample. 


\ Posir, 


Gdwir, 


Dhai dhaik. 


Contracted, 


Ato, 


G^tch6p, 


Ato. 


Moving, 


Cholnir, 


Thabaiyo, 


Cholon hika. 


Motionless, 


Sth&var, 


Thabaiyi, 


/ Cholon m&n- ^ 
X thiika. 


Figured, 


Rdpit, 


Rupganang, 


Rup hika. 


Figureless, 


Aurupit, 


Riip geya, 


Rup minthdka. 


Luminous, 


Ujjiila, 


Shr&ngni, 


Phor phora. 


Dark, obscure. 


Andhk&r, 


K6m8hini, 


/ Chfpka. 
\ Kitikitika. 


Opake, 


» 


Nuy^, 


M& D6dka. 



M 2 



84 


VOCABULARY. 




English, 


Kocch, 


Bodo, 


Dhimal. 


PeUucid, 


>> 


Nuy6, 


D6oka. 


Blazing, 


Jolot, 


Jong jong. 


Tiika. 


Extinct, 


Nibhal, 


Komot bai, 


Sh^ka. 


The present time, Bartam&n, 


Jdddong, 


fdong B61a. 


The past. 


Bhdta, 


Japbai, 


J6hu 


The fiiture. 


Bhavish, 


9> 


9$ 


Right, 


Dohina, 


Ndgdd, or Agdd 


, Dam. 


Left, 


Bain, 


Nakchi, 


LM6. 


Central, 


Madhyika, 


G6j6r, 


M^ihika. 


Lateral, 


P&s, 


Jingni, 


Alikd. 


North, 


Uttar, 


Cha, 


D^^n. 


South, 


Dakshin, 


Khld. 


M^^n. 


East, 


Pdrab, 


Sanja, 


Ntinh^n. 


West, 


Poschim, 


Shandp, 


Dinh^n.^ 


Passible, acces- ' 
sible. 


I Podit, 


P&t l^iig&. 


*» 


Impossible, 
Inaccessible, 


r 

I Apodit, 


P&t hdyd, 


» 


Cultivated, 


J6tfiha, 


Hd moud. 


L6ng hika. 


Uncultivated, 


Unjot^a, 


H6gr6ni, 


Dinchaka. 


Fruitfiil, rich. 


Osar, 


Gham, 


Elka. 


Barren, poor. 


At6, 


Hamma, 


Maelka. 


Sandy, 


Bald&, 


Balani Hii, 


)> 


Clayey, 


Chik thdli. 


Chik thdh. 


Tytika. 


Calcarious, 


Chdnaini, 


» 


9* 


Saline, 


Ndnia, 


9> 


M 


Muddy, 


K6chara, 


Habddni, 


KM66ka. 


Dusty, 


Dhdldha, 


Hddrini, 


9» 


Brakish-water, 


N(inia, 


Shapma, 


Mdelka. 


Fresh, 


Mitha, 


Gham, 1 
Majang, / 


Elka. 


Flowing, 


Bohonti, 


Bdyd, 


Phaika. 


Still, 


Dhf, 


Bilu, Dongo, 


Maphaika. 


Deep, 


M6ni, 


Gatho, 


Bhil6. 


Shallow, 


Alpho, 


Thou^ 


K6mka. 


Windy weather, 


Batdsia, 


9> 


*> 


Stormy, 


Andhia, 


>» 


» 


Fine, -fair, 


Accha, 


Majang, Gh&m, 


Elka. 


Cold, 


Thanda, 


Gtishii, 


Tfrk6. 


Hot, 


Gorom, 


Gdd<:im, 


S&dk&. 


9 

Cloudy, 


M6gh^r, 


N6khdni, 


if 


Sunshiny, 


Gh&m^r, 


Sy4n d6ngni, 


99 


Rainy, wet. 


P&ni^r, 


» 


>>' 


Dry, fair, 


B^h, 


N6khah^y4 gaini, 


99 


Moist, full of! 


. Bhija, 


Gichi/^ 


Jhakka. 


vapour. 


«F ' 






Moist, sappy, ' 
green, j 


► Gila, 


Goth^ng, 


Sinka. 





VOCABULARY. 


X 


English. 


Koeeh, 


Bodo. 


Dkimdl. 


Juicy, 


Bas4U, 


Bid^ gonang. 


Ros j^nka. 


Juiceless, dry. 


S«ikh6, 


Bid^ g^yd. 


Ros mtothaka. 


^^*'} clothes. 


r Bhija. 
't S6khd, 


Gichi, 
Gr^n, 


Jhakka. 
Sinka. 


Wooded, T T 
close, 1 , ^ ^"""^^^ 
Naked >^and. 


Hagrd gonang, 
Dhai dhai. 


Dinchahika, 
Dhai dhaika. 


open, J 


w 


» 




Coloured, 


Rongil, 


Rong gontog. 


Ika d^a. 


Colourless^ 


S^^, 


Rong g6y^ 


J^ka. 


R«d, 


L41, 


Gatch^ 


Jika. 


White, 


Dhoula, 


Gdphdt, 


J^ika. 


Blue, 


Nil, 


(T0tch6m, 


Daaka. 


Green, 


Hara, 


Rhtogshnir, 


N%a. 


Black, 


K^a, 


Gotchom, 


iWka. 


YeUow, 


Fila, 


Gi!immo, 


Youka. 


Sour, 


Titd, 


Gakh<% 


mkha. 


Sweet, 


Mitha, 


Gaddi, 


T^ka. 


Bitter, 


KaduTa, 


Gakha, 


Kh&ka. 


Ripe, 


Pakka, 


Gammang, 


Minka. 


Raw, 


r Kachha, 
\ Kancha, 


\ Gathtog, 


Sinka. 


Rotten* 


Sara, 


G^h66, 


Aika. 


Sound, 


Tiija, 


Gh&m, 


Mi aika. 


Stinking, 


Kdgandhi, 


Kh^h ara. 


Ma yokka. 


WeU-odour'd. 


Sdgandhi, 


Madamma, 


Yokka. 


Rough, 


Korkoria, 


G6hr&, 


Kh^r souka. 


Smooth, 


Chikna, 


Chil chil. 


Chikan. 


Hard, 


Ka4a> 


Gdrra, 


Rorkorka. 


Soft, 


Norom, 


Giir6i, 


Norom. 


Straight, 


Sidh^ 


f Gotthong, 
\ Thong jong. 


j Gh^nka. 


Crooked, 


B^k^ 


Kh6nkra, 


K66ka. 


Full, 


Bhorti, 


Tongo, Btinja, 


Bh^lpd. 


Empty, 


Kh&H, 


/ Mtingho g6y4 
I G^yii, 


j M^thuka. 


SoUd, 


)9 


» 


>» 


Hollow, 


>» 


99 


99 


Heavy, 


Bh^ri, 


Gillit or lUit, 


Lhika. 


light. 


Holka, 


R^h^ng, 


H6mka. 


Great, 


Ba4o, 


GM^t, 


Dhilmka. 


SmaU, 


Choto, 


Miid6i, 


Mhoika.^ 


Long, 


Ti&mha, 


Gallon, 


Rhinka. 


Short, 


Choto, 


Gdchum, 


P6t6ka. 


Wide, 


Chowra, Osdrj 


» GMr, 


Pach&rka. 


Narrow, 


Tang, Ato, 
ITccM, 


G6ch6p, 


Chipka. 


High, 


Gajou, 


DMngaka. 


Low, 


NSchi, 


Gah&i, 


B&ngr^. 



85 



86 


VOCABULARY. 






English, 


Koech, 


Bodo. 




Dhimil. 


Round, 


G61, 


Tolotni, 




Gotaka. 


Square, 


Chou konia. 


K6na manbr^ni, 


Di4 thdnika. 


Angular, 


K6nia, 


K6na manch^ni. 


E'long thi'inika. 


Broken, 


Tiit6, 


G6j6, 




Bhoika. 


Intire, 


Samdcha, 


Bimain^, 


{ 


G6thaka. 
Md bhoika. 


Porous, 


>> 


a 




»» 


Imporous, 


» 


if 




>> 


Open, 


Khdl^ 


Kh6wo, 




H^kd. 


Shut, 


Bond, 


J6khl6pmo, 




Gibka. 


Spread, 


Asar, 


Bodong, 




Posdrka. 


Folded, 


Goto, 


Hdttimdong, 




J6ni paka. 


Expanded, 1 










blown, a flow- > 


PhutA, 


Bdrshara, 




Barkd. 


er, J 
Closed, shut, do. 


>» 


Kh6kj6p, 




Ch6pka. 


Tight, 


T6nt4n, 


TijiBitkn, 




T&nt&n. 


Slack, 


Dhila, 


Gurrdn, 




»f 


Loose, unsteady, 


, Larbaria, 


Lddo ludo. 




Leika. 


Fixed, firm, . 


Thir, 


Gakhr^ng, 




Kdrk&rka. 


Cooked, 


R^dha, j^ 
Kancha, ^^ 


Gomon, 




Minka. 


Raw, 


Goth&ng, 




Sinka. 


Hairy, 


Rom^, 


Khomon gon4ng, 


Md'ishd hika. 


Hairless, 


Cholchpl, 


Khomon g^y^ < 


Mtiishd mdnth 
ka. 


Feathered, 


)9 


99 


V. 


99 


Scaly, 


)> 


-»> 




)9 



To do. 

Not to do, 
To undo. 



Verbs. 

}Mouno, 
Khl&mno, 
Khaj&mno, 
Na korinu, Mou& gaino. 



r Konu, 

^ Korib^ 

[^ rinu. 



I P41i. 



M& pdH. 



»> 



>* 



To do o^er again, „ Mou phinno, 

To shape,forni, "I 
make, j " 

To change, ^ ^^^^^ j^^^^^^ | 



form or alter, j 

To be, (Esse) Hobar, 

Not to be, Na h6bar. 

To become, H6bar, 



Dd4no, 

Baino, 
Slaino, 
J&dno, 
Jda gaino. 



flBliiach^toJgg?* 

I 't ,' 

Banaili. 

j Sh66U. 

J^ngli. 

Md j^ngh. 

J^ngli, 
r DhiiU. 
\ L^t^ng wdngli. 



Jdano, 

To create, 1 , Sujibdr, „ „ 

To destroy j ^ ' Nasht korinu, Nasht khUmno, Nasht pdli, 
To be bom, Janam hobftr, Janam j&6iK>, Janam j^n 
/ y Nb^}^6U>from gnff 2, and eA^/, boat, tvnif i664ra^ WSSL 
kore be written Gn6 ;Mto pagsijoa. \ 




tiwre-i 



TOCABrUkftY 



«r 



To gife biitkl 
to, prodaee, j 

To debrer, ac- 1 
ooodiery j 

To nurse, wd. 

To none, dry. 

To live. 

To die. 

To kin. 

To grow. 
To decay, dfciif. 
To be mature^ 
To feel, bebo-1 
dily sengJMr > 

of. J 

To pereeiTe, 1 

mentally, j 

TatUnk. 

To desire. 



f 




Didk 
Jibir, 



Jl't« 



i 5 



V 



} 



kUisHo:Di-S ShditipilL 



To 

To forget. 
To learn. 
To teadi. 
To educate. 
To read. 
To write. 
To sign. 
To sail. 
To sin. 
To err. 
To revenge. 

To forgive. 

To repent. 
To intend, pnr- 1 
pose, J 

To endeavour. 
To persevere, 1 
continue doing, / 

To desist from. 

To enjoy, use. 
To use, bring 1 
into use, j 



diihinn, 

T^ korinu, 
BhniiiHiu 



J Skitn 

{ 
{ 



} 



Shditipili. 
PhonpilL 



%khadiiiii, 

Pitdibarordinu, 

Padbinu, 

L^khinu, 

Doskot korinu, 

Gh^iinu, 

Papkbnu, 

Bhdlinu, 

Bodol tibar. 



Slidti^kba.\ 
jtono. J 

Bouno, 
Chuldogno, 
Phun\6ii^iio, 



nMknpiU. 

Niffi. 

DbirlL 

Dbirptii. 



99 



*» 



{ 



M^k6nu, 
Patch k6nu, 
Mansdba korinu, 
Anthinu, 
Korte rbbar, 

Thdkibar, 
Bhoginu, 
K&mot lag^u, 



Cbalangno ! 
Litno, 

Doskot litno, 
Chapthuno, 
P^ khaj^mno, 
Bauno, 

Bodol sopbinno, 
DoyakbUmno, 1 
Nagamo, j 

Jing4 sino, 

Gasbo r^ikbina ? 

J^ingi khapr&no, 

Mouin tb&no. 



N^mo, 



{ 



}> 



a 



Pdrbfi. 

I^kblL 

Cbip pili. 

Cb^pfnli. 

P&pp6li. 

Bbul^. 

Bodol p6]i. 

Doyapfili. 

Patcb taili. 

Mansuba p6li. 

K^kni t^pli. 

P&kat^ng bili. 

Ldp pall. 
Upli. 

f> 



88 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



English. 

To disuse, lay by. 
To know, uii- 1 
derstand, j 
To be ignorant 1 
of, not under- > 
stand, J 

To cause to 
know, to ex 
plain, 
To believe. 
To disbelieve. 
To doubt, he- 
sitate, 
To be sure. 
To make up 
mind, deter 
mine, 
To resemble. 
To differ. 
To compare, 
To cajole, whee- 1 
die. / 

To please, 

To displease. 

To esteem. 
To despise. 
To decry, run 1 

down, J 

To deceive, 

mislead. 
To persuade. 

To dissuade. 

To attend to, 

heed. 
To neglect, 
To confirm. 
To annul. 
To allow, permit. 
To disallow, 

prevent, 
To forbid, in- i 

terdict, j 

To succeed. 
To be able, 
To fall, 
Not to be able, 



Kocch, 
Chorinu, riikhinu, 

Biijhinu, 



Bodo. 
Danno, 

Mithino, 



Dhim^l, 
L&p pili. 

G^li. 



Na bdjhinu, Mithi gaino, M^ g^li. 



)» 



I 



} 



Pati^u, 
Na patiana. 

Son d^hi konu, < 

Nichoij&nibar, 

Taharounu, 

Som^n hob^, 
Osom^n h6bar, 
Milaibdr, 

Bhdr k&nu, 

Khds korinu, 

Nakhdskorinu < 

Bodo m&ninu, 
Ch6to m^inu, 

Badnam k6nu, 

Bhula konu, 

Man&nu, 

Bada dinu, 1 

B&ran korinu, J 

M&ninu, 

N& maninu, 
S^bit koribar, 
Rod koribar, 
Hobar dibar, 

Nd hob&r dibar, 

Bada dinu, 

Parinu, 
Sakinu, 
N4 p&rinu, 
N^ sakinu. 



Mithiya hotno ? G^li p^li. 

Gh&m mithinu, S&pli. 
Hammd mithinu, M& sdpli. 
Ganogoto 1 Dommo kommo 
khl&mno, j p^i. 



a 



>> 



>> 



a 



Som^n jddno, 

D&som^j^o, 

Riijdno, 

Bdr klaino, 

Khdsi khUmno, 
Khiisi khiam- 1 
ma gaino, j 
Mdni chiino, 
Many^ g&ino. 



Som&n j^ngli. 
Ma soman jenglL 
Jora ch& p&li. 

B&ng p^. 

Khds p&li. 

M^khus p&li. 

M& man^li. 



») 



>» 



Bouhotno, 
Rodongno, 
Bdda hotno, 

M&nino, 

Mdnyd gaino, 
Kotha T&khinu, 
Rod khaj^mno, 

9> 



NUli p&li. 



>» 



B4d& pil. 

M&n^li. 

M& m^^Ii. 
S^bit p&U. 
R6dp^. 



B&da hotno, B&da pili. 

B&da hotno, B&da pili. 

Hadn6, D^h&no, D6&ngli. 
Hdano, Ddtogli. 

Haagaino, Jenno, M& d66ngli. 
U^&yaino, „ 



VOCABULARY. 



89 



English, 

To wonder at. 
To approye. 



Kocch, Bodo. DkiwM. 

Ankhi mimino, RhiidUi. 
Phosin khkunno, Posin pali. 

To disapprove, Nd posin konn, < ^vaF ^^° \ ^'^ poMn p&li. 



Acharaj m&ninu, 
Posin konu. 



} 



^•} 



To applaud, 

commend, 

praise. 
To censure, 1 

blame, J 

To hiss, loudly 1 

decry, j 

To cheer, loud" 'i 

ly applaud, j 
To cheer, com- 
fort, cherish 

protect. 
To n^ect, 1 

abandon, J 
To encourage. 
To discourage. 
To abuse, revile. 
To frighten. 

To be afraid, < 

To tranquillize. 
To be tranquil. 
To brawl. 
To brag, boast, 
To condole with. 
To annoy, vex, 

teaze, irritate. 
To love, feer 

affection. 
To hate, 

malice. 
To hope. 
To fear. 
To tell a lie. 
To tell the truth. 
To rejoice, n. 
To grieve, n. 
To satisfy, a. 
To disappoint, a. 
To command 1 

order, j 

To counter- -i 

mand, j 

To obey. 



Nigou korinu, 

Ninda konu, 
Chichi bolibar, 
Shabdshi korinu. 



P6shinu, 



9t 



>> 



• » 



»> 



Posin p4]i. 
M& posin p&li. 



>» 



t$ 



Posh khUmno, Piish p^i. 



Nag^uno, 

Bhorsa hotno, 
Gi hotno, 
Raich^o, 



Giy6no ? 



feell 



Tyig korinn, 

Sahos dibar, 
ITd^ koribar, 
G^Udibdr, 
D6r khil^bar. 
Dor khilibar or \ 
kh^OMur, / 

S^t korinu, 
S^t hobar, 
Jhogra korinu, 
Badhai korinu, 
Thitib dinu, 

P^ikh dinu, Ddkh hotno, Diikh pili. 

M5ya konu, Wdnch6no, Doya pdli. 



$9 



99 



N&ng jalainu, 
D^ri Uno, 



M& poth p&U. 
Bhorsa pili. 

NaiU. 
L^hili. 

L^hi p&li, 

>r 
>> 

Naishdli. 
Gophi dopli. 
Th&tib pili. 



M6^o, 

Gironga j&dno, 
Gichino, 
Santha laino, 
Th6ngj6ng raino, 
Khusi j^no. 



Chika p&li. 

Bhors& n^nli. 
L&chili. 
Mitcha d6pli. 



Ghin konu, 

Bh6rsa konu, 
Hatds kh&b&r, 
Jhdt bolinu, 
Sacch bolinu, 

99 
99 
99 
» 

Hukam dinu, Hdkam hotno, Hukam pili. 



Rhiisi j^ngli. 



)> 



9» 



>> 



9> 



J* 



»9 



B^da dinu, 
Hukam m&ninu, 

N 



Bdda hotno, B^a pili. 

Hiikam manino, Hukam m&n^li. 



90 



VOCABULARY. 



English, 



{ 



To disobey, 

To question. 

To answer. 

To assent. 

To dissent, 

To affinn. 

To deny. 

To speak, talk, 1 
say, J 

To repeat, say 1 
again, j 

To announce, 1 
tell, inform, ? 

To summon, caU, 

To call out, 
shout, 

To accost, sa* 
lute. 

To invite. 

To visit. 

To entertain 1 
guests, / 

To request, so- 1 
licit, J 

To beg, alms. 

To refuse. 

To ask, inter- 
rogate, 
quire. 

To offer, ten- 
der. 

To accept. 

To reject. 

To help. 

To hinder. 



Kocch, 

Hukam n& m^ 1 
ninu, J 

Pdchinn, 
Jowdp dinu, 
Kabdl konu, 
N6 kabdl konu. 



Bodo. 
Hdkam m6nya J 



99 



i 



Bolinu, 

Dob&ra bolinu, 

Kbopor dinu, 

D&kibar, 

Gondogol konu, 

Saheb salamati 
konu, J 

Nyota korinu. 



ff 



tf 



tei-l 

"I 



} 



Binti konu, 

Bhik mdnginu, 
Nd dibar, 

Jdchinu, 

Bhiirkib6r, 

Lib&r, 
Nd lib&r, 
Modod dib&r, 

Horoj dibif , 



gamo, 
Songno, 
R^ douno, 
Ongo raino, 
Ongk raino, 
Ongo raino, 
Ong& raino, 

Raino, 
Rai phinno^ 

9$ 

Ling h6tno, 
H6chino, 

Khiilumno, 

99 
99 

Binti khl&mno, 

D&n bino, 
Dd hotno, 

Songno, 

Hotno, 

L^no, 
IHl Mno, 
Ch^mph^o, 

H6mtano, 



1 



DhimAL 

Hukam m& m^ 
n^li. 
Him. 
Dopli. 
Man^li. 
Md man^li. 



>» 



)9 



{ 



D6pli. 
S^chota^pli. 



99 



Kaili. 
Rhi kaili. 

D6mli. 

19 



*» 



{ 



Binti p^li. 

D&n rh^li. 
M& pili. 

Hilli. 



Pili. 

RhdU. 
M& rhlili. 

T6nk6li." 
Rh6U. 



To advise s^vc 1 
ad *ce J ^*^ *^^ Sanja laino, Sal^h pili. 

To consult, ask 1 
advice, j 

To quarrel, 
To be reconciled. 
To curse. 



To bless. 

To forswear, 
renounce. 



} 



Sal^ m&nginu, 

Jhogra konu, 
Milinu, 
Srdp dinu, 

Asirb^ dinu, < 

Kirya kh^ ch&ri 
dinu. 



Nilng jalaino, 
B^ng jalaino, 
Sr^p hotno, 
Th^ng baita f 

raino, \ 

Shomai lin&ne 

n&gtoio, 



Sakih rh6U. 

Nai shdli. 
L6ili. 
Srdp pili. 
Sine teuff. 

ms 

Kirya ch&teng 1^ 
pili. 



YOCABTIABT. 



91 



Emgliik. 
To take oath, Kiirm 



} 



} 



To give oath. 
To swear &]»-/ 

ly. I 

To preseire. 
To destroy. 
To hurt bcii^s^ 
To injure, de- 
.teriorate 

goods. 
To benefit. 
To wrou^ 
To converse, 
To be silent. 
To silence, 
To make a 

Dois^ 
To laugh. 
To smile. 
To weep. 
To moan. 
To sob. 
To squint. 
To sneexe. 
To cough. 
To swallow. 
To belch. 
To fart. 
To spit. 
To chew, 
To bite. 
To kiss, give. 
To kiss, take. 

To copulate. 

To cause to 
impregnate or 
cover, give 
male. 

To conceive in I 
womb, J 

To digest in 
stomach. 

To lick^ 

To suck. 

To see. 




KirTakhai ■ ., 
Jb^koTm kki- 
bar. 

Noahl 
Choi dim, 

Kharib kooo, 

Bbalo fcooB, 
Biirakoiiii, 
B<^inii, 
Chup 
Chup 
Goodogol ko-1 
rinn, / 

Hishra, 
Mifiski hasuM, 
Bdoi, 






Baino, 
SritfaaBO^ 
SrithihotM, 
Goodogol klia- 1 

jaOKDO, J 

Minino, 
Minialuno, 

Gl^HMi, 



f> 



»» 



>» 



9» 



T^ra d^khinu, 
Chikino, 
Khiunnn, 
Ghdtinn, 
Dhikar konu, 
PMkorinn, 
Thuk phahnu, 
Chobibar, 
Kitibar, 
Chiima dibar, 
Chdma tibar, 
Choda chodi 1 
korinu, J 



Khonki naino, 

Hichuno, 

Giijiino, 

Mdongno, 

Gotno, 

Kiphaino, 

Mujuno, 

Chouno, 



>» 



Kondom hotno, 
Koudom lino, 

Khoino, 



ElkapalL 

Madkapah. 

Dopfi. 

ChikalL 

Chikapah, 

Goodogol F&h. 

Atcisalen^ 
Khirli. 

t» 

>t 
Keoki khaugli. 
Hadiuli. 
Shuh. 
NiU. 

Dikii61eU. 
Lipaih. 

Thopchi chibli. 
ChobaUi. 

if 
Chiima pili. 

Chuma rhuli. 
Liih. 



} 
} 



Jhig dibar, Gun&ng hotno, D&nkha tapipuli. 



Gau bhiri hobar, Bisha phulinu. Homing dhimli. 



P6ch p&li. 

Chuiili. 

Kh&ngli. 

D61i. 



Hojom konu. 


Gilinu, 


Chatinu, 
Chusinu, 


Chalduo, 
Chupno, 


D^khibar, 


Naino, 



{ 



N 2 



92 

Enfflisli. 
To hear, 
Totaate, 
To smell, 
To touch. 
To piss, 
To shit. 
To eat. 
To drittk, 
"To cook. 
To sleep. 
To wake, self, 
To wake another. 
To dream. 
To breathe. 
To sweat. 
To palpitate, 1 

tremble, J 

To make easy, \ 

fadlitate, j 
To make diffi- \ 

cult, / 

To risk, put iu i 

hazard, J 

To escape, 
To save, deliver. 
To stay with, 1 

abide by, J 
To desert, , 

abandon,leaTe, t 
To change, be i 

mutable, \ 

To make, i 

change, alter. 
To meet, ftll 

in with, 
To part, go -. 

apart, f 

Tocome together, 
Tobring together. 

To separate, 1 
segregate, j 

Tocrowd,make 1 
crowd, j 

To contriTe, 1 
devise, j 



VOCABULARY. 



Siiaibar, 
Gh&kibar, 



Chiibir, 
Matibar, 
H&gibar, 
Kh&bar, 
Rb&r, 

IbSiidhdn konu, 
Slitibar, 
Jfigibar, 
Jfigt^ konu, 
Sopon d^khib&r, 
S&ns libar, 
Jh6shibar, 

K&mpibar, 
Sohoj korinu, 
Kosor korinu. 



Bodo. Dkimdt 

Khan&no, U^nli. 

Chfildno, Chtikhili. 

Srdk b6no, 1 xii .i- 
ManSmchdno,;'^'"^'- 
D&Dgno:Ch6t-| y^j. 



H^hdno, 
Kh!no, 
Jiao, 
Lfingno, 

Mfiduno, 
Sidt manno, 
Phajino, 
Sim&ng naino, 
H6nglt>no, 
Galamuo, 



ChichbU. 
Lishili. 
Obgli. 
Amli. 

Jimli. 
Ch^tjimli. 
Lb6pl>ti. 
Sopbn d<ili. 
irkSs rhiili. 
Bh^mli. 



Modom mouno, Phirli. 
G^u^d kbaj&mno, H61 p&li. 
Goprap khUmno, K&r&k&ri p&li. 



Buchinu, 
Rakbya korinu, 
DoBOT robar, 
Ty&g korinu, 
Asthir bobar, 
Bodol korinu. 



JCida g^nd, { 
Song fisinu. 

Song li fisinu, -{ 

i&dA korinu, \ 

Bhir korinu, i 

Ji'igli korinu, | 



Lagoch^thfino, \ 

N&giTDO, 

Sl&mo? 
Sltii jalaiuo, 
Lagomanna, 

Glibiln gAblinr 

thaugno. \ 

Lagocbt' pboino, 
Mlslaino, -i 

Lagoch^ danno ] 
OSMn gibuiil 

khlftmno, J 
Mdnushi phd-l 

tumno, J 

Buddhikhl&m-I 



B&n chili. 
Bfinch& pili. 
Et^n^ghili. 

Bhinfing hadeli. 
SbMi. 
Sh66 pfili. 

BhinfiDg had^li. 
D<is&Uli. 

Misolaili. 

BhiniiDg p&li. 
Di&i^ sholi. 
Buddhi p&Ii, 



VOCABULARY. 



93 



imi 




English. 

To compel, con- 1 
strain^ oblige, j 

To leaye, option. 

To choose, take' 
option. 

To choose, se- 
lect. 

To copy 
tate, pattern 

To imitate, 1 

take off, mock, j 

To share out,i 
distribute in > 
shares, J 

To produce. 

To consume. 

To gain. 

To loose. 

To work, labour. 

To pUy, amuse 1 
ones-self, J 

Tores^ 

To be tired. 

To tire, another, 

To adorn, 

To disfigure. 

To dress, self. 

To dress, another. 
To undress, self. 
To undress, an- 1 
other, J 

To guide, direct, 
To misguide, 

To lead. 

To follow. 

To clasp, em-l 

brace, j 

To baptise, name, 
To wean, 
To marry. 
To divorce. 
To bury. 
To bum, corpse, 
To mourn, for t 

dead, j 



Kocch, 



Bodo, 



DhimA/, 



}> 



tt 



>* 



99 
99 



»» 



}) 



)> 



Chun koribar, Sai khono. 



Saltcng chumli. 



Nokol korinu, Nokol khl&mno, Nokol p^i. 



i> 



9* 



» 



B&ntinu, 

Kamai konu, 
Khoroch korinu, 
N&fa kh&bar, 
Noks^ kh&bar, 
Kismot konu, 

Kh^linu, 



Raano, 

1/ptan khldmuo, 
Htoi khUmno, 



>» 



i» 



Habba m6uno, 



B^uta p&li. 

Kamai pali. 
Bai p^. 
N^a ch^i. 
Naksdn cli^. 
L^ng kdmU ? 



» 



Th&kinu, 
Thfika korinu, 
Songot korinu, 

B^riip korinu, < 
Kapra pinibar, < 



>> 



>9 



l> 



f> 



» 



)* 



)> 



» 



10, 

I 



9f 



Kapra ph^dinu, 



» 



99 



99 



A got g6nu, I 

Pacho isinu, 

K61 korinu, 

N^m r&khib^r. 
An khilibir, 
Bibah korinu, 

M^ti dib^r, 
Phun kinu. 



Maj&ng khl&mno, 
Sh'&pma kha- 
j&mno. 
Hi g&nno, 
Hi gdmno, J 
Hi g^ hotno, 
Hi khiin6. 

Hi khti hotno, 

lAmk dinthino, 

Sigouno, \ 

Sigang l&nguo, / 
Ydno phoino, 

6ob&no, 

Mung d6n6, 
Abu n^igdr hotno, 
Habba khl&mno, 
Hiujou Tkkgkmo, 
Phopno, 
Shouno, 



Elka p^. 
M& elka p^. 

Dh&ba gupli. 

Dh&ba gCip pali. 
Dh^ba chibU. 

Dhdba chip p^li. 

D&ma dop pili. 
D£md awaih. 

Lamp&ng had^li. 

Nhd choleli. 

B^H. 

Ming t^i. 
Dddii Upp&li. 
B^h^ chum&U. 
B^wal-dd-piU. 
Libli. 
Di'iidi. 



99 



» 



94 



VOCABULARY. 



de-l 



English, 

To inherit. 
To acquire. 
To serve meni- 

ally, 

To cheat, 
fraud, 

To steal. 

To rob. 

To murder, 

To beat. 

To maim. 

To commit rape. 

To commit 1 
adultery, J 

To promise, 1 
give and tdce > 
promise, J 

To impigno- 
rate. 

To redeem, 1 
pledge, J 

To complain, 

tax with wrong 
doing. 

To sue, legally. 

To prosecute, do. 

To examine, 1 
try legally, / 
To prove, esta- 1 
blishjudicially, / 
To decide, de-1 

cree, do. j 
To sentence, 

condemn. 
To fine. 
To punish. 
To hang (per 

collum), 
To imprison. 
To give physic. 
To take physic, 
To bleed, let 

blood. 
To pay taxes. 
To levy taxes. 
To let. 
To hire. 
To appraise. 



Kocch. 

Wdrsi bhag lib^r, 
Kamainu, 

Ch&kori korinu, 

Thaginu, 

Chdri korinu, 
Ddkd m&rinu, 
Khdn korinu, 
Pitinu, 
Gh^ konu, 



Bodo. 



Dhimdl. 






» 



>t 



Chal^no? 

Sikhou khouno, 
Liithino, 
Shithatno, 
Shuno, 

a 
ft 



} 
} 

} 



Koral korinu, "^ Kor^ Idno & 1 
dib&r & lib^, / hotno, j 

Bandhak ra- \ -n j i r. * 
khinu, ) ^""^"^ ^°*°«' 

,, Bandaklabono 



■{ 



Ndlish korinu, 



9f 



it 



} 
} 



} 



Tajvij konu, 
Sdbit konu, 
Hdkam dib^r, 

Donr libdr, 
Sdsti dib^, 

Phdnsi dib^, 

Kaid korinu, 
Oshod dibdr, 
Oshod Ub&r, 

Phust libar, 

Khajana dibdr, 
Khajana lib&r, 
Bh^ra libdr, 
Bhdra dibdr, 
BhoU konu, 



it 
tt 



tt 
tt 

tt 



Donr Mno, 
Sasti hotno. 



tt 



It 



Miili hotno, 
Muli l^no. 



tt 



Khajana hotno, 
Khajana lano, 
Bib^n lano, 
Bibdn hotno, 
Bhou khlamno, 



Ch6l6H. 

