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Newark, N. J. 




Photographs represent ever\ stuiHo in this city, and 
are principally by William F. Cone, Esq. 

Engravings by the Hagopian Photo-Engraving 
Co., 3 Great Jones street, New York City ; THE SCHUETZ 
Photu-Engraving Co., and Seebeck Brothers, 
Photo-Engravers and Electrotypers, of Beeknian and 
William streets. New York City. 

The work was written by Dr. M. H. C. Vail. 

Composition, Press Work and Binding by L. J. 
Hardham, 243-245 Market street. 

' Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1895, by Petek J. Leary, 
ill the of^k-e of ilie Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C." 


#^-'gi|2^1 H K OBJECT of the designer in presenting this Souvenir is to attract the 
attention of those who are seeking for desirable homes or manufacturing 
sites, to the natural and unsurpassed advantages, as well as to some of the 
characteristic features of Essex County. N. J. A Newark mechanic himself, 
he felt a personal pride in producing a work above reproach that would bear 
inspection antl meet with the approval of his fellow-citizens. The projector, 
during the prosecution of the work, was received and shown the utmost cour- 
tesy by all classes of the people, to whose generosity and material assistance its completion is 
mainly due. The illustrations present natural and life-like views of the Streets. Parks, 
Churches, Charitable Institutions, Academies, Colleges, Schools, Public Buildings, Newspapers, 
Manufacturing Plants, Stores, Residences and portraits of some well-known and highly 
respected citizens. A brief historical sketch is given and an account of the wonderful growth 
and development of the numerous interests that in the past have, and are now, contributing to 
make the County of Essex great, wealthy and famous. We trust that the succeeding pages 
may be found filled with useful and interesting information adapted to the object in view. 

Dr. M. H. C. Vail, 








- 9-40 

Church Hisiorv. - 

- 41-6S 

Charitable Instii u i ions. 


Educational. - 


Government, - 

121-1 60 

Press. - - - - 


Industries. Eic, - 




Title Page, - - - - - 

Ackiiowledgenienls and Cupvrighl. 
Preface, _ - - - - 

Table of Contents. - 


Ambassador Runyon's Death. 

A Daring Adventure, 

Artesian Wells, . - - - 

Brancfi Brook. 

Capt. Samuel F. Waldron, - 

Col. Isaac M. Tucker, 

Corporal James Marshall, - 

Essex County Roads and Avenues, 

Essex County Quarries, 

Essex County in the Revolution. 

Essex County in the War of '61-65, 

Essex County was Loyal, - 

First Settlement, - - - 

Fort Runyon. - - - - 

Gen. 'I hcndore Runyon, 

Gen. I'hil. Kearny, 

Gen. William Ward. 

Gen. George B. McClellan. 

Geography and Topography. 11-12 

History of Essex County. - 

Jersey Blues, - - - - 

Major David A. Ryerson. - 

Orange Gets Water, 

Passaic Supply, - - - - 

Pequannock, - - - - 

Slavery in Essex County. - 

Such is Fate, - - - - 

The Acreage of EL.ssex. 

The Affair at Lyons Farms. - 

The First Decliiation of Independc 

The Iro(|uois and Delavvares, 

The New Jersey Brigade, 

Trap Rock, . - - - 

Water Supply, 






- 20 









10- 1 1 












- 21 


- 38 



nee. 28 


- 3' 





Centenary M. K. Church. - - 59 

Church of Our Lady of .\lt. Caniiel. 62 
Emanuel German M. E. Church. 48-49 
Emanuel Ref. Episcopal Church, 55-56 
Fifth Baptist Church. - - - 59 
First Presbyterian Church. - 4'-44 
General Article on Churches, • 66-68 
Grace English Lutheran Church. 57 

Introductory, - - - - 41 
Irvington M. E. Church. - - 58-59 
Park Presbyterian Church, - - 44-45 
Reformed Dutch Church, - 51-52 

Religious Freedom, - - - 64 

Second German Baptist Church, 56-57 
Second Presbyterian Church, - 47-48 
Sixth Presbyterian Church, - 45-47 
South Baptist Church, - - 52-53 
St. Aloysius' R. C. Church, - - 65 
St. Bridget's R. C. Church. - - 65 
St. James' R. C. Church. - - 63 

St. John's R. C. Chuich. - -61-62 
St.John's German Lutheran Church. 57-5S 
St. Paul's M. E. Church, - - 49-3' 
St. Stephen's German Evan. Church. 52 
The First German Baptist Church. 54 
The New York Ave. Ref. Church, - 53 
Third German Presbyterian Church, 49 
Trinity Church. - - - - 60 
Trinity Reformed Church. - - 54-55 


Boys' Lodging House, - - - 7' 

City Hospital. - - - - 70 
Essex Co. Hospital fortiie Insane. 123-124 

Eye and Ear Infirmary, - - 71 

Home for Incurables, - - 71 

House of the Good Shepherd. - 71 

Newark Female Charitable Society. 71 

Newark Orphan .\sylum. - - 71 
St. Barnabas' Hospital, - - 68-69 

St. James' Hospital, - - - 70 

St. Mary's Orphan Asylum. - - 7' 

St. Michael's Hospital. - - 70 

St. Peter's Orphan Asylum, - - 7> 

St. Vincent's Home for Bojs, - 71 

The Foster Home, - - - - 71 

The German Hospital, - - 70 

The Home of the Friendless, - - 70 
The Hospital for Women and Children, 71 

The Krueger Pioneer Home. - 71 

The Little Sisters of the Poor. - 71 


Anderson, Dr. Henry J , - 117-118 


Barringer, William N., - - M.t-115 
Beacon Street School, - - 98 

Bergen Street School. - - - 99 
Burnet Street School. - - So-81 

Camden Street School, - - - 87 
Cutts, U. "V\' ., - - - - 115 
Eighteenth .Avenue School, - - 83 
Extract from Supt.'s Report, 1895, 87-8S 
Fifteenth Avenue School, - - 76 
Gay, William A., - - - 117 

General School Article, 90-97, 10S-116 

Green St. German-English School 
German and English School Gov- 
ernment, - - - 
Hamburg Place School, 
Hawkins Street School, 
Introductory School History, 
Newton Street School, - 
North Seventh Street School, 
Oliver Street School. 
South Market Street School. 
South Street School. 
St. Ann's School, 
St. Augustine's School, - 
St. Benedict's School, 
St. Benedict's College, - 
St. James' School, - - - 
St. John's School. 
St. Joseph's School, 
St. Mary's Academy, - 
St. Marv Magdalen's School, - 
St. Patrick's School, 

■ 98 



- S4 


- 89 

- 86 

- 84 

- 87 

- 99 

- 103 

I 18-1 19 

- 105 

- 119 

- 118 

St. Peter's School, - - - 99-118 
St. \'incent's Academy. - - 105 
Thirteenth .Avenue School. - - 79 
Twelfth Ward German English School, 97 
The Blum Street German-English 

School, - - - - 99-100 
The Borough of \'ailsburg, - - 118 
The Coleman Nat. Business College, 106 
The " Franklin " School, - - 84-85 
The German-English Presbyterian 

School, ----- 99 
The Newark High School, - 107 

The Newark St. German-English 

School, - - - - 97-98 
The Newark Business College, - 104 
The Newark Free Public Library, 1 19-1 20 
The Newark Technical School, - 1 20 
The Normal School. - - - 77 
The Township School System, 116-117 
Walnut Street School, - - - 85 
Warren Street School, - 107-108 

Washington Street School, - - 82 
Waverly Avenue School, - - lor 




Bassett, Allen L.. - 



Connolly, James F., 



Coursen, R. R., 



Dill, Dr. D. M.. 


p'leniing, James E., - 


llanley, John J., - 



Haussling, Jacob, - - - 


Hawkins, W. W., - 



Haynes, Joseph E., - 



Haynes, George D., 



Hood, Louis, - . - 



Inlrofluction, - _ - 



Judge D. A. De])ue, - 



I'arker, R. Wayne, 



Prosecutor's Office, - - - 


Road Board Committee, 



Scales Timothy, - . - 


The Board of Trade, - 



The Courts of Essex Couniy, 



The Post Office, - 



Ure, William A., - - - 


Wilhelm. George, - - - 




Astley, William C, - 


Bosch, Adam, - - - 



Brown, Horace H., - 


Brown, William H., 



Fire Commissioners, - 



Godber, William, - 



Greathead, William E . 



Hamlin, James V., 



Kierstead, Robert, - - - 


Mayors of Newark, 



Newark Board of Health, - 


Newark CityGovernment, 137-143. 



Pequannock Water, 



Police of Newark, - - - 

■ 48- 


Price, Lewis ^L, - 



Sloan, Joseph E„ - 


The Fire Department, 



The Salvage Corps, 


Thorn, John B., - 



Voight, H. L„ - - - 



Holbrook. Albert ^L. - 



New Jersey Deutsche Zeitung, - 


New Jersey Freie Zeitung, 


New Jersey's Great Sunday Paper 


Orange Sonntagsblatt, - 



The Newark Daily Advertiser. - 


The Newark Evening News, 



The Newark Ledger, 


The Newark Pioneer, - 



The Orange Volksbote, 


Town Talk, Illustrated, 




Ahearn, James, - - - 



Alsdorf, E. & Co., - 


Bernauer. August, 



Bird. William A., 

Blair, Robert, 
Booth, Hubert, - 
Bowers, Philip J. & Co., 
Brierley, Joshua. 
Brown, Charles J., 
Buchlein, H., - - - 
Burkhardt, Andrew H . - 
Chapman, C. Durand, - 
Clark, Joseph P., 
Clayton & Hoff Co., 
Connolly, Thomas, H., 
Cressey, Thomas, 
Dejong & Steiger, 
Demarest, N. J. & Co.. - 
Dixon & Rip|)el, 
Dowling, J. P. & Son, - 
Dunn, Walter P.. 
Duncan, Charles B., 
Drake & Co., - 
Edwards, F. C, 
Eisele & King, - - - 
Ely, John H. & Wilson C, 
Engelberger & Barkhorn. - 
Engelhorn, F. & Son, 
Erb, G. L., - - - 

Faitoute, J. B., 
Felder, Louis A., 
Finter Bros., 
Finter & Co , - 
Forest Hill Association, 
Freeborn G. Smith. - 
Freudenthal & Adler. - 
Gahr, Jacob, - - - 
Gless, A. J , - 
Gray, Thomas J , 
Gregory, John. 
Haley & Slaight, 
Hamilton, William F., - 
Harrigan, William, 
Harburger. Joseph, 
Hassinger, I'eter. 
Healy, George, 
Heilman, C. W., 
Heller & Bros., - 
Historical Review, 
Hill's Union Brewery Co , 
Hinde, Arthur, 
Hine, Edwin F., - 
Hooper cS: Co., - - - 
Hobbis, H. v.. 
Hunt. John O., - 
Jacobs, Walter C, 
Jacobi, William, 
Kaas, Adam, 
Kearns. William J., - 
Kearsing Manufacturing Co., 
Klemm, Henry C 
Kronenberger, J. J., 
L. Bamberger & Co., 
Logel, Joseph, 
Logel, William, 
Lyons, Lewis J., - 

■ 259 

- 252 

- 204 


- 220 

- 261 

- 232 


- 237 

22 I 


- 253 

- 264 

- 236 

- 229 

- 1S6 



- 201 


- 208 

- 242 


- 205 


- 24' 

- 260 


- 244 

- 228 


- 228 


- 171 


- 219 


- 246 

- 264 

- 249 

22 T 

- 246 


Maher & Flockhart, - 
Marlatt. James, - - - 
McCabe, Owen, 
McCarthy, James A.. 
Miller, Philip, - 
M. & M. Cummings & Co.. - 
Muller, J. J. Henry, - 
Mullin, W. & J., '- 
Mullin, James J., 
Munn. F. W., 
Mundy, Joseph S., 
Murray, C. C, 
Nathan, David B., - 
Nieder, John, - - - . 

Old Fashioned Brewery, 
Peter, Alfred, - - . . 

Perry, Theodore. - - . 
Photo Engraving and Electrotyping. 
Poortman, Adolph, - - - 
Ouinn. Miles F., - 
Residence of Mr. Engelberger. - 
Reilly, John. - - . . 

Ripley. David & Sons. 
Rittenhouse, Stacy B., - 
Rodrigo, John A., - - - 
Russell, C. M., - - - . 
R. Walsh & Co., 
Scheller, John C, - 
Schick. John, - - - . 
Schill. Otto K.. - - - . 
Schmidt & Son. - - - 

Schoenig. William K.. - 
Schuetz, Charles J , - 
Schwartz, H. E., - 
Slaight. C. H.. - 
Spielmann. Strack & Co . 
Steines, A., - - - . 

S. Trimmer & Co., - - - 

Sutphen, Joseph S.. - - .. 
Ten Eyck, H. Gallowav. 
The A. Ohl Machine Works, 
The American Building Loan and 
Savings Ass'n of New Jersey, 
The Coach Lamp Manufacturing Co. 
The Cory-Heller Wall Paper M'fg Co., 192 
The End of All. - - _ 266 

The E. E. HoganShoe M'fg Co., 193-194 
The Hagopian Photo-Engraving Co.. 258 
The Newark Watch Case Material Co, 
The Prudential Ins Co.. of America 
The State Banking Company. 
Tompson, F. W.. - - . . 
Van Houten, William F., - 
Virtue, Lincoln A., - - - 














21 1 











West End Land Improvement Co., 206-207 

Weston, Edward, 
White, Frank A., - 
Witzel, H. P. & Co., - 
Wisijohn, Frank, - 
Woodruff, E. B., 
Wolber, Charles & Co.. 






Ann Street School. - - - 76 
AthaXiHuglies'ofliceaiul WaiL-iooms, 182 


Halcluin Hoinesteafi. - - - 17 

Beacon Street Gennan-English School, 99 
Bud's-eye \'iew of the City of New- 
ark, looking Southwest— Frontispiece 





Borough Hall, Vailsburg, 
Building of John Toler Sons & Co., 
Building of R. Walsh & Co., 
Burnet Street School, - - - 


Camden Street School, 

Centenary M. E. Church, 

Central Avenue School, 

Charlton Street School, - - - 

Chestnut Street School. 

Christian Church, Irvington. - 

Church of our Lady of Mt. Carniel, 

Church of St. Mary Magdalen, 

City Home, at Verona, - - - 

Coal and Wood Yard S. Tiimmcr 

& Co., ----- 
Commission House of j. I'. Clarke, 
Coleman's National Business College, 
Copy of old Record, - - - 
C. Wolber & Co., - - - - 


Design by Seebeck Bros., - 
Dixon & Rippel, - - - - 
Drake S: Co., - - - - 
Dutch Reformed Church, 


Eighteenth Avenue School, 
Elizabeth Avenue School, 
Emanuel Reformed Episcopal Church, 
Emporium L. Bamberger S; Co., 
Engine Co., No. 5, N. F. D., 
Engine Co., No. 8, N. F. D.. - 
Engine Co. No. 9, N. F. D., 
Engine Co. Xo. 11, N. F. I^., 
Entrance to Free I'ublic Library, 
Essex County Court House, - 















Essex County Hospital for the Insane, 124 

Establishment of W. P. Dunn, - 216 

Eye and lOar Infirmary, - - - 72 


Fifth I5ai)tist Church, - - . jg 
Fifteenth Avenue School, - - 76 
First German Baptist Church, - 54 
First Presbyterian Church. - - 41 
Forest Hill Presbyterian Church, - 69 
Forest Hill School, - - . ^7 
Foster Home, - - - - 72 
Fourth Precinct Police Station. - 148 
Free Public Library, - - - 72 
Furniture House J. J. Henry Muller. 217 
F. W. Munn's Cab and Coupe Em- 
porium, - - - . 224 


German iM. E. Church, - - 50 
German Newspapers, - - - 172 
Grace Evangelical English Luther- 
an Church, - - - - 51 
Green Street German-English School, 1 1 5 
Group of Leather Manufacturers, 34 
Group of Essex County Citizens, - 131 

Haley & Slaight. Cigar Works. - 199 

Hamburg Place School, - - 78 

Harburger's Hall, - - - - 241 

Hawkins Street School, - - 84 

Hebrew Orphan Asylum, - - 229 

Heller Parkway, - . . 226 

Holbrook's Directory, - - - 171 
Hook and Ladder Co., No, 2, N. F. D.. i 54 

Home of the Friendless, - - 141 

Home for Aged Women, - - 232 


Interior View St. .Aloysius Church, 61 
Interior View Emanuel Reformed 

Episcopal Church, - - - 55 

Interior View Fifth Baptist Church, 59 

Interior View First Presby. Church, 42 

Interior View Grace Church, - 68 

Interior View Photo-Engraving, - 258 

Interior View Scheller's Book Bindery, 21 I 

Interior View Schill's Photo Gallery, 265 

Interior View State Banking Co., - 176 

Interior View Trinity Church, - 60 

Interior View R. Walsh & Co., - 213 

Irvington Episcopal Chapel, - 68 

Irvington M. E. Church, - - 69 

Irvington Public School. - - 110 


Jewelry Works of Carter, Hawkins 

& Howe, - - - - 178 

Jewelry Works of Krementz & Co.. 179 

J. S. Mundy's Machine Works, - 250 

Joshua Brierley's Livery Stable, - 239 


Krueger Pioneer Home, - - 222 

Lafayette Street Public School, 
Landing of the early settlers. 
Lawrence Street School, 
Little Sisters of the Poor. - 

Main Room, Free i'ublic Library, - 
M. & M. Cummings & Co , 
Meeker Homestead, - . - 
Miller Street School, - 
Monmouth Street School, 
Montclair Avenue, . . - 
■ Monument to Early Settlers, 
Morton Street School, 
Mullin's Undertaking Establishment, 






I 2 






Newark Academy, - - - 107 

Newark City Hall, - - - ' j7 

Newark City Hospital, - - 13S 

Newark Electrotype Fountlry, - 253 

Newark Daily Advertiser, - - 161 

Newark tlvening News. - - 162 

Newark Female Charitable Society, 139 

Newark High School, - - - 108 

Newark Orphan Asylum, - - 72 
Newark Street German-English School, 98 

Newark Technical School, - - 119 

Newton Street School, - - - 89 

New Jersey Business College, - 107 

North Baptist Church, - - - 49 

North Seventh Street School, - go 


Officers of the First Police Precinct, 147 

Officers of the Third Police Precinct, 145 

Office of C. B. Duncan, - - 221 

Office of E. J. Gless, - - - 20S 

Oldest School in Newark, - - 73 

Old Fashioned Brewery, - - 240 

Old Synagogue, - - - - 177 

Oliver Street School, - - - 86 

Orange Sonntagsblalt, - - 168 

Orange \'olksbote, - - - 167 

Park Avenue School. - - - 116 

Park Presbyterian Church, - 43 

Past Mayors of Newark, - - 144 
Patent arid Enameled Leather Works, 197 

Peddle Memorial Church, - - 46 

Photo by William F. Cone, - 259 

Philip J. Bowers & Co , - - 252 

Piano Warerooms, - - - 247 

Plant of David Ripley & Sons, - 255 

Plant's Hebrew Memorial School. 118 

Plant of the Hill Brewing Co., - 244 
Plant of Newark Coach Lamp 

Manufacturing Co., - - 254 

Post Office and Custom House. - 132 

Post Office Cigar Factory, - - 201 

Poortman's Hall, - - - - 241 

Presidents of the United States, 31 

Private Laboratory of Ed. Weston. 175 

Progress Club House, - - - 264 

Prudential Insurance Co., - - 202 


Reading Room, Free Public Library, 118 

Residence of Mrs. Williaiu A. L're, 136 

Residence of E. J. Gless. - - 209 

Residence of John C. Eisele, - - 203 

Residence of Louis J. Felcler. - 204 

Residence of L. J. Lyons. - 246 

Residence of Richard E. Cogan. - 205 

Residence of W. J. Kearns. - 243 

Residence of Ernest Nagel, - - 206 

Residence of Elias G. Heller, - 225 



Residence of F. W. Munn, - - 235 

Residence of Edwin W. Hine. - 228 
Residence of Fred. Engelberger, - 224 

Residence of Peter Hassinger, - 21S 

Residence of W. H. Barkhorn, - 230 

Residences on Heller Parkway, - 245 


Schmidt & Sons' Steam Saw and 

Planing Mills, - - - 198 
Schill's Photograph Gallery, - - 264 
Second German Baptist Church. 57 
Second Presbyterian Church, - - 44 
Second Police Precinct, - - 146 
Seth Boyden's Monument, - - 135 
Seebeck Bros., - - - - 263 
Sixth Presbyterian Church, - - 44 
Spielmann, Strack & Co.. - - 215 
South Baptist Church. - - - 46 
South Eighth Street School. - 97 
South Market Street School, - - 84 
South Street School, - - - 87 
Street Views in Newark, - - 13 
Store of F. \V. Tompson, - - 214 
Store of E. Alsdorf & Co , - - 261 
-Store Joseph Logel, - - - 249 
St. Aloysius' Church. - - 65 
St. liarnabas' Hospital. - - - 143 
St. Benedict's College, - - 103 
St. Benedict's School, - - - 114 
St. Benedict's Church, - - 67 
St. Bridget's Church, - - - 66 
St. James' Church, - - - 63 
St. James' Hospital, - - -71 
St. James' School, - - - 102 
St. John's German Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church, - - - 57 
St. John's R. C. Church, - - 61 
St. John's School, - - - - 102 
St. Joseph's Church, - - - 66 
St. Joseph's School, - - - 1 14 


St. Leo's Church, Irvington, - 67 

St. Mary's Acatlemy, - - - 105 

St. Mary's Orphan Asylum, - 142 

St. Michael's Hospital, - - - 3' 

St. Patrick's School, - - - 117 

St. Paul's M. E. Church, - - 45 

St. Peter's Orphan Asylum, - 70 

St. Peter's School, - - - 113 

St. Vincent's Academy, - - 105 

Summer Avenue School, - - 75 

Studio of C. Durand Chapman, - 220 

Temple B'Nal Jesliuran, - - 54 

Tenth Ward German English School, 1 1 5 

The Clayton-Hoff Co.'s -Stables, - 261 

The E. Alsdorf Co.'s Store. - 263 

The E. E. Hogan Shoe M'f'g Co.. 193 

The First -Surveying Station, - - 10 

The '■ Franklin " School, - - 85 

The German Hospital, - - - 231 

The German Evangelical Church, 50 

The Newark Business College, - 104 

The New City Hospital, - - 150 

The Newark Ledger, - - - 170 

The Newark Sunday Call, - - 164 

The Newark Pioneer. - - 166 

The New Jersey Deutsche Zeitung, 165 

The New Jersey Freie Zeitung, - 163 
The New York Ave. Reformed Church. 47 

The Normal School, - - - 77 

The Old Seth Boyden Foundry, - 177 

The Old Plank Road Ferry House, 17 

The " Wedding Bonnet," - - 220 

Thirteenth Avenue School, - 79 

Third German Presbyterian Church, 49 

Third Presbyterian Church, - - 47 

Trinity Church, - - - - 60 

Trinity Reformed Church, - - 53 
Twelfth Ward German-English School, 98 



Undertaking WareroomsC.C. Murray, 238 




- 266 




Vailsburg Public School, 

Views on Broad Street. - 

View on Clinton Avenue. - 

View in Fairmount Cemetery, 

View in Garden Street, 

View in Jersey Street, - 

View in Lincoln Park, 

Views on Market Street, 16-28,33-130-134 

Views in Military Park, - - 24-30 

Views in Newark, 11-12-13-18-19- 

View on Passaic River, - - 133 
View on Pennsylvania Avenue, - 27 
View on Springfield Avenue, - 39 

Views on Washington Park, - 21-28 


Walnut Street -School, 

Warren Street School, - - - 

Washington Street School, 

Waverly Avenue School. 

Webster Street School, 

Wheaton's Building, - - - 

William Logel's Grocery, - 

Works of C. M. Russell, 

Works of The Cory-Heller Co., - 

Works of Crescent Watch Case Co., 

Works of Engelberger & Barkhorn, 

Works of Finter Bros., 

Works of Finter & Co., 

Works of Heller Bros.. 

Works of H. P. Witzel Co., - 

Works of Maher .Jc Flockhart, - 

Works of N. J. Uemarest & Co., - 

Works of Newark W. C. Material Co., 

Works of N. J. Zinc and Iron Co.. - 









Adler, Frank C, - 

- 166 

Adler, Francis E., 


Adler, William, 

- 201 

Ahearn, James, Sr., - 


Ahearn, James, Jr.. 

- 262 

Allen, Rev. J. S.. 


Alsdorf, E., 

- - 263 

Anderson, Dr. Henrv J.. 


Argue, R. D., - ' - 

- 109 

Arbuckle, J. N.. - 


Astley, William C, 

- 160 


Backus, J. A., - 


Baker, Henry R,, 

- 159 

Balcom, A. G., - - - 


Baldwin, Joseph,, 

- - 185 

Barkhorn, Wm. C, 


Barringer, William N., - 

- 109 

Bassett, Allen L., 


Baumann, Charles. 

- 240 

Berg, A., - 


Bernauer, August, 

- 237 

Beyer, Herman E. I... 


Bird, William A., 

- 221 

Birkenhauer, Sebastian. 

- . 240 

Bissell. William E., 

- 80 

Blair, Robert, - - - 


Blanchard, Noah F., 

- - '83 

Bloeniecke, Henry, 


Booth, Hubert, 

- 260 

Bosch, Adam, - - - 


Bowers, Philip J., 

- 252 

Boyden, Seth, - - - 


Brandenburg, G. 
Bray, Joseph B., 

Breckenridge, Wm. A. 
Brierley, Joshua, 
Brown, Charles J , 
Brown, Horace H,, 
Brown, R \V.. - 
Brown. Wm. H., 
Buchlein, H., 
Burgesser, Charles H., 
Burke, T. E., - 
Burkhardt, A. H., 

Chapman, C. Durand, 
Christensen, Rev. David H 
Clark, A. Judson, 
Clark. C , - 
Clark, Dr. J. H., 
Clark, Joseph, 
Clark, Joseph P., 
Cody, Rev. P., 
Coleman, Henry, 
Condit, Fihnore, 
Connolly, Thomas H., - 
Corbett. Capt. Michael, 
Cort, Thomas, 
Coursen, C. C, - 
Coursen, R. R., 
Crane, Elvin W., 
Crane. Walter T.. - 
Cunimings, James, 
Cummings, John, - 
Currier, Cyrus, - 
Cressey, Thomas, 


D-aly, Capt. Wm. P., - 
D'Aquila, Rev. E., 




De Jong, Solomon, 



De Jong, Maurice, 

- 250 


Uemarest, Daniel, 



Demarest, N. J.. - 

- 189 

I 1 I 

Depue, Judge D. A.. - 



Devoursnev. Marcus L.. 

- 160 


Dey, F. A,', 



Dill, Dr. D. M.. - 

- 129 


Disbrow. Dr. Wm. S., 



Dixon, Edward. - - - 

- 233 

Doane, Monsignor Geo. H.. 


Dodd, Rev. Chas. Hastings, - 



Doering, Rev. G.. 



Dougherty, Henry J.. 

- «3 


Dowling, James P., 



Drake, Oliver, - - - 

- '74 


Duncan, Chas. B., 






Eberhardt. Chas, F., 

- 254 

Edwards. F. C, 


Eisele, John C, - 

- 203 

Ely, John H.. - 


Ely. Wilson C , - 

- 264 


Engelberger, Fred, 


English, Dr. Thomas Dunn. - 

- '53 


Erb, G. L.. - - . 




Eschenfelder, Andrew, - 

- 215 




Faitoute, J. B.. - 



Felder, Louis A., - 

- 204 


Finger, Julius B., 



Finger, J. B., . - . 

- 152 

Finter, Fred., - - - 


Finter Frederick, - - - 

- 196 


Finter, Fredrick, 



Finter, Robert, - - - 

- 186 



Finter. William F., 
Fischer, Otto C. - 
Fish. William M., 
Flammann, Rev. A„ 
Fleming, Col. J. W., - 
Fleming, Rev. Father, - 
Fort. Frederick VV.. 
French, Rev. J. Clement, D. I) . 
Furman, Jas. A., 
Freudenthal, Leopold, - 


Gay, William A., 
Gahr, Jacob, - - - _ 
Gervais, Rev J. M., - 
Gibson. John .S., - - - 
Gless, A. J-, - - - 
Godber, William, - - - 
Gore, J. K., - - . 

Gray, Thomas J., - 
Gray, Walter H.. 
Greathead. William E.. - 
Gregory, John, - - - , 
Grimme, George, - - - 


Hainer, Rev. Win. H., 

Haley, George W., 

Halsey. Geo. A., 

Hamilton, William F.. - 

Hamlin, James \'., 

Hanley, John J , - 

Hanson. Frank H., A. M.. - 

Harrigan, William. 

Harburger. Joseph. 

Hassinger. Peter, - - - 

Hattel. (Justave L., - 

Haussling. Jacob. - - - 

Hawkins. William W.. 

Haynes. Joseph K.. 

Haynes. Geo. D., - - - 

Hays. James L., ■ - - 

Healy, George, - - - - 

Heilman, C. W., - - i->5- 

Heller, Carl. 

Heller, Frederick, - - - 

Heller, Elias G., - 

Heller, Paul E , - - - 

Hermon. George, - - - 

Herold, Dr. H. C. H. 

Hinckley, Livingston S.. M. ]) , 

Hinde, Arthur, 

Hine. Edwin W., - - - 

Hooper, George Jj.. 

Hooper, Irvin G.. - 

Hobbis. I), v.. - - - . 

Hodgkinson, James. 

Hcgan, Patrick, - - - 

Holbrook. Albert .\I. 

Holmes, J , 

Hopjicr, Chief Henry W . 

Ho|)per, Capt. B. W.. 

Horton E. !■:., 

Hunt, John ().. - - - . 

Hovey. Prof. E. O.. 


Illingworth, John. - - . 

Jacobs. W.ilter C. 

Jacobi, Wm., - - - . 

Johnston, James, - 


Kaas, Adam, - - . . 
Kalisch, Abner, - - . 
Kane, Lyman E.. 
Kalerndahl, Rev. Richard. 
Keene, Edwin J., - . . 

Kearns, W. J., - ■ - 
Kearsing. John ('.., - - . 
Kearsing William H.. - 
Kemp. Dr. A. Frit/, - - - 
Ketchem, Geo. W., 
Kierstead, Chief Robert, 
King, Nalh.iniel, - - . 




- 236 

I 12 

■ 65 





















Klemm, Henrv C, 
Koehler, August, - 
Kronenberger. J. J.. - 

Lebkuecher, Julius A., 
Lehlbach, Herman, 
Leonard, J. J.. 
Leucht, Rev. Joseph. - 
Lewis, A. N.. 
Lister, Alfred, - 
Logel, William, 
Logel, Joseph. - 
Lupton, Patrick. 
Lusk, Rev. iJavis W.. 
Luther, I^ev. Dr., 


Marlatt, James. 
Manx, Franklin. 
Ma\er, M., 

AFChesney. William C. 
Medcraft, John, 
Menk, C. W., 
Menzel. Hugo, - 
Merz, Henry. 
Miller, Henry T.. 
Miller, Philip. 
Morris, Rev. J. N.. 
Morris, William W., 
Morrison. William, 
Mulhn, J. J., 
Mulvey, M. M., A. M,. 
Munn, F. W., 
Murray, C. C, - 
Myers, Charles M.. 
McManus, Rev. M. A.. 
McManus, Capt. Andre 
McCabe, Owen, 
McCarthy, James A., 
McDonald, Edward I"., 

Nagel, Ernest, - 
Nagel, Camile P., - 
Nathan, 1). 1!.. - 
Niebuhr. Rev F.. - 
Nieder, John. 

O'Connor. M. 
Ohl. A., - 
Osborne, Rev 



Louis Shr 

Parker, R. Wayne, 
Parsons, W, H., 
Pell, Charles H., 
Perry, Theodore, - 
Peter, Alfred, 
Poortman, Adolph, 
Peels, Rev. J. P., 
Price, Louis M.. 
Puder, M. B., 
Putscher, August. - 
Prielh. Benedict, 

(^Liattlander, Rt 
Oninn, M. F., 
Quinn, P. T., 




Rahm, Eugene. 
Read, Dr. J. W., 
Reilly, John, - 
Richmond. John I!., 
Rippel, Albert A., 
Ripley, Chas. O., 
Ripley, David, 
Ripley, Wm. A., 
Rittenhouse, Stacy B. 
Roden, H. P., M. I). 
Rodrigo. John A.. - 
Rommell. Henrv C. 
Russell, C. M., ' - 
Runyon, Gen'l Theo. 


Sansom, Charles E., 

1 68 

■ 123 


■ 91 

1 1 1 










1 12 















1 12 






Saupe, G., - - - 

Savery, Rev. George. 

Scarlett, August, 

Scheller, John C, - 

Schenk, Rev. Carl. 

Schick, John. - - - 

Schick. Albert. 

Schickhaus. Edward. - 

Schill, Ludwig. - - - 

Schill, Otto K., 

Schmidt, Gustave, 

Schmidt, F'erdinand A.. 

Schmidt, Henry A.. 

Schoemg, William K.. ' - 

Schott. Henry P.. 

Schuetz, Charles J.. 

Schuetz, A.. - - - 

Schwarz Carl, - . - 

Schwarz, H, E., - 

Seebeck. John. - - - 

Seebeck. William. 

Sexton, E. K., - - - 

Seymour, James M., 

Shepard, Edwin, 

Slaight, C. H.. - - - 

Slaight. Henry L.. 

Sloan, Joseph E., - - - 

Smith, James, Jr., 

Smith, James R., - 

Smith. J. Rennie. 

Spielmann. Emile W.. 

Stapff. Julius. - - - 

Steiger. Fred J.. - 

Steines, Anton. - - - 

Strack, Frank P. - - - 

Strempel, Ernest C. - 

Sutphen. Joseph, - - - 


Temme, Ernest, 

Temme, Fred. C. - 

Ten Eyck, H. Gallowa\. 

Tervvilliger. J. L., 

Toler, John, - - - 

Thorn, John B.. - 

Trimmer, Samuel. 


Ubhaus. Capt. J. H.. 
Uffert, Edward H.. - 
IHrick, Peter. - - - 

Ure, William A.. 
Urick, William 1'. B . - 


Vail, Dr. M. H. C. - 
Van Houten, William F., 
Virtue, Lincoln A., 
Voget, Arnold, - - - 
Voight, Herman, 


Wadsworth, Frank, 
Walsh, Robert, 
Walter. Charles. - - - 
Ward, Elias S.- 
Wendell, Louis J., - 
Weston, Edward, 
White, Frank A,, - 
Wigger, Rt. Rev. M. W .. 1) 1) . 
Wilhelm, George, 
Wilson. Albert B., 
Wilson, Geoige H,, 
Winner, W. W.. 
Wiseman I^ev W. J.. S. T. I,.. 
Wisijohn, Frank, 
Witzel, H. P., 
Woodruff, E. B.. 
Woolman. H. M., M. D.. 
Wolber. Charles, 
Wolf, Rev. Julius H . - 
Wrightson, J. T,, 

Zeh, Dr. C. M., 
Zusi. Edward, 



21 1 


1 1 1 


















21 2 











History of Essex County. N. J. 


N. J., MAY, 1666. 

SSL X County, an 
integral part of 
New Jersey, a 
State w li i c h 
was one of the 
tJiiginal Thirteen colonies, 
and at this present 1896, a 
member of the grandest, 
confederacy of free and 
independent States that ever existed since the Great Architect 
"lossed out from his fingers this earth of ours, fixed its orbit and 
sent it spinning round the great central sun, marked its bounds 
amid the rolling oceans, bidding' the tides come and go, and 
that part quite insignificant when extent of territory is considered 
but mightily increased in magnitude when population and wealth 
are thought of. Sometimes she has been, and not always 
inappropriately either, when the grandeur of the two above- 
named reasons are combined with her marvellous manufacturing 
interests, called the " State of Essex." Indeed, this was always 
so. In her early life Essex County could boast a territory 
surpassing some of our quite pretentious States, but with 
much of this she parted when tbe counties of Union and Bergen 
were erected out of her territory. 

" God tempereth the wind to the shorn lamb " is an old adage 
and. in its application to Essex County, a truthful one, since her 
growth in the directions of population and wealth have been 
truly wonderful, presenting evidences on eveiy hand of the 
vouchsafement by the Almighty in the bestowal of his richest 
blessings in such rare profusion. 

To be sure, her natural advantages may have had much lu 
do with her prosperity and greatness, being situated at the wide 
open door of the Western World's greatest commercial metropo- 

lis, and immediately upon the line of direct railroad communi- 
cation with Philadelphia, the second commercial city on the 
western continent, and within a few hours of the rich coal fields 
and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio, and the iron and zinc 
mines of New Jersey. The beautiful Passaic River which laves 
its eastern boundary, giving a water-way to the ocean, whence 
the raw materials are brought to the docks in Newark and the 
manufactured products, made famous the world over by the rare 
skill of the mechanics, artists and workmen of Newark, Orange, 
etc., are sent forth on the white wings of commerce to the busy 
markets in almost every clime and wherever flies the starry flag. 
The pure mountain water coming down by its channel, meeting 
and marrying the salt sea flood, after making the wild leap at 
the falls in Paterson, and riding from thence on the ebbing 
tide's chariot away on to the sea. 

Then it is protected from the cold blasts, which come careen- 
ing down in winter from the north and the west by the pictur- 
esque Orange Mountains so beautifully stretching along its 
western border. Is it any wonder that the salubrity of its 
climate with is balmy sea air, dew-moistened by Old Ocean's 
inexhaustable supply resulting from the sun-influenced evapora- 
tions, should induce the soil so lavishly fed by nature and resting 
on its rare brown stone foundations to yield so marvellously in 
garden productions as to have encomiums showered by tongues 
of other and distant nations. 

Although the "scouts" sent out by the sturdy New England 
farmers did not bring back wine trophies to vie with their 
Israelitish exemplars, but merely reported that their Eden was 
on the west bank of the Passayic so called by the Indians. 

Several desultory efforts and as many failures succeeding to 
effect a permanent settlement of the beautiful and attractive 
region, on the soil of which the flag of old England had been 



planted by the daring Dutch navigator, Hendiicl< Hudson, but 
none were markedly successful until the little band of Connecti- 
cut farmers puslied their Shallops and Hat boats up to the land- 
ing and rested on their oars very near where the great Penn- 
sylvania Railroad draw-bridges stand erected, and at conunand 
to halt, had their " big talk " with the Indians. 

As anything connected with its history is not foreign to our 
purpose, it is safe to say that few events in the opening pages 
of American histoiy were fraught with a greater interest or 
have led to mightier, more definite and lasting results — with 
the single exception, perhaps, of the landing of the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth Rock — than the voyage of Hendrick Hudson along 
the coast of New Jersey, through the Achter Cull or " Back 
Bay," now called Newark Bay, on the shores of which and on 
the soil of Essex County, he planted the flag of discovery as 
the herald of civilization. 

The beauty of the region lying but a few miles westerly on 

turned out that the sweet-scented cedars of yore, so abundant 
between Newark and New York, have long years ago nearly 
all disappeared and are seldom seen any more. 


As has been before hinted, efforts at settlement of the beau- 
tiful and promising region had been made, but 'twas not 
until Robert Treat and his hardy band of honest farmers 
came, bringing with them more honor and less greed for gold, 
nothing like permanency resulted. To establish homes and to 
seek an asylum where true liberty might reign and where under 
its protecting aegis they could worship God after the dictates of 
their own conscience, these farmers came. Religious liberty was 
what they sought, and this they gained, for if the record speaks 
the truth, and in our research we find no reason for its "-ain- 




ttie left bank of the Pasayic, as it was then called, and which 
opened up to eveiy new visitor such an entrancing vista of land- 
scape beauty after passing the sweet-scented cedars which 
nestled in the marsh and salt grass of the meadows. But that 
was in the long, long ago, and before Young America (ever 
piscatorially inclined) had lopped the lithe young scions from 
the parent tree in order to gain a supply of the rod so essential 
to complete the outfit for the artist in the fish enticing line, a 
business, then as well as now playing so important a part in the 
work of supplying the constant demand for that delicious part 
of man's appetite satiators known as food fishes. Nay, more, 
the gardeners had a fondness for using the young tamarisks to 
assist the new world's skillfully climbing Limas. So it has 

saying, never did men worship with more freedom, more 
honesty or more unselfishly. 

Although armed with a land grant and broad invitation of 
Cov. Carteret, when they had but just kissed the soil and had 
sought God's blessing on their El Dorado, another and more 
exacting owner, in language quite strange, bade them refrain 
from their purpose to dig and to delve, but, said the Indian, for 
'twas none other than the red man, " If you are ready to buy, I 
am ready to sell." It didn't take these honest farmers very 
long to decide the raised question and express a readiness to buy. 

Robert Treat and his companions being men of business and 
large experience, were not long in making the bargain for a 
" title clear " to the possessions of their choice, and when they 



had doled out in the strictest sense of honor, the purchasing 
price, consisting of what in our days would be considered 
modest and unextravagant. Part of the price paid was barter, 
as all the cash that passed consisted of but eight hundred and 
fifty fathoms of wampum (Indian money), or bits of shell on a 
string; and just here we may say, although the transaction took 
place in the month of May, when the early spring flowers were 
in bloom, we may infer from the character of some of the 
goods sought, that the Indian let his memory dwell on the 
cold blasts from the seaward, which swept across the semi- 
moorland from the ocean, and the chill w'inds that swooped 
down from the mountains to the northward in the months of 
the winter. 

That there might be no misunderstanding as to the limits 
and bounds of the lands they had bought, the first surveying 
party of Essex County was organized and immediately set 
about its work. These hardy pioneers built better than [they 

spot where the chief man stood and made proclamations, " Wa- 
way-an-da," or away over yonder, a sweep of his long, bony 
arm and lithe index finger including the territory from the sea, 
the bay, brook and river, they serving in place of the latter-day 
magnetic needle of the theodilite used in surveying, all being 
noted down on a bit of prepared sheep-skin or vellum, and a 
rough map made by the white scribe accompanying the p.uty 
for the purpose. On this was shown, to the satisfaction of the 
chieftain and the captain, the metes and bounds. For several 
tlays after, the distances were measured, the trees and rocks 
blazed by the axe-man who followed after, the fleet-footed 
Indian, long-headed and wily pointing out the places. 


ESSEX County was one of the original sections of the State 
of New Jersey, and was erected into a county in 1675, 
but it was not until the 21st of January, 1709, that its bound- 


knew-, for little thought they when racing and chasing with the 
lleet-footed savage, along the river bank, across the hills and 
up the mountain rugged side to the top of the ever beautiful 
Orange Mountains, to the point now known as Eagle Rock, 
that here they halted and established the first surveying station, 
.ind that the vast arena over which the eye could then sweep, 
would, in less than three centuries, be inhabited by nearly a 
half million of people and become one of the garden spots of 
the world, might be properly surveyed. 

Here they lunched on the rare native fruits and clioice bits of 
dried meats from the loins of the fleet-footed deer or the old 
mountain bear, and washed it down with a " drop of the creat- 
ine" to brighten the mind and waking the conceptions that 
llieir bargaining was fair, and the selling and buying was done 
'Ml the square. Be it known just here, and in sorrow be it said, 
the yearning of the Indian was for "fire-water," nearly all 
Ills transactions beginning and ending in liquor. 

The luncheon being finished, the party stepped to the pin- 
nacle of the rock, a blaze of the tree with the axe marking the 

aries were definitely fixed by an act of the legislature. Its area 
was then much greater than at the present time. It comprised 
the territory then designated on the maps as Elizabethtown and 
Newark, and was covered by the Counties of Middlesex (or a 
part of it). Union and Morris, as well as the territory within its 
bounds of to-day, which is abutted and bounded as follows, 
viz : on the north-east by the County of Passsic, along its east- 
ern border range, the territory of Hergen and Hudson counties 
and Newark bay, the Achter Cull of the great navigator and 
and discoverer, Hendrick Hudson ; on the south-west by Union 
county, and along its north-west, the fair fields, which were once 
her own territory, but now the County of Morris. 

Her topography is delightful, unique and truly inspiring to 
any one who may look upon the diversity of its character, with 
the two beautiful mountain ranges stretching like ribbons along 
its westerly border, and known under the appellation of the 
Orang« Mountains, first and second, with other names of local 
significance, all of wdiich, with hundreds of nooks and crannys, 
with purling streams and sylvan dells, her invitations for men 



to come and domicile therein, have been so remarkably attract- 
ive that thousands have already yielded and are now rejoic- 
ing in beautiful and comfortable mountain homes amid her 
entrancing beauty and mountain lovliness. Indeed, the entire 
surface of Essex County it gently undulating; the foot hills of 
the mountains trending toward old ocean in gentle declivity, 
giving to every inch of her soil a value for building and resi- 
dental purposes, since nature has provided a drainage so perfect 
that malaria is rarely, if ever, heard of. 

Nothing is hazarded in the assertion, and then there is no 
fear of contradiction when the writer puts forward the claim 
that Essex County is so near perfection in her topographic plan 
as she came from the land of nature, that little is required of 
man's genius in its formulation for his dwelling-place and that 
all of her lines appear on the paradisical plan. 

The Passaic river, skirting her westerly border and forming 
the boundary between her and her sister County of Morris, 
then dips into Passaic County and makes a swift run, but, when 
she finds what a mistake she has made down the rocky way at 
Little Falls, she then makes the mad plunge at Passaic Falls, 
in order to get back again and then, seemingly pleased and well 
satisfied, leisurely rides on her flood of mountain spring water 
along its eastern border until it is finally lost in the old salt sea, 
by a promiscuous mingling with her crystal waters. 

The east and west branches of the Rahway river (both rising 
in Essex) course along through the rich valleys between and at 
the foot of the mountains, which are built up so strongly from 
the durable street building trap-rock forming their bases. The 
Elizabeth river near the centre of her territory, and a little 
farther to the north, Parrow brook and the First and Second 
rivers tender their compliments, especially in the fall, winter and 
spring. We might be charged with dereliction of duty did we 
not state the fact that there is another, euphoniously termed 
the Wigwam Brook, which has its heading from a spring in the 
mountain and joining hands with Parrow Brook becomes the 
Second River, which debouches into the Passaic near the scuith- 
easterly part of the charming village of Belleville. 

Although not a part of its topography by nature, yet it is a 
familiar old way known as the Morris Canal, through the waters 
of which, in years gone by, our coal was received direct from 
the mines, generally a full winter's supply. Again, we might 
mention the fact now, and enlarge by and by, that six great steam 
railroads and as many moi-e electric trolley railways which. 

..,■ .^^:^40^^ 




spectre-like, flit their cars here, there and everywhere over 
the Essex domain. 

As the greater part of the territory going to make up tin- 
county of Bergen was included in the grants, of which Essex 
was the coveted part, a few words as to the settlement at 
Bergen, which preceded that of the Connecticut farmers by a 
few years, will not be out of place. 

Nearly all writers on the subject of the early settlements ol 
the county make mention of troubles with the Indians, " difli- 
culties and complications often leading to collisions," says a 
local WTiter, which was followed in not a few instances by a 
complete wiping out of the settlement. 

As English or German speculators, who were in pursuit of 
, Liold through the open channel of trade with 
the red men and could control influence 
enough to reach the knig, would bring over 
a little band under the wildest sort of prom- 
ises and then leave them in the wilderness 
to perish at the hands of the savages. On 
the return of the speculators with another 
set of dupes a year or two afterwards, no 
vestige of the former settlement would be 
found, if settlement, indeed, it could be 

For years these barbarous proceedings 
were carried on until, as before mentioned, 
men came to seek homes in the New World, 
subdue wildwood and till the soil, men 
whose hearts were liberty-loving and who, 
while they loved the precious tnetals, they 
bartered when necessity demanded or busi- 
ness transactions made a specific call. His- 
torians, so far as w'e are able to trace, give 
the first place in the order of early settle- 
ments to Bergen, but whether the honor of 
learning the art of fraternizing with the 




Indians belongs to the Dutch or Dane (so that the settlers 
might live in peace side by side with their red neighbors), 
writers are not agreed. But one thing is certain, that an 
insignificant trading post established about 1616 which, being 
managed with a business-like astuteness, grew in importance 
until, about the tenth year following, the station planted 
on the hill where 'Bergen now stands became a permanent 

HE long-e.\isting feuds between the Indian tribes, the 


efforts to subdue one and the other led to no little suffer- 
ing of the settlers. At the period of our Connecticut farmers' 
. oniing there were, all told, in the region about twenty kings, 
liut from this we have no right to infer that their numbers were 
large, since the record gives an account of a king who had but 
forty subjects, and of another pair of kings who held authority 
over twelve hundred between them. " The Indians," says Dr. 
Veshlage, " in this part of the general stock of the Delawares 
or Lenni Lenapes, who weie fierce and war-like," and relates 
as an evidence that they swooped down on the more peacefully 
inclined, and that arrow-heads and many other articles of flint 
have been found even in the past few years. The Delawares, 
he states, were eminent for valor and wisdom and held a 
prominent place in Indian history, but on the rise of the Iro([Uois 
power they lost their independence and fell under the suspicion 
because many of them applied themselves to agriculture. A 
tribute was exacted from them every year in order to show an 
acknowledgement of subordination. 

The Iroquois gloried in the haughty manners in which they 
showed their superiority, and never spoke of the Delawares 
only as " women." The shrewdness of the Iroquois was fully 
developed when they kept a small band of their warriors in 
several parts of the conquered territory. 

While Hendrick Hudson usually acted the honorable part, 
yet when he sold the Iroquois powder and lead, when the Del- 
awares were getting the best of the fight, and thus turned the 
scale against them, he fell from the exalted position of the pure 
and good. 


ALL told and so tersely and truthfully said by Professor 
George H. Cook, the late scholarly State Geologist, 
reaches a total of 77,021, and having a distribution among the 
towns, as follows : Belleville, 5,062; Bloomfield, 8,070; Cald- 
well, 17,920, of which 2,617 is low meadow- lands enriched by the 
overflow of the river, produce immense quantities of fair grass, 
which finds a market in the cities of Orange and Newark ; 
Clinton, 5,229; East Orange, 2,394; Livingston, 11,354. 333 of 
which is also low meadow land, and as does that of Caldwell, 
borders the Passaic river, which forms their westerly boundary, 
as well as that of the County of which they are a part; Mill- 
burn, 6.234; Newark, 9,126, with a few acres additional taken 
from East Orange ; of Newark's average, about 4,282 are tide 
marsh lands; Orange, about 1,800; South Orange, 6,1 iS; 
West Orange, 3.725 ; Verona, a new township erected from the 
easterly edge of Caldwell, and containing about 4,000 acres, 
more or less. These above-named townships (thirteen in num- 
ber), with the cities of Newark and Orange, the boroughs of 
Vailsburg, Glen Ridge and Caldwell, the villages of South 
Orange, Monfclair, Irvington and Bloomfield, constitute the 
political divisions of Essex County. 


NO county in the State of New Jersey, and few indeed, in 
any of our sister states, is more happily situated and 
derives a greater benefit, industrially and commercially speak- 
ing, from her geographical position. A glance at the map ought 

. .. .-." -J Ifcs 




to satisfy the most skeptical tliat Essex Coiiiity is peculiarly 
fortunate in tliis respect, she l^eing by nature a focal point. 
The liigh position which she now hokls, the grandeur of her 
surroundings, the many lines of comraunication with the out- 
side world, the concentration of traffic to her trade marts, and 
withal, the six great railroads, the river and canal which pour 
almost unliroken streams of wealth and luxury into her lap, 
without considering tlie mighty concentration of manufacturing 
interests, are all in the way of irrefutable evidences that her 
" lines have been cast in pleasant places," and that she is pecul- 
iarly forlun.ite in her geography and geograpliical relations. 

Essex County, in her wonderful growth and prosperity, is 
only another offer in support of the truthfulness of the asser- 
tion tiK'.t location has niiieh. if not all. to do in the upbuilding 
of places. 

Nothing else but the most devastating inlluences brought to 
bear against her, could ha\e prevented New York from becom- 

tages which the I'assaic afforded in tlie beginning, made it an 
easy matter for Newark to outstrip Elizabeth, although the 
latter had some years the better of settlement. Then the Morris 
Canal came creeping over the hills and mountains, depositing 
the wealth of New Jersey and Pennsylvania mines at her doors. 
Her topography, then, is such that no lover of the beautiful in 
nature can resist its charms. No stranger can cross the bor- 
ders of Essex, climb her gentle declivities and sit down on the 
table l.nids of the Orange mountains, without being captivated 
by her charms. Like one grand picture which has been un- 
folded before him, lies the landscape which wordy expressions 
fail him when description is attempted. That view which is 
obtained of Essex County and its environments from any of 
the higher ])oints of the Orange mountains, while changed by 
its beautiful topography anil immediate relations, makes a 
picture which would produce a lasting sadness in its effacing, 
so deep are the lines made in its tracing. 


ing and being the maivclous commercial emporium she is, and 
even so, with Philaclelpliia, ISoston and many other places which 
ire fed and grow fat on the luxuries which are prepared at the 
fountain heads and all along the streams which naturally flow 
toward them. Man's keen eye engaged in the work of search- 
ing out those focal points to which flow, and around which 
gather the elements of growth and prosperity do not often mis- 
take when they follow the geographical and topographical lines 
laid down by the (ireat Author. With Essex County men and 

^ women, jirogress has been the word, and from the time Newark 
town lots were marked out, no obstacles have been allowed to 

' j;ather under the wheels of the car. 

It is easy to answer the question, " Why has not Elizabeth, 

Sin Union County, become the great local centre that Newark 

Jnow is ? " liecause she lacked those essential accessions w'lich 
;ather around the point when found, the commercial advan- 



Tl lie color .and lasting quality of the stone taken from the 
Essex County Quarries has no equal, and although the 
expense of getting it out of the ground militates somewhat 
against its general use, yet much of it already adorns the walls 
of many of our most attractive buildings and building places. 
This is only a single jiroof that the first settlers of Essex built 
better than they knew, it being years afterwards before the 
wealth hidden under the soil in her brown stone, which required 
but the pick and shovel, the drill and the derrick, with the 
genius to manage the work of quarrying and the energy to 
work out the success which has crowned the efforts to bring it 
forth to the light of day where its beauty may be seen and 
its high qualities for building purposes appreciated. In looking 



over the histoiy of the brown stone hiterests of Essex County 
it has been found that quarries have been opened as early as 
1700, and stone taken therefrom to construct the substantial old 
farm houses, mills, etc., which remain to this day, showing 
evidences that give warrant of qualities good for another 
century. Long before marble came into vogue here as a mater- 
ial from which to make grave-stones, tablets and monuments, 
brown stone was used. 

Quarries for getting out these stones were worked in several 
townships, beginning at Newark and extending as far north as 
Franklin and including Belleville, Bloomfield and Orange. 
The Belleville quarries, which are located on the west bank of 
the Passaic river, now the town of Franklin, are about one- 
quarter of a mile from the Avondale station, on the Newark and 
Paterson railroad. The first opening was made in or near this 
place for the purpose of procuring stone for building, more 
than a century and a half ago. Since 1857 they have been vig- 

almost breathless with excitement over the discovery of the 
remarkable geological fact that somewhere away back in the 
past ages, there had been a slip, the west side appearing to 
have slipped down, as the corresponding beds on either side 
would indicate. It will be remembered that when the earth 
trembled and shook so extensively all along the Atlantic coast 
several years ago, nearly destroying Charleston and doing great 
injury all along the sea, that many of our scientific men attrib- 
uted the trouble to a general slipping of one rock form- 
ation over another, with its " dip " toward the sea, caused by a 
sort of general commotion among the forces within the earth. 
But as we have no business in this field of exploration, where 
every fact established must be worked from the processes car- 
ried on in the great laboratory of nature, we leave scientific 
reasoning out of the why and the wherefore of this, or that, 
where it belongs, or, in short, in the hands of men better able 
and more willing to cope with it. 

^. >; .^- ~,< - -S 







orously worked. The production has been greatly increased 
since that time. From three to five hundred men are employed 
steadily in quarrying the blocks and in dressing the stones in 
yards nearby. Cook's Geological report for 1881 (and probably 
the last ever made by that eminent scholar) says : " The work- 
ings move in a generally westward direction, extending from 
within a few rods of the river road into the gently rising ridge. 
All of them descend below the tide level of the river. The 
overlying earth is glacial drift, containing much red sand-stone 
and in places, imbeded sands and gravel." One fact has been 
made patent to every quarryman, viz.: That the deeper he goes 
the better the stone, the quality improving with the increasing 
depth of earth and consequent increase of pressure to which 
the stone is subjected. He also says that what is termed the 
" dip " of the strata is toward the northwest and at an angle 
of from 10 to II degrees. The Professor is said to have been 

A fact which grows sterner as the workings of these quarries, 
where the stores of wealth he packed away in such enormous 
quantities as to be, and remain for even thousands of years 
incalculable, and as the depth from whence they come increases 
the more Herculian-like, becomes the work of the elevation of 
the great blocks from their beds to the surface without the least 
assistance from gravity, all the workings moving with the " dip." 

In moving the stone, mighty derricks are used to first lift tlie 
blocks. These are run by steam and consequently must be 
sound in every part. A weakness in any plate, or flaw any- 
where pointing to danger and disaster, as certain as the mag- 
netic needle to the pole. The latest United States schedule 
placed the value of the stone quarried in a single year from one 
quarry, at a quarter of a million, placing the selling price of 
the light grey stone at one dollar per cubic foot, and the fine 
grained reddish colored sand-stone, suitable for rubbing, was 



fixed at one dollar and fifty cents per cubic foot. The Mills 
building, lately constructed at the corner of Broad street and 
Exchange jilacc, New \()rk city, consumed almost the entire 
output of the Belleville quarries during iS8o and 1881. 

What is Unown as the Joyce quarry, having taken to the hill 
more than the others, has now a depth of about 100 feet. The 
Robinson and Philips, which have a vuiited opening of 500 square 
feet, averages only about 50 feet in depth. Newark is repre- 
sented by four great openings, from which excellent stone is 
being ([uarried, giving a handsome return to those who have 
made investments. It is remarkable, and to the investor, no 
tloubt, a pleasant fact, that these qu.irries when worked out of 
paying stone have not been troubled with the dip to such an 
extent as to interfere with their availability for building sites. 

The supply of cheap brown stone for foundations, etc., lias 
been the source of quite an incoiue to quarrymen, they realizing 


EXT in importance to the brown stone which adorns, beauti- 
fies and enriches the dwelling houses and business places 
of the fortunate possessors of the hills and mountains of Essex 
County, comes the trap rock, which makes durable and smooth 
our highways and pathways, the streets and avenues, where the 
carriages of the citizens may roll, bringing comfort to their 
bodies who first seized upon the fact which had long been made 
a manifestation through accident. The accident made itself 
manifest in this wise. Through the outcropping of this peculiar 
kmd of stone in places where highways in course of time were 
opened for the purpose of giving the settlers access to places 
which were springing up in different sections of the county- 
These highways or public roads, w'hen opened, were sometimes 
worked as 'twas said, and sometimes not. Here it was where the 
not came in that these roads or public highways crossed these 


from five jo twenty-five cents per cubic foot. Not alone in the 
money value are these cheap stones to be considered, but they 
have long been found useful and valuable to the builder and 
will increase in this direction as the nf time keeps on 

In all probability, the largest blocks of lirinvn stone have been 
raised from the (piarry of F. \V. Shrump, which is located 
farther westward than any other in the county. The stone is of 
grayish color and blocks have been t.iken out measuring 30 feet 
long. Ill feet wide and to feet thick. All the heavy work of 
this quarry is performed by steam power. The stone is then 
trans])orted via. Morris, two and one-half miles distant, and 
by railroads at Montclair, Orange, etc. lUiilders use the stone 
from this quarry chielly for church building and trinuuings. 
Many representative structures can be seen in New York, 
Newark, the Oranges, etc. 

outcroppings of trap rock and showing no evidence of necessity 
for repairs, but which gave abundant evidence, in the course of 
time, of the great value of this peculiar kind of rock material 
for road making by the wonderful durability and smoothness of 
wear it was discovered to possess. To this material Essex 
County is. no doubt, to a great extent indebted for the wide, 
smooth and broad avenues of which she boasts to-day. That 
she has a just right to boast, one has only to take a ride or 
drive over these avenues, and conviction will follow with rapid 

Then a debt of gratitude is due the men who have been found 
willing to open the quarries, get up the stone crackers, attach 
the steam ])ower and furnish to the road builders stone in all 
the sizes which long experience has proved the most available. 
While the stone men or the men who have delved in the Orange 
Mountains" rough sides in search of the quality of stone the 



most desirable for the uses and purposes set forth in the order 
from unl<nown parties or from wherever it may have emanated. 
Among the quarrymen there has ever been a generous 
rivalry, and the orders for the largest consumers of the broken 
" trap " has led to a business competition which has driven the 
price per ton down with each new call for competitory bidding, 
the fortunate winner often securing the prize on a big quantity 
and fine quality with a margin of only a half dollar or less on 
the ton to secure the contract. Many have travelled far and 
crossed the ocean to reach and enjoy such a sight as the Giant's 
Causeway presents. A similar wonder can be seen any time in 
O'Rourke's trap rock quarry, on the face of the First Orange 



IE e.\act time when the roads and avenues in the county of 
Essex were laid out is involved in considerable obscurity, 
but certain it is that the fine wide streets known as Broad and 
Market streets, in the settlement of Newark, were the first roads 
laid out by the early settlers of the county. The first road on 
record that was laid out by the Commissioners of Highways is 
in the Essex County road book, and bears date December 3d, 
1698, and refers to a road in Elizabethtown, which at that period 
formed a part of Essex County. In 1705, a road was laid out 
connecting the towns of Newark and Elizabethtown. High 
Street was laid out as a legal road in 1709, although it had 
been used for a highway previous to that date. In 17 17, several 
roads had been laid out on the Newark " Neck " to enable the 
farmers to get in their salt hay, and the old Ferry road was 
extended to Hudson County, with the old-time rope ferry boats 
to convey passengers and freight across the Passaic and Hacken- 
sack rivers. In 1806, the Newark and Pompton Turnpike 
Company was incorporated. This thoroughfare ran from North 
Broad Street, now Belleville Avenue, in a northwesterly direction 
to Bloomfield, which at that time was in the town of Newark; 
thence to Craneston, now Montclair, and over the First Mountain, 
through Caldwell to Pompton Plains. This road is now Bloom- 
field Avenue and is under the care of the Essex County Road 
Board, within the county limits. In 1811, the Newark and 
Morristowii turnpike was laid out, extending the old South 



Orange road which was in existence years before. The princi- 
pal roads and avenues running through the county, connecting 
its cities, towns and villages, are all fine and broad avenues, 
well paved and under the care of the Essex County Road Board. 
This Board had its origin in the far-sighted and public-spirited 
Llewellyn S. Haskell, the founder of Llewellyn Park, West 
Orange. Some years after he had completed that beautiful 
park, Mr. Haskell conceived the idea of making all of Essex 
County one grand park with Newark as a centre. His idea was 
to take the principal thoroughfares leading out from Newark, 
grade and pave them so as to make easy and pleasant drives 
and then connect them by lateral roads. In pursuance of this 
plan, Mr. Haskell procured from the legislature of 1868, a law 
incorporating the Essex County Road Board. The first members 
of the Board were Llewellyn S. Haskell, William H. Murphy 
and Francis McGrath. The law was found to be defective and 
a supplement was passed in 1869, increasing the number 
of commissioners to five. The first commissioners so ap- 
pointed were A. Bishop Baldwin, of South Orange, William H. 
Murphy, of Newark, Jesse Williams, of Orange, George Peters, 
of Newark, and Robert M. Henning, of Montclair. Mr. Mur- 
phy soon resigned, and Mr. Timothy W. 
Lord, of Newark, was appointed in his 
pl.Lce. To these five citizens is due the 
credit of the magnificent system of county 
roads in charge of the Road Board, which 
form in Essex County a system of drives 
that is unequalled anywhere in the vicinity 
of New York. The avenues in charge of 
tlie Road Board are, Frelinghuysen ave- 
nue, extending from Astor street, Newark, 
tu Elizabeth ; Springfield avenue, from the 
Couit House in Newark, through Irving- 
ton, South Orange and Millburn, to the 
Morris county line ; South Orange avenue, 
from Springfield avenue, Newark, through 
X'ailsburgh and South Orange, and up to 
the county line ; Central avenue, from 
Iiroad street, Newark, to the Valley road. 
West Orange ; Park avenue, running from 
Bloomfield avenue, Newark, to Llewellyn 
Park, West Orange ; Bloomfield avenue, 
from Belleville avenue, Newark, to the 
county line in Caldwell, and Washington 
■ avenue, from Belleville avenue, Newark, 
'through Belleville and Franklin, to Passaic. 




THE fact that negro slavery was first introduced into the 
American colonies in the year 1619 is well authenticated, 
and as will be seen when compared with the records, this 
event so portentious to the weal and the woe of the great 
republic, occurred nearly fifty years before the settlement of 
Essex County. Eggleston's School History, which, no doubt, 
has the correct version, gives the account of it, as follows : 
•' The same year in which the great charter reached Virginia, 
there came a Dutch shi]) in the James river which sold nineteen 
negroes to the planters. They were the first slaves in Amer- 
ica." In those days it was thought right to make slaves of 
negroes because they were heathen ; but for a long time the 
number of slaves that came into the colonies was small. 
White bond servants did most of the labor in Maryland and 
Virginia mitil about the close of the seventeenth century, when 
the high price of tobacco (which had become the staple corn- 

few slaves, passed acts of emancipation and set their negroes 
free. Very different was it wdiere the burden of labor fell on 
the shoulders of him who had been purchased for the purpose. 

Out of this situation of affairs grew the slavei-y c|uestion — the 
differences between the free and the slave states, and finally led 
up to the late civil war. At first the slaves did not speak 
English, and they practiced many wild African customs. .Some 
of them were fierce and the people became afraid of their 
peculiar manceuvres. Great harshness was used in many places 
to subdue them. Eggleston reports one of these in New York 
City, in 17 12, when twenty-four negroes were put to death. In 
1740, an uprising of them in South Carolina led to a battle, in 
which the negroes were routed. By a reference to the record it 
will be found tliat Oueen Anne gave encouragement to the 
Royal African Company of England, of which the Duke of York 
was president, offering as a bounty for each able .African slave 
introduced, sixty-five acres of land, as a further inducement 
and to encourage and make their inhumanity more inhuman. 

' . «;~<-.^ >-:«^..jS«i,*^ • t.r?*&«f^?r*^ *^*-" 


modity, of which large quantities was r.iisetl for exportation) 
caused a great many negroes to be brought. About the same 
time the introduction of rice in South Carolina created a great 
demand for slaves. 

It didn't take long for tlu- institution, b.arbarous though it was, 
to reach all the colonies. Even New Jersey failed in the hour 
of trial, and in the face of large profits to be derived from slave 
labor, to keep her skirts free. Nor did Essex County offer any 
serious resistance to its introduction, even among her I'uritanic 
families, who had grown rich and independent. Even New 
England, over which the breezes from Plymouth Rock came 
over hill and dale .and spread its religious influences broadcast, 
failed to set u]) any stable barrier against it. For tilling the 
soil, New England, as well as New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, soon found negro slavery unprofitable, and it was 
eariy abandoned, except where they could be made use of as 
house servants. After the Revolution, the colonies which had 

by keeping up a full supply of merchantable negroes at (mark the 
stain) reasonable rates. 

One fact stands out prominently all through the conduct of 
this nefarious business — so long as England profited by the 
traffic in African slaves, she held out a liberal encouragement to 
those who had sunk so low in the scale of humanity as to be- 
come slave tradeis. Thus the stain sank deeper, until the pen, 
proving mightier than the sword, broke the galling chains asunder, 
and the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln set the slaves free. 

The wealthy people of Essex County were not slow (even 
though of good old Puritan stock) to give countenance to the 
weakness for getting cheap labor through the channel of human 
slaveiy, and while they did not drain it to the very dregs as they 
did in the tobacco and rice growing colonies, no house of preten- 
sions but had its servants from among those of whom Bryant sang: 

Men from England bought and sold me, 
I-'aid my price in paltry gold. 



Neither was their broad acres properly tilled without labor 
bought in the markets. When taken as a whole, slavery in New 
Jersey didn't pay, and while New York, Pennsylvania and others 
of the sisterhood early compelled their legislatures to pass acts 
abolishing the practice of purchasing and holding humans in 
bondage, New Jersey satisfied her conscience by acts of gradual 

In 1790, the census reported 11,423 slaves as held in New 
Jersey, the larger number of these being owned and used as 
house servants in the territory of the "State of Essex." 
Notwithstanding this situation of affairs, there were many 
who dared to raise their voices against the inhuman practice. 

In 1804, public opinion had been so far swayed that an act of 
gradual emancipation was passed. This gave freedom to the 

nearly all of whom are descendants of those who had seen 
service as slaves, mostly in the southern states. 

Many other features of the institution of slavery which would 
be of interest to our readers might be introduced here, but 
space will not permit. 


THE water supply of Esse.\ County is not a question of how 
long or from whence, but is an old established institution 
found complete in all its details and rippling all over the 
hill tops and down the mountain sides, when the intended 
affianced bride of farmer Josiah Ward, the 19-year-old daughter 
of Captain Swaine, had stepped ashore, thus winning the position 
of honor, and kissed the consecrating kiss which needed but the 


men and women, but the masters were compelled, under the 
law, to maintain them as long as they lived. This act gave 
freedom to all children born in slavery, the boys at 25 and the 
girls at 21 years of age. A short time afterward an amendatory 
act was passed reducing the ages to 21 for boys and iS for girls. 
There is now living in Esse.v; County several of those whose 
freedom came through the workings of the amendatory part of 
the act. Mrs. Hannah Mandeville, the widow of Anthony, now 
in her 77th year, and still hale and hearty, is living in Newark, 
at No. 14 Hacket Street, where she enjoys the competency her 
good man left her, and is never happier than when rehearsing 
the history of her life. 

Essex County has quite a large number of colored people. 

wedded bliss to wake the bud of hope nestling snug in the blos- 
som of good wishes now ready to bloom for the Connecticut 
farmers on the soil of Essex County. First, the Pasayic river 
had started away back where the delicate squaw and the wee 
little Indian papoose (baby) had sipped the cool draught along- 
side the white lily pad where the wild deer raised no objections, 
here and there covering a hiding-place for the wild duck, the 
wild goose and the plover, slowing down till she formed the big 
and the little piece of meadow, that muskrats, the mink, and 
now and then a beaver, to take time bv the forelock and get 
things in readiness to meet winter's cold selections, and then 
beckoned on by the rocky way, called Little Falls, in order to 
make preparations for the final leap at the great falls in 



Paterson, to be caught in the arms of hei' cystal veiled lover, where 
the tide ebbs and flows a few miles below, and timidly glides on 
to the Haclcensack, Newark bay, Kill von Kull and the ocean. 

Next in importance to the Passaic river, (which for many years 
supplied the people of the City of Newark for domestic, 
economical and various others, the most important among them 
being for lire purposes) comes the east and west branches of 
the Rahway river, the Elizabeth river and other small spring 
brooks, brooklets, etc., etc. The above named covering the 
natural water resources of the county of Essex, we turn to the 
water supply made available through the genius of the 
engineering craft. Their work resulted in the introduction of 
aqueduct water into the peoples' houses through the medium of 
wooden pipes. On November 17, iSoo, the first water company 
was formed. Its board of directors consisted of John N. Cum- 
mings, Nathaniel Camp, Jesse Baldwin, Nathaniel Beach, 
Stephen Hays. James Hedden, Jabez Parkhurst, David D. Crane, 
Joseph L. Baldwin, Luthur Coble, Aaron Ross, John Burnett 
and William Halsey, all honored names. Wooden pipes were 

excellent fur domestic purposes. Experiment proved pretty 
conclusively that the driving must continue to a point far below 
the tide level in order to get the benefit of nature's filters. 
After expending nearly §50,000, the wells were boarded up in 
order to keep man or beast from unwittingly or unwillingly tak- 
ing their death of cold through a bath taken out of season, and 
so have remained as a monument to mark the beginning of a 
project (however meritorious it may have been) in a hurry, and 
left to moulder away like all things earthy and the recollections 
thereof left to fade through the lapse of time. 


THE first supply which came to the people of Newark was 
gathered from a/>er/ little stream, known as Branch Brook, 
which gathered the waters of many springs which abounded in the 
region lying to the north and northeast of the Morris & Essex; 
R. R., and when the little reservoir on Orange street, and the 
other reservoir — a combination designed by the architect and 
the builder — the latter making sure in laying its foundations and ' 


used until 1828, when steps were taken for substituting iron 
therefore. Under an act of the legislature, approved iVIarch 20, 
i860, the Newark board was constituted, and by that authority 
the transfer was made to the City of Newark " of the capital 
stock and all the rights and franchises, lands and property, real 
and personal, of the Newark Aqueduct Company," the con- 
sideration being $100,000. 

About this time the driven-well craze came into vogue, and 
the company, anxious to advance the best interests of the city, 
had about forty of these sand crabs driven, varying in depth 
from forty to forly-eight feet. By dint of extraordinary- 
exertions they managed to make them yield about 100,000 
gallons every forty-eight hours of what was doubtless Passaic 
water, though somewhat improved by being filtered through the 
bed of sand and gravel provided by the river. The water was 
clear and had a pleasant taste and would have proved, no doubt, 

rearing the superstruction. that there should be nothing in the 
way of its drawing a certain percentage of the water to keep her 
full to the brim, and which might, under pressing conditions, be 
drawn from the Morris canal, which took water from Hopatcong 
and Greenwood lake, which was far better than the later 


As Newark, the chief city of the County of Essex, grew in 
population, and the people grew rich and important, the 
/>e>i little brook was no longer sufticient for the manufacturers' 
and peoples' wants, and the demand arose for a larger supply, 
and without the care and caution which all great undertakings 
usually command, the Passaic river was tapped just above Belle- 
ville, that the increasing water needs of Essex's chief city should 
have its water supply increased for its wants. Not long after, or in 
1 868-'69, a pumping station had been built and furnished with 



atl the late improved pumping apparatus, and great reservoirs 
had been constructed to contain the combined energies of the 
entire apparatus. It began to leak out (not the water, but the 
fact) that the sewage from the great capital city was chiefiv 
responsible for certain contaminations of the Passaic's — once 
crystal fluid — which not alone could be seen, but which it was 
said had grown so strong as to be easily felt as the tides ebbed 
and flowed across the sill of its wide open door. 


WHILE it cannot be said that the great Pequannock water 
sheds, reservoirs, etc., belong in reality to Kssex, yet it 
conies booming down the mountains and winding through the 
valleys until when it reaches the boundary line and opens its 
flood-gates of pure mountain spring water into the great rec^v- 
ing reservoirs near Belleville, which were closed to Passaic's 
poUutedwaters (late discovered") but stood with outstretched 


ALL over the county, in many a nook or corner where such a 
thing would never have been suspected, arc artesian wells 
tapping mother earth, where beneath the shell babbles many a 
sylvan brook and rest quiet lakes of purest water, undisturbed 
by the pretty-hued fishes which, with many a dart and swirl, 
shoot from one water cave to another and where gently rising 
through seam and crevice, it reaches the surface and, in beds of 
sand and gravel, by nature formed, provides a home and harvest 
for the finny friends of man. 

Essex County In The Revolution. 

T<J the lot of a very few, indeed, of her sisters did it fall to 
play such an active part in the Revolutionary War. Her 
geographical position was such that the doors were left 
wide open to its ravages, and hers, from necessity, if from no 
other cause, could not remain anything but an out and out 


arms to welcome i'equannock's supply to its embrace. As we 
reach the subject of water supply more in detail in another 
chapter of this book, the reasons which stand out boldly in 
proof of the fact that few cities (if any) in the republic are sup- 
plied with water answering all purposes to a greater degree than 
that which the Pequannock furnishes, will be given. 


THE bright little city of Orange, the second in size of the 
cities of Essex County, whose people made frequent and 
repeated demands for a better supply of water and this they 
finally procured. By building a dam across the west branch of 
the Rahway river, between the first and second Orange 
mountains, the waters of that sylvan stream were staid back till 
a sufficient amount was husbanded to meet the wants of the 
beautiful city. 

patriotic and dangerous position. As soon as the tocsin 
sounded and war. cruel war, was at her doors, the mass of her 
people, who were patriots to the core, and lovers of liberty and 
freedom of the most exhalted type, they began playing the 
heaviest parts on the what proved a bloody stage. They had 
heard the shrill blasts of the truinpet of liberty which was echo- 
ing throughout the land, and the despicable stamp act of the 
mother country* had fired the hearts of the lovers of freedom 
everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the colonies, 
and it found the children of Essex ready to snap asunder the 
ties that bound them to the mother country'. Notwithstanding 
the fact of their loyalty to the king and a religious desire for 
peace, they were ready to take up arms in defense of their liber- 
ties and rights. 

As in all other sections of the country, there were those who, 
from one cause or another, had a lack of patriotism or were 
open and avowed royalists or tories and cast the weight of their 



iiiHuence and money aijainst the patriots, they beinjj mostly of 
the wealthier class and such as liad been in the enjoyment of 
favots ffom the king. 

The ringing declaration of Patrick Henry. " Give me liberty, 
or give me death," was being everywhere rehearsed, and the 
very safest place possible for the tory and his family was where 
they coidd have the protection of King George's red-coated 

So loyal had the Jersey Blues proved in the French war, his 
majesty felt terribly disappointed and chagrined when he found 
the Jersey nu-n patriots to the core, except as before said, those 
who became traitors to the cause and tale-bearers to the king's 
troops, and who thus were exposing the ]iatriots to greater 
dangers and unnecessary sufferings. 

