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'J ^ 









ftSQica PRonsBOB of DmrviTT 

niiLOw or QO^rriLLB Aim CAicia collmb 


kainA kaI tiaXai^ 






I lonlron 



. a sn\ 


roliuno fiweH iu iiiCBf»t«uii to a hiiiuLI \mk\j of (^u* 
ridire i;nuliiat«i wbo arv iw>(H']itU>it for the eLucty of 
^ftD Doctriite. It syocmiyl to lUviu LhiU the liriio tiftd 
■jhen mi tTiri>ri imj^ht (o \x- tmi4li< on tho jmrt <»f thoM 
nNntnidtHl witb tlic Lhci>l<>Ki4'HE tcOLhiii^ ori'jutibriil^ 
i ill ■ uprifw iif Kjwi^i* willk »M»nc i)f <ho ri'liKi^xj" pr<>iv 
vhicb lire nov attnurtiig^ th« attontiLJii of trducatv^ 
With the ricv or mftkihg the b(K>k fiirly 
IfB of Cftmbridjce theoloKXp the AsHoclalioii haa 
"of «Gvcfnl wcllkiiowii resident tcfichurn who 
lon^ t(r iUi (iwtj riitikiv ttuU i>f a few itttn-nwitleiit/i ^lio 
toucti with the \\t*s HHil ihoiurhi of the UiiivL-rHity. 
I>- iuiire bctfi iiitt^lc in tliu on;;inal li*t uf 
writijr withdnrw Uiniuj(f» tho |>n»^iire of 
work ; tlic tiisk of a accornl. the lat<.^ Korbe* It^iUin^on 
t of C1iri>^t» r<illvf£i:, a ailinLKUc whi>4c cfulj miikoviU 
li Is deeply tleptored, fell u|>oii hi^ brother, who in the 
of manj duties coii^n£«<1 to 611 tlic Torant place 
t dfsire han be«D felt to limit die representation to »ny 
LtW school nr Hctiools of thi^>loi^{--Ld opiiiiont tlikI it 
& foUJKl Ui iiiHudt? iiien who iIIRlt wJilelv oil iim>«LiiJLu 
it t^ puniblv t<i diKi^fn.%* wiiltout diikydiy V* the 
>n Faitli. Kiwli writ*;r it* to U; h*iUl r(;M|nj|i>iiGli: buIcIj^ 
lut he Hmm writtoii ; [dlh<»ii^li tlie f^auuivit haw {n*vn 
tied in jiroof. tliere haj^ been no formal conF^ultation or 
lUlon lUTHW^ tlir Fj^iTii^tA, iitiil tlir K<litor lini^ i^Miumllj 
ivil from suiQjfet^lin^ material oliani^L^^. aiid bae made no 
iiangc without llio coiiMrnt of Uji; l>niiyi»t ooooemcd ; 
In ihd detaili of onhn^^phy and piin(7tiiatlon no 
>t horn boen nwde to i«<curu iiimolutc anifonnity. In- 
li^iuf i!;trritv wkli it t^ui'l^ii obvIoiiH di?t;L4liH.iilAu:€fl, 
e reader will doiibtlvHv obM^rvt? hvm and ihiTns in thin 
uinctiiiiiiE like a umflL-t of upiuioo ; diere mB.y be aoqic 
fipmg ftad occuMioiial rvputttiunif, and a gt'iienkl lack uf 



the homogeneity which, when many writcni nre Hi work upon 
the wmc jn'ouiul^ cuii W ^liiiod only bv rt'|ieutc(l conforonce 
or by the repi^enatoik oF |)cnoiml nivthodf^ and ooiiTictioDii. 
But wi tht* whole it hiu j*i>eriie(l better t« acceiii the«t' rUkii 
than to interfere with the free ply of indivLilual preferences. 
Such uiiiLy it* Uiim iiillei'tion (ii liwayi* nmy |mhmmiii mui^t In? 
BOUtfbt ID itfl general puTpowi. 

In the Hc1c!i tiiiti iif the -iiibjcctK the Oonimitt^^ Ui whom the 
details were entrusted Havo beon uiiided bv a der^ire to ^ve 
protnineiice tf> thoe«c which i*ernitNl to he <»f vititl iniiHirtance 
in tJjeiiiHelvetr^ or unUi^r present eircnmntance*. But thoy 
hmi ulf)o in \-icvr to provide fin orderly tn'utment of the chief 
tantliimrlib in the thelMie and ('hriettuD poHitionii. A binef 
Hketch of llie eontenU of tlie rolurne will fhow how they have 
endeavoured to fulfil their purpoue^ Ite^innin^ with ag^cncral 
view (if tlie Chriiitiiui Htniio[Mjiiit, the i^nJk. pn>ece<jM to Hhow 
that theistie belief id not inooneiatent with a loyal nceeptauoo 
of Uio uwnrril nutulto uf rtttier phyHJe'-Ll or phthmi^phJad 
r«March. It then examioeg the pot^itton of Mnu, both ^a a 
prtrt of Salurc, ntxl il-* ^t^ndiiii; in rehitton Uy Gwl jukd 
eonwtous of sin: the pdiwibility of commnnieHtion between 
(>o<l And MoDr and th? mciinti by which it it< ctfoetufl. Tiic 
next Htep i» to deal with certain problems which meet the 
itudeitt o:i tlio threshold of the Chrititijin ftovelrLtlon : the 
credibility of miraeles, the pcnnancncc of the Old Te^tamentv 
ftud the hiHtuHcu) c}iHnu7(er 4>f the Four (^cMfielN. Suiiii* (^iu^.-nt{a) 
foaturoA of L1iri«tianity uro then conBtdorcd : the Person of 
Cbrbt ;u> Hern in the nuf(]ietH, And the Work rtiid hifliieuee 
of Chrii^t in Ilieton' : und in the la^^t two Kr^^ays tike ^erieft ie 
complete*] by h <lirictiiwiion of the ethical Viduc of Chrit^tian 
flixlnncM, jtn<l t)ie |H>wcr of Ute Oiristian Ideal ^ind tlie hope 
of the life tc comei 

Fro!ii thii fluinnwi»7 it will appear that ihefke F^uays to 
some titont cotii^titute itn ajmlitfj^a projietr nostrn. To ^uch 
an interpretation of our effort there can bo no objection if the 
wiirk of the agHdof^iHt and imr avrn relationH in it are rightly un- 
derstood. To be tToipmt wfjv'i 'iTroXo7i'tfi', rcttdv to aii&wcr the 
elialTenjcr rif fton ChrixtiatH It* a nc<.'e-»Ary [Ktii. of the eipnp' 
ment of bclievere, and e>j|>eciaUy of the profe^^i^ed teac^here of 
Chrii^ian TlieoToiO"> From the firat half 'jf Uie w-xond 
GPUtury onwTinlH the (Vuireh has ocenpied herself fW>ni 
time to time in |irodiiciii(; an apolofi:ct]c lltcmt^irc, wbicli, if 
not always worthy of \i» higli auiiK aud now inrtly obstdeUt, 
ban upon the whole Mrrcd a luteful purpom^ Our own time, 
with itfl wide outlook upon Nature ana Marchiiij< eu(|uiHea 
into tii4; oH^iM of iniflitutionii, neodft a now upologotic; 



|r Um dlbri« of JuvUn mm) C1em<tTit to convlftto 
lunily vfth Ukt be«t tbrHi^liU of Greek pIiil(iM>i>)iy, nor 
iraMlM' rlinli^-ticof TrrtillliHTi, nor OrivrrrH lirillicmf n-{\Xy 
IsvB, nor the ofUin acute aii^wer^ of Macairios Mi^^it:^ U) 
loritnjQcl \rt militnnC ]rfL^[int"in nf thi" ftriirtlL wmliirr, 
lie rdiitaiiQQ of fc«TeiU«enth and eij^hteenth century 
Icf bj &i^i»b vnitcrre mch a« Cndworth. Hutlcr, and 
, can adequately nie^i tJu- vranU of the preHeni af^, 

the cnie iwhiiut faith ie gtat«d by n new tcimiiiiE 
ich our &tl»em ntver ilr»unC We sIiaII njulco If tJiift 
lit found v'orl.lty to nuic^'^t Hntw of tboiigfat U> lite future 
{ist, aiid vo arc not witliout Ik>])C that it may be 
iHn] t>y htm. For th«v4' Ki*(ji}v ura- thr wiiHs of tiM<n 
lave livi'd for years* in aome cas** for the beet part 
fetidbc, ill the iitnii>rk]>h4-rr of \u\ V'^\^\\*^\ I'niTi-mity, and 

wr«l6re cannot be either unconBcionn or rei^rdlew of tlie 

S\ which modem knowledge presents to thootoinmiJ^ 
I of tike chief advaiiUucen nX tfttir &i*aulemti^ f^^stera 
Student <ifll(eo]oK>' mei^tA, in thi^fnuik itiUnwinw of 
moD IlfLV with thi^ iiUuli'iit uf Iliptfiry itiiil Litt:rutiiie on 
\e bund and Uw trtudeiit of Natan^ im i\\\* <tlhci\ In 
iJ^e no fiharp line of demarcation Kiiamt^'4 Mitrrtd from 
r Imuhid^ ; Tliriihi^y ^Indly divct^mU \\\U\ tin- »n'U» of 
todleo.' ajid k^niB Ui refirard all knawled)£C o^ B&cred 
I trtitl) a» of (^lod, FW ChcuhiKi'^nK who hnvr livrd in 
irroundtnprsit i&impowibletoi^oreobjectionaTuiHed by 
tmuichcit of kiiowkda:c. and no Icmh inif'oifitible to ofter 
V wliJc^ bftve not Unit witihllef! tht-ir outi iiiu?l]Mau:J 
It li beaitt*e thw volmno of hlwiiTu hju* Uh'o written 
1 who haviT in irverj tai^e paiotnl t1in»ig]i -^liHi tmiiiiii;^ 
muy be expected to rciudcr t^ome rvaO ]b>*iiitmii;e to tlie 
u apotogiat. 

I whRe wv^ hogir (hut our liook may not 1m? HntUtnUt of 
?tic value, we bare not followed tJie methoiU of the 
a|N>log7', nor h^K tlie drfrniHr of thr Fnith In-rn our 
jT mim. Our purpose la rather to briuf^ certain questions 
ted with C'*ri«tmn belief into tholisilit of modem know- 
And to regiKt4.'r iht? roHultti of thin |iii>eeH8, uhatvvcr 
\j bcp A ^pt*cilLl rc*p(ni*ibilitv att(Kh<.v t") thortc who 
ed to fttudy ai^d tesit^h theology utiiler i\\^ sli^iow irf a 
Fnlmndtr. The .M^ucter iif nil OhriMtiann hft« pnjuiUwl 
to Uia Cburcb both I'ropbete and .Seniles : Utc men of 
a action und flowing njxveh, whti (-Jui t^neh itfri-MTi to 
wn e^uomtioD Ihe jcreat Iceaona of Tnitli and Itiiihlo- 
, ami by cIc^mcM of vitvion f<m^wt the work of tlic 
tur« : and the meu of the doiater and the ntudv, whofie 



boftln^n Kts to reexamine Uie Mwriyt writinjTa and to restate 
and band on, cairicbcd but caKrotially uncIiauE:<^. tbo tra- 
dici<>u which tlii? Chcirvli n^vivinl fruin th^^ fiM K^tierutUm 
of diaciplcjf. Id Koifbikd tlio Chnstinn l^cribc h&» over Tound 
hiH L;hir^f Utitn*^ m utir aid T7iiivrr>tLirji, utii) il i* uf K^nxl 
otnen Umt the voung^r Uoirersitiee Luve v^howti a ili}^p*»itioii 
U> vn^vt^ntc Ijitn nnnmj; thdr CeiicherH; it Wnuld indeed l>c mi 
evil (lav both for li.'unuDg 2tid for retun'on if this h.ippj 
oonoonut vam aUuidoned tuid the ihcotuKmii wt-^re lod to 
seek shelter in an atmo^phcrB wholly theological. Fur th<? 
prcent in uny c»«e it i» tu th« UtiiTL^rvilttw thut the Church 
may rightly look for the " thine^ aciv and old '* which it is her 
buHint?K)L tu hnt\)i forth out of tliir tK';umry ^jf lIk- Kingdom. 

There ifl room in Thtolo;^' for the new as well a* for the 
ohi, ;knil tUbrJi ilk*^, a^ it ji^imika, laiint nitilrihtiU^ Ut Iht? i<t(iTr 
and not merely proaerv^j aud psM^ it on. Iti CATubniliro ihore 
1% littlt-ilanjci^rortiirifi^ttintf or atidrrvaliiiiiK ihv ifU'^il hntden 
of the last generation : their memories arc ycl green, and 
thdr work will nlwnyn rcinain with u.-*, a ntorchounc from 
wLicli we thankfully burrow ioH(iiration Hnd koowWge. But 
liince Li;:litfot>t iiTurttinjw the hintoricid i^jnitioti of the author 
oT Suj/ff-nalMrfil iteJigU/a. the htitiieficld lia# Hhift«d in uait. 
and the foKts* of our op|K>TieittN h^v£ been recniit^l iVom 
frc«h <^narter£ ; the <rritidsm>i whid> ore Ftill good as ajc:TiinBt 
thiit tiiifiirttiriattr VL-nlurt- have little lieiiriii^ u[Miii NoiiLe tif imr 
presont controvcreioi^ with unbelief Nor do all the historical 
and textrnd rcAidln whidi Hi:%iijed ao MH:urt* twenty yeani atfo 
now coiDmand uuiverMd a^^nt The timc^ Imvc tnor»l on, 
briiiffitiK new workent, riow tiict'*, new idt^HA, Kltm|Wed ctcii of 
whole fle1d« of thought iniknoan Ut th then : ntiH riKtm uiii«t 
be found for tUet^e in our theolo^ jw* ifoH oh m other dt^iKirt- 
mcutA of study. Et it no dioloyJty to the pe^t to endeavour 
to keei> pace with the prti«eiic, or to pi^j^are for a future 
which ]t atraidy comiuiE into sight. Thooloffions above other 
men are temjiu-d to n-^ird wliat in novel nn Kunpeet la* ev<*n 
floif-coBdemued ; ducti not the <juocu of Scionecw toach eternal 
and unchangeable truthf wai« not thn Faith, it will Ik a^keil, 
one^JbraUH^wetred to the sainlA^ But thow who urge ihte 

tiloa for^tet that theru in atmilier poiitt '>f view winch if not to 
ic fl>vrr1iMtki.HL If there fire tUincH urw »h well iih thin^ old 
in the store oF Uie ii|iiritmd hour^Tiohlcr, it if« hip duty ut ijivc 
pminineni^t; t<i csicb of Uii'M.' w<|<e<:t* <»f 'IVutii iu it** own plibce. 
The New (;ovenaut, no longer new Iu |)oihl of tiine, poKKeHMe« 
what the Uld Covenant lacked, an inherent power of prcMnt- 
Ing itsdf in frt^h II^TitK mid of deve]o|>iti^ iiuliitH of enniaet 
with tbe laksvt rwolatiou« of hnraaii knowled^. The Logo^ 



ivt Tut f^iHy Clmictliii writer li;w fine]}' hhiH, UiiHixh He wftA uf 
old, evon from ihe bc^unin^r. ouuufc^ml Himeclf anew at Uie 
IncnniAttoti, itt]<1 t* r.\cmttim \K:htg hmii iriUi % rrt?H)i. vuung 
life III tlie hcarte of the eainta ; throuj^ti bor pro|p^^flHy0 
reftlixatiou of the Cbrintt the Cliurch i>* citaMetl ot>utim«illy lo 
renew Ihe ntaliiv of her earlj" dayn, whiUt there arc epochs 
in bcf lott^ bmtory w\nn tltt? Ktonml Tnith apjiuiT^ with tho 
fltutling fi\'>4ku>.-HHikf;i>-rL':tl.H|»iritit;ilf]iR;i.ivery. SiiehMiicpi>L'h, 
[4nHH-4'riii;i to .vi tijn* of ni^tiiL pm^frvMx in otikvr brunch^ of 
kiiowl»>d*;cniajt>c dawning ufmnu^now, and itiauot forusto 
follow llie eicumplt* of ihn Ht-rilH» €}f oar Tx^nrH tinio hv over- 
lookin; or miflrcailiDg tlic ti^it* of the time. The disciples of tho 
Wonl ilitrt^ ttoL turn awnv from mty ofthR t<<m?liiiifpi ttf (UhI in 
Nsitare or in llhtwry because they mny be thought to iDTolve 
a reciinrtructiou of wmc of their d]trij*hc<l 1xOt«fik 

R^consttiiction, however, i% a »enoiii4 matter, when vital 
ImtliH arc conoL-nied : und in 'nH^olo>o it adia for tho utmost 
cart*. There iHgmve rink lent H»nie m'uvl of ;;iyhI prJLV HhtruUl 
ht loxt or inarre^t in t}iu iv*iCltiri^ ox ific ohLiiiL Altfiotij^li new 
combiikatioiM arc yicmiiti&il)!^^ the oriifinal defHkAit niuflt reniain 
wUbout diudoiiUon, without luhtitioh ; nMt\ jii>n jwra muM 
bo Ibe motto of the worker in tliU field. It ia co^y to state 
UiM iirindplr, bat thr Uisk i>r tfivin^ rlTiH-t in it be one of 
tb« greatenst delicacy and diflicolty Row necer^^ry it u thoU 
thill xliDuId In; n::f«rvr<1 for the hiLiidlini.' of Lr.iiTiiil ntudi-nti* 
lA bome in upon us bv the crude pronouiicemetiti which from 
tJiBc I') time prf>cocil IroTn oppocijt^ cumiMi itnd diivturb the 
peace of tl<e Church aiid the tallh of not a few. 

Tliat ihiSMS l*^HrtayH will hmvc Kvcoce<led in adjuntiTUE the 
rival clAima of ^old' and ^ new* is more Lhrni ne hi>|>e, more 
hidi'^d than cun bo utLiined at tiic prvt'<^nt inoincnL A 
gc&eradoii or two may barely suffice U} ftolve onti^rtding 
probletfiii, and iv viHm tix thry huvo \Kvn Kolvtsl ihi^ pmc^-HM 
will bcgiii f^M^iOt through tho dim^overy of new factt or the 
pcnctmtii>Ti tif mK-icty liy new illeIu^, Meiinwhilc in iliix Iniok 
die rcadei* may see the work in pii:<);reHA at, a Btaj^e where 
it in Mtill tcntfLtjvc nnd the results arc therefore of nuucrtuin 
tmlae. Fie will bear in mhid that to expect flnalliy In such 
invcMtiicntJon* ia to court dtr<Hp])oi[itnu>nt ; it ia only throu^ 
alt«mationa of fuhirt' and Hiccti^h. and a ijei-Hijileia-c in effort 
vhlcJi <lefi«fl diHciHin^rcinoTjtii, thiit thv 4<nd olu at liu^t bc 
reocbed. Nor will ho hK*k for ujiiform oxcellencc in a iicid 
whero many hdtcinri-m Lin* eiigiijciHt n|Hi]i woil of varying 
ciiarftc4«^. 8on^e of the subject* are in IhemBclvea more 
BtUtictive than nUiens or mjty Ikt thought to hfixo received 
raore ^ytDp&thetic treatment ; for into the interpretation of 

truth the pcnioiml cauatJon uiuHt tivtr cut«r larji^lr. especi- 
ally 111 n vohinir of tliiH kituln Th<? {>urprme of ihr IkkiIc uill 
hav« been pitied iC t^keii lu^ a whole* it ia jiul^d to have aet 
forwarrl whut ir» pfrh^ipj* the mcM^t iiiii>ortHrrt work that lirn 
before the ilieolojzr of the tveoUeui oentur}' ; if It hae 
helped to ajtiimiinu? the new vJewA of tnith )«iucK<?«tc<l l^ 
luoueni Liiuwloilfjf, utthimt Mit-riflHii^ imy i>:u't of tfie prirnj- 
tivft iR0Hf«ffx% liHil to t^tntc in lonns mlckptca to the necdj* of a 
new eeiitiiry tht* tmthit which llm juidnit Chim^h i*xpraw*ed 
in thow which ^cro u|ipro|>Hutc Ut it^ own time«. 

The partial UcUcziieiiiK and l^Lini&mKof Climtiati thought 
and tcnniimlog}', whirl) lit'^n i»v>tA nfivr the end o( the A[>nK- 
tollo ocfe, may not have beeu wiihont duni^er to the Futth, but 
few will niw itoilht that Tft)»:ilile re*nlt-* have followed. If wc 
owe to thefto procemes cerUin uecrebona which do not Imrmo- 
nizc nith Drimittve vimplicity. on the other hand ther eurichod 
thi? ChnflUri Society with uiwch thnl iLp|>eu]t?d t^) tlie th<iu^ht 
and into^natioD of tho centuries throush wfiicb it bad to ^hu^i^; 
nor »<mLd anv tliongdlfnl l>eli«i'er at Uk- jTnvrnt da^ wiUjii^dy 
abuuloti the bexl heirloomn tliat the Church fiwf received from 
the firvok Kn^t or ihc l.atiii WeHt. It would Iw tiutlili-«ti to 
dfiijhr. thnl the ntfHlemrvin^ nf Theohigv. wUieli aeemx u> have 
boKiin* will ugion the wbi>le be equally pniducLivo of ^kxL 
^MndhhiK of the rich beauty of the ancicid pre*eotjneiit of 
the Faith niay be loet in the prooei*»t, an<l the [wriud of 
tnuLsitioD iuu»t iiecc«9«irily be one of unrc«t aiid diacumfort. 
But it ne«*dr) iio pnii>het U* foresee tliat the tinre will ol>i]i6 
when i<lca« which to <Lay arc t^tninicc and uDwcIcome will be 
Mfeu to iMMTtow M tieainty ttf their uwii. to lie neceuiary to 
the comp1et«tiie«H of inith, nnd to bulong, no lew than many 
which jinr lou^ faaiiliar, Ui the coinQji>n treiuur}' i>f tl*e 
Klnf^orn of H»voti, 



Christian Staiutpoint 

WIUUM a'NMNOHAM. OD.. F«lbw of Trinity 
^yHogv, Hoi^tnry V^lcm of Gonvilb nnd Ciuna Colloire. 
(nlMtto LecttirrrO'^^X nnnorvy<'<Ani:m nf Klj; Kellowof 
b« Bijtjdi Awlciiiy p Vwu of tintftt iSt MntyV OunbridgCL 


inff of €foi>t in the tight of Phygical 

IMU'I Student in Philottopliy, Gt^nville ami Chjiik CVilli»ge, 
sBwUctUTerClSOl); R«;U)r of Hockin^jld, Norfolk, 

Being of God, in the light of Philonophif 

AlfRKD C.\LDECOTT, D,D. Uie Fello«r ^od Dc«n 

S4 Jolin's Collf^B, FrufeMiur of MoraJ uiid MiiutiJ Pliilo^ 

phy in Kin^a College. Lon(K>n; Hirctor of Fr&ting, 



* Origin, ami hi^ place in Mature 

X. M.Dh» PtUy* <if JcBU* College, IniTcraity Lecturer 
Deal Antkro{H>l6gy, 


iiid the Need <if Atonefneni . . , . 

IViaity Cotk«e. 




lii Su^ecit and CmilributorB 

6- The Idm of Revelation, in the light qf Modem 

KnotcUdye and HtsearcA , . Slff 

JAMES MAHRirK WILSON. D,D., (omelime Pellow 
of St John ri>Iloffc and UcaA MftsUr of Clifton Collcgo. 
hrU^ Vioa.r of HocbdcJu and ArcIuleiM^nn of Mncchoiitcr, 
HuIacui Ijecturur (189f^): C&uou of Worc^Ust. 

7. Prayer, in relation to the idea o/Latv 

ARTHTTR fflUJAM ROBINSON. D D,, jH*iiHCi,ll.ig.-, 
Vicu- of All Kalltivv Barking lij- the Tower. 

8. The ^irituai aitd hi^^rkal ei^Uienccfor Miracle, iw 

Pellow And Dean of Rmntnni^el Coll^^^ W&nleD of St 
AainuUii«^8 CoUege» Ciuiterbur]'. 

9. The Permanent VfUtte of the Old Tetttament 841 

WILLIAM KMEHY BAHNB*. D.D, Fellow of reter- 
houM^ UuUu«D I'rofovor of Divinttj. 

10. 77« Goxi>fJii, in tJtf' light of historical erilirijnH sil 

PEIKDKKIU HtlNHV ClJASif, D.D.. President of 
Qm«(;B' OJI«^e* ir^nnraiy I'^IIow of Cbriet*ft College, uid 
NomtiiiD Prure&Hjr at l>trimty, JIn]*»«ji Lectarer (19U0) ; 
BijiUo{>-E]tfct of % . 

11. ChriU in tk^ New Tetitwwnt: tkr primitine 

portrait ..,,... i^l 

ARTHUR JAMES MASON. D.D., Ma-tw of ?r,D- 
broke CoU«ee, iomi»uii« Fallow of 'IVinity College, lato 
I^dy U«Tgftf«t PtoCewor of Divioity and FoUon of Jesiu 
OdhgCb HdImui LectcKT (1099); Oaiiod of Owlerhiusr. 

S^eeU and Contributarg ziii 


rii^inthe Church : the tesiimany of History . 469 

Ulov, Dean, and AaaiBtaiit Tutor of Jeflos Goll^^e, 
Inlaam Lecturer (1M9); Hodot&tj Ouiod of Peterborough. 

Httian doctrines and their ethical signi- 
ficance 537 

qQot and Dean of Pembrrtke College. 

t Christian Ideal and the Christian JBope 573 

rmitj College, sometime Head Master of Harrow School ; 
te Dean of GloDceat^r, 

fijmfni nu /i^ airoira/itn- Icr^ ya^ aloe ovji iX-r^tit mS «Ucunu 
8wBU Of* 

Olueht or Alixaitdku. 




The Wftnt of a CommOD Underetanding, 

L CoHFUcriNG Opinions. 

1. NuTow Lioiito of Difference in the Stud; of FhjBicAJ 


2. IncompftUbiiities of Moral Judgments. 
a. UncerUiDt? of Religioua PniiGtpU«- 

n. Gbounds fob discarding Religion. 

1. H^t^ialum. 
SL Puitheiem. 

3. AgnuaticiAn. 

in. CoHHON Seksb OpnnONS aboitt Religion. 

1. BAtionaliam in Thootogj. 

3. AtkftljtictU Enqmriee as to the Bwence of Religion. 
& The proteot of Beligiou» Connction. 


L ReflectioQ on the GontnuUctions in Haman Zfatnre. 

2. The 8ense of Sin. 

V. Christian Consciousness. 

1. Conacionfl Reconciliatdon with God. 

2. Harmony with other Wills. 

3. Christiui Li fa 

4. The Life of ChruL 

VI. The Study of the Phknobiena of Rkljoion fbok 
THIS Standpoint. 

1. Apprehension and Appreciation. 

2. The SptHtiud Tmth In the Scriptorei. 

3. The Grovth of Hankind in the Knowledge of God. 

VH Cheistianttt and Conduct. 

1, Self-repreraion, 

2, Tfaeistic Horalit;. 

3, DistinctiTel; Christian Yirtnee. 


IbiNARV taUe talk, on ovifr)--<lny topics^ Ininga out Iho 

;<]it)4*refM:«a that are io be found niuou^ liEun&n be^ngii 
m ftdtl wlirrc bright ititolli^Muv <'iiiiu« Uy tW fruity lijr 
ke*«H iir I If tri^ I it lor I, li\ aliTfui-wt in cuiiiriKiiliii^ Ut llie 
jp tlioUK^t iif tliL' i-i«Ti]]Kiiii,uTiil li} wlniLtiK-wiiii tuniiTig 
■Bn into frctih cbaitQcb vrbcu tlicrc la tlnugev that it 
^niat«- KrvnTk<-iv< of iiitcUvct Aut\ tfi^niality *>f iiuuinc^r 
in the fiur&cc. aad ^tc a chjirm Lo talk, upon wbat4:vcr 
t (t may torn ; but otlier iteraoiia) iiualhieA nmy 
fit mther Oiaii illitniinntv tlii- How of cijtivoi>ifUioTi. 
te fiienda liave mj much in conuuoii ibai tli«y cau 
J^vcly, witluitit r<*Hr uf g1viii|C (ilftiiKx* ; wlillcf Humh 
id tbeaweltvii hi nii iinronifi'iiml ntiTiiAjilK-rt fetO the 
f exerdiilEiK bc»pw whihciouj' f<cIf'ro[iivr«ii>iL T\iv Vvry 
) Iliulidil liavc ha})ituutc<l thcniMtreit |4> look at |>i>lltkTkl 
from diftW'cnl ptiinlH nf viiw; each ioicrprcti* the 
of Uw *Uiy fruiu litA owi, .-[jinLlimtnL mid vuch fimlH in 
\ Gonfimkation of the uptnioiu hv hfu alwayn held. 
1 dlscovJon of aflkirei of Hlal« between two tboruugh- 
artUMinfi Ik ntnuiHC ijn]HHfiibb^ ; thvy aljhor enrh utherM 
lei^ and denj each nthfTM fartA. I'hrrc w mi caimmoii 
lietwt-eii tlieuL, ami uiiixiiirindii^ an^umciit in uuly 
to dc^:cTicmtc inUi tncrc wnmiclinic- Nor 19 it only 
«|>ect to puUlical matters tlmt a mail fccla it prudent 
anfiil what he laiy** luiumic HtnuiKeh^ lu ro^iinL U* 
tpioA of art or of religion, <.>tw pvnwn Kp(.<^i^ luid thinks 
1 a vhotly difTereiit plane from that which others 
tliat hoiifJit nltrniiilM U* cumprc^hcnil tlii* npuiitm Oiat 

iare fuUed : thev only lead lu rity»tiAc:itioiL The 

Cambridge Thwiogiml E^my$ 


huimui mind recoilrt frfjm tho merely inco)Li|»rehci:iKible, and 
lA not a1w&}'8 patient i^iiongU to tii^ hi puiii« to tr,v to reiic^ 
the pUtfonH of ibih«e who >i^vii» t4> 1k» cMltlition. Not & 
little IT illicit! (Ill Ih iK-t'rleil ui L'imlilt- a oiai) to intcirTiM.ii^« 
thought oil all p<MHibIc Mil>jix:t« of hiitivui inu^reAt, with niaTij' 
w>rtw aihI (Mn<!it)oiiA of men. Thorr inufit l)f floiiic kiiul nf 
ctimmoit umLcrHtaiKliiiKi ^'i* i»t^iHxt.'rit ili-^ciiwion i^ imi>i)[«^ibl«; ; 
no advance gau be made tovrank iwc^mcnt unlcw one at 
least of the diKjiiitaiitd 18 pi'c|)ared to try to compi^eheiid the 
oUicr'N point of view. 


1. TlicTf are of coiinw nuhjeetji ijT ^liMciimion in regard to 
irhkh it in nirelv iiectrNtitrx' to Like iimch ju-i^onnt of difre^Tfiit 
points of view ; for pmcticiil piirpo«cT« we arc all on the Hinic 
B^uidiKiint, when we are conaidcrini; the ol>je<:tA <if dcntte- 
pcnx^ption in tlieir rclntioii^ 1*1 «u:li <»ther» 'l^hc qtKwtJonH n« 
U* the uliiiiiate aiitilyHio of phVHioal pliciiomerm, or a« lo their 
prec!L«e relatione wfth the hnnuiii niiti<1, raiiv ]>ri)t»K-fii>i that 
many of \m arc roarty to leave on oijc i^ide ; eiinw? we t\n Tiot 
N^M? tliut they liHve nixs iitiltlnriiin ln^iriiig, Tln»ie who nn* 
rontnit to try to iii"ler»t*iiid Nauirt'. in ordtr tlmf thi'vy may 
uiaVc tljf moftt of her arid co:itn>l her retMHirreff for hnman 
pun>*>='e^ f^*<^l th»t there it- n'> nwl lo jurtify their position. 
71icy arc lookiiiiC at the world steadily and 0>'fitcmnticn11y. as 
all civiliMHl men take it DTieonMeioiLHly in every a^t of daily 
Ufa To jind an exc^eption, we must p> to the fetichi^n of 
primitive iiiaji* which reduces nature to a chaos of caprldouM 
inniirnrm ; lhh< h a ilif i^renl 4lJiiid|ioiTitf wholly lU viLrinrR^o 
wiih oar <»wn : Iml we can tnicc the nTcvp*) by whicli, with 
advaiiclii): kituwlctltce. men have diAcnrdeil it, and niay thiifi 
find uddilional icammi for pr<'fcrrinir o!ir <»wn jxkint of 
view. The conception of the pfiyf^ieal worhl, u>* an orderly 
whole, K^veA ilh a aullleleiit bfl«ii< for common actii»n ; tlioec 
who aro nien.*1y d4>iiig \hf. l>Udiin«Ai of lifr, and Ukmu wh^j aro 
ptinaiiijf; inrc^tij^ationH, Arid cooiuiKni f^ound fVom which to 
tfarvcy tin? knowltsti^ m^|uired in tite invtt, ainl to c'(H>nliTmte 
tJieir new iin|>rrM«ioiiH. Dilfcntriaxw of ennrw there are, dne 

2%6 Cbritiian Stw^aitU 

iqr^c in ibc iicctirHiT j.r rh:*riM:U'r of Uwir n:|MkJt** ; 
& bUndneai rltbta* iri>in« :jl»erviitj4mK. hdiI lucrc cara- 
Hl QuJtcw 4ithrry wurtliK-Ai. Rn: it mav nfUsii b« poMiUc 
■oonntr or At any i>iU* [>j uIIow for Hitch ftiTergdiOM ; 
I Ift, on the vlioU;, orit- HtmiilAi-fL in tha \nit\y of kiiowlc(lg« 
I pb>wx1 (ihcnoniciin, to which nppciJ can he niAdc, 
k b & Lrilmiial tlint j»II nrv renily t4i a^crpt Nor U k 
If thftt there t^ A o<nnfiinn cttnocjrt'ioii in which nil aicr»>(.\ - 
earn that all draoin at *mtw : iht^y rt-'df^iiHu tlmi 1h« 
Di <jf niiluro U r^'ti, (h^ciujm; of Uio liuiitiittiinN it pluccs 
16 opefadoD of hnniaii wIlU : and tkey feel tlmt their 
todgu Sh i^xiwing: ill r<-rtuiiity, ah tlMr uIowm Cfntw intn 
* oorraipoiHkMkctT itilh that witich cuiiiiiioii nenM- reifanlri 
tflid fiu:L. Tlie |*(Mwilnlity at venfyinif nrir irn|irnwafiiM, 
uiily or nt Mnt<^l inU^rrnU, ftnil of fitting thctu into a 
mt wholi-, ntidt-n* uur empiric^al kiiow[i>dg« Mf» reliaHo 
we do not ncc^ to tnko M;rii»u« m^^cntint of i^iich di1fcn-nt 
B of riew UH we may find ainoni^' |rnniH.ive mim. or in 
iCionol pervons. 

Wlwu vro tiini tA Another cIom of pheiiuiiioiiii aitd 
let thp rcUtioTH between man inid man, the raHoty of 
nVuxprooBrd aikI Uie divef>ity »f iJtr <tAiif Ijk'jiiilfl aiKipIt^ 
Mint people becvnne ii>nrt Ktfirlthi^. A» Alan Breek put 
THvid Ralfonr. 'I hrivc oftvn (ilw^rreil Umt yaw J^iiw- 
ry bodi« h^Te n-* I'lear tdi>i of what bright and wrong'." 
^nwHcficc jrceiiJH t<> be capable of anch »^iratigc roganea ; 
here I* ulwii}^ on iiilerewt in dif^efiverhi'^ at what precAMO 
•cnpiiloii' pvnti'Tu will draw tlit> lint'. Xor U there 
imnon atuidarfl to which appL^al can be made. Amonf^ 
rogmKitX' pt^^vpUw the tro^liliiHiri nf rit;)il und wrrnig 
to 1m< emlMidied in i-iiHtntiiK ;tiid iii-iiitntloiir^ ; then- b< a 
v^ pp^irt'tee and ulnrrvHiirr* whii-h Ih rJKht hi ntl thv 
ina of lift*, and the neglect of which im wrung, llio 
0y)>t<:ni i»f the Hindus sn*t» external «xpremioii to the 
)|aon of duly : biit^ aincx? the dose of the Middle Ageot 

the toQlroTcriy wiU>iv r»vi, JVdifiuv. ;£dSvp(«lutj(?r 1904. 

6 Cambridge Theological Esmys [l 

there h&a been no endi generally recognised external standard 
among Western peoples. The pretenaiona of Uie Church to 
pronounce authoritatirely Km right and wrong in every sphere 
of conduct are no ionger enfbreed ; the privileges of the 
Head of the State, as the soorce of law nnd right, were aet 
at nought in the Beveuteeoth centurv, and Uie claim of erery 
man to do that which is right in hU own eyes is treated with 

Una state of aflaira has led to Uie diffodon of doubt as 
to the reality of moral distinctioae and relaUonahipa ; they 
do not seem to be given, as sometiiing which our wills 
cannot oppose ; they are, on the otiier hand, to a very 
considerable extent aflected by the individual decisioiL It 
is true that the duties of a child to a parent are thnut 
upon every one^ bnt it rests with himself whether be 
shall undertake those of a husband, a &ther, or a citiaen ; 
he can remain outside them alL Kot only is he free to 
evade these moral responsibilities, but maxiy human relaljon- 
ships apiiear to have been constituted by individual wills. 
The doctrine that the State is the creation of those who agree 
to place themselves and their property under the protection 
of a common body, and to divest themselves of individual 
rights, removes the whole realm of law from a basis of con- 
trelUng duty, and rears it instead on common expediency 
and individual consent to abide by a convention. The whole 
febric of right becomes unreal and the distinction between 
good and bad is rendered uncertun, since there is no re- 
cognised ./^nim fjrf^rHMm to which appeal may be made^ or 
from which we can obtain clear fuid distinct guidance as to 
our conduct towards one another. We habitually admit that 
a man, of whose action we disapprove, may be ri^t from his 
own point of view. 

The diflerences in the etJiical standpoint taken by different 
individuals are so great that the mere description of actual 
moral conditions must be greatly affected by them. The 
American is full of pity for the lot of the w<Hn^i of India^ 
immured in cenanas and left without education — though 
powerful personalities have been developed and have made 

The CkrUtian Sta^tdpoitU 


tlieii»e]irca» fell uiiiler thwcflJMibilitici^ 11h> IHndtt noulil riev 
with p(«itivo horror t\K preference of the Ajncricnn vronun 
for ail uuft?tt<?ri'4 hfv ; and hift »tronic hciiaO of dL-9ii>)>n»vul 
vouUl nocc^uuilv colour unj Attempt to dcflcribo the current 
ncmdl^ of the Tuited States. 

Etvii if wo dii not Uike miob tutrt-ritt* iiidUni-iw iw Ui*; ^df 
bvtwetrn the eiriliftatloiLM of thv Kii»l Hi»d of the We^t^ we Bnd 
tli&t U>errnrefllHki]i>;*ljfferQiii:tv bi^twt-€ij uit^ii bnkii^ht up in 
tbo flonc contitry, tiiid under the intiaeiic<? of (Jhri«tian U^icb- 
Ing. 'Hicy naay chcrUh very diltercnt id«a)fi of what eugbt to 
be, tind mny ho brought into diamctdcfJ opposition orur 
practice] iHsuea. Thert' are tJioae for whom the ludividiml 
U 4»vttff3'thiit|C« And fiY<cdoiii for itidividiml Kclf'<loveh>pi]ivnt \n 
OWrotiil to the realiijing of their aims, lliere ate others 
who regard ilie IiiHiiLnUoiiH whkh hold Auciety together, 
vhich prrpi^nftt4^ the nK*e hihI fomi the penwtnal rhHrmtvr, 
as of lArAmuuuL itii|iui-tanet-. no that any individii&i HHcntioe 
may be richtJx deinundrd ffir the sTike of mntuUininK thcin. 
Tlih^ 10 the irrcconeiluble contradiction tJiat underlies lUI 
ooiiflictiiyc views on Bo<:ial i|uei4tioiia The varieties of tern* 
pcmnj4:nt« Or tip})nnjfinjff, or whnt<^vvr o\t^ it itu\y Iw th^it 
detemihveM A mnnV attitndo towai^da the constituted order, 
iin? riiiiO»ineiil;i] hi }droethtK hi)> ]>i»iiiL of view on hII i[ite9ittofitt 
of buinuti refniiooHhijiK; tht^y HMWrl hi>% jm1tE^*^neiit on pvery- 
diiiig connected widi tht: famd). the llmr^h, or the Hlatcu 
Then:; m 90 little nicrei^nient on the fnndunientikl iMi:i<:?s thjti 
ibero IB very little conunoii ^aund on which aiich questions 
00 the moml education iif the )'oiiiik a\tt be even inlellii^eutlj 
AwsiHMid. HpinionM on matters of detail of every kind rfo 
ttlfocted by the point of view frora which the topic is coo- 

3, Wliile the iJiHerejiei.'H of HUindpoint gi ve rW Ut *»> mnrh 
ouaifbAioii in ^t^^H^) Ifi rehi.tionH of man I0 wauiy we caii 
bftrdly expect that they ehonld be unhrijxtrtant when vrc arc 
coufdderiug the rclalionH of umu to Uie nitiinaie Po^er in 
iho UnivenfC The pn>blc]ns arc so terribly complex ; tlicy 
MWD) b> involve elements in re^rd to which there ia no iKipo 
of r«Ackin^ a delinitc d<!cii»ioii. The two poleit ef Uio relation- 


Coinbridge Theological Eaeays 


elilp are alike Inacmtable: lunonjc all the contmilirlintw in 
liijt <li)i|)rwinon nml rh^i4cU'r. h*tvt ntmll nr. %iHtt\nn.vw tlie 
tuOure ul miui f Arc till mtrii riidowiHl inth similar facuUicSi 
but 111 vnryiiiii dca^n?^ or nvc yhi-^nr Hitlrrvnc^t^^ nf kind which 
condcDiii MHuc Tncvr* Ut occupy a lower level i l« cuch |M>*rMi>ii 
ln»norlHi or does clif^tb iiin>lvc Uit; utl«r di^nto^'atioti of 
tbo individiial life bi iJI lia tmitecu t And wb^jti wc tiiid it 00 
difficult to iLtHiin |jj kniiwlud»{i^ of oiinohea, liow (JiaII we 
flgtirv Uie liltiiiiRt« Power in Uii< Uniwrm?? Our capacity 
for ibinkiiiir df>a« not ranife m> fer ; wo canitot tell wimf it is 
wo »rc ^'rojiiiig after. Whilo viuiU of the piAv>^ of tUr n^lulinii* 
flbip ffl HO liUle kiiowit, w«> cain luiralh ei{i£^t U> be fflJtTc«MfiU ' 
ilk irivr»liu»liiij!: th<.i ri-lfttioiH which nul»4i«t. Ulwivii tlinn. 
While there ih mr mudi cimluMim ni;il iiitivalilv in rvt;ar<l to 
qnotftioiiii of ethics, it umy ttccm doubtful whether it l» woilfa 
while to atti-inpt t'> mine the licci^cr proliloni* which religion 
premnfo. J'hc pixiblcmj^ of ethics arc foreeJ tip<>i) our ttttrn* 
tion by the pr&ctical necoaaity of liviiiff utnong our feHow-niuTti ; 
<ra intut Iw on itfimc -ort of itniM with tlicnii, nnrl vrt* Imve 10 
decide how viv will irvat them, and how we will f^ubrnit Ut \k 
tr«it4H] ouroelveKw But there U no *\uih ahxUnu Mul |in*Mng 
neoeanity 1» regavnl t4» tlir \t^uv.% m\J^y\ h\ T)teah>jcy » ihc inu*! 
raTKif^' obscnntion f^o's-a that tiiauj men ait? accustomed taj 
trcftl thcr« coTtHidcrnttons as *o remote that they tjoc<l oidy 
bo taken into ftccoimt very oecA8io»ally. if at all : ard il is 
ea^ to aoduiue uu entirely la-Kative attitude towardu reti^on. 
afnev h weemA to l>o lackiuu; in roHlity when it t\o^ not brlug 
preHHire to bear upon the wlli 


L Roa^iUH umy rciidily be ndduc^'d iu tlefenc^e of this 
Bflgative |Miwiti'in : ni-uU^^I ft nli^ioo M^t^niit to fx; n<>I '>ii1y 
excvHalile, linl <<iiiTiini'iiflMiili\ i>r iit KitMt j]i>1i liable, f^HMn oiie 
in* Dtlier of three difleieut jNJiut^ of view. 

All reli^oiu^ Inlief and iimrtiiro n-eiu In Ik? eio|j4v aji 
fain to dioK nbo kg jw rcaaou to «uppuw thai tbaxr arc or 

^H The CkriMian SfatutfioirU ft 

poaiiv direct rxlntiuiiH belveiTii tnhn aiid tho ritiiiiAtc 
|r ill i\K I EiinTw. Mwtiy ol tJw |kljcfi<»moriii »i' bunmn 
IBA b6 explained by phmouJ oonditioiui uf diinau* oiid 
irbile tit1k;rK c-;iii be a(H'iiuiit4til fur by nueli fnflut^ncfti am 

tUoti vt lii<r\^lk>. As vro arukLyw our owii coiutuct m 
I&, ur IrMkIc Ikick uij lilt* ItUiory »f the mce. k Heeiiift hii 
f miii.4i mo ^f1«Tl4'il tiy itiMttriiil hJiMTikDM'linp^ ihfil n 
jmorv jin vHtigntiuti iiia> ^-irtL lu hIiom ilinl tht* rt^iiluuJ 
knctia are dcTivrniiiivd in ilie ^iniu fuliioii, >iiid Ouit Ui« 
[of AMli* tX}bUirjiii?< lu tlK' iiJiLft'HiU iiiiivcroc will icirc 
fRMttT^ account of liitf lifo-hi^-U'n. |Ki8t, pro^ut, ajiti 
L Han'i greatest ^ood would th(?ii cuoMit^t \n oxamlnin^ 
ivir(inim*[it^ miKl itli^hiiijc Uk' ctrcinikHtHticm nf lii^ loi, 
tlio viovr (jf nKMlifyrif^ thern^ hi> Tat liii mu> 1k', in 

>l ttthcifltic; it doe« iiut doiiy tlu.^ eihtcncc of an L'lti- 

l^owcr in Uiv llnircrpc, but il n^cctA rt'li^^mn, ainJ liiriioe 

i conflict with conunon ooi;Tictinru» w tJ» thi' imturc mid 

r of nimt. Muii hiLs Ixx-n <l<rtbic^ a^ a roli^ioun linuiuU ; 

lio 10 nKrcly fui niiinia] dei«inikiiidl by ph^Tiiail tiiivimn' 

\htsre U uo iHxmk either for reliffion, or for thoAo huIcm 

■Vifv- which Arc hU un<iiuvt lu-Tiirvt'int-iil. Tliv v]i»le 

<! furet.\ wbidi hiin foiujd expnWfin iii art and litirnitnru 

niiurd itj£>1ituliiiiin. \a a |>rut«iHl jupihint thfr* diH^trine. 

TOfiiciouMKTHA of \i» owi] jHrnonaJ identity and iicrwinal 

jCT rolKt* at:i(tii?it the iittiinpt to iiH<?rpr^-t him u^ the 

>rodiict of hi^ Hurrouiidiii^ \Vc nia;r even come x*> 

t the \)&^ clu4? for bt<l|juiu uh to folktw ih^ devotop^ 

f tlw bmnrtit n»CQ im to bo found in thwe n^diiiU 

tena, and Uiat neither tlie douree of initt»tivu nor the 

sountc of iJitxigrw>i U rvuUy extilica)>l<t from i\\v nuil«- 

point of \it^w. 

riierc ix Hiiofher vlvvr of tlu? ITItinuitr Pow<*r hi iJi*^ 
^ vbidi Imii^ FiuiijK- fivr iMliuimtiiMi and even foi' 
11 ; but it T<nl] frdlN &» completely a» mitt^rrinlirtiii drvw, 
^niBc the dii^tiity of human |XfrM»ihality. aiid thiw 
y a hei:»tivc iittit-udc t^^wanU religion. The ^"arloua 
Lthcidiu " tiud the uUimato aud domiiiant iflda in 


Cambridge Theological Esmffs 

•onoe dirine My^C^iry «r l\w Utilverwe, \\\ the Bcnac of iicauty 
ftnf) Power of Nature, in ihc immensity of the sum of Lit'u itikd 
M&tMr* It m^y Yjc in n i>I<iua Lruat in the i^enemL good of 
All thinp^ be th;^ ihinjcs hinmtn fukI rooniL or 1k> they 
pliytiical. aud unconftcioUB\" But euch ideals are loo far ufl" 
and vague: t1it?y give im iiu axifttwiUt tnrtim to iierve aa 
prindpJeti, either for ibntight about ouniolvtT^, 4ir »w guitlc^ f<ir 
action'. It Iti, ua Mr Frederic llan-lMiEi says, *'the uriginal 
Uot on ercry form of philosophic jianthciem wlicti tnoil aa 
a bftiMi* of religion, or the root idea of our Utck. tlmt h juuibica 
np thu nuinLl, thr itaiiionilt the iion hiimiui and tlic antt- 
buman world : the animalod, and the inaaiuiate ; cniolty, 
fllth, bonv>r, uaj^c^, dc^ath : ^uMerltifj: and victory; nymi>atliy 
and<itiility. 'Ilic iluali>4t» Iwtwi^cn moral beuig and 
material being ih stu old na the eonsdenoe of maa U in im-* 
ponfhlr tn etBu.x^ the anlHgiinixiii lH<twiH.'ii thern ; ihHr diA|ia- 
raUr imhirtT in ai ro!iHW|ueiitf of th« hiww at Uiouglit mid the 
6brcy of the bntin iind the hcovrt No force can mnJilgatitatc 
111 vne i<ica tornadoes, earthquakes, intcratellnr epace^ po^ti- 
lencea. 1>r<»thcrly love* unseltUh eneno, imtience, hojie, truAt, 
and grercL No «JMgtc 4*»-)ncepti<ni Fd idl am ever ibhuc out of 
mch a medley ; wv] any idei:! thnt h wide enough to relate to 
Ui<* wholly iiuivl lie a nn^nr fi]m nf »ti Id^-ii. and one \» little 
in emitaet with the working of the ht-nrt or the iieerl^ of 
wHTittty sui llw uudnlatory thmiry of TJght or \}iv Mtiide of lAw 

"IVy any one of tkeeie ?iub)imitie(f in any (rf the <:rit*e of 

life A hamAO bcnrt ia wrung with pain. de«pair. remorse; 

a parent watches tlie child of biri old ago linking into rieo 
and eriiue : a thinker, aii inventf*r, a worker. breakM down 
with toll awl uiir<H|iiiuHl ho]K^ and (fees the labour of a life 
imdiiij^ ill fiilure and {leriury ; a widciw i* rriiMbefi by the Iohh 
uf her liiislkajiil, uiid ih« divtitation i>f thrtr i-hildnio ; the 
poor cwie their Hvct groarid out of them by opprcnora. without 
mercy, jtwticc, or hope. Co, tlicn, with the goape! of pan- 
theiani to tlie fnttierlcMA find the widow, and coimoIc them 

■ P. tlnrriaan. Pamih^imn and <X#miV Emotion, 4. 

* (bni|iu« the ctMidan by MmIup dv Biru, fKuerm inrdiim, h cciilx. 

^F Th€ C/triMian Mom^ociiI 11 

EBg of miiMotit or tb« ttnivonal ontor ; toll th« tioart- 
tbotit thr pennotatJona oT enerKy ; a^k the rich tyrant 
tiiWr Ui« Hum iif nil Uiitipi nml Ui lUU'ii U) llic* U^ic'li* 
of tlif AiiJitm MiiiiHi : i-xjilnin tn iIil- ili'liaiit'litre. [.lie 
vn, ftnri t}ie k^kmI t^u- Divmr Rnk'Uitc |KMiniuUi[i^ nit 
i wmI catbring all thingn — iiicludthg bh |)sirtu.ular rice, 
WBona^ hJB buftoit. hi* imilc, »n4 hbt Iii0<t Mw\ when 
I pMnooB m^ their hliurkcftt atid the demon of axiardiy 
lahini* \U fau^ at the rlt-mon r>f rlivifKitio L^ruvlly. Htop 
Id with iJt<T n'ligum fif flw<.M.'tn^iw tLiiri lijtht, ar»'l try if 
iHorp, 0Q exqniMitt'ly 4iiiig hy GoeCbe and IiIm Mloweni, 
ot Ileal tilt* MMrinl fMlriuiiiV 

Thi^.^ TormM of ile5iiiU' ii|>|H>Hiti4iii ut eurreiit reli^ponH 

)l muy Iw coii^'ninl to men who hare cither an inlc(i*«c 

tioam for eni|iirlcal iiircfttiiCHtion, ur » ntmiiicly developed 

c U-mpcmmeiit. <>f thtim:i n'h<i ure Iju'Jiiiij; in Ukw> 

ic«, many Ap)>efir ^wtii^fierl to aecept tlio i^ioraneo to 

«e ieeni to be eoDdewned &« tneritable, niid am lume- 

n^iiiKt whirh it \n iiKiilrjw lo roliel, WllHt^.'^vcr hiiiDftii 

im »ilb U»' tritimal4? PuAt-r in tlie Univei-w iiiny be, 

^ Ml vrv duitiot. c<nii|>rchniil tlirni, tfiey rjin liavtf no 

^ 00 ottr liven ; ruligioii scccih only to offer a field for 

)ocnlfttion. jukI in r»t Inr lu it diTerti* i^iK-rgy from 

9\ oflbn it miiy app«ar positively iiiischievoti& In 

7here power and wealth are in the liandK of Uie clerpEy, 

Jing Uukt llicHc itvoiircw nu.- mwlv*\ uill viuily t>ree<l 

i-derieal tipiHt; In Any coniinniiitie« vhrre religion 14 

ij^ iU v»?ry lu-Hvfly nmy lie imULtin^ and oTTcilhiii-, 

II forth n rt^tf'liiin that ib i^iiiHrioui^ly nntillirUtijui 

ait affAtiittl inlvlircH ttxl enenfy. Agno^ticiflm may be 

"ly h<Hti]e, or on tJie otfier IiiukI it maj be wannly 

liotic with ddinite relijcioiiH beliefs luid lulmin- the 

which it doM not participate, Mr Herbert Sponcer'a 

EM U> the imjHwiaibility or ^tlainin^ v^ MitrioUH kn<*w- 

ppeiilv to luLVe n'ruiincMl iininmliflri]^ IniL \iv hiiil 

lew HeiiMu of anU^inWi to tlioAe wlio ilitrrinlied 

thirh KreiiHil to him to \k lahu ''I linve coiuu more 

> T4 tJiniMD, pp. ctf, IAl 


Cambridge Theolofftcal Eusaytt 


rikI more t^) 1r>ikk oftlml^ m\ fomiA af ivIiglonH belief to which 
I \\wij lu CHTtier dayit, a proiiouncc^l uvltsIotl ..Larf^ly. hoW' 
0Ter, if nat rhi4*fly, iIiik rhaiigc iif fuulin^ Ui«-)inU ruli|ci<>ii" 
creefb ami Uit*ir riiiHl^iiiiing iiibtitiittonh Iihh rcAuluiif fnnn 
a docpcniTifC nnivirliim llmt tlir Et|ther(j i^icuii|iiof] l»y tliem oin 
never 1)ccouk' an uiiflllcd sphere, but that there must continue 
to nfijfc iitVr^h the fn^itt cju^Hliond e»nL'<-rnlntf nurttelvotf fi.j\A 
stUToundirn: lliin^; and tJiat if iiol pc«iLivu mmwerH, tlien 
moiML* of coiiKciouMioAti ^Undini; in pliu»- of |ju?Litivu nuBwcra, 
muAt ever rpiii;«in,H^.Kctigii)nij (TTcihK whit'li in cnr way ur 
lUKfllkt-r- ooL'U|>y the «pbertr tbut nkutcrml iiiUTprctution w«kif 
to nocupy unil fHiU l}u- iiiorv Uii* in<»n* it HU(<kH, 1 Imvo eonio 
to regard wilh » riipiniiftthy Ittvueil uit i:<<iniiiiiiifiiy iif rHx.^t] ; 
ftw1!n|C ^hiit flinM-tiL fruni Uit-u^ rcMiltn Irunk iii4tiillt> t^) iit^rpt 
the solutions otlcrcd. joined witb the wi«h x\^i Molutlofu 
<N>uld Im.' foinnlV' When it i? onoe ii.ii»*^iij*ed that rdiKi^'fi 
t«kt>^ A |>ot'niunciit pliw-'u iit hnnian tlic>ii>;ht^ nnd liru< n pniclioiil 
bearing on human life, the phcmoiiKma of religion can no 
longer l>e n^anlotl lu^ merely ftitlle : tiiey beconio a h*ifttiniatc 
object of hnniJUi »litdy. The fart timt mink n;ilure*i arc in- 
neiuible tti ihi»4 hiAnvnoe' in mit a Jufluficatlun for mdving 
aMTchT the rt^liifiirnK runmiimjtni^^fi, Ami iM ivportf^ <vi tb<; rc- 
latio4iA ixtvcen irod unci man : if v-c ilo w^fi diMrarr] religion 
ft1t4}jCCtJieT, w<f can i^ a ^tep furtiior and (nniptlfler the pointi» 
of view fi^>in whieh thr c<>Titcnt« of the rcliffious coTiwiousnewi 
may be meat fmittult) atmlicd. 


1. HtudentA of the reli^oiu coTu>donfln«tAii are hiclined 
at flnt flight t" iwunK' that i\\v pherinineim xrtr <m ttie loiine 
filane k) nil other hnmhtiiliL-H, aiifl Ihat they nm^ Tar miIU- 
fiurtiinly iiiv<vti;^il4fT fnmi rhi' «rmir Kijvnil]H»inl' and hy the 
aame nii^thiKK ItejigiouFt iipinion hajt fontid exprimioii in 
tlRH>1iitrien1 d<>ctri(ie : reliirioiiti feclinf^ in Mhcred art The 
cunonif of cHtieiMm which can ht applied to other brunches 

■ W. Jama*, KivnW la </ iUli§itMt fyjttritnr*^ VS. 

The CkrUiian Standpoint 


Mre. tlw ocmtinr wlijch c«ii be bronceht to bew 

be blfttorj of other liuititiitloii^ are n-ady ili hand for 

lining tl]«? oriipii Atnl rhnnu-tiT unci gnivrth iif n^liglon ; 

ilreaU^ sa a bml} of 4i|dTiioiiK on whicti vei firi[i^ our 

i to bmr. Tlkere An% iHivrrrt^r, nuuiv nirn wlm Arc 

Ir to adopt thif^ mcntiil attitude i to thcui rcli>rion ia 

in a^iir iif iithiT pt^ipk'^ ctiiiiiicniK, but a |>ci>iiiial coii- 

kn of their owfL nu-v Jirciiiiabk' W nmiitUiln aii attitude 

t^oinic akkofnwa, but caii only Hew tlic reliiiioiiM belleft 

^t^ctitxw of otht^rv in ihr ti^ht nf their own Ci^nvjrtiotiii. 

Ulft^raice In iho i4i:ind|:K^iikl of on? nnin, who can laVe 

()iu«iiiii»tc HtirviiFy of rt-lif^jon fnnii I)i4* <miM'W\ aiiil of 

rr, to whi^ii (vrfAin rrliijinnn iK^irfH »fv h matter of 

pnl (x^nvictiou, u* ftintijimf-iitu] ; tJi»Mgh the two f]i«tinct 

I of thinking may U- bicmlt^l in vnrioUA pro|x>rtioitfL It 

\ m^y for anyone, however much ht- tri^w. t<i lay aAtdo 

tmnal prt'ililcclion and lo<ik ^t iliNpntisI ijn<wtioiifi with 

le-mlnded intellectual iiiteresL AniijtalhleM niay clitfturt 

twm of otH-rijUiiin, and Hynt[iiiliy will »<Hji]idy hHih-I 

tnnerof ex(>in.T«ion and jtift^ioinrnt ; rht- drciHonn <if i.he 

J faculty niar he olecured by a cloiul of Kunttmc^nL 

tetvo wayw of lookiiuf ni rcliition aro really dir^tinct ; 

fbd examptca of each [jabtt of mind may be ituoted 

mrati^MM which wttg U> nwrk thi; rontra^t The re- 

I eontrov«racs of b^^nc da^v arc not to t>e Lifrhtly 

wad a« mere pedantriea and futilities : for tbt-wc ili»- 

M havv Hn abiding hil^-nnl. in wi liir hm l.hry brin^ ifitii 

vlirf liitr iJAfttcuiar |ii>int of view whidi wa<i »d<ipii-d 

diApntant-A on <-ttljer ^id^■. In thi.i way the |HiiLi]i}dt-t 

ITD of the end of the »ovcntccnth m\d bcB^iiming^ of tbo 

Htaflflbttin umrkfi an itn|>orUknt ei>oclL Tlte cliiim 

B^Hnuil roawii to pnniotin<^<^ tlolinitcly on all jraiota 

[ion waA atroiiffly amerttHl by the Deista, and r^eeuia to 

KH*4i vvTy generally acce|rted bj' their opjioiii'ntj- : in 

LCta of that tinw wv inny And an 4*X(v]1eiit fi^ld for 

)g Uw erhann-ltrlHtJr featiireM of 0)U habit of inhid*— 

M^ and w it i^nrvivt^ 

limn in reli|;iuud thought wacn not by auy nie&ns 


Cambru(ge Theofogical Eamyn 

an iifolatoii phcnonkt'iuiii hi Uiv vcvcnlccntti century, for it 
was cloBcly connected with the current philoBophy. It la 
i^nfliciinl for otir |mrjio*e, htjwever, to reKiird it ju ii prt^lucl 
which ttiH'rgwl fWmi tin? cii)u>*ricit>* r>f ihrolo^ical puli'inio*. 
The ^vHl HtriiKK^i^ <>f the ttixleeiith ct-ntury reaiilte^l In pl;u:iii^ 
ihc liibU' wul llii^ ('hnixili in uj»|wrctit o|i|Nmiti<m, lu thu 
9<ii|>ruiiie dcposilaric* oj Dirinc truth on earth, (.■hill in;; worth, 
to whom Uie qtii^tion vraei oite of deep iientotiftl inteu^'tt, en- 
deavoured to dcfific the pnxitioo he tinally rciwhcil in oppo- 
«itioii to the Romanists. He held that no \\\\n^ iiifallildc 
gold* wfbK nt*t!ded, Mhici* UuivenuLl Trst'litioii emlKHli<^'<l \\\ 
the Bible was the \ta^u of (.'hrii^tUn hrlicf and thin could 1>e 
■iilliclpiitly interpretcnl liy tlio hniruin nniLi'r^bindiiihi, He 
Iniiisteil x\\}\l the Scripture wiw tlie »nly nilo to detule »^I1 
rotiLruvL'i>ieB among <_1iriatiaiw\ yet anhji-^it Ui tin- pn^viMj 
that quc«tioTi« touchinic ^icripttirc arc not dix^iiiablc by Scrip- 
ture'. AD questions im to C'ft.V)»rncity could be i^cttlod by 
I'nivontal Tmditioii, but private Judgement wiih uallcfJ tor, 
Binc« th«iru whj; in fiiet no reliable 'tntditive imerpretation.* 
''We Are rea<ly \t\ receive lK>th Scripture and Uie iteiiiie of 
Scripiiire upon I'niverwil Tradilimi/' but not on the aiithority 
of die [touttth t'huFck which had in many uruy^ rlepaile^! 
from UniYen«l Tradition. AnthontaUve int^^riJUtHtioii iw« 
itnneccaAarjr since private jiidtcenient wa« capable of apjdyiiiif 
the rule of feith which \» git^n in Scripture. ''SpcAking 
tnily and properly. Scripture i« nrtt a judge, nor cannot J>e, 
but only a sufficient rule for tiioee to jud^ bj Uiat t>elieve it 
to be the WonI of f;o(l.,„whai Uwy an> f> tx*lieve and what 
lliey are not tf> ttelieve- 1 niy sufficiently perfect, and aufll- 
dently intelligible in tldnf^ ni*ee?Mary, fj> all that Imve 
UuWHtanding, whether fhoy lie learnefl or unli-anieil And 
i&j renHon hereof Im convincing and deminirttrativc. Imx'juim; 
notbiDg ii neceiwiry to be believed but what is plainly 

mUuikdcrvtn^i'liiitr tli^l I>t ^^criptJiro 
nJL thili^ iiliPuhiLrTi iiinj be prvred 
irhiob arc to bv bcbvTui. for U fui 
ui^ bo |iroTc«l to «siin»yce tkM 

1h«rv u ft Uod, ur lb»t Lhir bo'jk rnilvd 
8m]3tarv i* tbe word of (j«d. Th4 

* ni*L eh. ti. pi L fOc ?T. 

The Christian Standpoint 


Where the inl^^rprvtitlitjn of RtTipliirt? wiw it 

tof )«riQU« difficulty the precise mt«rprctatioii couUl nuL 
_ inch importAUCC a^ a matter of foiih. Ik- thurt tib«iE4lc4l 
^c UJN> "f their own itn<liTrMtAmliti^ h_v pnnttc ii>di' 
h WM a ffuthcicftt prsuTticul Kuido in rclij^oUt l^ut he InvM 
uKnewhai narrow \\m\U vithiu w^iidi it fiiuv wiwl; 
fc With thfj n^ "f riirituiiiiin;, hn*re%-er, the claim to 
pnnui) pni'uce iiitcrprfKadon ra» riot : th<wv whii be- 
till ihv'ir nvn |K'rw»iial itrnptmcinn couhl not Rubmlt their 
^Mcp Ut Hiij n^tmint. lujil the vnKHneHamon^cdilTi-n-nt 
■Ftetbchcnt }inTitjcht th]:> libvrlT of pruphc^viii^ mio 
Ibpt ^bcr-mindcd men were inclinod to UjoIc U* ^eaMl1^ 
* thftFi aJEejfiHl iiihpimiioii, am the inii<i<^ t^> (*c ro!)(»ii-ofl 
pursuit of rt'likfioiJA truths The ili^^ixlororl ima^imtion 
I be restrainird* that the tight of reason lui^^bt nm^tt it« 
itJu» would trive \x^ aj* the^ twUevvd, n flnii tfnLsp on 
UiMlatnetit&l princi]iJ^4 as the oxint^nco »f a God and 
uiKiirlAllt> of ititi Buml DlftguHt at the imrnJiviieavi 
natici:«ni of the flii^utiiiic tfxft^ ix-tidctwl men ca^r to 
rcJieioiia controversy on a plaiR' of thought where it 
bo treated calmly and dif^p&MJonateJy, tio tlmt thcrv 
bo MMne hope of ultimuti^ a^uvincnL Thii^ wa^ tlio 
<lcb waa taken by the laljonal theiilogians of the tteven- 
ceiitur;, anil eHjiecEaJly by TlllutMiiL who wax, bcitb 
\r jkmif.tnn him) hU i)m1»ri<»1 gif^M. iho iniKt Atiikin|{ 
itbtt4\i^ ijf the M'hiHjl ; it in hi hu M^rmoim that tin; 
klvl of thought rcachtt it« dearust ciprcndon, lie 
to reaaoD not only &a the mtcrpretcr of Chmtian 
^ but Ba it« very Uuin. "All religion im founded id 
otiou of God, and of Hk Perfectioiia ; inMUiueh tJut 
Hevetation ilaelf dotw i^iippiHU* tXn^u^ for \\m ^>unda- 
iid i-^n Hignliy nothhii; ^* uh nidi.«4i thene lie Amt 
and believed... Sii tJiat the? |irifiripliv of Nntuml 
I arv tht.' fiiijtidatiim that which \» revcatul','* 
liglon begijift in the I ii^Uin^t'Litiliii^ and fmm thence 

ehap iL pL L *»& lai. 
tarn tTf'ia T^iiptninoik 

> TUotioti, SermoTiXl.i. in ITk-rb 


Ciamhrii^ Thfoiogicnl Esm^s 

dttfocfxk mpatk tlkc htmrt mad life...-Jt n the knc umI 
«f Ite beil Wiid<«i Mad KBOwled^>«« «ivl «lc«eeiid* b^iiii sbc>^ 
froB the GH^er of rvfry e^>d and pei^ict Gift, rr^^o fhna the 
FaAvr (rf* liglitG\" "All that can br dou b to bm thv 
lUar Mbrv iBctt. ftod laoArk ii> thc^fir cfaaiee ; and ITMnTB 
■fetvraJ rVwrr ^ wiidcvi Bad kBOvMsv aad hniifiinrw tnll 
wrt IvntUidc than u» be rvlfafboOK. 'iIp in T&iu tti uar affrii' 
tnent*'.' Tbc jiiWtkiB vhicb vbw thw tAkcn I7 tbc Ardi- 
WAop €€ Owtert m ? waa engttlfertr like that wJuptcd by 
l^ttk^ %B hm Bfosommhimrm ^VkntiUaHiJ^ He recoeniaed 
B^rhikjo. >Mi< m givii^ V trvtlMi of a JIftrent kM frum 
tbiMT line <viiiV) lie m pff ffth wi dtd tpr It«a«m. hot w Hiwcormng 
trtitb* vbidi nai^tti ««« «14« lu eDfiAnEi\ The itntatonad 
!■■» iBtEB^EDrr ««■ ti>e «mlT fiwmk^ Uwt wm« nmled to 
Afifirc'hmfl ibc icwfinf- priDdiJe* of <lin^tuuut>\ llf took 
tbc vriUcu vurd of iU>A Xm* he " xk cuUcctioci iA vHtnijcx, d^- 
■pwd bf Uod. far the iwtrtH-tioii of tbc illitcnUc Emlk of 
Wntioil bi tbr wvv uf «J*«ti<iD: on^l tJBi-rofure irt^ncnJIt aad 
bi DooMwry prwiU to be mdontood in th^ pkin. danct 
vmdlg iif the «unk ml fiwiaco. oodi 00 the* wmx far sop- 
prjwrd t(» hart? hftd fn tfar muiiUi of K)v«Jc«!nt «bo uivd tbcm 
acmnlini; tu (be bm^oa^ c/ tfaat tiar and rrmnirr whrrrin 
tlM7 firvd'." A pmniiwal o polflfbc carrM tbr rdiancv uii 
mm itfn fikrtbcr, - Ld what i^ wnttrfi ta all tbc bciokf nf 
the Nw Tfawlaincfrt be tricid br tbat which is tbc TuacbHtuno 
iif all Rdiickifi^ 1 mbui thU KdijcUm uf Naturv and H<a«ni 
vrhkb Gvd bif wntt«<i id i1m* b««fi4 of crevr one of ns from 
the Am l^Veattrvi : and if h vane* from h in aiiT one paiti- 
rnttr, if H prtMrfbrs anr «nr lUt«E. which awy in tbc laiantait 
drrm w rt a nw tfacfvof be onntran u% Right^oiMM-^t^ 1 will 
tbcn aricn w w l cdge tbi* tcf he an ancooKnt a^wt^ <^ irtmcig 
CDOii^ to ufcrthrov the whole l^iucV It wuuM n<4 be 
tmay to fltvl a mtire c&plictt vtAienactit as lit the bcuh> hy 
which rdiinouB tmtb n to be jodfccd or ihccrilenun bf' vbkb 

■ :Vnni-ii t. fr«»nb; l K. 
#Mn fly, in ITorA*, n. I<& 

7%^ ChrMan 


tllJi u to be ap|irai#wd luilnirlu^l inti-lliKt^tin? in n\i- 
|U> «oce|it«d ^ the rwile iiiitlkority in iiitc-rpTclitijf tb« 
B vrritittiC>« and huMinz n|> & bodj of thcolo^caJ 
and die ckum h\ pni forUi t4> nurvey the whole 
rrtigloiu pbenomviLii Ami appnii«c tho ilitforont 

fci&c wc DiAy Ukt- TillritMori lu » lipical rL-prtM-ntAlire 

( habit lit liioiiKlit ith>i:li MtiH ilutiiiiuuit in Uit* ivriinl 

t4130 to I'JUl, wc iDDBt romcmtxT that tberc were alflo 

^ iverc vrhiillr diamtMcd vith tliiit imint of vivv ; thcj 

led hm IrcibUn^nt iJf Uii; Mibji^ct a4 <|iiitc inado(|Untc 

ireftders to whom anch b book aa Law's JSerir^ris Caii to 

fout Lift ftf>pvAltKl, couH iiut but be <tiwiLtiKti<Mt witJi 

bMnd perini]0 of the celurbr&ter) Archblahop. Id the 

I prodfumUiiju ijf ilirUtljtii truth, then? waa a bick <iX 

toewi which eoiilrl lie c^fMttnLAk-^l trith the per>4iiial weLf- 

B* of th« Vun-jitnim itiul tlii? fervtmr iif viHth iiieti ah 

eld and Wesley. It cah hartUy be a luattcr of eurpruo 

trons fecJiP^ wb^ rouiwd bj tlic diii>erficial faahioii iu 

Ibo " letter liNinioil clvno'nitni tlenJt with Mttprcmc 

«a To men of intonsc rclixioua conrietion, the fanK>ua 

Beemed to hare been neifleetAtl of hln iriut in 

ing lU) ehiHely to Uie iKJHitiini of tlic [>»iict»s "tid 

if Ite did not whcilty neglect^ the hifltieuee of 

in tile bearL Ttie nmi) who hml n-i^inh-it 

t mm) Afl A eiiffidcnt Kuidc to tlkc iiitcrpretAtion uf 

fd truth ecemed to Ummd gu'lty of a great betrayals 

anity* ^w they knew it, wam il itnLCticitl |K)wer in th« 

md huikU and Uiobc who took the [KieitioD of lookinf; 

rom DUtjnde j»eciii^ to be hieoiii|)eU'iit to de4d with 


The rAtionul th(*i>lt)i^HnM would hnve tmlipiaritly din- 
I the eharge that they neglectwl tlir |inu-tii:iil working of 
iH iM-lw^f ; iddit^l TillolMrti Kid Htnwi oh Uie «ili<:a(:y, 
nlft moral conduct, of the pnidcntial ur^miriit^ which 
dmwii ^in the l>eUef in a future Htatc% lie DiEidc 

vm CXL tn ir«v^ UL iflL 


Cartibridge Theological h'smifs 

II ronutrlmbk pnmouncomtnit ilm Ut the nliUty nf roligioD. 
"What ia relijj;ioo pood for, but to reform the maniiera and 
itit^pnclti'n)^ of nmii, to rvHtnLiTi hitinnu iiiituro frf>m viokiioe 
and cruelty* from ^iM^hcKirl and tnnchcr^, frcitii ec'dition and 
r^belliiiii?*" TliUMdiuol would have contended lhal1i> relying 
«*n rtwwn they coidd wirmy n wider fi'-lil, iind gvt more 
forcilite toitimon} hi rce;ard to the cticctivcuc^ of rcligioUB 
beUc-f w a factor in ifnidiict, Uiaii thoy would if ttwy cot»* 
fitted their fir^^nmcnt to Christian landK and Chri«tiftii bclie£ 
^VUichcote'a preachin}^ at Cambrid^o 84>emB to have been 
lurguly due U> tho fn>htK--nN which he infiiwd lnt'> hU dlx- 
conntetf by workinj; at thiT* vein. He broke awiij fnmi tlic 
ncfuliniiic [}u1|iif. ij-.uIfUon, and did not uiJtifliiL^ hhiiNeLf U> 
elaijoraliTtg; 1i]i> tliew» from ntttrot at Biblical juiiI rAtnittic 
Icaniiiij-; hti dealt with the Wviun Imum which had been 
miMrd by the tcochin;B; of llobbcJi', nnd treated rcli^on n^ 
t-hc HafefJTuard of morality» Uo vuluod ii a^ a |>ractjcal power 
for rijfhtooudne^ in the hpariM of men, even when they pro- 
fvKM-d >Hinit;wliat dilfereiit creedK. Ak Wliichcotv t^y* in <nus 
uf hiM aphoriiiiiri, '* lMi>;iiin ha^ diHl-rent dcnnminatioiui and 
rauneiH IVoni difierfnt actioiiA and c!rciLniHtATHM.-tt, biiL it It* 
one Lliiiifj, Tt:t ; iinivc-nial rig)it«i)Uftn«nii ; atxurdhijfly it had 
fdftcc at all timca before the Ukw of Mwc^i aud under tt, and 

Tlic nititrnid thoolof^i could oIad hope that by thia wide 
Murvcy he would obtnin a mcAnx of dirttinifnifhing whiit wam 
emential in religion from it4 trivinl ailjunctA. ^luefa of the 
ducon) npiN-jin^d U> have nrim^.Ti fmni tin* way in which one 
party or anotlier Imd treatiM) trivialitieA of ccrenionial. or 
xibtlt^tii-A of theolufcic^l d<JcLntie» aJi [K>iiiU< of runibiinental 
importance. The rational thcolo^an^ preferred comeliness 
and fcoctd order in divine worship ; but thid wa^ to them a 
natter of expediency and common mnws not hi any way of 
prlndple ; and en nimiljir p^undB they were indifferent in 
regard to many i|ue>ctionM which tiad been del>at«il between 
CalriiLitftd and Anuiniaiu. They looked round on th^- wiirld 

Floufv of OiDHTif in*. ffVia, L 103. 

WlichcoteSi Frarjb(IT49},iELT. 

The Chrijitinn Standpoint 


Etf «iMt sikw Umt dicrc were three grant rcti^ejons which 
J)DwerfnJ aj>d clcratiii): iuHucooe on conduct They 
t tho cMcntift] clement in rclif^oD wa£ to be fcpiind in 
wfaidi wen- coumion to J miitifiin, MohHiiiitit^ilaniNnt, 
iiity alike; itml that tln^ eHfcntml element hnri 
rbwo eatireU Uoking in any a^. Aceordiiif^ to thlH 
ilDV HtAiKlttnl, tin* (liietriric?* nf tlie iiiiiin»rl*iUly of 
|ki] mkI iif ihr a'xvtrtire iif (!cirl viv.n' i.n-nU^\ im tlie 
ftry |>ritii.-i|))im or rvlij^u^u. withuiii wlikOt il. fzulifd lo 
^ at] iiiftiiviicu vn connluct The fnthixlox rntionalirt 
tbac Uic adjuncU to this cswnUal bcbct which wcrt; 
In Uke Chrvitiiui rcliin<>u. 'Mrt fomitnl n better niornlitr* 
r tho cleamct* of the leochin^:. a<ldoti u> \U fi>rce, Bui 
Vrerc iruhitM which they foimd ft hunt U> iminhMAx fri»ni 
|Wot) thvy had ailii|)t4.-<L Thf* DeieU frankly ri'i^nlcd 
Ifl^reU^ou n* Mnr|iliii«ait<^ ; they mlj<hr be rwwly (*i 
;li»t rL-vtsiUsl n-li^[cMi wiih anulogTint. hi mUnnil thinJngy, 
da waa nol conTinciiig, The HU|«riority of f.'hriiitiaii 
IC and pmdice wn,H mtt m grent n» Ut render it iLpph- 
Kll it llftd any iq>eeia] cl&im to a divine ori^n'. Hot 
B hiatorical anpjmcnt cotivincinic ; tho (ordinary nuder- 
m, applyinji commnn^enac r^tan'UnK w&« inclined to 
i away all the ]>artici]lar |>hti]KknK'ija of prophecy anrl 
n m due to i'ulncidvncc or 'cnthiiHiwinL' 'Hic rattomil 
ium hiul wt out U« rt-Mciic Chrwtianlty fmrn the 
Ft iu)d f(>nii» ut faiiHlit^; but tlir tt^tiiWc^ of the 
cat had been to dittcard all that waft <Li«tiikctivGly 
m. The MmpiciiJiiH of ^\'lntfield and tJie Metliitdlnt^ 
LstlBcd; ihc in<tjvidtinl ii]t<-lli^nec workinie from the 
I of conunofi kciuac and ordinary oxporioncc, appeared 
vtcnt either to d^i jn)«ti(:-e to the pTetient p<tvur of the 
, religion, or to vindicate the accepted reeorfi of iU 

t«»dei>rieH of mtiormi Uimlo^v had taken 
Llliow tlieir true eluinnH*? r ; hut iv* ihv uioyemevit 
sum, tlie views which were inrolvcd in the principlce 
piotii^n< eauio uitu clear light When the Bible la 
of Shftlt^biDy, Prifim to WhJo))tot«'a ^Vorta (174ft), IIL IL 



CamMdge Theotogkul EsaayM 


niAnneri ; noi only fu the corttcMt itbout InTattltiireB, hiit in 
tha recem <iemaiw:i of the UniU'*1 Fr*'o <_1iurcb i»f Scntlmiil fi>r 
MCiipr fnr iai*]f-iltTVf-1(i{»iii?r]L III & Hliiillar Hptrit the persouai 
rvrligioiiH c-tniAciimiiiEKTm rrfnncn ti> submit ti» nny iiitelltsctujil 
Autliontj viitidile lUwlf. 


1. 'Hie difltinction between tbe painte of view of ihowj who 
troAt roll^ion lui a t>odv of op[ikiorii4, mif) of tlio«e tf j vrhuni it Sg 
amatu^rof omriciioii, lAftiwlrtnuniHl, 'llic proovw ofpaMitig 
iVtini uiie |ittiU4e of thought to the <4)ter nmy lie }<[iokeiL of a« 
the awnkrniuj: uf thr rrli^ii»ii*( i"i"iN:iiniMU"« ; nrul ntmic of 
t-lioflc who have undergone this change gradually, and as tlia 
result of It loiiK period of bct<itiitii)ri and niirert, hnro set 
thcnwclvce to rcQcct on wnd U^ rwjnJ the course of their 
own hiuer erperienoe. Au admirahle delinc&tjon Ih to be; 
iV>u]ul in l*Tbieiirji Thou^hti, No mere inMIectiml nrgumenta 
fliifflced U^ change the rmTcnt of hi* moral life ; for the 
nr^tunetiU un tauh wide ^en? intfflW'tiv& " All che |inncip1en 
of §ccpt)o^ fft/uiTs KtheiJitflr etc. are true, but their concluAloufl 
«re faWn Ifcrau?^ the omwwite |>nnci]ileH are hIphj trnvV" *' It 
iff iticomprchcni<4blc that tliere should be a God. and incom* 
prchoTiHiblo dmt Uioro ahonld not be; thnt tlierc should be 
« floul in the b*xly. and that wc KhfUihi have no souJ : that 
the tvorid should h»ve beeu created, and that it ehonld Tiot^" 
lliert^ wait <u lie In^Uted a dee|j«r source of eertainty in eur 
imtunv *'\Vf knoM truth, not only by l.hi' retL>iitiv Imt. jiIho by 
the beiki'l, ajid it Ih fnnri ihm lant that we [eaniArMt pnEieiplen; 
and naUHin, which liaa »ulhiii|^ to do witJi it* tntw in vaiit U> 
combat tliem^" ile was diatntetcd by the eontradictlouA 
viddi he fdt \i\ the dcpUi^ of his own eouacioutiriem^ '*Let 

1 FBKtkL ThvugMt, imudaOud bf 
Koffui Fiiul. 1 1 1 

» /^lrf- lei 

• Ho foil the contrBfllrtloiu which 
Koxkj oliMiPfcd find dohnibod, 
"Mm an ivrj qac«r uiiMaU, a 

ixiijLturo uf lionc aonuuntHvi. uH 
■luhborfiDfMi^ ui<1 tuiivl inalic?»« 
with aa iingcl boblnikg 4bi>ul im- 
cxyvevlvilb 1^^ ^i*^ af/|ilu in tiie 

lU ti]«; pl^Mio the; ftrv T«rry bfenl 

The Christian Stamtp&ml 


eof« hinwdf becftUMT hit Tin^ a nature ojipablo of f(ood» 
t Um Dot therefore loic the vflvuew that cxUu bi that 
^ I^t, bim f1(H|iiiur liiniFclf, in'oiitMC ttiEH C9|)«citj' is 
ilMit \et hiiii ii(»t tlR'i\rfui'e WmpW lijft ii^ttiml cH|>»t'ity. 
fiiti liatc hiiii:<clf, let liiiii li>fr Tiliiim'ir; hr ]nw in hiiiijicrlf 
lower of knowing the tniih &»(! tfeint: liaj^y, aiid yet h&s 
Lap truth either |KTtiiuncnt tjr Mitird&cturv V He hnci 
flFittcmpted to lirotrit the thoUKliU of <Leikth, «(ktTt;w, 
ince, ftDcl ftll the mifleriefl of life*, and forgot theni in 
mjovmeHtA iff life : txit tt ujuk orlv an hv vrcurtoJ of 
that Im? tie^n to find the real Hi>hilioii he tool^llL 
ircArincivi wh]4^h in tiuui'k incMt )u*riH)li1(t t?i^U In In iome 
^ra bin greatettt ^'nxi. hecxutiv iixire than Hrk^ihiiig elBO 

ItribateM la nuke him neek hin Ime htrtiliti^ Man £» 

r of all thiti^n and eccks » EuultHiKle of occupu^ons, odIjt 
M he hwi the idea of a lo^t h^iipinc^ And not flndiTig 
1 himBcLf, he «eek» it vnitily in rxtcmtd liiinips VpUIiouI 
able to oonteDl hiciiKilt because it !§ neither tn ua, nor 
ereaiare, hut in fiod ftlone"." "Tlie God of Chriwiianfl 
jo<l who makcH the soul perc^^im Untt He ix h<*r only 
her oul> r4?HC la in HIcn* her only j»y iu loving IUiil 
he knowlf^d^^ of fiod Kiilioiit tli»t i>f tnir wrrUhnhK^m 

Itfide. the know led^ of our wietchcdi^caa viihoui (Jod 
M despair Hie knowledge ef Jcviw Ohrixt in the ntiddle 
ttcaosc in Him wc find both tJtwj (inrt our nmi wrcUrh- 
I*.' TlwdiviiR' |KJwer which rwoiicile'i the coiitradictionB 

1 lus own tiatnro wiw Ui him the supreme realitv : he vm 
teed of itA truths Tlie CliHstian reli^Dfi tea^he** ihv 
:>us that "it lifts thein vvtm X*> a |)krti(ri|MUi(in of die 

eJ, rip. i-U. 4A. 

bw I MM tkn bhnduMi nnd 

liglit^ left to hjiuwir i^it 
t wrrv iJi this o>nicr iif tlic 
^ aot kntrvririg mIm) hiw 
dm hcfr^ what he liaa eoinc 

STiU bootmiG of Jiinj when 
I |iw*|id]if« ciT anj bmiw- 
vror, I rnlJ intA U>iT<.r 

Htu^ Uat nf * man whi), bavlnft 
bcvri <»rri^ itt hid itlpcp ti> an Uliuid 
i]a«r( wid l«TTi1']c> Ali<>[ilii mwnho 
J][DimTir of hlH wlionuhAiLiH mil vttli 
no invent <ir OMiifW ; uid ll>vrvri>r» 
1 wuudpr how^ Ihcpfto in f*> mWnblila 
« bUIc iIo ncil fUl into dun|Mir.* 

22 Cambridge Theological Bsmgs [i 

manDcra; not only in the cx>nte«t about Inyeetitarea, but in 
the recent demand of the United Free Church of Scotland for 
scope for self^leTelopment In a Bunilar spirit tJie personal 
religious conacioosnesa refiises to submit to any intellectual 
autiiority oatmde itself 

1. The distinction between the poiuts of view of those who 
treat religion as a body of opinions, and of those to whom it is 
a matter of convictionr is fundamcntaL The proce^ of passing 
from one phase of thought to the other may be spoken of as 
the awakening of the religious consciousness ; and some of 
those who have undergone this change gradually, and as the 
result of a long period of hesitation and unrest, have set 
themselves to reflect on and to record the course of their 
own inner erpenence. An admirable delineation is to be 
found in Pascal's ThoughU, No mere intellectual ailments 
sufficed to change the current of his moral life ; for the 
arguments on each side were ineffective. "All the principles 
of sceptics, stoics, atheists, etc are true, but their conclusions 
are ialse, because the opposite principles are also true*." " It 
is incomprehensible that there should be a God, and incom- 
prehensible that there should not be ; that there should be 
a soul in the body, and that we should have no soul ; that 
the world ^ould have been created, and that it should not*." 
[Hiere was as he insisted a deeper source of certainty in our 
nature. "We know truth, not only by the reason, but also by 
the heart, and it is from this last that we learn Sr«t principles ; 
and reason, which has nothing to do with it^ tries in vain to 
combat them^" He was distracted by the contradictions 
which he felt in the depths of his own consciousness*. ''Let 

^ PaacaJ, Thouffhti, trftueJaled by mixture of horse noTToasDefla, aaa 

Kegui Paul, 111. stubbornnQHA, and camel malice— 

' Paacalj op. eil. 205. with an augel bobbing about on- 

> lUd. 102. expectodlj like ibe apple in the 

* He felt the couti-adictioriB which posset, and when tbey cao do exactly 

Hoxley obeerred aod dcHcribedi »a they please they are rery hard 

"Meo are very queer animaU, a to drive.'' L\f€ and Lettartf n. ^QS, 

The Chriatia?i Standjmitit 


mini loro himself, because be han a nature c&iMit>1e of fc^xid, 
but let him nut theivfi»rc love the vUoik^s that extete in that 
natures Ixit him despise himBelf. bocause tbk ca^^tKity i^ 
void, l>m lee hSm tun thercfurt* iIt-HjjEHL< hix iKLtunil c^ipacity. 
Ijfft liim bHt«^ himj^c^lt let tiim lore himself: he htw in himself 
thp jH>*er of ki]f>i*iitj{ ihi- LniUi mul Ikjiiik bappv, ami vK hiiM 
f<>iind no truth ciUicr pcniiaiient or M.tiKriieti>ry ^" He haJ 
hiomelf atteiitpU^J to drowii Uk; Uiou^it^ of death, sorrow, 
iiCXioiuwo, and all the mirtericvf of lif(^\ and fy>risvi them in 
tiio ciuoymcrite of life ; but it was only as he wearied of 
thow) tltftt he bejcan t^> fiiiri the roal :(oJutioii he jii^uj^iit. 
"The wearin«^ which is man'^ moet eeiwible evil w in »omo 
meaiiure hb pp^eateiit ^oo<l, Itecnuxe more ihaa anything; eUe 

it contribute* to mhko Mm «e<'k hU tnie Iwaliiig. Man t« 

weary of all Liungi? and Heek^ n multitufU* of i>cciipatioim. only 
becMEMT hr hhn ttie idea of a hwt happinccw. And mit findiiiic 
lUa ill hiiiifclt h€ ftcekfi it vaitdy in cJCtcnia] things, widkout 
bein^ ab)« to c<)iiit<.nt hiniHcIf^ l>cciiUJtc it im neither id nn* nor 
in the creature, but iu Hod aJonc'/' "The iJo<l of Chri*ti«in* 
is a God who make^ tJie soul ])erceiTe that Ue \s her oidy 
good, her L>idy rent ix iu Itim, her unly joy in lorln^ Hliu. 

The knowledge of God without that of our wri'lchedncsa 

rre^tw |inil*-, Ih*- kni>w]eil^> (if our w retch whiL-Wi without God 
ereaU-M 'kv^iair The kriowleilgv of Jvvim Christ in thr middle 
way, bvcatiM.' in Ilim wt- find both <»od and onr own wretch- 
tixvstm**" Tli(? divine power which reconcile*! tlic contrwlictioua 
within hH own nature vfOA to him the suiHxrmc reality; he was 
coiiTirtoed of \i» tnitli. The Olirititian reliirion toachoe the 
right«oUA that "it lifU them even to a participution of tlie 

* "Vfh«i ] ivev ihv tilmilij<.im uid 
the nni«VT (tf nuiu, mW-u I Hiiirciy 
Ibe if|i<ilo damb L'tiiTunHj, uid idad 
vitbiJUt lijcbt« Wit to hiiDAcli' jjid 
Irvi EW [( iiiiTV irt diE^ nrrrifr vf tlio 
I'mrcrMk nut tnomng wfao hju 
phfieil htm hero, irhat Ito ItM come 
In do^ vtIui viD UouuL-uf hliii vlicu 
he 4h«, JiniL Ino^Mlilo of uny kiuiw- 
Uds9 whaMv<r, I bll inC" t<'TTvr 

iSko thdt of A man who, having: 
bn-n tarried tzi hjH aIcuii U> au yuxid 
(ttuvrt mill lAiT^liliv AltoiiH nvhkii 

no EucfeOB uf oKitpo I uiJ thur^fDro 
I Httiidur tioM thrjw tTi mi itiiKtmlilo 

■ ituto du i>ot M iuta ili^Hjiuir,' 
Ihid. IH3. 

« /6W. aa 

* Ibid. 9X 


Camhridge Tlu^logiral K^Miys 

dirine natart^: that in this cxftlloil state thi^ »tilJ bear withui 
tJi«m t)io finiTitairi of hII coiTupLittii, which rcn«lcn« tliuiii diirm^ 
Uicir whole life gul^oct to error and mjai^ry, to death and ein, 
aiul at the* aiuno time it procrlaiinrt to tlio mtnfi wickH that 
thoy can rwMsivtt xXxm i;nic'o of tlwir lUnlctTini^r, Thus making 
tboiw tronible whom it jiiAtlUet^ and conAolin^]; thopLe whom it 
coii(h^nii)i, reti^uri wi jiiHtly tcmpent fear witli hn]K* hy iimaiiJE 
of timt ihiulilr i-n{jiLvitv of gr»«.^ Htitl of Hiii wMrh i>j roimnnn 
tn idl, thai it aluMB tiifitiitt^ly iiiuru thaii reason altme. yet 
withoat d^^npain and cxalU htfitntcly hiuhcr than natural 
]iriJc, yet without |tutlliif£ up, hereby pi uvin^ that alone being 
exempt from vm>r aitd rice, it alone liiu* tlic oHice of i»- 
atrnctinif aud rcf^nDiDj; men- Who thon can wi^hold 
crci)eai-u and (u1»mlioti to mj difiiic a h^^lit? For it li 
d«aror than day that wo feel within otireelves iodelildc 
chamcten of ^^^MxlTiaw ; and it b e<|mil]y eleur tbnt ve 
eixpenru(<<* rvrry liniir tiii^ <Hft<iT|ji nf iiur ilrplonibh^ miidition. 
Tliiii diaj>?« tJj«ii. thifl monatroiiA confiiAitMi, di>eH but [ircrclaim 
tile tnidi "f thtiw: tw<j Mnt<:fi> witli a vujce »o powerful tJiat 
it caiiaot be rc«i@tcd^" The path which he recommended 
<»them to follow if Ui«jy would attain to bin conviction waa 
tiiat which he had bim^df p^jr^ued: "Labour t4» convince 
yoanwlt ■ Iw aays, "'not by increase of the proo& of tlod^ bttt 
bj the dimiiiiiUon (»f your iMwionK'.'* 

The gntdnal awiit*»nin^f of R^li^onfl ccTuu^ouan^^ can be 
tiaetii CTi-ri more rlunrl^ iii thii nn'oni <if Iiih iimi-r life which 
hoA been left ua by Maine de BiratL A man of keen ptciiMbility, 
wilb a [m^ionatc interest in the anaJyfii!< of ntcntat phcno- 
incna* ho continued to |>ur^ue the )>lilloM>pLical ?<tudje!« to 
vrhich he had devoted himself at Her^roe, wljen lie was 
odled to take a promhwiit [Mrt in public afTuit^ nX E^Hm rifter 
the (all of Napoleon. He wah in touch wiUi the mo^t eminent 
philoeoi^ldcal thhiker* iif hi« <Uy, and wajt well aejitialitted 
with miHfrni philcHOplkV, hnt lir pcwti^Mrtl a niD^dar jnik'- 
penfleiiea A» the '^ phiWopher of inner experienced *' the 
j^rowth of bir< drK:lriiiie i--* dortdy conae<:ted with the cliangc^i 

Tlu U/iriMian Siatufytoini 


cx>iincdoD. w vartydcA tD hi* jonvrmi intim*-\ 

liho aataaiioiialiHBi of Condillac he ii^ruiliially 

stmm <«i UiG nctivc clement in tH^iiMdouD- 

fean pased an, to r^cofrnw an estenial wmrco 

pnl rigour. " In the jMycholoij^cal aj^pecV or aa refcarda 

Um floo] dnm nil ftxim ttwir^ or from iKo f^ia:o, by 

but ill tliv itkoral aHjitict li^ repuilh tiit> |H?rr<rctioii 

Jprr the gTKHl ti) l)c i»litJiii]4-it. nr tht* ulijt^-t in lifr 

at, dko Bonl dram all aiid rccmvt?* aII fi^om 

Kit— not ^f>m the ciitcninl worUl anil McriKttiiiiin. hut 

tliG pun^lT intcliecCuoJ worJ^I above, of vhicii Cod U the 

b'." To him OKrintianity apivealcd ratl)t?r wt mt iiitel- 

ll nlisftction Uun a» a hmmuw of ruflomptii^n from cviL 

MM of a vane of ]tt4l>i)it7 of life, anil Uie imiHnwibiUtj 

MailKyl heppineni wc^i^hoiL ii|x>ii him ; thin mvt tlw 

ng-poEiit of hk reflectkiiut", and it ocenpler) hi* uiind with 

rethoughuin 14J]'>, whi'n he (nvriM for thr fin^i timu' to 

lumcsd oanvrttMisI V tnHnntt God '*Il iat^Mi loii^ Ui ^o un 

ig with the whirl of ermtif ium\ npiniotw, witli the norcr 

i|f f^Txx of ctuutgcfl without and witliin, and alt that padnca 

sbaflow. There in ne<tKl to-d&y to ftttadi onetiL^r u* ihe 

B^ng UMt rcRihitut Unchai9<nbl«\ Who m the tmc 

» of ooQBoladon tn the prafteot aod of hope for the 

»V And hininiiid Umk ati inereairitigK firm hold mi Uih 

(Kjtnt ** 1 wsH thinking ymib-rdAy." ho wHI^ta in 182(1, 

waM driving thnvn^h llii^ ktnnrti*, timt tluire nrv ihrv^f 

liflcreni kiiidfi of ttrmpcramcnt in the intellect or ^onL 

r?cL, tliat of nearly everyone. <xriviifitfi In living rxcltiniveljr 

1 woH<l «f phcnninciia. tavl takinif thrm for rciihttca ; 

there ii4 incotiatancy, lv>»thifi|:, and perpetual unrcaU 

r\ Ix tliat of lFu; melt who refleiCL, and tieek ixitit^ntly 
in thcnwch"e* or in nHCtirtr, by rti^p^rating upfK^ar- 
ttoaa realltit^ ; but 'Aince tbcy do not 0nd a firm fja«itt 


«Wpm^ 117— iia 

)Uy, 1704, Ihiil. liaci t<ue 
nmrkaoD StoUink, SO SepL 

I«I7. t^3U. 
^ SictiUa. £itJt tur Maina tit 

> l«Apnl,l8l^^lT1». SoedM 

n lUf, isic^ p. 16a. 


Cambridge Theological Esio^a 

fWim tfnx Lmtli Uioy <loH|iiiir And fall inUi Ac^ptlcrlAm, Ta^Iv, 
there u a thini group of thcwi^ who art> illumined by tli« 
unique aui] nnchan^ii^ Ifjielit which roli^loii a^urdM. Non« 
hill thtwi^ hav4* foniMl h fina HiipjKirt; Uiej Itnvt? cHiura^u In 
ih<?ir convictions'." 

2. Tin- ^itt'^cniiig uf the reli^Loim coilhc]oumii^!«4 n^ il han 
been tJ]U» p:>rtr3yed ia graflnnl* and the subject of conecious 
enltivAtion ; but some of ito iwpccU arc brou^^hl into clenter 
view by eaddtti c<»nvcniaii#, Auch aA occurred in iniinbem in 
eonnejtion vrith llie preaehinp; of Whitfiold and (he W<Nley8. 
Hm Knddcii rcnliMition of |>enoimI ^iillt may l>e callixl forth 
by the most trivial occadons ; John buu^iin wa^ conHcienev- 
Htrkki-'ii at UIm j^iilt bi playing ti[icat on Hlhttjw Creeii one 
tSuiiday ; but the import, of Hnchawjikeiiiiijcw "ct Iwfore unfor 
all tiuie in th« xtor^ of the Fali We read there how man 
oimc to «■« hii* condncts not in eonntxion with the iiiotiTcs 
and cxcuscfl which have urged hiin, but retroepcctively, and 
di«|)Mionat<>1y, a* if fronk the standpoint of Uie Onniihcicnt 
Creator. Eitch human iiet \^ (mrt of !ui indefinite chain of 
caode and effect : our idle words, our careleaa follie* may work 
fiir-rvnchiiig miHc^hief of wliicli we are wlir>1ty iinconi^eioua. 
We <nniii.ft pursue thei^e intluiflnito ermfiequenceH ; but Uit7y 
CODie clearly int^i view when wo auin them up in the thi>ugbts 
of the Infinite (ilod, ^Vho i»ce« all thingv^ and loolw at our 
acta ID the light of Uia judgement upon them. Umiugh 
the eontfc of guilt, nmn becomes cohaciou^ ttiul he w part 
ef a divine order, which ho had neglected ; the violation 
of Ibix i>r<li^r by his own actd pre«e« on hini tlie i^jggeMtiOD 
of an existence hikI <if relation»h]pif which Tie had ignored 
HU nenMo of fjcuik lieconieM the ubjt<ct fif reflectinrt, and 
hi» Gognitivr faeulticK arc brought to l>ear u[N>n it ai>d 
elicit wlial lA ini|ilief] in iL Ttir fact«( of the cw«e nre clrJir \ 
the nK>rmt taw. the dutinction of right and wrong, waa knov Ji 
to him ; he acce|:>tA it and approrc^ it and la>^ it down 
W^ valid for all intclltgcneeH ; and Hinee in icplte of thi^ he 
IB reaponaible for a breach of it and blamet) hininelf for hit* 
foiilt in fidbng to keep it, he recuguWeA hiii 4>wn h'eedonu 

* le JmiAf iHsn, |i aw 8*0 aho a Hoe l^\, p aoi. 

The ChrMian Staiutpnini 


ifl more Um» Umt ht*. Utht to Im< iinrni^clmtrly fmpMed 

t cxivtcooc of thi« law, in nil Wh digiiil}' ; he ikuiuut 

tit For lU in it^ uniTereality atid neccsMity, without fiJlIn^ 

oti Uio UtitUifht of tifKl ruf the nilcr From ^^'hom it 

fttos »nd of an ud»c«i) world in wbkh iti« ilw-'tMiotiA are 

ed Pen«onnl lilterly, tlic cxiKtcnoo of a Clod, and of a 

» life, are inf^re&ccfl which fi>U(in' a-t hiimediat« oon- 

HB from the recognition of th«t validity of Mitral Law. 

innil onlcr, jnMt fw much mH the phyiic&l order, comcfl to 

Might of aA a I'ohoreu Ft^'^teiii in which iiihii n [ihuied. 

M ibi» thai b> turning within hiin««lf, man bccomca 

Iohm of hi» own nature in all \U complexity, and readies 

dpoint frv>ni which he appro lie wds hi* relation to other 

tiooA. Tlio illuiitnilitviLH have boon tlikon from modem 

and from th« (.liri>>4.tnn religion, but the cxp^^rience of 

»e aiwi f^nill La not by any means confined to ihoite w]ii> 

Ijoen inKUtif'fcHl in thr f ^LriMfinn religioir Thi.^ tntgr^ly 

Ktroce, tlif? iiint-r mtLinulicliuuH In huniaii nature, the 

Df a violatctl onler and of cuilt nrc found in all but the 

f>nnB of feilh. Tlic unique character of (JhriHtianity 

out in the tK>lution it oftcm ; in the power with which 

|bPB forfn^C4)C^ and the roflloratlon of man. so that he 

V reccficilod 1i> hiniHc-lf and t^) Ood. It Mh<)WH him that 

leti^ting further nl^'ng tlu? \yiUU he may And, within 

f, not only r^mon^ and anguiah. but the path of relief 

^ ft drc'lHn:v in him Ihat lit* niwil mit IihiIc fur hht 

Hi ill M-lf-detu^hitwiit. nor in esternatii, nor in cnjoy- 

>f any kind; "it it* neither witJiout iix, nar within tiis 

Oodf and thiu both without and within'.'* 


Thn Himi:*] ft-atitrv of CtkriMtianity is in the witsc it 

of n^conciliation ; and thU term itBclf HUipi:e«ti« the moat 

inetlitid of procedure, if w© wij*h to inreftiphle tlio 

■ FvcAltop.^' la 


Cojitbridge Tiieoloffical Essayt 


ooDtenU or Uiifl n^oi^t Tiif^hly developod form of Che rolif^iu 
OOluicioaiiDes^ Hi^ awakening to which alliuioii bas already 
bwiiliMf^ liriiigx f)it1. n mmniM>ru ilimlilo dnHriuiJMifiJW— howIi 
AH If* illimtraled by ('loii^'liV lii/^i/rJiifA, i>r h} Stevciiwitis 
niitry iif I}r JriifU naii Jfr If^tU. In iht-Mj isim?i Uiv livo 
sidoH were vhoUy alien and rcpu^iaDt to each otbcr; atid id 
the rvtitfi^un cumiclotuiiiuv iccritTiilly, llicy iviikuii o|t|K;Acd 
to one another: it is only by conKJoiibly ic^LoriDg one or 
tbo otiHT that mtiKtii4;tii>n He<3nw iitt^iinublo. The claim i>f 
Clirietiariity ia ibat il alfimlrt a n^jil in<jtbod of rt»oondliati«j, 
Mt aii 1o l>ririjc the two aiitlofl Knto lmrnu>i>y wltliout any 
annpmntiiBc, And vriihout gupprewin^ citbur ono or the 

Wc i^uinivt got a tricar ticw iif tliin i\xtind1mtiim hj tJikbig 
a siniflG iDstariCc of rcLigioiu cxporiencc, and Betting our 
comntivo foculty to ixHetrt »ti it nnJ iinAtvEtc it \\v may m>o 
that the Acnsc of ^ilt iuiplif?^ in some t-n^uc outlino tb« 
idees of a broken moral order and an offended God ; but anch 
logieiil hifeix-ii<H<^ dt^on nut j;i\i* ni any lo^umnee ai to the 
rctttity fkf Gxi«tvncTiw corro-ponding to iltcfw tdviuL T\w 
exenlon of the t-v>piith^ fai^ulty Id thtj HMinrb for truth l^ada 
lu to &ti riii/j«jwit. Tlio only cxUtunct wt* kriiiw nr^ n-n] w "ur 
own, and it m br diu>rinjf ii]>oii oumelvLv tlint we ^ie reality 
lo our idcttB. After all, in considering reliipoii wc have nd b» 
do merely with tlio co^iitivc faculty but ubo with the v^ill : the 
j[iiit of Uu< t'hnHtinii liCo cotu^jjQtAt in thtj roctJueililitiTin of Lku 
hiiQian will with tbo l>ivinc — tho control of the human vill a« 
It oxprcwori ltJ*v)f Id n^-tion; and in thiji niorie of ntat4.'meuc 
the aovcranoo bctw«»Ti our nubjtK-tiie idrju and Uit real 
exUtenctw outrtlde uh docs not arine an a Hharply Met crpiMMtion 
whidi viv cAiii»>l' .HfitiNfacLortly liriiltct-. T\w hiimnn will u 
€ODacioua of itacif as an activity ; it knows itself not oidy aa 
exitrtlnic\ but w diuLig; tlicre iH cvrtitudo in it« Fctilinjc 
of ita own doings'; and Uiiit certitude v* extcndnl iu vary- 
ing dogro^ to other exi^tencea In hu moral cooadoua- 

J <FMUag* la not u«d b«re of 

tnVFf vmijti'>n, but for AFlTcuMciina 


The Christian Statidpoint 


TIh-ixt m Binnc l^ii tlmt he focis to be imnevliatclj implied 
ID the cxJ»tcni:G of thiH Law. in all itA tll^iity ; he cannot 
account for it, in lU iiitivcnialit> and necepflity. without fulling 
bihCk on tli€ tlk^xiK'ht of riofl lie the ruler from Whom it 
emaaatei^ and of an unseon world in which iut dect-tiotk^ nro 
fPiHand. Pv^oniil liberty, the oxi«tciico of d (jod, and of a 
fittnrp life, arc inferences wliioh follow mt immediate col- 
vic'litJiu (ntm tliv ruci^giiitioii i>f the Miliftity of Monl Law. 
The moml nrrler, just as much as tlie phyaieal order, coiue^ to 
be thought of H^ a iM>hE^i'«!iit f<jttt4.'iit >ii w hii^li rii^irt ih pWrucl. 

ft is t^us thjtt by turning within hiiuHcIf, man bocomcfl 
conscioQs of hia own nature in &U it^ complexity, and reaches 
a standpoint from which he api>rohcndfi hin i^latirm Ui oUitr 
cxixtvnnM. The illtL^tnitiunH \ux\c Ixn^u tukvu from mo<]um 
Umoa and fVom the Ohnstiad reli^on, but the experience of 
n-iFiorsae iuA j^iiilt in tHJt Ijv auv nieatiH confln«i1 l*j tJujwe who 
haro bcf^i iii)^,rnct4.v] in the (^lirintiiin rr')i^i»n. Thr tmgnlj 
of K-xinU^nire, thi* hntt^r miitnuUcMoiu in hiiiaan nature, the 
Bcnac of a riol&tcd order and of ^ilt arc found in all but tho 
krwoeit ibntti of faith. The imiquc character of Chrietiatuty 
conM out in the notation it offeo* ; in the power with which 
it d4?c1ari:«< fi>r^rcne>H8^ and the roatoration of man. bo that ho 
fJiall be rctcondled to hirnxelf and to (^d. U «howa hlni that 
b>' |)enetratAng furthor ahmg tlw path he tuny fiu<l witliin 
UnacU not only remorse and an^ish. but tlio p».th of relief 
and rest It dvclarrfi U^ him Llrnl he nvvxl not h^ok for hU 
happlDM* hi wlf-detHciuneiitp nor In externals, nor in eitjoy- 
ment of any kiml; *'tt ix naither without ua, nor within 09, 
but in Ood, and thoa both without and withiu^" 


L The H|>ecia) fejtUire of OhriHtiaiiity U m th« Hcniw it 
atfhrda of nx?inir illation ; fuitl ihin u^nu itaolf m^gcsU the mofft 
fniitnil method of procedure?, if wc wii»h Uy invedtij^ate tho 

^ t^w«L ^- ciu 4& 

80 Oambridffe Thmlogiml Es«ay» [l 

UnircDMJ witli whivh it is r4M^oncil4?d Aa a Lutheran divine 
nrg^ man is rUHdnct from God, both in hia aln and In the 
j>nir<tvt( L>r rt<(ikiM*i1miii)ii. "'Hkr M-jiiimtinTi Ix'twrni it\H\ utiil 
fallen I1UU1, howL-vtT deep and grcAt it iiia^' t>c, iKhm not ^niiul 
for the Clirieitian CLntf^iuiutut^iu the Inct — indimolnhly boiiml 
up with itfi Tcry existence — that even XhiA fallen nian is still 
iioci f t>t^phiLj; and or^tttird for (fod : that lie, in UlLh (condition 
of scpoTation from <Jod, rctaiiM the capfihility of rcc^eivin^ 
indiience^ from God, ao that God can come to be for Mm, 

oven af< he wiu^ ci]i<^< aiul hi himiielf for (^k)d Huvrevor ^rciit 

Uie change mny he which taiies plHev by the ChriHtiavdiing of 
th« nuiiind in»ui, U\ wlialtvt-r critviii thist olR'el in pnjdiioi^rl hv 
th« iibji^ivt' fnclor* of the Mpiiittin) world, it ij* ^tJII hiuimn 
life and human thought, iuUi which the DlTUie life and the 
Divine llkouicht enter.. .It is likewise surely n ^-t, tliAt the 
man who ha^ bvcomc ChristiEui \a not eonajble of bciikg thereby 
e«tnbn^*<i from ttic luimaii nature of which he wiu* liclorc 
coni4cioug as hU own; on the contrary, he foeia tlmt hy 
a change in him»elf lie Itoii yuMt^*^ through the evil teiiih;ncle> 
of hiH hoinun nature Ui its truth, and l>ccinn<> cxinscinn^ly wh*il 
In reality he u1w»y>i w^a »iid wiu hitendi^d to h»\'* By 
CliriHtiaii cx|)cirifTnc« thert arises "n change in tlie erntre 
of gmvity of pentonality'." but this change takcd place within 
tho sphere of itulf^'onscioiiH lulivity; tttere lit eertitndo bolh 
%B regnrdH the personal will, and about the proecae of coming 
into harmony with the UniTcrHai Wilt. "We luivc the &iculty 
of knowiuff (>(kL But God ia a living regality; and the knnw- 
le<Ige that we have of Him, If It 1* really a knowledge of God 
imd niit im alMtmi^tioii put in 111* phtee, llvtw in wk Wu 
acquiro the knowleilge of (lOil a^j we ao(|uii'e the km>wle«(tge 
of a friend by living hia life, by penetrating into hia inlixuacy, 
by becoming himeejf To know God it is iiecotwto' to 
nMombie Him, and we know Him in the degree in which wc 
resemble Uini Wlieri we make progress* iti tlte knowtt^dge of 
God it \% time to say that God grows in us....^\1ieii He is in 
UK, Et b not we who fiuthion Him, but He who taithions us. 

' F. 11. It l^wik, Syftcm d^ rkrvtJkM^ G*«n*flA*/(, i. 78 iCIaric's 

The ChrUtian Standpoint 


ti our liic of pci^OD&l ^H^om lie docs not f&fihion na or 
ja it^ oic«pt in ao &r as ve con^nt^" The Chrt^an 
lotMMMi ill nctl icitu1it-(l 1u fnun« deoiOEUtlmtioii* of the 
iDoe of a God Wb'>90 cbAra<:tor Lb nDJaiown, it §eekii to 
Vntetiilo ibfMiatiire nftheCifJcl Wlm ha» lin>u^bt E[iin>ie]f 
rlatioTirtbip wicb a hiiuuLii jM^rHiiiialitv. 

l[i Lbe askiuo wav th<.' i|iit^t^ii a^ U> 1>i>w Uj i]«-ui»ri.>4|pnita 
xistcucc of other intclli^nccft ccams to be of mncb 
«t when »o arc o^nccnicd lo know, a^ a innuiical tluiiif, 
ottihulc wo <itmH.'lvi« Utku tt^wanlK tUotn in our inner 
itrasBem How arc our activitiw directi^l with roji^r^l 
an i Are we Matirt^ed with Uio mere Ofp>iMiii of tlio man 
8Upp<^^>f)ra himself to be a centre in wbicJi evcnthiD^ 
t^I ai»l u» «rbidi k retnniMf He {mmv UU iwltviflimlit}' 
I ttbwluti? on whkb rvcr^ thing Hrpriubi... Jlc pnifi'iwiM 
le onlj extBtA bj bim^clf aiid 0ufticc«i for httiirtcir, aini 
c fttttert* him>«e1f at t^ic ex|>ciir«;of rverytlitni; cW-, 4>ne 
>j tliat he Ircab^ hiniMlf tm conmituting tbc Universe, 
fUa tliaC everjthin;>; r^houM be \\iA and exl^t for him^" 
tllMHg«DO» are fur u% wimt w« cvMiHiiil thnt Uivy i^iall 
lO ; wc mftv tn,' i^j ignore th^-ni, ar wo may recognise 
UK pnrbikcr^ liko ourHeU«% in the |HJWor of bi} ing ilnwn 

loi Uiin jmiiit of vit-'W ibe norlil doen Tiot apiienr meri-lj' 
j'rtem of phcnomcnA, or w thingi of which one a tht 
It A|iifoar^ an a h^bIcui <jf bcin^ each of which m in 
ncr a centre, alUiougb all arc irit<7rc<^ni)i.H,-tCHJ togrtber. 
IflaoompletochEingeof |)orspective'; "and tbeoxistence 
vr iDteUigen<x<ii ix no lon^fcr folt aft a limitation net on 
^ea, but&fl a spliore wboro vrv recogni^^ |iHvi1cgC94 &nd 
ftibllitleA tbnt adil mmplet^-neiw lo |>enu>iiA) bfe. Tlieno 
retatii>nHhi[M arr- <:'mgnitint with tbe MjgjfrntioiiM which 
, itom niflecliiig on the phenomena of obacrTtd and 
mI experience, but tlie.v hate t}ieir c«rtit4id(^ in the 
r tn which they arc felt« and they come into clear Light 

[irooeM of ChrinUanl^in^f Un> (tcraonal will goen en 

Bartiiuunttrv, vp. c<<. T0- 



Cambridge TheoUnfu^ Essay* 


increnfliiigty. We <)o nnt tx^glii by knowing UtA, or by know* 
in)c iiiintDlvcs niiil ollit-r minLE-iicit-K jim tlir^ Hit-. It in Li> UtU 
wo tend, ftiid it is to thi^ ilinX wo iiugtit Lo look a^ a goaP." 

3, I'ci-Mutial actlviiv in known with the fuller^t nicuMJrc 
of GcrtUu<k witliin the j^pheru of ncJf-coii^oti'inofis, but it Ls 
not continod t^ the inner life ; it i^ external isod \ and the 
(^1iri»tiati 4H>iiH<:ic>Lip;tivKr( ex}Mxw«ciA itself in tlio world of (iho- 
iiometia. K^iitl) without works 18 dtwd : and the whi>)u hi^ory 
of Uie CbrixtiHii t')nircli i*; tlie Kt<>ry i>f tlic utrujivsie nf llio 
ftiith once delivered to the ?faint4, not niereh' Uy niiiinUkin 
ilm-lf in [limiH hmrlA but Ui nbuw ibwlf to the wiirld iti tbe 
Urcti atid uttemm^e^ of mrn. Howp^xt cheqiirrod itfl MixrwfW 
my Imvc been, \\a ctibctiv^ncb^ in haldinc; up new ideuK in 
moiUditiK individual liv<!a, oiid mmlif>'int: huuiun iuAtitutionn 
cuinot Ik* cxf>]»iinc<l away. In lliv fa<:e of all the >tC]in<lalH 
illilcb were tlii; db^gmee of Ituly in the fifteenth eentury, 
and In oppotddon to the {^loriftcutJon of humanifflii whidi wa« 
Uioii oirn<rit, Hatvmanilit c'liiild Mlitl [viint In n livin^^ witiuwt 
of Divine I'ower in-eHeiit among uitn. He figured tiie nmn:li 
of Uiirt Power on «arUi tm Un> proicn-w i^f Clirist through 
«U the vfuv\<\, erovrncd with thorns, yo^t ix^kndctit in the 
Bght of tlw Uivinc Tiinity, and holding forth in one liaiid 
the croKH and inirtniuicnu <»f llii' poiuioti, uikI in thi? other the 
Scriptures which record the dinne mctt^^e tn the worid*» 
Tlie car, <m wbieh He wna borne, was drawn In trimuph by 
the H[HMt.leM Hiiil hcrahhTil by tlie ]>n>|ihet's t>nd etine^K^ 
by Uitr iiiarlyni /uid dt>el<pr^ and naiiitA of all a^eM. wlitk niul- 
titude^^ (^ imukkind followed in il4 wake and mjirkcd how 
u|»f Kwitjun of erery kiiid waa cniebed a» it advanced. Ii'ot the 
CTideiKx; of thi;* 1'owcrbrrcfi.Trednot to the events of jiili.-ttjiiit 
pafll, but to tiie Eanultar phen<mieita »f his own duy. 'Since 
thin;CM wliit^h arit pretwut 1>efore our eyoa ore more trust* 
worthy [tnd rt:lUiile than ln'ui>ni.? oceurreitc<-% we will put 
In the fore^nt thoAe arf^nieut^ for tlie CliHstiHJi 5iit1i which 
rcirt im thi? df^<il>i rjiiiMtJuilly «e<-n in the livi« of riiritdAaiin hi 
lite Church* "—not of Uie unworthy, but of real Ohrutiana. 

The ChriMiau St/tuttjmiui 


V)inU*<t 1o tlii^ ilmiitinii iif hkiIi* wIki tli^iri'i) " to turn lo 
to bubmit ilK'iurfclves to llim and Uj (>« iiuuic WVv Him, 
b 9e«k U* ciit«r mto 11m bUvne^JiK^cKV vxl b> the lives 
Hi, women. aehI diiUlrcti, iti »l] ranks of eoclctv. inipiroJ 
iristian bopo oiiil chtuit}'^. AnJ ^ince tiia dav, there li&d 
Ebnncluwe »f mtcb erUlciice in Uie extviMon of th<? ilti^ 
irfatetKlom, nn<I fhttn lime t<> linio in ri'invigoi-atml hi- 
y of coDrletiou. Thl« whs &p|karefkt not otiK in LuLher 
hUiti, tint in tilt? h4*nHV vt ihr noimktr-KL'f<iniiHti<in» — 
Mn:h diverae moTcmrntfl ba the riso of Mi^tfiodinnj aiid 
^^hl1i^il^jC of t\ie Salvation Anuy. Tbc vi^jrotin [H>i*i-r 
iristian bcli<rf» aionnic the w>cial conditioiM of modem 
Aiid )h spiUr of widespread indiflioreiice, U p»tL-iit afid 
Ufi, l«iki> b»y otbor pht-nomoium it domiMKin an cX' 
tion, and no explanation can be adeqimte nid«M it UUcv« 
nt <*f tlu! diHtinctivv TeatureH of die n^v^teni undor coti- 

triidiHii ari.ivilv, iv tW exprviwiiJii of riirifttimi lic^licf^ 
tich in common with "thiT fonnH of rcliifioiiA life, but 
rtiiictiTc tJ^ita may be more ca^iLy brought i>ut bjr 
trin^ it vitli tile Jiulaii^ii from whicli it pipnuiK- 'i^c 
ian to vhom tbc tfOi^|>cl nic4«ai:e it^ a reality will often 
A> timir testimony to the trutJi ubieli \\ajt tjikeu UoJd 
t. It WH« Ml Afniin^ thv ftrxt diiMfipl(*jt, und thv Nninv 
wg reapfiefirH in modem Itevivaja^ Hut tliis Im not 
Bhipr4w>i<iTi of ]ii-n>nnjd i<tilhiiHi»Mii ; miwioiiary v^fliiri 
BCtrrwlH: of ihc ('bri>Uaii i.'oniiuiMiity ; Uwre ha« been 
tiB euliettt days orjiauirK^d vff*iri to ^lifTiirH^ the ("tirii^iuo 
lUt the world, ami U* plitnl ihc Church in every 
id tins involvcvi a cono'pfion nf it ijiviiie r^ocicty 
to wbieb tJie Jew* w**rc tiUnuiirorfi- Sc li*njf ne 
iii«)y coDNtitiit4>tl realm wa>^ ci.>n<:eivtvj i>f aiH territorial, 
ms n>i]iid 0110 itgtvclal etruir^v tbore eouhl be Uifto ex- 
on dut (be r;^ntiles would liL-iielll, t-xc^ept hidir^cllr, 
wndftwtation of diTtm- tritimpli", Tlit- iji<w icW i>r tho 
m of (rod n» i^ Apiritual realm in which nieit of alt naxM 

' liM IL 7. 

1 /Utf IL I 


Catnbridge Theological Eneai/B 

hjvl omolrltfi could participate Ailty, undoi-l&y tbe po^lbllltj 
of fluch nunaii-niary effort a* dial of 8l PhuI. The pcrputua- 
ikm of the m^ntur nf n ilitty rtol inviN^lv to uiaititain ihe lights 
but to i]]fl^ise lit h characlfiHiitic 4;f DinHtlnnEiv in Un^ prt?<enl 
tu 111 tnniiv \mKi agnv ^'i'^ ^^* ^■'^^ tnwxr it iMick tJi tlii* <loliuit9 
charge vhtch waA gireti by our Lord to the A|itinLl<M. 

\Vc mav aWi finil thnt wbilt- there i» much In Cfimman l)c- 
twccii ChristiaTi services aD*J the utl^rraiicw of Jcwinh dcvo- 
tion, there U one twrnce which in iliHtinctively ChriHtian. In 
th^ Holy Ci>itiin union vl |xirpct.u»[ momorial of thu SAcrifict 
of our Loivl haii bei^n iiiJiintaiuG^I in ftll agca of the (.Imrch ; 
Et tevtiflt*M Ifi t)ie inirhun^ifhi;; lielicf thul It i« in iiition witlt 
Clirint tliat n'<'4>[iri]iivti(iTi with Oinl hfu* Ixtomki pon«ihlc fur 
ua And thii?i wc c^n tr'Ac« thm Hjiiritual forc^^ iHTmint- 
lof: as a lirinjt power throuj^li mAiiy nj^tin. till wo thirl tt« 
or%Jn in on unique pcrwnality. It in in the work and 
words of our l»rd lEimtielf that the Uhristian couacionHiioflfl 
kw lis mo«t perfect exprvH«ioii in the voHd of upaci^ and 

4. n<?fi)re ihiii uniiiue |ii?nujnii1ity «rt* hUuhX rni thr tliriai' 
hold of the vcrj- Holj' of IIoIicm ; wc ctih Imt rec-ftll whwt Ho 
liftM t^iM iin Iff Htnificlf aft it lia?( In-cn tiH^liuonEdly reronled- 
Inhere wae m IJnn n dotiblc <;on«:ioUF<no^ ; "U the one himd 
the underatandiiig of all hiiinan ^ilty. tho cntuprcboTiBion of 
all hiimiut flin, thi- wt^rikncw of a human bivly, the liiuitrUioui«, 
aa it MTeni», of hamnn ci>|pntii»n,— find all tIn-Hc m^rk ilim 
«A the Son of MaiL Yet there wtu al«o a fwii«e of perfect 
honnony with l\w. ITiiirerxal Will f*o thiLt 11>- futmil HIh tntr 
reftvfthiiketit in communing witli f.>od» llif ambition in bc'eking 
to please flun ; it witu hi Oml tliftt the true centre <>f Hi* 
earthly life lay, An<l the coiucious rccxntcihation, which 
obtttincl in Hia othi ixrrHon, wfk» the in^tration of ai^ active 
Hio : Uc nought by wonl and dee^l to »i;t forth the triit)j Umt 
lived in Him so tliat it miQht powe^ the Uve» of »ll other 
men, and that ihcy too might become, conflclouftly aiui com^ 
pletely, ibe sons of Uod. Id Uin c«nhly wijotirning and 
po^tsinn \h- ■ujitTith-'i) ihf> dejilhK of de^rrarlntioii : in HIh remir- 
rectiun He niaui&flied Lhc Ihvinc Power to break tlie bonds 

The Ghriatimi ^j^j^HUU 


\ nnil ilmth. Yiy thin iln<-1firiUir>it nf thr? tutiml rvcnn- 
Ion of QimJ aiul iisuj ijt Hin imn ]K-rMiimlity Hu irjit^i4?<l 
I meii the ]H>pe of tMXH>miti^ whni !Ic U Dj trainitig 
ipg«tlcfi« bj Giidutn^ them with liis Spirit, by inatituUDj; 

vhich have been t>en>^'lu^^<^l i'> ^^ C.hiirclt, IK ii^uvc 
fbjd^tJTe Tnvsuin tUrtJUicb wtiich th« lifo thai <lw«lt in 
puht be iranflfusect to nU t^ture ^Deratioii& ThU va» 
IpVt ; thU viw what H« claimed to do : uii^l u ^r^^it 
\ni\r- wttom tilt ii»ti cfui nimilwr havp wt to their seala 
tie ift true, uiioo tia-v imv4^ fuiind tJml Hts ■■ th<f wHjr 
Cttdft, ID thcdr o^m pcrHon&l vxpcrioiice^ to rocoiivUiatiuii 



im frfim 'Iwcltinif on thp life Ami toftchhiir of 
Ord pereonftlly, to a ^urv^v of tho reliinou^ hisl'^ry *rf the 
tlie ChrWcian ccfiadonnew c&nnot ht' tf»tUtR-d t^i tuko 
O^U^i^r Hitit.ii'k' tif th<^ mrrr «|HUTtntor. The (H>ilit of 
Votv whidi wi^ Uhjk^ or ihe atlitudr of niiitd we )uU>j>t, 
hfli-ct t)i<? rm^dU at which we arriTe. It b« of counvo 
tc to maintain a purely scientific "tatidpoint in rcgnid 
? liU^ntturc and hitftury uf atiy reli^ootk ; to arm at a 
approkoonon of all the iiicirionbs a»d at obtoinioic a 
mutation of llio pBflt Iftit to the Christian coiiAciou^- 
t *Um* not iM?cm worth while to try to rtslriot the 
m of the cogiHtive facidtii.-!H in thij< wny. It dedrM 
ite lint uiemlj aL lui a[i|irv]it^MMoii of i^niJi inrf-iriihu- 
Inenon in relation to oth^r phcnoiiii'iia, bin at an appnv 
L We oiay try to apiireriale any inciilent^ or tlociuneiit, 
lardv ib «iicniftcaticc. — a^ for example itj< impcirlancc 
tlbronce lo the iniep<»t of the atudeiit, diibjoctiTcly» 
©ctiToly m rejpinl lo the tiniTonic of whicli it iit a part, 
le pitrpoe«« which run throrij^^h the wholi^' ; but appre- 
I cndeavoum to take aecount of relaciona with which 
LpprelieiMinri o^mot pn!t4.nul Ui (k-^al. Whini we appre- 


(JanAridge Thtoloffical Ussays 


C4>nt£ntM of UiU moiit hifrlilv <lovc1o|>4>d fj>nn of the nllgtou* 
ci»TiwiniiMrH^)«M, Tlir Hniikrtiin^. Ut viliidi HlliiMioTi hMalrawljr 
Iwei) mnil«, briiiK^ out u neiiw 4)r « (tou1>l<? L-ii]LHut<itinti«w— «iich 
wm » illitrtl/iitrrl hy rioiiab'n J>ifij'i/rMiiM, or liy St<^vrii*cn»'» 
rtory of />j- Jol^^ and Mr tl^iU. In thcae caftcs the ti*x> 
sIiUm were wholly uJicn oiid rcpu^iint to cfidi other; luid in 
the rellKi<>Ufi conefiou^noa^ 2onorall;ri they remain op|>o0cd 
to ono uu>th<-r; it ir< <Kt^\ hy rniiMiiTiMly i^toriiii; one or 
the other that satu^ticn aoDtiia attairablis Th^ cUim of 
CI&rhLtlvuly in that it ^Tonti a reitl method of re^^oncUlaLioii, 
Ml Kfl M firiiig iJic two Mfif* into hnmioiiy witlioiit atijr 
<riimpn>iuii4c*, aiul witliouL iiu|i|imwiit^ either oiie <ir th« 


Wc cannot pet a tluir view «f tJiin rtn^tiiuiliaiiuii liy taking 
a ntn^lc iiiAtanc^ r>f rulifiiiiiif expcrietioc> tiwi m^ICjiik f^ur 
oo^Litivc taculrv' to reflect on it an<l analyse it Wc mny fwe 
that the 8eiH«r of ^'uilt implit^ in nomo va^ue outJiiK* tho 
ideibi of a hrokea iiionLl onler anil hii olfviiikHl (iiid ; but Auch 
lo^caJ inf»?rrcnco^ cIikw nfkt L;iv4? ufi any ofisunuice aA to tho 
riHtlity <if eii-iU'tn^tM c4rrreH|M>t)[ltiTg to tiit^e ifleuH. Hw 
excrtifiit of the oriniiiifL*- faculty in the HL-nrrh fur truth IvatIa 
UM to ail imfiOMiflr, Tlw ouK cxi.itviK'i? vif kii^m' ju* rt^il t^ iiur 
own, unfJ it i» by tfrawiiig upon ouriolrc^ that we ^rc reality 
Ift our ideoa Aft«r all. in conmideriiiic relhcii^u wo liave not to 
f\i> merely with f]n' CLiinnlivr (nnilty hul ul^ui ^ith tlie will : the 
l^ibt of thu Chrir^tiaii life coiisihtf^ in the rec^neiUatiou of tii« 
hiimati uritl with the Di%'hie — ttte control of tiic human will ait 
it oxprew4?H itself iu action; ami in thiM moile of elat^'ment 
the Hevoi'aiice l«twe«u i>ur «ulijeL-L]ve MleOM and the rool 
eiiHtencm out«iilc iix diict* not nrUi; Ofia i^iarply net oppiMitMrn 
which we caiuiot satirtfactorily bridge. The hninatL will ia 
CH^ninciouft of iwcif as lui activity; it knows itwlf not only as 
€xi0tiiig', but aa doing; there b certitude iii it» feeling: 
of jta own doings*; and thifl certitude i>i extended in vary- 
ing Ae^reei to other uxiMis^cew. In hivi tuoral coivicioUfl- 

' 'FoaUog' ia bot iwvl borv ft 

mvto cmotJiHi, but fcr Mlf-coiudwi 

7%4f VhriMtian Standpoint 


niAn fccU th&t he accept'* Kitiic niim or fmtiic« it fi>r 
elf, awl slrirw U> rvalidc iL Ho is aware of otMtadrfl 
ti balk hini. ikn<l which ore rvnl lo him* JuHt iMi^^tim* thrr 
ker )uu[ thwart him ; ho i« c\TrtJiin <)f th« vxlvicncc of mi 
•niU wftrid ', Ht' may l>o awure, loo, of a Power wlildi 
tnnXet^ with liini, mit >m im 4^iu.'ni»l aifeivt. Inii av a 
oal inAuenci*; which r^nnvicU \\m\ of vril when h>A niiiiH 
Wilnl nn'\ mM'mxWtv^. but whirli strtfrnirtlw?!!!* hin [itir|K»e 
/ it M twmctliinir thnl he Irtj* ilown for nil itiU'lHgvncw ju 
aa lor hiiUi«etf. He inav nxx^^ii»« a '^not ounwlTea 
mokm fiir r]idit«4»ii9(ia-«M-" in tJie wcirUl, becttuw bo iM 
in of & p4>wcr that inaltt*^ for riulitcvHiMiVMM in hi« own 
ml Uf^. 

tTiJiit lilvfutnrc. irt which vArittuM |iIih««s nt Lhe ChrixtJiin 

k>iBxiiaM are M^i. fiiriJ] fully hihI i<i|jiidtl)\ teittiflitt to two 

n on whiHi it is wnrtli wHiliT ti> Iav ntrt-m — ivn tJit* ime 

the ei-rtatitty of reconciliation hA attainable, on the other 

l^a <^ fre<[iicnt failure lo okaiiilain thi^ hannontoiia 

SGriii|ib There Ji n procc«# of rc^<oniihation g^inic on, 

pVooBM that iH not twWj accTuni)>liKhc<i The attein|it 

ivonalito one's action may be oceiu^ional. arul it may 

le babltual. As tbo moral law iA thought of oa a law 

1 iiiU'Iligcnw^ »4f) when I iw't rightly, I act from the 

joint of Oie Uiklverwa) Will ; but liUI] it U my action, tti«ru 

fiin?(t that i>n*nnaKi4-ni Ihi^ jH^nujia) will, but mther 

ooai flesire to i-hjiitc inu» ALV^»n) with the riiivt-rwil Will 

lltak aad to do what \s plewfing to Ood "Wc hare to 

jpatodkorwe aha!) make onr^lre^ the end ofonr lurtlim 

10 OODtIV oa which it turriM, or whether wc r\\aX\ »eck an 

id ft centre otttt^icle and above our«clvo% l^ory iTcneroiiri 

, every effort to pet out of oiin<dvf^t4, however nuli- 

fy U may lie, in ati a<'reptnjiee and nfliniiation of God, 

dt the same time a ^tep towards the lltfht'." And 

« lint vf nodi ^iiijC of hih wtll atid itrtivilic* thrn* ih w\i 

r liifi iiiditiduAl jKrHonaJ lift.-; tt an not lacr^L-fl in* 

Ine du niruL BimU fur £v 

' H, AnuilU, itiUiirtii^rm ami 
' 1a BordKrn&itTT, tfp. o'l I3& 


Camlrruige Theftloglral KMnaya 


Tln^ RiWp [iiiqxirlji U> Xnt. » mi-unl nf the dcyolopmctJt of 
the roligiouH cotutcioui^iicaH : of the manner in whicli a chudcii 
mce cARie to coiuprcheii(] with irreatur aiid ^catcr clcanicw 
tho chBra<:t«r of God. and tii€ rctBtioni of duty atid privilof^ 
ID whicli tbey atood t<> Hini. U nM:of:ruACfl a proffroeeivo 
rervlntion, s« (Sod b>- Huccceeivc dccliuntioiii^ iiuult? Iction'ii at 
diverge times and tii aundry nianiiere nioro aii<l nioro i^f Him 
Nnture and Him Will, It iaIIh Mttt!iilioii to the miworthhiesfi 
of thottgrnt*»»iid thv iiiiuki(]ii}UT>' i)f iW im^lbt tliroLigli wbidt 
theHe diM^himtitJiiH wvrc given at firxt, Aiid i>ut on record for 
our Icnniiti^. T)i<? mabilitr of the aeeiit to ap|»rch(;tiil the 
f^ill meaning of the trutli lie dedareil wivi tho proof that he 
<\\<\ n*»t sfK^k of hiniBclf, hut wite incr<.'l>" a voice iiirt[wrod 
with a 010680^0, llio me«8aj^i:^ took diverse forme in ditlorcnt 
ai^ai and on dilGerent occtMoiiK Tlie worth of all whether 
KClunl cve^t, or vision of the night, or parable iqwikoii, 
dopendd on the truili whfeh It «erve^i to iiet f<jnli. The plain 
man tit ipiil^ prr{ to Kfdconie itierf<stw.n1 w^nnu-y in inir 
knowlcd^i* uf thf.'M? mediji lut pht'iiiuneiui in Lime; Xve may 
fijid thni thi^ r-hr<inoln(i;T ht^ hnd itrrcptod \n tnifitnkrn, and 
that the cTcnta of which he rcadi* took |>lace at fiome other 
time or in scune fjthcr place than he nujipoKod. Or he may 
find tXwX whnt he had ?tiippoeed to be a dcucriplioii of an 
actual event is merely a parahle ; i>r tluit a piooe i>f literature 
commonly ujierilied tn Nomc anthor wiu^ n4:it writU'U by the 
man who**e naine it lM>ari^ For the mind that i* i^jiicentrnted 
un llio Hfriritiml iin|Krrt of the word^ them? qnentioiM 4ink 
into relative inKi^iif^cani-r. Tt in hii1et?d ]>iMiulile ui dinjiarage 
them niKhilj ; Ak-^^-iudri^ui nimnientatorv apfa-nt U^ have 
been rc«dy to riew the whole of the Old Teatamont history 
08 mere atleRory wliicli K>rved Uy illiutrnte Chri^tirin trnth*- 
lltit then> ia at all evci^t*^ *m^ limitation to this eomi>arative 
indifferenc« in re^rd to the fonn whieJi revclatitHi may tal:c*. 
TTw story of the life of f.hrixt hiw an iiniftne im^K^rtunce, 
becvUHT in Him tlir L'ontent of revelation ifl indisiiohthly 
laniiid up wldi Un* |«trtinilar funii in which it wu>i iii»iLifi.^od 

The Chrisiian Stnruifioini 


to the worid. And in ficokinji: to xmnit Uio brnchinic nf di« 
written^ aa of the iTicamato Word, no daro tiot trout ft im 
merelr npiHtiml U* the m^iclect of the acinal in place and 
lime Ail incrwwod aocuracj of kti4>u U'd^f of the phviioinetin 
is to iJw ffx>i fop It i* almost cercain to a4d to the vividnosa 
orHJtii<< ri4tiitlin.r Irntiv 

The redulu <if cilttcbiin ina> thi'ierore be thorougliljr 
wclcfiuic, CVC3TI when the devout 0UrEfe4iftn (a re|)«Ued bj 
the mode iti vrhkli «amc wntorn L^xprcw them ; Ui him the 
!ljr critical hltitud<-' uf mind may flcem otfcnaivc. in flo fiu* 
tM k iiivtih'c^ a cottc^*Titmtii>ii of thi>U|^t tni the |>beTtome»a» 
,to thtf ftppfkrvot dUro^Hrd of the h-pirittiaJ eii^ificfuice. !le 
F-caunot a^ipathise with the attaorplion uf icholarH In i|iienttoiift 
of (U-tAil, vlituh iiL'eiii Ut him relfttivttly tiniiii[>i>rlant : and he 
rmmtfi tlic air of liidifTereikirv which noiiie aMFiiitJie to tlia 
nligioiis irntli ixjuUiiiiod in tlio nihU% fm at Ifti^t ati aftWrU 
ftdosL Uc finds it difficult lo boUcvc that aii/ acholara are 
re«Ily aati&ficd with tlic mca^^c reiull of ^ppn^hi-ndiDbf the 
phcuomemi l>et.Uir wiUioui fLtU<itipt[nK to approciaic the 
reli^riotu truth of the o^mtviit. Such an attitude of miod is 
nniriteltigible 10 him. iniktw the critics hold chat there is no 
religioiifi truth c^mtuhifd in i\u-. phcninitrmL >md that iippn*- 
beiiflloii, without appre<;tatio]i. in the only miH of Atmly lliat 
pcMMibl«^ One (Hunt at i»r (rh'».r In hhii —^it mam 
f^BCCtUBtc aiJi^rclK'HT^ioii of the phciiouieDa is uot the roacl hy 
which men onliiiarily attain to a fuller appreciation of 
rcUjc>oa« tntth. ^V>jtii tfic plicuotncTUh which are recorded 
§oT OS were act imlly present to the eye and ear, they did not 
in nnd bj lh<fnui«lve« produce coTivktion. Hie im>sl e<»nipleto 
«iicce»4 in iIil* reproduction of the pa»t uouM 8ti11 ahovr us the 
eniwih< who riUvied thi? jiri"ph*?U. or from whom i.lie Ijord 
tnniMl lMs:niiHt* of l,h<-ir unU'lief. Tlie rer'ngnitinri nf re-Hlrtieua 
behind] tlie plK-iii»meiia k i^ot brought about by mere ohm.'r* 
ration aiid rcUvctioii, but by ccKirdiuatliiic rcconkil with 
priML-tit rcti^ous experience I'hc mere exerciec of tho 
eognitive focultto^ doou not enable tie to predicate exijttencev 
tlifi uncertatnty which ftiutclia* to argumetitj# about e^ciMtencofl 
eorruvpontUtig to our idu'iH Htt>u:lK-!>f Hh:> to auy attempt of 


Cambridge Thfologicat A'smt/s 

tlio tnuncd intellect t^ poM Uiroiu^i rccord^Hl jnndont** uiifl 
attenLnew of the reli^ioiu cotiecioiutieBs and t^hcw tliat the 
ftll«l(i.vl TvtiidoiiA of <t<irl aiirl mat! are real. " Spiritual LIiIiika " 
inUHt bo "spiritUAlLy duiccmcHi" 

3l From i}w fioUit of view nf the niiriMtinn ooiiHi-io 11^111^4 
rl is pomi))I(^ Ui rvnrli h t\nnli nntr^^ iliMrrtiiiitrntirig tirw it? tlit; 
truth and ft^\i^tiy of tia* oUicr religtonn of the workl than 
would othcnvuc bv t%tt»inahk\ Thow: wliu rdcinttc rcltid"ii 
to a jiJacc among the other phcimmcna of htinuiii culture will 
be ]tkcl> la tikkii a ityiii|Hithvric |K>^itiou towards all holieb 
aUke, and aa\ that eaeh ie true for the* nwn who hokU it, timt 
it i^ the fun» (if rtltifioii which Mullii him : hut thl^ hupli^^ 
Uie o)>inion that 110 commoti ntandartl cuii l>u appllt^d ; xecfp- 
liciitin iut lo the very eKlHtencv tif religlouH truth i^eHeniH to ]jo 
in\ii]\r*l ill thiAjiid^niLiTttL On ihr uthi^r hiiiid, fmm thu- |K>iut 
of view of DciAtft, all the higher rchgion# wci'c regarded lu 
cwentitlJy tru<N mid all i>t)icr rclijpoiiH as merely falnLv But 
the Chri«tian, who aeeepta tlie rcvelati^m made in the pvivon 
of Christ ri« thi> fidlei^t atatement juxaihlo of Uje relatioiw 
of (*im1 Ui iiiun, Iiju a Htimfhirtl U> tipply to otlier belief)^; and 
ibfl he a|>pheA it. he fimls that each of the other reliipoiia of 
tile worM lutsi iuiiiR< eltnueiitn of truth, itrid eiii'h h)iH iiIaci Hunio 
flanenlvi of falHehLnid. 

Thti attitude of Si l^iul Uiward^ llir n^li^iniiM with whirh 
he CAinc in contact uttWds an wiuiiiTiblc illuf^tratiou of tho 
Chiifltiftu position. He rccognifted the tnith of .hnUifHii: he 
hidd tliiLt the JiUw wiui a tiiie eJEj^reaidoii of U'xIh vi\\{. mid 
thnl the M'Uri^^ of giiitt wliich it evoked wsa a true rel1e<Ttiou 
of iho l>iviiie horror »f buil lie held that tJie divjiuly ordaffied 
merifleee had provided meaiiH br whi(*h the ■inuer eould lie 
rextnrcf] !<■ hi-4 plaev in tlitr eiiuiiuiiiiily of the laithful, and tliat 
they Kavt; a iliiu rtpre?ipiim of l\w. fnct that Oim) ih williujc t(* 
^>r^vc ; but that they co^d<l nerer clwiusc the ci>iifloieuce from 
flth und were therefore inadequate to make n complete recun^ 
clIlHtloii, ThtH true but incomplete knowledge of C^id 9t\<l 
lliN will haul been exprejwL^d in foniu which were iimdcnpuite 
to servt* tM (hr nieiltunt iif the full L-xjirtv^^hm nf the tniih ; 
that haul at Wt been {^veu iu Llie |>er»oii nfJiMUH L'hrihL By 

The ChriMiaa Staudpotni 


lence 1o Him it wait pomiblc to sec that the t)c1ieli( cm- 
iii Uic vonihip m»\ prnctioc (-f the Innu'Litm were true; 
tc^t which coiifiniicci the truth itcoiitttincd con- 
tI of emrr and of foJtaly. UlindncHa had happonod 
bi« coutitTTmvD- III HO lar zu they |KfrHiHt4<<l iri thvir 
luDient to dio old form« of n?li^<>U0 truth, nod rcg&rdod 
I HH «MiBeuti»1, Uiey wt^ri' in vrmr : the wh^ilu of tlw 
bl «0fitrDvc*rHy tn whidi hr wax inviilvic«l with the Gala- 
.iru the fiiiit of thirt error In ao Far Bf< thty were [iot uidy 
Ij attached lu ifidr rcUipouH tnulJtioiui* hut rejot^ted 
brifct4nn rc^clBtioti arnl |Krrn«.n]l<^ the diuc-iplud — m ho 
klf iiad doii«>— the opinionB of tho Jowe were fal^e. It 
VpowiUe to xay ufllLaiKJ whether JiulaUiii wm-, u> lie 
(T«d fM true nr condoinne'l hm ^Uo ; but it wiu |MMBibk 
ply tl>» t<fUL-li»tjiiii^ of biiiJi ill ('liritit, utul (o foriii a 
minatiii>r judgcnietil lut lo httyr hir it wiut tJiJe» how fi%r 
eoiink anil how fkr fabt?, I^i a »iinilar fiwiliiuM wiuru lie 
i to the Gentile:*, lie tried Uy fiMtcii on any element of 
in their rclifrion. ^eh aa the belief in a iioti uf riatnre, 
yet he denouneoil Uie forau kA^ tlieir tromhip* uud 
t to AWftken thorn to their necti of repentance and 

H* ^iwtli iif nOtjiCtniiH knowledge hi the worhl ha« con* 
in the gradual [UMtlti^ fh)ui » more to % ](vh hn|ieTft<ct 
jJMipi of (torI'M ra^lniioriK with n»ui. 'Hie phnivw of 
HHMko norld ^tn a whole an- pai'allel to tltime iu the 
vpmcnl of the indi^idnaJ co[iiK-iou«iea& It is ui tho 
*f tin: hmer life that tho external history l>ceonie* moBt 
^ble. The in<lin<luul taiwcn from kmmJed^e of himseEf 
l^, to Imowtexltfe of hiin^totf iw reconciled, as he leama 

rfcte more truly the uharaeter of the Power not liim- 
inaktr^ Titr ri^htnntuni**)! ; and there ]ms* U*en a 
r adnuKe by the nice in the capiK'ity for api^rehLnidiiig 
ancteruf CkhI The pofLiihility ttt diaiiKv and ki^jwlIi 
: men accountA for tlie np|)arcnt inconsifltciicy of tho 
Its of tnith about tJod whii.h are reconW in tho Bibid 
i^n in dilfertrnt iiennd^. Kven tlnrnffh tiiHl im the ^une 
unchanging and eUtroal, inaua abiltty to gniAp 


Cttmbruiga T/i^olOffical Estta^s 

the Divine traits brought vithiii hi» co^iijMincc hat« improved ; 
ktiowkNtgo tioM iiicrcaf^cMl, as the power of approcifttion ha« 

ll nmy W flilliriilt even for the* n«ipiiMit to r1c6c-rilN.> Ui<f 
prcTiFW iiictdentd through which a new tnitli haa firnt flushed 
on am' huiiviii mtniL Tlie Bilih- at Iciuit givcw us n y!vii) 
prc»cntati<jti of c»ch stance of progress. In the stoiy of 
Abraham an caHv plia-^t* of relii^oii-t coti^iaudncsti irtdcarW 
portrU5o<l, niTiec w<^ find in him tx rccojcnttion of <JinJ tu* iin 
unchanfpn^ Will— and therefore bs One who might be trusted 
uUerly and eiiUrely. Th& KruTuttiietw of the inort Hulemn 
ttgnn-nietit K'twrcii msui an<] man. <>r bctwce-ti tribt' and tribe. 
■viiibtiliMN) the rL4JaUili|.y whlL-h he felt lo Attju-h tu ah ex- 
piTwion of thu Divinp WiU. Arnid all the niierrtaintim of 
humaD liFe — tlte alteniative^ of plenty and faiainc an neaMOHA 
chan^, tho rtu»chicf wrought b>' unfriendly t]cighbour9> the 
imminent extinction ah it seeTiied of bin race and name — 
tJiero was sumcthinjc. Some One to trust U\ In tUu h*>rror 
of a grG<at darkiid^ thie aapect of God'a character waa 
made known co Abraham ; ami th(^ liiitli wliirh Kpniiiff up 
in hiM lK*art rendered him the precursor and progenitor of 
niuntlew i a n1 It tildes who have ('iime aftur him and luiTe 
idian.^! in a like faitJi, To be deliven^l fivim constant un- 
certainty an to phynical oonditiuruv or the airlinn of ji-a]oufl 
rivalH, liy barnii; Home <)nc to trust to. in hi* life and Iwyond 
bia life,— that was thi^ foith of Abraham ; and it i« Btill cherished 
by many who do not prufetw or call thcmHclvea ChriatlanH, 

"It fortiiio* my njnl to know 
TIml tlioii^li I iHrliiti, tnLl)i U to; 
Thnl, h<m^*<»i-Vir I iiLnr kn-J r*n|f*>. 
Vliutcvr [ iL), Tliiiu iliwl not chAUjf^ 
I iiUiulkT 4Uji wli{.*n I ntfnil 
Th&t Uiouxh 1 4lip» Thvu do^i tt<'l ^W* 

However the tribol history nwy Iw reconatrucb^, we cannot 
but feel tlmt another i^ep in the btnnan power of appre- 
ciating IMvine truth and a itirther advance Ln knowledge of 
Otxl an* niarLeil in ilie hildicid aceouiil uf tW giving of tlie 

The ChrUtian StatulpoitU 


Tbe tribefl that )w! doscenrled ttom the patriitrt^ha had 
ti itp in ilir" trwiiliitii ^r rovci^iiciDg (Joel &» an U[k'4eeu 
|ty ; at Siitai tbt?> l'juiu^ Ui Icikiw Htm ui & Pnwnt Piiwrr, 
fe XO ew K^i the Afuiml wlik-h whm »o CMLTrfnlly ^nanlixi 
SntnnioD, and from wtucb the Umndennipi and Uf^htninjca 
Otvd, aiid from it lie bnovxlit tbc Law which the Eternal 
\i%A ffiven for \\\it |kh«|iIo h<Tnx In iho Ten Uom- 
biu^ntis accG|>t€<d imder ^iich circuiaatanctw, there wiM a 
JoDB union of rcli^on with nii>niIitT, i^inco Uhtv wob an 
imeo nil th<^ huhLtiiA] {)«rfomi&Dcv^ of cprtAin duties at 
Boouuaud of an Knnirtrn (iimI ; tla? riifon^enii-iil of Uic 
l^ of «in riilhiwal tlic dit4n<^Hrd nf bn-Hchw of Lhtwe 
I to man. It waa a rertl^ilioti for i\\KV*.' nirti U\ h-^mi U> 
uf (iwl, n«t ni*Tcly iw tho Supreme He&litv with Whom 

f«riublo4io«8, nor shadow of ttiniuiK. hut aa one who 
each accduut of His creatarcw m to donmtid from them 
ftr and hutfiluid e«>mplinii<'e with \\\^ rij^htoou^ AVilJ, 
uew a{vprt^iii-nt«iijn of (he relHtioii In which (]od ataudK to 
tould mil iHit briiLK "Ut thr mntnuit In^twrtMi llie Crmt'tr 
the creature. ih\ the one pide llit* ]M>o|jle re>cro>;i lined 
falGnitc and aU-holy, yet »o near, wiUi Lhiwe treinrndmin 
of IIh in)nii.'<tiat4* i»rt-!*ciicc ; i*nd on the other wm man, 
Ijg t 4>r i<in and iriiilty in hi^ pnny lif^\ and cnHh<^d \\y 
IBI that God WM maknuc Hiin«olf felt to eye and citr. 
Krhotit the narration wo M*e that The himiAn eonflcioTia- 
»f will hiui iR-vn awntii'TK'd in ifx fullvxt fonn. n Mt<ri>«e of itn 
iinwotlJiitiew to MiJinrl t>efore the Marching eye, or ftieo 
trf«:t nilr iif (tiMl HiiikM-]f mirh hji lh<" |BJlrirtuh-i had 
dL At Mi>U[it Sinai m^uj <'ould not Imt ^<TlJb;<LiT^.* hin 
Ktta and hb UHolcoHoeHH; the people shrank from 
h revelation in all it-^ nppnllinc fplenrlonn and U'.ioii^it 
\ Co ahjeld thorn from the prceerce of liod and the gtory 

tiuuiifeedo<i it. 

e read that, centuriea latern another jfreat step wai^ lakcn^ 
the human mee bad udi'uiiced nufllidently Ut L>e ablt.- to 
moro irf the eharacter of G«fL There wa* a little cx^m- 
In an itpjier room at HTeriiMil<-Eti of men who hail tH-en 
iniercourae with ilim Wliotn they rtjcugni^icd oa 


Caanbridg^ Theological Kssaj/s 

Uic lucanmtc Son of i.U>d, who had bcuii tlcwolftted by a great 
ttorrow, and ;cl^<l(Tiio'i byaii unlooked-for r(»t<mLtiori. WUeii 
the IJuy oi Pcnlocxwt wiw fiiliy cotiic Uicy wen* aWe to appre- 
ciate the now rerolution which their MtLBti^r hod pnimiiti>fl 
thftm, aiid Ui find in Uf>d, not morelv an Unseen Ideality, not 
(jnty a PiT«<.^iit E^ower, hut a l^tfmoind Hd[h Tliey found hi 
fhvuiM<lv4Vi ihi? I\d^hiieiit of tliL* proinihe ihat ('hriHt woiilJ 
■Phil i\ Spirit. 4if Truth Who nhiiuld aliiili' with th(?m ffir a^ver ; 
throu^i ffini tin? hcl^t they ntwiW houIiI [n^ huii|ilie<); and 
ik9«i)itc the wcnknc9w whJcfa diaraiiraet^d ftnd d»in)tcil tliein, 
tlM;y wtmld Lie T^urtnincd hy t[i<r Lord and iJiver of Lito. (.iod 
bad at Icnirth revealed Hiin^lf ow wiUing and ablu Ui trana- 
fonu uttch fmil hmitun bchii; l>y Hip( E^twur into llt8 own 
tlkonofa^ and thuM fit ihom t<i he hi HU Presence et«rnaUy. 
Oil WUiuunthiy ih^ A|HMtTefl ittt>iinc^<l lj> ('liriiitiun coumJoiul- 
new and Ui tht* fnll kiiowWge of Uoil hi Hm ndalionH witli 

The various ph&jm in the dcvckjpment of thv^ rcliicioUA 
conadouanca^ which are t^vi licforc uh in tlie llthle, AtilJ subaiat 
hi many \mtU at tlie worlil; each liu^ it^ tmth, y<;i oiu*h i» 
enveloped in error, or charifed with tivlsity. It i^ tbe work 
of Chriat'fi mtiiistors to-day. aa It waa of the Apoetlo^ at tlrst, 
to be Bis auntj^Madont and dedan- Uie tnii? knowled^' of 
GikJ which lie ha* rermlLfL It U their wiitilnui to folhiw the 
example of ibe A|MihtleH. iirid not*; tfit* jihiuie of truth any 
pc(>]>le have alrco'ly tittnined, nxid the further kiiowle<ixe tJicj 
ftre able to appredatev 'Hie ine^tMigc of reconeUiatioii ia not 
what irt needed bythoM? who hrtvenoconsciousuewof wiu; the 
eouaciou«neaaofA]nidhar<Uypos8ilde tu tho^ewho Jiavonosenao 
of tipiritnnl roalitiejt. whiMo cuiufviotiH life ia stilt ' biunerw-d hi 
QftCure/ The oi^an^>lipwtiiUi of the world can only proceed in 
the urtler Ut whieh UikI Hd:i|itt-d HiuiHt-lf in the rt^veJution of 
Hi« nutur4< ^uid IIja will to thi^ worhL Hnl t1i<? motive to 
make (his t-lfoi-t ^uid i^arry on thin work renU on the Miiiple 
(ii^tij^iiioit U' decUn: the truth of liod »nd nifike it known 
amon;L: niciL Iteligion ia an element in hiunan culture : tbe 
Mfiei'skr] r>l' hii;her reli^tim^i in Aeo<uniiaiii<'<l by i\w <lif)iia<ion of 
a kuowUHl)(e of nobler litomtiire and purer nioi^ity, Tb6 

The ChrUtiaii HtmidpoiHi 


ptuwe of oi>G retlition by the whole human raet> woald 
tr U) ilimiiiiKli inutiml iikiKini<lrmtHiHliiiu;>4 nnil i<i liririg 
1 ]x»ce and onl«r throughout Lhc worhi Thc«»e are 
poUtl AJlvKtilaga^ which oj4> iiirrur in a ifrenUT or lu« 
fee inim tlw aikocmFuI pr.^sn. iiiii>ii of miivioiuhry work; 
^ 10 not becaUAC of lU uttofiiluew* but uiu|»l5 becouHe of 
{Dth that wc <lc»]ri? t<i diflti^o the CliriHtinii knowlcrJiro i>f 
I Tlw one (object from which all the force and iiidpimtioQ 
■||ttar>' vfl^orti coine in n dunlre u» dilTbw Ui« Icm>w1«<l^ 
H, In n1) 1(4 c<nmpk't4?tir>44. mi that all men niay eome to 
birutK^ilml r^j Hiuk, aiiil l.liiipt Iai In^ piu-iHkrm iii the 
tim CDtMCJonancn; 


, Itncliiuiuii] fiirlhn OiriMljatimiw'iciiiMiivx tlutt itgmv 

It of Tiew from wliich wc ma^' obtain dcc|Mir inhibit into 

9UH tnttJt : but h Tula aim* Lo do witJ) Uie activitkv i^f 

s well M with tiK' uppnciiUioti of the rchuif^n^^ of Cod 

kUL Three fourthfl of rtflijcion, oh Mattht'v Arriolil ui«ed 

ll^wv ccnccriRfd with conduct and (he txhitiimi^ vf man 

!■■, All the higher reliG;ion8 oxercHoo an ennoblini^ 

IK9 cu mail; tJii-rr am many mminm nf cituliu'i '^n 

ther arp a^*rd. birt if, w worth whik to comjvire 

Libii of vivfw ill n^i^nl to duty, which in laJ«!ii hv Lh<? 

dan, witli tlmt of the Uuddhi[<t c^r the Tbcist It would 

mnd to atu^mpt to diecUf^ii the racrttB of each ; th<9 

tt (if oiii- man in liviu); up to hia conception of life m 

u%d witli the fiiilure of otln*rM ; or the dc^^n^o? of ^^t 

attach to Uiose who liare HimI clearer kikowkv]^- »et 

■ tbirw. It U merely otir jiurt to dlnLin^ilNli tht- i^iliioa] 

loiiit* which Mn< (Ytuflonaiil. with riiri< nr cithcrr of the 

' forviiFi of n^lu;iiFUH IjL-licf rc^^pcctivL'ly. 