Chiiri pali. 
Ddka p&ii. 
Khdn p&li. 
Ddnghaili. 

tt 

tt 

tt 

Koril pili & rhii- 
H. 

Bdndd pili. 

Bdnda. 
Ul&ngp^. 

tt 

tt 
tt 

tt 
tt 
tt 

tt 

Donr rhiili. 
Sdsti pili. 

tt 

tt 
Oshor am p^li. 

Oshor amli. 

tt 

Khajana pili. 
Khajana rhuli. 
Bhara rhuli. 
Bhara pili. 



VOCABULARY. 



95 



To cost. 

To buy, 

Tosdt 

To exchange, 1 

barter, j 

To calculate, 1 

reckon, / 

To lend, money. 
To borrow. 
To owe. 
To pay. 
To giTe credit. 
To weigh. 
To measure. 
To build house, 
To quarry stone. 
To make bricks. 
To engrave on 1 
stone or metal, j 
To fuse, makel 

melt, J 

To melt, self. 
To mould, cast. 
To manufacture. 
To dye. 
To grind (com, 1 

&c.) / 

To give edge. 

To blunt edge. 
To mine. 
To smelt. 
To refine. 



Koeeh. 

Molinu, 
Kinibar, 
B^hibar, 

Bodol konu, 

Gronti korinu, 

Dh&r dinu, 
Dh&r linu, 

»» 
Chiikti korinu. 



f» 



Toulinu, 
N^pinu, 



»» 



>» 



Tnt p^oinu, 



>* 



»» 



Galinu, 



f» 



Banaib&r, 
Rong dibfir, 

Pisinu, 

Bar dinu, 

i* 
it 
>> 

91 



{ 



Chikon konu, I 
Chikon konu. 



To polish. 

To glaze, varnish, 

To hammer. 

To saw, 

To sew, stitch, SOai konu, 

To mend clothes. 

To make clothes. 

To weave. 

To spin. 
To knit. 
To tan leather. 
To express 
sugar or oil, 



*> 



>> 






Slit k&tiuu, 



{ 



Bodo, 

Bhau j^Uuao, 

Baino, 

Phanno, 

Slaino, 

Shy&nno, 

Bin&ne hotno, 
Bin^e l&no, 



»> 



»t 



*f 



Chiino, 
Chiino, 
Nc3d lilno, 
Onthaijoukhono, 
Ithd d&lino, 



»t 



Gili hotno, 
Gilino, 



» 



{ 



{ 



99 



} 



Sichibar, 
P^rinu, 



Ddano, 
Rong hotno, 

Yunno, 

Bar hotno, 
Yu nno, 
Hutromno, 

99 
99 
99 

Gochong kha- 
j&mno, 

Dun6, 

Chin khouno, 

Shdno, 

99 
99 

Hi daano : 1 
DMno, J 

Khiindiing luno, 
J^kh&no, 
Chungno, 

Pher^tno, 



Dkimtii. 

IMm j^ngli. 

ChiSoU. 

PiUi. 

Sholi. 

Gan hili. 

Dh^r pili. 
Dh&r rhiili. 

99 

Dh&t sujili. 

D6ugli. " 
D6ngli. 
S& d&mli. 

i> 
)> 

9> 

Gili puli. 
Gil^li. 

Thirli. " 
Rong pili. 

Mhaili. 

B&r pili. 
Laili. 
Bhoi p&li. 

»9 
99 
99 

Rhiwa p^li. 
Maiijili. 



T66li. 

Ch^li. 

J661i. 



99 



99 



9> 



Thirli. 

Kat^li. 
Piiili. 



P^reli. 



99 



96 



VOCABULARY. 



f* 



»> 



Rondhon konu. 



» 



>* 



» 



»* 



)> 



t> 



it 



Cliapibar, 



English . Kocch . 

To shave, Mdndiuu, 

To bathe, Sn^n kouu, 

To wash clothes. 
To dry clothes, 
To cook, 

To roast, 

To boil, 

To fry or grill, 

To bake. 

To brew, 

To distill. 

To turn with 1 

lathe, / 

To print cloth, 
To make rope, 
To bleach, 
To make has- 1 

ketry, / 

To paint, 
To sing, 
To play music, 
To sculpture, 
To cement, glue, Satinu, 
To paste, L^pibdr, 

To plaster walls, Lepib^r, 
To breed, cattle, , 

To fatten, ditto. 

To feed, simply. 
To slaughter. 
To flay. 
To shear. 
To milk. 
To chum. 



Bodo, 

Chimno, 
Dilgwino, 
Chtin6, 
Lamno, 



Dhimdi, 

K&mli. 
Ch^uH. 
Ph6U. 
Sh6nh. 



{ 



99 



Y6phrdnno, 
Youno, 
Chongno, 
Hdngno, 



} 



>» 



H61i. 

Khinli. 
H6U. 



t7 



99 



Ch6ngno, 



Yij gaili. 



ChounoJousouno Chiiaili. 



)> 



>* 



>f 



9» 



>.• 



Ch6n6, " 



Bataili. 



99 



)l 



>» 



Ronginu, 
Gdinu, 
Bajd konu. 



H^pn6, 

Rong hotno, 

Roj&pno, 

Damno, 



Gothaili. 

Gabaili. 

L^li. 

B66li. 



>» 



99 



Chitapno, 
L6i hotno, 
Litno, 



L^i pili. 
\A pili. 



99 
99 



{ 



Galai gophatno, P6sh hili. 



Guphtjng 
khldmno, 
Jdhotno, 
Danthatno, 
Bigur khdno, 
H^ch6 gdrno, 
Dudu chorotno. 



To cultivate, 1 
agriculturally, j 
To dig. 
To plough. 
To harrow, 
To manure, 
To sow. 
To reap, 
To transplant, 
To weed. 
To irrigate. 
To desiccate. 



Kh^ti konu, 
Khan dibar. 



{ 



99 



j Dhimp&li. 

Ch& p&li. 
P^K. 

Dhdl6 lh61i. 
Ch^ hOi. 
Ddd6 ch6pli. 
M6h6li. 



Shy&m d^no,* 

Hti mouno, 

Jouno, 
J6tibar, chdsinu, Humouno, 
H6ngd kona, Moi hotno, 
Sar dibdr, Sdr hotno, 

Chitibdr, Phtino, Gdino, 

Katibar, Hdno, 

R6pibar, Gaino ? 

Chikan ph^linu, Ch^khd d&ngno, Chalai upli. 
Sichinu, Doi hotno, Chi pili. 

„ Do'i sh^tno, Shdp pili. 



V Ling p^. 
T661i. 

9f 

Moi pili. 
S&r pili. 
Dfilli. 
Ch^^li. 
ThmU. 



To rut down the forest, a process equivalent amon; this people to cvHivation. 



VOCABULARY, 



97 



To thrash. 
To winnow^ 
To stack. 
To genninate 1 

or sprout, j 
To grow. 
To flower. 
To fruit. 
To ripen. 
To rot. 

To blow, as wind. 
To blow, apply 1 

breath, j 



Kocck, 

Pftinu, 
Sdp korinu. 
Kalian konu, 

Phutinu, 

Bodhinu, 

Phdlinu, 

Phalinu, 

P^kinu, 

Sadinu, 

Bohinu, 

Phukinu, 



Bodo. 



Dhimdl. 



»» 



To shine, as sun,. Chamkinu, / 

B6rsibdr, 
Gargib&r, 



■} 



} 



To rain. 
To thunder. 
To lighten, 

flash,as light 

ning. 
To hail. 
To snow. 
To freeze, con- -[ 

geal, / 

To thaw. 
To bum, self. 
To bum, another. 
To glow, be of 

a glow. 
To make glow. 
To light, can- 1 

die or fire, j 
To extinguish, 
To illumine, al 

room, J 

To darken, do. 

To flow, water. 
To make flow, \ 

let off, J 

To come, 
Togo, 
To remain, 
To return. 
To approach. 
To retire, go 1 

off, / 

To journey, - 



ShibnOy 
Hiingno, 

Roj6n6, 

Grajo j4^o, 

B&rno, 

Thaino, 

Monno, 

Ch66no, 

Bohino, 

Chdno, 

Gongno, 
Modmno, 
N6khd h&no, 
Khoromno, 



»$ 



{ 



Om y&pli. 
J6m p^ 

Y61i. 

H^li. 

B&rli. 

Shdli. 

Minli. 

Aili. 

B&hiii. 

Mhtili. 

Rhiw&li. 
Chilkali. 
WaU^li. 
Ddm. 



Chomkon korinu, Mdphl&mno, Rhiw^i. 



Pdthar porinu, 
H^m podinu, 

Jomibdr, 

Gilib&r, 
J6tinu, 



99 



Ddhakinu, 
Dab konu, 
Jolot konu, 
Nibhil konu, 
LTjjdla konu, 

Andh^r konu, \ 
Bohinu, 



{ 
{ 



9» 



Asibar, 
Jdbdr, 
Robdr, 
Ghiiribar, 
Logod dsinu, 

Dur^ jdb&r, 

Jatra konu. 



{ 



Korthai gtikl^no, 
H^m galaino, 

IMkh^dno, 

Gilino, 
Wdt jdngno, 
Sou gdrno, 

Wdt jong bal6no, 

Wdt chublouno, 
Jung hot no, 1 
Lagaino, j 

Khdmatno, 
Shr4ng kha-l 

jdmno, J 

Khdmshi 

khldmno, 
Bohi Idngno, 

Bohi hotno, 

Phoino, 
Thdngno, 
Thdno, 
Phoi phinno, 
Khatiou phoino, 
Gatchdn th^g-1 
no, J 

Jatra khlamno, 



9> 



} 



H^m longli. 

J6mli. 

G61^U. 
Tili. 
Ti p6li. 

Lh61i. 

Lho pali. 

Tfi pdli. 

Nibhaili. 

Phara p&li. 

Ddp p&li. 

BahiU. 

Bahi p&li. 

Leli. 

Had^li. 

Hili. 

Gurai hili ? 

Chdngsho hadeli. 

Bhin6ng had^U. 

Jdtra pali. 



98 



VOCABULARY. 



} 



English. 

To arrive, 
To depart. 
To enter. 
To go out. 
To make haste, 

To delay. 

To walk, as 

quadruped or 

man. 
To fly, as bird. 
To creep as in- 1 

sect, J 

To pace or t 

stride as man, / 
To run. 
To run away, 1 

flee, J 

To gallop, horse> 
To trot, do. 
To leap. 
To hop, skip. 
To kick. 
To scratch, 
To sting, as bee. 
To strike with 

hand, 
To strike, beat, 

with stick. 

To cut. 

To thrust or 1 

push, J 

To pull. 

To catch, as 1 

thrown, J 

To throw, I 

To throw away. 
To pinch. 
To swim. 
To drown, sink, \ 

self. 
To make sink ' 

or drown, 
To stand. 



Kocch, 

Pohdnchino, 
Chalia g^nti, 
Bhitor son&inu, 
Bdbir nikalnu, 
Jold konu, 

Bilombh konu, -j 

B^rdnu, 

Uribdr, 
R^ngind, 

Kodom konu, 

Dourinu, 

Bhdginu, 

Tirpanu'; 
Kddinu, 
Ldt marinu, 
Achdrdno, 
Binnu, 

Marinu, 



} 



Mdrinu, 

K&tinu, 

Dh^k^u, 

T^nu, 

Dhorinu, 

Phenkinu, 

Ddlinu, 

Aphdlinu, 

N6chinu, 

Porinu, 

Ddbinu, 
Thdru honu. 



Bodo. 

Srikhino, Chono, 
Thdngno, 
Sing hopno, 
Bahir thdngno, 
Gakri kbldmno, 
L^shi Ushi 
khldmno, 

Th&baino, 

Birno, 
M&n baino, 

Thabaino, 
Khotno, 
Khat Idngno, 



Dhimdl. 

L^U. 
Had^U. 
Lipta wdngli. 
Bdhir ol^U. 
Dhim pali. 

Bilomb p^i. 

HigilU. 

BhirU. 
Sursdraili. 

Higilli. 
Dhdpli. 
Khdtli. 



»> 



>» 



»9 



» 



Bdtno, 

Bajalono, 

J6n6, 

Khdrchinu, 

Jdydno, 

Shuno, 



T6nli. 
Hid gili. 
\Ai hili. 
Khdli. 
Chdli. 

Ddng haili. 



{ 
{ 



Shdno, Ddng haili. 

D&no, H&no, 

Phono,* 

Ndgdr^tno, 

Chojaretno, 

B6n6, Tto pdli. 

Chap khdngno, Bimli. 



\ P4 pili. 
\ Dh^ kaili. 



} 



Gir hotno. 

Gar hotno ? 

Kh^pno, 

Santr^no, 

Hapno, 

Hap hotno, 
Gochongno, 



Jhdt^li. 

Chipli. 
Chim thaili. 
Ndfli. 

Ddbili. 

Ddbi pdU. 
Jdpli. 



* Phono to f«ll timbtir : H4no to cut culinarily : D4no to cut generally. 



VOCABULARY. 



99 



English, 

To faU, 

To make standi 
To make fall or 1 
throw down, / 
To sit down. 
To get up. 
To lie down. 

To take up. 

To set down. 
To put, place, "I 

set in place, J 
To fetch, bring, 
To take away, 
To carry, bear, 
To convey away, 1 

transport, j 
To mount, ve- Y 

hide, J 

To alight from. 
To chmb, go' 

up tree or hill. 
To descend, 

come down. 
To stay, stop, 

detain, a. 
To let go, 

suffer to de- 
part, a. 
To stop, stay, 

be staid, 

self, n. 
To hinder, im-T 

pede, prevent, K 

obs.truct, a. J 
To put a stop -| 

to, a. J 

To set a going, a 
To begin, have V 

beginning, | 
To commence 

make begi 

niug, 
To end, have 1 

end, J 

To finish, per-1 

feet, complete, > 

make end of, J 



Kocch, 

Porib^r, 
Thdr konu, 

Th^Ua phal^nu, 

Bosinu, 
Uthinu, 
Ausinu, 

Uthaibdr, 

Bikhibar, 

R^hibar, 

L^dsibdr, 

L^jdbar, 

B6kib&r, 

B6kl^jdbdr, 

Chorinu, 

Utarinu, 

Cborinu, 

I/tarinu, 1 

L&mbibar, j 
At kaibarchen- 
kinu. 



{ 
{ 



Bodo. 

Gataino, 
G6ch6ng hotno, 

N^kh laino, 

Ch66no, 
Jhi khdngno, 
Sunatno, 

Daikhangno, 

Danno, 

Danno, 

Ldbono, 
L^ngno, 
B&no, 

Bdl&nguo, 

Y6ng khatno, 

G^n6, 

Yong khatno. 



Dhimdl, 

L6ngli. 
Jdp p&li. 
Thdit^ng long 
p&U. 
Yongli. 
Lh6U. 
Aus^li. 
Toth^li. 
Lh6 p^. 
T6Mi. 

T^li. 

Chtimt^ng l^li. 
Chiim poli. 
Phuli. 

Phi'ichiimli. 

Tangli. 

Khdli. 

Tangli. 



} 



Gano, Khdli. 

Th(in hotno, "I rj.^ .,. 
Hop tano, J ' 



} 



Jdbar dib6r. Thang hotno, Hdli pili. 



xltkinu, 
T^kinu, 

Ch^nkinu, 
Rokinu, 



} 
} 



Thapt^no, 



T66li, Hili. 



ice,1 
;in- S 



Tham bhdnu, | 
Cholon konu, 
N. Sharu hobar. 



Homtdno, I Rholi. 

Thdpta hotno, S Tdfi p^li. 

Thdn hotno, < rp^.. \y 

Th&ng hotno, Dingil pili. 

Hdngno, Mhoili, Tangli. 



A . Sbarii konu 



N. Tamdm ho- 
bar, 

A. Tamdm ko- 
ribar, 

o 2 



{ 
{ 



H^ng hotno, 
Moujenno, 

Japno, 
Khdngno, 

Mou japno, 
Jap hotno, 



{Mho'i pali 
T 

} 

} 



eng pdli. 
H6m. 

H6i pali. 



} 



TOO 

English. 

To have, hold, 1 

possess, J 

To lack, want, 
To hold, retain, 1 

keep, J 

To cede, give 1 

up relinquish, . 
To hold, have " 

in hand. 
To grasp, hold 

forcibly, 
To relax grasp. 
To let go, quit 1 

hold of, / 

To dispossess,^ 

take forcibly, > 

seize, J 

To take simply. 
To give, trans- \ 

fer by gift, f 

To transfer 
generally 

To receive, ob- "I 

tain, get, J 
To acquire 

earn, gain 

own labour. 
To find, disco- \ 

ver, J 

To lose. 

To search for, 

Tointrustwith, 1 

commit to, J 

To conceal, hide. 

To reveal, dis- 1 

close, J 

To cover, simply. 

To uncover. 
To he hid, be 1 

hid. 
To show one's " 

self. 
To show, exhi- " 

bit, display, > 

goods, J 



It, J 
fer, j 

J, ob- "I 

t, J 
aire, 1 
lin by > 
our, J 



VOCABULARY. 






Koceh. 




Bodo, 




Dhimdl. 


Bos korinu, 




f> 




99 


Obh% hobar. 




99 




99 


R&khibar, 




99 




99 


Chdrinu, 




Ndgdrno, 




T.hdli. 


Dhorinu, 
Rdkhinu, 


{ 


Akhai ou, 
Rdkhino, 


* 


Khilrtd r&kh^lL 


Dhorinu, 




H6mno, 




Rimli. 


H&th dhila konu. 


Akhai phdrtinno, 


Khur dhila pfili. 


Chdri dinu. 




Ndgdmo, 




Lhdli. 


K^ria Ubar, 




Honmo, 


{ 


Ghinli. 
Rimli. 


Libar, 




Tidno, 




RhdU. 


Dan konu, 




Hotno, 




PiU. 


Dibar, 

Porbos sompi 
bdr, 
Pdbdr, 
Libar, 


{ 


botno, 

Manno, 
L6no, 


{ 


Pili. 

N^nli. 
RhdU. 


Kdmdnu, 




Kamai khl^no. 


Kimaili. 


Pdnd, 
Pdbdr, 
Uar^ konu, 

Onsibir, 


} 


Manno, 

G6mdno, 

Naigrdno, 


{ 


N^nli. 

MhalL 
Bh6li. 
Rh^U. 


S6mpib^, 




99 




99 


Ltiki r^ikhinu. 




Hikmdno, 




Mh6 p41i. 


Pargot konu. 




Dinthino, 




01^ pdK. 


Dhdkibdr, 1 

Dhdka ph^Jinu, 
LtikibAr, 1 
Chhipibar, / 


Khopno, 
Jokhlopno, 
B6t Idpno, 

Khakmdno, 


} 


ThdmK. 
L& p^li. 
Mh61i. 


Nikalibdr, 




Ndjdno, 




Ol^li. 


9» 




D6n thaino, 




D6p^. 



VOCABULARY. 



101 



Engl%9h» 
To put up, put ' 

by. 

To hoard, save, 

amass. 
To spend, con- . 

sume, use, J 
To waste pro-1 

digally, / 

To furnisli house. 
To load, lade, 

To unload. 

To pack, 
To unpack. 
To tie knot. 
To untie knot. 
To bind. 
To unbind. 
To thighten. 

To loosen. 



Kocch. 



Bodo, 



lUkh chhorinu, Chtik kl&pno. 



Songtibar, 
Khoroch konu, < 



Phuttimno, 

Grdmo, 

H&ni khUmno 



>} 



DhimdL 
Tbdm pili. 

Jom p&li. 

Bai p^i. 



» 



>» 



>> 



S&janu, 
L^dinu, 

BMr dt^nu, < 

M6t bdndhinu, 

M6t khdlinu, 

Gr^nthinu, 

Ginth kholinu, 

B&ndhinu, 

Kholinu, 

Bhiribar, 

DhU koribdr. 



N6o ch6no, 
Bd hotno, 
Yijugno, Thdn- \ 
gi kh^6no, j 
Thtingi khdno, 
Thdngi kh^ono, 



Sd 1^ p^i. 
Ladai p41i. 



>» 



J6m pdli; 
Khaili. 



it 



» 



} 



{ 



To erect, put up. 

To pull down. 
To sheathe, 

weapon. 
To unsheath. 
To mark. 
To erase. 
To stain. 

To let in. 

To let out. 

To expel, drive 1 

out, J 

To wring, wet 1 

clothes, J 

To wrench. 
To annex, add to. 
To denex, de~l 

tach, J 

To move, self, ■! 

To move, 1 
other, J 

To remove, dis- 1 
place, J 

To be stationary, 



Khada kono, 
P^a ph^inu. 



i 



» 



99 



Nishdn dib^, 
Metinu, 
Ddgh dibar, 
Bhitor dsibdrl 
dibar, / 

Bdhirjdbardib&r, 

Nikdlya dinu. 



Khdno, 
Kh^6no, 
Garra khldmno, 
Runno, Phd- 

rdnno, 
Thdno, 
Pochongno, 
Kdklaino, 

Chono, 

Bokh6no, 
Chm hotno, 
Khomatno, 
D4gaino, 

Sing Id bono, 

Bdhir Id bono. 

Tan hotno. 



»* 



99- 



} 
} 



Jingli. 

KhaiH. 

Bhirili. 

DhU pdh\ 

Jap pdli. 
L6ng pdli, 
Whdli. 

Holi. 

Chin pdlL 



Ddg^U. 



>> 



Lipta wdngli piKv 
Bdhir oleli pili. 
01^ pdU. 



Nich6ribar, Ch^pno, 



if 



Aintinu, 
Jo4inu, 

Alag konu, 

ChoUnu, 
Hihnu, 
Cholon-hilon- 
korinu, 

Thir hobdr. 



} 



Bophaino, 
Jodinu, 

Gubdn danno, 

Thabdino, 
Mouno ? 



} 



>> 



Giibiln nupthi 1 
Idngno, J 

Gochonguo, 



Thiirli. 
Jom pdli. 

Bhindng pdli. 
L6U. 

L^ pdli. 

Bhindng chol. 
L6 pdli. 
Japli. 



102 



VOCABULARY. 



Kocch, 



> Thir korib^r, Posongno, 



99 



99 



Uday konu, 
Asti konu, 
Uthinu, 
Uthya k6nu, 

Diibibar, 



/ 



99 



Agk j&bar^ 
Pdche dsibar, 

HUibdr, 



99 



English. 

To make sta- 
tionary. 

To appear, 
come in sight. 

To disappear. 

To rise, sun. 

To set, sun, 

To rise, ascend, 

To raise, lift. 

To sink, de- 
scend, n. 

To make sink, 
depress. 

To advance go on. 

To retrograde. 

To vibrate, 
shake, n. 

To make 
shake, a. 

To press, by 
own weight, 

To compress, 
squeeze. 

To contain, 
hold in. 

To sustain, 
hold up. 

To stick, ad- 
here, n. 

To affix, at- 
tach, a. J 

To come off, n. ITthinu, 

To take off, 1 
detach, a. J 

To increase, self. 

To make in- 1 
crease, add to, j 

To decrease, self, Ghotibdr, 

To make de- 
crease 
tract 



Bodo. 



Ddbinu, 

Chipinu, 

S6ndibdr, 

Th^mbhib^r, 

Lagibdr, 

Sdtibdr, 



99 



Badibar, 
Bodokonu, 



ake de-1 
e, sub- > 
from, J 



Ndno, 

Hapno, 

Chouno, 

D^d^nno, 

Jhikhopno, 

Boklopno, 

Hapno, 

Ch6mno, 
Douldngno ? 
Inslotno, 

Mouno, 

Chamouno, 

Hap chono, 

Ch^tno, 



DhimaL 
Jap pdli. 

Lh61i. 

Dubili. 
Lh61i. 
Ddbili. 
Lh61i. 
U6 pdli. 

DdbiU. 

Diibi pdU. 

Limping had^li. 

Nhuchoh. 

KhingU? 

Dailong l^li. 
\ Phirli. 
/ L6€ pdli. 
\ Phir p61i. 



99 



RipU. 



Chdno, Hapno, Wdngli ? 
Thap thdno, T^kili. 

Bi thdngno, T^pli. 



Shithapno, 

Gtigdno, 

Botlapno, 

D^tno, 

Ph^d^tno, 



{ 



T6 p41i. 
Lhdli. 
Lhd pali. 
Dhdmli. 
Dhdm p^U. 



Dtiino, Sh6m.\ Shibli. 
no, J Mhoili. 



Ghotia koribar, Ph^duino, 



Mhoi p41i. 



To divide. 



To expand, self. 
To open, other. 
To close, self. 



{ 



Kh&na khdni- 

konu, 
Phtitinu, 
Kh(!ilinu, 
Miinjinu, 



'■}^£„V'''"'}Bantap.li. 

Bdrshrdno, Phtit^li. 

Kh6ono, H^li. 

Khop jopno, Chobli. 



VOCABULARY. 



103 



EnglUh. 

To shut, other. 
To exhale, eva- 1 
porate, self, J 

To exude, do. 

To absorb, do. 
To sprinkle. 
To moisten. 

To soak. 

To make dry. 
To be wet. 
To be dry. 
To filtrate. 
To flash. 
To blaze. 
To be extinct. 
To extinguish. 



Koeek. 
Bond korinu, 

B&ph nthino, 

Ch^ya podinn, < 

S6sibar, 

Chitano, 

Bhijino, 

Susya khilibar, < 

Sdkha konn, 
Bhij4 hobar, 
Sulma hobar, 
Ch^nka kono, 
Ch6mkibar, 



>f 



Nibhil hobar, 
Nibhil korinu. 



Bodo. 

Jokh lopno, 
Khdndg kba- 

lingno, 
Bid6, Tung 

khi^no, 
Chopno, 
Sh^tno, 
Phichino, 
Chi trono, 
Chi hapno, 
B4n hotno, 
Gichi jSanOy 
Ranno, 
Chogomo, 
Chul goono, 
Jong doono, 
Gomatno, 
Kh6matno, 



} 
} 



Bkimdl. 
GipU. 

Dhuilholi. 



ChdlL 
Tirthira pali. 
Jha p41i. 

I Jhip^. 

S^ng p^. 

Jh^. 

S^U. 

Chuaili. 

Rhiw^. 

M^htiU. 

Komhih. 

Nibhaili. 



PROPER NAMES. 

Dhim^ males. — ITndo, Gumb6r, Jidbor, Doda, Bhonda, lTs6p, En- 
d^ M^nd&, Bdmbai. 

Dhim^ females. — Apchi, D61di, Sujm, Saldi, Phirsdi. 

Bodo males. — Gijan, Moshto, Phabii, Bima, Jinkhdp, Gongir, 
Theophai, Laidar, Hajo, Ovular, Jonti, Gakh&ng, N^ong, M6Uk. 

Bodo females. — ^Tulut, Main, Jijiri, Bdjin, Kh6m, RondinL 



G E A M M A R. 



Orthography. 

I must begin with the remark that I do not propose to say 
anything of the K6ch Grammar^ which is wholly corrupt Ben- 
gali. The reasons which have induced me to give the K6ch 
Vocabulary are stated elsewhere.* The following remarks 
will therefore apply solely to the Bodp i and Dhim&l languages, 
languages which, as it appears to me, have preserved to a wonder- 
ful extent their primitive raciness, both in vocables and in struc- 
ture. Neither of them possesses, nor ever did, any alphabet 
or books, and I have consequently been left at liberty to apply 
to them any system of letters that might seem most adviseable ; 
for various reasons I have postponed the N%ari to the Roman, 
which latter I have, I hope, employed in a manner sufficiently 
conformable to that recognised by the Society, except that, 
having no actual or prospective occasion to employ Arabic or 
Persian words or sounds, I have uniformly expressed the In- 
dian k by the like English letter. The vowels are sounded as 
on the continent of Europe and in Scotland — ^not as in England, 
and the graver or lengthened sound of each is denoted by an 
accent or mark above, thus e, a very long sound, in some rare 
instances, by reduplication as well as accent. A few sounds of 
this latter kind occur both in the IBodoi and Dhim&l languages. 



* I have failed to get at the original and trae speech of this race, whose ancient 

tongue is fast merging in Beng&li. 

i t Por M^och read Bodo, passim. Mtoh is a name imposed by strangers. Thial 
IpeoplecallthemaelTefBodo, which of course la thft ptopftt ^ it4|j a l i i Wi \ i^ ^Bs»ft ^ 
^^^ — — 



106 GRAMMAR. 

and in the former they subserve the important purpose of dis- 
tinguishnig the different senses of otherwise similar words : thus 
hdno, to cut : haano, to be able ; jdno, to eat^ jdano, to be. In- 
stances of this kind are rare in the 3iidsfT and rarer in the 
DhimSl language, which are both clearly of the Indian and 
multisyllabic — not of the Indo-Chinese or unisyllabic class, and 
are consequently free from that arbitrary system of tones which 
forms so striking a feature of the languages allied to the Chi- 
nese. The Mecch and Dhimal tongues have an easy and flow- 
ing enunciation, which is readily represented by our letters. 
Compound consonant sounds are rare — ^any so compound as the 
Sanscrit ksha, &c. unknown — aspirates common. 

The nasal n, denoted by me by a dot above the letter (n) is 
fully as common as in l/rdu and Hindi, and is not unfrequently 
complexed into a harsher sound, which I have denoted by gn. 
Two concurrent vowels are always to be understood as a diph- 
thong^ with one blended and long sound, unless when the 
second vowel is doubly dotted (o) and in these cases, which are 
common in Bodo and Dhimal, each vowel is to have a perfect 
and independant utterance. The naso-guttural French 6 is 
frequent in Dhimal, and has sometimes a prolonged and veiy 
harsh sound, which I cannot represent otherwise tiian by redu- 
plication and accent, thus eecha, a goat. Y is always a consonant. 
In Bodo N is often prefixed to words beginning with a vowel, as 
Akai Nakai, and in this tongue the use of ch for j, of t for d^ 
of k for g, are commutations, constantly occurring, but deemed 
vulgarisms. 

Abticl.es. 

There is no article, definite or indefinite, in the Bodo or 
Dhim^ tongue. The demonstrative pronouns this and that^ 
usually, and the numeral one more rarely, stand in lieu of 
articles. 

* I IMC three, 4 makes au, ^ ai and 6 ou, e. g. Hawfinch, Aye aye, Uowe?er. 

* See note at p. 117.! 



GRAl^DIAR. lor 

Substantives. 

Nouns^ like verbs, have only one nrgimen or mode of declen* 
sion, nor is that single uniform mode perplexed with any refine(CHgmh|| 
ments expressive of gender. Declension is accomplished not 
by inflection, of which strictly speaking there is hardly a trace, gJMp 
but by affixes or rather post-fixes, analc^us to the l/rdii and 
HincU post-positions. Number is similarly expressed, that is, b yj|mii1| 
post-positions. In Bodo passim there are clearly but two 
numbers, and I think also in Dhimal, though in the latter I 
have met with some vague traces of a dual, which further 
research may establish. In Bodo the word phiir, and in Dhimil 
the word galai, post-fi^ed simply to the noun, express the 
plural, thus, B. gotho, a child, gotho phiir, children. Dh. chan, 
a child, chan galai, children. These words have, I believe, no 
meaning whatever. 

By turning to the Vocabulary it will be seen that the Bodo 
and Dhimal tongues both possess a great variety of substantiv e Genifa 
sexual terms which usually suffice as in English, to denote all 
that is needful in the distinction of sex among human beings. 
There are exceptions however to this rule, and then the defect 
of specific terms is supplied by periphrasis. Thus the Bodo 
tongue has no simple words equivalent to the English boy and 
girl, and the sex of minors is therefore expressed thus : — man 
child, woman child, or hiwd gotho, hinjou gotho. In Dhimal, 
wdjan and b^an are simple and exact equivalents for boy and 
girl. The word chan, which properly means the young of all 
creatures — is likewise used in Dhimal to express ^ boy,^ in oppo- i 
sition to chamdi, or girl — ^which last word affords the only and 
faint trace in Dhimal (none in [^^^ of that happy facility 
of converting male into female words, by mere variation of the 
terminal letter or syllable, which characterises l/rdii and Hindi. 
Sex among animals generally, exclusive of human beings, is 
expressed in Bodo by the post-fixes jolS and j6, and in Dhimdl 
by the prefixes D&nkhS, and Mahani, equivalent to male and 

p 2 






108 GRAMMAR. 

female ; thus B. mushii boSy mushii-jola, a bull, mushu-j6, a 
cow. Dh. Pia, Dankhd pia, and Mahani pia, respectively. 
There are likewise in both languages a variety of specific terms 
expressive of sex among the domesticated and familiar animals^ 
as is £nglish and other languages. These may be found in the 
vocabulary ; they have no grammatical effect or character what- 
ever ; and this remark may be generalised or applied to the 
whole subject of gender in Bodo and in Dhim&l. 