The enthusiasm which Esse.x County manifested in the cause 

troops to serve in the continental army, on the 9th day of 
October, 1775; the provincial congress of New Jersey, then 
sitting in Trenton, had the call laid before them on the I3tli. 
when other than the news ]ireceding it having reached congress. 
the illustrious John Hancock accomiianied the call with a r<- 
(|uest for several battalions of men, saying, " The congress 
the firmest confidence that from your experienced zeal in tin 
great cause. You will e.xert your utmost endeavors to carry the 
said resolutions into effect with all possible expedition." 

The people hastened to fill the roll, not because of the men- 
pittance of \'we tloUars a month which they would receive for 
the service, but because their hearts^'ere fired with zeal for tin 
cause and their bosoms swelled with pride that they weri 
privileged to take part in the glorious battles for liberty. 

The patriots of Essex, their close proximity to New York ami 


in which the people of the thirteen colonies were engaged, had 
few parallels. The roar of the British lion startled the inhabi- 
tants of the sparsely-settled region of the New Jersey common- 
wealth, and each man in whose bosom burned the flame of free- 
dom and was ready to escape from tyranny and oppression, 
seized fire-lock, trusty sword, flint-lock or musket, and bore well 
his part in the struggle which grew more fierce as the nearly 
eight years diagged their slow length along. 

Her position, geographically speaking, on the direct route lie- 
tween (as they were even at that early day called) the two great 
commercial cities of the western world, placed Essex County 
between the upper and the nether mill stones, and her products, 
(says Stryker's 'Jerseynuxn. in the Revolutionary War,) made, to 
a certain extent, food for which ever .army had possession clvning 
the long and eventful struggle. 

Congress, then sitting in I'hiladelphia, making its first call for 

other nearby places which were uiider the contiol of King 
C;eorge's troops, left them exposed to the wickedness of those 
who had been invited to leave Essex County for the count) 's 
good, and while the general public suffered more or less, therr 
are cases of individual suffering and death on the record vvhicli 
are most heart-rending and cruel. 

Joseph Atkinson, in his " History of Newark," compares New 
Jersey with lielgium. The first he entitles the battle-ground of 
the revolution, and the latter, the field where the French militar\ 
meteor, the great Napoleon, met lasting defeat. Little Belgiuu) 
was his chief battle-ground. Some forty years before Waterloo 
was fought, " little Jersey " was the Belgium of the Anglo- 
American conflict. 

As we take a survey of the re\olutionary field and give the 
mind free play over " the times which tried mens' souls," we 
will not be permitted to forget how our forefathers suffered and 


died for the liberty which is such a precious boon to us to-day. 
That little New Jersey and her daughter, Essex, and the latter's 
sisters, the misses Mercer and Monmouth, nobly acted their 
part, we have only to revert to the imperishable pen pictures 
historians have |iainted and the many war scenes and bloody 
battle-grounds which dot their territory over and bespangle 
their battle-scarred faces o'er and o'er. 

From Trenton, in Mercer, where Washington pounced on the 
Hessians and convinced them by proofs irrefutable that there's 
virtue in the habit of quite early rising, for Washington had 
whispered to his generals and they in turn had said to the foot- 
sore soldiers under them, " When the cock crows for the 

Let's up and al 'em — 

Those plaguy old Hessians, 
And give eacli one of them 

A choice Christmas dressing. 

County, where Parson Caldwell immortalized his name and 
supplied the soldiers with a new stock of wadding and satisfied 
his spirit of sorrow and revenge -the British soldiers having 
wantonly and cruelly murdered his wife and child as they sat in 
the door of the parsonage watching the invading army march 


Not satisfied with the murder of the parson's wife and infant 
child, they proceeded to fire the little town and soon laid it in 
ashes. Having satisfied their fiendish desires, they took up the 
line of retreat for Staten Island, the Americans keeping up a 
galling fire all the way to the bay. 

.Some years ago. while Bret Harte was paying a visit to the 
old church and the l)attle-ground of Springfield, he paid the fol- 
lowing tribute to the memory of Caldwell and the liatlle of 
Springfield, in the following lines penned in his own peculiar 
style : 


Silently through snow and the bitter cold of a winter night, 
the patriot army took up the march, and when daylight was just 
breaking, Washington had crossed the Delaware, which was 
made wild by the winter's upbreaking of its December ice, and 
the line of march taken for Trenton, four miles away. And yet 
the first that Cornwallis knew of the little trouble at Trenton 
was the thunder of Washington's guns at Pnnceton. Mercer 
having done her part, Monmouth was ready to support her, and 
right royally she did it, with Moll Pitcher to help her, as is so 
graphically and in sweet poesy told by Dr. Thomas Dunn 

At Springfield, we touch what was then the soil of old Esse.x, 
where Parson Caldwell, when the battle was the thickest, 
rushed into his church and gathered up the books called Walts' 
hymns, and in a moment was out again and rushing from 
soldier to soldier, exclaiming as he ran : " Give them Watts, 
boys, give 'em Watts ! " — they having exhausted their wadding ; 
and the old church still stands to mark the spot, now in Union 

Here's the spot. Look around you Above on the heiglit 
Lay the Hessians encamped. By that church on the right 
Stood the bold Jersey farmers, and here ran a wall. 
You may dig anywhere and you'll turn up a ball. 
Nothing more. Grasses spring, waters run, flowers blow. 
Pretty much as they did a century ago. 

Nothing more did I say ? Stay one moment. You've lieard 

Of Caldwell, the parson, who once preaclied the Word 

Down at Springfield? What? No? Come, that's Why, he liad 

All the Jerseys aflame. And they gave him the name 

Of " I'he rebel high priest." He stuck in their gorge. 

He loved the Lord God, and he hated King George. 

He had cause you might say. When the Hessians that day 
Marched up with Knyphausen, they stopped on their way 
At the " Farms," where his wife, with a child in her arms, 
Sat alone in the house. How it happened, none knew 
But God and that one of the hirelmg crew 
Who fired that shot. Enough ! There she lay. 
And Caldwell, the chaplain, her husband, away. 



Did be preach ? Did he pray ? Think ot him as you stand 

By tlie old cliurch to-day. Thinl; of him and that band 

Of militant plough-boys. See the smoke and the heat 

Of that reckless advance — of the straggling retreat. 

Keep the ghost of that wife, foully slain, in your view, 

.^nd what could you, what should you, and what would you do ? 

Why, just what he did. They were left in the lurch 

For the want of more wadding. He ran into the church, 

Uroke the door, stripped the pews, and dashed out to the road 

With his arms full of hymn books, and threw^ down his load 

At their feet. Then, above all the shouting and shots. 

Rang his voice ; " Put Watts into 'em boys ; give 'cm Watts ! " 

.And they did, that's all. Grasses grow, waters nui, flowers blow, 
Pretty much as they did ninety-six years ago. 
You may dig anywhere and you'll turn up a ball. 
But not always a hero like this, and that's all. 

farms, in and surrounding tliese noted settlements, were well 
stocl<ed w-itli cattle and horses. Tliere was plenty of grain, 
fodder and provisions, and it was esteemed ricli foraging 
ground to tlie English who had been taught to believe that 
the patriots were naught but rebels and should be robbed and 
])lundered at will, their houses, barns and other out-buildini;s 
committeed to the flames, while their contented and happ\ 
owners were dragged away to foul dungeons and prisons, to In 
tortured and starved, (as they often declared they should be i 
into submission to the king, unless, perchance, death should 
come to their relief. 

Their bitter and wanton cruelty had a marked exhibition on 
the night of January 20, 1780. The weather was, and had been 
for days, so piercingly cold that the North river was frozen ovci. 
Over this bridge of ice marched tlie fiendish hordes, five hundred 


While the State of New Jersey was ravaged from end to eiitl 
by the war waged so unrelentingly by the mother country, yet 
Kssex County must and did bear the heaviest end of the burden. 
While the British troops occupied New York, Newark and 
Kssex County was their favorite raiding ground and foraging 
field. For years the people slept with their fire-locks in hand, 
ready, at the first alarm, to do battle for life, home, kindred, 
neighbors and property, so close were the relations, and so inti- 
mate were the people one with another. The Tories would 
sally forth, banded together, or, as guides to British troopers, 
would seek out the patriots in their homes, which, in many 
cases, had long been familiar, take the men prisoners, insult the 
ladies, vandalize the properly, and slip away without being 
molested. This did not so often happen tliough. since the 
watch-fires of the defenders were generally kept brightly burn- 
ing, and woe was it to him who approached witlinut the pro]Hr 
countersign and pass-word. 

Newark and Elizabeth were prospering townshi|)S, with many 
wealthy families who had been on familiar terms with those who 
had turned traitors and were tlomiciled in New York. Tlie 

strong, and commanded, or rather pretended to be commanded, 
by Major Lumm. At Paulus Hook, the band of red-coatid 
miscreants formed for the march to Newark, with eyes glai iui; 
away to the w-ell-filled larders and to the tables spread for tin 
evening meal before the firesides of home. Newark, it seenis, 
was not to suffer alone, but Elizabethtown had been elected t. 
share its woes. The same night a band of troops crossed on tin 
ice from Staten Island on a like errand for plunder and ]ier- 
secution. Not content with the result of their plunderini; 
expedition by the troops of Major Lumm, the torch w;i^ 
applied to the new academy, and that pretty building, whiel 
was the pride of the town, was soon a heap of smouldering ruins 
This building, which was of stone, and erected on the uppc 1 
green (now Washington park), nearby Washington place and 
Broad street, would, in all probability, have been standine, 
to-day had the miscreant's match failed to create the sacrifiii.d 

The sacrilege committed by Major Lumm's command 
more than a counterpart when the Elizabeth contingent of 
robbers, murderers and incendiarists sent the First Presbyterian 


Church up in fire and smoke. The flames of this memorable 
structure illumined the horizon for miles around and alarmed 
the Lumm soldiers, who mistook the fire for a movement of the 
Americans. At all events, they beat a hasty retreat from 

As they left the town they vented their malignity on one of 
the most prominent patriots of the place, Justice Joseph Hedden, 
Jr. This gentleman came of a family noted for courage and 
firmness. His father, Joseph Hedden, Sr., who lived to be 
ninety-six years of age, was wont to speak with pride of the 
fact that he had eight sons in the service of the country during 
the struggle for freedom. His son Joseph was a man of great 
nerve. By the proceedings of the State Council of Safety, we 
find that Mr. Hedden was chosen commissioner for Essex 
County for signing and inventorying of the estates and effects of 

stands. She saw the academy ablaze, but no one dared attempt 
to quench the flames, even if a single bucket of water could 
have saved the building. Some one told her the British were 
carrying off her brother. Over she ran and entered the Hedden 
house by one door while the soldiers were dragging her brother 
out of another. They had forced him from his sick-bed. and 
Mrs. Hedden was in her night-dress which was stained with 
blood. It appears the soldiers, whether from sheer brutality or 
eagerness to get on the retreat will never be known, essayed to 
drag Mr. Hedden into the street with nothing but his night 
clothes on. In her efforts to prevent this and to get her 
husband properly clothed, Mrs. Hedden braved the bayonets of 
the cruel soldiers and was severely, though not dangerously, 
wounded in several places. Meanwhile, the soldiers with Mr. 
Hedden and other captives, started on the retreat, taking the 


persons who " had gone over to the enemy." He was chosen 
in the place of Isaac Dodd, " who refused to act." The position, 
as may be readily imagined, was one that demanded in its 
occupant absolute fearlessness and firmness. So well had Mr. 
Hedden fulfilled his duties, that he was pointed out by the 
persons w-ho had gone over to the enemy as a Newarker worthy 
of the bitterest persecution. 

On the night of the 25th he happened to be at home — a 
rather rare family treat for an active patriot at the particular 
]" riod we write of. As it was, but for the illness of Mr. 

(Hedden, he would probably not have been at home. His house 
stood on Broad Street, near what is now Lombardy Street, 
facing the upper common, Washington Park. His married 
sister, Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts, lived on the other side of the 
conunon, about where the 'Second Presbyterian Church now 

route down what is now Centre Street and along River Street 
to the old Ferry Road, now the Plank and trolley car road. 
While passing the Bruen property, the same which now forms 
the junction of Commerce and Market Streets, Eleazer Bruen 
is said to have had the coolness and daring to pass Mr. Hedden 
a blanket. The prisoner was marched to Paulus Hook — now 
Jersey City — at the point of the bayonet and thence across the 
ice bridge to New York, where he was ruthlessly thrown into 
the old sugar-house. In consequence of the cold and danger 
to which his captors delighted in exposing him on the night of 
the raid and the cruel treatment he received at the old sugar- 
house, Mr. Hedden's limbs mortified, and when it became 
apparent that he could not live long his friends were notified, 
and his brothers David and Simon were permitted to remove 
him to Newark. Here he was tenderly nursed till death came to 




liis relief on September 27. Like liundreds of others wlio gave 
of their fortunes and pledged their sacred honor and gave their 
lives for the liberties we now enjoy, lie lies buried in an unmarked 
and unknown grave. 

Ashamed of his conduct and that of his men — for it is said 
that he was a man not lost to all that was human — Major 
Lumni, like many another who thought to thus assuage the 
griefs begot of the gnawings of conscience, rushed into print 
and procured the insertion in Rivington's Royal Ga2ette, a rose- 
colored statement of the affair which would lead their readers 
to believe that the British raid, which caused so much needless 
sacrifice of life and brought into many a household such suffer- 

He was a firm friend of his country 
fn the darkest times, 
Zealous for American Liberty. 
In opposition to British Tyranny. 
And at last fell a victim 
To British Cruelty. 

"It is proper here to state," says Mr. Atkinson, "that the 
account given of Judge Hedden's martyrdom, widely different 
as it is from all versions heretofore published, is related on the 
authority of the martyr's grand-niece and nephew, with whom 
he had interviews." 

For a number of vears after the war the remains of the old 


ing and sorrow, was the result of a mistaken order. The effect 
of his rose-colored article was such as to make the matter far 
worse, and resulted in firing their hearts to increased love 
of country, home and fireside, and hatred of that British 
infamy which took many a long year to erase, even after the 
close of the war and the acknowledgment of independence 
to the American people. Upon Judge Hedden's grave-stone, 
as Mr. Atkinson has truthfully said in his " History of 
Newark,"— the whereabouts or existence of which constitutes 
matters of conjecture— was cut the following inscription : 

This monument is erected to the memory of Joseph Hedden, Esq., 

who departed this life the 27th day of September, 1780, 

in the 52d year of his age. 

Newark Academy were used by the children as a place for them 
to play " hide-and-go-seek ;" and lessons not a few were taken 
among the smoke-begriined timber and stone, which made 
love of country and blood-bought liberty the household gods of 
many an American citizen who found his incentives there. 


THERE being no shadow of a doubt that the name "Jersey 
Blue," which has clung so long and with such tenacity to 
the New Jersey soldier, holding on even to quite an e.xtent during 
the late war of the Rebellion, originated with the soldiers of 
Essex County, we cannot well forbear a line or two as to its 
origin. Washington's grand piece of strategy at Trenton, 



which sent the British wheeling through the Jerseys and led up to 
the final episode of the war after, as we learned in our school 
daj's, a struggle which lasted "seven years nine months and one 
day," doubtless did much to discourage the British and shorten 
the war. 

Long years after Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, it was 
a common saying (and believed to be truthful) that he made 
use of goods which had been the personal property of Wash- 
ington, in packing his plunder, and which he was permitted 
to take away, glad to get rid of so much meanness under a 
commander and chief's uniform without any interference 
on the part of the grandest and most liberal of conquerors who, 
without let or hindrance, saw them go away. Our readers will 
pardon this departure from the thread of our story, so we will 
get back to where and to whom the honor belongs of furnishing 
the proud appellation of "Jersey Blue" to Essex County and 
indeed all New Jersey soldiers. 

possess a peculiar charm to the British — on some particular 
service to which the word plunder clung closer than any. 
Capt. Littell, with his oddly-uniformed company, followed soon 
after. He had been a close student of strategy and knew the 
art of ambushing as well as the savage. Well acquainted with 
the country, he divided his little command, greatly inferior in 
numbers to the Waldeckers, and leaving one part behind and 
by a circuitous route with the other and a rapid march, soon 
placed himself in front of the enemy and boldly demanded their 
surrender. Not being able, owing to the nature of the ground 
and the approach of night, to determine the size of Captain 
Littell's force, the Waldeckers sought to make a retrograde 
movement. Instantly they were assailed in front and flank and 
soon becoming demoralized they surrendered, not having fired 
a shot. Thoroughly exasperated over the affair, the great 
inferiority of Littell's force becoming known, the British com- 
mander ordered out a large force of Hessians to wipe out the 


A dashing son of liberty, one Capt. Littell, was a central 
figure among the patriots. Bold, daring and honorable was this 
son of Essex and a stranger to fear. He is said to have been a 
handsome man and a great favorite with the ladies. A volun- 
teer company w'hich he commanded was presented by the 
fair daughters of Essex with a uniform of material for the 
appellation which time has thus far been unable to erase, with 
such marvellous appropriateness does it seem to have been 
applied ; and little wonder, since the uniform consisted of " tow 
frocks " and " pantaloons dyed blue." Indeed it was not so 
much the color of the pantaloons or the tow frocks the Essex 
boys wore that fixed the appellation of " Jersey Blue," but it was 
their noble deeds in " flaxing " the enemy that made the name 
honorable and the color lasting. Two incidents, and this pretty 
narrative must give place to others. The very day Cornwallis 
moved out of Newark, a company of Waldeckers was dis- 
patched towards Connecticut Farms — a section which seemed to 

affront and disgrace. These were as quickly discomfited by 
Capt. Littell's " Blues," his skill and gallantry. After goading 
and injuring the enemy at several points, by an adroit move he 
led them into a swamp where he soon had them entangled and 
at his mercy when they, in pursuance of the brilliant and safe 
example set by the Waldeckers, also ignominiously surrendered, 
and this time it was the Hessians who had been given a taste 
of the metal of our " Jersey Blues " and the brilliant tactics of 
Captain Littell. 


FULLY determined that Lyons Farms should not be without 
its share in the glory of the success they heard of as 
being consummated all around, three daring spirits — Wade, 
Carter and Morehouse— concocted a scheme for capturing a 
company of twenty-five Hessians camped in a house nearby. 
These fearless spirits fixed upon a night when they should 



attack them in their rendezvous. Wade 
was to shoot down the sentinel while the 
others raised a tremendous shout and 
fired their pieces through the windows in 
the midst of the Hessians. The latter, 
terrified beyond measure, without even 
stopping to pick up their arms, fled in 
all directions to escape a foe which in the 
darkness they knew not of the strength or 




some of the seeds of libert\ 
gathereil in Essex ("ounty, New 
Jersey, took root in other places, is madg 
manifest in Dr. McWhorter's removal to 
Charlotte, Meclenberg County, North 
Carolina, where the first Declaration of 
Independence was born and promulgated. 
So daring and impetuous had the doctor 
been it became necessaiy, whenever he 
was known to be at home, that a sentinel 
shoidd pace back and forth before his 

door. Before the doctor had become fairly settled in his new 
place, he was compelled again to fly from home as the enemy 
were pursuing the rebel parson, as they termed him, with sleuth- 
hound purpose and tenacity. It is vouched for on pretty good 
authority that Dr. McWhorter was with Washington when the 
council of war was hekl which resulted in the capture of the 
Hessians and tlie telling victory of the Americans at Trenton. 


WHERE there was so many brave spirits engaged in the 
cause of American independence, it seems invidious to 
make election, to choose some and leave others unmentioned 
whose'deeds werejust as brave and the results of whose daring 
feats were just as far-reaching, but space not permitting even a 
bare mention of the many, we must be excused for the present- 
ation of the few as representatives of the whole. 

The ground was covered with snow when Capt. John Kidney, 
Capt. Henry Jeroloman, Jacob Garlam and Halmack Jeroloman 



started out from Bloomfield, then a part of Newark. The\ 
drove a swift team tackled to a wood-sled, but the usual con- 
comitant of sleigh bells was wanting to complete the turn out. 
Even such an indispensable article as a whip was dispensed 
with, since the horses seemed animated with a like spirit that 
governed the cargo of adventurers seeking just what thev 
apparently were to find in the immediate vicinity of Bergen 
Heights. As they hauled up at a hostlery by the wayside, 
the fog rising in curls from the nostrils and sides of the smok- 
ing steeds, and when the lines had' been thrown to the hostler 
and the boniface had welcomed, his guests at the fireside and 
made their stomachs feel glad over a glass of patriotic Bergen 
cider, the daring patriots were ready for the purpose which 
they had in view. The British garrison which kept guard over 
the Heights and overawed and plundered the people, had not 
confined themselves that cold night to cider alone but, like the 
Indian, had a drop of the creature which was warmer and 
stronger, they naturally grew careless and less fearful of danger. 

Stealthily they approached the 
school-house, \vhere the British 
were holding their orgies, when 
Capt. Kidney gave orders in a loud 
voice to his army of three men all 
well armed. They then began a 
fusilade and made all the noise that 
it was possible under the circum- 
stances. He then sprang to the 
door, forced it open and demanded 
a surrender, shouting out to the 
terror-stricken roysterers, " Every 
one of you are my prisoners, sur- 
render or die," the frightened 
crowd of red-coats within not 
knowing but an entire regiment of 
Americans were behind the captain. 
He then ordered them to fall in line 
and one by one to make their exit. 
He picked out one officer and a 
refugee, had them muffled and put 
into the sled, warning the first who 
attempted to escape that he would 
be a dead man. The captain and 



his companions then made a dash for the sled, stalled off 
at the swiftest pace and baffled any pursuit which would surely 
follow soon after. The prisoners were taken to the Morristown 
jail to rest while their chagrin passed off at having been so 
cleverly outwitted and captured. 

Essex County in the War of 1861=5. 

THERE are signs in nature which scientists consider infal- 
lible, which indicate the approach of great convulsions of 
earth and matter, disturljances of the elements which, 
though slight in themselves, bring forebodings of approaching 
changes resulting in disasters wide-spread. Then there are signs 
which point with unerring finger to the figures on the face of the 
swift revolving cycles of the years rolling on, which are none the 
less just as surely premonitions of disturbances among men. 
governments and nations which point to revolutions, changes 
and consequences just as certainly and are just as significant 
and freighted with results just as far-reaching. 

That awful stillness pervading space and which, like the deep 
darkness which "can even be felt" preceding earthquakes, is a 
sign insignificant in itself but marvellously truthful, as it 
becomes the herald of a convulsion which may shake the earth 
from circumference to centre. In summer, when not a leaf 
is stirring or cricket chirping, and not a " breath of air," as saith 
the patiently-waiting sailor, is astir, it is easy indeed to divine 
that nature's leyden-jars are being charged as yonder dark 
cloud rolls slowly up the western sky in readiness for loosing 
the forked tongues of the lightning which, with might and 
power, tear great rents in the slow-moving clouds, waking the 
deep-mouthed thunders which in close pursuit of the zig-zag 
lightnings apparently on mischief bent, but which charms and 
satisfies when it lets loose the rain-drops to cool the parched 

So it was immediately preceding the great Civil War. When 
all the batteries of the North and South had been full charged 
by the work of hate and fury going on for years, an awful fore- 
boding of war was easily felt in the solemn stillness surrounding 
the field of preparation in the land of the sunny South. The 
deep-mouthed dogs of war lay quiet, but in readiness for un- 
leashing by a proclamation of war. The cup of dissatisfaction 
and brotherly discord had been filled to overflowing, and while 
the sweet-smiling angel of Peace held the chalice of love to lips 
that long refused to sip, then came the explosion. The spark 
long fanned, finally found life and reached the powder of Fort 




Moultrie's cannon. One flash, and the deep-mouthed thunder 
awoke and unleashed every dog of war. both North and South. 
The beautiful flag which had floated in glory over a united and 
prosperous people was rent with "gash and seam." Littlr 
they knew, who fired that first shot, of what they were dream- 
ing. Little thought they who, with heartless aim, sent the ball 
speeding which should make that furrow, the one leading to 
the ploughing of the entire sunny land of their own beloved 
South and a literal sowing thereof with the besom of destruction; 
much less thought they 

When in storm of shot and shell, 
" Old Glory " fell, " Old Glory - fell ; 
The institution of slavery, wJiich iiad been our country's bane, 
Would no longer live to stain 
Its ground of blue. 
Its stars and stripes — 
The flag of the free, rightly named. 





.(^.\^^ S^ ,' ^^^g^.^ ^iXtoM 





/ .'^^a.^f''""- 




From no part of our common country did 
there follow an echo clothed in a more 
sorrowful thrill than that which was an- 
swered back to the bellowing sound of the 
shotted gun fired from Moultrie's walls, than 
did that from the people of Esse.x County. 
Not that war between kindred had begun ; 
not that the truce was indeed broken; not 
that the promises of rivers of blood flowing 
froin brothers' torn veins which could be 
plainly seen through the rents that shot made 
in our beautiful flag— not all these cogent 
reasons combined, but that which did more 
to break the bond of hope and loose the 
flood-gates of despair, was the closing of our 
factory doors in fulfillment of the promise 
sent back of want in the families of her ten 
thousand skilled mechanics and workmen. 

All over Esse.x County, as if by magic 
touch, great manufacturing establishments 



liad sprung up, ami the much needed suppHes of the South 
were being manufactured therein to meet a rapidly increasing 
demand, as Essex County had already long borne the title 
of "The Workshop of the South." The ties of busi- 
ness and family ties which had been growing for years through 
these channels, must, when nurtured by the prosperity they 
wrought, which was both rich and rare, have grown very strong, 
and when the match was touched which sent that first shot 
ricochetting over the waters to Sumpter's walls, it was freighted 
with no small hope that that tie would prove strong enough 

to hold. 

'Mid llie iliunder of batlie, 

In the red glare of war, 
'Mid the shouts of the fighters 

And the clashing of steel. 

The mistake which our hot-blooded southern brothers made in their reckoning of receiving more than regrets for their 

which was long being prepared for the mighty conflagration 
which finally blazed high on every hill-top of the South and 
swept over the southron's sunny land as with the besom of 
destruction. For many long years after the war had closed 
the question was asked, " Upon whose shoulders shall rest 
the responsibility for the untold sufferings, the almost irreparable 
loss, and the fearful devastation wide-spread ?" But time has 
soothed the passions and healed the wounds and the question 
is no longer asked. With whom rests the responsiliility of 
building the fearftd holocaust ? It is enough for our purpose that 


IT is safe to say that no State, not even ALissachusetts herself, 
the hotbed of abolitionism, proved herself more loyal than 
did Essex County and New Jersey. No place answered the 
call for troops to meet the rebellion with greater alacrity, and 

VIEW on military park and park place, NEWARK, N. J. 

errings and personal sympathy fur their self-wrought sufferings 
which in the end cost them so dearly. Not while the blood of 
the fathers keeps up its coursing through the veins of the 
children's children of the Revolutionary heroes ; not while the 
recollection of Washington's masterly strategy and victory over 
the Hessians at Trenton lives to enrich our national history, and 
the picture of his rage when cashiering the traitor Lee on the 
field and applauding the heroism of Moll Pitcher at Monmouth 
remains engraved on the t.iblet of every American heart, could 
that heart cease to .beat responsive to liberty and union, the 
jewels for which he fought. The southerners had hoped that 
the close business relations with the men of Essex County who 
had previously voiced public sentiment could be relied on in the 
dread hour of war. 15ut they had counted the strength to be 
gleaned from this rich field without that wisdom which garners 
the golden crop. The opinions of the hot heads of the North 
varied little from the fire-eaters — as they were then termed — of 
the South ; either being ready, aye eager to touch the match 

when population is considered, few places indeed, if any, turned 
out a larger percentage of enlisted men — the record showing 
that out of a population of less than 700,000, nearly 100,000 men 
went to war, Essex County furnishing her full share. The exact 
figures as we find them recorded was at that time 676,000, and 
she sent to war of that number 98,806. When the martyred 
Lincoln sent forth his first call for men to defend the nation's 
capital, New Jersey was quick to respond. There was no 
hesitation. The first bugle note, the sons of the old "Jersey 
Blues" of the Revolution heard and heeded. Eager pledges ol 
help went forth from every county, town, village and home. 
While men honestly differed as to methods, all purposes wei( 
the same and, couched in the language of another, it was " The 
Union forever, one and indivisible," and at all hazards and 
whatever cost, it must and shall be maintained. The fla;.; 
which was brought out only on Independence d.ay and othei 
holiday occasions now fluttered in every breeze froin all the public 
buildings, and with a singular unanimity of action householders 



vied with one and the other to see who should first have the stars 
and stripes floating from their house-top. In every town and 
village, patriotic men gathered to give expression to their senti- 
ments of loyalty to their imperilled government. The banks of 
the county opened up their coffers and willingly pledged their 
hoarded gold. As a sample of what the banks of Essex County 
did, we need but mention the which stood to the credit 
of the "Old Bank" (the Newark Banking Company), 
to the State Bank, Mechanic's and Newark City each with 
$25,000, and the Essex County with $20,000. Not alone came 
cash responses to the call for money from the banks, but other 
institutions and the wealthy among her citizens kept them 


TO make use of the language of a writer of the days follow- 
ing the firing on Sumpter, " It was a carnival of patriotism 
, all through Essex County and in fact all over New Jersev." 


ALTHOUGH he had never marshalled large bodies of 
troops or " set a squadron in the field," the General 
soon proved that no mistake had been made in his selection, and 
when the trying times came, the military tact and rare good 
judgment he displayed proved him the right man in the right 
place. His previous experience, gained while endeavoring to 
place the state militia on an efficient basis, served a purpose 
satisfying to himself and proved a rich legacy to his country 
when dangers menaced, and the companies of militia which had 
enjoyed the benefit of his military ardor and soldierly skill 
formed many a nucleii around which gathered the crowds of 
men who came forward to offer their services in the cause of 
their country and in defense of their homes and firesides. 

Although General Runyon had not yet reached the forties in 
life's score, yet he was a man of large experience and was the 
l)ossessor of a mind well disciplined and was a man of marked 


The shrill whistle of the ear-piercing fife and the rattle of the 
soul-stirring drum was heard everywhere. That first call for 
troops by President Lincoln on April 15, i86r, the people with 
one mind resolved to heed. With a full realization of the 
terrible danger with which they were menaced, the people 
responded with alacrity. The wave of enthusiasm which arose 
as the wave of the ocean arises and onward rolled with a power 
which no obstacle could check or overcome. New Jersey was 
asked for four regiments and from Essex County nearly a 
thousand of this quota came. So enthusiastic were the people, 
it required but a few days to fill the quota, and w'hen they were 
mustered into sen"ice, the brigade organization was completed 
by the appointment of Theodore Runyon, of New^ark, as Briga- 
dier-General ; Alexander V. Bonnell, as Brigade Inspector, and 
Captain James B. Mulligan, as Aid-de-Camp. 

firmness of character. Few men in the state understood better 
the value of military- discipline. He comprehended in a marvel- 
ous way the fearful gravity of the situation, and by his identifi- 
cation for years with the militia of the state, had natural title to 
the distinction of commander of New Jersey's volunteers, nearlv 
every man of whom knew General Runyon, and felt that they 
had in him one who would look closely after their ever)- want, 
and who all knew that there would be no needless rushing into 
danger ; no needless exposure of person or ignorant orders with 
human sacrifice resulting. 

On the 27th of .\pril, 1 861, this prominent Essex County law- 
yer, whose eloquence for years had electrified her courts and 
charmed her juries, was merged into the arm\- general, his com- 
mission as brigadier-general of volunteers bearing the above 
date. The General then immediately took command, thus 






bestowing upon Essex County the honor of furnishing the first 
jeneral officer of the state. The task the General had accepted 
was no light one, but his experience with the militia had 
aeculiarly fitted him for its accomplishment, and with the aid of 
:he nucleii of veteran militiamen, he was not long in bringing 
' order out of chaos," and accomplishing the hard task of dis- 
riplining and ef|uipping his brigade of three thousand men, 
iiany of whom had never seen a musket, let alone their entire 
gnorance of military drill, and few indeed but were totally 
gnoraiit of the rigors and discomforts they had to undergo in 
;heir approaches to the expected denouement of the bloody bat- 
:le-field. l?ut they were Jerseymen, and it was theirs to keep 
.msullifd the reputation won I))' the famous "Jersey Blues" on 

May, he was directed to embark his troops " as soon as possi- 
l)le," on the propellers of the Delaware and Raritan canal, and 
on the same day the General commanding received his final 
orders to reach Washington by the way of Annapolis, the rail- 
road route through Baltimore having been cut off by the burn- 
ing of bridges and the tearing up of tracks by the southerners 
already in the field. To the Hon. John G. Stevens, a director of 
the Delaware & Raritan Canal Company at the time, belongs 
the honor of the first suggestion as to the feasibility of this 
route. In his orders. General Runyon was directed to report to 
the commandant at Annajjolis on his arrival. Space not permit- 
ting a full record of the General's orders, it must suffice for us 
to say on this page of ESSEX CoUNTV, NEW JERSEY, ILLU.S- 


he bloody fields of the revolution and under the eye of the 
inmortal Washington. They were inexperienced, but yet 

>ssessed the spirit of war-worn veterans. It didn't take them 

'i.N tf Ret at an understanding of the necessity of subordina- 
ion, and when the order came to break camp and move, the 
ftate had abundant reason to look upon their citizen soldiers, in 
ompany, regiment and full brigade, with pride and satisfaction. 

War in earnest had begun, and that too in earnest before the 
lowers of May had begun their blooming, and our Essex 
-ounty boys were not far from the terrible experiences which 

war in earnest ever brings " The easy route by rail to Wash- 
ngton had already been cut in twain at Baltimore, and when 
General Runyon received his final orders on the 19th day of 

TRATED, that these orders to Essex County's brilliant lawyer, 
soldier, statesman, and now the nation's ambassador to the Ger- 
man empire, Theodore Runyon, closed with the following mem- 
orable words : " The honor of New Jersey is in your keeping." 
Such marvelous speed was made with the work of the brig- 
ade's embarkation, that in less than twenty-four hours the little 
fleet, bearing its precious burthen of New Jersey soldier boys, 
left Trenton under the command of Captain R. F. Loper. Such 
speed did these canal propellers make, they reached Annapolis 
on the night of the 4th. All along the route the troops were 
the receipients of the most hearty and friendly greetings, and 
all along the watery way they were met with abundant mani- 
festations of the pleasure the people felt at their coming. Ac- 



fording ti) DicUis, ("jCIUt.i1 Kvm\ nn ii|)<irtr(l to Griicra] Butlei', 
who was tlii'ii in rninnianil at Annapolis, and after sonic cerc- 
monv, lie was ordered on to Washinj^ton. 

In Lossino's " Civil War in America," Vol. I, Cha]i. i8, the 
autlior sa\s : " And on the fifth, the First Regiment, with six 
companies of the Second .and nine companies of the Third, 
started forward in two trains of cars. The lirst of these trains 
reached Washington about midnight, .and the second, at eight 
o'clock the next morning. The same evening the Fourth Regi- 
ment and the remaining company of the Third reached the 
capital. The four companies of the Second left at Annapolis, 
were detailed, by ortler of General Scolt, to the service of 
guarding the telegra]ih and railroad between Washington and 
.\nna|iolis Junction. On Mav 6, the arri\al of the brigade was 

from President Lincoln, who w.u'mly compliniented the appe.u- 
ance of the troops ; and among our veterans who g.ither at the 
meetings of the several posts of the ('>rand Ariiiv of the Repub- 
lic, there are a few yet remaining who well remember the oi . j- 
sion and who hold in memor\- dcu" all the particulars of 
\ isit of the martyred Lincoln, and cherish in their hearts the 
words of encouragement w liich fell from his lips, and rememberas 
among their sweetest memories of life the gratification thev felt 
o\er the smile of satisf.ution with which he greeted them .is 
thev passed him on re\ lew. 

At this point the army life of the \olunteer commenced in 
earnest, the utmost exactness being retpiired in all points of 
discipline, it being no longer the |)lay of soldier, liut the realities. 
All the hard routine of camp duties was dailv observed. The 


reported to General Scott and, no camps being provided, the 
troops went into such quarters as were available in W.ishinglon. 
On all sides the arrival of the troops was h.iiled with |)leasure, 
and inen felt that now the capital was safe." 

New Jersey never stood higher in the estim,ition of the lo\al 
people of the country at that time when she sent to the 
n.ation's defence the first full brigade of troops that reai lied the 
held. Two (lays .after its in W.ishington, the brigade 
paraded the city and was everywhere liailed with the liveliest 
demonstration of enthusiasm b\ the people. 

May gth, the Fourth Regiment was ordered to go into catiip 
at Meridian Hill, and within a few days the entire brigade was 
encamped at that point, and on !\Lay 17, was honored bv a visit 

work of the soldier found to be something more than nn i' 
festive employment, but demanded every energy, the fullcs 
de\()lion, the loftiest self-sacrifice. There they stayed in ■■Cami 
Monmouth," jierfecting in drill and all the other soldierly .11 
complishnients, under the eye of their General, till the 22d n 
May, when the dread order came from (Jeneral Mansfield, cum 
manding the Department of Washington, directing that imim 
di.ite prepar.itions be made for a movement. The day follnw 
ing. definite ordeis from the same authority su|)plied the needi 1 
inform.ation as to the objective of the proposed movement, ;ini 
the camp was accordingly (with many regrets) abandoned. 

There were then in and around Washington some thirteci 
thousand nation.d troops under command of General Mansfield 



On May 22, orders were issued tn him to occupy the Virijiiiia 
shore of the Potomac and also tlie city of Alexandria. It was 
to participate in this movement that the New Jersey brigade 
struck their tents on May 23, and abandoned the camp on 
Meridian Hill. General Runyon was ordered to be at Long 
Bridge at two o'clock on the morning of the 24th. In heavy 
marching orders the Second. Third and Fourth were paraded 
with one day's rations. Punctual to the moment of his order, 
General Runyon was on the ground. At the junction of the 
Columl)ia & Alexandria Railroad, where the engineers had 
staked it out, the boys began the wt)rk of throwing" u|> a 
clefensi\"e work, and a lodgment had _ been made on the 
south side of the Potomac. The work of our Jersey boys 
didn't end here. The entire New Jersey brigade continued to 
work in relays of three hours until, with their brawny arms, a 
line of intrenchments and redoubts was completed, and to 
General Runyon's brigade of New Jersey soldiers belongs 

order to place shotted guns on the chain bridge and turn off the 
draw of the Long Bridge across the Potomac, and thus pre- 
vented our own soldiers, wild with excitement over the defeat, 
and while chasing the phantom of senseless .stampede, from 
reaching the capital, where looters would follow <|uick in the 
footsteps of the flying.'' 

It is reported of the Hon. Benjamin Wade, commonly called 
"Old Ben Wade," an erratic son of Ohio, who, not unlike many 
other civilians and non-combatants, went out from Washington 
to see the first great battle of the war, that when on the retreat 
he jumiied out of his carriage on arriving at the point where the 
troops of the New Jersey Brigade were stretched across the 
road checking the wild stampede of the northern army after 
the disastrous route at Bull Run and checking the pursuit of 
the victorious southerners, and exclaimed : " Would to God 
we had more such men as these Jerseymen in the army, we 
would not have suffered this defeat." 

VIEW OF NEWAKk. >. . J., IX iSyi, LOOKING SDL llI-\\ ES 1 1 Rt'.M C1..VKK- i II1MM\. 

the honor of completing the first regular work of the war 
over which " old glory " flew. The most important place in a 
strategic point of view was that held by the New Jersey troojis. 
with our own Essex County First Regiment to the fore front. 

We now approach the first great battle of the war, kn<5wn as 
Bull Run, the name taken from a little stream running through 
the now famous ground. 

A writer, in speaking of the battle, writes : " When the battle 
was fought and lost to the nation's troops, yet it was no fault of 
the first New Jersey brigade or of General Theodore Runyon. 
When all was disorder and dismay— when many others had left 
their posts of duty and skulked away under cover of the night 
that followed the battle, the Jersey brigade was found standing 
as a wall between the enemy and the capital. Amid the tur- 
moil of defeat to our army, 'twas General Runyon who gave the 

The venerable Monsignor Doane, of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
who was chaplain of the brigade, had set up his altar in the 
little tent he was occupying on that Sunday morning of July 
2 1st, 1 86 1, and when about to begin the services of his church, 
one of the first shells fired by the enemy crashed through the 
tent and knocked down his improvised altar, causing him to 
suspend mass for the day. 


THE ink on the above brief account of General Runyon's life 
and career had not become fairly dry when through the 
cable came, under the great ocean, the sad announcement of 
his death at his Ambassadorial home in Berlin. A cloud of 
sorrow at the death of this great and good man quickly spread 
over his native land as the news of the great bereavement on 



electric wings flew from port to port, from place to place, over 
hill and mountain. Throughout the length and breadth of the 
Young Republic of the West the flag, which he had planted on 
the walls of Fort Runyon now floating at half-mast, became the 
fit emblem of a nation in mourning over his loss. 

While in attendance at church the Ambassador was attacked 
with a chill. He quietly left his pew and endeavored to throw 
off its effect by walking to his liome. It proved a hard struggle, 
and just as he reached his own door he fainted, and was carried 
to his room by a servant who quickly discovered him. Although 
he partially recovered and gave some attention to the business 
connected with his office, yet in less than two weeks, and with- 
out warning and almost without a struggle, and near the mid- 
night hour, he iiassed away, and New Jersey's son, who had so 
distinguished himself and so honored his native State, had gone 
to his reward. 

While .'\mbassador Runyon had lived out nearly a half-score 


IN honor of the General who led the first New Jersey troops 
to take the field, the great earth-work constructed by these 
same soldiers' own hands, was called Fort Runyon, a letter 
from the Adjutant-General of the army granting to the soldiers 
who built it. that distinguished honor. 

The First New Jersey Regiment was almost exclusively 
Essex and was officered by Essex County men, its Colonel 
being Adolphus S. Johnson ; its Lieutenant-Colonel. James 
Peckwell ; Major. William W. Michels ; Adjutant, Joseph Tra- 
win ; ( Hiartermaster, Theodore F. Ketchem ; Surgeon, John J. 
Craven ; Assistant Surgeon, Edward F. Pierson ; .Sergeant 
Major, George H. Johnson; Drum Major, Nathan P. Morris J 
Fife Major, Elijah F. Lathrop, and fourteen musicians. Colonel 
Johnson will be remembered as Jail Warden for many years, 
and Colonel I'cckwell, who afterwards became Sheriff of Essex 


more of years than the allotted three score and ten, yet, so well 
preserved he seemed, and such a beautiful rounding up of a 
marvellously successful life, was in the very height of consum- 
mation, and while he seemed marching with such sturdy tread 
along Time's border land, his brilliant career seemed not so near 
its ending. " Man proposes, but God disposes." 

For many years General Runyon had verily lived the life of the 
righteous, and was ever ready to meet the king of terrors. The 
sad news of his sudden death cast a dark shadow over the city 
of Berlin, and the Emperor William (between whom and the 
Ambassador had sprung up a warm friendship), gave expression 
to the deep sorrow which he so keenly felt. 

After his body had been embalmed, all that was mortal of 
the beloved General, with flags at half-mast, was tenderly car- 
ried on board ship for the voyage to his native land for interment 
near the graves of his fathers. 

County. Many of the officers and men of the First, who went 
out under the three months' c.dl. afterward returned to the 
army and won distinction on many bravely contested fields. 
The writer of this well remembers seeing Colonel Johnson 
brought into Yorktown, after having been severely wounded, in 
the battle of Williamsburgh, whence himself and other Jersev- 
men had pursued Magruder's troops after his evacuation of 
Yorktown. If memory is faithful, 'twas in this same engage- 
ment where General Ward received such wounds as compelled 
him to carry an empty sleeve ever after. As a tribute to liis 
worth as an officer and gentleman, he was made Postmaster of 
Newark, and held the position for many years, honored and re- 
spected by all who knew him. 

Among the host of gallants who heard the first call are the 
names of Captain John Brintzinghofl'er, of Company A, Cap- 
tain William O. Timpon, of Company B, Captain Thomas L. 



Martin, of Company C, Captain Heniy O. Beach, of Company 
D, Captain Martin B. Provost, of Company E, Captain Henry 
Bowden, of Company F, Captain Henry V. Sanford, of Com- 
pany G, Captain William H. Reynolds, of Company H, Cap- 
tain John H. Higginson, of Company I, and Captain Charles 
W. Johnson, of Company K, who each took out their company 
in the old First Regiment, imder the three months' call, are 
worthy, one and all, to have their names kept fresh and their 
memories green in the recollections of every citizen of 
Essex County. Not these alone, but all the commissioned, non- 
commissioned officers and men who went to the war, deserve to 
have their names recorded on the roll of honor, inscribed as 
those who took their life in their own hands, and many of 
whom laid it down in behalf of liberty and union. 

A word or two to show how deeply the partisan was sunk in 
the patriot and how quickly and thoroughly party lines were 
erased, and these from the expressions of those holding pos- 

jaws of defeat. Gen. Kearnv, who was a trained soldier, was 
commissioned a Brigadier-General on July 25, 1861, and in the 
August following w'as assigned to the command of our New 
Jersey soldiers. When the news of his assignment to the 
command of the Jersey Blues reached their encampment, cheer 
upon cheer arose from regiment and company, and the brave 
boys made the w'elkin ring over the announcement. Although 
Philip Kearny was born in New York city (which event took 
place in June, 181 5), he was a Jerscyman by adoption, and the 
house in which he spent his earlier life is yet standing on 
Belleville avenue, in the City of Newark, as are the old elms 
under which he played, and the mansion in which he lived at 
tile time of his appointment stands among the pines on the 
beautiful high grounds just across the Passaic, in the town of 
Kearny, Hudson County, the town being named in his honor. 
General Kearny had a penchant for military life and this he 
showed as a boy. and as manhood came this penchant grew 


itions of honor and trust, must suffice. Moses Bigelow, a 
democrat of the olden school, who was Mayor of Newark at 
the breaking out of the war, in a message to the Common 
Council, said : " I regard the union of these States as indis- 
pensable to the liberty, peace and prosperity of our people and 
the great source of happiness at home and honor and respect 
abroad. When compared with the question of its preser\-ation, 
the transitory issues of party should be regarded as mere ' dust 
in the balance.' " 

Henry A. Whitney, an Alderman, also a democrat, in offering 
a series of resolutions in Council, said : " It is the high duty of 
every citizen to ignore all past political issues, and rally under 
the banner of the stars and stripes in defense of the Union." 


IT was in this engagement that Gen. Philip Kearny w'on his 
laurels in the internecine war, for indeed, it was he, on 
coming up with his Jersey boys, snatched victoi-y from the 

After passing through Columbia College he studied law for 
a while, but his intense liking for military life led him to seek 
and obtain a lieutenant's commission in a regiment of 
dragoons, in which Jefferson Davis was a captain. In 1839 he 
was one of three United States' officers sent to France to 
pursue, by permission of the French government, a course of 
instruction at the Military School of Gaumor. He soon tired 
of the confinement which his student life imposed, and joining 
the French army he went to Africa. He was attached while on 
this serv'ice to the Chasseurs d'Afrique and in two engage- 
ments distinguished himself. When he came back home in '41 
he was made an officer on the staff of General Scott, who had 
a high admiration for his character and was ever desirous of 
having him near his person. 

All through the Mexican war he gave abundant evidence of 
rare skill as a soldier. Those who knew him will remember 
the empty sleeve he carried, and what masterly dexterity 
he exhibited in horsemanship, and with what skill he handled 



llie swonl and bridlf rein with his right single arm, the other 
having tieen shot away al the famous battle of Churubusco, in 
which he performed prodigious feats of ^■alor. His bravery 
and skill on that bloody field cost him all too dearly in the loss 
of his arm, biU he won honor and fame, and the golden oak 
leaf which he afterwards wore as a major. 

After fighting for years the wild Indians in Washington and 
Oregon, who feared him no less than the great Indian fighter, 
the celebrated Custer, he resigned his commission and sought 
the excitement of Eurojiean wars by joining himself to the 
French army as an aide-de-camp on tiie staff of Gen, Morris, 
taking an acti\ e part in the battle of Solferino, His gallantry 
in that battle won for him the cross of the Legion of Honor, 
and this mark emblematic of soldierly skill, bravery, honesty 
and daring was placed on his breast by the French 
limpiror, Louis Xapoleon. During his stay on the other side 
of the Atlantic he made his abode in Paris. In the spring of 
the year iS6l, Phil. Kearnj- heard the tocsin sounding which 
told him of the dangers which threatened his home and fireside 
and he immediately set out for New York. While war was 
raging in the land of his birth, Paris had no attractions with 
force sufficient to hold him. 

same. Is it any wonder that this Essex County boy should win 
the title of " Fighting Phil Kearny," when fear he never felt, and 
that danger lurked near he never knew, and 'twas a burning 


That he should not have the right, 
Where skill might conquer might, 
'I'o die in the thickest of the fight, 

The penalty is paid for being too brave, and the poet had 
.ibimdant reasons for saying: 

" Oh ! evil the black shroud of night at Chantilly 
That hid him from siglit of his brave men and tried ! 
Foul, foul, sped the bullet that clipped the white lilly. 
The Hower of our knighthood, the whole army's pride." 

Kearny had faults like all other mortals. Those prominent 
were his impetuosity and his impulsiveness. Had he sent some 
unepauletted soldier to the Chantilly reconnoisance, his name, 
instead of Grant's (a writer has said), might have stood on the 
pages of history as the great captain of the age. 


WHEN lie tlted New Jersey mourned his loss and honored 
his memory. He was given a splendid military funeral 
in Newark. A bronze monument erected to his memory adorns 

VIEW OF M-.WARK. X, J., IX 1845, LnoKIXl. Si ll t ll-K.A.Sl' KKDM HIGH SlKEEl. 

No sooner liad the good shi]) which l)rought him over touched 
the shore than he at once offered his sword to his native coun- 
try, and asked for a commission of the Governor of the old 
Empire Slate. Strange to say, this was refused, and the sword 
of ihis soldier of experience, bravery and of the highest repute 
lay rtisling in its scalibord till the middle of summer, chafing 
under Ihis enforced idleness and restraint and oft within hear- 
ing of the booming of the heavy artillery, which was almost 
music to his ears. Under such circumstances, what was more 
natural than for him lo turn to New Jersey? Here Phil Kearny 
got recognition, and lie had but to express the desire and a com- 
mission was at hand, bearing dale of July 25th, 1S61, and was 
signed by the Governor of New Jersey. His spirit was such it 
covild nol, nor would not, brook delay. " Like the fiery charger 
held in by the bridle, lie was restive under idleness." 

Of the batiks he fought, and the victories he won, and pro- 
molions he gained, we might write enough to fill every page of 
KssKX County, New Jerskv, Ileustka'i ed, and yet be com- 
pelled to sigh for more pages to fill of the life and deeds of this 
born soldier. We h.ave said he was brave and daring, and now 
w-e may add that he was tearless to recklessness, for wherever he 
Hashed the glittering steel and with magic skill controlled his 
fiery steed with bridle rein between his teeth, it was always the 

iVlilitary Park and another stands in the Library at Trenton. 
The body of this great soldier. Gen. Philip Kearny, who pos- 
sessed the faculty of making the warmest of friends and the 
most impkuablr of enemies, sleeps in the church-yard of old 
Tiinit\ . in the cit\ of New York. 



LIKE mail) .niuiher brave spirit. Col. Isaac M. Tucker's body 
sleeps ill an unknown grave on the field where he fell as 
br.ue men hue lo fall, if fall tlie\ must, with their face to tlie 
foe. 'I'he love his soldiers bore for this ideal ofihcer caused 
them to make fre(|uent and persistent attempts to recover his 
body, but all |)ro\ ed failures. 

As it has e\ er been, the New Jersey soldier, wherever engaged, 
is found in the thickest of the fight, it seeming to be his fate to 
be at the point of greatest danger. So it was with Col, Tucker, 
In a note at the bottom of page 64 of Shaw's excellent work, 
we find the following tribute : " In personal courage, fertility 
of resource ,nid readiness of apprehension, Col. Tucker had 
few superior^. " 

Col. Is.i.ic M. Tucker's memory is cherished by all who knew 
him, not alone lor his war record but also for the high qualities 


of citizensliip which he possessed 
aiifl the true nianhness of the man 
who fell while rallying his men, in 
the thick of the fight, around the 
'■ colors, our glorious stars and 
stri]ies," and who cried out. as 
some of his men were carrying 
him to the rear. " Never mind me, 
go ahead and give it to 'em." .Al- 
though space forbids, we cannot 
refrain from paying the tribute of 
a nation to a few others of tli<' 
many brave men — undaunted s|)irits 
who laid down their lives or lived 
to feel the pang" of wounds re- 
ceived. Among the latter was 


Who is yet going out and in among 
us, having recovered from the ter- 
rible wound he received when lie- 
too, was rallying his men around 
" Old Glory," his good sword flash- 
ing high. As the Major fell with 
his face to the foe. 


Seized the colors and defiantly bore them away and when too 
closely pressed, tore them from the standard and buried them 
out of sight. Major Ryerson is, at this writing, engaged in 
practicing his profession of law, and gives ])romise — so greatly 
imijroved is his health — of living long to do honor to the pro- 
fession he loves and rehearse the story of the Chicamauga fight. 


Who had seen service with Walker, "the grev-eved man of 
destiny," in the swamps of Nicaragua, and who earned the 
title of "female honor protector" at Guadaloupe Church. 
There the women had assembled, antl to protect them against 
the ass.iulls of the vile natives and his own beastial comrades, 
he placed himself in the doorway of the church and promised 
to "shoot down like a dog" the first man who attempted to 
pass. Capt. Waldron had long been assistant, under Principal 

Leake, of the Third 
^\ ard public school 
of the city of New- 
ark. The writer 
well remembers the 
quiet little man with 
sparkling eyes 
seated in his tent at 
the head of Military 
I'ark engaged in 
enlisting men for 
Companv I, of the 
Thirt\-third Regi- 
ment, and as he 
marched away as 
the modest Captain 
s.iluting him in the 
front of his rank 
and saying what 
proved a last fare- 
well. Although a 
SETH BijVDE.v, INVLMOR. inan, physically 

speaking, not of giant proportions, he proved a target fair 
for the bullet of a Southern sharp-shooter who sent a ball 
through his heart while he was bravely moving his company 
forward. The shot which 

Stilled the pure heart 

Whose every pulsation 

Was in sweet unison 

With the good .tnd the true 

Was fired from behind the veiy house which his company 
occupied shortly after their captain fell. 

So highly was Capt. Waldron regarded by the regiment, a 
detail to accompany his remains to Newark was made, and 
Capt, — afterward Major — O'Connor was placed at its head. On 
their arrival in Newark, his old friend Dr. M. H. C. Vail imiviedi- 
ately set about the work of honoring him with a military 
funeral. Through the assistance of others, the project was soon 
brought to a successful conclusion and his funeral was con- 
ducted in old Trinity Church, I^r. W'indyer performing the rite 
and reading the service. After the services at the church, 
which were largely attended, the remains, encased in a rose- 
wood coffin (provided by Capt. William W. Hullfish. then as 
now, sexton of the church) and wrapped in the American Hag, 
was laid away in Fairmount Cemetery, Company A, Capt. John 
Brintzinghoffer. of the old First Regiment, leading the long 
procession of followers and mourners and firing the military 
salute over his grave. 

Who assumed command as Lieutenant-Colonel after Trawin 
resigned, and led the old Eighth Regiment afterward in several 
desperate fights until, at the battle of the Second Bull Run, 
while marching at the head of his regiment, he was pierced 
with five musket balls. One of these shattered his left 
arm which, though the surgeons believed hmi to be in a 
dying condition, was amputated. The wounds in his body were 
of such a serious character that he lay for several months in 
hospital before he could be removed to his home. It took a 
year and a half of the best skill of the surgeons and the kindly 
intentions of mother nature to so far heal his wounds as to 
enable him to get about. Gen. Ward was elected City Clerk of 



the city of Newark in 1866, and in 1S69 lie was nominated by 
Gen. Grant for Postmaster of liis native city. Gen. Ward 
continued to till the position of Postmaster with eminent satis- 
faction to the people till he was succeeded by the Hon. W. H. 
F. Fiedler. 

The high appreciation in which the General is held had a 
splendid confirmation in his appointment by Gov. Parker as 
Brigadier-General for long and meritorious conduct and service. 
He was ne.xt appointed as President of the Court of Inquiry to 
examine into the matter of the disbandment of Company F. 
Third Regiment. National Guard. 

Gen. Ward was born in Newark, January 30. 1824, and conse- 
([uently completed his three score and ten on the 30th of January 
last. May the sands of his well spent life continue to run 
smooth till the summons wliich always comes to the good and 
the pure, '• come up higher." 

The abundant good nature which permeated every fibre (as a 
rule) of the New Jersey soldier was always finding vent, and 
especially was this so when the boys were ordered out on picket 
duty. A single example of the methods they employed in reach- 
ing Johnny Reb : As they were doing duty, marching to and fro 
on the picket line, the work becoming monotonous and the 
tobacco getting short, our Essex boys shouted to the rebel 
picket then in sight, " Hello, Johnny, I say, hello!" "Hello 
back again, ^'ank," shouted Johnny. " Have you any good 
tobacco ?" questioned our Jersey Yank. " I just have," answered 
Johnny. " and I do want some salt and pepper so bad." "What," 
said the Essex boy, " some of the same we gave you at Gettys- 
burgh?" "Oh, get out. What do you say for a trade?" 
"Come along," they responded in union, and the trade was 
made. Such occurrences, we are informed, were (|uite common 
during army days on picket lines. 


NO more fitting subject'could be found for a conclusion of 
what we have had to say of the part Essex County took in 
the war of 1S61 to 1865 than a short sketch of General George B. 
McClellan, wlio, when driven from the command of the Army 
of the Potomac, found an asylum in New Jersey and filled up 
the hoiu's of his enforced idleness in bringing into play his skill 
and experience as an engineer and in be.uitifving the landscape 
of tlie home he had selected on the l)ro\v and summit of the 
Orange Mountains, near that culmination of their rare beauty 
known as Eagle Rock. It goes witliout the saying that George 
B. McClellan was a m.ister in the engineering art. 

Although not a citizen to the manner born, Essex County can 
claim him as an adopted son, for it was on her .soil that the 
hearthstone of his home lay, surrounded by his household gods, 
and where, now since the Ijugle note will never wake him to 
war again, he sleeps the sleep that knows no waking, in New 
Jersey soil, and where the spot is marked by a beautiful monu- 
ment erected over his tomb in the cemetery near Trenton by 
loving hands of those who stood near him during the hours of 
his severest trials, and where the battle was the thickest, bravely 
upheld his unfaltering hands. 

( )n .almost every page of American history is found enrolled 
the names of her children who have contributed by their virtues 
and valor, their character and worth, to throw a halo of gran- 
diem' around and over each, and forming a constellation of 
brilliancy with few parallels. Among these, and leading the 
host, are Washington, Lincoln and Grant, .Sherman, Hancock, 
.Sheridan and McClellan, the latter, while a resident of our 
county, being asked to sheath the sword to take up the Gov- 
ernorship of the State. We might continue to read from tlie 
roll honored names who earned the right as citizens of New Jer- 

sey and to be partakers in the honor of wearing the famous 
Jersey Blue. A woril or two as to some of the characteristic , 
of the home of him whose banner waved in victory over the field 
of Antiteam, and who led the Union hosts through the wilder- 
ness and hurled back the enemy from Malvern Hill, and whom 
the soldiers under him loved as the " apple of their eye," and 
who bore the favorite cognomen of Little Mack, will not lie imi 
of place. 

To get all the cliarm possil)le out of this enforced idlem -,, 
McClellan filled in the time by converting the grounds of In-. 
mountain home into a landscape, beautifully located, when 
Nature's lovliness quickly felt the touch of his own niastn 
hand, and grew ;ind expanded till it became the pride of his own 
heart and a rare exemplification of all that is lovely in artistii 
surroundings and the added endearments of home. Asane\- 
ample of villa home lovliness, few places the writer has evi 1 
visited could excel the home surroundings of George B. M( - 
Clellan at the time he was called away to take up the Governni- 
ship of the State in which was his adopted home. 

Whetlier this educated soldier, a thorough West Pointer .is 
he was, really enjoyed the new life, even though eminent as n 
was, certainly is a secret that was well kept. All who knew 
him intimately could not remain long in his company without 
discovering a peculiar, far-away look that beamed from his eyes. 
As he discoursed of the present there ever seemed a restlesness 
to reach out after the past, . and then should something p' 1 - 
chance come up of the "gone by," he seemed to regret it anl 
had little power to restrain the welling tear or to hide the sul- 
fused eye, which told all too plainly how tender was the grrai 
loving lieart within. 

(jn one occasion, wdien visited by tlie writer, he was fouml 
amid the wealth of fiowers and sweet shrubs of the grounds 
which he loved and regretfully left for the reception room, ti 
which we had been invited. After a few moments of genciil 
talk the conversation tiu'ned on the subject of our quest, , 
college friend whom we had learned had held the post of 
lieutenant colonel on the General's staff while the l.uier was in 
command of the Army of the Potomac. .Vs the General reaclu ^ 
across the centre table and chew toward him a large album fill> 1 
with photographs, his eyes became suffused with unbidden tears 
in answer, apparentlv to our in(|uiry in regard to hnn. After ,1 
moment's hesitation he turned a page or two, and placing \\\-. 
finger on Colonel Coburn's photo, turned the book to us .iml 
with tpiivering lip said: " Uo you remend)er him.-^" " I do. " 
was the reply. There was but little change, although iiion- 
than a decade of our young years had gone by and this we sup- 
plemented with the remark, since they had parted we had heard 
that Colonel Coburn had been ordereil West, and there IkhI 
sickened and died. " Ves. he's dead," replied the General. ■■ I 
loved him dearly, and I am told that the separation took sui I 
deep hold that the poor fellow really died of a broken heart. 
Light-hearted as the General naturally was, so much did tin 
first Trenton order affect him that even after the soothing effent 
of the second order to Trenton, he, too, died of something akin 
to a broken heart. 

In the presidential campaign of 1864 the great Democrat in 
party of the nation made George B, McClellan their candid, iin 
for President. During the campaign which ensued, George 1'.. 
McClellan, at the request of Major Edward H. Wright, visited 
Newark, and became the Major's guest at his father's home. 

Dr. M. H. C. \'ail, the writer of this sketch, made the address 
of welcome, to which the General made a happy response. An 
informal reception was held at the senatorial mansion, where 
many had opportunity to grasp the hand of one who held a 
warm place in the affections of the people. 


PLEASANTER duty iIol-s tlit wri'ing of 
"Essex C()rNT\. N. J., iLi.rsrRA fkh " |)re- 
sent, than that which hL-r chuixh histiiry imposes. 
Although her churcli edifices as a rule do not 
\ ie in architectural grandeur with those temples 
of worship whicli in New York and Philadelphia 
are the pride of their people, and even though 
their spires do not reach so far heavenward as 
Old Trinity and others, yet in number and seat- 
ing capacity thev present blessed church privileges to the 
people, when tenitory and popul.itions are considered, in 

■it her. Brooklyn City, which 

greater proportion, perhaps than 
for nianv years carried the 
banner with the inscription 
" The City of Churches," the 
same may now be said of the 
capital city of Esse.x County, 
Newark. She. too, is entitled 
to carry the banner inscribed 
with the .same device. 

With a population of less 
than 250,000, more than 200 
churches open wide their 
doors and extend a hearty 
welcome to all who may come 
and worship at their leligious 
shrines. It is pleasant, again, 
to be able to indite the fact. 
apparent everywhere, that 
that blessed spirit of love 
which calls every man his 
neighbor, permeates church 
society through and through 
and is rapidly driving out 
every vestige of illiberalism 
and denominational prejudice 
which have all too long been 
the bane of Christianity and 
acting as a clog to its spread 
and progress. The church 
people of Essex County have 
fully learned the beautiful 
lesson which toleration in- 
stils and can easily divine the mighty difference between the 
rich, mellow fruit which grows with such luxuriance on the 
denominational tree, and the bitter abortions which dwarf and 
destroy under the appellation of denominational prejudice. 
The beautiful truth so lovely and so inspiring is everywhere 
being learned that the fruit of tolerance is indeed sweet to the 
heart, while the fruit of intolerance, though fair to look upon, 
turns to bitter ashes on the lips that continue to sip, at the 
same time the glamour which so long hid from view the fact 
that there is no denominational dividing lines 

" In heaven above wliere all is love," 

is being rapidly torn away and that these names which ha\ e 
long been music to Christian ears, Methodist, Presbyterian, 



Baptist, Roman Catholic, I', etc., are but pass-words 
to an entrance in the home over there, where denominational 
appellations in truth are afterward never spoken, and the .salut- 
ation, ' ni\ lirothcr, mv sister in Christ " is onl\ heard. 


THE church historv, proper, of the County of Essex dales 
back to the year 1667, when the little congregation at 
Branford, Connecticut had resolved to join their brethren of 
Milford, who shortly before that period had cast their lot in 
Newark, on the Passaic. Ur. Stearns, the historian of the Old 
First Presbyterian Church, says : " Indeed the Old Church in 
Branford. organized there twenty years earlier, has probably 

transported bodily with all 
Its corporate privileges .ind 
authorities. Its old ])astor 
was conveyed hither at the 
expense of the town ; its 
deacons continued his func- 
tions without any sign of 
reappointment ; its records 
were transferred and it im- 
mediately commenced church 
work, and its pastor was 
investea with his office and 
salary on the new spot with- 
out any ceremony of organiz- 
ation or installation." 

Although several of the 
members had been left at 
Branford. they had no regular 
church org.mization until 
several years afterwards. M r. 
Pierson. the pastor, was a 
strong as well as a godly 
man. His influence upon the 
new community was very 
great and largely determined 
its character and career. He 
was a learned man. still fond 
of his books and study in 
these wilds. Just to think 
of it ! His library numbered 
four hundred and fifty vol- 

umes— a goodly for the most relined centre of the new 
world, and of magnificent ])i-oportions for a clearing in the 
woods. Earnest, eloquent, godly, patient and devoted, he was 
beloved and esteemed not only by his own little flock, but by 
all the great and strong leaders of New England, 

If it were indeed true that there really is a fish in the sea 
called Lucerne, whose tongue doth shine like a torch, then it is 
but a trifling stretch to say that its illuminating power might be 
transferred to the human organ, and then as a natural sequence, 
the tongue of the first parson of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Essex County might easily have been reached. 

The church, as first settled, was on the Congregational 
order, and that of the most primitive and distinguishing type. 
In 1716, or shortly after, its form of government was changed 



to Presliyterian, and witli the change 
of name came the change of spirit. 
The fifst meeting-house was con- 
structed in 1668. Five men were 
selected to superintend its construc- 
tion and were endowed with full power 
to niana,i;(f its affairs. Modest, in- 
deed, were the proportions of the 
buildings, vi/.. : 36x26 and 13 feet 
between the joints. Such wonderful 
care was exercised on the |)art of these 
five good men and true, that ne.irly a 
year and a half of time had slipped 
away ere the little church approached 
completion. When finished, the little 
church building had what was termed 
a lenter or lean-to. which made the 
building 36 feet s(|uare. 

Pastor Abraham Pierson led his 
little flock into its sacred precincts for 
nearly twelve years, when Ood, whom 
he had faithfully served for many lon^' 
years, called him away to the better 

The building, which was known as 
Our Meeting House, had a stockade 
at each corner, rendering it more easily 
defencible against attacks from the 
Indians. Instead of the huge bells 
which now call the people with brazen 
tongue, the roll of the drum announced 
the hour for making ready, then again 

to announce that the church doors were open and the congrega- 
tion might enter. Not alone for leligious service did the first 
settlers occupy their church ; it was their place of assemblage 

-^J .tK' n rf jr^ K1 m rsritrjsffffi 


on all important public occasions, and thus it continued for the 
tlrst forty years. That no monument, or simple slab, even, 
marks the spcjt where the heroic old first pastor sleeps, is to be 
regretted. Even though the spot 
where he lies buried is unmarked, yet 
his memory is sound, and the spirit of 
the eminent dixine moves on. 

The second minister to officiate in 
the First Presbyterian Church was a 
son of the first, a graduate of Cam- 
bridge. A few years after his father's 
death he was removed from his pas- 
torate and returned to Connecticut, 
from whence he was called to the 
Presidency of ^'ale College, which 
office he filled but a short lime before 
his d.eath. 

The Rew John Prudden. at the age 
of foity-five, was settled as the third 
minister of the church and coiuinuol 
to be the pastor for about ten ye.ii^. 
.After his removal from the pastoral' 
he leniained in Newark, and lived .1 
pri\rUe life, beloved and honored b\ 
ill till in 1725, and at the ripe old .rji- 
uf So, he died. 

.About 1701, Rev. Jalie/ Wakeman, 
ilie fourth minister in the successinn 
of pastors, was installed. His niinisir, 
was of short duiation, extending over 
a period of but three years, when he 
(lied at the age of 26. In 1705-6, Rev. 
Nathaniel Powers was accepted as the 




fifth minister. Mr. Bowers remained but ten years when lie 
was dismissed, says the record, for reasons no longer known. 
During his pastorate the congregation built a new church, of 
which stone was the material, a church which it was said was 
the first in respectability and elegance in the colony. 

Not long, however, were this congregation of devoted Christian 
people permitted to enjoy their seating in the beautiful structure. 
since the legal fraternity were not long satisfied with glances 
alone, but after it had been newly covered and repaired in 1756. 
it passed into the hands of the County officials, and became the 
Esse.v County Court House. 

After the dismission of I\ev. Mr. Bowers a long vacancy 
occured, during which a Mr. Buckingham officiated a few times, 
and it is said occasioned some excitement. At length, on Oct. 
2\. 1719, Rev. Joseph Webb was nrfl.iine<! here, and installed 

the students under the care of Mr. Burr, at Newark. On the 
permanent location of the college at Princeton. Mr. Burr was 
called to preside over it there. 

On June 28, 1759, Mr. Alexander McWhorter a graduate of 
the college of New Jersey, who had studied under the famous 
William Tennent, of Freehold, was called and when he preached 
his first sermon, the people " At once fixed their eyes on him, 
as the object of their united choice." Mr. McWhorter was 
ordained at Cranbury, North Carolina, on July 4, 1759. When 
the Commissioners from Newark appeared to request of the 
Presbytery his appointment as stated supply among them, their 
prayer was granted at once and the same summer he was 
installed as the eighth pastor of this church. In 1764-5. a great 
revival was enjojed in this church and many were converted. 
In 1766, Mr. McWhorter being in feeble health traveled and 


as the si.xth pastor of this chinch bv the Presbytery of Phila- 
delphia, the Rev. Joseph Magec, Rev. Jonathan Dickerson, 
Rev. John Pierson and Rev. Robert Orr officiatuig at his or- 
dination. For a few years (observes the venerable historian) 
tranquilty reigned in the town, all were harmonious and all 
were avowed Presbyterians, but contentions arising, some 
persons became dissatisfied and invited the services of an 
Episcopal clergyman. Not long after this Mr. Webb requested 
and obtained his dismission. Sad to relate, shortly after this 
himself and son were drowned while crossing the river at Say- 
brook, Connecticut. In 1737-8, Rev. .Aaron Burr the seventh 
minister was settled here. He was the father of the once 
celebrated Col. Aaron Burr, once the Vice-President of the 
United States. In 1747, the college of New Jersey was insti- 
tuted and Mr. Jonathan IJickerson. was .ippointed its first 
President. The following year he died, and the trustees placed 

was entirely restored, not the only one who has since journeyed 
that way to recover. In 1778 Mr. McWhorter received a 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from Y.ale College, and in 1779 
Dr. McWhorter, who had won woild-wide fame as a minister of 
the gospel, was called to Meckelenburgh County, North 
Carolina, and placed in charge of the Presbyterian Church at 
Charlotte. Soon after his settlement there, the British army, 
under Lord Cornwallis, entered Charlotte. The Doctor and his 
family fled, his house was plundered, and nearly all his property, 
his furniture and his library were destroyed. In the summer of 
1780 he returned to the North and engaged to teach at Abing- 
ton, in Pennsylvania, for the winter. The people of Newark 
hearing this, invited him to pay them a visit. He did so in 
February, 178 1. In April they sent him a regular call. He 
returned with his family and though never regularly installed 
again, he officiated as pastor till his death in 1807. 



Up to tliis time (1785) what was known as "the half 
w;iy practice " was in \ ogne in the Presbyterian Churches. 
This meant tliat parents who had not sat at the coni- 
niuninn lalile themselves could present their children 
tor baptism. This practice the Doctor believed was 
contrary to the primitive church, and was suppression 
of sound church government and discipline. In 1790 
that practice was unanimously condemned and candidates 
for admission were no longer to be examined by the 
minister alone, but before the whole sessions, a practice 
uliiih has prevailed e\er since. It is generally believed 
that Dr. McW'horter was one of the chief investigators 
of, it he did not actually write the famous document 
known as the Meckelenlnirgh Declaration of Indcpendenc e 
and had \ery much to do with the ftny eNtendrrI tow.ird 
this veneiable divnie by the IJritish. In 1801 . Rev. Kdward 
(IriUm became associate pastor. July 20, 1S07, Dr. 
McWhorter died, aged 73 years and 5 days, greatly and 
justly lamented. In May, 1 S09. Dr. Griflin was dismissed 
to accept the chair of Sacred Eloquence in the Theological 
.Seminary, at Andover, Massachusetts. He afterward 
was jiastor of the .Second Pi'esbyterian Church, frorrr 
which he was called to liecome president of Williams 
College. Dr. James Richards was the next insl.dled 
pastor, as the successor of Di'. Grilfrn. This was in the 
spring of l8oy, and ihe blessed connection was continued until 
rS23 when it was dissolved, that the Doctor might occupy the 
eh.iii- of Christian Theology in the Auburn Theologicnl Semin- 
ary, New York Stale. In June, 1824, the congregation called 
a licentiate from the Tresliytery of Philadelphia, Rev. William 

This connection was contuiucd irnder ('.inl's blessing from the 
date of his oidinalion Jirly 27. 1824. as the eleventh pastor in 
the line of succession, until the call went forth to Dr. Ansel 



D Edtly. who served from 1835 to 1848, when a call made 
to Dr. Jonathan F. Stearns, Oct, 28, 1849. Dr. Slearns, the 
thirteenth pastor, continued to minister the affairs of this church 
until 18S3. when he was succeeded by the present occupant of 
the pulpit. Dr. D. R. Frazer, who up to the present time 
(1897) has conducted iheaffairsof this church on the higher lines 
of Christianily, with marvellous acceptabiUly, and with entii"e 
satisfaction as the fourteenlh of the pastoral hue, to all who 
drink frorrr the fount of his learning at the foot of the First 
Church pulpit. Few irren have a higher standiirg in the 
Presbyterian Chui'ch, and the n.rme of Fiazer is known and 
honored wherever the Gosjiel is preached. 


DURING the jear 1S48, sixly-one nrerrrber's of the Frrsi 
I'lesb) teri.rn Church organized a religious society under 
the slyle of the " I'.uk Presbyterian C hurch of Newark, N. J." 

The Irrsl paslor of ihe chuich was the Rev. Ansel D. Eddy, 
1) 1). Among Ihe original and charier- meirrbers ar'e the nanres 
of many who ,ire well known in this city, as Stephen Dodd, 
James 1 1, Clarke, I! umplirey P. 1 )imhanr, Richard Hall, Maria 
IC, and Sarah K, Searing, George C. Dodd, Edward A. and 
Amanda Crane, Ezi-a Ilolles. I'lenjamin F. Harrisorr. Charles D .ind m.iiiy others. 

Among ris earliesl elders were Stephen Dodd, Otis Boyden, 
Richard liall. l).i\id C. Dodd, Terah Benedict, Lewis C. 
(bnver, Stephen R. Grover and William Ashley. 

The session, in later years, has included Francis K, Howell, 
James S, Higbie, Stephen J. .Meeker, Dr. Edward P. Nichols. 
Elbert H. Baldwin. Edwin J. Ross, Joseph A, Hallock, Albni 
T Freeman, Jarrres Mawha, Willianr J. Rusling, Aaron King, 
Alexander Beach, Edward N. Crane, Elias F Morr'ow, Edward 
E, Sill, Edward 13, and George H. Denny, Hugh Haddow, 
Alvah W. Osmun and others 

Rev, Dr. Eddy was succeeded in the pastorate by Rev. Henry 
A. Rowland, D. D., Rev. James G. Hainrier. D. D., Rev. Joel 
Parker, D. D, Rev. Prentiss De \'eu\e, D. D., the last narrred 
of whom was rnfluential in securing the removal from Park 
street to the [jiesent site of the church, in P.elleville avenue, 
corner of Kearny sti'eet. 



The corner-stone of the new building was laid May 22, 1872. 
The dedication sermon was by Rev. William Adams. U. IX. 
October 6, 1874. Dr. De Veuve resigned the pastorate in 
March. 1879. 

In 1879 a unanimous call was extended to Re\-. J. Clement 
French, D. D., who had been pastor of the Central Congrega- 
tional Church, of Brooklyn, for fourteen years, and of the West- 
minster Church, of that city, for five years. 

Dr. French was installed as pastor of Park Church in October, 
1879. At that time the membership was 164. 

apartments, were complete and dedicated on the evening of 
that day. 

IJr. French is still the pastor, and will complete his eioh- 
teenth year of service in October, 1897. 


WI-: FIND the efforts leading to the organization of the 
Sixth Presbyterian Church somewhat hard to trace. It 
appears that Rev. S. S. Potter began services in this neighbor- 
hood March 5. 1S4S, On March 28 he was invited to preach for 


From the first the seating capacity of the edifice was too small 
for the attendance. In 18S4 it became absolutely necessary to 
enlarge the building. On Sabbath morning. April 20, $18,000 
were subscribed for this purpose, afterwards more. Work was 
at once begun. The chapel. Sunday-school rooms and the rear 
of the auditorium were taken down. 

