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IVIicrosoft Corporation 









This book is intended for students studying Russian with or without a 
teacher (in study groups, at courses, etc.] outside Russian linguistic milieu. 

It is a dictionary, i.e., besides lists oi the commonest Russian words (vo- 
cabulary) with English translations, it gives grammatical characteristics of the 
words and illustrative material, explaining not only the meanings of the words 
but their uses as well. 

The illustrative material consists of phrases and sentences showing the 
meanings of the words, and brief contexts, which are traditional, ordinary, 
semantically stable or, in any case, very commonly used, e.g. jiioSobf, k p6- 
flHHe love for one*s country, c^^eJiaxB BLiBo;t to draw a conclusion, coBepmiixb no- 
ciynoK to perform an action, KaK Bac 30ByT? What is your name?, Mbi onosfla- 
JiH K na^ajiy cneKTaKJiH We were late for the performance, etc. A number of 
words are followed by the sign <>, after which phrases, proverbs or figurative 
expressions containing these words are given, e.g. JIlct KaK H3 Be^pa It is 
raining cats and dogs, Bcero xoporaero All the best, Vm xopomo, a ABa jiynrae 
Two heads are better than one, etc. 

The vocabulary comprises some 3,000 of the commonest Russian words. 

At the end of the Dictionary, thematic word lists are supplied, which 
widen the scope of the vocabulary. 

It is hoped that the study of the lexico-grammatical material of the Dic- 
tionary will provide the necessary foundation for conversation on various 
everyday subjects and reading of modern Russian fiction and periodicals 
without consulting a Russian-English dictionary too often. 

Every article in this Dictionary includes the word under consideration in 
its initial form and defines it grammatically (either stating what part of speech 
it is or giving its forms). If a word has several meanings, only the commonest 
of these are given, each under a separate figure. Homonyms are entered as 
separate words marked 1, 2, 3, etc. Derivatives are not generally given in 
the same article as their root words but as caption words, since the Dictionary 
is based on an exact word count. 

The part of speech is indicated only in the case of adverbs, numerals, 
pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and particles. Nouns, verbs and adjectives 
have no such labels, as their grammatical characteristics given in the article 
define them clearly enough. 

Nouns are entered in the nominative singular, their gender and the pecu- 
liarities in the formation of the case forms, if any, are indicated. In the case of 
an unstable vowel, the genitive singular (e.g. KOB\en, gen. -ua,end) or genitive 
plural (e.g. naji|Ka, gen. pi. -ok, stick; okho, gen. pi. okoh, window) is supplied. 

The paradigms of nouns declined irregularly are given in full. 

Indeclinable nouns are marked indecl. 

All those forms of nouns in which there is a stress shift are given, e.g. Bo^a, 
ace. BoAy, water; ctojt, gen. ctoji^, pi. ciojiti, table; etc. 

Adjectives are entered in the masculine; the feminine, neuter and plural 
endings following the initial form. The comparative is given only if there are 


irregularities in its formation (interchange of sounds, suppletion). Short form 
adjectives are given in the same article as the long form ones. 

Personal pronouns are followed by their declension paradigms. Possessive 
and demonstrative pronouns are given in the masculine singular, followed by 
the feminine, neuter and plural forms. 

Verbs are entered in the infinitive, followed by the 1st and 2nd persons 
singular and the 3rd person plural. Cases where a verb form is not used are 
specially marked, e.g. npoaoJi>KaTbCH to continue, 1st & 2nd pers. not used; no- 
6eAiiTb to win, 1st pers. sing, not used, etc. The peculiarities in the formation 
of the past and the imperative are given. The past is supplied only if it is 
formed irregularly or if its formation is accompanied by a shift of stress (BesTii 
to carry — sea, Besjia; bbhtb to take — bbhji, BSflJia). Irregular formations of the 
imperative are also supplied, e.g. 6HTb to beat — Sen. 

Aspects of verbs are given in the following manner. In the case of perfec- 
tive verbs only the infinitive is given, with reference to the imperfective for 
meaning. Articles containing imperfective forms also include the perfective 
forms and illustrative examples explaining both forms. 

After the imperfective forms questions are aupplied helping to determine 
the government of the verb under consideration and of its perfective counter- 
part in each of their meanings. If a verb has a different government in one 
of its meanings, the questions are given for that particular meaning. 

When a verb is used only in one aspect in one of its meanings, this is 
always indicated, as well as the cases where the verb has one perfective coun- 
terpart in one meaning and a different one in another. 

Questions helping to determine the government of a word are also given 
after certain nouns, adverbs and adjectives. 

Assuming that the student will work at the Dictionary simultaneously 
with studying grammar, forms different from their initial forms are not entered 
as separate words, e.g. meji (from h^th to go), Bwme (from blicokhh high), 
MHC (from H /), etc. All such forms can be found in the articles on the ini- 
tial forms. Exceptions are suppletive forms which are beginning to be used as 
independent words with a specific meaning (e.g. jiioah people, jiynme better, 
etc.). In such cases the suppletive forms are entered with reference to their 
principal forms. 

Participles and verbal adverbs are not entered at all. 

In the Supplement, the words are grouped thematically. 

In the section Names of Nationalities, the head words are the nouns de- 
noting nationality in the masculine and feminine singular and in the plural. 
These are followed by the names of the countries and the corresponding adjec- 
tives, e.g. ^^auny 3 Frenchman, (^paunymeuKa Frenchwoman; ^paLRU,y3hi the French, 
(DpanuHH France; (J)paHqy3CKHii French. 

Forms which have not yet become quite stable are not given. 

Stress is indicated throughout the Dictionary. The primary stress is marked 
['], the secondary [']. All the words without independent stress should be 
merged in pronunciation with the principal word, as xaK me, na ctoji, hc 6 bin, 
He cxaji, etc. In some cases the pronunciation is given in square brackets. 

The Compilers 


A a 
B 6 
B B 

r r 

E e 
E e 

m JK 

3 3 
H H 

H ii 

K K 

JI ji 

M M 

H H 

n n 


C c 

T T 

y y 


X X 


^ q 

m m 

m m 


hi H 


9 9 

10 K) 

fl fl 


ace, accusative 
adj., adjective 
adv., adverb 
ant., antonym 
colloq., colloquial 
comp., comparative 
conj., conjunction 
dot., dative 
/., feminine 
fig., figurative 
fut., future 
gen., genitive 
i/np., imperfective 
iniper., imperative 
iinpers., impersonal 
indecl., indeclinable 
inf., infinitive 
instr., instrumental 
lit., literal 
m., masculine 

n., noun 
neut., neuter 
num., numeral 
p., perfective 
paren., parenthetic 
pj^rt., participle 
pers., person 
philos., philosophy 
pi., plural 
poss., possessive 
pred., predicate 
predic, predicative 
prep., preposition 
prepos., prepositional 
pron., pronoun 
q. v., which see 
sing., singular 
superl., superlative 
usu., usually 

A, a 

A conj. and 

H ynycL b ynnBepcHTeTe, a hg b hh- 
CTHTyxe. / study at a university, 
and not at an institute. Mm Hsy^aeM 


We study Russian and they, English. 

ABryCT m., no pi. August 

CeroAHfl AecHToe aBrycTa. Today is 
the tenth of August. H npiiexan b 
aBrycie. / came in August. H npn- 
exa.i AecHToro aBrycia. / came on 
the tenth of August. 

ABTOBYC m. bus 

Exaxb Ha asToSyce. To go by bus. 
B aBT66yce mhofo napofly. There 
are many people in the bus. 

ABTOMAT m. automatic machine 
Tejie(|)6H-aBT0MaT. Public telephone. 
CTanoK-aBTOMax. Automatic machine- 

ABTOMOBflJIb m. motor-car 

Exaxb Ha aBXOMo6HJie. To go by 

ABTOP m. author 

Abxoj) KHHrn. The author of a book. 

ABTOPyMIKA /., gen. pi. -eK foun- 

IlHcaxfc aBTopy^KOH. To write with 
a fountain-pen. 

ArPECCflBHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -tie aggres- 

ArpeccHBHaH nojiiixHKa. An aggres- 
sive policy. 

AFPOHOM m. agronomist 

PaSoxaxb arpOHOMOM. To work as 
an agronomist. 

AJ^PEC m., pi. -a address 

J[ame mhg sam ^Apec. Give me your 
address. Ilocjiaxb nmchud no a^pe- 
cy. To send a letter to an address. 

AKA^EMHH /. academy 

AKa;^6MHH nayK. The Academy of 
Sciences. GejibCKOXosHucxBeHHafl 

aKa;teMHfl. The Agricultural Academy. 
yqHXbCfl B aKa^eMiiH. To study at 
an academy. 

AKKYPATHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -He, short 
form aKKypaxen, aKKypaxH|a, -o, 
-m; adv. aKKypaxHo painstaking, 

AKKypaxHMH cxyA^HT. A painstak- 
ing, punctual student. IlHcaxb aK- 
KypaxHO. To write carefully. 

AHAJIH3 m. analysis 

AnajiHS H CHHxea. Analysis and 
synthesis. AnajiHa MejKAynapoflHoro 
noJiOJKeHHH. An analysis of the in- 
ternational situation. 

<> AnajiHS KpoBH. Blood test. 

AHPflHA /., no pi. tonsillitis 

y MeHfi anrHHa. / have tonsillitis. 
Bojiexb anrHHOH. To be ill with 

AIIEJIBCflH m. orange 

BKycHbiH anejibCHH. A tasty orange. 
KnjiorpaMM anejibCHHOB. A kilo- 
gramme of oranges. 

AnJIOAflPIOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox 
imp. KOMy? He My? to applaud 
AnjiOAHpoBaxb apxiicxy. To applaud 
an actor. 

AnilETflT m. appetite 

XopomHH annexHX. A good appe- 
tite. IIpHHXHoro annexHxal / wish 
you a good appetite! 

AIIPEJIB m., no pi. April 

CeroAHfl nepBoe anpeJifl. Today is 
the first of April. Oh npncAex e 
anpeJie. He will come in April. 
^BaAuaxb xpexbero anpenfl mh ea- 
jlHjiH Ha 3KCKypcHH). We went on 
an excursion on the twenty-third of 

AHTEKA /. chemist's 

fleJKypnaH anxena. Duty chemist's. 
HoKynaxb JieKapcxBa b anxeKe. To 
buy medicine at a chemist's shop. 

APB]$^3 m. water-melon 

Cn^JibiH ap6y3. A ripe water-melon. 



APECTIOBATb, -yio, -yemi.. -yioT 
imp. & p. Koro? to arrest 
ApecTOBaib npeCTynnHKa. To arrest 
a criminal. 

APMHH /. army 

CnJibHafl apMHH. A strong army. 

APTflCT m. actor 

ApTHCT KHHO. A cinema actor. Ha- 
poAHMH apTHCT GCGP. A People's 
Artist of the USSR. 

APXHTEKTOP m. architect 

TjiaBHWH apxHTCKTop. The chief 
architect. IIpoeKT apxHxeKTopa. The 
architect's project. 

ACOHPAHT m. post-graduate student 
AcnnpaHT Ka(J)eApH MaxeMaTHKH. 
A post-graduate of the Mathematics 

Atom m. atom 

Atom BOHopoAa. A hydrogen atom. 

ATOMH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -He atomic 
AxoMHaa aneprHH. Atomic energy. 
AxoMHafl 8JieKTpocTaHD;Hfl. An atom- 
ic power-station. Atomhhh Jie^o- 
KOJi. An atomic ice-breaker. Atom- 
Hafl 66m 6a. An atomic bomb. 


1. lecture-room. IlHTafl ay^HTopHH. 
Lecture-room No. 5. Mm sann- 
MacMCfl B TpeTfceu ayAHTopHH. 
We have our lessons in Room 

2. audience. BHHMaTejiLnafl ay^H- 
TopHH. An attentive audience. 

ABPO^POM m. aerodrome 

Ha aapoflpoMC. At the aerodrome. 

Exaxfc Ha aapoApoM. To drive to 

the aerodrome. 
A3POnOPT m., prepos. b aaponopxy 


BcxpeHaxb ^ejieraqHio b aaponopxy. 

To meet a delegation at the airport. 

B, 6 

BAfiynilKA /., gen. pi. -eK grand- 
BA3A /. 

1. basis. 9K0H0MHHecKafl 6a3a. An 
economic basis. 

2. base. BoeHHaa 6a3a. A military 

BAJI m., prepos. ua 6ajiy & o daJie; 
pi. -M ball 

Ohh nosHaKOMHJiHCB Ha 6ajiy. They 

met at a ball. 
BAJIET m. ballet 

HoBHH 6aJieT. A new ballet. Cmo- 

xpexb 6ajiex. To see a ballet. IIohxh 

Ha 6a;iex. To go to a ballet. 
BAJIKOH m. balcony 

BbiiixH Ha 6ajiK6H. To come (go) out 

on to the balcony. 
BAHK m. bank 

TocyAapcxBeHHUH 6aHK. The State 

Bank. Hai^iioHajiBHUH 6aHK. The 

National Bank. 
BAHIKA /., gen. pi. -ok jar 

GxeKJiHHHafl 6aHKa. A glass jar. 
BAHH /. bath-house 
BACKETBOJI m., no pi. basket-ball 

IlrpaxB B 6acKex66ji. To play bas- 

ket-bfll . 

1. swimming-pool. HjiaBaxb b 6ac- 
cefme. To swim in a swimming- 

2. basin. KaMeHHoyroJibHLiw 6ac- 
ceHH. A coal basin. 

BAnilHH /., gen. pi. -en tower 

BbicoKaH 6amHfl. A high tower. 

KpeMJieBCKne 6amHH. The Kremlin 

BEFAITb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. to run 

JleTii 6eraiox b ca^y. The children 

are^ running about in the garden. 
EEJIA /., pi. 6eAH misfortune, trouble 

JXpyr noMor MHe b 6eAe. My friend 

helped me in my need. 
BE^HIblH, -aa, -oe, -Lie, short form 

6eAeH, 6eAHa, 6eAH|o, -h; adv. 6eAH0 

1. poor. BeAHaa cxpana. A poor 
country. Oh 6eji 6eAH0 OAex. 
He was poorly dressed. 

2. fig. poor, y aero 6eAHoe boo6- 
paJKeHHC. He has a poor imagi- 

3. fig., only complete form poor. 
BeAHaa meHmiinal Ona noxepajia 
Cbiaa. The poor woman! She has 
lost her son. 

BE^ATB, 6ery, 6eH«Hmb, 6eryx imp. 

1. to run. CnopxcMCH 6e?KHx 6bi ex- 
po. The sportsman runs quickly. 

2. fig. to fly. BpeMH 6ejKiix. Time 

BE3 prep. -\- gen. without 

Han 6e3 caxapa. Tea without sugar. 
XoAHXb 6e3 manKH. To go without 
a cap. 



<> Be3 nflTH MHHyT BOceMb. Five 
minutes to eight. Hex j^uMa 6e3 
orHfl (proverb). There is no smoke 
without a fire. 

BE3PAB0TH|blfl m., gen. -oro unem- 
ployed person 
Oh 6e3pa6oTHHH. He is unemployed. 

BEJIIMB, -aH, -oe, -ue white 

BeJiaH CKaxepTb. A white table-cloth. 
<> Bejibiii xjie5. White bread. 

BEJIbE neut., no pi. underwear; linen 
HafleTb qiicToe 6ejiLe. To put on 
clean underwear. OT^axb 6ejibe b 
CTHpKy. To give out one's washing. 
IIocTeJibHoe 6ejibe. Bed-linen. 

BEPEF m., prepos. o Gepere & na 6e- 
pery; pi. -a bank, shore 
Beper peKii. The bank of the river. 
Beper oaepa. The shore of the lake. 
OxAMxaxb na 6epery MopH. To rest 
at the sea'side. 

BEPEHB, 6epery, 6epe}KemL, 6eperyx, 
past 6eper, 6eperji|a, -6, -h imp. 
K r 6? H X o? to take care (of) 
Beperwxe SAopoBbe. Take care of 
your health. Bepe^b ^exen. To take 
care of the children. Bepe^b 
BpeMH. To make the most of one's 

BECEJ^A /. conversation 

/lIpyH^ecKafl Secefla. A friendly con- 
versation. Becxii 6eceAy. To carry 
on a conversation. 

BECEJi;iOBATB, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp. 

C KeM? KOM? HCM?//?. DO- 

GecefllOBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to 


H 6eceAyK) c xoBapnmeM o hoboh 

KHHre. / am talking about a new book 

with my friend. 

BECKOHEHHIblfl, -aH, oe, -Me, short 
form 6ecK0HeHeH, 6ecK0HeHH|a, -o, 


1. endless. BecKOHe^naH paBHHHa. 
An endless plain. 

2. endless. BecKOHe^HbiH cnop. An 
endless argument. 

3. infinite. Mnp SecKOHeneH. The 
world is infinite. 

BECnAPTflflHlblfl m., gen. -oro non- 

Oh 6ecnapxHHHHH. He belongs to no 

BECnJIATHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 
6ecnjiaTH0 free, gratis 

BecHJiaxHoe o6yHeHHe. Free educa- 
tion. BecnjiaxHoe MeAHi^HHCKoe o5- 
CJiyjKHBaHiie. Free medical service. 
OxflMxaxb 6ecnjiaxH0 b canaxopuH. 
To have free lodgings and board in 
a sanatorium. 
BECnOKOlHTbCH, -locb, -nmbCH, 
-axcfl imp. KOM? o HeM? 

1. to worry, to be anxious. Becno- 
KOHXbCfl o AexHX. To worry about 
the children. BecnoKoiixbCH o 
SflopoBbe. To be concerned with 
one's health. 

2. to bother. He 6ecnoK6fixecb, h 
caM 3X0 cp^enaio. Don't bother, 
I'll do it myself. 

BECnOKOnHlblfl, -an, -oe, -tie; adv. 
Seen OKo MHO 

1. restless. BecnoKOHHafl H«i3Hb. 
A restless life. 

2. restless. BecnoKOHHBiH qejiOBeK. 
A restless person. 

3. fig. agitated. BecnoKOHHoe Mope. 
A choppy sea. 

BECnOJIE3HlbIH, -an, -oe, -tie, short 
form 6ecnojre3eH, Secnojieanla, -o, 
-bi; adv. 6ecnojie3HO useless 
Becnojie3Hoe aauHXHe. A useless 

BECnOMOmHlbin, -an, -oe, -we, short 
form 6ecn6MOm,eH, 6ecn6MomH|a, -o, 
-h; adv. GecnoMomHO helpless 
BecnoMomHuii peGenoK. A helpless 
child . 

BECnOPHAlOK m., gen. -Ka disorder 
BecnopHAOK b KOMnaxe. Disorder 
in the room. 

BHBJIHOTEKA /. library 

HaynnaH 6H6JiHoxeKa. A scientific 
literature library. IlySjiHHHafl 6n6- 
JiHOxeKa. A public library. Bpaxb 
KHiirH b 6H6jTHOxeKe. To borrow 
books from a library. 


1. ticket. Bnjiex b xeaxp, b khho. 
Ha KOHuepx; na noean, na napo- 
xofl, Ha caMOJiex. A ticket for the 
theatre, for the cinema, for a con- 
cert; for a train, for a ship, for 
a plane. 

2. card. IlapxHHHEiH 6HJiex. A party 
membership card. HpHrJiacMxeJib- 
HLiH 6HJiex. An invitation card. 
Gxyj];eHHecKHH 6HJiex. A stu- 
dent's card. 

3. 3K3aMeHan;H6HHbiH 6hji6x. A 




question-paper (for oral examina- 
tions) . 
BHOrPAOHH /. biography 

PaccKaaaxb 6Horpd$iiio. To tell one's 
BHTb, 6b|K), -eniL, -H)t; imper. 6eH imp, 

1. Koro? ^eM? noHGMy? to 
beat. Oh 6hji co6aKy nanKOH no 
CDHHe. He heat the dog on the 
hack with a stick. 

2. HTO? qeM? p. paaoiiTL, pa- 
3o6blK), -emt, -TOT to break. 


hreak a pane with a stone. Paa- 
6HTb cxaKan. To break a glass. 

3. Koro? p. paaCi'iTb to defeat. 
PaaSHTb Bpara. To defeat the 

A. p. npo6iiTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. npo6b|eT, -k)T 
to strike. Bbiox nacbi kpbmjigb- 
CKOH 6amHH. The clock of the 
Kremlin tower is striking. 
BflTBCH, 6b|K)Cb, -erabCfl, -iotch imp. 

1. to beat. GepAi^e Swjiocb. The 
heart was beating. 

2. to struggle. Oh aojifo 6viJiCfl na^ 
peraeHHeM saAa'in. He wrestled 
with the problem for a long time. 

BJIArO^APlflTb, -K), -limb, -ht imp. 
Koro? HTO? 3a ht6?//>. no6jia- 
rojtaplHTb, -10, -Hmb, -ht to thank 
BjiaroflapK) sac aa BHHMaHHe. (/) 
thank you for your attention. 

BJIArOJ^APH prep. + dat. thanks to, 
owing to 

Bjiaro^apH ynopnoMy Tpy^y ohh 
BwpacTHJiH SoraxLiH ypo?KaH. Thanks 
to persistent work they've grown a 
rich crop. 

BJIE^HElTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. /p. 
noSjieflHelxb, -lo, -emb, -lox to turn 

no6jieflHeTb ox cxpaxa. To blanch 
with terror. 

BJI^J\H\hlVL, -an, -oe, -bie, short form 
6jieAeH, 6JIe;^Hd, 6ji^ah|o, -h; adv. 

1. pale. Bji^AHoe jihi^o. A pale face. 
BjieflHUH ox BOJiHeHHH. Pale 
with excitement. 

2. fig. colourless. Bji^ahmh otb^t. 
A colourless answer. 

BJIE|CTETB, -niy, -CTHmb, -cxiix or -my, 
6jien;emb, 6ji6n;yT, 1st & 2nd pers. 
rarely used, imp. to shine, to sparkle 

Gner Sjigctht he cdJiniie. The snow 
is sparkling in the sun. Fjiaaa y nee 
6jiecTHX ox paflocxH. Her eyes are 
sparkling with joy. 
BJIECT}^I^|Hfl, -aH, -ee, -ne 

1. shining. BjiecxamHH npeAM^x. 
A shining object. 

2. fig. brilliant. BjiecTflmne ycn6- 
XH. Brilliant success. Bjiecxfln^HH 
oxBex. A splendid answer. 

BJIfi3K|H0, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
6JIH30K, 6jiH3Ka, 6jih3k|o, -h; adv. 
6jiu3ko; comp. SjiHjKe 

1. near. B;iH3KaH agp^bhh. A near 
village. Jlec h pen^ 6jih3KO. The 
river and the forest are close by. 
R jKHBy 6jiii3K0 ox yHHBepcHxe- 
xa. / live near the university. 

2. figf close. BJIH3KHH flpyr. A 
close friend. 

BJIIOAO neut. 

1. dish. Oap$6poBoe 6jik)ao. A 
porcelain dish. 

2. course. IlepBoe 6jik)A0. The first 
course. OSeA hb xpex 6jik)a. A 
three-course dinner. 

BOr [6oxl m., gen. pi. -6b God 

BepHXb B 66 ra. To believe in God. 
BOrATCTBO neut. 

1. wealth. Orp6Mnoe 6oraxcxBo. 
Great wealth. 

2. pi. resources. IIpHpoAHHe 6or^T- 
cxBa. Natural resources. 

BOrATIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
6or^T, -a, -0, -m 

1. rich. BoraxuH nejioBeK. A rich 
person . 

2. fig. rich. Boraxmn ypoHtan, 
yji6B. A rich harvest, catch. 

BOfl m., prepos. b 6ok) & o 66e; pi. 
6oH, 6oeB battle 

norii6Hyxb b 6oi6. To die in bat- 
tle. Ha noJie 66h. On the battle- 

BOK m., prepos. b (na) 6oKy; pi. -A side 
JlejKaxb Ha 6oKy. To lie on one's 
side. JIoBepHyxbCH 66kom. To turn 

BOJIEE adv. more 

B6Jiee bwcokhh. Taller. B6Jiee hh- 
xepeCHWH. More interesting. 
<> Ten 66jiee (qTo). The more so\ 
especially as. Bojiee hjih Menee. 
More or less. 

B0JlE3Hb /. disease, illness 




TflJKejiafl 6o.ie3Hb. A grave 

BOJIEH, 6ojiLHJa, -6, -u short adj. used 
as predic. ill {cf. BOJIbHOfl) 
fl doJien. / am ill. Ona 6ojiLHa yjKe 
AaBHo. She has been ill for a long 

BOJIE|TBS -K), -eniL, -k)t imp. neM? 
to be ill 

BojieTB jioJiTo. To be ill for a long 
time. Bojiexb rpnnnoM. To be ill 
with the 'flu. H 6ojie;i aHniHon. / 
had a sore throat. 

BOJI|ETb^ 1st & 2nd pars, not used, 
3rd pers. -tit, -ht imp. to hurt, to ache 
y MGHH 60JIHT Hora. My leg hurts 
me. y MGHH Sojinx roJiOBa . / have a 
headache. Y Hero 6o;ieJiH sySu. 
He had a toothache. Y Hee 60J111T 
ropjio. She has a sore throat. 

BOJIbHai^A /. hospital 

Fopo/tCKafl 6ojii>HHi^a. A city hospi- 
tal. Jle/KaxB B SojiBHiiue. To be in 


1. adv. badly. MaJiLHim Sojibho 
yniHScH. The boy hurt himself 

2. predic. impers. it hurts. Mne 

GoJTbHO. It hurts me. 
BOJIbHlOfl, -afl, -6e, -Lie 

1. sick, bad, diseased. BoJibHan 
AeBo^Ka. A sick girl. BojibHoe 
cepAUe. A bad heart. 

2. fig. sore. Bojibhoh Bonpoc. A 
sore problem. 3x0 ero 6oJibH6e 
Mecxo. This is his sore spot. 

BOJIbHlOfl m., gen. -oro; 6ojibH|afl 
/., gen. -OH, pi. -bie, gen. -tix sick 
person, patient 

BojibHOH jiemJTX b 6ojibHiin,e. The 
patient is in hospital. Bpan ocMax- 
pHBaex SojibHoro. The doctor is 
examining the patient. 


1. comp. 0/ SojibmoH bigger. Mock- 
Ba SoJibme JlennHrpaAa. Moscow 
is bigger than Leningrad. 

2. comp. of MHoro more. Oh ana ex 
Sojibme, qeM a (66jibrae mchh). 
He knows more than I do. 

<> Bojibine Bcero. Most of all. 

3. adv. more. BoJibme Hex BonpocoB? 
No more questions? fl SoJibme He 
Mory. / can't endure it any 

BOJIbfflHHCTBO neut., no pi. ma- 
jority, most 

BojibmHHCXBo cxyfleHxoB sanHMaexca 
cnopxoM. Most students go in for 

BOJIbiniOfl, -afl, -6e, -He, comp. 66jib- 
me (q. v.) 

1. big, large. BojibmoH aom. A big 
house. Bojibmaa pena. A large 

2. great. BojibmaapaAOcxb. A great 

BOMBA /. bomb 

AxoMHaH 66M6a. An atomic bomb. 
BoAopoAHafl 66M6a. A hydrogen 
bomb. BaopBaxb 66M6y. To explode 
a bomb. 

BOPlEU; m., gen. -ua fighter 

Bopei^ 3a CBo66Ay- ^ fighter for 
freedom. Bopii,w aa Miip. Champions 
of peace. 

BOPOTbCH, 6opi6cb, 66pembCH, 66- 
pioxcH imp. 3 a h x 6? 3 a k r 6? 
npoxHB Hero? npoxHB ko- 
to? c KeM? c HeM? to fight, to 

BopoxbCH c BparoM. To fight the 
enemy. BopoxbCH c 6ojie3HHMH. 
To fight disease. BopoxbCH 3a Mtip. 
To fight for peace. 

BOPbBA /., no pi. 3 a hxo? 3 a 
Koro? npoxHB nero? npo- 
XHB Koro? c KeM? c ^eM? 

1. fight, struggle. Bopb6a aa neaa- 
BHCiiMOCXb. Struggle for independ- 
ence. BopbCa npoxHB BparoB. 
The fight against the enemies, 
KjiaccoBafl 6opb6a. Class struggle. 
IIojiHXHHecKafl 6opb6a. A politi- 
cal struggle. 

2. wrestling. KjiaccHHecKan 6opb- 
6a. Greco-Roman wrestling. BoJib- 
Hafl 6opb6a. Free style wrestling. 

BOTflHlKH pi., gen. pi. -ok; sing. 

-OK, gen. -Ka boots 

KyHHxb 60XHHKH. To buy boots. 

BoxHHKH copoK Bxoporo pasMcpa. 

Size number forty-two boots. 
BO|)lTbCH, -KCb, -iimbcfl, -hxca imp. 

Koro? Hero? & + inf. to be 

afraid, to fear 

BoHXbCfl npocxyAH. To fear a chill. 

BoHXbCfl Mopoaa. To be afraid of 

the frost. BoflXbCfl 3a6oJiexb. To be 

afraid of falling ill. fl 6oi6cb, hxo 




ono3flaK) Ha noesA. / am afraid I'll 
miss the train. 

<> BOJIKOB 60HTbC« — B JieC HB 

xoAHTb (proverb). Cf. Nothing ven- 
ture, nothing have. J^ejio Macxepa 
6eHTCfl (proverb). Gf. He works best 
who knows his trade. 

BPAT m., pi. 6paTLH, 6paTteB 

CTapniHH 6paT. The elder (eldest) 
brother. Mnaj^miiik opax. The young- 
er (youngest) brother. 
<> PoflHoii 5paT. Brother. Jluom- 
poAHbiii 5paT. (First) cousin. 

BPATb, 6ep|y, -emb, -yx, past 6pa;i, 
6pajia, 6paJi|o, -h imp. h t o? ko- 
to?//?. B3flTb, B03LM|y, -cniL, -yT, 
past BBflJI, BSflJia, BBHUJO, -H 

1. to take. Oh Seper khiifh co 
CTOJia. He is taking the books 
off the table. 

2. 3 a HTo? to take. Bpaxb Koro- 
HH6yflb 3a pyny. To take some- 
body by the hand. 

3. to borrow. Bpaxb KHiini b 6h6- 
.iHOTene. To borrow books from 
the library. 

O BsfliTb ce6fl B pyKH. To pull 
oneself together. BsflTb cjiobo. To 
take the floor. 
BPATLCfl, 6eplycL, -enibca, -yxcfl, 
past 6pajiCH, 6paJi|acb, -ocb, -ncb 
imp. 3a Koro? 3a hto ?//?. 

BSflTbCH, B03bM|yCb, -euibCH, -yTCfl, 
past B3HJICH, B3flJl|aCb, -OCb, -HCb 

1. to take hold of. Oh b3hjich sa 
pyHKy ,^BepH. He took hold of 
the handle of the door. 

2. fig. to apply oneself (to). Oh ro- 
pflHo BSfiJica 3a paSoxy. He set 
about the work enthusiastically. 

BPHrAj}[A /. team 

Bparafla paSonnx. A team of workers. 

BPlITbCH, 6pe|K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. HeM?//). no6pHXbCfl, no6pe|- 
K)Cb, -enibCH, -IOXCH to shave 

— Bw Speexecb b napHKMaxepcKOH? 

— Hex, H 6p6K)Cb caM. "Z)o you 
shave at a barber's?" ''No, I shave 

BPOB|B /., gen. pi. -6h eyebrow 

HepHHe 6p6BH. Black eyebrows. 

XMypnxb 6p6BH. To knit one's 

BPO^flTB, 6poH«y, CpoAHmb, 6p6AHX 

imp. to roam 

Mbi AOJiro 6poAHJiH no jiecy. We 
roamed the forest for a long time. 
BPOCAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. / 
p. 6p6|cHXb, -my, -cnmb, -chx 

1. Koro? Hxo? KyAa? to throw. 
BpocHXb pbi6y B BOAy. To throw 
a fish into the water, h e m? b 
Koro? BO Hxo? Bpociixb 
KaMHeM B OKHO. To throw a 
stone at a window. 

2. -\-inf. to give up. BpocHXb Ky- 
pnxb. To give up smoking. 

<> Bpocaxb cjiOBa Ha sexep. To 
talk at random. 

BPOCAITbCH, -locb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. KyAa? na Kor6?/iP. 6p6|- 
CHXbCfl, -mycb, -cnmbcn, -chxch to 
throw oneself (on), to attack 
Go6afca 6p6cHJiacB na 4eji0BeKa. The 
dog attacked the man. BpociixbCH 
B MOpe. To throw oneself into the 



BPK)KH no sing., gen. pi. 6piOK trou- 
My>KCKHe 6pK)KH. Men's trousers. 

ByJ^flTb, 6yjKy, 6yAHmb, 6yAHT imp. 
Koro? /p. pa36yARXb, pa36yH{y, 
pasSyAHHib, pa36yAHx to wake 
Pa36yAHXb xoBapiima. To wake up 
a friend. 

By^TO conj. as if 

Oh paccKa3biBaex xaK HHxepecHO, 
6yAxo caM Bce axo BiiAeji. He has 
such an interesting way of telling 
things as though he had actually 
seen them himself. 

B'yj^yimEE neut., gen. -ero the fu- 

JlfiTU. — name 6yjs,ymee. Children 
are our future. B 6yAyn^eM. In the 

B^ayimHH, -afl, -ee, -ne future; 

ByAymaH pa66xa. Future work. B 
6yAymeM roAy. Next year. 

B^KBA /. letter 

B pyccKOM aji$aBHxe 33 6yKBbi. 
There are 33 letters in the Russian 

ByjIlKA /., gen. pi. -ok roll 
CAoCnafl 6vJiKa. A bun. 

ByjIOHHIAH [-mn-] /., gen. -oh bakery 
Kyniixb xJieSa b 6yjioHHOH. To buy 
some bread at the baker's. 




BYMArA /. 

1. no pi. paper. HiicTaa 6yMara. 
Clean paper. ByMara ji^zia nncb- 
Ma. Note-paper. 

2.: ll,eHHHe SyMarn. Securities. 
B^PH /. storm 

CwjiBHaH 6ypH. A violent storm. 

<> Bypfl B CTEKane boaw. A storm 

in a teacup. 
ByXEPBPOjt rn. sandwich 

ByTep6p6A c MacjioM. Bread and 

butter. ByxepSpoA c BexHHHOH. A 

ham sandwich. 
ByXb'IJIlKA /., gen. pi. -ok bottle 

ByTWJiKa MOjiOKa. A bottle of milk. 

Bya)£T m. 

1. sideboard. B 6y(j)eTe ctoht nam- 
KH H CTaKaHBi. There are cups 
and glasses in the sideboard. 

2. buffet. Bj^er pa66TaeT c 9 ^lacoB. 
The buffet is open from 9 o'clock. 

Bbl (B) modal particle, rendered in 

English by the Conditional Mood and 

also by the compound pronouns and 

adverbs whoever, whatever, however, 

whenever, etc. 

I. 1. ECJIH 6w H 3HaJI, fl 6m hosbo- 

HHJi Te6e. Had I known, I would 

have called you up. 

2. JlexoM H xoxeJi 6w noexaxt b 
JleHHHrpaA. / should like to go 
to Leningrad in summer. 

3. nieji 6li tli cnaibl You ought 
to go to bed! 

II. 1. Kto 6li Mor 3T0 Cflejiaxb? Whoever 

could have done that? 
BblBAlTb, -10, -enib, -lox imp. 

1. to go, to visit. H Hacxo 6MBaio 
B xeaxpe. / often go to the 

2. to be, to occur. 3hm6h 6biBaiox 
6ojibmHe Moposbi. There are 
severe frosts in winter. 

BKlCTPIblfl, -an, -oe, -me, short form 

6bicxp, 6bicxpa, 6bicxp|o, -bi; adv. 

6bicxpo quick, swift 

Bbicxpaa peKa. A swift river. Bbicx- 

po exaxb. To go quickly. 
BblTb, 3rd pers. sing, of Present Tense 

ecxb is often omitted; fut. 6yji;ly. 

-enib, -yx; past 6biji, 6bijia, 6bijio, 

6bijiH; He 6hji (-o, -h), ne Swjia 


1. there is (are). B Mockbg ecxb 
yuHBepcHxex. There is a univer- 
sity in Moscow. Panbrae a^ecb 

6biJi Jiec, a xenepb ropo^. There 
used to be a forest here, and now 
there is a town. B MocKBe MHoro 
TeaxpoB. There are many theatres 
in Moscow. 

2. to have. Y Mena ecxb 6pax. / 
have a brother. Y Riena 6bi.T 
6pax. / had a brother. 

3. to be (ecxb is omitted). Gennac 
3HMa. It is winter now. Bnepa 
6biJi CHer. There was snow yester- 
day. Bnepa 6bijia naxHHna, ce- 
rd;i;Ha cy666xa, a saBxpa 6yflex 
BOCKpeceHbe. Yesterday was Fri- 
day, today is Saturday and to- 
morrow will be Sunday. 

4. to be (ecxb is omitted) Moii 6pax 
— HHHteHep. My brother is an en- 
gineer. MoH oxen; 6mji BpanoM. 
My father was a doctor, fl 6yAy 
arpoflOMOM. / shall be an agrono- 

B, B 

B (BO) prep. 
I. -\- prepos. 

1. in. B HHCbMeHHOM cxojie. In 
the desk. HVxETh b Mockbc. To 
live in Moscow. IIpoHHxaxb b ra- 
3exe. To read in a newspaper. 

2. in. Po;:^HXbCfl b 1949 ro^y. To 
be born in 1949. B abrycxe. In 
August. B nponijiOM BCKe. In 
the last century. 

3. in. HejioBeK b nepnoM KOcxioMe. 
A man in a black suit. 

II. -j- ace. 

1. in, to, at. nojio>KHXb b mna^. 
To put in the wardrobe. IIpHexaxb 
B MocKBy. To come to Moscow. 

2. on, at. B cy666xy b xpn ^laca 
6yflex coSpanne. There will be a 
meeting at three o'clock en 

3. not translated. IlepeBbinojiHHXb 
njian b j^Ba paaa. To fulfil a 
plan twofold. 

BAPOH m. (railway) carriage 

JKecxKHH Baron. A hard-seated rail- 
way carriage. MarKHH BaroH. A soft- 
seated railway carriage. 

BAHCH|blQ, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
Bamen, BaJKna, BajKHJo, -bi; adv. 


1. important. BajKHoe coo6^^eHHe. 




An important announcement (com^ 
munication). BawHUH Bonpoc. 
An important question. 9to hg 
Ba>KHO. This is of no importance. 
2. important, pompous. Oh roBO- 
pHJi c Ba?KHHM BHAOM. He was 
speaking with an air of impor- 
BAHHA /. bath 

IIpHHHTb BaHHy. To take a hath. 
<> C6jiHe*!Hbie BaHHbi. Sun-baths. 
BosAymHbie BaHHbi. Air-baths. 
BAPEHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue boiled 

Bapenoe mhco. Boiled meat. 
BAPflTb, BapK), Bapnmb, BapflT imp. 
qTO? //). CBapnTB, CBapio, CBapnrab, 
ceapflT to boil, to cook 
BapjiTb Mflco. To boil meat. Cfia- 
pHTb cyn. To cook soup. Bapiixb 
o6eA- To cook dinner. 
BAIII, -a, -e, -ii pron. your 

BoT Baraa KOMHaTa. Here is your 
room. KaK Bame SAopoBbe? How are 
BBEFX adv. Ky^a? up(ward) 

GMOxpexb BBepx. To look up. Jle- 
TOTb BBepx. To fly upward. 
BJ^AJIll adv. rfle? in the distance 
Bjiajivi HOKaaaJicJi noea^. A train 
appeared in the distance. 
B/^AJlb adv. Ky^a? into the dis- 

CMOTpeTb B^ajib. To look into the 
B^^BOEM adv. two (together) 

PaGoTaxb b^bocm. To work together 
(two persons). 
BJ^OJIb prep. 4- gen. along 

Exaxb B^ojib 6epera Mopn. To drive 
along the sea coast. B^OJib ^oporH 
pacxyx AepeBbH. There are trees 
along the road. 
B;^Py^ adv. suddenly 

B^pyr nomeji ^oJ^At. Suddenly it 
started to rain. 
BE^PO neut., pi. Be^pa, Be^ep, bca- 
paM, etc. bucket 

BeApo BOAH. A bucketful of water. 
<> ^OH<Ab jibGT KaK H3 seApa. // 
is raining cats and dogs. 


1. conj. for. Oh o6H3axejibHO npn- 
Aex, BeAb oh snaex, hxo Mti ero 
TKjjfiM. He will certainly come, for 
he knows that we are waiting for 

2. particle but. Beflb axo npasAal 
But this is the truth/ 
BEHCJlHBIblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short 

form BeJKJiHB, -a, -o, -ii; adv. Bern- 

JiHBO polite 

BeJKnHBbiH Majib^HK. A polite boy. 

Be>KjiHBO npocHXb. To ask politely. 
BE3J^El adv. r a e? everywhere 

BesAe Jiewaji cner. There was snow 

BE3|Tfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past nea, sea- 

Jija, -6, -li imp. Koro? ^to? 


1. to take, to carry. Mamjina Beaex 
MOjioKO B ropoA. The truck 
is carrying the milk to town. 
BeaxH peSeHKa b eanaxopHH. To 
take the child to the sanatorium. 

2. imfers. ko My? to be lucky. EMy 
Beaex. He is lucky. Mne He 
Besjio. / had no luck. 

BEK m., pi. -a, -6b century 

/^BaAUaxbin BeK. The twentieth cen- 
tury. B npomjioM Bene. In the last 

BEJIlETb, -K), -limb, -hx imp. & p. 

{past only p.) k o M y? qeMy? 

-|- inf. to order 

Maxb BeJieJia CMy hohxh b MaraaHH. 

His mother told him to go to the 

shop. Ona BejieJia, hx66li oh KyniiJi 

Macjia. She told him to buy some 

BEJlflK, -a', -6, -H short adj. (cf. 

BOJIblUOfl & BEJIflKHfl) too 


KocxiOM BeJiHK ewy. The suit is too 

large for him. Ty^JiH ea BemiKU. 

The shoes are too large for her. 
BEJIflKlHfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 

BejiHK, -a, -0, -H great 

BejiHKHii yHeHwii. A great scholar. 
BEJIOa/inEJJ, m. bicycle 

HoBbiH BeJiocHHeA- -4 new bicycle. 

Exaxb Ha BejiocnneAe. To ride a 

BEPA f., no pi. B Koro? bo qxo? 

belief, faith 

Bepa B no6eAy- Belief in victory. 

Bepa B HeJiOBCKa. Faith in man. 
BEP£B|KA /., gen. pi. -ok string, 


^jiMHHafl BepeBKa. A long piece of 

BEPIHTb, -K), -nmb, -ht imp./ p. no- 

BeplHXb, -K), -Hmb, -ax 




1. KOMy? HGMy? to believe. H 
Te6e Bepio. / believe you. 

2. B K r 6? BO H T 6? to have 
faith (in). BepnTb b Hapo;^, b 
erd CHJiH. To have faith in the 
people, in their strength. 

BEPHI^Tb, -y, -emt, -yT p. Koro? 
^TO? KOMy? to return 
BepeyTij ji^eHhTU TOsapHmy. To re- 
turn money to one's friend. 

BEPHiyXBCH, -ycb, -emtcH, -yxcfl p. 
K y A ^? o T K y fl a? to come back 
BepnyTLca ;i;om6h. To come back 
home. BepnyTbCH H3 noesflKH. To 
come back from a trip. 

BEPH|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
Bepen, Bepna, Bepno, Bepnti; adv. 

1. faithful. BepHHH Apyr. A faith- 
ful friend. Bepno cJiy>KHTb na- 
poAy. To serve the people faith- 

2. correct. Bepnoe peraeHiie. The 
correct decision. Bepnan mhcjib. 
The right idea. Bepno pemnxb 
sa^a^y. To solve a problem cor- 

BEPOHTHO paren. word probably 


Knno. Today we shall probably go 
to the cinema. 
BEPTOJIET m. helicopter 


helicopter of a new design. 
BEPXHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee. -ne 

1. upper. BepxnHH aiaJK. The upper 

2. outdoor. Bepxnee njiaxte. Out- 
door clothes. BepxHflH OAe^K^a. 
Outdoor clothes. 

BEPfflflHA /. top 

Bepmnna ^epeBa. The top of a tree. 

Bepmiina ropH. The top of a moun- 
BEC m. weight 

Bee Tejia. The weight of a body. 

BoJibmoH Bee. A great weight. 
BECEJIjblfl, -an, -oe, -bie, short form 

BecejT, Becejia, Becejilo, -u; adv. 

Becejio merry, gay 

Becejibie CTyAeBTbi. Gay students. 

BecejiaH neCHH. A merry song. Mne 

BeceJio. / feel gay. 
BECEHHIHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne spring 

BeceHHHH ji,eEh. A spring day. 

Becennee coJiniie. The spring sun. 

Becennee najibTo. A spring coat. 
BE|CHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cht imp. to 


Apoya BecHT nnxb KHjiorpaMMOB. 

The water-melon weighs five kilo- 

BECHA /., pi. Becnw spring 
BECHOfl adv. in spring 

BecHoH na noJinx xaex oner. In 

spring the snow thaws in the fields. 
BECTH, BeAl.y, -erab, -yx, past bcji, 
BeJi|a, -6, -ri imp. 

1. Koro? Hxo? Ky^a? to take. 
Maxb BeAex peSeuKa b AexcKHH 
caA. The mother is taking her 
child to the kindergarten. 

2. Hxo? to conduct. Becxii ypoK. 
To conduct a lesson. 

<> BecTH xo3flHCTBO. To keep a 

3. to lead. KyAa bcaSx 3xa Aopo- 
ra? Where does this road lead to? 

<> BecTH ceSn. To behave. PeSenoK 
BGAeT ce5H xopomo. The child 
behaves well. On iie yivieeT bbcth 
ce6n. He can't behave himself. 
BECb {gen. Bcero), bch {gen. Bceii), 
Bce {gen. Bcero), Bce {gen. Bcex) 
pron . 

1. all, whole. Pa66xaxb Becb Aenb. 
To work the whole day. Pa66xaxb 
BCK) HO^b. To work the whole 

2. used as n. nee everything. Bce 
B nopHAKe. Everything is all 

3. used as n. ece everybody. Bce 
npnmJiri? Has everybody come? 

<> Bcero xoporaero! All the best! 

Bce speMH meji ji,o'Mji,h. It was 

raining all the time. 
BETIEP m., gen. -pa wind 

IIoAyJi CHJibHWH Bexep. A strong 

wind blew. 
Bf.TlKA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1. branch. BexKa SepesLi. A branch 
of a birch-tree. 

2. branch-line. JKeJieanoAopoiKHafl 
BexKa. A railway branch-line. 

BEHEP m., pi. -a 

1. evening. IIpHHXH aomoh b ceMb 
HacoB Be^epa. To come home at 
seven o'clock in the evening. 

2. evening-party. IlpaaAHHHHbiH 
Benep. A festive evening. 




MyatmaJiBHUH Beiep. A musical 
evening. JlnTepaxypHUH Be^ep. 
A literary evening. 
BEHEPHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne 

1. evening. BeHepHHH aapH. Eve- 
ning twilight. 

2. evening. Beqepnee nJiaxLe. An 
evening dress. BeHepHHH (|)a- 
KyJiLTex. Evening department. 

BEHEFOM adv. in the evening 

H npHfly K BaM BenepoM. / shall 
come to see you in the evening. Bqe- 
pa Be^epoM y nac 6ujiii tocth. We 
had guests yesterday evening. 

BEinAlTb, -K), -eniL, -k)t itiip. k o- 
ro? HTO? Kyjs,a?/p. noBe|cHTb, 
-my, -CHmb, -cht to hang 
Bemaxb KapTHHy na cieny. To hang 
a picture on the wall. 

BEmECTBO neut. substance 

TBepfl;oe BemecxBo. Solid substance. 
TKiijiKoe Beni;ecxB6. Liquid substance. 
ra30o6pa3Hoe Ben^ecxBo. Gaseous 

BEmib /., gen. pi. -eft 

1. thing. Hy>KHafl Bem;i>. A thing 
one needs. \\ Beiii,ii things. 
OxBeaxH Bemn na BOKsaJi. To 
take one's things to the station. 

2. thing. KoMno3Hxop nanncaji xo- 
pomyio BemB. The composer 
wrote a good piece. 

B3AflMH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -me mutual 

BaaiiMHafl jik)66bl. Mutual love. 
B3rJIHA m. 

1. look. IIpHCXaJIbHMH B3rJIHA. A 

stare. HezKHuft B3rJiflji;. -^'^ 
affectionate look. BpoCHXb 
B3rJiH^. To cast a glance. 

2. view. HayHHHe bsfjihabi. Scien- 
tific views. 

BBrJIflH^Tb, BsrJiHHy, BsrJiRHemb, 

BsrJiHHyT p. HaKoro? na hxo? 

to glance 

Oh B3rJiHHyji na nacu. He looked 

at the clock. 
BSAOXHyTb see Ba^blXATb 
B3;:^bIXA|Tb,^ -K), -erab, -lox imp./ 

p. B3AoxH|yxb, -y, -emb, -yx to sigh 

TjiySoKo BSAOXHVxb. To heave a 

deep sigh. 
B30flTfl see BCXOflflTb 
B3P(3CJI|blfl, -afl, -oe, -bie 

1. grown-up. BspocJibiH cwh. A 
grown-up son. 

2. n, grown-up. GJiymancfl B3p6c- 
Jibix! Listen to grown-ups/ 
B3PbIB m. 

1. explosion. BspbiB SomSm. A 
bomb explosion. 

2. fig. outburst. BspwB cMexa. An 
outburst of laughter. 

B3flTb see BPATb 
BJIJI} m. 

1. look. BAopoBbiH BHfl. A healthy 
look. BoJibHoft BH/i;. An unhealthy 

2. view. KpacHBHH bh^ na ropofl. 
A beautiful view of the city. 

<0> HMGTb B BHAy. To bear in mind. 
BHJl,^ m. sort, kind, species 
Bfl^EH, BHflna, bhaho, bh^hm short 

adf. visible 

rdpoji BPiflen c Mopfl. The town 

can be seen from the sea. 
Bfl/^HO Koro? H X 0? predic. im- 

pers. (it is) visible 

OxcioAa flaJieKO bii;jho! You can see 

far into the distance from here! 

Hmero ne bh^ho. Nothing is visible. 

Mne xopomd bitaho. / can see 

BflmETb, -my, -jiiiuih, -flflx imp. 

Kord? Hxo?//?. yBHl;i;exb, -jKy, 

-ji:Hmb, -AHX to see 

B oKHo fl BHHty cxapbiH napK. / see 

an old park through the window. 

IIjioxo Bir;5exb, To have poor eyesight. 

Fajj, Bac BM^exb. / am glad to see 



To see through rose-coloured spec- 

Bil^HMO paren. word apparently 
BftflHMO, 3X0 6hji ee snaKOMbiH. It 
must have been her acquaintance. 

BlI^H|blQ, -afl, -oe, -we eminent 
Bh;i;hhh yqenbiH. Afi eminent 

BflJIlKA /., gen. pi. -ok fork 

JI,aHxe, noHtdJiyncxa, BWJiKy. Will 
you give me a fork, please? Ecxb 
BHJIKOH. To eat with a fork. 

BHH A /. fault ^ 

3x0 MOH BHHa. It is my fault. 3x0 
npoH3omji6 no mo6h bhuo. It has 
happened through my fault. 

BHHO neut., pi. BHHa wine 

KpenKoe bhho. Strong wine. Qjiap,. 




Koe BHHo. Sweet wine. Cyxoe bhho. 
Dry wine. 
BHHOBATIWH, -aH, -oe, -He, short 
form BHHOBaT, -a, -o, -bi 

1. guilty, fl BHHOBaT nepeA bsmh. 
/ am guilty towards you. Oh hg 
BHHOBaT. He is not guilty. 

2. fig., only complete form guilty. 
BHHOBaTufi BsrJiHfl. A guilty 
look. BuHOBaToe BbipajKenne jih- 
na. A guilty expression on one's 

BHHOrPA/^ m., no pi. grapes; vine 
CJiaAKHH BHHorpaA- Sweet grapes. 

BH|CETb, -ray, -ciimb, -cat imp. rfle? 
to hang 

IlaJibTo BHCi'iT Ha BeraaJiKe. The 
coat is hanging on a hanger. KapTa 
BHcr'iT Ha CTCHe. The map is hang- 
ing on the wall. 

BKJIfOHAITb. -K), -emb,^ -iot i?np. 
H t 0^/ p. BKJiK)H|HTb, -y, -lirab, -ax 
to switch on 

BKJiiOHHTb CBeT. To switch on the 


BKyC m. 

1. taste, y cyna CTpaHHMH BKyc. 
The soup tastes queer. 

2. fig. taste. OaeBaTbCH co BKycoM. 
To dress with taste. Y Hero 
xoporaHH BKyc. He has good 

BKyCHIblfl, -an, -oe. -tie, short form 
BKVceH, BKycna, BKycH|o, -li; adv. 
BKycHO tasty 

BKycHuii saBTpaK. A tasty break- 
fast. Qua roTOBHT BKycno. She 
cooks tasty meals. 

BJlAJ\E\Th, -10, -erab, -iOT imp. HeM? 

1. to own. Bjiaj^eTb seMJieii. To 
own land. 

2. fig. to know. BjiafleTb HHocTpan- 
HWM H3E>ik6m. To know a foreign 

BJlAH{H|blM, -an, -oe, -bie, short form 
Bjiawen, BJia>KHa, BJia>KH|o, -w damp 
BjiawHbiH KJiHMaT. A damp climate. 
Bjiawnan TpauKa. A damp rag. 

BJIACTb /. power 

BwTb (cTOHTb) y BJiacTH. To be in 
power. BsHTb BJiacTb b cboh pyKH. 
To take power into one's hands. 
ITpHHTW K BJiacTH. To come to power. 

BJIE3A|Tb, -K), -erab, -iot imp. na 

HTO? bo HTO?/ /). BJie3|Tb, -y, 


-erab, -yT, past BJiea, BjiesJila, -o, 
-H to climb 

MaJibHHK BJies Ha Kpwray. The boy 
climbed onto the roof. Oh BJies b okho. 
He climbed in through the window. 


BJIHUHHE neut. influence 

OnasaTb BJiHHHHe na TOBapnraa. To 
exert influence on a friend. BbiTb 
Hoa BjTHHHHeM 6paTa. To be under 
the influence of one's brother. 


BJlK)BJlH|TbCH, -K)Cb, -eiiibCH, -iotch 
imp. B Kord? bo ^to?//?. bjik)- 

6l'lTbCH, BJIK)6jIl6cb, BJIK)6HrabCH, 

bjti66htch to fall in love 

Oh BjTK)6(ijicfl B MOK) cecTpy. He 

fell in love with my sister. 

BMECTE adv. together 

PaOoraTb BMecTe. To work together. 

BMECTO prep. -\- gen. instead of 
BMecTO ypoKa ceroann 6y;teT aK- 
CKypcHH. There will be an excur- 
sion instead of the lesson today. 


BMEUlHBAITbCH, -locb, -erabCH, 

-lOTCH imp. BO H T 6? / />. BMe- 

malTbCH, -locb, -erabCH, -iotch to 

He BMemHBaHTecb ne b cBoe neJio. 
Don't interfere in what doesn't con- 
cern you. 

BHA4AJIE adv. at first, at the begin- 
ning ^ 

BnaqaJie see CJiyraajin BHHMaTejib- 
HO. At first everybody listened at- 

BHE prep. -\- gen. outside 

Bne AOMa. Outside the house. 
<> Bne 6»iepeflH. Out of turn. 

BHECTfl see BHOCflTb 

BHEmHlHW, -flfl, -ee, -ne 

1, outer, outward. 

2. external, foreign. BneraHHH no- 
jiHTHKa. Foreign policy. Bnera- 
HHH TOproBJTH. Foreign trade. 

BHH3 aofz^. k y fl a? down(ward) 

CnycTHTbCH BHH3. To come {go) down. 

BnH3y adv. r fl e? below 

Bhhsv TeKJia peKa. Down below 
flowed a river. 

BHHMAHHE neut. attention 

BHHMaHHe! Attention! 06pamaTb 
BHHMaHHe Ha ht6-jih6o. To pay 
attention to something. HpHSJieKaTb 
BHHMaHHe. To attract attenUon. He 




oCpamaHTe BHHManHH. Don't pay 
attention. Bjiaro^apio Bac 3a bhh- 
MaHHe. Thank you for your attention. 

BHHMATEJIbHiblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, 
short form BHiiMaTejien, BHHMaTeJib- 
H|a, -0, -u; adv. BHHMaiejibHO atten- 
tive. BHHMaTejibHMii yqeHHK. An 
attentive pupil. BmiMaTejibHO HiiTaTt 
KHiiry. To read a hook attentively. 

BHOCflTb, BHomy, BHOcnnib, bhocht 
imp. Koro? h t o? KyA^?/ 
p. BHeclTif, -y, -eniL, -yx, past bhSc, 
BHecji|a, -6, -fi 

BHecTii Bemn b KoMHaxy. To carry 
the things into the room. 
<> BfiecTH npeAJiOHcenne. To table 
a motion. 

BHYK m. grandson 

BHyTPEHHIHfl, -nn, -ee, -ne 

1. internal. BHyipeHHiie 6oJie3HH. 
Internal diseases. 

2. internal. BHyTpeHnee nojio>KeHHe 
B CTpane. The internal situation 
in a country. BHVTpeHHHH noJiii- 
TiiKa. Internal policy. 


1. adv. rji;e? inside. Bojiht BHyx- 
pii. It hurts inside. 

2. prep, -f- gen. inside. Bnyxpii 
KOMHaxbi. Inside the room. 

BHYTPb inside, into 

1. adv. K y A a?: IIpHHaxL jiCKapcxBO 
BHyxpK. To take a medicine. 

2. prep. -\- gen.: SarjiHHj'xT. Bnyxps 
aajia. To look into the hall. 

BH^HlKA /., gen. pi. -en granddaugh- 
BOBPEMH adv. in time 

IlpHiixH BoepeMH, To come in time. 
BO BPEMfl prep, -j- gen. during 

Bo BpeMH BOHHM. During the war. 

Bo BpeMH nepepuBa. During the 

BOBCE (He) adv. at all 

Oh BoBce He AOKXop, a HHJKenep. 

He is not a doctor at all, he is an 


BO-BTOPb'IX paren. word second(ly) 
Bo-nepBbix, h ycxaji, BO-BxopHX, 
xony cnaxt. First, I'm tired, sec- 
ondly, I'm sleepy. 

BO3A /., ace. BOfly; pi. BOAti water 
XojiOAHaH BOAa. Cold water. Fopn- 
^an BOAa. Hot water. MnnepaAbHaa 
BOAa. Mineral water. OpyKxoBaH 

BOAa. Fruit drink. CxanaH boah. 
A glass of water. 

<0' BuuTH cyxHM H3 BOAbi. To come 
off unscathed. KaK abc Kanjin bo- 
AW. As like as two peas. Mnoro 
BOAbi yxeKJio. Much water has 
flowed under the bridges. 
BOJ^flTb, BOJKy, BOAHOib, boaht imp. 

1 . K r 6? H X o? K y A a? to take. 
BoAHXb Aexea na nporyjiKy b 
napK. To take the children out for 
a walk in the park. 

2. Hxo? to drive, BoAUXb ManiH- 
HV. To drive a car. 

BO|EBATb, -lOK), -loemb, -loiox imp. 
c K e M? c H e M? to fight 
Boesaxb c BparoM. To fight the 

BOEHHI biH, -an, -oe, -bie war, military 

1. BoeHHoe nojiowenne. The mili- 
tary situation. BoeHHaa npo- 
MbimjiCHHOCXb. War industry. 
BoeHHoe BpeMH. War time. 

2. n. Moil 6pax — BoenubiH. My 
brother is in the army. 

BOaCj^lb m., gen. -h leader 

Bo>KAb HapoAa. The leader of the 

B03BPATflTb see B03BPAmiATb 
BOaBPATflTbCfl see B03BPAmATb- 

B03BPAmA!Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 

KOro? HXO? KO My?/ /?. B03Bpa|- 

xiixb, -n;y, -xiimb, -xhx to return 
BosBpaxHXb AOJir xoBapHm;y. To 
return a debt to one's friend. 
B03BPAmA|TbCH, -locb, -enibCH, 
-loxcH imp. Kyjia?^ oxKyAa?/ 

p. B03Bpa|XHXbCfl, -myCb, -XHfflbCH, 

-xaxcH to come back 

BosBpantaxbCH aomoh h3 noxofla. 

To return home from a hike. 
B033;yX m. air 

HmcxwiS BosAyx. Pure air. CBe»CHH 

BOBAyx. Fresh air. 

<> Ha CBCHteM eoBAyxe. In the open 

B03flTb, Bowy, BoBHmb, bobax imp. 

Koro? ^xo? to carry 

MaraiiHbi Bosflx khpdhhh. Lorries 

carry bricks. 

1. adv. near. ManiHHa ocxanoBH- 
jiacb BOSJie. The motor-car stop- 
ped near by. 

2. prep. + gen. near. Er6 AOm na- 





His house is near the University. 

1. opportunity. IlMeTB bo3m6>k- 
HOCTb. To have an opportunity . 

^aXB B03m6h«HOCTB K0My-JIH60 

c;^eJIaTb ht6-jih6o. To give some- 
body an opportunity to do some- 

2. usu. pi. possibilities. Bojitmiie 
bo3m6h<hocth. Great possibilities. 

BOSMOHCHlblfl, -an, -oe, -tie, short 
form BosMoJKeH, BOBMOTKHia, -0, -h; 
adv. BOBMOJKHO possible, probable 
BoBMOJKHbiH cjiynaH. A possible 
case. 3to snojiHe bobmojkho. That 
is quite possible. 

B03HHKAlTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -k)t imp. /p. 
B03HHKH|yTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -yx, past bob- 
HHK, -Jia, -Jio, -JTH to appear 
3x0 rocyAapcxBo bobhhkjio b xpexb- 
CM Bene. This state appeared in the 
third century. 


BOaPAH^AlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
KOMy? Ha Hx6?/j». BoapalBPixb, 
-my, -Bumb, -bhx to reply, to object 
BoBpaBHXb fliOKJiaA^HKy. To reply to 
the speaker. BoapaBHXb na BaMenaHHe. 
To reply to a remark. Ecjih bli ee 
BoapajKaexe... // you don't mind... 

B03PA3flTb see B03PA3KATb 

Bd3PACT m. age 

/],exH mKoJibHoro BOBpacxa. Children 
of school age. B Boapacxe mecxH^e- 
CflXH Jiex. At the age of sixty. 

BOflHA / , pi. BOHHM war 

O^'bfiBUTh BOHHy. To declare war. 
norH6Hyxb na bohhc. To lose one's 
life in the war. 

BOflTfl see BXOAflTb 

B0K3AJI w. station 

JleHHHrpaACKHH BOKaaji. Leningrad 
Railway Station. Iloexaxb na bok- 
BaJi. To go to the station. 


1. adv. round. TiiraHHa uoKpyr. 
There is silence all round. 

2. prep. -^ gen. round. BoKpyr 
flOMa 6hiji cafl. The house was 
surrounded by a garden. 

BOJIEflBOJI m. volley-ball 

Mrpaxb B BOJienSoJi. To play volley- 


BOJIK m., gen. pi. -6b wolf 

<> BojiKOB 5oflTbCH — B Jiec He 
xoAHTfa (proverb). Cf. Nothing ven- 
ture, nothing have. 

BOJIHA /., pU BojiHH wave 

BOJIHEHHE neut. excitement, ner- 

Oh noSjieflHeJi ox BOJiHennH. He 
turned pale with excitement. 

BOJIHlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp. 

K r 6? H X 0? / />. BBBOJlH|OBaxb, 

-yio, -yemb, -ywx to worry 

3xox Bonpoc MGHa onenb BOJinyex. 

This question worries me very much. 

BOJlHlOBATbCH, -yiocb. -yerabcn, 
-yioxcfl imp. to worry, to be ner- 
vous, to be excited 
BojiHOBaxbca nepeA aKsaMenoM. To 
^feel nervous before an examination. 

BOJIOCbl pi., gen. pi. eojioc, bojio- 
caM, etc.; sing, bojioc hair 
KpacHBbie BOJiocLi. Beautiful hair. 

BpJIfl /., no pi. will 

CwJibHaa bojih. A strong will. Bojia 
K noSefle. The will to win. 

BOOBIU,E adv. 

1. in general. Boo6me bxo npaB;i;a. 
In general it is true. 

2. at all. Oh BOo6me ho roBoppix 
no-pyccKH. He does not speak 
Russian at all. 


1. no pi. equipment. BoopyjKeHne 
apMHH HOBHM opyjKneM. The 
equipment of the army with new 

2. usu. pi. armaments. CoKpameHHO 
BOopyjKeHHH. A reduction of ar- 
maments. FoHKa BOOpyJKeHHH. 
The arms race. 

BO-nEPBblX paren. word first(ly), 
in the first place 

Bo-nepBwx, bxo xpyfljHo... In the 
first place, it's difficult... 

BonpOc m. 

1. question. IIpocxoH Bonpoc. A 
simple question. 3aflaxb Bonpoc. 
To ask a question. 

2. question, problem. BamHWH Bon- 
poc. Alt important question. Ha- 
i^HOH^jibHUH Bonpoc. The national 

BOP m., gen. pi. -6b thief 

ApecxoBaxb B6pa. To arrest a thief. 




BOPOTA no sing., gen. pi. BOpoT 

1. gate(s). Bopoxa caAa. The gate 
of a garden. 

2. goal, riocjiaxb mhi b Bopoia 
npoTMBHHKa. To send the ball 
into the opponent's goal. 

BOPOTHflK m., gen. -a collar 

MexoBOH BopoTHHK, A fur colUr. 


BOCKJIHU;AlTb, -KD, -emb, -iot imp. I 
p. BOCKjiHKHlyTb, -y, -emb, -yx to 
exclaim, to cry out 
PaaocxHO BOCKJiHKHyxb. To cry out 

BOCKPECfiHbE neut. Sunday 

B B0CKpeceHr,e mm esAiiJiH sa ropoA. 
We went to the country on Sunday. 

BOCIIHTAHHE neut. upbringing, 

BocnuTaHHe pe6eHKa. The upbring- 
ing of a child. Oh nojiyiHji xopo- 
mee BocniiTaHne. He received a 
good education. 

BOCllHTATb see BOCnflTblBATb 

BOCnflTblBAlTb, -K), -euib, -k>x imp./ 
p. BOcnuralTb, -lo, -emb, -lox to 
bring up 

1. Koro? to bring up. Bocnuxaxb 
CbiHa. To bring up one's son. 

2. qxo? B KOM? to cultivate. 
Bocnuxaxb b jiernx jiioSoBb k 
npHpoAe. To cultivate love for 
nature in children. 



1. recollection. BocnoMnnauHe oex- 
cxBa. Recollection of one's child- 

2. usu. pi. reminiscences, memoirs. 
BocnoMHuaiinH o coBpeMeuHH- 
Kax. Reminiscences of one's con- 

BOCCTAHABJlHBAjTb, -lo, -emb, -lox 
imp. qxo?/ p. BOCCxa|HOBHTb, -hob- 

JIK), -HOBUmb, -HOBHT tO TCStorC, tO 


BoccxanoBHXb paapymeHHun ropoA. 

To rebuild a town that had been 

destroyed. BoccxauoBuxb xoshhcxbo. 
• To restore the economy. 
BOCCTAHHE neut. uprising, revolt 

IloAHflXb Boccxanne. To raise a 



BOCTOK m. east 

1. east. CoJiHue bocxoahx Ha bocx6- 
Ke. The sun rises in the east. 

2. East. Bjthjkhhh Bocxok. Near 
East. ^ajTbunii Bocxok. Far 
East. CpeAHHH Bocxok. Middle 
East. Bm 6biJiH Ha Bocxone? 
i/a?.'e you been in the East? 

BOCTOPr m. delight, enthusiasm 

Oh c BOCxoproM paccKaawBaji o cbo- 

ea noesAKe. He was telling about 

his trip enthusiastically. 
BOCTOHHibiB, -aa, -oe, -bie east(ern) 

Bocxo^uhiH Bexep. An east wind. 

BocxoiHoe uanpaBJieHHe. An easterly 

BOCXHmAlTbCH, -locb, -ombCH, -lox- 

Cn^mp. KeM? HCM?/ p. bocxh|- 

xiixbCH, -mycb, -XHmbCfl, -Xflxcn to 


Becb MHp BOCxumaexcH noABHroM 

repoeB. The whole world admires the 

heroes' feat. 
BOCXO/^ m. rising 

BocxoA c6JiHH,a. The sunrise. 
BOX particle 

1. here is. Box KHiira. Here is the 

2. what (a). Box npacoxal What 
beauty! Box axo xopomo! That's 

BHEPBb'IE adv. for the first time 
H BnepBbie b MocKBe. It is the 
first time I have been in Moscow. 

BIIEPE/^ adv. KyAa? forward 
Maxh BoepeA. To go forward. 


1. adv. TAe? in front. BnepeAH 
6bijTH ropbi. There were mountains 
in front. 

2. prep. -\- gen. at the head of, in 
front of. BnepeAH kojiohhh 
necJiH BHaMeaa. At the head of 
the column they carried banners. 

BnEMATJlEHlfE neut. impression 
CnJibHoe Bne^axjieHHe. A strong 
impression. Mrpa apxHCxa npoHSBe- 
jia SoJibmoe BneqaxjieHHe na spw- 
Tejieii. The actor's performance made 
a great impression on the specta- 

BIIPOHEM conf. though, nevertheless 
KapxHHa xoporaaa, Bnp6»teM bu 
caxfH ee yBHAHTe. The picture i9 
good, though you'll see it yourself. 





BPAF m., gen. -a enemy 

BopoTbCH c BparaMH. To fight the 

BP|ATb, -y, -enib, -yT, past Bpaji, 
BpaJia, BpajiH imp. KOMy? hcmj'^?/ 
p. coBpiaib, -y, -eiuh, -yx, past 
coBpaji, coBpana, coBpajiH colloq. to 
lie. PeGcHOK coBpaJi OTu.y. The child 
lied to his father. 

BPAH m., gen. -a physician, doctor 
BpaH-xepaneBT. A therapeutist. TKeii- 
mHHa-Bpan. A lady doctor. Bbixb 
y Bpana. To be at the doctor's. M^th 
K Bpa^y. To go to the doctor. Co- 
BCTOBaTbCH c Bpa^oM. To consult a 

BPE^H|blH, -afl, -oe, -Lie, short form 
BpeaeH, BpeAHa, BpeAH|o, -w; adv. 
Bpeano harmful, bad 
BpeAHUH HenoBeK. A bad man. 
BpeAHaa Teopna. A harmful theory. 
BpeAHoe pacTeHiie. A noxious weed. 
BaM BpeAHO MHoro KypnTb. It's 
bad for you to smoke so much. Mop63 
BpeACH A«nfl K)>KHb]X pacTemiH. Frost 
is dangerous for southern plants. 

BPEMfl neut., gen., dat., prepos. Bpe- 
mchh; pi. BpcMena, BpeMen, BpeMO- 
HaM, etc. time 

1. CKO-ibKO BpeMCHH? What time 
is it? BpeMH HACT. Time flies. 
BpeMH npomjio. The time has 
passed. BpeMH He jkact. Time 
waits for no man. BpeMH noKa- 
meT. Time will show. 

2. Be^epiiee BpeMH. Evening. ^o>ka- 
jiiiBoe BpeMH. Rainy period. 
Cxapbie BpcMena. Old times. 
BpeMena roAa- Seasons. 

<^ BceMy CBOe epeMH. There is a 
time for everything. Bee BpeMH. All 
■ the time. Ona Bce BpeMH CMeHJiacb. 
She laughed all the time. Bo opeMH 
used as prep. ~{-gen. Bo BpeMH Boii- 
HH MM ?KHjiH y 6a6yraKH. During 
the war we lived at our granny's. 

BCEi pron., see BECb, 2 

BCE2 particle still, ever 

A OH Bce MOJiHHT H MOJiqiiT. And 
he still keeps silent. H Bce name 
BcnoMHHdio TBOH cjiOBa. / recollect 
your words ever oftener. Oh Bce eme 
6ojieeT. He is still ill. Tw Bce me 
npHxoflti KO MHe. You come to see 
me just the same. 

BCEPAA adv. always 

Oh BcerAa BecejiWH. He is always gay. 

BCEMflPHlblfl, an, -oe, -we world 
BceMkipHbin (j[)ecTHBa;ib. World festi- 


1. all the same. Mne Bce paBHo. It's 
all the same to me. 

2. just the same. Xoth o^enb xo- 
jiOAHO, fl Bce paBHo nofiAV TyAa. 
Though it is very cold, I'll go 
there just the same. 

BCE-TAKI] particle just the same 
H Bce-TaKH now AY ^a Benep. I'll 
go to the evening-party just the 

BCKOFE adv. soon 

BcKope Ha^ajiCH AO^^Afc- Soon it 
began to rain. 

BCJIEJI after, following 

1, adv. Oh nocMOTpeJi BCJieA... His 
eyes followed... 

2. used as prep. -\- dat. or sa -{-instr. 
Oh nocMOTpeJi bcjica eMV. He 
followed him with his eyes. Mti 
Homjiii BCjiGA 3a HHM. We fol- 
lowed him. 

BCJiyX adv. aloud 

MHTaTb BCjiyx. To read aloud. 
BCllOMMHAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp. 

K o r 6? ^ T o? or o neu? / p. bchom- 

H|HTb, -K), -Hmb, -HT 

1. to recollect, fl BcnoMHH^io 
CBoero Apyra. / recollect my 
friend. BcnoMHHaTb o AexcTBe. 
To recall one's childhood. 

2. to remember, fl HHKaK ne Mory 
BcnoMHHTb. / just Can't remem- 

BCTAIBATb, -K), -emb, -K)t imp. f 

p. BCTa|Tb, -Hy, -Hemb, -nyx to get 

up, to rise 

Ka?KAblH AGHb H BCTaiO B ceMb Ha- 

coB yTpd, HO ceroAHfl h Bcxaji b 
BoceMb HacoB. Every day I get up 
at seven o'clock in the morning, but 
today I got up at eight o'clock. 
Cojmae BCTaeT na BocioKe. The sun 
rises in the east. 

^ Bcxaxb c Jieeofi hofh. To 
get out of bed on the wrong side. 




BCTPEHA /. meeting 

Bcxpeia Apyaen. A meeting of 
friends. GepACHHaH Bcxpena. A cor- 
dial meeting. 

BCTPEHA|Tb, -K), -eiuL, -iot imp. 

KOro? H T 0? /p. BCTpe|THTb, -Hy, 

-THmb, -THT to meet 

1. fl BCTpeTHJi ero cjiyn^MHO. / 
met him by chance. 


extend hospitality to somebody. 

<> BcTpeqaxb HoBbiu roji. To see 

the New Year in. 

BCTPEHAITbCH, -rocb, -embca, -k)t- 

CH imp. c KCM? c ^eM?/ 

p. BCXpelTHTbCH, -HyCb, -THmbCH, 

-THTCfl to meet 

BcTpeTHTbCH c ApysbflMii. To meet 
friends. Mw BCTpexHJiHCb Ha yjiH- 
Hfi. We met in the street. 

fig. BCTpeXHTbCfl C TpyAHOCTHMH. To 

meet with difficulties. 
BCTynAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. bo 
mo? / p. BCTyoHTb, BCTynjifo, BCxy- 
nnmb, Bcxynax to join 
Bcxynwxb b cnopxHBHoe oSmecxBO. 
To enter a sports society. 

BCTynflTb see BCTynAxb 

BCXO^flTb, Bcxowy, BCxoAHmb, 
BCXOAflX imp. I p. B30H|xii, -Ay, 
-Aerab, -AyT, past B3o|meji, -mjia, 
-mjio, -rajiiT 

1. to ascend. Bcxoaiixb na Bepraa- 
ny ropij. To climb to the top of 
the mountain. 

2. to rise. G6-iHi;e bcxoahx. The 
sun rises. 

BClDj^y adv. everywhere 

BcK)Ay 6i>iJio xeMiio. It was dark 

everywhere . 
BCHKiHfl, -aw, -oe, -ne pron. 

1. any 

2. all sorts of. B MarasHne ecxb 
BCHKHe npoAyKXLi. There are all 
sorts of foodstuffs in the shop. 

3. u.'ied as n. anyone 

•0- Ha BCflKHH cjiyqau. Just in 
case. Be3(o) bchkux xpyAOB. With- 
out any difficulty. 

B TEHEHHE prep. -{-gen. during 
B xeHenne 3Hmh. During the win- 
ter. PaSoxaxb b xeHeiine roAa. To 
work during the year. 

BTOPHHK m. Tuesday 

Co6paHHe cocxohxch bo bxophhk. 
The meeting will take place on 

Tuesday. Kamjs,uu. BXopHHK. Every 
B-TPETbllX paren. word third(ly) 
Knara, BO-nepBwx, o^enb nnxepec- 

Haa, BO-BXOpUX, KpaCHBO o$6pM- 

jiena, h, B-xpexbHX, ona JierKo hh- 
xaexcH. First, the book is very in- 
teresting, second, it is beautifully 
designed, and, third, it reads well. 

BTPOEM adv. three (together) 

Mu oSeAaeM BxpoeM, We three dine^ 

By3 m. (= Biicmee yn^Snoe saBCA^- 
HHe) higher educational establish- 

B MocKBe oKOJio 90 ByaoB. In Mos- 
cow, there are some 90 higher edu- 
cational establishments. 

BXO^ m. entrance 

BxOR B Mexpo. An entrance to the 
underground. Bxoa b napK. An 
entrance to the park. FjiaBHUH 
BXOA- The main entrance. 

BXOJ^iiTb, BXo>Ky, Bxonvtnih, bxoaht 
imp.K y na? / p. BOH|xii, -Ay, -Aerab, 
-Ayx, past Bo|meji, -mjia, -mjio, 

1. to enter. Bohx/i b KJiacc. To 
enter the classroom. Pasperanxe 
BoiixH? May I come in? 

2. B cocxas AeJierauHH bxoahx 
nflxb HejiOBCK. The delegation 
consists of five members. 

<> BoiiTH BO BKvc. To get to like. 
BoflxH B MOAy. To become fashion- 
able. BoHTH B AOBepue K KOMy- 
-jih5o. To win somebody's confi- 

B^EPA adv. yesterday 

BHepa 6bijio xojioaho. It was cold 

BHEPAniHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne yester- 

BqepamHflfl raaexa. Yesterday's 

BT>E3HCA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. 
K y A a? / />• B-bexaxb, B-bCAly, -emb, 
-yx to drive (into) 
BTbexaxb b ropoA- To drive into a 
town. B-bexaxb na ropy. To drive 

B-bfiXATb see B'bESHCAXb 

Bbl pron., gen., ace, prepos. Bac, 
dat. BaM, instr. saMH 
nporay Bac, ji^kme mho KHiiry. 
Will you kindly give me the book? 




BblBHPAlTb, -K), -eniB, -iot imp. 
K r 6? H T 0? / />. BtidpaTfc, Bbi6ep|y, 
-emb, -yx to choose, to select 
BbiSpaxb cnennajibHOCTb. To choose 
a speciality. BbiSpaTb 6jik)A0. To 
choose a dish. Bbi6paTb jiyimnx 


To select the best sportsmen among 

the students. 
BKlBOPbl pi., no sing, elections 

BbiSopbi B napjiaMeHT. Elections to 

the Parliament. Bce66in,He, paBHbie 

H npflMbie BbiSopw. Universal, equal 

and direct elections. 
BWBPACbIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t 

imp. Koro? h t o? Ky^a?/ 

p. BH5po|cHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cat to 

throw out 

BbiSpocHTb eeHyHtHbie GyMarn. To 

throw out the unnecessary papers. 
BfiBPATb see BblBHPATb 
BlilBOJ^ m. conclusion 

GAeJiaTb npaBHjibHUH blibo^. To 

draw the right conclusion. 

BblBO/^flTb, BHBOJKy, BblBOAHfflb, 

p. BblBClCTH, -ay, 
BLIBCJI, -a, -0, -M 



H T 0? / 

flyx, past 


to take out. BbiBecxH Jloma;^eH 
Ha nporyjiKy. To take the horses 
for a walk. 
2. to remove. BbiBecxn ohxho na 
KOCXioMe. To remove a stain 
from a suit. 
<> Oh BMeeji mchh h3 ce6w. He 
put me beside myself. 
BttrJIHIflETb, ->Ky, -AHmb, -ahx 
imp. to look 

Ona xoporao BbirjiHAHX. She looks 
BttPHATb see BblFOHIlTb 
BbirOHUlTb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp. 
Koro? oxKy^a? / p. Bwrnaxb, 
Bi>iroH|io, -nmb, -hx to turn out 
H ero BhirnajiBOH. / turned him out. 
BbIJ^AiBATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
q X o? K M y?//>. BHAaxb, BblAaM, 
BbiAamb, BbiAacx, Bup^aj^mM, BbiAa- 
AHxe, BbiAaAyT 

1. to give out. BbiAaxb KBHrn. To 
give books out. 

2. to give away, to betray. Ero 
BbiAaJTH. He was betrayed. 

BblfliATb see BblAABATb 

BblE3HCA|Tb, -K),^ -emb, -rox imp. 

I p. Bbiexaxb, BbieAly, -emb, -yx to 

leave, to drive out 

Mamnna Bbiexajia h3 rapajKa. The 

car drove out of the garage. Bbiexaxb 

H3 ropoAa. To leave town. 
Bb'IEXATb see BbIE35KATb 
Bi;i3BATb see Bbl3bIBATb 
Bbl3A0PABJIHBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -rox 

imp. I p. BbiBAopoBcIxb, -K), -emb, 

-lox to recover 

MoH 6pax BbiBAopoBeJi. My brother 

has recovered. BbiBAOpaBJiHBaHxe! 

Get well! 
Bi;i3A0P0BETb see BbI3A0PABJIH- 

Bbl3bIBAlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 

KOTo> I p. BbT3Baxb, Bbi30B|y, -emb, 

-yx to call out 

Bbi3Baxb cxyAeHxa k AOCKe. To 

call out a student to the blackboard. 
Bb'mrPATb see BblflPPblBATb 
BblflrPblBAITb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. 

Hxo? y koto} I p. Bbinrpalxb, -lo, 

-emb, -K)x 

1. y Koro? lo win. Bbinrpaxb y 
Apyra napxHK) b raaxMaxbi. To 
v)in a game of chess from a 

2. to win. Bbinrpaxb MamHHy. To 
win a motor-car . 

Bb'IHTH see BblXOJ^flTb 
BblKJIIOHAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

q X 0? I p. BbiKjiiOH|Hxb, -y, -nmb, 

-ax to switch off 

BbiKJiiOHHXb CBex. To switch off the 

BblJlHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

Hxo?oxKyAa? Kyjia.? / p. bw- 

jiHXb, BbiJib|io, -emb, -lox; imper. 

Bbijieii to pour out 

BbijiHXb BO Ay H3 cxaKaea. To pour 

water out of a glass. BbiJiHXb mojio- 

k6 b Kacxpiojiio.. To pour milk into 

a saucepan. 
Bb'IJlHTb see BblJIHBATb 
Bb'IMblTb see MblTb 
BttMblTbCH see Mb'ITbCfl 
BblHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

Hxo.> oxKy Aa? / />. BbiHlyxb, -y, 

-emb, -yx to take out 

Bbinyxb njiaxoK h3 KapMana. To take 

a handkerchief out cf one's pocket. 
BblHYTb see BblHHMATb 




BttnnCATb see BbinnCHBATb 

BbinflCblBAlTb, -lo, -erab, -k)t imp. 
H T o? I p. Bb'inn|caTB, -my, -menib, 

1, HTO? oTKyAa? to copy out. 
BbiniicaTb miTary H3 KHiirw. To 
copy out a quotation from a book. 

2. to subscribe. BbiOHcaTb jKypuaJiH 
H raaerw. To subscribe to maga- 
zines and newspapers. BbinHcaxb 
peueuT CojJbHOMy. To write a 
pre!>cription for a patient. 

Bb'inHTb see HHTb 
BbinOJIHKHHE neut. fulfilment 

BMHOJiHeHHe njTaua. The fulfilment 

of a plan. 
Bb'inOJIHHTb see BbinOJlH)lTb 
BbinOJIH>I|Tb, -10, -emb, -iot imp. 

H T O? / p. BLinOJlHlHTb, -lO, -Hmb, 

-HT to carry out, to fulfil 
BbmojiHHTb 6oJibmyK) paSoxy. To 
carry out a great work. Bi.'inoJiHHXb 
MecHHHbiM njian. To fulfil a monthly 
BblUyCKAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
K o r 6? H T o? / /). BbinylcTHTb, -my, 

-CTHmb, -CTflT 

1. to let out. BbinycTiiTb nxiiuy 113 
KJieTKii. To let the bird out of 
the cage. 

2. to turn out. BbinycxHTb cnenna- 
jiiicxoB. To turn out specialists. 

3. to turn out. Bbinycnaxb npo- 
flVKiuiK) BbicoKoro Kaqecxea. To 
turn out high-quality products. 

Bb'inyCTHTb see BblliyCKATb 
BblPAH^EHHE neut. expression 

1. MnxepecHoe BbipaweHne. An in- 
terestin g expression . 

2. Bbipa>KeHHe Jiuna. Expression. 
BblCOKlHfl, -aH, -oe, -iie, short form 

BbicoK, BbicoK|a, -6, -h; adv. bmco- 
k6; comp. Bbime 

1. tall. BbicoKHH flOM. A tall house. 
BbicoKHH ^eJTOBeK. A tall man. 

2. fig. high. BbKOKHH ypoBenb 
H^HBHH. A high living standard. 
BbicoKaH xeMuepaxypa. A high 
temperature. BbicoKoe jijABZieumQ. 
High pressure. Bmcokhh roJioc. 
A high voice. 

BblCOTA /. height 

BoJibmaa Bbicoxa. A great height. 
IIphDKKn B Bucoxy. High jumping. 
3AaHHe cto MexpoB b Bucoxy. A 

building a hundred metres high. 
JI|epeBo BMCoxoii b jtecHxb MexpoB. 
A tree ten metres high. 

Bb'ICTABlKA /., gen. pi. -ok exhibi- 

BbicxaBKa flocxHweniiH HapoflHoro 
xosHHCXBa. The Exhibition of Eco- 
nomic Achievement. 

Bb'ICTPEJliHTb, -K), -limb, -hx p. to fire 
BbicxpeJiHTb 113 niicxoJiexa. To fire 
a pistol. 

BblCXynAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 
p. Bbicxylnnxb, -njiio, -nwmb, -nar 

1. to speak. Bbicxynnxb na co6paHMH. 
To speak at a meeting. Bbicxy- 
nnxb c peHbK). To make a speech. 

2. to appear. Bbicxynuxb b rjiaBHOH 
poJiH. To appear in the principal 

Bb'ICTVnHTb see BblCTyHATb 
Bbl( XynJIEHHE neut. 

1. speech. Bbicxynjieiine flejieraxa. 
The delegate's speech. Bbicxynji^- 


no xeJieBMAenHK). The foreign mi- 
nister's appearance on television. 

2. performance. BbicxynJieuHe ap- 
TiicxoB. The actors' performance. 

Bb'ICIDIMfl, -aH, -ee, -ne 

1. higher, superior 

2. highest, supreme 

""0* Bbicmee o(ipa30BaHiie. Higher 
education. Bucmiiii opraii BJiacTn. 
The supreme organ of power. 
Bb'ITAIU,HTb see TAIUftTb, 2 
BblTElETb see BblTHPATb 
BblTHPAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
q X o? / p. Bbixepexb, Bbixply, -erab, 
-yx, past Bbixep, -Jia, -Jio, -jih to wipe 
Bhixepexb pyKU h jihuo hojiox^h- 
ueM. To wipe one's hands and 
face with a towel. 
Bb'iyHHTb see yqflTb, 1 
Bb'IXOA m. exit 

Bbixofl H3 Mexpo. The exit from ths 
underground station. Bb'ixoA H3 
napna. The exit from a park. 
BblXOAflTb, BMxowy, Bbixo^Hinb, 
BbixoAHX imp. o X K y fl a? / />. bbih- 
XH, BbiHfliy, -erab, -yx, past bu- 
raeji, Bbirajila, -o, -h to go out 
BbixoAifxb H3 KOMHaxM. To go out 
of the room. Bwhxh h3 KJiacca. To 
go out of the classroom. 
<► BbiuTH H3 TepneHHfl. To lost 
patience. Bmuth cyxHM h3 BOflw. 




To come off unscathed. Buuth H3 
ce6H. To lose one's temper. 
BblXOAHIOfl, -afl, -6e, -we free 

Bbixo;iH6u AGHb. A day off. H ce- 
roAHfl BbixoAHOH. / am free today. 

r, r 

rA3 m. gas 

BoAopoa — JierKHH raa. Hydrogen 
is a light ga^. Y Hac npoBejiii ra3. 
They laid on gas in our house. 

r A3 ETA /. newspaper 

HuxaTb raaexy. To read a newspa- 
per. CeroAHflfflHHH raseia. Today's 

rAJICTYK m. (neck)tie 

BaBH.iaTb raJicTyK. To tie one's tie. 
riHOHepCKHH raJiCTyK. A Young 
Pioneer's scarf. 

TACflTb, ramy, racnnib, racHT imp. 
H T o? / /?. noraciTTb, noraray, nora- 
CHmb, noracHT to switch off, to 
put out 

TacHTb CBeT. To switch off the 
light. noracHTb Kociep. To put out 
a fire. 

rACTI'OHOM tn. provision shop 
KyuMTb npoAVKTbi b racTponoMe, 
To buy foodstuffs at a provision shop. 


1. adv. where. T^e Bbi paGoTaeie? 
Where do you v^ork? Ffle bm >kh- 
Beie? Where do you live? 

2. asconj. where. X1,om, r^e h jkhbv, 
nocTpoen b 3T0M ro^y. The house 
in which I live was built this year. 

rflE-HHBy/tb adv. somewhere 

fl Syay rAe-HH6yAi> sflecb. / shall 
be •'omewhere here. 

TA^-TO ado. somewhere 

Mbi c BaMH rae-To BCxpenaJiHCB. 
We have met somewhere. 

rEHHAJIbHIblfl, -an, -oe, -me of 

nieKcnnp — renwaJTbHbiH aHFJiim- 
CKHH ApaMaxypr. Shakespeare is a 
great English dramatist. TeHHaJibHoe 
npoH3BejieHHe. A work of genius. 

rEOrPAOnHECKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne 

Feorpacj^rtHecKHH axjiac. A geograph- 
ical atlas. BeJiMKHB reorpa4)HHe- 
CKHB OTKpMTHH. The great geograph- 
ical discoveries. y^HTbCH na reo- 

rpa(|)iiHecKOM ^aKyjibTeie. To study 
in the geography department. 

rEOrPAa)Hfl /., no pi. geography 
(Pnsw^ecKaa reorpa(|)Hfl. Physical 
geography. 3K0H0MHHerKaa reorpa- 
(|)Hfl. Economic geography. 

TEOJIOr m. geologist 

BuTb reojioroM. To be a geologist. 

rEPOflHECK|HH, an, -oe, -ne heroic 
repoHHecKHH xpyA. Heroic labour. 
TepoHHecKaH 6opb6a. //eroic struggle. 

TEPOfl m. 

1. hero. Fepoii bohhm. A war hero. 

2. hero. FjiaBBbm repdii poMana. 
The hero of the novel. 

3. hero. Fepdn Tpy^a. Heroes of 

FflBHiyXb, -y, -emb, -yx, past rnS, 
-jia, -Jio, -JTU imp. ox Hero?/ 
p. nortiSHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx 


norwdjiH MHJiJiMOHbi JiK);ieH. Mil- 
lions of people died in the Second 
World War. J^^epenbfl rriSnyx ox 
MopoBa. Trees perish with cold. 

FHMHACTHKA /., no pi. gymnastics 
yxpetmaa rnMHacxHKa. Morning 
p. t. exercises. CnopxHBHaa rHMna- 
cxHKa. Sports gymnastics. J^eJiaxb 
FJTMHacxHKy. To do p. t. exercises. 
3aHMMaxbCH niMHacxHKOH. To prac- 
tise gymnastics. 

FJIABAi /., pl.TjiaBhi head 

Fjiaea flejierarmn. The head of the 
delegation. FjiaBa npaonxejibcxBa. 
The head of the government. 
<> CxoflTb BO rjiaBG qer6-JiH5o. 
To be at the head of something. 

FJIABA^ /., pi. rjiaem chapter 

riepBan rjiasa. The first chapter. 

FJIABHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -bie principal, 
chief, main 

FjiaBHLiH Bonpoc. The principal 
question. FjiaBHUH pe^anxop. Edi- 
tor-in-Chief. FjiaBHbiH Bpa^. Head 

rJIAIAHTb, -my, -ffHmb, -flax imp./ 
p. norjialAHXb, -JKy, -^nmb, -flax 

1. Hxo? HGM? to iron, to press. 
FjiaAHXb pySaraKy yxioroM. To 
iron a shirt. 

2. Koro? Hxo? no q e m y? to 
stroke. Fjia^nxL pe6eHKa no ro- 
jione. To stroke the child's head. 

^JIA;^K|Hfl, -aa, -oe, -ne smooth 




FjiaflKan noBepxHocxb. A smooth 

rJIA3 m., prepos. o rjiase & b rjiaay; 
pi. rjiaaa, rjiaa eye 
BojibniHe rjiaaa. Big eyes. 
*> 3to cjiyHHJiocb II a Hamex rjia- 
3ax. // happened before our eyes. 
IlycTHTb DbiJib B rjiaaa. To cut a 
dash. ToBopHTb npaB^y b rjiasa. 
To speak the truth to one's face. 
FoBopHTb c rjiaay na rjiaa. To 
talk confidentially. Hath Kyfla rjia- 
3a rjiflflflT. To follow one's nose. 
CAejiaxb 6ojibinHe rjiaaa. To make 
big eyes. 

rJiyBHHA /. depth 

Ha rjiy6HHe cxa MexpoB. At a depth 
of one hundred metres. DlaxTa rjiy- 
6hh6h b TpMCTa MexpoB. A pit 
three hundred metres deep. 
<> B rjiySHHe ca^a. In the heart 
of the garden. 

rJIYBOK Hfl, -an, -oe, -iie, short form 
rjiySoK, rjiy6oK|a, -6, -n; adv. rjiy- 
6ok6; comp. rjiydjKe 

1. deep. TjiySoKafl pOKa. A deep 

2. fig. profound. rjiy66KHri yM. 
Profound intellect. FjiydoKoe nyB- 
CTBO. Deep feeling, 

rjiyniblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
rjiyn, rjiyiia, rjiyn|o, -w; adv. rjiy- 
no stupid, foolish 
FjiynwH nejiOBeK. A stupid man. 
Fjiynafl Mbicjib. A foolish idea. Oh 
nocTy.niiji rjiyno. He acted foolishly. 

rJiyX|Ofl, -aH, -oe, -iie, short form 
rjiyx, rjiyxa, rjiyx|o, -n; adv. rjiyxo 

1. deaf. FjiyxoH nejioBeK. A deaf 
person . 

2. fig. out-of-the-way. Fjiyxon 
Kpaii, An out-of-the-way region. 

FJIHI^ETB, -my, -A"mb, -aht imp. 

Ha Koro? Ha ^to? bo ht 6?/ 

p. norjiHlAexb, -jKy, -Aiinib, -^ht 

to look 

IIorjiHAM Ha Hero! Look at him! 

FjiflAeiL B OKHo. To look out of the 

FHET m., no pi. yoke, oppression 

HaxoAHTbCH HOA rnexoM sanoeBaxe- 

JieH. To be under the yoke of the 

conquerers . 
FOBOliflTb, -K), -HHib, -Hx imp. 

H X 0? O K 6 M? O H e M? K M y? 

1. p. CKaaaxb, cKaHcy, CKaacemb, 
CKa?Kyx K M y? to speak, to tell, 
to say. fl CKaaaJi oxny npaBAy. / 
told the truth to my father. H 
roBopHji oxny 06 axoM. / told 
Father about it. FoBoptixe rpoM- 
^e. Speak louder. CKaJKHxe He- 
CKOJibKO cjioB Mock Be. Say a 
few words about Moscow. 

2. p. noroBopMXb or has no p. as- 
pect c K e M? to speak, to talk 

(1) H roBopio c ApyroM o er6 
cecxpe. / am speaking with 
my friend about his sister. 
H noroBopHJi c oxhom na 
3xy xeMy. / had a talk with 
Father on that subject. 

(2) H roBopio no-pyccKH. / speak 
Russian. Oh He roBopHx no- 

^anrJiMHCKH. He doesn't speak 
FO3 m., prepos. b roAy & roA©; 
pi. roAM & roAa 

1. year. yqeSnuH roA. School 
year, academic year, fl poAHJiCfl 
B 1941 roAy. I was born in 1941. 

2. gen. pi. jiex year. Ckojibko BaM 
Jiex? How old are you? Mne 20 
Jiex. / am 20 years old. Mue 23 
roAa. / am 23 years old. Ilpo- 
niJio 4 roAa (5 Jiex). 4 (5) years 

<> C HoBbiM roAOAiI A Happy New 

FOJIOBA /., ace. roJiOBy; pi. roJiOBU, 
rojiOB, roJiOBaM, etc. head 
y MGHH 60JIHX roJiOBa. / have a 

<> CseTjiafl rojiOBa. A bright head. 
nycxaa rojiOBa. An empty head. 
noBecHTb rojiOBy. To hang one's 
head. noxepflTb rojioBV. To lose 
one's head. Mne npnmjia b roJiOBy 
MbicJib. An idea occurred to me. 
Mne npHinjio b rojiOBy. It occurred 
to me. 

rOJIOJi; m., no pi. hunger 

IIoHyBCXBOBaxb roJioA- To feel hun- 
gry. YMepexb c roJioAy. To die of 

rOJl03H|blfl, -an, -oe,^ -tie, short 
form roJioAen, roJiOAHa, r6JiOAH|o, 

1. hungry. Fojioahmm neJioBeK. A 
hungry person, fl roJiOAen. / am 




2. only complete form starving. 
roJioflHafl CMepxL. Starvation. 
rOJIOC m., pL -a 

1. voice, Hm3khh rojioc. A low 
voice. Bhcokhh roJioc. A high 
voice. JlnniHTLCfl roJioca. To lose 
one's voice. 