The gender of substantives consequently has no influence at 
all on adjectives or on verbs. 
C^e,. Cases in Bodo and Dhim&l are formed entirely by postposi* 
tions. There is no inflection whatever. Cases are numerous ; 
not less than nine were given to me. But, all simple and direct 
languages which decline their nouns by means of pre or post- 
positions, have an almost unlimited field for the multiplication 
of cases. I apprehend that the companionative is a doubtful 
case, and that the ablative and instrumental are, normally, but 
one case,'"and also the dative and objective, and that on or upon, 
is no case at all. In that event there would be only five cases, 
for the vocative seems wanting. 

To form the plural it is merely required to supply the word 
phur or galai in Bodo and Dhim&l respectively, between the 
noun and the post-position. 

All nouns substantive are declined according to the following 

example : 

English, Bodo, Dhitndl, 

N. A man, Hiwd, Wdval. 

G. Of a man, Hiwdni, Waval ko. 

D. To a man, Hiw& no, Wdval 6ng. 

Ac. A man, Hivrd kho, W^val ^ng. 

? On a man, Hiwd chou, Wdval ko rhuto. 

Voc. O ! man ! Caret ? Caret ? 

Ab. From a man, Hiw&ni phrd, W^val she. 

Ins. By a man, Hiwdjong, Wdval dong. 

Loo. In a man, Hiwd hi or ou or nou, Wdval td. 

Comp. With a man, Hiwd lago, Wdval dosa. 

Number Plural, Hiwa phiir, Hiwa phiir ni, &c. in Bodo ; and in Dhi- 
m&l, W&val galai. W&val galai ko, &c., as in the singular. 



GRAMMAR. 101) 

Thus it appears that in Bodo ni is the sign of the genitive^ no 
of the dative, kho of the objective, chou of the anoujnnous, 
phr& of the ablative, jong of the instrumental, hd, or ou or nou, 
of the locative, and lago of the conipanionative ; and that in 
Dhim&l, ko, eng, eng, rhuto, sho, dong, t& and dosa are, their 
equivalents. 

In Latin and other languages prepositions govern a variety of 
cases. Post-positions are the equivalents of this part of speech 
in Eastern tongues and in the above declension — it appears 
that the Bodo phr&, equal to the Latin ab, and the Dhimdl rhuto, 
equal to the Latin supra, govern the genitive, that is, require 
the sign of the genitive, even while occupying the place of the 
ablative in declensions. This is an anomaly, going far perhaps 
to prove that phra and rhuto are not truly signs of case or 
declension, but rather post-positions in the general sense (like 
some of the others perhaps) that is, not signs of declension. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives in both these languages precede or follow the 
substantives, with all the simple directness of English and with 
no more effect on the grammatical structure ; thus in Bodo, an 

12 12 1 2 12 

ugly son, sh&pmd bish&^ an ugly daughter, shapm& bishu ; a 

12 2 1 12 2 1 

good boy, hiw&-gotho ghdm, a good girl, hinjou gotho gham ; 

12 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 

good chil-dren, gotho-phur gh&m ; the sport of good children, 

2 3 1 12 1 

gh&m gotho-phurni kh^l. In Dhimal, a naughty boy, maelka 

2 1 2 1 2 12 3 12 

wfijan ; a naughty girl, ma elka bejan ; good chil-dren, elka chan 

3 1 2 3 2 3 1^ 

gaJai ; the play of good children, elkd chan galai ko khel. 

12 3 2 3 1 

To naughty boys. Bodo. Hamma gotho-phur no. Dhimal. Mi 

2 3 1 

elka wajan-galai eng. 



■a' 
»' . .. 



110 GRAMMAR. 

Nouns, substantive and adjective, of the simple forms abound, 
in both languages, and both tongues are miserably deficient in 
abstract forms, whether derivative or primitive, such as child- 
hood from child, greatness from great, and sex, age, &c. So 
nearly all compounds are wanting in these tongues, that is, 
that vast class of words which in Greek, Latin and Sanskrit are 
formed either from a noun or verb compounded with privitive, 
intensitive, qualititive, aggregative or disjunctive particles, or 
from two nouns or a noun and verb mixed ; anarchy, astrono- 
my, agriculture, nirvritti, pravritti, dwibhasya, vibrit^sih, hema- 
chal. Such words, as a class of terms, are wanting, though the 
means of forming them are forthcoming, and used to a small 
extent. These are points however which will be best explained 
by consulting the copious and carefully constructed Vocabulary. 
Ellipsis is carried to a great extent, both as to nouns and verbs, 
sometimes with, sometimes without, the sanction of concurring 
vowels, and often in excess of what that sanction would cover 
where it exists. Long-tailed words or sesquepedalians nor 
Horace nor Frere ever abhorred more heartily than do these 
simple races of men ; and when three even short words come 
together without a verb, one of them, the central, is almost 
sure to be lopt and to lose the first syllable of a dissyllable ; 
thus, taller than all, boinoboyow shin, for gajou shin, in Bodo ; 

12 3 3 1 2 

and in Dhimal, tai being for taiko bival eng, to his own wife. 
Similar ellipsis takes place constantly among the verbs, especi- 
ally in Dhimdl, as Hdnkd for Hadeangka, I will go, Jenkd for 
Jeangka, I will be. 

There are verbal nouns both in Bodo and Dhimdl, substan- 
tives formed from the root or imperative, and adjectives from 
the ^ ; participle. There is likewise a very useful privitive of 
general application in each of these tongues, which is the word 
geyd of the Bodo, and mantho or manthuka of the Dhim&l. 
Ongd in the former tongue (yonga) if a vQ5Wi (precede it) has 
likewise a similar function but of less currency ; and this Ian- 



r m ^ 



GRAMMAR. Ill 

guage has^ further^ a possessive of much value^ called gonaiig. 
All these are post-fixes, and separately viewed are adverbs rather 
than nouns ; but in composition they form adjectives from sub- 
stantives, and perhaps also one class of substantives from 
another ; thus^ from dhon, wealth, we have dhongeyd or dhou 
manthuka, poor, void of wealth, respectively in Bodo and Dhi- 
m&l ; and, in the former tongue, from rai speech (from speak !) 
we have rdinonga or raiyonga, dumb, speechless : also dhon- 
gondng, wealthy, possessed of wealth. Again, from dharam, 
justice, we have dharam-geya vel manthuka, unjust and in- 
justice ? and also, in Bodo, dharamgondng, just. I am not aware 
that adjectives in either language are ever transmuted into 
adverbs, as evly from evil, haughtily from haughty. Nor have 
I met with any instance of a diminutive, or the means of form- 
ing one, in either tongue. 

I should add, before quitting the subject of nouns, that the 
Bodo attempt to form abstract nouns from the simple ones by 
means of the post-fixes matno, sl6 and bid, with a slight change 
of the termination of the primitive word, and that they even 
affirm that of these post-fixes matno belongs more properly to 
things, sl6 and bid to beings. Thus, from gajou, tall, is formed 
gajdwan matno, tallness, from majang, handsome, majdngan 
matno, beauty, from gotho, child, gothobla or sl6, childhood, 
from g^det, great, gedet nanmatno, greatness. More samples of 
this formation may be seen in the Vocabulary, wherein however 
I have left most of the abstract nouns blanks, from doubts as 
to the authenticity of this method of filling those blanks; 
abstracts are very puzzling, yet it is indispensible to test the fact 
of their absence at all events ? The Dhimdls make no attempt to^ 
form them^but fairly avow their unqualified astonishment that any 
body should seek for such strange and useless words ! 

Comparison. 

There are no distinct words in either of these tongues expres- 
sive of the degrees of comparison, like agathos, arion, aristos. 



112 GRAMMA.R. 

bonus^ melior^ optimus ; good, better, best : nor any incremen- 
tory particles serving to the same end, such as the Sanscrit tar, 
tam ; the English er and est, and the Latin or and ssimus. 

The comparative and superlative degrees are formed in Bodo 
and in Dhimal as in Hindi and I/rdu, by words expressive of 
^ than that^ ^ than alF binbo shin and boinoboshin in Bodo^ and 
oko nhddong, sogiming ko nhddong in Dhimdl, according to the 
following example. 

English, Bodo, Dhimdl, 



Tall, 
Taller, 

Tallest, 

Short, 
Shorter, 



Gajou, Dh&ngd. 

g Biabo gajou shin, 0'k6 nhddong dhdng^. 

g r Sogiming ko nhidong 

I Boinobo gajou shin, < dhdnga, or dhilng^ 

>► ^ (^ saika. 

2. Gahai, Bdngra. 

(^ Binbo gahai shin, 0\6nh&d6ng b&ngrd. 



• Boinobo gahai shinl «> > ., 

nr «in J B^^grd SBika. 



Shortest, 

In the above examples Binbo is compounded of the inflected 
form of the word Bi, him, it^ that, and of the euphonic particle 
bo. Shin or sin is ^ than/ Boinobo is compounded of the word 
boino all and bo, as before. In the Dhim&l series Oko is the 
inflected form of wa, him or that or it. Nhddong is the m- 
declinable ^ than.' Sogiming is ^ all,' an adjective, and Saika, 
I believe, an adverb equivalent to very, most, or the majis vel 
maxime of Latin. It will be seen that in the Bodo idiom the 
literal style is ^ that or it great than' for the comparative, and 
^all great than' for the superlative, whereas in Dhim&l the 
Hindi and I/rdii idiom is followed, ^ that than great' — ^ all than 
great.' I have already adverted to the elliptical manner of 
speech so popular with these races. In the above examples 
the Bodo constantly, almost invariably, drop the middle sylla- 
ble of boinobo and the first syllable of gajou and of gahai. And 
in like manner, the Dhimal sink the second syllable of nhddong, 
and the middle syllable of sogiming. If my conjecture as to 
the Dhimdl saika be correct, we shall have in one form of the 
Dhimal superlative a nearly exact equivalent of the English 



GRAMMAR. 



113 



and Latin idiom very pious^ most pious, magis pius, maxim^ 
pius, except that the SLdverh follows the adjective in Dhim&l. 

Pronouns. 

The personal, possessive, demonstrative, relative, distributive 
tive, and reflective or egoistic (self*) pronouns will be all found 
in the Vocabulary. The declension of the pronouns seems to 
be the least imperfect part of the structure of the Bodo and 
Dhimal tongues, and in the latter exhibits throughout marks of 
genuine inflection. The regimen is the same as that for the 
declension of nouns ; but, as I have given the latter curtly, I 
will, at the risk of being tedious, give the declension of the 
pronouns more fully. 

Gender ^ects it not : the numbers are two : the cases nine ? 
as before. 



En^liik. 

N.I, 
G. Of me, 
D. To me, 
Ac. Me, 
Voc. Oh me, 
Loc. In me, 
? On me, 
Abl. From me, 
Inst. By me. 
Com. With me. 



Bodo, 

Ang ni, 
Ang no, 
Ang kho. 
Caret? 

Anghi-ou-nou, 
Angni chou, 
Angni phra, 
Ang jong, 
Anglago, 



Dhimal. 

Ki. 

K&ng ko. 
K^ng. 
K6ng. 
Caret? 
K&ng t&. 
Kkng ko rhuto. 
K4ng sho. 
Kdng d6ng. 
K^g dosa. 



N. We, 
G. Ofua, 
D. To us, 
A. Us, 
V. Oh we ! 
Loc. In us, 
? On us, 
Ab. From us, 
Insv By us. 
Com. With us, 



Plural. 

Jong, 
Joug ni, 
Jong no, 
Jong kho. 
Caret ? 

Jong h4, ou, noil, 
Jong ni chou, 
Jong ni phHi, 
J6ng j6ng, 
Jong lago. 



King ko. 
King eng. 
King eng. 
Caret ? 
King td. 
King ko rhutd. 
King sho. 
King dong. 
King dosa. 



* Iliia k wABtHiif laviB 19 tbe posfessivt; form Qwn. 



♦The plwtllziiiff partide cAtSr ifl not vfiially anpUed to th« 
^iwy> to tte teamdmd fliird. gee on, r -^ 



Nang, 


N^. 


Nang ni. 


Ndng ko. 


Nang no, 


N^ng. 


Nang kho. 


N6ng. 


Caret, 


Caret. 


Nang, hd, nou, 


Ndng td. 


Nangni chou. 


Ndng ko rhuik, 


Nangni phr^^ 


Nang sho. 


Nang jong, 


Nang dong. 


Nang lago. 


Ndng dosa. 


Nang chur, 


Ny^l. 


Nang chiirni, 


Ning ko. 


Nang churno. 


Ning ^ng. 


Nang chtirkho, 


Ning ^ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 



114 

Thou, 
Of thee. 
To thee, 
Thee, 
O thou ! 
In thee. 
On thee. 
From thee. 
By thee. 
With thee. 

Ye, 

Of you. 

To you. 

Ye, you. 

Oh ye! 

In you, Nang chur, hd-ou-nou, Ning td. 

On you, Nang churni chou, Ning ko rhuta* 

From you, Nang churni phrd, Ning sho. 

By you, Nang chur jong, Ning dong. 

With you, Nang chur dago, Ning dosa. 

He, she, it. 
Of him. 
To him. 
Him, 
Oh he? 
In him. 
On him. 
From him. 
By him. 
With him. 

They, 
Of them. 
To them. 
Them, 
Oh they ! 
In them. 
On them, 
From them. 
By them. 
With them. 

Possessive Pronouns^ &c. 

Possessive pronouns precede their nouns. Possessive and 
relative pronouns are seldom employed in the inflected forms 
of the personals^ though these forms are common to both. Of 



Bf, 


Wd. 


Bini, 


O'ko, wdngko. 


Bino, 


W6ng. 


Bikho, 


W^ng. 


Caret? 


Caret ? 


Bihd-ou-uou, 


Wang td. 


Bini chou, 


Wdng ko rhuta. 


Bini phrd. 


W4ng sho. 


Bini jong, 


Wdng dong. 


Bini lago, 


Wang dos§t. 


Bichdr, 


irbal. 


Bichur ni. 


I/bal ko. 


Bichur no. 


Ubal 6ng. 


Bichur kho. 


I/bal ^ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Bichur nou. 


ITbal tk. 


Bichdmi chou. 


I/bal ko rhuta. 


Bichumi phra. 


I/bal sho. 


Bichiir jong. 


I/bal dong. 


Bichdr lago. 


I/bal dosJ. 



GRAMMAR. 115 

the use of the relatives in any form the Bodo and Dhim&l are 
very shy. Indeed^ I doubt if their languages have any such 
words, though I have set down in the Vocabulary, the evidently 
borrowed and seemingly perverted terms of others, and the 
misapplied ? ones of their own. 

The interrogative pronouns who ? and what ? they have, viz. 
Chur and M& in Bodo, H&shii and Hai in Dhimal. These pro- 
nouns are declined after the general model of the personal ones. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

As has been noticed, they serve for articles. Imbe is this, 

and Hobe that, in Bodo ; and in Dhim&l t and I/, or, more 

formally, idong, udong for beings, ita, ut& for things. Tbal, 

I/bal, signifying these and those in Dhim&l, are considered the 

most express equivalents of the Bodo imbechur and h6be- 

chur. Thus a good deal of difference is established between 

the 3rd personal pronoun 'and the demonstratives, though ihSl 

of the Dhim&l is evidently but the correlative of the personal 

pronoun l/bal. I proceed to exhibit the declension of the 

proximate demonstrative. Singular. 

This, 
Of this. 
To this. 
This, 
Oh tlds ! 
In this. 
On this. 
From this. 
By this. 
With this. 

These, 
Of these. 
To these, 
These, 
Oh these ! 
In these, 
On these, 
From these, 
By these. 
With these, 

^ Tfie demonttratiTe U' and the penonal W& are probably the flame word radi>| 



Imb^, 


r. 


lmh6 ni. 


rko, Ydngko. 


Imb^ no. 


Y^ng. 


Imb6 kho, 


Y^ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Imb6, h^-ou-nou, 


Y^ng tL 


Imb^ni chou, 


Ydngko rhiita. 


Imb^ni phr^ . 


Y^Tig sho. 


Imb^ni jong, 


Y^Dg dong. 


Imb^ni iago, 

'DIlllHll 


Ydng dosa. 


■Plural. 

Imb^ cnur. 


rbal. 


Imb^ chumi. 


Ibal ko. 


Imb^ chdr no, 


Ibal ^ng. 


Imb^ chiir kho. 


Ibal 6ng. 


Caret ? 


Caret ? 


Imb^chdr, h^-ou-nou, 


Ibalt^. 


Imb^chdrni chou, 


Ibal ko rhiita. 


Imb^chtSmi phr^. 


Ibal sho. 


Imb^chtir jong. 


Ibal dong. 


Imb^chiir lago, 


Ibal dosa. 




116 GRAMMAR. 

ltd makes it£ng and ut&^ ut&ng, in the datire singular 2 for 
therest, these words as well as idong, lidong^ are declined 
without change by means of the universal post-positions* 80 
also the Bodo Hobe^ plural hobechur^ follows the model of Imb£. 

There are two great peculiarities in the use of the pronouns 
in these tongues^ one is^ that in both languages the pronouns 
firequently stand as the last word in the sentence; and thii 
whether they be personal or possessive. The other peculiarity 
is confined to the Dhimil and consists in the reduplication of 
the first and second persons* plural (we-ye) thus, from hinli ot 
laugh, we have kyS hin kySl, we laughed, ny^ hin ny4ly ye 
laughed. If bal hin, they laughed, ceases to exhibit this cha- 
racteristic mark. • The possessive pronoun sometunes follows 
the governing noun ; not usually. It will be observed, from 
the above examples, that the plural in most Bodo pronouns 
and in many Dhim^ ones is formed by the respective post- 
fixes chur and bal. These are further distinctions between the 
declensions of the nouns and pronous of these tongues. 

Numeration. 
The cardinal numbers extend only to 7 or 8 in Bodo, to 10 
in Dhim&l. Beyond these numbers the method of reckoning 
common to both people is by the Indian ganda and Bisa, thus, 
5 gandas are «> 1 bisa or score, and 2 bisa = 40, 5 bisd «a>100, 
and thus they contrive to reach the neplus ultra of 200 
or ten score. There are no ordinals in either tongue. The 
cardinal series is evidently the same in both tongues, and i» 
derived from Tibet — the only instance of the kind I have 
noticed in their languages,t but I have not yet gone into com- 
parisons of this sort, nor purpose to do so till I have completed 
the whole contemplated series of Vocabularies for the Hills and 
Tarai, from the Branmpiitra to the Kill or Gh&grL 

* Singular also T See on. 

t 10 of the GO wovd»m Brown's List are identieal in Dhim41 and Tibetan : none n 
Bodo and TibeUm : 15 in Bodo and Qkrb, 



GRAMMAR. II7 

The foBowing is the cardinal series of numbers, stript of 
their affixes. 

DkimaL 



English. 




Bodo, 




One, 


Ch6. 




E. 


Two, 


Gn^, 




Gn6. 


Three, 


Th4m, 




Sdm. 


Four, 


Br6, 




Dia. 


Fiye, 


B4, 




Nfi. 


Six, 


D6, 




Td. 


Seven, 


Sini, 




Nhii. 


Eight, 




99 


Y€. 


Nine, 




9* 


K{lU. 


Ten, 




99 


T6. 



To these the Bodo prefia^ the particles San or Sd, Man or 
MSl, and Thai, according as human beings, other animals and 
tlungs, or money, are in question. The numeral, with these 

affixes, may either precede or follow the noun. Thus, Bihi 
112 2 1 12 2 11 

sfich^, one wife ; Hiwd sanch^, one man ; Burmd m&ch^, one 
22112 1 3 

goat ; Thdka thai ch€, one rupee ;* Chokai manth&m mendd, 12 
2 1 3 

sheep or 3 gandas of sheep. 

The IHiimals again, have an immutable post-fix^ which is the 
word long, void of meaning like the Bodo prefixes. Thus, € 
long is one, gn£ long two. This post-fix is often omitted as 
well as part of the noun to which the numeral is attached with 
that love of ellipsis that has been already remarked on. Thus 
ime day is properly i long nhitima : but the Dhimals content 
themselves usually with Enhi. One man is Ediang or E^ong 
£tog ; and thus it appears that in Dhim^ the numeral always 
precedes the substantive. In Bodo on the contrary, the nu- 
mend follows it or precedes it ; generally the former. 

The Verb. 

Verbs express being, possession, or action. Those of the twQ 
former classes are very rare or wholly wanting in Bodo and in 

* Chdkfti Vel Jokai, so Don Vel Tou and Gorai Tel Korai. Thti miitatiaii is ii» 

4oubt eaphonic and systematie, though the people are not aware of tbiti and g^ivj; 

' raUy prefer liie harsher letters^I muit say. The harsh sonnda therefore are prds 

bably the more normal and appropriate. Thus Korai and not Gom ia tbA ^ 

jp nine Jftwto J?attUPg <»tive of the Hindi and Urdu G)x6ta. _ _ 



118 GRAMMAR. 

Dhimal. Those of the third class, if they belong to the primi- 
tive or simple type, are abundant. Verbs are divided by Gram- 
marians into the active and passive, the transitive and intran- 
sitive or neuter, the personal and impersonal, the regular and 
irregular, the intire and defective, the compound and simple, 
the auxiliary and primary. Of these kinds, passives are formed 
in Bodo by means of the perfect auxiliary verb to be (ja&no) 
added to the root of the primary, which root is the imperative, 
2nd person singular. In Dhimdl there is no passive voice, 
though there is a past participle, (nay two,) attached to the 
active voice and in constant use as an adjective. A substitute 
for the passive voice is attempted to be found by the Dhim&ls 
in a manner analogous to the I/rdii and Hindi idiom, according 

to which a man less frequently says ^ I have been beaten by 

2 
my brother* than ^ I have eaten a beating from my brother,' 

12 3 12 

Bhai se m^ khaid. So the Dhimdl says yollasho danghai n^n- 

3 

chdhikd. But the parallel is not complete, for n^nchdhikd is 

a compound, made up of nenli, to find, andch^li, to eat, so that 
the Dhimdl idiom, literally rendered, is, ^ I have found and 
eaten a beating from my brother.* Transitive and neuter 
verbs are, of course, common to both tongues: but neither, 
nor perhaps any language in the world, possesses the l/rdii 
and Hindi facility of transmuting the latter into the former, as 
uthnd, uthdnd ; chalna chaMna, samajhnd, samjhdna, &c. ad in- 
finitum. The only contrivance of this sort known to the Bodo 
and Dhimdl languages is the compounding of the verbhotno, to 
give, in Bodo, and of the verb pali, to do, in Dhimdl, with the 
root of the neuter verb which it is proposed to make active ; 
thus from liangno, to begin, n, comes hdng hotno, to begin a, 
and from mhoili n, mhoi pdli ; a in Bodo and Dhimal respec- 
tively. In Bodo Japno, to be finished, is made active by pre- 
fixing the imperative of the verb to do, thus moujapno. Of 
impersonal verbs I have nothing to say. Of reflected ordepo<* 



GRAMMAR. 119 

nent verbs I have found no trace. Verbs, in general, are very 
regularly conjugated according to one regimen, irregular verbs 
being rare in Bodo and rarer in Dbim^. Jengli, to be, is an 
irregular in Dhimal, as in so many other tongues. I scarcely 
know another instance, in Dhimal ; but in Bodo Hotno, to give, 
h^no, to be able, Phoino, to come, with some others, are irre- 
gular in one or more tenses. Of defective or fragmentary 
verbs, the Bodo auxiliary dong and dongman, equivalent I 
apprehend to the hiin and thd of I/rdii and the hou and bhayou 
of Hindi, and the Dhimal auxiliaries khika, hika and dngka, 
fragments of verbs of similar meaning with dongman — are 
samples. Compound verbs other than those already spoken of 
whereby neuters are made active, are very rare, as I have 
already hinted under the head of nouns. Wherever they exist 
they are formed in the manner of neuters made active. The 
auxiliary verbs have been already mentioned, in part, as defec- 
tives. To those there spoken of we must here add the Bodo 
regular and perfect verb jdano, to be, which is of the highest 
value as the sole means of forming the passive voice, by post- 
fixing its various inflections to the root of the primary verb in 
the active voice. Per se, it is little used, the Bodo (and Dhi- 
voSIl) seeming to think that talk of mere existence is neither 
very profitable nor very intelligible. The Dhimil auxiliaries 
khika, mhika, nhika, hika, &ngka, are of the last importance as 
forming the sole means of conjugating all verbs. From much 
enquiry through the medium of multiplied sentences — not of 
direct questions, which I found wholly futile and worse — I infer 
that the 3 first of the above 6 words are really one and the 
same, only varied for the sake of euphony, but upon principles 
too subtile for ready detection by a stranger ; that all the 3 
represent the present tense indicative mood, of the fragmentary 
verb to be or to do ;* that hika, the 4th word represents th^pasi 
tense of the same or a similar verb ; and that dngkd, the 5th 

* Take the style of English conjugation as a help to appreciate this peculiarity, 
I do lovef I did loTe, I will lore. 



N 



120 GRAMMAR. 

word^ stands in like manner for th^ future tense. These words 
are modified by genuine inflection^* to suit the persons of the 
singular number and the whole may be tabularized thus* 

Singular. 

ist. person K& khika : K& mhika : K& nhika : K& hika : K& dngUi. 
2d. person Nd khina : N& mhina : N& nhina : N& hina : N& laigna. 
3d. person W& khi : W& mh{ : W& nh( : Wa hi : Wa ^g. 

Plural. 

1st. person Ky^l khi kyel if K. mhi k : K. nhi k : K. hi k : K. &ng k. 
2d. person Nyel khi nyel : N. mhi n : N. nhi n : N. hi n : N. dng n. 
3d. person Ubal khi : Ubal mhi : Ubal nhi : Ubal hi : Ubal &ng. 

The three first of these are apparently equivalent to the Eng- 
lish verbal signs ' do,' ^ am ;' the next to ^ did/ ^ was/ ^ have;,' 
' had / the last to ^ shall, will.^ The student will find these 
remarks a key to the whole process of conjugation in Dhim&l 
verbs. He has only to prefix the root of the verbs he wiriies 
to conjugate to the above auxiliaries and he at once obtains all 
of conjugation that the language exhibits ; for the imperative 
or root, the infinitive and the participles, have, each and all, a 
single and inflexible form. 

Should the conjecture hazarded in the foot note of the last 
page prove well founded — and there seems every probability of 
its proving so — ^a very singular state of things would be the 
result ; for, we should then have the whole process of conjuga- 
tion of Dhim&l verbs accomplished by affixing an invariable 
auxiliary verb or verbal particle (viz. khi or hi or Img) to the 
root of the primary verb, with reduplication of the Ist and 2nd 
pronouns, both singular and plural. Whether that particle or 
verbal fragment be really one or three, and whether significant 
or meaningless, are doubts which higher granunatical skill than 

* Is this inflection, after all, nothing more than the redaplicated pronoun, added 

to the root, after the manner of the plaral ? Bopp says all personal inflection was 
.orij^nany pronominal, and Bonsen in his Egypt giTes us aamplea from the oldest 
.lai^^aage on earth of pronouns used indifferently either as independant prefixes or 
\ as ser^e postfixes. 

t The douhle pronoun is marked hy its initial letter only, to sate space. 



GRAMMAR. 121 

I can pretend to, may go far to settle,* The people use their 
language with extreme carelessness even in regard to those 
grand distinctions of time, the past, the present and the future, 
and though I have stated as the result of much investigation 
that khi denotes the present^ hi the past, and fing the future, 
I cannot deny that I have often found the whole three em- 
ployed promiscuously. Possibly therefore the three may prove 
to be only one, and even to have some connexion with the 
perfect verb Jengli, to be — anologous to that which seems to 
conjoin the fragmentary verb hiin, th&, hou, bhayou, with the 
perfect verb bond. Hi is often employed in the sense of the 

12 

I/rdii hai, is, as ; for example, who is there ? Hashii hi, 

1 2 

exactly equivalent to kon hai ? rather kon tha ? in the past tense. 
Who was it ? as if he were gone. * . 

And, though hi may be alleged to be a contraction of jehi, which 
is deduced regularly from the perfect verb jengli, to be, yet, on 
the other hand, I see not any necessity for excluding the con- 
jecture of an aflUiated fragmentary verb consisting of hi solely, 
and khi and ang may possibly be of the same nature. That 
mhi and nhi are euphonic variations merely of khi, I have no 
doubt whatever. Under the head of compound verbs I ought 
to have observed that, in Bodo such as express repetition or 
reiteration, have the reiterative adverb placed in the centre of 
the verbf between its radical and inflected portions, thus phoino, 
to come, phoi-pAi«-no, to come affain ; and, that both in Bodo 
and Dhim&l there is a useful set of quasi-compound verbs 
formed, as in l/rdu and Hindi, by verbs equivalent to their 
Chiikna, and lagna. These words are, in Bodo, Khangno and 
Langno — in Dhimal, Hoili and Tengli. But, whereas in the 
former tongues these accessary verbs are added sometimes to 
the imperative and sometimes to the infinitive of the primary 
verb (marchuka, hone laga), in the latter languages they are 

* lam now satisfied tliat these so called particles are fragmentary verbs like 

tli& in U'rd6, and Bhaja in Hindi, or do, did, will do in English. Moit, 00^ 
&c. being invaria ble in form, are yet nea rer apgroximationi. j 

"t The put t^is invariably nied whenever the tot ie, or leems to be, ovecf 

sadp Mttidt. _ . _ 



122 GRAMMAR. 

subjoined solely to the imperative, which in all four languages, 
alike is likewise a verbal noun. 

In most cultivated tongues there are several regimens for 
the conjugation of verbs, and under each regimen or model are 
comprised a great variety of moods and tenses — all which, as 
well as the numbers and persons of each tense, work changes 
upon the radical form of the verb, whether by inflective or 
auxiliary increment. 

In Bodo and Dhimal there is apparently but one regimen for 
the conjugation of all verbs, which is accomplished by means 
of inflection in Bodo of auxiliaries, (immutable, verbal frag- 
ments) in Dhimdl. This regimen exhibits great simplicity in 
both tongues, there being but three moods, the imperative, the 
infinitive and the indicative,* and the last only, admitting of 
variety of tenses which are limited to three, or the absolute 
present, the absolute past and the absolute or simple future. If 
a Bodo would express the time of the action with greater pre- 
cision he obtains an imperfect present by means of the auxili- 
ary dong; (thus mou, do ; moudong, I am doing) — an imperfect 
past by means of dongman ; (thus, mou dongman, I was doing ;) 
an emphatic past by means of the separate verb khSngno, to be 
ended, (thus mou, kar, khangbai, chilka, I have, it is, entirely 
done) — or else he marks decisively the three grand divisions of 
lime, or any one of them, by />re-fixing an adverb of time 
(d&no, now, this instant — sigdng, previously, in the past, yuno, 
afterwards, in the future). Of these methods of marking time, 
with precision, the last alone appears to be available to the 
Dhimals, although the careless manner in which they employ 
their sole conjugational index of time (khika, hika, and dngka, 
supposed to represent respectively the present, past and future) 
would seem to render further expedients more needful to them 
than they are to the Bodo. The Dhimal adverbs of time, cor- 

* There are vague traces of a subjunctive icood in Mecch, formed by the postfix 
bl4 ; thus, if I should go, dng th^ng bla. But in general the future indicatl?e denotes 
contingency. Power and will are denoted by separate verbs* and duty alflo. 