On April 20. 1S85, the church building increased in its seating 
capacity to about 800, and changed in all its interior architecture 
and adornments, a new chapel. Sabbath-school rooms, primary 
department room, bible class rooms, study and other necessary 

a term of six months at a salary of Sio^ for the whole time. 
It is curious to find that when this term of service had expired 
a meeting was held to raise the money which resulted in a total 
of 833 But the ladies came to the rescue and helped out the 
balance with a donation visit. Mr. Potter's term of service 
was during the cholera epidemic and he w'rites that lie had four 
or five funerals a week. 

The church was organized by a Committee of Presbytery, 
October 1. 1848, in a little school hall in Union Street, near 
Lafayette Street. The committee consisted of Rev. Drs. Condit 



.md Briiisnuule and Rev. S. S. Folter, and ciders II. Hunt and 
O. Crane. Dr. Condit lit-ing inevented from attending liy a 
funeral service, Mr I'oUer took his place as moderator of the 
meeting. The organization was effected with 36 members, sixteen 
coming from the Third Church, nine from the Central Cluirch, 
three from the I'"irst Church and the remaining eight from 
churches outsitle the city. So far as is known. Rev. Mr. Potter 
is tlie only person surviving who participated in the organization 
and he is still active. I)eing connected with a religious journal in 

It was during Mr. Potter's term of service that a church 
edifice was begun. This building still st.inds in Union Street, 
opposite Hamilton and is occupied by a congregation of 
colored people. It does not appear just when the Sunday School 
was organized but it was some months before the church, prob- 
ably early in the uar 1.S4.S. The first elders of the church were : 
na\'id loline. Lemuel F. Corwin and .Aaron C. W'arch The 
first trustees were; Horace J. Pointer, Robert Dodd. Aaron C. 
Ward, I'.|>hraim Tucker, \Vm. Douglas, Jabez Cook, Jr., and 
Isaac 1'.. I,i-e. A number of these names have been associatetl 
with the public life of tliis ciiy. 

The first jiaslor of the church was W'm. Aikman, 
who was installed Decenilier 2(1, 1849. .and served llie chinch 
for almost eight years. It was during llns ji.istinate that the 
lecture ronni was Iniill in the rear of llie nld church. Mr. 
.Aikman is now living in .Atl.uitic City where, until recentlv, he 
was pastor of the Presb\ Iciian Chuich. 

The second |iastor was Win. T, p.v.i. who was installed Dec. 
16, 1857, and ser\ed the church about three years, when he was 
called to the Methesda Church, Philadelphia. There he labored 


during the remainder of his life. Mr. Eva's pastorate covered 
the jKiiod of depression just previous to the great Rebellion, 
and when he left the church experienced much difficulty in 
secuiinga new pastor — so much so that they were almost ready 


to Finally. Rev. James M Dickson was called and 
installed as pastor .March 11, 1S63. Mr. Dickson served the 
church about six years. It was during this pastorate that 
strenuous efforts were niade toward getting a new church 
edifice, but the scheme finally failed and many of the people 
lost all confidence in the intention of the uptown churches to 
aid the Sixth C'hurch buikling enterprise. It was about this 
time that the Ladies' Parsonage .Association was formed, w Inch 
succeeded in securing the house that is the present p.irsonage. 
at 124 F.lm street. Rev. Dr. Dickson is now pasior ol 1 
Reformed Church in I?rooklyn, N. \'. 

M.irtin F. Hollister was ihe next pastor and ser\cd dining 
the longest period of any pastor the church has He was 
installed on June 4. 1S70, and resigned Deci inber i, 18S4. Mr. 
HoUi.ter then removed to Chicago, where he laliored in connec- 
tion with the Tract Society, and later as secretary .and treasurer 
of the Congregational Seminary until he was t.aken sick and 
came east to be amid home associations and in the stimmer of 
18S9 departed this life. 

The present pastor, Davis W. Lusk, a life-like ])hoto of 
whom .ippe.irs among the illustrations, began work on the first 
Sund.iy of April, 1SS5, and about two weeks later was installctl 
by the Newark I'resbytery. He immediately set himself to the 
work of getting a new church edifice, and in the fall of that 
year put in working form methods for accumulating money to 
build. It was a long, hard task of over six years, but patience, 
perseverance and prayer made the efforts successful and on 
November 9, 1891, the present beautiful building at the corner 
of Union and Lafayette Streets was dedicated, with sufficient 
money pledged to meet all obligations. The total cost of the 
site and building furnished was about $48,000. The dedication 
sermon was preached by Rev. Charles H. Parkhurst. D D., of 
the Madison Square church. New York. Henry E. (\gden was of the building committee and llalsey Wood, archi- 



The church is unique it its arrangenieiits and entirely modern. 
It is heated throughout with hot water and the gallery is seated 
with upholstered opera chairs. The building is so arranged 
that all the parlors can be turned into the church and the 
speaker can speak to over one thousand people. The church is 
very popular in the community and never has to close, summer 
or winter, for lack of a congregation. On the outside is a 
tablet bearing this inscription : "This church is conducted in 
the interest of the people outside of it." There are no pew rents, 
the church being supported by the systematic and voluntary 
offerings of the people. The effort is to create the right kind 
of spiritual atmosphere, to bring the Christ life and love and 
feeling into the church. The church has a well equipped Hoys' 
Brigade -the first organized in the city. The Christian En- 
deavor Society was the first organized among I'resbyterians 
here and the second in order of time in the city. 

The names of those who have served the church as ruling 
elders are as follows : David Joline, Aaron C. Ward, Lemuel 
F. Corwin, Horace J. I'oinier. J. Sandford Smith, John I). Wood, 
Isaac Ugden, John C. Wilkinson. Wiu. K Parkhurst, Job 
Haines, Joseph .\. Hallock, \Vm. R. 15arton, Henry E. Ogden 
The present officers are: Elders. — Joseph Clark, Heniy K. 
Williams, .Alvin \'. Decker, W'm. H. Preston, Wm. McKenzie, 
Abram 1. Thompson. Deacons. — Josiah Duncan, Wm. H. 
Davis, Thomas Thompson. Trustees. — Alvin V. Decker, presi- 
dent; Abram 1. Thompson, secretary; Ernest C. Kcock, treas- 
urer; Lolt Southaril. M. D. Clarence M. Hedden, Fred. L. 
Eberhardt, Theodore T. Lawshe. Joseph W. Clark. Wm. H. 


IN the former pari of the year iSio, a number of individuals 
residing in the upper part of the town of Newaik, and 
members of the first Presbyterian congregation, being impressed 
with the importance of having a Second l^resbyterian Church, 
adopted incipient measures for the accomplishment of this 
object. A year before this, at a meeting of the members of the 
First Church, it was evolved, that it w-as " advisable for this 
society to build another meeting-house;" but no successful 
movement was made, till the time above mentioned, for the 
establishment of a second church. On the i8th of June, i8io, 
the corner-stone of the church edifice was laid with appropriate 



religious services by Rev. Samuel Whelpley. The building 
was dedicated to the worship of God. Septend)er 30, iSi 1. 

At a meeting of the congregation, held January 12, 1811, the 
following persons were elected Trustees, viz. ; James Hedden, 
Joseph T. Baldwin, David Doremus, John N. Cumming. Marcus 
15. Douglass. James Conley and Theodore Fre- 
linghuysen, who took the oalh of office April 
22, of the same year. 

.-\t another meeting" of the congregation, held 
l.inuary 23, 1 Si 1, of which Rev. James Richards. 
D. D., was moderator, a call was made out to 
Mr. Hooper Cumming, to t<ike upon him the 
pastoral office ,-imong them. In .April ftillowing 
the congregation was taken under the care of 
the Presby'ery of Jersey; and on October 3, of 
the same year, Mr. Cumming was ordained to 
the work of the Gospel ministry, and installed 
pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church. 
Rev. Stephen Thompson ))reaclied the sermon, 
from I Cor. i. 21 ; Rev. James Richards, 1). D., 
presided, and gave the charge to the muiisler, 
and Rev. Amzi Armstrong, D. D.. addiessed the 

The church was organized in October. iSii. 
.\t a meeting of the members of the church, 
held November 6, 1811, when a sermon 
preached by Dr. Richards from Hebrew xlii. 1, 
the following persons were elected to the office 
of ruling elders, viz. ; Nathaniel Douglass, 



[osepli L. Keen aiul Aaron Ward, 
the first two were also chosen and 
set apart to perform tlie duties of 

.At the organization of the church 
there were ninety-three mendjers, 
all of whom were dismissed and 
recominended liy the First Presby- 
terian Church. The whole number 
of persons who have been con- 
nected with the church is two 
thousand eiyht hundred and thirty- 
-eight. Of these, one thousand 
tlve hundred and seventy-eight were 
received on certificate and one 
tliousand two Inindred .uid sixty 
on ex.ininiation. At the present 
lime, the wliolc number in com- 
munion with this climxh is six 
hundred and twenty-eight. 

In November, 1895, the l\ev 
Thomas Reed Bridges assumed 
charge of the pastoral office, and is 
now the pastor. 




HIS I hurch was founded in Octciber. 1844. by the Rev. J. C. 
.S.iuler, who was sent to Newark by the New York Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. At first he held 
religious services in the Franklin Street Methodist Church, 
afterward in a school house in ISank Street. Here he met with 
much opposition. While preaching the word of God on 
the second floor, a noted Cierman freethinker held forth on 
the floor below. Prayer and class meetings hekl in piiv.ite 
houses were frequently disturbed. Yet the good man met with 
much success, and in October, 1845. the young society bought 
the old Baptist Church in Market Street, opp.isite the depot of 
the present Pennsylvania Railroad, for §2. 500. When Rev. J. 
Sauter was transferred to another field of labor in 1847, he left 
a membership of eighty-five. A few prominent citizens of 
Newark took quite an interest in the new enterprise. When 

the Society was incorporated (1S4;). Messrs. D.ivid Wood, 
Wm. U. Douglas, Cornelius Walsh and Dennis Osborne, 
together with three German brethren— Leonhart Meyer, Louis 
Hagny and Christoph Stieringer -cor.stituie<I the first Board of 
Trustees. Not all the successors of Mr. Sauter were as fruitful 
as he. Indeed, his imnietliate successor had to be deposed from 
the ministry. In 184S the Rev. J. Swahlen. the first convert 
under the labors of Dr. Wm. Nasi, was sent to Newark to 
repair damages, but he too was followed In' an unworth\ man 
who, however, was speedily removed. 

A list of succeeding pastors and the dates of the beginning 
of their labors ni.ay not be uninteresting: C. Hoevener, 1850 
J. Sauter. 1852; F. G. (iratz, 1854; Wm. Schwartz, 1855 
C. H. Aftlerbach. 1857; J. Sauter. 1S5S 
J. F. Seidel, 1S60; F. W. Dinger. 1862 
C. Jost. 1S66; J. W. Freund. 1869; I' 

H. Kastendieck, 1859 
H. Kastendieck, 1S64 
(Hiattlinder, 1872 : H 


Kastendieck. 1875 ; J. C. Deininger, 
1878; J. W. Freund, 18S1 ; G. 
Abele. 1884; L. Wallon, 18S7; V. 
Quattlander, 1892; A. Flammann, 

In 1871 the property on Market 
Street was solil for §20.000 and 
the present edifice erected on the 
corner of Mulberry and Walnut 
Streets, at a cost of $33,000, in- 
cluding the building lots. An ex- 
cellent cut of the building will be 
seen on another page. 

The membership of the church 
is at present comparatively small. 
V'ery few of its origiral members 
remain. ,ind the young people have 
been and are drifting away, seeking 
their cliureh homes in Kngiisli 
speaking congregations. Indeed, 
this church has been, to a large 
extent, a nursery for other churches. 
'I here are scattered all over Newark 
in the English speaking Methodist, 




Presbyterian and other churches, those who have once been 
members or Sunday School scholars of this church. Some 
twenty years ago the writer of these lines took pains to trace, 
as far as he could, those who went out from this society and 
' joined others, and to his own surprise found that the number 
was very huije, that if brought together they would fill any 
church building in Newark. Still the society is free from debt, 
self-supporting and gives annually from §Soo to $i.oooto the 
various benevolences of the church. 


Tl 11'^ 'Ihiicl I'resbyterian Cluuch was urg.uii/ed 
Monday, March 30, 1S63, in the Lecture Room of the 
Sixth I'resbvterian Church on Union Street, opposite Hamilton. 
In the same year the congregation bought lots corner Ferry and 
Madison Streets, where their first chapel and parsonage were 

The Rev. Geo. C. Seibert, Ph.D., D. D., was the first 
pastor, viz.: from October, 1863, until October. 187:^. The 
Rev. Oscar Kraft succeeded Dr. Seibert. and remained until 
March 17, 1S74, when the St. Stephen's Church was formed 
frotii part of the membership, with whom the Rev. O. Kraft 

In the spring of 1875, the Rev. Julius H. Wolff was called, 
and was installed as its pastor on the ninth day of June, 1875, 
who is still the pastor of the church Under his administration, 
the old property corner Ferry and Madison Streets was sold, 
and a new site corner Hamburg Place and Ann Street was 
purchased in 1882. 

In 1883 the new church, as shown in the illustration, was 
erected, with a seating capacity of 450. 





In 1884 the parsonage was built, and in 1891 the first story of 
the Lecture Room was added, which was completed in 1895. 

The church has now. (1897) 200 communicants, a flourishing 
Sabbath school with 400 scholars, and a thrifty Ladies' .\k\ 
Society and a Young Peoples' ,\id Society. 

The property represents an actual expense of thirty-one 
thousand dollars. 


I\ all probabdity, no church in Essex County has exercised a 
wider range of usefulness from the moment of its organization 
than St. Paul's M. E. Church, her history dating back to Feb- 
ruary, 1853, when she began her career with a roll of one hundred 
and twenty-two members. Of these, many were leaders in 
business and social life, and all were devoted Christians, 
Methodists, /«' Jt', antl followers of Wesley, the divine. Full 
laden with affilaties of love and with an atdency of effort 
which would brook no delays, a brilliant promise of success was 
present from the start. As above stated, the church organiza- 
tion did not take place until February, 1S53. but from a charm- 
ing little tributary work from the pen of Mrs. A. F. R. Martin, 
entitled ■' A Glance Backward," we find the following facts : 
" Forty-two years ago May, 1S96, a band of Christian workers, 
talking together, considered the subject of organizing a new 
church, and before they parted Mm church was successfully 
begun. For when did ever earnest disciples 'consider' a noble 
work without successful issue .' " 

From that night, interest in the project never flagged, the 
workers never halted in their purpose. A few months after- 
ward the property on which tliis church stands was selected, 
and the first payment made. Two months latei work on the 
chapel was begun. 

The enthusiasm of the little band continued unabated, and the 
work went forward rapidly. Another two months passed, and 



on Febriian" 9. 1853, a church was organized with one hnndred 
and twenty-two members, to be known as tlie Broid Street M. 
E. Church. Within the week following a hall was rented in 
which to hold services until the chapel should be completed. 
The next Sabbath. February 20, 1853, the first sermon was 
preached by the Rev. Chauncy Scliaffer. and the hrst Sunday 
School was assembled, with Elias Francis and Charles Camp- 
bell superintendents, both of whom served in this capacity for 
fifteen years. Both are now gone to their reward, while their 
children and children's children stand in their places. 

In April, the Rev. \Vm. F. Corbctt was appointed pastor. 
On December 29, the chapel was opened for religious service 
and ten thousand dollars raised toward the church. 

In 1854,' Rev. Henry Cox was appointed pastor, and work 
commenced on the church. At the laying of the corner-stone 
October 26, six thousand dollars was subscribed. 26. 
1856, the church was dedicated by Bishops Simpson, Pierce 
and James, of sainted memory. July 16. 1862. the pews were 
rented to the highest bidders, an innovation for the Methodist 
Church in those days. 

That the career of St. I'aul's (the new name adopted in 1865) 
has been truly phenominal none will doubt, and this partly 
accounted for by the fact that from the beginning she has num- 
bered among her membership many strong men and women who 
always stood ready to help, and were always willing to make 
the required sacrifice to push on the work of making St. 
Paul's the equal to any other Methodist church in the county. 

Tiie noble self-sacrificing band of Christian men antl women 
who have gathered around the shrine of St. Paul's from the very 
beo-ining, labored ever to promote St. Paul's w'elfare, and insure 
the church's advance and prosperity, by bringing such an in- 
fluence to bear on conferences that would prove irresistible in 
securing the appointment of men of eloquence and men of 
power to fill their pulpit— in a word, men whose words leaped 



from lips which had been touched with live coals from the 
Altar Sacrificial. 

And who, we ask. can say, we may when we mention the 
names of such bright particular pulpit stars as Scliaffer, Corbit 
Cox. Lore, Arndt, Heston, \'ail. Baker, Hanlon. Wilson, 
Dashiell, Meredith, Tiffany, Sims, Todd, Baldwin, Boyle. Parson, 
and Baker again, all of whom have filled the pulpit of St. Paul's, 
if it was not their burning words falling on the ears of the tens 
of thousands, who were irresistibly drawn within the influence 
of their religious field, while the dynamo of their power was 
sending volt after volt of gospel truth, against the citadel of 
sin, leading them to fall down like the jailer of old and crv 
out, " What shall I do to be saved .' " This had much to do in 
giving to St. Paul's the good name and fair fame enjoyed to-day. 
Speaking of these men Mrs. Martin says: "Seven of tliem have 
passed on at the master's summons, ' It is enough, come up 
higher.' " 

If memory serves us right, 'twas under the preaching of Dr. 
Dashiell, that he who was a tower of strength to St. Paul's for 
the closing years of his grand Christian life, General Theodore 
Runyon, our late Ambassador to Germany, was brought to the 
foot of the cross. 

Mrs. Martin says; "Dashiell, a tower of strengh, with his 
magnetic presence attaching all to him, and binding them with 
goklen bands of friendship forever." Also she says, Corbit, the 
fearless w-arrior, who would take the kingdom of Heaven by 
storm. Continuing, Tiffany the elegant. " as pleasant songs at 
morning sung, the words dropped from his tongue, strengthened 
our hearts." Space will not permit more, but with such an 
array of clergy, brilliant to " cast the net," it is little wonder 
that a multitude of fishes should be enclosed. Among those 
who have acted well their part, and have contributed of their 
worldly goods, mental love and of their influence to make the 
church what she is, we have only room to mention Ambassador 



Runyon. who, with the beloved Dashell, has 
been called up higher. It will be remem- 
berefl that General Runyon's Bible Class 
had no superior under his influence. 

Ex-Judge J. Franklin Fort, who for a 
score of years was Superintendent of the 
Sabbath School, Franklin Murphy. Esq, a 
tower of strength in deeds of beneficence. 
Mrs. A. F. R. Martin, from whose sketch we 
have quoted, Mrs. E. B. Gaddis, and many 
others whom it would be our delight to 
make record of in "ESSEX COUNTY, X. J.. 
Illustrated." In the membership of St. 
Paul's, there is material abundant for a 
grand army devoted to the spread of truth, 
the upbuilding of Christ's kingdom on earth. 


HE Reformed Dutch Church, which 
stands on Springfield Avenue, corner 
of New Street, is one of the oldest in the 
village, having been in existence when the 
village was known as Clintonville. On the 
afternoon of June 23, 1839, the Clintonville 
Sabbath School was organized in the school 
room belonging to Alvah .Sherman. At the 
time of organization the scholars numbered 
about fifty, and the following officers were 
elected: Patron, Isaac Watkin ; Superintendent, William M. 
Summers ; Librarian and Secretary, Alvah Sherman. Public 
worship was held regularly on each succeeding Sunday in the 
same building, when there was volunteer preaching by well- 
known ministers. 

At a meeting of the Reformed Church Classis of Bergen, 
N. J., held Tuesday, January 14. 1840, a petition for the organ- 
ization of a Reformed Dutch Church, and signed by si.\ty-seven 
of Irvington's then best known citizens, was presented. The 



petition was received with much fa\or by the classis, and the 
request was granted On Sunday, February 2, 1840, the Re- 
formed Dutch Church was organized, with William Ashley and 
Isaac Watkins as elders and William Summers and Abraham 
Baldwin as deacons. Services were held in the school room of 
Alvah Sherman and the first sermon was preached by Rev. J. 
Garretson, of Belleville. Rev. John A. Staats, of New Bruns- 
wick, was installed first pastor of the church, December 10, 
1S40, and he remained with the church for one year. 

The first church building was 
- • erected in 1842, and was dedi- 
cated Wednesday, December 
28, of the same year, at which 
time the installation of Rev. 
John L. Chapman took place. 
Rev. Mr. Chapman, who has 
since died, preached in the 
church until 1849, when he 
resigned. He was followed by 
Rev. James M. Bruen, who 
preached until 1S52, and who 
was succeeded by Revs. James 
Devine and A. McKelvey, and 
in 1861 the late Rev. Henry 
V'eshlage was chosen and re- 
mained until his death, which 
occurred in March, 1894. 

Since the death of Rev. Henry 
\'eshlage a number of able 
ministers have preached to the 
congregation on trial, but a 
choice was not made until July, 
1S95, when a unanimous call 
was extended to Rev. David H. 
Chrestensen, of Milford, N. Y. 
Rev. Mr. Chrestensen was born 
at Andes, Delaware County, N.Y. 


Ill 1SS4 he grailuated from the 
Delaware Literary Institute, in 1S89 
from Hamilton College at Clinton 
N. Y., and in 1892 from Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary. He then accepted 
as a charge the pastorate of the 
Milford, N. V., Presbyterian Church, 
which he held at the time of his call 
to Irvingtun. Mr, Chrestensen is an 
untiring mission worker and spent the 
entire summer of 1890 in North Dakota 
doing Suriday School mission work. 

During the siuiimer of 1891 he 
preacheti at Amboy, N. Y. 

The church at present is in a very 
united and prosperous condition and 
with their new pastor and a new two- 
manual pipe organ, they expi ct to 
build up the church to its standing n| 
former \ears. It is proposed to make 
the musical ser\icesa special feature, 
as there are some \ety tine trained 
voices in the choir. 

KEV. Il'l.lUS 

REV. CH.-\S U.islliNGb 1)1)1)1), L). I). 



THIS church is located on the corner of Ferry Street and 
Hamburg Place, and was organized on March 17, 1S74. 
Rev. O. H, Kiaft was their first minister. Services were 
held in Mr. Reichert's carpenter shop on Wan Buren Street, 
until the church was erected and iledicated, on Dec, 13, 1S74. 
The cost of the building was about $28,000. 

Rev. O. H. Kraft left the congregation through the summer of 
1878, and followed a call of St. Marcus Congregation, in Buffalo, 
N. Y. His successor is Rev. R. Katerndahl, who was at that 
time pastor in his first congregation in Illinois. Lender his lead- 
ing the congregation grew slowly but sureh, and counts at 
present a membership of more than four hundred families. 
The trustees are, C, Eggert, J, Scheel, P, Schiickhaus, Ph, 
.Met/,, C, Hammel, T. Schaut/ and J. Stiehl. The elders are 
J. Waltz, Ph. Kaufmann, G. Fey, G. Wetzel. H. (ieppert; 
oiganist, and Ludwig Wagner, se.xton, filling their place as long 
as the church has stood. 

TRACING brielly the rise and growth of the South 

'^ 'ffe^ 



1 Church, it is but just at the outset to say, that it originated 
in no selfishly factious or partisan spirit, but in profound and 
.sacred convictions of dtity, and in an honest, earnest purpose 
to e.xtend the kingdom of the Lend Jesus, and advance the 
, views which Baptists hold. With the movement the Mother 
Church was in fullest sympathy from its inception till its success 
was perfectlv assured. Those who remained in the old home 
on Academy Street and those who went out to set up house- 
keeping on Kinney Street counseled over the enterprise together, 
prayed over it together, gave of their means for starting it 
together, and when the time came for separating they went 
apait, not as contentious children who could not abide under a 
common roof, but as loving members of a single family, invok- 
ing on each other the best of blessings. We mention this 
simply as an illustration of Christian large-heartedness, and " to 
the praise of the glory of His grace." 

On the evening of February iS, 1850, thirty-seven brethren 

and sisters, bearing a general letter of 

dismission from the First Church, met 

in that house of worship to organize 

what was then named and is still 

called, the South Baptist Church, of 

Newark. By rising they formally 

entered into fellowship, and then 

proceeded to elect officers and adopt 

a covenant and articles of faith. 
At a subsequent meeting, eight 

others were received as constituent 

members, making a total of forty-fi\"e; 

and on the first Tuesday of March 

public recognition services were held, 

IKnry C. Fish offered the |)rayer. E, 

L. M.-igoon preached the semion_ 

Henry V. Jones gave the hand of 

fellowship, ,ind Simeon J. Drake de- 
livered the charge. Of these honored 

brethren, the ])reacher of the sermon 

only remains to share in the conflicts ~^ ?i.- 

BEN. y .ME1U:UK. 



and conquests of the militant church. At the time of the 
reccit;nition. Dr. Hague had aheady been called to the pastorate 
and the sanctuary on Kinney Street was well under way. The 
lecture rooin of the new house was occupied on the 14th nf 
April, and on the iSth of |uly the finished structure, free from 
debt, was set apart to tlie worship of the Most High. Three 
years of abundant prosperity were vouchsafed, during which the 
membership grew to more than 200, and then, greatly to ihe 
regret of his people, tlie first pastor went his way. 

In March, 1854, Dr. O. S. Stearns, now a professor in the 
Theological Seminary at Newton, Mass., was called to tin- 
vacant place, but before a year had passed tlie brethren at 
Newton Center, coveting earnestly the best gifts, were seeking 
to allure the pastor to that field, and presently their persuasions 
prevailed and the South Church again was shepherdless. 

In the autumn of 1S55, Dr. James L. Hodge succeeded to the 
charge. Some gracious ingatherings were enjoyed, and the 
general interests of Zion were well maintained. Two years, 
however, brought the relation to an end, and now for eleven 
months there was a dependence on supplies. 

In October, 1S58. l)r E. M. Levy, of Philadelphia, began his 
l.dxirs — labors which extended over a period of ten years, or 
double the lime covered by any other pastorate. During this 
term the church edifice was remodelled and beautified, the organ 
purchased and revival mercies extensively enjoyed. 

Dr. John IDowling came next, and remained for three and 
one-half years. He gave to the South Church about the last 
pastoral service of a life which was abundant in labors, fruitful 
in results, and is fragrant in memory still. 

Dr. George A. Peltz was Dr. Dovvliiig's successor. He min- 
istered to the fiock acceptably till the close of 1S75, when he 
resigned, to give himself more exclusively to Sunday School 

In the spring of 1S76. Dr. Charles Y. Swan took the charge. 
A strong S|3irit overestiiii.ited and so overtaxed the frail body 
that housetl it, and amid displays of saving grace he was laid 
aside, anil alter months of wasting, bravely borne, he was not, 
for God took him. 

In November, 1880, Rev T. E Vassar, D. D., became pastor, 
remaining with the church seven years and laboring with great 
efficiency. He was succeeded by Rev. John English. 



The present pastor (1897), Rev. R. M. I.ulher. I). D.. assmned 
this relation June 1, i89r. The oflicial list of the church. May, 
1897. is as follows: Pastor, R. M. Luther, D. I). Deacons. — 
[( lome Taylor, John C. Boice, Thos. .S. Stevens, N. A. Merrit, 
Arthur W. Palmei, Jeptha D. Runyon. Trustees. - Caleb H. 
Earl, Samuel O. Daldwin, S. O. Nichols, Wni. F. Utter, J. D. 
Runyon, Walter Drake. Clerk of the Church, Sayres O. 


THE New York Avenue Chmcli was hrst organized as the 
Second Reformed Church in 1847, and its first house of 
worship built at the corner of Ferry and McWhorter 
Streets, the next year. 

In the year 1888 the church removed to the cha])el already 
completed on the new site at the corner of Pacific Street and 
New York Avenue. 

The corner-stone of the new church was laid October 6, 
iS9[, and on December 5. 1893. the present house of worshi]) 
was dedicated as the New York .Vvenue Reformed Church. 
The following is a list of the pastors of this church : Rev. 
Gustavus Abeel, D. D, 1850-1865; Rev. Matthew- B. Riddle, 
D. D., 1865-1869; Rev. Cornelius Bretle, D. D.. 1870-1873; 
Rev. F. V. Van Vianken, 1873-18S0; Rev. John A. Davis, D. D., 
18S0-1889; Rev. A. J. SuUvian. 1890-1891 ; Rev. John S. Allen, 

The present pastor began his work in October, 1892, with a 
new church but a heavy debt of some $15,000. This debt was 
raised, and the Christmas bells of 1895 rang in a free church. 

The church is a model of architectural grace and is finished 
in pressed brick, trimmed with brown stone. It has a large 
auditorium -with a seating cajiacity of over 700. The acoustic 
qualities are perfect. 

The founder of this church, through whose efforts it was 
established, was the Hon. William H. Kirk, who for nearly fifty 
years was an officer and leader in the w-ork of this church. 

Foremost among the supporters of this church is Mr. Joseph 
S. Mundy, to whose generous gifts the success of the church is 
largely due. 

The church, through the Richard's Trust Fund, maintains 
an industrial school on Clover street. 




IN 1839. Kf\". K. A. I'U'iJichmaiiii l)t-L;aii to prtai li tu tlu- 
Germans of Newark, and made the i)eginning of what was 
to becoine the First German Baptist Churcli Those who were 
converted at that time, liecanie memlu-rs of English churelies, 
until the German church was formally organized in i<S4<;. ]\ev. 
S. I'Cuepfer became the tnst pastor. He ser\ ed the church until 
1 85 1, when he was succeeded by Kev. A. Hueni. At that time 
the church had only thirty members. After a successful pas- 
torate of four years he resigned, leaving the church with .1 mem- 
bership ol hft\ -eight. In 1S56. a call was extended to Rev. C. 
I'xidenliender, who served the cluu'ch for five years. 

IJntil i.sru. till' work suffered greatly for want of a house of 
worship, the I lunch having met in rented rooms often unfavor- 
ably located. At this time, the German Presbyterians on 
Mercer Street (now loc.ited on .Morton street) offered their edi- 
hce for sale. This was purchased and repaired, and served as 
a house of worshi|) untd 1874 In 1862, Re\. |. C. Haselhuhn 
accepted the call of the church. He rem. lined until 18G9. and 
the church greatly increased in numbers. During his pastorate 
a mission was started in the 12th ward, which subsequently 
became the Second Gerni.m IJ.iptist Chun h, cor. Niagara .mil 
Paterson streets. 

The next jxistor was Rev. ]{. Trunipf). During his pastor.ite 
the present church edifice was built Rev. G. Knobloch served 
the church for fifteen and .1 half \ ears. The present pastor 
(18971 Rev. F. Niebuhr, has been with the church since 1892. 
The church is in a prosperous condition, having a membershi]) 
of 277. A lady missionary. Miss C. Kraft, works in connection 
with the church. The board of trustees consists of the follow- 
ing members : A. ISuerm.uin. President; J. Klausmann. Secre- 
tar\ ; J. J. li. Mueller. Treasurer ; C Huber. G. Bauer. I'C. 
Schmidt, F. Nuse, The church has two Sunday Schools, of 
which, II. I). \'ogt is .Superintendent; F. Sorg, Vice-Suixrin- 
tendent ; H. ,S;iuerm.inn. .Seciet.irv. 'Ihere is also ;i Woman's 
Society. i\lrs. J. Kl.iiism.inn. President ; Mrs. J. Nenninger. .Sec- 
retary ; Mrs. C. Huber, Treasurer. A Voung Peoples' Society. 
H. D. \'ogt. If esident ; E. Wohlfarth. Vice-President; A. Mar- 
t|uardt, Secretary; C. I'Coos. Treasurer; ;ind a Society of Willing 


Workers, of which. Miss E. Wohlfarth is leader. Mr. J. Zim- 
mermann is organist of the church and Mr. D. Alt. leader of 
the choir. 


IN 1830. .1 Sunday School was organized l)y Mr. Thomas 
Webb, in his foundry house, a building then standing" on 
lower Ferry Street. Soon after, the school was removed to a 
Union chapel erected at the corner of Bowery and Ferry Streets. 
A number of the teachers were members of the Second 





Reformed Church then under the jiastoral care of l)i-. 
G. Abeel. The Union enterprise not proving a success. 
the Second Reformed Church assumed its support and 
I, ire. In 1859. a frame chapel was removed from 
McWhorter Street to a lot on Ferry Street, given by Miss 
l-.lizabeth Richards, a teacher in the school, who took a 
L,irat interest in its success. At her death a generous 
hi quest of some two acres of land to the Second Re- 
formed Church, for chmxh purposes, made permanent 
the enterprise. In Oct.. 1S69. a ])etition with twentv- 
fi\e names signed thereto, was presented to the classis 
of Newark, asking for the organization of the East 
Newark Reformed (Dutch) Church. The Classis ap- 
pointed as a committee for that purpose, the Rev. Drs 
G. Abeel, E. V. Terhune and elder Aaron Baker. On 
October 27, KS69. the organization was effected and its 
first consistory with two elders. Nelson Jacobus and G. 
L. Van Emburgh, and two deacons, Nathanial Richards 
and J. H. Joroloman ordained. On Dec 1 5, 1869. the Re\ . 
I. P. Brokaw. a graduate of the New Brunswick Senii- 
naiy, was ordained and installed pastor. 

At the meeting of the general Synod in this citv. June, 
1870. tlie corner-stone of the present structure was 
laid. In the the early spring of 1871, the church was 
finished an.! dedicated. The congregation has been 
ministered to by seven pastors: Revs, I. P. Brokaw, 
C. R. Blauvelt. C. H. F. Kruger, Theodore Shaffer, I). I'reyer, R. P. Millekin and J. N. Morris (1897), the 
present incumbent. Two of these Revs, C. H. F. Kruger 
and R. P. Millekin. died in its pastoral service. By 
■ onsent of the Classis the name has been changed, and 
the church is now incorporated under the name of Trinitv 
Reformed Church. Its present membership is nearly 
200, and its Sunday School, superintended bv Mr. VVm. 
Jacobus, numbers over 400. The primary department, under 
the direction of Mr. William Jacobus, forms a promising 
feature of the church work. The societies are Ladies' Aid 
Society. Young Peoples', S. C. E. and King's Daughters. 




THE church was organized under the preaching of Bishop 
G. D. Cunmiings, of Pennsylvania, a pulpit orator of re- 
markaole power. His first sermon was preached in Association 
Hall, to a large congregation assembled from nearly all the 
churches in Newark, but more 
es|)ecially from the Protestant 
Episcopal denominations. The 
congregation increased rapidlv, 
many of the Episcopal brethren 
leavingthe mother church, and cast- 
ing in their lot with the reformed. 
The writer of this article well re- 
members the occasion, when the 
elo(|uent man held forth, and him- 
self listened to the foundation 
sermons. u|)on which was estab- 
lished this now large and influen- 
tial church. It is a little more 
than twenty years ago, when Dr. 
Howard Smith was settled as 
p.istor over the little tlock. which 
had gathered around the standard 
set u]) by the Bishop. On Oct. 1 1, 
1876. the corner-stone of their first 
church was laid at 76 Halsev Street, 
and the church was opened for 
service March 4, 1877. Here the 
congregation worshipped and grew 
in membership and in strength, 
imtil the little church became too 
small and inconvenient. The fare- 




well was taken of tlit- old church 
iin February 19. 1895. ami the 
estate sold to Hahne iS; Cn. On 
|uly -2. 1S95. the\ laiil the 
enrner-slone (il their beautiful 
and innuuodious new churcli 
building at the ciirner nf Bmad 
Street and Fourth Avenue. The 
new Emnianual Reformed 
Church building cost about, and stands a niontuuent 
lo tlie ^eal and perseverance of 
.1 dun eh niiMubersliip, as devoted 
as any in the cil\' of Newark, or 
county of Fsse.\. 

With such determined Clirist- 
lan snirils at the helm, .ind such 
cjiefnl business men to manai^e 
its Ihiancial affairs, it is little 
x\onderth,it the conijregation is 
])r.ictically nut of debt. The 
builclini; cnnuuiltee consisted of 
Kev. John iJennis. M. D,, 
Georsje C. Miller, C. \V. D(jui>las, 


William Selby. K. C. Greason. J, H, Wriyley and E. W. 
Hammer. The Emmanuel Reformed has had but four rectors. 
Rev. Dr. Howard .Smith, l-iev E B. England. Rev. John Dennis 
M. I), and the present rector (1S97), Rev. Geo. Savary. liishop 
W. R. Nicholson, of the .Synod of New York and Philadelphia, 
formally a rector of Trinity Chmch, preached the dedicatory 
sermon. The fellowship meeting of the latter occasion was 
most interesting, and was attended by a lar,ge nuud)er of the 
evangelical clergymen of Essex County. 

The new church building, which appears .nnong the illus- 
trations, was built from the drawing furnished b\ I'hilip Henry 
and Waller G. E. Ward, the architects employed. The build- 
ing is of the medi;eval style (jf architecture, and is constructed 
of lime stone with the base of Belleville brown stone. 
A ninety loot tower surmounts it upon wliich is to be placed 
a clock It a seating capacity in th( main auditorium of 
four hundred, anil a gallery acconmiod.iting one hundred. The 

KEV. J. S. ALl.EN. 

.Sunday School rooms are separated In' sashes, which can be 
slid back thus doubling the seating cap.icitv. In the basement 
is a dining room and kitchen furnished with all the modern 
cooking utensils. The heating is done on the direct radiation 
plan. Fresh air from outside is furnished every twelve minutes, 
by a large fan driven by a dynamo. Electricity will be used 
to light the church, as well as to furnish power for the great 
organ. The Rev. Dr. Savary, a man of eloquence and pul])it 
power, continues to occupv the sacred desk and is the idol 
]),istor of a de\'oted and working congregation. 


IN June, 1S63, through the efforts of the Re\. J. C. H.isselhuhn 
and several members of the First Church on 
Mercer .Street, the Second German Baptist Chtirch was founded. 
.\ private dwelling house in the twelfth ward was rented, and 
a Sunday School was started with too children, 16 teachers and 

officers. 'I'he good work pro- 

,gressed, and willi the .lid of the 

City Mission Bo.uil, a neat little 

cha|)el was erected corner Niagara 

.md Patterson Streets, and the sei- 

\ ices of Rev. A. Tr.inschl were 

t'liyaged. After three )ears ol 

f.iithful labor, he was succeeded bv 

the Kev. J. C. Kraft, who was 

c.dledto the church in 1867. Under 

his pastorate, and with the .idvice 

of the City Mission Board, the con- 
gregation was organized as an in- 
dependent church on April 2.S, 

1875, Rev. J.C. Kraft liecoming the 

liist regular installed p.istor. He 

worked earnestly for the success of 

Ihe church, and during the eleven 

ve.irs of his pastorate did much to 

uplift those committed to his care. 

He was succeeded bv the Re\ . John 

Jaeger, a student .u the .Semin.iry 

of |Kochester, New 'N'ork, who 





labored with the church for nearly two years. In 
1884, Rev. William Sciiuff took charge, and labored 
for about eleven months. He was followed by the 
Rev. A. Brandt, who served the church faithfully 
for the period of seven years. In January, 1893. 
the church extended a call to Rev. C. Schenk, 
the present pastor, under whose able management 
the new and elegant brick church edifice, which 
appears among the illustrations, was erected and 
dedicated December. 1895. Rev. C. Schenk is un- 
tiring in his efforts to promote the welfare of liis 
people. There is a Young Peoples' Society con- 
nected with the church, and a Sunday School, o\er 
which Mr. William Pfennig is the Superintendent. 
The present trustees are August Buermann, John 
P. Gerber, Philip Renter, William Pfennig and Jnhu 


THIS Church, as its name indicates, was organ- 
ized chiefly for the children of German 
Lutherans, though its work is not confined to 
them. But its special object is to reach that large 
nuniljer of English-speaking Germans and their 
cliildren, who otherwise must be deprived of the Gospel as 
taught in the Lutheran faith. 

The church was organized in iSStJ, and for years worshipped 
first in the old Library Hall, and then at 870 Broad street. 
Finally the congregation grew bold enough to attempt to secure 
a property of its own, and so came into possession of the 
beautiful and churchly structure on Mercer street, near High 
street. The church was dedicated May 19. 1895. 

Since the congregation has been in its new building, the work 
has been very successful. Rev. M. S. Waters is the pastor 
of the church. He came to New.Trk from Indiana, taking 
charge of the work June 3. 1893. 




THE oldest of the German churches of Newark is the above 
named church. Already in the year 1827, attempts were 
made by the Evang. Lutheran Ministerium of the State of New 
York to organize a congregation in Newark ; but this was not 
accomplished until October 10, 1833, when Rev. Dr. F. W. 
Geissenhainer, of New York, organized St. John's, with thirty- 
one communicant members, in a hall on Harrison street, which 
then constituted that portion of Halsey street between Market 
and William streets. The young congregation was served by 
the Revs. L. Smith and Phil. Merkle until December, 1835. 
About two months later. Rev. Prof. Winkler became the pastor 
of St. John's. During his time the services were held in a hall 
corner Market and Beaver streets. Rev. F. G. Maschop suc- 
ceeded him as pastor in Newark. Under his pastorate the con- 
gregation built a new church and parsonage on Mechanic 
street, the consecration of which took place on November 10, 
1840, being the 357th anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther's birth. 

Things went on smoothly and prosperously until the year 
1845, when, through the domineering ways of the pastor and 
his adherents, disturbances were raised in the congregation 
leading to a law-suit, which lasted fully ten years, finally being 
decided in the year 1855, in favor of those members of the con- 
gregation remaining true to the New York Ministerium. The 
interest of the gradually diminishing congregation was faith- 
fully looked after by the Hon. Frederick Frelinghuysen, the late 
United States Secretary of State. In order to defray the 
e.xpenses of the law-suit, the congregation had to sacrifice its 
whole property. 

Already, in the year 1S53. Rev. Maschop had resigned. His 
successor. Rev. L. Seybold, endeavored to stimulate the stricken 
congregation unto new zeal and courage, but he had a hard 
task before him. After two years' service he severed his con- 
nection with his flock, which extended a call to Rev. H. 
Raegener. He occupied St. John's pulpit only five months, 
when he entered new obligations in New Y'ork City. The con- 
gregation remained vacant only two months. 

In March, 1856, Rev. C. A. Ebert was installed. Through 
his efforts the congregation thrived to such an extent that the 



.-*■' • iST 


JdIiu's First (leriiian Evanj;eli(al Cliunh is very bright and 


AKOLIT 1840, Rev. Edniund S. Janes (afterward Bisliopi 
came over from Orange, where he was then residing, 
and began to hold services according to the usages of the 
Methodist Eijiscopal Chui-ch, in tlie old brick academy on 
Clinton avenue, in frvington. The organization of the church 
occurred in 1S45. It was associated with the church at 
Middleville (now Hilton, M. J.l and the charge was known as 
■• Irvinglon and Middleville " until 1S67. when Irvington was 
set off by itself. In the following year, however, the two 
churches were again united, and this union continued until 
1S70. Since this date Irvington Methodists ha\e not been con- 
nected with any other congregation. 

Upon the organization of the Church in 1845 

present church building on Halsey 
street, opposite Cedar street, could 
be purchased. Rev. Ebert lesigned 
in 1867 and Rev. Phil. Krug be- 
came his successor. He labored 
very faithfully until his resignation, 
which occurretl January i, 1S93. 
after he had celebrated his 25th 
anniversary as pastor of St. John's, 
in October, 1892. 

On April t. 1S93, the present 
pastor. Rev. G. Doering, took pos- 
session of the charge. After pur- 
chasing a new pipe-organ in 1S94. 
at a cost of $2,000, the congre- 
gation was able to wipe out the 
remaining church debt of 84.000 
on May 1,1896. About 350 com- 
municant members contribute to- 
ward the maintenance of the Church, 
assisted by four energetic societies 
and a self-sustaining Sunday School 
with 175 scholars enrolled. It may 
well be said : " The future of St. 

P. McCorniick became pastor. He was succeeded in 1846 by 
the Rev. Robert Given, and in 1847 Mr. Given was followed by 
the Rev. Martin Herr. The Chmxh in Irvington was originally 
luiilt by the Episcopalians. It was sold at Sheriff's sale in the 
spring of 1847. It was bought by a Mr. Day, the holder of 
the mortgage, and at the suggestion of Bishop Janes, the prop- 
erty was purchased from Mr. Day by the Rev. Martin Herr for 
$1,000. The building was repainted, somewhat remodeled and 
subsequently rededicated by Bishop Janes. 

In 1848, the Rev. George Hughes, now editor of the Guide 
to Holiness, became pastor and remained for two years. He 
was succeeded in 1850 by the Rev. David Graves. The follow- 
ing year the Rev. James M. Freeman (now Dr. Freeman, the 
well known author and etlitor) preached in lr\ington. The 
Rev. John FauU became pastor in 1852 and was succeetled in 
1853 by the Rev. John White. The following year the Rev. 
J. C. Blain was appointed, and was succeeded in 1855 by the 
Rev. John H. Vincent (now Bishop), who remained two years. 


the Rev. John 





"^ .'- ^^^P^S 








The Rev. Matthias F. Swaini suc- 
ceeded Dr. Vincent in 1857, and the 
\\e.fX year John F. Hurst (now Bishop) 
became pastor and remained two years. 
In 1859, the Rev. Henry A. Buttz 
(now President of Drew- Theological 
Seminary) was appointed preacher-in- 
charge. He was succeeded in i860 
by the Rev. Edwin Day. The Rev. 
William M. Lippincott came in 1861, 
leinaining two years. He was follow- 
ed in 1 86 5 by the Rev. Charles R. 
Snyder. The next year the Rev. John 
Scarlett was made pastor, continuing 
his labors until 1866, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Henry M. Simpson 
(now Chaplain at Dr. Strong's San- 
itarium, Saratoga Springs, N. V.) 

The Rev. Robert B, Collins was 
.ippointed pastor in 1867, remaining 
two years when he was succeeded in 
1869 by the Rev. Jesse S. Gilbert, A. 
M., the author of several works of 




value. The Rev. Hamilton C. McBride (now a distinguished 
revivalist) came in 1870, and during his stay the present par- 
sonage was projected. 

In 1S71, the Rev. William I. Gill, the author of several phil- 
osophical works, became preacher-in-charge. and remained for 
three years. During his pastorate the parsonage was com- 
pleted. He was succeeded in 1874 by the Rev. James O. 
Rogers, who remained until 1877. His successor was the Rev. 
William R. Kiefer, who remained until the spring of 1879, when 
the Rev. Joseph W. Dally was placed in charge, his pastorate 
continuing until 1882. 

Succeeding pastorates have been as follows; 18S2-85, Rev. 
J. F. Andrew; 1885-S8, Rev. J. VV. Young (now Secretary of 
Committee on Apportionments of the Missionary Society); 
1888-93, Rev. S. K. Doolittle; 1893-95. Rev. Elbert Clement; 
1895-96, Rev. E. N. Crasto ; 1896, the present pastor, Rev. 
E. S. Jamison, A. M., Ph. D., was put in charge. 


PKO.MPTED by a love toward Gud and the extension of His 
cause, some ten or twelve brethren of the two Baptist 
churchs in our city, met on Dec. i, 1851, and held an initiatory 
meeting of a movement that resulted in the formation of the 
Newark Baptist City Mission. This Society in April, 1852, be- 
gan its labors by organizing two missions, one of which was in 
that part of the city known as the 5th ward lying east of the New 
Jersey, now the Penna. Railroad. Thus begins the history of 
the Fifth Baptist Church, with Revs. C. W. Waterhouse, Thos. 
G. Wright and D. T. Morrill, as missionaries successivelv. 
This mission growing in interest and numbers, a Council of 
Baptist churches was convened on March 26. 1855. as a result 
of which, the mission was then regularly organized into a 
church, with 55 constituent members and Rev. D. T. Morrill, 
as pastor 

Notwithstanding the disturbed condition of the times pre- 
ceding the Civil War this noble sacrificing band, together with 
the help of generous friends and the blessing of God, succeeded 
in erecting a very commodious edifice, and dedicating it on 
April 21, 1858. The general revival of 1857-8 resulted in one 
hundred and thirty joining the church by baptism. There have 
been other revivals since, nearlv as large. The total member- 



ship from March 26. 1855. to May i, 1896, has been 1,305; 
present membership, 320, The church property is in a good 
state of preservation having lieen e.\tensively remodeled in 1S72, 
and again in 1896. 

While this church has not been free from the various vicis- 
situdes incident to the church militant, yet they rejoice in having 
had no disruptions to mar its record and weaken its power. 
They have been signally blessed in having as under-shepherds, 
men of marked intelligence, purity and power, as follows r Rev:. 
D. T. Morrill, 1S55-69; Rev. D. C. Hughes, 1S69-74; Rev. 
G. A. Simonson, 1S74-82 ; Rev. H. B. Warring, 
1S83-90; Rev. C.E.Lapp, 1890-95; Rev. T. 
A. Hughes, 1895 — . The labors of these breth- 
ren have resulted in developing a constituency, 
which has contributed to the strengthening of 
all the other Baptist Churches in the city, and 
outside, and still continues to be a strong centre 
of influence and power. 


THIS Church owes its name to the fact, that 
it was organized in 1866. The corner- 
stone was laid by Bishop Janes, November 28, 
and dedicated by the Rev. James Ayers, July 14, 
1867. The Rev. A. M. Palmer, then city Mis- 
sionary, was the first pastor. He was succeeded 
bv the following; Revs. John O'Brian, Apiil. 
1868-9; H. C. McBride, 1869-70; R. B. Collins, 
1S70-73 ; E. E. Chambers, 1873-75; Charles R. 
Barnes, i875-78;-Chas. S. Colt, 1878-80; Joseph 
H. Knowles, 1880-; Stephen L. Baldwin, 1880- 
81 ; Chas- E. Little, r8Si-84; David B. F. Ran- 
dolph, 1S84-87; Warren L. Hoagland, 1887-92; 
and Winfield C. Snodgrass, the present pastor. 




TO the thoughtful and well-infornietl citizen of Newark, the 
white steeple of " Old Trinity in the Park," might seem to 
glimmer in a mist of interesting memories. It marks the spot 
whereon the founders of the church erected their first place of 
worship, over one hundred and fifty years ago. It is a reminder 
of the trying times of the l^evokilion ; for the more hot-headed 
of the local patriots visited a share of the general resentment 
of the people against their oppressors on the church and its 
parishioners on account of the latters' associalicm with the 
Church of England. The hostile demonstrations went so far 
as to necessitate the closing of the church and the retirement 
of its pastor, the Rev. Isaac Btovvn, from the towm. Subse- 
quently the edifice was used as a hospital for the sick and 
wounded of the continental army, during which ]5eriod a portion 
of the church records were displaced or lost. 

Previous to the pastorate of the Rev. Dr. Henderson, the use of 
the church building was graciously granted to the Catholics of 
St. John's parish, for the holding of a lecture, which was de- 
livered by the Rev. Dr. Power, of New York, for the benefit of 
their church. 

The record of Trinity Church, pastors and offuers. is truly 
Christian, and it will serve as a beautiful object lesson to all 
good citizens as long, no doubt, as the city endures. The 
parish is the outgrowth of the work of the Association for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, the oldest Protestant Missionary 
Society in existence, which was at that time under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Bishop of London. The religious services were con- 
ducted by the Rev. Mr. Brook, of Elizabethtown, who had 
charge of all the Ejiiscopal missions within a radius of fifty 
miles of his station, and w^ho began his labors in 1704. 

The Rev. Mr. Brook was succeeded by the Rev. Mr. 
Vaughan (1729), under whose ministrations the first church 
building was erected for the parish (1743-44.) The Rev. Isaac 
Brown, a graduate of Yale College, followed the Rev. Mr. 
Vaughan (17441, and his faithful ministrations extended over a 
period of thirty years. He founded at Second River, a mission 
w-hich is now known as Christ Church, Belleville. 

After the troubles incident to the Revolution the parish was 
reorganized under the rectorship of the Rev. Dr. Ogden, 1778. 
The following townsmen were elected officers : Uzal Ogden, 
James Nutman, John Robinson, David Rogers, Benjamin 



Johnson and Ebenezer Ward. The church building was reno- 
vated and refitted for divine worship, and Dr. Ogden fulfilled 
a successful ministration of twenty years. 

He was succeeded by the Rev. Joseph Willard. by whose 
efforts the present church edifice was erected 1809-10. The 
Rev. Dr. Louis P. Bayard became rector in 181 1, and during 
his seven years of care the membership of the parish showed a 
marked increase. In 1830, the Rev. Matthew H. Henderson, 
A. M., succeeded to the rectorship, and worked faithfullv for 
more than twenty-five years in advancing the interests of the 

Then followed : the Rev. Dr. Edmund Neville, 

Jm 1857; the Rev. Dr. John C. Eccleston, 1862; 

I the Rev. Dr. Watson Meier-Smith, 1866; the 

I Rev. Dr. W. R. Nicholson, 1872; the Rev. Dr. 

K William Willberforce Newton, 1875; and the 

„„ Wl Rev. J. Houston Eccleston, 1877. The Rev. 

J. Sanders Reed was appointed rector in 1885. 
and during his five years of incumbency he did 
much towards establishing the Girls' Friendly 
Society, the first organization of its character in 
the State, and other parochial agencies, which 
are effeclive for promoting the interests of the 

In 1890, the Rev. Louis Shreve Osborne, the 
present incumbent, began his labors in " Old 
Trinity." Since his advent the church edifice 
manifests great improvement, internal and ex- 
ternal. He is a man endowed with a genial and 
kindly nature, and the grace of human sym- 
pathy, qualities that never fail to impress 
strangers as well as his own people. 

Many of Newark's honored citizens have wor- 
shipped at the shrine of " Old Trinity." 




IN 1S24. the Rev. Gregory D. Pardow, of New 
York, organized under the patronage of St. 
John, the association of Catholics who founded- 
St. John's Church. It was designated St. John's 
Roman Cathohc Society of Newark, N. J. The 
first trustees were Patrick Murphy, John Sherlock, 
John Kelly, Christopher Rourke, Morris Fitzgerald, 
John Gillespie and Patrick Mape. The founder 
of the Church labored faithfully with the parish 
for eight )ears, and through his energy, tact and 
zeal, insured its success. He was followed by the 
Rev. Matthew Herard, October 7, 1832, and the 
Rev. B. RafTerty, October 13, 1833. 

On November 3. 1S33, the Rev. Patrick Moran 
was appointed pastor. He was eminently fitted for 
the place. He possessed good judgment, a refined 
and correct taste, and an educated mind. Under 
his able management, the affairs of St. John's ad- 
vanced rapidly, and his sterling qualities won for 
the congregation the confidence of their non- 
Catholic neighbors. Father Moran soon had a 
library of S50 volumes in circulation. He organized 
church societies, literary, temperance and benev- 
olent associations. He erected a school-house and 
arranged for the free instruction evenings of such 
as could not attend the day school. But his chief 
source of pleasure and pride was in his Sunda\ 
School, which he raised to a high degree of e.xcell- 
ence. Connected with it was a teachers' associ- 
ation, which was a model of its kind. 

The late Most Rev. James Roosevelt Bayley, I). 
D.. Archbishop of Baltimore, who was appointed 
i first bishop of Newark, selected Rev. Patrick Moran 
of St. John's, to be his vicar-general. After his 
death, w'hich occurred July 25, 1S66, the following 
was successively rectors of St. John's Church ; 
Rev. James Moran, nephew of the deceased rector, November, 
1866; Rev. Louis Schneider, November, 1S67: Rev. Thomas 
M. Killten, who built the new rectory adjoining the church, 
November, 1868, and did much for St. John's; Rev. Patrick 
Lennaid rerior in Decpniber. 1 87S. Rev. Louis Gambns- 

sT. jkhn's k. c. church. 

ville, who personally and with great care and labor re-wrote 
the church's record of births and marriages from the founda- 
tion to his time, and who was the second incumbent to die 

(January, 18921 ; Thomas 

laniinrv. 1S02. to Februarv 


E. Wallace, administrator, from 
27. 1892. and February 1S92, Rev. 
j. P, Poels, the incumbent. The 
assistant rectors were Rev. 
Fathers Guth. 1837; Farrell. 
1838: Bacon, 183S; Donahue 
1845; Hanahan, 1846; Callan. 
1S48: Senez. [849; Conroy, 1S52: 
McGuire, 1853 ; Tubberty, 1854; 
Casted, 1858; McCloskey, 1S60; 
livrne, 1861: Moran. 1863; 
Wiseman, 1867; Rolando, 1867: 
Nardiello, 1876; Whelan, 1878; 
Corrigan, 1879; White, 1882; 
McGahan, 1892; Fanning, 1S93, 
and Dooley, at present, l^ev. 
Father Poels, who is now rector 
of St. John's, is a man of great 
executive ability, and most zeal- 
ous ; and people who love the 
first Catholic church in Newark 
and cherish its memories, may 
rejoice that the parish has come 
under his care, for it already 
shows many signs of improve- 



meiit and of renewL-d life. His administration has been sij;nal- 
ized by a marked advancement of church affairs and an entire 
renovation of the churcli property. 

The history of St. John's is in very fact the history of Catho- 
licity in New jersey. The " mother of all the churches " of the 
diocese; from her sanctuary have gone forth several zealous 
and exemplary missionaries to prop.agate the faith, and among 
these may be mentioned Most Rev. Michael Augustine Cor- 
rigan. ]). IJ., Archbishop of New York; the late Very Kev. 
James II Corrigan. for several years vice-president of Seton 
Hall College; Rev. George W. Corrigan. of Faterson, and the 
Rev. Martin O'Connor, of I'eoria, 111. 


THI.S Church, formerly the Second Reformed, was purchased 
for the use of the Italian Catholics of the city, by the 
advice .ind with the aid of the Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger, and the 
learned and energetic Father Conrad M. Schotthoefer, D. I.)., 
became its first rector. He was succeeded by Rev. p'ather Ali. 
a convert from Mohammedanism, who was a zealous and faith- 
ful priest, but he died within a year of his appointment to the 
care of the parish. 

The present incumbent, the Rev. F.ither Ernest D'Aiiuila. is a 
graduate of the Seminary of Termoli lioiano St. Catherine, 
Alexandria, ligypt. He also studied at the Seminary of Saint 
Joseph, Smyrne, Asia Minor. Besides being learned in his 
sacred profession, es|)ecially as to canon law, he is an accom- 
plished musician, having taken a seven years' course in music at 
N.iples. Italy. He is especially proficient with the piano, llute, 
cornet and organ. 

His sister is a valued assistant to the reverend Father in his 
labors, as she has drawn about her a class of sixty-five of 
the children of the parish, whom she daily instructs in the 
elements of education. In this laudable work she is fortunate 
in having the assistance of Miss Victoria Richmond, a daughter 
of Dr. John B. Richmond, who gives her services three 
times a week to the school on instructing the chiltlren in 
English. Miss Richmond is a gifted and accomplished linguist 
and has acquired a wonderful proficiency in the Italian language 
in a short space of time. 

Under Father D'Aquila's rectorship, the Church of our Lady 

of Mt. Carmel 
shows great 
im provement, 
both in the 
character and 
growth of the 
attendance of 
devout wor- 
shi])pers and in 
the improve- 
ments and em- 
which have 
been wrought 
in the edifice 
itself, Tlie 
most indiffer- 
ent observer 
cannot fail to 
note that the 
worker is in 
love with his 
W(jik, and that 
KEV. E. D'AQUiLA. he is animated 


in all of his undertakings, with the spirit of the Master. 
A novel feature of the services of the church consists in 
that they are conducted in a modest way, after the Italian style 
of elaboration and display. This feature is attractive to the 
parishioners, as it recalls the life in their beautiful fatherland, 
and revives an interest in the religious observances of their 
youth, which perh.ips under the asperities of existence in a new 
world, was beginning to wane. 

Father D'Aquila began his labors in America by organizing 
the Italian parish of St. Anthony in Elizabeth, and erecting a 
church of the same name, in addition to his charge in this 
city, he has also erected the Church of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel, in Orange, for his countrymen, which has furnished 
another illustration of his successful management of religious 

The accompanying illustration of the church edifice shows it 
to be a pleasing structure architecturally, from an exterior point 
of view, and its very central location bids fair to make it in the 
course of time, a very large and prosperous parish. The in- 
terior arrangements of the cliurch are excellent, and quite suited 
to the needs of the present congregation. Until the establish- 
ment of the Church of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, in 1890, the 
eastern section of the city afforded no accommodation for the 
many who resided there of Italian birth and the Catholic faith. 

The prosperity and ever growing condition of the parish is 
good evidence of the need of such a church, and under the able 
management of the present pastor, the future should have much 
in store. 

The church will have its effect for good among the Italian 
speaking people of the entire city in making them good Christ- 
ians, and thereby better citizens. Father E. D'Aquila has entered 
into a field of great usefulness, and he has the well wishes of 
the community in the performance of his good works. 




THISCluircli which, with its ornate and artistic interior and its 
beautiful and imposing exterior, is without doubt one of the 
linest editices dedicated to divine worship in Newark, is a mon- 
ument to a life's enthusiastic devotion to God's work, that of 
the late Father Gervais, and to the unassuming but effective 
work of his successor, the Rev. Father Cody. 

St. James' parish was organized in 1853. Through the efforts 
of the Rev. Father Senez, at that time rector of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, the site was purchased. The Rev. Father Allaire 
was put in charge of the new parish, and on June iS, 
.1854, the corner-stone of the old brick church, which is 
still standing, was laid by the most Rev. James Roosevelt 
Bayley, first bishop of Newark. This building was completed 
under the Rev. James Callen, who succeeded Father Allaire, 
and was dedicated the following November. It was of three 
stories, and the upper one was reserved for school purposes. 
Father Callen, was succeeded by the Rev. Father Gervais, 
(1861). leather Gervais was a man with a character pro- 
nounced and original almost to eccentricity. If his mission 
was to build grand and costly structures for the glory of God, 
he certainly carried it out with an energy and a success, and in 
an adverse condition that were extraordinary. Up from midst 
the humble homes of hard working wage-earners, rose imposing 
structures — church, hospital and convent — as if from under a 
magician's hand. 

And the inspirer of these great works was going about in 
worn out shoes from door to door of his flock, collecting funds 
for his enterpises, or w-as assisting in the manual labor of the 
builders. In July, 1863, the corner-stone of the present com- 
modious church building, which is built of dressed brown stone 
from the old quarries on Eight Avenue, this city, was laid, and 
three years later, June 17, 1866, in the presence of the largest 
concourse of people that had ever assembled in that section of 
the city, it was dedicated to divine worship, most Rev. Arch- 
bishop Bayley officiating at both events. 

The strain of his responsibilities proved too great for Father 
Gervais, and July 24, 1872, he went to his reward. The Rev. 
Father M. E. Kane, his assistant, took charge of the parish until 
the appointment of the regular pastor, the present incumbent, 
Rev. Father Cody, (January, 1873). Under the latter's able 
management the unfinished buildings which cover the entire 

block bounded by 
Elm, Jefferson 
and Madison 
Streets, the hos- 
pital with its ap- 
pointments and 
the church with 
its graceful and 
massive steeple 
have been com- 
pleted. .A chime 
of ten bells (the 
largest weighing 
over three thou- 
s a n d ]) o u n d s) 
which is judged 
to be the finest in 
the State has been 
placed in the 
church tower. In 
addition to this 
noble instrument 
REV. J. M. GF.KV.MS, (deceased). a still greater one 

i J" 

ap; -.i I LA UTJ- 


has been built in the church, in the grand organ, which is also 
the finest in New Jersey. The brown stone buildings which 
cover the rest of the block, now. constitute the rectory, the parish 
school which has an attendance of 1,200 children and is abso- 
lutely free, a convent for the sisters of charity, and a hospital, 
which was opened in the fall of 1896. Since the advent of 
the Rev. Father Cody, all the affairs of the parish have pros- 
liered. Church 
societies are num- 
erous and large, the 
circulating library 
of the church con- 
tains over 1,500 
volumes, and in 
general the relig- 
ious wants of the 
parish are studi- 
ously looked after. 

Father Cody can • 
have for the rest of 
his life, the proud 
satisfaction that he 
has brought to a 
glorious completion 
what might have 
been to his people, 
in less able hands, 
an unrealized 
dream, rev. p. coli\ . 




WU1;N the people of this 
countrv liad won their inde- 
pendenre from British tyranny by 
the arbitrament of tlic sword, and 
achieved the rii;lit to reiiresentation 
among tlie nations of tlie earth, the 
wise men who framed the Consti- 
tution of the United States, incoi"- 
[lorated within the provisions of 
tliat golden instrument, the broad 
and comprehensive decl.iration that 
Congress should make no law re- 
garding " the establishment of re- 

I!\ this is was decreed that re- 
ligious freedom was ever to be a 
necessary part of that personal 
liberty for which tlie early patriots 
struggled and fought. 

Thus it was that America became 
known and designated throughout 
the world as " the land of the free 

and the honie of the bra\r." This proud title was somewhat 
obscured until about thirty-three years ago. when President 
Abraham I^incoln. in the midst of a fearful struggle for the 
perservation of the Union, issued his famous proclamation sun- 
dering the shackles from millions of human slaves, and removed 
forever the foul blot that obscured the country's glorious title. 
Since the adoption of the constitution its scope has been broad- 
ened by several amendments, made necessary by the require- 
ments of a growing population and an increasing civilization; 
but the fundamental provisions guaranteeing religious freedom 
has endured without change, and will always remain as long- 
as this people exist as a free nation. F.ach year sees an influx 
of natives from e\ery country in the wculd, who have somehow 
heard that .-Vnierica is the land of great opportunities ; that here 
they can live as they choose, so they do it honestly, and that they 
can worship whom or what they will, without lei or hinderance, 
or can proclaim their disbelief in any religion and deny the ex- 
istence of any deity whatsoever. Hence it is that at the present 
time, in this grand country, with perhaps a population of seventy- 
five millions of human creatures, while Christians of various 
denominations predoiiiinate. Hebrews worship God in their 
Synagogues, the humble native of the Celestial Kingdom bows 

down to his little gods in the Joss house, and the faithful 
Moslem sends up his prayers to Allah when and where he 
pleases. Each has his own peculiar form of worship, and 
carries it out peacefully, without interference from the other. 
The wonderful diversity of religious worship is nowhere more 
strikingly illustrated than in this great industrial city of Newark, 
whose complex population of perhaps two hundred and tifty 
thousand souls includes people from every land under the sun. 
Here in this great manufacturing centre of the new world, where 
the operations of trade and industry assume grand proportions, 
and millions of money is invested in vast business enterprises, 
the few are engaged in a mad pursuit of greater wealth, the 
toiling masses follow the unchanging tread-mill of labor, yet at 
the end of each six days the clink of the hammer and the buzz 
of the saw is stilled, and the doors of the factories, shops and 
banks are closed. 

Then, with the coming of the day of rest, rich and [loor alike 
are free to seek religious instruction as they may choose. There 
is no lack of opportunity, for there are numerous houses of 
worship and plenty of religious teachers. In no city in the 
are there 


to be found more devoted min- 
isters ; men noted at home and 
abroad for their scholarly at- 
tainments, broad philanthroiiy 
and faithful devotion to their 
labor in their various fields. 
Each sect or denomination have 
able and distinguished repre- 
sentatives, whose life-work 
would form a very interesting 
subject for comment, but this 
being an illustrated work, we 
are content in beautifying its 
pages with the life-like photos 
of a few of the many divines of 
Newark, whose names and ser- 
vices as well, are identified with 
the many public and private 
charities of the city, and few 
men have done more for mor- 
rality and good citizenship. 





THE parish of St. Bri(l;.:;et was founded in 
1887 liy the Rev. Michael J. Wliite. 
who was assigned to the task by the IJisluip 
of the Diocese of Newark, Rt. Rev. W'iUiani 
Wigger, D. D. Father White was at that 
time an assistant priest in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral. He entered upon his new field 
of labor and for the first time offered up the 
holy sacrifice of the mass in the chapel now 
used as a school-house, on Sunday, April 3, 
1887. The corner-stone of the neat and 
elegant structure which appears in the illus- 
tration was laid by Bishop Wigger on Sun- 
day, October 18, 1S91, and through the 
untiring and energetic efforts of Father 
White the church was completed and, in the 
presence of the Governor of this State, Hon. 
Leon Abbott, the Mayor of the city, Hon. 
Joseph E. Haynes, with other State and city 
officials and a large congregation, was 
solemnly dedicated to divine worship by the 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger, on Sunday, June 
12, 1892. 

Father White is an accomplished and highly educated clergy- 
man and possesses good judgment. He established religious 
and benevolent societies in the new parish and surprised some 
of the older stewards in the vineyard with his rapid success in his 
new field of labor. After the death of Rev. Father Holland, of 
St. Columba's parish. Bishop Wigger transferred Father White 
to the rectorship of St. Columba's Church, in September, 1896, 
and there is no doubt but that his administration in the new 
field assigned to his care will be characterized with the same 
zeal and energy displayed in building up the former parish of 
St. Bridget's. 

The Rev. Father Carroll, who was formerly an assistant in 
St. Mary's Church, of Elizabeth, has been called by the Bishop 
of the Diocese to continue the good work commenced in the 
new field, and from all indications the new rector of St. Bridget's 
will fulfill the expectations of his superior. 

new charge. 



OTHING of the venerableness of great age clings about 
St. Aloysius'. Even the young men and women of the 
parish have seen the digging of the church's foundations, the 
erection of the superstructure and the establishment of the 
various church societies. It is as young as they are. They 
have grown with it and are closely identified with its jirogress. 
They can recall the time when the ground on which the church 
stands was almost part of the meadows, and when the only 
building of a character that spoke of Catholicity was old St. 
Thomas' school. 

In July, 1S79. Rt. Rev M. A. Corrigan, then Bisho|) of New- 
ark, appointed the Rc\. Father Fleming pastor of the new 
])arish formed from the north-east end of St. James' parish. By 
actual count resulting from a house-to-house visitation of the 
parish. Father Fleming found that he had 1,487 souls under his 
Under his enter- 


prising guidance matters had 
taken such a bright look that in 
October, 1879, he purchased 
eleven city lots, and in May of 
1880, contracts were made for 
the building of the new church. 
Work went ahead at a surpris- 
ing rate and the corner-stone 
was laid with ;ippropriate cere- 
monies on June 20, 1880. It is 
a handsome edifice of Belleville 
brown-stone, Gothic in style and 
in dimensions is 65 feet wide and 
137 feet long. Father Fleming 
died in January, 1892, after eigh- 
teen years of continuous labor, 
admired as a man, and beloved 
as a Priest. His successor was 
Rev. M. A. Mc Manus. He is 
still in charge and carrying to 
successful issue the good work 
inaugurated by the founder of 
the parish. 




NO theme which the writer ut Essex Countv, N. J., 
iLLUSTkATED, has touched— always excepting the chari- 
table institutions within her bounds — has taken a deeper hold 
than her church history. When the early settlers came on from 
Connecticut and made their homes upon a part of the plot 
of ground upon which now stands the great industrial city of 
the Western Hemisphere, they brought their church organiza- 
tion along, and the little town of Branford, from whence they 
came, was left without a church, except in name, until after 
several years of loneliness the people of the town joined 
hands and hearts and established a new church. Here in 
Essex County, then, flourished and steadily grew the trans- 
planted church, and among the stately oaks by the side of 
the Pasaick the people worshipped according to the dictates of 
their own conscience, there being none to molest or make them 
afraid. \\'e make the quotation fearlessly enough, for certainly 
had there been any fear on the part of the fearless settlers of 
our own beautiful county and now matchless city, their church 
historians would have doubtless hastened to write it down. As 
the reader no doubt understands how relentlessly some of the 
sister churches had been molested, and how they had been 
made afraid ; but with that we have little to do in the work in 

That the reader may have some satisfactory idea of how the 
churches have grown and prospered, our artists have taken no 
little pains in satisfying the collater that his true spiritual view 
has been carried out by the transference to these pages, illus- 
trative pictures of several of our churches. The old First 
Church, as it is now denominated, is rightly named, when it is 
understood that it was the first indeed. It will not be under- 
stood tiiough, we trust, that the First Church building was 
shipped over from Connecticut, but the congregation only, and 
it was they who constructed the first place of worshi]) or 
church building, on the site selected by that eminent divnie. 
Rev. Dr. Abraham Pierson, Deacon Ward and Judge Treat. 

Away back in i568 the first meeting-house was built and 
made to serve the purpose, not alone as a place of divine 
worship, but a place for the transaction of all public business 
as well. The little structure, with a frontage of about thirty- 
six feet and with a lean-to in the rear, was a mere mite of a 
church edifice, compared with the imposing structures with 
massive walls of marble or Essex County brown-stone, with 
towers mounting heavenward, in which their descendants 
worship in our day, the photo pen pictures of which adorn this 



book. Fur comparative purposes it might as well be stated, 
that when in 1669 there was a single church in Essex County, 
there is now more than two hundred places of worship, wherein 
people gather in acknowledgment of the fact that we are all 
children of one great Heavenlv Parent, to petition his omnis- 
cience and sing his praises. It must not be forgotten that tin 
early Essex church furnished from its divines the first presi- 
dent of Yale, Dr. Pierson, and the first president of our own 
Princeton, Dr, Iiurr, the memories of both of whom are revered 
by those great institutions of highet education. 

It may be said by some who wish to detract from then 
glories of'the past, that in the early day, when the churches of 
Newark, the capital citv of Essex County, furnished the pre- 
siding officers to these now world-renowned edu- 
cational institutions, they were in their infancy. 
We answer, yes, that is true, but there is an old 
adage, beautiful, and contains just as much truth 
when applied to the early conduct and giow'th of 
colleges and institutions of learning, as well as to 
the ideal tree, "Just as the twig is bent the tree's 
inclined." The truth should be told at all times, 
and while we take to it naturally, we cannot per- 
mit our recollection of the two college incidental 
facts to sever us. We are in somewhat the condi- 
tion of our Quaker friend, when he declared, with a 
merry twinkle in his eye, when speaking of the foot- 
ball record of these colleges: "It is my candid 
opinion that both have gone a trifle crooked," but 
he thought he could stand it. So can we. 

While the Quaker may have gotten close up to 
trouble, we have the way open to get out, since col- 
lege athletics have been introduced into the college 
learning curriculum since those good old first 
presidents handled the twig ; and if it has grown a 
trifle crooked through the influence of the heroic 



!atter-<l,iy football game, we can be excused by falling liack 
on the two prominent facts. When college athletics were 
first introduced as a leading classical sttuh', " 0]t\ Eli" had 
not a spot on his cheek, neither was he bald, and the "Tiger" 
hadn't any stripes at all. After all. Presidents Pierson and Burr 
are nut the only college officials which have gone out to other 
fields from the Essex County band of clergy, for few places 
indeed have been honored bv the presence of a more eloquent 
and belter learned body of pulpit orators, than have from year 
to year sown the good seed, and it would be a trifie strange if 
from among these some had been called, and the same is true 
that not only the few but many have been called away to the 
field of the stranger and to pastures new. 

To no pleasanter task could the pen of the writer be called 
than the work of naming the divines who have thus gone forth 
from among us, and of tracing their career and describing the 
battles they have fought and the victories won. To whatever 
held our clergymen have gone — whether educational or minis- 
terial, whether in obeyance to the command of the Master, 
"Go ye into all the world and preach the gospel to every 
creature." as missionaries to the heathen who are continually 
repeating " How could we believe, having never heard, and how 
understand without a preacher?" — they have fought the good 
fight and such victories won as to not alone satisfy all, but to 
delight the close, warm friends they left behind them. 

As it is no part of our duty to sing the praises of one and hoist 
him high on the feathers of our pen, but alone to do equal and 
exact justice to one and all, we shall, after calling attention to 
the results of illustrative work among the churches, say a few 
words by way of admonition where injustice has usurped the 
place of justice, where and how we think to the best of our 
judgment (not always infallible) there would be a fine place to 
let fall again the "scourge of small cords," sparing not any, 
whether standing in the pulpit or, Becket-like, clinging to the 
horns of the altar or sitting in the soft-cushioned pews away 
up or well toward the front. 

We are sincere in the belief that we make no mistake in the 
declaration that never before since book-making began, has 
there been introduced into any one volume a larger number of 
correct photos, illustrations of educational institutions, school- 
houses and churches than can be found between the lids of the 


ST. beneiuct's church, schi/oi, and rectorv, on 


book now being perused. As they number so few, indeed, who 
would question the propriety of the combination the writer has 
taken the liberty of keeping the schools and churches intact ; 
therefore, no further harm, if any, can accrue from its continu- 
ance. Taken as a whole, while the educators in the public and 
parochial school-rooms, the pulpits and Sabbath schools may 
not be any better prepared for the work than their brethren 
engaged in like callings in other places, we feel fully justified in 
challenging the world to produce their superiors. 