L-rv w no tij^urc th;i.t hjt^ n>ii4cd more devotion in 

h»t tliaji that (if l)u{ldha : and the 8tor>' of hift llfo 

t bnt nppcal to our Mymir)hthir», rtnil citfl forth tributes 

fn^ni tiw WcHtcni world to the Lii^ht of A.-*ia 


Cambridge Theob^ffical Ensaya 


He set forth in liij« own jK-mcm u noble momlity wHicli wm 
olottely a«iAuckat«d vrttt a rcUc;ioa in which there w&n do place 
for Uo(L To i«oTiK' trf n* thu vcrv «n*0C('f*tioTi of ii rcti^tMi 
without a Uod soctii^ to be a coDtnidJction in tonna ; but 
thcro are otheis who know- ihat thla Ifl not ko, bi^cauHO they 
have felt tho artrftcLioii nnch Uuu'hhig cilfrn*. T}ic porsonal 
ciiltivHtiuit t»f ilevout coniteioi»ne*«i may Im? jmrKtietl as an end 
in Itself. 'Tlirrr^ !!< hii nmdi turmoil ;uiil hurr)' in rlir vnrUl : 
Enanx of us would fAiii be iiuit of it ftll, ftiul |Hi:<« oar daj« in 
the <x>at«mplation of what ia pare mid noi>lc. Life in ao 
naiijr cumv^ Hcufua pur|Ki^<1iMA and eropt>. Tint wmtyntle^ 
fltm^le for wealth an<l hononrH t]>at itrt: vanity and veintion 
of prpirit, die fua^ineBa that freta over everylhiriff or notiiitt^i 
are alike df^^picnbk^ »nrt iin^>m«. Tliv longing to be quit of 
it all— aloof fidii] nil t!ie Irritation aiul the iHvialfty — niajr he 
overwhelming W** ^nny try Ut withdmw within onrseWes, 
and rnjov iht- HultLnde we iiin create ; fur the |HJwer of MHlf- 
necluflon may be cuTti vfiteil with aucc<»«> if wc dcrotc ottnu^lvcs 
scdulotittly to the taak. 

" Ah iyi£l; thf oaj 
llcArini; ntt hcttr. 
TliMigti <lrv\nit An rull ftiiil ptp» nnd fTmbftlii Hog^ 
So th« b«rv <iiiiMi;ionc« of the bettor tliJn^ 
DnfdL ii[i*cvu> uiiiii^imctl, i^l urtkniivrn, 
Uav fix thif vrklnuic^ «<r(il taiti muttitudca hIquo'." 

Ihb delil>cnit« rerott iigAiUHt the W(.ir]il and aJI it eontaina 
— thelo^ of the fleali, the luat of the eye, and the pride of 
lifci — ifc nittre niiiKenml Ut ihv KjiMt-nr than to thr WeJiUfni 
temiierainent ; but vH'U in Knglaml aiid Anieric'a the Htrain 
and stre«» of mixtcni liTtr liavc mll<?i) forth a n^m.'tiori ; thure 
are nigns in many quartern of ca^roeoa lo vrithdraw from it. 
and cnltivato an inner lifix Tfatfl Is OQ echo of Uuddbi^nD 
whieb QikIb expression in strange theoeO|^^ and forma of 
Hcienue fhlxjly eg olUciJ. B<itli in the Eauc and in tlie WcM 
auch religioit bu etemenra of iwble w If- renunciation, iti etfortfi 
to ijurtirli the [muwjihia and niiu*tc?r Uie lUnirts ; Iml. iifU-r all 
a nrlf-eenitn^l ix^ligion u only con)u>nant with a aotf<«Dtrod 

The Christian Standpoint 


tW« eu obIj- cat oareeJree fre« from tlu.^ pcrturlilntf 
^Dcei Ibat play uj>on uur liw by iiu|>prew)tif( aII ttic ties 
tit4-nHtji tlni liinil m u> mir fcJIow^meii. If vre wiab to 
rate A fit)fli iLKrmlity we cannot tm jgitiiiftiHt will) Irving 
mvr witliin oiiriuitvoi; what wc iit-ixl w a faldi that wUI 
iBB out of oUTiclvca. And thlfl we find in the j{c]him:1 of 
tlCJUTUitiijn ; the Stiii of Mitii lind n pfirt in the sorrowa 

Srplcx]ttc«, i\\c tniK nod tlio HutftTiii^ of our common 
[iy, and throuji^h it all He ^t forth ii divine idcaL If 
tould ilo our Uuk In the wivrM and lead a life that ia 
\ liiinjt we dare not sever uiir>H>lve« from all tlie claiitix i>f 
I HiiilHjiendour timi-*iiifiu>iv]uieftcencc: iionouf tu claro 
(» the eultivnttiiT) liiul tniiniiig; uT hiH nwn rnjimt'loiiHiieMfl 
t Mijireiue ohjuici of lifo. A divinr itciiUrnrr on litis 
ton baa boen prououucod onc& for all, — ** He that lovoth 
Fb mHhII ItMtf it" ; wh^ro hv liari t'mjitUHt it of oil that 
tiffle itM courHe, he vrijl flEiil thut hv hw tiarroweil nJi<l 
led hi« whole hiring Sulvmion c^Liniot be attained by 
|C i>ur>t(-lviM ufTiUKl Uml^'ii]^ oiin«L*lve» in ; tliaL ih nieivly 
Jsc a (iowrt in onr heArU itml caU it |»eii€e> Bj will- 
in to eut«r into tijc aorrowB of othcm, and Atrivin^c ^ 
t in their plcasurus the bc«t tUai iJ^in un nmy be drawu 
hd derelopod. We may find our Iruo live^ if we ^trivo 
kr ^nc nnottux'fl hiinletutf ami ito to fiiltil the law of 

Itbout if) any way dispamf^ni^ t3ie eameAtneMA and 
fon of the BiidrlhiHt naiiiitH, wtf iiuij yrft nx^rfpiiiu? tlnit 

U H fiuiihuiieEiLal rilirt.-reiJi.-t.- Ix'tween thu moral con- 
liraw of Uic ^ hri^tiaii nml uf Uir ItiiddhisL Tlie funner 
ilnGA a Power which njakc«» for njj^htooUBncM, while the 
ijittlNlL ThoMwhoartj Mitipfiod with tJn.Mi4rrowiT ideal, 
BttVMf-iful^ nation :iiid ttelf eontrtd may be content 
It to the cultivntion of pentunal ><-treiigtli of will, tl8 the 

Ihjit can aet theiu free. But if we are lookiiij^ out on 
irM — not on mir etnh< t'( rtthLtimm with all the ehLiiiw 
timl de|iem]eiice. out ou tho-^te who ai'e Tmiu^^ht In cun- 
itb IIA thrc^ngh oar ntlhng^ ^mt on tltnui^ who nmy lie 
locd by the luantier iu which wo diadiarge our duties 


CumWitlge Theologiad Sttsai/H 


1UI cHlixfnK out on the posrterity that wfl! inherit the fniita 
of tmr Kcliiviii- — tlirti wr mn fmvr n U'tttrr ox(>c<-Uitiim uf 
ewUililiHlijiiu; haiiiuiny between our |]ve« and our siirroimd- 
111^, if <iiir r;iit1i mul \\o\x'. urtr. [•H-Mvd in SuTiie Oim who IH 
greater thaii oui'bl'Ivct^ It may be ]H>uiblo for the tMcctic or 
tile ph)1»eopher to coiitml thv little world witliiu. and ti* hriiig 
it into ttiibjection : but thouffb wc art> in contnct with it nt ao 
nmiiy pointy ^<' \ux\^ no [Hmer in ourHvlreH ut (.'ontni! thu 
grent world without Those who beliovc t)mX Che I'tiivenw iH 
not a chaoH, hul Uiat thc-rt- I* order in it all, arnl that in the 
last resort HenMim i« fnipreme. c«n Ukr foiinijr'v llicy riv 
OOfin*^ ft '^■'1 ^}>o ^"Fc^l^l it, a Coil who \tnji A |iur|ii>^e in it ; 
in *> fiir a* tlwy Hticccrd in rtaliinv: llii* will \h*-\\- own and 
IcniUii^ thrznnelrcn to W tho in itts uf caiTviii^ oat IIih 
puriKMC. they oin nttah) to calmitMe mid confidcncv^ thr<itj>;h 
ftll (he fltnijy^le^ of miindano exiAt^^ncc- 

2. Not ever}' f""" "'" 'll^tiwin will dorve to influence 
monili^. It it poG«tblci t^t Ixliovc that Ciod i« mo InfiniCol; 
alKive HItt c^rt'atureri. thai He lakoi no account of ibem or 
their dotMg>t, HTirl ix cntinOT indiflrrrnt in llir mnorKT In which 
tbe> live their livex, and to their cfinduot tonne another; nidi 
a di*rtniii- i,t a pliitu-u^jthy, |>LTha[Ks ratht^r than a n-litirton. iind 
it can have little omncx ton with ethics Any thciHticdoctriiiCt 
hc)vw«r, which recoiniirH^ relatione het^eon (iod and HH 
crcHturiw, ih niire l« hatv a la^ariiiK <m the rori'hit't of hninan 
beki^ to one another; it givee a foundation for idea^ uf ri^ht 
»id wTon^, In the coneeptlon of a rule laid down for man by 
Ilia Oenlnr, and it prondeM niTK'tioni and mntlvo* for living 
aroonlhkg t4) thin rule, 1la<Mc* fuuictionK nuiy bt? thiui^lit of fts 
phvtilcnJ, an ww on thr ivholo the ca«e with the l-<nu?lit«H of 
old; they 1>rlirve<l in the dire^'t ('inim-xicin of [KTuinal and 
natif)4ifd pnwpcnty with |>ers<>nnl and national n^htoouanaw; 
ikmhie or pcetikncc were rcj;arded a^ the direct chaMtine* 
ment of wri>njci|oin;f. f *r Iht^ MiitdionK may la? tlion^t of aa 
fUipennnntlane. and coneistinj; of rewards and punighmenta in 
another world. Molraminedaiibna haa a deiirer hutd on tho 
doctrine of UM'iinniortJtlity ofllie MtiiT tlian JiKUtNni attAine<l; 
ami art a conJ*e<|ueii€e^ tlie joj"« of paradise and torUirea of 

The Ckri^ian Statuipoinl 


ite a more prominent p*rt in tho onforcomemt oTmoraJity. 

b CHUT* luli^nrotl fi>nD. llieitii:!! t^et^uHHl t<> the ttioralUu 

frifightririTith eenUiry Ui ^\v fiiU HiiiijKirt tJi liir 1iig1ii<i»t 

tt tettdiing « it wiw the UitiiM cm whiirli i<le!u uf tlutj 

L 00 that the ondcnmiiiiiif of roltgicjn wehjIiI Tit dnngrr- 

io •oaeCy. At Uiey bisld* OicUtic rcligioD wu the 

Ibo of the exorcKc of the reftAoiiiii^ f&otittv un tlie datji 

bed by nature Jinii Hiipplefnciitc<i Troni rovdiaiori ; and 

Ity rfl«t«<t on theietic rell^on &e ixa roandatioiL They 

IhcUimmI tc arf^e that aU nmnUity wm (fcpeiutvut <iii 

pnn belirt^ Tlii* U tin jiari of onr contention : it maj 

t to compare ilifTereiit phaMM of etbii^ii] llft^, iukI to ithovr 

bM&<tn^l)t> i»hu-h huN U*ni iHjilt on more Tlid«n is 

^B in ftvvcrai JmportAnt rcepccta 

BL-Cbnsti&n Hieiani U wvn at iIh Ivcdt in tlie rditoi>ii of 

and In MohiunmcxlBnitfrn. ami it hw vravc dcf<K^ w 

1q in political and ifooia] life. Pure TheiBni cannot 

hiJLfht ouulcM for mun(bLTi(* idBunt. The rule of the 

IK in SpHin wtim rrnmrkable f(>r the encxiuragenient 

waH givvn U> Uti'ni(nn< ntu] witiiov?; Init il !■ tin- 

tant in the hixtxio' "^ [xOttiatl pmicn^Mi, In itn ulU- 

Miria it WAA a theocracy, ait^l u^ nmrh it could submit to 

AtatiotitL Hie fhhjvctrt which l^am f^i \tdfnTc it^M in 

Dqacet of the world to the taith. and the nttjunmcnt of 

Be by flghtini; for it, trave no ftcope for any doctrine aa 

t req>oiiribiility of eiril niler^ and their dntic« towiirUn 

>vemedK The popular iina|riniitlon« vhich fliled the 

lift' with (Iri-Tiriw of hthviumik rnijuyiiii'iit V^^v no rhwJt 

tltwi indulii;i'nee in iuxuTy hero, and fiiiilcil U> la) down 

CAT teaddnK '^ to the obUffaticnu^ of thoae who were 

jed nf M'cnith : nor wtis there any doctrine of the value 

Oan personality aa aueh, to tell in liavonr of the ^c^ual 

don of slavery ar impmvcinent in the pocdtion of 

I, Chri^ianity ha^ the power, which Uhini \vu^ not, 

igti^f the hi^heAt motives to hear on mundaiLe affidn^ 

ramoilelling political, civic, and indiiKtrml life. 

WQ ■«fet*ac«ii utt Uikan from mj Ermy tm JI'MfTvi 0>i'/«Mfi'<4^ 


Carnhji^r Tht^loginal HjiMti/A 

HohiunniodiLiiiitin in jjiwlcxtuiUA not only att h bfWfl for 
social dutT, but as on incentive to tlic hijdic«t pcreon&I 
momlity. Thone Theiama. vhicti put forward a ml© of oioral 
duty fi«i rcTeoJetl by Ood aiid Hm pmpbtatA, iiiiwt iii^*i>iyuhnly 
r^T oD somuthing of tlic nutiirv of a divine code. Hiis cod^ 
luay be tiie rtubjoct, of inurrpreteduii, ami tbe Iswiw uu wbicb 
much ALibik' ciwui^trj if^ oxiwiidnl ; hut tU fiindfunciftal pnn> 
d|»l«^ arc Aa^ U in iiu|HM4er] ijuee Tut- all ; tiit- aim uf Ui« 
rirtaiiiLB caun h to kocp up to iU nnd hence Llicrc is no strogig 
Ibccntivo to cUiicaL projt^csif. it inculcatce conformity to an 
Authoritativti rule, mtlior Uian t\us tkvelopnient *.^i diameter 
by a man who 10 frvo to eroat« am) adopt hin o^n IdoaL llie 
aim of peraonal attainment, and the elfort tu puivu« It^ 
wliich U vo cb^LrHctv^ixltic <Jt' Jtnd<.1hi8ni< fmtdly ent4*ts into 
MotiHiiunedaiiirini ; ami it \iim no plair** fur the ru-'ii^iiitinn 
»f hi^bcr idrJiU nf lifr, Hai] tbrivfoTV nontt fi^r pn>KiTv« in 
a higher plane of morality. 

Tho <lefcctlveuoiM of Mohainuiedanieni inay aUo lie indi- 
cated in another ^^ay ; wlitlc it ii^ an in«ul}ioiunt icuidc in 
Aocial and inun<laTie (July, it I^uIm U> tfivo scope for the [lobiest 
fbraiA of devout u|>iratioa In Theion the Heveraiice and 
oppcwiti»n t>etwe«it thi* human will and the divine n^iniun 
unrM.»ncil^. and the motive Ui right action ih placed in an 
cxttmial reward, id thiH wurld or th« ucxL Wlivrc rvnS 
recoodlintion itv i^m^ibla tlie ho]x^ is centred, not on a 
poaBeniou g:ivcn. but in » cbaugo eticetcd in the individual-— 
the bla»cdn««ii uf bein^ rendc'rvHl like God, and boconung 
a partaker in ilia nature, T\w whole eonooption of eaintly 
Hie roiU on a deeper foundation than Theinni alfurdK 

8. ChrivtianUj in » 'OwMin, but h im niikre ; and wt> shall 
mlw what l^ t^haracUrriHtie of iUethicH if wu lay entlri* tttruw 
on the inond tiTiching which i« conimoti Ut men whti profrM 
Uie higher forrna of religioa It in of eoun« true that nuiny 
Toligiously- minded men, like 1^>ckr, are cuitent with a tbmtic 
Bkotality aii<l do not reoogniAo the fact Umt (.'hrtHliaii t<:ac)d[^ 
it bMod on a di^thtct |>rind|jle. But, nevertbi^uai, tlii* ie 
th<- ca^c The ChriKtiati moral comwtousncas hae di»dnctive 
marks of itn owil ~ Ah maiiy ait received Him U> Uhjiu uplvo 

She Chri«iia7i Stundpoini 


ewer to become the sons of Uod. t^vcn to thom thftt 
^ on Hu ruinw.' lliAt im tht> tti>urc>e of Che diriatiao 
I (ill itfl inaiiifci<latioiL«. Thwv who r«cofffii>w a super- 
IL'pover living; anr) workliifr within must have & aeiue 
BMihililitv of htmiitn life, irf ilK |irii'il<.'^<<H nii(\ nvprjtmi- 
1^ which <liff«<rA grvatlip' fhiiii titat oT mmi who do iiot 
%Wtn rmirirUi'n. 

py reverence the Divine I'ower aa aa active Inltueuce 
tod workinic in the world, m> that the hiKhe^t oon* 
■ of virtue lies in coneciou« cooperation with Him 
FacdvitioK Tht* ascetic effort after i*elf reprenaion in an 
b ; paiwioTt mtiat be maidvred uful dcware checked, not 
) aeope for uninterrupted contemplation^ but to rewoTo 
idimncefi to an urtive life of ^elf-dcvotJon to the sorvieo 
I anrl the good of man. And Bs the Divine Love haa 
hrth freeK fmrn (SinI In itivk iind to waii? that which m 
munt tliciG be no timit to the sphere where Christian 
win fitrirc to opente. no depth f>f dcKr^dation which 
IV holly ffpitm. 

y feith in a l>ivino Inflaence maj have another beamif 
Kina! eharacter and <vrndii«t ; it 1h tlie rfoutoe of an 
a; hope, 'ITinw who l>elieve that that which is bent 
a cannot die, will itLriTe to Htt?er their eonntc hy the 
hteh nhuMv U'voml thin mnmliUK^ uphrre, Tliere !• 
oing which ma>~ Mcm to 1m; hannlent or even ex- 
, and to make for the icrcateMt ha[)ph>em of the 
t number; it i« well that we xhonld chorieh an 
^ standard in the thought of the life which will 
wlien earthly thifigH hav«T |vawtorl awuy\ " \Vo know 
lea He shall appear we nhall be like HItd. for we shall 
i itft He VH ; aiid every inan lliaL huth thin h4>|ie in Ef im 
1 hirnftelf even an He hi pnn\" 'l^ie three thei>logieal 
Faith. (IwHiy* and Hope, are traita which are h|iedu) 
lirifldan chamcten and which have a direct bearing in 
up to the actire di>tn^ of jcood. 

vo criterion which it put^ forward of virtnoufi conduct 
oity ia clearly di^tinjcuif^hed from other fonru^ of Theian- 
ttaiiun at lea«t the aim m to aroid what hi fi>rbidden ; 



Cambridge. T/tmi/Hficai K/tMjfn 


ni»f- tint iif f)i« Teii OiimnmnilitKTiitt are |in>Ui1jitiiHin in fonii, 
ami rorliiti i^Arliciilar kiiidpt of wron^doiug. But Christianity 
ifiK|Hrtn U* Uic ftctiTC diiiu;^ of dut> ; ami trc^tr* Lliu ne^lecl of 
opporttmiticH m & bcinou^ siti, Christianity Ht-t» il hi^h ideal 
ani^l an exactm;;; etandanL in die way in which it demands 
purity nf thintjcht lut well lut ^trictiwiv i>f coiiducL But th« 
difficulty of etmtniDf^ to live up to the principles disjoined 
becomes raoiit clear wlieii we note the fteverity of the judge* 
mrnt mi lo«t opjiortirtiiti*^ and fjinitt<.sl diitJrM, Fn»m Ouwtt 
to whom much m given muc^h will be requircd. 

^Vhilc CTirifltiatiity thiw iwtfl up ft fiir i»t<jnicr «tAndani 
tlian other Theisms, it also afTonU the means of diacriiulnBting 
in nuuiy ca^ieH of eonflicliiii; diiticis It Evuiocor^ttf^ to u^t the 
miiiuicr in which the conflict of tho chums of t)ic indiridual 
and of society may bo &4j*^^t«d The iudividual ie of abwilutfi 
wortli, an uiidyhi^ perwiniility ; while civil iiutitittloiid of all 
kindn^ privaU^ |in>|K>r1y mid civil government^, Jinj <mly 
muiidanix The imlividiial life hftn iiifinib^ InifmrUnnc ; but 
thih ir^ DO cxcu?ie for individual hc^lf-Jv«wrtii>iL Tlie worUl of 
institutioi^ti iknd couvcntioiitf and ordinances is the discipline 
by which the indiTidual nmy be aul^octcd and tn\inu<L Mun- 
dAiie inHtitutionri of every kind have not on atw^lute, but a 
relative Wi>rth, >^Lnce tliey are the means by which individual 
chanui^r U fonwe<l and tmine<L There muy be frcrjucntly wn 
«pp<witifni U^twe^n the denircfor hidividn^l »elfaA4enion and 
lh« demand fur Uit.* m^Li-'|iUuKrt3 of jkiIT diMriplint by ?<riIiiiiiMioii 
to authority. In the ciwlv where it is ri^ht to witJihold active 
cuiniiliance witli a huntan cuiuinand wliich \a m direct conflict 
with tlic Oiviiiii \Vill t\t^ pliiitdy exprcTweil, it xb at lem<t a duty 
toBoe titat the majmer of withhotdiniz; obedience ^lali be so 
carefully conHl^Iered, that the ediectiveitew of the jiuthi>rity 
for gotid shJill not be in any i4»y weakened^. 

Both lu ItA iiupdring and In ll^ diacrlminatinf; power 
CliriHtiHii mondity exbiliiu v^tnktn^ dif)rr(.'riu*J4 rr»iii thai 
which ih fiiunded en a purt^Iy theinLii: itOMn. Tl^ere in aiiofJier 
way ill which the jiUiKriority of this stanrlpoint may become 
apparent ; Ubrisliun tcachm^ embracer whnt i^ bcrt irt the 
* EhMuyivdiinnfiii Citii Obtdience ia i^o l^aiA Pnatnk i^tt^iciedgc^ 




RiGiUB FRorveeoB o7 nirrarrr 


N&IN& Kdl TTAXaIj£ 





.• 1 ' 




L CrUicaL 

1. The TU^unJiitic ' bent uid trend ' of phTsical scieaoe, 

2. (a) Th« anomption that the world is * Betf-eKuteDt^ 

(fr) The u^ament th&t the worid a % mechoniam 0(uitedl«d bj ft 
Rtagtt of Iaw. 

£1. OmtirMeiive. 

1. Science leftda up to pbUosopbical qaestioiu which Thefun »iiswen. 

2. The origin of the conru of Nature- Argument for a Pint Cauw- 

3. Oanaalitj in Nature implies tm all-embntcing Being- 

4. The chAraaoristica of this Being are thooo of Hind, Will, and nnit;, 

6. Such idealism repreAente the trend of modem Bci0iio& 

ft The onUr of Ifature implies a Supreme lntdlig<euce whoAo action we 
con portiall; undentaud. Coemic Teleology. 

T- Attempt to explain the element of apparent irrationalitj in Natunu 
Fh^ncal evil in tho light of science. 

8. CondunoD. Science compatible with belief in a Personal God. 


rBBpre««iit itt EindoubUMlly u tieri^itific nffc : An iM?e, thai 
iiij«ctcri«cd by Uio icob^>iw piireujt of phj-nicttl 8ciciic«^ 
re ftp|)ticatloEi of iIk* HcieiiitfiL- iiieiliud in various fietdn 
ni^lit, luirl liT nn iiiirniUAiiigK rir-li iiml iinpn-Hnivr liiari'iwt 
■uICa anjuirtHl lij tiieaiift of icienlifio inv««tigatioiL It 
HBed <nt Ix^half of ph>>icn1 i-cicnc^* tbnt it powH^MWi 
Hh aad had obtainc4l nrnultrf vhicli ditliT from the 
>ds uid itMilUt of otiitT 9ftii(lit*?t in that ttivy tire exnct 
tlflo olyoctiTo. i^iyAical obi4orrvatioiitf oau bo npcatod 
rerifldd, aiid tbibi llitt KtjbJLHrilvv obiiitiiit in i«cii>iitlfiG 
hw ifc the clvnieiit of irdividitnl eoryecturo And 
nal opinion — can be e1l[ninat^l. Proof U tliurefore 

|>iHiHib1r fcir liu'firiiw uf rml.iEr»] iinrtirv ihiiii firr 

which aiv the ouU^inie uf ttpcciilation od niattoni 
^1 the rcjw'h of (lirw't "Wcr villi on and uxi>i'rim4>iit ; 
<>iiACtiii«ntJy ^'reatcr miaiiinfily in to be found amoiijicst 
HMMIltoliroa of 0cieii«e timu oioont^l thoee of other 
h^ of thought and ktiowLcdfec» ThiHMicce«*of j«cii-ntific 
>d in eiirichtn|]( our knowledge <ff NatUR' and applying 
practical uwcm, ttu<1 the «olid unaiilmJiy vUh which the 

balk of i*cientiflc d'mtriiR^ m rivriunl, ImHU n^nilrrcnl 
urn mipn-wtiir hy cimtniMt with tlit? n'|H"aL«"1 railiircw uf 
ophy to pre»eiit a inetaphytuc of N'aturc and with tlto 
aicnial <livcrfOtit's l>«tvf*v[i the phiN^ophical ^chiwK 
not fiuicd Uf produce aa unU>uudvd vonfidunou in 

the licitnngetieity which, vlieo maii; writers an> at work upon 
the same ground, can be pained only bv ropeated conferonce 
or by tile rcprcesioti of personal methotta and convictiona. 
But on the whole it has seemed better to Etccept thet^e rieks 
than to interfere with the free v\ny of individiml prcfcrciice& 
Buch unity hs LIim u<r]1eLliuu iiF FjHwtyrt nm} |iuHHejHi itinat be 
eoutfht in it* K^nervl purpfjee- 

In the selcctiun of the aubjecte the Committee to whom the 
details were eutnisteil liave been ^ided by a desire to ^ve 
prominciice to those which eeeincd to be of vital impartauce 
ui lJ]cmr<cUe8 or iniiler |ire!4ent L-ireiiiiiFiLancvx Rut tliry 
h^ alp^o in viev' to provide an orderly treatment of the eliief 
InndtiknrkA m the tficUtic and ChriatJaii nositiouff, A brief 
sicetoh of the conlenta of the volume will sJiow Jiow they have 
OTjdciiV'jijred to fulfil their purpose; Beaming with it bTi^nieial 
view of the Chrihtiai] Ktandfjutiii^ the twHjk prueeeils to nhow 
tliat theititie M\*it ig not ineonHetent with a loyul neeeptanee 
of the AdHured results of either phy^cal or pliiloHophicid 
researeb* It then examines the [K«]tion of Man, boll a« a 
part of Niiture, and ^ ^tandin^ in relation to (rod and 
enti^ioijs of Hn ; ttte |KitHil>iliiy of i^iiiiimtiiiic^ifirin In'twcj^n 
God and Man^ and the ine^inB by whieh it ih effecUwU The 
Dext atep is to deal with cert«iin nroblem^ whidi meet tho 
Htudent on the thre^iiotd of the Christian Hevelation : the 
crc^libility of minielrs, the pcrmancnec of the Obi TeKtamcDti 
and the hiKtorical eharattt^r 4vf the Four Oo8pels- SiirneeHHeiitial 
features of CTiriatianity are then considered : tlio Person of 
Chriat ae seen in the Oos|H5U» and the Work ami Influence 
of Chriat in Hietory ; and in the last two E^RJiys the ^ries is 
completed by a discussion of tl»e ethical value of Uhn&tiao 
doi^tniie^, nnd the power <jf the I'IiHmImii Tdrul nnd the ho|>e 
of the life to come. 

From thid eiimniary it will at>pcar that tbeae lijssaye to 
eome extent constitute an ajuAogia pro_fide noslnt- To such 
tin interpretation of otir ettbrt there can be no objection if the 
werk of the upolo^rst Hiid our i»wn rt^liitions Uj it are riglitly un- 
derstood. To be ero*^o( TTfifi^i tiiroXoyiav, rcadj- to unewer the 
challen^t? of non-ChristimiH, is n nece.'iaary piirt of the eijuip- 
ment of believoi>s and ep|»eeially of tho profeswd t^rachcin of 
Uhristiau Tlieolog-y, From tlie fir&it half nf tiie necond 
t*ntiiry nnn-.Lnis the Church has occupied hrn^Hf from 
time to time in irrodueing; an npologetie litomture, whieh, if 
not always worthy of i1^ high ainiH and now jiaitly obsolete^ 
has upon the wiiole served a uuefut puri>oi^. Our own time, 
with Its wide outlook n|H>n Nature, and tcarchin^ cnquiricfl 
Into the origim* of liistitutioTiH, neeiU a new apoloj^tie ; 



neither the efforts or Juetin mid Cloment to correlftte 
Christianity ^tli the itesi tlioiitshtA of QnnY philosophy, »or 
thi* aarui8tic (linlrriic rinVrtullikn^ norOri^imV HrilliJiTit ri-ply 
l« Cclaufi, nor the uften actite answora of Mai^^riaa Ma^iica to 
the niorihiinil yy*t inilitfint i^igimit^iii «f the fourth ixftitiiry, 
nor t!w refutation of flcveuteenlh anil eighteenth century 
nnbeliof b>' En^ti^h wntei^ such na Oudworth. liutlcr, and 
Faley, tsiu mltN^nitti^ly meet the wanta of tlit^ prvHeiit :ii;e, 
when the wir-9c o^net faith is 6tf)t<;cl by w new IcitniinK 
of nhich our fuLh^rs never i)re;imt. We shiill ivji»i(:e if thin 
tkHik iii funn'l worthy to mi^gtu^t lm«is of thought to thv future 
apolo^et^ and we are not V'ithont hope th^t it timy be 
Uuoi tim^l by him. For tht-f^e Ktwaym nre the work uf men 
who hftTO lived for yean*, in nome caecft for the beeit part 
of a lifeUme, in the aliao«pbcre of an RnglJi^li rnivcr*ity» aEid 
who therefore eannot be eltlier uncoiieeioue or regardlesa of the 

t«t>b)cmn wluch modem knowledge prcscnU to thcolo^atis. 
t ifl one of the rliief uili';iiit:kges of our Hcuili^inieiil nyKteni 
tlial the wtndcntof Theolony raeeUsin thefnnih inU^rconrtfe of 
a conuium life, wilh the Hfnileiit iif HisUirv aud IJlei-jLtui-e on 
the one hand unil the 'itndent of Nntnre on the otlier. In 
(-"amhnd^e m^ sharp line of demartotiun seiJumlcH aacnd from 
HHMjhir Iriiming ; Thetilog}' gWlly de^remU itito the artiia nf 
the 'rtudie&Z ami teams to rcgani all knowledge as aacrod 
anil jJl truth an of fi<>d. For theoli>giunr< who havp live*! in 
8aeh aiuTOUndiTL^ it ia inipoi^ble to i^iore objections ndacd by 
other hniache:^ of knowledKC, and no Ic^ft impossible to oHcr 
HQHWerH whJL-h have not flrHt aati^fied their own ititelkvtnul 
fkee<U It u Uaiune this votnme of F^-iaayy has ln^^ti written 
by men who hiive in c;very %tah^ ]uiw4ed throii^ti Mitch LnLinliig 
tJial it n>ay be exjjected to render eome real itdtiiatance to the 
OirifltiaJi ajiologit<t 

Rut ahdb we hope th»t our bcxik may not lie destitute of 
apoloeetic value, wc have not followed tlic methods of the 
fbrnial a^xihigy, i»»r hfis the defence of the Faith l>eeii onr 
primary aim. Our purpose b rather to bring certain <{uestione 
conne<:tc<l with ChriHtnUi belief into the liffht of modem know- 
lodgu imd to re^'iHler the rt'sidt-* of thin jirttceHH, whatever 
Ihey may be- A rt[Keiifcl rc»jf>onrtibility utlJw;hc« to tJiorto who 
arc calletl U\ Htmiy aial teach ihtsiihiuy under lite rihadow of a 
fTreat l.'uiren*lty. Tho Master of all Chrintian* hax promined 
to send to Hiri Church both Prophetrt and ricnl>eA : the luon of 
rigortaiK a<-tion and glowing 4|a'^-eh, who can tr^uth afrTwh tji 
their own trci*eration the grent loeaonft of Truth and Kijj:hto- 
ouMiiews and by rhyirne?« of vImidti foreeaftt l.fic wurk of the 
near future ; and the men of the cloister and the atudy, whose 


tnith the pcr&oncil CQitation tnuat over enter Ifti^elT, eepeci- 
ftlly irt it volmiie uf tlii-i kiiiil, Tlic* |kiir|Hihe ttf the ImjuV will 
have been gtuncii if tuken 9a a whole, it ib jud^ei] to have 8et 
forward what Ie- perlmfttt the moat iiuiHirtiUit work thttt lien 
before the theoiogj' of the twinitieth century ; if It hax 
helped to u:^tiim]late the new viewe of truth ati!i;;ecaled by 
dioiIltii kiiiiwleflge. wiMtDiit ^tacriftclTiK hti^ iiart iif tlit* t>nnii-* 
live iiiet^t^a^, ami to etute in U^rnit; adjipteil l<' the neeas of a 
new centui'y the trutli^ which the aiicietit (Church expt^Med 
iu dio^e which were afi)>ropHate t^^it^ own tiuie& 

The jMirtial HeUenimnp and Latinizing of Christian thought 
juiil ti'niiiiiology, which beg-ciu soon nft4ir tlie end nf the Apos- 
tolic acc^r ^^}' i^^^ have been without dan^^er to the Faith, but 
frw will now doubt thut valuable results hjive followeiL If we 
owe to thci^e pr'K'es^es certain accretionf* which do not harmo- 
nise with primitive sinipttcitv, o\\ the 4>thcr hand tfiey enriched 
the Cliri^^tian iS<icict> witli rnneTi that n|ijiealei.l Lj> the tlumght 
Itnd iinapnatioti of the centuries through wliJch it hful topi^^; 
nor would anv thouirhtftil 1>ehevei' at the present dny wdhugly 
abandon ilie be^t hoirlo<itu)« that the Ohnreh has recetveil from 
the (ircck East or the Latin West It would be faithlcB^ to 
doidit Mint the oiodernisinLi; of Tlienlogy, which secuiri to have 
bef^n. will upon the whole be* e<iually productive of good. 
Something of the rich Iteauty iif the Auctent presentment of 
the Faith may Jx> lost in the procees. and the period of 
tniiit^ition mu^t tiecetuarily l>e une of unrest Juid discomfort. 
But it needs no prophet t<i foresee tliat the time will eome 
when idt^Ettf whicli to thty are gtnuige an<l iinwelcoine will bo 
Been to poAF^c88 a beauty of their own, to be neceAsarj to 
the conipleteneH^ of truth, and to t>clongf no le^ than many 
whioh are lon^ familiar, to the common treasury of the 
Kingdom of Huiven. 

D. a SWETE. 

1. Th€ Chrit^ian Stwidpoint .... 

WILLIAM aTWNT>'GH.1M. D.D., FoUo* of Trinity 
College, Honoran- Fellow of Gonville anrf Cjitiin College, 
Haleun Lecturer [ 1 885), Honorary Oaiiuo iif Ely ; Pclluw of 
the Bnti«li Acotlomy ; Vicar of (JrcAt St yiory'i, Ctanhridxo- 

2. Tfie lieiiiff o/ fkiT), in ihr^ tight of Phymml 

Science 65 

laui and Student itt Vliihivjphy . tionvUie and Ciiius Colla^, 
HuiMau L&cturer (IWJIJ ; Keot<jr of Uockirold, NoHoUl 

3. 77te Being of OoD^ in the light of Phih^aojtki/ loi 

ALFRED CALDECOTT. D.D. lat* Fellow mid Dtaii 
of St John's CoU^^c, Prof'cseor of Moral and McqIaI Philo* 
•ophy in King'N C()Hage, London; Rector of Fating, 

4. Mans Origin^ and his phice in Xature - ui 

M.A, M.D.H Fellou' of Jewus CuLege, Uaiveraily Lecturer 
ill rhysic^ Auiiiropology, 

6. Sin, and the Xeed of Atoneme^U .... 

of Trinity College. 


idi Stibjtcti mid ConintnUorg 

fl. The liUa ^ Revflatimty in fhr light qf Modem 

KiwwUdtje arid Re^eareh . ,21$ 


of St John's College and H*Ad Master of Cliflin OUeg**, 
l&te Vic&r of Huchdale &iul Archiiefti^ori of Mani^h«st«r, 
llulBcitn Lcctincr (lfiS8) ', Canon of Woraentcr. 


7. Prayer, in relation to tke idea of Law . 268 

Vicar of All Hftllows BftrktuK by the Tr-wer, 

8. T%e spiritual afid hutorical evulenee/or MiradeB, soT 


Fellow and DeAci of Emntftnuel College, Warden of St 
AugTiatino's CoUu^ Cwitwbury. 

k The Pa'imiMem Vniue qf the Old Tentanient . 341 

liuuM*^ Hijlneuii EV>feaKnr of Diviiiit)'. 

10> Hu Oo»pels^ ill the light of historical critici^ni . 

QtiHum' Ccillpye. Hi.iin»rary FelK^w uf Cliriftl'* CullegH, and 
Normiau Trufeasur vi Oiviuity, Hulaean Lecturer (lyoo) i 
Bishop'Eloet of Ely, 

11, Christ in the Neio Testam^tii: the primitive 

ARTHUR JAMES MASON. D,D., Mwtor of Pom- 
broka Oillnge, Homelinie Fellow of l*riiiit.y C'ollo^nij latw 
Lttdy MarRarut ProfssAor of DiviuityaDd Fdbw »f Jwun 
Colitige, HuLouan Locturcr (189^); Canciu of Canterbury. 

Sui^ecls and ConiriinUors ziii 

12. Christ in the Church: the testimony of History . 469 

Fellow, Dean^ and AAaiBtaut Tutor of Jesua College, 
Hulaean Lecturer (1903); HoDorary Canon of PeterborouglL 

13. Christian doetrines arid their ethical signi- 

ficance 527 

Fellow and Dean of Pembroke College. 

14. The Christian Ideal and the Christian Hope 573 

Trinitj College, aometime Head Master of Harrow School ; 
late Dean of Gloucester, 

y^v i/wtpopbtjiiryj, rXarao. tv ovpofOK rpofrKwovfirrrj. 

"EjnrDm mu /t^ a^tfiro^M* Jcrji yV <>^ f*^" i^^itM ^^ cEnunu 
fivKuo ar. 

Olbheht op Aluakdbu. 



O. T. I, 

66 Cambridge Theological EsBays [n 

which may be studied at leisure elsewhere^ that the objecte 
which he coUectJvely calk Nature and treats as implying no 
subject because they are independent of the experience of 
any indiTidual subject, are really a foctor or constito^it <tf 
the collective experience of the race. They presuppose 
intercomniumcating humanity as their subject ; and Uiis 
subject may be seen to be merely the individual subject 
extending and enlarging the range of ite experience throng 
intersubjective intercoarse. 

ThuB it cannot be allowed to science, when the attempt Is 
made to extract naturalism out of it, that its worid of Nature 
is self-existent in tbe sense of being independent of onr 
experience and perhaps tbe ' cause ' of that experience: This 
is the thin end of the naturalistic wedge. It must be main- 
tained that such an assumption will not bear the test of 
pliilosophJG scrutiny : that, on the contrary, the * worid ' with 
which physical science occupies itself is simply one aide of 
human eiperiebce, and that it is the other side, after all, 
which is the primary-. 

So loDg as science, or rather the naturalism which seeks 
to identify itself with science and express its trend, builds 
apon faulty metaphysic and eschews epistemotogical reflec- 
tion, it will inevitably degenerate into materialism, llicre 
will thcD always and necessarily be a confiict between aciotce 
and religion ; and no widening of the region of scicDce will 
do away with it The reconciliDg element, it must here be 
strongly insisted, ia philosophical critjcism of scientific [wv- 
suppositions. Sir Oliver Lodge indeed will concede no sudi 
reconciling power to philosophy. He ccmdders phikiaD|Ay, 
in this re«pectf on a par with poetry. '' By aid of philosophy, 
or by aid of poetry, a great deal can be accompli^ed" But 
this is not science. "It is a guess, an intuition — an inspira^ 
tion perhaps — but it is not a link In a chain of assured and 
reasoned knowledge ; it can no more be clearly formulated in 
words, or clearly apprehended in thought, than can any of 
the high and lofty conceptions of religion.... It is no solution 

* Ward, NtUuraiitm and Affno$tici*m, 1889, Vol. ir P*rt it. 


[iXr laMe talk, on evory <lny t*)|>if», brin^te out the 
ciirtontfllflttvii<.vkf llmt are t** tie Ibund suimiig Imiunii Ijcings. 
Jt oflVra a field where bright iiitelUgeDce come« to the front, by 
ociitttitrw »r jM'ni'ptiitii, Ijy ulcrtTit-Kv In riintrilmtlitg to the 
coniitH>i> thiiught ot thc^ {mtiipiLii)'. hui\ by mtrialiK^w in tiinitii^ 
tlir Htrrain iTiLii Irivli cliaiiiteli^ ^lit^ii tlj«^i'v h^ dniigur tliat it 
will pfagTkaic Kccnne^^ of intellect fkiii ^^[LiiiiaULy of niHuncr 
show iiti tikc ."iiirfurc, a:h\ give u. clmi'in tf> Uilk, up<»n wliatuvt^r 
anbjoct it muy turn ; but other iwreonal qtmlitic^ may 
obMtriict rather thsui illuminate the flow ot eonver«aliua 
Intitiiikte fricurU !mv** Aa nmcli in eo[imt<jn tfuil they ciiii 
ipeak ^eely. without fc&r of giving offence : while tliose 
who riii^L iheJiiHelven ui nn unrntigeiiial atJniwplu-^v fet'l the 
dnty of cjii.'n:i*ing Fioiiic *'(»nHctour< Huif-rcprepwion- Tlio Tury 
and the Kadiai! have iiabituatcd thcniaolvca l^ look at inrlitical 
&%ir« friini iHH'crcMit pciint-H of viow ; cjirh intcrpretrt the 
ercntfi of the ility fi'oni hjjii own etaiidpoiut. and caoii tiuds in 
them a confirmation of tlie opiniong he hua always held. 
Fniitfiil riiMri)v>ioii <if alKtirv uf dtate Ix'tw^x'n twn thomiigh^ 
giuii^ frtirxl&an* In almost impossible ; they abhor each other's 
j>riiictj>Ux 'I'l'l deny i-ui-h other** fuL'tH- Tlieit' S» no eoniiium 
grotiiid ItetwoLii thriii, JUid inieonviitdng iirgnnicnt i)4 only 
toil apt U) degentimle into mere wnuigUng- Nor it* it only 
with rcApect to politkid matti^r» that 1% man fecli^ it prudent 
to Iw ("nrefid ^rliat he §ayH among strangers. Eu rcgai'd to 
ouuiy topics of art, or of religimi, one pet^jn-spuuksarirl liiinkA 
on otich a wholly diftbrent platic from that which othent 
ooctipy, that honest attempla to comprehend the opinion that 
IK ezprvMHCfl nre fiiilod : the}' otdy toad to myHtifieatiitit. Tlie 



Cambridge Theologieal Hsm^a 


htinifui mind rccoih from the merely' iiictimprchciiBLbk, ^\n^^ 
U not always patient enou^-h t« be at paiim to try to reach 
tlj<' [ilHtftMin cif tlujse vlut *eein lo he oiUtitiosi. Not a 
little education i^ tieedcd to onnbk* u man ti> interchange 
lltoii^lit ofi hII [iiwsilrV Miil»jt<cfi4 of buumii iriti!ra<L, with iimny 
Kort»s nnd ron<lit(OTw itf men, 'nieT*^ mtJKt 1m- M^muL" liimi of 
common nndtrstandin^. or intelligent diseusAion i8 iiupcisHiblc : 
no advance can he made tr>wardfl a^-eeintTit iinle^ one at 
If^Lst of tile diKpntantH iit pri<i>ared to trj to Ciimprchcnd tlic 
other'fi point of view-. 


1. There are of conrae miljjecU of dWawinn in KTipird t*) 
which it is rarely neee««i.ry to Hike miieli Jiec*mii?. of dilferenl 
puinl^ 4if view ; fur praulieal pnrpiu^en we niir all im t,he puuiic 
fltand}x>int, when vrc arc conetderhig the objeele of scEise- 
[►creeptioii in their rolatione« to each other, Tlit- iiuentimw «*« 
Ui tfie itltiinitt^' jui»dj[*ii^ i>f phvflieul phenomena* or nt^ to their 
precise relatione with the hinnan mind, mbe problems thnt 
many of u* are ruiidy Ut loave on f>uc sidtr ; ninei* wc do not 
see that they hnvc any utilitarian beaHnjj, Thiwe who are 
content to li-y U> nnderHtand Nutnn-, hi ordttr that ihev may 
nipikt^ tin" iiicmt of hirr mid control her i"c?*oorecw fi»r hnnian 
pnrIxv^l■^ U^v] ihuL there Ls nir notrd to jiistify tlit<h' [ifjsiliiiii. 
They nre hiokini: at the worhJ r^timdily iind i^yrit'eniatically* aa 
all cinliaed men take H n?ieoii»ieionH|y in every act of daily 
life. To find an i>xeeption, we niUf*l fift to tin* fetichism of 
primttivo n»au. which redno4>» nattin' to ii chao« of wpriciotia 
iikfluencefi ; this in a ditf'erent standpoint, wholly nt vuriance 
wrih onr own : hni we «in Inu'*^ rhe MU'px hy which, with 
iwlvancinjD: knowknlgi^ men h»ve di*cai-de<l it, and may thiw 
find additional rm^on for preferring nnr own jxant of 
view. The ccjncepti«n of the phymeal world, a** an onlcrly 
whok\ ipvw UM Ik ^tifiicient Jawia lor common action : tlioao 
who are merely doini; the biieinei^ r>f life, and tho^e whii arc 
pnmuin^ hiTeMtlpitionv^ find eunimon ground from which to 
gnrvey the Icnowk^dgi* ue^iuireit in the pa^» and to coordinate 
their new impre*ftion*L I^II^nce« af coona* then.* are, dne 



l} The Chruiian Sitmdpoint i 

to Ui6 idioejTLCiraaieg r>f particular iTidividtiftlft : tlie beiiaefl do 
iwt Eigrct^ in tito lu'ciii^tty av ohametor of their iX'p<trtA' ; 
colour blindiieaa vitlHtes *ome t>bservatioiisij and iii«r« eare- 
]eii6int»f4 inHki.4t iitliurK witrlJiU^Hx. Rut it iniiy nfU'ii h<; piMiiihIo 
to HCconnt, or Hi tiny nit4" u> nll*iw fi>r rnich flivor^^TJces ; 
there K (>ii tbt- whole, uue Htaiitlar i, in tliv IxmI,> of knuvi leilfci; 
about p)iyi^cnJ plkcDomcTUi, to which appeal can he luadc, 
nnco it Is a iriWtml tliut all arc rf.^afl> U* iuTt;|)t. Not- in it 
merely thiit there in » common conecptrioit in which ull njirree, — 
a dream t}iat all tlr-earu at oiic<t ; ibey reo4>L<|]iKo that thi^ 
jsywtvm c>f Tmttir<; U fv^*/, hivqii>ie of the liniitiiti'ini^ it pbeea 
on tbo operatioD of human wills; mid they £eei tJmt their 
kiiciwlod^ \*i ^ouintr hi <vrlnirily, »lh thdr Idi^Hw ennto hito 
ckmer ciirrt'^iKtudciice with that which coiitTiiork !«eru4* i-ei^trdM 
UK ac^ttial EacL Tlie jHimiliiHty of fcrifyiiig our im[>r(v«ioTiK» 
coustantly or at mtntcd fntermK mid of fitting thcMi i[ito a 
coherent whole, ixrtnlcrM our empirical kiiowleflge mi reliable 
thnt we do not newl tn tiike i*erloiw aeeoiiiit of sueh dittcrcnt 
points of view ha we may find amoni> priuiitive men, <»r in 
OJECeptiotuil iten^on^ 

3l When we tiini to another clasw of pheiiontunrL and 
consider the relationw U't^^"eeii mnTi amd man, ihe variety of 
0[dnlaiiM <*t|ireMied au<l the divi<rHlty <irthe KtJimlp'iint'tud(tpted 
by iliflVrretit jirople Inx^unc ritoAtxUirtlrTg. At* Alan Brwik put 
it U\ I>avid Raiftmr, ''I have orteii olM.M'vv?d that yon Ijiiw- 
count rj' bodice have no clear idwiof what** right and wrong*." 
The conscience Accnia to be capable of huc!i Hti-ange vaKitriift ; 
and there is alwavn an interert in discovering at wliat preeiee 
point HcnifinluUH pernonM will draw the Ijncf, Xor im there 
any common «tandnrd to which tip|K'al can be made. Anion^' 
«fni-pn)iCn»*ilvi' [K*ojil<'?* till" l.rarlhion?t of ri^ht and wnrtig 
come u> 1m.- i-mlHtilit'd In i-iiHtoinH :ind iri^titiitiiiiit<j ; r.hei'e is a 
l^KJy nf |inu"T.ree and olKfrvnnci? which is right in all ihr 
relations of tift.\ auil the neglect of which \v^ wrong. The 
ca^te H^'T^tem of the; Tlindnr< ^ivtu external ^xpreminn to the 
cooeeption of duty : but, since the eleec of (he Middle A^a. 

* (.V^imi^iirc Uiu wiiinnonij as Ui n fiuik Nature^ '£& t^\tU!Ki\tor, 190*. 


<^amhridrf<: T/it'ottrgira/ KjiftaffA 


tlicrc hiw br«u na such ux^ncmlly rocojcfnucd external ntotidftrd 
amoiiK W<^Uirn imoplen. The pi-eU^iitiioriA af the Church to 
proimuncc (Uithiritntivcly cm riirht rmd wroii^ in every vphi^rc 
of conduct aro no loikj^or onforceJ ; the pririlcjjce of tho 
Hi^od uf the Suite, a« the source of taw and rij;hi, were set 
nt nought ill the Beveiiteenth cmtiirv. and tho cliiiin of vvory 
umti Ui rto tliJit which m right tii hin own even Ia tn^utecl with 

Thm state of alfmi'H liaa led to the diHitnon of doubt na 
U> Uic reality of mtinil diMtiiiclioim and rehitionMhipct ; tht^v 
do not 8ccm to bo given, ua something which our wllle 
oannot (ri)]ioHe : thoy an>, on the other h&nd, to a very 
considerable extent affected hy t)it? individual dcciHioiu It 
ifl true that the duliefl of a child to a parent ai* ihniHt 
ti|ion every otic, l}iit it n^tM will) liiiiiHelf whether' lie 
Mhall luirlrrlake thopie of a hu^bitriH. » father, or a citi^^c^n ; 
he ULU n.*iiiHin imt^iile Miiiiii hII NoI oidy in hi" free Ui 
cnule these moral ^Gflpon8ibilitic^ but mutty humFin relation- 
ehipa api»car to have been conj^titutcJ by incUviduaL wiUs, 
The doctrine that the Stat« in tlie creation of tlione who u^ree 
to plaee thcniuclvc^ nnd their pn)pi'rty uinler tiic prot<.*cti"ti 
of a eoniiQon body, and to 'livest themBelvea of individual 
nghU, removes the whole ro;dni of \in\ frnm a InikU of rem- 
trolling diity^ and rears it instead on common uxfjedicncy 
Rud itidjvif)ua1 cot»sent to abtdrt liy a ronveiition. Tlie whtdt? 
fabi'ie of right liecoincA unreal, and the dti^tinetioii between 
gftitd And bml i» renflvred unc<jrtaiti, ftiiice there ifl no re* 
cogiii^ed /orwm extrrmtm to whi^^h rippoal may be made, or 
from which wc c^lii obtain clear and diKtinct guidaneo ae to 
our conduct towards oTie another. Wa habituaUy cuImH that 
& man^ of whose action wo dimipprove, may be right from hia 
own ^wiint uf view. 

The dilh-rrTice« tu the eihicJtl i^Uuidpoiiit laken by diflcnnit 
individrntln art' m) ^vvttt that the iiicr*.' dehcrtptiint of actual 
moral i^nikditionH nuit<t lie in'^Uy alfetied by tliem. Tlie 
Americat] i^ full of pity for the lot of the women of India, 
tounurcd ill zenanas and left without education — Uioui^h 
powerful PenPoint] itiett huve beon devoh»pi,tl and have mudo 

TV Chf^ian SlatidpoiM 

themiitelveA fete uiiderthese diaabilitioi- The Hindu would view [Hisithr htiiTtir the preferein-e uf tlio Aun^rinin wnniHii 
for ail imfcttertd life : aiid bin tttj^ni^ sense ijf diMt|i|jnivtil 
would ricTrw^Lrily iMlniir niiy iittriuipt Ut lU^ncribe tlit; airmit 
morality of the Linitcd States. 

Etuii if we du »ot take ^uch extreme iiiatances tt8 the ^If 
botwwn tho civili*7Jitio!i« (»f the Kswt mid <)f the Wei*l» w** find 
U)ftt theivare HtrikiiL|r<li0eronce>< between men bn.iU|;ht up in 
the ifaine country^ and under t}i« influence of Oirit^tian teucli- 
tng. lliry mny dioriHlt vi.-r} dittVrent ideals or what "Uglit to 
In*, and tna^ lit? hrouglit hiki diametra<Ml o|i[HiBitiiiti civer 
practical lshucw. Iliere are tliuMe- fur whom the individual 
b CTerythinif, artd freedum fur imlivitiual E!«1f-dL-vi;1t>|i]iient la 
CIWBntiol to tlic ix'ali^in^ of their aiins. There arc otiicns 
who rc^^ard the InAtitudona which hold aociety toffethor, 
whidi per^wtnate the race iind form the ponwiml chcmieUT, 
ts of parani<>unt imf>ortancc4 kc> that any individual 8aci'itice 
may be rlfi[ht)>' demanded for tlie xake of maintaining theoL 
71ii>i M thj* trn'ronc'ilalilr ej>ritrH<licti(ir tliat iindrrlie>i all 
conflicting vjl'Wh on t-iK^iul i|nc7lioiiH. 'Die vanetiefi ef leni- 
penunenl, nr u|ibrh^^n]f, iir whatever eW it may la? that 
determines a nianV attitude towards the constituti^d order, 
ftre flindamental in rLltoi^tint; liii^ [Ktint i>f view on nil i|ijet<tii>nfl 
9f human relattnm^hipc^ ; they Me>t:-t hi^ jud)£eiiient en every- 
thing connecttxl witli the fiunih% tho Ch[ux?li, or the State; 
Thcfe bpL mi little a^ement on thu funduntentid i^nes, tlmt 
thero ifl very little eomrnoii ^(lunrl «n which tiiich (|ncAtioTm 
H> (Jre moral eiJiitaiLioii of the ycMitiK will ta* even intelligently 
di>*€ii**^-il nphdoii* on muttrrx of detail of every hitid are 
adcctcd by the point of view from whkli tlie topic ia con- 

S» Whilcthodifl'crencoBof standpoint givt>ri80 to BO much 
eonftxsion in regard to the relutionet vf nukti Ut man, we ean 
hanlly expet't that tliey should bo unimportant wht^i wo »re 
considering the r'elutioiiri ef man to the Ultimate Power lu 
the Uinversft The prohleinif arp m tJ?rTibiy eomplet ; tlwy 
wem to involve efemeiitK in re^inl to whluh there ib no hope 
of reaching a definif4- deciHuni. Tlie two poles of the relation- 


Caiiihriflf/^ ThfoloffitHtl fS/twiy^ 


Hhj|) Hre Hlikt* iiiniruUibli?; atiiHiitK all thu contnidictioiis In 
hiH dlfipositioji and clmractcr. how r^hall vc siiininikri^t^ tKo 
nature ^>f man ^ Are all men vikdnwod with rtiniilar facuitkii, 
l>ut in viir>ine d<!p-cws or urc there dittliciico** of kJiiJ which 
domicilii] Btfiinj race*i to occupy a lower level t \ti ouch |fC'ni»Ji 
iiumortiil, or dovM dofitli involve the utter diHUitogralion of 
Ihcf tnilividual lift? m aL iU aspects f Ami whtni we lliid it hi* 
difficult to attahi to kituwleft^e of ourwlvai* how MJ^all wc 
%urc xhi^ LMtiniHfc* INiwt-r in thn llniwn^ff Our rj(|>iu'iLj 
for tliinkiii^ lUjen mit niii^i; mi fjir : wt- i-Hiiriot ttill uhat it ii 
ire arc groping after. AVjiJIr tavU of the [H^L-Hof thcrclntion- 
ebip is ao liLtle knirwu, we cnn hitnily ex[>ei:t to he nuccettoful 
in invcstf^iting the i^elatiouM which Hub^ist l>ctwecn tikcm. 
WJUIc tJiorL' iai tvt nuich ainhirtion luul itnrLrrilitv m ro^fard to 
qao«tioTw of uthic^ It may hcciu doubtTuI whether tt i^ worth 
vridlc to attempt U* nu^i? tlie deeper probleiim wliitrh rcliffiou 
prowitbt. The prt.>hloiu8 of ethicf^ arc firt'ced U|xni oiii' alton- 
tiini b}~ the pracUcHl neeeA^ity ofUving amoiiff our felloW'ineii ; 
we niiiT«l Ite i»ii MiiMK' mirt. of leniix with thriii, unit Ml' have In 
deride how wc will treat thriii. and h^iw we will Mihmit to be 
treated om<HeLve». But tht;re iti no ciudi obviuun and pi^eAfling 
iicoortHitv ilk rekT^rd to tht i**ucfl niijwil Ijv Tht-iiliiicy : the mcist 
<"tin«>ry oljwrvation ehows tbat niaiiy men arc accuntonic4 to 
treat thiMe eoiiMidoratioiw t\fi rui r^innt^; thiit rlu^y nuvd only 
be token into account very occnAionally. if at all ; and It \» 
«A«y to AAfiiime an enlhuly ucixativv uilUudc i4>wHriU n*li^oii, 
Miuv it HtHmiH Ni ttc-- lucking in reality when it i1ne>« not 1>riiig 
pKAHure 10 liear n|Min the wEIl. 


1. Reaaona may readily bo itdduciKl in defmiei^ of this 
IMj^ltve ]Hii(ithin ; iio^leil. of rHl^ioti i^oemn to be not only 
CZCUKvhle. Ijiit conimcTidabIc, or at Ica^t jiiHLilhtbltr. (nmi ant) 
or other of three different |ioii)td of view. 

All reli^iitUH belief aikd ijnuttitv ^ecin bi be empty and 
vftin to tbkmii who M.^e no rca;4on to r^ujyjHMc tlmt Hivvo ttru or 

The Vhri^ian StajulpoitU 


can \k tuty diTcrX rc\i%tunw iK-twueii iu»n and tbc ITUuimtc 
l^mcr in the L'liivcriK^H Maiir of ;bc ptioiiumcua of hunuin 
life C4kii 1>e 1*31 plat tioil by plivnicnl coiKlUioiin of c!itn»U- UTid 
«oiJ, while othciv viiu W auL^umtod for by euch intluoiiocM tie 
suHociation i>r heredity, Aa wt niuUyMi? uiir own (H^nduct in 
tlio inixt, (»r l(M)k IdivIc iui lIui hiMtnry of tho race, it ^vviui^ w 
if mj much wa>i oJlk.-tL-(l bj lunU^Hal siti-rriUTiilii]^'^, ihut n 
tiLtle imire iitvi^tij^iifiiiTi tiinv m-rvi? I,4> hIiiiu Uiiit tin- n-Jthluiil 
p}kcii4»inctut nrc determined in th^ same ffuihion* mid that tiie 
fitudy of muii'e I'clatioiis to the matcml uiiivonie vfiW ;five 
au exliatiptive account of hi^ lift-hlHttirv, (mmI, proc^uiit, and 
ftitOTtt. Muii'it ^ri^iLL<i4t ^cKid wonUL Ukhi cnr^ii^t iii cxfuniuiiig 
bi(^ (*nvtrj>inncitt, M\d HtiidyiTi|j; the cIrcmiiHtaiieeA of hiA lot, 
ivitli the viuw of niodifyiiLj^ llicnif ho fiir m mtiy ]h.\ iu 
iJtv iitLcrc^L of ttu? ripej^iv8. Thin tttaiidjioint \'^ nmtei'ialwtic, 
hiiL not athdHtir : il di>»( imi. di'oy thi^ cxtHtciice nf 411 UILl- 
mate IViWcr \u the L'iiivci>c. but it rqjectrt I'elj^ioii* ^iid heiiec 
it 16 ill coriHiet with coiiuuon couviLlioun an to thu* nature and 
difniitv of niun. Mnit hv« bt^^eik ikiined Oi^ n ivh^cfifUH animal ; 
and if he in nterely an aiuiual dctcTiiuiied by pbyHJoal environ- 
Dieiit, there iw txo nwini either ktr reJiKion, or tin- t\nH^' «idc« 
of culture wlilch are his jfreate«t aehleveuient The whole 
crmtivi* fi>rci', which hiu ft^und i^xpro^Mion in nit luid liUM'aiiii'e 
and civiliHi^d inrititiitienu, Im a prtite^t HguinHb t]ii>^ ilirctriTie. 
Mah'm i^JUHrioimtkt'iv of bii4 omd ]M?rHonal identit^^ and jHrrfturud 
character K^tiel^ a^aiimt the attempt to Interpret Mm hm the 
mere pr<Hiuct of hin Kiirnfniidin^ We nia> even eonie to 
«ce that tfic bo8l clue ti>r belphkc u« to folK>w the devchii^ 
mcot of the human rA4.v in to l>e fuuiid in thet^e re^idutd 
l^heiionien^t, anil that neither Ihc Monree of initiative nor thv 
Aetual eoutv^ of pr()|;!^<eaf< i^ really e^cjdicable fi^om the tnate* 
rii«li«tie jHiiiit of viirw, 

2. ITiere i« another view of the Ultimate Power In the 
TJtdverxe, which lravii« Af-o|N.' for iidniimtiEin and even for 
adovHtioii ; but it htill fails, aw c<aTipU'tel> aw iuat4:riali«m doc*, 
to rc^:oiaii'<e the liiirnity <'i huuinn |>t*rsoi«Llit.y, and [Lhua 
prc0cnte H nccntivc attitude towarda religion. The various 
fonm of Panthetr^m " find the idtiinate nud dominant idea in 


Cambridge TTicotoffical E9»ay» 


some (iivhie Myatcry of the Universe, in tbo «cn«e of Beuuty 
micL i'i>wor "f NatiJn,\ '\\\ Uio iiimit-iiwity of the sum of Life anJ 
Matter, it may be in a pioue truet Iti th^ i^cnoral good of 
all tiling, \y*i tlie tilings Ikunian and moral, or be llicy 
physicjtl, dinl H^leoIl^;clolls^" B;U nuch Idiiala int? Uhi 5ir off 
HiLtl vHgu^ : they give us no tuDtomtiUi mrdm to nerve tM 
|in>idp]t'>> cit')ii;r fur tlioEiglit alHmt iiiii'nelvcfif or itn giiiilt^ fijr 
action'. It 13. 0,9 Ml' Frederic Hnrri«>n stij-g. 'Hbe original 
Wot on every form of phiIoBoi>ltic puTithcidiu wiicii tried m 
It Iwwii* nf rclipon, or th*:nxjt iduiiof our livt'cy, that it jiimbk<9t 
up the moi'^X the imnioml, the ikoii human fiikd the anti- 
humiui world; the liuimated. iind the tniinumite ; cnielt}', 
filth, horror^ wiv^\ deuth : miflenng an<l nctcry ; sympfttliy 
and iiiKeiiMibility. The dimliHiii ljt-twt-<--ii morul beiii^ and 
mntrriJil betti^ ie lui idd im the; roiiH-icncc of nmii. It i« iin- 
|NH(Kiblir Ui nflki^t^ (he HnlA^oTiintit liet^i-eti Uiein ; Llit'lr di(*]>a- 
ratc natui'o in a coDscquciicc of the laws of thought and the 
6breM of the limiii and the heart No force can amalgamato 
in tim? jdtn tiimibd^icH, 0<irthfimkcf4, inf<!ixUltar s|hlvc, pe^ti- 
lonwe, brotherly lovo, uiiMcltiah eiierfij', pfUJericts h'i|>e, tnist, 
and greed. No ab^gle conception at all can ever iKsae out of 
such u medley ; and luiy ide^ tliat \h wide e^viugh tii ri.^lat^^ Uy 
dje whole mnrit lie a mt^rv illiu of an idea^ and oiic^ an Uttie 
in eontju^ with the wi^rkinga of the lienrt. or the niWn of 
Hociety aa the nndtilatory theory of Light or the Muhic of the 

^''JYy any one of theeo Hubbmitica in any of the criH^ of 

life .\ hninan hi^irt iit wnin^ with \mt\y di*;<pair, reiiioriie; 

u pari^nt niitehcs the ehilti of his old uffo sinking inb' vice 
mid crime ; a thinker^ an iurentor, a worker, breakj^ dowii 
with u«l Hnd unrecpdl4.-d ho|>e, and i<t^*M ibe laTxxn- of a life 
ending in fiLdtire and jwHTiry ; a widow is eniHhcd by the hwa 
of her huAl>and, and the dmLihitSnn of ibdr children; die 
poor see their live** ;n'^mnd i>nt f>f them by iippr^Mtuirs. without 
merey, jualiee, or hojK'. Uo, then, with the iros|K'l of pnn- 
theism to the fatherleKA and the widow, and eoiibole tbem 

^ F. Unrriioiu PanlAfUtn wid Cosmic BmciS^n^ ^ 

■ Oamparc tti« orittc-laii] liy Mtdhv ilti Uinm, <B»rrfi infdiUt, t inixii. 

The Cliri*lian StmidpobU 


li} f-ilkiiig "f Hiiriwlis "i" '!"' iitiivrrMHl t^nhyr : U>II the hpjirt- 
brukcu ulH>ut tliJ? |)ermijlAti<>iiH of t^iirr^y ; Hj<t ru^li t>muL 
ti) remenilkfr the ^iitiii (?f nil thlngr^ riMf1 f4> liAti^n to the tcitch- 
in*: of the Aiiinm Muiidi ; explniii to tJm delwuitheo, the 
glnttofi. and the v\\*niLi tlic Divine Ewcncc pcrnicTLtinur vM 
thint^ Biid crmsii],^ all thtn^— iiicludJut: hi^ i>ailiciihir vice, 
hifl piui£ion&. hiu Uietee, tiiM fftiikt lUkd liiii limt- And when 
Mocittl p(i»;ionB r^e their blackest !uid tike demon of anarchy 
b gnadUng iia fUtig^ at the d(*morL of dexixttic ernohyf Ktep 
forward with the relijfion nf Hweetnc-ss and light, and try if 
Actr-culture, ao cxi|tU4it«Ty mm\^ hj Guethn and liw fuilDwen*, 
will not hcuE the ttirc!al dHiriitni^" 

^ 'i*bc9c forma of dcfluUc o]>EKiAilion tu ciirrotit religioim 
bulit'frf tnny l>e congenial to uioik who have €ith<sr an int^iiBO 
Qnt}iuAia«in for eiii|>ineal tnve^ti^tion, orn stron^^ly dv>x*lcijM«d 
artiv^lic tt-niperamont. Hf ihtwc whu uri* lacking; in thei^e 
qnidities. many appear ^uiiiHtied to accept the igiioraTiee to 
whirh we »<i?<-ii] Ui 1ie cnndeotned aA hiBvir^ible, anrl »» hcmit^ 
thing against which it i^ uselesH to rcbeL Whatever human 
relhtjuiiii with the IHtiuiate Power in the Universe may ho, 
•0 lon^ A0 we ennnot eompreheud them, they can hnvc no 
boarin(( on our livo** ; reli^on seems only to offer a field for 
idle Apcctilutitrn, and in iio for \\& it diverts eiier^o' from 
praetieal eflbrt it msy appear positively muchievous. In 
landfl wh«re power aiwl wealth are in the hands of tiie clergy, 
thr fiM-litryc thai tht-He rcHimreeii^ nru Ma8f«d will easily breed 
an aiLtj-clorica] sjitrit . in any cumin unities whrre religioki i« 
Ti^nnJN it«( very arttvity may l>e irritating and o^eik^ive, 
and call forth a reaction that is consciously an ti -Christian 
In proteHt t^raifiHt mi&<lireet«d enei^, A)Cik4>^ticism may be 
positively h*wtile» or on the otlier hand it may be warmly 
HTnipHthetic with dofltiite religiuTiM lM?llefs, and admire thu 
fait}) in whieh it doefl not pai'ticipate. Mr Herlx'rt Spencer h 
o}mn<»Ti NK X*^ the impiissibility nf atlHiiting to roligictun knuw- 
ledgc appears to liave leTnained unmodilied. but he had 
latterly tiaw w;ne«e of antagoabui tti thor^e ^vho chenshcd 
beliefs which seemed to him t<» be vaiup " I have amic more 

^ K Uftrrinun, r>p. dt. \6. 


CanAridge Theological B&mi/» 

nnd rntre U* look cnlinly iki fonuA of n^ti^^nts Wlicf, tu whk'h 
J hn'% ill ^^arlKr daya, a proiioiinci^ fivcr^ioa^^^I^ri^dlv. how- 
«Ter, if not cliiufly, tliiF* cliriii;c<^ uf rucliiiju^ toward ivli^iubi 
cree<I» and iheir ^iHtainin^' institution 4 ha8 rc^^ulttd from 
ft d«epiniing ronvk-dun Huit flu- Jiiilit^rt* («M^U]n*"<l h\- Oiem i-an 
never become an iinlil]c(] F«phi.^it% but that thf^ro iiinst citul.iniu.^ 
Id arifH' nfivp^b tlit? sruiLt ijiit'^ttuiin I'lmtrtniiiig i^ureeKeo and 
HUTTx/iijidin^ ihiii^ ; m\d th«l, if not pi.witivc jiTistt'cn^j dicn 
infKida of cotii4cioutinc^Fi eitiiiidiii^ in \>\hn:e of Txxitivo anerwcj^ 
must ever retnnin.,, lU^ll^ioiL^ creodR, which in one way or 
another occupy Xlw ephei'e tliut material inter pre t&i ion seeks 
to occupy i\m\ tiiilx the inon* the nu»re it aeeloii ] have c^>n1e 
to regnrd with a «ymp5»ti»y bused on coinmtinTty of need; 
fevbufjT that diw«?Tit from thfiii riisiilU from hiM-biltty Ut aiTt^pt 
tlxr Mdutioni^ oflvred, jinncf] with th<; wiiih that >ii>1iitii)nM 
4.^mld lie founilV When it in mice ivcogniNed Uuit ndiKi""! 
tAkc:«A|>cnnfLncnt place in human Uioi])eht,ELn<l haan pructical 
bearing on human lifc, the phenomena of religion can no 
hiniTer Ihj regnrded aft merely fntil© ; they becomi- 11 lo^^itimatc 
object of linniun f^tudy, 'I'he fiict that S'ltnu natures arc in- 
««nAlbIe to thi4 iuflnencie^ la not a jufltificatloii for waiving 
iiMtlo tUl* T-eli>^oiiT4 roaj«etoii4rie«a, and it^ ri?|KirU nn the re- 
LaliiJhh betneen ttot] miil man : if ne do ntit discaril religion 
alti>getht?i\ we eavi gi) a step fiiii-lier ^nd ciiiiHt<It*r t\\r. [toitilfl 
of %~k-w fnini vrhtdi tite eoTiteiiLM »f the relitpoiit oiiiiu^iotimieHe 
may be most fruitfully fttaditxL 

1. ^tudetitfi of the relitfloufl oont^'iouHner*^ arc inclintxl 
at firnt fiight Ut aw!umy that the phcnoriieTHL wre on the eanio 
pTane nti all other hunianilies^ and that they may 1h> ftatix' 
fiuiorily iT)ve>-'Uiriu<^l fmm the >;jum> mtAndiKihit and by the 
same methods. Reli^j^oiis opinion has found expreflAl<ui En 
theolo^icHl dorJrine , n-llKhm!" fi?t*liiij^ in fcuT<*rJ art The 
canons of cnticinm which can be applied Ui either brunchca 

The Chri^ian Standpoint 

of literature, the aorutinv which t&n 1>o brought U> hcB,T 
041 xhv hwUrry of other iiiHtitittioTiA, un^ u^iuh iit huinl for 
•mmimiig Jhr mngiii niiH ch»mct^r niwl growth of rclii^on ; 
It, U Lrt^tM an A 1mm1v of nplriUmH. on whirh wt* Itriiij^'' our 
miiiiTM til Ix'nr, Tlwrc art*, }iov,'rvK.*r, nmny nic" wlio fire 
miabltf to adopt thin mental attitude ; t» tlietii rtOi^ion 'm 
not an nflhir of other pt-iiplci^ opinum^H but ii iwi-somil am- 
virli<>n of thtir own. They arc unable U> mainUiiii aii attitude 
of ocndcinic^ nJitofiic^ri, but can only view tho reliKi^'Ut^ twJtvtit 
ibud pRictici*a of others in the* li(^ht of thotr c^wll convicttone. 
Thi- (tilli;*i-enco in the i^tandpoifn of ont- mun, who <iin take 
a di<pR8ei>»fi9Lt(' HurvL\ of rL'ti^cm from iho otilflido, aniJ of 
another, to whom ccrtnin religions Ix-li^'fs ait.' a niattx::!' of 
pentonal oonriction, b fiitidnmcntal ; though the two ilifitinct 
habits of iJiiiikJutf may bo blended iii variouH proixn-liotifl. It 
iM not ciiMv for iinyone, however much he tries, U> lay Hi^idc 
all FjeKotLal prch lection ami look at di^piitetl que^tiour^ with 
a Kiiigle-minded iiiK-llectnal inti'reat. Atili[!iith)otf niuy dixtort 
the powers of i>}jH<-rvn|,ion, and Ayio|mthy will riTtjiinly adijct 
thi? nmuuer oreiptvKiioii aitid jnil^enit-nt ; the <lvi'ini<j|i?< <if* 
cntjml fjwtilty may \it olmriirwl Ijy a cloud of ^mtimcnt. 
Still the two wavH of [o-ikkiti^ at reh'gion are I'eally dif^tinct: 
iml typkul t);cainple» *>f e^icli hnhit <if mind may W ipiotod 
U illu^mtaons which wrvo to mnrk the contraet. The r^ 
UflJoQft coutrovenies of bygone da>B are not to Iht lightly 
dimiwcHl ax mc^rc* pL*daiitHe«i am! rLitllition; fi^r theMc ^litf- 
cowlona have an abiding ititi*re«t in ho fiir aM they bring into 
ckfu- rrlii'f the pjirttoiUr |Hiinl< of viuw whirh vrojt ^ifloptnl 
by thir (liKputarit« i>u vithcr nidcn hi thw w;iy the futmphlet 
lit«q:aturu of tlie end of the sevenioenth and liegiiiDing of tlie 
eighteenth century niarkA an inijH^rTjint rpculi- The claim 
of tlie iit<hvLdual reason to pronounce definitely on all pohitfi 
of relixion wa* strongly ai^erted by the l)eiflt*» and st*i.-mH to 
havi^ lieeii vm' g4?Twnil!y aeoept**<l l)y llu'ir opjxment^ : in 
the trvictii ot Uiat time we may find ai] excellOTtt field for 
ntudving the chnnte1«*riKtie featunv of thi« habit, of mhid, — 
%\ji it nsis, and a* it survivt-a 

Hationaliftin in religious thought wun not by any meana 


Cmiibrulge. Thmlo(fiml S^mr/s 

ui isolated phenomenon in the at^vcntocnth ccntUTT. for it 
wu oloKoty cubTiccted with the ourrciit phi]<>tii>|>h>. Tt [» 
safficipTit for our purp<»M.\ h4)W('v**r, to regard it aw n pro^Jtict 
which omer^d from the oxl^enciett of theala^cal polemics. 
The great «tru^le of tht<ftiiLtiH.'iith<^tiUii'V rt-9MlU<d in plueiiig 
tJii> Bible Hiid tfie (*hiirrh in iip[iaT'':;nt oppiWtioTi. an the 
«iipi-ririe ilrpuHiUiries vf Divinu Irutli on eitrth. C}iiUingt«~i>rlh, 
t(i w}LonL the qiicatiun wiw mii'^ of deep inn^onal intercaU cd- 
doixvourofl to liofinc the poftitioii ho finally r^Jiichcd in opiKH 
Bjtion t4> the KoniauiHt^ IK' }w\d thcit no livinti; iiifofliblo 
l^ide wae need(?id, «ineo Univt^r^jil I'mdition embodied In 
th(.i Hihic wjiH iho biui^ of C'hriHtiiiii belief, n.\v\ thir; couhl tw 
Bufliciently interprot^nJ by thc^ hiinmn tnulerstandinp. He 
inMiMed tliat tht? Scripture waa the only rule t'l dt^ridi? M 
c4intrc>ven4K-i* aiii^Hig (linKtj>uiw', yet Milyiict t^i thr pnmdo 
that i|nei^tiona toucinng Scripture arc not dcridable by ^^:rtp- 
turc^. All i|i]t:f^tii>iin hm to canoiiicity could be Kettlcfl bj 
Univci"Bal lYndition, but private judicoment wus called for, 
ainee there was in fewt no relinbTc 'tradiCive interpretethjiL" 
'•Wo »rc ready Uy receive both Scripture lunl ihe «ense of 
Scripture upr.m UnivenMil TrHdili<m/' but not on the authority 
of tlie Roman *Tlinrch» wliidi hiui in itmny wnyi ilrpJirtcd 
from Univcrwil TfTMliticm, AnthijriULtivx^ itit4Tpretati(»n woj* 
unneceNHtu) niucc private judgement wa^ capalJr uf applyittg 
the rule of Iriith wJiich ii* jirivcn in Scripture, ^'^pcakiui; 
Lruly and properly, ScriptuTO ia iwt a judK<^, nor eainiot be 
but only a xiillieient rule for thoao to juflge by tliat bclioTC it 
to be the Ward of OtxL. , .what they are to believe arid what 
they are not to believe. I say fiu^deutly fterfuet, and ^iifli 
ciently iDt^Uiglble in things niK:e88ary, to all that hav« 
iJtwIerwtAnding, whether they be leaniinl or uiileHnuHl, And 
my rwwon hereof w coiiiiticin;^ fuuI ileuionMirativcH becnnse 
n(»r1ihig iH nceeaaar^' to be believed but what ih jdainly 

' Ifo guarded himAulf n^nit tho 

Mil Hti lull vntniidiug blijit by t4cn|]tiirc 
nil thiRp* ftVunfltitplj mny Ix* |m>vof1 
wliidi nrv Ut Ix' bvlUvixl. fur U i:vi 

ucver bo pruvcJ W a jcunanytr (hat 

there til a Ooii or that tho book cullvd 
ScHiJtiiro in tlio Hord r>r Otnl, J%« 
firtigi/itti'/ Pt^ilMlitJiU n Si^ IFiiy 
I'j Sitfr III iota, di, li, yi. \, «oO> S, 
' /U'l ell, IL pt I MO. ^. 

The Vhrisfmn Stajtdpoini 


revcttlod'.'" ^Vhcrc the intcrprctiitioii of Scnpturo wa^ a 
BiatU-T t>f [■enmiA <li1!iciilty tHhcprocim: iiiU^rprct'ttion could not 
bv of much importance as v, nutttcr of faith. He thud hifiiatod 
that ii\e UHe of their own uiicbi^tandiTig by [irivut^' infii- 
▼IdtiftLi yfiut u MLitiieieiit pnictieiil ^uiile in reli^^otu but he htye 
dovD Homewhat riarrow^ limits wkhin which it may widely 
ojierftle. With the n«' cif Purilmii^m, hnwever, tlie flniin to 
|iiit r^ii-WHrtl privaUT i[itj.'rprf'tJiti(^n mii rint ; those who be- 
llvyi^I in tht^ir own |H*n«iim] itiA|iiniLioii extuld not Hiibniit thi^ir 
delivemiieefi to any ivKti'aint. and the va^^aricn anionic difTertriit 
Kti^iou?! toKchrrH l>n>Uf;}kt UitA lilturty of prophcnyinx into 
contempt SobcrmindoJ men were iiLclincd to look U* reaeoii, 
mtber than allii^od iiispirfktion. as the f^ude to be followed 
ill the ptirxiiit ol' reli|rii>uri truth. Tlic diMordvred imaipncition 
fihould be retrained' that the light of rem^on might susert itfl 
*wiiy ; llii* would ^hv u>4, hj* th^y btUevtd. a finu ^i-aup on fniidjLniriitJLl prinri|ilrfi a!4 the exiHience of a iiorl und 
Ihe jmuiort^ility of the aoul Di»^;ust at the narrowiicHS 
and fiinjhticir^tii of the dinputinfi; soda i^eridered men e>fi^r to 
piace reliffious controversy on a plane of thouglit wlicrc it 
ooold be treated ealmly and d]^td6i<^nately, so that thore 
mi^ht Ik< M^ine bo|^ of ultimate agreement. Thi» wua the 
line whieh was Uiken by the nilinnal theologians of the Heven- 
te«?iiLh eentupy, luid eiHjM*cialI> hy 'Hlkjlflon, who waa, both 
btiCD hipi poMitton and hiM oratt^ricnl ^ifts, the uiL^at Mtnking 
>V|ire«enlaLivo irf the M'hixt] ; it ia in htfi scraionH thai the 
new habit of thought reaches ite cle>LroHl trx|>n^K<i]on. lie 
ti|f|>uaiH ti» reason not only as the interpreter of ChrietJan 
tcHchtOii:* but 113 ita very bn^iit, ''All reli^on is fonuded in 
rigilit Notions of God, and of Hla Peiiections ; inHomueh that 
Divine Revelation ileelf dot-s MuppoMt tlu^»e for itj* fouTitln- 
lionn, and <!ftri nij^uify nothing Ui un urdew ihe^^u Iw flnit 
known and believed.... t^o IhuL ihv iirineipleH of N^jitnnd 
Reli^cUHi ail- tht^ fonndatian of that which ici revealed"." 
"Iteligion be^inn in the Underataiiding. and from thence 

> Ibid, obap, u- pt L Acc- 104. 
pharut, Cure fmrn TvutiUfmatx- 

' TiUoti»nri,>**nn<iiiSI.IJn tt^orkt 
Cl7fi21,i, sail, 


C€mbridt/f^ Theohffical Emty« 

deficpniifl upon tli© heftrt and 1iR^.„lt i» the isaiie and remilt 
of th<* Ix^t Wiwlrnii nnri Ki^owlcfi^o, and <L<;«(<enil« fr<»m above, 
fVnm tlie Glrer of every jfotMl find perfect (iift. even from the 
Futlier of Li^llU^" "AD lliat rjui t)v dont? r* to net Uie 
thing tx'fore men. and to ofTer it to their choice ; »nd if men's 
nalimd drnlit' of wimlom and kmiwlrd^e and h;i|}|)inoi«« will 
not persuade them to be religions, 'ii8 in vain to uac argu- 
ment*'." The position which wn* thiifl takcii by the Areh- 
bitihfvp i»f (^anterbriry hivh Atiia^idarly like thiit iido|)lijd bj 
Ijx^kc hi inn Rta^onatthn^ss iif'Christirtaiti/. I !e i*ccogni«cd 
Itevelatlon. not aa ^ving ii^ tnitlm of a different kind from 
ilhixtMlmLf-imld lie (ipjireheodj**! bj R(-iuuin, imt :u4dinLiivering 
truthH whioh reaAim ntui able Ut conHnii^. The untutoiwl 
hiMimii intelligence wks thi^ tinly fitculty that waft nenlrf] to 
apiJithcml the lendinf: principles of UhristiEinity. JIc took 
the written word of liod to be "a collection of wridnjjp*. de- 
aiji^ked by Uod, liir Oie in»tnicti<«i of t^o illitt^nitc bulk of 
mankind in the way of salvation: and therefore generally aud 
in neeeaairy points to be undeMtood in the plabi. direct 
meaning nf thi' wnnlH and jihni^e-i. Mneh iw Ibrv niuy Ik- unp- 
|MiMivl ti> havu hat) in ttie i\\' H|»«-akei> wlio ummI Lheni 
»c€urdin|^ to the langiia^ of ihnt ihue and c^niniry wlu'rrin 
tlicy livwl*." A prominent npolo^si cai'ricl the reliance on 
men still farther- ''Let what in wi-iiten in all the bonki* of 
the Nt-'W '['oj^tanient \)c tried by that which ix the Touchiitonc 
of nil Keliipoiifi, I mean that lUdigion of Nature and Kea«on 
which Oo(l lia* written in the ht^irt^ of every mw of uh frtiin 
the 11m. t'rcHlion ; mid if it. vilHch fmiti il. in »m tmv parti* 
ctllar. if it preMTibert any i»nc ihin^^, svbiih rrmy in tJie iniriniet4 
rirtMmwtflnceK thrreor Ui ront.niry !*» RiKbU**nii*iiej^ I will 
then acknowledge thife to bo an argument against as i^trou; 
cnoiii^h to oTcrthntw the whole ('A1l*c^'■ It would not Iw 
C(u*y to find a more explicit statement a* to t!ie iTKulty by 
which reli^ouB truth is to be jufl^^ed *>r the criterion by which 

" Seniion 1- JT^U i. 27. 
* Locke, Rtaatmahttnfin f/Chrit' 
Honxtf/^ ill lV<frk»^ vi, 14fi, 

The Christian SUtiulpoint 


\iH tniili Vit til Ik^ ap|imise<L Indivitltiiil iiit?l1igi.^nrr in np- 
pftrcTitJy fux;cptod as the «o1e authority in iiiter|ii'etiri^ the 
!«crcd writings and building' m\\ a Ixidy tif tlicoli^jdcHl 
doctrine; Hiid Ihn t:^\i\^\^ is put forth to survey the whole 
fieJd of r^li^ous phctiomoiia and appraiae the difforcot 
^yet^nw rightly, 

Wtiile wt- may take Ti11oriU)ii hs a ty|iiaJ rej>rt^Mi^itiilJve 
of the iintiit of thought which wkm Joniinunt in the perir>d 
fitHii 1081* Ui 17<'jO. ivtr uiiihl r<iiii«jidK!r iJiat rJit-n- wort- hWi 
men whn were wholly di»nt.i«6ctl with thJe point of view : they 
regarded bis treatment of the Bubj^t as ijuitc iiiM]ei]uate. 
Tliocfc rcn<ici> to whom nuc^l a lK>ok lu- Litw'a 4»Vr'"w«i C'«W /o 
fl Dtvottt Lifii appealed, could not but bo di^BatLnBed with 
tb« |ibtcid [)vrf(Kli( el Uie eelebmhMl ArchbiKhup In the 
olBeiat proclamatioD of Christian truth, there wae a lack of 
twroestnuss uhidi eould bo ^'untnut^d with tlie |kenti>iiul xelf- 
ncrifiee of the Nini-jiiroD>i uiid tlie ferviuir of Hiich men luj 
W)nd)tild and Wt^lt^y. It ean hardtv In? n niHtt«r of Hnr|>riM£ 
that strong feeling wiu^ ro^L*^ by the HU|)cr^dal tushion m 
which the '* letter- learned clergymen' dealt with (supreme 
reaHtiCM. To men of iriteniw religious conviction, tlic fiuuous 
Archbi-^h^Tp *ieenied ^^y have been nc^loctful of his trust in 
approximating eo closely to the position of the Deists, and 
III minhniHhtg, if he did not wliolly ucgleet, the inflm^uee of 
DIrlne grsice in the henrt- 'Hie man whu h»fl regarded 
natiind nitMJU hh h (iufflicipjit guule Uf tlie interpic^nition of 
reveled truth Fwcmeii to them guilty of n great bet^ayal^ 
CbriHtianity, a^ tlicy know it wae a practical i>owor in th« 
heart mid mind, and tho@e who took the poetition iif looking 
at it lW>m outiiide seemed to ho ineompeteTkt to deal witlk 
it At all 

% The rational tlieologiane would h^ive inriignuntly ilis- 
clnSined the charge tlmt they neglect^ the pracdeal workii^g of 
r«?Ugioiifi liclief; indi't'i] TitlotMcin Mtrr«H nn the efliicac^y^ 
Mas re*;ardr* luural miidin:U *if the pnjdeoUal arguuit^nt^ which 
may be drawn ^m the belief in a future E(tnl«^ Lie made 

■ Attrtnon CXI, hi iVorkt, tn. 4^. 
a V. 1. 3 


Cambridge Theological £»»apa 


n remarkable prnnoinic^inciit im to tlie utility of religion- 
"Wiat is i-cligion good for, but to reform tlie manueni niid 
(ti$p(it<itiori3 lit' mnii, U> reMtntin hiiiruiii mtturc Irojn riolcnee 
and eruelt>', frcmi fuleehoorJ titid trenchor>\ from ecditiou and 
rebellion^'" Thifl school would have contended that by i-elyitig 
on reason tliey eitulil survey n tvi^li^r Belli, luu! get more 
fiireible te^i^tiuioii^ m regurfl ti) the etTeetiveiieAH of religious 
liielief ii.H u fttctor in o^ndtiotf t!mn they Mouhl if Lliej euii- 
tincd tlietr rirgument to Christinn laikd» and Christinn belief. 
Whichcotc'ft preaching at Cambridge sccnia to have bc<in 
lar^ly duo t^i the freshness whieli he infuwil i«t4i his di»- 
caureea by working at this Teiii. He broke away from tbo 
aeiuleiiii<! iiulpit tnulition, and did not contino himself to 
elalxkrating hia theiJiM fWrni rton>H i>f Biblical and Patristic 
leanntig ; he de&U wkh Mie liwiii^ iKaue^ which liud lieeii 
miHrd by the k'tchiiig tif lL*hl)e**^ atiH tre-at^d religiim hm 
the Hafi^giianl of morality. Tic vnhitil it as a practirAl juivrei' 
for righteouftncaa in the hearts of men, even when they pro- 
fe«neil aumewliat dilferent ereeds. As VVbicheote ^ye in one 
of hi>^ Hphoni^mH, " Reli^on ha« different denomiiiationa and 
names fKim different aetions and eireumjitanceer but it iii 
one thing, s'vi. : univerwd nglLteouHiieMH ; zu'ei>rdiug1y it \\i\A 
place At all times Itefort; the Jj^iw Kit Moitex und under it, and 

l^ie ratioTial tlioologian could alno hope that 1>y this wide 
flurvcy lie would i>btain a uicuns of distinguish iiig what was 
essential in religion from its trivial a^^unets. Much of the 
diBCord upf>eHred to have arisen from the way in which one 
party or another had treated triyialities of ceremouial, or 
MuhtletieM of theolnf^eal doetriue, as poiuts i»f fiiiidHuientid 
imporl:ance- 'ilie rational theologians preferred eomeliueat 
aud good order in ilivinc wurehip ; but this wan to them a 
matter of expediency and common Benae, uot in otiy way of 
pHttctple ; and on similar groiinflfl they were indiffci'cnt in 
regarti to many (luestiona which had Itcen debated between 
CalnniaU and Armiuiana. They looked round on the world 

Houiw of f.\»niTnoriit lf"«-**^ i, KM, 
* Bui of l^hufluibiiry, Pr^^ea to 

The ChriHtian Standpoint 19 

ftt large* and snvr that there were three great rcligrion« which 
had a powerful and elevating inltueiicc on conduct They 
felt that the etftieiitial clement in roliicion wiia to he found in 
principles which were coniiuoii to JuclaiHUi, Molmmmedatnant. 
nnil (Tlirirttiunity ahke; and that Uii» e^et^tiul element hmt 
Dover been entirely lacking In any ag«. According to this 
common -»enHe htaf^laid, Uii* diictriiiet* of the ininKi]-UiUt> «f 
IJit* Mini nut] iif the cxistcnee of (ttxi weri? KreRttil nn this 
neeettfary prinriplen of religion, withoni whti^h Ir^ fjiileil Ui 
cierd["e an influence on coniliict. The i>rtliodos rationuliet 
held that the adjnncU to this o^^ntJal belief, which were 
given iTi the Cliriatiftn rcligi(jn, ^et forwhrcl a better morality, 
anil by the elcanio** of the teaching* added to ita forci. But 
tlie«e were \HimUt vhieb th^y found it hard t<> exUililir^h trimi 
the position they had adopted ITie Detet* tVankly regarded 
revealed rt?U^ou hj^ wnrplusjiy;e ; they might bt ready in 
n^rtv. that n<vi*M]t<il I'eliginn wuh analogous to natnral theology, 
hkic thin wa» not conTincing. Tlie Hupcriority of (liri^ian 
dc»ctrinc and pnictice was not no great as to render it apim- 
rent that it had any t^pecial claim tc a divine origin^ Nor 
vaa the hifitorlca] argument convincing ; the ordinary under- 
fitandiTig, applying cinnnion-senBC standards, waM inclined to 
ezpl^n away all the paitieular phenomena of propiiecy and 
mincle* sm due to coincidence or *enthiieiasin.' Tlie nitiminl 
theologians lia^l act out to rescue ChrUtianlty frnm t-Uc 
tlintrrtflj* and folliea of f^matioH ; bnt the Uindencj of the 
EaciveD>ent ha<l l>ecn to discai^l alt that was dietinctivcly 
Christian, Tlie fltispidonf* of Whitfield and the Methodiwta 
were jtwtificd ; the indindual intelligence, working from Mio 
grounds of eommoTi ncnflc and ordinary oxperionee, appeared 
ineompeteTtt cither to di> jnetice t'» tlie prescient |hiwer of the 
Cbriatian religion^ or to vindicate the 4iceepteil record of its 

Tlie iTdiererit t-endencien of ratlfirm! theohigy Iwl fHltrn 
HHUiy yuan* Ut show their true cliaratlt-r ; hiiL ujn tliu nuiveimnit 
ran Ite course, the views which were inrotrcd in the principles 
<jf the piHuecrp* came into cleai' light When the Uible is 

^ Kul of Shnfto^bory. Prf/iic^ Ut Wlik'hcoteV FTotjU { 1 7*K J, ni- il 



Cmnbridge TheoSogiaal E^$mj$ 

studied in tbo sfunc foehicn n# ivUicr liU^mtiirc, atiil Uie 
history of the Church is treated ae predsoly eitniliir Ut th« 
<»f tyX\\Kr iiivtittitioii)*, there U a ]»raftlcBl rehisal to draw any 
niarkwl diBtinction bctwtxti vttri<mM eipn-wioiw of hruimn 
attpiraUctri and hufie, dp tt> regnrd the sacroil bot^k^ Hiid tlw 
C^iHxtian «<>ricty iw iri il i^ik'ti^lI siniHi* Diviite. ff reli|{iiiuK 
literature aijd life are dealt with aa part of the phcDomcna 
of htinmn ctiltitrc, in which wc take an outHidc inleront aitd 
on whicli 'WC paaa our jud^eiiicnt« iroDi the comniofk-ecnsc 
HtiUiilixr<L( of ox|>ediviicy and iwobahjlity, the claims of CTiriftt 
ianity to «t«m) on a \q\x\ of \Xa own an; dlxconiitt^nanc^ in 
advance. And hence n\*^z\ of i\\xp roligioni^ coiiviciiork cannot 
rc-er>gniHv tluit hiini^m: learninijf nlfcinlK a HuiUihk' piHiIJon 
IVoiu which tu prnnonnce im the validity of their foith : U> 
tlierri it. i* mit a mure oiiinion, and tliL'V cAntua luxrpt the 
' thcert'tical ' di^cipitfti of those who are content to wei^i one 
opinion apiinnt anoUit-r. The practicul force of Ohristianiiy 
its T^omcthinjC they feel in their own eotiM^ioUsnc^ nor a mere 
faetor in human morality which they endeavour to analyae 
and appraEMC In thoir uihidd it )« Ul(^.'1>a^U)l> linked with 
dc\'<»tit"n Xk> Chri«t ; they h*ve nu ctnifidcnc* iti a habit of 
mind which admires Clinslian nioraLlity htit Im content u* 
Jwpi-nEw with itfl c^i^nm-ioitM l»wi«. Onhnary intcllij^iice 
and common-sense estimates arc inclined to h)ok favourably 
on relii^oiiH in in^ieml, but to hertitftte alMiiit the truth of niiy 
one in j^vrticulnr ; and the man of deep eonrietiona cannot 
regard this tribunal as authontative ; he alaims at leoat to 
Ije judged by hi* |x*r«. 

3L In thue rehiring i<i aecept the arbitrament of ordinary 
human iuteltigene^ and ap^ieHlinK to Koine other tribnniil. the 
man of religiunn eonvietlorw ap^xin^ ti» put himnclf eritii-uly 
in the wroiij:. To rejcr^t the voice uf Reason, as eApretweil in 
the connnon Hentte of liic* fellow-men, seenia to be u piece of 
aiTOifnnce tliat is both offensive and ridicuU^u*. U iinpIieH a 
claim to iiave 8|>eeial iiecesa U> fiouri:cs of trutli, while it pm- 
nouEieei^ hiuniin reason iDadoqiiAte in a sphere in which it is 
habitniLllyexereiseiL Still this refusal is inevit^ible; religlouft 
eouvicLiou huii a logical ehariLetcr (»r Its own ; it ih a persouul 


TVtc Christian Standpoint 

nmttpr. aiirj cannot hi: bnn^lit into iliroct line with the data 
»ii vliidi ritiniuiiii-tieit^t; tiilelUgmi^o in fif.tuJ to work. I1iv 
Qndcrata-nfliiig Tifliinlly play» tht^ part of tho h>«tnTifJc:r w]u» 
Wka oti aii(] given an imperHonal rlednkm im llic jilitnoriii-tLa 
before him ; thdr ohamctcrleticH and qiialitictf and relationa 
aie firc^Giitod to him, and apart from the excrtiim of atten- 
tion, he only £iv^ a ^rt of po^^ivc aascnt. But in por^onal 
connclioMft tiiope is a definite t>x«reiiM> of vrill |)owor\ and 
the docivion \* the man'K vit^ own. ThcftC truthK aro TK^t 
thln^ that come t<i n^ rciady made^ There \^ an eleiaetit 
of })frw}tial approval in ' i^oM3UTiitjiijt.r unto Ihi^ law That it jh 
good/ and even of approp nation in dtxriding that it i« good, 
«H a ntltf f<}r hini. Thitt |>tim»na] oj&orci^«b vf thu will \r* In- 
Tolrcd ill all Uic act« ^f the rclijnone life ; wc find it in the 
devotion of tiie PBalini^ " Thou art my (iod, early will 1 seolc 
'Hicc " ; ttwi o^in in the faith of St Thomas when he criedi 
"My Lord and my God' Such conrictioiiH are ^ndament&Uy 
ditforunt froai the roM^ionM opInloiiH on whic'li we [kimh 'theo- 
relic' Judgements as outalde observers; the peculiar force 
which they have for tlie individual mhid uMiMt Iht taken hklii 
account \yf anyone who preU'rndH to pnnionnrc what in c*ix'Tk 
tial and unessential iii religion. Common sc^iitic Ih content 
to c<mMtdor what a nmn holds, and tn comfuwe hin la-liu^ 
with thoao of oilier pco|ilc ; but from the point of view of 
tli<} miui of t^troiig convictions, Uie important ifUeAtioii i^ not 
fthiU a nuin holdjt. but A^if he hoKU it,— Ih it a pergonal 
tJiiag tliat v^ ingi-ained in hU own will i Ha^ he gut religion* 
or nilher Iihm religion gtit hiinV From thin jmiujI of liuw, the 
iiltinuitc diH'i^Hinn ilm U* the validity of religicaiM lielief)4 cannot 
rertt with n^'ajtiin, or Ik' derided liy any criterion wliidt the 
L'odcretandiiiff applicM to them : the Kcll^on^ UousciotimicM» 
lei not i\jntetit to pitjvide data for intolligencc to dineUMrt, Imt 
clainv^ to be supreme in the InU^rpretation *»f thc^e datii. and 
in dedarin;; the relatione of man to the ITltimnte Power. Tlie 
eorjH^rate rellgicaii^ eoitHcioui'nex hii^t clnimed to bo hide- 
pendent of civil authority at >4i]ndry timej^ and in diverne 


Ccmbndge Theological JUssays 


manneni; not only in th« contest about InTo«ttitnr^, but in 
ttii.' rot-t'itl il*^uiimd of tlie United PreeChureh of Scotland for 
scope for HHf-<V'vrlopmont fii a vitinkr wpirit tlm pirrsiotml 
relij^iniiK niiiHriiaiHii(.'rv4 reftiM« to Hiibiiut ti> aiky iiitt^llectual 
authority' i^uUidc? iti«clf 


1. The distinctionbetwwnthepoiiiteof vicwofthoac who 
troatr^li^ati su^ a body of opinion's and of those to whom it U 
a matter of convictionj ia fimdEunuiii^l The proceiu uJ" iHUKliig 
from on<j p}iK»c of thoufcht to ttie ntlicr may bo spoken of as 
the liwiiketiiii^r i}f |,l)i> rfli^oiii^ {.'oimdoiiPiieMi ; ami vnviwt of 
thoM' who have undergone dii^ clianj^e griLdiJHl1>% and lut the 
r&ault of a long period of hcmtation and uiirwt^ hav« M?t 
thctoNclvcft to reflect on ati<l Ia» recor'l the cf^nrno oi' their 
own inner cxpcrieiiecv An odminible dchneotion !« to be 
found iti Paac&rA Thouf/hts* No mere intellectual arffnnicnta 
giifficod Ui change tlie eun'eiit <>f hin uior-al life; for tlte 
arpimionts on eaeb nide were ineffcetive- '*All the prIiieipleM 
of Hcef)tieft, «U>ii:M, ft!hei[<W» eU?. are true, Tmt thoir conclusions 
are faUe, beemwc^ the oi^iosite prineip!eti »re jtlno trne\" " It 
ia iiicoinineheuAilile that tiiere Miould bo a Ood, tuk] incom- 
prehensible that there should not be; that there phoiild be 
a soul in tho body, and that we Ahuuld have no «onl; that 
tlie worhl should have been creiLted, jinil tliat it should not^" 
There wa£ as ho in«Ht«d & deeper sourer of certainty in our 
nature. '"We know truth, not only by the reiuwn, but also bv 
the heartland it i» fbom thiK last Uiat we leant tirat pnuciples; 
and reason, which hw\ nobhiti)^ to do with it, trieti in vain to 
comlwtt t-hem'." He wa» distracted by the contniilictions 
which he felt in the depths of hl^ own coiisciouane^*. ''Let 


1 ruculf Th'iitffhJM. IruJialuteil by 

Sma Hill, 111. 

* Tiwal, "j»- ^. aw. 

^ Ihid. \G2. 

* Bu folt thi* cn»itra-li<ititnn* vhich 
Huxley uWniid ntn\ (Utu^HtKHl, 

iniiLiire tif hnrsc nommaiMi^ tut 
fltutiljcninofli^ and cun\«i\ mftlioo— 
with an im^ Urbbtnif about m^ 
e^lRfCtedly Uke lIid a^ifJc In thn 
poM«t, HTicI whi^n ihcj cun do ci»ctly 
w tbc7 pJcuc they arc vory !i«nt 

'*Kon ore ler? quovr vumoK a U* drive' Lif> ami Leltent, il 438, 

The Christian ^andpoint 

man ]ov« hinuelf, In.'^^AUMe \i\> hu;« w nature ci^fKLblc of i;ood, 
but int htm tuic tlit^rcfort^i lore the vilonei^ tliat exi&tti in that 
nAture. Let him deitpis^ hinwelf, l>ocau>^' thn citptu^ity \» 
voiil, iMit let liiin not therefore dcBpHu his iiatiirnl cnpjicit>\ hint hate liini^elf, let him iove iiiiiitielf; li:- hjiH in hiii^nelf 
the power of knoivlng the truth nniJ l>eiiig hupp}-, luiii yet Itna 
found no truth eitJier jiormaTient or &ati»factory \" He hftd 
hiiiutclf tttt^riiiptei] t^ ilrown tlie th^'Ught^ of de»lh, ^orr^w^ 
ifCnonmcc and ail the miseries of Life^ a.ii(! fori|i;ct thtnu in 
the enjoy I noil I** of life ; liut it w^w only rm l>e wearied of 
tlieHc tbitt he be^^i to tint] the re^l j^oiution ho soU|fht. 
"The weajineMi wliich is marrs mo&t Benflible evil is in game 
mea>$ure liiw grcntoat go<»d, becaiifte more tiian onytliing otnc 

it contrihnttsi to n^ake liiiii Ne4.'k hiH Lrue healing Man ia 

wevkry of nil thhiKF ami seeics a nmltitiide of ttccugMition^ only 
liecAUPie liL- hah the idea of a lotit happine^a^ And not finding 
thi^ 111 hiiniielf, lie acckg it viiinly tit exttrniat thhi^, without 
Ixing nbk to content liimaclf, because it is neither in us, nor 
in the creature, but in Go(i alone*," ^'The Cod of C'hrietiane 
ifl ft Gwl who mukc'^ the aoiil perceive that He \^ her only 
good, her only reet ie m HiniT her only joy in loving IltnL 

'Hie knowUHl^e of (lod without that of our wrekheihieM 

crmles pride, the knowk^lge of our wretcht.'<hiL'7ii« witlniut God 
eraUen de^iuilr, Tlw knowleflge of Jenun CIiriMt in the nilddlo 
way, bccaiiNc in Ilim wc find both Of»d ami <mr own wretch- 
edncae^" The divine power which rcconcilwl the coiitrttdictiona 
witfcun h]i4 own nivture wiui to hink tlie i^uprume reality ; he w^oa 
convinced of its truth. The Chrii^tian religion tefLche» the 
righte^JUA that "it lift** them even to a iNxrtieipation of the 

' I'aiwul, op. fit. 18, 

' "When I iWD thd blladnew and 
tliv nilMry or Tiiui;, *\tv\\ I HLirvv; 
tfa« wIkiIij (lariiti i'TiLv«ni^ aiiil niftu 
withoiit lJi:iiti left U> liiniiidf KTtd 
iMt MB it wtiTH tj) tUifl cijnivr uf Lliu 

pbfod Jkim liorc% wlwt Iil* Iiu4 oum? 
to dci, wimt will ticc^nucofbiui vrhuu 
ho dlM, Lnd iiu3tpatik <if uny kiiow- 
iodtfO whftUvcr, 1 fixEl into tvrror 

likfl that of a mun who, having 
bi'4;ii uinied in hui iloop to elei tfllond 
tluHorL *\\\\ U:rr\\i\\\ fclioulil uwnko 
itfiiomitofhui H-liarMb4iiJt4 Luul mtlt 
iL<r mi.^jLiiM <iri:4UAl>o; und therefore 

II HtHt« ihi hoi fiLlI liiFjk daepo-ir,' 
yftiv/, i«a. 

* md. aa. 


fiamitridgE Theologmd E^xaj/ti 


illviiie imturc; that in this ciiUtoil Atale thviy atill 1)car witliui 
them the fi^untaiii of sill corruption, which rcmlcm Umm jJuriiig 
tUeir whole iifc Bubjc<:t to error and uiiflcr>\ to doatti and fitn, 
luid lit the name time it pruct^inis t<> the inikst wickc<l tha.t 
they can rowive t}ie ^rn^^e of their Re*leeiner, Thus iiuikinff 
thoKO iremWe whom it juetifict^, aticl oon&oUng those whom it 
cotidrnmiK, n^lil^iffn aii jii^tly ti?mperg feiu* with hope hv ini?Hn< 
of tJmt doublf cnpacilj of gnu-c jiikI of sin whicii In cnmnioii 
Uy all, Lliar ir. nlnvwa inftiLitt^ly more 1-haii if^jviuri ah>iit% yet 
without dcApair, and exalts infinitely higher than natural 
pride, >(^t witliout putliikK ii]k h<.rvl>>' pixivin^ tliat tUune being 
c^tcmpt figiii error iind rice, it oJunc htifl the c»tKcc of iii- 
ritmctitig iLnd reforming men, Who then can withhoUl 
crctiunuc EUid tLdunition to ko tlivinv a li^ht f F<»r it 10 
clearer than day that we foel within otinielvcs indelible 
chariLctcnt of goodntmi' ; and tt U i-<|i]iLl1y deur tliat we 
oijKrriLniec *-vrry hour the "'-fFfl^rU* "f our iU-pl<irHliU^ rondil.iuii. 
TIiIh trhwm then, ihin moiiHU-ouM ronfuHlon, doen liut proclaim 
the truth of those tno slatci^ with a voice eo ixiwcrful Uiat 
it aiiLUot be rc^ifltcd'," The path which he rocommctidod 
others to toilow if they would attiLin to Ium coEiviction wiu 
that whieh ho hafl himself pursued: *' Labour to convince 
yourself," he saya, "not by increase of tiie proo& of God, but 
by the (iiniiinitton of ynur paiwion»'." 

The gradual awakonhij^ of reli^loUA coii^crouBiiewi Cfin be 
tTnerd liven nmre <'U^itr1y in the ti'Ciird of IiIm imirr lifr wliieh 
liaA been left uh by Maine dc Biran. A man of keen HcnJiibilit^, 
with a |HiwuouAtc intcrertt in the anaty^in of nK-Tttftl pheno* 
mcna, he continued to piimue the philosophical ritudic« to 
whidj he lia<t devoted hiiuAclf at Beriferuc, when he w&a 
adlcn) to tiil«^ a prominent ptirt in public uHairM td PariH after 
tlie iali of KapoleoiL He wa» in touch witlt tlie niojst (rniineiit 
philosophical thhikem of hift day, and waii well aorjuainted 
with nioilrrn phihiMophy. 1>ut hi^ |irh9M.iW(^l a p«ingu)ar hidr- 
[wudcm^ti. Aw tiie * piiilosoplitir of inner c3t^^cm■ncc^'* the 
^rrowtli of litA d<'ctrjtie i« clomly coniioct<^ with the cliaitgeti 

I Ibid. lu. * /Wrf. w. 

* Albert I^itf, Jlain^ 4$ Biran und JiV Mtrwre PAJ£im<'^A^<1B0I}, X 

Tht Christian Stafi^mnt 


of perHf»tial wmvirtion, an rtT4;al<3d iii hi* jountcU itUirtu:\ 
titartiii^ trom the sciitiiktionalbiii of CoiidiUric he jcnuliiaJly 
came to lay more street on the active element in coiiBcioiia 
DMBi Mid, tiH ycarx pne»ed on, to n'Oi^tfniiw uii extenml rtiiitrci- 
of moml vigour. " In tbi' p^vchulogiciil wtipoct, or sw rt^^rdtf 
cognition, tlmiuKi] iLmmt all fruiu itj«elf, or fTtm% Uw K^, by 
rcrtwlifin ; }int m the iiiornl Hsi^ect, u* I'ciKnriIrt tht' [Krrfixitioti 
to be li<>|H«l fur* the giHid to be ubtained, tir the ul^oiTt in life 
to be lumod At, the fu>ul dniwq uU utn) receive?^ idl from 
without— not from tlic external world and Acn^tionn, but 
from tlie purely nitellectuiJ worhi ubi.>ve, of whioh Uod Lt4 the 
centre*." To him Christianity appealed tiitber a& an intel- 
ketuiil MitiHfactioTi thiiti iuk u meauH of rt^ileniplion from evil 
The sense of a wimt of litabilit^ of lite, and the iiii[>o88ibility 
of >iinji|]uiL4vL happinens wirighvil u\itin hlin ; thin vnw Uw 
Htartiiig-piitnt of hb^rcfiect^oIl8^llndit ftwnpfed hi* mind with 
Kijmbn? thoii^^htii in IKl.i^ when he »eenia for the Jlmt linn:* to 
liavc turned cDTiacicJU4lj^~ towanla GocL "It is too long to go on 
dnftutg with Inht? wiiirl of events aud opiuiuna, with the never 
ccamufi: tiiix of clumge^ without find witlkia find all that pasaca 
like a shadow. There ie need to-day to attach t^inoaeir to the 
Only Benti; tliat retnains Unchani^able, ^Vbo 18 tlie true 
source of consolation in the prviwnt »ud of hope for the 
future^'* And hm niiud took an increaain^y firm hold on tUta 
it>r>il [mhitw *' I w>u thinking yeMtmlav/' lir nrito4 in tlf^, 
**«» i waA driiing thi-on^h the HttiwtA, that tlirre are three 
very diflercnt kiiKU of tefupcratnent in the intellect or aoul. 
Tbe first, tliat of nearly everyone, consiflto in living exclusively 
in tile World of phenomena, and lakiD^ tJiem for reaUtiefl ; 
Ivenee there ij« inounKtanoy, Ei>atliinK, and |>cr|>etuat unro«t. 
llie second i^ that of tlie men who reflect, and deck patiently 
for Lrnth hi theniM-hv^ ur in nahire, l>y Ke^Htnttin^ appear- 
ances from rcaiitiiM : but t»iiicc they do not Und a fii-m ba^ 

ntf ai SfiK pfittifit, 117 — 419, 
> ihU.m^ i» ^\\i. rHi,^ 
5 in M*j-. i:u4 ihid. i-A*. s^ 

ftiM hid fcmorkfl on ^IoIcJaid, 3iJ Uepl 

Birtnt, flS. 

MU April, ISIfi, Ik ];«. 3twaUo 
ITMaif, iai5, p. 18& 


Cambridge Tf^oloffictU Etsays 


from this tnilh thoy f!c»ipftir rticI fmll iiit<J Hcepticipmi. La«t1y» 
there U a llilrd ^roup of tbose who ar^ iUiuained by the 
iiiiiqtifj Kiitl uncUH.ii^ing \\g\\t which religi'iii ntThnls, None 
hilt tluMe TiHVc found n Ani] 8ui>[K)rt : tiiey liavc coui^go tn 
their (ruiiTii:ttoiin\" 

3. The aivokcEUEig of th« religious conacioiiencae as It hru 
been thiia portmycil im jjfnulual, and tho eiibjoct of goiiaciotia 
cultirntion ; but »otnc of itK aapcc:ts arc bruught inU> dourer 
vi&vf by »ii<!deii converaions* euch hh occurr^ in niimlwn^ in 
fonn<-xioti with th*- prencldng of \M»itfieId and the Wealeya. 
Ilie tiudden r<?a]U»tion of ]h.^rArnial guilt may Iht rjdUHl fnrtb 
by Cli<* iiLOMt trivinl occiiiiioika ; John Biin}'ati whh (roiii^L-Ietice- 
strirkcn at hi« guilt in jil^iying ti|icat on ElsJH<>rt Grt^ii one 
Huiiduy - Iwt the import of such awakcuiiig is set bcfoixi im for 
vi\ time in the etory of the Fall We read there how inwi 
catnc to Hec hU conduct, not in cornesion with the luotivoa 
and Gxciiiw*^ which tuive un;ed hiai, but retrod]>t.Tlivc'ly, »iid 
diapaaaionately, aa If from the »tJirid|>oirit itf tho Omniscient 
Crent^r Eiwrh Tmman act ia part of an indefinite chain of 
(Huse and elfert ; our idle wordu, our c.xn?lo« follies may work 
f&r-reAching mitichief of which we are wholly uneon-HcIouii 
We cannot piiniue these indefinite coti»ei|ucm-i.w; but Utey 
come clearly into view wlieii wc aiiin them up iii the thoughta 
of the Infinite God. Who sece &U thlngB, and lookft a.t our 
aeU iu the' li^ht of Hib Judgment np<»n tJieni. Thr<»U£Ji 
the aeiise of guilt, tnan becN^mes con^joiou^ that he U part 
of a divine order, which he had neglected ; th& violation 
of tluM onh-r by lii«) own act« presses oti Iihn tite Hiigc:estiou 
of an exititence and of rel&tpi<inHhi|)H which ha had J;^iiure*L 
Hie BonHc of guilt l)ecome« the ol^ect of reflectioiL, and 
bin copiitivo faculUc^ fuo brought to IxMir ut>on it and 
elicit what is implied in it The facte of the ca^e are clear \ 
the moral law, the difltinction of vighi and wroiij:, wa,"^ known 
to liini ; he acrtptt: it and appnivee it. an<i lays it down 
ae valid for nil int^^lIigouctM; and i^ince in spite of thiA he 
is re«iwii»ible for a brencii of it and blames hiiuH^^lf for hia 
fknlt in tailhig to keep it> he rocogniscK his own freedont 

> to JiuKs \*m\, \\ AtK Sm ftlM s E)tw. \vi\^ p. ^ni. 


The Ckrvdimi S/midftoint 

TFitre i* more too tliat, Uv. fri'lw U> \w inimc*]iatply implied 
it] the exifitcnce of thin law. in aII it» tii^uHy ; he cannot 
actiotinl for it, in iU umver^ity aiul nc'cn^tty, without fnlling 
brick oik the thought of f.«c»d im the ruler fi-oni \V1iou) it 
emanate^ and of an unr^een world in whidi tte docisioiia nr© 
n*jLliM,s]. Pcrwrnn.) liberty, the existence of a God, and of a 
future life^ are inferences which fullww ^ iuiinediat« wn- 
victiorift ftoiu the rec!<»giiition of the v^didity of Moml Law. 
T\w moral onJer, just aa much as the phyaixrai order, comea to 
be thitngiit of ah ^ coherent sjratem in which man ih jilaj<-t?ct 

It ifl thim that by turning within himaelC man 1)cconie«i 
conscious of hia own nature in all it** complexity, and readier 
a Ktaiid[Kiuit from which tie apprehende his relation U* other 
«xiirtence«. The ilhMtriLtionH have lieen tiiken from modem 
dmw and from the Chrintiai] religion, but the experience of 
remone and jj:i]i1t in n<Jt by any meaua couBned to thot^ who 
have been inNtnicteil in the Ghmtiaii religion. The tragedy 
iif e^xistence, the irmer eontradictiuiiK in fuiinaii natnii?, the 
Bonac of a violated order and of guilt are found in all but the 
lowest fonn» of EuJth. The unique charaeter of (Jhrlhtiaiiity 
comca out in the solution it oilers : iii the power with which 
fit declares for^ii^ness, and the restoration of man, bo that lie 
ehail be reconciled to himself and U> God. It tihoWK him tlilit 
by penetrating further alon^ the path he may find, within 
fatmi^elf, not only remorse ftn<i anguiab^ but the path of relief 
and rent. It declarer to him that he need nt»l look for his 
bappinusH in ftelf-defaehment, nor in externaK nor in enjoy- 
tneiit of any kind ; '^It in netther without n*. nor within ua, 
but in Ood» and tlma both witiiout and within'/' 


1. The MptH'tul feature of Christianity in in the ncnao it 
afTunlH of re^TOtK-iliatton ; and t^is term itself sn^^eatn the meet 
fruitful mctliiHl of proi:edurc, if wo wieh to iiircstigsitc the 

^ I'WK*!, op. fit 40. 


Cambridge Tfieotogical Etmyi 


OODtaita of thia moat highly devi^1o|>od ff>nD of t1i« roligioiw 
OoniGloitjiiR'M^ The awak^iiiii)^, to whicb alliMion ha^ Hln^i)}' 
bvcn maile. britigHmit n iM!iiH(?cif krloiil^lr inmbciiiuHni*?^ — eiicli 
AH Ih ilhiHtmteil bj Cl^fiiglih Di/itq/rfnij, nr hv ^StcveTirtnii's 
Mtnry iif Dt JticttU nwl Mr Ilgitf: In tlit-jie ctieee tlie two 
AJdoA were wholly' alien and repugiiaiit; to each other; and iti 
the i^lijfioujg €on8cioii^m«.A irmi<imll>« they ri^inain op|to3vd 
to oiie aaothcr; it \a only by conj^oiuly ignoring one <>r 
the i>t}tcr tbut Htti^tnctuiri <teu»in iitUiiiAblc. The olaitu of 
CUrisil&Tiity is that it attbi-die a rval inotliod of rvvonciltatioii, 
Mfi lu t" briivg liie two xidat into harmony without any 
compronLWe, and without euppPMsuig cithvr od<; or the 

Wf ninmit ^t a dcarviewiif thi»nx:oncilia(inn hytHktnjc 
a tungic iiiMaiice of religioua expeiicnce. and setting our 
coifintWe fiiculty to rcHetrt ini it and mialyne it. Wr may see 
that the flcnr^c of guilt implies in hocic va^^iie outhnt.^ the 
idoa0 of tt broken nioml order anr) on offended God ; but fiuch 
liikricHl hdlTi^iK'o^ dot-ic nut givi.* tin uny iivi^iinttK^u iu« to the 
r^fility of exiateneoH c'irrct*jKnidTJig lo these ideax. Th<? 
exertion of i\w uogidtlvt! beuUy hi tliewareh tt>r truth learbi 
u* Ut WW im/tfftifir^ Thr only csiHUrnre hi- )iutnv ju* real in our 
OWI1, and it is by dniwiiik; ujKfu titir^tehx-ti that we ^mc reahty 
to oiir jdea«, After ail> in considering religion wc have not to 
do merely with the eogiiitivc fatuity but aino with tiw wiU : the 
gitat "f tilt: UhriHtuin lilc cmij^i^t^ in the rccoucilmtion of tho 
human will with the Divinij — the control of the human will a^ 
it expiv8«os iuelf hi Jietion; and in UiIm moile of Mtutenieiit 
the scvemnc* bi?tween i*ur Hubjwtivo idt'AM and the rt«J 
exEat«iiL-e4 outfiide ns doea not arlwe an a >ihiir|il> set (ijiixwition 
which wii cannot «Lli**fatU^)nh bridge. Tlie lunnnn will is 
eonacioua of itself a* an activity ; it knows itrtelf not only na 
exitfthiK^ but a« doing; there U ccrtiturle in it^ feeling 
of itf own doings*; and this certitude ie extoiulcd in *"an"' 
jtig dcgrocfl to other exiatencea In hU moral conwioui- 

^ <K(ielJiig' ji not uatkl here of 

uiifTc innoUuii, but fur »df«iiiMicm 

The ChrUiitm Sfatu/pumt 

1MW8 tiiHO feHn dwit he aw^ipU *nm' itim, irr frntnrh it. fiir 
hiinmslf^ «liiiI ntrivc^n t" ri-ttliwc it. lie \n Hwaro itf iibntaclca 
vhich balk hini» mid which arc roivl Ui him, jiiNt InxaiMe they 
liaiu[»cr and thwart him: he ia certain of the cxitftcucc oY nn 
external w*>rld', Hl- may ix? uware. too, of a J'ower which 
€00pcTUtc« vrith hlin, not ik£ aii L^xtc-rnal a^^MiEf i>i^t an u 
i^plritiial inflnonce : which conTicta him of evil wht^n hin afniH 
aru Mtrdid and nolf-woekirg, Iwt whi<?b *trenji:t-h<!iift his purjX)^ 
when it is norneihiTi^ thait hr Iny* fU»wf> fiir all ItiU-HiguTiciw iw 
wt?n Atf for hiidself, llir luav r<M:i>giili*e » *'iiot lUin^rlvt^ri 
that makiw f<»r ritfhtcmisncffl''' in thf^ world, tiecniifti,? lie \& 
cerl^ii of a Power that uiakcA for righteou^nees in his ovm 
internal liR-. 

Devout litonttiire* in which vitriinn* pii^ia^ of the Christian 
cotiMrioDAiieMA aro set fortli fully am! explicitly, t^etiftefi to two 
point>4 on which it U worth whiles to lay 0tre88— on thtf une 
haftd the certainty of recooeiliation as Httniiiable, on tlkc t^thor 
the wnKr i^r frM^iirni Ikilitre l^i maintain this harinoidiJiiH 
n^latioTi^iili- There in a proccas of reconciliation ^in^ on. 
hnt a priK^cwn that is not fully accompli eh e^l. The- atU^iiipt 
to uniTcrBaiiflc one's action may be occasional, and it may 
buci)m<' hahittial As the moiid law ie thoiiy;hl of a^ a law 
for alt intcl]iffenL*c^, &o when I act rightly, 1 aet from Uie 
Kiandpoini of tlie Uiiiven^l Will ; but MtiU it \& my a^^tion, then; 
K no for<;e thai overmasters tlio |)ei^<rtml will, bnt rather 
a penonal desire tn come into acconl with the Univerxal Will 
— lu iJnnk and U) dii what ia pleading Ut OihL "We have to 
clKxnp whether ve shall make onr^elvew tlie ent\ of cmr nrtion 
attfl Xhv- rentn? on which it (ijni^ or whi^ther we whall sei.^k an 
aim and a conti"c outride and alxjve oureclTeH, Every generouci 
action, every t'HSirt to ^t out of ourH'lvr-s, however rudi- 
mentary it muy bo, is an Eieccptancc and aftirmation of Uod, 
and at tile aaoi^ time a etep towarda the hs^i\" And 
In chix iiniver^fdUinj; of tiis will and aetivitio< tlier<^ itt no 
lose of bia individual jkeraonal life; k i« not merged in the 

tButrtt inkiite$. I. -W^. 

' M Annld^ Lilararurf tind 


Cajnbridtff Tf^eologtcal Esaaya 


Univerea) with wlilch it ia reconciled Afi a Lutheran diyjno 
Qr^ea, man is dlsdnct &om God, both in hia Un and iti the 
jirocj^Mn cif n-rjiiirilintiott, "The tt{?|»iru1.inn }>et^veeii (.J(k] anil 
falku tiiati, li(f»t>ver A\Lti\t and ^nrat it may l>e. iIol-h ik^I annul 
for tlie Oinntinii ci>TinaioiiKiitu« tliu FACt — iiLrlirvdlnhlj- IkhiikI 
up with iU very cxietciicc — that even tbU fallen man ia atill 
U*>d'd otli^pring iiinl croat<Hl f<>r (jod ; thnt Iir, in tliin condition 
of acpamtioEi from 4iod, rcULins the capcibilitv of reccirin^ 
iriHiience^ fhmi Cod, so that GcmI can come to he for him, 
even a§ ho was oiic-e and in liJn\«e]f f<*v God...,Howtrvtr great 
the chan^ may be which lakes place by the Chriritianiaini^ of 
(In mUtiral timti, U> wliaicver i^xtoTii this effci^t ir* |jnnli»-*'<l l>y 
the objeetivi; fHTtiii'M i1' the 8pintnal witrld, it i^ htill hitiiiati 
life and htnnnn l.huught, hdu fvhidi the Diniie Lift! and Uie 
Dirine Thought cnt^r.. ,Jt is likewise eurcly a fn<:t> that the 
m^n wlu) !uiH tkccoino (>hrifltian ie not flonaible of hoing tlieroby 
cstmri^ed from the human nature of which hu wits before 
conAcioiiH an hiA ovrn; on the contrary, he feelB that by 
a chjLngc tu himself he has paH^od titrough the evil tendeneieii 
of his human nature to its truth, and Iwcome coMrtckniHly what 
in ri^alit> ht^ ulwaVA wiu H,iid waH inti^nded to Ik^V" By 
ChrUtian exi>erience Uiere ariHef* *'n ehnnge in the centre 
of gruTity of |»ei-^DViaUt)^" but thi^ change takch place within 
the sphere of self-canecioua activity; there i« ccrtilmlc l:)oth 
aa regards the personal will, and about the proccsa of coming 
hito liannony Avith the Universal Will "We have the faculty 
of knowing Uod But God ib a living reality; and the know- 
ledge that we have of Him, if it ia reiilly a knowledge of God 
mid not an abstraction pnt in His place, lives in ue, Wc 
acc^iiire the knowledge of Gu<l ^a we aetpure Uie knowledge 
of a friend by living hiB life, by penetrating into his intimacy, 
by becoming himself. To know God it is nccc«ary to 
resemble Him, und we know Him in the dej^oe in which wo 
redumltlc Him. When we make prosfreaa in tlic kin>wlcdKO of 
God it is time to eay that God gi-owa in ub.. . .^"hew He ia in 
OB, it IS not we who tneliion Him, but He w1u> fashions u& 

^ Fh n, R. Frank, Syirtfrn dtir cKriittkhen Gai^tMthsit, i. 78 (CIvk'a 
TlM^laglttJ Library), W. " /&w£ (aarlt). Kw. 

Tiw Vhrixtian Staiidptnni 


Dnt ID our life of personal Ereedom lie docs not feflhion us or 
grow ib lis, except in eo for o« wc conacnt\"' TUc Uhridtiaii 
coiuictoiittiiivw iH not aati^lied to tiiimc- (iciiLoimtnttions of the 
OXMteiicc of a God VVhoHc cbamctcr is unkno^ii^ it Bocka to 
penetrate i[ito ilie nature uf the Ctod \Vhu han brought Himself 
iuto relatiotiHliip wiU: h hiirnHii personality. 

2. In the Tiufite WH}' L)ie j[netitioii 3UA Uy tiow Ui deimiiLStnite 
tile exiMtonirt* nf ntlirr inU^tli^rnci.w er-uMeA bi 1»e of miicli 
intercAl whcik we are eouccnicd to know, aa fi pi-iiL'lJcal tliin;^, 
irhftt attitude we rmnwlve* tiike towanl^ them in «ur inner 
eonadouflncds. Hovr arc our activitica directed with regard 
to th<^niY Are we [catiHJled with thi^ mere cgoiani uf the tmin 
"who »*upposc8 hiimolt' t> L>e a centre in which oTcrythiiig 
iM united and to which it R'turnrt? He po«eB hi« inditi duality 
W the absolute till whidi cverjtldiig dcpeiid&,._He profei»e« 
that he (tnly exists l>y hiiii>4tdf and i^iitiieef^ fcir hiitmelf, urid 
thiiH he awerU hliriHelfnt ihee3t|>enseuf everythiEij^ else, 0%w 
tuAT Hay that ho ti^eatA himself as constituting the L'nivei'sc 
and willn tlial everything sliuuld be hiH and exist for him*.'" 
OUier intelJi^enee't art; fur ii,s whut we ct^nc^cnt that they ifhall 
bcoomo ; wo may tz^^ to i^rnore tfiom, or we may reco^iflo 
them \\» partiLken^, like oar^elves, in the power of laying down 
law ninversal 

From thiM |iof»t of view tlie world doeii not ap|>en.r merely 
ft« a ii)'^om of phenouiena, or W4 thin^ of whii^h onr h^ 1.h<t 
rentrc It apjiean«a-«4 a system aF Imifigi*, eai:li of which in in 
a manner a centre, altliough all are intcrconneeted together. 
There ie a complete chango of persiwctivo^ ; "and the exititenco 
of other Intel ligcncce^ ia ukj lon^^ felt as a limitation 40t on 
oui^elrea^ but as a ephere whoro wo rocogniee pririlegea and 
reip4kTir^ihilitie^ that add eompletoneei^ to perBonal life. Tlieee 
moral relati'tniJlnpN are congmetit with the suggestions which 
we f^et from refleeting on Uie phenomena nf obe^rvcd and 
rpcnrdKl eijierience, but they have their certitude in tht 
nmmier in which they are felt, and they come into clear light 
as the proces."^ of Christianising the pemonal will goes on 

^ La BerthonnlArck qp. cA. Tfii 

• ibid.^ 

> Ibid.WL 


CatHbridffe Th^vtiffficai Enmyif 


incTOAMingly. Wc dt> T«>t Lwgin by IctHmiiig Go<l. or by know- 
in}^ ourselrett aiirl other existeiicea as they ai'e. ft U to thla 
wr li'n<r mid it ii Ui thin thul wi* iinglit U\ I<Hik iim ii ^mP," 

3. PorHiiiial Hctivity in kuoAii with l\\\.- fullo^t ftif?aMure 
of certritiiile witliin ttw Mphcre of t«lf-cun scion hi il-w, but it i» 
not confined to the inner life : it is exlernalJK'<] ; and tbc 
ChriettuJi cuDsoioiifiicmt (;xi>roAhcs x\mi\{ in the world uf pbo- 
nomeiiiw P aith without works i:^ dejtd ; and tlic whole history 
of the (^liriritiiiTi (Imrcb i^ the flU»ry t>f die «tru^lc of the 
^ith once dcdivored to the eainta. not meroh' to mtiintAiu 
iteelf in pious hearts but to show itwlf to the world in the 

\\\i*> M\i\ ntt4.'nUKreH of Tiieti. Huwever i'ht?c|U4.-rt^d \\l^ pilli:<r4.^r4H 

miiy birr liut-n, iU effwtivciiwrt h\ hnMiiij^,^ u]i new iilailK, in 
moulding individual liven, and ruHtifyiir^ human fitHiltutinnH 
<iuiiiotr W <!xpl]iitK'd nwuy. In the liujc of all the ^vitnliLU 
which were the <ii*j*rntee of Italy in the fifteenth eentury, 
and in opposition to the glorification of bunianiem which waa 
then citrn.nil, S^voniinil^ eonld ^till |>c)iiit to u living witneHM 
of Diviite Power pi'CM^nt among men. He fi^iriNl the niarcb 
of IIjih Power <iri wirtli iim the jirogreiw of fliriHt thr»iiglt 
all th(^ world, rnrtvuinl with (honiN, yiit rettplcudciit in the 
light of the DiWiic IVinity, and holding: forth in one hand 
the (TiK-i and inpitninienlH of lli^ pa^ion, and in the other tli^ 
Hcriptnrcc which record liio divine niosea^o to the world'. 
The car, on wiiich He waa bonio, watt drawn in triumph by 
the sp<>Htlei4 »nd liernlcief! by Oic prophetic, and enriched 
hv the martyrs and doctors and saints of all a^^, while mul- 
titndrK nf irutnkirtrl followed In iU wabi? and nmrknl how 
o|i|>OHilh>n iif every Lhid wan rniKlit^l an it H<lvaiiciMl. For the 
evidoiieeof this Power he referred not *iU theeventeuf aiU^lant 
pofltr but to the familial' phenomena of liia own day. ^' Since 
tiling which are present l»efore our eyes are more imst- 
worthy aiul reliable thou bj-gono oeeiirreneof*, we will put 
in Uie fi:»relront thone ar^imentd for the Christian fkith which 
rcift on t)ie deedj^ coiu^Uuitly rioeri in the liveri of C-hrifltiaim in 
the Church*" — not of the unwrjrthy, but ijf real C^irUtianw. 

* ibid. IM * n in'ovi/o d6lla (voat, x, 1. 

' U hrifn\fff^ u. proem. 


The Christian Stafidpoint 

Be poime'l to the devtitioii o{ -wjuIb who divirtME " in turn fco 
Gud, to Ktibmit t liciiifi^t Ivcx Ui Mini AtuI to ha made lite Him, 
Htiit tn M>ek to (/ut4;r hii^t Win blc^wefliieQaV' ^'^^ to the Uvetk 
of mt?n, w<Mii('ii. »tmI HillilrtHi, in :i1l niiikH iif rt<;cioty, iiiHpinvI 
hj <.'IiriHtiiii> liitiK- himI i hurit^ \ AthI hiiire Iizb clay, tlitT^^ Iiah 
been abmidaitce of «ue)i evidence in the exteiirtiua ^rtlie aren 
of ChriMcivldin, ami from time t<> time in rdnvigoml^d in- 
tcnuity uf conviction. This waa apparent not wnly in Luther 
and OUviii, hnt in the Iwroe^^ or tbt' <xiuntur-ltofi)niiat]oii,^ 
or ID Hwh tli¥fr«u iiiovt^nioiiu um the Hhp of MytlvMliwin and 
die organising of the Salvuiion Annv. Tlie vigoiv^ii^ power 
<rf CbrUtian T>eHt'f, aini»ng tht Moelal ci.>ri<litioni4 of morlt-m 
tinif« nnd in Hpito of witlifipreHfl inilillffrtnu'e, in |>aU.*rit nnd 
(vliTJoiiH. lAkv aii_v utiit-r iihenooienoii It Lleiiin.ik[]^ an rx- 
plaimtion, aiid no cxphvnation can W ade<|uatc unlc™ it UikeA 
account oi tiie die<1iiR-tive fc&turca of the t(>6tem undtr coii- 

(I)ridtkan activity, art the expre^^ion of Christian l>olicf^ 
ha* much in common with other fomis of reli^out* life, but 
\iM dii^iinciivo irnitrt may Iw nn*rc utiHily brought <»nt by 
eom]MriiL^ it Miith tlie Judainin from whidi it Hprun^ The 
ChriKtiJiik to whom thi.' fi<»n|)(.'l i[its«iij:i' i* a reality will oft^'n 
winfa to Ijcar tuitlmoiiy to the tiiith which ha^ taken hold 
of him. It wait :«(> ainoTite the fin^t dit^ciplctt, ainl the wime 
tendency reappears in niiKlem itcvivals. But tliia ta not 
a mere eJipri-Won of pei^^tinal enthnHia^iu; nus^ioiuuy ellort 
Is characteristic ti the (.'brislian comniunity ; thctrc hna been 
from Uie <*nrlii,Kl, day* or>rndj*Hl effort to ditl\i>k.' the f.lirifttian 
bith tliroughout the vt^rld. and ti> plnnt the Chitrcfi in every 
rcf^DTL And this luvolveh a coTw-eption of a divitie sodety 
n\yi'n c«rth to wi)idi tlic .lew*' vrvvf ^tranu;ers. So h>n^ as 
iJie divinely niiinlitulcd realm was conceived of Oji territorial, 
and lyinif round nut: ^^iK^cial eenlir, there could t)e little ejc< 
pectation tliat the (jcntilea wonld l>onctit, except Infiircctly. 
by a nmni testation of divine tri(nnph\ Tlie new idea of the 
iLtn^om of (fod ae a Hipintmd rtsitui in which men of all mceg 

» JM.n. I. ■ /Wrf. IL7. 

> ludiUi Ix. 

C. T. S. 



Cainbridgt Theological Easaya 


and countries could participate Mly, underlay the |>o»aibiU^ 
of auch mlailonary effort aa thnt of ?>t Paul- Dk' ptxfwiua- 
tion of tlic M'MJit' nf i« tliity mit nicroly to maintain the light, 
but to 4Tin\]r<f3 it» is clianu-'t^rUlSt! of ClirlHtlazilty \\\ x\\v |ir<*!«eiit 
*w ill ninijy |uwt aget*. uml we rivii trncc it Iwirk tri the ilulinite 
char^ which waa given by oiir ijoni to the A[H}AtleA. 

Wc may ahi> fiml tJiat whik there is much in common !» 
twocn Ohriatian flcriicca aud the uttfmuccfl of Jcwisli ^Icvo- 
tion, there iti one aorvLoo vhteh Ih flietinutivoly CliH^tian. In 
the Holy Conimninoii a perpctiial memorial of the Sacrifice 
of our Lord iiai^ lx*oo niaijUfuiieil in all aj^ee of the Church ; 
it te«tSfi«ii to the undkiin^ii^ belief that it is in uniou witli 
f.linNt that rwriinrilijitioii with 0*h1 han lMfC4>me juifwiMi* fr>r 
no, And thus we can trace thiH (rpiiitual force, jtej-sist- 
ing na A living powci' thruugh many agea, till wc find ite 
ori^n in an uniipie i>ersi>nnlJtyH It ts in the work and 
wordcf of our Lord Efjnjnelf that the Christian conMriouHUdM 
hna itfl m<)8t purfet't eiprewion ir the worliJ of >ii>ftcc and 

4 Before tluA umqn« per«otm)ity we stand on the ihnw- 
hold of tht^ very Holy of Holier; we can but i-wall what He 
has tidd 116 of Iliin.'^df a« it liaa bc>eii tradJtionallj recuniod. 
There wad in llim a double ccnacioitgnct^ ; on the one iiand 
the understanding of all human froilty. the comprehension of 
all human KJri^ the weakne?^ of a hunmri body, the huiilationM, 
afi it tieem§r of hnman cognitiou.—nnd all ther^e mark Him 
aa the Son of Man. Yet there was aho a sense of perfect 
harmony with thr Iiuivfrmil Will, mi ihnl. He found Hi« triiu 
refrt^hment In comniuiun^ with (hxl, \V\v^ aatbltion in Het^lting 
to please Him ; it wm in fItHi that tlie true centre i^f Hi^ 
earthly life lay. And tlic con*ciou* reconciliation, which 
obtained in liia own person, waci the inapirattou of an ai^tivo 
lifiM Uc sought by word an<i deed to 3>et f^irth the truth that 
lived in Hiui 8o that it might p<»s8eee th^? lives of all othor 
men, and that they tor) inigfit btn^iune, couMciou^y nnd com- 
pletely, the wins of God. In Hl« i.-arth1y Hojinmnng and 
pa^ion Ue suundt<d the OepthN of dejii-adaLimi ; In \\\h re^m- 
rection Ho Dianifefttcd tlie Divine Power to break the bonds 


The Christian Standpoint 


of aln and d«^th- By thta declaration of the actual rcocm- 
cjliatton of GchI n^ml nmu in IIih own pci-uoriality He cpciiod 
to aM incm tbv hupe of bec-imlni; whnt He is. By training 
His AjKi^lJe*. liy eriiliiiii^ Uiem with Hh Spirit, I>y iiLKlitiitiiig 
ribcv whirli hnvr Ijccn [M:T^».-tii»tt*(l in tlie Churchj llr g^ivo 
the objectJTc me^iiA dirouj^h which the life tlmt dwelt in 
1 lim iniiciit Ix- tniiirtfijwfl t(> iill future generations. This Wiw 
His eltbrt ; thi^ was what Ho claimed to do; and a gix^t 
inultitnde whom no man can number liave i«ot to thuir aouIs 
that He is true, Aincc they have foiin<l that Hie i^ the way 
that leadd, in their own pcn*oiial ox|K:rjcnce, to re<^ouciliatioti 
with God 


L If wo tuni from dwelling on the life and leai-hin^ of 
our l>>rd pcrsfinally, I*) u nurvuy t>f the rcUjri""* hirtory of the 
world, the Christian conflciouanMs cannot bo satisfied to take 
tho negative attitnde of the mere ^iK^ctalor Tlio point of 
vk'w from whiiih we Im^k, (»r the uLcituile of mind wo lulopt, 
must alToct the rtMull^ nt whkh we arrive It is of course 
|KM)i]h1e Ut riiMinl-tin h purely ndentlfle >itani][x>iiit in n^^ml 
to the Literatun? and history irf miy rrlfgion ; to aim at a 
clenr apprehenMtm of all fJie UicidentA. and at obtaiuiug a 
rcprracntntion of the piwt. But to the Christian coni^cionn* 
ncfla it dm* not i+ccni worth while to try to restrict the 
excrciw of the coj^ttivo fecullies in tlii» way. It cicHircA 
to arrive not merely at an Apprehension of each particular 
phenomenon hi relatiofi to other plionomena, but at an appre- 
cistton. We may try lo appreciate any incident, or document, 
ai regards iu Ni^nifltance, — ae^ fur exauipl*^ iu* hn|H>T-tATiee 
witJi r(?fcrrnre ti> the intoreHt I'f the studrnt. r^iilijetXively. 
ur olyeeitvely iti rt^gnnl to Uie niilvtsme of which it U a |Hirt. 
Md the purpose* which niu tlmxt^h the whole* ; but Hpprc- 
ciation cndcavourH to take aoconnt of relatione witli which 
mere appreheriHion cannot pret^ind to deal. When we appre 

' W, HomuMin, Ditt fitiig\mi in F^AO^tnit turn W^ltrrkfnnm ttnd 

3— a 


Cambridge Theologictd Essaiin 


b«ii<J aiiy ptietiometioii, wo can dcAcribc ita occuiTnico tn 
flpacc and tinkc with procisioti. [OiiJ Mtittc it(« roliitiun uuf 
consequent on, or antocedent to» other groups of phoiiomcnA 
40 IU4 to dL'tuniiiiiG it8 eauae anr) etTecUi ; but we cunuut pro- 
Domice on ite iiTtp<.>rt nr atgiii^cniice or wortti, iiiiK'W wr<^n 
lipply tu it inline i^orict-ptiou of hii fiirl Utuartlft wIir-Ij it la 
temliiig, «r R imrpose Ui wbicli it givts (jflcrt^, ntj Ibnt wi- may 
b« ahlu to a|i{ire€iAtc it The doctrine of deTclopmcut i» an 
fittcmpt Ut appreciate the r^igjiificaTice of i.-»u;h aiiiinatv f<inii 
with reference to life as u whole, hi the study of tfic pheiio- 
mt^a of eiiiiHcioud lifL\ it it« [^Kmblc to j^et a ru'ji'^ iiitiiiiiLto 
iK'fiitaintaneo with the c<>hercTjce of the wevvml pj^rbs imd u 
more definite view of their eonncxioii into one whole. The 
idi'h i>r end jmd ]»uriMi*e i« iilmfMt Tiw-'ttawJirily ininxhicod ; 
the whole i^ Hi^cqrti^hT of » li-lenhigieul inlerpreLatioa aad 
we i^w get, tioL ntvri-lj at an aiil^^leiit and <-o]i^t-i|iien1, hut 
at the reofwns for any chiiiiyx'* It woittd be to niiu the mtM. 
fruitful ro«ult« of the study of moral aiid rcligioue pbcuoincnd 
if we should diKpoti[<K; with rJl utlvrnptH lit apprerifition, ami 
reBt satisfied with taking the phenonieiia into the vaeuity of 
the empty niinrl. There must he an active jiidgoiaorit, witli 
refei'onee to ftnnic xtJindiinl or iiLjtHt:, if we are to jjaiw from 
mere appreheiHion t-i appreeiiitioii. 

It Its of (-iHiiTwt, pohMlilr Xi\ appreciate saered lileraturo 
with reference to tUfterent Ktandar*K or (v\m\ diflenint ]K>inl« 
of view. It nnty be conaidertd Atin|ily a« re^ni* ita artistic 
value ; the sucecM whieh attends attcmpta Uy c.vproAS the 
deeii&it htmmti feeling — the tragedy of hunuui life in all itA 
grandeur. I'liere may lie a rritieal judgement li* to the skiO 
ahowiL by a parUcuiar jjoet in the employment of nietru, or 
jtot U» the numner in whidi a dMwietie writer handles hid 
theaie. Tiie 'ilivhte library of tht' (jM TejiUinient ' iind "tlw 
MW^retl iKiokjt nf the East,,' tH*enpy a htrge plaee in thr lite- 
rature of the world, and we can ajipreeiate tvich lurt with 
reference to artif«tie lieauty ami liWnuy Hkill Frt^ai tins 
point of view the liible is aa epic of the worhL " it unrolls 
a vast punorama in whieh the a^^'cw of the world move l>eforc 
UA )u a loug train of Holoma inia^*ry, itwiu tlw en^ation of the 


The Chrvdiaa Sta^iidpmiU 



wirth wid the heavetut onward to the finul piuttliL^ uway of 
hII titin maLeri;^! iinivi<nH< »iii) till' (Miming of a nc-w heA,ven 
and a now cai-th wliereiii tilmll dwell i%liUH»iiHiti«s. Agninat 
this gi>rgfoua tiackgronnd, tliiM uver shifting wwiierj, rmw 
bright with the hues of li^Aven, ntiw lurM wilh the gbire 
of hcU. wo 000 maiikiiHl sirulLing and playing their littlo port 

oil the iTta^ TJitH may not be »4cicnco and hit^tory, but 

it ifi at lea^t ail impre^ive |in^t>aiit, a tttatcly dnuim: with- 
out nietuphor, it ik iii»bk^ litcruturo; and like all uoblo 
liU-ratiirp it is fltt«d to delight, U> <^lovatL\ and to CHJiiwdi* ^" 
TliJT< niiMli? iif 9Lj»jir<T<ri}Ltinn ilnop' not «<xelndr llit,* npprai^ing 
of »»cithI liu-mtnrc frmn oth«r iKiiittn of vi^w a^ well; we 
BBj ooDftider it not unly fnnii tlie HUtnd|>c»int of thi- ArtpiHtic, 
bat nlso from that of tbc Uhriatian conacioiuiicsa, and oitiin&to 
it with r«A|>ect, not U^ itn fonu. but to \\a <^>iitvnU From thid 
pofait of view, iho really im^rtuitt ftwrt i** timt tho literature 
It rell|(toi]a. and deaU with the rolatk^ns of God and malt. 'I'hu 
Christian iK^cfiptA the revc-laiiuiL of Ood in t^hrift hm giving us 
the moHt coTn[ilet^ view (►f thc^e iTlatioim Hrt they are, and 
tliu^ han !i jil^MJiliird by which bj "p|iryciati- Uil- truth ormiy 
flBCTcd writing. How for in it true, not laen^ly hh j^uprunenting 
the [lant, but an .netdiig fiiitii tlit? relatione that Aulmirft Wtwr«n 
tiod luid iniin ¥ 

S. From th« \mvi\ of view of tlio simplo Christian iimn 
who rcakje hie Biblo, tiiin is i\\\: ono eon^ido ration nf supremo 
imjNJrtJiTico— the truth of the content of ilie book* uf tho 
Bible aj^ n n^vt^liUiun of thv wuyw of God witli iimiL Ho may, 
accordiiLg l<i e^lucation or teni|>orMnieiLts ^it)d h. doliglit HTid nii 
inu^revt iii the Bihie fur other reiusoiiw, but tliLn ik tlie ^Tound 
whicli unak(!H it worth \\\h while to reail it and get to know 
it lieU'T than any ol.hur lHH*k. \\v. may be susceptible to 
i(ri beauty, or he may not; be may be anxionn Ui ;^t tlic 
mo«t lniImU^ accuracy alniut over}' detail of huigtui^c and 
inddcntt or he may not; hut nmtUrw wiiicb Ulc»n^ to tho 
realm of art aud of acholaivlnp are Hubordinati.^ in liU mind, 
88 compnnnl with the eftbri to appreciate religious truth. 

mud ini^rak yu- 


Cumh^dge Theolvtfical JC^aays 


The Bfble purport* to be a record of the flevdoiitnent. of 
thr rf'ligioiiH conNCTi^tUHtK.^Hii ; 'if iIk* iminm^r iti wtiicK ii choscai 
race ciuue Ui c4>iii[ire]ieiii1 with greater aiid ^eater cleAmcw 
the chftriM?tor of Oinl, uniT th*^ rvhititum uf diifj and privilege 
in whicb tliev Alood to Ilim. It recogiiisca a proHTowiwi 
revelation, lU! God by vtucG<MwiTc (loclamtitnw tnado known at 
dJvorsG timce and in sundry" n^aiiticrs more luul mon* t>f Hb 
Nature aiui Hi* Will U eallK iitl4>ndon to the iinworthinoA 
of the agents aiid the iiui^leqnncy uf the media through which 
these declarations were given at first, ami put on nH-iifd ftir 
our lutirniirg. Hie inability of the agent to iippreiieiid Uke 
f^ill meaning [>r t)ie truth he dec^lared wa« the priHtf tltat he 
did not speak of himself, but was merely n voii!H i]iH]iirGd 
with rt mc8?airc- The nkeHSagc^ took divcrec forme in diflerciit 
a(5» and on dilfcront oecflftitJiJti, The worth of all. whetJier 
JLctiml event, or vidon <^f the ni^ht, or paraiib iipokeiit 
depends on the trnth which it served to set fortli. The plain 
man tit quite pre^mred to welcome SncroiUcM] necuroey iti our 
kn(}wledgo of tliese media as phenomena in time ; he iiL»y 
find thai thv cTirctnol^Hj^ he had aecvjitefl \» ndMUiL^n, ariri 
that the events <if which he reaii^ i«ok place at Hi>me i^tlier 
time or in Home otiier place than he ^npfxinefl Or he iiiny 
find that what he had 3iip]>oBed to be a deHcription of an 
actual event is merely a parable ; or that a jjiece of literature 
evminoiily af<<Tihed to fiome author wn.^ nnt wrttt'cn by the 
man whose name it bears. For t^e mind that i» eeneentrated 
on die ^piritun) Import of the A^ord^ thei^e queatioiu aitik 
into relHtive iMHifrnifleaiiee. It is indeed possible to dispam^^ 
them unduly; Alexandrian (!jmmienlatorH appear to han> 
been rrA4ly to view thr whole of the Old Teslaiiient hiHtory 
aa mere allegory which served tn ilht*tr;iUr ( "hrifttian U'nt1l^ 
But there i» at ail events otic limitation t^i thiA eomjiaratiTO 
indjifercnce in re^ni to the form w1n<:li revelation may lake*. 
The pilory of the litb of IJhrit^t hrw an unique imjxirtaDcOi 
boeaui^e in lltni the eontent of revelatiun Im indiHm:iluMy 
bound up with the [>ariieular tWnn in nhich it wat^ matiifefited 

The Chri$tUin Sfaytdpoini 


to the worH And in accbing to grasp the tonching of the 
written^ lirt of tht* IiKUiniato Wont we dure not treat it as 
ni«^rc)v spiritual to the negkct uf the TK-tiial in pUtx- und 
time. All Increawwl accuracy of laiowle<3ge of the phenomena 
IK til Oie ^iy.ii\, for it iw iilniimt crrtAin to udd to the vividuejis 
of MiDke familiar truth. 

