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EX LIBRIS 

JOHANNIS FLETCHER 

PER DUO ET VIGINTI 
ANNOS LINGUAE LaTINAE IN COLLEGIO 

Universitatis 

Professoris: qui mense Julio 

a.d. mdccccxvii mortuus est: 

li bros quos ille penitus amaverat 

uxor et filii ejus collegio amato 

DONAVERUNT. 

DULCES EXUVIAE DUM FATA DEUS-QUE SINEBANT. 

— Virg: Mrt: IV. 



ilHorti's anti fflorgau's Hatiu Series 

EDITED FOR USE IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

EDWARD P. MORRIS, L.H.D.. 

PROFESSOR OF LATIN IN VALE UNIVERSITY 
AND 

MORRIS H. MORGAN. Ph.D., 

PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



VOLUMES OF THE SERIES 

Essentials of Latin for Beginners. Henry C. Pearson, Teachers 

College, New York. 90 cents. 
A School Latin Grammar. Morris H. Morgan, Harvard University. 

$1.00. 
A First Latin Writer. M. A. Abbott, Groton School. 60 cents. 
Connected Passages for Latin Prose Writing. Maurice W. 

Mather, Harvard University, and Arthur L. Wheeler, Bryn Mawr 

College. $1.00. 
Caesar. Episodes from the Gallic and Civil Wars. Maurice 

W. Mather, Harvard University. S1.25. 

Cicero. Select Orations with Extracts from the Epistles to 

serve as Illustrations. J. Remsen Bishop, Walnut Hills High 

School, Cincinnati, and Frederick A. King, Hughes High School, 

Cincinnati. 
Selections from Latin Prose Authors for Sight Reading. Susan 

'Jrak-y I'laiiklin and Ella Catherine Greene, Miss Baldwin's School, Bryn 

Mawr. 60 cents. 
Cicero. Cato Maior. Frank G. Moore, Dartmouth College. 80 cents. 
Cicero. Laelius de Amicitia. Clifton Price, University of California. 

75 cents. 
Selections from Livy. Harry E. Burton, Dartmouth College. $1.25. 
Horace. Odes and Epodes. Clifford H. Moore, Harvard University. 

Si . 50. 
Terence. Phormio and Adelphoe. Edward P. Morris, Yale Uni- 

\ersitv. 
Pliny's Letters. Albert A. Howard, Harvard University. 
TibuUus. Kirl)y F. Smith, Johns Hopkins University. 
Lucretius. William A. Merrill, University of California. 

Latin Literature of the Empire. Alfred Gudeman, University of 
Pennsylvania. 

Vol. I. Prose: Velleius to Boethius ^1.80 

Vol. n. Poetry: Pseudo-Vergiliana to Claudianus 1.80 

Selections from the Public and Private Law of the Romans. 

James J. Robinson, Yale Uni\ersity. Si. 25. 

Others to be announced later. 



Hblr^hNTIALS OF LATIN 



FOR BEGINNERS 



BY 

HENRY CARR PEARSON, A.B., Harvard 

HORACE MANN SCHOOL, TEACHERS COLLEGE, NEW YORK 






o>Hc 






NEW YORK-:- CINCINNATI •:- CHICAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



Copyright, 1905, nv 
EDWARD P. MORRIS AND MORRIS H. MORGAN. 

Enteked at Stationers' Hall, London, 
pearson. essentials of latin. 



PREFACE 

This book is designed to prepare pupils in a thorough 
fashion to read Caesar's Gallic War. It contains seventy 
lessons, including ten that are devoted exclusively to 
reading, and six supplementary lessons. The first seventy 
lessons contain the minimum of what a pupil should know 
before he is ready to read Latin with any degree of intel- 
ligence and satisfaction. The supplementary lessons deal 
largely with certain principles of syntax that some teachers 
may not wish to present to their pupils during the first 
year's work. They are independent of one another and 
of the rest of the book, and may, therefore, be taken up in 
any order that the teacher wishes, or any number of them 
may be omitted. 

It is hoped that the following features will commend 
themselves to teachers of first year Latin : 

1. Carefully selected vocabularies, containing with a 
very few exceptions only those words that occur with the 
greatest frequency in Caesar's Gallic War. About five 
hundred words are presented in the first seventy lessons. 

2. The constant comparison of English and Latin usage. 
Not much knowledge of English grammar on the part of 
the pupil is taken for granted. The more difficult con- 
structions are first considered from the English point of 
view. 

3. A more logical and consecutive treatment of topics. 
Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs are not treated in 

5 



6 PREFACE 

a piecemeal fashion, but four or five consecutive lessons 
are devoted to a topic before passing on to another. Suf- 
ficient change, however, is introduced to avoid monotony. 

4. A brief preparatory course. Allowing ample time 
for reviews, the first seventy lessons should be thoroughly 
mastered in about twenty-five weeks. 

5. The Review Exercises under each lesson. These 
employ the vocabulary and constructions of the preceding 
lessons, and afford additional practice for those who wish 
it. They may be omitted, however, if desired, as the 
regular Exercises also review preceding constructions. 

6. Carefully graded material for reading. There are 
selections from Vh'i Romae and the first twenty chapters 
of Caesar's Gallic War, Book II, in simplified form. This 
should prepare a pupil to begin to read the regular text 
of Caesar at the beginning of the second year. 

I wish to express my grateful acknowledgments to the 
following well-known teachers of Latin who have read 
the manuscript of this book, and have rendered valuable 
assistance by their suggestions and criticisms : Mr. H. F. 
Towle, Boys' High School, Brooklyn ; Mr. A. L. Hodges, 
Wadleigh High School, New York City; Mr. A. J. Inglis, 
Horace Mann High School, New York City ; Mr. Herbert 
T. Rich, Boston Latin School. This book has had the 
benefit of the criticism of Professor M. H. Morgan of 
Harvard University, one of the editors of the series, who 
has carefully read both the manuscript and the proof. 



HENRY CARR PEARSON. 



1 



New York City, 
January, 1905. 



CONTENTS 



LESSON 

Introduction 

I. First Declension or Stems in -a-. Feminine Nouns 

First Declension or Stems in -a- (continued). Feminine Adjectives 

First Declension or Stems in -a- (continued). Limiting Genitive 

Present Indicative of Sinn ...... 

First Conjugation. Present Indicative. Direct Object . 
Second Declension or Stems in -o. Masculine Nouns in -us. Mas 
culine of Adjectives . ....... 

6. Second Declension (continued). Neuters in -«w. Appositive. In 

direct Object . . . • . . . • ^ • 

7. Declension of Adjectives in -z<5, -(7, -«<;«. Agreement 

8. Second Declension (continued). Masculines in -er and -ir . 

9. Second Declension (continued). Masculines in -?'/« and www. Ad 

jectives in -ei-, -{e)ra, -(e)ruiii ..... 

ID. Imperfect and Future Indicative of Sum. Order of Words. Review 

11. First Conjugation. Principal Parts. Formation and Conjugation of 

the Imperfect and Future Indicative Active . . . . 

12. First Conjugation (continued). Perfect Indicative Active. Ablative 

of Means ........... 

13. First Conjugation (continued). Pluperfect and Future Perfect 

Indicative Active. Review 

14. Second Conjugation. Characteristics. Formation and Conjugation 

of the Indicative Active ........ 

15. Third Declension. Consonant Stems 

16. Third Declension (continued). Consonant Stems. Ablative of Cause 

17. Third Declension (continued). Stems in -i- 

18. Review of Third Declension. Rules of Gender. Ablative of Time 

When 

19. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of ("haptcr T, Book I, Gallic War. 

Hints for Translation 

20. Present Indicative Passive of the First and Second Conjugations. 

Ablative of Agent 

7 



PAGE 
II 
16 
18 

20 

22 

25 

28 
30 

33 

36 
40 

42 

45 
48 

51 
54 
57 
60 

63 
65 
68 



CONTENTS 



Abla- 



On. 



f the 



21. Imperfect and Future Passive of the First and Second Conjugations 

Ablative of Manner ..... 

22. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Passive of the First an 

Second Conjugations ...... 

23. Adjectives of the Third Declension. Three Terminations 

tive of Specification ...... 

24. Adjectives of the Third Declension (continued). Two and 

Terminations. Dative with Adjectives 

25. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter II . 

26. Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of Sta/i. Review 

First and Second Conjugations .... 

27. Third Conjugation. Present, Imperfect, and I'ulure, Active and 

Passive ......... 

28. Third Conjugation (completed). Verbs in io 

29. Present Infinitive, Active and Passive. The Infinitive used 

English ......... 

30. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chajitcr III . 

31. /s. Idem 

32. The Relative Pronoun ....... 

33. Hie and Ille. Adjectives used as Substantives 

34. Ipse, Iste. Irregular Adjectives. Ablative of Separation 

35. Fourth Conjugation. The Interrogative Quis 

36. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter IV . 

37. Fourth Declension ........ 

38. Irregular Verb Ed. Place Where, Whence, Whither 

39. Review of the Four Conjugations. Dative of Possessor . 

40. Numerals. Accusative of Extent of Time and Space 

41. Fifth Declension. Partitive Genitive .... 

42. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter V . 

43. Comparison of Adjectives, Ablative of Comparison 

44. Comparison of Adjectives (continued). Ablative of the Measure 

of Difference ....... 

45. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives. Possum 

46. Review of Comparison of Adjectives. Formation and Comparison 

of Adverbs ....... 

47. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter VI . 

48. Personal and Reflexive Pronouns .... 

49. Possessive Adjectives. Dative of Service 

50. Indefinite Pronouns. Descriptive Ablative and Genitive 

51. Participles. Forms, Declension, and Meanings 

52. Participles (continued). Ablative Absolute . 



CONTENTS 9 

LESSON PAGE 

53. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter VII . . . -154 

54. Infinitives. Formation and Meanings 155 

55. Indirect Discourse. Simple Statements 157 

56. Deponent Verbs. Ablative with Utor, Fruor, etc. .... 161 

57. Fero &nd Flo. Dative with Intransitives 163 

58. Reading Lesson, Adaptation of Chapter VIII .... 165 

59. The Subjunctive Mood. Present Tense. Clauses of Purpose . 166 

60. The Subjunctive (continued). Imperfect Tense. Result Qauscs . 169 

61. Void, Nolo, Mdlo. Relative Clause of Purpose . . . .172 

62. Indirect Questions. Sequence of Tenses . . . . .174 

63. Substantive Clauses . . . . . . . . .178 

64. Reading Lesson, Adaptation of Chapter IX 181 

65. Object Clauses with Verbs* of Fearing. Cum Temporal, Causal, 

and Concessive . . . . . . . . .182 

66. Compounds of Sum. Dative with Compound Verbs . . .185 

67. The Imperative. Commands and Exhortations . . . .187 

68. Gerund and Gerundive . . . . . . . , .190 

69. Complete Review of Verb Forms ,,..... 193 

70. Reading Lesson. Adaptation of Chapter X . . . . . 194 

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSONS 

71. Conditional Sentences. Present and Past Time , . , . 196 

72. Conditional Sentences (continued). Future Time . . . . 198 

73. Wishes 200 

74. Indirect Discourse. Complex Sentences 202 

75. Impersonal Use of Verbs. Supine. Different Ways of p\pres?ing 

Purpose ........... 204 

76. Periphrastic Conjugations 206 

Selections for Reading: 

Selections from Roman History ....... 209 

Caesar. Gallic War, Book II, Chapters 1-20 ..... 218 

Appendix, Tables of Inflections, Conjugation, etc 231 

Latin-English Vocabulary 267 

English-Latin Vocabulary 299 

Index 315 




do) 



ITALY AND GAUL 



SCALE OF MILES 



100 200 300 400 500 



INTRODUCTION 

1. These introductory sections should be read by the 
pupils and used for reference. Pupils learn pronunciation 
quickly by imitation. It is suggested that the teacher 
pronounce slowly the words in sections 9 and 21, and that 
the pupils repeat. Reference may be made to the rules 
as mistakes are made. 

Alphabet 

2. The Latin alphabet is the same as the EngHsh, 
except that it has no j or %v. I is used both as a vowel 
and as a consonant. 

3. The vowels are a, e, i, 0, u. The other letters are 
consonants. 

4. Diphthongs are combinations of two vowels that are 
pronounced as one. They are 

ae oe au eu ui 

Roman Method of Pronunciation 

5. The long vowels are pronounced as follows : 

a like a in fatJier. i like i in niac/iine. 

e like e in frey. 6 like in note. 

u like CO in root. 

6. The short vowels are pronounced as follows : 

a like the first a in aha. i like / in pit. 

e Hke e in step. like in or. 

u like u in /////. 
II 



12 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

7. Most of the consonants are pronounced as in English. 
But note the following points : 

c and g are hard, as in come s is a hissing sound, as in sin; 

and go. never like z, as in ease. 

i consonant is like j m.yes. ch is like cJi in cJiorus. 

t is hard, as in tin. ph is like /// in alphabet. 

V is like zv in wijte. , qu is almost like kw. 

8. The diphthongs are pronounced as follows : 

ae like ai in aisle. au like on in Jionse. 

oe like oi in toil. eu (rare) like ^Ji-oo. 

ui is almost like ive. ei (rare) like ci in eight. 



9. 




EXERCISE 






hi 


vis 


haec 


genus 


vir 


ad 


quis 


me 


coepit 


mensae 


ita 


tot 


quia 


regn5 


cui 


iam 


sic 


causa 


-que 


aeger 



Syllables 

10. A syllable consists of a vowel or diphthong either 
alone or with one or more consonants. Therefore a word 
has as many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs : 
ae-di-fi-co, / build. 

11. A single consonant between two vowels belongs with 
the following vowel : a-mi-cus, friend. 

12. If there are two or more consonants between two 
vowels, as many are joined with the following vowel as 
can be pronounced with it : ho-spes, guest ; co-gno-sco, / 
recognize. 

13. Compound words are divided into their component 
parts : ad-est (ad, near ; est, lie is), Jie is present. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 3 

14. Doubled consonants are separated : pu-el-la, girl. 

15. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima ; the 
next to the last, \.\\q penult ; the one before the penult, the 
antepenult. 

Quantity 

16. Vowels are long (-) or short (^). The long vowels 
are marked in this book ; unmarked vowels (except in 
diphthongs) must be considered short. 

17. The following are a few general rules for determin- 
ing the quantity of vowels : 

1. A vowel is short before another vowel or h: c6-pi-a, 

abundance. 

2. Vowels resulting from contraction are long : co-go 

(coago), / collect. 

3. Vowels are long before nf, ns, net, ncs : infero, / bring 

in; insanus, mad. 

4. Diphthongs are long : causa, cause. 

18. A syllable containing a long vowel or a diphthong is 
long by nature : leges, lan's ; aedes, temple. 

19. A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two 
or more consonants, or by x or z, is long by position. The 
short vowel, however, is still pronounced short : vocant, 
tJiey call ; dux, leader. 

Accent 

20. The following principles determine what syllable 
of a word receives the stress of the voice : 

1. The ultima, or last syllable, is never accented. 

2. Words of two syllables accent the first, or penult : 

templum, temple. 



14 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



3. Words of more than two syllables accent the penult 

when it is long, otherwise the antepenult : amare, 
to love ; mittere, to send. 

4. Certain words like -ne, the sign of a question, and -que, 

a7td, called enclitics, are so closely joined to the 
preceding word that its last syllable has an accent : 
amatne, does lie love ? hominesque, mid the men. 



EXERCISE 

21. Divide into syllables, accent, and pronounce the 
following words : 



inlquus 


vincam 


aedificium 


gladi5 


gratiae 


fllius 


coeperunt 


cuius 


huic 


Idem 


flliusque 


quae 


monere 


vero 


mensarum 


faciebam 


facere 


aegritudd 


pugnabo 


laudabimus 




I 


NFLECTION 





22. Parts of Speech. — These are the same in Latin 
as in English, except that there is no article in Latin : 
namely, noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, adverb, and the 
particles. 

23. Inflection. — This is the change that words undergo 
to show their grammatical relations to the rest of the sen- 
tence. The inflection of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns 
is called declension ; of verbs, eonjugation. 

24. Declension. — Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives have 
the following cases : 

1. Nominative, which is the case of the subject. 

2. Genitive. It may generally be rendered by the English 

possessive, or by the objective with of. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 5 

3. Dative. Corresponds to the English objective with the 

prepositions to or for. 

4. Acaisative, the case of the direct object. 

5. Vocative, the case of direct address. 

6. Ablative. This expresses various relations correspond- 

ing to the English objective with the prepositions 
fro7)i, luit/i, ifi, by, at, and on. 

25. (Conjugation. — Verbs in Latin have 

1. Three finite moods, Indicative, Subjunctive, Impera- 

tive ; also Infinitives, Participles, Supines, Gerunds, 
and Gerundives. 

2. Six tenses, Present, Imperfect, Future, Perfect, Plu- 

perfect, Future Perfect. 

3. Two voices, as in English, Active and Passive. 

4. Three persons, as in Itnglish, First, Second, Third. 

5. Two numbers, as in English, Singular and Plural. 

Gender 

26. There are three genders. Masculine, Feminine, and 
Neuter. 

The gender is determined partly, as in English, by the 
meaning of the noun, but more often by the ending. 

27. General Rules of Gender. 

1. Nouns denoting males, and names of rivers, winds, 

and months are masculine : nauta, sai/or ; Tiberis, 
t//e Tiber; Caesar, Caesar; aquilo, Jiorth i^'ind ; 
lanuarius, January. 

2. Nouns denoting females, and names of countries, towns, 

and trees are feminine : filia, daughter; Italia, Italy ; 
Athenae, Athens ; pirus, pear tree. 

3. Indeclinable nouns are neuter : nihil, nothing. 



l6 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

LESSON I 

FIRST DECLENSION OR STEMS i IN -a- 

Feminine Nouns 

28. Nouns in Latin are divided into five declensions, 
or classes, which are distinguished from one another by 
the ending of the genitive singular. Nouns of the First 
Declension are feminine, unless they denote males, and 
are declined like the following example : 

Singular Terminations 2 

NoM. Stella, a star (as subject) -a 

Gen. stellae, of a star, or stars -ae 

Dat. ^loWSit, to ox for a star -ae 

Ace. stellam, star, or a star (as object) -am 

Abl. Stella, _//v;//, zvitJi, by a star -a 

Plural 

NoM. stellae, stars (as subject) -ae 

Gen. stellarum, of stars, or stars' -arum 

Dat. %\.q)\\^, to ox for stars -is 

Ace. Stellas, stars (as object) -as 

Abl. stellis, from, with, by stars -is 

Note carefully 

1. That the genitive and dative singular and nominative 

plural are alike. 

2. That the dative and ablative plural are alike. 

^ The stem is that part of a word to which the case endings are attached 
in inflection. 

^ The terminations are a combination of the case endings with the final 
vowel of the stem. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 17 

3. That the -a of the ablative singular is long. 

4. That the base, or that part of the noun which remains 

unchanged in inflection, is obtained by dropping the 
termination -ae of the genitive singular ; i.e. stellae, 
base, stell-. 

29. I. The vocative case is like the nominative, except 
in certain nouns of the second declension : stella, {O) star. 

2. There is no article in Latin. Consequently Stella 
may mean star, the star, or a star. 

VOCABULARY 

30. Learn thoroughly the meanings of the following 
words, and decline each noun Hke stella : 

Nouxs 
puella, ae, f., gii-l. rosa, ae, f., rose. 

regina, ae, f., queen. via, ae, f., road, tvay, street. 

Stella, ae, f., star. silva, ae, f., forest. 

filia,^ ae, f., daughter. luna, ae, f., vioo7i. 

porta, ae, f., gate. 

31. EXERCISES 

(Pronounce, give case and number, and translate) 

L I. Puellarum. 2. Portls. 3. Luna. 4. Rosls. 

5. Silvam. 6. FlUabus. 7. Reglnae. 8. Vils. 9. Portae. 
10. Stellas. II. Viarum. 12. Filia reglnae. 13. Filias 
reglnarum. 

n. I. To the queen. 2. By a rose. 3. The forests. 
4. The rose of the queen. 5. From the streets. 6. Of 
the stars. 7. For the girls. 8. By the gates. 9. Of the 
daughters. 

1 Filia, daughter, and dea, goddess, have the ending -abus, not -is, in the 
dative and ablative plural. 

ESSEN. UK LATIN 2 



1 8 ESSENTIALS OF LATliN 

LESSON 2 

FIRST DECLENSION OR STEM IN -a- (Continued) 

Feminine Adjectives 

32. Feminine adjectives of the First Declension are 
declined like the nouns. 

rosa pulchra, pretty rose 

Stem rosa- pulchra- 
Base ros- pulchr- 

SlNGULAR 

NoM. rosa pulchra, a pretty rose 

Gen. rosae pulchrae, of a pretty rose 

Dat. rdsae pulchrae, to ox for a pretty rose 

Ace. rosam pulchram, a pretty rose 

Abl. rosa pulchra, //v;//, ivitJi, by a pretty rose 

Plural 

NoM. rosae pulchrae, pretty roses 

Gen. rosarum pulchrarum, of pretty roses 

Dat. rosis pulchris, to ox for pretty roses 

Ace. rosas pulchras, pretty roses 

Abl. rosis pulchris, /r*^;;/, zvitJi, by pretty roses 

Observe that the adjective and noun are in the same 
case. Notice the position of the Latin adjective with 
reference to its noun. It does not always precede the 
noun, as in English. See the remarks on the order of 
words (82). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 19 

Decline together : via lata, the wide road ; puella parva, 

the little girl. 

33. Examine the following : 

1. Rosa est pulchra, the rose is pretty. 

2. Rosae sunt pulchrae, tJie roses 2^x0. pretty. 

Note in these sentences 

a. That the subjects rosa and rosae are in the nominative 

case. 

b. That the verb is singular, when the subject is singular; 

and plural, when the subject is plural. 

c. That the predicate adjectives pulchra and pulchrae agree 

with the subject in case. 

34. Rules of Syntax. 

1. The subject of a finite verb is akvays in the nomina- 
tive case. 

2. A predicate adjective or noun agrees in case zuith the 
subject of the verb. 

35. VOCABULARY 

Nouns Adjectives 

fabula, ae, f., story. bona, good. 

sagitta, ae, f., arrow. lata, broad, wide. 

insula, ae, f., island. longa, long. 

terra, ae, f., lajid, country. magna, large, great. 

pulchra, beautiful, pretty. 
Verbs Adverbs 

est, {he, she, it) is. ubi, where, when. 

sunt, {they) are. non, not. 

Conjunction 
et, and. 



20 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

36. EXERCISES 

I. I. Fabulae sunt longae. 2. Terra est lata et pulchra. 
3. Ubi est pulchra Insula ? 4. Luna est pulchra. 5. Bonae 
sagittae sunt longae. 6. Non est pulchra. 7. Magnae 
sunt Insulae. 8. Latis terrls. 9. Luna et stellae sunt 
pulchrae. 10. Via est lata. 11. Ubi sunt Insulae magnae? 
12. Sagittarum longarum. 

n. I. The good queen is beautiful. 2. It ^ is a large 
island. 3. Where are the long arrows ? 4. They are 
beautiful girls. 5. The land is not wide. 6. A long story- 
is not good. 

LESSON 3 

FIRST DECLENSION OR STEMS IN -a- (Continued). GENI- 
TIVE CASE. PRESENT INDICATIVE OF sum 

37. Examine the following : 

1. Rosa puellae est alba, t/ic rose of the girl is zv/iite, or 

the girl's rose is zvhitc. 

2. Rosae puellarum sunt albae, the roses of the girls are 

white, or the girls' roses are tvhite. 

Observe that puellae limits rosa : not every rose is white, 
but only the girl's rose is white. In the same way puella- 
rum limits rosae, because it defines whose roses are meant. 

38. Rule. — The genitive is used to litnit or define the 
meaning of a noim. 

39. Present Tense, Indicative Mood, of the Verb sum 

Singular Plural 

1ST Per. sum, I ant sumus, zve are 

2D Per. es, yon are {thoit art) estis, yon are 

3D Per. est, {lie, she, it) is sunt, they are 

1 1( is, est. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



21 



40. Examine the following : 

Statement Questions 

Feminaestpulchra,//^^zc6';//^« Estne femina pulchra? is 

is beautiful. the zuoman beautiful? 

Ubi est sagitta? zvherc is 
the arroiu ? 

Observe 

1. That -ne is the sign of a question and is attached to the 

first word. 

2. That -ne is not used if the question already begins with 

a question word. 



41. 



VOCABULARY 



Nouns 
pecunia, ae, f., money. 
vita, ae, f., life. 
copia, ae, f., abundance (pi., 

troops, forces). 
femina, ae, f., zvonian. 
patria, ae, f., native land, 

country. 
Graecia, ae, f., Greece. 
Europa, ae, f., Europe. 
Gallia, ae, f., Gaul. 



Adjectives 
nova, new. 
parva, small. 
mea, my, mine. 
tua, your, yours. 

Adverb 
semper, always, ever. 



-ne, enclitic, sign of a 
question, but not sepa- 
rately translated. 



42. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Gallia est terra Europae. 2. Estne Gallia tua 
patria.^ 3. Non sunt parvae feminae. 4. Estne copia 
pecuniae? 5. Non longa est vita feminae. 6. Est pul- 
chra. 7. Copiae reglnae non sunt magnae. 8. Suntne 
parvae puellae .-' 9. Reglna tuae patriae est pulchra. 
10. Copiae patriae meae non semper sunt parvae. 



22 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



II. Reglnarum r5sae sunt pulchrae. 12, Suntne novae 
lunae semper pulchrae ? 13. Ubi sunt reglnarum copiae ? 
14. Feminae Graeciae sunt pulchrae. 

II. I. We are; you (sing.) are; you(plur.)are. 2. Where 
are we .'' 3. Of the beautiful women. 4. My country's 
forces are small. 5. There is not always an abundance of 
money. 6. Are queens' daughters always beautiful .'' 7. It 
is a pretty country. 8. By my daughters. 







Ancient Roman Coins 



LESSON 4 

FIRST CONJUGATION, PRESENT INDICATIVE, DIRECT 

OBJECT 

43. Present Indicative of the Verb amo 

Singular Personal Endings 1 

1ST Per. amo, I love, am loving, do love -0 (or -m), / 

2D Per. amas, j'^^w loir, are loving, do love -s,yoii (or tJioii) 
3D Per. am at, Jie loves, is loving, does love -t, Jie, she, it 

Plural Personal Endings 

1ST Per. amamus, tve love, are loving, do love -mus, zve 
2D Per. amatis, yon love, are loving, do love -tis, you 
3D Per. amant, tJiey love, are loving, do love -nt, tJiey 



^ These are the personal endings of all tenses, excejit the perfect indicative. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATLN 23 

Observe 

1. That the personal endings are added to the stem ama-, 

the final vowel of which is lost before in the first 
person singular. 

2. That the person and number of a Latin verb are indi- 

cated by the ending, and not by the use of a pronoun, 
as in English. 

44. Like amo, conjugate the present indicative of 

pugno, I figJit culpo, / blame 

voco, / eall laudo, I praise 

45. Carefully examine the following : 

1. Regina nautam laudat, tJie queen praises the sailor. 

2. Reginae nautam laudant, the queens praise the sailor. 

3. Nautam laudant, they pj'aise the sailor. 

4. Nautam laudamus, ive praise the sailor. 

From these sentences you will see 

1. That the direct object of the verb, i.e. that which the 

action of the verb affects, is in the accusative case. 

2. That when a noun is the subject, the verb is third 

person. 

3. That when a noun is not the subject, the subject is not 

expressed by a separate word. Why must the pro- 
nouns be expressed in English 'i 

4. That the verb is in the same nu)>iber and person as the 

subject. 

46. Rules of Syntax. 

1. A verb agrees zvith its subject in number anel person. 

2. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusa- 
tive case. 



24 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



47- 



VOCABULARY 



agricola, ae, m.,^ farmer. 
nauta, ae, m.,^ sailor. 
Italia, ae, f., Italy. 
Roma, ae, f., Rojfic. 
inopia, ae, f., lack, 7vant. 
i\^di, faithful. 
superba, proud, haughty. 



amo, / love, I like. 

pugno, I fight. 

voco, I call. 

culpo, / blame. 

laudo, I praise. 

cur, adv., why? 

in, prep, with abl., /;/, on. 




Ancient Roman Plow 
48. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I, Graeciae Tnsulae sunt parvae. 2. Pecunia mea. 

3. Suntne copiac patriae tuae magnae .'' 4. Feminae flliae 
non semper sunt bonae. 5. Est copia pecuniae. 6. Pul- 
chrae sunt Europae viae. 7. Estne fabula nova } 

II. I. Where are you (plur.).'' 2. Are the queen's 
daughters beautiful ? 3. She is small. 4. (O) queen, 
where is your daughter.'' 5. We are; you are (sing.). 



49. EXERCISES 

I. I. Pugnatis ; pugnat ; pugnamus. 2. Vocas ; vo- 
cantne .? vocatisne } 3. Cur agricolas culpamus } 4. In 
Itaha inopia est pecuniae. 5. Laudantne nautas .'' 
6. Superbas feminas non amamus. 7. Reglnae nautas 
non laudamus. 8. Superbae in Gallia sunt puellae. 

1 A masculine noun of the first declension. Why ? See 27, i. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



25 



9. Ubi sunt agricolarum flliae ? 10. Cur nautam cul- 
pat? II. R5sae magnae et pulchrae sunt in mea patria. 
12. Agricolae inopiam pecuniae non amant. 

II. I. We blame; she praises; you (plur.) are calling. 
2. They are fighting ; you (sing.) call ; we fight. 3. There ^ 
are pretty roses in Italy. 4. Why do you blame the sailor ? 
5. The woman is calling the sailor's daughters. 6. Italy is 
a country of Europe. 

LESSON 5 

SECOND DECLENSION OR STEMS IN -0-. MASCULINE 
NOUNS IN -us. MASCULINE ADJECTIVES 



50. 



hortus, m., garden 



Stem 


horto- 




Base 


hort- 




Singular 




Terminations 


NoM. hortus 




-us 


Gen. horti 




-i 


Dat. horto 




-0 


Ace. hortum 




-um 


Abl. horto 




-0 


Plural 






NoM. horti 




-i 


Gen. hortorum 




-orum 


Dat. hortis 




-is 


Ace. hortos 




-OS 


Abl. hortis 




-is 



1 There are, sunt; also it is, est. There are no special words in Latin for 
there and it used in this way. 



26 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

51. The masculine of adjectives ending in -us is declined 
like the nouns of this declension ending in -us. 

hortus parvus, tJie small garden 





Singular 


Plural 


NOM. 


hortus parvus 


horti parvi 


Gen. 


horti parvi 


hortorum parvorum 


DAT. 


horto parvo 


hortis parvis 


Ace. 


hortum parvum 


hortos parvos 


Abl. 


horto parvo 


hortis parvis 



52. I. What case terminations of this declension are 
alike ? Which are the same as the first declension ter- 
minations ? 

2. The vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second 
declension has a special form in -e : domine, {O) master. 
See 29, I. 

3. The base to which the terminations are added is 
obtained by dropping the -i of the genitive singular : horti, 
base hort-. 

4. Conjugate the present indicative of the verbs given 
in the vocabulary below. 

53. VOCABULARY 

amicus, i, m., friend. "bonus, good. 

cibus, i, va.,food. malus, bad, evil. 

dominus, i, m., master, lord, parvus, small. 

equus, i, m., horse. superbus, prond, haughty. 

hortus, i, vc\., garden. tidius, faithful. 

servus, i, m., slave, servant, delecto, / delight, I please. 

sed, conj., but. servo, / keep, I preserve ^ I 

magnus, great, large. save. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



27 



54- 



REVIEW EXERCISES 



I. I. Reglnae nautas laudas. 2. Amatisne Romam ? 
3. Ubi nautae pugnant ? 4. Nautae in via pugnant. 
5. Flliam reglnae non amant. 6. Agricolas non semper 
laudant. 

II. I. Is there a lack of money in your native country ? 
2. The queen's daughter blames the woman. 3. Where is 
the sailor's money .'' 



55- 



EXERCISES 



I. I. DominS ; amicorum ; equl. 2. Amlcls ; domini 
superbl ; equis magnls. 3. Servus est amicus agricolae. 
4. Equl sunt boni sed non magnl. 5. Reglna fidum servum 
laudat. 6. Superbum dominum non amant. 7. Reglnae 
filia malum servum culpat. 8. Cibum domino serv^ant. 
9. Amice, culpasne dominum servorum .'' 10. Agricolae 
parvos equos non laudant. 11. Cibus est in horto. 12. Cur 
fidl equl dominds delectant .'' 

II. I. To the masters; of the horse; for the slaves. 
2. The food of the slaves is not good. 3. The master is 
in the garden. 4. He blames his ^ faithful horse. 5. The 
garden is large, but not beautiful. 6. Good food pleases 
the slaves. 7. Slave, where is the sailor's friend .'' 

1 Omit. 





Coin of Caesar 



28 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 6 



SECOND DECLENSION (Continued). NEUTERS IN -um. 
APPOSITIVE. INDIRECT OBJECT 



56. donum, gift 



Stem dono- 


Base don- 


SlNGULAR 


NOM. 


donum 


Gen. 


doni 


DAT. 


dono 


Ace. 


donum 


Abl. 


dono 




Pl.URAL 


NOM. 


dona 


Gen. 


donorum 


DAT. 


don is 


Ace. 


dona 


Abl. 


donis 



donum gratum, acceptable gift 



Stem dono-, grato- 


Base don-, grat- 




Singular 


NOM. 


donum gratum 


Gen. 


doni grati 


DAT. 


dono grato 


Ace. 


donum gratum 


Abl. 


dono grato 




Plural 


NOM. 


d5na grata 


Gen. 


donorum gratorum 


DAT. 


d5nis gratis 


Ace. 


dona grata 


Abl. 


ddnis gratis 



Observe that the nominative and accusative of neuter 
nouns are aUke, and that the nominative plural ends in -a. 
This is true of all neuter nouns of all declensions. 

57. Examine the following : 

1 . Marcus agricola f iliae equum dat, Marcus, the fanner, 

gives {his^ daughter a horse, or gives a horse to {his) 
daugJiter. 

2. Marco amico cibum do, / give Marcus {ijiy) friend food, 

OR I give food to Marcus, viy friend. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 29 

Observe in these sentences 

1. That agricola denotes the same person as Marcus, and 

that it tells something about him, and is in the same 
case. Such a word is called an appositive. Amico 
has the same relation to Marco. Compare with 33, c, 
and note the difference. 

2. That equum and cibum, being directly affected by the 

action of their respective verbs, are in the accusative, 
but that f iliae and Marco are in the dative case, because 
they are indirectly affected by the verb. 

58. Rules of Syntax. 

1. An appositive agrees in case zvitJi the noun zuhich it 
limits. 

2. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative case. 

59. VOCABULARY 

bellum, i, n., %var. Marcus, i, m., Marcus. 

donum, i, n,, gift. incola, ae, m. and f., inhab- 

oppidum, i, n., town. itant. 

frumentum, i, n., grain. Romanus, i, m., Roman. 

vinum, i, n., wine. gratus, a, um, acceptable, 

in, prep, with ace, into, pleasing. 

against ; with abl., in, on, do, T give. 

over. ports, / carry. 

60. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Malum servum culpamus. 2. Laudantne domini 
superbl servos fidos .-' 3. EquT domini sunt in magno horto. 
4. Ubi servl cibum dominorum servant .-' 5. Agricolae 
fidos equos non semper laudant. 6. Est cibus in domini 
horto. 7. Femina amici filiam vocat. 



30 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

II. I. She praises my friend's garden. 2. A good horse 
pleases your daughter. 3. The master praises the friend, 
but blames the servants. 4. The sailors' friends are in 
Greece. 5. Why does the garden please the farmer ? 

61. EXERCISES 

I. I. OppidTs; bella; vino. 2. Marcus nauta est fidus. 
3. Incolls vinum damns. 4. Bellum est R5manls gratum. 

5. Cibum in oppidum portamus. 6. Marcus agricolarum 
amicus est Romanus. 7. Incolae in oppidum frumentum 
portant. 8. Filiae reglnae in horto sunt. 9. Vinum Marc5 
nautae dant. 10. Dona incolls oppidi sunt grata. 11. Cur 
vinum servTs datis ? 1 2. Portantne nautae cibum et vinum 
in Galliam ? 

II. I. To Marcus, the farmer; for the good wine. 
2. Are you giving the horses good grain ? 3. Wars de- 
light the proud Romans. 4. The farmer gives the horse 
food. 5. The queen gives wine to Marcus, the sailor. 

6. They carry roses into the garden. 7, The gifts please 
the Roman's daughters. 



LESSON 7 

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. AGREEMENT 

62. Adjectives of the first and second declension are 
declined like nouns of those declensions. As has been 
seen in 51 and 56, the endings of the masculine and neuter 
of adjectives are the same as the endings of the nouns of 
the second declension, and the feminine endings are the 
same as those of nouns of the first declension (32). The 
complete declension of bonus, ^ood, is as follows : 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



31 







Singular 






Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


NOM. 


bonus 


bona 


bonum 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


boni 


DAT. 


bono 


bonae 


bono 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


Abl. 


bono 


bona 

Plural 


bono 


NOM. 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


bonorum 


bonarum 


bonorum 


DAT. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


bona 


Abl. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 



1. What is the vocative singular of bonus? See 52, 2. 

2. DecHne together, adding the vocative case, amicus fidus, 

faithful friend ; puella parva, little girl ; oppidum 
magnum, large town. 

63. Examine the following : 

1 . Amicus est fidus, tJie friend is faithful. 

2. Agricolae sunt validi, the farmers are sturdy. 

3. Puellae sunt parvae, the glials are small. 

4. Nautas superbos non amamus, %ve do not like proud sailor's. 

Compare carefully the endings of the nouns and adjec- 
tives in these sentences, and notice 

a. That the adjectives are in the same number, gender, 

and case as the nouns they modify. 

b. That the endings of the nouns and adjectives are not 

always the same, for adjectives modifying mascuUne 
nouns of the first declension must have the mascu- 
line endings, which are second declension endings. 
Which of the above sentences illustrate this .'' 



32 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

64. Decline together nauta bonus, tJie good sailor; 
poculum magnum, tJic large cup; agricola validus, the 
strong fanner. 

65. Rule of Syntax. — Adjectives agree ivitJi their nouns 
in gender, nuinber, and case. 

66. VOCABULARY 

malus, a, um, bad, evil, latus, a, um, wide, broad. 

wicked. novus, a, um, neiv. 

magnus, a, um, great, large, fidus, a, um, faithful, loyal. 

parvus, a, um, small. superbus, a, um, proiid, 
tuus, a, um, your, yours. haughty. 

gratus, a, um, acceptable, validus, a, um, strong, sturdy. 

pleasing. convoco, / call together, I 
albus, a, un, white. suun/ion. 

carus, a, um, dear. hodie, adv., to-day. 

peritus, a, um, skillful. nunc, adv., nozi>. 
longus, a, um, long. 

67. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Flliae equTs cibum dant. 2. Inopia pecuniae Marco 
agricolae non est grata. 3. Vocatisne incolas Galliae .'' 
4. Ubi RomanI pugnant.'* 5. Nautae reglnae dona grata 
dant. 6. Nauta Marco agricolae bonurn vinum dat. 

II. I. The sailor gives acceptable gifts to his daughter. 

2. The daughter of Marcus, the farmer, saves the town. 

3. They give the women money. 4. He is carrying 
grain into the town. 

68. EXERCISES 

I. I. EquI albi frumentum in oppidum portant. 2. Ubi 
est hodie nauta pcrltus } 3. In oppido nunc est nauta. 

4. D5na mels amicis sunt semper grata. 5. Equum 



ESSENTIALS OF LATLN 



33 



agricolae valid5 femiiiae dant. 6. Reglna siiperba in 
magnum oppidum serv5s convocat. 7. Dominus servos 
fidos vocat. 8, Mea filia non est in horto. 9. Hodie 
peritos agricolas non culpamus. 10. Dona reglnae in- 
colas fidos delectant. 11. Est nova luna. 12. Cur in 
hortum agricolas validos convocas ? 

II. I. A sailor is not always faithful. 2. They are 
now praising the skillful farmers. 3. The queen sum- 
mons the wicked inhabitants into the towns. 4. We are 
praising your faithful friend to-day. 5. There are many 
inhabitants in the towns. 6. The queen is giving Marcus, 
the farmer, a slave. 







LESSON 8 




SECON] 


D DECLENSION (Continued). 


MASCULINES IN 






-er AND -ir 




69. 




Paradigms 




puer. 


. boy 


ager, field 


vir, man 


Stem puero- 


Stem agro- 


Stem viro- 


Base 


; puer- 


Base agr- 

SlNGULAR 


Base vir- 


NOM. 


puer 


ager 


vir 


Gen. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


DAT. 


puero 


agro 


viro 


Ace. 


puerum 


agrum 


virum 


Abl. 


puero 


agro 

Plural 


viro 


NOM. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


Gen. 


puerorum 


agrorum 


virorum 


DAT. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


Ace. 


pueros 


agros 


viros 


Abl. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 




ESSEN. OK LATIN 


— 3 





34 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

1. Are the terminations the same as in 50? 

2. Is the base obtained in the same way as in previous 

nouns? 

3. The vocative is like the nominative. See 29, i, and 52, 2. 

4. Compare carefully puer and ager, and note that the base 

of ager has no e before r. 

70. Like puer, decline 

gener, generi, m., son-in-law 
socer, soceri, xn., fat/ici'-in-lazu 
liberi, liberorum, m. (plur.), children 

These and a few other nouns are the only ones that are 
declined like puer. Most nouns of this declension are 
declined like ager. 

71. VOCABULARY 

liber, libri, m., book. ager, agri, m., field. 

gener, generi, m., son-in-lazv. Gallus, i, m., a Gaul. 

socer, soceri, m., fatlwr-in- vir, viri, m., i>iau. 

laxi'. puer, pueri, m., boy. 

liberi, liberorum, m. (plur.), discipulus, i, \w., pupil. 

children. multus, a, um, m., viucJi ; 
magister, magistri, m., (plur.), mauy. 

teacher, master. 

72. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Inopia frumenti est in Gallia. 2. IncolTs oppidi 
magni equos dant. 3. Servus dona agricolae in oppidum 
portat. 4. Estne nunc pecuniae copia .'' 5. Agricolarum 
vita Gallos non delectat. 6. Cur in pulchram Insulam 
frumentum portamus ? 

II. I. The inhabitants like a good story. 2. There are 
many sturdy farmers in my country. 3. The Romans 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



35 



are summoning many troops into the towns. 4. There are 
farmers in the forest, and many sailors on the island. 



73. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Mult! librT sunt in oppid5. 2. Virlpuellas et pueros 
laudant. 3. Cibum in oppidum portamus. 4. Liber meo 
genero est gratus. 5. Regina llberos in oppidum convocat. 
6. Discipuli magistri amicum laudant. 7. Agricolae multl 
nunc sunt in agro. 8. Mens socer llberos magistri laudat. 
9. Incolarum agri sunt latL 10. Magister discipul5s non 
semper culpat. 11. Ubi nunc sunt flliae meae libri.^ 
12. EquI multos viros in silvam portant. 




A Roman School 



II. I. The boys are my children's friends. 2. My 
daughter loves her father-in-law. 3. The sturdy farm- 
ers are calling the servants into the fields. 4. The 
teacher gives the man a book. 5. There are not many 
sailors in the town. 6. The teacher praises his faithful 
pupils. 



36 



ESSENTIALS OF LATJN 



LESSON 9 

SECOND DECLENSION (Coxtinued). MASCULINES IN 
-ius AND -ium. ADJECTIVES IN -er, (-e)ra, (-e)ruin 



74- 







Paradigms 




filius, 


son 




proelium, battle 


Stem 


filio- 




Stem proelio- 


Base 


fili- 


Singular 


Base proeli- 


NOM. 


fllius 




proelium 


Gen. 


fill (fllii) 




proeli (proelii) 


DAT. 


filio 




proclio 


Acc. 


fT]ium 




proelium 


Abl. 


fIlio 


Plural 


proclio 


NOM. 


fllii 




proelia 


Gen. 


filiorum 




proeliorum 


DAT. 


flliis 




proeliis 


Acc. 


fllios 




proelia 


Abl. 


filiis 




proeliis 



2. 



3- 



The genitive singular of nouns in -ius and -ium generally 
ends in a single -i, and the accent remains on the same 
syllable as in the nominative : consilium, //c/;/ ; (gen.) 
consili. 

In nouns in -ius, the vocative singular ends in -i : 
fili, ((9) son; Mercurius, (voc.) Mercuri, (6>) Mer- 
cury. 

Do these nouns in other respects differ from those in 
Lesson 5 } 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



37 



75- 



liber, free 







Stem libero- 








Base liber- 








SlNGULAR 






Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


NOM. 


liber 


libera 


llberum 


Gen. 


liberi 


llberae 


liberi 


DAT. 


llbero 


liberae 
etc. 

niger, black 

Stem nigro- 
Base nigr- 

SlNGULAR 


libero 


NOM. 


niger 


nigra 


nigrum 


Gen. 


nigri 


nigrae 


nigri 


DAT. 


nigro 


nigrae 
etc. 


nigro 



1. Complete the declension of these adjectives. 

2. It has been noticed that adjectives in -us, -a, -um are 

declined in the masculine like hortus(50). Likewise 
adjectives in -er, -era, -erum are declined in the mascu- 
line like puer (69), and those in -er, -ra, -rum like ager 
(69). The feminine and neuter of these adjectives 
follow Stella (28) and donum (56). 

3. Learn the adjectives in the vocabulary that have e be- 

fore the final r of the base. Most other adjectives 
of the first and second declension are declined like 
niger, nigra, nigrum. See 70. 



38 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



76. Distinguish carefully 

liber, libera, llherum, free. 

liberi, liberorum, m. (plur.), cJiildren. 

liber, libri, m., book. 




Roman Books 

77. Summary of Nouns of First and Second Declensions 

First Declension 
Nom. Sing. Terminations 



-a 



-us 
-ius 
-er 
-ir 

-um 1 
-ium I 



Gender 

Feminine 

(Except names of males, 26, 27) 



Second Declension 



Masculine 



Neuter 



REVIEW QUESTIONS 

1. How is the base of a noun obtained ? 

2. In what nouns is the vocative singular not like the 

nominative ? 

3. In what nouns is there an irregularity in the formation 

of the genitive singular ? the dative and ablative 
plural ? 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 39 

4. Enumerate the nouns and adjectives in -er that have e 

before the r of the base. 

78. VOCABULARY 

filius, fill, m., son. proelium, proeli, n., battle. 

nuntius, i, m., messenger. miser, misera, miserum, 

gladius, i, m., sivord. wretched, poor. 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, asper, aspera, asperum, ;w/^/r, 

beantiful, pretty. fierce. 

tener, tenera, tenerum, ten- niger, nigra, nigrum, black. 

dcr. piger, pigra, pigrum, sloiv, 

aedificium, i, n., building. lazy. 

79. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. In agro Marcl amici multl sunt equl. 2. Liber, 
d5num pulchrum magistri, puerum delectat. 3. Agricolae 
multl equos magnos amant. 4. Lataenc sunt viae Italiae? 

5. Puerds fidos vocatis. 6. Ciir nuntii llberos in oppidum 
convocant ? 

II. I. They praise the sons of free men. 2. Many are 
the inhabitants in the towns of Greece. 3. The Romans 
are carrying much grain into the towns. 4. I am giving 
my friend Marcus a large book. 

80. E.XERCISES 

I. I. Aedificia in Graecia sunt pulchra. 2. Fill, ubi 
sunt librl tul ? 3. Nuntiorum sagittae n5n sunt longae. 
4. Viri gladios multos in aedificium portant. 5. Rosae 
multae et tenerae sunt in aspera silva. 6. Agricolae 
miser! pigros equos non amant. 7. Proelia nautas asperos 
delectant. 8. Dona mei generl fllils et fTliabus sunt 
grata. 9. Cur dominus superbus servos pigros culpat .'' 



40 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



lo. Nunti filio libr5s mult5s do. ii. Viae pulchrae 
Galliae liberos delectant. 12. In magno aedificio sunt 
multae sagittae et multl gladil. 

II. I. The messenger's daughter is pretty. 2. The 
great buildings please the fierce inhabitants. 3. Messen- 
ger, are you carrying my sword ? 4. Fierce battles are 
pleasing to the Romans. 5. You are giving my son a 
black horse. 6. There are many women and men in the 
beautiful building:. 



Gladius 



LESSON 10 



IMPERFECT AND FUTURE OF sum. REVIEW 



81. Review 39. The imperfect and future tenses of 
sum are conjugated as follows: 

Future 

ero, / shall be 
eris, you ivill be 
erit, he will be 

erimus, we shall be 
eritis, you will be 
erunt, they will be 





Imperfect 


Singular 


I. 


eram, / zuas 


1. 


2. 


era.s,you zvere 


2. 


3- 


erat, he zvas 


3- 

Plural 


I. 


eramus, we were 


I. 


2. 


eratis, you zvere 


2. 


3- 


erant, tJiey lucre 


3- 



I. Are the personal endings of these tenses regular .'' 
See 43 
the present of sum .-* 



Are these endings the same as those of 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 41 

82. Order of Words. — In an English sentence the order 
of the words is very important, because of the compara- 
tively few inflectional endings. A change in the order 
may change entirely the meaning of a sentence. For 
example : 

Caesar praises the loyal farmers. 

The loyal farmers praise Caesar. 

In Latin, a change in the order of the words does not 
change the meaning of the sentence, but merely shows 
the emphasis which the writer wishes to give to a particu- 
lar word or phrase. For example : 

1. Caesar agricolas fidos laudat, Caesar praises the loyal 

farmers. 

2. Caesar fidos agricolas laudat, Caesar praises the loyal 

farme}-s. 

3. Agricolas fidos laudat Caesar, Caesar praises the loyal 

farmers. 

The first sentence shows the normal order, and implies 
no special emphasis on any word, but this order is often 
changed to express the emphasis the writer wishes to show. 
In the second sentence fidos is more emphatic than it was 
in the first. In the third agricolas fidos is emphatic. 

83. 

Review List of Nouns of the First and Second Declensions 

1. Review carefully the meaning, gender, and declension 

of each noun. 

2. Recall any English equivalents that the Latin words 

suggest, viz., vita, vital ; nauta, naritical. Also 
watch for relationship between Latin words, viz., 
ager, field ; agricola, farmer. Do this for new 
words of succeeding vocabularies. 



42 



ESSEiNTIALS OF LATIN 



incola 


gladius 


agricola 


luna 


aedificium 


discipulus 


vir 


patria 


porta 


frumentum 


vlnum 


ager 


copia 


fabula 


oppidum 


sagitta 


femina 


vita 


insula 


. donura 


proelium 


gener 


pecunia 


amicus 


bellum 


puer 


hortus 


terra 


dominus 


magister 


via 


silva 


reglna 


servus 


liber 


rosa 


inopia 


Stella 


equus 


socer 


cibus 


nauta 


filia 


fllius 





84- 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Erimus ; eramus ; sumus. 2. Eratis; eritis ; estis. 
3. Erant; es; eris. 4. Eras; erunt; eris. 5. Filii agricolae 
erant parvl. 6. Filia nuntl crat in Insula pulchra. 
7. Reglnae copiae erunt in tua patria. 8. Nautae non 
erant pigrl. 9. Ubi gladius mel amid erat? 10. In 
magno aedificio erat. 

II. I. We were; we are; we shall be. 2. They will 
be; you (plur.) will be; she was. 3. You (sing.) were; 
he will be ; you (sing.) will be. 4. My friend's horse was 
not lazy. 5. The sailor's sons were small. 6. The fierce 
inhabitants will be slaves of the queen. 



LESSON II 



FIRST CONJUGATION. PRINCIPAL PARTS. FORMATION 
AND CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERFECT AND FUTURE 

85. Review 25 and 43. Latin verbs are divided into four 
classes or conjugations. These conjugations are distin- 
guished by the vowel before the -re of the present infinitive 
active. Thus : 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 43 

Conjugation Present Active Infinitive ^'^^Vo\vei"''^^ 

I. amare, to love a 

II. monere, to advise e 

III. regere, to rule e 

IV. audire, to /war I 

86. The principal parts of the verb are (i)the present 
indicative active, (2) the present infinitive active, (3) the 
perfect indicative active, (4) the perfect passive participle. 
These four forms of a verb must be known, because from 
them are obtained the stems necessary to the formation of 
all forms of the verb. These stems are called (i) present 
stem, (2) perfect stem, (3) participial stem, and are obtained 
from the principal parts as follows : 

Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Perf. Part. 

amo ama|re amavli amatus 

I I I 

present stem perfect stem participial stem 

87. Paradigm 

Imperfect Indicative Active 
Singular 

1. amabam, / zvas loving, I loved, I did love 

2. am abas, jou were loving, loved, did love 

3. amabat, he zvas loving, loved, did love 

Plural 

1. amabamus, zve zvere loving, loved, did love 

2. amabatis, yo?i, zvere loving, loved, did love 

3. amabant, they zvere loving, loved, did love 

Future Indicative Active 
Singular Plural 

1. TxxVi'^Od^, I shall love I. 2iX\\?s\Am.ViS, zve shall loz^e 

2. aniabis, yon zvill love 2. amabitis, yon zvill love 

3. amabit, he zvill love 3. amabunt, they zvill lozfe 



44 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Observe 

1. That the first person of the imperfect is found by add- 

ing -bam to the present stem, and the first person of 
the future by adding -bo to the present stem. Thus: 

amo pres. stem ama- imper., ama-bam 
amo pres. stem ama- fut., ama-bo 

2. That the personal endings are the same as used in the 

present tense. See 43. 

88. Learn the principal parts, and form and conjugate 
the imperfect and future active of the following verbs : 

pugno, figJit, pugnare, pugnavi, pugnatus 
laudo, praise, laudare, laudavi, laudatus 
culpo, blame, culpare, culpavi, culpatus 
convoco, snunnon, convocare, convocavi, convocatus 

89. VOCABULARY 

locus, i, m. (plur.), loci, m., castra, orum, n. (plur.), r^w/. 

and loca, -n., place. idoneus, a, um, fit, suitable. 

praemium, i, n., reivard. comparo, are, avi, atus, pre- 

pilum, i, x\., javelin. pare, provide. 

saxum, i, n., rock. contra, prep. with ace. ,rt'^^??V-'i"A 
telum, i, n., weapon. 

90. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Galll flliabus agricolarum cibum non dant. 2. Socer 
generum laudat. 3. Erant in Graecia aedificia pulchra. 
4. In nigram silvam nuntios convocat. 5. Virl inopiam cibi 
et vini non amant. 6. Mult! gladil sunt semper in oppido. 

II. I. Son, where is my sword .-^ 2. They are carrying 
the grain into the large building. 3. You give my daughter 
many roses. 4. Why does the island please the boys .-* 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 45 

91. EXERCISES 

I. I. Culpabat ; laudabant; convocabis. 2. Pugnabamus ; 
comparabas; dabunt. 3. Portabimus; culpabitis ; laudabit. 
4. Bellum contra Gallos comparabant. 5. Praemia idonea 
vir5s delectabunt. 6. Galli in castra cibum et tela portant. 
7. Id5neane praemia comparabitis ? 8. Ubi est locus castrls 
idoneus ? 9. Fill praemium erit pulchrum pllum. 10. Id5- 
nea pTla viris dabimus. 11. Multae sagittae et pila sunt in 
castrls. 12. Galll bellum contra Romanes comparabunt. 

II. I. You (plur.) will give ; they gave ; she was giving. 
2. We praised ; he will blame ; we are summoning. 3. They 
will carry ; we shall give ; you (sing.) were praising. 4. We 
were preparing a place suitable for a camp. 5. He will 
give his daughter a reward. 6. The Romans prepared 
war against the Gauls. 7. The weapons of the Gauls 
were rocks and arrows. 



LESSON 12 

FIRST CONJUGATION (Continued). PERFECT. ABLATIVE 

OF MEANS 

92. Paradigm 

Perfect Indicative Active of amo, / love 

CTvir^TTT A T, Personal Endings with 

biNGULAR Connecting Vowel 

1. amavi, I Jiave loved, I loved, I did love -i 

2. amavisti, you have loved, etc. -isti 

3. amavit, he has loved, etc. -it 

Plural 

1. amavimus, zue have loved, etc. -imus 

2. amavistis, you have loved, etc. -istis 

3. amaverunt, or amavere, they have loved, etc. -erunt (-ere) 



46 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

1. TJic personal endings of the perfect tense are the same in 

all the conjugations. Notice that these endings differ 
from those of the present, imperfect, and future tenses. 

2. Compare the second and third translations of the per- 

fect with those of the imperfect {2>7). There is this 
difference in the use of the two tenses : the perfect 
denotes a completed act, the imperfect an act goi/ig 
on, repeated, or continued. 

3. Conjugate the perfect of the verbs in ZZ. 

93. Examine the following : 

1. Hastis et sagittis pugnabant, tJiey fought xvitJi spears 

and arrows. 

2. Equis frumentum portabimus, we shall bring grain by 

means 'f horses. 

Notice that the ablatives hastis, sagittis, equis, c.\i)rcss 
the means or instrument, the things with which the action 
of the verb is accomplished. 

94. Rule of Syntax. — The means or instrument of an 
action is expressed by the ablative witJiout a preposition. 

95. VOCABULARY 

legatus, i, m., ambassador, do, dare, dedi,^ datus, give. 

lieutenant. oppugno, are, avi, atus, at tacky 
Graeci, orum, m. (plur.), besiege. 

Greeks. arma, orum, n. (plur.), ai^ms, 
pauci, ae, a, few, a few. weapons. 

supero, are, avi, atus, sur- hiberna, orum, n.( plur.), tc//^- 

pass, conquer, overcome. ter qitarters. 

armo, are, avi, atus, arm, Helvetii, orum, m. (plur.), 

equip. Plelvetians. 

^ Note the irregular perfect. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 47 

96. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Socer mens dona filiabus dabit. 2. Naiitae fldi 
contra Romanes pugnabant. 3. Tela idonea in castra 
portabunt. 4. Copia magna tel5rum est in loco. 5. Seni 
pigri multum frumentum in aedificia non portabant. 
6. Locus magno proelio non erit idoneus. 

II. I. The camp of the Romans was large. 2. Why 
did he give the inhabitants weapons? 3. We shall carry 
many spears and arrows into the town. 4. He was prais- 
ing the queen's forces. 

97. EXERCISES 

I. I. Pugnavisti; dedistlne .'* laudavimus. 2. Incolae 
oppidi multa arma comparaverunt. 3. Helvetil oppidum 
saxis et armis oppugnabant. 4. Equls in aedificium cibum 
portavit. 5. Arma pauca virls dedimus. 6. Cur Roman! 
Graecds superaverunt ? 7. Legatus multum frumentum in 
hiberna portavit. 8. Roman! Helvetiorum oppida sagitt!s 
et p!l!s oppugnabant. 9. Incolas !nsulae tel!s armabimus. 
10. In h!bern!s sunt pauca tela et multus cibus. 11. Gallos 
hast!s et sagittis superavit. 12. Locus est hibernis idoneus. 

II. I. You (plur.) have given; did he blame? 2. We 
have equipped ; they were conquering ; she gave. 3. The 
Gauls fought with spears and arrows. 4. The Romans 
have attacked the camp of the Greeks. 5. By means of 
rewards he summoned the Helvetians. 



Filuin 



48 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 13 

FIRST CONJUGATION (Continued). PLUPERFECT AND 
FUTURE PERFECT. REVIEW 

98. Review 81. 

Pluperfect Indicative Active of amo, / love 
Singular 

1. ?iVci2MtX2im., I Iiad loved 

2. amaveras, yoji had loved 

3. amaverat, /ic had loved 

Plural 

1. amaveramus, we had loved 

2. amaveratis, yoii had loved 

3. amaverant, they had loved 

Future Perfect Indicative Active 
Singular 

1. amavero, I shall have loved 

2. amaveris, you will have loved 

3. amaverit, he ivill have loved 

Plural 

1. amaverimus, ive shall have loved 

2. amaveritis, j'<?// will have- loved 

3. amaverint, they luill have loved 

I. The pluperfect is formed by the perfect stem amav- 
and eram ; the future perfect by the same stem and 
ero. There is an exception in one form of the future 
perfect. Which .-' 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



49 



99. Review carefully 43, 85, 86, 87, 92. Observe that 
the present stem is used in the formation of the present, 
imperfect, and future tenses, and the perfect stem in the 
formation of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect 

tenses. 

Table for the Formation of the Indicative Active 

Present Tense, First one of the principal parts. 

Imperfect Tense, Present stem + bam. 

Future Tense, Present stem + bo. 

Perfect Tense, Third one of the principal parts. 



Pluperfect Tense, 



Perfect stem + eram. 



Future Perfect Tense, Perfect stem + ero. 

100. Give the principal parts, and form the first person 
singular of all tenses of the indicative, adding the EngHsh 
meanings, of the following verbs that have occurred in the 
previous vocabularies : 

laud5 pugno • supero 

culpo d5 oppugno 

voco porto delects 

convocd armo servo 

compar5 

I. Give the complete conjugation of all tenses of the 
indicative of at least three verbs in this list. 



lOI. 



vocabulary 



maturo, are, avi, atus, Jiasten. 

expugno, are, avi, atus, cap- 
ture, take by storm. 

ad, prep, with ace, to, 
towards, near. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — 4 



mox, adv., soon. 

ferus, a, um, loild, barbarous, 

impedimentum, i, n., Jiin- 

drance ; (plur.), baggage. 
vicus, i, m., village. 



50 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

102. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Gladils et sagittis incolas oppidi superaverimt. 
2. Contra Romanos bellum Galll comparabunt. 3. In 
oppido Helvetiorum erit cibi inopia. 4. Legatus agrico- 
las pills armavit. 5. Gladium piilchrum Marco nautae 
perlto dederunt. 6. In castra puellas et pueros convo- 
cabant. 

II. I. There was an abundance of grain in my 
friend's fields. 2. The arrows, a gift of the queen, 
pleased the messenger. 3. He will not fight with 
weapons. 4. They have given the woman a beautiful 
horse. 5. Has he armed many slaves.'' 

103. • EXERCISES 

I. I. Maturaveras ; laudaveris ; expugnaverant. 2. Por- 
taveritis ; delectaveratis ; dederamus. 3. Arma com- 
parare ^ maturavit. 4. Parvum Helvetiorum oppidum 
expugnaverant. 5. Impedimenta multa in vTcum porta- 
verimus. 6. Dona ad rcglnam portabant. 7. RegTnae 
copiae crant ferae. 8. Ad ^oppidum erat frumenti copia. 
9. V^icos multos Gallorum mox oppugnaverit. 10. Gladils 
ad^ impedimenta pugnaverant. 11. Multam pecuniam 
incolls non dedimus. 12. Mox in agrls latis Gallorum 
erit frumentum. 

II. I. He will hasten ; he will have hastened. 2. They 
had given ; we have given ; you will have j^raised. 3. He 
had carried much baggage into the town. 4. They will 
soon have taken by storm many towns. 5. Why did he 
not hasten to provide grain ? 6. Near the beautiful village 
were broad fields. 

^ Present infinitive, to provide. See 85. ^ jjgar. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 5 1 

LESSON 14 

SECOND CONJUGATION. CHARACTERISTICS. FORMATION 
AND CONJUGATION OF THE ACTIVE INDICATIVE 

104. All verbs whose present stem ends in e are classed 
under the Second Conjugation. The various tenses of 
these verbs are formed from the principal parts precisely 
like those of the First Conjugation. Review 86, 87, 98, 99. 

moneo, / advise or ivarn 
Prin. Parts : moneo, monere, monui, monitus 



Pres. 


moneo 


Perf. 


monui 


Imperf. 


monebam 


Plup. 


monueram 


FUT. 


monebo 


FuT. Perf. 


monuero 



105- 

Conjugation of Present Indicative Active of moneo 

Singular 

1. moneo, I advise, am advising, do advise 

2. mones, yoii advise, etc. 

3. monet, he advises, etc. 

Plural 

1. monemus, we advise, etc. 

2. monetis, you advise, etc. 

3. monent, tJiey advise, etc. 

1. Observe that the -e- of the present stem, unlike the -a- of 

amo, is retained before the personal ending -0 of the 
first person singular. 

2. What is the characteristic vowel before the personal 

endings of moneo ? of amo .-* 



52 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

io6. 

Conjugation of the Perfect Indicative Active of moneo 

Singular 

1. monui, / Jiave advised, I advised, I did advise 

2. monui'sti, j'w/ have advised, etc. 

3. moniiit, he has advised, etc. 

Plural 

1. monuimus, zve have advised, etc. 

2. monuistis, you have advised, etc. 

3. monuerunt or moiiuere, they have advised, etc. 

I. Note carefully the accent of the above forms, and ob- 
serve that the personal endings are like those of the 
perfect of amo. Note that the perfect stem monu- 
does not end in v, as in amo, perfect stem amav-. 