When we approach the pulpit we know that not an injustice 
is done to a single indiviflual anywhere, when the statement is 
made and placed upon record that for advances in learning, for 
depth of piety and for pulpit eloquence, taken as a whole, the 
clergy of Essex County are equal to the best. Did they always 
have their way, the thunder of that mighty eloquence which is 
kept at bay for reasons best understood by the possessor there- 
of, would be much oftener heard, and while the lions in sheep's 
would do a 
little less of 
that quiet 
roaring that, 
we regret to 
say, keeps 
so many 
hungry souls 
away from 
the sanctu- 
ary, for the 
reason that 
the wool in 
the soft coat 
so many 
wear is all 
ex hau St ed 
and there is 
not enough 
left to make 
garments fit 
for those 
poor souls 
who hunger 
and thirst sj. leo's k. c. church, irvincton. 



after righteousness, to wear in the august presence 
of such as judge the man by the coat he wears. 
Just here we must let out the secret why so many 
of our eloquent (hvines all over the comity are com- 
pelled (the word is spoken ad\'isedly) to preach 
to empty seals just because the poor man. through 
the inHuence of some cause or another — it may be 
the garb he wears — and having, perhaps, been 
unwittingly taught not to " rub up agin " the broad- 
cloth his rich neighbor wears. There is no l)etter 
place in the world to set forth the prescription 
which will go as far as anything known to the 
author toward effecting a cure of the non-church 
attendance evil among the people, and here we 
record it. vi/., educate the people to the belief that 
they, in nine cases of every ten, are mistaken, and 
tiien let pew-holders and regular church attenders 
observe toward each [iian, woman or child which 
approaches a church door, such a pleasant de- 
meanor as to attract and not repel. It is tlv 
little tilings, the trilles, which govern people's 
actions in this world, and especially is this the case 
where they assemble, presumably to love each other 
and to worship Almighty t'lod. When they come 
together, let all observe the kindliest and mosi 
lesiiectful .itlilude. one toward tiie other. 

Let one. and that one onl\-. on .1 second or tlnnl 
[iresentation. be the inhillible lule - ele.uiliness. 
There is no subject where there is a grealer 
degree of sensitiveness. It matters not if the 
garment worn is patch upon p.itcli .uid worn lo ,1 
thread ; that must be a ni.itler of luile thought, 
but cleanliness of person must be wrought. To 
get at this sensitive point must be left to the dis- 
cretionary powers, wisdom and acutenessof those 
having each individual case in hand, or having the 
oversight in general. In oiu' opinion, the temporal 
pait of such an important work is far less than the 
whole, while the spiritual part, when taking the 
guiflance. will direct right, as in all things connected with the 
teachings ])romulgated by the I-'rince of Peace and saviour of 
mankind. If all church affairs, as well as temporal affairs, 
were conducted .and nian.iged on the tenets laid down in the 

golden rule, those 
dnisions, heart burn- 
ings and resentments 
so m u c h heard of. 
would peacefuUv sleep, 
while peace on earth, 
good will toward men. 
would continually in- 
cite both men a n d 
women to tl o unto 
others as tliev wotdd 
have others do unto 
them. As we are not 
of those who spend 
their time in looking 
for the millennium, we 
,ire not of those who 
believe that our lines 
will be followed as we 
have laid them out, but 
each can do a part. 
IRVlNtJTON El'i.scol-Al. Lll .-^ t'KL. There are those, but 


mostly outside of the beautiful inlluences of the Cliristi.m 
religion, who believe or profess to lielieve, that our Christi.iii 
ministers can and ought to do e\erytliing, even to the impossiblr 
work of making all evil doers go and work in the vineyard of 
the I.ord Now, while we wait for the coming of him who will 
soon right every wrong in and about his beautiful temples, as we 
are positively certain the great m.ajority of our ministers of tin 
gospel are now doing, and to assist in holding up their hands, 
we will extend to them, without regard to creed, denomination 
or belief, tiie best wishes of ESSEX County, N. J.. Illi^s- 


CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS OF ESSEX COUNTY.<_)U("iH the writer anti author should use up the 
farthest reaching vocabulary that he could command 
.ind make the work replete with racy and readable sketches of 
men .and things, making use with all his power of the dragnet 
for the procurement of material of the highest interest with 
which to hll its space, the work would not and could not be 
well done without giving its readers a glance, as they turn its 
pages, of those mighty institutions for good which stand with 
wide-open doors, in which tarry disciples of the " man of 
sorrows and who was acquainted with grief," and who, in His 
name, are calling, calling to the sick and afflicted, the poor 
and the needy, to come and accept their offerings of healing 
balm and the contents of bounty's hand. 



Even though our artists are showing sani]ilfs of 
their work at every turn, and speaking pictures of 
factories and public school buildings should speak 
of their skill and grandeur from every page, yet 
would the book be and remain an unfinished pro- 
duction had not the artists transferred to its 
pages beautiful and representative pictures of the 
great eleeymosynary institutions which dot the 
surface of the county and its mighty industrial 
capital city over with the grandest and best ever 
planned for sweet charity's glorious purposes. 

As space permits and such a tribute is due, 
we cannot do better than pay it in passing, since 
to the architect's genius and the photographer's 
and the engraver's skill we are indebted for the 
beautiful representative pictures which add so 
largely to the attractive and instructive character of 
the work. To the noble men and pure-hearted 
Christian women who have worked out tlie oppor- 
tunities and by their untiring efforts in the uprear- 
ing of these beautiful institutions, a deep debt of 
gratitude is due, and so long as the writer and 
collator of this work have the power, the tongue 
of praise shall never be stifled nor stilled till the 
debt is cancelled, so far as it is possilile for us to 
meet such a benign and beautiful purpose. While the majority 
of our institutions of charity are young in years, they have 
a majesty of purpose which makes them old when speak- 
ing comparatively of the work they have done. In every- 
thing we say or do these ought to be somewhere, so as to 
be easily seen or so adroitly concealed among a purposely 
entangled verbiage as to require the acute sense of a sleuth 
hound to search it out. 

As a reason for the youthfulness of our charitable institutions, 
is our close proximity to metropolitan New York, whose gates 
were ever wide open and the doors to her charitable institutions 
had no bolts but what were ready to spring back at our call. 
And thus it was that not until the necessity became all too 
glaring, so that every one who ran could read the handwriting 




on every wall, that our time had come. The writer remembers 
well the first "quiet hospital talks" which took place among 
several gentlemen who make old Trinity their church home, 
The venerable liuilding in which they worship, now occupying 
the same ground where it stood when the British officers and 
soldiers led their forces in and out, occupying the church as a 
stable — so generous were their natures and such reverential 
care did they take of our churches — using the pews as stalls, 
the rector's dressing-room and the vestry parlor for the storage 
of forage stolen frnni our farmers, satldles, harness and war 
paraphernalia, etc. 

Among these were the Rt, Rev, Bishop Odenheimer, the 
rector, Cortlandt Parker, Ur, William T, Mercer, Judge Young, 
J, D. Orton, Judge Gifford, W, W. Huffish, Daniel Dodd and 
others whose names cannot be recalled at this time. In short, 
from these "quiet talks'" grew the first hospital in New Jersey, 
the unexcelled .St. Barnabas', the story of whose struggles, 
failures, successes, hopes and triumphs will ever fill an exclu- 
sively interesting page in New Jersey's historical books. As 
before said. St. Barnabas' was the first working hospital estab- 
lished in New Jersey under legislative authority. The work 
was begun in 1865 in a sinall house on Wickliffe Street. The 
hospital became an incorporated institution on the thirteenth 
day of February, A. U. 1S67. The incorporators were, that 
Bishop beloved, the saintly William Henry Odenheimer, 
and the rectors and certain laymen selected from among the 
several Episcopal churches of Newark city. The charter de- 
clared the purpose of the incorporation to be the nurture and 
maintenance of sick, aged and infirm and indigent persons, 
and of orphans, half orphans and destitute children ; the pro- 
viding for their temporal and spiritual welfare, and the provid- 
ing or erecting a suitable building or buildings in which to carry 
on the proposed work. 

Not long afterward a gentleman bequeathed to the incorpora- 
tion the beautiful lots where St. Stephen's Church now stands, 
at the junction of Clinton and Elizabeth Avenues. In June, 
1870, the trustees purchased the finely located property, corner 
of High and Montgomery Streets. Here the work has been 
carried on ever since. A beautiful photo of St. Barnabas' 
graces page 143. 



St. Michael's Hospital, which is presented in llir 
illustrations on page 71, is one of the best ec|uippe(l 
institutions in the State of New Jersey, and some of 
the ablest and most distinguished physicians and 
surgeons of Essex County, have been identified 
with its medical and surgical staff. This institution 
w^hich is but little more than a quarter of a ceniury 
old. had to its credit on January 1, 1897. 93,086 
patients treated. St. Michael's is the largest 
hospital in the city and has a central location on 
the corner of High Street and Central Avenue- 
and has three hundred beds and. like her sisters, has 
all the necessary accessories and all the parapher- 
nalia of a first-class hospital. Even though St- 
Michael's is nominally a Roman Catholic institu- 
tion and the bishop of the Newark Diocese stands 
at the of its protecting Board of Directors, 
the hospital is nian.aged entirely by the Sisters 
of the Poor nf St. Francis, thirty-two in number, 
at the head of whom is Sister Perpetua Superior. 
Yet its doors are open to people of all creeds and 
nationalities. The key to its wards lies in the 
affirmative answer to the question, are you sick or 
afflicted? Lest we miglit neglect such an all-im- 
portant duty of paying a tribute to this noble order of women 
whose charitable work is gcing ceaselessly on all over the 
world, we will repeat on this ]).ige, and in the language of a 
Protestant Minister, who had been nursed by them and said, 
" The Sisters are an eminently holy and pious body of women." 

Among the hospitals of Essex County none stand higher on 
the roll than the German Hospital, which is presented in the 
illustrations on page 231, and like the other institutions of 
similar character, though young in years carries the honors of 
an ancient. It was incorporated February 15, 1868, and is 
maintained principally by the generous portion of the German 
American citizens of Newark, and has ever been conducted on 
the broadest principles of relief to the unfortunate, without 
regard to creed or clime. 

St. James' Hospital, shown on page 71, was to have been 
opened in the fall of 1896, but on account of the directors 
having been unable to secure a corps of sisters to undertake 
the management, it was posponed until this is accomplished. 


The Home of the Friendless, on South Orange Avenue, corner 
of Bergen Street, is another of the charitable institutions, a 
view of the buildings of which our artist has transferred to 
page 141, which is doing a marvellous work for good. It being 
of a three-fold character, its work takes on a wider range than 
the generality of charitable institutions. While the little ones 
are provided with home, food and raiment by the goodly women 
who never tire in doing the work of the Master, are gathering 
the little unfortunates in the fold thev have provided in the 
beautiful home. 

Never behind in good works, the city of Newark has marked 
an era in her progress by the establishment of a hospital, where 
the sick and afflicted may go and seek rest, and take deep 
draughts from the overflowing cup of healing balm, which will 
be held to their lips by the devoted hands of trained nurses, 
directed by the skill and understanding of the wise, pure and 
self-sacrificing among our best physicians and surgeons. 
•Although Newark was blessed with several good hospitals, yet 


the best thinking and more chari- 
tably disposed among our citizens 
(lecided it not unwise that another 
hospital where the sick and injured 
might obtain relief should be 
established. Fortunately the county 
asylum buildings which had been 
erected on city property were vacant 
and apparently waiting lor just 
such a blessetl purpose and inno- 
vation. So, as the people's repre- 
sentatives in the Common Council 
were ripe for the movement, the die 
was soon cast and the City Hospital 
established (see page 138.) 

This beneficent institution was 
upened for patients in 1S82, and 
incorporated in 1883. Since that 
lime its doors have been wide open 
to the indigent sick of all nationali- 
ties. The hospital is managed by 
the Board of Health, who meet once 
a month. From the Board of 





Directors a visiting committee of three mem- 
bers is selected to lool< after tlie executive 
work during tlie intervals. 

One of the noblest charitable institutions 
in Essex County, is the Eye and Ear Infirm- 
ary, located at No. 60 Stirling Street. A 
view of the building is shown in the combi- 
nation on page 72. The hospital was 
founded in February, 1880, for the gratuitous 
treat nifnt of the poor. 

The Hospital for Women and Children is 
situated on South Orange Avenue, in close 
pro.ximity to the Home of the Friendless, 
(see page 141.) 

St. Mary's Orphan Asylum was founded 
in 1857, on Central Avenue, then Nesbit 
Street, next to St. Patrick's Cathedral. by the 
most Rev. Bishop Bayley. In 1861 the 
orphan girls were removed to the house 
corner Washington and Bleecker Streets, 
where they remained until the orphanage 
was complete at South Orange, in 1865. 
Since then several buildings have been added. In 1876 a four 
story building was erected as an industrial school, to which the 
orphan girls are transferred when they are old enough to be 
taught domestic economy, shirt making, ladies' undergarments, 
dress making, etc. They receive daily, three hours tuition in 
English and become self-supporting. Children are received 
between the age of three and fourteen. At this age the boys are 
either sent to relatives or placed with responsible parties to 
earn a livelihood. At present there are one hundred and sixty 
boys, and one hundred and fifty-four girls, making a total of 
three hundred and fourteen in the house. While the asylum 
is under the protection of a Board of Directors, at the head of 
which is Rt. Rev. Bishop Wigger, of this diocese, the institu- 
tion is managed by the Sisters of Charity, fifteen in numbei. 



who have devoted their lives and talents to the service of God's 
helpless little ones. A photo is presented on page 142. 

Away back in 1848 the Newark Orphan Asylum, an organ- 
ization for the relief of orphan children was effected, thus 
making it the oldest orphanage in the county of Essex. A photo 
of the buildings will be found on page 72. It is situated at 
323 High Street, corner Bleecker. 

The Foster Home, a charitable institution, was organized 
March 28, 1S48, but a few days after the Newark home. It is 
situated at 284 Belleville Avenue, and receives children up to 
their tenth year. 

The Kreuger Pioneer Home was organized in 1889, its object 

being to provide a home for unfortunate and indigent men, 

and was founded by one of Essex County's wealthv citizens. 

Judge Gottfried Kreuger, whose honored name 

the institution bears. A photo of the home 

is presented on page 222. 

On page 70 may be seen a photo of St. 
Peter's Orphan Asylum and Kindergarten, 
which is located at 21 Livingston Street. 

Among other Charitable and Benevolent 
Societies, are the Newark Female Charitab.le 
Society, at 305 Halsey Street, founded 1803. 
(see page 139); Boys' Lodghig House, 144 
Market Street ; St. \'incent's Home for Working 
Boys, on Centre Street ; Home for Incurables, 
corner court and Shipman Streets ; House of 
the Good Shepherd and Home for the Aged, 
under the care of the Little Sisters of the Poor, 
on Eighth Street between Central and Sussex 
.Avenues. These eminently pious and holy 
women commenced their charitable work in this 
city in 1878 and by their zeal and unliving 
efforts, have succeeded in establishing a large 
and comfortable institution, where the aged and 
destitute of both sexes .are provided for. A 
\iew of the. home is shown on page 72, and 
though struggling with a large debt ihey trust 
in God, and rely upon a generous people to aid 
them in supplying the many wants of such a 
laige charity. Where true piety and woman's 
virtue leads the van, no wheel of progress which 
is touched by them shall cease revolving. 

i M^ 

f05T6f\ HOnt 

«^. Ill II. HJ ^ s 

I" pi ]q u i 


iJplUE sincerity of the love and respect which the 
niiihor of ESSEX CouNTV, New Jersey, 
I KA'IED, bears to the public schools and the 
l>ublic school system thereof, makes our approach 
111 these subjects the more difi'icult and trying, 
since along with our duty goes hand in hand the 
fear we entertain of doing even half-way justice 
to these themes. The first thought, as we lift 
the pen to write, is to ask the reader, as he scans what we have 
to say for and on behalf of the public schools, a kindly forbear- 
ance for any a|ipreciable shortcomings in our efforts to grapple 
successfully with this grandest of subjects, which can find a 
place among the leaves of this book, every page of which 
bears rcord of marvellous growth and wonderful prosperity 
of the county delineated. When we consider Essex County, 
geographically speaking, is it any wonder, we ask, that her schools 
have few equals, and when we make the declaration that there 
are no superiors, the fear that we shall be charged with egotism, 
finds no resting-place in our composition. 

Situated in one of the loveliest regions in the world, with a 
climate as equitable and health-giving as any in the United 
States, the cold winds of the winter months which come bowling- 
down from the north and west meet and mingle with the 
breezes from old ocean tempered with salt, make her winters 
delightful, and ere those cold waves w'hich have a wonderful 
habit of careering over the broad and beautiful prairies of the far 
away Dakotas and the broad savannas of Illinois, Kansas and 
Iowa, prepared for the journey by the frost king amid the bold 
rockies, the snow-capped mountain peaks of the Cascade and 
coast ranges, and which linger for weeks hesitating to cross the 
Alleghanies, holding high carnival among the coal mines and 
oil wells of the Keystone, of the Arch, the hills, valleys and 
farm lands of the Empire state, and dallying with those dehlahs 



of the midland belt, the great lakes, are shorn of their locks of 
hoar frost, lose far more than half of their strength, and ere they 
are ready to swoop down u|)on this region with a promise (by 
telegram from Chicago, St. Louis or St. 1-aul) to close down on 
the mercurv, and give all the east an extentled general freeze-up, 
its strength has died out under the genial influence 
of the warm exhalation from the gulf stream, and 
seldom has a reign of more than three days in 
length. More oft, the fizzle en route has been so 
complete, that scarce time is remaining to close up 
the pools and l>id malaria depart, ere they take up 
the home journe\ , gi\ ing kisses of love when ready 
to depart and w.iving back an adieu while they go 
ricocheting back to the safe retreat of the Teuton 
peaks, while the region (including Essex County) for 
fifty miles in all directions from New York's City 
Hall Park, knowing how fitful are his promises, are 
conqielled to keep on the alert for even a freeze-up 
of enough rain drops to set the sleigh-bells ringing 
,uid three days in succession good sleighing. 

Then, with a climate unsurpassed and a territory 
with double rock-ribbed environments, we approach 
the pleasant duty of giving a sketch of the public 
schools, with no small degree of personal pleasure, 
and with no fear of overdrawing the pictures of the 
educational institutions, or overstating the benefi- 
cent results accruing therefrom to the people. 
Since the first establishment of the free public 
schools a mighty change has been wrought in their 



character and the educational rcsuUs nlitained therelmm. The 
recollections of the writer go back to the time when in derision 
the free pubHc schools were denominated " ragged schools," 
and it took many years of time and many measures of dtt'iance 
of ptiblic opinion on the part of the institution's friends, to win 
the fight 1)V battling for the right 

After the first establishment of the free or public school plan 
of education for the masses, it required quite a quarter of a 
century to place it on a firm footing and solid basis. And e\en 
now it is safe to say that its friends built better than they knew. 
Prejudice against it, prn\ed the hardest barrier to surmount, 
but when the friends of public school education had robbe<l it 
of this terror the work easier. When in the begining the 

tinnal advantages under its wise provisions and unquestioned 
g(iod management, is the grandest and best ever devised. The 
rich have learned this one grand fact, that when their children 
.ire sent to public schools to rub against their neighbor's children 
th.\t they become acquainted and are ready to rub up against 
the world, and to stand the rebuffs in a far better manner thar 
when kept isolated. Many of our leading business men, lawyers 
|)liysicians and divines, now glory in the days they spent in the 
public schools. Education for all who will receive it, is the 
motto to-day, and few indeed are there who are not ready tc 
exclaim, "Long mav the banner of free schools wave." 

Outside of the citv of Newark and Orange, there are aboul 
forty schools in which all the children can. if the parents so wil 


cry was started, that its inventors had no idea of permitting anv 
but the ])ooiest of the poor to enjoy its .idvantages, it was hard 
to overronir, .ind while the rich and wrll-to-do s|)urned to 
accept its bendits. the niech.inic and artisan .ind those earning 
enough as the fruit of their labor to gain subsistence, preferred 
to let their children run the streets, rather than have them l)e- 
conie the .i^soci.iles of paupers, as they termed those who ac- 
cepted education from public sources Indeed, it was not until 
men of reason took the rostrum and eloquently pleaded its adop- 
tion, and ministers of gospel fired their anathemas against the 
foolish opposers of the system from their pidpits, that the 
masses finally awoke to a sense of right and <lut\ . .ind to-day 
the opposed and derided educational system of the past meets 
the approval of all classes of men in all positions of life, and all 
feel that the public school system of America, and the educa- 

it secure an education. Not alone are the element.arv brani In 
taught, but connected therewith, are high schools, where tin's 
pupils who have passed the grammar departments can have th 
ad\antages of an academic education, and be fitted for colleg 
if so desired. 

During the years 1 891-2-3 the writer of this was Count 
Superintendent of Public Schools, and is proud to bear evidenc 
as to the high character of the schools and teachers. Educate 
men and women, as pains-taking and self-sacrificing as an 
body of teachers in the land, and in devotion to their callin; 
they remain unchallenged. Elmer T. Sherman, now a resider 
of South Orange, is acceptably filling the office of Count 
Superintendent. The schools in the city of Orange are unde 
ihe care of Mr. U. B. Cutts. and are in a high state of efficient 
In the citv of Newark, where the veteran educator and efficier 


^lofficer, William N. Barringer, Ph.D., has been the 

' Superintendent for more than a quarter of a cen- 

tury, the piililic school interests are well and care- 

' fully adjusted, and closely looked after, and all their 

■interests closely watched. Her schools are under 
*|the direct care of a local legislative body, known 
'*;as the school board, or Board of Education, con- 

isisting of thirty gentlemen. Each of the fifteen 

■wards of the city has two representatives in the 
" I board, each elected for a term of two years. 

I Although there is a general determination among 
the people, and this is transferred to their repre- 
sentatives, to eschew politics entirely, yet the foot- 
, [prints of the party in power is seen when the 

lofificers of the Board are elected. The board as 
constituted at present consists of the following : 
William A. Gay, President; R. D. Argue, Secre- 
lary; Samuel Gaiser, Ass't Secretary; William 
N. liarringer. City Siperiiitendent; Geo. W. Reeve, 
Sitp't of Erection and Repairs; ist Ward, James 
A. Backus, James N. Arbuckle; 2d. Hugh P. Roden. 
Charles W. Menk; 3d, Charles L. Ill, George Saupe; 
4th, J. W. Read, Miles F. Ouinn ; 5th, M. B. Puder, 
Charles Clark; 6th, R.W.Brown, Edward Zusi; 
7th, H. M. Woolman, Charles M. Myers; 8th. 
John K. Gore, J. William Clark; 9th. A. N. Lewis, Walter T- 
Crane ; loth, David B. Nathan, Elmer E. Horton ; nth, William 
A. Ciay, William L. Fish ; 12th. J. J. Kronenberger, Thomas 
J. .Sinnott; 13th. Henry Ost, Henry P. Schott; 14th, Geo. F. 
Brandenburgh, Charles H. Sansoni ; 15th. Walter H. Clark, 
Walter H. Parsons. 

A full roster of the teachers in all the schools of the fifteen 
wards can be seen by a reference to the Board's annual report, 
copies of which can be obtained of the Clerk of the Board or 
any of its nienibers. There is not a question of a doubt but 
that the efficiency of the city's public schools is equal to any 
in the United States. The school age is fi.xed by statue at from 
six to twenty-one years of age. although very few enjoy the 
])rivileges after they have passed the age of seventeen. The 
writer once asked a young lad of sixteen why he did not go to 
school. His reply was," Oh Em too big." Of course he meant 
in stature. As a commentary on his answer, we should not 





hesitate to say, that some plan should l)e adopted by which 
young men and girls under twenty-one at least, should not 
think nor feel themselves too big for education getting. In the 
the night schools we find the glorious exception. In this grandly 
beneficent institution we often find both men and women striving 
to learn to read and write, some having' passed the meridian 
of life. One of the most interesting occasions of our necessary 
school visitations, was met at a night school in Montclair, where 
we found a class numbering (|uite half a hundred of men and 
and women, undergoing instruction, some of them with hands 
so stiffened with age and hard labor that the handling of pen 
or pencil was an extremely dilficult operation. Vet so strong 
was the motive for progress, and so bright was the goal to 
their vision of learning to read and write, they would laugh at 
their own clumsiness, and no mistake, however glaring, would 
act as a bar, or dampen their ardor, or cause them to flag for 
a single moment in their dogged perseverance. Could some of the 
youth who persistently refuse the advantages offered 
to secure the delightful boon of a good education, 
have been placed in the presence of some old colored 
man or woman who had wrought in the cotton 
fields or cooked the hog and hominy in the sunny 
.South all the years of their early life, and were 
engaged in the arduous task, with clumsy fingers, 
of learning to write or learning to read, with mental 
faculties long since dulled by the avarice or brutish- 
ness of others, we doubt not it would act as a 
balm for his wounds and likewise cure his desire 
for longer continued acts of truancy. 

Such have been the advances made in the methods 
of instruction, that the child takes learning as it 
were bv intuition. The Kintergarden, an exotic, 
to be sure transplanted from the German father- 
land, deals with the buds of our manhood and 
womanhood. Instead of the compulsory sitting on 
the hardest of benches and the wearisome dangling 
of tired little legs with the formal ABC ter die in- 
struction from the stern master and scientific handler 
of the birchen rod. and oaken rule, the little buds 
are taught to sing and play their lessons through, 



.111(1 then they grow .iml "row ami ihe tiim; slips 
merrily awav till as pii|iils growing on. llicy take 
their place in the primary grade, for .ill the public 
schools are graded; and thus the pupil is moved 
on and upward by regular steps, till ere he or she 
is thoroughly aware of the facts, the bud has 
grown on to be the unfolded leaf ami bloom, .and 
so easy seems the progress, the ripened fruit 
comes all too soon. 

Manual training has come to st.iy, and is as much 
a jiart of the education of our youth when lliey 
themselves, or their parents so elect, as any other 
branch of education. Not only are the boys in the 
enjoyment of this privilege of laying the foundation 
upon which m.ay easily be built the finished mechanic 
and artisan, but the young misses also privileged 
similarly in most respects, for they may learn to 
saw, plane, chisel, mortise and carve, and can learn 
to cook and sew. ISesides our youth m.iy 
learn in Ihe puljlic school, the doors of the Technii al 
School are thrown wide open to them through the 
generosity of the Newark City lio.ard of Trade, lliis 
now famous and (lopular institution being an out- 
growth therefrom. 'I'liere are many other schools, 
academies, etc., conducted by priv.ite ]5arties in 
the county, and Parochial Schools under the .'patronage of the 
Episcopalian and Roman Catholic Churches. These are .ill in 
a flourishing condition, being under the care of capable and 
painstaking ladies and gentlemen, who are an honor to their 
calling. That the reader of ESSEX CouNiv, N. J., ll.LUS- 
TR.\TK]i. may have opportunit\' to study the size and construc- 
tion of our school houses, the characteristics and merits of 
the teachers emploved, beautiful engr.uings of the mag- 
nificent structures devoted to school purposes will be found in 
its pages, with life-like photo likeness of manv of the leading 
teachers and those who have adopted Pedagogy as their pro- 
fession, and have made teaching their life work, many of the 
latter taking rank with the best in the land. Besides the photos 
of teachers and engravings of school buildings, a short sketch 
of the several schools will be fouml .iccompanying each, to 



which we trust they ma\' refer in the always expected to-morrow, 
or the anticipated day of leisure, as a souvenir of their early 
school days. 

That there will be a charm connected with this part of the 
work we have little tloubt, since no effort or expense has been 
spared in securing the material and data necessary to make it 
the ideal of excellence, and the acme of truthfulness in this all 
important ]xirt. 


THE Fifteenth Avenue .School building was the thought, and 
largely the result of Ex-School Commissioner John B. 
Oelkers. 'Ihe building is noticeable for its architectural attrac- 
tiveness and desirable appointments for school work. It is a 
brick structure with terra cotta trimmings, 
spacious, with most approved heating and 
ventilating apparat us. 

.September 5, 1895, the iloors of this build- 
ing were thrown open, ami to the surprise of 
the Board of Education, the rooms were filled 
and the seating capacity found to be insuf- 
hcieiit. The large attendance demands addi- 
tional accommodations. As the enterprising 
section of our city surrounding the school 
building develops, this educational institu- 
tion W'ill advance to the first rank of the New- 
,irk Public Schools, 

The Principal, \V. Spader Willis, is a school 
man of wide expii ience, belonging to a family 
of educators, his father. Rev. Ralph Willis, 
and his bioiher H. Brewster Willis, having 
tu^w' had charge of the |)ublic school interests of 

■W'." > Middlesex County for the past thirty years. 

3H^^ The Principal was educated at Rutgers Col- 

||[^.,„^^ lege. He has held a number of school posi- 

tions. He was Principal of ihe Perth Aniboy 
High School when called to Newark. The 
Fifteenth Avenue School is in a very promis- 
ing condition. 




THK daily citv Normal School was organized in 1879. For 
many years it had been maintained as a Saturday Normal 
Schcidl, holding its sessions eveiy Saturday morning, and was 
attended by those already appointed as teachers and striving b\ 
this method to acquire some professional training, and was a 
most praiseworthy effort. It 
was felt bv some of the frieiids 
of the public schools that better 
work could be done only as the 
result of more methodical and 
longer training. It was, accord- 
ingly, organized as a daily 
school in October, 1S79. under 
the principalship of Miss Jane 
v.. Johnson, with a class of 
thirty pupils, all graduates of 
the High School, and three 

The curriculum was limited 
to mental anil moral science, 
which were the only text-books 
in use. Its only library was a 
Webster's Dictionary, un- 
abridged, and a Geographical 
Gazetteer. Miss Johnson sup- 
plemented the curriculum by 
lectures upon English history 
and botany. 

At the present time there are 
about seventy pupils and a corps 
of five teachers. The course 
has been e.\tended to two years 
— a junior and a senior year. 
Pupils who seek admission must 
be graduates from our excellent 
High School, or must pass an 
equivalent examination, as a 

condition of admission. The course of study is strictly pro- 
fessional. Psychology, Logic, Civil Government, Political 
Economy and Pedagogy form a part of the curriculum. The 
academic branches are taught under the department of method, 
/. e., the better way of presenting and developing these subjects 

ill the class-room 
to till' pupils (if the 
schools. Music, 
drawing and nat- 
ural science receive 
marked attention 
through ihe entire 
course. Lectures 
on the history of 
e d u c a t i o n — the 
theoiies and the 
L;i"e,it teachers of 
the world, are given 
every week. 

A small but well 
chosen library of 
books of reference 
— a working library 
— has been gradu- 
ally accumulated. 
During the junior 
JOSEPH CLAKK, PRINCIPAL. year the pupils 

spend eight weeks in observation and iir.ictice teaching in the 
Training Department, under the supervision of well-trained 
teachers. In the senior year they spend the same time in the 
class-rooms of the grammar schools, observing and teaching 
in the daily work of the schools and under the skilled care and 
direction of the principal and his teachers. The results of this 


practice work is reported from each school and recorded. It is 
an important factor in their graduation. 

The Normal School has advanced steadily since its organiza- 
tion, and has become a most important factor in our educa- 
tional system. Since April, 1894, it has been under the care of 
Principal Joseph Clark, who has been identilied w ith our public 
schools for more than forty years. 

Principal Joseph Clark was born in Syracuse. New York, of 
New England ancestry. He received his education in the 
Fayetteville .'\cademy, an institution of considerable note in that 
part of the State. He came to Newark in the fall of 1S48. In 
1S51 he was appointed as assistant teacher in the Lafayette 
Street Public School. In 1854 he was promoted to the jirin- 
cipalship of the Lock Street (now Wickliffe) School, and in 
1S57 he was transferred to the Lafayette Street Public School. 

During his long service in the schools of the city he has been 
closely identified with the interest of the Fifth Ward, and has 
been a prominent factor in the lives and character of a large 
number of those who are now our respected .and influential 
citizens. He has been prominently connected with the Sixth 
Presbyterian Church, and in the Sunday-school and Church has 
always taken a prominent place. 

Among the many able and well-known citizens who have 
l)ecome identified with the educational interests of this city, 
those who know Principal Joseph Clark best, declare that a 
more genial companion, a truer friend or a larger hearted man 
is not within the circle of their acquaintance. 




THl''. school l)uililiiig which 
forms the illustration on 
this |)ai;e wns eiecteil during 
I he years 18S1-2. It was opened 
for the reception of pupils April 
10, 1 88:. although at tliat time 
the hiiildin;; was in an unfinished 
condition. Five classes were 
organi/fd at once and the 
school placed under the care of 
Miss I'.nim.i F. B.ildwiii. as 
Vice-I'rnu ip.d. In < )ctol)er. 
1882. the liuilding was com- 
pleted and the number of classes 
increaseil to eight, the full 
capacity of the house. 

Fred. W. f'oit became the 
I'rinrip.d of the school on Nov. 
8, 1S82. At time there 
were .about 400 pupils in attend- 
.•nue. I'liur years later the 
builduig was enlarged by the 
addition of six class-rooms. In 
Sept.. 1886. all the rooms were 
tilled with large-sized classes. 

The school has never suffered for lack of pupils. Year after 
year, portions of us teiriiory have been assigned to other school 
districts. In iScpthe school .authorities were obliged to take 
measures to furnish more accommodations for the locality in 
which this school is situated. In Sept., 1892, Ann Street 
School was ready for the .ulmission of pupils. This new build- 
ing contained eight rooms, and in a very few months every 
was occupied. 

When the term opened in Sept.. 1845. Hamburg Place School 
was .ig.iin crowded. More jMipils than ever sought admission. 
By Jan. i, 1896, four more rooms had been made ready, and 
when the winter term began these rooms were at once lilletl 
from the overflow pupils in the fourteen other classes. 

The growth of the section of the city in which Hamburg 
Place School is situated has been ver\ great during the last ten 
years, and this fact largely explains the demand for increased 
school facilities. The territory that fiiinisheil .diout 400 pupils 

in 1S82. re(|uired 
accommod.ition s 
for about 1600 in 
1895. and points 
o u t the re.ison 
why Ham bu rg 
Place .School has 
become one of the 
largest (iranimar 
schools in theciiv, 
'I'he Principal 
ijf this s c h 00 I , 
Fivd. W. Fori, born in New 
I'lovidence, N, J. 
lie is .1 son of 
J.icob P, Fort, 
a M e t h o d i s t 
pre. 11 her and for 
many years a well 

known member 

1 KiiOEKicK w. FoKT. "f ''""^ Newark 


Conference. His uncle. George V. Fort, was the Governor of 
the Slate of New Jersey in 1852. I'Dr a number of years, some 
member of the familv has been iMoniinent in either the social, 
religious or political history of the St.ite. 

(Jwing to the f.ict that his father never lived in any locality 
for more than two or three years, Mr, Fort received his early 
School instruction in several of the different towns and \illages 
in the norlhem part of the State. At the age of fourteen, he 
entered Penninghin Seminary, and .after two vears graduated 
from that inslitution prepared to enter college Mr. Fort found 
it necess.ary to take charge of a country school after graduating 
ficim the Seminary, in order to |)rovide means for continuing 
his education. During a portion of this time he received "a 
dollar a day and boarded .around." 

In 1S71, Mr I-'ort entered Wesley. m University, Middletown, 
Conn. .After devoting two \ears to study he was obliged to 
lea\e college for a jear. he might by teaching secure the 
money needed to meet the expenses for the remainder of his 
college life. Returning to college, he was able to complete the 
course and gr.idu.ite with the cl.iss of 1875, His scholarship 
was good while a studriii, ,iik1 at gradu.ition he received 
"Special Honor" in ( hemistr\. 

Mr Fort has s been a great admirer of athletic sports, 
lb- WIS .1 member nf I he rl.iss "nine," the class boat crew, .and 
in 1875 belonged tu die college crew ,iiid p.irticip.ited in the 
great Reg.itta on .S.ii.ilog.i Lake. 

After graduating, Mr. Fort decided to enter the profession of 
teaching. Since that time he has been in charge of three differ- 
ent schools in this state. Two years were spent in .Summit, six 
ill Linden, and the balance of the time in charge of lland)urg 
Pl,i( e School of Newark. Summit he was largely instrument. d in arousing the 
|)eoplc- of that beautiful town to the f.ict that a large ami com- 
modious building was .ibsolutelv necessary, He acted as the 
Secretary of the several public meetings, and was much grati- 
tied when, by an almost unanimous voice, the people decided to 
erect the h.indsome building which is now the priile of that 
community. Mr. P'ort has been Principal of H.imburg Place 
School for nearly fifteen years. 




THE Thirteenth Avenue Puhhc 
School is ;uhnittedly one of 
the largest and liandsomest of the 
more modern buildings of Newark. 
The plot of ground upon which it 
stands is considered one of the 
most desirable locations in the city 
for a public school, and was secured 
by the Board of Kducaliun in 1S87. 
The same year the erection of a 
building containing nine class- 
rooms was commenced. It was 
intended to have the house ready 
for occupancy Sept. i, 1S88. but 
owing to delays on the part of the ~ "^ 

builders it was not opened till Nov. '._ _- 

19th of that year. Within three — 

years it was found necessary to 
enlarge the building in order to 
keep pace with the growth nf tlic 

school, conse(|uently in iSyi, eight class-rooms were added, 
making seventeen in all. 

The buiUling is of brick and contains the most modern sys- 
tems of heating and ventilation. Besiile the regular class-rooms, 
wardrobes, etc., there are eight rooms for the accommodation 
of the teachers, a cozy and handsomely furnished office for the 
use of the, and large and commodious courts thorougli- 
ly heated by steam and capable of accomodating the entire 
school at recess or intermission during stormy and cold weather. 
From roof to basement the building is a model of cleanliness 
and neatness and is a source of much pt ide and gratificcxiion 
to its patrons. 

A plan is already on foot to acquire an adjoining plot of land 
with the intention of once more enlarging this great building, by 
an addition of from six to nine more class-rooms. Should this 
be accomplished. Thirteenth Avenue will be one of the largest 
school buildings in the State of New Jersey. 

Albert B. Wilson is one of the youngest scIkk.! pi incip.ds of 
Newark. He was born at Bridgeport, Conn., in 1S61, and at- 
tended the public schools of that city from his sixth to his 
fifteenth year, when he entered the Golden Hill Institute, then 
one of the best known private educational institutions in Con- 
necticut. After a 
four year's course 
here, he gradu- 
ated in iSSo and 
at once entered 
upon his work as 
a teacher, which 
le has followed 
e\er since. In 
iSgo he complet- 
ed a course in the 
I listory and Phil - 
osophy of Educa- 
tion, at the Uni- 
versity of the City 
of New York. 

Mr. Wilson 
came to Newaik 
in 1887, as Vice- 
Principal of the 
Chestnut Street 
ALEKkT B. WILSON. School. He re- 

"^ "'UJIH. JL>_4—- _ 


ni.iined here from Sept , 18S7 to Nov., i588, when he was asked 
to organize and open the new Thirteenth Avenue School, as 
its ])rincipal. This position he has now held for nine years and 
during that time has seen the school grow from 250 pupils with 
six teachers to over 1000 pupils with seventeen teachers. 

Mr. Wilson comes naturally by his love for his profession, 
both his father and mother being at one time teai hers in New 
York and his father for over thirty years a in I '.ridge- 
port schools. 

A visit to Thirteenth Avenue and an investigation of the 
Innlding and school will well repay anyone interested in the 
educational system of our city. 

Principal W'ilsoti is one of Newark's most progressive edu- 
cators. He cairies with him the warm affection of his pupils 
as well as tlie high regard of the ]ieople and the co-operation 
of the Board of Education, in advancing the educational interests 
of those entrusted to his kind care. 

He is a very genial, pleasant and accomplished gentleman. 
a natural-born teacher, and the thorough discipline of the 
school and the rapid advancement of the pupils under his 
charge give testimony of our statements of him. 

At the Thirteenth Avenue School he has the most hearty 
respect and co-operation of his teachers. The whole corps 
are deeply interested in. and \ery proud of their school. 
Thoroughness is the inspiration anil the aim of the svstem, 
.ind the watch-word of the Ic.ichers. It is intended that the 
pupils shall know perfectly from root to branch, the subjects 
taught, and such is the discipline and efficiency of the system 
that even the dullard and the laggard cannot but choose to 
learn. In music, the Thirteenth Avenue School is unusually 

Albert B. Wilson is an active reformer in the educational 
field. He seeks for a culture of all I he faculties of body and 
mind, a man of great executive ability and an able and pro- 
gressive educator. To him has been imparted peculiar 
gift of nature which is vouchsafed to few; that is, the f.iculty of 
inspiring others with the belief when teaching that he not only 
has a perfect knowlege of what he teaches but knows just how- 
to impart it to others. 

It is just such a school as the Thirteenth Avenue School is. 
through Mr. Wilson's efforts, which has given the City of 
Newark its advanced place as an educational centre. 

The accompanying cut is a perfect and life-like photo of 
Prof. Albert B. Wilson. 



Roiim was completed 


WHICH is delightfully lo- 
cated on Burnet street, 
between Orange and James 
streets, was first opened on Sep- 
tember 6, 1869, and with the close 
of the present school year it 
will complete its 28th year. 
The buikhng originally con- 
tained fourteen rooms, but two 
new rooms were completed in 
April, 1892. The si.xteen rooms 
are on one floor, and in this re- 
spect the building differs from 
all others in the city. Under 
the class-rooms are four large 
and well-lighted play-courts, 
cloak-room, boiler-room and the 
principal's oflice. Adjacent to 
each court is a yard, and in 
front of the building, on Burnet 
street, is a large, well-kept 
campus, of which the pupils 
and teachers are justly proud. 
In tlie centre of the yard is .1 
flag-pole, erected on Decoration 
Day, 1889, at a cost of S90, 
raised by entertainment. A 
commodious, well-appointed Teachers 
in March, 1S96. 

The school has had only two princip.ds — William A. 
Breckenridge, who resigned in 1886 and is now living in I'almer, 
Mass.. and Wm. E. ISissell. the ]iresent principal, who will this 
year complete his eleventh year in the school. To Mr. Brecken- 
ridge's untiring efforts during many years of service the school 
owes much of its efficiency as one of the links in our 
system of instruction. Mr. Breckenridge was identified with 
the schools nf Newark long before he was called to the princi- 
palship of the rjuriiet Slieet .School, and s|)ent mure llum ihirty 
years in the i ily. 

Wlun Mr. Breckenridge resigned in 1886, there were more 
tlian tifly applicants for the position. Among the number was 
Mr. Bissell. the present princip.d, who for nine years had been 

in charge of the de- 
partment of mathe- 
matics in the Rut- 
gers College Pre- 
paratory .School, 
New Brunswick, N. 
J., succeeding the 
Lite Prof.Alexander 
lohnston.of I'rince- 
lon College, as prin- 
' ipal of the school, 
in 1S79. Mr. Bis- 
sell was graduated 
from the New Jer- 
sey Normal School 
with honor in 1876, 
I lid in 1881 he re- 
leived the honorary 
degree of A. B. 
from Rutgers Col- 
lege in recognition 
of v.iluable services. 


Since Mr. Bissell came to Newark he has spared neither time 
nor effort to place the school under his charge in the very best 
condition possible. The discipline is characterized bv persistent 
firmness always tempered with wise di|ilomacy, and suspensions 
occur only when necessary for the good of the majority. In 
the lower hall off the Grammar boys' play-court, hangs tin- 
only rule which they are expected to observe — " Let's all bi. 
gentlemen." The standard of scholarship is high enough to 
make the securing of special honors a positive credit to faithful 
pu]iil5. Principal ISissell firmly believes that the present system 
of marking is one of the best ever devised, I'f propcrlv used. 
He is also heartily in favor of the honorary system, but believes 
that it will work incalculable harm if not used with great dis- 
cretion. Since the honorary system went into effect in 1888, 
lUnnet Street School has sent, upon an average, one-third of its 
sixty-five or seventy 
graduates to the 
High School each 
year as " honorary" 
pupils. According 
to reports received 
from the I'rincip.d 
of the High School, 
very few of these 
pupils fiil to sus- 
tain a ■' f.iir " stand- 
ing, and a goodly 
number continue to 
do "bono r ar y " 
work. Such results 
prove conclusivciv 
tlie wisdom of 
maintaining a high 
standard. In Bur- 
net Street School, 
the marks placed 
upon the pupil's 




monthly cards always represent accomplishineut — not 
intention. The marks are not given simply to fill tip 
certain spaces on the cards, nor to please parents ; but 
they are given as reliable statements of 'what the 
pupils have done. Any other record is considered a 
gross fraud practiced upon parents and pupils. 

In SeiJt., 1894. the teachers of the Grammar depart- 
ment suggested to Principal Bissell the advisability of 
organizing among the pupils a society whose object 
should be two-fold, first, the exaltation of gentlemanly 
and ladylike conduct ; second, the suitable rewarding 
of such conduct through enterlainnients of an educa- 
tive nature held at stated periods. Mr. Ijissell heartily 
"seconded the motion," and the result was the estab- 
nient of the "' Loyal League." Many names were pro- 
posed for the new organization, but none seemed so 
suitable as the one chosen, conveying, as it does, the 
meaning of the society's motto — " He conquers who 
overcomes himself." The membership badge is a 
ribbon with the word '• Loyalty " stamped upon it in 
silver letters. The 8th year colors are two shades of 
purple : 7th year, two shades of yellow ; 6th year, two 
shades of red ; 5th year, two shades of blue. Each 
grade has four members upon the committee, and 
these, witli the teachers, wear white badges. 

The condition of membership is very simple. Any pupil who 
is rated " excellent " or "good" in deportinent for any month 
is a member of the Loyal League during the month immediately 
following. The precentage of membership is always large. 

The monthly cards are distributed on the first Monday of 
each month, and the entertainments occur on the Friday fol- 
lowing. The badges are worn at the entertainments and on 
the other Friday afternoons of the month. 

The monthly entertainments have been held regularly, and 
have been much enjoyed by the pupils and teachers and their 
friends Thev ha\e been so discreetly prepared and conducted 
that they h.ive in no way interfered with the regular scholastic 
work of the school. Many friends and former pupils have 
kindlv assisted, and the pujiils who have taken part have cer- 
tainly reaped benefit in many ways. 

The League publishes a very neat and interesting eight-page 



school paper twice each year -a holiday and Easter number. 
A plan very similar to that of the Loyal League, but neces- 
sarily modified, is in successful use in the primary department. 
Since Mr. Bissell assumed charge of the school in 1S86, the 
School Library has grown from 37 volumes to fully 1,000 
volumes. In December, 18S7, the school held a large fair in 
Oraton Hall and cleared S491.25, which was used towards sup- 
plying the school with a circulating and reference library. The 
success of this fair was due to the earnest and hearty co- 
operation of all the teachers and pupils. In April, rSgs. a 
" Class Fair" netted S'35. which was used to purchase a circu- 
lating library specially for the primary pupils. The Reference 
Library contains about too well-selected and much used books. 
The school entertainments are always of a high order. 
Those which have been held during the past ten years have 
netted about $1.3°°. all of which have been used to the 
school's benefit. 

The regularity and punctualit\- of the pupils 
speak well for them and their school. The cases 
of tardiness during the present principalship have 
been as follows: 18S6-87, 180; 1887-88, 35; 1888- 
89, 17; 1889-90, 32; 1890-91. 41; 1891-92,19; 
1S92-93, 19: 1893-94,30: 1894-95.35; 1895-96,30. 
The average during the last nine years has been 
only 29, against 180 during the first year. 

That punctuality is not secured at the expense of 
attendance is evident from the fact that the average 
percentage of attendance in all the classes is usu- 
ally above g^ per cent. 

The good work accomplished by the Burnet 
Street School is in no small measure due to the 
loyalty and efficiency of its corps of teachers. It 
is also true that the school has been very fortunate 
in having as commissioners, gentlemen who have 
given prompt and intelligent consideration to all 
matters pertaining to the school's welfare. 

These illustrations represent the Chestnut Street 
School, opened September, i860; enlarged 1870; 
class rooms, 15; Principal, David Maclure. Miller 
Street School, opened June, 1881; enlarged 18S7-88: 
classrooms, 14; Principal, J. Wilmer Kennedy. 




THE old Third Ward ScIiodI 
was built in 1843-4. At 

this time there were five wards 

in Newark — the North, East, 

South. West and Fifth. This 

school was in the South Ward. 

It was the lirst public school 

l)uildin<j erected in the city. 

Rented buildings were hereto- 
fore used. It was located on 

Hill and Court Streets, and was 

two stories high. The upper 

tloor was used as the male de- 
partment and had its entrance 

on Court Street. The lower 

floor was used as the female de- 

|)artmenl aiul its entrance was 

on Hill Street. There a 

front yard on each street, the 

building being placed cqu.dly 

distant from the sidewalk of 

either street. Kiker's jewelry 

factory now occupies the site. 

Each floor consisted of one large 

room and two small recitation 

rooms. The children studied 

in the large assembly rooms, 

and recited to monitors in the 

recitation joonis. In 1S60, these 

large rooms were divided by 

glass partitions, making three 

rooms on each floor, each seating fifty pupils. The large rooms 

were heated by stoves, but the recitation rooms were not heated. 

It was a Grammar School. Kelson .Mowry was its first princi- 
pal. He was succeeded by Joseph A. Andrews. 

In May, 1S56, a Primary Industrial School was organized in 

a building rented by the Board of Education, on West Kinney 

Street, corner of lieecher Street These Industrial Schools 

were to feed the C.ianimar Schools. In i860, the Third Ward 

Prini.iry School was opened in a building in Fair .Stieit. It 

w'as two stories high, one mom on < ach hour. Mary A. Wood- 
ruff was its first 
prindipal and held 
thai position 
some years after 
the present build- 
ing was occupied. 
In 1862, the Third 
Ward Industrial 
School moved to 
the building on 
Mulberry street, 
near Chestnut 
Street, known as 
Mulberry Chapel, 
.ind the T h i r d 
Ward Primarv 
.School 111 o V e d 
fro 111 the Fair 
Street building to 
a building corner 
of Kinney and 
FKANK H. u.\, .\. M. Bcccher Streets. 


In i860, Samuel W. Clark succeeded Mr. Andrews as princi- 
pal of the grammar school. In 1867, the primary school moved 
again to the building on the corner of Court and Nevada Streets, 
opposite the grnmmar school. In 186S. the present building on 
Washini.;ton Street West Kinney Street was completed. 
Both grammar ami primal y schools moved for the last time to 
occupv it. In 1S79, Mr. IS. C. Gregory succeeded Mr. Samuel 
W. Clark, who resigned to conduct a Sunday School paper 
which was published in Philadelphia. 

In 1882, the crowded condition of W.ishington Street School 
made it necessary to provide greater facilities, and a building on 
the corner of Coe Place and Marshall Street, formely used as a 
jewelry factory, was rented and opened into two primary classes. 
It increased rapidly, and in 18S3 there were four classes. In 
1888 the property w-as purchased, and in i8?9 a new building 
of two rooms was added and used in connection with the old 
building. .At present there are five classes in the .M.ushall 
Street School. 

In 188S, Mr. B. C. Gregory was succeede<l by Mr. Frank H. 
Hanson. .A. M , a graduate of Colbv University, who is siill in 
charge of the school. Mr Gregory resigned to accept the posi- 
tion of Supervising Principal of I'ublic Schools at Trenton, N.J. 
The school ranks with the best of Newark's schools. About 
800 children attend the school. Principal G. O. F. Ta)lor once 
taught here. The roll of teachers for the past thirty or more 
years contains manv honorable and worthy names, and we are 
sure that the old Third Ward has been greatly favored alwa\s 
in this respect. 

The illustrations presented on this page represent the Wash- 
ington Street School and its present able Principal. These 
recall to mind the steady outgrowth of the old South Ward 
School, and the triuni|)h of puljlic eilucation in Essex County. 




ONE of tlie many schools of 
wliich Newark may well 
be prouci, is the Eighteenth 
Avenue School. It is located 
in the southwestern part of the 
citv. Its grounds are bounded 
by three streets, so that the 
buildhig stands in an open 
space, thus providing ample 
light to each class-room — an 
advantage greatly to be desired. 
The first building was erected 
in 1871, and consisted of eight 
class-rooms. In 1S73 it iH-camc 
necessary to enlarge it, by tin 
addition of a building in tin 
form of a large T, which, sur- 
mounted by two turrets, added 
to the architectural beauty of , 
the present structure. This 
made a school of nineteen class- 
rooms, none too large to meet 

the demands of the rapidly increasing population of the old 
Thirteenth Ward. The pupils and patrons of its early days 
purchased a large bell, which is hung in a belfry, and its tones 
call the children from far and near to each session of the school. 
This has been of the greatest advantage in reducing to almost 
a minimum the number of cases of tardiness. 

The Eighteenth Avenue School has been fortunate in ha\ ing 
for its principals men of character as well as intellect. Of 
these, when the school was but an intermediate school. Princi- 
pals Smith, Schulte, Kennedy and Maclure were ))riimotfd to 
grammar schools. 

The school was opened as a primary school. It soon 
advanced to an intermediate school, having no grade higher 
than the sixth year. It was necessary for pupils wishing to 
enter the High School, to be admitted to a grammar school for 
the remaining two year's course. The Eighteenth Avenue 
School was an intermediate school when Henry J. Uougherty, 
the present principal, assumed control. Through his untiring 
efforts, with the hearty co-operation of his teachers, the grade 

of the school 
steadilv advanced 
and in 1891 the 
first graduates of 
Eighteenth Ave- 
nue School en- 
tered the High 

It has been the 
custom for each 
graduating class 
to leave a class 
memorial. The 
class-room has 
m a n y beautiful 
tokens of its 
former inmates, 
which serve as 
an inspiration to 
those who are still 
treading the path 
HENKY J. uouGiiKiuv. "f learning in the 


old familiar place. The graduates have formed an alumni 
association, which is in a tlourisliing condition. Thus, a bond 
of friendship has been cemented between the present pupils of 
the school and those who have passed out from their alma 
mater. The school has good reason to mention the alumni 
with pride and gratitude. 

From time to time, the school has held very successful as 
well as pleasing entertainments. The funds derived therefrom 
have been judiciously spent. As a result of these investments, 
the school can boast of a fine library, containing several sets of 
encvclopa'dias, histories, books of reference and works of 
standard writers, which are of interest to puijils and teachers 

Since the observance of .Arbor Day by the public schools of 
the city, many trees have been planted in the playgrounds and 
on the streets bounding them, so that shade antl beauty are 
thus provided. The front lawns are kept in good condition 
during the season, and flowers in beds and urns add much 
to the good appearance of the building. 

.An annex on Livingston street, with its entrance on the 
Eii^hteenth Avenue School grounds, was built in the early part 
of 1894, and the two buildings, which may properly be con- 
sidered one school, have a seating capacity for 1,280 pupils. 

In October, 1S91, the school was opened as an evening 
school, holding sessions during five months of each year. 
Many parents are compelled to take their children from the day 
schools as soon as they have reached an age when they can earn 
something. The evening school offers advantages to this class 
of pupils. 

During the summer of 1895, the Eighteenth Avenue School 
opened its doors for six weeks as a summer school. The 
attendance was good for the entire term, which shows the ap- 
preciation felt by those living in the vicinity of the school. No 
national holiday ever passed without appropriate exercises by 
the school on the day preceding such holiday. 

That patriotism has been instilled in the hearts of the pupils 
of the Eighteenth Avenue School is evinced from the following 
fact : The first memorial left to the school by the first gradu- 
ates of the school was Old Glory. The stars and stripes were 
cut by the boys of '91, and the girls sewed together that emblem 
which is the pride and glory of every true American heart. 




IN the year 1X55. the city of Newark eNpended 
what was then a large ainount of money, in 
the construction of school-houses. The South 
Market Street Scliool was one of the buildings con- 
structed in that year. 'Hus building, and several 
others in the city, w'ere ci instructed on one ]5lan 
and were then considered models of school archi- 
tecture, and replete with all the latest and neces- 
sary .iiJiihances and facilities of a lirst-class school 
building, and was intentled to accommodate three 
hundred and fifty pupils. During the two score 
years of the history of this school, many of the 
scholars from this school have become prominent 
and intluential citizens of Newark. 

Mr. Samuel W. Clark, the first Principal of South 
Market .Street .School, a man of sterling character, 
remained a number of years. His able successor. 
William Johnson, also remained at the head of the 
school some ten or more years, and ably conducted 
the efficient and popular methods of his prede- 
cessor. J. Newton Smith was the next Principal. 
For the past sixteen years the school has been m 
charge of .Mr. William P. IS. (irick. 

The school accommodations furnished by this old building 
have long since become inadequate for the growing neighbor- 
hood. More than double the original number of seats have 
been crowded into the house and filled, and pupils are turned 
away for want of room. 


rooms for the teachers. The class-rooms are large, well liglited 
and ventilated, and each capable of seating sixty pupils. Each 
room is provided with a cloak room, and cloak rooms, courts 
and the class-rooms are all heated by steam. The building and 
site are v.ilued at S36.000. 


THE Hawkins Street School was erected in 1SS7-SS. and 
was first opened on January 3. 18S9. It first opened 
with Wvt class-rooms occupied, and continued with tliat number 
a year and a half, being during time an annex to South 
.Market Street .School. 

In .September, 1891, another class-room was opened and Mr. 
Clarence S. Giffin was appointed Principal of the school. The 
following September another class-room was opened, and the 
school has since continued with seven class-rooms occupied. 
There is yet one unoccupied room. 

The ground lloor of the building is occupied by the Princi- 
pal's office and reception room, the boiler room and two large 
courts, one each for the boys and girls. The second and third 
floors are each occupied by four class-rooms, and reception 



IN reviewing the steps that have led up to the establishment 
of the ■ Franklin " School as we know it to-day. the data 
at hand for the earlier stages is so meagre that no attempt is 
made to go into detail. Suffice to say, that when Newark was 
no more than a town, and only the three R's were taught in the 
schools, the cus- 
tom prevailed of 
naming them in 
honor of noted 
men. Therefore, 
one located in 
w hat is n o w 
known as t h e 
Fourth Ward o( 
the city, w a s 
named in honor 
of our illustrious | 

The site of this 
school was pur- 
chased bv N. J. 
C. K. K. Co. .iiid 
the money turned 
over to the munic- 
ipal authorities to 
be set aside for 
the ])urpose of 
locating a school 
bearing the same 

name in another portion of the city, 
when it became apjiarent to the lioard of Education that the 
school accommodation of the Eighth Ward inade(|uate to 
meet the wants of this section of the city, the present site on 
Fifth Avenue w,is purchased ; ho\\e\er, not without some 


After a nuinber of years, 



friction in the Board of Educa- 
tion, as otlier sections of the city 
made a strong fight for its loca- 
tion. Therefore, this money 
held in reserve by the Board of 
Education was spent in pur- 
chase of this site. 

An eight-room building was 
built on the above site, and 
what was known as the Frank- 
lin Public Primary School was 
organized in September, 1889. 
with the following corps of 
teachers : T. T. Collard, I'rinci- 
pal ; Miss Amv Simpson. Miss 
Ida [. Morrison. Miss F. A. 
Haring, Miss E. Klotz Miss M. 
.\. Baldwin, Miss J. Dettmer, 
Miss M.C. Haskell, Miss E. L. 
Sayre. !n April, 1S93, Miss 
Abbie P. McHugh was made 
Principal, and Mr. Collard was 
transferred to North .Seventh 
Street School. 

It soon became a|)parent that 
an eight-room building was too 
small to accommodate the 
school population, and hence 

the necessity for and enlargement of the building. This was 
brought about largely through the efforts of the School Com- 
missioner of the ward directly interested in this school, Mr. 
.Moses J. DeWitt. The addition made consisted of eight class- 
rooms, a fine assembly hall and court. Therefore, the present 
building isecjuipped with 16 class-rooms, two large commodious 
courts, and an assembly hall that will seat 500 people or more. 
Upon opening the schools in .September, 1S95, the Pioard of 
Education decided to make the " Franklin " School a grammar 
school, thus really transferring the grammar department of 
Webster Street School, leaving the latter a primary school. 
Also the Bloomfield annex, a two-room primary school, was 
abolished, and pupils transferred to the " Franklin " primary. 
This necessitated changing the teachers from the Webster St. 
grammar and Bloomfield Ave. annex to the " Franklin " School, 
which was done before the opening of school in September. 

Upon opening of 
school it was not 
known just how- 
many of the sixteen 
class-rooms would 
be occupied, but in 
a day or so it was 
evident that every 
class-room would 
have to be used, as 
over 900 children 
jpi)lied for admis- 
sion the first week 
of school. 

The following is 
the corps of teach- 
ers : Crammer De- 
(lartment — Princi- 
pal, A. G. Balcom ; 
\'.-Frincipal, Abbie 
P. McHugh; As- 
A. G. B.^i.coM. sistants. Belle M. 



Core, Anna L. Carrabrant, May Woodruff, Jessie P.. Mikels, 
.\my Simpson. Claribel Gogl, Juliet Dettmer. Primary 
Department -Vice-Principal, Annie E. Curtis; Assistants, Car- 
oline Y. Haulenbeek. H. Isabel Smith. Ada E. .Sargeant, M. 
Fannie Brackm, Mary G. Haskell, E. Louise Sayre, Florence A. 


THIS school, located in the Tenth Ward, is a Primary 
School. The building was erected in 1862 and remodeled 
in 1877. It contains eight class-rooms anil a teachers" 
and principal's room. It is heated by steam, and altluuigli 
small, is a comfortable building. 

This school has for its principal. Miss S. Fannie Carter ; Miss 
Carrie C. Hutchings is head teacher. The assistants are the 
Misses Laura C. Delano, Elizabeth Rodamor, Florence J. 
Farmer, Abbie J. Hoppaugh, Mattie M. Miller, Agnes Geppert 
and Carrie M. Welcher. 





THE Oliver Street ('.ramiiiar 
School was opeiiecl Sept. 6, 
1869. The dedication exercises 
wei'e held in the Ijuililing; Friday, 
Aug. ^1. !•". W. Ricoicl. I'les- 
sideiit of the lio.ird of Educa- 
tion, prcbided. Addresses were 
made In' 1' resident !■". \V. 
Ricortl. Supei inteiidant of 
Schools Geo. B. Sears and the 
w a r d connnissionei s ]!. 11. 
Douglas and Elihu U. Earl. 
The building contains fourteen 
class rooms .and will acconinio- 
date about eight hundred child- 
ren. The bmlding and site cost 

Joseph A. Hallock was ap- 
pointed ])rincipal and remained 
tdl 187". Win. H. Elston was 
then appointed. He resigned 
in 1879. anil was succeeded b\ 
ICdwin Ship.ird the piesint 
princiiKil. 'I he following lia\e 
served .is Xice-l'i incip.ils and 
Assistants since the school was 
organized: Vice-Principals of 
Grammar E'epartment, Wni. 
Hayes and Mrs Carrie A. Hal- 
lock, liolh of whom ha\e died ; 
Miss Eunice A. Mcl.eod. who is now occupying a similar 

position in the Elliot Street Gr.i ar School; Elizabeth H. 

Burr, now Mrs. I'eck, of Stroudsburg, Pa., and Susie Steele; 
Vice-Principals of the Primary Department, Anna E. Curtis, 
now connected with the " ■■'ranklin " School ; Laura C. Delanoe, 
.It present teaching in W.diiut Street School; liinma J. Dean, 
now Mrs. Win, Doug. ill. living in Newark; .Annie E. Harrison, 
who resignetl, and J'aiiin.i Einter; Assistants, Carrie Hutch- 
ings, now in Walnut Street School; Emma J. SherilT, now Mrs. 
Titus, living in Newark; Sarah E. Beam, Henrietta Price, 
resigneil. living in Newark; Emma I-. Lewis, now Mrs. (iroves, 
living in Newaik; Kate Roche, Alice M. Scpiire, now Mrs, 

T h o m p son; 
Mary ISenj.imin, 
now Mrs. Foster 
of Newark; Fan- 
nie Steele, Jean 
M. Ilendr)', now 
Mrs. Dr. Few- 
Smith, of New- 
ark ; Mary D. 
Kii k|) 
at Ann Street 
.Scliool ; Hannah 
Moore, Rate H. 
Belcher, now 
t e a c h i n g i n 
( )raiige, N. J. ; 
kdecta I\L But- 
ler, now a miss- 
ionary in Can- 
ton, China; 

_^- Sarah M. Baker, 

lUJUi.N sHEi'.VHD. now Mrs. Baker, 


of Newark; Hattie J. Clark, now Mrs. Charles W. Connell, of 
New-ark; .\nnie ( ). Ho|)paugh. now- Mrs. D. (1. .Maclay, of 
Fargo, N. 1).; M, Melissa Harrison, now- Mrs. Frank Gibson 
of Newark ; Ida M. Hatcher, M. Adelaide Healey, Ruth L. 
H.inipson, now- Mrs. F. C. Nettleship. of Newark ; Annie L. 
Rogers now- Mis. Stewart ; NLary E. Maclay, L. Belle Ludlow, 
Lizzie D. Tucker, now Mrs. C. Hopwood, of New.irk; Alice 
Dod, now Mrs. Ketcham ; Belle Kirk, now Mrs. Folsom, of 
Kearney, N J.; Daisy M. Law-, Evie Symons, A. M. Beyer, 
now in High School; Florence G. Carter, now Mrs. Egner, of; L. P-dna Freeman, and .Sarah C. Moore; also the 
following wdio are deceased : Mrs. H. M. Willis, and Emma 

The graduates from the school number se\en hundred and 
fifty-tw-o and are scattered from one end of the country to the 
other. All the professions are represented by them, and our 
boys and girls are to be found in every walk of life. Twenty-six 
of the graduates have become teachers in our schools, two of 
them are in the Newark High School, and tliree are represented 
in the piesent faculty of the school. Connected with the school 
is a fine library consisting of over nine hundred volumes. This 
is the largest grami-i-iar school library m the city. More than 
fifteen huntlred dollars has bfen expended in books and charts 
since it was established. The books and magazines are in con- 
stant circulation, and furnish families of the ward much useful 
reading. All this monty, save one hundred dollars given by the 
state, has b -en raised by the pupils and teachers. The value 
derived fimn the school library can hardly be estimated ; as an 
educational factor, it is second only to the teacher. 

The patrons of the school take special pride in its w-elfare. 
This is shown by the large number yearly graduated to the 
High School and by its liberal contributions to its library and 
other improvements. The walls are decorated with many tine 
pictures and the front yard is one of the best kept in the city. 




IN the report of Superintendent Barringer for 
1875, attention was called to the over- 
crowded condition of the schools of the Tenth 
Ward; and, in the same year, a building was 
rented in Thomas street, near Hermon. Jan- 
uary 3, 1876, two rooms were opened, with Mrs. 
Carrie A.HaliocU in charge. In September, 1876. 
Miss Eunice A. Mcl.eod took Mrs. Hallock's 
place and continued as Principal until the South 
Street building was completed. Still, the 
accommodations were insufficient for this sec- 
tion, and in 1S82 a site was bought corner of 
South and Hermon streets. In 1SS3-4, addi- 
tional appropriations were made and the build- 
ing begun. 

In September. 1S84, the school was formally 
opened by Superintendent Barringer and Com- 
missioners John I.. Armitage and Seymour 
Tucker, with I'lincipal \V. J. Kennedy in 
charge. During the first year there were 479 
pupils and seven teachers. Two of these 
teachers. Miss Mary M. Parker and Miss Mary 
D. Kirkpatrick. were from Thomas Street 
School, and two. Miss Hannah Moore and Miss Mary E. 
Bedell, were from Garden Street School. Miss Hannah Moore 
was appointed first Vice-Principal. September i, 1886, Prin- 
cipal Kennedy was succeeded by Mr. J. L. Tei williger, of 
Washington, N. J. Principal Terwilltger was transferred .Sep- 
tember I, 1889, and Lewis W. Thurber, of Paterson, was 

April I, 1892, the School was changei.1 from Primary to Inter- 
mediate, and remained so till September i, 1S92. when the class 
of Intermediate schools was abolished and South Street .School 
was changed to Primary. 

.Mr. Thurber remained Principal until April i, 1S94, when he 
was transferred to Lafayette Street School, and Mr. K. S. Blake, 
of the Normal School, succeeded him. Mr. Blake was Princi- 
pal only four months, and was then followed by Mr. E. K. 
Sexton, of Closter, N. J., who took charge October 1 1, 189;. 

The school has had a slow growth since it started, and now 
contains ten classes and an enrollment (1896) of 635 pupils. 

In 1887 a sum- 
mer school was es- 
tablished and con- 
tinued till 1891, 
with an enrollment 
of about 140 pupils. 
In 1895 an even- 
ing school was 
started, with Prin- 
c i p a 1 Sexton in 
charge. It con- 
tained four classes 
and an enrollment 
of 173 puiiils. 

Credit is due to 
the Commissioners 
who have repre- 
sented this section 
of the city in the 
Board of Educa- 
tion, for its present 
school acconuiio- 





HE Camden Street School built in 1884 and opened in 
.September of the same year. This buikling has fourteen 
class-rooms, is very well located and is a well-arranged and 
very convenient house for school purposes. The faculty of the 
school consists of Mr. Arnold Voget, Principal, Miss Laura 15. 
Sayre, Vice-Principal, Miss J. \'. Enders, Head Assistant, and 
the teachers. Miss L. E. Hill, Miss L. A. Hill. Miss M. Leanora 
Stevens, Miss Carrie Kaiser. Miss Jean A. Dearie, Miss Anna 
Anderson. Miss Edith Burgyes. Miss Griselda Ellis, .Miss 
Frances C. Force, Miss H. Louise Crane, Miss Mabel Burnett, 
Miss Madeleine Boylan. 

The following is ,in exti.ict fiom the report of City .Superin- 
tendent of Public Schools, Wm. N. Barringer, for 1895 : 

In a prosperous and growing city the demands of the pul)lic 
schools are constantly increasing. The many and continu- 
ally e.xtending advantages for homes and business offered by 
our beautiful city are bringing many families and business 
interests here. 
Of course, 
among theinllu- 
ences that help 
to build u]i .1 
c o m m u n i f )■ , 
none are more 
effecti\e t h a n 
good schools. 
Meiely to keep j 
them up to tin- j 
present stand- 
ard is not suffi- 
cient. Progress 
in the course of 
study and in 
m e t h o d s of 
teaching must 
be constant and 
up to date. The 
a cc o m m o da- 
tions in the way 




of school i-oiuii .111(1 all facilities pertaining; to 
appliances of all kinds necessary for the most 
efficient grade of instruction slioiild Ije amply 
supplied. The meie matter of cost should not 
deter the Ijoard from makiii,^ this most important 
of all investments in the sound interests of our 
litv. It is the duty of the IJoard to aid m sur- 
I'ounding our children witli the best cn\ iri>nment 
that shall conduce lo their physical, intellectual, 
moral and a-sthetical good. 
. We should not forget that the schools are for 
the children and not merely a convenience for j i-'?^' 
the te.ichcis and others connected with iheui. It 
is in these schools that the pupils are tr.iincd in 
the ac(|uiremcnt of useful knowledge, the develop- 
ment of their powers of li()d\- and mind, .ind hoH 
to applv them in the various callings they ma\ 
c nter. 

There is no more important duly devolving upon 
a community than the thorough training .ind 
education of the i hildnn hj become true, noble 
antl hfinored men .ind women, capable of filling 
their places and performing their duty in this 
American repul)lic. It is hir thrs piupose that this 
public school s\stem is org.uiized .md m.iintaineil. 

The Superintendent's attention from vear to year has been 
more and more given to the cpiestion. how to elevate and 
increase the efficiency of the public school svstem of our city ? 
This cannot be settled by considering and using only the nie.uis 
furnished by school-room acconunodations .uid the various 
appliances required in the proper instruction of pupils. As we 
have so often said and again repeat, the one ^reat necessity in 
every system of schools is the thoroughly tr.iined, competent 
teacher. This is the way out of all difficulties that beset the 
educational problem. 

In the educ.Uion and training of our teachers it can hardlv 
be questionid liut that we are ?iio\ing in the right direction. 
There has lieen more interest and activity among the teachers 
in preparation for the class-room ,ind personal contact with the 
child than duiing any time in the |)ast. While some have 
failed to catch the spirit, the body as such has made right and 
commendalile progress. Here is the key to the whole subject. 
Teachers deeply interested, competent and thoroughly trained 
will soon put our schools in the way of rapid and sound pro- 
gress. This com- 
^. petency and train- 

ing means nmch 
"" more than mere 

surface preji, nation 
in methods and 
simple devices. 
First. it me.nis 
largi' natural fit- 
ness by (|uick intel- 
li.geuce. great tact 
.and aptness, joined 
with .unple schol.n- 
ship and ^ood hab- 
ils of nnnd and 
body, w ilh the de- 
\olion and persist- 
cmy of the gen- 
uine student. 

The meetings of 

the teachers for 
uixN. s( iiooi. cii.\uussiom-:k. 


■^ ^ 


educational purposes with the principals, the Superintendent, in 
.grade meetings for s])ecial subjects, in the institutes, etc.. ha\r 
been unusually well attended and have residted in pernrineni 
beneht to the ])rofession. I wish just here to emphasi/.e these 
g.uhciings. ()ne of their thief benefits is, they keep ah\e. 
intensify and extend the professional spirit. They arouse and 
utilize the personal and mutual efforts of those who come 
under their inlluence. We hope to imprejve them ;md thus 
derive still kirger benefits from them. 

The .Su|)erintendent's meetings with the principals, the prin- 
cipals with their class teachers, the Principals' Association, tin 
Vice-Principals' Association, the Teachers' Institutes, the gradi 
meetings Dy the drawing teacher and the music teachers, h.n r 
.dl been held regularly. They were well attended and com- 
manded the attention of all. The meetings are growing in 
interest and value from year to year. 

(Tne of the troublesome questions for every growing munici- 
pality IS the difliculty of furnishing adecpiate facilities for 
the proper education and tr.uning of the children. This is not 
a local complaint ; 

it is wide-spread 
I h ro u g h o u t the 
country. It is not 
easy to understand 
wli\' cities so gen- 
erall)' fail to make 
early and ample 
provision for their 
schools. Wisdom 
would seem to say sites shouU 
111' purchased and 
buildings arranged 
for in .advance of 
the crowfled popu- 
l.ition which makes 
it so difficult ,ind 
expensive to prop- 
erly locate the 
school buildinr's. 





THE Ijuikliny is located at the corner of Newton 
Street and South Orange Avenue, and was 
erected in 1S67. In 1871 the building was des- 
troyed l.iy tire. It was rebuilt, enlarged and re- 
o])ened in 1S73. Present value of property is 
S50.000. This school has the largest grammar 
.attendance of any in the city. At this writing. June, 
■96, there are ten graiumar classes, and a total en- 
rollment of 502. In both departments there are 
eighteen classes and loSi pupils. 

The following gentlemen have been principals of 
the school : Wm. H. Elston, Edwin Shepard, now 
principal of Oliver Street School ; Clarence E. 
Meleny. now connected with the Horace Mann 
School of New York City, and Stephen S. Day, 
under whose supervision the school was elevated 
to the grammar grade eleven years ago. The 
present principal, J. L. Terwilliger, has held tlie 
position over five years, with a total experience 
of twenty-six years successful work in our little 
Stale. Of the excellent and faithful corps of teach- 
ers, Mrs. F. W. Smith, V'ice-Principal, has taught in the school 
twenty-four years, and Miss Rebecca M'Clure. F. Assistant 
twenty-two years. Miss Emma L. Hutchings V'ice-Principal 
Primary, twenty-four years. Miss Anna A. Baldwin, has taught 
here over twenty-nine years, and Miss Duncan, twenty-two 
years. The school is popular, prosperous and well patronized. 


THIS school is located in that portion of our city known as 
Rosexille. iiringing to mind the Roseville of to-day and 
the same place thirty years ago, strongly contrasting pictures 
will be presented. It was well named " A Village of Roses," 
and it is still true to its title. 

In 1854, an enumeration was taken here, and two hundred 
and fifty children of school age were listed. Six years later the 
school was built ; and of this first school as it stood in all its 
pride, a new structure, on the tenth of September, 1S60, we will 
take a brief survey. On Roseville Avenue, just beyond Orange 
Street, back from a grass-covered road, bordered by a plank 
side-walk, two planks side by side, and surrounded by trees, 
stood the school-house. You know the style— straight front, 

straight sides, 
after the fashion 
of the architec- 
ture of our Puri- 
t a n ancestors ; 
two floors, three 
rooms each ; this 
was the typical 
which delighted 
our fathers. 

It is necessary 
to dwell on the 
old school-build- 
ing, for it w'as for 
y ears 
as the 

m any 


■• North 





been moved from 
its original loca- 


tion. in the year 1870, to the site on North Seventh Street. 
Then it was the school in the woods. Before the days when 
rules of the Board of Education became as inflexible as iron, 
many a pleasant afternoon did the children spend reciting their 
lessons under the trees, to the music of the birds, and many a 
nature lesson was learnt from dear Mother Earth herself. 

Soon after the Roseville or Eleventh Ward School was built, 
the rumble and roar of guns and cannon was heard through the 
land, and our section of the city was selected upon which to 
|)itch "Camp Frelinghuysen." and from this camp fronting 
Roseville Avenue, extending north beyond Fifth Avenue, south 
to Sixth Avenue, and east to the edge of what is now known as 
" The Park," marched our gallant soldier boys. It would 
greatly please the citizens of Roseville to have the memory of 
this event perpetuated by naiuing the new North Seventh Street 
School "The Frelinghuysen School." 

The old school still exists and is in use. In the rear of the 
new building on Sixth Street you can visit it any day, and see 
many dear little bright-faced children there, struggling to climb 
the hill of knowledge, but so easily and gradually that a greet- 
ing of smiles and happy voices will be oflered. But this build-' 
ing is soon to be a thing of the past, as iis walls will not stretch 
and as many child- 
ren are found on 
North Seventh 
Street alone as the 
whole ward origin- 
ally contained. 

The new build- 
ing was opened in 
September, 1894, 
and was the cause 
of great rejoicing 
to the citizens of 
the nothern portion 
of Roseville, as the 
grammar scho 
children had been 
obliged to walk 
nearly a tnile. 
much exposed to 
all kinds of 
weather, to attend c. f. br.^ndenburgh, school commissioner. 



South Eighth Street Scliool, then the only gram- 
mar school in the ward. This structure gives 
much pleasure, but the rapid growth of this part 
the city mal<es more room imperative, and a 
much larger building with an assembly hall is 
hoped for. The present building is so arranged, 
that when such celebrations as the school is re- 
quired to hold are in progress, but few of the 
children can see or hear what is going on. 