GRAMMAR 1 



■"»'5 



responding to the Bodo ones jut jiv^n« areSin^, Umpang an 
iihiicho respectivelT, and these likewise are placed before the 
verb as in the Bodo tongue. In Dhinial there is no pasasi^x 
voice ; in Bodo the passire is formed precisely as in English : 
tbus^ Shdno^ to strike* Shd jaano, to be struck. In Bodix, how- 
ever^ the auxiliary follows instead of going before the primary 
verb. There are two numbers, and three persons in each 
number^ both in Bodo and Dhimal. In Bodo number and 
person have no effect upon the verb, nor in Dhimal either, if, as 
conjectured, the 2d syllable of the Dhimal auxiliaries (khLbf, 
khiiu^ khi, et sic decaeteris) be reduplicated pronouns and not 
inflections. The imperatiTe mood has but one tense and one 
perswij in both tongues, viz. the 2d person singular ; and to this 
the n^ative is prefixed (ik in Bodo, ma in Dhimdl). In Bodo 
this proper verbal negative (mat in Crdii) is nearly confined in 
its use to the imperative. In Dhimal it is as const;intly applied 
to the infinitive, thus creating a very useful class of contrasted 
verbs (Do^gli, to be able. Ma doangli, not to be able ; khangli 
vette, to will ; Md kh&ngli noUe, not to will, or wish). This 
function is discharged in Bodo by the general privitive geya, 
contracted to gai, and put as usual between the radical and 
inflected part of the verb, (baano, to be able, h^^aino, to be 
tenable). This contrasted negative is likewise universally ob- 
tained in Bodo verbs by varying merely the terminal vowel, 
whether simple or diphthong (do you go or not ? — thangon& 
thanga? will you go or not go ? th&ngnai n&tbanga?) The 
infinitive mood has only a present tense, nothing more analo- 
gous to gerund or supine, than the three participles, viz. a 
present, a past, and a remot^^^t^ nliativfe^ ^^^'^^''^^ ^se of 
which in lieu of conjunctions is very charactensiic'of both 
tongues. The root of the verb, as already frequently noted, is 
the imperative, and it is peculiar to these tongues that they 
form ail tenses and compounds from it and seldom or never 
^WEk ^ participles or infinitive. From this root, In the 
Bodo'^^sent tense (indicative) is formed by adding 6 (go, if u 

R 2 



124 



GRAMMAR. 



vowel precede) for all the persons of both numbers ; the pa»t 
by a (ya, if a vowel precede) or bai ; the future by nai ; the 
infinitive by no ; the present participle by in, the past partici- 
ple (like the past tense) by a (yS, if a vowel go before) ; and the 
remote past participle by n&ne. 

In Dhim^ the inflective increments, as above enumerated, 
are either khi, impersonal, or khika, khina, khi for the three per- 
sons ; hi, impersonal, or hika, hina, hi ; dng, impersonal, or llng- 
ka, &ngn&, ang ; li ; katang ; ka ; teng. 

The passive voice in Bodo is conjugated precisely as is the 
active, while in Dhimal there is no such thing as passive voice. 
In neither tongue is there any thing like honorific tenses or 
phrases of any sort. We may now conclude the subject of verbs 
with some samples of conjugation. 



English. 
Go! 
Go not ! 
Togo, 
Going, 
Gone, 
Having gone, 

I go. 

Thou goest. 
He goes, 
We go. 
Ye go. 
They go, 

I went. 

Thou wentest. 
He went. 
We went. 



{ 



Bodo, 
Thdng, 
Dd thdng, 
Thdng no, 
Th^ng in, 
Thdng^ 
Th^ng n^n^, 
Ang thdng6, 
Nang th^gd, 
Bi thang6, 
Jong thdng6, 
Nang chiir thdngo, 
Bichur thdngo, 
Ang thdng^ or thdng- 1 
bai, J 

Nang thdngd or bai, 
Bi thingfi or bai, 
Jong th^ngd or bai. 



Dhimdl, 
Had^. 
M^ had^. 
Had^li. 
Had^ ka tang. 
Had^ kd. 
Had^ t^ng. 
Kdhad^khik^. 
N4 had^ khind. , 
Wa had6 khi. 
Ey^l had^ khi ky^l. 
Nyel had^ khi nyel. 
IJbal had6 khi. 

K^ hade hM. 



Nd had^ hind. 
Wa had^hi. 
Ky^l had^hi kyel. 

{ N^f°S^^"^^^^^g^«^} Nyel had^hi nyel. 

Bichur thdngd or bai, Ubal had^ hi. 
Ang thang nai, 
Nang thdng nai, 
Bi thdng nai, 
Jong thdng nai, 
Nang chdr thdng nai, 
Bichur thdng nai, 
Phoi, 
Di phoi, 

* This last is equitalent to the kar k^ of Urdu, aptly called the coiijimcttYe par- 
tJdple. ,,__...^^ ™ *■ ' * ■ — 



Ye went. 

They went, 
I will go. 
Thou wilt go. 
He will go, 
We will go. 
Ye will go. 
They wm go. 
Come! 
Come not ! 



Ki. had^ ^g kd. 
Nd had^ dng n&. 
Wd had^ dng. 
Kyel had6 dng kyel. 
Nyel had^ dng nyel. 
Ubal had^ ^g. 

Mi U. 



GRAMMAR 



12i 



EnglUk. 
To come. 
Coining, 
Come, 

Having come, 
I come. 
Thou comest. 
He comes. 
We come. 
Ye come. 
They come, 
I came. 
Thou earnest. 
He came. 
We came. 
Ye came. 
They came, 
I will come. 
Thou wilt come. 
He will come. 
We will come. 
Ye will come. 
They will come, 
Eat! 
Eat not ! 
To eat, 
Eating, 
Eaten, 

Having eaten, 
I eat, 
I ate, 

I will eat. 

Speak, 
Speak not. 
To speak. 
Speaking, 
Spoken, 
Having spoken, 
I speak, 
I spoke, 
I will speak, 
Be, 

Be not. 
To he. 
Being, 
Been, 

Having heen, 
I am, 



Phoino, 
I^Kn In, 
Phoiva, 
¥ho\ naoe, 
A'ng phoigo, 
Nang phoigo, 
Bi phoigo, 
Jong phoigo, 
Xang chur phoigo, 
Bichur phoigo, 
Ang phoi bai or ya, 
Xang phoi bai, 
Bi phoi hai, 
Jong phoi bai, 
Xaog chdr phoi bai, 
Bichur phoi bai, 
Ang phoi nai, 
Naog phoi nai, 
Bi phoi nai, 
Jong phoi nai, 
Nang chiir phoi nai, 
Bichur phoi nai, 

Jtod, 
Javin, 

J^y^ 

Ang j^, 

Ang jabai or j&y^ 

Ang j^ai, < 

Rai, 

Ddrai, 

Raino, 

Raiyin, 

Riy^ 

Rai n^^, 

Ang raigo, 

Ang raibai, 

Ang rainai, 

J^ 

Dajda, 

J^ano, 

J^ayin, 

J^&ya, 



LelL 

Le 

Leki. 

Ka 1^ khika. 
Xa 1^ khini. 
Wa l^hi. 
Kyel l^khi kyel. 
Xyel lekhi nyd. 
UW I6khi. 
Kil^hikiu 
Xi l^hi nk. 
W4 l^hi. 
Kyel l^hi ky^ 
Nvel l^hi nveL 
UW l^hj. ' 
K^ 1^ angka. 
X4 le ingni. 
W4 Idang. 
Kyel le&ng kyel. 
Nyel l^&ng nvel. 
ITbal I6^g. ■ 
Ch&. 
M& chd. 
ChaU. 
Ch&katang. 
Ch4k&. 
Qhk t^ng. 
K& ch& khikd. 
K& ch& hik&. 
K& ch^gk^ (for ch& 
^gka). 
Dop. 
M^ dop. 
D6pU. 

D6p katang. 
Dopka, 
D6p t^ng. 
K& d6p mhikd. 
K& d6p hik&. 
K& d6p ^ngk^. 

J^ngli. 
Jeng katang. 
J^ngk^. 
J6ng t^iig. 
Kd j^hiku. 



106 



GRAMMAB. 



English, 
I was, 

I will be. 

Strike ! 

Strike not ! 

To strike, 

Striking, 

Stricken, 

Having struck, 

I strike, 

I struck, 

I will strike. 

Be thou stricken. 

Be thou not stricken. 

To be struck. 

Being struck, 

Having been struck, 

I am struck, 

I was struck, 

I shall be struck, 

Desire ! 

Desire not ! 

To desire, 

Desiring, 

Desired, 

Having desired, 

I desire, 

I desire noty 

I am desiring, 

I was desiring, 

I desired, 

I will desire. 

Give, 
Give not. 
To give. 
Giving, 
Given, 

Having given, 
I give, 
I gave, 
I will give. 
Be able ! 
Be not able ! 

To be able, 

Being able, 



Bodo. 
Angjaabai, 

Ang jaanai, 

Sh6, 

Da sho, 

Sh<in6, 

Shii in, 

Shua, 

Sh6ndn6, 

Ang sh6g6, 

Ang shud or shubai, 

Ang shonai, 

Sh6 jaa, 

Da sh6 jda, 

Sho jl^o, 

Sh6 j^pn, 

Sh6 jaaya, 

Ang shojdago, 

Ang sh6 jadbai, 

Ang sho jl^nai, 

Labai, 

Dd labai, 

Labaino, 

Labaijin, 

Labaiyd, 

Labaindn^, 

Ang labaigo, 

Ang labai gai^o, 

A'ng labai dong, 

Ang labai dongman, 

A'ng labaibai, 

Ang labainai, 

H6t, 

D4 h6t, 

H6tn6, 

Hotnin, 

Hotnd, Hiid, 

Hotndn^, 

Ang, Hoyu, 

Ang hotbai or hud, 

Ang hogon, 

Haa, 

Da h^, 

Hadno, 

Hadyin, 



{ 



{ 
{ 



Dhimdl. 
Ka higa hikd. 
Ka j^nka (for j^ ang- 
ka). 
Ddng hai. 
Ma dang hai. 
Dang haili. 
Dang hai katang. 
Ddng hai kd. 
Ddng hai t^ng. 
Kd ddng hai khikd. 
Kd dang hai hiki. 
Kd ddng hai dngkd. 



19 
l> 
99 
99 
99 
99 
9> 
99 



{ 



Khdng. 

Ma khang. 

Khdngli. 

Khdng katang. 

Khankd. 

Khdng t^ng. 

Ka khdng khikd. 

Kd md khdng khikd. 

Kd elang khdng khika. 

Kd Idmpdng khdng 

khika. 
Kd khdng hika. 
Ka khdngkd (for khdng 

dngkd). 
Pi. 

Mdpi. 
Pill. 

Pi katang. 
Pikd. 
Pi teng. 
Ka pi khikd. 
Kd pi hikd. 
Kd pi dng kd. 
Doang, 
Md d6dng. 
D6dngli (d6ngli per 

ellipsm). 
D6dng katang. 






GRAMMAR. 127 

English, Bodo. BhimdL 

Been able^ H^y^ Doangkd. 

Having been able, H^d ndn^, Doang t^ng. 

I am able, Ang haago, K4 d6dng khikd. 

I was able, Ang H^bai, K& do^ng hik^. 

I shall be able, Ang Hdiinai, { ^tgkf vul-^J)^^ ^^^' 

Indeclinables. 

These highly useful parts of speech which give precision to 
all the others, whilst they connect them into well knit sen- 
tences, are sadly deficient in the Bodo and Dhim&l languages. 
Here more than any where, and almost only, I trace evidence 
of systematic borrowing and very clumsy assimilation. For the 
adverbs of place, time, quantity, quality, mode, and for the 
conjuctions the vocabulary must be consulted ; nor is there any 
thing needful to be added in this place. Conjunctions of pure 
or unborrowed character are very rare* both in Bodo and 
Dhim&l, and this circumstance, together with the habitual neg- 
lect of those post-positions which denote the cases of nouns, 
causes the sentences to hang very loosely together. Euphony 
however is studied, and the Euphonic particles, which are the 
chief links of the construction, may be properly regarded as 
conjunctions. In Bodo the chief ones are, bo, no, nS, &, ya, 
ma. All are post-fixes and insignificant, except the last, which 
has an intensitive sense, as hagrd, a jungle, h%rd ma, a great 
jungle or forest. In Dhimal there are fewer of these euphonic 
links of sentences, and indeed I remember distinctly but one, 
which is sd, and is void of meaning. Prepositions in these lan- 
guages, as in others, govern various cases, of which some ex- 
amples have been given, and more may be drawn from the 
subjoined sentences. Adverbs generally precede, but sometimes 
follow the verb or nouns whose sense they qualify and in close 
juxtaposition to which they are always found. I have met with 
no method of converting adjectives into adverbs, and this may ac- 

* The want is deverly evaded by means of the participles, a la Turque. 



128 GRAMMAR. 

count in part for the poorness of these tongues in indeclinables. 
Participles perform the function of conjunctions, as in Turki. 

Sentences illustrative of the above rules of grammar and of 
the construction of the Bodo and Dhimdl languages : — 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

Yesterday I went to the forest, to cut timber. To-day I am 

8 9 10 11 12 • 

going to the jungle' to cut grass ; and to-morrow I shall go to 

13 ^~44 "' 15 16 17 18 

the village, to choose a fit site for building a house on. 

12 3 5 4 

Bodo. — Mi & ang thanga hagramou, bongphong phono. 

6 8 7 10 9 11 13 

Ang dine hdgrou thdngdong thure hano. Gabun ang pharou 

12 16 ^ 15 14 18 17 

thangnai mipthi maj&ng naino, jerubo nookho luno labaigo. 

1 2 3 5 4 5 

Dhimal. — ^Anji k& hadehika bada dincha t&, sing p&lli. Nfini 

8 7 10 9 11 

mhoika dinchd t& hadekd (for hadekhika), naime cheli. Jiimni 

13 12 18 17 15 16 14 

kd deratd hadeang (ka), sd ddmli, elkd chol (eng) khangli. 

123 4567 8 9 

The big boy beat the big girl, till she began to cry. 

2 1 5 4 3 6 

Bodo. — Hiwdgotho gedetwa hinjougotho gedetna shud, biiii 

7 9 8 

her phrd from gfipmd a crying dongman was. 

12 4 5 3 

Dhimdl. — Bada chan bada chamdeng (for dieng) danghaihi, 

6 7 9 8 ^ 

k61fi w& khdrli tenghi. 

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 

The large pig has given six young, three males and three 

9 
females. 

2 I 5 4 3 6 

Bodo. — Yorai gedetna yosha mado (kho)* gophaiya; ma- 

7 8 9^ 

thdm jola ; matham jo. 

* Sign of case, or elliptical omission, supplied within brackets. 



GRAMMAR. 129 

1 2 4 5 3 6^ 7 

Dhimal. — Bad& payd tulong chan jehi; sumlong d&nkhfi^ 

8 9 

sumlong mahani. 

The girl is older than the boy, but the boy is taller than the 
girl. 

Bodo. — Hinjougothoa gibi, hiwa gothoa g6d6'i; toblabo hin- 
jougo thono hiwagothoa jou (for gajou) sin, 

Dhima. — ^Waval chan nha (dong) beval chan siana hi ; tai 
bejan nhadong wajan dhangd lii (hi for jehi). 

The horse is fatter than the cow, but the cow is less fleet 
than the horse. 

Bodo. — Mushujono goraiya guphiing shin ; toblabo miishiijo- 
NOBO* gorai gakhri sin. 

Dhimdl. — Pia nhadong onyha gdndi hi; tai pia nh&dong 
ohyhd chiikkS. hi. 

This pen is longer than that knife. 

Bodo. — Imbe kalam hobe A&h& galou sin. 

Dhimal. — I/ta churi nhddong ita kalam rhinka hi. 

This pen is the longest of all. 

Bodo. — Boinofio mdnino imbe kalam galou sin dong. 

Dhimdl. — Sogiming nha (dong) itd kalam rhinka. 

What (is) your name ? 

Bodo. — Nangni your, munga name, m& what, mung name. 

Dhimdl. — Hai what, ming name, nangko your^s. 

123456 7 8 9 

When you called me I was within the house, and did not 
hear. 

1 2 4 3587 6 

Bodo. — Jeld nang angkho linghotbai ang noo singou jaabai, 

9 
khanaye. 

12 345 6 8 7 

Dhimal. — Jeld ni kaihind k^ng, kd hig^hik& s&ko-liptd. Md 

if 

hinhikfi.f 

* Expletive particles marked by Italics ; double Expletives by Small Capitals, 
t Here is a sample of sheerly direct constmction in Dhimal. 

I t The comparative style not uied in thia memberof the wnteoioe mhklbL \i^T^i / 
peanggirloldVho ; rfaH. ^ / 



jBfentgf, tfean the cow the horse &t» but thm tbe cm «kv^\M»ci»^wX. 



y 



130 GRAMMAR. , 

Who is (there) ? It is I. 

Bodo. — Chur dong. Ang dong. 

Dhimal. — Hdshu hi. Ka hika. 

It vras so or thus. It is not so now ; but it will so again 
to-morrow. 

Bodo. — Risha dongman. Ddno uripiisa geyd. Gabiin rishd 
}&& phin nai. 

Dhim&l. — XTsdng hig&hi. E'lingj lisdng mantho. Jiimni 
us&ng nhechuto jeang. 

Why say so ? It is false ! 

Bodo. — Mdno idi raigo. O'ngd. 

Dhimal. — Hai pile usdng dopkhina. Micchd jeng (for je 
Sng). 

As it was^ so it is. 

Bodo. — Jiring dongman^ urfaig dong.* 

Dhimfl. — Jedong higahi^ kodong hi (for jehi). 

Will you go with me to the Hills ? 

Bodo. — Nang &ngjong hdjohi thdng nai. 

Dhim&l. — Nd kdng dosa d&ngta h&ngni. (for hadedng nd). 

I will go. I will not go. 

Bodo.— -A^ng thfingnai. A^ng thangd. 

Dhimdl.— Kd hdnkd (hadeangka). Kd md hdnkd. 

Did you go with him ? I did not go. 

Bodo. — Nang bijong (lagoche together) thdngd. Thdngi» 

Dhimdl. — Nd wdng dosa haina (for hadehina). 

Md haikd (for hadehika). 

Is he here, or not ? 

Bodo. — Imbohd jddgo, nd geyd. 

Dhimdl. — Ishd jehi, nd mdhi (md jehi). 

Is it so (fact), or not ? 

Bodo. — O'ngo, nd onga. 

Dhimdl. — ^Jehi, nd mdj^hi. (Precisely hast yd nest.) 

Yesterday I was beaten by Birna for leaving the calves in 
the cultivation. 

* Oti Jiring jiabui uring jiuigo. 



GRAMMAR. 131 

Bodo. — ^ng mifi Birndiii &khai* J^^g shojaya^ hunou mushu- 
galai phur (kho) h6g&rndne. (Past participle always if the act 
be done*) 

Dhim&l. — Kfi dnji Bimako khurdong d&ng hai nench&hi^ 
length pid ko changaiai (eng) Idppikd. 

Alas ! I was yesterday beaten without fault. 

Bodo. — Chi ! chi ! mid dug doshgeyi fldm&noj shojdyi. 

Dhim^. — Hai, hai ! d6shm&nth6 kfi dnji dfing hai nenchd- 
hiki. 

12 3 4 5 

He was killed by a tiger, and when we went to look for his 

6 7 8 9 10 

remains, we found nothing but shreads of his clothes. 

2 13 6 5 

Bodo. — Mochdjong wdtjaabai ; jelai jong, bini begeng nai- 

4 10 9 7 

gruno thdngd, selai lusri bdno man&, mangbo any thing (else) 

mane found not. 

2 13 6 

Dhim^. — KhuM dong ch& nenchfihi, jeld kyel wengko hara 

5 4 10 7 

bholi hadehi kyel, teUL thekd dhdbd (eng) kyel nenhi kyel, aro 
else, haidong anything, mfintho not* 

The mouse was killed by the cat and the cat was killed by 
the dog. 

Bodo. — Injotna mouji jong wdthat j&y&, moujia choima jong 
w&t phin j&yd. 

Dhim&l. — Juhd menkou sho she nenchahi uthoi menkou 
khid dong she nenchahi. 

I struck him and he struck me, and thereon we fought. 

Bodo. — ^^ng bikho shiia bio angkho shua, yiino jong khom- 
jaldbai. 

Dhimal. — K& weng danghai hika, wa keng danghai hi kola 
kyel puchu hi kyel. 

Having so said, he departed. 

Bodo. — Risha rainane, thangbai. 

Dhimal.— X/sang dop teng, hadehi. 

* laterally, by the hand of Bima ; and so in DhimiL 
s 2 



132 GRAMMAR. 

Having beaten his own wife, he fled for shame. 

Bodo. — Gouini bihi (kho) shundne, Idjinm khat langbai (or 
khatbai). 

Dhimal. — ^Tai (ko) be (wal) eng dang haikS, leder teng khat 
nhi (nhi=khi or hi). 

He goes laughing. 

Bodo. — ^Minin minin thangdong. 

Dhimal. — Lenkatang lenkat&ng hadekhi. 

He comes crying. 

Bodo. — Gapmin gapmin phoidong. 

Dhimal. — Khdrkat^ng kharkatdng lekhi. 

He goes speaking. 

Bodo* — Raiin raim thango. 

Dhim^. — Dopkatdng dopkatang hadekhi. 

Having come, he will speak. 

Bodo. — Phoinane, rainai. 

Dhimdl. — Leteng sdy doping. 

Having gone, he finished his business. 

Bodo. — ^Thangndne, hobbd (kho) moujapbai. 

Dhimal. — Ha (de) teng sa kdm jehi.* 

I shall be beaten to-morrow for not having finished the 
work. 

Bodo. — Qabdn ang shojaanai, mdno, hobbd haagai.f 

Dhimal. — Kam the, (eng) work, ma not, paka done, kouang 
because, kd dnji ddnghai nenchangka (for chaangka). 

A beaten dog, is good to nothing. 

Bodo. — Sojaya choimS, mangbo any, hohhino work, (for) 
ddaiyd (udaiyd useless). 

Dhim^. — Danghai nenchaka khia, haibo any, kam ko use, ma 
not. 

Spoken words, are quickly forgotten. 

Written words, are not soon obliterated. 

* A strong idiom if correct ; literally, the work was ; fuit so ante, chan jehi| for 
has produced young, 
t laterally, for why ? I was unable for the work. 



GRAMMAR. 133 

Bodo. — Rayfi kotha, gakhri bou jaa bai litnai ? koth&^ gakhri 
gomattid. 

Dhimal. — Dopka kothi, dhimpfi nflkd,* lekhika koth^^ ma§ 
pdkd (idiomatic ?) 

Yesterday he came but the work was done previously. 

Bodo. — Bi mid phoiya^ kintu habba sigang japbai. 

Dhimdl. — Knji lehi came^ wa he, kintii kam lampdng hoihi. 

If I find him I will beat him. 

Bodo. — Jeld dug bikho mano, old bikho^ him, shonai will 
beat, dng I. 

Dhimdl. — Jeld kd weng nenangkd, old weng ddng haiangka. 

Will you eat, or not ? 

Bodo. — Jdnai, nd jdyd (or jdyd gai). 

Dhimdl. — Chdngnd, nd md chdngna (chd angnd). 

Will you sit down, or not ? 

Bodo. — ^Joonai, nd jowd. 

Bhimdl. — ^Yongdngnd, nd md yongdngnd. 

Will you speak, or not ? 

Bodo. — Rainai, nd rdyd gai. 

Dhimdl. — ^Dopdngnd, nd md dopdngnd. 

Go quickly, Birnd is gone. 

Bodo. — ^Tho (familiarly for thdng) gakhri, Birnat thdngbai. 

Dhimdl. — Dhimpd hade, Birnd hadelu. 

Go alone, I am going to the village. 

Bodo. — Thdng nang hdshing, dng thdngdongpharou.J 

Dhimdl. — ^Ekeldng hade^ kd deratd hadedngkd. 

I am not going to-day. I shall go to-morrow. 

Bodo. — Dine dng thdngd, gdbun thdngnai. 

Dhimdl.— Ndni kd md hdnkd, (for hadedngka) jiimni hade- 
dngkd. 

* Nilldl forgotten ; Mllpdk^ not done. I could not obtain the trace of a passive 
save the participle by any variety of questions. 

t Md p&ki is probably a contraction for nfl ma pakd. 

X In these two instances the construction is as direct as in English, and would, I 
think, hav€ been found so oftener if the l/rdu questions had not told on the replies. 



134 GRAMMAR. 

He was false. He is true. 
Bodo. — Sanialen jdabai, Gh&m jaago. 
Dhimdl.— Micchd higShi, Elkd jehi. 
This boy is fat. That boy is very thin. 
Bodo. — Imbe gotho guphung dong, hobe gotho gaham dong. 
Dhimdl. — fdong chan dh&mka hi^ udong chan ch6p mhi 
(mhi = khi). *'■ 

Father^ and nfbther^ and child. 
Bodo. — Bi bipha^ bi bima, bi bisha. 
Dhim&l. — ^Aba, ama chan. 

1. Eaten by a tiger. 

2. Ab homine stuprata. 

3. Beaten by a hand. 

Bodo. Dhimdl. 

1 . Mochd jong j&j^y^. 1 . Khun&sho ch^ n6n chkkk. 

2. Hiwa jong kh6i j&y&. 2. W^val dong Id n^n ch^k&. 

3. Akhai jong sh6j4y&. 3. Khur sho ddnghai nen ch&k&. 

Given things how shall I take back ? 

Bodo. — Hotnai jinis bre how^ Idphinnai take back shall^ &ng I. 

Dhim&l. — Hka jinis hesd how^ nhechuto back^ rhu take^ &igk& 
shall I. 

Heard words why should I hear again ? 

Bodo. — Khandyd kothd m&no raiphinnai^ (shall I h ear, future.] 

Dhim&l. — Hinkd kothd haipdli nhechuto hin ang k&^ shall I 
hearj future.) I 

The man who told you so is your own friend. 

Bodo. — Jai nangkho idi raibai^ bi he, gushthi friend^ nangni 
your's. 

Dhimdl. — ^Jai lisdng, dopmhi keng was taiko own, diang man. 
12 3 4 5 

The man whom you seek is dead. 

2 3 4 1^ 5 

Bodo. — Jekho nang naignigo bi he, tho'ibai. 

3 4 

Dhimdl. — Jidongdiang what man, rhekhina kodong that, 

5 

didng man, sihi. 



GRAMMAR. 135 

With what shall I plaster this wall. 

Bodo. — Imbe injuri mdjong litnai. 

Dhim£. — Ithai berhem hdiiou lep&ngkd. 

What do you want ? and what are you saying ? 

Bodo. — Bi and, ma what, bidong wanting, bi and, ma what, 
raidong saying, (conjunction repeated : so above.) 

Dhim^. — Hai rhekhind, hai dopkhind. 

The natch is begun, come and see it. 

Bodo. — Mosha h&ngo, th^ngn&ne having gone, bikho it, nai ' 
see. 

Dhim^. — Hiali tenghi, hfiteng^a having gone^ titfing it^ dd see* > 

The natch is over, I will not go. 

Bodo. — Moshd khSngbai, ^ng th&nga. 

Dhimal. — Hiali hoilu, kd m& hdngkd (hade&ngka). 

Having finished that job he went to do the other. 

Bodo. — Hob^ habbd h&dn&n^ (or moujapn^^ gubiin hobba 
(kho) mouno th&ng bai. 

Dhimdl. — ^Ifta kameng hoipdteng, bhinfing kdm (eng) pSli 
hadehi. 

He wished to go with us yesterday, but was not able. To-day 
he is able, and willing to go. 

Bodo. — Bi jong jong mia thangno labai bai, haa (yd) gai ; 
Dine hd&yin,* thdngno labaigo. 

Dhimdl. — W& jumni king dosa hdli (hadeli) khdng hi ; m& 
d6nghi (dodnghi). Ndni hdli dong katang,* w& khdngkhi hdli. 

Are you able (to do it) or not ? 

Bodo. — ^Nang h&%6, ni hddge (ge for gai ?) 

Dhima.— Ni dodn khind n& ma ddnkhind^ (^^i? forjd^fing-J 

From Silig6ri to Dorjiling how many cos ? 

Bodo. — Siligori ni phrd Dorjiling chim, chewd piche. 

Dhim&l. — Siligori sho Dorjiling thekapa he cos. 

How many sheep and goats in the pen ? 

Bodo. — Mendd bo burmaiya noonou becheba. 

Dhim&I. — Mendd wd 6ech& sdkolipta he jehi. 

1" ThntyUi every initance, the conjanctioii ii evaded by the nse of the participles. 
♦ literally, to - day bdng able, he wiahes to goj 



136 GRAMMAR. 

Take it from the water, and throw it in the fire. 

Bodo. — Doini phra bokhdngnane, watou garshun, 

Dhimal. — Chisho chumateng ment4 huiipi. 

In a large house two fires are better than one. 

Bodo. — ^Noo gedetnou doudap manche no doudap mangne 
ghdmsin. 

Dhimdl. — Bada sata elong &kh& dong (for nhi dong) gnelong 
akha nu elang.^ 

1234 6 6 7 89 

Take it from these naughty boys and give it to those good 

10 

girls. 

4 5 6 3 2 

Bodo. — Imbechur hdmma hiwa gothophurni phr4 bikho 
1 8 9 10 10 7 

Idnane hobechur ghdm hinjoiigotho phur (kho) hot. 

4 5 6 3 12 

Dhimal. — fdong maelka wajan galai sho ghinteng weng, 

^8 9 10 7 

udong elka bejan-galai eng pi. 

Call all the children quickly. 

Bodo. — Boi (no) bogotho (phiir) kho gakhri ling hot. 

Dhimal. — Sogiming chan (galai) eng dhimpS, kai. 

Sdheb ! this is our buffalo : give it to us and take it from 
tiiem. 

Bodo. — Giri ! imbe jongni maisho jaago. Jongno hot. Bi- 
chumi phrd bikho Id. 

Dhimal. — Giri ! Idong kingko dia, king eng pi, ubal sho 
ghinteng having seized, rhu take. 

He took all the pigs from us, and gave them to Birna. 

Bodo. — Boinobo yoma phiir (kho) bi jongni phrd l&ydne, 
Birnino hua. 

Dhimdl. — Sogiming pdya (galai eng) king sho ghinteng, 
Birneng pihi. 

* Strong idiom : can't translate : for ordinary use the word elka may take its 

place. EUUig it probably nothing but a jingle with el6ng. 

* The participle is used all along to avoid the conjunction. There is not one 
exception to ^s mle. 



GRAMMAR. 13/ 

Construction. 

I have already stated that I do not propose to go into com- 
parisons^ until I have completed the series of contemplated 
Vocabularies and Grammars^ and^ with regard to positive re- 
marks on the structure of the Bodo and Dhim&l tongues^ I 
know not that anything need be added to the copious and 
careful particulars^ the statement of which is just concluded. 
It has been my object to make that statement perfectly ade^ 
guate to the ends in view/^ and those who are disposed to study 
it in all its parts will^ I trust find^ that I have not laboured in 
vain. 

A few concluding remarks may, however, be expected from 
me y but to avoid useless repetition I must glance at the whole 
group of tongues which I purpose to examine. It has been 
akeady observed, that the Bodo and Dhim&l languages belong 
pretty evidently to the aboriginal Indian tongues, and not to 
the Indo-Chinese or monosyllabic. They seem to me to have 
retained, to a remarkable degree, their primitive character, so as 
to constitute very valuable exemplars of the class of languages 
(aboriginal Indian), to which they belong; nor have I any 
doubt that further time would have enabled me to replace 
many of the I/rdu or Hindi vocables to be found in the Voca- 
bularies with others of indigenous stock. Such exotic words 
are surprisingly few, considering how long the Bodo and Dhi- 
m^ people have lived in peaceful intercourse with the people 
of the plains, on one hand, and of the hills, on the other ; and, 
what is still more singular is, the broad distinction between the 
Bodo and Dhim&l tongues as compared with one another, see- 
ing that these people have lived, for several generations, if not 
actually mixed, (for their villages are separate nor do they 
intermarry,) yet in the closest apposition and intercourse. That 
the Kocch were originally an affiliated race, very closely con- 
nected with the Bodo and entirely distinct from the Hindoos, 

♦ See preface. 