107. The various tenses of verbs of the Second Conju- 
gation are conjugated like those of the First Conjugation, 
with the exception noted in 105, i and 2. Form and con- 
jugate the tenses of the indicative active of the following 
verbs : 

habeo, habere, habui, habitus, I have, hold 
video, videre, vidi, visus, / see 

108. VOCABULARY 

moneo, monere, monui, moni- moveo, movere, movi, motus, 

tus, advise, u>arn. move. 

habeo, habere, habui, habitus, dimico, are, avi, atus, Jight, 

have, hold. contend. 

video, videre, vidi, visus, see. praeda, ae, f., booty, spoil. 

terreo, terrere, terrui, terri- periculum, i, n., danger. 

tus, frighten, scare. cum, prep, with abl., with. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 53 

109. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. SaxTs armis Galli cum Romanis pugnabant. 

2. Magnum bellum contra R5man6s comparaverant. 

3. Ad portam liberos portaverunt. 4. Libros paucos 
amlc5 meo dedl. 5. In hiberna multa arma Roman! porta- 
bunt. 6. Cur fllias meas fabulae delectaverunt ? 

II. I. They armed the fierce inhabitants with javelins. 
2. Near the camp were a few buildings. 3. We do not 
always take the towns by storm. 4. Have you given my 
friend a book ? 

no. EXERCISES 

I. I, Movebat; vidit; terruerat. 2. Vlderimus; movisti; 
habebis. 3. Moverant ; terruerunt ; moverint. 4. RomanI 
cum Helvetils dTmicabant. 5. PerTculum magnum oppidi 
incolas terruerat. 6. Praedam in vicis multam viderunt. 
7. Galll copias ad oppidum moverant. 8. Vldistlne tuum 
perlculum .'' 9. Pueri praemia multa habebunt. 10. R5- 
manl gladiis et pills agricolas terruerunt. 11. Mox copiam 
frumenti habuerit. 12. Praeda pigros nautas delectabit. 

II. I. She had seen; he has frightened; he will have 
had. 2. We had moved ; you (plur.) have seen ; they have 
fought. 3. The Gauls moved much spoil into camp. 

4. They had contended with the men. 5. The messenger 
frightened the lieutenant by the story. 6. There is great 
danger in wine. 



54 



ESSENTIALS OF LATUM 



LESSON 15 

THIRD DECLENSION. CONSONANT STEMS 

III. The stem of nouns of the third declension ends in 
a consonant or -i-. 



112. 



Consonant Stems 



Stem 1 
and ^ 
Base J 



dux, m., 

leader, general 

due- 



Paradigms 

miles, m., virtiis, f. 
soldier virtue 



NoM. dux 
Gen. ducis 
Dat. duci 
Ace. ducem 
Abl. duce 



miles 

mllitis 

niTliti 

mlHtem 

milite 



NoM. duces mlHtes 
Gen. ducum mlHtum 
Dat. ducibus mllitibus 
Ace. duces mlHtes 
Abl. ducibus mllitibus 



milit- 



SlNGUI.AR 

virtus 
virtu tis 
virtuti 
virtutem 
virtute 

Plural 

virtu tes 
virtu turn 
virtutibus 
virtu tes 
virtutibus 



virtut- 



caput 

capitis 

capiti 

caput 

capite 

capita 

capitum 

capitibus 

capita 

capitibus 



caput, n., 

head 

capit- 

Terminations 
OK Conso- 
nant Stems 
M. and F. N. 

-is 
-i 

-em 
-e 



-IS 

-i 



-es 

-um 

-ibus 

-es 
-ibus 



-a 

-um 

-ibus 

-a 

-ibus 



I. Note that the stem and base are alike in nouns with 
consonant stems (but see 122, 2). The base is 
obtained by dropping the ending -is of the genitive 
singular. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 55 

2. To decline a noun, therefore, one must know the 

gender, the nominative, and the genitive. Be sitre 
to learn these facts about all the nouns given /;/ the 
vocabidaries. 

3. Observe that the nominative singular is not always 

like the stem. Various changes are made in its 
formation from the stem. No rule can be given. 

4. Learn thoroughly the terminations, observing which 

are ahke. See 56. 

5. Decline rex bonus, the good king. 

113. VOCABULARY 

&}xyi,&Vicis,va.,lcader,gene}-al. rex, regis, m., king. 

miles, militis, m., soldier. fuga, ae, i., flight. 

virtus, virtutis, f., jnanlijiess, in fugam do, dare, dedi, 

bravery, virtue. datus, //// to flight. 

caput, capitis, n., head. augeo, auger e, auxi, auctus, 
eques, equitis, m., horseman', increase. 

(plur.) cavalry. 

114. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I, I. Ad portam generum vidit. 2. Cur cum incolTs 
ferls dimicabant? 3. Periculum fill videt. 4. Pcrlculum 
agricolas perltos non terrebit. 5. Praedam multam in 
castris viderant. 6. Dabitne pecuniam mox flliae ? 

II. I. We have not seen much grain in winter quarters. 

2. The fierce inhabitants have overcome the farmers. 

3. The war had not frightened the queen. 4. They will 
besiege the town. 

' 115. EXERCISES 

I. I. Capitibus ; virtutl; capita. 2. Eques equum lau- 
dabat. 3. Milites impedimenta in castra portaverant. 



56 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



4. Equites Gallorum in fugam dant. 5. Proelium militum 
virtutem augebit. 6. Capita multorum equitum vidimus. 
7. Virtus militum ducem delectavit. 8. Rex n5n semper 
est militum dux. 9. Copias dux non auxerat. 10. Gladiis 
equites in fugam dederunt. 11. Mllitibus incolas feros 
dux terrebat. 12. Frumentum multum equites in oppida 
portabunt. 

II. I. For the soldier ; the heads of the horses. 2. The 
leader summoned his soldiers into camp. 3. The Gauls 
will put the horsemen to flight. 4. The king gave the 
leader a beautiful sword. 5. The general increased the 
supply ^ of grain. 6. There were many soldiers in winter 
quarters. 

^ copia. 




EqUiS 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



57 



LESSON i6 

THIRD DECLENSION (Continued). CONSONANT STEMS. 
ABLATIVE OF CAUSE 



ii6. 



Consonant Stems 







Paradigms 








consul, m., 


homo, m.. 


pater, m., 


corpus, n., 




consul ^ 


man 


father 


body 


Stem 
and ■ 


consul- 


homin- 


patr- 


corpor- 


Base 




SlNGULAR 






NOM. 


consul 


homo 


pater 


corpus 


Gen. 


consulis 


hominis 


patris 


corporis 


DAT. 


cdnsuli 


homini 


patri 


corpori 


Ace. 


consulem 


hominem 


patrem 


corpus 


Abl. 


consule 


homine 

Plural 


patre 


corpora 


NOM. 


consules 


homines 


patres 


corpora 


Gen. 


consulum 


hominum 


patrum 


corporum 


DAT. 


consulibus 


hominibus 


patribus 


corporibus 


Ace. 


consules 


homines 


patres 


corpora 



hominibus patribus corporibus 

1. Are the terminations of these nouns Hke those of the 

previous lesson 1 

2. Decline together pater bonus, corpus magnum. 

^The name of a Roman civil officer. 



58 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

117. Examine the following : 

1. Dux victoria laetus est, the general is glad because of 

the victory. 

2. Homines cibi inopia laborabant, the men suffered from 

{on account of) lack of food. 

Observe {a) that the ablatives victoria, inopia, express 
the cause or reason; {b) the various ways of translating 
these ablatives, because of, on account of from. 

Review 93, 94. 

118. Rule of Syntax. — Cause is expressed by the abla- 
tive, usually ivithout a preposition. 

119. VOCABULARY 

consul, consuiis, m., consul. tempus, temporis, n., time, 

homo, hominis, m., man. season. 

pater, patris, m., father. vulnus, vulneris, n., ivoutid. 

corpus, corporis, n., body. vulnero, are, avi, atus, tw/z/zc/. 

flumen, fluminis, n., river. laboro, are, avi, atus, zvork, 

pes, pedis, vc\.,foot. suffer. 

pedes, peditis, m., foot- trans, prep, with ace., across, 

soldier ; plur., infantry. over. 

120. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Virtus equitum Gallos superabat. 2. Virtute 
mllites in fugam dedimus. 3. Mllites peritl in castra 
arma portaverunt. 4. Due! fido pecuniam multam 
RomanI dederant. 5. FrumcntT magna copia erit mox 
in vlc5. 6. Cur ad portas oppidi tela portavit } 

II, I. Near the village we saw many soldiers. 2. The 
king increased the men's courage by the story. 3. They 
had had much grain in winter quarters. 4. My son's stories 
were good. 5. He gave the horseman a black horse. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



59 



121. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Peditem gladio me5 vulnerabam. 2. Vulnera 
multa sunt in corporibus mllitum. 3. Tempus est proelio 
idoneum. 4. Homines pecuniae inopia lab5rabunt. 5. Ad 
pedes regis erant miserl incolae oppidl. 6. Miles vulnere 
laboraverat. 7. Pedites consul trans flumen convocavit. 
8. Pedites incolas multos pills vulneraverunt. 9. Mllites 
dux culpabat. 10. Me5 vulnere sum miser. 11. Hom5 
fllios in hortum convocabit. 12. Pedes multos mllites 
trans flumen vidit. 

II. I. They put the foot-soldiers to flight across the 
river. 2. We are suffering from many wounds. 3. The 
inhabitants were wretched because of lack of food. 
4. The soldier wounded the sailor with' an arrow. 5. The 
consul will not blame my father. 6. The consul gave the 
foot-soldier a beautiful sword. 




Pedes 



6o 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 17 
THIIId declension (Continued). STEMS IN -i- 
122. Stems in -i- 









Paradigms 








collis, m 


., caedes, f., 


mons, m., 


animal, n., 




hill 


slang J iter 


inoniitaiti 


animal 


Stem 


coUi- 




caedi- 


monti- 


animali- 


Base 


coll- 




caed- 

SlNGULAR 


mont- 


animal- 

Terminations 
OF -i- Stems 

M. and F. N. 


NOM. 


collis 


caedes 


mons 


animal 


(-S) 


Gen. 


collis 


caedis 


montis 


animalis 


-is -is 


DAT. 


colli 


caedi 


monti 


animali 


-i -i 


Ace. 


collem 


caedem montem 


animal 


-em 


Abl. 


colle 


caede 


monte 
Plural 


animali 


-e -i 



NoM. colles caedes montes animfdia -es -ia 

Gen. collium caedium montium animalium -ium -ium 

Dat. collibus caedibus montibus animalibus -ibus -ibus 

Ace. collis, es caedis, es montis, es animalia -is,-es -ia 

Abl. collibus caedibus montibus animalibus -ibus -ibus 

1. Compare very carefully these terminations with those of 

112. In what two cases of masculine and feminine 
nouns is there a difference } In what four cases of 
neuters ? 

2. Observe that the base and stem differ. See 112, i. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 6 1 

3. The following sometimes have the ablative singular in 

-iand-e: ndivis, ship; ignis, fire; zvfis, citizen; turns, 
tozver ; finis, end; avis, bird. All neuter -i- stems 
have the ablative singular in -i. A few nouns some- 
times have the accusative singular in -im : turris, 
turrim, tower. 

4. Decline together: urbs pulchra, beautiful city ; animal 

magnum, large animal. 

123. Since nouns with -i- stems are declined differently 
from those with consonant stems, one must know what nouns 
of the third declension have -i- stems. The following classes 
have -i- stems, and they must be thoroughly learned : 

1. Nouns in -is a7id -es, Jiaving no more syllables in the 

srenitive than in the nominative. 

2. Neuters in -e, -al, -ar. 

3. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x following a consonajit. 

4. Nouns in -ns and -rs. 

124. Decline the following : 

mare, maris, n., sea. nomen, nominis, n., name. 

urbs, urbis, f., city. pars, partis, f., part. 

miles, militis, m., soldier. pons, pontis, m., bridge. 

hostis, hostis, m. and f., sedile, sedilis, n., seat. 

enemy. 

125. VOCABULARY 

(Make a list of ihe nouns with -i stems.) 

collis, collis, m., Jiill. animal, animalis, n., animal. 

caedes, caedis, f., slaugJiter. navis, navis, f., ship. 

mons, montis, m., inoun- per, prep, with ace. through, 

tain. by means of. 

occupo, are, avi, atus, take de, prep, with abl., down 

possession of, seize, occupy. from, from, coiicerning. 



62 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

126. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Mel patris amicus vulnere laboravit. 2. Longa 
via pigrum peditem non delectabit. 3. Galll equitum peii- 
torum inopia laborabant. 4. Vulnera multa in corporibus 
mllitum vidistl. 5. Pedites trans flumen latum in fugam 
dederunt. 6. Tempus equitum virtutem augebit. 

II. I. At the king's feet there are many slaves. 2. The 
general is summoning the men across the river into camp. 
3. The soldiers have suffered from the lack of a skillful 
leader. 4. They had wounded my son with a javelin. 

127. EXERCISES 

I. I. Mllites de monte in vicum impedimenta portabant. 
2. In navibus crant nautae multl et validL 3. Per perltos 
mllitcs partem urbis expugnabit. 4. Miser erat consul 
caede mllitum valid5rum. 5. Dux cum peditibus collem 
occupavit. 6. In marl sunt naves pulchrae. 7. Virtus 
hostium equitcs terrebat. 8. In monte erant animalia fera 
et multa. 9. Consul mllitibus et navibus hostcs superaverat. 
10. Dux de collibus Gallos in urbem convocabat. 

II. I. A large part of the city is beautiful. 2. There 
were many^ lazy sailors on the ships. 3. The horsemen 
took possession of the bridge. 4. The Romans are glad 
on account of the slaughter of the enemy. 5. They 
hastened from the hill into the broad fields. 

^ Many lazy = " many and lazy." See 127, I, 2, 8. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 63 



LESSON 18 

REVIEW OF THIRD DECLENSION. GENDER. ABLATIVE 
OF TIME WHEN 

128. Gender. — The rules for gender in 27 apply to 
nouns of all declensions, and take precedence over the 
special rules for each declension. 

The general rules for gender for the third declension are 
these, but there are many exceptions : 

Masculine. — Nouns in -es or -es having more syllables 
in the genitive than in the nominative, and those in -0, -or, 
-OS, and -er. 

Feminine. — Nouns in -es not having more syllables in 
the genitive than the nominative, and those in -as, -is, -aus, 
-X, -s preceded by a consonant. 

Neuter. — Nouns in -c, -1, -e, -a, -n, -i, -t, -ar, -ur, -us, -us. 

I. What are the rules of gender for the first and second 
declensions ? 

129. Review Table of Nouxs of Third Declension 

Give for each noun (i) gender, (2) meaning, (3) geni- 
tive singular, (4) ablative singular, (5) nominative plural, 
(6) genitive plural. Review carefully 122, 123. 



animal 


dux 


mare 


pater 


rex 


caedes 


eques 


mons 


pes 


tempus 


caput 


flu men 


miles 


pedes 


urbs 


consul 


homo 


navis 


pons 


vulnus 


colHs 


hostis 


nomen 


pars 


virtus 



64 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

130. Examine the following : 

1. Hieme laboramus, i)i ivijiter lue work. 

2. Decern mensibus multas urbes vidit, ivitJiiii ten montJis 

he saw many cities. 

3. Prima luce hostes in fugam dederunt, at daybreak they 

put the enemy to Jliglit. 

Observe that the ablatives hieme, decem mensibus, prima 
luce, tell ivJien or zvithiu zvhat time the action of the verb 
took place, and that no preposition is used in Latin. 

131. Rule of Syntax. — Ti7ne whe?i or zvitJiin which is 
expressed by the ablative. 

132. VOCABULARY 

nox, noctis, f. (gen. plur. dinnus, I, m., year. 

noctium), night. primus, a, um., Jirst. 

hiems, hiemis, f., winter. decem, indecl., teti. 

aestas, aestatis, f., summer. quattuor, indecl., /c^/zr. 

lux, lucis, f ., light, daylight, multa nocte, late at night. 

133. EXERCISES 

I. I. Aestate agri piilchrl incolas urbis delectant. 
2. Prima lijce^ montes multos vidimus. 3. Hostes tells 
equites vulnerabant. 4. Quattuor annis oppida multa 
hostium dux expugnaverat. 5. Cibi inopia Galll hieme 
laborabant. 6. Multa nocte pedites in castra consul 
convocabit. 7. Multas urbes decem annis dux Helveti- 
orum occupaverat. 8. Primd ann5 belli multa oppida 
expugnaverat. 9. Prima luce hostes in castrls erant. 

II. I. He captured the city by means of his cavalry. 
2. At night the enemy hastened toward the Romans' camp. 

^ Prima luce, at daybreak. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 6$ 

3. Within four years you will see many beautiful things.^ 

4. Night frightens the poor children. 5. At daybreak we 
carried our weapons into the camp. 6. Ten years is a long 
time. 7. In ten years there are ten summers. 



LESSON 19 
READING LESSOxN 
134. Julius Caesar 

Juhus Caesar is the greatest character in Roman history. 
He was great, not merely as a general, but also as an 
orator and statesman. He was born on the 12th of July, 
100 B.C. He belonged to an old, aristocratic family, but 
at an early age allied himself with the party of the people. 

After filling many minor political offices, at the age of 
forty-one he became consul, and formed a political alliance 
with Pompey and Crassus, known as the " First Triumvi- 
rate." The next year the government of Gaul was assigned 
to him, and it is the subjugation of this country that he 
describes in his Commentaries. These Gallic Commen- 
taries have been read in schools for hundreds of years, 
and they establish conclusively his ability as a writer. 

After spending eight years in Gaul, he was ordered by 
the Senate through the jealousy of Pompey to disband his 
army. Caesar refused, and, crossing the Rubicon, set out 
with his army to make himself the master of Rome In 
the civil war that followed, Pompey at the head of the sena- 
torial forces w^as defeated. This left Caesar the master of 
the government at Rome. As Dictator and Imperator for 
life he instituted many reforms that show his insight as 

1 The neuter plural pulchra means beauliful things. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — 5 



66 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

a statesman. There were many Romans, however, who 
disliked Caesar's power. A conspiracy was formed, and 
Caesar was assassinated on March 15, 44 b.c. 




Head of Julius Cccsar 
(From a silver coin, 38-36 B.C.) 



135. The Helvetian War 

The Hclvetii were people of Celtic origin who inhabited 
almost all that region now known as Switzerland. 

In the year 58 b.c, incited by ambitious leaders, they 
decided to leave their homes and seize the more fertile 
lands to the southwest, lying nearer the Roman province 
in Gaul. It is to this uprising of the Helvetii that Caesar 
devotes the first thirty chapters of his first book of Gallic 
Commentaries. After two battles the Helvetii, being com- 
pletely subdued by Caesar, were forced to return to their 
former territories. 

The reading lessons that follow are adapted from the 
first ten chapters of Caesar's account of this Helvetian 
war. 

136. Hints for Translation 

I. Read the passage through several times in Latin, and 
gather as much of its meaning as possible. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN ^j 

2. Try to associate unfamiliar words with some related 
word that you already know. 

3. Do not look up the meaning of a new word in the 
vocabulary until you have used every other means to get 
its meaning. After you have looked up its meaning, take 
time to fix it in your memory. 

4. In trying to get the thought of a passage, follow 
strictly the Latin order, noticing particularly the endings 
of the words. 

5. Translate into clear and idiomatic English. 



CHAPTER I 

READING LESSON 

Description of Gaul 

(The student should consult the general vocabulary for words that have not 
been given in the special vocabularies.) 

137. Belgae ^ et AquTtanI et Celtae GaUiam incolunt.^ 
Roman! Celtas Gallos appellant. Belgae sunt fortissimi 
{tJie bravest) et cum Germanis saepe pugnant. Helvetil 
sunt Celtarum fortissimi, quod {because) cum Germanis 
continenter pugnant. Aqultania a Garumna flumine ad 
Pyrenae5s montes et ad earn {that) partem Ocean! quae 
{whicJi) est ad Hispaniam pertinet. 

Note. — Learn the principal parts of all verbs of the first and second 
conjugations. Decline all nouns and adjectives. 

1 For this name and other proper names, see the map, page 10. 

2 Third person plural, present indicative, of incolo. Can you not infer its 
meaning from incola ? 



68 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 20 

PRESENT INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF THE FIRST AND 
SECOND CONJUGATIONS. ABLATIVE OF AGENT 

138. Review 25, 3. A verb is in the Active Voice when 
it represents the subject as acting or being : tJic fanner 
plows the field ; in the Passive Voice when it represents 
the subject as acted upon {i.e. the subject does nothing, and 
is passive): the field is plowed by the farmer. 



139. Paradigms 

AcTH'E Voice 

FIRST CONJUGATION 

Singular 

amo, / love, am loving, do love 
amas, yo?i love, etc. 
amat, he loves, etc. 

Plural 



1. amamus, zue love, etc. 

2. amatis,j'^/^ love, etc. 

3. amant, they love, etc. 

Passive Voice 

Slngular 

1. amor, I ajn loved, am being loved 

2. amaris, amare, you are loved, etc. 

3. amatur, Jie is loved, etc. 

Plural 

1. amamur, we are loved, etc. 

2. amamini, yon are loved, etc. 

3. amantur, tJiey are loved, etc. 



Personal Endings 
-0 

-s 

-t 

-mus 

-tis 

-nt 



-r 

-ris, -re 
-tur 

-mur 
-mini 
-ntur 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



69 



Active Voice 

SECOND CONJUGATION 
Singular 

1 . moneo, / advise, am advising, do advise 

2. mones, yoit advise, etc. 

3. monet, he advises, etc. 

Plural 

1. monemus, tve advise, etc. 

2. monetis, yon advise, etc. 

3. monent, they advise, etc. 

Passive Voice 
Singular 

1. rnoneor, I am advised, am being advised 

2. moneris, raonGXQ, you are advised, etc. 

3. monetur, lie is advised, etc. 

Plural 

1. monemur, zue are advised, etc. 

2. monemini, yoit arc advised, etc. 

3. monentur, they are advised, etc. 

I 



Personal Endings 
-0 



-mus 

-tis 

-nt 



-r 

-ris, 

-tur 

-mur 
-mini 
-ntur 



-re 



Compare very carefully the English translations of the 
active and passive forms. 

2. Review the active personal endings, and learn thor- 

oughly the passive endings. They are the same for 
the present, imperfect, and future tenses. 

3. Observe that these passive endings are added directly 

to the present stems ama- and mone-, except in the 
first person singular. 

140. Conjugate the present active and passive, giving 
English translations, of the following : 

laudo, I praise voco, I call 

video, I see terreo, I frigJiteti 



70 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

141. Examine the following : 

1 . Coniurati Caesarem necant, the conspirators kill Caesar. 

2. Caesar a coniuratis necatur, Caesar is killed by the con- 

spirators. 

3. Caesar gladio necatur, Caesar is killed by iivitJi) a sivord. 

1. Observe the changes in turning the active into the 
passive : 

a. The object of the active verb becomes the subject of 

the passive ; 

b. The subject, i.e. the agent or doer, in the active is ex- 

pressed in the passive by the ablative with a. 

2. Review 93, 94. Compare carefully 2 and 3, and note 
that a preposition is used when that which does the action 
of the verb is a person, while none is used when it is not a 
voluntary agent, i.e. not a person. 

142. Rule of Syntax. — TJie personal agent zvitJi a passive 
verb is expressed by the ablative zvith a or ab. 

143. VOCABULARY 

(Review the meanings of verbs in loo, io8.) 

Caesar, aris, m., Caesar. Q,Q\QxiidiS,Sit\s,i., speed, qnick- 
legio, onis, f., legion} ness. 

neco, are, avi, atus, kill. incito, are, avi, atus, incite, 
a, ab,^ prep, with ^hX., from, encourage, arouse, rouse. 

by. e, ex,2 prep, with abl., out 
ob, prep, with ace, on account of, from. 

of for. 

1 The Roman legion consisted of al^out 5000 soldiers. 

- Before a word beginning with a vowel or h, use ab or exj use a or e before 
a consonant. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 71 

144. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. R5manl hieme et aestate cum hostibus pugna- 
bant. 2. Tells hostes R5manl in fugam dederunt. 

3. OuattLior annls multas navis in marl viderant. 4. Co- 
pias in castra multa nocte consul convocavit. 5, Pons 
in 1 flumine erat. 6. Caede llberorum miser5rum sum us 
miserl, 

II. I. In winter the nights are long. 2. Caesar's cav- 
alry took possession of the hill at daybreak. 3. There are 
many ships on the sea. 4. The Romans did not suffer 
from a lack of leaders. 

145. EXERCISES 

I. I. Laudat, laudatur ; videtis, videminL 2. Incitant, 
incitantur ; vocamus, vocamur. 3. Caesar mllites convocat. 

4. Mllites a Caesare convocantur. 5. Dux legidnem ob 
virtutem laudat. 6. Legi5 a duce ob virtutem laudatur. 
7. Hostes celeritate equitum terrentur. 8. Magna cibi 
copia ab mllitibus in castra portatur. 9. Virtiite mllitum 
incolae oppidi incitantur. 10. Ex agrls frumentum ab 
mllitibus in hiberna portatur. 11. Multa nocte a pedite 
gladio vulneratur. 

II. I. We are summoned; he is calling; he is called. 
2. You (plur.) blame; you (plur.) are blamed. 3. The quick- 
ness of the Romans frightens the Gauls. 4. The Gauls 
are frightened by the quickness of the Romans. 5. Caesar 
encourages his soldiers. 6. The soldiers are encouraged 
by Caesar. 7. They are summoned from the mountains 
to the city. 



72 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 21 

IMPERFECT AND FUTURE PASSIVE OF THE FIRST AND 
SECOND CONJUGATIONS. ABLATIVE OF MANNER 

146. Paradigms 

Imperfect Indicative Passive 
Singular Singular 

1. amabar, [was loved, was i. monebar, / was advised, 

being loved was being advised 

2. amabaris, amabare, you 2. monebaris, monebdiXQ, you 

ivere loved, etc. weir advised, etc. 

-3. amabatur, he zvas loved, 3. monebatur, he ivas ad- 
etc. vised, etc. 

Plural Plural 

1. amabamur, 7c'^ wr;r A?7r<^, i. monebamur, ivc were ad- 

ctc. vised, etc. 

2. amabamini, you %vere 2. monebamini, j't?// wr;r«^- 

loved, etc. vised, etc. 

3. amabantur, they ivere 3. monebantur, they zvere 

loved, etc. advised, etc. 

Future Indicative Passive 
Singular Singular 

1. 2imdJoor, I shall be loved i. monebor, / shall be ad- 

2. amaberis, amabere, you vised 

will be loved 2. moneberis, monebere, you 

3. amabitur, he ivill be loved ivill be advised 

3. monebitur, he zuill be ad- 
vised 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 73 

Plural Plural 

1. amabimur, zve shall be i. monebimur, luc shall be 

loved advised 

2. amabimini, you ivill be 2. monebimini, you zvill be 

loved advised 

3. amabuntur, they zvill be 3. monebuntur, they will be 

loved advised 

Observe 

1. That the personal endings are the same as those of the 

present passive (139). 

2. That the vowel before these endings is a in the imper- 

fect, and that the vowel changes in the future. What 
is the characteristic vowel of the future ? 

3. That the imperfect and future passive are formed on 

the present stems ama- and mone- by adding -bar and 
-bor respectively. Review 86, S7. 

147. Examine the following : 

1. Agricola cum cura arat, the fanner ploivs xvith eare 

{carefully). 

2. Agricola magna cum cura arat I ///r fanner plows witJi 

3. Agricola magna cura arat S great care {veiy carefully). 

Observe 

1. That the Latin expressions cum cura, magna cum cura, 

magna cura, express the manner of the action of the 
verb. 

2. That magna cum ciira and magna ciira are translated in 

the same way. 

3. That these Latin expressions may be translated by ad- 

verbs in English. 



74 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

148. Rule of Syntax. — Manner is expressed by the abla- 
tive zvith the preposition cum, but cum may be omitted if an 
adjeetive is used zvith the ablative. 

149. VOCABULARY 

studium, i, n., zeal, eagerness, imperator, oris, m., general, 

cura, ae, f., eare. commander in chief. 

obses, obsidis, m. and f., host- conloco, are, avi, atus, place, 

age, pledge. station. 

multitudo, multitudinis, f., compleo, complere, complevi, 

multitude, croivd. com^\Qivis,f II up, complete. 

imperium, i, n., command, diu, adv., long, for a long 

pozver. time. 

150. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. EquitLim celeritate Roman! terrentur. 2. Caesar 
legato equum pulchrum dat. 3. Legato a Caesare equus 
pulcher datiir. 4. Hieme frumenti inopia hostes lab5ra- 
bant. 5. Magna urbis pars a Gallls occupatur. 6. Mllitcs 
a rege in hiberna convocantur. 

II. I. We suffered from many wounds. 2. At night 
the consul took possession of the mountain. 3. The lazy 
boys are not praised by my father. 4. The Gauls are 
frightened by the speed and bravery of the soldiers. 

151. EXERCISES 

I. I. Laudabat, laudabatur ; videbunt, videbuntur. 
2. Portabamus, portabamur ; superabis, superaberis. 3. In 
agrls lab5rabunt magno cum studio. 4. In castris cum 
cura legi5 conlocabitur. 5. In colle diu cum hostibus 
dimicabant. 6. Oppidum ab imperatore magno studio 
oppugnabatur. 7. Caesar! imperium dabitur. 8. Urbem 
equitum multitudine complevit. 9. L!ber5s mult5s obsides 
Caesar! Gall! dederant. 10. Equitesne a duce laudabuntur .-' 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 75 

II. I. You will hold, you will be held. 2, Are we 
praising? he will be blamed. 3. They were wounded by 
the infantry with swords. 4. At daybreak the Romans \ 
fought bravely. 5. A large part of the arms was carried 
very carefully into camp. 6. Many soldiers were seen 
near the bridge. 



LESSON 22 

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE 
OF THE FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS 

152. Review 39, 81, 86. The perfect, pluperfect, and 
future perfect passive of all Latin verbs have compound 
forms. They employ the perfect passive participle and 
the present, imperfect, and future tenses respectively of 
the auxiliary verb sum. The participle is like an adjective 
in form and syntax, and its endings change to agree with 
the gender and number of the subject of the verb. 

Paradigms 

Perfect PAssrv^E of amo 
Singular Plural 

1. amatus sum, / Jiave been amati sumus 

loved, I zvas loved 

2. amatus es amati estis 

3. amatus est amati sunt 

Pluperfect Passive 

1. amatus eram, / Iiad been amati eramus 

loved 

2. amatus eras amati eratis 

3. amatus erat amati erant 



76 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Future Perfect Passive 
Singular Plural 

1. amatus ero, / sJiall have amati erimus 

been loved 

2. amatus eris amati eritis 

3. amatus erit amati erunt 

1. In the same way, form and conjugate these same tenses 

of moneo, video, porto, giving English meanings. 

2. Note carefully that the participle is declined like bonus, 

and that its endings conform to the gender and num- 
ber of the subject ; for example, 

/ (a girl) have been loved, amata sum 
ive (girls) have been loved, amatae sumus 
the toivn had been seen, oppidum visum erat 
the girl has been loved, puella amata est 

3. For the difference in meaning between the perfect and 

the imperfect passive see 92, 2. 

153. VOCABULARY 

amicitia, ae, f., friendship, civis, civis, m. and f., citi.'yen. 

a Ilia nee. ci vitas, atis, f., state, citizen- 

pax, pads, i., peace. ship. 

mensis, mensis, m., month. confirmo, are, avi, atus, 

iter, itineris, n., march, road, strengtJioi, establish. 

joiirncy (476). contineo, continere, continui, 

ex itinere, on the march. contentus, Jiold together, 

7'estrain. 

154. EXERCISES 

I. I. Vulneratl eratis ; videbamus; incitatae sunt. 
2. Laudatane est ? laudatl erant ; culpatae erunt. 3. Pax 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 77 

cum multls civitatibus est confirmata. 4. Cives ob amici- 
tiam laudavimus. 5. Galli montibus et fluminibus contine- 
bantur. 6. Oppida multa decern mensibiis erant occupata. 

7. Magna Helvetiorum urbs ex itinera est expugnata. 

8. Frumentum multum ex agris in hiberna portatum erat. 

9. Caesar mllites in castrls tenebat. 10. Homines multl 
a Rdmanis erant necatl. ii. Multos clvis in Italia vidi- 
mus. 12. Urbs ab imperatore magno cum studio oppugnata 
est. 

II. I. She was restrained ; you (plur.) liad been blamed. 
2. We (fem. plur.) shall have been pleased ; they have been 
summoned. 3. Peace and friendship have been established 
with the Gauls. 4. The citizens had been aroused by 
their leaders. 5. The girl was carefully carried into the 
city. 6. The soldiers were praised by the general for their 
bravery. 7. Caesar attacked a town of the Helvetians on 
the march. 8. The cavalry had been wounded by the 
weapons of the enemy. 



78 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 23 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. THREE 
TERMINATIONS. ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION 

155. Adjectives of the third declension are divided into 
three classes according as they have in the nominative 
singular either one, two, or three terminations. 

acer, sharp, keen, eager 







Stem 


acri- 








Base 


acr- 








Singular 






Masculine 




Femhiine 


Neuter 


NOM. 


acer 




acris 


acre 


Gen. 


acris 




acris 


acris 


DAT. 


acri 




acri 


acri 


Ace. 


acrem 




acrem 


acre 


Abl. 


acri 


PiJ 


acri 

L'RAI, 


acri 


NOM. 


acres 




acres 


acria 


Gen. 


acrium 




acrium 


acrium 


DAT. 


acribus 




acribus 


acribus 


Ace. 


acris, es 




acris, es 


acria 


Abl. 


acribus 




acribus 


acribus 



I. Note that adjectives of this declension have -i- stems, 
and that the ablative singular ends in -i. Review 122. 

156. Examine the following : 

I. Helvetii Gallos virtute superant, tJie Helvetii surpass 
the Gauls in valor. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 79 

2. Vir nomine sed non factis amicus erat, tJie man was a 
friend in name but not in deeds. 

Observe that the ablatives virtute, nomine, factis, tell in 
wJiat respect the meaning of the verb or noun is true ; the 
first sentence tells that the Helvetii surpass the Gauls in 
respect to valor, not in size, speed, or in any other respect. 

157. Rule of Syntax. — The ablative of specificatio7i tells 
in ivJiat respect the meaning of a verb, noun, or adjective 
applies. N^o preposition is used. 

158. VOCABULARY 

aitus, a, um, higJi, deep. finis, finis, m., end ; (plur.) 
angustus, a, um, narrozv, boundary, territory. 

contracted. finitimus, a, um, neighboring, 
noster, nostra, nostrum, our, adjoining ; finitimi, orum, 

ours. m., neighbors. 

acer, acris, acre, kecji, sharp, quod, conj., because. 

eager. -que, and, an enchtic, always 
equester, equestris, equestre, attached to a word. 

of the cavalry; cavalry m.3igni\.VidiO,ims,i., greatness, 

(adj.). sice. 

159. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Dux filium ob virtutem laudaverat. 2. Pax quat- 
tuor mensibus a Caesare cum multls civitatibus erat 
conflrmata. 3. Multa nocte c5piae ex agris in castra con- 
vocabantur. 4. Mllites hieme in hiberna sunt convocatl. 
5. Mult! incolae gladiis equitum vulnerati erant. 

II. I. Why were the Helvetii aroused .-* 2. The town 
was captured on the march. 3. At daybreak the general 
gave his soldiers food. 4. The consul suffered from lack 
of cavalry. 



8o 



ESSENTIALS OF LATEN 



i6o. 



EXERCISES 



I. I. Castra Caesaris in Helveti5rum flnibus erant. 
2. Iter per fines nostrds angustum erat. 3. Roman! 
virtute sed non magnitudine corporis Gallos superabant. 
4. Equestres c5piae hostium magna cum virtute pugnave- 
rant 5. Flumina Galliae erant angustaaltaque.^ 6. Equites 
a Caesare sunt laudatl, quod hostes celeritate superaverunt. 
7. Acres perltaeque ^ erant copiae consulis. 8. Pedites 
Caesaris proelio erant acres. 9. Cur Helveti! a ducibus 
sunt incitati ? Quod altls montibus et fluminibus latls con- 
tinebantur. 10. Hostes equestrl proelio erant superatT. 

II. I. The battle with our cavalry was keen. 2. Have 
you seen many deep rivers .-' 3. We surpass our neighbors 
in cavalry forces. 4. There is a narrow road through our 
neighbors' i"erritory. 5. The general was wounded in his 
foot. 6. The Helvetii seized many towns because they 
fought with great bravery. 

1 Note to which word -que is added. 




Galli 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 24 

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. TWO AND 
ONE TERMINATIONS. DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES 

161. Many adjectives of the third declension have only 
two separate forms in the nominative, the masculine and 
feminine being alike. They are all declined like the fol- 
lowing: : 



facilis, easy 





Stem 


facili- 






Base 


facil- 






Singular 




Masculine a?!d Feminine 




Neuter 


NOM. 


facilis 




facile 


Gen. 


facilis 




facilis 


Dat. 


facili 




facili 


Ace. 


facilem 




facile 


Abl. 


facili 




facili 




Plural 




NOM. 


faciles 




facilia 


Gen. 


facilium 




facilium 


Dat. 


facilibus 




facilibus 


Ace. 


facilis (es) 




facilia 


Abl. 


facilibus 




facilibus 



Other adjectives of this declension have one form for 
the nominative in all genders. They are declined like the 
followins: : 



ESSEN. OF LATIN 



Z2 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 





ferax, 


fertile 






Stem 


feraci- 






Base 


ferac- 






Singular 




Vfasculiii, 


e and Feminine 




Neuter 


NOM. 


ferax 




ferax 


Gen. 


feracis 




feracis 


DAT. 


feraci 




feraci 


Ace. 


feracem 




ferax 


Abl. 


feraci (e) 




feraci (e) 




Plural 




NoM. 


feraces 




feracia 


Gen. 


feracium 




feracium 


DAT. 


feracibus 




. feracibus 


Ace. 


feracis (es) 




feracia 


Abl. 


feracibus 




feracibus 



Observe 

1. That all adjectives of the third declension have one 

form for all genders in all cases except the nomina- 
tive and accusative. 

2. That adjectives of the third declension ending in -er have 

three terminations, those in -is two, and all others, 
except comparatives, one. 

3. That they have -i- stems, and that those of two and three 

terminations have only -i in the ablative singular. 



162. Examine the following : 

1. Filius patri similis erat, tJie son was like his father. 

2. Locus castris idoneus erat, the place ivas suitable for a 

camp. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 83 

Observe that the datives patri and castris are related to 
the adjectives similis and idoneus. This use of the 
dative is similar to the English idiom, and presents few 
difficulties. 

163. Rule of Syntax. — TJie dative is used witJi adjeetives 
denoting Resemblance, Fitness, Nearness, and tJie like, and 
also with their opposites. 

164. VOCABULARY 

f ortis, e, brave, strong. omnis, e, all, every, the ivhole. 

similis, e, like, similar. brevis, e, brief, short. 

dissimilis, e, dissiinilar, nji- par, paris, equal {to). 

like. vetus,^ veteris, old, aneient. 

facilis, e, easy. gens, gentis, f., race, nation. 

difficilis, e, difficnlt. populus, i, m., people. 

165. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Helvetil fluminibus altls continebantur. 2. Ad 
flumen iter erat angustum. 3. Cur nostri fmitimi terren- 
tur ? Quod cum R5manis pacem et amicitiam conflrma- 
vimus. 4. Caesar equestibus proelils Gall5s superavit. 
5. Pedites nostri altls fluminibus terrebantur. 6. Gallos 
magna cum celeritate in fugam dederunt. 

II. I. There are many beautiful ships on the sea. 2. Our 
cavalry were skillful in battle. 3. Why were they fright- 
ened } Because they saw many deep rivers and lofty 
mountains. 4. The bridges have been taken possession 
of by the enemy. 

166. EXERCISES 

I. I. Multae et fortes erant in Gallia gentes. 2. Caesar 
veteres mllites amabat, quod bello fortes erant. 3. Mllites 
^ This is not an i stem. 



84 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

fortes oppidum occupaverant. 4. Iter ad montem facile 
est. 5. BrevI tempore magnam hostium partem necaverant. 
6. Helvetil multitudine hominum populo Romano non erant 
pares. 7. Fortis puer a mllite est vulneratus. 8. Omnes 
incolae ex oppido ad collem convocantur. 9, Caesar multls 
imperatoribus erat dissimilis. 10. FinitimI nostri omnes 
gentes virtute siiperant. 

II. I. In every town we shall see many children. 2. The 
boy was like the girl in size. 3. We carried the grain into 
the town by an easy road. 4. All the tribes were brave 
and ^ faithful. 5. In winter the field near the river will 
not be fit for a camp. 6. The Roman people were not 
conquered by the brave Helvctii. 

LESSON 25 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER II 

The Ambitious Designs of the Helvetii under the 
Leadership of Orgetorix 

167. Orgetorix, qui^ princeps erat Helvetiorum, coniura- 
tionem n5bilitatis fecit {formed^ et cum flnitimls civitatibus 
pacem et amicitiam conflrmavit. Helvetil undique natura 
loci continentur ; una ex parte ^ flumine Rheno, qui agrum 
Helvetium a Germanis dividit,* altera ex parte monte lura, 
tertia ex parte flumine Rhodano, qui prdvinciam nostram 
ab Helvetils dividit. Qua de causa ^ fines Helveti5rum 
angusti erant pr5 ^ multitudine hominum, et emigrare '^ 
cupiebant.^ 

1 Use -que. ^ the relative pronoun who, ivhich, that. ^ una ex parte, on 
one side. * third person singular of divido. ^ Qua de causa, y^r this reason. 
^ in proportion to. ' to e/iiigrate. ^ third person plural imperfect of cupio. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



85 



LESSON 26 

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF sum. 
REVIEW OF THE FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS 

168. Review 81. 

Prin. Parts : sum, esse, fui 



Perfect 



Future Perfect 



Pluperfect 

Singular 
I. i\\\, I have been, iw^XdiVOL, I had been iwtro, I shall have 





/ zvas 




beat 


2. 


fuisti 


fueras 


fueris 


3- 


fuit 


fuerat 

Plural 


fuerit 


I. 


fuimus 


fueramus 


fuerimus 


2. 


fuistis 


fueratis 


fueritis 


3- 


fuerunt, fuere 


fuerant 


fuerint 



1. Observe that the perfect stem is fu-, and that the pluper- 

fect and future perfect are formed regularly from this 
stem by adding -eram and -ero. 

2. Are the personal endings regular ? 

169. The following verbs of the first and second con- 
jugations have been introduced in the preceding lessons. 
Review carefully their meanings and principal parts. Why 
must one know the principal parts of a verb .'' 



pugno 


conloc5 


vide5 


laudo 


supera 


mature 


expugn5 


confirms 


teneo 


culpo 


arma 


incita 


oppugno 


compare 


contineo 


servo 


occupa 


labara 


voco 


augeo 


compleo 


delect5 


vulnero 


neca 


convocS 


habeo 


moveo 
moneS 


da 

porta 


dlmica 


terrea 



I. What is the force of con (com) in a compound verb? 



86 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



170. Review carefully 99, 104, 105, 106. With the out- 
line given below as a suggestion, complete the synopsis of 
incite. In a similar way, write out a synopsis of habeo in 
the second person and augeo in the third person. 

Synopsis of the Indicative, Third Person 
Prin. Parts : incite, are, avi, atus, arouse, urge on 



Present 
Stem 
incita- 



Perfect 

Stem 

incitav- 



171. 



Pres. 

Imp. 

FUT. 

Perf. 
Plup. 



Active 
Si'/ij^. incitat 
/-*////-. incitant 
Si/iiT. incitilbat 



Passive 
incitatur 
incitantur 
incitabatur 



P/ur. inciteibant incitabantur 

Plnr. 
f Si7i} 



I Plur. 

I Sing. 

\ Plnr. 
FuT. j Sing. 
Perf. [ Plur. 



Participial 

Stem 

incitat- 



vocabulary 



vasto, are, avi, atus, lay reliquus, a, um, the rest of, 

waste, ravage. remaining. 

libertas, atis, i., liberty, free- potens, potentis, able, powcr- 

doni. fill. 

pro, prep, with abl., before, in behalf of , for. 

172. exercises 

I. I. Fueratis ; fuerimus ; fuistis. 2. Gallorum fines 
ab equitibus erant vastatT. 3. ReliquI hostes pro llbertate 
diu pugnaverant. 4. Belgae navibus erant potentes. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 8/ 

5. Paucis annls bello finitimds Helvetil superaverant. 

6. Pro feminis llberisqiie magn5 cum studi5 pugnabant. 

7. Reliquae in Gallia gentes a nostris finitimis incitatae 
sunt. 8. Caesar cum quattuor legionibus fines Helvetio- 
rum vastare ^ maturabit. 9. Legiones popull Roman! 
magnitudine corporis Gallorum terrebantur. 10. Servus 
domin5 virtute erat similis. 11. Angustis montibus et 
altis fluminibus oppidum continetur. 

II. I. They saw a few horsemen near the bridge. 
2. Because of the war, the fields of the Gauls have been 
laid waste. 3. The legions of the Roman people were 
brave and skillful. 4. The foot-soldiers were equal to 
the cavalry in speed. 5. The citizens will fight for the 
general. 6. They put the rest of the enemy to flight. 
7. There were many powerful tribes in Gaul. 

LESSON 27 

THIRD CONJUGATION. PRESENT, LMPERFECT, AND 
FUTURE, ACTIVE AND PASSIVE 

Third Con'Jugation 

173. duco, / lead 

Prin. Parts : duco, ducere, duxi, ductus 

Learn the present, imperfect, and future, active and 
passive, of duco (493). 

1. Observe that the personal endings are the same as those 

used in the first and second conjugations (43, 139). 

2. Compare the present of duco with the present of moneo 

and amo in respect to the vowel that precedes the 
personal ending. 

^ pres. inf., to lay waste. 



88 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

3. Are the imperfect tenses of the first, second, and third 

conjugations formed and conjugated in the same 
way ? 

4. Compare the future of duco with the future of moneo, 

and notice the difference in formation. 

5. Observe that the present stems of this conjugation end in 

sJiort -e-, those of the second conjugation in long -t-. 

6. Like duco conjugate the present, imperfect, and future 

tenses, active and passive, of mitto, scud, and vinco, 
congiter. 

174. VOCABULARY 

duco, ere, duxi, ductus, lead, gero, gerere, gessi, gestus, 

mitto, ere, misi, missus, scud. cany on, 7vagc. 

vinco, ere, vici, victus, con- incolo, ere, incolui, incultus, 

giicr. inhabit. 

relinquo, ere, reliqui, relictus, neque . . . neque, neither . . . 

leave behind, leave. nor. 

contendo, ere, contend!, conten- saepe, adv., often, frequently . 

tus, struggle, strive, hasten, 

Jinrry, march. 

175. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Dux castra movebit, quod inopia frijmentl in agris 
est. 2. Equites nostrl fabuhs Gallorum sunt incitatL 
3. Belgae virtiite Helvetiis similes erant. 4. Multae 
Gallorum gentes multitudine hominum erant potentes. 
5. PaucI vicl ab hostibus vastati erant. 6. Omnes pro 
llbertate magno studio pugnabimus. 

II. I. The rest of the Gauls were powerful in arms. 
2. Is a son always like his father.^ 3. In a short time the 
village will be like a camp. 4. The general praised the 
old soldiers for their bravery. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 89 

176. EXERCISES 

I. I. Duciint; ducent; ducebat. 2. Mittimus; mitte- 
bantur ; mittebar. 3. Vincemur; vinces ; ducebatis. 

4. Belgae bellum longum cum populo Romano gerebant. 

5. Helvetil saepe cum finitimis contendebant. 6. Hostium 
copiae trans flumen relinquuntur. 7. In castris erant neque 
tela neque cibus. 8. Helvetil magno proeli5 a Caesare vin- 
centur. 9. Imperator per fines Gallorum in Belgas multas 
legi5nes mittit: 10. Caesar cum quattuor legionibus in 
Galliam contendebat. 11. Naves in Tnsulae incolas mit- 
tentur, 12. Galll equestribus copiis Romanes superabant. 

II. I. We shall conquer; they are sending; you (plur.) 
are being led. 2. We are left behind ; they will be sent ; 
you (sing.) will be led. 3. He will neither send nor carry 
food into the city. 4. The Helvetii inhabit the mountains 
of Gaul. 5. Many women and children were left in camp. 

6. The Roman people were waging war with the Helvetii. 

7. Four legions will be sent by the consul into Gaul. 

LESSON 28 
VERBS IN -io. THIRD CONJUGATION COMPLETED 

177. Many verbs of the third conjugation end in io in 
the first person singular of the present indicative active. 

capio, take 

Prin. Parts : capio, capere, cepi, captus 

Learn the present, imperfect, and future, active and 
passive, of capio (495). 

I. Observe that the conjugation of capio differs from that 
of diico in the present tense only in two forms. 
What is the difference .■' 



90 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

2. In what respect do the imperfect and future of capio 

differ from duco ? 

3. Like capio conjugate these tenses of fugio, flee, and 

iacio, Jiurl. 

178. Review 92, 98, 106, 152. The perfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect, active and passive, of all Latin verbs 
are formed and cojijugated in the same zuay. 

1. Learn the conjugation of the perfect, pkiperfect, and 

future perfect, active and passive, of duco and capio 

(493, 495)- 

2. Write a synopsis (170) of iacio, hurl, in the third person 

of the indicative. 

179. VOCABULARY 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus, interficio,interficere,interfeci, 

tliroiu, hurl. interfectus, kill. 

capio, capere, cepi, captus, traduco (trans + duco), ere, 

take, seice, capture, form. traduxi, traductus, lead 

fugio, fugere, fugi, — , flee, over, transport. 

run azuaj'. consilium, i, n., advice, pru- 

facio, facere, feci, factus, do, dence, plan. 

make. moenia, moenium, n. (plur.), 

walls, fortifications. 

180. REVIEW EXERCISES 

L I. Equites pedites non rehnquent. 2. Neque pedi- 
tibus neque equitibus sed navibus contendunt. 3. Estne 
iter ad oppidum facile ? 4. Roman! in hostium fines legi- 
ones multas mittebant. 5. Decem mensibus gentes multae 
a consule vincentur. 

IL I. The Helvetii often carried on war with their 
neighbors. 2. At daybreak the soldiers had been led 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 91 

into the city. 3. The Gauls were conquered by Caesar. 

4. Did you send the messenger to the general ? 

181. EXERCISES 

I. I. Capiuntur; interficieris ; fugiemus. 2. Traduci- 
mur ; capimur; fugiebatis. 3. Caesar in Helveti5rum 
fines iter ^ faciet. 4. Romani ex hostibus copiam frumenti 
capiebant. 5. Equites magna cum celeritate in montes 
fugiebant. 6. Multa nocte pauci pedites erant interfectl. 
7. Hostes tela in moenia nostra iecerunt. 8. Imperator 
ob consilium proell legatum laudavit. 9. Galll legatos ad 
Caesarem de pace miserunt. 10. Consul trans flumen 
latum legiones traducet. 11. Multl equites a copifs 
nostrls interficientur. 

II. I. We shall flee; they were killed; it had been 
taken. 2. You (plur.) were throwing; she has been 
seized. 3. All the inhabitants fled from the city into 
the forests. 4. The general's plan was a good one.^ 

5. The Helvetii will march ^ out of their territory. 

6. In the winter Caesar used * to form his plans. 

1 iter facio, march. 2 -f,^5 (f gQQd Q,ig ~ 2vas good. ^ march = make a 
march. * used to form : use the imperfect of facio. 




Caricature of Soldier 
(Pompeii) 



92 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 29 



PRESENT INFINITIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. THE 
INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH 

182. Infinitive 

Active Passive 

First Con'jugation 

Present am are, to love amari, to be loved 

Second Conjugation 
Present monere, to advise moneri, to be advised 

Third Conjugation 
Present ducere, to lead duci, to be led 

Present capere, to take capi, to be taken 

Fourth Conjugation 
Present audire, to hear audiri, to be heard 

1. The present infinitive active of all verbs has appeared 

as the second one of the principal parts of each verb 
given (86). 

2. Observe that the present passive is formed from the 

present active by changing final -e to -i, except in 
the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to -i. 

183. Examine the following : 

1. Maturat milites convocare, he hastens to summon the 

soldiers. 

2. Laudari est gratum, to be praised is pleasant. 

3. Incolas armari iubet, Jie orders the inhabitants to be 

armed. 

4. Omnes primi esse cupimus, zve all zvish to be first. 

5. Debet interfici, Jie ought to be killed. 

6. Fortis esse dicitur, Jie is said to be brave. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 93 

a. These examples show that the infinitive in Latin is 

often used as it is in English. 

b. In 2, the infinitive is subject of est. In 1,4, 5, 6, the 

infinitive completes the meaning of the main verb, 
and is called the coinplementaiy infijiitivc. 

c. In 3, observe that incolas, the subject of the infinitive, 

is accusative. In 4, note that the predicate adjective 
primi agrees with the subject of the main verb, cupi- 
mus, and is therefore nominative. 

184. Rules of Syntax. 

1. TJie subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. 

2. A predicate adjective xvitJt a complementary infinitive 
agrees ivith the siibject of tJie main verb. 

185. VOCABULARY 

dico, dicere, dixi, dictus, say, constituo, constituere, con- 

speak, tell. stitui, constitutus, place, 

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus, station, determine, appoint. 

order, bid. paro, are, avi, atus, prepare, 
debeo, debere, debui, debitus, provide. 

oivc, ought. appello, are, avi, atus, call, 
cupio, cupere, cupivi (ii), cu- name. 

pitus, wish, desire, be eager auxilium, i, n., aid, help. 

for. numerus, i, m., number. 

186. EXERCISES 

I. I. Vir perTtus esse debet. 2. Pater fllium fortem 
esse cupit. 3. Helvetil legates de pace ad Caesarem mit- 
tere parati sunt. 4. Difficile est gentes potentes superare. 
5. Helvetil, inopia cibi permoti {infiueiiced), pacem facere 
cupiebant. 6. Magnum navium numerum parare Gall! 
constituerunt. 7. Caesar legatum auxilium mittere iussit. 



94 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

8. Tuus amicus appellarl dicitur. 9. Imperator oppidum 
ex itinere oppugnare constituerat. 10. Caesar constituit 
cum Helvetiis, incolls Galliae, bellum gerere. 11. Copiae 
hostium magnae esse dicebantur. 12. Consul nuntium 
cum decern equitibus in Galliam contendere iubebit. 

II. I. It was easy to capture the town. 2. The enemy 
did not wish to leave their baggage in camp. 3. The girl 
ought to be skillful. 4. Do you wish to give your father a 
book ? 5. Caesar ordered the legion to storm the town. 
6. The fortifications are said to be high. 7. We ought to 
be brave and good. 8. Caesar desires the soldiers to be 
praised for their bravery. 9. The Gauls are said to be 
powerful in ships. 

LESSON 30 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER III 

Preparation of Orgetorlx and the Helvetii 

187. Ilelvetil auctdritate Orgetorlgis permotl^ iumento- 
rum et carrorum magnum numerum et copiam frumenti 
comparare constituerunt. In^ tertium annum profecti5nem 
in provinciam R5manam lege confirmaverunt, et ad flniti- 
mas clvitates Orgetorigem legatum mlserunt. Casticus 
Sequanus, cuius {zuhosc) pater a populo Romano amicus 
appellatus erat, et DumnorIx Haeduus, principes in suls 
(//^^/r)clvitatibus, auxilium dederunt. Dumnorigl Orgetorlx 
flliam in matrimonium dedit. Itaque hi {these) tres princi- 
pes potentium civitatum inter se^ iusiurandum dederunt, 
et GaUiae imperium obtinere cupiebant. 
1 See 186 I, 5. '^ for. ^ inter se, each other (literally, among themselves). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



95 



i88. 



LESSON 31 

THE DEMONSTRATIVE is. idem 
Is, ea, id 



As adjective, tJiis, that ; plur., t/icse, those. 

As pronoun, this, that, he, she, it ; plur., these, those, they 







Singular 






Plural 






Mas. 


Fern. 


Keiit. 


Mas. 


Fern. 


Keut. 


NOM. 


is 


ea 


id 


ei, ii 


eae 


ea 


Gen. 


eius 


eius 


eius 


eorum 


earum 


eorum 


DAT. 


ei 


ei 


ei 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


Ace. 


eum 


earn 


id 


eos 


eas 


ea 


Abl. 


CO 


ea 


eo 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 


eis, iis 



I. In what cases do the endings differ from those of 
bonus (62).' The stem is -e- or -i-. 



189. 



idem (is + dem), the same 







Singular 








Masculine 


Feminine 




Neuter 


NOM. 


idem 


eadem 




idem 


Gen. 


eiusdem 


eiusdem 




eiusdem 


DAT. 


eidem 


eidem 




eidem 


Ace. 


eundem 


eandem 




idem 


Abl. 


eodem 


eadem 
Plural 




eodem 




Alasculim 


Feminine 




Neuter 


NOM." 


eidem (idem) 


eaedem 




eadem 


Gen. 


eorundem 


earundem 




eorundem 


DAT. 


eisdem (isdem) 


eisdem (isdem) 


eisdem (isdem) 


Ace. 


eosdem 


easdem 




eadem 


Abl. 


eisdem (isdem) 


eisdem (isdem) 


eisdem (isdem) 



96 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

1. Observe that idem is a compound of is and dem, and 

that dem is uninflected. 

2. The is is declined regularly except for a few consonant 

changes before dem. 

190. Examine the following : 

1 . Is miles laudatur, tJiat soldier is praised. 

2. Eum laudant, tJiey praise him {i.e. tliat {many). 

3. Amicum eius laudamus, roc praise Ids friend (i.e. the 

friend of him). 

4. Amicum eorum laudamus, zue praise their friend {i.q. the 

friend of them). 

a. In I, is is used in agreement with a noun, and is a 

demonstrative adjective. It tells in an unemphatic 
manner ivJiat man is praised. 

b. In 2, 3, 4, is is used without a noun, and is a demon- 

strative pronoun. 

c. Observe that eius means Jiis, hers, its ; eorum means 

their, referring to mascuHne and neuter nouns ; earum 
means theij; referring to feminine nouns. See table 
below for the various meanings of is. 

d. Decline together : ea femina, id nomen, is miles. 

e. When the pronoun of the third person is expressed, it 

is regularly is. 

191. Table of Meanings for Reference 

is, ea, id 

Singular 
NoM. this, that ; he, she, it. 

Gen. of this, of that; of him, his; of her, her; of it, its. 
Dat. to or for this or that ; to or for him, her, it. 
Ace. this, that ; him, her, it. 
Abl, from, with, by this tr that ; from, with, by him, her, it. 



ESSExXTIALS OF LATIN 9/ 

Plural 

NoM. these, those ; they. 

Gen. of these, of those ; of them, their. 

Dat. to or for these or those ; to or for them. 

Ace. these, those ; them. 

Abl. from, with, by these or those ; from, with, by them. 

192. VOCABULARY 

Labienus, i, m., Lahiaius fortuna, ae, f., fortu7ie, good 

(one of Caesar's lieuten- fortimc. 

ants). murus, i, m., ivall. 

cohors, cohortis, f.,^^/^^/'/(one pono, ponere, posui, positus, 

of the subdivisions of the place, pitch (a camp). 

legion). princeps, principis, m., leader, 

defends, defendere, defend!, chief. 

defensus, defend^ protect. pugna, ae, f., battle. 

et . . . et, both . . . and. post, prep, with ace, after, 

behind. 

193. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Auxilium parare debemuSo 2, Mllites fortes esse 
cupiunt. 3. Caesari obsides dare constituerunt. 4. Mllites 
cum virtute pugnare iubebit. 5. Numerus navium decem 
esse dicitur. 6. R5manl e5s Gallos appellare cupiebant. 

II. I. Caesar orders the states to send hostages. 2. The 
commander did not wish to fight. 3. A number of soldiers 
is said to be led to the city. 4. The Romans ought to 
conquer the Gauls. 

194. EXERCISES 

I. I. Eius ; earum ; el agricolae. 2. Eiusdem virl; 
eaedem cohortes ; in eadem urbe. 3. Caesar, princeps 
Romanus, earn urbem expugnaverat. 4. Eius mllites post 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — 7 



98 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

earn pugnam eum ob fortunam laudaverunt. 5. Eodem 
tempore Caesar incolls llbertatem dedit, quod muros magna 
cum virtute defenderant. 6. Id facere est non semper 
facile. 7. Labienus easdem cohortes in Helvetios duxit et 
mox eos vicit. 8. In eorum vico Labienus castra posuit, 
et panels mensibus pugnas multas pugnavit. 9. Helvetii 
muros eius oppidi et cum virtute et fortuna defendent. 
10. Eosdem mllites ad oppida eius gentis mittit. 

II. I. His; their(fem.); to them. 2. In the same win- 
ter ; of the same chiefs; by the same man. 3. He orders 
them to pitch the camp in the same place. 4. His good 
fortune was not always the same. 5. They had given both 
money and food. 6. These soldiers will defend their walls. 

LESSON 32 
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN 
195. qui, 7v/io, zvJiicJi, tJiat, ivJiat 







Singular 






Plural 






Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Man. 


Fern . 


Neut. 


NOM. 


qu! 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quem 


quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Abl. 


quo 


qua 


qu5 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



Table of Meanings for Reference 

NoM. who, which, that, what. 

Gen. of whom, whose, of which, of what. 

Dat. to or for whom, which, or what. 

Ace. whom, which, that, what. 

Abl. from, with, by whom, which, or what. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 99 

196. Examine the following : 

1. Feminae quas videmus pulchrae sunt, tJie luoincn zvhom 

tve see are beautiful. 

2. Viros qui in castris sunt laudat, Jic praises the vicu that 

are iu the camp. 

3. Vir cuius equum habebat agricola fuit, the man zvhose 

horse he had zuas a farmer. 

4. Puella cui librum dedit fida est, the girl to ivhom he 

gave the book is faithful. 

5. Pilum quo vulneratus sum longum fuit, tJic javelin by 

li'/iic/i I zcas luounded zvas a long one. 

6. Is qui est fortis laudatur, he {one, a man) zvho is brave 

is praised. 

a. The relative pronoun refers to some word, and the word 

to which it refers is called its antecedent ; i.e. the 
antecedent of quas in i is feminae. Point out the 
antecedents in the other sentences. 

b. Observe that the relative has the same gender and num- 

ber as its antecedent, but that its case is not necessarily 
the same. The case of the relative is determined by 
its relation to the words of its own clause : for ex- 
ample, in I, quas is accusative because it is the direct 
object of videmus ; in 5, quo is ablative to express the 
instrument of the verb vulneratus sum. Explain the 
cases of the other relatives. 

c. In 6, is does not refer to any particular person, but 

means a matt, one. Is is thus commonly used as 
the antecedent of the relative. 

197. Rule of Syntax. — -A relative pronoun agrees with 
its ajiteecdent in gender and number, but its case is deter- 
mined by its relation to some word of its oivn clause. 



lOO ESSENTIALS OP' LATIN 

198. VOCABULARY 

causa, ae, f., cause, case. nuntio, are, avi, atus, an- 

causam dico, ere, dixi, dictus, noiincc, report. 

plead (one's) ease. coepi, coepisse, coeptus sum 

vinculum, i, n., eJiaiii. (only in the perfect, plu- 

ex vinculis, in chains. perfect, and future perfect 

poena, ae, i., punishment. tense), began. 

coniuratio, onis, f., conspiracy. Orgetorix, igis, m., Orgetorix. 

199. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Eoruni niTlites in eodem loco pugnabant. 2. Eldem 
principl praemia dat. 3. Eae cohortes moenia cum virtute 
defendent. 4. Et Helvetil et R5mani fortes erant. 5. Eius 
castra in eadem urbe ponuntur. 6. Post proelium milites 
in hiberna contendent. 

II. I. Those brave soldiers were praised for their good 
fortune. 2. Both the cohorts and their leaders had fought 
bravely in that battle. 3. Caesar at the same time defends 
the walls of that city. 4. After that war they pitched the 
camp near the mountains. 

200. EXERCISES 

I. I. R5manl nuntiant causam coniurationis quam 
Helvetil fecerunt. 2. Milites quos in Gallia habent in 
earn gentem mittuntur. 3. OrgetorLx, qui earn coniura- 
ti5nem fecerat, ex vinculis causam dicere coepit. 4. Eius 
coniuratio Caesarl nuntiata est ab els qui missi erant. 
5. Ob eam coniurationem Helvetil, quorum legatl a Caesare 
convocati erant, permoti sunt. 6. Causam ex vinculis 
dicere poena est eius qui coniurationem fecit. 7. Causa 
belli fuit caedes R6man5rum qui in ea urbe fuerunt. 
8. Cum eis, quorum principes id fecerant, pugnare coepe- 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



lOI 



runt 9. Is cui bellum gratum est asper est. 10. Gladius 
qu5 pugnabat longus est. 