Tlir nwrilt:^ i>f rritirinni nuiv Lhei^fore be thmunghly 
welcome, even wlicn the devout Uhri^tian is repelled by 
lb« inutic hi >iliu'h n^nm: centers exiire^a thtm : to him the 
purc-Jy cnticiLi iittitticle <if mind iniiy »com offcimivoi \\x «o for 
as tt tuTolveti a coiicentnitiou of thought on the phenomena, 
to the apparent diAret;ai'<] of the Hptrit[ml icwiiticaricc. He 
c»Tmi»t isyinirtLlhiiw? whh tlie ab«»rptinn i>f scholars in queBtioim 
of delAit^ which Hceni ti> him rL-Ialively nnhnportaiit ; and he 
rcHrntJt i\\v Jur uf tridilft?rrncr wliudi nomc aHsimiti to the 
^«ligioni^ truth contained in tlio Bihic. ak at least an afttMrt- 
ftttoiL ric fiiidf* it ililhcult to believe that any tH:h(>lar« arc 
roally satistic<) with the meiuci'c result of apprchcTidin^ the 
]A£rH>mena belter without attempting to appreciate Uie 
nKffioiu truth i)S the contetit. 8ti(-h ati attitude "f iiitnd ix 
nnintelli^ihle U\ him, unless the crillct^ hold thiit there is no 
reliKtiiUH truth conuiint-d in the phenoiiiena* and thiit appre- 
htiiMon. without ^ipprrrifttion. i« the only mtrt of study that 
lA (HMaibIc* One point at leaj*t ie clear to him^thjit more 
ftCCUfuttt apprchr^nnioii of the phenomenal U net the road by 
whkh men ordinarily uttiiin to a fuller appreciation of 
n^li|^oua truth. When Uie phenomena ^^hieh i^re recorded 
for 110 were actunlly present \a> the oyc and ear, they did not 
111 and by themi^elves pivduce conviction, Tl^e most complete 
voccc^v^ in tlte rrjiniduction nf the [tUMt would Htill t^how uti the 
erowfln who Mt4>ned the pniphf-Li, or from wlium the Loiil 
liiniciL beOHU»e of tht;ir unbolief. The recojfnition of rea1itie« 
behind the i^ieiiom^in is not brought about by mere obaei'- 
Tation and reflection, but by coordinating recorded with 
pn^cht reli^iinis exiieriunca The mere exercJK^ of the 
cognitive fneultic^ doc$4 not enable uh t^i predicate exiBtence, 
the nnceriainty which attaches to arguments about existencee 
COrruApiuidiiiff to our idea*; utta<:hes iJao to any attempt of 


Cambridge Theological Essays 


tho tnuno<l iiitdlccrt to paw throui^h roi-urdod iiit-icleatM aud 
ntteraoces of the religious i^on^nriuMiieiw uiul Hhc>w ilmt tbo 
alleged rekition^ of i.Uy\ anri thru are real. ^' Spii'ltitttl lhiiig>t" 
muKl, Ik: *' *q»TrttiiiiUy iliaccnieil/^ 

S. From tlie ]>oiiil of vicvr tjf the CljrLMtiaii cdiiKi^KKistic-TiA 
it if4 |)ii?wiS]r Ui rc^acl) a much mure iliacrimiimtiii^ viuvr of the 
trudi and falnity of the other reti)CioELt^ of the worJd that) 
ifroii]<I iithvrwifie be atlAiiittbli!. Ihono wlio relegate religion 
to tt place ainoHh: the wthi^r phonoincra of hiiin;tti viiltiiri? will 
be likely to taki3 a ajnii>athetic position Hjwardi^ all beliefs 
alikci^ HTid flHy that encli ii^ triii* for iho iiuui whu huUlx It^ t.hiit 
it U the fonu of religion which aiiiu him ; but this im|jli€8 
the opinutn that iiu ooniiiioii ^uiiidtird nui 1>e upplitid ; m^i^ii' 
ITcirtii) aw til tht verv esiHlcrncr *.if ri^ligioitH ti-iUh ii<;ciii» ti) Iw 
InvolvtHJ in thif« jtidguuieut. Oil the otli«r hainL from the |Kfint 
of ticw of Dci&td; all the highi^r rolijpimj^ wcR^ rognnleii as* 
ciHscntiall> true, and all other I'cligiona qa merely false. But 
thu UhriHtian, «vho [tceeptii^ thi; n^velation niadi; in the i>cn^>ii 
of Christ as tlie futteat statement |>osslb]e of tike relations 
of God to ijmn, haji » ^taridanl tf> apply fi other belief; an<l 
M* he npplie« it» he fli»U thnt eiieh of the other ivli^c^n'* of 
the world Iijih sriiiie elemeiitn of tiuth, und t^iteh hii^ hIni j^ouiu 
ct1cnirnt«« of falMrhnod. 

The atfimdc of St Pnnl towards the rdi^ong with whicli 
he eaine In contaet alfords an admirable illiLftnition uf the 
<JhriFi1.ijLij ptmitioii. He rccognifled the trutli of Judaism; he 
held tliftt the Law wa** a tnie expnwHinh of riodw will, and 
that the Eien>ie of ^iillt which it evokei) w^ a true ri*t1ectiou 
of the Divine horror of sin. He held that the divinely ordaiEied 
»caenfii!eT4 had jirovidivl iriean* l>y wliii?h the Khmer eoiild Iw 
n-wtored to hin pl/we in tht* eommtinity of the fRithfnl, and that 
they gave a dim exprensiim of the faet that (Irrtl is witling to 
forifive; but Uiat they could n«ver cleaiiHc the coiincieitce fmm 
%\\\, and were ther<jfon; inndi.*[piate to make a dompictc recun- 
ciliatioTL Thi^ true but incomplete knowledge of trod and 
Hint will liad been exiti'csiied In forms which were inade^piate 
t4» Nerve it> tlie medium iif the ftdl exprtuuion of the* truth ; 
tliat had at hwt btx;n given iu the peiifim of Jchus Cliririt Hy 


The Chriaiian SfandpoirU 

rafercTu^ di Him it^ wun jMnHibk to Ntv Uiiit llit- belieHi em- 
bodied In the woiT^hip aw\ pnicticc of tlic Isiuclitcrt were true ; 
Ixit the; wuiu- U^t which ci>ntirmcd the tnith itcoiit&incd con- 
rictcd Uniel tif t^rnir and uf tiiJnity. Bluniiic^ hwJ liap(tuitc<l 
unto his couutntnen. In ^n tiir iLe ihey persisted in their 
uttnchmerit to tlie ol<i fornia of religiour^ truth, and reptrdi?<l 
Iheni Wi <!8Kci)t]»l, ihi-y wero hi ernir ; the whole of the 
painful eontrovertfy in whJch tie wati involved with the Onla- 
tiahtt wart ihfT fniil id' thih enxir. In mt (nr ns tliej werti nut niily 
UDiiiily fittjiched lo thdr n:Ug>i>iif* tnulitionfl. biit rcjectiMl 
the Christian revelation and peiiwcuted the dii^eiplc^— aa ho 
hiiUMrlf hml dou&— the opiniona of the Jewit were falec. It 
won impoi^ihle to say oHluLLifi whether Judaism w«m to be 
approved a* tme or condemned a« false : but it wa^ |>oMMJbl«j 
Ui K.p]ily the loiiohi«tune of fuitli in ('lirUt, tint] to fimii n 
iliHCTindiiatiii^ jnd^enicnt iw to how far it wan truen how fat 
vmiTitsiiiH, and iii»w fur f»1«& In » HiinJhir f>i>liiuii when lie 
tnmcd to the Gciitilua. lie tried to f&iteii on any cluniciit of 
truth in their rclig:ii>n« 8Uoh im the belief hi ft Ood of nature, 
vhile 3'et he denounced the forms of their worship. &nd 
sought to awaken thcni to their uced of re|>entauou imd 

The growth of r^li^ons kiiowled^ in the world huA ooti* 
MfattAi] hi Uit? gradual pfi»ihig from u more to n Wan itDjierfeet 
ftppivciAtion of GikIh relatioui with mniL llie phui^ett of 
Itni^refH tii tJte world lis*, n whoht ure [m,ni1le] IhO thoMi; in Mie 
dcTo!o(m>ent of the individual i>:)nmouHnef«i. It ih in Uie 
tl)£ht of tilt hmer lifr thjit Uk' exterujd hmtory lic/otiieH mifp^t 
intelligible. Tlie individual pawte-^ fiiriik knowledge of lkimM.^lf 
QA l^iilty, to knuwlod):^ of himi^olf na reconciled, tut he learns 
to appreeiidc* mava truly the churiLuter of the I^uwer tiut him- 
sdf that tn^oH for nghteuU)4U4?H8 : sli^<I t\wn^ Utw been a 
shnilar advance by the nice hi (he capacity foi* apprehen<lin^ 
Uiu ehantrtiT 'if OihI. Thr poHMibility of rlmiigi^ and gn>wMi 
atnon^ men ai'i'<jnnU f*n- tlm a|j|iHrenL irH^fUHipteney iif the 
«lclncnt^ of truth aWut liod which arc recorded in the Itibtu 
lb* ^dven in dittrrcnt penodn. Kvcn thoujih (Jod i* the name 
iu all 0^00, unchou^ni; and etuiiiaJ, latuia ability to ifruHp 


Cambridge Tfieotogtctil Egm}fg 


tbo Divine traitfl broupbt wiihin hia co^Bauce has improved ; 
linowletlge h^A liic^rBBfied:, oh th« powtjr of nppreciittioii liaft 

It may Ix- ilifRciilt even f«r tlie recipient tf) ilfcscnlw t1i« 
prmritip incide-ntfl through wliidi a ti«w tnitJi hns lir^t flnHbrtl 
on anj human mind. Tlie Bible at leaHt giv«« ufi a rivtd 
presentation of cilcJi etji^o of progress, lu thu atory <>f 
Abraham an early pba^c of roli^oDs consciousness ia clearly 
portruyufl, siwt^u wo hnd in hinj u ro^rnffnilion of God oa an 
unchanging: Will — and tbcrcft*rc as One who niif^ht be IruMled 
utterly and entirely. The aacrednes* of the most solemn 
ugrooment Iii^wl*l*ii nmn and man, or lietwet?ri tribe and tribe, 
symtKiliMExl the relialiilit^' wliich he felt to attnch to art ei- 
prcawton ttf tlie Diyine Will. Amid all the uncertainties of 
human life — the idtemativca of plenty and fhmtrie lu hcwwds 
ehiin^, the niiiv:hief wrftu^ht by nnfinendly noighboura, the 
imminent extinction as it seemed of his ruec and ufunc — 
there wag something, I^ome t>iie to trust to. In the horror 
of a great darkness this aspect of Uod's chunieter wa$ 
made known to Abmliatn : and the faith which ^pnrng up 
in hi)i hi'urt rendered him the prL^eiirxor and jini^*tiiu»r i>f 
counttevw nnjItitndeH who Itnve lome after him and have 
tbared in a like faith. To W delivered from c«ni"tiuit iin- 
ccrtftinty a« t^ physical conditionA, or the action of jealoiiA 
rivaK by having Some One to tnwt tA in his life and beyond 
hi?4lifc. — that wuti the Inith of Abraham; mid it is still cheriBbed 
b; many who do not profess or call themselves Christiana. 

*'Jl fortifkifl iiLV Bull] III Itnciw 
Tlint tlnji^rh 1 i^rUh, tnith is su; 
Thut, htiwBop'c^r I utmy anrt rangt', 
Wbfttc'cT 1 do. Tlioij dnnt net change* 
I lUwliirr Htv|i wti4ui I TtyanW 
TJmt Itiougli J allfi. Vixnw d<«t noi taXW 

However the tribal history may be reconstmetcd, we cannot 

but feel that another trbep in the human power of appre- 

eiating hivine tmtb and a flirther wlvnnee in knowlc*fge of 

0(>ii are uiiirked in tlit? Itibbchl iu.-coiiiil ut the giving of the 

1 A. y, Cl»u^, Punu and ProM iUmaim^ IL 01, 

The OhrUiian Siandpoinl 


Law. The tribes ihat hud <leec«nded from the patriarchs iind 
^^rowii up iu tlie tnulilicii or revurctidn^ UimI (l« im Uiihix^ii 
Reality : at Sinai thej «uiie u> know Him aa a Pi-e^etit Power. 
Moites aM%iidt:d the !^lotint which w&h tut earcfitllr ^anltxl 
^iD intrusion, and fix)tu which the thundering Mid tlghtning^ 
omatiatAMl, and froui it lie brought t}it Law which the Ett^nial 
(iod had yfivt-'ii for Hit [i^^ofile h<»rt\ In the Ten Com 
intuidtntnU, accept(^d under Buch circumstances, ther^ w»^ ii 
conscious union of reli^on with mopaJlty, sloce there wan an 
itwixtfnrr nn thf^ liAhiUtid [H;rr<»niikncf of cert^iti iliitiiw Ht> 
the command of an [Huccn Ood ; the eufori^eLiicnt of the 
petmlty «f »iii fciliowcd tlic dinregnrd uf breai^liiw nf thefie 
dudcri Ur man. It waa a rcve!ftti<>n tn- i\ta^ nieii Ut Icaiii to 
think of l.ioii not uLcrely il» the Supreme UcuLity witli Wluim 
iu DO varinbleniMiiS nor shadow of turning but aa one who 
takes such accotitit of His creuturos aa to deinarit from them 
regular and hiihitual coniplifince with Hin i-i^litcouM Will 
TUm now aiipnOK^tmiitn of tljc relutitiri in which i.hti\ nUuids U> 
m»ii could not liut taring out tlie rmfclmat Ipctween the ('rviilJir 
and the crcatm-c- On the one side the people rc-cngniwcd 
(lod, iDfiiLitc and all-liol^r, yet mo near, with these tremendous 
hi^Fi of Ui^ immediate presence ; and on the other wiia man, 
conr«cione uf nhi and frailty in his puny life, and crushed by 
th«f Tfeniiie that Uod was making Hinu^elf felt to eye and «ar. 
Thrnu^'hovit the narration we et*c that the humnn c(jiiMch"u*- 
tH*Ai of ]kin hii^ tx-'eii awakened in iti^ fidlest fomk, a ^^nse of an 
iitt«r iinwcirthiiiewi to ^tmu} lH?fiire the aearehing v:\tt, or fiu^e 
tht* fM'rfeirf ri[Ie of God Himself, ftuch &fl the patriarchs had 
not fell'- At Mount Sinai man could not but reeo^'nisc his 
bclplMnieas and his uselessiieaa; the people almink irttm 
$a<i\ ft revelation in at) ita appalling splendour, and bo^ou^ht 
HoAOA to shield tkom frotD tho prceeucc of God and tlie glory 
which manifeated it 

"We nM\f\ that, centuries latf'r, another jfreat st^op wo** taken, 
when the human race bad advanced ifUfHciently to be able to 
Irftm more of the elianu^ter i»f (htd. Tliere was a little coni- 
|jaiiy In ati upper ttunn at Jeni>uJem uf men who liiwl lui^n 
tmineil by imcraiurse with Ilim Wliom tliey rccogiiiaed as 



CamMdge Tfniologieal E^mys 


tbc [ncttmato Son of <jJod, wh» JiimI tiocii ilosDlatcd by a (creat 
sorrow, and f^ladd^ned by an unlfxjkodfor re^tonUina Wtiea 
tiw Diiy <»f lY'Titet^uat was fully L'ariL" ttity were able to appre- 
ciate the new reveLation wbich their Maslc^r ha^.l pniTuiiwI 
tbt^ui, Juid Ut find 111 God, itnt tuerely ah lTiLFit>4.m lUnlity, itiit 
wdy fi I'rwt-iU. Piiwei; hnt h IVi^imal Hrl|j. Tlwy fijiiinl in 
tliemhtrlvtci tht; fulfilment of the itrtmiine that ("hrJAt would 
send ft Hpirit <d" Truth Who ahotild abide with them fnr ever ; 
thjxtugh Him tlie ijclp they iwcded wimld be eupiilted: aud 
dot^fijto tlio woiUiuc^ which diHcaun^ctl mid dmtiitcd thcin, 
they WfJiiJil l>e miutAitie*! by the Lord and (.iiver of Life- G<kI 
bad at len^h revoaTed HiDi^elf ag willinc; ftnJ able to ti'&ria- 
furra ejtch fruil huin;tii lieiii^ by Hi» Powr^r iut4) Hiii own 
lik^Tiew^ Hnd thuH fit them ti> bu tu Hii4 PreKenci* etern&U^. 
On WhiUunday the Apn^tlefi iittidiivd to riimtinii cttnHirioit^* 
iicea and to the fidl knowledge 4>f Uod in ilia rclatiouj^ Kith 

The various phofics in the development of the rcli|fi<>iiM 
GonaciousneHa. which are wet before ti* in tlie Bible^ stiU ^ubaist 
in many |iiLrt« <if th(> worhl; each bui^ it>; trnth, yet eai:h to 
enveloperl in error, or eharged witli fol^ity. It i« the work 
of (.'hriMtH nuitiHtt^e-i toduy. zin It w:lh of tlie AjKintleti al ftr^ti 
to be llib HnilxiwfulorH mid derWe thir true knowledjpa of 
(Jofl wliicb lie has revealed It la their wiiHclom to follow the 
example of the Apontlen. »nd nute tlie photic i>f truth n.ny 
|ie»[tlo fjuvo already ittt^iincd, ami the further knowledge thoy 
are able to apfireeiate, Tlie moa^a^e of i-eeondliation ib not 
wbut iH iieakd by thone who Irav© no conacionNne«M of ain ; tlw 
GonBcioURneBBoffdulnihardlypQ^ible to those who hftve noaense 
of 4[iiritim) realities, whoju* con^dous life U stilt Mmmifrsed in 
nnturi;, 'Hie eva[i^^e]iHat}oi] of th^- worlil (ran milj proeeeil in 
the order tu which Oud juJaplred llintsi^lf in thr revidatioii of 
lli^ uitture and llig will to the world Dnt the motivo to 
make thia cflort and carry on tliifi work rcsto on the ftiiuidfi 
«bli>Oition to deehire the truth of G<id and make it known 
amon^ mvw. Religion 18 an element in human eidture ; the 
spread of higher reliy^oiiti u acei.miiiiiniefl by tlie dilfnpitoii of 
tL kuowk^igu of nobler literature and purer moi-allty. The 

The Chrintiau Standpoint 


HcceptAUce of one relij^on by the trhole hamnn rare* wniilil 
IfH* r».r Ui iliiiiinihli imiMak-l iiiiHitnilerxbiiiidiiiKH urtil t^j bring 
about poux- and onlcr thmtighaut the world Tliew arc 
iitddtnta) aj!vaiila^:ef^ ^likh iimv nccniti in a greaUr or lota 
(tcKrce h\>tu tht- 8iiuc4.'^eiiil irrimccutioii of mii^iotiar^ \vi>rk ; 
but it IB not bocnuee rjf it« uaofuliicBs, but ebiiply bccaiu^c of 
lu truth ibat we flesire Ui dilJutto thu Chriwliwi kiuiwU*^!^^ t^f 
U*xL TliG (Hie object from wlik'h all tbeforcieuiul insijimtiwi 
of niUsionary etTortr^ come » a desire to ilifliiBe the knowledjfd 
(if 1«ihI. ill M lift (-iiti]|<1t'f4^iMv>i, Hit t)]»it all turn tuny rnnio to 
lie rt?<'oiiL'il»d tir Uiiik^ ^inl Uiiih U> lie jMuUikt^m in llic; 
ChristJHn coii^cioiixTK^tvL 


L Tt JH rljitiiiF^l for tbtTdiriHtiHUcotiMt^iiihfiiit^HMtbHt it given 
a point of vicn- from which wc may obUiiiL deeper insight Into 
rctljHoi^ truth : but it has also to do with the activities of 
life 114 well w with tlu.' apprLciiitiun uf the iTUtiorir^ of UotJ 
aiid man. Tiirec-fourthB of rcli^on. aa Matthew AiTiold uaed 
1i« iiir^iMt, lire cuiici^rntvl with conduct and the relntiimK of man 
wiih man. AU thv higher ri^liijioiu (?xemtie nu eunobbng 
Sntln(-iH'e «n maii : there ari? many maxim» nf eimduet *m 
which tliry nrr n^retH\, but it i* worth while to ronijuire 
the point uf view in regard to duty, which i8 taLeti by the 
Christiftii. with tfiat of the Buddliiat »r the TheUL It wouhl 
be absurd t<i tittcnipt to dmcus^ the mcriUi of eibch : tho 
MiccL'w of one man iii living up to bin eoncc}>tioti of life aa 
coDip(irt*<l with the fiulure of others; or th& de^roiw of ^uiit 
which attach to thot^e who liave hud ch^rt^r kniiwlod^c ^t 
before thc'iiL It u merely onr |iftrt to diMtiitgiiinli tht.- t^iliUii] 
HtandjHiinU whidi ari? niUHoiinnt with unt or otti<ir of t!ie 
iitibUrr foims <"f leh^dous belief respectively, 

Tlicrf it^ Tio titfiire that lian ^ul]Ht^:l tnorc dttiotion in 
tho Ka^t than that of Buddhn; and the story of hia life 
cnnnot b^it iipiKvd U* i>ur symiiathieti, and imll furth tributet< 
of adiairalion from the Weeteru world to the Light of Ai^ia, 

46 Camhridgf Thfolttffical Essays \t 

He set furtli in Iiih own per^im a noble mnmlity wliicL vr&8 
dow^ly aflaociated vrith a religion in which tlierv wh^ iu> place 
for 0"(l To tfliuie of hb the very BUgi^tion of & religion 
without a God nccnis to be a contradiction in tcnnH ; bat 
there are others who know that Ibis '^ not ao, l>c<muBc tbey 
httvc folt tlu> ftttmctiun wich teaching <ittera. The personal 
cultivation of devout con^Kiotii^ncss may be pureed a^ an end 
in itwelt There U ao much tuiiiioi] and hurry in tlie world ; 
many iif im w»uhl fain \Ht i|uit of it rII^ and piuw our daya in 
the contemplation of what is pure and nulilti. Tafu in ao 
man)- cftwe* t«eetnrt |>ur|K;»H€lew and empty. The remon^desa 
struggle for wealth itnd honours that arc ranity and vexation 
of dpirit, the fuflflincas that frela over ovorythiiiic nr nothing, 
arc alike tlcepicublc anil tirew>tne. The longing to be quit of 
ft all — aloof from all the irritation and th« triviality— miiy Iw 
fjver whelming. We may try to withdraw witliin ourselves, 
and enjoy the solitude we can create; for the power of aelf> 
secliuion may lie cultivated with gui^ceas, if we devott^ ourwlvcs 
seduloubly to the taek. 

" Aa xrxxj the cor 

IIcaHeiij rurt hoar, 
ThoiijE'li <lni]YiH ifu ni[l and pi;>9i luid ^jmbnli rins, 
8u tliu UiTu oiinnciuELUti of llw butter tliinj; 
tTnfuLt, i^iiwwn. iitiitnA^cd, nil imknnim^ 
Muj' lU \.\xv uiitniiicAd suui micl multituda alono^." 

This delilwnite revolt aguinst the world and all it containa 
— the luHt of the floBh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of 
life — i* raore cona:enial to ihe Eawteni than l^ the WcHtwn 
teniperamenl ; but even in ICngl^nd and America the strain 
and Btre** t>r nuN.lern life have (<hUi^1 furth u rc-actiuTi ; there 
are Hign>{ in many fimtrt-erw f»f tvigemesn to withdi-aw from it* 
And cultivate an inner life. Titi^ ie an echo of iluddhiaoi 
which tiiida cxprc^ion in etmngc theoHophie^ and form^ of 
ecictice falBely ho called. Both in t)ic V^t nnd in the ^S'e«t 
sueh reli^on ]in>i elementnof nr^ble^elf-renunciation, in efibite 
to quench the pauiionft and master the de^irea ; but after fUl 
a self-d'iktred religiun is only coiiHiinant with u twlf-eeiitred 

' A. H. Clon^Jii Ptrerru m»rf /'r*** HtTmfint, it, a*. 

The Christian Standpoint 

tih. We can only cut onraolTOS free from the jicrturbing 
infiodocee that play upon our livea by eupproHniii^ all the tiun 
mi\d inU^TwiM that bhid iib to our feUow-uien^ If we wiah to 
cultivate a high nicralky wc c&imot be mtiHfi*>ii wilh tryiiijif 
ti) ilmw within oitrvdvL'?^ : wliat, we neerl 13 a ttiith that wilt 
taktt ns out of ourKelvea. Aiiil thm we find in the ^<)N{>el of 
the Inninmtion ; the SijIl fjf Man h^d a ]iart iti thr Mimiwri 
and p<:Tplcxitic«> the siiia and the sufferings of our commou 
humauity, and through it all Uq act forth a divine ideal- If 
wc wmild do our tu^k in tlie world rind lend ri life thnt ia 
worth living, we dare not sever ourselves from all tho olahnii of 
others und Hjiend our time in mere quteacenco : tione of u* dare 
8et up the cultivittion and tnviidng of hiti owti eonsciouj^ncm 
aA Lhe supreme oliject of life. A divine Menterice »ti thlM 
aiubition haa been pronounced once for ali — ** He that lovoth 
bis Ufc ihali lo^e it" ; when he han emptied it uf all timt 
ain rnlUc itd ev^urrte, he will find that lie haa narrowed aud 
cramped his whole being, Stdvntion cannot U^ atuindl by 
cutting tiur^elve^ off and hedging ourselves In ; that is merely 
to m»ke u desert 111 our hinirl--^ and call it [K^net^. By will- 
io^itwH to enter inlij the sorn>ws of otliern, afid striving to 
n^joice in thmr plenHurt^j^, tlti; l>eht thiit ijt in u.-^ nuiy \k dmwn 
out and developed, We may find our true lives if wo stiivo 
to bear ono another'cf burdens, and go to fulfil t)ie law of 

Without in any way di^para^ng the earnestness and 
d«votioii of the liiiddliiat ttainb*, we may yet t-eeugiilMo that 
there U a fundamentjil differeTire lM.^ttfeL'n thtt mnnd con- 
fidousnesK of tht- ('hnHtian and of tlui BmldliiriU T\w fonner 
recognliWH a Power which makes for right(Hm«iieM>v while the 
other dikcit not Thorns who me ciatj^ficd with the iianower ideal, 
uid aito lit rtelf-hubjugation aiid self-control may be coutent 
Ut trust to the cidtivution ot i>erMoiial ritrenjcth of will, a** tim 
power that <^an ?ict them free. But if wo are looking out ou 
the world — out on our circle of relatlonft with all the claims 
of mutual dependence, out on thiiwi.^ who are hnuight in con- 
tact with HA thrinigli uiir r^ullingrt, out on tho><u wiio niuy bo 
tnflueiicei.t h_v the maimer in which we diivcharge our duties 

48 Cambridge Theoloffical Essatjg \l 

fta dtiietiB, nut <rti the piwterity thiit will inln^nt tlK^ fruits 
iif iHir lu-I.iouH — tlit^ii wt? call Uuve a \ie\A&t «xin*(alum «f 
ostabli«hin;Q; harmony Iwtvccii «iir livee niid "ur nnrround- 
infff)> if our faith and hope arc placed in Some One who b 
jCrcfitcr thftii (mrsclvosH It mny \k iKiwililc ft»r the aacL*ti« or 
the f^iloaophor to control the littlo world within, and to bring 
it into >?tib.jcetirii) ; but thdiinh wc itrv m ooiitiurt with it ut »o 
many points, we have no power in ourselvce to control the 
^\^\ w<»rTd without. 'IIkwo wtio bulievu that tlie LTuitrente U 
not H diaoH. but tliat thorp in order in it h!1, arul tliHt in the 
la»l n<Hitn Krn«un i* »ii|>n'iiie, can Uvke unii-Hf^i". Tfa-j r«* 
cogniHP a (1<mI who created it, a f><id who hivt h i>iir|>i>mr in it ; 
in Hu far at tlitij »iii^:tN:'d in making IHf^ will their own and 
Icndiiiu tlicmwlTca to be the ini^tru merits of carrying out tlia 
purT>»Me, tlicy catt attain U^ eidmii^d arid eoufldonot^ throuidi 
all the Ktniirjclw rif mnndmie oxiKt<*ncc. 

% Not ever}' fonu of Theism will serve to influence 
nnomlfty. It U pouiible t^ believe thnt God U «» htflnit^ly 
abjive Hi« en.^rtttiri-K. ihut Hr tJik*^ no m-ronnt nf thr-ii* c>P 
tlit-tr duin}^ umt In i-'iiliri'ly inililler'eiiL in the timiiiier in which 
they live their liven, ami U\ their conduct tn erne aJiother; nuch 
a ditctiine is a philosophy, perhaiw. rather than a religion, and 
it can have little coniieaduti with ethict*. Any UK-ij^ttt* doctrine, 
howovor, which roeo0U8ce relatione between Clod and Hie 
creatui*eK* is sure to havo a bearint^ on the conduct of hiinian 
bein^ to one- anc»ther; it ^u-a a fouiulation for irloaif of rif^t 
and wronp, In the conception of a rule laid down for man by 
hiii 0**iil*ir, and it pnivid*-* >ouK'ti£iti!fc anil nu^tivftj fnr liviTig 
aireorfUnj^ U\ thin rule. Tliene MinctionH nm> 1>e thought of iw 
piiynic^il, a* wju on thn whole t!ift caw with the Uraf-^litcH of 
old: they believed in the direct connexion of iK^monal nnd 
national pniA|)erity with pemonnl mid nntiunal ri^h(cou«n<«s ; 
fimiine or fK<citileneo were reaarcleJ ii* tiic <lipcct chastiec- 
nient of wron^oiiiB- Or the winetion^ may be thon^ht of Tit4 
«upcnnnndane, and cunfiixttiij; of rewnnU and punishmcnte in 
another wttrld, Mf^haruniedaninn ha« a clearer hold on the 
dortriiH- r>r the imninrlallty of tht rtiiril I.Ihlti Jndui^m nttaine^l; 
luid a« a co]i!sei|uence, the joy» of jNinuli«c and tortui-c» of 

The Christian SimtdpoirU 


h^n have a more pronilnent part In tbe^nforcGmont of monJliy, 
111 Hvm tiinri? futmnriN) fnnn, Tht'i^im ^^t^niLvl to thp mornlwU 
of the eiglilfenth century t^j |;ive full siippurt Ui lUe hig)it«t 
ethWf tea<^iiiiig ; it w?u« \ht.\ lifutin nii wliirb iHeii»4 of ihity 
Tested, aci that the undermining of i^etl^ou would he ilani^er^ 
oiu to eocioty* Ah tlwy lield, titeistic rcltgion wue^ the 
OQt^^tme of the exeixriric of tliu iva«onmi£ lacnJty on tho data 
furaifihed by nature and HUppleniente^l trom revoJation ; and 
momlity raiitod on UieisUc religicm fu itd foiindatioTU They 
werv iiirlifwil U> ar^e that al] morality wa^ dependent on 
religious iH-lit-fsi, TliiN ia no £ULrt nf cnir nintt-tirjiott ; it may 
MifFicc to coinimre dilfereut pha^eg of ethk-jd life^ and to hIiow 
Cliat ihc morality wfiLh baa beert tiiiilt on mere TliciHitL is 
ddWtive in w^vcnil important rt'spcct*. 

NoD'Christian Theism U seen at its boat in tho rcli^oti of 
Ivul and fti MohuninH^laninm, and it hae ^ivi> dofc'Ctd iLe 
a guide in p<.'1iti(-ni and i^ociid life. Pure Theit^m (cannot 
give fWiitflil maxima for nmndiiue affitirtL The rule of the 
OdipliH in Sjjtiin wilm rrnmrlLiihlc for the eiuMiiragement 
which n^m ^iveii lu liLemtiire mid nrEeiiee ; but It Ik nn- 
inifHTtant in the history uf political progress. In ItA ulti- 
vnte Imai^ it wa^ a theocracy-, and a^ euch it could ^nhmit to 
BO liruitatiotia The ohjccUi which iHlani set bftore itJ^elf in 
the com^iiwt of the world U> the faith, and tli*? attainment of 
paradise by fii^hlinR for it, pave no scope fiff any doetrine as 
to the rcsiH>ns]binty of eiWI ruJerw, ai»d their duties tJ^wai-ds 
the goT«nj©d^ Th*^ populnr itnAginiU-rori, whiclt filled tht? 
future life with ilreamw of F^ent^uuu^ enjoynjenf, gave no check 
to n'rltl^-ss indulgence In luxury herc» and fuiled to lay down 
any clear teaching as t^ the obligations of those who vere 
poMCMod of wealth ; nor wits there any iloctrine of iho vatno 
of homan personahty aa such, to toll in favour of the |frai]ua] 
eitinetion of 8luv«ry or ii»|)rovet»eui in the poffltion of 
vomon. <.liri«tiaruty ha* the powor^ whiiib \Afa\\ hfta not, 
ti brlnfl^ff the highest motiven to bear \m\ iuLU)dnT>c allntrx, 
and nf nmiixMlitig pollliad, civir, and inibit<trm1 life. 

) TboM> MotfiDoM (km tokcp from inj Sttay i>n Wt*i«r^ d^itaUon^ 


ft 7. 1, * 


Camhridgt Tk^ohgia^- EnAays 

MohMnmed&nisin u tnadcquiitCt not only as ^ bAsii^ for 
aocial dut^. but afi an inccntivo to the highest personal 
monility. TktoHe Tlit^i^iB, whieli |mt forwan) » ruJu ai moral 
dut>^ tis reveuLmJ by Gixl ititd EIim prupluit^, mu»l ticf^c^iarily 
rely oa soiuething of the nAture of a divine code* HiIb code 
niny be the eubjiM*L i>f tnlHi-riirelaliorir aiii[ the Ihl«lx 4tii which 
nkuch subtle caMulntry u oKjjvmlivl ; tuit fte niiulamenlAl prin- 
ciples Hre fi:it?(L ft iH [iii[HR4tH] omrt3 fur nU ; tbe niiii of tht^ 
Tirtiious mtui is to keep up to it, and honco tlicrc iit no strong 
incontiFc to ethical progrorM. It inculcates conformity to an 
auChoriUktivc rulv, mthcr Uuui the developtnont of cbnructer 
by a man who b froo to create and adopt his ovn» ideal. Hie 
aim of f>ui>4niiiil attainment, aritl the k'Hbrt to pnmvie it* 
which is -^o charactt^riHtic of Buddhism, hardly entera koto 
MohaimntL'dariMin ; hmiI it \w» rm \Avism for the recognition 
of higher UfnU of 1ilr» Hiid th4?ref«>r<} rmnu for prugrtMM to 
a higher plaiie uf morality. 

The derectiveiiee«n of Miihmninei1/ini»m in^y nlstt l>e indi' 
Gated in tiDothcr ynxy \ while it x^ iui iimiiflident ^uidc in 
aocial and mundane duty, it faila to |^ve Bcope for the noblevt 
Ibnne of devout axpii^ation. In Tljeiern the Movonuiee and 
oppoHition between the human will and the divine rcDudn 
uiin^i.^>iii--]]e<L and the nii»Li\e U> ri^hc aettoit \h iilaee^l in an 
external reward, in thiH wurlil or the next. Wliere md 
reconcilialion is poasible, the hope \a centred, not on a 
poaeedftion given, but in a change o0ected in the indiriiEual'^ 
the ble^Bedncss of boiiig reodervd like Uod, and becoming 
a ])artaker in Hia nature. The whole conception of Hnintly 
lite reste on a deeper fonntlation thiin llieinm AttbniK 

8- Christianity ia n 'Hieisoi, but it is more ; and we shall 
misa what it> Lharai^teriHtic of it« elhicH If wu Ihv entire jdnew 
on tkie monil t4)aehing which if* common to men wlio pr«»few 
the higher fonnri uf religion. It ih of eonn«e true tltnt jnany 
religious ty-minded men, like Locke, arc content with a thcifltk 
morality and do not retxi^nifto tlie lact that t^lirititiHn teacbin|[ 
18 ba«od on a di«tiiict i^rinciple. But, neTerthcle««> thi^ is 
the cai^c. The Chmtian moral coiieciousnci^a has dietluctlve 
umrka of ih) own, *' A« many uus received Ilim to (bcun ^i 

The ChrUtia/n Standpoint 


llo f>rtwor to 1)oc(mi<T the r^nn of Uod, oren to tEicin that 
beliere on Uis name/' That is the source of the Christian 
life In All fiu manifufttatloiu. T)io»e who recognUe a iuper- 
nnttiml p<>wcr living aiiri wnrkintf within mnat have A t94'Ii«0 
of tiLe pos^ilnhtitw of iLuniari life, of itd pnvili_-geM uriil renjxjiiHl- 
biliticM, wliicli flifU^n* grcally from dial of men wlio rlw not 
lilifinr Uim i:T>n\it'ti4)Ti. 

ITicy reverence the Diriiic Power ae an active influciico 
for good working in the world, so that the htgheet con- 
ception of virtue lic» in eonsciotiH C()»i>enitton x^^ith Htm 
in Hi? activities The lUHX^tic i^'ort nfter aelf-reprof^sioTi ie an 
elcnwtit ; pasflion must be mastered and deiiir« checked, not 
to piv^ urope for ntiititcrrdptcd conir»mpU(i»n, hut U^ remove 
all lilndraneeH to nn H.i-tlve lift of HL^fdi^vutioii to the m^rvjce 
of (UA FLDit tb« tcood of ihiiclh And tw the Divine l/avc 1ia« 
OTrtiie firrlh fi'ecly from (kni to Mrck aiid to aavc that wliich tfl 
k>«ti »o mii0t there Iw no limit to tttc xphcre where ChrtAtiiin 
charity will strive to operate, no depth of dcfrarl&tioiL which 
H will whollv Hjiunv 

The faith in ji 1>ivine [nBueneo mnj hnve nrtothor bearing 
on perHonal character and conduct ; it ia the eource of an 
niKlvin^ h<»|K". Tluiw* who lM.*lk»ve that that whit'li is lw?*t 
In them cannot die, will »<trive to ?4tcer their eonive by tlie 
light wldc^b flhlneff beyonil this muniLaTte Apheve. There ia 
WTOiifdoin^ which may pcem to be hanrile»« or even cx- 
iwdlent, and U> make ^r the ^catcat happinccw of the 
(^reatcAt number ; it ia well that we should chtiriEih im 
ftboolute i^ULudfinl in the thoui^t of the life which wiU 
p«nrtst whevi eat'llily things have paaaed away. '* We know 
that when He xlml) appear we Hball lx< like Uim, for Wti HhaU 
■ev Hirn ua He ih : aju) every man that bath thin bo;w in Him 
purlfietb hini!«clf even an He ie^ pur&" Tlie three theological 
Tirtiie!^ I'^attb. (charity, and Liupc> are trdts which are ^tpocial 
t4j the CtirirttiaTi character, and which have a direct bearing in 
atirring up to the active doiiiir of i^nod. 

In the criterion which it pub* forward of virtuoue uonduet 
Cliripttianity in clearly di^tinj^i^lied from other forms c>f Theiam. 
With .Indai^im at teaet tlie aim ij^ to avoid what is forbidden ; 


Cambridge, ThrMrnfical KamyA 


itiii<? nut of Uie Tell CmitmanclittoiitA aro iH-ohibttiorm in form. 
ADi] forbid particulur kinds «f >*T<niiC(J«>injJC. But CTiriwtiiuiity 
in^irce to tho actiTc doing of duty : and trctite the neglect of 
o;»portnuitied lut jl beinou^ ^n. Chriatianity acta a liigh idoal 
and nn c^actini; gtimditrd, in the way in whicrh it tleuiaTKli^ 
purity of thought a^ weU as atrictneea of conduct But the 
difficntty of atmiiung to live np i^ ilie prtnciploM vr^niiieil 
IWL'cmifw niot*t clwir wht-n we note tJie iwverity of tlie JTi*Jgc- 
nieiit on loxt oppurtunilies nnJ omitted dntiifM. Fnun tbo^e 
to whom tnudi i^ given mucb will be required 

While (JKHfidanity thin^ eeta up a &r Htcrnor standard 
tbjta odicr ThciHinB, it alao atlurda the means of diHcnnkiimtititf 
In many cases of couflictinj; dutioa It du^:;^AU to na tho 
manner in which the conflict of the cliumu of tlie individual 
and of society may he ai\jujited The iudiTiduaJ is nf abealnte 
wi.krtl^^an undyifig personality ; while civil institntionji of rUI 
kiwlSf priTaiU) property and ciril govemtDeiit« jtre only 
muudfine. Tbe iDdlviditol life has infitiite importance ; but 
thifl U no cxcuflc for individual ^IfaJ^sertion. l^o world of 
institutiotie and eonveiitionB and urdinanccfi ii< tiic diEH;i]>lin6 
by which the individual may be subjected and trained. Miin- 
daue intttitutioDfl of every hind have not an al>HoIute, but a 
relaUve worth, since they are the tnetLn^ I>y whidi individuAl 
eUaracter is formed and trained- Tljere cmy be frefpiently an 
o|qioaition between the desire for tiidividuol m^lf-itKMi^rtion luid 
the demand for the acceptance of M^lf-diActpline by huliiaiMtiou 
to authority. In the oi><e(f whtjre it la right \a> witlihold actire 
GompliavKT with a huinjin comnmml wliich iu in direct coikflict 
wiUi the Divine Will afl plainly espi-oasud» it is at loa^t a duty 
to nee that the manner of withholding t^bedienee whall bo mi 
carefully cotisiderod, that the effectivene^ of the anthonty 
fur ^ond shall not l)e in any w^ay weakeni^dL 

Berth in itA inxpiring and in it^ discriminating power 
Chri^iAii uiui'alit}' ethibttH ntriking d>irereiK<ett rnnn llwt 
which i& founded on n p^u-cly theistic Ixisie. Tlicrc in another 
way in which tho supcrioriEy of this ataTidpoint may become 
apparent : Christian teaching ernbmtx'fl >vhat \n Ix^t in the 


The Christian Stajidpomt 


floctriiKJ^ fjf ihoHVi reli^on^ with whioli it U miwt oft-ori vnm- 
pared, Likt? Bii'Mtiiftin it imiftUj on eelf-ctiliivation, though 
tliut t!» to be found, not io the Diere repre^lon of ovil, but 
in the rlevelojimert nf ilivinc tind unrlviTi^ activitiei^ A» & 
TlteUl., tlie f'hriHlhih views exLei-iiHl roiiiUii^t in the llfJElit of 
a divine t^tnndnrd ; hut nf otiu tti wbicti lite innTL yielilM no 
aJartsh aiibmiadion. since he hn^ accepted it for hiDinetf and 
laya it dt»rn as a ruto for kW mnukuvL 

It is not easy by the mere exercise of tho co^itivc fticulty 
tfi allow that one point of Tiew is better than another, in- to 
prove that it gires^ a wider range of ouIUkiIc htkI a |KiHitii>n 
for more accnrate obnert'atian ; but R distiticUon caii be 
CKtftbli»li«0, when we try tij ^iige the Forire iLnd the uiiii of 
die influences whii'h Hp|M^al t'^} tlie human wilL ThiiH in ^>pnnf] 
on which IThrirtianity can confidently urge ito superiority 
orer other rcli^onH: and the recognition of thia daiiii will 
bring ufl one step iiirthcr, Tlic force ^md cletLrncss of (Jhrist'a 
teaching on earthly tiling, vhere we ean te^t it, may be taken 
fu a pledge nf Hit; Ability t^^ declare aright. relatloMH whicli liu 
beyond our facuUy of obeerration, nince they BUbtdiit ijetwesn 
nmn uul the Ultiumte und Uii>§ecu Power 

ESSAY 11. 




1. Critical, 

1. The naturaliatic ^bent and trend' of phjwcal acience. 
2 (a) The UBomption that the world is ^ self-exiatent' 

(&) The argument that the world is a mechanum oontrolled bj a 
Beign of iftw. 

1- Science Jeads up to phUosophical qaestions which Theiam uuwen. 

2. The origfin i^f the conne of ffatnre^ Ai^njueDt for a Eint Oanae- 
3> Caiuality in Nature impliee an aJl'embracing Boing. 

4, The chftnwteristica of this Being are those of Mind, Will, and Unit;. 

5. Such idealism represents the trend of modem science, 

e. The oTfUr of feature implies a Supreme Tntdligence whose action we 
can partially UDderstand, Cosmic Teleologj, 

7- Attempt to explain the element of apparent irrationality in Nature. 
Physical eril in the light of science. 

8. Conclusion. Science compatible with belief in a Personal God. 


h The prcDwiit w unctotil^toflly a ecitjutific &ro : an a^^G, that 
ia, characteriaed by tli6 ^eealous puruiiit af phyatc&l iU!i«DC0, 
b\ the lifipUcntinn of tlie ^'ipntifi<; «iolho(J in variouw ficTdfl 
of thought, and by an incre&tiiDglY rich aiid impressive harvest 
of n^ults acijuireil by iiiejiMN of Ht'ictilifiL- inveAt%Hf>l<iii. \f, 
U claimed on hrhulf of [ihyttiral noii'ui:^ thuL il iKmniiHHeA 
& ineth<id arul hnA obtiiuied re^sitUj^ Tvhirh rliHt^r from the 
mcthodft and resulte of other atudioa iu that tbey arc ciact 
ajid also objective. Physical oh?icrvftti<>nw n«i Ik rcfnuitt-d 
and veri64fd, and thus thi3 subjective element in ^ieiitiiio 
doctrines — f^. the element of individual coiijectiin.^ and 
pcjw»na] opinion — cau l>e eliniirmt^^^L Pruof i@ tbtTvf^iro 
more pouible for the theories of natural science than for 
tiume which are the unlrnitie of spcH^ulatioii on niAM^m 
beyond the rcacit of direct ifb»4ervntioii and experiment; 
lod cunseiiiiently ^rcnt'Cr nn.inimity ia U' hv fiun<l aniongnt 
the rcprcscntivtivee of science than amonjjfet those of othor 
bmnchce of thuti^ht and kno\vlud^e. Thia 8uoccf« of Bcicntifio 
Diothoil in enriching our kTiow1eflf;o uf Nuture and applyinff 
rt to prucdeal luee, and the solid unanimity with whicli the 
greiit bulk of iicientific d<»eirine is received, both rendered 
the more impressive by contrast with the r<fpeatc<i failnn't <jf 
[itttlivojtliy Ui prMtrnt n intriiiphygic of Nature and with the 
fiindftnicnffLT divcmlticj* Ix^twccn thr pliiloN<fpliirJi] Nchoohs 
have uot £^ed to produce a.n unl>otinded confidence in 


Canihridffti ThtoUtgwal E»«ay» 


whatever comen lo uh with the iinprimatiir of phjsical 
science, Indrcf] niuny Hit^utifiG hyitothuwrt and ^tiemlUa* 
tione. on account of their pmcticnl cHcctivcnL^H a& organs of 
research, lia\c come to be rojic^ixled as ultimate aiid neceee»ry 
truths ; and, in w>me qiiartcre, eciencej ' syut^nialiaed, unified, 
and completed/ is held to Huflice for the on« and the only 
jKisHihli? uyal^m of philosophy. 

It is ihoreforo not QDnatural thut tti^ro ^honld nowrulKyH 
exist a widespread 1>clief thai, to physical science l)c1ong both 
the |Kiwcr and the right to proTioiincc the Wt uord on every 
question. Indeed, in view of the degree to which the i>opu- 
larisation of science has of late been carried, it is perhups a 
thanklewfl task to raiae any doubt as to whether this pi-cvalcnt 
opinion be well jjironndt^L Still ipore nnj^rftteful will such 
an inquiry aeem to many readere, inasmuch as it^ prosecution 
uece«>itfiUw the couutunt nppea] fj-eiu twitue^ to pUikittophy, 
or whnt the Htndent of >«derK'c, in propiirl,ir>ii Jif4 )ie is exelit&ive 
In hm devotion Mi liiH uwii uielhiHl and line of thought, ia 
apt Homewhat contemptuously to tftyle 'mere metaphysica.' 
NcvcrthclesH, il must ix: I'cmarkod at the ouueC that acientiiic 
fiicti* lend thcmaelvcd more rcudily. iiorhnim, tiiaii any othera* 
to ehuUow ifcnemli^tionB ; and, what is more important hcre> 
tJiat ficience, although mo^t of \U readers and apparently 
many i>\' JtM ti^iLclien^ are uiicouHcioui^ of the liict, expr««««M 
itself in ternu of certain nielapliyslcal ajiBumptiouA whose 
falsity would iu»t in thi^ U^Mt HflVH'! tiit' Hervicnibh'Tii<iw of 
aeloDtific methodn for tht^ dim^^ieiy of empiHcul truth aUmt 
Itatuii;, but would utterly iiivivlidatc any protcn^itrtt-T on it« 
part to provide^ a solution of the greater riddles of the 
uiuTciae. Tbua it la not so much the etfective methods and 
tbe «olid resulb) of phywifiHl Hcionco* with which evoryono 
is jnstly imppeaaed, a^ its underlying pre*npfni»itiona with 
re^rd Ui the nature of reality and kn^iwledge, whid* need 
to W called ill f]uestion before we commit oaraelves Co the 
TtdentiliL' ilognmtiiim nf itiir duy. 

But. however it may atand with the pojiular faith in the 
power and the int^'lle^Tlual rights of pbyciical HLience. Uiere 
HUJ U; no doubt that ibc atlitade ^i many thoughtful pcrvone 

d] Physical Science, and the Being of Gvd 5d 

ftt the pTv«ont time towafde belief In the extatence of Ond 
&nd of n spiril.iml wnHJ in det^nuincd hy what tfiry ilf'crn to 
lie tliR iiromnmi^eiitenbf or the iuipUcutioLi!« of nL-ic-rict; with 
rqgiwd to tht^ [ms^nibility of ju?4lif>iiig such lielic^ Thr U^it- 
dtti^tc reject any torm ot'Thebm, ineo far ltd such a tendency 
prcTiLiItt amonic vi»turi€a (>f tiutund eciefice, is duo imrtly to 
the inttuiMiciJ of eonio of tho rcpi'c^cntatirc exponents of tho 
verdict of ecienco as Vt the oKiateocc and activity of a .Suprtfino 
Mlikd, and partly to the intA^llectual atmosphere in which the 
vcientifli^ U^tii'ht^r nr iiivc-H^Jj^LUir diiiTy livi*^ Htid mnvcH, itnd 
tvheiH-e III! ileriver) an habitual bent of maid diH[xPtiiiig him to 
diAjx^ns^c alldKvthcr with tlirii^tic fomis of thcniglit 

ThuA a diflcUAsion of the Being; of tJod in the light of 
phvAicul rtcieuccn in onicr to be serviceable to re*ulci> of 
the proeoiit day, niu;^ embrace, in the first place, o critical 
estimate of the elaiui m^iik- un Imluulf nf science, that it fornix 
a conrc of appeal 3is to Uw validity of the* Ihei^tie position, 
ai»] Uifti It dndi theiitic ar^merila untenable. Such a nej^ 
tive criweirtrn will involve the raiding of two qiit'^tioiiA not 
^Ttiidly Bepanibli.' fn}tn with utbt^r: najin-ly, that of the 
c&fnbility of science, as dintin^niNhiMl fixmi philoHojihy nnd 
aft ^«¥crcd from mctiiphyaica, to decide upiju the ciieteoce 
or non'CxiHtence of a. Hupreme Hcing, and that of the valiility 
of the actiinl arQ:nmeuts siiL^Ke^ted by Bcientilic poRtulates and 
g:enerati»tion$ (icaingt the theintit^ inti^Tpr elation of the 
nniverF^. If ?iuch oritical consideration of the soieuti£e bH^ia 
of natundi>^n riliould prove the repudiation, in the name of 
science, of all rational theology to Iw ill gronnded, there will 
then Ix* room, hi the- SL'cftinl phLce, for the ixmitive or con- 
BLnictiTc undertaking, to fnrninh, from the knowledge of 
Nature wlitch science allbrdfl. and in fto lar as such knowledge 
wiU allow, [i content to the concept el tiod adopted by the 
ibeiatic philosopher and the Christian thcoloirinn. 

Itchire pn>ceedinff further, it Ukust be explained thut two 
ti6E« of the word 'aeioncc^ ^^111 need to be diatiugnixhed hi the 
following pages; for otherwise ugiistieo might HetMn to lie 
done Uy «i>me i>f th« best reprt^senUitivea of weientifie thought. 
TtL |>oiut of fact tlionj are current at tins pre8eiit time two 


CattUfridffe Theological Etimys 


€oUL«|>tiouft of tbc DELturc and bbc provmco of physical M;ii'ii<:e^ 
Ttic 'ticierice^ of the nujorkv of the ntiidenU of tmtnnLl 
kTkowlcUgc iH imbo«ii with mct«phyelcB. Jt usca temiR euch 
aa force, cause, laws of Nature, aa atandini;!; for pb,>Tiiai1 fttcU. 
concTt'tt' vntiU*^K It apeaka of ntuiiiB ami uthor as if thoi;o 
were realitiei^— more real than the 'pheikonieua' prvHonted to 
our »**i»*L*<. Tt r**^HnU the itidi:-4Eriiclibility of inHtt**r and 
the efinnrrvrttiirti iif (lie ttiergy of the aaiverse a** atxotuie 
and tillitiiHr^? firinnpliM. ft offers il4 inechHiiiml df^cnfttioii 
of Nature a« the complete and the only eAplanatu^n (hereof 
Tlic rwulcr will ]>rcrte7illy be enabled to ace n.ioi'c *'K^rly that 
thie science in 'fule^ely «o culled': that it \^ rcitlly a kind of 
sandwich of genuine seienee between two thick layora of 
nii^tapfiyxiet tiie lower of which con^JHti^ of preMiippoxitiLitm 
concerning: reality taken over from the lan^iutge atid thought 
of iinreflective 'cuminun ticnsn*,' mid the upfinr of Keiieriilitta- 
tions attained by ficientific rtneai^ch and illogiL'aliy idetitiflod 
with iinivrnodly >'Hlid itrimupltm. 

Thw newer physical science, which w «lowly bnt surely 
making headway against the prejudices of scientific ortho- 
doxy, on the other hand hanUht^ from itrt tenaiTitiU^y all 
euch words as involve motaphyMcaJ ar^unete to what ifi 
acMiallr preaented to uft by ttie world on the Miirfiu^. It 
dispi.niTiu^ with 'force." snvr as a purely niathcfuiatieal rclatioD ; 
it replaecM 'caiwe^ and effecU' by equations : it reee^isea that 
'iiintter/ with which the scientist deals, Ih vrry dUl.inrt from 
the 'substance' of the metaphysician. It insisb? that atoma 
and ether and elh<-T hucIi hnpleiueiit»i of wcienoe arc not 
perceptual realities btit arc only useful fictinnis concqitual 
doviocA for economy of thouj^ht ; some of its representativoa 
wdiild diMf:n^nKt< with them ruid rewrite physicn in anolh'sr 
tennii]oloKy. tt admits the shorleonilnffs of the meehanieal 
theory of the univene, and aiuert^ tliai lJier« i« no necessity 
fiir tlie c-lioin* f)f this rather thwn nf nthrr mi*lh<HlM of 
syatcmiuiHng our scientific kiKiwIi-d^e, It proclaims tliat its 
t6U ia not explan^t.Li>n Jit ull> but only deftcriT>tioii ; and, 
having cleared iteclf of aU metaphysical implications, it 
|troFv«dUH \/o be no more thiui » ny^tcmatia^ed. rthorthand 

n] Phjf*uyii iScmt^, mut fJte /ieht^ of Ood 

utMTninit »f niitiinil t^vfiifx hx ibry lui^ipi-ii. With science 
fifl thiu nccui'atcly dcliiiiitocl the rnrtier, critk^l |Hrrtioii nf 
data cawy haa no coiKcm. llic writer confcrtHt-n hiitnelf ite 
diwiplc, and pru«e« on Ut diBcij»s the dlHiculticv^ which are 
8&id to be put in tlio way of boUof in the Heiu^ of (.fod by 
vbnt itt tnfira ir^Tieriilly iiicludtMl iiiulv^r Uio title of pli}'«ica) 

The bare facta of acience have, of coune, little theological 
intim^t^ HrTid tliry pnividc; [lirec-tly hnt few Hr^uiiipiitH one way 
nr tlie ntht^r- Tile hy|JOtht!HeH a.ud iJieiirii-n iff !*ri<^n<w, htiw- 
CTcr, when jiwunicd to piiEWcM the validity of metaphysical 
doctrinca or ultfiniito and univcTsal truths, have ^ugguated 
a conception of the world whicli, tjatundly 4;i>ii^nial to the 
KtiideTit of phyuiaLl acleuce, lin« ^omcthnce boon confounded 
irith science itself, or has been said to represent ittf txiiit and 
tretwl ; ai»d tlie whole iipirit uf aeivuee liuii <?i>n!»e4|iivntJy «jmc- 
tinuw Ix^n re]>reMeiit<^d im luwtiltr U> the tlioiHt'M fkitli. Thiu 
di« late PnifeBVinr HuKley, though he dtHTlintfd t4) )uuTt>|it tin? 
oarnc of rnateriatiet, was ficraiiaded that the progrcu of acionce 
"hnn, ill all agei^, meant,, and now more tiian ovtr means^ this 
cxtci^on of the province of what wc call matter and c&naation 
and the coiicomiUirit jixatiua] haninhnicnt from all ri^tms of 
human thought of whiu wt^ call hipirit and «pontanoity." 
"And aa sorely.' he added^ "as every future growe out of [VOiBt 
anil present, ho will the phyniohi^ of th<; fUttire gmitnally 
eiLt^EuI llii^ rttahii of nmtU-r and law tiittil it in uottstent^jve 
vith knowledge, with feeling, and with action V" These 
wordft were delivcrrd in IWW. Wo may place mdc by wide 
with Uieni tlic fuUowin^. in wldch f^ir Oliver Jxxlgu ihz^Tibea 
the temper of i^cicnce at tiio proaent moment: 

"Ic itt dilTiciilt to re»t«t yivldin^ L» the bent and trend of 
'modern xci'-nce^ an w<^]l aa to itd proveil eonehiMun^ Its 
bent and trend may have been wrongly estimated by its 
|ire«H)t iliwiplfjc u lar^' tmct fif knuwlt-slgo may have lieen 
omitted fi^tii !1a kei]. which when includefi will revolutioniKT 
twine of their s[>e€ulatitc upiiiiuitH: hut. however thU may be. 
there CAH be no doubt nbnnt the tendency of orthodox science 

' l^r tfennou on TS* PhyUati Batit *if it^9^ 



Cambridge TheolDyiiml Eii»ay» 


tX the prettent time. It eugg^frU to us that tho Coemoe U 
Mlf-explumtory, ielf-contained, anil aelf- maintaining From 
©verlaHting U> vrcrlnsting ttn' iii»U^riitl niiivrrm' roll* on, 
evolriiig wnrlilH nnd iliMinU!|;rHdtig iWrri, evulvhi^ v^^lalile 
beauty and destroying it, erolring intellif^iit fuiiinal life, 
duv^lupitig l.hnt iiitit ;i heiroDiiscious linman vTux, atid then 
phiii^Hn}r it once more iiit^ annihilationV" 

Of tliCKe two ^'iuntitic teachers* Huxley waa tyjiical of tb« 
men of science who have shown some intcro^ in certain of the 
prablcins (»f piul<itM>fitiy, and vho huvc miuitored dome |K>rtioii, 
al any rate, of the hutory of philoBOphic thought Dr Lod)^ 
baa evidently rejected much iij>od the vriiler t>earinp4 of 
science, though he liux ni>t rovcatcrl any enrintiity im to thd 
contente or the hintory of what ia technlcHlly i:alled iihl" 
loMiplty. And Imtii th««v thinkcrw imxiio l<* have ci*c7i]>eil the 
iaflueiK.'e i>f tlie contemporary movement within tiie world of 
Roience which ^tdvocntvH vicAimimtion of Mcicnblfic poetulatcs 
and prcAuppoAitiotia with a view to aacertainin^ their precia« 
moAntnj; and ratiihty, and which denniiidn, Mnnc^timo^, their 
amendment or ri^jcction. They are thui? npt repiveentativefl 
of the fltandpolnl of a larpe body of fttdenlitie meii, and of 
tho "bent aiwl trend * of "orthoiUix' Mc-icnccHo faras theoloj^eal 
problenia are eoucenie<P. Ea<:li of them jir>t<Ne£S0A tlie further 
intcTiwt r<»r ii« of having; vnu^ht eM7ki>e fW»m the negative, 
mat«ria1iHtie. or mechanical tendentry uf tlie siTlence of whidt 
they arc rccf>gnii*cd ^pokwmen, Professor Huxley believc«l 
he had found auch a refiigo m agnostieiam; while Dr Lodge 
hnpcfl For a reomciliatioTi of acivdco tu)d rclispon based upon 
a widening of the Boicntific Biirvoy: "the region of religion 
and the region of a completer science aro one'/' 

Taking the^e wriU'w, tlwTi, for our guides as to the trend 
and t4^m[>«r uf the phyHteal t4el«nce of our tiirie, we finil that 
iideiiee ia ciiiinnuiily lielii'vcnl tn fin^M;nl to ns n univeree 
which \A a VMi machine characterJHed by the reign of rigitl 

1 Tht Hihhfrt Journal, Vol I. 
5c U p. 67. 

that I^ Ididgo doH ^^^it rojiraMnt 

Ihti iitAndpoint in the souac tbiit h* 
> Op. eit. VoL L Xu. It \%^ 22T, 

n] Physical Soi^tce, miff fhfi Beitig of Ood 

AOd invanablc law : a universe in which blie nninJi^ tlubt 
tava<twiti* it nro Uivtiino]ve«t <U:p<:utJoiit on mutter, a product 
stumiiUvl uprn 'itirini^ thv proireaa of the world'a evoliitimi. 
an accoQipaniment bound, like a shadow, h> tlit; prinuiry 
i»e<T)mnisni : u self -contained siTid «elf-«uf1icieiit uuiverse, not 
in Utuch with Anything bt^jond ur abiive lUwIf; h world 
imkpentleut f>r anjUiing but \im\i for its origin hiuI Tnain- 
tenaiico, its meaning and intelligilntily. NaLnrv Hu-niH, U% 
the nio(ieni acienlHic irire^ti gator, ^^ »ihc i^ctned to Lucretius 
fopg ngo» "to do nil things of hci^clf, without the meddling 
of the );odtt"; hut to do it rnx^hnnioiilly, and not "spon- 

If Huch a theory be really nece«»Litat^ by phytiical acience, 
by 4)lM^rviihle fact and logically doducibk inforeucv alone, 
willitnit adnikxLure of any quivttUumljle prtMUpixMitionH what- 
ert-r, it i^ idivitnifi tlmt tlir rjinrupt »f ihul ix m>t only 
■DperfluoiiH but Inadmissible : it in u^clcwt Lt> appeal tu 
McieikCts f(>r guidance an 1ij how Deity I^ U> be ci>iiceiTc<L 
It will therefore bo nocee^ary, before attempting any coq^ 
fttnictioti uf the idea of God tn tlje light of the naturuJ 
k&ewledge which we poeaeBa, bnefly to ejiamimf the f'uunda' 
tioiu of this general view of the unirerae which Bcience 
hsw ftuggeMled to certain of h<?r L^xiMJiionU, und to iiwerUiio 
wketber they are aa secnire as they are tuuiietiuea repre* 
Mcot^ to be. 

The new in question le familiarly knowit aa naturalism. 
Let it bt clearly unden^tood that it b net a product of 
Bcdcnce, in the utrict mid pro|>er ^nac of tliat term, but tjf 
a pliilotioplucal synt^m involving Ixtth acience and meta- 
pbyflic«H lt« chief oompunuiit i^lenienu are a metuphyi^ical 
avQDipdonT i^hich creepa in unawares as a pronouncement 
of 'common McnHo,' and an inference whieh clnlniB lo be 
necetudtated by scientiHc {ilwervatton and refleetion. The 
meta[^iyKiod> or nither cpiHtemolngical, a«immpLion Ia that 
llie wiirld exiflU iiidepetukMitly uf exiierience ; not only of 
tJut of any giren individual* but nbiu of the collective 
experience of all Hubjecta. I'hc material uniTemo ie Mippowd 
to bo Kol opart fruia mind, ynot to uund, and already 


Cambridffe Theological Eittai/ir 


wniting in \ts self-coiitalnedneaa for minds, when they have 
noiiit;how lieen prcHliti^^i), U* rume to il mid )^'i U> Vuovf it \vf 
M)me inconceivable |iroceM4 of psychological photography. 
Tfic M^icntific inference wliidi* tUitrc ihati any other, gt>e8 to 
build up the syetem of natnrnlidni, ie that thiis world, supposed 
to be existent per *#, becaii&c it can be doscribcd, more or 
Icets hi term^ of m4^hiuii(;»] oonecptA, actually is a m^'hiiniHin; 
a machine whose action la dct<?nnin<>d to the mtnutoHt pard* 
cular by a tfy^tem of ri^d and Invariable law, k'avini^ ik» 
room for the apontaneoue aetinty of a nutid either upon 
il or wilhiii iL 

3. These piwitioiiB must t>e diM:iiaMid in their ordtsr. 

(a) The a/^umption that the world i* purely objective 
has ^>wn up with the human race. It is en^i^mincd iu aur 
lanjiiuago, ecnploye<J in all ordinary human intereoiirHOi 
identified with cumuion een»e; and it lias very Jiaturally 
lx*en taken over by the iihysical sciencee, wbo&e eoncern 1« 
not with theon?tiail hiquineH inUi the plilloNophieal impliea- 
tUmii tit imUint] knowlt^lgr, but with the pnit^tical buHiiieHM 
of extending one depn.rttnent of if™ It matten* nolhiiig to 
(tcieuco. «A aclcutX!; whether thia aaaumption be valid or no ; 
but t« philoMophiovl impiiry int** the Tittiinate problenis of 
know!ed>:e and reohty. aueh aj» the reiaticin of matter U> mind, 
or the e.Tiatence of God, U uiattem mueh. The coae is simtUir 
t^ tlmt of the terminology hi which we may describe the 
relative motion of the earth and sun. We Htill tipeak uf the 
■riri riHin^ and m^tlrii^ ; it m convenient ami hnrmlew mt to 
di>, Mil loiiy an we are not prntcnding Ut htrii-ntire ajrunicy. 
l^i on the platform <if science, we ciin conveniently and 
harmle«0ily talk of an otgoctive world sundered fW>m the 
e.Kpcricnce of the HUbjeetR which perceive it; it dcHs* not at 
ail Follow, iw the laymiui in pliUoeopby commonly aupposoa, 
that if the world be not objective^ in hie BeiLBe, there lit then 
an end of rtcientifle knciwlwltre of it Brit when the man of 
neieuee carrtea Uie implications of such lanf^age with him 
into tbeiHtic contniveny, hi* must be reinindivl ihni he batf 
alreajly half liey;^ed (he ipaiMtion at iMue. 

It in a deiiobte inattcr to iJivite tlie plain man to lixteit to 

n] Physical .SrfVwrf , and the Hfhig of God 65 

a critHiHwTi <if IiIk Iw^lirf in it wlitillj i>Tiji«r1.iv(; unil iiidcjiuTirleTit 
citenial world Ilia eourtcoitii loiig^auHcriiig may kiio\« a 
limit Hi> &tr h^fi thu clualiHJit }H.'tween ihi: ^re^l wurld' aiiiI 
its percipient*' Wci\ turrid in o»mm(ii] thought so ilcoply 
haa it boa^Dje cntnMichofI in the physical Hcienwe. that wh<*n 
phtl(»U)p)iy at,t4;iapt(« tu ujktil u fliiiCiii^iuii nf the lUutUHfKMtttiil 
problcni^i whicli hirk bt^rK-silh what sippearn to be the* i^anst 
ftuidarueiiUL) dHtum of ex[>erlt?iice, antl to v^iow the hta^on by 
vrhicli iliisiliKiii atirl naivi^ roalieihiii »iicijntj'ed their hok) ii|ichi 
the hitmaM mirid. it lalxiurH under an ciionaous (Jisativanla^a 
*'To the plain ni«n it« t&Kliin?: is u f^tijnihliijg-])l<>c-k ; Uy the 
man of sciciice it is ibolishtic^H." And yet we inu«t rcfutto 
any ]iHrle> with the ehruripioii of iiaturali^ii until he leavi« 
hid B<^'icntific fatitiit-ss and descendg Ui the o^m;!! icrovind of 
flrrtt ]>riiicip]eB of knowledge. We might urge hitn Uy do bo 
by till! ur^uTiK'nt that lii« duali«n) \^ discrreditable t)eeaiibie of 
the b>ipekw>^ diliiriiUicw hito which it hfL>« aln^Jidy led IkiUi 
pbyxit^l Hcieiit^e atid pf^cbology : for HcieiKxi hau aliandoiied, 
with mime litt.K- indi^intion, ttie etideavimr Ui gel fhiin 
luattcr Co mind, to derive the mental trem the physical ; and 
tlie hwtory of j)r«vchi>ioi:y has ehowii that atl attempts to ^t 
from iiiitid ill matter, to solve the pn^bleJii (prevented by 
duali^nii of how wc perceive and know » whoUy external and 
iodfpenik'iit world, have tnmeil out lu be bllnil roitdiL Or 
«e might thn^jLti'ii him timt he will inevilidily Im* Htarvod out 
of hi?4 diigitiHtitr i^troii^hold if he hIjivs tliere : reflect.ioii will 
be Burc to come in time and do ito work. If by either meant^ 
ire should succied in Indueing bini to f^^*^ opcti bai.ttJ(.\ we 
ndf^tnith ukiiC'h eon^ilciice |kiiat out to him how the earUoat 
refloction on conseionit experieuce wait» miided by imperfect 
analy#k and deceptive atmhkgie*, which Iwcame embodied in 
Commnn th<iii^ht iiiid kuigmige jim if |iiirt iif tlic fiLclti iohtend 
of fitrtionH that Itelie ihcin ; and^ iikllowin^ AvenariiiA \iu\\ 
Priift-MborWanl wemi^'ht lay bart the actual 8tagcAof ]irogrt»a 
in the duuli^tie intcrpR-lJition of mankiod'r^ «^xi>ericncc, m\A 
their erratteoui^nc^ W© might hope to ocnvincc him, by 
mcRAft ef argumenta which cannot he repealed here, but 

c T, a. £ 


Cambridge Theological Edaaff» 


which nifty \k studicil at Icmnrcr clwTwh<*re', that tlic objects 
which be collectively mlla Nature and trcaU aa implying do 
ftulij^^ct becaune they aie iiidopendotit of the exix^rienoe of 
lUiy in<livi<lmil milijcot, are roJilly n tikct«r or c<>mtitu<Tnt of 
the cQllectiT€ experience of the race. Tlwy presuppoBe 
iiit4irviimiuiiniir.iting htnminity tw i)i\Af icubject ; Hurl Uiim 
Bulyctet lu^iy 'x* m^&i Io be nieivK the htitivifliml Boliject 
e-ttt^mtin^ mul enhu'^irig the luii^e of \{a vximrwiicc thniiijj^h 
intoraiibjcctivc intercoime. 

TliUrt it cannot be allowed to scienec, when the nttcmpt ia 
imuJo tir cxtnti-*t nutrimlirim out of it, thut itH world cif Nuturo 
is Bclf-existent in the s**]i«t' of heinjr I ti<le pendent of otir 
experitrnce and perhajw the 'eauee' of that experience- Thlti 
i* ihi- thin i-nd uf Ihe u:4tiir»li»ti(.- widge. It must Ix* umin* 
taiiiecl tfmt i^iich an afwumpti4.»n will rjot I>u3ir the tcMt of 
phihiMiphif' jicnitiTiy ; that, tm tUv. r^tuUttry^ ihr ' wurUt ' with 
wlueh physical science occupies itself i« viimply one »idc of 
huumn cxf)erieiiee, and that It in tlie other ttidc, artcr al]> 
which 114 the primary. 

So lonii; act Bdt>ncc, or mther the tiaturaliAtu which eeeka 
to identify itself with acivnce ani expnwH it*^ trend, buildit 
Upon faulty rneli*ph}'Hic and esohtwa epirjUnnologieid reflec- 
tion, it will inevitidily deyeiterate inl** rnateHaUwiL There 
will then always and necevtrtarily lie a ennfliet between xcncnoe 
and relijciou; nud m* widening of the i-e^iun i>r [*t:ience will 
do away with it The reconciling element, it mufrt here be 
strongly inaistcd, is philosophiod critieiani of scientific pre- 
BUpixmittouBH Sir Oliver Ixidgo indeed will concede no Huch 
reconciling pi^wcr to philosophy, lie con^dei^ philosophy, 
in this rei*])ect, on a i»r with poelr>', *" By aid of philosophy, 
or by aid of poetry^ a griMLt deal can be aecf»n>pli)diefl" But 
tliiH IH not Ftctenee. "It irt a gneHH. an intuition — an iiwpira- 
tion iMrliajw — but it ik ijoL a Hnk ui a rlmlii of HMKunnl ami 
rciMoncd knowlfsltcc; it can no uiorc be clearly fornmlatcd in 
vord*» or clearly appi-chcndcfl hi tliouj^ht, than can any of 
the hi>;h and lofty conevptioim of n>lTtfion.... it \b no Bolutioii 

^ Ward, NtttarrUi'm und A^M4tk\wtt 19^9, Vol. n. ffcrt ir. 

nj P/iffnicfU Scie/t<:^'^ and tkt Behi^ff of doft 87 

nf tlitt kniitty cnUuigliiiimtil', hut n tHiariitg nbtive it; tt in 
H rt^^JiKrilmtluii in fj:t)fii!iut\" Of nojiie of the hi^Lcr flights 
of phQoeoplkical Ppeculntioii tVis inny lie true- Ail the uniiLC. 
there ai'c chains of rca^oiiiMl. if wc may not 4il<l u^ured, 
kn<iwl<;d^% vthich liave been bot)i cicarly formulated and 
cJtivirly fipprchciuJofl, find ttuLt hy Idiilcn; of KcU^ntific thou^lit^ 
coi>eemin^ vhich one may conMencly make thi' following 
ufiMTtuiiL>L 111 l)io fint |)liu?o« Hiich dmhiM of rL^aHOtiiujj; reveal 
that the knottiest tiritan^lenwiit^ bc^ctiiiig thv appnim^h of 
Ht^iiitiftr i«r.Lii]c!tiTjt Lit religion <ruii!4iHt in thr meUi[ Jej Miod 
cniditic« involved in ^hat is mist^hken for acieiicc iWdf ; and 
^rthcrmoro, thc> sorrc lit the same time to miravcl thcec 
very viitant^lemoDtfi, thcirtby pvinff itft a aciciice whcwo tompor 
and trt^rid ih no lon^^ur one of antji^Kiixm to n Uiui>tic out- 
look. A reoouciliation in ewcehU need not be forced upon 
uuwiJlin;^ Hcieiitre : but ii i'L»conL"iIlu.tioo in pro/fmdtHj h 
ro('oncili»tinTi by I'tHiiiiVHl of thff groiiiid for <}riHrrr). a Evnni- 
cltbitioii tliroiigli duntriictive critlciFiiii of ttioiie underlying 
pmu}^Mtioii0 of ^orthcnfox i^cicnce' which ».r<: nat science 
at all: tins vrc cniL iii^it^t U|K)ik, for it huA nlroady boon 
|Kitctttiall> brou)cht about 

<fr> LTpoTi the u^umption of fl wholly objective tiiu! )*elf» 
exinient worhl it is eawT fir ncience to erect the fiirtiier 
fallacy tlmt tlnt4 world In v, mt^chaniHm lH>und 1)Mt by iiK^xor- 
able Inws given alike to Nature herself and t^ xia. *Y\m theory 
ht ^id to be t4Uc;gestcd by physical Hcience and to reprceu^nt 
iXa present spirit or trend. Ab it is c*inHijicuonftly antitheiatic 
it c^Ib for somo condderatJoQ here. 

Hie world, as it pre«ents itself to the or^linary ub^i^rver, id 
a complex of related thingB. living or inauimate, conaciona or 
iipjuuretitly un^^ouM-inud : a mHoplL'x infinlli^ly rifb in diventity 
of quality and meaning. Of tlie indeRniUr uuniltcr of natural 
ot^ecln. no two, iicdmjm, ai^e esar.tly alike, no i>ne la per- 
manently the same- Innniinatc Nature in seemingly unlimited 
in it* variety of colour an<l sound ; and in the rcahn of 
living; thinj^H wo are presented with w inHnitc a rhv<'n<ity 
IB point of instinct and habit, pUTHuit and end, interest and 

t //iWwr^ Jtfurtid^. Vol t No. i ppH8. 4fl. 



Cambridge Theological EtfMiytt 


occui>Htiirij, cliaractcr and pcrHon&lit^. iiiblcse tliiti^ a^ifwar 
to ocl nml riNKit; living; thin^ seek and find, atme, (nil, 
and achieve. 

Such u the prht\^ fad€ view of the world which Science 
BOekfj more nArrowK t^) MvruliniMe ami more {iitinmiely to 
iinderHtaiiil lli^r |jiii'[io«c in i^turlyiii^ it, t>c it mnpljMMDd %% 
\Xic uuteet, is Uj knf>w It in order tu predict ilfl flequenc«ft of 
change, und tlicreby Ui control it. To cxplaiit a particular 
occiirrcocc. which means to show its likeness to prerioualj 
kii^iwiL c)courreiict-r5. »he ^eeka ti> refer it to a ^ni^rul oUm 
of such events ; ^he reduce>4 the individual plKiiorncnon to 
Ite species, and even- species of change to an aD^embrikciriK 
pbvHica) gonu^ By snch u nii:?t}iod 4.>f trt^uttnetit mho indeed 
itiipovt.'riHht.'H the plicnonienon nhr would explain. She de- 
Ubrnikdy ignores some of ita asp^jcth: posMibly tliimi^ wbi<^h 
wuuld count for most in the p^liloNoph^T'» view, and which 
would l)e fl*i«gncd the more important place in hin CTidcnvour 
to construct h theory of the world as a wliuh? an<J id' the 
relations of individual thingt^aa they [>reiiont thcinvelvestohim 
Sn thoir eutlrety. Science alwtracts for her conaideratioti only 
thof^easpeet^iuid n-lationsof thiii|^ which nre ndcvaut to her 
practical Liutiiincp« of i]e«cnptii>n, prediction, and contml ; only 
tbtM^c wliichlend thtMiLicslvenor^ahc trusts^ will Knid themselves, 
to mathematical treiLtEucnt nud cfl^lcnlation. .Vnd the more 
perfectly ^he fuliili^ iicr end and f^ucceedij in dcecribinif the 
universe as an a^rej^to of moving madS eletnenU devoid of 
quality, the mon- thoroughly, it is obvious, does she strip the 
'thing' of its individuality. (.Vincretc and qualitative dlver- 
ajtii^r of colour, for Juntaiwre, or of t*oijnd, Krv. for her mere 
differences in number: m> many more or less vibrations in a 
Hec:ond of eome itieiliutn whicli remains the Muiie thn>ughoitt 
the variety of aspects presented to our senses. She dceci'ihefl 
Nature in ever more i^eueriLl and more pimiile teniLi, ^fnuiping 
her fuctfl nnrkr a law, mid laws under wider Iilw??. She tends, 
in » word, to g^^^^ter and ^eater ut>«trHction, nnd incre^^m^ly 
parU company with the livhi^it, concrete wurliL [n order to 
proeeeil in tin* cimnie of ulwtnu^ion nlie devices conceptual 
eymbols, such !is 'force/ 'mass/ 'ethL-i/ whlcli fTiciliiaU' hur 
irork juHt ws the Stnti^ht line* remlem |K)n}^ilile the science of 

a] Physicat Science, atid the Being of God 611 

ffe^imctTT. Anil fiirtlwr, ^viUi a view t<> rimkin^ hor do&cnp- 
tioit and pi'erlic-tion of nalural «ventf4 foaaiblo Ht ull» nJic 
postulates unlforiuity Id (heir Ae<)iieiicCf il priuciple of 
caiiH»lity, All iron rule of Ifiw, ft ptinly nwchaiiiCTiJ mode of 
ai^Ctori of oikB ujhin iiiiDtlier of tike elt^niLTiL-* iriln w)iidi »l\e 
rwuilvw* i\w world T swj t*lie fionttifnUji lb<«c thing)!. Uni- 
formity is not flo written upon Nature's face that he who runs 
may revid it; it in^cdc^l timt U> Iks ikmancivd^ for pmctical 
rciufonis and tiien to b© dilitrcittly ai>ui£ht for before, here a 
little and there a little, It was found The netit-HKury ('oniioxion 
of Gftosality. th4^ 1x>nd of union lietweon (;»iiho and elKx^^t, hsui 
never been ijf/«errftt None, in tact, of theae c<>nceptd baa 
l*tH?n thruHi l>y the eonerett- worhl Ufum tin* |»HM»lvely rterptive 
hntimn mind ; norn? h derived pinxily from direct ox]>L'rience, 
Kor are mtiforniiby, eaiuality, and the like, Pixiont:i indts- 
pCiitfkblc to all thinking. Tliey are liti.^rnlly f^estulatcfl: 
pootulatce whicl] science invcnta tentatively iippliew to 
Xature, aiid Jiiidii by dxperieuuc to be jrurienitly vcriliod 
vithin the linjifj^ of Hettml observation. 

Theae Hynibol8 and poatulateH are neoeaaary^ then, to the 
prucUeAl eudi» nf «eientre ; nay, to her very eEiatene& AtkI m> 
it liai>i hitherto 1k_^ti very eonnnuidy awnmed by her teaehurn 
tiiatthe ptistnlatt-sarenecesi^arjaiiduniTorrtal trnUin, nItiniHtc 
metaphyHicaJ doctrines and that the s>Tnbols denote aetuah 
concrete exi«tencu??. Thii^ scientific jtiiHlysie brings us, it hiw 
bocQ cl£umeil,to what ia ultimately rud behiud the phenomena 
whkh appear to our seHBea. 

And Ao, fx^cuuite a eertain portion of oik? mnioty of the 
norki has 1>oeii fouml capable of dc»eription, from one partial 
|H»hit of view. wiUi winie though by no inetinK eompleto 
auece>H. in leniw of mec^hnnicibl repre8entiition, the apiiarntuM 
ofiihich ^rowA luoi-e cumbcracme and is put to jcrealur shiftn 
tbc more tlic denmitdr« upon it «kre inulti]>Ue<l, wc nre a^tked to 
believe that the world m a mochanlsin and no luortv It ia a 
huTfc^ demand; et<|HK<ially aa not oidy the whole i>f the bio- 
Io^oaI rcaluk of pbcnottK-na. but even eotne of the physieal 
i<?.j/, jcmvitationj- refu*te aa yet to yield at all to this iy\t& of 
'explanalioii/ In Ibc dayn of the wirly pn^mne of the 


Cambriflf/e Theologlctd Essays 


mechEtuic^] thenry, inilwd. it waj* wtiigiiinely Wirvinl thiit 
such oiirAUiutiik;; ami ulttiliuatc reahiL^ i>f fact would re;i4>lvc 
thcm^tvee mto cxunplicnksd cn-net* of the motion of (slciii«ritf« 
of luaHfl; that tJic blade of grass would find ilfi Newton 
iiiui irnivilftlkm iUi KelviiL Nowadays, bowevor, there are 
intluoDtia] scioiitific circles in wbiiTh nil thb Iiopc ha« boen 
iiltandorict] ; in which the search han bejj^tin Co be Aerioualy 
nDdortuk<*ii fot a n«w ff^untlation f'lr ull Rit-rico. 

Still the view obtalna that the world 1§ wholly fnterpretabl© 
by tiuM:'h^iiiMni, 1iviTi|^beingHiLtid mmUil pliintikmrna iiirJiiilivl; 
that tht ni-i|iieiit<u uf event** i» determined by an iron reign of 
Ihw ; tJmt tln^ niiivunit* \n Nc>[f'(;x|i1nTin1rory ntid Holf-^iifficivnt, 
and offent no anggcfltion of spiritual renlity, of origrinatjng or 
controlling iiiind. 

Now obvioiifily the tonability of such a theory of tho 
y world ulliin:»ioly do(>endi4 upon the answer w> be ^ven to 

thOAe two <|HCHti<>iis : Xtid HtoniM or elvclrunM, the uUicr, 
mechanical action, really concrete fiicU, matters of possible 
experienced Or htb th«tr nierrly i^irrLrfpfuni xtfwh/tU, tiHr*ful 
iinlv fur liriv-Hy [lysU^matiHitiv oiir iiatur'al krii.tH'1i^d^v.-? And, 
are the <if nnifiirmlty. *'an*ality, law aiid nierliantnm, 
atMHilute add neecssary mol«i.»hyrti<'al principles? Ih- arc they 
*workinc:n«sUTiiptioiiH/Talid only within the Jimita of empirical 
observation, and sorviceoblo only so far as the practical 
businewi of science is eonceriied? 

Fully to answer these <5Uf«tion»* would require tho 
elaborate dineuuiun of technical scientific detail. Fortunately, 
howovt^r, thry nrv (iiic«ttonH which have nf lute iMrujjiml the 
niindn tif reeo^iined nia^iterH lK>th of aclenee mid philoAtiphy : 
and cnnw.^pn?ntly tlicy do not rct^nire t<J be tlirashed out 
hcTv. I'Vw words, therefore, will suffice to indicate the 
results of aueh iTupiiry. 

It may be uttimu^d thit those «<^ioDtific investi;;:iitord who 
have at all I'eflected upon the validity of the fX'KtiJlaU^a and 
fiymboU of wliich they daily make use. have, with practical 
lutHniiiiity, a^^*<l t.h>kt VDrti-x-alnDuiK} ether, ino^ TorcA\ vU.\, 
are ideal thingn. merely shorthand fonnulae. not necerwarily 
beanug any more immediate rel&tiou to what actually exi»ta 

n] Phywioal Sciefw^, a^id the Being of God 

and ^oe» on In Nature than that which lhj« type bears to 
till" wriliuS* [ir<M<r>u(v wf thought They are not tblngH <jf 
vhich we h&ve ex|jeritrnrc ihrmigli our iwii«<^ nriil iiiorv»vcr 
Uifty ilo not all seem to poFHcrw thf! v1i]ii^Kf<'n>ili<V4 nf iV4il 
thinj^. Theories of atoms juicl ether have hithcrttf Ivoti tix) 
UDritablc« utii) iii>t Miillicieiitlv frLH? from incaiiAistcncicJS to 
wiumiit UB in beliifvin^ that in them we have foimil the ko> 
to the fltnictiiie of the iinivei-go; ami whether a mediahicuJ 
hypoth«ftH dispensing with tJicdo incoiiHiNii^Tieifit, may be 
ilwnivertHi, remuttw a* y**t t-o In? swhi. Knrtln^r, it Xi^a beeu 
ahoHu that the more o<nti|)leU.<l,v t!w meUio<l of m-ieTitilltr 
Anjilj'HJH which iTLvolvt^ the iiae of tlie^tc vijvmlKiIx m f ]cvelo[K.'<l, 
the more it [mrts comimny with Heiiaibli^ reaJit}, \\\v. more 
ub»tnu:t ar^l mathtjiiiuticul lEt its nature ; in the Ea«t report 
it loads to ft world of qufkHitaatter, to which no poBitive 
|)rofrertieA can be aacHbed other than thoee of motion and 

Ag^D, pliiloHophica.1 n-Ht^i^tJori by no nieauB Juatifiea the 
ODMvt?rB(ioM of HCEi-Eiti^c p<iKtn1at£8 iiilji iiirlA[ihyA]r>il flortriiteH. 
8<9Cticc can only r}<-nionNtr'ate the VAlidlty of ht^r pu-^tiiUttai 
ao far as her own jBractiml nne uf them goe& liidt-ni ^he hwf 
00 concern with uttiniEttc reality, iiaJ never necd^, as «hc 
proceodB with her own bueincaB, to niiao the (|u<«tiun oa tu 
itA nature. Her method of proceciure and her adiicvod 
re8ulC8 wr>aM bo juat the same whether materialism or 
aplritualiam wero true, whether theUm, |Mmiheism, or ntheiJ^m 
wer<? (he philofukphieal solution ijf the world -problem. And 
it will be ohviuiEh, fri>rii ftrvi-nd Hiniiile L'oiL-iiilenitioiH, thur. it 
U illc^tiniatf* and illogieit] ti> give in Aeientilie pitrifubtcA nny 
wider flignificatiee or validity than aueh ad is reqairofl for the 
immeiliiit'C |Hir|>oses t'l wlii^ih natural picienee puts them. 

In the flret place, aitaumptione which nrc made in order to 
enable )>icionce to jci^t on nt nil in her work of de-r^ription, 
work which, as we have seen, iw adinitt^MJIy departmeTiUil and 
abHtnieU cannot, wllhoni proof, he re^pu-ded liut aH^nmptioue 
neccBsan' to thought in geneml. Kor the part in not identical 
with tht-' whole: nni] M-k'ntiAc (]i^hi'E'i|Ftioii, in -tti fur an it 
aflvaneeit Wynnd mere ciiniiuiri»nii hikI rla«flifieJiiion of 
»eu»ible phenomena to attempt their mechanical intcrprc- 


Cambridge Theological Emayit 


t»ti<>ii. anly appllea to cci-tain ^pcct^ of phciiomona ; those, 
unmcly, whicK admit oK injktliviniLtk:iiJ trctUmcTilr or aro 
capable of reduction to iii»ttor ntid inotioiL Tltouubt is 
ricliep than xci<;iico, &«<! reality is riclier thaij thought. What 
i« vaJid for tht* ik-wriirtion of the 'oiHsitie* of plienoniena 
ami for Chir udrulHtjon of the setjueiice of Hointi kimbit of 
tlicin, cTfiiiTtot thrn Iw niwiiiiketl to be noceaaitrily tnie for 
expenejictr and knowledge a» a whole. Thus it by no means 
follows that l>oc»u«c «cit^iifCi if it Ih to oxint at all, mudt 
Ewisuiiic umformit)^ in DHtunU procossia, uiitforuiity jnuat 
obtain outniik' the Itmita of esperimentAl obserralioo : or 
tluit cmnsality, bi^cauMC itM iii^u introdntit^H oi^lor into iinttinU 
kiiovlcdge. is either neoett^ary dotcmiiiiation of con^oquent 
by HntectdeiiL, lu rmtiiniliKii) ulfirms on the oii<? Ii^ukI, or a 
nioroly <iiiHittitHtiv(i rLTlation, itnch aA^iiitliccH fur t\\v procrainro 
oftho Tiewi?r iihynitv im the othc^r: or tliAL tht? wi>r1il, Iwoiuve 
science can only describe it tci'Hciy and Aystcinatically in 
temia of tikechanioal rolatloJH \» actually a nLOchaiii^in: or 
thiit^ t}iouKli the luwntnption of unvuryinic hiw \^ owfcntiat to 
the scientific calculation of eventfi. the reign of Law muat 
be mkuii a^ tlio fimi of tlitf truthx thut will liavv to be 
accepted by lK»th Mricnct; nnd thi'olng}-'; for tbr x\^. of tho 
C0T»c4^pt <if law ifi by no mMins ialciilii^l in Ki'iunce. of the 
oMer t,>i>c, and in pbthwn]>lm--nl thn>h>gy, 

Purtl)cr> A scrutiny of sonic of the leading generalisations 
of science which one fro'iueritty fwxw dotcuiatically Aialod. nr 
rather nii^tali^d, in the tc-xt books t^uob ua the ix>Htulat4M 
<»f thv ind<Htrnctibllity of matter slikI tho conaervation of 
ODergy, or the hypothetiia of tbe absolute likene«H of all the 
atoniM of the FiHitit.- kind« rcvouU thnt thoHo aro by nii incaiM 
of ttiL* naiitro of iilMohite truthi^, but that the} are appr^txi* 
mationa HufTiL-icntly nt^ar the truth U> ;«erv« th^ pnqioHcr of 
what ia called 'cxnct' science, whose Jibsolutcncas, however, 
a^hniti; no more of pr*>of ilum of diaj»nMjf, The indwtruo 
tibility of matter cannot liu proved, in iU nnivL-r?iiU or 
abMolute HOfifW, by &ny aineuiu of the empirical evideuoo 
dpoti which lEvieticv sdopta it as a working hypotheslA. Tho 

I m a 1M£*> Hihh^^t jQio-nO, Vol I. Ne. IL p, 210. 

ii] Phyaical Scienct, ami die Behig of Gvtl 73 
principle of the crmeervation of cnorgj-, rig}»tly fiinniitiLU-il 

total ^iiiaiitity of energy in tlio uuivcmc or as to itx congtancf.^ 
The cloctnric of clicmiciil utoina ilikI their likiMicA^ id btu^erl 
solely upoQ the 8tatisti(:al inethoil cif urci^eii, »ii(] ^tiictl^ 
ti-'IIftt us iiDlhitLg uf in^lividuat atoijid of n a^veu elemeut, 
^*hi(rh may. lui a iimtttsr of fact, vary widely fri.iii> the arernife 
iiLiim tvitliuat cuuairtg any need Fur LIjc n-vmiim of djeriiiuU 
laws. And so al all poiotA wc find scientitlc Laws to be valid 
otdy for the appruxiiuate iiiethotk of practical ^ncnce, not 
at oil for (he rigorously exact univert^al t^tatemcnt^ of the 
pbiloaoplier ; and wo aco that ficientiGo postulat4»i, however 
prtHluctive of reAulu^ avid however itecescuiry to the lixiat^nce 
of fideiice aud her work of de^enption, are by no meaUM to be 
lulopu^t }\ti eX|irt?!4»ioiiH of iiltiiimte reality. Vet it hi s^olely 
by rc^HPfliit^ t'liein ua micIi timt ttcjciitilju thiTikerx hnw \trnn 
ablo to demui: to the theitttic jxtsitirjii and to conceive of the 
world w a flelf-^^Liflicterit ai^d «elf-explmiatury mecliatiiHin. 
It ia only by estchan^ni^ her rSie of doacription of pheTkimieua 
for that of doi^uutic uioLaphjtiice that »eieiiec; ha^i bet-n luiKle 
to pnMeiil «o piaualble a Cii^e u^ainst theolo)(y, Itut it w 
just because science ie purely dederiptive— a fact which of 
]uUi ha-* Im^i^uu Ut l>e wiJt'ly rewignlscd within her own circle — 
tliat rthe i« incapable of inetaphy»ical conntruetion, and thoro- 
fore alnir uf UitKilugical demolition, Atomi-im ami iiieihaniiiiu 
ai'e InipoHed on science not by reality, but Hintply by her 
oiTD ehuice of nictliod, and by the roquirciueiiti of hor 
alMtruc't and Timthetnatical procedure If she findn no 
indiriduabty and spoTktaneity in thin^, no mind in Xatitre, 
it may be dimply becanne it iv eHm.^iitia] to her proce- 
dure to leave «ueh thiik^ out of account; it by no means 
follows that tliey ;irc not there. And when, in foi-gut- 
folnein of her >u^]f-iut|i4iiMv] IhintaiinfiH, and of her aluotikotw 
from the ci>ucrete ix-ality of the world, vhc mistakes her 
alr«traction[? anrl c^oiicepttial nyinbob fur the rcal« aud 
endeavours to construct reality for us out of the otMtraetions 
which reality alone hiuv enabled her to forui, slic t&y as 
Mr Bmdley ha^ scud, siiuply 'not rcspecbible,' What i» true 
in Msleiice la often absurd in philosophy. 

74 Cambridge Tfieoivgical Essays \ji 



1, Tbo Iitst remark, j^ven^iJ from the (jrccedin^ c<iiit4^xt> 
l^ht well be niistakeii for a flip|>atit paradox : eBpemlly If 
rcgun)(<4l in coDnexion wilh KUit«<uK*riU tiiiiiitfdmtvlj' tu foUovr. 
For it must now be poiut^^d out that, thrm^i it do^ not 
IjetoTig Ui phyHinil flciL-ni^e to ilirrjUni- n^ad^\ -rtmiTe iiltimiil.t* liiul 
absolute tniclift to the theologian or the philoHophcr. or to 
presuiiit' that ht-r mcthodn can cov^r the whole )^i>tuid of 
research, it is her part* her very imporbuit ntuj iiia.liciiiib)c 
privilege* to contribute to philoBophy the body of syBtfnimtic 
kiiowkil^e of Nature which v<ho huA iie()UiretL aiid tvhleh 
moet not bo i^iored \w the philosophers elal>onition of a 
untfied itad comj>lete Int^iirelation of the world. Wlmt \» 
true in pliihiHiiphy iniiHt lie true in Heienct;, in m» far hk 
the two pruviiior^ arfi coextcnw^a In other words, a philo- 
sophical eyatcni, in intcrprctiTLg Natnre, tn giving content to 
ita concept of (Jod, and in attempting to fonuulat^ the 
relation of God to the world, miiat tjikc into iicei>unt the 
oetablifihcd ^te of natural «cience, keep in touch with them, 
ajid whiile by thern. If physical eeience, aft *ucli, cannot 
iopply a co«micAT th*w>ry, nor quarrel with one upon her own 
j^und except In reference to particntar polntft of fact. It 
muHt altui l>e bitrni* in mind that nhr tJikm her pl>u-e hi thv 
ciTJundl of tlie wiem-en over which pliihiwiphy preitldo^, and 
whnee various pronoiincomout« philowpliy ccnclatc*, unificA, 
and interpretA It is when absorbed thue into the wider 
sphere of philoriophy that uatnral science can l>cgin Ui Bpcak 
ati tn the Bein^ i>f liod and thv nltmmto nittnre of the world. 
She doea not constitute the conrt before which the case of 
TheiKTn eoinoM for trial ^ «he la only a wltne«K hi the court. 
Ilowi^vrr. when atworht^d \i\U\ pht1oHOf»hy imd tnii^tt lier 
plnce hi rt!l«tiiTii Xa\ i\m^ rumlajiietiUU Ii^incinle?^ ofkiiovrli^flj^ 
(^e doc« not wholly lose her i mil vi duality. Her utterance* 
nrc litill hur own. i)tIierwifto there would be no reason hi 
nttcmptinj: to diacuw coriBlrnrtively the Being of Uod in the 
light of phyeicflJ science. 

n] Physioat Seience, atid the Bm^ of God 75 

If till' roroffoTTi^ tTTitwniimH hnvc piiilficed to who^r that the 
methods of science are not a|)|>lioable to the whole fivld of 
human thought, Hri<l Umt^ \i\ ttie tight of a critique of know- 
lrfltf<\ mirtUifif iioMftilalcs o«n tieithtT he identified with 
iiietaphvmml |ir-iik(-i[>lfH fjor juiw iiJi »iuLwtitiites fur ihotii, U 
mnr«t now l>r p<n'nti'd nut that I»hv8ica1 priprice \vtm\^ iip, in 
manj' dircctiona, to philotiophiciLl ijnesiioijs, the p^^wcr Uy 
answer which c^^nr'titiitcpi the ia«iii claim of IWism, — that it 
m rc<iutre<t for the Batisitiction of our mt4>|]c<:tua1 iieedn. 

y. ThU is the (?aJio even if wo iillow, for the aakc of 
ar^timent, thcit the material vcrld exi^t^ independently of our 
c^xp«rietice. CJmnted this highly diHiiutiihle auMumption, the 
view that ndenw? presents t^t na u world which '^joeH of 
itnelf and HitlfJcietitlj explaiiiK itrielf \«ltlii>ut aiij' liypoLhiwix 
ttt to divtnv origin or niainiHcniiricc, might have a larger 
clruDi upon oiu' re^pert tf r^cienee liegan at the Ijegifnihig- 
Tht% however, i^ by no nicana the case Ultimate enures 
may be undjacoverable : they arc certainly not traceable by 
»eientiti<r nwtairch. Science, indeed, deala exchiwively with 
«ziHtiiig relatione^ not »t all with origins. Scicntitic expliina- 
tion in tennjt of the eautial nexua is, after all, only relative 
exp][ifmtu>n : fVtr, Itf^hind the event »«signed as can^i.* Mi !iny 
givcii pheiioniencHi. thc^re lit^ HTtother detenu in iiif^ t.1iat. and 
»o on hi indefiniF'4? regrevt The work which matlc' the 
name of Dnnvin immortnl, for in^ance« tells us nothing 
about the real 'erigiti" »>f ripecie^. It contains no inquiry 
Into the remoter cnuHce of the diversity of organic fonnw. 
The world can only eeem, to the upholder ef the mechanical 
theor}\ lo go of itr^elf Itecarme he SiidH it ^irig* (uid becnuHe, 
Mccording to hie mechanical system of ihterpretirig it, it 
»pi>efini iA\ lie imajHihle of ceiwin^ lo go or of changing iti* 
coun*e. It *ic-arcely neodH Ut W Ktated, however, that ncienee 
Ih nnsUrle Uj re|irt»<ent to lu* how the ctinrhe of NaMirt^ fjrnt 
0tart«ML No matter how fitr *he takes us Uick — and nhe can 
carry na a long way -the actual beginning of the physical 
uniTcrte irt involved in myfttor>'. Yet without t*oIving the 
qucfition of ultimate origin, eciencc 'explain*;, in tin idMolnte 
twnse, no dnple event in the world'« courae, and therefore 


Oamhnfl{/f Tluolwjirnl I'Jti^ayH 

falln far Bhorl of ileiuuiiHtjating a self-contained. fteir-*iifficieiit 
and Hdf-ex|)Uimt»ry ciyMteut. There »rt; thiuiCH ivp, Ui which 
science miist alwuyn continue to m,y not only ' irjtioramti^' 
but ^ iQnftrMmmJ Even if all natuml cvi^nla were reduced 
by 8Ctunct> to coBm of motion of int uuilit1ertu]Us.U?il plenum 
witboiic pi'opertiefl, and all nntural (|iialitica W4?re explained 
lut (irmn^i'menU and motions al' %iu'\\ ti Hiil)«tnitniii, tliero 
would I'oinalu to be accounted fur, v^ Du BoIk Reyinond 
rniuj^rkt-d Iimi^ aitTg, the origlnjtl motion of nmtter or etlirfr 
and the oxLstcnce of energy. Anci if we aK^unte tJie eternity of 
matter and cnijr^y, we desert and trannceiLd what in pi'oi>erly 
called science, and thereby renounce ltd !<eU'-«utiiciency for 
idtiiimte and miii^er^tLl explanation, Wc are not, of course, 
ciittiniz incompetence in the teeth <if science; it is of tbc 
eaitenco of the scientific account of things tliat it has no 
beginning nnd no <nKL if her Iuwjl hohl, Mhe etiii put t = ± 
any largi^ ifuantity nhe likcji, Jtml will ^i^t Monu^ [.'iintlgiirHtion 
fur tfvery vabm of t (tiint?). But nhe niUHt lie-in with &ii 
already ejLif<tinff >^tock of 'simplec,' ntich i\r^ ether <or matter) 
and enei'jiy. We aie merely objectitig, on the e^ti'oii^i of 
the«c ucknowlcd^d lactfl. to the Datnralidtic claint thai 
science pre^(*ntH uh with a sdf-ta'jifaniitmy univc^rse. 

Suienii-, tbeUr d(>er< not begin ut the t>egiiLnini{, nud indeed 
adnilttf thHt nh^ is com|>oUetU for seientifie reasons, lo uttor 
* iifnornbimua' a^ to the origiTi of the jiliywical univeitie. 
Thns it [Kihitive ImpitUe Ih ^ivrn lo phi1iiMii|iliy U> Mipplrmrzit 
the limited knowledge of Nature furinshed by science, wilb 
thcorien euicscotcd by ih wider rturvey of reality ihan scieiice 
hcruelf )# able to tfike. Where ^eience ei^iU- philosopliy and 
theology begin ; and indeed the necerwity i>f acconntiti^ fur 
thi- <inKin of th« world has Kenemlly l>t*en the i^tarling point 
for thei>-~tic Argument, when it setti unt fiimi the eputtemo- 
lof^eal Htan<lf>oint of the phVfiical seiencK^ 

S()t;u* enii^iHeirtt phihwophern, such a* J. S. Mill, have 
lM.'liikt*ri Lht^iimf^lveti, in ihin t^omu^.viun, In llii^ Anii|KMiLioti thnt 
matter or force i« eternal This ib not a rery fiatiafying 
piohition of the ditticulty, even en the a^PumptioTi timt it if* 
poc»iblc ti> thw^ign tu matter, ajHiit fn>m nuiid tor vhich it 

nj Phyiti^al iSc!t^n<r. and the. Jiehr{/ of Ooil 

rxijdst, »iiv intelligible mt^aning. And if, in nnW to arrotint 
for the miivei'ne, ml* |HmUiUt« Xhv. rteniil.j <if sndi iJiin^ %\a 
«ro duMTilied in t^xt-lKtoits un itiei^lnmk^ umUT the name of 
force and energy, there aecme no I'eaKon. »o far hh phynieal 
«9CJ€iico ]» oncemcfl, fi*r iibHtniniiig frum enfiowinjic tbcjw: 
elcnml entititfx •m\\\ jnet the *pow^r l^i pr(Hl«co motion" and 
nothing more. Kwmal mind or vilL wouM iniit science hi 
lofuft aj£ yitiW iiv lilimi, tincoiiactona forei>; nud t)ie minimum 
wbicli ^cieiue n.^piirps Uy poKtiilate t-annot 1c>gitimat4^ly be 
&.*«uii]e(l ttr l)V all r)iei-e n-nlly in^ Knf-ui tunr wulfi/iUrtwrin 
pr'ictrr nrrf^fttcitctn in nn excellent metho<:1i.r logical pi-indple 
for dcscripliv© Bcicncc; it la irrelevant, however, In tliU 
connexion, Ihxuliimo pliih>;4oph_v -n.nd nowtvdu}> ncicuce too— 
<lenie>^ tlint * force ' in lui ni" nt fill- 

In the inf^re«t« <»f Tln*ii*m attempts have been madt^ to 
tBucuver In Uie woHd ^^idenf^tsi of itn origin by erentioii. If 
seimee ewnnot Minnmtm \mvk x*> onr meiu^il view the proctw* 
of lieifi 111 ling, one might expect Ibnt whe wonhl Inr able Iai 
trace iti Nntiirc evidences, or. iit leaat, enggie&tions, of tho 
cre&tiye acta of One Supreme Cniise, taipixr^ing the nnivrrKo 
to hare arisen in this way. Especially migbt this hope bo 
ODtwiained of the stturch r>r such HiifCff^^ti'^m; in the 
pemoter Htagee through which the world i^ kn<iwn to have 
puwrd, und in tlie elementaf e£i^f4Miees4 of whieh it i* bolievod 
to \.w> courjHi^eflL Sin h n hfi|H? woidd. frnni thf; theJPitV point 
of vteWf Im-' reaM>riab}e. tliiingh Ui(^ U^at Himid not be iTiu:iaK 

Nov the proccmcn «rf Nnturo, unlike those of machinca 
made by niai:i. are fonnd to 1>c of an irreversible kind. The 
tfjf^cm will nut run ImekwantH; Nature'^ chau^^i^ prinrerd in 
only one direction. So fiir a« we know, the traiisfoimations 
erf enerfry which aceompany dmngt^ in the phyflieol world 
iDTolve no loan in the quantity t^f energy cirtieemcd : but it ih 
well known that though energy i^ not lost, it tends» during Ita 
imccfwhiLT clmn^ew of FortUj Ui iM^eume ever le«w Hvaihilile for 
dnip^ *worI(/ OUier l.hiii^ lieirg the Hanie. thiti L^^ideney 
of the worliiw energy Uf liecome nnaviLiUble ijf>intf* to a 
definite 1)eg^nning and a definite end in time of the existing 
tyvtcm of things. I'mvidc^l the nuivi-r^ be finite in extent, 


Camhrifige Theological ExAaya 


the principle of the dieeipatioD of ener^ impti^ flnil 
duraUon for the woHd aii we know it Conaecjueutly, th 
nnlor ik^himlN^] b> Ihwm vrhkth 1ii>h) ^^imhI now cuiiiiiot h 
aialiitali>ud f»r hij iiiJtrflikite \\mt. And lIiIh, it 1ih» Ftuniethjtt 
l>ccti affiniMxl, in tHgiiivukTiit to tln^ n.diniMfoit i>f nn tjrigiDi 
crcatiTe act A» a particular chac of Iho principle in iiucAtioi 
it wik! ]^>inlod out hy Ljord Kelvin that Fourier^ fomiuti 
rcprcflcntinx the prococw of coDduebioii of the earth's heai 
ImplieB tliat there miiBt have boon, at eonie definite? pu 
timti, ft tlicrmiLl ititktt? of the world which oiuinot be regardo 
HH tho pliyMij-ul niAiilt nf h kiittwn previoUH »tal€ of thingi 
Bill thiH reaxiining i« harHly a ?K'C'iire b^otih For an argt] 
iiient forTlitMin. Hucb diHCifiitiintitv e^imot Icgitbnatelj b 
idcntifiod with an ab^ikitc ttcciuiiinji: of the iimtc. It mcrcl; 
iinpltOA that an oarher thontial etato of the world did no 
arue hy conrluction uf heat JiloiLe, fit; itK Intvr c^inditioiH did 
it fioea uot proclude th<j exiet^^nce, before th« epoch o 
dlAcrontlimity, of some source of heat i>f which our eqi 
tifiiiU to Xi\)tv-- )u:\^\\i\tU 

AnoUitT flign of the dcfluilc bogiimiiig of the ph; 
Wui'hl, and of the action tht^mii of creatiTe power, ha^ t>cC4 
«ou^ht ill the alleged aUn^lutc hkenc^ and immutabilit; 
of the atomic clement^ into which science rc6oKe» thi 
uiiiv<Trwc\ Sir John Htii^cbcl would hare had ua soo in tbi 
strict Fuuneneea of the utonts an e^^ntial ^tuality of j 
'inaiiufacttired nrUcle'; and Clerk Maxwell held it to be| 
solid result of science that tlie atom has beeu made, aiu 
\w\u\t^ lij wiue of the |iriiretu>tw uhkh we i-atl iiHtural. Hiui 
the vlement« of which the wurld w buih up were Mipposei 
theinflttlvea to bear witiieitA that they are not eternal ad 
aclf-exintent ^ 

As tliia arj^mont stands, it is open to the criticisiu thai 
the abwdute iiennaneiu-y it-*cri1)C4l to atum^ by tfic Hcicne4> <ri 
Clerk MiLXwell'i^ generation poinU at least aa r^triTiigly t4 
«t4^rnal exintenee as to creation In time ; and further, tbfti 
ihc aib«iihit<^ likriu^w atiribith-d Uj the aloriit^ i^ nscniioi] 
witlioot :<iilficicrit cronndrt. AtotiiA are only i^tiidied hy 
ecieijcc in tho aggregate, aud our knowledge of a aiugle one 

nj Pkynieal Science^ arid the Bel/tg of God 

U onlj nuch ttG« can be ac<]iiired Btati»bicH]l>. Fnnn Ibii* it is 
cWdcut tbat wc can know Dothinja; u^ to tbu csoct iiropcrtic^, 
tli^ oxftct liixe or velocity, of any iiidivulual ntoiii. Thie 
lattor criticism* perhnp», niuy be ei^cupiHi ; tor nbnoiutc liko- 
De^ is ti<n ea^iilial to the argument Recent advances in 
scivuci-\ liDWoier, ^iig^L-st thnl the utoiii \% no lonjcer t<> be 
re^rtle^l hh iiikijiiitjJ>le, but h» a tiling which ii]j{krgi>6A 
irhfiii^ utid cUi^intt^grution. TtiTS TaitI^ wliilt! it devlro^a 
Clerk Maxwells |ircnmc, does not In itself supply evidence 
either fttv the cre^tiim of matter or for ita eternal oxiHtence. 
If however, the cloctions* into which suieTicu Is now rc^oivin^ 
the ntunifs tire to l>o takeu hs the ultimate eli^mcnta of matter 
and Ebs Htrictly <.H{niviileTit luid iilike* tlie ori^jnul artfunKmt 
reappears Id new forrn. And it may peihajM be sti'eiigtbeued 
by dlwooiHtion from the tinh»p|>y' aiiHlogy liotweeii mimu- 
fa<7tiii'e nn«i rnyttioti whic-li fonnerly iiTiderlay it. The 
exiKLt-iice throughout vivtt rtigiouH of Mt^llar ^mci'. uf ho 
stu|WTDd<)Us & number of cIcmeTit^ bodies exactly resembling 
one another i* iiard to explain on any 8Uppo»iti<>Ei other than 
tbut of origin from u common .-<otirco <i.nd a t^iniflc ca(U4^'« 
That Uiifl cause was the croativo act of Uod is not an 
«bv<ilntely necetwai-y inforenue. But if electrons iire reitl, 
and not mere ny^ibolH of our making, he who is already a 
theisit nm> i*ee In their likene^i one of tlie partieularv iii 
whi(-li rhr world xnggeti^tB ita origin by (?reiitii>n. For, 
ai^onling Ui hiM (Conception of the world, he would exjieet 
to find '^eome eviilcnco of the orifin of iiatund objects &om 
ft sEuglc source/ and 'Ho find the evidence stronger in the 
rimpler artd more elemental objut-t^ which compodod them." 
" If." c*>iitinuce the writer from whom these worda are cited, 
''w« nlionhl tind u veiy tar)^ nuuilier of [jina or bullets that 
wore iw niinthir lo^ urc apparently the dittei'eLt ntitou* of the 
0BiDe substaneei we should not hesitate to rejpird them ua 
4^tlier dirrrtly I'r n-molely *|3runj! from uiie wiurce. And if 
lIjc aUauh iihonid turn nut to be composed of still more 
tiltimAtc elenietit«. * prime element^' 'electric €or|>iiMdo6.' 
or what not, there woald be Htill Htrony;e]' reasons to re|icar<l 
tfaosc more ultimate eleniettUs which were present every- 


Cumbfiff^e Thfologkal A'ssajfs 


where in Bpaoe* a^ dependent on one ^irroiind. The l<»pciU 
twwU for tliiH |>cMtiilute t)f 'one ground for Himilant' ia sitnplj 
this : The way^ hi which perfectly iincciiuiected ihlniipft couW 
dirtt^r are immberless, wfhiTc tliert; is ortl}' one wuy in which 
mt^h tinngft i^idd {veiiWlfy ra^einlile rn>e aniitht-r; lierice thftl 
ftn iTirh*llnil4^Ey great number of ihiuga shtudd quil4; of Uk'tr 
own accord hapytn Ui>on precisely the eame fonn. Is iv 
probtthility ho iiuiiiin^inably sniatl ^ to be iicgli^hle. 1( 
on Ihc other hand, thu^o cIcnR-ntH wore not indcpciitlentij 
formed, but were co-eQccta, their siinilarity would follow ait a 
matter \>f c-<iurNO^" TliU aricinnL'ni eAiinoC \\f otTvri'd h<;ro 
iw Huffldont U\ jyrov^- nnity of 'origin for the eleiiientfl Into 
wtiieh w'ieiire res(ilvt*i the W4>rld- Wi* nr*.* only t'ortjiin of 
ft HiniilttT oripn for our pinn »nd bitlk-fA in (T^fiiNi-tfjuencie of 
our kn(>wlc<lg;f that- t-hi^' arf. manu/tniuTrfl 0\iugf>. And it 
would Bccm that the poctulatc of "one ground for ^^imilare,' if 
ground UK^is origin, rc<|iiire« an ewlior jMwiiilatc Ut mnkv 
it vulid. the iLrtfumcnl, howcvor, sulhccs to contimi belief in 
Oiie Source when othciwiso eatablieheiL 

The argument for k Ptr>«t Cuu^e iif 40 fitmllkr that It 
iteedu no elaboration here. We have sectt that, hckwever 
reniotely Itack ^:ieTu:e luiiy tm/^e the muAal rierleH, and 
however itimple may be itM nttiinata hy[i4^(hrj(]i« tw to iht^ 
grornkdrt of phyaical rcaUty. it doe^ not take us to a self- 
explnTiati>ry Ito^nniuf;. The umlilferentiatf^l rthereni plenum 
of Lord Kelvin, of which adenco supposes the universe to be 
eonstitittcd, rc^iiiircMiin original exdtfiiion to intemal motion 
which ia not explained by the ether itself: and the e:d8t«nc« 
and ilireetin^ fM>wer of ener^ry hnve llkewfite tf> be aiuumw] 
before science can enter njion her explunut^iry rl<v<'ri[itioii of 
pheTioineriH. Even Herl>ert Spencer re*|uireii fiir hin M'liteiD 
the ii?«Mno|>lion of a Pin*t (!>t«sc, im a nw^eKwu>' datnni of 
coii«dout<i]Cfw. Adopting, then, the atnndiroint of fldence 
with rcptrd tvt the natui^ and V4.lidity of knowledge^ nod 
dTrKMimiJTiic the <jn(^ion from that !?tandpojnt alone, we nrt 
brouj^ht Ui a choiee l»etw<x*n the indefinite regrem of (^an^^w 
and the |>ofttnlatie» ef a Kiret Ojiui*e which ii? rausa ^tui. 

Phyiical Scicnct, ttnd the lieitifj of God 91 

The indefinite regress crxplaina nothing:, but merely rcvtntefl 
ibe question to he M>lvud : for i\\\^ ex|ilAtiatioii of a given 
change il merely rotors iie to u prcccilinjc ^innliLr chriricc and 
80 on indoflnitoly. But. na a recent writor has aaid. "it ia 
mipotwihle that what m not intelliy^ble in onit injttanoOr 
tliould l>wome hitcllif^ible by tlio mere inultt plication of 
flimilar ijnlnU*]liKi1>i1i(ie8.'^ Pr<>ft*«or THyU>r, whoK*^ am th« 
wctrilx jnAt (|nnUHl, j^it** rn t" wiy that "f the »tten)piji whk'h 
phiUiaii|ihen( have iiwuKr Ui i^xtriiwlf tUfmnflvtw fixmi this 
difficulty withixit giving up cnumlity lu nn ultimntc principle 
of explanation, *' tiie leant [tliilosophical \a that of aj-bilrarily 
p<R4tEitiilini; a Fir^t ^ ^atir«e >v'itli mj pre(xxiiii£ cmixe " — a wfiy 
ouLof tli« fliffiouHy which "obvioiwly iimountft to an arbitrary 
d^^ertion of the caudal principle at the point where it 
iMH^iimv im'»rivt'ni(*nt In r(*ntiiifi raithful l.ti it." 

Objection iiHi\ fiiirty In* tJikf'n ix\ the word 'arbitTUrily ' in 
Uiin i^riiidntii of tlie i-itnctijithni "f n Kii-nt TatuM?. V\\t 
obvioiiflly, un1ew aiufvility i^ to l>c i<lcTitificd with mere »c- 
iliience and deprived of its essential iTuplicatiou of efficiency, a 
^MXX>ndary' OHUMe iii no eatne at all ; It iti only allowed to puw 
for ooe bocauso of the mediate etticiency which it is HflAtnnod 
b> derive fnnn that wliieh alone x^ etticient erint^v if there be 
any such thtni; as eauHal action, namely the productive power 
of a true cHunt*, or FIrHt Cautta U may akti be urged Umt 
ttie jirinriplr of I'JinvoLlity, tn m\ far hj4 it ia a principle of 
Bi^iUtfjiiHtic runni-Aiim, ?idmitttrdly only applies to thhig^ wliieh 
hegm to he. 'Crerythiug whidi begins tts be niunt have 
ft eaueo' — ao tiic principle i^ properly btat^d us a pi^i^tnlatc 
crftdentllle thi'ii^titw AikI this ijontulatt^^ is perverted, i^urcly, 
when it » preiMcd «o ^ to include Die Firet CauHe a« ano 
amon^ the »erie8 of similar caiu^a^: not when it expreeuly 
etehidc^ referem^e tit a thiufj; i»r u Being of wlii(;h wt? do nut 
Bay that it 'Ix^gHn toln\" Tliat uvery cmiat^ inig>lit«]Uk ant^^Hur 
<mnHr In a vii<M>itH intc^rpreULtlon of thin prhieipte, ami tilnl^h 
more than is ipveo u priori and analytically bound up with 
Ujc cate^>r}' of cause : or, in the langnagc of the cpistcmologj 
which wecms dcwtined t-o rtjilace (lie a priori doirtrine of 
Kant, it states more Uian is nocefwarily implied in the 

G. T. X. ( 

92 Oamhridge ThmlofficaX Emays [\\ 

potttiilato of causality b^ aujann i>r wliioh we haro redaoed 
our humftn experience to calculable order. 

Ill Ao far as the coeniological proof «r tlje Belntc **f *^<*^ ^ 
identical with uo are:iin]ent tt> a Finn Cau»4e, it lia« often bonw 
Mip[HHiied til liavi? l>twTi invalidated b_\ Kant"* criticism, that 
wc cjiriruit applj the categ<trj' of cAii^e oul^idci the realm of 
tilt? tTiTi|ari('jil. Tliis U only true^ howeTev, if cause b nieretj 
a milyoctivc civtc^fiirj- of the iiTiden«taitf]iiig without aiiy 
objective or cnucrcte comilerparl in the external world. 
Now. if cause be thus entirely subjective, snimply n liabit 
of mind forced upon uh by the exi^^enciee of our impuli^c to 
interpret our e\|>fri4;nco, we ruay be pre|Mired to admit ibat 
the notioD of eaus^o^ however indtspensablt^ hi jimrrtlce, iit 
iiidafeiiHible [n ihetir^. Kreryone who \w\^ tried to fhink out 
wherein thc'clTtcivncy' orciuiaatloa cunidsts. hnw HraTr:«uiit'' 
cauAal action in to be coTiccived. what exactly causation ifl 
and }if)w it ibt worked, will bo taiuili&r witJi the eiidleaa 
ditlieull>ic«<f puinulo^ieHf aurj eoufuMons intit whii!h hiet thought 
Ib thereby inentabl)' ]g<L He may then conclude^ perha|», 
that 'cause' bel^ngn to appearance, not to reality, and that 
It 1h ati hmdtH|ii:tti* key to the roitipU^U^ interpri*tntion of 
©ijicrieuce which phikwiphci-M w.*ek- If «nch lie the caao 
with c:fiiL»e, tlie theiHtic argument for a Fimt ('aune nitint be 
abandoned ; but also, alon^ with it, one of the maiTistajB of 
the uiochanicai theory of the world which pec** in "the 
cxtcuMieu it{ the pn>vinee ct ^luit we call in;ittor and 
cau^tion " the completed cxclueion of the theoloj^cnl jttoitd- 

On the other hand, our innbilicy to conceive the rationale 
of caiiMHtliin irt nn pntof that ilhiHion nec&M^iHIy lurk« in lUir 
iimiieiUulo ciiMrritmcc of jictivity. whuiicc the c/»uccpt of eaiiHe 
ifl (r«rtainiy HUg^efltcd; the category uf caiiHaltty, however 
dcrivwl, may after Jtll reflect aoTnethin^ of what actually goon 
on in reality. In tiua caMc. tflncc e^iit-vition ie unable to 
explain itself, we are authorised, and indeed driven, ti> ai^ek 

* 'TnoMiULt'AotiTity UoxMbiM utLftiHu^ticeti bj Liiothor \\m Autivltj 
Whvn out} ohJHot Ia iuhiIi* i^t i^li^iiijr'? \* diiiUii^cJiihixI i^ Mmmnitont' 
by uiotiitT. Wb«ii II lx>fl> citiAiigw 

n] Phy»i4^al Scitnice, ami Ihe Beimj of God 

tor itfi eiplanation outride the pale of pliyslcal science. And, 
mHJtmiich lu M^iL^tict^ hernelf t4.'ELc1keiA tliiit mniU^r in wlioll}' 
iiLirrt. and cnci^' without the |)ower Ut dirc-ct Lt»ic1f. it is 
Di-ceiwirj lu neek fur ULiisal elHciemj, whether orjgiiml i»r 
derived, in niiml We arc thii^ led to the oncept of u First 
UiUfic, an libsoliitc Boin^» euch oa ie prc8Tii>poacd by Thci?*nK 
the cUsmity of iimtter uni energy. <*]| the one himd, tiiid blind 
chance (what**ver that may moan), on the other, are excluded 
mji explanattloiift or the uuiven^. 

W€ h*?re gc*t a glJmpMc of thu nc^ed for the eonc-opt i\f (J'h] 
wlddt (iliyjfic'iLl t<L-ji3iice has often Iweji supposed ti» n?itder 
jiiipcrfluoim or inadmissible. Tlie special *cienr<^ do not^ of 
coarse, reijuire the use of such a concejit; they wuuld Ije 
miiwd art wicnccK if tlicv did. For their buainctts i^ to tfivc 
r^ntir^ explanations of phcnomenn by tracing; them cau»iily 
to phyHlcui lUituOLtdenbc Tu uji|ion), where tca^w uceur in our 
knowle'd^e of the caueal connexion of things, to divine 
aclivity. would be, for science, to renounce scientific expJana- 
lion ; whilr fnr thcolo;|^ t^k thruiit Mudi uxphnntion iiiu> tliu 
gapn of HL-ientiHr Llieoryf with a view lo vindiiratiiii^ tlie 
Bomsary t^^if^tcnce of (lod, wociM In; ix\ miataki; Liu- fiitiiiioii!4 
of mcncc and theology olikd and to play into the hand of 
the Acientitic sdcptic by apfreahn^ lo reeo^ni^ the elaini of 
Mietice to MietapliygirnI tt1>&ohiteue@4 instoad of emifiiiing her 
to the more humble rok of pheiiotn^nal ctai^iticAtion and 

Wi; l>ej;iii then mriK to »ee that ulfJiough thr NpveinI 
sciences can iieifunn theii' work and achieTc their conijtit;htA 
without recimt'se to the use of tlie Ideii of diYine uettvity, and 
cnn perform it ei|ually well whether Ihcl^nJ Iw true or not. 
there atx* <|ttedtioriH i-ui:3ed in the mind of the |>bilosophcr 
by iwicnce an » whok which, the theiat cimtenriK, are only 
Batiii^torlly aUBWerable on the aasuniption of the exislenee 
of God. 

3. .So far it ha^ Wvw argnrd thai, if the canHid rdation 
Itetweeu pht^nomtfim Jh n'lil, the efinisntial element of (ididetHfy 
in the cauac, which acicnec indeed increasingly ignores as iier 



Canthridge Throfotfirai Eami/tt 


pnjgresa con tin lies, iribritalil}' uarnt'^ ii« XmcV iit H M*\f-ex'mieni 
cattflOf an eternal Mind and SVilL Further fltudy iif thr axniMl 
nexus, which acJcm^t! htt^^ revealt^l ancl in tcnnrt of whidi 
iiEituraliBm seisks lo L\\plain the iiijtvcn*c, will supply anothor 
ai-guinent fur the existence of an abeolut« Boiiu; as the 
ground of nil individual thinji:^, 

Wtien we ask wliat ia the bond of eonnexion Ijetwecni ilic 
cause Hnd it« vtft-ct, or, In teehnieal laiif^iiage. Low we are to 
undetNtani) Mriitiunntt ru'livity,' we are Idl to nee that numv- 
tiling more oiiikI. f>i«L in l.lie nuivei-Fie than all that science, 
with ttfl particular intcrprctRtior or uni^ ^^f aiiiMiUty, briitgs 
to light Atoitiinm in ubvioneily incapable of account in^ for 
causality at all. If the ntonift, or ultimate elements int^i whiih 
science rceolvcfi tbe warld, arc absolutely independent of oih> 
another; if tliere !« no >i|Mmtftiieily attacliing Vj them in- 
dividually and no conecrtcd netinn ain'nig»*t ihenj cnlki-tiwly, 
— tiotbing but externally determine iniij»ct« mid rhsiii^i^ of 
molion: then it U imi>f»wib!r 1ji i?:(pl»vin the fact ihnt ihiii;^ 
hapfieii m^i;ui-fUng tu Ihw, causcfi pi'oducing eifects and like 
cauH^ like efieeta. Nor doea reduction of all kiiida of 
aiumtion to cases of the one mrwt famitinr to wur txpcnent*, 
and therefore api>aroutly the most »Euple, namely, inechamcid 
action or pn»diic!tioii of motion by Impact, ImnfH iit< any nearer 
to umicrst«niluig exactly how the eaiiMC pnKlucc»* the effect 
For why, when one ball tmpingea on another, should motioD 
or chntigt! of motion take place f How ix the ehiingt' pni<1tK<edt 
[f the structure of the world \a at Irottom dii^coiHinuoupt. a^ ia 
preeup]Nieed io atomistic hypoChcHeH, how irt the tnLn:<Ltion 
from cause to eficct brought aboat? This question AMomee 
a ver}' iinportiiht place in the philoM^phtenl Hyntoni of IjotsD, 
and itt^ »>]utioii ^Tmcd W him absolutely to detnnnd a 
iintv<:re&l Beiuj^ as the backgroimd of all Individual things, 
eonhtUutiujjf their Ihfud r>f union, and alone rend(?ring thdr 
inleniiHiion [xk^mible. If caunalian is not mei'ely conditioning, 
and not identical with ereatimi f»nt of nothing ; if it i-mmot 
be c<*nceivt'd a* a tmn«f«rcnce of influcnccfi from the cfiitne 
to the effect, and yet traiineiitrf. ad.ion ift iKit (« be ftucceMfiilly 
ditfpcnecd with by theories auch rv9 thopc of occanionaliam or 

n] Phpsicai Siueuce, and Ike Bdng of God 

pteOBtobliehc^l hannony : tbon caudal action miiMt In? iltJHcribed, 
m L<>t2C artfii^*i ill U^niw of thn uitecor)- of ininmQeiicc. The 
pana^ fW>m caiiee to effect, that is to eay, ta a develdpineiit 
in otio hjk) tlii^ KiLiDc llciii^- Tnuist'liEit i^ cxchiiii^d for 
mmanent t^dvity : i^ltimlt^m gives pliu-c ti^} cnouiHiu ; the 
Ojie and tlie luaiiy are in Home i|uatlfied neiihie Identical. 
Thu3t ^icTtirr, in-p mtliiri', tin* |»ljiU"M)|jUii"*d K-Jiniigw of ^dcn- 
tificall^' cfitabliAhod tuct;s» Ag^Liii lead uh, if chao^v and cauHal 
actititi in tho pbjaical wcuM arc to be umdi^ ci^uceiv^kMc, t<> 
poMtoiate a e^n^le, all omfiniciit^ l^inic; ULonjz:h, so far a^ 
this arRninent ^o^^, ^uch Beinj^ k nut nt^coa^arily to be 
identified ^vitli tliv God </f UteiBin. 

4. There is yel anotber way in which the refliiUs of ph>Rica1 
Hciriu-v, when ihcir nltnuate expliLnailon in utti^npurd, t^iig^t'tit 
(be nrireHHar^ existence i>f ^ Supreme Being- In pi'4.-Ht<ui iiig 
thv itrgTimunt it will Ih* iieri^wrirv L<> tmiiT^i^rens iince nioi-e the 
Umita of pure sdcDCt- and U} enter upon the territory which 
bolonga by right to tbe nucceediii*^ ciuuLy of tliis volume, 
bach tre^pnj^siiiK, however, i« inevitable, on account of the tact 
alreadv emphaai^ed. that dcieuce, qua bcienco, hoa litrtle or 
DO contact with thcolci^y, snd that it i» only ufx^u tho eommon 
fCround of philosophy that ihe&e two <l<>partnit-niH i>f thought 
C»n bo bninght Int^) relation wHIi vavh i»thrr. And Jn tbe 
present ar^inent we leavx^ bcliind ultuf^ellier tbe t^piMtemo- 
logie-al rilJtndpornf. nf 'cntinnon M^riHc' v^n\\ of ordirmry working 
Mu^nce. In nonte of tbe foregoing di^ciiKsiuns tbit^ HbJtnd|Hiint 
Ymm been rctiincd for tije sixkc of meetiny; the ^cientifit: rtindor 
cm hu ovm ffix>und: but only, ae it were, inider proti^st Wo 
raoflt now act ujujii onr rcptidiatioii of the uncritical pri>3uiii>Q- 
Mtion of ordinary o^trnmon wm^e and science, Uiat the nnjvi^rrfo 
b a great machine exintin^ ohjeetively a|uirt from tbe minda 
wblcl) eoujo Ijj it, iw it wt-re, frinn uitliottt: a sitnietbing 
'given' totb(>*e niind>* sw ready-made reality wliieb tboy are to 
tttke HA it hUiihN^ nlonj; wltb iui jin^i^usting inexorable laws 
dctcnninirg the sequence of its cvontd. and arc to endeavonr 
to undenttarid ht^ tient tbey can, if only nmlcmtiiidniii: can find 
% pUcc therein nt wW If theology argue wit^ sdcDco on tJio 
tacit assuinption tbtit the theory of knowledge adopted by 


Cambridge Theological Esst^a 


gcicncc is a*lc<(i"*t<! r<*r purpf»*H**< other Oiaii thode of pr&ctic&l 
life, theolopiy will f\\\t\ it h»r*l to woist it*< op|M>iionU It in 
only b>' refVialnjc to open the debate uiitU the n>a1i»tjc haa 
been oxcliaiigud for the iclculistic* i4tuiKl|ioiiit, tJiHt TlieUm cnn 
entertain ih*' }ir*w|rtiet of ttitiinatc wijc».^i^w. It ii* |>r**<;W-ly in 
rejiUfliatHing Llie optateinoh^ica] pnTsiippiMltumM of ncience 
that theolo^^ diaaima her opponent fuiil luftkce herself 

In nii»iin>c the r)Uc«tion» then, of the reality of Uio jjliyftiml 
tLlU76rse, T^ry little reflection brui^ even the plaiu man to 
rucognu*: thut, H|Nirt frtim niimi, it in impoHniblv to conodve 
of matoriaj existence. TJie properties of phydcal objecta, 
vm michj ulwiounly do not inUf?ri- \\\ thi-rn ; !h*^y Hre niacle, 
at IcAst ill jmrt. h^ 4Hir niiiuU whielk jterceivc tliem. It is 
dier«, luirl not iu the ruse* that redness cxiHtA. Not even the 
primury propertit^ of mutter, such da extension itufl li^ire, 
any more than the Hccoiidary, such a^ colour aiul laatc. can 
h&To any uxidt«^oo apart frcmi oiir setietibility and tlioiight; 
iin'l HO matter, fu inilcpendeiit of mind, ha^ no meaning. 
If to exiat is more than lo be perceived by mind, — or> 
rather, tn Ih* ai^ element in oonjdciuuH experience, — it ei^rtaiulj 
cHnnot W to jxmiieH^ lu inheivnln, ijuulltieM whieli rei|uirQ 
external n>iii{i Ut coiintttiitc? thcnu Whether there arc 
nouincnal and unknowable 'things- in -theiuHelve«' bokind 
'thiii^, which pnwlnce on niir senoibilttj the cfiVct^ which 
we lnlLJ thv propcitica of matter^ as Kant taught, or whether 
Berheley'a esse e.»t j>er€ipi Aultleiently defines material ©x- 
Uteuce, ift » tpicJtion which iiQ irn-K^vimt In thii? ci^mtcxt. 
In cither cu«e the world, as we Intow it. ia made by our 
seniwA tt,u(l underHliinflinii;, 'Matle,' bowevc^r, iit not 'created.' 
Thti [wntiiiving Hilywl diHw not crcalc iU objoc^ti*; we do 
not ouraclveH ori^atiate our aen^itittnn. Soniethhig, then, 
cooporaten witi» our mentui Hctitil^- to constitute reality. 
And of this something we can say two thingw; fii-fltW. it U 
intelli^bte; for \)iy rit^cntitic nit-tlioda wc arc incroa^iiigly 
Interpreting it ilh a coimioB : and secondly, it interact* with 
UH ftctiu' euhjecta; for fto U our <*ji]KMHun(*i? emi*^titutod. 
Eltljer, then, it jh it«ielf intelligent and causally ellicient or 

n] Physical ScifiWr', ami the BHit/g 0/ Ood 87 

cW Him in intHlT^iK-it iitirl cJiiiioil artirity bt^hind it, AJid 
iiia&iimrti nti Uit* irii1> i^iihii: of tvlitrh wt* havf. v-x\n^Ttvui'jti Im 
mhid, botli of lhct*t two din-rftctcristice of the 'otycctivc' 
irorld arc »l*o charactcriBtics of spirit Nature, therefure, iniwt 
at bollom be spiritual ThiJH dooi* rcfl<y?tJon im tljc i-t'«iitto 
<»f itcicncc Urful iiK to an iilealietie conception of tbo univerae. 
The Htqj from such sph-itimliam or ideallAin U> Huriitin iw stilly 
Itide^Ml, It Hlep ; but Li tlic li^ht of other con aider ntJone it U 
n'tatively nn eiwy otie. F^r science not only brinp* to light 
tl]« iiTiifi»nnk} »im(I iiitelli^iliiliry 4>f Nittun- : itlie no lew 
cicai'ly reveEils the unity of Niiture, '*Kvery wln^ren" Mtyn h 
living biolo^ht, '*iinitiee iuv liettij^ iK-rfi-ived, — tlie nutty vT 
rital oraninisiilton through all the Tariodntylesof an:hltei^ture 
in plant mid animal, the umty of viuU ]in>cert«<?< imM all tliQ 
multilkriouM exprer«iiii^« of life, th« unity of dcveiopmentt 
tb9 unity of evolution, Wliat the poet and the artist ^ee 
InsdnecJvely, what the meU.ptiy»icmn and the theulo^an 
reseh deductively, biol<)|i^ i« striving t4> mtablinh inducrively, 
— llii? ITiiity iif Nature/' And idiyMirji has attaint^l t" this 
rcftlination *>f thi* idenl of nnity far more jKTft^clly than hfw 
biology* And thitn all ^eiciice apirrt>aclieH one A^giect i>f the 
theidoi;iaTi'ji tde^k of <^hI. Fi>r if Nature ia one tH>nH^t<:^nt 
whnle, dow it ntit priwnppofW One Uronmt and therefore, 
in thell>:litof wlmthiwi^ne before, One Suprouie Intelti^nce 
and One f*aufte: hi otlier w<»rdi«, One on^inntin^ and eon- 
serving Mind? If m>, Uoi! if* no! a HUperfluouK hy^K'TheniSj 
tiii>ii>;li science rnny h»\e ni: nT:*ed of Hneh a 4tiMif(<pf. TIik 
concept of t.tod wt Universal Mind secnuft indir^penAable for 
nmndini^ off tfie knowledge we derive from the jwveml 
phyaieal BdencoB and for ^ccnnntc reality for the univcrso 
wlUch acieiice aoek£ to inteii^ret. 

Some of Uie more ^nend tnith« vshieh Acieni?e hnn taught 
OBafaoutthe universe have now beeti ^een to involve iuforencea, 
noctmary alike fc^r their intoq^retAtiou and f'>r tlie urdBcation 
of icfenliflc knowledge, whieh jmiTit in the direetiou of thetaf ic 
ilcKtLrine. Hie analysis of ehinal interaelrioTi, in l4*rinKi»f uhirh 
■caener nmke« the nntven^e relatively intelligible. haA ted us 
to affinn that ftudi interaction between iiidivSdtial things ia 


Cafnhridffe Theohffkat Eiuayt 


nnthinkablo wittiout the AMituniptioii of fin ultimate Bafng, & 
One embracing the uiany^ which might p<»^ibl}\ though not 
neccMiml^j be MeiiLifitM) with w)ial the UmUt int^miH hy (i(Hl. 
Fiirdicr. mi itH^uiry into vrhiit 4XjiiPititiir«H the rwlifcy of ihti 
cxteriml woi hi liaa coiiipcltcd ua to ptiatulatc aii infinite ami 
ctent/il Mind. Anil, yet \i.^\i\^ it hh/^ l>ccii nhoMH that if 
caiii^lity ig not ulto^oihor subjectivo, if it is the ccfniiterimrt 
in Nature of vhiU wc meiiTi hy activity in lx}ln]ij;>« f;niJowod 
with will, then th^ argum<^iit from tlio course of Nature to 
the Firwt ^nu»e^ which U to be icIentiSed with will, would 
tKieni tt> In* vnliil. Aiul the Hryinneiii hivi»lvr<i in this last 
line of thi>u^ht U strengthened by the reHull» previousily 
mentionuil. For if miiid l>e tbe [irior elt-nicut, nnd matter 
and eiier*;y only it* conMtnictiona, thf aM-|-j|itiiin <if (lie 
world's course to the ctcaiml action of cuci^' or matter 
becomes abaurd 

if th(Mc ai^imenta l»o soun<i. wc have ulroatly rcaehcd tlie 
ttieistic inference that the world emt« in and for an inAnite 
Sliirit, n Being clmmcte rifled by .Miml mid Will, ii Itoiiig 
tTRn»i.viiding thf wiirhi wliith exii^U for llim, and imniaiiviit 
In the world whit^h exiMtM in lllm. 

^K At thin Mjiifc if may T^ntljibly W jiohiU'd out thnt the 
trend and tendency of natural acitnce lian i>f Inle jeiu-s Itt-ri m 
a direution fjivonnLble. mther than ntJicrwisc to the Idealistic 
riow (jf tikc world which most form the nitartHinii'ixdnl for a 
theiatic theolo^^y. The strength of innU'rinlisni, whii;h waa 
much moro prevalent anion^ students of |>hy8ioa] science 
a generation or two agi>, lay in tlie nu>oi»anicjd ti(e<jry of 
\atnrt!; whi{'h, it h^ts been already remarket!, ix now seen to 
be fall of nhortcoming:^ from the point of view of Hcience, mid 
to be hoi>cleB8l> inadtninale from the jioint of ticw *.>f 
phllociojihy. Biolo^ets have nisintcd on the iini>ortiincc of 
meittal faclortd, whether of tlie nature of mere ^nticDoe 
^\\i\ in*:tinet or whether of the nature of imitation aiid 
coUhciouH clkoice. in the proe&M of evotution in the or^iiiuc 
«vorId. But tile inelhcieTicy anil irrMevanr.y which natnm.lisfti 
ifctiril>nt4v 1o thi'*e n«^ltJvl fiu'tor* in dilhndt tii rcooNt-lle 
iiiUi liA iluctriiie of ihu huj vhal of only what in iiEicfiil i\i an 

u] I*hygkat ^icticc, and the Being of Ood 80 

or^nWii : conncquoatly the theory of aiiiinnl atitoiimtiHni mA 
of the rtiilticioncy of inHttvr iliuI force to cAprtiiu the wheic 
coaiuic pToceaa hae boeu larpeiy diRCredited. Tlie chaogo of 
ricw \ivin Imtoti ;^iuhiii1. and iU i^t.^^^e^ uro intt'rvHtin^ to itota. 
The severer fomi i>f mat*;riaHsin, wliich asaortvd that mil waw 
muLt(<r ftiid there wha no iiiiml, gHv» plaetf di the view Utat 
matUT wiiJ* firimfiry niid Tiiind wsi* ils fimctimi, phrMnmimrinj 
real hut hrelt^vaiit to ihc acLii>Ei af the world- iiiachiiii\ Vrmw 
thin Ui« next st«p w^ tu the moiitntie |)imition that matter 
and mind nre two aspects of one itrjinowable real: a tlieory 
which hati souietiincpi )^iven impartial jiiiitice to each of the 
two factors, but which hiui oftoiicr Ixren materia I i^tic in nil bat 
n&iue. ThtN inoniMiti, which ha^ for Home time been fashionable 
in scientific cifLlee, ha^ proved, a* a matter of fiit-t. u> Ik* a 
pfN^tloii i>r unulAhle e(|iiillhr}tim, and may be looked ujmn aii 
a hAlf-wiiy lioHHe on tlu' road l.o idraliMiiL The late Profi^Mnor 
Huxley i« a k"<"^ inhUiiiec of a scit^nllfic thinker who, in apitc 
of hi« whole hubit nf mini^ hiiteted at u\\{\ momentri tii tlie aide 
of idealism and conceded the imaition to the idealise view of 
ultiniutc rcftlity. Attention t** tiM principlen, that t* to eon- 
ridoratioDs aa to the nuluro of knowledge ami to the validity of 
■cfentUic pr<^8uppf>f^]tion>i aitd |H>HtuUtett, Jia^ largely been the 
CftoSQof thiRchani^eof [)08it[on auiotigmen afacience. Another 
eaoiie, doubtless is the fuel that pMvehologttitb have tuken u|) 
tlir study of orgaide evolution ntid huvc. iiii«i>itcd on the dnr 
TCCO^iiUoii of the inenUd fiulorh involved in natural Hctcction. 
MpccialEy in the ease of the higher animaln. Thc"irien utieh 
aa thooc of eubjcctivc oelccUon and organic selection now find 
a place m thecomplctetitateincntof the <loetrino of evolution. 
Ouo of the foremost of livine phyaicifitw hu» expn^iwed hin 
belief that it is impoftsible to conceive of the Itvini; organism 
(w* a €i>Tnplicatc<l piecu' of mere raeehnniiini. and some of the 
leading pliy^iologints of Fmnee. (jennaiiy. AtnerieH, Htid onr 
own ciMintry liave revived the idea of iiUtl fon^: not, 
indeed, in ibt old, crude and qQc$bioii -begging mciiac^, but 

■ 'Hw uutfiont tlvotytiF vitn) frtrco Cn \\w tonu *ri>rc-iL' Sltiou the yviXk- 
va» lutloB nviinU Iivcuuk of tUo ci^ilv uf Uiv o^iiHi'i-viilMm nl' ciiorgj 
vBgiit-tiuHi uiil olMciiriljr uttaii<hiiig wrw'llHvivijriNLilhiHiliviiT) ii(ji]^li(m 


Cajitbridge Tfieologkal Essays 


tm exprcwivc of tJic existence r^f ii fiictor n^ce^t^t? for tbo 
cxpl&Tmtion of orf-anic life such as is not supplied by tbc 
theory that or;ciirii^'"» aro al]^:>l^atic lueclianiama and their 
life-history eutdy (leU^nniui^il by pbyMiail forco^. In takiiifc 
this step, recent ^ence ha^ removed itself further from the 
|>08-<ihi1it_v of being misunilemtiM") t^ii lie inevitnhly iiujIiiHat- 
istk Hiiil im-uingmtilj]e with TheiHin, And in pi\>«eiice of tbu 
Hwukeneil ititei'eHt in the stmly nf hiiniim [tec^iouitliliy. which 
IB now more c&pabJe tlinn ever !>efoi*e of being invcj^tigntcd by 
ezi>cnment4i1 &tkI strictly ecieiitific nietliods, it ih pot»iblc that 
our kiiowlcdfre of mind anii of its intlueuee on l>oUt mind mid 
matter may bo ao widely extended in the future that many of 
the eorolbrieu of do^nutie niatenalienn will Xxa exficrimeiiUiUy 
diMprovixL But, however this may be, it may iiiiw safely bi? 
aftirmed that it in idealJF^a and not materialism or naturalumi 

VKl^liuTtiif] HH <.4k4(w<f tribJiHronajition 
of knowii kindii of cnvrsy which iiro 
ajiiM^rriHl. The uipichniijciil vihw 
would rT|>tviK>iit tlioni il* cnttrolj 
oxplkttblo in Urma of plijtucaJ ruid 
uhumJttiJ flDnigfu ^^Ml-vUlL1i^1lL, on 
tbe oth(*r h^niT, mflintftlTin Iltnt vm\e- 
(Uoff more IK pcqiiirv-l b> uipliini 

filiABDnieinn- Siiino iv>pn.*Htiirj(f-iv4'H 
oT Llilii Hi^lifHrl |H.wtuUTfl Ii now form 
of <(ii<ffgj. othon n projKirtj of 
«olf'«[bipUbtinii, ulid otTiiini a fnn^i 
whkh cuntrol* uid dirvcU jihyKicaJ 
Gtwi^, without altering it' qiiHictlt^ 
(*iie BiiUwiii's DSHifituirjj <\f Phi- 
iutf/yAff ttHti P/t^rttf'fi'iff/, ArU. /,(/> 
nmJ Orffauic, wWm-i' tLh^ r'ullntvin^' 
acutt^ua'* »rBdW I i III l.'< liyw 

^isiit. ami roprcwfiil^ u ilktupul ten- 
dency in liiAcuibian lo ivdUtc the 
quoitlrhit l:i LtTinfl of it ilimhrim \»- 
tK«cn inA-itfr and mind rotfior tlijui 
tetwi*ti (Uiittor :nid lift ; Uic -■»!- 
ditiliiiiatl {xrira lnjhiif ji>MtiEnoiK or 
dlr«<-ti; AflvncU^L, Uihl liftf iui(l 

iniTh] %x^ iH»Ukrnilnfii:A. TliU ilonf 
nift a]t<>r Uio Lwwntful citKliUona of 
thij pn*bl('ia, pUtliiriL^li it i" liold to 
stn-iiifiht'ii tiiiT iKvition iif filnJiaiu 
by uitiliiTiK LU-oiyHil>lL- fo t1 tito fiuitt 
lUiJ urj|^ni<TtJi« ill 0U[>|f<irt *.i wmo 
ftort of ('[tufliil littmtj of DiiniL-^' 
VJLiillidii iTiLkis \U ftn>ti^mit Htond 
Ln wlkAt U colJod tho dovolnpmonttti 
tui.icli'mi(;M nf llif iiulivithuJ, phvrc 
t.fui ru-U of mtfi'hrtr^ttiin niiil orgmilr 
iioL'oniTiUNliititin, it iH hold, oun <miy 
bu dcbcribt^i iij vitnljvtic torm'f lUid 
llliulnite tJiti ititHiruiablit mjmiery 
of hfb." Iliu itlniutiirtii vrohiUoni 
nblch take ploc? n-iUxin the coH- 
nnrloiiA^ LUiT Jiii.^irici:lviihlcncM of a 
tiiATliiiTiiiid iTiorlvl Ut r«fT<i«enl tho 
|ihtiTM>TiHTi»Ji i»f lu^ridilv, tli<i rwiHim* 

<lf l)11Jl(t|lUlfi[U U'ld llUL'k^UA lu tllQ 

Hirpt't m^tirin '^f Iht* '.-rivimnTnoiil •"* 
ojs to cniiHs tW hiiiyjiigr up of tho 
np/iroprlaCt' ci^IIa jiijil timun for 
oii4*h iiTgnn anri [wrt of nn orgnr ;— 
tlioAe ore »nmo tew of tho t»cU wJuch 
ni in-Moni JiiH^in tt> niidtu n iiiochflntcul 
Ch<Mrj <if "rpiHlf iirxw*wi fthtirwly 

n] Physical Science, and the Being of God 

that itf pntfitiiifi; «n»st by tin* recent advances of scirncfS, Tlw 
witnees of science, \u st* far U8 sek-net* cun Iw Miig^ft^Attvc of 
philiHiupliicu] tbeiirj, U> that idcalUttc view of th<^ univertie 
wliicli fiinni* the hnixU for tlielntic tliwtltij^T, U iiitrrcttHing ftnd 
iiiftj further iiKTwiwi: ; nml wIr-ii the »iiirvt\v of |>hyKlr4il Hci<'nce 
hjuk been vidertcd, ami itn ulil TitrUiitliynioiU and t-iiiHifnt^^ 
lojriail jjrcj^uppositionft Imvc been fibaniloiicd in tlic light 
of criticiain. it maj he hoped that the **trciid and tom|icr 
of ortJuidox »tii<jnu(!" will have ccfiwtd t*> Iw puggustm* of 
% pun^l}' mechanical, eelfeiifHeient, and solf-oxplanatoi^ 
Qiilrerve of matu*r )Uid mothirj. 

ft Rciurnhiir to the argument for the ^rxietoncc of a i>er- 
ikODal Gam\ dt-riv'tHi Ij_v rt'fliv*ticiTi on the rex id bt and implii'iitioiis 
of luitnml T*cieiic€, we (ake np it** thread at the pjihit where 
we came in view of the condusion that the idthna-te rt^nlity 
b a iiniver^l Mind fbr which all things exi^t, and a univcrval 
Will which ift the caiiBc of their existence. If aciontjfic 
knovledge of the uorld *eema thiia to nKiuire, for coherency 
•ikI complotene^^s* the itOF^tiilatc of a First Caiiitt\ it iiiiky 
ftirther be iinred that wciencc reveals another fact which has 
ini|H*rbint jiliiliHophit-Hl iMi|i1k:alioiiH: the fact^ imiiiely« Umt 
nnctr the world w intelligihle l^i the hnnuin mind, the Firat 
CauAO IB the Mrnt (.'anNC \^ti ^ comtm. 