2. vote. ToJioc naSupaTejiH. The 
vote of an elector. 

rOJIOCIOBATb, -yio, -yemt, -yrox 
imp. 3a Koro? 3a hto? npo- 
THB Kord? npoTHB Hero?/ 
p. nporojioc|oBaTi>, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 
to vote 

roJiocoBaxb 3a KaHAHJ^aTa b fleny- 
TaThi. To vote for a candidate. 
FoJiocoBaxB npoxHB pesoJiroi^HH. To 
vote against a resolution. 

rOJiyB|Ofl, -an, -6e, -Lie light-blue 
ToJiySoe He6o. A light-blue sky. 
ToJiy6ue rjiaaa. Blue eyes. 

rOJiyB|B m., gen. pi. -en dove, pigeon 
JlexHX roJiySn. The doves are fly- 

rOJIILIfl, -an, -oe, -ue naked, bare 
FoJiaa cniina. A naked back. FoJiBie 
;i;epeBbH. Bare trees. 

rOPA /., ace. ropy; pi. ropti, rop, 
ropaw, etc. mountain, hill 
BbicoKaH ropa. A high mountain. 
JKhxb b ropax. To live in the moun- 
tains. Ha ropax JieJKHx cuer. There 
is snow on the mountains. Typncxu 
BsoniJiH na ropy. The tourists 
climbed the mountain. 
<0* He 3a ropaMH. Close at hand, 
not far away. 

rOPA3^0 adv. much, far 

Fopaaflo Jiynrae. Far better. Fopaa- 
AO Sucxpee. Much faster. Fopa.iflo 
yMHee. Much cleverer. FopasAO mchb- 
me. Much smaller / less 

^OPI/^flTbCH, -mych, -AHmtCH, -ahx- 
CH imp. KCM? »ieM? to be proud 
FopAHXBCfl ycnexaMH. To be proud 
of one's success. FopziHXbCH poAH- 
HOH. To be proud of one's coun- 

rOP^IBlB, -an, -oe, -Lie, short form 
ropA, ropAa, ropAO, rop ah; adv. 
ropAO proud 

FopAUH HeJioBeK. A proud person. 
FopAan ASBymKa. A proud girl. 
FopAMH BHA. A proud air. 

rOPE neut., no pi. misfortune 

y Hero 6oJibm6e rope. A great mis- 
fortune befell him. 
rOP|ETB, -K), -limb, -hx imp. 

1. p. croplexb, -10, -nrab, -hx to 
burn. FopHX cBe^a. A candle 
burns. FopHX ApoBa. Firewood 
burns. Fopnx aom. The house is 
on fire. 

2. no p. to burn. B KOMuaxe ropnx 
CBex. There is a light in the room. 

3. fig. to shine, to sparkle. Fjiaea 
y Hero ropax ox paAOCXH. His 
eyes are shining with joy. 

rOPJIO neut. throat 

y MeHfl 60JIHX ropJio. / have a sore 

rOPHIBlH, -an, -oe, -He 

1. mountain. FopuHe BepmiiHti. 
Mountain tops. 

2. mining. Fopnan npoMbimjien- 
Hocxb. The mining industry. 
FopHbiH HHCXHxyx. A mining 

rOPOJi; m., pi. -a city, town 

KpyuHbiH npoMbimJioHHbiH ropoA- 
A large industrial city. B ropoAe 
MHoro caAOB. There are many gar- 
dens in the city. 

<> noexaxb 3a ropoA. To go to the 

rOPOACK|On, -an, -oe, -lie city, town 
FopOACKOH xpaHcnopx. City trans- 
port. FopoACKoH caA- A city park. 

rOPbK|Hfl, -an, -oe,^ -ne, short form 
ropeK, ropbKa, ropbKlo, -n; adv. 

1. bitter. FopbKoe JioKapcxBo. A 
bitter medicine. 

2. fig. bitter. FopbKan npaBAa. 
The bitter truth. FopbKHe CJieau. 
Bitter tears. FopbKO nJiaKaxb. 
To weep bitterly. 

rOPJlHlHfl, -an, -ee, -ne, short form 
ropHH, -a, -6, -k; adv. ropnio 

1. hot. FopaHHH cyn. Hot soup. 

2. fig. ardent. Fopanafl JiioGoBb. 
Ardent love. Fopri^HH npHBex. 
Warm greetings. FopHHo cno- 
pHXb. To have a heated argu- 

3. fig. hot. FopHHHH xapaKxep. A 
hot temper. 

4. fig.: Fopa^ee BpoMH. A busy 




rOCnOJ^fln m., pi. rocnoAa, rocno^, 
rocnoAHM, etc. gentleman; used in 
addressing people Mr. rocnoflHH 
yoTcon! Mr. Watson! 

rOCTEnPHnMHIbin, -an, -oe, -bib 

rocTenpiiHMHbiH X03HHH. A hospi- 
table host. FocTenpHPiMHafl cipana. 
A hospitable country. 

rOCTflHHqA /. hotel 


We put up at an hotel, HonaH ro- 
CTiiHiina. A new hotel. 

rOCT|b m., gen. pi. -6h guest, 

JKeJiaHHMH rocTb. A welcome guest. 
MHocTpaHHbie focth. Foreign visitors. 
<^ Hmii B rocTH. To go on a 
visit. EbiTb B rocTflx. To be on a 

rOCyAAPCTREHHIMfl, -afl, -oe, -He 

FocyflapcTBeHHWH cxpon. A state 
system. rccyflapcTBeHHbie rpanui^bi. 
State frontiers. FocyAapcTBeHHaa 
ncjiHTHKa. A state policy. Moc- 
KOBCKHH rocyaapCTBeHHbiH yHHBep- 
CHieT. Moscow State Univer- 

rOCy ^,^VCTBO neut. state; country 
B 3T0M rocyAapcTBe jkhbct 15 mmji- 
jiHOHOB HCJioeeK. The population 
of this country is 15 million. 

rOTOlBHTb, -BJiK), -BHrab, -bht imp. 
K o r 6? H T 0? 

1. p. npHrOTOlBHTb, -BJIK), -BHUlb, 

-BHT to prepare. FoTOBHTb 
ypoK. To do a lesson. Fotobhtb 
o6eA- To cook dinner. 

2. p. nOAPOTOlBHTb, -BJIK), -BHIEb, 

-BHT to prepare. FoxosHTb cne- 
miaJiHCTOB. To train specialists. 
FoTOBHTb ynenHKOB k OKaaMeny. 
To prepare pupils for an exami- 
rOTOlBHTbCH, -BJirocb, -BiinibCH, 
-BATCH imp. K HeMy? & + inf. / 


CH, -BATCH lo prepare, to get ready 


The student is preparing for an 
examination. CnopTCMGH npnroTO- 
BHJICA npbjrHyTb b BOAy. The 
sportsman got ready to jump into 
the water. 

rOTOBjblfl, -aA, -08, -He, short form 
roTOB, -a, -o, -u K HCMy? Ha 
HTo? & -\-inf. 

1. ready. yqeHHK totob k skb^mc- 
Hy. The pupil is ready for his 

2. ready. Oh Bcer^a totob noMd^t 
TOBapnmy. He is always ready to 
help a friend. FoTOBbiH na nofl- 
BHF. Ready to perform a feat. 

3. ready. 06eA totob. Dinner is 

<> roTOBoe njiaTbe. A ready-made 

rPA^yC m. 

1. degree. TepMOMeTp noKasHBaex 
HHTb rpaAycoB HH>Ke Hyjifi (bh- 
me nyJiH). The thermometer 
shows five degrees below zero 
(flbove zero). 

2. degree. Yroji b 45 rpaAycoB. 
An angle of 45 degrees. 

rPA5KAAHflH m., pi. rpmAane, 

1. citizen. FpaWAaHiiH GoBCTCKoro 
CoK)3a. A citizen of the Soviet 

2. used in addressing people Sir. 
FpaJKAaHHH, CKa>KnTe, nojKaJiyn- 
CTa, FAe HaxoAHTCH TeaTp? Sir, 
will you kindly tell me where the 
theatre is? 

rPA5KAAHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne civil, 


rpaJKA^HCKHH ji,0Jir. One's civic 


^ FpaHCAaHCKaH soHHa. A civil 

rPAMM m. gramme 

CeMbcoT rpaMMOB c^xapa. Seven 

hundred grammes of sugar. 
rPAMMATMKA /. grammar 

FpaMMaTHKa pyccKoro ASHKa. A 

Russian grammar. 

rPAMOTHIbin, -aA, -oe, -ne, short 
form rpaMOTen, rpaM0TH|a, -o, -h; 
adv. rpaMOTHO literate 
FpaMOTHHH HCJioBeK. A literate 
person. IlHcaTb rpaMOTHO. To write 

rPAHflIi;A /. frontier; boundary 
FocyAapcTBeHHaA rpaHHi?a. A state 

<> HCaxb 3a rpaHBHeii. To live 
abroad. Yexaxb 3a rpannqy 





To go abroad, npnexaxb B3-3a rpa- 

HBUbi. To come from abroad. 
rPElMtelb, -MjiK), -Miimb, -MHT imp. to 


FpeMHT rpoM. It thunders. 
rPElTb, -K), -erab, -k)t imp. qxo? / 

p. corpelxb, -K), -emb, -k)t 

1. to give out warmth. Ocenbio 
cojiHne CBeTHT, ho mejio rpeex. 
In autumn the sun is bright but 
not very warm. 

2. to be warm. ITajibTo xopomo 
rpeex. The overcoat is very 

3. to warm. Tpexb pyKH na^ or- 
HCM. To warm one's hands over 
the fire. 

4. p. iiarpelTb, -lo, -emb, -iot to 
warm. Harpeib bo Ay Ao 40 rpa- 
AycoB. To warm the water to 
40 degrees. 

rPHB m., gen. -a mushroom 

Ha6paTb mboto rpaGoB. To gather 
a lot of mushrooms. BeJibiH rpnG. 
An edible boletus. 

rPHim m, influenza 

Bojiexb rpHonoM. To be ill with 
the 'flu. y Hero xaJKejiaa $6pMa 
rpHHoa. He has a bad attack of 
the 'flu. OcjiojKHeHHH nocjie rpHH- 
na. Complications after the 'flu. 

rP03A /., pi. rpoBM thunderstorm 
HaqaJiacb rpoaa. A thunderstorm 
broke out. JlexoM ^acxo SuBaiox 
rp63bi. Thunderstorms often occur 
in summer. 

rPOM m. 

1. thunder. 3arpeMeJi rpoM. It 
started thundering. 

2. fig. storm. TpoM anjioAiicMen- 
xoB. A storm of applause. 

^POMAJ^H|bln, -an, -oe, -we, short 
form rpoMaAen, rpoMaAHla, -o, -w 
huge, enormous 

PpoMaAHbiH AOM. A huge house. Fpo- 
MaAHUH ycnex. An enormous suc- 

rPOMKlHfl, -aH, -oe. -ne, short form 
rpOMOK, rpoMKa, rpoMKlo, -h; adv. 
rpOMKo; comp. rpoMHe loud 
FpoMKHH 3ByK. A loud sound. 
FpoMKHH rojioc. A loud voice. FpoM- 
KHH CMex. A loud laughter. Pasro- 
BapHBaxb rpOMKO. To speak loudly. 

XP^''B|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
rpy6, rpy6a, rpy6|o, -w; adv. rpy6o 

1. coarse. Fpy6afl mepcxb. Coarse 

2. rude. FpySwfi qojiOBeK. A rude 
person. FpySoe oxHomeHHe. A 
rude attitude. FpyCo oxBexHXb. 
To reply rudely. Oh o^eHb rpy6 
c TOBapHmaMii. He is very rude 
to his friends. 

3. gross. FpySaa omiiSKa. A gross 

FPy/^b /., prepos. na rpyAH chest; 

•C> KopMHTb peSeiiKa rpyAbio. To 
nurse (suckle) a child. 

FPySOBHK m., gen. -a lorry 

K AOMy noA^exaJi rpysoBMK. A lor- 
ry drove up to the house. 

FpynnA /. group 

B nameH xypiicxcKOH rpynne ceMb 
HeJiOBeK. There are seven people in 
our tourist group. Fpynna Aeey- 
meK. A group of girls. 
FPyiCTHTb, -my, -cxiimb, -cxhx imp.- 
o K 6 M? o H e M? no k o m y? 
no H e M y? to miss, to be sad 
FpycxHXb o xoeapnme. To miss a 
friend. Fpycxiixb o ceMbe. To miss 
one's family. 

FPyCTHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
rpycxen, rpycxna, rpycxH|o, -w; 
adv. rpycxHO sad 

FpycxHwii qeJiOhCK. A melancholy 
man. FpycxHoe jihho. A sad face. 
FpycxHan necHH. A sad song. Mne 
rpycxHO. / feel sad. 

FP^^rilA /. 

1. pear. Kynwxb HecKOJibKO rpym. 
To buy some pears. 

2. pear-tree. B HameM caAy pacxyx 
rpymii. There are pear-trees in 
our orchard. 

rP)l3H|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
rpH3eH, rpHBHa, rpH3H|o, -w; adv. 


1. muddy. FpHsnaa yjinna. A mud- 
dy street. 

2. lit. & fig. dirty. FpH3HaH py- 
6araKa. A dirty shirt. FpasHafl 
pa66xa. Dirty work. Fpa3HWH 
nocxynoK. A dirty deed. Oh na- 
nncaji rpriano. He wrote care- 

FPHSb /., prepos. b rpH3H & 6 rpn- 
3H, no pi. 




1. mud. Ha yjinixe rpH3B. It's 
muddy in the street. 

2. dirt. rpH3b Ha BopoTHHKe. Dirt 
on a collar. 

ryBA /., pi. ry6hi, ry6, rySaM, etc. 

KpacHTb ry6fci. To make up one's 

ryJl^lTh, -K), -erab, -lOT imp. /p. no- 

ryjifllTb, -K), -enib, -k)t to walk 

FyjiflTb c peSeHKOM. To go for a 

walk with a child. FyjiflTb b Jiecy. 

To walk in the forest. 
ryCT|On, -aa, -6e, -ue, short form 

rycT, rycia, rycxjo, -h; adv. rycio; 

comp. ryme 

1. thick, dense. FycTwe bojiocbi. 
Thick hair. FyCTOil Jiec. A thick 
forest. J]|epeBbH pacxyx rycxo. 
The trees grow thick. 

2. thick. FycxoH Me^. Thick hon- 
ey. Fycxaa CMexana. Thick sour 

3. dense. Fycxoii xyMan. A dense 
f^S' FycxoH AWM. Thick 

ryC|b m., gen. pi. -en goose 

HiapeHHH rycb. A roast goose. 
Snecb MHoro rycefl. There are many 
geese here. 

A, fl 

J^A particle 

1. yes. 3x0 xbi? — J^tx, axo a. "/s 
that you?" "Fes, it's me." 

2. translated by the Im.peratiue. 
]J,a 3ApaBcxByex Mnp na seMjie! 
Long live peace on Earth/ 

J^A|BATb, -K), -enib, -lox imp. Koro? 
H T o? K M y? ^ e M y? / /?. Aaxb, 
AaM, Aanib, ^acx, ahahm, A^Awxe, 
AaAyT, past Aaji, -a, -o, -h to give 
^axb KHwry xoBapnmy. To give a 
book to a friend. 

<> Jl&Tb corjiacHe Ha ^to-jihSo. 
To give one's consent to something. 


CAejiaxb qTO-JiHSo. To enable some- 
body to do something. 

1. pressure, AxMOc$epHoe a^bji^- 
HHe. Atmospheric pressure. Y 
Herd BucoKoe AaBJienne KpoBH. 
He has a high blood pressure. 

2. fig. pressure. OKaaaxb AaBJieHne 
Ha HCJioBeKa. To exert pressure 
on a person. 
AABHO adv. 

1. long ago. 3x0 6hjio AaBHO. It 
was a long time ago. 

2. for a long time, fl AaBHo ne bh- 
ACJi CBoero APyra. / haven't seen 
my friend for a long time. 

J^A.5KE particle even 

Oh Aa>Ke He saxoxeJi o6eAaxb. He 

would not even have dinner. 
;^AJIEE adv. further 

II xaK AaJiee (h x. a). And so on 

^AJIEKlHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form 

AaJieK, AaJieK|a, -6, -h; adv. AaJieK6; 

comp. AaJibme distant 

Jl^aJieKaa cxpana. A distant country. 

Exaxif AaJieKO. To go far. Buxb 

AaJieKO ox AOMa. To be far from 

J^AJIbHlHfl, -fin, -ee, -ne 

1. distant, remote. /l,ajibHHe pan- 
OHLi. B emote regions. 

2. long. ^ajibHee nyxemecxBHe. A 
long journey. 

3. distant. J\ajihBRe poACXBeHHHKH. 
Distant relatives. 

J^AJIbmE adv. further, on 

Hnxaiixe, nojKajiyiicxa, AaJibme, 
Will you read on, please? IIoHAeM 
AaJibme. Let's go on. 

J^APflTb, Aapro, Aapnmb, Aapax imp. 
K o r 6? H X o? K o M y? »j e m y?/ 
p. noAapiixb, noAapK), noAapnmb, 
noAapax to give (a present) 
HoAapiixb xoBapnmy KHiiry. To 
give a friend a book (as a present). 

J^ATA /. date 

BnaivieHaxejibHaa AaTa. A memorable 

JlATh see flABATb 

;^BEP|b /., gen. pi. -m door 

GxeKJiflHHaa ABepb. A glass door. 
OxKpuxb ABepb. To open the door. 
BaKpbixb ABepb. To close the door. 
BoHXH B ABepb. To come (go) 
through a doorway. 

;^Bfl^A|TbCH, -locb, -erabca, -iotch 
or ABHHtembca, ABDJKyxca imp./ 
p. ABiiHlyxbca, -ycb, -embca, -yxcfl 
to move 

ndesA ABUHtexca co cKopocxbio 50 
KHJiOMexpoB B qac. The train is 
moving at a speed of 50 kilometres 




an hour. J^BnTaThcB Bnepe/i;. To 
move ahead. He ABHranxecbJ Don't 
J^BrnK^miE neut. 

1. movemeDt. J]^BmKeHHe njianeT 
BOKpyr CoJiHEta. The movement 
of planets round the Sun. 

2. traffic. JXEummne Tpancnopxa. 
Traffic. PacnHcanne ziBHjKeHHH 
noe3;i;6B. A railway time-table. 

3. movement. Hai\HOHajibHO-ocBo- 
SoflHTejiBHoe ABHJKeHHe. The na- 
tional liberation movement. Pa66- 
nee jiBiimeniie. The working-class 
movement. ^BHHteHHe cxopoHHii- 
KOB MHpa. The peace movement. 

ABflHyXbCH see ABflFATbCH 
^BOE num. two 

^Boe Mymnuu. Two men. JJ^Jide cy- 

TOK. Two days. 
J^BOP m., gen. -a 

1. courtyard. MamMHa BT,exaJia bo 
fl;B6p. The motor-car drove into 
the yard. 

2. outside. Ha ABope xojioaho. // 
is cold outside. 

/^BOP|E^ m., gen. -i^a palace 

KopoJieBCKHH ABopei;. King's 


<> J^Bopea KyjibTypw. A palace of 

culture. J^BOpe^ cnopxa. A sports 


J^£BOHIKA /., gen. pi. -ck (little) 
MajieHbKan AGBOHKa. A small girl. 

aEBYiniKA /., gen. pi. -ck girl 
KpacMBan AesyiUKa. A beautiful 

JlflJ5,ym\KA m., gen. pi. -ck grand- 

MoH ABAyniKa JKHBex b AcpeBne. 
My grandfather lives in the country. 

Jl,E7KSVH\blVL, -afl, -oe, -we 

1. duty. fle>KypHHB[ Bpan. Duty 
doctor. J^emypuafi anxeKa. Duty 
chemist's. ^eHtypntiH Marasiin. 
A duty shop. 

2. n. a person on duty. Kxo ce- 
roAHH AeJKypHMH? Who is on 
duty today? JJ^eTKyi^uuu no o6- 
mieJKHXHK). The man on duty at 
the hostel. 

flEflCTBHE neut. 

1. action. fl,eHcxBHe khcjioxm na 
XKaHb. The action of an acid on 

2. action. 3xh flencxBHH npHBCJiH 
K xoMy, Hxo... These actions led 

3. action. ^encxBne npoHCxoAHX b 
ropoAe H. b XIX Bene. The 
action takes place in the town of 
N. in the 19th century. 

4. act. B Dbece 4 AeucxBaa. There 
are 4 acts in the play. 


1. adv. really. Oh AeHcxBHxejibno 
3X0 BHaex. He really knows that. 

2. par en. word indeed, ^a, ach- 
cxBnxeJibHo, axo HyjKHo. Yes, 
that's necessary indeed. 

AEflCTBflTEJIBHOCTb /., no pi. 


Objective reality. jI,eHCXBHxejibHOCXb 
Hamiix AHCH. The reality of our 

<> B AeHCTBHTeJibHOCTH. In reality. 
^.EflCTBlOBATb, -yro, -yemb, -yiox 

1. to act. Tenepb naAO aghcxbo- 
Baxb. Now we must act. 

2. to affect. 3xo na mchh ne ach- 
cxByex, It doesn't affect me. 

J^EKABI |b m., gen. -h December 
B AGKaSpe HaHnnaexcH 3HMa. Win- 
ter begins in December. CeroAHH 
xpexbe AGKaSpn. Today is the third 
of December. Oh npncAex BocbMoro 
ACKaSpa. He will arrive on the 
eighth of December. 

JIEKAH m. dean 

JI,eKaH ^HJioJioFMHecKoro $aKyjib- 
xexa yHHBepcHxexa. The Dean of 
the Philological Department of the 

/^EKJIAPA^HH /. declaration 

/^eKJiapaHHH cxopohhhkob Mirpa. 
A declaration of the peace-support- 

^EJIAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. h x o? / 
p. CAeJia|xb, -K), -emb, -lox 

1. to do, Hxo BH AGJiaexe ceroAHH 
BenepoM? What are you doing 
this evening? Mne H6Hero Ae- 
jiaxb. I've nothing to do. H hh- 
^ero ho Ae-'iaiO- ^ ^"^ doing 

2. K r 6? H X o? K e M? k a k h m? 
to make. ^eJiaxb Aexajin. To make 
parts. 3x0 CASJiaJio ero cnacx- 
JIHBHM. That made him happy. 




3. to do. Marawna fleJiaex 80 km 
B qac. The motor-car does 80 km 
an hour. 
<0* J^ejiaxb flOKJiajt. To make a re- 
port. J^ejiaxb oiuhGkh. To make 
mistakes. J^ejiaxb na Myxn cjiona. 
Cf. To make a mountain out of a 

J^EJIEFAT m. delegate 

^eJierax KOH(J)epeHi;HH. A delegate 
to a conference. 

J^EJIE^A^HH /. delegation ^ 

npaBi'iTejibCTBeHHafl /^ejierauHH, A 
government delegation. CnopTiTBuafl 
fleJierauHfl. A sports delegation. 

^EJIflTb, AGJiK), AeJiiimb, jxeJim imp. 
Koro? HT 0? / p. paalAeJiHTb, 
-jifiJiK), -fleJiHinb, -AeJiHT to divide 
PasflejiiiTb crpaHHuy na ^,Be nacxH. 
To divide a page into two parts. 
Paa^eJifixb 10 na 2. To divide 10 
by 2. 

J^fiJIO neut., pi. flejia, ^eji, ^eJiaM, 
etc, business 

y Mena k BaM fleJio. I've got busi- 
ness to discuss with you. 
<0' BaHCHoe AeJio. An important 
business. KaK jie.ia? How are you 
getting along? On noineji no Ae- 
jiaM. He went out on business. 3xo 
He Kaiue ^ejio. It's not your busi- 
ness. B qcM AGJio? What's the mat- 
ter? C^ejiaxb qx6-HH6ynb Men^^y 
AejioM. To do something at odd 

^EMOKPATflqECKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne 

^ewoKpaxriqecKHH cxpoii. A demo- 
cratic system. /^eMOKpaxH^ecKaH 
pecnySjiHKa. A democratic repub- 

J^EMOKPATHH /.democracy 

IlojiHaH AeMOKpaxHH. Complete de- 


1. demonstration. JI^eMoecxpanHH 
cocxoiixcfl na oJioniaAH. The dem- 
onstration will take place in 
the square. 

2. showing, presentation, ^gmoh- 
cxpauHH HOBoro ^'AJihMR. The 
showing of a new film. 

J^EHb m., gen. ahh day 

B nanajie ahh. In the morning. B 
cepeAwne ^hh. At midday. Bo bxo- 

poH noJioBHHe AHH. In the after- 
noon. B xBMeHHe AHH. During the 
day.^ Hepea 2 ahh. In 2 days. 2 ahh 
HaaaA. 2 days ago. Ha CJieAyiomnH 
AeHb. Next day. 

^ Bbixojiiiou ACHb. A day off. 
4eHb iiesaBHCHMOcTii. Independence 
Day. J\QH\i poHCAeniiH. Birthday. 
Oh npneAex na auhx. He will come 
one of these days. XoAHXb KVAa- 
-jih6o qepea Aenb. To go somewhere 
every other day. 

^EHbFH pL, no sing., gen. A^ner 

JloJiy^axb AeHbrH. To receive mon- 

JliEnyTAT m. deputy 

^enyxax napjiaMenxa. A member of 
parliament. Hajiara AenyxaxoB. Tlie 
Chaifiber of Deputies. 

J^EPEBHfl /., gen. pi. AepeBGHb 

1. village. ^epeBHH cxo/ijia na 6e- 
pery peKti. The village was on 
the bank of the river. 

2. country(side). H^iixb b AepeBne. 
To live in the country. 

J^EPEBO neut., pi. AepeebH. A^peBbeB 

1. tree. BticoKoe A^peBO. A tall 

2. only sing. wood. HmHK H3 a©- 
peea. A wooden box. 

AEPEBHUHlbin, -aH, oe, -ue 


J]^epeBHHHHH AOM. A wooden house. 
J^EP>KATb, Aepwy, Aep>KHfflb, Aep- 

>Kax imp. Koro? q x o? to hold 

/IjepjKaxb nopT(|)eJib. To hold a bag. 

Jl^epwaxb pe6eHKa na pyKax. To 

hold a child in one's arms. J^ep- 

>Kaxb pe5eHKa aa pyKy. To hold 

a child by the hand. 

<0> J^epjKaxb ce6n b pynax. To 

control oneself . 

p. cAep>Kaxb, CAep>Ky, CAepjKHmb, 

CAep?Kax. CAepwaxb cjiobo. To keep 

one's word. 
J[^EP5KATbCfl, Aepwycb, Aep>KHrabCH, 

Aep>KaxcH imp. a a h x 6? 

1. to hold on. JljepjKaxbCH a^ py- 
Ky. To clutch at somebody's 
hand. /^epmaxbCH aa nepnjia. To 
hold on to the handrail. 

2. to behave. /l|ep>KaxbCH xpa6po. 
To behave in a courageous man- 




J^ETAJIb /. part 

/^exajib MamHHH. A part of a ma- 

^ETH pi., gen. flexeH, dat. abthm, 
instr. ji^eThUH, prepos. o asthx; 
sing. pe6eH0K children 
KHHrH AJi« flexen. Books for chil- 
dren, y Hero ABoe Aexen. i/e has 
two children. Omti h flexH. Fathers 
and sons. 

;I^£TCK|HB[, -aa, -oe, -ne child's, 

^excKoe JiHii;6. A child's face. 
^excKHH xeaxp, A children's the- 
«0 J^eTCKHit caa. A kindergarten. 

JtETCTBO neut., no pi. childhood 
B Aexcxse oh >khji b ^epeBHe. He 
lived in the country in his child- 

^EHIEBIHfl, -aH, -oe, -Lie, short form 
AemeB, Aemesa, A6nieB|o, -li; adv. 
^emeBo; comp. ^emeBJie cheap 
^emeBHe BeniiH. Cheap things. Ky- 
ni'ixb oBoniiH AenieBO, To buy vege- 
tables cheap. 

aEHTEJIbHOCTb /. activity 

OCmecxBeHHaa fleaxeJibHocxB. So- 
cial activity. 

AHAMETP m. diameter 

/]|HaMexp Kpyra. The diameter of 
a circle. 

3HBAH m. divan 

GnflexB Ha AHBane. To sit on a di- 
van. MarKHH AHBaH. A soft divan. 
JleHb Ha AHBaH. To lie down on a 

^flKlHH, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. wild. Jl^UKTlQ JKHBOXHHe. Wild 

animals. JXiiKiiQ pacxeHHH. Wild 

2. fig. wild. JJ^HKHH KpnK. A wild 

3iHKTAT5^PA /. dictatorship 
jyHUMM m. diploma 


receive an engineer's diploma. 

JpinJIOMATfl^ECKlHfl, -an, oe, -ne 

ycxaHOBHXb AHHJioMaxiiHecKHe oxho- 
raeHHH. To establish diplomatic re- 
lations. ^HHJiOMaxpiiecKHe oxHorae- 
HHfl ueTKjiy cxpanaMH. Diplomatic 
relations between countries. 

JUHPEKTOP m., pi. -a director 

/^HpeKXop BaBOAa. The director of 


a plant. J3;HpeKxop okojih. The 
director of a school, head-master. 

J\l[?limEP m. conductor (of an or- 

OTCIl.HnJIflHA /., no pi. discipline 
Co6JiK)Aaxb AHcn.HnJiHHy. To observe 
discipline. J]|Hcn;HnjiHHa na ypoKe. 
The discipline at the lesson. 

3JIHHA /., no pi. length 

Mepa AJiHHBi. A measure of length. 


measure the length of a room. Vjih- 
Ha AJiHHOK) B 3 KHJiOMexpa. A street 
3 kilometres long. IIpbiJKKii b aJIH- 
ny. Long jumping. 
J^JlflHHjblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
AJiHHeH, A-JiHHHa, A-'iHHHO, jimmnhi 

1. long. ^JiMiHHoe naJibxo. A long 

2. long. JlJinuRum nyxb. A long 

3. only short form AJTiTHeH, ji,JiiiBii\a, 
-6, -bi too long. Ilajibxo aJihhho. 
The overcoat is too long. 

JlJlfl prep. -\- gen. 

1. for. y^e6HHKH A-JiH cxyAenxoB. 
Textbooks for students. Kyniixb 
HrpymKH jx,:iii A^xefi. To buy 
toys for children. 

2. to. ^JiH Hero axo xHHteJibm yAap. 
It's a heavy blow to him. 

J^HEBHHK m., gen. -a diary 

BecxH AHCBHHK. To keep a diary, 

^HEBHIOH, -an, -oe, -we 

1. daytime. J^HCBHtie saHHXHH. Day- 
time lessons. 
• 2. day, ^hcbhoh cbcx. Daylight. 

^HEM adv. in the daytime 

^hcm HtapKO. It's hot in the day- 

J^HO neut., no pi. bottom 

JJ^RO pcKH. The bottom of a river. 
MopcKoe AHO. Sea bottom. Hatii ko 
Any. To sink to the bottom. 

JIO prep. -{-gen. 

1. to. Ox MocKBbi AO KneBa. From 
Moscow to Kiev. Jl^oexaxb ao 
nenxpa. To go to the centre, ^oh- 
XH AO ABepH. To reach the door. 

2. till. Ox 2 AO 5. From 2 till 5. 
C yxpa AO Be^epa. From morn- 
ing till evening. 

3. to. Bopb6a AO noGeAM. A fight 
to the victorious end. ^OHHxaTB 
KHHry AO KOHua. To read the 
hook to the end. 




<> HCnsHb flo BOUHfaJ. Life before 
the war. 

^^OBABJlHlTb, -10, -emb, -iot imp. 
qxo? Hero?//?. Ao6a|BHTb, -bjik), 

-BHinb, -BHT 

1. to add. ^oGaBHTb cojih b cyn. 
To add salt to the soup. 

2, to add. ^l|o6aBHTb iiecKOJibKo 
cjiob. To add a few words. 

Jl,OBHBA|TbCH, -locb, -eiubCH, -iotch, 

imp. »i e r 6? / /?. AoSiixbCH, j\o6h\ibch, 

-embcH, -i6tch to strive 

^oSiiBaTbcn ycnexa. To strive for 

^OBP|blH, -an, -oe, -we, short form 

Ao6p, Ao6pa, fl66po, Ao6pLi kind 

^65pbin HeJioBeK. A kind person. 

<> /^oGpbiii J^eIIb! Good afternoon! 

466poe yxpo! Good morning! Jliomi 

AoSpoii BOJiii. People of good will. 

By^bxe jtoSpw. Be so kind. C;;e- 

jiaTb mt6-jih6o no ji,66pon bojig. 

To do something out of good will. 
^OBblBAlTb, -K), -enib, -iot imp. 

mo?/p. AoSbiTb, ;;o6y;i|y, -eiub, 

-yT to extract 

4o6LiBaTb yroJib. To mine coal. 
^OBb'ITb see AOBblBATb 
^OBEPHE neut., no pi. confidence, trust 

OnpaB;i;aTb ^OBepne, To justify 

somebody's confidence. 3acJiyjKHTb 

aoBepiie. To prove to be worthy of 

one's trust. 
^OBEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. h to? 

K M y? / p. AOBeplHTb, -K), -HHlb, -HT 

1. no p. to trust. ^oBcpaxb /i;py- 
ry. To trust a friend. 

2. to entrust. ^oBepHTb apyry 
TaHHy. To take a friend into 
one's confidence. 

aOBECTfl see J^OBOAflTb 

J^OBOJ^flTb, AOBOJKy, AOBOAHuib, ^o- 
BO^HT imp. K o r 6? q t o? /j; o 
Hero? fp. AOBecTiT, jxoBejxIy, -emb, 
-yT, past AOBeji, AOBeJija, -6, -h to 
lead to (as far as), up to 
^OBecTH KOT6-Bu6yji.h AO KaKoro- 
HH6yAi> MecTa. To lead somebody 
as far as some place. J^obocth 
MajibHHKa flo cTaHn;HH. To take the 
boy to the station. 
<0» AoBecTH AeJio a© KOHua. To 

complete an undertaking. J^oeecTH 
Kor6-JiM6o AO c.iea. To make one cry. 

1. adv. rather. Yme AOBOJibno ndaA- 
Ho. It's rather late already. 

2. predic. impers. (it is) enough. 

Yme nosAHo: AOBoJibHo BaM 3a- 
HHMaxbCH. It's already late: 
you've studied long enough. 
^OBOJIbHIblH, -an, -oe, -bie, short 
form AOBOJien, AOBoJibHla, -o, -u 
KeM? q CM? contented, pleased 
^OBOJibHbiii BiiA. A contented look. 
H jxoBOJiou TBoeii pa66TOH. / am 
pleased with your work. 

T^OrA^ATbCH see ^OPA ablBATbCH 

SOPA/jblBAlTbCH. -locb, -embCH, 
-K)TCH imp. o HCM?//?. AoraAaJTb- 
CH,^-iocb, -embCH, -iotch to guess 
Oh AoraAaJicH, o hcm omi roBo- 
pi'iJiH, xoTfi OHii roBopiiJiii Tiixo. 
He guessed what they were talking 
about, though they were talking in 
low voices. 

,HOrHATb see ^OFOHflTb 

J^OrOBAPHBAlTbCfl, -K)Cb, -embCH, 
-IOTCH imp. H e M? c KeM? / 

p. AOrOBOpllITbCH, -lOCb, -limbCH, 

-HTCH to agree, to fix 
J],oroBopiiTbCH BCTpene c Tosapn- 
meM. To fix a meeting with a 
friend. GTpaHbi AoroBopiiJiiicb o 
KyjibTypiioM o6MeHO na c.ieAyio- 
miiii roA. The countries agreed about 
the next year's cultural exchange. 

J^OrOBOP m. treaty, agreement 

^oroBop Apy>K6e ii BsaiiMHOH no- 
Momii. A treaty of friendship and 
mutual aid. MnpHbiii AoroBop. A 
peace treaty. ToproBuii AoroBop. 
A trade agreement. 3aKJiK)HiiTb 
MiipHbiH AoroBop. To conclude a 
peace treaty. IloAnHcaTb AoroBop 
o MPipe. To sign a peace treaty. 


J^OrOHUlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko- 
to? HTO? /p. AornaTb, AoroHK), 
AoroHHmb, aofohht, past AoruaJi, 
-rnajia, -raaJilo, -h to overtake^ 
J^oroHHTb y6eraK)mero neJiOBeKa. 
To overtake a fugitive. \\ fig. Oh 
AOJiro 6oJieJi, ho oh AoroHHT cboio 
rpynny. He was ill for a long time 
but he will catch up with the group. 




^0E3H{A|TL, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ;; o 
Hero? J p. AoexaTb, AoeAly, -emb, 
-5^T to reach 

^oexaxb 30 MocKBU. To reach Mos- 
cow. H AoexaJi ot Mockbm ao Jle- 
HHHrpaAa sa 8 nacoB. It took me 
8 hours to get to Leningrad from 
Moscow. 06hhho oh AoeawaJi ao 
n,eHTpa Ha aBToCyce, a hotom meji 
nemKOM. He usually went to the 
centre by bus, and then walked. 


;^05KJi;JIHB|blfl, -an, -oe, bie rainy 
J\omji,JiuBaifi noroAa. Rainy weath- 
er. ^OJKAJIHBMH A^Hb. A rainy 
day. J\omjimiBoe JieTO. A rainy 

^OHC^jb m., gen. -fi rain 

Hagt jsflyKjih. It rains. IIpoJiHBHoH 
A0>KAb. Pouring rain. J^omj^b Jiber 
KaK H3 BeApa. It is raining cats and 
dogs. MeJiKHH oceHHHii aojka^. An 
autumn drizzle. IIoa ao^kagm- i^ the 

J^OflTfl see /^OXOAHTb 

;i;0KA3ATEJlbCTB0 neut. proof, evi- 

CyAbH TpeSoBaJi AOKaaaTejibcxB. The 
judge demanded proof(s). 

30KA3ATb see Jl,0KA3blBATb 

Jl,0KA3bIBAlTb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp. 
HTO? KOMy?//?. AOKasaib, AOKa- 
mf, AOKa>Kenib, AOKa^Kyx to prove 
A KaK Bbi AOKajKexe, hto bm npa- 
Bbi? And how are you going to prove 
that you are right? ^OKaaaxb axo 
xpyAHO. It's difficult to prove that. 

JS,OKJlAjS, m. report 

HavHHbiH AOKJiaA- ^ scientific re- 
port. HHxepecHHH aokjisIa. An in- 
teresting report. CAGJiaxb AOKJiaA- 
To make a report. FoxoBHXb AO- 
KJiaA. To prepare a report. Toxo- 
BHXbCH K AOKJiaAy- To prepare for 
a report. 

J^OKTOP m., pi. -a 

1. doctor. OnbixHbiH AOKXop. An 
experienced doctor. HaAO nosBaxb 
AOKXopa. A doctor must be 
called. rioHXH K AOKXopy. To go 
to a doctor. Bmxb y AOKXopa. 
To be at the doctor's. 

2. doctor. ^OKXop nayK. A doctor 
(of science). 


1. usu. pi. document. IIoJiyHHTb 

AOKyMeHxm. To get the docu- 
2. document. 3xo oneHb BaJKHHH 
AOKyMOHx. It is a very impor- 
tant document. HcxopHHCCKHH ao- 
KyMenx. An historical document. 
JlOJir m. 

1. no pi. duty. 3xo moh aojif. It's 
my duty. BbinoJiHHXb cboh aojif. 
To do one's duty. 

2. pi. jioJiTH debt. BsHXb A^HbrH 
B AOJir. To borrow money. Ot- 
Aaxb AOJir. To pay one's debt. 
HMexb AOJiFH. To be in debt. 
y Hero MHoro AOJiroB. He has a 
lot of debts. 

<> R 5biJi B AOJiry oepeA hhm. / 

was indebted to him. 
J^OJirO adv. for a long time 

^oJiro JKAaxb. To wait for a long 

AOJIJKEH, AOJiJKHia, -6, -u 

1. must. Mbi AOJi?KHBi MHoro pa66- 
xaxb. We must work a lot. BoJib- 
HaH A0Ji>KHa JiejKaxb b nocxeJin. 
The sick woman has to keep to 
her bed. H aoJUKCH nomri b Ma- 
rasiiH. / must go shopping. Mh 
saBxpa AOJi>KHLi SyAGM Bcxpe- 
XHXbCH. We shall hare to meet 
tomorrow. Oh AOJiJKen 6bixb 3Aecb 
B 2 Haca. He is to be here at 
2 o'clock. 

2. to owe. Tw MHe aoji^kgh 10 py6- 
Jieii. You owe me 10 roubles. 

JlfiM m., pi. -a house 

IIocxpoHXb AOM. To build a house. 
<> JJ^OM KyjibTypw. A house of cul- 
ture. JJ^oM OTAbixa. A rest-home. 

JI^OMA adv. FAG? at home 

PaSoxaxb AOMa. To work at home. 
R 6yAy AOMa b 6 nacoB Beqepa. 
I'll be home at 6 o'clock in the eve- 

AOMAfflHIHfl, -na, -ee, -He 

1. home. ^OMamuHH pa66xa. Home- 
work. ^oMamnee aaAauHe. A 
home-task. Jl^OMamuHH xejie^OH. 
A private telephone. 

2. domestic. J^OMamuHe jKHBOxHbie. 
Domestic animals. 

J^OMOEt adv. KyAa? home 

Haxh aomoh. To walk home. Exaxb 
AOMOH. To go home. EocJie pa6dxu 
fl o6biHHO HAy AOMOH. After work I 
usually go home. 




aopOrA /. 

1. road. ninpoKaH ^opora. A wide 

2. way. IIoKaaaTb Aopory. To show 
the way. 

3. journey. B ^opdre 6mjio seceJio. 
It was a merry journey. YcTaTb 
c floporn. To be tired after one's 

<> HCeJiesHEfl Aopora. A railway. 
Hath CBoefi Aoporon. To go one's 
way. Ho Aopore. On the way. Ho 
ffopore flOMOH oh Kynaji raaexy. On 
^ the way home he bought a newspa- 
J^OPOriOfl, -an, -6e,^ -me, short form 
Aopor, Aopora, floporjo, -h; adv. 
Aoporo; comp. AopoHte 

1. expensive, dear. ^oporoH ko- 
CTiOM. An expensive suit, /^opo- 
ran Me6ejib. Expensive furniture. 

2. dear. J^oporon flpyr. Dear friend. 

3. cherished, dear. JJ^oipoTiie Bocno- 
MHHaHHH. Cherished recollections. 

J^OCKA /., ace. AOCKy; pi. aockh, ao- 
coK, AOCKaM, etc. 

1. board, ^y 66 Baa AOCKa. An oak 

2. blackboard, nncaxb na AOCKe. To 
write on the blackboard. GTepexb 
c AOCKH. To clean the blackboard. 

<0> KjiaccHafl AOCKa. Blackboard. 
lIIaxMaTHafl AOCKa. Chessboard. 
JlocKA noqexa. Roll of honour. 
^OCTAjBATb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
HTO? / /?. Aocralxb, -ny, -nerab, -nyx 

1. Ao Her6? to reach. ^ocxaBaxb 
AO noxojiKa. To reach the 

2. to get, to take, ^ocxasaxb khh- 
ry c n6jiKH. To get a book from 
the shelf. Jl^ocxaBaxb nJiaxbe h3 
niKa^a. To take a dress out of 
the wardrobe. 

3. to get. ^ocxasaxb 6hji6xm b kh- 
HO. To get tickets for the cinema. 


1. adv. enough. PaSoxaxb Aocxa- 
TO'THO AOJiro. To work long 

2. predic. impers. (it is) enough, 
that will do. Mee HHxaxb AaJib- 
nie? — Hex, Aocxaxoino. ''Shall I 
go on reading?-' ''No, that'll do." 


AOCTHPAlTb, -H), -enib, -iot imp. 
q e r 6? / />. AOCTHrnjyxb, -y, -enib, 
-yx & AocxM^b, AOCXHrnly, -emb, 
-yx, past Aocxar, -Jia, -Jio, -jih 

1. to reach. AjibHHHHCXbi aocxhfjih 
BepmHHbi ropbi. The mountain 
climbers reached the top of the 

2. to achieve, ^ocxnraxb 6ojibniHX 
ycnexoB. To achieve great success. 
JI[ocTumo npeKpacHux peayjibxa- 
xoB. To achieve splendid results. 


^OCTHiixEHHE neut. achievement 
^ocxHJKeHHH mhpob6h HayKH. The 
achievements of world science. 

JJ,OXOJlfiTh, AOXo>Ky, AOxoAHmb, ao- 
x6ahx imp. AO Koro? ao ne- 
t6?./ p. AOHlxM, -Ay, -Aemb, -AyT, 
/?as^Aonieji, AoniJi|a, -6, -h to reach, 
to go as far as 

^OHxri AO yHHBepcHxexa. To reach 
the University. Ox yHHBepcHxexa ao 
o6in;e}KHXHH h Aomeji neniK6M. / 
walked all the way from the Uni- 
versity to the hostel. 

^O^b /., gen., dat., prepos. AO^epn, 
ace. AOHb, instr. AO^epbio; pi. p,6- 
HepH, Ao^epeH, AO'iepaM, AOHepen, 
AOHepbMH (AO^epaMH), o AOiepax 

MJiaAinaH AOHb. The youngest daugh- 
ter. CpeAHHfl AO^b. The middle 
daughter. Gxapman AOHb. The eld- 
est daughter. 

^PEBHIHtt, -an, -ee, -ne ancient 
jQ^peBHHe Hap6Abi. Ancient peoples. 
^peBHHH HcxopHfl. Ancient history. 
^peBHHC naMHXHHKH apxHTeKxypu. 
Ancient monuments of architecture. 

J^P05K|ATb, -y, -limb, -ax imp. 

1. to quiver. JiHCXbH ApoJKax na 
;^epeBe. The leaves are quivering 
on the tree. 

2. to tremble, to shiver, ^poj^axb 
ox xoJioAa. To shiver with cold. 
J^pojKaxb ox cxpaxa. To tremble 
with J ear. 

/^py^ m., pi. Apy3b3, Apyaea friend 
GxapwH APyr. An old friend. J\o- 
poroH Apyr. A dear friend. JIio- 
611MUH Apyr. A very dear friend. 
Bepeue Apysbs. Faithful friends. 
^ CxapbiM Apyr Jiy^rae hobux 
AByx (proverb). An old friend is 




better than two new ones, /^py3bfl 
nosHaiOTCH b 6efle (proverb). Cf. 
A friend in need is a friend indeed. 
;^py^|Ofl, -an, -de, -Me 

1. different. Tu cxaji ;^py^I^M. 
yow'i;e become different. 

2. other. yBHAHMCH b ^pyroH pas. 
We'll meet some other time. 

3. used as n. other. Oahh nomjiii 
B KHHO, 3pyrHe — b xeaxp. Some 
went to the cinema, others to the 

<> Ha flpyroH ^OHb. The next day. 

Jl^vfWBX /., no pi. friendship 

BojiLmaH 7i;pyH{6a. A great friend- 
ship. ^p3'}K6a HapoAOB (or: MejKfly 
Hap6j];aMH). Friendship between 

3Py5KflTB, ApyJKy, flpyJKHmi,, flpy- 
H{aT zm/?. c K e M? c h e m? to be 

flpyjKHTB c T0BapHn;aMH no hhcth- 
Tyxy. To be friends with one's 

^Py^KHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 


1. friendly, united. /J^pyjKHafl ceMLH. 
-4 united family. JKhtb ji;pyH{HO. 
To live in friendship. 

2. concerted. ^pymnaH pa66Ta. 
Team work. PaSdiaTb aPY^kho. 
To work as a team. 

J^^MAITb, -K), -emt, -lox imp. hto? 
o K6M?oHeM?&-|- inf./p. no^y- 
MajTB, -K), -eraB, -k)t to think 
HeM TBI ;;yMaemB? What are you 
thinking about? Hto tbi ayMaeniB o6 
BTOM? What do you think of thai? 
^yMaio, HTO OH roBopHT npaB^y. 
/ think he is speaking the truth. 
H AyMaio saHHTBCfl cnoproM. / am 
thinking of taking up sport. 

3;yPAK m., gen. -a fool 
/^yiTB, -K), -emB, -iot imp. 

1. to blow. G MopH Ayer Berep. 
A wind is blowing from the sea. 

2. impers.: S^ecB ^y^T. There is a 
draught here. 

fly in m. shower 

IIpHHflTB j\ym. To take a shower. 

fly in A /., ace. Aj'my; pi. jiymu soul 
<> Xopomo Ha Ayrae. At ease. 
flejiaxb c flymoH. To put one's 
heart into something. IIoroBopHTb no 
AymaM. To have a heart-to-heart 

talk. no^Jiaro^apiiTb ot nymH. To 

thank from the bottom of one's 
heart, fly ma 65mecTBa. The life 
of the party. 
fl'yiUHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv. jxyrnno 

1. sultry. flymuBiH se^ep. A sultry 

2. adv., predic. impers. (to be) suf- 
focating. Mne AyniHO. / am suf- 

flbIM m., no pi. smoke 

FycTOH AWM. Dense smoke. 
<C> Her flhJMa 6e3 ornH (proverb). 
There's no smoke without a fire. 
flblXAHHE neut., no pi. breathing 

FjiydoKoe ^fcixaHHe. Deep breathing. 
flbllUATb, Awniy, jj^umiiuih, Abimax 

1. to breathe. TjiyCoKO AwinaxB. 
To breathe deep. flBimaxB noJi- 
HOH rpy^tK). To breathe deep. 
THmeJio ABimaTB. To breathe 
with difficulty. 
2.: BaM Ha^o AbimaxB cBeJKUM bos- 
AyxoM. You must get fresh air. 
flUflH m. uncle 

E, e 

EFO poss. pron., indecl. his 

9x0 ero nopx(|)eJib. This is his 

brief-case. 3xa KHiTxa ero. This book 

is his. 
EflA f., no pi. food 

BKycHaa e^a. Tasty food. 

1. adv. nearly. Oh e^Ba ycneJi na 
ypoK. He was nearly late for his 
lesson. Ona e^Ba ne ycnyjia. She 
nearly fell asleep. 

2. conj. hardly. EflBa oh BbimeJi Ha 
yjiHuy, KaK nanajicH aojkab. 
Hardly had he gone cut into the 
street when it began to rain. 

EflflHCTBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -Bie only 
EAHHCXBeHHUH CHH. An only son. 
EAHHCXBeHHBiH KocxioM. The only 

EflflHCTBO neut. unity 

Eahhcxbo BsrJiHAOB. Unity of views. 
Eahhcxbo xedpHH h npaKXHKH. The 
unity of theory and practice. 




E/^flH|bl(i, -an, -oe, -ue united, single 
EAHHaH BOJIH. A single will. Eah- 
HbiH HJiaH. A single plan. 

EE po<s. pron., indecl. her, hers 

3to ee naJibxo. This is her coat. 
3th KHHrH ee. These books are 

EH{EAHEBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -tie; adu. 
e>KeAHeBHo daily 

EweAHeBHaH raaeia. A daily paper. 
EjKeAHeBHo AGJiaxb VTpeHHioK) 3a- 
pfl^Ky. To do p.t. exercises daily. 

E3mHTb, ->Ky, -;i;Hinb, -jj^ht imp. 

1. to go. Ka>K;tuH aenb h e3>Ky 
B HHCTHiyT Ha xpaMBae. Every 
day I go to the Institute by tram. 
B npomjiOM roAy h esAHJi na 
KaBKas. Last year I went to the 

2. to ride. H yMeio eaAHXb na bg- 
JiocHHeA^. / can ride a bicycle. 

EJI|KA /., gen. pi. -ok fir-tree 

B Jiecy MHoro ejioK. There are many 

fir-trees in the forest. 

<> HoBoroAHflH ejiKa. New Year 

ECJIH conj. 

J. if. EcJiH fl He Sy^y Sojien, to 
oGflaaxejibHo npHAy b xeaTp. // 
/ am not ill, I'll certainly come 
to the theatre. EcJiH xothtg, h 
paccKa>Ky Baivi. // you want, I'll 
tell you. EcjiH 6u h sHaji o6 
3T0M paHbme, h 6bi He npHuieji. 
If I had known this earlier I 
should not have come. 

2. whereas. Ecjih na ceBepe CTpanu 
o^eHb xoJiOAHo, to Ha lore >KapK0. 
Whereas it is very cold in the 
north of the country, it is very 
hot in the south. 
ECTf:CTBEHH|Mfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short 

form ecTecTBGH, ecTecTBeHH|a, -o, 

-bi; adv. ecTecTBeHHO 

1. only complete form natural. 
EcTecTBGHHbie HayKH. Natural 
sciences. EcTecxBeHHUH (|)aKyjib- 
TCT. Natural science faculty. 

2. natural. EcTecTBeHHoe JKeJiaHHe. 
A natural desire. 

ECTb^, CM, emb, ecT, e^viM, cahtc, caht; 
imper. emb, embxe, past eji, ejia 
imp. I p. cbecTb, cteM, cbemb, cbeCT, 
cbeAHM, CLBAHxe, cLeAHT to eat 
EcTL cyn. To eat soup. Xonerab 
ecTb? — /l,a, H oneub xony ecTb. 

""Are you hungry?" ''Yes, I am 

very hungry." 
ECTb2 see BblTb 
EXATb, eAly, -euib, -yx; imper. noea- 

>KaH, HOCAeM, HoeaHtaHTe imp. k y- 

A a? H a q e M? to go 

ExaTb Ha napoxoAe. To go by ship. 

ExaTb Ha TpaMBae. To go by tram. 

ExaTb na noeaAe. To go by train. 

ExaTb Ha aBx66yce. To go by bus. 

IloeAeM Ha Mexpo! Let's go by the 

underground! ABToSyc SiJCTpo ejier. 

The bus is going fast. IlHOHepbi 

CAyT B Jiarepb. The Young Pioneers 

are going to camp. 
EmE adv. 

1. more. JXame Mue emji xJie6a. 
Give me some more bread, fl xo- 
qy Kyniixb kocxfom h eme oahh 
raJicxyK. / want to buy a suit 
and one more tie. 

2. still. Oh eme oqenb mojioa. He 
is still very young. 

3. as much as. Oh yexaji en^e roA 
HaaaA. He left as much as one 
year ago. 

4. still, y Hac erne mhofo speMeHH. 
We still have plenty of time. 

5. still. Oh cTaA eu^e Ao6pee h 
Jiyqme. He became still kinder 
and better. 

H{AJl,H|blfl, -aH, -oe, -ue, short form 

waAen, HtaAHa, >KaAH|o, -m; adv. 

jKaAHO stingy 

JKaAHwii ^leJioBeK. A stingy person. 
HCAJl£|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. / 

p. no>KaJie|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t 

1. Koro? HTo? to pity. JKaJiexb 
peSeHKa. To pity a child. 

2. o KOM? o HCM? or followed 
by conj. mo to be sorry. >Ka- 
jiexb noxepHHHOM BpeMeHH. To 
be sorry for the time lost, fl ma.- 
jieio, Hxo He noexaJi na aKCKyp- 
CHK). / am sorry I did not go on 
the excursion. 

3. H e r 6? to grudge. H{aJierb Aener. 
To grudge the money. 

HCAJIKO (HCAJIb) adv., predic. im- 
pers. KOMy? Koro? h x o? or 
H e r 6? 




1. K r d? ^ T 0? (to be) sorry. Mhg 
JKaJiKO tgSh. / am sorry for you. 
Mne jKaJiKO cecipy. / am sorry 
for my sister. HaM JKaJiKO nam 
CTapwii ji;OM. We feel sorry for 
our old home. Mne jKaJiKO noxe- 
pHHHoro BpeMGHH, I'm sorry for 
the time lost. 

2. followed by conf . hto. JKaJiKO, 
HTO Tw He npHineji. It's a pity 
that you didn't come. 

3. Hero? to grudge. Emj jKajiKo 
Aener. He grudges the money. 

JKAJIjOBATbCa, -yiocb, -yerabCH, 
-yiOTCfl jm/). H a Koro? na qxo? 
K M y? Ip. no>Kaji|oBaTbcH, -yiocB, 
-yembCH, -yioiCH to complain 
JKajiOBaTbCfl na Cbma. To complain 
of one's son. 

H{AJIb see 5KAJIK0 

5KAPEHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we fried, 

JKapenan KapioniKa. Fried pota- 
toes. }KapeHoe mhco. Roast meat. 

JKAPIHTB, -K), -limb, -ht imp. hto?/ 
p. nofliJKaplHTb, -K), -nmb, -ht to 
fry, to roast 

noA>KapHTb KapidmKy. To fry po- 
tatoes. JKapHTb Mflco. To roast 

5KAPK|HH, -aa, -oe, -ho; adv. >KapKo; 
com p. /Kapqe 

1. hot. JKapKHH AeHb. A hot day. 
HfapKaH noroAa. Hot weather. 
HiapKoe Jiexo. A hot summer. 

2. adv., predic. impers. (is) hot. 
Mne JKapKO. / am hot. Cero^HH 
oneHb jKapKO. It's very hot to- 
day. GxaJio eme JKapqe. It be- 
came still hotter. 

HCATb, JKMiy, -emb, -yx imp. h x o?/ 
p. no>Kaxb, no}KM|3% -emb, -yx to 
press, to squeeze 

IIo>Kaxb K0My-HH6y/i;i> pyny. To 
shake hands with somebody. 

HCmATb, -y, -emb, -yx, past jK^aJi, 
H^AaJia, m^,aJI\o, -h imp. k o r d? 
H X o? or Herd? 

1. Kord? Hxo? to wait. /Kflaxb 
flpyra. To wait for a friend. 
>KAaxb cecxpy. To wait for one's 
sister. JK^axb xpaMBaH. To wait 
for a tram. 

2. nerd? to expect. H^^axb nncb- 
Ma. To expect a letter. JK^axb 
ndMom;H. To expect help. 

>KE (5K) particle 

1. emphatic particle: Hxd me xu 
MOJiHHmb? Why on earth are you 
silent? Hxd JKe mhb ^eJiaxb? What 
shall I do? Kxd me anaji, hxo no- 
rd^a H3MeHHXCH? Who could know 
that the weather would change? 

2. exactly, very, just, etc. Y MeuH 
ecxb xaKaa me KHHra, KaK y 
xedfi. I've got an exactly the same 
book as you. Ko MHe npHXOAim 
xdx >Ke Bpan, Koxopwii npnxo- 
;i;iiji K xe6e. / was attended by 
the same doctor as you. B xy we 
MHHyxy pasflajicH sBondK. At 
that very moment the bell rang. 

5KEJIAHHE neut. wish 

y MeuH 6oJibmde TKeJianne yqiixb- 
CH. / am. eager to learn. 

5KEJIA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. ko- 
M y? »i e M y? nerd? or followed 
by inf./p. no>Kejia|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox 
to wish 

JKejiaio BaM cnacxbH, 3j],opdBbH h 
doJibmnx ycnexoB. / wish you liap- 
pifiess, good health and great suc- 
cess. Htejiaio BaM Bcerd Hanjiyq- 
mero, / wish you all the best. >Ke- 
Jiaio BaM xopomd ox^oxnyxb. / 
wish you a good rest, fl He JKCJiaio 
HHHerd cJiymaxb. / don't want to 
hear anything. 

5KEJIE3H|blfl, -an, -oe, -bie 

1. iron. }KeJie3HaH Kpwma. A met- 
al roof. >KeJie3HaH py^a. Iron ore. 

2. fig. iron. /KeJiesHoe 3;^opdBbe. 
Strong health. >Kejie3HaH Bdjia. 
An iron will. 

<> >Ke.ie3Hafl aopora. Railway. 
JKEJIE30 n., no pl.^ iron 

B 3T0H pyAe MHoro JKCJiesa. There 

is much iron in this ore. G^eJiaTb 

Hxd-HH5yAi> H3 JKeJie3a. To make 

something out of iron. 
HEJITlbin, -an, -oe, -He yellow 

>KejixaH KpacKa. Yellow paint. >Keji- 

Xbiii HBex. Yellow colour. JKeJixoe 

nJiaxbe. A yellow dress. 
HCEHA /., pi. TKeubi wife 

Mori H^ena — Bpan. My wife is a 

HCEHATIblH, -bie; short form JKenax, 

-H (of men or of a married couple) 


JKenaxMH hcjiobck. A married man. 

H He JKenax. I'm not married. 




HCEHflTbCH, jKeHiocB, weHHmLCH, me- 

HHTCH imp. & p. Ha K 6 M? to 


MoH Apyr JKeHHTCfl, My friend Is 

getting married. Oh HteHjiJiCH na 

KpacHBOH flGByniKe. He married a 

beautiful girl. 

p. also HOJKeHHTBCfl, sing, not used, 

pi. nojKeHHMCH, noHteHHxecb, uome- 

HHTCH to get married 

Ohh HOHteHPiJiHCb y>Ke ^aBHo. They 

married quite a long time ago. 
HCEHCKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne woman's, 


JKeHCKan 66yBL. Women's footwear. 

MejKAyHapoAHfciH jKencKHH j^euh. 

International Women's Day. 
HCEHmHHA /. woman 

KpacHBaH HteHmnna. A beautiful 


1. sacrifice. Blitb totoehm na jiio- 
6ue JKepTBu. To be ready to 
make any sacrifices. npuHOCHTfc 
jKepiBLi. To make sacrifices. 

2. victim. Butb (cxaTL) HiepxBOH. 
To be (become) a victim. 

JKECTKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne wiry, hard 
}KecTKHe BoJiocBi. Wiry hair. >KecT- 
KHH ^HBan. A hard divan. 
<> 5KecTKiiH Baroii. Hard-seated 
railway carriage. 

HCECTOKIHH, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. cruel. TKecTOKHH neJioBeK. A 
cruel person. 

2. bitter, severe. H^ecxoKan 6opb6a. 
A bitter struggle. H^cctokhh 3a- 
KOH. A cruel law. 

H{EHb, JKry, jKJKemb, jKryx, past 
mer, >KrJi|a, -o, -h imp. Koro? 
H T 0? / jo. cjKe^b, cojKry, cojKJKemb, 
cowrvT, past cmer, coHtrJija, -6, -n 

1. to burn. CJKe^b nncbMO. To burn 
a letter. TKe^h 6eH3HH, Kepocnn, 
yroJib, ApoBa. To burn petrol, 
paraffin, coal, firewood. 

2. fig. to burn. Gojinne h^jkct. The 
sun is scorching. Mopoa mmeT 
JiHqo H pyKH. The frost bites 
the face and the hands. 

M11B\0VL, -an, -oe, -tie, short form 

H«HB, HfHBa, HtliB|0, -W, adv . WHBO 

1. alive. 

2. living. TKHBaH npHpoAa. Living 

3. fig. lively. JKhboh peSenoK. A 
lively child. JKhboh yM. Live- 
ly wit. 

4. living. H\hb6h hbuk. A living 

<> ^HBbie n;BeTW. Natural flowers. 
HHBOT m., gen. -a stomach 

y MeHH 6oJiriT mwROT. I have a 

stomach-ache . 
H{HBOTH|OE neut., gen. -oro animal 

^HKHe jKHBOTHue. Wild animals. 

JIjOMamHHe H^HBOTHbie. Domestic 

HCflAKlHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne 

1. liquid. JKiiAKoe tgjio. A liquid 

2. thin. }KiiAKHH cyn. Thin soup. 
JKn^KaH CMexana. Thin sour 

HClSAKOCTB /. liquid 

Han(f^HHTb cocy;^ h^ijakoctbio. To 

fill a vessel with a liquid. 
H^nSHEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -me life 

}Kpi3HeHHbiH OHHT. Life experience. 

5KH3Hb /. life 

/Knaub qeJioBena. Man's life. }KH3Hb 
pacTeHHH. The life of plants. KaK 


did life appear on Earth? Thjkc- 
JiaH JKHBHb. A hard life. 06mecT- 
BeHHan mnsuh. Public life. 
<> ^eJiOBeK, nojiHbiu tkushu. A man 
full of vitality. Bonpoe h«h3hh h 
CMepxii. A matter of life and death. 
BbiTb MejKfly H{H3Hbio n cMepxbio. 
To be between life and death. 

^flPHlblH, -an, -oe, -ue fat, rich ^ 
JKiipHoe Mflco. Fat meat. JKnpHHH 
cyn. Rich soup. 

HCliTEJIb m. inhabitant 

CeJibCKHH JKHxejib. A countryman. 
FopoACKOH jKHxeJib. A townsman. 
Ckojibko JKHxejieH b ropoAe? How 
manyXinhabitants are there in the 

HCHTb, >KHBly, -emb, -yx, past jkhji, 
jKHJia, >KHJi|o, -H imp. to live 
TKuTh AOJiro. To live long. JKnxb 
APyJKHo. To live peacefully. /Khxb 
xopomo. To live well, fl JKHBy b 
MocKBe. / live in Moscow. HiHXB 
cBoriM yMOM. To live by one's wits. 
JKnxb noA oahoh KpiimeH. To live 
under the same roof. 

HCyPHAJI m. magazine 





3, 3 

3 A prep. 

I. -j- instr. 

1. behind, beyond. IIIyM 3a CTenofi. 
A noise behind the wall. 3a pe- 
KOH Jiec. There is a forest beyond 
the river. 

2. at. CHflexb aa ctojiom. To sit at 
the table. 

3. after. HflTii Apyr 3a ;i;pyroM. To 
go one after another. H 3a BaMH. 
/ am after you. 

4. at, 3a o6eAOM. At dinner. 3a 
saBxpaKOM. At breakfast. 

5. for. IIocjiaTfc aa epaHOM. To send 
for the doctor. Vlj^Ta 3a xjie6oM. 
To go to buy some bread. 

6. after. GMOTpexb sa peSenKOM. 
To look after a child. 

7. out of, beyond. JKhxl 3a ropo- 
AOM. To live in the country (out 
of town). 

II. -\-acc. 

1. behind, out of. IIocxaBHXB Kap- 
xHHy 3a mKa(|). To put a pic- 
ture behind the wardrobe. Bpo- 
CHXb hx6-jih6o 3a OKHo. To throw 
something out of the window. 

2. at. Cecxb 3a cxoji. To sit down 
at the table. 

3. by. B3Hxb Kor6-HH6yAb 3a pyKy. 
To take somebody by the hand. 

4. before. 3a necKOJibKO jiue^ jio 
npnesAa xoBapHni;a. Some days 
before the friend's arrival. 

5. in. BbinoJiHHXb pa66xy sa nefle- 
JiK). To do the work in a week. 

6. for. BopoxbCH 3a Mnp, sa cbo66- 
ay. To fight for peace, for free- 

7. for. 3anJiaxiixb aa kocxiom. To 
pay for a suit. Kynnxb 3a 5 py6- 
Jien. To buy for 5 roubles. 

8. to. noe3fl;Ka 3a ropoA. ^ t^^P io 
the country. 

3ABACT0B1KA /., gen. pi. -ok 


06'bflBHXb 3a6acx6BKy. To declare a 

3AB0JIEITL1, -K), -emb, -lox p. hcm? 

to fall ill 

3a6ojiexb rpnnnoM. To fall ill with 

the 'flu. 3a6ojiexb anrHHOH. To 

fall ill with tonsillitis. 

3ABOJIETb2, 1st & 2nd pers. not 

used, 3rd pers. saSoJiiix, 3a6oJiHx p. 

to begin to ache 

y MeHH 3a6ojieJia rojiOBa. My head 

began to ache. 
3AB0TA /. care 

3a66xa o flpyre. Care for a friend. 
3AB0|THTbCH, -qycb, -xHmbca, -xax- 

CH imp. o K 6 M? o ^eM? /j9. no- 

3a66|THXbCH, -HyCb, -XHmbCH, -XHX- 

cfl to take care 

Maxb 3a66xHxcH o peSenKe. The 

mother takes care of her child. 

3AB0TJlHBlblE[, -an, -oe, -me thought- 
ful, careful 

SadoxJiHBUH flpyr. A thoughtful 
friend. 3a66xJiHBoe oxnomeHne. A 
careful attitude. 

3ABbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp./ 
p. aaSbixb, 3a63^A|y. -emb, -yx 

1. KOro? HXO? o KOMPoqeM? 
or followed by conj. -^t o or by an 
inf. to forget. 3a6HBaxb Apyra. 
To forget one's friend. 3a6biBaxb 
o X0BapHni;e. To forget about 
one's friend. 3a6bixb npaBHJio. 
To forget a rule. H 3a6HJi, qxo 
ceroAHH coSpauHe. / forget there 
is a meeting today. He 3a6yAbxe 
KyuHXb SuJiexH. Don't forget to 
buy tickets. 

2. H X ? to leave. 3a6wxb sohthk b 
Mexpo. To leave one' s umbrella in 
the underground. 

SABb'ITb see SABblBATb 


3ABEPTbIBAiTb, lo, -emb, -lox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? / JO. 3aBepH|yxb, -y, 
-emb, -yx to wrap 
3aBepHyxb MacJio b 6yMary. To wrap 
the butter in paper. SaBepniixe, no- 
JKaJiyiicxa. Wrap it up, please. 

3ABECTH see 3AB0AiITb 

3ABfl3|0BATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 
imp. K M y? H e M y? / p. noaaBii- 
AloBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to envy 
Oh saBiiAyex Mne. He envies me. Oh 
saBpiAyex moitm ycnexaM. He envies 
me my success. 

3ABfl|CETb, -my, -cnmb, -chx imp. 
ox Koro? ox Hero? to depend 
3x0 saBHCHX ox Bac. It depends on you. 

3ABflCHM0CTb /., no pi. depen- 

3AB0j^ m. works, plant 

ABXOMoSflJIbHMH SaBOA- ^'^ ^"^^ 




works. nocxynpiTb iia aaBo^. To 
begin working at a plant. PaSoxaTb 
Ha 3aB6fl,e. To work at a plant. M^- 
Tii Ha saBOA To go to the plant. 
yHTii c saBOAa, To leave a plant. 

3AB0J^lITb, saBOHcy, aaeoAHmb, aaBo- 
AHT imp. H T 0? / p. saBecTii, aaBe- 
Al3% -emb, -yx, past aaBeji, 3aBeJi|a, 
-6, -li to wind up 
3aBecTii HacLi. To wind up a watch 
( clock) .^ 

3AB0lEBATb, -k)K), -loemb, -k)K)t p. 

H TO? 

1. to conquer. BaBoeBaxb MHorne 
cipaHbi, To conquer many coun- 

2. fig. to win. BaBoeBaib ^oBepne. 
To win confidence. BaBoeBaxb 
yBameHHe ii JiioSoBb. To win 
respect and love. 

3ABTPA adv. tomorrow 

3aBTpa Sy^ex xopoman noro^^a. To- 
morrow the weather will be fine. 
O ]\o saeTpa! Till tomorrow! 

3ABTPAK m. breakfast 

ITpiiroToBHTb saBxpaK. To prepare 
breakfast. 3a saBxpanoM. At break- 

3ABTPAKA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. / 
p. no3aBxpaKa|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox to 
have breakfast 

Mm saBxpaKaeM b BoceMb nacoB yx- 
pa. We have breakfast at eight 
o'clock in the morning. 

3ABTPAmH|Hn, -hh, -ee, -ne tomor- 

BaBxpamHHH 9KCKypcHH. Tomor- 
row's excursion. 

3ABfl3ATb see 3ABH3bIBATb 

3AB>l3bIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. 
H X o?//>. 3aBH3axb, 3aBH}Ky, saBfi- 
H<emb, 3aBH}Kyx 

1. to tie. 3aBfl3axb y3eji. To tie a 
knot. 3aBH3axb ropjio. To tie 
something round one's neck. 

2. fig. to start. 3aBfl3axb APy>K- 
6y. To start a friendship. 

3ArAJ^|KA /., gen. pi. -ok riddle 
Baraga xb 3araAKy. To ask a riddle. 
3ara;i;KH npiipoAM. The riddles of 
nature. 3xox neJiOBeK ^jih Mena 3a- 
ra^Ka. This man is a riddle to me. 

3ArOBOP m. conspiracy, plot 

OpraHHSOBaxb saroBop. To hatch a 
plot. PacKpuTb saroBop. To discov- 
er a pldt. 

3ArOPA|Tb, -K). -emb, -lox imp. I 
p. 3aroplexb, -k), -Hrab, -At to sun- 

3aropaxb na nJiajKe. To sun- 
bathe on a beach. Xopomo aaro- 
pexb. To get well sun-tanned. 

3ArOPAlTbCfl, -K)cb, -erabcfl, -ioxch 
imp. /p. aaroplexbCH, -locb, -rimbcH, 


1. to catch fire. 3aropeJiCH fl;oM. 
A house was on fire. 

2. fig. to burn. 3aropexbCH HteJia- 
HHeM. To burn with desire. Ero 
rjia3a 3aropeJincb pajiocxbio. His 
eyes began to sparkle with joy. 

3ArOPETb see 3ArOPATb 


3AJi;AlBATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. hto? 

K o M y? / />. 3a;taxb, 3aAaM, 3aAamb, 

3a,a^cx, 3aaaAHM, saAa^Hxe, aa^a- 

jiyT,past 3aAaji, 3a;i;aJia, 3a;];aJi|o, -ii 

1. to give. 3aAaBaxb ypoK. To give 
some material to learn. 3afl;axb 
Ha AOM. To give a home-task. 

2. to ask. Ba^axb Bonpoc. To ask 
a question. 

3AAAHHE neut. task 

^OMamnee 3a;^aHHe. A home-task. 
3AAAqA /. 

1. task. O^epeAHbie sajiAmi. The 
immediate tasks. Sa^ana rocy- 
;i;apcxBeHHOH BajKHOcxH. A task 
of state importance. 

2. sum, problem. PemHXb 3aAa^y. 
To do a sum. To solve a problem. 
Banana c AByMfi HeH3BecxHbiMH. 
A problem with two unknowns. 

3AJ^:^MATbCH see 3A3yMbIBATb- 

3AAyMHHBlblfl, -aH, -oe, -me, short 
form 3aAyMHHB, -a, -o, -u; adv. 
sajiyumiBo pensive, thoughtful 
3aityMHHBMH BH/^. A pensive look. 
3aAyMHHBaH ;^eByraKa. A thoughtful 
girl. Oh 3aAyMHHB0 nocMOxpeJi na 
Hee. He looked at her thoughtfully. 

3AJ^^MbIBAlTbCH, -locb, -erabCfl, 
-IOXCH imp. o^CM? na^^eM?/ 
p. saayMalxbCH, -locb, -embcH, -ioxch 
to think, to ponder 
3aAyMaxbCH Ha^ cJiomnbiM Bonpo- 
COM. To ponder over a complex 
problem. 3aAyMaxbCH o cbocm Ap}'- 
re. To think about one's friend. 




3AE35KAlTb, -lo, -erab, -iot imp. 
K KOMy? Kyfld? 3a kgm? aa 
HeM?//?. aaexaxb, saeAly, -emb, -yx 
to call (on, at) 

Saexaxb k xoBapnmy. To call on 
one's friend. 3aexaxb na no^xy. To 
call at the post-office. 3aexaxb b Ma- 
raai'iH sa KHHraMH. To call at the 
shop to get books. 

3AEXATb see 3AE3HCATb 


3A»«EMbCa see 3AH{HrATbCH 

3AH(HrA|Tb, -lO, -enib,^ -k)X imp. 
H X 0? / /?. sajKe^b, 3a>Kry, sammeuih, 
aajKryx, past 3a>Ker, 3a>Krjila, -6, 
-u to light 

3a>Keqb cnMHKy. To light a match. 
3a>KeHb cBex. To switch on the light. 

3AM{HrAiTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp. / p. 
sajKe^bCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. sammejca, 3a>KryxcH, 
past 3a>KerCfl, 3a>KrJilacb, -ocb, -ijcb 
to light 

CnMHKH He 3a>KHraioxcH. The 
matches won't light. Ha He5e 3a- 
HtrJiHCb 3Be3Abi, Stars appeared in the 

SAflfll see 3AX0AflTb 

3AKA3ATb see 3AKA3bIBATb 

3AKA3bIBAiTb, -lo, -einb, -lox imp. 
H X 0? / p. 3aKa3axb, 3aKa}Ky, 3aKa- 
>Kemb, 3aKa>Kyx to book, to order 
Sanasaxb 6HJiexbi b xeaxp. To book 
tickets for the theatre. 3aKa3biBaxb 
o6e;5. To order dinner. 

3AKAHHHBA|Tb, -lo, -erab, -rox imp. 
Hxo? / /). saKOH^lHXb, -y, -Hmb, -ax 
to finish 
SaKonqnxb pa66xy. To finish work. 

3AKAHHHBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch 
imp. I p. 3aK6HH|HxbCH, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -axcH 
to end 

CoGpanne 3aK6HqHJiocb OHenb n63A- 
HO. The meeting ended very late. 

3AKAT m. sunset 

HpKHH 3aKax. A bright sunset. 3a- 
Kax coJiHua. Sunset. 

3AKJIH)HA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
H X o?/p. 3aKJiK)HlHXb, -y, -nrab, -ax 
to conclude 

3aKJiK)HHXb MHp. To make peace. 
3aKJiK)qHXb ^oroBop. To conclude 
a treaty. 

3AK0H m. law 

SaKOH npHpoAM. A law of nature. 

3aK6Hbr pasBHXHH 65ra;ecxBa. The 

laws of development of society. IIpH- 

HflXb 3aK6H. To adopt a law. 

3AKPHH|ATb, -y, -iirab, -ax p. to 


rpoMKO 3aKpHHaxb. To shout loudly. 
3AKPbIBAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 

Hxo? J p. 3aKpbixb, 3aKp6|io, -emb, 


1. to close. 3aKpwBaxb okho. To 
close a window. 3aKpHXb ^Bepb 
Ha KJiK)H. To lock the door. 3a- 
KpiJBaxb xexpa^b, Kunry, aJib66M. 
To close the copy-book, the book, 
the album. 3aKpbixb rJiasa. To 
close one's eyes. 

2. fig. to close. SaKpbixb co6paHHe. 
To close the meeting. 

3AKPb'ITb see 3AKPbIBATb 

3AKyPflTb, sanypK), 3aKypHrab, 3a- 
Kypnx p. ^ X 0? to light 
3aKypHXb nannpocy. To light a 

3AJI m. hall 

3prixejibHbm 3aJi. An auditorium. 
GnopxHBHbiH 3aJi. A sports hall. 
AKxoBbiH 3aJi. An assembly hall. 
HnxaJibHWH 3aJi. A reading hall. 
3a Ji saceAaHHH. Convention hall. 


3AMEHH|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
H X 0? q e M? / JO. 3aMeraixb, 3aMeHK), 
3aMeHHrab, 3aMeHHX to replace 
SaMCHiixb cxapyio Aexajib hoboh. 
To replace an old part by a new^ one. 
3aMeHHXb ypoKH xhmhh ypoKaMii 
pyccKoro H3biKa. To substitute 
Russian lessons for chemistry lessons. 

3AMEP3AlTb, -k), -erab, -lox imp. I 
p. 3aMep3H|yxb, -y, -erab, -yx, past 
3aMep3, 3aMep3Jila, -o, -h to freeze 
H 3aMep3aio ox xoJiOAa. / am freez- 
ing from the cold. PeKa 3aMep3Jia. 
The river has frozen. 

3AMEP3HyTb see 3AMEP3ATb & 


3AME^IAHHE neut. remark 

CnpaBeAJiHBoe saMe^aHHe. A fust 
remark. CfleJiaxb saMe^aHHe KOMy- 




-jih6o hjih no noBOAy Her6-JiH6o. 
To make a remark to somebody or 
on something. 

3AMEHATEJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, tie 

3aMeiaTeJibHEJH noax namero spe- 
MeHH. A wonderful poet of our time. 
SaMe^axeJibHEiu ropo^;. A wonder- 
ful city. 

3AMEHA|TI>, -lo, -enib, -k)t imp. ko- 
to? H T o?/p. 3aMe|TiiTb, -Hy, -THnib, 


1. to notice. Ha yjiHi^e h aaMexHJi 
xoBapiima. In the street, I noticed a 
friend. H saMexHJi, hxo oh ycxaji. 
/ noticed that he was tired. 

2. to remark. «3xo HenpaBAa», — 
aaMexHJi oh. ''That's not true," 
he remarked. 

3AM|0K m., gen. -Ka lock 

3anepexb na aaivioK. To lock. 

3AM0JI4|ATb, -y, -itmb, -ax p. to 
become silent 

yneHHK aaMOJiHaJi. The pupil be- 
came silent. 

SAMYHC adv. 

Bhhxh 3aMy>K. To marry (of women 
only). Ona Bwmjia aa Hero aaMyjK. 
She married him. 

3AMy5KEM adu. 

BuTh aaMymeM. To be married (of 
women only). Bbi aaMyjKeivi? — Hex, 
H He 3aMy>KeM. ,,Are you married?" 
''No, I am not." Ona SbiJia aa- 
MyweM. She was married. 

3AHHMA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)x imp. 
Hxo?//?. aaHHxb, 3aHM|y, -emb, -yx 

1. to occupy. Gxaj^HOH sannMaex 
100 reKxapoB. The stadium oc- 
cupies 100 hectares. 

2. to take. GnopxcMeH saHHJi nep- 
Boe Mecxo. The sportsman took 
the first place. 

3. to take. BaKHMaiixe Mecxa. Take 
your seats. 

4. to take. PemeHHe sa^a^H sann- 
Jio 4 Haca. The solution of the 
problem took 4 hours. 

5. to occupy. BoHCKa aannjin ropo;^. 
The troops occupied the town. 

3AHHMA|TbCH, -locb, -embcH, -loxca 
imp. r A e? ^ e m? 
1. to study. BaHHMaxbCfl b 6h6jiho- 

xeKe. To study at a library. 

Mndro saHHMaxbCfl. To study a lot. 

2. to go in for. SauHMaxbCH cndp- 
xoM. To go in for sport. 
3aHHM4xbCH MyauKOH, jiHxepa- 
xypoH. To go in for music, 
3AHHTHE neut. 

1. occupation. EoJieaHoe aanaxHe. 
A useful occupation. 

2. only pi. lessons. Bbixb na aaHH- 
XHflX. To be at the lessons. 

3AHflT|blB[, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
saHHx, aaHHxa, aannxlo, -h 

1. taken. 3xo Mecxo aannxo? Is this 
seat taken? 

2. busy. H cer6;^HH aauHX. / am 
busy today. 

3AHIlTb see 3AHHMATb 

3A0HH|blH, -an, -oe, -me; adv. aaoH- 
HO by correspondence 
BaoHHoe oSyneuHe. Teaching by 
corr^pondence. BaoHHMii HHCxnxyx, 
A correspondence institute. Vqiixb- 
CH aaoHHO. To study by correspond- 

3AnA/( m. 

1. west. G BocxoKa na aana^. From 
east to west. 

2. west. Ha aana^e cxpaHbi. In the 
west of the country. 

3AnAJ^H|blfl, -aa, -oe, -ho west(ern) 
Bana^HbiH Bexep. A west wind. 3a- 
naAHoe nojiymapne. The western 

BAHAX m. smell 

npmixHbiH aanax. A pleasant smell. 
Banax i;Bex6B. The smell of flow- 

3AnHCATb see BAnflCblBATb 

3AnnC|KA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1, note. Hanncaxb sanncKy. To 
write a note. 

2. only pi. transactions. yneHwe 
aanticKH ynnBepcHxexa. The 
transactions of the University. 

3AnflCbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hx 0? / p. aanncaxb, aannmy, aanii- 
memb, aannmyx 

1. to write down. BaniicmBaxb JieK- 
n;HK). To take down notes of a 

2. to record. BanwcHBaxb roJioc na 
njiCHKy. To record somebody's 

3AnJIAKATb see nJlAKATb 
BAHJIATfiTb see njIATflTb 




3AnOMHHA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp. 
Koro? qTo? / jD. sanoMHlHTb, -lo, 
-Hmb, -HT to remember 
SanoMHHTb HOMep flOMa. To remem- 
ber the number of a house. SanoM- 
HHxe 3T0 CJIOBO, Remember this word. 
3AnPETHTb see 3AnPEIU;ATb 
3AnPEmAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
q T 0? K o M y? -|- inf. I p. aanpelxHTb, 
-my, -Tiimb, -THT to forbid, to pro- 

BpaH sanpeTHJi eM}^ KypHTb. The 
doctor forbade him to smoke. 
3AnPEmEHHE neut. prohibition 
3APABATbIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot 
imp. H T 0? I p. 3apa66Ta|Tb, -lo, 
-emb, -IOT to earn 
3apa6dTaTb mhofo Aener. To earn 
a lot of money. 
3APAB0TATb2 to begin working 

Mamnna 3apa6dTa.Tia. The machine 
began working. 
3APnJIATA /. ( = sapaSoTHaa njiara) 
salary, wages 

BucoKafl sapnjiaTa. A high salary 
(high wages). HnsKan sapnjiara. A 
low salary (low wages). IIoJiyHHTb 
sapHjiary. To get one's salary 
3ACJiy3KHBAITb, -lo, -emb, -k>t 
imp. HTO?//?. aacjiyjKHTb, aacjiy- 
>Ky, sacjiyn^nmb, 3acjiyH«aT 

1. to deserve. BacjiyjKtTTb narpa^y. 
To deserve a reward. 

2. to win. YHHTejib sacjiyjKHji jiio- 
SoBb y^eHHKOB. The teacher won 
the love of his pupils. 

3ACJiy5KllTb see 3ACJiyaCHBATb 
3ACME|flTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -iotch 
p. to begin to laugh 
rpoMKO 3acMeHTbCH. To begin to 
laugh loudly. 
3ACH^Tb see 3ACbmATb 
3ACTABJI>!|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t imp. 
K r 6? q t o? -f- inf. / p. sacTalBMTb, 
-BjiK), -BHmb, -BHT to make 
3acTaBHTb paSoxaTb. To make (some- 
body) work. 
3ACbinAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp./ 
p. 3acH|yTb, -y, -emb, -yT 
Oh sacbinaeT 6MCTpo. He falls asleep 
quickly. KoFAa th BHepa sacnyji? 
When did you fall asleep yesterday? 

3ATEM adv. 

1. then. GnaHaJia a noujjj b 6h6- 
JiHOTCKy, a 3aTeM b khho. / 
shall first go to the library and 
then to the cinema. 

2. for (or translated by inf.). Oh 
no3BOHMji 3aTeM, HTOObi ysHaxb, 
KaK H ce6a nyBCTByio. He 
called up to learn how I felt. 

3AT0 con J. but 

3to HeBKycHO, aaxo nojie3Ho. It's 
not tasty, but it's good (for you). 


3AXBATblBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot 
imp. H t 0? / /?. saxBaTPiTb, 3axBa- 
Hy, saxBariimb, saxBarar to seize 
3axBaTHTb nyjKue 3eMJiH. To seize 
somebody else's land. 

3AX03flTb, saxoHty, aaxo^Hmb, sa- 
xojxaT imp. k KOMy? KyAa? 3 a 
K e M? 3 a H e M? /p. 3aHTiJ, aaiiAly, 
-emb, -yr, past aameji, 3amji|a, -6, -n 

1. to call. SaiiTii b focth k ^py- 
ry. To call on a friend. Saiixii b 
MaraaHH 3a KHiiraMH. To call at 
a shop to buy books. 

2. to set. CoJiHue 3ax6AHT. The 
sun is setting. 

3AX0TETb see XOTETb 
3AHEM adv. what for, why 

3aHeM BM npnexajiH b Mockbv? 

What did you come to Moscow for? 

H He 3Haio, 3aHeM oh npnxoAHJi. / 

don't know why he called. 
3AmflTA /., no pl.^ 

1. defence. SamiiTa ropoAa, npaB. 
The defence of a city, rights. 

2. defence. SamnTa AHCcepTaumi. 
The defence of a thesis. 

3AIIi;HTflTb see 3AIH.HmATb 
3AmHin;AITb, -K>, -emb, -iot imp. 
Kor6?HTo?OT Koro? ot He- 
ro? / p. 3am;HlTHTb, -my, -Tiimb, 


1. to defend. 3amHmaTb ropoA ot 
Bpara. To defend the city from 
the enemy. Samnmarb CBOii npa- 
Ba. To defend one's rights. 3a- 
mnmaTb CBOK) TOHKy spenHa. 
To defend one's point of view. 

2. to defend. 3amHmaTb AHCcepTa- 
HHK). To defend one's thesis. 

3AHBflTb see 3AHBJI}lTb 
3AaBJIEHHE neut. 

1. declaration. 3aaBJieHHe npaBii- 





A government declaration on the 
situation in the country. 

2. application. HaniicaTt saHBJie- 
HHe Ha iiMH AHpeKTopa. To write 
an application to the director. 
3AHBJlH|Tb, -K), -enih, -iot imp. 

H T 0? K o M y? o H e M? / p. 3a- 

flBiiTb, 3aHB-iK), aaHBHrab, aaflBHT 

to announce 

IIpaBiiTejibCTBo BaHBiijio o6 ycxa- 


meHHH c 3T0H CTpanoH. The goi^ern- 
ment announced the establishment of 
diplomatic relations with this 

3BATb, bobI}', -enib, -yx, past bbrji, 
-a, -0, -H imp. I p. noBBaxL, noao- 
B|y, -emb, -yx, past nosBaJi, no- 
3Bajia, noBBajiIo, -h 

1. Koro? H X 0? to call. Maxb 
noBBajia peSenKa oGe^axb. The 
mother called the child to dinner. 
HoBOBiixe cecxpy k tquq^ouw. 
Call your sister to the telephone. 

2. no p. to be called. Kan Bac bo- 
Byx? — MeHJi BOByx Bopric (Bo- 
piicoM). ''What is your name?" 
"■My name is Boris." 

3BE'SJ\\ /., pi. BBeaAbi 

1. star. HpKaR aBe3;;a. A bright 
star. Ha He6e oAHa BBCBAa. 
There is one star in the sky. 
3a>Krjiiicb BBeB^bi. Stars began 
to show. 

2. fig. star. BseBAa BKpana (khho- 
BBeBAa). A film star. 

3BEH|ETb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -vix, -flx imp. to ring 
Bbghiix bbohok. The bell is ring- 
ing, rdjioc ee BBeneJi KaK kojio- 
KOJibHHK. Her voice rang like a 

3BEP|b m., gen. pi. -eii beast 

Xhiahmh BBcpb. A beast of prey. 
JJ^uKne BBepii. Wild beasts. 

3B0H|flTb, -K), -Hiub, -ax imp. k o- 

My? / /?. nOBBOHJllXb, -K), -HUIb, -HX 

1. no p. to ring. 3bohhx xejie^OH. 
The telephone is ringing. 

2. K M y? to ring up. fl hobbo- 
HHn BMy no xejie^ony. / rang 
him up. 

3B0HK|nn, -an, -oe, -ne ringing 
3b6hkhh roJioc, A ringing voice. 
BBOHKafl necHH. A ringing song. 

3BOH|0K m., gen. -Ka 

1. bell. H najKaJi na KHOUKy bboh- 
Ka. / pressed the button of the 

2. bell. Pa3;tajicfl xpexnii bbohok. 
The third bell rang. 

3ByK m, 

1. sound. CxpaHHUH BsyK. A strange 
sound. 3ByK rdjioca. The sound 
of a voice. 

2. sound. CorjiacHMH (r.iacHbiH) 
BByK. A consonant (vowel) sound. 

3;^AHHE neut. building 

Bojibmoe aAanne. A large building. 

Cxapoe BAanne. An old building. 

3AaHHe xeaxpa. The theatre building. 
3^ECb adv. 

1. r^e? here. Mm dy^eM >khxi> 
3/i,ecb. We shall live here. 3fl,ecb 
Bce CBOii. There are no strang- 
ers here. 

2. fig. 3Aecb Hex Hnnero njioxoro. 
There is nothing bad in this. 

3^OP0BAlTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -ioxch 
imp. c KGM? /p. noBAopoBalxbCfl, 
-locb, -embCfl, -loxcH to greet 
Oh He noBAopoBa.iCH c HaMii. He 
didn't greet us. 

3JliOPOB|bTH, -an, -oe, -bie, short 
form BAopoB, -a, -0, -u. 

1. healthy. 3Aop6BLm peoenoK. A 
healthy child. Oh coBceM BAopoB. 
He is quite healthy. 

2. only complete form healthy. 
SAopoBbiH bha. a healthy look. 
3Aop6BbiH oxAHX. Healthy rest. 

<> ByAb(Te) 3Aop6B(fai)! Good-bye f 
3Ji;0P0BbE n. health 

Xoponiee BAopoBbe. Good health. 

KpenKoe BAopoBbe. Strong health. 

y Hero cjia6oe BAopoBbe. His 

health is weak. KaK Bame BAopoBbe? 

How are you? Bepe^b BAopoBbe. 

To take care of one's health. 

<> 3a same aAoposbe! To your 

health! Ha SAopOBbe! To your pleas- 
3;i;PABCTByfl(TE) [BApacxByiiTe] 

How do you do. Good morning. 

Good afternoon. Good evening. 

3EJlEH|blfl[, -an, -oe, -He 

1. green. 3eJieHafl xpasa. Green 
grass. 3eJieHUH i;Bex. Green col- 




2. green. SeJienwe 6boiu;h. Green 
vegetables. 3eJieHHe hSjiokh. 
Green apples. 
3EMJIH /., ace. 3eMJiK); pi. seuJiu, 

seMeJib, seMJiHM, etc. 

1. no pi. Earth. GeMJia BpamaexcH 
BOKpyr CBOeH och. The Earth 
revolves on its axis. 

2. land. IIJiOAopojiHaH seMJiH. Fer- 
tile land. SeMJiH — c66cTBeH- 
HOCTb Hapo^a. The land belongs 
to the people. 

3. ground. VnacTt na seMJiio. To 
fall to the ground. 

4. land. «3eMJifll» — sanpHqaji Mar- 
poc. ''Land!" the sailor shouted. 

3EPKAJI0 neut., pi. aepnajia, aepKaji, 
sepnajiaM, etc. looking-glass 
CMOTpeTB(cH) B sepKaJio. To look 
(at oneself) in a looking-glass. 

3EPH0 neut., pi. aepna, sepen, sep- 
HaM, etc. grain 

IlnieHMHHoe aepno. A grain of 
wheat . 

3HMA /., ace. 3imy, pLsuMU. winter 
CypoBan, xojioAHaH 3HMa. A hard, 
cold winter. BcK) ariMy ctohjih mo- 
posH. The frosts lasted the whole 

3flMH|Hfl[, -HH, -ee, -ne winter 

Shmhhh ASHb, A winter day. 3nM- 
Hee najibTO. A winter coat. 3hm- 
HHH cnopT. Winter sports. 

3HM0H adv. in winter 

3hm6h b MocKBe xoJioflHo. It is 
very cold in Moscow in winter. 

3Jl\0V[, -as, -6e, -tie, short form 30JI, 

BJia, 3JI0, 3JIW 

1. wicked, malicious, vicious. 
3jioh HeJiOBeK. A wicked man. 
3Ji6e JiHii;6. A wicked face. 

2. hard. 3jioh Mopoa. A hard frost. 

3. angry. KaK h 30J1I How angry 1 

3MEII /., pi. 3MeH, 3MeH snake 

HflOBHTaH 3MeH. A venomous snake. 

3HAK0|MHTbCfl, -MJiiocb, -MHuibCH, 
-MHTCfl imp. c KeM?c HeM?/ 

p. n03HaK6|MHTbCH, -MJIIOCb, -MHIDb- 

1. to make acquaintance. 3HaK6- 


meet new people. 

2. to get to know. 3HaK6MHTLCH c 
r6po;;oM. To get to know a 

3HAK0M|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short 
form BHaKOM, -a, -0, -m 

1. familiar. 3HaK6MaH KHPira. A 
familiar book, fl BHanoM c hhm. 
He is an acquaintance of mine. 

2. used as n. acquaintance. Oh moh 
BHaKOMLiH. He is an acquaintance 
of mine. Ona moh BHanoMan. 
She is an acquaintance of mine. 
Oahh moh BHaKOMHH CKasaji 
MHe, HTO... An acquaintance of 
mine told me that... 

3HAMEHHT|bm, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form BHaMeHHT, -a, -o, -li famous, 

3HaMeHiiTHH KOMnosHTop. A fa- 
mous composer. SHaMeHMTBiii xy- 
goJKHHK. A celebrated artist. 

3HAMH neut., gen., dat., prepos. BHa- 
MeHH, ace. BHaMH, instr. 3HaMeHeM; 
pi. BHaMena, BHaMCH banner 
SnaMH CBoGoAbi. The banner of 

3HAHHE neut. knowledge 

3HaHHe — ciiJia. Knowledge is pow- 
er. FjiySoKHe SHauHH. Profound 
knowledge. Hpo^Hbie BHaHHH. Solid 
knowledge. OBJia^eBaxb SHannHMH. 
To gain knowledge. 

3HA|Tb, -10, -emb, -iot imp. k r 6? 

H T O? K 6 M? H e M? 

1. to know. H BHaio btofo nejioBe- 
Ka. / know that man. Xopomo 
BHaxb cTpany. To have a good 
knowledge of a country. 

2. to know. 3HaTb pyccKnii hbwk. 
To know Russian. 

3. to know. 3HaTb 06 OT-BeBAC To 
know about one's departure. H 
BHaio, HTO OH 66jieH. / know that 
he is ill. H BHaio, r^e oh >kh- 
BCT. / know where he lives. H 
BHaio, Ky^a oh nomeji. / know 
where he went. H ne BHaio, Kor- 
jxk OH BepneTCH, / don't know 
when he will come back, fl ne 
BHaio, HOieMy ero Hex. / don't 
know why he is not here. 

3HAHfiHHE neut. 

1. meaning. 3to cjiobo HMeex mho- 
ro 3HaHeHHH. This word has 
many meanings. 

2. importance. Cnopx HMeex or- 
poMHoe SHaneHHe flJIH BAOpoBbH. 
Sport is of great importance for 




3HAHlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. rarely 
used, 3rd pers. -ht, -ax imp. h t o? 
to mean 

Hto 3HaqHT 9T0 CJIOBO? What does 
this word mean? 3x0 HH^ero He 
3HaHHT. It means nothing. 

3HAH|0K m., gen. -Ka badge 

yHHBepcHTeTCKHH 3HaH0K. A uni- 
versity badge. Sna^oK Typiicxa 
CCCP. The badge of tourist of the 
To exchange badges. 

30JI0T0 neut., no pi. gold 

Hhcxob sojioxo. Pure gold. J[o6u- 
Baxb SOJIOXO. To mine gold. 3anjia- 
xiixb aoJioxoM. To pay in gold. 
<0> He Bce to sojioxo, hto Sjibc- 
THT (proverb). All that glitters 
isn't 0old. 

30JI0T|0fl, -an, -6e, -ue gold 

1. gold. BoJioxaH MOHexa, A gold 
coin. SoJioxbie nacu. A gold 

2. fig.: 3oJiox6fi ^eJioBeK. A won- 
derful man. 