II. I. The boy that is faithful is praised. 2. The sol- 
dier whom the general sees is brave. 3. Those are the 
weapons with which he fought. 4. He who fights bravely 
is not often conquered. 5. Orgetorix, wdiose punishment 
has been announced, will be killed. 6. The man to whom 
I gave this is my friend. 7. They began to fight with the 
Romans. 



LESSON 33 

THE DEMONSTRATIVES hic AND ille. ADJECTIVES USED 
AS SUBSTANTIVES 



201. 



hie, haec, hoc, this, plur, these 







Singular 






Plural 






Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


NOM. 


hic 


haec 


hoc 


hi 


hae 


haec 


Gen. 


huius 


huius 


huius 


horum 


harum 


horum 


DAT. 


huic 


huic 


huic 


his 


his 


his 


Ace. 


hunc 


banc 


hoc 


hos 


has 


haec 


Abl. 


hoc 


hac 


hoc 


his 


his 


his 



202. 



ille, ilia, illud, tJiat, plur. tJiose 







Singular 






Plural 






Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


NoM. 


ille 


ilia 


illud 


illl 


illae 


ilia 


Gen. 


illlus 


illlus 


illlus 


illorum 


illarum 


illorum 


Dat. 


illl 


illl 


illl 


illis 


illls 


illls 


Ace. 


ilium 


illam 


illud 


illos 


illas 


ilia 


Abl. 


illo 


ilia 


illo 


illls 


illls 


illls 



I. Compare the endings of ille with those of is (188). 



102 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

203. Examine the following : 

1 . Hie puer omnia, ilia puella pauca vidit, tJiis boy sazv every- 

thing, tJiat girl a fciv tilings. 

2. Caesar et Pompeius erant Romanorum principes ; ille 

in Gallia pugnabat, hie in Italia remanebat, Caesar 
and Pompey zvcre the leading vien of the Romans ; 
the former fongJit in Gaiil, the latter remained ifi 
Italy. 

3. Nostri in castris erant, onr men were in camp. 

a. Hie and ille are more emphatic than is (190, a\ When 

a contrast is expressed, as in 2, hie means the latter., ille 
means tJic former. Ille also sometimes means that 
well-known, that famous, and with this meaning is 
commonly placed after its noun. 

b. Decline together haee urbs, hoe flumen. 

c. In I and 2, observe that the adjectives omnia, pauea, 

nostri, are used alone, as if they were nouns. The 
noun to be supplied in English is generally indicated 
by the gender of the adjective. The neuter implies 
the noun tiling in English ; i.e. multa (neuter plural) 
means many things. 

204. VOCABULARY 

f rater, fratris, m., brother. eogo, ere, eoegi, eoactus, col- 

mors, mortis, f., death. lect, compel, force. 

eliens, elientis, m., vassal, eripio, ere, eripui, ereptus, 

dependent. snatch azvay, save. 

natio, onis, f., nation. sub, prep, with ace, to the 

oratio, onis, f., speech. foot of ; with abl., under, 

eognoseo, ere, cognovi, eogni- at the foot of 

tus, learn of, recognize. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 103 

205. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Helvetil qui coniurationem fecerunt legates ad 
Caesarem mittunt. 2. LegatI quibus Caesar ea dixit 
permati erant. 3. Causa eius poenae erat coniuratio 
quam fecerat. 4. Orgetorix, cuius consiiia nuntiata sunt, 
interficietur. 5. Magna cum virtute pugnabant, quod hos- 
tes ad castra erant. 6. Pugna quam cum Gallls pugnavc- 
rant longa erat. 

II. I. The chief that you see is Orgetorix, 2. The 
mountain on which they fought is in Gaul. 3. Those to 
whom he gives money are his friends. 4. The man whose 
conspiracy was reported began to speak. 

206. EXERCISES 

I. I. Huius orationis ; ill5rum clientium ; huic amlco. 
2. Hic cliens fratrem eius eripiet. 3. Nostrl hac oratione 
perm5tl {aroused) hostes in fugam dederunt. 4. Hae clvi- 
tates, quas dLximus,i legates ad ilium ducem mittent. 5. Et 
pedites et equites ad Caesarem contendunt, illl ex urbe, hi 
ex agrls. 6. Orgetorix, princeps ille Helvetiorum, necatus 
est. 7. Mors huius principis Helvetils non grata est. 
8. nil quos convocavisti clientes mel fratri sunt. 9. Om- 
nes cognoscere amicos cupiunt. 10. Sub illo colle Caesar 
hostes castra ponere coegit. 

II. I. For this man ; of those towns ; that famous com- 
mander. 2. At the foot of this mountain the enemy will 
force Caesar to fight. 3. All these tribes Caesar conquered 
within that winter. 4. It is difficult to compel him to do 
many things. 5. Our men collected the baggage into that 
place. 6. The Romans fought with the Helvetians ; the 
latter were brave, but they were conquered by the former. 

1 mention. 



I04 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 34 

Ipse. Iste. IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. ABLATIVE OF 
SEPARATION 



207 


Singular 


ipse, 


self 


Plural 






Alas. Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. 


Fein, 


Neut. 


NOM. 


ipse ipsa 


ipsum 


ipsi 


ipsae 


ipsa 


Gen. 


ipslus ipsius 


ipslus 


ipsorum 


ipsarum 


ipsorum 


DAT. 


ipsi ipsi 


ipsi 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsis 


Ace. 


ipsum ipsam 


ipsum 


ipsos 


ipsas 


ipsa 


Abl. 


ipso ipsa 


ipso 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsis 



1. Observe chat ipse is declined like bonus, except in the 

genitive and dative singular, where we have the end- 
ings -ius and -i. What other words have had these 
genitive and dative endings .'' 

2. Ipse is a pronoun that gives emphasis to the word with 

which it agrees, and its translations vary : for ex- 
ample, vir ipse, tJic man Jiiuiscif ; femina ipsa, the 
zvoman herself ; proelium ipsum, the battle itself ; 
urbes ipsae, tJie cities themselves ; etc. It sometimes 
is best translated in English by even or very. It 
agrees like an adjective with some noun or pronoun 
expressed or understood. 

208. Like ille (202) decline iste, that, that of yours. 

I. Iste points out an object near a second person, and 
may be translated fully tJiat of yours. It is, therefore, 
called the demonstrative of the second person. Ille 
is called the demonstrative of the third person, and 
its complete meaning is tJiat {of his or Jiers\ Hie 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 105 

is the demonstrative of the first person and signifies 
tJiis {of ini)ie). 
2. Mention the pronouns that have -ius in the genitive 
singular and -i in the dative singular. 

209. The following adjectives end in -ius in the genitive 
singular and -i in the dative singular of all genders (except 
that the genitive of alter ends in -ius). In all other cases 
they are declined Hke adjectives of the first and second 
declension. 

alius, alia, aliud (480), other, another. 

alter, altera, alterum, tJie other {of tivo). 

uter, utra, utrum, ivhich {of tzuo) ? 

uterque, utraque, utrumque, eaeh {of tzvo), both. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither {of tzvo'). 

ullus, ulla, uUum, any. 

nuUus, nulla, nullum, no, none, no one. 

solus, sola, solum, alone, sole, only. 

totus, tota, totum, xvJiole, all. 

unus, iina, unum, one. 

210. Examine the following : 

1. Nostris finibus eos prohibebat, he kept them from onr 

territories. 

2. Cibo caruerat, he Iiad laeked food. 

3. Ex ea parte vici discessit, Jie withdreiu from that part of 

the village. 
a. Observe that the ablatives finibus, cibo, and parte 
denote the thing from which there is privation or 
removal, or the thing which is lacking. 

211. Rule of Syntax. — IVoj'ds denoting Privation, Re- 
moval, or Separation are followed by the ablative of the 
iking, with or ivithont the prepositions a (ab), de, e (ex). 



I06 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



212. VOCABULARY 



careo, ere, carui, cariturus.i ripa, ae, f., hank (of river). 

lacky be ill need of, be zvitJi- alter . . . alter, the one . . . 

out. the other (of two), 

discedo, ere, discessi, disces- alius . . . alius, one . . . 

sum, depart, ivithdraw. another. 

libero, are, avi, atus, free alii . . . alii, some . . , others. 

from, liberate. alii aliam in partem, some 
prohibeo, ere, prohibui, pro- in one direction, some in 

hibitus, keep axvay from. another. 

provincia, ae, f., province. 

213. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Clientes hos mllites pugnare cogunt. 2. Helvetil 
in illls castrTs e perlculo sunt ereptl. 3. Fratres Orgetorlgis 
inincipis illTus eum cognoscent. 4. Sub illo monte hae 
nationes castra posuerunt. 5. Huic mlliti arma pllum et 
sagittas dederant. 6. Rex harum nationum, quae illam 
coniurationem fecerant, necatus est. 

II. I. That famous chief was forced to plead his case in 
chains. 2. Those tribes collected the soldiers at the foot 
of the hill (ace). 3. That man, whose daughter has been 
saved, will praise the soldier for ^ his courage. 4. We do 
not like to be compelled. 

214. EXERCISES 

I. I. HTc liber est meus; ille gladius est mllitis^; ubi est 
istud pTlum ? 2. Caesar ipse cum mllitibus ex ilia urbe 
discedit. 3. LegatI quos Helvetil miserunt armlscarent. 
4. Hostes utrisque rlpls fluminis prohibebimus. 5. IpsI 

^ Future active participle. This is sometimes given as the fourth principal 
part when the perfect passive participle is lacking. ^ q^^ ^'\\.\\ ace. ^ the 

soldier's. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 107 

oppidum a militibus* liberavistis. 6. Alii in ripis alii in 
flumine ipso pugnabant. 7. Caesar solus Helvetios pro- 
vincia prohibet. 8. Tota provincia ab hostibus liberata est. 

9. Ex hac urbe incolae alii aliam in partem discedent. 

10. Caesar et Orgetorix principes fuerunt ; alter necatus 
(est), alter ob vict5riam laudatus est. 

II. I. Of the queen herself; on the very banks of the 
river ; that daughter of yours. 2. Caesar was the very 
man who was keeping the enemy from the province. 
3. Some depart from the town in one direction, some in 
another. 4. Those soldiers of yours lack bravery and will 
withdraw from the battle. 5. Some like war, others peace. 
6. I myself shall free the inhabitants of the whole province 
from danger. 

LESSON 35 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. INTERROGATIVE quis 

215. audio, Jicar 

Prin. Parts : audio, audire, audivi, auditus 

Learn all tenses of the indicative, active and passive, of 
audio (494). 

1. Observe that the final vowel of the present stem is 

Io)ig -i-. What are the corresponding vowels of the 
first, second, and third conjugations .-' How can one 
tell to what conjugation a verb belongs.-' 

2. Compare carefully the present indicative active and pas- 

sive of audio with the corresponding forms of capio 
(495). In what forms is there a difference .-" Note 

^ A preposition is regularly used with verbs of separation when the abla- 
tive denotes a person. 



io8 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



particularly the quantity of the vowel i in the present 
tense of audio, and how this affects the pronunciation. 
The other five tenses of audio are formed and conjugated 
exactly like those of capio. 



216. 



The Interrogative Pronoun 



quis, ivJio ? zvJiicJi ? ivJiat ? 







Singular 






Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


NOM. 


quis (qui) 


quae 


quid (quod) 


Gen. 


cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


DAT. 


cui 


cui 


cui 


Ace. 


quern 


quam 


quid (quod) 


Abl. 


quo 


qua 
Plural 


quo 




Masculine 


Feminine 


Neuter 


NOM. 


qui 


quae 


■ quae 


Gen. 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


DAT. 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Abl. 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 



I. Compare these forms with those of the relative (195)- 

217. Examine the following: 

1. Quis hoc fecit .^ zvJio did this ? 1 Used as an interroga- 

2. Quid fecisti .? zvhat did yoji do?) five pronoun. 

3. Qui (quis) vir hoc fecit.-* ivhat' 

man did this ? 

4. Quam urbem vides .-' zvhat city ! Used as an interroga- 

7- .9 ' 4.; „j;^^4-;,,^ 



do you sec ? 
Quod donum amat puer .-* zuhat 
gift does the boy like ? 



tive adjective. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 109 

a. Observe that, when used as an adjective, the interrog- 

ative has the same forms as the relative. Quis is 
sometimes used for qui. 

b. When used as a pronoun, quis and quid are used in place 

of qui and quod. As a pronoun it has no feminine 
forms in the singular. 

218. VOCABULARY 

audio, ire, audivi, auditus, consuetudo, inis, f., custom, 

hear. habit. 

munio, ire, munivi, munitus, clamor, oris, m., sho?it, cry. 

fortify. labor, oris, m., work, labor. 

venio, ire,veni,ventum,i c^w^. iudicium, i, n., trial, jiidg- 
punio, ire, piinivi, piinitus, mcnt. 

punisJi. undique, adv., from all sides. 

219. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I, Caesar ipse urbem perlculo llberabit. 2. Iste 
miles, cuius virtutem omnes videtis, Rdmanus est. 3. In 
hoc ipso oppido coniuratio est facta. 4. Helvetii e tota 
provincia discesserunt. 5. Hostes alii aliam in partem in 
fugam dabuntur. 6. Alter legatus hostes moenibus prohi- 
bere, alter incolas convocare coepit. 

II. I. Some will be freed from chains, but others will 
be punished. 2. The enemy will be kept away from the 
city. 3. They fought for a long time on the very banks 
of the river. 4. I myself shall depart from the city. 

220. EXERCISES 

I. I. Audlris ; audietur ; veneratis. 2. Muniebatur; 
punlvisti ; punltae eratis. 3. Qui venient in banc urbem } 

1 The neuter singular of the perfect passive participle. Other forms of the 
participle are not used. 



no ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

4. Quorum clamores audiuntur ? Clamores ipsorum quos 
misimus audiuntur. 5. Consuetudo est Romanorum castra 
nocte munlre. 6. Quis tells vulneratus est ? Miles cuius 
imperator castra non munlvit. 7. Qu5s clamores in hac 
urbe audlmus ? 8. Et clientes et servos ad iudicium undique 
coegit. 9. Clam5res e5rum qui cum impedimentis venie- 
bant audit! sunt. 10. Quid facere cupitis ? Castra p5nere 
sub monte illo cupimus. 

II. I. We are heard; you (plur.) will hear; we had 
come. 2. They have been punished; you (sing.) are being 
heard ; the camp has been fortified. 3. What did he do .-* 
4. Who formed a conspiracy of the Helvetians ? 5. Orget- 
orix himself was the one^ who formed the conspiracy. 
6. Whose weapons are these .-' 7. With great labor they 
will fortify the city that^ we have taken. 

LESSON 36 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER IV 

The Death of Orgetorix after being summoned to 
Trial by the Helvetian Officials on a Charge 
OF Conspiracy 

221. Ea consilia sunt Helvetils per nuntios nuntiata, et 
Orgetorlgem ex vinculls causam dicere coegerunt. Coniu- 
rationis accusatus est et ignl cremarl^ eius poena fuit. 
Quam * ob rem Orgetorix ad iudicium omnem suam {/its) 
familiam et omnes clientes obaeratosque, qu5rum magnum 
numerum habebat, undique coegit. Per eos se {Jiimsclf^ 

^ See 196, 6. ^ Is this a relative or a demonstrative ? ^ See 183, 2, 
* quam ob rem, therefore, wherefore. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



III 



e perlculo eripuit. Magistratus ^ ob eius fugam sunt incitati 
multitudinemque hominum c5gere ex agrls coeperunt. 
Interea Orgetorix mortuus^ est, et de eius morte fuerunt 
mult! rumores apud Helvetios. 



222. 



LESSON Z7 

FOURTH DECLENSION 

The Stem ends in -u- 



casus, m., 


cornu, n., 






cJiaiice, 


■))iisfortu7ie 


Jiorn, iving 






Stem casu- 


Stem cornu- 






Base cas- 

SlNGULAR 


Base corn- 

SlNGULAR 


Terminations 

Singular 

Masculine Neuter 


NOM. 


casus 


cornu 


-us 


-u 


Gen. 


casus 


cornus 


-US 


-lis 


DAT. 


casui (u) 


cornu 


-ui (u) 


-u 


Ace. 


casum 


cornu 


-um 


-u 


Abl. 


casu 


cornu 


-u 


-ii 




Plural 


Plural 


Plural 


NOM. 


casus 


cornua 


-US 


-ua 


Gen. 


casuum 


cornuum 


-uum 


-uum 


DAT. 


casibus 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 


Ace. 


casus 


cornua 


-US 


-ua 


Abl. 


casibus 


cornibus 


-ibus 


-ibus 



1. A few words of this declension have -ubus in the dative 

and ablative plural. 

2. Domus, f., house, home, is partly of the second and partly 

of the fourth declension. (See 476.) 

^ officers, magistrates, noni. plur. ^ mortuus est, died. 



I 12 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



223. Rule of Syntax. — A^oi/ns of the fourth declension 
m -us are Diascnline ; those in -u are nenter. 

I. Domus, honse, Idus (plur.), the Ides, manus, hand, and a 
few other nouns 2iX.Q feminine. 

224. Decline together exercitus fortis, brave army ; tua 
manus, yo7ir hand ; cornu dextrum, right wing. 

225. VOCABULARY 

casus, us, m., a falling, a dextro cornu, on the right 

chance, misfortnne. zuing. 

domus, us, f., honse, home. a sinistro cornu, on the left 

exercitus, us, m., army. wing. 

mdiuus, XiS, i., hand, band {oi convenio, ire, conveni, con- 
men), ventus, come together, 

portus, us, m , harbor. assemble. 

cornii, us, n., Jiorn, wing (of deus, i, m., god. 
army). 




Interior of a Roman House (Restoration) 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 13 

226. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Quis clamores mllitum audlvit ? 2. Hostes alii 
aliam in partem fugient. 3. Undiqiie equites ex silvis ad 
flumen veniebant. 4. Principis est consuetude punire eos 
qui coniurationem faciunt. 5. Quam urbem munient et 
qui cam defendent? 6. Quorum clamdres audiuntur atque 
cur illl punltl sunt ? 

II. I. Who will fortify the camp that^ Caesar has 
pitched ? 2. We shall keep those foot-soldiers from the 
city. 3. Whose shouts did you hear at daybreak at the 
foot of the hill .-' 4. In many countries lazy men are pun- 
ished by labor. 

227. EXERCISES 

I. I. Portubus; exercitui; manuum. 2. Manus equitum 
ad exercitum venerant. 3. Ad hunc portum naves hostium 
missae sunt. 4. Qui mllites a dextro cornu exercitus sunt ? 
5. Roman! consiho de5rum magnam Helvetiorum partem 
necaverunt. 6. N until qui ad Caesarem venerant el casum 
exercitus nuntiaverunt. 7. PaucI ad portas urbis conveni- 
ebant. 8. Roman! magna cum caede domos et agros 
Gallorum vastaverant. 9. Nostri a sinistro cornu superat! 
sunt quod non cum virtute dimicaverant. 10. Domus 
Gallorum ab equitibus vastabantur. 11. Urbs cuius portas 
defendimus magnum portum habet. 

II. I. For the gods; on the left wing; the doors of the 
houses. 2. In the harbor are many ships in which ^ the 
army of the Romans came from the city to Gaul. 3. The 
misfortune of the army was reported to Caesar. 4. Orget- 
orix, whose bands had assembled, was not saved from danger. 
5. The houses of the city will be defended by the army. 

^ Is this the relative or the demonstrative pronoun ? - in ivhuh : express 
by the ablative of means. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — 8 



114 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

LESSON 38 

IRREGULAR VERB eo. PLACE WHERE, WHENCE, AND 

WHITHER 

228. Irregular Verb eo, go 
Prin. Parts : eo, ire, ii, itum ^ 

Learn all tenses of the indicative of eo (500). 

1. Notice that the -i-, the present stem of eo, changes to -e- 

before a vowel. In what forms of the present indica- 
tive does this change occur ? 

2. Observe that the future indicative ibo is formed like 

the future of verbs of the first and second conjuga- 
tions, although the present infinitive is ire. Are all 
other tenses of the indicative formed and conjugated 
regularly ? 

229. Names of towns and a few other words have a 
special case called the Locative, which expresses the idea 
of at or in, and answers the question zvJicre. 

I. The following are the locative endings for names of 

towns : 

Singular Plural 

T^. , T^ , . - f Romae, /;/ Rome. 

r'lrst Declension -ae -is j . 

i Athenis, jji AtJicns. 

c- J T>. 1 • - - [ Corinthi, at or in Corinth. 

Second Declension -1 -is i • r^ , • 

I Delphis, at or m DelpJii. 

fCarthagini, at or /// Car- 
Third Declension -i(e) -ibus \ tJiagc. 

[ Trallibus, at or in Trallcs. 

1 See note on venio (218). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN II5 

Domi, at hovic ; humi, on the ground ; ruri, in tJic country, 
are also locative forms. 

To express the same idea for other words than the 
names of towns use the preposition in and the abla- 
tive ; i.e. in urbe est, Jie is in the city ; in Italia sunt, 
tJiey are in Italy. 

230. Examine the following : 

ad pontem, to tJie bridge. 
in italiam, to or i7ito Italy. 

1. Venit, he comes \ Romam, to Rome. 
domum, home. 

[ rus, to or into the country. 

(ab) (de) ex oppido, fro})i the town. 
(ab) (de) ex Italia, from Italy. 

2. Exit, he goes \ Athenis, from Athens. 

domo, from home. 
I rure, from the country. 

a. Observe that to answer the questions zuJiitJier or zvJience^ 
no preposition is used with names of towns and domus 
and rus, while a preposition (in, ad, ab, de, ex) is used 
with other words. 

231. Rule of Syntax. 

With names of tozvns and domus and rus. 

1. Place zvhere is expressed by the locative. 

2. Place whitJicr is expressed by the accusative without 
a preposition. 

3. Place whence is expressed by the ablative ivitJiout a 
preposition. 

A preposition is used with other words to express these 
ideas. 



Il6 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

232. VOCABULARY 

Athenae, arum (plur.), f., eo, ire, ii, itum, go. 

Athens. exeo (ex + eo), ire, exii, ex- 
Carthago, inis, f., CartJiage. itiirus,^ go out. 

Corinthus, i, f. (27, 2), Cor- transeo (trans + eo), ire, 

i}itJi. transii, transitiirus, ^ go 

Delphi, orum (plur.), f., Del- over, go across, cross. 

pJii. impetus, us, m., attack. 

equitatus (eques), us, m., cav- impetum facio in (with ace), 

airy. viake an attack upon. 

233. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Donius incolarum ab equitatu Caesaris defendentur. 
2. Legiones popull Roman! in hiberna venerant. 3. Casus 
navium mllitibus, qui in hibernis erant, nuntiatus est. 4. In 
sinistro cornu exercitus sunt manus multae fortium mllitum. 
5. Casu nostrorum hostes erant laetl. 

II. I. The Gauls were being conquered on the right 
wing. 2. The bands of the enemy that you see are as- 
sembling from all sides. 3. They were hastening to the 
harbor from which the ships of our (men) were seen. 
4. They were killed by the cavalry with swords. 

234. EXERCISES 

I. I. lerat ; Tbunt ; eunt. 2. Transierunt ; exibatis ; 
Tmus ; iimus. 3. Ex urbe ; ex urbe Roma^; Roma; domo. 
4. In oppido; Romae; CarthaginI; Athenis; doml, 5. Con- 
sul exercitum Roma Athenas traduxit. 6. Caesar legates 
quos habebat in Graeciam transire iussit. 7. Dux Ro- 
manorum urbem muniet atque incolas ab hostibus llberabit. 

^ See note on careo (212). 2 of Rome. Roma is in apposition with urbe. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



117 



8. Equitatum Corinthiim mittet, sed ipse Athenis bellum 
geret. 9. Helvetil e finibus exire parant, et exercitum 
trans flumen traducunt. 10. Caesar Roma contendit et 
equitatum in Helvetios impetum facere iubet. 

II. I, From Greece; out of Corinth; from home. 2. To 
Athens ; to the city ; into the country ; into the province. 
3. In Rome ; in Italy ; at home ; at Delphi. 4. We ought 
to send the cavalry to Athens. 5. The enemy had made a 
brave attack on our men, but had been conquered. 6. The 
cavalry wished to cross the river, but were kept away from 
the banks by the enemy. 



LESSON 39 



REVIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 
POSSESSOR 



DATIVE OF 



235. Review of the Four Co.n-jugatioxs 

Review the list of verbs in 169, and review thoroughly 
the meanings and principal parts of the following verbs 
that have been introduced since Lesson 27 : 



duco 


capio 


incolo 


coepI 


traduc5 


prohibeo 


iacio 


nuntio 


eo 


audio 


fugi5 


eripio 


transeo 


paro 


facio 


cogo 


exe5 


pono 


interficio 


cognosce 


venid 


careo 


dlco 


disced© 


convenio 


vinco 


iube5 


llbero 


mitto 


relinquo 


appello 


punio 


debeo 


contends 


constitu5 


munio 


cupio 


gero 


defends 





Il8 ESSEiNTIALS OF LATIN 

1. Notice particularly the significance of the prefixes 

trans, ex, con, as they appear in the compound 
verbs. 

2. How does the formation of the future of the first and 

second conjugations differ from that of the third and 
fourth conjugations ? 

3. How can you tell whether cupio belongs to the fourth 

or the third conjugation ? 

236. I. Following the form suggested in 170, write a 
synopsis of iubeo in the first person, interficio in the second 
person, munio in the third person. 

2. Review 92, i. Conjugate the perfect active of do, 
iubeo, eo, cognosco, venio. Observe that the perfect, plu- 
perfect, and future perfect active and passive of all conju- 
gations are formed from the principal parts and conjugated 
in the same way. 

237. Examine the following : 

1. Miles gladium habet, 1 , , ,. , 

-_.,.^. , ,. \ the soldier has a sivord. 

2. Militi est gladius, J 

Observe the two ways in Latin of expressing the 
same English idea. The first sentence corresponds word 
for word with the English translation. The second sen- 
tence, translated into bad English, is "for the soldier is a 
sword," the possessor being dative and the thing possessed 
being subject of est. Never translate literally a Latin 
sentence thus, as there is in good English no similar con- 
struction. 

238. Rule of Syntax. — TJie dative is used with est, 
sunt, etc., to denote the possessor, the thing possessed being 
the subject. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN II9 

239. REVIEW EXERCISES 

(Give tense, voice, person, and number, and translate.) 

I. I. Facient; convocabamur ; cogeminL 2. Audiebaris; 
puniris ; caperis. 3. Discesserit ; prohibuerant ; conve- 
nistis. 4. Missum erat ; miserat ; coepistl. 5. Pdnetis; 
capies ; appellabitis. 6. Vincentur ; punietur ; iubetur. 

7. Rellqueratis ; relinquent ; dictum erat. 8. Liberatae 
sunt; habueras ; contendebatis. 9. Eripieris ; traducetur; 
monentur. 10. Augebat ; pugnabunt; defensa erat ; exit; 
exilt. 

II. I. We have said; they wished; you (plur.) have 
been compelled. 2. We shall take ; you will leave ; they 
will blame. 3. It has been said; you (fern, plur.) have 
been defended. 4. It was heard ; we are being defended ; 
you (sing.) are fortifying. 5. We shall cross; they have 
gone ; you were going out. 6. It had been sent ; you (plur.) 
have sent. 

240. EXERCISES 

I. I. Mens amicus domum habet. 2. Me5 amlc5 est 
domus. 3. Helvetil, qu5rum castra videtis, in Caesarem 
impetum mox facient. 4. Exercitus magnus fuit Caesarl. 
5. Caesar magnum exercitum habuit. 6. Magnam fru- 
mentl copiam habent. 7. Els est magna f rumen tl copia. 

8. Hostes paucas naves habent. 9. Hostibus sunt paucae 
naves. 10. MllitI pulchrum scutum dedit. 

II. I. The farmer has ^ a horse. 2. They have ^ friends. 
3. The soldiers have come to Rome. 4. He had ^ a book. 
5. Who will go to the city ? 6. The city that the Romans 
fortified was large and beautiful. 

1 Express this idea in two ways in Latin. 



I20 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

LESSON 40 
NUMERALS. EXTENT OF TIME AND SPACE 

241. Learn thoroughly the cardinals as far as twenty 
(485), and study the formation of the numbers beyond. 

242. Declension of Numerals 







Paradigms 






Mas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Mas. and Fern. Neut. 


NOM. 


Onus, ( 


one una 


unum 


tres, three tria 


Gen. 


Linius 


unius 


unius 


trium trium 


DAT. 


uni 


uni 


uni 


tribus tribus 


Ace. 


unum 


unam 


unum 


tres, tris tria 


Abl. 


uno 


una 


uno 


tribus tribus 






I\fas. 


Fern. 


Neut. 




NOM. 


duo, txvo 


duae 


duo 




Gen. 


duorum 


duarum 


duorum 




DAT. 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 




Ace. 


duos, duo 


duas 


duo 




Abl. 


duobus 

Singular 


duabus 


duabus 

Plural 




NOM. 


mille, tJioiisand mil] 


lia (milia) 




Gen. 


mllle 


mil] 


ium (milium) 




DAT. 


mille 


mlllibus (mllibus) 




Ace. 


mille 


mil] 


iia (mIlia) 




Abl. 


mille 


mlllibus (mllibus) 



243. I. The cardinals from quattuor to centum inclusive 
are indeclinable : quattuor puellae,/6'//r ^/r/j-/ septem pue- 
rorum, of seven boys. 

2. Compare the declension of iinus with that of ille (202). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 121 

3. Mille in the singular is indeclinable, and is generally 
used as an adjective : mille milites, a tJionsand soldiers. 
In the plural it is a noun only : septem millia militum, 

seven tJioHsand (of) soldiers. 

244. Examine the following : 

1. Hannibal multos annos in Italia manebat, Hannibal re- 

mained {for) many years in Italy. 

2. Hoc flumen altum quinque pedes est, tJiis river is Jive 

feet deep. 

a. Observe that the accusative multos annos denotes dura- 
tion or extent of time ; quinque pedes, extent of space. 

245. Rule of Syntax. — Extent of time or space is ex- 
pressed by the accnsative. 

246. VOCABULARY 

altitude, altitudinis,f.,/^t7>///, mercator, oris, m., merchant, 

depth. trader. 

eruptio, onis, f., a breaking socius, i, m., companion, 

out, a sally. ally. 

incendo, ere,incendi,incensus, passus, us, ra.,pace. 

set fire to, burn. mille passuum, a thousand 

maneo, ere, mansi, mansurus, paces, a (Roman) mile. 

stay, remain. hora, ae, f., Jiour. 

247. EXERCISES 

I. I. Centum vlgintl mercatorum ; mille trecentls sex 
et quadraginta militibus. 2. Trium exercituum ; duabus 
legionibus ; quattuor equorum. 3. Murus quern vides altus 
est sex pedes. 4. Du5s menses eruptionem facere para- 
bant. 5. Caesar novem annos in Gallia manebat. 6. Equi- 
tes duas horas magna cum virtute pugnabant. 7. Socii 



122 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Helvetiorum decern mlllia passimm per provinciam Roma- 
nam iter fecerunt. 8. Legatus cum tribus cohortibus vicos 
duodecim incendit et agros vastavit. 9. Tria mlllia militum 
ad flumen ab hostibus interfecti erant. 10. Id flumen cen- 
tum pedes latum et duodevlginti altum fuit. 11. Hlc collis 
septuaginta quinque pedes est in altitudine. 12. Equitatus 
Athenis Delphos exilt. 

II. I. Thirty-seven villages; five thousand soldiers; a 
thousand horsemen. 2. For two months the soldiers of 
the Roman people besieged that town. 3. The wall, which 
was twelve feet in height, was defended by Caesar's forces. 
4. He remained eight months in that country, and then 
hastened to Rome. 5. The river that they crossed was 
nineteen feet deep. 6. The soldiers remained in Carthage, 
but the consid came to Rome. 

LESSON 41 
FIFTH DECLENSION. PARTITIVE GENITIVE 



248. 




Fifth 


Declension 










The stem ends 


in -e- 








dies, 


m., day 




res, f. 


, thing 






Stem 


die- 




Stem 


re- 






Base 


di- 




Base 


r- 














Terminations 




Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


NOM. 


dies 


dies 


res 


res 


-es 


-es 


Gen. 


diei 


dierum 


rei 


rerum 


-ei 


-erum 


DAT. 


diei 


diebus 


rei 


rebus 


-ei 


-ebus 


Ace. 


diem 


dies 


rem 


res 


-em 


-es 


Abl. 


die 


diebus 


re 


rebus 


-e 


-ebus 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 23 

I. Dies and res are the only nouns of this declension that 
have all the forms of the plural. A few other nouns 
have the nominative and accusative plural. 

249. Rule of Syntax. — All nouns of the fiftJi declension 
are feminine except dies, which is usually masculine in the 
singular and ahvays so in the plural. 

250. Examine the following : 

1. Satis cibi habemus, we have enougJi (oi)food. 

2. Nihil novi est, their is nothing (of) nezv. 

3. tJnus ex militibus vulneratus est, one of the soldiers was 

ivounded. 

4. Quidam de nostris ceciderunt, some of our moi fell. 

a. Observe that the genitives cibi, novi, denote the whole 

of which a part (satis, nihil) is taken. Note that in 
I and 2 the preposition of is not used in English. 

b. Observe the construction following unus and quidam 

in 3 and 4. After the cardinal numerals regularly, 
and after a few other words occasionally, an ablative 
with de or ex is used in place of the genitive. 

251. Rule of Syntax. — The partitive genitive is used to 
denote a whole of zvhich a part is taken. 

252. VOCABULARY 

acies, ei, f., line of battle. publicus, a, um, public. 

dies, ei, m., day. res publica, rei publicae, f., 
res, rei, f., thing, circuni- the state, the republic. 

stance, affair. nihil (indecl. noun), nothing. 

conficio, ere,confeci,confectus, satis (indecl. noun), enough. 

accomplish, finish, wear nihil reliqui, notJiing left. 

out. 



124 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

253. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Exercitus decern menses Romae manebat. 2. Via 
vTginti mlllia passuum est longa. 3. Pompeius et Caesar 
c5nsules fuerunt ; ille Romae manebat, hic cum exercitu 
in Galliam venit. 4. Helvetil cum omnibus impedlmentis 
domum Ire coacti sunt. 5. Equitatus quindecim horls 
Athenis Corinthum ift. 

II. I. The city was on a hill a hundred feet high. 
2. The allies marched^ seven miles in two hours. 3. Late 
at night the general set fire to all the buildings. 4. Be- 
hind the camp was a river four feet deep. 

254. EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar exercitum flumen uno die traduxerat. 
2. Haec res multos hostes terruit, atque pars eorum 
domum ilt. 3. Tres dies equitatus cum Helvetils, qui flu- 
men translbant, pugnabat. 4. Vicds et aedificia incend- 
erant, et nihil reliqui domi habebant. 5. Prima luce pauci 
de eorum mllitibus iter non confecerant. 6. Finitimi els 
satis frumenti et cibi dederunt. 7. Res publica tribus die- 
bus magno pericul5 llberata est. 8. Quattuor e legatls 
e5 die eandem rem Caesarl nuntiaverunt. 9. Omnibus 
rebus RomanI Helvetios, qui domd exierant, superabant. 
10. Primam aciem iacere tela iussit. 

II. I. For twenty days the legions defended the camp 
from the enemy. 2. The Gauls have enough soldiers, but 
they lack courage. 3. The Helvetians have^ nothing left, 
and will soon go out of their territories. 4. Few of our 
men will remain in Rome. 5. In a few days we shall have 
enough weapons. 

1 iter facio. ^ Express this idea in some other way than by using 

habent. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 125 

LESSON 42 

READING LESSON 

(Those who prefer reading lessons based on Caesar's Gallic War, Book II, 
may use the lessons beginning at 451.) 

CHAPTER V 

The Helvetii nevertheless complete their Prepara- 
tions 

255. Post eius mortem nihilo minus Helvetii e finibus 
suls ^ exire constituerunt. Ubi iam ad cam rem parati sunt, 
oppida sua^ omnia ad ^ duodecim, vicos ad^ quadringent5s, 
reliqua privata aedificia incendunt.^ Itaque et domum 
reditionis spem sustulerunt* et ad bellum parati sunt. 
Frumentum et multa alia quemque domo efferre iubent.^ 
RauracI et TulingI et Latobrlgl flnitiml idem facere et 
e finibus exIre constituunt.^ Boil, qui trans Rhenum in- 
coluerant et in agrum Noricum transierant Noreiamque 
oppugnaverant, Helvetiorum amici et socil erant. 

LESSON 43 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. ABLATIVE OF 
COMPARISON 

256. The degrees of comparison are : positive, compara- 
tive, superlative. 

I. The positive is the simple form of the adjective : carus, 
dear. 

1 their. 2 about (with numerals). ^The present tense is sometimes used 
instead of a past tense to express the thought with greater vividness. It is 
called the historical present. ^ From tollo. 



126 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



The comparative is formed by adding to the base of the 
positive, -ior for the mascuHne and feminine, and -ius 
for the neuter: carus (base car-), dear, carior, carius, 
dearer. 

The superlative is formed by adding to the base of the 
positive, -issimus, -issima, -issimum : carus (base car-), 
dear, carissimus, a, um, dearest. 



Positive 

latus (lat-), 

wide 
fortis (fort-), 

brave 
velox (veloc-), 

szvift 



Comparative 
M. and F. N. 

latior, latius, 

wider 
fortior, fortius, 

braver 
velocior, velocius, 

swifter 



Superlative 

latissimus, a, um, 

widest 
fortissimus, a, um, 

bravest 
velocissimus, a, um, 

szviftest 



257. The superlative is declined like bonus (62). The 
comparative is declined as follows : 





Singular 


Plural 




M. and F. 


N. 


M. and F. N. 


NOM. 


latior 


latius 


latiores latiora 


Gen. 


latioris 


latioris 


latiorum latiorum 


Dat. 


latiori 


latiori 


lati5ribus latioribus 


Ace. 


latiorem 


latius 


latiores (is) latidra 


Abl. 


latiore (i^ 


1 latiore (i) 


lati5ribus latioribus 



I. In what forms does the declension of the comparative 
differ from that of regular third declension adjectives 
(155, 161)? 

258. Compare altus (alt-), high, deep ; potens (potent-), 
powerful ; brevis (brev-), sJiort. DecHne the comparative 
of one of them. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 12^ 

259. Examine the following: 

1. Hie mons altior est quam ille, | tJiis mountain is JiigJier 

2. Hie mons altior est illo, J tJian that. 

Observe that in i quam is used and ille is nominative, 
while in 2 quam is omitted and illo is ablative. The 
English meaning is the same in both sentences. 

The ablative can be used only when the first substantive 
is in the nominative or the accusative. When quam, thaji, 
is used, the same case follows as precedes it. 

260. Rule of Syntax. — Comparison is expressed by using 
quam, than, or by the ablative zvithoiit quam. 

261. VOCABULARY 

velox, velocis, siuift. latitudo, inis, f., zvidth, 

tutus, a, um, safe. breadth. 

turpis, e, tigly, disgraceful, pervenio, ire, perveni, per- 

infamoHS. ventus, cojiie up, arrive, 

Rhodanus, i, m., the RJione. reach. 

quam, adv., than. obsideo, ere, obsedi, obsessus, 

latus,^ lateris, n., side, flank. besiege. 

262. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Oppidum multos dies a Caesare erat oppugnatum. 
2. Faucis mensibus cibi inopia hostes laborabunt. 3. In- 
colas ob eruptionem ex oppido imperator laudat. 4. Qui 
clamdribus Gallorum terrentur .'' 5. Tempus anni bell5 
non erat id5neum. 6. Ille mons in altitudine est mllle 
pedes. 

II. I. On that day Caesar left Rome. 2. That day was 
the end of the war. 3. He left the city and hastened into 

1 Do not confuse w ith the adjective latus, a, um. 



128 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Gaul. 4. In that battle a few of our men were wounded in 
the head. 

263. EXERCISES 

I. I. Helvetil flnitimls fortiores erant. 2. Hoc flumen 
quod videtis altius est quam Rhodanus. 3. RomanI multls 
rebus potenti5res erant illls gentibus. 4. Equds velociores 
quam ill5s omnes vidimus. 5. Turpissimum est agros 
sociorum vastare. 6. Hoc latus castr5rum tutius erat illo, 
quod hostes discesserant. 7. Caesar R5ma contendit et 
ad fines Helvetiorum pervenit. 8. Flumen Rhodanus est 
latum quingentos pedes. 9. Vel5ci6res equites quam tuos 
non vidL 10. Urbs, quam RomanI obsidebant, latitudine 
erat magna. 

n." I. The Celts are the bravest of all the Gauls. 
2. Have you seen a more disgraceful flight.'' 3. That 
side of the fortifications that you see has been besieged 
for many days. 4. The sea is deeper than the deepest 
rivers. 5. What road is shorter than that.-* 6. This 
month is shorter than that. 

LESSON 44 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued). ABLATIVE 
OF MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE 

264. Adjectives ending in -er form the superlative by 
adding -rimus, to the iioniinative singular inasciiline. The 
comparative is formed regularly (256, 2). 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

pulcher (pulchr-), pulchrior, pulchr- pulcherrimus, a, 

bemitiful ius um 

acer (acr-), kcoi, acrior, acrius acerrimus, a, um 

eazer 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



129 



a, 



265. The following six adjectives ending in -lis form 
their superlative by adding -limus, a, um to the base. The 
comparative is regular. 

Positive Comparative 

similis, e (simil-), similior, ius 

like 
dissimilis, e (dissi- dissimilior, ius 

mil-), imlike 
facilis, e (facil-), facilior, ius 

easy 
dif!icilis,e(difficil-), difficilior, ius 

hard 
gracilis, e (gracil-), gracilior, ius 

slejider 
humilis, e (humil-), humilior, ius 

lozv 



Superlative 
simillimus, a, um 

dissimillimus, 

um 
facillimus, a, um 



difficillimus, a, um 
gracillimus, a, um 
humillimus, a, um 



266. Examine the following : 

1. Hie mons centum pedibus altior est quam ille, t/iis inoini- 

taiii is a Jinndred feet JiigJier (literally, higher by a 
Jnuidrcd feet) than that. 

2. Hoc iter multo facilius est illo, this road is micch easier 

(literally, easier by innch) than that. 

Observe that the ablatives centum pedibus and multo 

express the measure of difference between the objects com- 
pared. 

267. Rule of Syntax. — The measure of difference is ex- 
pressed by the ablative zuitJiout a prepositiott. 

268. Sometimes the comparative and superlative are 
used without making a comparison between two objects. 
Then the comparative means too or rather, and the super- 
lative very or exceedingly. 

ESSEN. OF latin 9 



I30 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN . 

1. Hie mons altissimus est, this mountain is very {ox exceed- 

ingly) high. 

2. Hie mons altior est, this mountain is ratJicr (or too^ high. 

269. VOCABULARY 

adventus, iis, m., approach, animus, i, m., mind, courage, 

arrival. spirit, disposition. 

lenis, e, smooth, gentle. inter, prep, with ace, be- 

exspecto, are, avi, atus, tivccn, among, during, 

await, wait for, expect. certiorem eum f acio, / inform 

ibi, adv., in that place, Jiim (literally, / make him 

there. more certain\ 

270. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesarl in Gallia erant multae legiones. 2. Quod 
tutius consilium est hoc ? 3. Naves, quibus mllites erant 
missi, sunt velocissimae. 4. Helvetii flnitimos multos 
annos flnibus prohibuerant. 5. Turpissimum est e proelio 
discedere. 

II. I. There are not enough horsemen in Rome. 

2. Many soldiers have gone from Rome to Gaul. 

3. Caesar's army was compelled to fight for two days. 

4. Late at night the general ordered the soldiers to 
pitch camp. 

271. EXERCISES 

I. I. Impetum hostium exspectare est difficillimum. 
2. Rlpae. huius fluminis sunt leniores. 3. Legatus multo 
fortior est meo fratre. 4. Pons inter duo oppida factus 
erat. 5. Omnium urbis viarum haec est multo brevissima. 
6. De adventu navium eum certiorem fecerunt. 7. Iter 
quod inter montes erat angustum et difificillimum erat. 
8. Collis in qu5 RomanI castra posuerant centum pedibus 
est altior illo qui ad vTcum est. 9. De casu exercitus 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 131 

legates certiores fecit. 10. Qui eos certiores de Caesaris 
adventu fecerunt ? 

11. I. There ^ was there an exceedingly fierce battle. 
2. The Rhone is five feet deeper than that river. 3. This 
city in many respects^ is rather like^ Rome. 4. Their 
spirits were roused by the bravery of our men. 5. We 
informed them about the difficult road, 

LESSON 45 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Possum 

272. Several common adjectives are irregularly com- 
pared. Which of these are irregular in English .'' 

Positive Comparative Superlative 

bonus, a, um, good melior, melius optimus, a, um 

malus, a, um, bad peior, peius pessimus, a, um 

magnus, a, um, maior, maius maximus, a, um 

great 

parvus, a, um, minor, minus minimus, a, um 

small 

multus, a, um, plus plurimus, a, um 

vmcJi 

multi, ae, a, many plures, plijra plurimi, ae, a 

vetus, veteris, old vetustior,vetustius veterrimus, a, um 

senex, senis, old senior (maiornatu) maximus natu 

\WMQx\\s, Q, young iunior(minornatu) minimus natu 

superus, a, um, superior, superius, supremus, summus, 

above higher highest 

inferus, a, um, Inferior, inferius, Tnfimus, Imus, lozv- 

below lower est 

1 See note on 49, IL 3. 2 j-gg, 3 ggg jg^ 



132 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



273. Plus, more, is not declined like other comparatives 
(257). Wherein is the difference ? 



Singular 
Mas. and Fern . Neut. 



NOM. 

Gen. 

DAT. 

Ace. 
Abl. 



plus 
pluris 

plus 
plure 



Plural 


Mas. and Fe/n. 


Neut. 


piures 


plura 


plurium 


plurium 


pluribus 


pluribus 


piures, is 


plura 


pluribus 


pluribus 



274. Possum (pot(is) + sum), / am able, / can. 

Prin. Parts • possum, posse, potui, 

Learn all tenses of the indicative (497). 

Observe 

1. That the t of pot becomes s before s, and that the f of 

the tenses formed from the perfect stem is dropped 
after the t of pot. 

2. That in other respects this compound of sum is formed 

and conjugated like sum (496). 



275- 



VOCABULARY 



fides, ei, f., trust, cojifidcnce. 

potestas, atis, f. (possum), 
poiver, authority. 

nobilis, e, well knozvn, noble. 

amplus, a, um, large, exten- 
sive, ample. 

permitto, ere, permisi, per- 
missus, give np, intrust, 
permit. 



accedo, ere, access!, acces- 
surus, go or co7ne near, 
approach. 

hue, adv., to this place, hither. 

quam maximus. the greatest 
possible, as large as pos- 
sible (with superlatives 
quam has the force " as 
possible "). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN t33 

276. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I, i. E5s difficilius iter facere coegit. 2. Sed hostes 
eo die impetum in eos non fecerunt. 3. Galli de eius 
consilils certiores facti sunt. 4. Panel de nostris ad 
flumen latissimum pervenerant. 5. Urbs, euius moenia 
obsessimus, latior mlUe passuum est illo oppido. 

II. I. The house is many feet higher than the wall. 

2. We have been waiting for the attack for five days. 

3. The spirits of the cavalry were aroused by Caesar's 
speech. 4. We shall inform him of your misfortune. 

277. EXERCISES 

I. I. Poterat ; potuerat ; potestis ; poterit. 2. Caesar 
quam maximis itineribus in Galliam contendit. 3. Acce- 
dere vicum, qui summo ^ in monte positus est, non possunt. 

4. Omnia in fidem et potestatem popull RomanI illae 
nationes permlserunt. 5. Ubi de eius adventu Helvetil 
certiores fact! sunt, legat5s ad eum nobiUissimos cTvitatis 
mittunt. 6. Aestate plura proelia quam hieme pugnantur. 
7. Legionem munire summum collem iubet. 8. Helvetii 
ob flumina maxima transire in provinciam nostram non 
poterant. 9. Pompeius sex annis minor natu erat quam 
Caesar. 

II. I. On the top of the hill was a very small house. 
2. The general was ten years older than the lieuten- 
ant. 3. Very old people cannot make long journeys. 
4. Very many have come hither because the fields are 
rather extensive. 5. We all ought to do as much as 
possible. 

1 on the Jiighest part of, on the top of. Also imus, the lowest part of, the 
bottom of; medius, a, um, the middle of. 



134 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 46 
REVIEW. FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 

278. Compare the following adjectives, giving the Eng- 
lish meanings : 

turpis* pessimus* acrior minimus 

asper tutior Imus superus 

amplus* velox* similis plures* 

n5bilis* vetustior maior* senior 

279. Adverbs are formed from adjectives. 

I. Adjectives of the first and second declension form the 
adverb by adding -e to the base. 



Adjective 


Base 


ADVERB 


cams, dear 


car- 


care, dearly 


pulcher, beajitiful 


pulchr- 


pulchre, beautifully 


miser, wretched 


miser- 


misere, ivrctchedly 



2. Adjectives of the third declension form the adverb by 
adding -ter to the stem. Stems ending in -nt drop -t. 



Adjective 


Stem 


Adverb 


fortis, brave 


forti- 


fortiter, bravely 


prudens, wise 


prudent- 


prudenter, wisely 



3. In some adjectives the ablative singular serves as an 
adverb, in others the neuter accusative singular: 

primus, first primo, at first 

multus, much multum, inucJi 

facilis, easy facile, easily 

280. The comparative of the adverb is the same as the 
neuter singular of the comparative of the adjective; and 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



135 



the superlative is formed from the superlative of the adjec- 
tive by changing final -us to -e (note one exception below). 
It is, therefore, necessary to knoiv the comparison of the 
adjective in order to compare the adverb. 



Adjective 


Adverb 


Comparative 


Superlative 


carus 


care, dearly 


carius 


carissime 


pulcher 


pulchre, beautifully 


pulchrius 


pulcherrime 


bonus 


bene, well 


melius 


optime 


facilis 


facile, easily 


facilius 


facillime 


acer 


acriter, eagerly 


acrius 


acerrime 


multus 


multum, uiuch 


plus 


plurimum 



I. Form and compare the adverbs of the starred adjectives 
in 278. 



281. 



ago, agere, egi, actus, drive, 
lead, do. 

instruo, ere, instruxi, instruc- 
tus, draw up, form, ar- 
range. 

administro, are, avi, atus, 
manage, direct, administer. 

plurimum possum, / am very 
poiueiful, have most influ- 
ence. 



VOCABULARY 

agmen, agminis, n. (ago), 
army (on the march), col- 
umn ; novissimum agmen, 
the rear ; primum agmen, 
the van. 

proximus, a, um, nearest, 
next (163). 

apud, prep, with ace, among, 
with. 



282. EXERCISES 

I. I. Apud Helvetios OrgetorLv plurimum poterat. 
2. Res ab imperatore optime administrabantur. 3. Hel- 
vetil multo acrius quam flnitiml cum hostibus contendebant. 
4. Caesar aciem summ5 in colle instruxit et impetum 
exspectavit. 5. Vicus ad quem primum agmen pervenerat 



136 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



proximus erat finibus Gallorum. 6. Omnia quae legatus 
iusserat mllites bene egerunt. 7. Ubi^ Caesar ad novissi- 
mum agmen pervenit, acerrime cum hostibus equites pugna- 
bant. 8. Summus collis a peditibus nostrls occupatus est. 
9. In eo proeli5 Orgetorlgis flliam et unum e fllils nostrl 
ceperunt, et multos interfecerunt. 10. Nostrl quam fortis- 
sime pugnaverunt, sed expugnare oppidum non potuerunt. 
II. Nostrl socil apud finitimos ob amicitiam populi RomanI 
plurimum possunt. 

II. I. He hastened into the territories of the Helvetii 
and arrived there on the fourth day. 2. Caesar was very 
powerful among the alHes of the Roman people. 3. The 
enemy attacked the rear very fiercely. 4. Who can manage 
this affair well .-' 5. Caesar ordered the allies to make as 
long 2 marches as possible. 6. The general will draw up 
the line of battle very carefully.^ 7. The best citizens are 
not always the bravest soldiers. 

1 when. " magnus. ^ ggg i^y^ ^, 




Agmen 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 137 

LESSON 47 

CHAPTER VI 
The Two Routes by which the Helvetii could 

LEAVE their CoUNTRY 

283. Duobus itineribus Helvetii domo^ exire potuerunt 
Unum per Sequan5s inter montem luram et flumen Rhoda- 
num angustum et difficile erat, quod mons altissimus im- 
pendebat. Alterum iter per pr5vinciam nostram multo 
facilius est, quod inter fines Helvetiorum et Allobrogum, 
qui nuper pacati erant, Rhodanus fluit isque ^ vado transltur. 
Extremum oppidum Allobrogum proximumque Helvetiorum 
flnibus est Genava. Ex eo oppido pons ad Helvetios perti- 
net. Omnia ad profectionem ab Helvetils sunt comparata 
et ad ripam Rhodani convenerunt. 

LESSON 48 
PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

284. Learn the forms of the personal and reflexive pro- 
nouns with their meanings (486) : ego, /; tu, jou ; sui, 0/ 

himself, Jicrself, itself. 

285. Use of the Personal Pronouns 

I. The pronoun of the first person is ego, /; of the second 
person tu, yon ; of the third person is, ea, id, Ju\ s//e, 
it {igo, e). They are used in Latin as subjects only 
to show emphasis or to avoid ambiguity. 

a. Te voco, Pin calling- you. (" I " is unemphatic, and 

therefore ego is not used.) 

b. Ego te voco, /(emphatic) am calling you. (Such emphasis 

1 Why is there no preposition ? See 231. ^ /.^, the river Rhone. 



138 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

might be expressed in English by the translation, 
" It is I who am calling you.") 
c. Ego eum laudo ; is me culpat, I praise him ; he blames me. 

It will be recalled that in the exercises of the preceding 
lessons the subjects of the verbs, when pronouns, were 
not expressed. Why is it impossible to omit the personal 
pronouns as subjects in English as often as in Latin .■' 

286. Use of the Reflexive Pronouns 

1. A reflexive pronoun is one that refers to the subject of 

the verb. 

Singular Plural 

1. I praise myself We praise ourselves 

2. You praise yourself You praise yourselves 

f He praises /'/;//i'^// 1 t^, . ^, , 

3.1 ^ ■' \ They praise themselves 

I She praises licrsclf J 

2. In Latin the pronouns of the iirst and second person, 

ego and tu, are used both as personal and reflexive 
pronouns. There is no special form for the reflexive 
as in English. In the third person, however, there 
is a special form for the reflexive, sui, of himself, 
herself, itself. 

Singular Plural 

1. me laudo, I praise my- nos laudamus, 7£/^ /r^'Zi-^ ^//r- 

sclf selves 

2. te laudas, you praise your- vos laudatis, you praise your- 

self selves 

3. se laudat, he praises him- se laudant, they praise tJiem- 

self ^ selves 

3. Review 190. Do not confuse is with se. The latter alv/ays 
refers to the subject of the verb; the former never does. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 139 

a. Vir se videt, the man sees himself. 

b. Vir eum videt, tJie vian sees him (some one else). 

4. Review 207, 2. Do not confuse ipse with se. Ipse is 
not a reflexive, but merely emphasizes the noun to 
which it belongs. 

a. Vir ipse eum vidit, the man Jiimself sazv him, or the man 

sazu J dm himself. 

b. Vir se vidit, tJie man sazu himself. 

c. Virum ipsum vidimus, we saw the man himself. 

287. The preposition cum with the ablative of personal 
and reflexive pronouns is appended to them ; tecum, instead 
of cum te ; nobiscum, instead of cum nobis. So also qui- 
buscum, ivitJi zvJiom, instead of cum quibus. 

288. Examine the following : 

1. Ego, qui haec facio, sum tuus pater, /, who do this, am 

your father. 

2. Vos, qui haec facitis, estis mei amici, yon, zuho do this, 

are my friends. 

Review 197. Observe that the verb of the relative clause 
agrees in person with the antecedent of the relative. 

289. VOCABULARY 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus, commeatus,us,m.,/;^'^'/.y/^;/.y, 

give np, surrender. supplies. 

committo, ere, commisi, com- spes, ei, f., Jiope. 

missus, intrust, commit; sine, prep, with abl., W//^<??//. 

proelium committo, begin ante, adv. and prep, with 

battle. ace, before. 

recipio, ere, recepi, receptus, postea, adv., afterzvards. 

take back, receive ; se reci- autem, conj. (never the first 

'PQXQ,ret}-eat,be take one's self. word), but, hozvever. 



I40 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Singular Plural 

1. me recipio, I retreat nos recipimus, zve retreat 

2. te recipis, yoii, retreat vos recipitis, you retreat 

3. se recipit, Jie retreats se recipiunt, they retreat 

290. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Omnis rel publicae spes in mllitum virtute posita^ 
est. 2. BrevI tempore quattuor e principibiis Romam mit- 
tentur. 3. Caesarl plus potestatis erat quam Pompeio. 

4. Haec res hostibus nuntiata est, quorum equitatus a 
nostrls sum mo in colle videbatur. 

II. I. Caesar was very powerful among the Romans on 
account of his bravery. 2. There our men fought very 
fiercely. 3. The line of battle that he had drawn up was 
next to the river. 4. It is very difficult to manage this. 

291. EXERCISES 

I. I. Sine vobls erimus miserriml. 2. Ego sum miles, 
tu es nauta. 3. N5bis est satis cibl. 4. Post id proelium 
hostes domum se receperunt. 5. Magna cum celeritate in 
provinciam nos recipiemus. 6. Vir se culpat, ego autem 
eum laudo. 7. Ubi Galll ad e5rum fines pervenerunt, sese 
dediderunt. 8. Caesar legiones ad ^ se convocarl iubet. 

9. Paucis ante diebus legatum ipsum fugere coegerunt. 

10. Vos qui haec fecistis culpare vos debetis. 11. Quis 
tecum Athenas Ibit .-• 

II. I. The enemy with whom you were fighting have 
retreated. 2. I shall compel the chief himself to come 
to me. 3. Caesar praised the plans that were reported to 
him. 4. You wish to retreat, but I wish to begin battle. 

5. We shall always defend ourselves bravely. 6. The girl 
herself will defend him. 7. He will do this himself. 

^ depends. ^ before. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN I4I 

LESSON 49 
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. DATIVE OF SERVICE 

292. The possessive adjectives are as follows. They are 
all declined like adjectives of the first and second declension. 

Singular Plural 

1ST Per. meus/ a, um, my, noster, nostra, nostrum, 

mine our, ours 

2D Per. tuus, a, um, your, vester, vestra, vestrum, 

yours your, yours 

3D Per. suus, a, um, his (own), suus, a, um, their (own), 

heripwn), its (own) their 

293. Use of the Possessive Adjectives 

1. They agree in gender, number, and case with the noun to 

xvJiich they belong, and not zvitJi the noun to ivJiich they 
refer. They are not used except for emphasis or contrast. 

a. Suum patrem puella vidit, tJie girl sazv her father. 

b. Vestrum amicum vidimus, xve saw yonr (p\m.) friend. 

c. Tuas filias vidit, he saiv your {sxxig.) daughters. 

2. Suus, a, um, is reflexive, and refers to the subject of the 

verb. When "his," "her," "its," "their," does not refer 
to the subject, use the genitive of is, eius, his, Jier, its ; 
eorum, their; earum, ///r/r (referring to feminine). 

a. Agricola suum equum laudat, the farmer praises his {i.e. 

his own) horse. 

b. Agricola eius equum laudat, the farmer praises ///j-(some 

one else's, not the farmer's) horse. 

c. Agricola eorum equos laudat, the far^ner praises their horses. 

d. Agricolae suos equos laudant, tJic farmers praise ///^/r (their 

own) horses. 

^ The vocative singular is mi, 



142 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



294. Examine the following : 

1 . Magno USUI nostris f uit, it was a great help to our tnen 

(literally, /'/ zvas for a great help to our men). 

2. Tertiam aciem nostris subsidio misit, he seut the third 

line as a relief to our men (literally, for a relief to our 
men). 

Observe that the datives magno usui and subsidio denote 
the end or purpose, that for which a thing serves. There- 
fore this use of the dative is called the dative of sei"vice. 

295. Rule of Syntax. — The dative is used ivith sum and 
a few other verbs to denote that for ivhich a thing serves. 



296. 



Summary 





Personal 
Pronouns 


Reflexive 
Pronouns 


Possessive Adjectives 


First 
Person 


ego 


mei 1 


meus, a, um, my, mine 
noster, nostra, nostrum, 

our, ours 


Second 
Person 


tu 


tuii 


tuus, a, um, your, yours 

(sing.) 
vaster, vestra, vestrum, 

your, yours (plur.) 


Third 
Person 


is, ea, id 


sui^ 


suus, a, um, his, his own, 
her, Jier own, its, its 
ovon, their, their own 
(reflexive) 

When not reflexive, use 
the genitive of is, ea, id. 



1 Why is there no nominative form for reflexive pronouns ? 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN I43 

297. VOCABULARY 

redeo, redire, redii, reditum, opus, operis, n., work, labor. 

go back, return. propter, prep, with ace, on 
dimitto, ere, dimisi, dimissus, account of. 

send ojf, dismiss, let go. tamen, adv., yet, however, 
reddo, ere, reddidi, redditus, nevertheless. 

give back, return, render. ita.(iue,con'].,and so, there/ore. 

sustineo, ere, sustinui, sus- inde, adv., thence, thereupon. 

tentus, Jiold up, witJistand, usus, us, m., use, advantage, 

sustain. benefit. 

298. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Hoc mihi, illud tibi est difficile. 2. Postea in 
silvas sese receperunt. 3. Nos de proelio certiores faciet. 
4. Caesar eos sibi arma dedere cogit. 5. Milites se lauda- 
bant sed eos culpabant. 6. Nobis Romae est satis cibL 

II. I. Some retreated in one direction, some in another. 
2. The Gauls themselv^es had been frightened by Caesar's 
soldiers. 3. He himself is praising himself. 4. Will you 
go with me to Corinth.? 5. They ought themselves to 
fight. 

299. EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar equitatum auxilio suls mlsit. 2. TuT 
amid tibi, mei mihi sunt carissiml. 3. Labienus unum 
latus castrorum ripis fluminis muniebat. 4. Opera nostris 
erant magn5 usul. 5. Sustinere impetum non poterant ; 
itaque in suos fines redierunt. 6. Hostes Caesarl se sua- 
que omnia dediderunt. 7. Propter operis magnitudinem 
flumen transire Helvetil n5n potuerunt. 8. Caesar eius 
milites dimlsit, suos autem in castrls tenuit. 9. Consul in 
fines Helvetiorum contendere quam maximis itineribus con- 



144 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



stituit. 10. Caesar Helvetios adventum suum exspectare 
iussit. 

II. I. Caesar compelled the Gauls to return all his 
possessions^ to him. 2. They will return everything to 
him. 3. The general sent three cohorts as a help to his 
men. 4. Thereupon the Gauls attacked the rear. 5. They 
arrived at daybreak and began to fortify their camp. 

LESSON 50 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. DESCRIPTIVE ABLATIVE AND 

GENITIVE 

300. Review 195, 216. Indefinite pronouns are used to 
indicate that sovic person or thing is referred to, without 
indicating just zvJiat one. They vary in degree of indefi- 
niteness. Learn the declension of the following indefinite 
pronouns, carefully distinguishing the meanings : 



Masculine 

quis 

aliquis 

quisquam 

quidam 

quisque 

qui vis 



Indefinite Pronouns 
Feminine Neuter 

qua quid (quod), somebody, anybody 

aliqua aliquid (aliquod), some one 

quicquam, any one (at all) (no plur.) 
quaedam quoddam, quiddam, a certain one 
quaeque quidque, quodque, each one, every one 
quaevis quodvis, quidvis, any one (you please) 



1. The meanings of the neuter would be some tiling, etc. 

2. Quisquam and quisque are declined like quis ; quivis 

like qui. 

3. In the neuter the quid-forms are used as pronouns, the 

quod-forms as adjectives. 



^ Express by the neuter plural of the possessive adjective. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 145 

301. Uses of the Indefinite Pronouns 

1 . Quis, some one, any one, is never the first word in its clause. 

It is generally used only after si, nisi, ne, num. 

Si quid his accidit, if anything Jiappens to these. 

2. Quisque, each, should be distinguished from omnis, all, 

every. It is not often used in the plural, and regu- 
larly follows the word to which it belongs. 

3. Quisquam is used chiefly in negative and conditional 

sentences. 

302. Examine the following : 

1 . Vir summae virtutis f uit, | lie zvas a man of very great 

2. Vir summa virtute fuit, J courage. 

3. Vir fortis fuit, he was a man of courage (a brave man). 

Observe that the genitive phrase summae virtutis, and 
the ablative phrase summa virtute, describe the noun vir ; 
and that an adjective modifies the nouns virtutis and vir- 
tute. When a noun that describes or modifies another is 
not modified by an adjective, an adjective in agreement 
with the noun is used instead of a descriptive ablative or 
genitive, as in 3. 