If n wurld implie.H a First Caiwe, an intelligible world 
would sccin ncccsKtrily to iinply an inlclligcJit Cause, Tiiat 
there i» Huch a tiling a^ an Ordtr of Natnrf, a hftnin»ny 
(tf caoBee and an unvaryiiii^ relation to their eftectM, cuii 
hanlly Iw looked npon a^ the outcome of anght but intelll- 
gCDce. Tliia hecnme;* the more obvious when we refleet that 
tiatTinU lawrt (Mioiot l)e i^elf-exiHteiit. and that therefore Nuch 
'nccwity' a« pcrtaiiif« t^} tlicm ennnot be the neec^fity of 
blind fate, the laechanical neceeflity which Mr Spencer 
rt^nlcti iw the cnnnc-tucnee solely of 'iwreieteiice of force," 
but muat be rational iicecsMty. Tlie nccewnrv truths which 
science ha:* revealed " origin/ite in the subject of experience, 
not in the object." If the objecl* conform to them, then all 
expc^rieTice is rational; our reason ig confronted and detc?r. 
mined by uidversal n'4i*;on\ We make tlie eoneepl of law, 

■ AVvtL, op. Ht. \ oL It. p. 2B3. 


Cambridfff Thf:ological Enmifi 

and briitj; it tn our >itii<ly of Niituri^; unfl tin* lii'TiitviiHir of 
jkherMiinorm is ruiiiid tti jiiHlify lUi tentative aftplicjitioik. Mind 
ori^iiiate^ the nnicept of Uie uiiifunnitv of Nature; ao far we 
arc the 'makcre" of Nnlurc lliU in^vimuch ft* wo arc truided bj 
Nftturo U> thU idea of a ayatcm uf laws, pormaiient law-s boiuj: 
qiuihtioji of Nnttiri^ iis a whi>k% Mie final ^(umd uf tliu t«Ioo- 
lo^cat cliaracter of the world is th<? relatione of plieniMnonA 
theiiwolvoi, and tlieii' coincidence \vith the results of our 
thtiught Thrift, Uio fiiut tliut MfiLniLti fbidK N'atiirr tii lit- a 
ijTitt> cUaT7icttiif*L^ b_\ regularity, a fact which iticrcaae of 
natural kii<iw!cd^c Aiif I of ex|icn«ncorvt;rcotifirnif<, It'JMUuMon 
fVom the result previously reached, viz, that uLtimaUr reality is 
one, and U of the nature of spirit* the actual world Wing real 
ordy m and for mind, U^ the liirtlivr belief tliut the Mind 
which iH tike origin of tilings is a mind whieh aet^ in ways 
wlilch we our!*elveH can underntaiid. Here w*- urrive at the 
Itut n*fl|[itKi1ii Tor attj'ibulin^ 'jiri'minaUt} ' Ui lind, 

Wicii theology thus nrgiic« frum the bruad and general 
tnitii, critJibUshf.'d by natural ^ctcnee, that the world ia an 
ordered c^>anio[^> to a euprcinc Jntelligeuee that limmcd it» she 
ifiupon Bafc ground. Narrower argumontfi tlian thia, of the 
t«le<>lu|^t%d chw», do not possewi the liaine cogency. The 
tekviiou;}' which Maw in each iirhiptfl,ti<»n nf means to end in 
Nature tlie mark of a |uiiticidar |iur|KMi3 of an ext«rnal 
I>esigTier has long been disi^tmled : the tlieory iif \ahirul 
Selection banijilied it And ni» ar^umont fui the ejiintcucc of 
a Biipremc Heaigner can be eoniftnicted out of the factd 
whieh illimtntte what itf eailcd internal teleology, ?>. the 
E«elf adaptation uf orgftni^nig tn their cavirf>nnicntn ; at moat 
the}' ttorve to aet a limit to the applicability of mechauicii] 
concepts within the biolo|^ical Ik-hh Hut it ix not iieccuar>' 
til ibe iMwe for Tlieimn that all theories which navour of the 
mechanical in blojo^^ should be discredited ; n^echaiiisni Id 
t)»e int'HiiH IH nut iim-Kwoily inennMiJ^letit with de>4ign ti^wantx 
tJ}e end. The end of ci'CAtion in any ca^e in luit f irLocen by 
tlie creature and striven for, and lEideed tnight be perfectly 
well attaincHl were the lifehintory of an orgaiiism dimply 
a nnatter of phyaieo-dicmittiti- Conniie t(.leolo;;y i^ in fact, 
totjdly independent of the itisuo* whether adaptations in 

nj Physical Sclm'Cj'. and th^ Being of God &3 

or|;aiiifimA are the oiitciime of their conscious atiit directed 
eflbrt or of mcchammV rcsponac to environment If Nature 
punuei bn intelU^blo and ordered course, it \a enough. It is 
not nec^Hfiary to ai'jii<; further, thiU ai) ori^inigin in ptir^uin^ 
ltd own p&rticular ond8 or intereflt^ ih thereby Decessaiilj 
fiinhL'riii^ tin? ^TeaT uiid ■>r tiio conrae of Natun? \\k h wholt;, 
Ttiat Inw ohtmii^ in biol^^g^' am well a^ in frliomiMtry nr |>hyAicM 
iH our guanirit«€ thnt piu'tHiM^ IihiIt^ e^ivresi^tciii iu tlii- urgnnic 
world- If by 'end' we mc^ti a ercnenil end of Nivtare im 
a whole we can exti^nd lo the l>wor rt'alniH, at loa^t. of the 
fiCTiticnt world the worrl# in which Aqmnfui exproiwcJ tlit; 
tclooloj^' of the inorganic : '' Thinps wliich liave no perception 
can only tend toward m\ und if direcrted by a couKciouK and 
inielligtTit heing. Tht-rcfore lliere is ati intelligence by 
whleli nil tiHtural tluit^ iire onJenvl U\ iin end'." 

A<lnplAti«n in of eournt; wn|.l<rii lui^ u|iun thi; {tw-v. of the 
dfganic world 'IW life-history uf plfint or animal cHjiritrt lie 
dctucribed except in tenns of it The chief factor in one 
which cannot be explained by purely mechanical procesBca* 
natndy* the action ^f the orpunem iu ihecordnncLf with iUt 
' intorcetfi.' But the queation* who i^ the desijcner of such 
adaptftLiona a» we discover, i» one which not everyoue who 
admilt) design at all would answer alike^ Some would »ay, 
the organic fomu theinf^elved \ others would refer nil atlnpta- 
t»(^ t<> H *n|»renie Mind indwelling in all Rut the point lo 
In." reniTuked is tlinL ci>«tnic teleology 'n entirL»ly fudejieuilcnt 
erf the question whether there is coriM-iuuH aim on the part of 
living formrs dire<"ting thetr niovcment^ or their development. 
In the ovcrkKfklng of thiw truth con^ist^ the error of supposing 
that the theory of Natural Selection i» incompatible with 
a tcleohi^cal view of Nriture. 

X&tural SeleetioD. unaeeonipanled by what are called 
EjOinarekian fuetorM, may or may not »nflice Ailet^untely t<i 
descrilM? the evahitinu of living things, rttri!itii>n toeing given. 
BiiL, liiiHt'i'i'r'infj'liitiiii^al * i(j*rhiirHcterand however blhidly' 
It rnay apix-ar to act, tliere is uo reaaon te a^nuntr that it. or 

Smnma^i. ii3. 


Cam-briflge Thf.ologU'al PJxmty» 


intleed tlie itiechaiiiHtii <le9ii.<nhi*i) hy uny otiirr Ihw i>r VHi.iiri% 
ie ujijtliijig but f'liu iJieaiiH eiitpK>>tHl hj Uie DtiNtgner tjf the 
coAiuos and of the goal tnwartl whidi ttii; cvolutionury 
proco« tcnfUn If aome should prefer to rc&d the activity of 
purpoHcfiil luiiid only in procti^de^ which arc not od >tit, and 
pi.iMibly nuvcr nrny lx% dcHcriltuble in t«nn* i>f rnocliknical 
voiicepLtA, they niay comfortably reflect upon th<i fact Uiat 
Naturul ^1vt:tioii, itftor ull, only detds witli tlic wuctMitlury 
'origin ' of orgnnir fontiw. Tlie trnir origin of npwk's^ lies, of 
courvt-, iit till' caui«e of diveixjtli^ uf vurmlinriH; mid by liici 
fact tliAt Huch riuiations muat be ' definite' or occur in single^ 
IMtticuIar dirt^otions, and that repeatedly, if they are to 
bt*c*mie {k\i::%\ by st-lcction ami li> furm an ineipiciit j^podo«f 
many thinkor« have felt iuipullcd to Iwlievo that tho evolution 
of or^nic ftmns cannot wholly be referred to blind proccuMe* 
showing no dirwtivity ; that Nature, in fet* i^ plnying hor 
game of cfaauce with loaded die& Bui. be this a^ it may, and 
1h? tlic t.iit^iry of Nainml HelecLion h^ iirndtiiitalii as iiimiy 
Judges, ivhoHe opinion is worthy of respect, pronounce it* it \a 
iinpurtAnt Uwl tho truth should be clearly appr^^btEiid^ that 
a theifltic interpretation of the world would by no nicana be 
invahdaterl if the theory of Natural Selectien proved entirely 

Similarly, it is immatGrial whetlier the vital pn^iceH&es of 
orgaiaeuuti ]>rove, in the fiuni-e, to be completely exj>lieabl<f in 
terms of pliyKiejMrhiTinfeal, <ir c!rE*ii inecliiinii^l, i-j>tLceptJis or 
whether thej dtniLand ftonie fonn of ritaliHt thoorj aiiviputljTly 
to inicr]irct them. The ecll-tlieory, which wiw one stop 
towardn Uie mechanical ideal, but only a «ie]i. haH iiMleed 
proved ini«uflici<:nL The phemimenu uf hi>niijhf||;y, of t^ 
^encratiifu, of the growth of mutilated jwuta. prettent 
dilficultiee whidi many recent btoloj^^tfl re^rd iim inviipareble 
from this point of view. But it romains to be seen whetEior 
the degree to which mechanical interpretation of viuti 
proi:e»(e?i w;ls ouiv lM?li*ivi5il Iw have Imen earned by uit-JinK uf 
the doctrine uf celht may not Iw equally attained by recournfe 
Ui the theory tif nrnaller bic>h>^cal iinilA thnn the coll, nuch as 
hifitolopBts huvc of late been ltd by tiietr fiitoroseopicc^ 


n] Phytkal Scimce, mid the Seiag of God 

r O gWtfghg* to ariopt But, hnwovt^r fnr mcchanicnl (loncription 
Bttv be carried within the (lelcl of biolog)\ ' ovplmiatioii ' will 
nut 1i>iTv berfi full)' nf.bLiiiri). Ti> ilescribe i.^i itut t» t^xplHiTi ; 
ui caTciiUt^T is not tit iin4lt;rMtaml At iitl polnb^ Muic-noc IniiU 
ii7< itliinmt^ly to (iLiloFiophv : and it ia upon tLe laltcr Kri'iiuil 
alone that thcclogiaO iittcrprct^itions of tlie world cnn l>o 
tested, and their iDtelloctual moriU estimated 

Tho toli:K)lo^edl iii^uiikent fix>ii) Natijix\ it lia^ oftt-n l>o€u 
pointed out, |)rovcw thu cKtstcnce r&thttr of a Frftmer or 
Aroliit^ct of the universe thaii a Ooattir. Bnt in this re-4|keet 
it iiipplrTneriU thr c.lKtirilic ^ir^iiim^ntif previoiiMlj ^'ivfm. Dint 
the world ih aii ordercvl And intelligihie wiiole ih a Faot which 
WTR'ni**' jini^i(piKW<'p and U) whirh ita very cxifltrnrc tfwtifli*. 
And Uiitf fact leads us to endow the Ikring for Whom anfl in 
Whom thtf univcrao exint^ with intclli^nce which, howivcr 
much it lranft(T*^n<l mir own, has so much in common with it 
that \u H\^ world we feel that 'spirit preeta Spirit/ and that 
thE« Supreme Intelligence acta in v^ys which our finite *i>ulB 
can [lartially understatid. 

7. Yet tht* world ift not obviously rational through and 
throiiglr It iM tlit^ weakni?^ uf all HyMtemR of idealiHUi, and 
(he moMt cniifiideraljJe diflicultv inherent in theistic thim^fit, 
tJiat our experience presonte iis with an clement in Uod's 
world which strongly auggosta imperfection cither in Hia 
power nr in I (if* jfoodnesft. Tiie fiiller light which ecionc^* htLrt 
thrown upon the proccwMOH of organic evolution haf4 intenBiOed 
our iieti^ of the truth that the "whole creation jq^oaneth and 
tmvsilcth in jwiin (outlier until nuw/' Ami tln^ murr wr 
emjrfi^lf^ the hmnanence of i!od in Nature; tiie mort?. that 
is, wo in>"i*t that the niimiter detail?* of the coui"nc of Nature 
ftxprem Ilia will and represent Hi* immediate activity, a». 
«omc tell ni*. natural eclcncc. since the wijrk of Darwin, 
haa been compelling' ua to do, the more incomprchen.Htble 
d<iev the prnhlom of pliyt<icftlevil and pam lit^conie. (^crtainly 
the apologetics which have sought to mininiiae antnml sensi- 
bility and fiiifferin^, or to «how that In man iiufl'erinif ttouietimes 
jiiHtly puniflheH and sometinieH educates. muHt frantly be 
denied u> have touclied nnieh in«re than the frlnjife of thia 
great dilfirultj. 


Cavihridtjt' Tln^oiofjkal E»9iiy» 


Now nuturul ■cit-^Ptc cerbuiily aiigg^etfi no teleology of 
phybdcal evlL Tbc dit^tribntion of paiii appears proniisciioiia. 
and folUiWH nn plnii wMrli wt< run tnu.%. In \\\v. InntiHii wnrlil 
^'»ll tiling comi^ filikt^ iiiiLit all ; (licre in uite event to the 
righteoiiis and to the wicki-cL" Wc ur« not here conocnicd 
with moral evil, which Ikti mUt^idt the pale of pliyeical 
ecioficg. But th<f «ttiily of Nature tieetiiB to Mii^ff^t tliut 
ukhough pain serves no purpose in iUelf, it is inextricably 
boiitiil up wilh the woHiiw t-tmive sw a whole. It vruulil 
appear, In fact, to 1m? of the nature of a uccowary hy-pn.Mluct 
Tlie enrtfai|URke and thr; pet^tilenre^ in nhti'h wt> uiu aw4i>[ti mi 
puqvope^ are the outcome of the laelfsanie cdui^'^c of things, 
the regular ncqueui^ of evetits hcconliug Ut latv, which uii 
the whole niiniatc-t^ to life and hcjdth. The dcacrt and tlLC 
v(»Uaiui are also looked apon ae bloU on the fair face of 
Nature ; bwt f* r*H;cnt *.^ieutifie writi^r hiw a»jured ub tliat 
the^e tiling are neceaeary fer the supply of atmosphenc 
duKt, whieh x* a oeceMary condition for ralD-fall : and thus 
they are e>wciitiHl U\ life upon our planet. Doubtletw mimiic 
other uf the phuiiomeua which man m^^uunU aA pliynica) illti 
msiy Iwr i>f tht- mluic onler of iietxw*itHy to the world'Hysteni ; 
but mau> others, ao far as we can sec, are aiuiiily cxillal^^ntl 

And thw etiroly boar« upon the tlieistie problem. For 
thouffh llicir^iu repufiiatee the conception of law which \\a^ 
m>metjmej« found favour among the repreaentativcM of itcience, 
tliat^ nankoly, which reganis it ii> n fHAt-Uniling fute, indepen- 
dent uf Ijod and nkan; and though it IouWm ujhiu lawji tjf 
Nature ii» at bottom exiire&'dtuipi of the rcgularly but frtiely 
acting power of the Governor of the univeive, thus, in 
l>r Ward's cxprosiiion, "letting ef>ntinffcncy into the Tcry 
heart of thin^fs" : still it must be mainiained by the thelat, 
we think, that the only aUematiTc t« such roKuhinty in God'* 
o])ei'utii>nM ax we find exprexMHl in a reign of law, would Hoem 
to be a govenunent of the world by means of an ' inealeulable 
miHoellaiiy of tiitntcle«/ whir*li would mjIhIjIuU^ eliaiw fnr 
coKinoA and render rational life imjxiwihie for finite^ lutelli- 
geiice^ i^ueh aa ourK \Vlicti \hr Ward, in bin riilFunl lirctunw, 
otfcre ua the choice between an absolutely nccewory or 

n] Physical Science, and Ote Being qf God 

a ecbiuiiiwl vystom of Uw, suic^estln; atheism, and abealute 
coQtingciiC)', siig£eeti»g uncoadittoiied frt^edinik In (jo<]'3 
CfWSAl activity : between mechanism only with no Cod, and 
God only with no mochaniam, od if it were a case of 'aU or 
Done/ we nmy jieriiii|fe venture t^i mk whether it is not mora 
\n Hrrortlunot! with the re<|uirejnents both of science Rod 
of thcistic philoHophy U\ &di>iit, lilce MartJiieati, ag a thinl 
poanbilU^, (Jic idm nf Helf-ponditiuiLcdiie^ts on the [urt oftho 
Supreme Dcltig, an adherence ti) a coherent plan for the 
realisation wf the worlripurpoae, in order t*> vati«fy tUo 
oohditionH for ititclligribility by tinitc minds. Such ^ plan 
would in^-olve chiwwin^ certain nxJta for the worlde^iTiatiou^ 
aiid abiding h\ nil the condetjuenoee which f<ilh)wo<l uj>on MUeh 
a choice, though tlu^y luight not be of the naturi^ of ends in 
ttienis^eh'i^ Ntwd everytJiiit^ in Nntnre, after all, bu eitlier a 
ni4Mn)t to i\ piirpDMC'il end. or no erkd itself an ah iiit^ny irk-alUta 
have aiiHcrU^d t Will it not he int^vitable, so Tar a« wi? can ice, 
tliat a world-pi"occM of so highly complicated a nature aa 
OUTS utidimbUadly ia. will, in accordan<!4; witl^ tlie con?«i^ttincy 
of thought and the conipEitibJlity oi bcin^, invoiro contingent 
coa6oqiicne«« which may have no reference to the procese aa 
a whole or to \i& final }j:oa1 ? We nveil nut make th^J a^tnnption, 
ctjnunonly i^Ientitit^d v^ith Ueiaii^ that the world, once created, 
is waliitaitied by \i» own tielf-Mulflcieney hifiteHd 4if by the 
iinmaiietit or continuous activity nf God ; nor that the laws 
of Nature arc an eternal priii^ exititing independently of God 
like the ^ of the ancient Clreek^. Rather would we bao 
in Ibw the espres^ion of the froo but ficlfdetennincd will of 
God actinic in relatiun to the creaturofa to whom Ue haa 
delefcat^ iutolligeut and n\om\ life. Thia i» tha view to 
which, a« it would Aeent, Theism may be^t conkniit it«elf 
without danj^r to religion and I.0 reuson alike; and it may 
be added, it ifi one to which tht? factj* nf phyHJca) iicience 
iiiihiralK point, and in which they rw*<-'ive u futbisfitctf^ry 
philosophical explanation. If, then, our knowledge of tho 
Co«niu« cncounige tJje idea that God in pledgtMl. through Jjelf- 
accomniodation to finite intclIiL'cticc wliich He would not IxttHo 
UkI dtulti^i to a deBnite and regular proce«ia of realivnift 


Cambridge Theological EB»ay9 


Qi« world-plAD, we fthall not be sarprfacd to find th&t maaj 
of the particular dct&ih ucuoriipn living i\k^ LiPU^ric^l oxo- 
oiitioii i>f tlint plan are no eaaential parte of it, no ends iii 
tbemgclvefl, hut only neceedarily inei'tental epipbenomcna or 
by-products. By this theory. M'hi':li Hppair^ t<> the prosetit 
WTJtvr, at l^aul, ti> tie i-atlter a natural explauiition of the 
facrU than a far-fck^hed ex[>e4livut iif thought, tho Iwiicficcuce 
and nmniiaitencfi uf the Deit) are afike viiidicul^d and ree4>ri' 
cilcd : unkss indeed we are nwh enough to conmiit ounwlvcrt 
to the tiseumption t);iLt an infiuite Mind could have dcvinod a 
cofitnic procoeft at once sufficiently intelligible to finite miwla 
throup^i ita rej^ilarity, free from the digtttrbiiij; elernt^ntu of 
incalculable mtraclo. und imaccoiikpanied, in \U rcaliHatioo, 
by anj consequences from lit* "gt-neral t?(|imth>ir nbich the 
human [uind coulrl logitinmtcly rr^tnl ii> phyAiaLl cvIIa. 

Tims the nuiral nature of (lod. afilnned by ThrlMiati 
theology, is sat'cgcardDd a^iuT^t th<: itidictmcnto which some 
philosiophem have put into tho mouth of Nature ; and thus 
also the rei^n ol law, of vrhk^h lioioncc i* m eloquent, lindft ita 
natural place in n thci^tic philosophy of the world 

H. We couehide. t)ien. that ]>hyeic]i1 sclencts hax nothing 
to say with regard to the Bein^ of God ; to pronounce 
upon such a prcjblem dues not ^11 within her i<jiliere. In 
other wtirdM, science po««des»*eH no theohigical crocd. She in 
ludifTererit tx\ Theism, Imt not atheistic, SciBnirc, however, 
inevitably rniees a number of (iue*ttons which she ad- 
mittedly cannot answer, bat which she can, for her own 
part, afford to ijnioro» Taking up the qncsitJons of tho 
ultimate reality, the oriffin, and the orderbnc^ of the 
phyaical world* we find that the theUiic view is not only 
compatible with the resnlM of science but ia etrongly 
ftuggested hy tliem. Nav. we may go fitrther and ado[>t Lonl 
Kelvin's reecnt utteraui* : *'W« are absolutely ftirced by 
science to belicre with perfect confidence in a direL-tive 
Power- -Inhere ie nothing between abfioluto Acieutific belief 
in a creative Power and the acceptAnce of the theory of 
a fortuit<^ua concourse of atoms." For we are led, if tho 
universe is to be exphUned at all, to puetulaU infinite Miod 

n] PhymccU Science, and the Being of God 99 

aa the ultimate reality for Whom and in Whom the world 
existo ; infinite Will or Power which sJone can constitute the 
efficiency Uiat we aaaociate with causatioa We are guided l^ 
the discovered unity of N^ature to regard ite abeolute Qroniid 
aa One. Further, the orderliness and r^ularity of the cosmos, 
which phy»cal science has so laboriously and so succeeafiiUy 
traced, compels ub to identify the ultimate Being with iDfinite 
Intelligence. And lastly, in the condition of accommodation 
to finite underataDdings which, aa the world-order seems to 
soggeet, the Supreme Intelligence has imposed upon Himself, 
we perhaps discover the compatibility of the Power behind 
Nature with holiness and love : attributes which complete 
the Chriatian concept of a personal God. 

7— J 





S L Huiua Navitu. 

The whole of Humsji Naioro is to be oouBiderad. 

The centntl uaitj in Spiritaal Ufa, 

Self and the world. 

Life 9A lateUigenoe, 

Life Bs Activity. 

life BA Peeling. 

Life aa Feeling and Acdritj comlnned. 

Life 00 Feeling, Activity, and Thooght 



SnbjectiTisni inadequate. 

8piritaal Idealism asserted 

MjsticUm and a potUriori BataonaUsm, pronsiona] metboda. 

Transcendental method : 

in application to Intelligence, 


Ethical life, 

Interpretation offered by Hnrali^t SpiritualianL 
Monifitic &piritnali«m aaserted- 
Qenend PliiloBophj and Christian Philosophy, 


PmLosoPHTi' in the interpretation of lift, Ite q\icM> ia tho 
uliiirnite ^i^uiiicaikrc of the LItiii'crHC the «iiprc>ite fimii of 
R«fiJitj: though concontmtini^ upon ea&enlialfi, it will faii if 
it leaver out anv pha^e of life under the pli'ii of \tA being 
lUiL-wwiitiiLl ; it will fail if it is unable U> brin^ ali plui^o^ InLo 
iiyivUnn. To oilwT Easuys in Huh voltimo fulk the troatmcatt 
ijf lowpr fin'itKi itf licinK tJmn Man, nnd of Man m hU relation 
to tho« fonuft : here we are free to start from Human Nature 
aa our datuut &» the life which is to be interiiret^xL We 
flhall l>c uhliffcd t<> limit oitrs^c'lvc^ to Human Nature in its 
mum. at ilo full ilevelopiiioiit in men of thought and 
feelm^ and ethlcid virtue, living in ooniinunity as aocial 
humanity. Spsico will nnt permit of treatment of abnor- 
nndit}, patliologioLl variation, iniperfection ; and frirther, it 
Is the Htuily of a nature in ite tinnual furui that give« tim 
WDtral method of 8cience and of philo8ophy. As Human 
Nature will be tlie Bubject-matter, ao it will abm he the id- 
Mtrumuiit of enquiry : human pliilosophy is miui interpreting 
himseitl And as we Himll iuh(»eate refoi'ciLCO to a wid<^r lifo 
than iti usually Miiu;^e»ted by the term Reason, we utler the 
tennn Spirit and Spiritual: and elate our purpose to be 
Ui hIiow in broad ouUines the Spirit of Man inl*;q>reting 
Hntium Nature. 

^Theolog^'" iH licrtJ used a* 'Rational TImology ' : relaUrd 
U* philosophy not as concerned with a ditlorcnt subject-matter 
or a diflcrcnt methtML hut as einpUiyinu: a variety of tcnns 
more laniiliar, more cxprcesivc of practicnl and emotional 

IM Cambridge Theological £^aye [m 

meaning. In pbUosophical bnguago many IcadtDg t«rme arc 
purpfx^oly And wi^ijly redtJCvrl in ctiluiir And in concreU^ncw ; 
but tho roductiou has been oxcesaive by refi8on of the pr&- 
dominanoe i^if Intellectual ism in the biKturical development 
of philtMophy. But if ivll human Nature is our field and tJie 
whf'le liunian Spirit i^ die tintf|iiirer, wo must pmvide for 
more coucretenew ijy tenns in whidi othit^al and lusthctic 
aapect^ ai'e plainly vKprefM^. Firi'iu) and !ii^nifliT}irit;e wdl 
therefore be eongtit ftx>in tinic to time bj aMociabin>c vncli 
the intcUectoatist terminolo^ the bnpiago of thcoloitfy and 

5 L ffunutn Nature^ 

PhiloB^jphy ift i?(>n<'«med 1*^ have 1>eforv it Iniman nature 
in iu whole Icii^.h and brojwlth and depUt nml Insight It 
muKt, more<iT«rr take Man as a living |i«i-h<>i1h and d«rllne 
every inritittion to limit iti* riew to any one elemental feature 
of hia lifc, Man thinkn and atrivcs. he feara and loves, bo 
BetA valuQtlcnii and workn out piirpoAos in aecaniani:e witli 
them, lie livo« in tho conscionsnees that ho is n member of 
a commnnity, pccolvinR influences from an outer vi>rld and 
ft-nni hiM i«dlowa, an'l in turn w^iitributini^ t" tht* changes 
which take place. And whi-ii tit< come» to knowledge uf him- 
self, he nctn from hin own Helf'[:r)nM:iouH (-liuire, ft'eely ; the 
endj* that lie hat^ f*clectc»I decide hin mo<ic«i of conduct; and 
he lives in union with like beings, in reciprocal actitity and 
mutual atlection, attnbutin^ tro them aelf-conaciouaneaB and 
fret^dem like IiIh owil Llmit^l In time and e\}o.cti and in tlie 
area of tlie couttMit of bis consciotisness vts he sees that he i«, 
yet bv partidjwitiijn with hU felJoww and by entering Into their 
apheren i>f lifr and int*'resl and knowlwl;ii.T he mnKt*J* "ver 
wider and wider circles fmni fkmlly to village and town airf 
nation, and, dimly, to the whole of humanity by idinipse«alonz 
the rc<:ords of tho pa^t. not witliout anticipatory fbrceast^ of 
the time to be. And aa hla vloir and hia intei-e^t widen, lie 
find)4 in himself an cvcrinerco^lng difr<irentiation and ^nrirh- 
ment Which pan of tbifl * nature U be to be called upon 

m] PhiloHophy, and tfie BHng of God 106 

to ne|^le4Tt or lo distrust T WTiy, prima y^if, may ho not 
\m\f. confiflt-nce fi) e»Loh ideineiit of it? Why may h<» nnt^ 
nriUk allowance for dilTererii^eH uf value, ^\\i\ CJiaL iu the 
eoiiAtitiitktn of himself na & whole evvry fibre nf hte being 
hni^ itri fiitictioft anil ii^ ri^ht? 

The amplitudo of huiuan nature ban boon ti-cated with 
scant reapetl by l»th Phihwophy and 'HiPoloKy ; pari* of the 
preeentment have been ignored or diepai^ed, some in ono 
qwuler, others in another. Peeling Ik \uitTUiit worthy over 
all ir^ r&ni;e, we bi^ar from many; thr Inmir mnf^J?i of 
wrrLiibility irtUHt nut ha bmttght into Lhe fltmf ^iircount, Hay 
«OTn«; by many it i» the higli raiigvj; of int<?11c<-t that are 
di«triiJ4f«d ; and by othern the inlcnrention of will and c^hoicn 
itf re)CT\nlc<l lu^ conductiiiff tiot to reality but to delusion. 
Oth«rfii o^n, have i^olectcd eome ono factor of human natura, 
ftnd InventLMi it with i^ole conntnictivo |>ower lliui^ it \\\y^ 
conu' nlK^ut timt onr {>iiilosophteal and Uiei»U^oal conetnic- 
tionfl are ae varied as tho styies of ArchitectnTe, almoat u 
thorns iif T.ifJimturH itAeif Variety hax iu riainih and \\>k 
chaniin, bni for plnloHophy partiality ih [jatbolugical ; 4Mfui- 
prelietutiTeTieso is tht; biTBtli of ite life. 

The fir^t point t<» be lix«J ilown in M^ttiri^ out human 
nature ib tho unity of f-on«oitifi»ne»g, tlic ajnf^jenet^ (>f the 
Mv1e« trt ^yt^Uhm of experieiiceu wo call a conacioiia life. We 
fthall find nmjilc richnes>' of dif^Tentintion and variety, bnt no 
partition : -^ome part of the e\peri*?-nL'e will havo a reference 
Ut ntiirmejw included in it, nomo pnrt will Wk that re- 
fcix:iiL-(*» bnt both part* alike are refurred t4> thu mliiiu i<eiitr» ; 
all iHrttnictiiina lie vnthin experience, though notue of them 
p^nt beyond. The aing;leneeA is the initial mark — the ex- 
iH^nenoca of such a aiti^le centre eonstituto a whule : it is by 
iii> ti^jre of »poocb tliEit we iMe a uume in tJic Hinguiar 
number, and speak of a mind or aouL 

The iMx^ond \Mi\iH U tlie UiMhicCitrt* made in oon-ietoiiufnciw 
l)rta€«^ri f-tn- thinhr and ufft^T miiuis. This al«o is fact of 
experience : in thu hlg^hui- rangti of coiiFKioUKness we attian 
ti» an (luiphrttir and clear distitictioii l>tftwiH'n Homo changes* 
In aur ineutal tif« wliidL we refor to ouraelvtia, and Boine 


Cambridge Theological Etuiat/s 


cJimigw* which we Mfinign t** Uie s^iun ora^onciEH other than 
otirsclTcs. llic mind indeed does not go f>ut [myond itMeir: 
w]mt4!vcr happcnt^ oiitaide mu&t be cupabJc of no upcmtins; 
ftfl to prtMluce ciiaii^ccA of which the mind can take uotii^e; 
but in tnkini; uotice uf fluch changes it learns to diatingniftb 
them from changes of which it is itself the "riginfttor It 
dtviilt'v i)ie i^hnu^eM into those in which Uit^fe is soniething 
prei^eni^il U^ itsflf, ^ind thohM_* which \t prnjecUt bv iu own 
wtiviiy. To limit thi* mimi ti> what it projerUi from IttteM 
i» to endow it in n ciixJe, nwti m, it) divide the world of 
mlndti into a disconnected congeries of monads : to limit it 
to what it receiver from outaide id to difwolvu the mental 
world alto}^ther, since what ii; trv<j of one mind w profunmbly 
true of eju^h and all, and there can be no reception if every- 
thing is receptive only. Thrro would be no syetem if every 
unit were thither pure activity or pure rw?eptivity. But what 
iMpericiice tella tis i» clear : tivcr a grwit pdrt nf it — not over 
all, not in our dreanw. ftir instance — we aW refer the i:haiigea 
we observe to the agency of * other th;in our^clvea.' In the 
eJEpcrienccB which stir us moHt deeply the 'other' bo attbcta 
m thftt we Qsei^n t4> it a peraonality like our own. lliB 
in *o ni*t only in knowledge but in actiim : only in rare oai=oi 
am I occupied in carrying out plan^ deviKed by myRelf for 
endM pimply of rny nwit choice; my life i:^ largely a duiicc 
between nuclt fonim of gowl and mich vftrietics of laejinw as I 
find within my oom|>ajsi4 whrn I look furLh u|miii thtr world, 
Belecticm, not cTeation, is the rule. And in my procccdingi I 
meet with other agents whot«e actiriticfi ojiik^hc mine, und J 
mui^t lulapt toy ncti^Ti^ more or Icm to tbeira. in the world 
of idea^ 1 can aaeert myaelf to Home extent by mouldinj? the 
experienceft whidi come t^* me, but I cjumot make or uiinmke 
them in their entirety. Then? \a a etimuluB in them not duo 
to myeelf, and 4o I ajuiip;n Mometliln^ in the experience* to 
other tLgericiiv than mynelf Thin reference Ut thing* jiml 
persona at the otlii-r nidtt of the nlijec^U uf nty eA[Hn-ii-iu^ 
Uy tliat occupied by myself is the norm of conscious life in 
all but the lower stages. 

Thip di^ftinction among my ox|)erivDoc« it* a JtLct uf primary 

liij Pkitoiophy, and ike Being of Ood 107 

Importance disclofloci by obocTnLtion and coufirmoii iw cxpc- 
rioDce prooMMla. lu intcrproiation cannot be satisfied fc^ 
a Rciilijini vrhich woalrl ruK^ird ii\^ 'other' iw fio alien tliAt 
in knowing it ve Imvc no (wntributory function; nor by a 
SubJecUviiim which refom oil experience to t]ie Melf and Mm 
pmcttovm: in imy intrrprvUition tho two m\c^ iniJi<t txil.h lie 
regardecL Stmiigc aj4 it ira^y rteeiii tx* ei>inmi>ii H.'nH4.\ both 
of theae at)ermtj(>ii:^ have roimi] fm[iicnit xiipinirL, eiUicr 
CXprcMly or implicitly, in the schools of philoiophy, thouich 
the crrore are ko i;rt>rvi that we at once regard Aoch attcin|>t«4 aa 
narks cither of premature or of [Iccudcnt periods of thought* 
Sncb aberrations \i\ Helicon, amounting to the deni^ eitlier of 
inan*a own reLility ur of that of Uie worM iwd l>ud, lu-e plainly 
pathological Urged in one ilirectioii by the detennination bo 
uppoHe inen uho \rere truvellin^ in the either, ingenuity liaii 
citlier igiiiireil iir exaggeraterl thin fnmhtntrntH) ilist.inction 
found in ttic normal exjKricncc of the mind, the bcnse of »elf 
4i]d the jwiik; uf otiurnies^ riaint; in Uie hi|fher exjiuneiiceti to 
a Acn^c of other bcIvcj^ 

In tliiH diaiinction there is no i^round ^veu for a partition 
of our ex|>enenee^ Ait our firitt |>i>iut luyit down, it in idl the 
experience of a single aelf : that some part of it is referred t<i 
ai|aelf alone whllu Homi> |>art iibtif indudes reference to other 
agendeH in »t dintinrtion whiirli litw wltliin rny i?:tjieriemv, but 
tbe experience 10 all mincn bclon^ng to myself altmc ha coutre> 
Hio fliiit;leflieto within the ilnnlUm i^ itnclf dUcIoned a« fiict; 
of ifca intorprotatioii wo spciik later on. 

I^aedng now to the pbnj4C8 of the life of the SouL It ia duo 
to the prominence of lntellectiuUi>4m in pliilortopliy tlwt we 
should commence with T/tottphf. Thi« givr« not Knnwlc<lge 
ail die form of ineniul Ufe iitid tiikeri Truth aH the primary 
gii»le to Rcialily ; it Hpejdt* ehibtv-iullv 4if the Bvin^ or Eiint- 
dice of Ood The point to be cmphusixed here, toii, iji 
the unity of the mind through a variety of experiences The 
mind in 'Uiinkinic' i^^ cnjouced in vimoniA raodcA, but t1)e time 
faafi now gone by for bo Beparatin^ thc«e ofl Irom otic another 
Ml to eugi^eitt, cite ofK^mtion of varioiu intellectual ' faculticjt.' 
Tliiw tftrpanUiit treauucnt wiu cUeetivc iu a pioneering ^^Jr 


Cantbridffe Theoloffical Ssmi/8 


bttt now iMjchology sIkiw.^ ua grarlu^ted pniceww of the 
mmv fiindaniental iictivitv proce^^dins iti i>r<lcrly conncsioo. 
Wq Ftill conveniently speak of Si^n^ibility and Heaaon and 
bij^hur Intuition, but we tUink of (honi uh pi-oj^»eiTi> etagea in 
mental lurtivjty. From a vwguv reHcti<m Vi NtiinuluH con- 
BcidUHnt-FiH ]>aHHtr4 through FifageH u\t to an imiiv'iiy w|ii<4i 
fthnoAt ttuci^eedn in being Bjhinbiniiiin^ .Stin^ihility, an tliv 
BtE4pc of knowledge in which Acnftations and their iniagcH are 
prominent, \^ not purely pnasive nnd inert, fvi much Hritinb 
philosophy U»a n^^umod : in our knowing them relations and 
diBtinctionti ai^e impUoit, and we oooii pa^ hitcher aiid weave 
them into perceptions; EUid bo miward until wo eome to 
conc^pttenH and 'ideaa^ Tin? ^n^e-data do not carry u(* very 
ftir, Jmt thoy cannot be dispenf^ecl with in hnmau thinking, 
though we come ta trerU iheiii uh nynkbultf and invent tliem 
with fijnnficAnreH of dcejier r[ii]ility and wiih^r iMTki[H\ T\w 
child-uiiiid in iLh simplicities hn^ alreaily the mdiinenU of 
thinking; ad^vtncing thought diittin^ii^hcH, iliTJiieM, an^yHe«, 
cJasBiHes* unites, eniisoiid^ter«H unircmvlizetf, deep and Ikr, and 
we catch at the poeeibility of a higher immediacy bejoud 
reatfonin^ an we ha<l found a lower inuuediacy before it. 

lint in ni?ither immediacy cun we live ' from the lower we 
emerge a8 intelligence pm^rcM^iFi : ttiwanln ihi^ higher wi:^ 
move npw;inls withont tieing able to paw into it Hcnoe 
ariec the contentions between men who will insist on Asking 
UM ill one t#tage or t^e other ; Sen^tiitiomtliHm, Itation^tlism, 
pure Intuitionalism i?r Mysticiem* e^u^h oUbrinff it«t 4>wd scpamtc 
area. But we must insist upon them all : they muril be 
welded together if we are tn givt> an tvccount of huninn Km>W' 
ledge as a whole. The unity of the knowing mind penetrates 
dm>n^1umL And all down tho !*cule of Knowledge we inu«t 
iilAnd firm Ut the dnnllty of nubjecl'-olijct't : tiic mind con- 
tributes, but there i» something preMented to it all along. 

The fundamental unity of Thmight in all its pn.>cc«cs hafl 
not been the ii^niJ opinitm, find on the whole it ie not yet fully 
accepted. Rather it hoM been the prevalent method to nmign 
knowledj^e of Reality to the higher intelliifeuco uJono: men 
claim to have ascended the ladder of knowbdge and reached 

ni] PhUosQphy, and the Sebig qf God 

the plmne of conceptions or universal idoaA : for ttioso a solitarj^ 
l^nvik^gi* hjw U^ni Hx^itirted : t\\e Ri^Hi.v ih HiilnLnncSr it is 
vnuL or CniiMtT, or SeirH^onHCious Principle- 'IIicm.^ coiiccptione 
havt* \ifrsi M7t oiitrAH'McaH' existing in a region of their o>vn, 
and showing u» Hcality as it is; the lower ranges have l>ccii 
trctttod aA howore of wood and drawers of wator. Truth hoa 
bocn concciivod in goneralitieA^ mid KeoJity taken to uonniMt of 
DeoBBsary and aniverMLl oBBerico or e^encee^ But the recog- 
nition of alJ tlw rangt^u of inteLligenoe* in which particubm 
und nnivrrhjilri comhine in varying wuyu ui an ax^muJing iu^li% 
and Lite !«ijjij;ostiini <if <rorfi*H|Knnliiig dt-green of Itt^liLy <»■ of 
p*rtici|tatiiin in Renlit^, Imvc tho jtrrma /irrif daim upon 
o«r attention : a claim which m now bcin^j nasHLTtt-d vigor- 
outly in iiKiopecidont ^inartcrH of tiic plnUirtO[»]ii(al lit^hL 

ThiB procedure is confinnc<l bj the reflectinn that in re- 
UgiftUB thought thig ia the view that he^ ftecurca that imman- 
ence of the Divint Spirit which fL'W of us would oow exclude 
A*otn any nia^ ctf the life of tlie fioul, nr ^om any degree of 
Rre&tureily existence whatever- Tliat the whole ntii^ of i«ir 
inteHigVTnce in a nnity pmcei-ding within one nund and (nna 
ono thinking centre, sc^ms to accord mth the rdigiouji oim- 
viclitm tliat in every slage of creation we find a auggcfltion or 
niombol of all -pervading IHvitic irtclhgcncu- 

Next thore is the phase of AcHvitsf^ Man, through hie 
bod^, pnrt'ieipfttcA not only in l>cint; imprvt^eil hy changes 
oceiirring in the eitertifil world, but aW in initiating and 
direetitigeueh changea And within the proeeeae^ of mental life, 
tiiniiigh nuimi^ment of the attention, the eour>4e of changes 
Mb) partly within the cunHcionH control and giiidancr of tlie 
fiolf Man cunceivea purposes, and spends hini^lf in rlirecting 
chanjccs of activity l^v^ardp their accomplishment : the coureo 
of experience id partly eelf-choecn and self directed. Kach 
of 11* C4>nE<tituteH a Nphei'e of activity, and our t«veral spheres 
of activity influence one another, 

la there such a mental experience as pure activity, activity 
fiiritKHwn lOikriV On the IjhmuI ground tliat mind cannot bo 
hILII, (,hat ilH life Ia c>Mt*nti]ill^ a flnx. one would KupfNiHt tliat 
there is: tliat, u in body, no iu mind, there in purpondcM 

110 Cnmhridgf^ Throfo^md E^MOff^ [m 

antlj bealthy. But ctl^u tlila HpuiLtatieit^v [t^L'k-H iilijectA to bo 
fittAiiK^i trivial tLiiil tmiwilnry tlu^iigh thcT may be, fir it *oon 
cffcrvcBccfc and <Jic« down : or. rather, it subsideft into that 
pi:nimriciit will U^ per^i^t in living on, which in now iKN^n tuf 
cIcArly by psyoholo^ste in the lifo of mind, as by biolo^pate in 
tiw liftf iif 4)r^m4in& Bill ptn-e uL*tivity 1iLU so little M^i< 
ficfltTK'ii for tlie nieti(nl life a^ a whoJcj th»t wo may at once 
para to consider the constituent whicb works moat closely 
with ii., prrvionMly Uy Uilcin^ tbciii lirtth t^igtlhur. 

Fedinif rluiiutcfl the moods or tonc^ of the soul in \\s 
e3|)erience» ; filutoiire and jtftin, ^atisikctioo and diwiatiafac* 
tioD, hRppincM and tiuhrippine^, joy and miecry. nnd the like^ 
The eeparatioii of these topoa for epocial study led Ui Uie 
threefold tiow of our conxdoiianGBE Bg iutvllectnni, einotionml, 
active, in prefei-ence X(\ the ohler arrangement iin<ler ititelleci 
and acrtivity : and thtm^li there is n^ln a t^Midenc'y to revert 
to the dual division, w« miut Hvoid l<ising the adiranta^ 
ftlwaytt ^ii«h] wlirnn lurid di^ttinL'tion i^ dmwu. TlmuMtlietlc 
Mpectn of lifr hfLvc A prinuLrineai^ of their own, inrariably 
concurrent aw they may be witJi the other aspects, and specially 
ooncumtd with the excitation and direction nf activity, 

Uf the prominence of Feeling in *nir a<7tual expcricnco 
there is no serious question in dally life : what wc And is 
that It in not allowed much Wfjfnificance for the phlloaophleal 
determination of Reality or nf the Divine Nature, Tliia 
defect we shall consider later on ; here it is only mn^eKsuiry 
tfj aeacrt the presence nnd importance of Feelinc, ns fact* 
in a way that will require for it a more ader^natc treatment by 
philesophy. Paycliological invc9tLpbti^>ri lian not .fucoecdedi 
it ifl supposed, in mo connecting Feeling with the Htmcttiro of 
our nattire as to lead us to triiet in it ae a primary factor 
in healthy and virtuoii* life, aa well as to value it fbr 1U 
ciwit sakt? ' ?iM >\ cmstituent of nuuifiLl tn^alih there '\n much 
to be h&id fur iL» liiH. tlir extri^ptiuiin aru «» many Inbrtt 
the region of chaos la as extensive as that which is bruught 
intti owlcr by the law. Spare diws not alh>w iff dUcuwion 
hero, bat the opinion may be Tcuturod that tiic cSGcptlona 

m^ Phihmphif, and thtr Beuig of God 

nrc lutt rin TiumurmiM or nt^ mt\Htribnt a^ tliey A|i|K^r, niiit 
Uuil fui'tht-r wuik ilk the pi\na\s\ng Hcit^nci- of [mychology 
win itii*\ t^ ^lovf tlmt the la^ h 0]>erativc aW over tlio 
field; that FccIiiiiE m completely tmtuml, nn^l htu it« pkco 
over Uiti vrh'»lt> vconotny of our life. Uoan Hwift, in oiio 
ci tbc mre moofin irhcr \m minft wrut iindowiuil hy biJM 
Of bitt^mcsH. loM'd the gr^at eneniy of optimisnii Dijuth, 
wiUi tlw declttntlltiii that he xw^uld not lieliepe tlmt aii eveot 
'tfo natural* 1^1 tK^ccMAnr}', ».ii<l xo irnhrmul, rniiltl I10 ikp|KiHi?il 
Uy tphe wdfaro of iLmiiUMil.' Wl* may, Nurvly, uvu^n a t%li\{ iiiiire 
confident <>ptiLni:^ni for Fettling; in xpite of our l^ihue over 
lar^ tractA to trace the law of itti connexion with good life, 
we may liave confldonci- that by it^ natunUiieaa, iU necc^iBity, 
and it« nnivcn^ilily, it viiidicat^o ite pl&ct^ in the t^b^enue of 
the spiritual life. 

\^lLi«n we ihhib of Feelhi^ hi Ita hl^ier i-an^eu, liapphteiw, 
ginflncvw, joy, and tho lovn of thv. Rejiiitlfnl in all it^M foniiKi 
aitti take w^:(mnt of th^ volunw of human hfe in^upied in 
tli« production and the eiy*>yincnt of P*>ctry and Art, in the 
pkomrcs of aocial intercourse, and, finally, in the 'rcli^oufl 
affections/ Buroly some porvorsity has poaeeaaed the mindfl 
of (bo«f who hate att^inptoil to eimetnict phi1oa<»p}iiw with- 
out frank acceptance* to say nothing of grateful welcome, of 
Hu: eraotiiiiuti oTtdowment of hum^n natnr& 

And yot phihiwiphy very exLtJiiNively — ami tho<*!(^ not 
nmrh lew p"* — hue* inkcti up an attitude of opjHrrtitiun, or at 
Icofft of neglect, towards the leethctic side of life. For irsamplo, 
LuckeV Rrtfiay ia an enquiry into Heality on the baxinof human 
nature, but in wpitc of itfl grip of experience at many p<>inU, 
it oBcFB no answer to many sorioos quoationiii which men want 
finMWen^d when they think uf R<?ality ; It in addronned to men 
of *^icnrcH un exponiiion of what tike underdianiling can telJ 
111. and no more- And a riimilar tntellectuaJist lone dominated 
thf? Etatiunaliritic philntiophy of tlio whnle eighlt^enlh n^iitiiry, 
Ib it ^urpriniiig. therefore, Uiat formn of lEeiiloiiLMti aniHe ah 
Toicee proto^ing that it v^-m the mnin biiHina^ of man to be 
happii. and that phih^j^uphy meant the iritcrprotation of that 
domundf And when men apeak of Kiinti how coiunion it ia 


Cambriflge Theolotjical E»»atfs 


to refer to liim only ng the nathor of the enquiry into pure 
Reason and practical E^aaon, oblivious of hia final enqoliy 
intji tliB Beautiful. If melliotl remlereil ntHt>f*Miry Lht niti- 
Btrucliori of thrt-^c iita^ui of einguir^ in rseparAtinzi, yet tho 
totnl (vf Knnt'rt work iei to h*r. et^tlinated only by onmbiDlng tJie 
three ai!i a pliiUwiphy of Healitv. Siuct Kant's (Jay. ttou^ 
TDoru rccoicintion wa.t ut once accorded to Feeling thiui in 
tbo pr^-lloniantic period, it bus been due chiefly to Lotae 
thai philorutphy it^ lii^niin^' Ut lo^e diffidence in the wathotic 
^tor in human life, and to place a legjtiiimto eiii(jhaJ4i!^ upon 
It in the Interpretation of the meaning of the universe. 

And f<»r rc-Iiipnii, it is being underHUtoi] now Viy tht'oTuguuis 
aa it hari Ikuen unde^rHtiHid all alcn^ by the people, tiiat it in 
not the argnuicnt', however well-knit, tliai exhaustively and 
SnaJly ciprcHBC* our belief, but the prayer, tlie hymn, tiw 
ascription of )?li>ry, the solemn aditratton in tiie wondiip of 
the sanctuary and nleo in the wnnihip oi ti^e miul in ite 
Molitiiry devoltona The ef»nvietion in a BpeetatorlaJ mind 
that what it Heee is the work of mt eEnotlurd^^M (.'reator, hat 
ite own value, and inuet mtt be despised ; but it is when tlio 
heHveriM make u« glad with ihtrlr Beanly thai they ^dedare' 
the glory of 1J4)d. and traimfuna tho hc-hokler inln a wurHbipjKr. 
It IN rmt sufllciont to aay tliat this is ' religion/ but that it is 
not 'thcoloK>\' Theohjgj', tw the doctrine of Viw\ and tlui 
Boul. must go astray if a fundamental element in human 
nature has been excluded IVom Uie ba^^ie tiu which the 
thoojiigical structure tg to Iki raJKOil 

But Feeling doej« not take place in se^karatenesri, it worki 
intimately with Aciit^ity. Wlien we are acting, feelinjo; ani^ci, 
asd it snstaini* or cheeks wt in the activity. A te«Iing 
arretted is a 'desire/ and in that wtate of mind tlie line of 
action that promises to satisfy the desire and bria^ us into 
experienced feeling la the hue tliat we are impelled tA tek& 
If tJio deeire iu almttst without expectation of fruition we call 
it a * wiflh' ; an *idlo wisli' hing at the extreme of entire abACfiiee 
of expectation. But if there is cxpectaticm thoro ansoa a 
lon^ng or travinj^ wijieh incbtde« » senw of >4train or prea- 
aure Uiwarda action ; when net^tUHl or regukrly n-eurring wo 


i'kih«ujikff. and. the Being of Gtxl l!3 

cnll it 'uppctltc' Deaire mfty attiich to ot^ccte of nmiiy 
Srackfl and niaijy i1(?^n^*«f< ijf ileHni tenons, wkI vtc iisuiftlly 
niLmo tiiir ilo«trcH by their objecte : mngin^ from trivialitica 
<»f iliLily Iffc to profouud purposes aikd complicated aiuu: 
from phaHM of bodily f4eiu^U)ilit> \m tJio hi^ht*«T outtct^rrw 
of (im^oiml Hi»l TiiH-ml wdlsire. Their ofltee in the nierital 
ecuiioiiiv ]in8CN from tfieir tM;iiig feelitigN^ ttJiieH, ttinifd iutu 
fiin|iiilKtM lu utrliim. 

The recogiiitioi) i>f the iifitiiT^iicj^e of mental Desires or 
WftntH ba*< followed upon the study in Biologry of the atrivimjs 
of txxlily ancaiii^im^ : I'^iyeholo^y iiced ii(»t rotc^^rd dcstrcA as 
ei^B of infirmity or defect, but a& the normal foruiH which 
F««liiig Xak^ £t«i acreompaniiiient of tJio chiut^n^ life, ^omo 
p^'diologi^t^ bftw r^eaire on the ren^o^'al of Pain : UiIa give* 
an ftLiiontial i<hai-iiet4^r to it, indicating <Ief«H:t in the «tnictiire 
of t.h(? mimL Tlir «mtr<>vi-n<y U of long stjintlin^, as nwdcra 
uf llaio'ri litfmbliC will remember. The weight of olnxirvn- 
tion appears to be on thr wide of tho view that ninkes most for 
the rindication of Natun^, namely, that there arc prompting 
and inii>aUive feeling in which plcaf^ure-tone u^ (K^tivejj 
opemtivi', (Enhancing Uie activities and Beoiiriit^ tlieir con- 
tlniiaiiee or r«petitioiL 

It i& l>eeuott.^ of th« o^wnithm of impulsive Feeling that 
our acijiity very rarely, if ever, worku hm pure activity, for 
lift own KJike. We ajrt ijtid*?r tht; impulse of Feeling, for wmHj 
iiiUreKt. '^To will IH to bend our houI» to the; buving^ or 
doine of thnt which they wet? to be fftHid," itt Hooker's Kngli**h 
fortuulation of the doctrine of Aquiuaa, In Germany Ucr 
WiUt turn ifiifm \t* the cmront formula for Will. i^n>' 
fosaor Stout luu^ rmidv th« uniun tto fmimtneiit that he 
ffUggefltfl the cAtegor>' of Mnt«irost' v^ inelustve both of 
Conation and Fei'lingEittitude, over against tite eat^^gciry of 
Cognition to which the rywt of i-iinfuiouH life I* iiM^igncd The 
inbid iiM M^tivtT in fmnE^nit of SnU^rentA/ is the rr>nntd;i for a 
^eat jiart of our lifcL ThiH view vindicates furtiii:r tlie 
nattindncK^ of Ferling : for if Ftvliitg in ilnelf ha^ the vidnc 
which is claimed for it ab<»ve> it becomes even more iniprcs- 

C, T. t « 


Cavtbridffc TheoJ(^ical Enaaif^ 


eively important when it is eeen that it U ao interlocked, as 
it were, with the active filde of our imture. 

IritcrvMt FIX iloAin* Tor ' ^xmI ' h*jitlM iin U^ Fl.hiirH, T(» uriint 
|H>itit ha^ niocleni KthiLM ai'nvod ? TIiih we ditihL Icavl- reiulBni 
lo dcciilij for theniselvet^ : they umy elect to >itHiiiI by tiie 
Ethlrn which iiiHi^t^ npoii rij^urouh rightiitttfi Jii the object 
aimed 'it, stem min^c uf iJiity in the lllCcI)t^ nnd » life of 
fidfiUing coiuaiands and imporativca They may cUiaiDato 
nil rcfcrc-ut^t ti> ' intoroHt;^ ~ dopcndiTit; iLfK^Ti Iccliriif, its hetero- 
DomoUB foi- monvlity, and iii^iHt thkt niomlity dept^nd^ up(H] 
an biner freedom which realizot it8L>lf by a*n vhijc oni imp«- 
mtivcv tif rcJwtJTi purified fnun all (.'iin»ti<nml con^i deration*. 
To otIierH thin idea may appear \\^ a leptL-y from the lc|t<^])it 
prriod of Imth Rtbu^ and IMi^M>ii : athI thvy may takv their 
ataiid on Uoodncw oa including power k> atirat^b tlic* mnd. 
It woidd Imj cunibr<nij* U> *t«t<; h doctrine <>f hiiinnn nature in 
two forms ao d^ to allow for both of tbcec alteniativen, and 
wfi therefore priJCt^e^l here b\ leaving; the ubliKittion- vIvvf for 
thoue whi>ni it satiwftex, an*! talcing the view of human nature 
according to which the obli^atJ>ry form of Ethic« In educ^itiorial 
only, the Unal pcH^ition being that the Gc<wl isc really good for 
Man and thai \h\ 'itbUg^Utiin ' hhonlil be njimiieimnrate wltJi 
its attractive jh>wer By way of fortilyhiy: thin iKwitiuti wc 
eimply recall to mind that thie is really the view of the moat 
bracing and mo^t fertik' i^eriodH of Ixitli Phihirtiiphy and 
Theoloy;y. l^latoni^nt and NLHi-FlnKvidrtni agree tiiat the 
natural attracliveneap of ^oi>dii(;w4 for the purified and clear- 
flighted *ouI is the foundation prindple of Ethics*, Atptuuu 
was I'latonisl in tliU : in England Ho<>ki?r cimtinuud the tra- 
dition : aTid though, thn)Ugii the diro noccAHity iit a heduntflUc 
age of malcing control and regimen a |friiicipal aim nf iniimlei, 
liutlcr fatourod tlic'hard' ricw of the function of conecicncCp 
jot in his ti'catmont both of aclf-love and of the iov-e of 
Ood he found It imiKtHKJble to KUpprecw the natnmlnciw of the 
pnnduit of ^M>d]itMK. Shjit\vMhur>''i9 ctlnc>; amount lo bein^ 
a protc*it for gc^oiincris vGTsufl duQ' : and ilie UttUtunanH 
gaiiiHl their vogue liy tiirildiig a Hiunlar protect, thou^ 
they interpreted goodncM lu a not very lofty way. On 

in] Phih»ophy, ami the Being of God 

tli« otiier side, Kant's rcToTBioii to a ri^roua viow has be^n 
aUudcd W; unil oven Wurclvwoi'th, wrostliii^ witti the idui 
U^t he might trui^t tho ^ttractivoiKTse of gof-diKi^ did not 
prevail, but let it go and gave h» flual word ii^ favour of 
rt«ru i>uij:— 

■Ift liie liabt "f trulli Uir bondsman lot mc liic-* 

tint in the kt«r ntntjtvcnth <MJiitury t)w trend wikH toMiirdK 
tli0 more geiiial »iid inHplrithig tiiofk of con<;civirig our 
ethical Ufe, In Cambridge, for example, Sidgwick was Im- 
pelled to tikko iLp Vk itcw ptmitinti Ihh-xiiiw, nuwr [[nibtitif^ tJio 
tnittt tliat IKCJL itiii^L \fc I'atioual In » seuHe tli»L llitr tHLht^rmiiH 
could nut attain to, he >el nover r^uittcd aiiotbei' truht, imitiely, 
that the i<l<:ul Diunt fjommcnd iUcIf, that tlic ;ood ina«t satt«fy 
the natural dcnirc of man for happiiie^ and joy. 

Ill Diodcni Tlieology it iiiu^t aul^ce to illu£trat« the poi^i- 
tioD by comparing a prominent theologian at the beginning 
of tlie ceTitury with aomo Inter tiieologiana Romanticism and 
thi; religion of Ft*cliiig titved uinch In Sdileiennadtcr, yeL he 
chuMe Df^ftcttdtitcA aa the keynote of tlie feeling for Cod — 
a toJider, loving dcpt^Eidenct^, indeed, and in great eontraat 
with the flternnefig involved in Kant'« cthict^ when ntoral law 
in brought out of tlie tranacoLdeutal ^phci^e into actual life; 
and in wntmat witb ^'jirlyle'^ grim licqnieKoenee in the Duty 
of Obedience- Later on, for lUtgcbl wo find L>r llu^h Mackin- 
tosh saying, "It i^ [lerhapM in reaetien frmn the exaggertited 
enaphaAia placed on tliiH dep<:Tidoiiri.\ that v-e fiml liit^ehl. 
SchUdcnnAiditr'a gre*itest euccessur in construe tivi? theology, 
lajring so nmrked -itre^M oik the fact thnt reli^iuu eonfers on 
nwii true frct-iluuL" Aiid Hit^hrs position ia also that of 
Ao^uate Sabatler, To the^^ we may add a Onmbridge name ' 
it is from the gnivo and cautions uiii\d of Hort tlmt sve have 
tbe vrordB, "Tliere is no life woithy to be callofl lite entirely 
itepamte from joy and ghwlnesg." 

It in up<^n an Kthk-»4 ifi which joy and gladneu havL^ u 
legitUnaCe and not merrly a i>orniit,u;d KUitUH, that phiUu^ophy 
atid llipoloj^y aiv tnkiii^ ihi'ir htaiid U>-4hiy. 

Taking Activity and FecUng iti coiuljiuutiLm, how due* 

S— 3 


Oaiiifiridffe Tkeoloffica! Es^aytt 


Thought^ ^ giiidc to RcAlity and t(> (lofl st^ind in relation 
til tliuin '' Fii'^t. aj4 to Focling ; thnt intellect pret^cnts to us 
objects w\i\ amuip^H tlicm irttc^ MyNttMnn rtncl tlint ino<i<U or 
tones of tooling ftriso ne wu survny thcia le the einiplo rkw 
thnl ftrsil ocelli's to ua, and it covera a pfreat deal of tbo 
grouml^ niTi^ng fivim tlit; t^int^i iu?oi)mpFiiiyiu|j; i!<iTiHiitinnH tt> 
the la'ttht^llc ciijoynkentfi of {R-ixitna] life, the Hfft;i:lJunH and 
flc-ntimi.'iitH^ But rellectiuii nhowM Umt this tx tint tht^ whfilo 
a<:i^niit iif the mfittor. Feeling (jf some khid wc mu^t h&vo 
fuxonlin^ tti the piubjcctivc condition in whicli we find onr- 
Aclvc« at the momcnit : thi* <ihjw:te presented to iw ut tha( 
moment may Rugffcdt feelings out of accord with this moody 
but wo do n4»t find that wc* nt^cet^arily fiUpiirtTAt^ our niowl in 
deference to the ohjocts t fnisti'atcd ambition doea not at 
oni.'o p<Tiwh when the |«i»iShili(,> of fcnc-i'L^Mn lin>i viunsh«?d; 
aflbclion will ni»t nt tjin-n ^nlwidr whrn nonic nnwnrthlTWsa 
if] our fnt-'iid in diwhiHCfK And the f*?diiign which Hri?*« Hft 
appctitire iinpulm'A ^ometmict^ conijih^toly [ircct^rlc the pro* 
ecntation of any ol>joct*s womctimc** urc in excess over and 
ftbove the intensity belonffins to them an acctinii)iiTnm(*T^U 
of tlio iinugiimllve refireaentationn which Jiavo to do duly fiir 
abstmt fdjjtTW. And no it ci*me" that intellect h often bidden 
to Heart-h fi»r enj<»yable obji-elH with hti inifHTlonf^mwi wlik'li 
doot not anmiflt «itJi dpfi-mire for it n»» »*npcrfor aritfiority. 
But thi« i» pathological. Intcllcctuali^ni pn^t^tn : it 
Actual cxpcri<?t»cef no dotilit, but it it* to be iiToidod and 
resisted : FceliTig nmHt be brought undcf control. AtricUir 
B%ibordinated to Ikcte and laws objective; proven tations and 
roTLHoiitii^s and idea« correspond to rt-ality, lual i>Lith feeling 
and action which are not Htrictly d4*tonnin6d by them no 
bo fiuppresjiH- ThiiM, it ih iiii^l, must pluhi9io]>h\ and th<^d 
pn^tvut. In the wicred naTiie of (.nith. The clnim nf 1 
leetuallKni ha^ been long before the world: and the 
intellects li^ive overawed u* with their force and with 
nia^irtcciice of their wort. I*ut of late the world has 
imprcMT^od with the pntlikmiM which Intx^llcctunli^n ha^ foiled 
to solve, with the non-appc4irftnce of any one s\fiicm cotn- 
maTidin^ the support of InLelleetiiallMU tli«nLMolTe>«i, 




PhiioBQphif. aiul the Being o/ Gori 

farther, with the incompatibiJity of the scvcml syntcnifl 
oJfercd by ditfcn^iit thinlccra. And wo have cuuic iv puapect 
that too much hon ht^w daim&il fi»i' Intellect Ob a IHtitor in 
life and therotV're im ii j^iiidt^ t^) "(Vuth iUcIf Now baunora 
liiive a|>|>earcd in the arena : VoIutitariBiii or rra^^atiam, 
ftjwcrtmg the prTniucy »f Will hthI f^imuit <kf 1iiter«?st ; 
Pen»oti»l fdtmliMni or IIimiHiiiHni, cliiiining «(inm Hhare itf 
HglitM ffir ^mi\\ 5ictiir in fliti miii|ilt?3i ujit^railii>ii uP lifr. Tlt«; 
ujiiurioik groand of &I1 ie that Intellect i« not the ruling factor 
in lift% and thcrcfi^re ju* wc [iiindie triiUi it C4iiin<it l>u our 
sole giiidc ; it is an instruinont designed for service. In the 
cotuilrtiction of Ijetiet^ VoJnutariam claims an iiilicrcnt riKht 
to go bi?yond tlic Icnowu factM iind their implieation^i ftiid to 
hisist on HOTno value l>oinu; »wigiied wherever an ' int^reet ' l» 
to lie Mcrvi^l, and h Kupi'enu' vhlnt^ wbent^ver a prhnar^ 'ij^ood' 
la Uie aim. If thrxr lie boyund Uir iHtundLtrii?^ id' |in>vvd 
truth* *t! nhaU not X\\v that reaaon witbdia* our allegiance 
froiu them* but ithidi in^iM i>n onr natiind riicht to f(?thm 
them up: all the good ie real. IntoElcctualiMii has rented 
in thotijcht luuL what it shows ti& ; we nniy tjike all that iH 
j^lren by induetive eeience* hi^torieal evidenee^ and Bpeeiilative 
intfrrpretation, Ltnd we nliall have the trutli, it sajri : Ibr um 
that exists, and we nmiit neither take away anything iweause 
it tt«eitiji valut'lt'KH or evil, nor add aviytliin^ bi^caiue it 
iM nH>re- dt^Nimblr lji iia, or more cxeellenl. in itrtrlf Wi^ 
decline the rentrtLtioi^ say Vobintaribin and itA variantf^: 
the univcnw; jmrtly <lep<:n<i» oti what wc nifike it, wc haTc 
creative power, and it is our high preroc;ative to [dtcr the 
vorld, to eidl itito cxitfttTiee fonim of ^»od and bii>auty 
and t*> suppT^jw tiiu nfll-nrtive and tJje evil. Wo may 
therefore, and wc must enrry our lK>lie^ a^ fiir a^ our 
idmk ; wr may l.ruHt in t\\\t ^of^dia-ni that ou^bt to lie. 
Mueh of what in pri?8ent**d i\> iis is but npiHMnini^r : ax we 
have to j£ii Iwynnd Xhv re|mrl of visiim whent-vtsr we wet? 
a atiek apj>arciit1y Ixrnt when fialf of it is plaecd in water, 
Mild diMtninttnic our own eyeni^ht Iwlievij that it reniHiiiB 
straight, appeiding from one r<:port to nTi*>thcr, Ix'tii witldn 
the intellect ; ao with the wtiole compoas of intclloct, wu arc 


Cambridge Theological Essays 



me iQ 

not, fliiti-^fieiJ llmt wimt it rcjwrtfi to us is the reality it«cffi 
When cthicul conviction urjjcus ns, whai ilcKirc ft*r wluii ift 
lovely and of pood report is kindled, wo dar© not stay oiirl 
et^pB, we innat believe Uu'ir (iliject^ tiomehow, somewbero, lo 
be posBible. and we join actioD to belief and put ftirth isHbrt 
to l>ring ihertk into being. m 

llmt iht: Vfilnnliirisf^s tir PnwritHtisf*. nr TTnniJinintrs hare 
adviiticcd to the front of the arena cmnnot be ijucfltioiied, 
if we surrey Ujc i»hilvMO|r)MCAl Hter^turG of Uit- la^nt tcni ofl 
twenty ycare. In tJcnimny and Fninc^^ iw in Britoin nndl 
Aiueriui, they ai-o doin;* rtn:ch uf the freaheet work of thdl 
tirne^ And thc\v i^itn up|>04.d to bir^Lory for AUppiirt, <*Hpc(?ialJy 1 
when the surface is removed and iin^ier-Btratn of thoiiii;ht are 
iiTiU)vercd, III the lant j^enenLtittn the iTiflm-iire uf ijotjne iQ 
nmociatiiig ^iwtlu^tk and monil jinVt^TiieiitA iriLTi intelltx^Uul 
jndgeiiieiit^. Iiah Ixen |>crvjuuTc; hiH vehement doclAmtl 
that to iupprcA!^ thcni in (ace of iiiLclleetuaJ ptrpluxity w 
be * intolerable/ lias wiUienod ccboca in every school of phJIo- 
eopby. Tilt' flhi^iilarly alert aiid inde|>endent mind of Ppo- 
fbwer Jameiit, with \m 'will tn believe,' Iuih been inAtruinetital 
in making Voluntansni known among Knglirih-rvAdin^ l>^'**P^I 
ftitd «n the Continent it* |)rt"vuk-iii:t." i* HiiftiaU/wl liy such 
lisiderHas Jtenouvier&nd l*r<jfe**or PaidKcn, tbelatterof whom _ 
markit h« <me i)f Uit^ Rre j>rbicipa1 fenture?^ of the philopophjl 
of the present day tliat "it \» t^iming: from an Intcliertuolint 
to a Voluniariat Htand|Kimt ; flr-st in psyebology. under the 
influence of 8ch<>peii1uuior ani) iti the bioiogisttf ; and thea 
ID philosophy and thot^ry of the world." 

Professor Paulsen procoedfi to add that it ha^ alBO eQt«rel' 
Into ProtoHlaiit Tlll^t1ll^^ TIiik, iiidenl, \n plain enough whett 
we remondxT nil tlm( 'Ilieolngy mennfi by Faith. Ilmt Wi»r<I 
miliicefi to irniind up how uncongcnt^ Ohrintian Tlicologjr 
has fonnd the invitiition tc i-cganl Intellect or Ilea«on tu the 
Boat of nolc authority for knowledge of (ied. In many 
quarters it \iatt juiiuioMt^Hl iti handinj; over Naiaral 11i4m>1d|i7 
to ReaAtinf iilni[tly because it wat^ r(.>;ervtu^ Uio cfontral 
tJ.'rritory for other treatment And now it cannot but be 
iliM^KJsed to bail with Home ardour the reapiiearanc^e of tbe 


m] Pkitosopht/t and the Bmig of God 118 

ftpp^J to Faith ill prenerfiJ tlieolojry. In tin* HitKclUinn 
tli<M>lifgy iJi<MlLml>ritn of Jiu!gvTiK*ni>j of Vain© and Jiid^^nienta 
uf ExHtence ha?i tbunfl fomiiiJatior and vi^roui^ esiptJHition, 
and haaf Htl,ntr(i!<l ru» »mn}} following. 

Having alr<-ji4l> fileiulcxl Tor the inchiftkm vf f<?«liikg and 
of the etbicat factor in the Iminan uttture to be iiiWrj'i'^t^ 
by philosophy and Iheuhtin. it ift now open to us to urgT? that 
there is no eiittidctit EToniLtl for the diapnTa^mciit of tnu-lkct 
whioh han set in» Nay, rather, we may feel mirc tJiat tlicrc in 
rtikl rlartgL-r to thi* ennw of |)hil<iM^p}iy and of tfk(!ology if this 
r1iupHrH|^-mnii. ik sulniirh^il. In Uir coTinnon juilgement of 
maitkiml, it will trnkiHe averniou fhmi tliein both \T it i» 
0nHpectc{L that tWry Hr<|ni4<M(r In n Mitii^itinn in nliirh truth 
oocu[^eA a Aecon<laiT plaLC Certainly ll iWn noi api>oar 
that wc arc able, nlwjiyB ant] o\'trywhci*c. to identify' the 
tnJ€ atifl the eroi"l. what ta and what oigjht to be. But rather 
Unm iitioniliiii vitht^r tlie one or tht^ other wc may ti'cat both 
poo(inc«e and truth aw po^tufatfA, im the Oxford group who 
wHte a^ 'Peraoii^il Ideali^t^' do. or ka valid dedai<atlonii of 
fx^lity: ovrii at tbr (txpetiAc of iK'(x<jtlioif Uii^ir iUiiicix.-parieic39 

Tlnjrp cjiii W iTo doubt tliat in the htdividiml life, at any 
sta^« feeling and <:thi€aJ Meutiment inay isovcr beyond what 
knowled^c^' ban tii <i0er. But when the life ie prolonged atnl 
becomes fully mutnred, thf siiHT>i<-ion tiiat the constitution 
of thintCB is really other than natural hopea and a^piratiouti 
ImuI led one to ^nppoM? must give dlAtrm^tioii and rliitninl, 
and In this altitude we cannot re**t. We therefore look to 
ktiowli'ilgL* being brnnght tip to eonKclemu^ and to Menthnent 
aa life inatureM- And in the largrr liff- of a community whom 
citndiiuity in prcntived hitom many allernations of ndijc and 
furrow, of confidciieo zmd doubt* it i« not the dippitip? into 
the hollows of doubt aa to the unity of things, but tho 
sacccfiBivc contnet^ uith th(; ridgen which rtbow the lino of 
march- It is the types of m<»n who wen? confjilent tJiat 
truUi and ^odno^e coincided that appeal to th© deepest 
facrnltiea? of the l^onT, Hn<l philoM»|>hy Hhould W^ linilt up out 
of tlie Huet'etwive eiprtMHltnia uf such confidence Not to 


Cambridge Theological E^sayn 


«pca,k of Uic i£iCAt worl»i-imint>» whkb arc nynilxtli* of this 
coiiTiatJon. thu ii4, vc venture to aa^crt. the in&xn Cmdition 
of UiUJibrid^iv thought ; for t-ndwiirtli and John fimith, 
lu for Ilare and Grott? and Maurice, the coikviction of Ui^ 
unity of tnuU and gikidiioMH was inuTfiught in tlit> vt^ry eoii9<ti- 
titlioii iif tl]<?Ir minilK And iiideL^d. the faith wlikh hax licen 
goncrntcd in tliti (lintitmn ininil, when ctxuudertril a.i 4 ctrn- 
tinnona Church, if^ «iircly, not a faith that nbandomi one n«pcGt 
iif Gtxl hi HU uikivci'sc in order to enjoy a simplicity wbich ia 
due to omH^ioms but a tiuth that iv coniprdicnnive ; inniKtiimc 
on traiLBcendin^ the dii^tinction, it hold^ firmly that the trutli 
of all ffooHnew unci iKMiiity, uml th<* icouctnwt^ and ticuuty of 
all truth, are now pr««ent in the mind of (]fod, and. therefore, 
may some 'Iny Ix- vimdiHaf(*iI tit thi? nihti! <tf man. 

n|i t(j thiH |Hitnt VI3 have been regarding Innaaii luituro in 
tho imlividnal ; Socitifiij/ Ikia l>ccn lin>u^ht in finly wUi-n no 
Snvolvtxl ttiat it wa*^ iiniMttuijbli: ut wvttc without refirring 
to it 

OoneciottenciM i» msntcd in individuals, in ccntrof^ : tiiG«e 
are inacceHBible to one another : each of ua r^tands within his 
own circJo, <iihen« are to hint. But wl* H^HMilnneoiiHly make 
the inferonotf tluLt th;* uju:<mcici>4 to which we refer many of 
the ehaTigeK vvhlrli tlnm are prem-'ntt-il to un, are hIhii, like 
\ii^ /or thi'inHnlviM. Wr niukr tliisM a^amptton ' cyi^tivdjr/ 
and it i^ tiuarrel? to be iinestitined that evt-ry hninnn ifitfi- 
ridnal makee iL In unlor of Irigic tht; l»i£^\!^ preceih? the 
tnfereucGt but tliiB intbrcncc boi^ns ao early, iu made bo epon- 
taneouHly and with atich fiH^untnoe and l>cci>rneM m(» mdiually 
inwoven »\U> "wr whole expiiriencc, that wc eoon nrrivc at 
the position that the iibterpretotloti \* Kiom impf^rtant in our 
knowledge than the sii^i : the other penwnH a<Munic a higher 
cjnicr i9f v»i1ue than theic- t^xpr^4«:oiiK. jun]. im we <kLir)(t>lveK 
arc more tiniMirtatil i}ian any uf our {.uirticnlHt <<x|.>rricnievM 
or than nil of tbcnt taken together- Fiiri.htT. our kiiuwlttlice 
of our*elvM gi-ow-* by reflection from onr tlninitht* nf otlkcr 
pevwoiw: by *lntn>JGCti«>n/ aa it ia now named, wo ti^ro 
ouTBolvee to be like tlicoo other nnndn. llw ini|H>rtAneo of 
oUivrH ill pro|x>rtion to oun^ivc^ grows upon ua aa wo become 

Philompht/, ami (Ae Being of God 121 

awartf of tlie i^inalhieHH cif our own coiitnbiiUiiT] Ut tlir wiirM 
of changes, hekI wc end by couiontcdly jtriving uurBcIvcs a 
pla<^ HnioniJf tJic^e 'cjcctlvcly' Iciiowti miudi. TJiiMi ha (»ti- 
fKiuiinia-^ niffctuix* and wc iubciudi^' our scum? of ijut own 
unity iu coiTi:vt|M>Ti<lonco with our cohvictiou of a |kiijulk-l 
iiiiily in the iniivorut.^ wo apply thiB to the other miiide 
with a specifically improtwive force and arrive at the belief 
of a eomiiiniiity of which wi* »iid thty are iiii^iiiWr^. This 
fittMlmiii<.rtm1 iiriilhT^ithtti m tht^ ctintral thread of nociaUty — 
not limti^^ltL into lii^hL wilhonl, iniahHiH- arid lilon^ willi it 
tile phivcA of our nicnt>til life cooperate 

In our life of foclin^, s>iii|)athy opcrat«a iticctuuvntly : our 
rcpfT?<cn tuition in our t-onsciou>*ncrw of a »tatc nuppoMxl to be 
that of anothur niiiid calls up in us a tcmo of feeling which wo 
take to bo Jdvnti<ud in kind with the tone of tliu othor miiide 
and th^^ eon^e of commi^n fcclirtg ha^ n uniting e1fls;t ; a coukmon 
latere^ u ours. But tldti im not all: fovlhig In not mero 
|««wiviLy, in it the mind tiimH itf«t^ff towiLnU tlie object, the 
fcvrlluK taki» an iriit^itirj^ i|ir*^t:Uim and lH-ruin<^H an alli"(-f.i(iiL 
Furtlter* thn itiit^oiiig aHcction iknianil^ tlnr n^jHiUM? of a liko 
iiHcction towards oaraclves: the highest range of feehngariacfl 
only inredj»roeilj withfcchu^snppiwcd to W directed towanle 
U4 by otliei" persons. We doaire tlic go<)d of our friend, and 
we feel aflection for hmi at its heijj^ht wlien we an.' luwnred 
that he t4io dt-li^^hts in our good and tliat the thought of us 
excituM plea4inx> In his mind Vci^' intenne love im rtijuiettine^ 
ftlrtfcttad t4iHan1ri irrt^|)oniiive [itinujn^, it may tte olgoct^sd: 
many a mother lores an unwoittiy and irretipoiimve hipij; the 
unrequited lore of a IJante for n Deatricc was no nctiiin 
■fua the cxij<tcnce of the inflection. Hut it h quite open 
faei*e to suppotie that the inothei' ink|>lieittT rcpirds the reapon- 
*dvenei4« an putentiat, though donuant or withheld, arid that 
tho connction of tt^ pertnan&nt alM^nco or of fixed liatred 
would *o<>ner <\x IftK-r check the love and turn it to bittenieiu 
<iri4ul rt'jrrri, Hut rccipriicntiul lovriKaciHauncifl by luimanity 
au the rronninK ex|K^rieni^e of human nature. Na mtt utiifina 
in mnoifi-vt^ it uiiite-M thermtntsof conrtriou^Ufi^ vnvh of them 
uicorpnmting in it^i own good the good of the other. ' Other- 


Cambridge Theological Es^yM 


nowi' i» tnuiK«n<icd br communion. And 0O» in various 
modctt of ^nctQft, feelinf; biiidfl men trito conuntinicitf, and the 
Endivifhinl in n-hfim 9«>daJ FodiiiK iu iih«citt or feebly ilevckipcd 
IB seen to be only potenti^y what he mif^t be. 

In&> wtcSftl niLion w<f enter liy \}\v. fuli-nnce of knowledfce 
aUo : we be<!utDQ awnro that our own ide»B &r<» biU u portion 
iif tlie ide^^ whicli huuiati inlndn |)ohm<ksi : w^ Wnj from olbem 
»indhrchftlfl>y ifwi' nr*^ of like wi-^iw U> thc-tiL And mjiidn^ 
ditlVrciiccA in our hcrerat Ideatf, we onnie t^tdifLtiix^uinli tielween 
idio-ivncniJ^ic^ Jtnd n common clement in which wc agree : 
eonccfitions nriac and the belief in a conceptual world which 
b the tcame for all. By r^iich 'inteivubJecLivG' intercourMe 
re huild u^ the fiibrk of ktiow1c*d*cc: wrought out of many 
[nda It becomes a common posse^on open to all men. 
M<ifh*rn ethitv of eFt*rv form i^t n^ftt T<*»; emphatic ri itn 
inctiiHton nf sociality : ntorallMH vie in their L-lainw that they 
«}ic>w tiiiw iHiih pi*rH(imi) H.ri(l nonal gniH] itn* pnividi^it for by 
their theory. 

In rtocial life, then, feeling; expands and varies vaiuatjooa 
arc widened ami deqRTni^d^ lhkU itT aetum are rmltipliodund on 
lan;i^ and a common world enters into our int<'llixttual vit^ion. 

It IH Impossible to claim that at the present time <>ith|ta 
m<*Tilfil Hcii'iinr nr phitiwtiphy hiu arriveil at iwc<>nl lu Tj>H^I 
n^Utire fitnclifms f.if sodahty and iridiviilitality in linraftti life. 
Sonie hrtik to un«, Mtine L* tho othiir *l-* the jtriniary <ir iJik 
ultiniitte concern. In the 6eicncc«, until the laM twenty ycttn, 
BntLah I'^ycholofii^tM have utif|ucHtionAblr neglected the 
«odftf fiKtor in the gGac«[» of ment^il life but lunciid* are lU'w 
boin^ handi^omcly made ; Sociolo^etii o» Uio otlier lioiid arc 
a}>t to tiuiffoify their ufHce and Ignore the Innate individuality. 
In p)ulow>pliy, itomc MoralivUi filaee llieir idealM in tiie ex- 
cirJ1eiicr>4 of t»odal order a^ the end to be attained ; oi^hcrs 
place the welfan- of the imlividtialH nx the final lUirpiwe. 
Bnt idealistic ethics on the whole acknowlcdtrce as its ideal 
the TOcial eommunity of c<mMcii)iiA indiWdoala. each baring 
hia own life but h&vin;; it lu ineludina; mcmberahip of a ooni' 
munity in which he realizce himaolf us u knowing, Hctiog, 
loving mind 

m) Phihtophy, mui the Being of God 128 

Recent thoolos:}' hwn not fiilc<l t« be nffert<^J by the movo- 
mcBt in &vaar of rc^rding p^ociality aa osecntial Id hutnui 
nattire aod therefore no aecadental Addition Ut rvW^^ntei lifo. 
kstfae htft cciittiry ctfwcil it iK-Vftmc vridcnt froiu tlk-dogiral 
ItOTfttvre that in tlic now century the idctn of the KiTigdum 
of Hod wtfuld UiVe a htglier |»Uu3 In ifiildtiig tbt^ilo^lud 
irrflectioivi a4 >ie11 a^ in iiiflnerinniL' ific TiictliiutH of ninlcing a 
retipmi » furci:* in pi-iutical liiiiimu life. But die roiirtorvative 
infludiee of the recent Vmt in still Tcry poweriiil, and the 
iffrtTC of at J cxtrcmL' indivifimliHm in for frc^m cxhausUxJ in 
tbt bdUl i>f rulijEifHi, tor the i*^it>;h:ih itoopk n1 LhliL 

To vhat has thie reWow of llutnan Nature led ng? To 
t]H> Uli^] uf Man ibi pcr^onELlilv. a^ spiritual beEn^ : a anltary 
K:lf'Cfii]Mciiiii>! luu) indf-rlctcnnititng hplrit whoHC life i* inuiki- 
il ill pTuuoi iif ihoiiglit Mild feeling aiid of action fnr 
l"d»"»pn t-ntti anri pnrjMt^en ; i';m'Ii umj] ronMi'itm* uf Jt wtwld 
vhidi \», Hi ittt ]iiy:hi^st finite level, a number of pcn§onatitic« 
like hiniHclf In Ihi^ Hpiritiid world all live m rodjiroc^ 
fcnowlcd^ find Alteclinn and eombine their indivirlti&l acti- 
Titie« for the f^ood of the conimuiiity aa a wholft This ia not 
offbff^ M a deMcrif>tif»a of fietitrd Mnn. It iit the eliaract<;r 
whieh phiUwnphy, ace<»nling U" \U privikge, win forth iw tho 
norm, tlte ««£nic*f» the ideal of Human Nattire. 

To nian broadiijp over tho life of the spirit tliere baa come 
thoilglitof n hitclier ICcalily— he h^w "fon^Uidod a M>>tcry' 
^—11 wnMe *f wot»der hajg stirred, and he hiM Ihpcuiik- phiUi^o- 
pliioil, reH^ouA. Sotiietbiie*« Lid* mo(«i arlrtiw from liiitbillty 
ti) 1i\v\ ri*t Htthiti Uu' Hjilirn* of hix world ; i|itivtloiiM]f0 nf thtf 
intelli^euce^ t^triviti^ of will, and ioipubieitof aticctioii urge his 
BbUioD onwanln tciwortlii n Deyond ; but aoiiiettinoH they 
do no more than leave him arrested at the ed^ of the world 
be ImonH munntiritiK lELterroKatiaun— what iti there bt^dos 
wT wby are wo? whC'MO are wcF A Plato cur a Ihinte would 
be required to express tho piithcM of Uie lot of the K^^rjiiuM 
ScepdcA and Agtiu^tJca of mankind, afl It appears to tbe xma 


Canibruige Theological E$my» 


uf irkHi^lit or of fiiith. w*^rc it. nr-t lli»tt from the Sc(sj)tioa tii^m- 
ecJvci^ vi>ictH uf wtatfiiIni2SR ar^ bcftrd in tho poetry, tbe cwn- 
fcaiioiw, aiwl \\\e jourminx mtSnieg of every age and country. 

At the proflOTit "Ihv ihi're nre nuinv ivh« ititiVe t!ieir 
uc^-ount with tJic »ftlriMutivi.' iliN|H>HilJ4>M of tliL^ir miiKK when 
arreKtiiig tlieniMulvcw on tlic iMge of ex|reri«nix\ by dcclurin^ 
tlml. tlu' iiirrc fairt tliat thuy l-ijok beyond in iUelf fjonitive, 
and it BUtticiutitn Tlu^y cluitn objtctivt' valut- fi>r tliat uuUtKik 
tteeir, aiid aAaociatc pbiloBopfij and thcolo^' with pooti*)' and 
the o.rt^y nH conHtrnctiunn which tiajry Millimisut jur^l.ilicJkUoii 
wL«[i roparded &14 cKprt^tMiour? 4if th<f Lif€ of tho eouL 

'^^ubjectivitcm' )uu won connickrable grtmnd in die phllo- 
flophical nnd rt^Iiinonn ItU'mlHre tif <*nr time l{iil tlml It 
olFtinfU'romnioii pwuhl*' im wwirtely ic) be queHtlonetl ; il comott 
fts a Httrpri«o tu the onliimry nimi to be Invited to ttcoqit 
briiefn nn t^jnivaloiit to truths* the pyoductti of the mind itflclf 
M the only retihticti, ejEbuhilionn rn>rn the glowing iini^in&- 
tions of pioua and dovout mmU U4 tho thinffa of hejivon tt«ol£ 
liich aA our facultioa niay be in power of construction of 
whut Heoni}4 true und ^>0(1 fi>r ciuivelves it is a Aliijck to our 
expeotationa to be told thnt tlie d<H'pefit wisdom lies Id out 
eoiiti^Titifdly vtandhi^ ^ilnne with nnrjiehen sitid nor fiiith. We 
wiLTit ft licuUty whirh in fur \i&v\?, wliilut Allowing JM}in4Jthiikg of 
ttAolf U> Uft; we want nmiimnc^e that our ri>nciipti<«iH arc rmt 
only our way of In^kiTig at it^ hut it^ way of umnifc^tin^ itj^df 
to ua: wc feci tliat tlic unirci^ bditf in cvolutiim juntitlea 
our conlichsricti tliat the objective elHcHcy allowed to our 
onlinary thoui;ht will not fail At tho hii^he^t leveb. If con 
ce)iCioTiK and proniptinj:^ from all the c<ini]>nAH of our rmUirtt 
APv to hv ^uidoK to Tritth, these also nmi.^t bt^ at once thv 
thonghUof nmn MiiLin their men^inre. tlit^ vislitn of attnbntua 
of Ri'ulit.y. We |Duw, therefore, from phlhwi^phich iif life which 
offer conitriictiunA without objeclive raluL- : and from phiht- 
Mtphicti of religion whidi cndone it within the n)iitine« of 
prtvcholoiciral hiith, r>r reduce it to the historical rcligtona a» 
the fK»ciolo^cal j>roduct8 of tlie niindg of ttie ptH>f))t3H. 

Tlie pHueipIo tliat we are eriClrely right in tnu^tinn that 
thore is objcetivo validity in otir €xpl^ricnel^ is tho pHnctpId 

Phltoftnjthif, o.nd the lieuig n/ (iod 

of T(l(!allHiii : mill when it botiitv* in the (^mvirr.ititi Umt tim 
univcrw is. in cwcncc, spiritim!. wc hare Hpirituul Idciilisia* 
This principle we now pnKi-wl lo vindicate by Ahowinjf it in 
opcrutlon over tlie fieM of hiiinfttt natnrc' iw outltncfl in the 
prcvioaa ftcciion. 

8piriti|]U liTtalism is ii philosopliicnl pniK:ip1(?» however, 
which is attained ami oiuploytKl by nirious iiic-1>i»j)^. Thei*e 
U rhe nittluKl— <»r iLf-^Uioit <:if mothiHi — of ChKijItigiem, In- 
tuitioimtlHm, tht^ My«t.icT»m of Insight ■ our iiltimaUi know- 
Kftl^ ijf ReHlity in n^^Hnlivl am Hiniple vijiiioiir H[>onlitni?unit« 
incxplicnblc, out of relation Ut n\\ anbonliiiatc inmtal 
experience; and the nltiTnate Heality therefare a^ imf. of 
rebitioii t') aJI other exiMt(^n(v. The nt-rttcjncnt of it V9 
dogiDfttic, t^ometiinc« explicitly so, sonictimcu with a ^liow 
of niBDning witUui the a priori rt^^i>n : ilrt'Ct iu^ccmh 
to Re^ility is clainied, urim(Hiinte<l <<oiii in union with God. 
?kl&i>y My*lic« eipretw. theinse-lves in terms of knowledj^ : 
tiu'v A[)efik of 1fitnition».l intiight which in lucid Himplirtty 
givc» the iilca^ upon which all other knowledge m l)aHL-d : 
itcHite prefer the Iftn^iagc of fei^Iing, of piety ; i>thc-rr!< :<|x.-n,k 
more comprchcneivcly of union and commuTiion. The 
bcnoflocnt infliicrnco of OntoloLO^m and MyaliciKin m the 
tristor^ <if humanity cannot 1h* ^inaaid It htM apj>tunMl in 
respond to iieedK of the times: when men'E att«ntinn Iiem 
been dbitmcted between Enipirtciama on the one hand and 
purtial, nnri thrn^lnr-e inellecLivt.', Itiiti^inHlimiiu on thr othrr, 
till- (>nl4>1ii|{!Ntfi hare been thone who at once naw wtiat lay 
beyond the RnipiriciHl'*' view, and w(,'re aware of thr want of 
cogency in the H^tionnlist^' 'proof?*' ay then presented. Tlicy 
did all tlwy could, Ihcy atitrined the eonvietioTtc* of their own 
ozperiencc at it*i hiffhci^t point, and found in them the trati- 
qtilltty of iumiL-di:iti< taith. [fil i^ a question between holding 
firtnty to fiiitU in the eternal and trangcendeiit, ae a)2:aiTit^t 
lifnitfiti<m to ihhig* of lime and T^ense, the intereHlf^ of |>hilo- 
Hophy itself mast determTne the course of our syinjiflthy. 

RfiL RjMritiml Idealint^ have al^o EH-gnn from the lowct^t 
ranged of es|M?rieuce aird wtjrkrHl TqiwurdM U* their principle. 
The a poateriori nietltixl proceeds hy the application of 


Caviltrulfje Theutoffical Essays 


a priori ooiiceptioiiB— themselves purely uieiitH-l — Ui tht? low- 
gnuk- knowlclge of rciility given In aens^expeHencev both 
*>r iiKMilal lifi: ami of the (>«t4'r worTil By 'H|i|>]ir»lion ' itf 
the CTjiiec|3tiorih U* this lower knowk^tigt* higli(.T tnitli!^ urc 
Kaint^], Ami in the rtiJ Ri-^tity in ilvinOTiMtratod, the exiAUrnce 
of (jod is proved Thia mctho<l hna pr<jvt<l iKTCplAble over 
& wide raiiKO of humaiut)', and atill has iueuit adherents. But 
it liett open Ut ono fatal ul^oc^on : if Uie bi^^h^^r coDoeptiona 
»«ch as <_>niftiUiori, K<-C(*»u"ilv, IVrMnuilily, iire •empty,' *» to 
Apeak, aa regardtt knowledge of reality, the mere appliijution 
(if thrw* rinply nnurjiliniiK tj> ihf- kiiul erf n<»t>l.y diairhMei] bj 
iiiir iiitetligeuce in its lower ranges vrill mit give lis necess to 
any hiKlier kind of reality tban wc had before. We do 
not for cxiiinpic, prove <t fXJi^^i^ u Hupremc Caiiw;, but 
oTilv reneh a eui^eetimi that we should look for one; but 
where to K^uk w*; are iiot told, iiiileHH it be where llio Utito- 
hjgiHtH already i^tund, in which cuiw it in the Ontotogiet who 
has the key of knowledge, and our *demon*trationa" haw 
only linHight itH Ut \iih Kirlt;. 

Tho true pliitooophiral method is diitcretit from both of 
tJicsc : it doea not parUtion oui' exporiciiee int4> two rei^ioiUi 
and place kiiowlcrl^'u of Uisility i^iilj in the upper region as 
Oiitologimn doc«, nor in an artitieiiU eombination of thom, aa 
a ^xtstfriori deaion*tratJon doew; it i^ecugiiiseji the auttierity 
of our nature at every stage. Even in the lower experiences 
there Ue mliior valuer ; and as the acale of iiit«tligeiice uTid 
feeling rines, ^o higher vahiett appejir in the obji-rtivity thtTy 
indicate : the whole life of tlie npiiit is ftii ciiK^rieneeT wbii^h 
all aJniig its line, over it« wh<»le a.rea« i^ a]r«o ;t niiuiifi-HtHtioti 
of Reality ; every phase of the soul is within tlic compat^ 
of reli^ou^ si^iificaiice, 

Tlie rni^thtxl of intt^rprt^tntion of the ripirituid life which 
is now dominant Ib that known a^ the TranscmdenCaL It Ih 
new, and (iot new : it ha* gathered ^uggeacioiiM which hare 
Hppenrei] at varl<ni« tinier in the pa^t »tid ha8 ^ven them 
luiw ptjwer through il** explicit foi uuilatlou bj Kant mid 
liegeL Et b* now the miwt' juitenl tnstrninentof constructive 
and interpretative thougtit 

m] Philmophy^ an^i th^ Being of God 127 

A method of proof may he calM traTiecijndc^iital, in tho 
mmpljMt wny, when it^ort in made to a higher mptwre than 
that occ'ipled by !.hu thing \t\ 1h> rxplrtintf I, Ui n htptic'ri; wliith 
MurjMMtn it III I'arige or uxuelluiiLM^ VVl' iiiuy ex])l!iiii a i^IuIU'j^ 
hMitatiTe iiild1i|i[i<^iice hy refcrrhtg U* 1iiiniH.ii iiitt-rTligvncc iu 
niittunty, for example. But if no other «pbcrc ia known, 
indcpcndtTiitLy, tlivti we may tmjtiiro wbat aupiw^Mtiojirt or 
conditions or principloB are neoe^wiiry iu ordor th»t tho 
K|ih<-ru a]reiuly known may be poBi^iibl^. In the cat^e i>r our 
eipvricnce iu( u whole, what prhicijtleH arv reijuiivd in uriler 
that the experience tn»y Ix^ dcpendtrcl iipi^n for knowledge 
Hnd fur icniilunrt- '^ Tl ik otit? wuy of luj^wering UiIm <<ni|uiry 
to regnnl our highcMt coitccptioTm w^ aipalilt; i>f ci.inHtitutiiig 
an iiidr[irndeiit Hphurc uf kiiowledn^tv ^ith lUtiumlc Utvdftjr 
in someway dirat-tly correspondent U> it; but tliia ie Onto- 
lofiiMti, aci already indicated, 'llie 'JVatiHc^etideittal method 
repnrdvi tho hi^hcnt conception h im havtrn: conetructivc 
power, but aa operating in and through the lower funn« 
of inleUifcentej whkh, In turn, become fuJIy luinhiouH in 
and ihTOiigii the LighL^r^ mo thut the fiibrie of knowledge 
1m njimlltutwl by the eolklNjrHtitv jictivity uf hi^lier and 
kiver, fkW down the Rcale of intclligvncx^ At any |Kiint hi 
tlie m^o an ex[>ericfDCe is iUiiminativt- fur what Wvm {K*h^w it^ 
bat i« receptive of illumination from the ffto^e aIxitc lU and 
the ' proof of any one Ht&ge 1^ the exlnbition of thin double 
ftmctioTL With the highest iiloiu^ thu proof i& their eriDBtme- 
tive power, mediately or immediately, over the whole ^^\^ 
Our knowledge of a »yatem of forcet* working JiiiK'hunically, 
for exAinpUs hu« it^ tnith and ^ulue, but the value 1^ increased 
when we tum inv«il the HyNlem with leleo]<»gic4il iThanieter 
alao; lutd the value "f kiiowleilgi! rifiew fnillier when we thhik 
of the flvfitem wa constituted by eoiirtcioue* aieml)eTx If wr lake 
our experience ar< a whole the highcwt jdca* or principles arc 
'proTcd" by the total system of experience which ia or-dered 
by them, in which we may ^y that tikey are lutualii^ed or mmii- 
^tiod. They do not present Co u& the objects eorre^pondinff 
to thc'DiwIvcH ae exiting independently of the whole of the 
lower ran^ea of ol^eetv : they do not give us intuitive virion 

128 "^^'^banbrid^e Th^ofogimt Bsmy8 


OT carry ns into n tmrwctindcnt «phorc : th^v work in our 
intelligence and miae it to itA hi^lieet powers «inl Hot before 
<nir thfiii^tit a Heality cftjvihl** of ombmciiiK "11 the f<>rmH luwl 
modefl of being, A Mpc^citil form of tliU ohiini te iiisiflc by iboee 
who f<i11<it« Rant In couRnhiff their furc^e t^i Uie rvgtilttion of 
experience ill H WHY wSirh l«iv<.** lluin )k« fomiHl conceplioiis, 
tnental ronstnictious withoiii jKJWcr to conviiict: um of » 
Itcttlity whicb hru^* ^omethiiiK uiore tha[] t^xicitcnce for •». 
Thiri ifi different from tiic meaning of epirituni cxpcncnoc a^ 
lulvocatcHi ill our previous *ootion : there it Usa been tRkoii 
^ giving \\^ rt^ul Hitbit^cllvlty atul rc^al objectivity, fu^ir unfl 
)t^ life in prevtence and in cnminnnioi^ with other eelvesand 
UiiMT livo* for iJieuiwelvert. Tlii* objivrf.ivt* viiliflitv Ik tu^rc 
eljtimei) for the highi'Mt iik'Vu^ ax tmruBc^en den tally regarded. 
Find i>nr jHinitioTi i» that aa essential c-jnertituent^ of Agnrlt^ial 
exj>crience they are to be dei>endcd upon for giring ti* 
kn<>wle<lgc of Itcality. 

Among tluij^e highest tdi^a^ are Infiuityt Nccomit}', tMf- 
de termination, perfeet (Jo<>f]neflH, suinnied up in Spiritual 
I'crw:)rm]ity. Tranj^endentaJ IdeAlieiu inainTAinH that th4!W>^ 
ideas are itidi*|>LHi«ib}e fin't£)T>5 in the eonstruetion of our 
eK|n*rii*nrt" nnri th4*rt>fiire »how yu iiociwuiry cYmHtitiii^iitm of 
the nature «f Eteality. 

Wc iifH-d lint Xtv-Vt idalHinilr thn pnicru,'*** by whii'h tllOW 
idenn are brnnght into c'Xplicitne«4 : the now familiar lle^liaji 
'logic' of Uic movement of thought is before the wi>rld, anil 
though at points Ntuncwhat forceil hcyomi jtfl w<ipo, it had 
no competent rival ; for indeed it is only a elariflealion of 
the result ofmneb intoJWtnid InlKiiir of pant thinkerM. That 
wc know aitythtng to have boundanett or liniiui U only the 
[Nirl of a thnnghtv aji it were, luid aiiiill]<?r ]>art ix the i^)iH(Tncti 
of liiniti,^ in il^ ultimate fiinn, a iirgnlivi^ infinity : bnt 
neither doe^ thia eoniplet« the thcmght : the eoniplete c»n- 
ecption in that of a iwhitivo iutinity, of whirh the finite ift a 
etins'tittK.iit marked ont of it, or within it, by the liniita wc 
discerned. And wo for the t*'mpoml within eternity, the par- 
tienlar Hpace within the infinite space, the luiriienlar degree 
of quality within tiie indnite qmdity, tlio contingent wilhia 

PhVomphy, and thfr liewff of God 

UiG nocoBeary, the dctcrmiiuition or choice wbidi U only a 
rclnttvo froo<t(>iii witiiiii absolulcT ni'lf-tletenniiiiLtioii, tho 
relative good within »Ewoliit« goiA^ and in mim. finite epirit 
within infliiite spirit 

Looldng Tiow Ht the highc^rt wpficix* ktuiwii to us. the spirit 
of iimii, ImiHi til itKiivMliiiil life, nnd rii (.-imiiruinitv, v/e find 
UihI it j*r«»ic[it« Uni-W RhsnyA mt tlu' T*ide oF the firiik^ mid 
iU curi^eiiens : wt (^iiiiiii iJunk of hitniiu) Hplrlt an Mfilliiig 
any rif those cinnpMcd idciw; ptT-fection in itpplicnbk, but 
oii]\ in rctfhtioii to n liniitod idctvl ; that ia, we canTkot think 
thnt man Is ii coiii]i)ot^ uml tiltimjit.o ECt.Hihty. 

No tin8ophiiHticnu^i reflection reports oth or wiac. Hpiritual 
aa maoA nature is, in a]I il^ pha^e^ it ha^ tht; ninrks of 
6nHtL4le njK>ii it. The K<?ries of idoiu which for o^invenience vti 
may cM the funriN nf ilie liiflniu* he dots not apply either 
Vi IdiiiHtdf €>r f^> others like liimst'lf; Ji.iid vf't thr ■eri*y* frf" 
idcfui i» there* iiecfssary for the complete ordering of hta 
thoughta for tho iiiterpretatioTi of hin cxpeneuc^ Wh&t 
other c*iurst> is pcw^ibJe, therefore, than U) rcia«^l liimBoIft 
together with the«e finitnd^, ae living within a Reality 
wbieli !iax the whole «eriee of foruifl of the Infinite us ita 

And thin attHbutum we make In two dlroetions — to the 
flitprrtnc ObjtH:! of our thinight in front of uh. and al«o to the 
wiprenie Snbjtx^t lM.diiiid npi, a» il waiv. In IhHIi direetiorw 
vc know oiireelves at Suite, limited in oiir l.hiiikiog and 
acting, and Hndtt^d in the objects we grasp with onr tliought 
luiil in the cliniiicoe we produce by onr action ; we remove 
the liiniti^ but thiLt in only net^xtivti^ giving no re^thi^plaoe; 
and i<o we pcuw in tlie idea of an inHnite c^bjeet before n& nnd 
an inlltEile ihlnkliit; ai-'tivity bthind ua: and tliat unity of 
mibjecl'objeet which we find in otn-selvvfl we think to exist in 
the hiflnite alufj. We plaee ouraelpe* withhi this Infinite : w« 
n*i£HriT oiirarlvcH sik |uirtieii> in Win r.hiiikhi^ tmd nwxre 
of objnrt^ Hhiili nrt- prt'hent in Hw thought- The fmt that 
we «tand looking upon objects at all is explained by the ftiet 
that they are I lis objects by whcwe activity of thought wo 
tJiifik at all. We ftppruhend, in onr mode and our de^ee^ 


Cambridfff^ Thmiogicfil E»tiaff» 


vitli Hi** appreheDaion, we have oar know]edp;e cbrou^h the 
knowleflge or Him vr\\%\ kiKivrn uU. In Hlnixrlf. Ixnti^ Inlliiittf, 
the iil«*nti(.v \it ulijm^L aimI siilywrL i?t uM^iitt'il : H*t knoWH 
nil thut cxirttM, mill hII Umt oxii^U in tbikt wliicb He krmw«; 
He known Uimaelf : otbeni€«A had no place. Aelf-cniiMUoitsncm 
IS ab«ohit« in Him. It isi on this line tli^it we cnn pn>c<JO(l 
to cetablish tho whole Hcrice of attributo^ on the 'infliiito' 
«Kde of oar aeriee : ii«oe«iilty, substantJaUi^, neircauftoJUy, 
goodnceSf love: summing up xhvi w)i4>lc oh Ititinito Spirit 

In thiti procedm-e liave we gone beyoiiil ottr imtuiiceiideuEal 
mcthdd ? havr wt^ 1]i|>Mt.Hl iiit^i MyAtiriMin ufWr i^ll J If wc; 
L-laiiii Lit hnve pi-cived Tiiflriit4> ^piiil. Imvi* we dime what we 
«iiiil wc: winiUI not lUi^ t:latnied iuUiitinttnl kmiwlril^t: of the 
Tranaccfidcnt'/ hare wc tried to bring Eternal itohig withia our 
finite ct^ikHciou^ecw i By no tu(?an& U'c^ Iiavo ntiidc nu cbini 
tu know Him a? Hl' xb for UiniMdf: wo have clnimefl only a 
mediatol knowledge with finitude aa th« uii'dium : and our 
l>r]Ticiple obligef* utt never to leav<? out that mediating ar«ft. 
W*^ may say thai wt^ Imve knowledge '/ Him. or nUmt Him» 
but DiiH ih not the name a» direct kiujwki)^^ Wc- nee Him 
through onrm^Urj« and through our worlil, Ihith of widoh, in 
separation and together, the thought of His presence r^ftdeiB 
fiiteliitciblo to onr thought, Jiit^ activity rend<]rd powitdc to 
onr puwern, nnd }li« love rcndorft adimrai>le to onr nfiectionii: 
in His Pereonality we hnvo our pergonal being. 

In tht^lu^ienl tt^ruiK ihia iimy be expre^ed by «aying 
that He both revt^le HimM-dfand withholdn Hunftdf frmn ihp 
nitellig^enec of created ephitrt. Tlie PituthHt4iii which h}i«tak» 
<m]y of inimanenee in iiieijl-, for the finite t'^nnot exhaujU 
infinity, and wc know infinity aa tlie mark of the eerica of 
nttributes which belong, not Ut um iind tho world, but to Qod. 
Beyond the finite ser[<te, in every direetioti, so to spoaJc 
estende the infinite, in behig, in power* in goodne««. 'Hiere 
may be other wDrldn than oum atuI other selves than ount, 
but they too would all fiill wltldri the sphere of God. and by 
iin extension of iJiern imn wi? eonrrive that Uiey are coinim?n- 
surnte with lliin. And na in mir knowledge of God we may 
aay that we know Him ^e^ imniantnt and believe in Him aa 

m] PhiUinoj^hy, atitl the Beinff of 6od 131 

tranflc«ndeiiL The tmii»:eiiiieitt&l method conHrnifi what 
pmroaiid HJkd coniprelieTiaive religiouii nyatenia have more 
ur \vrw e\|>]irit1> aFtsiimt^E or tJikGii tw intuitive, that man is 
ill Uic prrKctict' i»rGii(]. iiui\ tlijit the vrorlil Ik Hlr- vri^rld^ and 
yet that there in a »ci\av Ui which man thinkn of Hhn witliout 
JcDo^'iiijc Him, und nicditat^b upon Him a^i Iai' ejicecding all 
that the finite nuiid. cxi^un^ivc and progi'csaive though it be, 
OCUL over n>u]iKC. 

We have been uftitifi the terminoh>gj' of lnU^M(>ct : hwkmy 
towiLniN Ulc lutiiiitt Spmt afi th^ tmnscerdental piinciple of 
tbc iiiCelUglbilUy of expeHence, and «f it^ vulidiLy, Rut the 
utt-iTiixl U ;Lp|i1iaili1e mi llio uihtr ptiiiJ^e^ af our Npiritiia) life. 
It U iiidi.-<^1 iJii tin? <.-lhiL'nl piidc of lifL^ that hoiiki trajL8c<?n- 
dentaliHtH dud a mirer ground than tlie^y do on the iutrllcctii/U 
side: hut withcint nibiiig any qucstkm of prcferciict? wc may 
proceed to iiidJcthto Uie mode of inference from our life aa 
oonitciDUidy aiinini; at idoiU ^oodtiet^ Tuking t)u' ic*>^A] om 
the aim of our activity and oui^elvce ati endowed with ireudom 
to choose and to act for ourselves^ we find here alao that the 
tnuiMenHlontHl int.^(h4M| givr^^ iim i>nr phihii^ipli^. Ilowrvifr 
iniicb wiri^om:elvL*finrMd\'eK, ajifree inourat^tioii for good, here 
iigiiin th(? mark uf iinltndr is ohviuun. Wc do not nit»n tliat 
wc find ha^inesfi or evil, but that in our normal, our humanly 
peffuct dhictil aitivit)', the ^ood we aim at roitiainn plaiidy 
finite, related etrielly to ourselves. This limit wc think 
removed, and wa think of ^ood after ^o^xl atretehin^ forth 
in oiMtle*w uiTit^'tA. rhtjii we move forward ugain and reJicTi 
a positive idea of goml ari infinite, peHVct. absolnte. Thi» 
1m ki for tlie ubjeLlH we aim at: and in tliu oilier direction, 
for onrnelviTi ha active spirits seeking good, our froe-tiom 
is known to tin ii» limited and variable; and cxpanatvo a« 
the energy of the soul nmy be, wc neither fiiid cmrgekea 
omnipotent nor do we deairc to be ho, and we think therefore 
of a negittivu and limitleaB freedom, and then, behind that, of 
an infinite self-detennining acti ve spirit- Here again we pliiee 
wirselve^f and the wiiole Hpu'ittial world within tlte s^phere of 
the Infinite Spirit We are fi'ee with tlie jjower Hv enlniHtA 
to u«, imd our good Is good beamiw it i» included iii the 



Cambridge Theological Essays 


utwnluto uod, thnt wlucb |>roccc<iE4 fruui uiul c^prowcA the 
(^d pleaiture of God 

llu* nlM>v^ I'thiciit ixwSt.Snii hftn been «Ui1ei) apart from 
Hedonhm: as it is sliiU'il alike by those who rej^rJ giKHli](?>B< 
as u OiU^ivy Iti wlileh Feeling U at lemit nnt pr^niLii^erir^ ftnd 
hy f.hnne wlu> r<.gHr«l il n>* ^i i'ateg:iirj to whirli Fwltng &t 
nlt*igetl»«r alien. But the 'ngoriftm* of the aiithoritj' of the 
Moral Law> of the utwoluteiieiis of Utght, "f Dwty fur Dutt't 
Mike. U not now in favour: nor even the iaolntioTi of *Cjood- 
iiewH* as a wliollv iiKteiK-iutent witeffory. To each of these 
pcwitioTm the TrHnF;cL*iiiLcntiLl inelliml inuy be appIic^aMe. Biit 
neither of them is the ethical view which we an? endeavouring 
to inteqirL't hert?, a» has Iteen iiiitimUHt iti (.he fmtline iif 
hilinai] nntnre already nffcrtxl. In the conception c»f the ^vod 
the satisfaction of Feeling is inclndefl; our good niust bring 
itM pi-ftce and joy. Yet Feeling has itw own u^pijc-t and \l 
requires wine ("onsideration for iti*elf Cdn the Imnrtcnn- 
dental apitheeie be ai>plied to Feelinp f The difficulty lies 
in the purely subjective uhurncier of F<*eliny;: hcix' objectivity 
is lo^tv the Horil rettrt^ into it* own bcinf^^ all means of 
acemiii ix\ the otbemirHs of objective Reality xeem Taj he 
prec-1iid<iL Tlii!4 is mi, and tf wi? ineiin only Ferling in iiltrn- 
pnrity of paiwiTe cpjoymcnt it cannot oifer a datum fi>r tlila 
fnetliod. or for an> other. But bi our experientro Foelinff i». 9M 
we huvo *oen, n Hubjoctivc necorupunimcnt or aspect of a state 
of mind which aa a whole ineludeK some knowled^^e aitd noinv 
neth'ity: tlie objectivity niUHt h^ k!unigbt iu theMv und from 
them tlie inference tAy ReaUty muBt be ma'le^ But when It Im 
^int4*d that we have TnHniti.' S[i1rit a?; Helf-e^^nsefnim nnd as 
self-^lctt-nnininf^, v\w\ we infercntially carry over Feeling bito 
tliat Rt-rdiiy tir not 'i If we can, it U clear that we iiniAb. And, 
surely, wc can. For if Feeling is the expression of our life, ut 
our vcr)' being, on the finite side, on what ground can we 
juFtify onr leaving; it on onr eide without correspondence on 
the otbor? If the finite stnrit enjoys the limited life in wliieb It 
manifesto It^lf, the lefritimate inference U that Infinite Spirit 
too rejt>iee« infinitely in Hin o\w\ perfect life. 

But thik Em nut the wliole cEtac for Feeling. Wo huve sevn 

111^3 Phiii^jiopk^t and the Being of God 133 

Uutt purely pakutve Feclliig ia not the whole, tlmt Feeling ban au 
o»tg'>ing oin?rjjj, sticking tJie rtwptijiwj o*' like Fi.vliiig in the 
oUwr-Uihij-diii'Ht^IvtM: thbl aiiurngr^t finite ripiritiml IwIiikh love 
guufl out Uy inot^t lovii (Xiiiiiiig \v, lovi? Jiiiriwmn^r t^r ]ijvt\ and 
tbat it IS in Mm reciprocity that oiu- cuivtional life atlaiiK^ its 
helicbt At the very height of aH'ection, howt^ver, tiiiitudu atul 
ratrictJOD are n^in impresr^eil upon ur;: w«^ feci fture that 
ive could love mere and receive nioro love were our imtures 
greater: we e^tiiiot l>c »itiMfi<HJ thtit love >ilkou1d reiimiu 
batind and eou&ied either la our^^elveti cr to the whole 
worhi: Burely, theu, hcf'e almi we iiiilv reumvc thr 1xiiitHlHi'K!ii 
firwl, and the[i \jen^ on to tlie afHUi^in'o that there iti ah 
all'(>er vadium infiiaite oinJkipregeiiL'e i>f Leve, ma wtdl aa of 
Jkiiiic iind (d' L'owt-r. If kiiowkd^c Jind nctivity Imvc ruwurcd 
Dfl ef Infiaite Spirit as aUkiiewinjc and mi^hty^ we may trust 
tJie iuipnlse ef Feeling that He \s tdc^i iniiiiiLe Ltive. And 
€«poL"iHlly with rGg:«rd lo onr iiuion with Him: wo Rtid our 
bejn^ lo be grounded in Hia Being, oar activity to be the 
CJEprofiHiim of Tlis Powit: hut, \\\v uiiinii in (.NktmitMiniak^d iti 
tlie recLprocit}' ^>f lc»ve from u^ ti\ Mini and lovo fnjiii Him to 
QM. A»d MJ we root and ground all h^vu in Hih own K>ve Eitr 
lIimM:lf: even iu levinj; uti He Iovca Hiui^clf in ua, nnd wc in 
krvinif Him hut re^fruduce tlmt h>ve. Our own love to one 
ftaothor linda, if not its i^priutf in the order of appuaraueo 
in onr life-history, asaiirodly it« ultimate t^round and &ial 
eouGntuttlon in our love of 0«d. 

Dun.* phihmi>|»hy mid theologj' 0|>t<nly atler tti innnkind 
H di^nial tliJii. Fi'L'lio^ Iwlonip* Ut thii liiHnite Spirit '< |[» Uiero 
not nn irr('prr»wi!>lt' dcrmind hy hunmnity for a Keality 
which nhall 1>e infbdtely loving ? Let it be »^id opoidy th&t 
philoMiiphy hiu^ no phicc tiir lovg in tho nitimate Rea]it>, and 
nitii will turn to the lower sphere of the litiitc, and findiuji; it 
ikcknowleil^ed there, they will leave i»liiloHophy to tho nchoidt^, 
tu they havo often dene ixfoi-e, not least in Kiigland i[k tho 
oeiilury ffoue by, ax the hixlory itf our uiiivensitieH— of 
Ciiinliridgt^^ in pHrticulnr — pnjcbdtnM. And for tliw»logy. u» 
& gL'Tionil int4.'rj>rt-tHlion, tliere U the eiHiiif.' neivMHiLv. To 
OhriALian tlioology it hua^ indeed, been itiLiKwiible to wander 


Cambridge Theological £mj.ys 


far fhim the conviction thnt Lore ib of the csBence of Divine 
Nntuiv : Imt there have been times whe» men have pro- 
rlaiintn] evun tlie Giw[ii?l with inteUet-tuHJ Hurt stonily rigiiruiiji 
Rtliinil dcni<Mit*i aw it* prtintiiK'nt Fv''j*tiirt«. For iiiMtnncx^ 
men have *olcc(e<i fioio Butler his grave niood^ when be 
ponclorc'l ovt>r the Divine (■ovcnimciit and I'rol>ation and the 
rifforoua ' authority' of CoTisciencrc Auri Imvc failed to ol)ftorve 
that hin eomjirubenuit'c mind cotilil not Hir;iill»w in niixii the 
natunU liglit to rejoice in 'eelfdove,' but found the nltimate 
priiHIepe to be \\\» love of God and the tiltimato attribute of 
i^tttd ht 1m? iJml. }lt- ix Itivtv 

liking Feeling as etitorin^ intu the detemdnation of 
Ooodnc»n wc trtt the complete Hphere of 'Ktliicd.' the (lood 
and the- BeautituI, and we ujidcrplimd thi; man who dirtctirt-ring 
the r&w of Ute Lord n^joitM/e therein as one thut tindcth ifrcat 
e|>oile, and in meditatinp^ tliereon day and night exporiencea 
hifi sunl'M dc;light. 

Tnin«eenr.lent»l method a^applied to the 'got^d ' and tn 'lovo' 
htw wiHi rtupjH^rl ttvnn hi nuaiten- where it i» \\ol regsinh-d 
n* rrijirrnt. Pir 'etiMtenre' intollcrtiiftllTp" conceived, l^thic-al 
"fheiatn hafi wider *n|j|K>rt tlwn Hp«iulat4ve Theism ; belief 
in C-^mI iw t>crfect GiKidnes?*^ and in the world as in itt* normal 
character ci'cotod and midntained to mfi.nit'c^t Hi^^ excellencee 
and exprew Hii^ good pleasure, aainmlA.'K many bouIb which 
are umihlo tn ailidii eertitndt^ by morane of the demonetration 
of *«.df'W^n^ioiu wpirit Kant* conrwe \x\ thU reapert ^reaUy 
impresHed the ninrt'(^<iith n.^ntnry ; unrl nvon after the con- 
titmctive inlelleetnAl movement, sufficiently dL'Ni>rta(t^d am 
Hegelian, imt ii few have I'everled Ut Kant and liikeri their 
stand on the validity of trunecendentati«m a» interpretative^ 
of oar ethical nature alone. Ethit^l Kealinni in phihn^opliy and 
Ethieal ThdMni in theolog)' hail a in"eater volume <if »'n]>port 
SB the nineteenth century closed than the Realism and Theij»n 
which was Ixith 'S|H*euhitive' umi Kt.hitul ia it* i^tnicturc. 
lint thiminghgoing TranHcendentalism haH not failed lo find 
powerful ailviH^aj^ : and v/t*. may hope to »iee phihmophy juul 
tbeoloi^y winning !iack the nnnds oF men by eshiliiting not 
only pure Being, nor Almighty I'uwer, nor Eternal IjAW. but 

m] Philoiophi/, arid the Beinff of God 

the InliTkitc Spirit, in whose love* Tor Himself fli*ftt, arid then 
for tlnw^T whom lU^ \\m cftllcd niti> IxiiiiTi <iit*n fin-l their life 
in all ltd phA^es both crounded and coiieuinmated. 

>>o fiir WG have been interpreting huiimn nsktiire primarily 
wi hidivuhml : (here reininiiM fi>r ennMidenitioii the M<.>ri'.>logy 
of human natui<e. Our daluni f» Hpiritiial l>eingti hi coin- 
itnimtv, knowhig imr- nncitlic^r. luirtiei pitting in lurtit^i for 
common good, and united bj rccipi^ocal aHectiona. What 
ia the hiteri>re^fj^»^ <*^ tliUt 

Th'o problem* require treatment in the interpretJition of 
the spiritual eommunity: (il the poftaibUitj of the reciprocal 
Inlemctioii of tht? nK^mU^rH, and (ii) tlit) nnity of the whi^lc 

(i) First, for interaction. Individual epirit we took to 
be Im|ien«irali1e ; tin? imix^rviixwiiewi, the inwardnt^M, thu 
inaectvtflibility of tike E«df is rfire1> cpie^tioned— *' imporviitua 
in a fashion i^f which the ini;>enetrabi1i(j~ of matter in a faint 
iiualutcue* ' rvivf* i^nifessor Pringle-i*iittisoiK Interfvetioi) only 
becomes concdvalilo l»y rcfercnyo t*> ii common conaciouencss 
in whii'h we aie all grounded^ fto to epcok ; a oornmon 
source of kmiwleilKt* *iud ^f wtivityn if when I poas into 
aume mode of ccnflciou^neM lliero te a chan^ iti a common 
c>niuri<iiiHiir^ tlu'ii all other Mpirii-Fi within the range of ap- 
preetatitif; Llmt diangLi uill be awaiv uf (he ehan^e in mcv 
Wirelw* tulexraphy lm» j^voii iiw an analogue in the (ihjjiical 
worhl in which the ether \n tridiepenattblc for conimuntcatiou : 
Loixe haa. wiili hia master^' of both phvaical science and 
tf|Hntuiil, claimed that in neitlKT cphL^ru can lEitcniction bo 
conceived without reference to a common ground of being. 
For intoraetion of F<piritiial beiugft, the guidhig law that the 
concluinon of an inference inuHt lie within the fiainv materia] 
In lEHtuit? an the prtrniiNe iir preniiK^H, t-(jiii(ielFi our inference 
to a Tvpirttuai conwiour^nervt aj« the ntxxjwaiy gnnimr of its 

But (ill we have to nccouiit for the unity of the universe, 
& single view of the niitltitude i>f bcinga who constitute ilfi 
hiidMwt Unitti mimtfixtJition, We have found tbateaehiwlf iitu 
unity in all its cxpc^rienees: and that each hna a conviction that 
there is a corTe*pondini;f unity hi the world of objeeta, at the 

136 Camhridye Ttieoiogical EsMiy» [rrt 

hl^e^ : ti*t t1]<^ M^ir rc^nln tlie comnmnity itH % iiniu\ 4 wliuli? 
ivtUiiii wliii'h it lia^itolife. Butcachaelf in its fiiiitudciHairarG 
that vrhftt it knowH <:if the whulo it« only Uie >f bole an it apjxNirH 
to ibidf ; it id nut a world so much ns ii world-view ; luid im> 
wc have Ti^ n»ui>- world- vicWH, ao iimiiy myriadu of fatx-t^ 
rdcoffuiflcd oe there arc impenetrable Bpiriu. Hvtt if nui^ 
\% to bo objective there imiat be some eubjeci to which U Li 
objectii'~e: the tiiiit} mii8t )>e fi>r mn\e ainglo mind. And 
M ft world of actiTiiles* there must «uiiilarly lie flome 
Bein^ in which the m^tit^itifv nr<7 ceiitiiilizt'd. T\\%*. unity of 
the world ttioii rui)iiire»i tht; tranaccndeata! iiifci%iiee to 
a Mimmiic Spiritn^l llcbifc whose uiiivenie it trt, tind witbiii 
wbi>J!ie nature tlie individual unite Icnow and act So for 
Tiicotogy; ttio universe ia the object of the vUiuu of (ivd, \tn 
weU-boinic ie the cx]>refwion of Hin will tor ^ood 

TIlo Hiniple^t counter -interpretation i» a theory of absolute 
^Pluraliiim'; aeeurdiii^ lo thi^ the idLinmte Reality Piay ike 
tiwj (vitality <^i iiidividmd npiritH In tlirir community : it may 
Vie a unity of ayKLem, where thei'c is uo centra, nc |))m?e fitr 
tiir- ^ittributtfjii (>f (^»uH4:i(>ur<nc*w exeejit to thr? cooitUlucnt 
unite. Thi« c^nix'ptiiJti hiM ci>iiic into Invour of late, and bide 
fiur to attract fuKhor eupyKirt. it presents the pliiltmophy 
of spiritual ifun ni a fonu cun^onbit to the ertr-increiiiiinjj; num- 
bers of «oeio)ngicHl workers in the empirieal sphere. It alao 
finds welcome from th<:«ie wln> ri-tfiird tht* etbiod iiidividnn] 
uri the iwMvntiid unit, unil i\\v. t-nntmLUUty of ethically acting 
individuals &» i\\v. iiltlamie fonu of Imutanity. And it hiM 
rtx:civc<l rtu impotnn by bcinff prcwnfccd m the true iuao 
of Ilegelianiaui—whctlier uitemled by Htfgtl or not — in 
the ittudiCjf of Ih' Mc'lHiciciLrtp who hokln that the Abeolutc 
is not a jKirsoTi, not cooscIoup, not o monistic bcinjs tor it*ielf 
in A centi^l ws^y, but a divine crity, a Hpii-itual colk^e, a union 
in which the unity ia resident In tlie niemlieni, und rii«e« to 
c(iTiHc'i(»U)4n«^t4 only in them, Aud iwi thtxilogy flis^ippeni^ : 
plnhn^rphy fiudn i(H lIum- in i:iiKiaio|o>;) . 

The conditioiiit f(»r idtimnte Pbindi«ni woul<l aectn to be 
{D an the nnita arc Etnite. it mu^t be their tiuiniM-r which Ie* 
finit4^ ; aud (^J eiu;h uiember uf the iutitiitely uuiuerouo ayvtcm 

m] PhUo$ophy, mid (he Being nf Gvd 

tDUKt hAvc A fixed diamut4U- mid inU'iiKity ASt being, it mugl 
be perfecrl within lU limite. and iiluavH pt^rfect, Le. clian^^leNa 
Hni] t^L«muL Titi? ALiHulul^ Ruulil^v isati intiiiiLy of fiiiilrKpiriU, 
cHch jA-rferl niid cl^^niaL II11H tliei>i'}' 1i>im In iU f^vuiir 
tluit it ^ftTerTi tu pruvirle fur Ixith tlit' iiiiinitc and the fnnt,c, 
ftnd fur system ; and also for epirituality. ench member Ix'lLig 
coiciiitive, active, and emotiorml, and \)f McTiw^^rL dmww 
out a^ the ulliiiuitc i^rtuu thnt it tiiidB ttie supin^ino and 
dominating; eharaoier of Reality to Iw Lovev That it la easy 
to €uijnvct nioi) a>i Uu* Ji|»iritii»1 K'lnjfit wrr know \^'itli thtMC 
eternal and perfect bein^ caiiTiot be mid : tjut we muut nut 
regard thiK cthji^rtitm uh futnl, iiince no tl»<4jry MuiretNU in 
setting' liinikitn r»tUirt< in id! the fxiniLTt^U^n^^Mt nf our Hfi? in 
tJi« OKidittoMfi ijf Uukc mid |j|iU:u aud di^|rt-|iduJH:o I]|kj]| liiHlily 
orgMlianu in I'uIIy luminous rciatioii to its <»aenc^ a« spiritual 
pMvoiiality. It iH >\ith tbc otmctitial foatni-es and Uicir 
JDlCrprotatioii thiit ptiiJti^upJjy he^ to (ii> ltd work. 

But Unitary Spirituali^iu opponea pluralistic dpirttualiBm 
becniittc thjpt ottVrv inade^iuiite rea(K>n8L' to thut ilt^immd fur 
infltiity which wc h^Lve cUiined to 1m.^ inherc'nt in the upintual 
ctinHcioiiHiiewtv We cannot W-'tept tlku oiler of an Indidty t»r 
nriiidjrr iddtif; ttJ« Ni|.i?^f>in;Lr t.hii^ deni;ut(l : wr need inlinity In 
countxiou witi] ever) ultimate category of our spiritual lifo- 
F<»i" the uitviC"i7 *>f" l»*?ing, wu muet have n 'unity of ceutro ' da 
well lift ci' unity of flyMtcm'; a central i^pirit from which all thiito 
spirits i8<iio a»^ difi'eruiitiHtion^, in which they continue, and 
tlkroii^h whic*h alone they can enter into ftyi4ew at alL A|)art 
from thi^ ceni.rai Personality the unity of iDeing cxUt^ oTdy 
I6r tlie ciauLituent nieudrerM, and ix therefore only an infliille 
repetition of idt-»A of a ityAteuu And MoriiMtic >4[nritual!Mn 
6ii<l» in ail inlliiiL^^ pluridi&ni of finite i^juaU no »att^tac'tion for 
the deiaaiid for i[ilintty in goodn^a^* iutd love, which wc found 
to be made by our tinitc cniotional, nnd ethical nature* 
A eoiiunutiwoidth <if L'Hiuals all tiiiitc would loave \\n with 
onnwlvtM— prei^iiiuini^ that it \a we who are thene perfect 
«ptrltM* and if we in^iy not ai^ttiinie tlii^ tlie theory isi all 
in the air — mi j^ood as anyone eiHe, with no one Iri^hind 
Uri at idl, luid no Hn|>crior in front of \x%. Ilie term ^alHJve' 

138 Cambridge Theohffiaal £ways [ra 

is Abolished : the DnWrr«c although mfinifoM to infinity 
would, to use a metaphor, spread i>ul before us U8 a lev**l 
expanso coiibiinin^ no oiiu more worthy than oiir«;lve«L 
Kither w& Are all av gods, whereas it is the mark of wisdom 
for ii« t^i prefer to be nieu ; or i'Ur, then- lu'e iu> koiIm, and 
reverevKre. and wor^^^iip^ anf) tite iipwaiil i<iok mii^t be vnuli- 
catnl ri'iim oitr nutrirc, MiiniMir H|firilTmlte^ii funU it U* be Uie 
nature ot'nian to be linite ill all the' pha«cf^ of hi» bcinc: : it k^nds 
no eiicouraiceniont to the au|>prewion of hh inherent scuao of 
dependence: but it consccrateB it by ahowinjtr hirn Iritinii© 
Spirit, and Inms it ft-om a feeling of oppi-et^ion to a feeling of 
pnitcmnd joy and peace In the cuniitjencc of hiLVintc in every 
diiv^etum infinite iiml almighir fiup|x>rt. For mm it i>* health 
and wealth to know onixelvtK ui In* m i<kiil eiu^h of nn an 
ivrf\4\ti4i. but with a r^\a« <l(.^finefl in mco[)c and an cxoellenej? 
[in>jH-r 111 timt scopp. litdT>6T]tU? pro^rtwHivi-iiKfw in ihe enrich* 
mcnt of our nature by internal development wc look for, bat 
neither in the preacnt life nor in the conanniniation in life 
ctemni <lo wp a-?pire after the removal of all )imi1#s miidi lew 
after attainraont of intiuity* Mnn includes in hia thought of 
infinity the ivH^^^cnitiun of ul)sohtt» exoetlenee ; in hie ethical 
nature lie is obwlient only to a better than hinieelf, and only 
HO niiiM lie U^ fnn- ; jinil at the root r»f his love must tie the 
xliiHihil^noM of (lio l»v<- Ui which liiu own re^^pondK 

We Imve dwelt at sii»nie length on llie rhi.H.iry of a riuraliftt 
Absolute because it ee€ni» to be likely to win noine fkvour in 
the preisent teni|>er of pliiloBophy. It mAk<-?< inn eh of 
element'? which have been negflectcd by advocator of a 
Unitary I'cr-Bonality. By its rei^ognitioii of jiociality it 
oDcupitM the field lyin^r Ktwecii the two poK^ of finite 
and infinite Spirit, too often left en^pty. altlioU|j;li it does flo 
h}- ijenyhig the hiflnlle |><ile nnd ranging an>inid the other 
the whole Hjihrre of alwolnte reality : in an a^- which 
is thinking iwcially thir^ may Iw miire ronj^'etiial tliaji the 
firet-mcntioTied ivirtiftl method which is ewcntially indi- 
pidufdiNtic. Unt, more important Mtill. it is a protest on 
behalf of Huitude and dillercntintion ai;}tin.-;t the Munkncm of 
Eternal Eaaence. For the time now before ua tbo aigne 

m] PhUosophy, and the Being of God 

prc^a^ An tnc<re4U4e of the influonoe ct OHoiitnl t}u>iip:tit ^n 
tho mind t^f tbo w<irM: it is not M sJl lilcdy that th« 
coiiiiiit^nt tendency of the thought of ni}llion» of deeply 
rellwtjiig hmiiiin boiiifj^M will be withnnt effect jih Wi-nleni 
jioopleri (-[line [iMre wifliii it4 mngc. Tlkc pHrillit'iHiii of 
Uiiivenml Ekseiice l>efore M'hicli all fitiituilee are tranAitiirv 
tUo^oriB is a faith of ma^tnive impre^^veneaa for miiidit which 
have appreciated the im|>cnuaii€ii<;c not only of tliinga 
bat of persons, and the flux of chnnii:i<« which wc ea!! the 
march of hiHtorj'n In spite of protosfrt, KaatemH are claimir^ 
tlu*t .Spijiozit, Berkeley, S< hlelei-maeher, K^liit^d their strength 
frnm cnmiti^ nrar the light of Rinthdsm. ITicrc will. th<?re- 
6»re, be a Htiv>Ti;c nf^tvM^if^y Titr ihi^ WesU-rn nilitd to reNt^L rUirt 
inov(^ii.-ht in i}}^^ mU*n:*i <»f l'en*owdilv, aiiid Ui rcawii^rt 
Tchcmently ihe claim of sorni? realily for the Finite, In t\m 
way i'hinilifitic th<-f*rirs m'iII ounmcnd ihctiif4tlve& Iliit it is 
to ^ to the oppf.tsite extreme to elaini the highest poAatblc 
plaee for the UnitAi niiiidK, to pl^e them in their liinitcfl 
perfection at the wnmmit of pnAHiMe \mh^^ In Monistic 
SpJritnaliBni. wliieh rei^rds tbiite tipirii^^ sa derivative and 
created, existing within the Divhie Hpirit, we have n philo- 
miphy vf llinn:in Natnre which refiE^t-w to reliiifjijinh its 
bMo and vet which Hdvam:e« to a tiuw of R*^alrt> that lnjtli 
inchidcA mul trHiiacenflH it It HToid« the niiufltcr track on 
which sclfliood is lo^t, and the f<piritnal eonimiinity di»ti>tvcd, 
ftnd it it* piiteetecdwith innitt^- wmliiiunec in the rciility of the 
finite in ite meagiire- But it ie assured in its confidence 
that the True»the G<Mid, nnd (he I^^Hiitifiil tninwrerd these 
meiiMureH and are in their perfection cbaractei'a of tnliiilte 

Tlic jilwi nf Phtliwophy %TitnMt regimling finite beingn as 
the ultimate conetttuent^ uf Ttealtty ia plainly endorsed hy tlie 
nttitnde of Tteli^on. Relipoui^ thought in ite dcTotion to 
(jod cotiB6cratCH humility; the tn'eat religiourt unite in thiM, 
itnlcHft we ftre to except lliiddhi«ni, but oven bo the exception 
10 not so extensive as it appears, for it is only to few that 
rigorous Baddhigm hats been a reli^on in sole flway. Over 
the wi<le field of hnnmn himory the senye of humility preaents 


Cambridge Theological E»sayH 


itni'lf lui tlie tiniL nUi^e in the ivli^iou^ lifer: Daiitv m the 
rcprcsciiCifttivc of bummiky when he makes Paradise bcHpn 
with the huuLh whit^i hiive aa tht^ir Hcit; virtue tlu^ fipirit of 
rufigimtiutk anil cont^iitmcnt >nth whvit their own othturc 
Deeda. boamsu tlicy recuijjuiHt tliat the UiniU bowovor narrow 
lire orduiiitxl by a higher authi>rity: they vruy 

*' ft In l>ih4>Toiit ill ihM Jtlnt^k 
Of blcModncM t<? keep oUTBoIvoa within 
Thii TrIvlTio idll, hy wliloli oar wllk w1i1» HU 
Aro ono," 


Chrietiaii philosophy, indood, is not completed without a 
rccofniition of Plurahty within Unity iu it» liiuiL conocijtiou 
of the UodhcatI, by it* docthiit? iif t>ud a8 H«jly Trimty* It in 
one ot tht* liLtidiuarkA in the hih^tury of Kurufxian tbougbt 
thttt spt'culative inference to (.wscntinl dJ^tinotionM within tiio 
MoniHticr iiHture of K^raUly waj iu.tiv« whtn Uit* ijine wuni^ fijr 
cunstru<;tin^ it Cliri^timi Thr»higy, It wib4 u timr wbrn 
OrieriUtl devotion U> unity wha u|Kimtivu hi iTonihinHijun Mitb 
clcar-«^ht«^ recognition of 4ti11'ercincc«, in the >k'Iio*>]h of 
WcHtcn* Asia and North Africa. The precise ahai-c« in tiw 
funnulatioii to bo afMti^iic^l to the CH>tnprohi5nHiveuea8 of iieo^ 
Utllenic Apcoulsition and to the inn\?r duvdopnient of tho 
o^i^illal Faith a atiidy of history alone can detemdne. 
CcrLikiTily wlieuever the Ht^lleniHni waM wi?4ik<*n<Hl hi th* 
phUotwphy of tht^ day r.lie dcH."trmf <»f the Trinity retreated 
into uinnloUifzibillty, and wom regarded a^ truth indeed, 
but le^ AA lightp-giviii^ ti'uth t}ian a^ myat4;ry. Whent}%-er 
UcUcMitim revived the purpose of the doctrine waa ixcovcrcd 
and it rcaumed ilinmuiativc t*ower, as for oxninple with tho 
Cuinbni)K4> PkitoniAt& Hlien Cartevian or Ijuckvian philo- 
M^pliy biHiuni? dominant theologians hec-anie Ariau or I'nU 
tioiiiit cir tJiM,; i't?iULtto<l TriniUtrian doetrini; Lii Revelation, 
In Ucgel a freah endeavour to uui^ truth was otibrisd. in all 
sincerity, we may well auppone, though, no doubt, it i« 
cogent only Xiyv those who ean accept both \m pluk^ophy 
uud \i\» peculiar readiiij; of the Gospel It may be that ih« 
time huti nut arrived for elaimin^ that thii^ bi^h doctrine of 
dilierentiatioii within Uw Uuiiy \% the united ex]jreiMOLi of 

Philompky, find the lifin{f of fjod 14! 

both general philosophy and of specially Ohrmtmn tlmuglit. 
Bill moTCmciit in th»it <lircctioii appc«in§ U^ be continunlly 
prompted both by i*«won and by CliristJAn faitl»> 

HpiriMmlir<t tihilnttophy Uikc^ limil form tii tlK'cilo£:y: it 
constmcts the riootrinc of one Eteniiil Spirit— with possibility 
of differentiation within itftelf^a** the Ittvility t« whi^Th 
rc-4uton, inonil pnr|)npe, feeling, ttCK-ijility anti tho unitnry 
nature of humnn spirit candnct the enquiring mind of man. 
TtitH frna] juil^eniutit pr<»en1f« ItHoU iix ntl.ional, u^vin^ thu 
mtloDale of our human nature : our Anite thinkini^ in tva\ m 
BO br ae it h Hi^ thinking; our action han imWucy in no fnr 
IL0 wc draw upon His Almightiticaa; our ^oodnces is erounded 
on the perfection of whut Ho dpenw good; our love cannot 
iai\ to Htid reepon^e because it it^ th<> rLH'l[>n>ciLl of the love 
wheroby H** crcat*Hl ua anii now Knf^tJ\in» our bein^. And 
we aa men live in liappy eonimiuiUy under His i^cion« 
MOTerc'igtity, wh(*n:in vie tinil vur ^nami! of nnion unit mtiiual 
uddty. Ihht He Infinitely tranncendK uur view jn al^ft nnr 
IHith* our national fiiith, for the Itcnw^u which tcWtt ji» tliat 
tin? spirit of mati ifl the image of the Uivine Hpint tellft uh 
ftl«o that the imtigG is not the Koality* 

The conclusion of our Spiritunl fdcfilisra 18 not oppoeod to 
the result of nuch My^tici^m &» ?ieea thin^ in da*] witltont 
profo^icing tn «ce Utm by immediate vitiion, nor to the rv«ult 
of a pomfcrityf^ RitTionalirtm, whi{rh in wise hands p<:>intp^ to 
a Divine Spirit and the univertie as dependent upon Hifit. I'he 
diftV-miecr U \x\ inothod. 

We differ fnmi \hv ti •//trnfirrfrrr proofs fnjin rVniNLtfon and 
the Monii fjiw l«rauhc we hiok u|wjn the Infinite* and the 
finite in correlation with otic another, not to be proTcd hy 
inferring fr*'ni mic taktn ind(^j.>cndcntlj tti the other in 
tdnular iTHiepondencc ; we support thoui apainal Knipiricimn 
and endorse thorn ae exprcj^aions of c^cmfidi^neo in the higher 
Reft«on, In BritaiTi the Empirical spirit, confident in the 
lower raniie« of mind, diHtmstfiil of its higher ]>oweTv, him 
altrHVH worktNl st-n»ngly ; from William nf Ow-nni to Hobbea, 
fmm VInme to Mill, It hii^ animatLii] men whu liave ninfr^rred 
honour oil our national tnulititm, anti, it i« to be prcHUmod, 

142 Cambridff Thvologiral E»»aijs fiii 

have axpreaiied a oiood inherent hi aur imtioiml chumcUT. 
Aguinnft tJi<.^iii til* n jm»t*^ittri urgiimcitli} liave Iweit offered 
jiH |>nikri|ml fiUrLui'^ Iri u lIiuikLU: vit-vr iif the wurltl. Our 
Trniim-oiuk-rtlJi) iiietliod traiinfitnii--^ \\\v>ic voncndilu incthoiU 
of proof* utid »cU thciit in frc^h «trcii^h and beauty lu pUlam 
of ihc'Utk faith. 

For MjpiliL'isui— we know iliat tht*rc hovci"* Ix-f ore nouiu af 
thi> tlnwt tiiiiuiK A thought which claitnt; to be higher thuu 
that whiL'li we arc here advocating. Si^ttiiij:? itside entirely 
llii^ |>M*ijdii'inyMt.icinm wliich bijildn ujiufj cxtrnorditmrj^ vi)4i(iii«| 
raices, appaiitionA. present hnenh^, mul utiiei' phenoinviia of 
the lowor miigLM of ex[it-ni?nce, we laean i^' Mynticicini the 
claim of eomc philo^ophci's thai our knowledge caii rise to 
intaitive apprdieiiaion of uurolatod atid unconditioned Heiklity, 
of iiome rdiifhiuB uimds tfiut we ciiu have wholly uuiniHliatvd 
experience of the piTM^uce of ei^dential Deity. Our \'iew In 
thut My>;tieiMni U ae* illegitiTnar^-lv «e|xiraiist in lut i^h^uitetcr 
iw Kiupiriciifln in ' the Rmplrit-iKt oin jsoe onl j thhign mundmiQ, 
an<] h<i1dn llml all vW' in iUuHion : Lhts Myntii: ulatnin that w» 
can enter into the supermundane sphere tiud that it u only 
then tlmt we have quitted illui^ioii and found Healitv, W«, 
on our p^trt, ur^o that both of those aeixuationj^ are iUeficitimato, 
and nnmt be repuiliiLttid ; wo dicrish no deniro to ewtAsr into 
the Tran^iccndent regions ; we look with entirely grateful 
contentment ut>oTi the \M\i of finite spirit aa enHjihered wit)iin 
the nncireumrerciKx^ ideality: we look amimd and above 
and M-t- fiod encompftissing U4 livenrwhere ; wit hii»k hilit oiir 
own pci-sonality and l;eluw itw deptlih an unfathoniaUc deep 
tvlU UH (if Ili^ iiini^r pi-L^sencc. But in our ktiowhi^c thitt we 
must never quit our hold upon our selfhood aiid the selfhood 
of our feltowA ; in onr aotivity when we !**> wo ' identify ' our 
wills with the Divine will wo mu^t idwajemean nutanppro^iiig 
and mon^iigt but concordant unity ; in our life of fc-eling, thfi 
emution is reciprocal mid U Iroui ounwivce toward Iliuj, iw 
well as frtmi Hun to u& The Fatherhood wo revere i« t-> ub 
nuthinkabk- and beyiaul onr power of H|i[>rt-t'jattoii, eKcefit 
uk relatio[i to um and othcm a^ the children. 

llie recent revival of attention to Mjaticisiu of a noble 

philosophy, and the Being of Uod 143 

kind hafl been beiicficiul — it viw l>f*iind to come after a period 
of ICmpirici&ni— but the bt^tietita eaii aU be appropriated by 
our inetbod By this we fundamentally undemUitid thut tUi> 
rofilm in whicli we xui- tlie irainnniiiit spirit of flod v^ but 
apHtt of a reailm infinitely trmmceiiding )il1 tKHt we can know. 
For n>;. tliti iiml.mid world iiHUi'ect1>, ^irid tiie A|)iritiJii1 world 
directly, givi' im ft *y>itfni of nignn. VVt rt^jnicL' in our 
|mtjjp»"ft*ivr virility Ui interpret tlieni^ H.nd we r*yt>ir<i rnrljKir 
iti our thougbl that the tnBnite Spirit exceeds and e;c(:4:|H all 
ttiHt hjL-4 been nmnifvnted to UH : And it ia from U>tb what wo 
flcc and what we sec not but think to lie beyond tJiatwc have 
such ft ' knowled]];e of God ' a^i keepn u^ in ir^reiie conHcienco 
thnt we hnv<? the Dinno pemdiwiim to keep our w)ule aa 
centreiA of spiritual life^ proi^^p^ive towards idcalfi of porfection 
which yet will hIwuvh Im? Quite. We are i:onTmL*eil that <^(mI 
[nake« no 4.-all u|hiei ni to fpiit our 5nitiidL^ but thai, tUTttead, 
Hi! <)rl^iiF4 to invent u» with tht; privilt?ge of knowing Hini^ 
loving Iliin. and being inspired by Uim» m a life which ia 
eternal in the eenHC that it cannot but cndut-c so long ^ !!« 
ia pleaded to keep us in eommunion with HimeielK 

In the Kcncrai world -thon^bt of to-day tho truat in 
Spiritnal Idealit^iu of this tnuj seen dental type hn« rieen to 
a high mark in Ethical philo^opliy : tho advnoileB of Ethical 
31i<fi)an »i gnmiulud alKtnnd. The advocacy t>f thiirEUigh^oing 
coniitrnrtive Idealip^ni, \.e. s[teculafjve or int'ellecl.nal iv^ well aM 
rlhit^d, t^ far ]et« pit^vak-nt But in the uiind^ of «oine of uh 
at least there \9> \\ \m\yc that our ^*neration will boo a rcnvftl 
of tru>it in the whole raiijfe uf * Heo^on ' iim tho eye and the 
heart of lh*j jh>uI : and even that eome jjccnius inay preaently 
fuiao to carry likrwurd in all itf^ nia^iilScent eomprehenKiveno^ 
thecHJiistructivc tradjtionof Arist^itlc and Ori^n and Aquinaa 
and Leibnitz and Hegel. For thotit- inHpinH] with tliix hct|K^ 
the human nature "M which the rftrmlnre i>r Reality ix to be 
bitill inuKr be UL^ither mtellcL'tual nur ethical nor niyHtScral 
only, but the fulnesw of the life of the npirit of man, nud of 
mankind. And the interpretathir will ^tc tia tlie finite within 
the Infinite, man rejoicing in humanity, and rejoiciuif alao 
in cemmunion Willi God. 

144 Cawbrid^ Theotogkal Eitmysi fm 

That the fundanK^ntal idc^iM of SpirituaUst philo^phy ftre 
coTtgT'UHiK ^th the ooiiAdtueiit ideAfl of the Christian Gospol 
Itt obvioTiH, \f phil'iHoph}' wrn! hi iwirc in h rnsitrrmlisiii. 
in H piiix' ()iuithi*lHiit, 11 deimn^ or ari ft^ioKticiNiii, \i wuuid 
be In<-4>nt|»atible with ideit^ e:C|>1irit <ir iniplicit ill (.'liri^tiAiuty ; 
wtid t?itl»T a rhiHliMiii iti the region of Ix-lJef wtiiilii Ih: hi- 
evitablc. or elite cither the philosophy or the ifiith nmst )'icM 
pln4:e. 1^mt ef|HV-itiiBliMt phUoi^ophT hnu won \Xa way 0^:0111 U> 
the front- -the cvl^lcrice lies patent to all— is partly fjtie 
to tlie inherent foree of it« idean operating in the luiDds of 
mftr who lire a* miieh aloof from iille^iariee to CliHatian ideaa 
fw miiid>^ 4-iiTi \^r whi'.'h hitvo Ihh.^11 ininiircvj in Chrii^lJHii hornet 
and havi' |uu ti[-i[ia((^<l in (JhriKtiaii dvilluilii^ii : arul Ii im partly 
due to the iiifliipnc^i of explieilly flirirtnifKi jihiliwiipheix The 
allotment of the propoition due to each of the-se would be 
» prdbliun Tor hirttfriail Ktudy, |>robahly JiirtulijhK', But itrtt 
will care to ipvinwiy the claitn tlitit the Christian ideas of 
(iotl and of hunian nature^ afjd of the esBeTktiaL conununioD 
of man with iit^l, have enahkHl CliriHtian min^hi to CMJiitributO 
to the endowmeiit of philo>4ophy with that noble and iii- 
ujilririiL^; HiamcU^r witli whteh It is now facing the deinundg 

of tllL' [KHlJllo, 

Bill iMviitg claimed thi^ is tJie Christian philoMo^ihor in 
a poKitidii tv urge that epiritnitlif** philosophers are bound, 
on their prindplcB, to i^o forward to accept the ChH^tiaD 
doctrine of Ciod and man m \\s hiluewV or elite, aa philo- 
saphy haif come eo tar, sliould <.:iirii;ttan doetrino oease to 
claim allegiance to ajiy ftfieeitie ideaji, and allow that fct* 
tUfference^ are otdy aft.'ondary, derivative, sjmlwlical, portiapi^ 
occHMidnal. provtfiional, |Tartieularit(t. and now no Uni^r e»- 
i4entiid V Tliat i^ nhiknlrl we iiiMHt that (he juwinHlH-tion has 
gone 80 &ir that tlie sphert^ ahould. in one i>f these ways or 
in the other, tkiw \k ef[uatcd < 

Ihe aacrCTincsfl of Truth permits only one answer to be 
aeriont^ly olfered. t^hriftian ideoM claim to t>c tr^u^ uli of 
tliom : we can uihiiit of no finally difTorential position for 
them which would regard the philoftophical ran^e ait one, 
but these MpeeiHe (^Hxtiaii ideuH um Kouwthiit^ otlier tiuia 

mj PhitoMophp^ and the Being of Ood 

true* whether in & region of ' f^ tli ' or of Homc otlicr undefined 
fecuUv. If phi]cMi){)h_v ciumot reach tbcm Xyy it^ »wn inner dc- 
Yclopment, it most be exiled npon to cstcnd ite I'angc to Admit 
tliom as rev€lntioiiA ; mA when admitted t)ie>' mitral he tiilly 
natiiiThli/^cd a^ cttieen& If they prewnt nn appenraiicn of 
* newness,' thie is only what many, at lea^t^ of the present <rhi«f 
constituent irleas did when tht?y lirul Tnuile their kppi.mnuioc : 
it h&fi been hy succeHHivp adiniMHions that the city of ideae h&A 
biMrn onlur^^iw^H] iifibv natuml incrviLAe fruui within: t.hin 
ihn liEntory tif thought re|KirtM. except for a few ph!loHOphtrr» 
of history who hnve ^rciire*! but amall following in thdr 
fltrainjng for a ftinfle logic of inner dcrclopnient* liy nucccsBive 
admiMionH of nt-w iflca^ chanp^ were etlcctcd, arid tlie present 
|^lo«ophy or ]>hiI<MophieB ure the result Christians holding 
thftt the idea^ of the- Faith are tru« must expect ideai in- 
coin}Ki!ibte with Uiem to jjive way. But t*» thuite who hold 
the great jcpiritiiiiliMr. idr]i>i which itr^ inhrnMitly ooiiijMitible 
with H|re<rir]e Chrititian doctrinefl our air[)ea! cannot Imt other 
than that they i^hould u^lviuice t<> the acc'e|>tAncc of thc«o 
alna Thin invitation muat be made on the tiimplc gri>u])d 
tiiat truth \H truth, whatiMrer be Uie hititory of the aj)[>CHrati<:c 
of ita congtitucnt ideib^ And it in miule in the further con^ 
fidcncv that in the philosophical ideas there are latent elemeiitA 
and inner pntcncteH, whirh rendt^r tbcm cu|mbie of luring in- 
corporated with the new idcrHw. even if tlu* new ideas are not 
tdr^fly in du-ni waiting for ilevelopmerit Tliat theue inner 
potf^ncicn arc hidden i» what offer«L the ohetacic to advance; 
Irat it iti roajionabk faith to twhcve that in the light of the 
Christian ideiiK tlic latencies will bo bronglit otit., and the 
ohstacle to advance be removed Christian philosophy there- 
for© call)* npon jjeiienLl phiU'Hf»phy t*- nuike farther elfortr, in 
order either t** allow iTiner tJeveliipnient t^i |ir*neeed, or else to 
r«cogn)fte that there in nothing irrational in admitting new 
ideas on liih-tJiHr^d ground?^, and looking forward to the 
eve[)ttml diMurery of tlicir relationship tii the old* iu"l tlie 
nttfiinmcnt of a xiiiglc ^here for the truth that must in 
«eoencc be a nntty. 