This school, having obtained the sympathy 
and co-operation of the parents and citizens, 
with its attractive and intelligent children, and 
under the efficient management of a princi|)al, 
able, l<ind and just, and pleasant teachers, will 
continue to be a credit, pride and honor to our 

Present corps of teachers : Thomas T. Collard, 
Principal ; Grammar Department — Elizabeth K. 
Arndt, Vice-Principal; Elizabeth Wyclcoff, First 
Assistant ; Kate Z. Gaston and Annie S. Burgyes 
Assistants. Primary Department — Mary A. 
McNeill, Vice-Principal ; Annie May Young. 
Mona M. May, Bessie C. Schenck, Ida M. Titus, 
Elizabeth G. Parmly, M. Anna Lentz, Lucasta 
C. Baldwin, Mabel Chandler and M. Elizabeth 
Nicols, Assistants. The illustration represents the new school, 
one of the most elegant erected by the Board of Education. 

TO no part of this work has there been a purer devotion brought 
to bear than in the part devoted to schools. This arises 
not from the fact that the burden of our labor has been lightened, 
and by the assistance received from the ])ens of principals and 
others engaged in educational work, who, through the plan of the 
work have written themselves the articles contained in the preced- 
ing pages, and description of the school and school work of their 
own particular school or self-elected school work. To the 
larger number of these gentlemen, who entered upon the task 
with willingness and alacrity, the sincerest thanks of the editor 
are due and hereby extended. We trust also that they will re- 
ceive it in the same spirit in which it is sent. Not because our 
burden of responsibility and labor has been lightened, but be- 
cause circumstances give them opportunities for collecting facts 
and figures which we could not control, and which gives to the 
educational part of ESSEX COUNTV, N. J., Illustr.^TED, a 

truthfulness and 
reading interest, 
which no amount 
of care and re- 
search on our part 
could accomplish. 
It can be said of 
nearly every fact 
recorded and state- 
ment made, they 
have had personal 

Besides this, that 
sameness which to 
many readers 
would become tire- 
some, is broken, 
and instead of the 
narrative being 
humdrum, it be- 
E. iioRTON, SCHOOL COMMISSIONER. comcs attractive 


and the very reverse of tedious. It is an old saying and one that is 
ever trite, that " Varity is the spice of life," and just here this 
comes in such interesting form as to make it replete with 
changes, which is so desirable to the thoughtful reader. Among 
the subjects of which we must needs treat in making it, there is 
but one which can be permitted to take precedence in any way, 
and that js the church, and these two go hand in hand, the 
church and the school. 

For little more than three years it became the writer's good 
fortune to superintend the public schools of Essex County, not 
including the cities of Newark and Orange, both of which have 
city superintendents. During this period abundant opportuni- 
ties were offered to study the educational interests of this 
countv, and we will be pardoned if we appear charmed with its 
beneficence and apparently dwell all too long on the results 
accruing. By referring to the last annual report of Supt. Mathews, 
it is found that there w'as of school age in this county, nearly 
90,000, for all of whom provision is made by the State for their 
education. Not all these accept the State's beautiful provisions- 
The percentage of 
those who do is 
large and rapidly 
growing. As 
compared with that 
n u m b e r repre- 
sented as attending 
the public schools 
two decades o f 
years ago, the in- 
creased ratio i s 
very promising. 

The falling off in 
the numbers in at- 
tendance upon the 
select and private 
and parochial 
schools, seminaries 
and academies, is 
equal to one- 
half, and the d. b. n.\than, school commissioner. 



attendance upon the public schools has in- 
creased in Hke propotion. In the field of 
public school education, or to reverse the 
statement, education of the young in the 
schools of the State, there has been such 
mighty advance made in the methods of in- 
struction, and such marvellous care is being 
exercised in the presentation of learning to 
the young, that we meet with very little 
danger of making a mistake in the statement 
of a belief, that it will require but the ad- 
vances of a few more decades ere all private 
ind select schools w'ill be relegated to the 
])ast and the academies and seminaries, rich 
in the memories of men who handle the im- 
plements in the world's conduct, and hold 
the helms of the ships of state and are now 
held as the apple of the eye of men who honor 
every calling, and women who adorn the 
world and sanctify home-life by sweet affect- 
ion and holy purpose.will be treasured as 
souvenirs only, and give place to the public 
high school — the educational institution 




which has been fighting its way into public favor, and keeping 
even pace with the mighty advances in research and science. 

That the reader may have the marvellous work of the public 
schools demonstrated to his entire satisfaction he has only to 
look into one of those beautiful institutions of learning which our 
artist has, by pen pictures and photos, charmingly transferred 
to these pa es. There he will find all the conveniences which 
experience has proved as the best for educational purposes, the 
school-house Architect and Sanitary Engineer vieing one with 
the other in the production of results both marvellous and satis- 
factory. The new. or township law, for the conduct and 
government of the public schools, has proven nearly all its 
originators and friends desired and expected. High School 
advantages under its wise provisions have been extended to 
children in the out-lying towns, where privileges had before 
been denied. Hundreds of young men and women desiring to 
enter college can now have that blessed privilege without spend- 
ing a year or two or three of precious time in some academy or 

seminaiy after graduating from the grammar school, or having 
to employ a tutor to fit them for college. Ambitious boys and 
girls need not under this law be barred out for want of funds to 
meet preparatory expenses, the State in its generosity providing 
all that is necessary in a financial way, to give the child of the 
laborer, mechanic or artisan an equal chance in the educational 

Such a mighty advance has been made along the two 
important lines of school-house architecture and school sanita- 
tion, we cannot refrain another reference to these subjects. 
Much of the very best architectural talent in the land is now 
making school buildings a specialty, with results of a most 
satisfying character. Sturdy young America, with well ex- 
panded chest and highly developed muscle, is ready for riotous 
play as he slips from the school house door. Such marvellous 
changes being wrought through the scientific exercise gained in 
the well ventilated apartments and in the calisthenics taught. 
Not this alone but the wonderful growth and development of 


body and brain through the influence 
of mannual training which has become 
a part of the curriculum of study in the 

Few pupils there are indeed in 
these our beautiful days of rapid ad- 
vancnieiU. who need go forth into 
the world without a knowledge of the 
more common mechanical implements, 
and their skillful handling. It matters 
little what course the pupil leaving 
school, whether it be from the public 
high or grammar school or the private 
academy or parochial, may decide to 
take, if he does not select for himself 
or circumstances debar him or her 
from entering college, those hours of 
their school life will be found to have 
been spent to the very best purpose, 
during which lessons in manual train- 
ing w-ere inculcated, since their are few 
places in the busy world where such 
knowledge and skill may not be 




used to advantage. Let the lot of the retired 
pupil be cast where'er it may. the knowledge 
gained in the machine shop, the carpenter de- 
partment or carving room of the school, will 
find a blessed adaptation and practical applica- 
tion. The click of the nail hammer, the buzz 
of the hand or whirr of the circular saw, whose 
acquaintance had been made in the hours spent 
where manual labor was taught, instead of sending 
a chill of terror over the frame of him or her when 
first facing the stern realities of life, will wake the 
blessed memories of the hours spent amid those 
new beauties of school life in which they had most 
fortunately been permitted to take part. 

Then, how- many of the young misses who ha\ e 
been privileged to taste and test the sweet realities 
of pie or cake manipulated by their own fingers, 
made deft by practice while having lessons in high 
art cookery inculcated in the pretty little kitchen' 
to which they had been invited to retire when worn 
and torn over Greek roots or algebraic problems 
where not only the realities of the world are met 
face to face, where lessons are learned which will 
tend mightily toward leveling the rough roarl of 
of the house-wife leading to the satisfying of •■Ye 
Lords of Creation." and the vainness of his appetite ever seek- 
ing satisfaction. Again, from the sewing room of her school 
she carries into her home, boudoir or sewing room, a practiced 
hand that had learned to make and mend what God's prattling 
babes will take and rend, double bow knots of holy love. 

It is immensely satisfying to us that our views of the past 
and hopes ever brightening of a glorious future for the public 
schools as recorded in the preceding words, are held and en- 
joyed by such of our people as are making their walk along the 
higher plane of school work, and have become the thoughtful 
themes of njany an article in newspapers and journals. One 
of these we have taken the liberty of transferring to these pages 
unchanged, as it appeared in an edition of June 27, of TV/e 
Cnldwell, N. J.. Ntws. and from the pen of the veteran 
educator and popular superintendent iif the Newark Citv Home 

for Recreant 
Children, at 
Verona, Mr. 
C. B. Harri- 
son Its editor; 
" The aim 
of pubhc ed- 
ucation has 
been to se- 
cure an intel- 
ligent citzen- 
ship. The 
Father of his 
Country in 
his farewell 
address coun- 
seled the sup- 
port of insti- 
t u t i o n s (if 
learning for 
the dissemi- 
nation of use- 
ful k n o w- 
ledge. The 
J. A. BACKiTs, SCHOOL coM.MissioNF.R. earliest ad- 

Pjw^ '-^_«, 


vocates of the free public school system claimed that every 
child upon American soil was entitled, by virtue of dependent 
childhood, to such culture as woukl c|ualify him foi the exercise 
of the manifold " rights " of American citizenship. The idea 
of culture, however, among the practical statesmen and edu- 
cators, during the early part of this century, was comparatively 
crude. The " three r's " were the sole stock in trade of the 
first of the free schools, and these were imparted quite as 
mechanically as the craft of the tradesmen. Arithmetic was a 
matter of blind formulas and rules ; geography, purely descrip- 
tive, taxed the memory with technicalities and names ; while 
English Grammar, introduced generally in the middle part of 
the century, with its etymology and syntax, affored the only 
genuine mental exercise to which pupils were subjected in the 
school room. All in all, little effort was made to qualify pupils 
to use their 
powers on in- 
rl e p e n d e n t 
lines of 
The schools, 
during t h e 
closing years 
of the cent- 
ury, are ap- 
])arently well 
a d \- a n c e d. 
A well dt- 
llned effort 
to lead pupils 
to tJu'nk is 
made in all 
t h e depart- 
ments of the 
graded gram- 
mar school. 
M athematics 
is to-day a 
m alter of j. x. arbucki,e, school commissioner. 



axioms and principles, and in tracing their applica- 
tion, the reasoning faculties are kept heathfully active. 
Geography is physical history, which treats of the 
"life of the inorganic." and unfolds causes and 
effects, in the march of the winds, in the distribu- 
tion of heat and cold and of storm, and in the 
devlopment of all forms of animal life. Grammar 
has advanced beyond the stage of inflection and 
parsing, and is now aptly a language study. In 
method and aim a great advance has been made. 

"The limited introduction of manual training, 
during these last years of this present century, 
shows that public school training is perhaps now 
midway in its transition state. The quickening of 
the merely preceptive faculties and that special 
physical culture which confers power for rapid and 
accurate execution in the production of designs by 
the excise of handicraft, are very generally attract- 
ing the attention of educators, and as a result, we 
may expect the engraftment of manual training 
upon the school course. With all these however, 
the end is not reached. Man is a three-fold being, 
and intellectual and physical education fails to meet 
the demands of his nature. Without moral culture 
and refinement, no one is educated in the better sense of the 
term. Intellectual acumen and acquirement too often accom- 
pany moral degeneracy. Caligula was brilliant, but he was, 
from a moral standpoint, a leper. 

"The moral faculties are said to be slow of devolpenient ; but 
they are susceptible, and under methodical culture will ripen 
as auxiliary and regulating forces of the intellect. What is 
doing in this present age in the public schools is purely incident 
to intellectual training, and therefore lacks in method and scope. 
It may be fittingly characterized as experimental if not perfunc- 
tory. The question of moral education in the near future, will 
be pressing for solution. The differences among religious sects 
have heretofore negatived rational endeavors to include moral 
teaching in the public school course, but with the manifold 
demonstrations, in private and public life, of the futility of one- 
sided culture as a conserving agency, the demand for harmoni- 
ous development will be resolutely made, and intelligently met." 

Manya man 
who has al- 
ready achiv- 
e d distinc- 
tion or has 
risen to sta- 
tions of hon- 
or in the later 
days, has 
been moved 
to shout "ex- 
celsior " over 
his first ink- 
lings obtain- 
in theschool- 
r o o m. of 
those certain 
which had 
been declar- 
ed " innova- 
tions." and 
among these, 

H. I>. RODEN, M. D., SCHOOL COM^rlSSIONER. that of for- 

I \\\kf.N(;e street s( ikhu.. 

estry, with one of its victories, known, celebrated and 
enjoyed underthe title of forestry. Indeed, it matters little where 
or in what field the pupil after leaving school may find his lot 
cast, or the exercise of whatever calling he may elect to pursue, 
the lessons in forestry he may have learned, can prove of in- 
estimable value to his prosperity and well being, providing 
always, that he has the will power to jjut them into practice, 
or he does not prove recreant to the beautiful trust his Alma 
Mater bestowed when she said, " Go forth and fight the battle 
of life," bearing the banner with the strange device " Excelsior." 
Since the introduction of the ideal study of tree culture which 
carries with it tree and forest |irotection, ten thousand times ten 
thousand young tree shoots have grown into trees, with wide 
spreading branches under which the beast of the fields and 
denizens of the W'ood are enjoying shade from the mid-day 
sun, or shelter from the chilling blasts of winter, have been 
preserved, which, had it not been for the lessons learned in 
t h e school, 
would have 
been ruth- 
lessly torn 
from the 
loving arms 
of their ten- 
der mother 
earth, ( a 1 - 
ways prolific 
in her ben- 
e factions.) 
and tramp- 
led beneath 
swift flying 
feet engaged 
in the never 
flagging and 
never ending 
pursuit o f 
the wordly 

more than a c. w. menk. school commis.sionek. 



quarter of a century has tlitted by, since forestry or tree culture 
arose to the dignity of a science, and much less time has passed 
since this marvellously beautiful science and its authoritative 
study, found a place in our school curriculum. 

But now, as the years roll by, the pupil leaving school 
without the foundation laid (at least in forestry study) is 
looked upon as a rare avis indeed, while each one goes forth 
a warrior brave, armed for the fight against the ruthless 
destroyers of our forest glades and beautiful trees of the wood 
and dell. 

If not another beneficent result had accrued from the innova- 
tion, the victories achieved and promise of achievements over 
those fearful scourges of our timber land sections, which here- 
tofore, as awful visitants invading with relentless fury hill-top 
or valley, bearing down in an hour the tree fruit of ages and 
leaving naught but a smouldering ruin to mark its path, is enough 
to call down bensions of love on the heads of those mighty 
spirits who in their devotion to the science of tree growth and 
forest preservation, and who have led the advance guards, 
winning victory after victory over forest fires, is enough to 
establish their undying fame. We now have the brightest of 
promises looming up in the near future that the fiend will lie 
chained at their feet, with the key for its releasing intrusted 
to such hands only as will make use of the beautiful lessons 
learned in the school room, of the best methods of meeting and 
defeating its wild and reckless careering, and the depriving of 
forest fires of tree fruit for its feeding and fatening and robbing 
it of its greatest terrors. 

Nearly, if not quite all, the states of this Union have 
enacted laws which authorize the Governor to set apart by 
proclamation a certain day which is usually selected from the 
closing April or May days, to be known and celebrated 
and enjoyed under the name, style and title of Arbor Day. The 
day thus set apart is usually accompanied by a recommendation 
in the proclamation, that it be observed as a day of thanksgiving 
to God. for the beautiful benefices of trees and plants, their 
planting, nourishment and protection, accompanied by instruct- 
tions from teachers and addresses and songs appropriate to the 
occasion by the pupils of the school. 

That our readers may get a better underst.mding of Arbor 
Day in the public schools, we take the liberty of transferring to 

these pages 
the following 
circular, and 
which w a s 
placed in the 
hand of everv 

Some of 
t h e county 
ents arrang- 
ed a pro- 
g r a ni n o t 
leaving it as 
we d i d to 
their own vo- 
lit i on and 
good judge- 

" If there 
is one duty 
more t h a n 
another and 



worthy State Superintendent and Board of Education would 
impress upon their County Superintendents in the administration 
of the laws governing the public schools under their immedi- 
ate supervision, it is the faithful observance of what is known as 
Arbor Day. 

" That I may second their desires so far as in me lies. I would 
urgently request the principals and teacher of all the public 
schools under my care, to see to it. that the intent of the origi- 
nators and introducers of this important branch of education 
into our public school curriculum of study, shall not only not 
be neglected, 
but shall be 
faithful! car- 
ried out and 
made as thor- 
oughly im- 
pressive upon 
the minds of 
the young as 
i s possible. 
T he more 
practical you 
can make the 
exercises the 
better. By 
this 1 mean 
the introduc- 
tion into the 
school room 
of as many of 
the accessor- 
ies to the de- 
[) 1 a n of 




instruction, such as plants, shrubs and young trees, 
as possible. This, accompanied by a few short 
practical remarks on the nature and growth of the 
same, with their relation and value to the human 
race, will prove attractive and instructive. Arbor 
Day having been wisely and happily ti.xed at the 
season of the year when everything in nature is 
young, or clothed in the garb of youth, it makes a 
starting point for the study of the first easy practi- 
cal lessons in Botany. What I would urge upon 
teachers, is, that wherever it is possible the pupils 
who are of the age to understand should be taken 
into the fields once a week; at least from now til' 
the close of the term, and simple demonstrative 
lectures in elementary botany be given. To have 
the pleasure of looking upon their promising little 
ones romping over the fields by the side of their 
teacher, (veritable flocks with shepherds attending), 
will send a thrill of joy through the devoted parent's 

"As in the years gone by, 1 direct only, that there 
shall be a full and faithful observance of the day, 
and suggest the program of e.xercises to be carried 
out, leaving to principals and teachers the election 
of appropriate addresses, music and songs ; then 
conclude the day's observance with the planting of trees and 
shrubs, the potting of plants and flowers; this I trust none will 
neglect. I hope you will make this an ideal Arbor Day, an 
oasis indeed in the history and conduct of the school under 
your care, to which you can turn in the future and truthfully say. 
well done ! Having completed your exercsises and taken that 
rest necessary for recuperation, which will necessarily follow 
the extra mental and physical strain, you will write out a con- 
cise report of your Arbor Day exercises, and send it to me not 
more than five days afterward. 


DR. M. H. C. VAIL, 

County Superintendent. 
" P. S. — Let me urge upon you the necessily of a careful 
guardianship of the trees, shrubs and flowers planted on Arbor 

Day, as I 

have reason 

y-'"' " to fear that 

man\- beauti- 
f u 1 repre- 
sentatives are 
soon after 

Another in- 
novation, one 
which has 
p rove n of 
utility to pub- 
lic schools, 
and a desid- 
eratum long 
sought, is the 
^ beautiful sys- 

tem of edu- 
cation for the 

'^^_ --'^ beginner, 

known as the 


ten. No visitor to the public school of this day fails to be charmed 
at the first step of his progress through the maze of depart- 
ments and rooms, iuto each of which he is ushered on a tour 
of inspection, as first of all his or her attention is called to the 
little tots of from five to seven summers assembled in the kin- 
dergarten room, where in orderly play they wile the hours away, 
and besides education getting made easy they learn to adore 
the school. Few sights are more interesting than that which 
the kindergarten class presents while engaged in accomplishing 
the task of education getting. The kindergarten innovation is 
another of those moderns which have come to stay, and all the 
old fogies in the land vifith birchen rod and heavy hand, will 
never be able to drive it away. 

As early as 1892, the State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, Dr. Poland, was constrained in his annual report, while 
discussing this system of early instruction to ])U])ils who are 
just passing through the susceptible age of ■' bib and tucker " to 
speak as follows : 

"Among the most recent innovations witnessed in the public 
schools of the 
country, the kinder- 
garten is perhaps 
the most important. 
As a system it aims 
to provide suitable 
tuition and training 
for children from 
four to six years of 
age, too young in 
general to enter 
upon the curricu- 
lum provided by 
most of our elemen- 
tary schools. With- 
out attempting an 
explanation of its 
distinctive aims and 
methods, I will say 
simply that it differs 
from the current m. b. pruder, school co.mmissio.sek 



priinaiy school traiiiini; in laying little stress upon cultivating 
a knowledge of reading and of numbers, but confines itself to a 
systematic development of the observing powers and a corres- 
ponding facility in expression. Not the least important, mure- 
over, is its remarkable adaptation for the development in the 
child of a moral sense. As a means of preparation for the 
ordinary elementary school curriculum it stands unrivaled. It 
is asserted by those who through e.vperience with its workings 
are competent to pass a judgement thereon, that the kindergar- 
ten training shortens materially the time necessary to com- 
plete the usual primary and grammar school course of study. 
Aside, then, from the fact that the training itself is of almost 
incalculable value, its general introduction would becoine an 

directed to the uprooting of vicious habits acquired in these 
years of evil tuition in homes of ignorance, if not of vice, and in 
the baneful companionship of the sidewalks and gutter. 

"Remarkable as it may appear, however, the kindergarten is 
of hardly less value to the children of the rich than to those 
of the poor, the ignorant and the vicious. It provides a little 
cosmos wherein rich and poor meet on equal terms. It aims to 
cultivate besides the intellectual powers the nice |)receptions of 
right, justice and equality, .\t an age when distinctions of 
right and wrong, if not intellectually perceived, are nevertheless 
clearly felt and iiulcllibly impressed, the child life is gi\en a 
direction and impetus that will save it often the danger of sub- 
sec|uent contamination. 



nnr^n ifiiiiinriiinniii 




ec ononiy to the State which is called upon to ]irovide instruc- 
tion through the whole period of the school age. 

" Its chief merit, however, is not to be ascribed to its 
economic value in the foregoing sense, but to its remarkable 
adaptation to the age and environments of the child to develop 
those incipient powers that begin to display themselves at the 
age of four to six years. 

" No more pitiable sight is to be witnessed than that of little 
children of the kinderg.irten age. deprived of pleasant homes 
and careful nurture, si)eniiing the hours of the day upon the 
sidewalks and in the streets of our large cities. To these the 
kindergarten is a boom of inexjiressible joy and of incalculable 

"Much of the early training of the elementary schools is 

" It is my pleasant duty to report that the growth and exten- 
sion of the kindergarten idea in the State of New Jersey, though 
somewhat slow, is none the less steady and hopeful. In thir- 
teen of the twenty-one counties of the State it has gained a 

•■ True, in a number of cases the kindergarten training 
introduced is not the true kindergarten, but what is known as 
mixed kindergarten, including more or less of ordinary primary 
instruction; but in all the counties mentioned it is recognized 
as a part of the school system. The whole number of children 
in attendance at the date of this report (1897) was 4.300. 
This, however, is an excessive estimate, since it includes besides 
those who are being taught in the kindergarten proper many 
in the so-called mixed kindergartens, wherein the principal 



stress is laid upon llie ordinary elementary 
school instruction. A careful estimate of the 
number of children attending the real kinder- 
garten would not exceed 1,500, it is likely. 

" The minimum age at which children are 
received into these kindergartens is five years. 
The Stale law, which fixes the school age at five 
to twenty years, inclusive, prohibits the attend- 
ance of children of a lesser age. In order, there- 
fore, to encourage the establishment of more 
kindergartens, and to enable them to accomplish 
their best service, some legislation is needed. 

"As to the cost of the kindergartens now 
being maintained, no s.ilisfactory statistics are 
at present attainable, ft is encouraging to 
know that in the cities and school districts 
where the kindergarten has been longest in 
operation, it is most highly appreciated." 

Although, as above stated by the learned 
doctor, there were kindergarten classes estab- 
lished in but little more than half the counties 
of our State, and in less than half the schools in 
those counties where this beautiful institution 
had gained a foothold, had this scion of educa- 
tional royalty been grafted, to-day the school 
without t!ie kindergarten instructor surroundeil 
by the happy wee's of the human race, is the 
rarest kind of an excejition. 


THIS school was founded Dec, 1S38. The building is a 
two story brick structure, 70 x 30 feet, situated at the 
corner of Niagara and f-^lizabeth Streets, on ;i plot of ground 
100 X 90 feet, and is valued at about $' 2,000. It contains three 
class-rooms and a kindergaaten, and prepares the children for 
entrance to the High School. The present number of pupils 
being two huntlred, the charges are eighty cents per month for 
each child in the kindergarten, and one dollar ])er head for those 
in the higher classes. 

Where three children of one famdy attend school at the same 
time, the thiid is admitted free. A collector is appointed by 


SOUTH ei(;hth street school. 

the School Association to collect the money. The present 
principal, Mr. Eugene Rahm, isa thoroughly educated gentleman 
and a musician, having been connected with the school for the 
past four years. He is ably assisted by Miss Carson and Miss 
F'arrington as teachers of fCnglish. and Miss Marie Zehnder, 
who has charge of the kindergarten. The Men's Society con- 
nected with the school, is composed cf 370 members who are 
all well known and enterprising citizens. The quarterly dues 
are seventy-five cents. The present oHicers are: J. Burkhard, 
President; J. Spuhler, \'ice-President ; J. (loldbach. Treasurer; 
H. Kabke, Secretary ; Fr. Lembach, Financial Secretary. The 
Ladies' Association has a membership of 130. Their dues are 
fifteen cents per month. The officers are: Mrs. M. .s'obbe, 
Presitlent ; .Mrs. A. lUirkhard, Vice-President; 
Mrs. C. Burkhard, Treasurer ; Miss M. Zehnder. 
.Secretary. The school is in a lloinishing con- 
dition and free of debt. 


THIS school was founded on April 24, 1853. 
The building is a two story high frame 
house with a little tower on its center. The 
lot is 60 X 100 feet. The value of the property, 
including the school furniture, amounts to $6,500. 
The school has tw^o classes and rooms for the 
teacher's residence. The number of pupils vary 
between 70 and 90. The .school money is 
sixty cents for each pupil. Dr. Fritz Kempf is 
the principal of the institution. Miss Emdie 
Temme instructs in the kindergarten. To the 
School Society belong [47 members. The 
yearly assessment of each member is $1.20. 
The same amount is paid by the 41 members 
of the Ladies' Society. The Board of Directors 
are the followiug gentlemen : A. F. Burkhardt, 
President ; Peter Vetter, Vice-President ; Paul 



Karge, Secretary ; Chas. Weller, Treasurer. 
Martin Bross, John Kreiller and Julius Sager 
are the visiting members. 

The officers of the Ladies' Society are : Mrs. 
John Noll. President ; Mrs. Beiii, Secrelar\ and 
Mrs. John Sanvers. Treasuier. Tlie school is 
free from debt. \'acation. two weeks. 


THIS renowned institute, located in the 
centre of the city, was incorporared in 
1S56. It comprises a kindergarten, a primary 
and a grammar department. The rooms are 
light and well ventilated. In a seven years' 
course the i)upils are prepared for the public 
high school. I3esides the common English 
studies the (".ernian language and gymnastics 
are taught. A librar)' of over 600 volumes is in 
the reach of the pupils. 

The tuition is exceedingly low. The facult\ 
consists of nine teachers besides the principal. 
Director, H. von der Heide, Pd. M. 



THIS school was founded by the " Deutsch-Englischen 
Schul-Verein " of the old si.\th and thirteenth Wards, in 
1S5S. IScing attended by 360 pupils, it is the largest German 
and English School in New Jersey. About 75 of the children 
are in the kindergarten, where they are instructed and educated 
according to the princijiles of Frochel. The remainder is 
divided into five classes. The following studies are taught by 
seven teachers (including the director): English Language, 
Reading, Writing. Spelling. Grammar, Object Teaching, Com- 
position, German Language. Arithmetic, Geography, History, 
Natural Science, Drawing and Music. The tuition amounts to 
$1 2.00 per year. At the head of the school is the Board of Direc- 
tors, elected by the School Society (Schulverein). The present 
Board consists of: Henry Schaedel, President; Philip Dilly, 
Vice-President; Dr. ICdward 111, Treasurer; August GOertz, 
Secretary; Fred Jacob, Financial Secretary; Dr. F. 111. fohn 
Fisher, John Henning and John Conrad. 


I N I. 


When we take into consideration the number of German- 
I'.nglish Schools existing in Newark, we coiiie to the conviction 
that the thought w'hich the poet wished to impress upon tin- 
mindsof the Germans of America, has sunk deep into their hearts. 

These people may drift apart in regard to religious or polili- il 
cal views, but in one idea they extend hands ; they provide '1 
schools in which the treasures of the German language arr 
preserved for their children. Occasionally we meet with rare 
cases, in which wealthy Germans neglect the etiucation of their 
children in the mother tongue, but it is singularly touching on 
the other hand to note how the greater part of the less fortu- 
nate class, are willing to make any sacrifice in order to grant 
their offspring an education in the German language. That 
this is true is proved by the fact that no less than fourteen Ger- 
man-English Schools exist in thiscity at the present time, in which 
over thirty-seven hundred children receive instruction in their 
mother tongue. 

It certainly is to the interest of our German-English Schools, 
when our attention is occasionally called to it anew , 
and for this reason a few statistics about these 11 
schools will be here given. I 

ST. benedict's school, 
Situated at the corner of Komorn and Niagar.i 
Streets, was founded in 1862. The present build- 
ing, erected in 18S5, is three stories high, the first 
floor containing two class-iooms, and the second, 
three. Besides this, we find on the ground fioor 
a ])lay-ground large enough to accomodate 500 
children, and two rooms in which the pupils han;; 
articles of clothing. The third story contains :i 
spacious hall, in which festivities are held. Another 
large play-ground adjoins the building. There arc 
450 children attending the school, wdio receive in- 
struction in five different classes. The terms pci 
month for each child in the advanced classes an- 
ninety-five cents, in the lower grades sixty-fi\i 
cents. The director of the school is the Ke\ . 
Father Leonard Walter. The teachers are Mr. 
Joseph Sauerborn and four Sisters of the .St. II. 

They are the Misses Matilda Krapf, Hikny 



Wiest, Liboiia Hartmaiiti and Rosemary Malone. 
The society connected with the school has a 
membership of 230. The contributions made 
by the gentlemen toward the support of the 
school, are twenty-five cents per month. The 
ladies pay fifteen cents every month. The 
Board of Directors consist of the following; 
jrentlemen : Messers L. Peter, President ; A 
Steines, Vice-President ; J. F. VVildemann, Kec 
Sec'y ; H. Martin, Cor. Sec'y ; A. Bernauer. 
Fin. Sec'v ; J. Bernauer, Treasurer, and J. Span- 
genberger, Porter. During vacation — July anil 
August — tlie school is closed. 

Was founded in the )ear 1854, and situated at 
No. 38 College Place. This two story building 
has a dimension of 80 .\ 40 feet ; the entire prop- 
erty has a dimension of 100 x i 50 feet. Con- 
nected with the school, is a hall 50 x 100 feet, 
containing a library and dressing-room. The 
properly is valued at $50,000. There are 240 
children attending the school. The terms are 
eighty cents per month for one child. In the 
three class-rooms we find the following instruc- 
tors: Prof. Gustave Fisher, Mr. E. Rielhmann and Mrs. J. 
Geppert. The kindergarten is in charge of the Misses C. 
Brandley, L. Knoll and A. Anschuetz. The Board of Directors 
consists of the Messers Rev. J. A. Guenther, President ; J. 
Franz, G. Weber, H. Staehle, C. Metzger and C. Wolf. The 
school is free from debt. 

This school, begining with sixteen pupils March 8, 1S85, is 
to-day one of the largest attended of the German-English 
Schools. The plans for the principle building, 146 x 80 feel, 
situated on Livingston Street, contains ten class-rooms, and a 
hall having a seating capacity for Soo persons. An adjoining 
building on Belmont Avenue contains five class-rooms, a hall 
for societies to hold their meetings in, and a dwelling place for 
the janitor. In the fourteen class-rooms, together with the 
kindergarten, upwards of eleven hundred children receive in- 
struction. The rooms are divided into seven classes for boys, 
and the same number of classes for the girls. 

The terms are fiftv cents per month for each child. The 
poor receive an education free of charge at the expense of the 

parish. The school 
is under the direc- 
tion and control of 
R e \-. Father 
Stecher, and the 
Sisters of Charity. 

This school was 
founded in 1874. 
The two story build- 
ing is situated in 
Jay Street n e a r 
Sussex Avenue. 
Its dimensions are 
74 X 32 feet, and is 
valued at §12,600, 
including the build- 
ing together with 
the four lots sur- 



rounding it. There are four class-rooms for the accommo- 
dation of more than three hundred children. The school is in 
charge of Rev. Father Neidermeyer and the Sisters of Charily. 

In which instruction is given in German alone by Mr. Flocken. 
The school consists of one class, and is situated in the rear of 
St. Paul's Church. The school fees constitute the salary of the 


Situated at No. 376 South Seventh Street, is the youngest of 
her sister schools, having been organized September I, l8Sg. 
This school-house is 90 feet long and 46 feet wide and con- 
tains four class-rooms, in which 240 children receive instruction 
in eight different divisions, from five Dominican Friar Sisters. 
The director of this school is the Rev. Father A. M. Kanimer. 


This school was founded in 1876. There are two class-rooms 
situated i n 
the basement 
of the church. 

The num- 
ber of child- 
ren attending 
t h e school^ 
have in con- 
sequence of 
ces in busi- 
ness within 
the last five 
years, been 
reduced from 
60 to 35. 

On account 
of this there 
is but one 
c 1 ass-room. 
The terms , 
per week are 




fifteen cents for one child. As 
the requisite ineans to appoint 
a teacher are not at hand, in- 
struction is given by the pastor. 
Rev. Mr. Girtanner, assisted by 
.Mt. Theophil Girtanner. 


two, which .ire still using the old style of stoves 
Gernian-Knglisli School, and the Catholic Schools, have definite 
teriiis for admitting new pupils into the schools. In the re- 
maining schools new pupils are granted admittance at all times 
during the year. 

A collector is appointed by the First Ward and Green Street 
Schools, to collect the school money. In the other schools the 
fees are collected in the school by the teachers. All the pupils 
are supplied with printed l)ooks without cost, by the First and 
Tenth Ward German-English Schools, and the poor children 
are furnished with books free of charge in the German-English 
Parochial Schools of this city. The following schools received 
a legacy fmni Mrs. Or. Grciner. who died in the year 18S9. The 
First Ward Cierman-English School, the Tenth Ward German- 
English School and the Newark Street School, ^2,000 apiece; the 
Green Street School and Beacon Street School, each $2,500. 

The school principals have 
entire charge of the schools, and 
either act in the capacity of, or 
have control of the janitors, who 
have comfortable apartments 
fitted up for their families in 
the upper stories of the different 
school buildings. Public exami- 
nations are held annually at the 
closing of the school year, by 
the Board of Trustees, and in 
the parish schools the examina- 
tion is conducted by a commis- 
sion appointed by the Kt. Rev. 
Bishop of the diocese. 

The school buildings are 
neatly fitted and are heated by 
steam, with the exception of 
The 12th W.I rd 

CARL IIF.LLKK, I'kl .\( I l'.\L. 

Mr. Hockenjos, who died in 1S91, beciueathed $500 to the 
Green Street School; Mrs. Ottendorfer, of New York, pre- 
sented Green and Beacon Street Schools, in the year 1S83, with 
$500 apiece. Mr. Joseph Hensler, Sen., presents the Twelfth 
Ward School $5° annually, and during the past three years the 
amount was raised to $100. Green Street School prepares her 
pupils for entrance to High School. St. Benedict's School pre- 
pares her boys for admittance to St. Benedict's College, which 
adjoins the school. In case the children in the highest divisions 
of the remaining schools, wish to enter public schools they are 
advanced to the highest grades in these schools. 

Instruction in reading in German, as well as in English, is 
introduced by means of the Phonetic system, in the following 
schools: St. Benedict's, loth Ward German-English, St. Peter's 
and Beacon Street. In the remaining schools reading is taught 
either phonetically in German or by the spelling method in 


English, or else it is taught by the 
spelling method m both languages. 
The word method, for instance, in 
the Beacon Street School wdiere 
German is taught, and the Green 
Street School and the Prebyterian 
Day-School on College Place where 
English is taught, the Phonetic sys- 
tem or the spelling method is em- 

Instruction in English is taught 
in connection with the German 
fiom the lowest classes up. In the 
I'resb)terian Church School, in- 
struction in English begins in the 
second class. In all the parochial 
schools the children receive instruc- 
tion in classes. In the other 
schools, on the olher hand, instruc- 
tion is given in different depart- 
ments. In all the parochial schools 
religious instruction is imparted- 
This is omitted in the other 





THE Wavetiy Avenue School, erected in 
1891-92, is a primary school of eight 
class-rooms, accoinmodating 4S0 pupils, and 
was opened October 20, 1892. The value 
of the site is $9,000 and of the building 
and furniture $25,000. The school is located 
on Waverly Avenue, between Bergen and 
Kipp Streets, and commands a tine view of 
the city, and of Newaik Bay. Bayonne. Eliza- 
bethport, Staten Island. New York Bay and the 
Bartholdi Statue. This grand view is a daily 
inspiration to those whose good fortune it is to 
attend the school. 

In reference to the organization of this school, 
the Sundiiv Call of August 28, 1892, contains 
the following: "Miss E. H. Belcher, who, for 
several years has acted as vice-principal of the 
Commerce Street School, was on Friday night 
put in temporary charge of the new Waverly 
.Avenue School. She is to organize it, and then 
the teachers' committee will decide whether it 
needs a male principal. Miss Belcher is one of 
the most efficient teachers in the city, and is 
recognized as such throughout almost the entire 
teaching force. If she is able to satisfactorily 
organize the new school and place it on a 
smooth running basis, the (juestion may justly 
be asked : ' Why is she not competent to con- 
tinue in cliarge, and not surrender her post, 
when she has accomplished one of the most 
dilificult parts of the work .' ' It is quite prob- 
able, however, that the teachers' committee will favor keeping 
her in charge of the school, for the first term at least, and 
most likely for the entire school year." 

Miss Belcher was appointed principal. May i, 1893. 

The original corps of teachers was : Miss E. L. Melick, 
Miss C. D. Schieck, Miss L. Graham, Miss S. H. Vieser, 
Miss S. E. Mason and Miss A. B. Johnson. This was in- 
creased in the spring of 1893, by the appointment of Miss F. 
M. Burtchaell and Miss M. A. Willoughby. Afterward, Miss 
Johnson and Miss Mason resigned, and were succeeded by 
Miss M. E. Dunham and Miss A. B. Van Arnam. 

In passing through the class-rooms, one is impressed with 
tlie happy spirit that pervades the entire school. At the same 
time, faithful work is done by both teachers and pupils. That 
this work has given satisfaction to those in authority, may be 
seen froin the following letters, recently received : 

" Newark, N. J., July 25. 1S96. 
" My dear Miss Belcher: 

"I desire to express my great appreciation of your successful 
work as principal, in the organization, under very many and 
serious enibariassments, of the Waverly Avenue School. Few 
know the diflficulties that surrounded the school at its opening. 
These were all ])roniptly and effectually overcome, and a'l 
the class-rooms filled to the last seat. The school has been 
eminently successful in all respects. I cannot omit especially 
commending the disci|)line, as to its method and influence. 
These are of the highest order. The same can be said of the 
methods of instruction. I consider the school an honor to the 
city and the cause of education. 

" With many good wishes I remain, 
■' Yours truly, 

" Wm. N. Barringer, City Supt." 


The President of the State Board of Education writes as 
follows : 

" Newark, N. ]., M.iy 15, 1S96. 
"My dear Miss Belcher: 

" In retiring from the City Board of Education, after many 
years of service. I want to congratulate you on your success as 
the l^rincipal of Waverly Avenue School. Through the years 
of your faithful work, as a teacher and vice-principal, you had 
demonstrated the fact of your ability to take the supervision of 
a school, as principal; and I remember my gratification, when 
the Board of Education appointed you to your present position. 

"I never could understand the reasoning that occasionally 
prevails among school authorities, that while a woman is in- 
valuable to organize a new school, and put it in good working 
order a man is necessary as its permanent principal. Your 
success is an illustration of the error of such reasoning. I am 
gratified to have had a part in your first, as well as your per- 
manent appointment to the principalship of your excellent 
school. Your work has given satisfaction to the patrons of the 
school and to the Board of Education. I wish you and your 
faithful assistants continued and increased success, and I 

" Ycry respectfully yours, 

" James I.. Hays." 

The success that has been attained may be attributed to the 
perfect harmony existing between teachers and principal ; to 
the co-operation of the parents and teachers ; and to the ever 
helpful supervision of the Board of Education. 




IN 1833, the late \\\y Kev. I'atiick Moraii. 
fouiKle<l St. John's Scliool. Father Moian 
is known as tlie first V'icar General, and is desii,f- 
nated as the father of Catholii ity, in the 
Diocess of Newark. 

lie was a thor()u.i;hly e<hicated man, possessed 
L;ood jud<;enient, a refined and correct taste, and 
his slerlinfj qualities aided in removing the 
|ired|uihce that e.\isted in his time. For nearly 
thirly-lliree years he laboi-ed zealously in up- 
lifting; his people and ad\ancing the cause of 
eduraiion among those committed to his care. 

M.niv noted citizens, both in the ranks of the 
clergy :iu<l kiilv, liave been pupils in this old 
time honoretl scliool plant. Rev. J. V. I'oels. 
now in charge of St. John's School, is most 
/e.-dous in the cause of education. Since his 
advent into the|iaiish in iiii;^, the school build- 
ing which is shown in the illustrations, been 
renovated and embellished, and shows many 
signs of renewed life. 

Father Foels is a num of great executive 
ability; inider his adunnistr.ition the Sisters of 
St. Jose])h have charge of the school, and they 
also conduct a select school, which has been 
erected in the rear of the convent. 


THl.S school was founded in the year 1855, 
bv the Rev. James Callan. Father Callan a highly 
educated man, a tine orator and rhetorician, full of energy and 
untiring in his labors to the educational interests of those com- 
mitted to his care. In 1S61, he was succeeded bv the Re\'. 
James M. Gervais, under whose management the present sub- 



st.uitial and elegant school edifice was erected. Father Ger\ais 
was a marvel in his day, and surprised the clergy and laity in 
successfully constructing the church school and hospital, 
which is an orn.uuent to the city and a credit to the diocese of 
Newark. In 1873, the Rev. I'. Cody, the present incumbent, 

was appointed rector. .Since 
the advent of Father Cody the 
affairs of St. James' parish have 
prospered. Under his able and 
wise super\ision, the great 
mulertakings of his ])redecessor 
have been brought to a success- 
ful completion. 

The school which appears in 
the illustrations on this page, is 
one of the largest in the city, 
and demonstrates the fact, that 
Father Cody is an educator of 
practical experience. Under 
his direction, the immense 
brown-stone structure fronting 
on Madison and Elm Streets 
has been completed and fitted 
up with every convenience for 
school purposes. The school is 
now absoluteh' free, and the 
children of the humblest parish- 
oner is recognized as the et|ual 
of the more fortunate. 

The attendance has increased 
from two hundred and fifty, to 
nearly twelve hundretl children, 
and sisters of chaiity have been 
placed in charge of the paroch- 
ial school. 




FOR fourteen Iniiulred years the Benedictines have figured 
prominently in the history of the world as missionaries, 
civilizers and educators. St. .\ugustine, the first Archljisliop of 
Canterbury, and St. Boniface, who converted the Germans to 
Christianty, were Benedictines. The Danes, the I^oles. the 
Diitcli and the Bohemians were evangehzed by members of the 
same order. During the first thousand years of its e.\istence — 
from the fifth to the fifteenth century -it gave to the church 
24 popes and 20d cardinals ; it had seen 7,000 archbishops of its 
rule and 14,000 bishops. In England the Benedictines occupied 
113 abbeys and cathedrals, including Westminster Abbey and 
many others almost equally famous. In Scotland they numbered 
among their monasteries lona, Lindores and Melrose. M one 
time the sum total of their houses footed up the magnificent sum 
of 15,000, so many refuges of art and letters, where protected by 

tree have been planted in the virgin soil of Australia and New 
Zealand. In the United States there is not a section, east, west, 
norlli or south, without its large abbeys and numerous depend- 
ent priories. From New Hampshire in the Hast, to Oregon in 
the West; froin the hyperborean regions of Minnesota to the 
sunny clime of Florida, there is scarcely a State or Territory 
without its lineal decendants of the " famous .Monks of the 
West," engaged, as their fathers have been for over 1,400 years, 
in tilling the soil, teaching the rude and ignorint useful trades, 
accustoming the idle and roving to profitable industry, building 
schools and colleges for the education of all, but especially for 
the higher education of the children of the poor. 

In this chain of Benedictine abbeys and colleges, St. Mary's 
Abbey and St. Benedict's College, of Newark, form a not un- 
distinguished link. Here, as it is, and has been, in all places and 
times since the foundation of the order, the school or college is 

ST. benedict's college. 

a religious halo, their inmates kept alive the sacred lamp of 
literature, when outside their walls the world was given up to 
rapine and civil war. 

To quote the words of a writer in the IVc-stminsier Review 
for October, 1879 • " '' ^^'■'^s the monks who proclaimed a more 
liberal sentiment than that of narrow nationality, and discour- 
aged the pagan patriotism, revived in our own days, which 
consists in looking upon every foreigner as an object of suspi- 
cion or hostility. Monasteries opened their doors to all 
travelers and strangers. Monks brought to the councils of kings 
and nations a courage which did not recoil before any danger : 
they resisted the violence of the nobles, and sheltered the too 
feeble freemen from their attacks." 

After centuries of decline, our own age has witnessed the 
marvelous rejuvenation of this ancient order. It is lapidly 
regaining its lost ground in Europe, and off-shoots of the parent 

inseparable from the abbey. While a large amount of public 
and private ceremonies and prayers is included in the duties of 
a inonk, it is also the aim of the " learned Benedictine " to be a 
man of science, a scholar ;in<l a schoolmaster. St. Benedict's 
College has been before the public for nearly thirty years — tS68 
to 1897— and has conscientiously and unostentatiously striven 
to carry into effect the intention of its founders. While instruct- 
iuT. with a preference, in those branches which pertain to a 
liberal education, the knowledge of which is indispensable to 
those who wish to enter the ranks of the clergy or embark in 
any professional career, it has not neglected the needs of those 
whose circumstances or inclinations induce them to prefer 
the commercial to the classical course. By all means in its 
power, it seeks to make its pupils Christian gentlemen, service- 
able to their fellowmen, lovers of their country and faithful to 
their God. 




THIS college was founded in 
Auijnst. 1881, by Prof. 
Mulvey, A. M.. to develop the 
idea of A// Ac/un/ JSitsiiiess. 

"All Actual Business" means 
tliat scholars are to actually 
transact all the business which 
is recorded in their books of 
account. At time most 
business schools included in 
their systems of instruction 
more or less actual practice, 
but the Newark Business College 
began by abandoning all " theo- 
ry " work and arranging from 
the best business sources a 
system of actual practice from 
the liegining to the end of the 

The founder of this system 
was convinced, that wh.itever 
might be the success of his per- 
sonal venture, the principle was 
correct, and it would be en- 
dorsed in time by all commer- 
cial schools. This view is being 

justified by the fact that prominent colleges all over the L'nited 
Stales have embraced the idea. 

The utility of actual practice in a business school, is of a 
kind with experimentation in other departments of study, or 
with clinic in medicine. It is more important that a student 
should graduate from a business school with an ingrained know- 
ledge of business detail th.m a general |)roficiency in the theorv 
of book-keeping. But when this knowledge and this prohciencv 
can be combined, the one complementing the other, the student 
has obtained a true business education, and its effect on his 
future will be marked by a full measure of success in his 

u n d e r t a k - 


In addition 
to the ".All 
Actual Busi- 
ness " feature 
of this school, 
it possesses 
others that 
are worthy of 
c o n s i d e r a- 
tion. It is 
the leading 
school of 
penmansh ip 
i n Esse x 

Prof. \V. 
W. Winner, 
the S ec r e - 
tary, is not 
only an ac- 
coni plislied 
penman, but 
he is a born 



teacher, and teachers, like poets, must be born such and not 
made such. 

Another specialty of this school is business computation. 
Students are taught in this branch to foot rapidly and correctly 
long columns of from forty to eighty items, not by adding digit 
to digit, but by a system of reading groups of figures as one 
reads groups of letters constituting words. .\lso they are 
drilled in making extensions, that is in multiplying factors 
both of which are mixed numbers, as 2735I lbs. at 16J cts. per 
lb. This operation is (lerformed by simple division mostly by 
2 and 4, and the answer is brought correct to the cent. Finally, 
there is but 
one rale of 
t'lilion for 
any or all the 
studies. $7.00 
per month, 
on the prm- 
riple of. /',/i' 
as ynu go is 
t h e b e s t 

M a r t i n 
Mulvey, A. 
M., the prin- 
c i p a I is .1 
t h o r o u g h 
school man, ' 

and besides 
being a 
cian and ac-, he 
is an accom- 
plished Eng- 
lish scholar, m, m, mulvey, a. m.. proprieior. 





THIS institution, founded in 1869 by the Alost Rev. Bishop 
Bayley for educational purposes, is under the patronage 
of the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Newark. The location is upon very 
high ground and is unsurpassed for healthfulness. It is easy 
of access ; the Market, Bank and Warren Street cars pass the 
academy to and from the Oranges and the Market Street 
Station nf the Penn. R. R. in Newark. 

It offers superior attractions lo parents who desire to give 
their children a useful as well as thorough education, and it will be 
the constant endeavor of the Si.sters to instill into the minds of 
their pupils, principles of virtue and religion, to accustom them 
to a polite and amiable deportment, as well as to habits of 
order and neatness. The present large and extensive building, 
erected in 1888, is furnished with all the modern improvements 
requisite in a thorough course of study. Ample ground has 
been reserved exclusively for the necessary out- 
door exercise of the pupils ; besides, when the 
weather permits, they are obliged to take, daily, 
about an hour's walk, accompanied by one or 
more of the Sisters. 

ST. M 

MARY'S AC.ADKMV was at first known 
the " Ward's Kstate," and was pur- 
chased in 1859 by Rt. Rev. J. R. Bayley. first 
bishop of Newark. It was occupied by the 
Sisters of Charity, as their Mother House, until 
they removed to Madison. N. J., in 1861. After 
this the building was used as St. Mary's Orphan 
Asykim till 1865. when the Orphanage at South 
Orange was ready for the orphans. In the fall 
of 1865 St. Mary's Academy was opened. 
Part of the building was at this time a hospital. 
St. Michael's Hoepital was not in existence then. 
In 1874 the old "Ward Mansion" was razed. 
and the present beautiful building was erected 
in its stead. St. Mary's Academy has ever 
stood among the first in the city, regarding 
numbers and success of its pupils. An excel- 
lent view of the academy building is shown in 
the illu.strations on this page. 




J I 4 i I i i + + t I . ,, 



e^^ • 

1 1 1 S J D D 





WITH the j^reat growth of the business interests of the 
world and the constant rush of business activity in 
mercantile centres, the old-tinie methods of learning those 
systems necessary to securing and holding btisiness positions 
are disa|ipearing. There is no time for teaching in business 
offices, as formerly. There are new ideas and necessary arts, 
such as stenography and typewriting, which can best be learned 
in a place tlevoted to practical instruction. Hence it is that the 
business school of former years, wdiich confined itself mainly to 
penmansliip, correspondence and bool<-keeping, has developed 
into a college, wliich is practically a busi- 
ness world in miniature wherein the young 
man and young woman can attain that 
knowledge and business-like facility which 
causes the door of emiiloyment to open 
easily to them. 

The Bryant and Stratton Business Col- 
lege won the favor of businsss men wher- 
ever it was established, and the system it 
inaugurated has been made the basis of 
some very successful institutions, of , 
which a conspicuous example is the Cole- 
man National Business College, of New- 
ark. This college, occupying tw-o large 
floors over the entrance to the Newark 
and New York Depot, 833 to 840 Broad 
Street, (office entrance 83S Broad Street, 
Central N. J. depot) was established in 
1862. and has been in the hands of Mr. H. 
Coleman, the jircsent president, for fifteen 
years. Mr. Coleman is a most competent 
educator and is assisted by a corps of 
well-equippetl teachers in every depart- 

ment. The college has accomodations for about four hundred 
students, and its patrons come from all over the United States, 
while its graduates are to be found in almost every city and 
town. The furnishing of the college is very complete, including 
fine business ofiice furniture, a large number of the best type- 
writing machines, and am|)le facilities for equipping its students 
with a thorough business training. 

In the department of Stenography and Typewriting, only 

experienced teachers are employed, and it is a model school for 

instruction in these lines. While acquiring the necessary facility 

of writing, the students are made familitiar with actual business 

methods, ,ind the success of the system under which they learn 

is indicated by the readiness with which 

graduates find employment. In fact, the 

case is the same in all the departinents. 

The Coleman National Business Col- 
lege is incorporated by acts of the New 
Jersey Legislature of 1S76 and 1S88. 
The original incorporators were Ex- 
Governor Marcus L. Ward, Ex-Mayor 
F. W. Ricord, of Newark, Ex-United 
States Senator T. B. Pedclie, Mr. Silas 
Merchant, President of the .Merchant's 
Fire Insiu'ance Co., Mr. S. R. W. Heath, 
President of the I'^ireman's Insurance Co., 
anfl Mr. fohn P. Jackson. 

The catalogues of this college are not 
only artistic gems of the most modern 
typography, but they contain matter of 
general information pertaining to Newark 
and the country at large which is well 
calculated to interest and instruct evtry 
one. This is typical of the superiority, 
vigor and originalitv of this live, up-to-date 
school of business. 





HE Newark High 
School was opened 

January 3, 18 


Dr. Pen- 

nington, President of the 
Board of Education, in 
his adch'ess at the dedica- 
tion, said: "The edifice 
is a hirge and imposing- 
one, well planned and 
compares favorably with 
the most commodious 
buildings of the l<ind in 
this country." 

When the building was 
opened in 1855 it was 
filled by pupils having the 
highest per cent, in schol- 
arship and deportment in 
the various grammar 
schools, but this method 
of entrance was soon 
changed and for many 
years pupils have been 
admitted only on examin- 
ation. For many years there was little Latin and less Greek taught, 
and there was no thoroughly systematized course of study. 
The first class that was prepared for college was in 1S77, from 
which lime it has sent bovs and girls to college. There have 


entered the High School — 1855 to 1S96 — 12,593 pupils, and the 
whole number of graduates has been 2.212. 

The original lot cost 85.000. a'"' building $20,000. The first 
principal was Mr. Isaiah Peckham, who served the public for 
twelve years. Then came Mr. Dunlap for three years, and Mr. 
Lewis M. Johnson, for two-thirds of a year, and in the spring 
of 1871 came the ]iresent incumbent, Ur. E. O. Ilovey. The 
number of pupils in the High school to-day (January I. 1897) is 
something over 1,200; the number of teachers, 33. The school 
has so far outgrown the building that 220 boys and 270 girls 
are housed in annexes, but the new building is materializing 
and will be shown in the next edition of this book. 


,\ i;ki iai-> si RKET. 


NEARLY fifty years ago, James Searing, a generous-hearted 
man owning a large tract of land in the western part of 
the city, donated a plot at the corner of W'ickliffe and School 
Streets to the city for school jiurposes. Here, in 1S48, was built 
a plain two-story brick school-house, the third ])ublic school of 
Newark. At that time the inale and female departments were 
under separate managements, the former on the top floor and 
the latter on the lower, each having an assembly room and two 
small recitation rooms. The school was afterward divided into 
six class-rooms. 

In 1872 this school, not being adequate to the demands of 
the locality, the Central Aventie school was built and the school 
transferred to it and the old building closed. In 1873 '' ^^''s 
again opened, this time as a primary school with a lady prin- 
cipal. In 1 891 it was again found too small and a new school 
was built on Warren Street, west of Wickliffe. 

The Warren Street school is of red brick with terra cotta 
and blue-stone trimmings. It is a three-story building having 
two large courts and the Principal's office on the first floor, 
while on each of the other floors are four large class rooms, 
with a wide corridor extending the length of the building, also 
a library and sitting room for the teachers. The building is 
heated and ventilated by the Fuller & Warren system. It is 
supplied with steel ceilings which, while very pretty, are not 
very satisfactory for school purposes. When the Warren Street 



school was opened, in SepteinlK-r. 1892, every seat was occiipietl 
and still three classes remained in the Wicklilfe building. Soon 
two more classes were formed and in Novenilier, 1894. a kinder- 
garten class was added to the nundier. This class has been 
largely attended, being greatly appreciated by the patrons of 
the school. The room, which is large and bright and pleasant, 
has been nicelv fitted up by the Board of Education and has 
bi-en pronounced one of the best in the city for the purpose. 


HI.S handsome souvenir would not be a finished work did 
not its letterpress contain something of interest in regard 

Not .Ts the contjuorer coines, 

Tliey, tlie true-liearted came; 
Not with the roll of the stirring drums. 

And tlie trninpet that sings of fame. 

Not as tlie flying come, 

In silence .ind in fear; 
They shook the depths of the greenwood gloom 

Witli their hymns of lofty cheer. 

Amidst the storm they sang, 

And the stars heard and the sea ; 
And the sounding aisles of the dim wood rang, 

To the anthem of tlie free. 

NEWARK lllcill ^CH(l(ll., CllK. W ASH t Nl ;il IN ANU I.INfllCN SIREl-.TS. 

to her cduc.ition.d institutions, as repri-sented in the schools 
scattered all o\'i-i" oiu' f.iir domain and housed in such a manner 
as tn satisf) the most cN.icting. It \\.is r.irly in the nalinn's 
career, when scions cut from the trees of U-aiiiing which had 
taken deep root in the rock-bound soil of New England, and 
which had sprung up from the seed brought across the storin\ 
ocean in the hold of the Mayllower, were planted in the soil of 
Essex County. 

Mrs. Hemans has portrayed the landing at Plymouth Rock 
of our pilgrim fathers in the language of her beautiful poem, 
" The I..-mding of the Pilgrim Fathers." 

'1 he breaking waves dashed high 

On a stern and rock-ljound coast, 
And the woods against a stormy sky 

Their giant branches tossed. 

And the heavy ni.ijht hung dark, 

'the hills and waters o'er, 
Wlien a band of e.xiles moored their bark 

On the wild New England sliore. 

'I'he ocean eagle soared 

I''rom his nest liy the wliite waves' foam ; 
And tlie rocking pines of tlie forest roared — 

This was their welcome home. 

Tlieie were men tjf lioary liair 

■Amidst the pilgrim band ; 
Why had they come to wither there, 

Away from their childhood's land. 

There was woman's fearless eye. 

Lit by her deep love's truth ; 
'I'here was manhood's brow serenely high. 

And the fiery heart of youth. 

What sought they thus afar ? 

Briglii jewels 01 the mine ? 
The wealth of seas, the spoils ot war? 

They sought a faith's pure shrine ! 

Ay, call it holy ground. 

The soil where first they trod ; 
They have left unstained what there they found. 

Freedom to worship God ! 


WILLIAM N. HAKKlN'.l.k. b L i' 1 . 



There is no one thiiii< in'which 
all New Englaiiders take a greater 
pride than in the glorious fact that 
it was but six years after the settle- 
ment of Boston, when Harvard Col- 
lege, one of the proudest institutions 
of learning in the United States, 
was established. .So it was with 
the old hist settlers of New Jersey, 
who not only brought with them 
their church establishment, with its 
glorious privilege of worshipping 
God after the dictates of their own 
consciences, but they carefully tend- 
ed the scions, cultivated, watered 
and tenderly nourished them up into 
giant educational trees, and all now 
bearing most delicious fruit. 

As we proclaim through the pages 
of this work, the stupendous fact 
that the institutions of learning of 
which Esse.x County can boast have 
few equals and no superiors in any 
county of this State, or any of her 



PROF. E. o. no\ I.V. 


lion SCHOOL. 

fined to institutions of the same grade. This was made abun 
dantly manifest by the grand exhibits made at Chicago at the 
international exhibition held there in 1893. in coninicmoration 
of the four hundredth centennial of the discovery of America 
by Christopher Columbus in 1492. 

So far as we are able, no part of the educational interests of 
Essex shall be permitted to suffer, but the schools shall be all 
treated alike, and each shall be given its due share of exposition 
and attention. The beautiful illustrations of the public school 
buildings which have found place in this volume, show them 
to compare favorably with any structures, be they of stone, brick 
or wood, designed for school purposes, to be found anywhere. 
Since there is no subject which will find a place in this book of 
nearly so much interest as the public schools, we shall give them 
the first consideration. The public schools of Essex County, or 
the free schools, as they are usually termed, are conducted by 
the State, county and city in combination. The State assuming 
the prerogative right of looking after the best interests of its 

sisters, when the comparison is con- 
citizens, has deemed the education of the masses as of para- 
mount importance. To carry out its intent to educate the 
people or to make education free, they ])laced learning within the 
reach of all who will but exercise their right to reach out and 
take it. The State Board of Education or of Public Instruction 
consists of six members appointed by the Governor, eight 
members being taken from each of the two leading ])olilical 
parties of the eight congressional districts. 

The chief executive officer is known as the State Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction and has his ofhce in Trenton. 
The next in executive authority are the County .Sui)erintend- 
ents of the several counties and the City Superintendents of the 
several cities of the .State. The next in order come the city 
and township Boards of Education. The cities have two com- 
missioners for each ward and the township boards have each 
nine members. The scliools have each a principal and a corps 
of teachers large enough so that, as a rule, not more than forty 
children or pupils shall make up the class. Education getting 



has been so simplified by officials and 
teachers during the early past that it 
seems no pupil shall fail to verily gorge 
himself or herself with the richest of the 
feast if his or her parents will it and the 
child desires it. 

The introduction into the public school 
curricuhnn of the kindergarten for begin- 
ners, and manual traming for advanced 
pupils in later years, have each done a 
marvellous work and have given pupils 
such glorious advantages as will not soon 
lie forgotten. There is little doubt, since 
iliey play sucli a Deneficient part in the 
work of education, but what these 
branches, which were at first termed inno- 
vations and had a hard struggle to get a 
permanent foothold, have came to stay. 
So beneficieiuly inclined are the majority 
of those in charge that provision is made 
— for children whom circumstances have 
t.iken from the schools to become bread 




winners for the family — in tlie night scliools, wliich are kept up 
when the necessity therefor seems to exist or the call is made 
by enough who are hungering for a taste of the fruit which in 
these night schools is placed within their reach to warrant tlie 
employment of a teacher. 

When the writer was County Superintendent of the pulilic 
schools of Essex County, no more pleasing or more satisfying 
sight ever came before him than one of these night schools in 
session. One in parliiular conducted in the class rooms of the 
High School building, in Montclair. where the greater propor- 
tion of the pupils came from the service for which they were 
employsd in the families of the place. Most of them were 
colored, and (|uite a percentage had passed the half century line 

holding fast to the belief that their secular and religious educa- 
tion should go hand-in-hand. Even in the Church of England, 
of which our American Protestant Episcopal Church is an off- 
shoot, the same idea, to some extent, still prevails, and there 
are a few who yet think it to be an almost unpardonable sin to 
see their children come under the influence of the education of 
the free schools. 

A beautiful part of the picture to adorn the pages of this 
book comes in where we meet the select school and academy, 
where religious influences have much less to do with the 
pupils who are entrusted to their care. Among these stand 
the Newark Academy A beautiful pen picture of the build- 
ngs in which the pupils are fitted for college, for professional 


of years, 'riu- latter made slow work and fumbled the pencil not 
a little Willi their clumsy fingers, stiffened by toil, as they 
labored to learn the art of writing their own name. While 
leaning over the shoulder of one whose hair was fast losing its 
color, he looked up, while a smile played over his face, as he 
replied to our suggestion that it was pretty slow work, " Yes, 
yes. massa. pretty slow. But I'm shuah to ketch 'iin." .And so 
he did, as we were afterwards pleased to learn. 

While the |)ublic school system as carried out in Essex 
County IS very near to the hearts of the people and is to 
many, indeed, verily "the apple of their eye," there are others 
again whose love for the parochial school remains unabated. 
Among the latter are found our Catholic fellow-citizens who 
cling with loving tenacity to this institution of their fathers. 

or business life, is seen on ])age 107. From the tloors 
of the Academy ha\e gone forth thousands of 
young men who are adorning the professions and are proud to 
call Prof. Farrand's academy their alma mater. As well as 
being one of the best, the Newark Academy is one of the oldest 
academical schools in the State, as it is the oldest in the Countv 
of Essex, having been established in 1792. The academy 1^ 
situated on the plot of ground rin the southeastern corner ol 
High and William Streets, in the cily of Newark. 

The 15oard of Education of the city of Newark holds its 
regular sessions on the last Friday evening of each month, in 
the chamber of the Common Council, at the City Hall. The 
Board is officered as follows at this time (1S97), viz; President, 
William A. Gay. who presides at all the meetings of the Board; 



• ^ 


Secretary, Robert D. Argue, who has 
his office Ml one of the education rooms 
at the City Hall, where he may be 
^^^^^^^^ fuuiul every tlay from 8 A. M. to 5 P. M. 

^^^^^^^^^^ '^'''' ^I'gue seems to be pecuharly 

^^^ ^IR^^^ adapted for the place he fills so ad- 

f ^^^^^M mirably. He attends all the meetings 

^^ ^ ^PH of the Boaul of Education and kee])* 

M9 ^i^ * .-^ a faithful record of all their proceed- 

ings. The Assistant Secretary of the 
Iioard is Samuel Gaiser, whose duty 
is to help Mr. Argue bear his burden. 
The Superintendent of Erection and 
Repairs is Mr. George W. Reeve. 

I5y a resolution of the Roard of Edu- 
cation the school term of the year has 
been fixed at forty weeks, the schools 
opening generally on the first Tuesday 
of September and continuing till the 
latter part of June. A week or ten 
days is termed the short vacation dur- 
ing the holiday period. During the 
present school year, beginning Septem- 
ber, 1S96. and ending June, 1897, there 
has been an attendance of pupils num 

bering, as per roll kept, a little more than 30,000, about equally 

divided between inales and females. In order that the 

teachers may have the advantages accruing from lectures on 

educational subjects. Teachers' Institutes are held on the third 

Saturday of February. April and November, the session ex- 
tending from 9 A. M. to 12 l\l.. and from 1.30 to 3.30 P. M. 

Besides these institutes designed and carried on for the special 

benefit of teachers emploved in the city schools, there is the 

regular County Institute at which all the teachers in the county 

engaged in teaching in the public schools are expected to 

attend unless excused by the County Superintendent on pre- 
senting some good and sufficient reason w'hy they desire such 

excuse for a non-attendance. These Institutes the teachers 

usually attend with alacrity, and especially is this the case 
vhen men who are thoroughly versed in educational matters 

and are qualified to instruct in the art of teaching and 

understand the true principals of pedagogy, are expected to 

occupy the speaker's platform. But it is not too frequent 




that a Brumbaugh can be secured to instruct, edifv and 
please everybody. Not a few cases of sick headache or 
break bone fever (Grippe) can be trotted out for a spin when 
an uninteresting speaker is announced. 

The High School of the city of Newark marks well up on 
the educational record of Esse.x County, and compares most 
favorably with any other high or academic school in the State. 
The Newark High School is under the care of Professor E. O. 
Hovey, a teacher of lar ^e experience, and a gentleman of most 
exemplary character. Professor Hovey is surrounded by a 
large corps of assistants who do much to lighten his burdens 
and add not a little to the success which marks the career of 
this school. Among this corps of assistants is found Professor 
Sonn, a veritable Boanerges among teachers, and who will be 
rememberd for his splendid qualities as a gentleman and scholar, 
in his efforts to keep the people posted in regard to the meas- 
urements of heat and cold, the barometrical pressure, the ex- 
tent of the rain-fall and other scientific reports, sent with his 


compliments to the people, through the 
columns of the afternoon papers. Like 
Professor Hovey, Professor Sonn, is a 
scholarly gentleman, and the High School 
pupils are often heard to exclaim, " How 
could we do without him?" so attached 
have his pupils become to this excellent 
teacher of the higher branches of aca- 
demic learning. The daily sessions of 
the High School begin at 9 A. M. and 
close at 12.15 P- M-.:ind from i to 2.30 p. 
i\l. Newark conducts her own normal 
classes, thus fitting out her own teachers. 
The Normal School is under the care of 
Professor Clark, who, for many years. 
Idled most acceptably the place of princi- 
pal of the Fifth Ward Grammar School. 
The High School was opened in its pre- 
sent quarters at 133 Washington Street on 
January 7. 1855, and during all these 
years, forty-two in number, two thousand 
and eighty five graduates have passed 





LIR. I. W. k 


Street, Prof. Hovey, A. M. Ph. D., Principal ; Arthur W. Taylor, 
William E. Wiener, Theodore B. Haskell, Ph. D., K. S. Blake. 
Not half the tribute due to the High School branch of our 
beautiful system of education can we pav, not having" the space 
requisite for the purpose, and now as we approach the primary 
and grammar departments of the best system of education for 
the masses ever devised by anyone, it is with deep regret, since 
we have not the opportunity to deal justly, or as e.xtensively as 
they so richly deser\ e. The primary schools scattered all over 
the county, nearly all of which have the kintergarden attach- 
ment, giving the little ones opportunity to begin, when the 
twigs are tender, to give them the bend in the right direction, 
as in the work of carrying out the old axiom, " Just as the twig 
is bent the tree's inclined," toward which, all teachers are 
generously inclined, stand with wide open doors and with out- 
strcched arms ready to welcome all comers. No teacher, as we 
gii on in \ears, is better than experience, and she has taught 
us that the kintergarden is just as near perfection when our 
children arc just starting out in pursuit of an education, as it is 

from its portals. Of these, 794 were 

males and 1,291 were females. In this 

same building is conducted an evening 

high school, with J. \\ ilmer Kennedy 

as principal. 

The entire corps of teachers in the 

High School is made up as follows, viz.: 

Piof. ¥.. O. Hovev, Principal ; male depart- 
ment. Profs. G. C. Sonn, A. M.. W. C, 

Sandv, C. S. Thatcher, C. F. Kayser, Ph. 

D., A. H. Sherman, Frank G. Gilman : 

female department, Clara W.Green, \'ice- 

Principal : Eliza Leyden. Ph.M., B.Flora 

Ci.ine, Ph. M., Millie A. Foster, Mar\ 

H. Richards, Natalie Antz, Ella E. Put- A. B., Hannah M. Coult. Marie 

Ijiiltner, Abbie E. Wiggins, Sarah J. Mr 

Mary, Nellie Hill, High School Annex. 

girls, 105 Washington Street; Edmund 

O. Ho\ey, Ph. D., Principal ; Isador M. 

Sherman. Sophia E. \'on Seyfried. Grene- 

vieve S.Grork, Elizabeth Harden, Joseph- 

ene A. Field, August M. H. Beyer; High 

School Annex, boys, 103 Washington 

possible to come, and it is with much pride that we can say. 
that it is found in nearly, it not quite all, of our primary schools. 
The primary schools of the City of Newark alone, number 
about fifty, and taking the county of Essex as a whole, 
it would not savor of exaggeration, were the statement made, 
that the number of primary schools would reach nearly or quite 
one hundred, and with such care have they been located, that 
few children are so situated as not to be within easy walking 
distance of the school which they are allotted to attend. 

Especially true is this of the cities of Newark and Orange, 
and since the new or township law, as it is termed, went into 
effect, the beneficient arrangement under its wise provisions, 
which provides that where children are living at inconvenient 
distances from the schools the State generously provides a fund 
of money, with which to pay the expense of their transportation 
to and from the school rooms. Since, in cjuite a large portion 
of Essex County, the schools are necessarily located for the 
edification and comfort of the majority of the children of school 
age, therefore it must needs be that the minority, while suffer- 



ing friim the disadvantage which dis- 
tance nietts out, must needs be pro- 
vided with a conveyance to and from the 
school-room each day of the school year. 

It is with no slight degree of i)ride that 
the people of Essex County can turn to 
their public school buildings, as for loca- 
tion, size, convenience and architectural 
attractiveness, they compare favorably 
wiih the best in the State or nation. 
Take, for examples, the High Schoo. 
buildings at East Orange and Montclair 
— buildings erected at a cost of either 
of more than one hundred thousand dol- 
lars. In their heating and ventilation, 
these Ijuildings are models, while the 
class-study and recitation rooms and the 
assembly halls are capacious, and meet 
the purposes for which they were de- 
signed by the architects who planned 
them marvellously well. 

.As such a large proportion of the child- 




children of Essex County are compelled bv circum- 
stances to close their school clays when the course 
of study ends \vi»h the grammar school, this Ijecomes 
the all-important in the mind of such as turn off 
at this point from their school life, and join the 
great bread winning brigade. While the great 
majority of the pupils wlio have finished the gram- 
mar school course show little reluctance at turning 
from the school-house door, and with alacrity take- 
up tlie cudgel of life, seldom, if ever, thinking of 
the teachers and educators, and not knowing or 
caring whether there is such a thing as an Alma 
Mater and hardly, if ever, take a look into the book, 
there is yet the minority who leave its sacred pre- 
cincts with tear-bedewed eyes, and who cherish 
every remembrance associated with their schoo' 
life, and hold the grammar school diploma as the 
precious thing of life, and who spend all their 
leisure moments in pursuing the educational ])ortion 
which they failed to reach, ere they, too, step out 
into the world, determined to use what they had 
learned, to their best advantage, and add thereto, in 
their leisure hours, all they possibly can to make 
theinselves manly men. 

It was not until iSS6 that manual training was introduced 
into the public school curriculum. Among the many things 
incorporated therein, few indeed, if any. have proved of greater 
usefulness, and from which better results have accrued, than 
that branch of study known as manual training. On its intro- 
duction each district was left with the power to elect its own 
course. This course was continued until June, 1S92. The 
State Board of Public Instruction directed the then State Super- 
intendent of Public Schools, to prepare a course of study for 
the guidance of those schools which had incorporated manual 
training into their curricula, or might hereafter incorporate it. 
While Dr. Poland, the Superintendent, prepared the course 
with great care, having called to his assistance principals of 
such schools as had adopted it in their course of study, it was 
soon found that additions and changes were necessary, and as 
the Doctor honestly stated in his report, that the course as laid 
down was merely suggestive, since the course of study pursued 
"shall be approved by the State Board of Education." 

He further said, this a])proval of the Hoard was the condition 



precedent to the appropriation of any money for manual train- 
ing purposes. But withal, the Board did not interfere, but gave 
to each school the widest range and largest latitude to carry 
out its own wishes, both ;is to number of maniial training 
branches to be pursued and the amount and kind of instruction 
to be given. But in the exercise of this large liberty, each 
school had the good sense to keep close up to the course laid 
down in order that the purse strings might be easily unloosed 
when pay day came around Among the schools of Essex 
County which first caught hold of the manual training innova- 
tion, as some of those who questioned the propriety of its in- 
troduction termed it, were Montclair. South Orange, Orange 
and East Orange, taking precedence in the order named. The 
following, appeared in the rejjort of the County Superintendent 
to the State Superintendent of public schools for 1S94.. 

" Again I am able to report progress in these beautiful lines 
of public instruction. Since my last report, East Orange has 
joined the ranks of the rapidly swelling army of schools, where 
the pupils have the wicket-gates to the realities of life, and the 
business of the world thrown open to them. No 
step backward is the motto in this county. As 
yet, Montclair is the only .school where I am able 
to report the school kitchen open to the young 
misses, where they may take lessons in cooking and 
liaking and good coffee making, but other schools 
are making ready the little bijou of kitchens where 
the young misses can wrestle with high art cooking. 
No one cm fully understand the far-reaching bene- 
fits of teaching along these lines till they come to 
a full realization of the fact how very few of the 
children from the common schools have oppor- 
tunity to further pursue education. The kinder- 
garten has come to stay. This I .im pleased to 

The love of trees, shrubs, plants, etc., which is 
springing up and truly nurtured among the pupils 
of almost every school, which the celebration of 
Arbor Day is begetting, is a beautiful result and 
well worth all the attention bestowed. The follow- 
ing is from our report of the same year — we trust 
our readers will feel, as we do, its worthiness 



to lioltl a place in these pages: "Arbor Day. A 
growing love for Arbor Day among all the schools 
is slowly forcing upon the ]ieople a realization 
of how much it means to the country and the world. 
This is because they are beginning to understand 
it better. The reports from eacli principal of the 
several schools, all of which I sent to your ofike, 
show pretty conclusively that the science of Fores- 
try is being accepted as a living theme." 

After a careful reading of the reports of the co- 
workers in the same official capacity, wc find about 
the same degree of regard exercised toward these 
new branches of educational work, and especially 
is this true of the liranches mentioned. That there 
is a true spirit of beneficence arising from the use 
of calisthenics none can deny who have ever watched 
the results accruing from a judicious employment 
of calisthenics as a part of the daily routine of 
class work in this line. Too much care cannot be 
eNercised in the selection of teachers in this branch 
of ]nd)lic instruction. The marked difference in 
the walk and pose of young girls especialy, cannot 
but be seen by the most casual observer, after a 
well-conductetl course under the instruction and 
guidance of a teacher versed in the art. Not alone 
to the calesthenic teacher is the correction of the faults of 
walk, pose, etc., due, but to the resolute way in which he or she 
goes about the work of puttnig his or her bony framework into 
the positions designed by the great architect, having its begin- 
nings and endings, points and balances just where each will 
meet the other in perfected harmony. 

We have not the space to pay the tribute due to the many 
workers in the cause of education in Ksse.\ county, but ere we 
write the word finis, we will touch upon the birth, career and 
soiuething of the life-work, of one or two which have gained 
a prominence in the good work, which we trust, will be read 
with interest. The City Superintendent of the Public Schools 
of Newark, Dr. William N. Barringer, has written his name high 
as an educator. Like many of our leading educators, successful 
business men and statesmen. Dr. Barringer is eminently a 
self-made man. He was born in the old Empire State' and 
grew up a farmer boy. He was blessed only with the advan- 

Sl', lil-:NF.l)ICf S l'AKOt;nl..\I, SCHOOL, COR. NI.4GAR.\ .AND KORMORN STS 


tages of the tlistrict school, when he tried a term or two in the 
Troy .Acailemv, where he was fitted for the sophomore class of 
Union College, but when he was not vet seventeen, a chance to 
make ten dollars a month and board (around) included. In- 
accepted instead. 