303. Rule of Syntax. — The ablative or the genitive of a 
noun, with a limiting adjective, may be nsed to describe an 
object. 

304. VOCABULARY 

diligentia, ae, f., diligence, alienus, a, um, another's, 
carefulness, industry. strange, unfavorable. 

gratia, ae, i., favor, influence, reperio, ire, repperi, repertus, 
kindness. find, discover, ascertain. 

plebs, plebis, f., the common si, conj., if. 

people. nisi, conj . , if not, unless, except. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — lO 



146 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

305. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Legati sua omnia Caesarldedereiubentur. 2. Aux- 
ilium, quod a Labieno missum erat, equitatui fuit usui 
magno. 3. Legion! non erat satis cibi, itaque domum se 
recepit. 4. Galll se suaque omnia Romanis dediderunt, 
quod magnitudine e5rum operis terrebantur. 5. Hostes 
in nostram aciem impetum fecerant. 

II. I. The general ordered the hostages to come before^ 
him. 2. When he returned to Rome, he saw his father. 
3. We all love our country. 4. We like our friends, 
you yours. 5. He praised his own children, but blamed 
his. 

306. EXERCISES 

I. I. Quemque domo exire iubent. 2. Slquis eiusflliam 
laudat, laetus est. 3. QuTdam ex Gallis multa nocte ad 
Caesarem contenderunt. 4. Orgetorix apud Helveti5s erat 
magna gratia. 5. Quis de hostium casu aliquid novl^ 
repperit .-* 6. Liberi quTque^ pugnare n5n poterant in 
iinum locum convocati erant. 7. Princeps diligentia fuit 
magnae potestatis apud suos. 8. Neque {^and not) e proelid 
toto die quisquam discessit. 9. Si in alieno loco proelium 
committent, vincentur. 10. FinitimI nostrl bono anim5* 
esse in nos dicuntur. 

II. I. Every one ought to love his country. 2. She is 
wretched, unless some one says something good^ about 
her. 3. A certain one of the merchants informed Caesar 
of this. 4. Caesar was a man of great influence among the 
common people. 5. Some fled in one direction, some in 
another. 

1 ad. 2 See 250, 2. ^ quique = qui (relative) + que. '' bono animo, 

well disposed. 



ESSENTIALS OF LAT^IN 



147 



LESSON 51 

PARTICIPLES. FORMS. DECLENSION. MEANINGS 

307. The following outline shows how the tenses of the 
participles may be formed from the stems that are obtained 
from the principal parts (86) : 



Tense 


Active Voice 


Passive Voice 


Present 


pres. stem + ns ^ 


wanting 


Future 


participial stem + tirus 


Gerundive. Pres. 
stem + ndus ^ 


Perfect 


wanting 


the last one of the 
principal parts 



1. Learn the participles, with their meanings, of the model 

verbs (491-495). 

2. Participles ending in -ns are declined Hke adjectives 

of the third declension (479) ; those in -us, Hke bonus 
(62). 

308. The participle is a verbal adjective. As a verb, it 
may govern a case ; as an adjective, it agrees with a sub- 
stantive. The tenses of the participle denote time, not 
absolutely, as in the indicative mood, but with reference to 
the time of the verb of the clause in which it stands. The 
following examples will show how the time of the participle 
depends upon that of the main verb. 

1 io verbs have a. connecting vowel e before the ending; i.e. audiens, audi- 
endus. 



148 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

1 . Video eum id agentem, / see him as he does // (literally, 

///;;/ doing it). 

2. Videbam eum id agentem, I saw him as he was doing it. 

3. Videbo eum id agentem, I shall see him as he w'lW be doing //. 

309. Tenses of the Participle 

1. Present: representing an action as in progress at the 

time indicated by the tense of the verb. 

2. Pcifcct: representing an action 2,^ completed 2X the time 

indicated by the tense of the verb. 

3. Futtire : expressing an action that is subsequent to the 

time of the verb. 

310. Form all the participles, giving the English mean- 
ings, of : do, give ; video, see ; facio, make, do ; munio, for- 
tify ; eo,£-o. (500.) 

311. Participles are used in Latin more extensively than 
in English. In Latin the participle is used to express 
ideas that are often expressed in English by a relative 
clause, by clauses beginning with "when," "after," "since," 
"although," "while," "if," etc. Study carefully the fol- 
lowing examples which show the various relations that the 
participle expresses : 

1. Milites missos non culpavit, he did not blame the soldiers 

who had been sent (literally, the Jiaving been sent 
soldiers). 

2. Videbam eos id agentes, / saiv them while (or ivhen) they 

zvere doing this. 

3. Caesar consul f actus in Galliam contendit, Caesar, after 

he had been made eonsnl, hastened into Gaul (literally, 
Caesar having been made consul, etc.). 

4. Gain his rebus permoti obsides miserunt, the Ganls, since 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN I49 

(or because) they ivcre alarmed by these things, sent hos- 
tages (literally, the Gauls having been alarmed, etc.). 

5. Orgetorix damnatus interficietur, if Orgetorix is con- 

demned, lie zvill be killed (literally, Orgetorix having 
been condemned ivill be killed). 

6. Vulneratus diu pugnabat, although he had been wounded, 

he fought for a long time (literally, having been 
zvounded, lie fought). 

7. Multos vicos captos incendit, lie captured and burned many 

villages (literally, he burned many captured villages). 

312. VOCABULARY 

aditus, us, m., approach. permoveo, ere, permovi, per- 

vallum, i, n., rampart, eartJi- motus, influence, arouse. 

works. educo, ere, eduxi, eductus, 

posterus, a, um, next, folloiv- lead out. 

ing. lacesso, ere, lacessivi, lacessi- 

circum, prep, with ace, tus, attack, harass. 

around. Sequani, orum, m. plur., the 

circumvenio, ire, circum- vS^^?/<7;«' (a tribe of Gauls). 

veni, circumventus, come 

around, surround. 

313. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Hlc gratia apud Sequanos plurimum poterat. 

2. Els aliquid consill erat quod Romanis non erat gratum. . 

3. Si quid reperltur, Caesar! semper nuntiatur. 4. Suam 
quisque melius quam alienam patriam amat. 5. Homines 
esse summa virtute dicuntur. 

II. I. Caesar has been informed of his arrival. 2. The 
day that Caesar had appointed ^ with the ambassadors has 
come. 3. He ordered the hostages to come to him. 4. He 
carried all his possessions with him. 

^ constituo. 



150 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



314- 



EXERCISES 



I. I. His rebus permoti Roma exire maturant. 2. In 
legatum copias e castrls educentem Galll impetum fecerunt. 
3. Postero die nostros aditus oppidi munientes hostes laces- 
sent. 4. Roman! banc urbem valid et moenibus munltam 
obsidere constituerunt. 5. Caesar duos dies a dextro cornu 
lacessltus sustinere impetus poterat. 6. Legiones e castrls 
eductas Instruxit. 7. Suum amicum Athenis exeuntem videt. 
8. Principes Gallorum victi Romam mittentur. 9. Caesar de 
coniuratione quam Galli fecerant certior factus est. 10. Le- 
gatus Gallos qui castra circumveniebant sese dedere coegit. 

II. I. When Caesar had been informed of this, he hur- 
ried to Rome. 2. The general captured ^ their town and 
fortified it. 3. The enemy harassed us as we were crossing 
the river. 4. If you are defeated, you will retreat into Italy. 
5. Who will go with me into that city that you see ? 6. Al- 
though we have been surrounded, we will fight bravely. 

1 Do not use the indicative. 




ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



151 



LESSON 52 

THE PARTICIPLE (Continued). ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 

315. Ablative Absolute. — A noun or a pronoun in the 
ablative, with a participle agreeing with it, may be used to 
express any of the ideas mentioned in 311. This con- 
struction will be understood best by a careful study of the 
following examples : 

afte7' the Germans had 

been conquered, 
when he had conquered 

the Germans, 
after conquering the 

Germans, 
having conquered the 

Germans, 
nozv that the Germans 

had been cojiquered, 
the Germans having 

been conquered, 



Caesar, Germanis 
victis, in hi- 
berna venit, 



Caesar went 
into ivinter 
quarters. 



Oppido expugnato, 
hostes Vincent, 



Nobis castra mu- 
nientibus, Galli 
pervenerunt, 



if the tozvn is captured, ' 
by capturing the town, 
sijice the town has been 

captured, 
the town having been 

captured, 

wJiile we were fortify-' 

ing the camp, 
as we were fortifying 

the camp, 



they will con- 
quer the 
enemy. 



the Gauls ar- 
rived. 



152 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Observe that the ablative absolutes, Germanis victis, 
oppido expugnato, nobis munientibus, are translated in a 
variety of ways. In translating an ablative absolute, one 
must use judgment in selecting a translation that is con- 
sistent with the meaning of the main verb. 

Notice that the ablative absolute construction is used 
only when the participle does not agree with a noun of the 
main clause. The word "absolute" means that the abla- 
tive phrase stands by itself. For example, such a sentence 
as "When the Gauls had been conquered, they returned 
home" would be rendered, Galli victi domum redierunt, 
and the ablative absolute construction could not be used, 
because victi agrees with Galli, which is the subject of 
redierunt. 



316. The participle is sometimes omitted, and two sub- 
stantives, or a substantive and an adjective, are used in the 
ablative absolute construction : 



Duce Caesare Romani 
semper vincebant, 



under the leadership 

of Caesar, 
if Caesar was their 

leader, 
when Caesar was their 

leader. 



the Romans 
ahvays used 
to conquer. 



317. Remember that the Latin perfect participle is 
passive, there being no perfect active participle. The 
ablative absolute is often used to supply this lack of a per- 
fect active participle ; for example, the sentence " Caesar 
having done this returned to Rome " cannot be expressed 
literally in Latin. It must be changed to the passive form, 
" This having been done, Caesar returned to Rome," and 
then it may be rendered : hoc facto, Caesar Romam rediit. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 53 

318. VOCABULARY 

mulier, mulieris, f., woman. obtineo, ere, obtinui, obtentus, 

signum, i, n., sign, ensign, possess, obtain, retain. 

standard (of the legion). converto, ere, convert!, con- 

quam primum, as soon as versus, tiini abont, change. 

possible. signa converto,/«r^ abo2it (lit- 

toUo, ere, sustuli, sublatus, erally, turn the standards 

lift up, raise, remove, take about). 

away. occido, ere, occidi, occisus, cut 

reduce, ere, reduxi, reductus, doivn, kill, slay. 

lead back. 

319. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Legionem auxilio nostrls diu lacessltls misit. 
2. Caesar hostium clamoribus perm5tus munire aditus 
castrdrum coepit. 3. Consul legatum secum redire Romam 
iubebit. 4. Equitatus Gall5s nostra castra circumvenientes 
lacessebat. 5. Legatus nihil novl repperit. 

II. I. After the Helvetii had been defeated, they were 
compelled to return home. 2. He led his forces out of 
the camp and drew them up. 3. Although many of our 
men had been wounded they fought bravely. 4. The 
Gauls could not fortify the mountain themselves. 

320. EXERCISES 

I. I. Te imperatore, nos non dedemus. 2. Hoc proelid 
facto, suos in hiberna reduxit. 3. His Caesar! nurtiatis, 
quam primum Roma exilt. 4. Pedites in castra reductos 
hostes moenibus prohibere dux iubet. 5. Suls ^ ab Gallls 
permotis ^ Caesar dixit " Impetum hostium exspectare est 
difficile." 6. Novissimum agmen, signis conversis, laces- 

1 Is this ablative absolute ? 



154 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

sere Helvetios imperator iubet 7. Caesar! Romam redire 
coact5 hoc proelium erat nuntiatum. 8. Hostes, multls 
occisls, fortiter nostrum impetum sustinebant. 9. Omni 
spe victoriae sublata, Helvetii cum mulieribus liberisque 
domum redierunt. 10. Commeatus quos Galli obtinebant 
ab Romanis incensi erant. 

II. I. Having fought this battle, Caesar led his forces 
across the river. 2. If you are brave, the repubhc will be 
preserved. 3. When the hostages had been freed, they 
returned to their people. 4. When their leader had been 
killed, the Gauls surrendered to Caesar. 5. The Romans 
faced about and bravely attacked the enemy. 6. After the 
top of the hill had been fortified, we awaited the enemy. 
7. When the Romans had fortified the hill, they returned 
to their camp. 8. If you burn our villages, we shall kill 
your leader. 



LESSON 53 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER VII 

Caesar attempts to check the March of the 
Helvetii. They send Ambassadors to Him 

321. His rebus Caesar! nuntiatis, maturat Roma exlre 
atque quam maximis itineribus ad Genavam contendit. 
Erat omnino in Gallia ulteriore legio una.^ Qua ^ re pro- 
vinciam totam praebere quam maximum mllitum numerum 
et pontem qu! erat ad Genavam rescind! iubet. Ubi de 

1 but (only) one, ^ Qua re, therefore. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



155 



eius adventu Helvetil certiores facti sunt, legates ad eum 
mittunt nobilissimos civitatis. Qui ^ legatl iter per pro- 
vinciam Romanam a Caesare postulant. Sed temporibus 
antlquTs Helvetil consulem Cassium occTderant exercitumque 
eius sub iugum miserant. Qua re Caesar hominibus inimico 
animo ^ iter per provinciam n5n dedit. Tamen diem con- 
loquio cum legatls constituit. 

LESSON 54 
INFINITIVES. FORMATION AND MEANINGS 



322. Review 182, 183, 184, 307. The following outline 
shows how the tenses of the infinitive may be obtained from 
the principal parts : 

Infinitives 



Tense 


Active Voice 


Passive Voice 


Present 


Second one of the 


Change final e of present 




principal parts. 


infinitive to i, except in 
third conjugation, which 
changes final ere to i. 


Future 


Future active parti- 


Supine in -um (which is 




ciple and esse. 


the same form as accu- 
sative singular neuter 
of perfect passive par- 
ticiple), and iri. 


Perfect 


Perfect stem + isse. 


Perfect passive participle 
and esse. 



^ '1 he relative at the beginning of a sentence often has the force of a 
demonstrative, hence Qui legati, these ambassadors. ^ See 303. 



156 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



I. Learn the infinitives, with English meanings, of the 
model verbs (491-495). 

323. Form all participles and infinitives, giving the Eng- 
lish meanings, of 



vincio, bind. 
iubeo, order. 
relinquo, leave. 
sum, / am (496). 



iacio, t/irozv. 
appello, name, call. 
vinco, conquer. 
eo, go (500). 



324. 



VOCABULARY 



auctoritas, atis, f ., reputation, 
influence, authority. 

littera, ae, f., letter of the al- 
phabet; (plur.), letter, docu- 
ment. 

res frumentaria, rei frumen- 
tariae, supplies of grain, 
provisions. 



cottidianus, a, um, daily. 
scribo, ere, scrips!, scriptus, 

write. 
cado, ere, cecidi, casurus, fall, 

perish, die. 
at, conj., but. 
numquam, adv., never. 



325, REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Galli consulem copias instruentem lacessivit. 
2. RomanI, signis conversls, oppidum ex itinere oppug- 
naverunt. 3. Caesare consule Helvetil coniuratidnem 
faciebant. 4. German! victi finitimos virtute siipera- 
bant. 5. Nostrl autem multas mulieres captas domum 
miserunt. 

II. I. If I am your leader, will you attack the enemy } 
2. The women could do this themselves. 3. After a few 
had been slain, the army was led back to camp. 4. And 
so hope was taken away from the Gauls. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 57 

326. EXERCISES 

I. I. ScrlbT ; sustulisse ; casurus esse, 2. InstruT ; pro- 
hibuisse; missosesse; prohiberl. 3. Capl; cepi; reddidisse; 
dedidisse. 4. Missuram esse ; misisse ; reducL 5. Paiicae 
de flliabus occlsae esse dicuntur. 6. Numquam culpari 
cupimus. 7. Galli ab finitimls cottldianis proelils lacessitl 
ex suis finibus discedere coeperunt. 8. Caesar multas lit- 
teras scrlpsisse dicebatur. 9. Res frumentariae portari 
navibus non poterant. 10. At decern e nostrls cecidisse 
in hoc proelio dicuntur, 

II. I. He is said to be a man of great reputation, 

2. Those women are said to have been sent to Rome. 

3. This place cannot be taken by storm by the enemy on 
account of its very large ramparts. 4. You were compelled 
to retreat into the province, 5. Caesar ordered the ships 
to be sent away. 6. This is said to have been a great 
advantage to them. 

LESSON 55 
INDIRECT DISCOURSE. SIMPLE STATEMENTS 

327. The words or thoughts of a person may be quoted 
either directly or indirectly. A direct quotation {i.e. direct 
discourse) is one which gives the exact words or thoughts 
of the original speaker or writer. An indirect quotation 
{i.e. indirect discourse) is one in which the original 
words or thoughts are stated in the words of another, 
and conform to the construction of the sentence in which 
they stand. 

The English sentence, " I am present," when quoted 
directly, is stated : " He said, ' I am present.' " When 
quoted indirectly, it assumes this form : " He said that he 



158 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

was present," or, after a present tense of the verb of 
saying, " He says that he is present." An indirect state- 
ment, then, is generally introduced in English by the word 
"that," although this may be omitted, as, "He says (that) 
he is coming." 

328. Examine carefully the following : 

Direct Discourse Indirect Discourse 

tu venis, yoii are coming. dicit te venire, Jie says tJiat 

you are coming, or he says 
you are coming. 
Note 

1. That the English expresses the indirect statement by a 

clause introduced by "that" (expressed or under- 
stood). 

2. That there is no word in Latin to correspond to the 

" that " in EngHsh. 

3. That the Latin changes the verb of the direct statement 

to the same tense of the infinitive, and changes the 
case of the subject to the accusative. 

329. Rule of Syntax. — Simple statements, when quoted 
indirectly after verbs of saying, knozving, thinking, and per- 
ceiving, are expressed by the infinitive with subject accusa- 
tive. 

330. Review 308. The tenses of the infinitive do not 
follow the tense of the introductory verb. Like the 
tenses of the participle, they merely denote time relative 
to that of the main verb. The present infinitive de- 
scribes an action as going on at the time of the main 
verb ; the perfect as completed; the future as not yet 
begun. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



159 



The following examples will show to what tenses of the 
infinitive the various tenses of the indicative are changed : 



Tense 


Direct Discourse 


Indirect Discourse 






Present 






videt me venire, Jie sees 


Present 


venio, I am coming 


that I am coming 

Past 

vidit me venire, he saw 

that I was coming 






Present 


Imperfect 


veniebam, / zvas 
coming 


audit me venisse, Ju- 
hears that I came, or 
have come 
Past 


Perfect 


veni, / have come, 


audivit me venisse, hi- 




I came 


heard that I came, or 


Pluperfect 


veneram, / had 


had come 




come 








Present 






sperat me venturum 






(esse), Jic hopes that 


Future 


veniam, / sJiall 


I shall come 




come 


Past 

speravit me ventarum 

(esse), he hoped that 
I should come 



Caution. — The subject of the infinitive should never 
be omitted in Latin. 



l6o ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

331. VOCABULARY 

existimo, are, avi, atus, tJiink, trado, ere, tradidi, traditus, 

believe, suppose. give up, surrender, de- 

demonstro, are, avi, atus, liver. 

point out, sJioxv, mentio?i. conspectus, us, m., sight, 

spero, are, avi, atus, Iiope. viezv. 

respondeo, ere, respondi, re- complures, a (ia), a great 

sponsus, ansiver, reply. many, very many. 
scio, scire, scivi, scitus, knoiu, 

knoiv how. 

332. EXERCISES 

I. I. Gall! se domum recipiunt. 2. Caesar Gallos se 
domum recipere dixit. 3. Nostra arma numquam trademus. 
4. Respondemus nostra arma numquam nos tradituros 
(esse). 5. Hoc in conspectu sul^ imperatoris egisse 
miles existimavit. 6. Armis traditis, in Caesaris potesta- 
tem Galli venerant. 7. Caesar nuntiavit Gallos, armIs 
traditis, in suam potestatem venisse. 8. Omnes speramus 
banc rem a legato bene administratum iri. 9. Caesar suis 
dixit " Quis scit bunc pontem facere .'' " 10. Imperatori 
nuntiatum est complures alios aliam in partem fugere. 
II. Legati responderunt "Nos a finitimis nostris diu 
lacessiti sumus." 

II. I. Tbe gods will give us belp 2. Tbey tbought tbat 
tbe gods would give tbem belp. 3. We bave sbown tbat 
tbe Gauls were men of tbe greatest^ courage. 4. I bope 
many bave not fallen. 5. We can do tbis ourselves. 
6. Tbey said tbey could do tbis tbemselves. 7. Caesar 
replied, " I bope tbat tbey will retreat." 

1 The reflexive pronouns and adjectives in an indirect statement refer to 
the subject of the main verb of "saying," "thinking," etc. 

2 Do not use maximus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN l6l 

LESSON 56 
DEPONENT VERBS. ABLATIVE WITH utor, fruor, Etc. 

333. Deponent verbs have passive forms with active 
meanings. These passive forms are regular in their forma- 
tion and inflection, and are classified in four conjugations, 
like regular verbs. The principal parts are as follows : 

Present Present Perfect 

IND. Pass. Inf. Pass. Ind. Pass. 

1ST CoNj. hortor hortari \iox\.2XVi?,^Mva., I nrge, encourage 

2D CoNj. vereor vereri veritus sum, I fear 

3D CoNj. sequor sequi secutus sum, I follozv 

4TH CoNj. potior potiri potitus sum, I get possession of 

I. Learn all forms of the indicative, infinitive, and partici- 
ple of these four model verbs. (503.) 

334. Deponent verbs have 2i future active infinitive instead 
of a future passive, and they have the participles of both 
active and passive voices. 

335. Review 317. The perfect passive participle of a 
deponent verb is active in meaning. 

Cohortatus milites proelium commisit, after encouraging 
(literally, Jiaving encouraged) his soldiers, he began the 
battle. 

336. Examine the following : 

1 . Equis iituntur, they use horses. 

2. Vita fruitur, Jie enjoys life. 

Observe that equis and vita are ablatives of instrument, 
although the corresponding words in English are the direct 
objects of their verbs. 

essen. of latin — II 



l62 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

337. Rule of Syntax. — TJie instrumental ablative is used 
with tlie deponent verbs utor, fruor, fungor, potior, and 
vescor, atid their compounds. 

338. VOCABULARY 

utor, uti, usus sum, use, proficiscor, proficisci, profec- 

employ. tus sum, set out, march, go. 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum, arbitror, ari, atus sum, think, 

folUnv. suppose. 

cohortor, ari, atus sum, en- pello, ere, pepuli, pulsus, ex- 
courage, exhort. pel, drive azvay, rout. 

potior, potiri, potitus sum, praesidium, i, n., defense, 

get possession of. guard, garrison. 

fossa, ae, f., ditch, trench. 

339. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar complures secum in Ttaliam ituros (esse) 
sciebat. 2. Hoc proelio facto, hostes se recipere coacti 
sunt. 3. LegatI demonstrant sibi esse multos equites. 

4. Incolae responderunt sese res frumentarias dedisse. 

5. Legatus se expugnare oppidum posse sperat. 

II. I. The Gauls thought Caesar would not fight with 
them. 2. All those arms that you see have been given 
up. 3. Caesar saw that the enemy were being drawn up 
on top of the hill. 4. The ambassadors replied that many 
were leaving their homes. 

340. EXERCISES 

I. I. Arbitraris ; utimini ; proficTscetur ; proficlscitur. 
2. Pepuleramus ; arbitrari ; arbitrare ; usurus esse. 3. Cae- 
sar se cum tribus legionibus secuturum (esse) dLxit. 

4. Consul R5ma profectus in fines Helvetiorum contendit. 

5. GermanI usi esse parvis equls dicuntur. 6. Consul, 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 163 

exercitu pulso, a civibus culpabitur. 7. Commeatus, quo 
nostrl utebantur, multa nocte incensus est. 8. Galll oppi- 
dum vallo fossaque munlri arbitrabantur. 9. Hostes potlrl 
castrls non posse dux vidit. 10. Quattuor cohortes prae- 
sidium castrls Labienus rellquit. 

II. I. After encouraging his men, Caesar began the 
battle. 2. For many days the horsemen who^ were fol- 
lowing harassed the rear. 3. He will use these legions as 
a garrison. 4. Caesar set^ out from the city, and began 
to wage war with the Helvetii. 5. It is reported that 
Labienus has routed the brave Gauls. 

LESSON 57 
Fero AND fio. DATIVE WITH INTRANSITIVES 

341. Learn the principal parts and all forms of the indica- 
tive, infinitive, and participle of fero (502) and fio (501). 

I. Review the conjugation of facio (177-179), and note 
that fio is used as the passive of facio. 

342. Examine the following : 

1 . Nobis persuadent, they persuade us. 

2. Imperatori paret, Jie obeys the commander. 

Observe that nobis and imperatori are datives, while the 
corresponding English words are the objects of their verbs. 

343. Rule of Syntax. — Most verbs signifying to favor, 
help, please, trust, and their contraries ; also to believe, per- 
S2(ade, command, obey, serve, resist, ejivy, threaten, pardon, 
and spare, take the dative. 

^ who %ve7-e following ; do not use a relative clause. ^ Do not use the 
indicative. 



l64 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

344. VOCABULARY 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus, beat-, fio, fieri, factus sum, become, 

carry. be made. 

confero, conferre, contuli, persuadeo, ere, persuasi, per- 

conlatus, bring together, suasus, persuade. 

gather. pareo, ere, parui, — , obey. 

nemo, dat. nemini (no gen. noceo, ere, nocui, nociturus, 

or abl.), no one, nobody. harm, injure. 

moror, ari, atus sum, delay, credo, ere, credidi, creditus, 

hinder. believe, trust. 

resisto, ere, restiti, — , resist, oppose, 

345. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Nostrl equitatum Gallorum tria mlllia passuum se- 
CLitl pepulerunt. 2. Caesar certior factus est Gallos ex vico 
profect5s (esse). 3. Labienus urbe vallo et fossa munlta 
potltur. 4. Principes Helvetiorum suos cohortati nostrum 
impetum fortissime sustinebant. 5. Caesar su5s ex castrls 
eductos Instrul iubet. 

II. I. They informed us that the enemy were preparing 
to make an attack. 2. On leaving^ the camp, our men 
crossed a river that was twenty feet wide. 3. After forti- 
fying the camp, the Romans awaited their attack. 4. He 
said they ought to come to him. 

346. EXERCISES 

I. I. Irapedlmentis in unum locum conlatis, nostrl aciem 
Instruxerunt. 2. Parere suo imperatoriquisque debet. 3. Ad 
castra mult5s dies morati Galli domum se receperunt. 4. Id^ 
persuadere els numquam poterimus. 5. Nemo el haec 
dicenti credit. 6. Oppidum expugnarl non poterat, quod 

^ On leaving = after leaving. 2 J^ is the direct object of persuadere. 
Translate: of this. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 165 

incolae nostrls fortiter resistebant. 7. BonI librl nemini 
nocent. 8. Caesar litterls Labieni certior fiebat omnes 
Belgas(/>V/^m;/^) contra populum R5manum coniurationem 
facere. 9. Quare {tJicrefore) Caesar ad cos proficlsci con- 
stituit. 10. Itaque re frumentaria comparata, castra movet, 
diebusque qulndecim ad fines Belgarum pervenit. 

II. I. They inform Caesar ; Caesar is informed by them. 
2. They said that a conspiracy was being formed. 3. No 
one could persuade him. 4. Children ought to obey their 
elders.^ 5. I believe that they will resist us. 6. After 
fortifying the camp, Caesar encouraged his men. 

LESSON 58 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER VIII 

Caesar erects Fortifications. The Helvetii attempt 
TO CROSS the Rhone, but are Repelled 

347. Interea ea legione quam secum habebat mllitibus- 
que qui ex pr5vincia convenerant murum pedes sedecim 
altum et fossam a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen Rhodanum 
Infiuit, ad montem luram, qui fines Sequan5rum ab Helve- 
tils dividit, perducit. Eo opere perfects et castellls munltis, 
facile eos prohibere potest. Ubi ea dies quam constituerat 
cum legatls venit, et legatl ad eum redierunt, negat^ se 
posse iter ulll per provinciam dare. Helvetii autem, navi- 
bus iunctis ratibusque compluribus factis, perrumpere 
conatl^ operis munitione* et mllitum tells repulsl sunt. 

^ See 272. 2 negat se posse, says he cannot (literally, denies that he can^. 
8 From Conor, a deponent verb. * Can you not infer its meaning from the 
verb munio ? 



l66 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 59 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. PRESENT TENSE. CLAUSES 
OF PURPOSE 

348. Learn the present tense, active and passive, of the 
subjunctive of the model verbs of the four conjugations 
(491-495); of sum (496); of possum (497); of eo (500); 
of fero (502); of fio (501). 

No meanings for the subjunctive are given, because the 
translations vary according to the construction used. These 
meanings will be understood as the various uses of the 
subjunctive are taken up in the succeeding lessons. 

1. Compare carefully the forms of the present subjunctive 

of the third and fourth conjugations with those of the 
future indicative. 

2. Notice that the personal endings are the same as in the 

indicative. 

3. The following table will assist in fixing in mind the forms 

of the first person singular : 

Present Subjunctive 

Conjugation I II 11 1 iv 

Active -em -eam -am, -iam -iam 

Passive -er -ear -ar, -iar -iar 

349. A sentence consisting of a main (or independent) 
clause and one or more dependent (or subordinate) clauses 
is called a complex sentence. In the following examples 
the dependent verbs are italicized : 

When he arrived it was late. 

He was so tired that he went to sleep. 

He came that he might see me. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



167 



The common uses of the subjunctive in dependent clauses 
will be considered in this lesson and those following. The 
uses of the subjunctive in independent clauses are treated 
in Lessons 6^], 71, 72, 73. 

350. Examine the following : 

1. Romam venit ut suum amicum videat, he conies to Rome 

that he may sec his friend, in order that he may see 
his friend, in order to see his friend, to see his friend, 
for the purpose of seeing his friend. 

2. Vir in urbem f ugit ne interficiatur, the man flees itito the 

city that he may not be killed, so that he may not be 
killed, in order not to be killed, lest he be killed. 

a. Observe that the verbs of the dependent clauses ut suum 

amicum videat and ne interficiatur are subjunctive, 
and that they express the purpose of the action of 
the main clauses, ut (that) introducing affirmative 
and ne {that . . . not) negative clauses. 

b. Notice that the purpose clauses may be translated in a 

variety of ways. Purpose clauses may be translated 
by the English infinitive, but never nse the Latin 
infinitive to express purpose. 

351. Rule of Syntax. — Puipose is expressed by the sub- 
junctive zvitJi ut or ne. 

352. Review the principal parts and meanings of the 
folio wins: verbs : 



c5nficio 


dedo 


accedo 


proficiscor 


fero 


committo 


reddo 


potior 


utor 


persuadeo 


converts 


redeo 


sequor 


cad5 


noce5 


cohortor 


reduc5 


sci5 


tolls 


scrlbo 


ago 


reperio 


trado 


obsideo 


arbitror 


credo 


lacesso 


pello 


Instrud 


flo 



l68 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

353. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Mulieribus liberlsque in unum locum convoca- 
tls, Galll impetum nostrorum exspectare constituunt. 
2. Ubi Roman! ad e5rum fines pervenerunt, Galll eis 
restiterunt. 3. Legatus suum cibum quemque portare 
iubet. 4. Orgetorlgis filia a Romanis capta certior 
fiebat neminem sibi nociturum (esse). 5. Quis uti illo 
equo potuit ? 

II. I. We are informed that Labienus has persuaded 
the Gauls. 2. On the next day the Romans will get pos- 
session of their camp. 3. He did not believe his father. 
4. He did not believe his father would return. 

354. EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar ad primum agmen proficlscitur ut su5s 
cohortetur. 2. Nostrl, sTgnIs conversis, pellere Gallos 
coeperunt. 3. Legatum in Galliam proficlsci iubet ne 
ex his nationibus auxilia convocentur. 4. Ibi rex pauc5s 
dies moratur ut oppidum obsideat. 5. Redlmus domum 
ne ab hostibus occidamur. 6. Galll magnas copias unum 
in locum convocant ut bellum gerant. 7. Manesne domi 
ut litteras paucas scribas ? 8. Legati in castra redeunt 
ut Caesarl persuadeant. 9. Nos sequiminT ut aliquid 
reperiatis. 10. Arbitror Gallos accedere ut obsides red- 
dant. 

II. I. They are coming in order that they may be 
praised. 2. Caesar hurries into the province to wage war 
with the Gauls. 3. They are surrendering all their pos- 
sessions to Caesar so as not to be killed. 4. We write 
many letters to persuade our friends. 5. He knetf that 
they would not believe him. 6. You are waiting in Rome 
that you may not be conquered. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 69 



LESSON 60 

SUBJUNCTIVE (Continued). IMPERFECT. RESULT 
CLAUSES 

355. The first person singular of the imperfect sub- 
junctive may be found by adding the personal endings 
-m (active), -r (passive), to the present active infinitive. 

Present Active Infinitive Imperfect Subjunctive 

amare amarem 

munire munirer 

monere monerem 

I. Learn the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, of 
the four model verbs (491-495); of sum (496); of 
possum (497); of eo (500); of fero (502). 

356. Notice carefully the difference between a purpose 
and a result clause. A result clause expresses the result 
or outcome of the action of the main verb. Observe the 
difference as shown in these examples : 

They shouted so that he might hear. (Purpose.) 

They shouted so that he heard. (Result.) 

He was so tired that he could not go. (Result.) 

Some word or phrase like so, sucJi, in such a way, etc., is 
often used in the main clause to show that a result clause 
may be expected to follow. 

357. Examine the following : 

I. Flumen tarn latum est ut Galli transire non possint, the 

river is so zvide that the Gauls cannot cross. 



170 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

2. Flumen tam latum fuit ut Galli transire non possent, 

the nvcr was so ividc that the Gauls could not 
cross. 

3. Nostri ita fortiter pugnabant ut hostes se reciperent, 

our men fought so bravely that the enemy retreated. 

4. Ita graviter vulnerati erant ut pugnare non possent, 

they had been so severely zvounded that they could not 
fight. 

a. Observe that the above clauses beginning with ut 

express the result, and that the verbs are subjunc- 
tive. 

b. Observe that when the main verb is present tense the 

dependent subjunctive is present tense, and that when 
the main verb is either imperfect, perfect, ox pluperfect 
{i.e. any tense expressing past time), the dependent 
subjunctive is imperfect. 

c. Observe that the tense of the subjunctive is not neces- 

sarily the same as that of the main verb. 

358. Rule of Syntax. — Result is expressed by the sub- 
junctive with ut or ut non. 

359. VOCABULARY 

consequor, consequi, consecu- castellum, i, x\.,fort, redoubt. 

tus sum, pursue, overtake, deditio, onis, f., surrender. 

progredior, progredi, pro- calamitas, atis, f., disaster, 

gressus sum, advance, pro- defeat. 

ceed. tantus, a, um, so great, such. 

audeo, ere, ausus ^ sum, dare, tam, adv., so. 

accipio, ere, accepi, acceptus, ita, adv., thus, so. 

receive. 

1 A semi-deponent verb; i.e. the present stem is active, and the perfect 
stem passive. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 171 

360. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. German! in Galliam transeunt ut eorum fines 
vastent. 2. Vlcis multls et parvis incensis, Labienus 
urbem pulcherrimam obsidebat. 3. Arbitramur n5s eorum 
castrls potiri posse. 4. Equitatus sociorum Caesari magno 
USUI fuit. 5. Caesar ex castrls profectus in Helvetios 
flumen transeuntes impetum faciet. 

n. I. Each soldier ought to obey his general. 2. The 
enemy are following us to harass the rear. 3. You are 
doing this for the sake of harming me. 4. We are in- 
formed that the enemy have taken possession of the top 
of the hill. 

361. EXERCISES 

I. I. Equitatus progressus erat ut Gallos fugientis conse- 
queretur. 2. Oppidum ita a mllitibus munitur ut expugnari 
non possit. 3. Omnes qui transire Rhodanum ausl sunt 
tells et sagittis vulnerabantur. 4. Tantus erat Helveti- 
orum timor ut se suaque omnia dederent. 5. Caesar 
castra movet ne hostes inter se et flumen sint. 6. Gall! 
ita operis magnitudine permovebantur ut arma legato tra- 
derent. 7. Haec urbs castellls munlta est ne a Romanis 
caperetur. 8. Haec urbs castellls ita munlta est ut a Ro- 
manis non caperetur. 9. Labienus in eorum fines decem 
dies progressus multas civitates in deditionem accepit. 
10. Tantus hostium erat numerus ut sinistrum cornu cir- 
cumvenlre possent. 

II. I. We shall never dare to do it on account of 
the width of the river. 2. The road is so narrow that the 
enemy cannot advance. 3. Such was the nature of the 
place that the road was very difficult. 4. We were sent to 
carry the children back to Rome. 5. The river was so 
wide and deep that they used ships. 



172 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



LESSON 61 
Volo. Nolo. Malo. RELATIVE CLAUSE OF PURPOSE 

362. Learn the principal parts and all forms of the in- 
dicative, present and imperfect subjunctive, infinitive, and 
participle of volo, nolo, malo (499). Observe that nolo is a 
compound of non and volo, and malo a compound of magis, 
more (shortened to ma), and volo. Note the irregularities in 
the present tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive. 

363. Examine the following : 



1 . Princeps legatos misit ut pacem peterent 

2. Princeps misit legatos qui pacem peterent 



the chief sent 
ambassadors 
to ask for 
peace. 

The English translation of these sentences is the same, 
and the verbs of the purpose clauses are subjunctive. In 
2, however, qui is used instead of ut to emphasize the am- 
bassadors as the persons who have the purpose to perform. 

364. Rule of Syntax. — Purpose may be expressed by a 
relative pronoun and the subjunctive. 



365. 



VOCABULARY 



peto, ere, petivi (ii), petitus, 
aiin at, ask for, go to get. 

volo, velle, volui, — , be zvill- 
ing, wish, will. 

nolo, nolle, nolui, — , be un- 
willing, ivill not. 

malo, malle, malui, — , be 
more willijig, prefer. 

impedio, ire, impedivi, impe- 
ditus, entangle, impede. 



praemitto, ere, praemisi, prae- 
missus, send ahead, dis- 
patch. 

celeriter, adv. (celer, sivift), 
siviftly, quickly. 

senatus, us, m., senate. 

de tertia vigilia, about the 
third watch (a watch was 
equal to one fourth of the 
night). 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 173 

366. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Flumen Rhodanum transierant ne a Caesaris 
equitibus caperentur. 2. Nostrl tam acriter pugnabant 
ut Helvetil alii aliam in partem fugerent. 3. Equitatus 
hostes in fugam datos consequi non audebat. 4. Caesar 
de Gallorum deditione certior factus legiones in hiberna 
reduxit. 5. Labienus se non posse Gallls credere arbitra- 
batur. 

II. I. That they might sustain our attack for a long 
time, the Gauls had gathered a great abundance of grain. 
2. Such was the speed of our cavalry that the enemy 
could not escape. 3. We are informed that they will 
resist us. 4. Are you (plur.) returning to the city to 
warn your friends ? 

367. EXERCISES 

I. I. Noluisse ; mavultis ; nolumus. 2. Mavis; noles ; 
malunt. 3. Imperator mllites praemlsit qui castra pone- 
rent. 4. Galli victi petere pacem nolunt. 5. Multl esse 
cum Caesare quam Romam redire malebant. 6. Helvetil 
legates mittunt ut iter per Sequanorum fines facere possint. 
7. Caesar equites qui Gallos in fiumine impedltos lacesse- 
rent praemlserat. 8. GermanI legates miserunt qui dlxe- 
runt^ se petere pacem velle. 9. Caesar his rebus ita 
permovebatur ut quam celerrime ad suos contenderet. 
10. De tertia vigilia Labienus eos qui hostes consequerentur 
praemlsit. 

II. I. We are unwilling to obey him. 2. Caesar sends 
ahead horsemen to burn the villages. 3. We are return- 
ing to Rome to persuade the senate. 4. The Helvetil 

1 Notice how the translation of the indicative, dixerunt, differs from that 
of the subjunctive, dicerent. 



174 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

preferred to seek peace rather than to be killed by the 
Romans. 5. Why are you unwilling to remain at home ? 
6. Although ^ a great defeat had been received, the Gauls 
did not wish to surrender their arms. 



LESSON 62 
SEQUENCE OF TENSES. INDIRECT QUESTIONS 

368. Learn the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of 
the model verbs (491-495); of sum (496); of eo (500); of 
fero (502); of possum (497); of fio (501); of volo, nolo, 
malo (499). 

Observe that the first person of the perfect active sub- 
junctive of all verbs may be found by adding erim to the 
perfect stem ; that the pluperfect active subjunctive may 
be found by adding the personal endings to the perfect 
active infinitive ; that the perfect and pluperfect passive 
subjunctive are compound forms, like the same tenses of 
the indicative. 

369. Examine the following : 

Direct Question Indirect Question 

Ubi sunt .■* wJierc are they ? Scio ubi sint, / hioiv where 
Quid f acit .'' ivJiat is he doing ? they air. 

Vidimus quid faceret, we saiv 
zvJiat he ivas doing. 

Observe that when a direct question is asked indirectly, 
depending upon some introductory verb, the verb of 
the original direct question becomes subjunctive in the 
indirect. 

1 See 311, 6 ; 315. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 75 

Caution. — Do not confuse an indirect question with an 
indirect statement (327). Indirect questions maybe recog- 
nized by the fact that some interrogative word follows the 
main or introductory verb. 

Indirect Question Indirect Statement 

Scio quis veniat, Scio eum venire, 

/ knoiv who is coming. I knozv (that) he is comitig. 

370. Rule of Syntax. — The verb of an indirect question 
is in the subjunctive. 

371. It has been noticed in the three preceding les- 
sons that the tense of a dependent subjunctive depends 
upon the tense of the verb of the main clause. This use 
of the tenses follows a principle called the Sequence of 
Tenses, a principle that is famiUar from English usage. 
Compare : 

He conies that I may see him. 
He came that I might see him. 

The change from may to might accompanies the change 
of the main verb from comes to came. This change of 
tenses, therefore, is not peculiar to Latin. 

372. All tenses are divided into two classes, as 
follows : 

Present Indicative, 
Primary or principal tenses, Future Indicative, 

denoting present or future j Future Perfect Indicative, 
time. Present Subjunctive, 

Perfect Subjunctive. 



1/6 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Secondary or historical tenses, 
denoting past time. 



Imperfect Indicative, 
Perfect Indicative, 
Pluperfect Indicative, 
Imperfect Subjunctive, 
Pluperfect Subjunctive. 



2. 



373. Examine the following : 

[ Videt, Jic sees, 1 

{ Videbit, /le will see, \ 

{ Viderit, he will have seen, J 

f Videt, he sees, | 

Videbit, he will see, \ 

Viderit, he will have seen, J 

\ Videbat, he was seeing, 1 
Vidit, Jie sazv, \ 

Viderat, lie had seen, J 



4- 



[ Videbat, he zvas seeing, 

\ Vidit, he saw, 

[ Viderat, he had seen. 



quid faciam, zvhal I am 
doing. 

quid fecerim, zvhat I have 
done (or did). 

quid facerem, what I zvas 
do i Jig. 

quid fecissem, tvhat I had 
done (or did). 



Observe what tenses of the subjunctive follow primary- 
tenses of the indicative, and what tenses follow secondary. 

374. Rule for Sequence of Tenses. — Whenever the sub- 
junctive is used in a dependent or subordinate clause, the 
tense that should be used is determined by the following 
rule : 

A primary tense in the main clause is followed by a pri- 
mary tense in the dependent siibjnnctive clause ; a secondary 
tense is folloived by a secondary tense. 

I. Sometimes the perfect indicative, when it means have, 
has, . . ., is followed by a primary tense. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 1 77 

375. VOCABULARY 

procedo, ere, process!, — , go explorator, oris, m., scout. 

forward, advance. in reliquum tempus, for the 

Conor, ari, atus sum, try, future. 

attempt. inter se dare, to exchange, 

conloquor, conloqui, conlocu- give each other. 

tus sum, speak togetJier, in flumine pontem facio, 

confer. build a bridge across the 

in animo habeo, ] / have in river. 

mihi est in \ mind, in- rogo, are, avi, atus, ask, 

animo, J tend. beg. 

376. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Quis Caesare imperatore e proeli5 discedere aude- 
bit ? 2. Cur Roma exire vultis ? 3. Labienus cohortes ex 
castrls eductas Instrul iussit. 4. Caesarl est nuntiatum 
summum montem a Labieno tenerl. 5. Ubi^ire mecum 
mavis ? 

II, I. He sent forward men to fortify the hill as quickly 
as possible. 2. The enemy hastened to attack our men 
while impeded in the river. 3. Are you willing to obey 
your leader } 4. After encouraging his men there Caesar 
hastens to the river. 

377. EXERCISES 

I. I. Helvetils est in animo iter per pr5vinciam facere. 
2. Caesar rogavit cur inter se obsides darent. 3. Principes 
ut de deditione conloquantur convenient. 4. Imperator 
multos dies sclverat quae Galli facere conati essent. 

5. Caesar praemittet eos qui in flumine pontem faciant. 

6. LegatI Gallorum Caesarl dixerunt quae sibi in anim5 in 
reliquum tempus essent. 7. GermanI a Caesare rogaverunt 

1 When. 

ESSKN. OF LATIN — 12 



178 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

" Cur in nostr5s fines processisti ? " 8. GermanI a Caesare 
rogaverunt cur in suos fines processisset. 9. Summus 
collis castellls multls munitus erat ne hostes impetum face- 
rent. 10. In animo habemus obsides inter nos dare. 

II. I. We know who is going to the city. 2. The 
Heutenant said, "Who is going to Rome.''" 3. I know 
that they have returned home. 4. Caesar asked what 
towns they had captured. 5. We can see why they have 
fled. 6. Caesar is informed through scouts that the enemy 
have advanced. 7. When the battle had been fought, the 
general saw who had been wounded. 




A<: 



l^r*Ji^M 



mMM^ 



^■--^>?^^?^^rii/ 




LESSON 63 

SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES 

378. A substantive clause is one that is used as a noun. 
Its use as subject or object of a verb is most common. In 
the following English examples the substantive clauses are 
italicized : 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 179 



It happened that lie 2vas present. 



I know what he has done. (As object.) 

I know {that) he has come. (As object.) 

(As subject, or in appo- 
sition with subject) 
He persuaded us to leave the city. (As object.) 
We feared that he might die. (As object.) 

I do not doubt tJiat he will go. (As object.) 

He ordered us to leave the city. (As object.) 

It will be observed from these examples that substantive 
clauses are expressed in Enghsh in several ways. In Latin 
substantive clauses are usually expressed either by the in- 
finitive or by the subjunctive. This use of the infinitive in 
indirect discourse and as complementary infinitive, and of the 
subjunctive in indirect questions, we have already considered. 

379. Subjunctive clauses introduced by ut or ne are very 
often used in Latin as the object of verbs signifying to ask, 
command, advise, resolve, nrge, persuade, permit, strive, decree. 
As an infinitive phrase is used in English as the object of 
such verbs, while ut or ne and the subjunctive is used in 
Latin, this difference in usage must be carefully noted. 

Examples 

1 . Helvetiis persuasit ut exirent, he persuaded the Helvetii 

to leave. 

2. Suis imperat ne id faciant, he orders his men not to do 

this. 

3. Milites cohortatur ut impetum sustineant, he urges the 

soldiers to sustain the attack. 

4. Te rogo ut mihi credas, / ask you to believe me. 

380. The following are the most common verbs of the 
classes mentioned in 379. Their meanings and principal 
parts should be carefully learned : 



l8o ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

persuadeo, ere, persuasi, persuasus, persuade. 

impero, are, avi, atus, order, conwiaiid. 

mando, are, avi, atus, order, command. 

rogo, are, avi, atus, ask, beg. 

postulo, are, avi, atus, demand, ask. 

moneo, ere, monui, monitus, advise, zvarn. 

peto, ere, petivi (ii), petitus, ask, request. 

quaero, ere, quaesivi, quaesitus, inquire, ask. 

cohortor (and hortor), ari, atus sum, ejieonragc, tirge. 

permitto, ere, permisi, permissus, permit, allozv. 

concedo, ere, concessi, concessus, permit, allow. 

1. The following are exceptions to the above, and are fol- 

lowed by the infinitive, as in English : 

iubeo, ere, iussi, iussus, order, comtnand. 
veto, are, vetui, vetitus, forbid. 

2. The following are followed either by (i) the infinitive, 

or (2) ut or ne and the subjunctive. Yet the infini- 
tive is more common. 

patior, pati, passus sum, suffer, allow. 
constituo, ere, constitui, constitutus, determine. 
cupio, ere, cupivi, cupitus, desire. 
volo (also nolo and malo), velle, volui, zvish. 

381. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Sci5 quid tibi sit in animo. 2. LegatI diu inter se 
conlocuti domum redierunt. 3. Ab els Caesar rogavit cur ex 
proelio discessissent. 4. Helvetil responderunt sese exire 
e flnibus non c6natur5s. 5. Cur hostes se receperunt } 

II. I.I know whom you called together on that night. 

2. If our arms are surrendered, we cannot defend ourselves. 

3. They tried to keep the Germans away from their fields. 

4. They thought we could not build a bridge over that river. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN l8l 

382, EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar suls imperavit ut castra munlrent 2. Im- 
perator equites cohortatus est ne clamoribus Gallorum 
permoverentur. 3. Caesar, Helvetils superatis, bellum 
gerere cum Germanis constituit. 4. Dumnorix Sequanis 
persuadet ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant. 5. Helvetil e 
finitimis quaesiverunt ut obsides inter se darent. 6. Suos 
in flumine Rhodan5 pontem facere legatus iussit. 7. Caesar 
Gallos monuit ne coniurati5nem in reliquum tempus face- 
rent. 8. Galll ut quisquam vln5 utatur non permittunt. 
9. Ubi Caesar in Gallorum fines pervenit, su5s vastare 
agros vetuit. 10. Nostri magnum Galldrum fugientium 
numerum occlderunt. 

II. I. We urge you to be brave. 2. The Helvetii per- 
suaded their neighbors to attack the Romans. 3. The 
general commands^ us to do this as quickly as possible. 
4. We asked ^ him what he was doing. 5. He was in- 
formed that the enemy were crossing the river. 6. Now ^ 
that the Germans have been conquered, Caesar will allow 
us to return to Rome. 7. They were sent to build a bridge. 

LESSON 64 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER IX 

Dumnorix persuades the Sequani to allow the 
Helvetii to march through their Territory 

383. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua Sequanis 
invltis propter angustias Ire non poterant. Cum ^ his sua ^ 

^ impero. - Use rogo ab and ablative. 3 j\jo-m . . . conquered, use abl. 
abs. * since, when. ^ sua sponte, by their own mea7ts, on their own account. 



lS2 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

sponte persuadere non possent, legates ad Dumnorlgem 
Haeduum mittunt, ut eo^ deprecatore a Sequanls impetra- 
rent.^ Dumnonx gratia et larglti5ne apud Sequanos pluri- 
mum poterat et Helvetils erat amicus, quod ex ea civitate 
Orgetorlgis flliam in matrimonium duxerat. Itaque rem 
suscipit et a Sequanls impetrat ut per fines su5s Helveti5s 
Ire patiantur, obsidesque ut inter sese dent perficit : SequanI, 
ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant, Helvetil, ut sine iniuria 
transeant. 

LESSON 65 

OBJECT CLAUSES AFTER VERBS OF FEARING. Cum 
TEMPORAL, CAUSAL, AND CONCESSIVE 

384. Examine the following : 

1. Timeo ne hoc faciat, I fear that he will do this (or I fear 

that he is doing this). 

2. Timebam ut hoc f aceret, I feared that he would not do this. 

Observe 

a. That the clauses ne hoc faciat and ut hoc f aceret are the 

object of the main verb. 

b. That ne is affirmative and means that, and that ut is 

negative and means that not. 

385. Rule of Syntax. — TJie subjunctive zvith ne, that, or 
ut, that not, is jised as the object of vej^bs or expressions of 
fearing. 

386. Examine the following : 

1 . Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, zvhen Caesar came into Gaul. 

2. Cum Caesar in Gallia esset, when Caesar was in Gaul. 

^ eo deprecatore, by his tnediation (literally, he {being) an intercessor ; 
ablative absolute). '■^ Do not confuse this verb with impero. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 183 

3. Cum Caesari id nuntiatum esset, ivhen this had been 

reported to Caesar. 

4. Cum his persuadere non possent, legates miserunt, since 

they could not persuade them, they sent ambassadors. 

5. Cum primi ordines concidissent, reliqui tamen resistebant, 

although the first ranks had fallen, still the others 

resisted. 
Cum, meaning zvhen (sentences i, 2, 3), is called cum 
temporal, and the verb is usually subjunctive if the tense 
used is imperfect or pluperfect, otherwise the indicative is 
used. Cum, meaning since or as, is called cum causal, 
and the verb is subjunctive (sentence 4). Cum, meaning 
although, is called cum concessive, and the verb is subjunc- 
tive (sentence 5). The student will be able to infer from 
the meaning of the whole sentence which of the three 
translations cum should have in a given case. What must 
it mean with the indicative ? 

387. Rules of Syntax. 

1. In a cum clause expressing time, the verb is usually 
subjunctive if the tense used is imperfect or pluperfect ; 
otherivise, the indicative is 7ised.. 

2. In a cum clause expressing cause or concession, the 
verb is subjunctive. 

388. VOCABULARY 

vereor, eri, veritus sum, fear, signa infero, charge (literally, 

respect. bear the standards aga inst ). 

timeo, ere, timui, — , fear, be in fidem venire, to put ones 

afraid of self under the protection. 

intellego, ere, intellexi, in- postquam, conj., after. 

tellectus, learn, knoiv, per- polliceor, eri, pollicitus sum. 

ceive. promise. 



1 84 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

389. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar quibusdam e suTs imperavit ut in flumine 
pontem facerent. 2. Imperator Helvetils ne iter per pro- 
vinciam faciant mandat. 3. German! a Caesare quaesive- 
runt cur in Galliam venisset. 4. Caesar per expl6rat5res 
certior fit summum montem a Labieno occupatum esse. 
5. Helvetil flnitimls persuadebant ut, aedificils incensfs, 
secum exTrent. 

II. I. He warns us not to leave the camp. 2. The 
Gauls urged each man to resist the Romans bravely. 

3. We shall attack the enemy who are following. 

4. Caesar ordered ^ the Gauls to give up their arms. 

390. EXERCISES 

I. I. Postquam Caesar ad exercitum pervenit, milites 
castra munlre coeperunt. 2. Cum hoc fecerlmus, tanien a 
nostrls amicis non culpabimur. 3. Imperator verebatur 
ne hostes nostros in flumine impedltos lacesserent. 4. Cum 
nostrl fortiter resisterent, Galll se recipere constituerunt. 

5. Helvetil superati in Caesaris fidem venire volebant. 

6. Caesar, cum suos laborare intellegeret, in primam 
aciem processit, et milites cohortatus est. 7. Cum hoc 
fecissent, Romam redierunt. 8. Hoc facto, Romam redie- 
runt. 9. Gall! polHcitl sunt se sociorum popull RomanI 
agros non vastaturos esse. 10. Caesar suos signa con- 
versa Inferre iussit. 

II. I. We feared that the general would not send us 
aid. 2. Although ^ the enemy resisted bravely, our men 
were able to take the town. 3. When Caesar was in- 
formed of their arrival, he drew up the line of battle. 

1 Use iubeo. "^Although . . . resisted. Express in two ways. See 311. 6, 
315. 3S6. 5. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 185 

4. I fear that he is coming. 5. I know that he is coming. 
6. I know who is coming. 7. The man that I saw in Rome 
has arrived. 

LESSON 66 

COMPOUNDS OF SUm. DATIVE AFTER COMPOUND 
VERBS 

391. Review possum (274). The verb sum is com- 
pounded with the prepositions ab, ad, de, in, inter, ob, prae, 
pro (prod), super. Review the meanings of these preposi- 
tions from the general vocabulary. In the compound 
prosum, / benefit, prod, not pro, is found before e. Learn 
the conjugation of prosum (498). 

392. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the 
following compounds of sum : 

absum, abesse, afui, — , be away, be absent. 

adsum, adesse, adfui, — , be present, aid. 

desum, deesse, defui, — , be lacking, fail. 

insum, inesse, infui, — , be in, be among. 

intersum, interesse, interfui, — , be among, be present. 

obsum, obesse, obfui, — , be against, injure. 

praesum, praeesse, praefui, — , be at the head of, command. 

prosum, prodesse, profui, — , be of use to, benefit. 

supersum, superesse, superfui, — , be over, survive. 

393. Examine the following : 

1 . Legatus oppido praef uit, the lieutenant zvas in charge of 

the town. 

2. Amicis prosumus, ive benefit our friends. 

3. Exercitus hostibus appropinquabat (ad -f propinquo), the 

army tvas approaching the enemy. 

4. Pecuniae pudorem anteponit, he put honor before money. 



1 86 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Observe that these compound verbs govern the dative 
case. If a verb is transitive, as in 4, it may take both an 
accusative and a dative. 

394. Rule of Syntax. — Many verbs compounded with ad, 
ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, pro, sub, and super often 
govern the dative. 

395. VOCABULARY 

appropinquo, are, avi, atus, vis (no gen. or dat. sing.), 
approach, draw near. vim, vi, (476) f., plur., 

bellum infero, inferre, intuli, vires, ium, ibus, strength, 

inlatus, and dative, zvage power ; (plur.), strength, 
zvar upon. iterum, adv., again, a second 

time. 

396. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Veremur ut impetum sustineant. 2. Gall! se in 
popull Roman! fidem ventures polHcentur. 3. Postquam 
Caesar in Galliam venit, gentes obsides inter se dare intel- 
lexit. 4. Quae ^ cum ita sint, in hostium finibus morabimur, 

II. I. The Gauls feared that the Romans would advance. 

2. The Gauls thought that the Romans were advancing. 

3. The camp that had been fortified was a mile wide. 

4. They persuaded the Sequani to exchange hostages. 

397. EXERCISES 

I. I. Caesar cum finibus Gallorum approplnquaret, 
magna cum cura processit. 2. Pedites diu pugnare non 
poterant, quod sibi vires deerant. 3. German! dixerunt 

1 these things. A relative at the beginning of a sentence is often translated 
by a demonstrative. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



187 



Romanes sibi bellum intulisse. 4. Virl qui suTs amicis 
obsunt non sunt fIdL 5. Galli mulieres liberosque unum 
in locum convocabant ne tells interficerentur. 6. Caesar 
Labienum qui castris praeesset reliquit. 7. Incolae 
oppidl, armis traditis, tamen Romanis resistere iterum 
conati sunt. 8. Cum legatus a hostium finibus non 
amplius ^ duobus millibus passuum abesset, castra posuit. 
9. Omnes qui pugnae superfuerant a Caesare pacem 
petebant. 10. Cum oppidl incolae pauci essent, expug- 
narl n5n potuit. 

II. I. We all wish to benefit our friends. 2. Labienus 
commanded two legions. 3. Caesar said he intended to 
wage war on the Germans. 4. We persuaded them to 
leave Rome with us. 5. Although we are drawing near 
the enemy, we ought not to fear, if^ Caesar is general. 
6. Caesar called all the soldiers together. 



LESSON 67 
THE IMPERATIVE. COMMANDS AND EXHORTATIONS 



398. 



Forms of the Imperative Mood 



Second Person 


Second Person 


IMPERATIVE 


ACTIVE 


IMPERATIVE PASSIVE 


Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


ama, love 


am ate 


am are, be loved 


amamini 


mone, advise 


monete 


monere, be advised 


monemini 


mitte, scud 


mittite 


mittere, be sent 


mittimini 


cape, take 


capite 


capere, be taken 


capimini 


audi, hear 


audite 


audire, be Jieard 


audimini 



^ //" . . . general : see 316. 



1 88 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Observe that the present active imperative has the same 
form as the present stem (86), and that the present passive 
imperative, singular and plural, have the same forms as 
the second person singular in -re and tJic second person 
plural of the pjrsent indicative passive. 

The present active imperatives of dico, duco, facio, and 
fero are die, due, fae, fer. 

Give the imperative forms of gero, video, dico, munio, 
capio, sequor, laudo. 

399. The imperative is used to command or exhort 
in the second person, while the subjunctive is used to 
exhort or urge in the first and third persons. For ex- 
ample : 







A.FFIRMATIVE 


Negative 


1ST 


Per. 


laudem, let me 

praise 


ne laudem, let me not praise 


2D 


Per. 


laud a, praise 


noli laudare, do not p7'aise 


3D 


Per. 


laudet, let him 
praise 


ne laudet, let him not praise 


1ST 


Per. 


laudemus, let us 


ne laudemus, let ns not 






praise 


praise 


2D 


Per. 


laudate, praise 


nolite laudare, do not praise 


3D 


Per. 


laudent, let them 


ne laudent, let them not 






praise 


praise 



Observe that the negative used with the subjunctive is 
ne, but that ne is not used with the imperative, but instead 
noli or nolite (pres. imperative of nolo, be umvilling) and 
the infinitive. Do not use ne or non with the imperative to 
express a negative command. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 189 

400. VOCABULARY 

praeficio, ere, praefeci, prae- sum, dep., turn back, re- 

fectus, set over, put in turn. 

charge of. animadverto, ere, animad- 

refero, referre, rettuli, rela- verti, animadversus (ani- 

tus, carry back; referre mus + ad + vert6), ///;;/ //'£' 

pedem, to retreat. mind to, notice, punish. 

ad multam noctem, till late adversus, a, urn, opposite, 

at night. f'^d^igy hostile ; adverse 

longe, ?idw.,far,far off. colle, ;// the hill. 

reverto, ere, reverti, — , and Ariovistus, i, m., Ariovistus, 

reverter, reverti, reversus chief of the Germans. 

401. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. I Hud oppidum non longe a prdvincia abest. 
2. Hostium copiae conatae sunt castellum, cui praeerat 
legatus, expugnare. 3. Ariovistus dixit non sese Gallls 
sed Gallos sibi bellum intulisse. 4. Labienus, unus ex 
Caesaris legatls, oppido appropinquare contendit. 5. Cum 
proell finem nox fecisset, viri summa gratia apud suos ad 
Caesarem venerunt. 

II. I. The chief had two daughters ; one was killed, the 
other captured. 2. I fear that he will injure me. 3. The 
man did this himself. 4. The chief said, "The power of 
the Roman people is very great." 

402. EXERCISES 

I. I. Gain responderunt, " N5llte Romanis bellum Tn- 
ferre." 2. Die mihi quid in animo vobis sit. 3. Fortiter 
pugnemus ^ ne sub potestate Caesaris veniamus. 4. Caesar 

1 Notice that the subjunctive of exhortation is the main verb of the sentence. 
See 349. 



I90 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

cum Gall5s iterum coniurationem facere animadvertisset, 
legates ad se reverti iussit. 5. Cum vires sibi deessent, 
hostes referre pedem coeperunt. 6. Signa Inferte adverse 
colle ad hostium castra. 7. Labienum urbl captae Caesar 
praefecit. 8. Cum nostrl ad multam noctem contendissent, 
nemo ab hostibus occlsus est. 9. Ariovistus Caesarl dixit, 
"Cur in meos fines venis ? " 10. Hoc facto, duabus legi- 
onibus in castrls relictis, reliquas sex legiones pro castrls 
in acie Caesar constituit. 

II. I. Let us wage war. 2. Do not do this. 3. Pur- 
sue the enemy, if you wish. 4. Let them do this. 5. Labi- 
enus,^ lead the forces out of camp. 6. Friends, do not 
persuade me to remain in Rome. 7. We were afraid that 
our men would not be able to seize the top of the mountain. 

LESSON 68 
GERUND AND GERUNDIVE 

403. Carefully distinguish the difference in English 
between a verbal noun and a verbal adjective. They both 
end in -ing, the verbal noun being used like a noun in any 
of the cases, and the verbal adjective, or participle, like an 
adjective, always in agreement with some word. Both have 
the force of a verb, and may therefore take an object. 
Compare these examples : 

I found my friends zvaiting for me. (Participle, or 
verbal adjective.) 

Waiting \^ tedious. (Verbal noun, subject of "is.") 
We learn to do by doing. (Verbal noun.) 

404. In Latin, the gernnd is a verbal nonn. It has only 
the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative cases, the 

1 Review 29, i. 52, 2. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 191 

nominative case being supplied by the infinitive. Its 
gender is neuter. The gerundive is a verbal adjective (see 
308), and is passive in its meaning. 