To the BHUuc otTect Lb the aiietwer if t)ic <|iice(t^on i« put to 

& X ■- 10 


Cambridge Theological Eitfmi/» 


ChHfitian phil(j^|>1iy, whether it ia concerned to viudicale 
a specific U'TTitory for xtBuit it» cinitii l<i be tnio over its 
wimie f7Atci)l obU^f^ it bo n^si^ it^tlf »|>t'dni'M,)lj ha A^^nBt 
{»T'tia1 or latriit truth ; lm^ ite ikc[>ii' trii»t i:* llint tbc pnr- 
liality Riaj be rocogubod, and a miigle territory accepted by 
aJL Ackiiovrlcdcinp the pr*'crcwivc viny in whicli truth ha^ 
been ac<iuirc(l hitherto it anticipates with confidence that the 
fhturc will show knowledge aud fnith to be one, the j^inide 
truth ijf God (Jenerat phiU^^oph^ ahvaj§ a^iimes tl^at truth 
is eiiiglc, anil ChriHtlnti phihjHuphj' luuHt do tlie tmine. R4th«r, 
it rlaea to the confidence tliat much Christian tntth hiiborto 
hcfd on the autboritv of hitiNimnl I'evcltil k'ii vtill lie m-«*u to 
lie t\\v truth which i» a.\«*> cbtclofwil by phihmoph^v »* the in- 
tcrfu^t^tion of life. Tlie inanifec«taUon uf <fird in (Uiritit i» the 
manifestation of the ^Jtcmal nt a point of time, uf Jntinitc 
Spirit at a point, so to speak, of jiereonaUty: but nrhcD 
manifL^tud it bocanie truth etenml. It niurtt thereffire o»t«r 
into ^11 eW' ttitLt phihtHophj hnA gFiiTRHl, siird illumino with ite 
eternal and essential light all our thought of Cod and of 
our inhc!ritanL-e aa parlakei> of ITik nature- And our iti- 
fiistencc iij)on unity ib adiln.*frM^i] not only to philosophy aa 
guardian ftf truths but to {ihilimophy tu^ giving u^ gnidaucr 
for good and happy life Odc is the light for our Intelligence, 
one tlie innpiratton of Power nm) A.rtioTi, one tlie spiritual 
community, ouo the l>ivinc Love in which wc lira In this 
ultimate Faith man finds Cod, because it if* his rospoD^e to 
God revealing Himself to man and in man. 




10— a 


A. The flcheme ajid acope of the Easaj. 

B. The aims and method of biol(^cal atndy- 

d BioIog[ical eridence aa to Man's Place in Nature 

1. The evidence derived ftom a stodj of the Btnictm:^ of MuL 

2. The evidence of phjaiology. 

3. The evidence of paychology. 

D. Human Brolutaen. 

1. Origin of Variations. 

2. D^Toe of VuiatiOD. 

a Heredi^. 

E. Prospective EvolntioD of Man. 

F. Origin of living orgajiistiu^ 

G. CoDcEuaion. 


"Hcicnci^ U bound hj the eTcHju^ting lair of lionmir to fji^o fcarlomlj 
4^tvj j»r<ihl€im which can fnirlj he pre?+onU«l Ut It.. \f a proU^iWo Rohit!*irj 
CDniiiBl<!ikt with the ordinarj coutbo of naturo cnn be foaniJ, wo Tnimt not 
biTok? mi uhriorrriHl ttct nf r^mitiVe power" (l»nl KuWln. Prwyontiiil 
AcUtmb, EtritLih .Vsuocintton, IftTl) 

A. The t\chc7tu and scope qf tfw EsAatj. 

Thb orifH" <^f Miiii, ftiid his plac^ in Nuturo, may be 
i4ii<tiwl from vftrioiiH |K>iiUM of now, Tho pri^^nt Essay 
will treat of these aubjecU frtJiu th© fttand|^int of n student 

fkieiUiTtl^ cflnnot iirtfteiifl Ut baire t^nnipletely solved theee 
pmblcni*^ but thi^y nmy attempt U^ Btatt* titeir pre?»eTit cmdi- 
tioii iti the li^ht of rt'wearch. Theology, which is »^o nearly 
A|]ie<1 to nioml pbll(wn>hy, ticods the cooperation of the 
natural acicnccs. and they iii turn must weigh ite coiicLiiAiond. 
And I believe that Mich agreement \* to the bt^t interei4bt of 
all coneiinjLHlT provided that it Iw bawd upon » mntiial dotor- 
n]ii:iatlon to aet prejudice a^ide, and to f^'e the difficulties tyn 
vittitT Hide, It iM with siicb cotiviet.ionM in mind timt 1 Nhall 
atlcraipt Uy review tlie veieu&ific af^pect of MnriA IMacL^ in 

Those who cmbaik upon the investigation of biolo^cal 
pndjIemM find tlLcnmolven confnmted nt the outfit with the 
fM*«™sity of UTi acquaintance with the scope and Ixmnda of 
their field uf work. The problems of biolo^'y eonnist eiu^enti 
ally in the elucidiition tif ph<Tnonionft pn>cnt(vl by livin^^ 
organisms, hi cjthei" words of the phenomena of life. The 
nieunx ;(t <jnr diM^MUfut f^^r tliese inveatigatioiia eonxiHt Sji ttie 

160 Cambritlge 77ic(^ogical Esmys fiv 

first instance cf tho^t^ liieiiltiea of pej-cept£oii which Id the 
dWJiaed racca have been brought to so high a pttrh (»f 
(levolopiiieDt. AnJ in stticntific work atttjiniit** uumt be luadc, 
on the one Imml to hcijUihtt^ri the iTTrirt-ivooess of the intelleot, 
Htid on the other to reduce dcscriptionB of pheiLomcna to 
the iiiowt eiiflily apprehended fonnp of Atatement 

Vet oven when the utniort hw* been done to sectire 
accuracy of observation and lucidity of doecription^ there 
romaini^ « cerUihi nuinbvr of problemr* whkh will deiy 
complete explanation from lh(? HeiL*ntifie sUi.Tu]in)int, 

The ^real, loodeni atlrarjeeA of Mclence amount In reality 
to tiiimipha in the impr<)vemf'rit of liM:ilitieA for obwr*»lion. 
But beyond the phenomena thufl rccoi^ded. and coordinated 
in description, the knowledge of their rtii^on d'Hrt rcnralus 
Oe remote ew ever. 

The student of biology tlma finds his prime task in t^ 
collection And interpretation of plienuTneiin conneL^tod witb 
life. Often enough in hie attempt to iuM:ount for the fect^ 
(>li«erved, he is thrown back opnn an AppeLd to tlie itiLrinxic 
pro[)ertIe*^ of liriug matter And though the range of oc* 
ilu^Lint»t^(H^ with the phenonicrm a»iociated with life haa hcxa\ 
80 immcuBoIy extended, yet there ia no advance to record id 
tiie direetion of a conkprchenaiou of Un^ real meaning of the 
cxirtleneo of livin^^ ohjectd. Amon^ the leiulora of scientific 
thought, some would no doubt declare that such problems 
belong to the domain of philoAOj^y rather Uian to thut of 
Bdencc; but thimgli Uie Hc-ienti>jb may reeagniee am his 
ijiecial Moik itie twofold twiU of colliVTting and connij- 
nating dntJi, he i-mmot rurnaiti entirely oblivious of the»<; 
great qucat^ona. to interpret which the philetiuphcr aiipeant at 
prcAcnt to be aa incuuiputent ad hiiiiEteli 

B- 7*^^ airrut and method of Motofjmil ^tudff. 

At tJie risk of rendering thU intnwluetion tcnlioUM, I would 
venture U> juJil ii few niorti prelimiimry r<^niarka, In the first 
place, scientific rcftultc^ (whether biological or othei') liave 
been embodied in certain conceptiivna of An hypothetical 
nature, i^uch cunccpttona or hypotbc«e& dciaaud countAnt 

ITJ Mati9 origin, and his place in Nature 151 

examiTmtifin \u\i\ n^vUmn km our kiiowlrfl^^ h^nnncs more 
llcciliTito and exkmKivt'. Slioiilil nt^v fnrlA fHtl Ui ItHrniimiHtf 
with current hy|n>tlict*c^^ tlie iiivcHtif^tiir im in honcmr lK>iiiirI 
to tfubniit fiicte Brid theory aliko' to scarchitig criticiFm» and 
by the r^mlt of ttiie his confidence in tho theory is conhrmcd 
or shaken- From lime lo time modifications (occoAiouidly 
on a hifu^ acalck have been found iieceaeary in the con- 
stitution of flome of the^iie hypothea«« ; and it i* Incumbent 
on nil t,o inrhido in thuir surveys thti^ cxteuMurK of hori/on 
proTideil by the laLi^^t nietliirilH of reseiirch. 

Secondly, everything wiiicli tends to eimplity' the current 
dcflcriptiona of our subject imist be >^'elc(inieil To regard 
eortain uf tho phenointMia prt^titeiileil by living mutter jk 
clofloly pcimllcl to those obtaining in lifolo^a matter, providofl 
one example of this tendency. In Uiia way eonceptione of 
many hlul(>f;ica1 prubleme liave been considerably simpli- 
flwl, for physical formnlae, which are c<.>niparatively easy 
to compreheufi, have lieen eiilistituted for ideas of vital 
fbrcCA which »rc often unintelligriT^CH But when a biologlat 
aSBOUnccA that he has succeeded in explaining luiy jihencj- 
mena of life on physical principles once supposed to apply 
coiy to ]ifele«ie objocts* he is liable to incur tlie repro^'h of 
matorialiBnn. X^ eommotilv empluyud, tlie tenii!!; mutertaliHm 
and maf'Vrlaliiitic appear to imply that tlkose to whom they 
are applicl hold views which in our estimation tend to the 
degrndjitiiiti <if lifr »nd 11^111]^; ohjccU^ I wi-^h to mcmrrl my 
conviction tliat sutdi an unjtiication i*^ alMoltilely inairrect 
ami mirtlemlhi^. Tlic myptcrici* of lifelese matti'i- arc in- 
finitely greater than mont pci-mmih seem to realise. And again 
it wiJl hardly he now cimtenfled that our estimate of life \» 
lowervvt when we find that livinfi (irKiini^niH nre eoin|KiBod of 
eimilar chemical elementA (however comp>1ex in combination) 
to tlioae of which lifoIeMa mutter U made up. It 1b therefore 
iTicininisU^nt to regard living matter jo* delwstHi, when we aee 

' Tbf> ivrm niutorinlifim ia dif' 
fvruiitlT utiri ilenikitvl}' umxI liy|t1iiiu- 

But H ii iiot ricvcuoiy for my purpwe 

bbikt X\\c ilJlTorotit A|ii>lk'Jittoii4of tliu 
thlM coniiviimi. 

152 Cambrklge Theological Esmyst [iv 

among its phenomena %xih.ny proccoeee whiob are identicftl 
with tliuMo found to obtain smong lifekuw objeuU. 

For ttiotiu rejiiJOiiA, it ia iniporUnt to bear in niiiid that 
Bucli 'tDBlemltsm' ih iiiit u deliberate attempt ti> degrade 
Iif«, or Uj ignore or ileny \\a m/steinoiu* <:hanictcr- Rather 
tlie lci»Jw»cy i»* to vl^riiU^ wluit was once ftoini;what cod- 
tenipluouHlj fllylod lifclcw matter to a positioD hi our 
cfltimatitfTi more worthy of ^e wouderfiil jiropertica now 
knowQ to reaido therein, 

NVith KUL'li introductory roaiarka, we may turn to the 
immediate mibjeet of thia fkaay, vk. : — Man's Origti^^ and hit 
Place in Nature. 

To *i'l fiirih the evidence tliftt- Mmi i« an ^i^nl^ed beiT^ 
wiiidd \w HuporfluoiitL Tite Ijunian iiiili vidua! ia a ^implicated 
orKiun^ni <if the miiuial Lyjie. Ilotrevcr ciitnplicated the 
chemical and crcn the ptijfiioloi^cal constitution of Mnn 
may be, it ia fundamcntaUy ^imiljvr to that of other animala. 
The chumiail coni;titu<intA of the humim tmmu arc identic*) 
with those of living matter In general. The phvgioioj^c^l 
pniceMei of rcvpiration, of »s»imihit(oii of fi>i>d, and of ex- 
cretion of waste nmtcrinl arc prwenl alike in nil. 

Correct npiri'cciation of die orighi, and uf the placid In 
Nature occupteil by a iiarticuLir organism or animal ia con< 
ventionally and iidvi»e(]Jy based upon what may be tcimod 
biotoj^cal evidence. Arid Uic evidence io in ttirn foiindod upon 
a eom)KirMOM witii otln?r animAl« uf tJic particukr anJuiul con- 
dd<jreii, MorcoA^er, the comparison must take into account 
not only the ■'trueturo and Lvmfonnation, Init alt^i the functionv 
un<l similar msinift^tJttE«n>^ of the animal fnnns compared 

When thi^te ci umide ratio um are Mpphed Ui the c-aiie of 
Man, the nn^hml and ^hlUi (if the pn^ rnipjiry arc ren- 
dered clearer. Our tank i?4 reducible Ui the comi>ariAon 
of Man with other animaln. not only in reM|Kct of T«trm:ture, 
but ntso in reituni tti funetioTi, These oepcets of the caao 
mny be conveniently diHtin|j:uia}ied oa tJie morpholo^ncal and 
physlolo^eal side^ respectively. In the latter, the eridencv 
(»f p^yclifkhi^y aituddered in it* i^iyniologie&l aApeete should 
be included 

tvj Man'a origin^ and hig piacs in Naho^f- 

d Biolofficat cvidmtre <m to Mm^n PUic^, in Natier^, 

1. The tridencc of Morftk^^fffjif^ or ende/ier thrived Jtotti 
the stiidt^ of the strvctitre qf Mfiti^ 

Tlio ractbodn upplimble t4» the nior|jbi>logiciil :4tinlj' i>f 
IVIruk ili> tiolp (liitr frc^Di thu«e in gene^'al u^^e, Thi?> imij Im 
proTiidoiLall}^ cJaMnificd in ttic follovriDg way : 

(a> Tlie €Uiiiparint>n uf ttiu iiuiimii budy. jmrt hy |xirt, 
with llio bodies of oUrt nnitiiuls. 

(/>> The oxtCTiiiiion of this nio^bod from aiiiuiAlH atlU 
tnhubiting the vurib U} vxtiikct forujM of UEumal lifv now 
IciLowii only by their fowlllHei:! rciniLiiL& 

{e) ComjHunjAtin uf tht? riKxlti of foimiiluction niiil thts 
deTelopoienUil Umtory nf Hiv biiinH.ik imli^itlual, witlk other 
niiidtv ATiil liiMUirii-h fimrid in tlic; Huimid »eno!^ 

(li) Tlie furtbcr arid more dctailcfl compariHOii uf the 
oevenJ vftHctics of Mankind. 

Bui it ia not oxpcdiont to enter here upon a loiiKthy 
di:tcLi.'«fioii »f th^ muth^Hlfl, niatcnal, juid rc-<iiLtrt of mar[>hi>* 
loirioal fltudy. I h»vc however appended n nummary of eome 
im|»>T-tJUit rc*earch<iH ti> make more complete the (irenent 
«kvtclL l*hv miirphoio^^ical aapt^ct^ of (he Mtndy nf Miui 
lack an int<*re*Jt prt??TtTiled by the ptiiyebolof^ical aide, since 
Ui(- Mlriii^timtl rr.Mi:iililanire?< of M^n Ui bin eotijceiiet^ is 
much more evident than arc aimilaritieA in ruipoct of mental 

The ^eiicnLt conclusiona from the morpliologieal Aide may 
be Eiunmied up in the following: ways ; 

\a) In rttnutnre tlio hnnnm Urfly ^how^ cloge Mlmilarity 
to those of vertebrate .irimalpi, particularly to the MammaU : 
and attiong the^e to the a]ie« and ape-like animals awMX-lated 
by ^vHtemntHU with Man in tlie nmiiunnliMn <*rder Prirnnlri^ 
Hf-rrin, tht- rxtmunliiiHry develo|inH'Tit uf tliat |MU-t <if tlie 
brain known ai the cerebnmi eontcri upon Mun a diiitinct 
|Kif<ilii>u. At the fnaine time. Man in not by any meann in all 
n»pcct0 Uie m^Ktt highly ^pedcditicd primaU? Matamivi> und in 


CamhrUtye Theotofficai Ussaj/s 


iiuiucroiiE points of anntomicfLl structure the humnti bod^ in 
\c&ti FifxMrialit^^ lUiih tlume of 8omc other MamiimK including 
cvon aomc of the vhtiKwt rolationr; i>f Milii, vite, : tho aiithr^po- 
morphouB apes. 

(h) The hutiiati type owes its origin to a proceaa of 
evolutioiiH whei'eby it has bi^ert Jerivofl horn b \gss specitilisrid 
matntrmliaTi typei The exiLot dotaiU of the [nth piireueid in 
4*viilitl.tim itri? still indml.Liict^ but theru is ^irH) re-xaun U> 
8up|M7M: that the more iinnkcrtiate hiunan ancestors poswwod 
0CvcniT atlrilmtee (such ns hirstitciicss null ]>rt4rriat)nKTii ) which 
B>Tc more nearly realisciil m the cxistiTi^ iinthnipomorphoov 
apoa thiui in any othi^r known animats. For this reason, it ia 
con^^luclcKl thiLt in those fiartieiilArs the human ancaatorfl were 
tike apes in appearance, tliough certainly m>l tilentical with 
any Icith] of npe ^«iw known. Of these (irugeniturs again, the 
nncJ.t4l/>rM wvrc priibnltly qiinHnijiefliLV bnt the Inir ih ifiiiekly 
IuhL ill the iiiAKi? of early uianiniatian anceMtr^. A^a Mainnual, 
Mail whnrcn a common origin with otlicr Mammalia fnmk the 
vertebrate stock, and hia origin ib thua traceable to the parent 
fonus of vertebrates. The ancoatry of t^iceo 13 etill in di^put^ 
but the genemi reunite of mt^rpholo^ and embryolo^ point 
to an origin of the mutij cellular vertebrate types from unl- 
eellutju' types of animal ; the taieeatry of aach uiiicellulnr 
typea a^in is indicated by certain |>eiMif4tent forme of living 
lUHtter compusetl of nndjflcretitiiit'e<l ti^ne^ liu'kiii)^ L<vcn n 
CcUidar Htructurcs Each individual human bciing originates 
In an unicellular orum wtuch develops tn utero, becoming 
multicellular in response t^> ^stimulation provided by tbc 
advent of the male sexual element. 

llie minute details of thitt hlittory are aibnitt^lly ol^acure, 
but the ^-ncral correetneft* of the amount eaunot be <loubted 
In view of the evidciiiw iiiiw nvitihible. With re^arrl Ur llie 
timi^ nn'ivxary fur Kiii-h nn involution tm Uiat of Man, iit>c 
ctLnnot fipeak with dermttL"iit.'Hh ; but iTt*i-|jiiii1> niMiiy u^itlennia 
have l>eeft requireil. Hnninn civilicvitian cxtciidjt Imck over 
the larger part often thimsaTid yawn. The Imman type moBt 
|H^bably became diflbrentiated, and as it ^vere recof^ntiuble 
M Ituman, in the later plitmujie di Vivien of the Tertiary ^povfa. 

rvj ifnii'M origin, and hi» pl/tcft in iVri/wre 

(ci Maji IK iiiiL jLlwcrlultrl^ th« U^niiiiml or apii'H.[ furm to 
which nil lincA oi animal (.Icrclopmcikt paiDt Man occupies, 
80 to §pcak, the cad of a particular (wig on a bougli of the 
evolutjoivary tree. Imt the Irco is not of the poplar t>po, nop 
H t)i« butn[iii twi^ the liit;l]<^t, or that which extciiiis funh^^p^t 
from the trunk, 

{d) Tlit-^ hinnnii tygx* m not uDifunn : wttli'dHhiMl 
VHriHifW «tit] rxJHt, ihungli i\w tvui\t.*ut:\ of t'lvi ligation )44*i.^]nit 
to be tovranirt h ^Hiit^ral wlmixtun; of the exiittin^ tyjHtn iif 
Mankind Some vnrictiea, like some of the Foasit ancestora 
of tnodcni men, arc dUtirictly more a|ie4ike thnii othurri, but 
U ti a rcEinirk»l>!e fiict that no one nu:c rLpf)cikn{ to Uc in uLl 
it0 charuct^^n^ more «imiiLTi than mty other. 

[f) The tuorpliologic^ evidence ^a to Man'^i pla«e in 
Nature is denr uu J rlelinitc. Tlie fwdi^et^ uf «oiiie MHrnnialj«, 
»uch a^ \Vha1e«i aiul MauHteeii. are much iiKire oUicur*- tlian 
tJutt «r Wnv. T}ie inference i^ thiLt^ judged by the te«L of 
AoatomicaJ Alructure» Man*a poeitJoii iii the animal scriee is 
QOi abnolutely exceptioual 

2. Tfi£ trideit^^ of Ph^/sioloi/p. 

In ro^pcct of pliyaioloei<<a] fnnetion the yieneral resnltd 
of morphoiopcal inveetitrntuin uro fully Jx>nio out I'hc 
chcmicnt ei>n»titutieii of tlie luat^riala which eiiter into Uie 
fwtoation of human tt>i»iies in indiHtingiiiHlmble fn>m that of 
ooarcirpoiidtrig tti^u^ in other aniumla. Even nitli rt^gHr^l to 
the pmpertteH tif tlio bhiod, the rej^eHrche*! 4if the Ifort- two 
yeant, nbove all tho^? L'H.rried i^ut, at Cainbrid^t*^ havt; re- 
vealed evidemxT of tho chwc* rdatioiiT^ of tht higher 7i|>e*< ami 
Bian (a ji^Quiiie " blood relationahip " os Dr Nuttall put« it) 
which ii* in fiill act.*ord with the reaulta arrived at on other 
gronnda. llio mctde of aetion of the hciirt and the diBtriba- 
lion of the blood and the mechanism therewith connected aris 
HO cVrM-ly ull&ed In Man and tJit' }i>;(her Mammals, thftt the 
differenc*c>? nrt^ a(.*gligibU\ And lhL^g<.»nrintl processes of di^ei^- 
tjon, nwpiration, and th» exeretion uf ^vante prtxlitets provido 
ijtiiidlar (.'videncL- of ehwc smnUrity. ft(> it ih ^vitb the p<*rirnd 
physiolog)- of the mut>cular and niM-vautt ^^atcuiD. ^Vitli 


Cambridge Thevhfficai Esm^fS 


rc^jLnl U> tho latter, a fuw iiitpi>lcEi)ciitiiry rcinurk^ luay iiot 
be out of pliic& 

It U ft inatier of common knowlec)^ that the DervouB 
»y«ieiii U rompriseik of a i:eiitrH] iHirtton, coiksiBting of tlie 
brain aiid tlkc npiiial conl, whcnc*^ oftMhoots in tlie form of 
tierveft arc ili^tri butted. Of tbc nerves eo ilUtributciL aomc 
arc in connexion with scntiGiit surfucCA^ and lunong thaw 
»re r«ckuned the nervett of Uic apcciiU acuAca. All of thcflc 
convey mcas^:ca in the^ form of itcrvoun inipulscu f»>in tho 
weiititTiit Hurfaco. or orpan of special flcnse, to the cetitr&l 
part of the r^y»ftcnv Uthor ntirvtw stguin curry wliMt are 
teimed cetiCrifbgal or «flereiit mc^esages or inipulaeH frorn thv 
central portion of the ^yr^tt^iii to the mn«ciilar ti»«ue« am] to 
otiier de^tliintioiiR 

The h^^T^t^iii in thus conetittited b> the eentrat [lortitm, 
which \h in receipt of impulses aiririiig dXoiig one set of 
peripheral nerves, and which can emit impulacA along aiiothor 
entirely dif^tinet but poriphemi aeries of nerves. 

The nervoujd Bvi^tem of Man rceem^os that of other animals 
in thoH^' Timiii fe»ttiire^. It \t^ Tiot surpHj^itij; thvntfort^ thiit chv 
physiolo^cal crentJ^ t^'hieh manifest thomselveg dunng the 
p*w*ia;^' ultiU^ the nervt-H of iiiipiilHuv dui; Ut kUhuiImISoii, are 
(iw> fiir nn all (In- rtifirK-iiUTiitrt i*r pli}nioh)picaI i'(*wireh am 
ahcw) C4flcntially the same in Man aa in otiier animabt. 

Moreover, the iifliial effect of a <:cntripctjvl ncrvou* inipulnc 
ift to give ii»o cTcntuallv to a centrifugal impulse, and in the 
luinian l>'>dy ii8 iti thorn? <if other liitfhly coniplieated iininml« 
thirt pheruniieiiot; may be olworvwL And in (general ti>o, th© 
pru<rtieal teMt U to apply a Atimtihin t^t a Hciit)ei}t p^nrfacc 
nnd til o^wiTTc the reaction in the fi>rm of a movotnent. 

Hilt iLiiM n dilfcrenco in \hv- highertt fonnn of nervous 
fljstcttk nmat be i^ecogniacd, a difference of decree howcrer. 
am) not of kind. Wo have junt referred U* Llie tri[>artit« 
i^yi^tetn of centripeTal patli. central portion, and cenlrifiiijiU 
path im the meu^iire of tho nerv<iuit hy^^ti^m. In reality u 
eom|)licHtion U introduced in tlie higher animala by ttie more 
elaborate fitructuro of the vnrif>iu parU o{ the eenlnd iM>n1oiL 
In cojiHotfuencv nf thli^ tho »iinple scries of event*, cuiuosting 

iv] Man's origiUt ami hi» pku^ in Nature 157 

of the ecqucncr of rtimnUtii*!! of ttt« n'ntrtpota] iitrvc followctl 
by thftt of the ooTitml portion iinil the coiitrifufE&l nerve in 
sQCce^ion, is held in control. 

Not only limy tho evviiU be controlled, but Inaamu^;]! m 
the connt'xioT^ t>f vuHouh part** of the cuntni) p(irli(»ti« (if the 
fljvtU^ui are iimiij iiml vjiriwl, the arrivbT of ^iLiiiiiili at tlie 
cvntml HtatitJii mny r<*ult in diMiirlmnro uf jl \'<fiy r<»m- 
pljcatad Bcn(% of luccliaiiUjtib witltJii the central pcrrtioiu^ tif 
the i^ystcm* 

In itcj^cribuig the humtiti lirain as more hi^^ily evolved 
tlukn the hrjiiiiii^ of i>tlKT anhnJilH, wl^ refer to the liijclier 
development of this (^mi>liuhtcd ecriea of mcchniiii^nH. Ffom 
ihU it w intelligible that comjmrati^ely HJmple stimuli when 
impinging i»n the contml portion of tho huiimn nervcHiw 
liljMieui c^n caiue a mutrh more j>r<.>fonnrI diMtiirlmnr^ thuTi in 
dm ncrvoHA Kj-Mlr-ms of 1t?8H highly ih-'VcliifM^I unimulM. And 
iht pnifundity of that db*tur!>ani*' in itidtcaltd by the higher 
development in Man of psychical munlfci^tntionji which hi 
loTcr fcimw of life arc rudimentary only, 

A^in, thu existence of what hn^ been leniit>d Uie nie(^luui> 
iam of control \» a^eerted by another phenomenon, or scries 
of i^ienomena- For in virtue of the presence and activity 
of that mechanism, the sequence [irimilively manife^^ted — 
8tiinnl»tt]iiT] i>f the cvntripeta) nerve followed suceenriively hy 
liiat of the ceiilntl portion of the nervous system, and of fJie 
ceiitrifu^l nerrc— niuy be iDterraptc^i In imch a csm-, even 
though the eentriiietal Atimulua be applied, the other oventA 
arc mUf<ke<l, tmti ^ repinb the centrifu^!^ ]inpnls<w» may l>e 
abscv^t. Such abBcnco of reaction i^ called inhibition. 

Tlie phenomena of inhibition dilfer widely in their occtir- 
T«ice and intensity. But though exlraorditmrily developed 
in Maij. ihey are prenetLt in ali the hi^dter aniinalhi tn Mtme 
d(<^v. Mon>i)vrr il ix hiijxiHant U* ntitii^i- that aetion and 
mfaihiUon provide ultL-nmlivt^ conj'Hen and the fN>wi1iilily of 
two vcquclds to a jrivpn M.iinnhic*. This p^wvuibilitj nnd thc*c 
alternatives provide a choice of rceulte, and invceti- 
jfation of tia' naturt- of thin choice, and the cin"nmT?taJJC<« 
determining the inhibition to which it owe^ \i& exitilence, hi)s 
larjfely influenced the paycbological conception of the nature 



Cambridge TfteMog^ical Emayii 


of tho Will ar Volitioti. It ia thus intolUgiblv that tho greater 
development of Inhibitory med^auUmB in the ceiitml nen^ni 
syMtt^in iir Mnii ik in iLritonl with the ;^renUT ui^iTity uf tbe 
bummi will. 

The ' Hilton II jhtinni * of tim reiitnil rirrroiis i^yntiini ilemMiitb 
a briGf notice in this place. I'hc present tondcnc*' of phjn^- 
loiCiBta is to diBcoiiiiUnaucc belief in the aut^^iimtic enuaaion 
of iiuptilMw whicb at one ;>criod tv'ere nupjioaed to paw 
ceTitrifng^tlly fr4>in the centre Uy pcTiphon^) purtA of tlM 
neivoUK ayateuL Now, on the contrary, \i Is re^rded u 
pnibaljK^ that fur thf? pnNhicti(»ri rjf t^fTtic-tit whii;h ^<vire 
foriijerlv ie|^rded m^ evidenei* of aiiUiniAtir inedmtiihtnci. 
cuntri{Krtnl i^timnli an: ri^ally nrewwity. And iiulueil there 
10 eridcncc to show that cvon the maintenance of consdon^ 
RC^ ia de[ionileTit njion the arrival of t^tiinnli or impitlMCA 
&oin without. The nieeh^:iBm6 whereby the bean's iLctiotu 
and retipimticn are le^nlated provide ^od exmnplurt of tlie 
importance of centripetAl Mtirniili in tbia re«pc^ct 

But in all these procen^b the nervous uyiitem of Man k 
eloKcly nllicd Ijj thfwe of fla- nmre highly developed MnmnmK 
Kiifrb dlfTm^eneeu an eilnt t>einj? ditlt-reneeit of degree and not 
of kind 

We may now patw to the psychological side of the ha- 
veHtigatioiL Tlie phenomena which we hL*re hive«ti^to dilTer 
hi an iiit|Kirtant rejipei^t from the foi-cgoing. For of their 
very Tintnre, the pmeesM^a of psychology are ct^eDtially 
iranaient csperieiices, cTents of which no two are precisely 
alike. Althon^h. tlierefurc» isyciiolo^' tiften* an even wiiler 
field for expcriiDcnt than tho sciences fimt constilcrcd, thiB 
advanta^^ Ik iicverthelotw to ^onie exient nentralined. More 
over, exact observation, coirecl interpreUttion nf re6ult«> 
proper control of experiments — essential prelimiiuiriea to 
the formation »f Muntid jndgtikeiif' — t^ni only Ix* atljdnMl 
as the rcftult of moHt ean-hd and iii'itlotigvHl training and 
wilii tlte aid of wide ^cie-ntific knowledge. 

The study of peychical manifestations ia customarily re- 

iv] Man'9 origin, and hi9 place in Nature 16& 

«o1t«iI into Hcrcml AuMmMonit In iho^e, tlie emoiiourt, tlio 
Acuities of tttt«ntioii, imiitdimtifin, boHcf. nlwtm<;tion, ruid 
volition, the phenomeiin of self ooiieciousiioae and ni^nt^ 
individtiality, the oesthtstic and ix^lij^iou^ int4tinc*U iiuiy Iw 
enamer&ted lis the chief, Tlio view htw been widdy held 
which HUgf^Ls tliut iill nieiitaJ |»roL<t?Mr«ef4 ure t)ie ultimate 
outc<»mr of m;nM>ry Miniuti leatlhig Ui |M.-rt;e|ition!4f mollified 
or 'iu«K>ciALe<r lieyond recognition though the Icitter niay 
be The prft'^ent treiid of opinion is to recogniw certftin 
oxccptiunA to this view* vhich <^anmit thereforo iie roijaitied 
aA applicable to nil niontal proci'tw.**^ though it liiuloublCTily 
focltitateB our comprehension of ni&ny of these. 

Ttiix, liowevt^r, doo ni»t nnkoimt to \ii\ idcnfiflcatinn ckf the 
meritJil pniee^M witli thi^ pliy^^iologicHl pheiioTiieiia Ity which it 
Jp a4r(H>in|>aniciL CVitainly ihcro are authirrn who claim tliai 
(be two ecrits^ of event-* are idt^nticnL We may n*pirc to ^ 
ixiwcr of ac4|uiring exact phyaiciil or physio logicni cquivalouta 
to ni(;ntiil T>henomeria'. But it titiould be home- in mind (hat 
even thon we idiouhl not hav« utuined U> a peifect conipr&- 
liGiudon of tli« iiatnrt? of th(? proee^B. For though the tendency 
to identify the jiroeeHM witli ilx eKprvHKidn in t^^rmK of phyMunl 
meAvn rente 111 in greiit. yot it ejinnot Ite denied iliaL the pli}xi(^ 
expression in thU nt^e lu* in others w of the nature of ft 
moacnire, or property, juet a& the weight of a U>dy ift one 
mGOKure or property whereby wc may be wild to know that 
body. For the present it acems to n»c preferable to distin- 
fCUipih mental from wimt are eoinmonly recoguiHed Jb^ pfiysieul 
processeA. and to a<lopt (tliough without prejudice) the terms 
derived by Pi*ofe*aar Lloyd Morgan, TUU author desoribea 
general piiyhitrnl [ihc^nomeoa k« leitwtif. These phenomena can 
be meaHui'ed in plivHieal teniiR Other phf^nonkoua, for which 
wo nt present aeeim tu have no physical nieasare, n^c^iin|uLny 
mentchi pnx:esae8. These are termed me-takinftir^ It ih a 
matter for di^cuHAion whether eueh proeooee^ Are ?iUi>H:eptib1c 
of raouiircment in physical terms. Tlie cApression ' metakiuo- 

* Piychology haa horo unc uf ite sent tcrUJuty <^Ji<"urm:i; TiLrllirT 
Uhi ruulU Dbtotnod up to IJkt |>ru 

lAO Camhridge Theological E»ttuy» fiT I 

tic* vould «eem to BUggt^^t that they arc- not tht;i^ >4lll(Co|ltib)4^ I 
The ijucMbion imnnot be dnall; amtwered ai this tim& And I 
in view of the iirri^ruinty i-r-giirdln^ tt^r wwwcr il uppi-nm 
to me \X\\\t the exprewiuiiw '|iiiraLiimKir<' luirl ']»tnikliii?lic' are _ 
mort* ftp|»nj|iriHte th^^n 'inctAkiikCHU' arid 'nii^fAkincticj' I 

Hiir gi-eflt Englinli piontrer' in tliin ^uLjfct Uaft inig^^CAtcd 
a tlircefolil cladsilictxtmn of ^mdi pj^'chtOLl t»r 'mctukinotk ' 
processes into porecpta. rcccpla, and coDccpta Of these 
cspression^k tlie Hvi^t \^ jJc^riptn^ of tlio utivct of r^timubil- 
ing a ^eTiHe or^n or Htumory ti€rve-endin|i( of the sitnpkvt 
kind Hrii) wiUi tike ^inipli^t meclmnlsiu aruielied. Among 
tbe }XkTi^ibk< efTect^i. l\w incMt iiikpnrlaiu, Tiiiiy Ih* il(*JU?nlK43 
UK rvflex :U!tioMH^ or a^iiii Hx-fioim iimy be citiM^rved u hk'h nre 
Cftmnionly ile^icnbcd aa * int^hictiTe.' Itec&pts repreneiit aii 
advance upon the p^vchicnl cotwiil ion capnbli: of pcra:pt« only, 
'ITie tcnji retept rL^fei'a to the alteration in the mental etAt« 
ooneequent upon thi* uilvent of n ncm<*' nf n-nxe iinprewioiiN, 
the i>b[:wrvod HWiuele of whicb i«iid to *liow tliat an 'ofisocia' 
tion ' of proviuua |ierceptiona liaa been elaUjrated, ftiid U now 
recalled, in ihv Tonn *i^ an id<VL lliiw in CE-rtHin gnuliw of 
iiiu?1ligencv a simple KtimidiH may vitHin* t^) cidl up a &tm- 
pleto i^\m\^\ of JiHiSEicialiontt In Ihr funii of idt-iut <rcocptMi 
But in other grades, those namt^ly which ai'c alluded to in 
tbe Uluntmiion of itercepta, no idea would be evoked either 
on the &^t or upon subsequent appliaitions of tbc stimulus.^ 

Concuplrt imply that not only haw the reeept idea been 
eUboraU^rlf hut tJiat It liajt been abi^traeled, that It hat been 
translated into a ^yniliol. and tlmt h name ha^ boen gtvim to 
it, ThiK rfon)[Hirati\i^1y iiini|d<f nnfl diinliTK^tvc xynttHil may 
theti lie t<ii1>4titu(43(i mentally fur die eoinplicaied aM^ixrfatiun 
of iniprLitwioiw from whkb it originally upraii^'. Tlie power of 
Ayin1>o!iMnt' idea^ Ia thua r^omewhat analo^nis to the proceaa 
of rthnrtband writing. 

*Mif>iish distinct in the terms of class ilication, the throe 
TarietieAof mental proc<«ti [jo^ inipercijptibJy intooni^another. 

' KtimuiM, Mjiny pHjvhologiHls lianl uiii fui linov dmnn Ja & «o- 
fK>K dapTHciitr thipKlAMiQL'Hliou, (LZid qiit-iiiL'd wliicli ilutniiulBiliuituf miob 
nl^ecH Ut thMc dtHliiLi^tlonii n* being Arbitniry huIhIiv^hIuil 

iv] Man^H Qrtgin, and hi» piace hi Natun 

And it IS Holcwtirthy thut the itiom perftot f>ririfi uf cont-cpt 
Hit? HUjiin^ililc only in tofijunctioD with the fiicuUy of speech. 
For hcmii in iiiipliiMl f,l»' |M^i-r»-irl,ii>n of tlie |K»w<'r iif wyin- 
iKilUiiig iderus ii|Km which the|wiHst'><Hi<>n of a goTiuiijeciniCL-jJt 
cTcntually and cas^ntiaily depctitii. Ht^tK^e the im|xirtanct; 
of liiij^iHtk sttittiea in irlution to fwychicAl phenomena 
ivccivvtf a great Ktitnulti^. 

One of tho (C'eat diftiQultie» in the domain of psycliolog:y 
httx Ikk'ix the eluddntifiti of the reUuion between inatiiiet and 
intelligence, 'llie difUculiy it» lai^ely due to the looae oni^duy- 
nieiit of Uitf tunn iiuLim^^ Tlii^ net result of renaiurirh iw to 
shew thnt the tmn»^ition from iiintinetivL^ U% tnUdliguiTtt acLioiiti 
ia ail imperceptible one ; mvX n» vte ftlmll JjAve iireiLAion bo 
rcEDork in smother connexion, the force of habit or ref »etitio[i 
may detenuinc Uic ti^n^fonntitiun of wliat are initially Intel- 
Li^nt into iiiiitinctive actions. 

With fiiieh preliminary statements, we nmy paM to the 
eonHtdei-atioTi of simie r-E^idti^ of sdeiitific observationH in tho 
foregiiing and other hranrhc** r*f Ppychohigy. 

The gr^iid ^nei'al result is embodied in the cunnctioii 
thftt the psychic-al tnanifc^tAtion^ of Mnn owe their mri^ij to 
& process of evolution. This ovalutior i& no lc6s dii^tiiictly 
demoiutrable thiin the eiirreflponding ijrocew as r^carde tho 
body of Mtta Indeed, Himilrir pnnc-iplea ^lide research in 
each caae. And should it be denb^ed to trace the evohition 
tjf the oinecpt-ffinidiig iiitellectt fmni a Hta^e In which per- 
ception alone ih prewTiL the htudy i>f pri>gress in the hinnan 
mind as infancy gives place to nintiirily will a^hnimbly Mnpjjly 
the demand* Mi^rcover, not only may intcllis^nco be observed 
to be superimpOHcd tiptm instinct, but eonvci-Hcly the doac 
relation (^f llie two nmy be detected in the gnuJual trane- 
fommtion of intelligent actions, which by inceseant practice 
and repetition boeome, as we fiay, * instinctive.' 

N4»r iff thtr «lnily of child-life the only ninite of itivcxtiga- 

tioir The coinpaniti ve t^tiidy of the human mcen |H>hiU< In 

exftcdy the nniric direction. And here it nnint W rcnifirked 

that 00 bi morpl^dogy, so in ptiychology, the tendeitcy to take 

<L r s. H 


Cambridge Theological S/^mr/n 


oar riviliHt^l langblKiurx w itw putAndarfl of coirpHrlson U 
natural nvn] hinUYuiUi^ \i\tt ulHuliitt'ly iinjiiAtinnliltv To olitain 
i9itirtfii<:t4>ry rcnutts Hl>aiidu[jiiiciil of auoh a position is the 
tirit rcHiuiMtc, The huiuaii iirus mint be taken in their 
otilir€t>', and tlie rait^fc ftf rurmttnii they exhibit niu»t be 
in[w!« llio tir*t siihjwt i»f rttmly, Thi^ puth cTiU^red ii|nm, ve 
shall T^ot {>o lon^ eii|^^e<l in our enquirv ^fore wc ri'aliac 
thut tilt ]XM]tiuri of Muii oil t-hc averugu Ik CH^n^tidorably 
lowi.^rt'/l Ky tin- i-iKullK t^f luvf-Aiigiition in rpft'r»?Tice in tiHtcr 
I'Hcvfl thnu ihott^ nioHl. fjimili^kr t^i nx Bui n wind tif vvnrning 
iJittnt be pvcn in thi« connexion. For on the one band, com* 
pamtivcly few of tlic lowJior raccfi have been nubjcetcd to 
expert invLxti;,'atiiin by miKloni iim^'duib^Kt^^ And in idl 
ciiHW, the putentmlJtio« of even tho mo&t de^-a/led HtTf^fc 
for improvc-ment (under fiivoui'ablo eori<litton» and in Mlt* 
TttumViu^v wbii'li iiri* KtirniilLtjnjj;) pn/K^-nt insilj^riul for eiuvftil 
nnftlyriiH. But I bt-liovc the gL-nernl result to be dist stated 

Thia bccomcfl the more oridcnt when obrwrvationa are 
extended to other fornix of life, ^o one cnn litudy the 
marvc]1oni>! cnpfibilities dcvtlopeil unionc insw^ta without ad- 
mittinjf the JuatJee of the H^wertloii that Man in hln primitive 
fitide ^tlN fur liohind tlii-Mi^ in ro!4|K*ct of utinbutes which wc 
<\veni abnolutHy eharHet4.'rHtie -if eiviliKalion and (fven of 
rtj1tnri\ Thin htatirnieiiL iip]iUl'h not unly Ut primitivi? btinian 
races of to-diiy, but, ko far as can be judged, to Mao aa he 
eiir^terl hi the infnney r>f the human race. 

1 hftv't? r^uid that the general rt^&nJt of the reaearchcs 
ef the last forty yean- loads to a bullef in tho evolution of 
the varioUH type.-* of huinun intelloct from lowlier foniiM of 
int4?Uect sueh as tho»H.^ exhibited in the other animals. But 
in making th1j4 stHtemifnt, oite U uhli^^ed U> note thut even 
anient biologic I A, iiirn of umUiiibtt-iI roiufK^frnr*^, Imvo refuwHl 
Ut accept tliifi conclusion. Uommiun Iiha examined the poai- 
tiouB adopted reivpeetivcly by tlu^x of the nio«t emfiicut of 
those who reject the evolution theory aft tlniH applied. Aiid 
Uic rt^milt of an attalyaiB of ttie viewaheld by Mivurt, De Ijuntro- 
fegcs and I)r Wnllacc is not u little af«toniahing< For it appears 
that the grouuds upon which they tievepally base their rejec- 

n'] Ma7i» origin, and hU place in Nature 

tiou iif evoltitiioit ns L}ie iticidc nr tk^relopmetit of the human 
intellect are in twrti mutually tixdu^ivti. 

Until, tberefnre, ic^pat^r unanimity u hIiowii hj tlitwe 
who demand a separate explajiation for the iilienomesiin iii 
qneAttoit, it ifi imiKMMiblc to allow their tostimony to oTcrride 
the very lun^o amount of coiwiBtent orideiitie^ which can bo 
brought forward on the side of &volutiu». 

Tbe hnnuin intellect Ib no more an interruption of the 
coum^ of Nature than is the hTiinan 1>ody. TliU < *oi i«i dent tin n 
c4nistUtiU-H nil c»1iMtju^]t: IhO n rocognithnt cif the enonnouB 
oxtpttt lo which the evoh]tii.f]i uf mind h^ut biH^n cnrritHl hi 
the lii^ht^rtl ty|>cH irf inHukind Tt is so i(ii|H>rfnnt Mi i'l^^Hm? 
the difRTcucc td' the rr«u)U when we judge by mean>< of the 
paycholoijfical test from those oblainod IVom Iho eitutiy of the 
huuiAn l>4>dy, that n ft^w wurdr^ mu?it l»e dcvnterl to this 
diiferenee- We muBl therefore revert for ii Tnoinvikt li> 
tho roor|>ho1ogical side «f the eaae. Ah already MLiri, Mui, 
juilgisl by hin >il.ructriH\ falln ti^tttindly \t\U^ plnee among the 
JVinuUeK AtiLorig thene miitiial^v Man ih dibtiitgiii-dieil hv kis 
adoptitiii iif tJii7 ere€l. nftiLiidn in lommfitiini fwith nil the 
Btructural modificatlonM connoted thereby), and by hU great 
ccrcbml dcTclopmcnt. The latter haa appeared till but 
recently to consiAt in an inureaa&l aniDunt of AutH^t^nco, 
without mich increase in cHJuiplvxity of ntnicturc as might 
indicate the wonderful functionfe aaeoeiated with tho human 
cerobrum^ !t la only when wo pafti from tho Htudy of thu 
artificially pre*wirvetl but life1eM>^ eerebrnm. or that of the 
isttme orgiiu as ei|MiNeii In An JinaeHtheUMed t>3i.lient, tti ob- 
aervadouH m\ tho pp<ychicft1 manifej^tfitionM 4)f the thinking 
Htii^ M«n, timl wtr meet witli tlie uiarvelluUFt phenomena 
which ani^ to Mankind such an o:cccptJoDnl poi^ition. For 
tho poychic:al manifcntation of the hiKhwt typed of Man leave 

^ Cf. (i«t^rii]i»j M'^ut/ii Efritutiiiti 
in Jnimait; also Met%Ud Srtttution 

» Of- KiltngiT'a t!oininonti on iht- 

miiiul4i Htr^i^turv ^f tlic reptilian 

Kwoori^htu nil tlio liuiiuui bnlti, tuii 
yul |>ubti«lLo<l in vKt4.^u«>) bj A, W. 

thui Ktat^mutiL 



CandiTulgt. Thv/dogifal J'JstuiyA 


iLo riKfiii fitr any mitwonception ra to their prccniiiicncc id 
this rwpcct No other ftinn of llfta hajri cvt-r, h(» far oit we 
can jnitgc, been ahlc to adviincc beyond the irtojyrc of forming 
rcc:tfi>lft. But iu thti mure rect'iit cyolutioii of the Uooii]iidB«, 
und oven nmung the rvtct^ (Hkrtinionly ro^^arded nn nnitt pHiiu- 
tiv© and eaTape, the ranceptual jwwor ha» Ivcii iu<c|nired, 
wttJi rc«tiJt** nhirh art too fninEliiir (<i TJt*e<l iiM^ijkulalioii liere. 
We havi5 MiH'ti tliat wliili^ wi: inny lutjiirr itt «^iti(* fiitiin^ 
d»lt' IhIi ftttjiin uj ji ititwtitiv of l»^ychical eveiit*^ in phyiiim) 
terms, yet the two series of' phcnomi^riA rdiould not be nc- 
^rdcd aa idcfitical. Nor is it at present possible to eomparc 
mt^ntnl |>nTt-e8Hes to secrutionB, or to refor to thciu &« fniictionn 
in thif phyKJolo^ca] t^nue of tlie tcnn. Ntmo the leMH^ motttal 
procea8e« are otiJy known to an tui iTiM^imridilo fi'om ilio 
exiutaiiee of cv^ri'tw ponding brainN. To thci activity of tlitMo 
they owe tnheir oriipTi^ ohsciin? though ihitt urij^n tuny l>c 
And upon tlirt healthy activity of the hmin. the Jtit^nlal 
process is dependent. Thii» it in th^t the weU-beitig of the 
brain is ^^t^ciitinL to the sum totfU of those mctakinctic 
proeerueB upon whidi perctonality and individuality aro built 
In this connexion too, the Interdiani;;} and Kive-and-tako 
between tht? brain and the r^t of the body is a eubject now 
risgaiiiiiig an importance which It had temjiorarily l(H;t Tbv 
unt4>ward mental uiflecb^ of nulit^altliy conilitJonH of tl]« hcurt 
and liver btsir in this r»(|H.*4rt fatiiiTiar t^^Mtimony U* a genvfs] 
ndc. while the »tiidy of tlit iiiMLiir haj<. in nnuAerouM hiHlmiurtw, 
revealed structuraL chani^n in tbt eleRu:nt«< of the brnio 

Wt* mtiHt now tnm onr ftttenti'in U\ the consideratJon 
tlie ffLctiirs which may tw HU[>|K»>wf! to have dL-tt<nrilmvl thu 
evobuJon of ibtr hiinnin biHly and ndrifl ulon^ tbr lines they 
have actually followciL Though we may fee] i[iiite aHMirtnl iif 
the corroetne^ of evohitton iw the minlc of development, we 
at omHJ meet with the diftieulty of providing a conviudiijc 
exposition of the iriflucncoti which Kave |iermittcd the evolu- 
tion Xa\ tuko place. Ah in tttc ciuie of any evolution, wo 

iv] Mati» onffin, and hin plnee in Nature 105 

C3iit |Kiiti1. ttttt tnliv flint lH,meiit»1 neci^ty nf tulu-itbitiiiri hi 
dimtJuiidiiigH aA a <;<iLidiUa]i of iMirvival and prngi'ea& But 
iw \ii Uicf cvt>1iitiiin of vanoiis aiiimalei and of tlieir c^inpriiitint 
pnrto and o^H^UlE^ it ivl^o rcmEiJrw to cxplnin th^ oripn, the 
prcM-rratiOMf And the |>crrMjtuation of i\\^ uiiHicr^t nidinieiitA of 
the faculty or onciui dwtinod \a> pj^umntc wurrival. For %\n» 
enunciAtion of a belief id EvolutioD la not the end but the 
beginning of fho wwxtUiT. 

It hna long been realised that f^r more living iiidiviiluiUs 
W htIuhUv [produced than cjiii tie maiiil-aiiiecJ by Lho ro«ouiTea 
of Nature. A surplus of the^e iiidividnaJH fails to niauklain 
itAelf iiJ tht; struggle for existence. It la thua evident tliat 
a process of selection is at work- Thia prooesD has been 
called Natural Selection, lit the second place, the action of 
tiil» proe^st^ U definite. For tho^e tiidivlduaU which persist 
l^ipear, so lur ft** can be seeii, to he K^^tter tittod to eopo with 
tbeir flUTTouiidiag^ than those which do riot ()ersist TLo 
Ncloctiori U clien-forc u selecttuii of Lbe iltLeat, atul lhr>tigli 
rxiL dearly detnoiiHtrable in the caj«: of all fomifl of life, 
there oau t)e no doubt that liiclectiou ha» e^crcineil and Blill 
cxcrcaso' uti inHuoncc on ixli tilikc 

The niatorial upon which the procoaa of selection act«, 
coiu^stft of the indii'lilualM winch are oontiituully l>oitig 
produced. At the pretient day, Xq aay that naturally the 
eDdowmentA of all are not e^jnal Ih to rejioat a platituile. 
hi nnler for h iw.'li.*ctive ikction to be exereiwd. it is iiecowiiry 
that a* variety irf individuals should lie producei.1, and indeiHl 
it is Dot ditficidt to demoii^ti'iite the variabilit) cf organiwmi*. 

Uur Hubjeu't nia> now be set fi^rth in tlie foUo^iu^ way, 
Wti obw^rvc- thnt variations occur in the individnalii which 
aro produced in successive ^eTjerations, We otwcrvc that in 
view of the struggle f*>r existence, a eoloctivo pnncurt detor- 
inincK the nurvival of som^ aud the dying out of others, Our 
sLti«[ition iri thus clearly and ft^reiblj drawn to the Mtudy of 
th^Kf- vnriHtions. And hert'in there are at lca>»t bhnw nmiu 
AEid Cf*<enLial divUidns of the problem. 

In tin- fir«t place tlie nature of variations and the 
oircumstauc»9 of ihcir ongin claim attcntioa AguJn, the 


Camhridg^ Theological Etsn^i 


Bmoimt or degree of v&nAttoaA, *i»d Hbtit rek&tioiui b> one 
vivther, pr^Tidc most impoftont ^utijodi for rcMftrch. And 
jct iLsnii), vo miM ooflwider the nature of t^riatioDS as 
regftrdfl the chiinjcv! hv wtiidi n chArvct«r at firut cvitfUindnK 
H Tttrliatk>Q may be reproduced tn fiiairc gcnemtion^ ah a 
cnmpanUirdy Ktebk »nil oj|i»c»iit fatturv uf ihe lait«n 
\u <itlier wcjfdit, the |iiM*»uiikPitt of iiilicriuuicv ilcniand in- 

1, OriffUk ^ Variations 

Ibe origin of YariatioiK, i>. of the nmiTriiLl ftnm 
wUdh a ffeloTtion i:ttn 1h* niwle In' »in iiit-AUH fwlit^Jwr 
Imman oroUier), u uTlininU*lr tmtiiwl ap with Uw pm|)ertiri 
iif living amtter. Tliv bkili/ginki cad uikderst&nd ea^^ilv enou^fa 
tbat Tariatiom mav be inlinito in decree ^rnntcd tiiat 
liTibic matter U auaccptiblo, and that il nisQctfi to ohanfiea 
in iU envinmmcnt Tlic precise cxpluuition t>f how and 
^hj living matter la thiu susceptible is ontf removed a 
BtAfTv further tiAck, whtni we urp^e tlul i^iucli duiutf«^ aflvct 
the nutntion of matter. Fn^wtil U\ h logical coTicluaioii, we 
find thriL if it Ih? i^iit^^l Uml living iu»tU-r do|irniU fnr 
pcntiMrncc un procw««a of iiulTilKiii whicli ^iv «UMpepti1>1e 
m die influeucv* of t-at^friml ei^enU. nueh aa Uiiii[nintiire. 
li^ht, cU'-» then the pr<^diJction of vniiatit^n^ la ititelligible. 
But the kcA^ to the problem Ilea in a perfect coniprchenaiMi 
of the premiRo, that L-* of tho natun> of Itfc, our campre 
hen«vE] of wtijeh ih only partial 

2, Degrtc c/ Variatiott. 

In pHJwing tjj the (ximlde ration nf die amount f>r rati^ 
<if variatHiim'*, j*|K:H:iiil strew mtirtt \k liiid xt\nn\ the rcwarduM 
to which the work of Mendel ha*i rcccutly led It in nolo* 
worth)' tiio> that vnnation^ arc recnj^nirvcd which diller not 
only in dc^oc but alai» oh rcgarti« theii' tran^nii^btlity to 
oflifprini;. Thufi variution^ ejin now t>c HntxIiTrdcd inte 
(a) mutaticuM and ^^> d net nations. Mnt4iti<mD diller by wide 
intvrvaU fnun wieh <jther, i.e. Ihey nre diMcantiriuouH ; and 
they are ti'Fmnuiittty] with iN^lainL^' fri-im |MLreiit lu oflvpring. 
Fluctuatiunn arc le^^ divt-rgont fn>m une another* and there 

rv] Man's origin, and his place in Nature 

IK tm nfrtiug ovidiMice as to their n^anankludon. It U the moro 
iiU|K>rtajit Ui dmivhrnuahc botwtM^n Uie* iistt kiiiilM nf vHrTiitinn, 
ttiiict? m evolution mutations alone, aiid not (liirtujiLioiLn^ 
constitute the material n^n which *L'Wtive ju-lionn uro 
OxerciMMl. It iiuiy be a(t<tc<l that while iv>t recognising theno 
two c-tttOKoricfl (via, mutations and flnctuations), Diirvrin 
believed Uiai »*elecUon wae exL*rc?tHed anions niftiiy chnractcra 
now merely reytnnied ii» llnetiintioiiH, when jnilged hy the 
KTnall extent of their varinbility. lliis belief woidd not now 
Ik! jiihtificd- l\ui Un[iutU'. )i riH'rni iiiith<tr^, "Tfow uiid why 
t^GAC miil^tiojiA aiine. i» the grt^t duCtiilJiiiiling pixiMrni of 
Biology," The problem ih therefore only iiHrn>wwi within 
closer limitfl and not solved by etidi recont work. 

3. Nrrr/iity. 

CkJT tgnnmticr regarding the nltimale canqe of the 
pnidutuiiin uf v^irhi.l.iniih ()ifirtii':td^trly nmlaiioriH) i^\t<'ndH 
equally to the subject of the inhciited jjowcr of pn)ducing 
them. Ho tha-t idmervhtionM hr^ for the [ire^ent directed 
printipiilly t" th(; di«M)vcry *rf the order or rul<j reenlating 
tlicir nppcQTntice and ti^aiiBinid^ion- 

The [ni|K>rt«jee ot the stndy t*f WvvtsWty in this con- 
nrxuin im n'll JiarJ fi gnwp. For it is plain Umt por- 
peluHtlon of HUfh fharjiot<*n« iw have favoured pan*nta. *^ill, 
gtitil Lht^ i*iiviri»t)metit dianges profufnully. t4.'nd to pre- 
serve the crfli^pring in «iueeeMiive genLiraUoiis. Our- dilTii:ultie)« 
ct>nimcn<re Imwuvt-r with tlic enquiry int«. ami the definition 
of the term 'eharacter/ DifHcuit nA the investigation ia iii 
any cn^c, it U eH|>e(!iall> p*o in wnch inHtauiX!ei jl* aru rdiordeil by 
the higher nnimnlH ineltidin^ Mnn. in whieh ' cimmcterbtics ' 
are numerous and diverse, atnicttirul and payehieal. 

Tlie ^enerU phi^nonit^niL of heredity may he sumnuHl up in 
the »i"tHteinent ihat |wirrnlnl eJiHraeler* nT varied nature are 
rt-pi-i>dni'ed in the (*JlH|H"iniT. Smne Hre ceprodnrMl with 
couj^tancy : for example the euential <trgans of nutrition or 

^ UoHt of thi> iiiriHtkix wfiii'l; niv M tiuctuotiuufi ikii-1 not mututiooK 
dimrtLt dvtvriiiiucd by fiKxl ur ' Punnclt^ Mendeiinn, IMO. 
eliroHtio iiiflneiKtw rruiy \iO rvgarAal 

t6S Cambridge Theological E»9a!f» \Tf 

circnlation, ot tlic normal rtiiuber of eyes or limb§ hi animaK 
But beyond tbetie, hdiik^ rrAtiinv nn? rmt a» I'otiTtiMUtntJy 
tnirimiiitit-il. Tlic jir-iiu^liMl liiw.* of inYOBligatton whicb 
hnve hwtu viitc^rv^l itptm by tbonr whuee Atiirlles have led 
Llieiu Ui Llun Mibjeut oiay be briefly iikdicatcci in the fallowing 

(rt) In Ihe firrtl pla<ro, tho enquiry &a to tlic tranwnifflioo 
ftiid inbcritiutcc of chftnxclcre acniaired by a parent during 
the courne of exbtenoe, hiLe atlratctorl mucTi uttenUoii. Hie 
Enter^t of tluH litibjeirt de[K'n':L« on its relation to the ocdou 
ijf whnt \iM< t>oi.iM dr^rribed hImivi^ w*. tlit? priH-t^iw of Xattiral 
Selection, For if a {Nirenl niAy act^uire advHntHccoUi 
diATKCt^nt Hiid trHnsinit Lbeni Lo oH^pring, tht? Utter vIH 
from tbii cause, in adilition to jiny othcra, be advantagcotiflly 
situated aa retards Natural SolectioiL But, in fuel, the 
prc^eui trend of opinion fuvtiun^ Uw rrjvction of a belief 
in the tranamirision of acquired characteii^, save in rare 
aitd iibiicure ioHtiuieeiL 

'Hie tietioil work of rt^traMi has foUowetl two main 
On the one hAiid, t'oi[ipairiF«>[kH bnve Xvt^ix JiintiUited bet 
the parent and o13^pt ing ibningli a scries of ^menitioiM ; and 
the Tiiatoritd for conkparij^un Iioa nnnallv conHi^tcd of atruct- 
uriil iletatH providing dninictet'^^ susccptibk' nf iiicjiHiircincnt, 
nitbouftb to a Hnmlloi- ostetit. psychical phenomona hare aJao 
l>een i^torded an<l coinfMirod, liuforence hjw tib-e^idy been 
mnde lo tbe twofold clarification of variations iw mutiitifnw 
and Huctuati'tiiHr — a distinction based upon olMerved dilTer- 
eneej* a» reganl^ t.j'nnHTiiis^Lun or heredity. WliiJ*? Ibn ex|irn- 
ment« nhicli have ri^veult^d the couKtancy with wliicb ukutalLmui 
are tranninitteiL have lieen chiefly oirrierl out upon lower 
fonn^ inf lite, there ie little doubt a»4 to the applicability of 
dmilar lawA to Man. The getiurtJ n^Hult^i have thuei far t>eeti 
applied witli ouct^ue^ U\ the imi^roveiueut of crop* <*r «tocki 
but retHJiii writers insist on the iuiTwrtauce of their bearing 
upoi] sociological jirobleniii. (>ike most ut<iuient4)tni >ijfer«Doe 
HuggusCft that in tNJiidMiting the degenerative i^rndeut-ivts of 
cortftiii claKf^s among dviliNi^l >4ix:1eUeii,-(U(rhrLniit*ilial Jigenciai 
&s hygiene anil eduailion arc iiLnd(X]Uato iiwtruQkciito, sincts 

IV] MaiiB erigin, mid his place in Nature 169 

they can derolop typefl of tho ordor of fluf^uatiotu only, 
vamtioiui that In to afty. which are not ti-auHitiixsihla Uy 
tlinAe who hciUl thcico vicwM, thf.* H^pi-o|jiiHtc rL'iii<Hly would be 
HOitght ill rurefiiLW rt-Htmiinii^ ruiiju^iil iiiiiuiiH, i\rAl Em En 
jvolisclivv iikntiiijc, wrUi niith(^|(ieiit t'liiiiiruttioii of iniiloMiruhh^ 
typea. Tlie rt^Uriation of such a proi^pccty liowcvcr 4lo«iini.blt; 
it tDJcht appear Irom nome poitite of vic^\ ee>enLe to-ilaj 
wcU'iiii^h iiuiMJ^ible, so complicated have the coiidiliotirt of 
inolom <!ivilLsuticin l>ocoma But 1 coiuidcr it urffCDt to 
indicate tho trend of opinion upon this Tery important aepect 
of the fttud}' of here<lity iu geuend. 

{b) On the other haiiil, enquiry hn« bocii diroctod to 
the detaILt of tlie priK:<.MH of i-epriMhution u^t rev^dt^J hi the 
viimjvl tiwuc* iniiucdUtely concenird. 'J'lic utniuctt refine- 
menu of reaeAreh iiave been employed Ut ttearc^h out (he 
exnct part pUycd by in»lc nnd female tT^^rminHl ttcments in 
the mjntcrhiun hisdory of huxuiU rcpnulut-tion. And yet 
f^reftt &e is the weaJth of obeerved detail, the infereucee are 
by no meanei clL>nrly dravru. In thEsi, a* En wj many i{ue«t«» 
iht? biohigiHt Titid-s LitiiM^Il* urrt%l<;d liy liix iiirotii|.i1et4^ com- 
prohonfiion of tlio nature, F4ii'iictui«, and cc)nk|MMitioii of tlw 
living <:ellular u]aa»*ea wberehi he cmi diiwcni chAngee wiiich 
bo ie unable fully to explain. 

Again, therefore, wo Gnd at tlio end of our invugtigation 
properties of living iimtter. corni^nrablc in their o^jetiirity to 
Uioae which iletomiine variation. Unceasing though the 
eflbrtft to pierce the gloom luay be, failun^ bant attended 
tli« efliiru of evr-n t1i4; tintnt iutolloete in thii4 ntU^mpt to 
Bolve Uiv pn>blL'nk. 

Thu» it lit ovident thut whiles the biologint it^ convinced 
that Mftn ia the outcome of an eTolution, the main outlines 
of whicli are unmidtukeablG, yet the endeavour to i-endcr on 
Bticoimt of the influcnecB which have detomiined that cvola- 
tion ia foj- from satinfactory. There i* no doubt at all od 
to Uie occurrence of viLriattoni^ There u equally little doubt 
bttt that some are selected to the exclutiiiiti of othei'd. But 
iltc weakness uf the pre^^ent position iiea in the impufwibility 
of providing a elear exposition of tJte origin uf variatioiks. 


Cambridge Theological E»tay» 


And even \fA*> tli^ priH^e^i of Batumi ^ledntDri, we lulil nlHul 
iiiilueiii%« sueli a» Hrxual Selet^tiiwi (Dai'win)^ HLTnological 
Selection (Kcnnance), or Gcnuinal t^elcctimi (AVcinnmrmX tbc 
(tifficultic^ arc not thereby removed. In the same w»>% 
tblUiotiu:^ the iL-Hc-'CrUiined taet^t of hcTodity are rapidly in^ 
croosiiig in number, tho biolc^istM pro^nt dttticulty con)!d»U 
In the exAct application to Man of inferencee drawn from the 
Mtudy of low^sr forniN "f IJftj^ 

Under such di^umstances biologiut^ mn ill atfoni to be 
bigoted, mid tiiii^^t atid dn weleome any profft^rt^l e.ijtWmtiunH 
of thorte complex problcnw. provided only thnt siicb cxplanA' 
lory bygHithe««e present a fair baaJa of uliiierTaden, open to 
the ordinary mlcs of criticism. 

K Prospective Evolution of ifan. 

A^ regar^» the futuri^ development of Man, I fall to Be€ 
why the pre»ent conrtition of Mntikind in respect nf mcntftl 
ability »bwdd be the Unul iitage. Indeed 1 1w1iei« UihI hi 
Mail there ia more »w>pe for future pi*ychirAl evolution thwi 
for hk evolution in any other reapect ; for it BetniH improbable 
that the structure nf Mnn will underiro much m'nlification. 

Hut to the poti&ibilitiou of mental improvement it is hard 
\a\ tiec an ottd, exporially when one reiiieinbern tlie advantaf^ 
conferred on ench Hnccewive generation by the cx|K-riencc of 
the paAt> whereby each is enabterl to stArt from a more ad- 
vat^'wl IjjuWT. At the name time. I flo tint whi tha) X\\vtc i* 
any very dtrfiniW prospect of pniloiigiii;^ the normal HfeLime 
of Miin, to the eAt*Mil nug^e^ted by a nH'-ciit writ*:r^ 

>\"batever be the ultimate goal toward which Man is 
teufliitjc, w<^ cnii see that one, if not the uhicf condition for 
continned projfrcea in Human Evolution )« ailaptntion to a 
BiK^ial mode of exiKtenoi\ Thfi ^eat commandments of the 
Lfiw were reei^iiiied lon^ before they wore i«o vividly r©- 
oitk^l to human notice at the eoDuneneemeiit of the UhriBtiaii 

' FimtbMi hiu rowntlj publiihod 
kD ivlcttBtln^ luoniiik^ipli im thin 
mtyect. Cf. Pofitrit </ the Peuibods/ 

* B. idLt»chiuk<iff. 

iv^ Man's origin, and his place in Nature 171 

Era. Wfthin ttie Himt-a or v, oivilit^c^ cmiktmmity the siru^ia 
for exi»u>n(?e is tikuch oU^ure^l, »o mudi ho in<Iix'<l thut Hiixicy 
(lechred with a good show of reason that the cosmic proceAs 
of evohjlioii H.iu1 the t-tliical |)ri^icei4A a^ru AtilagoiiiHfJC Ti> me 
it Ji|i|>e»ii> tlwil till' *litlci-<rr«"<' in jirolHilily more s*(ipiux5iit tlinn 
rc^, and tlmt wheu oiicc ti iocicty hoH been evolved, itA continu- 
iui<:c dcpcuiid on some nioditicutiiJU of thu procet^ of i^olcctioii 
within \ie limita. Hty that eclix^tloii wheD exorcised within 
the society nii>;ht appear difleroiit from aelectiou esercieed 
wltlKMit ] }trivo ]{tU<? duubt tlmt A<!le(-tioii ie not nlxili^hod, 
but only masked nnd rc^tntiiied, within the limits of what U 
t4-<e)micjtUy dewTilfwl ha u wicm} ^"onp- \n the foregoing piige« 
allUHioii ih niaile tii coiLilitioitH under whirh the ImwI and 
hittbcHt tyitr^ inny fjo tvifeguntxled and [lerpetnat'tMi Inrli- 
vidunl cfibrta in thi$ direction mny appear of in^TiitcainiaUy 
^iiiaM vftlnc. But in the special ojwc of Man, thtTu iw iturciwcd 
knowiudge, and this hrin^ incruELse^l rcrtp<>nsibihty. And in 
this eensc, ret^poni^ihility m imposed on individuaU so to 
repdat^ tlieir aeiione that anieliomtion, rather than retro- 
grwwion, imty be the cinlcr of the day, Upi>n such eouaJdera- 
tions miutt otir ru1»4 of 4.<<induct lie forniutated. 

K Tfte ortffiit of Iji%nng Orffmu'grwt. 

We have seen tlint Mun ik {ovTi of NaLtirt', «.nd tlwt hft 
occupies A definite position iM the worid of living or^niMiks- 
llie <)Lti:ption of MaiM on^rhi ImngH na face to face witl] the 
igni'vtif^n of the origin uf lifb, and the j>hunoiueTia aHHoeiated 
irith life At iU earliest inception. 

It niu^t lx> granted tliat altliotigh the most caref\i]1y con- 
<luetvd expennientf» «how thut tlie living orgaiiiHiuM known 
to 1IH tfw^ay can only be derive^] from pre-t^jtiHthig living 
inlistjince, yet at every moment we may olim*rve IntiUtnces of 
the tianaformatioii of the elciiicntA of lifulcw food into the 
living Huhatanco of orgaiiisnie. When wc etudy the ecrica of 
ehluw^ tlnifl prcricnted by the pheTiomeua of what is tt-rinod 
by phytiologi^ti^ mettLboUsm, wu *luiU roiiliwe tho <JiHii.idty of 
ftxiiig with aecm-acy the eiact point of passage fnun the 
orgtLnie chemical com|Kkund to the livhig ceH-aubatance. 

172 Cambridge Theological Esmy9 [iv 

Alt') the tomtcficy iiuij well bo escnacil which forotfGi» the 
deinunetratiou of the hifitoncJU coTitltuiity oF lifelem lud 
UviiLg riiiliHtaiirc, Ixith itk the evitlutioii i»r llvln;; orj^iniMius 
Hiirl ill the i^rttce^uu^M uf iiutriiiuii whct^bj theae LuaiiiiuD 

In the tire of Man we perceive irh&t is c«9ciina11y fi libcra- 
Uoti of energy; and thiai 14 true, whether wc Ldcutity lilv vith 
unei'gy or regnrd the kittvr mthor m a lui^imiro of UJe. Our 
lives thus regarded prc^vide demonstnttium (if the ftirxdn- 
iii«nla1 phenomeiicin of nature, y\z^ uerer-ceafiliig tninafonna- 
timi ttiid itMlihtrihuLion 4^f nucrgj. Of the ultiui»te Houroe 
of encrgj. nf it* nntiire, hii'I even of ite reliiti^>ii to wMtii&r we 
are at prcaciit i^orani Indeed the very exprci*iat) ^energy" 
JB after al] liut n et^nvenienl ttymbol, whereby we deai^^iato, or 
reeJill, eoncepti^ roii'^rueted on the iMtfiJK »f u nerieji of NVtwe- 
iiupresAioiia. Beyond tliew our ititi* licet tULi capabilities do 
not at prevent ultow ua to ptyii^ For the moment there li 
more than emuigli wnrk for all, in the oliwrvHti<iri kticI at- 
teinpl«?il interpn^liituiii of thoHt? iininvjuioiitw Fiirllier tlnui 
thiH our light cniintit u yet pcnetnitc^ " tticnec is a niatcli 
that Mnii hr^ ju&t got alight lie thon^dit he waa in a rtnitn.., 
iind that hi?i li;;ht would Imj refleetcd fi'ein und display wbUh 
iii«eribefl with wonderful t^ecrets, aiid pillars earvod wjUi 
philoBophieal syHteiiiH wrought into hanuony. It iK u eurirjtut 
t<eut<ation, now that the prehinintiry sphitter \^ over and the 
flmnc burns up ek-Hr, to fwe hiH hnnd^ lit Hnd Just a fflintptw 
of hiniHL-Tf and the patch he MtjiinlH nn vlftibh^ and around 
him. in place of all that human comf^^rt and beauty ho ajiticl- 
pated — darkncda atilP." To recognise the lK>uiidH ihiit* fixwl 
to inir prci*rnt hnowkd^e, nnd the unctrtnhitv Wyond, ia no 
confetwion of tieientifie failure, in the ea^w of the Aubjoct with 
which we are immediately coneemed, »ueh an adiuiMMioti \e 
foreed fnirn ua wlien we |>ass Iwyond the elementary atage 
of realising that Man i^ the product of an evoUitliiii which 
ha^ taken place ainou^r the MjtmrnaJK, 

jv] Man'» oHgin, and hi» place hi Nature 173 


G, Conriutnitm, 

111 die foregoing pa^:ra I hnv« endcEivoured to indicate tho 
fup<:«t« of Mjui and of the UiilverAC n^ thcet? preeeiit them- 
ielves to the eye of ilio biologist- We may ngftin \m\c tliut 
t}«? hitter reeogiiistt* inWy th«- Ihiiiu of ihe terriu»ry within 
which hi»4 work 1i(^ My inulrjivrinr hus been to ptthit out 
the dii(^f re^iiltn of Work within tfioHC limitit - ami tit dif4- 
tJti^iuh between what ts mire and what ;e iinccrtfiin grountU 
With the prci^entation of eiich results the task of the biologist 
itt at au end, aiid it renmJnft for [ihiloaopherK and theologians 
to apply t'^'^'^^ *\i)X3. to the mthition of problems which fnl) 
within their particular domain. 

If I miiy ftft^'Uipt to eonnnuriao what has been recountefl, 
I wotilil Miiv L)i»Lt we have boMly in fiico the fact thitt. ha 
H ruMiilt of liictliigical Mtiidy, we can no longer lutae MnrV pre- 
mninetice in Nature upon grounds of physical conformation. 
It is b)' hiti ])H>ulnokl jiowcrs thnt hU claims to supremacy 
arc suat^kincil, Although, in structure, Mun resembles 
the bettats that perish, he has so far surpassed them in 
intellectual developuient that, superficially nt leaaL, oom- 
pariwns hardly eeein to hold This statement is not invalidated 
by tbi' udnLiFwion that th«- human mind hii4 Wen evolved fhim 
lowly beginnings: iiule^d, &a 1 have alreaily pointed ont> we 
liave onl> to wateh the growth of the mind in the lolant aitd 
child Uf see this evobitioTi repeated before our eyes. But 
the final concluflion is that philosophers must hose Man's 
cluiDft to a supreme position upon his ment&l and not on his 
physiciil tharacters. 

Secondly, the past histoid' of Man fki^s to reveal to 
Ncic!nti]d« evidence of sndden degradation tike that implied 
in the vipi-cHHlon 'fall/ On the L-oiitrary^ the general 
t<nnlericy \xoa been ujiwariK though the |)Bth liiut liv no 
Dicans been straight; deviations Imve l)eeii miinenJUH, and 
mi«t4ikert frciincnf. We may, it i* trne, lind iTiat*nce*' of 
duiCcncnttion following a^ a result of over- specialisation, with 
O0n£KM|uent indutgcnec of the senses, with supineni-ss and loati 
of adaptive power under aJterod eircometanccs. And in such 


Camhrulge Thfohgical iinBaj/s 


Kpt'cinl cjiiies fie^mdaLtioii umy even pri>ce*5(i till 1-lie finfti reauU 
b cAtiriction. Itutif vrcrcfnixlthc Lidc of hiunaD cxieteiico m 
a wliole* ntKLcf^tin^ for the moment the fate of local cbl> or 
eddy thcraiD, wo shall rocoaTi'sc that the general result is 
a I'iae in levot. LHiring protracted periods pro^i^rcsa ma> be 
latent or weemiii^ly arrefltod ; but eyertuallj' favotinible eon- 
ditioiu] oblairi and amieide, kadin^ to u further step IB 

In no niiiiKKi. U tht* pmeesh more dcGfiiU'. Umii in the 
e-viiliitiur; of the higher lui-uUil furuUifs. Atid with ihv 
higher dov<:h>pmcnt <if tijeHc, comes the diriimnd fur eorrcw- 
ponding modifieation and change in tlie exposition and 
prti-*enUition of religious doctrines; At the Kame time, the 
dilhciilty hjbt to be fiieed, that a givei^ civilised «>cietj will be 
found to ineludo at nii« and the enmc time, »ii almost iniinlte 
miinlwr of Intel lei'tunl t_v|K.% reprtwrnlative i>r Hliuordt ererr 
pha^rT in the aeipienr^ of hinnan tiient^l i-vuhiticm. The 
pmblf.ui irt U) HAUftfy the reqirircmentA of eaeh and all 

But agfiin ftt thifl point the scientist withdrjiwit hi fftrour 
of the philoaophcr, rccognitiing that seicno^, a» Profeivior 
Wundt aaye of its ]:»syeholo^eftl branch, " can only indieatc 
the p&th whieh leuds to territories beyond her own^ ruled hy 
other 1aw§ than ihotue to which her realm la subject/' WiUiii^ 
tliose territories iini>«t be sought the eliiejs Icarling to a eompre* 
hii'iiMion of the e^enti^il miLure of life and of thotie hidL*fina1>1e, 
but iiDTie tilt! Ie!4t4 i^'imiiiL- human impuljicA which wo defKTibtT 
&i the prompting:^ ef cx>n^ieiice. By t}ie aid of 9nth «tnilic«, 
wc may hope to rcEieh a fuller explanation of the phenomena 
of treO'Wdl, and even to ^tin an intelligible coneeiition of the 
mysterieu^ ultimnte miurce of lite. 





I. SiK. 

1. The tenn Sin at once religiouB and ethiciL 

2. The ground of the obUgatloti of the Moral Iaw. 

3. The ethjcall; Good haa meaiuDg onl; in reference to FeraoDO. 
i. The Criterion of (JoodnetHL 

5. The Christian rereUtion of Divine Character. 

6. The Divine Character explanatory of the Uoral I^w. 

7. SiD a« fiuiore to fulfil the conditioiw of Communion with God 

IL The Need of Atonement. 

h Reconciliation of tohji to God, 

2. Atonement Che taking awaj of ain. 

3. The need of Freedom. 

4. The requirement of the Conscience an act of Divine love> 

5. Chriat as the Revcaler of God. 
B. Ilie Divine Indwelling. 

7> The Atonement and the Death of Christ 


Thk thc*fry (if evoliiti"ii hn.'" tlirt'wn not a little light vn 
the problem vi iho cxintcncc of moral evil iii the world We 
artj able to iiiirl<<iHtrtii(l now, in u wn> thiit wii« tint possible 
Ix'futv the the<»n- *A' d^jvclopnient wiw rwi€hi_^i. thut moral 
evil is rather failure om maii't* pait to riwe hi^^'her In the «eale 
«r IvJTig, iiud til rijwjmiKl U> ihe triK* 4ligTiity of hw imciirc, 
than » frtll from a «tHUr of perfeelinn which wa^i hU when 
hf HLirJ**il n|Hiri hi* liiwUiry, Th»- inl-er])r*"tj»Jion of the fall of 
Qi&ii. then. haH be^ti ^<eat1y modlfted by tlje Hcicntitic cou- 
chutions iif rtx^iit tiiiien. But there b |H:rhapA a flangt^r in 
our <lay Ic^t an apparently pimple explcmation of the fact of 
moral evil t^hould lopaon mau'a aonec of reaponmbility* and 
thi^ cluiiniii of eoiiAeietiee ^hoiiUI be neglected or expLaincKl 

Monti t*v!l In calletl bt riirintlnii phnisei'logv Sin. Human 
mikfulfiew i» an »xloni of (ThriHtism Uienlogy, h) wiying this 
we would not imply that Chmtianily ih-st iiitniduitM] tliti 
Dotitm i>f am. Fur of coume the itica of sin tw pro- Christian ; 
and amon^ the Jcwitih f>cople in particular the ronet^ptlou of 
nin roee (o a hi^'h moral fitanilarU. It would t)c an interei^tin;; 
<rtu<ty tt> tmec hi»t<jriciJly by a critteal wwc of tlio «Til]Dg« of 
tho Old Te«tnnicnt tho j^'iwtli of tbe Hebrew c'»ncLipti<?n of 
ubi- But H i» no jKirt of our puqKiwe Ui do UiU in tht? [irf-tt-nt 
i^uHv. Wv are^ nion* eonriTocsl U^ wet forth what i^in mvami, 
or nhoiild ineHii for \ih to-<lay, in the li|;ht of the (^hnHtlan 
ri'vclntioti of U(k1, thati to (nupiirc what it htwi meant at 
diflcrcnt atagea of rcli^oiiB history. 

Our method then iw not hifttorieft!, frur wc have not (o 
do prineipally with what baa taken place in the paat Our 
G. T. IL 13 

178 Cambridge. Tkeologicfil Essays fv 

appeal is rather to the experience of lo^y. We shall 
iridiilice ill iu> s^KM.'tjWiniiK uk to tlio (.irigiti of rvi1« mir fiball 
ve atlenipl liere ti> re<roiu'ne tlic fact of tlie exif*f*nc<j of 
inomi €vil in tho wurlil witli our f»itii in t\\\^- al)8i>1ute ^ood- 
neAH of tbo BupicQie Being. Specalation an to the origin of 
evil millet fuil ill profit w\<\ ]n>4truction unions there be n clear 
idea iu the min<l oa to it« nature. 

It U our iiitoiitioii then to insit^ beri» on the fact of sin, 
and to eramine \ti^ nature, rathor than to gpceuLate on tb# 
how or when or wliere of \u entrance into the world In 
wliiuh wr livr, Knrtber, onr subject, as tho title of the cwny 
hijg^t^tH, th a twofuld one. We Xwwv iiol ojily U> treiit of 
Sin» Imt of Ati>iKnnoEiL The lutter like the former i* eAiinhlc 
of historical treatment It ia not however our intention to 
ded historically with tlie ^nhjetrt of nt^>nemctit uny more thtui 
with that of m\. llic eoneeption of atonooKiut hoB not been 
a stationary one. juet ae that of ain has not been etationsry. 
But our concern W moi"i> witli thi^L to wliiifh the e^jneeptlon 
baa come than with that tVoui which it started or witii Uw 
sta5ci<e4 throM^^h whhrli ithiui |kH«H<?<l InMLvin^ thin however we 
wotilft not l)c thougiit Ui imply that therp is t^t-dny a jcofiO>n^ 
conricnfiVB of opinion among Chriatian thinkers as to the 
nature and rationale of atonement. On the contrary it mtiat 
bo aoltnowli?dice<l that there i§ comiiderable diHerencc of 
opinioa Such difi'ereiioe of opinion fleema to show Uiat the 
dilferent vlew« are but |jArtiat and ruit yet haniioniaed. On 
one ptijnt, how^vrr. there U » growing agrtenwiit, namely, 
thr rejeel.iou of \icwH which do not amonl witii the [^lerfection 
of tiie OiTiurchai^actcr. BeJirf In thlt« m cirpiij|>ri;ine importanev 
in the religiouH life and eaacntial to the right derdopmcnl 
of Chrij^ti&n thought Where unwortiiy vjcwm nf O^kI prevail 
It will bo impoBsible to tuider^taTkd cither what sin i« or what 
is the atonement needed for It** removal- 

A« the need of an atonement ariHCft tri>m the ^L of niUt 
it U clear that our view of that nee<l will depend on our view 
of HUk. Tlie nature of the iitoiii^mcnt neediil ti> rennnly Mn 
inuAt be decided by the natum of niii ii>(?lf We Aball Uten 
iu the fim part of tlie Kmay deal with tliin ignenUon uf the 

Sin, and the need of Atonement 

nattiNf of aa Of auineinent we will only ^[wak liftcr wc 
have reached coni-liiHiotij^ vm U» the nature of tliat which 
aUuiemvnt is designed to remed^'- 

If wv were ile8iniiie of IriveMtif^tln^ tilt* hiHtfir^ of ihe 
dcTcloptiient i»f tho conception nf *in w« H^iciilri n&tumll; 
nnaku im examination of the vonla uaed to cxpro^ the idea 
in itirtercnt Liti^Fieea, particulArl,T in (ireelc aiifi lld.irew, 
Tliat ie to «ty, etyuudojcy woiihl In? n ncct^^Mnry feclor in the 
inve0tigntf<iii. ft would bo nntiiral that we f^hoiild j-<> hiw^k to 
ihv orl^nj.l meaiiih^ of the *foril >»'1M mxl Ht*\^ in what 
coiitiextorie it was Q«ed, r^urh an enquiry would lead iu 
Mf iIri oinidii^l'^n whiHi wt- will o.vjirt'SH in the wnniM of 
a great ixitical tiiMl<iri«n y>\' StinitiL' nrligiun : "Tlie AiEidu- 
nicntiJ meaning of the Hebrew woni i^Mii, t>o »^in, Ik in l»r at 
fault Hiiil in Hebrew, nj* in Anibic, the active ^cauwittTc) 
fom ha>t the dense of milling Iht; mark filndgea xx^ 16) or 
oUv?r i>b_jo(i aiiiu>rl at Tlie notion of f«n, therefore ii* that of 
Winder or dert^iic*tion, and the w*>rd \a Jitwonnted with others 
lat indicate error, frilly or want of skill and insi^^lit (1 Sam. 
fxrl. 3lV' Aiida^iin: "In tworeftj>ecta, then, Mil* H*'brvw icic^a 
'Of «in. IT) it4 earltor Ntai!;L'vs irt ifuiUr dir^tinet fntni that whieh 
wv ntbirlk to the word, tn the flrnt plaec it xv- tiol, nmuwirily 
thou^lit of aa an otl'ence a;^inat Uod, but inchide<4 any act 
tiiat ptitM a man in thr wnm^; with those who have power to 

make him me it (tJ K\v\^ xriii, 14; 1 Sam. xx. L) la tlie 

xeeoiid place, the notion of ahi haa ne reeeanary refferenee to 
the connrienre of thir Mietinr, it doi?M not necessarily Involve 
moral ^uUt, but ouly, m> to Hjitak, foi-eusie liability '.'* 

It is dear then tluit a r^li^iouA conception of fiin, Much an 
in deve!o|ied in the Old Testaineiit, ^otw lar beyond what in 
o^mologically contained in the word which ia used to 
d^rila- )t And so it ia iii other lan^uagea. 

Tl>e Christian cniifTcption of win ia feir too complex to be 
reached or nndertitood by any etymoloi^ical process. The 
dottriiie of mIii doe^ not staiid alone, but m a part of Chri^^tifui 
thefilogr and is nidy to be appreciated ri itA tlogmatic e^ititexti 

^ lUilwrtoiii Smith, Prifplmtt '/ fmtti. jijt 102 T 



CanUtridgf: Thadugmd Etway^ 


The tonn 'wiii ' a** nww used U i»nmitift]ly a thLH)lo^ttal oiic, or 
let 110 [«>, Wl it rtlioulfl ACL'Mk tliut ^e »r<: im|T|yiii^' tli&t our 
Bubjcct IB liii intelligible csccpt to thcolo^aiis, a rcli|ci»Uft 

Hut further if the Chri«tJaii idoii nf «tn i« vi^eiitlally 
[<e]igioufi, iu fouikdHtioD ifl uo letu ctwentiiUly ethical. For un 
[k, ]i>i w(,' lun't< miiiV till? ( 'limtinii iiiinu' t'ur miiiiLl ttviL Tbe 
furuluiiHiutJil i'l(--iM nl' ri-liiiv tticii wtv rii.n'rk'tl for ii ri^llL 
i»uli;iKtjiu<liii^ uf the l.'hmtiaii view of nin. And wc iiiuJl 
have t-> iJcjJ witli tbc!?e lo wirtnc uxtvnt in tJic prcr*i:iit Kaaay. 

Ktliicjs fij flucb baa not to do witli ain- Aa?ordiiij;ly In 
work.-f Oil ctliicn not prufc^tiedty or distinctively .rollgioiu 
otbi?^ the idea i>f m\ is not t>r<*miiicnt and indeed r4ie word 
it*K-'lf nmy be L*!iilrely aUieiit from an «thioal U'e;iti^. Nor t«n 
any fiinlt tw found wiib wriicnt nii ct)iicK for nnt ipcartng ^^ 
kin. fur it dov^ nut prupi^rly ThU within their |jrt>vinL<e. KUncs 
1-jui in\i)Kt.i^ii4* r]ii< iiiitiiiii tif l.ln^ Uomt tmb-|H'tid<^rilly of WJ 
rcli^^crua application of iL Closely auociated wttb llie riolJW 
of (jocmI IK tItJLt iif Duty, tbut in t^^ nay mari'n oblijfntion ^ 
respond to the Uotxl in uctioii luid to muko it tia awV 
Failure to fultU tbc obbgation la ui the laiitniuf^' of ctJtrc^ 
wnm^ or evil Bnt in tlio liinifuuitu of tfioolo^y it is uin. 
VVc shall hope to nmke t^icivr the reason for retaining a 
diHtitLctive tbeolugical tenn Tor wmii^-doiiig. 

Now iiiiind evil (»r wniii^-dohiu; nmy \wi reirnrd^^d ftd the 
violation of |]L» ^^blch iiiiuj i-t iintltT uii lihU^ilinti Ut ulHiy. 
The ground of this oblitfiitiou may be conceived to be cither 
in the cotitftit of the lav or in itA oritflit. In Kaiit*« AVAtem 
OmphiL^i:^ iK liii<l <in the mimil h\\y iiHic|>evidcntly of tlk' Invr- 
giver, Indcod nnui iu i-egiirdod n:^ his own law^ivt^r because 
Die law whiiih he fcilA hiniHelf ujidor an i>l>liguiion to ol>ey 
ix written within hint The duty of oU^tilt-nce Ih rit-lf-evitlenti 
beln;:^ an ffitnitlon of ttie ' practical ' or moral rea^ioQ. 

Aivn>nUti>c 1'^ Kiiiil' Lht-ii tht^ imtntl Ihw i» iiitrMi«ii:atly 
r«afii)iiAl>ie. No cxtcntal aiithoniy 16 needed to cvnnnee ue 
of our obli^LioTi to live in obedience to the law. Our 
praetiral rciw>n teJl" n?* tlnit wo <»uicht to i>i»cy il. To 
dijH>Wy il if* to a<:i irrationally and tlierefore wrongly. Heusoii 


Sin, and th^^ n^ed of Atone^nent 181 

(IttinutiriM iifrvirh iiinti ihitl lii^ *}ti\\\ "ii(*f' cmlv nn thnu' ririximM 
wliicli he can nt Ihi; >4aiiie tttiiu will to 1>g univc:rhial Iilwil" 
To net thiJff* woulil l>c both right utiJ ipxni ; to act othcnriflo 
vronld be not mci'ely inexperlient bat poaitively wrong. To 
viol^iti' thitt liiw it^ reiiHon i.^^ to triil to fiiLH) \\n obliiKittii>ii which 
wo loaf ovndo but cniinot dctiv. 

It i^ not 'IfRnible (hat we »ihou1d at tliiit |M>iiit ffn off t^ 
exitmine uMi^ngth thi? iilUmuto re:L«i>i»A<>lcneB8 of the Kantian 
maxiia It ia certainly open to obvioiu luid gnire cn-itict»iTi 
Htt it. KtJtmtik Our irniiuHlmtc pnint Iiowevcr U not to ilUcusd 
the Imth or faWhoixl of the timvint but r.o pmp}ni»ij*t' Kant's 
im)x>rtnnt doctrine of the autonomy of the ratiinuil v»Hl. 

Bat wronR rioinff ih m otirer (iiiartcrfl regnnlerl iw the 
*ioliitK»ri of diviTie law. which mftri ih niider nu <tblijration to 
obey bec&tiAe of ita oriffin. Violation of the law \f dUobt^dionoe 
to OoiJ, the Hupreine Mehig. He hiiir ^veit a law which man 
ought lA* obey. To di*ibey the divine law U to aln, 

Now it iniKbt i»r coiirH<: Ire a^ked by nn ii<lvciinit<> of thr> 
autonomy of the will how the dirine origin of », Inw can Im 
feli<»vn or pro\o<i except by tlie iutrin^ic cbaracti^r and worth 
d tho Iftw it«elf. C<nivictior that a law i» divinely gircn 
depcnrb nlttmiitely, it may with reaaoti be cotitended. on tho 
content of the law, on what it cominnn(Ii4 to l>e done t\.u*\ whjit 
it forbids. Thci«e wlio rttnl the gatictity of the moral law in ita 
origin rather than in it** eonient have in general a eorivietion, 
although it may otil be jironoficiit, of (he rthicid characlirr 
i>f ihtf SiijHvniL' RL-hiK from whom the law procei-ds. Tliis 
conviction nceilj^ to be brong:lit i»iit and developed if there ia 
to l»e tuiy adeiiUHte appit^eiJition of the law m !>omething 
Urood, in the nlrictly cthiutl sen«e of the wonl^ 

Even were we to aiiint that there is a law which a man 
ou^ht to olkty beeatiw it proceeds from the Snpn^me Beinf];t 
wo hIiouIc] Btill be eonetmined to tuk what ia the inner piin- 
npie of the Ikw. Wt* eaiimit without Impiety *npjK>ee that 
the monil Inw w IntHcd nn i\w >triiitniry will of i.itn\: for the 
tvry nolioi) of arbilmniieHM ifi wholly alien T^> the ronceiitlon 
of n jirrft^rt Bein-^, A iierfect bein^ axu i«ily 1k^ etliii^lly 
.owEL 'Xhis d<ie4 ciot of course meiui thut Uia atiribates are 


CamhrUhje Theological EHHtij/A 


piirol} c'thitjti. TliL* power oiid wiailoin oT (rod vtu% Ik? tliuuglit 
i»r ajiait fitiui Ilit!^ goodnefia. But it U oit]^ in mi fai' as we 
believe thiit the Oiritie wisdom and power arc excrciiwd in 
peiTcct i£iiucli)i;fib that wc Jtavc iuilh in a perfect Suprcniu 

TIic moral law ttinnnt 1x> fjncnl tx^cauHC it proooede from a 
Betti|( of iiiltrLito pcwir whu in able tu puiibh evety violaUon 
of it> Tbero is a datigc^r lc<?t in our ^Miro to m\-v [>coplc 
from the eoiiaeijiiences of obtain Hctioiin we appeal to them 
mM <Mi nKknd fir otltii.'itl ^rniuulM l>iit. pnidf^ritinll), uml amVe 
tlie Miijetloii uf iiiund latv d^|>eiid ui>ori tlie puiuhtimcnt that 
will follow njnm iliAolK-sliencc Itr it. liidet^I the word 
'sanction' haa acquired this pendiur ^'nec, hnvinw; coiiu; to 
iiLcnii 'tliikt by whicli a lav ib oiifoiceablo.' But |>ooplo would 
TKii in refu^nn l>e pc'rwuadt^l timt violiition of moral Inw would 
ultimately meet with puiiii^hniunt, Diriuely di^peused, unless 
th<^y liacl wiUihi tlieiu the coitvictioit ttint tlie law U truly 
etlik^d and iU viohitlon ilraMTving of piJoiM)imr<nt 

It nmnL i>e allowed llmt the Oene«i» Mury uf the Flail 
seen» to ^re countenance to the view that the encncc of 
wronji'<loi«g i« that it ii^ disobedicDce to a divine cr'iuiuftnd 
(.HJiLMJdered irre^iieetively of lU moral content But the view 
wc lake of ItmpiriLtion d<je« not preclude a reverent criticiBm of 
the st'>r}' in the light of the Chmtian conscienee. It U peaidble 
U> diiieern the eleuient^ of spiritual truth it ooiiEatiw, and at 
tike wtnii' ihnc U» nee that it, iIikw ii4it contain the whfde brutli* 
1iW need not deny that wrong^doing or hUi in, iltHuliediedre of a 
dirinc command, but we say thjit thi« \n not a full account to 
give of iU It is iaaulKcient (o sitUsEy the Christian coDscionco 
whh^h hnjf buen educated l>y the Divine Spirit to the di>M'cni- 
iQcnt of Good in iuelf. It may he a ncuee^ary stage in t>ie 
religious education of mankind to eonceivo of God a^ primarily 
It l^v^'give^ and judge. We do not nny that thiM ii^ n fuW* view, 
but we say tliat it is an imperfect one. For w© are iUiHUniiug 
tJint the prini:][j1t; ofdevelijpineiiL which hoUlj< in thii tiatnnti 
world K applicable also in the »pirituaK 

A» then we need not be tmrprUcd if the Old TetftAmont 
account of the advent of ain into tl&o world hxck^ tinalitv. 


Sin, ftnd the need of Atoiietneitt 


The Htfiry, ah wk havi< {% may have ite use stiU. Am) Uiui, 
iKrt merely as nn intcrcatm^ rcli^iouja document of tlic pa^t, 
but alflo for ite tcuchiug, cvcm if thm be impcrfi^cl, i'C*ii>ecdiitc 
maii'rt rehition t4> ikxh JU omcoptuni of Uod nut}' bo 
anthrckpomorphic. but atiU thoro is cxpreased m the atory tJiii 
truth that man im mt^Jint for commiiiiiint witli UikI, ami that 
thiK communirin has been hindcu^l by human failure to 
re^pi>Dd to the divino renuiitmenta- But the eth&ad niLiuri; 
i»f the m[kiirein(iiiU tH mtt Itniiight uiit in thr t^Uiry. ThU wo 
mu»t iitlow. And yet there ifr u hint of it. in that the man U 
ruprcsctitcd a* not ou\y afraid wlictj Jie ha^:! tliflulwyud* but 
■lit4> U£>bbin4>d. He ham, then, n^'t oidy diaiobt'ycfit he hjM done 
vronif by disobeying. He ought to huro obvyed. 

Now In ordtjr U> tipprt^ciate Che CbrUtitui view of «l» in uU 
]t« complexity w^ iniist reallne that in thu cuiidemnatioti of sin 
wu have the foruiatioji and eipi'i^sHioEi of an etliieal Jnd^'mont. 
To my that lumie one 'nnght' Ui tht anythiTijf ih U* imply that 
tlie bilare to do it in eviL And the failuix; to do it can oidy 
he CTt] if the doing of it i^ good In oilier wiirdfi ni<iral cril 
is the refueaJ of jjood, cthieaUy eoncoived, Ethical good 
cannot Ih> contemplated by o moral boiiij; auch as man afMit 
from the iluniTind that it makcH upon liini. ^Vliat Is ethiculiy 
flood be ought, in eom© measure at any rate, to do. And 
what he on^lit t^ ilci must be utiiieally giioil. OttterwHt^ Uioro 
cfiuhl W^ nil nbligntion ufHin him (u iJo it Hic morn) obliga- 
tion Ut ilo miy tiling rehlfi ultiiualc^ly iin th<? fnel that it is guild. 

Now it b of the first importiiuce to insist on the special 
eUiical appliijatiijn of tlic tenn '^>od' and to dintinguinh what 
ta o^cally t^oofl fnim whut 14 only relatively good. Tlmt is 
flood absolutely which is good in itscLf. llie Eiecount that wo 
give i4 fton^e lino of eotiduct tliat it le eihieally ^'ood id final, 
ultimate. For ethical good cannot be detiiied. If we ^y that 
Mtieb iiud »uch a thln^ is ethically good, we are not then defining 
ethiinl ^ii(rfbif>wbMl only giving an f^xAui|i1c of it Thv notion 
of t-tliii':i] f^oixi inulLlinal-c. att that of H|)fw:e is ultiinalc'- \b\U in 
difttiiigui^hcd from the low€r Ftnimal cr&ution in that he 19 ui 
L-Um^al being, having an idea of gcftnlne»fl. even if it bo in 
some Okfica only tt n^fut; one Aiid^ iw hu« bv^n ulnxuiy oaid. 


Cambridge, Throtogical EiMat/A 


coupled with the tioticm of gcKtdncaa ie tht cognition of oii 
obligation pcTBoiially to reepoiid in wiiiduct to thitt k*'*^"****- 

'Hjoho who rcKiini wt'onff-doiiip as dieobwiioncei to n divine 
command withont Mikinff (ic'count of the content of tht 
iTomitiand as ethically pKxi can brinjc ihdr view mH> wm- 
Hanknr<< with th« ellmral [KJinl i'f vi*'W if ihey uike tlie line 
that o[>edience Ut a divliK* ntminjiiiil im in itJ«n1f goini rtlncnlljr^ 
Thvy niHj Na> tlint iiiari ixiglit. morally that is. lo obey (Jod, 
irficthcr or not he dieccnw the (ninciple and re?u?on of the 
dirhie law. 

But there i^pcn^ out M'i»n.> ii» ht^rv tho ET4>at quc^ltf)ii: 
What ifl good etliidilly? Let u« allow for the monic^nt tlmt 
olwiiifuco to a divine otkniiuaud, Q}>art fi't.mi any ethical 
g<»odnc«s that may be dii^wmcd \n its content. i« ethicaltj 
g(HNl it iw yot di^ar that olieitleni^u Uy a divine imniniand ih not 
the only form of I'thiritl goiiilnrAH nf wliirh man in ctigniHiinL 
For even if it bo the cn^o that a relative or created being 
HUch lu* man ii^wn a dnty of ol)cdience to thv nXt^aUiie Bein;^ lo 
whom ho OWC5 hip cxii*tcneo. on the ground that lii^ Iwinjc n* 
derived front Hini^ and that this very Fact impHce indebtedness 
to Him Ironi whom it is derived, it in yet Cni^ tliat we unn 
and di> form the eonception of an abaalule Being M'ho la 
Hiiii«L^lf |*t*rfectK y[nod ethically. T\\e aWflnte Being of 
ccniiTWf ">wc* nr* olnxlwnoi*. There is nothing of which it can 
be HHid that He ou^ht Ut do it on the ground tif any derive! 
cxiAtcnec; for He is eternal, Hclf'Cxittting. We can conceive 
of perfec^t ^odncfw in the abaoluto Hetnif, mid therefore 
clearly wc have some conception of goodness other tiian the 
obedience which a relative being owoei to the nbctoliite Bein^ 
from whom hla etiatence is derivecL 

Farther it in clear that wc do not nec«iMnr1tyfeelour^<elvo« 
In rlittv )x>iiiid U> di> what another telli tim tn dn nii the ^nnid 
tliHl. thnr, other h\w doni? wimrthing fnr up;, and thut we ovre tt 
to him U^ do In return whatever he laay demand of uh. Wi^ 
cerbiiTiljt rthould not eonniiler ourHclvcft morally bound to 
make the return t^kcd tor if tlic person who ta fiup|K>aed to 
have Itfuefttd uh hod not acted dittirUTe^iedlv in the matter. 

The taet iw that there liiM behind tlie iden of our duty of 

Sin, a7id the need of Atonem^U 


obedlenrc to tho 8n|)r«iue Bein^ the tbniia;bt of l\\^ otfiical 
gCKxtneAB. though the id^a of tliiamay be vague- Rut Lh<j va^er 
llu? (X)iiw;loi]HtitM< uf the Divine |>crfe4rtiiiTt i» In uv, tlii^ 1<<jih in 
tilt' L'uuwmuMieiw of H ilnfv, in nn otliiwil m?i»>*c. t(» i»l)ey llim. 
Tbi* *«iight' iif ulw-dionce becuincs itn*ri? nriiJ in*>rp |inul<'Ut'mL 
Wc ought to obey Him. Iiecnu^ic iJc ifl Riii>rcme; bucaune Ho 
haiH jx»wer over Uf und vu rnitntit rc-"*i?4t that jK^wor. But 
tliat wo onf^ht U» otwy Iwaiuw «l>c<l»ciico to Hini is* poiKl — 
clearly dietnimod t«i be gomi iii the strictly ethical s^TkBe^ 
ihU we could not liee nid<?He vo lind a belief hi tbti gi>r>flii4M« 
nf Ellin who f/mnnHnds, 

j^batl we llwn wav of wrong-^ioiny tliFtt It Ih llie r(»fii>*iil to 
olwy thr divim.i Inw. wlnib Inw' wt- are inurally iMnmd uy oIr^v 
bccniMc it procccdj^ from the absolute EJcing f\^fm wlioni 
our existence im derlv^Hl nnd whn H fu w(j bclicTc, perfect 
in pnxftn^Mv rfc« well ruH i^tipromr tn p<>wurV U fli!i to l>c 
<lQBCrib<>d as the rel>ellioik of the finite oi^eature a^irir<t tlic 
will of the On<itt<)r whi>i»j supreme In giHidnc^? This account 
of sin mny be true up to a i>oint, but it Ir certainly nol a 
■aflii'iF^nt HLtimuL t« givt?. For fluMjJ dtOu-ully Htill remHina: 
llov are we to know that the fHi-calle<l moral law \a divliie? 
Flow art? we f'^ f*^'l nssnn^jl it rpally pmceciis from ih\t\ 
and that it cxprewae« \\\^ will for ua? If the content i\\ the 
Jftw U iiitrin^idilly ^mI in the ethical Ri^nrtc, then we miiy be 
p(?r!«un4let) <>f it^ divine oritfia Htit if we cntinot diaccni the 
ethical worth of the law we stiall be in dauber of loHing bi-lief 
In It ail the exprewlon of the Divine Will. 

\ut\ tfureis thi«fnnht^rdifflenlty How do we km \w or why 
do we I>e1ieve thiit GikI ih ethicallv ^uikI i If we are already 
convinrvii cif the ifiMvItieru of \ \m\. we Hlmll r(H|uire the murk 
of ^Hincw on a law purporting to come fiom llim. If \k\e 
law be found on examination not U^ beoir upon iUelt' the 
stAmp of the ethiailly ^<>d, wg ahull )x.H!onie Hceptical of its 
divine oriffiii. Moreover oar belief in the Divine ffoodnc«ft» 
unlt^u it hav(i Huineihln^ ti.} reift iijujii, tuny Ix^'ome uhiikeiL 
But If the law be neen to be ethically pood we explain chat 
^MMlni-«H by lt» oH^^iii. Th** nionil l?iw lK*<'oni<'>i an argument 
In favour of the ethical chai'jLcter of the Sopirenie lleing. 


Cuvthridtjt Tfitrvlogicul £!$»a^9 


tt Okay acem that vrc arc Iwro lugiilikg in a circU^ W>ien 
we Bi&^ that we ejcpkatii th» goodii«m of ibe Uvr, weii U> bo 
i-lJiinil1} ^"x1i 1o il'^ "rigiti, it tnny u|i}inu- lluiL vir iirr iweuiU' 
ui^ thai tilt* \n\i pnxreedfl Aoui (lud and that Utxl i^ ^ood Kat 
wc IiAVc boci] oakiug : How do wc know or wbj lio wv 1»eliev« 
that (loii b goodi If the law is accn to be ctiiicallj good, 
then mi the JhwunipUoD Uiat Utxl l< Hiiiuwlf g^wxl, vrc iiiij^lit 
infor iho diviDe origin of tbo l&w. But could not the law hv 
ethically (5cif>fl wlth<iut bt-iii;; of dlvhi^ origin / If tlili* were 
ptj»Klhk% u'c ciiiiM not trom the character of the \»v/ infer iIlv 
LHvinc gomiiies*. 

A liLllr 4-<»Ti4idr'ni|]iiii will tihnw tiiiit what Hit nn^ rt*nlly 
awduiiiiig 16 that thc«;Lliit::alI> gaud — evtni tho hiiapLc conccpiion 
iit it — niiiflt havr a caunvv ae»1 Uii>« ouim? wc i-^umoL find t» be 
man hinkflclf, for then the moral law could bardlr )>rc:<citt 
itacif Ut him aa aDmcthiu;;; which he vran under an obli^tion 
bo ol>c>\ Obodicnoe to it would in thU cajw be not diflicQlt> 
aa in fed »l is, but eaay ; we mi^'bt almost say, necessary. Hie 
ultimate cauNe then of a luw diMx<nie4) to t»e cfthlcally good 
murtt b€ the SuiTTeme iteing. TJiere is ttothing ilhijcinil 
therefore hi hiferrhiK tlie jctKuhuMt of Gim] fn>in the gmxhiL-Ms 
cif the HK^ntl law, unre rec^i^^naod rm iritrinHically gmnh i^t 
then our t^tiiteLneiit that if Uie Ian tie w-ro Ui \w ethically good 
wc; explain that goodncM by \tA origin, and infer the ethical 
character of the Supreme Being, riiiiHt he tahcu to mcttD tbat 
the elliktilly icood inur^ hnre n eiuii^o— even it« wc luk?d ittid 
the notion of it-^aiid this cause can be none other than God 
ninuelf, -nhoAc ethi<ral chanu'ier U hence inferred. 

A <«ref^l iiivcjjtigation ofihr ethically good will niuke lldH 
point clearer. So far we have been H})raJ<ing alutractly about 
the )£iKid. Wc7 are Inking nnr xlnnd on tht- vlrw that the 
ethically good ia incapable of dellnition. the notion 1>etnff 
ultimate. But what cannot be deBned bt not oti that account 
unkntiwii. Ah a matter i>f Inct wc epeak of ccrtnin conduct a* 
good, Uffing (he epithet in an ethical aense. Thta U8C ifhowg 
Uiat we have a knowledjfe of ethical good. Even though we 
cannot define it we (^n givo iUuvtrrLtioim nr exampIiM of it 
We mu»t Ujen now in order to elucidate our AubJ^tci bec4>mo 


Sin, and the tu^ed of Atonenient 187 

mort? ilcfinitc lu^ Ui fiie i^thicalljr good We mtiBt ask : To wh&i 
c&D Uie sitricU^ eiiiicaJ epithet '^oixl' be HpjilledV 

Aiifl lirrv wr iiriMil onn* nniiiiiEk'fl of Kuit'tfiumiiifltlictlini 
Uiai tiiQi'e ia iiuUiiiig ^om] exi:i:?|ii h ^r^HKl ^VilL Tlibt in h 
simple but »t titc same time a profound saying. Bthic^ 
gooducfld i^ ttie pnj|HM-ty nut <jf thin^ but itf iiermmct. TlLiM, 
If tniCt may ut Hn&t nik^ht njipcar to make mncli of what wc 
hav^ boon se>iD|! valuolce^ ; for wi^ havo been epeakin}; of 
good couduct, wid "f tiip tnonil Ijiw ii^ Kood Wliat mofuiing 
thoa oui i^uch » matiikLT of l^pcaki^jf havo if eiJiical ^^oodoe^ 
can tie pn?dic&l«d only of peraoua ftd <li«tii]guiAbed fh>iu thitifp t 
ffttvewt' \w\^\\ njiplviti^ t1i(- rliii<!ii1 i^|iitht't hi aiM^ wlji^n? it ih 
I>ro[)crl> not a^plicaUe nt ail i 

to aDflWcr tlicflc queatioika wg must coii^dcr more doAclj 
wUat we tiuvm by a ifuotl wilL Wrll <;xprcmcc( tliu ACtirity of 
a pcnui^ puriH^s^u) activity. A |H7ri?i>i) may be re^tricteil iu 
the exerciH© of \m wiil by circumetancoe which he caoiiot 
conttY>l in tliuL <M\JK- liU wilt, MUp|vi>^'fl jj:otut, U ttimblo Co 
put lUwlf fnrtli into full a^iiritir'. A person with n giKM] will 
mttricttHi ill \\» exrrx-iBtt- fimy In* mii;) U> h»vv a gtM«1 luUrntEiut. 
4^rf>o4l ifitriii.i<iu hj Um^IF i-iiulcl not wittsfy a ^h^iI will, whidh 
muHtv in oriler to Hui) (^tinfaotlon. paM iut4> octloiL We 
could tiot U-II whethor u pcr^oit hiui a goud intention uuli^^ 
VC could H)e the hindrance lo tho activity of the will ix:m4>vod 
arid otjBorvu Utc *<hil>He<:ii]ent action. Rveu if the action 
appri>prialc to a goud will followed, the ^>odnc«" i>f iht? will 
mlffht «ill be open to doubt, for a will not eihically good 
mifiht perform the wnnr uetion. Of two penuinx doii)^ the 
mine action one may do it Iwcauho it \& ^oud, and thc^ other 
from Mime ifther motive, Ordy in the first caac i* there the 
activity of a f^wA wilL A ^od ^W doG« good t>c<?uur<<: it 10 

But if Lhin he M>, tniiKt tliere tuit l>e ftomethm^ ^ui-d 
bc«ide« a SS^A will ? We niay ^ further and ask : Mit^t there 
not be iomethin^ t(ood prior even to the pood will i If the 
good will does x^ whii:h iu goiKl, IxxMimfc it ifi gooi). miLst not x 
be good uven more timn the will Ui&t doett Et hecaiwe it in 


Cambridge Theological Ema^s 


To fire (IcfiiiiUrncw to our illiii«tnititm, lot un auppoac that 
the doing of x i» producmg IjappincM in a poraon or & 
oomoianity f»f iietwuiK T\ye t«yinbol jt now atande for 'happi- 
ness in a pcrnon or cnmmunity of pcreonsp' ll dot* iiot ^tAnd 
for 'prodMting thb happlne*i8,' for the producing \^ all<»vr«Nt 
for ill UiL* won) "doing/ A p'r^on, th<*n, pnjdnrt--i hAppine^i 
in n f)ciNoii nr oomniiioitv of [M^i'Mkim W-i?Hiit4e it in goodi 
Hudi u pi-ntim iimniftiifM \hv ii[H*riLt'iim of ;« yx^t%^^ will litsouitte 
fae doc» honicthing fur the rcaaoik that it i^ good lint what 
fft itthal ifl (Toor)? 1-t it the liappinefM? h\ our opinion the 
strictly ethical epithet i« not apphcJvbJr to the term *bapf)f- 
msa' Ifi it then the 'prcKiucin^ of happiness' that i« i^KxlT 
Td thiK we would r«ply th&t the piir[M»iive producing of 
hitppini'iMg muv \ro t^thically good. But 'producing; hnppinviw' 
unleHH i1 \h.^ piiqYOHlvo wotild Tiot )>o oLhlrally giKwl. 

It mitid' iLcit. lioweviT be mip|mM(-h1 tlin.1. whrn ytv. H|H4ik of 
anything aa not et^oAlij gotxl wo mean that it ik ctiL It is 
true tlwtt wliere there i» moral evil there i!< an abnence of 
ethieal £Cood; hut it in not the auc thnt where there ia an 
alHtenee of ethical good there in re^'efwarily moral evil We 
hope N) uiak^ t^u? point clcnrrr further oa But it i* 
necci^HHnp- to tnfliHt »it tiiis nt^e that when wo deny chat tho 
priMlucln^ iif hafipinefih if not pur|MK<lve U «thical!y ^oud, we 
an^ not i.'nndemniiig itfM evil 

What exAcily thirti do we nie^iii wlieii we nay that a perwn 
with w gooil will will prrMlut'c hrtppincw in others beciinsc it 
Is good* Is the last epithet *cood ' pri>i)erly ethieal ? It la 
tdoiir that it U iiitendeti to 1k> cthititbL For t^i n^lv that a ffood 
will iti aetive to d<» gornetliirig boaiuee it m good would bo 
meaniiigte^ uTilc«ii the second epithet ' i^ood ' were flifnilar ha 
muiuirig to tlie ^rML 

Niiw when we eome to contemplate tlie real nieaiihij; of 
the Htat,enieTit that h. ^lod will \\\h^ something VitM^aum* it in 
i:(Kid, it l)econ*e» dear that the word* 'it is geod' arer an 
abbroYiHt<^ cxpr<^*wion of the fact lliat tlie tloin^ of the thing 
In ipie^tion is a worthy aetivit>' of the jrood will q^ta good 
will. A ^oiA will in puttini; fortti its activity taJies accoant 
before all cine of the w^jrthiiieAH in r^i^jurd to iuiflf of the ond 


Siut and the need <if Aioneitienl 


to which the activity in directed It uki whether it i» worthy 
of Itdelf 08 ti jfiHKi will timt it dIiouIcI be tlic active caiim: of 
Uw* oimI e<mtemplat«d A fiood will expreaheM ilcwll in tt« 
true character bv it8 iLCtivttitHt. It is* iwtivc only to pKKiuce 
ilixt whiilt IK witrihy f>r itself m jt^ character or ftoodiivMK 

Kant, then. t*u It T^eeiii-ii Ui uh, wiiv ijiiitv H^hi in lii« 
ooutetitiini tfua l\wr ^tnid will i^ tliLi only thing which in 
UDCondition&ll^^ ^ckmL When wi- H|)t*»iK of ^oml ctiiuluct wtt 
mean conduct wliich in worthy of a gotwl will f/ua jjjood And 
if wc «poak of the moral law o^ ethically i^oimI wc mean tfiut 
it TB a law which prcHcnl>eH ^oitd coruluet in the m^n^w juift 
dcflned. To do good Ifl to do pur[><^*>*el> tliut which iti 
vortlj^ uf a ]LEtHM| H'itl in il^ ehanieU'i' of |(;mHlne«ri 

In what hiiii bi.H.'n wriftch Al)o\e w« liave Laketi the pro- 
duciiii; iif ha|i|rinc9«^ hi othri^ iut it jHHvtihltt ii4-tivit> iif a Ktiod 
will, l>ccuu»c happtnett^ is thai which in the utilitarian sy^ciu 
of mom) philrM!H>phy 14 re^rdcd ew the UowJ. But in our 
ai]^nient we liave reftiBed to apply the ethical epithet * i^ood ' 
to happint'Mkt, tijx<\ tlic reajuJii liiaX wo nhould j^ve fur tttia 
rofnwfcl IK that hai)pinL>88 i« h i*tnt«^v '* nicre piuwiritv t*i which 
the t?pithet ';;uim]' m tlie ethical %v\tftn^ *t^mtt iimppl livable. 
If Euk^fll ti> pnivt.- thir- wc can nnlj' reply tluit it c-Hniint \jc 
proved. But it iteeuiH clc^ir that tti tlic HtJit^-nicntrt ' lluppincm 
IB |>K>d ' and ' It w ^<x>d to [n'oducc happiiie*«s in i>thcra' the 
term 'f;oi>d ha^ two diScrcnt uicuiiingt^ In Uic second of the 
two «tutcuient6 only i« *^:ood cthicnlly \ims\. And crcn then 
it i^ only properly etiiical aa defining an activity worthy of a 
^kI will, thiit ix lo vny of a ^coofl person. 

We mudt Uien part ompany with any v>'\\t) amy cniiicnd 
tiiHt happiiicju JM k^hmI hi an ethicid >iLt<iiHe- That hHppiiietiei 
in go<Nl iti tijc hen^o tliat it liclonj^ to tho iddl t ojiditioij tif 
penH>nH ^Ecnti'ally \h not to be denied, VVc could ftulwcrilie to 
the ivtutcmcnt th»t ' Iin.ppinef4ii ii4 good and \mii evil ' with the 
rei^TwttiiJn that ^'ood and evil arc here not ethically UfHxL 
Wc i^hoLild di^i^sU Troin the conclusion Uiat IwcutiMc hiippiticNi 
iH xood and pain evil therefore hai>pU]oi« ought always to bd 
sought and pain alwnvK avt>hk''l 

There will alw^yu be confusion of thought where tJierv U 


Cambridge Tkcohffit^ E^tayn 


fnilurc to rocognisc that the ethical cpithot *good' ii pro^ 
pcrly applicable only ti» pemonH and mtt to thiti^ Moral or 
ethical yond will then ti^iil to become oonfuaed with physfieal 
j^ood, and mem I evil with physical evil. 

Foaaibly oue reason why the failure to limit the predica- 
tion of <.*thit;iil ^oofhic^flTc t» the ^<>imI will in not ii»c<jmiii(»i 
m tliat will iti p4»[>iilarly etmci^ived sis euiiti'a8tefl with actiou, 
M« whirl) we »fH?^tk uf ' takhig ihr M'ill Uiv the d<wil' But to 
a gvud perBriii wUl ie no nulihtitntG for deed, tier la it an 
^jccune for iiiactinn^ Imlee^l n yin^A peni4>i) tf hi]idere<t ri-om 
4^rryiTig the will into action would become unhappy from thi2» 
very crtUflc, To »pcak a*^ it" the will were evorythiiii: and the 
deed nothing, \b to mistake the very meaning of the term 
'^IK' A i^oed wilt which hne the power to cany out that 
whjeh it wilU mnat by reu^on of it« very nature 'hi mo, 
oUierwine It wuuM not l>e goLitL Bl-ohuiw there are pentons 
who art' rimt-cnt to be Uioiight g<ind rather limn U> U- K^iod, 
and perHons who pride thcmsclvcB on their ae-callcd good 
intention? which they do not when they can, fiilfit iti action, 
we miiftt not tran&fer our epiUiet 'good from persona to 
thinj^rt and ejfpeet it to remain of ethical ^gnification. 

It muKt l>e acknowledtfed however that it \^ a matter of 
the fim iniportaticc that ethical enquiry should direct its 
attentioti U\ thi- «iid to whEe}i a ytSVi, lo I*e worthy to be 
calico! giKMl^ will dir<-('t ilM^lf and whioh it will IcilKMir to 
pHKhtri-, Rut in ni» dning it is investigating what !»< ditiiraWe 
rather than what i^ good 8ome may aay that it ia moro 
imi>ortant to bring about a desirable Plate of things than 
it lA to trouble about thr mcitivus which promirt |>cople to 
actioUp It is more important, they may ai^«s to got « 
thing ch>ne tlian to care why it n done. re<>plt* must bo 
taken as they are and etiliKU^d in the Herviee of the desirable ; 
one may be actuated by one motive, and another by another ; 
that dew* nut itiaHj-r tf nrily ibe end l>e atlaitied by the help 
of all- Well, thi« may be wise nnder i\.'j-tain circiimstanccfk 
and even a ip>od will may make use of the various motives 
whi<^h pr^impt men to action, in onlcr U^ eifcct something 
which i» di^^imble. But we mu^t bo careHil when forming 

fim, and the netd of Atotmnent VM 

ethiCA] jncJ^mentfl that wo apply our crthiciil epithet ooly 
where it ia properly applicable and not wJiore it i« in^ippro- 
f»nat<^ Tlic true purpiMSe of monil teachinsf ia not BiJnply to 
got a thin^; done but tu i^ct persons to di* it 'Hiis (lUtiwfitioa. 
which inuy seem subtle, \& a very reiil un'l n very tniportftiit 
one. Ti) gmep it is to gain e<^>mc iii8ight into the meaiiinjj; 
(»f the Divine pitti4-Tt:?e which Ixyirs luiij; with t}»o i^miUntitHl 
Lindtuirablf? ^late <.if thin^ >tt the ttnrliL 

It is hoped that w«t have dow said enough to make elear 
oar pcraitioTi im rcjcanlw the ethical aj>pli<.*atiui) i)f the epithet 
'good" This wc contend is properly oidy applicable to 
pc»ioiift. Hut oil thiri may neoTn t^i the reader a digrciwion 
from our proper subjeet, nttmoly, the nature of nin. It in 
really not ^o, iiw the i^outrary. It iu of the tirvt iinpx»rtJUico 
Tor a tfitis&tctor)' exposition of the subjec-t To the present 
wiiter It huJi niuu)' chneF< M^^eined th^t the treatnienl uf the 
miltJiH't of Mill fuiU iinni m prufit tLnd edifiaiLiuEi IwHjitiAi? cif 
the fyiure to exhibit siu always aa tlie oppiwite of giHid. 
Sin fk0 wc have «tid i« the Christian name for moral cril, 
and ve couid have no conception of moral evil unler^a vrc 
had alreiuly ainjii; notion of ethical j^ood Fhynicih] evil or 
pain we may know t(|rart fram moral eviL The two cun 
be thought uf independently. If in our Inn^iage the Mime 
word 'evil ' in iHeil fiir Iwith, we yet have a iU»tinf-tive word 
' wirkeitnaHM ' to ex]ireNH moral evih * WirWlnt^w." if It 
tm^^enU til till} mind a thiug, hu^tv^li* it jia a thiii^ done 
by a perann. That which wo call wickedness if done 1^ 
a person, can no longer be eallcd wickedness if it bo due 
to i>li>'Aie&i eatiMoa concoived a|>art IVom any per&Jiial cau^a- 
tion» A wicked act ean only be the act of a person having 
knowledge of evil jurt because he Iia« knowledge of good. 
Moral evil yn hIwavh the refiiAal of goiid^ ethically Cimoeiveii 
It id t)ie Mlure of a peraon to do that which 114 ^<»ixl and 
which he ought tn rio. And after all that haw now W>n «jiid, 
[t will ln^ nndt-rs|jii«l Miat by *lhat which if* goiid' wtt ini^ui 
that which it ia Btting that a ^od will should perform in ila 
chanicter of gwwlucj**. 


Cianbri^r. Tkmlotjical H&aays 


WcT have now U^ r?TH|iiirf^ wlint iiv(.ivit> ix worlJi> of a 
gwxl will — Biid WB Agaiti add tlic wurdh *iu iU cluiractcr of 
jftHidnrxv' Wc add dio«c wordj! l>vaiiMi: in rrtl.iiimt]itj( Uw 
cthkiiUy good attention is unuaUy confined to men tttid 
wuiticik n<h^}i iw litcy firt- in tliiv world wtiidi we know. Now 
ttit^o arc, it in Iriic, ptri*ottA havinp; at any I'Htc a pi^tcDtiftUty 
of i;oudn4>HiiE. But certainly iio human being U wholly good, 
or iti cvor liki^ly to Ik> in thi« lifu We apcuk of ourtkUi 
men and women aa good, and Justly adniii'e their character w) 
f;ir ^w wv mil rirful it by iu iiutwii.n.l «t^n!<« tiiir. ^oih) nirn and 
wijiiieii are thu very uneu Mho Hnuld Iw Llit< llrAt to acknow- 
Iwljiff: the injprrFM'tioTj of their goiwhtOfM. \fan. though a 
inoml lH^in^^ in only In giroc^siti of becuiuiuK a fijiirkEial b^iug. 
He U l^u^cly of the ctirth, earthy, lie \b lirAt a natuml bcnig, 
and a* nuch he in a [mrt of what we iimy ^|>oak of ujt the 
luechauiMtn of luttnre. Hi« l)4^biviuur my trir w it ij4 uKjclnmicui 
U not ^;ood in the ethical aenae. He may by hi& niochanical 
behaviour ellect what ih desirable. Wit may l>e uh instrument 
in the Divine hand for good ends. But any etldcal goodnv^ 
tlml 1^11 lie awii(-iaL4-d wilh hiui In ri?j{ati] Ui thin i» miL hiM 
own, lujt must In^ HTJern^d Lo thi? Divine Author of fii« la-ing. 
So then a man may act riyhUy when hiH ciaiilnct ir* ntit what 
wearojuatjtie{] in erUliij^ f/r/^H/. 1^c distinction between n^lit 
conduct and ^i>d eundiiet olj^erved by eckmo moraliBte ta an 
important one. It is this that we had in mind abov4^ when 
we said that aetion« not ethically K^od are not therofbrc 
mv'ejuiarily rvil, Wlien a man folhtwis c^'i-tain iustiiKrtA. ha for 
CAajnple wht^ii htt ^'jiIa hit* fiuHl, hi- may tu'X, but wo 
nhould not call i^iich an aetion ^oihL It ijert^unly in not evih 
Aetion.-i are unly evi) if they are the refund to du nuntethiiij; 
wJuch we ought to do, i«r the doin^ of eomothiiig which wc 
oupht to ab^itain from doini;. 

Human persons tlien \xix. in our oxpcricncc only partially 
^pOiMl. We do not find perfect goodnosH exenkplifltfd anj'whore 
arounii un. If any pride them*elveA on tlieir |>erfL'CtioD, wo 
(<Hii only Kay tluit ihry liave a vtrry [Hiiir rimorrption of what 
cthicJtl perfection \^^. 'V\i\i Ik^L ijf tiion will onaiddtfr (Ja»u* 
Helves stiLuerH to the erwl of life, bc<muee they arc couflcioua 

8ifi, a7i/l the nffd of Afanmtrnf- 


liuw fiir lW> f«U 1h?1ow lilt* t-tlikal idnal A iiiftii who ih 
in earnest about the pursuit of QX>o<lnct« con never count 
hlmaelf Ui liAve appreheiifl^Mt, for Uw ideal i» ^r bevand 

Hut what is the ideal '( What ia the porfoction of char- 
uct&ri In what do^ it niniLifcMt it«elf'^ \^nmt U tlie activity 
of tt perfetrtly gt-od willl Will 18, ftfl wo have €tnph}iMi«oi1, 
more than intention : It Implies purporiefVil aetivitj^. Sli then 
wo >wk what H ^ood |K.-nu>ii villi tfit. We want an iLTiHwer tliat 
will Hati»<f> llir moral roanon. If thcrrc i^ no answer to the 
qiii-f«tii>nn vfv art' putting, then jUI tluit has bcc^n twid alxxit 

To the quoBtion, To what will the activity of a pei-Boii 
l>e purpotively diri^clt?*! in oniv-r ttiat we may Im ju>Jtitied in 
Bpcakifig of that pi^r^on a« thue tar g<.x>d ? it would of c<ourjse 
be an inBullioLeiit aiiHW^T to tiny that a gLio<l per^un wIU keep 
thi* rntind hi.w- TIiIm nuHMt-r winilil not l>e to the |>oirif, Tu^ririg 
that it ta our aim ratlier to discover whetlier the utoral law la 
Itood ; whcUier, thnt Ih to Hay, tlie doiit^ of it if- aii end worthy 
of a ^^o-xl will. Even suppof^inu: thnt the moial law in good iti 
thift etbical rkon^ we mufit a<iniit that it is a law applicable to 
beitii^ not wholly i:"od Imi who aty: in process of boiuR invited 
to become f^od. We caiuiot conceive of an alMoiutely perfect 
Being iw ii*i\i^nit'<l by a lav t^xtrrnal to Uim^elf; He m only 
aahject to the law of IIU own perfection- Thia point is of 
ipreiil iui[Hrrfjinci% atal is only gnu4|>eil when we admit Ihitt 
gOodncM is strietly applicable to peraons alone. 

If the moral law h good wo oughl Ut be able to diaccm 
the principle Tu^derlying it It nniet be l>a-4ed on the principle 
of ^oodnees as discerned by the moral reo^ri. It ih this 
principti* of ^iiixinew for which we are Heekin^. Where nvn 
it be found t 

Now in i-lirUtian theolo^ Hod is set before us fbr out 
eontcmplRlioTi, wor>hi]>, anil cuiiMcrpu^nt tniitatirai, as the 
Herfii-tiiin i»r rha:'ai"li?r. Nor ih tlip nivtlun iif the Divine 
pcffcction lacking in definitencsA For (jod is revealed in 
Cliriftt JeAUH an iierfwt love. If i( W tlie tnith that <km1 Ik 
lovo, then tliiv miuft be the moet impOTtont of all tmthN and 
0. r. £. 13 


Cambridiji' Thevioffu^il E»»mfa 


we in&y eay too ttmt it must be the kej to the riddle of life. 
AVitlictut >c^titg olT at tliir* |Hjiiit Ui utmHiilfrr thr rntdilnlitjr 
of the A[>oHtolic dogiiia. we will endeavour ixt uiidci'fttand what 
it means nnd im)»]ief^ 

Uod U encntiallj lovo, &tul the e«cnce of love m Uiat 
it 060kB to benefit othcre. Lore cannot be intorpretod lu 
% negative thiii^f, ujini<*1y alip(L-ii<ro <if hatred oi- i-eLkdii)«aia not U' 
inflict injury upon othtiv. It umy bo true tliat somo of the 
llrat loxHf^ikH ill love u'hich man hn^ to leArn lie in thin direction, 
lie hH*< to be tsnght to \>\h-^ thr luniitrmmluietitfi uliicli wiij 
"riu>u hIikIl iiuL* He nxwf-l Icani to abcil&in from ttifit whkh 
would meiiin itij^'O' ^^*>^^ prirtttion tn liin frllLiw-meu. But thifi 
is only the beginning of things. Positive love, eucb us we 
believe t>ed t^eotitlally, and not nvctdeuUUly or ocxBoiotiAlly 
to Ik'. *^eek9 ti> Iwnelitp It \^ not content not to hurt llie 
truth that God \a love expi'essee what liod will do rather than 
wlikt He will nol da He will, being what H*i i^ labour t« 
betitow hHptiii:eM'^ njuni othem He will bring into being 
ereatiirtv cnii^ble i>f )mi»|iinefi8 uml ttpend Htnineir in tlieir 

Now the love of Ood for His crcatiu-c*< niutit proceed 
wholly from Hniiselt There !« tiethini^ in mh deserving of tbe 
l))vino love. Wo may even coiieeive of (jod aa loviujf HW 
crcaturcK Ifufot-e He bHngv tlieiti inui c:(jbt«^nee. IIik puqKiM 
ill ereatiug ia one of pure beuev<*Ience. He cruiitee with a 
purpose of love because it Ih uortliy of Uimaelf so lo da In 
other wordrt the Divine lovt; exixrtideJ nn rn.r:ition pnKX'odi 
fmni (jihI'h iiwh ehiiiitcler ; front what Uoil in in Hiziifcelf iii 
the i>eHVKTtion of Hb own being. The love of 0(m1, thnt is to 
Mty. priKeeib* tvom the Divine Holiiietin. 

There is no tj'uth more prceious to the human r^oul tJiiu^ 
thin tliat Hod ia Iovoh But we have not learnt the truth, have 
not Mx^n what it meanK, hare not nuule it our own unletM we 
have le»mt too that Uod ie holy. There is no opposition, no 
contradiction, between these truths. The one eiplaina the other. 

To th(? C^iriMtiiin tlir Mipivtod truth <if life w that (kxl iv 
love. Christ han niadr tliix kni>wii to un aa Me eould not 
Otherwise huve known it TIio ergm of Jokua Christ, while it 


Sin^ ami the nee^ of Atonernenf 


IK 1j) tiM n ilimrltmtirH of flir criiclt.}', tbe sclf-KoekiTi^, the 
AelfiftlineHi uf Jiiai). tti alAo a rerelntiDii of the Infinite self^ 
Murrilicc uf fJixl \Vc learu tliat Htwl tloos ii'Jt nile in jMJWor 
oacrcly i>at that ilc rci^M in love. Uod in love, self-ftacriticinn;, 
«jl!-a>n^muiiit-aliii(: \ovo. ITiis ia tho L^hristian j^oapul, and it 
ie tJjc kcv to tho ridiUe of this w^rMe life. 

Ii iM true that ilie worI<l-oriler U ftiU of Helf-&@t4«rtian. At 
fimtM^hh tht* wlmk ehurncter of itsoeins Ui bettcoiitmilkiiou 
of the Cliriffliaii i^velatioii of U(wl vm lovfv ITie truth of t^Kt 
uriir]i1-«rilt.'i' 8tetii8 Ui be ex|>re?<«al in the wonls: "All m*fk 
their owil" The orcratioii a,|ri>earH to lie a hiding mtlicr than 
A revealing of (jod, if Uirtl be love The external world 
««cm4 t^ W at vurimicc with our momi scii^c. Sotuo Hhtc 
f€h tbifl acutely. 

But we cnn wlmit no duultHin. Hie workl-ordor w a 
diviTtc onier. There \» not *>ue God of nature and another 
<rf revelation. 

But Jet utt aak : Doea not the revelation of (Jod &£ love 
tlmivr li^ht iM\ t.hi^ priW4hi[£ iii'tml jirolilem <rf woHd- 
onler i Surely it diie«. The wurld-iirdt^r alummlw in woTider- 
fnl iukI U-autifn1 iiiMjiikx-s of altniixui whcro tlie creuture 
RtvcH it*clf for aiiotlwjr , and amid all the aiiiiai-ent ftclf- 
wckinji; and aclfa^iKirtion it rcutHins true that nothing reutly 
Uvw for ilflclf alone, We see then hov, vhcn we have the 
revelation of f^od h ftlf saurifice, we are able to dineem that 
tfa« truth of it M all the while atamped upon Ili^ worka 

The doctrine that God U love tlion doev ttot «eem to be 
whtillv at variant with the faetrt of the world order. Itatlier 
thai order n'liminw nitt^xplaiTu-d wttliuut the belief that Ood 
I" inftnit^; «clf-wicriflce. 'ITie «?o8inic order U full of the truth 
of the jK>wer and fri)itrulue?« of ssuTiflw?, ntily there it in tin.- 
mcriticc of constraint, ntit of willing Ireedoni. Itr^ character 
lA ititpiit^d nt>ari it. and »o in the ctlncal 9en«c of the word it 
in dcvoirl of character. Cliai-actcr results from the poaaeasion 
of reason and Jr< only nndem^tootl by a T>eing of im^i-al reur^on. 
Not until man comei^ on the Bcciie with hlu en<lowint«nt of 
mnnd reaHon have we in thia world** hietor} a revelation of 
character. Man while he eonieti out of the cosniic |>ruee«s Is 


Camhrififftf Tkeiilajical E^ttayx 

not llmltofl to it. The &]tniiHm <\t viywAvmnt »iii witii him 
lirt-iHrit- Lilt? HaitT'tfTrt! uf lovf. Fiir lovt? fii tJir ClirtHlJaii Hivuie 
of the word has itji root u^ te^baidii. And dv this it in not 
uivn lit mere] y that luPc i-ecko[iM tliu use t^j vlui:h it r«haU be 
put, (Hrttx'JTiiiig the neud of the [)Gi^on lorcd Lore proceed* 
not ftiinply from the* eonwrioTisnt^es <)r the iicod of some om 
<jxteniiil to ourr^lve^ but from our own need to love. Our 
fnornT ri^u^on i«He iis that selfish liriog in ft low form c)f Ining. 
|}mi It \a not true life^ Reason demands th»t the persoD in 
piu^Hi^Hioii of it i^huuld realTMC him^df in living fm- 

TbQA moral reason and Hclf-rtupect gi> together. And 
hi'rr w*! (^n sul' tlit' oxtix-nic im]>orUiiLce of thr^ truth tliat 
Ood is holy. By the holiucsB of Uod wc understand the 
]>iviiie tie If respect. God ih a Beiiij!: of iufiiute self-raapect 
He w lovt* beeauKe He \* lifdj', for only U»ve could MitindV a 
perfcet Bein^ The ereatiou aeeme to become a neccmity, 
God being what He k Its raison d*^fre is in Ood Hima^ 

Now it IK itiriini'tiivstblt? timt there *^aji \>f. m>j hijcf^er 
ble^ficdjicfH tlian that which muBt bo God'a by reason of what 
De ij» in character. And if God deuiaudi of uian that h« 
elioiild Icnn) to love, it i* Hh own blemcdncnA whieh lie w 
oUbriu;;; to himn There is a danger lost wo should look upon 
gooilnctw prineipally m the ooiiditi<»n for olitainiik^ nomething 
whieh wc call its rewawi And against this point of riew ie 
liiet another which teachea that virtue la iu own reward- But 
nrtthrr of ihi^se Ia projKrrly right, lliat virlJio IH itH owd 
reward luaj immu Uial j^oodnehs lunlJier fuidH nor ui^edx 
reward. Ttic satisl^iction that i« eJEpcricuced when it is 
practined nmy be regarded aa auHicieut i'ccompcnft& But 
thrre ih a rcwai'fl of ^oodiK^tip whltUi it in not unworthy to 
hope tor luid do^^ire, aiid that im the i)p]>ortnnity and eapaetty 
for more goofIne§a. Goodnoaa can l>e rewarded by greater 
e:L|>LU-'ity for g<H>dri<?KK, witltuiit violuiiee behig done to th# 
etltiutl >iuprrni]u-y {>f gondnoLj^ it^elK 

On the other band Ut make wliat we laay t^all pnwjK'rJty*' 
other tlian prosperity in goodness itself — the reward of giMjd- 
QOHA xa to detract from tlie ethieal value of gmxhit^rvt. It m 
true that worldly prosperity has at u certain atagc of mor^ 



Sinj and the tiecd of Atmxm^eni 


ezpeHeDco seemed to Im> ih^ fittinf^ reward of the practice of 
virtnr- Thm view may l>e faulty, yet It bear* wlinou* t(» an 
inirnuiicTible itiHtinct of tlit; }iuiii»lti ^^^^\^xt tlvHt Uio pcrfonEiimce 
offcriHM:ln<?Mml»ould \x\ a monJ onW lieimxliictiveof hjijijiiEicw*. 

Wc Imve bcoa trying Uj eluckintrv tht^ iiatiiix^ i>f rtliicjJ 
goodtima by reference t<> whnt wc bcbcvc to be tJic rcrelation 
which Uod hn« made of lliiii^olf (tw perfect l<»va l1io wliole 
of goodiiece for tho ntit^f^hit^^ \W\\\% be^ eo for ne wc ivrc able 
to nDderstand the Divine [mtiir«T '" ^<^^^, ^uch h>ve, an we har© 
sought Xa\ explain, prnot'ctjiii^ wholly fiom the porfwtion of 
the Dinne Being Htmnelf It haui beein S'lnketimeti tltuLight 
ihat til trxphiiii Uic fMonil lifi* of mnn by h rt^fen^Tif^c to the 
Divirelife i* iiHclew bprniiMc wtHn'innijwbti^fif umlei^tjirnluig 
dM> Diviue tiattiie. (jiK'^tittiin bavi^ bt-un prupciuiuleil ^iich a» 
tiuifl: \% there anything in the Divitienntore which would make 
It iEnpD^iblc that (hid oliould havrt made theft, i>r adultery, 
or AiinlL-r nicfit I'i^r muit — iiu^tL^ul of, fki wc now eonriider tht^m, 
wrotkfC and sinful y But auch a question iaunthinhable vhen the 
ethical banb of the nioral law U once appreciiktecL For It in 
Htnc'Uy iirT'ordiiig to Christian louchin^ tL> IjimI the mtiomUe of 
the moraJ Idw in ^oodr^eMn il«elf ae it ih conceivefl by the nioral 
rcMOiL If tlw t^Mrrn'ti c*f grunlnesa be love, the moral Inw in 
explained, for ChriAtlan teachera from the fir*t have taught 
that it in the gooflncni of lo^e itself that mitke^ the moral law 
jErood. In other worde moral law inculcates love, regard for 
the iiitercHt^ kA others 

Thus St Paul in his KpiHtlo to the Romans {x\\\ \\\) says, 
**I»ve worketh no ill to his nei^hlxjur- love therefoi-e is the 
ftillihnrnt of the law/' Thcw^ woi-da im|>]y tlic ncvHttve 
character of law. AlMtincin^L^ from ii^nry of othefH \^ the 
fin«t 1c!9V4on of (he moial life. But love hi the Christian sense 
goes beyond the abstaining from injury; it aceka to benetit 
po^itirely. r*i,-*itlve l>enetit includes of course the other, aiid 
Ao love IB the hilfiltnciit <if the law of negatives which suyn: 
•Thoa ftlialt not,' 

Even «o Jc^im Christ dec-hired that He had come to ftilfil 
the law, not, that is, merely by prrfonning it* reiinircnicnt* in 
HiA own eurtbly life but by making it binding uj>un the 

coiiAcioncoe of HU diadplca And it waa He wbo gave Loto 
M tho true ftiiiimmrj <jf tlic law. AVhon Jit ht4if Qifkcd which 
wiLs th« groat coramsLiKlnicint in the law, His reply wa^, '"Hiou 
Hh^^t lovo the Lord rliy Uorl witti hII tliy hc^^ul, itntJ with »U 
Ihy aoul, And with all thy mind. T\iU h the gr^at and first 
4.-oiiiinajidai4*iiL And a hUH^uml Hlfe ituUi \l U iUW, Tliou xliulL 
](>vo [,hy Tici^hUiiir iw thjfidf. On thvm* two coriiERwidineiitd 
liari^eUi i\w wlinli? luw^ and the |ini|ih«tA'' (St MntL xxxl 

Now it will be obftcrvod that (lirwt {tutn tJic love of ihti 
OB Uie pnmiiry duty of man. And the whole wtrcnicth of Uu 
appeal to nwn to Ioto God lay in His own supremo effort to 
aot forth Gtid iw worthy of man"* hii^hot rt-vcruntx- iLn<l li>vc, 
111 Cliri^t'e toachini;' God doea not appear print-ipally a« a 
moral govomor and judge, but ax lliiiuclf tho eternal and 
living expr<^wlua uf Ula uuti rEki-iral law. It wan pfMSible to 
fwy Hf^J.^r Christ Imd livf^l and tjiiijflit arid dlivl r>ii varth, *^Be 
yc! hntbitom of <i<id an MofimJ cbitdrun" (Kith. v. IX IW 
imilnt^an here spoken of is dt"»cril)cd in tlic wonl* that follow, 
which Hpcak of 'walking in love/ And Uhriat bail lliUTr^lf 
said "Ye shall \k i>trfeet, an your hoaveniy t'nthor is pcrfoct" 
(St Matt. V. 4^(), It sccnis nn inip»gHil*le standanl. but tlie 
wonls Tflttiuld make ua realiw that Ikul in ('hr-l^t adiuit« u 
]nt4> the secret nf the divine Uiv of lopc, and declares tltat 
man U to lie nurtured <tn the prhielple of that life. Christ 
riifU^d rutt riis di^'ljili^ hervrtril^, but. frirndn, declaring unto 
thrm th^iL all iJini^ that lie hail ht-aixi fmni Hih Fatlicr He 
had mixdc known to thcni ("^t John x»\ \M Christianity wa* 
nut tln^ making known of a law, but the revelation of a life. 
Vet the pntting of the world under taw, until the fu]ne«« of 
the time, had been a neoessary «tAgc in the divine economy 
of the worlf.L 

The second duty of mim Im d<N:1ared by Christ to be tiio 
love of nne'a neighbour. And wt' at <»»(.■[.■ nlwprve rhat while 
the HH-mi* wr>r<l ' lovi^' U %i*t^\ uf Ih^iIi ditlii'-i, nanii-ty, Uir^ lovt* 
of <3od and Uie love of nian. there is a diflcrenee between the 
two. ft wiuihl U? iiri|Ki?>niM4.' 1o ?<peak nf iiiatr?^ duty to hiK 
iidghboiir aa love of him with all t^e heart and aoul uut 


Sifij mtd the ne4'd o/ Atonnnent 


Tn!n<t Only Ioto towar<!ft (Sod can be ao described. Man's 
ilnly oftovi^ u>vvitnlM (iiul iimrH fritin uhiit. Oixl ih in HiiiiAtTlf, 
in tho perfection of His otni cliaraetcr. According to the 
Htreni^Mi iifa iitftii's (HmviclHititi uf tbo jK?rfe4:t gnodn<?M.H of Oml 
in hi^ dntv of loving (Jod with the whole licail and aoul and 
niitid. ThiiM to lore (iod i?t Ui lwc<>mc allied with jwrfect 
goodness, to rccninitsc' that it nmko* deniniulB uporj nn frimi 
vhich (t would Ih* wrf:*n^ and Hinfal to tunj awnv. It 18 not 
that man hmt atirthtiig to Ik<«T'OW upon God, who U HInuelf 
the giver of all ijor-d thln^ But by love to man, atid wi- tnav 
Hilf), nnly liy love In man fnu iiiitti liecckme a felluw-wctrktT 
with God in (he power of the Divine life^ Only by love can 
wf ^ft lEiU) haniHiriy with (hi> jKnvtrr aTid wiadom »nd love by 
which the world is directed, 

A» the A|>o8Ue St .lobn tcachoa in hie fii«t Kpiatle it is 
■nnply wlf dccc^ptirm tj> th^nk that thcix* (tin W hivo Hi Ood 
without love tti man. K*»r tho lovo *'f (.!<>d t'') Iw worthy of 
the iianie niiwt l)e love of f(oodn«aa, and it njuflt carrj' with It 
A n.*n1 de^tire Ut twi hIIuvI with thai. ^(Hidtii^sM. Thr^ hivr t>f 
iUttl itiiDii LHj-ry witli it HpiuxipriiLliim of tiie Divinv, otherwise 
It ia not what it nilU itM-lf. 

Now that w« liave made an extended exainination into 
the nature of ffowhicse wo arc better able to iin<lcn«lnnd 
what \h the ('hriHtiim view of ^in. We vnid at the l>ef:pnmng 
»f OiiK M8H8y th:it *Hin' if a ihcxdojjinil and roli^loiu tenrL 
It hail meaning juHt so f^r as rnan had retationHhlp with OodL 
Sin IN wnin^-' liking t'crtjnnK, for it i* fnilnrr in ^u<*(lMtt*t 
litit it \h at the panne (ime faihu'L* t<i fiildl the ctmditionH 
of itfllowhhip with OihI, rnlliin? U> \yv in Imrniotiy with tlie 
Ab(4olut« or Ktemah 

To refUfHi the opp*»rtiiiiiticfl of love which Ood ifives ub. 
nn<t whidi iirc nirulc knipwn U^ iih by tlie voice of a dlEk-^tplined 
and rea^oimble conscience npeakin^ within v\», is la ma We 
liny "a rli)d[Tiplin<Ml and retuonahle ' coiiiwlence, for coikMcience 
in cBpnble nf dii^cipliiic and it iw KnhjrH-t to thr numil r'mjHMt. 
('oiiM.-leni.-e dttvw nut demand a blind ol)edieuc-e. If it did, itit 
authority wonhl very w>on cwjw to be aiitliorhativc 


Cambridge Theologioal Essays 


(Christiana do well to give heed to the cmphaeis which 
tho niorlom iiivc^tjgntioiifi i>r cthit^ luy upon Uic re&Bon m 
its mom) iwpet-t We may, if w<j will, prefer Xo ckW wlial 
moraUtttd speak of aa 'practical reaoon' Conscience; but if 
H\' do «o yv ntiiKt iioL rt^K^nl rimitnt'nire ;ih i(i»ri)t«UiiriK op|hMe<! 
t4i reaHiiii or pteiivLntU^it from it (VlrlM^k>lk(^o will ctrnm.' Ut bu 
authoritative hi tU rlctimudn if It 1w not Hci^mliiit; to reft»on. 
On the othi^r hand it will nppcal with na irrciiJEiFtihlc force 
where it gives a moral i*caj40Li for iu dictalc^n 

And wht^n wu ftpcak of a inonJ rc^LBLin fi>r thu dictuttt^ 
of oonfici^ico, QUipliai;i»4 i« laid upon thij word 'moral' an 
niudi aji on die word 'reait^.m.' A moral rtraMmi is j^iven for 
the conduct |>rcMcrilx*<l by the cotiHcieiico jiwt «o for a« tliut 
coivlufrl \» Hi^i forth «h >;<hm1 iu ilM^lf, that \» to Kay ah woixh^t 
of a K<>"'l will in iU chiimct*^r of g^xMlnt^fM. A rc^iAon fiir a 
csei'tAiii lino of t^mduf^t loight he the attaintnent of such and 
ntch an cn<l, but tliirt would not Ik^ n moral rc^t^oti iiidewt the 
attaiumcnt of that end were itself c:ood. 

Now thifi that we are MJiyiiii; aiiK^untti to aii tu^^eptjuico of 
th« Katitini) doctrine of the autonomy of the rational will 
The principle luvolvod in this doctrine i^ tliat a rational 
being is CJ4141I1I1? of ji^il;fiii^ for hiioMlf tlio nionil rv»jum of 
his corirluet. And unless a moral reason, in the sense 
esphtineil above, i'tin be found for cnnihict', ihjtt i^otiduct 
ig not governed Irt' the law of the will, Kirit's rrlterioti 
exprc^ive of the Itiw of ttie raliomd will :<tiuni? certninly Uy 
he wuntintr in cxavtnc?*^, and it in open to obvious criticism. 
Thus a man might be a cobbler, though he could hardly will 
that &1I otlicr men v^hould bo tho naino. But it U inipHiid 
in all Kant's teachinij; on this point that man is under an 
oblljj^ation Ui tlirect ^u« life and conduct witli a projxir re^rd 
for the hiteroAU ikf bis follow-nkeiL To inako cmi'selviM an 
exception to a genend law, olwditrnitt? to wiiji^li i?« m^tfii U* lie 
for iha fl:cncra1 good, is to fail in this duty. 

The doctrine of the aut^uioiny of the will then ift really 
a Christian ona. But tho recOKnith^n of tlii« doc« not imply 
that there W no room for any oxtenial mom] law: what is 
insisted upon is only that the ultiuiato appeal of auy »ach law 

r] Sin, and the need of Atonemait -JOl 

in tiJ lite ootiHinLMii^t? I'^iHihU^ uf iliiu-enuii^ thu moral reason 
of the law. The will which most iu.-^iifU on it* <>wii Aiitmiom}' 
vill 1)€ rca<J\ to hc4Lr the dcmanda of cxtcni&l )aw« which 
however it will <'\mu\ tho ri^\it to jud^ of jii Uiv lifcht i>f 
rcaaou. (July wc do well to bo «ujipi<<iim^ of onnwivw if w© 
find ill our»elvcH a ttxidenc} to reliix c1>odieiice to i>j(terntil 
law. Wt; limy lie xitro thiit if wc do only whitt wc find it 
easy to do wo art? not Iwing 8iif1irk>Tit]}~ Httcntiv€ to the 
dcfiti»m]?i of riTHAori. The ^tiUifMUiiy uf the y>\{\ iloen not iiieaji 
that tbc will is not subject to Inw, but it doc« mean th&t 
lav U only binding when it can >nve a mirra] rciL^on for iU 

'n>e moral life of man ia cortolnly not lived if the line 
of leibtt rojiiixlnnoo 1>o t'idlowc<l. It H nut to be mippoflod that 
Ood'« biMt gift to man is to be had without strenuous eflbrt 
on nian'a |uirt. T^Kr jmi-adox uf the Christian Life !v tliat 
thr Hidf t4 ottly won hv Helf-abiegHtioji, liiil xi'ir'Hbm.'giitioii 
wiihoiiL the winning of a hi^bor Helf iH no Irne end, and we 
hate u> beware of caricatures of rtclf-?«ttcrifice. Wc roadl the 
aiKwtolic wordrt, wliidi jufitify tlkcmiwlvea to reason: **lf 1 
bcntow nJl mr jtnods to feed the poor, nnd if I giTo my body 
to be burned, but have not lore, it proBtcth me nothing ' 
(I Cor xiii. ;*). 