This was a valuable e.xperience, and young Barringer took 
advantage of every line of the same. His love for books grew 
as he laboi-ed earnestly to become a school master indeed, and 
in three years he had made rapid advances in the higher 
branches of learning. Teaching seemed to come to young 
Barringer cjuite naturally, and he was always ready to help on 
any movement for the betterment of the science of I^edagogy. 
He was one of the founders of the National Teachers Association, 
and the New York State Teachers' Association. For awhile 
the Doctor studied medicine, showing such proficiency as led 
his acquaintances to believe that he would make his mark as a 
physician, but he abandoned all his bright medical promises 
for a teacher's life. For two years he had charge 
of two large Troy City Schools. While there he 
took a course in chemistry and physics in the Tro\ 
Polytechnic Institute, and holds to-day a scholar- 
ship in that noted institution, gained through the 
help he gave Professor Green in reconstructing the 
course of stud\-. 

From 1867 to iiS//, Dr. Barringer held the prin- 
cipalshi]) of the Chestnut Street School. When 
Mr. Sears resigned. Dr. Barringer was called to the 
post of City Superintendent of the Public Schools, 
uid has held the office ever since. By virtue of his 
^uperintendency he is one of the Trustees of the 
great l^ublic Library of the city of Newark. In 
I S92 Dr. Barringer visited the educational insli- 
lutions of England, France and Germany, and 
delights greatly in the recognitions he received from 
educationists abroad. The fair fame which the 
Doctor had earned as an educator, preceded him 
and ijrepared the way for that cordial reception 
which to him was awarded, as a representative of 
American Educators, and the Doctor has often 
said repaid him doubly well for the oil it cost. 



Few indeed are the nuiiiber among us wlio seem to have 
been designed more surely for the road in which they 
are travelling, than the City Superintendent of Public Schools. 
William N. Barringer. For nearly a quarter of a century 
has this faithful servant gone in and out of the public schools 
of the capital city of the County of Essex, and always, so 
far as the writer has been able to discern, with satisfac- 
tion to pupils, parents and teachers, and honor to himself. 
When Mr. Barringer took hold of the city superintendency of 
the public schools of the city of Newark, he was no novice, 
but he came to the work with a fullness of years and com- 
pactness of character which eminently fitted him for the 
place. That he was prepared for the great work to which 
he was called by education and practical experience, none 
who knew him questioned, and the results of all the long 
years that he has heroically toiled, so that when his steward- 
ship would end. he could hear the well done, and enjoy the 
blessed privilege of carrying the certificate of having been 
a good and faithful servant. Not alone did they who went 
in and out each day with William N. Barringer, come to 
a full understanding of his eminent qulifications for the post 
he held, or the solidity of his learning, but the facts were 
carried to Princeton College, Xew Jersey's grandest educa- 
Uonal institution, which honored him with the title of A. M.. 
and across the Hudson, and foimd a lodging place in the 
rich eilucational soil of Gotham, and they took root o\er 
there and bore for him the rich fruit of a Ph. D. from the 
University of the City of Xew York. 

Now, at this time when the three score years and ten 
encircle his brow with its silver rim but not without his mind 
being as clear and physical strength all unabated, the honors 
and emoluments of his position are continued. While it is no 
p.iit of our duty to eulogize where true worth does not commend 
it, we find all that is necessary when w-e reach the gentleman 
and scholar, Mr. U. W. Cutts, who for the past decade has 
been superintendent of the public schools in the city of Orange. 
That Mr. Cutts has such qualifications, which eminently fit him 
for school supervisor, none who know him will deny. While 
county superintendent of public schools, it became our duty, 
together with Superintendents Cutts and Barringer, to condu'-t 
examinations for the State scholarship. It was during these 



examinations that it was learned how thoroughly they w-erc 
de\'Oted to the work, and how eminently worthy they were of 
the places they filled, and how well qualified for their calling. 

Much of that musical taste found in the Orange public 
schools, is due to Superintendent Cutts, but we would 
not for one moment detract an iota, or attempt to, from others 
who it is well known have taken a deep interest in securing 
proficiency in this beautiful branch of learning. Indeed in 
nearly every school in the county of Essex, music is now taught, 
and in manv of them the pupils are making such progress that 
many of the children on leaving school will show 
commendable proficiency. From one of Superin- 
tendent Cutts' late reports to the State olTicials, we 
learn that vocal music has been made a part of 
the regular course, and under a special instructor, 
and this has been going on for twenty years, and 
for the past few years the schools have adopted 
what is termed the tonic sol-fa system, which is 
receiving, in some places, very high commendation. 
Connected with every Catholic Church there is 
the parochial or church school, where the children 
of Catholic parents are expected to get their 
schooling, especially in their earlier years, when 
those seeking higher academic or collegiate edu- 
cation are transferred to the Catholic academies, 
colleges and seminaries. As both St. Benedict's 
and Seaton Hall, and many others, are located in 
this county of Essex, the advantages of schooling 
under church influences for their children are un- 

Patriotism is a branch of education which has 
come into the schools since the w-ar of the southern 
rebellion, and in pursuance thereof, the stars and 
stripes, as one of the regulations, shall float from 



Ilagstaff or school-lumse |ieak (■\ ery day 
(luring s< hool hours. The c liildrL-n are to 
Ic-ani patriotic lessons and to sinj^ patriotic 
son;;s. 'I'he llags were usually presented 
by citizens and patriotic associations, initil 
the session of the State Legislature of 1896, 
when a law was enacted entitling every 
public school in the state to an .American 
11, ig anti pole. 

Thk 'PowNSHll' S\StEi\l. 

The township system of public school 
edu<Mtion taken a slron;^ hold upon the 
educational minds of those engaged in ((in- 
ducting |iubhc school matters in the Si.ite 
of New Jers(\. Dr. I'oland. Lite State 
.Superintendent of I'ublic lnslru( lion, is the 
father of the s^slem in this .Sl.ite. Iheie is no 
doubt. In Ills |)rclimin.ii'V re|)o|-| lo the 
.St.ite Hoard ol ICdu( .ilmn. he |ia\s .1 tiibule 
to the system in an exhaustive re\ iew ot Ihe 
l.iusof other States, twentv-six in niunlier. 
which aire. idv adopted the s\stein, ,ind 
in copies of the opinion, on the subject, ol\" of the most nolcd educators who 
pi, iced their \-eiws on record, and calls p.ii-- 
lic uKir ,iltenlion to the f,ict th,il in the opinion ot the Slale 
Do, nils of J'ahication, St.ite School Supei'intendcnts, the t/oni- 
niissioner ot I''.duc,ition of the United .Sl,iles and all other 
educ.itionists who experience, that there is no (|uestion 
in their minds as to its superiority over all other systems 
or forms of school organization, and particul.uK so in regard 
to the old-fashioned school district system. He gi\es pecu- 
liar eni])hasis to the f.ict, that as far hack as 1839, one of the greatest educators ever raised, made use of 
the following em]ihatic language in one of his reports : " I con- 
sider the l,iw of 1 7S9. authorizing towns to divide themselves 
into districts, the most unfortunate on the subject of common 
schools, ever enacted in the State of Massachusetts." 

This imbi.ised judgment, says Dr. Poland, of the most dis- 
tinguished of American educators, pronounced o\er tift\ \e,irs 
ago. been .illiiined over ,md ()\'ei' again by the highest 
education.d authorities throu"hoiit the I'niled Slates and world. 



That this weakness of our common school system h.r^ 
been cle.irh' .ipprehended by foreign educitors. is shown by iIk 
follow ing, fi(im the \alual)le work of Hon. Francis .Adams. Sci - 
retaiv of the National League of England, on the free sch(Hil 
SNStem of the United States, in which he says; "Although ai 
lirsl slight the .ire.i of a school district may appear to be an un- matter of detail, yet upon it, as the experience of tin 
United Slates has proved, the efliciency of any school system 
largely depends. The most formidable dilhcutly which tic 
American system has encountered, has arisen out of this ques- 
tion. This is known in the United States as the Uistri. i 
System. Wherever it still exists it is the subject of the most 
bitter complaint and condemnation amongst school superin- 
tendents and officers. 

" .Most of the stales have, after an extended trial of a distiiit 
SNStem. re-oig,ini/iil under the township plan, ami the complete 
.ibolilion of the former s\steni, if it can be secured by the 
almost unanimous condemnation of school 
officers of all grades, would appear to be a ques- 
tion of time only," The United States Com- 
missioner ,it Washington reported as follows : 
" The oldest American educational idea was of Massachusetts, which looked to one 
elementary school in every town containing fifty 
house-holders, with a grammar school where 
there were hft\ more house-holdeis. A some- 
what recent but more widely spread idea, was 
to have ordniary schools in every township, a 
higher school for each county and a college 
or university for every State. 

"The township was the unit of the whole 
school system, and many thoughtful men are 
questioning whether it ought not to be restored 
to that ])osition, instead of being broken into 
incohesive fragments called school districts, 
as is common now. These being invariable 
characteristics .is results of the two systems, 
a number of the States are endeavoring to 
get rid of the district and substitute the town- 
ship system. The voice of the State suiierin- 




theory ;it lenst. the State guarantees to every child equal school 
opportunities. This guarantee has amounted to nothing in the 
past, so far at least as the rural schools are concerned. The 
State school moneys raised by uniform ta.x, have been distri- 
buted to the several districts of the State upon the presump- 
tion that they would be intelligently and economically dis- 
bursed, but evidence is not lacking that in scores, if not hund- 
reds, of the small districts into which the State was formally 
divided. State school moneys have produced comparatively 
small returns. 

By consolidating the school districts of a township and there- 
by unifying their administration, are making them a charge 
upon the taxable property of the whole township, and by opening 
them to all children residing therein, the first great step toward 
ec|uality will be taken. Every child may then enjoy the best 
that the town affords. It eciualizes school burdens. There 
is raised annually, by State tax, for the support of schools, an 
amount equal to $5.00 per capita for each and every child of 
school age. live to eighteen years, residing within the .Stale. 

I)i;. UKNKV J. ANUEI;bu.\, t..\-l'Ki;SIDKNT 


tendents is believed to be uniformly in favor 

of this change." IJr. I'tiland goes father 

and fortifies his advance by concise and easily 

understood statements as to its advantages. 

First, it equ.ilizes school privileges. Under 

the old system the schools of the State 

ha\e for many years presented the widest 

diversity, ranging from the most praise- 
worthy excellence to the most dei)lor.ilile 


The village .unl large graded schools have, 

as a rule, been constantly improving. The 

majority of ungraded rural schools, on the 

contrary, have gradiialh but surely deteri- 
orated. This result is tracealjle to the 

absence of one or more of the foUow'ing con- 
ditions : suitable buildings and appliances, 

cHicient grading and courses of study, school 

year of necessary duration, properly (|ualif"ied 

teachers and efificient expert su])ervision 

favoring local conditions. Under the old 

system this ine<]uality of conditions was 

bound to exist, hence, anything like eqiialitv 

of privileges was out of the question. In 

Of the amount so raised, there is returned to each county 
ninety per cent. The remaining ten per cent, is distributed 
among the poorer counties by the State Board of Education, 
in their discretion. Here there is the principle established of 
t.axing the wealthier parts of the State for tlie br-nefit of the 


No wartl in the city of Newark is more fortunate in the rep- 
resentati\es she has in the P.oard of I'.ducation than the 
Eleventh. One of her representatives. William A. Clay, Esq., 
having not alone the confidence of the peo|)le of the ward, in 
honoring him with an election to the Board in the first place, 
but also of the body itself, in awarding to him the distinguished 
consideration of its elevating Mr. Gay to the |)residency. As 
our readers will understand, but a single member of the Board 
can reach the place, it is no light honor his having been selected 
for the exalted position. As well as the writer has been able to 
judge, there was no lack of tact and business acumen exercised 
when the selection of Mr. William A. Gay was made, as one 
among their number who should preside over their deliberations, guide and direct their 
movements and wear the honors of the first position within their gift. William A. Gay 
is one of those kind of men who have the faculty of making friends without an effort, 
and when once won they cling with magnetic tenacity, it mattering not how rapidly the 
wheel of life may turn or how great the changes, as in all public positions, places of 
honor and trust to which he has once been called, it is but his determined objection 
alone, to be awarded a recall or re-election when his first term shall have expired. 

That Dr. Henry J. Anderson, 
the predecessor of President Gay, 

was a man in the right place, and ^„ • 

was looked upon as an honorable, 
careful and painstaking presiding 
otficer, since we ever found him in 
liis place, and engaged in conduc- 
ting the business of the Board, un- 
selfish in all his appointments, and 
in order to carry out his determi- 
nation to be non-partisan, he more 
often erred, if he ever erred, against 
the party where he had his own 

|)olitical affiliations. Excellent '■ 

photos of President Gay and Ex- LAFAVETtE street public school. 




Presiik'iit Aiukrsnii are seen among the beautiful 
illustrations in this work, every page of which 
sounds its own praises. 


It is but a few moons ago. or incleeil not many, 
since the pretty village of \'ailsburgh. so named 
in honor of the writer of tliis work, was a part 
and parcel, not (piite so insignificant as some 
might deem, of the school district known as Colum- 
bia, .South (Trange, .After this it became a district 
all by itself, and known as V'ailsburgh No. 29 of 
Essex County. Under the district system it grew 
and prospered until the surburban \illage took 
on citv dignities and became the borough of \'ails- 
hurgh. with a Mayor and Board of Aldermen, and 
had to itself all the customary dignitaries and city 
(borough) oflicials. The new township free school 
law increased its Hoard of School Trustees, so 
that now, and indeed ever since the city's birth, 
the Hoard of Management of its very excellent 
public schools, has been increased to nine members, 
consisting of the following named gentlemen, citizens 
of the borough : William Welsher, Frederich A. 
Mock, Ch.ules H, Smith, Rev. R. H. Cage. .Alex- 
ander Volheye, John G. Aschenback, James Hampton. Borough 
Clerk Wdliam Billington and Alderman E. Nagle. William 
Welsher is I^resident of the ISoard, and Frederick A. Mock, 
District Clerk. 

ST. pkter's parochi.\l school. 

.Among the largest and one of the very best conducted of the 
parochial schools of the city of Newark, where the young are 
taught, is that in the parish of St. Peter's, the immense build- 
ings of which are seen on Livingston Street, and is known as 
the Parochial School of St. Peter's Church. In all probability, 
this is the largest German School in the city of Newark. The 
teachers having charge are selected as being particularly gifted 
and thoroughly well prepared for their high calling before being 


,1^ C.-2^ 

Ll i?i^ 




permitted to take hold of the classes in St Peter's and attempt 
to guide tliem through intricate mazes of their early school 
life, therefore it is that the pupils who have had the advantages 
in early life of the systematic training wdiich is found within the 
walls of St. Peter's, mark high in the race of life. 

.As the reader passes the corner of Wallace Place and 
Warren Street, his attention cannot help ver\ well from being 
called to the massive buildings in which, if he make inquiry, he 
will be told is housed the great ptimary educational interests of 
the hundreds who make St. Joseph's Church their religious 
home. Those buildings to which we refer being none other 
than those pertaining to St. Joseph's Parochial School, the largest 

Catholic school in the State 
of New Jersey. Like all other 
schools under the care of the 
Catholic Church, eveiy care 
is sought to be taken, not 
alone to hav-e the children 
thoroughlv well educated in 
all the secular branches of 
learning, but also that the 
pupils under their instruction 
shall also he well rooted in 
spiritual affairs, it being a 
cannon of the Catholic 
Church that learning, both 
secular and religious in char- 
acter, shall go hand in hand 
in life's journey. 


On Central Avenue, ad- 
joming the St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, is located the 
parochial school of the cathe- 
dral. This institution is very 
large as well as being very 
popular, being under the care 
of the Christian ISrothcrs. 



Many of the young men of Catholic parentage 
take great pride when they leave for ])roiiiotion, or 
to take their place in the busy worUl, in saluting 
this school as their A//>!a Mater. The Sisters 
have charge of the primary department, where 
probably a greater number of children attend 
than any other parochial school in the city, except 
St. James'. St. Patrick's is the successor of St. 
Mary's Hall, which was formerly conducted on 
High Street, where the womens' department of St- 
Michael's Hospital now stands, and was founded 
by the venerable Father Senez. who at that time 
was pastor of St. Patrick's Church. 

In a little frame structure on Lister .-Xvenip 
the Rev. Father Wiseman, with heroic 
devotion, is meeting with marked success in his 
endeavor to build up a parish from the oiitMn- 
districts immediately surrounding this church. 1'.-, 
turning to page 67 of this book, the reader uil 
see a photographic picture of the modest structure 
in which Father Wiseman is carrying out the 
beautiful injunction which the Master gave to St. 
Peter, of " Feeding my Sheep." 


Never since the history of the world began has there been 
perpetrated, against the learning of mankind, a more henious 
offense or a more dastardly crime, than was perpetrated by the 
Moslems after the capture of the renowned city of Ale.\;mdria, 
when the commander-in-chief of the capturing army of the 
inhdel horde, wantonly committed to the flames the yreat 



library of the city, which contained the greatest collection of 
books, pam|)hlcts and manuscripts in the world. It was not the 
audacious crime alone of burning the library, of committing lo 
the ll.inies tlu- literary treasures of all preceiling ages, but the 
fact that many of the volumes which had been gathered at a 
mighty expenditure from all parts of the globe, many of which 
were of the greatest value and could not be replaceil, there being 
no du|)licates. when their precious 
I contents had crumbled to ashes 

V and had gone up in the and smoke, 

amid the exultations of the savage 
hordes who made up the army of 
destruction and loot, 

Which danced arouiu! this pyre 

of history. 
Where tlie wrCTthing smoke Irft ilie 

world in mystery. 
The half millidn voUniies of book lore 

furnishing llie fuel. 
To feed ihe fire consuming, earili'sljeauti- 

ful jewels. 

'Twas there, through this unhcaid of 

MahoTuinedan dastardy. 
That Mahnmmet's deluded converts 

sougl'it the mastery. 
Wading through hlood, fire .ind smoke, 

to rob the world. 
And leave the flag of ignorance to the 

breeze unfurled. 

Among the black pages of his- 
tory, and theie are not a few, it 
would seem that there are none 
more wantonly and cruelly be- 
grimed or to compare with that one 
fV'j I'age whereon is written the history 
of the horror known as the sacking 
'if Egypt's capital and the burning 
of the Alexandrian Librarj-. For 
quite five centuries of time, the war 
which the followers of Mahommet 
waged was so relentless in char- 
acter that historians tell us, that 



it did seem at une time as lhouj;h the Hashing cimeters of 
the Moslems would cut dcjwn all Christendom. But the 
world gradually reco\ ere<l, and with its recovery new librarys 
were established, and among them is the Newark Free Public 
Library. e.\terior and interior views of which are presented on 
the pages of this illustrated souvenir, and which contains up- 
ward of fifty thousand well-selected and neatly bound volumes 
and according to the report of the able and courteous Librarian, 
Fraid< 1'. f-lill. Ls(|..tlH- institution is doingaworkof which every 
citizen should feel proud. The library is handsomely housed in 
the well constructed and imposing brow-n stone structure located 
on West I^u'k Street, between I'road and 
Halsey Streets. 

The Hoard of Trustees for 1S97 consist 
of Hon. James M. Seymour, Mayor of New- 
ark ; Su|5erintendent of Public Schools Gil- 
bert, Messrs. Edwaid H. Duryea, James 
Taffe, William Johnson, James Peabody 
and James E. Howell. These gentlemen 
are in love with their work, anil aim to so 
manage the affairs of the free lil)rary that 
the greatest good may accrue to the great- 
est number. 


To the man who nourished the thought 
out of which grew the fact of a technical 
school for the city of Newark, belongs an 
honor which nobody would ever attempt to 
gainsay or cause it to ])ale for one moment, 
in the sight of any true citizen of this great 
industrial city. The good which this institu- 
tion has already done, the grand work it has 
accomplished in the contracted quarters in 
which in li\ed and added new luster to 
the conception of the promise of the erec- 
tion, at an early date, of buildings suitable 
for the purpose of conducting a technical 
school in a city of more than 200,000 in- 
habitants. .\lthough but a single decade of 
years have gone into the im]ienetrable 
haze of the past, the school not having been 
organized until 1885, yet an amount of 
work has been accomplished which could 
hardly have been expected, since the t|uartcrs 
in which the techniques were for the most 
of the time housed. .So contracted have 
they been that to have m.ide such wonderful 
jirogress would seem almost impossible. 

Since the technical school came into the 
educational arena for malcrnily honors, 
eighty-two studints have passed the pre- 
scribed iiulustrial educational course, all of 
whom delight to recognize the young insti- 
tution, their A/1//1! Afii/er. These graduates 
having the same kindly feeling toward their mother institution 
as the graduates of nearly all other educational institutions do, 
have organized an A/ma Mater Society in order to keep strong 
the tie which binds. It is not because their deeds are evil that 
they do their work after the dark sets in. The sessions of the 
school are held in the evening in order to give those attending, 
opportunity " to work to li\e." as the masses who wish to climb 
and keep on climbing the hill of knowledge, while working by 
day, must needs study at night or not study at all. 

The same kindly care which the State extends to kindred 
institutions she does not fail to extend toward this, and were 

it not for the support which comes from the treasury of the 
State, men who have won fame and were permitted to cultivate 
the talent they possessed, and which needed but the develop- 
ment which came through the technical school, would have 
lain dormant perhaps, for years or lost forever had it not been 
for the blessed opportunities offered by the evening classes. 
The Governor of the Slate is President Ex-Ofticio. Hon. 
James M. Sevmoiu', .Mayor of Newark, is also Ex-Ofhcio. Its 
corps of instructors, with Charles A. Colton, E. M,, at the head 
as director and instructor in chemistry and physics ; Fred W. 
Fort, A. M., Cornelius S. Thatcher, C. B., and Albert B. Wilson, 



mathematics; .Albert Jacobi, descriptive geometry and theory 
of cutting tools: James Kinselli, free-hand drawing: Maurice 
A. Mueller, M. E., mechanical drawing and mechanical engin- 
eering : Fred S. Sutton, architectural drawing; William Kent, 
M. E., lecturer on steam engineering, will compare most 
favorably with the faculty of any similar institution in the 
State or nation. It will be a glad day for the scientifically in- 
clined among our young men, and women too, for that matter, 
when the new home shall be completed, that they, one and all, 
may have opportunity to satisfy their craving for more light, 
along the ways where they have been groping in semi-darkness. 


i^^^K|HA'r the people of Essex County 
ire. as a rule, quiet and law- 
ibiding, has almost irrefutable 
demonstration in the fact that the 
present modest structure called 
a Court House situated at the 
junction of Market Street and 
Springfield Avenue, Newark, is 
now and has been for the past half century 
and more, of a capacity to hold all the litig- 
ants and lawbreakers when on trial who might 
assemble within its walls at any one time or 
for any other definite purpose. 

This Court House, for which the people have 
a particular kind of reverence and which is 
venerated apparently above all other buildings, 
was built many years ago of sample brown stone 
from the ciuarries which have their outputt- 
ings along the easterly border of the county — 
as more fully made manifest in an earlier chapter 
of Essex County, N. J., Illustrated— ex- 
tending deep into the hillsides bordering the 
Passaic and extending from Eighth Avenue, 
in Newark, to North Belleville, or Avondale. 
Its architecture, once seen, will make an impression on the 
stranger which will carry his thoughts back to the days of 
Alexander the Great and to the city he built at the mouth of 
the Nile, where these thoughts may revel in the architectural 
displays, evolvements from the genius of Egypt's bright sons. 
Whether the stone ever raised any objection to their being 
wrought into a style architectural so far away we know not, but 
this we do know — when the project of a new Court House 
is broached and the question warms to the height of a local contest. 

the old Court 
House w i n s 
the fight. 

The building 
is two stories 
and attic and 
is surmounted 
with a unique 
belfry in which 
hangs the bell 
which has 
sounded the 
knell of prison 
fate to e V i 1- 
doers who, 
]) e r c h a n c e, 
came over 
from the sister 
city of New- 
York to try 
pastures green 
and fields 
that w ere 
JUDGE ALBERT A. DEPUE, fau'er, aucl got 


caught by our ever alert [jolice. The lot of many a " smart " 
fellow who believed that his education was finished in the 
criminal schools, of New York City, where he had studied 
hard for years and where he had taken these lessons in 
outwitting the home police, until he felt that he had a right 
of putting into practice just across the Hudson where his 
teachers, whom he had been taught to look upon as them- 
selves experts, feared to practice their own lessons. Yet, lo ! 
the brightest of the schools find themselves foiled in their first 
and most carefully laid plots, and having been caught, are 
compelled to spend many years m the Jersey prisons in hard 
study again in learning how to make shoes and break stones 

Within the walls of this Court House- the style of archi- 
tecture of which is so decidedly ancient that it gives an appear- 
ance to the visitor much more in harmony with that of ye very 
far distant olden times than of that which prevailed when it 
was built, little more than a half century ago, with the winged 
gods of the Egyi)tians in view- as a model to go by— have been 
enacted many startling and pathetic scenes. Not in the number 
of these enactments is there reason to boast, but of the heart- 
breaking character of some and the utter hopelessness of 
others. The catalogue of heinous offences is short, indeed, 
against the majesty of the law and the quickness of the 
measure of the punishment meted out, has satisfied the leaders 
in crime that distance— when all things else are taken into con- 
sideration—lends enchantment, and the examples presented for 
their careful consideration by our generous-hearted judges, to 

the view. . 

If there was as much charm connected w-ith the story of its 
building as about the selection of ihe spot of terra firma on which 
it stands, a few pages on that part of Essex's history would not 
be out of place, but it must be sufficient to say that the election 




or fight for its location between 
Elizabethtown and Newark was one 
of the most exciting the county 
ever knew. 

What, in all probability, gave the 
hner touches to the artistic beauty 
which surrounded the finished pic- 
ture on all its sides after the elec- 
tion had settled the location of the 
house in favor of Newark, was the 
fact that the ladies had taken part 
jn the election, which required a 
straight run of three days to finish. 
Even the school children enacted 
a truly important part, as those 
who could write were drummed 
into the service and their little 
fingers were covered with ink from 
the pen with wdiich they were 
writing. Printed tickets or stick- 
ers being an article then unknow n, 
a mystery yet left hidden in the 
tomb of the future. Not so the 
fine art of ballot-box stuffing which 
for the past few years has been 

once again drawn forth from the hiding-place where these 
gentlemen and lady Court House locators had buried its 
bruised and mangled form embalmed, and from which the 
self-appointed ballot box purificaiors of our own day had wrested 
it and who had not thus easily escaped, but being caught red 
handed flirting the old mummy in full gaze of the honest voter 
and not a few of whom threw up their hands in the presence 
of the judge, and pointing over their shoulders with their thumbs, 
made rosy red the faces of others who had been engaged in 
the nefarious business and fell under the thumbs' shadow, and 
marched forth to the court crier's " yeh yah " to receive their 
just deserts. 

To what extremes the contest for the location of the Court 
House was carried, makes the history of that short period in 
Essex County's history quite interesting, but as it deals with 
what is told in very few words, we will only show to what 
depths the struggle reached and how bitterly the factions 

opposed each other by quoting a sentence from Mr. Atkinson's 
" History of Newark," which covers an occurrence which shows 
the character of the contest : 

" It is related that two highly respectable young Newarkers, 
William Halsey and Seth Woodruff, rode to Elizabethtown in a 
gig during the pendency of the election and were assaulted with 
a bucket of tar thrown on them by one Austin Penny who, it is 
believed, was afterward indicted and punished." 

Elizabeth was then a part of Essex County and such, says 
Mr. Atkinson, was the height to which locality feeling ran that 
it became dangerous for Newarkers to visit Elizabethtown, and 
vice versa. 

If we have not wearied the patience of our readers too much 
in lingering too long around the walls of our County Court 
House at the junction of Market Street and Springfield Avenue, 
or satiated the appetite for the beautiful and strangeness in 
archicecture by keeping the gaze too long fixed on Egypt's art 


as presented in those reminders 
of Pharaoh the Great's exemplifi- 
cations looking out from the 
sculptured windows and away 
along down the line of the 
centuries to the time when the 
pyramids were built or the hosts 
of Israel went out, you have 
our invitation to step within its 
hallowed walls where, in the 
footsteps' echoes, is heard the 
forensic eloquence of thousands 
whose fame has reached as far 
as the Nile's architects are. 

The court rooms are opened 
wide with tipstaffs venerable 
and bright, to point out the very 
spot where this young lawyer 
or that took his first lessons in 
jury deceiving, and where they 
garnered knowledge which the 
old men eloquent shook from 
Blackstone's forensic trees. 






During all its palmy days no 
court house could have a better 
record made, and had the wizard 
Edison been ready with his novel 
device called the phonograph their 
voices to catch, or had this been 
the good fortune, the eloquence, 
the logic, and even the sympathetic 
tear, having been caught by the 
wizzard's machine, would come 
forth at call of some young limb 
of the law who, having forgotten 
all, could have immediately at hand 
the sarcasm of William (Speaker i 
Pennington, the logic of a Bradlev, 
who carried law lore in his heail. 
and ever after the presidential 
wrestle between Tiklen and Hayes, 
wore on his face presidential fate. 
Indeed, to the rescue hundreds 
might come to help out his elo- 
quence and perhaps win his case 
if care enough was taken as the 
crank was turned to bring up) the 
right man at the right time and in 


the right place, for surely 'twould seem a trifle queer to here 
strike on the listening jurors' ear, rare bits of true eloquence 
as the time drew near, or one of those grand perorations of a 
Frelinghuysen, a Runyon or a Parker, when all that was 
wanted was what the forgotten alone could supply — that sympa- 
thetic tear so effective when seen by big-hearted jurors. 

What Edison, the wizard, or Weston, the marvellous electri- 
cian, may do in this line in the future we know not, but will 
present a horoscope quite clear, and reserve for a closing 
chapter, for since patience is such a bright jewel we have reason 
to wait, since it has been whispered that one or the other will 
invent a machine which will not alone re-echo the evidence and 
pleadings then, perhaps, go further and try the whole case. 


ESSEX County is widely known for the high standard 
of its charitable and penal institutions. The Hospital 
for the Insane is recognized as the model county insti- 


tution of its class in the United States. The motive for its 
establishment was occasioned by the overcrowed condition of 
the only State asylimi at Trenton, where in 1S71, Essex main- 
tained 1 10 patients. The Committee on Lunacy of the Board of 
Freeholders, then composed of D. J. Canfield, Wm. M. Freeman, 
Wm. Gorman, M. Smith and Wm. Cadmus, after vain efforts 
to secure entrance for Essex patients in asylums of adjoining 
States, reported in 1872, the necessity of establishing an asylum 
for the insane in the county. On the prompt action of the 
Board, the Camden Street site was secured, and S'5.6oo was 
expended in buildings which were enlarged as the occasion 
required. The Camden Street site was ready for occupancy in 
August, 1872, and received as a transfer from the Stale Asylum 
fifteen patients, and nineteen from the Newrak Almshouse, who 
had been temporarily cared for. Major John Leonard was ap- 
pointed Warden and Dr. J. A. Cross, visiting physician. 

In 1873 the Committee on Lunacy, composed of D. J. Canlleld, 
Dr. D. S. Smith, T. H. Smith, D. M. Skinner and Edgar Farmer, 
(the director) reported the necessity 
of procuring a permanent site for the 
asylum. Finally, the South Orange 
,\venue site was selected, and in 1S83 
after public sentiment had gradually 
grown in favor of it, the new asylum 
was partially completed and ready foi 
occupancy in 1884. The Camden 
Street building became much over- 
crowded, and over 300 patients were 
removed to the new buildings Nov. 9. 

The Grand Jury, of which Leslie D. 
Ward was foreman, made a present- 
ment during that year, advising better 
direct medical care of the county in- 
sane. At the September meeting of 
the Board, James E. Howell intro- 
duced a resolution changing the system 
of direct management, from that of 
warden to that of a competent medical 
officer as Superintendent, similar to the freeholder c. w. heilman. 



management of State insli- 
t u t i o n s tlirf)uobout this 
country. At the Nov. meet- 
ing Dr. Livingston S. Hinck- 
ley was elected to the office 
of Superintendent and entered 
on his duties Nov. 19, 1SS4. 
He lias continued in his 
present position during twelve 
years of service, though the 
political complexion of the 
Board has changed twice 
during that period. Dv. 
Hinckley's devotion to his 
work has won for him the 
confidence of the pulilic 
throughout the county, ami 
his fame as an expert in in- 
sanity has spread far and 

Since he has been in charge, the construction of the building 
has been completed on the original plans, and consists of com- 
pact buildings three and four stories in height, containing seven- 
teen wards. Eighteen hundred patients have been under obser- 
vation; the average percentage of recoveries have been 25 per 
100 admitted, and the death rate average is 5 per cent, of the 
whole number treated. This record speaks volumes for the 
effective care given liy this energetic and progressive physician. 
He is now in the prime of life, was born in Albany, 1S55. is 
a direct descendant on one side from Sir Thos. Hinckley, one of 
the Governors of Plymouth, Mass., and Gen. Warren of Bunker 
Hill, and on the other from Gen. Schuyler who aided the 
colonies by defeating Burgoyne at Saratoga. Space will not 
allow of expansion of the many improvements that have been 
made in the care of our insane. Manv have been obtained only 
after years of toil and convincing argument. One feature that 
has given this institution distinction, is the method adopted by 
Dr. Hinckley of educating attendants to become trained nurses, 
fitted not only for insane cases but efficient in any medical or 
surgical emergency. His school begun in 18S6. was the fourth 

established in 
asylums of the 
U. S., and re- 
cently gradu- 
ated ten train- 
ed nurses in 
Us ninth class. 
r h i s school an alumni 
I if 81 gradu- 
iiis, one third 
"I whom aie 
11 I- n . Many 
ire practicing 
- iiccessful ly 
:liiir profes- 
■I'Mi in private, 
ii:d the hospi- is constant- 
with a large 
coriis of tr.iin- 
' il nurses. 

In 1893, he 
made a strong 



plea for change in the title of the institution from asylum to ho- 
pital, the Board finally adopting this innovation in 1894. Tin 
hospital is much overcrowded and it has been deemed inadvi-. 
able to add any more to the present vast structure. Tho^ 
McGowan, the director of the Board, who has forseen tin 
present exigencies, wisely secured and purchased 185 acres I'l 
land in Verona township, where a branch hospital is now undi 1 
construction under original advisory plans made by Dr. Hinck- 
ley and in which he is most deeply interested. 

Mr. McGowan, of Bloomfield, the present director of the Board, 
is the senior continuous member who has given his attention 
to the interests of Essex County unremittingly for the past 
twenty years, and to whom its citizens owe a large debt of 
gratitude for the discretion and purity of purpose that has 
actuated his motives. 


THE following interesting and instructixe epitome of the 
original history of the court of Essex County, of its 
judiciary and of the men who have adorned its bench, and whose 
names are res])ected, and whose opinions are honored all over 
the woiid, 
was collat- 
ed for the 
N e w a r k 
V,t//j' Ad- 
71 c >■ t i s e r , 
a n d ap- 
peared in paper 
in its edi- 
tion of Dec. 
13. 1894; 

" T here 
were abso- 
lutely n o 
courts in 
New Jersey 
untler the 
o r i g i n ,1 1 
rulers, nor 
until 1675. 
when t h e 
Assembly ex-fkeeholuer p.'vtkick lupton. 




__^ proceeded to act under the 
powers conferred upon it by 
Lord John Berkeley and Sir Philip 
Carteret in the first Constitution 
of New Jersey, to 'constitute 
all courts, together with the 
limits, powers and jurisdictions 
of the same." 

"On Novemljer 13, 1675, t'^e 
General Assembly enacted 'that 
there be two of the aforesaid 
courts kept in the year in each 
respective county.' In the act, 
Newark and Elixabethtown were 
constituted a county, but the 
county was not named. The 
original boundaries of the county 
were fixed, and the name of 
Essex determined in 1682, The 
fees, the terms of court, the 
officers and the judges were all 
provided for with the greatest 
detail and nicety. 

" Another act, passed at the 

^ J 

-"•^ / 







iK A I -1 \\\ 

same time, provided for a ' Court of .Assize to be held in this 
province' annually in the town of Woodbridge, the fees 
being twice the fees of the County Courts. This was the 
original Supreme Court. It was provided that no appeal was to 
betaken from a decision of a County Court in any case in which 
the amount involved was under twenty pounds. When the 
Lord Proprietor's rights were sold to the twenty-four I roprie- 
tors in 1682, one of the articles in their ' Fundamental Con- 
stitution ' was that all persons were to plead in any court, either 
for themselves or for their friends, but that no person was 
allowed to take any money for pleading or for legal advice. 
This was because of an act of 1676. which forbade Justices of 
the Peace to plead in court, except in cases in which they 
were either the complainants or defendants. 

"The first real law for regulating the practice of law was 
passed about 1689, and was entitled 'An .Act for Regulating 
Attorneys in this Proxince.' It laid a fine of twenty pounds 
upon Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, Clerks of the Courts and 
others who should iiractice law in the (omts. except in their 

own personal behalf. It was proposed, in 169S, that a law should 
be passed, limiting the practice of the law for ' fee or hire' to 
such as should be 'admitted to practice by license by the 
Governor.' This law was not enacted because Jeremiah Basse, 
who was acting as Governor, who had been ordered by the 
Proprietors to have the law passed, was not legally the Gover- 
nor and was very unpopular. 

" In 1702 the government of the Province was turned over 
to the Crown by the Proprietors, and Lord Cornbury, in 1704, 
ordained the establishment of the ' Courts of Judicature,' in an in- 
strument which forms the foundation of the entire judicial system 
of the present State of New Jersey. It defined the jiowers and 
duties of the courts, and laid down certain rules of procedure. 

" In Lord Cornbury 's ordinance it was provided that the 
judges could make rules for practicing in the courts in the same 
way and to the same extent as was done by the judges of the 
Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer, 
in England. From that day to tliis the licensing of lawyers has 
been regulated, not by statute, but by the rules of the Supreme 


Court, with the sole excep- 
tion of the ' Five Counsel- 
or's act ' which was repealed 
this year (1894). 

" Tlie first systematic re- 
sistance to the oppressive 
acts of George III was made 
by the members of the New 
jersey Bar. At the Septem- 
ber term of the .Supreme 
Court held at .Amboy in 1765. 
the lawyers met and resolved 
unanimously that they would 
not use the stamps under any 
circumstances whatever- 
When the stam])S arrived 
llie lawyers would not buy 
them and all over New Jersey 
the courts were closed, and 
remained closed until the 
Stamp act was repealed. 

"The strength 'that this 





action gave them, by bringing them 
closer together, resulted in an 
organized plundering of the public 
by the lawyers, and this continued 
until the people arose in their 
wrath and attempted to extermi- 
nate the lawyers by violence. The 
riots in Essex County, in which the 
people attempted to keep the 
lawyers from entering the Court 
House, were put down by the 
Sheriff and his assistants: this was 
in 1769, and Governor Franklin, 
Benjamin Franklin's illegitimate 
son, complimented Essex County 
on being much more orderly than 
was Monmouth, where the riots 
attained greater importance. 

"The Essex bar has furnished 
a long list of men who have been 
honored by the public. I'^irst in 
the list, perhaps, should come Joseph 
C. Hornblower, who was Chief 
Justice of New Jersey from 1832 to 
He was born in Belleville in 1777, studied law with David 


f ivm 

V. -^M 

^^^^K^'>-.*>K^kn .--<»«OT«dl^^^^^^^H 



B. Ogden, was admitted as an attorney in 1803, and as acounsellor 
in 1806. He was originally a Federalist, and followed that party 
down through its changes of name, and died a Republican. 
He was one of the best Chief Justices New Jersey ever had. 

"Joseph P. Bradley, who was appointed to the United States 
Supreme Court by President Grant, in 1870, was born in Albany, 
in 1813. He was graduated from Rutgers in the class of 1836, 
and came to Newark, and was admitted to the bar in 1839. 
He was known to the world as one of the best judges who ever 
sat on the bench. I^earned in the law, impartial in his judg- 
ment, and urbane in his manner, his memory will last long in 
this country. 

" Newark has given to the State five Chancellors, the first 
being William S. Pennington, who was elected Governor and 
Chancellor in 1813 and 1S14. He was the great-grandson of 
Ephraim Pennington, one of the original settlers of Newark. 
He was .'\ssociate Judge of the Supreme Court in 1805, Supreme 

Court Reporter from then to 1813. and after his two terms as 
Governor, was Judge of the United States Dislrict Court until 
his death in 1826. 

" William Pennington, the son of the last mentioned, was 
born in Newark, May 4. 1796, studied in Theodore Frelinghuy- 
sen's law office, was admitted as an attorney in 1817, and as a 
counsellor in 1S20. He was Chancellor and Governor from 
1837 to 1843, 'Hid was one of the greatest Chancellors who 
ever held the position. He was Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives in i860 and 1861. 

"Oliver S. Halstead, born in 1792, was the first Chancellor 
appointed after the adoption of the Constitution of 1844. He 
held the position until 1852. lienjamin Williamson was 
appointed Chancellor in 1852, and held the position for seven 

"Theodore Runyon, born in 1S22, was graduated from Yale 
College in 1S42, was admitted as an attorney in 1846, and 
counsellor in 1849. He was made City Attorney in 1853, and 

Corporation Counsel in 
1856. He held this pos- 
ition until 1864, when he 
was elected Mayor, which 
ofiice he filled until 1866. 
He was appointed Chan- 
cellor in 1873, and was 
reappointed in 1880, going 
nut of office in 1887. 
Last year (1893) he was 
appointed Ambassador to 
( '.ermany. Mr. Runyon 
was made LL. D. by Wes- 
leyan College in 1867, by 
Rutgers in 1875 and by 
\:iU- in 1S82." 



David Ayres Depue. 
tX. D. Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and one 
of the noted men of the 
State of New Jersey, is of 




AK.NLli KALISCII, CuUN it l.UK-A 1 -l-A W . 

to protect the country against the Indians in the War of 1755. 
Soon after his marriage, Benjamin Depiie settled in Northamp- 
ton County, Pa., in Lower Mount Bethel, on the Delaware. 
Here his son Abraham Depue was born September 28, 1765. 
Abraham married Susan, daughter of Michael Hoffman, and 
their son Benjamin Depue was born September i, 1796. On 
May 10, 1821, Benjamin married Elizabeth, daughter of Moses 
Ayres, and subsequently removed to Upper Mount Bethel, in 
the same county, where David A. Depue was born, October 27, 
1826. At a suitable age David A. Depue was placed in tlie 
school of the Rev. Dr. John Vanderveer, in Easton, Pa., where 
he received his preliminary education. He entered Princeton 
College in 1843, and was graduated in 1846. 

Immediately after graduation, he began the study of law in 
the office of John M. Sherred, Esq., of Belvidere, N. J., whither 
his family had moved in 1840. Here he began the practice of 
his profession, and continued in it until 1866. At this time he 

Huguenot descent, and with the 

V'an Campens. his family were the 

earliest settlers of the Minisink 

Flats. These two families emi- 
grated about the same time from 

Ksopus, now Kingston, in the 

county of Ulster, New York, and 

settled on the Pennsylvania and 

New Jersey sides of the Delaware 

River, above the Water Gap. The 

Van Campens (originally spelled 

\'an Der Kempen) were emigrants 

from Holland. 

Benjamin Depue. t h e great- 

:.;randfather of David A. Depue, 

was born February 22, 1729. He 

married Catharine, daughter of 

Colonel Abraham Van Campen, 

judge of the Court of Common 

I'leas of Sussex County, N. J., in 

1761, reappointed in 1776 and 

again in 1796. At the age of 26. 

Colonel Van Campen served as a 

colonel in the Colonial Army, raised 

had attained so high a rank in his profession that the attention 
of Governor Marcus L. Ward was attracted to him, when it 
became necessary' to appoint an Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court in the place of Judge Daniel Haines, whose 



of New Jersey 
are characterized by learning and 
laborious research, as well as 
by the clear and concise state- 
ment of legal principles. Of 
these qualities and of his opinions, 
as published in the reports, the 
frequent citations of them in the 
Federal Courts and the courts of 
sister States, and in treatises on 
the law, afford ample evidence. 

In 1874 he was appointed, with 
Chief Justice Beasley and Cortlandt 
Parker, to revise the laws of New 
Jersey, a work which was com- 
pleted to the great satisfaction of 
the bench and bar throughout the 

In 1874 Judge Depue received 
the degree of LL. D. from Rutgers 
College, New Brunswick, and in 
1880, the same degree was con- 
ferred upon him by Princeton Col- 
lege, New Jersey. 

term of office expired in tliat year. The result was the appoint- 
ment of Mr Depue on November 15, 1866, the circuit assigned 
to him being the counties of Esse.v and Union. His removal to 
Newark soon followed. 

On the expiration of his term in 1873. he was reappointed by 
Governor Joel Parker, was again reappointed in 1 880 by Gover- 
nor George B. McClellan, again in 1887 by Governor Robert S. 
Green, and still again by Governor George T. Werts. His 
present term expires November 15, 1901. 

The circuit held by Judge Depue is the most important and 
laborious in the State, embracing the city of Newark and the 
county of Essex. His opinions in the Supreme Court and 
Court of Errors and Appeals, of which, by the judicial system 
he is a member, 





South Orange, Central, Park, Bloomfield and Washington 
were constructed. Newark containing the greater part of the 
popukation and taxable property of the county, was the centre 
from which these roads radiated to all parts of the county. 
Macadam road lauilding was then, comparatively, a new art in 
this country. The pleasure and comfort for driving purposes, 
economy in transportation, and advantages to real estate values 
derived from these roads, proved to the people of Essex County 
the truth of Lord Bacon's maxim, that, " There be three things 
which make a nation great and prosperous, fertile fields, busy 
workshops and easy means of transportation for men and goods." 
These roads were built by the Essex Public Road Board, and 
were maintained by it in splendid condition for many years 
under the leadership of Mr. James Peck, County Engineer 
Owens and others. In 1894 the Road Board was abolished by 
the Legislature, and its duties thereafter devolved upon a com- 
mittee of the Board of Freeholders. In December, 1S94, 
Director Thomas McCowan appointed as this committee, Joseph 


FEW people care to trace great 
rivers back to their sources in 

mountain springs, or great ideas which 

have had far-reaching intluence to the 

minds which cor.ceived them. 

More tlian a third of a century has 

passed since Llewellyn Haskell pro- 
posed, for the welfare and happiness 

of the people of the County of Essex, 

a great county park made accessible 

to the people of all parts of the county. 

by a system of improved and well 

kept county roads. 

Mr. Haskell did not live to see the 

recent progress in developing his 

county park idea, but he did have the 

pleasure of seeing a complete system 

of county roads, which became a 

source of pride to the people of Essex, 

and an educator to those of other 

])arts of the State. 

Between 1870 and 1S75, seven great 

avenues, Frelinghuysen, Springfield, 

B. Bray. J. Wesley \'an Geison, T. Madison Condit, Wallan 
Ougheltree and Fillmore Condit. Mr. Bray served with credit 
in the LTnion army during the war, subsequently residing in 
Orange, where he has been engaged in business. Mr. Van 
Geison has been a lifelong resident of Montclair, where he ha-- 
been highly esteemed and influential in public affairs. '!\ 
Madison Condit represents the Roseville district in the Board 
of Freeholders, and is connected with the D. L. & W. R. K. 
Mr. Ougheltree, previous to 1879, was engaged in business in 
Newark, but subsequently became a resident of East Orange. 

Besides the responsibility for inaintaining the original avenues 
in proper condition, the collection and settlement of a large 
amount of outstanding assessments, the improvement of othti 
roads under the provisions of the State Road Act, and of deal- 
ing with important questions relating to electric street railwax 
construction upon the county roads, fell upon this connnittee. 
That these important trusts, under the leadership of Chairman 
Bray, have been executetl with intelligent fidelity to the publir 



interests, justifying the judgement 
of Director McGowan in his selec- 
tion of the committee, and reflect- 
ing credit upon the Board of Free- 
holders, is generally believed. 

Filmore Condit represents the 
V'erona district in the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders, and he is one 
of the most active members on the 
Committee on Roads and Assess- 
ments. He is well known to the 
people of Essex County, and con- 
ducts a manufacturing plant in 
the hardware line in the city of 
Newark. In the projection and 
improvement of the roads and 
.Lvenues of the county, the Road 
I'loard has been a prominent factor. 
its membership having included 
some of the most unselfish and 
enterprising citizens, whose wisdom 
has contributed much to the ad- 
vancement of the community. 





AT the end of the hall, acting 
(if such a word mav be 
aiiphed to the two small but 
cozy little offices) as guardians 
to the larger and more imposing 
room set apart for the uses antl 
purposes of the grand jury. 

Iiich holds within three stated 
sessions during the year, is 
where the Prosecutor of the 
Pleas transacts his office busi- 
ness. For the past ten years. 
Elvin W. Crane, Esq., a lawyer 
of tine attainments, has occupied 
the position. To say that the 
criminal class have a wholesome 
dread of his power before judge 
and jury, to arraign and convict, 
is only to record the truth .is 
they often rehearse it, and keep 
as clear of their nefarious busi- 
ness of law-breaking as it is 
|)ossible in the deep depravity of 

their natures to do. Not a small part i>f that decrease in the 
number of cases with which the criminal courts have to deal, 
it is safe to say, is largely due from the fear of conviction and 
punishment, which is almost certain to follow when the offentlers 
get into the hands of Prosecutor Crane or his learned assistant 
Louis Hood, who has proved an apt scholar in the convicting 
ways of Elvin W. Crane. Although Mr. Crane and his assistant, 
often find pitted against them, in the trial of important cases, 
some of the most noted talent of the bar of the State of New 
Jersey and the County of Essex, they seldom fail to score a 
success, the criminal receiving his just deserts. 

Elvin W. Crane was born in Brooklyn, on October 20, 1833. 
He received a public school education, and when 16 years old 
entered the office of Bradley & Abeel as a student-at-law. He 
was admitted as attorney in February, 1875, and as a counselor 
in February, 1882. When Colonel Abeel received his second 
appointment as Prosecutor, in 1877, Mr. Crane became his 
assistant, and acted in that capacity throughout the terms of 

age of 9 jears, 


Colonel Abeel and his successor, Oscar Keene. On the expira- 
tion of the term of the latter, in 188S, Governor Green appointed 
Mr. Crane Prosecutor of the Pleas of Essex County, and Gover- 
nor Werts re-appointed him in 1893. Mr. Crane makes an 
able l^rosecutor. and has won the admiration of the entire 
State liy his skilful manner of conducting dilllcult cases. 

For many years Mr. Crane has been a member of the 
Jeffersonian Club, and taken an active part in the minagement 
of this Democratic institution filling nearly all the more im- 
portant offices, with credit to himself and with honor to the 
club, and is at tliis time (1897) its president. Mr. Crane was 
for several years a member of the lioard of 'I'ruslees of the 
Newark City Home, at \'ero?ia. 

OUIS HOOD is the Assistant Prosecuting Attorney of 
Essex County. He was born at Radwonke, in Ponsen, a 
province of the German Em|)ire. on February 13. 1857. ;\t the 
he arrived in 



America, and three years later 
he came to Newark, where he be- 
gan his school-life under the tute- 
lage of ex-Mayor Haynes. After 
passing through the High School 
he became a student at Yale and 
Columbia Colleges, and taking a 
course of law in those two in- 
stitutions, he w,i3 admitted to the 
bar in 1880. He received the Civil 
Law degree in 1882, and continued 
his studies in the office of Smith & 
Martin, New York, and with John 
R. Emery, of Newark, and was 
admitted an attorney in 1882. 

Wheu the Democatic party came 
into power in 1884, Mr. Hood was 
made a Police Justice, and held 
that position while the Democratic 
party remained in control. During 
this period, and after his retirement, 
he was associated with Judge 





l-iuJIow McCarter as p.iitmr. 
Ill i8SS Mr. Hood was nji- 
pointecl Assistant I'roserutor by 
lilviii W. Crane, aiul is (1S97) 
still serving; in this capacity. 
He condncttil tlic prosecutiim 
and secured the conviction of 
Ro])ert Alden Fales, the young 
murderer, whose case excitetl 
great interest tliroughout the 

While .irtleiK in tin- prosecii- 
tuiii and punishment of tlie 
guilty. Mr. Hood is desirous 
of saving tlie innocent ; .ind 
doubtless lliis llieory of public 
duty is .approved by the coiii- 

Mr. Hood is practicallv re- 
sponsible for settling an import- 
ant question of electric-r.iilruad 
law, having, in association with 
.Samuel Kalisch, secured a de- 
cision of the Supreme Court coii- 

lirming a veidict of $15,000 for Fannie filoch, who lost a hand 
and leg by an electric car. Mr. Hood is a bachelor and ,1 mem- 
ber of the Democratic Society and of the I'rogress Club. 


WK would not consider equal and exact justice to this 
part of llie Court House u.isdone did wi-fail to mention 
the fact, that the Graiul Jury has a ])erinanent clerk in the person 
of Timothy E. Scales, who succeeded to the place on the retire- 
ment of Walter J. Knight. Of few men or officials can the 
old song be sung with a greater degree of appropriateness, noi 
with greater jiropriety, for he is indeed a "jolly good fellow," 
but aside from being all this, he brings to the conduct of the 
affairs of his office, all those (pialities which, when applied as he 
applies them, call for the rarest sort of commendation. 

Timothy K. Scales was born in Newark, November 1. 1S69. 
He went to the public sciiools, and when he left the High 
School he went into the office of Frederic 1< .\cl.uns to pursue his 
studies in the law. This was .\pril 15. 1874. and by the time 


he had attained his majority he was so well equipped with legal 
lore, that he was admitted to piactice as an attorney on the 
twentv-first anniversary of his birth. He remained an associate 
of Mr. Adams until 1893, but has been connected with the 
I-'rosecutor's office for the last six years, acting as clerk to the 
Grand Jur\ .uid to the I'rosecutor. being appointed by the court, 
Mr. Scales was elected to the I?oard of Education from the 
Ideveiith Ward, and was a school commissioner for four years ; 
from 1883 to 1888. He was a charter member of the Jeffer- 
sonian Club, and has been a member of the Democratic Execu- 
ive Commiltee of his ward for thirteen years. 

HE subject of this skrii h. who tor more than twenty years 
has been engaged in the successful practice of his pro- 
fession in that part of the city known as the Eleventh Ward, 
has by many kindly acts, proved himself worthy of a tribute 
in the pages of this souvenir. Few physicians who have had 
no more years in which In do the works of humanity, to extend 
the sick and suffering. 


WM. ]■:. OKICA 1 lll..\il, ( I.KIJK l;0.\Rl) CIF WOUKS. 

relief to 

have more to their creilit than Dr- 
Dill. While responding to his 
every call in the practice of his [iro- 
fession, he never forgets that to be 
philanthropic, pays. While busy as 
most men, during all the hours of 
I he tweniy-four during which lalioi 
ought to be pel foiined, he alwa\s 
lemeinbers that he is a citi/en, and 
h,is e\er stood ready to respond tn 
the ])eople's call. The Doctor is 
modest, unassuming and unaggres- 
sive, and has never let his liglil know what his left hand 
doeth. ()n several occasions he 
has been called to act the citizen's 
|iart in meeting political duty calls. 
On se\er.d occasions he filled 
ullices of trust and honor in his 
w.ird. and so creditalily and un- 
selfishly has he acquitted himself. 
,is 10 have been called to a seal in 




thf county k-gislaUnt-. commonly termed the ISoard of Chosen 
Freeholders, where he has demonstrated a watchful care over 
all the county's interests in general, and his immediate consti- 
tuancy in particular. 


WHKX the wide open arms of this land of liberty and 
freedom received and welcomed to her embrace the 
person of Ex-Freeholder George Wilhelm. she made no mistake. 
This son of the dear old German fatherlind. long after he 
heard the calls of freedom coming down the lines of time, and 
when he could no longer feel but resistance was vain, he bade 
adieu to the scenes of his young life, came to America, and 
cast in his lot with those wdio had come before. That the 
hopes (if ICx-Freeholder Wilhelm have been realized none will 
denv. His business life has been one of success, and that he 
has proved a valued citizen, we have abundant evidence of the 
same, in the respect in w'hich he is held by his promotion to a 
seat in the county legislature. 

responsible position in the great industrial cst.iblishnieiU of the 
Ilallantines. he has on several occasions been called to the 
enactment of the roll of good citizenship, by being elected to 
the aldermanship of his ward and as the representative of his 
district in the State legislature. He has always taken a lively 
interest in all public affairs, and ready to lend his aid in pro- 
moting the people's welfare. 


AM()NG the freeholders of the |)ast, few indeed of the 
number have been more thoroughly devoted to the duties 
of the office in general, and have shown a clearer right to be 
the watchman on the tower, than Mr. K. R. Coiirsen, whose 
photo appears on page 130. A thorough mechanic himself, a 
mason and builder by occupation, he went into the board fully 
armed for the protection, not only of the interests of his con- 
stituents, but fully pre])ared by his ability and experrence, to 
promote, protect and defend the general good. Space forbids 
us to sav more than that in his business as mason and builrler 



ONE of the old reliable citizens of the city of Newark, and 
county of Essex, is found in Hon. W. \V. Hawkins, who 
has his dwelling in the same house (then the ferry) in which 
the great Washington stood while his defeated army was 
crossing the river bv way of the ferry, during their retreat from 
the battle of Long Island, into and across New Jersey. The 
house having been removed from its old place, now stands at 
4S7 Ferry Street, and near it stands a tree which was severed 
in twain by a cannon shot fired by the pursuing, victorious 
British army. Mr. Hawkins has occupied the premises for 
many years, and takes not a little pride in rehearsing the 
historical facts surrounding, and of w^hich his pleasant home is 
the centre. .Although Mr. Hawkins has held a prominent and 

he was a success. Among the many exhibits of his skill 
scattered over the county, we will only call the readers attention 
to the new building of the East Orange National Bank, a model 
structure, the beautiful architecture and artistic finish of which, 
ought to satisfy all that our tribute has not been misplaced. 



EN are differently endowed, one having a faculty where 
devotion will bring forth out of a purity of gifts, rich 
results, which are not alone pleasing to his neighbors, but 
gratifying to himself; then comes another, who with equal 
or even superior endowments and rarer opportunities, fails iu 
the application ; again, there are those to whom nature has been 
charv of her gifts. These latter we often see go forth ready to 


(Ii> and ilare. and uillmut a])parent clfinl leath the 
front and become leaders of men, wliile many of 
those with far rarer gifts endowed, follow their lead 
and obey their commands. To the latter of ihese 
classes does Ex-Freeholder John J. Hanley belong. 
It is not for the writer to define the how, but this 
he knows ami is willing to tell it. 111, it fvssex 
Coiinlv, has few men, iis chairman of the J.iil 
Committee of the ISoard of Freeholders, in the past, 
who have shown themselves better able to admin- 
ister the county's affaiis and husband her resources- 


SINCE the pull tlown of the old buildiny several 
years ago, the Newark I'ost ( )hice has li.ul its 
housing in the old First Baptist Church building, 
\\ liich sfood convenienlly near and just in the rear, 
l-"rom its doors ,Mid windows have the three 
hundred moie or less post ollice oflicers ,uid clerks, 
watched the slow growth of the new post (illice 
building which, though )et not (|uitc finished, 
leached such a stage .is lent hope to the postmaster 
and his busv army. Although the new building 
will present .1 cipacily far short of the growing 
requirements of the several uses for which it 
designed, beside liiiiig the home of tin- post ollice. 
it will be a great impro\'ement on the old aiul 
the present quarters. There are intleed few hand- 
somer or more beautifully constructed buildings to 
be found anywhere. 

Already into the new iiu.uters in the new build- 
ing, which are capacious and altogether comfortable 
enough to please the most exacting, have moved 
the offices of the Internal Revenue Collector and 
that of the Collector of Customs, The first is 
occupied by William D. Rutan, collector anil his 
assistants, of the fifth Internal Revenue Collection 
District of New Jersey, matle up of the counties of 
Essex, I'nion, Hudson, Passaic, Middlesex, Morris, 
liergen, Sussex, Somerset, Warren and Hunterdon. This 
olfice has an auxiliary at Jersey City, and has stamp selling 
deputiisat I'.iterson, iVlillstone and Helnietla 


Mr. has 
liruen, Chief Clerk; E.Allen .Smith, 
Cashier; James P. McKenna, John 
I'. Fannar, Peter Young and Ma\- 
Sheehan, Deputy Collectors; Sarah 
E, nutterfield and Newton H. 
I'orter, Collector's Clerks; Joseph 
E. Cavanaugh Derisien and Enos 
RuiiNDn. Deputy Collectors. The 
Mcond with Henry W, Egner, 
Collector of Customs for this port 
"f entry. The Collector's full roster 
IS made up as follows, vi/.,; Henr\ 
\V. Egner, Collector; Samuel H 
Urowne, Peputy Collector and In- 
spector; William Martin .ind Fred- 
erick Harr, Deputy Collectors and 
Clerks ; David F. Leonard Store- 


SELDOM, if ever, since the days 
when the post office at New- 
;irk began its career of greatness 
in order to keep step with the 


ten assistants to aid him in conducting the business of thi- 
important and highlv responsible office, the roster being m.nh 
up as follows, viz.: William D. fxutan. Collector ; S. \'. ^ 





^^m1 ¥ 





gigantic snides the city was 
making toward the grand posi- 
tions she holds to-day among the 
cities of the western world, 
has she been blessed with a 
more competent, painstaking^ 
thoroughly safe and always af- 
fable postmaster, than he who 
handles the helm to-day, Hon. 
Joseph E. Haynes. I'ostmasler 
Haynes came into the office as 
successor to William D. Rutan. 
who was called to the oMice of 
the Internal Revenue Collector- 
ship but a few months after he 
had taken the oath of office. 
So far, I^ostmaster Haynes has 
left the roster of the ofiice just 
as he found it, with the single 
exception of his first assistant, 
having been satisfied to let well 
enough alone where ever\ thing ' 
was running smoothly, waiting 
till his argus eye should cover a 

recreant to a confided trust before making a change. His com- 
mission for the term commencing June, 1896, signed by CroM-r 
Cleveland, Newark bein.g, as a matter of course, a presidential 

The new postmaster was not unknown 10 the people before 
he was called to the responsible place of postmaster, since he 
had occupied the chair of the Mayorality of Newark for fi\e 
successive terms. Indeed, so well known and so well belo\ed 
was Joseph E. Haynes, and such a llioroughly upright Chief 
Executive Officer, and so smoothly did city affairs run under 
his administration, that he was asked to retain the ofiice for the 
unprecedented term of a decade of years. 

I^ostmaster Haynes began life as a teacher, and for many 
years w'as principal of the Thirteenth Ward Grammar .School, 

";i7T; i 


life, who have enjoyed the privilege of his tutorship, now seek 
o])portunity to give expression to the love and affection which 
they bear their old teacher. .Although the postmaster has passed 
the meridian of life, he is still h.ile and hc.irtv. .-ind exercises in 
his new oHice the same watchful cire over the nearly three 
hundred subordin.ates connected with the post ofiice, and is just 
as ready to pounce upon a negligent or miscloer now as he 
was upon the truant or laggard in the old Thirteenth Ward 
Grammar .School, twentv vears ago. 

and thousands of men and women in nearly all the walks of 



IT is little wontler that in selecting his First Assisl.ant, Post- 
master Haynes should let his choice fall upon his own son, 
since he was well conversant with his high character and his 
eminent fitness for the place. The conduct of (3eo. D. Haynes 
has been such in the management of the affairs of his responsible to 
please and satisfy the most exacting. Always polite and being the pos- 
sessor of one of those buoyant natures, it becomes a pleasure with anybody 
who in the course of business 
linds it necessary to come in 
contact with hint, and few, if 
any, ever quit his presence with- 
out the feeling that Geo. D, ^i.- X 
Haynes is the right man in the 
right place. 


IN far-away Osada and Hioga. 
Japan, Hon. James F. Con- 
nelly, one of our well-known, 
highly respected and popular 
young men, is acting the part of 
a good citizen by conducting 
the business of the two consul- 
ates named above, through the 
aijpointnient of the President of 
the United States. To the con- 
sulate business, previous to this 
high and responsible position 
which he is filling to the entire 
satisfaction of Mr. Cleveland and 
the people with whom he comes J,\ME^^ b.Miiii, jk., u.mted states senatok. 



ill business contact. Mi'. Con- 
nelly had nil acc|uaintance. Al- 
though he went into the aiiiiy 
as a volunteer when he was not 
yet fifteen and passed three of 
his school years at the fniiit. 
and often where shot and shell 
llew thickest, he found time to 
push on in his studies. As 
young Connelly was never 
known to shirk his military tluty 
and was ever found close up to 
the front in the midst of the 
fray, so he met duty in his school 
books and polished up his learn- 
ing after coming home. Busi- 
ness knowledge .ind business 
habits had allurements for him 
which continued to lead him 
on in such a way, that succtss 
marked his earlier efforts, and 
ere he himself was fully aware^ 
reputation sat astride the ves- 
sel's prow where his hand bore 

down the helm. IJefore he passed his 26th birlh-d.iv, or in 
1878, he received the nomination for 'I'ax Commissioner of the 
City of Newark. The writer of this sketch well remembers the 
occasion, ha\ing been President of the TJemociatic con\eiition, 
asssembled in what is now Jacob's Theatre, in Washington 
Street, which, with great unanimity, conferred the honor of ,1 
nomination, which was ratified by a lrium])hant election. 

In 1S83 he entered the Common Council and was made chair- 
man of the tlnance committee, the now popular United States 
Senator James .Smith, Jr., lieing a member. He remained in 
the council for four years, and when he retireil in i8<S7, there- 
from, in recognition of his ability as a financier, the then 
Mayor, now Postmaster Joseph K. Haynes, presented his name 
to the Connnon Council for the high office of Comptroller of 
the City of Newark, and though he w,is a staunch democrat, 
his reputation ,is a soldier and his ability as a fmancier, secured 
his confirmation. In 1865 Mi. Cleveland appointed hiin Collec- 
tor of Customs of the I'ort of New.irk .and then sent him 




E.\-SI1KKIFF of County, Ja.ob flaussling, is to all 
intents and pur])oses, a of a truly n'arvelous 
I li.M.icter. He is what might be termed a friend maker, and in 
that particular has few, if an\', ecpials in the county of Esse.x. 
Three years ago he was taken up by his party and triumphantly 
elected sheriff, an office as important in all particulars as any in 
the county. Jacob Haussling is a Democrat of the very staunch- 
est kind and |)olitically. personallv or in a business wav speak- 
ing, his friends always know just where to find him. It was 
for this reason, then, the Democratic party was induced in the 
last great Presidential campaign to turn to Jacob Haussling as 
their leader in the county and make him their candidate a 
second time for the responsible office of sheriff. L'nfortunately 
though, not only for his party but the great body of this people, 
he was defeated. The division of the Democratic party on the 
silver question, caused snch a hegira from the ranks of the 
party which delighted to honor him, that his Republican 
opponent was elected over him bv a large majority, notwithstanding the fact that 
several thousand Republicans openl\- voted for him as their favoiite, not forgetting in 
the short period of three vears, what they had learned of his beautiful character in a 
life time. It cm be saiil that J.ic rib ll.uisslin^ had proved himself as true to the 
shiie\alty of this hisiiati\e count)', as the needle to the pole. 

THIC lioard of Trade of the Cit\ of Newark has a ]ilace in the hearts of the people. 
Especially is this the fact in regard to that portion of the cili/ens who are en- 
gaged in the upbuilding of her industrial and 
commercial greatness. It is within the council 
chamlier of this body, made up of Newark's 
representative business men, where the questions 
of interest, not alone to each man personallv but 
to all as a corporate body and an association, 
Newark is in the enjoyment, as a corporation, 
of iii.'inv things which would never have been 
mooted, let alone the fact that they are already 
established facts in full operation, and results 
already accruing the greatest good to the great- 
est number. The lioard of Trade has been in 
existence since 1869, having been incorporated 
March 10, of that year. To make use of the eovvakd r". MC donald, (decfased) 



language of their own: "The object of the association is the 
promotion of trade, the giving of proper direction and impetus 
to all commercial movements, the encouragement of intercourse 
lietween Ijusiness men, the improvement of facilities for trans- 
portation, the correction of abuses, tlie diffusion of information 
concerning the trades, manufactures and other interests of the 
city of Newark, the co-operation of this with similar societies in 
other cities and tlie development and promotion of the com- 
mercial and other interests." The association has been called 
upon to mourn the loss of several of its presiding officers, all of 
wliom have been men of large business faculties and engage- 
ments, and have been called away at times when they could not 
well be spared. At the time we wriie, the enibknis of sorrow 
over the loss of President Ure are draped on the chair he 
occupied, and the tears of sorrow over the loss of Piesident 
Samuel At water are, scarce jet dry; a man beloved by all. 
The officers of the Board of Trade are as follows, viz.; Presi- 
dent, vacant ; Vice-Presidents, James A. Coe. Cyrus Peck and 
James A. Higbie ; Treasurer, James E.Fleming; .Secretary. 
P. T. (Xiinn. 


ONGRES.S.MAN R. Wayne Parker, representing the 

ark District in the Congress of the United States, is a 
man whom the people delight to honor and one whom they 
have called from his briefs, being by profession a lawyer, and 
in the footsteps of his illustrious father, Cortland Parker. Esq., 
who stanrls at the head of the bar. not only of the courts of 
Essex County but of the State as well ; a man who has grown 
great in the walks of professional and private life. K. Wayne 
Parker has steadily grown in popularity and in the respect 
of the citizens of Essex. From time to time he laid aside his 
professional work to represent his assembly district in the State 
Legislature, until he was selected for the high honor of being 
the successor of the author of Ben Bolt, in Congress of the 
United States. Mr. Parker is an Essex County man to the 
core and is now representing in Congress the city in which he 
was born and reared, and if more were required in proof of the 
esteem in which he is held, we have only to refer to the 
the maiorit\' he recevied at his late re-election. 

■-S^-.y ^ 'Tggi- 




WHETHER you take Col. Jan 
him as the Treasurer of th 

mes E. Fleming and think of 
the Board of Trade, or as the 
head of the immense coal business which has grown up under 
his personal care, or as the organizer and commander of the 
Essex Troop of dashing cavalry, is .seen the man and official to 
whom, when a trust of any character was imiiosed, was never 
know-n to lack one in its fulfilment to the letter. For several 
years Col. Fleming has handled the funds of the Board of 

Trade as its Treasurer, and from the time of his first election to the respon- 
sible position his re-election has been found a work of entire unanimity. Col. 

Fleming is in the prime of 

life and in his record as a 

business man, as a citizen 

and as a gentleman, always 

courteous anti painstaking, 

his reputation stands as high 

as the highest, untiuestioned 

and unchallenged. 

WHEN Colonel 
L. I'.assett die 

.\Li.i;.\ L B.\ssi:rr, (deceased). 


Colonel Allen 
ied. New- 
Jersey lost one of her most 
gallant children and a son of 
whom every one that knew 
him 'twas but to love him, 
.and few men indeed have 
died of lale years whose loss 
has been more sincerely 
mourned t h a n his. For 
several years Col. Bassett 
presided over the delibera- 
tions of the Board of Trade, 
and no institution ever had 

I lAM A. UKK, (OliCE.ASEU ) 



a more deeply devoted and firniei' friend and one 
which made its e\ ery interest his own. llian the IJonrd 
of Trade had in Col. lUissett. To make use of an 
old and trite s.iviny. it was "the apple of the 
Colonel's eye." In his h.mds the work of the 
association was never known to kinguish, and dur- 
ing the same length of time never was so much for 
public good accomplishetl, than while Col. Bassett 
was at the helm. We are fain to believe had Col. 
ISassett lived, the jiroject which had for its culniin- 
aiion the building of a new first-class hotel for the 
city of Newark, would have been consummated, and 
now while the great industrial city is spreading out 
in nearly all directions like the lilis of a great 
that one w hicli should |)oint with unerring finger 
toward the hotel springing heavenward as if by the 
touch of magic, has not yet started in the race. 

Far be it from us lo (Jelr.ict one iota fiom the 
honesty of |)urpose, courage or dash of .1 single 
gentleman who has been honored with the leader- 
ship of the Board of Trade, but when we are 
witnessing the upbuilding of such marvellous archi- 
tectural works as the I'rudential and new I'ost 
Office on Broad Street and the beautiful brown- 
stone edifices on Market Street, we cannot well 
avoid stirring up our recollections of men like Col. Bassetl, who 
ever had ,a shoulder to the wheel of progress aiul made their 
magnetic inlluence frit. 



HEN William A. lire died a strong tower fell, but he had 
grown to tower by his own un.issisled efforts. 
Modest, unassuming and unagressive as he was, vet he urew on 
and on from ver)- modest beginnings until when stricken with 
that disease w hich called him from his life work ere he had yet 
|)ast the ]>iime of life and when he stood at the head, not alone 
of a great newspaper, but also at the head of the representati\e 
business institution of the great industrial city of his home, and 
the twice elected president of the Newark Board of Trade. It 
is no fulsome eulogy we wish to write and place on record amid 
the pages of this book, but to gi\ e voice in befitting words to a 
tribute of the worth of one who was an eminentlv self-made 


man and justly earned all that may be said of him, by a short, 
busy and successful career, a worthy exemplar of the great 
f.ict wdiich will pass along down the line of his life-work, so 
|)laiidy defined as to leave its impress everywhere he moved ; 
m the language of the poet who truthfully wrote: 
Honor and ianie are gained not by surprise. 
He ilint would win must labor for tlie prize. 
William A. Ure began life as a reporter, and if it can be said 
of any other class than the poets that they were born to this or 
that, it can as well be said that he was a born newspaper man, 
and that he carefully petted and abundantly nurtured his ideal, 
we have only to survey the marvellous result in the culmination 
of his first and last great work, the Newark Sunday Call, which 
will ever stand a monument to his life-work and be a continually 
speaking memorial of how he wrought to fill, the weakling the 
paper was when it came into his hands, w ith that vitality which 
he felt assured would give it renewed life, and each Sunday 


I', r, CJCI.N.N, sr.CKK lAUV HOAKD OK ■IH.^D|■., 

output would go among the people 
a living oracle. As week after week, 
montli after month, and year after 
\ear, the Cal. wert forth, himself 
.•md associate James W. Schock 
could whisper to each other, "it is 
done, the \ ictorv's ours." 

As will be re.idily seen by the 
interest he took in the growth and 
prosperity of the cily in which he 
lived and the steady growth he 
ina<le from the lowest to the highest 
lop round of the ladder of the 
ISo.ird of Trade, Mr. I're did not 
ennfine his work to self. No sooner 
had the Or// been pl.u ed on a solid 
basis and where he could see suc- 
cess ahead, a tendency to assist 
others and help on I he good works 
going on around him was given 
IliH reign. When Mr. Ure died 
Newark loit an upright citizen, his 
wife a loving husband and his child- 
ren a doting f.ither. 




1 1 LE the greater part of 
Essex County is, indeed 
city -but few acres of 
lier soil being yet given 
over to the plough and 
the harrow, the shovel 
and the hoe yet it is 
well to mark the divis- 
ion and touch the history in brief of 
the great industrial city of the west- 
ern world which has been built upon 
a large section of her territory, under 
the name, style and title of Newark, 
New Jersey. Not unlike many of our 
great western cities, Newark has had 
a truly phenominal growth and a pros- 
perity of her own quite unexampled. 

-No city in this country, with perhaps 
the exception of New York, Chicago 
and San Francisco, with one or two 
other of the mighty number of beautiful 
and thriving cities among those which 
have multiplied with startling rapidity; 
and all within the four short centuries of 
time since Columbus planted the flags 
of Ferdinand and Isabella, the then 
king and queen of Spain, on that little 
isle of the Bahama group, made famous 
by the horde oi /e//'iifs which the great 
navigator found in peaceful and undis- 
turbed possession when he landed his 
jaded and lialf mutinous crew — when 

considering all its re.ictions, has had suchamarvellousgrowth and 
career as this Newark, city of teeming industries and the capital 

ci;y of Essex, of 
whose beauties we 
love to bear record, 
and of the grandeur 
of which we delight 
to write. 

But little more 
than two hundred 
years have cycled 
by since the little 
ba n d gathered 
round the leaders' 
charming daughter 
and bestowed upon 
lur the honor of 
christening the new 
town on the Passaic, 

From Connecti- 
cut, the little,'com- 
pany came armed 

JAMES M.'^VMoi^ M.WOK. ^^'"l => hcroic dc- 


votion to the religion they loved, and a sacrificial fer\or wliich 
would brook no restraint when the worship of their Heavenly 
Father, and the adoration of his Son was the true religious work 
being done. As all new cities, boroughs and towns must needs 
have a government, the new city of Newark must on no account 
be, or become an exception ; nor was it. 