O Sojioxafl cepBAHna. The golden 

30HTHK m. umbrella 

PacKpiixb BOHXHK. To open an um- 

3PEHHE neut. eyesight 

Xoporaee apeHne. Good eyesight. 
<>• To^Ka speHHfl. A point of view. 
C TO^iKii apennfl Kor6-JiH5o. From 
somebody's point of view. 

3PflTEJIb m. spectator 

TeaxpaJibHWH spiixejib. A theatre- 
goer. B aaJie mhofo apHxejieii. 
There are many spectators in the hall. 

3PH adv. for nothing 

3pH xpaxHXb BpeMH. To waste time. 
3pH roBopiiXb. To speak to no 
purpose. 3pH ne CecnoKOHxecbl 
Don't worry unnecessarily/ 

3yB m., pi. 3j'6bi, 3y66B tooth 

y Meiia SoJiHx 3y6Li. Fve got a 


<> FoBopHTb (cKaaaTb) ckbosb 

aySbi. To speak through clenched 


n, H 

H conf. and 
Maxb H oxen,. Mother and Father. 
Mu roBopiiM no-pyccKH h no-anr- 

JiHHCKH. We speak Russian and 
English. EomeJi ji,omjxh, h mh ne 
noexajiH 3a ropo^. It began to rain 
and we didn't go to the country. 

HPOJIIKA /., gen. pi. -ok needle 
JX&u MHe nrojiKy c htixkoh. Give me 
a needle and some thread. FpaMMO- 
^OHHaa nroJiKa. A gramophone 
needle. HroJiKH na ejiKe. Fir needles, 

HFPA /., pi. nrpbi game; playing 

1. HnxepecHan nrpa. An interest- 
ing game. HacxojibHafl nrpa. A 
table game. 

2. Mrpa na CKpHnKe. Playing the 

3. Hrpa b $yx66ji. Playing foot- 

nrpAlTB, -10, -emb, -kdx imp./ p. cut- 
pajxb, -K), -emb, -lox 

1. to play. ^exH nrpaiox b napKO. 
Tl^e children are playing in the 
park. R nrpaio c 6paxoM. I play 
with my brother. 

2. b H X 6? to play. Hrpaxb b 
6acKex66ji, b (|)yx66Ji, b BOJien- 
66 Jr, B maxMaxH. To play bas- 
ket-ball, football, volley-ball, 

3. Ha HeM? to play. Hrpaxb na 


xape. To play the piano, the 
violin, the guitar. 

4. H X 0? to play. Hrpaxb Bajibc. 
To play a waltz, k o r 6? Hr- 
paxb Bopiica FoAyHOBa. To play 
Boris Godunov. 

<> 3to iirpaex Gojibinyio pojib. 

It's of great importance . 3x0 lie 

nrpaex pojiii. It's of no importance. 
HFPyjUlKA f.,gen. pi. -en toy 

J],excKHe nrpymKH. Children's toys. 
HAEH /. 

1. idea. EepeAOBwe hack namero 
BpeMeHH. Advanced ideas of our 

2. idea. Hach npoH3BeAeHHH. The 
idea of a literary work. 

HJ^iTfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past meji, mji|a, 

-0, -H imp. 

1. Ky^a? oxKy^a? to go. H^xh 
B pecxopaH. To go to a restau- 
rant. Haxh Ha HOHxy. To go to 
the post-office. Hath h3 xeaxpa 
AOMOH. To go home from the 
theatre. Hath k 6paxy. To go 
to one's brother. Haxh Sticxpo. 




To go quickly. \\ji,TU neniKoM. 
To walk. 

2. to go. Hath ryjiHTB. To go for 
a walk, fl HAY b khho. / am 
going to the cinema. 

3. to go. IIoeaA H^ex GwcTpo. 
The train is going fast. 

4. to go. ^opora hagt jigcom. The 
road goes through a forest. 

5.: ^acLi H^yT xopomo. The watch 
(clock) keeps good time. 

6.: H^eT aojkab. It is raining. VLj^ot 
CHer. It is snowing. Hjjjqt rpa^. 
It is hailing. 

7.:KaK H^yT j^ejia? How are things? 
>KH3Hb HABT. Life goes on. Bpe- 
Mfl HAGT. Time is passing. Pa- 
66Ta H^eT. Work is in progress. 

8. to be on. CeroAHfl b Teaxpe 
h^St HOBaff nbeca. There is a 
new play on at the theatre, today. 

9. to become. 3to njiaxbe BaM 
HAex. This dress becomes you. 

IO.iIIaxh k n;eJiH. To try to achieve 

one's goal. 
<> Hath Ha bcc. To go to any 
length. He hact h3 yMa («it6-:ih6o). 
Not to be able to get (something) 
out of one's head. rojiOBa iiagt 
KpvroM. My head is in a whirl. 
H3 (H30) prep. -^ gen. 

1. out of. BbmxH H3 KOMHaxH. To go 
(come) out of the room. Bbiexaxb 
H3 ropoAa. To drive out of the 

2. from. lOnoma na A$phkh. A 
youth from Africa. 

3. of. HeKOXopwe hb Hac. Some of 
us. Oahh H3 cxyAGHXOB. One of 
the students. 

4. (made) of. Kocxiom h3 mepcxn. A 
woollen costume. 

H3BECTHE neut. 

1. news. IIpnHXHoe n3BecxHe. 
Pleasant news. 

2. news. IIocjieAHHe HSBecxna. The 
latest news. 

H3B£CTH|blH, -an, -oe, -bie, short 
form H3BecxeH, H3BecxH|a, -o, -bi; 
adv. H3BecxH0 well-known 
H3BecxHBiH yneHWH. A well-known 
scientist. 3x0 Bceivi nsBecxno. Every- 
body knows that. 

H3BHHflTB see H3BHHIlTb 



H3BHHIl|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko- 
to? / />. H3BHH|lixb, -K), -limb, -HX 

to excuse 

H3BHHMxe MeHH, HOJKajiyficxa. Ex- 
cuse me, please. 
H3BHH}JlTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -loxca 

imp. I p. H3BHH|HXbCH, -lOCb, -Hmb- 

CH, -axcfl to apologise 

Oh H3BHHHjicfl nepeAO mhoh aa 

AOJiroe MOJinaHHe. He apologised 

to me for his long silence. 
H3J1|AJIEKA adv. from far away 

npnexaxb nsAajieKa. To come from 

far away. 
H3-3A prep, -j- gen. 

1. from behind. H3-3a .neca rioKa- 
aajiacb Jiyna. The m^on came 
out from behind the forest. 

2. from. Bcxaxb H3-3a cxojia. To 
get up from the table. 

3- because of. H3-3a ao?ka» mli ne 
noexaJiH na nporyjiKy. Because of 
the rain we didn't go for a drive. 

H3MEHEHHE neut. change 

H3MeHeHHH B >KH3HH. Changes in 
life. HaMGHeHHe b pacnncaHnH. A 
change in the time-table. B cxpaiie 
npoH3omjiH Sojibmiie ii3MeHeHiiH. 
Great changes have taken place in 
the country. 

H3MEHflTb see H3MEHHTb 

H3MEHIiTbCfl see H3MEHHTbCH & 

H3MEH>l|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. / 

p. H3MeHHXb, H3MeHl6, II3MeHHmb, 


1. H T 0? to alter. HaMeHwxb njian. 
To alter a plan. 

2. K o M y? H e M y? to betray, to be 
unfaithful. HaivieHMTb cxpane. 
To betray one's country. HaMennxb 
TKene. To be unfaithful to one's 

H3MEHHlTbCH, -locb, -embca, -lox- 
CH imp./ p. HaMennxbCfl, H3MeHi6cb, 
H3MeHHmbCH, HaMeHHXCH to change 
HaMeuHJiCfl bha ropoAa. The ap- 
pearance of the city has changed. 
Bbi oneHb H3MeHiiJiHCb. You've 
changed a lot. (cf. MEHHXbCH) 
H3MEPHlTb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. 

H X 0? /p. H3Mep|HXb, -K), -Hmb, -HT 

to measure 

HaMepnxb JiJiauy KoMHaxH. To 

measure the length of a room. 




HsMepHTb TeMnepaxj^py. To take 
one's temperature. 
H30BPA5KAlTb, -w, -emb, -k)t imp. 

HTO?//?. H306pa|3HTb, -Hty, -3Hmb, 

-3HT to represent 

^t6 bh H3c6pa3'/uiH Ha axoH Kap- 
THHe? What did you represent in 
that picture? 
H30BPA3flTI> see H30BPAHCATb 
H30BPETAITb, -ro, -erab, -k)t imp. 
^ T 0? /p. H3o6pecTH, H3o6peT|y, 
-enib, -yT, past H3o6peJi, H3o6peji|a, 
-6, -H to invent 

HsoSpecTii HOByio Mamimy. To in- 
vent a new machine. 
H3-nOA prep. -\- gen. 

1. from under. KoniKa BumJia h3- 
nojs, CTOJia. The cat came from 
under the table. 

2. from a place near some other 
place, npnexaxb H3-noA JlenaH- 
rpaaa. To come from near Lenin- 

H3yHA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.^jo? 
K o r 6? / p. H3yqiixb, H3y»iy, nay- 
HHrab, H33^iax to study 
Hsyqaxb pyccKHii H3wk. To study 
Russian. Ilsy^axb npo6JieMy. To 
study a problem. 

H3yHnTb see H3yqATb 

flJIH con J. or 

BamixHH naqnyxcH saBxpa ijjih 
nocjie3aBTpa. The lessons start to- 
morrow or the day after. Oh ^oMa 
iiJiH Hex? Is he at home or not? J\r 
iiJiH Hex? Yes or no? 

flMEHHO particle precisely, just 

MMeHHO Bbi MHe Hy>KHM. You are 

just the one I need. 

^ Box HMeHHO. Exactly. 

HMElTb, -K>, -erab, -lox imp. Koro? 
H X o? to have 

HMexb MHoro BpeMenn ^jih aaHH- 
XHH. To have a lot of time for 
one's studies. HMexb B03M6JKHOcxb 
nocexHXb BMCxaBKy, To be able to 
visit the exhibition. HMexb 3Ha^e- 
HHe. To be of importance. 

HMnEPHAJIIlCTHqECKlHfl, -an, -oe, 
-He imperialist 

flMfl neut., gen., dat., prepos. hmchh, 
ace. HMH, instr. HMeHGM; pi. HMe- 
Ha, hmbh, HMenaM, etc. name 
Moe HMH — BjiaAHMHp, My name is 

Vladimir. KaK Barae iimh? WhaVs 
your name? 

<> BMCTynaxb ot hmchh kopo-jih- 
5o. To speak on somebody's behalf. 
Bii6jinoTeKa HMeHH JlenHna. The 
Lenin library. 

1. adv. in a different way. 3xoHa- 
AO cji;ejiaxb HHane. This should 
be done in a different way. 

2. conj. (or) else. Hau 6bicxpee, 
HHaqe xh ono3Aaemb. Go faster, 
or else you'll be late. 

HHJKEHEP m. engineer 

FopHWH HHJKeHep. A mining engi- 
neer. MoH oxeu — HHJKeHep. My 
father is an engineer. Pa66xaxb hh- 
HtenejOM. To work as an engineer. 

IIHO^J^A adv. sometimes 

HnorAa oh npnxoAHJi aomoh n63A- 
HO. Sometimes he came home late. 

HHOCTPAH|EI^ m., ^e/z. -ua foreigner 
B rocxHHHue HtHBex MHoro nno- 
cxpaHn;eB. Many foreigners live in 
the hotel. 

HHOCTPAHHlblK, -an, -oe, -Lie 

HHOcxpaHHLie H3Ukh. Foreign lan- 
guages. MHHHcxepcxBo HHOcxpan- 
HMX AGJi. The Ministry of Foreign 

HHCTHTS^T m. institute 

GxpOHxeJibHWH HHCXHxyx. A build- 
ing institute. YHHXbCH b HHCXHxy- 
xe. To study at an institute. Tlo- 
cxyHHXb B HHCXHxyx. To enter an 
institute. HayHHO-HCCJieAOBaxeJib- 
CKHH HHCXHxyx. A research insti- 

HHCTPyMEHT m. instrument 

XHpyprHiecKHe HHCxpj'Menxbi. Sur- 
gical Instruments. My3biKaJibHbiH 
HHCxpyMeHX. A musical instrument. 

HHTEJIJIHr£HU[Ha /., no pi. in- 

MnxeJiJiHreHitHfl cxpaHbi. The coun- 
try's intelligentsia. 


1. interest. BoJibmoH HHxepec, A 
great interest. GJiyraaxb c hh- 
xepecoM. To listen with interest. 

2. usu. pi. interests. KjiaccoBue 
HHxepecH. Class interests. 3a- 
mnnjaxb cbou HHxepecH. To 
defend one's own interests. 




HHTEPECHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -ue, short 
form HHTepeceH, HHTepecHja, -o, 
-h; adv. HHTepecHo 

1. interesting. HHTepecHtiH ^hjibm. 
An interesting film. HHiepeCHafl 
KHHra. An interesting hook. Mh 
HHTepecHo npoBejiPi BpeMH. 
We've had an interesting time. 
3to oqenb HHxepecHO. IV s very 

2. adv., predic. impers. often trans- 
lated by to wonder. MuTepecHo, 
npHe^eT jih oh? / wonder wheth- 
er he will come. 

HHTEPECjOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 
imp. K o r 6? ^ t o? to interest 
Ero HHTepecyeT HtHBonncL. He is 
interested in painting. Mena HHTe- 
pecyeT TexHHKa. / am interested in 

HHTEPEClOBATBCH, -yiocb, -yemb- 
ca, -yioTca imp. KeM? qeM? to 
be interested 

HHTepecoBaTbca JiHTepaTypoH h hc- 
KyccTBOM. To be interested in litera- 
ture and art. 

HCKATb, nmy, nn^enib, iimyT imp. / 
p. HanlTH, -Ay, -Aenib, -^yT 

1. Koro? ^To? to look for. Hc- 
KETb cBoero Apyra. To be look- 
ing for one's friend. HcKaTb 
HJiaTOK. To look for one's hand- 
kerchief. Kto HmeT, TOT Bcerfl;a 
HaH;i;eT, Seek and you shall 

2. fig. ^ T 0? or Hero? to look 
for, to seek. HcKaTb paSoxy. To 
look for a Job. HcKaxb npaBAH. 
To seek the truth. McKaTb 
CHacTba. To seek happiness. 

HCKJIfOHAlTb, -K), -enib, -iot imp. 

KOrc? HTO?//?. HCKJIK)q|HTb, -y, 

-Hmb, -aT to expel 


Ta. To expel a student from the in- 
HCKJIIOHEHHE neut. exception 

3to HCKJiiOHeHHe H3 npaBHJia. This 
is an exception to the rule. HeT 
npaBHJi 6e3 HCKJno^eHHa. There are 
no rules without exceptions. 
<> 3a HCKJiioqeHHeM Mena, Bce 
6biJiH HE CTaAHone. Everybody was 
at the stadium, except me. 
KCKPEHHlHB, -mi, -ee, -ne, short 

form HCKpenen, HCKpeHH|a, -o, -h; 
adv. HCKpenne sincere, frank 
HcKpeHHHH HeJiOBCK. A sincere per- 
son. HcKpeHHHH oTBer. A frank 
answer. CKaJKHTe HCKpenne. Tell 
me frankly. 

HCKyCCTBEHHlbin, -aa. -oe, -Lie 

HcKyccTBeHHoe bojiokho. Artifi- 
cial fibre. HcKyccTBeHHUH raeJiK. 
Artificial silk. 


1. art. HaoSpaaiiTeJibHbie hckvc- 
CTsa. Imitative arts. HcKyccTBO 
HapoAHwx MacTepoB. The art of 
folk masters. 

2. art. HcKyccTBo nrpw na rHTape. 
The art of playing the guitar. 
HcKyccTBo mHTba. The art of 

HCnOJIHUlTb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp. 

H T O ? / /?. HCnOJIHlHTb, -K), -HHIb, -HT 

1. to perform, to play. HcnoJinaTb 
MyaHKaJibHyio nbecy. To play a 
musical piece. HcnoJiHaTb poJib. 
To play a part. 

2. to fulfil. Bh He MOFJiH 6li hc- 

HOJIHHTb MOIO Up6cb6y? Could 

you comply with my request? 
HCnOJIb3|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT 
imp. & /?. K r 6? ^ t o? to make 
use of 

HcHOJibsoBaTb cneuHaJiHCTOB. To 
make use of specialists . McnoJibao- 
BaTb BpeMH. To make use of one's 
HCnPABJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 

nTO? / p. HCnpa|BHTb, -BJIK), -BHHIb, 

-BHT to correct 

HcnpaBHTb omH6Ky. To correct a 


HCnyrAlTbCH, -rocb, -embca, -iotch 
jo. K r 6? H e r 6? to be frightened 
MajibHHK HcnyraJica. The boy got 
frightened. Oh HCnyraJica, hto He 
XBaTHT BpeMCHH. He was afraid 
that he would not have enough time. 
Oh HcnyraJica rpoMa. He was 
afraid of the thunder. 

HCnblTAHIlE neut. testing 

HcnHTaane MamHHH. l^he testing 
of a machine. HcnwraHHa aTOMHO- 
ro opyjKHa. The testing of an atom- 
ic weapon. 




HCT0Pfl4ECK|Hfl, -aH, -oe, -He 

1. history. llcTopuqecKHH ^aKyjib- 
Tex. The history department. 

2. historical. HcTopHHecKiie naMHx- 
HHKH. Historical monuments. 

3. historic. HcTopri^ecKafl aaxa. An 
historic date. 


1. no pi. history. HcxopiiH pasBH- 
BaexCH no cbohm saKonaM. History 
develops according to its own laws. 
HcxopiiH j^peBHero Mwpa. The 
history of antiquity. McxopHH 
H3HKa. The history of a lan- 

2. story. Oh yMeex paccKaausaxb 
HHxepecHwe ncxopHn. He can 
tell interesting stories. 

HdE3A|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 

p. HC^esHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx, past 

HCHea, -Jia, -jio, -jih 

1. to disappear. GaMOJiex ncMes b 
oSJianax. The plane disappeared 
in the clouds. 

2. to cease. BoJib nc^eajia. The 
pain has gone. 

HCH£3H|yTb see HCHESATb 

HTAK conj. so 

HxaK, pemenne npimaxo. So the 
decision has been taken. 

HX poss. prnn. their, theirs 

Hx npcAJiojKeHHe 6lijio npaBHJib- 
hmm. Their proposal was right. dra 
KOMHaxa HX. This room is theirs. 

IIlDJIb m., no pi. July 

B Hiojie y cxy/i,eHX0B KaHiiKyjiH. 
The students have their holidays in 
July. Cer6;;Hfl 25 hiojih. Today is 
the 25th of July. On npne;Aex 28-ro 
HioJifl. He will come on July 28. 

IIlDHb m., no pi. June 

B HEone cxy;i,eHXbi CAawxaKaaMenbi. 
Students take their exams in June. 

K, K 

K (KO) prep.+dat. 

1. to, up to. EoAOHXif K AOMy. To 
approach the house. On no;];omeJi 
K xoBapnnzy. He went up to his 
friend. HAHxe k aocKe. Come 
(go) to the blackboard. 

2. to. Oh npnexaJi k flpyry. He 

came to see his friend. HpHeawaH 
K HaMi Come and see us! 

3. by. Hajio npniixH k ceMii HacaM 
Benepa. You must come by sev- 
en o'clock in the evening. 

4. to. BnepeA, k no6eAe! Forward, 
to victory! 


1. study. PaGo^HH KaGnnex. A 

2.:Ka6HHex Bpana. A doctor's con- 
sulting-room, a surgery. 
KAj^Pbl no sing, cadres 

TexHitqecKHC KaApw. Technical 
KAH«mblfl, -an, -oe, -we 

1. every. KajK^biii jieuh. Everyday. 
Kamjxyio ueAeJiio mh xo^hm b 
xeaxp. We go to the theatre every 
week. J]|oBOAHXb KajK^oe ;i,ejio Ao 
KOHU,a. To see every fob through. 

2. J0ed as n. everyone. 3xo KaJK- 
jiuik 3Haex. Everyone knows that. 

KAHCETCH paren. word it seems 
Oh, Ka>KexcH, npaB. He seems to 
be right. KawexcH, oh 6hji aobo- 
Jien. He seemed to be pleased. 

KASyVTbCH, Ka>Kycb, KaJKenibCH, Ka- 
myTCH. imp. / p. noKaaaxbcn, noKa- 
>Kycb, noKawenibCH, noKajKyxcfl 

1 . K e M? u e M? K a K H M? to seem . 
TopoA MHe noKaaaJiCH o^eub 
KpacPiBHM. The town seemed very 
beautiful to me. 

2. impers. to seem. Mne KawexcH, 
fl ycneio BLinojiHHXb pa66xy. It 
seems to me that I shall manage 
to do the work. Mne noKaaaJiocb, 
Hxo OH ycxaJi. He looked very 
tired to me. 

KA3H|flTb, -10, -Hmb, -nx imp. & p. 

K o r 6? to execute 

KasHHXb npecxynHHKa. To execute 

a criminal. 

1. adv. how. KaK WHBexe? How 
are you getting on? KaK H^yx 
ACJia? How are things going? R 
3Haio, KaK npoexaxb b uenxp. / 
know how to get to the centre. 
KaK BH CKaaaJiH? What did you 

2. conf . like. Ee rJiaaa 6lijih KaK 
Mope. Her eyes were like the 

■^ KaK 3T0 HH cxpaHHO... However 




strange it may seem... 51 qyBCT- 
Bvio ce5fl 3Aecb, KaK ^OMa. / 

feel at home here. 
KAK-HHBS^AL adv. somehow 

Haflo KaK-HH6yflB noMOHb eMy. We 

must help him somehow. 
KAK|Ofl, -an, -6e, -ne 

1. what, KanaH cer6ji;HH noro^a? 
What is the weather like today? 
KaKyio MysHKy bh JiroSHxe? 
What sort of music do you like? 
KaKoe ceroAHH hhcjio? What is 
the date today? KaKoii ceroAHfl 
fl;eHb HeaeJiH? What day of the 
week is today? KaK we UBexbi bli 
xoTHTe KynHTb? What flowers do 
you want to buy? 

2. what (a). KaKofixopomnH ^eHbl 
What a fine day! KaKan Kpaco- 
xa! What beauty! 

KAKlOfl (-an, -6e, -ike) -HHB^Ab any 

^anxe mhc KaKyio-HH6yAb KHiiry. 

Give me any book. 
KAKlOfl (-an, -de. -He)-TO some 

Bac cnparaHBaex KaKoft-xo Mywqii- 

Ha. A man is asking for you. 
KAK-TO adv. somehow, somewhat 

To, Hxo XH cKaaaji, naK-xo hchcho. 

What you said is somehow not 

KAJIEH/^AP|B m,, gen. -A calendar 

HacxoJibHHH KaJieHAapb. A desk 

calendar. OxpHBHoii KajieHAapb. A 

tear-off calendar. 
KAMEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He stone 

1. KaMeHHMH AOM. A stone house. 

2. fig. KaMeHHoe cep^i^e. A heart 
of stone. 

<0> KaMCHHWH yrojib. Coal. 

KAMIEHB m., gen. -hh stone 

BojibmoH KaMeHb. A large stone. 
BpocHXb KaMeHb, To throw a stone. 
flparoiieHHbie KaMHH. Precious 

<> HaniJia Koca na KaMeHb (prov- 
erb). Cf, Diamond cut diamond. 

KAHAJI m. canal 

OpocHTeJibHMH Kanaji. An irrigation 
canal. Exaxb no KanaJiy. To sail 
along a canal. 


1. candidate. KaHAHaax b ^enyxaxH 
BepxoBHoro CoBexa. A candidate 
to the Supreme Soviet. 

2. candidate. Kan^HAax nayK. Mas- 
ter of science. 

KAHflKYJIbl no sing, holidays 

3HMHHe KaHHKyjiw. Winter holidays. 
JlexHHe KaHHKyJiM. Summer hol- 
idays. Bo BpeMH KaHHKyji. Dur- 
ing the holidays. B KaHHKyJiH oh 
ox^bixaex. He has a rest during his 

KAnHTAJlfl3M m. capitalism 

KAnHTAJIHCTflHECKIHfl, -an, -oe, 
-He capitalist 

KanHxaJiHcxHHecKHii cxpoii. The 
capitalist system. 

KAHHTAH m. captain 

KannxaH AaJibHero njiaBaHHH. A 
sea-going captain. Kannxan $yx- 
66JibHOH KOMaHflbi. The captain of 
a football team. 

KAII|JIH /., gen. pi. -ejib 

1. drop. Kanjifl jkiiakocxh. A drop 
of a liquid. KanJiH ji<dmj\A. A 

2, no sing, drops. Kynnxb nanjin 
B anxeKe. To buy some drops at 
a chemist's. 

KAnyCTA /., no pi. cabbage 

KnJiorpaMM Kanycxw. A kilogramme 
of cabbage. 

<> KHCJiafl Kanycxa. Sauerkraut. 
li[BeTHafl Kanycxa. Cauliflower. 

KAPAHAAin m., gen.-§i pencil 

IJ,BexHbie KapaHflamH. Coloured pen- 
cils. PncoBaxbKapaHAamoM. To draw 
with a pencil. 

KAPMAH m. pocket 

Bbmyxb nJiaxoK H3 KapMana. To 

take one's handkerchief out of 

one's pocket. noJioHiHXb ^eHbrn b 

KapMaH. To put money in one's 


<> Oh aa cjiobom b KapMan ne no- 

jieacT. He has a ready tongue. 


1. map. IIoJiHxii^ecKaH Kapxa mh- 
pa. A political map of the world. 

2. card. Hrpaxb b KapxH. To play 

KAPTflHA /. 

1. picture. npeKpacHan KapxHHa. 
A beautiful picture. XyAOJKHHK 
nnmex Kapxiiny. The artist is 
painting a picture. 

2. fig. scene. KapxHna npHpoAW. 
A scene of nature. 

KAPTOOEJIB m., no pi. {colloq. Kap- 
xomKa) potatoes 




KACA|TbCH, -locb, -emBCH, -iotch 
imp. Koro? Her6?//>. KOCHlyxb- 
CH, -ycb, -embCH, -yTca 

1. to touch. KocHyTbcH seMJiH py- 
KOH. To touch the ground with 
the hand. 

2. fig. to touch upon, to concern. 
/l,0KJiaA^HK KocnyjicH Bonpoca o 
noJiOJKGHHH B CTpBHe. The speak- 
er touched upon the situation in 
the country. 3to mghh ne Kaca- 
excH. That doesnt concern me. 

KACCA /. cash-desk 

IIJiaTHTb ;;eHbrH b Kaccy. To pay the 

money at the cash-desk. 

<> CSeperaxejibHaH Ksicca. Savings 

KACTPlOJIfl /. saucepan 
KATAlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch 

imp. Ha q e M?: KaxaTbCH ua ji6;i;- 

Ke. To go boating. KaxaxbCH na 

JiuH^ax. To go skiing. KaxaxbCfl na 

KOHbKax. To go skating. 

<> JIi65iimb Kaxaxbcfl — jiio5h h 

caHoqKii BOSHTb (proverb). Cf. No 

sweet without some sweat. 
KA^ECTBO neut. quality 

KaqecTBO pa66xbi. The quality of 

work. EpoAyKUHH BucoKoro Ka^ecx- 

Ba. High-quality output. 
KAniA /. porridge 

ManuaH Kama. Semolina pudding. 

FpeHHeBan Kama. Buckwheat por- 
KADIIEJIIj m., gen. -jih cough 

y MCHH ciijibHMii KameJib. / have 

a bad cough. 
KAinJIHITb, -K), -enib, -iot to cough 

BojibHoH ciiJibHo Kamjinex. The 

sick man coughs badly. 
KBA/^PATH IblH, -afl, -oe, -ue square 

KBaflpaxnafl KOMnaxa. A square 


1. block, district. Hobmu ropo^CKon 
KBapxaJi. A new city district. 

2. quarter. B xpexbeM KBapxaJie 
3xoro rd^a Spurafla paCoxaJia 
0XJi«HH0. In the third quarter of 
this year the brigade worked very 

KBAPTKPA /. flat 

TpexKOMuaxHafl KBapxiipa. A three- 
room flat. 

KHJIOPPAMM m. kilogramme 

Ilflxb KHJiorpaMMOB caxapa. Five 

kilogrammes of sugar. KaJiorpaMM 
Mflca. A kilogramme of meat. 
KHJIOMETP m. kilometre 


How many kilometres is it to the 
KHHO neut., indecl. 

1. cinema. Ycnexn khho. The suc- 
cess of the cinema. 

2. colloq. film. GMOxpexb khho. 
To see a film. Tw CMoxpeJi 
3X0 KHHO? Have you seen this 

3. colloq. cinema. H^xh b khho. To 
go to the cinema. 

KHHOTEATP m. picture palace, cin- 

B MocKBe MHoro KHHoxeaxpoB? Are 
there many cinemas in Moscow? 

KHHOOflJIbM m. see OHJIbM 

KHOCK m. kiosk, news-stand 

Fa^XHUH KHOCK. A news-stand. 
Kyniixb jKypnaji b khocko. To buy 
a magazine at a news-stand. 

KHniETb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -iix, -hx imp. to boil 
Bo^a khhhx. The water is boiling. 
Mojioko khhiix. The milk is boiling. 

KHPnflH w., gen. -a brick 

KflCJIIblS, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
KHceji, KHCJia, khcji|o, -h; adv. 
KiicJio sour 

Kncjioe hCjioko. A sour apple. 
<> Kncjiafl Kanycxa. Sauerkraut. 

KJIACCi m. class 

PadoHHii KJiacc. The working class. 


1. grade. VHiixbCH b nepBOM KJiac- 
ce. To be in (to be a pupil in) 
the first grade. 

2. classroom. B uameM KJiacce 
OHenb Hiicxo. Our classroom is 
very clean. 

3. class. Ham KJiacc oqenb flpy)K- 
HbiH. We are all friends in our 

KJlACCOBIblfi, -an, -oe, -ue class 
KJiaccoBan 6opb6^. The class strug- 
gle. KjiaccoBMe npOXHBOp^HHH. 
Class contradictions. 

KJIACTb, KJiaAly, -emb, -yx, past 
KJiaji, KJiaJi|a, -o, -h imp. Kor6? 
^ X 0? Ha H X 6?/ p. noJioJKiixb, no- 
jiowy, HOJiojKHrab, HOJioJKax to 
place, to put 
Kjiacxb KHHry na cx6ji. To put the 




book on the table. IIoJiojKHTb caxap 
B nan. To put sugar in the tea. 


jiy. To lay the foundation for some- 
thing new. 

KJIETIKA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1. cage. KynHTb KJieiKy ajih hthi^. 
To buy a bird cage. 

2. squared, check. TeTpaj;b b kjict- 
Ky. A squared copy-book. Maxe- 

piiaJi B KJiexKy. Check material. 

3. cell. 

<> FpyAHaH KJieTKa. The thorax. 
KJIflMAT m. climate 

MopcKOH KJiHMaT. A maritime cli- 
mate. MHrKHii KJiiiMaT. A mild 

KJiyB m. club 

PaSoHHH KJiy6. A workers' club. B 
KJiySe cer6fl;HH TaHD;bi. There is a 
dance at the club today. 

KJIK)^ m., gen. -a 

1. key. Oh noxepHJi kjiioh ot KBap- 
THpM. He has lost the key to his 
flat. SanepeTb ji;Bepb na kjiioh. 
To lock the door. 

2. fig. clue 
KHflrA /. book 

^Hxaxb KHtiry. To read a book. 
KHflHClKA /., gen. pi. -eK dim. of 

KHHra book. 

J]|excKafl KHHJKKa. A children's 


<> SanncHafl KHHHfKa. Note-book. 
KHflmniblfl, -an, -oe, Lie book 

KHiijKHafl nojiKa. A bookshelf. 

Khiijkhhh mKa(|). A bookcase. Khhjk- 

Hbiii MaraaiiH. A bookshop. 
KOB|EP m,, gen. -pa carpet 

MarKHH KOBep, A soft carpet. 
KOr^A adv. 

1. when. Kor^a xh npHAerab jio- 
Moii? When will you come home? 

2. when. H sHaio, kofa^ oh npn- 
e^ex. / know when he comes. Kor- 
jxa KOHHHfflb pa66xy, npHxoAii 
KO MHe. Come and see me when 
you have finished your work. 

KOrAA-HHBS'J^b adv. some day 
KoTjia.-Hii6yji,h xh BcnoMHHmb 06 
.^XHX cJioBax. Some day you will 
remember these words. 

KOrj^A-TO adv. some time ago 

H 6hji xaM Kor^a-xo. / was there 
some time ago. 

KoacA /. 

1. skin. KojKa JiHua. The skin of the 
face. I^Bex k6>kh. Complexion. 

2. leather. HeMo^aH h3 k6?kh. A 
leather suitcase. 

KOHCAHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He leather 
Komauum neuojxau. A leather suit- 
case. Komanoe Kpecjio. A leather 
arm-chair. KojKaHHe xy(|)JiH. Leath- 
er shoes. 

KOJIBACA /. (luncheon) sausage 

Kon^enaH KOJiSaca. Smoked sausage. 
Bapenan K0Ji6aca. Boiled sau- 
sage. Byxep6p6A c KOJi6ac6H. A 
sausage sandwich. 

KOJIEBATbCH, KOJie6ji|iocb, -embca, 
-lOxcH imp. 

1. 1st & 2nd pers. not used, to 
tremble. JliicxbH ^epeBbeB K0Jie6- 
jiioxcH ox Bexpa. The leaves of 
the trees are trembling in the 

2. 1st & 2nd pers. not used, to 
fluctuate. U^euu na ptiHKe KOJieS- 
JIIOXCH. The prices on the market 

3. to hesitate. Kojie6axbCH b onen- 
Ke HejioBeKa. To hesitate in as- 
sessing a person. 

KOJIEH|0 neut., pi. -n knees 

noca^HTb peGeHKa na kojichh. To 
put a child on one's lap. MajibHHK 
CH^eJi Ha KOJieHHX y Maxepn, The 
boy was on his mother's lap. Cxoaxb 
Ha KOJieHHX, To be kneeling 

KOJIECO neut., pi. KOJieca wheel 
KoJieco MamiiHH. A wheel of a 

KOJIflHECTBO neut. quantity 

KojiMHecxBo BO AM B SacceHHc. The 
quantity of water in a swimming- 

KOJIJIEKTflB m. collective body 
^pyjKHWH KOJiJieKXHB. A united 
collective. Kojijickxhb ^a6pHKH. 
The collective of a factory. 

KOJIJIEKTflBHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He 

KoJiJieKXHBHHH AoroBop. A collec- 
tive agreement. KojiJieKXiiBHoe xo- 
SHHCXBO. A collective farm. 

KOJIOHHAJIbHiblH, -an, -oe, -He 

KoJiOHHajiLHHii pejKHM. A colonial 
regime. KoJionnaJibHaH noJiHXHKa. 
A colonial policy. 




KOJIOHHH /. colony 

HapoAM KOJIOHHH. The peoples of 

the colonies. 

1. column. 3aji c Cgjimmh kojioh- 
HBMH. A hall with white columns. 

2. column. KoJioHHa cnopTCMeHon. 
A column uf sportsmen. 

KOJIX03 m. collective farm 

IlepeAOBOH kojixos. A foremost 
collective farm. Pa66TaTb b koji- 
xoae. To work on a collective farm. 

K0JIX03HHK m. collective farmer 
KojixosHHKH ySnpaioT ypo>KaH. 
The collective farmers are gather- 
ing in the harvest. 

KOJIX03HlHfl, -an, -oe, -ue of a 
collective farm 

KoJixosHan c66cTBeHHOCTb. Collec- 
tive-farm property. 

KOJIbl^O neut., pi. K6JIb^a, KOJiei^, 
KOJibqaM, etc. 

1. ring. BojiOToe KOJibu;©. A gold 

2. circle. Exaxb no KOJibny. To go 
on a train servicing the Circle 
Line (in the Moscow underground 

KOMAHAA /. team 

OyiSoJibHaH KOMaH^a. A football 
KOMAHJ^flP m. commander 

KoMaHfl;i4p noJiKa. A regiment com- 
mander. KoMaHAiip napiHsaHCKoro 
OTpHfla. The commander of a guer- 
rilla detachment. 
KOMAH/^IOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT 
imp.^ K e M? q e M? to command 
KoMaHjtoBaxb apMneii. To command 
an army. 
KOMBAflH m. combine 

VrojibHbiii K0M6aHH. A coal mining 
KOMBHHAT m. mill, plant 

Oh paSoxaex na 6yMa>KH0M kom6h- 
Haie. He works at a paper mill. 
<> KoMGnnaT SwTOBoro o5cJiyacH- 
BaHHH. A personal service establish- 
KOMflCCHH /. commission 

IIpHeMHaH KOMPiccHH, A selection 
commission. HaGHpaxejibHaH ko- 
MHCCHH. An election commission. 
KOMHTET m. committee 

I^eHxpaJibHHH KoMHxex KoMMynnc- 
xHHecKOH napxHH CoBexcKoro Coio- 

3a. The Central Committee of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. HcnojiHUxeJibHHH KOMnxex. 
An executive committee. 

K0MMyHfl3M m., no pi. commu- 

CxpoHXb KOMMyHPiSM. To buHd com- 

KOMMyHflCT m. Communist 

CoK)3 KOMMyHHCXOB. The Union of 
Communists . IlapxHH KOMMyHwcxoB. 
A Communist Party. 

KOMMyHHCTflqECKIHfl, -an, -oe, 

1. communist. KoMMyHHCxiWecKaH 
napxHH CoBexcKoro Coroaa. The 
Communist Party of the Soviet 

2. communist. Bpnraaa KOMMyHHC- 
xiiHecKoro xpy^a. A brigade of 
Communist Labour. 

KOMHATA /. room 

Ho Ban KOMHaxa. A new room. Gsex- 
JiaH KOMHaxa. A bright room. B 
KOMHaxe xenjio. It is warm in the 
room . 

K0Mn03flT0P m. composer 

HaBecxHHH KOMnoaiixop. A well- 
known composer. 

KOMCOMOJI m. the Young Com- 
munist League 

KOMCOMOIJIEI^ m., gen. -JIb^a Young 
Communist Leaguer 
Akxiibhwh KOMCOMOJieu;. An active 
Young Communist Leaguer. Ha 
cxpoHKax paSoxaex mhofo komco- 
M6Jibn;eB. Many Young Communist 
Leaguers work at the construction 

KOMCOMOJIbCKlHn, -an, -oe, -ne 
Young Communist League 
KoMCOMOJibCKHH 6HJiex. A Ycung 
Communist League (membership) 
card. KoMCOMOJibCKoe co6paHHe. A 
Y.C.L. meeting. 

KOHBEPT m. envelope 

KyHHXb KOHBepx. To buy an enve- 
lope. 3aKJieHXb KOHBepx. To seal an 

KOH|E^ m., gen. -ni end 

KoHen; KHnrn. The end of the book. 
<> B KOHi;e KOHi^OB. At last, at 
the end. IIojiowHTb KOHeii, qeiwy- 
JII160. To put an end to something. 


make both ends meet. 





1. paren. word certainly. Tbi, ko- 
HeHHO, snaemb 06 3T0M . You cer- 
tainly know that. 

2. particle of course. Tu noHflemt 
B KHHO? — KoHCHHo! ''Will you 
go to the cinema?" ''Of course!" 

KOHCEPBIM pi., no sing., gen. -ob 
food preserves 

OBomHLie KOHCepBti. Canned vege- 
tables. MflCHHe KOHCepBH. Canned 
meat. Fhi6uue KOHcepBH. Canned 

KOHCTHTyU;HH /. constitution 

KOHTPOJIbHIMH, -aH, -oe, -ue con- 
trol, test 

IlHcaTb KOHxpoJibHyio pa66Ty. To 
write a test-paper. 

KOHOETA /. sweet 

nioKOJiaAHaa Kon^exa. A chocolate. 
IlHTbCOT rpaMMOB KOH^eT. Five 
hundred grammes of sweets. 


1. concert. Konuepi necHH h njific- 
KH. A concert of songs and 
dances. KoHn;epT xyjiomecT- 


amateur performers' concert. 

2. concerto. KoHi^epx ji^Jifi CKpiinKii 
c opKecxpoM. A concerto for 
violin and orchestra. 

KOHHAlTb, -10, -emt, -lox imp. 
qxo? &-\-inf. I p. KonqliixL, -y, 
-Hint, -ax 

1. to finish. Konquxb 6ecefly. To 
finish a conversation. neBHii;a 
KOHHHJia nexb. The singer fin- 
ished singing. 

2. to finish, to graduate. Konnnxb 
niKOJiy. To finish school. Koh- 
HHXb yHHBepcHxex. To graduate 
from the University. 

KOHH'AlTtCa, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -ioxch imp. / 
p. KOHqJHXbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -axcfl to 

KoHDjepx KOHqaexcfl b 10 ^acoB Be- 
nepa. The concert ends at 10 
o'clock in the evening. 
KOHb m., gen. kohh; pi. kohh, ko- 
HeH, KOHHM, etc. horse 
Exaxb Ha Kone. To ride on horse- 

KOHbKfl pi., sing, kohck m., gen. 

KOHbKa skates 

BeroBBie KOHbK[i. Racing skates. 

KaxaxbCH na KOiibKax. To skate. 
KOnE|flKA /., gen. pi. -en copeck 

(the smallest Russian coin, 1/100 of 

a rouble). 

OAHa KoneHKa. One copeck. J^Be 

KoneHKH. Two copecks. ITflXb ko- 

neeK. Five copecks. 
KOPABJIIb m., gen. -a ship 

BoeHHHH KopaSJib. A warship. 
KOPIEHb m., gen. -hh 

1. root. KopeHb pacxeHHH. The 
root of a plant. 

2. root. KopeHb cJioBa. The root 
of a word. 

3. root. HsBJieHb KBa^paxHMH k6- 
peHb H3 HHCJia. To extract the 
square root of a number. 

O CMOTpexb B KopeHb. To get at 

the root (of something). 
KOPHJ^OP m. corridor, passage 
KOPflHHEBIblfl, -an, -oe, -He brown 

KOPMflTb, KOpMJIiO, KOpMHfflb, KOp- 

MHx imp. Koro? h e m? /p. na- 


HaKopMHX to feed 

Maxb KopMHX peGeHKa cynoM. The 

mother gives soup to her child. 

KOPOBIKA /., gen. pi. -ok box 

Kop65Ka cniweK. A box of matches. 
KopoSKa KOH(|)ex. A box of sweets. 


B KOJixoae mhofo KopoB. The col- 
lective farm has many cows. 

KOPOJI|b m., gen. -a king 

KOPOTKIHW, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form 
KopoxoK, KopoxKa, KopoxKlo, -h; 
adv. KopoxKo; comp. Kopo^e short 

1. short. KopoxRHH nHA>KaK. A 
short coat. KopoxKaH KypxKa. A 
short jacket. 

2. short. KopoxKHii cpoK. A short 
time. KopoxKHH paaroBop. A 
short conversation. KopoxKO ox- 
BexHXb. To answer briefly. 

3. only short form too short. I06Ka 
eii KopoxKa. The skirt is too short 
for her. 

KOCMflHECKlHtt, -an, -oe, -ne cos- 
mic, space 

KocMHHecKoe npocxpancxBo. Space. 
KocMHqecKHH KopaSjib. A space- 
ship. KocMHHecKHe Jiy^H. Cosmic 




KOCMOHABT m. cosmonaut 

KOCMOC m. cosmos, space 

HayHeHHe KocMOca. Studying 
space. noJiexH b kocmoc. Space 


KOCTIb /., gen. pi. -en bone 
IlepejioM KocTH. A fracture. 

KOCTIOM m. suit, costume 

GnopTHBHtiH KOCTIOM. A sports cos- 
tume. KynuTb KOCTIOM. To buy a 

KOTJIETA /. cutlet, rissole 

MHCHwe KOTJieTH. Meat cutlets (ris- 
soles). JKapHTb KOTJieTH. To fry 

KOTOPIblfl, -an, -oe, -He 

1. who, which, fl snaio TOBapnma, 
KOTopHH npnexaji h3 JlenHH- 
rpafla. / know the comrade who 
came from Leningrad. 

2. what, which. KoTopHH nac? 
What time is it? Tjie Kmira, ko- 
Topyio TH o6emaJi? Where is the 
book which you promised? 

KOOE m., indecl., no pi. 

1. coffee. nJiaHTai;HH K6(|)e. A cof- 
fee plantation. 

2. coffee. IIhtl nepHHH K6$e. To 
drink black coffee. K6$e c mo- 
JiOKOM. White coffee. 

KOmiKA /., gen. pi. -eK cat 
Hepnan KomKa. A black cat. 

KPAH m., prepos. o Kpae & b Kpaio, 
Ha Kpaio; pi. Kpan 

1. edge. Ha Kpaio cxojia. On the 
edge of the table. 

2. land. Poj^hoh Kpaa. The native 
land. TenJine Kpan. Warm lands. 

3. territory. CTaBponoJibCKHH Kpan. 
Stavropol territory. 

KPAH m. 

1. tap. Bo^onpoBoflHHH npan. A 
water tap. OxKpoH Kpan. Turn 
the tap on. 

2. crane. noffijeMHHH Kpan. A crane. 
KPACflBlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He, short 

form KpacHB, -a, -o, -h; adu. Kpa- 
cHBo beautiful; handsome 
KpacHBan fleBymKa. A beautiful 
girl. KpacHBaH mccthoctij. Beauti- 
ful country. BoKpyr oienb KpacH- 
BO. Everything around is very beau- 

KPAlCHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cht imp. 

hto? / p. noKpalcHTb, -uiy, -cnmb, 

-cat to paint 

KpacHTb noJi. To paint the floor. 
KPAC|KA /., gen. pi. -ok paint 

ToJiySaH KpacKa. Blue paint. 
KPACHElTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. / 

p. noKpacHe|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot to 

turn red; to blush, to flush 

H6JI0KH noKpacHeJiH. The apples 

turned red. KpacHCTb ot CTHAa. To 

blush with shame. 
KPACHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 

Kpacen, Kpacna, Kpacnlo, -h red 

KpacHHH KapaHflam. A red pencil. 

<> Kpacnafl njiomaflb. Red Square. 
KPAICTb, -Ay, -Aemb, -^yT, past npaJi, 

-a, -o, -H imp. mo? y Koro?/ 

p. yKpa|CTb, -Ay, -Aemb, -a^t, past 

yKpaji, -a, -o, -H to steal 

Oh yKpaJi y hhx Aenbrn. He stole 

mifhey from them. 
KPATKIHH, -an, -oe, -He, short form 

KpaTOK, KpaTKa, KpaTKlo, -h; adv. 

KpaTKO short, brief, concise 

KpaTKHH AOKJiaA. A brief report. 

KpaTKHii cjioBapb. A concise dic- 
tionary. H 6yAy KpaTOK. /'// be 

KPEMJIlb m., gen. -a the citadel of 

an old Russian town 

MocKOBCKHH KpeMJib. The Moscow 

KPEHKIHR, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 

KpenoK, KpeuKa, KpenK|o, -h; 

adv. KpeuKo; comp. Kpen^e 

1. hard. KpeuKHH opex. Hard nut. 

2. strong. KpeuKHH opraHH3M. A 
strong organism. 

3. strong. KpenKoe bhho. Strong 
wine. KpeHKHH ^aa. Strong tea. 

<> KpenKHM COH. A sound sleep. 
KpenKo enaxb. To sleep soundly. 

KPEnHlYTb, -y, -emb, -yT, past 
Kpen, -Jia, -jio, -jih imp. I p. OKpen- 
H|yTb, -y, -emb, -yT, past 0Kp6n, 
-jia. -JIO, -JIH to grow stronger 
Pe6eH0K OKpen. The child grew 
stronger. Kp^nneT APyJK^a MeJKAy 
CTpanaMH. The friendship between 
countries grows stronger. 

KPEC|JIO neut., gen. pi. -eJi armchair 
MflFKoe Kpecjio. A soft armchair. 
CHA^Tb B Kp6cJie. To sit in an arm- 





KPECTbUHHH m., pi. KpecTbane, 

KpecTBHH peasant 
KPECTbHHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -iie peas- 

KpecTbflHCKafl ceMtfi. A peasant 

KPHBlOH, -an, -oe, -He crooked 

KpHsaa JiHHHH. A crooked line. 

KpHBafl yjiHiia. A crooked street. 
KPflKHyTb see KPH'^ATb 
KPHH|ATb, -y, -Hmb, -ax imp. I 

p. Kpi'iKHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx to cry, 

to shout 

KpHHaxb OT 66jih. To cry with 

pain. He KpHHiixe na mchh! Don't 

shout at me! 
KPOBATb /. bed 

Jl|epeBflHHaH KpoBaxb. A wooden 

bed. JlejKaxb Ha KponaxH. To lie 

on a bed. 
KPOBb /., no pi., prepos. b KpoBii 


Oh nopeaaJi naJiei^, nonaaajiacb 

KpoBb, He cut his finger and blood 


<>• BopoTbCfl «o nocjieAHefi KanjiH 

KpoBH. To fight to one's last drop 

of blood, 
KPOME prep. -\- gen. 

1. except. npHOiJiH Bce, KpoMe 
o^Horo cxy^eHxa. Everybody 
came, except one student. 

2. besides. KpoMe MenH, npHmjio 
ein.e necKOJibKO ^ejioBeK. A few 
people came besides myself. 

<> Oh xopomo nrpaex b BOJieHSoji, 
a KpoMe Toro oh Henjioxofi 
maxMaTHCT. He plays volley-ball 
well, besides he is not a bad chess- 

Kpyr m., pi. -H 

1. circle. IIJiomaAb Kpyra, The 
area of a circle. 

2. circle. Tani^yiontHe oSpaaosajiH 
mnpoKHH Kpyr. The dancers 
formed a large circle. 

<> B Kpyry apyaefi. Among 
iriends. B xecHOM Kpyry. Among 
KPyrJIIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
Kpyrji, Kpyrjia, Kpyrji|o, -h round 
KpyrJiHH cxoJi. A round table. 
Kpyrjioe JIH^6. A round face. 
<> Kpyrjibifi roff. The whole year 
round. Kpyrjibie cvtkh meji 
AOH<Ab. It rained round the clock. 

KpyrjiWH CHpoxa. A complete or- 
phan. Kpyrjibiii otjih^hmk. A pu- 
pil with only excellent marks. Kpyr- 
jiwS aypaK. An utter fool. 

KPyH{|OK m., gen. -Ka circle, society 
JlnxepaxypHHH KpyHtoK. A litera- 
ry society. KpyJKoK neHHH. A sing- 
ing group. 

KPyriHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne large 
Kpynnoe npej^npnaxHe. A large 
enterprise. KpynnaH npoMHraJien- 
HOCXb. Large-scale industry. 
<> PasMBHaTb KpynHbie Aenbrn. 
To change large bank-notes. Kpyn- 
HbiS paarOBop. A serious conver- 

KPyT|(3B[, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
Kpyx, Kpyxa, Kpyx|o, -h; adv. Kpy- 

1. steep. Kpyxafl ropa. A steep 

2. sharp. KpyxoH noBopox noporn. 
A sharp turn of the road. 

3. fig. sharp. KpyxoH xapanxep. 
A sharp temper. 

KPblJIO neut., pi. KpHJibH wing 

KpHJio nxpji^H. The wing of a bird. 
KpHJid caMOJiexa. The wing of a 

KPb'IfflA /. roof 

}KeJie3HaH KpHraa. A metal roof. 
Kptima flOMa. The roof of a house. 

KPKimiKA /., gen. pi. -eK lid 

KpHfflKa HaHHHKa. The teapot (tea- 
kettle) lid. 

KCTATH adv. & par en. word by the 
way, on the way 

Kor^a noHflenib b Maraaiin, KCxaxH 
3aHji;H Ha no^xy. When you go to 
the shop, call at the post-office on 
the way. KcxaxH, oh y>Ke npnexaji? 
By the way, has he already come? 

KTO pron., gen., ace. Koro [KaBo], 
dat. KOMy, instr. kbm, prepos. o kom 

Kxo npHmeJi? Who has come? Koro 
Hex B KJiacce? Who is absent from 
the class? KoMy ji;axb KHiiry? Whom 
shall I give the book to? Koro xh 
xaM BHAHHib? Whom do you see 
there? KeM xH HCAOBOJieH? Whom 
are you displeased with? O kom xh 
^yMaenib? Whom are you thinking 
about? H 3Haio, kxo bshji moh cjio- 
Bapb. / know who has taken my 




KTO-HUByAb pron., gen., ace. Koro^ 
HHSyAb [KaBO-], dat. KOMy-nnSyAt, 
instr. KeM-HH5y;i;b, prepos. o kom- 
HH6yAfc somebody, anybody 
KT6-HH6yfl;i> npnineji? Has anybody 
come? GKaH^H K0My-HH6yAi» 06 3Tom. 
Tell somebody about that. 

KTO-TO pron., gen., ace. Koro-To [Ka- 
b6-], dat. KOMy-TO, instr. kgm-to, 
prepos. k6m-to somebody 
Kt6-to Bomeji b KOMHaxy, ho oh 
He BHAeJi, KTO. Somebody entered 
. the room but he could not see who 
it was. 

KVJlA adv. where 

KyAa TLi HAemb? Where are you 
going? HaAO pemHTb, KyAa mh 
noeAGM JiexoM. We must decide where 
we shall go in the summer. 

KVJlA-tmhyJlh adv. somewhere 
IIoJio>KH KHHrH KyAa-HH6yAt H 
noHAeM. Put the books somewhere 
and let's go. 

KYAA-TO adv. somewhere 

H KyAa-To noJiojKHJi cboh KHiirn. 
/ put my books somewhere. Oh Ky- 
Aa-TO ymeJi. He has gone some- 

KYJIAK m., gen. -a fist ^ 

VAapHTb KyjiaKoM no cxojiy. To 
strike the table with one's fist. 


1. culture. IIcTopHH KyJibTypu. 
The history of culture, ^enxejib 
Kyjibxypm. A cultural worker. 

2. crop. 3epH0Bwe Kyjibxypu. Ce- 
real crops. TexHiinecKHe Kyjib- 
xypti. Technical crops. 

3. culture. HeJioBCK SoJibmoii Kyjib- 
xypu. A man of great culture. 

4.: KyJibxypa nponsBOACXBa. Stan- 
dard of production. 
KyJIbXyPHlblfl, -aH, -oe, -bie, short 
form Kyjibxypen, KyJibxypH|a, -0, -w 

1. cultured. KyJibxypnbiH MeJiOBCK. 
A cultured man. Ohh neAOCxa- 
xoHHO KyjibxypHH. They are not 
cultured enough. 

2. only complete form cultural. 
KyJibxypnue cbh3H. Cultural re- 

KVnAlTbCH, -locb, -efflbCH, -ioxch 

imp. to bathe 

KynaxbCfl b Mope. To bathe in the 

KynflTb see nOKyflATb 

KyPfiTb, Kypio, Kj'pHfflb, Kypnx imp. 
qxo?//). noKypnxb, noKypio, no- 
Kypnmb, noKypflx to smoke 
Kypiixb nannpocu. To smoke ciga- 
rettes. Bh Kypnxe? Do you smoke? 
Kypnxe, noHcajiyncxa. Have a 
cigarette, please. 

KyPHI^A /.. pi. KypH 

1. hen. BeJiaa Kypnua. A white 


2. chicken. JKapenaH KypnHa. 
Roast chicken. Cyn c KypanieH. 
Chicken soup. 

KyPC m. 

1. course, series. KpaxKHH Kypc 
HCxdpHH. A short history course. 
Ilpocjiymaxb Kypc JieKUHH no 
JiHxepaxype. To listen to a se- 
ries of lectures on literature. 

2. year of study. GxyAenx Bxoporo 
Kypca. A second-year student. Oh 
fHHXCH Ha xpexbeM Kypce. He is 
in his third year. BxopoH Kypc 
aaHHMaexcH b ayAHxopnii HOMep 
5. The second year students are in 
room No. 5. 

<> BbiTb B Kypce. To be in the 

KyC|OK m., gen. -Ka piece 

BoJibfflou KycoK cbipa. A large 
piece of cheese. KycoK xjieSa. Apiece 
of bread. KycoK caxapa. A lump 
of sugar. 

KyCT m., gen. -a bush 

npHxaxbCH B Kycxax. To hide in 
the bushes. 

KyXIHfl /., gen. pi. -OHb kitchen 
roxoBHXb o6eA Ha Kyxne. To cook 
dinner in the kitchen. 

KymAITb, -K) (1st pers. rarely used), 
-erab, -lox imp, hxo? / />. noKy- 
ma|xb, -10, -emb, -lox to eat 
Kymanxe, nojKajiyiicxa. Help your- 

JI, Ji 

JiArEPIb m., pi. -H camp 

IlHOHepcKHH jiarepb. A Young Pio- 
neers' camp. TypHCTH^ecKHH Jia- 
repb. A tourist camp. 

JlA^HO particle colloq. all right 
Mh ceroAHH noHACM b khho? — 
JIaAHO. "" Shall we go to the pictures 
today?" ''All right.'' 




JIAMOA /. lamp; light 

SjieKTpiiHecKaH JiaMoa. An electric 
lamp. HacTOJibHafl JiaMna. A desk 
lamp. JiaMna b 40 BaxT. A 40-watt 
lamp. JiaMna Ha 127 bojilt. A 
127 -volt bulb. 

JIACKOBlblfl, -aH, -oe, -we, short 
form JiacKOB, -a, -o, -u; adv. jiac- 

1. affectionate, kind. JlacKOBan 
MaTB. An affectionate mother. 
JIacKOBHH B3rJifl;i;. A kind look. 
JIacKOBoe JiHUo. A kind face. 
JIacKOBO yjiH6aTbCH. To smile 

2. fig. gentle. JlacKOBtin Bexep. 
A gentle wind. JlacKOBoe cojih- 
ne. A caressing sun. 


ACHb (proverb). An endearing word 

is like a spring day. 
JIEBlblfiL, -an, -oe, -He left 

JleBaH pyKa, The left hand (arm). 

JleBan nora. The left foot (leg). 

MoH fl;oM Ha jieBOH CTopone yjiHn,Li. 

My house is on the left side of the 

street. ^ 
JlErKlHH, -an, -oe, -ne [-xk-], short 

form jieroK, Jiernla, -6, -ti; adv, 

JierKo; comp. Jierne 

1. light. JlerKan cyMKa. A light bag. 

2. easy. JlerKaH paSoxa. Easy 
work. JlerKaH saAa^a. An easy 
task. 3xy Baflany h JierKo pe- 
niHJi. / solved that task easily. 

3. slight. JlerKHH Mopos. A slight 

4. easy. JlerKHii xapanxep. An easy 

<> JlerKdH npoMbimjieHHOCTb. Light 
industry. JlerKaH MysbiKa. Light 
music, y Hero JierKo na nyme 
(predic. impers.). He feels light- 
JIErKOMb'ICJIEHHIblH, -an, -oe, -bie 

1. light-headed. JlerKOMLicjieHHbm 
HeJioBeK. A light-headed person. 

2. light-headed. JlerKOMbicjieHHWH 
nocxynoK. A light-headed action. 

JIEJ^ m., gen. jib^a ice 

XopomHH Jie^; Ha KaxKe. Good ice 

on the skating-rink. BaJiex na Jihjxy. 

JIEJ|HH|Ofl, -an, -oe, -tie 

1. iee. Jle^HHaH j^opomKa. An ice 

2. fig. icy. JleAHHOH b3tjihjj,. An 
icy look. Oh CKaaaJi axo Jie^H- 
HMM xohom. He said that icily. 
JIEHCjAXb, -y, -Mfflb, -ax imp. r^e? 

1. to lie, to be. Jlewaxb na ^HBane. 
To lie on a divan. KHHrn JiejKax 
Ha cxojie. The books are on the 

2. to lie, to be ill, Jlemaxb b no- 
cxeJiH. To lie in bed. Moik xoBa- 
pnm y>Ke 2 Mecnita jieHtnx b 6oJib- 
HHi;e. My friend has already 
been in hospital for two months. 

<> y Hero cepj;uie ne jicjkht k 
axoH paSoxe. He has a distaste for 
this work. 
JIE3|Tb, -y, -emb, -yx, past Jies, -Jia, 
-Jio, -JiH imp. Ky;i;a? 

1. to climb. Jleaxb na AepeBo. To 
climb a tree. Jlesxb na ropy. To 
climb a mountain. 

2. to get. Jleaxb b BOAy. To get 
into the water. 

3.: Jleaxb b KapMan. To put one's 

hand into one's pocket. 
<> Jleaxb He b cboc acjio (collog.). 
Gf. To poke one's nose into other 
people's affairs. He Jieaxb sa cjio- 
BOM B KapMRH. To havc a ready 

JIEKAPCTBO neut. medicine 

FopbKoe JiCKapcxBo. A bitter medi- 
cine. IlpHHHMaxb JienapcxBO. To 
take medicine. JIcKapcxBO ox Ka- 
mJifl. Cough medicine. 

JIEK^HH /. lecture 

HnxepeCHan JieKHHH. An interesting 
lecture. JleKHHfl no MaxcMaxHKe. 
A lecture on mathematics, ^nxaxb 
(cJiyraaxb) jickuhh. To deliver (to 
listen to) lectures. Ha JieKBtHH 6biJio 
MHoro Hapofla. There were many 
people at the lecture. 

JIEHHBlblK, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
jieHHB, -a, -0, -h; adv. jichmbo lazy 
JleHPiBHH cxyAeHX. A lazy student. 
JleHHBo pa66xaxb. To work lazily. 

JIEHTA /. ribbon 

ToJiySan Jienxa. A pale blue ribbon. 

JIEC m., prepos. o Jiece & b Jiecy; pi. 
jieca wood, forest 

TycxoH Jiec. A dense forest. Mm 
AOJiro ryjiHJiH no oceHHCMy Jiecy. 
We walked in the autumn forest 
for a long time. Ha xeppHXopHH 
CCCP ecxb H jiHcxBeHHwe h xBOHHwe 




jieca. There are deciduous and 
coniferous forests on the territory of 
the USSR. 

JIECTUHI^A /. staircase 

niHpoKaH JiecTHHi^a. A broad stair- 
case. IIoAHHTbCfl no JiecTHHi5e. To 
go up the stairs. 3x3 JIeCTHH^a 
Be;i;eT na BTopoH axam. This stair- 
case leads to the first floor. 

JIETA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. to fly 
IItijiiu JiexaioT. Birds fly. GaMOJie- 

TH H3 MOCKBM jieiaioT B JleHHHrpflifl 
KajK/tMH neuh. Planes fly from Mos- 
cow to Leningrad every day. 
JIE|T£Tb, -Hy, -Tiifflb, -THT imp. to 

1. to fly. 3tot caMOJiex jiexiiT b 
MocKBy. That plane is flying to 
Moscow. nxHi];w Jiexax na ror. 
The birds are flying to the south. 

2. fig. to fly. Bwcxpo JiexHX Bpe- 
MH. Time flies. 

JIETHlHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne 

1. summer. JlexnnH jieuh. A sum- 
mer day. 

2. summer. JTexnee njiaxbe, najib- 
x6. A summer dress, overcoat. 

3. summer. JlexHne KanHKyjiLi. 
Summer holidays. 

JIETO neut., no pi. summer 

>KapKoe cyxoe Jiexo. A dry hot 
summer. HpoBecxH jiexo ua Mope, 
Ha ji, To spend the summer at 
the seaside, in the country. 

JIETOM adv. in summer 

JlexoM fl oxfl.Mxaio na Mope. In 
summer I rest at the seaside. 

JIETHHK m. flyer 

O noABHre JiexHHKa MapecbeBa 
3Haex Becb Mnp. The whole world 
knows about the flyer Maresyev's 

JIE^flTb, Jie^y, jiennmb, Jieiax imp. 
Kor6? Hxo? ox Hero? He M?/ 
p. BMJienjHXb, -y, nmb, -ax to 

Bpan JieHHx SoJibuoro ox rpnnna. 
The doctor is treating the patient for 
the 'flu. 


JIH particle whether 

He xoxHxe jih bh nonxn b xeaxp? 
Don't you want to go to the theatre? 
Ecxb JIH y Bac axa KHnra? Have 
you got that book? Oh cnpocnji, (ne) 
noHfly JIH fl ceroAHfl b SnGjiHoxcKy. 

He asked whether I should go to 
the library today. 
JIHHfilflKA /., gen. pi. -CK 

1. ruler. 

2. line. TexpaAt b jiHHCHKy. A 
ruled copy-book. 

JlfiHHH /. 

1. line. IIpHMafl jihhhh. A straight 
line. KpHBafl jihhhh. A curved 
line. IlapaJiJiejibHHe jiiiHHn. 
Parallel lines. 

2. fig. policy. JIhhhh napxHH. The 
policy of a party. 

JIHCT^ m., pi. jiHcxbH, JiifcxbCB leaf 
OceHHHe JEHCXbfl. Autumn leaves. 
JlHCXbH B ca^y no>KejixeJ[H. The 
leaves in the garden have turned 

JIHCT^ m., pi. JiHcxw, JiHCxoB sheet 
JIhcx 6yMarH. A sheet of paper. 
JIhcx wejiesa. A sheet of iron. 


1. literature. CoBexcKan Jinxepaxy- 
pa. Soviet literature. Apa6cKaH 
jiHxepaxypa. Arabic literature. 
HsyH^xb JiHxepaxypy. To study 

2. literature. Jlnxepaxypa no axoMy 
Bonpocy. The literature on this 

JlHTEPAXyPHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we liter- 

JlHxepaxypHHH hsmk. The literary 
language'. Jlnxepax^pnoe npoHSBe- 
ABHHe. A work of literature. Jlnie- 
paxypuHH KpyHtoK. A literary so- 

JIHTb, Jib|io, -emb, -lox; imper. Jienl 
jieHxel imp. h x o? to pour 
JiHXb BoAy B cxaKan. To pour water 
into the glass. 

<> AoJKAb JibCT KaK n3 BeApa. It 
is raining cats and dogs. 

JIHU;0 neut., pi. Jiiina face 

1. face. BjieAHoe jihho. A pale 
face. PyMHHoe jihho.^ A rosy 
face, no ee Jinny xeKyx cJieau. 
Tears are streaming down her 
cheeks . ^ m 

2. face. Oh cxohji JinnoM k oKHy. fl 
He stood with his face turned to 

the window. 
<> FoBopHTb B Jieuo hto-jihSg ko- 
My-JiH6o. To say something to 
somebody's face. BwcTynaxb or 
jiaua Kor6-JiH6o. To speak on 






somebody's behalf. Ha hcm jih- 
iia Hex! He looks awful! 
JIflHII|bIfl, -aH, -oe, -He personal, 

JlHHHaH c66cTBeHH0CTb. Personal 
property. JIPiHHoe ^eJio. One's pri- 
vate business. 
JIflfflfllHfl, -HH, -ee, -He 

1. extra, spare. Hex jih y Bac 
jiHfflHero 6iiJieTa? Have you got 
a spare ticket? 

2. unnecessary. 3th Benin JiiiniHHe, 
fl He B03bMy HX c co66h. These 
things are unnecessary; I won't 
take them with me. 

JIOB m., gen. Ji6a forehead 

BticoKHH Jio6. A high forehead. 
HIT3KHH Jio6. A low forehead. 


imp. K r 6? H T 0? hcm?//). hoh- 
MalTb, -10, -enib, -iot 

1. to catch, IIoHMaTb mah. To catch 
the ball. 

2. to catch. JIoBHTb pH6y cexbio, 
y^OHKOH. To catch fish with a 
net, fishing-rod. JIobhtb nxnn;. 
To catch birds. 

3. fig. to catch, to devour. JIobiitb 
B3rJifl;i;. To catch somebody's eye. 
JIoBHTb CJiOBa. To devour every 

<> JIoBHTb Ha cJiOBe. To take some- 
body at his word. Oh noiiMaji ceSn 
Ha MucjiH, ^TO ayMaex o neii. He 
caught himself thinking about 
JI0BK|HB[, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form 
JiOBOK, JioBKa, jiobkIo, -h; adv. jiob- 


1. agile. JIoBKHH cnopxcMeH. An 
agile sportsman. 

2. adroit. JIobkhh npHjKOK. An 
adroit jump. MaJibHHK jiobko 
BJiea Ha Aepeno. The boy climbed 
the tree adroitly. 

JIOAlKA /., gen. pi. -ok boat 

B Jioj^HQ Shjio xpn ^eJiOBena. There 
were three people in the boat. Ka- 
xaxbCH Ha JioAKe. To go boating. 

JIOHClflTbCH, -ycb, -nnibCH, -axcn 
imp. Ky^a? / p. Jie^b, Jifllry, 
->Kenib, -ryx, past Jier, Jierji|a, -6, 
-h; imper. jiar! JiHrxe! to lie 
fl Jier Ha ^HBan. / lay down on the 
divan, fl pano Jiowycb cnaxb. / go 
to bed early. 

JI05K|KA /., gen. pi. -en spoon 

GxoJioBbie H ^aHHwe ji6>kkh. Ta- 
blespoons and teaspoons. IIpHHHMaTb 
jieKapcxBo no ctojioboh JioJKKe xpn 
paaa b Aeub. To take a tablespoon 
of medicine three times a day. 

JIOMA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. h x o? / 
p. cji0Ma|xb, -K), -enib, -lox 

1. to break. CjioMaxb najiny. To 
break a stick. PeSenoK JioMaex 
HrpymKH. The child breaks its 
toys . 

2. fig.: Oh floJiro JiOMaJi rojiosy 
uaA xpy/i,HOH saAaneH. He cudg- 
elled his brains over the diffi- 
cult problem for a long time. 

JIOMAlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp. / 
p. cjiOMa|xbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -lOXCH to 

MeJi JiOMaexcH. The chalk crum- 
bles. Eepo CJioMaJiocb. The nib has 

JIOniA/tb /., gen. pi. Jiomaj^eu, instr. 
JiomaAbMH horse 

PaSonan JidmaAi>. A draught horse. 
EsAHXb na JioraaAH. To ride a 
horse . 

JiyK m., no pi. onion(s) 

SeJieHHH JiyK. Spring onions. Mh- 
co c JiYKOM. Meat with onions. 

JIYHA /.* moon 

Ha He6e no^uHJiacb MOJio^an Jiyna. 
A new moon rose in the sky. Co- 
BexcKHe yqeuHe c$OTorpa{|)MpoBaJiH 
o6paxHyio cxopony Jlynu. Soviet 
scientists photographed the reverse 
side of the Moon. 

JIYH m., gen. -a ray, beam 
JTyHH coJiHua. Sunbeams. 


1. comp. of adj. xopomnu better. 
Tboh pncynoK jiyqme, ^eM moh. 
Your drawing is better than mine . 

2. comp. of adv. xopomo better, 
nnmnxe jiyqme! Write more 

predic. imper s. BoJibHOMy cxaJio 
Jiynme. The sick man felt better. 

3. particle rather. Mne He xo^excH 
njijii B xeaxp, hohagm Jiynme 
B KHHO. / don't want to go to 
the theatre, let's rather go to the 




<> CTapbiil Apyr jiyqme hoblix 

flBVX (proverb). An old friend 
is better than two new ones. 
Jlyqme nosAHO, hgm HHKorAa. 

Better late than never. Jlyime 
Bcero. Best of all. KaK m6h{ho 
Jiyqme. As best as one can. 
JI^HiniHfl, -an, -ee, -ne superl. of 
xopomnii the best 
9to Jiyninee 3AaHHe b ropofle. This 
is the best building in the city. 
3x0 Jiy^fflHii cxyAeHx naineH rpyn- 
ntr. He is the best student in our 
group. 9xa KHtira — Jiyqmee npoH3- 
BCAeHHe axoro nncaxejiH. This book 
is the best work of this writer. 
JII>I>KIT pi., sing. JibiHta skis 

CJiOMaxL JiHJKH. To break one's skis. 
Ouii JiiooHx X0A»Tb Ha JiH>Kax. 
They like to go skiing. Ka?KAoe 
BocKpeceHbe mw KaxaeMca Ha jim- 
>Kax. Every Sunday we go skiing. 
.lK)BHM|blH, -aH, -oe, ue 

1. beloved, favourite. JIio6riMafl fle- 
ByniKa. One's beloved girl. JIio- 
oHMtiH cwH. One's favourite son. 

2. beloved, favourite. JIio6hmhii 
ropoA. One's beloved city. JlioSii- 
MLiri HHcaxeJib. One's favourite 
writer. JIio6HMaH KHiira. One's 
favourite book. JIio6HMoe 6jik)ao. 
One's favourite dish. 

JIIOBHTb, jiio6jii6, JnoSunib, jik)6hx 
imp. K r 6? q X 0? or ~\- inf. / 
p. nojiK)6HXb, nojiio6jii6, noJuoSnmb, 


1. to love. JlK)5HXb poAHHy. To 
love one's country. JIiodnTb Maxb. 
To love one's mother. IlojiioSiixb 
AeBymKy. To fall in love with a 
girl. JlioSrixb jiHxepaxypy, pa66- 
xy. To love literature, work. 

2. to like. H jiioSjipo nrpaxb na 
poHJie. / like to play the piano. 

JIK)B|OBATLCH, -yiocb, yembCH, 
-yioxcH imp. k e m? h e m? / />. no- 
Jiio6|oBaxbcH, -yiocb, -yeiubCH, 
-yioxcH to admire 


admire the sunrise. JlK)6oBaxbCH 
peSeHKOM. To admire a child. 
JIIOBOBb /., gen. jiioSbh, instr. Jiio- 
SoBbK) K KOMy? K HCMy? love 
ITepBafl JiioSoBb. One's first love. 
CqacxJiHBafl JiioSoBb. A happy love. 
Heciacxnafl JiroSoBb, An unhappy 

love. JIioSoBb K poAHHe, k jiioahm, 
K AGTHM, K pa56xe, K HayKe. Love of 
one's country, of people, of children, 
of work, of science. Oh c JiioCoBbK) 
CACJiaJi 3xy Ben;b. He made this 
thing with enthusiasm. 
JIK)B|Ofl, -aH, -6e, -tie 

1. any. IIpHxoAHTe ko mhc b jiio- 
66e BpeMH. Come to see me at 
any time. Oh 6liji roxoB bmooji- 
HflXb jiK)5yio pa66xy. He was 
ready to do any work. 

2. used as n. anyone. JlioSoii saw 
CKaJKex, TAe naxoAHxcH Mexpo. 
Anyone will tell you where the 
underground station is. 

JIK)BOnb'ITH|bin, -aa, -oe, -Me 

1. curious, JIioGonbixHLiM neJioBeK. 
A curious person. 

2. fig. inquisitive. JIioSonwxHLiH 
BsrJiHA. An inquisitive eye. 

JlK)Jl,H pi., gen., ace. jik)a6h, dat. 
JiiS^flM, instr. jiiOAbMH, prepos. o 
jiiOAHx; sing. nejioBeK m. people 

M, M 

MArA3HH m. shop 


food shop. KoHAHxepcKHH Maraaiin. 
A confectionery. yHHBepcaJibHHii 
MaraauH. A department store. Ky- 
ni'ixb npoAynxLi b MarasHHe. To 
buy foodstuffs at a shop. 

MAfl ni. May 

Tenjibiii Man. A warm May. H po- 
AHJiCH B Mae. / was born in May. 

MAJI, -a, -6, -hi short adj. (cf. 
MAJIEHbKHfl) too small 
3xH 5oximKH cxaJiH Majibi Majib^H- 
Ky. These boots have become too 
small for the boy. 

MAJIEHbKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short 
form Maji, MaJia, MaJio, Majibi; comp. 
MeHbme (q. v.) 

1. small. MajieHbKaH KOMHaxa. A 
small room. HeJioBCK MajieHLKo- 
ro pocxa. A short man. 

2. little. MaJieHbKHe acth. Little 
children. Tm eme Maji. You are 
too young yet. 

MAJIO adv., comp. MeHbme (q. v.) little 
Oh MaJio roBopnx, ho mhofo Ae- 
Jiaex. He says little, but he does a 
lot. Oh eJi Majio Maca. He ate little 




meat. Ha CTenax BHceno Majio 
KapiHH. There were few pictures on 
the walls. 

MAJIBHHK m. boy 

BocnHTaHHHH MajibHHK. A well- 
bred boy. MaJibHHK cbmh Jiex. A 
seven-year-old boy. 

MAMA /. mummy 

MAPI K A /., gen. pi. -oK postage 

HoHToBaH MapKa. A postage stamp. 
KoJiJiGKitHfl MapoK. A collection of 
stamps. HaKJieHTb MapKy. To stick 
a stamp. 

MAPT m. March 

B Mapxe HaHHHaeT TaaTL cner. In 
March the snow begins to thaw. 

MACJIO neut., no pi. 

1. butter. CJiHBo^Hoe MacJio. But- 
ter. XJieS c MacjioM. Bread and 

2. oil. IIoAcoJiHe^Hoe MacJio. Sun- 
flower-seed oil. 

MACTEP m., pi. -a 

1.: HacoBOH Macxep. A watchmaker. 

2.: TypreneB — saMeHaxeJibUHn 
MacTep nenaajKa. Turgenev is 
extremely skilful in portraying 

3. foreman. Macxep b nexe. The 
foreman in a shop. 

4. master. Macxep cnopxa. A rnas- 
ter of sport. 

<> Macxep na Bce pyKH. Jack-of- 
MACTEPCK|AH /., gen. oh 

1. repair shop. MacxepcKan no pe- 
MOHxy nacoB. A watch repair 
shop. PaSoxaxb b MexannHecKOH 
MacxepcKOH. To work at a ma- 
chine shop. 

2. studio. MacxepcKafl xyAOJKHHKa. 
An artist's studio. 

MATEMATHKA /., no pi. mathemat- 

BticmaH MaxeiviaxHKa. Higher mathe- 
matics. 3K3aMeH no MaxeMaxHKe. 
An examination in mathematics. 
Hayqaxb MaxeMaxHKy. To study 

1. material. Maxepnaji j^jia ^Hccep- 
xan;HH. Material for one's thesis. 
GoSnpaxb MaxepnajiM o jkh3hh 
HseecxHoro nncaxeJifl. To col- 


lect material on the life of a 
well-known writer. 
2. material. Maxepnaji na kocxiom. 
Material for a suit. lUeJiKOBHiH 
Maxepnaji, Silk material. 

MATPOC m. deckhand, sailor, seaman 
GMeJiHH Maxpoc. A brave seaman. 
GjiyjKHXb MaxpocoM na KopaSjie. 
To serve as a deckhand on a ship. 

MATb /., gen., dat., prepos. Maxepn, 
instr. Maxepbio; pi. Maxepn, Maxe- 
pen, etc. mother 

JlK)6HMaH Maxb. One's beloved moth- 
er, y Maxepn ^Boe ^exen. The 
mother has two children. 
<> Po^HHa-Maxb. Mother country. 

MAXATb, Mamy, Mamemb, Marayx or 
colloq. Maxalio, -emb, -lox imp. k o- 
M y? H e M?/p. MaxHJyxb, -y, -emb, 
-yx to Wave, to flap 
Maxaxb njiaxKoM na npomaHbe. 
To wave good-bye with one's handker- 
chief. Maxaxb pyKon xoBapnmy. 
To wave one's hand to a friend. 
nxHn;a Mamex KpwJibHMH, The bird 
is flapping its wings. 


MAmflHA /. 

1. machine, engine. IlapoBaH Ma- 
mnna. A steam engine. CejibCKO- 
X03flHcxBeHHafl Maraima. An 
agricultural machine. ElBenHafl 
Mamnna. A sewing machine. 

2. motor-car. JlerKOBan Mamiina. 
A passenger-car. FpysoBafl Ma- 
mnna. A lorry. Exaxb na Mamri- 
ne. To ride in a car. 

MEBEJIb /., no pi. furniture 

MarKan MeSeJib. Upholstered furni- 
ture. Kymixb noByio MeSeJib. To 
buy new furniture. 

MEJi;AJIb /. medal 

HarpaHtASTb Me^aJibio. To award a 
medal. OKomnxb mKOJiy c sojio- 
xoH Me;;aJibio. To get a gold medal 
on leaving school. GnopxcMen 
aasoeBaJi Me^ajib. The sportsman 
won a medal. 

MEfl;BE/Jb m. bear 

BeJiHH MCABeAb. A polar bear. 

MEJ^Waj&UA /., no pi. medicine 

MEAHqflHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne med- 

Meflnn;HHCKHH HHCxnxyx, A medi- 
cal institute. 




MEAJIEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv. 

MGAJieHHO slow 

MeAJicHHHH Bajibc. A slow waltz. 
FoBopHTb MGA'fieHHO. To Speak slow- 
ly. Pa6oTaTi> MGAJieHHO. To work 

MEJKAy prep. + instr. between 

Me>KAy mKa(|)OM h nMCbMeHHWM 
CTOJioM CTOHJio KpccJio. There was 
an armchair between the bookcase 
and the desk. 3to npoH3oniJi6 
MCJKAY 1942 H 1945 roAOM. That 
happened between 1942 and 1945. 
J^a sApaBCTByex Mnp ii APy?K6a 
MejKAY HapoAaMHl Long live peace 
and friendship between peoples! 
<> MewAy npoiHM. By the way. 
MeacAy HaMH. Between ourselves. 
Me>KAy HaMH roBopa. Strictly be- 
tween you and me. 

MESKAyHAPOAHlblH, an, -oe, -ue 

MeH^AynapoAHLie OTHoraenHH. Inter- 
national relations. MejKAyHapoAHaH 
oSciaHOBKa. The international situ- 

MEJIKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne; adv. MeJiKo; 
comp. MeJiL^e 

1. small. MeJiKan pw6a. Small 

2. small. MeJiKan Moneia. Small 

3. flat. MeJiKaa lapeJiKa. A flat 

4. petty. MeJiKaa 6ypjKya3HH. Petty 

5. narrow. MeJiime HHxepecti. Nar- 
row interests. 

6. shallow. 3Aecb mcjiko. IVs 
shallow here. 

MEJIOH|b /., gen. pi. -m 

1. no pi. change. B MarasMne Mne 
AaJiH CAa^iy MeJio^bio. They gave 
me the change in small coins in the 

2. trifle. Oh aaHnMaeiCH KaKWMH- 
TO MeJio^aMH. He is busy with 
some trifles. MeJiOHH >kh3Hh. 
The trifles of life. 3x0 mcjiohh. 
These are trifles. 

MEHEE adv. less 

KaxaxbCH na Jitiwax ne Meeee hh- 

xepecHo, qeM KaxaxbCH na KonbKax. 

Skiing is no less interesting than 


<> TeM He Menee. Nevertheless. 


1. comp. of adj. MajieHbKHii small- 
er. Tboh KOMHaxa Meebme mo^h. 
Your room is smaller than 

2. comp. of adv. Majio less. Tu 3a- 
HHMaembCH M^Hbme, neM naAO. 
You spend less time on your 
studies than you ought to. 

MEHbmHHCTBO neut. minority 
BojibmHHcxBo Ha coSpaHHH roJio- 
coBajio «3a», MeHbmHHCXBo — «np6- 
xnB». The majority at the meeting 
voted for, and the minority voted 

MEHfllTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch 

1. qCM? C K e M? p. 05MeHflIXbCH, 

-HDCb, -embCH, -IOXCH to exchange. 
MeHHXbCH MapKaMH c xoBa- 
pHmeM. To exchange postage 
stamps with a friend. 05MeHflXb- 
^H MneHHHMH. To exchange opin- 

2. p. H3MeHHXbCH, H3MeHK)Cb, HSMe- 

mirabCH, H3MeHflxcH to change. 
rioroAa mchhcxch. The weather 
is changing. Hacxpoenne mc- 
HHexcH, The mood is changing. 
IIoroAa pesKO nsMennjiacb. The 
weather has changed sharply. 
MEP A /. 

1. measure. Mepbi a-JIHhli. Measures 
of length. MepH Beca. Measures 
of weight. 

2. usu. pi. measures. PemnxeJibHHe 
Mepu. Decisive measures. Jlpn- 
HHXb MepLi. To take measures. 3xa 
Mepa ne noMorJia. This measure 
didn't help. 

<> 3to HeHHTepecHO, ho no Kpaii- 
Hcii Mepe nojieano. This is not 
interesting but at least it is 
MEP3H|yTb, -y, -emb, -yx, past Mepa, 
-Jia, -Jio, -JiH imp./p. 3aMep3Hlyxb, 
-y, -emb, -yx, past 3aMep3, -Jia, 
-jio, -JIH to freeze 
y MenH 3aMep3JiH pymi. My hands 
are frozen. 3hm6h h BcerAa Mepa- 
Hy. / always feel cold in winter. 
MEPjHTb, -K», -nmb, -hx imp. q x o?/ 
p. noMepInxb, -lo, -nmb, -hx {or 
npHMepnxb) to try on 
Mepnxb KOCXiOM. To try on a suit. 
IIoMepHxb xy(J)JiH. To try on shoes. 




M£PTB|bIII, -an, -oe, -He dead 
MepxBoe tcjio. A dead body. 
<> MepxBafl TnmHHa. Dead silence. 
Cnaxb MepxBbiM chom. To sleep 
like a log. 

MECTHIWfl, -an, -oe, -He local 

MecTHHe o6HHaH. Local customs. 
MecTHHe minejin noKasajin xypnc- 
TaM j^opory. The local inhabitants 
showed the tourists the way. 

MECT|0 neut., pi. -a, mcct, -aM, etc. 

1. seat. 3to mccto cbo66;iho? 
Is this seat vacant? 3x0 Mecxo 
saHflxo. This seat is taken. Vcxy- 
DHXB Mecxo weHiDiHHe. To offer 
one's seat to a woman. Bcxaxb c 
Mecxa. To stand up. 

2. place, spot. JKHBonHCHoe Mecxo, 
A picturesque spot. 

<> 3to ero 6ojibn6e Mecxo. This 
is his sore spot. 

MECflli; m. month 

SHMHHe MecHDiH. Winter months. 
5 Mecflii;eB uadaji. 6 months ago. 
B KaKOM Mecfli];e bbi poAHJiiicb? In 
which month were you born? 

METAJIJI m. metal 

^epHHe MexajiJiH. Ferrous metals. 
I^BexHHe MexaJiJiH. Non-ferrous 

METAJlJIflHECKIHIl, -aH, -oe, -ne 

METAJIJiyprflHECKlHH, -aH,-oe,-He 

MexaJiJiyprH^ecKHH saBOA. A metal- 
lurgical plant. MexaJiJiyprwHecKan 
npoMbimjieHHOcxb. The metallurgi- 
cal industry. 

WEsTOJl m. method 

j3,HaJieKXHHecKHH MexoA. The dia- 
lectical method. HpaBHJibHHH Mexo^. 
The correct method. IIpHMeHHXb h6- 
BHe Mexo^H, To use new methods. 
IIoJibBOBaxbCH Mexo^OM. To employ 
a method. 

METP m. metre 

KBaj^paxHHH MCxp. A square metre. 
KySHHecKHH Mexp. A cubic metre. 
5 MexpoB Maxepnajia. 5 metres of 

METPO neut., indecl. underground rail- 

GxIhi^hh Mexpo. An underground 
station. Exaxb na Mexpo. To go by 
the underground. KaK npoHxii k 


Mexpo? What's the way to the 
underground station? 

MEX m., prepos. o Mexe & na Mexy; 
pi. -a fur 

JIhchh Mex. Fox fur. IlymHCXHH 
Mex. Soft fur. 

MEXAHH3AI^HH /., no pi. mechani- 

Mexamisai^Hfl xpy^a. The mechani- 
sation of labour. MexaHHsai^HH npo- 
n;eccoB nponsBoflCXBa. The mechani- 
sation of the production processes 

MEXAHH3flP|0BATb, -yro, -yemb, 
-yiox imp. & p. hxo? to mechanise 
MexaHH3HpoBaxb xpy^. To mecha- 
nise labour. MexanHanpoBaxb ceJib- 
CKoe X03HHCXB0. To mechanise ag- 

MEXAHHK m. mechanic 

B i^exe paSoxaJi cxapHH MexannK. 
An old mechanic worked in the shop. 


MexaHHKOM. The flyer was on very 
friendly terms with his mechanic. 
MEXAHfl^ECKinn, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. of mechanics. MexaniiHecKHe 3a- 
KOHbi. Laws of mechanics. 

2. mechanics. MexauMqecKHH ^a- 
Kyjibxex. The mechanics depart- 

3. mechanical. MexannqecKaH ciiJia. 
Mechanical strength. 

MEXOBlOfl, -an, -de, -Lie fur 

MexoBoe naJibxo. A fur coat. Mexo- 
Ban mauKa. A fur cap. 

MEMTA /., gen. pi. not used dream 
Me^xLi 6yAyn];eM. Dreams of the 
future. Menxbi o cnacxbe. Dreams 
of happiness. MeHxa Been >kh3hh. 
The dream of one's whole life. 
OcymecxBHXb cbok) Me^xy. To ac- 
complish one's dream. Me^XH c6h- 
Jir'fCb. One's dreams have come true. 

MEHTA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. o 
K 6 M? H e M? to dream 
Me^xaxb o CHacxbe. To dream of 
happiness. Menxaxb o nyxemecx- 
BHHX. To dream about travelling. 

MEIHAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k o- 
M y? H e M y? + i^f- I P- noMema|xb, 
-10, -erab, -lox to prevent, to hinder 
Pa^Ho Memajio cxy^enxy sauHMaxb- 
CH. The radio prevented the student 
from studying. 

MEIIIIOK m., gen. -Ka sack 

MemoK MyKH. A sack of flour. 




^ KynHTfa Koxa b MemKe (prov- 
erb). Cf. To buy a pig in a poke. 

MHJIMUHOHfiP m. militiaman 

06paTi'iTbCH K MHJiHi;HOHepy. To 
ask a militiaman. 

MflJI|blQ, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
MHJI, MHJia, MHJi|o, -u iiice 
MiiJiafl AesyfflKa. A nice girl. Mii- 
Jioe JiHqo. A nice face. 
<> C MHjiLiM pau u B majiame 
(proverb), Cf. Love in a cottage. 


1. adv. by. IIpoHTH mhmo. To pass by. 

2. prep. + gen. past. Uoesji npoexaJi 


The train went past the station 
without stopping. 

MHHHCTEPCTBO neut. ministry 

MHHHCiepcTBo 4>HHaHC0B. The Min- 
istry of Finance. MnniicTepcTBO 
HHOCxpaHHtix j^eji. The Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs. 

MHHflCTP m. minister 

BoeHHtiH MnHHCxp. The War Min- 
ister. Mhhhctp (|)HHaHCOB. The 
Minister for Finance. Mhhhctp 
Bucmero o6pa30BaHHH. The Minis- 
ter of Higher Education. IlpeMbep- 
MHHHCip. The Prime Minister. Co- 
Bex MHHHCxpoB. The Council of 
Ministers. npeAccAaxejib coBexa mh- 
HHCxpoB. The Chairman of the Coun- 
cil of Ministers. 

MHHytA /. minute 

niecTbjiecHX MHHVX. Sixty minutes. 
GeH^ac HexHpe MHHyxH Bxopoio. 
It is four minutes past one. Genqac 
6e3 j^ecHXii Mnnyx ;i;Ba. It is ten 
minutes to two. 

<> IIpuxoAHTe K HaM B CBo66aHyio 
MoeyTy. Come and see us any time 
you can. Cmo MHHyTy. Just a 

MHPi m. 

1. no pi. universe. TeopHH o npo- 
HCXojKAeHHH MPipa. /4 theory on 
the origin of the universe. 

2. world, ^pyrae Mnpw. Other 

3. no pi. world. Oh o6'i>e3AHJi Becb 
MHp. He travelled all over the 
world. riepBHH B MHpe. The first 
in the world. Becb MHp. The 
whole world. 

MHP2 m., no pi. peace 

BoHHa H MHp. War and peace. 

AxoM AJIH MHpa. Atom for peace. 
Mnpy MHpl Peace to the world! 
3aKJiK)HHXb MHp. To concludc peace. 
noAUHcaxb MHP To sign a peace 
MflPHblft, an, oe, -ue adj. of MHpa 

1. peace. Mnpnue oxHomeHHH. Peace- 

ful relations. 

2. peace, peaceful. Mnpnoe BpeMH. 
Peace time. Mhphhh xpy^. Peace- 
ful labour. Mupnoe cxpoH- 
xejibcxBO. Peaceful construction. 

3.: Mhphlih ^oroBop. A peace 
treaty. MnpHHe neperoBopu. 
Peace talks. 

MHPOB|0fl, -an, -6e, -tie adj. of 
MHpoBafl BOHHa. World War. Mh- 
poBoH pwHOK. World market. Mh- 
poBSH cJiaBa. World fame. IlHca- 
xejib c MHpoBMM HMCHeM. A world- 
famous writer. 

MHPOJIIOBflBILlH, -an, -oe, -we peace- 

MnpojiiooiiBafl nojiHXHKa. Peaceful 
policy. MnpojnoGiiBHe napoAM- Peace- 
loving nations. 

MtlTHHr m. meeting, rally 

MwTHHr npoxecxa. A meeting of 
protest. MtixHHr b noAAepJKKy... A 
rally in support of... Mhxhhf b aa- 
miixy Koro/^iero-JiHSo. A meeting 
in defence of somebody I something. 
BbicxyHHXb Ha MnxHHre c pe^bio. 
To make a speech at a meeting. 

MJIAflmiHn, -an, ee, -ne younger 
MJiaATUHH 6paT. A younger (the 
youngest) brother. MJiaamafl cecxpa. 
A younger sister. 

MHEHHE neut. opinion 

CaMOcxoffxeJibHoe Mnenue. An inde- 
pendent opinion. Flo .MOCMy wne 
HHK). In my opinion. BbiCKasaxb 
MHeHHe. To give an opinion Paa- 
Aejifixb qbe-JiH6o MHenne. To share 
somebody's opinion. 06MeHflXbCH 
MHeHHHMH. To exchange opinions. 
Bbixb BbicoKoro (neBHCOKoro, xo- 
pomero, nJioxoro) MHennn o hcjio- 
B^Ke (o KHHre). To think highly 
{not much, much, bad) of a man 
(of a book). 


1. followed by n. in pi. many. MHorHO 

cxpaHH. Many countries. 

2. used as n. many. MHorne aaHHMa- 



K)TCH cnopTOM. Many people go in 
for sport. 
MHOrO adv., comp. 66jibine (q. v.) 

1. a lot. Mnoro pa66TaTb. To work 
a lot. 

2. many, much, a lot. Mnoro Jiio- 
flefi. Many people. Mnoro neHer. 
Much money. Mnoro fleJia A lot 
of things to do. Mnoro napoAa. 
A lot of people. 

MHOrOE a lot 

Mne em;e Mnoroe na^o czt^Jiaxb. 

I've still got a lot of things to do. 
MOrflJIA /. grave 
MOryH|Hfl, -an, -ee, -ne mighty, 


Moryqan crpana. A mighty country, 

Moryqan pena. A mighty river. 

Moryqan apMHH. A mighty army. 

MoryHHH roJioc. A powerful voice. 
M05KET BblTb maybe, perhaps 

MoJKeT 6litb, h npncAy ceroAna. 

/ may come today. MomeT 6LiTb, sto 

H laK. Perhaps, that is so. 
M05KH0 K M y? + inf. 

1. it is possible, can. 3to m6>kho 
caeJiaTb 3a xpn ahh. This can be 
done in three days. 

2. may. MoJKno bshtb Kniiry? May 
I take the book? Moh^ho bohth? 
May I come in? BojibnoMy mojk- 
no ryjiHTb TOJibKO fl,Ba qaca. The 
sick man is allowed to walk only 
two hours. 

M03r m., no pi. 

FojiOBHoH M03r. The brain. Cnnn- 

HOH M03r, The spinal cord. 
MOfl, MOH, Moe, MOH pron. my mine 

Moh flOM. My house. Moh ccMbfi. 

My family. Moe naJibxo. My coat. 

Mon ApysbH. My friends. 3x0 Moe. 

It's mine. 
MOKPIMA, -an, -oe, He, short form 

MOKp, MOKpa, MOKpIo, -w; adv. 

MOKpo wet 

MoKpan ojiemjia. Wet clothes. Mok- 

pHe KpwmH. Wet roofs. Bijxepexb 

MOKpbie pyKH. To dry one's wet 

hands. / predic. impers. Ha yjiHue 

MOKpo. It is wet outside. 
MOJIHHH /. lightning 

HpKan MOJIHHH. A bright lightning. 

CsepKHyjia m6jihhh. Lightning 

flashed. Mojihhh y^apajia b ^om. 

The house was struck by lightning. 

MOJIO^EHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He youth 
MoJiOAejKHHH Benep An evening- 
party for young people. MoJiOAeH«- 
nan dpHra^a. Youth team. 

MOJlOJ^mh /., no pi. youth • 

MOJIO^IED;, pi. -HM used as pred. 
fine boy/girl 

Ona y nac MOJiOAenI She is a fine 

MOJlOmOH, -an, -oe, -tie, short form 
MOJiOA, MOJiOfl;a, m6jioa|o, -h 

1. young. Mojio^oH qejioBeK. A 
young man. On oienb mojio^. 
He is very young. 

2. young, new. xMojio^oe ^epcBO. A 
young tree. Mojioaoh Kapxo^eJib. 
New potatoes. 

MOJIO^OCTb /., no pi. youth 

GHacxjiiiBafl MoJio^ocxb. A happy 
youth. B MOJiOAOCxn on xopomo 
neJi. He sang well in his youth. 

MOJTOKO neut., no pi. milk 

CBmee mojioko. Fresh milk. Khuh- 
Henoe mojioko. Boiled milk. Cry- 
mennoe mojioko. Condensed milk. 
K6(|)e c MOJiOKOM. Coffee and milk. 
Kama na mojioko. Milk cereal pudd- 
ing. GxaKan MOJiOKa. A glass of milk. 

MOJIOHHIblH [-mn-l, -an, -oe, -ne 

PvloJio^uHH cyn. Milk soup. Mojioh- 
nan Kama. Milk cereal pudding. 
MojioHHBie upojiyKThi. Dairy produce. 

MOJIHA adv. in silence 

Oh AOJiro MoJina cMoxpeJi na nero. 
He looked at him for a long time 
in silence. 

MOJIH|ATb, -y, -limb, -ax imp. to 
keep silent 

Oh MOJiHaji BCK) ^opory. He kept 
silent all the way. 

MOMEHT m. moment 

yfloSnHH MOMenx. A convenient 
moment. B 3X0X MOMenx. At that 

MOH ETA /. coin 

Bojioxan Monexa. A gold coin. Gxa- 
pijnnaH Monexa. An old coin. 
<>MejiKafl MOHexa. Small change. 