It may seem to some readeni that we are attaching to 
ftltruUm Uuy Lfredt an iin[K)nimoe In our estimate of what la 
etJtkidb gi»ul. I-; theix' nt^t, it may well lie n^kpd.n nHf^-iiHiiro 
which Lh \U^\f g<Hiil i It raunirt nnrely 1w intended, Mimcone 
may my, that a man should always l>e bn^ying hiia^^elf aU>nt 
others. It tn ri;£ht that he should attcn<l to what he i^itiinds 
in need of for IdiiiHolf -Some deerce of selfisimcas soema a 
De<;ea«fiity under the eonditioiiM of human life an we know iL 

Hietie obJectioiuH are quite in plaL-o, an<i they are not 
nrtiMDnabLc It in iturely right that we ahouM be j^lded 
to a connlderabJe exUmt by the impnlwi* whii^ii g<i In d»?- 
U^nuwi^ iinr lu-tiimH. EhiL we nniHl agiun ^o batrk to Uie 
distinction witiL^h hai been made between what ir« rij:ht and 
what iK ic^khL U \m of courK' iiuht to ui^c and develop the 
cDdovrmente wiiicli wb liuvi:, uud it is gowl U> acknowledge 



Cambruige Theological Essays 


with fcralttuflc U> tho (Jivcr of all happinMs llic Iwnctit^f Jlc 
bafi beetowed If we found no joy and [mppm^m in Qccl*8 
^ifU wi< fthmilil Ik^ in<*ii|^lt1e of t>ezii;c aj^iiu Ibr the ext^m^ion 
{jf stiu)] joy nii'l huppirioiH to olJ](?r& The vsmmicc of ^">cliiL*wi 
li«R III Uie conimuni(Tatii>n to (jthera of Ui&t which mak«vi for 
cur imri hap|titirAK. 1f ii mnii liaj^ iia IiigWr iihm i>f ]K^r»onn1 
bftppincG?) than thc' jxra&ctitiioD of wliat ma> be calleil phjfr^icail 
gooda. y^t if he mukv it an eml tu bestow thcivi upon othcm 
ho it to tur on the ^idc of ethical eood. He niay be mifltaken 
ID hie idea of whiit can \^m^ hnppine^ to his fellow men, but 
if he regard their bappinetui oa an <jntt wortliy of hhi iiciErity 
he 19 so fur ^chkI. 

ft \n Mear, however, that a:* no human l>eln^ ha^ foiind 
irtirfect happii^ow in hm life, no ncmc in in a iKwiti*>n to cotiler 
perfect liappinesri on another It in, it wonhi jtueni, ethically 
good to include utlicm in our ptimuit nftcr wiiat ean brins 
witii!(luctionH >>c[f'culturc and the pursuit of kuowlod^, 
whereby we may undef^tduid the ^rorld in w'hidi we live, 
are rttfht lutd proper The pU^iu^nrc Find huppincw wc find 
in thejfo thiitf^ we aclinowled^ to be a ^ood iflft of tiod, 
and we fiml ntill j^'ejiu-r hafipinv^a if we nhure uur fiup^MneAi 
witJi other peiiHonM who arL* h>4 niueh endM hi thoniAelveH ba 
wo think uunielvt^ to Iw- EtLku.1 go(jdiie?w in tTxeuiplifieil 
by the recognition of otlior personalities, not aji mean^f to our 
cnda, but as thcniHclvca enda The ethically i^>od may ctcu 
be devele|>ed in iuj and iipproprinted ljy ut: when wl^ f>raetbo 
khidn^fW to dumb tLnimal^, eiideavourinj^, as we do^ by this 
to be^jtow upon them «ueh happiness ai^ Uiey are eajiitble 
of ex|>eriem'hi^- But ethical goodness ih wluilly lairking, 
and in entirely alwent. where a |jer8onality trie^i to »tand 
alone, out of rehttiunnltifi to other r^rsonalitieti and aenlicut 
beintr* in vx-ncml. To mukc myiwlf an end acltiahly and to 
pursue my individual happiness a|iart from the happim:«e 
of others ia to fail utterly, T*> iiacriAci! 'jthoi^ in our own 
0eUi>JL pnrmiitM im to ilegnule human nature )ind to put 
ourselves out of harmony with the very principle underlying 
tlje wurhl 

It uuty «com that we are here nuikui^ a prudential 


Sin, and the tietd of Atof^emt^U 

not n momi nppcfll. wliereaa we have at an rarHer ftlJigc in 
the Ijva} t\hjrcU'i\ lo t\w [l*^gnul«tijHi of Uit? moral *cmg!it' 
tu tlieleveJ iifa |H-udciitial 'uugliU' Hut it in W Im oIjm-i'vi*(I 
thiit we niaVe un |kru<lrntin] Ji|tpi^tt uiMiii Trnin innml 
drimderaiioim. Wbat we conleiid for i*^ tliat moral ixtasuti 
litiiJ prijilcncc <lii ruuUy dojiiaTttl tlio sitnie thinif. T» l>o 
iDclifleront to the principlo of iiktioiml lifo is iaipnidont. for 
It i» to be ^Ut of harmony witli what id the priiLCtjjlo of 
the wiirhl-orcler We do neo*] for our eiiCfmrYigomviit niitl 
OUpport tfie awumiice tlmt wliRt jiiHtiflt^ itself to the moral 

miMin llfC glKHl MIUm(. iti till* KHt] pi'l^Vhll- It IH thv goiul UlH-t 

in eternal ; ami that whir}] i» devoid «f cthicji) <:Irariu:ter 
U but tnumiUiry. Siidi la the vordkl of fnitli wiiicli \uthh 
that the Absolute ami Ltcnial One id iiinu§clf the j^crfcction 
of izof ><hit't«t 

The very t-iindilhms of ]if^^ in n civiliHo*! cmnmiinity make 
it imiiorutivL> that at any rate meet of ite memlx^ra should 
give and mA> 4»ii1y uke. l^ht^ olitjxinin^ of th<? iiicmiN cif 
lit^elihocxl h dependent on service rendered to other members 
of the cnnimrinily. Nor euii wi? ilrxibt thiti IhiH i* n wivo 
pnivifllon of the etenial Providence ti> teadi moral truth. It 
is of okiinic* |Hm&il>1r for »n U> tiu} to Uuirti t\w Icmsiui. Tint bo 
theme iFilluig Ui be taUj^lLt it is plain and unmiatakcablc. It 
certainly is not the perfection of goodnopi^i thivt wo Mlionld need 
the mcentive of reward to make iis fultil our service, but wo 
take a »^p in the ri^ht thi'OCtioTi if we humbly iiud indeed 
thankfully iLcquieMci^ hi the wifte profldenee which makes 
tlie fultllDkeiit of service the ivndttion fnr the r>litiLiiim|c of 
phmaU ^Todti. 

So then the orgsinised social ortlcr may. if wc will ou\y 
hum it «j. Ijccomc to iw a valuable aid in the practice of 
goodncflH. Not that tlio doing of nnythinur for the wake of 
ward is ill itself good. But as that for which rcwuni oiiu lio 
had i» the dirtna of AoniL-thint: whiclu if rightly rejptrded, may 
be it**elf good- -that is, a8 Iwfore. worthy of the nciivity of a 
good will — our very deaire for reward may In the proe<^w of 
je ojcerciw of the activity which in worthy of uk Iv? »iu*M»r<li. 
ated, ami by h ^rmlual dlMlpUue Iw eorrected. Wc nccil not 


Cambruifft' Theohgical Es*ay» 


ilecri ve (iiir<«lve!i iiitn tnift^Tiiti^ t.liat hu liave aitaiitierl tii gixxl- 
Deiw when WG flo things lliatinuv lie wirrtli^ r>rH^iHKl will For 
ft careful aiiAlyRifl of Uic mi>tiTefl which prompt «b to autiwii will 
rcvcaJ to ua how imperfect if not unworthy thcAC often lU^ 
Vet we rtlmU t>e ihaiihritl if wimt w<; <lo, crcii if it be from 
motivce not the bo^t, bcnetite ttioeo who iir« aflbctod by it. 

Motive, it *huiij(l he hardly iieceiuuiry to mnUi, [a of fkmdft- 
roontttl impiirtJincc in tho [iructiccr of gorHhic^K. Hut Uicrc 10 
a teudeney in some directions to disparage motive, and to 
vnny, TIM wr \\i\\v. >4nd iH^forr, niiiri' ntioiit gr'tting h thing rloiic 
than about thtr iteixjiw who are U« do if. Our |H»iiil haa l*twh 
that Kaiit i* cpiitr right in hin mMinf^imrc on thr fwrt tJmt 
eUitcal goodiit'AH ik |inji)crK prediraliltr only iif the will. And 
our conciu«ion i* that the will is not n(X'<>«n.rily good when 
it do(>g what i# wortliy of a good wilJ, but only so for as it 
doee tJiie hecanse It i» worthy of tt A pfood motive ia the 
property of pt-rfloiiality. A good motive is the principle of 
a^ioQ of the j^ood will The difflculiy of the pnujtice of 
giHMhitwH Wfti jiiHl, in thisc, th^ii it hitM U^ Ih^ x\ui\f. for itn <iim 
«kc. What wc rail trmptAt.ion to oril would haronoiDCantng 
nnli:^ there were at the mme time a t«mptatton to good. 
Rf^miilting ie «ot l>tfore urt hy the oonndctico ai* alom- worthy 
of Uf* uTidv^r th<^ circumHtiuiocfl ; to liul to fulfil thie would be 
to m\. We are heiu^ tidied in f^oodne^ wht^n w« ai^e tempted 
to Km. ThU thought thn>wH mnch light <>ii th« tornhlc fttct 
of ihe presence of inoi'al evil in a world whidi we yet believe 
I0 pnn't-tni U\m\ a Being a^ Hupreme in f^ooiliuwtt jim Hk in 111 
powon Uut we cannot deal wdth thia aubjcct in the present 

Our aim thuA ftr has beon t^ brb^g out the ethical con- 
eejiUoti of vitk which could only be done by enlarj^njj^ on iJh- 
n:ttnn' of ethical gooilnc*w. Ilie jM?rfeclion of gofidnojw \% 
realised, lu'conling to Ultniiftinu belief, in 0'>d Hinisuin TJiw 
oltimutc iiM>tive of the Divine action, bo far b> we fire able to 
tliiak of it> lies in the character of the Ktcma! Being, which 
chanictcr wc <lMipinlc n.^ HoliiK'-'^ Further, iic^oinliuic to 
Christian touching Uod reveals lliio^olf tw our Fathor. And 


Sirif atui ihr fw&t of Atonev^eiU 


by i\m very revelation lie teuohes u« the putuibiUiy of our 
atta[nini^ to a ^hare in the Ltivirie chamctvr. (.3ikI )h ttw 
cr(?at*»r nf tiling iit"! <>f setitienl pKUtence, but Hu i» more 
thait tJtc <TCftW)r '>r [)epi(iiJiilitR'J*- \W ia tj' |icn»ons a FftUiBr. 
Id thcju He iw rei>ro<iiicing Uiuiaelf. Whcu those who have 
tht; potentiality of ici>oi1mcs«, the polciitinltty "f pur-Hmiality, 
r^itit the dcniainb which ffoodiiosa makoe upon them, thoy 
aro all the while rejecting the supreme gift of God. Tljoy tiiu 
iu that they refuse the good ; they sin, in that they do that 
whieli forfeiU the ble^in^ of conimuuiou with the Etem&l 

"Tliut fcvhit'h WL* have *een and he»nV wri(>:^!* Pit John, *'de-' 
clare we wnto yirti nWi, that ye also may have fellofliJiip with 
uh; yea,aiid ourfeHowahiit Ija with the Father, and with hia Hon 
Jg«u« C'hiT^t... ...And thia is tfic mcsfin^c which we have hoard 

from him and announce unto you, that Uod is h^ht, and in 
him iM Tio darkikeAti at all. If we &ay that we have fellowship 
with him, and walk in the darkncsH, ^^ liOf i^'^^ ^^ '>"t the 
truth : but Sf we waJk iu tlie light, a* he ia in the h^ht, we 
have frUow^liip <ini^ with another, and thr hlood nf Ji-huk bin 
7?(m rlt^iriMfth UK rnmi :l11 Miri. If «ve uay that we have m» Mn, 
we det.T^ivc iHjruelveM, and the truth i** ruit in nit If wu ronfnv 
our Mwv.^ he \» faithful and nj^t«ouA t(» forgive ua our m\fiy 
and to elcan«e ub from all unri^htcouanc^a " f 1 John i 3-f))» 

'Hie quotation i>f thifl paiwagc makca a fitting tran^tieu 
from liie fimt to the floeond part of eur ftubject We have 
written on the nsitiire of «in ; we must pjis* m>w to nay 
something of the need of Atonement a^ a rcincfiy for m\. 

It 10 impoMHihIe in the wiHH'^^ of :i few (lageA Ui treat <»r the 
subject ul aUiuomcut at any length. It ifl a subject of 
immense difliculty, ha i» nhown by the many and vartoua 
theories whicli have been and still nre held r<Mpectititf it 
It 14 n<rt our intention here to deal hiHtoricall^ with the^d 
different the<ineK. All we {^aii do Ik to erupliasii^e a few 
puinu whfi^h ariie out of what wo have been maintaining and 
wbieh mm*t W'. lukeii \\\Ui areimnt if we are Iu reach h yIlw 
of the atonement wliieh shall ftatist}' the Cliristian lea^oii and 


Cttmbridi/t Tlteolofjienl AWtv/ii 


CorifHTicMicv- Stimo vk^wit of tho at^itKurvnt ^1 t» oiaiin^rnd 
Uienut^lveri bei.'aiiNe they are nnworLhy of and inciniflisteiib 
wilJi llui jK'rfiiiitiii of tJi« rlwturti^r i»f f»<K| Hinwrir 

A vcr>' iiii|iortdiu pai't uf Use i.itjiFitijku doctrine of sin m, 
M W4; liavc cHrvii. thut it itf & liitutniiKX' to iiiaiiA coiimiuiuon 
or fellowship with Ood Ijy hi§ sin man is alicD^iUsl froni 
Uod. Hciict.' if hirt cni€ di^^iity h fcllo^iJiip with ^tfd thu 
Cttrwot Im! ftttaiuuil withuiit mnno reiatyly for tliDJfiri whidi ttAfl 
ilitorfLirc<l and docn Rtill mteriVro with this end. 

Now our flrxt pi^iiit U thbc tkial do view of the atonement 
can bo sufllei^^it unlow it impHr^ thii fact tlmt iiian Is 
iiElt'riili'd for frllowHliigi witli <iiH). Tt} hui it* U> himlrr Lhifl 
fellowship snd not »iiu|>1y to forfeit Divine faroiir. It is 
inMQtEcteut ici think ttf nin nn mJint^thiiij; hi iiiait, or [«umetbihg 
<l<iue l>.v man, which incurs Uie LHvinc dir^plauiirc In oUit,T 
wonis mn ie rot to be thouf^ht of simply as foilnre to 
Atlfil tlw conditionA fi>r tlw obtaininjt of Divitio favoui 
Hc^rd mwst alwayi* l>o had U) tii<J trthiml nattirc of 
eonditioiifi^ and to tike ethical nature of the Dlvhie favour.'' 
Tlir |Mrrp4iKiT of HtuMtnat^rii ik mA. thci nlitjiiuia^ nf IHrinQ 
&«viiur. re^nlleMH of itn nature, but the elFectin)^ of Lma- 
muEiitai with (><x)- 

liy atonement wo understand rocoDciliatJoii ; and thb 
reconciliation is the reeoiitriliiittou uf man to i.hxl, not that 
of OiKl U> man. \Vc rcjt?ct Uic viuw of atoiicnicut which may 
be aummariaed tlias : Mau bv hla sin h&s fbffeit«d Uie Divine 
favour ami incrurred the IHvine iUj;plcn4urc ; some offering 
then is Dccratfary to lum away the Dhine wrath, and to make 
the for^iveiieiu, that !■ hi thU eonriexion the Diviiu^ ovor- 
lonkin^, nf sh^ n pciiwiliilily ; thi^ 1)iri[ie juNtJce inurttp l>e 
■aUflfifNl t)efore the Divine love van fur^ve ; U«t [inialty of 
■tn muAt lie paid, just m crime in a wcll-gorcincd stAte must 
bo punished ; Chrint m\ the ero*« Ikwx- tho peimlty of nil 
human niii, and for llii^ merits llini fonrivc* the sin* which 
men }u*vc eomiLiitted ; they are restored to the Diriiie fovoitr 
&>r C'hriNt'ii mke. This view we reject, though we do not 
fleny that it r^JiiljirnK ehnnenut of truth. Aa it «tundH it does 
nut give [»roiniiience to the etlikad purputw and «llect of 

Siu, ami the fi*^l of Atcneniettt 


lent For tbin reauutn it <»nntit lie uix^ciit^d an a full 
nccoiiTjt or Uiv iiiuttw*. 

But it in far frfnn «iir IriltHttltiri Ut deprecate ilie nsurita 
of (.^bristV pUMion und Jmth. Hio last tiling wc- would 
do » so to explain the ntoDCmcnt aa to cjiplain it awAj, 
We are not ;c<>>ii;; tn t^ivy tlmt the Cliri^^tian fltictrine <if 
aton«nkcnt h no 1r»nj^r nocc^vurr, thut it bclougv t'> tlio 
earlier and cruder atap^ of man"* r^li^Soiw develo|mLent, and 
to («i, TliU in iKit <mr vii?w iit nil. Qniu? Uic* j-ontniry. We 
afllM'.rd utrirtly io the iJtK'triiw' »f the Crew! that it wjw "for 
1IH uii^n a»[id for »ur ^vutiun" llmt .Wuh (^lirist ''cHnie iluwii 
fh>ni livhvcn. and was iTiaimatc bj tlic I]»l_v tihiwt of the 
Vifgin Mar}", and wiw made man, and wa* crucified alao for 
m." The liftt and pftHcaun tuui death of Christ wrouffht tt 
d#1ivflnuiec for cutm \Thirh he could not ottvct for hiiu^ulf 
But excepUoEt in taken here Uj Hiiy dew of the atonement 
which puts Chriva ouUidc OocI, Mid r<?y;»nLis Him an puvinj^ 
the penalty of sin to (lod. ^Vliereaa the Rcriptui'al vii^w bi 
th»t "(hkJ h'iw in t^riMt n^coiicilitig the world unUi Himnt^lf" 
(3 Oar, V. 16). And attain: (Un\ "^HjKirefi not Ilia own Son, 
tnit delivrrtnl lltni up for nn njr' (RonL riii. .T2), 

llic purpofto of atonement is the takii^ auru^ of tm. 
The reciiocl> for nm if< not for^ivcniMM, if b> thifl bi uu!aiit otdy 
the overlooking of the f^itib that lutre been eoimnitted It ia 
not tlie AcnptumI (,'tMpel that <>i>d ei>nld nut overlook the aiaa 
of tiie pa«t until the penalty had been ptud by one ablo V> 
paj it U would be no p;ood new* t\\ men to tell iheni that 
th^r viiiK nf tilt- jutxt wen* li% Lht< nterev of UimI overliioked 
Dlilew at the wtiiK* time thej' could }>« l^itd of a ddi>craiioo» 
a Hnli/itiiin, fruoi the IromlH^^ of xitt. 

Wc do not mcAu to imply thai forgivencn^ intcrprete<l as 
the overlooking of ilie past, is not a iieccteary jMirt of the 
romcdT for ^n, but we do nuMUi that it ih mily a pitrt of the 
CQr& For^veDe44 in this aenae may be a remedy for the 
diftreaa of mind which the conviction of Hin briii|fH with it, but 
It ciui be lui renieily for sin \\Mr\t Hic only true rxnuedy b 
fta reitioral; cite i*i-ndtinng of it ImixMidble; the annulling of 
iL And iJiiM cmri t>iily be bjr the bringuig in of lU opptxdte. 

208 Cambridge TkevlofficaJ B»»aij9 [v 

Evil c-un only Ite overcome by theg^nesieof ^oixL Kvil lu we 
have bmn arguing, pc^ssibty with wrarir^oinp reit«mtii>Q, iBlhe 
neg3Ltiori> ibe n-rusal ofgooil by a will which ktj<init Umt k<><*^ 
ii itf« tmo e.xprL'visioTi. The true remt^ly for sin Ito* in the 
freedoiiL of the will, releam: fr^uii Ui« bondage af the lower 
sclf-wcckiuu; »Hf, 

But at thia pi>mt w€ aholl probably be mot by objections. 
It will be lit onco nuid, If the will uf innii bv not already 
^e<o cjin lifl proi>erly be sajd to bo rcsponaiblo for hie actions, 
can ht> be AccounUKl ^ilty of mlu ? He mny be ginftil Sii the 
■eriHe that he c[o«e what h^ spee U> be a refusal of what u 
^>oi1; litf iuH,y bu Hiufiil {ah> iii the stMiHe Uml by Uih nctiimH I10 
is ni.*;pariLtiri^ hnuKcIf ['mm oonimiinion with 4}(kI Birt ix tliii! 
ill aiiy r>enMe the uiarie^ fault uiilumi h« be all the while a tr^ 
iigeuti Sill implica guilt, and only a free nfccnt oaii be 
accounted guilty- 

Hcrhapv djHi(;ultic94 f>t' ttiis rtort. ikrc b<Mt met by aii appeal 
to pcreonal expei'iouce. Say that 1 have done 8Uch or «iich 
a tiling (whi<:h we will mil aT)^arK] thnt ilelilierately. Suppooe 
that 1 have the c[jn§ciouenra8 before doing r thut 1 ought to 
do ti^ the iluhig of a luid sr Ijeing tmitiially exehiHive: I hmto 
E^iiTod t<» do wlifit I know that 1 oii^ht to do anil done what t 
ought not Nowilicquestiouiit; Gould 1 have done a as cfwily 
aA X? It ii well kmiwn to myself that I could eioL I will not 
Bay that 1 could not by any poaai bility have done a \ for clearly 
my knowledge in rc^rd to thiM poiTit ih titrit'tly limited, 
mid 1 cannot repeat the experience under precisely the shoo 
ixmditionR aii before. 8ay. for the tiake of argurncrnt^ tlttt 
I eoiild huve done n, but Uiat tlie indu<!entent Xm du x ww 
murli ifit.roiiger than that to <lo m. I was then free U> do </, but 
clearly not om free to <h> a aa to do x. For to do j: vaa u> 
follow the line of leodt resietnnca I'hat was the hue of least 
rcsiMiance to me, being what J aia or rather being what I Ihcdi 
w&H, It wruf 1 who did ae in preference to a. I cuntKit lay the 
blameon another. Itwasmychoiceto doj[',and Ifeclnowthat 
Jt woH an i^nMorthy preference. My ciinAirienoe telU me that I 
(bd wrong, iind though 1 may try to forget the voic-e of my 
coniidenee, hUU, whellevt^r 1 reiuember it, ittipeaka the iiaiiie 


Sin^ antl the need of Atonement 


mrww^v tfi me and tellB me thftl I ought tr> hftvc done a. Tt 
w I tb^it am at fault : ! myKt4r am not wliab I oit^lit t<i \)i\ 
For injr <*Htvfani action ie an cxprcftwion of wlial 1 am. My 
fbclion which is contrary to that wliich I kiKiw il ininht Ui 
luiTC bo«n ^howH ratj to he a Hiavc and not properly trcoi 
I hAvt flonu that which 1 did not proporly apcakiu^ will 
to d(^ 

For 1 urn not really free unlosH I prefer to do that which I 
ought lo do. To be free 1 miiat find pleasure and delight In 
dojii^ for iIa ciwti juiktt diat wtikli 1 )^^ tn y)e go>ri1. lint whcii 
I Gul to do that whiih my renjion \^X\^ me i§ lO'^d. ^<>d wiiirJt 
my oonacteiti^ T«l1r< itir I nuxlit t<i do, it !« I who tJniH fai], 
1 am not cocrccxi into failure: but 1 turn away (titiu that 
which ia |iroporly ^poakin^ my JVecdoin. For frocdom in «If- 
Mcntificatton with K^^^^dnctiN. And M^If-tdvntiticatioD witli 
what is ^oo<l cannot by its very nature 1>e coerdmi. In tlic 
luUum) worM L-<»er<rioi) ia the rule, in the wpintiud tf|ihcro it 
In not It iNortlK^<«M:^nco of a KpiritiiRl U^iitg that ho should 
ham- giHx] riiintiiijjideil U* him in r{^af<i)n, jind hhoidd of hin 
own free choice fulfil it. Tliat which wo call liolinow in God 
and which wc have ventured to define aa the Divino adf- 
mpect \» ]xrtentially ours t<:H>, by reat^on uf tlio fact that wo 
aro children of <>od. Holiiiew is not cum because of aur 
l^tjKkal natnre, but only through our sptntual nature, and 
Uien \i m only our^ by reason of the Divliie uier^y which 
]>Mt4>w8 it And wc ran ^ee tliHt it was a part of thi* wisdom 
of (vml U> prqmre man U» Ite a sharer in the Divine liolimwH 
by placinc^ iiLm nndci law, which law i« coiTimcii'led lo ua 
gi-a*luallj »** tiie exprewioij of what is gowl, but whicii, so far 
M wc arc rtill cumaU \» not the expre^ion of wiiat wc arc» 
but of what we ought to be- In st» for as we solf-cooBcious 
beinps having a knowledj;e of ifiMxl, tlo not fulfil it wu arc 
eUBlaved and are not in the enjoyment of the true spiritual 
tV-eedom, IF aukcsl whose fiiult it u that we are not free, 
wc niiui Httributc ihe blame X*> ouraelvHc We are not df.iing 
tliat whicli alone we fiee to he wortliy of iia 

\V<T hhail |jr<-liahly never andcnitJiTul ihv great niywf^ry of 
freedom uutil wc are onn!)elvce< ]vn>|)erly free, iu the souse 
c. T. Bp U 


Caml/rUlgt^- Th^'Mogiral EsAajfs 


that wc have atlaiuod to nolf-iileiitiQi'atiiin wIUi j^mduem^ 
We *bill then ttcc tlml vrlt^u U\ pft»t tinica wc faUcd to do 
irhnt wc knew ihai wo ou^ht to do we were all U^e whllt 
r^iioctiii):: a aood which Cod in Hia love was nttv^riiig tv lu, 
Tlio tunthi^ iiwiw *if GiKi* fev^^ur. ^w wc foJt it lo be at the 
tinn?, will be heon lo have bewi an art lif liigheat wi^doiiL 
G*wl (TiwU not HiM [H'lLriK bLTi>ru Hwine; aiirl as we proved 
ourselves unworthy of the gift, He withdrew the blesning, 
lietsiitM' we rouM not tln^ii Ht-rit tti 1h<h liT^-KHhig, bnt rr.-gard»d 
it rather ba an exac^tion of what wc were not piTpared Ui^ra. 
Only aft^r long <]iKci]»line were wo ifi a Mtat«^ Ui be appcAlod 
to once more, and iJod agJLin mailc i:« tiic ottbr whiclu through 
the change wrought in ua tij Uia dkeij>liiic, we were able to 

But whatever be our attitude of mind ifiwnrdit God in all 
Hia dealingtL with u», we cunjict Miip^iHe tliat there can he 
any chaiigf^ in KIh luve ti>wanl? iim. WliMt a licarl of infitiitA^ 
pity munt be the heait of (Jod who in Love ! With what 
compassion mnst lie view n» witli our KelfiHh vlewn of life, 
seeing' thai the law of His Being ia Hie lloiiuow which only 
love can aitiatyf Cfod nccd^ no propitiation to make Him 
favourable to ue. Hif own pitying love i^upplicvt the rocon- 
ciliation which He would eflect in man towards HlmiielC 
Kor ifl any sacriflce too great for llirn the law of whwc B«ing 
is infinite ^elf^iacrifice^ We cannot for one moment think 
nf the flFicrrifh'c of ('briHt uh ni-rthv) in any uiiy it* apprJu«^ Uie 
wrath of fiod; rather is Oiat rtiw-nCce a revolatlon of DivuM 
flclf-«icrif[cc» HitcniJed to win nnin, U* luakt." him ftirtrircablo 
anil in dndarc hitu forgiven. Man i* mado forgiveable when 
he is mode to aec sin in iti^ truu light and to doaJro a deliver^ 
ance from it, Forffivciicee i^ not the reniitwion of a punish' 
ment, but the rcTniyeion of flina Ae Btahop Westcott well 
put k: *'1Yuc Ki>rgivencHfe is the energ}' of love anawerwl by 
love. The forgiveness which rcimt.« a pniilshmont may leave 
tht» hi^ail iintiinched. Tlie forKiventwn \\hirh rt-niif-s a Hia 
includcn by itn very nature the return of rc^potwivc gratitude*-" 

oiiit^, on 'Human PcnwmJlif.' 


8in. and the lu^d qf Atanemmi 211 

Anil ae^n: "There can bo no discbiirgc of the aii^ful while 
they kcop their aiusV" 

We may miy tUiU whoit Uutl hii» once appealed to a man 
by the revealiu^c to him gomethJn^ of what ;;o(idiiiirtH in, thftt 
naan can never afterwania find peai-c until lie has yielded 
tuametf thereto. He may for a time repird the requireoient 
of ^xxlii»4H HH iu\ t'XHLlidii^ hut he wi\] liave Ui h-iini that it 
w n^tly lutkiiig fur the true expresMhiti iif himself And that 
fkUfllment of ^iMidtiem aUnie ran bring hini c4atiHra<:lhrn. It U 
becatUK? the 4Le«titiy of man i^ ho hi^h that he cannot find a 
lower aatU&etioD, Uc thinks that he c&ti, but ho caiuiot. He 
(akc^ too low a view of hitiiFfelf when he ima^inei^ thikt lie can. 

'Hw purp4^r^e of ntrmemi?itt then is the brin^ni^ of man 
into that relatJonahip with Cod which He tn HU love eternally 
meant fnr him. We cannot for a moment ftuppciue that God 
In ereatioii waH in any way igrnti^nt of tht- eouru? which 
tliiitjpi wouM take before Hir ^reat jnirjioxe iif lovo towunU 
mankind could be accompIiHhedn l^hc Son, who Iioh 1>een 
maiiift^tf^l to iia in time, was eternally the Meditator lietwecn 
God und man- He i^ the Lamb ^lain trum the foiiridntion of 
the world. God must have known the eost of the werk which 
He undertook. He mut*t liave known that the s|)iritual enuld 
only l>c developed out of the caiTiiL] by inmM.df Ikraring the 
bunlen of It all He, who in Hiiiiflelf Spirit^ caii alone under- 
tdjind the ^reatnriH of the work of the pnHltn*l.i<in ctf Kj>iritna1 
bcangfr, who are to btiil their destiny in ccmmunion with IILni- 
Uia* pftticnce knows no limit«H This belief is our confidence 
in the presence of the apparent failure of the race of man 
thrrmjfh ^m. 

In the fulness of time the 8on oF Ood was manifested to 
proclaim snni to eifect the ^onahip of humanity, lie took 
n]Htn Him the whole burden of human Nni, iJiat in the failure 
of mankind in goodness, with infinite pity for tho>4e who knew 
not tht? tiling lielontring to their pea(.■(^ In a |Hniple [jrefiared 
by the dir^dplinc of a moral law» whidj Imd lx?en rcpii'ikd by 
thorn Q» divine in orij^n, He mifoldcd the principle of that 
law, not in any way rclaxin>; ita dainiH, r<o lar a^ thetfc were 

» Ititd. p. 37. 

H— 'J 


Cambridge Theological Et^^aya 


otricUy cUiicai but mtiior f'M*^''^ it more atrinfiEeut than 
befcrou But He doee not lay it upon mankind tw a Umleii 
which they are to boar ; He reveaU it in its ftpiriiual meoaing 
as the true expression of » s|jtntiiEi1 lieiiii^f, l^it^ iiionil lav — 
the law whii'h pmcluinu tliat oiir fe]low-m«ii niiould be Bs 
inudh enda in themacKcd for imr cinmirltimlJuD na w« nUT* 
selved arc — Ho shows to be the way by which vie can be 
partakers of the Divine life The inner principle of the lav 
id the prin(!iplc of tho Divmo lik\ (jkiodntwi ipi dir^plajiid ii» 
love, love tipriii^^i; from holinces, the coiificiousiioss of one'fi 
ciwn worth and dignity. Jlere, at tmy ntu:, In the etliLcal 
tc&cLhig of CliriMt U h part of the at^iiiuiicnt- In Jlifl 
doctrine He tauf^ht nM nut only what we oii^lit to do, Tmt 
what (itKl in. fTe im nur attnieincnt by tcvKliing iim U* know 
(lod ethk^Ily, and to iutei-pret enntelven ethitally, IKmI in 
throUniEh (JhriHt proclaimed bo be lovc> and lore ]« deci&nxi 
to bo the principle of all true Ufa 

Bui Cliri^l not oidy l&u^cht inoii atKiut (jixl ^o bliat ilis 
wonU coul<] be huudoil d<mn to I* timr own hit«rprott^tH He 
is Hitnaelf bo perfectly identified with mankind that He dvrell« 
m men spiritually to give them fellowship with Uod. to work 
out in tlieni the ^lednet^H of God HhiiMrlf. The o|H>ratloria 
of tlie Uoly Spirit in tlie bunuLii hen,H< mid txtn^rfence and 
rcaaon are the rei^ult of the work of CliriAt — ^tliu rcviult nut 
Rimply of Hia teaching but of lli* aelf-sncrificc- For the 
Holy Bpirit wa^ ii«t ^voii until Jeaim woe gioriiiod ; and 
JosuH was not gloHBed uiitil He had fii-st been rejeotod, had 
MjlTered and died And, aoeording to Ohrbtian t^'Hcbln^ Ilia 
glorificatirin was no selfish ^loriti<:iition. It was in no seiWQ 
for Himself tliat He wa8 ^lorifiecL He came out of i^nay to 
e^talt tiinit to glory. Tu His ghiriGcntion after ilc^tlt maii waa 
cxa1tc<l to comnninicm with Uod. 

And man is not invited in Christ to have an inde|iend«Dt 
goodncfiu of hia own, but lie is »o to Ix? identified with Christ 
that he may bo in at! thingH the recipient of tbe Divine 
goodnefis of charfix^ter. He is not to otfer to (iod ^utVLhing 
concerning whicJi he can xay : For Uiin I deserve Tliy &rour. 
^Vhat goodness he hiu is not \m own, but Ids only hy llie 

t] Sin, and the w^erf of Aionement 213 

mer^ of fJfKl 80 kmif ii« irooi-lncae ia conceived of aw w>me' 
Ihing flccerving Divine favour^ whJtih fiivunr iw n*Jt Htrictly 
vthjcftlly ititeq^reted, lepillitDi will t^ill pr«v&iL It waa to 
coritljQt l^ilisin ibut Si F'anl set forth his preat doctrine 
of jtuaj Mention by Fait-U. ^vliiili faith i<leiititie« biin wli'i has 
it with Ohriflt llinMcir in n lifr of liolinew. Tlie l^uline 
doctrine of justification bv faiUi givce no counter laTn-i? to 
lavleAanetM Qnii« the contrary. "Sbivll we continue in un 
that ^THcc may abounri? God forbid" (Rota vi. 1% It U 
tm© that St Pftuirt teiM^tiing ih (»pal)lu uf Iwin;^ wreaterl in 
«"tip|Kn1 "f [awlosenc^fi. And any apparent contradiction there 
ij4 between tho teaching of St Paul and Hi Janiee arisea from 
UM«dtffertiritainixof the writera A»Ht Tuui c-< mi lutU legalism, 
MJ ^t ilainc9^ condiiimiH lawtertHn»tH. Both thwte thiuga are aJi gT^ 
to the spirit of the Clnisdan lifcL 

The ('hnstinii ilnctritie of atonement wt* forth the fact | 
of ninn'^; fellowship with <}od in Christ, and tolUf ua that thia 
fellowfibip can become possible to man in epite of Uto foct 
of human isinfiilncKK, Rnt it gives no countenance whatever 
to aiiT view tlkat man ia secure in tlie Divine favour by reaaon 
of Honu-thiiiK whirh hftH been dnne for lihu by u Mediator 
ttpurt from the ctKijicratKiii of the man hiruMelf. St Paul 
teacbea: *'Work out your uwn Halvatioii with fear and ti^etn- 
bling;; for it is God which worketh iii you both to will and 
to worh« for his good pleasure" (FluL ii. 1^, CX Ho that the 
working of the Divine ^>pirit in the htnnan heart in no way 
doiCroyH the perMnialtty — on the contranr it developfl it. 
Blan In Christ ia not deprived of hla indei>endenoe or of 
hill freedom. Quite the contrary, he d(H?a not know freedom 
imtil he in in Chriat by the inrlwellhi^ itf HU B|)lHt The 
linin and angui.ih tliat man rx|K?rirnn'?< whrn hr findn him- 
iwlf in tbe pnwci^^ion of an independence whereby he can 
refiiBC obedience to the Divine will, diacenicd by d»e con- 
ac^enec. are removed by the atonement whioli C'brJT^t has 
0fl«ct«d in brini^n^ hbn into hia true relationahip with (fOcL 
" Who ^all deliver me out of the bwly of thiii death i I thank 
Oofl Uiroiigh .Nsins Chriht onr J^onl " O^ni- ^i- ^-^^ '')- 

214 Oamhridff^ Th^ologieal £W*y* [v 

We liftve now cinpha«iscd wh&t seem to be tivo Ter>' im- 
portant ftwpoctH <>r tlio ('hrifltiaii doctrine of atoDcmcat Wc 
arc taking atonement or roconciliHUori to mvt^ix tlw n^inoval 
of nil bitrritirs* yth'xih hinrlcr man a oncno^s or rclJowehip with 
CJod A tirst ilikI important fuuturo of aLoneuieot then b 
the imparting of the knowlmlgv of Ootl» thr rcwlatiofi of llim 
in tcnn* ijI" clwinicti*r, n*tJK*r tliftii in CenuH of ^niwi^r. Tliiit 
th© liiHtoHc Jc^UK ^jTtmght t<i man, The rt^vt'liitiuri nf what 
fiiifl in t-tliii^lly is H diMcKmnn- nf hlu? n»tl natiirt? of ain En al} 
itfi hidcouMira!^ No one can hove Any scn«c of the blaokncM 
of m\ linti! he diacema the (-tfodaoea of ita oppofiitc Ohriat 
convicted the world of sin by rcvonling tiic h<ilinettfi of God. 
Hut in convictinc; of sin Ho proclainiod a sonpol of forpvoncea. 
which runhl only bv tif uao tu man when lio wa^ in a poi4tio» 
to respond to the ilemands which ^odnt^ made npcm hiia 
ThiM* then, was tht^ TM^'ond ixrint dial wt- emphaflii^M) : th« 
hnparlHin^ uf a new life, which r^JtulU frorii thr j,£h>n5r-ation 
art laan of the Mediator between God and man. 

But iv€ have now in conclusion to speak of the connexion 
between atonement and the death of Christ. Hy some tliiukerv 
the ^tiferinpt atid deatli of <Jhnfrt have thcmEwlvoA Ijoen ro- 
gu-ded afi the atf>ncment. According to them Christ has 
by 1(18 death upon the croas l>ome the penalty of human atn, 
«o making it jMWHihie f(ir Ctid t4> for^j^ve ; tlie Mufleringii of 
the iiinoreiit nvuiled for thr Hearni^ r»f the guilty : and so 
far afi we look w^ith faith and aeccplanre Ut the t-njm of rhrivl, 
who there U>re the penalty of inir i«inB, ia the giiilt of our ain 

At;aiTtt<t, tliiB way of regarding the matter there hait rabta* 
rally boon a protect and a reJLction. It ha« ijoen felt that tlio 
divliilon whidi i» thiiti dincloKed in the C]odhea<l ii^i really nn- 
thinkabli*- If tli:* Father In only able U\ furtfivt- when the 
jit-milty <»f win ha« h^iwi lK>m<\ we tniiy indt^ed mIc whether 
there \h aTiy p*udi thing an Divine fui-^iveneMH at all. Tlie 
ewence of fi^rgivt^nc*** is that it i^ not Vindictive, The debt 
ifl for^vcn not becauee some one else haa paid \t, but out (^ 
pure mercy because the delHur cannot pay it. And wecfcimot 
«oIvo the (U^Kculty by n^farding the Uivine forgivonees aa 

v] Sin, ami (he need of Alnnemeut 216 

w>tncrthing ctitirt^I}' diflV-rent fhmi tiuman rorgivi*ii<^*«, for thin 
witulit lie Ui rrrnler miuiiiiiiKli'K< tlii^ (:4>ii(]ilioiibil jmLitiiiii 
of tho I-ord's i*raycr ic»pccting f^rgiTcncw — 'forgivts im wc 

A^ainet thie, which wc may cnll the penalty viow of 
otoneiuettt, it w^ inevitable that a prol^at vhould bt* roa^k; 
but thi^rv Lf( dtui^r loit In |»n>t««tiTig iigiiiiiMt ah vrroncima 
view of thi? matter the efiht of !U(»Tient«iit «hoiiId be lost ^ight 
ot U ih iiiAuflicient to «ec iik ihi^ i^ruwi ul' Ch^^t iivithlng 
more thaui iin evidence i>f Divine liive, or an t-xample of 
humility. For it is extremely ilitfieult oit cU^se cxnmiiuition 
of tiie matter to tice ho*f iJic croHt* of I'hrint can atteat the 
Divio^ lovo^ \x%i\t:m thon^ \^^ mitnu good Ix^towcil on rniui 
tfcrougb it The love of CJod to man in only proved by the 
bcvtowa! nf Divinv beneHlji tijxni Iitjii. Wluit i« Uir twnrlSt 
In thia ease ? If there be none; then the eross is no evidence 
of Divine Invi-, ftiiitie niHV miy thr*i the bi-inTit It^ the lejwon 
of bumility, whidj tlie crow tracljeH. But rauJiiicM to endure 
niff?riiig for itfl own 9/akc \n no L'vidence uF humility, any mure 
tban it ia a proof of love. 

It lit onu of tJie rneritH of tho late JJr UaleA wnrk on Um 
Atonoment timt lio makt.^ tbie point cloar. J'ho love of Ood 
is iiol manifested by the cTom of Christ unlees by it dome 
bleitftng Ih btwtuw«d upon nuinkind But f)r Dtil^K view of 
tile bencrtt whieU tho 4rmiw nf Christ Ix-Mtciws. thus proving 
it to lie a manifi^Uil.iori of Divine lotv, in o|itMi Ui itioMt m-rioim 
criticimL He odvocatCA the punif^hment thcoi'y. Aecoi'ding 
to him the jiiMticG of God mulil unly tx.* icitinGcil If tlie ]>oriaky 
of sin were borne. Thin jicndlty (.'hrwt lx»rc by *'« sniicrinirs. 
and M> our sinti ean be overlooked by Uod, who otherwiBo 
could not have forffiveii. The croi0 tliuti wluieMut at oiilv 
to Iho jUEtioe and tJie love of God, 

Tb!« way of nwirdhkg ilie Atonement ia dcfumled by I)h)i^ 
with considerable skill and force, hut hb^ defence ia open 
t4i gravr nhjnrtiori, in thiLl it !!< Mnp|iirrti-<1 by iin Hp[H'j)l to 
tlte pmetiee of hniiiaif fu>c?etie« in the adminii^tration of 
justice, Hfi if, indeed, tliat could be regarded ^a au ideal to 


S16 Cmnbridge Thmiogtcal Esmt/M [t 

wbKcb ihe methodit of God must confornL A nwii gtiilt^ t^f 
a rrinir ii^Hhud (lir btwn n£ jtn t-^rtlilj- HtJiti^ piiik^ «ivi-jt if be 
bi!i:iuue |>cruU''iiL, boar tlio poimlly of nliat be hoA doDc. thftt 
the Bftiictitv »r tbt- law may liu viinljcaicil Thin U trite. But 
wc miiAt remember that the puniPtbuieiit <jf crime iu an axrthl}' 
HUittf (loeH m>t liiin prkiK-n|dilly aX th<i j^ood of tht:^ indindu&l 
punisbcd— tbougb in the prtjvidtmce "f UocI wc K*licvo il t*> 
have ihifl ©nd— but il is for the protection of mombera of 
society fhim injury ibat rimy be done U> th<iTii by xhish 
neighbours In arlDiiniKtcriiig |iefiH.lue8 tbe^tAtce^innot take 
acronnt of tliv fiu*!* Uuit ibe vrrong-ild^r Ih [vnit«?nt tir tht 
conttTiry. It would ijc inrapahleof deriding thi* pointy mcrmg 
tlutt [jcnltence It* a ihiiig of tbe heart wliieb God oiilj can 
diMcra \Ui rule then is rigid and merc>' finda no place 
in ita application. The State inflicted punif^hment bcenuse it 
axivvU to enforce the piinciple that niari shall not ii^ure hi* 
neighbour, A ciriintiuLl may l>ear \m puai«hiiient m> tliat It 
becomes to bini a diaeipline of peniteiiee. TYah matter w tlm 
coiK'em of tbr (*bur(rh, wlurb c&rca for tlic individual iu vpite 
of biA wi'ong-doingp 

Xow Irt MJ9 put to oiirH(4ves the iincsttion : If a nwn were 
condemned to deatb for a fearful crime would any ChristifUi 
State allow a fellovnian to atop in and bear tike penalty 
inMUHi^ irf tlie ofiender? The ipieetion hiiA only to be a^ked 
to be atiBwere<i unbeaitatingly in the nogativo. Yet is not 
thifl JHflt what tbe penalty view of the Atonetneni requtrM ua 
t4) neivpl. 1U4 rtf^bt hi })rinripb<V 

The State in iulLnini:;tcrmK paniiiliment for crime doea not 
regard the crime cemniitted hh ait injury iltme by dte eftetider 
to himself, hut il« an injur)' done to his ncighlx>ur But 
spiritually regarded, the oflbnder hai^ done a great iiyurj l4* 
KitnBwlf — not a bodily injury in tlmt he mu^t suffer in the 
floHh for hi8 migdeeil^ but a Hpiritual ii^iu]7 in ^at he liaa 
acted unu'urtliily of biu true manhrxxL 

The C'briftian at«>nenierit Itelnugs to the spiritiial splwro, 
and [:aiLiiiit Ih? iiitt^qtrel^d by an .^p]ind tii earthly niialm 
of adminiAtcrin^ JListi<^e, whieh aic ncco<«Brily imperfect, 
altlujugh right and proper in their own apliere. The rulerv 

t] jWfl, find the nef^tl of Atoneniml 217 

tpf the kin^oma of thw world arc, unconftrioiinly il nifty lie. 
niTinterg of God, in ao far aa they inipfLrtially iiiliiniiistcr 
lft*r vthivh him tiyr itu cikI tbr prolectiou of mombere of 
aociety from iikjuricH sclfUlily inflicted by their nei^Lboon^ 
But m cHiiiliml, if )w W In iht* t'jtni at thv law to W con- 
demMMl. w in ihv eycM of ftpinl.iiRl mcrc-y a Ikriri^ worthy of 
pA^. Itereiii^ in Lhe Uv of €dirT.hly xtnl'T-K, Init tint iirrMmnl 
raveMffft The lULtuml fli>*ir« for revenge in an individaal 
jfl of cotiTw btttci" than indittctciwo. Wo iii&y utiy th»,t 
perrtcnut rt^veni^ fur iiytiry ih il nntiinvt Ptafc in huDiRn 
dc^'vlopment But it i<^ not a linal Ata^e^ [t beloTipi to tho 
carnal utrate, TTw i^plrkiial nrnn \ih'wK Uic olH^Kkn trvon whon 
he tcvU M'\tic\y tUn injnry which h»» bcoii done to tilniRelf. 
It \rt th^ height of spiritual perrectitni to b» ab)& to forgivi^ 
prTMinal injury dnnr f^i citiewt^lf, iitid to look with pitying eye 
Upon the pcnwn who bae inflicted iL Chrliil wax able tn 
prny without any rcrterre: "Father, ftir^Te them, ix>r they 
know not wfmt they tlo." 

In ofIi<etin{? a work of atoni^ment, or recornnliation of man 
to Ood, UhriHt, we iniiiit belit^ve, had a heart of Invi^ whicb 
enabled Him to enter with infinite? pity into the niWry of 
«bifii1 hunuiii life, and Vy lalxnir Ut ren-ue thtf Himier from hijt 
akL Vie, with the perfeiin ccinwionmiww of ]\» owii I^ivine 
Soiifiliip, dcnired ii<>tlun>; more than tu in.'hke th;it SoiiidiTp 
dUretiveforthcmceof man, with which lie identified i[im»e1t 
There in no minimiFiing on His part of the i)ivine flcinands if 
nian is to attain hi* tnic dtsatiny, Tlierceoidd of eonwe be no 
withdmwal i»n Hod's pan ^-rnn the inomi requirements already 
tefltilied in the hunmn eonacienee. aJid OiriHt* teaching made 
tifce moral law more utrict than before. Bnt l>y HiMiiiflcluaure 
of Uie T>eatity of the ntviiie eharai^ter of holhiew and love — 
eaeh explanatorj r»F the <»tlier— He mi net forth the Hjftiritnal 
pnneiple of iiu>i-nlily that it m »Gen to be nian'n true ex* 
preHHion of himself, that wherein he find** hi* true freedom. 
He ip^yc llinknelf, m that the DiTme life might boh>ng to man 
in a seDAC in whieh it harl not prerirm'^ly been his. He took 
humanity to Him^lf that He mli^ht spiritviatise it And the 
ooBflition for the givinjj; of Uia life for miLukind vtt^ lii the 


Cambridge Tkeoiot/iml Eititatj$ 


vlMdoin ftiid proviiltJiLco of God, tlio croiitf, which diriirt en- 
durcMl for the joy t1i»t wna eet before Uiin of re^^enenitiDg 
hiiiii^iiiit^. If it. }n' JLtkuI wlir^tlkrr Mir rir-w jipirif.UHl Wtv. 
which Chrit^t chiiic U> impart to mc;ii i.^oulil nut have Iwcn 
£{t«ii ollierwine than by ttus wa> of Uie cronrs we can onlj 
reply thtit wv arc incuiKiblc of aiiewcrins such a question, 
but wc r:ati t^ec the appropriateuorui atiU Utiii^w of thU waj. 
" It Licount' turn, for whom ^ltc all thinicH, utiti thix^n^h whom 
&ro all thiiips in briiigiug niatiy eoiw unto i^lory. to make the 
ftutlior of their aalvBtlon perfect tlimugb KUtli^ring:* " (HeU 
ii 10). Thu pi'i^fiw^H c<*ti«<.H^mUoii yf liuniaii life to Cod dfl- 
niAridt^f] for itM crmiHUiiimatiiin mi obedleiiL'e even unU' deutlL 
By ll]« fiiitlifuhicj^ to the rjiiMi.-; of \\iA Fiittl HIk trath ('hriet 
incurred the lioatility of the carnal minda of men. Thb lie 
did dolil>entU-l_v, knowing all Lhc time wlutt tJiould come upon 
liiui. \l\^ i^beilieiicc nnd iuithfulnciw wore tested to the 
iittcruKi^it, HO that of Him it eaii be Miid that He knew tio «iiL 
By His olwdience even t<> death He cantweratCHl htimiinity to 
God, and for it God exalted Hlni. as Maiu to Hupreme power 
wliereby He emild HM~ny tiie hearLn atid i-miM^ieviruH of niiui- 
kiiid. The fruit of Hi^ ci>iK|Uiwt ha^ Itocii and i^ tlie in- 
dwciliiig of the IJivine spirit in nicn> llus ia the true atoiw- 
mcnt, that man ehould know Uod oiid be in communion with 
Him in jc^^Klnetw: 

"Tilts i« the (.covenant that 1 will make with the Itoiue 
of Israel 

Afler thciHt* i1ii\h, H»>t)i the f^ord ; 

1 will put my laws into theii' luirut 

And on thoir heart altio will I wj-itc tliem : 

And I will be to them ii Uod. 

And ihey fthall be to me a ptNvple : 

And tlioy »\v\\\ th>t toiLeh every mati his fellowcitifleti, 

And every man hie brother, rayiiig, 

Know the Lord ; 

Fur nil Hhull kimw m^ 

Prom Uic lca*it to the Rroateet of lliem. 

Per I will be merrifiil to their iniquities. 

And their mus wiU 1 remeiubor no morix" 




peMMof thj children- Ij^ liv. 13. 

RoM<iri A^llowinj^ in tlio wuko of fnlUi, irrn^p* tlio ^rr^cftl ooncoption that 
tlio rolfglniw 1Jf<i IB % Wfc at lyncn hiimiin m»{ <\\v\uo—lhti Cdrirpplivu Uiftt 
C}(>il IN LL Miirrvnuling Ufd, thiiC tim tnliiiite iloutt not oiinui, but roAUiW 
llintwlf iiL iUk finite, luid Lhut thu lii^fhest r^vokUoii irf Gcnl u thu lufo «f 
Qod iu Lhb Hul of mjka ; lqiL on tb« ether huid. thut Ihu fiiJtc p«sti VQ, 
ud re&liv^A itoolf in Uiu Infiuit?^ and Uut it u nub (be htinihiUlimi, but Ibe 
Mftllstitkn of our hlghcfll fl^^od*^m, tn ovwy naovcmont of aur thought* Id 
every pulaihtioD ^f uur will, to bi> tEw orifan tad oiprmuon uf (liv mind and 
will oTGol 

Jou» Caiud, Gijfifrd Ltrtvn^ il 


LimitatioD of tb^ icop« of this Sinj : R«rclation maj* be reguiled 
«itli;?r a» Ibo growth of Uio DiTine Lifv vtUliiu ujnu. or w^ Oi>J'» )infirrv«fliT« 
eriIiglit*iiinDnl frmn without Madom thought toed* towwds iho latmw 
OOncvpUoQ, tUiutrotiona of thin tcndeDf?, The cliikruteHdtta of Btibjvcti*« 

coto|mtil>L<i With tUo objoctlvo ItovuLittliin in Jmiu 0)irut CouAidcrttlon at 
■onu* objocWcm* t^ thin viuvr. The need to pocoTuidw the popuLir 
jirvHontmtrTit of the niothod of TOvuliLtlatL 


This £h»ij i>ti the Ides of revelation is concerned with 
beliefn that havt^ Hpnin^ u]> la all religions, and artae out of 
regimiK i>r r»ii»4i;^ic>ijhntrKi and fet-ting wliicli have not 1h?cd 
CDtup]ct«]> explored. U u tlicrcrirn; ntft ptiwiblc to bo|ciii 
bj ilcEining the tcrma vro arc contpcUcd to iiflc. unices vrc ftro 
wiiling alAo to prcdt^toniiinc' our ctincliLKionn ; for tiic vhn\AQ 
ratWOQ thrit t\\b fiicia and feeling which arc groapcd uudcr 
tho«c terms have lu reality a» yot indiatiiict outlines, and 
undeUTnuucd and Kr<>win)C bonndnriEs. A dcGnition, m Mill 
Kfcjs. eometi at the end, not m the bej^Tirun;^ f f Uie &tiidy of a 
Nubject ; iiiid the world ig siiU nt the beginning of the study 
of the nature uf revolution. T olTer then no att4<m|»i at a 
deflnitiuii of Hevehtlidn. Hu|i|ii]y there in on auLluintattre 
defiDitiou of RcTclatiDQ given by the Church. 

I may however begin by narrowly liiuitiTig the acopo of 
tlll» Kmay. 

I have first to rule out from my treatment the incUh- 
phyiiieal element** i>f the c|iie«tioTj. Of cuurse any diHeu^iou 
of tho idea of revelation will unply awnmptifUiM elm in the 
nature and origin of knowledge ; and for completo treatment 
Miich Mwntnjitionst lu^ tHf»e should l>e ejt|ilidtty At^I.ei] »nd 
justified. Mi>reo¥er the idea of a revelation from (.rod aMume^ 
the iMistence of a God whom it ia not misleading to think of 
iukIct the terms of I'ersonality. I pass over however tho 
wliolo of thi.-i iniportfuit ^de of the eut^cct because others 
avc better qualified to deal with it 


Carnf^ridge Theotoffical Essays 


And I in;int next exclude uny vystemfttic treatiDent 
of the hiBloric&l eidc. As the i(lcii< of revelation iuvolrcA 
inctaphyaicH, eo^ even more obviously, do its r^aUaation and 
exprct^oti invoke history. The idea of revoliiLton, iiikI the 
focts and Eiodea of revelation, cannot be aeparated We 
cannot speak or think nf rcvelftthm without fnHiTig up Iwfore 
our inifidfl nujoie pictiii'e of the long fknd worhl'wido lii»Lory in 
whit;h, " at niiudry t.inies ^nd in divers mannnrx" GihI Mpptsim 
to hare made lliniacif hnown \ and without «omc afiaumptionB 
M to the methods b> which He haa made, and is now nuJcmv, 
Uiniaclf known to moa J^ut it U obvious tliat to treat tliia 
aocliou adoquatoly nocds a volume, not a few )>aragi«pha in 
an ossay. fn bn-Fiul outline it 114 tamiliar to us ; other vnitors 
lave moreover dealt with it I mu^t paaa it over; not as 
irroievAnt, tior as uniin[>ortaiit. The oiniHHinn, however, m 
not wlioUy 1oh8, Studi«« hf.^lp one anothei\ Some de^ee of 
knowledge of bbe Mntory and exptirivnt?^ uf revi'liitiim han 
been essential to form our idea of revelation ; butt con- 
versely, the; ntiidy of the idea of revelation may help um to 
reinterpret what wo [mvc re^bd lu it« history ; for all historjr, 
and cepeciaUy the history of rovclation* is the story of an 
evolution of thon^ht«s a« weU ae a chronicle of events, and 
on that account each atH^ needH constant reint^rpretadoD 
in tb« lifcht of what fotlowK it 

The only fbrtht^r limitntion that T n^d specify Ifl dial 
thiM Essay is nnt intended to lie apologetic, — a defcrict? of any 
theory of revelation a^inst real or iiua^nary opponents of 
Ohriatianity ; atiU less is it a polemic I wish that it uiay be 
written, uitd I lio]>e that it may be rcad^ in no controvcnaaJ 

Ha Tiller thuM briefly indicatofl what thiri E^nay mi|rbt 
have lievn in other Imndu, amd will not be in mine, I wiD 
evLti more briefly state wliat I wlrfi it to be. 

My sok^ ami h* \i^ eipresx, witli flir gn^itwrt tru^fulneA 
that I can nttain, the conception of tho HuIjKUuiee and laothnd 
of rcTCIation which has fiunlly. an I t>e1icvc, established itadf 
ConfK:iou8l> or un(^.inf4ct*»usiy in tlsc niindA of numy thouj^bLfnl 
Chrietian people. J beLevo that anyone who can taithftiUj 

vij Revdatimx^ uitd modern knowledge 


cxprcjw wlmt is tnie to htnmcif, may Iw rlrawlng from a 
rt--;(U)u iif uiiiverHal f^rUHdiMirtiLt^tw : and nmy lit-lp nl.livn^ 
to interpret* <rTcn if not cxuctiy in the same way. thotr own 
experience, and thus advance true knowLcdgc- 

Oiie more priifiitorv rniTinrk, Tlio view of ruft'latioD 
which I 3}ih]I put fonvard ia not proci§c]y the now which, 
from its bein^ at present dominant with the m^ority of 
«iLrncHt'min(k<] Christimi j>e*»ple, i*i therefore |M>pularly re- 
gard^ as orthodox. On the other hand It U not contrary to 
miy litUt-T aiiif itmre permauetit ^^mlitnJ uf truth ; arif1 it rx 
by no mcAQM new. ll is widoly diHuBcd. evtrn if unfonmiiHted. 
It Ih moreorer not tncun^Mtcnt with tlic retention and \iMi, in 
lU rigiit piftcc, of customwry lan^mt^ about tlic method of 
revelation. The ri^ht place for that lai^ua^ is in populor 
exposition, and In practical etif^rcemeiiL lliero in ii ri^ht 
place for lipeakin^ of lUc smi ri«ing on the earth, wT^^re it 
would he pedantry to insist tliat it ia the earth that tunia to 
the BUn. It in only wlieu pirpular laugiiage ia in»ii«l4fil tin hk 
liein^ not ]Kjetry but (iiiwc, not appix}xiniate but Hcicntific, 
not pantbic hnt iloj^no, thnt it becomua ntiBleuiIing and 
nnnchievoun. If rcTclation. or indeed any other truth, m beet 
pre?»cntcd to a child or man in one ^Uuae of education by one 
method, and in another by a diB'erent method ] and if it ie 
the roividation. and not the method, tJiat is primary in the 
t«acher'« aim, it h open to hhn to u&^ either method. Ae 
Fa«ica1 9ay«T ''We miitit havB a hindmost thought, and Judge 
all things by it, and yet muist we «poak ns do the petipleV 

"hi tiic light of modern knowledge and rwwarch." 
What have modern Knowledge and research to do with any- 
thing so transcendental and tipiritual txa the idea of naveiationV 
They affect tlrnt idea in two ways, by tlicir trenoral Fipirit, and 
bywnne of their iJpccific resulla. The spirit of inodorn ricience 
and philosophy ha« compelled u» to re^trd the universe as a 
whole — m a conllnuoue, purpo^efuK reasoned whole— evoMng 
tUrIf under t-ondil.iouj* uf iinbruken law. There ia, 1 know^ 
prima facie ground for holding in suspense lliJa conviction 
of purpuee. The uuiver^e xv- t^Ki vd^t. No one man can 


CambrUlffe Thtoloffical HiMiyn 


arraugc all cxpc-ricnccs in roa^oiicd lequcnco. Ncttfacr id 
imtioiial nor in universal biauiry, nor m lUc intcntctjoD of 
mitural laws, can wc yet find ulcar proof of » pur|ioio 
in the whole. It h a» in Bt«Iliu' fi^tronomy ; no mind hu 
fet gnk^|ied tUe cuinplexity of tlie sidereal tiitiverse, «o aa 
to M^ ftU \hi motion* »iid changes lu tbo*^ of nn onlerod 
iffrttean. Vet I think thaf, anyone who in jieneti^teJ wiUi 
t'he w!ientilii: MpiritH muti iimmiiuc that, a^ m the ^telhir sytUeuu, 
so in titc nnivcrae of iiUitLer and life and niiiHl, there exUtA, 
OVCD if T>eyi>i]d hiti ininpnivtion to iCTnM\>t a fnndatncnUil onity 
and piirpow\ I do not know from what fK>urGe, or by what 
channels, this conviction ban cemo to i\\o world* Tltat \» a 
quextiuu for tlie meUithyskiaii. It may be an intolleetual 
inference from observation. But our inveterate liabit of 
finding n-juioiM for 'conditions' whioli were rmitinl iu our 
mind* prior tf" any reasonn wanw me Hint hcrt nW oar 
' (nincluHiunH ' may cume first, and our rcauioiti M^tond 'Hii* 
ooucluBion, this conriction of unity, may be an intuitToii 
arising out of our very natuix". aa it la being slowly and 
un«H|LiaUy develoi^ed. It may itaclf ha tlie witnwu of the 
Indwellini; Uod in our reiisoiL It may be the moet oasootial 
element iu man. It nmy be the moat real knowle«^ we 
pcHsscs*. Whaterer ita ori^tj, I bcliCTo it ti> be a growing 
eonvictiini in the worhl of acietice, a eon^kllou of unity and 
purptHe, con s<jli dating ti^t in leadinjf tnimlH, Uint in d^^j^r- 
miuin^ the form which the idea of revelation in now taking* 

For there are two w&j^ of throwing into a tiyttttmatic 
form our irnrtginationa respecting the untrcrHC^ 

We nmy. on the one liand, regard it aa eddontially otie 
contlnuouA whole^ iu which, from hidden «ource<4 of life witliliir 
whif^h we cnll Divine; mystorinufl and onlercd mi>vcmeflts 
■pring u{i, pnigreftHiiig towardri Hoine reniote end. Such & 
development in the i^pherea of tnaU^'r and of jBhytxiirtd life lai 
popularly called Evohition : in timt of the iTdt:ll4M.^t it U called 
Knowledge: and in tbt realm of coMm^tcnicand will it may be 
called HoToJatJoni though perhaps there ia no real (Jiaduccton, 
Revelation, from tliia point of view, w reptnlcd uts Uiu growth 
or evtilution of Uie IJivine Life, jjiud of the Itnowledge o 

RGveJiUum, (131(1 viotlrrn knowMt/K 225 

own nature^ Id the huTuan race. Tlie earth haH been slowly 

Or, on the <»thcr hftiic). we may Uiiiik «f thi*- iiheiitm^eiut) 
vii>rlil and uf the Pei'nciiinlity nf (htil, aa of two things apHit, 
objective tc* tvw;h other, cxtcmal to each other. From thia 
point of view i{<ivdatioii la resided aa a history of U<>ri'» 
auoce^eive giftn «i* ''jr^j-^i t4> miin wlium He createiJ; and ill 
partico)»r tbc word Ib a^feociated with His f^duai enlighten- 
nieni of tjuuk iu cou^luuBueflH of lliiiw^lf Fir^ huIividmtK 
thL'U A family. Mien n nation, arid tiieu a Church, artj the 
Divm«1v selected chjiruieU and depusitJiried uf God V revi?ln- 
tioTi to man in ihe \m^t. That KeveLation reached iu cUntax, 
if not ite couapietion, in the man i flotation of (jed in (^irint. 
That is the other vray of regai^iing the facte. The auu had 
been slowlv ri^iui; on the earth. 

Thc«c two ideas of rovelation are eleari,y diBtintfulKhablci 
thou^fh they have very mueh in common; and tlie change in 
t)ie miHhTn thoti^lil of revelation that luiut lie first ex}rliuned 
]a tbe «ubiititutiou of the Hnni for Uie Hccond. Whether 
tliry arr nintuaJly ttxelueire tiniti ma^ show. But to modem 
ttiouglit the f4e<'oTHK a?^ att exc1u«ive vr doniuiant thi^)r>, 
m boc^unJiif^ ini|>oissible. Nevert1ieleae» it la »ti11 very etronglj 
cntrcDclietJ m our mintU Jt mny be dcacril>cd us being 'in 
po«e«ttLioa' [t hm tho junction of ancient as well fis of 
po|»uJar language \ it iKiaseatkv an lipparerit einiplicity and 
uaeftilneea and authority. I mimt endeavour to show why 
Uui older conception bo long held tJie field, and why the 
pendidum hii>;. H>i I tnOieve, tiwutig finalh away fnnu ihe. older 
cum.'eptloti Juid t^iWHrdr* the newer, and tji hIiow tiie niudifica- 
tioHH ri-?*nUin^ In (he ndenUfic idea of revehLtioiL 

Tiie tdder t^onception huA, in the first place, a jttronj^hold 
in the »cry word rr^v^i/iort. (Ireat ift the power of words 
to preclude thought It eccms impossible to al»andon u 
liunitiar wt>rtl thou^li on reflection we see that it hv^ the 
question: and etjually inipor^iblc t^^ eidarge ItM meaning. 
Wc cannot ahake oureelves entirely free fvoui the mlMli-Jid- 
ing ci»nuotati<iiiH "f many famitiai^ woi-dw in tJunilogy^ which 
were Helected, and ^ut their pu|iiilar meaning indelibJj^ 

CT. & 



Camhriiige Tfttvyl^icai E/untftt 


staniped tm llietn, M a unie when tbey eipruMu) acriiral^ly 
enough thc3 iireviutm^ thooghL Still Wwi cnn «rr gt^t nd of 
U]€ wordi, Tlic tbottgbt majr hiYe iiMaed awa; in reality, 
hal Uiu word rcmaiiw. not onlj H a wICneM to paot iboivkt. 
but fti a tempk tfaat gi^Cfl it eboltcr and mnotity and kccpA 
It aHre — a tetnpk vhicli ix thriu^'ht U* f>e iltiHX.^ntlc<] by 
anyone who att«mpte lo juetify a cfaan^ iu thought, 
B«TelatioD la such a vord It caJHea vttli it in iu popular 
Ut^, wheriuver it h iiltrn^l. thv inm>|BirHh|p rnmmUilioii tliikt 
what >« »> i)c»crit>eH K nt iiiiy r^tcv not in any flenae a 
ileT4>li>}intefit of Imijuui iiIiah, — tliat it hi» imt cimiti tJinmgU 
nun. *' All n=UM:totv^" sayi a popular imtcr of lo-daj, "^aro 
made by man ; and therefore there i^ * no revclntion.' " Tbin 
ajfcumeot i» to htm concliwro. So completely j» bia thought 
Id bondago to a wotd, that he thinks be h lo^t-aL Atid 
bi tbln rcapoct he r^pre««ntc( a cutiMidi^rablt; ^ectioii of ibo 
(.lirkttaD pab^(^ FVotn the mere utt^nni^ of tbo word 
'revelation' It \tm come to be aiamiieiJ iw M^^lf-cTidont, ua 
nclinittdlly timinrMtioii^ilih*, thnt rt-vrlati^Hi U t\w c<Mnmuni- 
catioD t4> men, by name external agency, uf truiljH wMrh tliey 
ctnAt] nut arrive? at by intrmal pnHri.-wH<H nf thrirown mindA; 
and, it ia often added, which they do ]H>t poaAcas the facultlca 
for vcrift'iDK or cntirnini^ It i* a?wini<rd Uiid what icrows 
ID man epriuEpB from a acpamto root of human i^onmcc and 
not iVom the one rooi of DiTine vriadom. 

Upon tbitt knpreiuimi— that a 'revelation' muet bo 
at extra — U built tip the edifice with which we ai*e ao 
famltiar the })u|iidar but vtr> ernJe t^onix^ptitin of Rfvealed 
retij^oTi h;^ a Nfrln'mc of (njllut added from out>^iile lo hatarul 
roli^iti ; a »cher»e of do^iiAM mIkujI n<id ntnl man, )>eyi>r)d 
our reason to catabliflfa : doQ^new oripiially introducod with 
niiracnlciua credentials, and now titored b) a Auperimtiiral 
nntliority, Bible or Churcli, Nutimd rdijoon inkc*^ iv^ it i« 
roproaented, a certain distance ; it consist* of what ma-n can 
dtjteover for himMcIf ; revtvdod roliffion titkui Ufi further. Or« 
to use Another nietapTior, one lays the foun<Lation, the other 
a^lfU the luditkpoiiHablL* mifivnitnirCtire. Gtul l>e^iiM wlwre 
man Icarea cifT 1liU pmentation v* no (^miliar, and b av 


Rex^etation, and modem hmtrie^gf^ 227 

immo^lmlc n c«innwjnritcr iif vrhni U impltw! or Jtt]g^v9t1.ri] hy 
the wi>rd ' reveUtJon.' that it requires on effort even to thiak 
of the «;ric<f of truth<^ which eoiuftiiute what arc called 
'natnnil find rcvenled reli^on' &« in any other luid closer 
relation ut one ruiother 

Tho oriicia and form of thi« coiiec|n.ioii, howov<T. mj*y be 
traee't to a l&r^ extent to other than Christian AourceB, It 
liMx 4>ften lu^t^n renmrkeil ihut Roiimn Ihw nK>i)Ui«*i] \\\v forum 
of niediieval ttieology : anil the Inter inflnence of tlie l>einm 
of lh(* 17l'h aiul IHth centurie* is also clearly porcepliblt^, U 
will giTc w lew of fi pang Ui part vrtth this conception vrhon 
we remember ila parcnla^. and when wc reflect that it ifl 
rc^rvled 04 ortJiodox ohidly liccaiuie it i» fiunitiur. 

If, then, tho aismimfition, uliieh m»ilerri thtm^fht and 
ice have been led to makp. respecting the fundamental 
unity and pnqKibie <if the whole, rorrt*j4|MiiidH with tht* ftictai no 
far as ktinwn ; »iid if it tH ihr furmrr, not thi< ItLtli-r, of the 
lw4> cuiiebptkmA above described into which our idea of 
rcTcladoD miiKt at hi»i Gt lUeEf ; ne are led ^o limine that 
raT^atiOD may be the wron^ word for the group of ex]>onencc« 
wc nuHui tti denote by it ; and that we mit^ht njore correctly 
Cftll that group of expt^ricnci^^ the <|ijiokening of tho spirit, 
the illunainatton of the reason, or the ^uiflancu ot ttte wilt of 
man by the nnivenwl indwelling Spirit of (led. We may 
call hi iri!4|>1nit1on. If we use that word c(»rreet1y. nn Itelonginff 
to mindH, iutt U> irntfiM upjirvheuded I'y titiiiriM. We- are led 
to rt^gard the experienccA which we have cuilt^ revelatioit im 
rtttJier nn tntiiition of tnjth nitd of (iod, inliercnt in the 
tifttarc ot^ man, hprinjcinjic tV*tm \n^ nhnrin^ the Divine life, and 
ofl a result of hie contiuuous jcr^wth in power and cloamcAH 
of Tiaion, than, under the more ima^native form, oh an 
lUiTflUiB^ of new tnuh ttf/r^frtt. kevelFLliovi ix the expression 
of the tHvlne Wladom taking varied form in the thoug'htM of 
man, riiTTi'vpoorlitij^ In tlir vjinc*<] rxpri^HHtnn of l>ivine Life 
iu lining iirgautHniR li \t* a more citnijilett^, more varied, 
more coiiUnuEHi^i phffnomvnuii thun in our Siiniiilicitr we 

Uoreever, it ia ph^inty an intuition, ariBing tVoni mane 



Ct^aibrithjr Tkeologuxd H^ays 


dtaruig of God's nature^ trhtch \h tho prrpivqiiUite of faig 
capacHiy to r^'cive wliHt huH Ikhmi Jtwnctu-tl In Ixj uii tfXtvriiHl 
rcrclatioa OnJy tlirough the udiou already existing be- 
tween God and man ia man able to farm tlio canccptioo) 
of GchI at all, t>r Lo l>e tkwurect <if Hiri exirttoiioc- *'Thoii 
couldst Dot eook mo h»dHt thou tiol alroady found me.' 
Logically, therefore, if there is any dlatinction at all, revealed 
ralitfioii — tlmt U the divini; illuniiiiiition luid pn^panitUm of 
th^i Houl of man — precedes anything thitt can be called natural 
religion. The eye that r(?cei?e!4, aud tlie brain that int^rfin-tM, 
impn^asionH of ligiiL nni^t l.>c i^ivon before tike li^ht ean affect 
116, or external ol^ectr? be [leroeaved. it in the Diiine in muD 
that hcare Uod's voice, '*Thc t^pirit of man whereby h^jknowi 
God U dimply the Spirit of (lod UiiofieltV &^ Htigol sud, 
reptMLtinic E^t l^ul 

The popular conception of the method oT revelation 
an ctmMixtiug iif tnLTuiii^tioriH in the phenonienul wurlil i« 
clrarly n^ponsiblp for mont of the disbelief in any ruvelattan 
at nil. Fur Lhoits in no fii&iMj reni^wed e\|Hint"m:« U> Iw 
appealed lo sw verifying thiA conception ; it vv-*-l7\ on to9>4i]uony ; 
and the te^tmiony, when ejfandnod, ih iiicomjilete, unecrtaia 
Huch an cxumination over^tiniulatcft the fftcnltios which deal 
with tlio phenomenal and the intellectual, and mak<^ little 
dem»j]d on thoae which are Kpiritua), In which revoLatiOii 
really takes place. It therefore t^hift^ reli^pon to a ditfereiii 
plane. U laya atreiu on the wren^ thing. By making 
mvulation ol^eetive^ it tlierefore itiaken it ^:ieiitificalJy 

> Thfl Tcatii'objftctive'nnd'iUb- 
Jwtlva' Mioiii Ui u\o to l« lu inc^bji- 
nble uf iJtiriiiiM Bciuutilic doliiUtioit 
kH U thu mini "reT^^lntl^jn ' HBolf 
'Wvy cun <iiil)' lij ullimulol;' doliinKl 
yr\\v\i Utu rc>£iona whiclk tikoy rraipuc- 
tively diufii^iuf^ lire iMhniutiTi^Ej 
known But J may ntlT'inpl t/> out- 
htio tViD gcncrml iKinno in wbich J 
vudciivtfUr tu one Ibcac nonltt, 

\\^ llic wfjrfi 'ohjjwtivt?' u njifitlod 
iA\ rovoUtioTi, I mean any comiaunt 
CBtLun ijf trulli thiht ci^mcH lo a 

m^nd in und tUroix^ti th« pl]«ni>ii]*' 
Hid worlcL Ify tho Kunl * (i]il>j«c4iT^' 
Afipliotl U^ rvrclntiiiru I rijvuii ouih 
iniiiirjttUiu iif tmlli in xnd UrnMigb 
thi« v^irld uf pttrHiMiJitjr. It wfll 
tfiL-rcfuru iiicJitrJi.' tlio jH'tiuri of God 
re^fiirdLil ua Triktiacwudeiit utid u 
Immnncnt. ho hir mi thu distinctim 
u vpJid, on the humiua iniiLd. The 
contrwt bctviicvEi tho nord* U nut 
onn of Kidlntkiu to ihu lutjact by 
(]ih1^ fui J of rovoktian to tho Motjort 
bjibclf; but»ci>ntru(of reT«1aium 

Revelntion, ami mo<kni ktwu'lf^Uje 229 

dctnoustrabtc or the reverse. It turns the eye of the mind 
ft^ay from that >vhich in "n-lthiii. nhich aJonc can give meaning 
to that which is i^ithout. V\yT the onlor tact ih dead, noa- 
exintont, unless there is the scnaitivo orffaij within. If that 
MoiTiitiTe c^T^ix iH 9ktrophied by diinuae, what ai^e called the Facta 
o€ ' r^v<»latlnii ■ itrCj na we see diiily, powerlcaa to give it life ; 
aiifl HK a re>4nlt afl revelation— exdur^ivuly thoii^lit <if an 
bnvrng <<oTiie rmrn wHbutrt to reveal nn e]ct4fmal OmI — la 
etuiiently and confidetjlly denied li> \^'nA and sincerely 
truthful men. They have hnd thetr attention distracted 
fironi the ro^<in in which revelation take^ place. 

Once more, the conception of revelation or of revealed 
rclif^on oe a graduated serieB of objective cGintnutiicatione 
from Vt<ni forcen on U8 th<i diflienlty of underMtaudlnfi why it 
!fi eo imperfect Imperfect^ to say the lenet, it t*onfe«9edly is, 
In onler therefore to reeoneile the finality which would be 
expected in hii olijectivr revr^tation witli the nbvioiia fact of 
iin|*eifeL'tioD, »e formnlato the further hypoLhiwis of a pn> 
grtBHve revealing from without^ rather than one of a growing 
of the Divine Liyht within : and wc picture God aa stariding 
apart from man, and educating mankind gradually according 
to IliewiJI; 'accommodating/ jiawc say, His teaching to man'a 
capacities — a» accommodation which in matters of Bcienci^ 
neetiM nnneeciffiary and unaccountable, and in niatter« of 
conduct and belief ^omethne^ ehoctcd our moral i*ense. It 
etplaiiM ifie fuclii which it in tVirmnlated to explain, hnt it 
thrown no light on other prolrleniH. It is an arbitrary and 
supplementary hypothesis, and requires further liypothcflen to 
AUp]>urt it *' It is a tangled web we weave'' ; and it ought to 
bo a warning that wc may bo weaving badly. The theory 
of a 'progrcflflivc revelation" ha^ been a UBcful stage in 
thought ; but it iB eo no more. It Ih not iinal. 

hy Ti'kI to Hie subiftzt throueli pto- 
niituviim or iTiniiigh piM^^iinliliot. In 

flUd- It id b du*ti»[;tioii ill ttio 
mothiH], ai>t in Uiv: Aihiirt^ji, iif ravulit- 
ticn. But It mtmt !•« mw^X timt lliu 

difltincliou i* nut oihaUBtive ; (or the 
ret^Ein of J»iui flhrliit wiu XttiHy n 
r^velati'hTL Jn tho phtiHT^nioiL.'kl wtsHd, 
iLfiil lb fwot«li>iD thruiUEl^ imiwujifcliCT 



CainJ/ridijt ThtA^l^yical Easfti/H 

The old cctncpption of revi*latJori m slwj iti conflict wtLli 
uiir i^niwiog iiio^lr-iiim af i:iintii>uil}' am) jiro^ruHak Not onlj 
is revealed rcligioQ to be reganfed under thin cniicvplmn u 
a !ie[taraUT tbing witli pcpar-ate i>iieiii fixiiii natuinl rcligioD* 
but inunkin<l is apparently to be nhutply liivi^li;)! into tiro 1 
daflacA* whtthor of natiuuri or of iudividnAlH : one to vfbom 
rev'cUtio[i U given direetlv, imd iLimtliLT whoi^o duty it U ta 
bulii^ve on their te^timouy. History provra th&t uaticnw dlilcr 
In de^rev of upirltua) inai^bt, and therefore aa media of rero 
lution to the world: but liJMtory d<it?8 mit pruw llin,t Ihi^j 
dilTt^r iti kiiul Mudrrn IcDuwIed)^ and rtHtaii-cli demand an 
'\i\rn of revclatitni cxf»n»wcfi in tcnnw compfttiWc with con- 
tinuity* with evolution, and with unity. 

Id fnci tho H'holo conception of aii external rovolatiou it 
felt to bo untenable, when onw it iH reiili«eii Wv cnnnot 
really conceive tlie tiibles of atone written with lh« finger of 
God, nor a voict; from lieaven declaring In audible wordi 
floini? r(?VG!ation of Gofl tAi nmn. Siieh moden of prwt^utJition 
are iionrnind, and tiavi^ tJielr une ; but uiUMt not be prtwsed 
into fttatcineotB of pbyeical tact, and mado a basis for ecicDtific 

The cxtcinialisattoii of the idea of revelation oAcna on 
reflection a BtrikinjC parallel to idolatry. BotJi am raaulta 
of the weaknee-4 of the human niind ; of it« neeft of th# 
eonereUf U> give firmne^4 of ouUine to the abstract, to giv^ 
permanence to high thoughts and lofty imajifinings. Both 
fteciu ineviUible in eertnin stages of ^:wt!v Men rnjike a 
material image, in tbu fii-nt instauee, we itjay well l>eUH»e, in 
order to fix their tltoug)il6, to jifiAiat and conccntnitf: their 
devotion, not to be the object of it; but such a uao puBCS 
easily into woi^hip, with themaelves or with those who fi>Uoir 
th^THi ; fuid it in far hotter that men should worship the6« 
Bymb<JB of Ood, than nerer think of Him at all. Ho it ifl 
better. It is indeed n«M:c4Miary, till men can tnjiitt their highest 
iiiluitiimM an wurrt^^T. ami have learned by obedience to ihem 
U> reougnlHc their Huthority, tlint thry .^^hould ctidHidy tht->Aa 
intiiitiouK in Komc ima^ned phenomt'tiul rev4.<<l9Likin |[| order 
to give tbcni the Banction they needed. So it woJt witli tho 


Ji€f>elaiio7i^ and modem ktwii>l€ihje 231 

law said to be Kivcn on Sinat, So it has been with the Bible. 
But the lime coiiii^ vrhtix ftucli cot)ce|>tlotiB are liitellectuallj 
ini|H>AHi1ilcr ; mmX if U'iic^lier^ Uxtti irmi^t tliat nH^lHtiiiri U mi 
ei/t'iil hi the |>bt?nonit^iL>J world, mid notnii oiitwurd |Jiojtftiuii 
of the Divine Liglit within, t1ie liii^t<:>rit»l charncter of which is 
of nih»ir ini|Nirtntt04T. ihcv LJiallc-ikge denial, and ^t lant 
«UflpicioD of their honesty. Tiic}' uiidennitie the real tbunda- 
tioDM of fjiiUi. 

The wi>rk of sceptics and unbclicTcTS, as t!icy iire called^ 
eeema therefore to be as esaentiat lo pro^^rees in our preaont 
eotidition lut tliut <»f btlieverx. They compel beUevera to 
rwconsidor what they reality mean in the light of their other 
lemiwled}^*?, and thiih eriubitt them to ys^v^i a iiuire vjUlI hold 
on their bt^tiefn. Iliey ai-t; pc;rhu]i» tloitig an much for the 
TCfttorattuii of faith ti>daj aa are ite apologista* For this 
iDfti^tciice on rccttuMidorutiori ia vcrj' iie€e«aarf> Men vury 
eooD ^t into the habit of contentc<il>~ worHhippiTif^: idolrt, not 
of wood iind i4i4rm\ but thoti||fhts of CJod, once iimiiii^ed by 
reverence, but now unworthy. Thi§ ia the sin forbidilL^n in 
thr -iiH-imd r^mmiftnilment. T}ie refuHal of cs-rnest men to 
acoL'pl rt5ve]»itioru in the fonii in which it ha^ l>e<;n presented, 
iH Uir-n ntiotlicr call oti iib to reconsider our |iopu1ar concep- 
tionsof the method of revelation, andjustifj tlie ways of (Jod 
t<> men. 

It will be m>cu tlkat the questions raised about tlie 
idea of revelation in our day are not new. But they arc 
ntiHr^i niorc' wid<?1y, Tuore cunfidently, nnd with more historicnl 
HiiJ entie»l learning at their back, f 4 there any anthentic'4il4;d 
evideiK^ of a rt-veUtiou ma<le Lo mm\ wliieh eain be rigfitly 
ndlcx] i?xtcnml, |ihenoincnal ? U there any liirwi and explicit 
coniEUuni cation at t^tni Ut uieu of facta of science, or liistory, 
or ethic^ orthcoloio V The whole trend ol'uiodtinj knowledge 
and research surely compels us to anawor ^Do/ with the re* 
Bervatiou that appean* later on. 

But to the further ipjeHticns which are now being a«ked — 
!lae ihei-e been a revelation given to niAU otlierwii*e tJian 
exU?rnaHv'# Have men received an acu;ew ofp-iwcr of seeing 
for UienLsclves ? — modem ktiowletlge and research will not 

CiMmbridge Theoiogieal Ewnys 


ftDHwer ' ZM> ' ; bot are more a&il more diTpoecd, with dncf 
rcftervM a» to Uie t«n»i lued, to uisver 'jml' There in a 
AroBg po«tiT6 sid« to the mtMcm thought »f rorcrlatiovL 

TUB van not the trend of science and philosDpky In the 
ri){litj^-nOt i-vrntzin\ tuirl tJir mrlv |aui. uf tli« iniH-tM*iiU^. TJic; 
•iw*r<?r then givoii to thc9o <iin:«tioifc» -noiiM hiTo l»c«n ■ mi," 
Bui it would hare been m> because. amoD^ other rca«oDs» the 
prevailing conception of Ood vrhich vribt in the nnnibi of 
vdigioue people at that time vm* thai kno^m ^a the Lutin 
or Werterti — a 0<id a^tart from, remote from, the unirerse ; 
m&ni/Geting lltmdcir only hy an ocea^i^iiiaJ EntorfcreiK'c. 
Seiefitiflc lolnda were driven to deny this as au Impo^lble 
thixtry iif l.iixl ; atvl U> dt-ny IImm vnw Ui lU-^xy tli4? ini}j 
eonceplioD inf rerelaliun then cuirenL I do not of eutinw 
pTrrt<:nd thnt' iFur}i » iruniiiHriniirt of the cn^fituntH m HtnVlh 
accurate : but it i*. I think, tnit that the popnlar denial 
of rcvclfttioiJ by tltoiightfiil AC^pCic^ of the t>crii>d referred 
to vraA induced by tlto denial of the prcrrulin^ theory of 
Qod. That theory, thou^ fitO) dominatit, is no loni^r held 
to b« «o cxchiHiToIy ottbodox im It vim. And with thM 
tkeovy of God la also passinfj; away the confidenl denial of 
revelation. The eouiv|ttii)ii of OimI, ninl the ri>iice|iiii)n of 
rerdalion, arr of coiinv rhwely cminecleid. Ttie whole 
luatter it, tli€rcfore> being reopened fn^iri tl»t? hJHUinr arwl 
Mientiilo pobit^f of view. ^\'lmt tvtc the facts, what U the 
idea* of revelatiun to man from God. coinint^ itt mun, tkrou/jh 

Snch in brief have been the cnuiiCTi of the -iwlnc of 
the p<^tidnlnm away fi-om t}ic o|<t and apparently simplo 
coiioeption of a revelation made from without by God to man. 

It may however ^rtlter help uh lo uii<k'n(Larid better the 
naiun^ of tht' cTuifigt; tlmt hzw Uikva plrirx' in Ihr icleu i»r 
rerdation if we try to note not only aiirh iliHic^nllleft ax f 
have mentioned* which are itii^olved in t]ie old conception, vid 
are caunin;: iU iiliAmtoument, bnl aW *oinc of the reasons 
which lire iittraetiiig mon to tho new* 

One re(i^a is the imifJtuihlllty, mider the theory of 
plienomeiiul or exienuU rcv\rlation m&do to man, of aiuweringf 

Tl] Revelation^ and modem httorcU'dge S83 

wittRfiict^rilf the flm and ohvloin qnet^ttnr, ' What Is \l ihal 
hwi Iwcii rvrc??ilcfl?' If nrvrhiliim wtnv «f Ihin iiFiturc, thi* 
question munU it vould s«cm. admit of a clear anavrer. But 
dear answer thero i* nona Widolj dllfWent aimwcrs huTo 
been j^ivcTi in ftuocciraivc i^t^ of tho Ohurch, afid arc civcn 
50W by dtfiercnt hrandiOfl, sections, or parlica hi the Church, 
by coniCTiipiitnry indiridimltf of l^4fu»lt toiamiug and character, 
and by the same iDdividual in eiiccetuiv^ flta^^ of Ma 
spiritual ien>wth, Atu! Uic rlifrvrisTicM^ in thi*sr answrns itrc 
not ilinihiisbb^, Xow thw i^mld wi^inN-ly lie the cafio if 
revelal.iiiii wns tvhoUy ur in^iily olutM:lhe. TIip div«n*ity of 
the replies is pluiJity not to be regarded an an accident, a 
iraiidieiit A-x^n due to i^orauce : it must be of the t^Kttfncc 
of rcvciatiou. unsin^ out of it^ nature Hii^ collide nittoii 
fltl]0;c«)ttt— I think ildomonatrfltefl— alargosnbjoctivoolcment 
h) the metTiorl riiid Mit)Mtunf?u itf nfvelatiori oh the; cauno of the 
indefinability of the truths rercalvd. Let tinyouo endeavour 
aeriauftly ti> unxwvr in ivrithig, the simple []ue>ttton, 'What 
hw iK-eii n'V(:wl(HU" and lir will iiiiprrnatr the argument 
"The whole of the lliblc " vfonld be, or w<mld have Ixi^n, one 
arMvrer; but apart rn}ni all difficuJticH at)out text^ ami t^iioim 
of iJld Te?itnment and Now, let the rca-lcr thitilt what this 
implJe*^ The ori^n of maOi and of womaa^ acd of fUverA 
lan^unKCM. down lu tho heavenly city with itrt MrcotM of ^Id 
It \A of C(>ii»v<* cr'nravnhle thiii a Iwok Wiidnning uith lej^end 
and ctjuuiiiiiitf rudluieutai^ ethics and theoloj^', and ending 
with vymlNtl, nitwit Ix? ;iii it i^tands an ohjiHUiTir revtUntioii from 
<tod, IhdTiLis^h itH utbieal and M]kiritual Talue resides Hhidly In 
the inli^rjirrbition of It !iy cudi age in atrcurdanrv with lU own 
light It might bo in this sense objcctiTc in itself, though to 
a.-* itff viduc in aeccH.Hiblo only throui^h proccf^ae^ which neglect 
itM olijertivity^ Itut in thifi a tniMdiiI and [irotltiLhiu way of 
regarfling it? Is it not mth^r ifu^^sted by a deftire to retam 
M fitnr* *^i thontfht idoiiff^idc^ of ilje new? "Tlie whole of 
the OiiufL-b"? Creed* and Ufx't.rFnett " wonld be^ or would have 
been, another reply. Witneai* Uie T^lilnTal The^ilogiea tJinl 
haTe been construeffnl. Hut nueh an answer woidd »4rjn"c'ely 
bear iTow-tiuehtiuulii^. Or >4hall we hay tJial ri'aitoiiable 


Ctmthridgt Thmfogicai A*iwayj* 


seJectioiB muBt be iiiad« from both 7 But on what principle f 
If ' ^e4MrJnnble^' \vEll iloi tfit^ »ele<rtiun (m* toiljecLiveV la It 
ni)t Huljgoctiv(» For u» all f I« it not increiwingh- tut tw yitt 
^iw ul^tTT. uud £iH wc Uike h wliler nurvt^^ of the Murld aiid 
ito history ? If «c rcpli^rd " The Porwii and cfaiuractcr ijf cur 
Lord JeeUB Christ and His teaching &bout (lod ftlkd muu" wc 
do not fiACit|>v Itic diHicuUy. Wc ml-c lltm with dlflToreni eyce. 
Wemnnot {Miipta fri>m onr |>u«vaniUity. 

Mot^over the area of accepted objective revc^lation, 
wliich am he 4;xprt«M-d lu do^na, 1h dwindling; kiid that 
b an age which U not tJ) be dpjurribed as averse to religion. 

V^r nn' ilrivnii In (Jie I'ciiiriiiMi^t) thut Ihr wiwrv ui-uilliid 
ci^hAict of HcicDcc Aitd religion baa been largely misimdcT' 
*to()(l. It hftn really been a coaflict between acioiKe and a 
theory of a rcvclntion imtde objectively ; and in the txwon 
of objectivity ftcieticc rightly claima to be aupromo. Scicno© 
ifl therefore expclliiiff on uiiintcittiinitiJ umX inii^ukeD tre^' 

Then again there li a reaction from the dlrer^tj, the 
C(un|Flieat>i»tk)i, the chui Silence, iif tin; ih)gtriKti<! KtaUrtni-iitji 
about 1!ixl iiinrle in the name of objoctix'e revehttiim, and as 
logi<^ ilmhictinnK fnmi it. Some tcrxt^lKHikn of (IitfEiiiAi^tc 
thcologr look like a handbook of luitronomy based on the 
theory of epicyclca They are lo^cal and conipleto. aud 
ainn/ifiK in the intimacy^ of their knowledjfc of <Je(t ^ pnrpuMtw, 
and the eonfldpnoe of their aa^ertions about Hifl wiD; but 
they have too many nnvcTifiahlc a^iumptiuttBi to be trusts 
worthy. Bkkwiy h conviction haw Bet in, for whit'ti Kcientiftc 
method Iti renpcjiiaibte, that the ]»egTi 4>n whicli logical deiiuo 
tionr« bang, in ^ty aiul everv ndeitce of olicM^rvatiou, can bear 
little but their own weigiit. 

TliiH )H true even in t}ie [ihyniad and natural ndencce; 
and even mi^rc plainly so in tlicolo^-, and it^ kindred >itiKtie«. 
The lefivon eitn seai<cely be better put than it watf by Huxley 
in a letter to Darwin. " The i^real danj*er/' he wrote, "whiefa 
bexets M men uf latrgi^ upcriilative faculty, m the t<;niptaUon 
to deal vrith tlio accepie<] facta of natui'al iM:tt*nce. aa if the; 
were not only cinTert but cjthao«tivc ; iu« if they mi^ht be 



Revelaiiou^ and fnodem knowiedgfe. 235 

de^t with deduotiT^lj in the oaiiie \ft%y hr iirapiMiLiutiH in 
£ucli<l nm; be dealt with. Id rcblity ovcry such etatcmonti 
however true it may be. ia true ouly rclatiT<jly ti> tho ineanfl 
of iilAfuniLtion, and to the ^toint of vmv/ of thocstt who have 
^undated it ^ &r it may be depeuded upoiu But 
wiivthrr It wUI bear every ti|>eculative concluaioa that may 
\h3 hi({icidlv do<Uu<t.'d frum It, ix quite uiiotbcr ijiir^ttiou," 

Huh thought, fauitliar to moii of aciencef liaa gitnt 
iflfloenoe ou tlieir way of r^^nliii^ the ntttiire tutd ■uM:id1tid 
*proo&' of rcvcliktioii, &tid i« Icufliug mco towards a uii^tg 
auly^ctiTd view, and a i%«uhiiig modctfty and differentiation 
of ccrtamty in «tut«nivnt« nb<>ut Hod, 

The ccnvictJon of continuity in all things has moreover 
u Ktroii^ liold on the ntodem miii<L, which ia detply, 
thouifh haJf unconsciously and in*ljrectly> afFctted by 4cicDCiflc 
biilut?nr«H. CoiitiEiiiity Iri dt^niaiided in thi' idt'ucjf r^velaLion; 
rcfclfttion nUinild he regnnlei] iw tha evululion of the kiion- 
letlgtT of God whicJi is life ctcniaL All other knowlcdjzc in 
won by the human tntollcct witli b1i>w Mid toilootnc eivpt^ ur 
by human Ju^ght and ^uiua. tf ihh cTolutionary growth is 
truo of tiic lirU and ricienct:^ and phili«ojihic^ un wh»tt 
ground, il in a«ked, aw we hnally except thiwlogy'f Purely 
all branches of human knowledge grow by virtue of the 
divinely iitiplunloil jiowers of iimn. TIium intn are led frtiin 
r*ig»nling n.M'rUtJi>n )u4 a (j-nnwu.rUiin due t<» wmie rxtt-niaJ 
agffjicjr **■ tTunnactaou In whieh niun in the [laawire recipient, 
to regcu^ It u:f a quickening procc«a within, in which man in 
tJu^ active iLL&truincnt 

Thti historical meth<Kl al»o, upphiNl to the (Jhntttiau 
revelation, thrown light on &II revelation, and 18 Icoding men 
in the ^ame direction. For if anythJTLg lia^ been reveaJod 
all will Agree tl^at Ohrititianity has been revealed. And 
the historical method tan he applied to Chriatianity ; for 
Chri»ti^>ity hIh any iitl4* hafi ti drUnite begiiintiig ; tliitre w;iH 
ft time when it viha not. Hi«toric4il euqtiiry w throwing 
much light on the ap|>^'arance. the nature, the gruwth. the 
coDtiuuomi development of Cliric^tiaiiity, and on it^ relation 
to the th4>uehta and literature of the ago and country in 


Cambridge Theological Esmgs 


which it iippcui^il. Arul ulthough the rcsalt of this cii<|niry 
ifl far from uumpJcte, »nd 10 not tiegatifo &b regards the 
objective and hi^iorical character of the nubttaiice of the 
Kew T(?»«tumeiit narnitives, yni it hiiM, on Uio wtuilo, iiiMAict«d 
ia the rec<i^ut.Eoii of a strong sul^ectWe antl c^intiimoEB 
elcriLiit ill revflhtion, Tlie rrv<?latioii ofl^iriHt ii* Ic}c»ki3(l fur 
!o9» in A fteriea of novel tnithtt of any bind to be gathered in 
their GnnI forrna fr^jm Hie wimK and more m Hih ^luichcninjf 
atifl illuininntiiig inHucncc on the sotila of His foliowcra, 
continuc^i in the woH<L by Hi a Kpirituiil prutwuco. It 
IS Dot lees Difine because it U more continuous in iM 

The imtiin? of evidence f^um |rrc>]iho<?v hvm al«o chiutged 
under UiNUin^^l i^rilici^ni- It wilh oni:*^ thotiglit to l»e an 
cvidorn<T of a iiistinct prevision of the futiirr ^nntwl Ia wmik 
of the Old Testament prophctA ; such that pasnagc^ could be 
selected from Oicm which fitted more or !©«» aoeumt<:iy bto 
& du-tailcd picture or mosaic of Chrijit'a life That whole 
coneL'ptiim haa passed away. The revelation to the propheta 
ia seen by \i« now to haT4> bot^n a qriickeuin^ of thi^fr cthi<s) 
inflijrht, of their spiritual appreh^ision, ef their senM> of doae 
filial unitj ^Itli 4>od in LIiih lift*. The fulfllmoTif of their 
hofies truly was in Jcwum ChriHt \ bnl not a>i w^a 1,il] latt^ly 
thou^liL The fniiction of thi; propheLn yvtts Ui ninke it> pinin 
that the Spirit of Orxl ^ipeak:^ in and throuirh the hearts of 
men ; and that the iUumination of the conncience in in iMlT 
a revelation of the InJwolliiig God, nnd of His message. The 
liiHttiricol method lias directed our eyes to seai*ch in every 
ftpo for CJod's meeaagc to llnit nj^e, m «}iown by the beet 
thoughts of that age. Ood is to bo ftougbt for here and now, 
as tlie prophets sought Him, and if we (ninnot ^nd Him now, 
but rete^ute ITiin to the |>HAt or the future, uur thoughta 
abiiiit Him urn not likely to i>e true. 

Aeain, the literary iTiticiHrn of the GoHpelw in directing 
our thoughts inwards, by slowly unfolding Christ's method, 
nnd prepftHnff men'fl niinda to see iu cAMential nature. We 
bepn by its aid to realise how Ho chan^cJ tho centre of 
religion from without to within ; from obsorvancea to filuU 

Ti] ReveUUian, and f/wdern knowledge 237 

lote ; ftnm a iiAtioDaJ instituUon to brotherlineea ; from 
A meiliatpt] to & direct approach to (iod ; trt^w the 
auUninty of u sai^i-i) LnidJliiin atid E4*xt-Urfik tn lliMt. rtf a 
p«rc mid cijti^litcrKnl cimHcitnice. He iittei^ I.rulh, and H« 
awakcB the rcbporiuc wliicli pntvw it trtic. Pliitu fiuid th^ 
tbo teaching of Socrates wu a 'nuiicutic' arl It ia the 
moChcxl of ovcrj' tnio toacher. He in ovor Mtririug tf) bring 
to Uio birth the infant ini«lk-ctual life f>uptx:iuc among 
tcftdien uf Ow HplrituAl life wiu Christ; precidoly for thu 
r^fuioii, that He more than all otherx brought, and hUU 
britigH, u* cciUMsoiis birth tht^ infant ^{jirit.ual lif^^ — the filial 
love of (Sod, itiid the bnitherljr love of man — that lie (ii the 
wotnb of the hniimu heaiL Tldit bringing Ui ihr light h 
rcvclntioiL. Litcnxry (n-itiimni thti« cxplmnii Oiriat'fi anmxtug 
fruodom, and Hi& npfiurcnt wunt uf riiilactie inuthoJ. SUiry 
ttiid pftrublo, iLi:ti«n luid pniverb^ diuooun<c mid Hilcticc. uU uro 
meant lo evoke tho hinor spirit of man, to bring to hfeu 
Sucii cHtldim ahowa that ChriHt'a revelation, and bv iiiferenee 
all revelation, ha^s h1 any rate, in btni« iiKnwnre f-nn^JAted in 
itpeiiing titeij'rt ejrw to hcc^ Revelation In ctltiuatton, mit 
iwtructioiif to UHC t* hiirknoyed contract It tlinri*foro never 
gruTi^ old. <^nat and Uia revelation ar« verily "tbo aame 
jcelcnlay, and to-'lar, and for evor' 

So the pendulum hue auung, Tho fucu of roligioud 
exi>erience remain the same ; our taiowlecif;e of them \\ha 
been ^willy extended, ITie [»a«t interpreted U»em ws nwulttf 
of %xt external objective origin ; and slowly. remoraeleaBly, 
Hindi iif the cd^iit'livity is Rlohed aftay. And why? Simply 
bcc&uH.- fiul^eeti^ity r^ecuiK 1>ett«^r to explain and contnx:t tliQ 
imin (dftcrvcil and their diversity. The rcTelatiou of (Jodi 
like the Kingdom of (Jod. is within; evoked, it may be. stirred 
into life and birth, by what ia external but acting ti'om 
witbia We are force<l to the eonelu«ion that ju#t \m the 
word revelation was not, ae wae euggeflted, the ri^ht word ; 
BO the ijUeHtLon 'What ha^ b«ea rcveiJedT hax l>een put in 
the vrong form. The ilrxt and primary i|iio8ti(m U uol 
*AVhat huM been reiealLHl in the dai'knenf' init * Wliat ia 
the li^tbt, and what \% the eye, Uial enables u« Lu noe 

288 CajnlyHdge Theologkal Emxy» [vi 

anything?' TVhcn Ihie is answered we may go % step ftirth«r» 
and compare what we see, 

Wc? Imvp in fact t<> takv n frwh m^^taphor. Put iwde 
the plcliiiv of Cml lifting a veil ; of Oix) Hliowin}; tcj tlie 
giiKc of irnn n dear virion ; <if (1(kI wliiniirrln^ in tlic car iif 
(loiue sage the iiarmtive of what has Ixien in the far pant, or 
what wiiall iw in the ftir future, or cxphmunc tbf nccrct^ of 
HiB nature And Ilia dceijCiia for okeii. Put those pictures 
QAido, and ihiuk of man ai^ we know him* in thi^ mytilerion^ 
world iif nmtter and spirit, of phyMi(?i4 and uirtiLphyialci* ; in 
theni^ twft worldSn I would rathpr say. of whirh he is \he 
KoliiArv link ; living in Imth, alile ti> Udnk of l>oih, in know 
WHne.thiug of httth. hut oulv to know » little, wlierc everything 
indleJitF^ tli;tt infinitely more ih Io Iw kiionn. Tliink of 
man n« pccnDg out into the darkness; Irom one point of 
view, from nnotlier. and from yet another, as amid laiat^ on 
dnrk mountfhiuj^ u traveller might try to realise )ii^ vxkT- 
roundinj^ Day Mecms slowly and doubtfully to be dawnin^i:; 
«oTiie <if hia earlier impre^orie an to shapet; ^iie^ed at tn the 
darknens are being nuniified And then let him a>^k himself 
'What ia the source of light Ijy which he Is aide to m« 
anything, and what tliu indwelling eye ami faculty by which 
he scea it?' 

If tlien this in the new idea of revdatjon which appears 
destined to modify the old, we must proceed to examine 
it somewhat more cloaely, 

We may b« <|uite sure that in ite csKenco the rovelation 
of Ood Uy man must be something very wimple, very universal, 
very reaj^riJHHble ; we have not Ui fotch it fi-om the liel^itN 
above or frrnn the depths lieiieath. It can Ikc the product 
of no extended re«ear€b. a priate for few. It inuat bo now 
and hcrun "The word ie very nigh " us. The simplest waj"* 
of thinking about Cod— euch as Christ*s sayings about Uod 
recorded in the I Joepeh— must bo the truest and hij^hest. 
Hcvelaticn mui^t tiirr}' itK evidence within itst^lf And the 
criteHon of a divine revelation muai be Its fruita. They 
KhoiiM Ih^ '*\i\v*f., joy, |H*wH^" But ihrrt* is xfunothing elue. 
The test of a revelation must be its life-giving power ; uid 

Vl] Jieve/atwu, aiul mwfent knowledge 

Ufe means growth, and growth means change. " I am come^" 
ivu<l our Ijnnl, "that Uirj iriight, havn \\U\." Aoil a rrvvlatkin 
from die PAthur uf all fleHh mui^t Knielj be uuivei^il. though 
vnrjhig, lik« n\\ clw% in degree. Every tliought rf fii>cl. ami 
of (ioiy and of love, in the saint, in the child, ia iJie heiitheo, 
in the most t>nitulii4e(l prudncb of civilidiitian, id truly a 
revelation of God within, [t la li^^ht within the soul No 
otie nmv despise its crudest form, or it8 darkest eurri>uii dings. 
Tlicre AT« iio hard and fa«t linea in nature. Thet^ arc nnne 
in humanity. Wc an^ m^ iiinU^d by a tiiyiiLh^nouif aolidarEty 
thnt the pi'tj^ence of ihti Divine in tiii*: ia n ]M'iH>f i>f itA 
presence iii vM. Wtiat wu call progriwnivc rvrvdatjon in an 
increasing pre^eiLce >tnd influence, we may call it aw t^vctbi-' 
tton, of the I Hviiie In man. There ii« an evolution of the «oiil 
aa well aa an evolution of the body, 

Itvvdutiou, und^tr tbtn idcii^ in not rCRiLnlctl \v^ a I.XKly 
of truth8 of any hind made known to tfie intelieet, but an 
eoiulMing in ftu awakening of pei-aonulity ; not m a romln- 
iwcienco. on Divlm? anthority, of the forgotten pajut, nor a 
■t-mi-discloMire of tlir unknown future, but its a growitig 
intuition of what in. I^ventii in the [ttwt arc in the woHd of 
fkc:ti« anf! t.ransttctiona. ivnd for jvscertaining and TOrifjing 
thcn^ ve have other faculties. HcvcJutinn in in another i)rdcr 
of idcoH. It ititerprota fact*^, it does not commanicatc them. 
Under this Idciv, again, rovelniion iu not re^rarded ji^ w body 
of epecolative truth; mich gtntemeuti^ are meaningle^ till tho 
mind ia r«ady for them. Bather it U the enlightenment of 
the whole man, th? inten^rrying of the fettling, the Htiiiitila- 
tion of the oonacienc4\ U la in a woni the ?>vvmti'i tou 
TTv^u^Tov. the power <»f the Spirit ; find in actiini ii|wjn us — 
in ufl. The life in ua is connected with the life of Clod, as the 
iittic p<>rdn and crccka on the Beaahore are one with (he 
unSGca and iniinitc oeean. 

*rhe only coneeplion therefore of revelation poe^ibld 
to science in that it ii< m^ule through pcncinx alone, by the 
Immediate operation of mind «>» mind. This is a part of 
the old do(*lrini.t of the tiii^oti, Tjtnt the reit40T] In inaii ix 
Lhe inaoifeatatlon of tlie Divine IteaAon, or tliat thi; Divino 


Cambridtje Theoloffical Essay* 


Reason manifesto itj^lf m the iUuininatioa ci the minds of 
ineii. Tliv fumwfT then to thc^ qunitkin* an io the nutiiTe 
of sutucctivG revelation, giveh t<j-iia>' h^v inm who can make oo 
break with pcientific metliixl in hU trcJibmciit nf iht^ldgjr^ n 
not inconsistent with the anawcr which the ('hrisUaa philoM- 
pber wouUl give, both woiiL(i pntolically m^y with -St Joha 
iJi&t it i^ "tho Li^ht 'w^xioh lightoth cTory man' ; a Light etUl 
'*Bhiiiiijj^ in the darkiioas"; an iudwotlhiic in cJio nmt«riiiJ uid 
ftnimnl nature of twery man of im'Idc share of tho DitiiM 
ReasoQ. This ia at once the Light, and the power of Thton 

The tranofeTGDCe of tlic idea of Revelation from without 
tt> within \vm lieeii ileMTiiM:^! am h chanu^tcnntic of Christ'i 
teaching* and it muet have t^tartlcd Ilia hearers They 1^ 
heard of the "atfU amtvll voice"; of tho word 'written 
in the heart,' But it was inconceivable to them tliat the 
sjieriidnosti of Jeritftalom or of Geriitim au phtccA of accoptabic 
woreM{) was not a permanent reality, but only a tranf^ieot 
jjhhue of religloiu tliought. The pa^sUiif away of JeruamliMU, 
of the lempltr, (if siuirifteex^ i\xi<\ (%r\r.W wTiciU^ trf-iUnicrnl 
of traulitiuii uml cf Scripture, uiiut have i*eeinad to that 
^jCnivration tji W\ the r-^ttitictinn nf jlII Uiat ww (nngihto in 
religion; and now, aa then* men confuse tho tiingible witJi 
the rvaU and thuH mtHfjikL- the tumfXtriir^ for tlic etcmni 

And if wc tc^it tlu« theory by exruninitig bow tar to our 
Lords disciplea, and to the 6i«t i;eneratiou of Chri^iiau^ 
ChrietV revelatiitn appeared us an objiictivv revelation, ve 
cannot fail to be struck with the fact that the mind of the 
Apostolic age. 9l\ far us wu car) jiid^r, dwi-lt but little cn 
the life tif Je^u^ uf Navjireth. ^z on an^ croed or code which 
lie beipiesttheii to them. \\\% i^vrUiUtm wjw primnrily nn 
immense illuminating and quickening power given to iiuiu ; a 
'Hranhfomiation by the renewing of the mind"; a Hoeing witb 
Qiritttti eyeH,and therefore 8(X-ing for on^isolf what lloaav; 
it wae in very truth "Cluiat in " tbeni ''the hope of glory/' And 
"Chriat in ua" meana "God in uic" It U the livhi^ hidw<.dlii3|f 
CljrUt, it iH the Mpirit of Christ in Idin. ami not th4j J«»Utf ol 
the Hynuptlcri, tliat we iiee Ui 3t Paul It 4eeni& uk if tbe 

KeveUUioti, atul mwlern Ic^wwhdye 241 

Diritic Je4fu«, who livorl luiiotig mvTi filter the fleuli luid (lit-rl 
and rose agaJu, hail revealed or brought to the birtli, in die 
liinnmk lionrt> ihiil. lovisl )?irn. h, t-iimx|ioiiilirt^ nelf, n M|]iriL 
of UhriMl, nay '^V\\v\fst" HiiiiHt^lf^ ilh St Paul pi»jw; h (.'hriKt 
wUli whoiti l]ic> JxW <l]t-<d iLinl niee &]^in; aoft tUnt lUu« 
vfiw a rwil unvoiUriK, h flhowin*: what wiw there Iwforu. Init 
uakj]i>wu, 'ihc fuith coiim\itt(xl to the eaiiite is the new jjifc, 

Wfl m&y l4»t this thought of rov«1atioii by the Gburcb; 
for the* Church aJwo in a revdntioo- Itn fnith iu tlie Uivino 
lEoodiie^A haw i-evealed ^^radually, a** the light in it haB^rown, 
brith till? inilvvrlliiiK >uh1 tlit> hii4r,oric Chrmt But Iihh it 
itsvealed Hiijkthitig uljective. exterual ? Ek ii not mther a 
tijrelatioJi Ih^ium? iL haa preHer>~cd> and ilhuitfuttNl, ntiil 
fo(it€re>d a now ideal of Ufe> the Chnrtiao ideal ¥ Uow much 
wc owo to "the cellectivo conHciou^iieHH uf a i'hri^tiiui 
Society '" I It ii* aTi (^x|iree^i>ik of thu L>iviitu powor worliiiiic 
within; iti»s1ill XX\& tvi'a^i^ roif Trvivfiaro^, It iH a ruvclatiou 
beoaiue it t^trenglhens and puridesourpoverofHeeliig. Aad 
this U plainly xuhjot.Uve. 

We may fiirUier letit ihi? theory by ajiplyiiig it to Llie 
Bihhr; for the ltil>U? w imt{\ivMU^u\>\i\y a revdwtiuii nf the 
first importance Unt is the revelation here really a stale- 
Dicnt of tiuaL trut)i tniulc by Und in th^H concrot^ fomif Who 
e&n venturo totuty so7 To anyone who has realised the pni- 
l^n^Htive odiicdttion i^f l\w woHd it riiiiE^t ^oetii na iinB^:ioiititic tu 
look in ihc Jt^'wi^h ScripUires eitlier for iu:curRte information 
ab<,iut phyriical f.K-18, or for ^al fltatenienlj^ of truth of any 
kind, a^thiiral i»r thi^ihigietd, ax to jieurch Mabyh>iitnii rmml»i 
for tntthri not ^et bmitght to li^ht in a/ttrouomy. And in 
reaulinK tin? Ntivr Tcj^tamciiL wo nni^t never foi^tit tliut we 
have but very fragmentary records of Chrififs hfe and tcacii- 
iiijf ; and tho^e only after thoy huve passed through the ^itUiig 
pnKstsw of the iin|)erfect minds and nti^morie^ of His foIloworB. 
How mueh He may have eaid that they did not understand. 
&ud tlKTeforc- did not repeat I Kome jrart of wliat ihey dhJ 
repeat they may have iioperfec^l ly ■>r wi-ougly underBtood. 
Huw litUe we xiiould have HimpecttMl the mystuid a!4|>e<!t 
of Chriftt's teoulung hail Ht Johu« tiuspoJ not been prenerved I 

a T. s. U 

242 Cambridffc Theological K^^offn [vi 

When <JVCTy fl«ilnclit)ij Im miiflc, tlie New Tetttanienl show* us 
indeed the mind and chumcter of Christ, if wr luivt? *•><* to 
WH!, «ml IN A.II ;uisnnirirti of Hif* liiHUfrkiil characUrr; but ne 
cnmiiit cimiii ^vrii Uic N<;w Tvnbinieut ^ih mi ol^vcdrt 
rcrolatiou of the complete Uhmt iB the bciwc and decree 
it wafl mice ihfHitslit tu l>c It evokoft our Biiintiml Hfc- It it 
a rovclfktion because it 'finda ui^. Dili tlit^ U ti> >uiy thut, ft« 
A 1-erolatiou, it lia^ a }tkr^, a preporderaut, eubjective elem^at 
Thiu thoory of a revelation in ihc iiiaiii Hulijective lias 
tlii^ii *rrong ai-gunkeiits in ita favour. And thej arc not 
iikCoiiriUtrTit, uTid will not, 1 llniilt, lie itiiiuglrt hy aui^oite* 
i»i JVdi retitrrtii'ti. to l>c incoriftuteitt with tlic ohjrictiTr 
revelatioTi in Oliriat of the Diriiic \jof£m. The idctitjtkaticm 
t>y St Jolin of tiic Divino Uea^un with the Maxtor vbom 
he had known and loved on i-jirth, wiui, in (sict^ n phiKwojihind. 
a metaphysical theory^ It was to him the key to aJ] Ulfi 
expcrieiicee pfut or pre^iit Jcau* of Xaicareth had ilhi- 
minated the world as none other had done, lie ww ttiereTore 
"the Light." Of the alHiilutc- Lriith i>f thai irlenttfii^atjun then; 
cannot, in the nature of tbiogs, be a demonstration to o4ir 
htimmi rt-iiHou. Tlie jtrcrof of a tliei»ry in that, it (-xplaiiiH and 
GomprcLcudi! all the fact^ old and nc^. The Church, if I 
nnderatand tta hi3t4>ry ariicht, liaa never profeat«d to demon- 
iftmte. Jt Mttttea; and eot'h nnml decide for himself iw to the 
acceptance of such a atatement^ by Buoh a lacully for 
df^eemliig apirituftl truth aa Ood haa ^ven lilin, intintN] and 
exercised by a singk^ eye to truth and by a pure and lojul 
life. TliHt iM the tewt vf tniLh— exjierierice. The >u^enli&: 
theor}- of n i*nlijective revelntioii \n not inc^onMiittiriit with tlic 
conviction that tliougb man always etood in the i-clatjoo 
of child to Uoil our Father, and always j^hnrcd His miturcyct 
that historically it wa^ otdy in Jubus Christ timt this relation 
Wftfl fully manifested; nor inconsleteui with the further 
eonviction that in Je^UM ChfUt alone (iiid did give an 
objective revelation of Him^etfT iw the ever present Uj^ht — 
the Wcin) with uiaii, tm with OikI, fioni Uiit iH^^nnizig^ hut in 
Jeaua alone fully revcaleifL ModL*ni k(ii»wled}^e and reuvarch 
Can never deuioLintnite, hut it can never disprove, ajid it will 

RmeJafiun, and nt^dfrn k»imvh*-dgt 243 

never (liHCTtwlii, Uii* belief If there i» \i tclenlo^y of i)n.: 
aniYcnic it is anninied up in the hope of the kingdoni of ilod, 
ajid of Tn>inV iLlttiiintc full parti ci[Hitioii in the Dirinc nature, 
«nticip»tcd ID the Pcr<Km of Jcsua Christ 

I do not think that tUfs view of ri^velalioii diftbrg 
apprticiiibly frf^n l^luhop Wcrteott'e cansfnl definitien of 
Christian Doctriuc. He defines it a£ 'a parUaJ itnd pro- 
greMive appro xlmat Ion to the fiill iiilelh^timl exprv^Hion of 
the truth iriHiiifi.'Ht^^i to men «nce for all in the Incamatloa" 
His wordw denrl^v iiiijil^v Lh«t (in* r<*laiion ln-tween rjod iiiid 
Dtan, though nianifeatcd fully nt one epoch iu one Divine 
Pei-Hon, ivaA and in cteri)Hll> true, and will Iks more and more 
TniLnif&-<t1y true in nil nten. UcvelJitimi hiw been well deftnofl 
aa "the becoming explicit of what is implicit" 

The Uieory of a aubjective revelatloo \% therefor^ aA 
1 hold, entirely compatible with a belief \i\ JeHUH Clirlat* lui a 
manifestation to the world in Hia Pc^rHoti of thr natuni of '.iixl. 
And iJiere is a Inrtlier niiMUftention to 1>e made in thu jairelj 
aabjcetive theory, by the reoignition of objective clement* m 
ilia tcaehin^. Hut before proeeedjog to thia point 1 wish to 
meet iomc of the obvious objoetiotia that will l>c felt by 
thfTse to ivhom the theory i« not ulready fiintliur. 

Jt may be felt tlmt thin theory involvee a revort^al too 
complete, t<»o revolutionary; that thi^ world eannot have been 
a]] wniii^ till the ulneieenth century after Christ; and that 
the old view i* the wifL^r, 

But I wiudd reply that the thought of revelation ai 
aal^jedm is m,i rit;w idea, though it prcaonta itself once more 
relnfbrced, and in new t<^rm,'j. It hna, na theologitiim know, 
always cxi>»ted wide by ddo with the other. Yet, oven were 
it ft revorsal. history h^is proved Ibe neeiMsity of «uth revei"i*alK 
of theory iu all departments '-f hiniian thought J-jpieyeles 
gav« way to the eUip«e; vortlees to the more subtle and lean 
obrloutt Iaw9 of motion Hnil j£nivir.;itioti; geix.ientnr Ui helio- 
centriraxtnimiiiiv^ \\\ fiu-e of strong |>rq^iu dice and the evidence 
of the aetisea; atomic tl»ooric*« are ab-cady giving way to 
soiiK-thing new, So it is in dl hmnmi ex|wricncCt The 
MeMiah came, but not iw lie waa expected; the promiaea 


244 Cambridtfe Thaoloffirat E^ayn fvi 

were uot reeer^ed to the childtvti of Abraham ; one intorpn- 
ULtion of the Ali»ikCin«nt xucoeedi^ luiuther, Otir U)i»ught of 
the Bible is not qiiito Umt nf ojir fiLMK-rv. Thr ei|Hx:tHtifHi 
of ClirUt'w !M|»t"«ly ri-tuni wiw ii«i fulGlltHl. Tbere in iicithliiic 
new, in wricricc iir gikilo)«ci}))iy nr rdi^oii, in ft complete 
reven«al uf tl^c mtcii^rotatiou Df facts. Thc-rc is perpetual 
rMd.iiir«t]]iciit UH tlkL* ^vitrlil nwiu^ on mUi frtHlj iiuinU of tivv. 
lliia is the iosaoii t^ui^ht hy tliu KpiAtlu to thi? Ilctrown. Uod 
liOH '^priividedbome better thing concomin^iiti." And if ve are 
ilJHtn'i^u-tt or aiiL(r)' at new viewa, it id well fur uti to examine 
wbexher that tiiHtn.>w ia not u ingn that we aiInpt«xJ our okj 
vitiWM witliuilt Likiir.l) ciainiiiiitiun ; or wht-tUiT what wt 
ihoLi^hl t4j (jc iiiir rvwuii-i for tbi-iii Imvc not in reality 
already pa^acd ttway. Wc arc floiiietiiueH ilinjiuntHl U^ 6jclit 
hardest lor what, if wc tr>' to handle it, wc find ia but a 

i^Hhurs o^c^in will feel that to abtuidon any claim, like 
tliat of an external act of revelation, tliat has ever been 
niude ill tJie natiie of reli);!on Is a sljfn of weakbcM, owd 
a trea4r1ier\ -, it ix u aurrmiiler of tuitworkH, Lcj Ih^ follow^ by 
a Htirreiider of liie citadel It Heeni« to theiri Uke a retreat 
in ^L(M? of the enemy, aceon^>auied liy a himulintiEig petitku 
to be pcmuttci tA> exist a little longer in aoiuc iucunttincuoiB 
oonier, tilt a cotivoiiiciit moment cornea for exterioinatiea 
They think tiie existence of ChrirttiaQity ii^ staked oii the old 
theory of reTolation. And bo the trumpet ia ijJowii, and the 
old warrioiv |int on their amtiiiir, and prepare for battle with 
the InfldeK iJut do not the^e mcfaplioni of outwork* and 
citjwlel miHleuil hh? A[HiIo;;iKt»< fur rihnHlianity need never 
MirrtMider, a&d iievcr t»ke krw u:rmmil Ntir are we doUi|^ao 
ill advocating a objective view of revelation. On the ctJiitfnrj' 
we are Purely preferrinic a threat clojm ; elaimiti^ nothing leas 
for humanity than did St Taiil the power of the Indwelling 
Spirit— to "be filled with all the ftilne™ of God "— "accortlim: 
t4» the flower that, worketh in u>i" \V.\yi\, iii. IV, 'i^). To 
advor^re a Aiilijecttvo view of revelation ig a aurrender in no 
oUier fieikhe than iva» St Paal'H d:iiai fi>r the frt'edom of thd 
S^pirit in plat:c of the bonda^ of the taw a tiiureuder uf 

vt] Jievflatiou, and modern ht^meledge 245 

the Ihw. It WHS » snrreiidpr of the sign wlim ihv- ihm^ 
Mig^nifiHtl hail ntiiie. It ih (he fighling fnr H »>mlHil, luit h 
reniity, that britign «:* on low grotindj and hivolvee qutsfltion' 
a bits methods. 

A fiirthcr and important qneetioii may be ^u^lced. Uoen 
not tbc RUbjcctivc theory of revelation abolish nil cortaintyf 
May k rKJt he waid thai to a<?ce[it subje<?tivity iii revelation 
m in fiw.*t to say that there exiata no aiithorily, no ^nmil, 
for fihith except iudividtml ex|)eiienceftT Bnt ia it true to 
«iy that 5uch a feitb would rost on mie'» nwn iTidlvidiml 
e\|ipnence8, when one Ree« iU wide and firm hold nn hnnian 
nature? I>om it not rather, aa »(hown hy tlii?* fant^ riHc <mt 
of (ht? Milid and pennanisit nub^tnititni of muf conmioil — 
may we not 3ay Divine?— humnnityi and han it not therefore 
perhaps a better riKht thaii anythinc elec to bo eallod a 
rwdity, a eertivuityV 

And when the thought has once become tamiliar to u« thnt 
what haj* been represented aa an event, a phenomenon in the 
natural worlil, whm nflj^n, In iU nrigin. an iiiuiTr Hu-t of ron- 
ackiUHTitxa. prctJei.-tL^rl without, and iritergir«it«d hh jthenomeital 
frmn the exigt;ticit?8 of imperfect language and nf [iriiaitive 
mode* cif inia^Hiiation and thon;t:[it, or from the pi'aclical need 
in leaurhin^' <it' k^vin« fciMn aiid permanently to the lhi>ught, we 
shall not feel tliat the Bubjectivity of revelation lessens the 
weipht of it8 elaim upon uh. 

For the xame reaHun, Co have 4iicb a theory na "our 
himbnort thongiit" nay make the preseotntton nf f 1iri»<t,tainty 
niorr ulfectivf. Oin? p*».^['i-et of enVj^tivt- preHi'hing ia the 
conviirtion that itirrc in a Worrl itf Und :<|M^hktn;;£ in every 
heart; and he who can show tl^at man hfus alwayt* heard thia 
Word ba?i the iK^unr of hni^hiTi^ the clamour of oslcnjal 
Toiooe, »o that cvrrv ninn may listen f*ir thai inner voice 
In bia own. i^uch a one uuveile, revoale^ the Divine within hit* 
h4"«ri-r, and timi* heljw to trainform. it Ia the presenee of 
'iod in every heart that in, ;w it were, thr <f inrhirthig element 
ihat allowH the riirrent of ennrtetion to p^vw from heart 
to hear^ 

Kurely then it is not uncertainty^ iwt iDecairity. that 

244 Cambridtfe Theologieal E»miifif [vt 

C0TU4M witli i^iicli n e<irict>iilioTJ of revelation. If ChrUdac 

XuLiinil Ri^iKiiiM fiiiii Hrt renLin;^ on a difi'ensiit kiird of CTidcucc, 

the deepest, Hiinplc^t, and most uiuvcreaJ cxpcricnoc^ of 
mun, it wiik!? a conBdcncc thut no external attackB can 
ever weakeiL 

To Aomo it tnuy eccjn lui if wuch a conoeptioti of dlfl^uiod 
aD<l, tw to f^p^^k, natural revolution Iji'ought tbe lotw of a 
glorious vision of dramatic Divine action, and ito compeiuatin^ 
gua Tlicir i« a Iw«. Perlmpw " it in oxprdkmt" 

[ tliink the Ki?iiM< of gain comes lutt^r^ Rtit i^aii wv iiot 
even now at \^v»t »(>in]katliiHc witli the gain, anil with the 
truth to tkct. in recognising a reveUttun In the normal life of 
the many i It \^ the tfomc sorb of incommuniaibic gttin uid 
repose tJiat comes to men «f wienco when they have finally 
unnic to ituc Ui:h1's presence in nrttural law rather thjin in 
miracle. It is the same sort of gain that coiner whea prayer 
li no lonjft^r thoujrht of ait an atteiiijkt to bend the will of iUA 
to ourH, hot a** tlw effort to nuTgt? <mr will entirely in flis. 
It IN u rer7(»^nkion of Urn nniveiNal f!od, the nnSverwal rhHs4, 
Fvery virtiimi". kindly lifi3bLicj)mc« fi witn<-An tti ctonml trntlin. 
U ihe i^tarry heaven Iww able to declare the glory of Hod to 
Mr< thiiTi t<^ our fablieni Iwcauec the tcU^»co|JC and the camera 
lu^vc revealed oceans of ditiiucd and nchuloiis M^U and 
myriads of suns helkind and nmon^^ the stars they BawT \» 
natimil lift' on earth lew a witiKW l<i (i«d nincc it* variety 
h»u^ iH^en multiplied and it8 rantinnity graspt^^l ? No more is 
the murvel of xpu'itiial iniight diniinixhtMl hy our ru*gi«nlin]C 
revehitiim fin a ^ft more widelj dinlrilmted^ h^m Li»niwii»Uflly 
possessed, and leas precisely defined, than wc had thought. 

Conrtidur aj^iin what room tiiiv ci^nception of rcvoJation 
o1fer» for growth and expansion, and how neccjwary thia is to 
^vc unity and meaning to history. Millenniums liave be«n 
spent in prehistoric j^roplnpi after Cod and tiie moaning <if the 
wr»rli) ; mi!h<nninn» under thi? a:u-ii^it religionn of the wortd : 
a milleiinium or ^y\ [ti»y h»ve bi^eii ?(peiif, liy ime nation under 
tiic Mosaic law, /ui a nchoolnuutcr tu bring men to Climt ; and 

VI] Meceta-tion. mul modern hwwtrflge 247 

thc» it tWLiHc:^ ttwuj, hIich Uie Chrie<t cohkj". A few millcn- 
niuiufi more may be spent iw now in the training of men 
under the symbola of the external to fit them fur th^^ 
»piritu;U iiuUinoiuy which m oui- aekihJwlo<lfEeil g^ml the tuw 
written in the heart, **the measure of the stature of tlie 
fiihiestf (if C^iriHtJ' KuHun^ short nf tliis cnn be penitanonL 
Let u^ &t any rate piteh our iiIealK high. The final Htagt- of 
thcf evuliitiou 4ir 1.h(i fkiiiI umikL 1« wjiiictliiiig ntlier Ihmi a 
magnifleil present It i^ preniaiHre to put a limit Ut our 
ideals Tim ww the tnii«tukc of thr Jewii?ih tertehum. But 
L'hriat flhowc*!. and St Paul saw, a higher trutli : and He 
taught Urt that whitt Him contcmixinirie^ held dojirest naa but 
ft IHirc&thesis in the long evolutioD of man, the t^ouX uf 
whieh we eaniiot yet define. Such parentheses are not at 
an end. "Tlie i*n(t iis nut yet" 

Rut iMinie nmv Ji>^k, " Will not the adiiptum of n milyci'tive 
theory of rinelatlun itiholie rf^liKion into umiitioii, or luUi an 
uitpntctJcttl and contemplatEVc niyitticieni ? " 

Kniotion and rnyAtleism in I'ciigion ai'c clement^ in hitmaii 
nature, and must not be overh>oke4l. Thi*y are <^lc!iieiLt« very 
uneqimlly developed in different itidividiiala; but in humanity 
as a whole, and in the citr»ry of the C.'hrietiaii Chureh, they are 
of much iiniwirtjnieo *iA regenerating and moving forces, and as 
Hpoini^ ef a higher life. It w nearcely a ncientifle spli'it whieh 
ih?«ir<*M Ml iidrdnnKr or preehirle theue eleiiienlA mi religion. All 
faA:Jj(ittmt thr-clo?4e9tatten1.iou; any omr factum) givt- the due 
to ^reat mysteries. Tlie leaet ebvioun phetionieuai as a Kcoro 
of instances might be adduced to prove, huvc beet] the key 
to aolnticjurt of phynicjd ami hiolofrical probLenia> 

When <ioaxi of Are during her trial at J<<>ui^n wjw rudely 
a^ked, by an Knglinh soldier vhy be eould not see vtHienaaa 
vhc (lid, she at fir^ gave no nntiwer. But when again and 
again presBed. she at Eant replied, gubnu'stta iwc^^ as the record 
Miyn, *' Perhaps it was b*?eaiiHe yrtn were not gimd euouj!;h." 

The [loshibllity that tlti^ i« true Hhould prevent our 
dijfp/Lnigiiig: CKceptionnT intaiti^^ns and fceliufci^, and should 
prepttre n^ to adntit that there are many degree? in hinntui 
<apiKity for revehition. Atid le auch a tipirit in reli^^on 

248 Cambridffe Theological Esmfs [tf 

impractjcal t When I think of Chrwt's teaching, and of the' 
emphflsis St Paol lays on the working of the Sfnrit of God kv 
maiif of bia mo^t practical ^ thereforeSf'^ and of the inimeiiBO 
practical reaidtB that follow, it seems strange that it should 
hare come to be thought that revelatioo, if it is to be 
practical, must be r^arded as a Uiiiig of the past, embodied 
finally in a book or in creeds and tostitntioDa, ratJier than as 
tlie indwelling of a Light and Life that ehoold continnouslj 
inspire our liree. 

And let it not be thought that a conception of rereUticHtf 
as subjecttTe diapenBee with discipline. Of course if a 
man starts by identifying discipline with obedience to aii 
external authority, and by identifying the freedom of thtf 
Spirit with imcontroUed license, to him it is manif^aetly 
impossible to think of revelation as the recogniticHi of tlie 
growing autonomy or self-discipline of a soul which baa 
enrrendered itself to Christ's spirit and will Such a one 
must reconsider de novo the nature of disciplincL Moreore^ 
ffiscipline is not the same for alL Some have thought that 
there could be no religious and disciplined life outside t)w 
cloister. Others hare found that obedience to an inner mle^ 
is severely disciplinary. Obedience to an external rule has 
indeed helped to make saints \ but it would be a strangely 
pr^udiced limitation of sainthood to confine it to those who 
have placed themselves under anch a rule. 

But though there might be no extravagance in conduct, 
would a united worshipf it may t»e asked, based on a commoff 
creed, be possible, if that creed came to be regarded not as a 
revelation ^m outbade, authoritative, final, indisputable, bat 
only as fm approximate snmmary of such troths as the best 
minds had, under God's guidance, as yet reached? 

On this much might be said. Prophecy on such matters 
ie hazardous. We must try, regardless of consequences, to 
think and speak truly, and trust the God of truth. The 
compensation that comes with a sense of joint search and 
effort for truth, involving the cooperation of all thoughtfcd 
Christians and an increasing moral though tfulnesa and re- 
eponsitnlity, and with the unexpected unity of ChristiAns and 


He^flation, and moflem knmvlrHtjr 249 

di« joy f>f romnion mm^ict. nm>- be grc«trr tlmii wc ]ttin;^'iim 
And pcrlmjm aiitutig i\\e oldur and nion^ tiioitf^htful and 
truly lojM mmibt'is nf oor Churchj tphere is m()re ^'f ihbi 
^^icctiTity and rolAtinly in their adhorcnoo to the Ocodfl 
vre comin^inty rmlie^o. 

1 hare 1<?ft to iHci l»^ in order that it rrmy bavo « 
lomewhat fuller treatment, that «hi«h wiU ho fi>h hy mftfiy 
u>; far fhe grt-ft-ti-stl difTMudty in suiy thooTT whif^h rognrfis 
rcTolatioti an |irini»ml> Mitgeccivr. " Dom it not do away 
with, or niakf cunijilutwly HrilMfnfinal^, The objwfiv<? n^p-cW 
dot) which Cliristinnrv bf^licTc was made to the world in 
ItSQfl Uhtiflt, and by Him?" 

The r|iiCf<tSoin muM eomv sooner or tator. " Whftt think yo 
of Christy w]w !Ic IlimBcIf, wcro His life and wordA» His 
id^ach. refill rTecti<»n and lurceiu^mi, a null luii) al«D an '>bjix*tjve 
[fVTelationV" On thw there nmst be survly a plain Aiiaver^ 

or BO. And my answer niu*t be a convinced "yat.' 

I havp »dmiu7y ntinwn thwl tho theory of a subjective 

reveW.ion i» not inconHin1#-ii!, with re^nnlhiK mir I*on1 iw an 

ln<uini»ti{in of the Divinr Wonl, h i" indeed wholly com- 

i|Mib1c with that ciwcntial t-'hriatian doctrine. To many thia 

fttoory will indeed eiccni t<> be the necetwiry iire?*<ip|" 'tuition 

to mtike the d«clrinci crwliblc or even intollli^nblc. 

But further, the theory of revelation aw o«entially ?ml>- 
JfMTCivf.- bt itK u|K.-nit1on En man tondv dirvctfy to tbe belief in 
the obj<?f.aivt' rovrlHtion mwle lo men in and by Jeaiis Chrlat. 

For we muxt. CTmMUh^r Him o^wratiim on Uw? mmiIk «f iiitin 
nndor two iu«|H*rU which wc nmy di«tingMi»*h ht thnnght 
Fiml there in die action of the Dirine and Elemal Word, 
the Liicht oFthc SonL indwelling; fnkin the botfinninj^ in man; 
that Iririnc Life which iu aomc myatcrifma way worfinrc with 
Him >u* the Kt«nml Son of God ; and, weflondly. the action 
by the influence, exaniplc, teaching (if the hlati^Hc JeiAnii of 
Nazareth, which mad^ IIIh uork in time. Thew two actionfl 
Upon ii« ;iTt- felt ]«K one ; iht^y an* HimuttJme<>u«, eoneurrent. 
llVpy apjx^t nncMLually tn dilleimt ttTniperamentn ; but t>ndi 
ftrn rt'ftl. And it In \Aw\\ thul our l^ord rc[p»rdwl Ilia 
intlwcUia^ Hl^ i>] the aoni of man aa the higher. "It i^ 

250 Civiibridgt! T/teolot/iad J^sjtatfs fvi 

CJtpoJiont for you that I go ttwtiy. " The ri-nioval of the 
visible ChriHt after the fle^ made possible the indwelUng 
RpinL iinil Itriku^ht abuiit thti iniiiExritnnution of t]i<< it|H]HLl<9L 
U L?i plniii ti>o th>it ti> 8l P^iil the revclatit^u in Chritil was 
not mainly Lfii^ wunln or the life of JesuH. It wrin MniK-lhiDg 
clofloly cciuncctfd with Him: maMife&tcd. 9>iDboliscd, made 
ol^tivc ill liis i'i?r3(»a Hut iii its caeciicc that rcveUiLion 
was the awokeDing of the huiuaii coiiacioiLsuces to ft l>iTiQe 
Life, whiuh huA in iu totidity t[> ;<() through thone cKfieriencea 
whi^h JvxUft Ctiri^t went tli rough— the rleatli Ut Kin, the riling 
to new life. He U alwuys c^uu^duUH that aU which Ls nioHt 
chunu-tt^riHlti-iilly Oivino hi imr Tvont bu* tU rcniiUerjmrt luiil 
pritentiHlity in us. Tliu rruim of the l^jni Jt^UJt <]!hrivfb va» 
tliat ijii uhich the world waa cnicidod to l*aiiL and I'aal to 
the world. Lt ie by the contbination of the cinitein|>latii>n of 
the Divine iu Christ, as truly an objective majiit"wta.tioii» with 
Uiat of the exiatonce of tlie t^iuiie Divine Life in ourM^lvea, Ibat 
we really get into communion with God, To St l*iitil, we may 
aay, the love and «elf-eacri6ce of Cbriat would have been vn- 
ilit^lligiiihv if seen in llitn uhmc. And tliry »n* »u xtill Ui 
many niind>^ They ulh-vI the life of the dnirch an their 
inUrrpri-livtiim in hninan ex]>ericnct<t, The icvelulhni of (i*»d 
needs the whole eieatiou aa iUi sphere. It cannot hi: i;^olatcd. 
There in a contmuiby even here. 

In deflijing the objectivity of the revelation of Uod incarnate 
in the hi^ftMrie Jvtum t^urely all violent al!iramtiotis or nep^tiona 
are wtrjingeiy un»)iiitJtble. There wre ileplha liere which ve 
eai^not Cathoni, On the one hand we may thiTikly ftrifl glailly 
ailmib thiLt the >«tJttoment« uf fuct in the (rOHjitrU ari-' wholly 
aiul Hiilely niallJi-i^i for hittUirieal and rntiofial investigation. 
Tlie hiMoric truth of evcnit* rented alwiit our I>ini ii* nut a 
matter for *\H|ji ritual di&ccnnucnt," — for any subjcctiTc reve- 
lation whatever. The diuminntion of the ctnitcience imparts 
uo di«ceramout of pai^t events do eritioal acumen \ia to tlw 
value of evidence. For the bielery of (.'hriat, so far aa it 
eontdfitA of evetiU, we are dependent {>n our nonmtl tiLeuUien 
of reiwun. On the other hand thi>j limitation 'ho far as It 
coiudMta t)f evenU*' ir* a very iinportiuit one. For our 

Tl] Revekuiottt and modem knowledge 251 

tuHlcrBbindin^ Emd ontorin^ into Cbnet's teaching, our foeUn^ 
and t^vt^rciico for Ilk cliaracter, our accepUiiice of thv id^^u 
vefiMOclAt« with HixniLiiie — ul) this i]e[>eiida on i[uiteothor 
qualities Spiritual dUcemnieni la essential for euteriug into 
the reTelatum of a c-Jmructcr. A hio>|:ru]»lier, or ii render of 
the Itfe of H giViLl iimru mu^t hnve much \u <;omini)n vtth ttie 
life if hv is In Kni; ^ill or m^iirljr n\\ th^t » Lo l>e i^een hi it. 
The revcl&tioii to us of tho character, of the Divine, in C^hriat 
in in thiA 8eii!4e ttnljjecLive. But it i& iicillior n>ui}Hil]iy nor 
love that is needed to state or to verify date« and uicidonts, 
or weigh tlie evidence for tnt^lition^, most iinpertunt an thi« 
work in. We tniist to ilII bontMty remove fnitn the wpliere of 
subjective revelation (he jjower to affinn tl»e hiatorical 
WTtinurv of any recorded evunt or any spoken wohJm in imr 
Ijord'H life : and we niJi^' lie thunkfid that the mtitHial rvidenco 
in nx strong nnd coiivinrh»g iw ii iit. Thin ih Uic chiini on iin 
of the hifttoric^l method, and it must bo giantcd without 

But wc rcHohitcly claim for oursclvee what wc ijraut lo 
others TJnrre must he no n]>|ieiU to Muhjeetive certainty on 
either gide. If taith ia ruled out of court in tlie study of 
UUtory* a^ likely to diMturb the Judj!;ementf ao Tnii^t ull other 
W»n l>e rnled out of court. It i-^ one of the re«u)iM of modem 
knowledge ftnJ reHcardi that history can only be rttiidied 
MiKvt-i^fnlly hv men nf wide linninn Mym|infh]e?<, |HiHaGi4Hef) of 
a varted kuon']edg;e of hntnaii nature uvon in iu rarer oiinii- 
featAtionit; men who feel hiimnn nuture «» the expref^eicm of 
•omothiuK i^ater than it iH;eniH, The mmc demand miiet be 
made from twiencen Much has boon u^uroed to Ix* incredihlo 
which further research in science i« pro7in;{ eredibte. History 
CAnnot be studied on the preMnp|>egition thiU nothing can 
have 1iii[j|tetied ontnide our rictrnml i.'X|)eHeriee. T\w apix^l 
m to nsiMin, and tfi n?aAon we will go; but it muMt i)e to H 
reason NnffieJentl^' enligliU^ricd tn know btiw iuswnre m-e 
many of the e:cnond]Hibtion4, founded only on u normal ex- 
pefionoc, and dratvn by men, it inuy be, of ordinary j»<kwera 

It w not possible in thi3 Essay to enter ut all on the 
morUtiiitoUH <tuettliona clodely iiivolvedi^tho uetuul nature of 


Cwnhridg^ Theotoffical Hesaf/s 


tlic rncjimatioti, the Rcrtiirrcctioii iwifl the AMCcneinn of our 
Lord regarded an rovclfttions through fiwte* But it miiat not 
f)o lV>ri:nUeTi titrit tlu^no uventA oi^iiHtTliiUv And Iiilvo from tbe 
tK^^uuinp coiiHtitulod, iin eB^enttHl part of thi? fiu-t of r^-t^fila- 
tion ftB accepted by the wliole Cbdatijkn t-liureh. And perh^« 
**Lhe idea of revelation " might fnirlv (>r i*xU<ndi^l hh tw b> 
incladfi tliuin^ BiiL if ihe»Q Ht]hJL*f:t8 aiv Uy be dealt with ''in 
tlip li^bt of niodeni Uiiowledgi* nnt] i-ewi^iffV ihej wilt rttjuire 
a volume* not a paragraph. 

Hvii'IfrH, Imvftfvcr, *jf tlii-i l'>«i)" barii nomt cluiin lo know 
in ^noral outline liow L rO|a:nrd ttic^ <iik^oii», in onicr that 
they nmy ri;:htly interpret the rwt «f tlw twway. 

I holil It Ui be rot incwimsti^nt witb etthcr the rci^nlta op 
tti« spirit of modern lniow]ed|;e and research to af^cept » 
compl«Uf continuity nf tb(> iiulund and the HnTHTTmlund, bi 
arkniJwTeil^' ooinpIeK^ i^^m^ntnce uf ilie nllimatv nature 4if 
niiiiil :uid fiiaU.iT, and hi regard tlie ordinary and |iri«T-nt 
limitatimn of oui- |>oweni, sonst*, and uudei><lAndln}( aa neither 
imivi^nml nor fiiinK CHir phyiticid Iava arc only prorivonttl 
i hold that the Hceiirroction* to take that ercikt alone wm %a 
event in the phononicnal world, bnt one both t^ikinf: place 
mid vritnci^Ked in M>n»<t plane of eoi)i^ioiii?iic*w higher than the 
normal, and admitting; of no explanation on the lower plane. 
If theito evenU mo Umk \\hwv, uitd werx; «o witnriwiMl, they 
coidd only 1h' mjMl'.^ kTiiiwn t^** ordinary men h\ nnrmtivw 
mikJi jw thosti in oiir flnnpeln^ wliich Hpjio^r ituivit-idoiiFi an 
transcending normal cxpericDcc And in Bomc of us the 
narrative evokes faintly the rnxmc oorwdonanc-w of the |>rc«enoo 
of lk>cl in the world thitt tht- originM witn*'WH;t« fcU at Uw 
events thGmBclv««. 

We nmy now tco hack to the «)ii^1ion. Were not <1»ri*it 
HiinH4>lf, Hid lifi* and w<trdu, Hih death, UU rej^nrrection 
and His aacenrilon a real and also an objective revelation? 
AnrI Ut thi^ the unHwer in '.ve*'; tWigh thv i|im1if1c-?Lli<iti Im 
rejicatcd that we haw no h^ht, '*itj the light of itapdeni 
hnowlcd^ and rest^iirch/' to itimUdate the hir<t*jricftl accuracy, 
or on tlie other hami the historical inrKcnmcj-. of the New 
X<t8tanL(jnt reeord« n^poetiug those aUoged fuctii 

Rriydatwn, and woflern kmnvktl'je 263 

NeverliielctJh tlnn f|ualificAUi>» ia plain]}' tiot the whole 
iH*r X\\v. iiiiiil it'-iilt «r H ix-ntury's Mtudy of <iverj-thing liiut 
bvum on lIlv- PerMin vf {^lint^t, Hi^ kiiit< aim lings, ;iiii] IMh 
work- WImU'ver were thclH>[K>* nr fvfir'Horn gciK^iTitior] h^o, 
tlie rettult t)f die coiicciitmUitl »tLiil> of (')irl;«t, tii tlii?( uew Hud 
criricat ripint, whidi tiJu-4 nothing for graiiUrd, and louks 
tJiroii^h uo coiouj-ocl glotiBca, hoa Uxjii the very rcvcntc i>f 
belittling Chriat Btsyoiid all <|Utir<l,ioii tlic gaso of t^ic world 
i&couce»tr&todo»llmi with profouiidor irit4?rc^ lutd rovercii<.*0 
UkI bclit'f than ever l>ofi>rv. The world lookM on tfic C}iurch» 
It might truly hv^ «h1(I, with Uwh Hwe »iid I(.«m hopc> >k8 it lciok» 
oji (Tlinn(i:iti th^^olii^y wiLh lev^H Liiniiideiii^e^ tliHii Ltifitrt.'. To 
tlic rhuri^h jxikI t4> thc^iilogy the world ijt tnori} tmlitlcrenl, 
where it is not dcoiiJ'ul or hostile. But nothing is plainer 
thmi ihiLt the wnrld va not indih'ereut, lind not t«cornful or 
hoBtile, to L'hritit ICvory <jlll>it has boon niiHle in tlio nuiuo 
of aeieucQ, in the name of philosophy, and iu the naine of 
criticism, lo intvrpixa Him in tht? t'Cnns of ordiniLry or ^liglitly 
extraordinary human personality, evolved from Hid environ- 
tm^nt : nnd with iaIiuL resnit? Can it be doubU^d that He 
ptandi* before thi^ \4'orld, a^i a gnf-at HiHttiric Penon, with 
u Pcmonahty nnruthiittied, more (:h?ar1y tlian Hv ever ilid 
before V ITic result of this dose study ha* not been to rend 
Ukwuy tho huloi. the luininoUfi veil of niyittery, tJiat flurroinidcd 
lliin. It hiw bvGii ratbcr to uliow ttiat much ot Uic cecii^' 
ikHtieal and do^nuitio f^^adfoldiiig thn>ujj^h which we hnvo »eoD 
lUim hiiw been shown to be removable, and to Hhow more 
clearly^ more ljM**Uigibly to our consoiences, to cur criticjU 
judgementflT the railiant Sg^ure witltin- The renult of criticiKm 
liaH lieeii to L-HtabliHli tiie hintory of Jcvna CliriHl. Mueh 
might l>c mill in cotiliniiHtiirn of this re^^nlt from ninny 
(luartcr^: but it is familiar and obvioua. Tlie flcnouH attacks 
ou (Jhrifttiuiity arc not attnckr^ on (, but on the tine tliat 
ts made of IJii? name, and on our utbmiHtiom) about Him- 
Tlie ClirJAt of tlieolo>^y xv. a ruim>ter figure fnmi the world than 
be waj^ but not the Christ of (fHlile<7 und Jerumleni,— und 
&ot tii« Hpirlt of Chritit as a motive to actioa There 1^ a 
lufclf-fonued and throwing belief inlmt if woeonld reuUy recover 

254 Cambridge Throtoffi'Oii Esmys [vt 

Ilia revdatioti uF llimKclf »n<l of Gotl'n will, wkI live in Hirt 
U^it. all woulJ Ixj wcIL M;rriad* who cannot tbink of Clirwt 
ixE Uit? pre-exiKtoat ami eternal Sun of God, or a* tlie wcond 
Poriwni ill tile 'rrinjty, eeiit down from IJea^cn tfl rovenl God 
to man. c»n itntl do think of llim as the Son of Man who 
livt^l on *Ntrth to rvvoal Ctuxi in iiiilh iw tlie g»-nn cif tlie 
kingilnni of (IihI. Tht-v will not deny, liut iieitJier will thoy 
nfTinii, tlmt \W. in umi't*, 

l^ueh is one of the poaitiFc results of a century of atuily. 
ft la the atRnnAtiou of a revelation in ('hriat of wh»t rcime 
will Hjieok of 08 tbe IderJ of humanity, others lui the IJirinv in 
mnn, othvrM lu the Son of God But He \% ever more and 
more clearly a Itevelation, 

Xow thU failli, for faith it ih, in Niircly a 5iet of fthoO' 
liitely flrat'i'ate Hi^tincaTice: though what ft may portend, 
vid iilthriutrly lewl U^ in world-liinl'iiry, tiir man may fnrt^x!. 
It may he tlic spring of a new nnd popular rerivEd of reli^on. 
It niay have farrcaehinK aocial and political rctmlta, when 
it hnf^ Ibrnmlated it^cJf i\» cleiir knowledtce. Unt it ie^ only 
with reference to the idea of rcvclntion that it eati now be 
considered; ai»] for thiH the eigniHeance of the faei »e«m)i 
to lie here, 

Tlmt wideh b^M coneeiitrated of late, mid {a now hoUUng 
more **troTi|/;ly tlmfi evci", the reverence arid luvc 4if tJic world 
iH the diameter of (liriat More than cfci' that ia the hiiaiaii 
ide»I. lie haet l)cen u ntlmuliH and a li^ht to tlie humfto 
conscience in com^eqnencc of the KtAudard, an o1^G<Ttdrc 
Hlandiird of )>erfecLiou* that He has (ji^^n t^ ^t- Our oapneity 
for that reverence and lov'e [ireHii|ijJoHeM, lut liOH been iftovn 
above, our pofleeseion of the elements* the rudimentB, of 
th^t chararl^r. If it were whully alien tn ug it eimld not 
Tnovo iifr to love or revrrence^ We love it bLvnuHc it is our 
ideal Mtiir. flmntcd UiiH initial and rndimentJLry |M>wc?r in 
M^, thin eye to sec the Divine, t.hif* indwelling: of the IJivino 
in ue, then the Christ of the UeepcU embodies for iin» more 
plaiidy in thi» eentnry than ever before, the ideal which 
tJhe wortd tve<};:nii^>« a>( tt« own> And it i« ;hiK reeo^itjon 
that a revelation without U identieal with ihe revelaliou 


Hei'tlaUoji, mut modem ktiowM^t 

within, Ui7Lt in the only proof open to iin of ittt truth. This is 
the fUndamctiUxl iiitLtition. But this is to aay that Ohmt put 
before tho wf^rKI in vtwihic IWnji, or thiit He is, the objective 
K4>vc1atioi] of (Jod fVom Whom wo camo into bein^, Whoso 
children we are. Without tliat inner eubjoetive revelation of 
Goil in humstn woiils which rnabk* n« to rtxxf^iiw' tlie Divine, 
a hititoric Chml could never have 1>eeii known, iievm' have 
finindtMl n Cfnirirh; and witlii>itt the hiMjiriuul Pi^rwin of 
Christ the ('hrUtian ideal in the hearts of men could noTer 
httre tnhcn tJie Cfinereks wnnumnding, uthI iicmianrnt fonn 
Doedod to found a rcli^'ittnn It would have been, as it waa in 
'Chridtiatm >>cfi>re ilinnt,' \i l)euiitiftil flream* nr a philo^^phy, 
no morci* Xe it is, the idea and the fact of revelation have 
met, and are behiR acknowledged to have met in the 
churactrr nf UhriHt^ as the supreme* revelnliiin. 