1.38 GRAM.MAR. 

(Arian immigrant population using the Prakrits,) I have no 
hesitation in saying. But, since the beginning of the J 6th 
century of our sera, the Kocch have very generally abandoned 
their own, in favour of the Hindoo (and Moslem), speech and 
customs, though there be still a small section called Pdni or 
Babii Kocch, retaining them. I failed to obtain access to the 
Pdni Kocch so that my Kocch Vocabulary exhibits little 
more than a mass of corrupted Prdkrits. There are, however, 
some primitive vocables and the vocabulary, such as it is, haa 
been taken, in order to preserve a living sample (soon to dis- 
appear) of that process whereby the Arian and exotic, are 
rapidly absorbing the Tamulian and indigenous tongues of 
India — tongues (the latter) which, if we make a general infer- 
ence from the state of things in the hilly and jungly districts, 
wherein alone they are now. found, must have been prodigiously 
numerous, when they prevailed over the whole face of the land 
— unless^ indeed, the dispersion and segregation in holes and 
comers of the aboriginal population have given rise to that 
nyw Babel of tongues which we now find. In the sub-Himalayas 
tribes. \ between the Kdli and the Tishta rivers, I know of the follow- 
ing aboriginal tongues and dialects : the Rongbo or Cisnivean, 
Bhdtia, the Magar, the Guning ; the Murmi, the NewSri, the 
Kirdnti, the Limbii, the Lapchd, the Siinwar, the Haijru, the 
Ch^pdng, the Kusdndd, the Denwar, the Diirre, the Br^mhu : 
the above in the Hills: in the Tarai, extending our limits 
easterly to Assam, so as to include its S. W. skirt. ...Ae Kocch, 
Dhimdl, Rabhd, Garo, Khyi or Khasia, Cachdri or Mech, or 
Bodo, S4|^^*f5 Kiidi, Batar or Bor Gangai, Kichak, Third : 
KebraV"^^^th, Maraha, Dhamuk, Dh^krS, besides those of 
hill tribes located there long ago, and now very different from 
their confreres of the hills, such as Sringia Limbus, Denwdrs 
Durres, &c. What a wonderful superfluity of speech ! and 
what a demonstration of the impediments to general intercourse 
characterising the earlier stages of our social progression ! 
How far these languages, though now mutually unintelligible 



GRAMMAR. 139 

to those who use them, be really distinct, how far any common 
link may exist between them and the rest of the aboriginal 
tongues of India — so as to justify the application of the single 
name Tamulian to them all — are questions which I hope to 
supply large means of answering, when I have gone through 
the hill and Tarai tongues of this frontier, as above enumerated. 
Be these points as they may, the Bodo and Dhinial tongues 
will be, I think, allowed to be genuine and highly interesting 
samples of the aboriginal languages of the plains of India, (what- 
ever their source or connexion, matters to be settled hereafter,) 
as well as to furnish a good key to the moral and physical con- 
dition of the simple races using those tongues. What can be 
more striking, for example, than agriculture being expressed 
by the term felling or clearing the forest; than the total ab- 
sence of any term for village,* for plough, for horse, for money 
of any kind, for nearly every operation of the intellect or will, 
whether virtuous or vicious, and, lastly, for almost every ab- 
stract idea, whether material or immaterial ? Structurally viewed, 
these languages are distinguished by a frequent absence of in- 
version that is unwonted in Indian tongues ;t by the peculiar 
use of the pronouns, particularly in Dhimal; by the special form 
and uses of the privitives ; by the loose cohesion of the sen- 
tences, resulting from a want of, and a contempt for, conjunc- 
tions, as well as a neglect of the signs of case and tense ; 
by the conjunctive application of the participles ;{ by a 
want of precision arising from the paucity of adverbs and also 
from the features just marked ; by a passion for ellipsis yet an 
attention to euphony ; by extreme simplicity of structure ; and 



* Arva in annos mutant et superest agper ! see on. 

t As will be seen, the unial structure of sentences is like that of Hindi and U'rd6 ; but, 
as already remarked, it must be borne in mind, that the U'rd6 and Hindi medium of 
questioning should be allowed for, as necessarily influencing the responses, which there- 
fore perhaps exhibit too much inversion 1 

t Id lieu both of relative pronouns and of conjuntions, thus instead of go and bring, 
we have going bring, and instead of he who brings, he bringing. 

* In tiie Tocabvlary words will be found for moft d ^Mie tMiiffB and ideas : bnt 
they axe all bomwed terms the natnre and sonroes of which the Indian reader will 
remtf reeoi^iise and see how clumsily and impeilbcilj tiiey have been incorporated ' 
ii^hfflBUMiiy attempt sA assiniilation is made. 



140 GRAMMAR. 

lastly, by the universal and exclusive use, in Dhim&l, of frag- 
mentary auxiliars in the business of conjugation. 

Adam Smith long ago remarked, that original languages 
might be known from derivative ones, by those auxiliars and 
prepositions of the latter, whereby the complex inflections of 
the former are got rid of. It would be practically very con- 
venient if we had any certain marks of this sort, serving to dis- 
tinguish those two classes of languages ; but it is difficult to 
suppose the Bodo and Dhimdl languages other than primitive ; 
and yet if they be primitive, Smithes deductions from the lan- 
guages of Europe, cannot be allowed to have general validity. 



PART III. 

ORIGIN, LOCATION, NUMBERS, CREED, CUSTOMS, CHARACTER 
AND CONDITION OF THE KO'CCH, BODO AND DHIMAL 
PEOPLE, WITH A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP 
THE CLIMATE THEY DWELL IN. 



^^^VN^k/^^^^^^^^^^^^M^rf^^^^w 



If we commence our researches into the aboriginal tongues 
and races of India in its north-east corner or Assam^ we find 
^that province rich in such materials for enquiry. But the ma- 
jority of the numerous aborigines of the mountains of Assam^ 
appear to belong to the monosyllabic-tongued or Chinese stem^ 
with which we have nothing to do. A line drawn north and 
south across the Brahmaputrd^ in the general direction of the 
Dhansri river^ and continued southwards so as to leave K&ch&r 
within it or to the west of it, would seem not very inaccurately 
to divide the monosyllabic-tongued from the Tamulian moun- 
taineers. Possibly, indeed, some of the hill tribes to the north 
of the Brahmaputrd, although within the Tamulian limits, as 
above conjecturally defined, may yet be found to belong to the 
monosyllabic-tongued races;* but to the south of that river, I 
think, it is pretty evident that such is not the case, for the 
K^ch^rians, Khasias and Garos are, in creed, customs and lan- 
guages, either identical with, or most closely affined to, the 
Bodo, while the Kudi, Rdbha, and Hajong, if not rather nomi- 
nal than real distinctions (Hajong, Hojai Kachari) are but ib^^ches 
of the great Bodo or Mecch family, whose proper habitat, be it 
remembered, is the plains and not the mountains. I should add, 
that it is a mistake to suppose the mass of the population in the 
valley of Assam to be of Arian race. I allude to the Dh^rds 

* In the Northern Hills also the Dhansri seems to demark the Alpine races of Tibetan 
origin (ending easterly with the Lhopa or Bhutanese) from the Daphlas, Akas, Bors, 
AlK>r8, Mishmis, Miris and others of apparently Chinese stock or lodo-Chinese^ that is, 
monosyllabic. 



142 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

or common cultivators of the ralley, who, as well as the Kdchdris 
and Kocch of that valley, are Tamulians, as is proved beyond 
a doubt by their physical attributes, and in despite of that Ben- 
gali disguise of speech and customs, which has misled superficial 
observers. The illustration of these Assamese races is, however, 
I believe, in better hands than mine ; and I therefore shall pro- 
ceed for the present more westward. Whoso should advance 
from Goalpara in Assam to Aliganj in Morang would, in tra- 
versing a distance of some 150 miles along the skirts of the 
mountains of Bhutan* and Sikim, pass through the country of 
the following aborigines ofTamulian extraction: the Kocch, the 
Bodo, the Dhimdl, the Rdbhfi, the Hdjong, the Kiidi, the Batar. 
or Bor, Kebrat, Pallah, Gangai, Mardha, and Dhanuk, not again 
to mention the Kachdrians separately, they being demonstrably 
identical with the Bodo, and so in future to be regarded, nor 
further dwelling now on the Khasias and Garos than to observe 
that Buchanan notes them as parts of the population of Rang- 
piir in its old extent.f We may have more to say of the rest 
of these tribes hereafter. Many of them have abandoned wholly 
their own tongues, and a deal of their own manners. But our 
present business is with the Kocch, Bodo and Dhimal, and first 
with the first. 
Locaiion^^ the Northern part of Bengal, towards Dalimkot, appears 
^"to have been long located the most numerous and powerful 
people of Tamulian extraction on this side the Ganges, and the 
only one which, after the complete ascendancy of the Arians 
had been established, was able to retain or recover political 
power or possession of the open plains. What may have been 
the condition of the Kocch in the palmy days of Hinduism 

* Bh6t&n recte Bh(it4nt, the end of Bhot, Sanskrit name of the country which the 
people themselves call Lh6, but like the Hindus, consider it an appendage of Bhot v. 
I'lbet, of which the former is the Sanskrit and the latter the Persian designation. The 
native one is B6d. 

t 15 in 60 words of Brown's Vocabulary, are the same in G^ro and in M6cch, and the 
whole 6K) or nearly so in Kach^ri and M^cch. Again, the Kacharis called themielve$ 
Bodo, and so do the M^cch ; and lastly the Kachari deities Sij(i, Mairong and AgHing 
are likewise Mecch deities— the chief ones too of both people to whom 1 restore their 
proper name. These are abundant proofs of common origm of Gar6s also. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 143 

cannot now be ascertained: but it is certain that after the 
Moslem had taken place of the Hindu suzerainty, this people 
became so important that Abul Fazul could state Bengal as be- 
uig *^ bounded on the north by the kingdom of Kocch which, he 
adds, includes Kamrup/^ Hajo founded this kingdom towards 
the close of the fifteenth century or beginning of the sixteenth, 
and it was retained by his sovereign successors for nearly 200 
years.* In 1773 the Company^s gigantic power absorbed the 
Kocch Raj, which once included the western half of Assam on 
one side and the eastern half of Morung on the other, with all 
the intervening country, reaching east and west from the Dhan- 
sri river to the Konki, whilst north and south it stretched 
from Ddlimkot to Ghoraghdt. In other words the Kocch Raj 
extended from 88 to 93^ east longitude and from 25 to 27 
north latitude, Kocch Bihar being its metropolis, and its limits 
being coequal with those of the famous yet obscure Kdmrup 
of the Tantras. Hdjo's representative still exercises jura re- 
galia in that portion of the ancient possessions of the family 
which is called Nij Bihdr, and he and the Jilpaigori and Pangd 
Rajahs, together with the Bijni and Darang Rajahs, and sever- 
al of the Lords Marchers of the north fi*ontier of Kdmrup 
(Baruas of the Dwdrs) — all of the same lineage — still hold 
as Zamindar Rajahs most of the lands between Sikim, Bhut- 
an and Kamrup, as at present constituted, and a southern line 
nearly, coincident with the 26o of north latitude, Sukla Dev 
of the Kocch dynasty divided the kingdom, and there seems to 
have been in later times a triple Sultanat fixed at Bihar, Ranga- 
mati and Gauhati. The Rajahs of Gauhati and their kinsmen 
of Darang extended the Kocch dominion eastward to and be- 
yond the Majuli or great Island of the BrahmapiitrS. Hajo the 
founder, having no sons, gave his daughter and heiress to a 
Bodo'or Mecch chief in marriage; and to the wise policy indi- 
cated by this act (the policy of uniting the aborigines and 
directing their united force against intruders) was the founder 
of the Kocch dynasty, indebted for his success against the Mos- 

• Bttch. Raogpur. Vol. III. p. 419, &c. &c 



144 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OP THE 

lems, the Bhutdnese and the Assamese.* Nevertheless the 
successors of Hajo speedily abandoned that policy, casting off 
the Mecch (Bodo) with scorn, and renouncing the very name 
of their own country and tribe with their language, creed 
and customs, in favour of those of the Arians who, however 
resolutely they may eschew the aborigines, whilst continuing 
obscure and contumacious, never fail to hold out the hand 
of fellowship to them, when they become powerful at once and 
docile. In a word, Visva Sinh, the conqueror's grandson, 
with all the people of condition, apostatised to Hinduism : the 
country was renamed Bihar — the people, Rdjbansi ; so that 
none but the low and mean of this race could longer tolerate 
the very name of Kocch, and most of these, being refused a 
decent status under the Hindu regime, yet infected, like 
their betters, with the disposition, to change, very wisely 
I adopted Islam in preference to helot Hinduism. Thus the 

i mass of the Kocch people became Mahomedans, and the 

higher grades, Hindus : both style themselves Rajbansi : a 
i remnant only still endure the name of Kocch; and of these 

• but a portion adheres to the language, creed and customs, of 

' their forefathers — as it were, merely to perpetuate a testimo- 

ny against the apostacy of the rest! The above details are 
interesting for the light they throw upon the character and 
genius of Hinduism^ which is certainly an exclusive system, but 
not inflexibly so ; and whilst it readily admits the powerful to 
the eminent status of Rajput vel Kshatriya, it is prone to ten- 
der to the humble and obscure no station above helotism — a 
narrowness of polity that enabled Buddhism not only to esta- 
blish itself in the very metropolis of Hinduism (Bihar, Oude, 
Benares) but for o' l 15 to^Mji^ _ jcenturiest (sixth B. C. 

' • The Yogini Tantra denounces these three, under the appellations of Plov • Yavan 

and Saumar, as the foreign scourges of the land. Buch. III. 413. The Assamese (Sau« 
mar) alluded to are the Ahoms, who held upper Assam when the Kocch held lower 
and middle, but with ever-varying limits. 

t Sakya was probably born in 545 B. C. and died in 465, and that his creed was 
still Boohshing in the eleventh century A. D. is proved by the then solemn repair of the 
great temple at Gaya. The persecution however was hot in the ninth. 

* Huh orKnfiis the Lepdia name of the Bhutuiese and "MT ^^ etymon of 
the?J»T«oftheTantras. Thg people of Bhutan caU t hemgdtee Lh6p 4. _. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE, 145 

to eleventh A. D.) to contest with it the palm of superiority. 
The Yogini Tantra very properly denominates the Kocch^ 
Mlecchas or aborigines, the fact being imprinted in unques- 
tionable characters on their non-arian physiognomy, and also 
on the language and customs of their unconverted brethren. 
They are called Kavach* in the Tantra just named, Hfed by 
the Kdchdris or Bodos of Assam, Kamdl by the Dhim&ls, and 
Kocch by the Mecch or Bodos of the Mechi, as well as by 
themselves where not perplexed with Brahmanical devises. 
Buchanan, who was furnished with every appliance for satis- 
factory research, and whose sagacity was not unworthy of his 
opportunities, estimated the numbers of the Kocch people 
twenty-five years ago, at 350,000 nearly. I am not aware that 
any good census has since been taken, and I have failed to 
obtain a general estimate : but from much inquiry, aided by 
Major Jenkins, Dr. Campbell and Permanand Acharj, I con- 
clude that Buchanan missed a great many of them under the 
disguise of Isldm, that cultivation has vastly increased since 
his time, that the Kocch abound throughout the northern part 
of Rungpur, Pumea, Dinajpur, Mymansing and in all Kamrup 
and Darang, as far as the Dhansri river, and that their num- 
bers cannot be less than 800,000 souls — possibly even a million 
or million and quarter. In Assam they are divided into Kam- 
thali and Madai or Shara, and Kolita or Kholta, and in Rung- 
pur, &c. into Rdjbansi and Kocch — ^those of the Moslem faith 
every where dropping their ethnographic designation. Their 
first priests were Deoshi, their next, Kolita or Kholta, and 
their last, the Brahmans or Mullahs. Buchanan vouches that 
their primitive or proper language (as still used by the un- 
adulterated remnant of the race) has no affinity with the 
PrSkrits, and I can attest the entire conformity of the phy- 
. siognomy of all, and of the creed and customs of this remnant 
with those of the other aborigines around them. I have 
already stated that I failed to get at the unconverted Kocch 

• This is identical with K6cch, the difference beingr merely that of the Sanscrit and 
Fraknt fonns of the same word. 

• * ObMrrcTthat this is this name of the extant Bode and Dhim&l priesthood, one of 
no meroiit proof s draaonstrative of the affinity of all the three people. 



U6 ACCOUNT OP THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

and that my Vocabulary is that of the converted. Hereafter 
I trust to supply this desideratum^ and in the meanwhile I 
j( cannot do better than give Buchanan's unusually careful and 

ample account of the condition, creed and customs of this peo- 
ple — which, being compared with my own subsequent statement 
of the condition, creed and customs of the Bodo and Dhimal 
(of whom Buchanan says little or nothing), will satisfactorily 
demonstrate the affinity I have insisted on. 
KSech.' ^^The primitive or P^ni Kocch live amid the woods, fre- 
jSto/tc^fquently changing their abode in order to cultivate lands 
enriched by a fallow. They cultivate entirely with the hoe, and 
more carefully than their ( Arian) neighbours who use the plough, 
for they weed their crops, which the others do not. As they keep 
hogs and poultry they are better fed than the Hindus, and as 
they make a fermented liquor* from rice, their diet is more 
strengthening. The clothing of the Pani Kocch is made by the 
women, and is in general blue, dyed by themselves with their 
own indigo, the borders red dyed with Morinda. The materia* 
is cotton of their own growth, and they are better clothed than 
the mass of the Bengalese. Their huts are at least as good, 
nor are they raised on posts like the houses of the Indo Chinese, 
at least, not generally so. Their only arms are spears : but 
they use iron shod implements of agriculture, which the 
Bengalese often do not. They eat swine, goats, sheep, deer, 
buffaloes, rhinoceros, fowls, and ducks — not beef — nor dogs, 
nor cats, nor frogs, nor snakes. They use tobacco and 
t beer, but reject opium and hemp. They eat no tame animal 

! without offering it to God (the gods), and consider that 

he who is least restrained is most exalted, allowing the Gdros 
i to be their superiors, because the Garos may eat beef. The men 

are to gallant as to have made over all property to the women, 
who in return are most industrious, weaving, spinning, brew- 
ing, planting, sowing, in a word, doing all woric not above their 
strength. When a woman dies the family property goes to her 
daughters, and when a man marries he lives with his wife's 

* The classic Zyth, IvQw^ beer without hops^ as universal among the Aborigines 
is the absence of spirits or distilled waters. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 147 

mother, obeying her and his wife. Marriages are usually 
arranged by mothers in nonage, but consulting the destined 
bride. Grown up women may select a husband for themselves, 
and another, if the first die. A girPs marriage costs the mother 
10 rupees — a boy's 5 rupees. This sum is expended in a feast 
with sacrifice, which completes the ceremony. Few remain un- 
married, or live long. I saw no grey hairs. Girls, who are 
frail, can always marry their lover. Under such rule, poly- 
gamy, concubinage and adultery are not tolerated. The last 
subjects to a ruinous fine, which if not paid, the offender be- 
comes a slave. No one can marry out of his own tribe. If 
he do, he is fined. Sutties are unknown, and widows always I 

having property can pick out a new husband at discretion. The 
dead are kept two days, during which the family mourn, and the 
kindred and friends assemble and feast, dance and sing. The 
body is then burned by a river's side, and each person having 
bathed returns to his usual occupation. A funeral costs 10 
rupees, as several pigs must be sacrificed to the manes. This 
tribe has no letters ; but a sort of priesthood called Deoshi, 
who marry and work like other people. Their office is not 
hereditary, and every body employs what Deoshi he pleases, but 
some one always assists at every sacrifice and gets a share. The 
Kocch sacrifice to the sun, moon and stars, to the gods of 
rivers, hills and woods, and every year, at harvest home, they 
offer fruits and a fowl to deceased parents, though they believe 
not in a future state ? Their chief gods are Rishi and his wife 
J%6. After the rains the whole tribe make a grand sacrifice 
to these gods, and occasionally also, in cases of distress. There 
are no images. The gods get the blood of sacrifices; their 
votaries, the meat. Disputes are settled among themselves by 
juries of Elders, the women being excluded here, however des- 
potic at home. If a man incurs a fine, he cannot pay with 
purse, he must with person, becoming a bondman, on food and 
raiment only, unless his wife can and will redeem him." 

The climate of north Bengdl or Kocch (including the cou^{{%Mi/e 

V 2 



148 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

try of the people so called, and of the Bodo and DhimaU) is 
too well known to require any particular notice. It is much 
less healthful than that of north Bihdr, being infested with 
low-fevers, which are either propagated from the wilds north 
and east of it, or, more probably, generated on the spot by 
excessive moisture and vegetation in the very extensive tracts 
of waste, still unhappily to be found every where east of the 
K6si river. West of that river, or in the ancient Mithila, and 
modem north Bih&r, the climate is as much more salubrious 
as cultivation is more diffused. The Saul forest every where, 
but especially to the east of the Kosi, is malarious to an 
extent which no human beings can endure, save the remarkable 
races, which for ages have made it their dwelling place. To all 
others, European or native, it is deadly from April to Novem- 
ber. Yet the Dhimdl, the Bodo, the Kichak, the Th^ru, the 
Denwir, not only live but thrive in it, exhibiting no symptoms 
whatever of that dreadful stricken aspect of countenance and 
form which marks the victim of malaria. The like capacity 
to breathe malaria as though it were common air characterises 
nearly all the Tamulian aborigines of India, as the Kols, the 
Bhils, the G6nds, who are all fine and healthy races of men, 
though dwelling where no other human beings can exist. This 
single fact is to my mind demonstration that the Tamulians 
have tenanted the wilds they now dwell in for many centuries, 
propably, 30, because a very great lapse of time could alone 
work so wonderful an effect upon the human frame, and even 
with the allowance of centuries, the fact stands forth as one 
of the miracles of human kind, which those who can explain 
may sneer at the other amazing diversities worked by time and 
clime on that marvellous unit, the seed of Adam ! The Bodo 
and Dhimals, whom I communicated with, alleged that they 
cannot endure the climate of the open plains, where the heat 
gives them fevers. This is a mere excuse for their known 
aversion to quit the forest; for their eastern brethren dwell 

and till like natives in the open plains of Assam, just as the 

* There is « no cabaHatic virtue" in 30, as Mr. Lyal obser? es in reference to Us 
theory oi the fowrfoldi division of tertiary rocks. TV)A!t iixuiihet ex-pcesslf Is gifen, 
however, becanee about 3000 yean back U tkie pToAia\AA ^Jte oi^^WmVcnSttBia. 
'the Ariaa Hiadoou. — 



KOCCH, BO DO AND DIIIMA'L PEOPLE. \49 

Kols of south Bihar (Dhangars) do now in every part of the 
plains of Bihar and Bengal^ in various sites abroad^ and lastly 
in the lofty sub- Himalayas. The Kols are, indeed, as enter- 
prising as industrious, and they should be employed by every 
European who seeks to reduce and cultivate any part of the 
malarious forests of India.* But. it must not be forgotten, 
that the very same qualities of freedom from disabling preju- 
dices, cheerful docility, and peaceable industrious habits and 
temper, which render the Kols now so valuable to us, are the 
inherent characteristics of most of the aborigines, requiring 
only the hand and eye of a paternal Government to call them 
forth, as in the case of the Kols. Ages of insolent oppression 
drove the aborigines to the wilds, and kept them there till 
their shyness of all strangers had become rooted and intense. 
But I can answer for the Bodo and Dhimal, possessing every 
good quality of the Kols, in an equal or superior degree, and 
the Bodo have already shown us with what facility those qua- 
lities may be put in action for our benefit as well as their 
own. The physical type of the Kocch, as contrasted with thutPhyricai 
of the Hindu, is palpable, but not so as compared with that oUt/peofc 
the Bodo and Dhimal. In other words, the physical type in 
all the Tamulians, (of this frontier at least) tends to oneness. 
A practised eye will distinguish at a glance between the Arian J 

and Tamulian style of features and form — a practised pen will 
readily make the distinction felt — but to perceive and to make 
others perceive, by pen or pencil, the physical traits that ' 

separate each group or people of Arian or of Tamulian extrac- 
tion from each other group, would be a task indeed 1 In the 
Arian form (Hindu) there is height, symmetry, lightness and 
flexibility : in the Arian face, an oval contour with ample fore- 
head and moderate jaws and mouth ; a round chin, perpendi- 
cular with the forehead ; a regular set of distinct and fine 

* How comes it that the Deyrah grantees, whom the malaria disables througli 
their peasantry, do not procure Dhdngars or Kols, who would answer thoroughly 
and exactly for the purpose in view ? I speak from much experience. 



150 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

features ; a well raised and uuexpanded nose, with elliptic 
nares ; a well sized and finely opened eye, running directly 
across the face ; no want of eye-brow, eye-laah or beard ; and 
lastly, a clear brunet complexion, often not darker than that 
of the most southern Europeans. 

In the Tamulian form, on the contrary, there is less height, 
less symmetry, more dumpiness and flesh : in the Tamulian 
face, a somewhat lozenge contour caused by the large cheek 
bones ; less perpendicularity in the features to the front, occa- 
sioned not so much by defect of forehead or chin, as by 
excess of jaws and mouth ; a larger proportion of face to head, 
and less roundness in the latter; a broader flatter face with 
features less symmetrical but perhaps more expressive, at least 
of individuality ; a shorter wider nose, often clubbed at the end 
and furnished with round nostrils; eyes less, and less fully 
opened and less evenly crossing the face by their line of aper- 
ture ; ears larger ; lips thicker ; beard deficient ; colour bru- 
net as in the last, but darker on the whole and, as in it, very 
various. Such is the general description of the Indian Arians 
and Tamulians. With regard to the particular races of the 
latter, it can only be safely said, that the mountaineers exhibit 
the Mongolian type of mankind more distinctly than the low- 
landers, and that they have, in general, a paler yellower hue 
than the latter, among whom there are some (individuals at 
least) nearly as black as negros. Among the Kols* I have 
seen many Orauns and Miindas nearly black; whereas the 
Larkas or Hos (says Tickell) are as pale, and handsome too, as 
the highest caste Hindu ? The Kocch, Bodo and Dhim£ are 
as fair as their Bengali neighbours on one side, and scarcely 
darker (especially the Bodo) than the mountaineers above them 
on the other side, and whom (the latter) they resemble in the 

* K61 is an old and classical name, and the best I think for the great mass of 
aborigines intervening between the Bhils, the Gonds, and the Ganges — at least till 
we know them better. The Orauns, Miindas, K61s proper and Larkas seem to be 
distinct and the chief families or stirpes. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 151 

style of their features aiid form, only with all the physic^o- 
mical characteristics softened down, and the frame less muscu- 
lar and massive. The Kols have a similar cast of face, and a 
very pleasant one it is to look upon in youth, exhibiting ordi- 
narily far more of individuality, character and good humour 
than the more regular but tame and lifeless faces of the Arian 
Hindus. For the further illustration of this point I b^ to refer 
to the accompanying drawings and appendix ; and proceed now Bodo 

from the Kocch tribe to the Bodo and Dhimai tribes, who occu- ^^. . 

_ , . r 1^ XT \ Dhimai, 

py the entire northern and eastern skirts of the Kocch count ry^^^^ii/j^^ 

between the open plains and the mountains, both of which 
sites^ generally speakings they avoid, and adhere to the great 
forest belt that divides the two, and which is, on an average, 
from 15 to 20 miles broad. The Dhimals^ who seem fast pass- 
ing away as a separate race, and whose numbers do not now 
exceed 15,000 souls^ are at present confined to that portion of 
the Saul forest, lying between the Kouki and the Dhorla or 
Torsha, mixed with the Bodo, but in separate villages and 
without intermarriage. But the Bodo are still a very numerous 
i^e, and extend, as foresters, from the Surm^ to the Dhansri, 
and thence, via Bijni and the Bhutan and Sikim Tarai to the 
Konki^ besides occupying, outside the forest limits^ a large 
proportion of central and lower Assam. In the divisions of 
Darang and Chatgari they constitute the mass of the fixed 
population : they abound in ChdrdwSr and NoudwSr : in Nou- 
gaon and Tularam^s country, they are the most numerous tribe 
next to the Mikirs and Lalongs : in Kdmrup next to the 
Dhekrfi and Kocch ; whilst in the marches or forest frontier of 
the north from Bijni to Aliganj of Morung, they form the sole 
population, except the few Dhimals, who are mixed with them ; 
and in the eastern marches from Gauhati to Sylhet, they are 
less numerous only than the 6fir6s, Rdbhds and Hajongs, not 
to mention^ that the two last, if not all three^ are but Bodos in 
disguise. I look upon the Rabhd as merely the earliest and 
most complete converts to Hinduism, who have almost entirely 



152 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

abandoned the Bodo tongue and customs^ and upon: the H&- 
jongs or Hojai Kach&ris of Nowgong, as the next grade in time 
and degree of conversion, who now very generally affect a hor- 
ror at being supposed confreres in speech or usages with the 
Bodo, though really such. Nor have I any doubt, that the G&t6b 
are at least a most closely affiliated race, and no way connected 
with the monosyllabic-tongued tribes around them.* I do not, 
however, at present include the Giros, or Rdbhis or H&j6nga 
among the Bodo, who are now viewed as embracing only the 
Meches of the west and the K&chdris of the east and south ; 
and, so limited, this race numbers not lesd than 150 to 200,000 
souls. An accurate general census seems out of question 
except for Assam, but the above enumeration is given as an ap- 
proximate result of several statements obligingly supplied to 
me by Mr. Kellner, Mr. Scott, Dr. Campbell, and that enlight- 
ened traveller Permanand Acharya. Thus the Bodo race ex- 
tends from Tipperah and the country of the Kukis on the 
south-east, to Morung and the country of the Kichaks to the 
north-west, circling round the valley of Assam by the course of 
the Dhansriy en route to the north, though Major Jenkins 
assures me that Bodos may be found even east of that river 
in the Assam valley. The latitude and longitude of the Bodo 
country are the same with those of the Kocch country, to speak 
without any affectation of a precision the subject does not admit 
of, and thus we may say the Bodo extend from 25 to 27 north 
latitude and from 88 to 93^ east longitude ; and that the Dhim&ls 
are confined to the most westerly part of this wide range of 
country, or that portion lying between the Konki and theDhorla* 
My personal communications with these tribes were chiefly with 
those still found in all their primitive unsophistication on the 
banks of the Mechi, and from much intercourse with these, during 
four months, I conclude that neither people have any authentic 
ancient traditions. Nevertheless the ancient connexion of the 
Dhimals with the west,* and of the Bodo with the east, part of 

♦ See Note at page 142. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 153 

north Bengal, is vouched by the facts, that a tract of country 
l}dng between the Konki and the Mahananda is still called 
Dhim&li; and a still larger tract situated between the great 
bend of the Brahmaputra and the Garo hills is yet called 
Mechpdrd. The close connexion of the Bodo with Kdmrup, is 
further confirmed by the facts of the mass of the people being 
still found there, though under the name of Kachdri, and 
by the intimate a£Binity of the Bodo speech and customs with 
those of the G&ros. The so called Kach&r Rajah is a new man 
and alien to the Bodo race, and so is the mass of the people of 
E&ch&r. But Tularam is a Bodo ; and the late Rajah of Karai- 
bdri another ; and the Kalang dwar chief a third ; and among 
the Lords marchers of the southern confines of Assam, others 
might once, if not still, be found ; for when the keeping of the 
northern marches (towards Bhutan) was entrusted to the Kocch 
race, that of the southern dwars or doors (towards Garo and 
Nagd land) was committed to the Bodo tribe, that is, to its 
chiefs. It would not appear that any chief of Dhim&l race now 
exists : but the scattered remnant of this race assure me that 
they once had chiefs when they dwelt as a united people in 
Morung, on the banks of the Kaval (Kamla) whence they 
removed to the Tengwa, and ultimately to and across the 
Konki, 60 years ago, in order to escape from Gorkhali oppres- 
sion. Of the few lately extant chiefs of Bodo race, the Karai- 
bdri Rajah^s estate is transferred to the stranger, and the 
Kalang and Tularam chiefships are shorn of much of their 
"fair proportions/' But in the days of Hajo, the Kocch 
founder, as well as in those of some of his more prudent suc- 
cessors, the Bodo seem to have had great political consequence, 
and if Hajos' descendants had steadily adhered to the wise 
maxims of their ancestor, their power might longer and 
more effectually have defied its enemies, whereas most of the 
Kocch Rajahs followed the illiberal Arian maxims of Viswa 
Sinh, and thus the Bodo were driven back upon their beloved 
forests, retreats which, speaking generally, neither they, nor the 



154 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

Dhimals^ have since quitted, save in Assam. I proceed now to 
the consideration of the status, creed and customs of the Bodo 
and Dhimal. Upon these points the two people have so much 
in common that though I have myself gone through each par- 
ticular separately in regard to each people, I shall spare the 
patience of my readers by aggregating what is common, and 
separating only what is particular, to the Bodo and Dhimal. 