If ever church and state came together and at white heat, the 
government of Newark was a bright particular example of 
such a coalescing. The men and women who came were made 
of the right kinil of stuff, and as the town grew the government 
stood ready harnessed to take up the pace, and for (|uite forty 
years it was an open, easy race with the church in the lead and 
the State close up. Some of the early writers of New-ark history 
set the governmeni down as "essentially religious," and left it 
at that ; others said it w-as a combination of the " Theocracy 
of the Jews" and a " Democratic town meeting" of New Eng- 
l.ind. One fact is ever at the front in all the governiental affairs, 
and that was. that everybody turned out and took a hand in tlie 
primary work of government forming. But there was still 
another, and that the all-potent, viz.: None but the saints were 
permitted to take ])art, hold office or vote. The written law 
read, " none shall be admitted freemen but such planters as are 
members of some or other of the Congregational churches," 
" nor shall any but such be chosen to the magistracy," " nor 



shall any but siuh church niem- 
liers liave any vote in any elect- 
ion." "Here," says the writer, 
" was the most complete union of 
church and State ever estab- 
lisheil since the Mosaic dispens- 

This kind of theocratic govern- 
ment wound up. the record 
informs us, on March i, 1677. 
when it was voted, as a town 
act. " that all and every man 
that improves land in the ' town 
of Newark.' shall make their 
appearance at town meetings, 
and there, attend to any business 
as shall be proposed, as any of 
the planters do," The saints 
themselves thus becoming 
careless and negligent, allowed 
the sinners to come in and join 
the government phalanx. Just 
at this point in the career of 
Newark, then, began the work 
of those influences which operate 
with such magic power in the 
u|)ljuildnig of communities, viz. : 
Freedom of speech. Freedom of 
the ])ress and Freedom to wor- 
ship God according to the dic- 
tates of one's own conscience. 

Newark and its town-meeting methods of government con- 
tinued to march on hand in hand like lovers in the country on 
going to church, till the same, becoming a sort of by-word and 
reproach, the St.ite Legislature, on petition, granted the city the 
right to a division into wards, four in number. North, South, 
Fast and West Wards. The only one of the nundier, which had 
enough of prerogative matter in its make-up to inspire that 
reverence for a name which makes it ten.icious and long cling- 
ing, w'as the "Old North," and the "Old North" contained 
enough to make it hallowed to the memory of the oldest in- 
liabilant, and y(JU li.ive now only to tickle his recollection with 

X L W A K K. CI 1 V H us r I T A L. 

marks. Among the latter we may name the ])opular and safe 
financial institution, called in its lii>iiiir. the North Ward National 

All the " (_)ld North's " sisters which deported themselves 
over the territory joining right angles at the crossing of Broad 
and Market .Streets, died spinsters, leaving no issue, and their 
names have gone into foigetfulness, only as the oldest inhab- 
itant is induced to bring forth his treasures at the behest of 
some kindly ambitious soul, who is full of anxiety to write a 
book, orto say theleast, makean effort, with the cityof Newark for 
his subject, before the sere and yellow leaf of his existence shall 


the straw of 

h a V e waxed 

a rye to 

and waned, or 

m a k e the 

the bauble of 

memory jin- 

literary fame 

gle again, al- 

shall h a \- e 

though for- 

bursted, when 

ge t f u 1 n e s s 

just within his 

was not dis- 


tant so very 

The first 


charter of the 

The name 

city of New- 

still clings to 

ark, the histor- 

the section 

ian informs us. 

which h ,1 s 

w a s granted 

the beautiful 

by the legisla- 


ture in 1S36. 

I'ark for its 

riien it was 

centre a n d 

that she cast 

the n., L. & 

a w ay t h e 

W. K. R's. 

scarcely .soiled 

llepol, and 

shoes of her 

other public 

township boy- 

places, for its 

hood, and put 

b 1 a z n e rl 

on s|)an new 




boots, " manhoocl," and started forth as a city 
proper. As iti nearly all young communities, the 
great men soon out-grew the places for their 
political enthrallment, and as Newark did not 
prove an exception, however devoutly it might 
have been wished for, there were continual calls 
for supplements to the charter, and the legisla- 
ture was kept busy fulminating supplements 
until they became confusing and burthensome. 
Finally, in 1854, the Common Council appointed 
a Board of Commissioners to unravel the tan- 
gled skein of supplements and touch with index 
finger the tender spots in the derme of the grow- 
ing crop of seekers and hoUlers of offices under 
their provisions. 

The commissioners entered heroicall\' U|ion 
the task, and finally succeeded to their own 
satisfaction, in preparing a code from which had 
been, as they thought and had abundant and 
satisfactory reasons for believing, eliminated all 
the questionable features, but, when the 
Council had received their report, and as a 
whole had gone over their work with great care, 
places were found in which officials were in- 
trenched, who would not surrender. Late in 
1S55. a committee of citizens joined in the w-ork 
and finally succeeded in presenting a charter quite satisfactory 
to the majority, and on March 20, 1857, it havmg received the 
sanction of the law-making body of the State, was signed by 
the Governor. 

Newark, at this important period of its history, was divided 
into eleven wards, each of which, under its provisions, were en- 
titled to two Aldermen. These, with his Honor, the iVlayor, 
constituted the city government. Provision was also made in 
the charter for the formation of a I3oard of Education, to which 
was deputed the work of taking care of the public schools, 
minus the appropriations, which was reserved to the Common 
Council. While much wisdom had been displayed in the 
formation of the government, a practical application soon 
proved that simplicity had been too much simplified, and that 
many absolute ret|uirenients, in a rapidly growing conniiunity, 
had not been met, and the supplement mill must needs be started 

and the old 
business of 
grinding out 
suppleme nts 
begin again. 

One of the 
lirst to pass 
through t h e 
hopper w a s 
the s u p p le- 
m e n t estab- 
lishing a Re- 
ceiverof Ta.\es, 
and the provid- 
ing of a sinking 
fund to meet 
ihecily's liond- 
ed debt when 
i t s payment 
Next in or- 
der came the 
Board of As- 



sessment and Revision of Taxes, an institution of which the 
city was sadly in need of. This institution, which has proved 
such a boon to the tax-paying jjublic, came into existence in 
1S66. At this lime, 1897, the IJoard continues with the same 
number of Commissioners as when it was first organized, but 
all are now appointed by the Mayor. 

In 1873 the demand made by the growth of the city, and the 
extent and ini])orlance of its financial business, was met by 
the formation of a Hoard of Finance, with an officer called the 
Comptroller standing at its head. So smoothly, economically 
and wisely has the affairs of this department been conducted, 
but few changes, and these of a nnnor character, have been 
deemed necessary. 

The mighty growth of the city and its expanse hill-ward, 
seemed to demand some radical changes in the license methods 
of the city. To meet this a supplement was obtained and the 
Board of Com- 
m i s s i o n e r s 
were appoint- 
ed under its 
p r o \' i s i o n s. 
These have 
continued with 
about the same 
duties and 
p o w e r s as 
when they first 

Now we ap- 
|)roach an all 
important part 
of her history — 
that, whicii is 
connected with 
The Water 
15 o a r d. 1 n 
1S60, a sup|)le- 
ment came 
through the julics b. ungek, keceiveh of taxes. 





hopper autlmiizing the city to purchase the franchise liekl In' 
the Newark Aciueduct Company, and it was then, the Newark 
Aqueduct Board was established, and into its hands passed the 
management of tlie City's water supply. 

This Board, as provided by law, is composed of five members- 
who are elected by the people, and is clothed with very extensive 
powers. It has the entire control and management of the Water 
department, the Street department, sewers and drains, and in 
fact all the public works of the city. The other departments of 
the city government are the Health Board, which, under recent 
legislation, has very e.xtreme powers; tlie Trustees of the City 
Home, a reform school for boys and girls and the Trustees of 
the Free Public Library, a most e.xcellent institution which is 
giving unqualified satisfaction. 

Newark is situated on the main highw.iy lietween New York 

anil rhiladel|)hia, and on the Passaic River, anti hallows the 
spot where our forefathers first delved, and then ■■ built belter 
than they knew." Its transportation facilities by railroad and 
water are unequalled. It is less than thirty minutes from the 
citv of New York by rail, and about an hour by water. Six 
railroads, and trains innumerable each day, transport its pas- 
sengers and its goods to and from the great metropolis, and to 
and from all the great countries and cities of the world. 

The territorial jurisdiction of the city embraces an area of |8 
square miles. Its improved streets aggregate a length of over 
200 miles, nearly 75 mdes of which are paved with granite, 
asiihaltum. etc., and its sewers a length of more than 100 miles. 
It has a combined area of nearly 150 acres in parks. And it 
now has a supply of water which for purity, wholesomeness, 
sweetness and abundance, is unequalled. As the bird's-eye 


views of the city reproduced 
in this woik show, the large 
territory embraced within 
ihe city's limits is well built 
upon, but not overcrowded, 
r he salt marshes or meadows 
in the southeastern part of 
the city, are as yet sparsely 
occupied by either dwellings 
or factories, but even here 
business .and manufacturing 
enterpiise is draining and re- 
claiming t h e m.aish. and 
l}uildings and dwellings are 

The innumerable factories 
in tlie city are, almost with- 
out ,in e.vccption. well and 
strongly built, finely venti- 
lated and lighted, and are 
excellent examples of factory 
and mill .irchitecture. The 
dwelling houses evince the 




prosperity and thi-ift of the inhabitants, who as a 
rule are well and comfortably housed, while manv 
of the larger dwellings, as illustrations of the hand- 
some homes of the city given in this work will 
show, are models of comfort, convenience and 
beauty. The population at the present time. iSg;. 
exceeds two hundred and twentv-tive thousand 

The future growth and prosperity of the city is 
assured, and will be continous. steady and promises 
to be vast. New manufacturing industries are 
constantly being attracted to the city by its magni- 
ficent facilities for production and transportation, 
the reasonable prices and rents asked for lands and 
fact ries. the low tax rate and the perfect police 
and fire protection, which the city affords. .And 
with this constant accession of new ind.jstries and 
enterprises, conies a vast and steady flowing stream 
of workmen and their families, certain of emplov- 
nient, present comfort and future competence. In 
addition to all these, there is a large overflow everv 
year from the city of New York, of those who look 
for cheaper and quieter homes than thegreat metro- 
polis can furnish. Moreover, the industries of the 
city are so diversified that no depression in any one industrv 
can materially interfere with the general growth and prosperitv 
of the town. .-Mtogether, it seems safe to predict that the city 
of Newark will at no very distant day be the largest and most 
flourishing manufacturing city in the United Slates, if not in the 

The question now being mooted of a "'greater Newark," 
which shall take in the larger portion of Essex and those divis- 
ions of our sister county of Hudson, known as Harrison and 
Kearny, the latter named in honor of the heroic Phil Kearny, 
who lost his life at Chantilly, and a bronze statue of whom 
adorns the beautiful Military Park, will ere long be answered in 
the city of Newark with a teeming population of 500,000 souls. 
The city is both well and cheaplv governed. The tax rate for 
the year 1896 was onlv S'-96 upon each $100 of assessed valu- 
ation, and this included the county as well as the city rate. 
The assessed valuation of property within the city for taxable 
purposes was. in 1896, after deducting debts, $133,483,31 1. The 

taxable prop- 
erty was, the 
year preced- 



7S7, w h i c li 
was an in- 
crease over 
the assessed 
valuations for 
1895 of $3. 

397.537- 'I'Ik^ 
credit of the 
citvcan hard- 
ly besur])ass- 
e d . The 
of its finances 
is honest, 
and wise ;and 
public im- 


aie being constantly carried on. and there is never any pause in 
the efforts of munici|)al authorities to improve, beautify and 
adorn the city, yet all these public works are carried on and 
managed in so wise and skillful a manner, that the burden of pay- 
ing for them is scarcely felt liy the taxpayers. So excellent is the 
credit of the city, that it has no difficulty in placing such bonds 
as it finds necessary to issue, at 4 and 4^ per cent. 

The inhabitants of the city are in the main enterprising, indus- 
trious, thrifty and prosperous. Considering the size of the city, 
such poverty as exists within its borders is almost insignificant. 
There is employment for all who are able and willing to work, 
and at fair wages, so that none, except those stricken by disaster 
or disease need know the name of want. And for these un- 
fortunate and distressed, charity is liberal and abundant. 

The city was first incorporated by the name of " The Mayor 
and Common Council of the City of Newark," and this name 
has never been changed in all the subsequent legislation relat- 
ing to the city and its government, although many changes 
h a \' e been 
made in the 
powers, duties 
,md responsi- 
bilities of these 

The present 
Mayor of the 
city is James 
M. Seymour, 
who succeeded 
Julius A. Leb- 
kuecher in 
May, 1896. 

The Mayor 
is allowed a 
private secre- 
tary and one 
clerk, and in 
addition, a po- 
lice officer is 
detailed to 





Stand 'guard at'lhe executive door during office hours, and to act 
as IVTayor's messenger. Not an imposing staff, truly, but with it 
the Mayor of tliis great city must needs be content. During 
the absence of the Mayor from the city, the executive duties 
devolve upon the President of the Common Council. 

In times past, the Common Council was a proud and import- 
ant body. Almost all the patronage of the city was exercised 
by it, and the key of the city treasury was in its hands. Nearly 
all the city officials were elected or appointed by it. Policemen, 
firemen and lesser heroes were named and practically appointed 
by the aldermen of the varions wards, and consequently, an alder- 
man in his ward was a great and mighty man. In those days to 
be an alderman was to be a king. But times have changed, and 
aldermen have changed with them. The Common Council has 
been shorn of ahnost all its patronage and power, and an alder- 
man is no longer the great and mighty ruler that he was. Inde- 
pendent commissions control the Police, Fire, Health and other 
departments, and the entire field of Public Works has been 
transferred to a new anti independent board. The Common 

Council has now, but little to do besides making the annual 
appropriations demanded by the various comraissions. 

The Common Council, as the Board of Alderman is styled, 
is composed at present of thirty members, two aldermen being 
elected from each of the fifteen wards into which the city is ;it 
present divided. The Aldermen composing the present board are ; 
First Ward, Edmund S. Joy, David D. Bragravv ; Second, Louis 
M. Finger, Theodore B. Guerin; Third, John Buhl, Charles Jacobi; 
Fourth, Abraham Manners, William S. Righter ; Fifth, James 
A. Mc Carthy, Charles Weigend ; Sixth, William O. Kuebler, 
Edward M. Waldron ; Seventh, Frank B. Knott, Wdliam J. 
Joice; Eighth, Winton C. Garrison, Sidney N. Ogden ; Ninth, 
George Virtue, Syhamis .Shepperd ; Tenth, William J. Morrow, 
Minard A. Knapp; Eleventh, Edward W. Benjamin, Abram 
C. Denman ; Twelfth, William Harrigan, Herman Stahnten ; 
Tliirteenth, Jacob Schreihofer, Ferdinand Hosp; Fourteenth, 
Valentine Frahold, John Pea ; Fifteenth. Willi. im iMungle, 
Joseph S. Sutphen. 

The Police Commissioners arc appointed by the Mayor and 


form a non-partisan body, two 
of their number being chosen 
from each of the great ])olitical 
parties. The present Police 
Commissioners are : Lyman IC. 
Kane, President; James R, 
.Smith, Edward H. Uffert and 
.Moses Bigelow. The Secretary 
of the Board is Joseph M. Cox. 
This Board has the control and 
management of the Police De- 
partment, but can only remove a 
police official for cause, after 
hearing. The permanency of 
llie force, thus assured, ])einiits 
ilie attainment of perfect disci- 
phne and efficiency, and the 
])i)lice department of the city of 
.Newark, as it exists to-day, is 
in these respects equalled by 
\ ery few, if excelled by anv 
'llie police force numbered in 
1896, 322 officers and men, 








officered by a chief, four captains, and tine necessary- 
subordinate otTicers. For police purposes the city is 
divided into four precincts, the first being under the 
command of Capt. William P. Daly; the second 
under the command of Capt. Michael Corbitt ; the 
third under the command of Capt. Andrew J. 
McManus ; and the fourth under the command of 
Capt. John H. Ubhaus. 

The Board of Fire Commissioners is also ap- 
pointed by the Mayor, and is likewise a non-parti- 
san body. The present Fire Commissioners are ■ 
Henry R. Baker, President ; Henry C. Rommell, 
Hugo Menzel. The Chief of the Fire Department 
is Robert Kiersted. The department possesses 
steam fire engines, hook and ladder companies and 
chemical engine. It has an elaborate and com- 
plete fire-alarm telegraph system, and fire-alarm 
signal boxes, so that a fire in any part of the city 
may be reached by the fire engines at once. In 
addition to the engines maintained by the fire depart- 
ment of the city, the Board of Fire Underwriters 
maintain a Salvage Corps, whose 'duties are suffi- 
ciently indicated by its name. The city is thus amply 
and efficiently protected from fire. 

The Board of Assessment and Revision of Taxes is also 
appointed by the Mayor. Its duties are to make all assessments 
of all property within the city for taxable purposes, to keep 
proper records thereof, to revise the same whenever necessary, 
and to hear and determine all appeals from citizens in matters 
of taxation. The present members of this board are: Philip 
Lowy, John Otto, Marcus S. Richards, Frederick W. Paul, R. 
Heber Breintnall. The Secretary of the Board is Noah Cuter. 

The Commissioners of the Sinking Fund are Robert F. 
Ballantine, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Andrew J. Kirkpatrick, and 
the Mayor and Compti oiler, ^.iw^c/;;. The Sinking Fund is 
intended to meet the various issues of city bonds as they 
respectively fall due, and these Commissioners have charge of 
the investment of the funds intrusted to their charge, until such 
times as they are needed for the purpose of meeting and retiring 

The Board of Excise Commissioners have charge of the grant- 
ing of licenses for the sale of spirituous and malt li(|uors and 



wines within the city limits. They are at present: Franklin 
Marx, President ; Eugene Carroll, Carl Schwartz and James 

The Health Department is possessed, under recent legislation, 
of very ample powers for the care and protection of the public 
health of the city. The present members of the Board of 
Health are: Dr. II. C. H. Heiold, M. Straus, A. II. Johnson. 
J. A. Furman, \V. I!. Guild, C. E. Mackey, Dr. C. M. Zeh, Dr. 
D. L. Wallace. Dr. F. W. Becker. Dr. W. S, Disbrow. The 
Health Officer is David D. Chandler. The City Hospital and 
the City Dispensary are under the management of the Board of 
Health. They control and direct the hospital maintained by 
the city for its suffering poor, and also maintain at the hospital 
a training school for nurses. 

The Trustees of the City Home are : the Mayor, ex-officio, 
\. Ward Woodruff, John Breunig, Henry Merz, John B. Rich- 
mond James A. MrCarlhy, Frank H. Knott. The City Home 
is a reformatory institution for wayw:ird and children, 
and its discipline is in- 
tended to lead them back 
and accustom them to 
walk in ways of useful- 
ness and sobriety. 

The Free Public Li- 
brary, of the city is man- 
aged by a board of trus- 
tees which is at present 
composed of Edward H. 
Duryee, James K. Howell, 
Rich a r d C. Jenkinson, 
William Johnson, James 
Taaffe, besides the Mayor 
and the Superintendent of 
Public .Schools, ex-ojfficio- 
The Free Library is 
splendidly housed and 
elegantly equipped. It 
contains a library of al- 
most 30.000 books, besides 
a finely furnished reading- 








<<QPEAK of men as you find (hem" is a good old adage. 
O and gives opportunity when writing of such as have 
been brought before the pubHc, as having been the occupant of 
some pubHc position, and so it is with those who have been 
called to the mayoralty of the industrial city of Newark, now, 
at this writing (1897) number just a full score and one more. 
In carrying out the old adage in speaking of these men, whose 
photos appear on the opposite page of this work, as we have 
found them, we will be pardoned for giving expression to the 
regret which haunts our mind and has an almost paralysing in- 
fluence over the pen, for that the lack of space to give ever so 
brief a mention of each one of the men whose executive ability 
as exercised through the mayorship of the capital city, of Essex 
County, has had so much to tlo toward its weal or woe. 

As we glance over the page from which these men speak to 
us, as if they were all living and in our presence, our regrets 
grow apace that full justice cannot be done nor free rein given 

The third on the list was General Miller, a man honored and 
respected by all. The fourth in the mayorally succession was 
Oliver H. Halstead, a scholarly gentleman who was afterward 
honored with an appointment as Chancellor of the State of New 
Jersey. It was in the stirring political times of 1S40. He 
served one term. 

The fifth was William Wright, who became Mayor of New- 
ark in 1841. He served three years. He was afterward made 
Governor, and then honored with an elevation to the Senate of 
the United States. The sixth Mayor of Newark w-as Stephen 
Dodd who was elected in 1844, and served one year. His 
birth place was Mendham, Morris County, March 7, 1770. 
Mayor Dodd lived to the ripe old age of 85, and passed away 
March 25. I855. Next came Col. Isaac Baldwin as the seventh 
mayor. He was elected in 1845, and served a single term. He 
died in 1S53. Beach Vanderpool came next, the eighth in the 
line of Newark's mayors. He was born in Newark, in 180S, 
and was made Mayor of his native city In 1846. and died in 


to our desires, to let the pen run so that this beautiful souvenir 
may in all things be just as we would like it. It is now nearly 
three quarters of a century since Newark became an incorpor- 
ated city and elected her first mayor ni the person of Hon. 
\\ illiam Halsey, who so far as we have lieen able to gather 
data relating to him, made an acceptable mayor. Mr. Halsey 
belonged to the Short Hills and Sprin,jfield branch of the 
family, all of whom had made honorable records and some 
stood by Pastor Caldwell's side when he gave the British 
■' Watts." 

The Second mayor was Theodore Frelinghuysen, a name 
honored and revered ever)'where, and in " speaking of him as 
we find him," we have only to saj" everybody loved and re- 
spected him. This great and good man will be best remem- 
bered as the Whig candidate for Vice-President of the United 
States on the ticket with Henry Clay, " Gallant Harry of the 

1884. sincerely mourned bv all who knew him. Such was the 
character of his genius on all those surrounding him, and what- 
ever he came in contract with felt his influence. 

The name of Quinby is synonymous with the carriage man- 
ufacturing industry in the city of Newark. This arises from the 
fact that Isaac M. Ouinby, who was the ninth in the Mayoralty 
succession, was a representative of this industry, which, for 
many years, took the lead in Newark's manufacturing interests. 
Mr. Ouinby was a native of Orange, served three terms as 
Mayor of the city of Newark, and crossed the dark river in 
1874, mourned by all who knew him. 

Among the Mayors of Newark, it will take but the glance of 
the reader to select the tenth in number from among the men 
whose phothos grace the page, as one who went out and in 
among the people, Horace J. Poinier, beloved and honored by 
all. In 1857 Mr. Poinier was elected .Mayor and served three 



Few men had a stronger liold upon tlie affec- 
tions of the people than the eleventh hi the line of 
Mayors who served the people of Newark, the Hon. 
Moses Bigelow. This estimable gentleman, of 
whom it is not saving too much that Newark never 
had a more popular Mayor, nor one who was more 
highly esteemed for his many noble qualities of 
heart and hand. Moses Bigelow was a pioneer in 
the varnish munufacturing industry, and amassed a 
large fortune through his correct habits and his 
close application to business. For seven years he 
watched the city's interests from the chair of the 
m.iyoralty, and when he died, in 1877, very few 
were ever more sincerely mourned. The old busi- 
ness which he established is now conducted by his 
son, Moses Bigelow, and his son-in law. Ex- 
Judge Sarauel F. Bigelow, the well-known and suc- 
cessful attorney and counsellor at law. is also a son 
of the Mayor. 

The ne.xt or twelfth in the line of succession to 
the mayoralty was the late lamented Ambassador 
to Germany. Major General 'Iheodore Runyon. 
The General, as he was .dways familiarly called. ~ 
was elected Mayor m 1S74 and served for two 
years. He then accepted the high office of the 
Chancellorship, which he held for fourteen years. During the 
civil war he commanded the First New Jersey Brigade, and at 
he battle of the first Bull Run commanded a division. On re- 
tiring from the office of Chancellor he was appointed by Pres- 
ident Cleveland as Minister to Germany, the mission which was 
raised in his honor to .Ambassador. Soon after this new honor 
had been bestowed, the General while at church in Berlin was 
stricken with apople.vj-, and died soon after reaching his home. 

The trunk and bag industry of the city of Newark had in 
Thomas B. Peddle, the thirteenth Mayor, one of the earliest and 
firmest supporteis and promoters. The First Baptist Church, 
now the Peddle Memorial, was thus named in honor of Mayor 
Peddle, who, when he died in 1S85, left the church a handsome 

l.VM.VN K. KA.NK, PoLli.L 



bequest. He also during his life dealt so liberally with the 
Baptist school at Hightstown that it was called in his honor the 
Peddie Institute. 

The man who is yet going out and i)i amoug us, laden with 
years and honors and yet bearing fruit, was elected Mayor in 
1869, and as God raised up Washington and Lincoln each for 
his speoial purpose, so, too, was Frederick W. Ricord raised up 
for the mayoralty, at a time when then the rashness and want 
of foresight in others required his scrutinizing gaze, his master 
hantl at the helm, to save from utter t'mancial ruin by wielding 
the pen to veto the great Broad street wood-paving ordinance. 
So, too, indeed, had Mayor Ricord been raised up, that New- 
ark did herself a lasting honor when she took up the man and 
made him Mayor who hatl the courage and manliness to do the right thing at 
the right time. The innate goodness of heart of Frederick W. Ricord was con- 
stantlv cropping out when in the prime of life, while the argus eye of the 
people concentrates its ga/e to reach it ; and thus it was they called him 
from his pen to the School 
Commissionership, to the 
Mayoralty, to the Lay 
Judgeship, to the Shrie\- 
ally, to the Librarianship 
of the Historical Societ\-, 
where he yet remains, 
while new honors w.iit 
upon his pen. 

In 1873 Nehemiah Per- 
I \', a leading clothing 
mercliant, carried his ban- 
ner of success to the 
Mayoralty chair of the 
ity of Newark and was 
unnbered the fifteenth of 
ic Ime. Mr. Perry, who 
.liter wards represented 
his district in the lower 
house of Congress, and 
.IS he was himself inter- 
ested in the manufactur- 
ing interests of Newark. 





he proved of great service. Mr. I'erry served but one term as 

The sixteenth Mayor of Newark was Henry J. Yates, a mem- 
ber of the hatting firm of Yates & Wharton, and a gentleman 
who was deeply interested in the welfare of the manufacturing 
interests and of the people engaged in hatting and, indeed, in 
all the lines of her manufacturing industries. He served two 
full terms as .Mayor. 

William H. F. Fiedler was made Mayor in 1879 and served 
one term, the seventeenth in the line of succession. He had 
represented Esse.x County in the Congress of the United States 
and his district in the Legislature of New Jersey. Mayor Fied- 
ler was president of the United States Credit System Company, 
and was Postmaster of Newark for the term of four years. .Mr. 
Fiedler is now engaged in the merchant tailoring business. 
" Hilly " Fiedler, as his friends (and he has hosts of them) seem 

of the Thirteenth Ward Public 
•School-house, and refused to move 
on until the magnet which so influ- 
enced it came forth, the nineteenth 
in the line of succession of Mayors, 
in the person of Joseph E. Haynes, 
the principal, ant) for ten long years 
this representative schoolmaster 
continued to perform the duties of 
Mavor. When this faithful school 
representative and popular official 
had ceased to be Mayor, the Presi- 
dent of the United States made 
him Postmaster. 

While Newark had long held the 
lead as a jewelry manufacturing 
centre, not a single representative 
of this industry had found his way 
1(1 the Mayor's chair, until the time 
when the twentieth in the line of 
succession was found in the person 
of Julius Lebkeucher, of the jewelry 

firm of Krementz & Co,, and he 

hi;.m;'i u. iiui'i lk, ciiitF ui- rui.icii. 

privileged to call him, is of German descent, and in his political 
career none were truer to his standard than they of the Father- 
land, and among of these he found his heaviest rocks of denfenst, 
and Judge Gottfried Krueger always led the van. 

The only representative of the great leather manufacturing 
interests Newark ever had in the M;iyoralty came in the per- 
son of Henry Lang, the eighteenth of the line of Mayors. 
Public life was ever distasteful to Henry Lang, and his Scotch 
home tastes and idealties proved more to his liking than the 
excitement of political affairs, and at the close of his term he 
refused a renoniination by his party. Mayor Lang had served 
as Alderman for several years most acceptably, and tiie writer 
has reason to know that right for him was always on the lead. 

That the educational class had been given the go-by in the 
selection of Mayorlty candidates never became so evidently 
manifest as in 1883, wlien the political needle stopped in front 




was called for and acce[)led the place. The cares of olfice and 
the responsibilities counected with the administration of the 
duties of the Chief Executive of the city of Newark proving irk- 
some, at the expiration of his term of office Mayor Lebkuecher 

Although extra good dishes filled with superior articles have 
been served throughout the feast of the chiefs, as we ask the 
privilege of so denominating the short tributes to the Mayors of 
Newark, and these, we trust, having been relished and enjoyed, 
we will now bring on the dessert and conclude with James M. 
Seymour, the twenty-first in the Mayoralty line. As the tribute 
proper to him could he better served when his work as Mayor 
shall be concluded, we can at this time only rehearse a few of 
the facts in his history and life which have led up to his entry 
upon the duties of the Mayor's office, and with this we may now 
say they were indeed well done if continued and finished as well 
as thev are begun. That we have warrant of this in his excellent 

zen's quiet, or always on time caught with his club the descend- 
ing stroke aimed at body, head or limb, intent on breaking (n 
bruising, yet 'twas not until the commission w-as establishtil 
did the " force," as it is termed, reach that splendid state of 
perfection in discipline existing to-day. While the men are no 
better, and, perhaps, some not so good as the old "lads." 
among whom there was occasionally rough and ready bovs, 
who grasped their club with firm hand and w-ere off .is if on 
the wings of wind, when the signal "tap" of some comrade 
came to their ear calling relief from threatened danger and 
need of help in the moment of peril, perhaps to break the death 
grapple of a comrade with some midnight marauder on villain- 
ous purpose bent, were ever true and steady. To realize the 
fact that the police force of the city of Newark is as near thr 
ideal as it is quite possible to be brought, the interested (and 
who is not) have only to run their eye over the records and 
catch what the grand truth tells, recorded on the pages where pho- 


Supervisorship of the State Prison and the satisfactory exhibit 
he made as a Commissioner of the Water Board, and the ever- 
watchful care he has exercised as a Manager of the State Board 
of Education, all these, and his talents as a mechanical engineer 
and his successful business career, show pretty conclusively 
what shall happen when a Mayoralty career, so auspiciously 
begun and continued so far in his first year, And now. when 
the dessert is finished, there will be little hope indeed for the 
"w^aiting. roping scores" when w^e call on the nuts and cigars. 

\\/HlLE the city of Newark and her people has always had 
VV oft-repeated reasons, and as oft-repeated in such de- 
monstrations that every present eye could see and understand 
as the policemen trode their midnight round, or fearlessly 
dashed on where destroyers of peace and disluibers of the citi- 

tographs are ke|)t of each man's "duty steps " as he circles 
his beat in pursuance thereof. Show us the citizen who, when 
he lies down to his rest and peaceful slumbers, and who does 
not feel that the argus eye of the faithful policeman does not guard 
him w-ell, or fails in his duty, we will show- you one who is not 
worthy of the self-sacrifice that is made by the devoted police- 
man for his sake. The Board of Police Commissioners is a non- 
partisan body, and therefore it is that the political dark that 
used to be peeking betw-een the rails of the old fence has been 
hustled away, and a "a man's a man for 'a that" has taken the 
place on the force. The Commissioners are five in number and 
hold office for the term of five years. At this writing the body 
is made up of Lyman E. Kane, president; Moses Bigelow, 
James R. Smith. Edward Uffert. Police headquarters are at 
No. 13 W'illiam street, at rear of City Hall. Joseph M. Cox is 
secretary; Police Surgeon. Dr. J. Henry Clark ; Chief of Police, 
Henry Hopper. Wilbur A. Mott, Esq., is Judge of the First 




Precinct Court, 1 1 William 
street. Judge Mott also 
presides in Part II., Sum- 
mer and Seventli avenues. 
Fourtli Criminal Court, 
Part 11.. 134 Van Buren 
street. Judge Augustus F. 
liggers. Judge Eggers 
also looks after the inter- 
ests of Part I. of the same 
Fourth Precinct Court^ 
corner of Springfield ave- 
nue and Fifteenth street. 
Elmer Freeland is Clerk 
of the First Precinct Court 
and of the Second Part, 
and Thomas Pearson. 
Esq., is Clerk of the Sec- 
ond Precinct Court, also 
of its Second Part. There 
are on the regular force 
eight Detectives, Benja- 
min R. Stainsby, William 
Carroll. John F. Cosgrove, 


Peter J. Christie, Richard Lewis, Julius Jaegers, August Jackes, 
Joseph Wrightson ; Truant Officer, Albert J. Haynes. There 
are four Captains, one of each Precinct and Sub-Precinct or 
Second Part, viz.. Captain William Daly, I 24 Congress street ; 
Captain Michael Corbett, 84 Park street; Captain Andrew J. 
McManus, 85 Clifton avenue; Captain John H. Ubhaus, 89 
Springfield avenue. There are also twelve Lieutenants of 
Police, three for each Precinct and its sub. At the First Pre- 
cinct, Ernest A. Astley, Peter Walker, Thomas Tracey ; Second 
Precinct, Freeman A, Edwards, Henry Lewis, John H. Adams ; 
Third Precinct, John W. Prout, Michael Barrett, Alfred C. 
Dowling ; Fourth Precinct, Charles Klein, Henry Vahle, Jacob 
Wambold. To the First Precinct there are three Roundsmen 
detailed, and one Roundsman only for each of the remaining 
three Precincts. The entire force consists of 265 patrolmen, 
to each of whom is allotted a certain route, made up of streets, 
alleys, etc., which, in the parlance usual to the force, are called 
"beats," but tor what ]5articular reason theyaie possessed of 


that peculiar cognomen, or the wherefore of their being so 
named, we are unable to tell. But now, since the question has 
been raised, and we are entirely satisfied that it will be no 
breach of confidence to divulge the fact which tells the reason 
whv they are not so named, viz., because no one ever had the 
least reason for telling it, and because they had never known a 
policeman to beat the city out of a single moment of time or an 
inch of his prescribed route. The name could not by any 
stretch of thought or peculiarity of language be taken from 
the old saying, viz., "beating about the bush." Whatsoever, 
wheresoever or howsoever it may have, the name is here, and, 
from present appearances, "has come to stay," that is, we 
should sav so, if it is here indeed worth saying anything about. 
Space permitting, we should have more to say, but the very best 
thing to say is to say it and have done with it. and before you 
have paralyzed the language, liut ere such a catastrophe 
should befall us, it is our desire to say in as few words as possi- 
ble that, taking all in all. and placing every man and all things 
of or about the Police Depart- 
ment in its proper category, the 
police force of the city of New- 
ark has few equals and no supe- 
riors. Bring on data, and if 
comparisons don't prove a tritle 
odious to the opposition, we 
have made a mistake of which 
we shall ever feel proud. 

A person has only to run over 
the police records with even a 
moderate degree of care to see 
with w'hat faithfnlness every 
man has perfoin\ed his duties, 
as all over its pages stand 
recorded acts of personal cour- 
age, heroic effort and unselfish 
devotion which have won for 
the actors encomiums in the 
successful drama of a successful 
capture, of which any man can 
feel proud. The burglar and 
the ]irowling villian have learned 
to dread the night "squad." captain j. h. ubhaus, fourth precinxt. 




NO ]>ul)lic l)i)<ly ill the great industrial city of Newark is of 
grander import to its people than what is termed the 
Board of Health. This body hold in their hands to a large 
extent the health and sickness, the life and death, the brevity or 
lonii'evitv of the human family domiciled within its bounds. To 
say that in all these all-important essentials the lioard of Health 
answers to every call of duty imposed in a manner satisfying 
indeed to the most e.vacting. is patent to every one. This body, 
or de])artmcnt, as it is termed, of the city government, consists 
of ten members, quite a large percentage of whom are medical 
gentlemen standing high in the profession, the balance bemg 
citizens selected for their ability and sound judgment on such 
questions as are likely to come before the department for con- 
sideration. The following well-known citizens made up the 
roster of the board in 1897 ; Dr. H. C. H. Herold. president ; 
Dr. D. L. Wallace, Dr. C. M. Zeh, Dr. F. \V, Becker. Dr. M. .S. 
Disbrow, Coimsellor William B. Guild. ex-.-\lderman J. A. Fur- 

a man of large experience, anil being the possessor of a Large 
fund of practical common sense, is bringing the weight of it to 
l>ear in assisting the standing committee in carrying on their 
important and exacting task. To those of our citizens who de- 
sire to know how well the board does its thankless work, or 
those who wish to domicil in Essex County, they have but to 
examine the sickness and death reports to find hovy fa\orably 
the results compare. 


NO history of Essex County would be complete without a 
sketch of its capital city and county town, situate along 
its easterly border and on the banks ot the Passaic river, which 
form the eastern boiuidary line of Essex County, from the point 
where Passaic County joins her on the north and to the south- 
east, till the beautiful stream is lost in the sluggish waters of 
the Hackensack, and where both are lost in Newarh bay. This 
capital city, now the Birmingham of .-Xmerica, with a teeming 

I'lii', xt;\\" c 1 1 \ in i.M'i I ,\i,, 

man, ex-.-\ldernian A. H. Johnson and Moses Straus. The 
Health Officer of the board is David R. Chandler, a man thor- 
oughly CTpahle and of large experience in this line. 

Besides looking closely after the negligent and filthv malaria 
and germ-breeding jjlaces within the city limits, this body has 
charge of the City Hospital, and that this beautiful charity of the 
city is in competent and faithful hands none who know theiri 
will have the least desire to question or will attempt to deny. 
The committee having the hospital under their direct care con- 
sists of the following named members : Dr. C. M. Zeh. chair- 
man; Dr. D. I.. Wallace. John A. Furman. .A. H. Johnson and 
Moses Straus, ex-officio. Dr. H. C. H. Herold, 

As the cily is engaged in the truh laud.ible enter])rise of 
building a new hospital building ,ind filling a want long felt, 
this committee has its hands pretty full in looking after the de- 
tails of its construction. There is not the shadow of a doubt 
but this building when completed will take rank with the very 
best and most thoroughly complete elremos\ iiary iiislilutions 
in the land. Dr. Herold, the president of the |[e;dth Board, is 

'N 1 Alk.MwUN 1' AVt.\l!F. 

population fast approaching the three hundred thousr.nd mark, 
was settled by a sturdy band of farmer ])alriots who little 
dreamed as they felled the giant trees with which the ground 
was encumbered, or whistled or sang their pioneer songs as 
they followed the plough over the cleared acres, or swung the 
scythe through the low meadow grasses, that the whirr of thou- 
sands of steam engines would become the refrains that would 
be heard by their children. The ideal spot that the pioneer 
hand had found upon which to ])lant their homes and " provide 
for their outward wants and gain a comfortable subsistence and 
with an unchallenged right to seek their soul's welfare," had 
another destiny just out of view, of which they little knew. As 
in a previous chapter we have said all that need be said of the 
city's growth and progress, w-e can have but little to do with its 
distant past. 

As naturally as the crystal waters from the bubbling springs 
on the mountain tops turn toward the great oceans and seek 
through the rills, brooks and rivers a home in their mighty 
bosoms, so do our thoughts turn to the government and gov- 


Newark, which has eanieil the title of the Bimiiiighani of 
America, every eye may turn with pride, and the reflection of 
her greatjiess will be an all-sufficient proof that her government 
and governmental policy had very much to do in caressing the 
forces which had elevated her to the proud position she occu- 
pies to-day, and have given birth to the promise of a great and 
prosperous future. 

Strange as it may seem, when the citv of Newark was first 
laid out it was without the most distant hope or thought even 
that she would ever become the mighty industrial centre that 
she has grown to be, the great manufacturing citv of the Amer- 


ernmental policy of the cap- 
ital city of the county, whose 
history has so e n v i r o n e d 
them that they have become 
of undying interest to the 
writer, and as the facts arise 
like inspirations as we ap- 
proach them, it becoines a 
pleasure indeed tovvritethem, 
instead of a labor. In an- 
other chapter the character 
of the earlier history of the 
great industrial city having 
found reeord, this chapter 
will only deal with its gov- 
ernment, as connected with 
growth and prosperity in the 
eariier part, of its marvelous 
work in the present, and its 
bright protnises as they lend 
a halo of grandeur for its 
future. Every Jersey m a n 
takes an honest pride in the 
chief city of the laurel- 
wreated little .State of the 
grand confederacy of States 
which make up the Union. 
" One and inseparable." To 
ican realm. 




Farming in the rich soils which the down-reaching 
spade brought up or charmed the fancy of the ploughman as it 
quit the side plough, handled by stalwarts and glistened in the 
beautifully turned furrow, was the ideal occupation of the first 
settlers inspirations. 

To speak well of those who deserve well is ever a delight to 
the well wisher of mankind, and thus as we speak of the people 
of Newark, the masses of whom rank with the skilled labor 
classes, as an easily governed community, it requires no stretch 
of imagination when we say that the city is " well and cheaply 
governed." Thus it is that her credit is A No. i, in the money 

marts of our own country as well as those away over the ocean. No speckled beauty 

of the mountain ever dashes froin his rockv court with more eager spring 

for the dainty morsel which comes 

siding near on the water swirl all 

intent for the mornings's meal, than 

does the creditor classes who watch 

lor her outcoming bonds, grappling 

one with another in wordy strifes, as 

to which shall capture the all alluring 

|iii^e, yielding only when, perhaps by 

.igreenient to equally divide, they may 

clip the coupons and feast upon the 

gain of the very best securities of the 

market. We hazard little or nothing 

in making the assertion that the people 

of Newark, taken as a whole are as 

law abiding and thrifty as can be 

found quartered in any other city on 

the face of the globe, and we know 

that none can be found anywhere 

under the canopy of Heaven who pay 

their taxes and improvement assess- 
ments with more equal readiness, a 

significant proof of the latter is seen 

in their haste to deposit the amount of 

their taxes when the season of pay- ^^^^ £.. m. zkh, me.mbek ok hkai.tii board. 




nieclianics and laliorcis to apply their callings 
at remunerative wages in their calling. The very first act uf 
incorporation was under the title of the Mayoi and Common 
Council of the city of Newark, and it has thus remained e\er 
since, through all the mutations and changes which time with 
great adroitness seldom fails to present. 

The Mayor and chief executive officer of the city is elected 
by the people at the election held in the month of April, and 
holds oftice for a term of two years, and is eligible to re-election 
so long as the people of his party shall believe in him, for it 
may as well be understood just heie that party politics enter 
largely into the questions of his election and retention. 

During the decade ending 1894 Hon. Joseph E. Haynes occu- 
pied the position of iMayor. The Mayoralty chair was then 
occupied by a young jcvvelery manufacturer of German birth — 
Julius Liebkuecher — who had defeated the opposition nominee, 
but who in turn was|uished by the same man whom In- 
had beaten before. Hon. James M. .Seymour, the present occu- 

ment is at hand. Having dealt 
with the question of the growth 
and prosperity of the city, its low 
tax rate on a modest valuation, in 
another place, it is not necessary 
that we should repeat, even to the 
extent of a simple rehearsal of the 
charming facts which are so 
abundantly satisfying to the people. 
Both great political parties always 
have vied with each other in plac- 
ing officials in charge and both 
having presented a fairly clean 
sheet for inspection, there has been 
found little opportunity, for those, 
if any there be, who stand ready to 
launt the opposition over any short 
comings which unfortunately then- 
might be. This beautiful state of 
affairs of which every Newarker 
should fe(-l an .-d}undant pride, 
its root and foundation in the fads 
of the general thrift, brought alioiit 
by ample opportunities for skilled 
to find a demand 









\ ■ 
















pant of the office, a leading manufacturer who had been honored 
with an appointment as Prison Inspector and had been a faith- 
ful representative of the city on the Water Board, was elected 
to the Mayoralty at the city election of the spring of 1S96. The 
deep interest which Mr. Seymour had taken in educational 
affairs h,id led to his appointment by Governor Werts to a seat 
in the State lioard of Education, and by Governor Abbott as a 
Trustee of the State institution for the care and education of 
the deaf and dumb. 

The fact that James M. Seymour had always taken a deep 
interest in the cause of labor and was a firm promoter of the 
rights of laboring men, gained for him the lasting friendship of 
those who "work to live." He long had and still retains a warm 
place in the affections of those who live by the "sweat of their 
face." and it was this warm affection of labor which no doubt, 
to a large extent, turned the balance in his favor and helped to 
place hini in the mayoralty, in which he is acquitting himself 
with honor to himself and credit to the city, and little doubt 
exists of his triumphant re-election in the spring. As the Mayor is allowed by 
law a private secretary. His Honor has called to his side young Matthew Ely, a 
journalist, who is doing right royal good service and manfully helping to hold up 
the Mayor's hands. In the perfonnanceof 
his duty he has given abundant proof of 
his ability to fill the post most acceptably, 
and his acts, speaking for themselves, 
show him to be a worthy successor to the 
venerable ex-('ongressnian, Hon. Thomas 
Dunn English, the author of " Ben Bolt," 
wdio filled the position under the adminis- 
tration of Mayor Fiedler. 

There is every prospect that Major 
Seymour will continue as he has began 
to discharge the duties of his office with- 
out fear or favor from any quaiter, for the 
best interest of the citizens whose confi- 
dence he has ever retained, .uid whose 
verdict is supreme. 

It is a well demonstrated fact that the 
man in position who tries to please every- 
body, in the end quite often fails, 

therefore every citizen in authority should . . 

aim for the greatest good to all. e.x-tax receivek a. judson cLAKk. 




gloom of the primeval forest where the wild 
less wild Indians roamed, feeding the fish in the cool depths 
of the lake of the mountain, while in the pools of their gathering 
the wild animals and the Indian together might bathe. But as 
the ages went on and the soul of God's best creation, went on 
in its developings, the husbanding of the fount of the Almighty's 
grand resources found stored away in earth's recesses all divined 
for man's purposes, and to satisfy his needs, began to occupy 
humanity's attention. Now began the husbanding of God's 
treasures and the founts of the depth, in the fastness, where 
was garnered pure water and was no longer permitted to caper 
and play the hours away and seek rest and retirement where 
the porpoise sluggishly rolls and the wonderful Leviathan, un- 
molested, plays. Little thought had the millions of the needs 
of their future, when, as a warning, as it were, came the 
scarcity " now and then " of that abundance of water provided 
by the Almighty for man's necessities, but which had been 
permitted to slip unmolested away. 


UP from the granite beds of iron 
bound Sussex rush the pure 
waters from the fast flowing rivers 
established in earth's throbbing bosom, 
to join hands with the streams from 
rock ribbed channels of Warren, and 
by the outlets of ten thousand living 
springs scatlered all over their broad 
acres and along their mountain and 
hill sides to join in holy wedlock their 
sweet waters wherever they ran. 
on their errands of mercy to man anil 
singing the songs in such bewitching 
strains as to entrance, while thev 
passed under the title of Pequanno( 
or Passaic. 

For ages unnamed and ages untoM 
these waters rolled on to old ocean 
the gormant never yet filled, used ii 
only to delight the sportive fishes, play- 
ing " hide and seek " in its crystal 
depths. This all went on in the 
nimals and little 


To waste its power and thought 

InrolHng and roHicking 

Where the sea foam eacli day. 

Was spending it's time in boisterous play. 

and giving proof, for man's use, of how dangerous it is for the 
pure and good bad company to keep. 

When the cry of necessity was first heard, going up from the 
thousands for a larger and better supply of pure water, 
whose business or taste, had induced to gather in the dry little 
nooks, close by where once ran so sprightly, the brook or the 
rivulet, from whose bosom the wee little trout with specks on 
his skin so beautiful and bright, leaped through the sunlight in 
pursuit of his unwary little fly or the barbed steel hook, on his 
way to the basket hanging by the side of an Isaac Walton 
scholar and thence to the frying pan. 

Scarce tvt-o years has run the gauntlet of time since the water 
supply of Essex County was drawn from the well polluted 
springs of Branch Brook, alone, where young America in easily 
was wont to learn to 


constructed pools 
dive and swim and yet Newark had a 
population then, close up to. if not beyond, 
the fifty thousand line. The conduits 
used to guide the water throughout the 
city the major part of it was not o'er pure 
as it had been husbanded from the good 
old State thoroughfare known as the Mor- 
ris canal, and had previously done duty in 
tl.iatingthe boats heavily laden with coal. 
As the years flew by and the Branch 
Brook " now and agin " went so very 
xRr. that the good old wells, faithful 
xsistants, out of pure sympathy, went 
li\, the people began to think, and as 
the fisherman with his well stocked basket 
of mountain trout stepped from the 
Morris and Essex Railroad cars, each year 
as the fishing season went by, talked much 
of the Pequannock's purity and other 
streams hard by. But the heavy weights 
and home stayers not wont to travel so 
far, and seeing little entertainment in 




trampin.; mountain, hill ami 
brook for the purpose of catch- 
ing in an all clay stride, what an 
old-fashioned English six pence 
would buy saw the plan for a 
water supply in the old 
Passaic which crept back and 
forth twice every twenty-four 
hours close to their door. The 
fact once settled, it didn't take 
long to give a rest or quietus to 
the North Jersey water shed and 
pure mountain spring plan, ami 
so soon up went the great ISelle- 
ville reservoir and pump station 
on the bank of the good old 
Passaic, on whose sweet scented 
bosom had floated the first 
settlers of Esse.x and innumer- 
able boat loads of " Rockaw.n 
oysters and Little Neck clams" 
I told you so, shouted in chorus, 
ten thousand, more or less, of 
the people in not utilizing the 
spring water from the mountains 
and curbing the race horse 
spirit of the beautiful Pequan- 
nock, their outlet, by building 
just a few dams for reservoirs 
and also water storage far from 
the polluting haunts of man. 

This was the case ere the first summer, with her season of 
droughts long drawn out, and the floods of spring, fall and 
winter, which bid the mink, beaver and musk rat "get out," 
Even the most powerful of the advocates of the plan of drawing 
a water supply from the I'ass.iic by an intaking from a point 
from below the falls and the \illage of Passaic, but finding it to 
he an undisputable fact that Passaic alone could supply pollut- 
ing material enough, undisturbed and alone to pollute every 
single drop. The works were finalU abandoned and the sup- 
ply of pure unpolluted Pequannock water, which now places 
the city of Newark in the fore fiont of cities with an abundance 
of pure water dripping from every pore. But thereby h.uigeth 



a tale. During all the time that Newark was halting between 
two opinions and multiplying fool hardy operations, some wide 
awake gentlemen, who had fished every brook, whipped every 
stream and trolled every lake where the finny tribe do congre- 
gate, put their heads .and purses together anil organized what 
is termed the East Jersey Water Company, and it is from this 
company that the Newark people are being supplied, for all 
purposes, a full supply of as good and pure water as is to be 
garnered by any people or company, or dispensed by any water 
company or individual in the world. 

For the securing of this spring water from this company, 
Newark, owing to its dalliance, is compelled to pay handsomely 
for the same, but its contract with the company is of 
such a character that the plant in fee smiple coiues into 
the hands of the people and the wonderful product of the 
Pequannock watershed will betheir's fore\er. Had that 
good judgment possessed by many men, who foresaw the 
lesult of to-day, been permitted to have full swing and 
lair play early in the nineties even millions, we may say, 
might have been saved to the treasury. 

Better late than never is an adage to good purpose, 

when faithfully applied. Now, if we may judge of what 

is the transpanancies of to-day, as what may be in store 

for the future, there is ]iositively no scintilla of danger 

ihat Newark will ever have to face the horrors of a water 

I inline or the danger from any manner or form of pollu- 

iion to the water her people shall drink. With entire 

I ontrol of the outlets of those vast underground rivers 

I and brooks and the thousands of springs bubbling from 

-\ the hillsides of Morris, Warren and Essex counties, and 

V-v.. the keys to unlock them in the hands of the fathers of the 

great city of the future, which will be built on the soil of 

Esse.x County, will hold along with this ruby of price in a 

pure water course and her mighty resourse, not alone of 

marvellous in purity, but of remarkable abundance. 





THAT those among the citi- 
zens of Newark, who had 
as it is termed, tied up to the 
old \ohmleer tire department, 
felt the sun of her glory had 
gone down permanently and 
her effulgent rays would be seen 
no more and forever when the 
change was made from the 
volunteer to the pay system, is 
true, few who are well acquainted 
with the circumstances will not 
atiem])t to deny. It having been 
generously acknowledged that 
the Newark tire laddies beat the 
world, there was no shadow of 
doubt. 'I'he leading young iTien 
of the city, who in all things 
else during their progressive 
)ears were tenderly nurtured 
and cared for. went rough while 
getting into iheirgarments when 

the old fire bell struck in the night and their very own machine 
went rattling over the stones slow until their own sweet voice 
sallied round the sweetest words that ever fell on a fireman's 
ears : " Hit er-up b-o-y-s ! I't-er-up !" And then, oh how quick 
the boys would make the old beauty leap, as the sympathizers 
with that veritable machine, lent a hand at the rope until the 
mad rush began and the mighty race was on between two crack 
engines in order to see which should reach the tire first and get 
the best of the resultant fight. Many a volunteer, after they 
figured up. have thought it best to go with the machine into 
the shop for repairs. Although the machine had its regular 
number of members to its company it had often double the 
number of attachees who made the house, or home of the 
machine, their place of resort, and among these okl attachees 
memory holds in place ready for rehearsal call, lots of larks and 
innocent fun, whether quiet or rollicking in its nature, there's 
little odds in the matter. Whatever it might be, the machine 
was the meat wherever the nut was cracked. Arguments stiong 
and full of logic on great questions of the day oft times became 

came the painting of the same. 
The argument grew warm and 
it was thought would ])rove 
lasting, for one member of the 
repairs committee thought she 
ought to be painted blue and 
another yellow, another a brown 
would be a heap more lasting, 
so not agreeing by a vote of two 
to one, the opinion of the oracle 
should fix it and be lasting. His 
reply came somewhat on this 
w ise : " Well, gentlemen, I don't 
care a d — what color you paint 
her if it is only K-e-d," and red 
she was painted. The introduc- 
tion of the steam fire engine 
was a revolution in the methods 
and manners of fighting the fire 
fiend and it was not without 
some tears of regret did the 
hand engine get from the chief 
E.\-CHiEF WILLIAM H. BKowN. the Older to take up and go 


heated and must needs be referred to some one supposed to be 
more gifted, to settle upon. About the engine house there was 
generally an oracle to whom all difficult or abstruse problems 
and questions were referred for settlement or decisive solutions, 
on all occasions, when not engaged in the mightier concerns 
and graver affairs of manifestations of his power he was 
engaged usually in the delectable business of tobacco chewing, 
smoking the weed and in practicing the art of ejaculating 
small volumes of saliva at some particular mark or spot, whether 
his practice was designed for some particular meet to see whose 
oracle could do his part the more complete or whether his 
ejaculations were for his own and the younger attachees delec- 
tations, the writer of this was never able to find out, but one 
thing he did learn was that his decisions on questions referred 
were irrevocable and as unchangeable as the laws of the Medes 
and Persians are said to be. Just one in demonstration. Once 
upon a time when a race was on a few bricks had fallen 
athwart the machine, with as a resultant, the disturbance of 
hose and abrasion of a bit of jjaint. After the repairs then 


Jo 6' 


Imme for "Old Minnie" had 
come. The Newark Fire 
Uepartment, as now made up, 
consists of Chief Engineer 
Robert Kierstead, Assistant 
Chief William C. Astley, Secre- 
tary Horace H. Brown. Super- 
intendent Fire Alarm Telegraph 
.\dam Bosch. There are four- 
teen steam fire engines and four 
hook and ladder com])anies 
with a captain and nine and ten 
men each. One chemical engine 
with a captain and five men. 
making a total force on January 
I, 1897, of 181 men, constitute 
the working force (all permanent 
men), at a salary of $750, for 
the first year; S903. for the 
second year ; $950 for the third 
year and $1,100 for the fourth 
and all succeeding years. Cap- 
tains receive $1,200 a year. The 
fire engine houses are models of perfection and are furnished 
with all the latest discovered improvements, paraphernalia and 
scientific methods in use anywhere in cutting down a fire in its 
infancy. Gamewell fire alarm bo.\es are scattered all over the 
city and each alarm box is so connected that the engines are on 
their way toward a fire as soon almost as the alarm is given. It 
IS gratifying indeed for us in being able to say that while other 
cities may be blessed with departments equally as good, we can 
say without the least fear of gainsaying, there is no better 
department in the world than the city of Newark can boast. 
The Fire Cominissioners, who are a non-partisan body, having 
full charge of fire matters, consist of the following named 
gentlemen selected for their fitness for the positions : Henry R. 
Baker, Henry C. Rommell, Hugo Menzeland John Illingsworth- 


The boaid holds regular meetings on the first and Third 
Tuesdays of each month. Henry R. Baker is the present presi- 
dent and Horace H. Brown, secretary. 

Robert Kierstead. 
The present chief engineer, an excellent photo of whom 
appears among the illustrations is an able an efficient officer, 
having been connected with the department since 1871, and 
has filled the position of chief engineer during the past twelve 
years with credit to himself and honor to the department over 
which he presides. He is a survivor of the war for the Union 
having served his country in Company B, 26th Regiment, N. J. 
^'olunteer Infantry, and also in F Company, 3d N.J. Cavalry. 

WiLLi.^M C. Astley. 
Assistant Chief Astley joined the department in 1 867, and was 
appofnted to his present dosition in July, 1887. He is a practi- 
cal fireman, with a thorough knowledge of the department, and 
has served with marked ability as superintendent of the depart- 
ment for a term of three years. A life-like photo of the veteran 
fire fighter will be seen in the illustrations. 


HORAGE H. Brown. 

This courteous and gentlemanly clerk of the Board of Fire 
Commissioners, whose life-like photo will be seen among the 
illustrations, is perhaps one of the oldest living fire laddies in 
our midst, he joined the department in 1853. left the same in 
1854, and rejoined in 1855, resigned in i860 and again joined in 
1867. He served as clerk from 1867 to 1892, since which time 
he has been faithful in the discharge of his present duties. 

William Godijek. 

Ex-Captain William Godber's friends will readily recognize 
the familiar face so well known to the members of the depart- 
ment. This honored fireman has been connected with the 
department for over half a century and has had many exciting 
experiences during that time. He was retired on half pay in 
September, 1896, by the Fire Commissioners. The captain 
also served his country in its darkest hour, by putting down his 
name on the roster of Company A, 26th Regiment. N J. Volun- 
teer Infantry, and serving faithfully as an officer during the 
struggle for the Union, in the battles of the Army of the 

ESSEX comrv, n. /., illustrated. 



Adam Bosch. 

The ever faithful and reliable superin- 
tendent of the Newark lire alarm tele- 
.i^aaph code, is an expert and practical 
mechanic in the position which he so ably 
fills. He is a graduate of the scientific 
department of the Cooper Institute. New 
Vork, and has occupied his present posi- 
tion in the department since January. 
1S76. His familiar features will be readily 
recognized among the illustrations by his 
many friends. 

Lewis. M. Price. 

Captain Lewis ^L Price, a photo of 
whom is presented in the illustrations, 
was born and educated in this city and 
lis from boyhood always taken a great 
)iierest in fire matters. His first e.xperi- 
iice was in running with Nos. 5 and 11 
id engines. During the civil war he 
served his country in Company F, 35th X. 
J. Volunteer Infantry, and while yet in his 
teens liecatne one of " Sherman's Bum- 


niers," participating in all the important struggles of that army, 
and took part in the famous march from " Atlanta to the Sea." 
At the close of the war he returned to his home and again 
l)ecame a runner in No. I Steamer until elected a member of 
the company, after a few years he was elected assistant fore- 
man, serving for three years when he was elected foreman, the 
duties of which he transacted for over seven years. In 1885 he 
was elected by the Common Council as an assistant engineer 
and in 1S89 the Commissioners appointed him district chief, the 
duties of which he faithfully discharged until the office was 
abolished. In 1893 he was attached to Hook and Ladder 
Company No. 3, and in July 1893, the Commissioners appointed 
him captain and assigned him to duty with engine company No. 
7. Captain Price served as president of the Veteran Associa- 
tion of the 35th N. J. Volunteers, and is a past commander of 
Phil Kearney Post, No. i, the oldest Grand Army organization 
in this State. Captain Price is one of the old time fire laddies, 
and his career with the department is a credit to himself and city. 

H. L. VdlCHT. 

This active and e.tperienced fire laddie has been identified 
with the Newark fire department for more than twenty years, 
having joined Engine Company No. 2, and was assistant fore- 
man in the old department. In r88i he was made permanent 
driver of the company and in 1884 he was transferred to the 
same position on Hook and Ladder Company No. 2. In July, 
1890, he was appointed captain, and placed in command of 
Hook and Ladder Company No. 3. In 1895 he was transferred 
to Hook and Ladder Company No. i.and in 1897 he was trans- 
ferred back to his present command. The speaking photo of 
Captain Voight shows the manner of man he is, and his career 
and record in the department is a clean and honorable one. 

John B. Thorn. 
The name of this faithful and fearless fire laddie is worthy of 
mention m connection with the Newark Fire Department, for 
more than a century he labored zealously for the promotion 


of its honor, and when chosen to fill a 
political position declared that : "' I 
would rather be a fireman than Gover- 
nor of the State." And a noble fire- 
man he was, such a man needs no 
sermon, no monuments, no lengthy 
obituary, his name and the memory of 
his heroic deeds will live for ever in 
every true fireman's heart. 

William E. Grkathead. 
One of the familiar figures seen on 
the streets of Newark is now secretary 
of the iinportant executive branch of 
ihe Newark city government known as 
the Board of Works. William E. 
Greathead is in the prime of life, tall, 
portly, finely developed, straight as an 
arrow and lithe as a bow. His broad 
open countenance is wreathed in the 
smile of friendship when he meets an 
acquaintance or friend, and of the latter 
he commands hosts. He was educated 




in the Publii SlIkioI ami was a 
iiienibcr of the old vohinteer tire depait- 
inciit and few could make better time m 
getting; liold of th:- old machine or "hit 'er 
up" with more vigor, and fidm 1S74 to 
1877 he was a mend>er of the Common 
Council of ihe cily of Newark, re])resenl- 
ini; a part of the Iron Bound District. 
1 )urinf; tlie war for the Union Mr. Great- 
head volunteered his services and ser\ed 
as a pri\'ate soldier in the 9th New Jersey 
Infantry Regiment. For many years he 
was secretary of the Water lioard and for 
a time was superintendent thereof. On 
the 4th of May, 1896, the sid:)ject of this 
sketch was honored with the apiiointnient 
to the secretaryship of the Board of I'ublic 
Works, of which the vetenin, William 
Stainsby, is president, and is occupying 
tlie position at this time with entire satis- 
fac tion to the board and honor to himself. 


J.AME.'; v. Hammn. 
Captain James V. Hamlin joined the department in May, 
1876, and served as assistant engineer under Chief I5annan, 
having been appointed bv resolution of the Common Council 
January, 18S4. He represented the people of the Fifth Ward 
in the I.Soard of Aldermen dming 1SS5-6, and was appointed 
a fireman under the Commissioners. March 17th, 1S90, Ijeiii" 
assigned to No. 5 Engine In the following July he 
was promoted to captain, , and on M.irch, 15th, 1897, he was 
transferred to the charge of the new engine company. No. 14, 
locited corner McWhorter and \'esey streets. An excellent 
photo of Captain Hamlin is presented among the iUustr.itions. 

lix-FiRE Chief Wii.i,iam H. Br(i\vn'. 
In no |)art of this beautiful souvenir work. Esse."; County, N. 
J., Illustrated, will be found more painstaikng and faithful work 
tlian in those where the photographer has exercised that depth 
of knowletlge and artistic skill which must needs be his, to 
crown his efforts w'ith success before he attempts to exercise 
his vocation. Among these it is our pleasure to notice in the 
department given over to our hrenien, some of these whose 


ferred to that coni])any as driver 
of its hose cart. He was 
appointed dii\er of the engine 
in 1S79 and remained in that 
position until the office of cap- 
tain was created in 1888, when 
he was promoted to ])osition 
and remaineil with engine No. 
9 until Novembei-, 1895, when 
he was transferred to the cap- 
taincy of his original comiianv. 
No 4, where he is still serving^ 
An excellent photo of Captain 
Sloan appears among illustra- 
tions seen in this department of 
l-'.sse.x County, N. J., Illustr,ited. 
This gentleman is in the i)rime 
of life and few are better pre- 
served for duty, and in after 
years when time has done its 
work .and the roll c.dled for the 
Last time, this will be a souvenir 
to his memory. 

names have been so well known and familiar that a child could 
lisp them as they made the old " gooseneck " jump, as harnessed 
in ropes they flew by, and the lads were proud to take a hand at 
the rope when their f.ivonte was racing for fun and where 
victory was nigh. None of these ever made better pace than 
when the voice of Ex-Chief William H. Brown rang out on the 
evening, midnight or the cool moiiiing air, to " hit 'er up boys, 
for fair," and " get her there," and we promise that no face will 
be studied with an interest more lasting, than that of him wdiom 
everybody delighted to call " ISilly " Brown aiul when he was 
chief engineer, few there were indeed, in that old day when the 
volunteer firemen jumped at his call and fought fire, night or 
day, without fee or expectation of reward, but merely for play. 
While William H. Brown always had time to chase down and 
fight the fire fiend, he was always reach" to enact I he roll of a 
good citizen, and more than once he has obeyed the clarion call 
of his duty and Essex County never had a morepoptilar sheriff. 

JosEi'H E. Sloan. 
Joseph E. Sloan first joined the department in May, 1867, as 
a call man and was attached to Engine Co. No. 4. On the 
formation of Engine Co. No. 9, in 1873, Mr, Sloan was trans- 

EUKAKU SH1CK11.\US, liX-UKE CnM M 1 ss 1 nM-. I;. 





F.NRY R. BAKER, the presi- 
dent of the Fire Commission, 
is so thorouglily well known thai 
little can be said in Essex Co., N. J.. 
Illustrated, th,-it will be new. Mr. 
Baker was a merchaiil .ind con- 
ducted business on a large scale. 
for many years, at the southwest 
corner of Nesbit and Newark 
streets. It was there he gathered 
that experience which did much t(j 
make him the tnin and wide awake 
liusiness man that he is. and in ,dl 
I he years of his active busines.- 
life since, it has left its impressior. 
on his life work. During the bus\ 
hours he spent at his desk and 
behind the counter, he always found 
lime to make those he came in 
contact with feel that there was a 
genius within him that forced a 
HENKY K. HAKF.K, I'UF.smENT FiKE COM Mis.sioN EKs. recognitiou. .So thoroughly well 

was Henry R. Baker appreciated 
his friends and neighbors sent him to council and for some time 
he represented his ward in that responsible body. When any 
work of more than ordinary importance came up in council, 
during his occupancy of the aldermanic chair, the naine of 
Alderman Baker was one of the first to be called, and it can be 
said that in the daily routine of duty he did yeoman service, and 
whenever it fell to his lot to perform extra duty, he was always 
at his post. Several times the name of Henry I^. Baker has 
been used in connection with the mayoralty nomination. Mr. 
Baker is now and has been for several years past, superin- 
tendent of the New York and New Jersey Telephone Company. 
The term of President Baker, as a fire commissioner, will 
terminate in 1898. 

No other name among the Fire Commissioners deserves a 
better mede of praise and marks a higher place on the pillar 
upon which the deeds where well done are emblazoned, than 
John lllingworth. To few other men is a deeper debt of 


gratitude i\w from his frllow citizens for utilitarian deeds con- 
summated and maintained, than Fire Commissioner lllingworth. 
For many long years Mr. lllingworth has been engaged in the 
work of manufacturing steel, that beautiful metal which has 
been so closely allied to the mighty skein of industries which the 
great army of citizens, have been winding and unwinding, chang- 
ing and interchanging for so many years with marvelous and 
satisfying results. To John lllingworth is due the honor of 
a moulding form, in use by moulders, to largely multiply the 
values put upon it by preventing through the interposition of 
this result of his genius, the unhappy results which might other- 
wise accrue. Perhaps to no other single mechanic in Newark is 
pointed the linger of hope with more significance, with the 
single exception possibly, of inventor, Selh Boyden. 

To insure the very best results from the combined action of 
the four men selected by his honor, the Mayor, with the aid and 
consent of the Board of ."Mdermen, extraordinary good care is 



taken in their selection and election, 
whether men to fill the places in 
the commiission are taken from the 
insurance part of the field direct, or 
from that ])art where the fire 
fighters do the finest part of their 
waltzing, where the fire rages the 
fiercest, men thoroughly up in 
either department must be found. 
But when those two distinguished 
citizens, Mr. Henry C. Rommell, 
representing the interests of the 
Citizen's Insurance Company, of 
New York, and Mr. Hugo Menzel, 
representing the interests of the 
Cierman Fire Insurance Company, 
dso of New York, but both gentle- 
men having their offices, as seen, in 
(he city of Newark, and both proving 
exceptionally good men for the 
places. As we have just said 
what we feel, that the fire depart- 
ment of the city has few equals 
and no superiors, the amount of 




skill requisite to secure the fire depart- 
ment might have been found in men 
who have no comparison when placed 
beside the men we are proud of and 
whom w'e delight to honor, and who 
have succeeded in placing Newark 
Fire Department in clock work order, 
and then in keeping it there. In say- 
ing this we trust the laddies who tug 
the machine or turn the pipe with 
surest aims on the shining mark, will 
treasure no one word of resentment 
for the simple reason that not one 
word is deserved, since we believe the 
Newark fire laddies beat all creation. 


spreading, etc., 
managed by the Salvage Corps, under the conmiand of Captain 
Meeker and his assistants, who number fourteen able-bodied, 
and a thorough well equipped body they are, ready and always 
willing helpers. The roster of this unsurpassed body of ever 
ready fire fiend fighters, properly protectors and loss savers 
stands as follows ; Supernitendent Captain Fracis J. Meeker, 
Assistant Superintendent Henry G. Marsh, Charles A. Cam- 
field, Augustus J. Krook, James H. Elkins, Joseph G. Thomas, 
George J. Hamburger, Albert U. Hedden, George W. Scheis, 
Charles A. Stagg, Herbert N. Brand and William H. Fredericks. 
These men are always a standing menace to fires and ready 
ever to plunge into the thickest and engage in the earliest part 
of the fight. To rally round and with strong arms stretched 
out where the smoke is the thickest and ready to spead the 
broad aegis of their power where the bright genius of chemis- 
try leads the advance and beckons them on to where the monster 
fiend with teeth of fire is gnawing deep, to spread their huge 
blankets and offer defiance to both water and fire, warding off 
the down pour of the former after doing its work, saying " as 


A!\10NG the improved methods not 
only in fire fighting, but also in 
goods saving, loss and damage 
])reventing, first and foremost are the 
small chemical engines, tarpaulin 
as conducted and 


by your kindly favor," to the bright little steam fire engine, 
puffing and snorting close by and pouring forth through the 
long, strong rubber hose, the boys meanwhile its ball-nozzle 
guiding, seldom hearing, and less often heeding, the coarse fire 
trumpet orders, " Turn Off." At their commodious house, 227 
Washington street, stand ready prepared and waiting the call 
to duty, their arms, consisting of two huge trucks, each full 
laden with great blankets and still greater tarpaulins, to spread 
over counters and store goods and perishable property anywhere 
where a conflagration is raging or promises any where near. 
Since the organization of the Salvage Corps, over which Captain 
Meeker presides, several million of dollars which has been 
imperilled and much of which in all probability, would have 
been destroyed, and a large percentage of which could not have 
been saved except in an injured state, was saved and turned 
over to their owners in good condition. Cases well known to 
the writer could be cited where a conflagration had been under 
way in stores filled with goods for many minutes anil became 
filled with smoke, which the timely appearance of the captain 







VV.\I, C. ASTl.EV. ASSr. CHIEt ENGI.NKER, .\. F. L). 

and his men on the scene placed more 
than seventy-five per cent, of thegoods 
out of danger from smoke or water, 
business going on the ne.xt day as 
though nothing had happened. Two 
pairs of those e.xtra fine horses for 
which the fire department is noted 
stand ready always to be off like the 
rays from a shooting star, halting only 
long enough under the drop to gel 
I heir harness. ."Xn afternoon or even- 
ing visit to the beautiful home of the 
Salvage Corps will largely pay anv 
one interested, where men devise and 
use a great variety of implements and 
things to lighten his own burthens 
and make others less onerous to bear. 
The elegant parlors of the captain 
and his men arehafndsomely furnished, 
and in making them beautiful and 
luxurous much needed help came 
from friends. Their library is one of 
the best of its kind in the State. 



IHE Newark Daily Advertiser had its birth on 
Thursday, March i, 1832, and was the first 
iJaily newspaper pubHshed in New Jersey. The 
publishers were George Bush & Co., and the 
i-ditor was Amzi Armstrong, a young lawyer, 
who was assisted by John P. Jackson. The 
Advertiser was Whig in its politics. The popu- 
lation of Newaik in 1832 was only about 15,000. 
Business methods were primitive, and newspaper advertising 
almost unknown. A single firm in Newark, now pays more in a 
year for advertising in the Daily Advertiser, than was obtained 
for a similar period by the paper in the first years of its his- 
tory, for all its advertising. 

Changes and improvements came in time. Mr. .Armstrong 
retired from the editorship, aud was succeeded by William B. 
Kinney as editor and proprietor. James B. Pinneo entered into 
partnership with him, and was business manager. Mr. Pinneo 
subsequently withdrew, and .M. S. Harrison took his place on 
\\\tt Advertiser. Upon the death of Mr. Harrison, Mr. Kinney 
became sole proprietor. The Daily Advertiser began to grow 
in value and mfluence. In 1S51, Mr. Kinney was sent to 
Sardinia as American Minister. He died in 1S80, having previ- 
ously transferred the paper to his son, Thomas T. Kinney. 
When the Whig party died, the Daily Advertiser became 
Republican. Its editor for many years after the war was Dr. 
Sandford B. Hunt, who was succeeded, upon his death, by I^r. 
Xnah Brooks. In 1892. Thomas T. Kinney transferred the 

paper to 
a CO m - 
pany con- 
sisting of 
M urphy, 
John F. 
1) r \ den 
and Ur. 
Leslie D. 

M u rph y 
and Kin- 
ney with- 
drew, and 
Ml March. 
1S95, the 
paper was 
ed by a 
ed by L)i-. 
D. Hun- 
ter McAI- 
pin, Al- 
fred L, 

and Frederick Evans, Jr. The location of the Daily Advertiser 
was at this time changed from the southeast corner of Broad 
and Market, to the commodious building 794 Broad Street. The 
last important change in the management, was effected in May, 
1S96, in the purchase and editorial control of the paper by 
Sheffield Phelps, son of the late William Walter Phel])s. I'nder 
the vigorous management of Mr. Phelps, who is also one of the 
proprietors of the Jersey City Journal, the Daily Advertiser 
very soon began to regain its oUltime prestige and influence, 
and as the only Republican paper in Newark, its prosperity was 
assured. Under its new management, and in the well-equipped 
plant, presented here, it will continue to win its way. 

The Sentinel of Freedom, the weekly edition of the Daily 
Advertiser, had its centennial anniversary October 5, 1896- 
The first number w-as issued on the fifth of October. 1796, by 
Daniel Dodge, printer, and Aaron Pennington, editor. Three 
years afterwards the paper was acquired by Jabez Parkhurst 
and Sainuel Pennington. A year afterwards Stephen (loukl 
acquired Parkhurst 's interest, and in 1803 the paper was bought 
by William Tuttle & Co., who afterwards sold it to the Daily 
Advertiser. The Sentinel was the second weekly paper to be 
published in Newark, and was among the first to be published 
in the State. There are hundreds of old New Jersey families 
with whom the Sentinel has been a regular visitor for genera- 




SINCE its first issue, September i, 1S83, the 
record of the A^e-war^ Evening Neivs\\&% been 
one of constant .intl rapid growth. Starting with 
one edition of about 3.000 copies, run off on a httle 
press capable of printing only one side of 3,600 sheets 
an hour, the paper has in thirteen years attained a 
daily circulation of 39,000. This is the largest 
circulation ever attained by any other New jersey 
daily newspaper. 

In the tenth year of its career the owners of the 
Evening News purchased the fine double building 
at Nos. 2 [5-2 1 7 Market Street, nearly the whole of 
which is devoted to its use. Here it has an equip- 
ment by far surpassing that of any other New- 
Jersey newspaper. 

It has two great Hoe presses, made to the order 
of the publishers. ( )ne is a sextujile press capable 
of printing, cutting and folding 72,000 four, six or 
eight page papers, 48,000 ten or twelve page papers, 
36,000 si\teeii page or 24,000 fourteen, twenty or 
twenty-four page papers an hour. The other is a 
quadruple press, having two-thirds the cajiacity of 
its companion on most sized papers. Together the 
two will piint 120,000 four, sin or eight page papers, 
72,000 ten or twelve page papers, 48,000 fourteen 
page, and 60,000 si.vteen jjage papers an hour. 

This splendid press-room equipment is the sixth put in 
to meet the necessities imposed by the growth of the 
News. The little press first put up in the cellar of the 
building No. 844 Broad Street, proved in a very few 
months inadequate to meet the demands upon it, and 
was replaced by another with a capacity of 12,000 copies 
an hour. Only four-page papers were printed then, it being neces- 
s,uy, when eight-page ones were needed, to print two sheets sep- 

m si-.Mi 


a r a 1 1' 1 y 

and fold 

them to- 

g e t h e r. 

In a year 

or t w o 

this press was in turn replaced by another of double its capacity, and 

using stereotype ]3lates. This soon proved unequal to its duties, and 

was followed by still another, the capacity again being doubled. That 

press, the last used in the Broad Street building, was capable of only 

half the work which can be done by the quadruple, or one-third that 

which can be done by the sextuple press. 

Long before its removal to Market Street, the Neivs had outgrown 
its old quarters. Additions had been made to the building, No. S44. 
and the upper fioors of the one adjoining. No. 846, had been leased 
.\n<\ used. In the Evening News building all the departments of the 
Piper find ample accommodations. 