405. Learn tiie gerunds and gerundives of the model 
verbs (491-495). Note that they are formed from the 
present stem. 

406. Examine the following : 

f Videre est credere, seeing is bclicvinsr (infinitive 
NOM. \ .- ,. 

[ as subject). 

f Ars Vivendi (gerund), the art of living. 
I Venit amicorum videndorum causa (gerundive), Jie 
came to see his friends {for the sake of seeing 
[ his friends). 

fVix his rebus administrandis tempus dabatur 
Dat.^ I (gerundive), time ivas hardly given for manag- 
insr these things. 



Gen. { 



Ace. 



Venit ad pugnandum (gerund), he came to fight 
{for fighting, or for tJie purpose of fighting). 

Venit ad amicos videndos (gerundive), Jie came to 
see his friends {for the purpose of seeing his 
friends). 

' Mens discendo alitur (gerund), the mind is 

strengthened by learning. 
Conlocuti sunt de consiliis faciendis (gerundive), 
tJiey conferred about forming plans. 

Observe 
I. That when the gerundive is used the noun is put in 
the proper case, and the gerundive agrees with it in 
gender, number, and case. 

^ The use of the dative of the gerund or gerundive is not very common ; 
ad and the accusative is more common. 



Abl. -1 



192 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

2. That the gerundive is generally used instead of the 

gerund when there is an object. 

3. That purpose may be expressed by ad and the accusa- 

tive of the gerund or gerundive, and by causa follow- 
ing the genitive of the gerund or gerundive. What 
other ways are there of expressing purpose ? 

407. VOCABULARY 

conicio, ere, conieci, coniectus, causa, ae, f., cause, reason; 

throw, hurl. abl., for the sake (after a 

deligo, ere, delegi, delectus, genitive). 

select, choose. cupidus, a, um, desirous of, 
spatium, i, n., space, time, eager for (with genitive). 

opportunity. denique, ?i.^v., finally, at last. 

iam, adv., now, already, sooti. 

408. REVIEW EXERCISES 

I. I. Animadvertite quae f ecerit. 2. Noll, hostibus appro- 
plnquantibus, castrls legatum praeficere. 3. Omnibus Gallls 
superatls, in provinciam revertamur. 4. Ubi turrim mover! 
et approplnquare moenibus viderunt, legates ad Caesarem 
de pace miserunt. 5. Die nobis quos Romae vlderls. 

II. I. Do not persuade them to wage war on the 
Romans. 2. Lead your troops out of camp and draw 
tHem up. 3. Let us always obey the general. 4. I fear 
the Gauls will be defeated. 

409. EXERCISES 

L I. Discimus agere agendo. 2. Legatus finem lo- 
quendl fecit. 3. Milites erant cupidl potiendl oppidL 

4. Bellum gerere hieme est difficillimum. 5. Hostes tam 
celeriter accesserunt ut spatium telorum coniciendorum n5n 
daretur. 6. Caesar locum omnibus rebus idoneum castrls 
delegit. 7. LegatI ad pacem petendam venerunt. 8. Com- 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



193 



plures prlncipes ad Caesarem pacis petendae causa vene- 
runt. 9. Ad eas res conficiendas annum satis esse Helvetil 
arbitrabantur. 10. Galli de bello Romanis Inferendo con- 
silia faciebant. 11. Ne n5s e proelio discedamus. 

II. I. Fighting; by fighting; of fighting. 2. For the 
purpose of defending; for the sake of choosing. 3. Time 
was not given for ^ defending the city. 4. Caesar sent 
men to^ fortify the camp. 5. The enemy attacked our 
men while crossing the river. 6. He chose a lieutenant to 
accomplish all these things. 7. Choosing good friends is 
difficult. 8. Do not leave the city. 



LESSON 69 

COMPLETE REVIEW OF VERB FORMS 

Note to the Teacher. — As much time should be given to this review 
of verb forms as the needs of the class require. It is suggested that this 
revievjf be made by synopsis, and by quick recognition of miscellaneous verb 
forms both orally and in writing. 

410. Review 235 and 352. Review the principal parts 
and meanings of the following verbs : 



timed 


procedo 


conicio 


impero 


approplnquo 


peto 


deligo 


pareo 


intellego 


permitto 


animadvert© 


quaero 


polliceor 


vols 


reverto 


c5nsequor 


conloquor 


n5lo 


moror 


audeo 


vereor 


malo 


obtine5 


progrodior 


Conor 


respondeo 


praefici5 





411. Following the form suggested below, write the syn- 
opsis of (i) tollo in the first person singular, and of (2) 
Conor in the third person plural. 

^ for defending : genitive case. ^ to fortify : express in four ways. 

ESSEN. OF latin — 1 3 



194 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



FORMi FOR SYNOPSIS 
Principal Parts 





Tense 


Indicative 


Subjunctive 


Imperative 


Infinitive 


Participle 


Pres. \^''- 
[Pass. 




- 








J [Act. 
'"P^Mpass. 












Fut. \^''' 
{ Pass. 












1 Pass. 












Plup. if ^• 
^ (Pass. 












Fut. jAct. 
Perf. 1 Pass. 















LESSON 70 

READING LESSON 

CHAPTER X 

Caesar prepares to defeat the Plans of the 
Helvetii 

412. Caesari renuntiatur HelvetiTs esse in animo per 
agrum Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in Santonum fines 



1 This form is merely suggested as a model for writing the synopsis of a verb. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



195 



facere, qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, quae 
civitas est in pr5vincia. Caesar nolebat homines bellicosos, 
populi R5manl inimlcds, pr5vinciae esse finitimos. Ob eas 
res ei muniti5ni quam fecerat T. Labienum legatum prae- 
fecit, et ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus contendit duasque 
ibi legiones c5nscrlbit et tres, quae circum Aquileiam hie- 
mabant/ ex hibernls educit et cum his quinque legionibus 
Ire in ulteriorem Galliam contendit. Ibi nonnullae nationes, 
locis superioribus occupatis, itinere exercitum prohibere 
conantur. His compluribus proehls^ pulsis, ab Ocelo, quod 
est citerioris pr5vinciae extremum, in fines Vocontiorum 
ulterioris provinciae die^ septimo pervenit ; inde in Allo- 
brogum fines, ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos exercitum 
ducit. Hi sunt extra provinciam trans Rhodanum priml. 



1 Can you not infer its meaning from hiems ? 



Why ablative 








v;**-^ l\ 




^mmm. 



Roman Harbor and Ships (Restoration) 



SUPPLEMENTARY LESSONS 

Note to the Teacher. — These lessons are designed to meet the needs 
of those classes that wish a more extensive treatment of syntax than has been 
attempted in the previous lessons. They are so arranged that they may be 
taken up in connection with the previous lessons, or in any order that the 
teacher wishes. 

LESSON 71 
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. PRESENT AND PAST TIME 

413. Conditional sentences are complex sentences. They 
consist of two clauses, the condition (or protasis) introduced 
by " if," "if not," "unless," and the conclusion (or apodosis). 
For example : 

If it rains, I shall not go. 

If he had not seen me, I should have gone. 

You will not do this unless I command you. 

Observe that a condition may be expressed in English 
without using "if," "if not," "unless," by merely placing 
the subject after the verb in the condition. For example : 

Had he not seen me, I should have gone. 

414. Various classifications of conditional sentences are 
possible, but for convenience they will be considered as 
follows : 

I. Conditions referring to prcsettt or past time. 

1. Simple. 

2. Contrary to Fact. 

196 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 197 

II. Conditions referring to future time. 

1. Vivid Future. 

2. Less Vivid Future. 

415. Simple Condition 
Examine the following : 

1. Si hoc faciunt, bene est, if tJicy are doing this, it is zvell. 

2. Si hoc fecerunt, bene fuit, if they did this, it %vas well. 

Observe 

a. That the condition (or protasis) does not imply whether 

the statement is true or not, i.e. whether " they did 
this " or not ; it merely makes a supposition. 

b. That the present or past tenses of the indicative are 

used in both condition and conclusion. 

416. Contrary-to-fact Conditions 
Examine the following : 

1. Si hoc facerent, bene esset, if tJiey 2vere{now) doing this, 

it would be well. 

2. Si hoc fecissent, bene fuisset, if they had done this, it 

zvould have been ivell. 

Observe 

a. That the condition (or protasis) makes a supposition 

that is obviously contrary to the actual facts of the 
case ; i.e. the first sentence implies that they are not 

. now doing this, and the second sentence, that they 

' had not done this. 

b. That the imperfect subjunctive is used in both condition 

and conclusion, when the time is present, and the 
pluperfect subjunctive, when the time is past. 



198 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

417. EXERCISES 

(In these and the succeeding exercises, the student should use the general 
vocabularies whenever it is necessary.) 

I. I. Si meus amicus Romae est, laetus sum. 2. Si 
Helvetii acrius Romanis restitissent, non victi essent. 3. Si 
adesset, exire Roma parati essemus. 4. Laetus fuit pater, 
si quis llberos laudavit. 5. Caesar, si accedere hostes arbi- 
tratus esset, aciem instruxisset. 6. Plures Gallorum occlsl 
essent, 'si nostrl celerius consecuti essent. 7. Si imperator 
esses, daresne proell committendl signum .'' 

II. I. If they had been at home, I should have been 
glad. 2. I am glad, if they are at home. 3. If anything 
happened, it was reported to the general. 4. That soldier 
would leave the battle, if he were not a brave man. 5. Who 
would not have done the same thing, had he been present } 
6. If the general commands, the soldiers obey him. 7. If 
you were in Rome, should you wish to be a soldier ? 

LESSON 72 
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (Continued). FUTURE TIME 

418. Vivid Future Conditions 

Examine the following : 

Si hoc facient, bene erit, (f tJicy do this (i.e. zvill do this), it 
tui/l be well. 

Observe 

a. That the condition (or protasis) states a future sup'posi- 

tion vividly or strongly {i.e. by using " will "). 

b. That the future indicative is used in both condition and 

conclusion. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



199 



c. That the present tense in English may often refer to 
future time {i.e. " if they do this " means " if they 
will do this "). 

419. Less Vivid Future Conditions 

Examine the following : 

Si hoc faciant, bene sit, if tlicy should do this, it ivoitld be 
well. 

Observe 

a. That the condition (or protasis) here states a future 

supposition in a less distinct and vivid fashion {i.e. 
by using "should" or "would"). 

b. That the present subjunctive is used in both condition 

and conclusion. 

420. Summary of Conditions 

I. Present or Past Time. 

. Simple. Present or past tenses of the 

indicative in both parts. 
, Contrary to Fact. 

a. Present time — imperfect subjunc- 
Classes of tive in both parts. 

Conditional -' ^- P^st time — pluperfect subjunctive 

Sentences in both parts. ' 

II. Future Time. 

1. Vivid Future — Future indicative in both 
parts. 

2. Less Vivid Future — Present subjunctive 
in both parts. 

421. It has been explained in 311, 5, 315, 2, and 316 
that the condition (or protasis) may be expressed by the 
participle without the use of si or nisi. For example : 



200 ■ ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Principes Gallorum victi Romam mittentur, the chiefs of the 
Gauls, if they are conquered (literally, having been 
conquered^ will be sent to Rome. 

422. EXERCISES 

I. I. Si equites consequentur, magnum hostium numerum 
Occident. 2. Si equites c5nsequantur, magnum hostium 
numerum occldant. 3. Caesare imperatore, numquam ter- 
rebimur. 4. Helvetii flumen Rhodanum transiissent, nisi 
Caesar in Galliam contendisset. 5. Obsides llberati domum 
redeant, 6. Incolae, armis traditis, sese defendere n5n 
poterunt. 7. Si hostes flumen transeant, nostri non con- 
sequantur. 

II. I. If we should go to Athens, we should see many 
beautiful buildings. 2. If we go to Athens, we shall see 
many beautiful buildings. 3. Had the Helvetii tried to 
cross the river, Caesar would have prohibited them. 4. If 
Labicnus hurries, he will be able to seize the top of the 
hill. 5. If Caesar should attack that town, the inhabitants 
would not be able to defend it. 6. If you were in the 
town, you would be alarmed at Caesar's approach. 7. Who 
will be afraid, if the town has been well fortified ? 

LESSON 73 
WISHES 

423. Wishes may be divided into two classes : 

I. Those that refer to the future, and express a desire 
for something that \s> possible. For example : 

May my friend come ! 

Would that my friend would come ! 

O that my friend would come ! 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 20I 

Observe that the above expressions are different ways 
of expressing the same desire. 

II. Those that refer to present or past time, and that 
wish for something which (it is impHed) is not or was not 
attained. They are, therefore, sometimes called hopeless 
wishes. For example : 

, ] referring to present 

that my friend were here ! .• j • i 

, ■' r . ■, ^ .1 time, and imply- 

1 wish (that) my friend were here ! ' 

Would that my friend were here ! 



ing that he is not 
here. 



that my friend had been here ! 

1 wish (that) my friend had been here ! 
Would that my friend had been here ! 



referring to past 
time, and imply- 
ing that he was 
not here. 



424. Examine the following : 

1. Utinam meus amicus veniat, maj my friciid come ! (pos- 

sible). 

2. Utinam meus amicus adesset, would that my friend were 

here ! (hopeless in present time, implying that he is 
not here). 

3. Utinam meus amicus adfuisset, O that my friend had 

been Jiere ! (hopeless in past time, implying that he 
was not here). 

Observe 

a. That the subjunctive is used to express a wish. 

b. That the present subjunctive expresses a wish that is 

possible, and that the imperfect subjunctive expresses 
a wish that is hopeless in present time, and the plu- 
perfect in past time. 
e. That hopeless wishes employ the same mood and tenses 
as contrary-to-fact conditions (416). 



202 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Utinam is often omitted with the present tense, but is 
regularly used with the imperfect or pluperfect. The 
negative is ne. 

425. Rule of Syntax. — Wishes are expressed by the sub- 
junctive, zuith or without utinam. 

426. EXERCISES 

I. I. Utinam ne Galli coniurationem fecissent ! 2. Miles 
e proeli5 ne discedat ! 3. Utinam hoc f acerent ! 4. Hel- 
vetil dixerunt, " Utinam ne altissimis montibus contine- 
remur ! " 5. Utinam ne GermanI populo R5mano bellum 
intulissent ! 6. Utinam Romam veniamus ! 

II. I. May he always obey the general! 2. I wish we 
had gone to Athens ! 3. Would that we were with Caesar 
in Gaul! 4. O that he had not persuaded me! 5. May 
we be killed, if ^ we surrender our arms ! 6. Would that 
we were able to go with you ! 

LESSON 74 
INDIRECT DISCOURSE. COMPLEX SENTENCES 

427. Review 327-330, 349. When a complex sentence 
is quoted indirectly, its principal or main verb follows the 
rule stated in 329. Its dependent verb follows this law : 

Each dependent verb becomes subjunctive. Its tense 
depends upon the tense of the introductory verb of saying, 
thinking, etc., in accordance with the principle of sequence 
of tenses (374). 

428. Pronouns in Indirect Discourse. — In changing from 
direct to indirect discourse, pronouns of the first and 

1 if we . . . ai-ins : see 315, 2. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 203 

second persons are generally changed to pronouns of the 
third person. The reflexive pronouns refer sometimes to 
the subject of the introductory verb, and sometimes to the 
subject of the verb of their own clause. 

429. Examine the following : 

DiRFXT Discourse Indirect Discourse 

Present Time 

Vir quern video meus amicus Dicitvirum quern videatsuum 
est, tJie man zvJiom I see is amicum esse, Jic says that 
my friend. the man whom he sees is 

his friend. 

Past Time 

Dixit virum quern videret 
suum amicum esse, he 
said that the inaji zvhom 
he sazv was his friend. 
Observe • 

a. That the main verb est becomes esse with its subject 

virum in the accusative. 

b. That the dependent (or subordinate) verb video becomes 

present subjunctive, videat, when the introductory 
verb, dicit, is a primary tense, and imperfect subjunc- 
tive, videret, when the introductory verb, dixit, is a 
secondary tense. 

c. That the person of the dependent verb changes to the 

third person, and that meus becomes suum, because it 
refers to the subject of the introductory verb. 

430. Rule of Syntax. — In ijidirect disanirse the main 
verbs are in the infinitive zvitJi subjeet aecusative, and 
the subordinate {or dependent^ verbs are in the subjunc- 
tive. 



204 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

431. EXERCISES 

I. I. Mllites quos mecum habul fortissimi fuerunt. 

2. Dixit mllites quos secum habuisset fortissimos fuisse. 

3. Ubi ad nostrum exercitum pervenimus, milites castra 
muniebant. 4. Dicunt mllites, ubi ad suum exercitum per- 
venerint, castra munivisse. 5. Caesar dLxit suos flumen, 
quod 1 altissimum esset, transTre n5n posse. 6. Ariovistus 
Caesarl dixit, " Volo de his rebus, quae inter nos agl^ 
coeptae neque perfectae sunt, agere^ tecum." 7. Ario- 
vistus Caesarl dixit se velle de his rebus, quae inter eos 
agi coeptae neque perfectae essent, agere cum eo. 

II. I. The river that we see is very wide. 2. They 
said that the river that they saw was very wide. 3. The 
lieutenant is frightened because the enemy are approaching. 

4. Write 3 indirectly in Latin after audio. 5. When I 
arrived, I saw my friend. 6. Write 5 indirectly in Latin 
after dixit. 7. Ariovistus replied that those who have con- 
quered ought to rule^ those whom they have conquered. 

LESSON 75 

IMPERSONAL USE OF VERBS. SUPINE. DIFFERENT 
WAYS OF EXPRESSING PURPOSE 

432. Verbs are said to be used impersonally when they 
do not have a personal subject. This impersonal use is 
more common in Latin than in English. There are some 
verbs in Latin that are used only impersonally, while others 
are used both personally and impersonally. 

Examples 

Acriter pugnatum est, the battle was fought sharply, or thej'e 
was sharp fighting- {\\\.QrQ.\\y, it was sharp/y foughty 

1 because. ^ ago, treat. ^ impero. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



205 



Vos hoc facere oportet, you ought to do this (literally, it is 
proper that you do this). 

Vobis hoc facere licet, you may do this (literally, it is per- 
mitted to you to do this). 

433. The supine is a verbal noun of the fourth declen- 
sion, and has forms only in -um and -u. These forms are 
used only in the following constructions : 

Legati venerunt Caesarem gratulatum, ambassadors came to 
cono-ratuhite Caesar. 

o 

Hoc diflacile est factu, tJiis is difficult to do. 

The supine in -um is used to express purpose only after 
verbs of motion, and the supine in -u is used with a few 
adjectives and indeclinable nouns. 

434. Various Ways of Expressing Purpose 

Review 351, 364, 406, 3. Are there several ways of 
expressing purpose in English ? 



Helvetii legatos 
miserunt 



Milites mittun- 
tur 



Examples 

ut pacem peterent, 
qui pacem peterent, 
pacis petendae causa, i- 
ad pacem petendam, 
pacem petitum, 

ad pugnandum, 
pugnandi causa. 



tJic Helvetii sent am- 
bassadors to seek 
peaee. 

the soldiers are sent 
to fight. 



435. Rule of Syntax. — TJie supine in -um is used to 
express purpose after verbs of motion. 

436. EXERCISES 

I. I. Hoc est mirabile dictu. 2. Ariovistus respondit, 
" Te ad me venire oportet." 3. Principes Gallorum ad 



206 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Caesarem venerunt auxilium petltum. 4. Si volimt, els ex 
oppido exire licet. 5. In utram partem ^ flumen Arar fluat 
oculls iudicarl n5n potest. 6. Helvetil rogant ut iter per 
provinciam sibi facere liceat. 7. Gall! coniurationem f acere 
dicuntur. 8. Gallos coniurationem facere dicitur.^ 

II. I. He went to Rome to ^ see his daughters. 2. This 
is easier to say than to do. 3. We ought to obey the gen- 
eral. 4. There is sharp fighting on the right wing. 5. The 
soldiers may go to Rome*. 6. It was reported that the 
enemy were returning home. 

LESSON jG 
PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS 

437. The first or active periphrastic conjugation is formed 
by the future active participle and verb sum. It is future 
in its meaning, and expresses the idea conveyed in English 
by the phrases "about to," "going to," "intend to." For 
example : 

Laudaturus est, he is about to praise, or is going to pj-aise, 
or intends to praise. 

For all forms of this conjugation, see 504. 

It has been noticed that there is no future or future per- 
fect tense in the subjunctive. The subjunctive of the first 
periphrastic conjugation may be used in their place. For 
example : 

Scio quem visurus sit, / knozv zv/ioni Jic is going to see, or 
whom he zuill see. 

438. The second or passive periphrastic conjugation is 
formed by the gerundive and the verb sum. It is passive 

^ direction, 2 j( (^ said, ^ (o . , . daughters : express in four ways. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 207 

in its meaning, and expresses the idea of obligation or 
necessity. For example : 

Laudandus est, Jic ought to be praised, or he must be praised 
(literally, he is to be praised\ 

For all forms of this conjugation, see 505. 

439. Uses of the Passive Periphrastic Conjugation 

1. The person for whom the obligation or necessity exists 

is expressed by the dative. 

2. Since the conjugation is passive, all active English sen- 

tences must be recast before they are the equivalent 
literally of this Latin construction. Thus : " I must 
do this " = " For me this is to be done," id mihi 
agendum est. 

3. Intransitive verbs are used impersonally in this conju- 

gation in Latin. Thus: "We ought to come," nobis 
veniendum est. 

Examples 

Urbs est munienda, tJie city must be fortified. 

Nobis fortiter pugnandum est, we ought to (or must) fight 

bravely (literally, /i^r ns it is to be fought bravely\ 
Caesari omnia erant agenda, Caesar had to do everything 

(literally, yi?;' Caesar everything zuas to be done\ 

440. EXERCISES 

L I. Visurl eramus ; amatura f uit ; moniturae erant. 
2. Nobis cum Gallls bellum gerendum est. 3. Incolae 
oppidi eruptionem erant facturl. 4. Caesari omnia uno 
tempore agenda erant ; acies Instruenda, signum dandum, 
mllites ab opere revocandl erant. 5. Si victur! sumus, nobis 
fortissime contendendum erit. 6. Sciebam quid vos facturl 



208 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

essetis. 7. Sciebam quid vos faceretis. 8. Incolis qiilnque 
dies oppidum defendendum fuit. 

II. I. We intend to go to Rome. 2. They were about 
to fortify the top of the hill. 3. They must fortify the 
camp. 4. It was reported to Caesar that the Gauls were 
about to attack him. 5. We ought to hurry to the city. 
6. Labienus had to cross the river. 7. Caesar asked who 
was going to remain with him. 8. The ambassadors will 
have to answer. 



SELECTIONS FOR READING 

STORIES 1 FROM ROMAN HISTORY 

441. Early Boyhood of Romulus and Remus 

Proca, rex Albanorum, Numitorem et Amulium flHos 
habuit. Numitorl, qui natu maior erat, regnum rellquit ; 
sed Amulius, pulsd^ fratre, regnavit et Rheam Silviam, 
eius flliam, Vestae sacerdatem fecit, quae^ tamen Romulum 
et Remum geminos edidit. Quare Amulius ipsam in vincula 5 
coniecit, parvulos alveo impositds* abiecit in Tiberim, qui 
tunc forte super ripas erat effusus ; sed, relabente fiumine, 
eos aqua in sicco rellquit. Vastae turn in ils locis s5litu- 
dines erant. Lupa ad vagltum accurrit, matremque^ se 
gessit. 1° 

Cum lupa saepius*' ad parvulos veluti ad catulos re- 
verteretur, Faustulus, pastor regius, re animadversa eos 
tulit in casam et Accae Larentiae coniugl dedit. Adultl" 
deinde hi inter pastores primo ludicrls^ certaminibus vires ^ 
auxerunt, deinde venando saltus peragrare et latrones a 15 

1 These stories are from the traditional accounts of Rome's early history. 
Little faith should be put in them as a true historical record, at least as far as 
details are concerned. 2 puls5 (pello) fratre, abl. absolute, after he had 
driven out his brother. ^ hut she. * See 311, 7. impositos abiecit : translate 
as if they were two coordmated verbs, imposuit et abiecit. ^ matremque se 
gessit, acted like a mother. « very often. '' adulti (adolescd), when grozun 
(literally, having grown). ^ iQdicris certaminibus, 7vith playful contests. • 
® From VIS ; do not confuse with vir, viri. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — I4 209 



210 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

pecoribus arcere coeperunt. Quare cum iis Insidiatl essent 
latrones, Remus captus est, Rdmulus vi se defendit. Tum 
Faustulus indicavit Romul5 quis esset^ eorum avus, quae 
mater. Romulus statim armatis pastdribus Albam ^ pro- 
5 peravit. 

442. The Founding of Rome 

Interea Remum latrones ad Amulium regem perduxe- 
runt, eum accusantes quasi ^ Numitoris agros Infestare 
solitus esset; itaque Remus a rege Numitori ad suppli- 
cium traditus est ; at Numitor, adulescentis vultum con- 

10 siderans, baud ^ procul erat quin nepotem agndsceret. 
Nam Remus oris llneamentls^ erat matrl simillimus aetas- 
que expositionis temporibus congruebat. Ea res dum 
Numitoris animum anxium tenet,^ repente Romulus su- 
pervenit, fratrem llberat, avum Numitdrem in regnum 

15 restituitJ 

Deinde Romulus et Remus urbem in ilsdem locis, ubi 
expositi ubique educati erant, condiderunt^ ; sed orta inter 
eos contcnti5ne, uter ^ n5men novae urbl daret ^^ eamque 
regeret, auspicia decreverunt ^^ adhibere. Remus prior sex 

20 vultures, Romulus postea duodecim vidit. Sic Romulus, 
victor augurio, urbem R5mam vocavit. Ad novae urbis 
tutelam sufficere vallum videbatur. Cuius ^^ angustias 
inrldens cum Remus saltu id traiecisset, eum Iratus^^ Ro- 
mulus interfecit, his increpans verbis : " Sic deinde, qul- 

25cumque alius transiliet moenia mea ! " Ita s5lus potitus 
est imperio ^^ Romulus. 

1 For mood and tense, see 369-374. ^ See 231. ^ on the grotmd that. 
* haud . . . agnosceret, came very near recognizing his grandson. ^ See 157. 
6 dum, 7i'kile, regularly takes the pres. ind. where the English uses the imper- 
fect ; translate " was keeping.'^ '' restituo. ^ condo. ^ as to which of the 
t'MO. ^^ Why subjunctive ? ^^ decemo. ^'^ its. i^ ^^ anger. " For case, 
see 337. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 211 

443. Romulus, First King of the Romans 

War with the Sabines 

Romulus imaginem urbis magis quam urbem fecerat; 
incolae deerant. Erat in ^ proximo lucus ; hunc asylum 
fecit. Et statim eo mira vls^ latronum pastorumque confu- 
git. Cum vero uxores ipse populusque non haberent, 
legates circa viclnas gentes misit, qui societatem conu- 5 
biumque novo populo peterent.^ Nusquam benigne audita 
legatio est; ludibrium etiam additum : "Cur non feminis 
quoque asylum aperuistis ? Id enim compar foret^ c5nu- 
bium." Romulus, aegritudinem animi dissimulans, ludos 
parat ; indlcl ^ deinde f Initimis spectaculum iubet. Multi 10 
convenerunt studio videndae novae urbis, maxime Sablnl 
cum llberls et coniugibus. Ubi spectacull tempus venit 
eoque ^ conversae mentes " cum oculis erant, tum signo 
dato iuvenes RomanI discurrunt, virgines rapiunt.^ 

Haec f uit statim causa belli. Sablnl enim ob virgines 15 
raptas^ bellum adversus Romanos sumpserunt, et cum 
Romae approplnquarent, Tarpeiam virginem nacti sunt,^*' 
quae aquam forte extra moenia petltum ^^ ierat. Huius 
pater Romanae praeerat arcl. Titus Tatius, Sablnorum 
dux, Tarpeiae optionem muneris dedit, si ^^ exercitum suum 20 
in Capit5lium perduxisset. Ilia petilt quod Sablnl in sini- 
stris manibus gererent,^^ videlicet aureos anul5s et armillas. 
Quibus dolose pr5missls, Tarpeia Sablnos in arcem per- 

1 in proximo, Jiear by. 2 ntiinber. ^ See 364. * = esset, zvoald l>e. •' Pres. 
pass, infin. of indico, to be announced. ^ eo = in spectaculum. " mentes cum 
oculis, minds and eyes alike (literally, minds zvit/i eyes). ^ The connective, et, 
is often omitted in rapid historical narrative. ^ ob virgines raptas, on account 
of the seizure of the maidens (literally, on account of the seized ?naidens'). 
^'' nanciscor. 11 Supine to denote purpose ; see 438. 12 gj _ _ perdiixisset, 
if she would lead, ^^ wore. 



212 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

duxit, ubi Tatius scutis earn ^ obrul iussit ; nam et^ ea in 
laevis habuerant. Sic impia proditio celerl poena vindi- 
cata est. 

444. Romulus, First King of the Romans 

Peace with the Sabines. Death of Romulus 

Deinde Romulus ad certamen pr5cessit, et in eo loco ubi 
5 nunc Romanum Forum est pugnam conseruit. Primo 
impetu vir inter Romanos Insignis, nomine Hostilius, for- 
tissime dimicans ^ cecidit*; quare RomanI fugere coepe- 
runt. lam Sablnl clamitabant: " Vicimus perfidos hospites,^ 
imbelles hostes. Nunc sciunt longe^ aliud esse virgines 

lorapere, aliud pugnare cum virls." Tunc Romulus, arma ad 
caelum tollens, lovl aedem vovit, et exercitus restitit.'^ 
Itaque proelium redintegratur ; sed raptae mulieres ausae 
sunt se inter tela volantia inferre et hinc patres, hinc viros 
orantes,^ pacem conciliaverunt. 

15 Romulus Sabinos in urbem recepit et regnum cum 
Tatio sociavit. Verum baud ita multo post, occlso Tatio, 
ad Romulum potentatus omnis recidit. Centum deinde ex 
senioribus elegit, quos senatores nominavit propter senectu- 
tem, Tres equitum centurias constituit, populum in tri- 

20 ginta curias distribuit. His ita ordinatis, cum ad ^ exercitum 
lustrandum c5nti6nem in campo haberet, subit5 coorta est 
tempestas et Romulus e conspectu ablatus est.^*^ Ad deos 
transTsse vulgo creditus est.^^ Aedes in colle Quirinali 
Rdmulo ^^ constituta, ipse pro de5 cultus ^^ et Quirlnus est 

25 appellatus. 

1 earn obrui iussit, ordered her to be buried. ^ gt gg^ ///«^ also. ^ tvhile 
fighting. * cado. ^ hosts. ^ longe aliud esse . . . aliud, that it is one 
thing . . . quite another. ' resisto, held its ground. ^ by beseeching. ^ See 
406, 3. 1'^ aufero. ^^ creditus est, he was believed, '^'^ in honor of Romu- 
lus, 13 (;()1q_ 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 21 3 

445. NuMA PoMPiLius, Second King of the Romans 

(716-673 B.C.) 

Successit R5mul5 Numa Pompilius, vir incluta iustitia^ 
et religione. Is Curibus,^ ex oppido Sabinorum, accTtus 
est. Qui cum Romam venisset, ut populum ferum religione 
mitigaret, ^cra plurima instituit. Aram Vestae consecra- 
vit, et ignem in ara perpetuo alendum ^ virginibus dedit. 5 
Flaminem * lovis sacerdotem creavit eumque Inslgnl veste 
et curuli sella adornavit. Dicitur quondam ipsum lovem e 
cael5 elicuisse. Hic, ingentibus fulminibus in urbem demis- 
sis, descendit in nemus Aventlnum, ubi Numam docuit qui- 
bus sacrls f ulmina essent ^ procuranda, et praeterea imperi 10 
carta pignora populo Romano daturum se esse promlsit. 
Numa laetus rem popul5 nuntiavit. Postrldie omnes ad 
aedes^ regias convenerunt silentesque exspectabant quid 
futurum esset. Atque sole ort5' delabitur e caelo scu- 
tum, quod ancTle appellavit Numa. Id ne furto auferrl 15 
posset, Mamurium fabrum undecim scuta eadem forma ^ 
fabricare iussit. Duodecim autem Salios Martis sacer- 
dotes legit, qui ancllia, secreta ilia imperi pignora, 
CListodlrent. 

446. Numa Pompilius, Second King of the Romans 

Annum in duodecim menses ad cursum lunae Numa 
Pompilius descrlpsit ; nefastos ^ fastosque dies fecit ; portas 20 
land ^^ gemind aedificavit ut esset index pacis et belli ; nam 

1 For case, see 303. 2 Curibus . . . Sabinorum, from Cures, a /own 
of the Sahines ; why is the prep, omitted with Curibus ? "^ to he kept. 
* Flaminem . . z\€k^\\., he appointed a priest as flamen for Jupiter. ^assent 
procuranda, should be averted. ^ aedes regias, the palace. "^ sole orto 
(orior), at sunrise. ^ eadem forma : see 303. ^ nefast5s . . . fecit, he 
made a distinction between business days and sacred days. ^'^ lano gemino, 
in honor of two-headed /anus. 



214 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

apertus,^ in armis esse civitatem, clausus, pacatos circa 
omnes popul5s, significabat. 

Leges quoque plurimas et utiles tulit Numa. Ut ver5 
maiorem institutls suis auctoritatem conciliaret, simulavit 
ssibi^ cun> dea Egeria esse conloquia nocturna eiusque^ 
monitu se omnia quae ageret facere. Lucus erat, quem * 
medium fons perenni^ rigabat aqua; eo saepe Numa 
sine arbitrls se inferebat, velut ad congressum deae; ita 
omnium animos ea^ pietate imbuit, ut fides ac iusiurandum 

lonon minus quam legum et poenarum metus elves conti- 
neret. Bellum quidem nullum gessit, sed non minus civitati 
profuit quam Romulus. Morbo exstinctus in laniculo 
monte sepultus " est. Ita duo deinceps reges, ille bell5, hic 
pace, civitatem auxerunt. Romulus septem et trlginta 

15 regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadraginta. 

447, MUCIUS SCAEVOLA 
(507 B.C.) 

Cum Porsena Romam obsideret, Mucins, vir Romanae 
constantiae, senatum adilt et veniam ^ transfugiendi petiit, 
necem regis repromittens. Accepta potestate^ cum in 
castra Porsenae venisset, ibi in confertissima turba prope 
20 tribunal constitit.^'' Stipendium tunc forte militibus dabatur 
et scriba cum rege pari fere ornatu sedebat. Mucins, Igno- 
rans uter rex esset, ilium pr5 rege occldit. Apprehensus 
et ad regem pertractus ^^ dextram accenso ^^ ad sacrificium 
foculo iniecit, velut manum puniens, quod in caede peccas- 

^ Agrees with lanus understood, subject of significabat, when opened, 
2 sibi esse, that he had : why is sibi dative ? ^ eiusque monitii, at her sug- 
gestion. * quem medium, the middle of which. '" perenni aqua : see 303. 
^ ea pietate, with such piety. '' sepelio. ^ veniam transfugiendi, per- 
mission to go o-rr (to the enemy), ^privilege. ^' consisto. 1^ pertraho. 
12 accens5 foculo, in a brazier that was hurtling. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 21 5 

set. Attonitus miraculo rex iuvenem amoveri ab altaribus 
iussit. Turn Mucins, quasi beneficium remunerans, ait 
trecentos adversus eum sul ^ similes coniuravisse. Qua re 
ille territus bellum acceptis obsidibus deposuit. Mucio 
prata trans Tiberim data, ab eo Mucia appellata. Statuas 
quoque el hondris gratia constituta est. 

448. PuBLius Decius 

(343 B.C.) 

P. Decius, Valeric^ Maximo et Cornelio Cosso consuli- 
bus, tribunus mllitum fuit. Exercitu R5mano in angus- 
tiis Gaurl mentis clause Decius editum collem conspexit 
imminentem hostium castrls. Accept5 praesidio verticem^ 10 
occupavit, hostes terruit, consul! spatium dedit ad subdu- 
cendum agmen in aequidrem locum. Ipse, coUe quem 
insederat undique armatis circumdato, intempesta nocte 
per** medias hostium custodias somno oppressas incolumis^ 
evasit. Qua re ab exercitu donatus est cor5na civica, quae 15 
dabatur ei quT^ cTves in bell5 servasset. C5nsul fuit bello 
Latino cum Manli5 Torquato. H5c bello cum'' utrlque 
consull somni5 obvenisset, eos victores futures, quorum 
dux in proelio cecidisset, convenit inter eos ut,^ utrlus 
cornu ^ in acie laboraret, is dils se Manibus devoveret. 20 
Inclinante sua parte Decius se et hostes dils Manibus 
dev5vit. Armatus in equum Insiluit ac se in medios hostes 
immisit ; corruit obrutus tells et victoriam suls rellquit. 

1 Refers to Mucius. ^ Valerio . . . consulibus, in the consulship of, etc., 
abl. absolute ; see 316. '^ the summit of the hill. * per . . . custodias, 
through the midst of the enemy's pickets. ^ safely. ^ because. "^ Cum . . . 
obvenisset ; when the two consuls had dreamed (literally, when it had come 
to each of the two consuls by a dream'). ^ ut . . . devoveret is subject of 
convenit ; translate " it was agreed among them that he whose (utrius), etc., 
should,'''' etc. ^ Nominative. 



2l6 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

449. Gaius Duilius 

(260 B.C.) 

I. Gaius Duilius Poenos navali pugna primus ^ devlcit. 
Qui cum videret naves Romanas a Punicis velocitate 
superarl, manus^ ferreas, machinam ad comprehendendas 
hostium naves tenendasque utilem, excogitavit. Quae 

smanus^ ubi hostllem apprehenderant navem, superiecto 
ponte transgrediebatur Romanus^ et in ipsorum ratibus 
comminus dimicabant, undo'' R5manls, qui robore prae- 
stabant, facilis victoria fuit. Celeriter sunt expugnatae 
naves Punicae triginta, mersae^ tredecim. 

10 Duilius victor Roniam reversus primus navalem trium- 
phum egit. Nulla victoria Romanis gratior fuit, quod 
invictl^ terra iam etiam marl plurimum ^ possent. Itaque 
Dullio^ concessum est, ut per omnem vltam praelucente 
funali et praecinente tiblcine a cena rediret. 

15 II. Hannibal, dux classis Punicae, e navl quae iam 
capiebatur, in scapham saltu se demittens Romanorum 
manus eff ugit. Veritus autem ne in patria classis ^ amissae 
poenas daret, civium odium astutia avertit, nam ex ilia 
InfelicI pugna priusquam cladis nuntius domum pervenlret 

2oquendam ex amicis Carthaginem misit. Qui postquam 
curiam intravit, " Consulit " ^" inquit " vos Hannibal, cum 
dux Romanorum magnis copils maritimis Instructis ad- 
venerit, num cum eo confllgere debeat ? " Acclamavit 
universus senatus non esse dubium quin ^^ cdnfligl oporte- 

^ primus devicit, 7uas the first to conquer. ^ manus ferreas, grappling 
irons. ^ the Romans, a collective noun. ■* and as a consequence. 
^ mergo. '" invicti terra, victorious on land. "^ plurimum possent, they 
were supreme. ^ Duilio COncessum est ut, etc., Duilius ivas allowed to, etc, 
9 classis amissae, /or /o^/;?^//;^/^^/. 1° Consulit . . . vos . . . n\xxa., asks 
your advice as to whether. ^1 that. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 217 

ret. Turn ille " ConflLxit " inquit " et superatus est." Ita 
non potuerunt factum damnare, quod ipsi fieri debuisse 
iudicaverant. Sic Hannibal victus crucis supplicium 
effugit: nam eo poenae genere dux re male gesta apud 
Poenos adficiebatur. 5 



450. Appius Claudius Pulcher 

(249 B.C.) 

Appius Claudius, vir stultae temeritatis, consul adversus 
Poenos profectus pri5rum ducum c5nsilia palam repre- 
hendebat seque, quo ^ die hostem vidisset, bellum confectu- 
rum esse iactitabat. Qui cum, antequam navale proelium 
committeret, auspicia^ haberet pullariusque ei nuntiasset, 10 
puUos non exire e cavea neque vesci, inrldens iussit eos in 
aquam mergi, ut saltern biberent, quoniam esse^ nollent. 
Ea res cum, quasi* iratis dils, mllites ad omnia segniores 
timidioresque fecisset, commisso proelio magna clades a 
Romanis accepta est : oct5 eorum miUia caesa sunt, 15 
viginti mlllia capta. Qua re Claudius postea a popul5 
condemnatus est damnationisque Ignominiam voluntaria 
morte praevenit. Ea res calamitati ^ f uit etiam Claudiae,^ 
consulis sor5ri : quae a ludls publicis revertens in con- 
ferta multitudine aegre procedente carpento, palam optavit 20 
ut frater suus Pulcher revlvlsceret atque iterum classem 
amitteret, qu5^ minor turba Romae foret.' Ob vocem 
illam impiam Claudia quoque damnata gravisque ^ ei dicta 
est multa. 

1 quo die, on the same day that. ^ auspicia haberet, was consulting the 
auspices. ^ Infinitive of edo, to eat. * quasi iratis diis, because {as they 
thought) the gods were angry. ^ See 294, 295. ^ quo, so that. ' esset. 
* gravisque . . . multa, and a heavy fine was im/>osed upon her. 



2l8 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

CAESAR. GALLIC WAR. BOOK II {Adapted) 

CHAPTER I 

451. The Belgae form a Confederacy against the 

Romans 

Dum Caesar in Gallia in hibernis est,^ omnes Belgae 
contra populum Romanum coniurabant obsidesque inter ^ 
se dabant. Coniurandl^ hae erant causae: primum nole- 
bant* nostrum exercitum ad se^ adducl,*^ deinde ab n5n- 

5 nullls Gallls sollicitabantur. Hi populi RomanI exercitum 
hiemare atque inveterascere in Gallia nolebant. Nonnulli 
mdbilitate et levitate animi novis "^ imperils studebant. Ab 
nonnullis etiam sollicitabantur, quod in Gallia a potentibus 
atque ab iL': qui conducere homines poterant ^ vulgo regna 

looccupabantur, qui minus facile earn rem imperio^ nostr5 
cdnsequi ^*^ poterant. 

CHAPTER II 

452. Caesar proceeds against the Belgae 

His nuntils litterlsque commotus est Caesar. Duas 
legiones in citeri5re ^^ Gallia novas conscripsit.^^ In in- 
teriorem ^^ Galliam cum his legionibus Quintum Pedium 
15 legatum misit. Ipse panels post ^* diebus ad exercitum 
venit. Senones, qui finitimi Belgis erant, ea quae apud 
Belgas geruntur c5gn6scunt, atque Caesarl omnes nunti- 
ant : " Manus coguntur, et exercitus in unum locum con- 
ducitur." Turn vero Caesar contendit ad eos proficlscl.^^ 

1 was. '^ inter se, each other (literally, behveen themselves). ^ of con- 
spiring. * From nolo. ^ thevi. •" Present passive infinitive, to be led. 
' novis imperiis, revolution. ^ Imperfect of possum. ^ imperio nostro, 
tinder our rule. '^^ to obtain. ^^ See map of Gaul, page lO. ^^ From con- 
scribo. ^3 tJig interior of. 1* after-wards. i'' to set out. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 219 

Itaque castra movet diebusque circiter quindecim ad fines 
Belgarum pervenit. 

CHAPTER III 

453. The Remi immediately submit to Caesar 

Eo ^ de improvlso celeriterque venit Caesar. Rem!, qui 
proximi Galliae ex^ Belgis sunt, ad eum legat5s Iccium et 
Audecumborium miserunt, qui dLxerunt, " Nos omnia in 5 
fidem atque in potestatem popull RomanI permittimus, 
neque contra populum Romanum coniuravimus. ParatI 
sumus obsides dare et tua imperata facere et te oppidfs^ 
recipere et frumento ceterisque rebus iuvare. ReliquI 
omnes Belgae in armls sunt. GermanT, qui cis Rhenum 10 
incolunt, sese cum his coniunxerunt.* Maximus est eoriim 
omnium furor, et n5n potuimus prohibere Suessiones, fratres 
c5nsanguine6sque nostros, cum his consentire.^ " 

CHAPTER IV 

454. Caesar learns from the Remi the Strength of 
THE Enemy's Forces 

Caesar ab his legatls sic reperiebat ; pler5sque Belgas 
esse ortos ab Germanis Rhenumque antlquitus traductds 15 
propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse Gall5sque expulisse, 
atque Teutonls^ Cimbrlsque intra fines suos ingredl^ pro- 
hibitls earum rerum^ memoria magnam auctoritateni sibi 
in re mllitarl sumere. De numero eorum omnia ^ se habere 

1 there, i.e. ad fines Belgarum. 2 gx Belgis, of the Belgae. ^ oppidis 
recipere = in oppida recipere. * From coniungo. '"from conspiring. 
^ Teutonis . . . prohibitis, abl. absolute, stating the reason or cause. 
''from entering. ^ deeds ; refers to repelling the Teutones and Cimbri. 
^ omnia explorata, ftdl information. 



220 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

explorata RemI dicebant. Plurimum inter eos Bellovacos, 
et virtute et auctoritate et hominum numerd posse ; hos 
posse conficere armata mlllia centum. Suessiones su5s 
esse finitimos ; latissimos feracissimosque agr5s possidere, 
5 Apud eos fuisse regem nostra etiam memoria ^ Diviciacum, 
t5tlus Galliae potentissimum : nunc esse regem Galbam ; 
ad 2 hunc propter iustitiam prudentiamque totius belli sum- 
mam omnium voluntate deferrl. 

CHAPTER V 
455- Caesar receives Hostages from the Remi and 

ENCAMPS ON THE BaNKS OF THE AxONA 

Caesar Remos cohortatus omnem senatum ad se con- 
10 venire principumque llberos obsides ad se adduci iussit. 
Quae omnia ab his dlligenter ad^ diem facta sunt. Ipse 
Diviciacum Haeduum magnopere cohortatus monet ut 
manus hostium distineantur. Id fieri potest, si suas copias 
Haedul in fines Bellovacorum introduxerint^ et eorum 
15 agros popular! coeperint. His mandatis eum ab se dimittit. 
Postquam omnes Belgarum copias in iinum locum coactas 
ad se venire neque iam longe abesse vidit, flumen Axonam 
exercitum traducere maturavit atque ibi castra posuit. 
Quae ^ res et latus unum castrorum ripis fluminis muniebat 
20 et quae^ post eum essent tuta ab hostibus reddebat. In 
e5 flumine pons erat. Ibi praesidium ponit et in altera 
parte fluminis Q. Titurium Sablnum legatum cum sex co- 
hortibus relinquit ; castra in altitudinem pedum duodecim 
valid fossaque duodevIgintT pedum munire iubet. 

1 Ablative of time within which. Why is memoria, 454, Hne 18, ablative ? 
2 on. ^ ad diem, to the very day. * Future perfect indicative. ^ Quae res, 
this position, i.e. crossing the river. ^ quae . . . essent, the rear. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 221 



CHAPTER VI 



456. The Belgae lay Siege to Bibrax, a Town of 

THE Remi 

Ab his castrls oppidum Remorum ndmine Bibrax aberat 
millia passuum oct5. Id ex itinere magno impetu Belgae 
oppugnare coeperunt. Aegre eo die sustentatum ^ est. 
Gall5rum atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec. Circum- 
iecta multitudine hominum totis moenibus ^ undique in 5 
murum lapides iaci coeptl sunt. Ubi mums defensori- 
bus nudatus est, testudine^ facta portas succedunt murum- 
que subruunt. Quod turn facile flebat. Nam cum tanta 
multitude lapides ac tela conicerent, in murd consistendl 
potestas erat nullL'* Cum finem oppugnandi nox fecisset, 10 
Iccius Remus, qui tum oppido praefuerat, nuntium ad eum 
mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submittatur, sese diutius sustinere 
n5n posse.^ 

CHAPTER VII 

457. The Belgae abandon the Siege of Bibrax 

Eo de media nocte Caesar Tsdem ^ ducibus usus " qui 
nuntii ab Iccio venerant, Numidas et Cretas sagittarios et 15 
funditores Baleares subsidio ^ oppidanis mittit; quorum 
adventu hostibus spes potiundl oppidi discessit. Itaque 
paulisper apud oppidum morati agrosque Remorum de- 
populatl, multls vicTs aedificilsque incensTs, ad castra Cae- 
saris omnibus c5piis contenderunt et ab^ mlllibus passuum 20 

^ sustentatum est, the attack was sustained (literally, it zvas sustained). 
2 Why dative ? See 394. ^ This was done by placing the shields over the 
heads of the soldiers. ■* Dative of possession. ^ Infinitive in indirect dis- 
course after the idea of saying implied in nuntium mittit. ® isdem 
ducibus, t/te same persons as guides. '' using. ^ For construction, see 294, 
295. ^ An adverb, azvay, off. 



222 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

minus duobus castra posuerunt ; quae castra ut ^ fumo 
atque ignibus slgnificabatur, amplius miUibus passuum oct5 
in latitudinem patebant, 

CHAPTER VIII 

458. Description of Caesar's Camp. He awaits the 
Attack of the Belgae 

Caesar propter multitudinem hostium et propter oplnio- 
5nem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit, cottidie tamen 
equestribus proelils quid ^ hostis virtute posset et quid nos- 
trl auderent perlclitabatur.^ Nostros non esse inferiores 
intellexit. Locus pr5 castrls ad aciem instruendam erat 
natura id5neus, quod is collis, ubi castra posita erant, pau- 
lolulum ex planitie editus tantum* adversus in latitudinem 
patebat quantum loci acies Instructa occupare poterat. Ab^ 
utroque latere eius collis transversam fossam obduxit cir- 
citer passuum quadringentorum et ad^ extremas fossas 
castella constituit ibique tormenta conlocavit, ne, cum 
15 aciem Instruxisset, hostes ab^ lateribus pugnantes suos 
circumvenire possent. Hoc facto, duabus legionibus quas 
proxime conscrlpserat in castrls relictis, reliquas sex legiones 
pro castrls in acie constituit. Hostes item suas copias ex 
castris eductas" Instruxerant. 

CHAPTER IX 

459. The Belgae try to cross the Axona 

20 Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium exer- 
citum. Hanc si nostri translrent hostes exspectabant^; 

1 as ; ut with the indicative means " as " or " w/ien." ^ quid . . . posset, 
w/iai the enemy could do by their valor, ^ he tried to ascertain. ■* tantum 
patebat quantum loci, spread over as much space as. ^ on. " ad extremas 
fossas, at the ends of the trendies. '' See 31 1, 7. ^ ivere waiting to see. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 223 

nostrl autem, si ab illls initium transeundi fieret, ut^ 
impedltos aggrederentur, parati in armis erant. Interim 
proelio equestrl inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi 
neutrl transeundi initium faciunt, secundiore^ equitum 
proelid nostrls Caesar suos in castra reduxit. Hostess 
pr5tinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonam contenderunt, 
quod esse post nostra castra demonstratum est. Ibi 
partem suarum copiarum traducere c5natl sunt, ut, si 
possent, castellum, cui praeerat Quintus Titurius legatus, 
expugnarent pontemque interscinderent ; si minus ^ potu- 10 
issent, ut agros Rem5rum popularentur * commeatijque 
nostr5s prohiberent.* 

CHAPTER X 

460. The Belgae are defeated in the Battle that 

Follows 

Caesar omnem equitatum et funditores sagittariosque 
pontem traducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in e5 loco 
pugnatum est. Nostrl hostes impedltos in flumine aggressi 15 
magnum eorum numerum occiderunt ; reliquos per eorum 
corpora audacissime transire conantes multitudine telorum 
reppulerunt; prlmos, quitransierant.equitatu circumventos^ 
interfecerunt Hostes, ubi et de^ expugnando oppido et 
de flumine transeundo spem se fefellisse intellexeruntzo 
neque nostros in locum iniquiorem ' progredl pugnandl 
causa viderunt atque ubi ipsds res frumentaria deficere 

^ ut . . . aggrederentur, to attack, depending upon parati erant. ^ se- 
cundi5re . . . nostris, abl. absolute; since the cavalry battle was more favor- 
able to our men. ^ not. ^ These subjunctives also express the purpose of 
traducere conati sunt. ^ See 311, 7. ^de . . . spem se fefellisse, that 
they had been disappointed in the hope of . . . (literally, that hope had failed 
them about , . .). '' unfavorable. 



224 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

coepit, concilio convocato constituerunt optimum ^ esse 
domum suam quemque reverti ad su5s fines defendend5s, 
ut potius in suls quam in alienls finibus decertarent et 
domesticis c5piis rei frumentariae uterentur. Ad cam 
5 sententiam haec ratio ^ eos deduxit, quod Di viciacum atque 
Haeduos finibus Bellovacorum approplnquare cognoverant. 
Hls^ persuader! ut diutius morarentur neque suls auxilium 
ferrent non poterat. 

CHAPTER XI 

461. The Romans pursue the Belgae as they 
Disperse 

Ea re constituta secunda vigilia magno cum strepitu ac 

lotumultu castrls egress! nullo cert5 ordine neque imperio 

fecerunt* ut consimilis fugae profectio videretur. Hac re 

statim Caesar per speculatores cognita insidias veritus, 

quod qua ^ de causa discederent nondum perspexerat, exer- 

citum equitatumque castrls continuit. Prima luce, c5n- 

15 firmata re ab explorat5ribus, omnem equitatum, qu! 

novissimum agmen moraretur,^ praemlsit. Titum Labie- 

num legatum cum legionibus tribus subsequi iussit. Hi 

novissimos adorti et multa mlllia passuum prosecuti magnam 

multitudinem eorum fugientium conclderunt. 

20 Ita sine ull5 perlculo tantam eorum multitudinem nostrl 

interfecerunt quantum*^ fuit die! spatium, sub occasumque 

solis destiterunt, seque in castra, ut^ erat imperatum, re- 

ceperunt. 

^ optimum esse, ^/laf it was best. 2 consideration. ^ His persuader! 
non poterat, these could not be persuaded (literally, it could not be persuaded 
these'). * fecerunt ut . . . profectio videretur, they made their departure 
seem. " qua de causa, why. ^ quantum . . . spatium, as the length of 
the day allowed. '' as. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 22$ 



CHAPTER XII 



462. Caesar marches against the Suessiones, and 
captures the town noviodunum 

Postrldle eius diel Caesar in fines Suessi5niim, qui 
proximi Remis erant, exercitum duxit, et magno itinere 
confecto ad oppidum Noviodunum contendit. Id ex itinera 
oppugnare conatus, quod vacuum defensoribus esse audie- 
bat, propter latitudinem fossae murlque altitudinem expu-5 
gnare non potuit. Celeriter vinels ^ ad oppidum actls,^ 
aggere ^ iacto, turribusque constitutis, magnitudine operum 
et celeritate Romanorum permoti Suessiones legatSs ad 
Caesarem de dediti5ne mittunt et petentibus^ RemIs ut 
conservarentur impetrant. 10 

CHAPTER XIII 

463. The Bellovaci also surrender to Caesar 

Caesar obsidibus acceptis armlsque omnibus ex oppido 
traditis in deditionem Suessiones accepit exercitumque in 
Bellovacos ducit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum 
Bratuspantium contulissent, atque cum ab eo oppido Caesar 
cum exercitu circiter millia passuum quTnque abesset, omnes 15 
maidres ^ natu ex oppido egress! manus ad Caesarem ten- 
dere et voce significare coeperunt sese in eius fidem ac 
potestatem venire neque contra populum Romanum arnils 
contendere. Item cum ad oppidum accessisset castraque 
ibi poneret, puerl mulieresque ex mur5 passis*' manibuszo 
suo mdre pacem ab Romanis petierunt. 

1 Wooden frames covered with hides, to protect the besiegers. ^ movedf 
from ago. ^ The principal work for a formal siege. It was begun at a dis- 
tance from the wall and gradually built up until it was equal to the height of 
the fortification. * petentibus RemTs, at the request of the Reini, abl. ab- 
solute. 5 For comparison, see 272. ® pando. 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — 1 5 



226 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

CHAPTER XIV 
464. DiVICIACUS SPEAKS IN BeHALF OF THE BeLLOVACI 

Pro his Diviciacus facit verba : Bellovac5s omnI tempore 
in fide atque amicitia civitatis Haeduae fuisse : impulses 
ab suls principibus ab Haeduls defecisse et populo Romano 
bellum intulisse. Eos qui eius consili principes ^ fuissent,^ 
5 quod ^ intellegerent ^ quantam calamitatem civitati intulis- 
sent, in Britanniam profugisse. Petere non solum Bello- 
vacos, sed etiam pro his Haeduos, ut sua dementia ac 
mansuetudine in eos utatur. Quod* si fecerit,^ Haedu- 
orum auctoritatem apud omnes Belgas amplificaturum ; 
10 quorum auxilils atque opibus, si^ qua bella inciderint,^ 
sustentare consuerint.^ 

CHAPTER XV 

465. Caesar's Reply. Description of the Nervii 

Caesar hondris DiviciacI atque Haeduorum causa sese 
eos in fidem recepturum et conservaturum dixit; quod erat 
civitas magna inter Belgas auct5ritate^ atque hominum 

15 multitudine praestabat, sexcentos obsides poposcit. His 
traditis omnibusque armis ex oppidd conlatis ab eo loc5 in 
fines Ambianorum pervenit, qui se suaque omnia sine mora 
dediderunt. E5rum fines Nervii attingebant ; quorum de 
natura moribusque Caesar cum quaereret, sic reperiebat : 

20 nullum aditum esse ad eos mercatoribus '^ ; pati nihil vini^ 
reliquarumque rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium Inferri : 
esse homines feros magnaeque virtutis ; increpitare atque 
incusare reliquos Belgas, qui^ se populo Romano dedidis- 

1 authors. ^ For the construction of these subjunctives, see 427. ^ be- 
cause. * Quod . . . fecerit, if he should do this, ^ si . . . inciderint, 
whatever wars occurred. ^ For construction, see 303, '' See 238. * See 
251. ^ because. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 22/ 

sent patriamque virtutem proiecissent ; confTrmare sese 
neque legates missuros neque ullam condicionem pacis 
accepturds. 

CHAPTER XVI 

466. The Nervii await the Approach of Caesar 

Cum per eorum fines triduum iter fecisset, inveniebat ex 
captlvis Sabim flumen ab castrls suls n5n amplius mlUia pas- 5 
suum decern abesse ; trans id flumen omnes Nervios con- 
sedisse adventumque ibi R6man5rum exspectare una^ cum 
Atrebatis et Viromanduls, finitimls suls ; exspectari etiam 
ab his Aduatuc5rum copias atque esse in itinere ; mulieres 
qulque'"^ per aetatem^ ad pugnam inutiles viderentur in 10 
eum locum coniecisse quo* propter paludes exercitul^ 
aditus non esset. 

CHAPTER XVII 

467. The Nervh plan to take Caesar by Surprise 

His rebus c5gnitls expldratores centurionesque praemittit 
qui locum idoneum castrls deligant. Cum complures ex 
Belgis reliqulsque Gallls Caesarem secuti una^ iter face- 15 
rent, quidam ex his nocte ad Nervids pervenerunt. His 
demonstraverunt inter singulas '^ legiones impedlmentorum 
magnum numerum intercedere, neque esse quicquam^ 
negoti, cum prima legio in castra venisset, banc sub sar- 
cinls adorlrl ; qua pulsa impedlmentlsque dlreptls f uturum ^ 2° 
ut reliquae contra consistere non auderent. Nervii autem 
antlquitus, quo ^^ facilius finitimorum equitatum impedlrent, 

1 una cum, along ^vith. ^ and those u<ho. ^ Do not confuse this word 
with aestas, -atis. * where. ^ Dative of possession, 238. ^ along ivith 
him. ' inter singulas legiones, betiveen each two legions. ^ quicquam 
negoti, any trouble. " futurum ut, the result ivottld be that. ^^ quo 
facilius, that they might the more easily. 



228 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

fecerant saepes^ quae Instar murl munimenta praebe- 
rent. His rebus iter agminis nostrl impeditum^ Irl Nervil 
existimaverunt. 

CHAPTER XVIII 

468. Description of the Roman Camping Ground 

Loci natura erat haec, quem locum nostrl castrls dele- 
5 gerant. Collis ab summo aequaliter declivis ad flumen 
Sabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine 
par! accllvitate collis nascebatur, passus circiter ducentos 
Infimus^ apertus, ab* superiore parte silvestris, ut non 
facile introrsus perspicl posset. Intra eas silvas hostes in 
loocculto sese continebant ; in aperto loco secundum ^ flumen 
paucae stationes equitum videbantur. Flu minis erat alti- 
tudo circiter pedum trium. 

CHAPTER XIX 

469. The Nervii carry out their Plan of Attack 

Caesar equitatii praemissS subsequebatur omnibus copils. 
Sed quod ad hostes appropinquabat, consuetudine sua 

15 Caesar sex legiones expedltas ducebat ; post eas totlus 
exercitus impedimenta conlocaverat ; inde duae legiones, 
quae proxime conscrlptae erant, totum agmen claudebant 
praesidioque^ impedlmentis erant. Equites nostrl, cum 
funditoribus sagittariTsque flumen transgress!, cum hostium 

20 equitatu proelium commlserunt. Cum se illl identidem in 
silvas ad suos reciperent ac rursus ex silva in nostros 
impetum facerent, nostrl cedentes "* InsequI non audebant. 

1 //edges, made by bending down young trees and allowing brambles and 
briers to grow among them. ^ impeditum iri ; future passive infinitive. 
8 a^ the foot. * ab superiore parte, in the upper part. ^ along. ^ See 
294, 295. '' Agrees with hostes understood. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 229 

Interim legiones sex, quae prlmae venerant, opere^ dimenso 
castra munire coeperunt. Ubi prima impedimenta nostrl 
exercitus ab ils qui in silvls abditi latebant visa sunt, subito 
omnibus copils provolaverunt impetumque in nOstros equites 
fecerunt. His facile pulsis ac proturbatis, incredibill cele- 5 
ritate ad flu men decucurrerunt, ut paene uno tempore et ad 
silvas et in flumine et iam in manibus^ nostrls hostes vide- 
rentur. Eadem autem celeritate adverse ^ coUe ad nostra 
castra atque ad eos qui in opere occupati erant contende- 
runt. '° 

CHAPTER XX 

470. Quick Work by Caesar. Splendid Discipline 
OF THE Troops 

Caesarl omnia uno tempore erant agenda^: vexillum 
proponendum, signum tuba dandum, ab opere revocandi 
mllites, acies instruenda, mllites cohortandl, signum dan- 
dum. Quarum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas 
et successus hostium impediebat. His difficultatibus duae 15 
res erant subsidia ^ — sciential atque usus^ mllitum, quod 
superioribus proelils exercitati n5n minus commode ipsl" 
sibi praescrlbere quam ab alils doceri poterant ; et quod ab 
opere singullsque^ legidnibus singulos^ legates Caesar dis- 
cedere nisi munltis castrls vetuerat. Hi propter propInqui-20 
tatem et celeritatem hostium nihil ^^ iam Caesaris imperium 
exspectabant, sed per se quae ^^ videbantur administrabant. 

1 opere dimenso, a//er laying out the wo>-k. Dimenso frwm dimetior. 
2 in manibus nostris, close upon us. ^ adversd coUe, up the hill. * See 
438, 439. 5 See 294, 295. ^ in apposition with res. ' ipsi sibi praescrl- 
bere . . . poterant, they could direct themselves on their own respotisibility 
(ipsi). 8 jiis (^respective). ^ each, i^^ not . . . any. ^^ quae videbantur, 
whatever seemed best. 



APPENDIX 



TABLES OF DECLENSION, CONJUGATION, ETC. 
NOUNS 



471- 



First Declension or Stems in -a- 





Singular 


Terminations 


Plural 


Terminations 


NOM. 


Stella 


-a 


Stellae 


-ae 


Gen. 


stellae 


-ae 


stellarum 


-arum 


Dat. 


stellae 


-ae 


stellis 


-is 


Ace. 


stellam 


-am 


Stellas 


-as 


Abl. 


Stella 


-a 


stellis 


-is 


472. 


Second Declension or 


Stems in -0- 








Singular 








MASC. 


TERMINATIONS 


neut. 


TERMINATIONS 


NOM. 


hortus 


-us 


donum 


-um 


Gen. 


horti 


-i 


doni 


-i 


DAT. 


horto 


-0 


dono 


-6 


Ace. 


hortum 


-um 


donum 


-um 


Abl. 


horto 


-0 

Plural 


dono 


-6 


NOM. 


horti 


-i 


dona 


-a 


Gen. 


hortorum 


-orum 


donorum 


-orum 


Dat. 


hortis 


-is 


donis 


-is ' 


Ace. 


hortos 


OS 


dona 


-a 


Abl. 


hortis 


-is 


donis 


-is 



230 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



231 



a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us of the second 
declension has a special form in -e : horte. 