Status,Condiiion. The condition or status of the Bodo and Dhimal 
people is that of erratic cultivators of the wilds. For ages 
transcending memory or tradition, they have passed beyond the 
savage or hunter state, and the nomadic or herdsman^s estate, 
and have advanced to the third or agricultural grade of social 
progress, but so as to indicate a not intirely broken connexion 
with the precedent condition of things ; for, though cultivators, 
all and exclusively, they are nomadic cultivators, so little con- 
nected with any one spot that neither the Bodo nor Dhimfil 
language possesses a name for village ! Though dwelling in 
those wilds, wherein the people of the plains (Ahirs and 
Gw^las) periodically graze immense numbers of buffaloes and 
cows, they have no large herds or flocks of their own, to induce 
them to wander ; but, as agriculturists little versed in artificial 
renovative processes, they find in the exhaustion of the worked 
soil a necessity, or in the high productiveness of the new, a 
temptation, to perpetural movement. They never cultivate the 
same field beyond the second year, or remain in the same vil- 
lage beyond the fourth to sixth year. After the lapse of 4 or 
5 years they frequently return to their old fields and resume 
their cultivation if in the interim the jungle has grown well, and 
they have not been anticipated by others, for there is no pre- 
tence of appropriation other than possessory, and if, therefore, 

j another party have preceded them, or, if the slow growth of 

the jungle give no sufficient promise of a good stratum of ashes 

for the land when cleared by fire, they move on to another site, 

new or old. If old, they resume the identical fields they tilled 

before, but never the old houses or site of the old village, that 
* Arra in annos mutant et raperest ager ! So immutable is human nature ^at 
the descriptioDB applied to our anceatora in their pristine state are absolutely vid 
' tnoBt ngni&cukHj true of similarly circumstanced tacea uo^ «^\dAn^ \n^<^ i(K«iX\'v&J 
^S^es of India, 



KOC€H, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 155 

being deemed unlucky. In general, however, tbey prefer new 
(and to old, and having still abundance of unbroken forest 
around them, they are in constant movement, more especially 
as, should they find a new spot prove unfertile, they decamp 
after the first harvest is got in.* They are all in the condition 
of subjects (of Nepal, Sikim, Bhut&n or Britain) having no pro- 
perty whatever in the soil they till, and discharging their dues 
to the Government they live under (Sikim, for example) Ist, 
by the annual payment of one rupee per agricultural imple- 
ment, for as much land as they can cultivate therewith, (there 
is no land measure ;) 2nd, by a corvee or tribute of labour for the 
sovereign and for his local representative. They calculate that 
they can raise 30 to 40 rupees worth of agricultural produce 
with one agricultural implement, so that the land tax is very 
light; and the corvee is more irksome than oppressive. It 
requires them, on the Rajah's behalf, to quit their homes for 3 
or 4 days, thrice a year, in order to carry burdens for him into 
the hills, whenever he has goods coming from the plains ; but, 
on the representative's behalf, to work only on the spot. Four 
times a year they must help to till his fields ; also to build or 
repair his dwelling-house ; to supply him with fuel and plates 
(leaves) whenever he gives a feast ; and, lastly, they must pay 
him one seer of cotton each year, for every cotton field they 
have. Very similar is the condition, in regard to taxation, of the 
Bodo and Dhimals, under the Nepal and Bhutan Governments. 
Under the British, the permanent cultivators of the open lands 
of Kdmrup are subject to the usual burdens, incidental to our 
rule, which they discharge with ease, owing to their industrious 
and orderly habits. Major Jenkins gives them the highest 
character, observing that — " they are a remarkably fine peasant- 
ry and have very superior cultivation of the permanent kind. 



99 



* Such are the primitive habits, still in use from the Konki to the Monasli, and 
which are most wortliy of study and record, as being primitive and as being com- 
mon to two people, the Bodo and Dhimal, though abandoned by the Kamrupiaa 
and most numerous branch of the Bodo. 

X 2 



156 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

This is abundant proof of the docility of the Bodo, and strong 
presumptive evidence that their erratic habits and adhesion to 
the wilds, elsewhere, are the result of oppression, at least as 
much as of the bias of pristine custom. But, as the K&mni- 
pian Bodo have abandoned with their erratic propensities, a deal 
of whatever is most characteristics of them as a distinct race, 
I resume the delineation of them and of the Dhimals, as still 
found in primitive simplicity between Bijni and Morang. There 
they are migratory cultivators of a soil in which they claim no 
sort of right, proprietory or possessory, but which they are 
allowed to till upon the easy terms of a quit-rent and labour 
tax, because none others will or can enter their malaria-guarded 
limits. There is no separate calling of herdsman or shepherd, 
or tradesman or shop-keeper, or manufacturer or handicraft, 
alien or native, in these primitive societies which admit no 
strangers among them, though they live on perfectly amicable 
terms with their neighbours, and thus can always procure, by 
purchase or barter, the very few things which they require and 
do not produce themselves. To a person accustomed to the 
constitution of social bodies in India, whether Arian or Tamu- 
lian, it must seem nearly impossible, that communities could 
exist without smiths, and carpenters, and potters, and curriers, 
and weavers, not to mention barbers. Yet of these helot crafts- 
men, whose existence forms so striking a feature of all Indian 
societies, and whose origin and status so much need* illustra- 

* When we consider the iodispensableness of the services of these craftsmen, it 
is remarkable that they should have continued to the present day, in a helot or out- 
caste state, not only among the Arians but even among the Tamulians, not only in 
the plains but in the mountains. My belief is, that most of the Tamulians on the 
I Arian conquest, retired to the mountains and juDgles, and that those who remained 

I were reduced to helotism and became the artizans of Arian Society, such as we now 

see them. Ages afterwards some of them passed into the fastnesses and wilds oc- 
i cupied by their Tamulian brethren, in freedom, and fierce defiance, for the most 

part, of their Ariun enemies. These immigrants are the recent helot craftsmen of the 
Grinds, Khonds and K61s, such as we now see them. Tamulians in origin like the 
masters they serve but from whom they fail to obtain better treatment than from 
the Arians. No common tie is recognised ; and ages of freedom and of servitude 
have left no common trait of character. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 157 

tion, there is no trace among the Bodo or Dhimdls, though they 
live apart from all others, like the Khonds, Gonds and Kols, 
who have these aliens among them; and necessarily so, for 
their inaccessible position and predacious propensities, would 
otherwise too often cut them off from all aid of craftsmen, 
whereas the Bodo and Dhimal, who dwell upon the plains, and 
on peaceful equitable terms with their neighbours, can always 
command such services, or rather tlieir products in the mar- 
kets. The Bodo and Dhimals have no buffaloes, few cows, no 
sheep^ a good many goats, abundance of swine and poultry, 
some pigeons and ducks. They have no need, therefore, of 
separate herdsmen, unless it were swine herds, and these might 
be very useful in feeding their large store of pigs in the forest. 
But they have no such vocation among them, each family 
tending its own stock of animals, which is entirely consumed by 
that family^ and no part thereof sold, though the proximate 
hill-men would gladly purchase pigs from them. But they love 
not trade nor barter further than is needful, and their need is 
confined to obtaining (besides rice) a few earthen and metallic 
culinary utensils, still fewer agricultural implements of iron, 
and some simple ornaments for their women — all which are 
readily obtained at the Kocch marts in exchange for the sur- 
plus cotton and oil seed of their efficient agriculture. £ach 
man builds and furnishes his own house, makes the wooden 
implements he requires, and is his own barber, or his neighbour 
for him, and he for his neighbour. He uses no leather and he 
makes basketry for himself and family, whilst his wife spins, 
weaves and dyes the clothes of the family, and brews the beer 
which all members of it freely consume. Thus, all manufac- 
tures are domestic, and all arts. The Bodo and Dhimdls are 
generally averse from taking service with, or doing work for, 
strangers, whether as soldiers, menials or carriers, though there 
are a few soldiers and servants at Dorjiling belonging to the 
Bodo race, who conduct themselves well in their respective 
capacities. Among their own communities there are neither 



158 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

servants nor slaves, nor aliens of any kind; and, whilst their 
circumstances tend to perpetuate equality of means, neither 
their traditions, their religion nor their usages sanction any 
artificial distinctions of rank. Though they have no idea of a 
common tie of blood, yet there are no diverse septs, clans or 
tribes, among them, nor yet any castes ; so that all Bodo and 

: all Dhimdls are equal — absolutely so in right or law — wonder- 

fully so in fact. Nor is this equality the dead level of abject 
want. On the contrary, the Bodo and Dhimals are exceedingly 
well-fed, and very comfortably clothed and housed ; and so 
soon as you know them — for they are very shy of strangers — 
their voices, looks and conduct all proclaim the absence of that 
grovelling fear and cunning which so shock one in one's inter- 
course with the people of Bengal, and the nmss of whom are 
much worse fed, and distinctly worse clothed and housed, than 
either Bodo or Dhimdls. 

GiW8. Laws. It having been already stated, that these people are, 
and have been, for ages, in the condition of subjects of foreign 
Governments, I need hardly observe that they hiive no public 
laws or polity whatever, nor even any traces of that village 
economy which so pre-eminently distinguishes Indian-Arian 
societies. Their habits are too simple and migratory to allow 
of the existence of the village system, with its train of heredi- 
tary functionaries and craftsmen. They dwell in the forest in 
little communities, consisting of from 10 to 40 houses, which 
they are perpetually shifting from place to place. Each of these 
communities is, however, under a head called Gra by them- 
selves, Mondol by their neighbours. To the foreign Govern- 
ment they live under, their Gra is responsible for the revenue 
assessed which he pays periodically to the Rajah's representa- 
tive — the Choudri — in cowries or rupees, the only currency. 
He has no scribe, nor keeps any accounts, his simple explana- 
tions to the Choudri being verbal. To the Choudri he is an- 
swerable, likewise, for the keeping of the peace and for the arrest 
of criminals : but crimes of a deeper dye are almost unknown^ 



KOCCH, BODO AND DIIIMAL PEOPLE. 15!) 

and breaches of the peace, very rare. Should a murder or rob- 
bery occur the Choudri would take cognizance of it, assisted 
by 3 or 4 proximate heads and elders of villages, and report to 
the Rajah, from whom alone in such cases, a decision could 
issue. With regard to his own community, the head of the 
village has a general authority of voluntary rather than coer- 
cive origin, and which ; in cases of the least perplexity is shared 
with the heads or elders of two or three neighbouring villages. 
Those who offend against the customs of the Bodo or Dhimdl, 
that is, their own customs, are admonished, fined, or excom- 
municated^ according to the degree of the offence, the village 
priest being called in, perchance, to give a higher sanction to 
the award. The same Juiy-like tribunal, seems to have 
almost exclusive cognizance of civil laWy or the usages of each 
people in regard to inheritance, adoption, divorce, &c. Mar- 
riage is rather a contract than a rite, and, as such, is dissoluble 
at the will of either party ; and if the divorce be occasioned by 
the wife's infidelity, the price paid for her to her parents, must 
be refunded by them. Dower is not in use, and women, in 
general, are deemed incapable of holding or transmitting pro- 
perty. All the sons get equal shares, nor is there any nice 
distinction of sons by marriage, adoption or concubinage. 
Adoption is common and creditable, even if there be one son of 
wedlock : concubinage is rare and discreditable. Daughters 
have no inheritance nor dower : but if their parents be rich and 
give them marriage presents, such are held to be their own, 
and will be retained by them in the event of divorce. Neither 
Bodo nor Dhimal can marry beyond the limits of his own peo- 
ple, and if he do, he is severely fined. Within those limits 
only, two or three of the closest natural ties are deemed a bar 
to marriage. In the event of divorce, the children belong to the 
father or the sons to the father and the daughters to the mo- 
ther. If the husband take the adulterer in the fact, he may 
beat him and likewise the wife ; but no more ;* and thereafter, 

* Among the Parbettias of Nepal the wronged husband may, nay must, slay the 
adulterer. 



'^ 



160 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

if he please^ he may put his wife away, when she and the 
adulterer will continue to abide together as man and wife, with- 
out scandal, but without marriage rite ; or, if the husband 
please, he may pardon her and frequently does so, should the 
offence have been the first, and committed with one of the 
tribe and not with an alien. Chastity is prized in man and 
woman, married and unmarried ; and, as a necessary conse- 
quence, women are esteemed and respected, and divorce and 
separation rare, notwithstanding the bad footing upon which 
the custom or law of these nations sets the nuptial union. 
Siphilis is absolutely unknown among the Bodo and Dhim&l^ — 
a fact that speaks volumes, and one that renders it scarcely 
necessary to add, that any class of women, devoted to unchas- 
tity, is a thing for which their languages have no name, and 
their manners, no place. Filial piety is not a marked feature 
in their character, nor perhaps the want of it. Sons, on mar- 
riage, quit the parental roof, and sometimes, previously : but it 
is deemed shameful to leave old parents entirely alone, and the 
last of the sons, who by his departure, does so, is liable to fine 
as well as disinheritance. Infanticide is utterly unknown, with 
every savage rite allied to it, such as human sacrifice, self-im- 
molation and others, too frequent among rude people. Daugh- 
ters, on the contrary, are cherished, and deemed a source of 
wealth, not poverty, for every man must buy his wife with coin 
or labour, and ^tis very seldom that the price comes to be 
redemanded by the wronged and unforgiving husband. There 
is no bar to remarriage, and satti is a rite held in abhorrence. 
Leam^ Of learning and letters the Bodo and DhimSls are totally de- 
~^^Sl* void, and always have been so. The numerals of the cardinal 
scale are only seven in the Bodo tongue, ten in the Dhimdls, 
and they have no ordinals at all. Beyond 7 or 10 they count 
by the Hindu ways of fours and of scores, and in this manner 
they can reckon to 200. Very few of the Bodo or Dhimils 
have learnt to write the neighbouring Prakrits, but many can 
converse in them, particularly in the corrupt BengS.li prevailing 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 161 

from the Kosi to the Brahmaputra. To the segregated manner 
of life of the Bodo and Dhunals^ and to the practice of both 
people of marrying only within the pale of their own folk^ I 
ascribe the present purity of their languages. 

Religion. — ^The religion of the Bodo and Dhim&ls^ is distin-jRe/ij^ 
guished^ like their manners and customs^ by the absence of 
every thing that is shocking^ ridiculous, or incommodious. It 
lends no sanction to barbarous rites, nor does it hamper the 
commerce of life with tedious inane ceremonial observances. It 
takes less cognizance than it might advantageously do of those 
great sacraments of humanity, baptism, marriage, and sepulture, 
withholding all sanction from the first, and lending to the other 
two, especially marriage, a less decided sdniction than the inters 
ests of society demand. The deplorable impediments to the 
business of society, occasioned by the Hindu (Arian) religion, 
are two well known to call for specification. But even some 
of the Tamulians are pestered with usages under the guise of 
religion, which are alike injurious to health and convenience,* 
or are pregnant with cruelty.f From all such crimes and mis- 
chiefs the religion of the Bodo and Dhim&ls is wholly free. 
With the most striking events or dearest ties of life it meddles 
little directly, confining itself almost exclusively to the propi- 
tiation of the superior powers by offerings and sacrifices. iV 
Bodo or Dhimal is born, is named, is weaned, is invested with 
the toga virilis, without any intervention of his priest, who is 
summoned to marriages and funerals chiefly, if not solely, to 
perform the preliminary sacrifice, which is indispensable to-con- 
secrate a feast, for no Bodo or Dhim&l will touch flesh the I 
blood of which has not been offered to the gods ; and, flesh < 
constitutes a goodly proportion of the material of those feasts 
which solemnise funerals and weddings alike. The ofiiqe of: Priest- 
the priesthood is not an indefeasible right vested in a caste^ itS 

* Khasias. Robinson's Assam, p. 413 and Buchanan's Reports, yoI. III. p. 
t Gar68. Elliott. Asiatic Researche, III. 29. Kh6nds. Macpherson's Reports 
and Taylor's Account, vide Madras Journal, No. 16, and Calcutta Review, No. IX. « 

Y 



162 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

nor is the profession at all exclusive. The priests are native 
Bodo or Dhimil, no way distinguished from the rest of the 
community^ either before or after induction. Occasionally the 
son will succeed the father in this office, but rarely ; and who- 
ever chooses to qualify himself, may become a priest, and may 
give up the profession whenever he sees fit. More than this, 
the Elders of the people may and do participate the functions 
of the priesthood, and even exercise them alone, so that it is not 
improbable, there was a time when the civil heads of the com- 
munity were likewise its ecclesiastical directors. This imper- 
fect constitution of the clerical office has, probably, proved, upon 
the whole, a great blessing to these people by saving them from 
the trammels of all refined Paganism, (Egyptian, Classic, In- 
dian) though it has had the necessary ill effect of keeping their 
religious ideas in a state of extreme vagueness. I am not 
inclined to consider ^^ the natural man^^ as a savage ; and I have 
no hesitation in calling the religion of the amiable Bodo and 
Dhim&ls, the religion of Nature, or rather, the natural religion 
of Man. It consists, clearly enough, of the worship of the 
most striking and influential of sensible objects — of the "starry 
host,^^ and of the terrene elements — with a vague but impressive 
reference of the powers displayed by these sensible objects to 
an immaterial or moral source, unknown indeed, but still adored 
as Divine, and even as a divine Unity.* It is true that these 
latter conceptions are too vague to be denominated, strictly 
speaking, ideas, proper to these people, much less, positive tenets 
of their creed ; and hence their languages have no word for 
God, for soul, for heaven, for hell, for sin, for piety, for 
prayer, for repentance. It is true that their gods are many, 
and are all void of definite moral attributes (save when their 
own meaner passions of vanity and anger and grief are occa- 
sionally ascribed to them). But still, in the pre-eminence 
assigned, however vaguely, to one (or two) of these gods, we 

* I refer the caviller to Pope's universal prayer and to that famous fane of anti- 
quity dedicated to the unknown God. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 163 

cannot deny to these simple-minded races the germ of a feeling 
of God^s imity ; and when they appeal to Him as the avenger 
of perjury, the sanctioner of an oath — we must acknowledge, 
that the moral sentiments of their own nature irresistibly impel 
them to ascribe like sentiments to the godhead. Now, in every 
serious matter of dispute that cannot be decided by testimony, 
usually so called, oaths and ordeals are had recourse to — and 
both, as substitutes for, and confirmatives of, evidence, accord- 
ing to the ancient Jewish (nay, universal) notions on this head. 
But, oaths and ordeals are appeals to the moral nature of the 
Divinity : nor can it be denied that, though the practical religion 
of the Bodo and Dhim^ consists of idle offerings and sacrifices 
to trivial deities, yet that supplications for protection from 
danger, and thanksgivings, when it is over, accompany these 
offerings and these sacrifices, forming a part, how inconsider- 
able soever, of the religious rites of the people, as conducted by 
the priesthood. The priests, or the elders, superintend the 
administration of oaths and of ordeals : the priests alone direct 
and conduct those high festivals, which thrice a year are cele* 
brated in honour of the Elemental gods, and once a year, in 
honour of the household divinities ; as likewise, those occa- 
sional acts of worship, which originate with more or less 
diflFused, or individual, calamity. The calamities to which the 
Bodo and Dhim&l stand most exposed, are small-pox and cho- 
lera, which sorely afiSict them ; and drought, blight, and the 
ravages of wild elephants and rhinoceroses, from which their 
crops suffer not less. Diseases are considered to arise entirely 
from preternatural agency, and hence there are no medical men 
but a regular class of exorcists, who are a branch of the priest- 
hood, and whose mode of relieving the possessed or sick will be 
described presently. They are called Ojhi and are the sole 
physicians. Small-pox is the direst scourge of the Bodo and 
Dhimals; next cholera (since 1818) ; next itch; then diseases 
of the intestines as diarrhoea and dysentery ; then fever ; then 
goitre ; diseases of the liver and lungs are very rare ; and siphi- 

Y 2 



164 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

lis is unknown. The Bodo and Dhimdl, though healthy races, 
are not long-lived nor prolific. Grey hairs are less common 
than in the hills or plains : 60 is deemed a great age : a family 
of 8 or 9 living children is hardly known : 5 or 6 alive is nearly 
the maximum ; and 2 to 4 the mean. The hazards and the 
importance of agriculture to the Bodo and Dhimdl, are suffici- 
ently indicated by their creed, the three chief festivals of which 
have almost exclusive reference thereto. Great as are the 
ravages committed on the crops by insects and wild animals, 
drought seems to be dreaded still more than either, so that 
among all the numerous gods Jupiter pluvius, as typed by the 
rivers, commands a reverence, second to none with the Dhim&ls, 
second to one or two only with the Bodo. All the rivers 
between the Cosi and the Torsha are chief divinities of the 
Dhim&ls — all those between the Konki and the Bar nadi, prime 
deities of the Bodo. Fire, however, indispensible agriculturally 
for the clearing of the forest, is by no means equally reverenced ; 
nor the earth, which yields all ; nor the noble forest, so cher- 
ished and so many ways indispensable ; nor the mountains 
whence come these very rivers ; nor even the sun and moon, 
which alone of the starry hosts are worshipped at all. All these 
deities are worshipped devoutly indeed, but none with such 
earnestness as the rivers : and yet the rivers flow too low to 
allow of their waters being turned to irrigation, so that it is ad 
an index of copious rains, upon which exclusively Bodo and 
Dhini&l crops are dependant, that the rivers are entitled to this 
reverence, though crossing as they do so frequently and so 
directly the route of communication through the country of 
these tnbes, His no wonder that they have unusually command- 
ed attention. When I first obtained lists of the Bodo and 
Dhim&l divinities, at once so numerous and so devoid of attri- 
butes, I was exceedingly perplexed what to make of these gods, 
how to render them at all intelligible to myself or others. But 
one key to the enigma was soon found in the Hindu pantheon 
-^—another in the best frontier maps, especially those of Rennell, 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 165 

where the rivers proved to be so many Dii majores. A third 
class of gods^ and a very important and characteristic one^ in 
regard to the Bodo more particularly, remained, however, for 
solution. These, following the people themselves, I have deno- 
minated the * household gods,' because their worship is con- 
ducted inter parietes. * National,' however, were the fitter 
term, for these are the original deities of the whole people, and 
though their worship be conducted at home, or in each house the 
whole neighbourhood participates through the medium of the 
accompanying sacrifice and feast, and reciprocally at every 
householder's of the village, once a year in solemn pomp, and 
more frequently and quietly as occasion may require. Not to 
mention that these deities likewise share with the elemental 
gods the high triennial festivals above adverted to; for how 
ample soever the Bodo or Dhim&l pantheon, their practical 
religion is as simple as their manners, and they dispose of their 
superfluous divinities by adoring them all in the lump ! A good 
many of the household or national divinities of the Bodo are 
elemental gods, chiefly rivers. Bitho, however, the chief god 
of the Bodo, is not an elemental god: but he is clearly and 
indisputably identifiable with something tangible^ viz. the Sij or 
Euphorbia; though why that useless and even exotic plant 
should have been thus selected to type the godhead, I have 
failed to ascertain. Mainou or Mainong is the wife of Bitho, 
and equally revered with him: more I cannot learn of her. 
The supreme gods of the Dhimdls are usually termed Wardng- 
Ber^g, that is, the old ones, or father and mother of the gods. 
They, likewise, are a wedded pair, whose proper names are, 
respectively, Pochima and Timai vel Timfing, of whom the 
latter is undoubtedly the Tishta river ; and the former, I be- 
lieve, the river Dhorla. The Bodo and Dhimdls have neither 
temple nor idol ; and altogether their religion belongs to the 
same primitive era with their habits and manners, is void of 
ofl^ence or scandal, and if any judgment may be made of it from 
the manners and character of its professors, is not without bene- 
ficial influences. 



166 



ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 



I proceed now to some details upon this pointy in which it 
will be necessary sometimes to speak separately^ of the Bodo 
and Dhimfil religions, though so little essentially distinct. This 
general correspondence extends not merely to the entire sub- 
stance and character of the religion, properly so called, of each 
people, but to all minor points connected therewith : for exam- 
ple, both people have but a vague notion of the existence or 
functions of those Dii minores called Genii, Fauns, Satyrs and 
Sylvans by the classic ancients, and Fairies, Sprites, Gnomes, 
Ogres, &c. by our Gothic or Teutonic ancestors. Neither peo- 
ple is infested with the Gothic bugbear of ghosts, or with the 
Gothic and classic follies of magic, sorcery, divining, omens, 
auspices, astrology or fortune-telling. On the other hand, both 
Bodo and Dhimal alike and devoutly believe in witchcraft, of 
which they entertain a deep dread, and likewise in the influ- 
ence of the evil eye, though much less dreaded than witchcraft. 
Omens are very slightly, if at all, heeded by either. 



Pantheon. 



The chief deities of the 



Bodo 

B&th6, chief god. Euphorbia- 

or Sij plant. 
Mainou or 1 •/• r u 

Agr&ng, male, relative of above 
pair. 

Khdrgi, male. 

Abl&khdngar, male. 

Khoil^ male, river ? 

Mandsh6, female. River Mo- 
n4s or Bon^s. 

Br^i, njale, river ? styled Brai 
or the ancient. 

Buli, female, river? styled the 
ancient or Bur6i. 

Khandaira, male, a Rajah. 

Jaman, male, Yania of Hin- 
dus. 

Kongar or 1 male, Bhutanese 

G6ngar, j Deity. 

Af^ i!"^' 7 males. 
Mishwg, J 



and 



'S 

a 

:0 

O 

o 

so 

O 
bC 

' O 

ai 

o 



o 

d 
o 



DhimdU, 

Pochima, mas. father of the gods, 
the river Dhorla ? 

Timai vel 1 foem. mother of the 

Timang, j gods : the Tishta ri- 
ver. 

L^khim, foem. sister of Timai with 
some : Mahanada? 

Chimd, fcem. sister of Timai : the 
Kosi river. 

Konokchiri, foem. feeder of Eonki 
river. 

Kangkai, foem. river Konki. 

M^nchi, fo3m. river M6chi. 

Sondsi, mas. the Soran river. 

Bondsi, mas. the Bo&s or Dods. 

Dhiilpi, mas. the Ddb^ly river. 

Danto, mas. styled the old. 

Ch&ddng, mas. styled Rajah, son 
of Timai. 

Aphoi, mas. Rajah, son of Timai. 

Biphoi, ditto ditto ditto. 

Aphiin, ditto ditto ditto. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 



167 



River 



Dh6iiafarai, mas. ri?er, bus-^ 

bandofTUhta. 
Dfidkoai, female, river- 
Tishta, ditto, ditto. 
Eangkai, ditto, ditto. 
M^chi, male, river. 
Torsha, ditto, ditto. 
J6rdaga, ditto, ditto : the Jer~ 

decker R. 
B&lakhdngar, ditto ditto : the 

B&l(isan. 
M^&mfiyli, female. 

Mahananda. 
Ddimti, Brahmaputra. 

Mater magna, 
Chsddng. 

Brai Bhand&ri. 

Jbotoa Bhand&ri. 

E&th^ male, a Rajah, 

BipkhiiiiKar. 

Phoron khiiQgar, 

Shyanmadai, the sun, i ^.i„_ 

Nokhfibirmadai, the \^,^^^„ 

moon, J 

HSmadai, the Earth, fcem. 
WStmadai, Fire, mas. 
IUj6, Rajah, mas. 
Uian, ditto ditto, 
BMti, ditto ditto. 
Phulibar, mas, 
Malibar, mas. 
Siikra brai, m 
Silkrabar6i,fa 

like several others. 
Dhonkfivir, mas. \ Hindu 
R&thfikdvir, mas. J god of 

wealth' J 

Khfimla brai,"! JTlieKam,, 
Khiimlabfir^ -'Mmue 
Kbfitibiir, >■- fa,m. 

ChomkhibJr, .|T!ieCham. 

Dhonbir, J e^^^'"" 
1 ^Tbe SoniD ri 



styled 
I the old 



SfinAhi, ■ 
B>in6khi, ( 
Anari, | 
Banari, J 



I The Bo&s ri- 



Kfiphiin, ditto ditto ditto. 

Bfiphiin, ditto ditto ditto. 

Shiiti, ditto ditto ditto. 

Rong, mas. 

Aika, mas. et fcem. styled the old, 

Sn| } '"'^"' "'■"' "^ ^'P**™- 
Hili mahadbi, "j Females all ; 
Khiincbi mahaddi, wives of the 
Kbili mahadtS, 7 sons of Ti- 

Airi mabHd6T, > mai above 

Birti mabad6i, I given : Ap- 
Nilo mahad6i, | parently Hin- 
K^o mahad<S, J du Deities, 
ne^y named, or rather renam- 
ed by the Dhim&ls. 
Bilk, mas. the Sun. 
T&li, fcem. the Moon. 
Bhan£i, foem. the Earth. 
SlnKko Dir, the forest gods. 
B4 ko Dir, the mountam gods. 
Chamhochiri, fcem. the Champa- 

Divai chin, fcem. river ? 
Phiil ehiri, ditto ditto. 
R&vai chiri, ditto ditto. 
J(vh&nt4 'l males, styled the 
B&whiint4, >young, wh6nt6i hu»- 
RAwh^t^iJ bands of above Chiris. 
Nitti, 1 Uii minores, male and 
Ach&r, > female of each name,* 
Bibhar, J equivalent to the Bodo 
Jamiui. 



' o Bfd&ta f ^'*^''* ^"^ nuptials. 



168 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 



Extra list of the Pantheon of the BodoSy of Assam and Kdmrup. 



Siju Gohain,* 
Sasung, 
Il6Dg chiklau, 
Il6ng madai, 
Bor g^m, 
Sor gam, 
Pit bir, 
Hap busa. 
Hap bdsi, 
Ranga t^kla, 
Boja t^kla, 
Moj&ng Moj^g, 
Jang khalap, 
Jang kbilip, 
Chdta bir, 
Matbo bir, 
Khona kboni. 
Match langkhar, 
Jang khana, 
Jang khani, 
Bdra Gorung, 
Khola Gorung, 
Raj phr!isaru, 
Agrdng kolia, 
Khandab, 
Jol khiinjara, 
Jol khunjari, 
Ayd, or Ai,t 
Maknar, 
Jomon, 
Jal ktivir. 
Thai kdvir, 
Dhon kdvir, 






> 



1 -9 



I 



} 



9) 



< 



Same as Bath6. 

Male, great and malignant. 

Spirits attendant on S^ung, pro- 
pitiated on occasions of sickness, 
death or other calamity. 



Spirits attendant on the god Hap- 
biisa and goddess Hapbusi. 
Goats and fowls sacrificed to 
them. 



Dii minores, get fowls or eggs 
only in sacrifice. 

Same as BiirhaGosain of the K6ch. 
Attendant spirit on last. 
Male, a Penate. 
Agrang of prior list. 
Fluviatile deities, malignant. Pi- 
geons sacrificed to them. 

TKdmakhya. 

Lakshmi. 
•^ Yama. 



[} 



Kuvir, Indian Pluto. 



* Gohain is a mere corruption of the Prakrit Gosain, the Supreme ; Siju is the Sij vel 
Euphorbia, type of Batho. 
t Unde Ai h6Q6, the great festival, presently to be described. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DIIIMAL PEOPLE. 169 

I know not that I can add any thing worth preserving to the 
foregone list of the deities of the Bodo and Dhim&l save wliat 
will fall more appropriately under the head of rites and cere* 
monies. The list might have been considerably enlarged^ but 
chiefly by importations from the Hindu Pantheon ; and as these 
consist of mere names^ it seems suiBicient to observe^ once for 
all^ that the Bodo and Dhimal have latterly adopted a good 
many of the Hindu goddesses^ particularly the various forms 
of Durga or K41i, but without any of the rites appropriate to 
her worship, or even any images of her. The deities of the 
Bodo and Dhim&l are divided into males and females, old and 
young ; and the latter distinction is material as indicating the 
relative rank and consideration of the gods : the ancient or 
venerable (Brai-Baroi in Bodo, Wardng-B^r&ng in Dhim&l, 
according to the sex) are the Dii majores ; the young (Khun- 
gar vel Jholou in Bodo, Whint^ in Dhim&l), are the Dii mino- 
res. It will be noticed that several of the deities bear the 
title of Rdjah ; and, as one of these (H&j6) is a known historic 
person, it seems probable that this portion of the Bodo and 
Dhimal pantheon exemplifies the classic and Hindu practice of 
deifying the mortal benefactors of mankind — ^in a word, apothe- 
osis, or hero worship. Madai, in Bodo, is a general term, 
equivalent to Deity, Divinity : Dir and Gr&m, are correspond- 
ent terms in Dhimdl. 

Rites and ceremonies. — The rites of the Bodo and Dhim&l Reh \ 
religions are entirely similar and consist of offerings, sacrifices' T}i^^^ 
and prayers. The prayers are few and simple, when stript of 
their mummery ; and necessarily so, being committed solely to 
the memories of a non-hereditary and very trivially instructed 
and mutable priesthood. They consist of invocations of pro- 
tection for the people and their crops and domestic animals ; 
of deprecations of wrath when sickness, murrain, drought, blight, 
or the ravages of wild animals, prevail ; and thanksgivings 
when the crops are safely housed, or recent troubles are passed. 
The offerings consist of milk, honey, parched rice, eggs, flowers. 