Thb \h ult<rrij' independent of anj? detailx of eriticimn. 
Tlir hW^im- valiititv c>r uirly tmditJunH ax Ut vvervU in oiir 
Lord's life, the si>e«Tulalions of theology a« to His precise 
nature, the rclatioiiw of histoo" lo doctrine, arc of icreat 
phQoeophieal interest, but they arc not part of revelation, 
and arc precarious dcilactions from it. The more wc oon- 
t4>raphkte Jeana (^liriet as a revelation of Divine diameter to 
Uft and sa't? maitkind, and a« a stimulatiTe pattern which 
men are not, unwilling W* accept and aeknowleilg(\ the more, 
I think, we shall feel that He wai^ an objective and real 
rtr¥<?lHli[in fit Ctin] in the phen'^nienul world. It ix ihi- i>lil 
concG|)tion of revelation in a new form. ^'Tlie W\)n1 l>i^amo 
flewli, and dwelt nmnng its" 

But this la by no nie^na all. For it is fjuite im[>oMibto, 
nn I believe, to think of Christ's chanurtcr an a Iruo 
revelation of the llitrhe^^t or the llivino, and to diwoeiato 
from that character all Hin fundaTuenial lieliefri and teaehlngfl 
about God and a future life. UU character \* the ein1>ori]- 
meikt, and at once the eaiiBe and con4er|iieiicv. of those beliefs. 
Hih r\inTw't.t-r thrrefori^ ju an oIiJmj'IIvm atiil phnnmnenTJ 
revelation, is fvt bound up with His doctrine of Qod, that we 
miint a<?rr|it TTi^ diK'trine "f GihI tin an e<jiJaUy objectivo 
nsTclation. That accma to mc the logie of the ideu of 


Cambridge Theological EAuaifta 


rcvclatniou , and a logic uhich modem knowledge and rcocaidi 
ia tending to accept. 

Jiow fur iiitti iJctuil oF t^icoloio' tphijf will take u« may be 
doubu^d. W<^ cunnot dcnioiiatrato that wo over h&vo Chriet'e 
actual wurdfi* We poBsefiB but fra^uenU, occaalooal A»g- 
meiiUt, oflJis t^^icliin^; and deductive tlic<kl<>g>-, like intHitm 
crUii:Lhin. h^ ^a>i tvtiiuikod almvL', if iiiHecun?. But tliere b 
cmiii;u;1i ofoerLaiu kiiunled^e for our life And giiidAiire^ If vre 
ti,y tu take (Jbrifit'ft thoiicht of Hb Fnther, fkud iiijtkc it oun; 
to nei? (Jf>d itrid iimn through lUinHt^i evL'i^ ami tluTcforc tu 
De saw them>wc vliull n»t di^iiro nmdi dcttbiJ in our IhooJo^. 
Kitou^h to Bce jL tnifltworthy rcvt'Iittiou of God tlio Father, a 
Ood ikf li>v^ luid holiiic^, dmwin^ the world of rmn to UiiDSOIf 
in Jeans Christ, &nJ a Holy Spirit guiding and iHanctifyEtii; th<^ 
ht^iiite <}f nii^ii. CIiHmI'h revdiLlioii of HiinHi-lf, junl of Ood'v 
nature and prr^cncc in man. in a word HIm Incjtnmtiou and 
iwirUiiL^, form an uIjjlh^Ijvi^ i-evelaliun, fnUtrprelvd t^vi^r nii>Ri 
truly by the Il^ht 4tod power of the ci^ntinuoUA and growing 
aut^ccUvc revelation in the hcarU of incrL The idciiLiiiaitiu& 
of Jetiti]^ of Niu^urctU vritti the Uivinc Word, w, wc nuy ny, 
the ideutifieation of revelation, objective and aili^^octiTQ, 
witueuti&i u> by ex^terience. 

I have reserved till now. at the close of thin KHStiy, th« 
conHulL-ratLon wliich Kitiue m»y tlnnk uught to hHve ctuwt 
fii-^L, mu\ l.o hiive guided the whole trt?atmetit. Hut it tDUA 
now be very brief. What do we learn from the Uibic llAeirafl 
to the nature of revelation? IWh it ^u|>|>art the tJicory ef ii 
fiubjcctivo rcvcl^ioQ i Dec«f it uot plniuly vpcuk of rcrclation 
aa objoctivof 

Undoubtedly in tfie time of our \a>yA th<? Scripturc« of 
tJie Old Tcbtam^nt, luid the LTieidcnf^ of the Old Tealameat, 
were a|>|Hmlt?d tu jam tin oljeetive revelalJun of Gfkd'ft will. 
"Thr Srriptnre wdtli" — "'\l ir* writU^n," — mirb [khraMM are 
dedlnitive, and leave no doubt aa t^i their implieatiun. 

But it \A not lew phiin tliat Christ Ilimaclf trt:atcd the Old 
Tostomcnt a>} not final, and therefore a^ not, except in ttonie 
moditied Mnew, an objective revehitiou from Uod The words 
"It vrae Bttid le thcna of old time"— "But I say unlo yott/' 

vi] Revflalion^ aitd modern knoidnfgt 257 

mill \\xk: [iniiiiiHe \hi\t die dJM^ijiltn wimM be led inUi ''nil the 
truth," and Ilii* ?i]hmon to tlic ''hanlocw of their hearts/' 
arc aufficictil proofs of (hlti- Uc olaimcd that Ilia wiirtlM 
iLtid tciK^lung were Ji revi-Jntioii on n hijchcr level than 
tJmt of iho Old Testament; and, what is more, that the 
(IiHC'i})leSi iTie Church, Khorild have th<» power given ti> tUein 
of ieartiing tnitli ftr wliieh they wer« not ©veil yet preparwl. 
A dctailnl diseuaMion of uiir Ijonr^ wordv as ajipealiiig to 
the inner revelation hk impoicsible here. Hut let iih tliink 
wluki 18 impli^ III the awfnl unjing, *']t the light tJml in hi 
th«o be darkneas* how great is that darkncds." It im the 
tntwr li^ht ^luiie tliaT, cau illimiiiiniCL Why Bbould He rcfiiac 
to work sign?, charge llit< di^-iplea not to aay who lie wa^ 
kIto Bpecia) blt!6«iii^ to those who had not aoen and yot 
TwlieviHl, except to tondi that the only raal evidence lies in 
Dieral uniou with Htm arising fteni love? If we kRik for thiE 
thought we Bee it everywhere; In the promise of the Spirit 
of tlir Fatker tt» wpejik in them : in tht* revrkitloii to Iwln-s*; 
ill Ills finihng tht' g]'<-jitt.'_it faJth in a K^finan ceiituHun; hi 
the testimony tliat not fleeli aod blocHl had revealed to Pet^^ 
who lie was; in His sajing that the Kingdom of (Jod is 
within; thi^t tlie well of liviiijc water is within; tliat ho 
alone who desirea to do God's will nhall know of tbo Teaching 
whether it ho t>f tiod It Is not too mneh lo say that the 
final appeal of our I^>nrfl tea<:hing, then no leMs tlian now, U 
that each of us should show by his life tlwt we really liru the 
chihhvn itrmir Father, whu in in hi^ven. 

To paM to St l^ut. I think that when one haa road hift 
Epidtleci with due care, and weighed his carefully ehoscn 
phroAcM, not di^^pttniKinff Juui dirtuiissing them ae 'mcrc 
metaphor, we shall «ee tfiat the i^pirituul revelation tjf the 
Divine Chri«t in hiinxelf, luid t)ie conviction that there was 
a (^lirist to be formed in everyone, were more hiteiLxelj' real 
and imjxirttuit than anything elae. We dball see the thought 
eveiT-'where a* a key to hij* full meaning, 

j^liiwly this nivehitii»n of the Christ within— this living 
presence of (lod in the hntiian heart, by which the soul is 

0, t- t I' 

268 Cambridfff Tkeoioffical Esttays [vi 

helped to come to its Xtuq imtaro. eeoms to haro been lost 
sight of, In »pit« of tlic Sacrament of tho Body aii^I Blood 
TIk- Cfirim within ww lout in n inrtHpImr; amJ tin' rhrint on 
eartli, i^r iJie (.'hrist in the heareiAH, became the uialu ol^t 
of dirintiATi thought 

The call cornea to us from many ai<!efl to look once more 
for tho rcvcliition of the Chmt witliiii- 

It comca from without our Church and from inthiD. From 
wkhnut i» t)ie chuUcnge of the* agmofttic who denies thivt 
bum&n reaaon can ever by Bearching find evidence of Ood oi- 
of the dWInity of <mr l^rd, and procUuruii that to believe 
withmit evidence la unworthy of a rinin, tit* t« ri^ht; bat to 
him the reply U in »<uf^tauce that (he Spirit of God in man 
may know God and Christy not by evidence fntni without, but 
by unity of nature with lliin, and that in csuch knowledge, not 
in belief in certmn fttatemenbs ia eternal life. 

It Qoincg from within, from nil who are made tincertiuu 
of the grounde of their faith by doubte historic, critical, 
Bcientitic, a» ti> the Gobipel narrativeB. To theae the reply Sg : 
You know eriongh nf t.hL^ historic Cbrint, enou^li in c^taMlshed 
by the Koiiiidmt cntleiflni, t^i have Hronnwl yonr own ccm* 
BC^ouitneHA of the Divine life^ of otcmal lifo, within. Vou 
are callcil t^i follow that rcActatiiim ; you have no doubt to 
what sort of life it calls you. l>o tJod's will, and you will 
assuredly know Wa teaching, so far aa ia neccttiar>-. IVije 
rcli^on ie " riichtcousnew and holincMS of life" 

It conies from the perplexed in fajth ; for there ia no 
other view of revelation th^t throwit light on thU great ami 
ancient world with its millions of souls paeeing through their 
Bhort and troubled aod often ilark Vixaa, from one etc^mlty to 
another Wliat docs it all mean, if it ii^ nut tlio manifcetatlon 
of the Dtvinr and universal Life, etill groaning and tratitiling 
in pain, but wailing for the fuller nianife.station of the sona of 
OofJ? It enables us to ^ev tlie millions who live and die in 
othor rcli^ons. as, like eiit^elvce^ the children of (Jod, with 
\g»^ Ught than we ijoet^ess, but as taking part with m Sn that 
stream of life which aliall one <lay puw into the presence of 


Jievelation, ami modem knowledge 259 

God Htmself. It gives hope, incendve, encoaraffemeiit It Ifi 
tho failli of miiiiy vrlii> have ^ivcn h iiu rxpnwiickii iti wonK 
It iH the faitb uf all workent; fur it cmiDot lie held along wiUi 
tlie 3|rInL of raUiIism fiiicl acquieacenoe in evil whicli in Uie 
curse of Bome conceptioDs of the ve^elation of Uod. There is 
no limit to the tmiisFonning power auch ft luth may oxerciee 
oil civilisation. Christ has revealed an ideal, ami stimiilikttMl 
the ^uwth of all ideab, when we have learut that the Christ 
10 withtiL 

It may be said that ChriatJanlty ItAViIf l11uBtrftt«« the 
Euvtiiod of »ll revi^latittiL All revelatioti, vti". \m\f. xnid, miiiiM 
from withiih Wiieii thf^ieftjre GofI wiiithed to redeem and 
niiiriiin^Ut* tiimi^ lie Aent Clinst tn l>c otic of un, thnt Hv 
migbt redeem the worM froDi within: aud flo He redeems aad 
hftri pifrfonued every work of iudividufd redemption in every 
iHjc from H'ithin. For Chriat'a rodeeinuitf work dui lutt heifir 
when He wa* Ijorn in Bethlehem ; it had begun a* the Word 
cf conscience, the Word "very iiigh'^ to ukuii. in all men, In 
all ages. That wbieh i^ iinivcreHl in man was manifeMlvd, 
cone VII tra ted, in the hUtonc reveJa.tion of dirml. In Hiiu 
the univerwd subjective t>ct'iinLe the unique ohj(?ctivc reve- 
lation. Bui in all time He yvtB "the Light which lightcth 
every tnan." 

We are told triumphantly that there waa a Ohristianity 
before Chriet, us if thin di?jprin\iil our fiiith. H*iw etmld it be 
otherwise ? The scientific idea of Oirisiian revelation im not 
of flome dlHContinuoufl hiruih of the real into the phenomenal, 
out of relation t*^ the p»wt eoiitinuinm growth; hut of a 
coni:i<nlnLt](in of the real always pretient in the ]>hefiommial : 
a flcTftlopuient, however exccptiimal; a further iutertwiulug 
of the two Htmnds implicit in human nature aiccs hcfore- 
To thcwe who accept thia idea of revelation, and of the New 
Teetamcnt as a fraj^cntHry history of that exoeptiouaJ 
developmeTit, the popular attficka of to-day on ChristiEUiity 
6oem strangely wide of the real mark. 

Finally, It ia quite certain th«it the liiinliithiii nf oitr 
fticultieii raiders luipowiihle to um a complete imderstfinding 


2t}0 Catnbridffe Theological Ee^fs [n 

of ouroelviMw There viU nlwaye be room for tJicoricA of 
human nfttnrc, ami for dilt«rencra of i>]i)»ioi). Ilie (rod 
whom uatiirc reveals le imtiUcroiit to ^ood nnJ oviL Tho 
God whom conscience luanifcete is a God i>f ri^^htcooanea 
rvnd hoHnefi^ It is for tm Ohrietittns, one and all, to nuUe 
the Tentiir« of feith and declare, what we cannot prore, that 
these lu'e Oiiev And ue thint that eiperSeiU'ti juittifitw the 
venture Tlie world without, »nd t-nnwienro within, net and 
rcnct on ont; anntJ^er. The Divine witliiii »«»< a fireili 
lodicatioD of the I>iviue without ; and fitmifihtwti; that Dintic 
revealed without stimoJatce tiic Diviuo withio to new cfiorte 
of Tiftion, They arc the wiiri> and wcxtf <uit of which wlurt 
wo cail revelation is woven. Or, to ptit it othorwiso, a 
reaction from Bpoeulative do^majt about God aetid» u^ 1)&ck 
to the Btudy of man, and reBolts iu the discovery in inaii of 
|>reciMe]>' that coruteiouineM of Gud which fonJicd the l»ub* 
of dogina. '["he jjroldeni of prictrity 4>f nrigin ih inM<kl»1)l«. 
Tlid hiplicit eonMCioiLMieMt iff God and of the infiidte hi of 
the OMCiKc of hiunnn nature, and tlie i«nnt of eou^-vrffcnce 
at which all contrasts meet But it is out of sights and ite 
Acceptance remainiin venture of tHith. 

But apart from nl) diffcroncG« of optniorit which can 
never cemie while we "Know in Jiart/' we are all called to 
unite<l work, ruid if iiiieh difterences of a|)itm»n were Dot w 
bound up with polttic*a1, Hocid, and pergonal antagonUm^ 
they wonid nob of tbemselve^ keefi uta iipiui^ It iH art. 
reli^on, but the want of it, that divides Wk 

Ko one run look i>n the melancholy failitro of manlcind'^ 
spite of all its civilising infiuencc^ all it^ reli^i^^n and 
philo«4ophy n[id «cleiica, all it^ practical conimoa aenae, all 
the motivee of kindly feeling and welt" intenwt that uiw it to 
do ai^ay with the cun^efi of our political and s^m'ShI life ; tht* 
ftU'fii] G4>iitniHtH of luxury and Btarvatioii, militarUm, the 
cWnk'tradlc, rt^llgiouw jealousiw, eorruptinn, ^lunm, and \\\v. 
etiH.M'Ic»Ft j^nnvth rif the iinem[iIo\nh1er — willioiit fetflhi^ tliat 
some fre«h impulse ts needed for human nature. The great 
engines of our civi I LHatiou -factory want a burner ateain BU|>ply. 

Ti] SevekUionf and inodem knowledge 261 

We may be brothers in our efforts to Himinwh theee eTile, 
though we admit different motirea for making those efforts. 
Ma; it not be that nev life vill come from an evergrowing 
recognitioti of the power of every human spirit to know God 
and to be like Him ; from a belief in a revelation not of old 
time only but of to-day ; the Divine within cooperating with 
the Divine without to bring man to that knowledge which 
alone IB eternal life, and to that service which alone is 
perfect freedom? 




I. Tb« ifTciwiiig recagnlUm of the vHtnou boma bj the irttdnoU uid 
cmotioiiB of bunnftn riiitttra; the ilomnud thnt thU Khould ho iiIEatr««l fuU 
wdglit in &tl«iupU to ^ve a logioil MXtniiit of UiQ uuivi^ni^ Th« iboliDCt 
nndhjkbft of rJrfij/ftrnnivent&K Afmuf iJiiii KtMHy, Uittii]iirfv wlieUMrpnTW, 
inllio AOTiJio of petition, ifl in tuu^ony with what wb kiinwur ttio oH^r whf oh 
eiiitd in the world- The printifdc cif tliat order ii what wc mfuui by Lmr. 
Ofi^n or niir c<r|]OL^pt&"» of ]uU': hrtw fur difrivud rrom liLO «iiiL«4itulii>a vf 
our mitulBif fn>m civii legtalutioD, and fr^mi u!ictitiA<? lEiroitig&ticn of nature 

II. In thfl idc« of law inconaifltcni with the fitHt pontuUt* of prayer — 
the ciilfllenfw of H SiipreTniv Rittur T 84tiirc*u of the popular injpn.-«dcjn ihul 
it it ynilureofattom|>t8t>^a»tridofthoiiatUtiJintirp'rt*Uonofeaiu»tioft. 
BD<:ond p^iotulAto of pruj^cr — th« poMibllltT of nltcriiUon In the ooufW of 
events ti» the ruButt vt our uppuJi. Tho ftbjeetlriii mi Ut proHuinption OQ our 
part T)iffleii1t^ of conc^nling lh%K inU^rranTino u piuathle ivhorv the regO' 
Lant; of tho nnturiL i>rtor' U L'tiUf^crniixL Tho etrtJtn>viTnij ot Itt7!l Prftycr 
wju iblntlttol (u iHMMcw Mil uincHcr So tboA^irJlTiAl, liut uut ill ibi) phjiicd 
npTiem The jfrr^iindA upon which thifldtfinfnl wu biutcvl. Th«i ii])iE<>HnpM<<3U 
ei^iiini>nt inrolT1^d un unwarrus table biMitioti to tiie Kiotitiflo deliiiition of 
law, led to AH iutolomhlf* dualino^ and hub rcfutcU by ttic moat ddneDtU? 
fbcta of nipodufirL'' Thia dcictiinc i)f imjchcrfoi^cul punUlulinin- 

III. 1« It true th»t uij int«rfijroEiLre with the pfajxiodkl enlor mWt 
ilWTilnbTr upwt thri balanca uf thiiiuH? Wv haYri n ftowr of lutvrfcfvmMi, 
irltliiitit, ft wtnild pMwtn, jiu;^ i-jolfafiiu-^if lnw. The ^li^bti^t dihn|fif In 
UtwwdoTita tiiiiHt priKlnoe un nlUiVrl onmifiTiptutiV in uccordiuico wilh Hie 
pmoiple of bkw. It h the nmiuTinf: chnructer of lawb that enable* w U> 
tuic LheiM. Wli; LliL* aiLulii^ from tlm "itti}ppiij^ orvieclilnv" b iklUciCKIL 
Why we miiT |ir.4y for recovery- trom HKikiiefu. Sir G. Stokot on prmyei » foV 
A cItAngfl En tho ventb^r- TTte <>hjootion of tho dctennfniAt On atrlet 
priiiciph;!! uf jivceHsituriutilHiu there ^ai Ui uu (jiurTi^ilte pmjen. 

IV. How fw r»[ir view* of pntyer w llkeily tn he jiffBcte*! Iiy the tMch' 
in^ of piiTobolijgy. ?^ atundiittic ospknatioiiA 'if nnxwen to prayer Limito 
to tks mflucnce that can be oiartod by liuinan widbus. A trcati moliTV in 
pni)<T. Attltadu of our Lord to jipirltiul foreoa and pnijtT. 

V. The frved'mi t^i pruy mmt b« tmni tXMtatitatlnnally. l^ililio epirit 
in prar«. Tlie rvUin d'Hr^ of prajet, to necuro the aeconipliMhmi'ut <kf th* 
Divine jmr^KHu. The niurv wa undimUud of Law, tlw inurv uouAdnut ami 
revoront Pniyor mil become. 


'FllBRE Stroma good rcoeon to hope that the rovcrenec for 
fact's which hiu« l>con t\n; ^i.-^tiviicui^hiti^ o}mrn<.-(A^h»tic of 
modem inquiry, ia at to^t about to bo oxtended unKrudglngJy 
to th^ fftcf* <fi vfhh'h ve nmy r<MWO!iahly be fiU]>posed to have 
the doeeet ftnd mo^t tnistworthy kimwk-ilgc 

For many a day men's mhniti have be^n principally 
o(VTi|>ird wil.h tliH iii vest! gat ion ft which have Ijceii going 
fon^aixi with extraordinary success in the realm of external 
tmtare. The enirroaning mtorcat of those invcstigationfi, and 
the seeming certainty of the re^'^nlt^ that i»ave followed from 
them, have diapoaeti multitudes to ocquioece iu the opinion 
that thie reahn of external nauire ig |)reeininently the regioD 
of ftict In vain have the metaphysicians pleaded for the 
recognition of realities nnich nearer houtCt realities moreover 
upon irhich all Icnowleclge must be ultimately fja«ed. The 
phyaltnl filk-il thu hoiuoii, itfl daiiiiH were inHiHtont; there 
wiM n%* time or incli:iation to look within. 

Uut now there are signs of a chang:G. rerftaps the 
dWoreriefl in the phyr^ical Hpliere arc niit <iuite bo ntartUog 
a» they were, though that indeed will BeAreely 1w maintained; 
perhaps we are rcaliBing more elearly that matter after all 
ean only 1* nuide intelligible to ns when it ht hiterj>ret*Nl in 
leneM tif mind : perhaps, upon tliird thonghtM, t)ke world is 
befJcSmiing to suB[>ect that the inilia] Htup in |iliUoHi)]»hy in tci 
"know thyself/' WhateTcr the e.\ptanation, there cnn be no 
doubt tlj&t there m at the pi-e^tetit time an tiicreaiiing rcadincsa 
to accept the prinmry aDinnatiorta of cou»ciousiicd», anfl to 



Cambridge Thwhffical E»mn» 


attiu:h imi}<>rULncc to the <!ridcncG afTurdcd by tbe fonda^ 
luontal ifistiDcte and cmotioQS or hiunAn naturOp lncruuidii|f]y 
\t ifl belnj;; felt that tbe buainetH ef the JDtellect la to oxplniti 
and jnvUf}', rather than to turaign and condcnin, Uit^e 
enmtiimA aiid iiii4tiiicU. 

riiit, while this i^ w>» we ntnj ntit inintfiiir tiuit. there la 
likely to be fuiy abrmdoumcnt of that demand for 1o;i:i^d btid 
fiyetcmatic completencas which bad bocu cncoun^ccd mnd 
«tre»gtheii<;d by f^iiccoesive mlviutceii juid triimipbe ui the 
|>reviouE field of re^eurch. On the contrary, tJie demjuid 
ia Ulcety to be larger and stronger thaw ever. What will 
be sought will be the viider eompletene^ that e^tibrHeetf all 
tite facth. All iiuiMt be exhibite^l a« eon^ti tilting a recngtiia- 
able order, a cuuftistent whole. If oune are tu be excluded, 
none can be allowed to remain isolated. 

To l>e revLTciit and t^r lie mtionii), tnO bring the evidence 
of the spiritual instinct into accord with the rcqiiiremeiits 
of the intollectiml jiid;;ement, time irt tbe problem which ie 
before ti« more distinctly tliau ever ; and it will be to the 
varlt>uft aa|>ecta of that problem that theae who wUh to 
render tlie 1>ci«t service to dieir generation will Imve to 
addrerM thenii^lveA. 

In the pref*eiit Rway we are to itltenipt t<> deal with the 
problem om It preaentA itaelfiii tiie very in]|K>rtaTLt tnatanoe of 

No one today U likely to qnc(«tioii thftt jmiyer i« a 
verilAble fuel of human experience. Among the higher 
histincta none can be named more natural, more nnireraaL 
V more |»eniiHtentf tlum the instinct of prayer. Men have 

pmj'cil alwTiyn mid everywhere- " We nnroll Egyptian 
papyri, and iiiid tlkem IiIIcmI with ft^rnis »f pmyv^^r. We 
UTieiirth liab}'loniaii tablets, and amid all their aerccdes 
and tfiipcrstitione there ia prayer Wc tnuiwlftte the ancient 
boobs of India, of I'oraio, and of Chiiia* and they too arc 
replete with prayers"," 

^ IllliiffWdrtli. (^\t^ and Oati^4drai ^^rmmu, p 104. 


Prayer, and the Idea of Law 


Of the clflffiical peoples of the We«t a like ncoount au) bo 
giv^iL "Tliey bepan nuthiiig without prayer for IHvineaid; 
jonnK^M wi-rQ not commenced wiUiout viiifitlimituiri, nor 
w>ram&8 -willumt tia^Mnflcc : the opening of popular utid itctm- 
Uv^al assemhWen wa?t [ir4?4HMieil Ijj rellg^uuft ritea ; colonic 
were not planlt^l without iiiAiiguration ; (he history of Homc 
Ancirnt citiee is iiuw uhtioMt limited to the ruitin of Lhcir 
tcniplce. The moat sublime pix-m |the JUruil and thr mtmt 
eloquent oration [the Df- cor^ta of l^eiuosthenee] commence 
with invocation*^ of hcAvordy itHrtifitiiiiee. When wa^ an 
ancient senei^ai known to «et forth on a miUtar>' cMintHLi^i 
without an eniiuSry whether hoaven was propitious to his 

There ih rm ttUtte of life but ha8 felt it^ dei>eiidcucc upon 
Ml iini^ci^Ti nic!. The mother pni^^ Tlie child in^ayn. Motft 
ineu dit: pi'Hying, Whole sectioua of communities have 
devoted tihcm«:Ive» to prayer. "Wherever man live^i/' it 
had been aaid not icee truly than eloquently. *' undor curtiiiu 
drcumtftAnceH, at certain houra, under the dominion of 
certniii triipro-uionH of the Hoiit, hiif eyee rai^e themttelvei, 
his hands seek each other, hi§ knees bow,, to petition or to 
(five tlmnks, to adnre or to depret'ttttf. With joy. ar with 
fear, ojkenly <ir in the setM^ecy of hia heart, it in to prayer 
ttiat man bctJkkc« himself, in the liu<t restorl* to fill up tlit? 
Toid of Ilia soul, or to bear tlie burdens of bin diwliny*." 

Among^it thoFW who htive pniyoil the tnimt have litxn oitr 
brftvcst and hc&U If a liat were to bo written out of ^jrcat 
thinkers, and jfreat statesmen, and great artists, and great 
diiicoverers, who have believwl firmly in the power of pniyer, 
there is not one of ua who would not be able to HUg^'i^t a 
number of name* that ought to be juldeil to it. We muHt all 
have known men mid woTiimi who ronld \mM^ aljandoncd any 
other practice more easily than the practice of funjer, 
PrAVer to tliein wn^ the Hti|iremc e(ti>rt towards which all 
their energies turned; without it their whole eiiidteucc 

> Bbhop Chr, WwlaworUi, £»« 

Chriti<t\n^ p, ^ ntf quoted by Dr 


Cambridge Theologked £*saya 


would liHVO ttwmod e«tuiiU;d niid miitilHtcd And, above ail, 
w« romemb^r the tertchiiii; and ei&niple of Hini to whom 
men have looked aa to no other fi^r the ex|>ra«Hiun of what 
U highcMt iLiiil most abiding iu manhood Upon nothing did 
He insist moi-e wiyerly tlian mjjoii the value of Prayer 

It \9. itiniriccivHMt? ihiLt ii.n iti:^linct no univCTwd, 00 
dominant in oiu' nature, can l>e fin^liHii and vuin. Ov^iv 
/icfTiji' fi 4>v<r*s Tfoitl, Even if wc omit the appeal to mnj 
authority above iis, or to any more tlian nmiiclaue influence 
\Kttli]ii utf* wo &fx; conetmiucd to uttimi Uiat, with ciilnr^iii^ 
experiencd, tl^ere ha£ come the growing coDvictlon that 
'Kature iiiaJcoft nothing in rain.' 

The external evidence fur the tiucctiM 4>f jmrlEcnlHr prayent 
may mit he diM^ii^ivr. [t U capable of W-^mg explained nntil it 
is Tirtually cx(»laitied away. With our very limited aftd un- 
certain utKler«Unding of birvtoricnl aiitocedcijtv, it ib gcmcrallj 
open to ua to in&ke several coojccturo^ as to titc causes which 
have led in im event; and eon!«e(|nontly it niunt aJwayw bo 
dit&cuLt, if not imposBible, to secure agroemort as to the 
nature of the foreva whieli have been at work iu any specified 
ca«c Tt^U that at one time might have been dc^emei) 
RatiNfn<rt<rry, at amtther would t>e dintruKted and di^lowed. 
TliiiH, for exfunpic?, it may saft'ly be ]>T'eil)cLod that the 
hospitoi-wnnl tc«t will novcr again be proposed, as it wu 
A in l\^7'^- In view uf our extending kno'^lt^lge of wliat can 

t bo ctfbct<Kl by telepathy, it could do longer be regarded m 
eonolnstve. It would not now be doubted that a nunibcr of 
pOTiAone, who directed their thoughta and wi^lieg iu pniycr 
towards a group of aufferent, might bo the means of pro- 
duehig a remarkable chauKi^ hi tjieir condition. What might 
lie questioned would be the iufLTcnrvthat anytliingtnure tlian 
human iut^^rventitin vm^ mK^eMcar^ in any JnalaiKe to explain 
the rcHult. 

In a rcmaHcablo aonnon preached to the H'akcfieht 
Church Ootii;rop(0, ID 1884(, on the " Uea^ouahleneaa and 
Efficacy of Prayer/" Bishop Kcichcl boldly n#»cncd that 
" we COD liave no knowledge of the heariug and answering of 


Prayer, and the Idea of Law 


prajcr, 97Kih ns sfntli be cttpaHc qf Itmff prov&d to othfura. 
All ittt«rDpt« to <leinon§trat« the efficacy of pniyor inuAt feiL" 
■"Bat." he addc^l, "certaiulj^ one tHIu^ may be said witli 
|H-rfu(:t triitli : Tiiiii tlmt U, tlmt no one who has lM?en in Ihi; 
habit i>r pmyiiiK *" the vny in whi<^li a L^iTvtturw might to pray 
Ut hm (^'rtSLJor, witii tb(?-<li]o meannre of cninmiji^lci^ reTercitce 
and awe, will aaj that hie doing bo has been uselcae and 

More fwd more it will be reaJiried tJmt the trtic; and 
Bullicietit evidence for tbe validity of prayer ie to be found, 
not \i\ tha hijttory of jmrtitnd^u' ^invwerB> however reTniirkalilot, 
nor in tho coom'tion*, howuver absolute, of individual HUp^ 
plianlfl ; but in the brtHul faiTt that huiimii nature, rUrou^h all 
tJio *U^iv* of lU cvolntton. hiut JiKikiHl Ui a source uIhivi; 
ititeir, and ha-t Inrlieved that it could derive help by apiM^jdiiig 
to that wmrcc. The imivcrsaJity ot" the tcndoncy and tlio 
invincibility of the habit compel the coiicluHJon ttiat prayer 
it u deeply imphtnttHl nceeeifity of our tfein^. and tliat it 
bae been found to be eflic»cious over long reaehfw of our 

If it Ih hard to sustain an indictment against a nation, it its 
hanler Htill to c:irr> a e^invietloD ugaiiiHt hunmnity at large. 
Sc^Mrus jniiiotU orhU Rcrrarum^* 

Bitt, when wc have thua satisfied oureolvca that pr&yor is 
agre^t faet of life, we are only at tJxe bepnnin^ of our task. 
To lulmiL prajer tv U? a fact i>f tuntatnount to challenging utir 
intclligonee to toll us in what way it is related to the multitude 
«f tiUier (\tv\A However it may havt? \>eAm in (he pa»t, it iu 
certain that thoHc viUo tiM:liiy are uKwt fiill^' |RTrrimt<led uf the 
«^<:aey uf i>rftyer are not less eincere than others, though 
p(ij4.^ibly they arc flomcwbat les^ impatienl, in their desire to 
aficeriain the relation in which prayer 3ia[id8 to the order and 
ooiiTttitUtion iif the universe. 

It K true, no doubt, thal> in proportion to the vnllinirnesB 
with which we aeeept the evidence of the spiriiual hiHtinet as 

' flee AirOtur t\it Adilitlonal Note mi yy. A()5 f. 


Cahibriiige Tlwofogifnil EttBaga 


to the power of prayer, all tntellectiial inquiry in re^rd to iu 
i&tcrijrtrtnUoit bt!*.'4>inwi for iw Inrgoly Mpeeulittivc in it« cha- 
racter : but nevertheless it doefl not c^aae to be of iQoat real 
tmpurtitiu^v. Fur rery iiuiny It ii^ well-nigh im|ifHoiibIc to 
condnuu to rctHiD a bolk'f which inti^ he upheld againnt 
a {H^rpotiial discontent uf the cntical riiciilt.ici : for nearly 
all, tiic ctl'cit to (Ic thi» m painful and exhausting* 

Pniy«r can t»C4ircely 1>l-i:qiiic iticreitsitigly nii dcnicut in 
the Lives of educated men and wcmeu 00 long as they have 
in tficir iiiiiuls a lurking t^tispii^ion tbut pnLycr, iu tbc hchm 
in which it has been commonly understood, ib irreconcilable 
with what aci^nee ia Hhowin^ iiit of H^a working of the 
iiiiiv<-rve. And, on the other hand, nothing does more to «0' 
collide prayer and lo make it jionfident and lui[>efuU than 
th(^ cmivictiiHi that niicli a HiiAfiiciun htui uij m>iiihI liAMiN 
to rest npon. 

Prayer, we eay, in the neiiHC in which H haA t>eeti canunonly 
undcmUiud II' wc hnihl oitr iinnimeut for Utc ctToctirciWii 
of praxer upon the common con8ent of mankind, we inuat be 
prqmred to iu:copt the cmnruou <-oim.-ul of niankind aa to 
what hiis l»eeii intended by prayer. Now, bt^ond ciu<!fltion, 
what haA been intended has l>M»n pHititm. Tlie cry tliat Iim 
gi^ne up fnim innumeTHblc «oulit through all the ages, pagan 
and Chri^tfan. has been a cr> for ruitnr kind nf ^y^itX. \yt for 
deliverance from »ome kind of cnl, addressed to a higher 
Power which it was hoped could be moTcd to give the good, 
or to ward off the evil. It is prayer in this sonee to whir^h 
the deep instinct and leng habit of the soul has borne 
witiie^M, And It U prayer hi tJiw wnse that xfiednlly otllt* 
for jiiHliflmttnn by the intellect It in crrtAinly alxmt 
prayer in lldb ^ensc that any ausplclons and dlHiculdfia have 

Wc arc free, of course, to maintain that prayer is inoro 
than f>etition ; tliat it is oont^mpbt^on, conmuinion, rcaUstn 
tion of tho unseen, even a mode of wlfodwcation : but wo 
are not free tt> resolve prayer Into any or all of these, while 
Ht tlie Hiittie thue we rt^t otircHHo for prater Li|xm thi* iiiboni 
necessity tliat haa compelled juoii always and cvoryvthero to 


Prayer, ami the Idea of Law 


lift their hc^rte Tuid tlieir hnnih to ». rtijurce of help above 

J^ycr, thutt, ill t\nb aciitac m w)iic)i it litut Itecii cnmiinonly 
nndorstood, ie potition. It i« for im to iuquiro whotLor 
pmyvr, bo understood, is in oppoBition to, or in hitnnotiy 
with, u'hiLt wv imiy r<*uAoiin1>]jr tbjiik we know of the arratige- 
mentJi which prevtii) in the aiiivei'He^ 

NAturnily. and indeed uiifivokUtbly, we employ inich toruiA 
tM onlcr, oun^litucion, arnni^ment, when we Jtttempt to 
describe the vrorlii, t*ie c(>amue, the lunvcTBO. And when we 
are prc^tted to explain what is implied in thceo tcrmtt we loll 
bncfc u^Kiu ft ain^le term — Law. Law U the UTiderlyJn(c and 
unifying prinHple. It is hy conformity with Law that a 
HCltlt'd Hitler IF ivmluireil ixmniUle. Having dedd(*rl wbit we 
meHM by Pniypr, wti nttisf, next ileclfle what we iiipkii by l«w. 

And, to begin with, we hwl better ask. From whence d« 
we derive tJie idcaV U it & part of the e^wcutial Fmniework 
of our miiid^ ft ttomethiti^ thm the mental eye bring!; with it 
to all that it iwcb? or in it iiGqiiired by experience from the 
nocial c^jnutitution arouud na. in the maintenance and d&- 
velopnient of which we :l11 have n shart^ V f>r, Hgaiii. ha« it 
been flerived by uk fVoiii the euiiKtitntion of the jihyMit^ 
world with which we nrc brought into contact tlmnigh our 
■eriHeft T 

'Hie true fitifwer would seem to be that we are indebted 
for the idc4 to all these sources And it is necessary, thoro- 
forc when wc are endeavouring to arrive at the full eontent 
of the idea, that wo abonld try to eetimftte the mcneuro of 
our debt to each of them* 

That wo do bring with us a tendeney, ori^nnt nr inherited, 
t^i arrange and nntfy the data of ex^ierienc'e^ will not i>e 
db^)iitrd even hy tliotie who utay lieHiUiLe to dofpnatiM? ju to 
eAHetilial and iiievitnble catcicorics of the logical undetHtAiid' 
inic- Mnny to-day would maintain that this a priori Itclicf 
in an ordered tmifomiity in Mtill the iiiii?^t potcut intluenco in 
determining the view which we take of foctti and i>eeurrencett 
ID nfttun^ *' We believe tliat uur uAperiencen, in Apite of 

272 Camhrii^ge Tft^^tlot/lral EiMagit 

ihdir apparent irru^Dlaritj', follow dOFue (|)erhaj)fl) imkiiuwn 
nilu, because we Bixt l»pltfvc the? warlJ to be g^ivemed by 
iiniMiitable iaw." '■ Perfect uiiifariiiilj is never obttcrred'," 

T\vit jin iiitprr-Hsiun uf "* perfect uiiifnniiitj " it* by EtO 
me^iH alwaj* made on the mind, when first broUn^t mki 
coiitii^t with new flofirLrtmofits of tuotA, wau fitnkuijcly illua- 
tratiid by ;i vcTiuirk of i'mtijssor J, J, ITivniwon iil tLc 
recent meetirg of the BHtieb Astiocmtitju. "There wik oiiv 
Iftw,' h« wiifl, "'which he felt ctmniic^d nobody who had 
worked on ihis qiie«lii>n (the nidio^u.livity of umtu^r) wduUI 
evvr HU]4|<<wt, iliuI Umt waH tlie laH of the cinibUuic> of 

Whon men attempted to form a clear idea of the order 
which, In Apitc of nil tho contradiotiond of e\|>orioncet they 
were neverthdoHs Jii*|wsed ti> find in tho world, ihcy were 
DAturally led to iliink that it rauul bear some reflembiance lo 
the legiiilatton admiiu^tered la tlie State. *'We know Ih&t 
prwi^leiilifle man afviuined the prevwl*?nce of n dJvhio law 
SLiid onltir in itHntiire luialagiiuH ui Umt exititjji^' ainmij^ iiwii. 
Wc know, too, that tliia admimptioin wue ftt leiwl the ori^ of 
the conception of acientific law*/' 

The cnnchmcot of the idai of law which rotulttid from 
the tiao of thU analog brought with it the conviction that 
iha nrder oln^er^ed m the natural wtirld rni^ht moat r«ttiKiiMbtj 
be re^rdod h» the nianifeutation of arnuigonient by a supraiw 
Mind and WUl Mr J, 8. Mfll f^ely allowed that "ihe ex* 
prc^wion ftiw of 7inturt> hiu jrenerully Iteen eiii|khi)>^l ivtO] a 
(«»rt iif (ji^'it reference to the origiiml sense of the word law, 
nninely. the eKpresf^ion of (lie will iif a ftii[H.-ri(jr V 

Whrn we inquire a« to what 6|>ecial development of die 
idea i.if law lia^ heeji due to mExIeni scientific thiitufht and 
observation, we become awaro that it has lain chictly in the 
diret'tion of diUcrentiatioii luid aiiaJy^k. The general cod- 
ceptiiiri hu*i Iwen Kccn l<i include Uie Uu>iight of a vut 
number of particular Itiws^ "The flret point t<* be noted, *" 

' A. J. Bnltour, FntiP'f4itini>f ttf * .1 Wnrrt, fUffhrd i^^ttttrf, n. 

J?^h/ pP- 13^ >31- VP^ ^* f 

■ Timei report Au^. 24, IWH. * Stfrtftn tJ"Loffk^ Ul. i. L 


Prayn', mui tht Idea o/ Lav: 


said Mr Mi11» " in n3efird to what la oalled the unifomkity of 
the connfo of iiAtiiro im, t)mt U i» itself ft complux fact. 
compounded of all the separato unifinniikSe^ which cxii^it In 
rettjkecL Xa >iiny;)e ]ihciifHiit-iin. Hk-hl' vurimtK iiiilfiinriitica, 
wlivn nwrrlmricil \\\ what In ivgHnlt-H aH h Hufhcieikt imiue* 
tioii, we call m timiimin iiarUricf, Imwh of Nature^" 

The proci-fii^ of finaly^js 1)U4 liucu curried ><tilJ further until 
the single liiw b detincd to be the principle according to 
whic^ a oerbiiii eon^^|uent ih connected inrimaUj* with 
«om« jmrticiiUr nntoccrlcnt, or set of Hntocciknts- In more 
Ofdinar}^ laTignau:^. the liiTRriable coiiH(K|Uerit ib Bpokeii of as 
the elVect^ itiiil till' iuvjirinhli* nntt*i*i:^(li?itl. lu lhiM!n«m\ W»*rt* 
thciv rtfc ncvrrral rtritwcd(*n*n it i* ri»iTiimm to «iii^lff out one 
only ari tiie cait^e, am! Ui tkMiiLit- the otheman Ixiing merelj 

It will bo necessary tlmt Wi« uhoulcl rctnm lator to nomo 
poiiiU in thiit nipi<l fltiUcnioTit of the history 4.>f the tn^wtli of 
tlko idea tif I^w, <hu' immediate concern w to note the 
gcncTttl ttourinfi; of what we have aeen upon the broad quea- 
don of the legitimacy of pi^tltionH for any modirtfTntion of 
U»e onler wliich we lielieve {x\ exkt In liie worH Such 
petitions invidvc thp ]N«tulatcj( (1) ihat thrrr? in ii l*<n*i?r — a 
|icrwnm1 Piiwer— altovc and behind the uimrae of nature, to 
vbom appeals can be mndc! ; find (2) thiit llu i« a I'ovrcr by 
vhom ©vents can bo influenced. Any att^^mpt to provide an 
tntcUcctunl justification of acts of Prayer in a wcirld of law 
mOflt ahow that these postulates are capable of being recon- 
ciled with MUch re<{Uiremenij« aj4 may roawtnably be deduced 
from vhat we have learnt of the nature and character i>f law. 


rcfiuod to follow Coqalc in "hu *th 
jectton t« the y^ard caiuic.'' "1 

eomiidtir Vim" \\t -WiM, ^'to be 
eiJtir#*ljr wnmy * (Hi!4|v v«^ Ci»in|4\ 
Jikv HuiDv Iwfitru fiini, hud w]4|i«fl 
to roduco caiwitioD tu oo^uncUcm* 

C. T, i. 




Cambridge Theological Essays 


Doeti, theiit wc mu!"t im]c. the idea of Iaw. in any of 
ncnsM in which wc have been t&ughl to cuuocivc it. or in ail 
of thorn combiuod, preclude the p^jknsiliility th&t Uwre b iu i 
th(^ uiiivei'iie u i1ire<:tiiiK Power »iich ai« tlint t<> which the 
im^ttncte of men have led tlieui to Liiru, in all «,ses, vM 
reiiueE<t» fur hdji mid ilvliventiice? 

TIjc fiu't, if it \}c H fuct. that we bring with tm to oil 
cxixrienire an (^xjujctation Llint evenia will Iw roiiud Ui 
confiMin tti ttuine rugiiloj- order — »o that we arc diaiatiflfiod 
and ill at cane until wc can discover iU c.iiatoncc— if it i* iw>t 
cuTicluHit'e (.-vidcikco timt ^tich an urdt^r c3LiHt«<, cortuinJy pninto 
to tho probability that it do€e, and that it is of a character * 
such a^ might emaDat« fVom a mind that ia not unlike our 


If the belief that thtx is the caj^e h>w itfl beginniugs In 
the very cutiHlitiitiiiii nf inir iiiiian\ it jiUinh' nwxnt ^\\\ In 
btrcii^Ut a£ wc proceed to trace out the re»ciikb]anco between 
the order t^f stature and that which a|ijK'Hni in Atxriety, Wben 
once thi« renembkncc ha« been sue;geated, it would 0ccin lo 
be imposeible to baniefa altogether the notion of authority 
from (lur thoujthbi of tho HtgniliGation of lav; and indevd 
we cannot point to any time at which Any eonsMerable 
number of men bav^ conceived of the uiiivcrM; a* mibject to 
law in Hny othfr m^umi We ViTe iwttured tljut bhia wa^ '*the 
oriKinAl seiiHe uf the word hfcw, tiajuel^. the eipremitiit of the 
will of a suT>crior'." 

So far. then, wc may cotifidciiily claim that notliiag bM 
entered into tlie ukcaiiiui;; of Inw Hhicli could make it m th« 
least degree unnatural to rcgiu-d law a^ the outcome of mind 
and the expreftaion of persoual will Kay more. It b allowed 
thntf fr>r tho vEij4t iniAJiiriiy i>f llKiice who have entertained It* 
the thought of law hiu carrii'd with it, avowedly or t&cftly, 
the thought 4if a lawgiver. 

1Ia« the case been altered by any modification which tlic 
Idea of law hat* uiider^ne through thif inHiicnce of modem 


TOonce! It m of^m popiiUrly Hii]>|>r^Hr<1 tlmt' H luiA ThU 
hart lieeit W^ety the raniilt i.>f a hxmt- ainl urigiianUMt niJiniier 
of njrt'ukiikg, Wr very iT^iimiinnly hcJLr the rxpRtv^ioim 
"goTcmcd hy- law/ and "mgn of law/* Such exprcMionB, 
Tiriil Aiu] |>i(-turc4'tiio Ai^ thcj Arcr, cjiti»L>i h<- ileft7iiile<l when 
ibcciiraU' thinking !« in qucstionH They may hcconic acriously 
miMlvadiiijf. WiLn a^i J)r W. K C^r|>unU^r chrtllcn^'ct tlio 
proprioty of the (ii>t of them, and uri;cyl that what wa* 
Intended w^nld be more aatisfactoHly conveyi^d by Baying. 
*'gi)v«rnctl acconJiiig to Eavr/' Liiw ii not an entity in itMslf, 
nor u it a forire which we have any right U> hivL^^t tvitli iho 
ultrUiQlcn iiriw'miifmlily. !t i» Himiily a ]>riuri]>l« of arniiii^t?- 
mcot, A method of procedure. "Lfiw/'eaid IVofcnor Iluxtfj, 
" moans a rule which we tiavc always fjuad to hold good, and 
wiiicb ve expect nlwnyt^ tvtil haki ^<t*n\K" lam- »f il^lf oau 
h^vo no govorniiif; power. At the riuwt !&■ vxii^toncc can 
waggmt, or Imply, a peix^nalilT behind it. But doea it realty 
do thil, whiii) it it irift^rpreu^J hi the M^tint* in which wti 
modeniH havt* cotne to think of It in coimexiiin with nirilitnkl 
Ittic^mKiii^riH t 

Oertainly many of tJiosc who ha^c done moat to make 
"Uw" the vatdiword of sclcntidc progrcaa have neror coo- 
CMJed their dewire U* rid the idta of ]K!!rHona] iL<,-»ociMiotifl of 
orery kinti. Such lUtton^uiuiiK they \m\<i reii;ardi-'d w tcndJug 
to disturb tlie mathematical exactness of tiieir calculationa, 
TiK'y havt^ aitik4?rl ut etindimtin^ from their iiittid^i evvntUIiig 
Uke »nvhr()]i<triitiqihir \nnji, nnd ni rt-adiin^ a MfjiiidjHiitit sw 
far reviiuved hm jjimnible fi'oia liuitiaii limilatioua. For moat 
of liA thc^<f ciidi^viMiT^ ricciii Uke Uio atlcui|itt* uf a man ^) 
detach biLa»clf from hia own iihiiddw ; Mt<{ it \i*t of course, 
U» be mueiubered that, when tnch thinkers preeent us with 
their conduviuijis tliey are atill tht-ir eonduaiooa in aplte of 
all their elforU to depen^onaliife thetn. 

Let ua try. hc»vever. to itnderxiAnd what does become of 

ibr idea of law wl^ il \\iw lier^ii nnliji^ctinl tci the pnnri^Htii. 

Til nUiie tlic I'istiilt Hhtirtl>. we are left vriUi a nuliou of 
inTarial^e f^{t\ett*x. \jivt w> premntted iti jNiIUd hi»I ab* 



Cambridge Thmhgi^ Emtayt* 


«tnict fiiKMifrb, nn<l ror>* fiti- roinovcifl from c^ntitcrt irith luiy 
charftctomtically huimtn intorc«t But then the idea has 
become s» mu^ulfotAntial that we arc unablo to rmt h\khx It 
Our mimU Aro t^niply iiicuL}ml>]€ of co»toiitiii^ thumsclvefi 
witli Ao bare a fliibatitiitc for an eiplsuiatioa And thlii|^ 
arc mil Iwlli^rt'il whrti iiivtiriiible iingurnciT U i)ul\tioil to Tie 
inevitabTe cxitiik-xkiii uf anU^cfdcnlAHiid c-oiuw4jLii'titJi. We are 
omijMlled U.\ n^k *' \V)iy inrviUvlilc ?" am) 'M1i»v^ iiMinix:t«?(l V^' 
BooncT or later wo must arrive at Mr .MHIh propoaition : — 
•*TIlo iiiev)tnbl<* nfitc<:e<k'iit Ih l^mial the tViiii^r ; th« in- 
vnriabic cnnecqncnt^ the Ettcctv" And tbcn wc arc oblijecd 
to &flk what ift involved in causation / Ami U\nr\ caii^uition 
we arv HOnt liftok ti> ibnt which nlonv can make it intollwbloi 
to onr owo conutitutioiL Without a doubt uo di'rired oor 
Idea or c^UMitioi] rrom our own roTixCiiutlon and iu «x* 
pirncnci^M. Mr Mill i|inte frankly ndniit#i iu "The AiiLccniion/' 
lie H&vH. *' to \xi<\w. a limb and (Jto Hc:tu^ nLol.iiiu ih iinn i>T tlie 
moBt direct and instantaneous of all i^e(|iiencc» whicb can 
come under our ol>ftervalion," "Accordingly, i»or volimtan 
ft^^ti^ bcinbC the tmut Iikmilij&r to tiH of all canea of eaUMitfcm, 
arc, in the infancy' and early yontb of tlix? huitiati race, 
fipobtaneonttly taken as the trpe^ of causation in f^enet^ uid 
all |ibi*ni»inena ait^ •iu]»]HMtHt lu ^k> directly i^riMbwod by ttw 
will of wuiu' m.*Titierit Iwidg^" 

Mr Mill ]« cjudeni to diKiiuHA UiIh tj-'udftiiry ;» imdiin^ 
more than ^'orieiDal Fcdchistii'* : but. when wc sct^k I*j 
discover what wiser account our inodom science caji ffive of 
tmuKiUion, wo arc nioroly informed that tlicrr arc "efficient" 
c»u«(^ and "phy^ioiU" cuubdo, and that ecience a« such ha^ 
omly %(\ do with the latter* and canni^t be coneeniud about 
**a cauMc thsit U iii>t ittftOf )i pht^nc^inenrm." '*0r tW oRicient 
cauHCM <»f phvnomcna/ hr i^avM, *^ iw whether any such eaw^ 
exErtt at all, \ ant it<»t enUfd ii[m>ii to giv« an ufitriionV' 

It would ai)|>car. therefore, that wc must cither pcnetmte 
behind the prtxxwsc* of nature until y^e arrive at the hypo- 
thc^U of a Will which could oHirtnat^: and direct tliciu — a 

■ l^i£^ xiuh, 11- 

* t^i£^ m. 4, % 


Piyzi/er, and the Idf^a of Law 


BGicDcc¥ It IN often [topiilarly wiipiioKtd tlmt it ha«. Tlni* 
h&« btfcii inncety the iXMult uf i% lixinc uiid un^uardciL munitcr 
of MpcAkiiig. Wc very cowinonlj" hear the cjiiirceaons 
"Kovoniod by bw/' aiid ''rciicii *if Uivt," .Sudi cxprcswioiia, 
vivid and picture^] it o a» they arc, cannot be defended when 
accurate thlrtktnj; i^ iu <|ue«Lioii. They niuy 1xmv»iik* seriously 
miiiU-iultnit. Year»( Ag<« !> W. R Carpenier chaUeiiffed the 
propriety of the first i»f ihem, and urge<I that vhat una 
■iil«indt^l wciiitd hn iiii^ri^ HiktiHriu^UiHly eotiveyrd liy mying, 
"govcnie<l according to law/' Law i« not an entity in \Uiv\f. 
nor Ia it a fiin^fj whicli «<■ Jinve anv riiilit to invCTt with the 
ikttril>ut€ff of pcffoimlity. [t 10 F^imply a principle of arrange- 
iDent. a moUiud of procedure. " I-aw," aftid IVofessor lluxl«y, 
"uioanH iL ndc whi<^h wo have alw»>» found to liold gooil, und 
which we expect always wiU [io1d good^" Law of itself can 
have no Kovemin^ power. At the iiiomI iu exi^teTice can 
Bitggutt^ or imply, h prrMOiidity hi-hind it Ittit Atx.^ h really 
do thifl, when it la interpreted in the sense !n which wo 
roodem-n have couie to think of it in coiinoxion with iwtvntl 
pbcn omenta i 

Certainly niaiiy of thoac who have done rnf>Eit to nmko 
"Iftw" ihc wrttchwnrd of Hciontitic pro((ri>KH Imvo Dcvor con- 
cealed their deaire to rid the idea of pei^wnal awiHrJutnmM of 
every Icind. Sueli aiwociations tiiey liave regaritod hm lending 
Ui diMtiirh llie nLKtht^nmtind t^-xnctiieHn of t)ietr iralcnlaiinnM. 
Tlwj have aimed at olimimUin^' Iroin their m]i>ds evei^ything 
like anthropoiuorphic bias, and at reaching a ^taiidiK>irit as 
far removed a» possible trotn hnninii lindtnttonA, i-or nio«t 
of MA theee endeavours ^eein ]il<e the uttcmpte of a man to 
clvtaeh liiinaelf from IdM own shadow ; and it i^ of coiin^, 
to Tw n*nienil>trred that, vheii xucli thlnkent prettent ui4 with 
their (.-unfilled 01 JH, they are intill tfvir eouclufLions in upite of 
ftll thrir c-Jlinifi in de|Hir»onj4liiie tln^ni. 

l-et UH try, however, lo tindcrst^ind what doc* become of 
the hIcu of law when it hiw l*eeti subjected to tlie pr*>cefl». 
To stale the rcsnit Hhortly, we are left with a notion of 
invariable M.-ipienec. Ulw ho prj^otited ia pallid and ab- 

■ C/fiitctjki Knaj/t, vtii. i. |X 193, 

16— a 



Cmtibridge Theologkal Emayt^ 


flhoiiM be adopted ornvoided^haa been denounced aa tli€ tcyj 
height ofirrcTcrancc and pn^umpticii. 

\V« have t<> dm! with this objection only in eo far ai 
it can bo *aid to affect our viow of wlmt rniiy, or niaj 
notf be riji^bDy considered poasible and suitable in ei r«Lhn 
tliut iH xiihjec:t to liiw. And |ier)iH|ut it rimy Ikt- enough to 
fiiibmit lliat, a <^refii1 cm ik! deration! of tbc bi«trjr>~ uf ti>e 
rtrlatiririH bnlwrcTf n ruler nud \x\v niibjtiLTUi Iihh nimlv* It nture 
tind nitjre ap|)^rcnt tlmt de<poti;*iu, h<iwcvcr it nmy simplify 
thoBc rclatioiifl in sonic rcapccte, is nc»'cr again JikoJy %a 
be regru-dcd t^ the iddtl pial tnwartls which a true protfrov 
tenda Government in actxirdanec with law Iijw been rocog- 
iiised as the ri^hi wav of e^ape troiu the narrowing and 
di^gnulin;; ertet'lw (if |>erwi)iit»t tyniuDy — not Ui<* 1cm tynuuij, 
and Mci^rcely ]oh8 dJiUUJtroiJH. when eiercised hy the liest of 
mcn> and from tht? Inwt. cif mot.irf^H. Wi- haT<* fO'&iliially 
learned t'^i realise thnt the hi£hc«t admiTiiBtration of gorai>- 
mciit ia that in which the central authority la tno^ accesaiblo 
ttJ thfl TtecdH «f tlic lowcrtt of the *covcnicd, m*>«t rcody to 
grant liberty for the expression of opinion, and most prepared 
to move, ftlowjy if need be, hy meaiiH lA the oiiopo ration of the 
grtMitettt nntnbcr towards tlie tittainnient of the common goo<L 

MiHt he- noL Hihnit> then, thrtl. it \% jMR«lh]e dmt, inkier 
the goveniTficiit of the Supreme Ihder, there may be room 
made for such freedom as will ^rnint even t« the Uuinbleat 
tJie ri^fht to u hearing: ; and will permit of the e(!ucation uf 
human minds and willa by alhiwing, aiid even erdolmrig, the 
c;tcrd[*c of a coneidcrabJc ileirretj of reeponsibiiity in nv&rd 
to thought and action? Muat it of necoasity be pr^umptuoue 
to imairine that tliere should \\^ this ^eedom, and that \t may 
Iw a duty b<> use it? 

Chu we dnre, Ihei). Xa nay that the idea of Ijiiw hi 
irre^^uiiiTihddr with the hrlirf. fur which we have the higlicflt 
spiritual authority, thai- we m:iy without inevtMtTnco «irry owr 
defiirori to tiie Ruler of all and feel fi*«urcd that it io lli» wUb 
thttt wc should do aoT Such a belief will certainly never 
aeem iiniH^stHjhle so h>1]^^ at iitl events, an we continuiJ to 
think t)f Luw in its larger and "original scnae^" 


Praytr, and the Idea vf Law 


But how does the matter itand when we pais on to 
cnrwiiU'r ir, in tli<^ liglit of the i^dictly Bt*K*nti(l<.-, Hiid t^xclu- 
ftivelv inti-ltM^tiuilT i.-iirirt?|in()]) of the mcjuiiiig cif Law? H«?re 
the iiniblein in iTnntn-^Hl fnim tfir nnihi^iiitieK Anil imci^rUTn- 
tics thftt Arc more oi" lean hicvitable in a moral discuastoii. 
Here it bcconiof a <|Uc«tioiii, nnt of pniprietice, but of 
po^bilitioB. Law, iti ita Bcicntlfic aenfie, is held to bo iaimu- 
tJkhle. Anv puipKeation of intc-rfercnoc with ite o{>ei-ationn 
muMt therefore, it is !4iiiiput^ mlae fonniduble dif!ic;ulUe« for 
the Hckntitic miml. Fn particular, uny tbouf^ht of Interference 
with the undevUiting re^ulnritv uf t;h(;j)li}bicii1 iinJer hxxs lv<<'ii 
declared to be wlmlly incoriMiMt^Ttt with whnl han hfxu 
aacertained t<i be the Tia.Lnrc und working of tiatural law. 

It wad in order to direct attention to these didictiLticA 
that l^foe^or Tyiidnll aiKl an aiionymoutt writer, aflcrwarde 
acknowledjcod to Iw Hu' Henry Jhornpi^or, i»]icned a huiioitn 
fttlAck upon the traditional doctrine of Prayer rather more 
than tliirtv ;eara ago. A good deal ha>t hapj>ened fljnce 
ih(^n, und the gn»tiiid taken by the objeetom, and by thow 
who reph<M.| In tht'tTt, eh %n%t hi ^U reH]M-<;lrt thul uIiil'Ii woiiUl 
he occupied by either inil« at the jir^tnit day, Neverthelow 
thiff db«cu>i»ioii is still fiiU of tii^nficancc, and should not l>e 
OTcrlookcd by any who arc nnxioue to follow the modem 
mind in ita dealings wtlli the lAauoa involved. It is to our 
advanta^o thnt wo can vit^w the controversy from n dixlaitee, 
for thuB we are helped to observe impartially, and should 
be atrie to didtlu^nl«b what wan of pemianent Intereat in it. 

'Pht' attilnde ')f the erilk'** n-Hx by rut meanH disrjwjieclfuL 
There wa** no refit^ial to allow thnt aiiy t?fllwu:y lieionged to 
prjiyiT. f>n tho e*«itr«ry. there wiw* »n evident wiah to 
concede a^ much a^ [KiAsible. "The value of prayer to the 
Dediy," Hiud theanoiiymons writcr/*huji been recojfiiiaed in 
ftll aR«9« and by all ^atio^s^" 

"ll ie not my habit" wrote Profewtor Tyndall, *'lo think 
otherwiMo tliHii Holemnfy of the feeling which promptvL pmyer. 
It in a poteney which I i^hould like to see guidinl, not 
eitlnii^iUhed, devot*Hl t*i praetiud objeetai iiiHtcwl of wasted 

^ Omtismporarjf FltwifK, June, 187!^ tt>L xx. p^ SOtt. 


Cambridge Theological E^ays 


upon air. U\ soiuo form or other, not yet ovi^Icait, it itny* 
08 alleged, be ueceaaary to niau?i hijshe^it culttirv. C<:rtnin 
it U thjit, ^vhilc I rank niuny pcrsoiie who roaort to pmyer 
low in the [^cale of bdiii^ — natural IboIidhniwA, btjfocry, url 
iiitolcrHMLrt- bciitjj: in tlieir cii^^e irtenMillefi by the notion that 
they hHvc EuicotH Ui t1i<^ ear of (i^l — \ re^rrl otlieni wliii em- 
ploy it *w fiirming imrt of die very cream of the earth \" 

The poMltion ado^liid was thut> while tHi|H>i~Uiiil i^A^cbi 
mit£ht conccivAbty bo produced by prayer in tlic roeioti of 
inwanl diapoeition and moral cliaracttir — those etTt-ctfi »cre 
dcrtcriboil with ifreat dcEUiice^ and fulness by n subt^oquaJ 
contributor —it wns lj.i be i^trt'iiiKHiftly flctiiorl lh«t pniytr 
could cxerc'Ue any direct and immediate infinonce upon the 
«it«ni&l Cfmr*e of thin^ "Nij tfood," Prufirwor Tyndnll 
imid, ''am roinij f»f giving it n dclii^tivc vidnt? by claiming lor 
it a power in physical nature/' 

In ffict it was ri>undly asserted that it needed only it little 
more of tbc mtclhgencc and knowledge, which now prevent 
niotit pLsrplt^ fniin |>nLytuK: h-r certfiin ptiyi»iciil chanjfca, to 
prevent thoTii fvi.*x\\ pmyinu for any. "Nr> one." it wm 
mamtained* "even ^lij^htly ac<tuainted with scientific meUio<lH 
and ri.wu1l«. L*Hn for a moment hnxik tlie iilen of any inter- 
ference wiUi the lnwi< of externa] nature priwlucuJ by 
hutnaii [ini>er^" 

The replies called forth by thia challenge were well-nlefa 
innutncmblc. ^inc of them &pi>cared inuiuKliatvIy in the 
|>ji;fc^ of the periodical which garc publicity to tbc nttftck : 
othora of a more weij^hty description followed in the ntiape 
of painphtutK, und vitbimcK of IcctnrcM and eMktayx. 

Naturally a ^eat <leat was made of Uie theoretical 
con^te^jin^ieeM which Ibiw fn>rn the coneeiuiiiii Lri jtniyer of 
nn inthtcneu in die sjiiritual sphere '. and it wa^ ofteoi 
asfunied, rxflhly »u< we nball acu* that Lhone who nuulc: it 
mi)fhTr be credited with the opinion tlrnt this sphere is outaide 
the operation of law, 

Xatnrally alr^o, the proctio^I value of the concession wafl 
ftwertei) for uU it wiu worth : and, certainly, if Mr Kni^cbt's 

> a a **ct iBia, rd. ix, p 7fle 

* Rcr. W. Kbight, a £ Jhl IBTH 


Prayer, and the Jdeii of l^v) 


interpretation might be prcswd to itx h^L-nl nmrliiMifiriH, 
there nre ffrw i^Hall.-s lor uliich men ari5 micUHtoinwl Ui \iih,y 
tb»t might iK't Ix) Irxikcd for aa the iudirccl otlcct^ of spiritual 
mflucnoe* "Wc pray/ he wrote, *'for n fricml's Kfc that soeiiu 
eiitltuigercd Hucli pi-^i>eni cau »over be an influential element 
in SLiredting the pbysicul caii^t^ of diso^ifle b> au iula. But it 
may bring a fresb Bug^eFition to th« mind of a ph>'^ici&n, or 
other attendant, lo adopt a rciTJwlj which, bj naiui^ means, 
'tUTBB tJie Ude' of ebbing life, and deteriiii»C4 tht? ror^uvery of 
t]ir patferiL," "The lateni fKtwei- th^it li«H tvilhiii the free 
causality 4if iikan may be stimulated i^id put ill motion from 
ft point beyond the c^haiii of physical Ae<|iienco ; fwd criaea 
innumcmble [nay be averted throui;h human pmyor'." 
Ohrionsly, a great deul hau btwn ^n^nU^d when so much la 

But the point of real Import&nco wft« not tfie vonc-eaaion, 
however inomwlitient or ^ifiTntieHitt it might be shown to be. 
Itie concetwlon was made with varying degrees of aaMiiraneo 
ajid hiwiljinry by the diUefent wriU^i"**', Wlieit all were 
agreed waiH. in (NnifidL^ntly Fiweiting that a lielief thnt prayer 
could eflvct any direct ehange in the ^ihyaica] order vraa 
alw.rlntely irrccoTieibble with tho acicutitic idea of the nature 
and oj^emlion of law. 

When we «et abont tu discover the pr^ittc grouudii on 
vhich this confirient ansertioTi wae bagetl. Wi» linfl that tho 
rtN4)ifjniL given were two— one of a phihwo[)hica1, the other of 
a practical cliarueter. The philiMi>phieal objiu^tion imjilitHi 
a detiiiitf? ([cicl,riiii3 uf catirw and (.'itircl ; wiiile t\w practical 
omecti^Ht riTiHinntLNl ti> an atteiiipteil tttlwilo ttd tihuttnittm 
of tho oppiJMtc view. It will be uecciwBiy to examino lK>th 
t)ii-r n\v\.,'i fiinirt vith m>me care. 

* <t /t WiL KXL p, IM, 

^ TovhiittenKtliHProrbtfor Knight 
•ma prtphrvd Ut ||o itmj \»s ifjtlfji^nxl 
friim tlw fuUowteg ox tnum Unary 
BtatomcnL "In tbfr rofj^crti of tlio 
Bpiriluiil thtre U coiifidoua iiiiwnJeT, 
mornJ chacu; which \% %X uiim Ln 

<hTlcten» of the nwd, and b rindjca- 

tiikn iif the tvfuonablonvo, of an 
mlnLTviiiiiu? vriLU iU ^uuis, tlicu. 
It rvift Im iiiUirihl far tlic l#tttir 
(wlikih |>1i}')dtiftl TiiiUirci cunitot),- 
wIjj 8li"uM mon iluc iirtUiitn for 
tiial twlji?" iC A. vol u. p. 19S.) 

282 Cambridgt Thevtoffical Suay* [m 

The philo«ophion1 objedion was stivUtd with coinmen<!ftbl< 
clearne^. '*A 8piHtua1 untoiocclent/' it wfi« said, "vUl not 
jinHluci? A pliyffinil tTunm^iucriL" The ncLuiil wonla wen 
thoNe "if Mr Kiught> hut there ia nhuTidant e\ic!f ncc to show 
thnt in nsiiLg tliem Itfi hut sMtcciiicLl^v exj>r(^!«c<l the ihoughta 
of those whom he wag explaining and aupporting. Indeed ft 
WA« ttiH dt)c(riiie that pcrvai^Icd \\,m\ ^ltc conBistciicy to the 
entire urgiinKnt- I Vwyvr oouid W alioworl Uj produce effDCti 
in the epiritiial order* for there a apiritiial cauee would b« 
folIou-etJ by a iijiiHtUHl effect: but whon thi* coiiditi^in ww 
not fnlHlh'ii, tbc thought of an •intrusion of xi]i>oniHiiira] 
/ power" waj* not to be loliTHted AfronlingK prayer iru 
dt^larcxl U} Iw '^B i>owcrn1t^jgetlior removed fruni the vplien; 
of phy^cal cauaation." 

It wiLI bo noted thnt there was no denial of the c^tMtence 
and cfRcficy of flpiritual cauMCH theniHeU'e^ ; the aaaertion wae 
thnt a, HCicntitic idea of law roqiiirod that their action % 
be restricted to their own proper sphere. 

'Hu^ru are Hovt^ml i»bw.'rvHtJoD« t*t \w made iipoD 
doctrine which tnw thue proposed for acx*^ptaiMxi, The flnrt 
is sng^esttH] hv what ha^ been aln^dy luiid in tliiN F/tMay hm U> 
the rnoflcni definitiiin <tf Irtw. 

Accepting Mr Mills careful account of the matter, wt 
wild that law, in its atnctly scientific 4eiwc. i« the principle 
ftccorrting to which a partimlar coniH*<|iient it* <H>niivcted 
invariably wiOi mmic particular !«iU>codciit, or set of fint«c«- 
dentfi. Now the first thlnff that strikes ua, when we read the 
iir^irncntx of thoMi' who pmmnti'tl the roiitrnvcrwj' in whirh 
we have referred, is that thcry would oblige \i^ if we nccuptcd 
thttir guidttncc!, to nmhr tt mdiral idlrrdtimi in tlnw clefinitiuD 
of law. 

To say that law requires lu) invariable cfmncxion between 
a consequent and the aotccedcot or antcocdcnte wlikfa 
produce il» is one thintf. To -lay that those antecedenl*( and 
eoTitsi!f|nent8 ai'e to l)c divide) into two MC|H4nue clajttteMt mo 
distinct in thvir nature that an antecedent belonging to one 
euuTd iiiir fioHHibl^ have % cunM-V|ii«ni lielo[iging to Uie otber, 
in a vcr^- i]]t!crettt matter. .Something more than a mere 



Prayer^ mid the Idea of Laic 


asBortion i« noGded to pomimdo ok that «uch ilti altemtioD is 

iiH^vitnlilv \im\\ ni« ill H fMriLililioii iif ilimlip^iti niikE-d und un- 
relieved. TImt dualism is to bo the laj*t word of our 
philoflopby of the tiiiiver^, ie & conclusion wliicli the htimaii 
intollocl is oa Tct by no mciifi'^ generally indtnod to aocH.'pt 
^iiuw Ibo cruder atteinplfi lo htate tha wbole problem of 
oxivteiLce m temig of iiml.ter uJoitt; hav« been repudiated tiiid 
ubarul4)n*3<l^ the choice has ap|)eared to lie between two ult^ir- 
imLtviTH. Either (here ninfit \v& a 1>otdrtflv]iti<:rlH(> nil nvnwrdly 
HplrkuAiftitic iTiterprcCalion. and towanli^ iJiIh iimny of our 
pcnUwt i^tudtfutd are being led, if only In^^nuc^c tliry nrr 
becoming convii]c<Ml that "mind, though porlmps neither 
completely known nor completely knowablc. tarns out lea» 
of n fiction than mattur^"; or, fallinjc tlmt— it niny be, 
pending that — a halting place miiet be found in a theory of 
TnoTiixm wliich wuuld reaolve both mmA an<l matter intj) x 
single something, not exactly like, and yet not esscrntially 
dillcrviii frmn, L^thtr, 

For ordhmry pnr[N)M« mg ^Irnll cnnthiiK^ to think and 
mxttk of the nph'iliml And the physical ; but wr rthall not 
eoflily be induced to rely upon any rcuconing which rujuircA 
OB to snppoac that tlicy ntand for two BphereB bo alairply 
i^Tidcd that no sort of caudal connexion ts fxissiblo between 

Moreover, ttie doctriTie that "a spiritual antecedent will 
not proi!ucc a physical oon*uf|uent/"can Iw lironjicht to a moat 
•imple and convincing tott. An the Duke of An^M ^^^<\ at 
the tlnw, *' thifi pnifiositii^n we kiirnv to bo UTitrue in the raw 
of ail or|E:Hnbfm." The "theory of a fundamental separation 
between the physical and tlic Bpiriinul ih a thbory entirely 
unsupported by any evidence in observation or in conscieuii- 


1 " 

No reasoning will persuade us that, in tht! CA»e of i>ur own 
bodies, miud doea not somehow direct the movementfi of 

^ an. xxr pp. 40«^471. 


Cambridge ThfohtfiraJ Esttayx 


tnattt^r. T« <tuiibt H4|t;im the wonU €>f Mr Mill, "t.lie Miicc^enMini 
to more b Hnil> and tlie actUTt) motion in oi»o of tlie m«it 
direct and iiiHtantaiiciDUA of all .-<cf|L]<;iiC(M whUrh ciui Cfmie 
under our obdicnntion/' 

To Iho plain man it BooniB inconcoivablo tliAl atiy i)tii»tioD 
should have been raided ju to wtiothor or not Hncti n rotation 
1>4!twveTi Uujiiglit ]U]<I Hct U a ^nuine relation of cause and 
cfli.-c"t And, if he has the patience lo read through a 
dWiiKsktu t>r tht- riut^^^., he L4 utd^v bcwildrn^l liy it, und 
mav \yt pEirdoiied If ho comeA to the coiicIumou that those 
who wonl<l inntriLct him nrc even more conrti.-^ei) than hioM^tC 
He opens, let us Hay. a volume by XVofcasor T^iidAll, and 
rcadn the "Apology" for the famous Belfast Addreaa, He 
sees tliU j^iieatittn proptnindvd:— " IJo stAten of conrtCtitimiVM 
enter as links into the chadn of antecedence and aequetice 
which ^vo» rUe to bodll}' actinriH, and u> uher xtntui of 
€iinHri(iriMn(h(M: or w:v they mure hi/^jtrtititmu which uro not 
OBwiitial to the pliy^tical [iroi:«aHe«t going tm in th« Inidn?" 
TImt is intctlipbly OJikcd* anJ what ts the «i«worf " Speaking 
for myself, it is certain Miat I have no power of iiua^iiiiig 
states of consciousness intcrpni*cd hutwccn the molcciiUv of 
the braiti, and induencins tho transfurcnce of inotioti amoiag 
the mulecule^ The th<Mi;fht 'elud<!« all ineiitEil i)ivHunUktion'; 
aar) hence the h^gic acems of iron strength which claima for 
the braiTi an automatic acLion, imiufluenced by scatoi of 
cims<:i<i(wne*» " — a truly remarkable dcducli'in, Hml ^cnrerly 
**of iron strength." to make ffoia a shnplt; wjiiftawion of 
i^orance f The Professrir proceeds ; " But it is, I bcliovCj 
Admitted, by tho^c who hold the automaton Uteory. that 
etat^ of consciousness are prodac^^ by the marshalling <>f 
the moWulcH nf the brain : and the iiroihietion of coiuwiouS' 
uri» by molecular action 11^ to >ne quite as inconceivable on 
mechanical pi1nctp)e«i as the fu'oduction of molecular action 
bv runwHUHiit'**. If tlii'refnro I ri'jfict ijnr nwull^ I must 
reject them Urth.'* There, Indeed, we »cem to have nrni'in] 
at a Hotiiid lo^cal result; but what do we read? '^ L 

The iUlici^ hero uid ftborv^ »n ^rufonvr Tradall's oim. 

Prui/er, and the Itha vf Law 


however, rcjiiict nt^tthcr, and thus HtancI in th<j pT\«CTic<j of 
two IncroiDpreheii«ib1es, in^t^ail of one Incompreheimilile." 

l^iiiH l.lint TiicJtii be t!^ gcitfig Ml wil'liclniH Iiia prevtouN 
inference f Ni>t at all! "While »ccc[.«ting fw*rkw*ly tliu 
facU uf nuvteTialism ilwi^U u^ion bi thene pa^tvs I bov my 
head in the dnat bcforu tliut rnyrttcr>' *»^ mind wiiirh Xxtn^ 
hitherto dcfiod its own poiictrativo power, and wliicb may 
nltimittely rot^olro iteelf int4t » demons imble impoHaJbility of 
eelf-ponetnitiDn^" This may be maL^iiHceutt but it ii? ni»t 
onftiinenL All we €un gather from «ud) u trtat^iuenC ii that 
iiit4?rrchiLriziiM of iiillticncc bvtwtion mitiil imd niHtiar are 
iiieiplic-'ublc^; but thzLi, tii4.' tn(1iK<ii(re uf intiul over rimtter in 
iH>t K wliib more inmiilimbkr tlt»ii th<! influeiicc!, tlic lidiuitted 
inHuciKG. of matter over mind. 

Siiure JVoCeHBor Tyudall wrote, elalxir«te paina have been 
fjJipondo<l upon an attempt to dtinwmstrati? that tho ruUtitm 
between spirit and matter i^ most correctly espiy^^eod by 
Whying ihut a Atate* or condition, of either is not the product, 
bat only iht? cimeomiUint. of the <rther, Tlijn in the ihictHnr 
(tf |»vdii)]ihy»ii^il [mmllelism. But. when all ba^i been ^aid 
nnd done, it neonm impowible Id »void tilt? noiiiewlvLt obvioitn 
c«incIuaion that, ^ invariable concomitance mcana cauaal 
connexion somewhere'/' 

From ail which it may bo eonfidenUy deduced that ihc 
phiUmophieal doctrine of the wnt«]« in ltJ7ti would meet with 
leM acceptance to-dJiy tlnm it diiJ when it vtm firat enunciated. 


But the objectorn die! not rely only upon thrlr doctrine 
of file reluLionpi butwceii tht spiritual and the phynicalp 
They advanced another line of arimmcnt.. lesa subtle, iLnd 
more practical in \U character, Ai>art altogetlicr from the 
(jnention au Xi> the poHt^ibility of an inrtnence of spirit upon 
matt*?r, it aeemed to them that the Ica^t interference, however 
effected, witli the physical order neceHearily involved the 


Cambriikje Theologlail Enjiay^ 


violatioD of physical law ; and thin, if it were not to it^If an 
ImpouLiblUty, would Inevitably ho followed by the nioici wlile- 
r^proLiI confnhkm. No one part, nf tfu* fixed (inivr of nutiirp, 
tJity *\<-'re mn vincreii, cttulU l)e Interft-ruil with, vitbout op- 
setting iW IvlIhiicc nf tJic whok*. 

"Tlic lDa1ifi.n wind/' wu*te ProPcasur Tyndall, **giMimg 
tivc-r llic crc4t of tlic MuUcrhorti, ih ur< liniil; ruled a« tiic 
earth in it« orbital rcvf>lutJoQ round the w\m" "'Tbc dis- 
pemion of the idlj^hteat mist by tlie ApL4:iaI volittofi of t)io 
Eternal woiikL Lx.- ivt inti<>h » minu^lc itK the ruUiiig of the 
Rhone over the GHmacI precipices down the valley of Hull 
tc) MtnriiJK<^n and Biieiht/.'* *'Witl»»tit tlie diHtiirlMuice of a 
natural law. 'ttille hm i4crioiiM ii« the i^Loppfigi; of jtn eclipse, 
or the rullJii}!: of the rircr Nia^ra up the Faths i>o act of 
humiliatioa, indivi<liial or rmtiiniiil, couhl atll one shower 
from lieai'cn. or dcHeel towanh? n*^ a ein^cle bemu of the aun^'* 

I'he objeetion tliua raiBed iiaa a formidable appeanuioe, 
but a^iti it will Vw found upon couHideration Uiut it is by 
no meaua unanswerable^ 

It hiw U.\ \m\ rrTiicinUred that wr Hrc all of im pc^rpetuslly 
interfmiig — iii> weaker word can 1>e fiuliHl.ttuted — wttli the 
phyAir^l order aUrnl uk. "^\1ifU. Ik it that mmt dittin^piUhn 
huuia:i intelligonce m Mb reladon lo Natural Law? Mf«t 
asBiirediy its utilinirij; ability—it** |K>wer to direct tlic nahiml 
forces to the flccompliehmcut of special ends-. .The mind of 
man, cou^idered thua a£ a natural euuae, is certaiidy of all 
4tn^1e natural canriLu^ ttio niont inllneutial : not, of counte^ tu 
respect of the ma^iitude of itc efleettf. but in re«poct of their 
nundier itnd divomity'." 

U may be wtTth while U> add a i^iiniW rituUmieiit made 
by Priiftwu^r Iltiiley in one of hin latent esaays; and the more 
HO because be did not ticruple to u«e the very term "int<^- 
forentc.' "The history of dvilisation/' he wrote, "deUib 
the ifteT>« by which men have succeeded in building np an 

" Tr^yur und N'uMr*! rnw" (in 
Pta^yktrr^ttif Sti^ncf). TbHvnftiMi 
c|iir)U>i1 vitiri-b were wntLVQ birfurv 
Uie C^Mtfrnptrarif uuntrovwuy, but 

thi>v wftll inpn^M the llioii|Ehl <»f 
tlim^u ^thn initmtvi it. 

and Genn'ol Latf* \,ltiV'ix p|k IG) t 


Prayer, ofid the Id*^ of Law 


artificiikl world within tlic co«tnae..,Aa civlli»ation ha^ nd- 
ranced. eo bos tlie extent of this inierference iiin^etwi^d; until 
tlif^ i>rgiiniieil nud bijjhij flcvtloped Hciencta hiitI art* <.tf llio 
presL^nt day hiivc t-ndowed innn wifb n coiiiiiulhi] uvur the 
counw of non-huiiiaii iiatui^e grealei tlmu that odco attributed 
to the TiiAciciarifl\" 

As a matter of foct. thou, we can uiid dti iiitorTere with 
the UiTCi^ of iiuture : and by our int^rfereDCG w« i«;hiuv<T 
r«dult« that bofon* experience, mi^lit hnvo seomed irnpro- 
bable enough. As Sir OUver Ludge liiw* put it, with diiH't't 
rrfin'rric-4.- Ut tlir puj9HAg<w fnmi Tyndnll quottHi nltovt^'^We 
oiimc!lv»* aj>? rtrailily aXAv, hy a Mfiiple plivfiical cx|X'nin<mt> 
or by All engin«^rin^ ujiemtum. to dtiAcct a ray of light, 
or Co di^eipnte a miat^ or divi^rt a wind, or puntp wibU>r 

Whut wo can do, with onr limited knowledge aiid ijower, 
could, we must wupptiHt, be don© ou a mach vaster scale by 
one who wm vm^tly our superior in the!«e respects. Indeed It 
would be the helfi^ht of rashnesA to attempt to ^et any buutidM 
Ut whnt i^ikiiid W' {icMxiblc in xiirh n c-uae. 

Nor Eh there any reason for tlnnkiiigthatHuch interfi^renccft 
occtt«iun a violation of law. Tliere wuuld l>t lerw diauco 
of mi A understanding on thiM point if the distincti'MV* luid down 
by Mr Mill wore nwjre constantly borne in niind We have 
alrca^iy nrfcrred to tJieacH Wlieii s^pcakinx <if the tnvariaiJe 
i^oc^uorice which cone^titiiteu &ny »in^lu uint'orndty. or law, ho 
is eareful to oxplaiti that what \» mutant Ih that "every 
consequent ia eonneeted with some particular antfToih^ii, or 
set oFHiitecedt'nts-'* He ailds, "It is Hddom, if ever, between 
a coriHe(|Uc^nt aiul a siTigle antecetlrnt that thie< hivarlablo 
BccLUcnce nuiisisl*^ Tt ia uniially between a consequent and 
the »mn of several antocodenb§ ; tlic c<Jnctirrenco of all 
hciujc rtsiumic to produce, that is, to be ccrtihtn of bctn^ 
followed by. the conwxiuont'^ " 1 he uniformity of the course 
of fuUuro in,.- a copiplex fact, compoundiMi of uU thu 

» "KTohitiin] iind Klhlrw." CUdrtft Evtuyt^ rx, pp. Hi f- 


Canthri<ly*' Theofogieal Ji^jtMaffA 


BcparaCe uDlformltiM u'litch extfit Id respect Co flingle pbe- 

It followA that & c1iaiic<^ in one of the ant^^edoDtA, he It 
never m* slight, will jinxluce a cbarigc <if rt'^iilt, nwl tlut, 
not in violatioi) of the princrpk of Law. but in the strictcrt 
jM.-cor(liin<!e with iL When, thorcfiire. wo interfere wilb 
the courec of u&turo* wo do iKtt vjointo niiy phfeical law. 
Hie TJolntioti, or even anspensioii, of a Uvr of nature b, io 
^r »^ wc krioWn h thhi^ Wvoii^l <>iir jKiwer ^Tiiit wo plutiilr 
can do te to utilirie existiiig and ever-acting lawn. If the^ 
wori? not iuviotable we cAnM fitt tifitliing with thiua " It m 
the very rert^mty and irivariahlviiieHH of (hr lawn tjf N'atiire 
which nJone enable!^ u^ to umc tbcin luiil yiikc tht^m to our 

Ifr then, wo are convinced that wo ore able to irit«HicrCi 

tinVc *)r ArjfyU'a wordii :— *''niero ie 
HiioUirr tiv;l i[iL^Ic »» iiruuiinciit u« 

of JiirtTi— ifcijd thiLt i" tho iiuuiborof 
thvin lliut lire <'i]iicrrEi[.<<l in oiuJi 
«ingli> ojMMntInn iif NiiliiW, K'> 'Hi^ 
tiiW — llmt in t<j «/. VMt <m» Kiinji*— 
dotcnikinca unyiliitu: tliat wl< auo 
hiL[i[HHim^ OF ilmiL' LirouncL ub. It 
ife al«"ftj?f thL' TtNtull I'f ■liflVr-nl rtn*! 
opponng Forcm nicolv hnJunpoii 
a^^jiifiit iMudj otltoi, Tlic Eciiat ^If- 
liirltiLiice Lif the prnpurtloii in wU'tnh 
tmy oTtc t)f tlieiii ii ullowQcl to icLt, 
pTihlucMJilolaltlLjiuini ii) tluJoffcH^L" 
'•There ire rm |i*ierinmt"l"ii vUHiIh tj> 
MiLb *>f tihkh It in tnut u^ a^v thnt 
tbcj wc govcrnvil by uny tjivHriubiii 
Force. That wiikli iliwn ic^vrni 
Uicmi it olwn^ Himo viirfiihtf* i^rmi- 
hinatioiiA oT invELriuhb foru««." " In 
Ihuw »ovi*c«,.-}Air U noi ri^d, it k 
Tirti immnUbln. it h not Uiratliitilf, 
bat a it« "H ttii> foTilniTy. plinblo. 
AulitlOs TivioiiA,'' ^^ It connoc he too 
i>fleu ruiwaivtl tliuL phuuuintiMH ant 

QCit p>rcrn(4l b^ tnTftiiabra biVM; 
t»ocflU&c pbonomcnji are never the 
rcAiiiL i»f imiivytjAl Firrv>in, but 
atwiije th^ result uf the n^iiHl 
i|]ii1:tr >v]iiiili rK>vi.inJ foT\'i.« un 
biri(KL« Hm) llivM' roTiiliticiUB Dr« 
TulitLJu." {H*»igf> 'tf AfJiP, P<»|dtf^ 
ICtUtfiiti, !>!>. :«.««, Silt,) 

* Xfiiffn '/ ^a/r, p. 99, It dow 
uol •ecm iitH.'Miflkr7l'>lutnhlm»clM«» 
unj i!itcuiiinir»n <tf tho hwiritig of 
4petnn« of tho *' Uriawrvmtiaa 
ICiLencr" u|ik)n tlic i|im*uciu ot idt«^ 
fiToni.'o with ilifl iih jHiaU I inlflr *U 
in plaitil/ liniNJAhil)]^/' !M I>r Ward 
1lji« lUiM {<iiff"r4 AflrCflr**, n. i^ 7(\ 
" til (irrivn t1i:4t t.hv |ihwtiiiiii«HJ 
i-iti^r^y til tbi> Liiijr«rv0 U fiieJ in 
nm4>iirit Ami thui tliu pbjsicuU 
tbt^iuiehts nrc boj^liiiiiriG; to at* 
murt* *'k*»rlj, tnul frnnklt lo udmil* 
And, oven if it wold bo proved tliat 
tlio eiiAliug maitmtt of (il^uJ fLvrco 
U hLnn|nb|fl iif hning Iti^Ffifiuini, lUi 
would not lUtoct the ftuH thai il to 
cikimbfu <if Ijotnjr directed wHh 
iiifiiiit«ly nuiwl bffMTtiL 

prayer, at^ the Idea of Law 


in proporttOD Ui uur knowlcrlge or the Lawa of nature, and In 
coDformitv vith the pHiiclple elucidaU^d by i\w^ fnthrrr i\\' 
nuKtom ftciencie— " iimi niwi iHtitmilii*''; if. H'iLlnnit 
the JTifractkiEi uf any Iaw, nay in irliancc i]|H>n the iiivciriH- 
bility uf all Ihwm. wc? rnii t»Aid|iiilute and make \\»t of tbe 
force* arrjttnd ub; if. in short, ire hjivc tho jH>wer of ttointc 
much thai wc wihIl or that othors may fu§k U;s t4> do : it Ib 
niatiif<.wt]y i[ii|>0)4Hil>le Xa> conceive that the accef»tance of the 
uiiivet>9ulity of Law wm bu any l>*vrrkT t<» si K'ilcf tlmt |>hyi«EcmL 
changed may be made tn ana we r to Prayer, 

Rot MttA'ntion tu Mr Mill'a cjiiiiion sls to the niiinl>nr of 
wAt«H.>-<Leiiu whirli iiiuy bi' needLnl U> [ii-udace eHef-tM. would 
help IIK abv> to dett^ct a falhu:y In any compnrUun tJiat would 
rvprcacnt the smallest physical ch&n^ as an undertaking 
wholly oTi a |NLr witli the 'Htoppoge of an ocLip^" or the 
rolling of a worlrj fnm» It** i^rbiL 

It U int«re«tinK to find Mr Mill himsoU' writing a8 follows : 
"Ttic uumeft **T forces, mi whk'h a^tronoailcal phenoint-na 
depenJ, are fewer in niiniU.T than thor^^' which ilcterminc 
any "l.her of the grejtt plienofuena of nature. Acc!iirdiii|jfly, 
aa eacb <»flect nvultJ* from tiic i:i>:if]ict of hut few catiMw, 
ft p^reat deifree of rci:ularity and nniformity might be expected 
to ciist among the effoota : and Aucti U really the ai«c ; tlicy 
have a fixed ordcn and return in cyck^^" 

If it wcru really truu that to aHk f<:r any modification 
of the courw- of vvcnU*, such \\» the relief t>f a sickncM; or 
a ehange In the weatiier, Tuu^t bo regarded hja in alE re^pectA 
MM ktmnuH aji Ml cxjit^ct l.liHit the nbira shordd ho [<Uip|>ei) in 
dieir cotirHt9ir then we might well paiiMe before Tenturing 
upon nxxih a |>ett(ioii, and might 1>c contftraiLkcd to admit that 
ooy alteration of u pliy^icjil chj^rocter in aitswcr to prayer wae, 
to tfay the lea^t of iti hii^hly improbable* 

T>ii-re arv |>liybical ehan^eti which, fhj far ^ we con Judxe, 
would b^ more nioinent^iiA in their nature and elfect dian 
uthent. For thaj« we vliould rlj^htly be »Jow u\ pmy, ttix^uuiu* 
we Bhikuld realise tliat. alUiough they might not be impo^ible 
iu UwuiatilvcH, yt^t the reuHiiiui limt cimhl matte ihtfni adviHalile 

' N*fC. Org. h a 
0. r & 

' lAti/ic, vu 2. 



Cambridffe Th^ofogkal Esmyft 


and Htiitnbic would i>c«<i to be more impcmttrc ttian any 
which it is in our pow<jr Co nrjsc We inur allow, thcrcfitre, 
that there w&H iciimv mcMaro i>r truth in the coudnaioo 
drawn bv the anouyiDotis writer of 1H73:— '"It plainly TolTowtt 
thnt whnt ii iniin will pm^ fi^r (ie|MTn<U prcd«e1v on the ciEtout 
of hiM inleUigl^nt MvitminUinc-r with the pheDomcuH arouud 
and witlilii him.' But sve are not iMiund U\ :i}cm* niUi him 
when lie gnw* on to wW:— "thu more ignorant he U of 
them, aiif] of their ruoden of recurrence* the lan^r hift field 
for petition ; the more intelli^nt^ the smaller must he his 

rt ifl true thai a fuller fn^ight ini^ht in ttome eaae^ ^how 
tbu ft change oujtht rKit to be luked for, uiid pt^rluipii ought 
not to be luadc ; but, on the rthcr \\yaA. it might very well 
happen L^iat inHtaiK^t^ w<^uhl preiteut I.heiii4elv&i in whieh 
n iitorc |wrfr('t iinderwUitidinK 4>f ]>hciiinnrriJi, uml 'their 
niode<« of recurrence/' wouhi lead to a ditfeit^nt cnmelualon. 
A deeper Icnowlcdicv mi^ht (lindm.-ih. rather than int^iisi^, 
the feeling of difficulty in regard to them, 

Tlie position waa admirablv defined, in the tery year of 
the controvomy, hs a preaehcr who wn* m>t then *o well 
known as ho aftcrwardH hecune. Spe»l:iiig nf the different 
iittitndeH to be adopted h\ doaltng with diift^r^nt i^aauM he 
fuiid ' 

*'We roeegniec* without muruiuriiig. that gravitation in 
a priiKiple f<jr the maintenance of the univei^e which Gotl 
hfta mode, We have no wish to chan^ it, and therefore do 
not pray that it may be chan^d In conaequcnco of our 
reco^iition of thix (ivct we ure ttometinieH t4jld by tho*e who 
hirestii^te the laws of nature that It iv a»el««t to pray for 
the «lek, bo(3iU«e tlieir cumliiion depends on natura] I&wh 
vhieh i^innot In? allured An? all diN«a»ea the ftame f Doea 
erery »Jck man die within a cvrt^^n tfime w* Auroly &« a nt^ne 
thn>wii ill the air fa11t< down atrain within a certain time? ff 

it were ao, wc would not pray fi^r the flick ; wc should no 

more pmy for them than we should pray that the enn mii^bt 
30t Our ptayera proceed from onrikrfriww. our de«liw from 

J r. a xt i\ 77*. 


Prayer, and tht Mt^ of Law 


Uie uiicciliiint^- <>f the cY«nt; if die luicvrtninty were to 
'diis^vpcar so vould the desire : men vlio wutild not hesitate 
to aay hx r* privntc Uiik, ' I hope my fricud iiiny recover/ neeil 
not hc;4itntc to aav. ' (i Lord. Jook dowi:k IVxfiti Elcuvcu, bcbolU, 
riBit, and relieve thi* Tliy servant'.' " 

The iu^'iDce of pmyer fftr a chanp;e of weather haa often 
bevfi idngltid uul f<ir npccml iTniphu^iit by (li<iftu who liuvo 
tlioiL^ht tint it Hup[1iiv) a typical illustration of t\\*^ diflieulty 
of iuterfet'Iiig uith rmturt? wiUii>ul Lht^reliy vjuUtiiix uHiurail 
liaw. It may therefore be tisefiil to give the cnrefally coo- 
si<Ierc<l opinion of one who waa precmiiLcntly qualified to 
fonn II judf^vmciit on tXm «uhjeotp 

Sir Ccorijo Stokes ffoce tci^' fnlJy into tlie question in his 
(HJford Lr^tHT'^it \ IH91). "Ih it hiuiul, or |>o^U))c/' lie oidu, 
"to pmy for fine weatlier, with a view, suppose, to » pleutlM 
barreflt? Thuse who ai*o di^pufted to ^to a negative answer 
t(> iJiiH qiifHfiopi niit<hl' xivy.ei Mur\\ mruMt-mrjtrns aA iht? 
.foUewiu^ : — The weather is di^temiiued by boIai- mdiation 

in in coi^unction with the wanning of the eaj-th'a surface 

the iibjuirirtioii of mdimit hoiit, the eniiwion nf hcrit by 
warmed bodioe. evaporation, the preeipiiatiou of vapour in 
the form of eloud, rotn, etc^ and the rotation of the earth, 
which 1)e4d<M cHui^nig the aheniatii^m uf day luid iiighl, witli 
the corresponding tiie]iTi»l change a, has, for dynamical 
reaaojta, «iu:li a |>unerfijl inftueMee in canning the whtiin. AO 
these are crtmed on in accordfince with ix^rfectly definite 
pbyaical lawit, aa roj^lar aa ihiim.' wliich detcrniitie the places 
of the planets hi their urhitf^ plac^'H whtcK from i>nr k[iuw- 
lodge of tlie lawB, cMi be calculatcti yeun* bttforehtind 

"But does our physical knowledge authorise ii£ in aayinff 
that the courae of the weiLther \i aK rnueli fixed aft tJiat of cJie 
platwt^ in their orbits ? [ doubt it There in niueh tending 

pr«!U.1i«iL bj HhiMvII i^rljcliloa in 
UT& Vnifmil)f and Mhtr S*t- 
mtm*^y\\ A^t ^*in*tKh\x\\^ mora will 
b« Mid, boforD thin Kb<*j ouitoiadwt 

uMtho liinitatir>iii which rorutvtiiio 
ftDd iut«]lufviitt iDJi; Huhtly iiUKUivt 
In tlt« CUM tjf pptilliHK Tor \ftlh 
ipiritunl und phjrmnil chfthgn. 

m— 3 


CmithrUlf/e Theological E^sitifs 


to Hhow thul tho «tttU' (jf the utrnr^^phcrc depontlM a good (Jed 
njkm a condition of unstable equillbduin,..Nou' tbe chamcttr 
of iniKUlik- w|iiilil»nHTn in, f,li»( it. U a ("ijiiditiim in which tbe 
Tory xli^litoit illHiurbiiig atiiue will nufllce U\ nUrt h movement 
which K^R^ fiti wiTUinulaiiiig till it producer a complote alt«^ 
hliim <if piiAition, It ie perfectly a^nceivahle tliat a child, bj 
J)irhtiii|f II iKinUn*. iniitht produce im tuceDdint: curroDt of Air 
which ill pnrticiiliu- ch«c8 mi^bt auffioc to initiate a movcfnent 
whiHi wont on ncctnuidjttiiiK till it ratttted the i^titditimi of the 
AinuMphcrc to Ix' widely different ^tii what it would bart 
iHw^n had t)io child iiot acl«d as 1 have tiippofted. It b ivHr 
thrn'fwnp, h} aiiy iiiraiiM cT-ri«i« tliHt the ooiiditi<ni of tl» 
wivillirr in ni»lely det^^nniued by physical cijiidiiititiH the eflba 
cif which cmd<t ervii cotuv-ivi^hly Iw ailciilHtt'd licfon^haoiL 
llriHxi it i« conooivftblo that a change in the fnturc of the 
wcnlhvr iniictLt be niiide witliout any interforetkce with tbe 
phy^cat Iflwa actually in o|)eration^" 

DiKv mon^ tlieu. we m««i to be justified in Bayini; ite 
tiw iM>tfrtit>u that )>r«yer cauwot be aiiflwef«*d where phyital 
diwvftt would 1*F invitlrrd, l)n<»»iir hot ph^^TwcHl iiitvrfervttcr 
miitiC necvwdtate the Ttolatbon of law, l» an avenion whU 
miiiMit 1>c ji]]:<tained. We ourtelTeit are able to prodoee 
idiysical chanee^ mort ustotuahiug cbaugea. by an act 1/ 
voMlkw) and the eaiplo>ineDt of appropnite incaiv^^ witho* 
OoatiaveniDj:, ^ far aa we can t^ll, any cxMti^ law ; uq; 
vather, 1^ tbe help ofexisiinfif l»ws. And we do it, 1 ililmtfti- 
wltbotit ufMrttni^ the Ijalance of nature, ^Vbat we ca& te m 
a araall acaJe (xiuld inont certainly be done on a modi 
flcale b>' a mltid and will wiser and luon; rr^ourcvful tfaaa 
But there ie yet anotlicria^tund upon which anintdkcMl 

^ pjiL 91V foil, Aniro, miuiy T«Euv 

to Low fjir h «u likdv Ilj4t xieuctf 
mxikl ercr bo uMl- \i^ [tnwUf^t lh»> 
Wrther with ooHmntj, ^\-9 ix m 
hia opuiiaa thkt ttfrwIntiiclDirhtMt 
ilc^rce improbftblQ thftt tbta oHild 

bo dono. boc&iuc^ 

rtamni^ th» vc&ther fa la j^rt to 

mult of mui^ MctknuL (1^ X S 

Jollott, JJi'itfUjin 

wlu> nfcn to tbe ^ii*j 


Praj/fTy and ike Idea of Law 


olijrctiini to tho offiaicy of pmyer hiw bcoti rented It is the 
gn/UTirl tliat hm* been tuken fiMin very early LiiiieH l»v UKme 
yrho hftTc denied to iiiiLukitid imy freedom, or powor. uf 
volition whataoeror. Tlitii' rtraAoiiiiigfi have varied greatly. 
Some have ftr^cd thut the univcn<c i^ ntlcd by ft bliii^L itinl 
inexorable fate ; some that it is under the ewny of a Diiine 
sorereignty which, if m<jre favourablo in iu cbanict«r» la not 
l€m ub^ointe in its methcHltf. in onr itvm time tlie detA^nniiiiHt 
objector ha» usually declbied to express any Tiew aa to what 
iX or ih nat. iMfhind tlie nrder nf |ihrmiiii«rta, thnu^h ]iU [ier< 
stetent use of tliat temi aiiglit seem to commit him to the fiow 
that Uiere ia soiQetliing behiiid lie has been contented to 
maintain that this order la ^^ vast unaltcmblc mechariinm tn 
vhich all the conatituont forcca, human volitions included, 
ptay their inevitable purta For him every event that hap|>enA 
Is the re«nlt of the w'^rking of Ijiwa, and of law, wlnse action 
might have been predicted befoit-'hand. No room therefore 
ia left for contingency, or clmngb, of any kiud. 

ThiM form of objection ha** been roccntiv revivwl with 
conHif1fr»ble vignnr in the coui'^^e of a jiopnlnr diAriin«ian- 
Wc can scarcely thinlc. however, tbat it is more likely to flud 
permanent accoptauce than tho% othem which wo have 

The mechanieal theory of nature haa been subject^ to 
moat aearehini^ criticiBm from moi^e than oni.* i^ijurtvr, aufl im 
alltjweti till havt* been serioiialy discredited. AjMirt from such 
cnttcjii iGveHtigationfrom the sideoFnietapby»ic«atid phyKiatl 
Bcicnce, the nccc^sitanan doctrine is not Biich a^ can ever 
commend itself to the Judgement of thou^htfcd and practical 
tneo. It istoo directly opposed to the verdict of coiim^ioUAncss, 
and to the moral son^. 

We are fully aware that our actione are aetmtted by 
notivcM which are prior to them : and we can enaily conceive 
that thcw motiveh^ may be accotmted for by reference U^ yet 
v<Mrlii<r acU and conditions. But we can ncvi^r diupf>«iwi4n 
ovnwlvea of the conviction that we, and others, Itavi; at the 
lew<t the {Kiwer of uclectiiig and eiiipliaaiMTng, and no of 
rendcriDg effective, a particular motive. And wo are con- 


Uambri/fjjte Theological E^ayti 


viiiovd Ihftt, li}- virtue of thi* \t(mvT, we incur r rcspoii^ibiHt}) 
for our actioijft wlticli in irreiH>Deilable with the noticnj tLat w« 
Itfe merely tliv paLrts of ii mBcfainc .^ a matter of fiu::t« we 
cnn only continue W> wrt* or get oLherd to coiktlniic to act, 
vhtie we (li^EntHH Irotii oiir iiilii<l4 the pAr&lv^iijC ttuittfcht Mint 
we may be more croaturu of bt€. 

But» e^en suppose it ct*al4 be proved thftt we are InteitnLl 
|)&rtH ijf itii aill-t-riiljntriii^ uiti! ull^itdidittc XiLhin-, of a. fixefl 
onler of tiling that gonv n» wo bb|', by clockwfirk ; nud that 
mir lin^gineil interfcrerict* are n«t in any true f*eiifte iiilerfer* 
enccv at nil, Ijiit only the rieceMa]7 Ihiks in an \nm ehttin cf 
Qnaltcmblc cause aud effect — being merely the rc«(Ul4 of 
DOtidilioitK de|KMirltnif u|Kin i^thor [jreccdent €4>iidttiotif) orer 
which we cun have no coiieeivablo conlrol— t^o that wliat 
happens throui^h our iikitrumenulity could not posdbly bare 
hap|K-itr<l ntherwiie : oven MiipfXMe thU made oiit> are we 
therefore »hnt up to the eciiH?lntf]on that pmyer ik aiiwlees and 
aboard t 

Ortiiinly not. imtctipt we ore idso to conclude tlint all the 
offorifi we make, nnd all tlio wiEdiea we entertain, arc aUo 
wtclcrtri and nliHiinL Thcive are rescued Irorn abtiuntity^ in the 
view of tho determini^, becanec they fulfil their funotion^ and 
are indl*pen«able to the t5Vu]uti<m of rlie a^eiumod inevitable 
iequence: they are necc«Mwy eontribirtitinK to the predeter- 
mined pro^'^m of the whole. Why, then, not eay the same 
of (iiir jimyerK? 

Profemor llaxley'i^ wordit atxiut noceMily have often 
heea quoted. "It doca not \\v^" he naid. "in die olinerved 
tactft and ha4 no wfinunty that I can dUcover ebfcwhcra 
For my part I utterly repudiate and anatJiemati«e the 
Intruder. Fact I know, mid liiw ] know; but what U 
tlitH Nocmmty save an empty shadow of my mijid> own 

But III any i'hh'. whaUnvr tnay tic thu ictHrtmgtIi or wtnk* 
nc!9W of tlie theorelif'jil ar^mientx, the nioHl rc^olntv theorist 
)A driven to admit tlwt Ititthop Butler waii ri^ht when he 
inntmtcd Uiat "tho opiTibn of necessity considered w practical 


Praffff-r, ami l/tr Idea of Law 


ie falpoV" In the wonbi of Kanl^ " l^xii tliixigh the tijieciila' 
live |>nxjf [of frt^aui] nhouIiJ ixit Ire ina<1e nut, yet n briiij; 
tliat unimot ncl cxcti>t with the idoa of freedom is tx>iind by 
tiic fuuiic lawn tliut wouUl uUii^i: a l>ciiij£ wbij wjvt nctut^llj 

Iti actual life, tlieit, we are driven either to nbaudori tie 
ductniiv pf iiccowitv allogi^ther, or ^o to interpret ix that it 
«]uJ1 find plact' and ruoin for otir volltiotifl, by conceding that 
tli^v loii are a iR'rt'HHHry elftiitfjil a[iKiri(f tlw ilett^rutliLliiK c^iJKea 
i»f rvmdiict. ir ViV- inlHrikdnrr tin* miiiou of nectTswity <»r faU\ 
vo Diuat apply It to all the parl« of tlic probleuL When we 
do w> wc can only cotichide, with \tr Ilonkanc^ in hi» caHj 
Cttsaj, th&t *' If LH^iycr for physicoJ benefits is ever answered 

^(aa we bolioye to be the cascX the prayer and the answer 
roiifit liave been fortM:ndaine<l to c-ilncide V" 

Ia'I our ei»n.:trptit)Ji vf tuitiir^- he a* ri^d v» it may, at ^e 

[louit we have to admit that prayens uucv they are made, have 
tlkvir \A\ict* in llu' iH^imntny i>\ llniigv. W« might, inilentl, 
quite reaAuiiabI} go fnither than thia^ and claim that, on 
Ihe priiJcijUer) ^if nea^-^itavrinniniii, it is iinpueeible thut there 

'■boiild l>c ajiy inctiwtivc prayers rfinoc every act boa to be 
iDllewed by its ootiriequence, it w^)uld appear tltat ]>rayer not 
only may, btit luu^t avail ; puwibly not pr4s:iiwly iw the 
petitioner wished, tliou^h in that eaae it nLi^ht uoi be easy 
to explain why tljo practice of pmyliig for definite al^ecu 
flhould have been continued iw It Iihm btfen. 

Wti r-ati tJidy ki}, Lln-rt-riiR\ thai, tlu- (il^ei:ti(»n Ln PrHjer^ 
ariHJni^ from a eoiK:ciitI»ii of nulure lu^ a \ufit niochani'^HL 
En whic)] wc fnlPtl i>ur inevitable )>artj> U not ujore ftecurely 
boflcd tiinn the other objections which we hibve already 

' Chrittian Pra^fTfMd OtMnat 


Cambridge Theological Eeeays 



So flbr, thtos, wo liftvc l)<wii occupied vlth <li!!i<*« that 
hnve beon rrusod, from the moral and intclJcctual sUuulpcimtA, 
and have been thought to militate a^r^nat the belief that the 
human aoiil iw fr^^(^ to pour fortli \U iK>thiin!? in (t SuprtTiBc 
Hnlt^r in the confident ho|>e that thtue |jelitioiirt will be bean) 
iL[id nnHHtirvii 

We have endeavoured to show that thin holief ia not 
incnite^iitberit v^iUi a belief — for Bitch it rightly ts — in tilt 
geDcnU unitbnntty of nature ; whether we derive our con- 
ception of that unirormity froin the eotietiiutuoi of our own 
minds, or from the ifocml order, or ^om the observed sequence* 
of phyMioil ]fheuoTiiena. We can find nothitig hi the idea of 
Taw that woidd finbid the c<niMiiT«ion tliat I*aw i« ttie ex- 
prcmion of mind and will Indeed the more we iJimk about 
It, the tcM piiaaible it neeiiis that any clear idea of Ijavr can be 
entertained at all if Law is to be entirely disflociated from the 
thought uf u Lawgiver. 

Then, nest, we entered upon an examination of the objee- 
tlon* that, even f^-anted the exielence of a supreme Lavglrer, 
it mtiMt ill become Much creatures oh we are to make AU^'j*e«tionA 
to Him : and that the 4>i»eratinn of liiw unut render inU'r- 
ferenrc with the cntabliMioil onler imi>osnible, at all eventa In 
the physical sphei'e. 

We need not recall the details of our examination further 
than to aiiy that the miiJo^ of civil gorcmmcut encouraged 
UR to Buppose that lite hi^'hoMt adndnifitmtioti tnay njchtly 
provide for siich a cooperation 4*n the part of tile i:ovemcd u 
would allow for the full expreealon of their thou^bta and 
desires : and that n c^ut-fid analy^U tvf tlie M<<ic*ntifi(? definition 
of law failod tu funitKh the reaMoim tliat w<>iild waiTajit <inr 
uiainLaiinti^ that H|>intnal t^auHen m-e iiicH-jiable of pnKluein^ 
phy«icn1 effects ; or that physical changes must neccflearit? 
involve the violation of law, with cndJe^ conM^iuenoeft (^ 

Faa^inc on to the objection put forward from the aide 
of detemnnism, it wo^ a eomptmitively simple Umli U> aIiow 

Prayer, mid tlie Idea of Law 


that the moat rigidly tnechaiucal view of the world haa to 
flmi H plftfr and h vhIup for all (nir rIfiirtM. &111I tJien^fow for 
tiiir ]>ra>'em an timdi tu^ tlie rest ^ince these uUu [»iLtrilmt4f 
to the pre<leteiTiiiiied result, they not util^ ma^ be^ bub iniif^t 
be, avnilin^. 

The <Iifficultio0 of which wc havo been tlinilclii^ arc mth 
Hti hiivo diiutly iitti^aeted attj3uF,ioii i» thu ^tmi. Fur tho miMt 
puTl, no iloubt, it is wine to yofifinu what ta aaiJ abiitit (Hffi> 
cultiev to those whieh have been aetuntlj felt and definitely 
formulated. It is flafent, ai^ well a^ caMieHt. Ut vrritt? <if what 
hA^ been : ivhilt^ it miiMt jtlwriyH Ik? hiixiLrilnni^ in fvkrfvrHFt ftrid 
dcBcrilM; tbc thoti^ht^ of tho junt opening future. In one 
particular dircctit^n, however, it in 1H^L:oITnn(; clear that the 
dttcutHton h» to itmyer will be prot^ideri with u new prol>1era, 
fuid. connefiuently, tht^e would weem to Ijc Bome gowl rojmon 
for stating that problem^ and for making a few auggestioria In 
regurtl Ut \L Tlivt firobleui is to be fnreed upon ua h> the 
advent of the phychtdt^gJHi. witli hJM fvvihh liif irmfttion a« to 
the Action and lutlucneo of mind Those who have fulU^wed 
the lilies along which pAycholo^cal iuquiry lias of lato bocn 
moving are aware that there nve indications which point to 
the necessity of recon8idehTig inucJi that hiiti been htthertf> 
wxx'piv^ in repird to the iiature of personality, nnd the limitfl 
within which its influence can be exerted. We are told that 
we must no hmger think uf [icnuinnlity hh tht^ iHintuliil anil 
i«olat4:d thifig we had taken it to Imj ; nor may we continue to 
Hiippiwe that i1*< ni-Gt^ so t^o ri|icnk, im co-rxton»*ivt ineiely vtiih 
our coascioiiaijcfis. Each of us, it would apiiejir, is cupabic, 
in hia degree, of making hiM presence felt l>e>^ond the bounds 
of his bodVt Mind nets upon mind, overleaping thr Iwimers 
of space. T^iere ia tran^erence of thoii^ht^ and communica- 
tion of ■(iigg;estion- "Tlie «utM:onfieioiiB enn achieve roHiiltii 
the consciouft can by no mean^ underatand or perform" *'We 
4rHii ojierate mi c-iieli uUiera' mtrirls thnuigii our phvHiejil 
envelope, by s|»eech, by wHting, and in other ways, hut we 
can do racire ; it ajipean* that we ca[i opumte at a distance, 
by DO Qpporctit physical organ or mcdiuiu ; if by muchuuiftni 


Caitibridge Theological Ennai/a 


at all then hy Eucchaiiiau) at any rate anknovm to xmV 
'*Thc ftubjorfivc mititL or i^ntitv, iK)W*tt«i» |>liy.-*icaJ power; 
that lA, tlie power to make iteelf heard and felt, and U> move 
[KJiidenLblu objecUV 

But» p^rlmpw, «omc will hv ineliiKHl in nay, Surely thi» 
extuMFiiiiii of view will not create » fr&h ditl^culty f»r Ibtuv 
ttlio Irvlti^vcf it! tlit^ (Hiwt^r uf praytT ; Imt v^ill mtlier tend to 
sU^Jigthcn the conTJction Uiat iiitcrvcutioii oq the part of 
mind mid will 'll^ botli po^ifible Atnl iiatuml- Doci it ttot look 
aa if tiic tables wi^rc about to be completely tiiniod, aiid 
the prtuificy mi coniiuonly claimed for the pbyuical forc<« 
would er<j Iiiij« by HK-riU'd t'» Hw pwythical f 

Most doeidodly there h truth in tlil« actxiimt of tb^ nutttft 
and III time It iimy be Heeii tlnit Uiert< h liultr tltat Uhh to be 
Tir^vd Fkgninst it mi the* npiMMtU? ^idi^ lint, nt^wrtlM^lew, we 
may not shut our eyes to tbc fact that the advance of Daealal 
tfcieiicp, if it puta more completely out of ilutc than otcr 
some of the old argrumcnt^, wilJ al^ atir Irc^h qucstienizi^ 
that may i>ecaaion for a u'liile not a little pt^rplexity. 

To iiUwtnvte whul i« meant let u« take concrete exanipl«ft 
We have already auggijsted that the hoepital-ward te^t is 
never likely t** W". pnt forwani a|^Jn, Iwt^iUMc U noiild 
not now l)o di^piitod that a nuniUi'i of {K*vivon4 mi^hi. by 
ftteadily concentrating their thoughu mid wishes U|juii a 
gn.>iip of nick people, be able to eflcet a remarkable chmiicr 
in their condition. The difficulty for ua would be to dis- 
tin^iMi how much of the result could properly W traced to 
prayer, iuw\ how much nu^ht be due to the influence of 
mental t^u^^^e^on and will jM>wer ^ ' 

tv>, iWLin, wc nre all nf uh familiar with camcj« tn wbEch 
very e x inn >i'c]i nary thiti^ iire igdrl to have l»t^n achieve<l by 
the pmyer^ of thi^ founderK of certain great pbilcintlin^inc 
imtitutiona They themi^tiKes have aiwured ua, v,-ith un- 
deniable sincerity. tliAt the necemary fniHln Iiave boeti Bent 
tci tlicin without fail for yonra, although they bud mhdt^ it 
their invariable practice never to appeal, publicly or privately, 

Prajfer, and the Idea of /AXir 


to *iny hnnmn buiii^ for tht^in. Hiiinlrt^li* of UiiiiMaiLi]!< (if 
poniHia have come «olo]y, m* thoj were porsuudcd, in uiisvrer 
to pmycr* Here, as before, the facte will be freely accepted. 
ITio prayers wort otfored, tlie Enuuey oiniCr ami no roipicMtf 
were oddre^i^tl to those who ga^c "t- But the dilliculty will 
be to kjiaw how much ean with ceitAiiity be a«Bi^n(.*fl Ut any 
power that im peeiiliur to jirayer, wheTi nil hAa been «ubtpaete*l 
whic^h might conceivably be eKpEaiiiei] by the telejftathlc iuAu- 
cncc excrt«<[ by the coiiacioQA. or jM-iHuibly Aiib^eiriiheiuuFi, 
meiitttl actum of the^c uiitii«uikl]y nympttthetic men. 

In short, the new objeetioii will bo founded upon the 
^nt<<T)tioiL Ihat t\u' inttiinicc elftinKMl for pmycr, m» fiir fumi 
it* being iiicredilib in view of whwt wc know of the working 
of natural laWf is to be regarded a^ merely an Iniitance of a 
juirt'irtihtr ]K»rt- <»r that, working. 

It wonld 1m- pivmatnre t4i attempt a detailed explanation 
of die Ih-ariii^^ ii|*on tire jiniblem of Vnij<Tr of our knowledge 
of force*i» which are only now for the first time bciiiif syst^inft- 
tically iuve*iti^ted. The writer of an e»aay ten ytars hence 
will l>c in a far lietttT poRition t^ fnniirih :<neh an explftnatimi 
than any one of ue ean be t^nhiy. Th<tee fore«w iiTv hi all 
probability greater, fltid more nnstcriouH, than we hav*- Iw'ijn 
woifct to Inui^ne. For a while the rapidly aecnnudating 
vndvnc** of what niind and will ran dfect umy UtHl hj 
80III0 qitailerH to an exaggerated i-jiLiinate nf the I'estiltA that 
niikEht be attained b>' a deliberate cultivation of ftinctioiis aud 
cnpabiliticH which have Ix'en Uttl<j understood and vcryjjciier- 
ally dl-^re^mled- Until wc knnw much more ab.jut the 
liTnitHtion^ of theee powoTH, we can ftirm no trustworthy 
conchiFiioiiB aa to how far inen'» unaided ertbrw ran rt-ju^lL 
And then, of eourae. the iDore we do iH^onie uware of the 
AOope of the inflnent^i of indiviihial niind^ and wills, the moru 
clearly we nlmll rt-Hli^e alwi hnw fiirnudahle uiiwt be the 
obstacles to tJicir working which arc continually prmcntcd 
by a aimitar activity on the part of other minds and wiUa 

The tendency to csaftiferation will be niol, wo may be 
mre, by correetivea enough. The futility of buman whenie*, 
and U»e diiiupt'*^"^^'^^^!'^ ^^ human deaires, will supply ample 


Cambridge T/i^otofflcai Esmxyn 


matter for reflection in th6 fiiturv tu in the p&jvt " If wMm^ 
w*?ri? liorat^M, Ltoggum miglit riilt." W« Hliall !*iirelv nut ueoci 
to hare it formally demonsti-atcd to ue that there ^re Ibnito 
to the pfiwer which om- wilb can exert in the world 

Thsit »ome ticw ti^ht vrill be throim ut>on the miinncr in 
which the ^iritiml nctivitiea of praj'or arc excrcifwd, wo may 
confidently hope, Alrea^iy Uiero have been opened freeh 
gUmpHes into un§U8pected |M>t^ihiUtiea of f^-UovnhL|> and 
commimlcstloD, not only between one human Iwmg and 
aniitliirr^ Imt lietweeii ourselvcB and the Oxw wliu bt ''never 
BO Tar oir rt» even t*i be near," 

Ik it oTertxiM to Biiggest tliat in cine dirtction we niaj aee 
hov an adratice miyiht be made in the UDdcrstAndin^ of tiie 
nervice to tic fultillcf) by prayer? May not Uie popular 
estimate of tho valuo of prayer have been in the pnit too 
escluMvely Juwoclaf.ed wilii the aeiiee of human weakncee' 
Tlint a e<»n>tcioi.i)anc)iM of wciiknese hiis beeTi, and will continue 
to be, the primary motlTe compeUing; men to bow their kneci 
liTif] lift, tlirir miiiiIh in pmycr, no one can i|rin4liin: Imt 
becanptethis is the liret motive, it doe* not follow that it i» 
the eidy nii>tive, nr the noblest. Can we not fee) lluit it 
nii;:ht be a yet nobler pmycr wfuch s*prang from Ihc n^iljHi- 
tiou of cntrufttod powur, Anr] from aaensc oflheroeponsiMlil^ 
which ttnch power involves? 

Aboro all we Bhn.ll do well to rememlier that He, whp 
exercised as no other the mental and spiritual forces iucowhidi 
we are only now beginning t^ get any int^lli^mt insight, wa» 
ab»ich]|e1y cimfitlent when He t^|K)ke,ad He did euntnuiallyr of 
the mighty influence *if J*nfcyer\ 

We may await the reaiUt* of the new studies without 
impatienoo. and without miHgiviu^ 

^ Special Lnloiwt fttbwheik lii ii\U 
Wmnmlnn, to iiTich a aAvlnf^ ttA time 
Mcordod m £it Mark ii. 30 : " And 


Prayer, and the Idea of Law 



The purpoBe of tliiB Es8ay haB not been to prnve the 
reality of the power of Prayer, ThiB has been taken for 
^cranttid, on tlic (<f«liiinjny of the iuviTitible instinct <A the 
«'Mil, opcrattti^ thnmgh lon^ ^^, amoti^ eUI peoples, Jind all 
CODilitioiw Kii tiivn luiO women, ranging from th<we w}to Eire 
"low ill the HCJile of being" up to '^others M'iio form [Mtrt 
uf flu- very creain of the wartlL" Wliftt hu* lioen diiefly 
aimed at ha* been to show ttiMC iiu ri^ammable exception can 
Iw tAkcik to the right "f a free eserci^e of thia jujwer on tlie 
^ound that auch trecdrjm is inconsistent with the Idea that 
Tc live in ft world that \% ruled in accordance with f^uite 
detinite and, in many ca^cs, quite woU-known laws. 

Bat Ui as^rt, and evt^n to vindicatiA, the cltum to thifi 
frci^ora is after al) tKsircdy mf^re than a preparatory service; 
and the treatment of the relation of Prayer to the idea of law 
would fie «eriniiA]y iiid^mplclc if nothing at all were »yu(l 
witJi reference Ui the aort nf actiun rei[uired fj-oin iia in the 
large field of )ira(^:tka1 employnn^nt npim the U)rderH of which 
we find ouraolvca when the obatacica to our entrance have 
been removed. 

It is of the firat iraportoncc, no doubt, to be aaaurcd tlmt 
th« freedom to pray \» oiiru, and that the threatenvu^ prohibi- 
tions, which have frt^m time to time been ituned to forbid it, 
are in reality unauthorised and invalid, how«)ever th^y may 
inv<»k«- the rl^onnt of Law. But It i^ not lew iinpiirf^it tliat 
we should HM^-rt^in how and in what way the nf;;ht u to be 
pn>|icrK exercised. Libeily la a very different thing from 
Jiccnse. In a world which is govcnjcd conatitutionnlly— and 
thia after all ia what \a really meant when we *pcftlt of our 
vorld IU4 the rvuha of law— -fruudoni ukunt be nned consUtu- 
tionaily. Prayer, in such u world, stunde upoTi the same 
footing with deed* in ihis reeiwct. If it is not legitimate to 
do an^thiTLg anil «-verythiiig in virtne of the 1ib<.-rty ao^onled 
t(> (]H, ^\ itL'lliier i<Hii it 1>e right thai, vie tshould exercise 
luiconditionally the privilege of apjjealiiig to the Supreme 


802 Cmnbridffe Theofogical Essays [to 

Ruler. If onr pni.\erfi are to bo good prftycis. that ia to say. 
a<x^cptabJc ami nvrLiliiijc prayera^ we must reK not m&rely 
upon the emotion tJiat prompts tlu'iii; wr niiiKt kfirn to brit^ 
ttiutn mure aiid more intoUigcntly ititi> hnmionT vritb the 
coiiilituiiiH whirb h ntudy of tlie lawa ujuler wlik-h H<? luu net 
UH inav nweal ; w**^ nii^t pmy, nut '* with Uw spirit " alone, 
but ''with the undeniUnding also," 

It may rcm&in u myntcry to \\% tJint the DiTinn Duposcr 
should have made our ijraycre a pnrt. and a needed part, of 
IliH {ithninHtmt.ion ; Uit, when we do believe thus wc arc 
coiiKtiaiiiod alike by humility, nnd b)" thu desire to diwrhai;^ 
our fiiit<^tion with fluece«a— a deah-e as iiatuml to lu in 
thip^ nif^tniiec hm in aiu' nlJHrr — to i^crek fur a cli.iu' under- 
Mtuiulhi^ of the priikcipleM ujKin which onr rt^pit.'f^trt should ha 

Without attempting anything like a itiU considcratUm of 
thi«, which we may dt!0Ci-ibe tw the art of jimyer. enough maj 
be aaid here in a tew words to itidicat« thc^ gaieral lipc» thai 
duoh a coiiAideratJon ml^bt follow, 

it may almost seem to )(o without «aying that tmly 
eoj\Mifv(iofiat pr4y<.^rK niuvit. Ix'fnre aW cUe, ho loyal prayen 
Th*?y must have for tlieir keynote the dealiv for f^Av lionour, 
an<L fur the advAncemi^tit of lfli« Kingdom; and for iliat, 
nioret>¥ei', in Hie own appoiattfd way. 

We need constantly to be on our guard against what W 
been deacribcd a« the ''fanaticism which wouM like to sc« 
the Supreme Oood aetite in wjmc other way than that which 
it haa itself shown, or which believea that iktod to be 
attriinuMc by >fome >ihorter i^iitli tliar the roundabout way of 
formal orderlin*yj» which it has iiaolf entered upon*," 

Tlie convltrtiou will dt^ejun In uk that the perftK^t petition 
JK that which hart Ix-scn exprtiwcd iit the ramiUar wonla. ''Thy 
Will be done," Bnt we tJiall diacover, tit* Siidetvl we niiuft 
have alnriwly discovered, that it needs all our intelligvnce^ 
and the utmoi^t self-disci pi inc. to use thoac word^ tnih any 
full Bon*e of their meaning. It la no more ea*y Ut make them 

J Lotw, Aricnfww"9, (K. 1.) a p. W. 

Prayer, and the Idea of Law 


th« rule of our prayera than it ie to malce tlicm thi; rule of 

^\TiJlst ihe knowledge of the r>ivino piir]>iise@ niiwt be 
nought from the liii^her moiiriri!* of txnt'lation. both without ue 
ATid uitbtii^ we nliall i^nliHe Mho, jNiwiihIy iiioi-e tbmi wc do st 
prwcnl* tbut a t'Jii'eftil iittnttinti \* diit^ U\ that soui-c^t wliHi 
hart fkeeii iipeiitd to ii?v ^ to none who iirwedc^i] un, tbrongli 
the modem diacorcrios in nature " If wc look on the order 
of nature as carried on in accordance with the will of (Jod, 
then, ncoonliii^ oa we know mtire or Io^h of the Iilwm nf nature^ 
ve may re^rd it that we know, in a certain department, 
ciom: (»r I0A8 of l\U will*/' 

In prajer all huoIi knowledge is power. "ThiB ie the 
cnilldeuce that we have in Him, that, if we u>ik annhinf^ 
flccftrdiTi^ to Hm "ftiWt He heai^lb ua^" 

It i^ then, the fii'&t axiom of a true piayer that It rtli>d] l>e 
utTered to secure the Ai^ujiipUnhment of Pivinc ciidc, hy the 
employment of the Divino mothndH. All other condidemtmna 
muBt be expresely Bubordinated to theBe* 

It mil follow that spiritual deait'eti should ix)cnpy a larger 
&nd more prominent pla^?e in our pmyera tlian roqiicsta for 
material and 1eTii[>onil thingN: tlioiigli tht«e aImo are to be 
included. n« foniuogaii hitegral part of the great problem of 
life and it« needs. 

Then, clearly, cowfttitntional i»rayers must be unaclfiah in 
their character. ITie strong aciki^c of the all-imi)orUince of 
the commonweal inimt make it rieem unfitting to ur;fi; any 
petition for a purely individual ^und, for a merely private 
^ni. More and more the word* " nie " and " my " will drop 
out to malti' way for " u» " and *' our,'* 

And, iH^tly. ho far from there vrnvv being any notion of a 
wt*h to unlstitute any other order for that which the Dirine 
Wisdom b seeking to mi forth in die woild, it will be 
increMiitgly realised that the very ratjsun d'etre of prajer is 
the Bocurinf^ the victory of that order in ita uiytiteriou^ conflict 
with forees which, in ways beyond our comprehension, are 

* «1p iJti^rvo Stokiin. Gijforti Lcctmrft, L p. 217. 
1 L ^t Jolin, V, 14. 


Cunibrulge Theohjgiatl Exmys 


banded Co roalat and defeat iu Prayer may exist to ntake 

\Vh^^n w« pr«y thu* ciiriMtilutiiii tally wt' an; nnt gn-ntly 
troubled by i|iierttiouiiigH at* U> wVietJier Gud could, or coulil 
iii»t, do tliiH (liiii^ f>r tlie other, iiiitVr the c»]KlitJf»iK whidi 
lie haft iiupohed upon the universe in which IJc mica. We 
believe that, without the breach or [iii«pt.-imion of a vittflc \w. 
Ho '\h able to cflbct all that the fulDlment of His purpoece 
ean pori^ibly dcmfuid. 'fhift » vliat vre meuii iflieii wo afldrtM* 
Him ae ** Almiphty/" 

We nball Ik* eareftil how we use the word "iiopoaalWe" 
in rvgiinl to Hiiy roquwt tlwit w,e tuiglit cmceivulily DUtkc 
Wi* Mbnll l>tar in mind liiaL ^'wlieii h« are dealing wiiji the 
Wiirkfl or Gih1> with the whole cimRtitntion of n)itun;^-Jt U 
alkiiiliitely iiin>o! eay what ia, or what is no** aa 
inif*oMibiJity in the nnture of thingH^" 

At the same time, wc ehall reverently recogniiic that II9 
may. and even muiit, have «et timita to Hia own action tii the 
very net of crentloti — liinlta which timy Xmh more aitd morif 
clear to us »« we guin h ^iwing iniiigbt into the nature of 
inonti Hiid phynit-al laws, ('unw^juencly it will ofWii Ix; rif^it 
lo (in-fwre our rtpjK«ls by thi- wnnht "if it \ic- |>owiihlc/' 

We ahall invc«ti^tc Cloda mcthoda xw order that we 
may ffikin incruaaing ^ni|Ntthy with them. Our petitions 
will be confidcTit in proportion tfy our a88urancc that Ilia 
fcruntlng of tboni will lonihiee to the j.initn^*ws of tlic ^rooJ 
that He intends- ftlien w© a^k for poace, for victory, 
for health, for fine crops, or (air wealher. we ahall aak wJiai 
we judge Co be eKpeilient in active subrniiwion to U)s hij^her 
WiKdont^ We siiaJI hkU, because we believe that a placie Iw* 
been a&'^igncd in Ilia order to the cxjireMion and cdwstion 
of our dc^irof, "Our aim in pmyinte in not that we uiay 
chaTk^ Code appointments but that wc may procure by our 
pL'ayera that wlnc^h He hjid itpjHfuiUid " (umtio nostra uon 

of tliv I'k'mciitA irf u (ruL- {inkj^r Is 
jiut tlmt hIiK'^i ^a tiiiglit iirri^a ut 
frooi tm umJyuB of Uio iiiitur« Bad 

urlcrclthi: puliUon* of "The LorU*! 
' Jjir G SUjki»^ <^. cit. pp, 37 r 


Prater, and the Idea of f^aic 


ordiiiatur ad iiDnint&tio]M!Qi dirtnae diijiMMitioniK, sed nt ob 
tineatur TuwtHM predbus quad D^Ofl disjKwuic'x* llic more 
»*<? Iwlipve ill thv jw^tit i'f Pn*yur, nttrJ (Ik* more we nrder- 
itaud \he ineaDing of Law. ibe uiore n<\<-fvuL, 4iui cundlUfniiil, 
JD ft worti, thi^ morr 01irij«tinii, will mjr [irByeri becotne. 
VHiflst wc claim the freedom to pray, our prayer will l)e that 
we niuy 1140 it liAwriillj. 

To Hum up our concluBiotie in tJio very simploet U^rms — 
w« aluU) rejoice as we realise that we need no lonper fear 
any notice wttniing uh <*ft' n« troptiwcnt fnun n field of high 
activity whicb the inner voice i» prompting tui to enter ; but 
we iiiiall not uu ilmt luvoiiHi t>e bliird to Llie fact l.huL lii^^ro 
arc intitiiatioiiM. nut lew wortliy of ntU^ntii>Ti Utctiiihi- gently 
oonrcyed, that reijuire ua to ^*k^p to t/u pat-hK" 

AddUwnat SUe. 

It \* rftc^t th&t wo flhoulrt romombor thftt tbft ttgunint fttmi tho 

anirennJ iiiMUiict iiiiii hubit (if iiUitiltLrjii hiu bMO duUooged ; but v/c 
ti«MMl ikut fiTLT UiHt tU Turco will bu lUftlcHjJLjr ««<«k«ntHL IVibublv Utcro 
hu Ixwn n<r itutru aiii.vimprofitMn|: lii<lktiiibiil ^r It ihnti ItiiLt wltich wcu 
tOAdc bv Mr Giiiltm in the Ftirtniyhtiy Jieri^tp for Augiut 1*7^: "A 
pr*nio ^ffw- •jxuniciit*' hci wnjl*, " in farcnir of the cfficocj of jiniyer 
U tn Ir ilnimi fri*ni iltv vc-rj ^*nt*ml uw *! iL The ^naUv part of nun. 
kind, iluHiig aXi tho hiatonc ag«, baro booa u^ctut^^jniott ti> ]>nif fjr 
ttniiKinU i^vft]it4kg(4.- ,Tha AT^moiit o( nniTcrwUitj oiUior priuvM too 
uiucb, IK i^\M.: it U AulcidAl. It olthcr c<im|icU tu Ui iv\fn\i iUat, tlio 
pr«jvri at I'sgnnn^ ftf FoUiih wornhippcra^ nnJ of Buddhlala whrt turn 
pnjinjiE-wLovlJs '^'V r«cniu]haTkflod in tho juuui vay u thouc of orthodvx 
boUcTorv ; or oIh thu [cotior^ <K'iiiMt»ii« lirvVL!* Ihjtt it Ijm ik> boUor 
fonndAtlom Lhoji Ihv niA^i^rud U*iidi^iu;y of iium U* K^iM rrvdillKj." 

,\ot ft f dw of Mr UalLiii'fc rwu1*w mu*t iwffo 1>««fi c<>nMi(lunUy 
•Abitilj^hcil \i the rcAdinoM ^tli whkh ho suppoHOd tbut Uiyy would feci 
bc^dTiil to ImpiU» Ull?edm:1v4W uimiu utiu or otlttT of lliv bitrn* ttf hU 
dll«miiUL Ilk truths thi^ jlilrniTniL \Uv]f hr^dkn doim iijxm oiitmi' 
luition, Why iiWij w<t pot dlow thut tlic cvidontly oomoflt iind oft rcnowod 
pmycni of itvotl tJie ton^t triiliirbkiiuil Iiuuulu Ipviiik* «Ijui]]lI llml eiiiiiv jiuLi- 
iScation and oniroiEnigf<ini>nl in 4ii[])eriono« I why luit hII^w Uut Cb^y 

AihIdhi, Smnma, n. 8. SS. ft 

0. T. L 



Camifridffe. Tiit^tiofficai E»tays 


iimj be ** rvoumpeuwd It. Ui« mmv wv*** ^>^ poviblf >Dmi?ltiiieB to the 
JUw «at«nt, '^ iNir oiro, tttilo |kt Uic mm* dm* w« conccdo Uuit tfa« 
b«tt of itf mv hwft more of *'^*dJih\j' Una vra liftFo jct of inUiUgcnt 

For a juidur MtimHtv (tf th« rdiie Ui lie nUiUihod to the toJidmonj nf 
tiapmUai luli^ioii^ tdvun und pnurli^m wo ziiujr refer to one of tba 
Ifttor fTOfka of Mr lUrbort Spvucor iPrinci^ti^ ^f S<>ci^'tffy, i§, 6^ t 
qui»tti4 bj Dr Wiin))k After (iittL^iuiiii^ tUa dii«v1i)|itiiEiEit nf tiw 
"caii*ci<nunau nf the Cnknnwnhle from wh^l he iiWnuilnKil wvv* ftt 
Mriiart tftigOB of grou juponititian " — lo gr«Ha oa tti i4)[)0iir '^dbsdatolj 
Uk" — 1i» raiiH^ tliu ijimtivii Abvtiier AJiv tvorlTi cuiJJ bo Blluwvd 

lO A U^lli^f i»r nlll^'h ALloil WW the h]Ptr^T7. Ati'I ho r(l|lll«l^ "1TTtl<I|XVtHl 

A« It i4ill In? hy iiiuHt rvnilt^TA, tlie Einnver here t<i t>u tnuiJv i* Uni ti 
tho outAot a ictrtn of trutii W9« ixtiitjiiiicii in t.1i«? i>n]uitire ronceptioQ— 
bhe truth nanuily, ttiiit thu pi>ivt.*r whlt-h iniinifutii iLiolf In coMcfmMM 
k but A diffcTcnU; foitdilion«d form o| the ^wor whiob maiuftHta itMlf 
beyond canaciouantai'' 

Siniikj^l) wv urn; <^o]LdiiLle tfiut "^a g'onn of Inith,'* if no mon^ *'wu 
ofrtiininod In tliti (►rtmltlvo cnn^wptlim " which Ifwl men ta think Uuil 
thtty nilj^lil Durry tlioir nutiiij^ and Utudnie to tho nftci) hitt ililiiJr Jin^re^ 
Ijmiilod lV?i*vr »\K*yv tlit^tu. ui tliu lii>^ tlut Ke kOLjlil du fur tJtvni itU> 
»ud m'tro t^iaTi all^ UvaI ih«j ^r«r»i willhhf; uitil ublc^ to do fi>r ori4^ tmotfacr. 

Kvi^ if we had no mora thoo tliv bolicf and pnxoUoo of tho IcMt 
edtADc^d pcopl« to blue our uiductjon upiTii, wc dbculd be juntificd 
In ftrgijJng tJjnt u bt^liof itnd iiruftii'd h(} proviJoTic mid pcnUtcnt awtld 
not hflvo bcfld ontirclf fooliih and tniiL 






Some difficulties in the w&y of diacuuiozL 

The o^ect And plan of the Bu&f . 
I The DEFiKinoN of a ' Miracle.' 

{a) From the point of view of Bcience a 'Miracle' i« an ^extremelj 
vonderfiil erent 'waiting to be fitted into it» piftce in the order of Natnm 

(t) From the point oT Tiew of Theology ^Hirada' are erenti which 
Hu^eat the immediate action of God. 

(1) They inrolTe the action of a power controlling the fwcea of 

Nature, but not Tioladng the laws of their working. 

(2) They are for the race what 'apodal proTidencea' are fbr the 

Individual For this end they need otyective evidence. 

II. The evidbnce fob a ' Mibaolb.' 

(a) Internal. 

(1) 'Hiiaclea* in the Theological sense tested by the ReT«lad(» 

^ey contain ; 

(2) reqoiring a spiritnalf M weU M a rtrictly historical, hcnlty of 


(&) £FMnta£ 
(!) Hiatorical eridenoe for 'Hiracloa^ the nme in kind as for any 

other event*, but needing specially carehil eiaminatdon. 

(2) Yariona objections to the Christian evidencoi considered ; espfr 

daily the alleged lack of * sdeutiflc training ' in the vritoessea to 
the Reeorrection. 

(3) Various estimatee of ^ antecedent probability ' in specific cbdoo 

fh^m the Scieatjflc and from the Theotogit^l stan^wint 

IIL The evidence fob the Rebubrbction of ouk Lobdl 

(a) The extent of the evidence. 

{h) The indirect evidence from its [Jace in the history of IsmeL 
(!) ^Prophecy' as a proof of aspeclalreladoQ between OodandlsnaL 

(2) The presence of a unique element in the peraooality of Jesna 

(i) The ar^ment from the Pauline Epistles. 
(ii) The argnment from the Qospe1& 

{c) The direct evidence. 
(1) St Pad's list of witnOMeA 

(3) The accounts in the Gospels. 

{i) The Empty Grave, 

(ii) The Appearances after the Besurreetioa 

{(f} Summary, and Oondnmon. 


Tm subject of Dkiroclc^ baa for ftl Ico^t Ivo cciituHca 
been tli« cbi>NOii bnHlinnx^uniT bctwoon oppcwrriB; forces, who 
rigbilj^ or WTOTiflly ranffe iheoiitelvea undei* rivaJ banneix bear 
lug dw KKcreil nfttncw of ' liuligton ' und 'Scknoe,' ' HcHSon ' 
mnl ' Ht'vclation.' [f the controversy has ai smiy time Heemcd 
to ilitr Juwii, lW i^i->«ti(Ltoti of liuKLJliliivH hiftA U-cit ihiu mtlit^r 
to cxliMii«tioii thiLii to ftny real rapprochement between the 
combnlaiitA. Ii ift hard to trace auy «gn of progrcaa on 
oiUitir Mdc ik.-« u n;-iuk of all thie fi);]itifi|Ci >»till tcmi.of ftE>> 
groHth in mutual undorBt&Ddine. So tho whole discuedon 
6VUUS tuiutierably vearihiotDe and barreiL It is a trial to 
o«tr paclenct; lo be luked lo tmuip once more ftlaiig Uw 
old fnmilmr roumi 

At the same lime, ivlieii we am onrt? moni emltarkud im iL 
it ijt iin lianl ilh <?vit t<:i pnwcrTc a jllflidiil UriujuT tHliniughmit 
the difiCQriiion. The tjUCAtlou at imuc \» of iiindamental 
importance The dttlcrc^mH:?* tliht c<>rrcfl|>find ti> tliv dith^rcnt 
putntfl of view of the oppoeiiig jiartica arc real and vit&L No 
kvdcal mibtlcty vtvn exf>l»]n tlicm away. Ni>r hu^ niiycnie an 
yet succeeded in revolving their digCDnl into a doeper 
harmony. Meanwhile neither aide can pretend to be In- 
different AN tu thv iwue. And when }»th iddcai fei-^l ktvidy 
It is hard to discnrtfi dk|»ah»itiiMattily 

AfCHui, it u,urc«»Lin«e, alwayit' [llarKoin^ on ftinrhnieiitala.' 
For the opposing v^unioDta can only be brought to our 



L Tub definition of x *Miilw:l£,' 

(fl) Frnm Ihfl point of Tiew of ScEoikb a 'Min*de' U ha '^il 
VPondoHul cvtmt' waitinif to ho HlW<l i»to lU ptitco in tho ohJot oT J 

(Al From tho pttiikt of lii^ff oT Thoolosj 'Jlindn' on oronta 

fliigjfesl tlici iriiiii4H]1>i.Le action of OmL 

(I) Tl«7 invylYv )\\k nction ftf ft powoT contrtilluJir tJie fome uf 
NiLlim^ hnr, nnt vlnlaling llie lawn of Ilu^tr wni*1cif)g. 

{%) Thoj Hre fwr IIjv mot* w}»hI ' »]x*oiiJ pnjvjj*[i«»' nro for tint 
liidivliliiul. For fliU «iir] lliey ii«6<] oljwMvt* v<Tldoiic«^ 

n. The ETlDElfOH FOB A ' MiRACLK.' 

ifl) InUrrtaL 

W 'Ulmdofl' In LIlc Tht^itniftfn] nmnv UwtoiL by tbe K«feIi£{on 
th«y contiLln ; 


(1) HiHtf^rii^ evliknce fi^r 'Mimolv"' thv Aino in kind u fbr uj- 
othc»r L-vtiuLis IjuL tivwtiuic ripw;JftJljr ouvful ciuniijitticn. 

(3) VAnoiui 4>tucotioni( to tb« <JhrifftiikT] cridcnccd camidcrcd : «p(K 
dftUjr tbd aUvsiTd IacIi uf * sdautjfic trKJnhkif ^ iit tbo wltnoHtt la 
tliL* Rmiittm^IhIoii. 

(3) Varioutt v^luiiatcB uf ' vitiMi^cut jirubikbilHT ' jn •pocttfi OU 
f-oni tbu 4(.'it^ntlfiir ftnd frum tbo Thoologicnl Auidpol&L 

IlL Thb bvtdencb for thk HEarfiBEcnoif of ock 1x>iux 

(ff) Tbe eiteiit -if LI19 HTirlentV* 

(5) "niD indSroot ovidtntro from iU pliuw in tlic hifltory of 1<tm^ 
(!) 'Pntpbory* n6 4 pronf if k (Lpoclal n>lntinii U^twiyin CkHlftii<|. 

(2) Tlio prcv4onee of it imJi|iK^ cluiimiit iu Lim ]>rrMiiiiHlJty fif Ji 

{1] Tbo anriTitont hem tbc PnuliiLC Rpiiillcifk 

(f) Th« (linnet <^id4>iiOP. 

(1) aifuut'illiinriritniHaviL 

(2) Th(> Mwounu in tbc Gmpclk 

CI] Tho KmptyGmTc 

(l\) Tlio A|f|j<iini[iL^4ni nAcr tito HnurrcctJon. 

(fj} duinubry. tuvl Coiidiudtm. 


Tub au1^«ct of mii^acles ha^ for at loaixl two ceiiiurlcft 
bet^ij iW choften hBltU-trroiind l>ptw^*riii apjrfwiiig Fi>rcc«j wlio 
riglitlv<»r wrori^l^ i-Htige theiiiF^eheFi tiiiilvi- riviil bnjtrierH Ix^r- 
iii^ Uhi itHcreF.! nniiii^A of 'Rcli^iiin* iinil 'Briimov,' 'Rrjur»ti ' 
find ' Itfrvflaliiiik' If llic contrnvei-Hv Im^ a1 aiiv tiiiio M^t^mor] 
to die JtfWii, U»i^ cuflAation of hontiJitJun Imn Ix-cii iluo rather 
to oxLihur^ttioii tliaii t4) hny xvnl rapprocfuitvMit between tho 
cfmbutfinU. It iei hard to trnco anv ^itni of progrosa on 
ctlb«*r aiidu nH ft vv^iiii <>r all tlti^ ftglitiiig, xtUl leu^ of aiij 
gnivrth m miitua) uiidorat&Dding. So Uie wboLe dkco&eion 
scvEiiH iiiiiitter-ably WL^nriMitiii^ a,ikd l»rreti. It ih n trmi t<i 
uiir ]BUh?iirt^ hi 1h^ iL^keflJ t«J tramp i>n<;t7 inoru alotig tlic 
old fiuuiliar roiuid> 

At the same tiitie, when we are onc^ more emlmrked m\ It* 
It i« lis hard im ever to prcwrve u judicial temper throughout 
tito diflciifl^oii. Tho ijucHtioD at iaaue U of fundimicntal 
hiif>ortiuic\^ 'Hie diltm^ncx-'H thiit cfirroH].Knid f o \\\t£ dlfUTciit 
points of new of the oppnt^mg partios &re real and vital. No 
lo^iml Htibtlety cnti vxplain thrin away. Nor hiia >Luytiii« ilk 
yet suteeeded in rt^-solviifg thmr dirtconl intn a deejier 
tianmmj, Muzuiwhilti neither side ran pi-etend Itr Ih? iii- 
lUftcnMkt as to the iuua And when botii aJdca feci kecnljr 
it ie haM (o dirtcu-<H dirtimM.HioTiately. 

A^tin, it i«. of course^ alwaye ' ill ar^n^f on fundtuneDtaK' 
For tlko opposing argxiiticutd cud only bo brought to our 



Cavibridge Theological Esmffs 


ootloe one by one. And oven when we do n<vt aee our wmy ftt 
0009 to ft conclusive reply, we are ftpt to rc^rd it u 
*a regrettable incideutv' 'ft nwra affkir of outposta* Our 
|M)Hi(lon ift T.lml of A ^etiei"rtl worlcing on Mnt**HorlSin*t' We 
iTiKtiriLitivL^ly coiicentnttHP the whole <if our forcw* t<* ri'sist wi 
itttack on any particular point Our coii1iilenc« in the 
strcujcrtb of our main contention r^maina unchanged even 
nftcr a euct'csaion of such 'reverses' The truth i» thai 
our ftindaincntal convictions reat uUim&tel}' on iuiniodiftte 
experiences uui\ intuittoibt wTiieb no wordit can fully exproMi 
We can therefore* nlway^ Utkt^ refugt"! in the thought that 
there is an e1t*nient hi our fMHulthin to wh[<-h fait juwtice h»» 
not, jet Ix'en ilono hi fiurt prnctTSrtT.^ c>r rcAWJioiTig and 
reflecLioii caiL hvlp nn U* interpret and define our fiunlniiH-iitnl 
con^nutions. lint ihuy cun neither create n<*r destroy them. 
And the etorm and stress of controversy is more bkcJy to 
quench than to generate tho liy;ht of tlio ns'iint^thiif^ truth by 
which fthrtKT they may be tninafi^ireil Indewl at this sta^ 
In the tontroveniV with regard to 'miracles/ however 
ei>nxe[<iu-< we lany In- of the inciiLnpWteiniu* of onr owji 
Wfhitioii of tlie pn»h]ein. we have almost hut hope in tbo 
IHiitfuhilitv of tlie dawning of such a liifht Our ndiidi 
are no lon^rer ' open.' We have taken our $i<le. Any progr<9 
that wo can hope to make must bo along the path we hare 
already eho^n. 

Under ti\vm f'trenniwiancert Uie last thing that I wish to do 
IM Ut ap[nifiirli l.lie Kiil^ei-L in ji coiitrovtrsml itpinl. I uuutoi 
indctnl profenft to be riwly witfi a final Milntioii which diftll 
be acceptable to both ftidea, nor to be indifiercnt aa to the 
inide on which 1 titiLml. But 1 think that 1 7<hon1d help t!ic 
euuHo of IVuth. whidi is tl\e cause of lx>tfa sides, best by an 
attempt to restate the problem an I undersftand it^ and to 
indicate witli an little polemic reference to tlie opiDloiM of 
othrn« itH [^>!HHible the direction in which 1 diink a solatknlA 
niiiHt Ubel> to be found. 

The Mtihjwt projxwed for nnr cotiHidenition by tJie titlo 
chosen for thla l^ay nuvoi two preliuLiuar)* quOrtJott* to 

TTu] Spiritual ami historical evuh'nee/or Minides 311 

vlucti wc muHt liii(l lu) anewi^r before wo can iipproach it 

1. Wliat dii wi) iik(«iin by u ' miracle ' 1 
1 What evidenctj, if aiiy^ can justify us in believinf^ 
that a 'nilmde' iw* urtUttUj^ ix't:urre<i f 

I propijw; iln-Tcforc ti» U\V^ tlitrMC qni^tioiiB fin*t — aiirl then 
bo appljr the }iniici|»Ti^ bn»ught to light in the courw^ of our 
iDvc^ti^itioiii of tl]cm to the Holutiuii of the specific problmn 
of the IlcautTcctiuiL <}f our Li^nL 

WW w>.a* ti 


What thru (i(» wc mean by a miracle? In the cifchtccnth 
Ctfntiirr the iuiiiwi>r accepted without r|ueation by l>oih aidoa 
irould 110 doubt liavu Irct^Ti, U\ i|uutc tlume't> defhiitioii, 
*'A lrwi»-grc<sion of a law of rwtiiro by a particular volition 
of the Deity or tlie iuti-rpotiitioit of ^ome innuble aKent" 
If thi' niTR'tfvntli cvntiiry contributt^l tiotliing A^w Ui thtf 
diHCLimioTi it did nL Ituuit deiiniimtrui,^ thu inadcijiiacy 4>f tliin 
del^ailiou. Nothiii^ (at least ii'um the Mriuiitilic iHiint tif 
▼icw) cnii bt; iid<Ied to Iluxley's trenchant ciiticiaiu iu ch. vii, 
of hia Ka^y un Huma *' Nature ' to lh& nmu uf ^cic-nco 
''itiL^iLntii neither more nor le*« tiian that wiiich it^ ; Uic biud of 
pLouomena presented to oiir ex>>erience, the totality of events 
piuil, present, and t:> como; Every event \\\\iA> be Uikvii to be 
part of natur^ u:itil proof to tlio coTitrary in supplicvj. Ajid 
ftucli proof ibi frcim thi? nature of th© <"ajM- inijxiHniMe." 

Again, entici/ing HutneV staUineht, " ft w rt minLrle that 
ji <\aa\ man !«ltoiild rtinie to Ufc : Ikh^humc? tliat haA never been 
obeervcd hi any asc or country /^ he writer^ " That i« to oay, 
there ia a uniform experience a^inat audi an eroiit, and 
thcrelcire^ if it ocenw, it in a viobtirm of the law of imture. 
Or, to put the an^ument in ila naked absurdity, that vrhich 
never hai; hup[Riied ncv(>r c^n ImpfK'n without \\ violation of 
the laws of n^tturo. In truth, if a dead man did conie 1<* life* 
tlie fact wouid lie rvidenei^ not ihat any Ihw of natun.' had been 
violated, but tliat those lavra, even when they cKprcm tho 


Cambridge TheoUgiml Esmyi 


roriutU of a very Xow^ and uniform oxporicncc, aro nec^warU? 
based oti iiicanipliete kuowled^e, Aii4 are to be held only u 
grounds of more or \vsh justifiable ux|wctHtirrti-" 

"To miTii up, the deflikitHUiu uf a niirw;tefw n (im^iision or 
a contraveHtinn rjf the onicr of imttii'c i» iKrir-*:«ntra<iicUiry, 
bocautt; nil we ktuiw ciF the order of imture m derived from 
otir obftcrvntioii of the course of ovcnto of which the ^^o-omod 
niir&cle iH a part i)i\ the other hand no conceivable event* 
hoH'i^vcr <-xr.nii)i<rliiiiiry, ih impoMHible ; and therefore, tf by 
the t€mi mirac;le4 wc mean only ' extremely wnnderful evontSt' 
then* vsiXi be no Just ^ound for dtunvitig the powJlMli^ 
of their cKUfurrerit^" 

On the HecomI jMirt of the di^finitirm he wtiIct, "Upon 
what Hort (>f evideiio? (an we lie jiiPtifiod in conchiding t!iat 
a llivcn event i« the cflect tjf a iwirticuhr Tiilition of ihc 
Dmty, or of the intorpoBition of aomo invisible fl)iat to 
11 n perceivable) a^ent f It timy be ^o, hut how in the Ji«9erti(>[i 
that it !fi so to be teetcd? If it be @aid that the event 
exceetia the power of natural <raiiMefl« what caii Jiutify Huch 
a gaying? The thky-fly hiu iK^ttcr gnkuniU f(>r calling a 

thunderhtorni 8n(>eniatiii'H) than I jam in an with hb i n* 

finitOJimint frartimj of dnratiou tci my that the n^^^l 
a^t<»niflhing event that can be imagined ia beyond the bch^P 
of natural cause©." 