Singular 






NOM. 


puer 


ager 


vir 


filius 


Gen. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


fili, -ii 


Dat. 


puero 


agro 


viro 


filio 


Ace. 


puerum 


agrum 


virum 


filium 


Abl. 


puero 


agro 

Plural 


viro 


filio 


NOM. 


pueri 


agri 


viri 


filii 


Gen. 


puerorum 


agrorum 


virorum 


flliorum 


Dat. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


flliis 


Ace. 


pueros 


agros 


viros 


filios 


Abl. 


pueris 


agris 


viris 


filiis 


a. 


The vocative 


singular of filius 


is fili. 





473- 



NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 
Abl. 

NoM. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 



dux 

ducis 

duci 

ducem 

duce 

duces 

ducum 

ducibus 

duces 

ducibus 



Third Declension 

a. CONSONANT STEMS 
Singular 



Terminations for 
Consonant Stems 



miles 

mllitis 

mlliti 

mllitem 

milite 



virtus 
virtu tis 
virtuti 
virtutem 
virtute 



caput 

capitis 

capiti 

caput 

capita 



M. and f. 
(-S) 
-is 
-i 

-em 
-e 



milites 
mllitum 



Plural 

virtutes 
virtutum 



-IS 

-i 



capita -es -a 

capitum -um -um 

mllitibus virtutibus capitibus -ibus -ibus 

milites virtutes capita -es -a 

mllitibus virtutibus capitibus -ibus -ibus 



232 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 







1 


Singular 






NOM. 


consul 


homo 


pater 


corpus 


Gen. 


consLilis 


hominis 


patris 


corporis 


DAT. 


consuli 


homini 


patri 


corpori 


Ace. 


cdnsulem hominem 


patrem 


corpus 


Abl. 


consule 


homine 


patre 


corpora 








Plural 






NOM. 


consules 


homines 


patres 


corpora 


Gen. 


consilium hominum 


patrum 


corporum 


DAT. 


consulibus hominibus 


patribus 


corporibus 


Ace. 


consules 


homines 


patres 


corpora 


Abl. 


consulibus hominibus 


patribus 


corporibus 






b 


. I-STEMS 
Singular 




Termina-i-ions 

for i-SlEMS 
M. and I'. N. 


NOM. 


collis 


caedes 


mons 


animal 


-s 


Gen. 


collis 


caedis 


montis 


animalis 


-is -is 


DAT. 


colli 


caedi 


monti 


animali 


-i -1 


Ace. 


coUem 


caedem 


montem 


animal 


-em 


Abl. 


colle 


caede 


monte 
Plural 


animali 


-e -i 


NOM. 


colles 


caedes 


montes 


animalia 


-es -ia 


Gen. 


collium 


caedium 


montium 


animalium 


-ium -ium 


DAT. 


collibus 


caedibus 


montibus 


> animalibus 


; -ibus -ibus 


Ace. 


collis, es 


caedis, es 


montis, es animalia 


-is,es -ia 


Abl. 


collibus 


caedibus 


montibus animalibus -ibus -ibus 



474- Fourth Declension or Stems in -u- 

Singular 





MAS. 


terminations 


NEUT. 


TERMINATIONS 


NoM. 


casus 


-us 


cornu 


-u 


Gen. 


casus 


-us 


cornus 


-us 


Dat. 


casui, ii 


-ui, U 


cornu 


-ii 


Acc. 


casum 


-um 


cornu 


-u 


Abl. 


casii 


-\k 


cornu 


-ii 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 233 





MAS. TERMINATIONS 


neut. 


terminations 


NOM. 


casiis 


-us 


cornua -ua 


Gen. 


casuum 


-uum 


cornuum -uum 


Dat. 


casibus 


-ibus 


cornibus -ibus 


Ace. 


casus 


-us 


cornua -ua 


Abl. 


casibus 


-ibus 


cornibus -ibus 


475- 


Fifth Declension or ! 


Stems in 


-e- 










Terminations 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. Plur. 


NoM. dies 


dies 


res 


res 


-es -es 


Gen. diei 


dierum 


rei 


rerum 


-ei um 


Dat. diei 


diebus 


rei 


rebus 


-ei -ebus 


Ace. diem dies 


rem 


res 


-em -es 


Abl. die 


diebus 


re 


rebus 


-e -ebus 


476. 


Special Paradigms 








Singular 






NOM. 


vir 


vis 




deus 


Gen. 


viri 


— 




dei 


Dat. 


viro 


— 




deo 


Ace. 


virum 


vim 




deum 


Abl. 


viro 


vi 
Plural 




deo 


NOM. 


viri 


vires 




dei, dii, di 


Gen. 


virorum 


virium 




deorum, deum 


Dat. 


viris 


viribus 




dels, diis, dis 


Ace. 


viros 


vires 




deos 


Abl. 


viris 


viribus 

Singular 




dels, diis, dis 


NoM. 


senex 


iter 




domus 


Gen. 


senis 


itineris 




domus 


Dat. 


seni 


itineri 




domui, 


Ace. 


senem 


iter 




domum 


Abl. 


sene 


itinera 




domo, u 



234 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 







Plural 




NOM. 


senes 


itinera 


domus 


Gen. 


senum 


itinerum 


domuum, orum 


DAT. 


senibus 


itineribus 


domibus 


Ace. 


senes 


itinera 


domos, us 


Abl. 


senibus 


itineribus 

ADJECTIVES 


domibus 


477. 


First 


AND Second Declensions 






Singular 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


bonus 


bona 


bonum 


Gen. 


boni 


bonae 


boni 


DAT. 


bono 


bonae 


bono 


Ace. 


bonum 


bonam 


bonum 


Abl. 


bono 


bona 
Plural 


bono 


NOM. 


boni 


bonae 


bona 


Gen. 


bonorum 


bonarum 


bonorum 


DAT. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ace. 


bonos 


bonas 


bona 


Abl. 


bonis 


bonis 

Singular 


bonis 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


liber 


libera 


liberum 


Gen. 


llberi 


llberae 


llberi 


DAT. 


llbero 


liberae 


llbero 


Ace. 


liberum 


libera m 


liberum 


Abl. 


llbero 


libera 

. Plural 


llbero 


NOM. 


llberi 


llberae 


libera 


Gen. 


liberorum 


llberarum 


liberorum 


DAT. 


liberis 


liberis 


liberis 


Ace. 


liberos 


liberas 


libera 


Abl. 


liberis 


liberis 


liberis 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



235 









Singular 






MASC. 




FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


niger 




nigra 


nigrum 


Gen. 


nigri 




nigrae 


nigri 


DAT. 


nigro 




nigrae 


nigro 


Ace. 


nigrum 




nigram 


nigrum 


Abl. 


nigro 




nigra 
Plural 


nigro 


NOM. 


nigrI 




nigrae 


nigra 


Gen. 


nigrorum 




nigrarum 


nigrorum 


DAT. 


nigris 




nigris 


nigris 


Ace. 


nigros 




nigras 


nigra 


Abl. 


nigris 




nigris 


nigris 


478. 




Third Declension 










Singular 






MASC. 




FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


acer 




acris 


acre 


Gen. 


acris 




acris 


acris 


DAT. 


acri 




acri 


acri 


Ace. 


acrem 




acrem 


acre 


Abl. 


acri 




acri 

Plural 


acri 


NOM. 


acres 




acres 


acria 


Gen. 


acrium 




acrium 


acrium 


DAT. 


acribus 




acribus 


acribus 


Ace. 


acris, es 




acris, es 


acria 


Abl. 


acribus 




acribus 

Singular 


acribus 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. AND FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


facilis 


facile 


ferax 


ferax 


Gen. 


facilis 


facilis 


feracis 


feracis 


DAT. 


facili 


facili 


feraci 


feraci 


Ace. 


facilem 


facile 


feracem 


ferax 


Abl. 


facili 


facili 


feraci, e 


feraci, e 



236 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Plural 



MASC. AND FEM. 



NoM. faciles facilia 

Gen. facilium facilium 

Dat. facilibus facilibus 

Ace. facilis, es facilia 

Abl. facilibus facilibus 



MASC. AND FEM. 

feraces 
feracium 
feracibus 
feracis, es 
feracibus 



NEUT. 

feracia 

feracium 

feracibus 

feracia 

feracibus 



479- 



Present Active Participles 



Singular 
masc. and fem. neut. 

NoM. amans 

amantis 

amanti 

amantem 

amante, i 



Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 

NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 
Abl. 

480. 

NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 
Abl. 

NOM. 

Gen. 
Dat. 

Ace. 
Abl. 



lens 
euntis 
eunti 
euntem 
eunte, i 



amans 
amantis 
amanti 
amans 
amante, i 

iens 
euntis 
eunti 
iens 
eunte, i 



Plural 
masc. and fem. 

amantes 

amantium 

amantibus 

amantis, es 

amantibus 



NEUT. 

amantia 

amantium 

amantibus 

amantia 

amantibus 



euntes 
euntium 
euntibus 
euntis, es 
euntibus 



euntia 

euntium 

euntibus 

euntia 

euntibus 



Irregular Adjectives 
Singular Plural 

fem. neut. masc. fem. 



alius 

alius 

alii 

alium 

alio 

MASC. 

unus 

unius 

uni 

unum 

uno 



alia aliud 

alius alius 

alii alii 

aliam aliud 

alia alio 

FEM. 

una 

unius 

uni 

unam 

una 



alii aliae 

aliorum aliarum 



aliis 
alios 
aliis 



aliis 
alias 
aliis 



alia 

aliorum 

aliis 

alia 

aliis 



NEUT. 

unum 

unius 

uni 

unum 

ijno 



MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. 

tres tria 

trium trium 

tribus tribus 

tris, tres tria 

tribus tribus 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



237 



Irregular Adjectives {Continued') 





MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


NOM. 


duo 


duae 


duo 


mllle 


mlllia 


Gen. 


duorum 


duarum 


duorum 


mlUe 


mlUium 


DAT. 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 


mllle 


mlUibus 


Ace. 


duos, duo 


duas 


duo 


mllle 


mlllia 


Abl. 


duobus 


duabus 


duobus 


mllle 


mlUibus 



481. 



Positive 



latus (lat-) 
fortis (fort-) 
velox (veloc-) 



Comparison of Adjectives 



Superlative 
latissimus, a, um 



Comparative 

latior, latius 

fortior, fortius 

vel5cior, velocius 
pulcher (pulchr-) pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrimus, a, um 
similis (simil-) similior, similius simillimus, a, um 



fortissimus, a, um 
vel5cissimus, a, um 



482. 



Declension of Comparatfves 





Singular 


Plural 




M. AND F. 


N. 


M. AND F. 


N. 


NOM. 


latior 


latius 


latiores 


latiora 


Gen. 


latidris 


latioris 


latiorum 


latiorum 


DAT. 


latiori 


latiori 


latiaribus 


latioribus 


Ace. 


latiarem 


latius 


latiores, is 


latiora 


Abl. 


latiore, i 


lati5re, i 


latioribus 


latidribus 


NoM. 




plus 


plures 


plura 




Gen. 




pluris 


plurium 


plurium 




Dat. 
Ace. 






pluribus 
plures, is 


pluribus 
plura 




plus 




Abl. 




plure 


pluribus 


pluribus 





238 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



483- 


Irregular Comparison 




Positive 


Comparative 


Superlative 


bonus, a, um 


melior, m 


lelius 


optimus, a, um 


malus, a, um 


peior, peius 


pessimus, a, um 


magnus, a, um 


maior, maius 


maximus, a, um 


parvus, a, um 


minor, minus 


minimus, a, um 


multus, a, um 


, plus 


plurimus, a, um 


multi, ae, a 


plures, pi 


lura 


plurimi, ae, a 


vetus, veteris 


vetustior. 


vetustius 


veterrimus, a, um 


senex, senis 


senior (maior natu) 


maximus natu 


iuvenis, e 


iunior (minor natu) 


minimus natu 


exterus 


exterior 




extremus 
extimus 


inferus 


Inferior 




Tnfimus 
Imus 


posterus 


posterior 




postremus 
postumus 


supcrus 


superior 




supremus 
summus 


[cis, citra] 


citerior 




citimus 


[in, intra] 


interior 




intimus 


[prae, pr5] 


prior 




primus 


[prope] 


propior 




proximus 


[ultra] 


ulterior 




ultimus 


484. 


Comparison of Adverbs 


POSITIV'E 
ADJ. 

care (carus) 


Comparative 


Superlative 




carius 


carissime 


pulchre (pulcher) 


pulchrius 


pulcherrime 


fortiter (fortis) 




fortius 


fortissime 


facile (facilis) 




facilius - 


facillime 


bene (bonus) 




melius 


optime 


male (malus) 




peius 


pessime 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



239 



Comparison of Adverbs {Continued') 



Positive 

ADJ. 

multum (multus) 


Comparative Superlative 
plus plurimum 


parum, little 

diu, long, for a long time 


minus minime 
diutius diutissime 


saepe, often 


saepius saepissime 


485. 


Cardinals 


Numerals 


Ordinals 


I. 
2. 


unus, a, um 
duo, duae, duo 




primus, a, um 
secundus {or alter) 


3- 


tres, tria 




tertius 


4- 


quattuor 




quartus 


5- 
6. 


quinque 
sex 




quintus 
sextus 


7- 
8. 


septem 
octo 




Septimus 
octavus 


9- 


novem 




nonus 


10. 


decern 




decimus 


II. 


undecim 




undecimus 


12. 


duodecim 




duodecimus 


13- 


tredecim 




tertius decimus 


14. 

15. 

16. 


quattuordecim 

quindecim 

sedecim 




quartus decimus 
quintus decimus 
sextus decimus 


17- 

18. 


septendecim 
duodevlgintl 




Septimus decimus 
duodevicesimus 


19. 


undevlginti 




undevicesimus 


20. 


viginti 




vicesimus 


21. 


vlgintT unus or 
t unus et viginti 




Jvicesimus primus or 
\ unus et vicesimus 


22. 


f viginti duo or 




Jvicesimus secundus or 


\ duo et viginti 




\ alter et vicesimus 



240 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 





Cardinals 






Ordinals 


28. 


duodetrlginta 






duodetrlcesimus 


29. 


undetrlginta 






undetrlcesimus 


30. 


trlginta 






tricesimus 


40. 


quadraginta 






quadragesimus 


50. 


quinquaginta 






quinquagesimus 


60. 


sexaginta 






sexagesimus 


70. 


septuaginta 






septuagesimus 


80. 


octoginta 






oct5gesimus 


90. 


nonaginta 






nonagesimus 


100. 


centum 






centesimus 


lOI. 


centum unus or 
centum et unus 




centesimus primus or 
centesimus et primus 


200, 


ducenti, ae, a 






ducentesimus 


300. 


trecenti 






trecentesimus 


400. 


quadringentl 






quadringentesimus 


500. 


quingentl 






quingentesimus 


600. 


sescenti 






sescentesimus 


700. 


septingenti 






septingentesimus 


800. 


octingentl 






octingentesimus 


900. 


nongenti 






nongentesimus 


1 ,000. 


mi lie 






mfllesimus 


2,000. 


duo mlllia 






bis millesimus 


100,000. 


centum mlllia 






centies millesimus 






PRONOUNS 




486. 




Personal 




Sing. Plur. 


Sing. 


Plu 


R. Sing. Plur. 


NoM. ego nos 


tu 


vos 






^ r nostrum, 
Gen. mei \ 

[ nostri 


tul 


vestrui 
vestrl 


11, 

SUl SUl 


Dat. mihi nobis 


tibi 


vobls 


sibi sibi 


Ace. me n5s 


te 


vos 


se(sese) se(sese) 


Abl. me n5bTs 


te 


vobTs 


se(sese) se(sese) 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



241 



487. 



Singular 



Demonstrative 



NoM. hlc haec hoc 

Gen. huius huius huius 

Dat. huic huic huic 

Ace. hunc banc hoc 

Abl. hoc hac hoc 





Plural 




hi 


hae 


haec 


horum 


harum 


horum 


his 


his 


his 


hos 


has 


haec 


his 


his 


his 



Singular 

NoM. iste ista istud 

Gen. istlLis istlus istlus 

Dat. isti isti isti 

Ace. istum istam istud 

Abl. isto ista isto 



Plural 

isti istae ista 

ist5rum istarum istorum 

istis istis istis 

istos istas ista 

istis istis istis 



Singular Plural 

NoM. ille ilia illud illl illae ilia 

Gen. illlus illlus illlus ill5rum illarum illorum 

Dat. illl illl illl illls illls illls 

Ace. ilium illam illud illos illas ilia 

Abl. illo ilia illo illls illls illls 



NoM. is 
Gen. eius 
Dat. el 
Ace. eum 
Abl. eo 



Singular 

ea 

eius 

el 

earn 

ea 



id 

eius 

el 

id 

eo 



ESSEN. OF LATIN — 1 6 



Plural 

el, il eae ea 

edrum earum eorum 

els, ils els, ils els, ils 

eos eas ea 

els, ils els, ils els, ils 



242 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



NoM. Idem 



Singular 
eadem idem 



(.^ 



eidem 



Gen. eiusdem eiusdem eiiisdem 

Dat. eldem eidem eldem 
Ace. eundem eandem idem 
Abl. eodem eadem eodem 



Plural 

, . eaedem eadem 
I idem 

feorun- earun- eorun- 

1 dem dem dem 

Jelsdem elsdem eisdem 

[isdem Isdem isdem 

eosdem easdem eadem 

elsdem elsdem elsdem 

Isdem isdem Isdem 





Singular 




Plural 




NoM. ipse 


ipsa 


ipsum 


ipsI 


ipsae 


ipsa 


Gen. ipslus 


ipslus 


ipslus 


ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum 


Dat. ipsi 


ipsI 


ipsI 


ipsis 


ipsIs 


ipsIs 


Ace. ipsum 


ipsam 


ipsum 


ipsos 


ipsas 


ipsa 


Abl. ipso 


ipsa 


ipso 


ipsIs 


ipsIs 


ipsIs 


488. 




Relative 








Singular 




Plural 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


NoM. qui 


quae 


quod 


qui 


quae 


quae 


Gen. cuius 


cuius 


cuius 


quorum 


quarum 


quorum 


Dat. cui 


cui 


cui 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ace. quern 


quam 


quod 


quos 


quas 


quae 


Abl. qu5 


qua 


quo 


quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


489. 




Interrogative 








Singular 




Plural 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC 


FEM. 


NEUT. 



NoM. quis (qui) quae quid (quod) qui quae quae 

Gen. cuius cuius cuius quorum quarum quorum 

Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus 

Aee. quem quam quid (quod) quos quas quae 

Abl. quo qua qu5 quibus quibus quibus 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



243 



490. 




Indefinite 
Singular 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


aliquis 


aliqua 


aliquid, aliquod 


Gen. 


alicuius 


alicuius 


alicuius 


DAT. 


alicui 


alicui 


alicui 


Ace. 


aliqiiem 


aliquam 


aliquid, aliquod 


Abl. 


aliqu5 


aliqua 
Plural 


aliquo 


NOM. 


aliqul 


aliquae 


aliqua 


Gen. 


aliqu5rum 


aliquarum 


aliquorum 


DAT. 


aliquibus 


aliquibus 


aliquibus 


Ace. 


aliquos 


aliquas 


aliqua 


Abl. 


aliquibus 


aliquibus 

Singular 


aliquibus 




MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


NOM. 


quidam 


quaedam 


quiddam, quoddam 


Gen. 


cuiusdam 


cuiusdam 


cuiusdam 


Dat. 


cuidam 


cuidam 


cuidam 


Ace. 


quendam 


quandam 


quiddam, quoddam 


Abl. 


quodam 


quadam 

Plural 


quodam 


NOM. 


quidam 


quaedam 


quaedam 


Gen. 


quorundam 


quarundam 


qu5rundam 


Dat. 


quibusdam 


quibusdam 


quibusdam 


Ace. 


quosdam 


quasdam 


quaedam 


Abl. 


quibusdam 


quibusdam 


quibusdam 



244 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



REGULAR VERBS 



491. First Conjugation 

Prin. Parts : amo, amare, 
amavi, amatus 



492. Second Conjugation 

Prin. Parts : moneo, monere, 
monui, monitus 





INDICATIVE 


INDICATIVE 




Active 


Passive 


Active 


Passive 




present 


PRESENT 


/ love, am loving, 
do love 


/ am loved, 
am being loved 


I advise, am advis- 
ing, do advise 


/ (z;« advised, 
am being advised 


S. 


amo 


amor 


s. moneo 


moneor 




am as 


amaris, re 


mones 


moneris, re 




amat 


amatur 


monet 


monetur 


P 


amamus 


amamur 


p. monemus 


monemur 




amatis 


amamini 


monetis 


monemini 




amant 


amantur 


monent 


monentur 




imperfect 


IMPERFECT 




/ was loving, 
loved, did love 


/ was loved, 
was being loved 


I was advising, ad- 
vised, did advise 


/ was advised, 
was being advised 


S. 


amabam 


amabar 


s. monebam 


monebar 




amabas 


araabaris, re 


monebas 


monebaris, re 




amabat 


amabatur 


monebat 


monebatur 


P 


amabamus 


amabamur 


p. monebamus 


monebamur 




amabatis 


amabamini 


monebatis 


monebamini 




amabant 


amabantur 


monebant 


monebantur 




FUTURE 


FUTURE 




/ shall love 


/ shall be loved 


/ shall advise 


/ shall be advised 


s 


amabo 


amabor 


s. monebo 


monebor 




amabis 


amaberis, re 


monebis 


moneberis, re 




amabit 


amabitur 


monebit 


monebitur 


p 


amabimus 


amabimur 


p. monebimus 


monebimur 




amabitis 


amabimini 


monebitis 


monebimini 




amabunt 


amabuntur 


monebunt 


monebuntur 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



245 



REGULAR VERBS 



493. Third Conjugation 

Prin. Parts : duco, ducere, 
duxi, ductus 



494. Fourth Conjugation 

Prin. Parts : audio, ire, 
audivi, auditus 



INDICATIVE 1 


INDICATIVE 


Active 


Passive 


Active 


Passive 


present I 


PRESENT 


/ lead, am leading, 
do lead 


/ am led, 
am being led 


/ hear, am hearing, 
do hear 


/ am heard, 
am being heard 


s. duco 


ducor 


s. audio 


audior 


ducis 


duceris, re 


audis 


audiris, re 


ducit 


ducitur 


audit 


auditur 


p. ducimus 


ducimur 


p. audimus 


audimur 


ducitis 


ducimini 


auditis 


audimini 


ducunt 


ducuntur 


audiunt 


audiuntur 


imperfect 


imperfect 


/ was leading, 
led, did lead 


/ was led, 

was being led 


/ was hearing, 
heard, did hear 


/ zuas heard, 
was being heard 


s. ducebam 


ducebar 


s. audiebam 


audiebar 


ducebas 


ducebaris.re 


audiebas 


audiebaris, re 


ducebat 


ducebatur 


audiebat 


audiebatur 


p. diicebamus 


ducebamur 


p. audiebamus 


audiebamur 


ducebatis 


ducebamini 


audiebatis 


audiebamini 


ducebant 


ducebantur 


audiebant 


audiebantur 


FUTURE 


future 


/ shall lead 


I shall be led 


/ shall hear 


/ shall be heard 


s. ducam 


ducar 


s. audiam 


audiar 


duces 


duceris, re 


audies 


audieris, re 


ducet 


ducetur 


audiet 


audietur 


p. ducemus 


ducemur 


p. audiemus 


audiemur 


ducetis 


ducemini 


audietis 


audiemini 


ducent 


ducentur 


audient 


audientur 



246 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



491. First Conjugation — Cont. 
Active Passive 

PERFECT 
/ have loved, I have been loved, 

loved I ivas loved 



s. amavi 
amavisti 
amavit 



amatus sum 
es 
est 



p. amavimus amati sumus 
amavistis estis 

amaverunt, ere sunt 

PLUPERFECT 
/ had loved I had been loved 

s. amaveram amatus eram 
amaveras eras 

amaverat erat 

p. amaveramus amatI eramus 
amaveratis eratis 

amaverant erant 

FUTURE PERFECT 
/ shall have I shall have been 

loved loved 

s. amavero amatus ero 
amaveris eris 

amaverit erit 

p. amaverimus amati erimus 
amaveritis eritis 

amaverint erunt 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT 

s. amem amer 

ames ameris, re 

amet ametur 

p. amemus amemur 

ametis amemini 

ament amentur 



492. Second Conjugation — Cont. 
Active Passive 

PERFECT 

/ have advised, 1 have been advised, 

advised I was advised 

s. monui monitus sum 

monuisti es 

monuit est 

p. monuimus moniti sumus 
monuistis estis 

monuerunt, ere sunt 

PLUPERFECT 

/ had advised I had been advised 

s. monueram monitus eram 
monueras eras 

monuerat erat 

p. monueramus monitT eramus 
monueratis eratis 

monuerant erant 

FUTURE PERFECT 

/ shall have ad- I shall have been 

vised advised 

s. monuero monitus ero 

monueris eris 

monuerit erit 

p. monuerimus moniti erimus 
monueritis eritis 

monuerint erunt 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT 

s. moneam monear 

moneas monearis, re 

moneat moneatur 

p. moneamus moneamur 

moneatis moneamini 

moneant moneantur 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



247 



493. Third Conjugation — Co7it. 
Active Passive 

PERFECT 
/ have led, I have been led, 

led was led 

s. duxi ductus sum 

duxisti es 

duxit est 

p. duximus ducti sumus 

duxistis estis 

duxerunt.ere sunt 

PLUPERFECT 
/ had led I had been led 

s. duxeram ductus eram 
duxeras eras 

duxerat erat 

p. duxeramus ducti eramus 
duxeratis eratis 

duxerant erant 

FUTURE PERFECT 
/ shall have led I shall have been led 

s. duxero ductus er5 
duxeris eris 

duxerit erit 

p. duxerimus ducti erimus 
duxeritis eritis 

duxerint erunt 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT 

s. ducam ducar 

ducas ducaris, re 

ducat ducatur 

p. ducamus ducamur 

ducatis ducamini 

ducant ducantur 



494. Fourth Conj. — Cont. 
Active Passive 

PERFECT 

/ have heard, I have been heard, 

heard I was heard 

s. audlvi audltus sum 

audlvisti es 

audlvit est 

p. audivimus auditi sumus 
audivistis estis 

audlverunt, ere sunt 

PLUPERFECT 
/ had heard I had been heard 

s. audiveram audltus eram 
audiveras eras 

audiverat erat 

p. audiveramus auditi eramus 
audiveratis eratis 

audiverant erant 

FUTURE PERFECT 

/ shall have heard I shall have been 
heard 

s. audlvero audltus ero 
audlveris eris 

audiverit erit 

p. audlverimus auditi erimus 
audlveritis eritis 

audlverint erunt 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT 

s. audiam audiar 

audias audiaris, re 

audiat audiatur 

p. audiamus audiamur 

audiatis audiamini 

audiant audiantur 



248 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



491. First Conjugation — Cont. 

Active Passive 

imperfect 



s. amarem 

amares 

amaret 
p. amaremus 

amaretis 

amarent 



s. amaverim 
amaveris 
amaverit 



amarer 

amareris, re 

amaretur 

amaremur 

amaremini 

amarentur 



amatus sim 
sis 
sit 



p. amaverimus amatl sTmus 
amaveritis sitis 

amaverint sint 



PLUPERFECT 



s. amavissem 
amavisses 
amavisset 



amatus essem 
esses 
esset 



p. amavissemus amatl essemus 
amavissetis essetis 

amavissent assent 

IMPERATIVE 

PRESENT 

s. 2. ama, love d,xx\3xe,bcthou 

tJioii loved 

p. 2. amate,^7''r amamini, be 

ye ye loved 



492. Second Conjugation — Cont. 

Active Passive 

imperfect 

s. monerem monerer 

moneres monereris, re 

moneret moneretur 

p. moneremus moneremur 

moneretis moneremini 

monerent monerentur 



PERFECT 



s. monuerim 
monueris 
monuerit 



monitus sim 
sis 
sit 



p. monuerimus moniti simus 
monueritis sitis 

monuerint sint 

PLUPERFECT 



s. monuissem 
monuisses 
monuisset 



monitus essem 
esses 
esset 



p. monuissemus monitl essemus 
monuissetis essetis 

monuissent essent 

IMPERATIVE 

PRESENT 

s. 2. mone, ad- monere, be 

vise thou thou advised 

P. 2. monete, monemini, be 

advise ye ye advised 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



249 



493- Third Conjugation — Cont. 

Active Passive 

imperfect 

s. ducerem ducerer 

duceres ducereris, re 

duceret duceretur 

p. duceremus duceremur 

duceretis duceremini 

ducerent ducerentur 

PERFECT 

s. duxerim ductus sim 



duxeris 
duxerit 
p. duxerimus 
duxeritis 
duxerint 



SIS 

sit 
ducti simus 
sitis 
sint 



PLUPERFECT 

s. duxissem ductus essem 
diixisses esses 

duxisset asset 

p. diixissemus ducti essemus 
duxissetis essetis 

duxissent essent 

IMPERATIVE 

PRESENT 

s. 2. duc,^ lead ducere, be 

thou t/iou led 

p. 2. ducite, ducimini, be 

lead ye ye led 



494. Fourth Conj. — Cont. 



ACTIVE 



Passive 



IMPERFECT 

audlrem audlrer 



audires 
audlret 
p. audiremus 
audlretis 
audlrent 



audlreris, re 

audlretur 

audiremur 

audiremini 

audlrentur 



PERFECT 

s. audiverim audltus sim 
audlveris sis 

audlverit sit 

p. audlverimus audlti sImus 
audiveritis sItis 

audlverint sint 

PLUPERFECT 

s. audlvissem audltus essem 
audlvisses esses 

audlvisset esset 

p. audivissemus auditi essemus 
audlvissetis essetis 

audlvissent essent 

IMPERATIVE 

PRESENT 

s. 2. audi, Jiear audire, be 

thoii, 
p. 2. audlte, 

hear ye 



tJion heard 
audlmini, be 
ye heard 



1 dico, duco, faci5, fero, have as present imperatives die, due, fae, fer; 
the regular form of other verbs ends in -e, as gero, imperative gere. 



250 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



491. First Conjugation — Cont. 
Active Passive 

FUTURE 

s. 3. amato, he amator, Jie 
shall love shall be loved 



p. 2. amatote, yoii 
shall love 



3. a m a n 1 0, amantor, they 
they shall shall be loved 
love 

INFINITIVE 
PRESENT 

amare, to love amari, to be 
loved 

FUTURE 

amaturus esse, amatum Irl, to 
to be about to be about to be 
love loved 

PERFECT 

amavisse, to amatus esse, 
have loved to have been 

loved 

PARTICIPLES 

PRESENT 

amans, antis, 

loving 

FUTURE 

amaturus, Ger. amandus, 
um, about to be loved 

to love 

PERFECT 

amatus, having 

been loved, loved 



492. Second Conjugation — Cont. 
Active Passive 

FUTURE 

s. 3. moneto, monetor, he 
he shall shall be ad- 
advise vised 

p. 2. monetote, you 

shall advise 

3. monento, monentor, 

they shall they shall 

advise be advised 

INFINITIVE 

PRESENT 

monere, to ad- moneri, to be 
vise advised 

FUTURE 

moniturus esse, monitum Irl, 
to be about to to be about to 
advise be advised 

PERFECT 

monuisse, to monitus esse, /"<? 
have advised have been ad- 
vised 

PARTICIPLES 

PRESENT 

monens, entis, 

advising 

FUTURE 

moniturus, Ger. monendus, 
about to ad- to be ad- 

vise vised 

PERFECT 

monitus, Jiavifig been 

advised, advised 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



251 



493. Third Conjugation — Cont. 
Active Passive 

FUTURE 

s. 2. ducito, ducitor, tJiou 

thou shall shall be led 

lead 

s. 3, ducito, he ducitor, he 

shall lead shall be led 

p. 2. ducitote, j^ 

shall lead 

P. 3. ducunto, ducuntor, 

I hey shall I hey shall be 

lead led 

INFINITIVE 

PRESENT 

ducere, lo lead duci, lo be led 

FUTURE 

ductiirus esse, ductum Irl, lo 
lo be about to be about to be 
lead led 

PERFECT 

duxisse, lo have ductus esse, 
led lo have been 

led 
PARTICIPLES 

PRESENT 

ducens, entis, 

leading 

FUTURE 

ducturus, Ger. ducendus, 
about to lead lo be led 

PERFECT 

ductus, Jiav- 
ing been led, 
led 



494. Fourth Conj. — Cont. 
Active Passive 

FUTURE 

s. 2. audits, auditor, tJiou 

thou shall shall be heard 
hear 

3. audlto, Jie auditor, Jie 

shall hear shall be heard 

p. 2. audltote, 

you shall hear 

3. audiunto, audiuntor, 

they shall they shall be 

hear heard 

INFINITIVE 

present 

audire, lo hear audiri, lo be 
heard 

FUTURE 

auditurus esse, audltum Irl, 
lo be about lo lo be about to 

hear be heard 

perfect 

audlvisse, to audltus esse, 

have heard lo have been 

heard 

PARTICIPLES 

present 

audiens, ientis, 

hearing 

FUTURE 

auditurus, Ger. audiendus, 

about lo hear to be heard 

PERFECT 

audltus, having 

been heard, 
heard 



252 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



491 . First Conjugation — Cont. 

GERUND 

Gen. amandi, of loving 
Dat. amando, for loving 
Ace. amandum, loving 
Abl. amando, by loving 

SUPINE 

amatum amatu 



492. Second Conjugation — Cont. 

GERUND 

Gen. monendi, of advising 

Dat. monendo, for advising 

Ace. monendum, advising 

Abl. monendo, by advising 

SUPINE 

monitum monitu 



495. Third Conjugation 

Verbs in io 
Prin. Parts : capio, ere, cepi, captus 

INDICATIVE 



Active 

/ take, ai/i takmg, do take 
Singular Plural 

capio capimus 

capis capitis 

capit capiunt 



Passive 

r 

/ am taken, am being taken 
Singular Plural 



capior 
caperis, re 
capitur 



capimur 
capimini 
capiuntur 



IMPERFECT 

/ ivas taking, took, did take I was taken, was being taken 

capiebam capiebamus capiebar capiebamur 

capiebas capiebatis capiebaris, re capiebamini 

capiebat capiebant capiebatur capiebantur 



capiam 

capies 

capiet 



/ shall take 



capiemus 

capietis 

capient 



/ shall be taken 
capiar capiemur 

capieris, re capiemini 
capietur capientur 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



253 



493. Third Conjugation — Cont. 

GERUND 

Gen. ducendi, of leading 

Dat. ducendo, for leading 

Ace. ducendum, leadijig 

Abl. ducendo, by leading 

SUPINE 

ductum ductu 



494. Fourth Conj. — Cont. 
GERUND 

Gen. audiendi, of hearijig 

Dat. audiendo, for hearing 

Ace. audiendum, Jiearing 

Abl. audiendo, by hearing 

SUPINE 

audltum auditu 



495- 



Third Conjugation 

LNDICATIVE— Continued 



Active 



Passive 



/ have taken, took 


/ have been tak 


?«, / was taken 


Singular 


Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


cepi 


cepimus 


captus sum 


capti sumus 


cepisti 


cepistis 


es 


estis 


cepit 


ceperunt, ere 


est 


sunt 




pluperfect 
/ Iiad taken I had been taken 


ceperam 


ceperamus 


captus eram 


capti eramus 


ceperas 


ceperatis 


eras 


eratis 


ceperat 


ceperant 


erat 


erant 



future perfect 
/ shall have taken I shall have been taken 

cepero ceperimus captus ero capti erimus 

ceperis ceperitis eris eritis 

ceperit ceperint erit erunt 

SUBJUNCTIVE 



capiam 


capiamus 


capiar 


capiamur 


capias 


capiatis 


capiaris, re 


capiamini 


capiat 


capiant 


capiatur 


capiantur 



254 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

SUBJUNCTIVE— Continued 

IMPERFECT 



Singular 




Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


caperem 




caperemus 


caperer 


caperemur 


caperes 




caperetis 


capereris, re 


caperemini 


caperet 




caperent 


caperetur 

PERFECT 


caperentur 


ceperim 




ceperimus 


captus sim 


capti simus 


ceperis 




ceperitis 


sis 


sitis 


ceperit 




ceperint 


sit 


sint 






PLUPERFECT 




cepissem 




cepissemuE 


; captus essem 


capti essemus 


cepisses 




cepissetis 


esses 


essetis 


cepisset 




cepissent 


esset 


essent 






IMPERATIVE 






Active 




Passive 








PRESENT 










Singular 




2. cape, take tJiou 


capere, be thou takefi 








Plural 




2. capita, 


, take 


ye 


capimini, be ye taken 



FUTURE 
Singular 

2. capito, tJioti sJialt take capitor, thou sJuxlt be taken 

3. capito, Jie shall take capitor, lie shall be taken 

Plural 



2. capitote, ye shall take 

3. capiunto, they shall take capiuntor, they shall be taken 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 255 

INFINITIVE 

PRESENT 

capere, to take capi, to be taken 

FUTURE 

capturus esse, to be about to captum IrT, to be about to be 
take taken 

PERFECT 

cepisse, to have taken captus esse, to have been taken 



PARTICIPLES 

PRESENT 

capiens, ientis, taking - 

FUTURE 



capturus, about to take Ger. capiendus, to be taken 



captus, having been taken, 
taken 



GERUND 

Gen. capiendi, of taking 

Dat. capiendo, for taking 

Ace. capiendum, taking 

Abl. capiendo, by taking 

SUPINE 

captum captu 



256 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



IRREGULAR VERBS 



496. Prin. Parts : sum, esse, fui, futurus, be 



INDICATIVE 



Singular 

sum, I am 
es, yoii are 
est {lie, she, if) is 

eram, / was 
eras, you zvere 
erat, he was 

ero, / shall be 
eris, you will be 
erit, he zvill be 

fuI, I have bceu, was 
fuisti, you have been, 
f uit, he has been, was 



Plural 

sum us, zue a7'e 
estis, you are 
sunt, tJiey are 

IMPERFECT 

eramus, %ve were 
eratis, you were 
erant, tJuy were 

FUTURE 

erimus, we shall be 
eritis, you zvill be 
erunt, they will be 

PERFECT 

fuimus, zue have been, were 

were fuistis, you have been, were 

fuerunt 1 .; , , 

[ they have been, wen 

fuere J 



PLUPERFECT 



f ueram, / had been 
f ueras, you had been 
f uerat, Jie had beeti 



f ueramus, zve had been 
fueratis, you had been 
f uerant, they had beejt 



FUTURE PERFECT 



f uero, / shall have been 
f ueris, you zvill have been 
f uerit, Jie will have been 



fuerimus, zve shall have been 
fueritis, you zvill have been 
f uerint, tJiey zvill have been 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



257 









SUBJUNCTIVE 






PRESENT 






IMPERFECT 


Singular 






Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


sim 






Sim US 


essem 


essemus 


sis 






sitis 


esses 


essetis 


sit 






sint 


esset 


assent 




PERFECT 






PLUPERFECT 


fuerim 






fuerimus 


fuissem 


fuissemus 


fueris 






fuerltis 


fuisses 


fuissetis 


fuerit 


' 




fuerint 


fuisset 


fuissent 








IMPERATIVE 






PRESENT 






FUTURE 




es, In 


' tJion 


esto, tJioii slialt be 




este, 


be ye 


esto, lie shall be 



INFINITIVE 

Pres. esse, to be 
Perf. fuisse, to have been 
FuT. futurus esse, to be 
about to be 



estote, ye shall be 
sunto, they shall be 

participle 



futurus, about to be 



497. Prin. Parts : possum, posse, potui, am able, can 





INDICATIVE 


SUBJU 


NCTIVE 




Singular Plural 


Singular 


Plural 


Pres. 


I am able, can 








possum possumus 


possim 


posslmus 




potes potestis 


possis 


possltis 




potest possunt 


possit 


possint 


Impf. 


/ luas able, could 








poteram poteramus 


possem 


possemus 


FuT. 


/ sJiall be able 

potero poterimus 

ESSEN. OF LATIN — I 7 







258 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

Perf. / Jiave been ab/e, could 

potui potuimus potuerim potuerimus 

Plup. / Jiad been able, 

potueram potueramus potuissem potuissemus 
F. P. / shall have been able 

potuerd potuerimus 

INFINITIVE 

Pres. posse, to be able Perf. potuisse, to have been able 

498. 
Prin. Parts : prosum, prodesse, profui, profuturus, benefit 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Singular Plural Singular Plural 

Pres. / benefit 

prosum prosumus prosim proslmus 

prodes prodestis prdsis pr5sltis 

prodest prosunt prosit prosint 

Impf. proderam proderamus prodessem prodessemus 

FuT. prodero proderimus 

Perf. profui profuimus pr5fuerim profuerlmus 

Plup. profueram profueramus profuissem prdfuissemus 

F. P. profuerd profuerimus 

imperative 
Pres. prodes, prodeste Fut. prodesto, prodestote 

infinitive 

Pres. prodesse Perf. profuisse 

Fut. pr5futurus esse 

participle 
Fut. profuturus 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



259 



499. Prin. Parts : 

Vols, velle, volul, — , be zvilling, tvill, zvish 
Nolo, nolle, n5lul, — , he ninvilliug, will not 
Malo, malle, malui, — , be more willing, prefer 







LNDICATIVE 




Pres. 


vols 


n5l5 


malo 




vis 


non vis 


mavis 




vult 


non vult 


mavult 




volumus 


nolumus 


malumus 




vultis 


non vultis 


ma vultis 




volunt 


nolunt 


malunt 


Impf. 


volebam 


nolebam 


malebam 


Put. 


volam, es, etc. nolam, es, etc. 


malam, es, etc 


Perf. 


volul 


nolul 


malui 


Plup. 


volueram 


nolueram 


malueram 


F. P. 


voluero 


n5luero 

SUBJUNCTIVE 


maluero 


Pres. 


velim 


nolim 


malim 




veils 


noils 


malls 




velit 


nolit 


malit 




vellmus 


nollmus 


mallmus 




velltis 


nolltis 


malltis 




velint 


nolint 


malint 


Impf. 


vellem 


nollem 


mallem 




velles 


nolles 


malles 




vellet 


nollet 


mallet 




vellemus 


nollemus 


mallemus 




velletis 


nolletis 


malletis 




vellent 


nollent 


mallent 


Perf. 


voluerim 


ndluerim 


maluerim 


Plup. 


voluissem 


noluissem 


maluissem 



260 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Pres. 




FUT. 




Pres. 


velle 


Perf. 


voluisse 



IMPERATIVE 






noil 
nollte 
[nolito, etc 


•] 








INFINITIVE 






n5lle 




malle 


noluisse 




maluisse 


PARTICIPLE 







f rto itote 
I Ito eunto 



Pres. volens 

500. Prin. Parts : eo, ire, ii, itum, go 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE 

Singular Plural Singular Plural 

Pres. eo imus earn i ite 

is Itis 

it eunt 

Impf. ibam, ibas, ibat, etc. irem 

FuT. ibo, ibis, Ibit, etc. 

Perf. ii, isti, ilt, etc. ierim 

Plup. ieram issem 

F. P. ier5 

INFINITIVE PARTICIPLES 

Pres. ire iens, euntis 

Perf. isse itum 

FuT. iturus esse iturus 

GERUND SUPINE 

Gen. eundi 

Dat. eundo 

Ace. eundum itum 

Abl. eundo 



Essentials of latin 



261 



501. 

Prin. Parts : fio, fieri, factus sum, be made, become, happen 

IMPERATIVE 

Sinoular Plural 

fl fite 





indicative 


SUBJUNCTIVE 




Singular Plural 




Pres. 


fio 


flam 




fit flimt 




Impf. 


fiebam 


fierem 


Put. 
Perf. 


flam, fies, etc. 
factus sum 




factus sim 


Plup. 


factus eram 


factus essem 


F. P. 


factus er5 





INFINITIVE 

Pres. fieri 
Perf. factus esse 
FuT. factum Irl 



PARTICIPLES 

Ger. faciendus 
Perf. factus 



502. Prin. Parts : fero, ferre, tuli, latus, bear, cany 

INDICATIVE 

Passive 
Singular Plural 

feror ferimur 

ferris, re ferimini 
fertur feruntur 





Active 




Singular Plural 


Pres. 


fero ferimus 




fers fertis 




fert ferunt 




Active 




Si??gular Plural 


Impf. 


ferebam 


FuT. 


feram, es, etc. 


Perf. 


tull 


Plup. 


tuleram 


F. P. 


tulero 



Passive 
Singular 

ferebar 
ferar, eris, etc 
latus sum 
latus eram 
latus ero 



Plural 



262 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 







subjunctive 




Pres. 


feram 






ferar 


Impf. 


ferrem 




ferrer 


Perf. 


tulerim 




latus sim 


Plup. 


tulissem 




latus essem 






imperative 




Pres. 


fer 


ferte 




ferre ferimini 


Put. 


ferto 


fertote 




fertor 




ferto 


ferunt5 




fertor feruntor 






infinitive 






Pres. 


ferre 




ferri 




Perf. 


tulisse 




latus esse 




FUT. 


laturus esse 




latum Irl 






PARTICIPLES 






Pres. 

FUT. 


ferens 
laturus 








Ger. 


ferendus 








Perf, 


. latus 
supine 




gerund 




Gen. 

DAT. 

Ace. 


ferendl 
ferendo 
ferendum 
















latum 




Abl. 


ferendo 




lata 



503- 



Deponent Verbs 



Prin. Parts : hortor, hortari, hortatus sum, urge, entreat 
vereor, vereri, veritus s,^xxss.,fcar 
sequor, sequi, secutus sum, folloiv 
potior, potiri, potitus s\xm, get possession of 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



263 







INDICATIVE 




Pres. 


hortor 


vereor 


sequor 


potior 




hortaris, re 


vereris, re 


sequeris, re 


potiris, re 




hortatur 


veretur 


sequitur 


potitur 




hortamur 


veremur 


sequimur 


potimur 




hortaminl 


veremini 


sequimini 


potimini 


• 


hortantur 


verentur 


sequuntur 


potiuntur 


Impf. 


hortabar 


verebar 


sequebar 


potiebar 


FUT. 


hortabor 


verebor 


sequar 


potiar 


Perf. 


hortatus sum 


veritus sum 


secutus sum 


potitus sum 


Plup. 


hortatus eram 


veritus eram 


secutus eram 


potitus eram 


F. P. 


hortatus ero 


veritus er5 


secutus ero 


potitus ero 






SUBJUNCTIVE 




Pres. 


horter 


verear 


sequar 


potiar 


Impf. 


hortarer 


vererer 


sequerer 


potirer 


Perf. 


hortatus sim 


veritus sim 


secutus sim 


potitus sim 


Plup. 


hortatus essem 


veritus essem 


secutus essem 


potitus essen 






IMPERATIVE 




Pres. 


hortare 


verere 


sequere 


potire 


FUT. 


hortator 


veretor 


sequitor 


potitor 



INFINITIVE 

Pres. hortari vereri sequi potiri 

Perf. hortatus esse veritus esse secutus esse potitus esse 
FuT. hortaturus esse veriturus esse secuturus esse potiturus esse 



Pres. hortans 
FuT. hortaturus 
Perf. hortatus 
Ger. hortandus 



hortandi, etc. 



PARTICIPLES 

verens sequens potiens 

veriturus secijturus potiturus 

veritus secutus potitus 

verendus sequendus potiendus 

GERUND 
verendi, etc. sequendi, etc. potiendi, etc. 



264 ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 

SUPINE 

hortatum veritum secutum potitum 

hortatu veritu secutu potitu 

504. First or Active Periphrastic Conjugation 

INDICATIVE 

Pres. amaturus sum, / am about to love 

Impf. amaturus cram, / ivas about to love 

FuT. amaturus ero, / shall be about to love 

Perf. amaturus ful, / have been or zvas about to love 

Plup. amaturus fueram, / had been about to love 

F. P. amaturus f uero, / sJiall have been about to love 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

Pres. amaturus sim 

Impf. amaturus essem 

Perf. amaturus fuerim 

Plup. amaturus fuissem 

infinitive 

Pres. amaturus esse 
Perf. amaturus fuisse 

For the Other Conjugations 
Pres. moniturus sum, I am about to advise 
ducturus sum, / am about to lead 
capturus sum, / am about to take 
auditurus sum, I am about to hear, etc. 

505. Second or Passive Periphrastic Conjugation 
indicative 

Pres. amandus sum, / am to be, must be, loved 
Impf. amandus eram, / zvas to be, had 10 be, loved 
Fut. amandus ero, / shall have to be loved 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN , 265 

INDICATIVE— Continued 

Perf. amandus f ui, / ivas to he, had to be, loved 

Plup. amandus fueram, / Jiad had to be loved 

F. P. amandus f uero, / sJiall have had to be loved 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

Pres. amandus sim 

Impf. amandus essem 

Perf. amandus fuerim 

Plup. amandus fuissem 

INFINITIVE 

Pres. amandus esse, to have to be loved 
Perf. amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved 

For the Other Conjugations 

Pres. raonendus sum, / ain to be, must be, advised 
ducendus sum, I am to be, viiist be, led 
capiendus sum, I am to be, must be, taken 
audiendus sum, / am to be, must be, heard, etc. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



abl. ablative. 

ace accusative. 

adj adjective. 

adv adverb. 

canp comparative. 

conj conjunction. 

dat dative. 

def. defective. 

dent demonstrative. 

dep deponent. 

determ determinative. 

dim diminutive. 

f. feminine. 

fut future. 

gen genitive. 

impers impersonal. 

indecl indeclinable. 

indef. .... indefinite. 

inter interrogative. 

ititr intransitive. 

irr irregular. 



loc locative. 

in masculine. 

;/., 7ie2{i. . . . neuter. 

neg negative. 

nom nominative. 

num numeral. 

part participle. 

pass passive. 

perf. perfect. 

//., pliir. . . . plural. 

pr proper. 

prep preposition. 

pres present. 

Pron pronoun. 

refl. reflexive. 

rel relative. 

sing. singular. 

subjv subjunctive. 

stibst substantive. 

Slip superlative. 

tr transitive. 



266 



VOCABULARY 



LATIN — ENGLISH 



[Numbers refer to Sections.] 



a, ab, prep. w. abl., from, by, with, at, 

on, in. 
abditus. See abd5. 
abd5, abdere, abdidi, abditus (ab + 

do, place), tr., put away, conceal. 
abicio, ere, abieci, abiectus, tr., throw, 

hurl. 
ablatus. See aufero. 
absum, abesse, afui, afuturus, intr., 

be away, be distant, be absent. 
ac. See atque. 
Acca, ae, /, pr. name, Acca Laren- 

tia, foster mother of Romulus and 

Remus. 
accedo, ere, access!, accessQrus (ad 

+ cedo), intr., go near, come near, 

approach, 
accendo, ere, accendi, accensus (ad 

+ candeo, glow), tr., set on fire ; 

accensus, burning. 
accido, ere, accidi, — (ad + cad5), 

intr., happen. 
acci5, ire, accivi, accitus (ad + cieo, 

set in motion), tr., summon, in- 
vite, 
accipio, ere, accepi, acceptus (ad + 

capio), tr., receive ; suffer, undergo. 
acclam5, are, avi, atus (ad + clam5, 

cry), tr., shout, cry out. 
acclivis, e (ad + clivus, slope), rising. 



acclivitas, atis (acclivis),/, ascent, 

slope. 
accurro, ere, accurri, accursum (ad 

+ curro, run), intr., run up, hasten 

to. 
acciiso, are, avi, atus (ad + causa), 

tr., accuse, reproach. 
acer, acris, acre, sharp, keen, eager, 

fierce. 
acerrime. See acriter. 
acies, aciei, y", edge ; line of battle. 
acriter (acer), adv., sharply, eagerly, 

fiercely; co in p. a.cxias; j«/. acerrime. 
actus. See ag5. 
ad, prep. w. ace, to, toward, at, near, 

against ; according to ; w. numer- 
als, about. 
addo, addere, addidi,>additus (ad + 

do, place), tr., add. 
adduce, ere, adduxi, adductus (ad + 

diico), /;'., lead to, lead, influ- 
ence. 
adeo, adire, adii, aditum (ad + eo), 

intr., go to, approach. 
adficio, ere, adfeci, adfectus (ad + 

facio), /r., affect ; poena — , punish. 
adhibeo, ere, adhibui, adhibitus (ad 

-f habeo), tr., call in, use. 
aditus, lis (adeo), //;., approach, 

access. 



267 



268 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



administro, are, avi, atus (ad + 

ministr5, manage), tr., manage, 

direct, administer. 
adolesco, ere, adolevi, adultus (ad + 

OlesCO, grow), i)ilr., grow up. 
adorior, iri, adortus sum (ad + orior), 

inir., attack. 
ad5rD0, are, avi, atus (ad + orno, 

equip), ir., equip, adorn. 
adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus (ad 

+ sum), intr., be present, aid. 
Aduatuci, orum, m., a tribe of Belgic 

Gaul, 
adulescens, entis (adolesco), young; 

as subst., young man, youth. 
advenio, ire, adveni, adventum (ad 

+ veni5), intr., come tu, arrive, 

reach. 
adventus, us (^advenio), m., arrival, 

approach. 
adversus, a, um (adverto, turn to), 

in front, opposite ; adverse coUe, 

up the hill. 
adversus (adversus), prep. w. ace, 

opposite, against, facing. 
aedificium, i (aedific5), ;;., building. 
aedifico, are, avi, atus (aedis + facio) . 

/;'., build, construct. 
aedis or aede*, is, /, temple ; //., 

aedes regiae, palace. 
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick. 
aegre (aeger), adv., scarcely, with 

difficulty. 
aegritiidd, inis (aeger), /, sickness, 

vexation, mortification. 
aequaliter (aequalis, equal), adv., 

uniformly, equally, 
aequus, a, um, equal, favorable, 
aestas, atis,/, summer. 
aetas, atis,/, age. 
ager, agri, m., field, land, territory. 



agger, aggeris (ad + gero), w., 

mound, agger. 
aggredior, aggredi, aggressus sum 

(ad + gradior, go), /;-., go against, 

attack. 
agmen, agminis (ago), ;/., army on 

the march ; primum agmen, van ; 

novissimum agmen, rear, 
agnosco, ere, agnovi, agnitus (ad + 

[gjnosco, know), /;-., recognize. 
ago, ere, egi, actus, tr., drive, lead, 

move forw ard, do, treat ; trium- 

phum agere, celebrate a triumph, 
agricola, ae (ager + colo), m., farmer. 
aio, ais, ait, aiunt, def., say. 
Alba or Alba Longa, ae, /, an 

ancient Latin town. 
Albanus, a, um (Alba), Alban ; as 

subst., Albanus, i, w., an Alban. 
albus, a, um, white. 
alienus, a, um (alius), another's, un- 
favorable, strange. 
aliquis and aliqui, aliqua, aliquid 

ami aliquod, indef.pron., some one, 

any one. 
alius, alia, aliud, other, another; 

alius . . . alius, one . . . another; 

alii . . . alii, some . . . some, some . . . 

others; alii aliam in partem, some 

in one direction, some in another. 
AUobroges, um, w., a Celtic tribe of 

Gaul. 
alo, ere, alui, altus, tr., nourish, 

strengthen. 
altaria, ium, ;/. //., altar. 
alter, altera, alterum, the other {of 

t7l'0). 

altitude, inis (altus), /, height, 

depth. 
altus, a, um (alo), high, deep, 
alveus, i, /n., basket, trough. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



269 



Ambiani, orum, vi. pL, a Belgian tribe: 

amicitia, ae (amicus),/!, friendship, 
alliance. 

amicus, i (amo), m., friend, ally. 

amitto, ere, amisi, amissus (a + 
mitto), //'., lose. 

amo, are, avi, atus, /;-., love, like. 

amoveo, ere, amovi, amotus (a + 
moveo), tr., take away, remove. 

amplified, are, avi, atus (amplus + 
facio), //'., increase, extend. 

amplus, a, um, large, extensive, ample. 

Amulius, i, w., king of Alba Longa. 

ancile, is, «., a small oval shield. 

angustiae, arum (angustus), /. //., 
narrowness, narrow pass. 

angustus, a, um, narrow, contracted. 

animadverto, ere, animadverti, ani- 
madversus (animum + adverto, 
turn toward), tr., turn one's mind 
to, notice; animadvertere in, pun- 
ish. 

animal, alis (anima, life), n., animal. 

animus, i, m., mind, disposition, cour- 
age, spirit; in animo esse, in animo 
habere, have in mind, intend. 

annus, i, ;«., year. 

ante, adv. and prep. 70. ace, before. 

antepono, ere,anteposui, antepositus 
(ante + pono), /;-., put before. 

antequam, conj., before, until. 

antiquitus (antiquus), adv., in for- 
mer times, anciently. 

antiquus, a, um, old, ancient. 

anulus, i, m., ring. 

anxius, a, um (ango, vex), troubled, 
anxious. 

aperio, ire, aperui, apertus, //., open. 

apertus, a, um (aperio), open. 

appello, are, avi, atus, tr., call, name. 

Appius, i, ;«., a Roman surname. 



apprehends, ere, apprehendi, appre- 
hensus (ad + prehend5, seize), lay 
hold of, seize. 

appropinquo, are, avi, atus (ad + 
propinquus), approach, come near. 

apud, p>'ep- w. ace, among, in the 
presence of. 

aqua, ae,/, water. 

Aquileia, ae, f., a town of Cisalpine 
Gaul. 

aquilo, 5nis, m., the north wind. 

Aquitania, ae,/i, a division of south- 
ern Gaul. 

Aquitanus, i, w., an Aquitanian. 

ara, ae, /.', altar. 

Arar, Araris, m., a river of Gaul, the 
modern Saone. 

arbiter, arbitri, w., witness. 

arbitror, ari, atus sum (arbiter), 
intr., think, consider, suppose. 

arceo, ere, arcui, — , tr., shut up, hin- 
der, prevent. 

Ariovistus, i, w., a German king. 

arma, 5rum, «. //., arms, weapons. 

armilla, ae,/, bracelet. 

armo, are, avi, atus (arma), tr., arm, 
equiji. 

aro, are, avi, atus, /;., plow. 

ars, artis,/, art. 

artiis, artuum, m. pi., joints. 

arx, arcis (arceo), /, stronghold, 
citadel. 

asper, aspera, asperum, rough, fierce. 

astutia, ae (astutus, cunning), /, 
shrewdness, cunning. 

asylum, i, «., asylum, place of refuge. 

at, coijj., but, yet. 

Athenae, arum,/, Athens. 

atque, ac, conj., and. 

Atrebas, atis, ;«., one of the Atrebates, 
a Belgic tribe. 



2/0 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



attingo, ere, attigi, attactus (ad + 

tango, touch), /;-., touch, join, 

border on. 
attonitus, a, um, thunderstruck, 

astounded. 
auctoritas, atis (augeo),y;, authority, 

influence, reputation. 
audacter (audax, bold), adv., boldly, 

courageously; (Y)/«/. audacius; sup. 

audacissime. 
Audecumborius, i, w., an ambassador 

of the Remi. 
audeo, ere, ausus sum, intr., dare. 
audio, ire, audivi, auditus, /;-., hear. 
aufero, auferre, abstuli, ablatus (ab 

+ fer6), tr., take away, carry off. 
augeo, ere, auxi, auctus, tr., increase, 
augurium, i (augur, soothsayer), «., 

tlivination, augury. 
aureus, a, um (aurum, gold), golden. 
auspicium, i (avis + specio, look), 

«., divination by noting the cries or 

flight of birds. 
ausus. See aude5. 
autem, coij , but, moreover, however, 
auxilium, i, n., help, aid. 
Aventinus, a, um, of the Aventine, 

one of the seven hills of Rome, 
averto, ere, averti, aversus (ab + 

vert5), turn away, remove. 
avis, is,/, bird. 

avus, i, m., grandfather, ancestor. 
Axona, ae,/., a river of Gaul, the mod- 
ern Aisne. 

B 

Balearis, e, Balearic. 

Belgae, arum, ;«. //., Belgians, a 

tribe of northern Gaul. 
bellicosus, a, um (bellum), warlike. 
Bellovaci, orum, ;;/., a Belgic tribe 

of Gaul. 



bellum, i, ;/., war ; bellum inferre, 

wage war. 
bene (bonus), adv., well ; comp. 

melius, sup. optime. 
beneficium, i (bene + facio), «., 

favor, service. 
benigne (benignus, kind), adv., kindly, 
bibo, ere, bibi, — , tr., drink. 
Bibrax, Bibractis, n., a town of the 

Remi. 
Boil, orum, m. pi., a tribe associated 

with the Helvetii. 
bonus, a, um, good. 
Bratuspantium, i, ;/., a town of the 

BellovacT. 
brevis, e, short, brief. 
brevitas, atis (brevis),/, shortness. 
Britannia, ae,/, Britain. 



cado, ere, cecidi, casurus, tr., fall, die, 
jjerish. 

caedes, is (caedo),/, slaughter. 

caedo, ere, cecidi, caesus, tr., cut to 
pieces, slay. 

caelum, i, ;/., sky, heavens. 

Caesar, aris, »i., a family name of the 
Julian gens ; Gaius lulius Caesar, 
100-44 B.C., the conqueror of Gaul. 

calamitas, atis,/, disaster, defeat. 

campus, i, m., plain. 

capio, ere, cepi, captus, tr,, take, cap- 
ture, seize ; form (a plan). 

Capitolium, i, «., the Capitol, a great 
temple of Jupiter at Rome, and the 
hill on which it stood. 

captivus, i (capio), m., captive. 

caput, capitis, ;/., head. 

care (cams), adv., dearly. 

careo, ere, carui, cariturus, intr. w. 
abl., be without, be in need of, lack. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



271 



carpentuin,l,«., two-wheeled carriage. 

carrus, i, w., wagon, cart. 

Carthago, inis, /., a great Phoenician 

city on the northern coast of Africa. 
carus, a, um, dear. 
casa, ae,y!, hut. 
Cassius, i, m., a Roman name. 
castellum, i {ditjt. of castrum), «., 

fort, redoubt. 
Casticus, i, m., a Sequanian chief. 
castrum, i, «., fort ; //. castra, orum, 

camp. 
casus, us (cado), m., falling, chance, 

misfortune. 
catulus, i, ni., cub. 
causa, ae,/, reason, cause, case; qua 

de causa, why, for this reason; 

causa, w. gen., for the sake of, for, 

on account of. 
cavea, ae (cavus, hollow),/, cage. 
cecidi. See cado. 
cedo, ere, cessi, cessum, ?«/;-., go, 

yield, retire, retreat. 
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick. 
celeritas, atis (celer), /, speed, 

quickness. 
celeriter (celer) , adv., quickly, swiftly ; 

com p. celerius; sup. celerrime. 
Celtae, arum, m., Celts, one of the 

three great peoples of Gaul. 
cena, ae,y., meal, dinner. 
centum, indecL, hundred. 
centuria, ae (centum), /, a division 

of the people, or army, containing 

one hundred ; century. 
centurio, onis (centuria), m., centu- 
rion, commander of a century. 
certamen, inis (certo, contend), w., 

contest. 
certus, a, um (cerno, perceive), certain, 

appointed; certiorem facere, inform. 



ceteri, ae, a, //., the rest, the others. 
cibus, i, m., food. 

Cimbri, orum, ;«., a Germanic tribe. 
circa, prep. w. ace, around, about. 
circiter, prep. w. ace, about, nearly. 
circum, adv. attd prep. w. ace, about, 

around. 
circumdo, circumdare, circumdedi, 

circumdatus (circum + do), tr., 

surround. 
circumicio, ere, circumieci, circum- 

iectus (circum + iacio), tr., throw 

about, place around. 
circumvenio, iri, circumveni, circum- 

ventus (circum + venio), tr., come 

around, surround, 
cis, prep. w. ace, on this side of. 
citerior, citerius, hither, 
citra, prep. w. ace, on this side of. 
civicus, a, um (civis), civic, 
civis, is, m. and p., citizen. 
civitas, atis (civis), /, citizenship, 

state. 
clamito, are, avi, atus (clamo, cry 

out), tr., cry out, shout. 
clamor, oris (clamo, cry out), ;«., 

shouting, cry. 
classis, is,/, fleet. 
Claudia, ae, /, sister of Appius 

Claudius Pulcher. 
Claudius, i, w., a Roman family name; 

Appius Claudius Pulcher, consul 

249 B.C. 

claudo, ere, clausi, clausus, shut, 

close. 
dementia, ae (clemens, mild), /, 

kindness, mildness. 
cliens, clientis, in, and f, dependent, 

vassal. 
coepi, coepisse, coeptus sum, def, 

began. 