170 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

fruits, and red lead or cochineal : the sacrifices of hogs, goats, 
fowls, ducks, and pigeons — most commonly hogs and fowls. 
Sacrifices are deemed more worthy than offerings, so that all 
the higher deities, without reference to their supposed bene- 
volence or malevolence of nature, receive sacrifices — all the 
lesser deities, offerings only. Libations of fermented liquor 
always accompany sacrifice — becausCy to confess the whole 
truth, sacrifice and feast are commutable words, and feasts need 
to be crowned by copious potations ! Malevolence appears to 
be attributed to very few of the gods, though of course all will 
resent neglect ; but, in general, their natures are deemed bene- 
volent; and hence the absence of all savage or cruel rites. All 
diseases, however, are ascribed to supernatural agency. The 
sick man is supposed to be possessed by one of the deities, 
who racks him with pains as a punishment for impiety or neg- 
lect of the god in question. Hence, not the mediciner, but the 
exorcist is summoned to the sickman^s aid. The exorcist is 
called both by the Bodo and Dhimdls Ojh&, and he operates as 
follows. Thirteen leaves each with a few grains of rice upon 
it are placed by the exorcist in a segment of a circle before 
him to represent the deities. The Ojhd, squatting on his 
hams before the leaves causes a pendulum attached to his 
thumb by a string to vibrate before them, repeating invocations 
the while. The god who has possessed the sick man, is indi- 
cated by the exclusive vibration of the pendulum towards his 
representative leaf, which is then taken apart, and the god in 
question is asked, what sacrifice he requires ? a buffalo, a hog, 
a fowl, or a duck to spare the sufferer. He answers (the 
Ojha best knows how!) a hog; audit is forthwith vowed by 
the sick man and promised by the exorcist, but only paid when 
the former has recovered. On recovery the animal is sacrificed, 
and its blood offered to the offended deity. I witnessed this cere- 
mony myself among the Dhimdls on which occasion the thirteen 
deities invoked were Pochima or Warang, Timai or Bering, 
Ldkhim, Konoksiri, Menchi, ChimS, Danto, Chddung, Aph6i, 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 171 

Bipho'i^ Andheman (Aphiin), Tdtopdtia (Bdphun) and Shuti. 
A Bodo exorcist would proceed precisely in the same manner, 
the only difference in the ceremony being the invocation of the 
Bodo gods instead of the Dhimdl ones. 

The great festivals of the year are three or four. The first R9& 
is held in December-January, when the cotton crop is ready. .^?2*5 
It is called Shurkhar by the Bodo, Har^jata by the Dhimals. 
The second is held in February- March. It is named Waga- 
leno by the Bodo, who alone observe it. The Bodo name for 
the third, which is celebrated in July-August, when the rice 
comes into ear, is Phiilth^pno. The Dhimdls call it Gdvi puja. 
The fourth great festival is held in October, and is named Ai 
huno by the Bodo — Pochima pdkd by the Dhimals. The three 
first of these festivals are consecrated to the elemental gods 
and to the interests of agriculture. They are celebrated abroad, 
not at home, (generally on the banks of ariver) whence attend- 
ance on them is called Hogron hudong or madai hudong, 
* going forth to worship* in contradistinction to the style of the 
4th great festival, which is devoted to the household gods and 
is celebrated at home. The W%aleno or bamboo festival of 
the Bodo I witnessed in the spring of this year, and will de- 
scribe it as a sample of the whole. Proceeding from Siligori to 
Pankhab&ri with Dr. Campbell, we came upon a party of Bodo 
in the bed of the river, within the Saul forest, or rather, were 
drawn off the road by the noise they made. It was a sort of 
chorus of a few syllables, solemnly and musically incanted, 
which, on reaching the spot, was found to be uttered by thir- 
teen Bodo men, who were drawn up in a circle facing inwards, 
and each carrying a lofty bamboo pole decked with several tiers 
of wearing apparel and crowned with a Chour or Yakstail. 
Within the circle were three men, one of whom with an instru- 
ment like this ( I I ~ ) in his hands danced to the music, 
waving his weapon downwards on one side and so over the head, 
and then downwards on the other side and again over the head. 
He moved round the margin of the circle in the centre of 

z 2 



172 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

which stood two others^ one a Deoshi or priest, and the other 
ail attendant or servitor called Phantwal. The priest, clothed 
in red cotton but not tonsured or otherwise distinguished from 
the rest of the party, muttered an invocation whereof the burden 
or chorus was taken up by the thirteen forming the ring above 
noticed. The servitor had a water pot in one hand and a brush in 
the other, and from time to time, as the rite proceeded, this per- 
son moved out of the circle to sprinkle with the holywater ano- 
ther actor in this strange ceremony and a principal one too. 
This is the Deodd or the possessed who when filled with the god 
answers by inspiration to the questions of the priest as to the 
prospects of the coming season. When we first discerned 
him, he was sitting on the ground panting, and rolling his eyes 
so significantly that I at once conjectured his function. Shortly 
afterwards, the rite still proceeding, the Deoda got up, entered 
the circle and commenced dancing with the rest, but more 
wildly. He held a short staff in his hand, with which, from 
time to time he struck the bedizened poles, one by one , and 
lowering it as he stmck. The chief dancer with the odd-shaped 
instrument waxed more and more vehement in his dance ; the 
inspired grew more and more maniacal ; the music more and 
more rapid ; the incantation more and more solemn and earn- 
est ; till at last amid a general lowering of the heads of the 
decked bamboo poles, so that they met and formed a canopy 
over him, the Deoda went off in an affected fit, and the cere- 
mony closed without any revelation — a circumstance which 
must be ascribed to the presence of the sceptical strangers ; 
for it is faith aloiie that worketh miracles and only among 
and for the faithful. This ceremony is performed annually by 
the Rajah of Sikim^s orders, or rather with his sanction of the 
usages of his subjects ; is addressed to the sun, the moon, the 
elemental gods and, above all, to the rivers ; and is designed to 
ensure health and plenty in the coming year, as well as to as- 
certain, beforehand, its promise or prospect through the revela- 
tions o^ the Deodd. With regard to the festival sacred to the 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 1/3 

national or homebred (nooni) gods, called Aihuno by the Bodo 
and Pochima pakd by the Dhim&ls^ it is to be observed that the 
rite, like the separate class of deities adored thereby, is more 
distinctively Bodo than Dhim^l. With both people the pre- 
eminence of water among the elements is conspicuous: but, 
whereas the river gods of the Dhim&ls have nearly absorbed 
all the rest, elementary or other, the household gods of the I 

Bodo stand conspicuously distinguished from the fluviatile dei- 
ties. The Pochima and Timang of the Dhimdls are one or both 
rivers: the Batho and Mainang of the Bodo are neither of 
them rivers, and their interparietal rites are as clearly distin- 
guished from the rites performed abroad to the fluviatile and 
other elemental gods. However, the rites of Bdtho and Mainou 
are participated by deites of elementary and watery nature, 
and, on the other hand, the DhimSls assert that P6chima and | 
Timai have a two-fold character, one of river gods (Dhorla and 
Tishta), and one of supreme gods ; and that they are adored, 
separately, in these two characters, the Pochima pdk& or home 
rite of October, being appropriated to them in the latter capa- 
city or that of supreme gods. I have not witnessed the Po- 
chima p&kfi, and therefore speak with hesitation. The Ai hiino is 
performed as follows. The friends and family being assembled, 
including as many persons as the master of the house can afford 
to feast, the D^oshi or priest enters the enclosure or yard of the 
house, in the centre of which is invariably planted a Sij or Eu- 
phorbia, as the representative of Batho who is the family as well 
as national god of the Bodo. To Bdtho thus represented the 
Deosbi offers prayers, and sacrifices a cock. He then pro- 
ceeds into the house, adores Mainou and sacrifices to her a 
hog. Next, the priest, the family and all the friends proceed 
to some convenient and pleasant spot in the vicinity, previous- 
ly selected, and at which a little temporary shed has been 
erected as an altar, and there, with due ceremonies, another 
hog is sacrificed to Agrdng, a he-goat to Manasho and to Bull, 

and a fowl, duck or nisreon (black, red, or white, according to 

* Ai or Aya is the goddess Kim&kjfi or K^rdp, vis gcnetrix naturee, typed by ' 

theBhagao rYoni. See 168. re » /r /, 



174 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

the special and well known taste of each god) to each of the 
remaining nine of the Nooni madai. The blood of the sacrifice 
belongs to the gods — the flesh to his worshippers, and these 
now hold a high feasl, at which beer and tobacco are freely 
used to animate the joyous conclave, but not spirits nor opium, 
nor hemp. The goddess Mainou is represented in the interior 
of each house by a bamboo post about 3 feet high, fixed in the 
ground and surmounted by a small earthen cup filled with rice. 
Before this symbol is the great annual sacrifice of the hog above 
noted, performed ; and before this, the females of the family, 
once a months make offerings o£eggs. For the males^ due at- 
tention to the four annual festivals is deemed sufficient in pros- 
perous and healthful seasons. But sickness or scarcity always 
beget special rites and ceremonies, suited to the circumstances 
of the calamity, and addressed more particularly to the elemen- 
tal gods, if the calamity be drought or blight or devastations 
of wild animals — to the household gods, if it be sickness. 
Hunters, likewise, and fishers, when they go forth to the chase, 
sacrifice a fowl to the Sylvan gods, to promote their success ; 
and lastly, those who have a petition to prefer to their supe- 
riors, conceive that a similar propitiation of Jishim and Mishim, 
or of the Chiris, will tend to the fulfilment of their requests. 
And this, I think, is nearly the whole amount of rites and cere- 
monies, which their religion prescribes to the Bodo and Dhim&ls. 
And anxious as I am fully to illustrate the topic, I will not try 
the patience of my readers by describing all that variety of 
black victims and white, of red victims and blue, which each 
particular deity is alleged to prefer ; first, because the sul)ject is 
intrinsically trifling ; and second, because the diverse statements 
of my informants lead me to suspect, that the matter is optional 
or discretionary with each individual priest prescribing these 
minutiae. I have mentioned the rude symbols proper to B&th6 
and Mainou. None of the other gods seem to have any at all, 
though a low line of kneaded clay attached to the Thdli that 
surrounds the sacred Euphorbia in the yards of the Bodo is 



KOCCU, BODO AND DIIIMAX PEOPLE. 173 

said to stand for the rest of the divinities who^ as I have already 
said, are wont to be worshipped collectively rather than indivi- 
dually; and thus the sun^ the moon and the earth, though 
adored by Bodo and by Dhimal, have no separate rites, but are 
included in those appropriated to the elemental gods. Witch- 
craft is universally dreaded by both Bodo and Dhim^l. The names 
of the craft and of its professors^ male and female, will be found 
in the vocabulary. Witches (Dain and Mhdi) are supposed 
to owe their noxious power to their own wicked studies, or to 
the aid of preternatural beings. When any person is afflicted, 
the elders assemble and summon three Ojhds or exorcists, with . 
whose aid and that of a cane freely used, the elders endeavour 
to extort from the witch a confessioiv of the fact and the mo- 
tives. By dint of questioning and of beating the witch, is ge- 
nerally brought to confession when he or she is asked to re- 
move the spell, to heal the sufferer, means of propitiating 
preternatural allies (if their agency be alleged) being at the 
same time tendered to the witch, who is, however, forthwith 
expelled the district and put across the next river, with the 
concurrence of the local authorities. No other sorcery or black 
art save that of witches is known ; nor palmistry, augury, astro- 
logy, nor, in a word, any other supposed command of the future 
than that described in the ^W4 galeno^ as the attribute, (for 
the nonce) of the Deod^ or vates. The evil eye causes some 
alarm to Bodo and to Dhimdl who call it mogon n&ngo and mi 
nojo respectively, and who cautiously avoid the evil-eyed person, 
but cannot eject him from the community. The influence of 
the evil eye is sought to be neutralised by oflferings of parched 
millet and eggs to Khoja Kajah and Mansha Rajah — Dii minores 
who find no place in my catalogue, ample as it is. Moish 
madai, I am told, likewise claims a place in the Bodo Panthe- 
on, and a distinguised place too, as the protector of this forest- 
dwelling people, from beasts of prey and especially the tiger. 

Priesthood, — ^The priesthood of the Bodo and Dhim&ls ispri^ff-^ 

entirely the same, even to the nomenclature, which with both, hoodm J 
^ t>. 161. 



mC^ 



176 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OP THE 

people expresses the three sorts of clergy by the terms Deoshi^ 
Dhami and Ojha. The Dhami (seniores priores !) is the district 
priest. The Deoshi, the village priest ; and the Ojha the village 
exorcist. The Deoshi has under him one servitor called Phant- 
wdl. There is a Deoshi in nearly every village. Over a small 
circle of villages one Dhdnii presides and possesses a vaguely 
defined but universally recognised control over the D^shis of 
his district. The general constitution and functions of the cleri- 
cal body have already been fully explained. Priests are subject 
to no peculiar restraints, nor marked by any external sign of 
diverse dress or other. The connexion between pastor and 
flock is full of liberty for the latter, who collectively can eject 
their priest if they disapprove him, or individually can desert 
him for another if they please. He marries and cultivates like 
his flock, and all that he can claim from them for his services 
is, first, a share of every animal sacrificed by him, and second, 
three days^ help from each of his flock (the grown males), per 
annum towards the clearing and cultivation of the land, he 
holds on the same terms with them and which have been al- 
ready explained. Whoever thinks fit to learn the forms of 
offering, sacrifice and accompanying invocation, can be a 
priest ; and if he get tired of the profession, he can throw it 
up when he will. Ojhds stand not on the same footing with 
Dh&mis and Deoshis : they are remunerated solely by fees : 
but into either office — priests or exorcists — the form of in- 
duction is similar, consisting merely of an introduction by 
the priests or exorcists of the neophyte to the gods, the first 
time he officiates. One Dh^mi and two Deoshis usually in- 
duct a Deoshi — three Ojhas, an Ojha ; and the formula is 
literally that of an introduction — Hhis is so and so, who 
proposes, O ye gods ! to dedicate himself to your service : 
mark how he performs the rites and, if correctly, accept 
them at liis hands.^ 

Customs. — Under this head I shall state the usages observed 
at births, naming, weaning, togavirilis, umrriage and death. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 177 

^gg»*cgHting what is common, and distinguishing what is 
peculiar to the Bodo or Dhim&ls. The customs of both 
people have a great similitude, owing to their perfect sim- 
plicity. They are derived, in fact, from nature, and nature 
as little strained by arbitrary devices of man as can well be. 
At births the mother herself cuts the navel-string, so soon 
as she has recovered strength for the act. No midwives are 
found, so that nature must do all, or the mother and ofFspring 
perish together. But deliveries are almost always very easy, 
and death in childbed scarcely known — a blessing derived from 
the active and unsophisticated manners of the sex. The idea 
of uncleanness occasioned by births, and by deaths also, is re-^ 
cognised ; but the period of uncleanness and segregation is 
very short, and the purificatory rites consist merely of bathing 
and shaving, performed by the parties themselves. The infant 
is named immediately after birth, or as soon as the mother 
comes abroad, which is always in 4 or 5 days after delivery. 
There are no family names, or names derived from the gods. 
Most Bodo and Dhimals bear meaningless designations, or any 
passing event of the moment may suggest a significant term : 
thus a Bhotia chief arrives at the village and the child is called 
Jinkhap ; or a hill peasant arrives, and it is named Gongar, 
after the titular or general designation of the Bhotias. Chil- 
dren are not weaned so long as their mother can suckle them, 
which is always from two to three years — sometimes more — 
and two children, the last and penultimate, are occasionally 
seen at the breast together. The delayed period of weaning 
will account in part for the limited fecundity of the women. 
When a Bodo or Dhim&l comes of age, the event is not solemn- 
ised by any rite or social usage whatever. Marriage takes 
place at maturity, the male being usually from 20 to 25 years 
of age, and the female, from 15 to 20. Courtship is not sanc- 
tioned : the parents or friends negociate the wedlock, though 
in so simple a state of society it cannot be, but the parties 
have frequently met and are well known to each other. The 

2 a 



178 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

Hindus wisely and decorously attach much discredit to the 
parent^ who takes a ^^ consideration'^ for the grant of his 
daughter in marriage. No such delicacy is recognised by 
Bodo or Dhim&l parents, who invariably demand and receive a 
price, which is called Jan in the language of the former, and 
G&ndi in that of the latter people. The amount varies from 10 
to 15 rupees among the Dhimdls, from 15 to 45 among the 
Bodo. I cannot learn the cause of the great difference. A 
youth who has no .means of discharging this sum, must go to 
the house of his father-in-law elect and there literally earn his 
wife by the sweat of his brow, labouring, more judaico, upon 
mere diet for a term of years, varying from two as an average, 
to five and even seven as the extreme period. This custom is 
named Gab6i by the Bodo — Gh&rjy& by the Dhim&ls. It, of 
course, implies a good deal of intercourse between the betroth- 
ed youth and damsel prior to their nuptials ; but from all I 
can learn, instances of opportunity abused are most rare. The 
legal nature and effects of the nuptial contract have been al- 
ready explained under the head of laws : what concerns fecun- 
dity, longevity, &c. under the head of medicine, as a branch of 
religion. The marriage ceremony is little perplexed with 
forms. After the essential preliminaries have been arranged, a 
procession is formed by the bridegroom elect and his friends, 
who proceed to the bride elect's house, attended by two females 
specially appointed, to put red lead or oil on the bride elect's 
head, when the procession has reached her home. There a re- 
fection is prepared, after partaking of which the procession 
returns, conducting the bride elect to the house of the groom's 
parents. So far, the same rite is common to the Bodo and 
Dhim&l — ^the rest is peculiar to each. Among the Dhim&ls, the 
D^6shi now proceeds to propitiate the gods by offerings. D&ta 
and Bidata who preside over wedlock are invoked, and betel 
leaf and red lead are presented to them. The bride and groom 
elect are next placed side by side, and each furnished with five 
pauns, with which they are required to feed each other, while 



: KQCCH, BODO and DHIMAL people. 179 

the parents of the groom cover them with a sheets upon which 
the Dedshi^ by sprinkling holy water sanctifies and completes 
the nuptials. Among the Bodo the bride elect is anointed at 
her own home with oil ; the elders or the D^6shi perform the 
sacred part of the ceremony^ which consists in the sacrifice of a 
cock and a hen^ in the respective names of the groom and bride^ 
to the sun ; and next, the groom, rising, makes salutation to 
the bride's parents, and the bride, similarly attests her future 
duty of reverence and obedience towards her husband's parent ; 
when the naptials are complete. A feast follows both with 
Bodo and Dhimdls, but is less costly among the former than 
among the latter — as is said, because the higher price paid for 
his wife by the Bodo incapacitates him for giving so costly an 
entertainment. The marriage feast of the Dhimdls is alleged 
to cost 30 to 40 rupees sometimes, the festivities being pro- 
longed through two and even three days ; whereas 4 to 6— 
rarely 10 rupees suffice for the nuptial banquet of a Bodo. 

The Bodo and Dhimdls both alike bury the dead, immediate- 
ly after decease, with simple but decent reverence, though no 
fixed burial ground nor artificial tomb is in use to mark the 
last resting place of those most dear in life, because the migra- 
tory habits of the people would render such usages nugatory. 
The family and friends form a funeral procession, which bears 
the dead in silence to the grave. The body being interred, a 
few stones are piled loosely upon the grave to prevent disturb- 
ance by Jackals and Ratels rather than to mark the spot, and 
some food and drink are laid upon the grave ; when the cere- 
mony is suspended and the party disperses. Friends are puri- 
fied by mere ablution in the next stream and at once resume 
their usual cares. The family are unclean for three days, after 
which besides bathing and shaving, they need to be sprinkled 
with holy water by their elders or priest. They are then re- 
stored to purity and forthwith proceed to make preparations for 
a funeral banquet, by the sacrifice of a hog to Mainou or Ti- 
ming, of a cock to B&tho or Pochima, according to the nation. 

2 A 2 



180 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

When the feast has been got ready and the friends are assem- 
bled, before sitting down, they all repair, once again, to the 
grave, when the nearest of kin to the deceased, taking an indi- 
. viduaPs usual portion of food and drink, solemnly presents them 

I to the dead with these words, ^ take and eat : heretofore you 

! have eaten and drank with us : you can do so no more : you 

I were one of us : you can be so no longer : we come no more to 

I you : come you not to us/ And thereupon the whole party 

break and cast on the grave a bracelet of thriead priorly attach- 
I ed, to this end, to the wrist of each of them. Next the party 

» proceed to the river and bathe, and having thus lustrated them- 

selves, they repair to the banquet, and eat, drink and make 
merry as though they were never to die ! A funeral costs the 
Dhimdls from four to eight rupees — something more to the 
Bodo, who practise more formality on the occasion, and to whom 
is peculiar the singular leave-taking of the dead just described. 
^W*._ Useful arts, — As already observed, the arts practised by the 
Bodo and Dhim&ls are few, simple and domestic. Agriculture 
is the grand and almost sole bushiess of the men, but to it is 
added the construction and furnishing of the dwelling house 
in each of the frequent migrations of the whole people. The 
boys look after the domestic animals. The women, aided by 
the girls, are fully employed within doors in spinning, weaving 
and dying the clothing of the family, in brewing, and in cook- 
ing. The state of the arts will be sufficiently and most conve- 
niently illustrated by a description of the house, household 
furniture, clothes, food and drinks of the people, preceded by 
an account of the implements, processes, and products of agri- 
culture. 
^'**"^" The agricultural implements are an ax to fell the forest trees, 
a strong bill or bill-hook to clear the underwood and also to 
dig the earth, a spade for rare but more effectual digguig, and 
lastly a dibble for sowing the seed. The ax is called Rud by 
the Bodo, Duphe by the Dhimdls. It is a serviceable imple- 
ment of iron (the head) similar to that in use in the plains 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMA'L PEOPLE. 181 

where the head is bought ; the haft being made at home. The 
bill, called Chekh^ by the Bodo, Ghongoi by the Dhimals, is a 
^^ jack of all work^^ like in shape to our English bill, but with 
the curved extremity or beak prolonged and furnished with a 
straight downward edge of some three inches. It is of iron, of 
course, and purchased in the Kocch marts. The spade is the 
ordinary short, bent one of the plains where it is bought and 
where it is called Koddl. The Bodo and Dhim&ls use it but 
little, and have no name of their own for it. The dibble is a 
wooden staff about 4 feet long, made by the people themselves. 
It is like a stout walking staff sharpened at the lower end. The 
process of culture, emphatically called ^ clearing the forest,^ is 
literally such for the most part, and would be so wholly, but 
that several of the species grown being biennials, a field is re- 
tained over the first year, so that the second year's work con- 
sists merely of weedhig and resowing rice amid the other stand- 
ing products. The characteristic work is the clearing of fresh 
land, which is done every second year, and thus, axes and 
bills clear away the wood : fire completes what they have left 
undone, and at the same time spreads over the land an ample 
stratum of manure (ashes) : the soil is worked nearly enough in 
eradicating the undergrowth of trees (for the lords of the forest 
are only tiomcated) ; so that what little additional digging is 
needed, may be and is performed with the square end of the 
bill. ^Tis no great matter, and firing is the last effectual pro- 
cess. Amid the ashes the seed is sown by a dibbler and a 
sower, the former of whom, walking erect, perforates the soil 
in quincunxes by sharp strokes of his pointed staff, (called 
Shoman by the Bodo and Dhumsi by the Dhimals) so as to 
make a series of holes from one to two inches deep, and about 
a span apart ; whilst the latter, following the dibbler, and fur- 
nished with a basket of mixed seeds, drops 4 to 6 seeds into 
each hole and covers them at the same time. All the various 
produce raised is grown in this promiscuous style. Chait, 

Bais&kh and half Jeth, comprise the season for preparing and 
^!LS&rch, Aprflj and Ma2_it»pec^ 



182 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OP THE 

sowing the soil. Sawan^ Bhddun^ Kudr and half Kdrtik^ that 
for gathering the various products, save cotton, which is not 
gathered till Pus-Mdgh. The rest are reaped as they succes- 
sively ripen : first cucurbitaceous plants (Kohara, Louka, KM- 
ra, Kankara, Karela) ; then greens (S^m, mattar, B^ngan, 
Chichinda, Pdi) ; then the several edible roots (Yam, Arwi, &c.) 
then the condiments (Haldi, Adrak, red peppers) ; then the mil- 
lets, and pulse (Marwa, Kulthi, l/rid) ; then Maize ; next rice ; 
then the mustards (Tori or Sarsun or Til), and last of all, cot- 
ton. The fields, which are much better worked in eradicating 
the jungle than those for which the Bengal plough performs the 
same office, are likewise as much better weeded; and how 
strange soever to mere English ears, the huge mixture of crops 
may sound, this mixture does not greatly exceed the practice 
of Bengal, nor is it inconsistent with good returns, though there 
be no artificial irrigation whatever. The cotton is a biennial 
of inferior quality, but it is the main crop, and that from the 
sale of which in the plains, the Bodo and Dhimdls look to pro- 
vide themselves with the greatest part of the rice they con- 
sume ; for their own supply is very inadequate. Nevertheless 
rice is usually spoken of as the crop next in estimation to cot- 
ton, though maize and even millet seem to contribute as much 
to the quantity of home reared food. The rice grown is simi- 
lar to the ^^ dry rice^^ — ^^ the Ghaid'^ of Nepal — the " sum- 
mer ri^^^ of the plains. The other articles grown, have all 
been enumerated above, save Indigo which, with the cochineal 
of the forest, and Madder procured from the hills, supplies the 
id Dhimals with dyes. Arhar and a few more of the 
^ural and horticultural products of the plains are occa- 
sionally grown by the Bodo and Dhimals, whose chief products, 
however, are those given above, and of them not absolutely all 
in one field and year, though from 12 to 15 are always there and 
include a good supply of vegetables, condiments and cerealea, 
but the last deficient in the article of rice which is the princi- 
pal grain eaten. Of ve getable s the favourites are Bengans, 
I* July,' A^finrtPSeptr Oet. reipectilTely. 
r^l^BmbeT, January, j 




KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. ' 183 

cucurbitacea and roots (Th& vel Lin in their own tongues) : of 
cereals^ rice : of condiments^ red peppers.. Mustards are grown 
not for their oils, nor as stimulants, but merely for eating like 
parched peas. The oil seeds are fried and are relished in that 
state :* the young plants also are used as greens. The surplus 
seed is sold to the oilmen of the plains, neither Bodo nor Dhi- 
mal being wont to express oil, of which they consume little, 
and that only for cooking. Lights they use none (save on 
occasions of ceremony and of puja) but go to bed early and sit 
by the fire — a splendid wood fire — till then. The small quan- 
tity of oil used for cooking they buy in the adjacent marts of the 
Kocch. The cotton crop and the surplus of the mustard crop, 
are all the agricultural products which they sell any portion of. 
Cotton is habitually sold, the small portion only that is needed 
for clothing the family being reserved, which may be about one 
fifteenth of what is raised. The domestic animals have been 
enumerated elsewhere and must be spoken of again when we 
come to the head of food. Agriculturally viewed, they are a 
dead letter, not even their manure being employed. 

Upon the whole the agriculture of the Bodo and Dhimdls, is 
conducted with as much skill as that of their lowland neigh- 
bours ; with skill superior much to that of their highland 
neighbours 5 and with pains and industry greatly above those 
of either highlanders or Kocches. The following details of 
what is raised by one Bodo cultivator, and consumed by himself, 
his wife and three young children, imperfect though they be, 
will help to convey a just idea of his position ; and those who 
care to compare it with the position of a peasant in the hills 
and in the plains, will find the means of making such compa- 
rison in Appendix II. 

* They are fried with greens, and of course yield up a good deal of their oil to 
flavour the vegetables. 



184 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

Bodo peasant tilling about If bigha with the spade. 

Products or Income. 

Dh^n or rice in husk, 24 bisi =12 maunds z=: 4 

Cotton undressed, .... 16 bisi = 8 maunds = 32 

Maize, 3 bisi = 1^ maunds =080 

Millets and Pulse, 4 bisi = 2 maunds = 12 

Condiments, dyes& greens, 2 bisi = I maund =400 

Total Rupees,. . 41 4 

Expenses. 

Rice in husk, bought, 3 Poutbi = 48 maunds =15 
Salt bought, 18 Phol = 18 seers =300 

Cotton field puj4, = 1 

Government tax, = 1 

Cotton seed bought, = 1 

Ai huno festival, , = 3 

Oil bought for worship and for occasional Ughts, = 080 

Sickness, fees to the Ojha, = 4 

Presents to sisters and friends who ask aid and 

make visits, = 2 

Ornaments for wife, = 2 

Fruits bought for self, wife and children, ....=: 2 0^ 
Fish bought in rains when none can be taken 

in the forest, = 1 8 

Earthen vessels bought, = 8 

Proportion of price of Chekh^ or Bill, = 8 

Ditto ditto of Jong or spear, = 8 

Ditto ditto of metallic pots and pans, . . . . = 8 

Sundries, = 2 

Total Rupees,.. 40 

Balance in favour, 1 4 

It has been already mentioned that the Bodo and Dhinial 
peasant is liable to a corvee or labour tax, the items of which 
may be added thus — for the Rajah 3 days, thrice a year or 9 
days — for the Rajah's local representative, 6 days — for the 



i 



KOCCH, BODO AND DIIIMA'L PEOPLE. 185 

village priest or Deoshi, 3 days — Total 18 days per annum. This 
is so much deducted from his resources^ and may be stated at 
2'*' rupees in coin. A peasant of the plains^ using the plough^ 
will earn twice or even thrice as much as a Bodo or Dhim&l^ 
and yet, what with the wretched system of borrowing at 26 to 
30 per cent, and the grievous extra frauds incidental to that 
system, he will not be nearly so well off. The Bodo or Dhimal 
again, has abundance of domestic animals, and is moreover at 
liberty to eat the flesh of all save the cow, whereas the peasant 
of the plains has few, and of those only the goat that he can 
eat. And, lastly, the Bodo^s industrious wife not only spins, 
but weaves and dyes all the clothes of the family, besides sup- 
plying it amply with wholesome and agreeable beer, whilst the 
peasant's wife in the plains does nothing but spin ; and though 
this may diminish the cost of the family clothing, still it must 
be bought, nor will there be much thread to dispose it in free 
sale, apart from the clothier. The highland peasantry, gene- 
rally, earn less than the Bodo and Dhimals, and are proportion- 
ally worse off, though lightly taxed and exempt from the curse 
of the borrowing system. The Newar peasants of the great 
valley of Nepal, — as industrious as the Bodo and Dhimals — 
nay more so— and more skilful too, — earn more and retain more 
notwithstanding the heavy rent they pay to their landlord, who 
pays the light tax or Government demand on the land. The 
particulars may be seen in the appendix. 

'^ausesjjlousea. — ^The Bodo and Dhimals build and furnish their own 

^- *■■■■ 

houses, without any aid of craftsmen, of whom they have none 
whatever. They mutually assist each other for the nonce, as 
well in constructing their houses as in clearing their plots of 
cultivation, merely providing the helpmates with a plentiful 
supply of beer. A house is from 12 to 16 cubits long by 8 to 
12 wide ; a smaller house of the same sort is erected opposite 
for the cattle, and if the family be large, two other domiciles 

♦ If the Bodo pay one rupee of direct and two of indirect tazes> he will be nearly 
on a level, quoad public burdens, with the peasant of the plains. 