In brief, then, the Acientidc attitude towards *mlrBclee' 
to-day aniountvE to thia No phenomenon con ho rotenrdcd by 
ft mnii of science us intrinsically, on a priori gnnmMi 
fa]crc<libte. Ouly. a« «oon ik tlte fact of >t« occurrence is 
^Atahllfiht'd tm KiifliciLint evklent'Cr it mii8t take iXa place In 
the iinler i»f nature. Ko evirkiicu av&ilable Ui menco eaii 
dcmonatreitc the intervention of any hivifliblo (that ka mi- 
perceivable) agency. 

' TbiH result iteeni« to me InevStable from the neec«mHly 
^agnostic* attitude of science while it keejM to it8 proper 
Mpht-reL Rcienr(^ »lm HimmEii:V jioitilfi i»ut in hiH ' llinni^litM iiii 
Religion/ fleahi st.i'ictly only with |>tx»xiinai«.' cauaeiL In other 
Wfjfdft, a8 an earlier wrlt^ir in thin vuluiiie lia.i remindcil nii^ 

vm] Spiritual mhdhiMoriml miytmwt^for M!rade» 313 

"from the ftcionUtio p^nrit of viow the hyixftliixiA i>f ft direct 
4urti<>ti of Goil ill Euiy ph}'pic&1 phononiviifin ijq iimrlmUvible^'' 
To accept it aa A aolutioii in an,y ca^o woaltt be a confeHaioii 
of failure — or a vigii thul science hiul reiKlicn] iU limit 

A thottlogiaii han, fm Thp a.4 T caji ^ct?. no reiiMin to i|uurrel 
with thia aJiicluftioiL It- leave* the field eutirelj i>|MMi for 
hi-^torical investigation It oqIv becomes antanfotiiFtic to 
thcoloi^y when aciciicc trcspaa^ca boycnid her province and 
clainta to chnuinato tile wliok niu^e et' hiinmn tlxMi^ht or to 
control liU the avenueis by which toen attiiir to the knowknjgu 
of ultimate truth, 

Wliei) a tearljng scieittiHt Tike Sir tIi^|^ge Stok^v ur lionl 
Kelvin publicly eorifeNHeH hia need of the hygiuthenpi of (iod 
tor tlie ultimate aulutiua of the probleina with vrhitrb he fintlit 
himself confronted- hin bt-othei^ ai'c ready enough to remind 
htm tliat he ie wanderiiig from his pro|)or Hpheri\ They are 
not litiwever, aa lur a^ L hiive noticed^ Oftniillynlivc to the fact 
th»t the 8ame charge oti precisely the i^ame grounds lieu 
Agalmit Rityone who on purely scientific grounds decides 
in fttronr of fin antttheistle or any other ultimnte philiuojiliy. 

Let nn turn now from u ncientiiitt to a thf^ilogicn) ejiami- 
nation of Hume a dcHnition* The change in abiuidpoint 
iiHiumlly pnvhioes n chanjbTe in the relative im|ior(anee uf the 
ditTcrcnt elements cimtained in it The rehitiou of 'miracle' 
to ■ law ' remains of coui-m^ a problem of abiding lutereet for 
the thoolo^an a* wcU aj* for the ecientiwt But the hitei-ewt 
of ihe theologian centres in just that element* the reffreuce 
Ui 'the jjartit-ular ruliihm of the Deity/ which the tteienti^t 
irouM rule out h« irielevnitt or At teiu«t inatliable of veii6- 

For it i« IU much the iMi^incfls iif Tlicology to deal with 
the ultimate, a^ it Vf* the buainc^^s of Science to deal with the 
proximate, cause of any phenomenon. Aa tlie ^icntist ia boimd 
to find a pW^Q for any duly certified event in the constitution 
and order i*f nutiirc, Hnd if necihcsarj to revihie liU whole 
conception of nature t'^ nu;ke riH^ni for it> «o tiie tiioftloglan 
caimot reiit until he hat found the key to the bannon^ 

314 Ctimhriilffe Tfi€otof/icai Eimt^M [tib 

between ' the pwrticiilar volition of the Deity ' ^xpms^Nl hf » 
iiiifwte aiid Uiv ^tivt^la.Liun uf tlit? dmi'Ht^t^r juiil iniriMMo of 
G™1 contnincfl ill tlic general course of Divine Provi^Icnc*, 
tliat iH, in the hiotor^^ of Illn prertou^ dealJiig^ with men. The 
^jfiilfi^^i^L'^ ^*^' i^iiy event lic^ tor hini |)r<M;i[<cl3' iti the lifht 
which it throws on or derives ^om tho Bcinjf of UocL 

Now tf tiiia be s^» it ia dear that every ereiit t«UKt for the 
theolo^itii have Crtjil at the hcurt uf it- But wc »rc m 
Consiitute<1 that in some events, eepeciaJly in some 'extremely 
Wdiuli^i'fiil (-vents ' tlii» 4lei.^<st ■(i|j;nifinani!t? romi-H tivftrvx thi; 
sitrfiLce timn in others. Indeed it i^ in thift qualitj UiAt the 
true diffrrftt^ift of a miracle; fiuiii the theologloil pLiint of 
rkw would «>ein to lie It^ is an ei'cnt or phenomenon wUch 
a»j(^^ts tJio immediate action of Uod, and brin^ a man who 
witne^es it or ru'ticct^ iip<jn tt either in itw^lf or in iIb 
attendant c-irciinkBlancee dii'eetly into Hia presence. 

If we wk next, h« we ant lioiJiid tit haIc, wTiait i:^l4*fnL*iiUi in 
an event will give it thiA [x>wer^ a Little reflection will make 
it clear that the question ailniiU of no eliu|ile annwer which 
will fit all caecA. All eridcnce ia relative. It cnn only appeal 
to thoae who have eyeH to nee iL Divine orocloa arc alwi^ 
^fuvaifriL ^vvvrot^tif. To tlie Hebrew EVdiniMt tJnitidor wu 
tlie Toiee of God. Linnaeua fell on hi^ knee^ when he first 
beheld the glory of ihe broom. To \xa botli of tlieae are 
tnvrely natnnil ph(nic»m<<n»L Tht? woiiilrr in ihrm hrw \w^\ 
worn off by use nnd went, even though wo may feel tbat 
fidler life would enable iik ti> t>e cmirtcloiiA Hf^ain of Uie 
freabncHft and the awe of comnion things. The poet to whom 
'the nicano-4t Htjwer thfit bl{>WM' ^ve?t 'thoUKhtH that do <»ftti[] 
lie too deep for tears' acee, we enniiot doubt, more traly 
Uian Peter Bell or the inati hi the fitreet. It \a tio HOiidl 
[Hirt of <iur dt^bt to WonUwortli mid Iiih cont|>eeni tlmt he i^ 
Able now and then to lift the veil for ua that we alvo nuy see 
'Uiif indidir iu thin^' 1nde>-d one itmin funetlon of 'niinu^iM^ 
may be by their very sirangencsSi an Janicft llinton suggests 
hi an eftMiy in hiti AH ryf Thmkirt^, to lielp Uh by the lofic of 

] ^nritual aitd hutorical eridatce/or Miraclat 3 1 5 

M the poet hc)pe b^r the ma^c of his verac. to realise 
fiik<6eti the wonder of thu coi]unoii|ihii?o. 

I My itumcdiut^ point, however, la that though there u an 
elefnent of stnuigeneea and nivtitery, eoniothiti|j; unexpected 
U^ vturfle iia out of the Ininlliar routine, in^epnmUc fmiii the 
iilea ofa niii^acle, there in nothing in il, fhiui the theological 
liny more than frcmi Hie scientific^ H|jinii|iciinl,, ihni ii«'-rfiiitJit<.in 
any violation of *lnw' or uny inU-Tiitptiun of tho natural 
r^pience of "cwiiflc and effect' The re^nlt which we have 
vecn 1o bo chanictcri^tic uf a miracle is produced most 
effectuaUy by any event in the life of an individuaj or of a 
nation or of tho race that aiigge^ta an inttilUg^nt, purfjoKcful 
control of nntural forces by a epiritnal power, not onrselvos, 
u«in}! them, uh we uiit'suIvcs are conadutit^ of ustn^ thc'in, euch 
in obeflieiice to \t& own law, and ilh^eotiiig them Ui an e;nd. 

If we tLsk how we are to coDeeivo of tin? ininle of o[H-nLtii)ii 
of tkw power, wc must admit thai no complete ati«wcr im iui 
yet, or perha|>s ever may be, forthconjing. Wc arc fltill very 
fiir fN>nL laty solution of the diHicultn!n iuvolvod in the 
attempt to correlate iho spontJLneoua nctioD of Ji4 spiritual force 
with the uction of the |)]iy»jeal force** which we naturally 
conceive of hs ineclinnical. Tlic fact, to which alhivion htw 
already Iteen tnatle, thai, we onrs^eUeK put«itrHt4 the jN^wer of 
(HintnillirifiC the ojfenition i)f pliyHii^al forces, mn^ be at^i^ept^^rl 
AA proof that »iich a relation esiintA, unlc8e we are prepared 
to refuse any |K»wcr of origination or acif-determi nation U} 
Uic humnn will. Jlut thi^^ tuct only showe that the diHiciilty 
ia Hot created by the pervereity of theoloinana. Tlio diffi- 
cnlt^ itHL-lf reinainx. Ferha|p« all we cun eay w that Dig 
difficulty 19 leas, not gnwiter, in the caee of the Divine Will, 
uf whh'h. If then- itt* a Divine Will, all physical fonrew mnwl 
bo the exprowion. An<l if n di^iwr pliilofWiphy leads «n, iw 
it (WtiiiiH that \t iH leadiu)^ \m, to tlie conviction that all force, 
under whatever fnnn wc |>crteivo it, h esaentially spiritiiftl, 
the <it9icnlty will be in a fair way to difiappcar altogether, 
LTnivcri^Ll 'conthiifcncy,' lu Profc*«rtor Wani rii;htl>' and boldly 
Wfluniit ti«, in a necreHMor}' corollary from hie ptulo^ophical 
position. But, if the cofitingoiicj' be dependent on the Divine 



CanAruign Theological KMai/H 


Will, tliifl iriU uot bring us bftck to chftOA, though it maj ircD 
make it iTiipoRHtblc to give a coucibc and complete accoimt 
of the nnh'urm: in ^in^' tcmiJ^ ut' ' oonccptiiiU shorthand.' 

If thi^n wti may grant that auch a control of naturaJ force* 
by the Divino WUJ, however wo may (Conceive of iht; wnode of 
itfl operation. ia in itaelf poHBible. wc havu still to a«k how h 
can come within our range of pereeptiuiu Have we anj 
criterion l»_v wdidi u» (1i)iitin^ni«h t^flVx-o* ilne Ui xhc *irer- 
riiling actiuii of the Divine Will from effects produced bv the 
norntftl ftctioit of iintnral futxew ¥ I ilfi tiol think th^it wc oewi 
bavo any hc^itution as to tiie atunwor to ihve question. We 
arc M> coiiHtjtutixl a^ to bo cafkablo of roco^iiainj^c the tjacea 
of tho opcnition of InKilligenco and wilL ]f wo aro eonfidctit 
M we have every right to be^ b> tbo capacity of an ex[»or[eiiced 
aiiti<{|]Hr]Hu t4> UiHthi^uUh iK'twexni^ let uh Muyi a worked fliat 
anti a Btoiie EVactnivd caaually or by ihe notion of iiatnra) 
fonren, why nhuitld we iluuht nian'H i::a|»ai:ity U> diHttnguiiili 
special tokens, if j^uch dionld be provide<l for him, of tbc 
actioTi of Uod cither in hia own life or in the mons ext«ii^Tc 
field of the e^|>enence orHle race? 

Vio arc familiar omtttfcli with tho feet that in iniltviiliifti 
caaea coniblaatiouB of circunu<tance» do from tijne to time 
briiijfc homo to a mail the ivinvietittn thiit th<f hand of God 
]\tw U'en Inid on hini — that, In the word^ of Hnmlet, none the 
lesw Lriii: timt Llu^ir Mi n\i[iri>\mntst\tf^ to tinivrrwd riju-rirncv 
haa miulc them ovci'-tritc, ^'There's a Divinity Uiat fibapen our 
cudfl, rough-hew thorn how wc will,'* 

In »iich cn»C(t the imprcs^^ion on the eubjcct of it la irre- 
netlbto— though the ovidcneo is for the uioflt part too purdy 
perHoual to be capable of being adetprntely prenonti-d to imy- 
tytw fUi', So "Npi^-ittl prondc^nce^ ' of thi« kind can never be 
brought forward ftir general diacuaHiun a^ typical ' mlradai' 
Jt. is a ipir!<tiim, ht^wc^ver, whi^tlier there ini-iy not 1k< un^hiifiMM 
in»ta[jce& in tlic history of the race to which thi« limilailoii 
dooA not apply — evoiitA of world-wide sigiiifloincc ^iiiciccftting 
the oi^Kinitioii of a power contrriltinu: the whole ci>ur»c of 
huniaa history. In auch caecfi^ao Ui€ leaaun would e^ hfffic4he^ 


Toi] spiritual aiul historical nnftcncejur Miraelfjs^ 317 

be memit ftir the ;^idnnce of nil men, tlie evideiii:^ mnni Iw 
rAjmble t>f Iteiitg laid licFore thciiL Tbc tokens of the DiTiuo 
action uii]»t be f(tnct]> objective. Hu<;h an event or aoricH uf 
cvcntfl ao attc^tcdt however coirLmonphicu the det^ns, would 
be richtly regarded aa ' mhiLCuloua.' 

The exponenee of cenluHeu eombined with a carefiil Ktudy 
ttdl that led up to it, and all thnt followed from it, wiinhl bo 
Booconnrj t« I'eveal its full Bigiiiiiettnc'i?. Riit in ittwlf it ia 
difficult to see hciw it i.'oiiM Htniid unj i^hunee of attntrtm^ 
the att^Mitinn "f mankind, either at the time or aft«r, in any 
deuiee i>rojiortjonatc to its importan<», if it were not ifccc^>in' 
imnierl b; the aitpearance of a force unexampled in human 
expencDca In the circiimalaucea attending the orii^in of 
<Jbri«tiatiity this feature was not lacking. 

To soin ap the reBulu attained so far. From the wcienttfie 
point of view 'miracles" are simply 'extremely womierfiin 
eveiiUi' waiting to be fitted into their place in the order of J 
D&ture^ Fnim the theological point of view the) are eventa 
which primarily Hu^eat the direct action of God. and which 
nin> or may not incluile an ' extremely wondeiM ' element 




We mti^b pasK on now to «Jur second question. Whr«i 
evidence, if any. cttn justify ua in believing that any alle^red 
' minudu ' actually utcurreik and bore tiw character ascribed 
to it? 

Thifi fineation is clearly one which has a peculiar intcrc&t 
for theoUf^iana, because if we are ri^ht in nur analysie, any 
allet^ed miracle iiiUHt have a direct l^earinf^ on our conception 
of lb** ciiai-acl^r of (JoA If it lie gtiiiuiiit^, it inus-t be charged 
with a >i|>erial revchitioii of lUn NHnd and Will lowarda 
mankind. If it be falHC, we are. to uhg the langiia^e^ nt Bt 
Paul, **fownd fiiltw wilncwcw ajcain^t HihI" if we Mcribc it to 
Him. For our eoncuptiot] of iiis character dcpciida directly 
on the acta which we believe to be rightly attribut^Hl Ui Hiiu. 

We Bball do well therefore to prc&bce thlA pt^rt of our 
■ 1 Cor. Kv. 10. 


Cambridge Tficolofficai Ftsatfs 


etti<ly hy a brief examination into the relation between 
'miracles' and 'rcrelation/ Hc^re ^kgain we Ahall find that 
Christian thought has passed thntni^i a remarkable tnim- 
formatii:)!! iti the course of the tast centurj. In ihu 
eighteenth and indeed well on into the iitneleeiith century 
Uir jHipular crniueptioTi of thi^ relation w&s Unit whit'h Fimnd 
it« c]au'c:st und ablest exprc^ion in l^rofcnor Model's 
Bampton Lectures for lB(i5, It mav be auinmed up in tbo 
f[)nnn]a *Mirac1t:R are the ]iro|ier prcmf ni a revelation.' 
Miracles from this iK'int of view were rei^rded ae ee^mtiallT 
inaiiifi<>4tatic>n>; uf Ahnl^lity Power granted hy Ood to njre 
piiblie attentiitiirti to thiim? whtnii lie wtit to Hfir»k in Hin 
Name. Faith hi (^hrintianity, for exaniple, waa hold tu \x 
biuwil dirttcllj tm the vvidenco that (liri^t und IIw A[Muitli?^ 
worked ' miraclcfl»" quite irrcaiKsctirc of the character of the 
niinicles in thcin»<e] re:^, mid of tlie content«< of the revelation 
which they were to attest 

At the preHoul time a Cbmtian arKih(Ki-**t if he wished to 
cxprM»4 the relation botwtjcn 'mintelcs' rcjranted jw 'cx- 
cretnely wonderfijl eventa' and the receladon whieh ihey 
contain or »ttCHt wnnhl preftr tct tnitiHjuiM' ihe temn hi 
Profewior Mouley'K fonuiiljL The |ir(ij>er pn^f thnL aa 
' cxtronnylj wonderful cvriil' may be riglitly iwi:rll*cHl to the 
action of tied ia derived directly from the teaching conveyed 
by it We accept a miracle tonlay on the strenjcth of the 
revekiticiii that it briu^. rather thnii the rcTclation oti the 
Btren^j^h of the miracle. 

An excellent ilhiiiitration of Lhlx fact in mfxleni psychology 
U provid^Ml by Huxlej's treatmeLt of the account given 1^ 
Bt Mark of the benUn); 4kf the Gadaretie demtmhu'. Tie 
prrfhccH his examination of the miracle by recording tlie 
cvila which Iuitc in fact follt»wed frtnn the IwHef in wit^^li- 
craft, und ^tccks to create a pr^udicc against mi incident, 
wliicli he cannot rule out aa Acientiflc^Uy impossible, on tlu: 
8tren|^h of the eon^ei^uence which in hid jttd^nient trouM 
follow oil iU aeoL'ptunce. 

It would have been interesting to read hia criticism of a 
ChriNLiati upuhij^Mt who [irefaccd IiIm oxauiiiiation iiilo the t^cL 

vmj Sj/irUuaJ mui historical evidence/or Miracles 31 9 

of our LonVs Rcftnrroction hy itri c?(vuniimtion into the effect 
on human life pi'oducccl by foith iii inmmrtaUty. 

But whether the temjttation to score a controverBi&l 
point B^itinat an aiLta^ouifit would have boon too mucli for 
hi* eiirixiMtoTicy »r iMi, thure in no cUmht that h\* instinct 
was riphi. If belief in the healing of dcmoniiWH by CTriat 
Ih Uj« Houret.' of, Hud not the H]ift*>(iiiml ii^iiiHt, tlie terrible 
«,lHmc)i of jHtpiiW MU|ii'iKtitiiiii, vsr ojumot go mi I)e1ieviiig 
ill the aiM^uraej of the narrativui that reccird il. 

Nijr is the feature in our prertent Attituile to wtilch I am 
calling attention really due to a weak concession to the spirit 
of Uiv imi;. Jt iH dec|fnM»ted in the true eoticeptioii of a 
mimcK Ab Or VVoeteott. amone others, wiw^ never woariod 
in pointing out, the criterion of ' a sign ' really nent by God 
for the ini^nirtir^n of Uia {woplo was alwii)T< if wt are to 
hclicvfi tht? cX|M-r»w tenehutg of Holy J^criptiii'oS to U* found 
in the consihteiiey of the teaehiii^; that ace<uoi>anie(l it with 
the wh<>Te uiunic of the ri^vc^latiuik tliut liad prea!<le<l it 
11]e lue^eafcc must no doubt have ro novel fciiturcB in it 
For n^vclatitiu p'ow^ Kiit uiile^^ the ine&aige in felt to eome 
from our ^them' UikI^ it wjU be ilarl^nesB to us, not light 
We aro surely right then ir eoucluding that, while 'a miracle ' 
1ft a natural InKtrument or vetiide for a further [-evelntioti, it 
cannot )4rict]y h>e regfirrlei:) independent of the revelation an 
a *ijn«)f ■ of il. 

If wt' Ciiine l«U"k Ut the question of 'erttlence' fnun which 
we stATted It win be clear iitjw tlmt tlie answer umnt Include 
a MpiritUHJ lu* wt-ll jw ah hletoriml element. 'Hie csweuce of 
'the mii"aele' lies not in ita etrangenesN in lU apparent 
'IttwleBteiicss.' but in the nicssiige thut it brings mh from Hod. 
So the appeal lieB in the end not merely to the intellectual 
Hide of our nature, the purely critical faculty, by which we 
judge of truth or fedsehocKl in rt^rd U> iniLtterw of exLenial 
feet and experience, but to the whole complex of Bpiritiml 
fui'itltlris I'hr hrart.^ the eonscieuce, anil tht' will, as well ae 
the rcaAOu. by tiie ct^mbined action of w^hicb a [nan becomes 


Carnbri4ige Theological E»»ay$ 


cfHiHciuiiM i)f H.ii(l eiil«iv iiilo lyinitniuiHtn with God, For ll 
Ih worth wbik reiuiiidingouraiGlvetiliere tl&ttv while; k 'niifni^c' 
iDtty fiitk'ki-r^ define, iwvX develop sax tMubryiifJc &dth ii^ Ood 
by throniiitf frc^h light t>n Iiii4 cliiunctcr and on ULh rcUuou 
to Hiid ultimate puipot4ct for maiikiDd, it catuiot of it«clf brin^ 
a man iutf> the uiuiiL'dmto pro>i<<urt- »f KUm\ if nitart from Uie 
nuracle^ he ^eer^ nc* reiLiioii for Ix^JirvJiig li> Hie exiHt^ice^ 

It bj^ no ni«aii!» fuUowa, however^ tliat tlic purolv critical 
ikctilty hiiM %\u plucc hi *Jie [m*E?t9W l*y which we attAln to ihJ* 
KK Ui Au> (^tb«^r fuiidam^ital tiutk If lT»? 't-xtrcmdj 
wouderfol event' iicTcr took place, the fitct that nwu omce 
helicvf^l in it limy be iut^re^tin^ to tlie nludunt of iv^ycJioIni:}^, 
but it can have no m<:a«a^c i'riftn UoJ for the race, llie 
mure fact tliat wc have to apc&k of *evideiic:o' ohowi that 
we canDot, if we wouLd, eecitpe th« rieccmity of an appoaJ 
to reaaoQ- Reason is not for ua, whal^T^r it niay be for 
some Heeki^tv after truth, a purely negative, ^eetructivv 
&eulty. It t^nld not help iik t<j reject what h fkJae if \X did 
nob Ht thi- Mune thne enable u»( tu rei:o^i)liM? wluit U true*, 
'Hie hi^heftt sphere for ite exercise lies, wc believe. In the 
examiiinti(*n »f the records of (lod'M jiaAt dealbip* with inen 
containe^l in the finc^ of history. A tnic liistoriaii ia for 
113 ft [>n;>phct It wtJI not therefore be easy to pc*«oade n, 
even with the pr<tn»ect of pre^ervhi^ 'religion/ to give up 
the search for hutorieal truth. 

Wlmt tht-^i, wc nin^t afilc l^imlly, \n it re*wrjiiable to 
deniartd in this wrtj of hintodiml e^ideiu-e Ut jiuLify lielief 
in the tietiial inTiirrence of any jKirticular 'miracle'? 

Any phenomenon however wonderful is. ae wc have aeea. 
fri^m the Kcicntifie poiTit of view » priori poqioihle. And oar 
knowle<!ife of the ^n^pe of tiiiturul eatume m fio limited that 
we are Tiot justified in dom^ the leael violence to any 
fhigment of -tiiJid evidence to make it fit otir eunooi of 

It IH titererore inipnsaible U* nminljuii i\mi *exln<iiie1y 
winHlcrfiil f-ventfl* rt^juii-e evidence different in kind from 
that wliich would Ix: euJBdent Ui cdtabUnh the occorreiiee 

tht] Spirilmd ami fmtorir<tX evUletieefor Miracles 321 

nf HJij other events. Still in face of tlie nnlurRl tenilt^iic^ 
of the human mind to weave le^iids and umrvcls out of 
h ver>* blender batii^ of fuct^ it m no doubt right U) remind 
ouTicLfx^K thut phcridikieim of iiti iinpAmLlclcd kind require 
exceptionally etrcjii^ cWdciico. At any rate the evidence for 
any eueh pfaennnionon, if it cami!d vritli it fiir-r^^aehinK con- 
sequences, b suro to be scnitini£e<l vlth pcctilinr care. Only 
we ha^e to be on our guard lest the fear of blind credulity 
make us the |irey of h spirit nf «nr(piek»ti that w none the less 
blind l>ei-^une It Is nlwayM btiatttinj; of ilm ketfinieJiK of Ita 
power* of visiorh 

Hume'a &moua epig:rank for eixample, "'It i^ ei>ntr&ry to 
experience thAt n mirnclc ehould 1>e true, but not contrary to 
exfK'rience that teatimony should be falfle," in apite of the 
'*nakcd alMUKlity " of it exposed by Professor Huxley', still 
bc^iileri the nnwiiry by it* smartiieHS, There are elill writers 
who take credit for making fiill allowance for the « />We-r/' 
p<iwiliility of minurle^, and yet assert that no sniHnent 
evidence i^an he proijiicod t^r juHtify us in accepting them. 
Ml tliat vrc have no right to believe them, even if thej 
arc tnie. 

Closely akin to this is the position taken up by ProfoAsor 
Ourdner in hi* Histork Ykw of th} New TtslavitnL He 
regards it as uureiu^ouable that he shnulil be asked to proT« 
that the ndn*clt^ recorded in the New Testament did not occtir 
He lutks nti h» accept hfs assertion that MUch mii-^LrlcK wonhl 
lie tiure to he recorded whether tliey oeeurral ov not, an 
tt sufficient justification for refiit^ing to take any aeeount of 
tbcDL He would tind some diJficulty in proving hitt H^sertien 
ill face of the fact that 'no nuch miracles are reconicd* of 
St John t}ie Bapttat, But even if he could get over that 
ditficultiy. the records would still remain, and with them an 
]ni|>eriouA necessity to examine the evidence for ourselves 
and *ee whether we t^m witiMly i»ur own minds on the question 
'whether theee minicleK did or did imjI oii:ur/ 

The most ncri<ju» form of the ebjcction taken t<j tlie 
cvidcikce for Uic mii'acle which Ia to be tJie subject of x|)ennl 
j»tud7 later, the aiirade of our Lord's Rcfluirection, atfectA 

&«0 uitncl cm fh 911* 

€, r< iL 



Cainhridge Tfuolot/teal Enaatf^ 


^0 competence of the witni^eiw^ Tlicy worts wo are told, 
iiot ' itci<^MUQcii]1y trained* experU* and we luive no meaiui 
of <<ni»4(-r?^H,iiiiiiin^ f1i(*rii. This o^'Imh u luul.triilnrly mfc 
iiiel)i<K] of dinr'tiuntiik^ tikcir cii(34'iicL\ At auj mie it opens 
a ivu}' (if rAcnjN^ fn^nj n ililTirnlty wliii^h in begiimiiig tii {irctl 
flcrioTislj- on the opiionenU of Chnstianitj- It can no loDf^ 
bo (li'iiied that the Ap"»tlc« were thcmsclvee genuinely con- 
vinced of Ulc ilceitrrcction of tii<^ir Lord. No ouc vovr 
eerioUAly coutemplate^ accu^ln;: Uiem of connctoun dec^ptiooL 
But, it jnay i^till W \Lrgod Chut we have no means of tuacia- 
taming the grounds of tlielr conviction, and, ©veii if we had, 
il u'[iii1il W* of no tiHc. [t mu th[?ir tiiiHf<irh]ii<< U) Tm Injfd 
iiirictL-t^ii hundred yeani too hoou to be qualiBed witneuicifl of 
«iii(^h i\ fact. 

It IH perhaps worth while remarking: here tltat even if 
tliifl objection wore securely eBiabliehod, if the iioajwU wort 
proved to be uttcsrly utitrufttwortby, tto timt wo ronlly tiad no 
knowleilgp of the evidoneo t" whieh the Apoetlea appealed, 
and if we wei"e sure that the faot could only be proved by 
evidence out nf reju^lt of ^n untmiritHl filiHrrvrr, we i^liould not 
hfivc priive4 that the Uemrrecrtion never ti»ok plat^e^ We 
ftJtuuM otdy l>e driven luurk an the <|iicHLion ttf the jjitrinric 
credibility or incredibility of the fact. 

We »huald Jlavt^ to conaidor, on the otic hand, whether it 
i« in itt«elf coBicr to liehevc thnt the career of a pcmoiialltj 
itemotij^tmblT uni()U« ended in an unexampled ivar — cr 
wliether the impression made dni-ing Hi« ( Jfe <iii earth created 
tJie eonvk'ft'iii of His hmmirtnlity ; and on the other, wliether 
it iaeouHihteut ^vitli unr belief In the fiiniliimentiU nttioiiality 
of the nniverrie to Iwlieve tluit the niiy;«1 ^iritiial force 
whieh has appeared in hmoan history should liave lit-cn \x\mvx\ 
on a delib4ion. 

1 do not wish to foreclose theee djscua^ioiia, or to a,-wiime 
that the quostioriH su^i^Bted have only one ikmmi bio answer 
I on!y wigh to call attention t<i the feet that, even if the 
contention which we are eonaiderinf; were to lie goiicrndly 
aeeojdt-d, wc- ^hotdil %tA\\ Inive Ihern l>efore iia 

Meanwhile I should myuelf nenoutdy cliallen^e llie valSdJQr 
of ttiectmtention. 

Ym] Spiritual and hi»iiyriccU eviileJiceJbr Miracles 323 

No dfflibt \t we were endeavouring to a*»cerTalii the 
tiwririer iif tln.^ lt<*»irr(.>i-tiori luul tht t'xnct 8e(}i]eDt%> of 
phj^cai chanj^ that aaHJiiiiiatiicHJ It, »:- tlie rmturv uf Liu- 
UcMirrvctiikii Biirl}, MipiKiHing it ULimblt^ nT ctcMiriptKrfi in 
any tonus at prcacut arailabio Ut scieiioe, we ahijiikl reigiiii^e 
tho BAviittATice of hijc)il>- tniirKH:! focujtju^ of observation. 
But if tho ^t to Ix- o^ttib lis tied \s the foct of an empty 
tomb, why ehould we doubt tlio evideucti of even that were 
gearching for the Body that )ia4] hiiii in it ax the niuict 
precioiii* trotihtm* timt tliif W4»rlil cMifiUiinc'd ? 

tf the eMHt'tiLijil truth lo W eoriveyeil whs the jH^rHDrinT 
itleiitit; "f liiiti whtJ iliod ami wan buricii with Him who was 
miwd ami ap|rt.'aro(l wliat evidence \h to be coi»pEireid with 
that of iiitimato personal friends i 

But, we ahall be told, we have not got this ertdenc^ 

Wc must of conree coiwiiJer thnl objeetioii pri-fiently. 
My present point is thiit such evidenco, if it be producible, 
la fiuflielent, Tlie a priori objiM^tion from the lai!k of 
w.ii/nrific triiiTiing on the part of tlie witJieweiH will not 
nUiiid exaEaiimLluii, 

To Aum up: the conclusion which I wouhi draw from the 
Mtud}' of the ijueiftian of evidence U thk 

From tJio scientific point of view the evidence rcunirod to 
e^tablinh any " very wonderfid cveiit ' in essentially the same 
a« that required for any other historical event; onlv it must 
be scmttnized with special care, proportionate to it*^ ante- 
cedent impn>lwtbilily jmlyril rr"<im thai jMiiiil. <>f virw. 

P'roni the fhec>lo^i:]d ]N>iiit nf vit-w our Jiiflgrmeiit on the 
'fnlracnluiu' character of the event, where the fact of EtM 
occurrence is c^tukliahcd. will di;|)cnd on the lijfht which it 
thrown on the character and purpose of Uod. 

And from this point of view it i^ worth while l>eiinug in 
mind that a thwlogian'e jiitl^emeut of the a fn'iori probability 
of any event may vaiy very considerably from that of a man 
who haiku on Uie virne e%'ent inen*1y hi ihe li^^ht L>f lis 
relation to our preaent knowledge of 'the scope of natural 



Cambridge Thmloffical Emjys 


For iitstJtnce. liu who hcos rciis*iit tc> acc<*pt the CYtristJAn 
viow of the Fcraoii of Jcauh Christ uould rof^ixi it its aato^ 
cedetitly probnble tliat gpoci&l powera vould be maDifosUd 
by Htui in the counto rvf Hiit uiiviiUrv. 

A mail who believer in (.loci i:aiiiir>t be surprised that God 
xhrtult] lit a TntLrviilloiiM w:iy huv(* kIkiwil HiiiiHC'lf worthy of 
tht? tni^~t T^'iHiried in Mini l»y Oike who cHd ik(jL Hhrhik fhim 
HUrreiLileriii^ HiEtiM^lf f^t i]r*]ii1i iiL ulttvliriH-n to w>ml Hi- fblt 
to be Hij^ Fathi'i> will. 

ilc will not on thivt jurctnint scruHitizc the available 
ovidciicc with Lcsa Bcnipiiloue cAro. He more than otben 
modi foci the Aolcmn obli^tfou to ''ffuiklow worlciiuuiJilup," 
Biit h(f cnniiot prottnid to eay that his fitith doce Dot aflect 
hi« Judgement on che artecedeiit probability i^f an evoiit like 
thci R^urrcction of Jesue Chritft He is more p^ure of the 
cup»icity of mftu'a moral Judgement to deieruiiitv what in or \a 
iiot worthy of tht? E^huinu^ter of OiiJ, th;«t] of hu ioMWtini) 
qiialiitcattonA for deoidiTig a qticAtioii of ftcleiitifln jirulm- 


Let US coiix- then flnatly t'l ink oxairiiTiution of tho histon- 
cnl evidence foi' thci lleHumsctJoii. 

Thifl evidtiiK^ rjiimot* wHliout riwk of MeHona ini!«repr«- 
i<ient«tron, be limited to the brief accounts contained in the 
CaDonlc£d (ioapcl^ and in the Actfi of the Apoatlea, and to 
th« ineldentnl olliigioiLd in the other books of the Xer 

The «Tent is not leolat^d. It etands in the eloaeat reladon 
to the whole connie of GoiVu dealings with Xhv people of 
lHnu.'l. and to x\\& life and ileath nf llitn whc» whm emufied, 
Atid with whom (TlirMLlaiiH l>elt(!ve tiiat tliey can htill hi^d 
communion bccnufic lie i§ alive for ercnnore. 

Even the direct evidence for the particular (act catuiob be 
liuirly oittinuited npfLrt from ita whole cont4>xt. 

We eafinoi however do more thati indieittc vory briefly 
flome few points in the evidence in lliia wider uetua 

Tin] Spiriliiai awl hUlonrxU ei^ideticc/or Miracifj* IJSii 

Wti inij-st liL'j;in ihLIi tliu evidence fiir n N|H?riMl ivjiitiun 
between Grnl uml tlie pe*>plc of IsmcL The solid buais of 
feet bearing on this point, of which historical criticism \^ 
bound in any caj^e to ^nvc acronnt, lEi supplied i)> (loiniincnt« 
oo»ii>*wina the Uld Tcslwnent. TTio rwiilt of u wntwry of 
Btrenuoui^ crittcisni devoted to the elucidutitm of tli«ae docu- 
iri(.-ntK han not bet-n friiitleHM. even thoiif^h liliideutAi iim> wlill 
Iw Far rnnii ^riicnit >i,y;rL*en)ent on nmny iMi[)orrniit poli&tJf. 
And iii> <loiiht tho Christian argiinicnl tiee<la reHtatuiiient in 
the new light. Hut tht? dctcnnination tc» raid eiLch book im 
&r od i>ossible hit5tnrit:al]y, to understand it in the tirct 
instance aa tJio writer and flrnt readers of it must have 
nnd(.'rp^ti)od it, while it bait rondorud th«f old arxmiutrit fn^ni 
iaolattjrl prophecies a« niitiquntcd a« tlic nr^iimLHit fitJin 
'><|j(foi!i] dchign/ has yet cHtaliliHh^il the f^u^t irf the hMplratiou 
of th«^ ProphctH nn a hrniijlrr and i!rc-|>cr bniiin^ 

■ Soo A. D. D&Tiilauii, Old Tttta- 
rai-ut Pri/phivjf. \*\i^ h'jll il W. 
Kobortuu Sniitli, TA< Prophttr 

] *lnnjlii iwrt, [njwtvcr wi^t] Uf 
iiii|ily ttiHt Iho wh^iU? nrgiinioiit from 
' HjH^diJ i^tveJii-Uom^ ' IN worltilcad. 
My fwliiii; tviUi rivinl W iL uiti 

atdoTUt^OQ of tlK> [LiKkLu^ to whk^i 
I haTB JHfil rtfcriH^d. From tlic 

vitll (squul ulcunR^A aiii] cugciicy 
l>y Hcnoanot f TftA^vghtr m Jfch'^ton^ 
ji. fiV> AftvT UA|iljutjlttg fiLJH tlie 
|flii>incnnoiiii, i»/ ft tMJiil'lino aach up- 

hv KTiJ to Iw tilt? nwiill of t!ic -lUt**- 
inhtic :i^*liitTi 1-f wHI-kmtwii luLtunJ 

"* llo " ^tLtj oboorvcrj '* w^tuki 
tliervfutv Iw hn) t(i (iiiiitiiilu LiuiL \C 
thb tolfolufpcul iritL*r]kn<rjUiHU <if 
tbo fitcta w«tv tf> bo HLVod at b}\^ 
it ct^uld only be io hj iaking n 
much wider view of the mitycct 
titiui ITU ftlfordod by tbo partlculiu' 

ciuoei of JLp]uiJvnt doai^i, irlklcti fit 
rtrtl iLii|HaLn'd n" i.^ogcut- Tliut lii lii 
fciy, ho wtmW !flt'l llint lio mn*t 
iilMifidoii Ifio ati]i|iiuiitioTi of any 
tpffifil Uosi^ ill ihu c<m>[>ri 
of (hnt i>urtii.'iiJiir luiy, Atul f:J! lutcb 
U|Kiii Oio tlieury of li muoh thow 
t/fr'if*i-iit t^toigii ill llie tuiuiLruciioii 
of imr.^ grtHt f4(*ht*mi* *if tmlun* im 
JL wholb. Iti flliorts hi5 ii'^uid rv<jujro 
to difllodiTC his EtrgTuncui froiH iJic 
*jKvijJ ?nijii*tnii*nt» whifb iii tlm 
aril iiifttiLDoc appc-artd t:^ him ifo 
iniffgc*live» to thofio gvnoral lawfl 
lit iiatutH, ivhidi by thoir unjl^l 
fUJt'nilicHi give riae tn a co«ui>»i mi 
ilUtiiiyntiulitici frifiii u cha^w.' 

' S|ii:ii;iiil iircibrttMiift ' vith thpir 
!(I»|iE4n.iiiU> ilkiml fiilfihii<illC KiMrm 
l*> iiiu fr\»m thin ]Mimt uf vk*w to 
i;<>]Ttflp<md *:hsc\j to the 'apccid 
lu^iUfllliloiitei' ill DittutL". AfUir iJl» 
tho 'iipcdiLl iL^Juitmontflf' whilo uu^ 
Mq ta b«ar tlio wot^it af the wliolc 
iirjjpiMJiiTil, yet pcjiiit tii titii riifltt 
4ilr«:tlon, Thev aiiggwit iJiii itka 
af a ootsfuos^ iirid m Uioir turn uto 


326 Cumbridffe Theological Essatfs [vra 

If wo lire here, iw 1 bclit^e, in touch with nti objective 
feet capable of being eetablislied by the ordinary methods of 
hlatoridil iiivcjiti^ntuiiir the vay U ofivn f»r tliu cxAiiiiiiAtion 
uf the sp<.^cial tiow of the philoeophy of tlio histon^ of Ifirae) 
tbnniilal^ !ii the o]>&riUif|f iiei)t£iice of the KpULh? t«i the 
Hcbmw*. If (iiid did Hjiojili to Israel in olil timcM indirm 
portioitJi and hi divers wayA in 9ht pmpheU, it in woi-tli con- 
dderinu irhcthi^r |}« did or dvl not crovni lU^ provioua 
revelations b\ speaking at Ifist in One who stood in ati or&n 
nearer relation to Himself ad Sen, 

Wo conic then to our aocond point, the evidence for 
the pr^ence of a unique element in the Person of JemiB 

lEeit? affain the l^cU, that we havi- in any L^aj^e lo glte &ii 
licanmt of, art? tht; Ixiokn of the Xe^v Ti^taiii<^iiL 

Id dcttlins with thi«c facM it ifl well to begin our study 
with the Pauline KpiAtlt;^. Tlic in(x«t recent dirtruEv^inn i>f 
tho8c documents in the articles contributed by a Dutch 
ppofenMor. H. van Manoii, to the EncifflopaMia BibU^a has 
a )iiffnificance iht* iinportance uf whioh it Ih, I beli<iT«, 
difficult to oi^errate- With more than Tcutoniti " rigour and 
vigour" he pre*«?ii bin prlmdpleti to their Uit^L-a1 coitebisJon 
utterly rrtpmllcw nf rocdvrd *»pinioji*. So IiIh work ha^ fit 
lea^t the tnuiit of bringing uilo eWr li^iiL tht* n-al vmui- 
niiocd by tliifl Jiart of the New TentomcDt 

Htnrting from a fhtnkly humanitarian view of the Pei^^^H 
of Jeaua he waa atmck: by tike tact, to wTiicb in<leed ffidu^ 
Lil^htftKit and otli&ix liftxi long atftt calleil attention, that in 
every one of the Epistles apcribod lo St Paul, even in the 
little letter tii Phib^rnon, :tTi ofViee and ibginly are atiributeil 
to iliwUH aa a 4fnjn:e of Divhie (jraoe hi stome real xeiwe 
coordinate with tin* riitliiT, which -St Paul wnihi not have 
attributed to oiil' wIjoiw he beHeveil to lie nieit^ly man. 

jiuLifltnL bjr Uid Ijiu nf « ivwnMw. to my mind muikf yivtn 4^ bt 
V/liati* truo'T the Hlinl« can hardly ■ ntHbtfiET omjl; by FroraM0r4lM|^Ck» 

TliG Ixiiiriiib' of t)k!A Idtik on ''Hie CliHHtUu Klt-rn^ntln Uiebouk 
iipAcrtflt pi^iotifii]i4 wiLH toic^fivtcd of lutkfth' (ISSIX 

ynH^iSpirihml ami hutorkaJ i^rnhna^for Mmicles 327 

He maintain ud, tliorofore. unruly quite con-Dctly, that tlie 
view of the Person of Christ iuvolred ia the Pauline EpUtleA 
cniilil Ui^i liHve VjiX!!! develojiori inU, of thi; fftdn nf t)i<* lifii of 
Jc»utt iM lie i^i/iiTfiraf tit^iii. wTtliin the liftit-iine <>f Ht Paul 

He waH III co]iHe<|iiencc Ikouiid cither to mofliFj hiet view of 
the PcrHoii trf JchUa or boldly to inipupi the genuineness of 
Uie vlK>le coltcction of lettci'd attributed to bt l'&ui< He 
choec the Iivttor denpcralo ultcnjatire — boldly chjillen^ntf the 
claim uf tike doounienta to be i^ej^rded a£ in any sense ^ letters' 
at all. Tlke> tiru^ really dogmatic treatiM^ tlie work of a School 
or Party rather than of an iiidiviJnal, and »ddrt'j^8ed cArly in 
the Sc(:"iid Hejitury In no tini- in luirlii^uhir. 

it ib not Hur]>riHliig that his c-riticA found It diffietilt to take 
thii« aiiidiniion nuriiiunly. 

It revolts our litcmry conscience^ No ouc could have 
been betrayed into it except luider the tyniiMiy t»f a priori 
considerations. But it hn^ at least this merit that it bringu 
into elear U^ht tlic t^tron^tli of tht: tt»tlnkony of tlie PaiLliTie 
Kpii^tJes to the prt^senco of a 'AUpeniaturHl' element in the 
Person of Jesng. 

Wo must pasa on now to consider the cridr^ncc supplied 
by the UoHpuiK Tlie nnbject htta alroatly U.en treated at 
Idi^h under dift'eront aB[x;cti§ in two of tbo i'JijsayH in this 
Tolume, ao I gladly content myself with eallin^ attention very 
briefly to the one point of t^pecial iiu|K)rtanee to my preHent 

The ffiiir GoF^peli^ a^ they stand imply throughout a 'MUjver' 
nat^ind ' element in the Person of Christ 

By this I do not uieait [norely that in eac'li of them mighty 
worlii are attributed to Jg3U& I agree with i'rofcftsor Ty'^'^'^l^ 
that we have no riyht to infer tliat the powers put forth in 
even the mightiest of them could only be wielded by One tv'ho 
wa« ei^entialty m(»ro tJum man, WImt I mean is that the 
Person depicted in them h AupemaCural In the essential 
fijitnrc^ of His persona! charaeter^ f.<;. His sitdewnexM, and tlm 
rt^latiiin in ^Idofi llu <:laiiiLH Us titand butli toward t}od Llift 
Futile r and IIi!« biutJjer men. 

328 Ciimbruhjt^ Thvuhyical Ssmy^ [vm 

This iti true, I muintain, of eiich of tbe Eran^clietB, of the 
SynoptUu no leas than of St John. The only h\'poUieiiti thai 
cwk HTCitinit for thr r-ntiii mutU'i'-nf-fnct w»\ in whirh th^ 
deacrSbe tUu iiut^t vtuw^vifiiX of H'm utirkri aiid worit< \n tliat 
the vrriten reg?ir(let) llicin Ah in t.h« strirtcnt ncivm tiat^inJ 
and uonnal a^ coming: from Jchuh m they conceived llim, 

Uurttttnly iir\y uttcin|»t tt> vliitiinnto th<? Atipeniiitunil de- 
ment redneck the work t>f each of them to a ehao6 of 
incoheretit fragments'. 

It U true ttlnc> ut ihoue fw whtmi the Rvftngp)Ut« wrotv* 
Though two at lea^t of tbo four inay fairly be wiid to wrtu 
vt'ilh 11 di>}^nia.i'n^ j)iir[M*"*e. there ir* iiu Ht^n ihut. jliij iif t))c?n] in 
putting forward a view of the Prrwiii nf Jchii* wbirb he rL-gnnlft 
ai4 likely U> Alfet:t hia nradei^ a^ Htrange ainl uiifainilisir 

Thefic st^tcmints are hide pen dent of any jndircniCTU that 
we may form a^ to the dato or authorship or historical value 
of the dociiuiQiUh before ud. 

lliuy di?acril>e a ertmiiiini chni-ncteriMtie into the ori^n of 
which it is the buauiess of historical cHtldam w> enquire. 

Wimtever view w;? lake iif the niinrwH of inff^rmatum 
acct'H^ible t4j the illirerent wH|4>i>>« and ol' the n^e thai thej 
mivle of the inattTini l)ef<)R^ them wc »n\ I IieTicve, Ixnind in 
admit tliat there i« at once a diHtinct indiTtdrmlity in the 
portmit^ of .leans which they ^vcmlly jircwrit to «». nnd tki 
the ssume tnnc a wnKlerfiil bnmiony between tlie diifercnt 
portraits They are, wo feel no hesitation in aayiuKt jKirtititta 
of the same Person. If so, Is 1( not u-i-uCioiiftI to lu-coant fi>r 
thU r4?«ult on tiie riUjijHMtiion th>t,t the EVrwm vn depicted b 
a purely iniagiTiai'y Iteing, an Ideal eveli^etfl hy ^mietbfuff 
VAifiiely fNJiiceivrd a--^ (Iit^ <!1in'!<(tiaii eon«eioiiiifi»w out of 
a slender basis of ^natui'a)* fact? 

1 maintiiin tlicrcfore, m I wftid, that the four Gospcb aa 
they irtflnd imply throughont a supcmatural clement in die 
Person of Jeena 

In other worfls tliey present ti* with jiwt the bsiekp-ound 
which we require to render the Patdine EplFitlesL hitelli^llila 

1 K«e {fonomJIy F. I). Maurice {Tiu i/n^ </lA« JV.T, tol i.). 

YUi] Spiritual amlhi^ori€alevideiice/o'rJfiractegS2d 

We can paaa on now to the exAmhmtfon of the evidence 
for tilt' >i|K^dfif fiict <»r tho lU'sdi'TCctkiiu 

H«re »^n we tJi&Il do well Ut bt-giii with Ht PhuI LtBi^tute 
the nmk^nttU on which mir juilgemeiit luu* tn lio fonncwl tint 
lean ojitMi tu i|iieHtioii, though expedeitcc p4»)WS that tliey uiav 
be very TnrioUBl:F iiitcrprctwU 

The cardinat p&Hmp;o m of course 1 Con xv. In thig 
pcuwiitfc St i'rml is proiJivriiig tlie way for tui uru;ii]ii«nt mi ttio 
gonenU resurrection of the dea^ He i& ^oin^ to treat th« 
truth ofagenuml rt-s^iirrection, which nomeonheCoiliithlanft 
were deiiyiiij^, a* an iriLvilnhlc di^hictiun Unm tiw ftut ni our 
Ixirtl H Hef<nrrtH:U()Ti, which h^d been an artirJe of Kaith among 
tlii.mi from the JiegTitniiig. Mt' pnTjuicw hin arK'niifot ilieref* »r<T 
by ri?caUiiifc iht* priniapk ardden of tlie (UirifltiAii (Voed Of he 
hfttl ilcliTcrcd them when he fimndcd the Ohurch in Corinth 
four or five vc^ira bt^fore, lie hcffina with the Pe^th "for our 
aiiLB Aceorditii; to the Sci-iptiireH," and the ilnrial He is not 
eik^go'l hi {^oiiKideriiLK the 'logTnatic ^if^iifieaiice of tlio^e 
articles, so that the rt'fcivncc to tliem must, it would «eeiti 
(ifht* Ik tt(>1 i|n(jtiiig iiit^eUriiiiiiLtly frtim n Ktereotj]>ed riiniiiiUi), 
he nicnnt to lay stress tm the fvieC thnt Chrli^t liafl entered 
Comjilett.'ly into the liuuian ixpenence of iloHlh. 

In any case the acpniatc reference to the buriaJ. in eo 
coDcise a pa^sa^, h remarkable. 

He tlicn ptwsca on to the Resurrection on the thirl ihiy, 
thie alflo b**ing ''according to the 8tn-iptni'efl, ' and lo th« 
appearances to CephniL and to ''the Twelve," 

Till? olher ap|>e-urnnrr» hi ihr liNt, "to iiiiWHnlis of ^vc 
hundred hrelhieri At nnee. Uf .Imuex. Lo all tlie AjKintle^/ and 
^laat of nil'' to St Paid hiniMHf, may or may not have formed 
part of the early preaching, rit Paul doee not cxpreasly 
iuelude thum in it Unt Uierc tf no indication that he t» 
communicating any fa^«* not already ihmiliar to hiu i^rrc 
epondentA. Tf the list as a whole ia in any sense formal and 
complctCt it is nnlikely that he Nhoul<l have comiauiiicatcd 
oidy a part of it on hia flrst visit He record* it now !n full, 
not Im-chum* the frn't of C^ir^t v Resnn'^etion wait (jaeAtioitetl 
at CoiiiiUi, hilt becautier in view of the polemical luw lie haa 

330 Cfimbridtje TheoJofjkal Etatffs fimi 

g^Iii^ t^ make of Uie fact, U wait itnpotlaiit to ^Ive a dear 
W»»*lx^'tii« oF t.lir i^vidf^icu liy wliich it wiw Miipixtrted. 

Wliat. tlirii i*^ l.btrw];;iiifuiim:e(>f rnhSrili-'it for ii^u»-*]«j f Tjrt 
im i-\jUiiLiju fiH't into itj? ilnU-- Wc liiiil it in a docuinciit the 
date of which may be approxinmte]> fisefl at Si> A.a But tlie 
[*iilMtJiTicc of the list, the uxrm if not the whole, had bwH 
6uniIiELr to the C'orinthianfl for five yeore, and to St Foal at 
loiwt for twenty, [t wiu« not hiA ui'eatioiL Up had rcoeirod 
Lt, atjd whatevoi' (liff^roiiccs tliero may hatti been between hiiQ 
aud the origiual AfxibtleB, he clainiA thU at leamt &« common 
ground: "st* we pni^wh, wwl w> yc Iwlicvcd." 

[t i«i1l [ii-(>1iH,bly HeeiEi 111 iriHTiy mt^rc iTifliTL}; U» ejianiiiie 
further iiilir the powiblc fiEktcicih^iib<^ of the li«t mo accreditocL 
But if the liat lias the fuiidamcutftl iiupodlauce in regard to 
ttie whole evidence for die Ui>§urTeeth'u with which tI ii 
^neiidly credited, time epont on it cannot leuliy be wiut«d, 
and the points to whJob I wish to call attention have A beoriig 
on the whole prohleni whlrh U upt to Ik> oveHooked. 

hi the ^t place it \% intpiiH^iibki U^ itonbt that Uie 
dWuHHtiin of Uie evideiicu f(^ the ReHunectioti luUBit date 
from tlie moment that C1irij»hiAtiily ^vA Ix-gnn t€> nttnwt 
public attention* Wliatevei' may have boon the cnec witli tho 
little bruid of oii^nal lUsciplos, it is Eimply incrcdibte that 
Uiuy could have attempted Ut claim for tlie Ciueitied the 
dimity of Messiah on aiiy other ^ouiid than that of a 
trlumpbint Divine vindication. Whatever may be the 
genend hJ-Jtoriwil value <»f Act* i. lo v. we vantiot danbt 
tlial. the A|Nirtt1i» Hp|)cji]ed from tlie fti'nt, an tiiej are 
rcpre^L'^iitcd in tho^e rlmpter? im fLpj^calin^ to the fiict 
of tilt; HeKin-reilton. 11iey mu»t therefore from Che first 
have Imd to istand croM-cuiniination on the grounds of their 

If «o, itf it nntccedcntly improbable tluit a lint ^tluiuld rety 
eoon be drawn up of the witnesses to whom public appeal 
conM be made f 

How far tlieri drte^ this carry u* ^ St Pauls eoiivenJoDT 
ueeurdin^ to Hnninek'H clironologyT took {ilaix' wlthhi ti yvar 
of the CructfixioiL 

vm] SpiritiuUmid hietmi^ evidmicefor Miracles 331 

The flreatcflt interval, ihiU it ii* i>oMil>l€ to »llow for it. 
ie tlmt giveu by Mr TunierS and it is only six or i^evell years. 
And St Paul's atndj of th© uvidonco fir the Ik'fiirroution 
luust f;o back tit leii^t to tlte miiuflti^y of Stephen. 

IxX m leave now ttie ijuoitioii of the date of the liKt^ ttiid 
(xime (rt r[tieiitEonH of it* iiit^rprelatioiL Tlitw? re(|ulre fur 
tlieir elucidation a ciitirisini a littlr more liiHfeinr'Hl nmn 
lliat whidi iH t-onteiiL U> i»i>lal<5 lh<r dot:iiiJi«!iit alf<jgothcr from 
itB context, BiDd thcii to deal irith it« language a« lawyers, 
rightlv or wrorifily, deal witi) the rubrics. 

V<!tT iiitftaiicx)} if wc are riglit in r>ur eoiiC4»ntioiL that wiA 
arc dealing simply with a list of tho witneeBC^ X<fp tho 
Ri»nrn*ctio», we nmst go astray if we pei>iist in callinfc It 
R narrative, and laying stress on its omiH^iuns, when we 
wi*h n» find '<:oiilm(lictions* between St PanV* Ficcoutit and 
that of the K^'argelirtlA 

To luke a Hinj^le Lxample. It is i-eall^- Irillini; to lay htit^w 
ill this cormcxirin on the aWnce of reference to the empty 
Tomb or to spoken words. 

Kven tho significitncx; of the ixl)*4cncc of any reference to 
tlie appearance to Mary Ma^fdalenc depends on tho purpose 
for which the list wa* drawn up, St Paul himself may well 
have 1x,-en i^Loi'arit of it. It ii not taentioned in St Luke, and 
St John\ who describes it^ does net count it in reckoning up 
the appeamnee; to the DisLiplet*. 

A^tn. the list by itftelf tells nothing as to the nature of the 
appearances which the witnenstn attested, llie only pointa 
alH>ut vvhicli wc can be eertriiEi are that St Paul I't^ganls hit^ 
own expei-ienoe on the way to Damascus, in apitc of soine 
abnonual features, at) 8u1i»itantially the same in kind ag that 
of the other Apustles, and that he iise^ the liflt an a whole as 
the ItasJK of an argnnn-nt on beiialf not inerely (»f j>eKoiial 
inniEortality, but of a repmrriH'tion of ttx^ di-tul which in hi 
some real saisc corporeal, thougli he ha*< to fttrain langnaK*^ 
almoi^t to Uie hrenkttig point to find a phnww "a spiritual 
body" to ijitimatc his conception of tho now organism. 

■ S»v ArticU 'Chronob^' in lliutiupi' B.D. 
* StJohnxxl 14. 


Cajiihridge Thtologwal Ussaifs 


One iBAt point boforc wc i>aas on. The list U not » list 
of ^vitncffic^ to tliv ite^unoctioii, but of witiiCMeA to Uifi 
appearances of Chriet after the BcflnrrectioiL We arc often 
reminded, mid reriiruled nghtly, that iio:ie of our nitnewes 
cLaiiiiH U\ iiavu se^o our Lorti leave tlie Tumb. The nilcti^e U 
certftiiily i<euLarka,lj1e. ff tbe aci^DiiiiU of tbe eveikt^ nt the 
Tt)inb were iU4 leg«i»hLi'> a^ (he most recent eriticiKiii would 
have OA regnrd llieiii, 1 could not but account it a» m^ 
cxplicfbblc A feitrh Ojiit wild capable of creHtinic, ^tii 
absolutely no ba^i^ in tact., £o circunutantial an account of 
tlie euLf>ttnoss of t)i<? i'unib, wouhi n^uredly not have left 
without a u'ttnoe^ the ore iiioTnent on which tliu si^iitkauce 
of ita whole creation eeenie to depend The porteiitou* 
account in the BvmiffifUmn Petri brings iiitt* i-li^ar i-elief the 
Aeir-reHiraiiit nf the Canouk-al (iiMpelK in tiiirt respect 

Hilt tliii jioiiit t'> whidi I viiMh Ui f-j\\\ ii\.U*x\\\(n\ U thtfl. 
St i'aul prefaccK bin list bj a reference to the llesurrcction 
ae a &u:t by iteclf, independent of the aE>|HNii'atkceA, a bet 
boo which wa§ capable of bcinc prcciecJy dated "on the third 
day," If aJ] thut htr meant waa tliat " Ho appeared t:>n tbc 
thini day to Ceptuie," why did lie nut «ay «o!/ 

To sum up then, St Paul i^ires a lUt, which may fiiirly Iw 
ivjfHnh^t] :tK h>niui1 and prt."ci»*e, nf utXTcdited witnewie^ who 
claiuied to Iwve wen the Itiwa Lord. Witii two of tiie uicirt 
important he had had elur*e iiiterconi-Me three yean* after his 
own conversion. And their witncAs liad even Iwfore hia 
conversion been sufficient to ittart a movement which had 
not <in]y ]ittnict<>d the attention of the authoritieB at 
Jemsalem, but had spread to somo distance l>c>owl tJie 
limltA of the Holy Land. And be regarded their experience, 
Ln which he claimed to have shapofJ, as the pro(*f of » Rewir* 
rectiiin wliicli in :4on)e MeiiHe could be ealletl coqioiT-ul 

Let ns come now to the nnrrativeA in tlie Canrndoil 
Uoapcls, tind see whether tlicre is uuythiiig cither in the 
eharaetor of blie appeamrces thenuHJveM or the attendant 
cireuinstances, to help us to unde^tand the grouudi^ o«i which 
this cuhcluciioa waii Imum^L 



vm] Spiritual aiul hUtQrical evideiwe/or Miracles 333 

The uarnitlves come to tis fVom flxe dlfferGnt sourcen. 
or t.hwTO it i* tiniv litiionillv ngrcM^il tlmt the ttct-oimt iu 
Mark xvi. 1 — H vha pu^ilmhett fintt, AtuI wuh lu^trinlly 
in the 1mii<L« of llie otTicr tlinw EvAUgulisbi sulMtttntinll/ ^ 
in it*» preecut shape. 

To thiA cxtout it may bo fiur to Uiy that the other 
Bvat]Kp[mt« were depoiKlont; on St M&rk. At the somo time 
it i* clear ihat each of them poAAefued aecee^ to other «oiireu» 
of hifiiTTiiatioii wbleh euableil tlieia to eiipplenieiLt and even 
niwlity the aceouiit in St Mark ivi. 1 — e> 

Tilt? RfLb T^oiiree to whieh refereuee itt Diade ttlji'vo m 
cuntHincd in Ht Mnrk xri, St*— 30. In tlilH the relaLionH Heean 
to lie rePersLM) and tho wiiter most prubabl}' drew Wis niiLteriuU 
from 8t Matthew, tSt Jvultc, and St JoIhl 

The account in St Mark sn 1— B is ui^fortniuiteij 
iniT>crfcetf breaktiikf off tu tho niidiUe of a sentence- It 
dewiriUys ihe vigit of thretj women to the Tomb» und the 
appearance of an angel who announcea the Reeurreclion, bitls 
tbvni I'xaiiiiiie iltv place where the Lord h»d lain, and pmniii^es 
ail Hjk|i4rai-arKM.<i in Oadilee. In the nnfinibheil nLiLe of the 
OoM[K<) ari^iiiienU fmui silence are nniiMimlly preoirioiu. 
It would be rash to rest an\thing eren on the anthonty 
of the cxpreuA i^tuteiiient in Uie broken sentence. U is 
impoHsiblc to take it rk pieft tk ia Uttrf. For if thoy bad 
never s^id anything to anyone the Kvan^li^t cttuld never 
bttve recorded their espenencen It ifi perhaps worth whiJc 
to call attention to the fact that St Mark has a curioufl habit 
cif ipndifyiniE his universal negitUves. 

St Maltitew reeordn a vitiit of the two Marys U) see the 
Tomb on Sntnnhiy ereiiing. Then, without furtlier note of 
time, there follow an earthquake, and the rolling awuy of the 
atojie by an an^el of Jehovah ; tho t(.^rr»r of the Komau 
guftrd; the utterance of the an^l (apparently outside the 
Tomb) to the women, unliMtantially the sume n» that fninid in 
t Mark ; the flight of the women to report to the Duaeipleti. 

' Ur A- Wright mrintuhlf tliftt i\i*y nurmtivo hoM boou twice rvvlBod, knd 

vva u> liiovriiEiuiJBbHirkuviyiiictbttt ui uvt reprtvouUHl lu bt Luke- 


Cambridge Theoh 



The vholo 9toT7 (KtnoludeA with an &pi)earance of the Lord to 
the women on tlieir wny and the ropiitt of thv «o1dSe» tu the 
chief [irieHbi. 

8t Luko records not the purchfuw but the jtrcptiratioD <if 
M|>ict^ on th*- Fridaj'f?) eTciiing: a viaJt of certain womeo 
early on Srlunilny inornrnjc, mid thoir ciitrwicc iiiU* the 
c^miit}' Tomb ; an apiie^iraiicc of two aii^Ie who recall 
the predictions cjf the Ui»un-(?ction ^ivcn in Ualilec. The 
woinen (it ia not clear which) report to the Apoatlcd and art 
ditflK^litrved Th(j iliscipW on thci way to Kmntau^ (>*- ^1> M-«ai 
to have hcHrd nothii^ of any vision of the Lord. 

8t John d^^ribcti a viJiit from Mai-3 Ma^lalene to tlie 
Tomb "while it was yet dftrk." mid h«r rqjort of its viDpti- 
ncfi^ i*i St Pf^ter and th« othor disciple whom Je^iih loved. 

Tlic'j' venfy the fiuit aniJ notice especiaUj liic condiUon uf 
the ^'avc'Clotlies, .\ftcr their departure Mary Maffdalcne 
aeca hrat two angcU in the Tomb and then the Lord HinutcU' 

Now we must freely adinit that we have not tlw meuis 
for harmoniKinK €omp1i*te1y the«e difibri^'nt aeoounK 

But the pointit on which they differ must not blind ua to 
thv Mtreiigtl) of their lenf hiK>ny to tht* um* ]>oint »n which ihuy 
ngrce. Not oir-^ but> nil thcMr account* nnist be rejocted as 
pure invention* if the fSrave waa not em])ty. 

\jt:i ug see whnt this involvoi. 

11k account of tlie Aliniatr> in St Mark, an wc arc a^urcd 
on tJic evidence of one of the diitcipl<»t of tho i^ird. etnbodice 
notes of SSt Peter's preacliinc- The special reference to Peter 
in tfie me^Mftf^e (oven thnm^h the an^ol (which \v^ a peculiar 
fcnture of St Mark's account) U one out of many remarkable 
ctinflrTiiLLtioiK frni:i hiU*nial evident* of tlie aubHtantiflJ 
acturacy t*f tlii^ tni^litiou. Yet if the Grave wha not cnipQ, 
wo miiftt believe Uiat lier« we ^lafia (without the !ilig)it£KL 
indication \x\ tho s^tnicturc of tlic Gonpcl) a]t<i(:cUifr away 
from ttic rcffion of historical reminiscence to pure legend, 
created by aome ploua Chnatiau foucy to ai^ply a foundatioo 
for a iniLttirial view of the Lord'a lU^urreotioii, a Icffcnd 
which not only could have had no eaiietiou tn St Peter'd 

vin] Splntnatami hitiiorictil eiitleitee/or Mtrarhn 935 

genuine remitiiscenceti, but wbieb muBt Imve snpplnnted 
tfiflwi^ reminiscences before it eoiikl have gnltieil ii<.T-r])tJiTi(!«^. 

Hlmitarly the account in tlie ruijitli OoH|*el claims to come 
to iiH on the Authority uf an e>e'vituc3& Even tfiOHC whn 
atiU rcfiiit tlie eTidence which leads ii^ to regoj'd it aa cbo 
vork of ^t John liimself ui^ for tlic moat T>urt reoily to lutiiiit 
th&t it initat embody genuine rL^miDiseeiiceH of hie teaching. 
ft ia at leaat in a aecon^lary hc!I80 Johannine. Here, aj^aiii, 
if the Grave was not empty^ the g^nuin^ JohatiniitQ remiui- 
Hcence must have been ou^^ted by a new ttnd even bolder 
exertion of Uie legend ^treating fH,nL'y. Ftir H ieoI. only Hnli^ 
»«titiiteA fictitious exp43ri6nce8 of the feittifnl women for the 
genuine experience of St Peter ^ut it invents fn^vh Jofiunmoe 

-A^caJn, thcro ih good evidence for identilying the anthor 
of the tliird Gospel an<l the Acts with a companion of 
St PauL He claim^to write on the authority of eye-wilueflfteti. 
Haw he altfo been deceived into giving uk here legend for 
fact? Call we believe that his aeeoii?it wag fundamentally 
iliflvrent from that which St E*aiil ba4 reeeited and 
preach etl ? 

Nor is tilts alL The iliffercnceH befween the ncr-onntn in 
St Luhe and St Mark may or may not be due to the fact that 
tliey ore deecribing the cspcrioncea of different parties of 
womtrn. They are certainly enough to show that ^t l^ukc 
had independent informatioo. Waa be aUo raifitaken art to 
the diaracter of thiri w^unx' iU»H>r 

How comej^ it thiit the account of the appearance on the 
way Ut KiumauH prt^iipiMiseti tlie emptint^a of the Tomb? 
Ih that aIhj a later rrt!att<»n of thi? sunie pione fancy? 

Ljifltly, wc come to yt Matthew. Tlie diflerencea from 
Bt Mark when the two EvaugcJi^t^ arc covering the same 
ground present here aa in one or two inetanec« iu other pnrta 
of the Goq>el ttpecial difficuUiCB. But in tins connexion ho 
Bupptiea UK with art entirely indc|iendent addition to the 
Marcan narrative dealing with the guard of Roman soldiers. 
We have no aieauFi ofeHtunnliug the value uf the sourc*? fnjin 
which tbia ir^ taken. But whatever that nkay he, there is no 


Cawhridge Thtoiogicnl E^xay;^ 


i-easoQ to doubt the accviracj of the note with which the 
section clo^», '' And tbit!i uajing h coinnHnilv reiKirted amont 
the Jcwa until thia day/ Aud this ia enough to show that 
c^^ii in uiLliellcvtng Jewieh drctc^ the fact of th« eaiiitT 
Grave WEW admitted. If &o, the ^Tidence for it mu>^t hflTt 
b^eu too notorious to be denied. 

Now »iirti1y this concurreriL-e of te»tim(»uy is. reiitArLmblT 
atroiig. ThpTG is iiothiiig like it for uoy fact of the Eraii^Uc 
history except the Cmcifixinii. 

hvX U3 now turn to the <Lijpcantitcei» of i\\t RImmi Ijord 
reconicd or itopJied in tlie UoepcLs or the Acts. 

Here tho inrtopendcnco \» corricd ^ far that tli« nairttUTQi 
hiinUy even uveHup. It i^ la tViet only \x\ the account of tlw 
appenrance to the ae^mMed Apoatles on the night of tlie 
ResuH'ectioti tlijit we can be *itiri« tliat any two writeni ileaTlng 
i)ai<ifiLiKMiti)t the IjLst twelve verges of SLMark'iareilcdorilMag 
tiie same appearancen 

At the i<4inie t»ne the fluperficial differences lietwtscD tbs 
accouikta taken ae vlioled are t^trikinc loo mueli strcoa mint 
not be laid, a^ we have Been, on tho omieeions in an ineompltite 
nari^tive Like 8t Mark'«, Tu 8ay for ini^taiice that "8t Mart 
knows notliitigofat]y&ppe»ninee«oftholti«en Lord/' iaiplyinj 
that his evidence may be cited agaiuKt Unit of the otlwr 
Evangelists, te incantiona. 

Still it ia iioteuoithy that the only refei«iu?i« Ut hb 
j^pcamiice which are contained in that part of the tio»pd 
which haa conic down to ua refer expressly to (fnlilee. 

Ill St Mntthevr, thi/ugh im appearance tu two wouicu ia 
JeniMatcm finds a place, the muin utr^wt; m hud on ttie promiai 
of a Galilean appearance, and its fulfllment 

Sl Litke, on the other hand, not cinly Kayn notldng of any 
npiK'iini.nrt'M away IVom Jernealem, but seeitif^ at any nit« ill 
hia Uu8[tel to leave no room for them. 

But thi» tiiriU4 on ijuestioUA uf interpretation ^m\ reading:, 
which wc need not pauac to diacua§ here. For even granting 
that Kt Luke, when he wrote bin <.ifwpcl» believed tluit tic 
Aaceuaion took place on tlio day of tho Hwurroctiou, and 

vm] Spiritual and hisUmcal €VuleiKe/or Miracles 337 

tberefare conid have known nothing of any nppearanc^fi In 
O&lileOp yet Ifcpfort' )\v wnit*? thu Acl>i h<* hiwl bocnrir r<«iscinu8 
of aji iiit^jrva] batwoeii the twi> evci)1*i which at Itaal It^ivai 
room for apiieamncee outeide JenisftlenL 

Tlie doj^ing chapter to tit John's Gospel supplcmenta 
JkpT>carance& iti Jcni^leiiL with an a]}poQmnco in GalJloe. 

These difft^rencree are due tio ilotiht to diatinctnaw in tho 
BourceA, and perhaps to i^iorajice on like port of one or other 
of thr t>itn^elMt^ but they jjpve tin no gniuiid for rejecting 
one seHeH of appt^rnnctw in fttvonr of the other. At the same 
linie^ HA the uc'couiiliH deM:ril>e different appeHnuiceB, m; 
cannot nppual to litem for nnitnAl corrobpnttioii ; csicli 
account miwt sUlikI or ^1 on its own roeritA in the light 
of intenuU evidei»te. 

We cannot of course examine the diflerent nornitiveB here 
in detail Bnt it will be wortli while lo call attention to one 
or two characteristic-e more or lei«a eomnioii to them all. 

beit us tate first the style in which they are written. 
Ri*;^itilii]g theui for tlie mriinent merely aa a collef'tifiri iif 
'gbo*t storicK" w there anything like them hi literature? 
They are toM as eiuiply and imaffcctedly as all tJie Kti^rieH 
that precede tJiem, with the same absence of any strairiiiifi; 
after efleet Kxucpt in the cawe of the conven<ien of ^t I'ftul 
the appeaninces are marked by no extenml manifetitations «f 
itnpematumi i^lory* The eonfliet of einotione in tlie hearU of 
those who behc»]d their Uiben Master U the oidy indiaitiMii 
thai we are in the premnee of a Visitor from the world 
beyond t1»e gntve. Tltc reanlt is a seriw* of pkttiri'x wlddi 
are either direct tr»Mi4cnpt4 fnjin life^ or the cre-ations of n 
Tcry high order of literary genina 

It may help us to decide between these alt^rrnatipep^, if wo 
notice next that tho narrativeH arc clearly not written to 
etroiiUi a belief in the Lerd'a KcAurreetion in the coind^ of 
naen to whom the fivct wiiw tinf^imiliur Tliey record quite 
freely the doubu and heailation of the fir*it witnefflea, and 
are at no paiim to explain In v\irry instance how the doubtit 
were removed. It wonid wetni therefore that at leiwt the 
ourlicwt of the iijirrativm munt have tnken ttljapc, a^ indeed 
a r. L %2 

888 Cmubrultje Theological Esm^s (vm 

tit Luko'fl Prcfruw i« sntfieiont to assure us, wtiiJc the tncmor)' 
of the fa<jtB rocorded by the first preachers of tho Ooepel «« 
BtUl h-Qsh and vMd 

]f wc |N%>u« Tiftw rix>in lh« «tylo tri the ifiiliiiUiTioo of tlic 
imrnitjve ft[irl reflect rui the wtmder of Uie |>ereoDaljty of 
•UviiK iu( rrv(.iMluiI ID the nH'4»nl»( c>f Tlt^ t-sirr.lily mintatrr, 
and on ttic pcculiai' povrcr of the n'ords that fell trom ilis 
lipB, it in surely no uli^ht corroboration of the tmthfuInceB 
of thcnc rcoiirrlri thnt the ftppcnninroii flhciiild \tc tilMiiy^ b 
ohamctcr, and that tho woi-de that fall fi-oin His lipe should bo 
no feeble ec)u>OM uf f»revtoUH uttonLtict**- tut iiew revelation*, 
al. nnoc the cTowti uiiil thi.^ runAiumimtiiin »f the "hi. 

Thene general eharacterlHticA uf titylt^ and coatenli* are no 
doubt Jncafrtiblr r>f laiiux lirtiu^bt hi k mcehanical tcKt* and 
therefore depend foi- ilieir eogcucy oi> independent Terifica- 
tioUp 1 cannot help It^^lriif, howevor, that taken toicetixr 
they will be found to com^titutc a strong: case on behalf of the 
fiuUtt^titial aeeuracy of the iiairativea of the Appoaraoeea 
after tho Ue>*urrectittn. 

I Imve said nothing of the physical Bspecta of the pheno- 
mena deKeri1>ed. If the DArrntiveiii themaelTeK are true> Uie 
|ihy«l(»1 cunditiona innbi have Ir-oii uniijne, and we have no 
eritcriim by which to judge the accuracy of the dcscHpliovuL 

It is quite arbltrar)' therefore to rule out il« belonging: to 
seme ficcondarj' source juat those clenicnl* which oUcnd our 
a pritiri canonic uf prol>abiht>'. 

Aecording to tho aecoiuits m they have eotne down to us, 
the RUen Lowl not only rendered Himself visible <,lii a shape 
whiclk waK nliimatoly, thtaiKh not always at fintt, recognisdtbl*^) 
ami tiiK»ke in f»niiliar tooi.'M, but a1«o offered Hia llody to the 
t4Mt of l^nich. and i^titl nuirc Atrantfely bnike Irreatl with Hi* 
own haods and ate in the preecncc of the Apostles after 
eutehng the rtK^m with eloped ditor*. 

It Hcem?! nrttuniK if not inevitable, to n^j^a^l tho whob of 
the material i^ide of Ihvw phenomena as a condescension to our 
limited powers of appiehenMion, and to the eonaecjuetit nee«ft- 
eity thiit thcliuth vhonid be brought home to u^ by the concur- 
rent UEte uf all our tiicultieii. We aiaturully, liuweter wmngly. 

vmj l^iritWjU and kistorkat evidence /or MiracU^ 339 

tliat tbo sense of touch \% Igsb Ukely to be decdTiKl 
than any oilier^ evidence in granted Utrtiii^h it tu aNniirv us 
that the form taken by the life tliat ttiumfiljeil over dt-Ath, 
iliough not subj(M:t to tbe l^iws of matter &5 ne utulcrntfuid 
them in thie order, ia yet sobd and eubetaiitml (vrhalovor tbc 
words may moan under the new conditional, the exact antE- 
thesii^ to the empty, shadowy exifttencee with which fKipuliiT 
inrn^Qation^ wheUier Jt-iwish or Gentile^ had peopJfKl the 
world be];^nd the grave. 

SjiiO) thevi tlie UBrrutives in thf[ Cni)»nii!B.1 fioit]k^I)i hy 
which we cutj jtid^e of tbe kiitd of endence un which the 
fkitli i>f the Apunllea in the Resiirrectimi of their Tjord n-9ito<l, 
aiid out of which they must Iiave deveb:iped their view of the 
nature of the re8urn;i:bion body, Tlierc \^ no likelilic^id tliat 
auy of them wns put int^ wntiiijic tiJI t^m yoare after the 
wrltlnfc of 1 Corinthiane. Yet eurely it i^ a ^roii^ coTifin nation 
of theu'liitftoHcity LhataM Ih^^yjitiind they supply in thivre^^peet 
aJm a natural Ijack^roinid for 8t PanKs argumenL They help 
WK Ut iindersUiml not only how St Paul m>la aijte tt> f&jc the 
date of the I^ird'}* Ue^nrrection, bat also how nattital it wa* 
for him to connect with the list of appearances his very 
reinarkuhle di>ctT'ino of the nature of our resurrection bodies, 
tho orijj^n of which, in all ita startling boldneea and originality, 
would apart from thia be left shrouded in a veil of iin 
licnctrable inj-atery. 

<Such are Home at lea^t of the elements of the caae for Che 
trntli of our IjonVn Re^^urrection, no far a^ it dt?pen(l« on ttie 
documcntft containod in the Christian Bible. If we deny 
the fact, it JH not to<> much to oay that we re<liice die whole 
IHernturc to a tniuw <>f incoherent fi'utfment^ for the origin of 
which wc can only account by the aid of n et'iic!^ <.if violent 
and arbitrary hypotheeea, which owe what plau&ibility they 
poaeess partly to tiieir ^-fl^uetieHM^ and chiefly to the ^nppoHod 
noeettdty of forcing all hit^toHcal evL>nt#4 to Ht into the limiu 
^od l>y our present knowleilgo i^f l.hc forces of Njitnrir. 

If we accefit the factv diHicuttics nnd ]>erptexitiea in detail 
no donbt rem:dn, for which wc can at prcrtcnt ftuggeat no 
ccrtuu soiutioD, both iu the docunuTutn tfacmoulTcs and in 


Cfutibridge Tfteoktfficai E8say« 


the phcnomenn ihty d««cribe : but at IoaM the faiHlaTncnt&l 
Immiony is clean 

We can aee how ( 1) in tho midet of th« nation which God had 
ciK^ecn uut of the nutioiia of Uie world, that tlic*y mia^t Iwi 
trained tbmu^li the pra|>het» whom Hv: mi>wfl up in the know- 
Icrilgv of Hiiiwelf, miO (2} lu Uu? Peraoii of Him in whum that 
revelAtioii v/w, i^oiiHiiDiirmted, when lie Iiat) HummdijTOd Uim- 
»>elf l4> distil in olwrlience to Hin Fftlhor'h will, fJod dW by « 
mighty act ftt oiict; eet liin hcaI oti the 1tc7clAti«»ii thiit Hl' 
btx>U£ht.aDdbnn^]ifean(l]inmortality to light tor ftUtnonbind 
by raiaiu^ llim fhtm the dead. 

Tlie physical laws in obetli^iicA^ to which, tlw |>aniculai 
force by the opemtion of which, thia result was Attained are 
at prexeot unktiowh U> xiHj luid it \h |iuiuilile that tJtev may 
reriuiin uiiknown^ No tine can wi^ anything lint (]i:id-Hpetici 
Ui thiMe whi> i>reHH ontrard in the hope that a fiilirr knoiflrfifcv 
of the conjftitution of matter and a cloecr study of pHychic 
phenc^mona tnay en&ble them in the end to lift the reil The 
revolution contained iu the fact doee not depend on our 
ignorance of the method by which it waa wroii^jhi. No 
poBKiblti growth in our knowledfce of the force by which i; 
was effected can touch the grounds of c*ar conviction that in 
thiH net the lianil of Tiod is &eeu by Hnpie whu have ejeii le 
see it, working Uia Will in the history of nmjikhid. 




Jfa£9 Mantimtt, qui wt^rM tantum in promimtM^t i^mporarvu 


Chriatiuiltr dtdiofl to be biitoricftL 

There c«n be no hiatwj without continiiitT. 

The Old TdstameiLt atteiU the oonttenit; of ObriitiaDity with the PML 

This gouUdujI^ h manifDeted chiefl; throti^ the MowriinJc ehm»t 
in tJie Old TMtement 

Other aervicee of the Old TeetuneDt >re thftt (I) it teitiflee to tha 
paedagogic ralue of pre-ChriiUaji religioiu, (2) it iUuHtrfttee the method ot 
Divine ReveUtioD, (3) it prodaima to a» under the most vivid forma the 
dependeoce of the Universe upon one Crentor, (4) it prettchee with nn- 
STtrposaed power (he neceaait; of BocUl RighteoiunieatL 


ThB r?lirist.m.Ti i-etigioii i« nti hUloricjil religinii. Tt wwIh 
not on what it^ Fimiidcr taught, but on what lie wa^, and did, 
ftnri Htirt'c-rwl, Tlic Christian Crwid may he flunimed up ill 
the stfUcment that Jcfeus the Christ witrkod tun nt a oortJiin 
time in a ccrUiiii couiiti-y anrl under corlain oiilwurd circiiin- 
HtaiLceA A cwrtAtn diM]M> ligation af Gixi, which He alone by 
reason of His very nmure coultl so work out. In otJur wrnl», 
Uie Cr<--**(l (.'otMiFtlH of the irlifi?f tiwin ivc^trded in thti four 
GiiH|>cK Tlie f^ la not bniiml Mi the letter of tJie 
Eva Hire! if-t*^" record, nor to the at'cuitwry (if e>cr_v statement i 
but uidcfis tJic general outline of the etorj told in the New 
Toetamont is tnio, the Christian religion is nothing but a 
dream, forcible^ full of suirgLstion, not to b4! easily jmt a^iido 
indeed, but y^t m tact a dream. Chribtiaiiity is ba^ix] on 
history ; it rest^ not on ideu^ but on fiiet«. Herein Ilea its 

But if we antiert that the CVeed of Chrii^t.ianity i^ liiKtorical, 
we cominit oun*etveK to a ftt;i(^tneiit wluch is wider tb&n 
appears at first siyiht. History is the manifeattttion not of 
Isolated cventa. hut of an evolutionary propxeaa If thorofore 
wc connect Chriatini»ity definitely with a period of thirty 
years, i.e. with a definite |)art of the First ConturA' of our era, 
we canTKit pt^w at this et<.^p. What^^er la hiutorieal reaoheft 
backwards a!id forwards. The 'fbrwanls' is n*prew5nt«l by 
the ChHtttlan fljun^li and IIa arhievementii, but what of the 
* backwurds ' i If there b« no * backward^,' if ChriaLianity was 

844 Cambridge Tlisoloffimt E6fay$ [n 

truly & new thing nineteen hundred years ago. then Chrirtinnity 
frf^peftra a.^ a latt) afterthought iii the history of tlie World, 
not ttji K portion of ihe Universal Providence c^f <.*<>rt. If 
Christianity be thus Dew, it caji hardly b« tme. Btit it is not 
new ; C)inHti»iiity m IntloccJ l^ir older tliuTi tht? t)eg3tinifig 
of the ChriNliaii era. For the niaiii proof nf this irc atipml 
to the aiK^icnt literatuit^ up the ]>enple aDiongHt wliuni the 
rcligicm of Christ waa boni, to the books of the Ofd Covenuit 

Tliia appeal U dltFt^rLMil in ini|>orUnt rcApcct^ troni the 
appeal which \m&i to be rniule to the (fiUppo«c<I> li(er«l 
correapoadence of the Old '[\MtAment witJi the New, It Is 
mrt enow^^h to compare Uw two books rts book» npairt Troiii 
the religiouB Life to which they te£ti^. Thie compariaon wojb 
iiia^lii in the Past, and wa4 found to hnvc itn viilue f"r |Hwt 
goiicmt]cm«. It wa^ not in itaolf untrue, but it hilm inholl; 
iuauDicieiit It wan a contparUoti uf ahaduw with alis^ow, 
not of mibi^tancc with Hubetance* Further, a prococdiiiK 
which trcAtfl the Old Tcelamcnt mainly 0*+ a collection of 
foreshadowing and iiredictimie, and the New Teritament 
a* the hiFtt^rical account of the ' ftilfilin«nt ' of thotw 'typon' 
and 'propheeiee ' leads to most nneatisfactory results C*po- 
fbl Ktud^' aIiows thnt the amount of pn;dicti<jii in diia Old 
Tci«tHnierit in general himX in the l^jphetfi In iiartioular is 
very 8um1l Tliere i« a drei»er eorrewpftndcncv between Uie 
Old and iho Xew than one of words. 

The main object in making a Irerih ap|x:al to the Oid 
Testament iri tu discover whether wo are contemplating merelj 
broken UiR^Lda nf human thought, or whether we tiwl that 
the separate oianifeetaticnBL |>olnt to one ^r«;at progKNM of 
Htivelation whieh ia worthy nf n Huperhumaii antlior. Tkitt 
queiftiiiii cannot t)e aimwei'ef] in wordn; no man can jud^ 
what '\i^ and whdt is not 9tQu a^ov, nnd yet from imch 
a contempliition a apiiitua] conviction may arise which ia 
not indeed independent of thought, though It Moar^ beyond 
the realm of ItigicaL prool^. Tlie qneation ie whether the 
ewitentfi of the New Tetitonient and the Old Teatanoent do 
Indeed agree in t^iifyint; to aii ivetual <lig|Kui nation of Ood 
wrought in thii^ wi>r1d by the hand of a Mediator, Socb an 

tx] Permanent Vahte of the Oid Testament 345 

flfrrecnient (tf \t can be fbuiul) runnlDg through bo varied a 
btot'trj w*niiH b<3 nt Iwurt nn impr^si^ive tiioml fiitit, a fact 
nut tn be MTt wsuh> on itii> hiit the iiii>iit weighlj groimdiL 

Oitr mi^p^t {HmveniPitt mc^th<)d of |>rocc(i]ire h tij rsuiiimarbe 
(a» fer a* jmssiUe) the main ^iibsuincc of the Old Tcstftmciit 
revolation, and b) compare this aummary with the mniu 
teaching of tiur Lnrd and Hie Apoatlee. Mcxleni research 
has bn>ught out into wtmngev light th€ finrt thut thts utter- 
ances of the Old Testanwnt came tro\r/^^w? leal voXuTfvWow^ 
— tiy ntitxiy [irirtji iit^d in lanny niaiiTienf — aiid it U npi^ii 1<> mi 
LiiveAtij^ator Ut dHk> ]» theu; natty iu tlu^ftti Hcattcred mcuflagici V 
Ia it piMwihlc tit Kiiin ufi the tendihigB pacatttji-ed over eio 
many centuries? May wc speak of the mceao^ of the CHd 
Tc4tJUU0ut as ouo^f 

Our tJiKlc d<)c«t not involve the reconciliation of every 
p&stiai^ of the Old Tostament with all the rent; it Iif not 
nec««ary to ftt every detail into one great aeheme- The Old 
Testamont on one Kirle m National Lit«ratEire Aud nut [iiira 
nmtter af ItaveUtum; it cimUiinh lower a^ well as higher 
eJcmenbi, Wc hnvv^ to do with the spirit, not the letter. 
Wo do not identify- ItevelatJon with the Old Tcetamcnt; 
wc loolc for ILc.reiation in the Old Testaniont ; we enquire 
whether the Kevelatiori w^uch is given uh in inany parta 
niuy be udd iriily to make up one whole. 

The difticnlty of thii? lar^fer task. le. the ta«k of comparing 
the Revelation which i^ made in the Old I't^t^mirnr, witli t.liat 
which i» made in the New Testament, hfv* not Ihioii rtcrioualy 
Imrn^astd iiy the work of recent ' Higher Crilidsm ' on either 
Littnitore, The ron:e of the old appeal to the letter of the 
Old and New TeBtttroeiit* has hidced been blunted, if not 
hroki:n: hut the Old Testament as a whnle f:taiidii *« Jt 
always did, a witne^ to an ancient f>ivine Revelation. -Such 
%a at any rate the main contention of thiH EwMty. 


N<»w the Old Teitaraeiit Ijtemtun? in divided into three 
periods, each of which ha« it« own wcll-nukrke<l char^ter. 
Each IH tinff|iie m it* politka.1 and social cti^cumstanixfl. 

" Hob, i, 1. 


Cambridge TheologtGal Essays 


During tJic first fPre-csilic), Judali wm etiil a kingdom, nilod 
by an ancicDt Ihio of kinga. During the eccond (Kxilic), tho 
fUbtionfkl lite lin^*n>d on urirler mont diriudvaiitikKtKiiitt circtuii 
stoiiGos on a forei^ soil, but foetcrod b>^ reU^oiis iafliionccQ 
exerted chiefl^v through the gi-eat prophetic. Duriuij: the third 
(Poftt^xilU"), the remnant of u nution ettovo to nourish iW 
national coiiMditiiNnew tin iiieniorEiM €>f former greatitCKH rein- 
fijrmlhv th<f jciy nf a partijkJ Kiif>itjkmtinn. 

Wk have now to a^k whotlicr any great uiiifyiiii; element 
i« U> be tntced through «J1 theAc iwHuiln. \9 thi^i Kiter^ture 
to be considered fie a CroUoctioD of frogmctitfi, or ii it on the 
coiitmry a Unity of a special kindV U it (to expand tho 
latter half of the qncstionj ii TJnitj which U (ieej>er Xhtm 
any merely national Unity, a Unity which is due not to iho 
fact t>iat thf^ Lileruture Im national, but to Uie fac^t Umt it iM 
tfpiritnal 1 Such, I be1iev«^, tH the (W4C- 

TliL' eli-nient which give^ Unity to tho varied Literature 
contained In the Old Te^tiimeut U nothin^c li-'w than the 
doctrine a^ to the relation of (jod to man. Thb ^nai 
centml doetriiie running Uiron^di tlio Old Testament as s 
vholc biufJe Wm sepamte me«H{t|fe«f together and luika Itself 
inseparably with the main message of the Xew, The doetiine 
111 abiioHt MiartHng iu Iim KiiiipUcity. For when we pitc nidde 
for the moment the wnrilrt of the students of 'Wiadom^* 
tx)f{ether with those of the wrilen* on Htnal*, and tun* U> the 
uttemncx-s of the Prophets and of the prnphiTtically minded 
htBtorians, of which the fcrcdter |>art of the Old Tcatament 
conttiHtfi, a doctrine of the i-elation of God to man stauil^ oat 
in the filin[»Ucity of ^reaUie^w. God in ^rosontc<l not in bbo 
fbrm of a Master, nr>t mi an Object of fear, not ovect tt an 
Ohjed of WDPthip^ In t^ach of theM3 prt?M*n Initio im thcr^ U 
aoinethin^ that 18 (if we may ti>io the won!) artifleial^ whereas 
the dtaracf«ristjc doctrine of Uie Old TcHbLrneui rebiUng to 
Qofl ii^ thut Ood stands towaidA man In a relationship which 
IB truly natural Mail w^ crf;aU^l in f/tr iviugf ofG^iti, t^*ter 

> \« contftliicid hi Pfuverbo, Ki:> 
CteflliuiUiii^ port or Jcib^ Aud n f«W of 
tho HwUnw 

umI Nvinburv. 

ix] Permanent Valtie of the 014 Ti'Stament 

God^s fikftif^H^j there k a, certain close relation Iwtween fiorl 
and man whicli cannot eaail> be defincMl. tliough it m&y be 
llliiBtratcd frutn natiiml hum'iii kinnhip^ 

The force of this teaching cif the closeness of the relation 
between CJod and man is not Herion&ly weakened by the fact 
Ihat aiuch a natioTi ti& the Greek h^Ml many storii^ of tlie j^ode 
which aeeni at flr>it sight to cotmcj the 8ame teaching. 'ITiat 
Zeiin \s the father of gods and men i* a well-knowii common- 
jjIhi'*? nf ihc liiarl llmi ihe fforhi /rtiY €07w timpti in n^ in 
Ihf likeiw^is f^ tiit^i IS ver^ giHid Gre«k duL-trine of an HritUfuu 
and poetic type. The Ilhid portrays gods makhkaf tavouritcs 
of particular cities and individu&l men, intervening in Trojan 
biittIeK, and receivina: painful woiimig while defcndini: hunvui 
favouritesv But the doctrine of the Old leetamciit does not 
iubiait 10 be compared with the^e poetic plmnta«ieA. There 
ie indeed no common grotnid for compariaoti. TJie godu of 
the Wfirl are too plainly demigod*s human Iwhijp* raided a 
little aUiTc thj*ir frllnwH. Hnnic^r »iT]iy>4 gmi HgHiimt god in 
eoriJlirt, and enducr^ god and goddtrw with liunuiii puKHioria 
in lan^ifLge which no klml of exegesiiH can wit iitfact only ex- 
plain as metaphorical\ Take a^ray the human nature frou) 
tiiei<c ^iii\^^ and niitiiiit^' rL^muinti. 

There ia indeed nothing surprising in these stonee of the 
IntcriKiun^ of Greek ^{>de with Greek inetL The moral nature 
of the two is one. There is nothing hoti/ about the giKlj^ to 
dlfltinj^ijih them hum ^irtful men. In fact we may leave out 
tiie wonl« 'holy' and 'nirifuP altogel.htir fnini «tiir luvouiif^ 
Two cla^aes of beings of like pa^^iuns meet together ; only the 
]KJNH7«ion of cerljiin unmoral qualitii^H ttuch m power and 
imtnortality marks off one cla8» ae superior to the other 

On the other Imud there ia something more than eiirprieini; 
in the teiichintf of the Old Testament, that the CJod who gave 
the Law to Israel is capable of drawing ii<*r to men, Tlie 
CUd Testament writers theuiselvea seem to utter the truth one 

* Thifi pbrA>o tlKJi^iili l( cornea 
fmn GsP, L eO, vhkli b iucH\>eil 
bf oritioA to Pi iv itiK>Jf oortainly 
miicfa older tbw V. 

=' Ct Gtn. T. 3. 

' 1 do tint t}iitik iTiu^ tlie u-lleuipL 
of lh« pliiloKoplitT l^orjilijiy will 
Mitlify KDj mmlom mind- 


CamJ>ri/tffe Theological E/fWTr/B 


El i< I men t and Ln»lmnk frmn \{svtintv\t%\A'A\'uni the nexL Moses 
epc;tkg with (Jod '' face to face, as a mnn sirpcnkcbh unto hh 
friciid^' but he i& told only a few vcffics later by Ood, Jf«it 
fihftU not 9r^ me an<i Hvf\ Certainly the wirly writer who 
joined together the two etmnds, E and J, into one numilire; 
fcH witb one thrill on the one side tlie neamees and on the 
uther the awfiilnwn of Gf>d. 

Fiirth^ this n^am^as of (!<kI U) inyi >m Un^hi in t.fai? OM 
T^Uiaeirt was im ubiLi-act diictrJI^Koii (he cutiirar^ il 
rccciT<^ the moet practicnl applimRni The ]iti7r»tnrc of 
the Old Tt^t»iik«nt pre*weft npon the children of Israel the 
fact that Uixl le new to iVm. 71icy urc 'chortcn' bj God, 
thoy aro Ood'e particular poition or * inhcritaDCo*/ llw 
boldc»<t moiRphore are employed to cnforeo thi»* toftching; 
Israel IB Ooda «oii or firathorn «>«.'; or even God> »pou9^\ 

Thiw Mueoiid metaphor i0 presied «tiU fiirther when God 
iH "*p<*keii of ft8 A Jeafona Ood^ Thia metjiplior (*f n Mpvcial 
neametM of God to larael im not however ho i>rec«ii?d Art lo 
Mflcrt that other natioii8 are to he kept &t a dtntAdce* On the 
contrary* [draol ia the rnedLvni tIin>Dgh ^hich all natiotia art 
to experience the blcssinie:? of this neamc«4* And ail Mf 
famili^ of t/te earth sfmli gain bUstttnga in thf^^\ 

But further, the Tieamt*^ uf Jehovnb to a nation ean be 
expre«sed in terme of His neaniew to an individual beh>iirfEntf 
to tlie nation or to a ancce&aton of sncb individiiftlii, [n fuel to 
a kinji;ly hoiist \t% tlie Old TefltnTnent the dieice of God fa 
represented not only ait geneml, aflectirig a ijartlcnlnr natitni. 
but ttleo ne fljiocial, afleeting one pn rtitii In r family. Yet ffen^roi 
and itff/;ctii£ in this ea^c arc not niiittmlly exduairc- The choice 
of DfLvid, described in 3 Sam. vij. 1^16, is not a choice of 
exclusion ; on the eontrury it h made fur the tiltiniaie ificlu>>ion 
of lit^ienL David \is cbo«en for the sake of "my |ieu|>te 

■ KxwlKXuiL n[E\ 

' ibid., vcT. 20 [J vt BJ 

» rh^D Enod, ill. » [BJ Xaht 

• K*od if. »( VTofc jd t? Jor 
Kill. $a 

* ExcxL XI, C xuiT. It; c£ Im 

' Gem. Til. S: rf. In. irtx :£3— SI 
o pro|»hw7 which hfli booti rvforrod 
on En0uffi[;ic]Lt gromiiUCAtt vrtiimat 
the Ki>urth Century an 


IX] Penaam-JU fahie of the Old Ttslamen-t 349 

iarftcl^" The special choice of Dand i>rc«up)H>[K;« the 
genemi choitw of la met. 

Wc fiixl here Ui« starting- point of the MeaBiaiiic doctrine. 
Gotl Hought of ills own purpose, prf/p^io vwtui^t the pUnue 
nv^' lie lined), a innn tit t<> be kiH^ over larael^> Tlie i^ame 
thing liHti liven siiii] no {Itaiht of lieatlieii kingM ; indt^eil did 
wordn iiaed of (Jjrua ''king of Pereta" are no whit lesa 
emphatic than thv*ie used of David king wf Isra^P. Onlj, 
atmilar tumii^ ore UAcd of king^ of another line diAplaced bj 
Uynn*,*.]/- of Murorlach-baladan JL The unwavcriTig choice 
of the iloUBe of David to rule over Judab liat^ no parallel, 80 
fiftr ax I ani awiiru, in other nations. 

But even if a parallel were fffuiid, the doctrine of the choice 
i\f the Hljiisc of DaviJ would still need to be considered In it^ 
wilier {^wi^jii. It tended to become Hpintual aa time went 
on and pafued by a natural developnittnt infii a diHrtrnir nf 
AlcsnialL The doctrine of Messiah indeed fix>m its carliont 
appearance in Utc Prophets (laaiah aitd Micah) wn^ a Apiritual, 
not a more poiitical idea. Mc^iah \a connootod indeed with 
a temporal deliverance from Aaayria, but the real subject of 
MeMianic prophecy ia MeBaiaUa spiritual rei^n. llic Old 
Father* did not look only for mundane and tranBltory pro- 
mivtis, for wiftt> fVoii) iiivaden* niid uppre^or»; tbe> looked (It 
may l)e naid) for a righteous kingdom, a City of Ond. 

Thi* Uicomes clear when the cliief Mer^iajde pix>phecioa 
are cxanjineii ejich by itself. The pA9sagc« thus U^ be 

ted arc (1) Micah iv- (J— r, 6, (2) laa, ix. X— 7. (3) ibid, 
XL 1—10, (4) Jen xxiii i>, 6; xxjoiL la, 16*, (5> Isa, lit 
l3-^liiL \X 

In oar study of these great prophetic wtterar^ces very greitt 
wtlon is neeiled. The idd expusitorx H^rltualiHed every 


1 S^am. riL 10, II 
» I Sftm. liii. 14- "Hie c«H«>ft4tiftn 
iHUi litur Mb own b^ftrt*' i» 
4odl>>ry W HolirL<(Y ilioni. 

pafifiion. All landti lie inapoctod, 
ho piuMK?c| iu rt^viow, luul uu^ht Utr 

timl h(i nii}{lit UVc lilm L> lliv IjaiiiI. 

CfTtu kiTkg of AnahiLTi bt« aiimtnoncii 

mfcAri/^fi, {i. 381 (tLJri iTililiuiij, 

' KifcL Tuvil 22—27 Kbuida In 
Kurat» HBiiM l>y ititcJf; it j>i l>Hod/ 
J]iHni»<?d Imluw m vonueiion witb 
Jur. ulii 

'SbO Cambridge Theological £ssags [k 

phnkne ; the mcxkm find little or nothinir npiritiiAl ill tiny one. 
Both may clium some support for their rcenlte from the nattiK 
of thopOAKai^ thc-iiisclvca ^^^lllt ^vc mil 'Jrulittcal' im blontled 
vsiih what wo call 'rc)i^ou»,' prcectit nith future, the kitigvlom 
of Juchh with iheKbi^omof God_ We mustWwareof l^^or 
iiig or of niiiiiniiHiiifC intluM' Uit< fiuturiil or thoHptriluHL Botit 
are pri^eht arid &tL'h muni, he t-oiiHidei'erL But wt- nmi sai 
lirivfls tliMt Ihr pni|ihplA vnw, imdi iiiiiitTr ii fiinii Kiiiu*<1 Ut tttH 
own n^. ft vision of God's presence with men, retili«d U> 
a new decree and ^hpecialisod" (if the word may bo uscdj in 
l«rftel through the iiiBtninientivlity of ii vinible Icmlerof I^iikL 
The idoas of a cho&en iico]>lo and of a chosen leoder upon 
whom the Spirit of God v^u are found in all tli«Ae prD|>l»etie 

Wtj l>egiii with tlie |>a8Mt|^ of inor« general eontenU. i.f. 
thovu' foiiiiil in Jr*nnmnh Find B^rkld, Jrreiniah'H main 
projjhecy m given in cliapLer xxiii. and rciMsai^rd with aome 
variations in chajjt<;r xxxiii, Tlie context in each cu*e i* u 
proniiao of tlie return of lerael and Judah from captivity. 
I'he text of eh apt or xxiii. in lu? follows: — 

Behold, the <itfi/H r^'/ju\ aaith the LofiL^ th&t I ti?Ui ram 
lip to i>a^id fi nfiotif, n rirfhffouji Onfl, arul [« kittff jthull 
T^fffnaiutdeaiwigf/^.ftHfl] ht'gUnHdojndgtvientmuij^i^itf 
in thf t'/irlh. in hia da^n Jtuf-tJi nhall he savfid, and Ifrari 
nhfdl dtrrU jwjriirrly, ftwi tJtu m fht nrtme by tthuh Hf 
shaH hf aalkd. JKUovAti ttVR Kiour£oUi*XKx,'^ (leiK fi, 0), 

That chapter xxiii, preacrvcti in iutwunec the original 
form of Jeremiah's prophecy there m goo^i rcaw^n to l«ljeve. 
The refi>renee to enptivit}- ia natural m the mouth of one 
who bc1iov<HJ that the btMt of the land had gono into esile 
with Jehoiaclitn. The definite reference to a iiei-Mnn, and 
i]\Hi \w\'*tyj\ u kingf suit« the linie i>f Jeremiah better than 
any latt-ir iioie. The prophet of Anathoth had ^ieen grent 
things- done under a king> JoKtali. and failh r-eljiti^ tm l!ie 
analtf|r>' of tiie P^flt iniglit hope for atill gi^eatcr thing?i uialer 
a Uavidic king yet to corner Moreover it ia n<it fancifii! to 

■ Oatitt<Hl in uiLiL ; i^rbapa ui nrlj glvui ■ tr. ^ a 

jx] Pertnatieui Va!w of the Obi Tf^tameni 351 

see alliiiuonit lo kings ctiiitetii[>omry witli Jerismiali tit tUo 
worils, / jKHttVMi wUl ratM up a ifhoot\ ntid in the worda, 
JuiniVAH our n'^ht€ouatw^s\ 

Thie^ pniphocy of Jorciinah, thoitich not 3«» IVhr-rci^liing ab 
mmc ittterancL'« uf ImhiU iuk) iVIioiili, it in uv>8oiico Mcstfiniiic. 
Tlie pro|Jiel doei* not loi>k to tlic faltibiient or proniUe« that 
urv uwn-h teinftnmr}". A roign of a new kinrl, Tiot » mere act 
of ilelivenLnce, b> tljut which Jeremiah aiinoiince^. The kin^ 
I* FHividM^ Tliv rvi^ii is Mil nierel} i.nic uf jxTAtri*, but uImj one 
of righteou^ncMA and judgment. The dui'alioii vf the rcign is 
ii«t mcntiuncd, but (he tdt^d reigii musrt- neceswirii.v W thoiii^lit 
of a« prolonged ; indeed the ujac of the vord *«hoot' (llcb. 
prmaA^ whidi can be uflod »« a c^tlketive^ I'uthcr Uian the 
V4>rd '0on'(Beb. ft^), sii^^'08t4 that the pn>|>litit im tlihikin^ 
of ft Davidic line rather than of a single king. The word 
king <HuU mtirrhi^ if the cIaum* Sn wtiidi it oceur* be 
goni»n«T, e»trhrH ii rollix'tJvr Konite fntin llir ecitilf xl. 

A somt^whaLt Fiiuiilar ntl^ranr^of JereiniiJi'.Hajntemporar;, 
Briekiel, illiiAtratca JcrcmiAli'n grcnt pnjphccy. The pniphet 
in Babylon, like the pro}ihet in Judah. be^'iitA with a [irotniBC 
of tliv rctnni of both Jnnwl nnd Judidi from captirity. Ue 
then ci>ntimK'i;; 

Aurf I tril/ wiajtf them oTie Ttation in the tand upon the 
fstfrmitiiintt uf Iitrnd ; nwi mte kiiiif tthitl he. kh\g to thsra 
nil . J}irif nhafl fiho vHilk m Tili/judt/fmt'nf^. ntui "Wnv tny 
Htutulr/t, iim£ till ififrm .. Altai /)trrril iiijf m-j ftittt aludt bti thciT 
prince ^OT etJer^.-Mt/ UUttrmtHG nieo tthall Ik with tMin : 
and I trill be th^r Ood^ and Iheif shaU he ma pfoplc\ 

It i#cl<^r that l^lM^ktel hiu iii iiin miiul it mionof a futnro 
kingtloin essentially the same rts that which J<tn^miuh dcMcribed. 
But on ont' point Iho e\lle of llic river Cliebar a|)eak8 more 
jlc-flnitely. Jereniiah, it wiw mid iiIh>vo. t*'IU u» nothing 
regnrdiiig tliv duration of the Mesu4iaiiic reign^ though it ii 
difTiLndi to lieltcve tlial liv thonghtof it ii^ of h iimn-ly Uninaa 

^ Thn iTi«nfilii^ ^ J^Aoi'tkim m Inngs to tlftAmoni^iki) itmot him mut 
jMJtorAit r^iiM ttp. with eiMno ^uxvijUium, hut Umtv ia 

' Th« moaning of Ztd^oh U v«i7 Uttlu tu be tHiil ft>r it 

£>9r^ i>piTiifiii tliut xxiiL 5 — % tw- 

^ Buik xiiTii. &, -U. S^ «T. 


Cambridge Thzuloguiul £snayjt 


apaiL But it k otherwise with EzekieL EIih oentrnl phrue 
sit^:^;e«U ileHiiitel^ the nbseiH^ uf n Imiih of tiimr. Thr [iriim 
ta tir l)e Dttpkt vifi fci^^utit. a person n'ho in th» coiiDciioo 
bn^ neither U.-giirtjiig of dayn iiur end of Life. lit» rct^^i is 
to he for eter. 

This tooclim^ of the Coming of a HifihU?oiis Kiuf^oiD (a 
City of Cixl), Hhich Jeit^iitiali i^uvc Ainid thu falliii); niiuA of 
the Jiulfteati 8tati\ and Escokicl amid the d«pruwu>tw of tHc 
Captivity. \H traceable to earlier timers. For we must look 
npni ihtr |ir<i[)lit'tft hk h K|)iril.iin1 Htitx-twuiTi, iw livfltmrH uf 
succGflNVc porlione of the truths of RcTchhtion ; they ftre 
iDd<»:d it, gtiotlly f<riUtft-»htp\ iJieir central loachiiiK w con- 
tinuous fruni ai^ t<i ajcc ; it is held in common by tlicra ^li 

Probably both Joromiah ajid Kswkiel derived the doctfifte 
of tlie R]|]c^te(iU!^ Kingdom Fruui the vt^ry xiTiiilar tvachiaic 
given by linfti&K The fuct (if it b^ a &ct> in no vniy 
throwH doubt on the reality of tb«ir Divine comminftioii. 
Tiirir wirrth a^ prophota dejienil^ not un thr mnvni^w nf tlu'ir 
doctriia-. but on the frpiiitual inaight wliieh Uiight theui thiu 
an old (i^Krtnne wjia fitted for the Dceil« of new times, nod 
also on the spiritual courEigc which ys&A laitbful to received 
trutlt in tLe darkest day^. 

The vision as we have it Jn Isaiah is doscribcd atgroater 
len^h than in Jeremiah and GsekieL The |>aHKa(^c, liowcv^r. 
IB !ui well ktiuuTi that only it^ chief phnuea ueod to bft 
repeated here: 

And fJurri nhall fjttn^yirrih tt rifff tnif. ttf tin*, ftorh tif Jf^m-y 
ajtd a sapltnff {IleU 7i^^cr) /rtmi htA rooU sitail bcarjruit 
And the ifpirit <tf' Jxaovjiff shall rati upon him, the 
^rit 0/ u'utflorn mid niulcTft<imim<j, tiic 9j/irit of counsd 
aaui might, the spirit 0/ hiou:kdge and <^f fear qf Js- 
MOV A u.^.. With righi^ouitm^Mf n/iafl hfi judgt fhf poi>r, and 
Tijfri^r^. trith r/futly for cAp ptr^k nf th< <rtrfA.,.-7^ *eD^ 
a/j(r> niiidl thvdl iHih the tavtb. ajui the ttopard shaU Me 
dtMirn, uTith ifir kUL. . .Tkr^ ^hiU 7uit hurt fu*r drMntff in ttU 
mj/ holp momitaiii, for thx e^rOi^ shall t^ fidl t^f the kntnc- 

> Or, Uu land. 

Jttt. ij. 1. % < e^ SL 

IX] Pertnanenl Vatxtc of the Old Testament 8&8 

ITiifl » a ftill^ picture than that j^rcn cttber bj JoremiaU 
or by ExikJe], It i« iho cxprcF*;ii>i^ of thu mind of one wlio 
boa received &a earn«rtt of hid hope ; it ib indeed very much 
that which we should ex^teet fruui TaaJah ofif^ Judah had 
been deliv^rwi fV«m the Awyriuim. ITic ptmwin of tlit' king with 
fab flfili^tidid tnidouMi4.MiL i-if KpinltkHl ^titd iiiIi^IIi^IuaI "^^ Ea 
OKife fully ri?nlii«-il h«rv? ^11111 in Ihf? t^vo ]nti.*i' pn)}»hctA. Ilo 
U a DaTidtc monarch endowed with a ecTenfold dower of 
DiTine KTiu^e^ Htei reign b a reign of pcffcct wirtdom and 
perfect ri^htcoti£ni:8& 

U muai not be thought that we have here merely a viaioo 
of tvmponU ^loricj^ It 14 tniv lliiit thvf eoTitinuiition of thia 
paasn^e' c(rnii<.-cT>i tlie MeMsixnie R4*ign with the return of 
Ixntrl hikI JiKbUi ffoiii AiiH^riaii lM>iiihifr«*, But the pnipltecy 
ilMlf iH not i^jnrerned vrith the AMyrlaii oppivwion. but 
with thhiifx whidi be beri^iid it. A» \i\ Jen xxilL the niaiu 
thou^t i» of the coming of the KinK:(loni of Ood. ^Vbat 
reroaina '\» illiiAti^tivc detail intended to help the contcm* 
pivntr>' henrcr (or ru»uler) I0 n fuller realitnatiofi uf Uie 
blesHin^B of the Kin^oiiL 

Hilt the vintion of a Metiuiaiiic rei^n wa« not con&ned to 
the later year« *if l«aia)ip when k piurt di^livemiK'e fnun a 
terriblt^ <lan^>r llli^ht nri^ent tltoii^liU of [feooe. As early 
iM the dyro-Kphni]h]it4' war, in thm n^i^p^i iif Ahiu, uudt^r thi; 
Htri'AH of civil war' Inaiah had Fceeiycd a revelation of the 
Meftiiatiic Ivin^; 

F&r Ut UB is from 4t cftUd, 

To ttfl M ffhyn a jiotK 

And thr {for^^rnmmt /nS^ upOH hii ai^mtkUT, 

And hu mtvi€ i« raJt^d: 

Wond^rM^ C^tufutJtttr, Mti^hty God; 

Efrrnttl fitthrr^ i*rinrr 0/ I*mtr.. 

Grettl U hU if<rtyrmmntt, mtd peaot hath no end ti/MMi 
the ihronf 0/ fhiriii ami upan kU kiwtd<nH: h^ com^tk to 
c&tabli^ ii a^tti to ttphckl it in Judgement anii in righteott^* 
neae/rom keuciforih even for €ver\ 


Theologif^fd £s:tttt/A 

Tliin prtiphoc>-, like that of chapter xL, Inys the etrcn on 
the I'craoc of the Mctwiauic Km(c. The (leHcriptiiiii i^vcti htm 
in the fourf(»kl luirn*^ brinjcn liim vor>' ncur to the Pcrw^n of 
Jehovah. In chapter xi. the Spirit of Jehovah rcrit^ vitli 
sevenfold energy on the scion «f Dftvit!'* Huuim? ; here ihc 
Daviclic king recoive^ fi title {Ei ffibhor, "Miglity God") 
wiiich might he given to Jkhovaei HimAelf. The tjiiAlily uf 
tiinelei^ne^ is HilOeil Ut tht- <h<M-riptlim ; thn ^^cm i>f Daviit 
]R an Eternal Father to ITib people. lliiiH the niont uxaltal 
resiliHation »r the Pei^m i>r Mea^iAh is g\\tn in the ciiriiM 
of Messianic propiieciee. 

The |>aaeaKO *if Mtoih which s|>eake of UiC ideal nilcr of 
iKincl TM nwir fik'w \n ite ideaifi to Tsa. ix- IS, 7> it^ stArtlli^ 
point is the As^Tian trouble, its inimedlate promiete U 
relief fnvin tlie Lynutt'M vnke, 1nit tht* prophi^t looks on to 
something grcHtcr, tlui.t \!^> U^ n Mcwtianic u^^ and u M< 

ilnrf ^Aoii. Bethi^hf'm Ephmthah. trhieh art HllU £o 
arnonij fhr UhOUfnintU of Jndnh. out qf tftef shaU «n^ 
/ortk iinto r/w, otf' tlutl U to '><■ ruicr in I«rnf-l; v/ioat goi\ 
Jorth <tre^ from of old, from rv^rlaating....And he 
itand^ amd sfmU f*'M hl»jifirh hi tf*f Mr^Uffth of th^. Jjoi 
in tJt* tn^^/fttfy of the name of tfte Lv/fn his God: nn<i 
shaU abide; for ntfir »futU he fcr ifr*'nt trutn the mrf* qf 

TliiH pre<lietiiin inimt nf roiii-H& lie read ill lamncj 
with the earlier pfiftsagc m vluch MicjUi" '«|x*«iks of 
future ah'O' of Mtinnt Zion, The fuller description of 
Meetetinnic Reign is to be r*.*Ad tliora But tiie niaiii cici 
of a Me^itnic prephocy are all fonocl in Mia v. 2. 4. We 
find the Davidic kin^, the endowment with Divine grace, iht 
permaticnee <jf the rei^\, and the »orld-vride extent of tkr 

The pernistenceof thc'prophetirfj'iM'hin^a* to a Mes^anlc 
Reign to vrliteh the livi^ jvvtw«ge» (iiHi-iiMiiMl alxive boir wit^to* 

* Or, tfAow oriffi" i*- 
Ml<!ftli it. a— r. fl >o© the jUxpontitr^ 

Pirth Rerios loL Jl pp. 3TS— 38& 
> UJcfthh. 1—7. 

ixj permanent Vahte of iht Old TeslaniefU 865 

b a mitfiL iiujirewive fncU From IbaiaJi and MicaJi prophcey- 
itig U»wju'<J:t tlic (;mU>f tttc Fiitclktii Century ]i.c. uii to.Jeri^mittti 
and Esckici JuboiinnK ^i the bcKinnitiK <>f the nixiU, trcnn the 
trJumphtt and ct^a|H,-?i ^^f Vuxsi: Uczcbiah down to the cata- 
fftruphc of Ji.'TTUJMukm utidvr Zvdekiah and even btfyoiid, the 
d<M:tnno of tlie Advent of ii H^htttntH Davidic Kidtn-, tlic 
Savfiijur mil] Kuthor of H'tu |M!()pl<-, alwHVti muintHined itttelt 
T\w unidei;! IVe8i?nt even iit iV^ iUvritt.'s^ hour lu^vor Kvnih^l 
lo i|iitmrh lhi< 1](i|>e of Uie iiltml Fulurtr. Tliv iiigiiiti^ kJrjf^ 
miglit be an A)ia£. n Jchoiakim, a Zcdckiah, or even i/t iiionnrch 
goixl but weak Liku Hexukiab, yet the pi^phetic vision 
wiiM iicvLT loi^t. I'he Hou«v of IMvid mijcht tccfirf/ GmI and 
trenjy niett\ and yot with it was lK>iind up th© hope of the 
Advent of the Kiuftdom of Gi^mI 

It Ih to be noticf^t further thnt the doctrine at tlie Advent 
of the Mt«it<iaitic kin^don^ pi^ruial^ fri>iTi pnk[)het to pr4;iphL't 
iiM H liviiiK doctrhic ll, 'ia hi>t ;l doail tnulitiun hiutdctl on in 
a rigid formuhi h\>m teacher to teacher. Ou the coiiti'arj 
€Ach pri»plL<^t expTX'weH it ir a fonn of ])b own. In Mlcah 
aod laiuah the detaiU which fonn the setting of the picture 
ore Uikcn from tlie tinier of AhaK aiid H«K€ldfth ; in Jcrciniah 
atid Kaekiel ihe eorrci^^wndinn details sire drawn from the 
begimiiiiK ^f the period of the Exile. The subject of tho 
picture entt t>e prew^ntvd in iwv«nil fonns lHH:aime it Im a thhig 
which livcH in tlit^ \w»TU of thr -aricii^^ie^iTe propliotK 

RuL a viTi-v iiii[Hirtaiit ijuetitiuo atiU reiaaiiiKn In th« five 
prophetic pujwigcjt diKUNwd Above there \» a striking 
uimnimity. The naino doctrine of the Meaeionic kingdom is 
prctcrtti.'d Ut iip by rill the pi-ttpiiotic toachera But aa regards 
the Person of the Messianic Kiii^, ihii^ uiitiiiinLlty Is not 
r«acliciL ()nc piHHUge xeeintf at fir«t sight to stand apart 
from the rest. 

In laa. Ix, f5 the King is iiamctii by four names, thv M^eond 
of which U yfighlff Ood. Tiie tviiiaiiiiiq( pHiaafa'" have 
ni>t1ujig like thm, unless vre make an exception of Jer, xxiit. 
6, ^Thin \fi thr name whereby he tihall be called. jEtrovAH 
OUT righUfntfffif^n" («>r JtcnovAif ie our ri^hU^u^nretiX 
The ciuetiUoti therefore arisen l>o the Mesuanic parages 



Cambridife Theoloffical S^mu/ji 


yield a oonawtont picture of the Person of the ICtnR» and, If 
sc), whui w it? 




four of the 

rmcc that on itiiv imcrprefAtion 
Ik&ttiAgoii Hgree iM U' two feature^! of Liih ptraoii^; Lli^ kingix 
in the fii>1 p)w:c of DitvitJic origin, in llic vccoTul, the j^ittce of 
OoJ rent^ ui unwonted mcaaui'c upon hhn. or he ifl <tn aanie 
iK^i^ae) hitni^cJf Divine- Some closer aiuil>-fUfi Jiuvrcvcr of the 
phcnonicna of thc^e pnaeai^os is necessary. 

Looking biick wo st^ that l^aiiLh luui tworicwi^ & 'hijchcr 
atid A ' lower/ of the Pei^cTi of the Mi^anic Killer. Accordiojc 
to the first, which in peculiar to IsHiah, the kin^ b D&vitw; 
lu^onliii^ Ut the aecond^ whlcli turf<<« with the ropr«sctitaCi<» 
givi*n \ty Mtca^i. he is one u|>on whoFu the IMviiie iqitrit mttit 
Yet the twi) views ai-e not, niutit'ttly ciirlnnirv, for a thoumnd 
years intervene between Isaiah and the UouiicU of Nicam^ iai4 
iro mit»t not look upon the |»'u]>het'ii cx]>rc>«fioTi? a« rwA 
dootrinitl HtfLt4?mei]t& We nin> douht wdctber Isaiah, if be 
h&db^on asked whether the idoiil Kingof hie vkton wa^ bumHA 
or Divine, could liave answered the t^pieMtion at lUL II* 
rociigiiiwil th»t HeiJiekjuh (he king of the grey Freaeia 
wait utti^rly human in hlH weaknew< and In hb^ reliaiiee on an 
"nnii of fle>^h," lint he (^imhl not nee the [R'nioo of die Kin^ 
of thc^ldcn Future of hiHvinion vr)tlie<[tm] dtntinctiiov^ The 
glory of the si*rht in purl hlinded the proTfiicl- The fiict which 
atood out most elcorly before hiiii woa that tlic Son of Dntid, 
the Kinp of his Vision, Blanda very near to .Iriiovaji 
HiuiftelC irtdeed in a relation whi<?h \» eh>«er thiiii auy other 
known to rnen. 

T^ie modern tlieologinii may luik, Dites iiotnnrh a concluflioii 
reprev^ent iHaiah aM holding a view whiehttiineoiiMlsteut withtJie 
doctrine iif the Unity of the Divine Njitnre, which pre- 
aninably was held by the prophet ¥ A further caution u 
therefore needed. We muBt not ima^piie tliat iHnitih had 
a philosophic conception <v£ tJie unity of Jbuovail Aa 
Contra>4ted with the godi^ of the heathen the ttod of Idvmel 
waH diinbtlehM vne^ l*ut the pnjphet ei>uld neverthe]i*«« 
iLttribute Ui Hint the wordtt, lf7«o 9ifiU 0o/or us/* It cannot 

' T1>i' fifth fnuHi^ <K*vk- iiir1J.)^PM tho fimt nuljofthwo fittirirva. 

Et] FermaneiU Vahie of the Obi TeglamtrnC 357 

he shown that the doctrine of the Divine Natar© Jiad yet 
received u rigid rurin in Israel ; certainly wo find dtj U^^ca nx 
l^iah'n a^ of a nietapbyaicflj coDfcBsioi] of J&HOVAH oe 
A Mi'iLcu~l Ratlier the uckiio^ledgiemciit uf Jbhovah an 
the Olio Uod of Israel w?ls ^ vet fouod coijiptttibk wilh a 
kind of dualism by which Uis AnKcl could at one momi^iit be 
idciitifiud with, aiid at nnother distinK^iehod from HinLnelf 

During tbe century whicti ^epnnati^ [gaiuh aikd Micfth from 
Jeremiah and Ezekie) some progi'eB^ ^eme to hu.v^^ lieen un^ulo 
111 Ihr deflidtiori nf DiNlrine. In thi? intervHl Dt-uti^miiumy 
HSri [Jtihlifthed and in it the gr&il fornnilu, Jkhovah aur <Jod, 
evm Jreovab, is fme^ JeET-iniifcti HeciuA alwuyB to lie coil- 
sdoufl of this principle ; he mentiooa no an^le, no clionihim ; 
he atftiids himeelf lUono in thij iire^eiioe of a God who ie 

Accordingly the name which the lal^f ppophet^v^ to th© 
Me»>iunlc King m one which tetL» us Dotlii[tg <:oiieernin^ the 
kings person, but something concBiTiing the wttrk uf (Uid. 
jKifitv AH zifikvun (*' Jehovah is our rights ousntM ") ia 
a tuiiue dt-HCi'iptiie not of the peraon of Me^riiah hut only of 
th« vi>rL which God will do through him. Jbhotah will 
bring rightmu^nt-fkn to His people by the hand of W\^ Messiah. 
HeiMiah is ti Bpec^iiil instrument, it choeen vessel, for a grcQt 
work; boyoiid this we leam notliinjo: from Jeremiah oon- 
CCrnintc hie person. 

Ezekiel dowribee the future king with startling brevity 
ftd " David," the king g^ven of old to Israel by special Hivine 
gift Tina title hortuver does iiot fix our attention on the 
king hiniiielf hut on his kingdnm. It ^ugger^t^, Ji/rxl, tliat tlie 
Divine HoudwiU toTVArds the snbjectd of the kingdom is 
aa*iired, hecauiie JehovaiI gives to them the idcul king, and, 
s€<on(iftf, thfit the Messianic kin^om Mill be lasting, tiecanae 
God'ft faithful promises are with David, Of the person of 
the King, only enough to dinllenge thought is said. 

It may be tliat botli Jeremiah and E^^kiel shrink con- 
ftciiiUMly fnnn leaiah's de^tcrijition of Messiah an Miyht/f God, 
a^ a dtle eonflieiing with rJie new exactness of definition given 
in the Seventh Century B.C- to the doctrine of the oncnesa of 


Cambridge Tktohgicat Essays 


the God of TsraeL It may be that In referring to the ftiCun 
King l,lii^<<tHWii{>nkplK-tJ4pnr|HjM.*l) limit thLniiriclvt^tttlaiignage 
vliidi Oin lie unei] of (iiie^ nbo iu [viirely ItuniHii. But Uit«v 
tHiiiiuxj^imiH wlu-n thry n.ft^ niadti aiiK throw iiit<» ck'an?r light 
the fact that Isaiah doca dcBcri1>c Meaaiali iu IciTna too hi^ 
to bo applityl to OTIC wlio iot merely mAn. The doctrine of 
the pontoii of the Future Kinj^ ta not idciktical in the throe 
frrcnt i>n>|jhetH. Once moro wr iniirtt roT»oitilxir that we hait 
no formnt doctriiiHl IrcKtise bcfor© os, but three grcAt Dtvine 
tne^Htg;eH, each iriteiided primarily Tor i1^ own time and pliL^^ 
TJie j>eixmL (.if Messiah ia myi^ttiriouH iu the utt^'ninrtv fif 
Jprrmiah hthI Rnekii>l. but in the tt^achiug of Tsalah It b 
Dinne, The futuri- Idng is the ri^fent of n wurM-Vfifh" DiV 
pciisfition afOnod, U» be worked out in thesphcre of tht Coming 
Kingdom of (.fod, and Among the litlt^ aligned him by the 
prophet who ^vea the fidlei*t di^^riptton of hre wnrk, is mic 
which caused iv difficulty to leeiah's HUcce^j^rs in the prophetic 
offlco, nnd eans^i^ n dilGculty to some critics at Uie |jr&«nt 
day, the title of Mi^hUj Goff. 

The tiiVKlery of the [Eimrnutioit iw ft iretiha* lowed in T»uhIi; 
OcuU^ro-Iwiiah ^iddsn virtion of the Conquering Ornw: 

Ht aHgU be ejc^aJtcd and lifted up, 
A nd siuUt he veiy twjii. 

Be shnii sprinkle viauy tiation$. 

He ttxts d^spise^t and r^ect^d qfmen ; 

A man fl^wirrom*, ami ntvptarritMf *rith yri^ 

The LoKD hath iaid tm idm Ihr. initjulty of u$ aU. 

He ira€ <>pp7^sgfff, 

y^t he humbled htm^eff' aitd &j?etied not Am tHC9tihz 

He «w# aU ojT ^w' ^ the Umd ^f the living. 

PfnmiHGHt Valiir of thr. Old Testament 

If (Jion shfUt nuikf his aott/ att off*^-tig for ahu, 
He ftfrnil tfw hift wr^'/, M tihfjU prolong kU iiajfa. 
Ami thf j*t<i<Murc of the Lord $haU prt?»pcf iu hi* 

/ wUl fliritfc for him f/t^ gr^aU 

And the Hlri/Uff iir tthnU tUviilr fijt itjMiil*, 

The chrbQ^ in bht; dciwriptioii of the pentou of MenMati, aa 
the Mc^iaikic \'mou Ih handed mi troiu iaaiati to Joruuiiuli 
and KzukicI, prcpciree the student of the Old Testament for 
tho further clian^e which first allows ilfiolf in tlto pri>]i}iec^ 
of Deut^-ro- Isaiah. In luaiah Meaaiah ia Diiine, in Jcnjniiuh 
he iM ttimplj <t sfutot of Daviii. in E3:ekiel he b David my 
mrvanL Nit diiu1)t the tw» hit«r priiphtt* think of the 
futuro kin^ aA unc* fullj' ondned (1ik<^ David) with thr? npirit. 
erf Jehovah, hut tiiej do nut fdlow their prcdccwwor in 
fpvin^ him a title higher than any which can be ^Ivcn Lo aii>' 
merely himuin heru Me^eiuh ie — for all timt Jorcmiuh and 
EsEckiel say to the contrary— A fi^mr^ And It ia juat on 
this eidt^ — the huuikAU— that a froBh revolatiun wilm about to 
be given. Hitherto thu leader of lanwl had bocu portrayed 
aj« a pn.>4[ier(>iiH king, now he ia to lnr ale^icHlied hh unffering 
under opprcM^i on. Perhaps the euiferingi which tlie nation an 
a vhole nndt^rwant liimni^ the IJxile jijeiiared tin* way for 
the thonght i>f a leader for Urael wh4j eiillbrB. but in any case 
the tmuaition is loade. and it va the more eafi,v nince the future 
king ie never rcproeontod evon hi tJie earlier prophc^eii^ti i\r a 
Conqueror in war, but a** a Prince of l^oaee, JeiiovaU 
fighta hi« battlei^ for biui. In Deuterit-lmiah the character of 
Ch<i king Iiftj^ lK'>cnme inorged in that of the i^utTerer, Tliere 
eun l>e mi donbi. of the- idt^ntit^y of (he (renlrnl llgnn.^ Hith 
tlie kiiig L>f Um (mrlier pi'a[iht!cie4, though in thi« Uiat. puiwage 
there iH ruj exprewa mention of the Uoiiao of David, nor of any 

The Servant of JsuovAn according to Old TeatiuaeDt 
tlumght i» always a hnider of men, a prophet at lixist', if not 

Mm. liL. liiL 

^ Auioft Mi. 7. 


Cambridge Theological A'**ays 


m Mtfien' or & Darid^. The £jenr«v»f qfjEaovA/r who «4(W7 
f/^:a^ tvtMtp'* aud £c ranted m^ iiftcd up ajid shaii b* «fry 
A«f;A ID A IViuoc in cipitu of any dcptL of huuiUiation to whkdi 
ho may he for a tinio osposocL 

But what is t(j be !^d of tlie iv>rk of the S^rvatU qf 
jE/iin-^f/^ At first sight it nppeftra to hv uttorly diJI^jrvivt 
from that uf Onir Dn^iilk- King Hpukeii of by Iftaiah, Mlcafa, 
Jereiiiinh, and Rsekiel. ('urtaiiily our firMt. iiiipuliw in to 
deny that it liaj* Aii}tliiii£ in lommon with tlji; work of Hw 
Kin^ of tbc PotirfoLd Name. Tlio <;iirlicr proj^hete vpcakof 
the ftdininUtration of a kiii^om, but where ia tbc nuotioi 
of a kingdom in tho |>n>phocy (>f DouttMM) Lftaiah t 

I'ho Gontnu^t ie moro apparent tJian real. It ih striking 
only aa loiig as we rc^rd the Kingdom spoken of by tiM 
cnrlW prirpheU Hs purely iiiEuidaiio, and an htn^ ha we rt«ardi 
li^iiL lii. \% — liii. \2 fur tike woH ktufffiain, nni^ not fnr tb«* iipw 
(if kin^^ly rule, 'Him L-oiitraKt luiwovnr lofi*vi alunrAt nil lU 
^ignificduce in the light of two conr^iderattoiLS. In the fitit 
place the futuro Kingdom ^jwkon of in laa. ix. 7 (&nd the 
kindred itii^eago^) iri not "nf ttiU world." The propht-t 
ascribes to it the three qimlitie*; of jffrmatwnee, pea^tt^fid- 
n^sa, and righUoutote»». It i» a kingdom vrithouc fortrettaa 
Mild without chariots, a kiiiKrUfni i»f nuind, ikiL iti;^tHcrial, fofctt. 
It does not €oercM\ but attractH, it rloeA not impose a yoke, buc 
tenclicx to willing scLola^'H thr mt/^n v/ Jkhovah^ S«Hi 
an iimtitntiun a« thiH cannot be tic^'d to tho iiMnie of ki3i^iiiim\ 
it is a now co«mo«, a f^lvUtM Dei, thonjrli it ia presented bf 
leaiah in the gui^e of an lanulito etaie under a DaHdtc 

llie eocond consitlemtioii which holp« to diminiBh cha 
caii1n\«t between Itin. ix. and Isa lii, — liii. ie that Uie hilt«r 
pii^snge dne« <<nntnin elemont^^ trhich suggest u. kingdom, 
albeit a spiritual one. The Serrsmt of Jkhuvah, it hft8 been 
)4aid alxivc, \» a Pniieemid leader of men. In tliiA iMwmge ho 
claime many nations for thetlod of Inmei by nprtiikling^ 

1 Num. Ill 7, ' Micoliir, &, 

* 2 &imu TiL & ■ Tho omoiKUtinn at tho If el 

' Cr, Jcr ixilL A, "«h>]l mignuid ward ytneth^ "he nl^iUl «ji 

dooi wiwly-'' ia u 4o«porata dorto^ ttiou^ it hw 

ix] PemimieiU Value of the Old TenianmU 

with cl^on^iiig water or blood {ML 15), The power of Jehovah 
ti maiiifeated thi'oitgh him ^tiii- \\ autl the |>Iea8ii]'e of 
Jrhovah U r^tr'mX out bj his liaiifl {iliiL ver 10), Tiifi 
spiritijft] kingdom in foiiiirl in thiH jiawiage in invi though nob 
miiaint;. Tlie oiAs noiitr&»t HhidircmuiWItetweeuTtta. ix. i — 7 
&iiij iaa. lii. \^ — liii. Vi is one of a ditf'ereiicc of framework, 
QOt of t>«tutial contents. In tht^ fir^t |>uAsagc, writt^^ whik 
tbu Iciti^flom ut Judah vtA:^ t^tUI ^taii<iiu^, tho imni^cry of the 
t«mpornJ aiate is bon*oweti iii opdor to give expression to a 
•pirituttl message, in the Ai^onrl pasaHge, written Imlf a 
ceoturj after tlie t^W of the Jewish ^late^ alt ^noh imagery 
U (liN(!nnlt?fl tt« useless for iUnstrfi-tion. Somettiin^ whit-li ijt 
ill fiu^i a Hpiritual kiiigih>m is deHcrilMMl. I»U the [i>ime of 
kitt^tl(9ut IB iLot^ven to it The iWAfta^e nialcert ck'itr ti) uif 
Uic &ct that the Messianic idea Ia not inaepai'ably iiouiid up 
with a victori^up kin^ ol'Jitibth. 

But the special siKiiificaucc of Isa. lii. 13— iiiL 19 liefl still 
deeper. The paaaa^ ^owm utt the aieana by which the King 
htiihlrt np liiFt spiritual kiti^dnin. It i» by »itrhik(rng mmiy 
wUioriji '. it w byjujif-ififinff tiumj/ lor vioking many riffht^oiis). 
The wnrk is done not on tbe Imttk-lieM, but hi the spiritual 
aphere, the spht^re in which Gwl ineetfl with the unul of man. 
Tlic Servant pfiurfil otU his tout wnkr dtnOt^ and ho in hiM 
own person reconciled the rebellious to God (liii 12). 

AVe find then that there was growing up in Israel from 
the cikI of the t^ighth Century &.C. te Lhc euil uf the 8ixtti 
a doctrine of a coming Kingdom of Ood. To this doctritio 
suecGHsive prophets made their eentribution^ not formally 
or Bcholastieally. but naturally ae to a faith by which men 
livi,', Tlie mesaage was re-ntated in eiw^b prophecy uet^n^ding 
to the eireumritances of the iLge in which it ^\i* delivrreiL 
Uj^aaJIy T^onie freah element waa added. At fiiT^t Mght it 
eecma that the soveral portions of prophetic teju'hinjf cannot 

comiovniUJ itMjlT tt> sr^ino ^o\n\ 

wont, JiTiil 1H iiAotI in Ite ordltiiiry 
acii0ix T]k« ooituioii of jl propoBi- 
tloa C^J iLfUff tho verb uui be 

defoDdctl brfluRlcic^it pi^nJIclH Nu 
iLrgumeiit far er]E<-iidiLtiotj cuti bv 
bibAfxl an tha lxx r«nd4>rtiig) wUtcb 
iniliwil iji Tcrif Ijud iw (he gr^Nitor 
purl of Ibbi puMitfc. 


CaTubridtfe Theological Essays 


be united into an homogeneoua body of teiu^in^ A norv 
nhn-fiil cxHTiitiiution 1kiiit'i.n^rr pnivpx th<-ir Immumy. TYio 
ditf«Trei)cet< are uf the outward fonn. Thmtf iu ft progren, 
liiit no diMiiriSon, A Am uf iJurid, Divmc on one wdr ctf 
IIiA Nature, I'eigiiA over a Kingdom of PeaceV the know*- 
lodge of jEnoVAH prevailH evcrj-wiicrc in it*, the Wftn from 
Bethlehem ie groat oven to tho end^ of the earth^» He bears 
tlie3ymlxjlienfune,-/fi/rc*iMn<wr Wj/A/i^M/jrw/wrt'. H(^iMlLP^i^ee 
for ever^ and the means by whitrh He wins Uim »pleiidi4 
|>o«idon, and giveit ftenee U\ HU people l« by pouring out BIa 
wiul unto death, a iweriflce whk-ki in aL^(H.^pted bj jKiii>vjiH 
AH H MU'nUiM' for m\\\ 

Thih living diKfnne *^if thr |>n>plietA wlnrli iirornilecl imtre 
than tivc hundred yearb before the Coming of our Lord id in 
ItAelf ^iiftieieut proof that Chrifltiuiiiiy U uo tiew biiUi. but a 
republication and ]>crfcctins of an old. llie p<.>rnianoDt value 
of tlie Old Testament coiiKintt!^ in Uie 6rfit place in thi& tbat it 
U a witness to the fact thut Christianit}' i* part "f the World- 

Ae compare*! with thiw great eerTic© of the Old Teetatnent 
bi Reli^ou, all other services must seem relatively KmalL In 
an L^HHHy like the preHent, it iti Kuflirient to meniiink them 
briefly, tn the fii'at place then not thi? Ie;t*l. of tlitw" furtJier 
BGTTices of the Old Testament consiat^ in iU witneoa to the 
value of many element* in the faithf* of the PrcChriftlian 
World. It iy sometimes wiid in diupantgemi^nt, ne it we«xi, of 
the religion of ^fosce. that most of it^ orditiancec^ and not a 
few of ita doetrim^ are to be found in tJie relij^ont: ui TsnieJ'i 
neighbours. The H&erifieia] iiyHtem of I.evitiens ref^emble« m 
iH>me £iolnt« that which prevailed anioug the Plioerdeiaiw. 
Thr RubUuh wms in Mimr fortn perliii|H drrin<(l from 
Babylon. There ai'e aigiiH moreova" that in practice (aa 
diatinet from theory) the monotJieism of the Hebrews woa 
not nlways easily to bo cUatjnguIfihed from the devotion of 

> Iialx. 

« Jar. iiJlL 

■ ih. si, 

* Kick, ixivii. 

* 3licah r 

ix] Pa-mawnt VtU^tv of the Old Testament 363 

MoAb to Chenuwh. tlio nafional flod of Moftb, and of Aaflyria 
to Asflhur tlic cpoTiynioufl iJod of AfisfHa. 

ThuH viewed with iHoriem ©yes the reliifion of Mosea loaes 
a «r»i»d deal vi iht^ tfrifjiuetfiti/ with whioli it was once 
credited. But this Ioks is n gnic to the thoughtful rciigiou* 
nuLn. If MfMaiitvi (to u^e &ii ugly but ii>4efi)1 word) wha the 
only ligfit >ibtning iu tlie world THrfurt? ('hmt'n coming, how 
are (^irisUaMfl to undeisUnd St PhuVs HWiertion that (Jod 
i^ nof- Ilitngrf/ without ipitrtr-^ among the Gentiles in the 
earlier dayn^ op that i>a8aage of the tlpifltlc to the Romans 
which speaks of the Centilc-sos having no law, ami yet iKJing 
a law to themfielvea, their conscioucc bearing wltne^ with a 
law writUm in thdr hearts^V 

Points of contact between tho Jewhh religion and tlic 
failhM of thdr neighbours are not evideuL-e that all tlieae 
iw\y rpligions nrc e^innlly faNe {^ some inaitiuaLe) ; i-ntlter 
they t^n^ible u>* Un*i'*s that if one i m per fet't religion wanheipAil 
in prei>tirtng the way for the Christian Revelation anioTig the 
Hebrews, other imperfect faitha might perform the flame 
olTicc among the (jctitiica. Acf.t'pting thifl view of the 
reli^DUa hiatory of tho world, to which the 4Jld TeeUimewt 
il*K*if poiultf (IS, we find oureblves in accord with some of 
the beBl of early Christian thought, with Che following 
Kentiment'a of Origen for instance: — 

"When Cod sent Jet^uv to lUe human race, it was itot hr 
tiirrugh He had jriHt awoken fr<mi a long bWjj. but ilewUH, 
though He has only now for worthy reasons MfiUe<i the divine 
plan of Hie iucumatioD. has at all time^ been doing good to 
the human race. For no noble deed juaong men has over 
been done without the Divine \A'ord visiting the houIs of t)iOMe 
who even for a brief «[mce were able to receive such opera- 
tions of the Divine Word"/" 

It ia true that thure are many passages of the Old Ttv;ta- 
ment which pans an nm|nnliflcfl condemnation on all other 
rdiginni* than the Mi»Kali^. It 1h trut\ Imt not the whole 
LrutK "Blood is ihiekor than water/' aTid the life-blood of 

1 Acta dv. IT. 
> Ronk It 14— lA. 

■ Ab tmnaLiLU^I \n Hort'« Ant0- 
Niant Ft*ihrrt. p. 133. 


Cambridge Tii^oloj/ica!. Htsay* 



the Old Twtanieril (if J mtty iwu thi? pltniw?) >m fiiuiiil Doviiik 
ill Wm vtiiiK '>r tliese tither rell^iojiit The prophets vcro 
bound to prntc^t njEfAtnst the influciico of foreign relicioDa, 
in spite of the trutJi which was bound up in thcni. for the; 
foutid that ihi^c i-oll^ioitft wero apt to commuiiioito tboir 
worst elementft and not thoir bowt, wlien ihoir iiifluenoe 
wa^ brought to bear upon the people of lenwL Practice 
auch as SixitJiatayiii^ aud Human Sacrificiw were eaaier to 
tnuwtnil than t'aiUi and Liive uud Ihnicvty. Hut in tiMji!ent 
dajin we nee iu Awvrian iieniti^iillal iinaliiiH and in Vcdic 
hjinti« a «idc of the old Gtsiitilc fott.hfl vliicli ptr 
the proptkoU ncTcr t»aw, a aide which ha^ kinehip with 
tearhin^ of th<j 1 Lcltrew prophets thcmmslvix-v and thruuf^b 
prophote with the teacliing ef J^vangeltBtB and ApootUw. Hio 
liDkfi are complete; vre iwe a Way, a Truth, and a Uh 
which wa« not confiutKl to a few centiirim, uot to one <iTkaU 
peopli^ l^e seeond service ef the Old Tej^tament Uf the t'vitw 
of Religion xn that tt mtnndrt tw a prnimn<^nl. ^titntmn to the 
faet tlmt Hod gave light tu many nations, and not to one odIjt, 
before tlie coming of (_1kmt. 

Again, the Old Tc^ment is vnlnablc to relifciouA num of 
allagea fur tlic dltietniti^fii itjciveeof God'amethodof Keveia- 
tiou, tt^vt;liLtioik i& not a sudden act, but a tcnidual ]>rooeAa. 
Ite fiill dayli^'ht dom not come with one .blinding; world-wide 
fla»h, bm with the trrudual brotulenin^ of a liny ray of liftht, 
H bcoHxlirniiig whii^li ninny men think too sl^w. Aihmi in the 
Garden (nirf Milborrs Adam, but the Ailani of Gt^ueKiH) in a 
creature CTidently fit to receiTe only the simplest teaching, 
lie Jh nitvwn his duty^ one thing to be dune — a (garden to bo 
kept; one thing uot to bo done — a particular tree not to be 
touched. It IB the kind and the dc^rrce of moral diM^ipliiie to 
whieh the veriest wivaRe might Ixr put, Ijiter i>n we oome to 
tlie revelation— a somewhat fuller revelatton — ^ven to Noah 
afU>r the Flood. Al! the living creaturea are delivered Into 
Man'i4 hmtd fur }m u^e or to ^lay for Mh food, Onljf Mhil 
iH taught that the phe^liliiij^ uf blood, even of the blood 
of a hea.'^t. is nn nwfnl thing- Tlic^ blood of a l)eapl ih not to 
be eatcD* the ahoddiug of a maua blood is to be punished 

Et] Permanent Value of the Old TegtavterU 365 

with death. Sdl! very few and ftlmple commands, only the 
tif^iiiiiin^ iif n iiionil Uw. mid yot siifficipiit tn tmiii man. 
The dtfVtdii|iuieiiL U iitill i^ltjw w)i<*u wti n^furli AlimkiHiiL 
AUnkJmm t/wm citl^'if thf/riiutlnffifHV. but we Mlmtl trntirdy 
miBimdcrfltand buUi tlie man, and (jnd'e di'^lTigu with tlie 
man, unlott* we roriliac at v(\mt a low sbito of nmnillty 
ho stood at the tM^ci1ltnug:, and even totiardA tho cud of 
hU career. Tlio McinajG law y'^\a hot yet givon, mtieh Ices 
th(» law of ChriKt, fuid Ahntlmm mtiet not bo judged by them. 
Two ^U mark the moml »tage at which the patriarch stood, 
ArHt, liiH dt^niid tif his wlft', a4^7l]nd1y, hiA tetiipUUirm to otfor 
up hi« «on. The denial of Sanii w»s ao eH]>ecianj revolting 
act. nince It waa ae<.'OTtipimred wkli Abraham' fi own etirir-hinont, 
ui oiiriclimcnt con temp lated in ailratkce by the patriarch. 
The temptation to offer up i»uic cotihi only Imve happened 
to one wluwo inorul tjonditioit wtis l>clow that of the genera- 
tion wblch PropheU Uught Sucli an act tut a hiunan 
luu.Tifia'^ i« never mentioned later in the Bible' n-ithout a tone 
of liorn>r in the toUing. But Abraham xw.U'^\ up tn hin lijfht, 
such M H wiuf. He obtainM and deMci'ved a hleM^iiig for 
bdng willing to surrender hU chief treasure to hia Ood^ bat 
the Nime willin^icee tn n nian who had heard the propheciea 
of Micah or Isaiah would bave been a dctiunec of momlity in 
the niune of eiiper^titioii. 

We jndpe Abrahnm. then, by hie own a^je, and not by later 
t1me«, but Judged by }ii^ (jwn u^e wli^t a H|i]endid fi^mre he m I 
TTiw half-saviigc uinn^ jounie>ing t<t and fro in a savage land 
which knew no law but force, ^ hti-an^rr with no hold on life 
exce|»t by the Esword of Inis servants &nd no fooLhoM in tlie 
buid except a burial place bought from the Elittite^ bought 
when towards the end of hia days the inhabitants hiid kanied 
to re^'pect the increase of hie strenifth,— thia half Navagv man 
learned to look forward to the fWlltlment of Go<i'a prom»oe, 
anil npwanls to ("kid hj? \\U proteetor. He beciime the F"*ather 
of the Faithful, the pioneer (t*o to speak) of the men of every 
age who hear the voice of God amiiUt the tunndt and tenxir 
of the earth* He wfi« a learner hi morally and a learner in 

^ Jwioi ii -aiR. * ^'Itli Uic dlfllcuU cxcoptioii oT Jcf rhtltah. 



Cmtihrid^c Theoht/icaJ. E»»ay» 


reli^on ; he \mA tu learti QoA thni \m i1«»cemlanbi ndi^t 
Icam virtue. ItDpcrfect a;^ ho u, he towcra above the mcu of 
liiti time, imd — in Iht^ matter of faith— over ino^t meu of oU 

We iiei.'d net gq betow Abi-abam in trueing out the metbiM] 
of G(m1'h revelutiuu. The rest of ihv iiJ4rmtive of the (Mil 
TeMlftjuezit purely cunfmna the coDcIiiMioti about to be dnwn. 
T\\v. uu^UiihI <]f rio(V« reveliiiioii^ thtni^ ih itiitrkrd hy Ive 
features. In the first place, God does not hurry (bo h 
ncTcrcntly saidV A ihoma^d ytars of mom! croluUon ore 
vHtk Hint ca &}iC dajf : 

"8ii tiMuy H mJlliim uf nifdn have giiiii> to thu mftblng nr 


The otlier feature of God's revelation ta tliat He revcali 
lijmaeir, before Ue reri^ts the wbotc moral l«w. Throngboilt 
the Old IV'stament we are Hbown a double revelatJoD bi 
jtrogre^?^, a revehUiuii of God growing TuHer niiil ful]rj'» uid & 
reretation of duty growing wider and wider. 

Tlie value of the Ofd Testament in this respect lica lu the 
light it throws not ooly on tho hit^tory of rclitfion in the pMt> 
but oIbo on the rcligioue circnniflt&ncoB of the present d&f. 
Man — even religioua man — Btill anawers to the poet'a cliarac- 

"Tbo piebald iniAt^Unti^, Mlui, 
BuTHts Of great honrt onJ olipa in nonfluat mit^" 

And wc uhail be perplexed, perhaps daunted bj wtiat m 
■lee, unlesa we leoni tbe leeaon of the Hebrvw StTi-iptunw, that 
the inond nature of Iinperfeet Mtin w very slowly perfoeted is 
the providence of God. StartSing contra^U remain even itt 
tliuiie whoKt- reli^oor^ sliiuL^nLy in piwl tjneslitHi, antl there 
exiet^i lierhapt no better ix'niinder of tliiu iniporUtit Lrutli 
than the ?iti>ry of Abraham, whom the Ohl Ttwljimi-nt holiU up 
not indecil for a perfect example, but m a hero of Faith. 

iVgain, the Old Testament haa l>6cn anil U tnoHt belpliil to 
timple aoola by reu^on of tliv i^tory of ^Veation. It niay he 
grftDtod that the llrHt chapter of Genesis contributed tiothin; 
to mofiem Natural Scienee- But the Origin of the Univcno 
iit ijidte an inueli a theolo^ieid f|utiHtion wi a physical oaeb 

IX] Permanent Value (^ the Old Testament 

If the modem reiigioia man te to be fWio from superetitiou', 
be muet bo asaured ttiut tlie myatcrioiit^ wcrltl in ^hiuli \\t 
Hve& u tU^ crenture of hiki Almigbly God. TJie fiwt cliapt«r 
of GetieHiN demotes Jt8e1f to ^viii^ AUcb an assumnce. 

H^jw velciinte tliU MJ^umikce h»8 Ixicii to omo at all titniM 
IS a fact wbit:b iu'wIk no bdioure^l (iroof, Init on^ te«tiiiioii^v to 
the opening vcrae^ of tioiieaih immt not* be withlield. Alxnit 
the yehr h^) a.P. there c^Lmo from the niountaiuA of 
Northern Mcsopotanuti a hcatlicu named Tatlati travelliiig 
weBtwaitl to Greece and Home in Beart^b of religious truth 
to Mitrnfy a gtrnwinf^ spiritual hunger. Somewhere iti tbe 
Grecian lands h« wai toM that the sun was a glowing mae^ 
tbt^ iiiiHin a world, ibat there were three tenses, p^Jst, preitentt 
and future, and that hn uwii Greek pronunciation leflnome- 
tbin{{ to ht dehinnU Ver> gooil iufnrmEition, but not of nuicb 
viUuG tu a man whom a dc»ire to tind the true God had diivcn 
from hia home ! Lc&ring Greece he puebcd on to Rome. 
Tliere be waa reoonnncudcd to the woreliip of Jupiter Lutiaris 
and of Diivna, but his simple proviocial sou) revolted at tlie 
discovery that these two deitiea delighted in Imman sacrillces, 
Hti wtm drive:) in upon hiruBelf : his own worda may tell tbc 

"Now AA I was considering what was be»(t to he done I 
"chanced to light upon certain barbarian books, older than 
"the opiuiorm of the Greeks* aud too tliTine to \y^ compared 
"with their errors. And it happened that 1 was pcriiuadtd 
"by these because of their unpretentious etyle, and tho 
"mimplicity of Die writers, and the plain eiutement of tbe 
"creation of all things,. .,and the unity of the divine govern- 
'^mentoveruU.^ And 1 pereeiveil that tliese writhigH bring to 
"an nid the Ixindnge that i:* hl tbe wiirh), and rescue um from 
"Ufji thou^iid |Kfwerfl that would fain lord it over usV 

Tbe Old Testament agidn iji i^f abiding value in tbo 
tremendous moral issuea which lie now before the world, and 
it louy be that the Mplondid ideul^ of a Mcfieiaiiic kiJigiloin 

' Tli« nKnlcTru toll of "riiristiAti 
pcir^nLv" Iti Ammtn mul Kiij^Uinl 
Bhowi thitt Uic (Lander