MOPjE neut., pi. -n sea 

Exaxb MopeM. To go by sea. Ox^h- 
xaxb na Mope. To rest at the sea- 
side. Hepnoe Mope. The Black Sea. 
CpejiHseMHoe Mope. The Mediter- 
ranean Sea. /fig. Mope rojioe. A sea 
of heads. 




MOP05KEHOE neut., no pi. ice-cream 
CJiHBOHHoe, moKOJiaAHoe, opexoBoe, 
^pyKTOBoe MopoJKeHoe. Cream, 
chocolate, nut, fruit ice-cream. 

MOP03 m. frost 


3U. There were severe frosts the 
whole winter. CeroAHH 10 rp^AycoB 
Mopoaa. It is 10 degrees below zero 
MOPCK|Ofl, -an, -6e, -lie 

1. sea. MopcKaH Bo^a. Sea water. 
MopcKOH 6eper. Seashore. Mop- 
CKOH BosAyx. Sea air. MopcKoii 
Bexep. Sea breeze. 

2. sea, marine, MopcKofi (|)Jiot. The 
Marine. MopcKoe nyxemecTBiie. 
A voyage. 

<> MopcKaH 6ojie3Hb. Sea-sickness. 
MOPHK m., gen. -a sailor 

MojiofloH MopflK. A young sailor. 
MOCT m., prepos. o Mocxe & Ha moc- 

xy; pi. MOCXH bridge 

Mocx Hepea peKy. A bridge across 

a river. }Kejie3HOAop6>KHLiH mocx. 

A railway bridge. Gxohxl Ha mocxv. 

To stand on the bridge. 
MOTOP m. engine 

Moxop pa66xaex xopomo. The engine 

works well. 
MOTOI^flKJl m. motor-cycle 

Exaxb Ha Moxoi^iiKJie. To ride on 

a motor-cycle. 
MOHb, Mory, MOH^emb, Moryx, past 

Mor, -Jia, -Jio, -JiiT, no imper.; imp. 

+ inf. I p. CMO'ib, CMory, cMOJKemb, 

CMoryx, past cMor, -Jia, -Jio, -jih 

1. to be able, can. Tw cMomerab 
npHHXH ceroflHfl ko mhc? Can 
you come and see me today? 

2. to be allowed, may. BojibHoii 
yjKe Mowex xoAHXb. The patient 
is already allowed to walk. 

MOmHIHfl, -an, -oe, -He powerful 
MomHMH MOXop. A powerful engine. 
Momnafl AeMOHCxpan;Hfl. A power- 
ful demonstration. 

MPAHH|bIfl, -aa, -oe, -He gloomy 
MpaqHHH HeJioBGK. A gloomy man. 
MpaqHoe JiHn;6. A gloomy face. 
MpaHHoe Hacxpoenne. A dismal 
mood. MpaHHHe mhcjih. Sombre 

M^/^PIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
MyAp, MyApa, My^plo, -h; adv. 
MyAPo wise 

MyAPHH HOJiOB^K. A wise man. 
MyAPoe pem^HHO. A wise decision. 
Oh nocxynHJi MyAPO. He acted 

MYHC m., pi. uymhn, My>KeH, MywbHM 

BHHMaxejibHHH My?K. An attentive 
husband. 3a66xJiHBHH MyjK. A solici- 
tous husband. JlK)6Hm;HH MyjK. A 
loving husband. 

MS^HCECTBEHHIMfl, -an, oe, -He, 
short form My?KecxBeH, My>KecxBeH- 
Hja, -0, -bi; adv. MyHtecxBCHHO cou- 

MyjKecxBeHHHH neJiOBeK. A cou- 
rageous man. MyHtecxBeHHHH nocx}'- 
noK. A courageous action. 

MySKECTBO neut., no pi. courage 
npoHBHXb My;KecxBo. To show cour- 
age. IlMexb MyjKecxBO roBopiixb 
np^BAy. To have the courage to 
speak the truth. 

MyaCCKlOfl, -an, -oe, -iie men's 
My>KCKafl OACJKAa. Men's clothes. 
MyjKCKan 66yBb. Men's footwear. 

MYSKHflHA m. man 

IlqjKHJioii My?KHHHa. An elderly man. 

JViySEfl m. museum 

OcMaxpnBaxb Myaen. To see a mu- 

M^SblKA /., no pi. music 

GHM(|)OHHHecKaH MyaHKa. Symphon- 
ic music. JlerKan MysHKa. Light 
music. MyaHKa k KHHO(|)HJibMy. 
Music to a film. Go^HHHXb (hh- 
caxb) MyaHKy. To compose (write) 

MySblKAJIBHlblfl, -an, -oe, -hb, 
short form MyaHKaJien, My3HKajib- 
H|a, -0, -H 

1. music(al). MyaHKaJibHaa mKOJia. 
A music school. MyaHKajibHHG 
HHCxpyMCHXH. Musical instru- 
ments. MyabiKaJibHHH Beiep. A 
musical evening. 

2. musical. MyaHKaJibHHH peCenoK. 
A musical child. 

MS^XA /. fly 

MH|ATbCH, -ycb, -nmbCH, -axcH imp. 

to rush, to dash 

JIomaAb MHiixcH. The horse is rush- 

i^S- If^S- BpeMfl MHHXCH. Time 

Mbl pron., gen., ace. Hac, dat. HaM, 

instr. HaMH, prepos. o Hac we 
MlilJIO neut., no pi. soap 




MbIC Jib /. thought, idea 

HHTepecHan mhcjii>. An interesting 
idea. FjiySoKaH mhcjib. A profound 
thought. OparnHajibHaH meicjib. An 
original idea. Mne b roJiOBy npn- 
mJia MHCJiB. An idea occurred to 
me. y Hero MejibKHyjia mhcjib. An 
idea flashed across his mind. 

MblTb, m6|k), -emb, -iot; imper. moh! 
imp. K r 6? h t o? h e m? / p. bm- 
MHTb, BWMO|K), -emb, -IOT to wash 
MbiTb pyKH. To wash one's hands. 
Mhtb noji. To wash the floor. MHTb 
peSeHKa TenjiOH bo/i;6h. To wash a 
child with warm water. MbiTb nocy- 
ay mexKOH. To wash the dishes 
with a brush. 

MI>ITbCH, Moliocb, -embCH, -iotch 

imp. I p. BHMHTbCH, BHMO|lOCb, -emb- 
CH, -lOTCfl to wash 
MbiTbCfl B Banne. To have a hath. 
MbiTbCH noA ^ymeM. To take a 
shower. MMTbCH mhjiom. To wash 
with soap. 
MilrKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne [-xk-], short 
form MaroK, MarKa, mhfkIo, -h; 
adv. MflrKO; com p. MHrne 

1. soft. MftrKaH no^ymKa. A soft 
pillow. MnrKHe bojiocw. Soft hair. 
MarKHH xjie6. Soft bread. | 
predic. imper s. Ha AHBane 6biJio 
MHFKO cnaTb. The divan was soft 
to sleep on. 

2. fig. mild. MarKHH KJiMMax. A mild 
climate. MarKHH xapaKxep. A 
mild temper. 

<> MflrKdH Me5ejib. Soft (uphol- 
stered) furniture. MarKHH saroH. 
A soft-seated railway carriage. 

MHCHlOfl, -aa, -6e, -bie meat 

MacHue npofl;yKTH. Meat products. 
MacHOH cyn. Meat soup. 

MflCO neut., no pi. meat 

IlHpojKKH c MHCOM. Meat pies. 

MRH m., gen. -a ball 

OyxSdjibHHH Maq. A football. Bo- 
JieH66JibHbiH Maq. A volleyball. 

H, H 

HA prep. 

I. + prepos. 
1. Qn 

JiOKaxb Ha cxojie to lie {to be) on 
the table; BHcexb na cxeae to hang 
on the wall; nncaxb na 6yMare 
to write on paper; 

2. in, at 

Ha saBOAe at the works; na pa- 
66x6 at work; na ypoKe at the 
lesson; na KaBKaae in the Cau- 
casus; na CeBepe in the North; 
Ha coSpaHHH at a meeting; 

3. by 

exaxb Ha aBx66yce, na napoxo^e 
to go by bus, by ship; 

4.: na npomJiOH He^eJie, na axoH 
He^eJie last week, this week 

<> KHHra Ha (|)paHHy3CK0M aabine. 

A book in French. 
II. -|- ace. 

1. on 

noJiOHtnxb Ha ctoji to put on 
the table; noBecHXb na cxeny to 
hang on the wall; 

Ha aaBoA to the works; na pa56- 
xy to work; na ypoK to the les- 
son; Ha KaBKas to the Caucasus; 
Ha Cesep to the North; na co- 
6paHHe to a meeting; 

3. on 

caAHXbca Ha anxoSyc, na napo- 
XOA to get on a bus, to board a 

4.: Ha xpexHH j^eRh on the third day. 
Ha ;i;pyr6H ^enb the next day. 
Ha HoBMH TOjx on the New 
Year's Day; 

5. for 

Oh yexaji na neAeJiio. He left 
for a week. 

6. not translated. Oh cxapme Mena 
Ha 5 Jiex. He is 5 years older 
than I. 3xox kocxiom js^opome 
Ha 10 pySjieH. This suit is 10 
roubles dearer. 

<> nepeeecTH na 4>P^Hi^y3CKHH 
HSbTK. To translate into French. 
HABJIH)AA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. 
H T 0? 3 a H e M? to observe, to 

Ha6Jii0AaTb sa ABHjKeHHCM njianex. 
To observe the movement of planets. 
Mh Ha6jiK)AaJiH, nan 3axofl;iijio 
cojiHHie. We watched the sun set- 

HABEPHO(E) paren. word probably 
HaBepHoe, oh ceroAHH ne npH^ex. 
He will probably not come today. 
Tu noHAemb b Myaen? — H ne 

3HaK) TO^HO, HO, HaBCpHO, HOH^y. 

''Will you go to the museum?" 




Kysa? upward, up- 

"/ don^t know for sure, but probably 
I shall." 
HABEPX adv. 

Mh noAHHJiHCB HaBepx, Ha dhthh 
axaw. We went up to the fourth 

HABEPXS" adv. r fl e? above, upstairs 
Mh cjiumaJiH, KaK b KOMHaie na- 
Bepxy rpoMKO neJiH, a dotom na- 
qaJiH xaHUGBaTB. We heard people 
in the room upstairs sing loudly 
and then begin dancing. 

HABECTfiTb see HABEin[ATb 

HABEmA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
K o r 6? q T 0? / p. naBelcTHTB, -my, 
-CT^mb, -CTHT to visit 
HaBeCTHTb GoJibHoro TOBapnma. To 
visit a sick friend. 

HABCErj^A adv. for ever 

H ye3>Kaio h3 3Toro r6pofl;a uaBcer- 
;^a. / am leaving this city for good. 

HABCTPE^y adv. & prep. + dat. to 
meet one, in the opposite direction 
Bexep j^yji naBCTpeiy. The wind 
blew in our faces. HaBCTpeqy saM 
meji HeJiOBGK. A man was ap- 
proaching us. 

HAFPA^A /. award 

BiicoKaa Harpa^a. A high award. 

IIoJiyqwTb uarpaAy. To receive an 

HAPPAAflTb see HArPAmflATb 
HAPPAHCJIAlTb, -K), -emb. -k)t imp. 

K o r 6? q T 0? q e M? a a h t 6?/p. 

Harpal^wTb, -jKy, -fl;Hmb, -^ht to 


HarpaAHTb opAenoM aa noABHr. To 

award an order for a feat. 
HAPPETb see FPETb, 4 
HAA (HAAO) prep. + instr. 

1. over. Ha A ctojiom bhcht JiaMna. 
A light hangs over the table. 
IlTHi^bi jieiaiOT HaA MopeM. The 
birds are flying over the sea. 

2. above, over. HaAO mhoh myMtiT 
AepeBO. A tree is rustling above 
me. Mh ctohjih na bhcokom 6e- 
pery, uaA peKoa. We were stand- 
ing on the high bank, over the river. 

3. at. PaCoxaTb naA AOKJiaAOM. To 
work at a report. 

HAJ^EBAITb, -K), -emb, -h)t imp. 
HTO? Ha K r 6? h a ^t6?/ 
p. HaAelxb, -Hy, -nemb, -Hyx 

1. to put on. HaAesaxb najibxo, 
fflJiany, nepnaxKH, map$. To 
put on an overcoat, a hat, gloves, 
a scarf. HaAexb naJibxo na pe- 
6eHKa. To put a coat on a child. 

2. to put on. HaAexb ohkii. To put 
on one's spectacles. 

HAA^HCAA /. hope 

Bojibmne naAewAM. Great expecta- 

HAA^Tb see HA^EBATb 

HA^ElflTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch 

1. Ha 4x6? or -{- inf. to hope. 
HaAenxbcH na ycnex, na no6eAy. 
To hope for success, for vic- 
tory. H. HaAeiocb yBiiAexb xe6H 
aaBxpa. / hope to see you tomor- 

2. to hope, fl HaAeiocb na xo, hxo 
^aBxpa noroAa 6yAex Jiynme. 
/ hope the weather will be better 

Sua K r 6? h a h x 6? to rely. 
HaAeflXbCH na APyra. To rely 
on one's friend. HaAeaxbCfl na 
KOJiJieKXHB. To rely, on the collec- 
HAJIO KOMy? qeMy? + m/. it is 
necessary, must 

Te6e uaAO Muoro aaHHMaxbCH. You 
must study a lot. Mne HaAO 6hjio 
Bqepa BCxaxb b 7 nacoB. / had to 
get up at 7 o'clock yesterday. 

HAJ^OEJ^AlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
KOMy? HGMy? & -j- inf. I p. Ha- 
Aoecxb, HaAoeM, naAoemb, HaAoecx, 
HaAoeAHM, HaAoeAHTe, naAoeAflx, 
past HaAoeJi, -a, -o, -h to be bored, 
to be tired (of) 

3x0 MHe HaAoeJio. / am tired of 
this. HaM HaAoeJia njioxan noroAa- 
We are tired of the bad weather. 
Mne naAoejio roBopnxb o6 9tom. / 
am tired of speaking about that. Mhg 
HaAoeJio HHHero He AeJiaxb. / am 
bored with doing nothing. 


HA3AA adv. 

1. KyA^? back. Hahxg HasaA- Go 
back. H HOCMOxp^Ji HaaaA- / 
looked back. 

2. a^o. Mh npnexajin 3 MecHua Ha- 
SEA- We arrived 3 months ago. 





9to 6hjio MHoro jigt TOMy Ha- 
3aA. That was many years ago. 
HA3BAHHE neut. name, title 

HasBaHHe poMana, KHiirn, khho- 

^HJibMa. The name of a novel, book, 

HA3HAHA|Tb, -lo, -emb,^ -iot imp. 

q T o? K M y? q e M y? II K o r 6? 

q T 0? K e M? q e M? / jD. HaaHaqJHTb, 

-y, -Hfflfa, -ax 

1. to fix. HaanaqaTb CBHAaHHe. To 
make an appointment. HasHaqnxb 
co6paHHe na 6 qacoB. To fix 
the meeting for 6 o'clock. 

2. to appoint. HaanaqHTb kofo-jih- 
6o fl;HpeKTopoM. To appoint some- 
body director. 

3. to prescribe. HasnaqHTb 6ojib- 
HOMy JieKapcTBO. To prescribe 
medicine for a patient. 

HA3bIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 

K r 6? q T 0? / jo. HasBaxb, HasoBJy , 

-emb, -yx 

1. to name. HaaoBHxe pyccKHX nn- 
caxeJien, KoxopHx bh anaexe. 
Name the Russian writers you 
know. HaaoBHxe 6oJibmHe ropo;i,a 
Bamen cxpaHH. Name the large 
cities of your country. 

2. to name. Ee nasBajiH KaxH (Ka- 
xew). She was named Katya. 

HA3bIBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. rare- 
ly used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl 
to be called 

KaK Ha3HBaexcfl Sxa yjiHn;a? What 
is the name of this street? KaK na- 
BHBaexcfl 3X0X KHHOxeaxp? What 
is the name of this cinema? 

HAH3^CTb adv. by heart 

Bnaxb nanaycxb. To know by heart. 

yqnxb HanaycxB. To learn by heart. 

HAflTfl see HAXOAflTb & HCKATb 


HAKA3bIBA|Tb, -k), -emb, -lox imp. 

K r 6? q X o? a a q x o?//*. naKa- 

aaxb, HaKajKy, naKaJKemb, iiaKajKyx 

to punish 

HaKaaaxb peSenKa aa hjioxoh no- 
cxynoK. To punish a child for mis- 
behaviour. HaKaaaxb qeJiOBeKa aa 
npecxynjienne. To punish a person 
for committing a crime. 


1. adv. the day before. HaKaHyne 
MH 6mjih b khho. We were at 
the cinema the day before. 

2. prep, -f- gen. on the eve. HaKa- 
nyne HoBOro roAa. On New 
Year's eve. HaKanyne npaa^HH- 
Ka, flHH pojKAeHHH. On the eve 
of the holiday, on the eve of 
one's birthday. 


HAKJIOHillTbCH, -locb, -embra, 

-MXCH imp. I p. HaKJIOHMXbCH, ua- 

Hflxcfl to bend 

Maxb HaKJioHHJiacb Ha^ peSeuKOM. 

The mother bent over her child. 
HAKOHEp; adv. at last 

HaKonen; oh npnmeji. At last he 

has come. 
HAKOPMflTb see KOPMflTb 
HAKPbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

q X 0? q e M? / /?. HaKpwxb, HaKpolK), 

-emb, -lox to cover 

HaKpHXb cxoJi CKaxepxbio. To cover 

the table with a table-cloth. 
HAKPblBAjTbCH, -locb, -embCH, 

-lOxcH imp. ^eu? / p. naKptixbcH, 

HaKp6|K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch to cover 


HaKpHBaxbCH OAenJiOM. To cover 

oneself with a blanket. HaKpuBaxbCH 

nJian^oM. To cover oneself with a 


1. Ky^a? to the left. IIohxh, no- 
exaxb, noBepnyxb naJieBO. To go, 
to drive, to turn to the left. 

2. r^e? on, at, to the left {cf. 
CJIEBA). HaJieBO ox namero flOMa 
naxoAHXCH MaraanH. To the left 
of our house is a shop. 

HAJIHBAjTb, -TO, -emb, -lox q x o? 
(q e r 6?) k o m y? k y a a? imp./ 
p. HaJiHXb, naJib|i6, -emb, -lox; imper. 
HaJieH, past najiHJi, naJiHJia, najin- 
Ji|o, -H to pour out 
HaJiHBaxb rocxK) qaio. To pour out 
tea for the guest. HaJiiixb boabi b 
rpa|)HH. To fill a carafe with water. 


HAJlOr m. tax 

Bhcokhb naJioFH. High taxes. 




IIOAOXOAHHH HaJior. Income tax. 
IIJiaTHTB naJior. To pay a tax. 

1. the other way round. Oh Bcerj3;a 
Bce ;^eJIaJI naoSopox. He always 
did everything the other way round. 

2. on the contrary. Ona ne 3a- 
CMeflJiacb, a, naoGopoT, aanjia- 
KaJia. She did not laugh, on the 
contrary, she began crying. 

HAIIAJ^A|Tb, -K), -euib, -iot imp. iia 
K r 6? Ha 11 T 0?//). nanacxB, na- 
naAly, -enib, -yx, past nanaji, -a, -o, 
-H to attack 

Tiirpu HanaAaiox na qeJiOBena. Ti- 
gers attack people. 



HAnilCATb see HHCATb 

HAnOMHHAITb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. 
K o M y? u X 0? or o k 6 m? o 
4 e M? / p. nanoMHliixb, -lo, -irnib, -hx 

1. to remind. Oh HanoMHHJi MHe 
o HaniHX npeHCHHx Bcxpe^ax. 
He reminded me of our past 

2. K r 6? to remind. Oh nanoM- 
HHJi MHe o;];Hor6 MejioBena. He 
reminded me of a certain person. 



1. direction. HanpaBJiemie ;];BHjKe- 
HHH. The direction of a move- 
ment. rioesAa HAyx b pasHMX 
HanpaBJieHHHX. The trains are go- 
ing in different directions. 

2. school. JiHxepaxypHoe nanpaBJie- 
HHe. A literary school. HanpaB- 
JieHHe B MysLiKe, b jkhbohhch. 
A school of music, painting. 

<> no HanpaBJieHiiH) k... In the 
direction of... 
IIAnPABJlH|Tb, -10, -emb,^ -lox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? K KOMy?Kyji;a?/ 

p. Hanpa|BHXb, -BJIIO, -BHfflb, -BflX 

to send 

/lloKxop HanpaBHJi mchh b canaxo- 
pHH. The doctor sent me to a sana- 
torium. MeHH HanpaBHJiH k Bpany. 
/ was sent to a doctor. HanpaBHXb 
na pa66xy. To send to work. 

HAHPABJlHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, 
-lOXCH imp. K KOMV? Kyfl;a?/ 

p. HanpalBHXbCH, -BJIIOCb, -BHmbCH, 
-BHXCH to go 

HanpaBJifixbCfl na lor. To go to the 
south. HanpaBHXbCH k ApysbHM, 
snaKOMLiM. To go to see one's friends, 
acquaintances. Oh nanpaBHJica k 
ABepH. He made for the door. 

1. Ky^a? to the right. ABxoSyc 
HOBepnyji nan pa bo. The bus 
turned to the right. 

2. r^eP^on, at, to the right {of. 
CnPABA). HanpaBo — mocx, 
HaJieBO — ca^. On the right there 
is a bridge, on the left, a garden. 
HanpaBO ox BOKsaJia — SoJibmaa 
rocxHHHita. There is a large ho- 
tel to the right of the railway 

HAIIPi^tHO adv. wrongly, in vain 
Tm HanpacHO xaK nocxynaemb. You 
are wrong in doing that. Oh na- 
npacHo oS-LHCHflji en oScxanoBKy: 
OHa HHHero ne xoxeJia noHHMaxb, 
He tried in vain to explain the sit- 
uation to her: she would not listen 
to anything. 

HAIIPHMEP paren. word for example 
GJioBa cpeAHero po^a b pyccKOM 


HanpHMep, okho h Mope. Russian 
words of the neuter gender have the 
ending -o or -e. For example: 
OKHO and Mope. 

1. adv. opposite. MarasMH Hax6;i;HX- 
Cfl nanpoxHB. The shop is op- 

2. prep, -\-gen. opposite. HanpoxHB 
o5me>KHXHfl Hax6j];HXCfl SojibmoH 
MarasHH. Opposite the hostel is a 
large shop. 

HAOPHHCEHHE neut., no pi. 

1. straining. HanpHH^eHne Bcex chji. 
A straining of all one's efforts. 

2. tension. Tok BMcoKoro nanpn- 
HteHHH. High tension current, 
fig. MemAynapoAHoe HanpHwe- 
HHe. International tension. 



1. people, nation. PyccKHH HapoA. 
The Russian people. HapoAU 
MHpa. The peoples of the world. 




2. only sing, people. Mnoro napoAa 
(napoAy). ^ ^ lot of people. 
MnxepecH napoAa. The interests 
of the people. HpocTOH napoA- 
Ordinary people. 
HAPO^HIblfl, -an, oe, -me 

1. folk. HapoAHoe hckvcctbo. Folk 
art. HapoflHbie necHH. Folk songs. 

2. national. HapoAHoe xo3hhctbo. 
National economy. Hapo^Hoe o5- 
pasoBaHHe. Public education. 

3. people's. HapoAHbiii apincT 
CCCP. A People's Artist of the 
CCCP. A People's Artist of the 
USSR (graphic art). HapoAHbifi 
cyA. People's court. 

HAPOHHO adv. on purpose 

Tm cfleJiaJi 3T0 napoHHo hjih cjiy- 

HaHHO? Did you do it on purpose 

or by accident? 
HAPyinAlTb, -10, -emb, -kdt imp. 

q T o?/p. HapymJHTb, -y, -ninb, -ax 

1. to break, to violate. Hapymnxb 
noKOH. To break the peace. Ha- 
pyniHXb xHniHHy, To break the 
silence. Hapymnxb nopH^OK. To 
break the peace. Hapymnxb rpa- 
Hiiny. To violate the border. Ha- 
pymnxb AoroBop. To violate a 

2. to break. Hapymnxb cjiobo. To 
break one's word. 

HAPyniHTb see HAPyniATB 
HAPU^HlblH, -an, -oe, -we 

1. well-dressed. HapH^HaH aeBym- 
Ka. A well-dressed girl. 

2. smart. HapH^Hoe njiaxbe. A 
smart dress. 

HACEJIEHHE neut., no pi. population 
HaceJienne cxpaHbi. The population 
of a country. Hacejienne ropo^a. 
The population of a city. Mitpnoe 
Hacejiemie. Civilian population. 

HACKBOSb adi;. through 

HpoMOKHyxb HacKBOsb. To get wet 

HACKOJIbKO adv. how much 

HacKoJibKo 9X0 pemenne Jiyqme 
npeJKHeroI How much better this 
decision is than the old one! 

HACMOPK m., no pi. a cold in the 

CnJibHMH HacMopK. A bad cold in 
the head. JlerKHH HacMopK. A 
slight cold in the head. Y mchh 

nacMopK. / have a cold in the head. 
JleKapcxBo ox naCMopKa. A medi- 
cine for a cold in the head. 

HACTOnHHBIblfl, -an, -oe, -bie, short 
form HacxoHHHB, -a, -o, -h; adv. 
HacxoHHHBo persistent 
HacxoHinBLiH neJiOBeK. A persis- 
tent person. HacxoHHnBUH xapaK- 
xep. A persistent character. Hacxdn- 
^iHBaH np6cb6a. A pressing request. 
CxyAenx HacxonnnBo sannMajicH. 
The student studied persistently 

HACTOJIbKO adv. so 

Oh HacxoJibKO rJiyn, hxo nnnero 
He MOJKex noHflxb. He is so stupid 
that he doesn't understand anything. 

HACTOJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, -He 

1. table, desk. HacxoJibHan JiaMna. 
A desk lamp. HacxoJibHmn Ka- 
Jien^apb. A desk calendar. Ha- 
cxoJibHbie rirpw. Table games. 

2. fig.: HacxoJibHaH Kmira. A hand- 

HACTOilimHH, -an, -ee, -ne real 
HacxoHm;ee soJioxo. Real gold. Ha- 
cxoHmaH JiioSoBb. True love. 
<> B nacTOflmee epeMH. At pres- 


1. mood, y MeHH ceroAHH njioxoe 
Hacxpoenne. / am in a bad mood 

2. -(- inf ., usu. in negative sentences. 
y MeH^ Hex HacxpoeHHH pac- 
CKasbiBaxb. / am not in a 
talking mood. 

HACXynAlTbi, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -lox imp./ 
p. Hacxynnxb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. Hacxynnx, iiacx}'^- 
HHx to come 
HacxyuHJio yxpo. Morning came. 

HACTyilAlTb2, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Ha Koro? Ha qxo?//?. nacxy- 
HMXb, nacxynJiK), nacxynnmb, Ha- 

1. to tread. Hacxynnxb qejioBeKy 
Ha Hory. To tread on a person's 

2. imp. only to be on the offensive. 
ApMUfl Hacxynaex. The army is 
on the offensive. 

HACXynflTb see HACTyHATbi & 

HACXynATb^, 1. 
HA^KA /. science 

3aHHMaxbCfl nayKon. To be a 




scientist. EcTecTBeHHtie nayKH. 
Natural sciences. ryMaHHxapHLie 
HayKH. Humanities. 
HAYHflTb see yHflTb, 2 
HAYHflTbCfl see yHflTbCH 
HA'^HHlLlfl, -aH, -oe, -ue scientific 
HayiHaH pa66Ta. Scientific work. 
HayHHuii pa66THHK. A research 
worker. HayHHwe xpyAH. Scientific 
works. HayqHan CnCJiHOTeKa. A 
scientific library. HayHHoe CTy^eH- 
HecKoe 66mecTBo. A students' 
scientific society. 

HAXOJl,flTb, HaxoHty, HaxoAumb, na- 
xoflHT imp. K r 6? h t o?/jo. nan- 
TH, HaHflly, -einb, -yr, past nameji, 
Hamji|a, -6, -h to find 
HaiiTH HyjKHyK) Bemb. To find the 
thing needed. HaHTW hobmh Mexoji 
paSoTbi. To find a new method of 
work. HaxoflHTb pa^ocTb b MysbiKe. 
To find pleasure in music. 
<> MecTa ce6e ne Haxo^HTb. To 
fret. He HaxOAHTb cjiob. Words 
fail one. 

HAXO^flTbCH, naxojKycb, naxoAHrab- 
CH, naxoAHTCH imp. to be (situated) 
BoJibraoH Teaip naxoAHTCH b n;eHT- 
pe MocKBbi. The Bolshoi Theatre 
is in the centre of Moscow. 

HAUiHOHAJIbHOCTb /. nationality 
Kto bli no HamionajibHocTH? What 
is your nationality? B CoBexcKOM MHoro HaixHonajibHocTen. 
There are many nationalities in 
the Soviet Union. 

HAI^HOnAjIbHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we 

1. national. HannonajibHaH Kyjibxy- 
pa. National culture. 

2. national. HanHonaJibHWH koc- 
TioM. National dress. 

HAHAJIO neut. 

1. beginning. JJ^ou naxoflHTcn b na- 
najie yjiHn;H. The house is at the 
beginning of the street. 

2. beginning. Haqajio yHe6Horo ro- 
fla. The beginning of the school 
year. HaqaJio sanHTHH b 10 la- 
c6b. Lessons start at 10 o'clock. 

HAHAJIbHHK m. chief 
HA^HHAlTb, -K), -emb,^ -k)t imp. 
H T 0? & + inf' I P' naqaib, naiHly, 

-emb, -yx, past Hanair, nanajia, na- 
najilo, -H 

Hannnaxb ypoK. To begin a lesson. 
Ha^axb peHb. To begin a speech. 
Haqaxb pa66xaxb. To begin work- 
ing. HaHHHaxb yqnxbCH. To begin 
going to school, to begin studying. | 

HAMHHA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 1 
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -ioxch imp./ 
p. HanaxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. na^Hexcfl, Haqnyx- 
CH, past HanaJicH, Hanajilacb, -ocb, 
-picb to begin 

3aBxpa Ha^HHaexcH hobwh yqe6HbiH 
roA. The new school (academic) year 
begins tomorrow. * 

HAin, -a, -e, -h pron. our, ours 

HE particle not 

Oh He yMeex roBopnxb no-pyccKH. 
He cannot speak Russian. 3xo He 
cxoJi. This is not a table. 3x0 He 
o^etfh HHxepecHbiii (|)KJibM. This is 
not a very interesting film. 3x0 He 
njioxo, a xopomo. This is not bad, 
it is good. Ero He 6biJio AOMa. He 
was not at home. 

HEBO neut., pi. HeSeca, He5ec. He6e- 
caM, etc. sky 

FoJiySoe He6o. A blue sky. Becen- 
Hee He6o. A spring sky. 
<0> HonacTb naJibu,eM b iie6o Cf. 
To find a mare's nest. 

HEBECTA /. fiancee 

HE^J^E adv. nowhere 

Bee Mecxa aanflXH, nerAe cecxb. 
All the seats are taken, there is 
nowhere to sit. 

HE^ABHO adv. recently 

Mbi npnexajiH b Mockby HCAaBHo. 
We hove come to Moscow recently 

HE^AJIEKO adv. r a e? not far 
ToBapHHi WHBex HeAajiGKo ox mc- 
Hfl. My friend lives not far from 

HEAEJIH /. week 

JIhh HCAeJiH. The days of the week. 
Ha 3X0H HeAeJie. This week. Hepea 
HeAeJiK). In a week. Tpn paaa b ne- 
AeJiK). Three times a week. Mm 
CAeJiacM 3xy paSoxy aa neAeJiio. 
We shall do this work in a week. 
<> y Hero ceMb nHTHUH he He^e- 
Jie. He does not know his own mind. 

HE^OCTATIOK m., gen. -Ka draw- 
back, shortcoming, defect 
HeAOCxaxKH b paooxe. Shortcomings 




in work. V Hero MHoro ne^ocTaT- 
KOB. He has many defects. 
HE^H|klQ, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
HeJKeH, HejKHa, nemnlo, -h; adu. 


1. tender, affectionate. He>KHoe 
HyBCTBo. A tender feeling. Uem- 
HUH BsrJiHA. An affectionate look. 

2. tender. HeMcnaH KOJKa. Tender 

3. tender. HeJKHtiH i^Bex. A tender 

HE3ABHCHM0CTb /., no pi. indepen- 

CBOooaa H HeaaBiTCHMOCTb CTpanu. 
The freedom and independence of a 

HE3ABflCHMlMlJ, -an, -oe, -me, short 
form neaaBiicHM, -a, -o, -h; adv. 
HesaBHCHMO independent 
HeaaBHCHMMH xapaKxep. An inde- 
pendent character. HesaBHCHMoe ro- 
cy^apcTBO. An independent state. 

HEKOrjIjA adv. no time 

Oh oHeHb MHoro paSoxaex, eMy ne- 
Kor^a ryjiHTb. He works a lot, he 
has no time to go for walks. Mne 
ceroflHH HeKor;;a. Fve no time to- 

HEKOTOPIblH, -an, -oe, -He pron. 

1. B HeKOTopHX paHOHax cxpanH 
npomJiH AOHt^n. It rained in 
some parts of the country. 

2. only pi. Bee cjiymaJiH c HHxe- 
pecoM, HeKoxopne CMeHJiHCb. 
Everybody listened with interest, 
some people laughed. 

HEKyj^A adv. nowhere 

y MeHH Hex agecb anaKOMHx, Mne 
HeKyAa haxh. I've no friends here, 
I've nowhere to go to. 

UEJlhSU -\-inf , KOMy? 

1. it is impossible. 3xy sa^aqy pe- 
miixb HeJib3H. This problem can- 
not be solved. 

2. one must not. HeJibsa myMexb 
B KOMHaxe SoJibHoro. You must 
not make a noise in the sickroom. 
3Aecb KypHXb UQJihsA. Smoking 
is prohibited here. Mne neJibSH 
MHoro 6eraxb. / am not allowed 
to run for a long time. 

HEMHOrO adv. (a) little 

H saHHMaJica ceroflHH neMHoro, / 
studied for a short time today. 

HeMHoro noryjinn h npHXOHii flOMOH. 
Go for a short walk and then come 
home, y Hac HeMHoro BpeMenn. We 
have little time left. 

HEHABfllAETb, ->Ky, -Anmb, .J^flx 
imp. Koro? q x o? to hate 
H HenaBHwy axoro qejiOBCKa. / 
hate that man. 

HEHABHCTb /., no pi. k KOMy? 
K H e M y? hatred 

HEOBXOJ^flM|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short 
form HeoSxoAHM, Heo6xoAHM|a, -o, 
-h; adv. neoSxoAWMO necessary 
HeoSxo^HMHe Bemn. Necessary 
things. HeoSxoAHMbie KHiirH. The 
books one needs. Heo6xoAHMo crje- 
Jiaxb onepan;Hio. An operation is 

HEOBblKHOBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; 
adv. HeoSHKHOBeHHO unusual 
HeoSHKHOBeHHoe nyxemecxBHe. An 
unusual journey. 

HEOHCflaAHHIblfl, -aa, -oe, ne; adv. 
HeojKHAaHHO unexpected 
HeoHtH^aHHoe coSbixne. An unex- 
pected event. HeoHtWAauHHii npnesji;. 
An unexpected arrival Oxen Bep- 
HyjiCH Heo>Kii;;aHHO. The father re- 
turned unexpectedly. 

HEPBHIbin, an, -oe, -ne 

1. nervous. HepBuaa cncxesvia The 
nervous system. 

2. nervous. HepBHHii ^leJiOBeK. A 
nervous person. 

3. nervous. HepBune SoJieann. Ner- 
vous diseases. 

HECKOJIbKlO num., gen. -hx several 
Ha coSpaHHH BbicxynuJio necKOJibKO 
qejioBeK. Several people spoke al 
the meeting. Ha 3KCKypcHH ne 5hjio 
HecKOJibKHX cxyAenxoB. Several stu- 
dents were absent from the excur- 
HECMOTP}! HA prep. +acc. in spite of 
HecMOxpn na njioxyio noroAy, 
MH xofl;uJiH ryjiflxb In spite of 
the bad weather we went out for a 

^ HecMOTpfl HH Ha qxo. In spite 

of everything. 

HEC|Tfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past nee, nec- 

|Jia, -Jio, -JiH, imp. Hxo? Ky«a? 

1. to carry. Hecxw qeMoaan. To 

carry a suit-case. HecxH pe6eH- 

Ka na pynax. To carry a child 

in one's arms. Hecxii KHiirn b 




6H6JiHOTeKy. To carry the books 
to the library. 
2. fig. to bear. HecxH oTBexcTBeH- 
HOCTb. To bear the responsibili- 
ty. HecTH HaKaaaHHe. To bear 
the punishment. HecTH noxepH. 
To suffer losses. 
HECHACTHIbin, -an, -oe, -ue un- 
lucky, unfortunate 
HecnacTHBiH neJioBCK. An unlucky 

<> Hec^acTHWH cjiy^afi. An acci- 
HECHACTBE neut. misfortune 

CjiyHHJiocb HecnacTbe. A misfor- 
tune has happened. 
HEX particle 

1 . no. Bh HAeie b khho? — Hex. 
''Are you going to the cinema?" 
''No, I am not.** 

2. not, no. Y mghh hot axon khh- 
FH. / haven't got that book. Ha 
3X0H yjiHEi;e Hex MarasHHOB. There 
are no shops in this street. Ero 
Hex flOMa. He is not at home. 

HEy^EJlH emphatic particle really 
HeyjKeJiH bh ne nnxajin axoro po- 
Mana? Haven't you read this novel? 

HEa)Tb /., no pi. oil 

MecxopojKAeHne ne^xn. An oil de- 
posit. ^o6HBaxb ne^xb. To extract 

H EH AH H HO adv. by accident 

H HenaHEHo pa36HJi cxaKan. / broke 
the glass by accident. 

HEHEFO pron., dat. ue^eMy, instr. 
HeneM, prepos. He o HeM -j- inf. no- 

Mne Henero fl,eJiaxb. I've got no- 
thing to do. TaK AyniHO, mo HeneM 
flbimaxb. It's so stuffy: one can 
hardly breathe. Mne ne o hcm 66Jib- 
me roBopnxb. I've nothing else to 
say. HeHeMy paAOsaxbCH. There's 
nothing to be happy about. 

HH particle not a 

Ha neSe hh oSJiaqna. There is not 
a single cloud in the sky. 

HH ... HH conj. neither... nor 
Hh ;^HeM, hh Ho^bio ne npeKpama- 
Jiacb pa66xa. Work went on day 
and night without stopping. Hh h, 


MocKBe. Neither my brother nor 
myself has ever been to Moscow. 

HHr^E ac^y. nowhere 

Bwjio yjKe hosaho, HHr^e He 6ujio 
BH^HO JHOAeii. It was already late^ 
no people could be seen anywhere. 
Hnrfle ne Mory Kyniixb axoro yHe6- 
HHKa. / can't buy this text-book 
anywhere. HHr^e Hex cbo66ahhx 
Mecx. There are no vacant seats 

HflHCHIHlt, -RH, ee, -ne 

1. lower. lluTKEHH noHKa. The lower 

2.: HnjKHee 6eJibe. Underwear. 

Hfl3K|HB[, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 

HH30K, HH3Ka, HHBKIo, -H; adv. HH3K0; 

comp. HHJKe 

1. low. Hh3KHH jj^om. a low house. 

2. low. Hh3khh ypoBeHb >kh3hh. 
A low living standard. HH3KaH 
xeMnepaxypa. A low temperature. 
TeMHepaxypa Hume nyjiH. A 
temperature below zero. HH3KHe 
n;eHbi. Low prices. HiisKoe ffan- 
Jienne. Low pressure. 

3. low. Hhskhh roJioc. A low voice, 
HHKOr^A adv. never 

Oh HHKOFAa He ona3AbiBaji. He 
never came late. 

HHKTO pron., gen., ace. hhkofo [-bo], 
dat. HHKOMy, instr. HHKeM, prepos, 
HH o KOM nobody 
Hhkxo He 3Haex, Kan pemnxb 6xy 
sa^a^y. Nobody knows how to solve 
this problem. H AaBHo yJKe hhkofo 
He BHAeji. / haven't seen anybody 
for a long time. HHKOMy ne fobo- 
pH o6 3X0M. Don't tell anyone about 
it. Oh HH KOM He xo^ex AyMaxb. 
He doesn't want to think about 

HHKy/^A adv. nowhere 

y MCHH Hjioxoe Hacxpoenne, h a 
HHKyAa He xojKy. I am in a bad 
mood and I don't go anywhere. 

HflTlKA /., gen. pi. -ok thread 

KaxymKa hhxok. A reel of thread. 
BAexb HiixKy b HFOJiKy. To thread 
a needle. 


1. adv. not bad. KaK h Hanncaji 
KOHxpoJibHyio pa66xy? — Hnne- 
f6. ''How did I write my test- 
paper?" "Not bad." 

2. particle that's all right. H3bh. 
HHxe, nojKajiyHcxa. — HnHero. 
"Excuse me." "That's all right.** 




HHHTO [-mxo] pron., gen. HHHer6[-Bo], 
dat. HHHGMy, instr. HnqcM, prepos. 
HH o n'eu nothing 
Oh HHHero ne 3HaeT. He does not 
know anything. Oh HHqeMy ne Ha- 
y^MJiCH. He didn't learn anything. 
Oh HH^eM He HHTepecj^eiCH. He is 
not interested in anything. H He 
Mor HH HCM ;i;yMaTb. / couldn't 
think of anything. 

HO conj. but 

C6JiHii;e cseTHT, ho ne rpeeT. The 
sun is shining, but it is not giving 
any warmth, fl BHepa bbohhji Te6e, 
HO Te6H He 6hjio jioua. I rang 
you up yesterday, but you were 
not at home. 

HOBO^OJ^H|Hfl, -HH, -ee, -ne New- 

HoBoroAHHH HOHB. New-Year night. 
HoBoroAHHe nosApaBJienHH. New- 
Year messages. HoBoroAHHe nojKe- 
JiaHHH. New-Year wishes. HoBoro^- 
HHH 6aJi. A New-Year ball. 

H0BOCT|b / , gen. pi. -en 

1. news. Goo6n5aTb hoboctb. To 
tell the news. Xoporane hobocth. 
Good news. 

2. only pL: Hobocth ^hh. Newsreel. 
Hobocth nayKH h TexHHKH. The 
latest developments in science and 

HOBIBIH, -an, -oe, -tie, short form 
hob, HOBa, h6b|o, -h 

1. new. HoBtiH ;i;om. A new house. 
HoBoe HJiaTte. A new dress. 

2. new. HoBan KHiira. A new book. 
HoBHH HeJiOBBK. A new man. 

3. modern. HoBafl hctophh. Modern 

4. new. HoBMH ro^;. New Year. 
HOrA /., ace. Hory; pi. Horn, nor, 

HoraM, etc. foot, leg 

Bmmmtb Horn. To wash one's feet. 

BwTHpaHTe Horn. Wipe your feet. 

<> Hath b Hory c BeKOM. To keep 

abreast of time. 
HOriOTB m., gen. -th; gen. pi. -tch 

(finger) nail 

KycaTB HorTH. To bite one's nails. 
UOliK m., gen. -a knife 

OcTpwH HO?K. A sharp knife. Tynon 

HOJK. A blunt knife. PesaTb xjie6 

HOJKOM. To cut bread with a knife. 

nepoqHHHHH HOW. A pen-knife. 

H03KIKA /., gen. pi. -bk leg 

HoJKKa cTOJia, CTyjia. The leg of a 
table, chair. 

HOHCHHIUbl no sing., gen. mmuRU, 


OcTpHe HOJKHHniLi. Sharp scissors. 
HOJI|b m., gen. -h zero 

<> Hoesfl npnmeji b ABeHafliiaxb 

HOJib-HOJib. The train arrived at 

twelve sharp. 
HOMEP m., pi. -a 

1. number. HoMep ji^oMa. The num- 
ber of a house. HoMep TpaMBaa. 
The number of a tram. HoMep 
TeJie(|)6Ha. A telephone number. 

2. issue. AnpeJiBCKHH HOMep JKyp- 
najia. The April issue of the 

3. room. HoMep b rocTHHHii;e. A 
hotel room. 

4. size. HoMep 6othhok, nepqaTOK. 
The size of shoes, gloves. 

5. item. HoMep b Konr^epTHOH npo- 
rpaMMe. An item on the concert 
programme. UjupKOBOH HOMep. 
A turn in the circus. HcnoJiHHTb 
HOMep. To perform an item. 

HOPMA /. norm, standard, quota 
HopMa BLipaSoTKH. An output 
standard. BHnoJiHHTb HopMy. To 
carry out the quota. IlepeBLinoJi- 
HHTb HopMy. To exceed the 

HOPMAJIbHIblH, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form HopMaJieH, HopMaJibuja, -o, 
-Li; adv. HopMajiLHO normal 
HopMaJibHan TeMnepaTypa. Normal 
temperature. HopMaJiBHoe ^aBJieHHe. 
Normal pressure. HopMajibHBie yc- 
JiOBHfl Tpy^a. Normal conditions 
for work. 

HOC m., prepos. o Hoce & na (b) ho- 
cy; pi. -LI 

1. nose. IIpHMOH HOC. A straight 

2. bow. Mw cH/^eJIH na nocy jioa- 
KH. We were sitting in the bow 
of the boat. 

<0' HoBCCHTb HOC. To be crestfallen. 
BoAHTb Kor6-HH6yAb aa hoc. To 
lead somebody by the nose. He bh- 
AGTb Aajibine c66cTBeHHoro Hoca. 
Not to see further than one's 




HOCflTb, Homy, Hocnmb, hocht imp. 
Koro? HTO? KyAa? 

1. to carry. KawAWH achl noq- 
TaJiLOH iiocHT naM noHTy. Every 
day the postman brings us our 
post. Oh hcScht KHwrii b nopx- 
(|)ejie. He carries his books in 
his bag. 

2. to wear. Hochtb MHrKyio nuia- 
ny. To wear a ioft hat. Hochtb 
6ycBi, cepbrii. To wear beads, 

HOCKfl pi., gen. hockob, sing, hocok, 

m., gen. HOCKa socks 

niepcTHHije HOCKH. Woollen socks. 

ITapa nocKOB. A pair of socks. 

1. note. BsHTb BHCoKyio (HiisKyio) 
HOTy. To sing a high (low) note. 

2. no sing, music. HrpaTb no HoxaM. 
To play from music. Hrpaib 
6e3 HOT. To play without music. 

HOTAa f note 

Hoia npoTecxa. A note of protest. 
Hoxa coBexcKoro npaBHxeJibcxBa. 
A note of the Soviet Government. 

HOHHlOfl, -afl, -6e, -tie night 

Ho^iHaH xnmiiHa. The silence of the 
night. HoHHaH CMena. The night 
shift. HoHHaH py6amKa. A night- 
gown, a night-shirt. 

HOH|b /., gen. pi. -eii night 

THxaH HOib. A quiet night. Jlyn- 
HaH Hoqb. A moonlit night. Sbgsa- 
Han HOHb. A starlit night. B no'ib noji; 
HoBbiH rofl. On New-Year's night. 
<> CnoKouHoii (a65poh) eoqu. 

HOHbK) adv. at night 

HoHbK) OH cnaJi necnoKoHHO. He 
spent a restless night. BMspa HOHbio 
kt6-xo nocxyqaji k naM b okho. 
Last night somebody was knocking 
at our window. 

HOflBP|b m., gen. -h, no pi. Novem- 

HPA|BHTbCH, -BJiiocb, -BnmbCH, -bat- 
ch imp. KOMy? ^eMy? &-f- ^^f/ 

p. nOHpalBHXbCH, -BJIIOCb, -BHmbCH, 

-BHXCH to like 

Mne o^eHb npaBHTCfl 3Ta ^eBymKa. 

/ like that girl very much. Khho- 


didn't like the film. BaM npaBHTCH 
ryjiHTb .3Aecb? Do you like taking 
walks here? 

HyJKAAlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -k)tch 
imp. B K o M? B H e M? to need 
BoJibHOH HyjKAaeTCfl b CBe>KeM Boa- 
ayxe. The patient needs fresh air. 

H^^aCHO KOMy? ^ieMy? + m/. & + 
conj. q T 6 6 u it is necessary, must 
HaM HVJKHO MHoro aauHMaxbCH. We 
must study a lot. HyjKHO, ht66h 
B KOMHaTe .6mjio HiicTO. The room 
must be clean. 

H^iKHlblfl, -afl, -oe, -He, short form 
nymeu, Hy>KHa, HyjKHO, uywHw 
K o M y? H e M y? necessary, that is 

HyjKHHH qejiOBeK. A man who is 
needed. Hwkhhh yq66HHK. A ne- 
cessary text-book. 3Ta KHiira nyw- 
Ha MHC ceroAHfl. / need this book 
today. Mne nyjKHbi lyi^Jin. I need 
shoes. 3tot yqeSHHK mhc ne HyjKen. 
/ don't need this text-book. 

O, o 

(OB, OBO) prep, -f prepos. &. ace. 

1. -\- prepos. about, of. 3a56THTbCfl 
SAOpoBbe. To take care of one's 
health. JlyMaTh o poAHue. To think 
about one's country. Me^TaTb 
6yAyn;eM. To dream of the future. 
Hnxaxb KHwry o mmun cobot- 
CKOH MOJiOAeJKH. To read a book 
about the life of Soviet youth. 
BocnoMHHaHHfl o6 OTn;e. Reminis- 
cences (memories) of one's father. 

2. -{-ace. on. Bojihm SiiJincb o 6e- 

per. The waves beat on the shore. 

OBA m. & neut., gen. o66hx; 66e /., 

gen. oSenx num. both 

06a APyra yqaTCfl b HHCTHTyTe. 

Both friends study at the institute. 

06e A6BymKH xopomo xaHn;eBajiH. 

Both the girls danced well. 
OBE^ m. dinner 

BKycHUH o6eA. A tasty dinner. 

06eA H3 xpex 6jik)a. A three-course 


<> 3a o6eAOM. At dinner. IIpHrjia- 

CHTb HE o6eA. To invite to dinner. 
OBE^AjTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 

p. noo6eAa|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot to have 


OSeAaTb b ctojioboh. To have dinner 

at a dining-hall. BbiCTpo nood^Aaxb. 

To have a quick dinner. 




OBECIl£HHBA|Tb, -ro, -emb, -rox 
imp. Kor6? HGM? or KOMy? 
H T o?//7. o6ecne'9|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax 
to provide 

OSecneqHTb cxpoHTejibCTBO Mama- 
HaMH. To provide machinery for a 
construction project. 


OBEmAlTb, -H), -emb, -rox imp. & p. 
K M y? H X 0? -f- inf. / p. also no- 
o6ema|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox to promise 
fl o6emaK) BHHOJiHHXb Bamy npocb- 
6y. / promise to fulfil your re- 
quest. H oSemaio, qxo npn^y k BaM 
ceroAHfl BCHepoM. / promise to come 
and see you this evening. Oh (no)- 
o6emaji yanaxb o BpeMenn co6pa- 
HHH. He promised to find out the 
time of the meeting. 


OBflJ^HO predic. impers. (to be) 
sorry; (to be) offended 
Mne o6Hfl;HO, hxo h ne nonaji b 
xeaxp. / am sorry I didn't get to 
the theatre. 

OBHJKAjTb, -JO, -emb, -lox imp. k o- 
t6? / p. o6H|flexb, ->Ky, -;^Hmb, -;^hx 
to offend, to ill-treat 
06iTAeTb APyra. To offend a friend. 
Hejib3H oSnwaxb MajienbKHx. You 
mustn't ill-treat the little ones. 

OBHaCAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH, -k)xch 
imp. Ha Koro? na qx 6?/ 
p. oGiilaexbCH, -Hcycb, -^nmbCH, -aax- 
CH to take offence, to be offended 
06«AexbCH Ha 6paxa. To take offence 
at one's brother. He o5HH;aHCH na 
MOii CJiOBa! Don't be offended at my 

CBJIAKIO neut., pi. -a 

1. cloud. flojKAeBoe 65jiaK0. A 
raincloud. TpoaoBbie oSjiana. 

2. fig. cloud. OSjiaKO hujih. A dust 

(3BJIACT|b /., gen. pi. -en 

1. region. 06jiacxb JiecoB. The for- 
est region. 

2. region. ApxanreJibCKaH 66jiacxb. 
The Arkhangelsk region. 

3. field. HoBan 66jiacxb nayKH. A 
new field of science. 

4. region. 06jiacxb cep^iia. The re- 
gion of the heart. 



OBMAHblBAITb, -10, -emb, -rox imp. 
K o r 6?/p. oSManyxb, oSinany, o6Ma- 
Hemb, oSManyx to deceive 
ToBapnn; roBopiiJi, qxo npH^ex, ho 
oSManyji: ne npHmeji. The friend 
said he would come, but he didn't 
keep his word. 

<^ OSMaeyxb HaAe»cflbi. To dis- 
appoint somebody's hopes. OGManyTfa 
AOBepne. To betray somebody's trust. 
OBHHMAlTb, -H), -emb, -rox imp. 
K o r 6?//). o6Hflxb, o6HHMy, o6hh- 
Memb, oSHHMyx, past oOhhji, -a, 
66hhjih to embrace 
06HHXb Apyra. To embrace one's 
friend. 06HHXb cxapyio Maxb. To 
embrace one's old mother. 
OBHHMAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. c K e M?/p. oSHHXbCH, o6hh- 
Mycb, oSHHMembCH, o6HHMyxcH, 
past o6Hfl|jicH, -jiacb, -jincb to 

KpeuKO o6HflXbCfl c xoBapnmeM. To 
embrace one*s friend heartily, 
OBOflTfl see OBXOJ^flTb 
OBOPOHA /., no pi. defence 
OBOPy;i;OBAHHE neut., no pi. equip- 

HoBeamee o6opy;50BaHHe. The most 
up-to-date equipment. 
0BPA3 m. 

1. character. JlHxepaxj'pHUH: oSpas. 
A literary character. 

2. way. 06pa3 >kh3hh, mwcjih. A 
way of life, of thinking. 

<> TaKHM 65pa30M. So; thus. TjiaB- 
HMM 65pa30M. Mainly. 

0BPA30BAHHE neut., no pl._ educa- 

IIpaBO Ha o6pa30BaHHe. The right 
to education. Bucmee o6pa30BaHHe. 
Higher education. IIoJiyqHXb o6pa- 
30BaHHe. To be educated. KaKoe y 
Bac oSpaaoBStHHe? What education 
have you? 

0BPA3|0BATb, -^10, -yemb, -yiox 
imp. & p. qxo? 

1. to set up. 06pa30Baxb komhc- 
CHK). To set up a commission. 




2. to form, to make up. ^Ba aiOMa 
BOflopoAa H aioM KHCJiopoAa 06- 
paayiOT MOJieKyay boaw. Two 
atoms of hydrogen and one atom 
of oxygen make up a molecule of 
0BPA3|0BATLCH, 1st & 2nd per s. 
not used, 3rd pers. yexcfl, -yioTCH 
imp. & p. to be formed 
06pa30BaJiocb HOBoe rocyaapcTBO. 
A new state was formed. B peayJib- 
TaTe xHMHqeCKOH peaKAHH o6pa- 
ayeicfl HOBoe BemeciBo. As a re- 
sult of a chemical reaction a new 
substance is formed. 
OBPATHIbia, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 06- 
paTHo return 

OCpaTHUH 6HJieT. A return ticket. 
Ha oSpaxHOM nyxit. On one's return 
journey. TyAa oh exaJi Ha noeafle, 
a oSpaTHO Jiexea caMOJieroM. He 
went there by train and came back 
by plane. 
OBPAmAlTb, -10, -emb, -k)t imp. 
q T 0?//). o6pa|THTi>, -my, -THmb, 

06paxHXb BHHMaHHe. To pay atten- 
tion. 05paxnxe BHHMaHHe na axoro 
HCJiOBeKa! Look at that man! 
OBPAmAjTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. K KOMy? K HCM y?/p. o6pa|- 

xrixbCfl, -myCb, -XHmbCU, -XflXCH to 

turn (to), to address, to apply 
06paxHXbCH K co5paBmHMCfl. To 
address a meeting. 06paxHXbCH c 
np6cb6oH K AHpeKxopy. To address 
a request to the director. OSpaxHXb- 
CH K Bpa^y 3a coeexoM. To turn to 
a doctor for advice. 
OBCTAHOBKA /., no pi. 

1. furniture. OScxanoBKa KoMHaxH. 
The furniture of the room. 

2. situation, atmosphere. Mew^y- 
HapoAHaH oScxaHOBKa. The inter- 
national situation BeceAa 
nporajia b Apy>KecxBeHHOH o6cxa- 
HOBKe. The conversation took 
place in a friendly atmosphere. 

OBCyAflTb see OBCyHCJ^ATb 
OBCyjKJliAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
H X oil p. o6cyAnxb, oScywy, o6cy- 
AHmb, oGcyAflx to discuss 
06cyAHXb BajKHHH Bonpoc. To 
discuss an important question. 06cy- 


To discuss a new film, a report. 
OBYBb f., no pi. footwear 
OBXOJ^B[Tb, o6xoH{y, odxoAHmb, 06- 

XOAHX imp. Koro? HXO?/p. o6oh|- 

TH, -Ay. -Aemb, -Ayx, past o6omeJi, 

o6omJi|a, -6, -h 

1. to go round. 06ohxh BOKpyr a6- 
Ma. To go round the house. 

2. to go round. 06ohxh JiyjKy. To 
go round a puddle. O60HXH ropy. 
To go round a hill. 

3. to visit. O60HXH Bce MaraanHu. 
To visit all the shops. 

OBmEHCflTHE neut. hostel 

GxyAenqecKoe o6me>KHXHe. A stu- 
dents' hostel. H{HXb B o6me}KHXHH. 
To live at a hostel. 

OBlHECTBEHHIblfl, -aa, oe, -He 

1. social. 06ntecxBeHHHH expoH. 
Social system. 

2. social, public. 06mecxBeHHaa pa^ 
466xa. Social work. 06^^ecxBeHHtIe 

opraHH3ai;HH. Public organisa- 

<> 06mecTBeHHbiH AeaTCJib. A 

public figure. 
OBmECTBO neut. 

1. society. KoMMyHHCxiWecKoe 66- 
mecxBO. Communist society. Byp- 
wyasHoe 66mecxBO. Bourgeois 

2. society. Haynnoe oSmecxBO. A 
scientific society. CnopxrisHoe 
66mecxBO. A sports society. 06- 
mecxBO APy>K6bi c 3apy6e5KHHMH 
cxpanaMH. A society of friend- 
ship with foreign countries. 

OBmnfl, -aa, -ee, -ne 

1. common. OSmne HHxepecH. Com- 
mon interests. 06ni;ee HMymecx- 
BO. Common property. Y hhx bco 
66mee. They have everything in 

2. general. 06niiHe BonpocH. Gen- 
eral questions. 

<0> Hex (or ne iiMexb) HB^ero 66- 
mero c KeM-/qeM-jiH6o. To have 
nothing to do with somebody /some- 
thing. B 66w,eM. In general. 

0BT>E3HHH|Tb, -10, -emb, -rox imp. 
K o r 6? H X o?/p. o6'beAHH|iixb, -k)» 
-Hfflb, -ax to unite 




06T>eflHHHTB cHJiH 6opi;6B 3a MHp. 
To unite the efforts of the cham- 
pions of peace. 
OBTjEAHHHlTbCH, -rocb, -emLCH, 

-K)TCH imp. C KGM? C H 6 M?/ 
p. 06'BeAHH|HTLCH, -K)Cb, -HHIBCfl, -HT- 

cfl to unite 

Ohh o&teAHHnjiHCB c ji;pyrHM koji- 
xoaoM fl;jiH nocTpoHKH 66m;eH aJieK- 
TpocTaHn;HH. They pooled together 
resources with another collective 
farm to build a common electric pow- 
er station. 

OB'LEM m. volume 

06T>eM Tejia. The volume of a body. 

OBT>flBflTB see OBTbHBJiHTb 


1. announcement. 06'bflBJieHHe o 
co6paHHH. Announcement of a 

2. advertisement, notice. ^ocKa 
oS-BflBJieKHH. A notice board. 
Jl^ATh oStflBJieHHe B rasexy. To 
put an advertisement in a news- 

OBT>HBJlHlTB, -lo, -emt, -k)t imp. 

q T 0? He M?/p. oS'LHBHTb, oStHB- 

jiK), o5'LflBHfflb, oStHBHT to an- 
nounce, to declare 
OCtHBHTb pemeHHH. To announce 
a decision. OSTbflBHTb Bonny. To 
declare war. 

<> OS-bflBHTb 6JIa^0J^apH0CTb. To 
express one's gratitude. 
OBT>HCHH|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 

q T 0? K M y? / p. oG-LHCHlHTb, -K), 

-nmb, -HT to explain 
. OSiiflCHriTb ypoK. To explain a les- 
son. 06i>HCHHTb aaflaqy. To explain 
a task. 05'bHCHHTb cboio MMCJib. To 
explain one's idea. npeno;i;aBaTeJib 
oG'bflCHflJi ciyfleHTaM Tpy^Hoe npa- 
BHJio. The teacher was explaining a 
difficult rule to the students. 

OBblKHOBEHHIblfl, an, -oe, -He 

OSHKHOBeHHHH HeJioBeK. An ordi- 
nary man. 06biKH0BeHHaH paSoxa. 
Ordinary work. 

OBb'IHAfl m. custom 

HauHOHaJibHHe oCtiqaH. National 

OBttMHO adv. usually 

06tiqH0 fl BciaK) B 7 HacoB yxpa. 


/ usually get up at 7 o'clock in the 

OBKlHHIblH, -an, -oe, -He ordinary 

06biHHHH ;i;eHb. An ordinary day. 
0BH3AHH0CTb /. duty, obligation 

npaea h o6H3aHHOCXH. Rights and 

OBHSATEJlbHO adv. by all means, 

certainly, without fail 

3xy pa66xy bsljio o6H3axejibHO c^e- 

Jiaxb ceroAHfl. This work must be 

done today without fail. OGns^xeJib- 

HO nOCMOXplixe 9Ty KHHOKapXH- 

Hy, Make sure you see this film. 
fl npn^y k saM o6H3axejibHo. I'll 
certainly come to see you. 

OBJIA^EBAlTb, -ro, -emb, -lox imp. 
K e M? q e M? /p. OBJiaAelxb, -lo, 
-emb, -K)x to seize, to master 
OBJia^exb KpenocxbK). To seize a 
fortress. ObJiaAexb h3hk6m. To mas- 
ter a language. OBJia^eBaxb snanHH- 
MH. To get knowledge. OBJiaflexb no- 
BOH cnennaJibHOCTbio. To master a 
new speciality. 


OBOni,|H pi., gen. pi. -en vegetables 
CBejKHe 6Bom;ij. Fresh vegetables. 
PaHHMe 6Boni,H. Early vegetables. 

OrjlHjI,bIBA|TbCfl, -locb, -embCH, 

-K)TCH imp. I p. OFJIHHyXbCfl, OrJIH- 

nycb, orjiflHcmbCH, orJiflnyxcn to 

glance back 

OrJiHHyxbCfl nasafl;. To glance back. 

fl 6biCTpo orJifluyjicH. / glanced 

back quickly. 
OrjlflHYTbCH see OrjlHj],bIBATb- 

OrOHb m., gen. orne; pi. ornH 

1. no pi. fire. flpKHH oroHb b nenn. 
A bright fire in the stove. 

2. light. SajKeHb oroHb. To switch on 
the light. IIoracHXb oroHb. To 
switch off the light. Ornii ropo^a. 
The lights of the city. 

<> BoflTbCH KaK orHfl. Gf. To fear 
like death. Hath b oroHb h b6- 
AY 3a kcm-jihSo, sa Koro-JinSo. 
Cf. To go through thick and thin 
after, for somebody. Hex A^Ma 
6e3 orHH (proverb). There is no 
smoke without a fire. 
OrOPOA m. kitchen-garden 

BoJibmoH oropoA- ^ large kitchen- 
garden. PaSoxaxb na oropoAe. To 
work in the kitchen-garden. B oropOAe 




pacxeT KapT6|)eJib. Potatoes grow 
in the kitchen-garden. 

OrPOMH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form orpoMGH, orpoMHia, -o, -li 
huge, great 

OrpoMHUH ropoA- A huge city. Or- 
poMHbie BoaMOHtHOCTH. Great possi- 
bilities. OrpoMHHH ycnex. Great 

0^yP|E^ m., gen. -m cucumber 

PaHHHG orypi;w. Early cucumbers. 
GoJienue orypj^H. Salted cucumbers. 

OAEBAiTb, -K), -emb, -jot imp. ko- 
to? BO ^t6?/p. OAelxfa, -Hy, 
-Herat, -Hyx to dress 
OzteBaTb peSeuKa. To dress the 
child. OAexb pe6eHKa b hobog 
DJiaibe. To dress the child in a 
new dress. 

O^EBAITbCH, -locb, -erabCH, -h)tch 
imp. BO qxo?//?. OAelxbCH, -Hycb, 
-HerabCH, -HyxcH to dress 
3hm6h HaAO xenjio OAeBaxbCH. You 
must dress in warm clothes in win- 
ter. Xoporao OAesaxbCfl. To dress 
well. OAexbCfl bo Bce HoBoe. To be 
dressed in new clothes. OAesaxbc 
CO BK.ycoM. To dress tastefully. 

0]\tMJ],X /., no pi. clothes 

PaSoHaH OAe>KAa. Working clothes. 
BepxHHH OAeacAa. Outdoor clothes. 



0;^EHJIO neut. blanket; quilt 

BaxHoe OAeaJio. A quilt. HanpH- 
BaxbCfl OAeaJioM. To cover oneself 
with a blanket.^ 

OJlfiUy OAHa, OAHo, OAHH pron. 

1. alone, fl muBy oamh. / live alone. 
fl He JitoSjiK) ryJiHXb oAna. / 
don't like walking alone. 

2. alone, only, fl oahh Mory axo 
CAGJiaxb. / alone can do this. 

3. one Oahh moh APyr (oahh H3 
MOMX APyseH) paccKaaaji Mne 
HHxepecuyio Hcxopnio. A friend 
of mine told me an interesting 

4. the same. Mu yqnMCfl na oahom 
Kypce. We are in the same 

5. used as n. one. Oahh noraeji na- 
jieBO, ApyroH — HanpaBo. One 
went to the left; the other, to 
the right. 

OAHHAKOBIblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short 
form OAHHaKOB, -a, -o, -h; adv. 
OAHHaKOBO same, identical 


These dresses are quite identical. 


JiHxepaxypy. They have the same 
ideas on literature. 

OAHHOKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short 

form OAHHOK, -a, -0, -h; adv. oah- 


1. lonely. Oahhokhh lejiOBeK. A 
lonely man. 

2. solitaiy. Oahhokog A©peBo. A 
solitary tree. 

3. lonely. OAHHOKaH HCHSHb. A lone- 
ly life. 

0]\B.kyKJXh\ adv. once, one day 
0/^HAKO conf, however 


pa66xa ne npeKpanjajiacb. The rain 
fell in torrents, but the work never 
OAHOBPEMEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; 
adv. oAHOBpeMOHHO simultaneous 
Mh OAHOBpeMeHHo npnexajiH na 
BOKsaJi. We arrived at the station 
at the same time. 
(33EPO neut., pi. oaepa lake 

Oaepo BaHKaJi. Lake Baikal. }Ke- 
HeBCKoe oaepo. The Lake of Geneva. 
0KA3ATb see 0KA3bIBATb 
0KA3blBA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
H X o? K o M y? Ha K o r 6?//). ona- 
3axb, oKajKy, OKamerab, OKajKyx 
to render, to offer, to exert 
OnasHBaxb noMomb. To render as- 
sistance. OKasHBaxb conpoxHBjie- 
HHe. To offer resistance. OnaaHBaxb 
BJiHHHHe (na Koro, hxo). To influ- 
ence {somebody). 
0KA3bIBA|TbCH, -locb, -erabcH, -lox- 
ca imp. I p. OKaaaxbCfl, oKajKycb, 
oKajKerabCH, 0Ka>KyxcH 

1. K e M? K a K ti M? to turn out to 
be. Oh OKaaaJicfl onenb nnxe- 
pecHMM HejioBeKOM. He turned 
out to be a very interesting man. 

2. to find oneself. HeowHAanno mh 
OKaaaJiHCb na HeanaKOMOH yjiH- 
n;e. Suddenly we found ourselves 
in an unfamiliar street. OKa- 
aaxbcfl B xpyAHOM nojio>KeHHH. 
To find oneself in a difficult 




3. paren. word OKaauBaercH, Be- 
qep 6yfleT ne b cy666Ty, a b 
BOCKpecGHbe. The evening-party 
is in fact to take place on Sun- 
day and not on Saturday. 
OKAHHHBAITb, -H), -emb, -iot imp. 

HTOp/p. OKOHHiHTb, -y, -HHIb, -aX 

to finish 

OKOHHHTb paSoTy. To finish work. 
OKOHHHTb niKOJiy. To finish school. 
OKOHHHTb HHCTHTyi. To graduate 
from the institute. 
OKAHHHBAITfcCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -ercH, -iotch, 

imp. HGM? /p. OKOHqiHTbCH, Ist & 

2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch, 
-axcfl to end 

CneKTaKJib okoh^hjich uobjibo. The 
performance ended late. 

OKEAH m. ocean 

Thxhh OKean. The Pacific Ocean. 
ATJiaHTH^ecKHH oKean. Atlantic 
Ocean. IlapoxoA naxoAHTCH cen^ac 
B OKeane. The ship is now at sea. 

OKHO neut., pi. oKHa, okoh, oKHaM, 
etc. window 

OKHa BLixoAHT Ha yJIH^y. The win- 
dows overlook the street. CMOxpexb 
B OKHO. To look through the win- 
dow. CMOxpexb H3 OKHa. To look 
out of the window. 

OKOJIO prep. + gen. 

1. near. Okojio MarasHna cxohjio 
MHoro HapoAa. There were many 
people near the shop. Oh ceJi oko- 
jio MeHH. He sat down beside me. 

2. about. Mh ryjifljiH okojio ^Byx 
HacoB. We walked for about two 

OKOHqAHHE neut. completion, 

OKOH^anne cxpoRxejibcxBa. The 
completion of the construction. 
OKOHqaHHe ceanca. The end of a 

<> OKOHqaHHe CJieAyeT. To be con- 
OKPyacAiTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

KOro? HX 0? H e M?//>. OKpyjKlMXb, 

-y, -Hmb, -ax 

1. to surround. JJ^qtr oKpymiiJiH 

Maxb. The children surrounded 

their mother. 

2. usu. no p. to surround. J^ep^B- 


Jieca. The village was completely 
surrounded by woods. 

3. fig. to surround. OKpyHtaxb 3a- 
66xOH. To surround with solici- 


OKTHBPib m., gen. -A October 

OH pron., m., gen., ace. ero [-bo], dat. 
eMy, instr. hm, prepos. o hcm he, it 
Oh npnexaji h3 OpaHi;HH. He came 
from France. GxoJiHua Opan- 
hhh — IlapHH?. Oh cxohx na CeHe. 
The capital of France is Paris. It 
is situated on the Seine. 

OH A pron., /., gen., ace. ee, dat. en, 
instr. eio, prepos. o nea she, it 
Ona oxAHxajia iia HepnoM Mope. 
She spent her holidays at the Black 
Sea. OxKy/ia y mc axa KHHra? — 
H KyniiJi ee b khhjkhom MarasMue. 
"Where did you get that book?" "I 
bought it at a bookshop." 

OHfl pron., pi., gen., ace. hx, dat. 
HM, instr. iJMii, prepos. o hhx they 
Ohii MHoro cnopHJiH o JiHxepaxy- 
pe. They argued a lot about litera- 
ture. B HaraeM ca^y pacxyx HBexLi. 
Ohh oHGHb KpacHBH. There are 
flowers in our garden. They are 
very beautiful. 

OHO pron., neut., gen., ace. ero [-bo], 
dat. euj, instr. hm, prepos. o hcm it 
H6JI0K0 ynajio. Oho jich^hx na sgm- 
Jie. The apple has dropped. It is 
on the ground. 

OnA3J];bIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Ky^a? Ha ckojibko? &-|- 
inf. I p. ono3Aa|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox 
to be late 

Gxy^eHX onosAaJi na ypoK. The 
student was late for his lesson. Bh 
ono3AaJiH na 15 MHuyx. You are 
15 minutes late. Mw onosAaJiH K 
na^aJiy cneKxaKJia. We were too 
late for the beginning of the per- 
formance. H 0H03Aaji nocMOxpexb 
3xy KapxHHy. / missed that film. 

OnACHOCTb /. danger 

IIoABepraxbcfl onacnocxn. To be 
exposed to danger. Bbixb b onacHOC- 
XH. To be in danger. HaM rpo3HT 
onacHOCxb. We are in danger. 
HsSejKaxb onacHOCxn. To escape 



OnACHlUQ, -afl, -oe, -He; adv. onac- 
Ho dangerous 

OnacHWH cJiyHaii. A dangerous 
case. OnacHaH paSoxa. Dangerous 
work. Ho 3T0H flopore hatw onac- 
HO. It's dangerous to go along that 

OnEPA /. 

1. opera. CJiymaTb onepy. To listen 
to an opera. KynHTb Shjibth na 
onepy. To buy tickets for the 

2. opera. Teaxp onepH h 6ajieTa. 
A theatre of opera and ballet. 

OnEPAU;HH /. operation 

Xnpypr CACJiaJi cjiownyio onepa- 
i^HK). The surgeon performed a dif- 
ficult operation. Onepai;Hfl na cepA- 
ij,e. A heart operation. 
On03AATb see OnASnWBATb 
OnPAB^blBAITb, -JO, -enib, -k)T 
imp. K o r 6? H T o? ^ e M?/p. on- 
paB^alTL, -K), -eniB, -k)t 

1. to acquit. Cy^ ero onpaB^aji. 
He was acquitted by the court. 

2. to justify. Oh onpaB^biBa.! CBoe 
OTcyxcTBHe na BanaxuHX oojiea- 
HbK). He tried to justify his 
absence from the lessons by his 

<> OnpaBAbieaxb aoBepue (Koro- 
jih6o). To justify (somebody' s) con- 

OnPE/^EJIEHHE neut. definition 
To^Hoe onpe^eJieHHe. An exact defi- 
nition. MexKoe onpeAeJieuHe. A 
precise definition. J^axb onpe^eJie- 
HHe. To give a definition. 

OnPEAEJiEHHIblH, -an, -oe, -tie 

1. definite. Onpe/teJienHLiH oxnex. 
A definite answer. 

2. certain. OnpeACJienHMH nopn^OK. 
A certain order. 

OnPEJIEJiHiTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 

nxo? I p. onpeAeJi|HXb, -k), -nmb, 


1. to define. Onpe^eJinxb cBoe ot- 
Homenne k co6mxhhm. To define 
one's attitude towards events. 

2. to determine. OnpeAeJiwxb eeJiH- 
HHHy. To determine a quantity. 
OnpeAeJinxb yroji. To determine 
an angle. 

OnyCKAjTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. k o- 
r 6? H X o?/p. onycxHXb, onymy, 
onycxHmb, onycxHX 

1. to lower. Onycxuxb pe6eHKa na 
noJi. To put the child on the 
floor. Onycxuxb roJioey. To hang 
ones head. Onycxiixb rjiaaa. To 
lower one's eyes. Onycxiixb bo- 
poxHHK. To lower the collar. 

2. to drop. Onycxifxb nncbMo b 
amHK. To drop a letter into a 

OnyCTflTb see onycKATb 
OnbIT m. 

1. no pi. experience. JKiianeHHUH 
OHMX. Life's experience. Onux 
paSoxM. Experience of work. 
HMexb 6ojibni6H onux. To have 
great experience. HcnoJibsOBaxb 
CBOH ontix. To utilise one's ex- 

2. experiment. XHMHiecKneonuxH. 
Vhemical experiments. TIpOBO- 
AHXb ontiXH. To make experi- 
ments. B jiaoopaxopHH H^ex 
ontiT. An experiment is in pro- 
gress in the laboratory. 

OnblTHIblH, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
onHxen, 6nHXH|a, -o, -h 

1. experienced. Onbixnhin paGoiHH. 
An experienced worker. OnHX- 
HHH pyKOBOAHxeJib. An experi- 
enced leader. OnHXHHU npeno^a- 
Baxejib. An experienced teacher. 

2. only complete form experimental. 
OnHxnaH pa66xa. Experimental 
work. OnHxnaH ceJibCKOxoaaHcx- 
Bennafl cxannnn. An experimen- 
tal agricultural station. 

OnUTb adv. again 

CeroAHfl onnxb njioxan noroAa. 

We are having bad weather again 


1. organ. Oprann peiH. The organs 
of speech. Opran CJiyxa. The or- 
gan of hearing. OpraHH AHxa- 
HHH. Respiratory organs. 

2. organ. FocyAapcxBeHEHft opran. 
An organ of government. HapxHa- 
HHe opraHH. Party organs. Op- 
raHH MHJiHi^HH. Militia organs. 

3. organ. Faaexa «H3BecxHH» — op- 
ran HpeaHAHyMa BepxoBHoro 
GoB^xa GGGP. The newspaper 
Izvestia is the organ of the 




Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 
of the USSR. 
0P^AHH3A^HH /. 

1. no pi. organisation.OpraHH3aD;HH 
Benepa. Organisation of an 
enening- party. OpraHH3an;Hfl pa- 
66th. Organisation of work. Op- 
raHHsaniHfl 3KcneAHn;HH. Organi- 
sation of an expedition. 

2. organisation. IlapTHHHaH opra- 
HHsai^HH. A party organisation. 
npo$coK)3HaH opraHH3an.HH. A 
trade-union organisation. 

0PrAHH3|0BATfc, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 
imp. & p. K o r 6? ^ T 0? 

1. to organise. OpraHH30BaTb 3K- 
CKypcHK). To organise an excur- 
sion. OpraHHSOBaTb Benep cawo- 
AeHTeJiBHOCTH. To organise an 
amateur concert. 

2. to plan. OpraHH30BaTb pa66- 
Ty. To plan work. OpraHH30BaTb 
CBoe BpeMH. To plan one's time. 

OPAPH m., pL -a order 

HarpaAHTb opAenoM. To award an 
order. IIoJiyHiiTb opAGH. To receive 
an order. 

OPEJI m., gen, opjia eagle 

OPEX m. nut 

KpynHHe opexn. Large nuts. MeJi- 
KHe opexH. Small nuts. JTecHLie ope- 
XH. Hazel nuts. KoKocoBtie opexii. 
Coco-nuts. rpen;KHe opexn. Walnuts. 
KojioTb opexH. To crack nuts. 

OPKECTP m. orchestra ^ 

GHM(J)OHnHecKnH opKecxp. A sym- 
phony orchestra. Opnecxp no^ ynpaB- 
jienneM AHpn^Kepa MpasHHCKoro. 
An orchestra conducted by Mravin 
sky. OpKecTp HcnojinneT 5-yio chm- 
$6hhio HaHKOBCKoro. The orchestra 
is playing Tchaikovsky's 5th sym- 
phony. Konn,epT fl;jiH ^opxennaHO c 
opKecxpoM. A concerto for piano and 

OPOCflTb see OPOfflATb 

OPOfflA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
H T o?/p. opoIcHTb, -my, -cnmb, 
-CHT to irrigate 

Opomaxb cxenn. To irrigate the 

OP^AHE neut. 

1. implement. OpyAHH nponsBOA- 
cxBa. Implements of production. 

Agricultural implements. 
2. gun. ApxHJiJiepnHCKoe opyAne. 
Piece of ordnance. 
OP^JKHE neut., no pi. 

1. weapon. GoBpeMeHHoe opyHine. 
A modern weapon. 

2. fig. weapon. He^axb — Morynee 
opyHcne. The press is a mighty 

OCBAHBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -rox imp. 

H T 0?//?. OCBOlHXb, -K), -Hmb, -HX tO 


OcBOHXb HoBHe MexoAH pa56xBi. 
To master new methods of work. 
OcBaHBaxb HoBwe somjih. To bring 
new land under cultivation. Ocbo- 
HXb HOBfciH cxanoK. To learn to use 
a new machine-tool. 
OCBEmA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
K o r 6? q X 0? / p. ocBelxMXb, -m;y, 
-xamb, -THx to light 
HacxoJibHaH jiaMua xopomo ocBe- 
niaex cxoji. A desk-lamp lights the 
desk well. 
OCBOBOAflTbCH see 0CB0B05K- 

OCBOBO^AA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Koro? "3X0? ox Koro? ox He- 
ro?//?. ocBo6o|AHTb, -my, -jxiimh, 

1. to free. OcBoSoAHXb napoAH ox 
paScxBa H yrnexeHHH. To free the 
peoples from slavery and oppres- 

2. to vacate. OcBoGoAHXb Mecxo. 
To vacate a place. 

OCBOBOJKAAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH, 
-lOXCH imp. ox Koro? ox He- 
ro? & without an object / p. ocbo- 

6olAHTbC3, -JKyCb, -AHnitCH, -AflTCH 

1. to free oneself. OcboSoahtbch ox 
rnexa, ox pa6cxBa. To free one- 
self from oppression, from slavery. 

2. to get free, fl ocbo6oahjich ce- 
roAHfl b 6 nacoB. / was free at 6 

o'clock today. 

3. to become vacant. Mecxo 3a cxo- 
JiOM ocBoSoAHJiocb. The seat at 
the table became vacant. 

OCEHHIHB, -hh, -ee, -ne autumn 

OceHHHH AGHb. An autumn day. 

OceHHee naJibxo. An autumn coat. 



OCEHb /., no pi. autumn 

SoJioxaH oceHb, A golden autumn. 

IloaaHHfl oceHb. Late autumn. 
OCEHblO adv. k o r a a? in autumn 

OceubK) a^ecb qacxo havt aoh«ah. 

It often rains here in autumn. 
OCKOPBJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 

KOrO? HTOp^e M?//>. 0CK0p|6HTb, 

-6jik), -6wrab, -6flT to insult 
OcKop6HTb HejiOBGKa. To insult a 
person. BaraH cjiosa Menri rJiy6oK6 
0CK0p6HJiH. Your words were a grave 
insult to me. 
OCJIABJlH|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
K o r 6? H T o?lp. ocjia|6HTb, -6jiio, 
-Cnmb, -6ht 

1. to weaken. BoJiesHb ocjia6HJia 
ero opraHHSM. The illness had 
weakened his organism. 

2. fig. to relax. Ocjia6HTb BEHMauHe. 
To relax attention. 

OCMATPHBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp. 
K o r 6? H T o?/p, ocMOTpexb, ocmot- 

piO, OCMOXpumb, OCMOTpflT 

1. to see. OcMaTpHBaxb Mysea, 
BbiCTaBKH, KapxiTHhi. To See mu- 
seums, exhibitions, pictures. 

2. to examine. Bpai ocMOTpeJi 6ojib- 
Horo. The doctor examined the 


1. basis. OcHOBOH aoKJia^a 6tiJiH 
c66cTBeHHMe BneHaTJieniiH aBTO- 
pa. The report was based on the 
author's own impressions. 

2. only pi. fundamentals. Och6bu 
reoJiornn. Foundations of geology. 

^ Ha ocHoee oobiTa. On the basis 
of experience. 
OCHOBATEJIb m. founder 

OcHOBaTeJib yqeuHfl, TeopHH, nay- 
KH. The founder of a teaching, theo- 
ry, science. OcHOBaTejib ropo^a. 
The founder of the city. 
OCHOBHIOfl, -an, -6e, -ue cardinal, 

OcnoBHOH Bonpoc MeHcayHapoAHon 
oScTauoBKH. The main problem of 
the international situation. B ochob- 
HOM Bbi npaBH. On the whole you 
are right. 

OCHOBblBAjTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
HTO? / p. ocHjoBdTb, -yio, -yemb, 

1. to found. OcHOBaTb r6pofl. To 
found a city. OcHOBaTb yuHBep- 
CHTeT. To found a university. 

2. to base. Ha hbm bm ocHoBuBae- 
Te Bame MH^une? What do you 
base your opinion on? 

OCOBEHHOCTb /. peculiarity 

Oc65eHHOCTH paCoTH. Peculiarities 
of a work. XyAOJKecTBeHHbie oco- 
6eHH0CTH poMana. The artistic pe- 
culiarities of a novel. OcoSchhocth 
xapaKTcpa aToro HeJioBeKa. The 
peculiar features of that man's 
<> B oc65eHHOCTH. In particular. 

OCOBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue; adv. 

1. particular, especial. Oc66eeHLiH 
ycnex hmcjio BMCTynjieHHe mo- 
jfOAOH neBHn;bi. The perform- 
ance of the young singer was par- 
ticularly successful. 

2. peculiar. Y nee KaKou-TO oc<5- 
6eHHHH KOCTiOM. She wears a 
somewhat unusual costume. 

OCTAIBATbCfl, -K)Cb, -embca, -iotch 
imp. /p. ocTa|TbCH, -nycb, -nerabCH, 


1. to remain. IlocJie OKomaHHH 


ropoAe. On graduating from the 
institute I remained in my na- 
tive town. 

2. to remain. Oh o^eHb HSMeHHJi- 
CH, TOJibKO rJiaaa ocTajincb 
npeJKHHMH. He has changed a lot, 
only his eyes are still the same. 

3. to be left. Oh ocTajicfl cnpoToH. 
He was left an orphan. V mghh 
ocTaJiocb 10 pySJieH. / have 
10 roubles left. Jl^Qiv. ocTa- 
jiHCb 6e3 poAHTeJieH. The child- 
ren were left without parents. 

<> OcTaTbCfl B HCHBbix. To remain 
alive. OcTaBaTbCfl npn CBOeM Mne- 
Hiiii. To remain of the same opin- 
OCTABJlH|Tb, '10, -emb, -iot imp. 
K r 6? q t o? / p. ocTaJBHTb, -bjik), 

-BHmb, -BHT 

1. to leave. OcTaBHTb TexpaA^' fl6- 
Ma. To leave a copy-book a t home. 




2. to leave. Oh ocxaBHJi Hpyry 3a- 
HHCKy. He left a note for his 

3. to leave. Maxb ocTaBHJia h6jiokh 
j^jifl flCT^H. The mother left the 
apples for her children. 

4. to leave. OcxaBHTb poflHoH ^gm. 
To leave one's home. 

5. to leave alone {only imper^). Oc- 
TaBb pe6eHKa, He xporaH ero! 
Leave the child alone, don't touch 

OCTAJIBHlCfl, -an, -6e, -He 

1. (the) rest. B HioJie cxyAeHTH 


nyio qacTb KannKyji ohh npo- 


July the students were at a rest- 
-home, the rest of their holidays 
they spent hiking. 3to hCjio- 
KO ocTaBb MHe, a ocTaJibHLie 
B03bMH ce6e. Leave that apple 
for me, and take the rest. 

2. used as n., pi. the rest. Mh c 
HaBJiOM npHHiJiii b 6 nacoB, oc- 
xaJibHHe nosAHce. Pavel and I 
came at 6 o'clock; the rest came 

OCTAHABJlHBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -kit 
imp. K o r 6? ^ t o?//?. ocTalHOBHTb, 


1. to stop. OcTaHOBiiTb Serynxero 
qeJiOBcKa. To stop a running 
man. OcTanoBUTb ndesA CTon- 
KpanoM. To stop the train with 
the emergency brake. OcTanoBiiTb 
paSoTH. To cease work. 

2. to rest. OcxaHOBHTb bsfjiha 
Ha KapTHHe. To rest ones gaze 
on a picture. 

3.: Oh ho anaji, na hcm ocxaHOBiiTb 

CBOH BH6op. He didn't know 

what to fix his choice on. 

OCTAHABJmBAlTbCH, -rocb. -embCH, 

-lOTCfl imp. r a e?/p. 0CTa|H0BeTbCH, 


1. to stop. BApyr noesA ocTanoBiiJi- 
Cfl. The train suddenly stopped. 

2. to stop working. CTanoK ocxa- 

HOBlJJICfl H3-3a TOro, HTO HO 

6hjio 9JieKTp09HeprHH. The 
machine-tool stopped working be- 
cause of a power failure. 

3. fig. to deal. npo|)eccop b cbooh 
jieKHHH ocTaHOBHJicH Ha npo6ji6- 


In his lecture the professor dealt 
with the problems of modern 

4. to put up. OCTaUOBHTbCH B TOC- 

THHHHe. To put up at a hotel. 


OCTAHOBIKA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1. stop. CAeJi Tb ocxaHOBKy. To 

2. pause. FoBopnTb 6e3 ocxaHoBKH. 
To speak without stopping. 

3. stop. ABT66ycHaH ocxanoBKa. A 
bus stop. Ha ocxaHoBKe cxoflJia 
rpynna cxyAenxoB. There was a 
group of students at the stop. 
KoHCHHaH ocxaHOBKa. A termi- 
nal. BaM HaAo exaxb 5 ocxano- 
BOK. You must get off at the 
sixth stop. HaM cxoA^xb na cjie- 
AyiomeH ocxanoBKe. We get off 
at the next stop. 


OCTOPOaCHIbiS, -an, -oe, -hb, short 
form ocxopoHten, ocxopoJKHla, -o, 
-h; adv. ocxop6>KHO careful 
OcxopoJKHMH HGJiOBeK. A careful 
person. Oh ocxopojKHO nocxaBiiji iia 
cxoJi Ba3y c HBoxaMH. He put the 
vase of flowers on the table carefully. 
Ocxop6H<Hol Take care! Be careful! 

OCTPOB m., pi -a island 

OCTPOy'MHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form ocxpoyMGH, ocxpoyMH|a, -o, 
-h; adv. ocxpoyMHO witty 
OcxpoyMHHH HejiOBeK. A witty 
person. OcxpoyMHHH oxbgx. A witty 

OCTF|blfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
ocxep, ocxpa, 6cxp|o, -h 

1. sharp. OcxpHH nom. A sharp 

2. fig. keen, sharp. Ocxpoe 3peHHe. 
Keen eyesight. OcxpHH yM. A 
sharp wit. 

3. fig. sharp. Ocxpan 6ojib. A sharp 

4. fig. pungent. Ocxpnn coyc. A 
pungent sauce. 

<> 05xoAHTb ocTpwe yr.ibi. To 
avoid all controversial subjects. 





OCymECTBJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -h)t 
imp. H T o?//>. ocymecTlBWTL, -bjik), 
-BHmb, -BflT to realise 
OcymecTBHTb njian, Menxy, jKeJia- 
HHe. To realise a plan, one's dream, 
one's wish. OcymecTBHTb aJieKxpn- 

4)HKaiIHK) HapoflHOrO X03HHCTBa. 

To electrify the national economy. 
OCymECTBJlH|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 

not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch 

imp. /p. ocymecTBliJTbCH, 1st & 2iid 

pers. not used, 3rd pers. -pitch, 

-HTCH to realise 

Ham nJian ocymecTBHJiCH. Our plan 

has been realised. 
OT (OTO) prep. + gen. 

1. from. Oi-bexaxb ox ropo^a. To 
go a certain distance from the 
city. Vexaxb ox poAHbix. To go 
away from one's relatives. Ox 
MocKBw AO JleHHHrpafla. From 
Moscow to Leningrad. Ox xpex 
AO HHXH. From three to five. 

2. from. nojiyHiixb hhclmo ox ox- 
n;a. To get a letter from one's 
father, yaiiaxb hobocxh ox xo- 
Bapiima. To learn the news from 
one's friend. 

3. for. Ox BOJineHHH oh hg Mor CKa- 
3axb HH cJioBa. He couldn't utter 
a word for excitement. Ox pa;;ocxH. 
For joy. Ox cxpaxa. For fear. 

4. to. Kjiioh ot KOMHaxH. A key to 
a room. 

5. from, against. 3am;Hxa ox Bpa- 
ra. Defence against the enemy. 
JleKapcxBo ox rpanna. A medi- 
cine for the 'flu. 

«0* Ot flyniH. Sincerely. Ot ecero 
cepnixa. With all one's heart. Ot 
HMeHH K«r6-JiH5«. On some- 
body's behalf. 
0TB ET m. 

1. answer. Hanncaxb oxBex. To 
write an answer. JJ^aTb oxBex. To 
give an answer. OxBex na dhcb- 
m6. An answer to a letter. 

2. answer. Xopomna oxb^x yqenn- 
Ka Ha ypoKe. The pupil's good 
answer at a lesson. 

3. solution. OxBex saAa^H. The so- 
lution of a problem. IIpaBHJib- 
HHH oxBex. A correct solution. 


OTBfiTCTBEHHlblB, -an, -oe, -He 
adv. oxB^xcxBCHHO responsible 
OxBexcxBeHHHH pa66xHHK. A res- 
ponsible worker. OxsexcxBeHHUH pe- 
AaKXOp. The editor-in-chief. Oxbgx- 
cxBeHHHH aa pa6dxy. Responsible 
for the work. 

OTBEHAITb, -K), -emb, -rox imp./p. 

OXBe|XHTb, -Hy, -THmb, -XHX 

1. ^xo? KOMy? Ha qxo? to an- 
swer. OxBexHXb Apyry. To an- 
swer one's friend. OxBexHXb na 
Bonpoc. To answer a question. 
OxBexHXb Ha nncbMo. To answer 
a letter. OxBe^axb ypoK. To say 
one's lesson. 

2. HCM? Ha Hxo? to return. Ox- 
Benaxb apvjkGoh na ApyjKSy. To 
return somebody's friendship. 
OxBexHXb y^apoM na yAap. To 
return blow for blow. 

3. H e M y? no p. to meet, to satisfy 
^xa pa66xa oxBeqaex mohm hh- 

xepecaM h jKeJiaHHHM. This work 
satisfies my interests and wishes. 

4. 3 a H X 6? no p. to be respon- 
sible. OxBenaxb aa pa66xy. To 
be responsible for the work. 

OT^AlBAXb, -K), -emb, -i6x ^ imp. 
Koro? qxo? KOMyPqeMy? /p. 
ox^axb, oxAaM, oxAamb, oxAacx, 
oxAaAHM, oxAaAHTe, oxAaAyT, past 
oxAaJi, oxAaJia, oxAaJilo, -h 

1. to return. OxAaxb KHiiry b 6h- 
6jiH0xeKy. To return a book to 
the library. 

2. fig. to devote. OxAaBaxb Bce ch- 
JiH jik)6hmoh pa66xe. To devote 
all one's strength to the work one 
likes. OxAaxb JKHSHb 3a poAHHy. 
To give up one's life for one's 

OT^ATb see OT^ABATb 

OT^EJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, -He sepa- 

OxAeJibHan KBapxnpa. A separate 
flat. OxACJibHaH KOMHaxa. A sepa- 
rate room. 

OTAOXH^Tb see OT^blXATb 

OTj^blX m., no pi. rest 

npaBO na oxahx. The right to rest. 
JllxHHft oxahx. Summer holidays. 
<> JI,9M OTAMxa. A rest-home. 

OT^blXAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Tjs,e?/p. oxAOXHiyxb, -y. -emb, -yx 
to rest 




JlexoM MH OTflHxaJiH Ha 6epery 
Mopfl (b canaTopHH, b aomg oxflH- 
xa). In summer we rested at the 
seaside (in a sanatorium, in a rest- 
home), ndcjie o6eAa mh oT^HxaeM. 
We have a rest after dinner. 
OT|EI^ m., gen. -^a father 
OTEqECTBEHHlblH, -an, -oe, -He 

ToBapH oxeiecTBeHHoro nponsBOA- 
cxBa. Home-made goods. 
^ OxeqecTBeHHaa BOHHa. A pa- 
triotic war. 
OTE^ECTBO neut. fatherland 
OTKA3bIBA|TbCH,-iocB, -emtCH, -lox- 
cfl imp. ox Koro? ox Hero? 
& -f inf. I p. oxKaaaxbCH, oxKa>Kycb, 
oxKaJKenibCfl, oxKa>Kyxcfl 

1. to refuse. Oh oxKaaajicfl BMnoJi- 
HHXL npHKas. He refused to car- 
ry out the order. 

2. to refuse, to decline, to give 
up. Oh oxKa.iajicfl ox flener. 
He refused to take the money. 
OxKasaxBCH ox cbohx cjiob. To 
go back on one's words. Ox- 
KasaxbCH ox npHrjiameuHH. To 
decline an invitation. OxKaaaxb- 
CH ox CBOHX npaB. To give up 
one's rights. 

OTKPOBEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, 
short form oxKpOBeneH, oxKpoBeenla, 
-0, -bi; adv. oxKpoBeHHO frank 
OxKpoBeHHbiH paaroBop. A frank 
conversation. FoBopiixb oxKpoBen- 
HO. To speak frankly. 

OTKPblBAJTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
HTO?/p. oxKpHXb, oxKp6|K), -emb, 


1. to open. OxKpHXb ^Bepb. To 
open a door. OxKpnxb qeMOj^an. 
To open a suit-case. OxKpHXb 
KHHry. To open a book. OxKpHXb 
rJiaaa. To open one's eyes. 

2. to open. OxKpnxb hobhh Mara- 
3HH, HOByK) cxoJioByio. To open 
a new shop, a new dining-hall. 

3. to open. OxKpnxb BHcxaBKy, 
coSpaHHe. To open an exhibition, 
a meeting. 

4. to discover. OxKpnxb MecxopojK- 
jil^HTie, HOByio njianexy, hobhh 
3JieMeHX. To discover a mineral 
deposit, a new planet, a new 

^ OTKpwTfa AMepHKy. To say 
something which everyone already 
knows. Cf. Queen Ann is dead. 
OTKPbIBA|TbCH, 1st and 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -exca, -ioxch 
imp. I p. oxKpHXbCff, 1st and 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. 0XKpd|excH, 


1. to open. OxKpHJiocb okho. The 
window opened. 

2. to open. GxojioBafl oxKpHBaexcH 
B 8 qacoB. The dining-hall 
opens at 8 o'clock. 

OTKPb'ITHE neut. 

1. no pi. inauguration, opening. 
OxKpHxne HOBoro HHCxnxyxa. 
The inauguration of a new insti- 
tute. OxKpHxne BbicxaBKH. The 
opening of an exhibition. 