2 b 



>^ii ^» ■ 



186 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

like the first are built on the other sides^ so as to enclose an 
open quadrangle or yard. The houses are made of jungle grass 
secured withm and without by a trellice work of strips of bam- 
boo. The roof has a high and somewhat bulging pitch and a 
considerable projection beyond the walls. It also is made of 
wild grass, softer than that which forms the walls. There is 
only one division of the interior which separates the cooking 
and the sleeping portions of the house, which has no chimney 
or window and but one door. Ten to forty such houses form a 
a village, without any rigid uniformity or any defences what- 
■^^yer. 
T^^JFurnit'ure — Is very scant, consisting only of a rare bedstead, 
^^^Tmne sleeping mats, a stool or two, ^nd some swinging- 
shelves ; and all of these are made at home. Household 
utensils are a few earthen vessels for carrying and hold- 
ing water, some metallic cooking, eating, and drinking pots, 
and a couple of knives, to which we must add the spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, and brewing apparatus of the women. All the 
latter are of the simplest possible form and homemake : the 
earthen and metallic pots and pans are purchased in the Kocch 
marts. There are none of iron nor of copper ; all are of brass 
or of other mixed metals that are metallic, owing, it is said, to 
the dearness of iron and copper. There are no leathern uten- 
sils. Baskets of bamboo and of cane and ropes of grass, are 
abundant and of homemake, by the men who likewise haft all 
the iron implements they purchase abroad, for agricultural or 
domestic uses. It has already been said that lights are dis- 
pensed with beyond what is afforded by an ample fire. 
■(ffQiJiesfi^^^^^* — With both people they are made at home and by 
the women. The Bodo women wear silk procured from the 
castor plant worm, which they rear at home in each family. 
The Bodo men and Dhim&ls of both sexes wear cotton only. 
Woollen is unknown, even in the shape of blankets. The 
manufactures are durable and good, and not inconveniently 
coarse — ^in fact, precisely such as the people require : and the 



*rr. 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 187 

dying is very respectably done with their own cochineal, morin- 
da, or indigo, or with madder got from the hills — but all pre- 
pared by themselves. The female silk vest of the Bodos pos- 
sessed by me is 3^ feet wide by 7 long, deep red, with a broad^ 
worked margin of cheque pattern — and of white and yellow 
colours, besides the ground red — above and below. This gar- 
ment is called Dokhana by the Bodo, and must be a very com- 
fortable and durable dress, though it somewhat disfigures the 
female form by being pressed over the breast as it is wrapped 
round the body, which it envelopes from the armpits to the 
centre of the calves. The female garment of the Dhim&ls 
differs only in material, being cotton. It is called Bonha. The 
male dress of the Bodo consists of two parts — an upper and a 
lower. The former is equivalent to the Hindu chadar or toga. 
It is called Shuma, and is 9 to 10 cubits by 3. The latter, 
styled Gamchd, and which is 6 cubits by 2, is equivalent to the 
Hindu Dhoti, and after being passed between the legs is folded 
several times round the hips and the end simply tucked in be- 
hind. The male dress of the DhimSls is similar : its upper 
portion is called Pdtaka — its lower, Dhari — the whole, Dhdba 
with this people — Hi with the Bodo. All cotton clothes, 
whether male or female, are almost invariably white or undyed. 
Neither Bodo nor Dhimdl commonly cover the head, unless 
when the men choose to take off their upper vest and fold it 
round the head to be rid of it. Shoes are not in use ; but a 
sort of sandals or sole-covers, called Ydpthong vel Champhoi, 
sometimes are, and are made of wood by the people themselves. 
There are no other shoes. Ornaments are rare, even amongst 
the women, who however wear small silver rings in their ears 
and noses also, and heavy bracelets of mixed metal on their 
wrists. These are bought in the Kocch marts, and are quite 
simple in form. 

rf.-rThe sorts of vegetable food have been already enume- 
rated in speaking of agriculture ; rice is the chief article : wheat 
or barley, unknown even by name. Ghiu or clarified butter, is 

2 B 2 




188 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

likewise totally unused and unnamed^ and oil is very sparingly 
consumed for food. Salt, chillies, vegetables, plenty of rice, 
varied sometimes with maize or millet, and fish or flesh every 
second day, constitute, however, a meal which the poor Hindu 
might envy, washed down as it is with a liberal allowance of 
beer. Plenty of fish is to be had from December to February, 
both inclusive, and plenty of game from January to April inclu- 
sive, though the Bodo and Dhimdl are no very keen or skilful 
sportsmen, notwithstanding the abundance of game and freedom 
from all prohibitions. They have the less need to turn hunters 
in that their domestic animals must supply them amply with 
flesh. They have abundance of swine and of poultry, and not 
a few of goats, ducks and pigeons, but no sheep nor buffaloes, 
and cows are scarce ; milk is little used, but not eschewed, as 
by the Gdros it is. They may eat all animals, tame or wild, 
save oxen, dogs, cats, monkeys, elephants, bears and tigers. 
Fish of all sorts, land and water tortoises, mungooses, civets 
(not cats!), porcupines, hares, monitors of enormous size, wild 
hogs, deer of all sorts, rhinoceros, and wild buffaloes, are 
amongst the wild animals they pursue for their flesh ; and alto- 
gether they are abundantly provided with meat. 
^'Srinks. Drinks and stimulants. — The Bodo and Dhim&ls use abun- 
*" daiice of a fermented liquor made of rice or millet, which the 

former call Jo, the latter. Yd. It is not unpleasant, and I 
should think was very harmless. Its taste is a bitterish sub- 
\ acid, and it is extremely like the Ajimana of the Newdrs of Nepal. 

Brewing and not distilling, seems to be a characteristic of 
nearly all the Tamulian races, all of whom drink and make 
beer — and none of them, spirits. The Bodo and Dhim^ pro- 
cess of making this fermented liquor is verysimple : the grain 
is boiled : the root of a plant called Agaichito is mixed with it : 
it is left to ferment for two days in a nearly dry state : water is 
then added, quant, suff. ; the whole stands for 3 or 4 days, and 
the liquor is ready. The Agaichito plant is grown at home : 
its root, which serves for balm, is called Emon. I have never 



KOCCH, BODO AND DHIMA'L PEOPLE. 189 

seen it. Besides this beer — of which both people use much — 
they likewise freely use tobacco ; but never opium nor hemp in 
any of the numerous preparations of both ; nor distilled waters 
of any kind ; and upon the whole^ I see no reason to brand 
them with the name of drunkards^ though they certainly love a 
merry cup in honour of the gods at the high festivals of their 
religion. Among my own servants the Bodo have never been 
seen drunk : the Moslems and Hindus, several times exces- 
sively so. 
^^^^•Manners. — ^The manners of the Bodo and Dhimdls are, I 
think, a pleasing medium between the unsophisticated rough- 
ness of their highland neighbours, and the very artificial smooth* 
ness of their neighbours of the plains. They are very shy at 
first ; but when you know them are cheerful without boisterous- 
ness and inquisitive without intrusion. Man's conduct to 
woman is always one of the best tests of his manners : now the 
Bodo and Dhim&ls use their wives and daughters well ; treating 
them with confidence and kindness. They are free from all 
out-door work whatever ; and they are consulted by their hus- 
bands as their safest ^advisers in all domestic concerns, and in 
all others that women are supposed likely to understand* 
' When a Bodo or Dhimdl meets his parent or one of the elders 
of the community, he drops his joined hands to the earth, and 
then raises them to his forehead ; and if he be abroad he says 
^father, I am on my way' — to which the parent or senior an- 
swers ^ may it be well with you.* There is little visiting save 
that which is inseparable from the frequent religious feasts and 
festivals, already sufficiently described, nor are amusements or 
pastimes for young or old common. Indeed, children or women 
seem to have none, and the men so little heed them, that neither 
Bodo nor Dhimdl tongue has a word of its own for sport, 
play or game ! The young men, however, have two games, 
which I proceed to describe summarily. In the light half of 
October, on the day of the full moon, a party of youths pro- 
ceeds at night-fall from village to village, like our Christmas 



190 ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. OF THE 

wakers^ hailing the inhabitants with song and dance, from night 
till morn, and demanding largess. This is given them in the 
shape of grain, beer and cowries, wherewith on their return 
they make a feast, and thus ends the pastime, which is called 
Harna-harni by the Bodo, and Harna-dhaka by the Dhimdls. 
Again, in the dark half of the same month, when the wane is 
complete, the youths similarly assemble, but in the day time, and 
dressing up one of their party like a female, they proceed from 
house to house and village to village, saluting the inhabitants 
with song and dance, and obtaining presents as before, conclude 
the festival with a merry making among themselves. The Bodo 
name of this rite or game is Chorgeleno — the Dhimdls call it 
Ch6rdhdk4. And now we shall conclude the subject of man- 
ners with a statement of the ordinary manner in which a Bodo 
or Dhimal passes the day. He rises at day spring, and having 
performed the ofl&ces of nature and washed himself, he proceeds 
at once to work in his field till noon. He then goes home to 
take the chief meal of the day, and which consists of rice, pulse, 
fish or flesh (on alternate days), greens and chillies, with salt — 
never ghiu — seldom oil. He rests an hour or more at noon, and 
then resumes his agricultural toils, which are not suspended till 
night-fall. So soon as he has got home, he takes a second meal 
with his family — then chats a while over the fire, and to bed 
betimes — seldom two hours after dusk. If the children be 
young, they sleep with their parents — if older, apart. The 
Bodo call their first meal Sanjuphuni inkham — their second, 
Bilini inkham. The Dhimdl name for the first is Manjbela- 
chdkd ; for the second, Dilima-chdka. Wives usually eat after 
, their husbands — children with. 
ter I Character, — ^The character of the Bodo and Dhimdl, as will 



be anticipated from the foregone details, is full of amiable qua- 
lities — and almost entirely free from such as are unamiable. 
They are intelligent, docile, free from all hard or obstructive 
prejudices, honest and truthful in deed and word, steady and 
industrious in their own way of life ; but apt to be mutable and 



KOCCH, BOi)0 AND DHIMAL PEOPLE. 191 

idle when first placed in novel situations^ and to resist injunc- 
tions^ injudiciously urged, with dogged obstinacy. They are 
void of all violence towards their own people or towards their 
neighbours, and though very shy of strangers, are tractable and 
pleasant when got at, if kindly and cheerfully drawn out. The 
Commissioner of Assam, Major Jenkins, who has by far the 
best opportunities for observing them, when drawn out of their 
forest recesseSy gives them, as we have seen, a very high cha- 
racter as skilful laborious cultivators, and peaceable respectable 
subjects ; whilst that this portion of them want neither spirit 
nor love of enterprise, is sufl&ciently attested by the fact, that 
when the Dorjiling corps was raised two-thirds of the recruits 
first obtained were Bodo of Assam. Neither the Bodo nor 
Dhim&I, however, can be characterised, upon the whole, as of 
military or adventurous genius, and both nations decidedly pre- 
fer, and are better suited for the homebred and tranquil cares 
of agriculture. They are totally free from arrogance, revenge, 
cruelty and fiert^ ; and yet they are not devoid of spirit, and 
frequently exhibit symptoms even of that passionate or hasty 
temperament, which is so rare, at least in its manifestations, 
in the east. Their ordinary resource against ill-usage is 
immoveable passive resistance : but their common demeanour is 
exempt from all marks of the wretched alarm, suspicion and 
cunning that so sadly characterise the peasantry of the plains 
in their vicinity, and which, being habitual, must be fatal to 
truth. The Bodo and Dhimdl in this respect, as in most 
others, more nearly resemble the mountaineers, whose straight- 
forward manly carriage so much interests Europeans in their 
favour. Oppression and its absence beget these different phases 
of character. The absence of all petty trade likewise contri- 
butes materially to the candour and integrity of the Bodo and 
Dhimdls. Among all mankind, women, wine, and power are 
the great tempters, the great leaders astray. Now, the Bodo 
and Dhim^ls rise decidedly superior to the first temptation ; 

are not unduly e nslav ed to the second ; and, from the perfect 
[* S^aUK) Griffith^t JownalB^^ 



^N 



\ .. 






192.. ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN, ETC. 

equality and subject condition of the whole of them^ are en- 
tirely exempted from the third. Power cannot mislead those 
who never exercise it : where women are esteemed and no arti- 
ficial impediments whatever exist to prevent marriage, women 
are a source, not of vice, but of virtue : and, lastly, where 
^^ honest John barley corn'^ is free from the dangerous alliance 
of spirits, opium and hemp, I know not that he, even if assisted 
by the " narcotic weed,'' need be set down as a necessary cor- 
rupter of morals. True, the Bodo and Dhimal do not pretend 
to the somewhat pharisaical abstemiousness or cleanliness of 
the Hindus. But I am not therefore disposed, particularly 
on Hindu evidence, to tax them with the disgusting vices of 
drunkenness and dirtiness, though these, and obstinacy, if any^ 
are the vices we must lay to their charge, as the counterpoise 
of many and unquestionable virtues. Peasant, be it remem- 
bered, must be compared with peasant, and not peasant with 
people of higher condition ; and if the comparison be thus fairly 
made, it may perhaps be truly decided, that the Bodo and Dhi- 
mal are less sober and less cleanly and less tractable than the 
people of the plains — more sober and more cleanly and more 
tractable than those of the hills. The Bodo and Dhim&Is are 
good husbands, good fathers and not bad sons $ and those who 
are virtuous in these most influential relations, are little likely 
to be vicious in less influential ones, so that it need excite no 
surprise that these people, though dwelling in the forest, apart 
from the inhabitants of the open country, are never guilty of 
black mailing or dacoity against them, whilst among themselves 
crimes of deep dye are almost unknown. To the ostentatious 
hospitality of many nations whose violence against their neigh- 
bours is habitual, they make no pretensions ; but among their 
own people they are hospitable enough, and towards the strang- 
er, invariably equitable and temperate. 






A 



I 

i 
t 



I 



r 

i 

t 



""■■•("•^■■u 



II 




Sim^ Bv<l6. aiat' 21. 



T3UA Aii^^^T.di-rnjiJ^ 



APPENDIX. 



No. I. — Physical Attributes, 
(See annexed Ittmirations.J 

The physical characteristics of these races have already been sum- 
marily stated. But it is desireable to be more particular on this head 
with reference to the accompanying admirable illustrations, done by 
my N^wdr artist, Rajmdn Singh. A young man named Bima, a Bodo» 
has been selected to represent his nation, and through it the Dhim^s 
and Kocches also, for the traits of face and form are so nearly alike in 
all that neither pen nor pencil could satisfactorily set them apart. 
Bima is about 21 years of age (for like a true Bodo, he knows not how 
old he is), so that we are obliged to give his age conjee turally. The 
mistake however cannot exceed a year or two, 

His dimensions are as follows in Eaglish feet, inches and quarters. 

1st time. 2d time. 

Totalheight, 5 3J 5 3^ 

Crown of head to hip, 2 3 2 2f 

Hip to heel, 3 1 3 1 

Lengthofarm, 2 3^ 2 3f 

Length of foot, 9 9 

Length of hand, 6f 6f 

Greatest girth of chest, 2 7i 2 7 

Greatest width across shoulders, 1 2f 1 2f 

Girth of pelvis at hips, 2 3 2 .5 

Greatest width of pelvis, at hips, less, Oil 010 1^ 

Greatest girth of head, 1 9 1 Sf 

Greatest length of head, chin to crown, 9 9:|- 

Greatest width of head, across parietes, 5|- 5|- 

Greatest girth of thigh, 1 5f 1 ^^ 

Greatest girth of calf, 1 1^ 1 li 

Greatest girth of arm, , 9 9J 



194 APPENDIX. 

Birna's colour is an olive or brunet, clear and pale as that of a high 
caste Hindu. Though a stout youth, of 21 or more, he has not yet the 
least symptom of beard, and but a very faint show of moustache. He 
expects, he says, to have more or less of beard in five or six years, but 
shall carefully eradicate the stray hairs, more majorum ! He has no 
want of eyelash or eyebrow and the hair of his head is copious, 
straight, strong and glossy. He has no hair on the chest, but as much as 
usual on the armpits and elsewhere. He is well made and stout enough, 
suflSiciently fleshy, but without any striking muscular development. His 
calves, in particular, though not quite equal to those of the mountaineers, 
are very superior to any thing of the sort to be seen amid the people 
of the plains. His legs are long in proportion to his trunk, but not 
awkwardly so, and his chest is finely formed, broad and deep. His 
head is well formed and well set on the shoulders, the great foramen 
having apparently a central aperture. There is no defect of cranial 
development anteally or posteally, and the scull is well shaped and 
round, though not so ample in the frontal region as in fine specimens 
of the Arian vel Caucasian family, and the face is larger in proportion 
to the head than in such specimens. The length of the head to that of 
the body is as one to seven nearly. If the features are not straight, or 
perpendicular, to the front, the want of right line is caused less by 
recession of the forehead or chin than by the advance of the jaws and 
lips, which are both large. The mouth is too wide and the Hps too thick 
for beauty ; but there is no ape-like or negro-like deformity, nor do the 
finely formed teeth project forward. The chin wants the rounded 
projection of the Arian type ; but it is not ill formed nor retiring. 
The forehead has sufficient height and breadth, though there are vague 
indications of contraction and backward slope as compared with very 
fine heads. The eye is sufficiently large and sufficiently well opened ; 
but the cavity around it is too much filled with flesh, and the angles of 
the aperture have a tendency to obliquity, the outer one upwards and the 
inner, downwards. The nose, sufficiently long and well raised between 
the eyes, has a good, narrow, straight bridge, but a somewhat thickened 
or clubbed extremity, and the nares are wide, inclining from the eUiptic 
to the round shape. The ears are somewhat large and stand rather 
apart from the head, but not remarkably so. The oval form to which 
the contour of the face inclines is broken by the projection of the cheek 



APPENDIX. 195 

bones, between which the face is noticeably wider than any where else, 
but only in a small degree ; and, upon the whole, the ill-effect of the 
somewhat large and quasi-Mongolian features, is redeemed by their 
cheerful and amiable expression, though the human type indicated is 
clearly rather Mongolian than Caucasian. 



No. II. 

Production and consumption of a Niw&r peccant of the valley of 
NSp&lf cultivating with the spade seven standard ropini ofNSpdl,* 

1 man, 1 wife and 3 small children. 
Household utensils and agricultural implements. 

Iron pots and implements, domestic and agricultural. 
1 L6hyd or T4-kyd ; 1 lamp, dip or Dalld, 1 spoon, 
Daru or Dhouwo ; 1 spade, Kudal or Kd ; 2 sickles, 
hasu4 or ii ; 2 spuds, Basuli or kokaicha ; 1 knife, 
churi or chd-pi ; 1 cleaver, Pahasdl or khdni, 2 13 6 

Copper potSy domestic.^-4^\&tesor th^s ; 1 drinking pot, 
lotah or tahdn-po ; 2 cups or saucers for greens, &c. 
katora or khola, 4 

Earthen pots, — 2 large vessels, h&ndi or kousi ; 1 water- 
drawing, m^ntd or G6pah ; 1 to hold water, gharra or 
dhapa ; 4 dishes, parai or bh6g6, 2 

Sundries, — 1 Pestle and mortar, silalora or loh6md ; 1 
winnow, dagara or h&sd ; 1 broom, jharu or tuphi ; 1 
rope, dora or l^h& khi, 6 3 

1 sleeping mat, chatai or sdkhd ; 1 blanket, kamal or 
sdnga, 1 1 

Woman^s weaving apparatus. — 1 spinning wheel, char- 
ka or yong ; 1 cotton cleaner, phatka or tfmd ; 1 loom, 
kariga or t^jolong, 1 8 3 

* Four ropini equal one bispah, or thereabouts. 
2 c 2 



196 APPENDIX. 

Production, annual. 
5 ropini of wet rice land or \ lakhdbu, — 1st crop, Malsi 

dhan, 20 nniri=40 man, 40 

2 ropini of dry rice land or I71db6, 1st crop, Ghaiadhdn, 

5 miiri=10 man, 8 

Gleanings of both the above, Phdl6wd, 10 Pdthi=l man, 12 
Second crops, or summer crops, Jari or S66 — Lakhdbti 

S66--Wheat, 2 miiri=4 man, 8 

l7l4buS66 — Greens, roots and red peppers, l^muri=3 man, 3 
Straw and bran of rice and wheat of all crops, 36 loads 

(mans), 2 8 

Wages earned as a carrier in cold months, 24 

Wages for odd jobs all the year round, 12 

Total earnings, .... 98 4 

Earnings i^om the soil, .... 62 
Monthly expenses. 

Bice for all the family, 1 7th pdthi=l man 27 s6r, 3 3 3 

Salt for do do, 2 mana==;l|- s^r, 4 

Oil, eating, do do, 1 bok6ch6=i s^r, 2 

Tobacco, do do, 1 badhdni=l^ s^r, 3 

Greens, roots, red peppers, do, 2f pdthi=l 1 s^r, 4 

Fuel, louna or chusi, 3 loads, 3 3 

Lights (bum pine sticks of own cutting), 

Grain for brewing and distilling, 3} p4thi=13 s6r, yielding 

1 s^r spirits, 10 s6r of beer, 8 

Daily luncheon, jalp^n or diko,* 12 

Per mensem,. ... 576 

Per annum, 65 10 

Annual expenses. 

Twelvefold of the above expenses, 65 10 

Landlord's rent on the Lakhdbu, called P^6n, 20 

Do do on the Ulabti, do do, 4 

* Throughout these details the native terms have been given to secure accuracy and 
facilitate reference. The first term is Hindi j the second, Newari, a langruage so little 
known that the Hindi equivalent is added. 



APPENDIX. 197 

N. B. — 2n(l crops are rent free — Landlord pays the land tax. 
Government capitation or house-tax, viz. sawani, 16; 

phagu, 16; shri panchami, 009, 3 9 

Government corvee or bitli, composition for, 012 

Mendicant tax or Jogi pd, 6 

Barber 6 

Wear and tear of implements and utensils, Ill 

Cotton to make clothes^ 2 dhdrDi=6 s6r, 2 



Total expenses,. ... 94 11 6 
Balance in favor,. ... 346 



Peasant of the plains (Azimgurh), cultivates 6 standard bighas with 
the plough. Family as before. 

Agricultural implements or stock. 

Two oxen for the plough, 16 

One plough, 1 

One harrow, &c 1 

One ddrmus or smoother, ^ 2 

One koddl or spade, 1 

Two khtirpi or spuds, 2 

Two Hastid or sickles, 3 

One Hdtha or irrigating shovel, 4 

One Doura or shovel, 1 3 

One Pancha or rake, 1 6 

One Akhana, 1 6 

19 15 6 

Household utensils. 

Iron pots and pans, none, , 

Brass pots, 1 16tah, 1 thdl, 2 4 

Earthen pots for cooking, drawing and holding water, . . 8 

Wooden utensils — Okli mdsal, to husk rice, 4 

Plates, dishes, &c 7 

Leathern utensils, Chalani, stip, &c 2 

Stone utensils. Pestle and Mortar, 8 

Two bedsteads, 7 



198 APPENDIX. 

One blanket, 1 

Bed clothes, Dohar, chadar, 1 12 

Wife's spinning wheel, 4 



\ 



5 4 

Annual production. 
Two fasals or crops, Kharif and Rabbi — Wet rice land, three bighas. 

1st crop, kharif — Dhan or rice, 20 mans, 20 

Jan^ra, 8 mans, 8 

Tdngan, I man, 8 

Urid, 1 man, 2 

Kaukari, 1 man, 12 

2nd crop Rabbi — ^Wheat, 1^ bigha, 10 man, 13 5 3 

44 9 3 

Sugar ^ bigha> 10 mans gur, 25 

Arhar, -i r 8 mans, 8 

Cotton. }» ^^J** ""^«^' 1 4 mans. 8 

Dry or wheat land, 3 bighas, 1 crop. 

Barley, 2 bighas, 20 mans, 20 

Wheat, 1 bigha, 10 mans, 13 5 4 

Straw, bran, &c. of all the crops, 80 kb^h^ 14 

Total raised, 130 10 8 

Annual expenses. 

Government tax, 12 

Interest at 25 per Cent, on whole stock, raised on loan,. . 29 

Seed, 8 8 

Wear and tear of implements, 1 

Wagon or cart hire, 8 

Cotton bought to make thread, 4 

Pujas or worship, , 5 

Purohit or family priest, 8 

Weaver's charge for weaving wife's and children's clothes 

from own thread, 2 

Wear and tear of pots and pans, 4 

Repairs of house, ^ 12 

Earthen pots, 8 



APPENDIX. 199 

Physician, 8 

Fees to miller, \ q q 

Washerman, Barber, Smith, 2 

Man's clothes bought, 4 o 

Monthly expenses. 

Barley for food, 3 mans, 

Pulse, do, 20 s^rs, 

Salt and oil, 2 s6r of each, 

Tobacco 2 s6r, 

Food of two oxen, 

Flesh and fish for family, 



67 


12 





3 








1 











8 








4 





2 











8 






6 15 



Per annum,. ... 83 4 



Total expenses per annum, 151 

Balance against,. ... 20 5 4 
Thus it appears that the productive energy of the N6wdr, working 
with the spade upon the same extent of land or thereabouts, is to the 
productive energy of the Bodo, working somewhat similarly, that is 
without aid of plough, as 3 to 2 ; and to that of the peasant of 
the plains, using the plough, as 3 to 2 also. The N^wdrs indeed are 
the best cultivators in Asia. 'Tis hard to compare the Bodo with 
them. I have no materials yet for comparison with the highlanders of 
Sikim, who however I know pretty well cannot compete with the Bodo, 
whose productive energy exceeds that of the lowland peasant, aided by 
the plough, by one-seventh. With regard to the peasantry of the 
plains it is very evident that it is not the weight of government taxation 
which crushes them, but the borrowing system — the miserable habit of 
never la3dng by a sixpence — of living upon loans — annually taking up 
their whole stock from the capitalist at an interest never less, and often 
more, than 25 per Cent., so that, as they say themselves, their life is 
spent in filling a vessel full of holes at the bottom, and beneath which 
is another entire vessel belonging to the usurer ! — ^The above details 
show that the government tax is but one-eleventh of what the Azim- 
garh peasant raises from the soil ; and also that the interest he 
annually pays is nearly (in fact, fully) threefold of the public demand. 



200 APPENDIX. 

Thus the poor peasant is perpetually plunged into difficulties such as 
the present account may fully explain, whereby it is seen that the annual 
deficit is equal to one-sixth of the annual gross produce raised by this 
cultivator. Now, look at the Bodo cultivator's account : here is no 
debt ; and small as the whole earnings are, I can testify that they 
suffice for such comfort as no peasant of the plains has any conception 
of. But the Bodo, it may be argued, is nearly exempt from taxation.* 
Look, then, at the N^war peasant of Nepil, whose burdens equal two- 
fiflhs of all he rears from the soil — one-fourth of whatever he annually 
produces by all his industrious toils. Nor does it in the least matter 
to the present question that what he pays is renfr — ^not tax — for in the 
plains of India the government stands in place of landlord, and, if it 
did not, the peasant's position cannot be at all affected by the quarter 
or denomination of his payment, but only by its positive and relative 
amount, including every permanent charge, such as that incurred by 
the Hindu to those craftsmen whose services his scrupulosity and his 
indolence compel him to pay for. On the other hand, the simpler and 
more active habits of the N6w4r peasant and his wife enable him to dis- 
pense with these craftsmen, and to add, besides, nearly a third to his 
agricultural income by labour apart from, and in excess of, that devoted 
to the soil. And thus the N6w^ peasant, whilst living far more com- 
fortably than the Hindu peasant — ^better fed — better clad — and better 
housed by much — yet never exceeds his income ; and, paying not a 
sous to the usurious capitalist or rather loan-monger, whose indirect 
frauds are as bad as his direct extortions, can sustain cheerily legitimate 
agricultural burdens great as those I have recorded I 

Darjeeling, June 4th, 1846. B. H. Hodgson. 

P. S. — I have said that I do not propose to go into comparisons till 
I have accumulated a large mass of materials. But I may mention, as 
a sample of the prospective fruits of this inquiry in re-uniting the so 
long and so utterly scattered members of the Tamulian family, that the 
identify of the GdrcSs and Khasias as well as of the Cachfiris with the 
Bodo is already nearly or quite established, and that points of arbitrary 
similitude in creed and customs and speech, indicating radical identity of 
race, are rapidly multiplying in relation to the aborigines of this frontier 
and those of South Bihar, viz., the Kols or Dhangars. 

* It has been shown above that the real pressure of taxation is in fact equai in both 



'pmrwu wiittmi Mr. ^nUst of M,tdnAlM vbown thAtl^ Q6ndl 
li ^ortb of tlie Nerbiidda) b ^ ^oQiState W&4 
to Tdmdl, tbAt ig» to the typieal tpeedi ot t\ift k\will|tbttfti. 






ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 



Page ix. of Preface, last line— /or Mantichurian, read Mantchurian. 
Page 11 Vocabulary, Ist column, line 13 from top— /or luz, read lux. 

12 ditto, 4th column, line 17 from bottom— /or Dayang, read Dy&ng. 

17 ditto, 4th column, line 5 from bottom— /or Chai and L6o, read Chai L6o. 

24 ditto, 4th column, line 15 from bottom— /or Dan kham^nkou, read D&nkha m6n- 

kou. 

25 ditto, 2d column, line 17 from bottom— /or Banua S(iar, read Banua S(ivar. 

• 27 ditto, 1st column, line 3 from bottom— /or Ph6kti, read Ph6dki. 

30 ditto, 1st column, line 21 from top— /or Snipes or Scolopaz aut, read Snipes or 

Scolopax. 

37 ditto, 1st column, line 1— /or Barb or ear, read Barb of ear. 

— ' 65 ditto, 4th column, line 7 from top— /or Elou m&nths, read Elou mantho. 

67 ditto, 4th column, line 22 from top— /or K6ts-&, read K6t-s&. 

68 ditto, 4th column, line 6 from top— /or Ghoro ko sk, read Onhya ko sk, 

70 ditto, 4th column, line 4 from top— /or Ogyan, read Gyan manthu. 

79 ditto, 4th column, line 17 from top— /or Jishl&h, read Jishldp. 

86 ditto, 4th column, line 11 from bottom— /or Nh6ch6to P&li, read Nh6chiitopali. 

88 ditto, 1st column, line 2 from bottom— /or To fall, read To fail. 

90 ditto, 3d column, lines 5 and 7 from top— /or Ongo raino, read Ong& raino. 

Also same page, 4th column, line 8 from top— /or Nh^chota D6pli, read Nh^chota- 

d6pli. 

107 of the Grammar, line 8 from top, omit the word * passim.' 

110 ditto, line 2 from bottom— /or (yonga) if a voice precede it, read (yonga if a 

vowel precede it). 

Ill ditto, hne 5 from bottom— /or of the sort, read to form them. 

• 123 ditto, 1st line— /or an read' and. Same page, last line, add ' the* after Bodo— 

and omit that before it— 1. 2, from bottom, for form read from— I. 6, add * and relative 

pronuns' after ' conjunctions* — 1. 7, omit * and* before ' the extentive*— 1. 8, omit the 

comma in ' supine' — 1. 9, add * and there is* before * nothing.* 
128 ditto, line 8 from top— /or junule, read jungle— 1. 11, /or Ml &, read M14, 

135 ditto, line 8 from bottom— /or Nk dbkn, read Na do&ng. 

138 ditto, line 10 from bottom— omit full stop after skirt— 1. 7, after K6brat, add 

Pallah. 

— 152 ditto, line 2 from top— /or H&j6ns, read H4j6ngs. 

166 ditto, line 6 from top— /or characteristics, read characteristic. 

158 ditto, line 10 from bottom— /or are perpetually shifting, read they are perpetu- 
ally shifting. 

163 ditto, line 8 from top — before the word confirmatives add not. 

171 ditto, line 17 from top— /or Hogron, read H^gron. 

175 ditto, line 7 from bottom— /or Kajah, read Rajah. 

121 ditto, line 14 from top-rafter the word gone, add foot note. * This use of the past 

tense, wherever the action is past is an invariable idiom.' Same page, add to foot note, 
after the word will, in second line—' in English, or must, ought, which are nearer in 
form as being inflexable or immutable.' 
N. B. — For Mecch always read Bodo, wherever the former term is inadvertently 

retained. 



INDEX OF VOCABULARY. 



Page 

11. Things and Beings, Universal. 

14. Earth. 

16. Water, Air. 

17. Fire. 

17. Human body. 

20. Appetites, affections, passions, (see 11-13.) 

22. Food. 

23. Dress, Games. 

24. Ornaments. 

24. Animals, quadrupedal. 

27. Birds. 

31. Reptiles, Fish, Insects. 

32. Vegetals. 

37. Natural and Political ties. 

40. Orders, Professions and trades, the men, 

45. Religion — the thing— details. 

46. Politics, ditto, ditto. 

47. Justice. 

48. Arms, Letters. 

49. Navy. 

50. Medicine, Diseases. 

5 1 . Crafts or useful art8,~hunting. 

52. Agriculture. 

63. Trade. 

54. Artizanships. 

62. Fine arts. 

64. Nouns of Time, Adverbs of Time. 

65. Numbers. 

66. Nouns of Place. 

69. Adverbs of Place. 

70. Nouns of Quality, Condition, &c. 

72. Nouns of Motion, Things. 

73. Nouns of Action, Beings. 

74. Nouns of Resemblance, Affirmation and of general import. 

77. Adverbs of Affirmation, Quantity, Mode, and Conjunctions, and Prepositioiui. 

78. Pronouns. 

79. Adjectives. 
86. Verbs. 



INDEX OF GRAMMAR. 



lOJ. 

109. Adjeciives. 

111. ComparUon. 

113. Pronouoe, Dec1ui«oo, i 

117. The Verb. 

124. CoDJugaiion of VerU. 
127. ladeclinables. 

125. : 
137. 



INDEX OF NARRATIVE. 

141. Subject, liioite and nature of, 138. 

J 42. Koccb, I.octitiDD. 

146. Kocch, Slalus. 

147. Climate of all races. 
149. PhjaceltipeofBll. 193. 
161. Bodo and Dhinial, Locatlaa. 
154. Bodo aod Dhimal, Staliu. 
15B. Laws. 
IflO. Leamiag. 
161. ReligioD. 

161. Pnesthood. 1T5. 

166. - - Pantheon. 

16B. Rites. 

171. - - Feilivala. 

17& Priesthood, 161. 

176. — Customs. 

ISa - Useful Arts. 

18<^ Afrieulture. 

IM- Agricultural Details. 19S.S0O. 

ISG. Houses. 

1B& Puniitnre, Clothes. 

187. Food. 

1B8. - Drinks aud stimulants. 

189. Mannert. 

1». Characler. 

193. PhfiHcat lype of Bodo, 149. 

19& Affriculinral details, compantive, 1B4. 



.7 • 



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