272 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



cognosce, ere, cognovl, cognitus 
(con + [gjnosco, know), ir., rec- 
ognize, learn, discover, ascertain. 

cogo, ere, coegi, coactus (con + ag5), 
drive together, collect, force, com- 
pel. 

cohors, cohortis, /, cohort (the tenth 
part of a legion). 

cohortor, ari, atus sum (con + 
hortor), /;-., exhort, encourage. 

coUis, is, m., bill. 

col5, ere, colui, cultus, tr., cultivate, 
worship. 

commeatus, iis, m., provisions, sup- 
plies. 

comminus (con + manus), (ui7'., 
hand to hand. 

committo, ere, commisi, commissus 
(con + mitto),/;-., commit, intrust ; 
join, begin (battle). 

commode (commodus, useful), adv., 
advantageously, easily. 

commoveo, ere, commovi, commotus 
(con + moveo), to move, influence, 
disturb. 

compar, comparis (con + par), fit- 
ting, suitable. 

comparo, are, avi, atus (con + paro), 
tr., prepare, provide. 

compleo, complere, complevi, com- 
pletus (con -f ple5, fill), tr., fill up, 
complete. 

complures, ia, many, very many, a 
great many. 

comprehendo, ere, comprehend!, 
comprehensus (con -)- prehendo, 
seize), tr., seize, arrest. 

con. See cum. 

concede, ere, concessi, concessus 
(con + cedo), yield, grant, allow, 
permit. 



concidS, ere, concidi, — (con + 

cado), intr., fall, be killed. 
concido, ere, concidi, concisus (con-f- 

caedo, slay), tr., cut down, kill. 
COncilio, are, avi, atus, /; ., gain, win, 

procure. 
concilium, i, «., assembly, council. 
condemno, are, avi, atus (con -j- 

damno), tr., condemn, 
condicid, onis (condico, agree), /, 

agreement, proposal, terms. 
condo, ere, condidi, conditus (con -f 

d5, put),/;-., found, establish. 
conduce, ere, conduxi, conductus 

(con + duco), tr., bring together, 

hire. 
confero, conferre, contuli, conlatus 

(con -1- fer5), /;-., bring together, 

gather; se conferre, betake one's 

self, go. 
confertus, a, um (confercio, crowd), 

crowded, dense. 
c5nfici6, ere, confeci, confectus 

(con + facio), tr., accomplish, fin- 
ish, complete, furnish, wear out. 
confirmo, are, avi, atus (con + 

firmo, strengthen), tr., strengthen, 

establish, assure, encourage. 
c6nflig5, ere, conflixi, conflictus, 

intr., contend, fight. 
confugio, ere, confiigi, — , intr., flee. 
congressus, us (congredior, meet), 

w., meeting. 
congruo, ere, congrui, — , intr., agree, 

tally. 
conicio, ere, conieci, coniectus (con 4- 

iaci5), /;-., throw, hurl. 
coniungo, ere, coniunxi, coniiinctus 

(con + iungo), tr., join. 
coniiinx, coniugis (coniungo), /, 

wife. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



273 



coniuratio, onis (coniuro), /, con- 
spiracy. 

coniuratus, i (coniuro), m., con- 
spirator. 

coniurS, are, avi, atus (con -f iuro, 
swear), intr., conspire, plot. 

conlatus. See confero. 

conloco, are, avi, atus (con -f loco, 
place), tr., place, put, station. 

conloquium, i (conloquor), n., in- 
terview, conference. 

conloquor, conloqui, conlociitus sum 
(con + loquor, speak), intr., speak 
together, confer. 

Conor, ari, atus sum, /;-., attempt, try. 

consanguineus, i (con + sanguis, 
blood), m., relative, kinsman. 

c6nscrib5, ere, conscripsi, conscrip- 
tus (con + scribo), /;-., levy, enroll. 

consecro, are, avi, atus (con + 
sacro, set apart), tr., consecrate. 

consentio, ire, consensi, consensum 
(con + sentio, feel), intr., agree, 
conspire. 

consequor, consequi, consecutus sum 
(c5n 4- sequor;, tr , pursue, over- 
take, obtain. 

conser5, ere, conserui, consertus (con 
+ sero, bind), tr., join (battle). 

conservo, are, avi, atus (con -|- 
servo), tr., keep safe, preserve. 

considers, are, avi, atus, consider, 
examine, look at closely. 

consido, ere, consedi, consessum 
(con -I- sido, seat), intr., settle, 
take up an abode. 

consilium, i (c5nsul5), «., plan, ad- 
vice, prudence. 

consimilis, e (con -f similis), very 
like. 

consisto, ere, constiti, — (con + 



sisto, place), intr., take a stand, 
hold a position, stop. 

conspectus, iis (conspicio), w., sight, 
view. 

cSnspicio, ere, c5nspexi, conspectus 
(con -\- specio, look), //-., see, per- 
ceive. 

constantia, ae (consto, stand), /, 
firmness. 

constituo, ere, c5nstitui, constitiitus 
(con -f statuo), /;•., place, erect, 
construct, station, determine, ap- 
point. 

consuesco, ere, c5nsuevi, consuetus 
(con + suesco, be accustomed), 
intr., be accustomed. 

consuetudo, inis (consuesco),/, cus- 
tom, habit. 

c5nsul, consulis, m., consul. 

consulo, ere, consului, consultus, 
ask advice, consult. 

contendo, ere, contendi, contentus 
(con + tendo), intr., strive, strug- 
gle; hasten, hurry ; march. 

contentio, onis (contendo), /, con- 
test, controversy. 

continenter (contineo), adv., con- 
tinually, constantly. 

contineo, ere, continui, contentus 
(con + teneo), tr., hold in, hold 
together, restrain, hem in, keep. 

contio, 5nis (convenio),/, meeting. 

contra, adv. and prep. w. ace, against, 
opposite. 

contuli. See confero. 

c5niibium, i (con + niibo, marry),/, 
marriage. 

convenio, ire, conveni, conventus 
(con + venio), intr., come to- 
gether, assemble ; inipers. convenit, 
it is fit, agreed. 



274 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



converto, ere, converti, conversus 
(con + verto), turn (about), change; 
signa convertere, face about. 

convoco, are, avi, atus (con + voco ), 
tr., call together, summon. 

coorior, iri, coortus sum (con + 
Orior), ind-., rise, break out. 

copia, ae, f., supply, abundance; //., 
forces, troops. 

Corinthus, i,/, Corinth. 

Cornelius, i, m., the name of a Roman 
family. See Cossus. 

cornu, us, n., horn, flank, wing, 

C0r5na, Slq,/., crown. 

corpus, corporis, «., body. 

corruo, ere, corrui, — (con-|-ru5, fall), 
in/r., fall, be slain. 

Cossus, 1, m., Aulus Cornelius Cossus, 
consul 343 u.c. 

cottldianus, a, um (cottidie), daily. 

cottidie, i7<h\, daily. 

credo, ere, credidi, creditus, /;-., be- 
lieve, trust. 

cremo, are, avi, atus, /;-., burn. 

creo, are, avi, atus, /;., appoint, 
choose. 

Cretes, Cretum, m. pL, Cretans. 

crux, crucis, yi, cross, gallows. 

culpo, are, avi, atus (culpa, fault), 
tr., blame. 

cultus, see colo. 

cum, p7-ep. 711. abl., with ; in compo- 
sition, con-, CO- ; conj., when, since, 
although, because. 

Cupidus,a,um(cupi5), desirous, eager. 

cupio, ere, cupivi or cupii, cupitus, 
tr., wish, desire, be eager for. 

ciir, adv., why. 

cura, ae,/, care. 

Cures, Curium,///., a Sabine town. 

curia, ae,/, senate. 



cursus, lis (curro, run), tn., course. 
curiilis,e (currus, chariot), curule. 
ciistodia, ae (custos, guard),/, guard. 
custodio, ire, ciistodivi, ciistoditus 
(ciistos, guard), tr., watch, guard. 

D 

damnati5, onis (damno),/, condem- 
nation. 
damno, are, avi, atus, /;-., condemn, 

sentence. 
de, prep. w. abl., from, down from; 

concerning, in regard to, for; about. 
dea, ae, /, goddess. 
debe5, ere, debui, debitus (de -f- 

habeo), tr., owe ; with inf., ought. 
decern, indecL, ten. 
decerno, ere, decrevi, decretus (de -f- 

cerno, separate), /;-., decide, decree. 
decerto, are, avi, atus (de -t- certo, 

contend), intr., fight, contend. 
Decius, i, w , Piiblius Decius Mus, 

consul 340 B.C. 
declivis, e ( de -t- clivus, slope), sloping, 
decrevi. See decerno. 
decurrS, ere, de(cu)curri, decursum 

(de -\- curro, run), intr , run down, 

hasten down. 
deditio, onis (dedo),/, surrender, 
dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus (de -t- 

do), tr., give up, surrender. 
defends, ere, defendi, defensus, /;-., 

defend; protect. 
defensor, oris (defendo), m., de- 
fender. 
defero, deferre, detuli, delatus (de-1- 

fero), /;■., carry off ; bestow, confer. 
defici5, ere, defeci, defectus (de -f 

faci5, //'. and intr., fail, be lacking. 
deinceps, adv., successively, next, 

thereafter. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



275 



deinde (de + inde), adv., afterwards, 

next, 
delabor, delabi, delapsus sum (de + 

labor), slip, intr., glide or fall down. 
delecto, are, avi, atus, tr., please, 

delight. 
deligo, ere, delegi, delectus (de + 

lego, collect), tr., select, choose. 
Delphi, orum, m., Delphi. 
demitto, ere, demisi, demissus (de + 

mitto), tr., send down, let down ; 

se demittere, jump. 
demonstro, are, avi, atus (de + mon- 

stro, show), //-., point out, show, 

mention. 
denique, adv., at last, finally. 
depono, ere, deposui, depositus (de 

+ p6n5), /;'., lay down, give up. 
depopulor, ari, atus sum (de + 

populor), tr., lay waste, ravage, 
deprecator, oris (deprecor, mediate), 

in., intercessor ; eo deprecatore, 

through his mediation. 
descends, ere, descend!, descensum 

(de + scando, climb), z';//;'., descend. 
describe, ere, descripsi, descriptus 

(de + scribo), tr., describe. 
desisto, ere, destiti, — (de + sisto, 

stand), intr., cease, leave off. 
desum, deesse, defui, defuturus (de 

+ sum), ii2tr., be lacking, fail. 
deus, i, ;;/., god. 
devinco, ere, devici, devictus (de + 

vinco), tr., subdue, conquer. 
devove5, ere, devovi, devotus (de + 

voveo), tr., vow, devote. 
dexter, dextra, dextrum, right ; dex- 

tra, ae,/, right hand. 
di-. See dis-. 
died, ere, dixi, dictus, say, tell, speak ; 

impose (a fine). 



dies, ei, w. and f., day. 

dif&cilis, e (dis + facilis), difficult, 

hard. 
difficultas, atis (dif&cilis), /, diffi- 
culty. 
diligenter (diligo, esteem), adv , 

carefully, attentively. 
diligentia, ae (diligo, esteem), /, 

carefulness, diligence, industry. 
dimetior, iri, dimensus sum, tr., 

measure. 
dimico, are, avi, atus, intr., fight, 

contend. 
dimitto, ere, dimisi, dimissus (dis + 

mitto), tr., send off, dismiss, let go. 
diripio, ere, diripui, direptus (dis + 

rapio), tr., lay waste, pillage, ravage. 
dis-, di-, insep. neg. prefix, apart, not, 

un-. 
discedo, ere, discessi, discessum (dis 

-j-cedo), i)itr., depart, withdraw, 

leave, 
discipulus, i (disco), m., pupil. 
disc5, ere, dedici, — , tr., learn, 
discurro, ere, dis(cu)curri, discursum 

(dis -f curro, run), intr., run in dif- 
ferent directions, 
dissimilis, e (dis -f similis), unlike, 

dissimilar. 
dissimulo, are, avi, atus (dissimilis), 

/;-., conceal, disguise. 
distineo, ere, distinui, distentus 

(dis -\- teneo),/r., keep apart. 
distribuo, ere, distribui, distribiitus 

(dis-f tribuo, assign), /;-., distribute, 

divide. 
diu, adv., long, for a long time ; iomp. 

diutius, sup. diiitissime. 
Diviciacus, i, w., achief of the Haedui. 
divid5, ere, divisi, divisus, tr., divide, 

separate. 



276 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



do, dare, dedi, datus, /;., give ; poenas 
dare, suffer punishment. 

doceo, ere, docui, doctus, tr., teach, 
inform. 

dolose (dolus, trick), adv., craftily, 
by trickery. 

domesticus, a, um (domus), domes- 
tic ; from their own country. 

dominus, 1, in., master, lord. 

domus, us or i, f., house, home ; 
domi, at home ; domum, (to) 
home, liomeward. 

dono, are, avi, atus (d5num), /;., 
present, give. 

d5num, i (do), «., gift. 

dubius, a, um, doubtful. 

ducenti, ae, a (duo + centum), two 
hundred. 

duco, ere, diixi, ductus, /;-., lead, 
bring. 

Duilius, i, w., Gaius Duilius, a Roman 
general, victor over the Carthagin- 
ians in a naval battle, 260 B.C. 

dum, conj., while, until. 

Dumnorix, igis, m., brother of the 
Haeduan Diviciacus. 

duo, duae, duo, two. 

duodecim, indecl., twelve. 

duodeviginti, indecl., eighteen. 

dux, duels (diico), m., guide, leader, 
general. 

E 

e. See ex. 

editus, a, um (edo), high, elevated. 

edo, edere, edidi, editus (ex + do), 

tr., give out, give birth to, bear. 
edo, edere or esse, esi, esus, tr., eat. 
educo, ere, eduxi, eductus (ex + 

diico), tr., lead out, lead. 
effero, effere, extuli, elatus (ex + 

fero), tr., carry out, 



effugio, ere, effiigi, — (ex + fugio), 

tr. and intr., escape. 
effund5, ere, effudi, effusus (ex + 
fundo, pour), /;-., pour forth, spread 

out, overflow. 
Egeria, ae, /, a nymph reputed to 

give revelations to Numa. 
egi. See ago. 
ego, mei, pers. pron., I. 
eius. See is. 
eliciS, ere, elicui, elicitus (ex + 

lacio, allure), tr., lure forth, bring 

out, call down. 
eligo, ere, elegi, electus (ex + lego, 

choose),/;'., select, pick out, choose. 
emigr5, are, avi, atus (ex + migro, 

migrate), inlr., emigrate, remove. 
enim, conj., for. 
eniintio, are, avi, atus (ex + nunti5), 

tr., announce, reveal, 
eo, ire, ii, itum, intr., go. 
eo (is), adv., there, to that place, 

thither. 
eques, equitis (equus), m., horse- 
man ; //., cavalry. 
equester, equestris, equestre (eques), 

of the cavalry, equestrian. 
equitatus, us (eques), m., cavalry, 
equus, i, m., horse. 
eripio, ere, eripui, ereptus (ex + 

rapi5), tr., snatch away, save, 
ero, erim, etc. See sum. 
eruptio, 5nis (erumpo, break forth), 

f.. breaking out, sally, 
esse. See sum and edo. 
et, conj., and ; at . . . et, both . . . and. 
etiam (et + iam), conj., besides, 

still, even. 
Europa, ae,/, Europe. 
evado, ere, evasi, evasus (ex -|- vado, 

go), intr., go out, escape. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



277 



ex or e, p7-ep. w. abl., out of, from, of ; 

una ex parte, on one side ; ex 

itinere, on the march. 
excogito, are, avi, atus (ex + cogito, 

think), tr., think out, contrive. 
exeo, exire, exii, exitum (ex + eo), 

intr., go out, depart, leave. 
exercito, are, avi, atus (exerceo, 

train), tr., exercise, train. 
exercitus, us (exerceo, train ), w., army. 
existimo, are, avi, atus (ex + aes- 

timo, consider),/;-., think, suppose, 

believe, 
expeditus, a, um (expedi5, free), un- 
incumbered, without baggage. 
expello, ere, expuli, expulsus (ex + 

pell5) tr., drive out, expel. 
explorator, 5ris (explore), m., scout. 
exploro, are, avi, atus, tr., search, 

ascertain, reconnoiter. 
exp5no, ere, exposui, expositus (ex 

+ p5no), tr., expose, abandon. 
expositio, onis (expono),/, exposure, 

abandonment. 
expugn5, are, avi, atus (ex + pugno), 

/;'., capture, take by storm, storm. 
exspecto, are, avi, atus (ex + specto), 

look, wait for, await, expect, wait to 

see. 
exstinguo, ere, exstinxi, exstinctus 

(ex + stingu5, put out), /;-., ex- 
tinguish, destroy, kill. 
exterus, extera, exterum, outer ; 

cojnp. exterior, sup. extremus, last, 

end of. 
extra, prep. w. ace, outside of, beyond. 
extremus. See exterus. 



faber, fabri, m., mechanic, workman, 
artisan. 



fabrico, are, avi, atus (faber), tr., 

make, construct, liuild. 

fabula, ae (for, speak),/, story. 

facile (facilis), adv., easily ; comp. 
facilius, sup. facillime. 

facilis, e (facio), easy. 

facio, ere, feci, factus, tr., make, do, 
form, build ; verba facere, speak. 

factum, i (faci5), «., deed. 

fallo, ere, fefelli, falsus, tr., deceive; 
spem se fefellisse, that they were 
disappointed in their hope. 

familia, ae (famulus, slave), /, 
household, vassals. 

fastus,a,um(fas, right), legal, court — . 

Faustulus, i, m., the shepherd who 
brought up Romulus and Remus. 

fefelli. See fallo. 

femina, ae, /, woman. 

ferax, feracis (fero), fertile, pro- 
ductive. 

fere, adv., nearly, about, almost. 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus, tr., bear, carry; 
legem ferre, propose, institute a law. 

ferreus, a, um (ferrum, iron), of iron, 
iron ; ferreae manus, grappling- 
irons. 

fertilitas, atis (fertilis, fertile), /, 
fertility. 

ferus, a, um, fierce, wild, barbarous. 

fides, ei (fido, trust), /, faith, con- 
fidence, trust ; in fidem venire, put 
one's self under the protection of. 

fidus, a, um, faithful, loyal. 

filia, ae, /, daughter. 

filius, i, /«., son. 

finis, is, m., limit, end, boundary; 
//., territory. 

finitimus, a, um (finis), adjoining, 
neighboring ; as subst., finitimus, i, 
;«., neighbor. 



278 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



fio, fieri, factus sum {used as passive 

of facio), be made, become ; cer- 

tior fieri, be informed. 
flamen, flaminis, »i., Flamen, a priest 

devoted to the worship of one 

special god. 
flQmen, fluminis (fluo), «., river. 
fluo, ere, flQxi, fluxus, i>itr., flow. 
foculus, i {dim. of focus, hearth), ;«., 

fire pan, bra/ier. 
f5ns, fontis, w., fountain, spring. 
fore = futurum esse. 
foret = esset. 
forma, ae, f, shape, form, 
fors, fortis, /, chance ; forte, by 

chance ; forte erat effusus, hap- 
pened to have overflowed. 
fortis, e, brave. 

fortiter (fortis), adv., bravely, 
fortiina, ae (fors), f, fortune, good 

fortune. 
forum, i, w., market place, forum. 
fossa, ae(fodi6, dig),/, ditch, trench. 
frater, fratris, tn., brother. 
friimentarius, a, um (friimentum), 

of grain ; res frumentaria, supplies 

of grain, provisions. 
friimentum, i (fruor), «., grain, 
fruor, frui, friictus sum, tr., enjoy. 
fuga, ae, /, flight ; in fugam dare, 

put to flight. 
fugio, ere, fiigi, — ,intr., flee, run 

away. 
fulmen, inis (fulgeo, flash), «., 

thunderbolt, lightning. 
fumus, T, m., smoke. 
fUnale, is (fiinis, cord), w., torch. 
funditor, oris (funda, sling), m., 

slinger. 
furor, oris (furo, rage), w., rage, 

madness. 



furtum, i (fiir, thief), ;;., theft, 
f uturus. See sum. 



G. = Gaius, i, w., a Roman name. 

Galba, ae, w.: (1) ^ lieutenant ot 
Caesar ; (2) a king of the Sues- 
siones. 

Gallia, ae, /, Gaul, 

Gallus, a, um, Gallic ; as snhst., 
Gallus, i, m., a Gaul. 

Garumna. ae, /, a river of Gaul, 
modern Garonne. 

Gaurus, i, w., a mountain of Cam- 
pania. 

geminus, a, um, twin, two-headed ; as 
subst., gemini, orum, in. pL, twins. 

Genava, ae,/, a city of the Allobroges, 
modern Geneva. 

gener, generi, w., son-in-law. 

gens, gentis (gigno, bear), /, tribe, 
nation, race. 

genus, generis (gens), ;/., kind, class. 

Germanus, i, w , (German. 

gero, ere, gessi, gestus, tr. , bear, carry, 
carry on, wage ; pass, go on, take 
place ; matrem se gessit, bore her- 
self or acted as a mother. 

gladius, i, m., sword. 

gracilis, e, slender. 

Graecia, ae, /, Greece. 

Graecus, i, ///., Greek. 

gratia, ae (gratus), /, favor, in- 
fluence; kindness; gratia, w. ^£'«., 
for the sake of, for the purpose of. 

gratulor, ari, atus sum (gratus), /;-., 
congratulate. 

gratus, a, um, pleasing, acceptable, 
agreeable. 

gravis, e, heavy, hard. 

graviter (gravis ), adv., severely. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



279 



H 

habe5, ere, habul, habitus, tr., have, 
hold ; consult (auspicia). 

Haeduus, i, m., Haeduan. 

Hannibal, alis, ;«. : (i) a Cartha- 
ginian commander defeated by 
Duilius; (2) a Carthaginian general, 
son of Hamilcar, 247-183 B.C., de- 
feated by Scipio at Zama, 202 B.C. 

hasta, ae, yr, spear. 

baud, adv., not. 

Helvetius, a, um, Helvetian ; as suhst., 
Helvetii, orum, m. pL, Helvetians. 

hiberna, ae (hiems), ;/. //., winter 
quarters. 

hie, haec, hoc, dem. pron., this; the 
latter; he, she, it. 

hiem5, are, avi, atus (hiems), inir., 
winter, pass the winter. 

hiems, hiemis, /, winter. 

hinc (hie), adv., hence; hine . . . 
hine, in one place ... in another, 
here . . . there. 

Hispania, ae,/, Spain. 

hodie (hie -f dies), adv., to-day. 

homo, hominis, m, and f., man, human 
being. 

honor, 5ris, ;«., honor. 

hora, ae,/, hour. 

hortor, ari, atus sum, tr., urge, en- 
courage. 

hortus, 1, 1)1., garden. 

hospes, hospitis, m. and f., guest, 
host. 

Hostilius, i, tn., the name of a Roman 
family; Hostus Hostilius, a general 
in the time of Romulus ; Tullus 
Hostilius, third king of Rome. 

hostis, is, VI., enemy. 

Hostus. See Hostilius. 

hiic (hie), adv., hither, to this place. 



humilis, e (humus), low. 
humus, i, /, ground; humi, on the 
ground. 

I 

iacio, ere, ieci, iactus, tr., throw, 
hurl; construct (aggerem). 

iactito, are, — , — (iaeto, boast), intr., 
boast, brag. 

iam, adz.^., now, already, soon. 

laniculum, i, w., one of the hills of 
Rome, west of the Tiber. 

lanuarius, i (lanus), w., January. 

lanus, i, jn., Janus, an old Latin divin- 
ity, represented with two faces. 

ibi, adv., there, in that place. 

lecius, i, in., one of the Remi. 

idem, eadem, idem (is + dem), dem. 
pron. and adj., the same. 

identidem, adv., again and again. 

idoneus, a, um, suitable, fit. 

idiis, iduum,///., the Ides (15th of 
March, May, July, and October, 13th 
of the other months), 

ignis, is, m., fire. 

ignominia, ae,/, dishonor, disgrace. 

ignord, are, avi, atus (ignarus, igno- 
rant), tr., not to know. 

ille, ilia, illud, de/n. pron. and adj., 
that; he, she, it; the former. 

imago, inis, /, likeness, semblance. 

imbellis, e (in neg. -f bellum), un- 
warlike, cowardly. 

imbuo, ere, imbui, imbutus, /;., wet; 
inspire. 

immineo, ere, imminui, -, intr., 
overhang. 

immitto, ere, immisi, immissus (in 
-f mitto), /;'., send into, let into, 
hurl. 

impedimentum, i (impedio), «., hin- 
drance; //., baggage. 



28o 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



impedio, ire, impedivl, impeditus 

(in + pes), tr., entangle, hinder, 
impede. 

impell5, ere, impuli, impulsus (in + 
pello), /;'., urge, impel, incite. 

impended, ere, — , — (in + pendeo, 
hang), intr., overhang. 

imperator, oris (impero), m., com- 
mander, commander in chief, gen- 
eral. 

imperatum, i (impero), «., order, 
command. 

imperium, i (imper5), «., order, com- 
mand, power, government, rule; 
nova imperia, revolution. 

impero, are, avi, atus (in -i- paro), 
/;-., command, order, rule. 

impetro, are, avi, atus, /;-., obtain, 
secure, gain. 

impetus, iis (impet5, attack), m., 
assault, attack, onset. 

impius, a, um (in neg. 4- pius, rever- 
ent), wicked, impious. 

impono, ere, imposui, impositus (in 
-fpono), tr., place in. 

improvisus, a, um (in neg. -f pro- 
visus, foreseen), sudden ; de im- 
provis5, unexpectedly, suddenly. 

imus. See inferus. 

in-, negative inseparable prefix, un-, 
not. 

in, prep. w. ace, and abl.; %v. ace, 
into, against, toward, forward ; w. 
abl., in, on, upon, over. 

incendo, ere, incendi, incensus (in -\- 
candeo, glow), tr., set fire to, burn. 

incido, ere, incidi, — (in -h cado), 
intr., occur. 

incito, are, avi, atus (in -|- cito, move 
swiftly), /;-. , urge on, incite, encour- 
age, arouse, rouse. 



incline, are, avi, atus, tr. and intr., 
bend, incline, yield. 

inclutus, a, um, famous. 

incola, ae (incolo), w. and yi, inhab- 
itant. 

incolo, ere, incolui, — , tr., dwell, 
live. 

incolumis, e, unharmed, safe. 

incredibilis, e (in «^^. -f- credibilis, 
believable), incredilile. 

increpito, are, avi, atus (increp5), 
//-., exclaim, upbraid, taunt. 

increpo, are, increpui, increpitus, 
sound, scold, exclaim. 

inciiso, are, avi, atus (in -h causa), 
tr., accuse, blame. 

inde, adv., thence, thereupon, then. 

index, indicis (indico), m., sign, 
mark. 

indicium, i (indico), v., information ; 
per indicium, by informers. 

indico, are, avi, atus (in -f- dico, de- 
clare), tr., announce, reveal. 

indico, ere, indixi, indictus (in -f 
dico), tr., proclaim, announce, ap- 
point. 

infelix, infelicis (in m^^. -f felix, 
happy), unhappy, ill-fated. 

inferior. See inferus. 

infero, inferre, intuli, inlatus (in -f 
fero), tr., carry in, bring in ; se 
inferre, betake one's self; signa 
inferre, charge. 

inferus, a, um, below ; comp. infe- 
rior, lower, inferior ; sup. infimus 
or imus, lowest, bottom of, foot of, 
at the foot of. 

infesto, are, avi, atus (infestus), /;-., 
annoy. 

infestus, a, um, hostile. 

infimus. See inferus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



281 



influo, ere, influxi, influxus (in + 

fluo), itttr,, flow into, empty into. 
ingens, ingentis, huge, vast. 
ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum 

(in + gradior, go), intr., go into, 

enter. 
inici5, ere, inieci, iniectus (in + 

iaci5), tr., put in. 
inimicus, a, um (in Wf-^. + amicus), 

hostile. 
iniquus, a, um (in neg. -f aequus), 

unfavorable, disadvantageous. 
initium, i (ineo, begin), n., begin- 
ning. 
iniuria, &&,/., injury, violence. 
inopia, ae (inops, without means),/, 

want, lack. 
inquam, def., say. 
inrided, ere, inrisi, inrisus (in + 

rideo, laugh), tr, laugh at, jeer, 

ridicule. 
insanus, a, um (in jieg. + sanus, 

sound), mad. 
insequor, insequi, inseciitus sum (in 

+ sequor), /;-., follow, pursue. 
insidiae, arum (insidio, sit in), / //., 

ambush, treachery. 
insideo, ere, insedi, insessus (in + 

sedeo), tr., occupy. 
insidior, ari, atus sum (insidiae), 

tr., lie in wait for, ambush. 
insignis, e (signum), remarkable, 

distinguished. 
msilio, ire, insilul, insultus (in + 

salio, leap), //-., leap on. 
Instar, «. indecL, likeness ; instar 

muri, like a wall. 
instituo, ere, institui, institutus (in 

+ statuo), tr., form, estabhsh. 
institiitum, i (instituo), «., purpose, 

custom, institution. 



instruo, ere, instruxT, instructus (in 

+ struo, build), /;., arrange, draw 

up, fuim. 
insula, ae, /, island. 
insum, inesse, infui, infuturus (in + 

sum), intr., be in, be among. 
intellego, ere, intellexi, intellectus 

(inter + leg5), tr., learn, perceive, 

know. 
intempestus, a, um (in neg. 4- 

tempus), stormy. 
inter, prep. iv. ace, between, among, 

during ; dare inter se, exchange ; 

cohortati inter se, encouraging one 

another. 
intercedo, ere, intercessi, intercessus 

(inter + cedo), intr., lie between, 

intervene. 
interea (inter + is), adv., meantime, 

meanwhile, 
interficio, ere, interfeci, interfectus 

(inter + facio), tr., kill. 
interim, adv., meanwhile, 
interior, interius (inter), inner, inte- 
rior of ; sup. intimus. 
interscindo, ere, interscidi, inter- 

scissus (inter + scindo, break 

down), /;., cut down, destroy. 
intersum, interesse, interfui, inter- 

futurus (inter + sum), intr., be 

among, be present. 
intimus. See interior, 
intra (inter), prep. w. ace, in, dur- 
ing, 
intro, are, avi, atus, tr., enter, 
introduce, ere, intrdduxi, introductus 

(intro, within + diico), //'., lead in. 
introrsus (intro, within + versus), 

adv., inside, within. 
intuli. See infero. 
inutilis, e (in neg. + utilis), useless. 



282 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



invenio, ire, inveni, inventus (in -j- 

venio), Ir. and intr., come upon, 

find. 
inveterasco.are, inveteravi, invetera- 

tus (in + veterasco, grow old), 

intr., become established. 
invictus, a, um (in wt-^. + vinco), 

unconquered. 
invitus, a, um, unwilling. 
lovi. See luppiter. 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, deter m. proit., self, 

himself, herself, itself ; he, she, it; 

very ; even. 
iratus, a, um (irascor, be angry), 

angered, in anger. 
is, ea, id, determ. pron. and adj., he, 

she, it ; this, that ; is qui, he (one, 

a man) who. 
iste, ista, istud, detenu, pron. and 

adj., that (of yours). 
ita (is), adv., thus, so. 
Italia, ae,/, Italy. 
itaque {\&),conj., and so, accordingly, 

therefore. 
item (is), adv., likewise, also. 
iter, itineris, «., journey, march ; 

road, way ; iter facere, march ; 

ex itinere, on the march ; magnum 

iter, forced march. 
iterum, adv., again, a second time. 
itum, iturus. See eo. 
iubeo, ere, iussi, iussus, tr., order, 

bid, command. 
iudicium, i (iudex, judge), «., judg- 
ment, trial. 
iiidic5, are, avi, atus (iudex, judge), 

tr., judge. 
iugum, i (iungo), «., yoke; sub 

iugum mittere, send under the 

yoke (jnade of spears crossed, in 

token of complete surrender). 



iumentum, i (iungo), «., pack animal, 
iungo, ere, iunxi, iunctus, /;-., join, 

fasten together. 
iiinior, comp. (/iuvenis. 
luppiter, lovis, m., Jupiter, chief of 

the Roman gods. 
liira, ae,/, the Jura Mountains, reach- 
ing from the Rhine to the Rhone. 
iiisiurandum, iurisiiirandi (ius, law 

+ iuro, swear), ;/., oath. 
iustitia, ae (iustus, just), /, justice, 

uprightness. 
iuvenis, e, young ; comp. iunior ; as 

subst. iuvenis, is, m., young man, 

youth. 
iuvo, are, iiivi, iiitus, tr., help, aid. 



Labienus, i, m., one of Caesar's lieu- 
tenants. 

labor, oris, w., labor, work. 

lab5ro, are, avi, atus (labor), intr., 
work, toil, suffer, he hard pressed. 

Iacess5, ere, lacessivi, lacessitus, 
tr., attack, harass. 

lacus, us, m., lake. 

laetus, a, um, glad. 

laevus, a, um, left. 

lapis, lapidis, m., stone. 

largitio, onis (largior, lavish),/, lib- 
erality ; bribery. 

Iate5, ere, latui, — , i)i(r., be con- 
cealed, lie hid. 

Latinus, a, um, Latin. 

latitude, inis (latus), /", width, 
breadth. 

Latobrigl, orum, tn. pi., a Gallic tribe 
near the Helvetii. 

latro, onis, m., robber, brigand. 

latus, a, um, broad, wide. 

latus. See fer5. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



283 



latus, lateris, ;;., side, flank. 

laudo, are, avi, atus (laus, praise), 
tr., praise, commend. 

legatio, onis (lego, commission), /., 
embassy, deputation. 

legatus, i (lego, commission), /;/., am- 
bassador, envoy; lieutenant. 

legio, onis (lego),/, legion. 

Ieg5, ere, lexi, lectus, tr., choose. 

Lemannus, i, lacus Lemannus, Lake 
of Geneva. 

lenis, e, smooth, gentle. 

levitas, atis (levis, light), /, light- 
ness, fickleness. 

lex, legis (lego),/, law; legem ferre, 
propose, establish a law. 

liber, libri, w., liook. 

liber, libera, liberum, free; as subst. 
liberi, orum. ni.pL, chil'lren. 

libero, are, avi, atus (liber), /;-., lib- 
erate, free. 

libertas, atis (liber), /, freedom, 
liberty. 

licet, licere, licuit, impers., it is 
allowed, permitted. 

lineamentum, i (linea, line), m., 
feature. 

littera, ae (lino, smear),/, letter (of 
the alphabet) ; //., letters (epistles), 
documents. 

locus, i, 7)1.; pi., loci and\QC&, place, 
position. 

longe (longus), adv., far, far off. 

longus, a, um, long, distant. 

lucus, i. III., grove. 

ludibrium, i (liidus), ;/., jest, mock- 
ery. 

ludicer, liidicra, liidicrum (liidus), 
sportive, playful. 

liidus, i, m., play, sport, game. 

luna, ae, y^ moon. 



lupa, ae,/, she-wolf. 

lustro, are, avi, atus, tr., purify; re- 
view, inspect. 

liix, liicis, /, light, daylight; prima 
liice, at daybreak. 

luxuria, ae, /., excess, luxury. 

M 

machina, ae,/, engine, contrivance, 
magis {fotiip. ^/multum), adv., more, 

rather. 
magister, magistri, m., master, 

teacher. 
magistratus, us (magister), w., mag- 
istrate, officer. 
magnitiid5, inis (magnus), /, size, 

greatness. 
magnopere (magnus + opus), adv., 

very greatly. 
magnus, a, um, large, great; comp. 

maior, sitp. maximus; maior na- 

tu, older; maximus natu, oldest. 
maior. See magnus. 
male (malus), adv., badly; comp. 

peius, sup. pessime. 
malo, malle, malui (magis -f vol5), 

tr. and intr., be more willing, prefer, 
malus, a, um, bad, evil, wicked ; comp. 

peior, sup. pessimus. 
Mamurius, i, w., a Roman smith in 

the time of Nunia. 
mandatum, i (mando), «., order, 

command. 
mando, are, avi, atus, tr., order, 

command. 
maneo, ere, mansT, mansiirus, intr., 

remain, stay. 
Manes, ium, m. pi., the Manes, shades 

of the dead. 
Manlius, i, m., Titus Manlius Tor- 

quatus, consul 343 B.C. 



284 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



mansuetudo, inis (mansuetus, tame), 

f., mildness, clemency. 
manus, us, /, hand, band; manus 

ferreae, grappling irons. 
Marcus, i, m., a Roman name. 
mare, maris, «., sea; mari, by sea. 
maritimus, a, um (mare), of the sea, 

maritime. 
Mars, Martis, w., Mars, the Roman 

god of war. 
mater, matris, /, mother; matrem 

se gessit, bore herself, acted like, a 

mother. 
matrimonium, 1 (mater), ;/., mar- 
riage; in matrim5nium ducere, 

marry, 
maturo, are, avi, atus, /////., hasten, 

hurry. 
maxime (maximus), adv., very 

greatly, es])ecially. 
maximus. .S'^v magnus. 
Maximus, i, w., a Roman cognomen. 

See Valerius. 
me, mel. See ego. 
medius, a, um, middle; per medias 

custodes, through the midst of the 

guards; quem medium, the middle 

of which. 
melior. See bonus, 
melius. See bene, 
memoria, ae,/, memory. 
mens, mentis, /, mind. 
mensa, ae, /, table. 
mensis, is, m., month. 
mercator, oris (mercor, trade), m., 

trader, merchant. 
Mercurius, i, m.. Mercury, god of 

trade, and messenger of the gods, 
mergo, ere, mersi,mersus,/'/-., dip, sink, 
metus, lis, m., fear, terror. 
meus, a, um, pass, adj., my, mine. 



mihi. See ego. 

miles, militis, w., soldier. 

militaris, e (miles), military. 

mille, indecl. adj. and noun, thou- 
sand ; //. millia, always noun; 
mille passiis, mille passuum, a 
Roman mile. 

minime (minimus). See -^dSMVi. 

minimus, a, um {iised as sup. of 
parvus), smallest, least. 

minor, minus {see parvus), smaller, 
less ; minor natii, younger. 

minus {used as coutp. (?/"parum), adv., 
less ; nihilo minus, nevertheless ; 
si minus, if not. 

mirabilis, e (miror, wonder), won- 
derful. 

miraculum, i (miror, wonder), n., 
wonder, prodigy. 

mirus, a, um, wonderful, surprising. 

miser, misera, miserum, wretched, 
poor. 

misere (miser), adv., wretchedly. 

mitigo, are, avi, atus (mitis, mild 
+ ago), //'., soften, civilize. 

mitto, ere, misi, missus, tr., send, hurl. 

mobilitas, atis (mobilis, change- 
able), f., fickleness. 

moenia, moenium, n. pi., walls, for- 
tifications. 

moneo, ere, monui, monitus, tr., 
warn, advise. 

monitus, us (mone5), m., warning, 
counsel, suggestion. 

mons, montis, ;«., mountain. 

mora, ae, /, delay. 

morbus, i, m., sickness, illness ; morbo 
exstinctus, died a natural death. 

morior, mori, mortuus sum, inh-., die. 

moror, ari, atus sum (mora), intr., 
delay, hinder. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



285 



mors, mortis, /, death. 

m5s, m5ris, m., custom, habit. 

moveo, ere, movi, motus, tr., move, 
influence; castra movere, break 
camp. 

mox, adv., soon. 

Mucius, i, in., the name of a Roman 
family ; Gaius Mucius Scaevola, 
a Roman who attempted to kill 
Porsena. 

Miicius, a, urn (Mucius), Mucian. 

mulier, mulieris, /, woman, wife. 

multa, ae, /, tine, penalty. 

multitiido, inis (multus), /, num- 
bers, multitude. 

multo {abl. <?/ multus), adv., much. 

multum (multus), adv., much, 
greatly. 

multus, a, um, much ; //., many ; 
multa nocte, late at night ; ad 
multam noctem, till late at night. 

Munatius, i, m., Lucius Munatius 
Plancus, one of Caesar's lieutenants. 

miinimentum, i (munio), n., defense, 
fortification. 

miinio, ire, miinivi or munii, muni- 
tus, ir., fortify, defend. 

munitio, onis (munio), /, forti- 
fication. 

miinus, eris, «., gift, reward. 

murus, i, m., wall. 

N 

nactus. See nanciscor. 

nam, conj., for. 

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum, tr., 

get, obtain. 
nascor, nasci, natus sum, intr., be 

born, be produced ; rise. 
natio, 5nis (nascor), /, nation, tribe, 

people. 



natii (nascor), in age; maior natu, 
older ; minor natu, younger. 

natiira, ae (nascor), /, nature, 
character. 

nauta, ae (navis), m., sailor. 

navalis, e (navis), of ships, naval. 

navis, is, /, ship. 

-ne, enclitic, sign of an interrogative. 

ne, conj., not, so that not, lest ; after 
verbs of fearing, that. 

neco, are, avi, atus (nex) tr., kill, 
put to death. 

nefastus, a, um (nefas, crime), un- 
hallowed ; unpropitious ; dies ne- 
fastus, a day on which public busi- 
ness could not be transacted. 

nego, are, avi, atus, tr. and intr., 
deny, say . . . not. 

negotium, i, ;/., business, affair; quic- 
quam negoti, any trouble. 

nemo, neminem (ne + homo), m. 
and f., no one, nobody. 

nemus, nemoris, ;/., grove. 

nepos, nepotis, m., grandson, de- 
scendant. 

neque, nee, conj., and not, but not; 
neque . . . neque, neither . . . nor. 

Nervii, orum, m., a powerful tribe of 
Belgic Gaul. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum (ne -\- uter), 
neither (of two). 

nex, necis, /, death, murder. 

niger, nigra, nigrum, black. 

nihil, indecl. «., nothing. 

nihilo, adv., in no respect ; nihilo 
minus, nevertheless. 

nisi (ne -f- si), conj., if not, unless, 
except. 

n5bilis, e (nosco, know), noble. 

nobilitas, atis (nobilis), f., nobility, 
nobles, 



286 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



noceo, ere, nocui, nociturus, /;-., hurt, 

injure, harm. 
nocturnus, a, um (nox), by night, in 

the night. 
n51o, nolle, nolui (ne + volo), tr. and 

intr., not to wish, Ije unwilling ; 

nolite, IV. infin., do not. 
nomen, n5minis (nosco, know), ;/., 

name. 
nomino, are, avi, atus (nomen), /;-., 

name, call. 
n5n, adv., not. 
nondum, adv., not yet. 
nonnullus, a, um (non + nullus), 

some, several. 
N5reia, ae, /, a town of the Xorici, 

modern Neumarkt. 
Noricus, a, um, Norican ; ager N5ri- 

CUS, a couiitry between the l)anul)e 

and the Alps. 
n5s, nostrum, pers. pron., we, our- 
selves. 
noster, nostra, nostrum (nos), poss. 

adj., our, ours ; //., nostri, orum, 

our men, our troops, 
novem, indecl., nine. 
Noviodunum, i, n., a town of the 

Suessiones. 
novus, a, um, news ; novissimum, 

last ; novissimum agmen, the rear. 
nox, noctis, y;, night; multa.nocte, 

late at night; ad multam noctem, 

till late at night. 
nQdo, are, avi, atus (nudus, bare), 

tr., make bare, clear. 
nullus, a, um (ne + ullus), no, not 

any, none, no one. 
num, interrog. particle, implying the 

answer ' no.' 
Numa, ae, m. See Pompilius. 
Humerus, i, m., number. 



Numida, ae, w., Xumidian. 
Numitor, oris, w., king of Alba Longa, 

grandfather of Komulus and Remus. 
numquam (ne + umquam, ever), 

adv., never, 
nunc, adv., now. 
niinti5, are, avi, atus (niintius), /;-., 

report, announce. 
niintius, i, m., messenger. 
nuper, adv., recently, lately. 
niisquam (ne + usquam, anywhere), 

adv., nowhere, on no occasion. 



Ob, prep. 70. ace, for, on account of, 

because of. 
obaeratus, i (ob + aes, money), w., 

debtor. 
obduco, ere, obdiixi, obductus (ob + 

diiCO),/V-., extend, make. 
obruo, ere, obrui, obrutus (ob + ru5, 

rush), /r., overwhelm, bury, crush. 
Obses, obsidis (obsideo), w., hostage, 

pledge. 
obside5, ere, obsedi, obsessus (ob + 

sedeo), tr., besiege. 
obtineo, ere, obtinui, obtentus (ob + 

teneo), tr., pussess, obtain, retain. 
obvenio, ire, obveni, obventum (ob + 

venio), intr., come to, meet, come. 
obsum, obesse, obfui, obfutiirus (ob 

+ sum), be against, injure. 
occasus, iis (occido, fall), ///., setting 

(of the sun). 
occid5, ere, occidi, occisus (ob -f- 

Caedo, cut down), /;-., cut down, 

kill, slay. 
occultus, a, um, hidden; in occultd, 

concealed. 
occupo, are, avi, atus (ob + capio), 

tr., take possession of, seize, occupy. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



287 



Oceanus, 1, w., ocean. 

Ocelum, i, ;/., a town of Cisalpine 
Gaul. 

OCtO, indecl., eight. 

OCUlus, i, m , eye. 

odium, i (odi, hate), n., hatred, en- 
mity. 

omnino (omnis), adv., altogether, at 
all. 

omnis, e, all, every, whole. 

opinio, onis (opinor, think),/, notion, 
belief, impression. 

oportet, oportere, oportuit, impers., 
it is necessary, it is proper. 

oppidanus, i (oppidum), m., inhab- 
itant of a town, townsman. 

oppidum, i, «., walled town. 

opprimo, ere, oppressi, oppressus (ob 
+ premo, press),/;-., crush, fall upon. 

oppugnati5, onis (oppugno), /, as- 
sault, storm, siege. 

oppugno, are, avi, atus (ob-f pugno), 
tr., attack, besiege. 

ops, opis, /, aid; //., resources, 
wealth, 

optime (optimus), best, excellently. 
See bene. 

optimus, a, um, sup. (?/bonus. 

optio, onis (opt6),y:, choice. 

opus, operis, «., work, labor, fortifica- 
tion. 

opto, are, avi, atus, wish, choose. 

oratid, 5nis (6r5),/, speech, words. 

ordino, are, avi, atus (5rdo), /;., 
arrange, regulate. 

5rd6, 5rdinis, m., line, rank. 

Orgetorix, igis, ;«., a chief of the 
Helvetii. 

orior, oriri, ortus sum, intr., rise. 

ornatus, us (orno, adorn), in., attire, 
decoration. 



oro, are, avi, atus (5s), tr., beseech, 

beg. 
ortus. See orior. 
OS, oris, «., mouth, face. 



P. = Publius. 

paco, are, avi, atus (pax), tr., pacify, 
subdue. 

paene, ad7<., almost, nearly. 

palam, adv., openly, publicly. 

paliis, udis,y', marsh, swamp. 

pando, ere, pandi, passus, /;-., spread 
out ; passis manibus, with out- 
stretched hands. 

par, paris, equal (to). 

paratus, a, um (paro), prepared, 
ready. 

pareo, ere, parui, paritiirus, intr. 
IV. dat., obey. 

paro, are, avi, atus, tr., prepare, pro- 
vide. 

pars, partis,/, part, side, direction. 

parum, adv., little ; comp. minus ; 
Slip, minime. 

parvulus, a, um (parvus), very little ; 
as subst. parvulus, i, m., little fellow. 

parvus, a, um, little, small; cotnp. 
minor; sup. minimus. 

passus. .W pando <7«(/patior. 

passus, lis, m., pace ; mille passiis, 
mille passuum, a mile. 

pastor, oris (pasco, feed), m., shep- 
herd. 

pateo, ere, patui, — , intr., be open, 
extend. 

pater, patris, m., father. 

patior, pati, passus sum, tr., suffer, 
allow, endure. 

patria, ae (patrius),/, country, native 
land. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



patrius, a, um (pater), ancestral. 
pauci, orum, few, 
paulisper, adv., for a short time, 
paululum (paulus, small), adv., a 

little, somewhat. 
pax, pacis, /, peace. 
pecc5, are, avi, atus, intr., transgress, 

offend. 
pecunia, ae (pecus),/, money. 
pecus, pecoris, ;/., cattle, herd. 
pedes, peditis (pes), ;«., foot soldier; 

//., infantry. 
Pedius, i, ;;/., Quintus Pedius, one of 

Caesar's lieutenants. 
peior, comp. of malus. 
peius, comp. of male, 
pellc, ere, pepuli, pulsus, tr., drive 

out, expel, rout, conquer. 
per, prep. w. ace, through, over, by, 

by means of. 
peragro, are, avi, atus (per + ager), 

/;■., wanilcr through, roam over. 
perdiic5, ere, perdiixi, perductus 

(per+ duco), /r., lead, lead through, 

construct. 
perennis, e (per + annus), perpetual, 

never failing. 
perfici5, ere, perfeci, perfectus 

(per + facio), tr., accomplish, fin- 
ish, complete. 
perfidus, a, um (per-f fidus), faith- 
less, treacherous. 
periclitor, ari, atus sum, tr., make 

trial of, try. 
periculum, i, n., danger. 
peritus, a, um, skillful. 
permitto, ere, per misi, permissus (per 

-f mitt5), tr., give up, intrust, permit. 
permoveo, ere, permovi, permotus 

(per + moveo), tr., move, arouse, 

influence, alarm. 



perpetuo (perpetuus, continuous), 
ad7'., continually, forever. 

perrumpo, ere, perrupi, perruptus 
(per + rumpo, break), tr., break 
through. 

perspicio, ere, perspexi, perspectus 
(per + specio, see), tr., see through. 

persuadeo, ere, persuasi, persuasus 
(per + suadeo, persuade), /;-. 7^. 
dat., persuade, prevail on. 

pertineo, ere, pertinui, — (per + 
tene5), intr., extend, pertain, relate. 

pertractus. See pertrahS. 

pertrah5, ere, pertraxi, pertractus 
(per + traho), tr., drag, lead. 

pervenio, ire, perveni, perventus (per 
+ venio), intr., arrive at, reach. 

pes, pedis, m., foot. 

pessime, sup. of male. 

pessimus, sup. of malus. 

peto, ere, petivi or petii, petitus, tr., 
aim at, seek, ask, demand, request. 

pietas, atis (pius, pious), /., devo- 
tion, loyalty. 

piger, pigra, pigrum, slow, lazy. 

pignus, pignoris, «., pledge, assur- 
ance. 

pilum, i, n., javelin. 

pirus, i, /, pear tree. 

Plancus, i. See Miinatius. 

planities, ei (planus, flat), / plain, 
level ground. 

plebes, ei, or plebs, plebis, /, com- 
mon people. 

plerusque, pleraque, plerumque, 
most, very many. 

pliirimus, a, um {^sup. of multus), 
most, very many ; plurimum posse, 
be very powerful, have most in- 
fluence, be supreme. 

plus, comp. c/multum. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



289 



plus, pluris {comp. o/multus), more; 

//., several, more. 
poculum, i, n., drinking cup. 
poena, ae, f., punishment, penalty; 

poenas dare, suffer punishment. 
Poeni, orum, m. p!., Carthaginians. 
polliceor, eri, poUicitus sum, promise. 
Pompeius, i, w., Pompey. 
Pompilius, i, tn., Numa Pompilius, 

second king of Rome. 
pono, ere, posui, positus, /;., place, 

put, pitch (a camp). 
pons, pontis, /, bridge. 
popOSCl. See pOSCO. 

populor, ari, atus sum (populus), 

ti'., ravage, lay waste. 
populus, T, m., people. 
Porsena, ae, /., king of Clusium in 

Etruria. 
porta, ae, /, gate. 
porto, are, avi, atus, tr., carry, 

bring, 
portus, us, m., port, harbor. 
posco, ere, poposci, — , /;., ask, de- 
mand. 
possideo, ere, possedi, — , tr., hold, 

occupy. 
possum, posse, potui, — , be able, 

can ; plurimum posse, be very 

powerful. 
post, adv., afterwards, later. 
post, prep. 7U. ace, after, behind. 
postea (post + is), adv., afterwards. 
posterus, a, um, following, next ; 

comp. posterior; sup. postremus. 
postquam (post + quam), conj., 

after. 
postridie (posterus + dies), ad<>., on 

the following day. 
postulo, are, avi, atus, tr., demand, 

ask. 



potens, potentis {pres. part, of 

possum), powerful, able. 
potentatus, lis (potens), m., supreme 

power, rule. 
potestas, atis (potis, able),/, power, 

authority, privilege. 
potior, potiri, potitus sum (potis, 

able), w. ahl., get possession of. 
prae, prep. w. ad/., before. 
praebeo, ere, praebui, praebitus 

(prae + habeo), /;-., furnish, sup- 
ply. 
praecino, ere, praecinui, — (prae + 

cano, sing), tr., play before. 
praeda, ae,y;, booty, spoil. 
praeficio, ere, praefeci, pracfectus 

(prae + facio), tr., set over, put 

in charge of. 
praeliiceo, ere.-praeliixi, — (prae + 

luceo, shine), 2>ttr., shine before. 
praemitto, ere, praemisi, praemissus 

(prae -f mitto), tr., send ahead, 

dispatch. 
praemium, i, n., reward. 
praescribo, ere, praescripsi, prae- 

scriptus (prae + scnhb),tr., direct, 

order. 
praesidium, i (praesideS, defend), 

«., guard, defense, garrison. 
praesto, praestare, praestiti, prae- 

stitus (prae + sto, stand), /;//;•., 

stand before, surpass, excel; tr., 

show. 
praesum, praeesse, praefui, praefu- 

tiirus (prae + sum), /;//;-., be at 

head of, be in charge of, command. 
praeterea (praeter, beyond + is), 

adv., besides. 
praeveni5, ire, praeveni, praeventus 

(prae + venio), tr., come before, 

outstrip, forestall. 



ESSEN. OF LATIN IQ 



290 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



pratum, i, «., field, meadow. 
primd (primus), adv., at first, 
primum (primus), adv., at first; 

quam primum, as soon as possible. 
primus, a, um, first; prima liice, at 

daybreak; primus devicit, was the 

first to conquer. 
princeps, principis (primus + 

capi5), in., chief, leader, author. 
prior, prius (pro), former, previous, 
priusquam (prius, sooner + quam), 

couj., before, sooner than. 
privatus, a, um (privo, deprive), 

private. 
pr5, prep. 7V. ad/., before, in front of, 

for, in behalf of, in proportion to, 

in place of ; row/, prior ; jzc/. pri- 
mus. 
Proca, ae, "/., a king of Allia Longa. 
proced5, ere, processi, pr5cessum 

(pro + cedo), ni/r., go forward, 

proceed, advance, 
procul, adv., far off, from afar, 
procuro, are, avi, atus (pr5 + ciiro), 

/;-., take care of, attend to ; avert. 
proditio, onis (prod5, betray), /, 

treachery, treason. 
proelium, i, «., battle. 
profecti5, onis (proficiscor), /, set- 
ting forth, departure. 
proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum 

(proficio, advance), /;//;-., set out, 

go, march. 
profugio, ere, profugi, — (pr5 + 

fugio), /;//;■., flee, escape. 
pr5gredior, progredi, progressus sum 

(pr5 + gradior, go), i/itr., proceed, 

advance. 
prohibeo, ere, prohibui, prohibitus 

(pro + habeo), /r., keep (away) 

from, prevent. 



proicio, ere, proieci, proiectus (pr5 

+ iacio), //'., throw forth, abandon. 
promittd, ere, promisi, promissus 

(pro + mitto), /r., promise. 
prope, ad?'., near, nearly; ay///, pro- 

pior ; sup. proximus. 
propero, are, avi, atus, htir., hasten. 
propinquitas, atis (propinquus, 

near),yC, nearness, relationship. 
propior, propius (prope), nearer. 
propius {covip. of prope), adv. and 

prep. w. ace, nearer. 
propono, ere, proposui, propositus 

(pr5 + pono), tr., set forth, declare, 

propose. 
propter, prep. w. ace, on account of. 
pr5sum, prodesse, profui, profutii- 

rus (pro + sum), in/r., be of serv- 
ice or use to, benefit. 
protinus, adv., ahead, directly. 
proturbo, are, avi, atus (pr5 + turbo, 

confuse), /;-., drive away, dislodge, 

repulse. 
provincia, ae,/., province. 
provold, are, avi, — (pro + volo), 

inir., fly fiirth, rush out. 
proxime (proximus), adv., last, re- 
cently. 
proximus, a, um (prope), nearest, 

next; in proximo, near by. 
prudens, prudentis (pr5 -f videns), 

foreseeing, wise. 
prudenter (priidens), adv., wisely, 
piiblicus, a, um (populus), public; 

res piiblica, the state, republic. 
Piiblius, i, w., a Roman name. 
pudor, oris, m., sense of shame, 

honor, 
puella, ae (puer),/, girl. 
puer, pueri, w., boy. 
pugna, ae, /, fight, battle. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



291 



pugn5, are, avi, atus (pugnus, fist), 
intr., tight; pugnatum est, they 
fought. 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beauti- 
ful, pretty. 

Pulcher, Pulchri, ;«., P. Claudius 
Pulcher, consul 249 B.C. 

pulchre (pulcher), adv., beautifully. 

pullarius, i (pullus), w., keeper of the 
sacred chickens. 

pullus, i, m., chicken. 

pulsus. See pello. 

Punicus, a, um, Punic, Phoenician, 
Carthaginian. 

punio, ire, punivi, punitus (poena), 
tr., punish. 

Pyrenaeus, a, um, (of the) Pyrenees. 



quadraginta, indecL, forty, 
quadringenti, ae, a, four hundred. 
quaero, ere, quaesivi, quaesitus, to 

seek, ask. 
quam, than ; ivith a sup., as possible, 

possible. 
quantus, a, um, how great, as. 
quare (quae + res), adv., for which 

reason, therefore. 
quasi (quam + si), adv., on the 

ground that, because. 
quattuor, indecL, four. 
-que, enclitic conj., and. 
qui, quae, quod, re/, proii., who, 

which, what, that; quam ob rem, 

wherefore, therefore. 
quicquam. See quisquam. 
quicumque, quaecumque, quodcum- 

que, rel. proi!., whoever, wliatever. 
quidam, quaedam, quoddam or 

quiddam, indef. proii., certain, a 

certain one, somebody. 



quidem, adv., indeed, truly. 

quin, conj., that not ; that ; from 

\after verbs of hindering). 
quindecim (quinque + decem), 

indecL, fifteen. 
quingenti, ae, a, five hundred. 
quinque, indecL, five. 
Quintus, i (quintus, fifth), ;«., a 

Roman name. 
Quirinalis, is, m., Quirinal, one of 

the hills of Rome. 
Quirinus, i, «., the name given to 

Romulus after his deification. 
quis, quae, quid and qui, quae or 

qua, quod, interrog. and indef. 

pron., who, which, what ; any, any 

one, some one. 
quisquam, quaequam, quicquam or 

quodquam, indef. pron., any, any 

one. 
quisque, quaeque, quidque or quod- 

que, indef. pron., each (one), every 

(one). 
quivis, quaevis, quodvis or quidvis 

(qui + vis, front volo), indef. 

pron., any one you please. 
qu5 (qui), adv., where, whither. 
quod (qui), conj., because. 
quondam, adv., once, formerly. 
quoniam, conj., since, because. 
quoque, adv., also, likewise. 

R 

rapio,ere,rapui,raptus,i';-.,seize,steal. 

ratio, onis (reor, think),/., considera- 
tion, method. 

ratis, is,/, raft. 

Rauraci, orum, ;«., a Celtic tribe near 
the Rhine. 

recido, ere, recidi, — (cado), intr.., 
fall back, fall, come back to. 



292 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



recipio, ere, recepT, receptus (capio), 

/;•., take back ; se recipere, betake 

one's self, retreat. 
reddo,reddere,reddidi,redditus (do), 

tr., give back, return, render. 
redeo, redire, redii, rediturus (eo), 

intr., go back, return. 
redintegro, are, avi, atus (integer, 

whole), tr., restore, renew, 
reditio, 5nis (redeo),/, return. 
reduc5, ere, reduxi, reductus (duco), 

/;'., lead back. 
refero, referre, rettuli, relatus (fero), 

carry back ; pedem referre, retreat. 
regina, ae (rex),/, queen. 
regius, a, um (rex), kingly, royal; 

aedes regiae, jialace. 
regn5, are, avi, atus (regnum), /«//-., 

be king, reign, 
regnum, i (rex), «., royal power, 

kingdom. 
rego, ere, rexi, rectus, tr., guide, rule. 
relabor, relabi, relapsus sum (labor, 

slip), ;;;/;-., sink back, subside. 
religiS, onis,/, piety ; //., rites. 
relinquo, ere, reliqui, relictus (linquo, 

leave), tr., leave behind, leave. 
reliquus, a, um, remaining, left, the 

rest of; nihil reliqui, nothing left; 

in reliquum tempus, for the future. 
remaned, ere, remansi, — (maneo), 

iiitr., remain, stay. 
remuneror, ari, atus sum (mixnus), 

tr., repay, reward. 
Remus, i, m., the brother of Romulus. 
Remus, i, m., a Reman, one of the 

Remi, a Belgic trilie of Gaul, 
renuntio, are, avi, atus (niintio), tr., 

report. 
repello, ere, reppuli, repulsus (pello), 

tr., drive back, repulse. 



repente, adv., suddenly, unexpectedly. 

reperio, ire, repperi, repertus (pari5, 
produce), /;-., find, discover, ascer- 
tain. 

reppuli. See repello. 

reprehends, ere, reprehendi, repre- 
hensus (prehendo, seize),/;-., blame, 
censure. 

repromitto, ere, repromisi, repro- 
missus (promitt5), //., promise in 
return. 

res, Tel,/., thing, affair, circumstance ; 
res frumentaria, provisions, sup- 
plies of grain ; res piiblica, state, 
republic ; quam ob rem, wherefore, 
therefore. 

rescinds, ere, rescidi, rescissus 
(scindo, break down), /;-., break 
down, destroy. 

resisto, ere, restiti, — (sisto, place), 
intr., oppose, resist, hold one's 
ground. 

respondeo, ere, respondi, resp5nsus 
(spondeo, promise), tr., reply, 
answer. 

restituo, ere, restitui, restitiitus 
(statuo), /;■., renew, restore. 

retined, ere, retinui, retentus (teneo), 
tr., ht)ld back, detain, retain. 

reverts, ere, reverti, — , and rever- 
ter, reverti, reversus sum (verto), 
intr., turn back, return. 

revivisco, ere, — , — (viv5), intr., 
be alive again. 

revoco, are, avi, atus (voco), tr., 
recall. 

rex, regis, w., king. 

Rhea, ae,/, Rhea Silvia, the mother 
of Romulus and Remus. 

Rhenus, i, w., the Rhine. 

Rhodanus, i, m., the Rhone. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



293 



rigo, are, avi, atus, ir., wet, moisten. 
ripa, ae,/, bank (of a river). 
robur, roboris, )i., oak ; strength, 
rogo, are, avi, atus, tr., ask, beg. 
R5ma, ae, /, Rome. 
R5manus, a, um (Roma), Roman; 

as subst. Romanus, 1, in., a Roman. 
Romulus, i, in., the reputed founder 

of Rome. 
rosa, ae,/, rose. 
rumor, oris, m., rumor, report. 
riirsus (reverto), adv., back, again, 
rus, riiris, m., the country ; ruri, in 

the country. 



Sabinus, i, m. i. A Sabine. 2. See 

Titurius. 
Sabis, is, m. , a river of Belgic Gaul, 

the modern Sambre. 
sacer, sacra, sacrum, holy, sacred; 

as subst. sacrum, i, «., a holy thing, 

religious rite. 
sacerdos, otis (sacer), ?n. and f., 

priest, priestess. 
sacrificium, i (sacer + facio), n., 

sacrifice. 
sacrum. See sacer, 
saepe, adz'., often; saepius, very 

often. 
saepes, is,/, hedge, fence, 
sagitta, ae,y;, arrow. 
Sagittarius, i (sagitta), w., bowman. 
Salii, orum (salio, leap), w., dancing 

priests of Mars. 
saltem, adv., at least, 
saltus, lis (salio, leap), m., jump; 

ravine. 
Santones, um, w. //., a Celtic tribe 

near the Garonne, 
sarcina, ae,/, bundle, pack. 



satis, adi'., enough. 

saxum, i, ;/., rock, stone. 

Scaevola, ae (scaeva, left-handed), 

m., a surname of Gaius Mucius. 
scapha, ae, /, skiff, boat, 
scientia, ae (scio), /, knowledge, 

skill. 
sci5, scire, scivi or scii, scitus, tr., 

know, know how. 
scriba, ae (scribo), >n., writer, scribe, 

secretary. 
scribo, ere, scripsi, scriptus, tr., write, 
sciitum, i, n., shield. 
se. See sui. 
secretus, a, um (secerno, separate), 

concealed, hidden, secret. 
secundum (secundus), adv., along, 
secundus, a, um (sequor), following, 

second; favorable. 
secUtus. See sequor. 
sed, conj., but. 

sedeo, ere, sedi, sessum, intr., sit. 
sedecim, indecl., sixteen. 
sedile, is (sedeo), n., seat, 
segnis, e, slow, sluggish. 
Segusiavi, orum, m. pi., a tribe of 

Celtic Gaul. 
sella, ae (sedeo),/, seat, chair; sella 

curiilis, a portable chair, opening 

like a camp-stool. Its use belonged 

at first only to the king, but later 

to curule aediles, praetors, consuls, 

dictators, and the Flamines. 
semper, adv., always, ever, 
senator, oris (senex), ;«., senator, 
senatus, iis (senex), in., senate, 
senectiis, utis (senex),/, old age. 
senex, gen. senis, old, aged; comp. 

senior ; sup. maximus natii. 
Senones, um, m. pi., a tribe of Celtic 

Gaul. 