2. discovery. Hayqnoe oxKpHxne. 
A scientific discovery. OxKpn- 
XHH B oSJiacxH $ii3HKH. Discov- 
eries in the field of physics. 
GABJiaxb oxKpHxne. To make a 

OTKPKITIKA /., gen. pi. -ok postcard 
HoHTOBaH oxKpHTKa. A postcard. 
Ilocjiaxb oxKpmxKy. To send a post- 
card. IloJiyqaxb oxKpnxKy. To re- 
ceive a postcard. no3ji,paBHxejibHaH 
oxKpbiXKa. A postcard of congratu- 

OTKPb'ITIbitt, -aa, -oe, -ne 

1. open. OxKpbixaa MecxHocxb. Open 

2. fig. frank. OxKpnxoe jihi;6. A 
frank face. 

^ OTKpbiT»e Mope. The open sea. 
OTiq)biT#e nncbMo. An open letter. 
IIoA OTKpMTbiM eeSoM. In the open 

OTKPklTb see OTKPblBATb 

OIKS' AA adv. where from 

OxKy^a BH npnexaJiH? Where did 
you come from? OxKy^a bh axo 
BHaexe? How do you know that? H 
BH^PO, oxKy^a xbi n/temb. / know 
where you are coming from. 

OTJIinAlTbCfl, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. qeM? ox koto? ox nero? 
to be different 

Bam HJiaH oxjinqaexcn ox ;^py^HX 
rJiy6HH6H. Your plan differs from 
the others by its profundity. 




OTJIfiHHO adv. 

1. excellently, very well. Bu ot- 
jiHHHO 3T0 BH^eie. You know it 
very well. 

2. used as n. yqHTLCfl Ha «OTJinH- 
H0». To get only excellent marks. 
noJiyHnTB «OTJiHiHO» no pyccKO- 
My H3biKy. To get an excellent 
mark in Russian. IIocTaBHTb 
yneHHKy «OTJitiqHO». To give a 
pupil an excellent mark 

0TM£T|KA /., gen. pi. -ok mark 

H nojiyniiji xopomyio OTMCTKy no 
pyccKOMy flSHKy. / got a good 
mark in Russian. 
OTHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
Koro? HTO? y Koro? y ne- 

r 6?/ p. OTHHTb, OTHHMy, OTHFIMemb, 

OTHi'iMyT, past oTHflJi, 0THHJi|a, 6t- 

HHJl|0, -H 

1. to take away, y MaJib^HKa 6t- 
HflJiH Mflii. They took the ball 
away from the boy. 

2. to take. PaaroBop dxHHJi y Me- 
HH Miioro BpeMeHH. The conver- 
sation took away a lot of my time. 

3. to subtract. OT AeCHTW OTHHTb 

TpH Sy^eT ceMb. // 3 is sub- 
tracted from 10 the answer is 7. 

OTHOCflTb, OTHomy, OTHocnmb, ot- 
HOCHT imp. HTO? Ky^a? ko- 
M y?/p. OTHeciTii, -y, -emb, -yT, past 
oTHec, oxnecjila, -6, -n to take 
(to some place) 

H OTHec KHiirn b 6H6JiHOTeKy. / 
took the books back to the library. 
Mu OTHecjiH HBexH npenoAaBaxe- 
JiK). We took the flowers to the teacher. 

OTHOCflTtCH, OTHO^Iycb, OTHocnmb- 

Cfl, OTHOCflTCfl imp. K a K? K K 0- 

M y? K n e M y?/p. OTHec|Tncb, -ycb, 
-erabCH, -yxcH, past othccch, ot- 
Hecji|acb, -ocb, -licb 

1. to treat. Xopomo (njioxo) ot- 
HOCHTbCH K KOMy-JiH5o. To treat 
somebody well (badly). 

2. no p. to concern. Moh cJiOBa ne 
OTHocflTCH K BaM. My words do 
not concern you. 3x0 ne oxhochx- 
cfl K fleJiy. It's beside the point. 

OTHOfflfiHHE neut. 

1. no pi. attitude. Xopomee oxho- 
raeHHe k jiioahm. A kind attitude 
to people. 

2. no pi. relation. 3xo ne HMeex ko 
mh6 oxHOffl^HHH. /( has nothing 
to do with me. 

3. only pi. relations. J\pymecKne 
oxHomeHHH. Friendly relations. 


MejKfly cxpanaMH. Diplomatic 
relations between countries. Ycxa- 

HOBHXb (paaopoaxb) ;^H^JIOMaXH- 

HecKHe oxHomeHHH. To establish 
(to break off) diplomatic relations. 

<> EblTb C KeM-JIH60 B KaKHX-JI^- 

6o OTHomeHHflx. To be on (some 
sort of) terms with somebody. 
OTOflTfl see OTXOAflTb 

OTDPABJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? Ky ji B?/p. oxnpal- 
BHXb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -Bflx to Send 
Ma»b oxnpaBJiaex cwna b mKOJiy. 
The mother sends her son to school. 
fl oxnpaBHJi MOMOH nncbMo (xejie- 
rpaMMy, nocwJiKy). / se/it a letter 
(a wire, a parcel) home. 
OTHPABJlHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, 
-loxcfl imp. K y A a? without an obj. 
& -f inf. I p. oxnpa|BHXbCH, -BJiiocb, 

-BHmbCH, -BflXCH 

1. to go. IlocJie aaHHXHH mm ox- 
npaBHJiHCb ryjTflXb. After the 
lessons we went for a walk. Mh 
oxnpaBHJiHCb B napK. We went 
to the park. OxnpaBHXbCH b nyxb. 
To set out. 

2. to leave. Uoesjj, oxnpaBJinexc^ 
nepea 10 MHnyx ox 5-h njiax- 
$6pMU. The train leaves in 10 
minutes from platform 5. 

OTnyCK m. holidays 

JlexHHH oxnyCK. Summer holi- 
days. MecHHHWH oxnycK. A month's 
holiday. IIohxh b oxnycK. To go on 
one's holidays. BepnyxbCH H3 6x- 
nycKa. To return after one's holi- 
days. Bwxb B 6xnycKe (b oxnycKy). 
To be on one's holidays. IIpOBOjiiixb 
oxnycK Ha lore. To spend one's 
holidays in the South. 

OTnyCKA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. 

K r 6? q T o?/p. oxnycxtixb, oxny- 

my, oxnycxHmb, oxnycxHx 

1. to let go. Maxb He oxnycKaJia 

peScHKa ox cc6h. The mother 




did not let her child go away 
from her. 
2. to let go. Oh oTnycxiiji mok) py- 
KV. He let go of my hand. 

oxnycTflTb see oxnycKAxb 


1. no pi. reflection. OxpaHteHne 
CBexa. The reflection of light. 

2. reflection. VBviji,eTh CBoe oxpa- 
jKenne b sepKaJie, rJiaAKOH no- 
BepxHOCXH BOflM. To sce one's 
reflection in a mirror, on the 
smooth surface of the water. 

3. fig. no pi. reflection. Bee axo 
Hamjio oxpajKenne b ero KHHre. 
All this was reflected in his book. 

4. philos. no pi. reflection. TeopHH 
oxpajKeHHH. The theory of reflec- 

0XPE3AXb see PE3AXb, 2 

OXPHJ^ m. detachment 

IlHOHepcKHH oxpflA- A Young Pio- 
neer detachment. IlapxHaaHCKHH ox- 
pH^. A guerrilla detachment. 

OXCXA|BAXb, -K), -emb, -K)X imp. 
ox Koro? ox qero? or without 
an oxcxa|xL, -ny, -Hemb, -nyx 

1. to lag behind. Oh meji MOA^en- 
Ho H cKopo oxcxaJi ox XOBapH- 
niieH. He walked slowly and soon 
he fell behind his friends. 

2. colloq. to miss. Ha 0]\u6vl ocxa- 
HOBKe a oxcxaji ox noeaAa. At 
one stop I missed my train. 

3. to fall behind. H mhofo 6oJieJi 
H oxcxaji ox rpynnu. / was ill 
for a long time and I fell be- 
hind my group. Oxcxaxb ox jkhs- 
HH. To lag behind life. 

4. to be slow. Hacw oxcxaiox na 
10 MHHyx. The watch (clock) is 
10 minutes slow. 

OTCXAJI|bIfl, -aa, -oe, -He backward 
OxcxaJiaa cxpana. A backward coun- 
try. OxcxaJiHe bsfjihaw. Backward 
OXCXynAlXb, -ro, -emb, -lox imp. 
/p. oxcxynnxb, oxcxynJiK), oxcxy- 
nnrab, oxcxynax 

1. to retreat. BoncKa oxcxyoMjin. 
The troops have retreated. | fig. 
He oxcxynaHxe nepefl xpy^Hoc- 
XHMH. Don't give in in the face 
of difficulties. 

2. ox Hero? to deviate. Oxcxy- 
naxb ox npasHJi, ox hopmbi. To 
deviate from the rules, the norm. 

oxcxynflxb see oxcxynAxb 

OXCS^XCXBIOBAXb, -yro.-yemb, -yiox 
imp. to be absent 
OxcyxcxBOBaxb na ypoKe no 6o- 
jieaum, no yBajKHxejibHon npn^H- 
ne. To be absent from the lesson 
owing to illness, for good reasons. 
Oh oxcyxcxBOBaji 3 Mecfln;a. He 
was absent for 3 months. 

OXCIDAA adu. from here 

OxciOAa BHAHa Bca MocKBa. One 
can see the whole of Moscow from 
here. OxciOAa xopomo cJiMmno. You 
can hear well from here. He yxoAH 
oxciOAa. Don't go away from here. 

OXXy/^A adv. from there 

B sajie HppaJi opKecxp, oxxvAa 
cjiMmajica cmcx, sByKH necen. An 
orchestra was playing in the hall, 
from which came laughter and 
songs. Bh Swjih b khho? — J^a, mh 
HAeM oxxyAa. ''Have you been to 
the cinema?" *Yes, we are coming 
from there." 

OXXOJl,flXb, oxxoHty, oxxoAHrab, ox- 
x6a«t imp. oxKoro? ox ne- 
r6?/p. oxoHJxH, -Ay, -Aemb, -Ayx, 
past oxomeji, oxomJi|a, -6, -h 

1. to go away. Mh oxomjiii ox Ma- 
raanna Ha necKOJibKo maroB. 
We went a few steps away from 
the shop. 

2. to leave. HoesA oxxoahx b 6 na- 
coB. The train leaves at 6 

OX^ECXBO neut. patronymic 

HasoBiixe name riMa, oxhccxbo h 
(|)aMHJiHK). Give your name, patro- 
nyniic and surname. 

0XT>E3^ m., no pi. departure 

OxT>e3A HasnaHen na 6 qacoB. The 
departure is fixed for 6 o'clock. B 
AeHb oxtesAa. On the day of de- 

OXT>E33KAlXb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 
p. ox-bexaxb, ox'beAly, -emb, -yx to 
drive off 

MamHHa ox-bexajia ox AOMa ncBep- 
nyjia na mocce. The car drove away 
from the house and turned on to the 

OXT)EXAXb see 0XT>E3aCAXb 

OOHI^EP m. officer 




OOHI^HAJlbHIblfl, -afl, -oe. -ue; 
adv. o<|)ni:(Bawii>Ho 

1. official. 0$Hii;HaJibHoe saHBjie- 
HHe. An official statement. 0$h- 
ilHajibHWH BH3HT. An official 
visit. O^HJ^najiBHoe jihi;6. An 

2. official, formal. 0(|)HaHajibHHH 
H3HK. An official language. Oi^u- 
i;HaJibHoe npHrJiameHHe. A for- 
mal invitation. roBopiiTb o^hi;h- 
aJibHUM TOHOM. To spcak in an 
official manner. 

OXOTA /., no pi. hunting 

BbiTb Ha oxoie. To hunt. ynacTBO- 
Baxb B oxoxe. To take part in a 
hunt. Math na oxoxy. To go hunt- 
ing. Oxoxa Ha bojikob. Wolf-shoot- 
ing. Oxoxa coSaKaMH. A chase. 

OXOTHHK m. hunter 

OXOTHO adv. readily, willingly 

H oxoxHO corjiamaiGCb c BaMH. / 
readily agree with you. 

OXPAHIIlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
KoropHTO? ox Koro? ox ne- 
r 6? to guard 

OxpaHfixb 3;^aHHe. To guard a build- 
ing. OxpaHHXb rpaHHuy. To guard 
the frontier. 

O^EHb adv. very; very much 

O^eHb KpacHBHH napK. A very 
beautiful park, fl o^enb njioxo no- 
HHMaio no-pyccKH. / understand 
Russian very badly. Ha neqep 
npnmjio o'jeHb mhofo napoAy- 
There were very many people at 
the evening-party. Mhc oneHb Hpa- 
BHxcfl 3X0X (|)HjibM, / like this film 
very much. 

OHEPEAlb /., gen. pi. -en 

1. queue. Cxorixb b onepeAH. To 
stand in a queue. O^iepeAb 3a 6h- 
JiexaMH. A queue for tickets. 

2. turn. 

<> CACjiaxb B nepeyio o^epeflb. To 
do in the first place. B cboio 
6»iepenb. In its turn. 
OHflClHTb see HfiCTHTb, 2 
OHKjfl no sing., gen. -6b spectacles 
HociTXb OHKii. To wear spectacles. 
MeJiOBeK B OHKax. A man in spec- 
tacles.^ TeMHHG oqKH. Sun-glasses. 


badly without spectacles. 
OfflHBAlTbCH, -locb, -embca, -ioxch 
imp. B K M? B H e M? or without 

anobj./p. omH6|HXbCH, -ycb, -embCH, 
-yxcH, past omnScH, omiiGjilacb. 
-ocb, -HCb to make a mistake 
CxyfleHX omH6cfl npH pemeuHH 3a- 
flaHH. The student mode a mistake 
in solving the problem. KoHCxpyK- 
xop omHScH B pacqexax. The 
designer made a mistake in his calcu- 
lations. H omnScfl b mocm xoBapn- 
me. / was disappointed in my 
friend, fl omnSajiCH, KOPAa AyMaJi o 
xe6e HJIOXO. / was wrong when 
I thought badly of you. FjiyGoKO 
omnGaxbCH. To be greatly mistaken. 
OfflHEflTbCfl see OfflHBAXbCH 
OmflBlKA /., gen. pi. -ok mistake 
FpyCafl omnSKa. A gross mistake. 
CAeJiaxb omnSKy. To make a mis- 
take. IlHcaxb c omiiSKaMH. To make 
mistakes in writing. HcHpaBJiaxb 
omnCKH. To correct mistakes. Cp,e- 
jiaxb qx6-HH6yAb no omri6Ke. To 
do something by mistake. npH3H^xb 
CBdlo omM6Ky. To admit one's mis- 
take. Co3HaxbcH b cbogh omriCne. 
To confess one's mistake. 

n, n 

nA/^A|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k y- 
Aa?//). ynalcxb, -Ay, -Aemb, -Ayx, 
past yn^ji, -a, -0, -h 

1. to fall. OceHbK) jiHCXbH naAaiox 
c AepeBbeB na scmjiio. In autumn 
leaves fall from the trees to the 

2. fig. to drop. K yxpy xeMnepa- 
xypa y Sojibuoro ynajia. By the 
morning the patient's tempera- 
ture had dropped. 

^AJIE^ m., gen. ^aJlb^a finger, toe 
^jiPiHHHe uajihUM. Long fingers. 
BoJibmoH naJien;. The thumb. Yua- 
saxejibHHH najiei^. The forefinger. 
IIOKasbiBaxb najibi^eM. To point 
with the finger. 


najibHbi. To close one's eyes to 
something. Snaxb mto-jihSo kek 
CBOH HHTb naJibn.eB. To have 
something at one's finger-tips. 
nAJI|KA /., gen. pi. -ok stick 

OuHpaTbCfl Ha naJiKy. To lean on a 
stick. Jlumuue^ naJiKH. Ski sticks^ 
^ JXenATh qxo-JiHSo H3-noA naji- 
KH. To do something under the lash. 




HAJIblO neut., indecl. overcoat 

SHMHee najibTo. A winter overcoat. 
HaJ^eBaTb naJibTo- To put on an 
overcoat. GHHMaTb naJiBxo. To take 
off an overcoat. TyjiflTb 6e3 najib- 
t6. To take a walk without an over- 
coat on. 

nAMflTHHK m. 

1. K o M y? q e M y? monument. 
IlaMflTHHK nvfflKHHy. A monu- 
ment to Pushkin. 

2. Hero? monument. IlaMHTHHK 
apxHTeKxypH. A monument of 

HAMHTb /., no pi. 

1. memory, y nee njioxaH naMHXb. 
She has a poor memory. 

2. memory. IlaMflTb o xex ahhx 
HHKorjta He HCHesneT. The mem- 
ories of those days will live 
for ever. 

<> IIoAapHTb ^t6-jih6o KOMy-JiH- 
6o Ha naMflTb. To give something 
to somebody as a keepsake, nojiy- 
HHTb qTO-JiH^o OT Kor6-JiH6o na 
naMHTb. To get something from some- 
body as a keepsake. YiHTb Ha 
naMHTb. To learn by heart. 

nAlIA m. daddy 

HAnHPOCA /. cigarette 

KpenKHe nannpocH. Strong ciga- 
rettes. KypHTb nannpocy. To smoke 
a cigarette. 

IIAP m., pi. -H vapour 

BojlHHoH nap. Water vapour. Hpn 
TeMnepaxype 100 rpa^ycoB L[ejibCHH 
Bo^a npeBpan];aexcH b nap. At a 
temperature of 100° C. water turns 
into vapour. 

nAPA /. 

1. pair. Ilapa xy$ejib. A pair of shoes. 

2. couple. B 3aJie xanneBajio ne- 
CKOJibKO nap. Several couples 
were dancing in the hall. MoJio- 
flaH napa. A young couple. 

IIAPAJ^ m. parade 

BoeHHHH napa^. A military pa- 
rade. (DH3KyjibxypHHH napaA- A 
sports parade. Bbixb na napaA©- 
To be on parade. 

nAPlEHb m., gen. -hh lad 

Th xopomnn napenbl — cKasaJi 
OH. ''You are a fine ladJ" he said. 

IIAPHKMAXEP m. barber, hairdresser 
PaSoxaxb napHKMaxepoM. To work 
as a barber (hairdresser). 

nAPHKMAXEPCKlAH /., gen. -oh, 
pi. -He 

MyjKCKaH napHKMdxepcKaH. Bar- 
ber's shop. TKeHCKafl napHKMaxep- 
CKaa. Hairdressing saloon. 

IIAPK m. park 

TopoffCKOH napK. A city park. Ty- 
jiHXb B napKB. To take a walk in 
the park. Xo^Hxb no napny. To 
walk about in the park. 

IIAPOXO^ m. steamship 

HaccajKHpcKHH napoxoA. A pas- 
senger steamer. PeqnoH napoxoA. 
A river steamer. HJitixb (exaxb) na 
napoxoAG. To sail on a ship. 

HAPTEP [-X9-] m. the stalls and 
the pit (in a theatre, etc.) 
Mecxo B napxepe. A place in the 
stalls. CHAexb b napxepe. To sit in 
the stalls. Kynuxb 6hji6x b napxep. 
To buy a ticket for the stalls. 

nAPTH3AH m., gen. pi. napxHsan 

Bo BpeMH BOHHw MOH 6pax 6l>IJI 
napxnaanoM. During the war my 
brother was a guerrilla. 

I1APTH3AHCK1HH, -an, -oe, -ne guer- 

IlapxHaaHCKOe ABHJKeHHe. The guer- 
rilla movement. IlapxHaaHCKHH 
oxpHA- A guerrilla detachment. 

UAPTflflHlblH, -aa, -oe, -He party 
Ilapx/iHHoe coGpaune. A party meet- 
ing. riapxHHHHH 6HJiex. A party 
membership card. 

nAPTHH /. party 

^Jien napxHH. A member of the 
party. Bcxynnxb b napxHio. To join 
the party. 

nACMYPHIblfl, -aH. -oe, -iie dull, 

IlacMypHBiH AGHL. A dull (gloomy) 

HACCAHCflP m. passenger 

B Kyne 6ujio Hexwpe naccaH^iipa. 
There were four passengers in the 


1. patriot. BopbSa naxpnoxoB aa 
ocBoSomAeHHO CBoen cxpanbi. 
The struggle of the patriots for 
the liberation of their country. 

2. enthusiast. HaxpHox cBoero Ae- 
Jia. An enthusiast for a cause. 

IIAXATb, namy, namemb, namyx 
imp. H T 0? He M?//>. Bcnaxaxb, 




Bcnamy, Bcnamemb, Bcnamyr 

to plough 

IlaxaTb aeMJiK). To plough the 


nAXHiyXb, -y, -emb, -yi, past nax, 
-jia, -jio, -JiH imp. q e M? to smell 
/^yxH npHHTHO n^XHyx. The per- 
fume smells pleasant. \ impers. Ha 
Jiyry npHaxHO ndxHex cchom. 
There is a pleasant smell of hay in 
the meadow. 

nAH|KA /., gen. pi -eK packet 

na4Ka caxapa. A packet of sugar. 
naqKa nannpoc. A packet of ciga- 

MHCHH /. pension 

IleHCHH no cx^pocxH. An old-age 
pension. IloJiynaxb nencHio. To get 
a pension. Buhxh na neHCHio, To 
retire on a pension. BHXb na nen- 
CHH. To be on pension. 

^ll;^EJlbHH^A /. ash-tray 


^EPEBC);^ m. 

1. translation. Tohhlih nepoBOfl. 
An exact translation. GfleJiaxb 
nepeBOA- To make a translation. 

2. transfer. IlepeBOA ^ener no ndn- 
xe. A postal order. 

IIEPEBOAflTb, nepeBOjKy, nepeso- 
flnmb, nepcBOAHx imp. hxo?/ 
p. nepeBe|cxri, -^y, -Aemb, -Ayx, past 
nepeBcji, nepeBeJi|a, -6, -a 

1. to take. llepeBecxH peSenKa 
Hepea yjinny. To take a child 
across the street. 

2. to transfer. nepesecxH ^enbra no 
TeJierpi(|)y. To send money by 

3. to translate. IlepeBecxH KHHry c 
(|)paHEty3CKoro HSHKa na pyc- 
CKHH. To translate a book from 
French into Russian. 

nEPEBO;^HHK m. translator, inter- 

HepeBOA^HK c anrjinncKoro asHKa. 
An English translator (interpreter). 
VcxHWH nepeBOA^HK. An interpret- 
er. PaSoxaxb nepenoA^nKOM. To 
work as a translator (interpreter). 

nEPEBb'inOJIHHTb see nEPEBbl- 

HEPEBbinOJlHUlTb, -ro, -emb, -K)x 
imp. qxo/p. nepeBwnonnlHXb, -to, 
-nmb, -Hx to overfulfil 

IlepeBHnojiHHXb njian. To overful- 
fil a plan. nepcBMnoJiHHXb nopMy. 
To overfulfil the quota. 


HEPErOBOPbl no sing, o hom? 
talks, negotiations 
JleperoBopu o Mnpe. Peace talks. 
IleperoBopu Me«Ay cxpanaMH. 
Negotiations between countries. Bec- 
TH neperoBdpu c k6m-jih6o o hbm- 
jih6o. To conduct negotiations with 
somebody about something. Ilepero- 
BopH cocxoHJiHCb B Mockb6. The 
negotiations took place in Moscow. 

nEPErOHUlTb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. 
Kor6? *!xo? B^e m?//>. nepe- 
rnaxb, neperoHio, neperonnmb, ne- 
peroHHx, past neperaaji, -rnajia, 
-FH^jilo, -H to overtake 
3xox cnopxcM^H nepernaji Bcex bo 
BpeMH copeBHOBaHHH. This sports- 
man overtook everyone in the com- 

UEPEp, prep. + instr. 

1. in front of. IlepeA okhom. In 
front of the window. 

2. before. IlepeA ypoKOM. Before 
the lesson. 

3.: Mne cxhaho nepeA BaMH. / feel 
guilty towards you. 
IIEPE^AIBATb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
q X 0? K o M y?/p. nepeA^xb, nepe- 
AaM, nepeAamb, nepeAacx, nepeAa- 
AHM, nepeAaAHxe, nepeAaAyT, past 
nepeAaji, -a, nepeAaji|o, -h 

1. to give. HepeAaxb nncbMo Apy- 
ry. To give a letter to a friend. 

2. to tell. HepeAanxe npHBex poA- 
HHM. Give my regards to your 
relatives. IlepeAaH CMy, mo a 
CKopo npHAy. Tell him that I'll 
come soon. 

3. to broadcast. IlepeAaBaxb koh- 
n,epx no paAno. To broadcast a 
concert. IlepeAaBaxb nocJieAHHe 
H3BecxHH. To broadcast the news. 


HEPE^AHA /. broadcast 

IlepeA'^^a no paAHO. Radio broad- 
cast. Cjiymaxb nepcAany. To lis- 
ten to a broadcast. 

HEPE^OBlOfl, -aH, -6e. -we 

1. foremost. OepeAOBdH pa66qHH. 
A foremost worker. 

2. advanced. HepcAOB^H x^XHHKa. 
Advanced technique. 




nEPEE35KA|Tb, -k), -emb, -k)t 
imp./p. nepeexaTfc, nepeeAly, -emb, 

1. He pea hto? or hto? to cross. 
IlepeexaTb (^epea) rpaHHii;y. To 
cross the border. IlepeexaTb (^le- 
pea) peKy. To cross the river. 

2. o T K y 3 a? K y A a? to move. 
IlepeexaTb na HOByio KBapTjipy. 
To move to a new place (of res- 
idence). IlepeexaTb h3 Mockbh 
B JleHHHrpaA- To move from 
Moscow to Leningrad. Ilepeea- 
H?aTb c MecTa ea MecTO. To keep 
moving from one place to anoth- 

HEPEttTfl see HEPEXOAflTb 

1. change. UepeMeHa KJiHMaTa. A 
change of climate. 

2. change. B ero mmmi nponao- 
mJiH Sojibmwe nepeMeHH. Great 
changes took place in his life. 

IXEPEHOCflTb, nepenomy, nepeno- 
CHrab, nepeHOCHT imp. k o r 6? 
H T o?/p. nepeneclTH, -y, -emb, -yT, 
past nepenec, nepeHecji|a, -6, -h 

1. to carry. nepenecTH pe6eHKa 
lepea flopory. To carry the child 
across the road. HepeHecTH Bemn 
H3 OflHOH KOMHaTH B ji;pyryio. 
To carry the things from one 
room to another. 

2. to endure. IlepeHecTii TajKOJiyio 
6oJie3Hb. To suffer a serious 

3. to put off. nepenecTH coSpanne 
ua ;5pyr6e BpeMH. To put off a 
meeting to another time. 

HEPEnflCblBAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot 

imp. H T o? I p. nepeuHcaTb, nepe- 

nnmy, nepeniimemb, nepennmyT 

to copy 

UepenHcaTb tokct. To copy a text. 
HEPEPblB m. i 

1. interval, break. IlepepuB b pa- 
SoTe. A break in work. HocJie 
TpexjieTHero nepepusa ona cho- 
Ba nomjia paSoTaTb. After a three 
years' interval she went to work 

2. interval. IlepepMB MejK^y JieK- 
ij;HaMH. An interval between 


lectures. GffeJiaTb nepepHB. To 
have a break. 
<> OSe^eHHbiH nepepuB. A break 
for lunch. The dinner hour. 
^EPECAJ^|KA /., gen. pi. -ok change 
GaeJiaTb nepecaAKy. To change. 
ExaTb c nepecaAKaMH, Sea nepecaa- 
KH. To have to change (trains, etc.), 
not to have to change (trains, etc.). 

IIEPECTAIBATb, -i6, -emb, -iot imp. 
-\- inf. I p. nepecTa|Tb, -ny, -nemb, 
-HyT to cease, to stop 
/lloJKAb nepecTaJi. The rain has 
stopped. PeSenoK nepecTaJi njia- 
KaTb. The child stopped crying. Ile- 
pecTaHbTe paaroBapHBaTbl Stop talk- 
ing! ^ 


IIEPEy'JI|OK m., gen. -Ka lane, street 
yaKHH nepeyjiOK. A narrow street. 

IIEPEXOJIi ^- passage, crossing 

IIoAaeMHBiH nepexoA- An under- 
ground passage. EepexoA He pea 
yjiHD;y. A street crossing. 

HEPEXOAflTb, nepexojKy, nepexo- 
AHmb, nepexoAHT imp. I p. nepeH|TH, 
-Ay, -Aerab, ^ -AyT, past nepemeji, 
nepemJija, -6, -h 

1. qepea hto? or hto? to cross. 
HepexoAHTb nepea yjiHn;y. To 
cross the street. IlepexoAHTb 
rpaHHEty. To cross the border. 
HepexoAHTb nepea moot. To cross 
a bridge. 

2. to change. HepeHTH na Apyryio 
paSoTy. To change one's fob. 

3. to pass. BjiacTb nepemjia BpyKH 
HapoAa. The power passed into 
the hands of the people. 

IIEP|EE[ m., gen. -^a pepper 

HepHLiH nepen;. Black pepper. Kpac- 
HHH nepen;. Cayenne pepper. FopbRHH 
nepen;. Hot pepper. Maco c nepn,eM. 
Meat with pepper. 

IIEPO neut., pi. nepba 

1. feather. Ilepo nTHn;bi. A bird's 

2. nib. SojiOToe nepo. A gold nib. 
HEPHATIKH pi, gen. pi. -ok; sing. 

nepqaTKa /. gloves 
KoacaHHe nepnaTKH. Leather gloves. 
JleTHHe nepqaTKH. Summer gloves. 
HaACTb nepqaTKH. To put on one's 
IIEC|Hfl /., gen. pi, -en o kom? o 
HOM? song 



HapoflHaH necHH. A folk song, flexb 
necHK) jiioSbh. To sing a love song. 

nEClOK m., gen. -Ka sand 

MopcKOH necoK. Sea bottom sand. 
MeJiKHH necoK. Fine sand. JleHtaxt 
Ha necKe. To lie on the sand. 
<> CaxapHMH necoK. Granulated 

IIETb, no|K), -emt, -m imp. h t o? o 
k6m?o hgm? kom y?/p. cneib, 
cnolK), -enib, -k)t to sing 
ITexb necHK) flpysbHM. To si/i^ a 
song to one's friends. IleTb c qyB- 
CTBOM. To sing with feeling. Deib 
xopoM. To sing in chorus. 

IIEHAJIbHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -ue sad. 

HeqaJibHaH MysbiKa. Sad music. 
He^aJibHoe HacTpoenne. A melan- 
choly mood. Ile^aJibHHe rjiaaa. Sad 

nE^ATAjTb, -K).^ -emb, -lox imp. 
H T 0? / /?. HaneHaxalxb, -lo, -emb, -lox 

1. to publish, to print. Hane^ia- 
xaxb cxaxbK) b HxypnaJie. To pub- 
lish an article in a magazine. 

2. to type. Ileqaxaxb na MamnnKe. 
To type on a typewriter. 


1. lit. & fig. seal, stamp. 

2. press. 

IIEHEHbE neut., no pi. pastry, biscuits 

CJia^Koe nenenbe. Sweet pastry. 

Han c neieHbeM. Tea and biscuits. 

HeqeHbe k ^aio. Tea biscuits. 
HEmKOM adv.^ on foot 

Haxh nemKOM. To go on foot. 
nnAHflHO neut., indecl. upright 


Hrpaxb Ha nnaHHHO. To play the 

nflBO neut., no pi. beer 

Xojio/IHoe HHBO. Cold beer. Ilnxb 

napo. To drink beer. KpyHtKa nii- 

Ba. A mug of beer. 
^HJ^3KAK m., gen. -a jacket 

JI^THHH ^H;^}KaK. A summer jacket. 

HocHXb HHfljKaK. To wear a jacket. 
DHHCAMA /. pyjamas 

Tenjian nnHtaMa. Warm pyjamas. 

Cnaxb B HHwaMe. To sleep in one's 

nnOHEP m. 

1. a Young Pioneer. Moh 6pax — 
nnonep. My brother is a Young 

2. pioneer. IlHOHepH KocMOca. The 
pioneers of Space. 
IIHPOaCHlOE neut., gen. -oro fancy 


rieco^Hoe nnpoH^Hoe. A shortcake. 

nnpoJKHoe c KpeMOM. A cream cake. 

Han c nnpoMCHLiM. Tea and cakes. 

Kynnxb H^CKOJibKo nnpoJKHWx. To 

buy some cakes. 
nHPOH^lOK m., gen. -Ka small pie 
nnCATEJlb m. writer 
IlHCATb, nnmy, nnmemb, nrimyT 

imp. q X o? k o m y? o kom? 

one u?/p. Hanncaxb, nannmy, na- 

nrimemb, Hannmyx to write 

a) Oh njrmex nncbMo poAHxeJiHM. 
^e is writing a letter to his par- 


b) IlHcaxb cxHXii. To write poetry, 
Hanncaxb KHPiry o jkhshh yqe- 
HHX. To write a book on the life 
of scientists. Oh nanncaJi o x6m> 
Hxo BH^eJi BO BpeMH uyxemecx- 
BHH. He wrote about what he saw 
on his journey. 

IIHCbMO neut., pi. nMCLMa, gen. pL 
nnceM KOMy? letter 
^o;^p66Hoe nncbMo. A detailed letter. 
SaKasHoe hhclmo. A registered let- 
ter. HocbiJiaxb HHCbMO. To send a let- 
ter. IIoJiyHHXb nncbMo. To receive a 
letter. HncbMo Jipyry. A letter to 
one's friend. 

nHTb, nb|K), -emb, -lox, past hhji, hh- 
Jia, HHJiIo, -H imp. H X o? / /). bw- 
HHXb, BbinblK), -emb, -lox, past bw- 
nHJi, -a, -0, -H to drink 
IlHXb BOAy- To drink water. BbinHXb. 
lamKy K6$e.j To have a cup of 

njIABA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. r^e? 
Ky^a? to swim, to sail 
H jih)6jik) HJiaBaxb. / like to swim^ 
KajKfl;biH fleHb oh nJiasaJi na ocx- 
poB. Every day he swam to the is- 
land. IIoqxH roA OH njiaBaji Maxpo- 
COM Ha SoJibmoM napoxoAe. For al- 
most a year he sailed on a large 
ship as a deckhand. 

nJlAjKATb, -qy, -qemb, -qyx imp./ 
p. 3anjia|Kaxb, -qy, -qemt, -qyx (p. 
verb shows beginning of action) to cry 
FopbKO nJiaKaxb. To cry bitterly. 
IIJiaKaxb ox 66jih. To cry with pain. 

njIAH m. plan 

IIJiaH pa66xH. A plan of work. IlJiaa 





plan of national economic develop- 
ment. BbinoJiHHTb njian. To fulfil 
a plan.^ IlepeBBinoJiHHTb nJian na 
50% (npoiieHTOB). To overfulfil the 
plan by 60%. 

njIAHETA /. planet 

^aJieKan njianexa. A distant planet. 

njIAHSPlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT 
imp. q T 0? to plan 
IIJiaHHpoBaTb paGoxy. To plan one's 
work. Hjiae/ipoBaTb cBoe BpeMH. To 
plan one's time. 

njIACTflHlKA /., gen. pi. -ok record 
IIocTaBbTe HOByK) njiacTHHRyl Put 
a new record on! FpaMnjiacTitHKH. 
Gramophone records. 

njIACTMACCA /. plastics 

HsAeJiHH H3 nJiaCTMaccM. Plastic 

njIATA /. payment 

3apa6oTHafl njiaxa. A salary, a 
wage IlJiaTa 3a bxoa- Admission fee. 
njiara sa npoe3;i;. Fare. 

njIATflTb, njiaqy, nJiaTHmb, nJiaTHX 
imp. iTO? 3a HTO? 3a koto? 
H e M?/p. sanjiaTHTb, 3anJiaHy, sa- 
njiaTHfflb, sanjiaTHT 

1. to pay. IIjiaTHTb (AeHbrn) 3a no- 
KynKy. To pay (money) for a 
purchase. SanjiaxHTb sa xoBapn- 
ni;a. To pay for one's friend. 

2. fig. to return. IlJiaxHXb JiioCoBbio 
3a 3a66xy. To return love for 

njIAT|OK m., gen. -Ka 

1. scarf. HpKHH njiaxoK. A bright 

2.: HocoBoH njiaxoK. A handkerchief. 

njIATOOPMA /. truck, platform 
JKejiesHOflopoJKHaH njiaT(|)6pMa. A 
railway truck. JK^axb na njiax(|)6p- 
Me. To be waiting on the platform. 

njIATBE neut , gen. pi. nJiaxbeB 

1. dress. EHejiKOBoe njiaxbe. A silk 
dress. Ha Hen 6hjio o^eHb Kpa- 
CHBoe njiaxbe. She had a beauti- 
ful dress on. 

2. no /?L clothes. MarasiiH Bepxnero 
nJiaxbfl. A clothes shop. 

nJIAm m., gen. -a raincoat 

HenpOMOKaeMbiH njiam. A water- 
proof coat. 

njIEMUHHHK m. nephew 

^JIEM}^HHH^A /. niece 

nJIEHlKA /., gen. pi. -ok film 

IlpoflBMXb HJieHKy. To develop a 

nJIEHO neut., pi. nJie^H shoulder 
ninpoKHe njie^H. Broad shoulders. 
riojiojKHxb pyKy KOMy-;iH6o na njie- 
qo. To put one's hand on somebody's 

<> Eiuy axo hb no njieqy. This is 
beyond his capacity {power, etc.) Pa- 
SoTaxb njie^oM k njie^y c Kein-JiHSo. 
To work hand-in-hand with some- 

njIOTflHA /. dam 

nJIOXlOfl, -an, -6e, -lie. short form 
nJiox, njioxa, njioxo, hjioxh; adv. 
njioxo; comp. xyjKe (q.v.) bad 
riJioxaa noroAa. Bad weather. Ujio- 
xoe HacxpoeuHe. A bad mood. Ero 
AeJia nJioxH. He is in a bad way. 
EMy nJioxo. He feels bad. IIjioxo 
paSoxaxb. To work badly. 

njIOmAmKA /., gen. pi. -ok ground, 

CnopxHBHaH nJioma^Ka. A sports 

njIOmA^b /., gen. pi. en 

1. square. U^eHxp^JibHaH njiomaAb. 
A central square. OoHxaH na 
nJioTD^ajxn. A fountain in a 

2. area. Hjion^aAb xpeyroJibUHKa. 
The area of a triangle. 

njIbllTb, -By, -Bemb, -Byx imp. Ky- 
A a? H a q e M? to swim, to sail 
CnopxcMeu njiHBCx k 6epery. The 
sportsman is swimming towards the 
shore. JIoA^a nJiMBex no peKe. The 
boat is sailing on the river. JJ^e- 
XH nJibiByx Ha JioAKe. The children 
are sailing in a boat. 

njIH3K m. beach 

IlecqaHbiH ujihjk. A sandy beach. 
JleJKaxb (saropaxb) na njifiJKe. To 
lie (to sunbathe) on the beach. 

no prep. 
I. + dat. 

1. along. Haxh no Aopore. To go 
along the road. Xo^HTb no k6m- 
naxe. To walk about in the room. 

2. on, according to. npnexaxb no npn- 
rJiameHHK). To come on somebody's 
invitation. C^eJiaxb no coBexy 
KOr6-JiH6o. To do something on 
somebody's advice. Pa66xaTb no 
njiany. To work according to plan. 




3. over. ToBopHTb no Tejie^ony. To 
speak over the telephone. nepefl;a- 
na no pa^HO. A radio broadcast. 

4.: TeipaAb no ^hshkb. A physics 
copy-hook. HeMnnoH no rHMnacTH- 
Ke. A gymnastics champion. 

5. in + '^^ in pl' SaHHMaxbCH no 
BeqepaM. To study in the eve- 

6. on. IIoexaTb no ^eJiaM. To go on 

II. -J- ace. 

1. to. C naxoro no BocbMoe hhcjio. 
From the fifth to the eighth (in- 

II0BEJ1;A /. HaJ^ kgm? naji; hgm? 

IIoJiHaH no6efl;a. A complete victory. 
OflepjKaTb noSefly na^ BparoM. To 
win a victory over the enemy. Bep- 
nyxbCH c no6eAOH. To return vic- 


U0BE1iKJ\A\Th, -10, -enib, -lox imp. 
K r 6? q X 0? / p. no6eA|HXb, 1st 
pers. sing, not used, -nnib, -hx to win, 
to conquer, to defeat, to overcome 
IloGeAHXb Bpara. To defeat the ene- 
my. IIoSeAHXb B Bonne. To win a 
victory in a war. HoSejKAaTb cxpax. 
To conquer fear. ^o6e;^HXb 6oJie3Hb. 
To overcome an illness. 





1. adv. as you want. Mh c^eJiaJiH 
no-BameMy. We did as you want- 
ed us to. 

2. par en. word in your opinion. 
Ho-BameMy, axo npaBHJibno? Do 
you think it is right? 

nOBEAEHHE neut. behaviour 

CnpoMHoe noBe^eHHe. Modest be- 
haviour. GxpaHHoe noBe^eHHe. 
Strange behaviour. 



nOBEPXHOCTB /. surface 

Ha noBepxHOcxH aeMJiH. On the 
earth's surface. J^Bumeune no no- 
BepxHOcxH. Movement along a sur- 


nOBOPAHHBAITbCH, -locb, -enibOH, 
-loxcfl imp. Kyfla?//). noBepnlyxb- 
cfl, -ycb, -embcfl, -yxcH to turn 
IIoBopaqHBaxbCH na cnnny. To turn 
on to one's back. IToBepnyxbCH cuhhoh 
K OKHy. To turn one's back to the 
window. rioBepnyxbCH najieso. To 
turn to the left. 

nOBTOPEHHE neut. review, recapi- 

IIoBXopeHHe Maxepnajia. Recapitula- 
tion of the material. 
<> rioBTopeHbe — MaTb yqeHbH 
(proverb). Repetition is the mother 
of learning. 
nOBTOPHlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
q X o?/p. noBxoplHXb, -i6, -Hmb, -hx 

1. to repeat. IIoBxopHxe, noH^ajiyn- 
cxa. Repeat that, please. 

2. to review. IIoBxopHXb yp6K. To 
review one's lesson. 

nOBTOPHlTBCH, -locb, -embCH, -lox- 
cfl imp./p. noBXoplHXbCH, -locb, 
-HfflbCfl, -axCH 

1. to recur. 3xo cjiobo nacxo no- 
Bxopaexcfl b xeKcxe. This word 
often recurs in the text. 

2. to repeat oneself. J]|oKJiaAqHK 
Hacxo noBXopnJicH. The speaker 
often repeated himself. 

norACflTB see rACflTb 
nOPHBAlTB, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
ox Her 6?//>. nornSnlyxb, -y, -emb, 
-yx, past norH6, -Jia, -Jio, -jih to 

ftoriiSHyxb ox nyjin. To perish from 
a bullet. 
nOrflBHyTb see nOPHBATB 
norjlA^HTB see FJlAJlllTh 
nOrOBOPlflTb, K), -nmb, -ht p. 
o K 6 M? q e M? c Ken? to 

IIoroBopHXb o nor6fle. To talk about 
the weather. Mne naffo noroBopHXb 
c BaMH. / must speak to you. 
norO/^A /., no pl. weather 

KaKan ceroflna noroAa? What is 
the weather like today? Bee Ji6xo 
cxoflJia njioxan noroAa- I'he whole 
summer the weather was bad. 

noryjiHTb see ryjiHxb 




UOJS, (nOAO) prep. + ace. & instr. 
I. + instr. 

1. under. Oh chjigji noA AepesoM. 
ife was sitting under a tree. 

2. jig. under. PaCoxaTb no^ pyno- 
BOffCTBOM... To work under... 
BojibHOH 6hji noA HaGJUoffenneM 
Bpana. The patient was under 
medical observation. 

3. near. JKhtb no^ Mockboh. To live 

near Moscow. 

4. in. Hath nofl aoJKAGM. To walk in 

the rain. 
II. + ace. 

1. under. Oh ceJi no^ ^epeBO. He 
sat down under a tree. 

2. to. TaHi;eBaTi> noa MVSHKy. To 
dance to music. 

IIOAAlBATb, -K), -emb,^ -i6t imp. 
H T o? K M y?/p. noASiTb, noAaM, 
noAamb, noAacT, noAaj],HM, no^a- 
flHxe, noAafliyT, />as^ noAaji, no^ajia, 
noAajiIo, -H 

1. to help on. IIoAaBaTb najibio 
AeBymKe. To help the girl on 
with her coat. 

2. to serve. HoAaBaxb nan na ctoji. 
To serve tea. 

3. to extend. HoAaBaTb pyny. To 
extend one's hand. 

•^ PyKOH noAaxb! A stone's throw 

nOAAPHTb see AAPflTb 

nOAAPlOK m., gen. -Ka present 

AoporoH noflapoK. An expensive 
present. CfleJiaib no^apoK apyry. 
To give a present to one's friend. 
IIoJiyqiiTb noAapoK ox APyra. To 
receive a present from one's friend. 

nOAATb see nOAABATb 

noaBHr m. feat 

TpyAOBOH noABHr. A feat of 
labour. CoBepmHXb noABHr. To ac- 
complish a jeat. 

nOABOAHlblH, -aa, -oe, -bie under- 

noABOAHHH MHp. The underwater 
world. HoABOAHafl oxoxa. Underwa- 
ter hunting. IIoABOAHaH JiOAKa. A 

noarOTOBHTb see rOTOBHTb, 2 

nogrOTOBKA /. K H e M y? 

1. preparation. HoAroxoBKa k 3K- 
saMenaM. Preparation for exami- 

2. grounding. Y Hero xopomaH 

noAroxoBKa no MaxeMaxHKe. He 

is well grounded in mathematics. 


nOAAEP^HBAITb, -K), -emb, -iot 
imp. Koro? hxo? Hem? b hg m?/ 
p. noAAepH^axb, noAAepJKy, noAAep- 
jKHHib, noAAepatax 

1. to support. HoAAepJKaxb Apyra 
coBexoM B xpyAHyio Mnnyxy. To 
help a friend with one's advice 
at a difficult time. 

2. to second. HoAAepJKaxb npeAJio- 
jKeHHe Ha co6paHHH. To second 
a move at a meeting. 

nOAMETA|Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 

q T o? q e u>lp. noAMelcxiT, -xy, 

-xemb, -xyx, past hoamcji, noAMe- 

jija, -6, -H to sweep 

HoAMexaxb noji. To sweep the floor. 
nOAHHMAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

K r 6? H T 0?//). nOAHHXb, nOAHH- 

My, noAHWMemb, noAHHMyx, past 
noAHflJi, noAHHJia, hoahhjiIo, -h 

1. to pick up, to lift. IIoAHHXb xex- 
paAfc c noJia.To pick up a copy-book 
from the floor. IIOAHHXb peSeuKa. 
To lift a child. IIoAHflXb pyny. 
To raise one's hand. IIOAHaxb 
BopOTHHK. To raise one's collar. 

2. to rouse. IIoAHflXb c nocxeJin. 
To rouse. 

<> IXoAHHTfa myM, KpHK. To make 
a noise, to start shouting. 
nOAHHMAITbCH, -locb, -embcH, -lox- 
CH imp. /p. noAHflxbCH, noAHHMycb, 
noAHHMembCfl, noAHHMyxca, past 

nOAHH|jICH (& nOAHHJICfl), -Jiacb, 
-JlOCb, -JIHCb 

1. to get up. noAHHMaxbCH yxpoM c 
nocxeJiH. To get up in the morning. 

2. to ascend. IIOAHHMaxbCH na ro- 
py. To ascend a mountain. IIoa- 
HHMaxbCH no JiecxHHi];e. To go 
up the stairs. 

3. to rise. IIoAHHMaxbCH na 6opb- 
6y c BparoM. To rise to the 
struggle against the enemy. 

4. fig. to go up. I^GHH na npoAyK- 
XH nOAHflJiiicb. The prices of 
food-stuffs have gone up. 

5. fig. to begin. IIoAHflJicfl iiiyM. A 
noise began. HoAHflJiCH CHJibHHH 
Bexep. A strong wind has risen. 




nO^HOC m. tray 
nOAHIlTb see nO^HHMATb 

nOAOaCAIATb, -y, -emb, -yi, past 
noflOjKAaji, no;to>KAajia, no;to>KAa- 
ji|o, -H p. Koro? HTO? or Hero? 
to wait 

noT^o>KAeM eme HeMHoro! LeVs wait 
a hit longer! 
nOjaiOflTfl see no^xoAflTb 
noflnncATb ^ee noj^niicbiBATb 

nOAnflCbIBA|Tb, -H), -emb, -iot imp. 
H T 0? / p. noAHHcaTb, no;i;nHiny, 
noflniiraeinb, noAniimyT to sign 
noAOHcaxb flOKyMeHT. To sign a 
document. IIo/inHcaTb ^oroBop. To 
sign a treaty. IloAnHcaTb corjiaine- 
HHe. To sign an agreement. 

IIOAPOBHIblfl, -afl, -oe, -He; adv. 
no;tp66HO detailed 
lioApoGHoe HHCbMo. A detailed let- 
ter. Oh noAp66HO paccKaaaJi o cbogh 
noesAKe. He described his trip in 

^OJ^Py^A /. (female) friend 

niKoJibHaa noApyra. A school friend. 
no;i;pyra aexcTBa. One's playmate. 

^OJ^PyHCflTbCH, noApyjKycb, no- 
flpywHmbCH, noApyacaxcH p. c 
K e M? to become friends 


ntaMH. To make new friends. Bhct- 

po noApy>KMTbCfl. To become friends 

nOATBEP^flTb see nOATBEP- 

^0;^TBEP3K^A|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot 

imp. q T o?/p. noATBeplAHTb, -Hcy, 

-flHmb, -AflT to confirm 

Oh noATBepAHJi, hto npHaei saBx- 

pa. He confirmed that he would 

come the next day. 
nOJ^YMATb see ^yMATb 
^0;^ym|KA /.. gen. pi. -en pillow. 

nOJ^XO/^flTb, noflxojKy, noaxoAnmb, 

noAxoAHT imp. k k m y? k h e- 

My?/p. noflOHlTH, -fly, -flemb, -ayx, 

past noflomeji, noAomJi|a, -6, -h 

1. to approach, lIoAXOAiiTb k ok- 
Hy. To approach the window. 

2. KOMy? to fit. 3xH xy^Jin Mne 
noflxoflHT. These shoes fit me. 

nOflHEPKHBAITb, -K), -emb. -iot 
imp. q T o?/p. noflqepKHlyxb, -y, 
-Smb. -yT 

1. to underline. HoflHepKHyTb cjio- 
Ba KapaHflamoM. To underline 
words in pencil. 

2. fig. to emi)hasise. B flOKJiaae 
H ooflHepKHyji 3HaHeHHe 3Toro 
H3o6peTeHHH. In my report I 
emphasised the importance of 
this invention. 

^OJ^HEPKHyTb see nonq£pKH- 


nOAT>E35KA|Tb, -lo, -emb. -lox imp. 
K KOMy? K qeMy? / p. noAT.6- 
xaxb, noA-beAly, -emb, -yx to ap- 
proach, to drive up to 
nofl-beaHtaTb k ropoAy. To approach 
the town. ABx66yc noA'bexafl k oc- 
xanoBKe. The bus drove up to. the stop. 

nOJliT>EM m. 

1. ascent. U.oji'heM b ropy 6hji xpy- 
flCH. Climbing the mountain was 

2. enthusiasm. ApTiicTU nrpaJiH c 
CoJibmiiM noAteMOM. The actors 
performed with great enthusiasm. 

nOAT>EXATb see nO/^TjESaCATb 

nOESJi; m., pi. -a train 

CKopHH noesA. A fast train. Exaxb 
Ha noesAe. To go by train. Ilepe- 
cecxb Ha noesA- To change for a train. 

nOE3mKA /., gen. pi. -ok trip, tour 
HnxepecHaH noesAKa. An interesting 
trip. IIoeBAKa no crpaue. A tour of- 
the country. 

nOECTb, HoeM, noemb, noecT, ooeAiiM, 
nocAHTe, HoeAHT, past noeji, -a, -o, 
-H to eat 

noHACM HoeAHMl Let's go and get 
something to eat! 

nOF.XATb, noeAly, -emb, -yT p. k y- 
A d? Ha q e M? to go, to drive 
Iloexaxb Ha aKCKypcnio. To go on 
an excursion. ABT66yc ocTaHOBHJiCH 
OKOJio AOMa, a hotom noexaJi jianh- 
me. The bus stopped near the house 
and then drove on. JleTOM mm no- 
CAGM na i6r. In summer we shall go 
to the south. 

<> Iloexajio na Mexpo! (colloq.) 
Let's go by the underground! 



nOJKAjiyflCTA particle please 

HaBHHHTe, noHtaJiyncTa. Excuse me 
please. J^aHTe Mne, nowaJiyncTa, 
KHiiry. Will you give me the book. 




please? CKa>KHTe, nowaJiyncTa, r^e 
Mexpo? Could you tell me where the 
underground station is, please? Cna- 
ch6o. — HoKajiyHCTa. "Thank you." 
''Don't mention it." 
no5KEJIAHHE neut. wish 

HoBoroAHHe nojKejiaHHH. New 
Year's wishes. 
noaCEJIATb see ^EJIATb 
nOHCHJIIOfl, -an, -6e, -He elderly 
n05KHMA|Tb, -K), -eniL, -jot imp. 
H T 0? / p. nojKaxb, nojKM|y, -emb, 
-yT to press 

1.: Ohh KpenKO noJKajiH jtpyr apyry 
. pyKH. They shook hands heartily. 
2.: nojKHMaxb nJieHaMH. To shrug 
one's shoulders. 
n03AB0THTbCH see 3AB0THTbCH 
nOSABfl^OBATb see 3ABflja(0BATb 
nOSABHEPA adv. the day before 

3x0 cjiyqHJiocb noaaBqepa. It hap- 
pened the day before yesterday. 
nOSBATb see 3BATb 
n03B0HflTb see 3B0HflTb 
II03/i;HlHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne late 
nosAHHH Be^ep. A late evening. 
IIoaaHHe itBexM. Late flowers. 
^03J^H0 adv., comp. noajKe & nosA- 
Hee late 

1. late. noa^HO Ho^bio. Late at 
night. rioa^HO Jie^b cnaxb. To 
go to bed late. Oh npHmeJi nos- 
jKe Bac. He came later than you. 
PeSeHOK nosAHO naqaji roBopnxb. 
The child began to speak late. 

2. predic. impers. (it is) late. CeHnac 
noa/^HO. It's late now. IloaAHO 
roBopHXb o6 3X0M. It's too late 
to speak about that. 

<> Jlyqrae nosAHO, »ieM HHKorAa. 
Better late than never. Paeo hjih 
no3AHO. Sooner or later. 
nO3flOP0BATbCH see 3AOP(3BATb- 

n033PABHTb see n03APABJlHTb 
n03J5PABJlHiTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? c HeM?/p. no3Apa|- 
BHXb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -Bflx to Congrat- 

nosApaBHXb flpyaea c npa3;5HHK0M. 
To congratulate friends on a festive 
occasion. IIoaApaBHXb c ;^HeM po)K- 
JteHHfl. To congratulate somebody on 

his birthday. IIoBjtpaBJiflio c Hobhm 
toaom! / wish you a Happy New 

n03HAK0MHTbCH see 3HAK0- 

nOBMATb see JIOBflTb 

^Ofl[|Tfl,-;^y, -aemb, -;tyx, past nomeji, 
noniJija, -6, -h p. Ky ji, a? -{- inf. 
to go 

noHXH B xeaxp, na KOH^epx. To go 
to the theatre, to a concert. Mh 
noH^eM ceroAHH BenepoM b rocxH. 
Tonight we shall go visiting. Oh 
Me^JieHHO nomeji k ABepn. He 
slowly went towards the door. IIoH- 
AeM TyJiHThl Let's go for a walk/ 
<>noniJiH B KHHOl (colloq.) Let's go 
to the cinema! 


1. adv. yet. Oh noKa ne y^HxcH. 
He doesn't go to school yet. 

2. conj. while. * IIOKa mh aaHHMa- 
JiHCb, nomeji ji,07K}},h. While we 
were studying it began raining. 
rioKa meji ji,omjj,h, mh CHAeJiH 
JtOMa. We stayed at home as long 
as it rained. IloKa He KOH^y 
HHCbMo, He noHAy ryjiaxb. / 
won't go out before I have fin- 
ished the letter. 

nOKA3ATb see nOKASblBATb 
nOKA3ATbCfl see KA3ATbCH & 

nOKA3bIBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
K o M y? H e M y? k o r 6? h x o? or 
Ha Koro? na hx 6?//). noKaaaxb, 
noKaJKV, noKaacemb, noKawyx 

1. to show. rioKasaxb Apyry $oxo- 
rpa$HK). To show one's friend a 

2. to point (at, to). IIoKaaHBaxb 
pyKOH Ha oSJiaKO. To point at a 
cloud with one's hand. 

nOKA3bIBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, 
-loxcfl imp./p. noKaaaxbCfl, noKa- 
jKycb, noKajKembcH, noKaJKyxca to 

Ha-aa xyq noKaaaJiocb cowinqe. The 
sun showed from behind the clouds. 
Jlyna xo noKasHBaJiacb, xo Hcneaa- 
Jia aa o6jiaKaMH. The moon was now 
visible, now hidden behind the clouds. 

nOKOJiEHHE neut. generation 

MoJio^oe noKOJienne. The young gen- 
eration. noKOJienne oxnoB. The 
older generation. 





nOKynAlTb, -lo, -emb, -lOT imp. k o- 
r 6? H T o? K M y?//). KynHTb, Kyn- 
Jiio, Kynnmb, Kynnx to buy 
EoKynaTb xjie6 b MarasHne. To buy 
bread in a shop. Kynii mhg ceroji;- 
HHfflHioK) raaexy! Buy me today's 

nOKyPflXb see KYPflTb 

nOKymATb see K^^fflATb 

nOJI m., prepos. na -y; pi. -h floor 
Hhcthh noji, A clean floor. IIo^tMe- 
Taxb noJi. To sweep the floor. fleiH 
HrpdJiH Ha noJiy. The children were 
playing on the floor. 

n6jI|E neut., pi. -a 

1. field. ninpoKoe nojie. A large 
field. PacTH na noJie. To grow 
in a field. PaSoxaxb b noJie. To 
work in the field. 

2. fig. field. HlnpoKoe nojie jtea- 
xeJibHOCXH. A wide field of activ- 

3. field. MarHHXHoe noJie. A magnet- 
ic field. 

4. pi. brim. niJinna c hojiamh. A 
hat with a brim. 

nOJIE3HO adv., predic. impers. (it is) 

EMy nojiesHO MHoro ryjiaxb. It is 
useful for him to walk a lot. BoJibHO- 
My nojiesHO nnxb (|)pyKx6BHH cok. It 
is good for the sick man to drink 
fruit juice. 
nOJIE3Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form nojieaen, noJie3H|a, -o, -h 

noJiesHafl KHiira. A useful book. 
nojiesHHH coBex. Useful advice. 
nOJlET m. flight 

OnacHHH nojiex. A dangerous flight. 
CoBepniHXb nojiex. To make a flight. 
nOJIEjTETb, -Hy, -XHuib, -xhx p. to fly 
HoJiexexb b kocmoc. To fly to outer 
nOJIflTHKA /., no pi. policy, politics 
BnemnHH noJiHXHKa. Foreign poli- 
cy. BnyxpeHHHH nojiHXHKa. Home 
policy. 3aHHMaxbCH uojimxhroh. To 
go in for politics. 
nOJlHTflHECKlHfl, -afl, oe, -ne 
1. political. IIoJiHXHHecKaH o6cTa- 
HOBKa. The political situation. 
IIoJiHXHqecKaH 6opb6a. A politi- 
cal struggle. IIojiHXHHecKHH flea- 
TeJib. A politician. 

2. political. IlojiHTHqecKaH 3koh6- 
MHH. Political economy. 
nOJIlKA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1. shelf. KuHJKHaH noJiKa. A book- 
shelf. KuHrH cxoHx Ha nojiKe. 
The books are on the shelf. 

2. berth. BepxHHH (hhhchhh] hoji- 
Ka B Barone. An upper (lower) 
berth in a railway carriage. Jle- 
Hcaxb Ha BepxHeH nojiKe. To lie 
on an upper berth. 

<0* IIojioHCHTb 3y6iJ Ha nojiKy. To 
nOJlH|blB[, -afl, -oe, -we, short form 
noJiOH, nojiH|a, -6, -w 

1. full. IIojiHbiH cxaKan BOflH. A 

flass full of water. 3a Ji n6jiOH 
pHxeJien. The hall is full of 
spectators. KoMHaxa, nojiHafl 
CBexa. A room full of light. 

2. complete. IIoJiHaH cBoGoAa. Com- 
plete freedom. IIojihhh oxamx. 
Complete rest. 

3. stout. nojiHbiH neJiOBCK. A stout 

nOJIHOCTbK) adv. completely 

H noJiHOCxbK) corjiacen c BaMH. / 
am in complete agreement with you. 
nOJIOBflHA /. half 

IIoJiOBHHa nyxH. Half the way. ITo- 
JiOBHHa roAa. Half a year. EepBaH 
nojiOBHHa HrpLi. The first half of 
a match. Bxopafl noJiOBHHa XIX Be- 
Ka. The second half of the 19th 
century. CcH^ac noJiOBHHa raecxoro. 
It is half past five. IIpHXOAH- 
xe B DOJioBHHe mecxoro. Come at 
half past five. 

nOJIOHCEHHE neut. situation 

3KOHOMHHecKoe noJiOHteuHe. The 
economic situation. TflweJioe nojio- 
jKenne. A difficult situation. OKa- 
aaxbcfl B xpy^HOM noJiojKenHH. To 
find oneself in a difficult situation. 
HaHXH BHXOA H3 jiK)66ro noJiowe- 
HHH. To find a way out of any 


nOJIOTEnmE neut., gen. pi. -e^ tow- 

Moxnaxoe noJioxcHue. A Turkish 
towel. BbixHpaxb pyKH nojioxenuew. 
To dry one's hands with a towel. 

nOJITOPA m. & neut., gen. noJiyxopa; 
nojixopM /., num. one and a half 

nOJiyOCTPOB m., pi. a peninsula 




nOJiyHAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 

qTO? OT Koro? OTKYAa?/ 

p. nojiyqHTB, nojijrqy, nojiy^HmB, 

1. to receive. IIojiyHaTB nacBMa h3 
AOMa. To receive letters from home. 
IIojiy^HTB ;^eHB^H 3a pa66- 
Ty. To get money for one's 
work. HojiyHHTB nojtapoK ot ot- 
Hdi. To get a present from one's 
father. HojiyHHTB npHrjiamcHHe. 
To receive an invitation. 

2. to get. IIoJiyqHTB nyntHMH pe- 
syjiBTaT. To get the necessary 
result. HoJiyqaxB caxap hb cbck- 
JiBi. To obtain sugar from beetroot. 

3. to receive. HoJiyHHTB sBaHHe 
npo^eccopa. To receive the title 
of professor. IIoJiyqHTB oxMCTKy. 
To get a mark. IIojiyHHTB 6Jia- 
rOAapHOCTB. To be thanked. 

nOJiyHAlTBCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch imp./ p. 
noJijrqHTBCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. noJiy^HTCH, nojiy- 


1.: y MCHH He nojiyqaexcH aaflana. 
/ can't manage the problem. CDoxo- 
rpa$HH nojiyHHJiHCB xopomo. 
The photographs proved to be 
good. Saflana ne noJiyqaexcH. 
The problem won't work out. 

2.: impers. EoJiyqaexcH, hxo h bhho- 
Bax. It looks as if I am to blame. 

nojiyqflxb see nojiynATb 

nOJiynflTbCH see nOJiy^ATbCH 

nOJI^ACA m., gen. nojiynaca half an 

H TKjiaJi ero ii;eJiHx nojiqaca. / wait- 
ed for him for a whole half-hour. 
Oh DHcaJi B xeqeHHe nojiyqaca. He 
wrote for half an hour. 

nOJIb3A /. use 

JlenapcxBO npHuecJio GojiBinyio 
noJiBsy CoJiBHOMy. The medicine 
helped the sick man very much. 

nOJIb3|OBATbCH, -yiocB, -yemBCH, 

-yioxcH imp. q e m? / /?. bochojibbIo- 

BaxBCH, -yiocB, -yemBCH, -yioxcH 

1. to use. IIojiBBOBaxBCH 6H6jiH0xe- 

KOH. To use a library. Hojibbo- 


the book one needs. IIoJiBBOBaxB- 
Cfl ycjiyraMH. To avail oneself of 
services. BocnojiBBOBaxBCfl cose- 
TOM. To make use] of advice. 

BocnojiBBOBaxBCH cjiyqacM. To 
avail oneself of an occasion. IIojib- 


avail oneself of an opportunity. 
IIoJiBBOBaxBCH opaBOM. To exer- 
cise the right. 
2. no p. to enjoy. IIojiBaoBaxBCH 
HBBecxHOCXBK). To be well known. 

nOJIIOBflTb see JlIOBflTb 


nOJIIOC m. pole 

CeBepHMH nojiioc. The North Pole. 
HayqnaH aKcne^iinHH na KDjkhhh 
nojiioc. A scientific expedition to 
the South Pole. 


nOMEm^HHE neut. room, premises 
>KHJi6e ^OMe^^eHHe. Living premises. 

IIOMEn^HK m. landowner 

KpynHHH noMeni;HK. A big landown- 
er. BoraxHH noMeni;HK. A rich 

IIOMHJ|;OP m. tomato 

CneJiue noMH^opLi. Ripe tomatoes. 
CaJiax HB HOMH/topoB. Tomato salad. 

nOMH|HTb, -K), -HmB, -hx imp. 
K r 6? or q X 0? o k 6 m? o q e m? 
to remember 

IIoMHHXB -pojiBopL j^OM. To remember 
the house where one was born. IIom- 
HHXB oxna. To remember one's fa- 
ther. rioMHHXB o jxpyre. To remem- 
ber one's friend. IIomhhxb o cboch 
neJiH. To bear in mind one's aim. 
<> He noMHHTb ce5fl (ot rneBa). 
To be beside oneself (with wrath). 

nOMOrAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
KOMy? qeMy? qcM? &-1- inf./ 
p. HOMoqB, noMory, noMOJKemb, 
noMoryx, past noMOr, -Jia, -Jio, -jih 
to help 

IIoMoraxB cxapoH Maxepn. To help 
one's old mother. IIoMoqB Apyry 
;^66pHM coBexoM. To help one's 
friend with good advice. IIoMoqb 
6paxy pemHXb aaflaqy. To help 
one's brother to solve a problem. 


1 . adv. my way. Oh cj^eJiaJi axo no- 
MoeMy. He did it my way. 

2. paren. word in my opinion. 
Ilo-MoeMy, oh xopomnn qejio- 
BeK. In my opinion, he is a good 

nOMOHb see HOMOrATb 




nOMOmHHK m. help 


omy. The son was a good help to 
his father. 

nOMOmb /., no pi. help 

OKaaaib noMomb paHenoMy. To 
give help to a wounded man. IIpo- 
CHTb noMomn y ;^py3eH. To ask 
one's friends for help. IIpocHTb o 
noMomn. To ask for help. IIpHHTH 
Ha noMomb. To come to the did. 
OxKasaxb b noMOmn. To refuse to 
give help. 


B noHe;;eJibHHK mh yesjKaeM. We 
leave on Monday. Ka?K;;biH: none- 
ACJibHiiK (no noHe;teJibHHKaM) y nac 
6biBaK)T JieKi^HH no JinxepaType. 
Every Monday we have lectures on 

nOHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
K o r 6? H T o?/p. nonaxb, noHMly, 
-emb, -yx, past noHHJi, noHHJia, 
noHHJiIo, -H 

1. to understand. H eac noHHJi. 
/ understood you. Bu Bce noHH- 
Maexe? Do you understand every- 
thing? IIoHMHxe Mena npaBHJib- 
Hol Don't misunderstand me. 

2, to^ understand. Oh MaJio hohh- 
Maex B MysMKe. He does not 
understand much about music. 


nOHflTHE neui. notion 

Gjiobo h noHHxne — pasHbie Bema. 
The word and the notion are differ- 
ent things. 

<0> H He HMeiO nOHHTHH O TBOefi 

pa66Te. I've no idea of your work. 

nOHHTHlMfl, -aH, -oe, -He, short 
form noHHxen, noHHXH|a, -o, -u un- 
derstandable, clear 


1. adv. clear(ly). 3xo cjiobo Bam no- 
HHXHO? Is this word clear to you? 
Oh roBopHJi noHHXHo. He spoke 
clearly. Mne see hohhtho. Eve- 
rything is clear to me. 

2. predic.impers. (it is) clear. IIoHflX- 


jifiT. It's clear that he won't 

come in such a rain. 
nOHHTb see nOHHMATb 
^OOB£J^ATb see OBEJ^ATb 
nOOBElftATb see OBEmATb 

nOHA^AlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. / 
p. nonacxb, nona«|y, -emb, -yx, past 
nonaJi, -a, -o, -h 

1. to hit. Ilonacxb b EteJib. To hit 
the mark. 

2. to get. Honacxb b xeaxp. To get 
to the theatre. 

3. to get. KaK bh cio^a nonajin? 
How did you get here? 

4. impers., colloq. to catch it. Mne 
nonaJio ox Maxepn. / caught it 
hot from Mother. 

<> KaK nonajio. Anyhow. IIonacTb 
He B 5p6Bb, a b r.iaa. Gf. To 
hit the nail on the head. 

nO-nPEaCHEMy adv. stlll, as before 
Oh no-npeJKHeMy jkhbcx zj^qci». He 
still lives here. 


nonPOCflTb see HFOCflTb 

nonPOmATbCH see HPOmATbCH 

nOPAi /. time 

H 3Haio ero c /^asHHX nop. I've 
known him for a long time. G xex 
nop npomjio MHoro Jiex. Many 
years have passed since then. J[o chx 
nop MH HHHero ne snaeM o hcm. We 
still don't know anything about him. 

nOPA^ predic. impers. it is time 
Ilopa BcxaBaxb — y)Ke noSAHO. It's 
time to get up: it's already late. 
Ilopa HflXH AOMOH. It's time to go 
home. HaM nopa oGe^axb. It's time 
for us to have dinner. 

nOPAMCEHHE neut. defeat 

TflJKCJioe nopaHt^HHe. A heavy de- 
feat. Iloxepnexb nopawenne b boh- 
ne. To be defeated in a war. Hane- 
cxH nopaJKeHHe. To defeat. 

nOPOiniOK m., gen. -Ka powder 

1. only sing, powder. SyGnoH nopo- 
moK. Tooth,- powder. 

2. powder. JlenapcxBo b noporaKax. 
Medicine in the form of powder. 
IIpHHHMaxb no o^HOMy nopom- 
Ky 3 paaa b ji^eub. To take one 
powder 3 times a day. 

nOPT m., prepos. b nopxy & o nopxe 

MopcKOH nopx. A seaport. PeHHoii 
nopx. A river port. PaSoxaxb b nop- 
xy. To work at the port. 

nOPTPET m. portrait 

nOPTOeJIb m. brief-case 

JTO-P^CCKH adv. (in) Russian 

ToBopHXb no-pyccKH. To speak 




Russian. Ohh neJiH 3Ty necHio no- 
pyccKH. They sang this song in 
nOP>lAIOK m., gen. -Ka 

1. order. V mghh b KOMHaxe Bcer- 
fla nopHAOK. My room is always 
in order. Jl^epjKaTb BemH b no- 
pH;5Ke. To keep things in order. 
IIpHBecTii Bce b nopH;i;oK. To 
put everything in order. Hpn- 
BecTH ce6H b nopaAOK. To tidy 
oneself up. 

2. succession. PaccKaaaxb see no 
nopaflKy. To tell, everything in 
the same order as it happened. 

<> Bee B nopnAKe. Everything is 
all right. 

nOCA^flTb see CAaCATb 

nOCBHmAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
q T 0? K o M y? 1 e M y? / />. hocbhI- 
THTb, -nty, -Tiinib, -tht 

1. to devote. nOCBHTHTb JKH3Hb 

HayKe. To devote one's life to 

2. to dedicate. nocBflmaxb KHnry 
flPyry. To dedicate a book to 
one's friend. 

nOCETflTb see HOCEmATb 
nOCEmAlTb, -K), -emb, -jot imp. 
Koro? mo?/ p. noce|THTb, -my, 


1. to visit. noceni;aTb 6ojibH6ro to- 
BapHn5a. To visit a sick friend. Uo- 
cexiiTb Myaen. To visit a museum. 

2. no p. to attend. nocen;aTb JieK- 
nHH. To attend lectures. 


1. adv. later. Mojkho npHHXH cea- 
qac? — Hex, npnxoAH nocjie. 
""May I come now?" "No, come 

2. prep. -\- gen. after. IlocJie oSefla. 
After dinner. IlocJie paSoxH. After 
work. MojKHO MHe BSHXb 9xy 
KHHry nocJie nee? May I have 
the book after her? 

nOGJl£jO[H|na, -HH, -ee, -ne last 
nocJiGAHHH AGHb MecHn;a, The last 
day of the month. Kxo nocjieAHHH? 
Who is the last? 

<0» EopoTbCH Ao nocJie^HeH KanjiH 
KpoBU. To fight to the last drop 
of blood. CosAaBaTb HOBue ManiH- 
Hbi no nocjieAHeMy cjiOBy TexHHKH. 

To build new machines accord- 
ing to the last word in technology. 
UocjieAHHe HSBecTOH. The latest 
nOCJIE3ABTPA adv. the day after 

nOCJIOBHIliA /. proverb 
nOCIlS'inAlTb, -H), -emb, -lox p. ko- 
to? H X 0? 

1. to listen (for a while). Oh no- 

cxoHJi, nocjiymaji neMHoro h 

ymeji. He stood and listened for 

a while, then he went away. 

2.: nocJiymaH(xe), passe 3xo npa- 

BHJibHO? Look here, is that right? 

nOCJl5^fflATbCH see CJiyiHATbCa 





1. adv. amid, among. Ha yjiHn;e 
co6paJiacb xojina Hapo^a. Hocpe- 
Aii cxoffji peSenoK h nJiaKaJi. A 
crowd of people had gathered in 
the street. Among the crowd 
stood a child, crying. 

2. prep. -{-gen. in the middle of. 
IlocpeaH nji6n;aAH — KpacHBHH 
$0HxaH. In the middle of the 
square there is a beautiful foun- 




nOCTEJIb /. bed 

BojibHOH AOJi/KGH Jiewaxb B nocxe- 
JiH. The patient must remain in 
bed. EMy neJibsa BcxaBaxb c no- 
cxeJiH. He is not allowed to get up. 

nOCTEHEHHO adv. gradually 

Oh nocxeneHHO npnBUKaJi K kjih- 
Maxy. He gradually got accustomed 
to the climate. 

nOCT05lHH|bia, -aa, -oe, -He con- 
stant; adv. nocxoHHHO constantly, 

IIocxoaHHaa xeMuepaxypa. A con- 
stant temperature. Pe6eH0K nocxoan- 
HO 6oJieex. The child is always ill. 

nOCTOlHTb, -ro, -nmb, -ax p. 

1. to stand (for a while). CnAHxe, 
He SecnoKOHxecb, a nocxoio. 
Keep your seat, and don't worry; 
I'll stand. Oh nocToaji neMHoro 




H ymeji. He stood for a while 
and then went away. 
2.: nocT6H(Te)! Wait! 
nOCTPflHbCH see CTPflHbCH 
nOCXyilAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. I 
p. nocxynHTb, nociynjiio, nociy- 
namb, nocTynflx 

1. to act. HecTHO nocTynaxb. To 
act honestly. IlJioxo nocxyniixb. 
To act badly. 

2. K y fl a? to enter, riocxynnxb b 


Kyjibxex. To enter an institute, 
the history department. Ilocxy- 
nnxb Ha pa66xy. To take up work. 
3.: HocxynHJio npefljio^Kenne. There 
is a proposal. 

nocxynflTb see nocxynAxb 

nOCX:9'n|OK m., gen. -Ka action 

HecxHHH nocxynoK. An honest ac- 
tion. CoBepmnxb repoHHecKHH no- 
cxynoK. To accomplish a feat. 

nOCXyHAXb see cxy^AXb 

nOCS^^A /. crockery 

^aHHafl nocy^a. Tea-things. Mbixb 
nocvay. To wash up. 

nOCblJlAIXb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? KOMy? HeMy? 
or K KOMy? /p. nocjiaxb, nomji|K), 
-emb, -K)x 

1. to send. Maxb nocjiaJia pe6eHKa 
B MarasHH sa XJie6oM. The mother 
sent her child to the shop for 
some bread. Ero nocjiaJiH Ha 
pa66xy b GapaxoB. He was sent 
to work in Saratov. 

2. to send. Ilocjiaxb nncbMO po;;H- 
xejiHM. To send a letter to one's 

noCKlJIlKA /., gen. pi. -ok parcel 
IIoqxoBafl nocMJiKa. A parcel sent 
by post. OxnpaBHXb nocHJiKy. To 
send a parcel. IIojiyHHXb nocwJiKy 
ox pojiHxeJieH. To receive a parcel 
from one's parents. 


1. adv. as you wish. Bee 6yflex no- 
xBoeMy. Everything will be done 
as you wish. 

2. paren. word in your opinion. 
IIo-xBoeMy, 3X0 npaBHJibHO? Do 
you think it's right? 

nOXEPHXb see XEPflXb 
nOXOJIlOK m., gen. -Ka ceiling 

Bhcokhh noxoJiOK. A high ceiling. 

HH3KHH noxoJiOK. A low ceiling. 
Ha noxoJiKC bhchx jiaMna. A lamp 
is hanging from the ceiling. 

nOTOM adv. then 

CnaHaJia mm nooSejiajiH, a noxoM 
nomjiH ryjiflxb. We first had dinner 
and then went for a walk. 

nOXOMy HXq [mxo] conj. because 
Oh He HHcaJi naceM, noxoMy mo 
6uJi saHflx. He didn't write letters 
because he was busy. 

nOXOH^Xb see XOH^Xb 



nOXHH^Xb see XHH^^Xb 

noyjKHHAXb see YHCHHAXb 

nOXBAJiflXb see XBAJlflXb 

^OX0'J^ m. hike 

TypHcxHqecKHH noxoj. A walking- 
tour. Xo;5HXb B uoxojs,. To hike, to 
go on a walking-tour. 

nOX05K|Hfl[, -an, -ee, -ne, short form 
noxojK, -a, -e, -h resembling 
Ha Koro oh hoxojk? Whom does he 
look like? Oh hoxoh? na Moero 6paxa. 
He looks like my brother. 



nOHBA /. soil 

nOHEM>^ adv. why 

HoqeMy bh onosflaJin? Why are 
you late? 

nOHEM^-XO adv. for some reason 
HoqeMy-xo oh ne npHme-i. For some 
reason he has not come. 

nOHEXHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He honorary 
Ho^exHoe aBanne. An honorary title. 
noHexHHH rocxb. A guest of honour. 

nOHHHflXb see HHHflXb 

nOHflCXHXb see HflCXHXb, 1 

nOHXA /. 

1. post. HocHJiaxb hx6-jih6o ooh- 
xoH (no no^xe). To send some- 
thing by post. 

2. post-office. PaSoxaxb na noHxe. 
To work at a post-office. HoHxa 
pa66xaex c 7 yxpa ffo 12 hohh. 
The post-office is open from 
7 in the morning to 12 at night. 

nOHXfl adv. almost 

Oh oxflHxaJi no^xii aBa Mecnna. He 
rested for almost two months. 


norayxflxb see rayxflxb 

n09X m. poet 




noSTOMy adv. that is why 

IloineJi AOJKflb, noaxoMy mm ocxa- 
jiHCb AOMa. It began raining, that's 
why we stayed at home. 

nOHBflTbCa see nOHBJIilTbCH 

nOHBJlHlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -rox- 
CH imp. r 3 e? / p. noHBHXbca, hohb- 
jiiocb, noHBHmbcn, hohehxch to ap- 
pear, to come out 

Ha He6e noHBHJiHCb SBesAU. Stars 
came out in the sky. 

nOHC m., pi. -a 

1. belt. Iloflc najibxo. A coat belt. 
niHpoKHH noHC. A wide belt. 3a- 
cxernyxb none. To fasten the belt. 

2. waist. Gxonxb b bojib no none. 
To stand waist-deep in water. 


1. truth. 3x0 npaB;^a. This is the 
truth. ToBopiixb npaB^y b rjiaaa. 
To speak the truth to somebody's 

2. used as pred. it is true. npaB^a, 
njo OH yexa.i? — IIpaBna. "/.? it 
true that he has left?" — ''Yes, 
it is." 

«0^ Ho npaBj];e roBopa... To tell the 

nPABAflBlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He truthful 
npaBAHBEiH ^ejiOBeK. A truthful 
man. HpaBAHBEie rjiaaa. Truthful 
eyes. IIpaBAHBaa ncxopna. A true 

nPABHJIO neut. 

1. rule. IIpaBHJio rpaMMaxHKH. A 
grammar rule. TpyflHoe npaBUJio. 
A hard rule. 

2. only pi. rules. Go6jiK)Aaxb npa- 
BHJia. To observe the rules. 

<> KaK npasHJio. As a rule. 
nPABHJIbHIblS, -aa, -oe, -He; adv. 

npaBHJibHO correct; right 

HpaBHJibHHH oxBex. A correct an- 

swer. Oh npaBHJibHO pemnji 3afl;aHy. 

He solved the problem correctly. 

IIpaBHJibHo! That's right/ 
nPABflTEJIbCTBO neut. government 
nPAB|0 neut., pi. -a 

1. right. HaGnpaxejibHoe npaBo. 6"^/- 
frage. TpaJK^aHCKHe npaBa. Civil 
rights. ITpaBO na xpy;^. The right 
to work. IIpaBO Ha oxahx. The 
right to rest. IIojibaoBaxbca npa- 
BaMH. To exercise one's rights. 

2. law. Hayqaxb npaBo. To study 

nPAB|bIfl^, -aa, -oe, -ne right 

ITpaBaa pyKa. The right hand (arm). 

nPAB|blfi2, -aa, -oe, -He, short form 
npaB, npasa, npaslo, -h 

1. only short form right. Oh npaB 
B axoM Bonpoce. He is right in 
this question. Bu He npaBH. You 
are not right. 

2. only complete form right. Bo- 
poxbca 3a npaBoe ^ejio. To fight 
for the right cause. 

nPAS^HHK m. holiday, festive occa- 

Hai^HOHaJibHHH npasAHHK. A nation- 
al holiday. IlpaBAHHK IlepBoro 
Man. The First of May holiday. 
HosApaBJiaxb c npaaAHHKOM. To 
congratulate on a holiday. 

nPASaHHHHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -ne fes 
tive, holiday-like 

npasAHHqHHH ropoA- A holiday- 
like city. npasAHHHHHH Benep. A 
festive evening-party. IIpaSAHHHHHH: 
KOCxioM. One's best clothes. IIpaBA- 
HHHHoe Hacxpoenne. A holiday mood. 

^PA3J^H|0BATb, -yro, -yemb, -yrox 
imp. H X 0? to celebrate 
HpaSAHOBaxb noSe^y. To celebrate 
a victory. IIpasflHOBaxb ^^Hb po)K- 
j^enna. To celebrate one's birthday. 


1. practical work. Iloexaxb aa npaK- 
XHKy. To go to practical work. 
IIpoxoAHXb npaKXHKy na saBOAe. 
To do one's practical work at a 

2. practice. GBaaaxb xeopnio c npaK- 
XHKon. To link theory with prac- 

nPAKTflqECKIHtt, -aa, -oe, -ne 

1. practical. HpaKXHqecKHe aana- 
xna. Practical studies. 

2. practical. HpaKxaqecKHH conex. 
Practical advice. 

nPAHEHHIAa /., gen. -on laundry 
GAanaxb 6ejibe b npaqeqayio. To 
send one's washing to the laundry. 



nPEBPAIHAITb, -10, -enib, -K)x inip. 
K r 6? q X o? B K o r 6? b o ^ x 6?/ 
p. npeBpa|XHXb, -my, -xnrab, -xht 
to turn (into) 

HpeBpaxHXb nycxwHio b ca^- To 
turn a desert into an orchard. 




nPEBPAipAlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, 
-lOTCH imp. B Koro? boht 6?/ 
p. npGBpalTiiTbCH, -mycb, -xHinbCH, 
-THTCH to turn (into) 
Bofla npespaTHJiacb b nap. The wa- 
ter turned into vapour, 

IlPEA^ArA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 

KOMy? HGMy? HTO? & + 

inf. I p. npej^JiowHTb, npejtJioHty, 
npejtJiojKHmb, npeflJiojKaT 

1. to offer. Oh npeflJioJKHJi naM 
KO^e. He offered us coffee. 

2. to suggest. Oh npeTtJiojKHJi hoh- 
TH B KHHO. He suggested that we 
should go to the cinema. 

nPEaJlOHCEHHEi neut. 

1. proposal, suggestion. Bhccth 
npe^JiojKeHHe Ha coopaHHH. To 
make a proposal at a meeting. 
BocnojibBOBaxbCH npeflJiojKeHneM. 
To avail oneself of a suggestion. 
ITojiesHoe npeaJiojKeHne. A use- 
ful suggestion. 

2. proposal. CAeJiaib npeajioweHHe 
jik)6hmoh flGByniKe, To propose 
to the girl one lovec. 

nPE^^JIOaCEHHE^ neut. sentence; 

nPE^MET m. 

1. object. TH>KeJibiH npeflMex. A 
heavy object. 

2. subject. H HsynaJi axn npeflMexu 
B niKOJie. / studied these subjects 
at school. 

DPE^^IIPHHTHE neut. enterprise 
Pa66xaxb na npe^npHHXHH. To work 
at an enterprise. CoBpeMeHHoe npefl- 
npHflxne. A modern enterprise. 

nPEACE^ATEJIb m. chairman 

^pe;^ceflaxeJIb co6paHHH. The chair- 
man at a meeting. EpeflceflaxeJib 
KOJixoaa. A collective-farm chairman. 

nPEflCTABflTEJIb m. representative 
ripeflcxaBHxeJifi Hapojia. Representa- 
tives of the people. IIpeACxaBHxejiH 
3aB6;ia. Representatives from a 


nPE^CTABJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -lox 
imp. I p. npeflcxalBHXb, -bjik), -BHmb, 


1. H X 0? to imagine. IIpejtcxaBJiHXb 
ce6e KapxHHy 6yAyntero. To 
imagine the future. 

2. K r 6? KOMy? to introduce. 
IIoBBOJibxe npejtcxaBHXb Baw to- 
Bipamc* H. Let me introduce 
Comrade N. 
nPE^CTGlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -nx, -hx imp. k o- 
M y? q e M y? to be ahead 
HaM npe;^cxoHX HHxepecnaH noeafl- 
Ka. We are faced with an interesting 
journey. Mne npe;;cxoHx noexaxb na 
ceBep. / am to go to the north. 
HPEAynPEAflTb see HPEAynPE- 

nPE^ynPEHCAAlTb, -lo, -emb. -k)t 
imp. Koro? hxo? o ne m?/ 
p. npe;tynpelAHXb, -my, -AHmb, -aht 

1. t^ warn. npeAynpe;i;HXb ^ejioae- 
Ka o6 onacHocxH. To warn a per- 
son of danger. IlpeflynpeAHXb ox- 
paA npH6jiH?KeHHH epara. Ta 
warn a detachment of the ap- 
proach of the enemy. 

2. to prevent. ripej^ynpewAaxb 6o- 
jiesHb. To prevent a disease. 

1. adv. before, first of all. Uipemji,& 
MH Bcxpe^aJiHCb nacxo. We used 
often to meet before. Upemj\e 
Bcero, cKa>KHxe rjiasHoe. First 
of all, tell me the main thing. 

2. conj. before. ITpcjKae qcM roBO- 
pnxb, nOAyMan. Think before you 

nPEH{H{Hfl, -HH, -ee, -ne former 

B nprnnee BpeMH. In former times; 

in the old days. npe>KHHH nanaJib- 

HHK. The former chief. 
nPEKPACHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 

form npeKpacen, npeKpacHja, -o,. 

-h; adv. npcKpacHO 

1. beautiful. Ona 6Mjia npeKpacna. 
She was beautiful. 

2. fine, wonderful, beautiful. Ilpe- 
KpacnaH noro^a. Fine weather. 
IIpeKpacHHH cneKxaKJib. A won- 
derful performance. Oh HpeKpacHO 
xannyex. He dances beautifully. 

3. used as particle very good, fine. 
IIpeKpacHO, H saBxpa npHAy. 
Very good, I'll come tomorrow. 

<> B OfliH npcKpacHbiii A^Hb. One 

fine day. 






nPEKPAmAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
g T 0? & 4" ^^f- I P- npeKpaJTHTb, 
-my, -THinb, -THT to stop 
IIpeKpaTHTb paarOBop. To drop a 
conversation. IIpeKpaTHTe paaroBa- 
pHBaTb! Stop talking! 

nPEKPAmAjTBCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -btch, -iotch imp./ 
p. npeKpaT|HTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -htch to stop 
J^OJKflb He npeKpamaJiCH. The rain 
didn't stop. Bexep npeKpaxH.ncH. 
The wind has abated. 

nPEMHH /. bonus 

HoJiy^HTb npeMHK). To get a bonus. 

nPEO;i,OJIEBAlTb, -K), -erab, -iot 
imp. ^ T o?/p. npeoflOJie|Tb, -lo, 
-erab, -K)T to overcome 
HpeoAOJieBaxb npenHxcTBHH. To 
overcome obstacles. EpeoflOJieTb yc- 
TaJiocTb. To overcome fatigue. Ilpe- 
OflOJieTb CTpax, To overcome fear. 


nPEnO^ABATEJlb m. teacher 

OnHTHHH npenoflaBaTejib. An ex- 
perienced teacher. npeno^aBaTejib 
pyccKoro H3HKa. A Russian teacher. 

nPEHHTCTBHE neut. obstacle 

CepbeaHoe npenHTCTBne. A serious 
obstacle. BcTpexHXb npennxcxBHe 
sa nyxH. To meet with an obstacle. 
ripeoflojiexb Bce npenHxcxBHH. To 
overcome all obstacles. 

nPECXynjIEHHE neut. crime 

CoBepmHXb npecxynji^HHe. To com.' 
mit a crime. 

nPECXynHHK m. criminal 

OnacHHH npecxynHHK. A dangerous 
criminal. ApecxoBaxb npecxynnHKa. 
To arrest a criminal. 

nPH prep. -\- prepos. 

1. in one's presence. He roBopnxe 
xaK npn mhc. Don't speak so in 
my presence. 

2. under. Jlpn Xlexpe I. Under 
Peter I. 

3. at. IIpH xeMnepaxype e 100 rp^ay- 
coB U^ejibCHH BOfla npespamaexcH 
B nap. At a temperature of 100" C 
water turns into vapour. IIpH cepb- 
eanoM oxHoraenHH k flejiy bh ;^o- 
Sbexecb 6ojibraHx ycnexoB. // you 
adopt a serious attitude towards 
what you do, you'll make great 

4. on, with. PlMCxb hx6-jih6o npn 
ce6e. To have something with one. 

5. in. npn csexe Jiynw. In the moon- 

nPHBJlHHCAlTbCH, -locb, -erabcn, 
-lOxcH imp. K KOMy? k neM y?/ 
p. npH6jiH|3HXbCH, -5Kycb, -amnbCH, 


1. to approach, noea;^ npnSjiHmaex- 
CH K ropoay. The train is ap- 
proaching the town. \ fig. HpnGJiH- 
BHXbcH K i^eJiH. To get nearer to 
one*s aim. 

2. fig. no p. to draw nearer. npnSJiH- 
HtaexcH npasAHHK. The holiday 
is drawing near. 


nPHBOP m. 

1. device, instrument. To^HHe 
npH66pbT. Precision instruments. 

2. set. 06eAeHHHH npnSop. Cover. 
BpnxBeHHHH npH66p. Shaving 

nPHBblBAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
Kyaa? / p. npnSHXb, npnSyAly, 
-enib, -yx, past npn6Hji, npH6HJia, 
npH6Hji|o, -H to arrive 
FjiaBa npaBHxejibcxBa npH6biJi c bh- 
3HX0M B coceAHiOK) cxpaHy. The 
head of the government arrived in 
the neighbouring country on a visit. 
CaMOJiex npnSHJi xohho. The plane 
has arrived on time. 

nPHBb'ITb see HPHEblBATb 

nPHBECTfl see DPHBOJ^flTb 

nPHBET m. regards 

FopflHHH npHBex. Warmest regards. 
Hepeaaxb npHBex flpyry. To send 
a friend one's regards. 

nPHBETCTB|OBATb, -yio, -yerab. 
-yiox imp. koto? h x o? to wel- 

Bce npHBexcxBOBaJiH bhcokofo ro- 
cxfl. Everyone welcomed the guest 
of honour. HpHBexcxBOBaxb pemenHe 
npaBHxejibcxBa. To welcome the de- 
cision of the government. 

^PB[BOJ^B[Tb, npHBowy, upuBOjxmmh, 
npHBO^Hx imp. k o r o? h x o?/ 
p. npHBecxH, npHBe;iIy, -erab, -yx, 
past npHBCwi, npHBeJi|a, -6, -u 
1. to bring. npHBecxH pe6eHKa b 
fl;excKHH ca^. To bring a child 
to the kindergarten. 




2. to lead, /^opora npHseJia b jiec. 
The road led to the forest. 

3. fig. to lead. 3to npHBeJio k to- 
My, HTO... This led to... 

4. to quote, to cite. IIpHBOAHTb npH- 
MepM. To quote examples. IIpHBec- 
TH qHTaxy. To cite a quotation. 

nPHBMKAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. 
K KOMy? K HOMy? &~}-inf./p. 
npHBUKHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx, past 

npHBMK, -Jia, -JIO, -JIH 

1. to get accustomed. IIpHBUKaxb 
K HOBOMy KJlHMaxy. To get accus- 
tomed to a new climate. IIpHBbi- 
Kaxb K HOBbiM xoBapnmaM. To 
get accustomed to new friends. 

2. to get into the habit (of). IIpH- 
BUKuyxb Kypnxb. To get into 
the habit of smoking. 


nPHBb'IHIKA /., gen. pi. -en habit 
XopotnaH npHBMqKa. A good habit. 
Bpejieafl npHBUHKa. A dangerous 

nPHrJIACflXb see nPHrJlAIHATb 

nPHrjIAHIAlTb, -K), -eoib, -lox imp. 
Koro? qxo?&4- i^f- 1 P- npHFJial- 
CHXb, -ray, -Climb, -cax to invite 
npnrjiacHXb ^eBymKy b xeaxp. To 
invite a girl to the theatre. IIpH- 
rjiamaxb b rocxH. To invite some- 
body to one's house. Oh npHrjiaciiJi 
AeByraKy xanneBaxb. He asked the 
girl to dance with him, 

nPHrjIAIHEHHE neut. invitation 
riojiyHHXb npHrJiaraeHHe Ha Benep. 
To get an invitation for an evening- 
party. npHHHXb npHrnamenne no- 
cexHXb cxpaHy. To accept the invi- 
tation to visit a country. 

nPHPOBOP m. sentence 

GnpaBeAJiHBUH npnroBop. A just 
sentence. BbiHOCiixb npnroBop. To 
pass sentence. IIpHBOZiHXb npnro- 
BOp B HcnojiHeHHe. To execute] a 

nPHPOmftTbCa, -mych, -flHmbCH, 
-AfixcH p. KOMy? q e M y? to prove 

Mne npnroAHJiCH xboh cobcx. Your 
advice proved useful to me. 




nPHA^MblBAIXb, -K), -emb, -rox 
imp. H X o? / p. ^pH;^y^^a|xb, -lo, 
-emb, -lox to make up, to think of, 
to invent 

HpHAyMaxb npeAJioJKeHHe. To make 
up a sentence. IIpH^yMaxb hcto- 
pHK). To invent a story. IIpHjtyMaHxe 
HT6-HH5yflbl Think of something! 

nPHESaCAlXb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp. 
KyAa?/p. npnexaxb, npn^Aly. 
-erab, -yx to come 
Ilpnexaxb b qyjKOH ropo^. To come 
to a strange city. IlpHexaxb k po- 
aiixenHM. To come to one's parents. 
Jlpnexaxb na xpaMBae. To come by 


nPH3qAlBAXb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
Koro? qxo? / p. npH3Ha|xb, -lo, 
-erab, -lox 

1. to recognise. npHsnaBaxb noBoe 
npaBHxeJibcxBO. To recognise a 
new government. 

2. to admit, npnanaxb cbok oraH6- 
KH. To admit one's mistakes. 

nPH3HAlBAXbCH, -locb, -erabcn, 
-loxcfl imp. KOMy? qeMy? b 
^eM.?/p. npH3Ha|xbCfl, -locb, -erab- 

Cfl, -lOXCfl 

1. to declare. npHsnaxbCH AeByraKe 
B jhoSbw. To declare one's love to 
a girl. 

2. to admit. npnaHaxbCH b cbohx 
oranSKax. To admit one's mis- 

nPH3HAXb see nPH3HABAXb 
nPHflXfl see HPflXOAflXb 
nPHflXflCb see nPHXOAflXbCH 
nPHKA3 m. order 

GxporHH npHKaa. A strict order. Bm- 
noJiHHXb npHKaa KOMaH^iipa. To 
carry out the commander's order. 
Ox^axb npHKaa coJi^axaM. To give 
an order to the soldiers. 
nPHKA3bIBA|Xb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
KOMy? qeMy?-|- inf. / p. npHKa- 
aaxb, npHKajKy, npHKaHcerab, npn- 
KajKyx to order 

HpHKasaxb BOHCKaM naqaxb na- 
cxynJiGHHe. To order the troops to 
commence an offensive. 
nPHMfiP m. 

1. example. Bbixb npHMepoM fljia 
;^py^HX. To set an example for 




others. GJieAOBarb npHMepy Spaxa. 
To follow one's brother's example. 
2. example. IIpHBecTH npHMep. To 
quote an example. 
nPHHAAJIEaCjATb, -y, -wmb, -ax 
imp. K M y? H e M y? to belong 
SeMJifl npHHaaJie>Kiix napoAy. The 
land belongs to the people. 
nPHHHMAiTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
K r 6? H X o?//>. npHHfixb, npHMy, 
npHMemb, npimyx, past npHHflji, 
npHHfljia, npimfljijo, -h 

1. to receive. IIpHHHMaxb rocxen. 
To receive guests. 

2. to take. JIpimnMaxb JienapcxBO. 
To take medicine. 

3. to take. IIpHHflxb pemenne. To 
take a decision. 

4. to adopt. HpmiHXb hoblih 3a- 
KOH. To adopt a new law. IIpii- 
Hflxb pe3oJiK)ii;Hio. To adopt a 

5. to accept. IIpHHHMaxb npejiJio- 
meHHe. To accept an offer. Hpn- 
Hfixb npHrJiameHHe. To accept 
an invitation. 

6. to admit. Moero CHua npiiHHJiH 
B HHCXHxyx. My son has been 
admitted to the institute. 

7.: ripHHfixb yqacxne (b hcm-jihSo). 
To take part (in something). 
nPHHOCflTb, npHHomy, npHHocnrnb, 
npuHocHX imp. k o r 6? q x o?/ 
p. npHHec|xji, -y, -emb, -yx, past 
npHHec, npnHecji|a, -6, -it 

1. to bring. IIpHHecxii leMOAan. To 
bring a suit-case. 

2. : IIpHHOciixb noJibsy (Bpe^). To 
prove useful (harmful). 

nPflHUinn m. principle 

MMexb xsepALie npHHn;HnH. To have 
firm principles. OcHOBHbie npimn;H- 
nw HccjieAOBaHHH. The basic princi- 
ples of investigation. 

nPHHflTb see niHlIHMATb 

nPHPOAA /. natm-e 

BoraiaH npnpoAa. Rich plant and 
animal life. Hayqaxb npHpoAY- To 
study nature. 

nPMCriATb see nPHCblJIATb 

nPHCS^TCTBIOBATb, -yio. -yemb, 
-yiox imp. r a e? to be present 
IIpHcyxcxBOBaxb na coSpaHHii. To 
be present at a meeting. Oh npn- 
cyxcxBOBaJi npn axoM pasroBope. 


He was present when this conversa- 
tion took place. 
nPHCblJlAITb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
Koro? Hxo? Kouy? / p. npH|- 
cJiaxb, -mjiK), -mjiemb, -mjiiox 

1. qxo? KOMy? to send. IIpHCHi- 
jraxb niicbMa Maxepn. To send 
letters to one's mother. IIpHCJiaxb 
HHCbMo no no^xe. To send a 
letter by post. 

2. K o r 6? 3 a h e m? to send. IIpH- 
cjiaxb 6paxa 3a KnnroH. To send 
one's brother for a book. 

nPHX03flTb, npHxojKy, npnxoAHmb, 
npnxoAHx imp. I p. npnaxja, npHAly, 
-emb, -yx, past npnmeji, npHmji|a, 
-6, -H 

1. to come. ITpHHXH aomoh. To 
come home. ITpHXOAHXb na JieK- 
niHK). To come to a lecture. IIpH- 
xoAHXb K 6oJibH6My xoBapHiny. 
To come and see a sick friend. 
npHHXH B rocxH. To come on a 

2. to set in. HpHmjia Becna. Spring 
has set in. 

3. to come. IIpHnxH k BMBOAy (pe- 
meHHK)). To come to a conclusion 
(a decidon). ITpHHxii k corJia- 
meHHK). To come to an agree- 

4.:npHHXH B Bocxopr. To be enrap- 
<> Mne B rojioey npumjia Mbicjib. 
An idea occurred to me. IlpHHTH 
B ce6a. To come to one's senses. 
IIpmlTH B cosHaHiie. To regain 

nPHXOAflTbCH impers. npHXOAHxcH 
imp. KOMy? / p. npHHXHCb, npn- 
aSxch, past npnmJiocb to have (to) 
Mne npHAGxcH BaM Bce paccKaaaxb. 
I'll have to tell you everything. HaM 
npnmjiocb npoHHxaxb SoJibmoH Ma- 
xepwaji. We had to read much ma- 


nPH^ECblBAlTbCH, -rocb, -embcn, 
-HDxcfl imp. neM?/p. npaqecaxbCH, 
npnqemycb, npHqemembCH, npn- 
^emyxcH to comb one's hair 

IIPHHflHA /. cause, reason 

CMeHXbCfl 6e3 npHHHHLi. To laugh 
without any reason. 




nPHHTHlblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short 
form npHHTGH, npHHTH|a, -o, -h; 
adv. npHHTHO pleasant, nice 
npHHTHtiH qeJiOBBK. A nice person. 
IIpMflTHUH neeT. A nice colour. 
IIpHHTHaH HOBOCTb. Pleasant news. 
\predic. impers. Mne 61JJ10 npHHTHO 
CJij'raaTb ero. It was pleasant to 
me to listen to him. 

U.VO prep. -^ ace, colloq. about 

FaccKajKH npo ce6fl. Tell about 

yourself. Oh paccKaaaJi naM CKasKy 

npo BoJiKa. He told us a tale about 

a wolf. 

*> HnxaTb npo ccSh. To read to 


nP0B|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT 
imp. q T o? or + inf. /p. no- 
np66|0BaTb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox 

1. to try. rionp66oBaTb peniHTb 
aaflaqy. To try to solve the prob- 

2. to taste. IIonpoCoBaTb cyn. To 
taste the soup. 

3.: Oh nonp66oBaJi cboh chjiu b 
4>yT66Jie. He tried his skill at 
nPOBfil*ItTb see nPOBEPHTb 
nPOBEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 

H T 0? / p. npOBeplHTb, -K), -HUIb, 

-HT to check, to try 

EpoBepHTb ynpajKHCHHe. To check 

an exercise. DpoBepHTb onbiT. To 

check an experiment. 
nPOBECTfl see nPOBOAflTbi 
DPOBOAflTbi, npoBOH^y, npoBOAnnib, 

npoBOAHT imp. /p. npoBecTii, npo- 

Beflly, -emb, -yx, past nposeji, npo- 

Bejila, -6, -A 

1. Koro? H X 0? KyA^? to lead. 
Oh npoBCJi rocxH b KOMHaxy. 
He led the guest into the room. 
IIpoBecxH napoxoA no KanaJiy. 
To navigate a ship through a 

2. to run over. IIpoBecxH pyKon no 
BOJiocaM. To run one's hand over 
one's hair. 

3. to draw. IIpoBecxH jihhhk). To 

draw a line. 

4. to put. IIpoBecxH KaH^Ji b ny- 
cxMHe. To cut a canal through 
the desert. IIpoBecxH paflHO, raa. 
To put radio, gas (in the house). 

5.: IIpoBecxH aKCKypcHio. To con- 
duct an excursion. 

6. to spend. IIpoBecxH KaHHKyjiH 
B flep^BHB. To spend one's holi- 
days in the country. 
nP0B0aflTb2 see nPOBOMCAXb 
IIPOBO>KA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
K r 6? / p. npoBOfliixb, npoBOHcy, 


1. to see (somebody home). Oh 
npoBOfliiJi fleB5nnKy ^omoh. He 
saw the girl home. 

2. to see off. IIpoBomaxb flpyra Ha 
BOKaaJi. To see one's friend to 
the railway station. Bqepa mh 
npoBOwaJiH npo$coK)3HyK) ^ejie- 
rannio. Yesterday we saw off a 
trade-union delegation. 

nporpAMMA /. 

1. programme. IIporpaMMa bA nHXb 
Jiex. A five-year programme. 
IIporpaMMa napxHH. A party 

2. programme. IIporpaMMa Konn^p- 
xa. The programme of the con- 
cert. TeaxpajibHaH nporpaMMa. 
A theatre programme. 

3. syllabus. IIporpaMMa no Maxe- 
MaxHKe. A syllabus in mathemat- 

IIFOAA|B^Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
Hxo? Koro? KOM y?//). npoAaxb, 
njpoflaM, npoAamb, npoflacx, npofla- 
flHM, npoAaAHxe, npoAaflyx, past 
npoAaJi, npoAajia, npoAajijo, -h to 

Ha pwHKe npoAaiox (|)pyKXH h obo- 
mn. They sell fruit and vegetables 
at the market. 
nPO^ABllim m., gen. -na shop-assis- 
tant, salesman 

PaSoxaxb npoflaBuoM. To work as 
a shop-assistant (salesman). 
nPOAATb see nPOMB^Tb 
nPOAOJlHCAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo? & -f inf. to continue 
IIpoAOJijKaxb pasroBop. To continue 
the conversation. IIpoAOJiHtaxb nexb. 
To continue singing. 
nPOAOJlHCAlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch 
imp. to last 

CoSpanne npo^ojiHtaJiocb ao B^ne- 
pa. The meeting lasted till the 
IIP0J^0J13KEHIIE neut. continuation 
IIpoAOJiweHHe pa3roB6pa. The con- 
tinuation of a conversation. IIpoAOJi- 




weHHe poMana. The continuation of 

a novel. 

^ IIpoflOjiHceHne cjieffyer. To be 


nPOAS^KTbl pi. provisions 

npoAVKTM nHTaHHH. Food-stuffs. 
MojioHHtie npoAyKTH. Dairy prod- 
ucts. IIoKynaTb npoAVKTH b Mara- 
3HHe. To buy provisions at a shop. 

nPOE35KA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t imp. 
HT0?MHM0 ^ e T 6? / p. upoexaxb, 
npoeAly, -emb, -yT 

1. to drive past. IlpoeaHtaTb ropoA- 
To drive past a town. Ilpoea- 
jKaxb MHMO ;;6Ma. To drive past 
a house. 

2. to cover (a distance). IIpoexaTb 
CTO KHJiOMeipoB. To covcr 100 
kilometres. B ;;eHb mm npoea- 
?KaJiH 50 KM. We covered 50 kilo- 
metres a day. 

3. to miss. H ne snaji, r^e nyHCHO 
BuxoAHTb, H npoexaji ocTanoBKy. 
/ didn't know where to get off 
and missed my stop, fl nacTO 
npoesH^aK) cbok) ociaeoBKy. / 
often miss my stop. 


nP0|3KE[Tb, ->KHBy, -JKHBCmb, -JKHByT, 

past npoTKHJi, npoH^HJia, np6JKHJi|o, 
-H p. to live 

Oh upomnji 75 jict. He lived 75 
years. H npoHtHJi b 3T0m ropo^e 
10 Jiei. / lived 10 years in that 
nP03PAHH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -ue trans- 
nPOnrPATb see nPOflrPblBATb 
nPOflrPblBAITb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
HTO? KOMy? hcm y?/p. nponr- 
pa|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot to lose (a 
game, etc.), to be defeated 
Hama KOManfla nponrpajia. Our 
team lost. XIpoHrpaxb Bonny. To be 
defeated in the war. 
nP0H3BEA£HHE neut. work 

npoH3BeAeHHe HCKyccTsa. A work 
of art. IIpoHSBeAeHHfl IlymKHHa. 
The works of Pushkin. 
nP0H3BECTfl see nP0H3B0Ji;flTb 
^P0H3B0/^flTb, npoHSBOJKV, npona- 
Boflnmb, npoHSBOAHT imp. q t o?/ 
p. npoH3BecTM, npoH3BeA|y, -emb, 
-yi,past nponsBCJi, npoH3BeJi|a,-6, -ri 
1. to produce. IlpoHSBOAHTb cxan- 
KH. To produce machine-tools. 


2. fig. to make. IIpoHSBecTH rjiy66- 
Koe BnenaTJieHHe. To make a 
profound impression. 
nPOH3B0ACTBO neut. 

1. output. npOHSBOflCTBO CXaJIH. 

Steel output. 

2. production. OpyAHH npoH3B6A- 
CTBa. Implements of production. 

nP0H3H0meHIlE neut. pronuncia- 

IIpaBHJibHoe npoH3HomeHHe. The 
correct pronunciation. 
nPOHCXO^flTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. npoHCXOAHT, npo- 

HCXOAHT imp. I p. npOH30HTH, 1st & 

2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers. npo- 
H30HAleT, -yT, past nponsomeji, 
npoHsomJija, -6, -h to happen 
Co MHOH npoHsomeji HHTepecHHH 
cjiyqan. An interesting thing hap- 
pened to me. Hto 3Aecb nponcxo- 
AHT? WhaVs happening here? 3Toro 
6w He npoH3omji6, ecjin 6u bh 6ti- 
jiH ocTopoJKHH c omeM. This would 
not happened had you been careful 
with fire. 

nPOflTfl see nPOXOAflTb 

nPOMb'IfflJIEHHOCTb /. industry 
TflHtejian npoMumJicHHOCTb. The 
heavy industry. JlerKan npoMijm- 
jiCHHOCTb. The light industry. Paa- 
BHBaxb npOMumJiCHHOCTb. To devel- 
op industry. 

nPOMKimJlEHHIbin, -an, -oe, -He 

IIpoMHmjieHHHH ropoA- An indus- 
trial town. IIpoMHmJieHHHH n;eHTp, 
paHOH. An industrial centre, region 

nPOIIAAAITb, -K), -emb, -k>t imp./p, 
nponacTb, nponaAly, -emb, -yx, 
past oponaji, -a, -o, -h 

1. to be lost, y MCHH nponaji hocoboh 
nJiaxoK. / lost my handkerchief. 

2. to disappear. Oh ymeji BHcpa 
BeqepoM h nponaJi. He went 
away yesterday evening and dis- 

3. to be wasted. BpeMH nponajio 
apH. The time has been wasted. 

<> Bee nponajio! All is lost/ fl 
nponSji. / am a lost man/ 
nPOnyCKA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -H)x imp. 
K r 6? H X 0? / p. nponycxHxb, npo- 
^y^^y, nponycxnmb, nponycxHT 




1. to let through, rpfiaaoe CTeKJi6 
nJioxo nponycKaex cbct. A dirty 
glass lets the light through badly. 

2. to let go before. IlponycKaTb 
flCBymKy B^]epe;^. To let a girl 
go before one. 

3. to omit. nponycTiiTb cjiobo b 
flHKxaHTe. To omit a word in 
the dictation. 

4. to miss. IIponycKaTb jicki^hh. 
To mis'i lectures. 

nponycTflTb see nponycKATb 

nPOCflTb, npomy, npocHint, npocHT 
imp. Koro? qxo? o HeM?& 
+ p. inf. I p. nonpocHTb, nonpo- 
ray, iionpocHinb, nonpocflx to ask 
npociiTb TOBapwma o noMomn. 
To ask one's friend for help. IIo- 
npocHTb hobuh jKypaaji y Apyra. 
To ask a friend for a new maga- 
zine. Oh npociiJi nac npotiiiTaxb 
paccKaa eme pas. He asked us to 
read the story once more. Mu no- 
npocMJiH, ^ixoobi OH HOiHeji c heImh. 
We asked him to go with us. 
nPOCHyXbCH see nPOCbinATbCfl 
nPOCnf:KT m. avenue 
nPOCTflTb see HPOm VTb 
nPOCTflTbCa see HPOmATbCH 
nPOCT|Ofl, -aa, -6e, -we, short form 
npocx, npocxa, npocxjo, -h; adv. 
npocxo; comp. npome 

1. simple, npocxoii npnCop. A 
simple device, npocxaa aa^aia. 
A simple problem. 3x0 o'lenb 
npocxo c;j.eJiaxb. It is very sim- 
ple to do. 

2. ordinary. IIpocxoH nejioBeK. An 
ordinary man. 

3. npocxo particle simply, merely. H 
cKaaaji axo npocxo xan. / said this 
for no special reason. 3xo npcS- 
cxo nexopomo. It is simply ru)t 

UPOCTPAHCTBO neut.^ space 

npocx pa HCXBo H BpeMH. Space and 
time. Be.iB03AyniHoe npocxpancxBO. 
A vacuum. 


nPOCTS'JKHBAITbCH, -locb, -embCH, 
-lOXCH imp. I p. npocxyjxHXbCH, 
npocxyjK^'cb, npocxyj^HmbCfl, npo- 
cxy;^HXCfl to catch cold 
OceHbK) JiexKo mowho npocxyAwxb- 
CH. In autumn people catch colds 

easily. Oh cnJibHO npocxyAUJicfl. 
He caught a bad cold. 

nPOCTblHH /., pi npocxHHH, npo- 
cxMHb, npocxMHHM, etc. bedshect 

nPOCbinA|TbCH, -locb, -embcfl, -iot- 
CH imp. I p. npocHlyxbCH, -ycb, 
-embCH, -yxcH to awake 
IlpocHyxbCH paHO yxpoM. To awake 
early in the morning. 

nPOCbBA /. request 

OGpaxfixbCH c upocbSoH. To make 
a request. BbinojiHHXb npdcbSy. To 
comply with one's request. V MeHH 
K BaM 6oJibmaH npocbSa. / have a 
great favour to ask of you. 

nPOTHB prep. -\- gen. 

1. opposite. Gxoaxb npoxne oKHa. 
To stand opposite the window. 

2. fgainst. BopoxtcH npoxHB Bpa- 
ra. To fight against the enemy. 

3. agaiust, in the opposite direc- 
tion. MztxH npoxHB Berpa. To 
go against the wind. 

nPOXJIAJ^Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short 
form npoxjia;i;eH, npoxjiaAH|a, -o, 
-si; adv. npoxjiaAHO cool 
ripoxjiaAHMH Be4ep. A cool evening. 
\predic. impers. CeroAHH na 
yjiHHe npoxjia^Ho. It is cool outside 

nPOXO/^flTb, npoxojKy, npox6ziHnib, 
npoxoAHx imp. / p. npoHxw, npoH- 
flly, -emb, -yx, past npomeji, opo- 
mJi|a, -6, -H 

1. to move. IIpoHXH BoepcA. To 
move to the front. IIpoHxif no 
yjiHn;e. To go along the street. 

2. to go through. IlpoHxn qepea 
Jiec. To go through the forest. 
Jlyqn coJiHua ne woryx npoHXH 
CKB03b rycxyio JiHCXsy. The sun*s 
rays cannot penetrate the think 
foliage. Paapemnxe npoiixH. Will 
you let me pass, please? 

3. to go past. Ilpoxoflwxb mhmo 
3AaHHH. To go past a building. 

4. to cover. IlpoHXH aa aenb CoJiee 
20 KHJioMexpoB. To cover over 20 
kilometres a day. 

5. to be over. 3HMa nponiJi^. The 
winter is over. IlpomJio xpn Ha- 
ca. Three hours went by. 

6. to cease. FojioBHaa 6ojib nporajia. 
The headache has ceased. J^o-m^h 
npomeji 6ucxpo. It soon stopped 




7. to study. IIpoxofliiTb Kypc $h- 
3HKH. To study a course of phys- 
ics. Ilpoxoj^wTL Kypc jieqeHHH. 
To undergo treatment. 
nPOHHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He, short form 
npoHGH, npoHHa, npoHHJo, -h; adv. 

1. durable. IIpohhhh MaxepHaJi. A 
durable material. 

2. fig. strong, lasting. IIpoHHtiH 
MHp. A lasting peace. Hama 
^pVHtCa npoqna. Our friendship 
is strong. 

nPOfflJIIblfl, -an, -oe, -He last 

B nporiiJiOM ro^y. Last year. Ha 
npouiJiOH nej^eJie. Last week. 

nPOniAlTb, -10, -einb, -lox imp. ko- 
to? H T 0? / p. npolcTHTb, -my, 

-CTlimb, -CTflT 

1. to forgive. IIpocTHTb ^ejioBGKa. 
To forgive a person. Jlpomaxb 
ouipiSkh. To forgive one's mis- 
takes. IlpocTHTe Mena! Excuse me! 

2. sorry. HpocTiiTe, bh ue sHaexe, 
^;^e HBanoB? Sorry, do you know 
where Ivanov is? ITpocTHTe, bh 
He CKajKexe, KaK npoexaxb b 
CoKOJibHHKH? Excusc me, can 
you tell me how to get to So- 

nPOmA.|TbCfl, -locb, -embCH, -loxca 
imp. c KeM? c neu? / p. npo|- 
cxHXbcfl, -m;ycb, -cxHuibca, -cxhxch, 
or Donpon;a|xbCfl, -locb, -embca, 


1. to take leave. IIonpomaxbCH c poA- 
HHMH nepe/t oxtesAOM. To say 
good-bye to one's relatives before 
one's departure. 

2. fig.: npocxnxbCH c Me^xoH. To 
give up one's dream. 

^ npoii(au(Te)! Good-bye f 
HPOflBftTb see HPOflBJlHTb 
nPOflBJlH|Tb, -K), -euib, -K)x imp. 

H T 0? / />. npoHBHXb, npoHBJiio, npo- 

HBHinb, npOHBflX 

1. to display. IIpoHBHXb HHxepec 
K xeMe. To display an interest 
in a subject. IlpoflBHXb BHHMa- 
HHe K ycnexaM jipyra. To show 
interest in one's friend's success. 
IlpoflBHXb 3a66xy. To show so- 
licitude. IlpOHBHXb CMGJIOCXb, 
repoH3M. To display courage, 

2. to develop. IlpOHBHXb njienKy. 
To develop a film. 
nPI>irA|Tb, -K), -euib, -lox imp./ 
p. npHrulyxb, -y, -emb, -yx to jump 
HpHrnyxb ^epea cxyji. To jump 
over a chair. Ilpbiraxb c 6epera b 
BOfly. To jump from the shore into 
the water. Ilpbiraxb b fl;jiHHy. To 
do a long jump. IlpHraxb b bhco- 
xy. To do a high jump. HpHraxb 
c napauiioxoM. To parachute. 

npb'irHyxb see npi;irATb 

nPiIM|OH, -afl, -oe, -ne, short form 
npHM, npHMa, npHMJo, -h; adv. 

1. straight. IIpflMaa jihhhh. A 
straight line. HpflMaH flopora. 
A straight road. M^Hxe Bce BpeMfl 
npjiMO. Go straight on all the time. 

2. only complete form through. 
ripHMoe cooSiueHHe Me?KAy ropo- 
;i,aMH. A through service between 

3. fig. frank. IIpHMOH oxBex. A frank 
answer. IlpflMOH xapaKxep. A 
sincere character. GKaaaxb npaB- 
^y npHMO B JiHi;6. To speak the 
truth to one's face. 

nP>l|TATb, -qy, -nenib, -nyx imp. 

K o r 6? q X 0? ox koto? o x ^ e- 

t6?/p. cnpajxaxb, -ny, -nemb, -nyr 

to hide 

ripfixaxb cnHHKH ox peSeuKa. To 

hide the matches from the child. 
IIPH|TATbCH, -Hycb, -genibca, -nyxcH 

imp. ox Koro? ox ner 6?/ 

p. cnpH|xaxbCfl, -nycb, -qeuibca,. 

-nyxca to hide 

Ilpflxaxbcfl ox BparoB b Jiecy. To- 

hide from the enemies in the woods. 
nXflUiA /. bird 

nxHUH JiexeJiH K lory. The birds 

were flying to the south. 

<> J^OManiHflH nxHua. (no pi.} 

n^^rOBHIXA /. button 

Sacxernyxb najibxo na Bce nyro- 

BHiiH. To button up one's coat. 
nyCKA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 

p. nyCxHXb, nymy, nycxnmb, nyc- 


1. to let go. H HHKyaa xe6a He 
nymyl — CKaaaJia Maxb. "/ won't 
let you go anywhere!" said the 
mother. Maxb ne nycKaJia ero 
ryjiaxb. The mother would not 




let him go for a walk. Hx nyc- 
THJiH B flOM. They were let into 
the house. 

2. to put into operation. IlycTHTb 
ajieKTpocTaHi;HK). To put an 
electric power station into ope- 
ration. EycTHTb noea;^. To start 
a train service. 

<> ElycTHTb KopHH. To take root. 

IlycTHTb B xoA. To set in motion. 

HycKfixb nbijib b rjiaaa. To show 

nyCTflTb see nYCKAXb 

nyCT|Ofl, -an, -6e, -bie, short form 
nycT, nycTa, nycxlo, -u; adv. nycTO 

1. empty. IlycTOH cxaKan. An 
empty glass. 3aJi 6hji nycT. The 
hall was empty. Ha yjiaqe 6hjio 
nycTO. The street was deserted. 

2. fig. shallow. IlycTOH qejioeeK. 
A shallow person. IlycTOH cnop. 
A pointless argument. 

nyCTb'IHfl /. desert 

nyCTb particle lot 

nycTb OH npH;;eT saBxpa. Let him 
come tomorrow. Ilycxb Bcerfla 6y- 
aex c6jiHi;el May there always be 

nyXEfflECTBHE neut. journey, voy- 
age, trip 

KpyrocBexHoe nyxemecxBHe. A 
round-the-world journey. nyxemecx- 
BHe no MODK). A voyage. Ilyxemecx- 
BHe B EBpony. A journey to Europe. 
CoBepmnxb nyxemecxBne no 
cxpane. To travel in a country. 

nyXEmECTBlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, 
-yiox imp. to travel 
IlyxemecxBOBaxb no cxpane. To 
travel in a country. IlyxefflecxBO- 
Baxb no Mopio. To travel by sea. 
fl jiio5jik) nyxemecxBOBaxb. / like 

nyXb m., gen., dat,, prepos. nyxH, 
instr. nyxcM; pi. nyxH, nyxen, 
nyxHM etc. 

1. way. 3xox nyxb caMUH Kop6x- 
KHH. This way is the shortest. 

2. journey. BaM npe^cxonx xpyflHHH 
H onacHWH nyxb. There is a 
difficult and dangerous journey 
ahead of you. 

3. fig. way. KaKHM nyxcM bh flo6H- 
JiHCb xaKHX peayjibx^xoB? How 
{in what way) did you achieve 
such results? 

^ Bbi cTOHxe Ha BepHOH nyr^. 

You are on the right track. H^T^ 
no BepnoMy nyxH. To go along 
the right road. CqacxjiHBoro ny- 
th! a happy journey/ Oh samcji 
KG MHe no nyxH. He dropped 
in at my place on the way. Ho 
nyxH AOMou n KynHJi raaexy. 
On my way home I bought a 
newspaper. Ha o()paxHOM nyxH. 
On one's way back. 

nUJlb /., prepos. b hlijih dust 
CxHpaxb HMJib. To dust. 

nb£CA /. play 

3xa Hbeca hacx b xedxpe MaHK6B- 
CKoro. This play is on at the Maya- 
kovsky Theatre. 3xy nbecy no- 
cxaBHJi OxJiOHKOB. This play was 
stafed by Okhlopkov. IlbecH H6ce- 
na. Plays by Ibsen. 

nbUnibin, -an, -oe, -He 

1. drunk. 

2. used as n. a drunken man. 
nUTEPO num. five 

IlHxepo flpyaen. Five friends. 
riHTHO neut., pi. nnxHa, nHxen stain 
HepHHJibHoe HHXHO. An ink-stain. 

P, P 

1. no pi. work. TsimejiaH pa66xa. 
Hard work. Pa66xa aJieKxpo- 
cxaHn;HH. The work of the elec- 
tric power station. 

2. no pi. work, job. Ilocxynnxb Ha 
padoxy. To go to work. Iloxe- 
pHXb pa66xy. To lose one^s job. 
HaHXH pa66xy. To find a job. 
HflXH Ha pa66xy. To go to work. 

3. work. BucxaBKa pa66x xyflOJK- 
HHKa. Exhibition of an artist's 

PABOXAITb, -H), -emb, -rox imp. 

1. to work. Oh pa66xaex xopomo. 
He works well. PaSoxaxb hhjkc- 
HepoM. To work as an engineer. 
Pa66xaxb b HHcxHxyxe. To work 
at an institute. Pa66xaxb c hh- 
xeperoM. To work with interest. 

2. to work. PaSoxaxb naa cxaxbea, 
Ha;^ KHHFOH. To work at an 
article, at a book. 

3. to work. MamHHa paSoxaex 
oxJiHHHO. The machine works per- 
fectly well. 



PA 3 

^ Kto He paSoTaeT, tot hg ecT. 

He who does not work^ neither shall 

he eat. 
PABOHlHtt m , gen. -ero worker 
PABOHiHfl, -an, -ee, -ne 

1. working. PaSo^HH KJiacc. The 
working-class. Pa66qee jifimme- 
HHe. The working-class move- 

2. working. Pa66Hee BpeMH. Work- 
ing hours. PaSoHHH koctiom. 
Working clothes. 

^ PaSoHHH flenb. Working day. 

PaSoqaa CHJia. Manpower. 
PABHOAS^mHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He. 

short form- paBHOAymeH, paBHO- 

;(yuiH|a, -o, -m; adv. paBHo;^yI^HO 


Oh paBHOAynien k npnpoAe. He is 

indifferent to nature. 
PABHIHH, -aH, -oe, -ue, short form 

paBGH, paBHia, -6, -u 

1. equal. PaBHue chjih. Equal 

2. equal. Mh Bce SACCb paBHu. We 
are all equal here. 

3. equal. J^bb hjiioc ^Ba paBHO ^e- 
THpcM. Two plus two is four. 

-(^ Mee Bce pasHO. It's all the 
same to me. 

PAfl, -a, -0, -H short adf. KOMy? 
q e M y? & + m/ (to be) glad 
fl BaM oqenb pa^. / am very glad 
to see you. Mm paAH BaoiHM ycne- 
xaM. We rejoice at your success. 
PaA Bac BHflexb. I'm glad to see 
you. fl pafla, mo bh npHouiH. I'm 
glad you have come. 

PAJ^HO neut., indecl., no pi. 

1. radio. MaoSpeTeHHe pa^HO. The 
invention of the radio. Ilepefla- 
B^Tb no paAHO. To broadcast. 

2. radio. ITpoBecTii paano. To 
put radio (in a house). BKjnoHHTb 
paAHO. To turn on the radio. 
BuKJiio^HTb pa^HO. To turn off 
the radio. CJiyuiaTb paAHO. To 
listen to the radio, j 

PAJ^|OBATb, -yio, -yenib, -yioT imp. 
Koro? qxo?//?. oSpaAloBaTb, -yio, 
-yemb, -yrax to make glad 
Hac paAyiOT Bauin ycnexH. We 
rejoice at your success. Mena o6pa- 
AOBaJio TBoe nacbMO. / was glad 
to receive your letter. 

PAJ^|OBATbCH, -yiocb, -yembca. 
-yiOTca imp. k o m y? h e m y?/ 
p. o5paAloBaTbca, -yiocb, -yenibca, 
-yiOTca to rejoice 

P^AOBaTbca Becae. To rejoice at 
spring. Mh paAyeMca BauiHM ycne- 
xaM. We rejoice at your success. 

PAj^OCTb /. joy, happiness 

y Meaa 6oJibmaa paAOCTb. / have 
great joy. Oh CKaaaJi Mae o6 3tom 
c paAOCTbK). He told me about it 
with joy. 

PAS m. 

1. time. }KH3Hb Aaexca TOJibKO 
OAHH pas. Life is given to man 
only once. HecKOJibKO pas. Sev- 
eral times. 

2. time. B nepBHH pas. For the 
first time. Ha 3tot pas. This 
time Oahh pas HAy a no yjiH- 
ne... One day I was going along 
the street ... 

<> KaK pas. Just. He pas. More 
than once. Hh pasy. Not once, 
never. CeMb pas oxMepb, oahh 
pas OTpeJKb. Gf. Measure thy cloth 
ten times; thou canst cut it but 
PA3BHBA1TBCH -locb, -embca, -rorca 
imp. I p. pasSaxbca, pa3o6b|i6cb, 
-embca, -loxca 

1. to break. CxanaH pasSifjica. The 
glass has broken. CxeKJio paaSa- 
Jiocb. The glass has broken. 

2. to crash. GaMOJiex pa36HJica. The 
plane has crashed. 

PA3Bflrb see BPITb 
PA3BflTbCfl see PA3BHBATbCfl 
PASBYAflTb see BVAflTb 
PA3BE emphatic particle really 

PasBe jieKi;Ha Koannjiacb? Has 
the lecture ended? Paaae xh ae 
aaaemb? Don't you know? 
PA3BEJli|KA /., gen. pi. -ok 

1. prospecting. PasBCAKa noJieaanx 
HCKonaeMHX. Pro<ipecting for 
mineral deposits. 
2.: BosAymnaa pasBCAKa. Air recon- 
3.: Boeaaaa pasaeAKa. Intelligence. 
4. intelligence service. Pa66xa paa- 
BeAKH. The work of the intelli- 
gence service. 
PA3BHBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. 
axo?//>. paaaiixb, paPOBbjio, -emb, 
-K)x to develop 




PasBHBaxb naMHTb. To develop 
one's memory. PasBHBaTb npoMtiiii- 
JiGHHOCTb. To develop industry. 
PasBiiBaxb MLicJib. To develop one's 
idea. PasBHsaTb CKopocTb. To de- 
velop speed. 
PASBHBAITbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -eiCfl, -iotch imp. 
to develop 

PeSeaoK 6faicTpo pasBHBaeTCH. The 
child develops quickly. IlpOMUfflJieH- 
HOCTb paBBHBaexcH ycneiDHo. The 
industry is developing successfully. 
PA3BflTHE neut., no pi. development 
Pa3BiiTne npoMuniJieHHOcTH, nay- 
KH. The development of industry, 
of science. 
PA3rOBAPHBA|TI>, -lo, -emb, -iot 

imp. OKOM? HCM? CKGM? 

to speak 

PaaroBapHBaTb c jipyrou no-pyc- 
CKH. To speak to a friend in Rus- 
sian. PaaroBapHBaxb o saHainHX, 
SHaKOMWX. To speak about one's 
lessons, about one's acquaintances. 

PA3rOBOP m. conversation 

HHTepecHHH paaroBop. An interest- 
ing conversation. PasroBop no Te- 
jie(|)6Hy. A telephone conversation. 

PA3J^AlBATtCH, Jst & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -ctch, -iotch imp./ 
p. pasflaTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. paa^acTCH, paa^a- 
flyTCfl, past pa3/i|aJiCH, -ajiacb, -ocb, 
-HCb to be heard 
PaaflaJiCH sbohok. A bell was heard. 
B^aJiH pasAaiOTCH rojioca. Voices 
are heard in the distance. PasAaJiCH 
yMp rpoMa. A thunderclap was heard. 

PA3AATI>Cfl see PA3;^ABATbCfl 

PA3AEBA|TbCH, -locb, -enibCH, -iotch 
imp. I p. pa3Ae|Tbcfl, -nycb, -HenibCH, 
-HyTCH to undress 
PaBABBaTbCfl nepea chom. To un- 
dress before going to bed. PasfleBaa- 
Tecb, nojKaJiyncTa! Take off your 
coat, pleasel 

PA3AEJlflTb see J^EJlUiTh 

PA3aETbCfl see PA3JtEBATbCH 

PA3MfiP m. size 

PasMep 66yBH. The size of foot- 
wear. IIoKa>KHTe, nojKaJiyncTa, 
KOCTioM 50-ro pasMepa. Show me a 
size 50 suit, please. 

PA3H|bin, -an, -oe, -He {sing, used 

1. different. Y nnx pasnue xapaK- 
Tepu, Their characters are quite 

2. different. TKuTh b paanbix ropo- 
jxkx. To live in different cities. 

3. various. CTyAeHTu paanux na- 
UHOHaJibHOCTen. Students of va- 
rious nationalities. ^ejieraTH H3 
paanux cTpan. Delegates from 
various countries. 

PA30nTlICb see PACXOAflTbCH 

PA30PBATb see PBATb 

PA3PE3ATb see PE3ATb 

PA3PEfflA|Tb, -K), -euib, -iot imp. 
qTO? KOMy? &-j- inf./ p. paape- 
mjHTb, -y, -Hmb, -aT to allow 
Paap^mHTb GoJibnoMy BCTaBaTb. To 
allow the patient to get up. Paape- 
niHTe npoiiTii! May I get past, 
please? PaapeniHTe bohth! May I 
come in? 

PA3PEraflTb see PA3PEinATb 

PA3PyfflAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
n T 0?//?. pa3pym|HTb, -y, -nnib, 
-aT to destroy 

PaapyuiHTb aom. To destroy a 
house. Pa3pymHTb ropo^. To destroy 
a city. 

PA3PymHTb see PA3PymATb 

PA3TbE3aCA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -eTCH, -iotch 
imp. K y A a? o t k y a a? /p- pa3T.e- 
xaTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. paBTieAleTCH, -yTCH to go 
away in different directions 
Ka>KAbiH roA CTyAeHTM paa^eawd- 
lOTCH Ha KaHHKyjiw. Each year the 
students disperse for the holidays. 

PA3'b£XATbCH see PA3'bE3MCATb- 

PAflOH m. 

1. region, area. 9to oCmnpHUH 
npoMtiniJieHHHH paaoH. It is a 
vast industrial area. 

2. district (an administrative di- 
vision), fl WHBy B JleHHHCKOM 
panoHe Mockbh. / Hue in the 
Lenin district in Moscow. 

PAKETA /. rocket 

SanycTHTb paKCTy b kocmoc. To 
launch a rocket into outer space. 

PAH|HTb, -K), -HHib, -HT Koro? bo 
q T 6? n e M? imp. & p. to wound 





PaHHTb nyjien. To wound with a 
bullet. I impera. Boiiua paHHJio b py- 
Ky. The soldier was wounded in the 
PAHUinfl, -Hfl, -ee, -He early 

PaHHee yipo. An early morning. 
PaHHHe $pyKTH. Early fruit. 
PAHO adv., comp. paHBine 

1. early. Pano yxpoM. Early in the 
morning. BciaTb pa ho. To get up 
early. Pa ho Jie^b cnaxb. To go 
to bed early. 3HMa nacTynHJia 
paHO. Winter came early. H 
npnuieji paHO, a oh eme panb- 
me. / came early, but he had 
come still earlier. H pano na- 
yqHJiCH qHTaib. / learned to 
read early. 

2. predic. impers. (it is) early. 06e- 
fl;aTb eme pano. It is too early 
tq dine yet. Cefiqac pano. It is 
early now. 

^ HeM paHbme, tbm jiyqme. The 

earlier, the better. 
PAHbfflE adv. before 

PaHbuie OH 6eiji jtpyrHM. He was 

different before. 

1. story. PaccKas MaJibHHKa Mena 
BSBOJiHOBaJi. The boy's story 
moved me. 

2. story. MHTepecHHH paccKaa. An 
interesting story. C66pHHK pac- 
CKaaoB. A collection of stories. 


PACCKA3blBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -K)t 
H T 0? K 6 M? o H e M? imp./ 
p. paccKaaaxb, paccKaH«y, paccKa- 
jKenib, paccKajKyx to tell 
PaccKaaaxb HcxopHio. To tell a story. 
PaccKasaxb o Apyre, o h<H3hh. To 
tell about one's friend, life. PaccKa- 
SHBaxb CKasKH A6XHM. To tell fairy- 
tales to children. 

PACCTOHHHE neut. distance 

PaccxoHHHe Mm^y ;;ByMH TOHKaMH. 
The distance between two points. 
PaccxoHHHe ox Mockbu flO JleHHH- 
rpa^a- The distance between Moscow 
and Leningrad. Ilpoexaxb 6oJibm6e 
paccxoHHHe. To cover a long dis- 

PACTAflTb see TAflTb 

PACTEHHE neut. plant 

PACT|B[, -y, -enib, -yx, past poc, -Jia, 
-Jio, -JiH imp. /p. BupacxlH, -y, 
-emb, -yx, past Bbipoc, -Jia, -Jio, 


1. to grow. ^epeBbfl pacxyx mca- 
JieHHO. Trees grow slowly. 

2. to grow up. MaJibHHK poc b 
AepeBHe. The boy grew up in 
the countryside. 

3. to grow, to increase, to rise. 
Ham ropoA pacxex. Our town is 
growing. VpoBenb mmun pacxex. 
The living standard is rising. 

4. to grow. BanaHH pacxyx na lore. 
Bananas grow m the south. 

PACXOAflTbCH, pacxojKycb, pacxo- 
flHmbCfl, pacxoAflxcfl imp./ p. paaoH- 
xHCb, paaoHAlycb, -embCH, -yxcH 

1. 1st and 2nd pers. sing not used to 
disperse. PaaoHXHCb c coSpannn. 
To disperse after the meeting. 
HapoA MeAJieHHO pacxoAHJicfl. 
The people were slowly dispersing. 

2. to differ. PaaoiixHcb bo bsfjih- 
Aax. To differ in opinion, to dis- 
agree, y Hero cJioBa ne pacxo- 
AflXCH c AGJiOM. His words and 
deeds are never at variance. 

3. to divorce. Paaouxiicb c MymeM 
(c JKeHOH). To divorce one's hus- 
band (one's wife). 

PBlATb, -y, -emb, -yx, past psaJi, 
pBaJia, pBaJi|o, -h imp. qxo? 

1. p. copBlaxb, -y, -emb, -yx to 
pick. PBaxb D;BexH. To pick flow- 

2. p. pasopBlaxb, -y, -emb, -yx to 
tear (up). PBaxb 6yMary, rasexy. 
To tear paper, a newspaper. \\ 
fig. to break off. PasopBaxb 
oxHomeHHH. To break off rela- 

PEBEHIOK m., gen. -Ka; pi pe6Hxa & 
AexH; gen. peSax & AexeH child 
SAopoBMH pe5eH0K. A healthy 

PEBOJlIOI^HOHHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He 

1. revolutionary. PeBOJiK)i;n6HHoe 
paSonee ABHJKeHHe. The revolu- 
tionary working-class movement. 
PeBOJiFOUHOHHan xeopna. A re- 
volutionary theory. 

2. revolutionary. PeBOJiKmHOHHoe 
pasBHXHe. The revolutionary de- 

PEBOJIIDI^HH f. revolution 




PFi/^KIHfl, -an, -oe, -He; adu. pe^Ko; 
comp. peme 

1. (ant. rycTdfi) thin. P^AKHe b6- 
jiocH. Thin hair. Pe;5KHH Jiec. 
A thin wood. 

2. (ant. qacTo) rare, seldom. PeflKO 
6oJieTb. To be seldom ill. 

3. rare. PeAKHe MexdjiJiH. Rare 
metals. PcAKan KHHra. A rare 
book. PeflKHH cjiyqan. A rare case. 

P£3ATb, pe)K|y, -enib, -yi imp. hto? 

1. onZ?/ imp. to cut. Ho>K nJi6xo 
peJKCT. The knife cuts badly. 

2. p. oTpeaaTb, 0Tpe>K|y, -emb, -yx 
to cut. Peaaxb xJie6 ho}k6m. To cut 
bread with a knife. Oxpeaaxb 
KycoK xjie6a. To cut off a slice 
of bread. 

3. p. paapeaaxb, paapejKly, -enib, -yx 
to cut, to carve. Paapeaaxb Kypn- 
uy. To carve the chicken. 

P£3K|Hfl[, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
peaoK, pesKa, pe3K|o, -h 

1. shrill. PeBKHH sbjtk. A shrill 
sound. PesKHH rojioc. A shrill voice. 

2. harsh. Pcskhh qeJioeeK. A harsh 
person. Oh 6mji peaoK co bc^mh. 
He was harsh to everybody. 

3. adv. abruptly, suddenly. IIoeaA 
peBKO ocxaHOBHncH. The train 
stopped suddenly. 

PESyjlbTAT m. result 

PeayjibxaxH 6nMX0B. The results of 
experiments. IIoJiyHHXb xopomne 
peayjibxaxBi. To get good results. 
^ocxHHb xopomnx peayJibxaxoB. To 
achieve good results. 
O- B peayjibTfixe. As a result. 

PEKA /., ace. pcKy, pi. peKH, peK, 
peKaM, etc. river 

ninpoKaH peKa. A wide river. 
riJiuxb no peK6. To sail along the 
river. Ha 6epery peKH. On the river 

PEMOHT m., no pi. repair 

PcMOHX 66yBH. Shoe repairs. Ox- 
flaxb B peMOHX. To have (something) 
repaired. C^^Jiaxb peMOHX KBapxH- 
pu. To redecorate one's flat. 

PECHtmA /. eyelash 

JljiwBHue pecHHULi. Long eyelashes. 

PECn^BJHKA /. republic 

PECTOPAH m. restaurant 

06eflaxb b pecxopane. To have din- 
ner at a restaurant. 

PEI^EnX m. prescription 

Hanac^xb peq^nx. To write out a 
prescription. IloJiyHHXb jieK^pcxBO 
no peu6nxy. To have a prescription 
made up. 

PEH|b /., gen. pi. -6h 

1. speech. HtHBan penb. Living 

2. speech. Bucxynaxb c p^qbio. To 
make a speech. 

-^Peib HABT o TOM, (iToSbi)... The 
point is... 05 3tom hb MdHcex 6biTb 
H pe«iH. It is out of the question. 
PEinA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. qxo? 
& -f- inf. I p. pein|Hxb, -y, -nmb, -dx 

1. to decide. Mu pemHJin noHxn b 
KHHO. We decided to go to the 
cinema. On peuiHJi ^xaxb. He 
decided to go. 

2. to solve. Pemaxb aaflany. To 
solve a problem. Pemaxb B^HCHbie 
Bonpocbi. To solve important 

PEfflEHHE neut. 

1. decision. IIpdBHJibHoe pem^HHe. 
The right decision. IlpHHHXb pe- 
mcHHe. To take a decision. 

2. solution. PemeHHe BawHOH npo- 
6JieMM. The solution of an impor- 
tant problem. 

PEinflTb see PEfflATb 
PHC m., no pi. rice 

ypowaH pHca. Rice crops. Mhco c 

PHCOM. Meat and rice. 
PHC|0B.4Tb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp. 

K r 6? H X o? H e M? / /?. napHCjo- 

Baxb, -yro, -yemb, -yiox to draw 

PHCOB^xb KapaHAam6M na 6yMare. 

To draw with a pencil on paper. 

PncoB^xb ;^0M. To draw a house. 
POBH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv. p6BH0 

1. smooth. PoBHaH flop6ra. A level 
road. IlHc^xb poBHO. To write a 
smooth hand. 

2. fig. smooth, equable. P6bhhh 
r6jioc. A smooth voice. Pobhuh 
xapfiKxep. An equable temper. 

3. adv., used as particle sharp. H 
npHAy poBHO B xpH. ril come at 
three sharp. 

POJ^ m., pi. poflw, poHOB 

1. prepos. B pofly family, kin 

2. prepos. b pofly birth, stock, ori- 
gin; generation 

3. sort, kind. BcHKoro p6Aa. All 
kinds of. 





<^ B CBoeM p5Ae. In its (his, her, 
etc.) way. Ht6-to b otom poffe. 

Something of the sort. 

POJ^HHA /., no pi. mother country 
SamHxa poAHHH. The defence of 
one's mother country. TKhtl na p6- 
flHHe. To live in one's country. 
IlHCbMO c poAHHH. A letter from 
one's mother country. 

POJ^flTEJI|H no sing., gen. -gh par- 

IIoMoraTb poAHTejiHM. To help one's 
parents. H^htb c poAHiejiflMH. To 
live with one's parents. 

POAlflTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -htch imp. 

& p., past -HJICfl, -HJllaCb, -OCb, -HCb 

& -HJijacb, -OCb, -HCb {only p.) 

1. to be born. H poflHJicH b 1930 
^o;^y. / was born in 1930. 

2. fig. to occur. V mchh po^HJiacb 
HACfl. An idea occurred to me. 

POOTlOfl, -aH, -6e, -He 

1. related by blood or affinity. Poa- 
HOH 6paT. A brother. PoAnaa 
TCTKa. An aunt. 

2. native. Poahoh Kpan. Native 
land. Poahoh hswk. Mother 

3. used as n., pi. PoAHue. Rela- 

POACTBEHHHK m. relation 

jJaJibHHH poACTBeHHHK. A distant 
relation. Bjihskhh poACTBeHHHK. A 
near relation. 

POMC^EHHE neut. birth 

^eHb pojKAeHHH. One's birthday. 


Many happy returns of the day. 

P03A /. rose 

Kpacnan posa. A red rose. ByK^x 
po3. A bunch of roses. 

P030B|blfl, -aH, -oe, -He pink 
PoaoBoe njiaxbe. A pink dress. 

POJlb /., pi. pojiH, pojieH part 

BnyHHTb pojib. To learn one's part. 
HrpaTb pojib raMJieia. To play the 
part of Hamlet. 

^ HrpaTb BawHyio pojib (b 
^eM-Jli^6o). To play an important 
part (in something). 3to He erpa- 
CT pojiH. This is of no conse- 

POMAH m. novel 

McTopHHecKHH poMaH. An historical 
novel. OnyCJiHKOBaxb poM^H. To 

publish a novel. Anxop poMana. The 
author of a novel. 
POCT m. 

1. growth. PocT pacxeHHH. The 
growth of plants 

2. growth. PocT ropoAOB. The 
growth of cities. Pocx npoMHin- 
jieHHOCXH. The growth of in- 

3. stature, ^cjiobok bhcokofo poc- 
xa, cpeAHero pocxa, HHSKoro 
pocxa. A person of large stature, 
of medium stature, of small stat- 

POT m., gen. pxa, prepos. bo pxy 

Bo pxy OH AepJK^Ji nannpocy He 
had a cigarette in his mouth. 

POHJIb m. (grand) piano 

Hrpaxb Ha poaJie. To play the piano. 

PYBAmiKA /., gen. pL -ck shirt; 

BeJiaa pySaraKa. A white shirt. 
HoHudH pyS^mna. A nightgown, 
a night shirt. 

PyBJl|b m., gen. -a rouble 

J^sa pySJia. Two roubles. Ilaxb 
pySJieH. Five roubles. B py6Jie cxo 
KoneeK. A rouble contains one hund- 
red copecks. 

<> He HMefi CTO pySjiefi, a hmgh 
CTO Apysefi (proverb). It's better to 
have a hundred friends than a hund- 
red roubles. 

pyrA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. kofo? 
3 a H X 6? / p. o6pyraIxb, -lo, -emb, 
-lox to scold 

MaJib^HKa pyr^JiH aa njioxoe no- 
BeACHHe. The boy was scolded for 
bad behaviour. 

PYK A /., ace. pyny; pi. pyKH pyK, 
pyKaM, etc. hand, arm 
JleBaa pyKa. The left hand (arm). 
IIpaBaa pyna. The right hand (arm). 
^epHcaxb B pyKe. To hold in one's 
hand. Oh nowaji en pyny h ymeji. 
He shook hands with her and left. 
^ HMeTb sojioTue pyKH. To be 
master of one's work. Macxep ea Bce 
pyKH. J ack-of -all-trades. ^epKcaxb 
ce6a B pyKax. To control oneself. 
BpaTb ceSa b pyKH. To pull oneself 
together. Hath noA pyKy* To walk 
arm-in-arm. BpaTb noA pyKy. To 
take somebody's arm. PyKofi noAaTb. 
It's a stone's throw (from here) 




MaxHyxb pyKOH na Kor6-jiH6o, 
HTO-JifiSo. To give up somebody, 
something. 3to b namiix pyKax. 
It is in our hands. BpaTb b cboh 
pvKU. To take into one's hands. 
BbiTb 6e3 Kor6-JiH6o, nero-JiHSo 
KaK 6e3 pyK. To be quite helpless 
without somebody, something. 

PYKAB m., gen. -a sleeve 

KopoTKHe pyKSBa. Short sleeves. 

pyKOBOAflTEJlb m. leader 

PyKOBOIAflTb, -jKy, -flHinb, -flax 
imp. K e M? q e M? to direct, to 
run, to lead 

FyKOBOjiHTb paSoTOH. To direct the 
work. FyKOBOjtHTb JiioflbMH. To lead 
people. PyKOBO;^HTb aaBOAOM. To 
run a plant. 

PycCKIHH, -aH, -oe, -ne 

1. Russian. PyccKHH napoA- The 
Russian people. PyccKaa npapo- 
;^a. The Russian countryside. 
PyccKHH H3MK. The Russian 

2. used as n. Russian. Mm pyccKHe. 
We are Russians. 

P5^M|KA /., gen. pi. -eK 

1. handle. PyqKa ABepn. A door- 

2. pen. ITHcaxb pyqKOH. To write 
with a pen. 

PL'IBA /. 

1. fish. B aKBapnyMe njiaBaJiH paa- 
Hwe pmSh. Various fishes were 
swimming in the aquarium. 

2. collective fish. JIoBHXb pwCy. To 
catch fish. 

3. collective fish. }KapeHaH pmSa. 
Fried fish. 

<> Hii pwGa HH Mnco. Neither 
fish nor flesh. 
Pb'IHlOK m., gen. -na 

1. market. Kojixoshwh pwHOK. A 
collective- farm market. IlpoflaBaTb 
$pyKTbi Ha pbiHKe. To sell fruit 
in a market. 

2. market. MnpoBoa pwHOK. The 
world market. 

PHfl m., prepos. o (b) pHAe & b pHAy; 
pi. pflAM 

1. row. PflA AOMOB. A row of houses. 
Pha JiiOAeH. A line of people. 
riepBUH pHA napT^pa. The 
first row of the stalls. CHAeib B 
n^pBOM pflAY- To sit in the first 

2. a number (of). Oh npHBeji u6- 
JiuH pflA npHMepoB. He gave 
quite a number of examples. B 
paAe cjiy^aeB axo xaK. In a num- 
ber of cases it is so. 

<> BbiTb b nepBbix pnA^x. To be 

in the forefront. 

PHAOM adv. 

1. nearby. MaraawH naxoAHxcH pa- 
AOM. The shop i9 nearby. 

2. by. Gxofixb phaom c CpaxoM. To 
stand by one's brother. 

C, c 

C prep. 

I. -i-gen. 

1. otf, from. BsHXb KHwry c dojikh. 
To take a book off the shelf. 

2. from. Bepnyxbcfl c paSoxbi. To 
come back from work. 

3. from. C yxpa ao Benepa. From 
morning till evening. G pannax 
Jiex. From one's early years. 

4. from. IlepeBecxH c pyccKoro 

H3HKa Ha (J)paHHy3CKHH. To 

translate from Russian into 

II. -[- instr. 

1. with. HejiOBCK c nopx(|)eJieM. A 
man with a brief-case. Bpax g 
cecxpoH. The brother and the 
sister. ToBopMXb c ApysbHMH. To 
speak to one's friends. Bcxp6- 
xHXbCH c xoBapHni;aMH. To miet 
one's friends. 

2. with, and. K6$e c mojiokom. Cof- 
fee and milk. 

3. with. Pa66xaxb c yAOBOJibcxBHCM. 
To work with pleasure. GMOxpexb 
4)H;ibM c HHxepecoM. To see a 
film with interest. 

CAJ^ m., prepos. b caAy &■ o caAe; pi. 
caAu garden 

JI^OM cxoflJi B caAy. The house stood 
in a garden. (PpyKXOBUH caA- An 
orchard. BoxaHH4ecKHH caA- Botan- 
ical garden. 
<> AcTCKHH caA.yl kindergarten. 

CAlJ^flTBCH, -Htycb, -AwnifcCH, -ahxch 

imp. K y A a? & + inf. I p. cecxb, 

CHAly. -emb, -yx, past ceJi, -a, -o, -h 

1. to sit down. CaAWTbCH na cxyji. 

To sit down on a chair. Gecxb 3a 

cxoji. To sit down to table. 




2. to get on, in. CaflHTbcn b noes^, 
B aBTOModHJib. To get on a train, 
in a motor-car. 

3. to set (to work). GecxB sa pa66- 
Ty. To set to work. 

4. to set. CojiHi^e caAHTca. The sun 
is setting. 

CAHCAlTb, -H),^ -eniB, -k)t koto? 
HTO? Ky^a? imp. I p. nocaAWTb, 
nocajKy, nocaAHoiB, nocaAHx 

1. to put, to place. IIocaAaTb dth- 
ny B KJiexKy. To put the bird 
into a cage. 

2. to plant. GajKaxb i^Bexti. To 
plant flowers. 


1. lettuce. GBe?KHH caJiax. Fresh 

2. salad. CaJiax h3 orypi^oB, h3 no- 
MHAopoB. A cucumber salad, a 
tomato salad. 

CAJI<DET|KA /., gen. pi. -ok napkin 
Hacxan caJi^exKa. A clean napkin. 
ByMawnaH caJi^exKa. A paper nap- 
kin. IIoJibaoBaxBca caJi$exK0H. To 
use a napkin. 

CAM, caMa, caMO, caMH pron. 

1. myself, yourself, himself, herself, 
itself, ourselves, yourselves, them- 
selves. He HaAO MHe noMoraxb, a 
caM Bce CAeJiaio. Don't help me, 
ril do everything myself. 

2. myself, yourself, himself, her- 
self, itself, ourselves, your- 
selves, themselves. Oh caM roBO- 
pHJi o5 3X0M. He himself told 
me that. 

CAMOJ],£HTEJIbHOCTI> /., no pi. 
amateur talent activities 
XyAOJKecxBeHHaH caMOAenxeJib- 

Hocxb. Amateur theatricals. Be^ep 
caMOAeaxeJibHOCXH. An amateur 

'CAMOJIET m. aeroplane 

Jlexexb na caMOJiexe. To go by air. 
PeaKXHBHBiH caMOJiex. A jet plane. 

CAMOOBCJiyaCHBAHHE neut. self- 

CaMoo6cjiyHtHBaHHe b cxojioboh. 
Self-service in a cafeteria. MaraaHH 
caMOo6cJiyH<HBaHHH. A self-service 

CAMOCTOHTEJlbHIblfl, -an, -oe, 
-He; adv. caMocxoaxejibHO indepen- 
dent, self-dependent 
CaMOCxoflxeJibHafl pa66xa. Inde- 

pendent work. GaMOcxoaxeJibHHH ^e- 
JiOBCK. A self-dependent person. 
}KHXb caMOCxoflxeJibHO. To live in- 
dependently. Oh caMOcxoHxeJibHO 
Hsy^aex pyccKHH hbhk. He studies 
Russian by himself. 
CAMIblfl, -aa, -oe, -He pron. 

1. the very. 3xo KHiira, Koxopyio 
XH HCKaJi? — ^a, 3X0 xa caMaa 
KHHra. "/5 this the book you 
were looking for?" "Yes, that's 
the very book." 

2. very. Maraaan naxoAHXca b ca- 
MOM KOHue yjiHHH. The shop is 
at the very end of the street, fl 
3Haji 3X0 c caMOro naqaJia. / 
knew it from the very start. 

3. most. CaMHH xopomna. The 
best. GaMBiii KpaCHBHH ropo^. 
The most beautiful city. ' 

<> B caMOM ACJie, oh npae. As a 
matter of fact, he is right. Mm 
AyMEJiH, OH 66jieH, a na eaMOM 
ACJie OH SAopoB. We thought he 
was ill, but in fact he is all right. 
CAXAP m. sugar 

KnjiorpaMM caxapa. A kilogramme 
of sugar, ^an c caxapoM. Tea with 

CBOPHHK m. collection 

GGopuHK cxaxeH. A collection of 

CBAjUbBA /., gen. pi. CBaAeS wed- 

Becejiaa CBaA^Sa. A merry wedding. 
Bhxb Ha CBaAbSe. To be present at 
a wedding. ilpasAHOBaxb cBaAb6y. 
To celebrate one's wedding. 
<> J^o cBaAb6bi saHfiiBCT (proverb). 
It'll have healed before your wed- 

CBAPflTb see BAPflTb 

CBE3K|Hfl, -aa, -ee, -ne, short forni 
CBejK, cBewa, CBe>K|e, -h; adv. cBemo 

1. fresh. GBe>Kee mfico. Fresh meat. 
CBe>KHe HBexH. Fresh flowers. 
GBemne ApyKXH. Fresh fruit. 
GBe>KHe OBO^^H. Fresh vegeta- 

2. fresh. Gbcjkhh BoSAyx. Fresh air. 
Ha CBeHteM BOSAyxe. In the fresh 

3. cool. GBeJKee yxpo. A cool morn- 
ing. I predic. impers. GerOAHH 
CBewoI It's cool today/ 




4. fresh. Cb^jkhg raaexH. Fresh 

<^ BpaTbCH 3a paSoTy co ceeHcnMii 
CHnaMH. To tackle the work with 
renewed strength. 

CBEPKA|Tb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -ex, -K)t imp. / p. CBepK- 
hIvtl, 7s/ & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -ex, -yx to flash, to 

B He6e CBepKHyjia mojihhh. Light- 
ning flashed in the sky. Mope csep- 
KaJio. The sea was sparkling. 


CBEPXy adv, 

1. oxKyfla? from ahove. Ceepxy 
ynfiji KaMeHb. A stone fell from 
above. CMOxpexfc csepxy bhh3. 
To look down. 

2. Tjie? on the surface. JKnp njia- 
Baex CBepxy. Fat floats on the 

CBETi m., no pi. 

1. light. CojiHGHHUH CBex. Sun- 

2. light. Samemy cBex. To switch on 
the light. IIoracHXB cbbx. To 

■ switch off the light. IIocMOxpexL 
Ha CBex. To look (at something) 
against the light. Hnxaxb npn 
CBexe jiaMDH. To read by lamp- 
<» yqeHbe — cbbt, a Heyqenbe — 
TbMa (proverb). Cf. He that ne- 
glects learning in his youth, loses 
the past and is dead for the fu- 
CBET2 m., no pi. world 

riyxeniecxBHe BOKpyr csexa. A jour- 
ney round the world. 
CBETflTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. CBexHX, CBexflX 
CojiHixe flpKO CBex MX. The sun is 
shining brightly. 
CBl^TJl|bIfl[, -an, -oe, -He; adv. CBexjio 

1. light. GBexjian KOMHaxa. A light 
room. I predic. impers. Ha yjiHii;e 
CBexjio. It is light in the street. 

2. light. Cbcxjiuh kocxiom. A light 

3. fig. lucid. CBexjiHH yM, CBexjiaa 
roJiOBa. A lucid mind. 

CBHA'^HHE neut. appointment, meet- 
Haxh Ha CBHfldHHe. To go to keep 

an appointment. HasH^HHXb CBHAd- 
HHe. To make an appointment. 
<> flo CBnAaHnn! Good-bye/ J^o 
CKoporo cbma^hhh! See you soon/ 

1. only sing, freedom. BopbCa 3a CBO- 
66fly. Struggle for freedom. 3aB0e- 
Baxb CBoGoAy. To win freedom. 

2. freedom. CBo66;;a cjiosa. The 
freedom of speech. CBo66;^a ne- 
qaxH. Freedom of press. 

CBOBO^Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form cBo66;teH, CBo66AH|a, -o, -h; 
adv. CBo66flHO 

1. free. CBo66flHHH Hapo;^. A free 

2. only complete form free of charge. 
Cbo66ahhh bxoa. Free admis- 

3. adv. fluently. H CBo66flHO roBopi^ 
no-anrjiBHCKH. / speak English 

4. vacant. CBo66AHoe Mecxo. A va- 
cant seat. 3to Mecxo CBoSoflHO? 
Is this seat vacant? 

5. free. CBoSoAHoe BpeMH. Free time. 
CeroflHfl BeqepoM a CBo66AeH. 
/ am free tonight. 

CBOB, CEOH, CBoe, cboh pron. one's 

fl HAy K CBoeMy xoeapHmy. / am 
going to my friend's. Oh naACJi 
cboh kocxiom. He put on his suit. 
H npocHJi xoBapnnia npHnecxH mhb 
CBOK) KHHry. I asked my friend to 
bring me his book. 
CBOflCTBO neut. property 
CBflSATb see CBH3bIBATb 
CBH3bIBA|Tb, -K>, -emb, -rox imp, 
Koro? Hxo? c KCMPcqe m?/ 
p. cBflsaxb.cBHHty.cBHHcemb, CBHmyr 

1. to tie together. CBHsaxb OAny 
BepeBKy c ApyroH. To tie one 
rope to another. 

2. fig. to involve. 3xo CBHsano c 
6ojibmHMH xpyAHOCxflMH. This 
involves great difficulties. 

CBfl3b /. 

1. tie. VKpenjiflxb cbhsh c napoAa- 
MH Bcex cxpaH. To strengthen 
the ties with the peoples of alt 

2. communication. Tejierpd^nan 
CBHBb. Telegraph communication. 

3. connection. 

•<> B CBH3H C TeM, <ITO... In 





connection with... B cbhsh c 9thm... 

In this connection... 
CrOPfiTb see TOPETB 
C;^A|BATb, -K), -eiuL, -K)T imp. hto?/ 

p. CflQTL, CflHM, Cflanib, CflaCT, 

c;iaAHM, cflaflHTe, cffaAyx, past 
Cflaji, -a, cflajijo, -h 

1. to return. CASTb KHHry b 6h6- 
jiHOTeKy. To return the book to 
the library. 

2. to let. CflaBaib flany, KOMHaiy. 
To let a summer cottage, a room. 

3. to take. CAaBaib aKsaMenH. To 
take examinations. 


CJ^AHA /., no pi. change 

Ilojiy^HTb cflaiy. To get some 
change. Jlaxb 10 KoneeK ca^hh. To 
give 10 copecks change. 


C;^EPH^ATL see JJElHCATb, 2 

CEBH pron., no ncm.\ gen., ace. ccCh, 
dat., prepos. ce6e, instr. co66h 
myself, yourself, himself, herself, 
itself; ourselves, yourselves, them- 

IlpHrjiacHTb K ce6e ^omoh. To in- 
vite to one's place. B ;aop6ry h 
BBHJi c co66h MbiJio, nojioTeni^e 
H syCnyio meiKy. / took soap, a 
towel, and a toothbrush with me on 
my trip. PaGoTaTb y ce6fl flOMa. To 
work at home. 

-<> HHTaxb npo ceCn. To read to 
oneself. Buhtb h3 ccGh. To be 
beside oneself. UpiiiiTH b ce6fl. To 
come to one's senses. 

CEBEP m., no pi. 

i. north. CaMOJiex jieTHT na cesep. 
The plane is flying northward. 
K ceBepy ox Her6-JiH6o. North 
of some place. 
2. north. JKbxb na ceBepe. To live 
in the North. 

C£BEPH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He north(ern) 
CeBepHUH Bexep. A north wind. 
CeBepHUH nojiioc. The North Pole. 

CEPOOTH [-bo-] adv. today 

GeroAHH Syaex ao>kjii>- ^^ ^Hl fc^^n 
today. CeroAHH yxpoM. This morn- 
ing. CeroflHH BeqepoM. Tonight. 

CErOAHflmillHfl, -Ra, -ee, -He to- 

CeroAHflmHflfl rasexa. Today's news- 

CEJ^10B[, -an, -6e, -He, short form ce^, 
ce^a, ce^H 

1. grey. CeflHe bojioch. Grey hair. 

2. grey-haired. CeAOH cxapHK. A 
grey-haired old man. 

CEHHAC arfy. 

1. now. CeHH^c h qyBcxByio ce6fl 
xopomo. Now I feel well. Cen- 
^ac HAex ypoK. A lesson is in 
progress now. 

2. right now. H cenqac npH^y. 
I'll come right now Gen^ac me 
HAH ciOAa! — CeHHac! ''Come 
here at once/" "Just a mo- 

CEKPETAP|b m., gen. -A secretary 

CEK^HAA /. second 

^Be ceKyHAH, naxb ceKyHA. Two 

seconds, five seconds. 

<^ Chio CBKyHAy! Just a moment/ 

CEJlO neut., pi. cejia village 

CEJlbCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -He country, 

CejibCKafl MecxHOCXb, Country local- 
ity. CejibCKan }KH3Hb. Country life. 
CejibCKHH Bpan. A country doctor. 
•<> CejibCKoe xo3flHCTBO. Agricul- 

CEMbH /., pi. ceMbH, ceMen family 
^pyjKHaH ceMbH. A united family. 
y MCHH 6ojTbmafl ceMba. / have a 
large family. 

CEHTUBPIb m., gen. -A September 
3aBxpa Dflxoe ceHxaCpji. Tomorrow 
is the fifth of September. B cen- 
Xfl6pe y nac enie xenjio. It is still 
warm in September in our parts. 

CEPAEHHiblH, -an, -oe, -ne, short 
form cepAeqeH, cepAeHH|a, -o, -h; 
adv. cepAeqno cordial 
IlepeAaxb cepAennHH npHBex. To 
give one's warmest regards. CepAeH- 
HHH npneM, cepAeHHan oScxanoBKa. 
A cordial reception, a cordial at- 

CEP;i;flT|blfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
cepAHX, -a, -o, -h; adv. cepAHXo 

CepAHXHH qeJiOBCK. An angry per- 
son. H cepAHX na nero. / am angry 
with him. CepAHXHH BarJiHA- An 
angry look. 

CEPJ^flTbCH, cepjKycb, cepAHmbCH, 
cepAHxcH imp. h a k o r 6? 
Ha mo? I p. paccepAHXBCfl, 




paccepwycb, paccep/iHinbCfl, pac- 
cepAHTCfl to be angry 
He cep^HCbl Don't be angry! Maxb 
paccep;(HJiacb na cwHa aa ono3Aa- 
HHe. The mother was angry with 
her son for being late. 
C£POT|E neut., pi. -a, cepAei^, cepA^aM, 

1. heart. V nero dojibHoe cep^i^e. 
He has a bad heart. 

2. fig. heart. Oh aaMeqaieJibHtiH 
qejiOBeK, y nero aojioxoe cepAi;e. 
He is a wonderful man, he has a 
heart of gold. 

<> IIosApaBJiflTb OT Bcero cepAUA' 
To congratulate with all one's heart. 
FoBopHTb OT HHCToro cepwa. To 
speak from the bottom of one's 
heart. V mbhh ee jicwht k oTOMy 
cepnue. / have no liking for this. 

CEPEA0HA /. middle 

CepeAHHa Kpyra. The centre of a 
circle. B cepeAwne Jieca. In the 
middle of the forest. GepeAHHa Jie- 
Ta. The middle of the summer. 

C£P|bIfl, -an, -08, -He grey 

GepuH KOCTioM. A grey suit (cos- 
tume). Cepue rjiaaa. Grey eyes. 

CEPbE3H|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form cepheaen, cepbe3H|a, -o, -h; 
adu. cepbeano 

1. serious. GepbesHHH HeJioeeK. A 
serious person. 

2. serious. GepbeBHan Knnra. A se- 
rious book. GepbesHaa MysHKa. 
Serious music. GepbliauHH paa- 
roBop. A serious talk. Gepbeauo 
3a,"yMaTbrH. To think seriously. 

3. serious. Gepbeaeoe nojioweHHe. A 
serious situation. GepbcanaH 6o- 
Jieaub. A serious illness. 

CECTPA /., pi cecipw, cecxep, cecxpaM, 

1. sister. Gxapraafl cecxpa. Elder 
(eldest) sister. MJiaAmaa cecxpa. 
Younger (youngest) sister. Poa- 
HaH cecxpa. A sister. /],BOi6poAHaH 
cecxpa. A cousin. 

2. nurse. MeAHmiHCKaH cecxpa. A 
(hospital) nurse. 

CECTb see CAAflTbCH 

CE|HTb, -K), -euib, -lox imp. q x o?/ 
p. noce|flXb, -K), -emb, -lox to sow 
GcHXb omeHHqy, KyKypyay. To 
sow wheat, maize. 

CaeE^b see aCEHb 


1. adv. behind. Oh men csaAH. He 
was walking behind. 

2. prep. -{-gen. behind. GaaAH AOMa 
6hji caA. There was a garden be- 
hind the house, fl chacji caaAH 
mo(J)epa. / was sitting behind the 

CHIflETb, -my, -Anmb, -ahx imp. 


1. to sit. GiiAGTb HaAHBane, na cxy- 
Jie. To sit on the divan, on a chair. 

2. to stay. I^eJiHH A^Hb oh CHAeji 
OAHH. He stayed at home alone 
the whole day. 

<> CiiAexb Ha raee y Kor6-jift6o. 
To be on somebody's hands. CBflfitb 
CJio»<a pyKu. To sit idle. 
CflJIA /. 

1. strength. HejioBeK 6ojibm6H $h- 
3HiecK0H CHjiH. A man of great 
physical strength. 

2. power. GiiJia cjioBa. The power of 
the word. CnJia npHBUiKH. Force 
of habit. 

3. usu. pi. forces. BoopymeHHHe ch- 
JIH. The armed forces. Ghjih mh- 
pa H nporpecca. The forces of 
peace and progress. 

4. force. CHJia xfiwecxn. Force of 

<> EeHcaxb nao Bcex cn;i. To run 
as fast as one can. J^eJiaxb qTO- 
jih6o qepea CHJiy. To force one- 
self to do something, fl ne b 
CHJiax CAGJiaTb 3T0. / am unable 
to do that. 3to CBUine mohx chji. 
This is beyond my powers. Mhc 6to 
He noA CHJiy. this is beyond my 
powers. 3to b Hamiix CHJiax. We 
are able to do that. 
GflJIbH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 

adv. CHJIbHO 

1. strong, powerful. Cwnbuuu qejioj 
BeK. A strong man. Ghjii>hhh 
BapHB. A powerful explosion. 
GHJibHO yAapHXb. To hit a heavy 
blow. I fig. Ero penb npoHSsejia Ha 
MCHH cHJibHoe BncHaxJieHHe. His 
speech made a strong impression 
on me. Y Hero CHJibnaa bojih. 
He is a man of strong will. 

2. loud, severe. GnJibHHH myM. A 
loud noise. GnJibHHH Mopos. Se- 
vere frost. 





CflHintt, -Hfl, -ee, -He blue 

CHHee Mope. Blue sea. CnHne rjia- 
3a. Blue eyes. 

CHPOTA m. & /., pi. CHpoTH orphan 
Oh ocxajicfl cnpoTon. He became 
an orphan. 

<> KpyrjiWH CBp«Ta. A complete 

CKA3ATb see TOBOPflTb 

CKA3|KA /., gen. pi. -ok fairy-tale 
Hap6ji;HBie CKasKH. Folk tales. 

CKAMElflKA /., gen. pi. -bk bench 
CuAeTb na CKaMCHKe. To sit on a 

CKATEPT|B /., gen. pi. -m table- 

BeJiaH CKaTepiB. A white table- 
cloth. riocTejiHTb CKaxepTB, To 
spread a table-cloth. Gtoji noKpHT 
KpacHBOH CKaxepTbio. The table is 
covered with a beautiful table-cloth. 

CKBEP m. public garden 

B CKsepe nrpajin ji;eTH. Children 
were playing in the public garden. 

CKB03b prep, -j- ace. through 

CKBOSb jiHCTBy 6biJio BHAHO He6o. 
The sky was visible through the fo- 


najibi^bi. To close one's eyes to 

CK0JIb3K|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne; adv. 
CKOJibSKO slippery 
GKOJibSKHH noji. A slippery floor. 
\predic. impers. Ha yjiHn,e cKOJibSKO. 
It is slippery outside. 

CKOJIbKO how much, how many 
GKOJibKO qeJiOBBK npHffljio? How 
many people have come? GKOJibKO 
CTOHT 3Ta KHiira? How much is this 
book? GKOJibKO BpeMeHH? What time 
is it? GKOJibKO BaM Jiex? How old 
are you? ITocMOTpHTe, CKOJibKO 
3Aecb KpacHBWX i^BeTOB! Look what 
a lot of beautiful flowers there are 


As many men, as many minds. 

1. comp. of adv. cKopo 

2. adv. rather, sooner. Oh CKopee 
yMpeT, ^eM npnanaeT cbok) 
oiiiH6KyI He will rather die than 
admit his mistake! 

<0' CKopee Bcero axo thk. Most 
likely it is true. 


CKOPO adv., comp. CKopee soon 

GKopo HacxynHT Becna. Spring 

will come soon. H. CKopo npn^y. 

I'll come soon. npHxo^H CKopee! 

Come sooner! KaK moh^ho CKopee. 

As soon as you can. 
CKOPOCTb /. speed 

Exaxb c SojibmoH CKopocxbio. To 

drive at a high speed. 

CKOPlblfl, -an, -oe, -He 

1. fast. GKopHH noesji,. A fast train. 
GKopaH noMomb. First aid. 

2. soon. ^0 CKopoH Bcxpe^n! See 
you soon! J\o CKoporo cBHflaHHfl! 
See you soon! 

CKPflniKA /., gen. pi. -ok violin 
Hrpaxb na CKpiiUKe. To play the 

CKPOMHIbia, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 


1. modest. Ckpomhhh qeJiOBCK. A 
modest person. GKpoMUO Becxii 
ce6H. To behave modestly. 

2. moderate. GKpoMHbie ycnexii. 
Moderate success. 

CKPbIBA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. 
nxo? ox Koro? ox Her 6?/ 
p. CKpHxb, CKpolK), -emb, -K)X to 

GKpHBaxb BsrJiHAH. To conceal 
one's views. Oh CKptiBaex, hxo nii- 
mex cxHXii. He conceals the fact 
that he writes poetry. 

CKPblBAITbCH, -locb, -embcH, -ioxch 
imp. r A e? ox k o r 6? / p. CKpnxb- 
cfl, cKp6|iocb, -embcfl, -ioxch 

1. only imp. to hide. GKpHBaxbCfl 
ox noJiHUiHH. To hide from the 

2. to escape. IIpecxynHHK ckplijich. 
The criminal escaped. 

3. to disappear. IIoesA ckplijich 
BAaJiH. The train disappeared in 
the distance. HejiOBeK CKpuJiCH 
3a yrJiOM. The man disappeared 
round the corner. 

CKPblTb see CKPblBATb 
CKPb'ITbCfl see CKPblBATbCIl 
CKYHAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. no 

K M y? no H e M y? to miss, to 

be lonesome 

GKynaxb no poAHxeJiHM. To miss 

one's parents. GKynaxb no ]x6uy. 

To be homesick. 




CKS'HHiblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
CKynen, cKy^Ha, CKy^Hlo, -h; adv. 


1. dull. CKyqHHH nejioBeK. A dull 

2. boring. CKyiHHU paaroBop. A 
boring conversation. 

3. adv., predic. impers. (to be) bored. 
Mne CKyHHO. / am bored. 

CJlAB|Llfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form 
cjia6, cjiaSa, cjia6|o, -h; adv. cJia6o 

1. weak. GJiaSHH nejiOBeK. A weak 
person. CJiaStiH y^ap. A feeble 
blow. GjiaSoe cep^iie. A weak 

2. fig. weak. Cjia6aH bojih. A weak 
will. CjiaSma xapaKxep. A weak 

<> 3to ero cjiaSoe mccto. It's his 
weak point. CjiaSaa uaj^emjia. 
A feeble hope. 

CJIABA /., no pi. fame; glory 

FpoMKan cjiaea. Great fame. K Heiny 
npHiujia CJiaea. He has become fa- 
mous. GJiaea noKopHTejiHM KOCMOcal 
Glory to the conquerors of Space! 

CJIABH|LIB[, -afl, -oe, -He fine, nice 
Oh cJiaBHHH napenb. He is a fine 

CJIA^KIHH, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
cjiaAOK, cjia^Ka, cjiaj];K|o, -h; adv. 
cjiaflKo; comp. cjiarqe sweet 
CJiaAKoe hSjioko. A sweet apple. 
CJiaAKHH Han. Sweet tea. \ fig. GJiajt- 
KaH yjiLiGKa. A sweet smile. 

CJIEBA adv. {cf. HAJIEBO, 2) to (on) 
the left 

GjieBa — OKHO, cnpaBa — ;iBepb. On 
the left is a window, on the right 
is a door. CJieBa ot MenH CH^eji 
MOH CTapHH j^pyr. On my left sat 
an old friend of mine. 

CJIEJ^ m., pi. cjieAH 

1. track. GjieflH na enery. Tracks 
on the snow. H^th no cjie;^aM. 
To follow in the tracks. 

2. gen. -a trace. Cjiej^H KpacKH. 
Traces of paint. 

3. fig. trace. CJie^H bohhh. The 
traces of the war. 

<> OcTHBHTb cjie^. To leave a 
trace. Hc^eanyTb 6e3 CJiefla. To dis- 
appear without leaving a trace. 
CJIE|/^flTb, -JKy, -j^Hinb, -aht imp. 

3a KCM? 3a HCM? 

1. to follow. GjieflHTb 3a ABH»eHHeM 

cnyxHHKa. To follow the move- 
ment of a satellite. 

2. to have an eye (on). GJieflHTb 
3a HOBHHKaMH jiHTepaxypH. To 
have an eye on the latest publi- 

3. to watch. Cjie^HTb 3a sparoM. 
To watch the enemy. 

CJifiAOBATEJIBHO conj. therefore, 


A paBHO B, cjiejtoBaxejibHO B paB- 

h6 A. A equals B, therefore B 

equals A. 
CJIEJ^yiOimHfl, -an, -ee, -ne next 

B cjiejtyioniHH paa. Next time. Ha 

cJie/tyioniiHH ;i;eHb. On the next day. 
CJIE3A /., pi. cJiesH, cjies, cJie3aM» 


1. t^r. no ee Jiimy xeKJin cjiesH. 
Tears were streaming down her 

2. pi. tears. ToBopiiTb cKB03b cJiesH. 
To speak through tears. 

<> OGmaho AG cjie3. It is enough 
to make one cry. CMeflTbCH flo 
cjiea. To laugh until one cries. 
GjiesaMH ropH) ho rioMOHcenii* 
(proverb). Cf. It's no use crying 
over spilt milk. 

CJIEniOfl, -afl, -oe, -ue blind 
CJienoH MaJibHHK. A blind boy. 

CJlflmKOM adv. too 

Th noemb cjiiimKOM rpoMKO. You 
are singing too loud. 
<> 3to (ywx) cjiumKOM! That's 
really too much! 

CJIOBAP|b m., gen. -A dictionary, vo- 

AHPJio-pyccKHH cJiOBapb. An Eng- 
lish-Russian dictionary. Op^orpa- 
^uqecKHH cjiOBapb. A spelling die- 
tionary. Tojikobhh cjiOBapb. An 
explanatory dictionary. 

CJIOBIO neut., pi. -a 

1. word. T^JiHHHoe cjiobo. A long 
word. Xopomne cjioBa. Good 

2. speech. CBoSoAa cjiOBa. Freedom 
of speech. 

3. only sing, remark. 3aKJii0HHTejib- 
Hoe CJIOBO. Concluding remarks. 
npcAOCTaBHTb CJIOBO. To give 
the floor. 

4. only sing. word. C^epjKaTb cjio- 
bo. To keep one's word, ^aib 




^ecTHoe CJIO BO. To give one's 
word of honour. 
5- word. PoMaHC na cjiosa Ilyin- 
KHHa. Romance, words by Push- 
•<> Ho cJioBaM 6paTa. According to 
one's brother, PaccKaaaxb cbo- 
HMH cjiOBaMH. To tell in one's own 
words. BepHTb Ha cjiobo... To 
take somebody's word for... 
CflCJiaTb no nocjieAHeMy cjio- 
ey HayKH h tcxhhkh. To do 
something according to the last 
word in science and technology. 
B jiByx cjiOBax. In a nutshell. 
CJlOHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ho, short form 
cJiojKGH, cjiojKHa, cji65Kh|o, -h; adv. 

1. complex. CJiojKHaH Mamima. A 
complex machine. 

2. complicated. CjiojKHaa aafla^ia. 
A complicated task. CjiojKHafl 
oScTanoBKa. Difficult situation. 
Bee 9T0 oieHb cjiojkho. This is 
all very complicated. 

CJIOH m., gen. -a elephant 
CJiyjKAIlilHfl m., gen. -ero employee 
CJiyjKflTb, cJiyjKy, cjiymnmb, cjiy- 
JKax imp. 

1. KOMy? neMy? to serve. GJiy- 
HtHTb Hapo^y. To serve one's 
people. CJiyJKHTb flejiy MHpa. To 
serve the cause of peace. 

2. r fl e? K e M? to serve, to work. 
CJiyjKHTb B apMHH. To serve in 
the army. CJiyJKHTb b 6aHKe. To 
work in a bank. CJiyjKHTb 3ko- 
HOMHCTOM. To work as an econ- 

3. q e M? to be. GJiyjKiiTb npHMe- 
poM AJiH flpypHX. To be an 
example for others. 

CJiyx m. hearing 

y pe6eHKa xopomnn cjiyx. The 
child has a good ear. MysMKaJib- 
HHH cjiyx. A good ear for music. 

CJI^HAfl m. incident 

GJiyHaii h3 h^hshh. An incident 
from life. 

<> HecqacTHbiH cjiy^afi. An acci- 
dent. Ha BCflKHH cjiy^aii a aa- 
HHcaji ero aflpec. / wrote down 
his address just in case. B ot- 
nejibHbix cJiy^aHx aro bo3m6h<- 


HO. In some cases it is possible. 
B TOM cjiy»iae, ecjin h 3a6o- 


case I fall ill, ring me up at 
home. IIh b kocm cjiy^iae. On 
no account. 

CJiy^AflHIBlfl, -an. -oe, -Me; adv. 
cjiy^aHHo accidental 
CJiy^aHHaa oraH6Ka. A slip, a for- 
tuitous mistake. CJiy^^aiiHO Bcxpe- 
THTbCii. To meet by accident. 

CJiyHAlTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch imp. 
c K e M?//). cJiyq|HTLCH, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch, 
-axcfl to happen 

Hto cjiyqHJiocb? What's happened? 
Go MHOH cjiyHHJiocb Hec^acTbe. / 
have had a misfortune. 

CJiyHflTbCH see CJiyHATbCfl 

CJiyiHAITb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp. ko- 
to? ^TO? 

1. to listen. BEHMaTCJibHO cjiymaxb 
MysHKy. To listen to music at- 

2. to attend. CJiymaxb jicki^hh 
(Kypc JieKn;Hii). To attend lec- 
tures (a course of lectures). 

3.: H cjiymaio! Hallo/ Yes! 

CJI^fflAITbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch 
imp. Koro? n e r 6? / /?. nocjiy- 
ma|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -iotch to 

Pe6eH0K He cjiymaexcH Maxepn. 
The child won't obey his mother. 
nocjiyraaficfl Menal Listen to me! 
Do as I tell you! 

CJIIiinilATb, -y, -Hmb, -ax imp. ko- 
to? q X 0? K 6 M? o q e m?/ 
p. ycjiMmlaxb, -y, -iimb, -ax ' 

1. to hear. Hjioxo cjibimaxb. To 
hear badly. H cjiwmy xe6a. / 
can hear you. 

2. to hear. Mw cJiLimaJiii o6 axoH 
HOBocxH. We heard about that 
news. Mh cJibimaJiH, ^xo oh npn- 
ACT 3aBxpa. We heard that he 
would come tomorrow. 

CJIb'IfflHO Koro? HTO? predic. 
impers. (it is) heard 
Mne He cjitimno xeSn. / can't hear 
you. S^ecb xopomo cJiHrnno. One 
can hear well here. 

CMEJIIblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
CMCJi, cMeJia, CMeJi|o, -bi; adv. CMe'jio 
1. brave. Gmcjimh HeJiOBCK. A brave 




man. J^eHCTBOsaTb CMeJio. To act 
2. jig. bold. CvieJioe pemeHHe. A 
hold decision. GMeJiaH Hflea. A 
hold idea. 

1. succession. CMena ahh h hohh. 
Succession of day and night. 

2. fig. successors. J^exH — name 
CMena. Children are our succes- 

3. shift. y^HTbCH B nepByio cmc- 
Hy. To go to school in the first 
shift. PaSoiaTb b ^tHeBnyio CMe- 
Hy. To work in the day shift. 

«0> npHHTH Ha CMGHy KOMy-JIH5o. 

To succeed (relieve) somebody. 

CMEPTb /., pi. CMepxH, CMepieH, 
CMepTHM, etc. death 
<^ IlacTb cMepTbH) repofl. To die 
the death of a hero. 3to Bonpoe 
HCHSHH II cMepTH. This is a 
question of life and death. Ha- 
floecTb a6 cMopTH. To bore to 

CMEX m., no pi. laughter 

TpoMKHH CMex. Loud laughter. 

<> IIOAHflTb Ha CMBX K0r6-JIH50. 

To make fun of somebody. 
CMEinH|Ofl[, -an, -6e, -we, short form 
CMemoH, CMemnla, -6, -u; adv. 

1. funny. CMemnoH paccKaa. A fun- 
ny story. 

2. ridiculous. On 6hji CMemon. He 
was ridiculous. 

3. predic. impers. (it is) funny. 
Mee CMeniHO. It makes me laugh. 

CMEIIlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch 
imp. HaflKCM? naff hgm? to 

Bee rpoMKO CMeaJincb. Everybody 
laughed loudly. H cmchjich Ha;^ CJio- 
BaMH 6paTa. / laughed at my broth- 
er's words. 

CMOTP^Tb, CMOxpio, CMOTpnnib, cm6t- 
pHT imp. qxo? or na KoroPna 
H T 6? BO H T 6? / /). nocMOTpeTb, 


1. to look. GMOTpexb na TOBapnma. 
To look at a friend. GMOTp^Tb 
B OKHO. To look out of the win- 

2. to see. CMOxpeib $HJibM. To see 
a film. GMOxpeTb cneKX^KJib. To 
see a performance. 

3. only imper. to look out. GMOxpn- 
(xe), He ono3aaH(xe)l Look out, 
don't you be late! 
•0- CMOTpexb CBbicoKa na Koro-jiA- 
6o. To look down on somebody. 
CMOTpexb cKBOSb Hajibi^bi (na ht6- 
jih6o). To close one's eyes (to some- 

CMOHb see MO^b 

CMYTflTbCH see (MYU\kThCR 

CMymAlTbCH, -Focb, -embCH, -roxcH 
imp. /p. CMylxjHXbCH, -mycb, -XHUib- 
CH, -xflxcfl to be embarrassed 
Oh B;;pyr oneHb CMyxHJicH, noKpac- 
HeJi. He was suddenly quite embar- 
rassed and flushed. 

CMblCJI m., no pi. meaning, sense 
noHHXb CMMCJi co5mxhh. To under- 
stand^ the meaning of events. B 
nojiHOM CMucjie cjiosa. In the true 
sense of the word. B np^MOM (ne- 
peHOCHOM) CMMCJie. In the literal 
(figurative) sense. B axoM Hex 
CMHCJia. There's no sense in that. 
Hex CMWcJia h^xh xy;^a. There is no 
sense in going there. 


1. at first. GHa^aJia h c xpyfl6M 
noHHxMaJi pyccKyio penb. At first 
I understood spoken Russian 
with difficulty. 

2. from the beginning. IToBxopHxe 
CHa^aJia. Repeat from the he- 
ginning. Hnxanxe cnanaJia! Read 
from the beginning! 

CHEF m., prepos. o cnere & b, na 
cnery snow 

GHJibHHH CHer. Heavy snow. Kpy- 
roM Bce B cnery. All around is 
covered with snow. Ha cnery 6ujni 
BHAHM cjieflu 3BepeH. There were 
tracks of animals on the snow. Hjsj&T 
CHer. It is snowing. HaSt CHJibHHfi 
CHer. It is snowing hard. 

CHflSy adv. o X K y A a? from below 
GMOxpexb CHHsy Bsepx. To look 

CHHMA|Tb, -TO, -emb, -lox imp. ko- 

r 6? H X 0?/p. CHHXb, CHHMy, CHH- 

Merab, cHHMyx, past chhji, -a, 

CHHJllO, -H 

1. to take (from). GfTflXb KHnry c 
noJiKH. To take a book from the 
shelf. GHHXb najibxo c BemaJiKH. 
To take one's coat from the peg. 

2. to take off. GnflXb manny. 




nepHaTKH, Cotkhkh. To take off 
one's hat, gloves, boots. 

3. to shoot. ChHTB KHHO$HJIbM. To 

shoot a film. 

CHObA adv. again 

CnoBa npHmJia 3HMa. Winter came 


COBAKA / dog 

COBHPA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko- 
to? mo? / p. co6paTb, co6ep|y, 
-emb, -yx, past coSpaJi, co6pajia, 
co6paJiIo, -H 

1. to collect. Co6paTb Bemn b ;i;o- 
pory. To collect one's things for 
a journey. Co6paTb jnoAeii. To 
assemble people. 

2. to gather. CoSpaxb ypojKaii. To 
gather in the crop. 

3. imp. to collect, CoSnpaTb 
KHHiH, MapKH. To Collect books, 
stamps. GoSpaib KOJUieKUiiio, 
6H6JiH0TeKy. To make a collec- 
tion, a library. 

4. to put together. CoCpaxb Moxop, 
MamHHy. To put together an 
engine, a machine. 

COBHPAlTtCH, -locb, -embCH. -ioxch 
imp. I p. co6paxbCH, co6ep|ycb, 
-erabcfl, -yxcH, past co6pIajica, 
-ajiacb, -Jiocb, -jiHCb 

1. to gather. y^acxHiiKH KOH$e- 
peHn,HH co6paJiHCb b saJie. Those 
taking part in the conference 
gathered in the hall. CoSnpaiox- 
CH xyHH. Clouds are gathering. 

2. to decide, to intend. Mh co- 
6pajiHCb noHXH na BbicxaBKy. We 
decided to go to the exhibition. 


1. meeting. TopHtecxBennoe co6pa- 
HHe. A ceremonial meeting. Ha- 
th Ha co6paHHe. To go to a 
meeting. HpHcyxcxBOBaxb na 
co6paHHH. To be present at a 
meeting. CoSpaHne coctohxch bo 
BxopHHK. The meeting takes 
place on Tuesday. 

2. collection. Go6paHHe coHHHeHHH. 
A collection of works. 



COBCTBEHHOCTB /., no pi. property 

rocyAapcxBCHHafl codcxBeHHOcxb. 

State property. Hacxnan coCcxBen- 

Hocxb. Private property. JiHHHaH 

coScxBCHHOCXb. Personal property. 
G66cxBeHHOCXb Ha scmjik). Owner- 
ship of land. 
COBCTBEHHIblfl, -an, oe, -ho 

1. own. C66cTBeHHHH AOM. One's 
own house. 

2. self-. HyBCXBO coScxBCHHoro ao- 
cxoHHCXBa. Self-respect. 

COBb'ITHE neut. event 

HcxopH^ecKoe coCmxhc. An histor- 
ic event. MejKAynapoAHoe coShxhg. 
An international event. B MHpe npo- 
HCXOAHX BaJKHLie co6hthh. Impor- 
tant events are taking place in the 

COBEPmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo?//?. coBepmlHxb, -y, -nmb, 
-ax to perform, to accomplish 
GoBepmnxb noABnr. To accomplish 
a feat. GoBepmnxb nyxemecxBHe. 
To make a journey. CoBcpmnxb 
noesAKy no cxpane. To tour a coun- 
try. GoBepmnxb npecxynjieHHO. 
To commit a crime. 


COBECTb /., no pi. conscience 

HHCxaH coBecxb. A clear conscience. 
^^ Ho coBecTu roBopfl. Honestly 

COBET^ m. advice 

Oxen; a^Ji coBex CHny. The father 
gave his son a piece of advice. L(eH- 
HLiH coBex. Valuable advice. Bjiaro- 
Aapaxb 3a coBex. To thank for ad- 
vice. OSpaxHXbCH aa coBexoM k cne- 
n,HaJiHCxy. To turn to a specialist 
for advice. En He HyjKHbi Bamn co- 
Bexbil She doesn't need your advice/ 

C0BET2 m. council, Soviet 

BepxoBHHU GoBex CGCP. The Su- 
preme Soviet of the USSB. CoBex 
MHHHCxpoB.T/ie Council of Ministers. 

COBET|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT 
imp. K M y? + i^f- I P- nocoBe- 
x|0Baxb, -yio, -yemb.'-yiox to advise 
GoBexyio BaM npo^Hxaxb axy khh- 
ry. / advise you to read this book. 

COBETIOBATbCH, -yiocb, -yembca, 
-yioxcH imp. c KeM?/p. nocoBe- 
xIoBaxbCF, -yiocb, -yembCH, -yioxcH 
to ask advice 


ask advice from one's parents. 
COBETCKIHtt, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. Soviet. GoBexcKaa BJiacxb. Soviet 
power. CoBexcKoe npaBHxeJibCXBO. 




The Soviet Government. Co- 
BexcKHH CoK)3. The Soviet 
2. Soviet. GoBexcKHe aaBOflU. Soviet 
plants. GoBexcKHe cneii;HaJiHC- 
Tti. Soviet specialists. GoBex- 
CKafl HayKB. Soviet science. 
COBEII^AHHE neut. conference 

GoBemaene rjiaB npaBHxejiBcxB. A 
conference of the heads of States. 
y^acxBOBaxb b coBemaeHH. To take 
part in a conference. IIpHcyxcxBO- 
BaxB ua coBentaHHH. To be present 
at a conference. 
COBPEMEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He mod- 

CoBpeMeHHoe ncKyccxBO. Modern 
art. GoBpeMeHHaa xexHHKa. Mod- 
ern technology. GoBpeMeHHEin npo- 
MwmjiGHHHH ropoA- A modern in- 
dustrial city. 
COBCEM adv. 

1. quite. Oh cobcgm MaJieHLKHH. He 
is quite small. 

2. in negative constructions not at all. 
Th cobcgm He yMeenib njiasaxb. 
You cannot swim at all. 

C0BX03 m. state farm 

HepeAOBOH coBxoa. A foremost state- 
farm. /^HpeKxop coBxoaa. The 
director of a state farm. 

COrJiACEH, corjiacH|a, -o, -h short 

1. na ^x6? ready, fl corjiacen 
exaxb BMecxe. / am ready to go 
with you. Oh corJiacen na Bce. 
He is ready for anything. 

2. c K e M? c H e M? agreeable, fl 
corJiacen c BaMH. / agree with 
you. Mh He corjiacHu c xbohm 
MHOHHeM. We don't agree with 
your opinion. H corjiacna. / 

COrjIACflTbCH see COrJIAfflAXbC/I 

COrJlAinA|TbCfl, -locb, -embcfl, -roxcH 

imp. c KeM? c hom? &-}- inf./ 

p. corJialCHXbCfl, -raycb, -cnmbCH, 


1. to agree. Oh corJiaciiJiCH bu- 
noJiHHXb 3xy pa66xy. He agreed 
to do that work. 

2. to agree. GorJiacHXbCH c xoBa- 
pnmeM. To agree with a friend. 
GorjiacHXbCH c upejiJiomeBUQM. 
To agree to a proposal, fl 

corjiacHjicfl c xeM, hxo oh cKasaJi 
MHe. / agreed with what he told 
COrJIAIIIEHHE neut. agreement 
ToproBoe corJiameHHe. A trade 
agreement. 3aKJiK)qHXb corjiaraeHHe 
c ApyrHMH cxpanaMH. To conclude 
an agreement with other countries. 
«^ IIpQUTH K corjiameHHio. To 
come to an agreement. 
COrPETb see TPETb 
CO/HEPHCAHHE neut., no pi. contents 
PaccKaaaxb coAep?KaHHe KHnrn. To 
tell the contents of a book. 
COEAHHUlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo? c TCM?//?. coeAHH|iixb, -i6, 
-limfe -fix 

1. to connect, to link. Goe;^HHHXb 
ABa ropo^a HteJieanoH floporoH. 
To connect two cities by a rail- 

2. to combine. Goe^HHtixb xeopHio 
c npaKXHKOH. To combine theo- 
ry with practice. 

COEAHHIIlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -loxcfl 
imp. I p. coeAHH|iixbCH, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch, 
-HXCH to join together, to unite 
ApMHH coeAHHHJiHCb Ha paccsexB. 
The armies joined together at dawn. 
HpoJiexapHH Bcex cxpan, cogah- 
HHHxecb! Workers of the world, 

C03Ji;A|BATb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. 
n X o?/p. coa^axb, cosAaM, cosAamb, 
C03Aacx, C03AaAHM, co3AaAHTe, co- 
3AaAyT, past coaAaJi, co3AaJia, c6- 
8AaJi|o, -n to create 
Co3Aaxb HOByio xeopHFO. To create 
a new theory. Co3Aaxb xoporane 
ycJiOBHH jj,Jifi pa66xH[. To provide 
good conditions for work. 

C03/^AIBATbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl imp. / 
p. co3AaxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. C03AacxcH, co3Aa- 
Ayxcfl to be created 
Go3Aai6xcH HOBbie njiaHH. New 
plans are created. Go3AaJi6cb cepbea- 
Hoe noJiOHtCHHe. A serious situa- 
tion has been created. 

C03J^ATb see C03AABATb 





C03HAHHE neut. 

1. consciousness. noTepaxb coana- 
HHe. To lose consciousness. Bhtl 
6e3 cosnaHHH. To be unconscious. 

2. philos. consciousness. Bhthc 
onpeAeJiaex cosHaHne. Being 
determines consciousness. 

3. understanding, sense. GosHaHHe 
AOJira. Sense of duty. 

C03HATEJIbH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He; 
adv. cosHaxejibHo 

1. conscientious. CosHaiejibHoe ot- 
HonieHHe k paSoxe. A conscientious 
attitude to one's work. Goana- 
xejibHHH qejiOBeK. A conscien- 
tious person. 

2. deliberate. Oh CAeJiaji axo co- 
3HaxejibHo. He did it deliberate- 

COflTia see CXOJSj/lTh^ 

COflxnCb see CXOJSfiJhCH 

COJIJ^AT m., gen. pi. cojiAax soldier 
CMeJiHH cojiflax. A courageous sol- 
dier. OxpH;^ cojTAax. A detachment 
of soldiers. 

COJlEHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He 

1. salt. CojieuHH cyn. Salt soup. 

2. salted. Cojienbie orypuH. Salted 

COJinaAPHOCTb /., only sing, soli- 

CojiHflapHOCXb xpyAflni;HXCH Bcex 
cxpau. Solidarity of the workers of 
the world. 

COJIHEHHlMfl, -an, oe, -ne 

1. sun, solar. CoJiHe^HHH CBex. 
Sunlight. ConneHHaH cncxeMa. 
The solar system. GoJineqHoe 
aaxMenne. An eclipse of the sun. 

2. sunny. CoJiHennHH A^Hb. A sun- 
ny day. 

COJlHUjE [coH^e] neut. 

1. Sun. Ox BcMJiH jio CojiHua 


MexpoB. It's 150 million kilome- 
tres from the Earth to the Sun. 

2. sun. GojiHue CBexnx apKO. The 
sun is shining brightly. 

3. sun. JleJKaxb na cojiHue. To lie 
in the sun. 


1. only sing. salt. Xjie5 c coJibio. 
Bread and salt. 

2. salt. GoJiH KaJibUHH. Calcium 

^ Xjie6-C0Jib. Bread and sa\t 

(symbol of hosj)itality). Bcxpe- 
qaxfa xjieSoM-cojibH). To welcome 
somebody with bread and salt. 
B HeM 3Aecb cojib? What's the 
COMHEBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -roxcH 
imp. B K M? B H e M? to doubt 
GoMHeBaxbCH b ycnexe. To doubt 
one's success. He coMHCBaxbCH b 
fl;pyre. Not to doubt one's friend. 
Mh He coMHeBaeMCH, hxo bh bhhoji- 
HHxe 3xy 3a;^aqy. We have no doubt 
that you will carry out this task. 
COH m., gen. cna 

1. only sing, sleep. Oh cnnx Kpen- 
khm chom. He is fast asleep. Oh 
yjiH5aJiCH bo one. He smiled in 
his sleep. 

2. dream. H BHfl;eji bo one cBoero 
xoBapH^^a. / dreamt of my 
friend. Euy cnnjiHCb xopomHe 
chh. He had pleasant dreams. 

COOBmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

H X 0? K O M y? O K 6 M? O 

^eM?//>. coo6ni;|HXb, -y, -limb, -ax 
to report 

G006ffliHXb HOBOCXH ;^py3bHM. To 
tell the news to one's friends. Tase- 
XH coo6n;aK)x o6 ycnemnoM bhhoji- 
HeuHH njiana. The newspapers re- 
port the successful fulfilment of the 
plan. Ho paAHO coo6m,iijiH, hxo 
HainH cnopxcMCHH Bbicxynnjin yc- 
nemno. The radio reported that our 
sportsmen had achieved good suc- 

COOBmEHHE neut. 

1. announcement, communication 
BaJKHoe cooSmenne. An impor- 
tant announcement (communica- 
tion). ^eJiaxb cooCmenne. To 
make an announcement. 

2. communication. ITyxn coo6n^e- 
HHH. Ways of communication. 
IIpHMoe coo6n;eHHe. A through 

COOBmflTb see COOBmAXb 
COnPOTHBJIEHHE neut., no pi. resist- 

0Ka3axb conpoxEBjienne npoxHB- 
HHKy. To offer resistance to the 
COPEBHOBAHHE neut., no pi. 

1. emulation. 

2. competition. GnopxHBHHe copeB- 
HOBaHHH. Sports competition. 




CopeBHOBaHHH no jiHH«aM. Skiing 
competition. VHacTBOBaTL b co- 
peBHOBaHHHX. To take part in a 

COPEBHIOBATBCH, -yrocB, -yemb- 
Cfl, -yiOTCH imp. c k e m? c q e m? 
to emulate, to compete 
Ham saBofl copeBHyeicH c coce^- 
HHM npe^npHHTHeM. Our plant com- 
petes with a nearby enterprise. 

COCE/^ m., pi. -H, -en neighbour 
J^pyH{HHe coceAH. Friendly neigh- 

COCEJ^HIHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne neigh- 
bouring, adjoining 
CoceAHHH KOMHaxa. An adjoining 
room. CoceflHHe j^epeBHH. Neigh- 
bouring villages. 

COCHA /., pi. cocHW, cocen pine-tree 
BwcoKaH cocea. A tall pine-tree. 
<> 3a6jiyAHTbCH b xpex cocHax 
(proverb). Cf. To lose one's way in 
broad daylight. 

COCTAB m. composition 

CocxaB KOMaH;;u. The composition 
of a team. 

<> J^eJierai^HH b cocTaae dhth 
qejiOBCK. A five-member delegation. 


COCTAB JlUlTb, -K), -emt, -k)t imp. 

VlT 07 / p. COCTalBHTb, -BJIH), -BHmb, 

1. to make (up). CocxaBHTb enncoK 
yqaCTHHKOB. To make a list of 
participants. CocTaBHTb Kaxajior 
KHHr. To make a book cata- 

2. to form. CocxaBHXb onpe^eJieH- 
Hoe MHCHHe. To form a definite 

<> CocxaBHTb KOMnaHHIO KOMy-Jlfl- 

6o (colloq.). To keep somebody com- 
COCTOHHHE neut., no pi. 

1. condition. SKonoMimecKoe cocxo- 
HHHe cxpanu. The economic 
situation in a country. BojibHOH 
B XHJKCJiOM cocxOHHHH. The pa- 
tient is in a critical condition. 
GocxoflHHe ^eji. The state of af- 

2. fortune. Kpynnoe cocxoAHHe, 
A large fortune. 

^ H He B cocTOHHHH npo^ojiHcaTb 
pasroBop. / am unable to con- 
tinue our conversation. 

COCTOlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -hx, -ax imp. 

1. H 3 K o r 6? H 3 H e r 6? to con- 
sist. OpneCTp COCXOHX H3 H3- 

BecxHHX MysHKanxoB. The or- 
chestra consists of well-known 

2. B HCM? to consist in. SaAaqa 
COCXOHX B XOM, hx66h 6wcxpo 
OBJia^exb nepe^oBUMH Mexo^aMH. 
The task is to quickly master 
progressive methods. 

COCTOlHTbCa, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch p. to 
take place 

CoSpaHHe cocxoHJiocb b sajie. The 
meeting took place in the hall. JleK- 

n,Hfl He COCXOHXCH H3-3a 6oJie3HH 

JieKxopa. The lecture will not take 
plac^ owing to the lecturer's illness. 
COCymECTBOBAHHE neut., no pi. 

MiipHoe cocy^^ecxBOBaHHe. Peace- 
ful co-existence. 
C0T|HH /., gen. pi. -en hundred 

CoxHH JiiOACH npnmJiH na njio- 
n5aAb. Hundreds of people came to 
the square. Tpn coxhh py6;ieH. 
Three hundred roubles. 


COXPAHHlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 

used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -ioxch imp.f 

p. coxpanlnxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not 

used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch 

1. to be preserved. Cxapan Kapxii- 
Ha xopomo coxpannjiacb. The 
old picture was well preserved. 
H6jiokh xopomo coxpannjiHCb b 
HffliHKe. The apples had kept 
well in the box. 

2. to survive. HeKOxopwe cxapwe 
o6HqaH coxpaniijiHCb ^o nanrax 
AHCH. Some old customs have 
survived up to our time. 

C0l|HAJlfl3M m., no pi. socialism 
CO^HAJlHCTfiHECK|Hfl, -an,] -oe, 

1. socialist. CoiinajiHCXH^ecKaH pe- 
BOJiK>n;HH. The socialist revolu- 
tion. Coi^HajiHCXHHecKHe cxpaHH. 
The socialist countries. 

2. socialist. ConinajiHcxHiecKoe ox- 
HomeHHe k xpy^y. A socialist at- 
titude to work. 




COIi;HAJIBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He 

1. social. Coi^HajibHoe nojioweHHe. 
Social status. 

2. social. Coi^HaJiBHan peB0Jii6i;HH. 
A social revolution. CoanaJitHHe 
ped[)6pMH. Social reforms. 


1. work. EoJiHoe coSpanne co^h- 
HGHHH A. G. EyniKHHa. The 
complete works of A. S. Pushkin. 

2. composition. CoHnneHHe o TBop- 
HecTse IlymKHHa. A composi- 
tion on Pushkin's works. HanH- 
caTfc co^HHeHHG Ha AaHHyio 
TBMy. To write a composition 
on a given subject. 

COI03 m. 

1. union. Coiob paConnx h Kpec- 
TbHH. The union of workers and 

2. alliance. BoennHH coioa. A mili- 
tary alliance. 

3. union. G0163 CoBexcKHX CoijHa- 
JiHCTHHecKHX Pecny6jiHK. The 
Union of Soviet Socialist Re- 

4. union. IIpo^eccHOHajiBHHH cok)3. 
A trade union. 

CnAjIjbHH /., gen. pi. -en bedroom 
CnACA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko- 
to? HTO? OT Koro? OT Hcro? 
or KOMy? HTO?/jD. cnaclTH, -y, 
-emb, -yx, past cnac, -Jia, -J16, -jih 
to save 

Bpaq cnac JKHSHb SojibHOMy. The 
doctor saved the patient's life. 
CnACAlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, -iotch 
imp. OT Koro? or Her 6?/ p. 
cnac|THCb, -ycb, -embca, -yxcH, 
past cnac|cH, -Jiacb, -jiocb, -jincb 
to save oneself, to escape 
JlexqHK e^Ba cnaccH ot CMepxH. 
The flyer barely escaped death. 
JKniejiH cnacajiHCb ot sparoB b Jie- 
cy. The inhabitants fled from the 
enemy to the forest. 
CHACflBO thank you 

CoacnSo 3a nncbMO. Thank you for 

the letter. CnacH6o 3a coseT. Thank 

you for your advice. BoJibmoe cna- 

ch6oI Thank you very much indeed! 



CIIATb, cnJiK), cnnmb, cuht, past 

cnaji, -a, cnan|o, -h imp. to sleep 

CnaTb BCK) HO^b. To sleep the whole 

night. KpeuKO cnaTb. To sleep 


<> Oh cnaji, KaK y5HTbiH. He slept 

like a log. 

CHEKTAKJIb m. show 

HnxepecHWH cneKTaKJib. An inter- 
estXng show. TejieBHSHOHHHH cneK- 
TaKJib. A television show. CneK- 
TaKJib BoJibmoro TeaTpa. A Bolshoi 
Theatre show. ITpHcyTCTBOBaTb na 
cneKTaKJie. To be present at a show. 

CHETb see HETb 

CnEIi;HAJIbHOCTb /. profession, 

HyjKHaa cnennaJibHOCTb. A neces- 
sary profession. PejiKaa cnennajib- 
HOCTb. A rare profession. On no- 
cnemnajibHOCTH unyKenep. He is an 
engineer by profession. 

CHEUiHAjIbHiblfl, -an, -oe,-ue;adv. 

1. special. CnennaJibHaH oji,emjia. 
Special clothes. 

2. professional. CnennaJibnoe 06- 
pa30BaHHe. Professional training. 

3. special. Oh c;i;ejiaJi aio cue- 
i;HaJibHO AJiH MeHH. He did that 
specially for me. 

CIIEiniflTb, -y, -Hmb, -aT imp. k y a a> 
& + inf. 

1. to hurry. CnemHTb j^OMon. To- 
hurry home. On cnemiiJi nanii- 
caTb poAHTejiflM cBOHx BnenaT- 
JieHHHx. He was in a hurry to- 
write to his parents about his 

2. to gain, to be fast, ^acbi cne- 
maT na 5 Mnnyx. The clock is^ 
5 minutes fast. 

CIIHHA /., ace. cmrny; pi. cnMHM back 
JlejKaTb na cnnne. To lie on one's^ 
back. Oh ctohji cnnnoH k HaM. He 
stood with his back to us. y;].ap b 
cnnny. A stab in the back. 

CnflClOK m., gen. -Ka list 

Chhcok y^eHUKOB. A list of the 
pupils. GocTaBHTb CHHCOK. To make 
a list. 

CnflqiKA f., gen. pi. -en match 
SaJKGHb cHH^Ky. To light a match. 
Kop66Ka CHHHeK. A box of mat- 

Cn0K(3flH|bin, -aH, -oe, -He, short 
form CHOKoen, cnoKOHHla, -o, -h; 


1. quiet. CnoKOHHafl peKa. A quiet 




river. GTOflXb chokohho. To 
stand quietly. Ghahtg cookohho! 
Sit still/ 

2. serene, tranquil. CnoKOHnaH 
yjinSKa. A serene smile. Gno- 
KOHHafl 5KH3HI.. A quiet life. 
CnoKOHHHH HeJiOBeK. A calm 
person. GnoKOHHHH xapaKiep. 
An even temper. 

<> CnoKOUHOii Hoqa! Good night/ 
CnOP|HTb, -K), -Hmb, -HT imp. o 

KOM? O HGM? C KeU? / p. UO- 
CnOplHTb, -K), -HinB, -HT to afguc 

GnopHTb c TOBapnn^eM o KHitre. To 
have an argument with a friend 
about a book. 

CnOPT m., no pi. sport 

JIhjkhuh cnopx. Skiing. Bmjxa. 
cnopTa. Kinds of sport. SannMaxb- 
CH cnopxoM. To go in for sport. 

CnOPTflBHILlH, -an, -oe, -He sports 
CnopxHBHaH njioma^Ka. A sports 
ground. GnopxHBHbiH kocxiom. A 
sports costume. GnopxHBHbie copeB- 
HOBaHHH. Sports competitions. 

CnOCOB m. way, method 

Gn6co6 npnroxoBJieHHH jieKapcxBa. 
The method of making up a medicine. 
HaHj^Hxe KaK6u-HJi6yjih cnocoS 
BcxpexHXbCH c HHM. Find a way 
of meeting him. 

CnOCOBHOCTb /. K ^eMy? 

1. ability. IlocJie panenHH oh no- 
xepHJi cnocoSnocxb jjEPiraxbCH. 
After being wounded he lost t/ie 
ability to move. 

2. usu. pi. aptitude. Y nero 6oJib- 
miie chocoShocxh k MaxeMaxHKe. 
He has a great aptitude for 
mathematics . 

CnOCOBHILIfl, -an, -oe, -He capable 

CoocoShhh lOHOina. A capable 

CnPABA adv. {cf. HAHPABO, 2) on 

(to) the right 

MoH cxyji cxoHx cnpaBa. My chair 

is on the right. CnpaBa ox jioua. 

HaxoAHXCH KHHOxeaxp. To the right 

of the house is a cinema. 
CnPABEAJIfiBlLlfl, -an, -oe, He, 

short form cnpaBejjJiHB, -a, -o, -h; 

adv. cnpaBe;^jiHBO just 

GnpaBe/lJiHBHH nejiOBeK. A just 

person. CnpaBe^JinBoe pemenHe. A 

just decision. Ilocxynaxb cnpaBe;^- 

JiHBO. To act justly. 

CnPAfflHBAITb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. 
Koro? KOM? He m?/ 
p. cnpocHXb, cnpomy, cnpocnmb, 
cnpocHX to ask 

y^Hxejib cnpocHJi yqennKa. The 
teacher asked a pupil, CnpamnBaxb 
o s^opoBbe. To ask after somebody's 
CnPOCflTb see CnPAmHBATb 
CnyCKA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -k)xch 
im,p. Ky^a? oxKy^a?/ p. cnyc- 
xHTbCH, cnymycb, cnycxHmbcn, 
cnycxHxcH to descend 
CnycxHXbCH c ropn. To descend 
from the mountain. CnycxHXbCH no 
jiecxHHue c xpexbero axaJKa na nep- 
BHH. To go downstairs from the 
secoftd floor to the ground floor. 
GnycKaxbCH na JiH(|)xe. To go down 
in the lift. 

CnyCTflTbCil see CnYCKATbCH 
CnyXHHK m. 

1. companion, fellow-traveller. Moh 
cnyxHHK 6hji BpanoM. My com- 
panion was a doctor. 

2. satellite. Jlyna — cnyxnnK 3eM- 
JiH. The Moon is the Earth's sat- 
ellite. HcKyccxBeHHHH cnyxHHK. 
An artificial satellite. Sanycxnxb 
cnyxHHK. To launch a satellite. 
Ehbccxh cnyxHHK na opGnxy. 
To put a satellite in orbit. Ha- 
6Jii0AeHHe 3a cnyxHHKOM. Track- 
ing a satellite. 


1. comparing. CpaBHenne flByx 
HBJieHHH, flByx JiK);teH. Compar- 
ing two phenomena y two people. 

2. simile. Jlnxepaxypnoe cpaBne- 
nne. A simile. 

<> Ho cpaBHeHHio... c KeM? c 
HeM? Compared with.,. Ho cpas- 


paHbme, ropoj]^ oqeeb naMeHHJiCH. 

Compared with what I saw before, 
the city has changed a lot. 
CPABHHBA|Tb, -ro, -emb, -rox imp. 
Koro? qTO?cKeM?CHeM?/ 

p. CpaBH|HXb, -K), -Hmb, -HT 

1. to compare. CpaBHHXb itn^pH. 
To compare figures. CpaBHHXb 
flBa HBJieHHH. To compare two 
phenomena . 




2. to compare. CpasHHTb noBepx- 


compare the surface of the water 
to a mirror. 

CPAsy adv. immediately 

Oh cpaay noHHJi. He understood 
immediately. Mh ymjiH cpasy no- 
cjie o6ejs,8L. We left immediately af- 
ter dinner. 

CPEj^A^M pl- cpe^Bi, cpen, cpe;taM, etc. 

1. medium. BosAymnaH cpe^a. Air 

2. only sing, surroundings. OKpy- 
JKaK)I^aflcpeJ^a. Surroundings. Oh 
BocHHTLiBaJicH B paSoHeH cpe;te. 
He was brought up in work- 
ing-class surroundings. 

CPEAA2 /., ace. cpefly; pl. cpeflH, 
cpeA, cpe^aM, etc. Wednesday 
Cer6;^HH cpe^a. Today is Wednes- 
day. JleKDiHH HHTaiOTCfl HO cpeAaM. 
Lectures are delivered on Wednes- 
days. B cpe^y npHJieTHT nama 
cnopxHBHafl flejierauHH. Our sports 
delegation arrives on Wednesday. 

CFE^Vi. prep. -\- gen. 

1. in the middle of. ^om ctohji 
cpefl;H Jieca. The house was in 
the middle of the forest. Cpeji;H 
HOHH paB^ajiCfl 3boh6k. A bell 
rang in the middle of the night. 

2. among. CpeAH CTy/neHiOB 6hji 
MOH flpyr. Among the students 
was my friend. PaSoxa cpe^H 
MOJio^ejKH. Work among youth. 

CP£AH|Hfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ho 

1. middle. Gpej^nee okho. The mid- 
dle window. 

2. medium. ^eJioseK cpeAuero poc- 
xa. A person of medium height. 

3. fig. average. Cpe/^nne cnoc66- 
HOCXH. Average abilities. 

<> CpeAHHH mKOJia.^ Secondary 
school. nojiy^HTb cpe^Hee o5pa- 
soBaHHe. To get secondary edu- 
>cation. Gpe^Hne BSKa. The Mid- 
dle Ages. 

1. means. GpeflcxBa nponsBOACXBa. 
The means of production. Gpejt- 
cTBa nepeji;BHjKeHHfl. Means of 

2. method; remedy. HoBHe cpe^- 
cxBa jie^eHHH Sojicshh. New 
methods of treating a disease. 

3x0 e;^HHCXBeHHoe cpe;^cxBol This 
is the only remedy! 

CPOK m. time 

G^ejiaxb pa66xy b cpOK. To do the 
work in time. Bee cpoKH npomjin. 
All time limits have passed. 

CPOHHIblH, -an, -oe, -tie; adv. cpoq- 
HO urgent 

GpoHHoe coo6n];eHHe. An urgent 
communication. Yexaxb no cpoHHO- 
My AGJiy- To go away on urgent 
business. GpoHHO yexaxb. To leave 
at once. Gpo^Haa xejierpaMMa. An 
urgent telegram. 

CCOPIHTbCH, -locb, -nmbCH, -hxch 
imp. C KBM? / p. noccoplHXbCH, 
-locb, -nmbcfl, -HXCH to quarrel 
He HaAO ccdpnxbCH. You shouldn't 
quarrel. IIoccopHXbCH c xoBapnmeM. 
To quarrel with a friend. 

CTA|BHTb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -bhx imp. 
Koro? Hxo? Kyjia? /p. nocxal- 

BHXb, -BJIK), -BHmb, -BHX 

1. to put. GxaBHXb cxaKan na cxoji. 
To put a glass on the table. Ho- 
cxaBHXb uBexu b BOjiy. To put 
flowers in water. IIocxaBHXb khh- 
rn Ha Mecxo. To put the books 
in their place. 

2. to give. GxaBHXb oxMexny. To 
give a mark. 

3. to make. GxaBHxb ohmxh. To 
make experiments. 

4. to set. IIocxaBHXb saAany nepej^ 
KOJiJiCKXHBOM. To set a task be- 
fore a collective. 

5. to stage. GxaBHXb nbecy. To 
stage a play. 

<^ IIocTaBHTb peKopA- To set up 
a record. CxaBHTb p,MarH03. To 
diagnose. CxaBHTb ycjiOBiia ko- 
My-JiH6o. To lay down terms to 
somebody. IIocTaBHTb Kor6-JiH5o 
B TpyflHoe nojiOH«eHiie. To place 
somebody in an embarrassing situ- 

CTAJJHOH m. stadium 

HoBHH cxa^HOH. A new stadium, 
GopeBHOBaHHH cocxoaxcH Ha cxa- 
AHOHe. The competition will take 
place at the stadium. 

CTAKAH m. glass 

HncxbiH cxaKaH. A clean glass. Gxa- 
Kan MOJiOKa. A glass of milk. 

CTA Jib /. steel 

Rom H3 cxaJiH. A knife made of 




steel. BapHTb ciaJib. To found 
CTAJlbHlOfl, -an, -6e, -ue 

1. steel. CTaJibHOH nom. A steel 

2. steel(y). CiaJifcHOH i;BeT. Steel 

3. fig-: CTajiBHan bojih. Cf. An iron 

CTAHOBflTbCfl, cxaHOBJiiocb, ciaHo- 

BHnibCH, CXaHOBHTCfl imp. KCM? 

K a K li M? / p. cxalTb, -ny, -nemb, 

1. to stand. Cxaxb y ABepen, cxaxb 
K ;;BepflM, cxaxb k cxanKy. To 
stand at the entrance, to take up 
a position near the door, to take 
one's place at the lathe. 

2. only p. to stop. Hacw cxaJiH. The 
clock has stopped. 

3. to become. Oh cxaji HnmenepoM. 
He became an engineer. Ilorona 
craHOBHjiacb xojioahoh . The 
weather was getting cold. CxaJio 
xeMHO. It became dark. 

4. only p. 4- inf. to start. Mh cxa- 
JiH nexb. We started singing. 

5. only p. to become (of). Hxo c hhm 
cxaJio noxoM? What became of 
him afterwards? 

<> Bo qxo 6bi TO HH cxajio. By 

all means. 
CTAH|OK m., gen. -Ka machine-tool, 


ToKapHHH cxanoK. A lathe. Pa66- 

xaxb Ha HOBOM cxaHKe. To work at 

a new machine-tool. 
CTAHI^Hfl /. 

1. station. Cxani^Hfl Mexpo. An 
underground station. >KAciTb na 
cxaHHHH. To wait at a station. 

2. exchange. Tejie^oHuafl cxanr^HH 
A telephone exchange. 

CTAPAjTbCH, -K)cb, -embCfl, -ioxch 
imp. -{-inf./ p. nocxapa|xbCH, -locb, 
-embCH, -IOXCH 

1. to try. y Hero ne Bcer^a Bce 
xopomo noJiy^aexcH, xoxh oh 
OHCHb exapaexcH. He doesn't 
always succeed in everything, 
though he tries hard. 

2. to try. Oh cxapaJicn bheojihexb 
pa66xy b cpoK. He tried to do 
the work in time. 

CTAPflK m., gen. -a old man 
CTAPOCTb /., no pi. old age 

FJiyGoKaH cxapocxb. Extreme old 
age. B cxapocxH. In one's old age. 
B cxapocxH OH cxaji hjioxo cjih- 
maxb. -4s he grew old, his hearing 
became poor. 

CTAPyXA /. old woman 

CTAPffllHfl, -an, -ee, -ne 

1. elder, eldest. Moh cxapman ce- 
cxpa — BpaH. My elder (eldest) 
sister is a doctor. Y hhx xpa 
cwna. CxapmHH paSoxaex na aa- 
Bo^e, cpeflHHH yqnxcH b mKO- 
Jie, a MJiaAHiHH xo^hx b jibt- 
CKHH caA. They have three sons. 
The eldest works at a plant, the 
middle one goes to school and the 
youngest goes to the kindergarten, 

2. senior. Cxapmufi HayHHwii co- 
xpyflHHK. A senior research asso- 

CTAPjblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
cxap, cxapa, cxapjo, -li 

1. old. CxapuH tiejioBCK. An old 
person. Osa oqenb cxapa. She 
is very old. Cxapoe ^epeBO. An 
old tree. 

2. old. Cxapoe najibxo. An old 
overcoat . 

3. old. CxapuH jipyr. ylw oZd friend. 

4. old. CxapuH oSwHaH. An old 
custom . 

CTATb see CTAHOBflTbCfl 
CTAT|b}l /., gen. pi. -en article 

FaaexHaH cxaxbrf. A newspaper ar- 
ticle. HanHcaxb cxaxbio. To write 
an article. 
CTEKJIO neut., pi. cxeKJia, cxeKOJi. 
cxeKJiaM, etc. 

1. glass. npoapa^Hoe ctckjio. Trans- 
parent glass. 

2. pane. Pa36Hxb cxckjio b okhb. 
To break a window-pane. 

CTEKJiHHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we glass 
CxeKJiHHHaH flBepb. A glass door. 

CTEHA /., ace. cxeHy, pi. cxenu^ 
cxcH, cxenaM, etc. wall 


CTHPA|Tbi, -K). -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo? H e M? / j5). cxepexb, coxp|y^ 
-erab, -yx, past cxep, -Jia, -Jio, -jih 
to wipe off, to rub off, to erase 
CxHpaxb xprinKOH c flocKi'r. To 
clean the blackboard with a duster. 
Cxepexb nujib co cxojia. To dust 
the table. Cxepexb HanifcaHHoe. To 
erase what has been written. 




<> CxepeTb c aaqa aeMjiH ito-jih- 

60. To raze something to the 
ground . 
CTHPAlTb'', -K), -emb, -iot, imp. 

HTO? n&VL>lp. BMCTHpa|Tb, -K), 

-emb, -K)T to wash 
BHCTHpaTb 6ejibe. To wash the lin- 
en. PyKaMH cTHpaxb xpyjiHO. IV s 
difficult to do the washing by hand. 

CTHXfl pi. poetry 

Gthxh nyniKHHa. Pushkin's poetry. 
C56pHHK CTHXOB. A Collection of 
poetry. YnHTb cthxh HanaycTb. To 
learn poetry by heart. 



poem by Mayakovsky. JlnpHHecKoe 
CTHXOTBOpeHHe. A lyrical poem. 
CTOlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 
3rd pers. -ht, -ht imp. 

1. to cost. Kmira ctoht 5 pyGjiefl. 
The book costs 5 roubles. BnjieT 
ctoht jjp'poTO. The ticket is ex- 

2. impers. is worth. He ctoht mchh 
6jiaroAapHTb . There's nothing to 
thank me for. 3to ctoht hocmo- 
TpeTb! It is worth seeing! 

«0» Hrpa He ctoht cBei (proverb). 
The game is not worth the 

CTOJI m., gen. -a table 

GecTb 3a CTOJI. To sit down to 
table. GH;^eTb 3a ctojiom. To sit at 
the table. BcraTb H3-3a CTOJia. To 
rise from the table. niiCbMeHHbiH 
CTOJI. A desk. 

CTOJItmA /. capital (city) 

JI^peBHHH cTOJiHD;a. The ancient cap- 
ital. riapHJK — CTOjiHHa (DpaHn,HH. 
Paris is the capital of France. 

CTOJIOBIAfl /., gen. -oh 

1. dining-room. S^ecb y nac cto- 
jiOBafl, a HanpaBO — ^Bepb b 
KyxHH). This is our dining-room 
and on the right is the door to 
the kitchen. 

2. dining-hall, canteen. CTyAenqec- 
Kan CTOJiOBan. A students' canteen. 


1. SO many, so much. CKOJibKO 
jiiOAeH, cTOJibKO xapaKTepoB. Gf. 
So many people, so many minds. 

2. such a lot. Oh ctojibko c/^ejiajil 
He's done such a lot! 

CTOPOHA /., ace. CTopony; pi. cto- 
poHH, CTopoH, cTopoHaM, etc . side 
HpaBafl CTopoHa. The right-hand 
side. G JieBOH CTOpoHM. From the 
left-hand side. Ha fl;pyr6H CTopoHe 
yjiHUiH. On the opposite side of the 
street. Go Bcex cTOpOH. On all sides. 

CTO|HTb, -16, -limb, -HT imp. r J^ e? 

1. to stand. HejioBeK ctoht y ok- 
Ha. The man is standing at the 

2. to stand, to be (situated). Gtoji 
CTOHT B KOMHare. The table stands 
in the room. J^om ctohji Ha 6e- 
pery peKH. The house stood on 
the riverbank. HapHJK ctoht na 
Gene. Paris is situated on the 

3. to be. Gtoht xopoman noro^a. 
The weather is fine. 

4. to face. Eepe;]; HaMH ctoht Ba>K- 
Hbie npoSJieMW. Important prob- 
lems face us. 

5. to stand (still). HacH ctoht. The 
watch has stopped. Hoes^ ctoht. 
The train is standing still. 

<> CTOflTb BO rjiase qero-JiHSo. To 
be at the head of something. 
CTOHTb y BJiacTH. To be in power. 
CTP AH A /., pi. CTpaHH 

1. land. Mofl po/tnaH cTpana. My 
native land. K>muhie CTpaHH. 
Southern lands. 

2. country. CTpanti JlaTimcKOH 
AMepHKH. The countries of Lat- 
in America. 

<> CxpaHbi CBeTa. The cardinal 

CTPAHfll^A /. page 

B KHHie 100 CTpaHiin;. There are 

100 pages in the book. 

<> Ha cTpaHiin,ax HjypnaJia. In the 

columns of the magazine. 
CTPAHHlblfl, -aH, -oe, -ue; adv. 

CTpaHHO strange 

GTpaHHaa ^nrypa. A strange figure. 

GTpaHHHH B3rJiflA- ^ strange 

look. 3to OHeub cTpanno. It is 

very strange. 
CTPAX m. fear 

J\^omdiTh OT CTpaxa. To quake with 

CTPAmHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 


1. terrible. GTparanafl HCTopHH. A 
terrible story. 




2. colloq. awful. CTpamnafl 6oJib. 
An awful pain. 3x0 cxpamno 
HHxepecHOl JVs awfully inter- 

3. adv.^ predic. impers. (to be) af- 
raid. Mne cxpaiiiHO. / am afraid. 

CTPEJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -k)x imp. b 
K r 6? BO H X 6? to shoot 
Cxpejiflxb B ^eJlb. To shoot at a 
target . 

CTPEIMflTbCfl, -MJiiocb, -MHmbcH, 

-MHXCH imp. K KOMy? KHGMy? 

& -f- i/?/. to strive 

CxpeMHXbCH K uejiii, k CBo66^e. 

To strive to achieve one's goal, to 

strive for freedom. CTpeMHXbCH no- 

6eAHXb. To strive to win. 
CTPfllHbCH, -rycb, -H^enibCH, -ryxcH, 

past cxpiircH, cxpHrjijacb, -ocb, 

-HCb imp. /p. nocxpiil^bCH, -rycb, 

-jKCfflbCH, -ryxcfl, past nocxpiircH, 

nocxpnrjilacb, -ocb, -iicb to have 

one's hair cut 

CxpiWbCH B napHKMaxepcKOH. To 

have one's hair cut at a barber's. 
CTPOriHfl, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form 

cxpor, cxpora, cxp6r|o, -h; adv. 


1. strict, severe. Cxpornn yqiixejib. 
A strict teacher. Oieu, cxporo 
nocMOxpeji Ha Cbma. The father 
looked severely at his son. Cxpo- 
rim roJioc. A severe tone of voice. 

2. fig. strict. Cxporne npasHjia. 
Strict rules. 


1. construction. CxpoiixejibcxBO sa- 
BOAOB H $a6pHK. The construc- 
tion of plants and factories. 
KyjibxypHoe cxpoHxejibcxBO. 
Cultural construction. 

2. building. PaSoxaxb na cxpoH- 
xejibcxBe. To be engaged in build- 

CTPOIHTb, -JO, -Hinb, -hx imp. qxo? / 

p. nOCXp6|HXb, -K), -Mfflb, -HX 

1. to build. CxpoHXb ;^0M. To build 
a house. CxpoHXb jKejieanyio AO- 
pory. To build a railway. 

2. fig. to build. Cxponxb KOMMy- 
HH3M. To build communism. 

CTPOfl m., no pi. system 

rocyflapcxBeHHHH cxpoH. A state 
system. Kojixoshhm cxpoH. The 
collective- farm system. 

CXy^EHT m. student 

Cxy;;eHx 5-ro Kypca. A fifth-year 

CXyjI m., pi cxyjibH, cxyjibCB chair 
Cecxb Ha cxyji. To sit down on a 

CXyHIATb, -y, -Hmb, -fix imp. bo 
Hxo? no HCMy? ^eM?//?. no- 
cxyq|axb, -y, -nnib, -ax 
Cxy^axb B OKHO. To knock at the 
window. Gxy^axb KyjiaKOM no cxo- 
Jiy. To bang one's fist on the table. 

CTtlAHO predic. impers. (to be> 

Mne cxH/^HO. / am ashamed. Cxij;t- 
HO 3a xoBapnn^a. To be ashamed of 
a friend. Cxm^ho nepe^ ApyabHMH. 
To be ashamed to face one's friends. 
CxLi/^HO cJiymaxb axn cjioBa. / 
am athamed to hear such words. 

CyBBOTA /. Saturday 

B^ cy566Ty 6biji nnxepecHbiH koh- 
nepx. There was an interesting con- 
cert on Saturday. 

Cyj\ m., gen. -a 

1. law-court. 

2. trial. 

Cy^flTb, cymy, cyAHmb, cy^Hx imp^ 
K r 6? ^i X 6? 

1. to judge. Mh cyj^HM no xoMy^ 
^xo BiTj^ejin. We judge front 
what we saw. 

2. to try. Cy^HTb npecxynnnKa^ ' 
To try a criminal. 

3. to referee. Cy;^iixb ^yxSojibnyio 
Bcxpe^y. To referee a footbalf 

<> CyAH no TOMy, qxc... Judging 
from what... 

Cy^bBA /., pi. cy js,h6u, cy^eC for- 
tune, fate 

J^yMaxb o cyAb6e Hapo^a. To think 
of the fate of the people. Cy jijb6st 
MOHx flpysen. The fortunes of my 

Cy/^bH m., pi. cyffbH,^ cyACH 

1. judge. CnpaBeAJiHBHH cy^bH. A 
just judge. HapoAHHH cyAbH. 
A people's judge. 

2. referee. CnopxHBHHH cyAbH. A 
referee, on umpire. x 

CyMfiTb see yMEXb 
CyM|KA /., gen. pi. -ok bag 

KomaLBAR cyMKa. A leather bag. 

CyMKa jxJiH. npoAyKxoB. A shop' 

ping -bag. 




cyn m., pi. -H soup 

Phcobmh cyn. Rice soup. TapejiKa 
cyna. A plate of soup. 
CyPOB|Llfl, -an, -oe, -iie, short form 
cypoB, -a, -o, -h; adv. cypoBO 

1. stern, GypoBUH nejiOBeK. A 
stern person. 

2. rugged. GypoBan npHpo^a. Rug- 
ged countryside. 

3. rigorous. CypoBan h<h3hl. A 
rigorous life. 

CyTjKH no sing., gen. -ok day, 24 hours 
Exaxb n;eJiHe cyxKH. To be driving 
the whole day. J\b6q cyxoK Two days. 

CyXIOfl, -aH, -6e, -ne, adv. cyxo; 
comp. cyme 

1. dry. Bhtph pyKH, ohh aoji>khh 
6htl cyxHMH. Wipe your hands, 
they must he dry. Gyxan o;^e}KJ^;a. 
Dry clothes. Gyxoii Bos^yx. Dry 

2. dry. Gyxan KOMnaxa. A dry 
room. Gyxaa aeMJin. Dry earth. 

3. fig. dried-up. Gyxon qejioseK. 
A dried-up person. On cyxo no- 
B^opoBaJiCfl. He greeted (some- 
body) coldly. 

<> Cyxoe BHHO. Dry wine. 

CymECTB|OBATb, -yio, -yemt, -yiOT 
imp. to exist 

>KH3Hb na 3eMJie cyni;ecTByeT mho- 
rne mhjijihohli jict. Life has exist- 
ed on Earth for many millions of 
years. GymecTBycT necKOJibKO bh- 
AOB ynpaJKHeHHH. There are several 
kinds of exercises. 



CXOJl,flTbi, cxoJKy, cxoAHniB, cx6;^ht 
imp. /p. coHTH, coHflly, -enib, -yx, 
past comejT, coniJi|a, -6, -h 

1. to go down. GxoAHTb no Jieci- 
HHn,e. To go downstairs. 

2. to get off. Bbi cxoAHTe na cjie- 
;^yion];eH ocxanoBKe? Are you 
getting off at the next stop? 

<^ CoHTH c yMa. To go out of one's 
mind . 
CXOJ^flTb^, cxojKy, cxoAHHib, cxo/^ht 
p. Ky J18L? &.-}-inf. to go to some 
place and return 

Gxofl;HTb B MarasHH. To go to the 
shop (and return). Gxo/^htb nory- 
JiHTb. To go for a walk. 

CKOJlfLThCR, 1st & 2nd pers. sing, 
not used, 3rd pers. cxoflHXCH, cxo- 
;i;htch imp. / p. coHTHCb, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. couffjeicfi, 
coHAyxcH, past comejicH, conijilacb, 

-OCb, -HCL come together. Gonxncb b 
aaJie. To gather in the hall. 


mJiHCb Ha nji6ni;aAH. Columns of 
demonstrants converged in the 
2. to suit one another. Ohii co- 
mjiHCb xapaKxepaMH. They suit- 
ed one another. 

cii;eha /. ' 

1. stage. Oh Btimeji na cmeny. He 
came on to the stage. 

2. scene. HuxepecHaH criena b 
cncKxaKJie. An interesting scene 
in a play. 

<> CoHTH CO cuieHbi. To leave the 
CHACTJlflBlblfl [n;acjiHBHH], -an, 
-oe, -He, short form c^acxjiHB, -a, 
-0, -h; adv. CHacxjiHBO 

1. happy. GnacxJiiiBaH H«H3Hb. A 
happy life. G^acxJiHBbm qejio- 
BeK. A happy man. Kan a cnacx- 
jihbI How happy I am! 

2. lucky. Th cnacxjiHBHH! You're 

<> CiacTJiHBoro nyxii! A happy 
C^ACTbE [n;acxbe] neut., no pi. 

1. happiness. Bojibmoe cnacxbe. 
Great happiness. >Kejiaio BaM 
CHacxbHl / wish you happiness! 

2. good luck. 

<> r^e cqacTbe, xaai h pa;^ocTI> 
(proverb). Where there is happi- 
ness, there is joy. 
CHHTA|Tb [n^Hxaxb], -lo, -emb, -rox 

1. K OrO? HX 0?/p. COCHHXa|xb, -K3, 

-emb, -lox to count. Gocqnxaxb 
go cxa. To count to one hundred. 
G^Hxaxb no nopH^Ky. To count 
in the order in which things are. 
Gqnxaxb js^eHhrn. To count 

2. KOrO? HXO? KCM? qcM? to 

consider, to think. H c^nxaJi 
Te6n CBOHM flpyroM. I considered 
you to be my friend. Gnnxaio, 
Hxo XH nocxyuHJi npaBHJibHO. 




/ think you acted in the 
right way. 

CfflHTb see mWTh 

CT>E33 m. congress 

IlapTHHHUH CLean. A party con- 
gress. G-LesA npo$coK)30B. A trade- 
union congress. 

CT>£3lOTTb, -H«y, -flHnib, -^ht p. 
K y « a? & + inf. (cf . E3J^HTb) to 
go to some place and return 
C'besjxiiTh B flpyroH ropo/i;. To go 
to another town (and come back). 
CtesAHTb OT;;oxHyTb. To go on a 

CT>E3H{A|Tb, -K), -emB, -iot imp. 
Kyfla? OTKyrja? / p. ctexaTb, 
Cbe^ly, -euib, -yx to go (come) 

C-bexaxb c ropw. To go (come) down 
the hill. 

CT>E33KAlTLCH, 1st & 2nd pers. sing, 
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch 
imp. I p. cbexaxbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
sing, not used, 3rd pers. cbe^IeTCH, 
-yxcH to come together, to gather 
K Beqepy HanajiH cbeantaxbCH ro- 
CTH. Towards evening the guests 
began to arrive. 

CTbECTb see ECTb^ 

CTbEXATb see CT)E35KATb 


CbirPATb see HrPATb 

CblH m., pi. cwHOBbH, cbiHOBeH son 
GiaprnHH CbiH. The eldest (elder) 
son. MjiaAfflHH chh. The youngest 
(younger) son. 

CblP m., pi. -u cheese 

ByTep5p6;i; c CbipoM. A cheese sand- 

CbIP|(3fl, -aH, -6e, -He; adv. cbipo 

1. damp. GbipaH seMJiH. Damp 
earth. CwpoH Boajtyx. Damp air. 
CbipaH KOMHaxa. A damp room. 
I predic. impers. B^ecb oienb 
CHpo. It is very damp here. 

2. raw, unboiled. Gmpoe mhco. 
Raw meat. Cupoe mojioko. Un- 
boiled milk. 

€I>IT|bIfi, -an, -oe, -tie, short form 

CHx, CHxa, CMx|o, -u replete 

H cux. / am full. 
CIO^A adv. Ky^a? here 

H npnmeji cio^a yxpoM. / came 

here in the morning. 

T, T 

TABAK m., gen. -a tobacco 

KpenKHH xa6aK. Strong tobacco. 
Kypnxb xa6aK. To smoke tobacco. 

TABJIfl^A /. table 

TaSjiHi^a yMHOJKeHHH. The multi- 
plication table. TaSjiHqa BHHrpH- 
raeH. The list of winning numbers. 

TAflHA /. mystery 

TaHHH npapoAbi. Mysteries of na- 
ture. Xpanrixb b xaHne. To keep 
secret. /l^epjKaxb b xanne. To keep 
(something) secret. 

TAK adv. 

1. as. ^ejiaxb xaK, KaK nyjKHO. 
To do as one should. Mm xaK me 
ji;0B6jibHH noea^KOH, nan h bh. 
I^e are as pleased with the trip 
as you are. 

2. so. Oh xaK mhofo xo;^^TJI, ^xo 
ycxaJi. He walked so much that 
he got tired. 

3. as part of compound conj. xaK 
KaK as, xaK hxo so, 

<> H xaK aaJiee. And so on. TaK 

cKasaxb. So to speak. TaK naabiea- 

eMbiM. So-called. Tan ce6e. So-so. 

TaK H 6biTb. Let it be so. He xaK 

jiH? Is it not so? 
TAKHCE adv. also 

Mkl xamKC 6biJiH flOBOJibHH. We 

were also pleased. 
TAKlOfl, -an, -6e, -He pron. 

1. such. TaKOH Beqep h 6yAy noM- 
HHXb jiOJLTO. I'll remember such 
an evening for a long time. 

2. so. CerojiiHH xaKan xopoman no- 
^6;^a! Today the weather is so 

3. the same as. Oh KynnJi xaKyio 
me KHHry, KaK h xh. He bought 
the same book as you did. 

*0^ B TaKOM cjiyqae. In this case. 

TaKHM 66pa3«M. In this way. 

Ht# TaKoe? What's that? 
TAKCfiL neut., indecl. taxi 

JlePKOBoe xaKCH. A taxi-cab. Exaxb 

na xaKCH. To go by taxi. HaM uymno 

B3HXb xaKCH. We should take a taxi. 

BM3Baxb xaKCH no jenei^oiiy. To 

call a taxi by telephone. 
TAJIAHT m. talent, gift 

y Hero SoJibmoH xaJianx. He is very 





TAJlAHTJIHBIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He tal- 
ented, gifted 

TajiaHTJiHBLiH yqeHHH, nHcaxejib. 
A gifted scientist, writer. TaJiaHT- 
jiHBaH paSoxa, KHHra. A work, book 
of great talent. 

TAM adu. r a e? there 

TaM HtHBex MOH OTei^. My father 
lives there. TaM, r^e a poAHJiCH, 
cymecTByex MHoro nnxepecHtix 
oSHHaeB. Where I was born, there 
exist many interesting customs. 

TAH|EI^ m., gen. -Ei;a dance 

BHCxpHH xaneii;. A quick dance. 
HcnoJiHHXb HaponHUH xanen;. To 
perform a folk dance. Eocemaxb 
nmojiy xaHn;eB. To attend a dancing 

TAHmEBATb, -yro, -yenib, -yiox 
imp. H X 0? to dance 
TanneBaxb Bajibc. To dance a waltz. 
TanneBaxb c AeByuiKon. To dance 
with a girl. 

TAPEJIIKA /., gen. pi. -ok plate 

FJiySoKafl xapejina. A soup plate. 
MeJiKan xapeJiKa. A flat plate. Ecxb 
H3 xapeJiKH. To eat from a plate. 

TAmflTb, xan^y, xan;Hnib, xan^ax imp. 

1. Koro? Hxo? to carry. Tan^nxb 
MemoK. To carry a sack. 

2. H X 0? p. Bbixan^Inxb, -y, -nmb, 
-ax to pull out. Bbixamnxb rBosAb 
H3 cxeHH. To pull a nail out of 
the wall. 

TA|HTB, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd 
pers. -ex, -lox imp. /p. pacxa|HXb, 
1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers. 
-ex, -lox 

1. to thaw. Gner xaex. The snow is 

2. only imp., fig. to dwindle, to 
waste away. Sanacw xaiox. The 
supplies are dwindling. BojibHOH 
xaex na rjiaaax. You can see the 
sick man waste away. 

TBEPAIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
xBepfl, xBepua, xsepAlo, -h; adv. 


1. solid. TBepAoe xejio. A solid 

2. hard. TBepjtan seMJiH. Hard 

3. fig. firm, sound. TBep^He sna- 
HHH. Sound knowledge. IIpHHHXb 
xBepAoe pemenHe. To take a 
firm decision. 


TBOfl, xBOfl, xBoe, xboh pron. your(s) 

TBOPHECTBO neut., no pi. creative 

TBopqecxBO niojioxoBa. Sholokhov's 
works. Pacnsex xBopqecxBa. The 
height of one's creative activity. Ha- 
poAHoe XBopqecxBO. The creative 
work of the people. 

TEATP m. theatre 

Teaxp onepH h 6ajiexa. A theatre 
of opera and ballet. /],paMaxHHecKHH 
xeaxp. A play-house. CMOxpexb b 
xeaxpe noByio nbecy. To see a new 
play at a theatre. Xo^nxb b xeaxp. 
To go to the theatre. 

TEJIEBflSOP m. television set ^ 
CMOxpexb nepezj;aqy no xeneBnaopy. 
To watch a television programme. 


To turn on (off) television. 

TEJIEPPAMMA /. telegram 

CpoqnaH xejierpaMMa. An urgent 
telegram. Ilocjiaxb (flaxb) xejierpaM- 
My. To send a telegram. 

TEJIErPA<D m., no pi. telegraph- 

LteHxpaJibHHH xejierpa^. The central 
telegraph-office. H^th na Tejierpa(|). 
To go to the telegraph-office. Pa66- 
xaxb na xejierpa(|)e. To work at a 

TEJIEOOH m. telephone 

HoMep xejie{|)6Ha. A telephone num- 
ber. MejKAyropOAHHH xejie(|)6H. A 
trunk line. FoBopnxb no xejie^ony. 
To speak over the telephone. 
<> Te;ie4)6H-aBTOMaT. A public te- 

T£JI|0 neut., pi. -a 

1. substance. Tbep^oe xeJio. A so- 
lid substance. H^itflKoe xejio. A 
liquid substance. 

2. body. HacxH xejia. Parts of the 

TEMA /. subject, theme 

TeMa ypoKa. The subject (theme) of 
a lesson. TeMa ^OKJiaAa. The sub- 
ject of a report. 

TfiMHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, adv. xcmho 

1. dark. TeMnan KOMHaxa. A dark 
room. I predic. impers. Ha yjinne 
xeMHO. It is dark outside. 

2. dark. Tcmehh kocxiom. A dark 
suit. TeMHHe bojioch. Dark hair. 
TeMHHe FJiasa. Dark eyes. 




3. fig- dark. TeMHwe chjih. Dark 

TEMn m. tempo, speed, rate 

BucTptiH TeMH. A quick tempo 
TeMn pe^H. The tempo (speed) of 
speech. TeMnu pasBHTHH 3KOh6mh 
KH. The rate of economic development 


1. temperature. TeMnepaxypa boah 
The temperature of water. Hawe 
pHTb TeMnepaxypy. To take a 

2. temperature. V Hero BucoKan 
TeMnepaxypa. He has a high 
temperature. || colloq. high tem- 
perature, fever. Y peSeuna TeM- 
nepaxypa. The child has a fever. 

TEHb /., prepos. b Tenii shade; shad- 

Tenb ox Aepesa. The shade of a 
tree. CnAexb b xenii. To sit in the 
shade. On Gohjich coScxBeHHoii xe- 
Hii. He was afraid of his own shadow. 

TEOPHH /. theory 

HayHHaa xeopnH. A scientific theory. 
Maynaxb xeopuio. To study a 
theory. CoeAHHHXb xeopnio c npan- 
XHKOH. To combine theory with prac- 

TEDEPb adv. now 

Tenepb oh >KHBex b Ch6hph, a 
panbuie paSoxaji b MocKse. Now he 
lives in Siberia, but before he worked 
in Moscow. 

TEnJl|blH, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
xeneji, xenJija, -6, -u; adv. xenno 

1. warm. Tenjian KOMnaxa. A warm 
room. TenjibiH Boaayx. Warm 
air. PasBe axo ropHMHH cyn? Oh 
qyxb xenjiuH. Do you call this 
hot soup? It is hardly warm. 
Tenjioe naJibxo. A warm coat. | 
predic. impers. (is) warm. Mne 
xenjio. / feel warm. SA^Cb xenjio. 
It is warm here. 

2. fig. warm, cordial. TenjiLie qyB- 
cxBa. Warm feelings. Ohh xenJio 
npocxHJiMCb c rocxHMH. They 
said good-bye to their guests cor- 

TEPIIEJlflBlblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short 
form xepnejiHB, -a, -o, -u; adv. xep- 
nejiHBo patient 

TepnejiHBUH yqrixejib. A patient 
teacher. TepneJiHBO oS-LHCHnxb. To 
explain patiently. 

TEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. Koro? 
mo?/p. noxepH|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox 

1. to lose. IIoxepHXb cyMKy. To lose 
one's bag. 

2. fig. to lose. Teprixb Apyra. To 
lose a friend. Tepnxb HaAewAy. 
To lose hope. Tepnxb cjiyx. To 
lose one's hearing. Tepnxb BpeMH. 
To waste time. 

<> Tepaxb roJioey. To lose one's 
head. Bbi He BHAeJiH axy KapxH- 
Hy? Hex? Bbi HHqero ne noxe- 
pfljiH. ''Have you seen this pic- 
ture? No? You have missed 

TECHjblfl, -an, -oe, -He, snort form 
xecen, xecna, xecH|o, -h; adv. xecHO 

1. cramped. TecHan KBapxnpa. A 
cramped flat. \ predic. impers. 
3Aecb xecHO. There is no room here. 

2. tight. TecHHe Goxpihkh. Tight 
shoes. PySamna Mne xecna. The 
shirt is too tight for me. 

3. close. BHTb XeCHO CBHSaHHHM 

c kcm-jihSo. To be closely con- 
nected with somebody. 

TETPAJ^b /. copy-book 

Tojicxafl xexpaAb. A thick copy-book. 
ToHKafl xexpaAb. A thin copy-book. 
06maH xexpaAt- A thick, general- 
purpose copy-book. TexpaAfc b jih- 
HeiiKy. A lined copy-book. Ilncaxb 
B xexpaAH. To write in a copy-book. 

TETH /. aunt 

TEXHHKA /., no pi. 

1. technique, technology. HepeAO- 
BaH xexHHKa. Advanced technol- 
ogy. OBJiaAexb xexHHKOH. To 
master technique. 

2. technique. TexHHKa nrpn na 
CKpuuKe. The technique of play- 
ing the violin. 

TEXHflHECKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. technical. TexHHHecKHH nporpecc. 
Technical progress. 

2. technical. TexHHnecKHH hhcth- 
xyx. A technical institute. 

3. technical. TexKHHecKan pa66xa. 
Technical work. 

TEHEHHE neut. current, stream 

HnjKHee xe^eHHe peKH. The lower 

reaches of the river. 

O Iljmixb no TeneHHio (npoxHB 

TeHeHHfl). To go with (against) the 





TElHb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd 
pers. -HGT, -KyT, past tgk, TeK|Jia, 
-Jio, -JiH imp. 

1. to flow, to stream. Pena tghgt. 
The river flows. Ho JIH^y ee 
TGKJiH CJiesH. Tears were streaming 
down her cheeks. 

2. fig. to fly by. BpeMH leneT ne- 
saMeTHO. Time goes by imper- 

TflXlUfl, -an, -oe, -ne, s/iori /orm 
Tiix, THxa, THxlo, -Hj ac?y. THXO; 
comp. THiiie 

1. soft, Thxhh roJioc. A soft voice. 
Thxo neTb. To smg 5o/fZi/. Tobo- 
pH THme! Don't speak so loud} 

2. quiet. Tixoe yxpo. A quiet morn- 

3. quiet. Thxhh peSeuoK. A quiet 

THmHHA /., no pi. silence 

IloJTHaH THniHHa. Complete silence. 
Hapymaxb THmHHy. To break the 
silence. CxofiJia MepTBan THmHua. 
It was dead silent. 

TKAHb /. fabric 

niepCTHHaa TKanb. A woollen fabric. 

TO particle then 

EcjiH SyAST BpeMH, to h npnAy. 
// / have time I'll come. 

TO... TO conj. now... now 

To TM roBopiifflb OAHo, TO ;i;pyr6e, 
— KaK me Mue Te6e BepnTb? Now 
you say one thing, now another, 
how am I to believe you? 


1. ware. npoMbimjienHbie TOBapH. 
Industrial wares. 

2. usu. pi. goods. ToBapH mnpoKO- 
ro noTpeSJieHHH. Consumer goods. 


1. friend. BepHMH TOBapnn^. A true 

2. used in addressing people: ToBa- 
pnm IleTpoBa! Comrade Petroval 
ToBapnn^ Bojikob! Comrade Vol- 

TO^J^A adv. 

1. then. Pfle tm 6hji b nrojie? — fl 
6hji Torfl,a b ^pyroM ropo^e. 
''Where were you in July?" "/ 
was then in another town." 

2. then. Th ne anaenib axoro? 
Torji;a bosbmh KHHry h npoHH- 
xaHl ''You don't know that? Then 
take the book and read it!" 


3. then. Kor^a npOHHTaio KHHry, 
Tor^a OT;;aM ee xeSe. When I 
have read the book I'll give it 
back to you. 

TO ECTb conj. that is (to say) 

Cen^ac Mapx. H Bepnycb b HiOHe, 
to ecTb Hepea flsa MecHn;a. Now it 
is March. I'll come back in June, 
that is in two months. 

TOmE adv. also 

H TOJKC ^pH;^y na Be^ep. I'll also 
come to the evening-party. H tojkb 
ycTaJi. / am also tired. Th ne x6- 
qemb 3Toro? H TOJKe. "You don't 
wanl that? Neither do I." 

TOJinA /., pi. TOJiDLi crowd 

Tojina JiioAeH. A crowd of people. 

TOJICTlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
TOJiCT, TOJicTa, t6jict|o, -h; comp. 

1. thick. TojicTaH miTKa. A thick 
thread. ToJicxaa KHitra. A thick 

2. fat. TojicxHH neJiOBCK. ^ /ai man. 

1. adv. only. B KOMHaxe xojibKO 
oji,EH cxyji. There is only one 
chair in the room. Oh npnexaJi 
xoJibKO BHepa. He came only 

2. conj. only, fl corjiacen, xoJibKO 
He cenqac. / agree, only not now. 

3. particle only. TojibKO 6h yexaxbl 
/ wish only to go away! H 3a- 
HCM xojibKO OH CAeJiaJi axo? Why 
on earth did he do that? 

4. as part of compound conj . a) TOJib- 
Ko qxo just. Oh xojibKO hxo npn- 
meji. He has just come, b) KaK 
TOJlbKO the moment, Kan xoJibKO 
Mbi BomjiH B 3aji,,.. The moment 
we entered the hall... 

TOH m. tone 

BpajKAeSuHH xoh. A hostile tone. 


speak in a friendly tone. 
TOHKIHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form 
xoHOK, xoHKa, x6hk|o, -h; adv. 
xoHKo; comp. xoHbme 

1. thin. ToHKaa xexpaAt. A thin 
copy-book. ToHKoe jtepeBO. A thin 
tree. ToHKHe SpoBH. Fine eye- 
brows. ToHKO Hapeaaxb CHp. To 
cut the cheese thin. 

2. thin. ToHKHH roJioc. A thin 




3. delicate, keen. Tohkhh BKyc. A 
delicate taste. Tohkhh cjiyx. A 
keen ear. 

4. fine. Kojibno tohkoh paGoTU. A 
ring of fine workmanship. 

^ Tfle TOHKo, TaM H peeTCfl (prov- 
erb). Gf. The strength of a chain 
is determined by, its weakest link. 
TOHHA / ton 

BecoM B 500 TOHH. 500 tons in 
weight . 
TOHS'Tb, TOHy, TOHeuib, Tonyx imp. 
i. p. noTOuyTb, noTOHy, noxoHemb, 
noTOHyx to sink. KopaSjib no- 
Tonyji. The ship has sunk. 
2» p. yTOHyxb, yxony, yxoneinb, 
yxonyx to get drowned. MaJib- 
^hk yxonyji b pene. The boy got 
drowned in the river. 

3. no p. to sink. MexaJiJi xonex b 
BO^e. Metal sink<i in water. 

TOPrOBJIfl /. trade 

BHeniHHH xoproBJifl. Foreign trade. 
BHyxpeHHHH xoproBJiH Home trade. 
ToproBJiH OBomaMH. The vegetable 
trade. PaasHBaTb xoproBJiio. To de- 
velop trade. 

TOPHCECTBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; 
adv. xop>KecxBtMiHO 

1. festive. Top>KecxBeHHUH flenb. 
A festive day. 

2. solemn. Top>KecxBeHHbiH xoh. 
A solemn tone. 

TOPOnflTbCH, xoponjiiocb, xoponnmb- 
Cfl, xopoiiflxcH imp. to hurry 
ToponHXbCH B xeaxp. To hurry to 
the theatre. 

TOT pron. 

1. that. Tox flOM. That house. B xox 
;^eHb. (On) that day. 

2. other. Ha xoh cxopone. On the 
other side. Ha x6m 6epery. On 
the other bank. 

3.: Mm yBepenH b xom, hxo... 
We are sure that... fl cnpouiy 
y xoro, Kxo SHaex. I'll ask some- 
body who knows. 

4. that. 9x0 xox flOM? Is that the 
house? 3x0 xa Ben5b? Is that the 
thing? 3x0 ne xa Bemb! This is 
not the thing! 3xo cobccm He x6! 

-■■■.. It is not that at all! 

-^H t6t h flpyroH. Both {one and 
the other). Hh tot hh ffpyroii. 
Neither {one nor the other). Tot 
Hce, TOT me caMwii. The same 

one, the very same one. B Ty 
3Ke MHHyT^. That very moment. 
Oaho h to Hce. The (very) same 
thing. Jlejio b tom, mto... The 
thing is that... Mne He flo Toro. 
I've other things to attend to. 
H TOMy noA6(>Hoe (h t. n.). And 
so on (etc.). 

5. as part of compound conj.: BMecxo 

xoro, qx66H instead of; xeM He 

Menee nevertheless; nocjie xoro 

KaK after, following; flo xoro 

KaK, ^epe;^ xeM KaK before; ne- 

CMOxpH Ha x6, Hxo in spite of the 

fact that; b xo BpeMH KaK while 

TOHIKA /., gen. pi. -bk point, full stop 

IlocxaBHXb xoHKy. To put a full 


<> Toqna c aacHTOH. A semi- 
colons ToHKa apeHHfl. One's point of 
view. C Moefi toikh speHHH. From 
my standpoint. 
TOHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
xoHeH, xo^ma, x6hh|o, -h; adv. 


1. exact. ToHHtiH nepeBOjt. -^n 
exact translation. Tohuo anaxb. 
To know for certain. To^Hbie na- 
CM. A good time-keeping watch. 
ToMHoe BpeMH. The exact time. 

2. punctual. Tohhhh HejiOBen. A 
punctual man. 

<> ToHHbie HayKH. The exact sciences. 
TPABA /., pi. xpaBbi 

1. grass. Bejienaa xpaBa. Green 
grass. BucoKafl xpaBa. Tall 

2. only pi. herbs. JleKapcxBeHHue 
xpaBU. Medicinal herbs. 

TPAKTOP m., pi. xpaKxopa, xpaKxo- 
poB & xpanxopti, xpaKxopoB tractor 

TPAMBAfl m. tram 

^BaAnaTb mecxoH xpaMBan. A num- 
ber 26 tram. i:xaxb na xpaMBae. To 
go by tram. Gecxb na xpaMBafi. To 
take a tram. Cohxh c xpaMBan. To 
get off the tram. 

TPAHCnOPT m., no pi. transport 
ropoflCKoii xpaHcnopx. City trans- 
port. Bhaw xpaHCHopxa. Kinds 
of transport. 

TPA|THTb. -Hy, -XHmb, -xhx imp. 
qxo? na h x 6?/p. HCxpa|XHXb, 
-qy, -XHmb, -xax to spend 
TpaxHXb jxeuhTR na nnxaHHe. To 
spend money on food. HcxpaxHXb 




MHoro AGHer. To spend much money. 
Oh TpaTHT MHoro BpeMeHH na ;^o- 
pory. He spends a lot of time trav- 
TPEBIOBATb, -yio, -yemi,, -yrox 
imp. q T o? or q e r 6? y k o r 6? 
OT Kor6? + qT66H or J^inf.f 
p. noTpe6|oBaTb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 

1. to demand. H Tpe6yio cjioea. / 
demand the right to he heard. 
y^HTeJib TpeSosaji, ^toSh mh 
^ejiajiH flOMaraHHe saAannH. The 
teacher demanded that we should 
do our home-task. 

2. to take. Bxa pa66Ta TpeCyex mho- 
ro BpeMeHH. This work takes a 
lot of time. 

TPEBOHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short 
form TpesoH^eH, xpeBOH^Hla, -o, -ti; 
adv. xpeBOJKHO 

1. anxious. TpeBOJKHUH bsfjih;;. 
An anxious look. 

2. alarming. TpenoHtHoe hojiojkc- 
HHe. An alarming situation. Tpe- 
Bomuoe BpeMH. An uneasy time. 
TpeBOJKHHe hobocxh. Alarming 

TP(3rA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. ko- 
to? Hxo? neu^/p. xpoHlyxb, -y, 
-emb, -yx (momentaneous action) & 
noxp6ra|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox 

1. to touch. SKCHOHaxM B Myaee 
HejTb3H xporaxb pvKaMH. The 
exhibits in the museum should 
not be touched. EMy xoxejiocb 
noxporaxb Kawflyio Bem;b. He 
wanted to touch every thing. 

2. p. only xpoHyxb fig. to move. 
3x0 ero ne xpdraex. It doesn't 
move him. MeHH axo oqeub xpo- 
Hyjio. It moved me deeply. 

3. p. only xponyxb to touch. He 
xporaHxe erol Leave him alone/ 

TPOE num. three 

Tpoe cxyAeHxoB. Three students. 
y Hero xpoe ^exen. He has three 
children. Hac 6mjio xpoe. There 
were three of us. Hpomjio xpoe 
cyxoK. Three days had passed. 

TPOJIJlEflByC m. trolleybus 

nfixbiH xpojiJieH6yc. A number 5 
trolleybus. OcxanoBKa xpojiJienCyca. 
A trolleybus stop. Exaxb na xpoji- 
JieH6yce. To go by trolleybus. Cecxb 
Ha xpoJiJienGyc. To take a trolley- 

bus. GoHXH c xpojiJienCyca. To get 

off the trolleybus. 
TPyBA /., pi. xpy6H 

1. tube. ripoHBBOAcxBO xpy6. Pro- 
duction of tubes. 

2. chimney. SaBOffCKaH xpy6a. A 
factory chimney. Tpy6a flOMa. 
The chimney of a house. 

3. trumpet. Hrpaxb na xpy6e. To 
play (to blow) the trumpet. 

TP>^B|KA /., gen. pi. -ok pipe 

KypHXb xpyoKV. To smoke a pipe. 
TPyft m., gen. -a 

i.nopl. work; labour. yMCXBeHHHH 
xpyfl. Brain work. OHSHHecKHH 
xpyff. Manual work. 

2. difficulty. Oh c xpy^oM Bcxaji. 
He stood up with difficulty. Oh 
BHyHHJi 3X0 6e3 xpyfla. He 
learned it without any difficulty. 

3. work. HayHHHH xpyA- A scien- 
tific work. TpyflU Ferejia. The 
works by Hegel. 

TPyjIiflTbCH, xpyjKycb, xpyflnmbCH, 
xpy;i;HXCfl imp. to work 
JIaSopaxopHH xpyfl;HxcH Ha;^ peme- 
HHeM axon aa/^aiH. The laboratory 
works at solving this problem. 

TP5^ja,H|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
xpyJ^eH, xpjrj^na, xpyAH|o, -h; adv. 

1. difficult. TpyAHbiH sKaaMen. A 
difficult examination. Tpy^noe 
3a;^aHHe. A difficult task. HaM 
xpyAHO HOHHXb Bac. It is diffi- 
cult for us to understand you. 
3xa KHifra xpyAua ;i;jih Bac. This 
book is too difficult for you. 

2. difficult, hard. Tpy^Hafl o6cxa- 
HOBKa. A difficult situation. 
TpyAHoe BpeMH. A hard time. 

TPy/^GBlOn, -aa, -oe, -Lie 

1. working, labour. Tpyj^OBoe boc- 
HHxaHHe. Labour education. 

2. working. Tpyj^oBan MOjiOAejKb. 
Working youth. 

3. hard-earned. Tpy^OBwe ;;eHbrH. 
Hard-earned money. 

4. working. TpyAOBOH jj,eHh. The 
working day. 

<> TpyflOBMe pesepBbi. Labour-re- 
TPyJ^HI^|HflCfl m., gen. -erocfl 
Tpy/^flmnecH Bcex cxpan. The workers 




of the world. CoBexH aenyTaxoB 
TpyflHmHXCH. Soviets of workers* 

TPyC m. coward 

Oh OKaaaJiCH TpycoM. He turned 
out to be a coward. 

TPyCb'I no sing, shorts 

CnopxcMeHm 6hjih b KpacHux Man- 
Kax H nepHLix xpycax. The sports- 
men wore red jerseys and black 

TP)ln|KA /., gen. pi. -ok rag, duster 
CxHpaTb ntiJib xpflnKOH. To remove 
dust with a rag. Mhxb noji xpfln- 
KOH. To wash the floor with a rag. 

Xy/HA adv. K y A a? there 

Box MarasHH, ho mm xy^a ne noH- 
flCM. Here is the shop, but we shall 
not go there. KaK ^oexaxb 30 H,eH- 
xpa? — Ty^a m6h{ho exaxb na Mex- 
p6. ''How can I get to the centre?" — 
''You can get there by the under- 
ground." Bh Hflexe He xy^a. You are 
not going the right way. 

TYMAH m. mist, fog 

yxpeHHHH XyMan. A morning mist. 
FycxoH xyMan. A dense fog. Ha 
yjiHiie ceroj^HH xyMan. It is foggy 
outside today. 

TyniOK, -an, -6e, -Lie 

1. blunt. TynoH ho>k. A blunt 

2. not pointed. Tynon hocok 60- 
xiiHKa. A rounded toe-cap. 

3. fig. meaningless. TynoH bsfjih;;. 
A meaningless look. 

4. fig. dull. Tynoii yqeuHK. A dull 
pupil, a dunce. 

5. fig. dull. Tynafl 6ojib. A dull 

TyPflCT m. tourist, hiker 

TypncxM xoahjih b jiexHHii noxoA. 
The hikers went on a summer walk- 
ing tour. HHOcxpauHLie xypncxM. 
Foreign tourists. 

TYT adv. r « e? (colloq.) here 

Tyx cxoHx cxoji, a xaM — AHBan. 
There is a table here, and a divan 
over there. 

T^OJIH pi., gen. pi. xy$ejib; sing. 
xy(|)JiH /. shoes 

KoHtanwe xy^JiH. Leather shoes. 
Ty$JiH na bhcokom (hhskom) Ka6- 
jiyKe. High- (low -)heeled shoes. ]\o- 
MamHHe xy(|)jni. Slippers. 

1. cloud. HepHwe xyqn. Black 
clouds. HnsKHe xyqn. Low clouds. 

2. fig. cloud. TyHH hujih. Clouds 
of dust. 

TbI pron., gen., ace. xeSfl, dat. xe6e, 
instr. xo66h, prepos. o xe6e you 
Th moh Jtpyr. You are my friend. 
Hxo XH AeJiaemb cennac? What are 
you doing now? 

<> BbiTfa Ha «TM» c kcm-jihSo. To 
thee-and-thou somebody. 

TblJl m., prepos. b xHJiy; pi. xhjim 

TbiJi H (|)poHx. The rear and the 
front. PaSoxaxb b XHJiy. I'o work 
on the home front. 

TK)PbMA /., pi. xiopbMH, xfopeM, 
xiopbMaM, etc. prison 
riocannxb b xiopbMy. To put into 
prison. BpocHxb B xiopbMy. To fling 
into prison. Gn^exb b xiopbMe. To 
be in prison. 

THiKEJIlblH, -an,^ -oe^ -He, short form 
xflJKeji, xfl>KOJi|a, -6, -h; adv. xh- 

1. heavy. Tflwejibm hh^iik. A heavy 
box. I predic. impers. Te6e xh/KC- 
J16 necxH 3X0X qeMOfl;aH. It is 
difficult for you to carry that 

2. fig. hard, difficult. TajKejian 
pa66xa. Hard work. TflJKeJiaH 
JKH3Hb. A hard life. TflJKejioe 
sa^aHHe. A difficult task. V He- 
ro 6biJia xflJKeJiaH MOJio^ocxb. He 
had a hard youth. Y nero xflJKe- 
jiHH xapaKxep. He is a difficult 
person. CoBepmnxb xflJKejioe npe- 
cxynjieHHe. To commit a heinous 
crime. Tfl>KejiaH SojiesHb. A grave 
illness. TflweJiafl onepauHH. A se- 
rious operation. TflJKejioe qyBcxBO. 
A hard feeling. Tajkcjimh ^eub. A 
hard day. | predic. impers. Mho 
xfl?KeJi6 BcnoMHuaxb 06 axoM. It 
is painful for me to recollect that. 

<> y nee Tnmeno na flyme. She 
has misgivings. TflHceJiafl npo- 
MumjieHHOCTb. The heavy in- 
THHyXb, XHuy, xflnemb, xHHyx imp. 
k r 6? mo? /p. noxHHyxb, no- 
xHHy, noxHHemb, noxHuyx 
1. to pull. Oh noxHHyji oxi^a 3a 



pyKaB. He pulled his father's 

2. colloq., fig. to draw out. He thhh, 

paccKaawBaH SucTpee. Don't 

draw it out, say it quickly. 
<> TflH.VTb c OTBeTOM. To delay 
one's answer. 

y, y 

y prep, -j- gen. 

1. by. Ctoji ctoht y OKHa. The 
table is by the window. 

2. at. H ?KHBy y 6paTa. / live at 
my brother's. 

3. from, fl ysHaji y Moero y^HTejia 
MHoro HHTepecHoro. / learned a 
lot of interesting things from my 
teacher. MoH TOBapniii; bshji y 
MGHH MOio KHHry. My friend has 
borrowed a book from me. 

4.: y nee 6ojiht rojiosa. She has a 

5.: y MGHH eCTb 3T0T jKypHaJi. / 
have got that magazine. Y Tosa- 
pHma 6ojibmaH ceMbH. My friend 
has a large family. 
yBE^flTb see YBEIiKJliiTh 
yBEJ^flTbCH see yBE5KAATbCH 
yBE3KAA|Tb, -K), -emb, -kdt imp. 
Koro? B HGM? & -^ inf./p. y6e- 
fllHTb, 1st pers. sing, not used, -Hmb, 
-HT to convince, to persuade 
Ham HHJKeHep y6e;^Hji nac b 
npaBHjibHOCTH cBoero npoeKxa. 
Our engineer has convinced us 
of the correctness of his project. 
Mh y5e/^HJiH TOBapuma nocxy- 
DHTb B HHCTHTyT. We persuaded 
our friend to enter an institute. 
yBEHC^AITbCH, -locb, -enibca, -lox- 
Cfl imp. B qeM?/ p. ySeflliixbCfl, 
1st pers. sing, not used, -nmbcfl, 
-HxcH to get convinced 
y6efl;HXbCH b BepnocxH Apyra. To 
get convinced of one's friend's loyal- 
ty. Mm ySe^HJiHCb. b xom, hxo 3xo 
mpdiBjxa.. We got convinced that it 
was true. 
yBHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k o r 6? 
Hxo?/p. ySifxb, y6h\K), -emb, -lox 
1. to kill. y6HXb BOJiKa h3 py>KbH. 
To kill a wolf with a gun. 
y6HTb HOJKOM. To kill with a 

2. fig. to kill. HsBecxne o CMepxH 
Cbina ySbex ee. The news of her 
son's death will kill her. 

<> XoTb ySeii, ne sHaio. / couldn't 

tell you to save my life. 
yBHPAlTb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp. ^ x o?/ 

p. ySpaxb, ySeply, -emb, -yx, past 
ySpaJi, -a, y6paji|o, -h 

1. to remove. ySpaxb xexpa^H 
. CO cxoJia. To take the copy-books 

from the desk. 

2. to put away. ySpaxb KHHrn b 
mKa(|). To put away books in 
a bookcase. 

3. to gather (in). ySpaxb ypoHtan. 
To gather (in) the crops. 

4. to tidy up. ySpaxb KOMHaxy. 
To tidy up the room. y5paxb 
nocxejib. To make the bed. 

yBflTb see yBHBATb 

yBPATb see yBHPATb 

yBA5KA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko- 
to? H X 0? 3 a H X 6? to respect 
ycaJKaxb poAHxejien. To respect 
one's parents. ysaJKaxb xoeapHma 
3a CMejiocxb. To respect one's friend 
for his bravery. Mbi ji;oji>khli yea- 
jKaxb Apyr Apyra. We must respect 
one another. 

yBA5KEHHE neut., no pi. respect^ 
nojibsoBaxbCH yBameHiieM xoBapn- 
mew.. To be held in respect by one's 
friends. H cj];eJiaJi 3X0 hb yBaJKeuHH 
K Apyry- / did that out of respect 
for my friend. 

yBEJlfl^HBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
qxo?/p. yBejiHH|HXb, -y, -nmb, -ax 

1. to increase. yBejiiiHHXb BwnycK 
XKanen. To increase the output 
of fabrics. 

2. to raise. yBCJiHHHXb 3apa6oxHyio 
nJiaxy. To raise one's salary 
(wages) . 

yBEJIflHHBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl 
imp. I p. yBeJiH^lHXbCH, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -ax- 
es to increase, to grow 
KojiHHecxBo cxyAenxoB yBeJiHHH- 
Baexcfl. The number of students is 
yBEJiflHHTb see yBEJIflHHBATb 
yBEJlfl^HTbCH see yBEJlflHH- 




yBEPEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 

1. part., short form j^Bepen, yse- 
peH|a, -0, -w sure, certain. 
yBepeHHHe b no6e;ie, mli npo- 
;iOJDKajiH 6opb6y. Certain of 
victory, we continued the fight. 
Mu yBepcHM b nameH no6efle. 
We are sure of our victory. H 
yBepen b tom, hto oh npaB. / am 
sure he is right. 

2. used as adj., short form yBe- 
pen, yBepen I Ha, -no, -nw confi- 
dent, sure. ynepennHe flencTBHH. 
Confident actions. Ero flBHJKe- 
HHH 6mjih dwcTpH H yBcpen- 
HU. His actions were quick and 
sure. On roBopnJi yBepenno 
(adv.). He spoke confidently. 

yBfl/^ETb see BflJUETb 

yBJIEKA|TbCH, -locb, -embcn, -K)TCfl 
imp. KeM? qeM?/ p. yBJie|HbCH, 
-Kycb, -qembCH, -KyxcH, past yB- 

JICKCH, yBJieKlJiaCb, -JlOCb, -JTHCb to 

be carried away, to be keen (on 
doing something) 

yBJieKBTbCH cnopTOM, paGoTOH. To 
go in for sports, to be carried away 
with one's work. 
^rOJI m., gen. yrJia, prepos. b yrjiy 

1. corner. yroJi j^OMa. The corner 
of a house. CxoflTb na yrJiy ymi- 
nti. To stand at the corner of the 
street. CnAexb b yrJiy KOMnaxH. 
To sit in the corner of the room. 

2. an^le. noflyrji6M45°(c6poKnHXb 
rpajtycoB). At an angle of 45°. 

<0> XoflHTb H3 yrjia b yroji. To 
walk up and down the room, yroji 
speHHA. A point of view. Ils-sa 
yrjia. From round the corner. 
yrOJIb m., gen. yrjiH coal 

KaMenHMH yroJib. Coal. ^oSHBaxb 
yrojib. To mine coal. yBe-nHHHBaxb 
;to6uHy yrjin. To increase the coal 

yrocTiiTb see yromAxb 

yromA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko- 
to? ^eM? / p. yrolcxHXb, -^^y, 
-cxHmb, -cxHT to treat 
yrocxHXb xoBapHn;a ^aeM. To treat 
one's friend to tea. 

y;^A|BATbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -loxcfl imp./ 
p. y^axbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not used. 

3rd pers. yflacxcfl, yAa;^yxcfl, past 
yAa|JiCH, -jiacb, -jiocb, -jiHCb 

1. to be a success. Onux y^ajiCH. 
The experiment was a success. 

2. impers. k o m y? -f- if^f- to man- 
age. Mne y;taji6cb npnexaxb na 
BOKsan BOBpeMH. / managed to 
come to the station in time. HaM 
He yAaJiocb nonacxb na BHCxaB- 
Ky. We didn't manage to get to 
the exhibition. 

y^AP m. 

1. blow, clap. CnjibHUH y^ap. A 
strong blow, y^ap rpoMa. A clap 
of thunder. 

2. fig. blow. 9x0 ;^Jifl Hero XHJKejiMH 
Vflap. This is a hard blow to him. 

<0» BwTb B yffape. To be at one's 
yAAPHTb see yj^APHXb 
yAAPEnrbCH see yJ^APHTbCH 
y^APHHK m. shock-worker 

yj^apHHK KOMMyHHcxnqecKoro xpy- 
Jta. A shock-worker of communist 
yj^APH|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko- 
to? H e M? no H e M y? B H X 6?/ 
p. yMplHTb, -K), -nmb, -hx to 
strike, to hit, to kick 
y^apEXb HoroH B flBepb. To kick 
at the door. y;;apHXb koto-jihCo 
pyKOH no njieny. To strike somebody 
on the shoulder. 
y^APHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, -ioxch 
imp. o6o Hxo? ^eM?/p. y^a- 

plHXbCH, -K)Cb, -nmbCH, -HXCH 

to strike oneself, to hit oneself 
H y/^apHJICH pyKoii o Kpaii cxojia. 
/ knocked my hand against the edge 
of the table. 
y^ATbCH see yJ^ABATbCH 
yAHBflTbCfl see yj5HBJlHTbCH 
yflRBJlHlTbCH, -locb, -erabcfl, -loxcfl 
imp. KOMy? HeMy?//?. yAH|BHXb- 
CH, -BJiiocb, -BHmbCH, -BHXCH to be 

H yflHBHJiCH ero cjiOBaM. / was 
surprised at his words. 
yj^OBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
yAoSen, yfloSnla, -o, -u; adv. y^odHO 
1. comfortable. Yjx66uoe Kpecjio. 
A comfortable chair. On y^oSHO 
CHjieJi B Kpecjie. He sat comfort- 
ably in an armchair. | predic. 
impers. (it is) comfortable. Sflecb 
oneHb yfl66Hopa66xaxb. It is very 




comfortable to work here. BaM 
YAoSho CH;^eTb? Are you sitting 
2. predic. impers. (it is) con- 
venient. yA66HO JIH rOBOpHTL 
06 3T0M? Isn't it awkward to 
speak about that? 
YAOBOJIbCTBHE neut. pleasure 
Konnepx aocTaenji Mne 6ojii.m6e 
yfliOBOJiLCTBHe. / enjoyed the concert 
very much. H cjiyraan neena c yjj,o- 
BOJibCTBHeM. / listened to the sing- 
er with pleasure. 
yE3H{A|Tb, -K), -eniL, -K)t imp./ 
p. yexaxb, ye^ly, -emb, -yx to go 

Vexaxb 0XJ^Hxaxb. To go on one's 
holiday. Vexaxb h3 ropoAa b aepes- 
HK). To go from town to the country. 
06hhho oh yesjKaex na pa66xy 
pano yxpoM. He usually goes 
to work early in the morning. 
B npomjiOM ro^y h KHKy^a ne 
yesHtaJi h3 ^OMa. Last year I didn't 
go away anywhere. 


y^ particle emphasising the meaning 
of the word to which it refers really 
OneHb yjK njioxo oh c^ejiaji 9x0. 
He really did that very badly. Th 
ym He roBopn CMy 06 axoM. Don't 
you tell him about that. 

y^E adv. already 

H yme ^Hxan axy KHPiry. / have 
already read that book. Yme no pa 
HflXH AOMOH. It's already time to go 
home. MoH chh yjKe BspocJibiH. 
My son is already grown-up. 

SjiKRH m. supper 

XoJiOflHLiH fmuR. A cold supper. 
C-becxb yH^HH. To eat one's supper. 
IIpHroxoBHXb yjKHH. To cook one's 
supper. BeceflOBaxb aa ymnuoM. 
To talk at supper. CeroAHfl na yjKHH 
pH6a. There is fish for supper to- 
day, nocjie ywHHa. After supper. 

yaCHHAITb, -JO, -emb, -rox imp./ 
p. noyjKHHa|xb, -10, -emb, -lox to 
have supper 

BKycHO noy»«HHaxb. To have a tasty 

SSEJl m., gen. ysjia 

1. knot. KpeuKHH yaeji. A tight knot. 
3aBfl3axb yaeji. To tie a knot. 

2. fig. knot, yaeji npoxEBope^HH. 
A knot of contradictions. 

ySKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
y30K, ysKa, y3K|o, -n; comp. yjKe 

1. narrow. ysKan yjinna. A nar- 
row street. VsKHe SpioKH. Nar- 
row trousers. BpiOKH nyjKHO c^e- 
Jiaxb yme. The trousers must be 
made narrower. 

2. fig. narrow, particular. y3KaH 
cnennaJibHOCXb. A narrow speci- 
ality. y3KHe HHxepecH. Narrow 

3. only short form ysoK, ysKa, 
-6, -H too tight. 3x0 njiaxbe ya- 
k6 mhc. This dress is too tight 
for me. 

y3HA|BATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./ 
p. y3Ha|xb, -K), -emb, -lox 

1. Koro? Hxo? to recognise. H 
cpa3y y3HaJi cbok) yjinqy. / rec- 
ognised my street at once. 

2. HXO? O KOM? o qeM? to 

learn, yanaxb HHxepecnyio h6- 
Bocxb. To learn interesting news. 
Ox Hero MM ysnajiH o nocjie^- 
HHX co6biXHflx. We learned the 
latest events from him. y3Haxb 
MHoro HHxepecHoro. To learn a 
lot of interesting things. 

3. to know. Co BpeMencM mh 
y3HaJiH ero Jiyqme. Later we got 
to know him better. 

y3HATb see ySHABATb 
yfiTfl see yXOaflTb 
yKPACHTb see yKPAfflATb 
yKPAmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 

^xo? HeM? / p. yKpa|cHXb, -my, 

-cnmb, -CHX 

1. to deck. yKpamaxb ropo^ (|)jia- 
raMH. To deck a town with flags. 

2. to decorate. Llsexti ynpamaiox 
KOMHaxy. Flowers decorate a room. 

yKPEnflTb see yKPEHJlHTb 
yKPEHJlHlTb, -H), -emb,^ -lox imp. 

Hxo? qeM?//7. yKpe|nHXb, -njiio, 

-nnmb, -nnx 

1. to fortify. yKpenjifixb ropo^. To 
fortify a town. 

2. fig. to strengthen. VKpennxb 
BAOpOBbe. To strengthen one's 
health, ynpenjinxb flpywecxBen- 
Hbie CBH3H. To strengthen friend- 
ly ties. 

^JIHI^A /. 

1. street. TjiaBnan yjinna. The 
main street. H muBy na yjiHn,e 




ropbKOro. / live in Gorky Street. 
Hath no yjiHi^e. To go along the 
2. outside. Bhhth na ynnqy. To 
go out. Ha yjiHii,e xojiOAnee, HeM 
flOMa. It's colder outside than in- 
yjiynniAlTb, -ro, -emb. -rox imp. 
1T0?/ p. yjiyHin|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax 
to improve 

yjiyquiaxb >KH3Hb Hapo^a. To im- 
prove the people's life. yjiyqmaTb 
yCJiOBHH pa66TLi. To improve working 
yjiyHfflA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -iotch imp. /p. 
yjiyqinlHTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -axcfl to im- 

Moe s^opoBbe yjiynrnHjiocb. My 
health has improved. OTHoraeHHH 
uemjiY 3THMH CTpanaMH yjiynmaiOT- 
CH. The relations between these coun- 
tries are improving. 

yjiyHfflHTb see yjiyqiHATb 
yjiynmHTbCH see yjiyqiHATbCH 

yjIbIBA|TbCH, -locb, -embcH, -iotch 
imp. K M y? HeMy?/p. (momen- 
taneous action) yjibi6HlyTbCH, -ycb, 
-embCH, -yTCfl to smile 
yjibi6HyTbCH Apyry. To smile to a 

yjII>IB|KA /., gen. pi. -ok smile 
PaAOCTHaH yjibi6Ka. A joyous smile. 
FoBopHTb c yjitiSKOH. To say with 
a smile. CMOTpexb na peSeHKa c 
JiacKOBOH yjitiSKOH. To look at a 
child with a kind smile. 

yjIblBHyXbCH see yjIblBAXbCH 

yM m. 

1. no pi. intellect, mind, intel- 
ligence. rjiySoKHii yM. A pro- 
found intellect. HejioBeK 6ojib- 
moro yMa. A man of great in- 

2. intellect. Jlyqmne yMw nejioee- 
necTBa. The greatest intellects of 

<0^ C^oxaTb B yMe. To count men- 
tally. Mne npHmjio Ha yw. It 
occurred to me. J^eJiaxb ito-jih- 
6o c yMOM. To do something clev- 
erly. BosbMHCb 3a yM. Be reason- 
able. CoHTH c yMa. To go mad. 
BbiTb 6e3 yMa ox Kor6-JiH6o. 
To dote on somebody. Bbixb ce6e 

Ha yMe. To know which side one's 
bread is buttered on. Ym xopomo, 
a flea jiyime (proverb). Gf. Two 
heads are better than one. 

yMEHbmAlTbj -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo?/ p. yMeHbm|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax 
to lessen, to reduce 
yMenbrnnxb AaBJienne. To lessen 
the pressure. yMCHbmHTb CKopoCTb. 
To reduce the speed. yMeubmHTb 
KOJiHHecTBo paGoMHX. To cut down 
the number of workers. 

yMEHbfflA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -eTCH, -iotch 
imp. /p. yMeHbin|HTbCH, 1st & 2nd 
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch, 
-axcH to lessen, to decrease 
J]|aBjieHHe yMenbmHJiocb. The pres- 
sure has decreased. PaccToauHe Me>K- 
Ay qjiMH SmcTpo yMeubmaJiocb. The 
distance between us was fast growing 

yMEHbinHTb see yMEHbinATb 
yMEHbfflHTbCH see yMEHblHATb- 

yMEPETb see yMHPATb 

yME|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. usu. -f 
imp. inf.) p. cyMe|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot 
-f- p. inf. to be able, can 
H yMeio HHxaTb. / can read. Oh 
yMeeT nrpaTb b TeuHHC. He can 
play tennis. Ona cyMejia AoSnTbCH 
yBaH^euHH. She succeeded in winning 

yMHPA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k>t ^ imp.f 
p. yMepcTb, yMply, -emb, -yT, past 
yMep, yMepjia, yMepji|o, -h 

1. to die. yMepeTb b 6oi6. To die 
in battle. yMepeTb ot rojio^a. 
To die of hunger. 

2. fig. to die. 3th n^en ne yMpyT. 
These ideas are immortal. 

<> yMHpaxb CO cMexy. To die of 

laughing. yMnpaxb c roJiOAy (fig.). 

To be starving. 
yMHiblH, -an, -oe, -we, short form 

yMCH, yMHa, yMH|6, -h; adv. yMHo 


yMHHH HeJioseK. A clever person. 

Oh yMCH. He is clever. Oh bcji ce- 

6h yMHo. He behaved cleverly. 
yMbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko- 

r 6? H X o? He m?//?. yMuxb, yMolio, 

-emb, -IOT to wash 

yMUBaTb jihi;6 xojioahoh boaoh. 




To wash one's face with cold water. 
VMHEaTB pe6eHKa. To wash a child. 

yMblBAlTbCH, -locb, -enibCH, -iotch 
imp. ^eM?/p. yMHTbCfl, yMoIiocb, 
-embCfl, -IOTCH to wash 
yMHBaxbCfl TenjiOH bo;i;6h. To wash 
with warm water. yMbiBaTbCH c mh- 
JiOM. To wash with soap. 

yMKlTbCfl see yMblBATbCH 

yHHBEPMAr m. department store 
U[eHTpaJibHHH yHHBepMar. The cen- 
tral department store. Kynnxb najib- 
t6 b yHHBepMare. To buy an over- 
coat at a department store. 


1. university. Mockobckhh rocy- 
j^apcTBeHHHH yHHBepcHxeT. Mos- 
cow State University. yqHXbCH 
B yHHBepcHxeTe. To study at a 
university . 

2, university. yuHBepcHTeT Kyjib- 
xypH. A university of culture. 

yHHHTOHCAlTb, -K), -euib, -lox imp. 

Koro? qxo? ^.Qu>|p. ynnnxo- 

H{|HXb, -y, -HDib, -ax to destroy 

yHHHx6>KHXb BpajKecKyio apMHK). 

To wipe out the enemy army. 
ynACTb see HA^ATb 
ynOTPEBJiHiTb, -H), -euib, -lox imp. 

mo?/ p. ynoxpe|6HXb, -6jii6, -6Hmb, 

-6hx to use 

ynoxpeSjiflXb nocjioBHi^bi b penn. 

To use proverbs when speaking. 

ynoxpeSjiHXb HOBbie cjiOBa. To use 

new words. 
ynPABJlUlTb, -K), -enib, -lox imp. 

K e M? H e M? 

1. to drive. ynpaBjiHXb MamnHofi. 
To drive a motor-car. 

2. to govern. ynpaBjiHxb cxpanoH. 
To govern a country. 

ynPAHCHEHHE neut. exercise 

JlerKoe ynpa^KnenHe. An easy exer- 
cise. TpyjtHoe ynpamneHHe. A dif- 
ficult exercise. C^eJiaxb ynpaJKne- 
HHe. To do an exercise. 

ynPHMlbia, -an, -oe, -ue, short 
form ynpHM, -a, -0, -h; adv. ynpH- 
MO stubborn 

ynpHMMH qejiOBCK. A stubborn per- 
son. Oh oHCHb ynpHM. He is very 

>^POB|EHb m , gen. -hh 

1. level. ypoBCHb h{h;^kocxh b 

KOJiSe. The level of the liquid in 
a flask. 

2. fig. standard, level. ypoBenb 
MKH3HH Hapo^a. The living stan- 
dard of the people. KyjibxypHHH 
ypOBeub. The level of culture. 
yP05KAB[ m. harvest 

BoraxbiH ypomafi. A rich harvest. 

Co6paxb ypojKan. To gather in the 

yPOK m. 

1. lesson. HnxepecHMH ypoK. An 
interesting lesson. BHXb na ypo- 
Ke. To be at a lesson. Ono3- 
^axb Ha ypoK. To be late for a 
lesson. ypoK pyccKOro HSHKa. 
A Russian lesson. 

2. lesson, homework. Buymnh 
ypoK. To learn one's lesson. C^e- 
jiaxb ypoKH. To do one's home- 

3. fig. lesson. Ilycxb axo Cy^ex 
BaM ypoKOM. Let that be a lesson 
to you. 

yCflJlHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
Hxo?/p. ycHJi|Hxb, -K), -nmb, -hx 
to strengthen 

ycHJiHTb 3HCij,HnjiHHy. To strength- 
en discipline. ycHJiHXb Ha6jiio;;e- 
HHe. To intensify observation. 

yCflJIHBAITbCH, Jst & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp./ 
p. ycHJilHXbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch to in- 

niyM ycHjiHJiCfl. The noise was grow- 
ing louder. 

yCflJlHTb see yCflJIHBATb 


yCJiOBHE neut. 

1. data, condition. IIoHaxb ycjio- 
BHe sa/ta^H. To understand the 
data of a problem. 3x0 rjiaBHoe 
ycJiOBHe ycnexa. This is the 
chief condition for success. 

2. only pi. conditions. npHpo^Hbie 
ycjTOBHH. Natural surroundings. 
ycjiOBHH JKH3HH. Living condi- 
tions. Pa66xaxb b xawejibix yc- 
JiOBHflX. To work under difficult 
conditions. Coa^axb HopMajibume 
ycJiOBHH ji;jiH paSoxu. To provide 
normal conditions for work. 

<> B TaKHX (3THX) yCJlOBHflX... 

Under such (these) conditions. 
yCJIb'IfflATb see CJlKimATb 




yCHEBAlTb, -K), -ensh, -K)t imp. 
-|- inf./ p. ycnelTb, -lo, -einb, -K)t 
usu.-\-p. inf. 

1. to have enough time (to do 
something). Oh ycneji npo^HTaxb 
KHHry B cpOK. He managed to 
finish the book in time. Oh ycneji 
npHHTH K ywHHy. He was in 
time for supper. 

2.: He ycnejin mh Buexaib h3 
ropofla, KaK nomeji jio>Kjs,h. 
Hardly had we left the town when 
it began raining. 

3. only imp.: 3tot CTyaeHT He 
ycneBaeT no $H3HKe. This stu- 
dent is backward in physics. 
yCHETb see yCHEBATb 
ycnPiX m. success 

^o6HTbCfl ycnexa b paSoxe, To 

achieve success in one's work. CnoK- 

TaKJib HMCJi 6oJibm6H ycnex. The 

performance was a great success. 

JKeJiaio BaM ycnexoBl / wish you 

ycnOKAHBAITb, -H), -emb, -iot imp. 

KOTO? / p. ycnoKolHTb, -10, -nmb, 

-HT to calm, to reassure 

VcnoKOHTb 6ojibH6ro. To reassure 

the patient. YcnoKOHTb HepBH. To 

calm one's nerves. 
ycnOKAHBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, 

-lOTCH imp. /p. ycnoKOlHTbCfl, -locb, 

-nmbCH, -HTCfl 

1. to quieten, to become calm. Pe- 
6eH0K ycnoKOHjiCH. The child has 
quietened. Mope ycnOKOHJiocb. 
The sea became calm. 

2. to soothe, to abate. Bojib ycno- 
KOHJiacb. The pain has abated. 

3. to rest. He ycnoKaiiBaTbca na 
AOCTHrnyTOM. Not to rest on 
one's achievements. 

ycnOKOHTb see ycnOKAHBATb 

yCTAlBATb, -10, -emb, -rox imp. + 

inf. /p. ycTa|Tb, -ny, -nemb, -Hyx 

to get tired 

Bqepa h oqenb ycxaJi. / got very 

tired yesterday. Vcxaxb ox cnopa. 