294 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



sententia, ae (sentio, discern), /., 

opinion, decision. 
sepelio, ire, sepelivi, sepultus, tr., 

bury, 
septem, indecL, seven, 
septuaginta, indecL, seventy. 
sepultus. See sepelio. 
Sequanus, a, um, Sequanian; as subst. 

Sequanus, i, >n., a Sequanian, one 

of the Sequani, a tribe of Belgic 

Gaul. 
sequor, sequi, seciitus sum, o-., fol- 
low. 
servo, are, avi, atus (servus), (?■., 

keep, preserve, save. 
servus, i, ;«., slave, servant. 
sese. See sui. 
sex, indecL, six. 
si, conj., if; si minus, if not. 
sibi. See sui. 
sic, adv., thus, so. 
siccus, a, um, dry; in sicco, on dry 

ground. 
significo, are, avi, atus (signum + 

facio), tr., signify, declare. 
signum, i, «., sign, signal, standard, 

ensign; signa convertere, face 

about; signa inferre, charge, 
silens, silentis (siled, be still), silent, 

quiet. 
silva, ae, /, wood, forest, 
silvestris, e (silva), wooded, 
similis, e, like, similar. 
simulo, are, avi, atus (similis), /;., 

pretend. 
sine, prep. w. ahl., without. 
singuli, ae, a, one by one, individual, 

each, 
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left. 
socer, soceri, w., father-in-law. 
societas, atis (socius),/, alliance. 



soci5, are, avi, atus (socius), /;., 
join, share. 

socius, i (sequor), /;/., companion, 
ally. 

sol, s51is, »i., sun; sole ort5, at sun- 
rise. 

soleo, ere, solitus sum, iuir., be 
accustomed. 

s51itudo, inis (solus), f., wilderness. 

solitus. See soleo. 

soUicito, are, avi, atus, /;-., stir up, 
arouse, provoke. 

solus, a, um, only, alone, sole. 

somnium, i (somnus), n., dream. 

somnus, i, w., sleep. 

soroi*, oris, /., sister. 

spatium, i, «., space, distance, time, 
opportunity. 

spectaculum, i (specto, behold), n., 
sight, show, spectacle. 

speculator, 5ris, w., scout, spy. 

spero, are, avi, atus (spes), tr., hope, 
expect. 

spes, spei, /, hope. 

sponte {all.), of one's own accord. 

statim (sto), adv., forthwith, im- 
mediately. 

statio, onis (sto), /, post, picket, 
guard. 

statua, ae (statuo), /, image, 
statue. 

statuo, ere, statui, statiitus, tr , place, 
decide, determine. 

Stella, ae, /, star. 

stipendium, i (stips, gift -f- pendo, 
pay), n., pay, tribute. 

strepitus, us, in., noise. 

studeo, ere, studui, — , intr., be eager 
for, desire. 

studium, i (studeo), «., zeal, eager- 
ness. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



295 



stultus, a, um, silly, foolish. 

sub, prep. zu. abl. and ace. : u>. abl., 

under, below, at the foot of ; zv. ace, 

under, up to, to the foot of. 
subduco, ere, subduxi, subductus 

(sub + duco), O-., bring up. 
subito (subitus, sudden), a(h<., sud- 
denly. 
sublatus. Set' tollo. 
subruo, ere, subrul, subrutus (sub + 

ruo, overthrow), tr., dig under, 

undermine. 
subsequor, subsequi, subsecutus sum 

(sub + sequor), tr., follow, pursue, 
subsidium, i (sub + sedeo), «., aid, 

relief 
succedo, ere, success!, successum 

(sub + cedo), tr. and intr., come 

up, approach. 
successus, us (succedo), »i., ap- 
proach. 
Suessiones, um, m. pL, a tribe of 

Belgic Gaul. 
sufficio, ere, suffici, suffectus (sub + 

faci5), inir., he sufficient. 
SUl, pers. pron., of himself (herself, 

itself, themselves) ; he, she, it ; dat. 

sibi, ace. and abl. se, sese ; inter 

se, to one another. 
sum, esse, fui, futurus, intr., be; 

w. dat. of possessor, have. 
summa, ae (summus), /, the whole ; 

leadership, supremacy. 
summus. See superus. 
sumo, ere, siimpsi, sumptus, tr., take, 

assume, begin (battle). 
super, prep. w. ace. and abl., over, 

upon, in addition to. 
superbus, a, um, haughty, proud. 
supericio, ere, superieci, superiectus 

(super + iacio), tr., throw across. 



superior. See superus. 

supero, Jlre, avi, atus (superus), /;•., 

surpass, overcome, conquer. 
supersedeo, ere, supersedi, superses- 

sus (super + sedeo), intr., be 

superior, refrain from. 
supersum, superesse, superfui, super- 

futHrus (super + sum), intr., be 

over, survive. 
superus, a, um (super), above ; 

coiiip. superior, ius, upper, former; 

Slip, supremus, summus, highest, 

very great, top of 
supervenio, ire, superveni, superven- 

tum (super + venio), intr., arrive. 
supplicium, i (supplex, suppliant), 

;/., punishment, death. 
supra, adv. and prep. w. ace., above, 

before. 
supremus. See superus. 
suscipio, ere, suscepi, susceptus (sub 

+ capio), tr., unilertake. 
sustento, are, avi, atus (sustineo), 

/;•., endure, withstand. 
sustineo, ere, sustinui, sustentus 

(sub + teneo), //'. and intr., hold 

up, withstand, sustain. 
sustuli. See tollo. 
suus, a, um (sui), his, her, its, their; 

his (her, its, their) own; suaque 

omnia, all their possessions. 



T. = Titus. 

tam, adv., so. 

tamen, adv., however, yet, never- 
theless. 

tantus, a, um (tam), so great, 
such. 

Tarpeia, ae, /".. a Roman girl in the 
time of Romulus. 



296 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



Tatius, i, m., Titus Tatius, a Sabine 
king, joint ruler with Romulus. 

te, ace. of tu. 

telum, T, «., missile, weapon. 

temeritas, atis, f., rashness. 

tempestas, atis (tempus), y;, storm, 
tempest. 

templum, i, n., temple. 

tempus, temporis, ;/., time, occasion. 

tendo, ere, tetendi, tentus (inJ ten- 
SUS, spread out, stretch. 

tener, tenera, tenerum, tender, young. 

terra, ae, /., earth, land, country; 
terra, by land. 

terreo, ere, terrui, territus, ir., 
frighten, terrify. 

tertius, a, um (tres), third. 

testOdo, inis,/, tortoise; shed. 

Teuton!, orum or Teutones, um, >n. 
pi.. Teutons, a Germanic people on 
the Baltic. 

Tiberis, is, w., the Tiber. 

tibi, dat. of tu. 

tibicen, inis, »i., piper, Hute player. 

timeo, ere, timui, — , //-. and intr., 
fear, be afraid of. 

timidus, a, um (timeo), afraid, timid. 

Titurius, i, w., Quintus Titurius Sa- 
binus, one of Caesar's lieutenants. 

Titus, i, «/., a Roman name. 

tollo, ere, sustuli, sublatus, /;-., lift 
up, raise; remove, destroy. 

Tolosates, ium, w. //., Tolosates, in- 
habitants of Tolosa (modern Tou- 
louse). 

tormentum, i (torqueo, twist), ;/., a 
military engine for hurling missiles. 

Torquatus, i (torquis, necklace), w., 
a surname of Titus Manlius. See 
Manlius. 

totus, a, um, whole, all. 



trado, ere, tradidi, traditus (trans + 

do), /;'., give over, give up, deliver, 

surrender. 
traduc5, ere, traduxi, traductus 

(trans + duco), tr., lead over, 

transport. 
traicio, ere, traieci, traiectus (trans 

+ iacio), tr., throw or carry across, 

pass over, transfix. 
Tralles, Trallium, /, a town of 

Lydia. 
trans, prep. w. ace, across, over, 

through. 
transed, ire, transii, transitus (trans 

+ e5), tr. and iittr., cross, go over, 

pass over, go across. 
transfugio, ere, transfixgi, — (trans 

+ fugi5), intr., flee over, go over, 
transgredior, transgredi, transgres- 

sus sum (trans + gradior, go), tr., 

go over, pass over. 
transilio, ire, transilui, — (trans + 

salio, leap), tr., leap over, jump 

across. 
transversus, a, um (transvert5, turn 

across), transverse; transversa 

fossa, cross ditch, 
trecenti, ae, a (tres + centum), three 

hundred. 
tredecim (tres + decem), /;/^/t'(7., thir- 
teen, 
tres, tria, three. 

tribiinal, alis (tribiinus), «., judg- 
ment seat, tribunal. 
tribiinus, i (tribus, tribe), w., tribune, 

a military officer. 
triduum, i (tres + dies), «., interval 

of three days. 
triginta, indecl., thirty, 
triumphus, i, ni., triumph, 
tu, tui, pers. proii., you, thou. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATLN 



297 



tuba, ae,/, trumpet. 

tuli. See fero. 

Tulingi, orum, »i. pi., a Germanic 
tribe near the upper Rhine. 

turn, adv., then, in the next place. 

tumultus, i, m., uproar, disturbance. 

tunc, adv., then, at that time. 

turba, &&,/, throng, crowd. 

turpis, e, ugly, disgraceful, infamous. 

turris, is,/, tower. 

tutela, ae (tueor, protect), w., guard- 
ian, protection. 

tutus, a, um (tueor, protect), safe. 

tuus, a, um (tu), your, yours. 

U 
ubi, adv., where, when. 
uUus, a, um, any, any one. 
ulterior, ulterius, farther ; sztp. ulti- 

mus, a, um. 
ultra, adv. and prep. iv. ace, beyond, 

farther. 
una (iinus), adv., together with. 
unde, adv., whence. 
undecim (unus + decem), indecl., 

eleven. 
undique, adv., from or on all sides. 
universus, a, um (unus + verto, 

turn), whole, entire, 
unus, a, um, one. 
urbs, urbis, /, city. 
usus, a, um. See utor. 
usus, us (utor), m., use, advantage, 

benefit, help; Usui esse, be of 

service. 
ut, uti, (l) adv., as when ; (2) conj., 

that, in order that, so that. 
uter, utra, utrum, which (of two), 

which one. 
uterque, utraque, utrumque, each 

(of two), both. 



uti. See ut. 

uti. See utor. 

utilis, e (utor), useful. 

utinam, adv., O that, would that, 

may. 
utor, uti, iisus sum, ir., use, employ. 
uxor, 5ris, /, wife. 



vacuus, a, um, empty, destitute of, 
vacant. 

vadum, i, ;/., shoal, ford. 

vagitus, us (vagio, cry), w., crying, 
squalling. 

Valerius, i, w.. Marcus Valerius Max- 
imus Corvintls, consul 343 b.c. 

validus, a, um (valeo, be strong), 
strong, sturdy. 

vallum, i, n, wall, rampart, earth- 
works. 

vasto, are, avi, atus (vastus), tr., lay 
waste, ravage. 

vastus, a, um, vast, enormous. 

velocitas, atis (velox), /, speed, 
swiftness. 

velox, velocis, swift, quick. 

velut, veluti, adv., as if, just as if. 

venia, ae, /., favor, permission. 

venio, ire, veni, ventum, iutr., come; 
in fidem venire, put one's self un- 
der the protection of. 

venor, ari, atus sum, /;., hunt, chase. 

verbum, i, «., word ; verba facere, 
speak. 

vereor, eri, veritus sum, /;., fear, be 
afraid of. 

vergo, ere, — , — , intr., lie toward, 
incline. 

veritus. See vereor. 

vero (veru?, true), adv., in fact, in- 
deed, however. 



298 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



vertex, verticis (verto, turn), m., 
summit, crest. 

verum (verus, true), adv., certainly, 
but. 

vescor, vesci, — , def., eat. 

Vesta, ae, /., goddess of the hearth, 
and hence of the family and state. 
Her sacred fire, kept continually 
burning in her temple near the 
P'orum, was watched by six priest- 
esses, called Vestals. 

vester, vestra, vestrum (v6s), your, 
yours. 

vestis, is, y], {garment, clothing. 

veto, are, vetui, vetitus, ir., forbid. 

vetus, veteris, old, ancient; comp. 
vetustior; sup. veterrimus. 

vexillum, I, ;/., a military ensign. 

via, ae, f., way, road, street, jour- 
ney. 

vici. See vinco. 

Vicinus, a, um (vicus), neighboring, 
near. 

victor, oris (vinco), m., conqueror, 
victor. 

victoria, ae (victor), y', victory. 

victus, victurus. See vinco. 

vicus, 1, m., village. 

videlicet (video -f licet), adv., of 
course, that is. 

video, ere, vidi, visus, tr., see ; pass., 
seem, appear. 

vigilia, ae, f., watching, watch (a 
fourth part of the night). 

viginti, indecl., twenty. 

vincio, ire, vinxi, vinctus, tr., bind. 

vinco, ere, vici, victus, /;-., conquer, 
overcome. 

vinculum, i (vinci5), n., chain, fetter ; 
in or ex vinculis, in chains. 



vindico, are, avi, atus, /;-., punish, 

inflict punishment. 
vinea, ae, y., a military shed. 
vinum, i, «., wine. 
vinxi. See vincio. 
vir, viri, vi., man. 
vires. See vis. 

Virgo, virginis, f., virgin, maiden, girl. 
Viromandui, orum, >u. pi., a tribe of 

Belgic Gaul. 
virtus, virtutis (vir), /'., manhood, 

virtue, bravery, courage. 
vis, vim,y;, power, force, number; pi. 

vires, strength. 
vita, ae,y.", life. 
vivo, ere, vixi, — , /;//;•., live. 
vix, adv., hardly, barely. 
vixi. See vinco. 
voco, are, avi, atus (vox), tr., call, 

sunmion. 
Vocontii. 5rum, m. pi., a tribe of Gaul. 

1. V0I6, velle, volui, — , wish, desire, 
be willing. 

2. volo, are, avi, atiirus, iiitr., fly. 
voluntarius, a, um (voluntas), will- 
ing, v(jluntary. 

voluntas, atis (i. vol5), /, desire, 
consent, favor. 

VOS, pi. o/tu. 

vove5, ere, vovi, votus, tr., vow, 
promise. 

vox, vocis, /., voice ; //., words. 

vulgo (vulgus, multitude), rt'f/j'., gen- 
erally, everywhere. 

vulnerd, are, avi, atus (vulnus), tr., 
wound. 

vulnus, vulneris, «., wound. 

vultur, vulturis, m., vulture. 

vultus, us, w., expression, looks, 
countenance. 



VOCABULARY 



ENGLISH — LATIN 



[Numbers refer to Sections.] 



able, potens, potentis; be able, pos- 
sum, pusse, potuT. 

about to, be, active periphrastic con- 
jtigation (437); fut. participle. 

above, superus. 

absent, be, absum, afuT, afutiirus. 

abundance, copia, ae, /. 

accomplish, conficio, conficere, con- 
fecl, confectus. 

account of, on, abl. of cause ; ob, prop- 
ter, w. ace. 

across, trans, w. ace. ; (a bridge) 
across the river, in flumine. 

adjoining, finitimus, a, um. 

administer, administro, are, avT, atus. 

advance, procedo, ere, process!, pro- 
cessus; progredior, progredi, pro- 
gressus sum. 

advantage, lisus, us, m. 

advice, consilium, T, «. 

advise, moneo, ere, monuT, monitus. 

affair, res, rei, /. 

afraid, be, timeo, ere, timuT, — . 

after, prep., post, 70. ace ; conj., post- 
quam. 

afterwards, adv., postal. 

against, in, contra, w. ace. ; be 
against, obsum, obesse, obful, ob- 
futurus. 



agreeable, gratus, a, um. 

aid, auxilium, 1, «. 

aid, adsum, adesse, adfui, adfuturus. 

aim, peto, ere, petlvi or petii, petltus. 

alarm, permoveo, ere, permovl, per- 

motus. 
all, omnis, e; totus, a, um. 
alliance, amlcitia, ae,/. 
allow, patior, pati, passus sum; per- 

mitto, ere, permTsT, permissus; con- 

ced5, ere, concessi, concessus. 
ally, socius, I, m. 
alone, solus, a, um. 
already, iam. 

although, cum, 'lU. subjv.; abl, abs., 314. 
always, semper. 
am, sum, esse, fuT, futurus. 
ambassador, legatus, T, m. 
among, inter, apud, w. ace. ; be 

among, Insum, inesse, infuT, Infu- 

turus ; intersum, interesse, interfuT, 

interfuturus. 
ample, amplus, a, um. 
ancient, vetus, veteris. 
and, et, -que, at que; and not, neque. 
animal, animal, animalis, it. 
announce, nuntio, are, avT, atus; 

enuntio, are, avT, atus. 
another, alius, a, ud ; to one another, 

inter se; another's, alienus, a, um. 



299 



300 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



answer, respondeo, ere, respond!, re- 

sp5nsus. 
any, any one, lillus, a, um ; aliquis, 

aliqua, aliquid or aliquod ; quis- 

quam, quicquam ; cjuivis, quaevis, 

quodvTs. 
appoint, constitud, ere, cdnslitui, con- 

stitutus. 
approach, adventus, us, in. ; aditus, 

US, m. 
approach, appropTnqu6, are, avT, 

atus; accedo, ere, accedi, acces- 

surus. 
Ariovistus, Ariovistus, T, tn. 
arm, armo, are, avi, atus. 
arms, arma, orum, «. //«;-. 
army, exercitus, us, ;«. / army on the 

march, agmen, agminis, ;/. 
around, circum, w. ace. 
arouse, incite, are, avT, atus ; per- 

moveS, ere, permovT, permotus. 
arrange, instruS, ere, instruxl, In- 

structus. 
arrival, adventus, iis, m. 
arrive, pervenio, Ire, perveni, per- 

ventus. 
arrow, sagitta, ae, / 
art, ars, artis, / 
ascertain, reperio, ire, repperl, reper- 

tus. 
ask, rogo, are, avi, atus ; peto, ere, 

petTvi or petiT, petitus ; mando, are, 

avi, atus. 
assemble, convenio, ire, convenT, 

conventus. 
at, ad, w. ace. ; sign of abl. of time. 
Athens, Athenae, 2it\xm, f phtr. 
attack, impetus, us, m. 
attack, oppugno, are, avi, atus ; 

lacesso, ere, lacessTvT, lacessitus. 
attempt, c5nor, ari, atus sum. 



authority, auctoritas, atis,// postes- 

tas, atis, yr 
await, exspecto, are, avi, atus. 
away, be, absum, abesse, afuT, afu- 

turus. 

B 
bad, malus, a, um. 

baggage, impedimenta, orum, n. plur, 
band, manus, us, f. 
bank (of river), ripa, ae,/ 
barbarous, harbarus, a, um. 
battle, proelium, i, ;/. ,• pugna, ae, f. ; 

line of battle, acies, aciei,/ 
be, sum, esse, fui, futurus. 
bear, fero, ferre, tull, latus. 
beautiful, pulcher, pulchra, pul- 

chrum. 
beautifully, pulchre. 
because, ciuod ; all. of cause ; be- 
cause of, propter, lu. ace. 
before, jiro, 7v. abl. ; ante, w. ace. 
beg, peto, ere, petlvl or petil, petitus; 

rogo, are, avi, atus. 
begin, coepi, coepisse, coeptus sum ; 

begin battle, proelium committo, 

ere, commlsl, commissus. 
behalf of, in, pro, 2v. abl. 
behind, post, w. ace. 
Belgae, Belgae, arum, tn. 
believe, existimo, are, avi, atus ; 

cred5, ere, credidi, creditus. 
below, Inferus, a, um. 
benefit, prosum, prodesse, proful, 

prdfuturus. 
benefit, usus, us, n. 
besiege, oppugno, are, avi, atus ; ob- 

sideo, ere, obsedl, obsessus. 
best, optimus, a, um ; adv., optime. 
betake one's self, confero, conferre, 

contull, conlatus {refl.'). 
between, inter, w. ace. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



301 



bid, iube5, ere, iussT, iussus. 

bind, vincio, Ire, vinxi, vinctus. 

bird, avis, is, / 

black, niger, nigra, nigrum. 

blame, culp5, are, avT, atus. 

body, corpus, corporis. 

book, liber, librl, w. 

booty, praeda, ae, f. 

both . . . and, et . . . et. 

bottom of, imus, a, um. 

boundary, fines, \\xm, f. plur. 

boy, puer, puerT, w. 

brave, fortis, e. 

bravely, fortiter. 

bravery, virtus, iitis,/ 

breaking out, eruptio, onis, / 

bridge, pons, pontis, ///. 

brief, brevis, e. 

bring, fero, ferre, tulT, latus ; porto, 
are, avT, atus ; bring in, infero, 
Inferre, intulT, inlatus ; bring to- 
gether, confero, conferre, contuli, 
conlatus. 

broad, latus, a, um. 

brother, frater, fratris, m. 

build, aedifico, are, avT, atus ; facio, 
ere, feci, factus. 

building, aedificium, T, «. 

burn, incendo, ere, incendi, incen- 
sus. 

but, sed, at, autem {postpositive). 

by, sign of ahl. ; a or ab 7v. ahl. ; by 
means oi,abI. of means ; per, w. ace. 



Caesar, Caesar, Caesaris, w. 

call, voco, are, avT, atus ; appello, 

are, avi, atus ; call together, con- 

voco, are, avT, atus. 
camp, castra, orum, n. plur. 
can, possum, posse, potuT, 



capture, capio, ere, cepT, captus ; ex- 

pugno, are, avi, atus. 
care, cura, ae, f. 
carefully, cum cura. 
carefulness, diligentia, ae,/ 
carry, porto, are, avT, atus ; fero, 

ferre, tuli, latus ; carry back, refero, 

referre, rettulT, relatus ; carry on, ■ 

gero, ere, gessT, gestus. 
Carthage, CarthagS, inis, / 
case, causa, ae, f. 
cause, causa, ae, / 
cavalry, equitatus, us, m. ; equites, 

um, in. plur.; of the cavalry, 

equester, equestris, equestre. 
Celt, Celta, ae, in. 
certain, a . . . one, quidam, quaedam, 

quoddam or quiddam. 
chain, vinculum, I ; in chains, ex 

vinculis. 
chance, casus, ijs, in. 
change, converts, ere, convertT, con- 

versus. 
charge, signa Infero, Inferre, intull, 

inlatus. 
charge of, be in, praesum, praeesse, 

pracfui, praefutfirus ; put in charge 

of, praeficio, ere, praefecl, prae- 

fectus. 
chief, prlnceps, principis, m. 
children, llberl, 5rum, m. plur. 
choose, deligo, ere, delegl, delectus, 
circumstance, res, rei,/ 
citizen, civis, is, m. and f. 
citizenship, civitas, atis,/ 
city, urbs, urbis,/ 
cohort, cohors, cohortis, / 
collect, cogo, ere, coegi, coactus. 
column, agmen, agminis, n. 
come, veni5. Ire, veni, ventum; come 

around, circumvenio. Ire, circum- 



302 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



veni, circumventus ; come near, 
accedo, ere, access!, accessurus ; 
come together, convenio, ire, con- 
veni, conventus ; come up, per- 
venio. Ire, perveni, perventus. 

command, imperium, i, n. 

command, iubeo, ere, iussT, iussus ; 
impero, are, avT, atus ; niando, are, 
avl, atus ; praesum, praeesse, prae- 
fui, praefuturus {70. dat). 

commander, dux, ducis, ni. ; impera- 
tor, oris, ;«. 

commit, committo, ere, commisl, corn- 
missus. 

common people, plebs, plebis,/ 

companion, socius, T, ni. 

compel, cogo, ere, coegi, coactus. 

complete, compleo, complere, com- 
plevl, compietus. 

concerning, de, -u. ahl. 

condemn, damnd, are, avT, atus. 

confer, conloquor, conloquT, cunlocu- 
tus sum. 

confidence, fides, ei,/ 

congratulate, gratulor, ari, atus sum. 

conquer, supero, are, avT, atus ; vinco, 
ere, vTcT, victus. 

conspiracy, coniuralio, dnis, yC 

conspirator, coniuratus, T, m. 

consul, consul, c5nsulis, ni. 

contend, contends, ere, contendl, 
contentus ; dlmico, are, avT, atus. 

contracted, angustus, a, um. 

convert, converts, ere, convert!, con- 
versus. 

Corinth, Corinthus, T,/ 

country, terra, ae, f. ; patria, ae, f. ; 
rus, riiris ; in the country, ruri. 

courage, animus, 1, ;/. 

cross, transeo, ire, transii, transitus, 

crowd, valgus, i, n. ; multitiido, inis,/ 



cry, clamor, oris, ;«. 

cup, poculum, i, n. 

custom, consuetudo, inis, yi 

cut down, occldo, ere, occisi, occisus. 



daily, cottidianus, a, um ; adr'., cot- 

tidie. 
danger, perTculum, T, ;/. 
dare, audeS, ere, ausus sum. 
daughter, filia, ae,/ 
day, dies, dief, w. 
daybreak, at, prima luce, 
daylight, lux, lucis, / 
dear, earns, a, um ; gratus, a, um. 
dearly, care. 
death, mors, mortis,/ 
deed, factum, 1, ;/. 
deep, altus, a, um. 
defeat, calamitas, atis.yl 
defend, dCfendd, ere, defend!, de- 

fc'iisus. 
defense, praesidium, i, //. 
delay, moror, ari, atus sum. 
delight, delects, are, avi, atus. 
deliver (= set free), libero, are, avi, 

atus ( = hand over) ; trado, tradere, 

tradidT, traditus. 
Delphi, Delphi, orum, m. 
demand, postulo, are, avi, atus ; peto, 

ere, petlvi or petiT, petitus. 
depart, discedo, ere,discessi,discessus. 
dependent, cliens, clientis, w. 
depth, altitudS, inis,/ 
desire, cupio, ere, cupivT or cupiT, 

cupitus. 
desirous (of), cupidus, a, um. 
determine, cSnstituS, ere, const itui, 

constitutus. 
die, morior, mori, mortuus sum ; cado, 

ere, cecidi, casiirus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



303 



difficult, difficilis, e. 

diligence, diligentia, ae,/; 

direct, adiuinistro, are, avi, atus. 

disaster, calamitas, atis, y". 

discover, leperiS, Ire, repperi, re- 
pertus. 

disgraceful, turpis, e. 

dismiss, dlmitto, ere, diniTsT, dimissus. 

dispatch, praemitto, ere, praemisi, 
praemissus. 

disposition, animus, I, m. 

dissimilar, dissimilis, e. 

ditch, fossa, ae,y; 

do, facio, ere, feci, factus ; ago, ere, 
egl, actus. 

document, litterae, arum,/////;-. 

down from, de, w. ahl. 

draw near, appropinquS, are, avi, atus. 

draw up, Tnstruo, ere, TnstruxT, In- 
struct us. 

drive away, pello, ere, pepull, pulsus. 

during, inter, iv. ace. 

E 

each (one), quisque, quaeque, quid- 

que ; each (of two), uterque, utra- 

que, utrumque. 
eager, acer, acris, acre ; eager for, 

cupidus, a, um {tv.gen.^. 
eagerly, acriter ; cum studio, 
earthworks, vallum, I, w. 
easily, facile. 
easy, facilis, e. 
eight, octo. 

employ, iitor, uti, fisus sum. 
encourage, hortor, arl, atus sum ; 

cohortor, arl, atus sum ; incite, 

are, avT, atus. 
end, finis, Is,y; 
enemy, hostis, is, m. and f. 
enjoy, fruor, frul, frfictus sum. 



enough, satis, i tided. 
ensign, signum, I, ti. 
entangle, impedio, ire, impedlvl, im- 

pedltus. 
equal, par, paris. 
equestrian, equester, equestris, eques- 

tre. 
equip, armo, are, avi, atus. 
establish, cSnflrmo, are, avi, atus. 
Europe, Europa, ae,y; 
even, express by ipse, a, um. 
ever, semper. 
every, omnis, e. 
evil, inalus, a, um. 
exceedingly, express by superlative. 
except, nisi. 

exchange, inter se dare, 
exhort, cohortor, ari, atus sum. 
expect, exspecto, are, avi, atus. 
expel, pello, ere, pepull, pulsus. 



face about, signa confero, conferre, 

contull, conlatus. 
facing, adversus, a um ; prep., adver- 

sus, zv. ace. 
fail, desum, deesse, deful, defuturus. 
faithful, fidus, a, um. 
fall, cado, ere, cecidi, casurus. 
falling, casus, us, vi. 
famous, express by ille, ilia, illud. 
far, far off, longe. 
farmer, agricola, ae, m. 
father, pater, patris, ni. 
father-in-law, socer, 1, m. 
favor, gratia, ae, / 
fear, timeo, ere, timuT, — ; vereor, 

eri, veritus sum. 
fertile, ferax, feracis. 
few, pauci, ae, a (//«r.). 
field, ager, agri, w. 



304 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



fierce, acer, acris, acre ; asper, aspera, 

asperum ; ferus, a, um. 
fiercely, acriter. 
fight, pugno, are, avT, atus. 
fill up, compleo, complere, complevT, 

completus. 
finally, denique. 
find, invenio, ire, inveni, inventus ; 

reperio, Irl, repperT, repertus. 
finish, conficio, ere, confeci, confectus. 
fire, ignis, is, m. ; set fire to, incendS, 

ere, incendl, incensus. 
first, primus, a, um ; at first, prlmo. 
fit, idoneus, a, um. 
five, quinque. 
flank, latus, lateris, «. 
flee, fugio, ere, fugl, — . 
flight, fuga, ae, / / put to flight, in 

fugam dare 
follow, sequor, sequi, secutus sum. 
following, posterus, a, um. 
food, cibus, T, in. 
foot, pes, pedis, w. ,■ at the foot of, sub, 

w. abl. : to the foot of, sub, 70. ace. 
foot-soldier, pedes, peditis, ;«. 
for, sign of dat. ; ob, w. ace. ; pro, 

•w. abl. 
forbid, veto, are, vetuT, vetitus. 
force, cogo, ere, coegT, coactus. 
forces, copiae, arum, y! 
forest, silva, ae, / 
form, capio, ere, cepT, captus ; in- 

struo, ere, Tnstruxi, instructus. 
former, ille, ilia, illud. 
fort, castellum, I, ;/. 
fortifications, moenia, ium, n.plur. 
fortify, muni6,Tre, muni(v)i, munitus. 
fortune, fortuna, ae, / 
forty, quadraginta. 
four, quattuor. 
fourth, quart us, a, um. 



free, iTber, libera, iTberum. 
free, libero, are, avl, atus. 
freedom, libertas, atis,/ 
frequently, saepe. 
friend, amicus, 1, ;;/. 
friendship, amicitia, ae,y; 
frighten, terreo, ere, terruT, territus, 
from, sign of abl. ; a or ab, e or ex, 

de, w. abl. 
future, for the, in reliquum tempus. 



garden, hortus, i, /n. 

garrison, praesidium, i, n. 

gate, porta, ae, y; 

gather, cdnfero, conferre, contulT, 
conlatus. 

Gaul (the country), C.allia, ae, f; 
(inhabitant), GalUis, I, m. 

general, dux, ducis, w. ,• imperator, 
oris, m. 

gentle, lenis, e. 

gift, donum, i, ;/. 

girl, puella, ae,/ 

give, do, dare, ded", datus ; give 
back, reddo, ere, reddidi, redditum ; 
give up, dedo, ere, dedidi, deditus ; 
permitto, ere, permTsi, permissus ; 
trado, ere, tradidl, traditus. 

glad, laetus, a, um. 

go, eo, ire, ii, itum ; proficTscor, T, 
profectus sum ; go across or over, 
transeo, Ire, transit, transitus ; go 
back, redeo, redire, redil, reditum ; 
go forward, procedo, ere, process!, 
processum ; go near, accedo, ere, 
accessi, accessus ; go out, exeo, ex- 
Tre, exii, exitus ; let go, dimlttS, 
ere, dimlsT, dimissus; be going 
to, active periphrastic conjugation 
(437)- 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



305 



god, deus, T, m. 

goddess, (lea, ae, yC 

good, bonus, a, um. 

graceful, gracilis, e. 

grain, frfimeiuum, T, n. ; supplies of 

grain, res frumentarla, rei friimen- 

tariae, yl 
great, magnus, a, um ; great many, 

complures, ia, plnr.; SO great, 

tantus, a, um. 
greatness, magnitudo, Tnis, f. 
Greece, Graeck, ae, / 
Greek, Graecus, i, 7>t. 
ground, on the, hum!. 
guard, praesidTum, T, n 
guest, hospes, hospitis, m. 



habit, consuetudo, inis, f. 

hand, manus, us, / 

Hannibal, Hannibal, is, ;«. 

happen, accido, ere, accidi, — . 

harass, lacesso, ere, lacessivi, laces- 
sltus. 

harbor, portus, us, m. 

hard, difficilis, e. 

hardly, vix. 

harm, noceo, ere, nocui, nocitu- 
rus. 

hasten, matiiro, are, avi, atus ; con- 
tendo, ere, contend!, contentus. 

haughty, superbus, a, um. 

have, habeo, ere, habuT, habitus ; dat. 
of possessor ; have to, passive peri- 
phrastic conjugation (438-9). 

he, is ; hie ; ille; he whO, is qui. 

head, caput, capitis, n. ; be at the 
head of, praesum, praeesse, praefuT, 
praefuturus. 

hear, audio, ire, audlvl, auditus. 

height, altitudo, inis,/. 



help, adsum, adesse, adfui, adfutiirus, 
w. dat. 

help, auxilium, T, n.; usus, us, m. 

Helvetians, Helvetii, bxnm, piur. 

her, hers, eius ; suus, a, um : her 
(own), suus, a, um. 

herself, see self. 

high, altus, a, um. 

hill, coUis, is, tn.; up the hill, ad- 
verso colle. 

himself, see self. 

hindrance, impedimentum, T, n. 

his, eius ; huius ; illius ; suus, a, um. 

hither, hue. 

hold, teneo, ere, tenuT, tentus ; hold 
back, retineo, ere, retinui, retentus ; 
hold together, contineo, ere, con- 
tinuT, contentus; hold up, sustineo, 
ere, sustinuT, sustentus. 

home, domus, us or i, / ,• at home, 
domi. 

honor, pudor, oris, m. 

hope, spero, are, avi, atus. 

hope, spes, spel, / 

horn, cornu, us, n. 

horse, equus, T, m. 

horseman, eques, equitis, m. 

hostage, obses, obsidis, m. and f. 

hour, bora, ae,/ 

house, domus, iJs or \, f. 

however, autem ; tamen. 

hundred, centum. 

hurl, iacio, ere, iecT, iactus ; conicio, 
ere, conieci, coniectus. 

hurry, contends, ere, contendi, con- 
tentus; mature, are, avi, atus. 



I, ego, met. 

Ides, Idus, Iduum, / phir. 

if, si ; if not, nisi. 



ESSEN. OF LATIN — 20 



3o6 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



impede, impediS, Tre, impedivT, impe- 

ditus. 
in, sign of abl. ; in, w. abl. ; be in, in- 

sum, inesse, inful, Tnfuturus. 
incite, incite, are, avi, atus. 
increase, augeo, ere, auxi, auctus. 
industry, dlligentia, a.t, f. 
infamous, turpis, e. 
infantry, pedites, um, m. plur. 
influence, gratia, ae, /. ; auctoritas, 

atis,/,- have most influence, pluri- 

nium posse. 
influence, permoveo, ere, permovT, 

permotus. 
inform, certiorem facio, ere, feci, fac- 

tus. 
inhabit, incolo, ere, incoluT, — . 
inhabitant, incola, ae, w. 
injure, noceo. ere, nocui, nociturus ; 

obsum, obesse, obfuT, obfutiirus. 
intend, in animo habere ; in animo 

esse, ~t>. dat. 
into, in, iv. ace. 
intrust, committo, ere, commTsi, com- 

missus ; perniitto, ere, permTsi, per- 

missus. 
island. Insula, ae,/ 
it, is, ea, id. 
Italy, Italia, ae, / 
its, eius ; suus, a, um. 



January, lanuarius, T, m. 

javelin, pllum, T, ;/. 

join, iungo, ere, iunxT, iunctus ; join 

battle, proelium committo, ere, 

commTsT, commissus. 
joint, art us, us, n. 
journey, iter, itineris, n. 
judgment, iudicium, T, n. 



K 

keen, acer, acris, acre. 

keep, servo, are, avi, atus ; keep 

(away) from, prohibeo, ere, pro- 

hibui, prohibitus. 
kill, neco, are, avi, atus ; interficio, 

ere, interfecT, interfectus ; occldo, 

ere, occTdl, occisus. 
kindness, gratia, ae, / 
king, rex, regis, m. 
know, scio, scire, scTvT, scitus; intel- 

lego, ere, intellexT, intellectus ; perf. 

of cogn5sco, ere, cognovT, cognitus. 



Labienus, Labienus, T. 

labor, labor, oris, m. ; opus, operis, n. 

lack, inopia, ae, y." 

lack, careo, ere, caruT, cariturus. 

lacking, be, desum, deesse, defuT, de- 
futurus, 7v. dat. 

land, terra, ae, /./ native land, pa- 
tria, ae, / 

large, magnus, a, um ; amplus, a, um. 

last, at. deniquf. 

late at night, multa nocte ; till late 
at night, ad niultam noctem. 

latter, hic, haec, hoc. 

law, lex, legis,/ 

lazy, piger, pigra, pigrum. 

lead, duco, ere, diJxi, ductus ; lead 
across or over, traduco, ere, tra- 
duxl, traductus ; lead back, re- 
duco, ere, reduxT, reductus ; lead 
out, ediico, ere, eduxi, eductus. 

leader, dux, ducis, m. ; princeps, prln- 
cipis, m. 

learn, intellego, ere, intellexT, intel- 
lectus ; disco, ere, didicT, — ; 
learn of, cognosco, ere, cognovi, 
cognitus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



307 



leave, intrans., discedo, ere, discessi, 

discessus ; exeo, exTre, exil, exitus ; 

trans., leave, leave behind, relln- 

quo, ere, relTquT, relictus. 
left, sinister, sinistra, sinistrum. 
left ( = remaining), reli(iuus, a, um ; 

nothing left, nihil reliquT. 
legion, legio, onis,/.' 
lest, ne, w. siibjv. 
let, sign of impel-, or suhjv. ; let gO, 

dlmitto, ere, dlmisT, dimissus. 
letter (of alphabet), littera, s.e, f.; 

(epistle), litterae, ^.xMxa, f. pliir . 
liberate, llbero, are, avT, at us. 
liberty, llbertas, atis, f. 
lieutenant, legatus, I, m. 
life, vita, ae, / 

lift up, toll5, ere, sustull, sublatus. 
light, lux, lucis,/ 
like, similis, e, 
like, amo, are, avi, atus. 
line of battle, acies, el, / 
little, parvus, a, um. 
live, VIVO, ere, vIxT, — . 
long, longus, a, um ; adv., diu. 
lord, dominus, T, vi. 
love, amo, are, avT, atus. 
low, humilis, e. 
loyal, fldus, a, um. 

M 

mad, Tnsanus, a, um. 

make, facio, ere, feci, factus. 

man, vir, virT, w. ,■ homo, hominis, w. 

and f. : a man who, is qui. 
manage, administro, are, avT, atus. 
manhood, virtus, utis, / 
many, plural of multus, a, um ; very 

many, complures, compluria. 
march, iter, itineris, n.; on the march, 

ex itinere. 



march, proficTscor, proficTscT, profec- 
tus sum ; iter faci5, ere, feci, factus; 
contendo, ere, contend!, contentus. 

Marcus, Marcus, i, in. 

master, magister, magistri, »i. ; domi- 
nus, i, m. 

may, sign of wish ; utinam, w. subjv. 

means of, by, abl. of means ; per,7y. ace. 

mention, dem6nstr5, are, av!, atus. 

merchant, mercator, oris, m. 

Mercury, INIercurius, MercurT, tn. 

messenger, nfintius, T, w. 

middle of, medius, a, um. 

mile, mille passus; pliir., millia pas- 
suum. 

mind, animus, T, m. ; mens, mentis,/! ; 
have in mind, in animo habere; in 
animo esse, 70. dat. ; turn the mind 
to, animadverts, ere, animadverti, 
animadversus. 

mine, meus, a, um. 

misfortune, casus, us, ;;/. 

money, pecunia, ae,y; 

month, mensis, \%,f 

moon, luna, ae,yi 

more, plus, pluris ; sign of com. 

moreover, autem (^postpositive'). 

most, sign of superlative. 

mountain, mons, montis, m. 

move, moveo, ere, movT, motus. 

much, multus, a, um ; adv., multum, 
multo. 

multitude, multitudo, inis,yl 

must, passive periphrastic conjuga- 
tion, to. dat. of agent (438-9). 

my, meus, a, um. 

myself, see self. 

N 

name, nomen, ndminis, n. 
name, appello, are, avI, atus. 



3o8 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



narrow, angustus, a, um. 

nation, natio, onis, y; ,■ gens, gentis, y^ 

native land, patria, ae„/ 

near, ad, w. ace. ; come near, go near, 

accedo, ere, accessi, accessurus. 
nearest, proximus, a, um. 
need, be in need of, care5, ere, 

caruT, — . 
neighbor, fTnitimus, T, m. 
neighboring, flnitimus, a, um. 
neither, neuter, neutra, neutrum. 
neither . . . nor, neque . . . neque. 
never, numquam. 
nevertheless, tamen. 
new, novus, a, um. 
next, proximus, a-, um ; posterus, 

a, um. 
night, nox, noctis, / / late at night, 

multa nocte. 
nineteen, undeviginti. 
no, non ; no one, none, nullus, a, um ; 

nemo, dat. nemini. 
nor, neque. 

north wind, aquilo, dnis, ;«. 
not, non ; and not, but not, neque ; 

not to, ne, iv. subjv. ; if not, nisi ; 

that not, ne, w. subjv. 
nothing, nihil, indecl. 
notice, animadverts, ere, animadvert!, 

animadversus. 
now, nunc, iam. 
number, numcrus, T, m. ; nmltitudo, 

inis, f. 



that, utinam, w. subjv. 

obey, pareo, ere, paruT, — . 

obtain, obtineo, ere, obtinul, ob- 

tentus. 
occupy, occupo, are, avi, atus. 
of, sign of gen. ; de, w. abl. 
often, saepe. 



old, vetus, veteris ; senex, senis. 

on, in, w. abl. 

one, unus, a, um ; one who, is qui; 

one . . . another, alius . . . alius; the 

one . . . the other, alter ... alter; to 

one another, inter se. 
only, solus, a, um. 
opportunity, spatium, I, n. 
oppose, resisto, ere, restiti, — . 
order to, in, ut, iv. subjv. 
order, iubeo, ere, iussi, iussus ; impero, 

are, avI, atus ; mand5, are, avT, 

atus. 
Orgetorix, Orgetorix, Tgis, m. 
other, alius, alia, aliud ; (of two), 

alter, a, um. 
ought, debeo, ere, debuT, debitus ; 

oportet, ere, oportuit, impers. ; 

passive periphrastic conjugation 

(438-9). 
our, ours, noster, nostra, nostrum ; 

our men, nostri, orum, m. plur. 
ourselves, nos, nostrum ; ipsi, ae, a. 
out of, e or ex, 7v. abl. 
over, in, 'V. abl. ; trans, w. ace. ; be 

over, supersum, superesse, superful, 

superfuturus. 
overcome, supero, are, avi, atus. 
overtvike, consequor, consequi, con- 

secutus sum. 
owe, debeo, ere, debut, debitus. 



pace, passus, us, in. 

part, pars, partis,/ 

peace, pax, pacis,yl 

pear tree, pirus, \,f. 

people, populus, T, m. 

perceive, intellegS, ere, intellexl, in- 

tellectus. 
perish, cado, ere, cecidi, casiirus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



309 



permit, permitto, ere, permTsT, per- 

missus ; concedo, ere, concessT, 

concessus. 
persuade, persuades, ere, persuasi, 

persuasus, 7v. dat. 
pitch (camp), pono, ere, posui, posi- 

tus. 
place, locus, T, m. ; plur., loci or loca ; 

in that place, ibi ; to this place, 

hue. 
place, pono, ere, posuT, positus ; con- 
loco, are, avi, atus ; constituo, ere, 

constituT, constitfitus. 
plan, consilium, I, n. 
plead (a cause), dico, ere, dixl, 

dictus. 
please, delecto, are, avI, atus. 
pleasing, gratus, a, urn. 
pledge, obses, obsidis, m. or f. 
plow, aro, are, avT, atus. 
point out, demonstro, are, avT, atus. 
Pompey, Pompeius, I, w. 
poor, miser, misera, miserum. 
possess, obtineo, ere, obtinuT, ob- 

tentus. 
possession, take possession of, oc- 

cup5, are, avi, atus ; get possession 

of, potior, potirT, potitus sum, w. 

gen. 
possible, the . . . -est possible, as 

... as possible, quam, 70. superl. 

of adj. ; as soon as possible, cpiam 

prTmum. 
power, potestas, atis, f.; imperium, T, 

«./ vis, ace, vim. 
powerful, potens, potentis ; be very 

powerful, plurimum posse. 
praise, laudo, are, avT, atus. 
prefer, malo, malle, maluT, — . 
prepare, paro, are, avT, atus ; com- 
pare, are, avi, atus. 



present, be, adsum, adesse, adfui, ad- 
futurus ; intersum, interesse, inter- 
fui, interfuturus. 

preserve, servo, are, avT, atus. 

pretty, pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum. 

proceed, cSnsequor, cSnsequT, conse- 
cutus sum. 

promise, polliceor, eri, pollicitus sum. 

proper, be, oportet, ere, oportuit, 
iinpers. 

protect, defendo, ere, defendT,defensus. 

protection, praesidium, I, ;;. ,• fides, el, 
/ .• put one's self under the pro- 
tection of, in fidem venire, w. dat, 

proud, superbus, a, um. 

provide, paro, are, avi, atus ; com- 
paro, are, avT, atus. 

province, provincia, ae,yl 

provisions, commeatus, us, m. ; res 
frumentaria, rel frumentariae, _/! 

prudence, consilium, I, 11. 

public, publicus, a, um. 

punish, puiiio, Ire, punlvl, piinitus ; 
aniniadverto, ere, animadverti, ani- 
madversus. 

punishment, poena, ae,/ 

pupil, discipulus, I, w. 

purpose of, for the, ad, w. ace. of 
gerundive. 

pursue, c5nsequor, cSnsequi, conse- 
cutus sum. 

put to flight, in fugam do. 



queen, reglna, ae, f. 
quickly, celeriter. 
quickness, celeritas, atis,yC 

R 

race (= nation), gens, gentis, / 
raise, toUo, ere, sustuli, sublatus. 



3id 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



rampart, vallum, i, ;;. 

rank, ordo, ordinis, w. 

ravage, vasto, are, avi, atus. 

reach,perveni5,Tre,pervem,perventus. 

rear, novissimum agmen, «. 

reason, causa, ae, f. 

receive, accipio, ere, accepT, accep- 

tus ; recipio, ere, recepT, receptus. 
recognize, cognosco, ere, cognovT, 

cognitus. 
redoubt, castellum, I, n. 
relief, subsidium, T, ;/. 
remain, maneo, ere, mansT, mansum ; 

remaned, ere, remansi, remansurus. 
remaining, reliquus, a, um. 
remove, toUo, ere, sustull, sublatus. 
render, reddo, ere, reddidl, redditus. 
reply, respondeo, ere, respondl, re- 

spnnsus. 
report, nuntio, are, avT, atus ; enuntio, 

are, avi, atus ; renuntio, are, avT, 

atus. 
republic, res publica, rel pidilicae, y^ 
reputation, auctoritas, atis,yi 
request, peto, ere, petivi or petiT, 

petTtus. 
require, postulo, are, avT, atus. 
resist, resisto, ere, restiti, — . 
respect, vereor, eri, veritus sum. 
respects, in all, omnibus rebus, 
rest of, reliquus, a, um. 
restrain, contineo, ere, continuT, con- 

tentus. 
retain, obtineo, ere, obtinuT, obten- 

tus ; retineo, ere, retinuT, retentus. 
retreat, recipio, ere, recepi, receptus 

{refl.); pedem refero, referre, ret- 

tulT, relatus. 
return, intr., redeo, redire, rediT, 

reditum ; reverto, ere, revertT, — , 

and reverter, revertT, reversus sum ; 



trans. (= give back), reddo, red- 

dere, reddidl, redditus. 
reveal, enuntio, are, avi, atus. 
reward, praemium, i, «. 
Rhine, Rhenus, T, m. 
Rhone, Rhodanus, i, in. 
right, dexter, dext[e]ra, dext[e]rum. 
river, flumen, fluminis, ;/. 
road, via, ae, /I; iter, itineris, «. 
rock, saxum, 1, ;/. 
Roman, Romanus, a, um ; as subst., 

Romanus, i, in. 
Rome, Roma, ae, / 
rose, rosa, ae, / 
rough, asper, aspera, asperum. 
rouse, incito, are, avT, atus. 
rout, pello, ere, pepull, pulsus, 
rule, regd, ere, rexT, rectus ; im- 

pero, are, avi, atus. 
run away, fugio, ere, fugl, fugitus. 



safe, tutus, a, um. 

sailor, nauta, ae, m. 

sake of, for the, causa, w. gen. ; ut, 

7V. subjv. 
sally, eruptiS, om%,f. 
same, idem, eadem, idem, 
save (= preserve), servo, are, avT, 

atus; (= rescue), eripio, ere, eri- 

puT, ereptus. 
say, dlco, ere, dlxT, dictus. 
scare, terreo, ere, terruT, territus. 
scout, explorator, 5ris, vi. 
sea, mare, is, n. 
seat, sedlle, is, n. 
second, secundus, a, um ; for the 

second time, iterum. 
see, video, ere, vidT, vTsus. 
seek, pet5, ere, petTvi or petiT, petTtus; 

quaero, ere, quaesivl, quaesltus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



311 



seize, occupo, are, avT, atus ; capio, 
ere, cepi, captus. 

select, deligo, ere, delexi, delectus. 

self, himself, herself, itself, them- 
selves, ipse, a, um (^inkns.) ; sul 
{refi.); myself, yourself, our- 
selves, ipse {intens.); pers. pi-on. 

senate, senatus, us, in. 

send, mitto, ere, misT, missus ; send 

ahead, praemitto, ere, praemlsi, 

praemlssus ; send off, dimitto, ere, 

dlmlsl, d:missus. 
Sequani, SequanT, orum, m. plur. 
servant, servus, I, w. 
set fire to, incendo, ere, incendi, in- 

census. 
set out, proficTscor, proficTscT, profec- 

tus sum. 
set over, praeficiS, ere, praefecT, prae- 

fectus. 
seven, septem. 
seventy, septuaginta. 
severely, graviter. 
sharp, acer, acris, acre, 
she, ea ; ilia. 
ship, navis, is,y; 
short, brevis, e. 
shout, clamor, oris, m. 
show, demonstrS, are, avT, atus. 
sick, aeger, aegra, aegrum. 
side, latus, lateris, n.; from or on all 

sides, undique. 
sight, conspectus, us, m. 
sign, sTgnum, T, n. 
similar, similis, e. 
six, sex. 

size, magnitudo, inis, f. 
skillful, peritus, a, um. 
slaughter, caedes, is, / 
slave, servus, 1, w. 



slay, occldo, ere, occidi, occisus. 

slender, gracilis, e. 

slow, piger, pigra, pigrum. 

small, parvus, a, um. 

smooth, lenis, e. 

snatch away, eripio, ere, eripuT, 

ereptus. 
SO, ita ; tarn ; SO great, tantus, a, um; 

and so, itaque ; so as not, ne, 

IV. subjv. 
soldier, miles, mllitis, m. 
sole, s5lus, a, um. 
some (one), quis, quae (qua), quid 

(quod) ; aliquis, aliqua, aliquid 

(aliquod); some . . . others, alii 

. . . alii ; some in one direction, 

some in another, alii aliam in 

partem. 
son, fllius, fill or filii, m. 
son-in-law, gener, generi, in. 
soon, iam ; mox ; as soon as, quam 

primum. 
space, spatium, T, n. 
speak, dico, ere, dL\I, dictus ; speak 

together, conloquor, conloqui, con- 

lociitus sum. 
spear, hasta, ae, yC 
speech, oratio, om%,f. 
speed, celeritas, atis, /; 
spirit, animus, T, m. 
spoil, praeda, ae, y^ 
stand before, praesto, praestare, prae- 

stitT, — . 
star, Stella, ae, / 
state, cTvitas, atis, f. ; res pf.blica, rei 

publicae,y; 
station, conloco, are, avT, atus ; con- 

stituo, ere, constituT, constitutus. 
stay, maneo, ere, mansT, mansum. 
storm, oppugno, are, avT, atus ; take 

by storm, expugno, are, avi, atus. 



312 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



story, fabula, ae,/. 
strange, alienus, a, um. 
street, via, ae, / 
strength, vis, vim,/ 
strengthen,al6,ere,aluT, alitusoraltus. 
strive, contends, ere, contend!, con- 

tentus. 
strong, validus, a, uni. 
struggle, contendo, ere, contendl, 

contentus. 
sturdy, validus, a, um. 
such, talis, e ; tantus, a, um. 
suffer, patior, patl, passus sum ; la- 

boro, are, avT, atus. 
suitable, idoneus, a, um. 
summer, aestas, atis,/ 
summon, convoco, are, avi, atus. 
supplies, commeatus, ijs, tn. ; supplies 

of grain, res frumentaria, yC 
supply, copia, ae,/ 
suppose, exTstinio, are, avi, atus ; 

arbitror, ari, atus sum. 
surpass, tr., supero, are, avT, atus ; 

iii/r., ))raest6,praestare, praestiti, — . 
surrender, deditio, onis,/ 
surrender, trado, tradere, tradidi, 

traditus ; dedo, dedere, dedidl, 

deditus. 
surround, circumvenio, Tre, circum- 

venl, circumventus. 
survive, supersum, superesse, super- 

fuT, superfuturus. 
sustain, suslineo, ere, sustinui, sus- 

tentus. 
swift, velox, velocis. 
swiftly, celeriter. 
sword, gladius, T, m. 



table, mensa, ae, / 

take, capio, ere, cepT, captus ; take 



away, tolls, ere, sustulT, sublatus ; 
take by storm, expugnS, are, avT, 
atus ; take possession of, occupo, 
are, avi, atus. 

teacher, magister, magistri, »t. 

tell, dico, ere, dixi, dictus. 

temple, templum, T, n.; aedes, aedium, 
f. plur. 

ten, decern. 

tender, tener, tenera, tenerum. 

territory, fines, flnium, in. plur. 

than, quam ; abl. after comparative. 

that, demonstr., is, ea, id ; ille, ilia, 
illud ; rel., qui, c|uae, quod. 

that, in order that, so that, ut, w. 
subjv. ; after verbs of fearing, ne, w. 
subjv.; that not, ne, 7v. subjv.; 
would that, utinam. 

their (own), theirs, suus, a, um ; 
eorum, earum. 

themselves, see self. 

thence, inde. 

there, ibi ; introductory, not trans- 
lated. 

therefore, itaque. 

thereupon, inde. 

they, iT, eae, ea ; illT, illae, ilia. 

thing, res, re!,/ 

think, existimS, are, avi, atus ; arbi- 
tror, ari, atus sum. 

third, tertius, a, um. 

thirty, triginta. 

this, hic, haec, hoc. 

thou, tu. 

thousand, mllle (Jndecl.') ; plur., mlllia 
or milia. 

three, tres, tria ; three hundred, tre- 
centl, ae, a. 

through, per, %v. ace. 

throw, iacio, ere, ieci, iactus ; conicio, 
ere, coniecl, coniectus. 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



313 



thus, ita. 

Tiber, Tiberis, is, m. 

time, tempus, temporis, n. ; spatium, 
I, n. ; for a long time, diu. 

to, sign of dat.; ad, in, w. ace. ; sign 
of subjv. of purpose. 

to-day, hodie. 

top of, summus, a, um. 

toward (s)i ad, w. an. 

tower, turris, is,/ 

town, oppidum, 1, n. 

trader, mercator, oris, tn. 

Tralles, Tralles, Trallium, m. pi. 

transport, traduco, ere, traduxi, tra- 
ductus. 

treat, ago, ere, egi, actus. 

trench, fossa, ae, / 

trial, iudicium, T, n. 

tribe, gens, gentis,/ 

troops, copiae, arum,/.//. 

trust, fides, ei,/ 

trust, credo, ere, credidl, creditus. 

try, Conor, ari, atus sum. 

turn about, converts, ere, convert!, 
conversus ; turn back, reverto, ere, 
revert!, — , and revertor, revert!, 
reversus sum ; turn the mind 
to, animadverto, ere, animadvert!, 
animadversus. 

twelve, duodecim. 

twenty, v!ginti. 

two, duo, duae, duo. 



U 



ugly, turpis, e. 

unfavorable, alienus, a, um. 

unless, nisi. 

unlike, dissimilis, e. 

unwilling, be, n5l5, nolle, nolu!, 

upon, in, 7U. ace. and abl. 



urge, cohortor, ari, atus sum; urge on, 

incite, are, av!, atus. 
use, usus, us, m. ; be of use to, prosum, 

prodesse, profu!, profuturus. 
use, Gtor, ut!, usus sum. 



van, primum agmen, primi agminis, n. 

vassal, cliens, clientis, in. 

very, adj. or adv. in superl. ; intens., 

ipse, a, um. 
view, conspectus, us, tn. 
village, v!cus, !, vi. 
virtue, virtiis, utis, f. 

W 

wage, gero, ere, gessi, gestus ; wage 

war upon, bellum !nfer6, !nferre, in- 

tul!, inlatus. 
wait for, exspecto, are, av!, atus. 
wall, murus, 1, m. 
walls, moenia, nioenium, n. 
war, bellum, 1, ;/. 

warn, moneo, ere, monui, monitus. 
waste, lay, vasto, are, avi, atus. 
watch, vigilia, ae, / 
way, via, ae, /. 
we, nos, nostrum. 
weapon, telum, i, «. / plur., arma, 

orum, ;/. * 

wear out, conficio, ere, confec!, con- 

fectus. 
well, bene ; well known, nobilis, e. 
what {rel.), qu! , quae, quod; 

{inierrog.), quis, quae, quid, 
when, ubi. 
where, ubi. 
which {rel.), qui, quae, quod ; 

{inierrog.), quis, quae, quid ; 

which of two, uter, utra, utrum. 
white, albus, a, um. 



314 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



who {rel.^, qui, quae ; {interrog.), 

quis, quae. 
whole, totus, a, um ; omnis, e. 
why, cur. 

wicked, malus, a, um. 
wide, latus, a, um. 
wild, ferus, a, um. 
will, volo, velle, voluT, — ; will not, 

n6l5, nolle, noluT, — . 
willing, be, volo, velle, voluT, — ; be 

more willing, maid, malle, maluT, — . 
wine, vinum, T, n. 
wing, cornu, us, «. 
winter, hiems, hiemis, y". 
winter quarters, hiberna, orum, n. pi. 
wisely, prudenter. 
wish, cupio, ere, cuplvi, cupTtus ; 

vols, velle, volui, — . 
with, sign of ahl. ; cum, la. abl. ; 

apud, 7U. ace. 
withdraw, discedo, ere, discessT, dis- 

cessum. 
within, sign of abl. of time. 
without, sine, w. abl. ; be without, 

careo, ere, carul, cariturus. 



withstand, sustineo, ere, sustinui, 

sustentus. 
woman, femina, ae, f. ; mulier, 

mulieris, f. 
wood, ( = forest), silva, ae, / 
work, labor, bn%,f.; opus, operis, n. 
work, laboro, are, avi, atus. 
would that, utinam, w. subjv. 
wound, vulnus, vulneris, «. 
wound, vulnero, are, avi, atus, 
wretched, miser, misera, miserum. 
write, scrlbo, ere, scrips!, scriptus. 



year, annus, T, m. 

yet, tamen. 

you, tu, vds. 

young, iuvenis, is. 

your, yours, tuus, a, um ; vester, 

vestra, vestrum. 
yourself, tia, vos ; ipse. 



zeal, studiuni; I, n. 



INDEX 



[Numbers refer to Sections.] 



Ablative, of agent, 142; of cause, 118; 
of comparison, 260; of manner, 148; 
of means, 94 ; of measure of difference, 
267; of separation, 211; of specifica- 
tion, 157; of time when, 131; descrip- 
tive, 302-303 ; ablative absolute, 
315-317 ; with utor, fruor, futigor, 
potior, and vescor, 337. 

Accent, 20. 

Accusative, of time and space, 245 ; of 
limit of motion, 231 ; subject accusa- 
tive, 184 ; 329. 

Active periphrastic conjugation, 437; 504. 

Adjectives, agreement, 65 ; demonstrative, 
201 ; interrogative, 216, 217; possessive, 
292; as nouns, 203; with dative, 163. 

Adverbs, formation, 279; comparison, 
280. 

Agent, expressed by ablative with ab, 
142. 

Apposition, 58. 

bonus, comparison, 272. 

Cause, ablative of, 118. 

Commands, 399. 

Comparison, lessons, 43, 44 ; ablative 
of, 260 ; irregular, 272 ; of adverbs, 280. 

Compound verbs, construction, 393-394. 

Concessive clauses, 386-387. 

Conditional sentences, 413-421. 

Cum clauses, 386-387. 

Dative, of possession, 238 ; of service, 
294-295; with adjective, 163; with 
verbs, 342-343; with compound verbs, 

393-394- 
Demonstratives, 201. 
Deponent verbs, 333-335, 503; perfect 

31 



passive participle of, active in mean- 
ing. 335- 
Descriptive ablative and genitive, 302- 

303- 
domi, 229. 
domus, 222, 2 ; 476. 
eo, 228 ; 500. 
Exceedingly, expressed by superlative, 

268. 
Fearing, verbs of, 384, 385. 
fero, 502. 
fio, 501. 
fruor-, 337. 
fungor, 337. 
Gender, rules of, 27. 
Genitive, descriptive, 302-303; partitive, 

251- 
Gerund and Gerundive, 403-406. 
htc, 201. 
huml, 229. 
Idem, 189. 
ille, 202. 

Impersonal use of verbs, 432. 
Indefinite pronouns, 300-301. 
Indirect discourse, 327-330; 369-370; 

427-430. 
Indirect object, 58. 
Indirect question, 369-370. 
Infinitive, formation, 322; as subject, 

183 b; complementary, 184; tense of, 

in indirect discourse, 330. 
Interrogative adjective and pronoun, 216. 
Ipse, Qfyj . 
is, 188. 
iste, 208. 
Locative, 229. 

5 



3i6 



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN 



fnalo, 499. 

Measure of difference, ablative of, 267. 

-ne, 40. 

nolo, 499. 

Order of Words, 82. 

Participles, formation, 307; tenses, 309; 
use, 311; of deponents, 334; perfect 
passive participle, active in meaning, 
335 ; as protasis, 311, 315, 316, 421. 

Partitive genitive, 251. 

Passive periphrastic conjugation, 438- 

439; 505- 
Personal pronouns, 284, 285. 
Place where, whither, whence, 231. 
plus, q:]-^. 

Possession, dative of, 238. 
Possessive adjectives, 292-293. 
possum, 497. 
potior, 337. 
Pronouns, demonstrative, 201 ; indefinite, 

300-301; inter. ogative, 216; personal, 

284; reflexive, 286; relative, 195; 

agreement, 197; in indirect discourse, 

428. 
prosum, 498. 
Purpose, expressed by subjunctive, 350- 

35^^ 1 363-364 ; by gerund or gerundive, 

406 ; by supine, 433-435. 
Quantity, 16. 
Questions, 40; indirect, 369-370. 



qui, 195. 

quis, 216; 301. 

quisquam, 301. 

quisquc, 301. 

Rather, expressed by comparative, 268. 

Reflexive pronouns, 284, 286. 

Relative, 195 ; relative clause of purpose, 

363-364. 
Result, expressed by subjunctive, 356- 

358. 
rurl, 229. 

Separation, ablative of, 211. 
Sequence of tenses, ^68. 
Space, extent of, expressed by accusative, 

245. 
Subjunctive, of purpose, 350-351 ; 363- 

364 ; of result, 356-358. 
Substantive clauses, 378 ; with verbs of 

fearing, 384-385. 
sum, 496. 
Supine, 433-435- 

Time, extent of, expressed by accusa- 
tive, 245; clauses expressing time, 

386-387. 
Too, expressed by comparative, 268. 
iifor, 337. 

V'ery, expressed by superlative, 268. 
viscor, 237- 
volo, 499. 
Wishes, 423-425. 



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