To get tired of arguing. Vcxaxb 

xanneBaxb. To get tired of dancing. 
yCTAJI|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He; adu. ycxa- 

Jio tired 

VcxajiLiH ^eJiOBeK. A tired person. 

ycxaJiHH BsrJiHfl. A tired look. 

ycxajioe JiHn6. A haggard face. Oh 
BMrjiflfleji ycxajio. He looked tired. 

yCTATb see yCTABAXb 

yCTH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -ue; adv. ycTHO 

ycxHHH aKaaMCH. An oral examina- 
tion. ycxHoe aaHBjienne. An oral 
statement. OxBenaxb ycxHO. To 
answer orally. 

yCTPAHBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. 
qxo?/p. ycxpolHXb, -10, -nmb, -ht 

1. to arrange. Ycxponxb Konqepx. 
To arrange a concert. ycxpoHXb 
Be^ep. To arrange an evening' 

2. Koro? colloq. to suit. MeHH 6x0 
He ycxpaHBaex. That doesn't 
suit me. 


yCKl, ^ing. yc used rarely mous- 
tache (s) 

Jl|jiHHHLie ycH. A long moustache. 
HocHXb ycti. To wear a moustache. 

yXOHyTb see TOHyXb 

yXPEHHIHfl, -nn, -ee, -ne morning 
yxpcHHee c6jiHn;e. The morning sun. 
yxpeHHHH nporyjiKa. A morning 

yXPO neut., dat. pi. no yxpaM morn- 

Csemee yxpo. A cool morning. C ca- 
MOro yxpa. From early in the morn- 
ing. Hnxaxb KHiiry ao yxpa. To 
read the book till morning. B 7 Ha- 
coB yxpa. At 7 o'clock in the morn- 

yXPOM adv. in the morning 

BcxaBaxb pano yxpoM. To get up 
early in the morning. 3aBxpa yx- 
poM MH Bce pemHM. We'll settle 
everything tomorrow morning. 

yXiDr m.r gen. -a iron 

FopHHHH yxior. A hot iron. Fji^* 
^HXb yxioroM. To iron (to press). 

yxo neut., pi. ymn, ymen ear 
BojibHHe ymn. Bad ears. 
<> CKasaTb Ha yxo. To whisper 
into somebody's ear. He BepHTb 
CBOHM ymaM. Not to believe one's 
ears. Ho ymii BJiio5HTbCfl b Koro- 
JiA6o. To be head over heels in love 
with somebody. 

yXOJ^flXb, yxoHty, yxoanrab, yxo- 
flHX imp./ p. yHXH, VHAJy, ^ -emb, 
-yx, past ymeji, ymji|a, -6, -h to go 
away, to leave 




Oh KynHJi KHHry h yraeji h3 Mara- 
SHHa. He bought the hook and left 
the shop. Bee ynijiii na 9KCKypcHH). 
Everybody has gone on an excursion. 
^ Oh yraeJi c tojioboh b paSoxy. 
He is up to his eyes in work. 

yxy^niAlTb, -lo, -emb, -lOT imp. 
HTO? / p. yxy^niHTb, yxyAmly, 
-nmb, -ax to make worse 
yxy^niHTb CBoe nojiOHCCHHe. To 
make one's situation worse. 

yxyAfflAITbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 
used, 3rd pers. -ctch, -iotch imp./ 
p. yxyj^m|HTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. 
not used, 3rd pers. -htch, -axca to 
deteriorate, to become worse 
IIojioJKeHHe B CTpaee yxyamnjiocb. 
The situation in the country has 
deteriorated. SflopoBbe 6oJibH6ro 
yxyjimHJiocb. The patient's health 
has become worse. 

yx^AfflHTb see yxyAmAxb 

yX^AniHTbCfl see yxyAoiATbCH 
ynACTBIOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 

imp. B H e M? to take part 

ynaCTBOBaxb b copeBHOBaHHHX. To 

take part in competitions . 
yHACTHE neut., no pi. b qeM? 


ripHHjixb yqacxne b KOHn,epxe. To 

take part in a concert. 
yHACTHHK m. participant 
ynACTlOK m., gen. -Ka 

1. section. JIbchoh ynacxoK. A sec- 
tion of a forest. 

2. sector. Ba>KHHH ynacxoK pa66- 
XM. An important sector of work. 

3. district. HsSHpaxejibHHH y^a- 
cxoK. An electoral district. 

yHEBHHK m. text-book 

yqeSHHK pyccKoro asuKa. A Rus- 
sian text-book. yneSHHK aJth xex- 
HH^ecKHx HHCXHxyxoB. A text-book 
for technical institutes. 

yHKBHlbin, -aH, -oe, -ue school, 

yneGHWH rOA A school (academic) 
year. YqeGnoe nocoSne. An aid to 
study, a teaching aid. 

yHEHflK m., gen. -a 

1. pupil. yqeHHK cpeAHen raKOJiH. 
A secondary-school pupil. 

2. pupil, disciple. ynemiK snaMe- 
HHxoro npo|)eccopa. The famous 
professor's pupil. 

yHEH|bItt, -an, -oe, -He 

1. scientific, academic. YHCHaH 
cxeneHb. An academic degree. 

2. used as n. scientist. HsBecxHbiH 
y^eHHH. A well-known scientist. 

ynflTEJIIb m., pi. -n teacher 

y^Hxejib (|)H3HKH. A physics teach- 
er. Pa66xaxb yqnxejieM b mKOJie, 
To work as a schoolmaster. Cxaxb 
y^HxejieM. To become a teacher. 

ynflTb, yqy, yHHmb, y^ax imp. 

1. p. Bbiyq|HXb, -y, -nmb, -ax h x o? 
to learn. YqHXb ypoK. To learn 
one's lesson. Bwy^nxb cxhxoxbo- 
penne. To learn a poem. 

2. p. HayHHXb, Hayqy, Haynnmb, 
Haynax ^ e m y? &-}-inf.^ to 
teach. yHHXb nnxaxb h nncaxb. 
To teach to read and to write. 
y^nxb pyccKOMy asHKy. To 
teach Russian. 

ynflTbCH, yqycb, ynnmbCH, yqaxcH 
imp. H e M y? & -f- inf./p. nayqiixb- 
CH, Hayqycb, Hay^HiiibCH, nayHaxca 

1. to learn, to study. Yraxb- 
Cfl njiasaxb. To learn to swim. 
ynnxbCH pyccKOMy asLiKy. To 
study Russian. 

2. no p. to study. Moh 6pax 
y^Hxca B yHHBepcHxexe. My 
brother studies at the university. 

<^ BeK HCHBH — BBK yqHCfa (prov- 
erb). Ci. Live and learn. 
yiDTHIblH, -aa, -oe, -bie; adv. yiox- 
HO cosy, comfortable 
yioxaaa KOMHaxa. A cosy room. 
Sjiecb OMeub yioxno. It is very com- 
fortable here. 

OABPHKA /. factory 

TeKCXHJibHaa (J)a6pHKa. A textile 
factory. PaSoxaxb aa ^aSpane. To 
work at a factory. 

OAKT m. fact 

^eHCXBHxejibBbiH (|)aKX. A real fact. 
OaKXbi roBopax o xom, axo oh 6iiia 
npaB. The facts show that he was 

OAKyjIbTET m. faculty, department 
cDhjioc6(|)CKHH ^anyabxex. The phi- 
losophy department, yqaxbca aa 
XHMHaecKOM (|)aKyabxexe. To study 
at the chemistry department. Ilocxy- 





To enter the physics department. 

OAMflJIHH /. (sur)name 

cDaMHJiHH cxyj^eHxa. The student's 
name. KaK Baiua 4>aMHJiHH? What's 
your name? Moh $aMHJiHH HfiaHOB. 
My name is Icanov. 

OEBPAJI|b m., gen. -a February 
B (JeBpaJie ^acio 6i>iBaioT Mexejin. 
In February there are often snow- 
storms. SaBxpa nrixoe (^esipaJiH. To- 
morrow is the fifth of February. 
Oh yeawaex BOCbMoro (|)eBpaJiH. He 
leaves on the eighth of February. 

onry^PA /. 

1. figure. CxpoHHan (^nrypa. A 
slender form. Y ne'e xoponian 
(|)Hrypa. She has a good figure. 

2. figure. FeoMexpHHecKan (fnrypa. 
A geometrical figure. 

OflSHKA /. physics 

EpoGjiGMH $i]3HKH. The problems 
of physics. 3aHHMaxtca 4>h3hkoh. 
To study physics. JIckuhh no (|)h- 
BHKe. Lectures on physics. fljiepHaa 
(|)H3HKa. Nuclear physics. 

<DH3flHECK|Hn, -afl, -oe, -ne 

1. physical. (DH3HqecKafl cvtna. Phys- 
ical strength. 3aHHMaxbCH ^u- 
3HHecKHM xpyfliOM. To do physi- 
cal work. 

2. physics. OHSHHecKHii $aKyjib- 
xex. The physics department. 

OH3KyjIbT5^PA /. {= (J)H3HHec- 
Kaa Ky-^Lxypa) physical culture 
SauHMaxbCH (|)H3KyJitxypoH. To go 
in for physical culture. 3aHflXHH 
no $H3KyjiBxype. Physical culture 

OHJIbM m. film 

Hayqno-nonyjiHpHHH ^hjilm. A 
popular science film. J^OKyMenxaJib- 
HMH (J)HJibM. A documentary film. 
Xy;;6>KecxBeHHbiH $HJibM. A feature 

OJIAP m. flag 

Focy/^apcxBeHHHH $Jiar, The nation- 
al flag. 

OJIOT m. fleet 

BoeHHO-MopcKOii (|)Jiox. The navy. 
ToproBHH $Jiox. The merchant ma- 
rine. BoBAyniHbiH $jiox. The air fleet. 


1. fountain. Ha njion^aAH 6uji (|)oh- 
xaH. There was a fountain in the 

2. gusher. He^xHHOH ^OHxaH. An 

oOpma /. 

1. shape. Cxoji KpyrjroH (|)6pMH. 
A round table. npe^Mex HMeex 
(|)6pMy uiapa. The object has the 
shape of a ball. 

2. form. CoaepwaHHe n $6pMa. 
The content and the form. 

3. uniform. BocHHan $opMa. Mili- 
tary uniform. 

<> BbiTb B 4>6pMe. To be in good 
form. EbiTb He b ^^^pMe. Not 
to be in good form. 

OOPTOHIKA /., gen. pi. -eu fortochka 
(a small hinged window pane used 
for ventilation) 

OxKptixb ^opxoqKy. To open the 
fortochka. Cnaxb npn oxKpbixoH 
$6ptt)HKe. To sleep with the for- 
tochka open. 

OOTOAnnAPAT m. camera 

CHHMaxb ^oxoannapaxoM. To pho- 

OOTOrPAcDflPlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, 
-yiox imp. k o r 6? h x o? / p. c$o- 
xorpa$Hp|OBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT 
to photograph 

(Doxorpa^npoBaxb peSeHKa. To pho- 
tograph a child. 

OPOHT m., pl.^ -LI front 

Haxh Ha ^poHX. To go to the front. 
CpajKaxbCH Ha (|)p6Hxe. To be fight- 
ing at the front. 

OP5^KTbI otzZt/ pi. fruit 

CBmne ^pyKXbi. Fresh fruit. Uo- 
Kynaxb $pyKXH b MarasHHe. To buy 
fruit at a shop. 

OYTBOJI m. football 

Hrpaxb B (|)yx66ji. To play football. 
CopeBHOBauHH no $yx66jiy. Foot- 
ball competitions. 

X, X 

XAJIAT m. overalls 

FaSoHHH xajiax. Overalls. KynaJib- 
HLiH xaJiax. A bath-robe. J^OM&ni- 
HHH xajiax. A dressing-gown. 

1. character. CHJibHWH xapaKxep. 
A strong character. TBepflWH xa- 
paKxep. A strong character. Bo- 
jieB6H xapaKxep. A strong-willed 




person. HepxH xapaKxepa. Traits 
of character. 
2. nature. XapaKxep mgcthocth. 
The nature of the country. 

XBAJIfiTb, xBajiK), xBaJiHinb, XBajiHx 
imp. Koro? hto? 3a hto?/ 
p. noxBajiHTb, noxBajiio, noxBa- 
jiHmb, noxBajiHT to praise 
XBajiHTb yqeHHKa sa xopomnH ot- 
Bex. To praise a pupil for his good 
answer. XBaJiiixb hobmh cxanoK. 
To praise a new machine-tool. 

XBATAiTb^, -K), -enib, -lox imp. ko- 
to? Hxo?//>. cxBaxHXb, cxBany, 
cxBaxnmb, cxBaxHx to seize 
Oh cxBaxHJi mchh 3a pyny. He 
seized my hand. 

XBATAlTb^, -ex, past -jio impers., 
imp. I p. XBaxHXL, XBaxHx, past 
XBaxHJio to have enough 
Mm xBaxHX BpeMenn cj;ejiaxb ypoKU. 
They'll have enough time to do their 
lessons. EMy ne XBaxaex BpeMenu 
xopomo yqnxb ypoKH. He has no 
time to learn his lessons well. 
<> 3Toro emie hg XBaxaJio! As if 
we didn't have enough trouble with- 
out that! 

XBATflTb see XBATATb^ 

XBOCT m., gen. -a tail 
XHMflHECKIHH, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. chemical. XnMHqecKHH aJieMenx. 
A chemical element. 

2. chemistry, chemical. XfiMH^e- 
CKHH ^aKyjibxex. The chemistry 
department. XnMitqecKaH JiaSo- 
paxopHH. A chemical laboratory. 

XflMHH /. chemistry 

HeopraHuqecKaa xhmhh. Inorganic 

chemistry. OpramiqecKafl xhmhh. 

Organic chemistry. Hsyiiaxb xhmhk). 

To study chemistry. 
XflTPlbin, -aH, -oe, -He 

1. cunning, crafty. XnxpbiH nejio- 
BeK. A cunning person. XHxpLie 
rjia3a. Crafty eyes. Xnxpan 
yjibiSKa. A cunning smile. 

2. fig. tricky. XiixpHH Bonpoc. A 
tricky question. 


1. no pi. bread. BejiMii xJie6. White 
bread. ^epHHH XJie6. Brown 
bread. CBeJKHH xJie6. Fresh 
bread. MarKHH xjieG. Soft bread. 
HepcxBHH xjie6. Stale bread. 

2. pi. xjieSbi, gen. pi. xJie6oB loaf. 
KpyrJiHH xjie6. A round loaf. 

3. pi. xJie6a, gen. pi. xjieSoB corn. 
ySopKa xJie66B. The corn har- 

XJIOniOK m., gen. -Ka cotton 
XOJl,flTb, xojKy, xo^Hmb, xoji^fiT imp. 
(cf. CX0AHTb2) 

1. to walk. On AOJiro xo^hji no 
KOMuaxe. He walked about the 
room for a long time. 

2. to go. ^exH xdjiiiT B mKOJiy. 
Children go to school. Ohh Macxo 
xoztHX B rocxH. They often go 
visiting. Ka}Kji;yio cy656xy cxy- 
^enxLi xojifiT na Benepa. Every 
Saturday the students go to eve- 

3. to wear. Oh Bcerji;a xo/^hx b nep- 
HOM KOcxiOMe. He always wears 
a black suit. 

<> Xo^HTb neiiiKOM. To go on foot. 
X03I1HH m., pi. xoBflGBa, xosaeB 

1. host. Xo3flHH flOMa. The master 
of the house. Xobhhh npurJiacHJi 
rocxen k cxoJiy. The host asked 
the guests to take their places at 

2. owner, master. XoaanH yca^b- 
6li, $a6pHKH. The owner of an 
estate, factory. \\ fig. Xo3HHH 
CBoero BpeMeuH. The master of 
one's time. Xo3hhh cboch cy;i,b- 
6li. The master of one's own 

X03HHCTB0 neut. 

1. no pi. economy. CouHaJiHCXH^ec- 
Koe xo3flHCXBO. Socialist econo- 
my. Hap6;i;Hoe xoshhcxbo. Na- 
tional economy. CeJibCKoe X03flH- 
CXBO. Agriculture. 

2. farm. KojineKXHBHoe xobhh- 
CXBO. A collective farm. Uepej^o- 
Boe X03fjHCXB0. A progressive 
farm. OxcxaJioe xoshhcxbo. A 
backward farm. 

XOJIOAflJIbHHK m. refrigerator 


Get the butter out of the refrigera- 
XOJIOJi;Hlblfl. -an, -oe, -He, short 
form xojiOAen, xojioahsI, x6jioah|o, 
-Bi; adv. xoJioAHO 

1. cold. XoJiOAHHH Bexep. A cold 
wind. XoJio/iHHH ^an. Cold tea. 

2. fig. cold. XojioAHHH oxBex. A 




cold answer. XoJionHLie OTHOrae- 
HHH. Cold relations. Xojioahlih 
BsrJiHA- A cold look. Oh OTBe- 
THJi x6jio;tHO. He answered coldly. 
\predic. impers. Ha yjiHU,e 6hjio 
xoJioflHO. It was cold outside. 


Cold war policy. 

XOPOIIIIHfl, -an, -ee, -ne, short form 
xopoui, -a, -6, -h; adv. xopomo; 
comp. jiyHme (q. v.) good 
XopomaH noro^a. Fine weather. Xo- 
poiuee HacTpoeHHG. A good mood. 
XopouiHH roJTOc. A good voice. Xopo- 
lUHH OTBGT. A good auswer. Xopomo 
HrpaTL B maxMaxH. To play chess 
well. 3to ohghl xopomo. It is very 
good.\predic. impers. Xopomo 6uno 
3a ropoflOMl It was good in the 
country! Xopomo 6ti noexaxb 3a 
ropofl! It would be good to go to 
the country! 
<> Bcero xoporaero! All the best! 

XOTETb, xoMy, xoqemb, xonex, xothm, 
XOTHTG, xoTHT imp. ^ B T 6? or-\- 
inf./p. 3axoTeTb, 3axoqy, 3ax6- 
Hcmb, saxoHGT, saxoTiiM, aaxoTHxe, 
aaxoxHx to want 

Oh xoxeji bhagxl gg. He wanted to 
see her. PgGgbok xotgji KOfl(|)GX. 
The child wanted some sweets. H 
xony, Hxoobi xbi npnmGji cevojjjaa. 
BGHGpoM. / want you to come to- 

XOTETbCH impers. xo^Gxcfl imp. 
KOMy? Horo? or -f ^^/- //>• 
saxoxGXbCH, 3ax6qGxcfl to want 
Mhg xohgxch noiixH b xcaxp. / want 
to go to the theatre. Mhg xohgxch 
nnxb. / am. thirsty. Euf xoxGJiocb 
CKOpGG noHXH K HGH. He wanted to 
go to her as soon as possible. 

XOTH (XOTb) conj. though 


nyxb, xoxH 6mjio xgmho. The trav- 
ellers started on their journey though 
it was dark. 

XPABP|WBf, -an, -og, -wg; adv. xpa6- 
po bravG 

XpafipbiH coJinax. A brave soldier. 
XpaSpbiH nocxynoK. A brave ac- 
tion. XpaSpo cpajKaxbCH. To fight 

XPAH|flTb, -10, -Hfflb, -Hx imp. hxo? 
1. to keep. XpaHHXb Macjio b 

xoJiOflHJiLHHKe. To keep butter in 
a refrigerator. 

2. to kGGp. XpaHHXb nncbMa flpy- 
ra. To keep one's friend's let- 
ters. XpaHHXb B naMflXH 66pa3 
MaxGpn. To keep the image of 
one's mother in one's memory. 
XyaOHCECTBEHHIblfl, -an. -og, -ue 



work of art. XyflOHtGcxBGHHaH jih- 
xGpaxypa. Fiction. Xy;^6>KGCXBGH- 
HMH $HJibM. A feature film. 
<^ XyAOHcecTBCHHafl caMonenTejib- 
HOCTb. Amateur theatricals. 

1. artist, painter. TajiaHXjiHBbiH 
xyflOJKHHK. A gifted artist. 

2. mastGF. XyAOHtHHK cjiona. A 
fnaster of elocution. 

XyjXlOU, -aH, -06, -HG thin 
XyAOH pgSghok. a thin child. 

X^5KE comp. of adj. nJioxoH & adv. 

1. worsG, not so good. IIoroAa 
CGroAHH xywG, qGM BHGpa. To- 
day the weather is not so good 
as it was yesterday. 

2. worsG. Oh qyBcxBycx CG6fl xy- 
5KG, tiGM BHGpa. He feels worse 
than he did yesterday. 

I|AP|b m., gen. -A 

1. tsar. PyccKHH i;apb. Tlie Rus- 
sian Tsar. 

2. king. I^apb sBGpcH. The king of 
animals. Hapb nxHi5. The king of 

<0> Hpii qape Topoxe. In olden 
times. Be3 i^apa e rojioee. None 
too clever. 

I^BElCTft, -xy, -xeuib, -xyx, past nBeji, 
nBGJi|a, -6, -H imp to blossom 
I^BGxex CHpGHb. The lilacs are in 
blossom. BHmHH ijBexex. The cherry- 
trees are in blossom. 

I^BET m., pl.-& colour 

KaKoro nBexa Bamc naJibxo? What 
colour is your coat? ITajibxo ceporo 
itBGxa. A grey coat. IlJiaxbH npKHX 
nBGxoB. Gay- coloured dresses. 

I^BETII|Ofl, -an, -6e, -hg colourGd 
I4BGXHMe KapaHAaran. Coloured 




pencils. I^BexHOH $H''iI'M. A colour 


<0> I^BeTHwe MexaJiaw. Non-ferrous 

I^BET|OK m.y gen. -Ka; pi. i;BeTM, 

itBexoB flower 

^yuiHCTtie i^BexLi. Sweet-smelling 

flowers. BHpamHBaxb u,bctli. To 

grow flowers. Ona npnuiJia c ubct- 

KOM B BOJiocax. She came with a 

flower in her hair. 
I^EJIHHA /. virgin soil 

IIoAHHMaTB i;ejiHHy. To plough 

virgin lands. OcBaHBaiL i],ejiHHy. 

To bring virgin lands under the 

I^EJI|OBATL, -yio, -yeiub, -yrox imp. 

Koro? ^T0?//7. noqejiloBaxB, -yio, 

-yemfc, -yiox to kiss 

l^ejiOBaxb peSeHKa. To kiss a child. 

non;ejiOBaxB MaxB. To kiss the moth- 
U,EJIlOBATbCH, -yrocB, -yeiuBCH, 

-yioxcfl imp. c k e M?/p. noinejilo- 

BaxBCfl, -yiocB, -yeniBCH, -yiorcH to 

kiss one another 

KpenKO noi;ejiOBaxBCfl c ^pyroM. 

To kiss one's friend affectionately. 
I^l^JIIWfl, -an, -oe, -tie, short form 

i;en, ^eJIa, EteJi|o, -u 

1. unbroken. CxaKan ynaJi, ho oc- 
xaJiCH ii;eJiBiM. The glass fell, 
but it did not break. 

2. only complete form whole. Oh 
EBinnji uiejiBiH KyBniHH BOj\bi. He 
drank the whole jug of water. 

<0> I^eji II HeepeAHM. Safe and 

^EJlb /. 

1. target. CxpejiHXB b i^cjib. To 
shoot at a target. 

2. objective. IIocxaBHXB ce6e n;ejiBio. 
To set oneself as an objective. 
J^ocxHHB CBOGH neJiH. To achieve 
one's objective. ^oShxbch hcjih. 
To succeed in one's aim. LJejiB 
WH3HH. One's object in life. 

<> C uejibio, B i^ejiflx.,. With the 

object of... 
I^EHA /., ace. ri;eHy; pi. u,eHU 

1. price. BucoKaH D;eHa. A high 
price. HiisKHG n;eHBi. Low prices. 
IJ[eHa KOCxioMa. The price of 
a suit. noBMinaxB nieHBi na 
npOAyKXBi. To raise prices of 
food-stuffs. CHHH^axB i;eHBi Ha 


o;i;e>Kfly. To cut the prices of 
clothes. noBMuieHHe ii,eH na 10% 
(npoi;eHxoB). A 10 per cent 
price rise. CnHmeHHe i;eH na 
20% (^po^eHXOB). A 20 per cent 
price cut. 

2. fig. value. 

<> JIio56ii u,eH6M. At any price. 
I^EHTP m. 

1. centre. I^enxp ropo^a. The centre 
of the city (town). B D;eHxpe 
ropoAa. In the centre of the town. 

2. centre. PaHOHHBin i^enxp. The 
centre of a region. npoMBimjieH- 
HBie ueHxpM cxpauBi. The in- 
dustrial centres of the country. 
L(eHxp HayKH. A scientific centre. 

<0> I^enxp TawecTii, The centre of 

Il.EHTPAJIbHlI>lfl[, -an, -oe, -Bie cen- 

L(eHxpaJiBHBiH xejierpa(|). The cen- 
tral telegraph office. I^eHxpaJiBHMO 
rasexu. Central newspapers. I][eHX- 
paJiBHLie yjiHU.Bi. Central streets. 

I^EIIb /., prepos. o nenn & na uenH 

1. chain. Co6aKa na ncum. The 
dog is on a chain. 

2. fig. chain. LJenn rop. Chains of 

I^EPKOBb /., gen. i;epKBH; pi. nepK- 
BH, itepKBen, uepKBaM, etc. church 
CxapHHHaH i;epKOBB. An old church. 

I^EX m., prepos. b n;exy & o (b) 
nexe; pi. n.exa (work)shop 
Ha^aJiBHHK uexa. A shop foreman. 
Pa66xaxB b n;exy (n.exe). To work 
at a shop. 

I^HPK m. circus 

EoHxii B unpK. To go to the cir- 
cus. B uHpKe Shjio MHoro napofly. 
There were many people at the cir- 

IJ,0a)PA /. figure 

Pe6eH0K yqujiCH nncaxB nn^pM. 
The child was learning to write fig- 

H, 1 

^lAfl m. 

1. tea. rpysHHCKHH qafi. Georgian 
tea. riHXb Han. To drink tea. 
HaniKa Han. A cup of tea. Kp^n- 
KHH qan. Strong tea. TKaj^Knii 
Han. Weak tea. 




2. tea. BeceAOBaxL 3a «iaeM. To 

talk over tea. 
<> npiujiacHTb iia laiDKy «ian. To 

ask to tea. 
HAflHHK m. teapot; teakettle 
HAC m., gen. naca & »iaca (with car- 
dinal num.), prepos. o ^lace, b »iace 
& B... Macy; pi. -w hour 
KoTopuii qac? What time is it? 
B Mac jiufi. At one o'clock in the 
afternoon. B iieTBepxoM nacy. Be- 
tween 3 and 4 o'clock. Hepea ABa 
Haca. In two hours. Ono3ji,aTb Ha 
^ac. To be an hour late. Tpn ^aca 
iipojiexejiH HeaaMexHO. Three hours 
flew by without anyone noticing it. 
<> HacM niiK. The rush hours. 
B A66pbiH «iae! Good luck! 
HACTHlblK, -an, -oe, -ue 

1. particular. MacxHtiii cjiyqafl. 
A particular case. HacxiiuH bo- 
npoc. A particular question. 

2. private. HacxuaH coGcxBeuHOcxb. 
Private property. 

4ACT0 adv., comp. ^ame (q.v.) often 
Hacxo Bcxpe^axb ^icjioBeKa. To meet 
a person often. Macxo xofliixb b 
xeaxp. To go to the theatre often. 
Hacxo Gojiexb. To be often ill. 

HACT|b /., gen. pi. -efi 

1. part. Hacxb MauiiinH. A part of 
a machine. BoJibinaH nacxb 
AOMa 6unai aannxa cxojiOBoii. 
Most of the house was occupied 
by a dining-hall. Hacxb Jno^eH 
ynijia c coBpanHH. Some people 
left the meeting. 

2. part. HepBafl ^lacxb poMana. The 
first part of the novel. 

3. part. MacxH CBexa. Parts of the 

MACtl pi., no sing, timepiece 

Pyniiue Hacti. A wrist watch. Gxeii- 
Hbie Macbi. A wall clock. Macw ciie- 
luaxiia 5 MHnyx. The clock is 5 min- 
utes fast. Hacbi oxcxaiox ua 3 mh- 
uyxw. The clock is 3 minutes slow. 
Hacbi HAYT xopomo. The clock keeps 
good time. Hacbi ocxaiiOBHJiHCb. The 
clock has stopped. Hacbi cxohx. The 
clock doesn't go. 

HAUIIKA /., gen. pi. -ck cup 

^aHHaH qaiHKa. A teacup. Ko^efi- 
uaH HamKa. A coffee cup. Bwuhtb 
nauiKy ^aio. To drink a cup of tea. 

HAIU,E comp. of adv. qacTO oftener 

PaHbuie xbi xoAHJi ko mhc qame. 

You used to come and see me oftener. 

fl name xeSji xowy b khho. / go 

to the cinema oftener than you do. 
^lEfl, HbH, »ibe, ^bH pron. whose 

Heu bTO cjiOBapb? Whose dictionary 

is it? Hbn &X0 xexpa^B? Whose 

copy-book is this? Hbe bro nepo? 

Whose pen is this? HbH ^xo KHMra? 

Whose books are these? 
HEfl-TO, HbH-xo, »ibe-xo, qbii-xo pron. 


fl no omiiGKC b3Hji neii-xo nopx- 

(|)ejib. / took somebody's brief-case 

by mistake. 
MEJIOBEK m., pi. jiioah, JHOacm, jiio- 

AHM, jnoAbMii, o jiioAflx man, person 

CboGoahum iiejiOBeK. A free person. 

XopjimHH ^lejiOBeK. A good person. 

llac Gbijio HHXb iiejiOBCK. There 

were five of us. 

O Mojiojs,6ime:iOBeK. A young man. 
MEJI0BE4ECK|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne 

1. human. HejiOBenecKoe 66mecxBO. 
Human society. 

2. humane, kind. HejiOBeqecKoe 
oxHomeHne. Humane attitude. 

MEJIOBEHECTBO neut. mankind 

MEM conj. than 

Bpax cxapmc, "icm cecxpa. The 
brother is older than the sister. On 
npnmeji nosAuee, »ieM B^epa. He 
came later than yesterday. 
<> MeM paHbme, tgm jiymne. The 
earlier, the better. 

HEMOj[^AH m. suit-case, trunk 

MEMIIHOH m. champion 

MeMnnon no maxMaxaM. A chess 
champion. MeMnnoH no njiaBannio. 
A swimming champion. 

MEPE3 prep. + ace. 

1. across. ITepeiixH qepe3 njiouiaAfc. 
To cross a square, riepenjiijxb 
Mepea peny. To swim across a 

2. over. Epbirnyxb qepea aaSop. 
To jump over a fence. 

3. through. Bjieaxb ^lepea okho. To 
climb through the window. Haxh 
qepea Jiec. To go through the 

4. in. Oini Bepnyjmcb qepea MecHi;. 
They returned a month later. 
Mepea xpii aha oh yexaji. He 
left in three days. 




5. every other.... ripHHHMaTB lie- 
KapcTBO qepea qac. To take med- 
icine every other hour. Xoamtl 
Kyaa-jiHSo Hepe3 aghb. To go 
somewhere every other day. 
HEPHflJIA pi., no sing, ink 

HepHtie HepHHJia. Black ink. IlHcaTij 
HepHHjiaMH. To write in ink. 
qfiPHlBIfl, -an, -oe, -ue black 
^epHBie BOJiocM. Black hair. 
<0> HepHbiM xjie5. Brown bread. 
Hepnafl HKpa. Black caviare. Hep- 
Hwii K64>e. Black coffee. 
4EPT m., pi. ijepxH, qepxeH devil 
OIIocjiaTb K qepxy. To send to hell. 
HepT B03bMH! The deuce take it! 
HepT c hhm! Let him go to hell! 

1. line. npoBecTii nepTy. To draw 
a line. 

2. boundary. Hepxa ropoAa. The 
city (town) boundary. 

3. trait, ^epibi xapaKxepa. Traits 
of character. 

<> Hepxbi JiHU,a. Features. 

HECTHlblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short form 
^lecxeH, necxHa, ^lecxHlo, -li; adv. 
HecxHO honest 

HecxHfciH HeJiOBeK. An honest per- 
son. HecxHLie rjiaaa. Honest eyes. 
nocxynnxb ^lecxHO. To act hon- 

<> J^aTb HecTHoe cjiobo. To give 
one's word of honour. 

HETBEPO num. four 

MexBepo flpyaen. Four friends. II x 
GbiJio MexBepo. There were four of 

METBEPT|b /., gen. pi. -en 

1. quarter. MexBepxb H6jiOKa. A 
quarter of an apple. 

2. quarter. ^exBepxb naca. A quar- 
ter of an hour. Bea ^exBepxH 
nflXb. It is a quarter to five. 
Ceii^ac nexBepxb mecxoro. It is 
a quarter past five. 

HHHflTb, HHHio, imHHUib, HHHHx imp. 
4X0? I p. noqHHHxb, oomhhk), no- 
iiHHHuib, noTOHHx to mend 
XIoHHHHXb nacw. To mend a watch. 
^Inmrxb nocKit. To mend socks. 

HHCJIO neut., pi. qiicjia, qiiceji, hhc- 
jiaM, etc. 

1 number. I^eJioe hhcjio. A whole 
number. Bojibmoe qncJio jno^eH. 
A large number of people. Bbixb 


B qncjie apyaen. To be among 

one's friends. 
2. date. KaKoe cero^HH qncjio? 

What is the date today? B nepBWx 

qncJiax Mapxa. Early in March. 
<> B TOM »iiicjie... Including... 
Hfl|CTHTb, -my, -cxnmb, -cxhx imp. 
H T 0? II e M? 

1. p. noHH|cxHxb, -my, -cxHmb, 
-CXHX to clean. Hhcxhxb syGbi 
mexKoii. To clean one's teeth 
with a toothbrush. ^iicxHXb 6o- 
XHHKH. To clean one's boots. 

2. p. OHH|cxHXb, -n];y, -cxnmb, -cxhx 
to peel. HncxHXb KapxomKy. 
To peel potatoes. OnHCXHXb aneJib- 
CHH^ To peel an orange. 

HHCT|bIH, -an, -oe, -He, short form 
HHcx, HHCxa, 4Hcx|o, -m; adv. qiicxo; 
comp. mime 

1. clean. ^hicxaH BO^a. Clean wa- 
ter. Hncxbie pyKH. Clean hands. 
Hncxan py5amKa. A clean shirt. 

2. pure. Hiicxoe sojioxo. Pure gold. 
Mncxan mepcxb. Pure wool. 

3. fig. clear. HncxaH coBecxb. Clear 
conscience. FoBopiixb na »ihcxom 
pyccKOM H3HKe. To speak good 
Russian. Gji,eJiaxb noAsipOK ox 
uiicxoro cepAU;a. To give a pre- 
sent without any ulterior motives. 

HHTAjTb, -K), -emb, -lox iinp. q x o?/ 
p. npoHHxa|xb, -K), -emb, -lox 

1. to read, ^nxaxb rasexy. To read 
a newspaper. Hnxaxb HymKHHa. 
To read Pushkin. Hnxaxb BCJiyx. 
To read aloud. Hnxaxb npo ce- 
6h. To read to oneself. 

2. to deliver. Hnxaxb JieKi^Hio. 
To deliver a lecture. 

HJIEH m. member 

^Ijien ccMbii. A member of the fa- 
tuity. Hjien napxHH. A member of 
a party, ^jichm npaBiixeJibcxBa. 
Members of the government. 

HTEHHE fieut. 

1. reading. Knura ajih hxcuhh. A 
reader, a reading book. 

2. reading. ^OMamnee Hxenne. 

HTO^ [mxo] pron., gen. qero [hhboI, 
dat. ^CMy, ace. qxo, instr. ^om, 
prepos. o »]eM what 
Mxo ACJiaxb? What is to be done? 
Mxo OH CKasaJi? What did he say? 
'leM OH AyMaex? What is he 




thinking about? H CKaaaJi, mo jiytAaJi. 

I said what I thought. 

<> Hto ^o 3a Bemb? What sort 

of thing is that? 
HTO^ [uiTo] conj. that 

fl AyMajia, *iTO 3X0 HHiepecHO. / 

thought it would be interesting. 
HTOBW [uiToeti] conj. 

1. in order (to) or rendered by the 
inf. Ht66u xopomo SHaxb HawK, 
HaAO MHoro saHHMaTtcfl. To 
know a language well one must 
study a lot. Oh BCxaJi oieHL pa- 
HO, ht66h He OHosAaxb. He got 
up very early in order not to be 

2. that. Bee jiioah na seMJie xoxht, 
m66u He 6wjio bohhw. All the 
people in the world wish that 
there should be no war. BaM npo- 
CHJiH nepeAaxb, qx66M bu npn- 
mjiH saBxpa. They asked me to 
tell you to come tomorrow. 

HTO-HHBS^^B [mxo-] pron., gen. ne- 
r6-HH6yAb [qHBO-] , dat.neMy-HJi6yji,h, 
ace. HXo-HH6yflb, instr. iieM-HHSyAt, 
prepos. qeM-HH6yAi> something 
PaccKajKH MHe HT6-iiu6y}ib. Tell me 

HTO-TO [fflxo-] pron., gen. qoro-xo 
[qHBO-], dat. qeMy-xo, ace. hx6-xo, 
instr. qeM-xo, prepos. o qcM-xo 

Hx6-xo ynaJio b coceAHea KOMHaxe. 
Something fell in the adjoining 

HS^BCTBO [qycxBa] neut. feeling 
HcHbixaxb rjiySoKoe qyBcxBO pa- 
flOcxH. To feel great joy. HyBCXBo 
coJiHAapHOCXH. A feeling of solidar- 

-H^BCTBIOBATb [qycxBasaxb], -yio, 
-yemb, -yiox imp. q x o?/p. noqVBCx- 
BlOBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to feel 
HyBCXBOBaxb 6ojib. To feel a pain. 
rioqyBcxBOBaxb rojiOA- To feel 
hungry. HyscxBOBaxb rJiyGoKoe 
yBawcHHe. To have profound re- 

<> KaK Bbi ceSfl qyacTsyeTe? How 
do you feel? R qyBCTByio ce6^ 
njioxo (xopomo). / feel bad (all 

HyAfiCHlMH, -an, -oe, -ue, short 
form qyAeccH, qyaecHla, -o, -m; 
adv. qyA^CHO wonderful 

^yAecHan AenymKa. A wonderful 
girl. MyAeceaH norOAa. Wonderful 
weather, fl qyAecHO ce6H qyBcxByio. 
/ feel fine. 
Hym\OVl, -an, -6e, -ne 

1. somebody else's. Hymoik nopx- 
^Jib. Somebody else's brief-case. 

2. strange. Hymoii qeJiOB^K. A 
strange man. 

3. foreign. ^yjKafl seMJiH. A for- 
eign land. 

MYJIOK m., gen. qyjiKa; pi. qyjiKH, 
qyjioK, qyjiKaM, etc. stocking 
HpocxLie qyjiKH. Ordinary stock- 
ings. niepcxflHbie qyjiKH. Woollen 
stockings. KanponoBbie qyjiKH. Kap- 
ron stockings. 

HyXb adv. nearly, scarcely 

Oh qyxb He onosAaJi na noesA. He 
wasMiearly late for his train. Oh 
roBopHJi qyxb cibimno. He spoke 
scarcely audibly. 

^YTh'HSTb adv. nearly, a little bit 
fl qyxb-qyxb ne ynaJi. / nearly 
fell. ToBopii qyxb-qyxb rpoMqe. 
Speak a little louder. 

m, m 

IIIAr m., gen. mara & mara (with 
cardinal num.); pi. marn 

1. step. ninpoKHH mar. A long 

2. fig. step. 3x0 hobmh mar bhc- 
peA- This is a new step forward. 

<> Ham AOM HaxoAHTCH b AByx 
marax ot ocTaeoBKH TpaMsan. 
Our house is a few steps away 
from a tram stop. Ha Ka»<AOM 
mary BCTpeqaJiHCb MarasHHU. 
There were shops at every step. 

lIlAniKA /., gen. pi. -ok cap 

MexoBaH manKa. A fur cap. Ho- 
ciixb manKy. To wear a cap. Xo- 
AHXb 6e3 manKH. To go without a 

niAP m., pi. -M 

1. sphere, l^enxp mapa. The centre 
of a sphere. PaAHyc mapa. The 
radius of a sphere. 

2. globe. SeMHOH map. The terres- 
trial globe. BoaAyniHHH map. 
A balloon. 

niAPO m. scarf 

TenjiMH map$. A warm scarf. 




llIAXMATbl pi., no sing, chess 

Hrpaxb B maxMaxH. To play chess. 
HeMnHOH MHpa no maxMaxaM. The 
world chess champion. 
fflAXTA /. mine, pit 

yrojibnaa maxxa. A coal mine. 
^o5HBaxB yrojib b raaxxe. To mine 
coal in a pit. 
lUEJIK m., pi. uienKa silk 

IlJiaxbe H3 mejiKa. A dress made 
of silk. HaxypaJibHHH mejiK. Natu- 
ral silk. HcKyccxBeHHMH mejiK. 
Artificial silk. 
lUEjIKOBIbin, -an, -oe, -me silk 
inejiKOBMH njiaxoK. A silk scarf. 
niejiKOBaa pySaniKa. A silk shirt. 
inEnOTOM adv. in a whisper 

ToBopiixb menoxoM. To speak in a 
niEIITATb, menqy, menqenib, nien- 
qyx imp. qxo? KOMy?/p. npo- 
raenxaxb, npomenny, npomennemb, 
nporaenqyx to whisper 
FyGbi ee hx6-xo menxaJin. Her lips 
were whispering something. Oh npo- 
menxaJi hobocxb na yxo cocefl;y. 
He whispered the news into his 
neighbour's ear. 
mEPCTb /., no pi. 

1. hair (of an animal). J^jinHHan 
mepcxb. Long hair. 

2. wool. FpySaH mepcxb. Coarse 

3. wool. KocxioM H3 HHCXOH mep- 
cxH. A suit of pure wool. 
niepcxb Ha njiaxbe. A length of 
woollen material for a dress. 

fflEPCTHHIOfl, -an, -6e, -we woollen 
niepcxHHMe HOCKH. Woollen socks. 
niepcxHHoe Hjiaxbe. A woollen 
in£H /. neck 

Jl^JiHHHaH mefl. A long neck. Toh- 
KaH mefl.^ thin neck. Howixb 6y- 
CH Ha raee. To wear beads around 
one's neck. 

<0> CHrtexb Ha raee y poJ^HTeJIeH. 
To be on one's parents' hands. 
niHPOKIHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form 
mnpoK, -a, -6, -h; adv. mnpoKo; 
comp. ffliipe 

1. broad, wide. IIlHpoKaH pcKa. 
A wide river. ElnpoKHH none. 
A broad belt. H xo^y, hx66li 
i66Ka 6HJia mnpe. / want the 
skirt wider. 


2. fig. ninpoKHe bosmojkhocxh. 
Great possibilities. DlHpoKaH na- 
xypa. A generous person. 

3. only short form too wide. IlJiaxbe 
MHe mnpoKO b noHce. The dress 
is too large in the waist for me. 

niHTb, mb|io, -emb, -lox, imper. men 
imp. Hxo? KOMy? HeMy? / p. 
cmnxb, cofflb|i6, -emb, -lox to sew, 
to make 

niHXb njiaxbe j^jia Aonepii. To 
make a dress for one's daughter. 
Cranxb KOCXIOM b axeJibe. To have 
a costume made at a dressmaker's. 

inKAO m., prepos. b mKa(|)y & o 
mKa(|)e; pi. mKa^ti 
Khhjkhhh mKa$. A bookcase. Khh- 
ra cxoHX b mna^y na noJiKe. The 
book is on a shelf in the bookcase. 
IlJiaxHHOH raKa$. A wardrobe. He- 
cropaeMBiii mKa(|). A safe. 

mKOJIA /. 

1. school. yqnxbCH b mKOJie. To 
go to school. Hocxynnxb b mKO- 
Jiy. To enter school. OKonqiixb 
mKOJiy. To finish school. 

2. fig. school. Oh npomeji xopo- 
myio mKOJiy jkhbhh. Life has 
been a good school to him. 

<> Ha^iajibHaa raKOJia. A primary 
school. CpeflHHH raKOJia. A sec- 
ondary school. Bbicman mKojia. 
A higher school. MysbiKa.ibHafl 
mKojia. A musical school. IIIko- 
Jia-HHTepnaT. A boarding-school. 

mJIIInA /. hat 

BeceHHHfl mJiana. A spring hat. 
niJiana c mnpoKHMH nojiaMH. A 
wide-brimmed hat. 

inOCCE neut., indecl. highway 

Exaxb no mnpoKOMy mocce. To 
drive along a wide highway. Bji;0Jib 
mocce pacxyx nepeBba. There are 
trees on both sides of the highway 

inOOfiP m. chauffeur, driver 
Dlo^ep xaKCH. A taxi-driver. 

milHOH m. spy 

mxyKA /. piece, thing 

10 mxyK nannpoc. 10 cigarettes. 

fflYM m. 

1. noise, sound. Mh ycnHmajm 
CHJibHHH rayM. We heard a loud 
noise. UlyM AOat^a. The sound 
of rain. 

2. fig. row. IIOAHFixb myM BOKpyr 




co6uTHH. To raise a hue and 

cry over an event. 
myiMETb, -MJiK), -MHmb, -MAT imp. 
to make a noise 

Mope rayMHT. The sea is noisy. 
J\eTU myMHT. The children are mak- 
ing a noise. 
inyXfiTb, my^y, myTHinb, myxHT 
imp. /p. norayTHTb, nomy^y, no- 
myTHmb, norayxHT 
l/to joke. fflyxHTb c flpysbHMH. 

To joke with one's friends. 
2. Hafl KeM? to joke. IQyTHTb 

Hafl pacceflHHHM TOBapHmeM. To 

joke at an absent-minded friend. 
III^TIKA /., gen. pi. -ok joke 

OcxpoyMHan myxKa. A witty joke. 
3Jiafl myxKa. A malicious joke. 
-«0» GKasaTb b myxKy. To say (some- 
thing) in jest. 

n^, m 

mE^PIBIfl, -aa, -oe, -He 

1. generous. IHe;tpHH xosahh. A 
generous host. I^e;^poe ceipjme. 
A generous heart. 

2. fig. lavish, rich, meapan npn- 
p6fl;a. Lavish nature. JH^ejiipuu 
ypojKan. A rich harvest. 

mEKA /., ace. n;eKy; pi. h^Skh, ntCK, 
meKaM, etc. cheek 

m£T|KA /., gen. pi. -ok brush 

3y6Hafl n;exKa. A toothbrush. IHex- 
Ka fl;jifl o^ejKAM. Clothes-brush. Ca- 
nownan niexKa. A shoe-brush. Hric- 
XHXb mexKOH xy(|)JiH. To clean 
one's shoes with a brush. 

3, a 

3K3AMEH m. examination 

TpyflHHH aKsaMen. A difficult 
examination. JTerKHH aKsaMen. An 
easy examination. FocyflapcxBeHnHH 
SKSaMeH. A State examination. 
CflaBaxb (cAaxb) aKsaMCH. To take 
(pass) an examination. HpOBajiHTb- 
CH Ha 3K3aMeHe. To fail in an 

3KOH0MHKA /. no pi. economics 


The economics of agriculture. 
3KOH0MHH /. no pi. 

1. economy. Bkohomhh aneprHH. 

The economy of energy. Co6jik)- 
flaxb 3KOh6mhk). To observe econ- 
2. economy. IIojiHXHHecKafl 3koh6- 
MHH. Political economy. 

3KPAH m. screen 

3KpaH xejieBHSopa. The screen of a 
T.V. set. 3KpaH b KHHoaaJie. The 
screen in a cinema. niHpoKHH aK- 
paH. A wide screen Ha aKpanax 
KHHOxeaxpoB fleMOHCxpHpyexcfl h6- 
BHH $HJibM. A new film is on at 
the cinemas. 

3KCKyPCHH /. excursion 

BaropoflHaH aKCKypcHH. An outing 
to the country. 3KCKypcHH b My- 
aen. An excursion to a museum. 
Exaxb na SKCKypcHio. To go on an 

3KCKyPCOB(3;^ m. excursion guide 

3KCnEJ]iflUiHH /. expedition 

HaynuaH aKcncAHUHH. A scientific 
expedition. dKcnejuaixiifi na CeBep- 
HHH n6jiH)C. An expedition to the 
North Pole. y^acxBOBaxb b aKcne- 
flHUHH. To take part in an expedi- 

3KCnJiyATflP|0BATb, -yK), -yemb, 
-yiox Koro? imp. 

1. to exploit. 3KcnjiyaxHpoBaxb 
paSoHHX. To exploit workers. 

2. to make full use of. 3Kcnjiya- 
XHpoBaxb xexHHKy. To make 
full use of technique. 

3JIEKTPflqECKlHfl, -an, -oe, -Me 

3JieKxpHHecKHH xoK. Electric cur- 
rent. 3JieKxpHqecKHH CBex. Electric 
light. 3jieKxpHHecKaH jiaMooHKa. 
An electric bulb. SJiCKxpiiqecKHH 
yxior. An electric iron. SjieKxpH- 
necKHH HaHHHK. An electric teaket- 

3JIEKTP0CTAHI^HH /. electric pow- 
er station 

Kpynnan aJieKxpocxannHH. A large 
electric power station. Ilycxiixb h6- 
ByK) aJieKxpocxanuHK). To put a 
new electric power station into oper- 
ation. SjieKxpocxanuHH aaex tok. 
The electric power station is now 
giving power. 


1. element. IlepiiOflHqecKaH CHCxe- 
Ma aJieMCHTOB. The periodic sys- 
tem of elements. 




2. element. B cxaxBe ecxi. sjieMen- 
TU KpHTHKH. There are elements 
of criticism in the article. 

3. element. IIporpeccHBHtie ajie- 
MCHTH 66n;eCTBa. The progres- 
sive elements of society. 

3HEPrfi[HHILlfl [3H9-], -an, -oe, -He 


SneprHHHHH qeJiOBeK. An energetic 

person. 3HeprHHHue abhjkchhh. 

Energetic movements. SHeprn^HaH 

nox6;^Ka. A wilful gait. 
3HEPrHH [9H3-] /. 

1. energy. BneprHH bo ah. The 
energy of water. 

2. energy. Pa66TaTL c Gojibmon 
aHeprnen. To work with great 

3TA;K m., gen. -a floor, storey 

H{HTb Ha nepBOM axame. To live on 
the ground floor. ExopOH sxaHi. The 
first floor. JIJOM b 7 axaJKCH. A sev- 
en-storeyed house. 

9T0 see STOT 

5 TOT, 3Ta, 3T0, axH pron. 

1. this. 9tot flOM. This house. 
3to okho. This window. 3tot y^e- 
HHK HacTO onaBAHBaex. This pu- 
pil is often late. 

2. that. B axoT js,enh mh bcc co- 
Spa jihcb y Hero. On that day we 
all gathered at his place. 

3. 3T0 neut. it; this, these; 
that, those. 3xo cxoji. This is 
a table. 3x0 cxyjibfl. These 
are chairs. 3x0 Snjia OHa. 
That was she. 3x0 6hjio ^aBHO. 
That was a long time ago. Kxo 
§xo? — 3x0 MOH 6pax. "Who is 
that?" "It's my brother." Hxo 
§xo xaKoe? " What's that?" 3xo 
yneSHHK? — Hex, 3xo cjioBapB. 
"Is it a text-book?" "No, it 
is a dictionary." ^^6 ^xo 3a 
HeJiOBeK? What sort of person 
is he? Hxo ^xo 3a Benut? What 
sort of thing is that? Men ^xo 
CXOJI? — 3x0 CXOJI HBanoBa. 
"Whose desk is it?" "It's Iva- 
nov's desk." Kxo xaM? — 3xo h. 
"Who is there?" "It's me." 

H), H) 

H)B|KA /., gen. pi. -ok skirt 

OHa 6HJia B mnpoKOH K)6Ke. She 
wore a wide skirt. 


lOr m., no pi. 

1. south. Oh nomeji npHMO na lor. 
He went straight south. 

2. south. Ox^Hxaxb na lore. To 
have one's holidays in the south. 
EoexaxB na lor. To go to the 

iDHCHjBIfl, -an, -oe, -ne south(ern) 

IOjkhhh Bexep. A southern wind. 

KDjkhhh hojiioc. The South Pole. 
K)MOP m., no pi. humour 

Hmcxb HyBcxBO lOMopa. To have a 

sense of humour. FaccKasHBaxt c 

lOMopOM. To tell with humour. 
lOHOCTB /., no pi. youth 

CnacxjiiiBaH lOHOcxb. Happy youth. 

B lOHOcxH OH MCHxaJi cxaxb apxHc- 

XOM. In his youth he dreamt of 

becoming an actor. 
K)HOIII|A m., gen. pi. -en a youth 

CMeJiHH lOHOma. A brave youth. 

KpacHBHH lOHoma. A handsome 

I0H|LIQ, -an, -oe, -ne young 

lOHHe ro^H OH npoBCJi b Hxajinn. 

He spent his youth in Italy. KDnaa 

AesymKa. A young girl. 

fl, a 

H pron., gen., ace. Mena, dat., prepos. 
MHe, instr. mhoh I 
Mena ne 6hjio aoms Bnepa Beqe- 
poM. / was not at home last night. 
Kxo 3X0? — 3x0 a. "Who is it?" 
"It's me." fl H^y b xeaxp; xh hoh- 
^emb BMecxe co mhoh? I'm going 
to the theatre; will you go with 
me? Mae CKynno. / am bored. 
Mne xojiOAHO. / am cold. Th 
BCxpexHfflb Mena? Will you meet 
me? IIpHXOAH KO MHe ceroAHfll 
Come to see me today! 
HBJI0K|0 neut., pi. hSjioket, aSJiOK 

BojibfflOH ypojKaH hSjiok. a rich 
harvest of apples. 
HBJIEHHE neut. phenomenon 
iIBJlH|TBCH, -locb, -embca, -loxca 
imp. I p. HBHXbca, aBJiiocb, aBnmb- 
ca, aBaxca 

1. to come, to turn up. Oh hosaho 
HBHjica aa JieKunio. He turned 
up late for the lecture. 

51 ro 



2. only imp. IlyinKHH HBnaexcH 
BejiHKHM pyccKHM n03T0M. Push- 
kin is a great Russian poet. 
HrO^A /. berry 

Co6npaTb rpH6u h HroAM. To gath- 
er mushrooms and berries. HrOAU 
KJiySHHKH. Strawberries. BKycHan 
ca^OBafl HroAa. A tasty cultivated 
berry. BapeHLe H3 Atoji,. Jam made 
from berries. 
fiJ\FOneut.,pl. HApa, H^ep, H^paM, etc. 

flApo aTOMa. The nucleus of the 
atom. flApo KJiexKH. The nucleus 
of a cell. 
H3I»1[K m., gen. -a 

1. tongue. noKaaaxb h3mk. To 
show one's tongue. 

2. language. Hayqaxb HuocxpaHHUH 
H3LIK. To study a foreign lan- 
guage. BjiaAeXb HeCKOJILKHMH 

know several foreign languages. 
<> J^epHcaTb H3faJK aa aySawH. To 
keep a still tongue in one's head. 
HauTH 66n^HH hsuk c Kew-jiH- 
6o. To speak a common language 
with somebody. 
HflU[0 neut., pi. HHqa, fli'in; egg 
KypHHHe HHqa. Hen's eggs. 
<> Hhujo BCMHTKy. A soft-boiled 
egg. Ran,6 EKpyxyio. A hard-boiled 
egg. Hhuo b MeraoqeK. A well- 
boiled egg. Hiii^a Kypimy He yqax 
(proverb). Cf. Don't teach *your 
grandmother to suck eggs. 

HHBAP|b m., gen. -h January 

HoHL B HHBape. A night in Janu- 
ary. IlepBoe HHBapH. The first of 

HPKinfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form 
flpoK, HpKa, HpK|o, -h; adv. apKo; 
comp. Hpqe 

1. bright. flpKHH CBex. A bright 

2. bright. HpKne KpaCKH. Bright 

3. fig. striking, brilliant. HpKHH 
npHMep. A striking example. 
HpKHH xajianx. A brilliant tal- 

HCHIblQ, -aH, -08, -He, short form 
HCCH, HCHa, hch|o, -h; adv. hcho 

1. clear, fine. Hcnoe neSo. A clear 
sj^y. HcHWH jj^BRh. A fine day. 

2. fig. lucid. HcHLiH yM. A lucid 
mind. Hcnaa Mt^c.^b. A clear 
thought. 3xox Bonpoc Mae Hcen. 
This question is clear to me. 
BaM 3X0 HCHO? Is that clear to 
you? Oh roBopnx 6»ieHb hcho. 
He speaks very clearly. 

HmHK m. 

1. box. Hh;hk h6jiok. A box of 
apples. HmHK c KOHcepBaMH. 
A box of preserves. 

2. drawer. flmHK nncbMeHHoro 
cxojia. A drawer of a desk. 

3. box. IloqxoBbiH HmnK. A post- 



Names of Nationalities, of People inhabiting Various Countries 
and Continents, Geographical Names and corresponding Adjectives 

aBCTpaJiHeij Australian (man), aecTpa- 
jiHHKa Australian (woman), aBCxpa- 
jiHHrtH Australians, ABCxpaJiHA 
Australia; aBCTpaJiHHCKHH Austra- 

aBCxpHen; Austrian (man), aBCTpwHKa 
Austrian (woman), aBCTpHHiiH Aus- 
trians, ABCTpna Austria; aBCTpHH- 
CKHH Austrian 

asHaT Asian (man), asnaTKa Asian 
(woman), asnaxLi Asians, Abhh 
Asia; asHaxcKHH Asian 

ajiSanei; Albanian (man), aJi6aHKa Al- 
banian (woman), aJi6ABnu Albanians , 
Aji6aHHH Albania; aji6aHCKHH Alba- 

aJiWHpert Algerian (man), ajiwHpKa 
Algerian (woman), aJiH^Hpmj Alge- 
rians, AjiJKHp Algeria; ajiH^HpCKHH 

aMepHKaHen American (man), aMepn- 
KaHKa American (woman), aMepn- 
KaHii;ti Americans, AMepHKa Amer- 
ica; aMepHKancKHH American 

aHrjiHHaHHH Englishman, aHrJimaHKa 
Englishwoman, aHrjimane English, 
AnrjiHH England; aHrJiHHCKHH Eng- 

apa6 Arab (man), 
CKHH Arab 

apa6Li Arabs; apa6- 

apreHTHHen Argentinean (man), apreH- 
THHKa Argentinean (woman), apree- 
THHiiLi Argentineans, ApresTHHa 
Argentine; aprsHTHHCKHH Argentine 

a^TRHen Afghan (man), a^raHKa Af- 
ghan (woman), a^raHn;Li Afghans, 
A^raHHCiaH Afghanistan; a^ran- 
CKHH Afghan 

a^pHKaHGD; African (rnan), a$pHKaHKa 
African (woman), a^pHKaHn;i>i Af- 
ricans, A(|)pHKa Africa; a(|>pHKaH- 
CKHH African 

6ejibriiert Belgian (man), 6ejisrHHKa 
Belgian (woman), 6ejiBrHHi];i>i Bel- 
gians, BeJibrHH Belgium; SejifcriiH- 
CKHH Belgian 

Gnp-MaHeu; Burmese (man), 6HpMaHKa 
Burmese (woman), 6HpMaHii;ti Bur- 
mese, BitpMa Burma; SHpMancKHH 
Burm ese 

6ojirapHH Bulgarian (man), 6oJirapKa 
Bulgarian (woman), 5oJirapH Bul- 
garians, BojirapHH Bulgaria; 6oji- 
rapcKHH Bulgarian 

6oJiHBHeii; Bolivian (man), 6ojTHBiiHKa 
Bolivian (woman), 6oJiHBHHn;ti Bo- 
livians, BojiHBHfl Bolivia; 6ojiHBiiH- 
CKHH Bolivian 

6pa3HJien; Brazilian (man), 6pa3HjiLii;Ei 
Brazilians, BpasHJiHfl Brazil; 6pa- 
3HJIBCKHH Brazilian 

Bajuiiiei^ Welshman, BaJijiHHKa Welsh- 
woman, BajiJiHHi^H Welsh, Yajitc 
Wales; BajiJiHHCKHH Welsh 

Beerp Hungarian (man), BenrepKa 
Hungarian (woman), BGHrpH Hun- 

^ The feminine forms of a number of nouns denoting nationality 
either do not exist or are not used in the literary language. 


garians, BenrpHfl Hungary; Benrep- 
CKHH Hungarian 

BGHecyajien; Venezuelan (man), Bene- 
cyaJiKa Venezuelan (woman). Bene- 
cy3Jn>ii;i>i Venezuelans, BeHecyaJia 
Venezuela; BCHecyaJibCKHH Venezu- 

BbeTHaMe^ Vietnamese (man), Bbex- 
HaMKa Vietnamese (woman), blgt- 
HaMi^w Vietnamese, BtexHaM Viet- 
nam; BbeTHaMCKHH Vietnamese 

raneu Ghanean (man), raHKa Ghanean 
(woman), rani^H Ghaneans, Tana 
Ghana; rancKHH Ghanean 

TBaTeManen; Guatemalan (man), rBaxe- 
MaJibii;w Guatemalans, FBaTeMaJia 
Guatemala; rBaxeMaJibCKHH Guate- 

rBHHeen; Guinean, rsHHeHiiiLi Guineans, 
rBHHGH Guinea; rEHHencKHH Guinean 

repMaHHH Germany; repMancKHH 
German {see HeMen;) 

roJiJiaHflei; Dutchman, ronjiaH^Ka 
Dutchwoman, rojiJiaHj^qbi DutcK 
ToJiJiaHAHH Holland; rojiJiaHACKHH 

rpeK Greek (man), rpeqaHKa Greek 
(woman), rpeKH Greeks, Fpei^HH 
Greece; rpe^ecKHH Greek 

flanaHHH Dane (man), aaxHaHKa Dane 
(woman), flaxHaHe Danes, J^annH 
Denmark; ;;axcKHH Danish 

GBpea Jew, espeHKa Jewess, eBpen 
Jews; GBpeHCKHH Jewish 

eBponeen; European (man), eBponennibi 
Europeans, EBpona Europe; eBpo- 
neficKHH European 

erHnxflHHH Egyptian (man), ernnxae- 
Ka Egyptian (woman), ernnxHHe 
Egyptians, Eranex Egypt; ernnex- 
CKHH Egyptian 

HHflHeix Indian (man), HHAnaHKa In- 
dian (woman), nH^Hnii;bi Indians, 
Hhahh India; hhahhckhh Indian 

HHA0He3He^ Indonesian (man), hh^o- 
HesHHKa Indonesian (woman), hh- 
ji;0He3HHi;u Indonesians, Hn^OHesHH 
Indonesia; HHflOHesHHCKHH Indone- 

HopaaHen; Jordanian (man), Hopj^aHii,Hi 
Jordanians, MopJ^aHHH Jordan; 
HopAancKHH Jordanian 

HpaKeix Iraqi (man), HpaKiibi Iraqis, 
IlpaK Iraq; HpaKCKHH Iraq 

HpaHen; Persian (man), npaHKa Per- 
sian (woman), HpaHn;bi Persians, 
UpaH Persia (Iran); npancKHM 
Persian (Iranian) 

HpjiaHAei; Irishman, npjidHAKa Irish- 
woman, HpJIaH;^^w Irish, HpjiaHAHH 
Ireland, HpjiaH;i;cKHH Irish 

ncJiaH^eiii Icelander (man) ncjiAHjiKa 
Icelander (woman), HCJiaH3ii;bi Ice- 
landers, HcjiaHAHfl Iceland; HCJiaHjt- 
CKHH Iceland 

Hcnaneit Spaniard, HcnaHKa Spanish 
(woman), HcnaHLtM Spanish, Hcna- 
HHH Spain; HcnancKHH Spanish 

HxaJibHHeri Italian (man), nxaJibHHKa 
Italian (woman), HxajibaHn;H Ital- 
ians, HxaJiHH Italy; HxaJibHHCKHH 

HeMGHeit Yemeni, HeMeHn;Li Yemeni, 
HeMGH Yemen; HeMeHCKHH Yemeni 

KaM6oAMtHen; Cambodian, KaMSo^JKHH- 
n,u Cambodians, KaM56fl;H«a Cambo- 
dia; KaM5oA»«HHCKHH Cambodian 

KanaAen; Canadian (man), KaHa^Ka Ca- 
nadian (woman), KaH^Aii;bi Cana- 
dians, KaHa^a Canada; KanaACKHH 

KHnpnox Cypriot, KHnpHOXM Cypriots, 
Knnp Cyprus; KHnpcKHH Cyprian 

KHxaen; Chinese (man), KHxaaHKa Chi- 
nese (woman), KHxaHqu Chinese, 
KnxaH China; KHxancKHH Chinese 

KOJiyMSnen; Colombian (man), KOJiyM- 
6hhi];h Colombians, KojiyMSnH Co- 
lombia; K0JiyM6HHCKHH Colombian 

KOHrojieaen; Congolese (man), Konro- 
Jieaqw Congolese, Konro The Congo; 
KOHroJieacKHH Congolese 

KOpeen Korean (man), KopeaHKa Ko- 
rean (woman), KopeH^H Koreans, 
Kopea Korea; KOpencKHH Korean 

KyoHHeq Cuban (man), Ky6HHKa Cu- 
ban (woman), Ky6HHi|iii Cubans, 
Ky6a Cuba; Ky6HHCKHH Cuban 


JiaoTHHHH Laotian (man), JiaoxHHKa 
Laotian (woman), JiaoxHHe & Jiaoc- 
n;H Laotians, JIaoc Laos; JiaoxflH- 
CKHH & jiaoccKHH Laotian 

JiaTHHoaMepHKanen; Latin American 
(man), jiaTHHoaMepHKaHKa Latin 
American (woman), jiaTHHoaMepn- 
KaHii;H Latin Americans, JlaTHBCKan 
AMepHKa Latin America; JiaTHHO- 
aMepHKancKHH Latin American 

jiHBaHeii Lebanese, jmsaHi^iJ Lebanese, 
JlHBan The Lebanon; jiHBaecKHH 

jiHBHeix Libian, jihbhhiih Libians, JIh- 
BHH Libia; jihbhhckhh Libian 

MaJiaei^ Malayan (man), MaJiaHKa Ma- 
layan (woman), MaJianiiiH Malayans, 
MaJiaHH Malaya; MaJiaicKHH Ma- 

MRJiHen; Mali (man), MaJiHHKa Mali 
(woman), MajiHHii;H Malis, MaJiH 
Mali; MajiHHCKHH Mali 

MaJibram Malagasi, MaJibramn Mala- 
gasi; MajibramcKHH Malagasi 

MapoKKanen; Moroccan (man), MapOK- 
KaHKa Moroccan (woman), MapoK- 
KaniiM Moroccans, MapoKKO Moroc- 
co; MapoKKancKHH Moroccan 

MeKCHKanen Mexican (man), mgkch- 
KaHKa Mexican (woman), mgkch- 
KaniiH Mexicans, MeKCHKa Mexico; 

Monro Ji Mongolian (man), Monro JiKa 
Mongolian (woman), MonronH Mon- 
golians, MoHroJiHfl Mongolia; moh- 
roJibCKHH Mongolian 

Herp Negro (man), nerpHTHHKa Ne- 
gro {woman), nerpM Negroes; nerpn- 

HeMGii German, neMKa German (woman), 
neMiiH Germans; neMGiIKHH German 

HenaJiert Nepalese, nenaJibi^H Nepa- 
lese, HenaJi Nepal; nenaJibCKHH 

enrepneii Nigerian, nnrepHnqH Nige- 
rians, HnrepHH Nigeria; nnrepHH- 
CKHH Nigerian 

HOBOsejiaH/jen; New Zealander (man), 
HOBoaejianziKa New Zealander (wom- 

an), HOB03ejiaH;5i^iii New Zealand- 
ers, HoBan Sejian^HH New Zea- 
land; HOBoaeJiaHACKHH New Zealand 

HopBGJKei; Norwegian (man), nopBrnna 
Norwegian (woman), HopBmitH 
Norwegians, HopBernn Norway; 
HOpBGHCCKHH Norwegian 

naKHCTanen; Pakistani, naKHCxaHUiH 
Pakistanis, IlaKHCxaH Pakistan; 
naKHCxancKHH Pakistani 

oanaMitH Panamanians, IlaFaMa Pana- 
ma; nanaMCKHH Panamanian 

nepyanen; Peruvian (man), nepyaHKa 
Peruvian (woman), nepyanrtbi Peru- 
vians, riepy Peru; nepyancKHH Pe- 

noJiaK Pole (man), noJiLKa Pole (wom- 
an), noJiHKH Poles, EojiBma Po- 
land; noJiBCKHH Polish 

nopxyraJien; Portuguese (man), iiopxy- 
raJiKa Portuguese (woman), nopxy- 
raJibii;H Portuguese, nopxyraJiHH 
Portugal; nopxyraJibCKHH Portu- 

pyMHH Rumanian (man), pyMHHKa 
Rumanian (woman), pyMHHLi Ru- 
manians, PyMHHHH Rumania; py- 
MMHCKHH Rumanian 

pyccKHH Russian (man), pyccKBH Rus- 
sian {woman), pyccKHe Russians, 
PoccHH Russia; pyccKHH Russian 

ceHeraJiei5 Senegalese, ceeeraJibiiBi Se- 
negalese, CeneraJi Senegal; cene- 
raJibCKHH Senegalese 

cep6 Serbian (man), cepSna Serbian 
(woman), cep6H Serbs, CepSzH 
Serbia; cep6cKHH Serbian 

CHpneix Syrian (man), cHpnaKa Syrian 
(woman), CHpHHn,H Syrians, CnpHH 
Syria; cnpHHCKHn Syrian 

cjiOBaK Slovak (man), CJiOBa^Ka Slo- 
vak (woman), cnoBaKH Slovaks, 
CjioBaKHH Slovakia; cjiOBai;KHH 

coMaJiHGi^ Somali (man), coMaJiHHKa 
Somali (woman), coMaJiHHiiiH So- 
malis, GoMaJiH Somaliland; coMa- 
jiHHCKHH Somali 

cyAaHGi; Sudanese (man), cy^aHKa Su- 
danese (woman), cyAanqH Suda- 


nese, CyABH The Sudan; cy;^aHCKHM 

TaHJiaH;;ei; Thai, TaHJiaHAUH Thais, 
TaHJIaH;^ Thailand; TaHJidn/tCKHii 

Torojieaeq Togolese, lorojieartH Togo- 
lese, Toro Togo; ToroJieacKHH To- 

TyHHcei; Tunisian (man), xyHHCKa Tu- 
nisian (woman), TyHHcn;M Tunisi- 
ans, TyHHC Tunis; xyHHccKHH Tu- 

TypoK Turk (man), xyp^aHKa Turk 
(woman), xypKH Turks, TypmiH 
Turkey; TypertKHH Turkish 

yKpaHHeu Ukrainian (man)^ yKpaiiH- 
Ka Ukrainian (woman), yKpaHHii;i>i 
Ukrainians, VKpaHHa The Ukraine; 
yKpaHHCKHH Ukrainian 

ypyrBaei^ Uruguayan (man), ypyrBafi- 
i^u Uruguayans, YpyrBaH Uruguay; 
ypyrnaHCKHH Uruguayan 

yajibcnw Welsh, VajiBc Wales; yajiBc- 
KHH Welsh 

^HJiHnnHHen; Filipino, ^HJiHnnHHrtu 
Filipinos; (DnJiHnnHHH The Philip- 

$HHH Finn (man), $HHKa Finn (wom- 
an), $HHHH Finns, (PHHJIflHJtllH 

Finland; ^JHHCkhh Finnish 

4>paHn;y3 Frenchman, ^panniyweHKa 
Frenchwoman, ^panaysu French, 
OpaHi^Hfl France; $paHii;y3CKHH 

xopsaT Croat (man), xopsaTKa Croat 
(woman), xopeaTLi Croats, Xopsa- 
THH Croatia; xopeaTCKHH Croatian 

peHJiOHert Ceylonese (man), ri;eHJi6HKa 
Ceylonese (woman), ii;eHJi6HixiJ Ceylo- 
nese, L[eHJi6H Ceylon; iienjiOHCKHH 

qex Czech (man), neniKa Czech (wom- 
an), HexH Czechs; HexHH Czechia; 
^eracKHH Czech 

miJiueij, Chilian (man), qnjiHHKa Chil- 
ian (woman), qEjiHHi^ti Chilians, 
Hhjih Chile; ^hjimhckhh Chilian 

mBGHixapeii Swiss (man), mBeniiSpKa 
Swiss (woman), mBeHn;api;iJ Swiss; 

niBeHnapHH Switzerland; mBeHrtap- 
CKHH Swiss 

TUBeji, Swede (man), raBeflKB Swede 
(woman), msejiu Swedes, inBen.HH 
Sweden; mBeflCKHH Swedish 

moTJiaH^eii Scotsman, moxJiaHflKa 
Scotswoman, moxJiaHfln.H Scots, 
nioxjiaHflHH Scotland; moxjianflCKHH 

a^Hon Ethiopian (man), a^nonKa Ethi- 
opian (woman), afj^uonu Ethiopi- 
ans, S^HODHH Ethiopia; a^noncKHH 

lorocjiaBH Yugoslavs, lOrocJiaBHH Yu- 
goslavia; lorocJiaBCKHH Yugoslav 

fiuoBeii, Japanese (man), HUOBKa. Japa- 
nese (woman), fln6Hn,L] Japanese, 
HnoimH Japan; hdohckhh Japa- 


1 OAHH, OAHa, oAHo; nepBJbiH, -an, 
-oe, -we first 

2 Asa, flee; BxopIOH, -an, -6e, -we 

3 Tpii; TpexluH, -bn, -be, -bH third 

4 qexwpe; qexBepxIwii, -an, -oe, -we 

5 nHXb; nflx|wii, -an, -oe, -we fifth 

6 mecTb; mecxlou, -an, -oe, -we 

7 ceMb; ceffbMjoH, -an, -oe, -we sev- 

8 BOceMb; BocbM|6u, -an, -oe, -we 

9 AeBHXb; AeBflx|wii. -an, -oe, -we 

10 necflXb; AecflTlwii, -an, -oe, -we 

11 oAHHHaAi;aTb; o^iiHHaAuaxIwJf, 
-an, -oe, -we eleventh 

12 ABenamaTb; ffBenaAi^axIwu, -an, 
-oe, -we twelfth 

13 xpiiHaAi;aTb; TpnHaAaax|wu, -a a, 
-oe, -we thirteenth 

14 qexbipHajwaTb; qexwpHaAuax|wu, 
-afl, -oe, -we fourteenth 

15 nflXH^Ai^axb; nHTHaAuaT|wu, -an, 
-oe, -we fifteenth 

16 mecxHajwaxb; niecxHaAuax|wii, 
-an, -oe, -we sixteenth 

17 ceMHaAqaxb; ceMHafluax|wM, -aa, 
-oe, -we seventeenth 


18 BOceMHaAuaTb; BOceMHaAi^aT|ijii, 
-an, -oe, -we eighteenth 

19 fleBflTHawaxb; j^eBHTuajmaiTlhiu , 
-an, -oe, -we nineteenth 

20 flBawaxb; ABa;maT|wH, -an, -oe, 
-we twentieth 

21 ABa^aaTb oahh; ABa^i^aTb nep- 
b|wh, -an, -oe, -we twenty-first 

30 TpHAuaTb; TpemaT|wH, -aa, -oe, 

-we thirtieth 
40 copoK; copoKOBJOH, -an, -oe, -we 

50 HHTbAecHT; nflTHAec«T|wH, -a a, 

-oe, -we fiftieth 
60 mecTbAecHx; mecTHffecaTlwfi, 

-aa, -oe, -we sixtieth 
70 ceMbflecax; ceMHffecHTJwfi , -aa, 

-oe, -we seventieth 
80 BoceMbflecax; BOCbMHAecaTlwfi, 

-aa, -oe, -we eightieth 
90 AeBaaocTo; fleBaHOCTlwii, -aa, 

-oe, -we ninetieth 

100 cTo; coTlbiH, -aa, -oe, -we one 

101 CTO OAHH, CTO o^aa, cto o^ho; 
CTO nepBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we one 
hundred and first 

110 CTO AecaTb; cto AecaTlwa, -aa, 

-oe, -we one hundred and tenth 
200 flaecTH; «Byxc6T|wH, -aa, -oe, 

-we two hundredth 
300 TpHCTa; TpexcoTlwa, -aa, -oe, 

-we three hundredth 
400 qeTwpecTa; qeTwpexcoTlwH, -a a, 

-oe, -we four hundredth 
500 naTbcoT; naTHc6T|WM, -aa, -oe, 

-we five hundredth 
600 raecTbcoT; raecTncoTlwa, -aa, 

-oe, -we six hundredth 
700 ceMbcoT; ccmhcotIwh, -aa, -oe, 

-we seven hundredth 
800 BoceMbcoT; BocbMHCOTlwii , -aa, 

-oe, -we ei^ht hundredth 
900 fleBaTbcoT; flesaTHCOTlwii, -aa, 

-oe, -we nine hundredth 
1000 Twcaqa; TwcaqHlwil, -aa, -oe, 

-we thousandth 
1961 Tbicaqa ^eaaTbcoT raecTb^ecaT 

oahh; Tbicana aeaaTbcoT raecTb- 

flecaT nepalwH, -aa, -oe, -we one 

thousand nine hundred and sixty- 
lOOOO aecaTb Twcaq; flecaTHTwcaq- 

H|biH, -aa, -oe, -we ten thousandth 
1000000 mhjijihoh; mhjijihohhIwh, 

-aa, -oe, -we millionth 

1000000000 Maanaap^; MHJijraapA- 
h|wh, -aa, -oe, -we milliardth 


Days of the Week 

noHeAejibHHK m. Monday 

BTopHBK m. Tuesday 

cpe^a /., pi. cpeAH Wednesday 

qcTBepr m., gen. nexBepra Thursday 

naTHHi^a /. Friday 

cy666Ta /. Saturday 

BOCKpeccHbe neut. Sunday 


aHBapb m., gen. HEBapa January 
(j[)eBpajib m., gen. (|)eBpajiH February 
MapT m. March 
anpejib m. April 
Mail m. May 
uiOHb m. June 
iiiojib m. July 
aarycT m. August 

ceHTa5pb m., gen. ceHTflSpa Septem- 
oKTaSpb m., gen. OKTaSpn October 
Hoa6pb m., gen. HoaSpfl November 
AeKa6pb m., gen. ;^eKa6pH December 


Bocaa /. spring 
jiCTO neut. summer 
ocenb /. autumn 
3HMa /. winter 


ceKyH^a /. second 

MHHyTH /. minute 

qac m., pi. ^acw, Ha cob hour 

rofl m., prepos. b ro^y & o r6ji,e; gen. 

pi. Jiex year 
BCK m., pi. BeKa century 


5eji|wH, -aa, -oe, -we white 
rojiySloii, -aa, -oe, -we light-blue 
»;ejiT|bm, -aa, -oe, -we yellow 
3eJieH|biH, -aa, -oe, -we green 
KpacHJWH, -aa, -oe, -we red 
KopH*iHeB|wii, -aa, -oe, -we brown 
.ihji6b|wh, -aa, -oe, -we lilac 
opaHH<eB|biii, -aa, -oe, -we orange 
posoBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we pink 
chh|hu, -aa, -ee, -ae blue 


ceplbiu, -afl, -oe, -we grey 
cBex.ilwH, -an, -oe, -we light 
TeMHJbiii, -aa, -oe, -we dark 
^HO.ieTOBlwii, -an, -oe, -we violet 
qepHlwu, -an, -oe, -we black 


rojioea /., ace. roJiOBy, pi. rojiOBti, 

roJiOB, roaoBaM, etc. head 
niea /. neck 

njieio neut., pi. hjichh shoulder 
rpyffb /., prepos. Ha rpy/tii chest 
cnHHa /., ace. cnnny, pi. cnHHti back 
6oK m., pi. ooKa side 
»{hb6t m., gen. H^HBOxa stomach 
pyKa/., aec. pyKy, pi. pyKHhand, arm 
.laAOHb /. palm 
jioKOTb m., gen. jiokth, gen. pi. jiok- 

xefi elbow 
KyjiaK m., gen. KyjiaKa fist 
Hora /., aec. Hory, pi. hofh foot, leg 
KOJieHO neut., pi. KOJienn knee 
najieu m., gen. naJibqa finger, toe 
HoroTfa m., gen. hofth, gen. pi. Hor- 

xefi nail 
cepAue neut., pi. cep^na heart 
jierKoe neut., pi. JierKne lung 
HtejiyAOK m., gen. jKeJiy^Ka stomach 

BOJiocbi pi., gen. pi. BOJioc hair 

yxo neut., pi. ymn, ymen ear 

jio6 m., gen. jT6a forehead 

HOC m., pi. Hocu nose 

rjias m., pi. rJiasa eye 

6poBb /., gen. pi. 6poBeH eyebrow 

pecHHaa /. eyelash 

ii],eKa /., pi. msKH cheek 

poT m., gen. pxa mouth 

ry5a /., pi. rySu lip 

3y5 m., gen. pi. aySoB tooth 

BHCOK m., gen. BHCKa temple 

H3biK m., gen. flawKa tongue 

noA^opoAOK m., gen. ^o;^5op6^Ka chin 

yc m., pi. ycM moustache 

saTbijiOK m., gen. aaxMJiKa back [of 
the head 

6opoAa /., ace. Sopo^y, pi- Sopo^M, 
6op6;t beard 


aKKypaTH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we painstak- 
aKTHBH|wu, -an, -oe, -we active 
6ecnoK6HH|biif, -aa, -oe, -we restless 

66ap|wh, -aa, -oe, -we cheerful 
BeH<jiHB|wH, -aa, -oe, -we polite 
Beceji|wUv -aa, -oe, -we gay 
BHHMaTe;ibH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we atten- 
reHHajibH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we of genius 
rnyn|biH, -aa, -oe, -we stupid 
ro^AlWH, -aa, -oe, -we proud 
rpy6|wii, -aa, -oe, -we rude, coarse 
A65p|wH, -aa, -oe, -we kind 
H<aAH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we stingy 
HiecTOKlHH, -aa, -oe, -ae cruel 
3a56TJiHB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we solicitous 
3aAyM4HB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we thought- 
HCKpeHH|nu, -aa, -ee, -ae frank, sin- 
jiacKOBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we affectionate 
.i>khb|wh, -aa, -oe, -we untruthful 
.ierK0Mi6cJieHH|biu, -aa, -oe, -we 

jieHUB|wu, -aa, -oe, -we lazy 
jiobkIhh, -aa, -oe, -ae adroit 
jiio6onwTH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we curious 
jiH)5o3HaTejibH|biH, -aa, -oe, -we in- 
MyApluU) -aa, -oe, -we wise 
Mya«ecTBeHHlbiii, -aa, -oe, -we coura- 
HacTOuqHBlwM, -aa, -oe, -we persis- 
He»(H|wu, -aa, -oe, -we gentle 
nepBHlwu, -aa, -oe, -we nervous 
ocTopoHCHlwH, -aa, -oe, -we careful 
ocxpoyMHlwif, -aa, -oe, -we witty 
npaBAHB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we truthful 
po5K|nH, -aa, -oe, -ae timid 
pacceaHHlwif, -aa, -oe, -we absent- 
caMOJiio6HB|wu. -aa, -oe, -we touchy 
caMoyBepeHH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we self- 
cepbe3H|wii, -aa, -oe, -we serious 
cKpoMHiwH, -aa, -oe, -we modest 
CMeji|wa, -aa, -oe, -we courageous 
cnoKOHH|WH, -aa, -oe, -we quiet, 

cnoc66HlwH, -aa, -oe, -we capable 
cnpaBeAJiHBlwif, -aa, -oe, -we just 
cTapaTejibH|wH, -an, -oe, -we assid- 
CTpaHH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we strange, queer 
CTp6r|HH, -aa, -oe, -ae exacting, 

cypoBlwa, -a a, -oe, -we severe 
TajiaHTjiHB|wH, -aa, -oe, -we talented 


TpycJiHB|MH, -aa, -oe, -we cowardly 
yMHJbiH, -afl, -oe, -we clever 
ynpflMlwii, -aa, -oe, -we stubborn 
xHTplwH, -aa, -oe, -we sly, cunning 
xpa6p|wH, -aa, -oe, -we brave 
qecTH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we honest 
n^e^plwii, -aa, -oe, -we generous 
3HeprHqH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we energetic 


poAHTejin pL, gen. poanxejieH parents 

oxen; m., gen. OTii;a father 

AiaTb /., gen., dat., prepos. Maxepn, 
instr. Maxepbio; pi. Maxepn, Maxe- 
pen, MaxepaM, etc. mother 

CWH m., pi. CHHOBbfl, CHHOBeH SOU 

J^oqfa /., gen., dat., prepos. flonepn, 
instr. j^OHeptio; pi. j^onepn, jj^o^e- 
peH, AonepflM, floqepLMH daughter 

6paT m., pi. 6paxi.a, Spaxbee brother 

cecxpa /., pi. cecxpH, cecxep, ce- 
cxpaM, etc. sister 

poacTBeHHHKH pi. relatives 

AeAymKa m., gen. pi. j^efl;ynieK grand- 

6a6yinKa /., gen. pi. 6a6ymeK grand- 

BHyK m. grandson 

BHyqKa /., gen. pi. BHyqeK grand- 

AH^a m. uncle 

Texa /. aunt 

njieMaHHHK m. nephew 

njieMaHHHu;a /. niece 

j^Boiopo^HWH 6paT m. cousin 

;^Boi6poAHaa cecTpa /. cousin 


najibTo neut., indecl. overcoat 

iny6a /. fur coat 

njiam m., gen. njian^a raincoat 

KocTioM m. suit, costume 

6pi6Kn no sing, trousers 

Tpycw no sing, shorts 

HHAHcaK m., gen. nH^JKaKa jacket, coat 

p^amKa /., gen. pi. pySameK shirt 

rajicTyK m. tie 

CBHTep m. sweater, pull-over 

AHceMnep m. jumper 

nn»caMa /. pyjamas 

xajiax m. dressing-gown, housecoat 

HOCKH pi., sing. HOCOK m., gen. nocKa 

mjiana /. hat 

manKa /., gen. pi. manoK cap 

map4) rn. scarf 

nepqaxKH pi., gen. nepnaxOK; sing. 
nepnaxKa /. gloves 

njiaxfae neut. dress 

loGKa /., gen. pi. k)6ok skirt 

6jiy3Ka /., gen. pi. 6Jiy30K blouse 

K64)xa /. jacket 

»KaKex m. jacket 

qyjiKH pi., gen. HyjioK; sing. qyjioK 
m., gen. qyjiKa stockings 

6oxHHKn pi., gen. 6oxhhok; sing. 60- 
XHHOK m., gen. ooxHHKa boots 

xy^jiH pi., gen. pi. ly^eJih', sing. 
xy(|)jifl /. shoes 

rajioran pi., sing, rajioraa /. galoshes 

66xw pi. overshoes 

6ocoH6»CKn pi., gen. OoconoJKeK; sing. 
6ocoH6>KKa /. sandals 

xano«!KH pi., gen. xano^eK; sing, xa- 
no^Ka /. slippers 

canoru pi., gen. cauor; sing, cauor m., 
gen. canora riding boots, high- 

BaJieHKH pi., gen. BaJienoK; sing. Ba- 
jiBHOK m., gen. BaJieHKa felt boots 

BopoxHHK m., gen. BopoxHHKa collar 

pyKaB m., gen. pynaBa, pi. pyKasa 

noac m., pi. noaca belt 

KapMaH m. pocket 

nyroBHE^a /. button 

maj-poK m., gen. mnypKa lace, shoe- 

npaHCKa /., gen. pi. npaJKen buckle 

ofleajio neut. blanket, quilt 

cKaxepxb /., gen. pi. CKaxepxen table- 

caji(J)exKa /., gen. pi. caji$exoK nap- 

noj^OAeajibHHK m. quilt cover 

noAymKa /., gen. pi. noAymeK pillow, 

npocxbma /., pL npocxHHH, npo- 
cxuHb, npocxHuaM bedsheet 

H^BOJioqKa /., gen. pi. HaBOJio^eK 

nojioxeaqe neut., gen. pi. noJioxeneq 

njiaxoR m., gen. njiaxKa scarf; 
hocob6h njiaxoK handkerchief 

6ejibe neut., no pi. underwear; linen 

HHWHee 5eabe underwear 



MbiJio neut., no pi. soap 
sy^Hfiifl nacTa /. toothpaste 
KpeM AJiH 6pHTbH shaving cream 
aySeoii nopomoK m., gen. nopomKa 

rySeaH noMana lipstick 
iqeTKa /., gen. pi. mexoK brush; 

1. sy^H^fl lueTKa toothbrush, 

2. n^eTKa ajih bgjioc (oAeHC^bi, 
65yBH) hairbrush (clothes-brush, 

paciecKa colloq. /., gen. pi. pac^ecoK 

sepKajio neut., pi. sepKaJia, aepnaji 

6pHTBa /. razor 

AyxH no sing., gen. jiyxoB perfume 
OAeKOJiOH m. eau-de-Cologne 
nyApa /. powder 
KpeM m. cream 


flOM 771., pi. jiOMB. house 

sAaene neut. building 

noMeiueBBe neut. premises 

dTa»< m., gen. aiaJKa floor, storey 

noff'beaff m. entrance 

KBapTHpa /. flat 

KopHAop m. passage 

KOMHaTa /. room 

3aji m. hall 

Ka6HHeT m. study 

KyxHfl /., gen. pi. KyxoHb kitchen 

cnajibHH /., gen. pi. cnaJien bedroom 

CTOJioeaH /. dining-room 

BaHHan /. bathroom 

GajiKOB m. balcony 

Kpuma /. roof 

Tpy6a /., pi. Tpy6H chimney 

jiB^T m. lift 

jiecTBBua /. staircase 

BepBJia no sing, railings 

jspeph /., gen. pi. aBepen door 

OKBO neut., pi. OKHa, okoh, OKHaM 

noji m., prepos. na nojiy, pi. noJiu 

BOTOJioK m., gen. noTOJiKd ceiling 
CTBBa /., ace. CTeey, pi. cxenH wall 
noAOKOBBBK m. window-sill 
saMOK m., gen. saMKa lock, padlock 
KJiioq m., gen. KJiio^a key 


CTOJi m., gen. CTOJia table 

CTyji m., pi. ciyjibfl chair 

mKa^) m., prepos. b mKa(|)y & o mKa- 
$e, pi. mKa(|)u cupboard, wardrobe 

KBBHCBbifl mKa4> m. bookcase 

6y4>eT m. buffet, dresser 

cepBaBT m. sideboard 

ABBdB m. divan 

KpecJio neut., gen. pi. Kpeceji armchair 

KpoBaTb /. bed 

TyMGoqKa /., gen. pi. TyM6oHeK bed- 
side table 

BemajiKa /., gen. pi. BemaJiOK hanger 


Tape*iK^/., gen. pi. Tape.iOK plate 
cxaKaH m. glass, tumbler 
MamKa /., gen. pi. ^jameK cup 
6jii6Aii;e neut., gen. pi. 6JlK)^,e^ saucer 
BBJiKa /., gen. pi. bhjiok fork 
.lOWKa /., gen. pi. jiojkck spoon 
Boa« m., gen. noma, knife 
KacTpiojifl /. sauce-pan 
cKOBopoAa /., pi. CKOBopoAU frying- 
no^BOC m. tray 
qaiiBBK m. teapot, teakettle 
KpyHCKa /., gen. pi. Kpy?KeK mug 

KyBIDBB m. jug 

6aBKa /., gen. pi. 6aH0K jar 
6yTbijiKa /., gen. pi. 6yTUJiOK bottle 
Baaa /. vase 
rpa(bBB m. carafe 
6oKaji m. wine-glass 
pioMKa /., gen. pi, pioMOK liqueur 


xjie6 m. bread 

Macjio neut., no pi.: c.iBBO^Boe M&cno 

butter, pacTBTSJibBoe mScjio oil 
HBiio neut., pi. flHua, Ann egg 
cwp m., pi. CHpH cheese 
cjiHBKH pi. cream 
CMeT^aa /., no pi. sour cream 
TBop6r m., no pi. cottage cheese 
Ke4)Bp m., no pi. kefir 
MOJioKo neut., no pi. milk 
MHCO neut., no pi. meat 
pwSa /. fish 
KOBcepBu pi. preserves 


K0Ji6aca /. sausage 

rop^HE^a /. mustard 

nepeu m., gen. nepi;a pepper 

cojib /., no pi. salt 

Kpyna /., pi. KpyuH groats 

caxap m., no pi. sugar 

KOH(feTa /. sweet 

neneHbe neiit., no pi. pastry, biscuits 

BapeHbe neut. jam 

moKOjiaA rn., no pi. chocolate 

Meff m., no pi. honey 

MopoHteHoe neut., gen. MopojKenoro, 

no pi. ice-cream 
nnpoHCHoe neut., gen. nnpo^KHoro, pi. 

nHpojKHHB fancy cake 
BHHO neut., pi. BHHa wine 
BO^Ka /. vodka 


a)'BaHerpeT m. Russian salad 
HKpa /., no pi. caviare 
cejib;5fa /., gen. pi. cejibj^en herring 
cajiaT m. salad 

b) SyjibOH m. broth 

cyn m., pi. cynbi soup 

miH pi., no sing, n^en, maM, ni;aMn, 

(o) ntax cabbage soup 
6opa^ m., gen. 6opina borsch 

(beetroot soup) 
paccojibHHK m. soup with pickled 

cucumbers, capers, etc. 
Jianma /., no pi. noodle soup 

c) 6H4)raTeKc m. beefsteak 
ryjiHra m. goulash 
KOTJiexa /. rissole, cutlet 
poMmTeKc.m. rumpsteak 
neneHKa /., no pi. liver 
cupHHKH pi. cottage-cheese pan- 

niHHqeJib m. schnitzel 
HH^Hnqa [-mn-] /. fried eggs 

d) MaKapoHbi pi. macaroni 
Kama /. cereal pudding 
pnc m., no pi. rice 

e) KaKao neut. indecl. cocoa 
K64)e m., indecl. coffee 
qaii m., no pi. tea 
KOMnoT m. stewed fruit 

KHcejib m., gen. KHcejia thin (fruit) 


Fruit, Berries, Vegetables 

aGpHKoc m. apricot 
ananac m. pineapple 

aneJibCHH m. orange 

5aHaH m. banana 

rpyma /. pear 

jiHMOH m. lemon 

MaH^apHH m. tangerine 

nepcHK m. peach 

h6jioko neut., pi. hSjiokh, gen. a6jiOK 

BHHorpan ^' grapes 
MopKOBb /., no pi. carrots 
orypeu; m., gen. oryprta cucumber 
noMHAop m. tomato 
BHmHH /., gen. pi. EHmen cherry 
KJiySHHKa /., no pi. strawberries 
cjiHBa /. plum 
qeperanfl /., gen. pi. qepemeu sweet 

ap6y3 m. water-melon 
AbiHH /. melon 
repox m., no pi. peas 
KanycTa /., no pi. cabbage 
KapTO^JCJib m., no pi. potatoes 
jiyK m., no pi. onion(s) 
CBeKJia /., no pi. beetroot 
pe^HC m., no pi. radishes 
peAHCKa /., colloq. radishes 
(j)ac6jib /., no pi. French beans 



6epe3a /. birch 

Ay6 m., pi. Ay6M, -6b oak 

e.ib /. fir-tree 

HBa /. willow 

Kejq) m. cedar 

KJieH m. maple 

ocHHa /. aspen 

najibMa /. palm 

cocHa /., pi. cocuH, cocen pine-tree 


acTpa /. aster 

BacHJieK m., gen. BacHJibKa corn- 

JiaHj^um m. lily-of-the-valley 

MaK m. poppy 

HesaGyAKa /., gen. pi. ueaaSyAOK 

<|)najiKa /., gen. pi. ^naJiOK violet 

poMamKa /., gen. pi. poMamcK daisy 

poaa /. rose 



KyKypyaa /., no pi. maize 
OBec m., gen. OBca oats 
nmeHHqa /., no pi. wheat 
po>Kb /., gen. pjKH, no pi. rye 
pHC m., no pi. rice 

Wild Animals 

BOJiK m., gen. pi. bojikob wolf 
ea« m., gen. ema hedgehog 
sajui m., gen. 3aH^a hare 
KpoKOAHJi m. crocodile 
jieB m., gen. jibsa lion 
jinca /., pi. jmcH fox 
MeABe^b m. bear 
o6e3bflHa /. monkey, ape 
CJiOH m., gen. cjiona elephant 
THrp m. tiger 
qepenaxa /. tortoise 

Domestic Animals 

BepGjiiOA ni. camel 

BOJi m., gen. BOJia ox 

Koaa /., pi. Koati goat 

KopoBa /. cow 

KomKa /., gen. pi. KomeK cat 

Jioma^b /., gen. pi. Jioma^eH horse 

OBqa /., pL OBnH, ouen sheep 

oceji m., gen. ocjia donkey 

co6aRa /. dog 

CBHHbfl /., pi. CBHHbH, CBHHeH pig 

Bopo6eH m., gen 
Bopona /. crow 


Bopo6bH sparrow 

rojiySb m., gen. pi. roJiyGen pigeon, 

rycb m., gen. pi. rycei goose 
BHAioK m., gen. HHfliOKa turkey 
K^pni^a /., pi. KypH hen 
jieoeAb m., gen. pi. jie6efleH swan 
opeji m., gen. opjia eagle 
nonyran m. parrot 
naBJiHH m. pea-cock 
cTpayc m. ostrich 
yxKa /., gen. pi. yxoK duck 


aaoT m. nitrogen 
ajiiOMHHHH m. aluminium 
6poM m. bromine 
BOAopoA m. hydrogen 
rejiHH m. helium 
HceJieso neut. iron 
SOJIOTO neut. gold 
HOff m. iodine 
Kajinii m. potassium 
cepa /. sulphur 
cepe6p6 neut. silver 
CTponqHH m. strontium 
CBHHeu, m., gen. CBHHua lead 
KHCJiopoA m. oxygen 
MBflb /. copper 
HaTpnii m. sodium 
HHKejib m. nickel 
ojiOBO neut. tin 
paAHH m. radium 
pryrb /. mercury 
yrjiepoff m. carbon 
ypan m. uranium 
4>6c4»op m. phosphorus 
xjiop m. chlorine 

Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 






Anpilogova, B. G. 

Essential Russian-English