Closely connected with the press-room is a complete stereotyping 
apparatus. The presses are run and power for other work is furnished 
bv a double fifty horse ])ower engine. The building is lighted through- 
out by electricity, the entire plant being owned and operated by the 

The number of men employetl in the composing room of the News 
is far in excess of that working on any 01 her New Jersey newspaper. 
In all its departments the same fact holds good. It does more work 
.uid employs more men to do it than any of its State contemporaries. 

From the beginning, the Evening News has been under the same 
management. Wallace M. Scudder is the publisher and Henry 
Abbott Steel is the editor. William Hooper Howells is the manager 
of the advertising department. Russell P. Jacoby was first city editor. 




THIS, the leading Geimaii newspaper in New Jersey, was 
established in the year 1858, by Benedict Prieth. The 
paper had existed for some years previous to this time, under 
the name IVe^c Jersey Zeititng, and was owned and edited 
by Major Annecke. who died in the early 8o's. When Benedict 
Prieth purchased the property of the Ne7ti Jersey Zeitum;. 
the entire plant consisted of a few fonts of type, and an old- 
fashioned hand press, capable of printing a few hundred sheets 
per hour. The circulation of the A'ew Jersey Zet/ttiig in 
those days was about 400. and there was not as much reading- 
matter in its columns as there is on one of the eight pages of 
the Ne7v Jersey Freie Zeitung o{ to-day. Mr. Prieth at first 
had only one assistant in the literary department of the paper, 
and this gentleman was often compelled to take a hand at run- 
ning the press. The first large increase in circulation was 
experienced during the Civil War, when the loyal 
citizens of Newark were anxious to hear the latest news from 
the scene of war. From that time on the paper has steadily 
grown, owing to the large emigration from Germany to this 
country. Mr. Prieth died in 1 S79, and the management of the 
paper has changed hands several times since then. At the 
present day, 1897, the New Jersey Freie Zeitung, with its own 
handsome building at 75 Market Street, and its splendidly 
equipped plant, produces a paper, which from a literary and 
typographical point of view cannot be excelled by any German 
paper in America. The Daily and Sunday Freie Zeitung cir- 
culates chieHy in Newark and Essex County, while the remain- 
der of the German population of New Jersey is reached by the 
weekly edition. That the Fteie Zeitung has the confidence 
of the business world of Newark, is amply demonstrated by the 
fact that the advertisements of the most successful business 
men, regardless of nationality, are to be found in its columns. 
In politics the paper has always been independent, with a 
leaning towards Republican ideas and principles, and its great 
influence among the Germans of Newark is demonstrated by 
the fact that the Republican candidates in the city, county or 
state, ha\e invariably been defeated whenever the Freie Zeitum; 
has found it necessary to oppose either the candidates them- 
selves, or the platform on which they stood. Its fairness and 
straightforwardness in dealing with all the leading ((uestions of 
the day, have won it the esteem and confidence of the Germans 

of Newark. 
On the 
first floor of 
t h e Ne m 
Jersey Freie 
Z e it ung ' s 
large build- 
ing, the busi- 
ness depart- 
ment and the 
m a n a g ers' 
private offi- 
ces are locat- 
ed. The Hoe 
pe rfec t ing 
presses and 
the sterotyp- 
ing depart- 
ment are in 
the cellar. In 
the front of 
the second 

BENEDICT I'UlEiil, FOUNPEK. flOOr the cdl- 


torial staff, 
and in the 
rear the re- 
portorial staff 
have their 

The com- 
posing room 
is on the top 
floor, a n d 
here are to 
be found five 
of the won- 
derful type- 
setting de- 
vices called 

The heads 
of the various 
are a s fol- 
lows : Bene- 
dict Prieth, 
son of the 
late Benedict 
Prieth, Man- 
ager ; Fred- 
erick Kuhn, 
Editor ; Emil 
Wenzel, As- 
sistant Editor; William Katzler, City Editor ; Frederick Fieg, 
Telegraphic Editor; Augustus Georger, Night Foreman of com- 
positors ; Gustave Wolber, Day Foreman of compositors ; 
Richard Taylor, Foreman of jjiess-room. 

The AVry Jersey Freie Zeitung, in its various de])artments, 
employs a force of over fifty men. Its publications are as 
follows: New Jersey Freie Zeitung, (Daily edilionl. Der 
Erzaehler, (Sunday edition), and Weekly Freie Zeitung. 

Special edition for Hudson County, with office at 80 Wash- 
ington Street, Hoboken, N. J„ William Denstorff, Manager. 
This latter paper, although only two years old, has been wonder- 
fully successful, and is now the leading German jiaper in 
Hudson Co. The large (German population of such flourishing 
cities as Jersey City, Hoboken. Bayonne, etc., is proud of this 
newlv established paper, knowing that it is devoted to the 
interests of the class of people which forms the bulk of its 
subscribers. The paper is ably managed by Mr. William 

It is the proud lioast of the proprietors of the New Jersey 
Freie Zeitung that the four papers which they publish, viz.: 
the New Jersey Freie Ziitung, (daily), Der Erzaehler, (Sun- 
day), the weekly and special edition for Hudson County, abso- 
lutely cover the German population of New Jersey, and that 
this belief is shared by the advertising public, is demonstrated 
by the fact that many of the largest business houses in the 
State advertise in the AVw Jersey Freie Zi'/'/a//!,'-'.? publications 
alone, to the exclusion of all the other German papers in the 
State, knowing that thereby they reach the entire German speak- 
ing population of New Jersey. 

The illustrations shown on this page, represents the Freie 
Zeitung building, which has been lately improved with a new 
brown stone front, making one of the neatest newspaper plants 
in the city of Newark, and a life-like photo of its Founder. 




THE Suniiiiy Ge// was first ))ublislied in May, 
1872, and a little more than a year later it 
became the property of Wilham A Ure anrl 
James W. Schoch, Their capital was principalh 
their indefatigable labor, their knowledge of the 
business and their faith in the future of the 
Sunday newspaper. Much opposition was en- 
countered, and there was prejudice to be over- 
come. The fact was soon apparent, however, that 
the Sunday Call was independent, but not neu- 
tral ; that it was clean and fair ; that it was de- 
voted to Newark and Esse.x County interestsrand 
sought to secure the best go\ernnient for the 
people, and the paper's circulation iiicreasetl 
from a few liundred to thousands, and adver- 
tisers soon made it a favorite medium. It has 
grown with tlie growth of Newark, and is now 
one of the great Sunday newspapers of the 
country. .Messrs. ('.. \V. Thorne. William T. 
Hunt, Louis Hannoch and H. C. McDougall 
became members of the firm a few years ago. 
Mr. Hunt is editor, Mr. Thorne associate editor, 
and Mr. Hannoch business manager. 

The Sniiday Call, although published once a 
week, has all the equipment and facilities of a 
daily ne\vspa|)er. Its offices at 194 Market 



Street are convenient, and its ]iresses. composing room and news methods are 
modern and efficient. It publishes from twenty to twenty-four pages each Sunday, 
and to each issue scores of writers contribute. The weekly cost of production is 
equal to that of many daily newspapers. Among its occasional contributors are 
eminent clergymen, lawyers, physicians and business men of the city an<l vicinity, 
besides a number of bright women writers. Its advertising colunuis are filled by 
representative houses, and its "cent a word " page is a market of industrial activity 
in itself. The Sunday Call 'v=, read each Sunday by at least 100,000 persons, and it 
is as much a favorite with one member of the family as another. 

While giving general news, but particularly the news of Newark and neighbor- 
ing towns, the paper has special departments devoted to lodges and social societies, 
sports, the public schools, building and loan associations, women's clubs, whist, 
chess and checkers, local politics, churches, and the building interests of the city. 
It seeks to promote every worthy cause in which the people of New Jersey, and 
especially those of Newark, are concerned. 

The Sunday Call is printed from linotype machines upon a three-tieretl press 
of largest capacity, and has adopted every approved lueasure for increasing the 
efficiency of its plant. Its influence has been recognized throughout this section 
as potent for good, and its appeal is successfully made to the thinking and prac- 
tical people of the State. It is identified with every interest of the community in 
which it is published. 




THE jV^iC/ Jersey Deutsche Zeitiing was founded on April 
12, 1880, by Dr. E. H. Makk, Editor-in-Chief, and Joseph 
Knorr, Manager of the Ne7u Jersey Frei'e Zeiluns;. Tlie 
scheme of the new German daily was matured in the residence 
of the late J. J. Hockenjos, a sturdy and brave battler for 
opinion's sake, whose figure and actions are fresh memories 
with all who used to attend the Board of Trade meetings. 
With Mr, Hockenjos were associated as first promoters, Mrs. 
Kimmerle, a woman of superior brain power and character, who 
has long successfully conducted her own dual business, that 
of milliner and florist. 

At this time a great many okl German Republicans had 
become sour and sore on the Frei'e /.citidig, and the new 
German daily was warmly welcomed by them. It was Repub- 
lican on general politics, but straight-out Democratic in local 
affairs. In the early fall of 1880, Dr. INIakk withdrew altogether 
and went to Rochester, where he still edits the Rochester 
Volksblatt. Mr. Knorr now took entire management of the 
paper. Charles Voelcker, an experienced German Democratic 
journalist, who had served on the old-time Volksinann with 
Major Franz Umbscheiden. took the editorial helm, with Mr. 
I.ouis Dannenberg as his associate and chief of the city de- 
partment. In the general election that year the pa])er supported 
General Hancock for President and George C. Ludlow for 
Governor. Mr. Knorr gave his life to his work of building up 
the paper He was at it day and night. Sundays as well as 
week days. He was a first-class business man and secured for 
the paper a full and liberal line of advertising. His devotion 
to his work, and his decided business talents inspired confidence, 
not only among fjusiness men, but among men like Gottfried 
Krueger and others, who aided him financially in the start. 

His labors told in the success that crowned them. He took 
a lease of the paper, from the stockholders, for fifteen years, and 
before long was able to wipe out all indebtedness and estab- 
lished the paper 
on a handsome 
paving basis. 

First among 
those who are 
e n t i t 1 e tl to 
special credit 
for their services 
in helping Mr. 
Knoir to make 
t h e Deutsche 
Zeitiing t h e 
g r e a t success 
it is, are M r. 
Louis Dannen- 
berg. the ac- 
comi)lished and 
experienced, yet 
withal modest 
and retiring, 
German journal- 
ist, and Mr. Emil 
Krat-utler, who 
got his business 
I r a i 11 i n g first 
under the eye 
of his uncle, Mr. 
Hockenjos, and 
next under that 
N. J. DEurscHE /itn UNG liUiLUiNG. of Mr. Knorr. 

Newark Tribiinc. 

),<«<« Dii'^' 

TTicw 3crrP7, 

Peutrcf)c pctiuuQ. 


Messrs. Dan- 
nenberg and 
K raeut ler 
are the man- 
agers of the 
paper. They 
have follow- 
ed in the 
lines laid 
down by Mr. 
Knorr, and 
are pushing 
the paper 
along more 
than ever. 

In its new 
quarters the 
Zeilung has 
the fullest 
facilities to 
get out a first 
class local 
paper, one 
that is a great 
credit alike 
to its man- 
agers and all 

connected '-— _ - ' '"^SI^:. 

with it, and r. , ^ISC^ZS 

to the Ger- '^ 

man reading 

people of Newark; a good, clean, live, bright and welcome 
visitor to the house ; likewise a strong and sterling battler for 
true Democracy, the Democracy of Jefferson and the founders of 
the Republic. 

Others besides Messrs. Dannenberg and Kraeutler, who 
have done good work on the paper, helping to make it all it is, 
are the late Oscar von Joeden, a fine writer and a good orator, 
in the threads of whose life are woven a romance of the heart, 
which may not be spoken of here, and who, like the immortal 
Swift, rotted out at the top ; the late Charles Voelcker, already 
spoken of, as kind a soul as ever lived. The present editor is 
Mr. Carl Meyer. 

As an advertising medium, the Deutsche Zeitung is of great 
value. It reaches the homes of the German population of 
Newark and Essex County. On January i, 1S97, the lease with 
the late Mr. Joseph Knorr expired, and from that date the 
paper was put under the control of the Board of Directors. 
.Among them are, Mr. G. Krueger, Mr. Elias Berla, Mr. Ed- 
Schickhaus, Mr. F. L. Feind, Mr. Chas. L. Walter, Mr. Louis 
Dannenberg and Mr. Emil Kraeutler. The paper will in 
the future, as in the past, strictly adhere to true Democratic 
principles in national and state affairs, while in the county and 
local affairs, it will support the best candidates, irrespective of 

Karl G. Meyer, editor of the Deutsche Zeilung, is well known 
and highly esteemed by the people of this city. He ranks 
among the brightest of the German-American journalists of 
Essex County, and as a graceful writer and critic, has few 
superiors. By hard work and perseverance he has succeeded in 
placing the paper on a solid basis, as its improved literary char- 
acter, and the fine press as well as all the other necessary 
adjuncts that go to make an efficient newspaper plant show. 




THIS paper. :i German Weekly, was founded in 1SS5, liy the 
Pionier Publisliin;^ Company, and from its start Mr. 
Francis E. Adler, tlie present editor and publislier, became 
Editor and Business Manager. In 1S87, the Pionier Publishing 
Company dissolved, and the paper became the property of F. E. 
Alder & Co., who have successfully published the same for 
elex'en years. The /'/o/u'fr is strictly a family paper, anrl cir- 
culates especially among the old German residents of the City 
of Newark, and State of New Jersey, and enjoys in a marked 
degree, the patronage of business people. 

The senior publisher and editor, Mr. F. E. Adler, is the old- 
est practical Gei'man printer in the State of New Jersey. He 
held a position on the first German newspaper ever published 
in the .State, the AVrc yt'i'sey S/ijd/s Coi/r/'iT. established in 
Newark. 1851. He afterward became of ihf A'l-uuir/: 
Zt-iiuii'r and New Jersey Freie Zei'/uii!;, remaining in this 
position until 1859. He then went to Albany, New York, and 
established the daily Allniiiy Beohachtei-, a p.iper which 
fought enthusiastically for the election of Abraham Lincoln. 

Mr ."Xdler enlisted in 1S61. in the 9th Regiment. New Jersey 
Volunteeis, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant, on several 
occasions commanding his company with great credit. Near 
the close of the war he was employed by the Commissary Depart- 
ment of the Armv of the Potomac at Alexandria. Va., and at 
the close of the war returned to Newark, and resumed his 
profession. In 1872, Mr. Adler became editor of the U'liskim^- 
lon. D. C. Journal, remaining in his position until 1878. Once 
more he returned to Newark, and became connecteil with tiie 
Beohachter atn Passaic. When the Pionier was established it 
was but natural that Mr. Adler, as the oldest German journalist 
and practical printer in the State, should become its editor, and 
he has since then de\dted his entire time to this journal and the 
job office connected therewith. Mr. Adler is prominently 
connected with the Newark Pionier Society and the Gottfried 
Krueger Pionier Greisenheim, (Old People's Home), which 
insiitution justiv merits the ilistinction of being the best of its 
kind in the United States; a noble charity, indeed, 

Mr. Adler is a jovial, kind-hearted man, justly popular with 
all classes of the trulv cosmopolitan population of Newark, 
but never been induced to accept public office of any kind. 

Ill- \\<is born in the Grand Duchy of Baden, and emigrated to 
this country in Julv, 1850, after he had t.ikcii p.irt in the re\oiu- 

^vm ?f'"!:.f^-?-?jfl'^|i 



TSeinatti. W ? *. 


tionary war of 1849, when quite a boy. 
He took refuge in France with a large 
number of comrades after the revolution- 
ary movement had been suppressed bv 
ihe Prussian army under the command of 
the Crown Piince of Prussia, the late 
ljn|)eror William I, of Germany. 

Frank C. Adler, the son of the pub- 
lisher of the Newark Pionier, has been 
connected with the establishmentt for a 
nnn^ber of years, and has charge of the 
pi ess-room, and attends besides to the 
out-door business of the concern, collect- 
ing bills, soliciting advertisements, elc. 
lie was formerly a member of the Slate 
Militia, and held the position of Color- 
bearer in the Fifth Regiment. 

The illustrations presented on this 
page are life-like engravings of Messrs. 
.•\dler and son, who are well and favor- 
ably known to the people of Newark, and 
their paper is a welcomed guest. 

rR.\.NK C. .\DLER, BUSINESS M.\N.\(; ICK. 




THE first number of this paper was printed on a Washington hand- 
press, and issued on October 5, 1872. Its pubMsher, 
August Erdmann, a printer by trade, soon recognized the fact that 
he had to take an able writer as editor of his paper, as he alone could 
not attend to all the work, and therefore associated himself with Mr. 
Louis Darnstaedt. Week by week, not only the number of readers 
and subscribers increased, but one column after the other had to be 
filled with advertisements. Politically, the Orange Volksbole advo- 
cated democratic principles, and its influence upon the German popu. 
lation has been felt more than once. During the official term of Mr. 
Henry Egner, as Mayor of Orange, the Volksbote was designated as 
one of the corporation jjapers which published the city's advertisements 
ordinances, etc. 

After the death of its founder, August Erdmann, the Orange I'olks- 
bote changed hands. On November i, was bought by its 
present owner, Ernest Temme. The paper had been neglected by its 
late proprietor on account of sickness, and when it was sold, the once 
prosperous paper was in a most pitiable condition, to say nothing 
about press, type and the other material necessary to make up a 
paper. The new owner at once replaced the hand-press with a Camp- 
bell country press, bought new body type, and then started on haixl 
up-hill work. By the aid of his son, Fred. G. Temme who has since 
become manager of the I'clk^bote. the paper has not only regained its 
old stand-point but is now one of the most-read weekly papers in 
Essex County. Its circulation is steadily increasing, and the best 
business houses in Newark have their advertisements in its columns. 
"Wt Orange Volksbo/exs to-day a seven-column twelve-pige paper 
and a well-liked friend in the homes of German families in the 
Oranges and miles around. 

As the Volksbote does not go to press before .Saturday morning, 
its columns contain all the news of the week up to that time. This 
enables the Vclksbo/e, unlike the other Orange paper, to bring happen- 
ings of late Friday night and early Saturday morning, and make it really 
a Saturday noon paper, which is appreciated by all its readers for some 
of whom the Volksbote is its only Sunday associate. On October 5, 
1897, the Volksbj/e will issue an anniversary number, it being twenty- 
five years that the Volksbote has been issued, with more or less diffi- 
culty. This anniversary number will contain a complete history of 
the paper, together with illustrations of interest in and about 
Orange, and consist of at least twenty-four pages. 

In the job printing department the latest faces of types have been 

added, which enables the 

— W— J 

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^•^ WATSOiV'S l^^y.-.. 

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pit*- *■» ^i«n- 9Unn. 



Volksbote to 
turn out most any job, especially society 
work, which forms its main feature. Its 
place of publication is located at No. 26 
Day Street, near Main. 

The illustrations presented on this page 
are life-like photos of .Mr. E. Temme and 
son. Editor and Manager of the Orange 
Volksbote. The former is a well-known 
citizen of Orange, and has been identi- 
fied with the press of Essex County for 
more than a quarter of a century. Mr. 
Temme is happily situated in having so 
able a son to assist him in sharing the 
burden of his enterprising profession in 
the closing years of his active business 

Mr. Fred. G. Temme, who is now 
the business manager, is a practical printer 
by trade, with a thorough knowledge of 
the profession, and devotes his time to 
furthering the interests of the paper and 
perfecting the job printing department. 

FKELl. <;. TEMME, liCsl.N E.'iS .MAN.XGEK. 




THIS, the leading German newspaper of Orange, was estab- 
lished in 1S83, as a independent i:)eniocratic newspaper, by 
August Koehler. In 1887, the pa])er was enlarged from four 
to eight pages. Tlie popularity of the paper increased from 
year to year, and its circulation extends from the Oranges to 
all over Essex County. Business people were not slow ni 
recognizing the \alue of the Or,i//j^'tr Soiiiilagstlatt. and adver- 
tisers from the Oranges, from Newark and New York engaged 
space for their advertisements, which compelletl Mr. Koehler, 
the enterprising editor and publisher, to still further enlarge the 
paper and make it a ten page paper in 1 S90. 

In the year 1891, the Orange Soitn/iigsblatt was designated 
by Governor Leon Abctt, State Treasurer George R. Gray and 
Comptroller William C. Heppenheimer as one of the official 
papers of the State of New Jersey, thereby becoming also the 
official organ of the Board of Chosen Freeholders of the 
County of Essex. Mr. Koeler, the proprietor and publisher of 
the simntagsbliUt, was born in Cologne on the Rhine, Germany. 
July 18, 1852. He settled in Orange in 1869, and by hard work, 
grit and perseverance, has made a success in life. He enjoys 
a great popularity and is well known all over the State, taking 
great interest in political and society matters. Although 
having refused so far all political honors, he is a well known 
personage in Trenton during the sessions of the Legislature, 
always ready to help his friends with whatsoever [jower and 
influence he can obtain. 

Before establishing his own paper, he was connected as 
correspondent of the Neiv York Journal, a German daily 
newspaper, that had hundreds of subscribers in the Oranges as 
long as Mr. Koehler interested himself in it. In May, 1896, Mr. 
Koehler established a paper in the interest and for the elevation 
of the liquor trade. It is a bright monthly sheet, and is anxi- 
ously read by all men in the trade. Mr. Koehler turned the 
business management of the Official journal of the State Liquor 
Dealors League of New Jersey, over to Mr. A. Schlesinger, in 
Jersey City, but assumed full editorial control. In 1896, during 
the Presidential campaign, the Orange Sonnlagsbla/t. fearless 
of all political affiliations, came out for the Presidential Republi- 
can candidates, McKinley and Hobart ; honest money and 
protection to the American industries. 

In an editorial on July 12, Mr. Koehler explained the stand 

his paper was to 
take in the the poli- 
tical contest, stating 
that although a 
Democrat to the 
back-bone, it was 
impossible for him 
to support the Chi- 
cago platform and 
nominees, but as far 
as the State tickets 
were concerned, the 
Orange Sonn/ags- 
blatt was to remain 
true to its princi- 
ples and doctrines, 
strictly Democratic. 
The genial, gen- 
erousand courteous 
ways of Mr. 
Koehler, have won 
for him a host ol 


V^&TZ^aXSS^ r"'-n T-^ T- i j^- 1^5- ^-..^ 

iif»*Kul mfiis mm UHOiHiRs. 

lM«>an« J U( ■•■ 3ii(|i^_ I 

fME .^ 

Chka ga, m. PIANO eg 

toHie ^onmogsblalL 


been an active worker in the Democratic ranks for years, he is 
connected with the Joel Parker Association of Newark, a mem- 
ber of the German-English School Society of Orange, and a mem- 
ber of the U. G. S. B. Sharpshooters of New Jersey, of which 
he has been repeatedly elected President. He also belongs to 
Orange Lodge, No. 135. Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks, and several other charitable organizations, Singing 
Societies, and to the German Press Club of New York. 

He was for a number of years an active and energetic member 
in the Executive Board of the Liquor Dealers' League, having 
served two years as their State Secretary, and at their convention 
in Hoboken, 1892, was elected State President at the conventions 
held in Paterson, 1894, and in Newark, 1896. he was unani- 
mously re-elected with great enthusiasm. Mr. Koehler was 
elected as one of the Vice-Presidents of the National Retail 
Liquor Dealers' Association of the United States, at the con- 
vention held in Washington. D. C. He was chiefly instru- 
mental in organizing the State thoroughly for the Liquor 
Dealers' State League of New Jersey, and his efforts were so 
highly appreciated, that at the convention held in Paterson, 
Senator Daly, on behalf of the Hoboken Inn Keepers' Associ- 
ation, iiresented him with a very handsome jewel holding a 
diamond star, the design of which is a masterpiece of art. 



\ I 7HEN, in July 1895, Messrs. Burke and Beyer, the young men whose 

portraits appear on this page, assumed the ownership and manage- 
ment of Town Talk, the paper was rounding out the sixth year of its 
existence. At that time the publication was issued from No. 251 Market 
street anil was printed by William A. Baker, at considerable cost per 
week, to its new proprietors. Less than eighteen months after securing 
control of Town Talk, the present owners made a new home for the 
bright and sparkling weekly at No. 249 Market street, from which address 
it is now issued. The plant is thoroughly equipped for job printing. 
A large and carefully selected stock of type, without doubt the finest 
assortment of any house in the State, which was essential to meet the 
artistic and diversified requirements of the advertising pages and other 
ilepartments of the paper, and such other paraphernalia and fixtures indis- 
pensable to the office of a publication, conducted on the modern and 
strictly up-to-date ideas that characterize Town Talk, were in shape 
when the publishers installed the paper in its present abode. Few estab- 
lishments now excel it. Being next door to the " old stand," yet entirely 
severed from ties that formerly bound it, Town Talk entered upon a 
career that, from the first intlications, was destined to prove the most 
successful in its history. 

It was the pioneer newspaper of its class, surviving hundreds of imita- 
tors and pursuing the even tenor of its way, without copying others' ideas 
or depending upon paste and scissors to furnish it with material. Indeed, 
only those papers that copied after Town Talk — that is, in the same class 
— achieved success and are livingto tell it. As a home newspaper reach- 
ing the best class of people, To7un Talk really merits the wonderful advertising patronage it commands, and in its new quarters, 
where only the most efficient workmen are employed, the opportunities for acquiring, and preserving, greater prestige in the big 
territory it fills, are more readily grasped :ind utilized. Messrs. Burke and Beyer certainly show, by their enterprise, that they mean 

to spare neither time nor expense in the good work of extending their 
circulation and enhancing the value of their publication as an advertis- 
ing medium. It is by far the handsomest illustrated paper pul)lished 
for five cents, so their task is not such a hard one after all. 

Its bright sayings, its original stories of local happenings and in- 
cidents, its happy and effective style of treating public men and public 
measures, and its pungent criticisms of hypocrisy and cant have won 
for To^vn Talk many complimentary notices from the State and 
metropolitan press. Town Talk has its own methods in dressing 
down politicians for their shortcomings, and its independence is 
demonstrated, by the fact that it spares neither Democrat nor Repub- 
lican w'hen adverse criticism is thought to be deserved. 

An inviolable rule of Town Talk is that nothing unclean, sugges- 
ii\e or in any way objectionable, from the standpoint of decency, shall 
qipear in its colunuis. In all truth it is a paper of the home and for 
the home. 

In connection with the success Town Talk has met \\\\.\\ under 
Burke and Beyer, a plain, unvarnished statement should be made : It 
would have been a surprise, especially to the newspaper fraternity, 
had the venture proved a failure. The art of managing and editing a 
newspaper was no mystery to the new owners. The doubt, un- 
certainty and trepidations that would beset the path of novices in 
such an undertaking, did not loom up to appall them They were 
" old " as newspaper men. though young in years. They were 
possessed of experience, ability, energy, indefatigability. and some 
means. Mr. Burke was the city editor of the Newark Evening Nnvs 
and Mr. Beyer held the managing editorship of the Sunday Times- 
Standard, at the time they purchased Town Talk. Mr. Burke had 
been connected with the Ne-ios for twelve years, and had the advant- 
ages of the schooling in newspaper work, which only that enterprising 
paper can give and Mr. Beyer had also been connected with the News. 
„..,,„. ^,, , „..,.c-u Mr. Burke was born in South Orange, and Mr. Beyer, in Newark. 






11 that declaration the AV; 

ICVOTEI) to Religious Liberty and Purity in Politics." 

'■/; Ledger states the 
purpose of its being, and its files and its records prove the 
sincerity of the announcement as fully as its great success 
demonstrates the appreciation of its objects by a liberty-loving 
and fair-minded public. 

Lender the name of The Catholic Ledger this paper was 
founded in April, 1S93, by Winfred S. Woodruff, who was con- 
nected with Newark newspaperdom for many years, and who 
has since died. In the fall of that year it passed into the hands 
of M. J. O'Conner and T. J. Regan, well known Catholics and 
business men of Newark. They announced at the outset that 
their object was not to make money, but to utilize all the paper's 

several counties of Ireland, which are of intense interest to the 
home-loving sons and daughters of the Emerald Isle, among 
whom, even then, the paper found the bulk of its supporters. 

The Ledger, in 1895, added to its name for a time the caption 
Independent Democrat. It was the first to name James M. 
Seymour for the mayoralty in 1896, and it was the chief means 
of electing him. In the month of August, 1896, Messrs. O'Con- 
nor and Regan sold the paper to a stock company, who thought 
it best to call it TJie Newark Ledger, as it would under this 
name be free from imputations that might be cast upon it 
should anything not entirely orthodox appear in its columns. 
Its capital stock was fixed at $25,000 and its shares at $50 each, 
none of which has been sold below par value. The president 
of the company, which is known as the Newark Ledger Publish- 
ing Company, is I\I. J. O'Connor ; the secretary, John Regan, 

gains for its further improvement in order that the Catholic 
people of Newark and its vicinity might have a paper devoted 
to their interests of which they might be proud. At the time 
that they took charge of it the prospects for its success did not 
seem bright. The former management had not sought to 
e.xtend its intiuence beyond the limits of Esse.x County, and did 
not dream of circulating it even in the distant future outside of 
the borders of the Newark diocese. It suffered through this 
enforced contraction and at the time of its transfer to the new 
owners it had a circulation of only a few hundred copies. 

Patrick J, Tansey became editor of the paper in February, 
1894. One of the first changes made in it was the establish- 
ment of a page of Irish news, a report of local happenings in the 

and the treasurer, John Jackson. The Ledger went with its 
accustomed vigor into the Presidential campaign of 1896, and 
took the side of free coinage. It gained in circulation rapidly 
because it was then, as it always has been, found true in its 
devotion to religious liberty and ])urily in politics and that the 
public believe that it will be ever ready to take up the cudgels 
for whatever people may be persecuted for their faith and 
against whatsoever party that attempts to encroach upon popu- 
lar rights. The Ledger lias at present subscribers in every 
town and village in New Jersey and, indeed, in nearly every 
State in the Union, and has Ijeen complimented by some of its 
advertisers with the statement that they have found it the best 
medium for informing people about what they have to sell. 








FOR more than a quarter of a century 
Albert M. Holbrook took an im- 
portant part in the work of up-building 
the city of Newark. Standing at the head 
of one of its vastly important institutions 
of a public character and one in which 
every citizen had an interest, this man of 
genius, and I might almost well say. man 
of destiny and ever persevering, worked 
on, with few returns and less thanks, till 
his o'er wrought system gave way, and 
he that went out and in among us, so 
cheerful and uncomplaining was then 
carried to the tomb. Few men were bet- 
ter known than Albert M. Holbrook. 
His life work lay in the way of pro- 
ducing a map of the city of Nev\ark 
and making a directory of the same. The 
memory of Albert M. Holbrook will be 
clierished by those who knew him and 
the work he did while he was a sojourner 
here will be canvassed in honor, and 





should none other tablets be erected to his memory, readers of 
Essex County N. J., Illustrated, as they turn its pages, will find 
a constant reminder of the debt of gratitude the people owe 
him, in the beautiful memoriam illustration on which the artist 
has so beautifully traced his name and the lines of a copy of his 
Newark City Directory, among the gems of art which our artists 
have so gracefully transferred to the pages of this souvenir. 
For genuine open heartedness Albert M. Holbrook was noted, 
and for perseverance in the accomplishment of purposes and the 
ends he sought, few was possessed of in a greater degree. He 
was far-seeing and nobody was ever fonder of brushing away 
the mists which shadow much, if they do not shut out from un- 
discerning eyes great events breaking through the clouds of the 
future and rushing toward the vista of grandeur on which we 
stand and fail to see them, even though rushing toward us with 
locomotive speed. For an e.xample of his far seeing and his 
power to read the future, attention can be called to his declara- 
tion made in the Board of Trade, which grand institution he 

was almost the father of and loved as the applS of his eye, and 
from which he was seldom absent when a conclave was being 
held. Another, he saw in the industiial features of Newark. 
History had long opened up to the people of Newark that she 
was the Birmingham of America, but it was left for Albert M. 
Holbrook to be the herald of the fact that it was such indeed. 
Again it was the wisdom and far-sightedness of this same man 
that made others see as he was seeing that Newark, as the great 
imporium of industry of the western continent, needed only a 
public demonstration to show it to the world. 



.ALTER C. JACOBS, a photo of whom is shown in 
the illustrations on this page, is perhaps one of the 
youngest and most enterprising printers in Esse.x County. He 
was born in this city in 1873, and was educated in the old time- 
honored Morton Street Public School. In May, 1895, heopened 
a printing office at No. 7 Ailing, near Market street, and in a small way commenced 
his present business with every prospect of success. Being a practical printer by trade 
and having one of the finest arranged plants in the city, he is enabled to execute all 
orders in the job printing line with neatness and dispatch. Mr. Jacobs is identified 
with many of the leading societies of the city, and is a popular man with the young 
element of Newark. He is an enterprising business man and devotes his personal 
attention to the work entrusted to him, and is a worthy representative of the job 
printing trade. 



SCHOOL Commissioner David H. Nathan, who 
is now serving his second year on the ISoard. 
was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, January 24. 
1856, and was educated in the public schools there 
For the past twenty-three years he has been con- 
nected with the firm of Chas. Cooper & Co. He 
has been a lifelong Republican and has always 
taken an active part in the politics of the Tenth 
Ward, from which he was elected as a member of 
the Board of Education by a handsome majority. 
Throughout his term on the Board he has shown a 
keen interest in the cause of education and has 
done much to advance the school work in this city. 




3|eiu 3crrei; 3freir ^ilfima 

~?^"- !5«jU »„,.„, „.„ ,:„,„„ „^ . •' 






THE illustration on this page represents a view 
on the southwest corner of Market and 
Washington streets, one of the old historical locali- 
ties in this city, commonly designated as the swamp 
or " watering place " in the annals of the town. It 
has been known for years as the " Printer's Cor- 
ner," and has been the headquarters of the German 
newspapers in this city. The building is now 
covering the plant of Charles Wolber & Co., who 
are well known Newarkers engaged in the German 
and English printing trade and the manufacture of 
badges in all the various styles. Although the firm 
is located at that corner but a short time they have 
been known in the printing trade during the paist 
thirty years. Mr. Wolber, the senior member of 
the firm, was born and educated in this city, having 
learned the printer's trade on the spot where he is 
now successfully conducting a business for himself. 
He is ably assisted by his partner, Mr. August 
Putscher, an experienced and conscientious printer, 
who entered the firm in June, 1S95, and who has 
been connected with some of the largest printing 
houses in this city. These enterprising citizens 
devote their time and talents to book, job, mercan- 
tile and society work of every description, in either the German 
or English languages, and make a specialty of German printing 
and translations. The firm also manufacture every description 
of badges, buttons and all the numerous designs in this parti- 
cular line, which has become so numerous to society folks. 
Through their prompt and courteous treatment of customers 
they are rapidly coming to the front rank in their line of trade. 
The jobbing department of Charles Wolber & Co., is one of 
the most complete of its size and kind in the city, and it is an 
undeniable fact that the members of the firm are alive to the 
procuring of all the newest styles and latest designs in the pro- 
fession ; being practical mechanics themselves, they employ the 
most skillful workmen and thus secure the good will of their 
many patrons. Their facilities are such as to meet any demand 
that may be made upon them for the rapid and handsome com- 
pletion of all work intrusted to them and their rapid advance 



fro)ii that slow and imperfect printing machinery to the presses 
which enable thinn to turn off the finest of the jirocess 
half-tone work, fitly characterizes the progress made by 
these wide-awake mechanics in their jobbing department. The 
members of the firin are prominently identified with many of 
the leading German and English associations which are a credit 
to the city of Newark. 

The firm of Wolber & Co. was established at No. 62 Spring- 
field avenue, about four years ago, at the beginning of the 
present business depression, in the basement, a small room of 
which was used covering a space of about one hundred and fifty 
square feet, and although the firm has had much sharp compe- 
tition to contend with, the business has steadily increased to 
such an e.xtent that the enterprising firm was compelled to 
enlarge their plant. New quarters were found on the first fioor 
in the same building, having one-half of the fioor space, and 

si.x months later it was necessary 

to occupy all, having about five 

hundred square feet of room. Thus 

it grew until March I, 1897, when 

the plant was removed to No. 82 

Market street, corner Washington, 

where it has ample room to meet 

all requirements for some time to 

come. The manufacture of badges 

has become an important industry 

in connection with the printer's 

calling of late years, and Messrs. 

Wolber & Co. are alive and wide- 
awake in this branch of the trade, 

having added a model and well 

equipped badge department to their 

business by which they are enabled 

to turn out promptly anything in 

the line and on tlie most reason- 
able terms. The firm make a 

specialty of translations in German 

or English, and in this particular is 

one of the few printing houses 

located in this city. 




NEWARK has long been noted all over the world as 
the home of men who were endowed with inven- 
tive genius and whose unselfish achievement in mechani- 
cal skill have in a large degree contributed to the com- 
forts, pleasures and advantages of humanity. The 
stimulus that has caused inventors to perfect their ideas 
has been the wise and encouraging patent laws of the 
United States and other countries granting protection to 
the inventor whereby he may reap a just reward. Patent 
laws prevail in all Li\ ilized countries, and it l)ehoove^ 
an inventor, if he would not see others profit by his 
ingenuity, that he be careful to secure protection for his 
production in all countries, or in the more important of 
them. It is true that the patent laws of all countries are 
different, so that it becomes a difficult matter to know how 
to set about obtaining patents abroad. In this connec- 
tion we take pleasure in placing before the readers ul 
this illustrated souvenir of Essex County, the name of 
one of the oldest and most honored patent agencies in 
the city of Newark, Drake & Co., patent attorneys, 
located at the southwest corner of Broad and Market 
streets. In the illustrations presented on this page, life- 
like photos of the gentlemen under consideration and 
their office is shown. The firm is in possession of the 

fullest details of all foreign and domestic laws relatin;4 

to patents, and are fully able to advise in all matters 

pertaining to the same. During the past thirty-three 

years this firm have ably represented the citizens of 

Newark, N. J., and its suburbs, before the United States 

Patent Office, at Washington, D. C, As attorneys and 

solicitors of American and foreign patents, and as ex- 
perts in patent causes, this firm have an established reputation 

and the most extensive practice of any others in their profession 

in the State of New Jersey. The late senior member of the firm, 

Mr. Oliver Drake, established himself here in the practice of his 

profession in 1S64, and in 1879 the firm was re-organized 

by the admission to partnership of Mr. Charles H. Pell, who 

conducts the affairs of the agency since the death of Mr. Drake, 

which occurred in 1S96. No firm stands better before the 

United States Patent Office, or can secure fairer treatment by 

its officials. The importance which attaches to the patenting of 


inventions in this country is evidenced by the fact that durin 
the existence of this firm the number of patents issued by ti 
U. S. Patent Office has increased from about 41,000 in 1864, to 
570,000 at the present time, Feb. 23, 1S97, and New Jersey 
stands near the head of the list in respect to the number of 
inventors and patentees. 

The firm are recognized as able, scientific and successful 
attorneys and experts, and possess every possible facility for 
conducting every branch of patent law under the most favorable 
auspices and upon the most satisfactory terms. Their practice 

«^ t^ 


relates to the preparation of specifications 
and drawings, to the making of prelimi- 
nary examinations as to the patentability 
of an invention, and to the preparation 
and filing of applications for patents, re- 
issues, designs, trademarks and labels, 
and to every item of service necessary to 
the successful prosecution of the inven- 
tor's application down to the time the 
patent is granted and issued by the oftke. 
They have clients in all i)arts of the 
United States, and many of the leading 
manufacturers of Newark em])loy their 
services exclusively. Mr. Pell was born 
in New York, is popular with all and 
greatly interests himself in the general 
public interests of the city, aiul through 
his efforts, largely, the new puljlic (larks 
in Essex County have been secured. 
Before his death, Mr. Drake held the 
esteem of a large circle of friends, who 
have deeply mourned his loss. 




THE introduction of the dynamo electrical machine for electro- 
plating, electro-typing and similar classes of work revolu- 
tionized the art of depositing metals and effected an immense 
annual saving in time and material, concomitant with the work- 
on these machines for electroplating and electrotyping. Mr. 
Weston carried on his investigation on machines and apparatus 
for the electrical transmission of power and for electric lighting, 
and puisued the work with an ardor and earnestness which 
seems almost incredible, and under circumstances which would 
discourage most men. Not one of the men associated with him 
had any confidence in the future of the great art which has since 
sprung up fiom his and the few other earnest workers engaged 
in the same line. The business men considered most of his 
schemes chimerical, but he stuck to his woik with a determina- 
tion and persistence which was remarkable, and his confidence 
has been abundantly justified by the results. 

One of the most serious difficulties met with in the early 
stages of the work on dynamo machines was the great loss of 
energy in the machine, and the great amount of heat caused by 
the loss. Mr. Weston carefully studied all the sources of loss 
in machines, and by introducing entirely new features, was able 
to reduce the loss to an infinitesimal amouut, and thus produce 
machines which gave back nearly all the energy expended in 
driving them in electrical energy for useful work. The types of 
machines known before his time gave from twenty-five to fifty 
percent, of the energy in the useful work, the rest of the energy 
being wasted in the production ' of injurious heating of the 
machine. Mr. Weston, in 1873, changed all this and succeeded 
in building machines which gave eighty per cent, of the energy 



expended in driving them, and by further in\-estigations later on succeeded in raising the efficiency until it reached ninety-seven per 
cent. But this saving of energy was not the only result secured by his work. The saving of energy meant the absence of serious 
heating of the machines and consequently decreased liability of injury to the insulation, and also meant that vastly more mechanical 
energy could be transformed into electrical energy by a machine of a given size. In this way the cost of a machine for a given power 
of conversion was greatly reduced. Without these advances it is safe to say that the application of electricity to electric lighting, 
power transmissions and the numerous uses could not have been accomplished. With the perfection of the dynamo machine its field 
of usefulness became immense, aud Mr. Weston's time was spent largely in opening it up. He attacked the problem of arc lighting 
froin various standpoints and invented and perfected numerous devices for the production of arc lights, and for the measurement of 
the current and the distribution of the same. He was the first to make and use the copper coated carbon so extensively employed in 

arc lighting, and was the first to master the difficulties of making 
carbons, and it was in Newark that the first successful carbon factory 
was established. To make satisfactory carbons for arc lights was at 
first no easy matter, and a vast amount of experimental work and 
thoughtful study was needed before the difficulties were overcome. 
Special machinery had to be designed to grind and mix and mold the 
material and a great deal of work had to be done to find the most 
suitable material with which to bind the particles of carbon together, 
and produce suitable sticks for use in the lamps. These difficulties 
were all overcome and a vast industry has been established in this line 
alone. The methods and machinery now employed by the various 
large establishments in this country engaged in the work of manufac- 
turing carbons were first worked out by Edward Weston. 

In the transmission of power by electricity Mr. Weston was very 
early engaged, and in the old Synagogue, machines for the purpose 
could be seen delivering several horse powers as early as 1877, with 
a degree of efficiency which has never been surpassed. 

In the line of incandescent lighting Mr. Weston shares with Edison 
and Swan the honors of much useful work. He attacked the problem 
long before Edison, and by his process of treating carbons by electri- 
city in the presence of hydro-carbon fluids, gases or vapor, overcome 
one of the rrost serious obstacles to the perfection and introduction of 
the incandescent lamp, and by numerous other inventions contributed 
in no small degree to the development of these branches of electric 
lighting. The record of his work in these and numerous other fields 
EiJ\v\RD WESTo.N. is found at Washington where nearly 400 patents have been issued. 




THERE arc. during business 
hours, few among our 
sound financial institutions more 
busily engaged in the work of 
receiving and paying out money, 
than the State Banking Institu- 
tion, located on the corner of 
Market and Halsey streets. \Vi 
do not wish to be understood in 
making this statement that largt i 
sums of money are handled, 
deposited or drawn, but th,i! 
more people are going out an>l 
in its wide open door during the 
same time, transacting banking 
business. Among the officers 
of the bank, or more particu- 
larly speaking, that portion of 
them who come in direct con- 
tact with the customers, ai' 
without doubt as large or ,i 
larger percent of polite, affal)K. 
forbearing and painstaking men 
as are found engaged in a simi- 
lar capacity in any other one of 
our local banks. We wouldn't 
have it understood that there 
are any disagreeable men in any 

of our banking institutions. This conduct on the part of 
clerks and officials has its effect and does its part, and adds to 
tile popularity of the bank and the increase of its business. The 
building in which the beautiful and convenient banking rooms 
are established, is not more imposing than others of our banks, 
its architectural merits resting on banking rooms alone. If the 



reader is not a patron of the bank it would be well worth his 
while to step in and take a look at their model room. Just at 
the right of the entrance will be found the comfortable offices 
of Julius Stapff, cashier, and William Scheerer, assistant cashier, 
who will be glad to show the caller such attentions as might be 
sought for. Edward Shickhaus, the president, and Judge 
Gottfried Kreuger, vice president, will always be glad to see and wel- 
come friends or strangers who call for profit or pleasure, both of which 
can be reached in meeting either in their snug parlors, and the former 
by opening an account with this abundantly safe bank over which 
they preside. 

The robust and hearty good natured Judge of the State Court of 
Errors and Appeals, one of Newark's multi-millionaires, is one of 
those generous, great hearted Germans, among our fortunate German 
fellow citizens, with whom to meet is a lasting treat. 

The State Banking Company is peculiarly a State institution and was 
organized in 1871, under the State Banking Laws and is now the only 
bank outside the national household. The heivier part of the capital 
is held by our German fellow-citizens and the greater number of her 
patrons have a warm place in their affections for the Fatherland. As 
about one-fifth of the people of Newark are of German descent it will 
quite readily be seen what smooth sailing a bank like this will have. 
Starting off with a capital of §100.°°°. i' didn't take long to build up 
and hold the elegant business it was and is sure to command. No 
word we can write about this or any other bank doing business in 
the County of Essex can be amiss, providing it is well meant for an 
applaud of its business methods or in declaration of its strength and 
honor. In conclusion, if one thing more than another has added to 
the strength, it can readily be found in its well-to-do body of directors, 
each one of whom has his foundations in unencumbered real estate 
and solid cash. That genial good heartedness which pervades the 
founders, sustainers, managers and conductors, throws a halo of 
strength and honor all over and around it and gives to all an abund- 
ance of faith in its firmness and solidity. 


T has already been stated that the 
settlers of Newark were not me- 
chanics or manufacturers, but farm- 
ers. Naturally, therefore, their first 
concern was the soil and the support 
and maintainance which it might be 
made to yield. It may very readily 
be comprehended that theirs was 
not a very fierce struggle, with the rich virgin soil, 
which to yield its abundant increase, needed but 
tlie asking. But what with the labor of making 
their clearings, building their dwellings, and doing 
the thousand and one things incident to the pursuit 
of agriculture in a new country, the settlers had no 
time to think of other labors, much less to bestow 
upon them. Accordingly, only such industries were 
thought of as actually pressed themselves upon the 
attention of the busy planters. Naturally, the first 
of these to reveal its necessity in an isolated farm- 
ing community, was, when the grain had been 
garnered in, a grist mill. 

Accordingly, we find that at a Town Meeting held March 9, 
1668-69, this resolution was adopted : 

" Item. The Town saw Cause for the incouragement of any 
amongst them that would Build and Maintain a Good Mill, for 
the supply of the Town with Good Grinding. To offer and 



Tender freely the Timber Prepared for that use, Twenty Pounds 
Current Pay, and the .Accommodations Formerly Granted 
Belonging to the mill, vi^.: 18 .Acres of upl.ind and 6 of meadow, 
with the only Liberty and |)rivilege of P.uilding a Mill on yt 
ISrook; which motion was left to the Consideration of the 
Town Be twixt this and the 12th of this Mo. Current at Even, 
and the Meeting is adjourned to that Time: And in Case 
any desire sooner, or in the mean Time to have any further 
Treaty or Discourse about his or iheir Undertaking of the Mill, 
they may repair to Mr. Treat, Deacon Ward and Lieutenant 
.Swain, to prepare any Agreement between the 
Town and them." 

Notwithstanding this offer of the Town, whiili 
would seem to have been very liberal for thai tinir, 
no one appeared to be willing to undertake the 
work on these terms, and we find this record of the 
proceedings of the town meeting on the 12th of 
March. 1668-69 : "None appearing to accej)! of 
the Town's Motion and Encouragement to build 
and maintain the mill, they agreed to set upon it in 
a general way, and moving to Lieut. Swain about 
the matter, he made some propositions to the 
Town, and .it Length the Town agreed with him 
for 20S. by the week or 6 working days, and three 
Pounds over for his skill, unless he shall see Cause 
to abate it, which if he shall see cause to do, the 
Town will take it thankfully, for the which he en- 
gaged to improve his Time and skill for the best 
advantage and carrying on to an End the whole 
Work, with all that shall be implied by him so far 
as belongeth to his Art and Trade of a Millwright; as also to 
give his best advice about the Uam, or leveling the Ground, as 
the Town shall need him, and this to be done as soon as con- 
veniently he can ; and the Town promiseth to help him with 
Work in part of his pay as he needs it, so many Day's Work 



as he WDtks at llie Alill; ciimnion Laborers at two shillings Ijy 
the Day and Carpenlrrs at 2s. 6il. the Day. * * * Item. 
The Town agreed to send some men forth upon tlie Discovery, 
to see if they can find any suitable Stones for Millstones." 

Even this agreement, it seems, was not sufficient to secure 
the erection of the mill, which must have been a great under- 
taking for the little community. Under date of August 24^ 
1670, appears this record : 

" The Town at length Made a full agreement with Mr. Robt. 
Treat and Serg't Rich'd Harrison about the Building and Main- 
taining of a .Sufticient Corn Mill, to be set upon the Little Ijrook 
Called the Mill Brook, with suitable Necessary's, and making 
the Damns, and all other Provisions Needful for and I5elonging 
to the sd Mill," &c., ^:c., l\;c. 

and under Lock and I-Cey." Thus was established, upon 
" Little Brook." whicli as long as it e.xisted bore the name of 
"Mill Brook," the first nianufactuiing mdustry of the little 
town, the forerunner, as will be seen, of multitudinous manu- 
factures which were ultimately to convert the little agricultural 
hamlet into a great manufacturing city. 

The early fame of the town, however, rested upon tin 
quantity and quality of the cider made and sold by the good 
people. Only seven years after the first settlement, Deputy- 
('■overnor Kudyard wrote to a friend in London : " At a ])lace 
called Newark, 7 or 8 miles from here, is made great quantities 
of Cyder exceeding any we can have from New England or 
Rhode Island or Long Island." The following year another 
correspondent wrote, " They made abundance of good Cyder, 


Under this last agreement the great work (jf huildmg the mill 
was at last accomplished, and the mill was in operation the 
following spring, as appears by an enir) in the town recorils. 
under date of May 23, 1671 : 

" Item. Its agreed that the 2nd day of the week and the 6th 
day of the same week and the Next Days if the Town Need, 
and the Work Cannot be well done on those days that are 
appointed and agreed upon by the Town Meeting and the 
Owners of the Mill to be their Grinding days, upon which d.iys 
the Miller is to attend his Grinding, and the Town are to 
bring tlieir Grist, and the Miller promiseth to do his * * * 
* * * as for Himself secure the same until it Be enclosed 

especially at one town called Newark, which is esteemed at 
New York and otiier pl.ices, that it is sold beyond any that 
comes from New England." 

But the grist-mill and cider-mill did nut long suffice to satisfy 
the enterprise of the worthy Newarkers. In 16S0. a shoemaker, 
Samuel Whitehead by name, had been permitted to settle in 
the town, '■ provided he will supply the Town with Shoes, tho' 
for the present we known not of any I'lace of Land convenient." 
The leather he used was all brought from a distance, or tanneil 
rudely at home, and this did not long suit the thrift and pruil- 
ence of the citizens. Azariah Crane desired to establish a tan- 
yard in the town, and succeeded in obtaining permission to do 



so in 1698, this subject coining, as did all olliers. iDefore the 
town meeting, and being passed upon by the votes of all the 
citizens. It is recorded, under ilate of April 19, 169S, that " It 
is voted that Tlionias Hayse. Joseph Harrison, Jasper Crane 
and Matthew Canfield shall view whether Azariali Crane may 
have Land for a Tan-Yard, at the Front of John Plum's home 
Lott, out of the Common ; and in case the Men above-men- 
tioned agree that Azariah Crane shall have the Land, he, the 
said Azariah Crane, shall enjoy it so long as he doth follow the 
trade of Tanning." 

Az.-uiah got his land and his tannery was established at once, 
and the trade in leather and shoes was thus early established on 
a firm foundalion. Its growth was necessarily slow, but it was 

Never, perhaps, were pioneers better equippeil to establish a 
permanent anil prosperous settlement than these pious founders 
of Newark. Not with mechanical appliances to make labor 
easy or dispense wiili it alltogether, or with wealth to |)urchase 
the Labor of others, but with those strong manly (|ualities which 
insure, because (hey conquer, success. Health, energy, courage, 
industry, patience, perseverance ; with these qualities failure is 
'mpossible, success a certainty. It adds to the glory of these 
men, that although their religious feelings were deep and strong, 
and their religious jirejudlce no doubt intense, yet they either 
knew not or had overcome the passion for persecution. While 
they required every one desiring to join their colony to subscribe 
to their '• fundamental agreements," yet they sought to punish 


Steady and sure, and ere long it became the staple industry of 
the town. 

There were not wanting other craftsmen in the town sufficient 
to supply the immediate necessities of an agricultural com- 
munity. Thomas Pierson and Benjamin Baldwin were weavers, 
John Ward was a " Turner," which no doubt included cabinet- 
making and joining ; many, indeed, of the original settlers 
joining some handicraft to their agricultural pursuits. All the 
casks and barrels, for the cider made in the town, seem to have 
been made by the planters themselves, and so great was the 
demand for them, that as early as 1669, it was necessary to pro- 
hibit their sale e.\cept " for the use of the Town." This, by the 
way, was doubtless the eariliest embargo laid in any of the 

no one for refusing. And they provided in .-ulvance that where 
the conduct or outspoken opinions of any settler should offend 
the community, there should be no persecution, pains or penal- 
ties, but simply that the offender sliould be paid a fair price for 
his lands and remove from the community, with whom he was 
not and never could be in sympathy or accord. This was not, 
of course, absolute freedom of opinion or of religion, but for 
those times and circumstances, it was a great liberality, as 
unusual as it was enlightened. Material prosperity could 
scarcely fail to wait upon men possessed of the strong qualities, 
the conservative principles, the moderate teinpers which dis- 
tinguished and ennobled the pioneers of this plantation. And 
there is every evidence that from the begiuning the settlement 
was prosperous. 



It is impossible to trace the growth of tlie industries of the 
infant town, as no record seems to have l)een kept of 
their progress or increase, and no tigmes are availalile luitil 
ihe United States census of 1810, from wliich a statement 
was compiled under the direction of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, showing the various industries of the comity and their 
output, as follows : 

It will be seen from this table that the boot and shoe industry 
was then, as it has been for many years, easily chief in the 
county, and justified the draftsman of the map of Newark, pub- 
lished in 1806, who drew the elTigy of a shoemaker in one 
corner of his map. According to his statement, "one-third of 
the inhabitants are const.inlly employed in the manufacture of 
boots and shoes." 










lilended and unnamed Cloths and Stuffs. . 

Woolen Goods hi families 

Lot uns. . . - 

Caiding Macliines 

Fiilling Mills 

Drawing and Roving Machines 


Fur Hats 

liiast and Air Furnaces 

IHoomeries . . 

Nailei ies 

Large Screw, Steel Springs, etc 

Tin Plate Works 

Tallow Candles 

Plating Manufactories 


Leathers, unnamed 

I'.oois, Shoes and Slippers 

Flix-^eed Oil 




I'aper Mills 




No. of 



201,836 yds. I 
43,000 " j 

26, r 50 j 

324 tons 
eoj " I 

31,3^0 lbs. 

1 8, 800 
307.310 gal. 
I 17,600 " 



78,480 00 

3.338 00 

3,1 36 00 
15,000 00 




1 8,800.00 





The next opportunity for observing the industrial i^rowih of 
the town, is found in the town census taken in 1826, by Isaac 
Nichols, assessor. He reports the number of industries and 
the industrial population as follows: 

Three Iron and Brass Founderies, twelve workmen ; one 
Cotton Factory, six workmen ; three Tin and Sheet ]von Fact- 
ories, nine workmen ; one Coach Spring Factory, ten workmen ; 
one Chocolate and Mustard Factory, eight workmen ; one 
Tobacco Factory, thirteen workmen ; one Looking-glass 
Factorv. four workmen ; one Soap and Candle Factory, four 
workmen ; one Eastern Pottery, three workmen ; one Rope 
Walk, two workmen. 

Besides these, three Distilleries, two Breweries and two Grist 
Mills. The number of hands employed not given. 

All those emploved in trades and other branches are enumer- 
ated as follows : 

Shoe-makers, 685; Carriage-makers, 64 ; Carriage-trimmers. 
48 ; Carriage-painters, 21 ; Carriage-smiths, 77 ; Carpenters, 89 : 
Chair-makers, 79; Hatters, 70; Curriers, 61; Sadfllers, 57; 


Common Council. The rapid growth of the tow n in th 
ceeding ten years, was shown l)y the enumeration of the popu- 
lation at this census, at ig.732, an increase of almost 1 50 per 
cent. In connection with this census, Dr. Jabez G. Goljle pre- 
pared the following exhibit of the industries of the city, number 
employed, and value of product, which he says, " it is believcfl 
to be essentially correct," and "will exiiibit a general view of 
the business of the city, the greater portion of wliich consists 
of its own manufactured articles." 

rSoot and Shoe Manufacturers, 754, §1,523,000. This branch 
of trade has always been very extensive; Hat Manufacturers, 
6to, $1,055,000; Carriages of every description omnibuses, 
railroad cars, &c., 897, $1,002,000. Some of these establish- 
ments are very large; Saddles, harness, whips, .X:c., 590, 
$885,500; Clothing business — manufactured for southern 
markets, 1,591, $840,000 ; Tanning and Currying, 150, $899,200. 


Masons, 46 ; Coach Lace Weavers, 
36; Cabinet-makers, 35; Tailors, 35; 
Jewelers, 22; lilacksmiths, 19; Plane- 
makers, 17 ; Tanners, 17; Silver Plat- 
ers, 1 5 ; Bakers, i 5 ; Carters, I 2 ; Sad- 
dle-Tree-makers, 12; House Painters 
and Glaziers, 10 ; Wagon-workers, 8 ; 
Trunk-makers, 7; Coopers. 7 ; Stone- 
cutters, 6 : I.ast-niakers, 6; Ikitchers, 
5: I'ldugh-makers, 4; Pmnp-makers. 
I; Morocco Dressers, 3; P>rush- 
makers, 3; Gunsmitlis, 2 ; Watch and 
Clock Makers, 2 ; Tallow Chandlers, 
I ; Lock-makers, 1 ; Printers, 7. 

Mr. Nichols enumerated the popul.i- 
lion of the town as S,ot7, and it will 
be seen from this table that .ibout 
1.700, o]- mo)f than twenty per cent of 
the whole number were actively en- 
gaged in manual labor, speaking well 
for the industry and thrift of the com- 

In 1S36, the year of the incorpor- 
ation of the town as a city, a census taken by the direction of the 


(VIJUS CCKkll-.K (111' 

The ])rincipal portion of this business is done in the swamps in 
Market .Street ; Coach-axles springs, door-locks, brass mount- 
ings, S;c.. 220. $250,000; Coach-lace, tassels, fringe, iS:c., 112, 
$So,ooo; Oil-silk, patent leather, malleable iron, every variety 
of casting used by coach-makers, machinists, &c , 125, §225,060. 
The collection consists of more than 1 ,o<io plain and orna- 
mental patterns now in use; Cabinet-makers, [45, $iSo,ooo; 
Jewelry-makers, 100, $225,000 ; Trunk and Chair-makers, 106. 
$90,000; SiUerplating. too, $100,000 ; Sash and Blind-makers, 
107, $70,000; Coal trade, $200,000. This business lias been 
extensive the past year. All other manufacturers, comprising 
many different branches, m.iy be fairly estimated at $500,000, 
making a total value of !|;8,i 24.790. 

In 1861, the v.ilue nf the manufactured products of the city 
had swelled to the sum of over $23. 000.000. The Civil War 
scarcely interrupted the industrial activity and prosperity of tlie 



city, which was kept busy 
(luring the entire period of 
its continuance, in manufact- 
uring for the Union armies, 
small arms, accoutrements, 
saddlery, harness, clothing, 
iXc, &c. But the close of 
the war witnessed a wonder- 
ful increase of prosperity, and 
the growth of the city's man- 
ufactures was marvelous, 
both in volume and variety. 

So vast and varied became 
the products of the city, 
that the idea occured to A. 
M. Holbrook and a few- 
other enterprising and far- 
sighteil citizens, of still 
further advancing the city's 
business and manufacturing 
interests, by giving an exhi- 
bition of all its varied manu- 
factured products. After an 
agitation lasting some time, 




the iilc-a finally crystallized into action, and the " Industrial 
Exhihition " was opened in the old Rink building-, on Washing- 
ton Street, on August 20, 1872. The exhibit was confined 
entirely to goods of Newark manufacture, and proved a com- 
plete triumph for its projectors. .Six hundinl ami ten exhibitors 
were re|)resentrd, .dthough no premiums been offered and 
no extra inducements held out to ]irevail upon them to exhibit 
their products. The exhibit was a complete srn-prise, not only 
to the city itself, but to the entire country. Visitors came 
from far and near, and the President of the Unitetl States him- 
self, honored the exhiliiiion wiih his presence and praise. Other 
dignitaries followed in his tr.iin. .and no less than 130,000 citizens 
thronged through its gates during the fifty-two days they were 
kept open. 

in wa.ges, $26,857,170; Value of materials used in the manu- 
facturhig establishments located in Newark, $46,020,536. The 
a,ggregate value of all variety of manufactured goods produced 
yearly by our factories and workshops is $93,476,652. 

The manufacture of leather has, at all times, ranked as one 
of the leading industries of the city, and still holds a leading 
position among our important manufacturing interests. 

Up to 1880, the output of leather of all kinds, patent, 
enameled, tanned and curried, entitled the city to rank first 
among the cities of the Nation, in the value of finished products. 
That we still remain first in this great industry, wdl be seen 
from the figures enumerated from the census returns of 1890. 
Engaged in this branch of industry, there are forty-nine 
establishments, with a capital of $4,815,625, producing goods 


In spite of financial depressions and commercial panics, the 
city has continued, with but slight interruption, to enlarge its 
industrial borders and multiph its products during the past 
twenty-five years since the holding of the Industrial Exhibition, 
which was, in 1872, its wonder and its boast. 

As the best means of briefly presenting a review of the lead- 
ing branches of manufactures located in the city of New.irk, 
the following succinct statement embodying the principal det.iils 
of each, has been prepared by the Board of Trade, from which 
an idea of their relative importance can be obtained at a glance. 

The census taken in 1890 reports in totals the number of 
establishments engaged in manufactures in the city of Newark 
as 2,490; Cajiital invested in manufacturing. $72,675,782; 
Mechanics and artisans employed, 46,848 ; Total amount paid 

annually to the value of $8,001,638, employing 2,413 hands, and 
paying $1,599,578 wages yearly. 

Our brewing interests employ a capital of $5,490,473, .giving 
work to 927 men, |)aying in wages $955,395, and turning out 
products annually to a value of $6,901,297. 

The manufacture of jewelry is cairied on extensively in the 
city. The seventy jewelry and four watch-case establishments 
h.ive a combined capital of $4,591,372, employ 2,280 hands, 
whose .iniui.d wages amount to !ji, 598. 288, and by their com- 
bined efforts, goods valued at $5,636,084 are produced. The 
artistic merit and workmanship of the jewelry manufactured in 
Newark have won a reputation for this branch of our industry 
et|ual to the best. 

For more than half a century, the hatshops of our city have 




r - 

<^ m' 



■^ 1^ 





tuiiiLil out yearly, goods 
valued ;it more than 
$2,000,000. The report 
for 1890 enumerates a 
total of fifty eslablish- 
meiits in this branch of 
industry, employing a 
capital of $1,808,444, furn- 
ishing employment to 
3,079 Iiands, paying in 
wages $1,542,082. and 
turning out a total product 
valued at $3,719,264. 

No branch of industry 
is of more importance to 
the growth and progress 
of manufacturing in a 
city, than its machine 
shops and foundries. It 
is of vast importance to 
be able to have within 
call men skilled in mech- 
anism, and to this advan- 
tage can be attributed one 


J -^W^ 



of the primary reasons that lias induced manufacturers to locate 
in Newark. It is hardly saying too much when we claim that 
in the seventy-four machine shops and foundries operating in 
our city, are to be found among the 2,276 artisans and 
mechanics, men whose craft and skill can produce any piece of 
machinery, no matter how intricate, that may be required. 
The capital invested in this, the fifth largest manufacturing 
interest in the city, is $3 724.303. Total amount of wages paid 
yearly, $1,418,646, and the value of the finished product for the 
same period, for the year 1890, was $2,360,248. 

The manufacture of boots and shoes began with the founding 
of the town, and has grown in proportion with its growth. ()ur 
early records show that, in this line of trade, we had achieved 
considerable renown. 

We have not lost any prestige, but with steady strides, our 
manufacturers have extended their trade and reputation. 

The names of Banister, Johnston X: Murphy, P. Hogan, 
Boyden. Miller lK: Ober, and others of our manufacturers, are 


limsh of their 

sufficient guarantee for tlie workmanship and 
goods among the trade in every section. 

In all branches there are 120 establishments whose combined 
capital amounts to $1,466,481, giving work to 2,059 hands, pay- 
ing annually in wages $1,042,177, and |)roducing yearly, 
$2,472,618 in finished product. 

A leading industry in all centres of population is the clothing 
interest. With Newark it is a specially important one — manu- 
facturing, as we do, all variety of women's and men's wear for 
home consumption and trade. A steady increase in the volume 
of business done yearly during the past decade, indicates its 
development. There are 275 firms and individuals engaged in 
the several lines, having a total capital invested, amounting to 
$2,354,296, employing 3,347 male and female operatives, whose 
wages aggregate $1,338,503, the finished products having a 
value of $3,847,656. 

In the hardware industry, including saddlei'y h.irdware and 
other branches, there are tifly-lhiee est.iblishmenis. whose 


capital aniounls 10 !j;2.o55.45o, turning out .1 
\ early [iroduct of $2,154,085, paying in 
wages to 1,579 Iiands, the sum of $835,272. 

Newark has fourteen plants for the manu- 
facture of trunks and valises, employing a 
capital amounting to $1,339,050, paying in 
wages $666,730, to 1263 operatives; the total 
yearly products amounting to $1,774,1 13. 

The manufacture of varnish has, from a 
cduiparatively small interest, whose yearly 
pro<liict in i860 was $347,000, assumed a 
veiv imporlanl rank in the list of leading 
industries to be found in Newark. In the 
year given, the capital invested amounted to 
$1 55.000, employing twenty-four men. The 
relurns for the year 1890, show eighteen 
firms, with a working capital of $2,209,733^ 
em])loying 196 workmen, jiaying $226,557 in 
wages, consuming materials to the value of 
$848,841, in the productions of finished 
protlucts valued at $1,887,161. 

Fine coach and carriage harness has been 
one of the leading features among the varied 




industries of tliis city of manufacturers for several decades. 
Steady progress mail<s its history. The census taken in 1890. 
returiLS the total output of finished products at $1,323,635. 
There are forty-two workshops, having a total capital invested 
of $720,854, and giving employment to 755 workers, whose 
wages amount annually to $471,575. 

The manufacture of celluloid is peculiarly a Newark industrv. 
Here the inventor of this valuable article of commerce lived and 
worked. From a crude beginning, its manufacture has assumed 
vast proportions. Limited to a few articles for personal and 
household use in its early history, its scope has broadened to 
such an extent that to enumerate the list of articles and uses to 
which it is now adapted, would fill a volume. This industry, 
with its three \ast plants, taking in several city sciuares. gives 
employment to 659 hands, paying annually to them §397,977. 
The large capital nivestcd 111 its nianufai ture in Newark, 

A centre of manufactures is the natural home of the chemica' 
industry, and in this respect Newark can claim her fair share of 
the industry. We have ten plants, whose combined capital 
amounts to $1,446,137, furnishing labor to 411 men, and paying 
in wages, each twelve months, $271,741. The product of these 
ten establishments swells the total value of the manufactures of 
the city by the sum of $2,236,117, an item in the business 
economy of the city that counts for a great deal. 

Another large industry will be found in the corset establish- 
ments located in this city. There are eleven workshops manu- 
facturing corsets, employing 1.6S9 hands, whose pay-roll foots 
up yearly $521,033. The capital invested is $690,536, and the 
product amounts to $i,29f,432 annually. 

The slaughtering and meat packing branch of commerce is 
a large and growing one, with fourteen establishments carrying 
nn the business done. Their combined capital amounts to 


§1.919,818, will convey an idea of its iinporlnncc. as well as the 
annu.d value of the goods made, which in 1890 amounted to 

$1.721, 773- 

As an evidence of a city's progress, .a review or of 
its building industries will be fovmd a valued and accurate 
census of the whole. It is gratifying to note the steadv increase 
shown in this resiiect with reference to Newark, indicating, 
as it does most positively, the rapid strides the city has made 
during the past decade. 

The working capital employed by the capenlcring and 
masom-y br.anches and plumbing trades, according to the last 
census returns, is $2,921,402. This capital represents a tot.d of 
357 firms or individuals who furnish employment to 4.403 
mechanics and tradesmen, paying annually in w.iges the 
magnificent sum of $3,401,735, the result of their combined 
labor being the iiroduction of property, yearly, to the value of 

$594,500, and the annual product is valued at §3-666,696. The 
business, up to a few years since, was confined principally in 
furnishing the supply necessary for home consumption. With- 
in the last few years the ham and bacon of Newark make, 
bearing the brand of " I5ailey " "Joy" and others have become 
celebrated, and a steadv demand has been created. 

Four iron and steel manufacturing jilants produce, yearly, a 
linished product valued at $1.245426. The direct cajiital in- 
vested in this industry is $1,394,363. Employment is given to 
508 operatives, both skilled and unskilled, and $316,137 is paid 
.innually in wages. 

The extensive |ilanls ioc.ited upon the west bank of tl'je 
r.issaic river are an evidence of the steady increase of business 
in the lumber trade of the citw The \i)lume of business done, 
nothwilhstanding the serious depression of the past three years, 
testifies to the importance of this branch of the city's commerce. 
An a\erage of 664 carloads arrived by rail monthly, a total for 



^~- '"lf?l(jil'** 



the year of 2,650 cars, as follows: \'ia the Pennsylvania, 1.232 
cars; the New Jersey Central, 452: the Delaware Lacka- 
wanna and Western, 420; Erie, 252; Lehigh Valley, 200. 
The receipts by water shipment, of which no record has been 
made, is greatly in excess of what arrives by rail. In all. 
there are twenty yards, employing a total capital of §684,181, 
paying in wages to 483 employees, §339,897, and handling 
annually products valued at §1,123,087. 

Among other large industries that give to Newark its reputa- 
tion as a centre for manufacturers, might be named a few 
whose magnificent plants, would, if located in some less fravored 
city, give to it a prominence in itself. .Such establishments as 


the Balbach .Smelling and Refining Company, at whose works 
are turned out yearly, bullion and ores to the value of from 
twelve to fifteen million dollars ; the Clark Thread Company, 
employing a capital of more than §5.000,000, furnishing work 
to upwards of 1,800 employees; the New Jersey Zinc & Iron 
Company ; the Lister Agricultural Works, with a capital of 
§1,000,000. producing fertilizers, etc., to the value yearly of 

In all there are 201 distinct classes of manufacturers located 
here, with a total of 2,490 establishments, divided into groups 
comprising the various trades, as shown in the table compiled 
by the Census Bureau at Washington, from the returns received 

for the year 1S90. The subject of a "Greater Newark," is engaging the 

attention of many able and far-seeing men who believe that the consolidation 

of our city with adjacent cities and towns under one municipal government 

would increase the prosperity of all the inhabitants. The change, when 

made, should embrace all the territory including Jersey City on the east, the 

Oranges on the west, 

Paterson on the north 

•nul Elizabeth on the 


Such a district carefully 

tilled up with a variety of 

industries would become 

distinguished as the most 

advanced and prosperous. 

for manufacturing pro- 
ducts, in the nation. The 

localities are so numerous 

and well chosen, and 

easily adapted to sanitary 

conduct o f large and 

profitable production, and 

the close contiguity to 

the largest markets of the 

world over its highways 

of tide-water and sea, 

that at a glance the most 

casual observer cannot 

fail to see Newark's great 

advantage. josei'h i;ali)uin, (ueceased.) 




NEWyXRK has become notrd in 
all the marts of trade for tin- 
numerous industries carried on 
within the city. The manufacture 
of Britannia ware is an ancient 
trade and a useful one to man\' 
other professions. The illustration 
shown on this paj^e represents one 
of the oldest conducted Britannia 
plants in Essex County, now 
carried on successfully tsy the sons 
of the original foiuider. The pres- 
ent industry under consideration, 
was conuiienced in an humble way 
by Mr. Fred. F'inter, in 1S50, .uid 
is now ably conducted by his sons 
Frederick H. and Robert Fintcr. 
whose life-like photos appear .nnoni; 
the illustrations, with of their 
lionored father. 

The plant is located cor. Th<inias 
anil Goble Streets, about si.K blocks 

below Chestnut .Street, on the east side of the I'cnn. K. K. 
For nearly half a century the lirni been m.uiuf.ictutiiiL; 
and shipping; to all sections of the country, Britaiuiia ware and 
glass trimmings of every description, for gl.iss manuf.icturers. 
chemists, perfumers and ilruggists. The plant is admir,d)lv 
titled up with every improvement to meet the rei|uiremrnts of 
the constantly increasing business, and the firm endeavors to 
merit the confidence of their patrons by shipping the very best 
goods on the most reasonable terms. A complete siher and 
nickel plating department has recently been added to the pi. ml, 
enabling the firm to supply the trade with goods made from 
hard or common metal silver or nickel plateil at the lowest 


prices, and castings of white Britannia or hard metal are made 
for parlies doing their own turning or having their own moulds. 
The iiroducts consist of sprinklers for licjuid or powder, bitter 
tubes, bottle caps, mustard, pepper and salt tops, ink-well 
covers, syringe caps and fittings, mucilage caps, metal valves 
for atomizers and syringers. The firm have a specialty in 
bottle stop|)ers, and make to order moulds from drawings or 
explanations. Their trade extends to New York. Philadelphia, 
Boston. St. Louis. ISaltimore, Chicago, and in fact, to all the 
princip.d cities in the United Sl.iles and Canada. Finter and 
Brother are young and energetic business men. who are experts 
in the Britannia industry and worthy representatives of their trade. 


Works of finikr broiukks, cornkk riioM.\s and (joislk stkkkts. 




THK plant which forms tlie illustration presented on tliis page, 
stands prominently among the industries which have con- 
tributed to make Newark famous the world over. In calling 
attention to some of the numerous industrial pursuits which arc 
successfully conducted in the city, there are few that have 
achieved greater success than the Newark Watch Case Material 
Co. This result, in a large degree, is due to the push and 
enterprise of Alexander Milne, the founder of the stem-wimling 
attachment now in general use on American made walciies. 

The stem winding apparatus which takes the place of the 
old obsolete key in every American made watch, is turned 
out of Newark factories. It is not surprising that Newark 
should hold the industrv of walch case material manufacturing. 

are not averse to purchasing the surplus from Newark's watch 
case material manufactures, which carries w-ith it in the trade- 
mark it bears, the very highest qualities of perfection. 

I'rior to 1874, when this company had commenced to manu- 
facture these articles, they were all imported direct from the 
.Swiss manufacturers, as all stem-winding watches were made in 
that country. The president, Alexander Milne, of this company- 
being a jeweler, and wide .iwake and alert, saw the opportunity 
to start the business here. His lirst move was to associate 
himself with a Swiss who some practical experience in the 
watch case line. The necessary tools and costly machinery, 
which were indispensable adjuncts, were soon collected, and it 
was not very long before the case makers were purchasing their 
stem-winding crowns and other m-cissarv material right here at 


when she has in the thousands of her happy homes, the skilled 
artisans domiciled so necessary to run the machinery, and 
whose skilled hands handle the tools. It is passing strange too. 
that the writer shoukl have the opportunity of recording the 
fact, that almost the entire product of the watch case material 
is used up on this side of the ocean, and that the factories 
engaged in this work are concentrated within the corporation 
liinits of the city of New-ark, and it naturally follows, and as a 
matter of course becomes very much of an item, in the grand 
intregal part of the whole of her manufacturing greatness. 

While the output of this great industrial establishment is 
consumed very largely right here at home, each one of the 
many necessary little articles having some absolute qualification 
for meeting certain ends in the successful conduct of the sister 
industry of watch case makmg, yet other centres of industry 

There was no more going abroail. for the progressive spirit 
of a thorough-going Newark mechanic had maile it unnecessary, 
through his genius applied. Although the beginnings were 
sinall, less than a half dozen men being employed, yet the 
growth of the industry has been phenomenal, and the company 
now have in their employ nearly one hundred skilled mechanics. 

In the person of W. S. Richardson, the treasurer of the 
company. President Milne has a helpmeet indeed. His clear, 
keen eye takes in at a glance every move of man or machine, 
and his excellent judgment gives warrant of successful manage- 
ment and the best results. It is plainly due to the efforts of 
this company, and especially to President Milne and Treasurer 
Richardson, that Newark has become the centre of the 
watch case manufacturing industry of America. Fur years 
they have persistently championed the cause. 




NEWARK as it is. gives very few points to 
show what it lias been, it ijeinjj very largely 
the grou-th of the last fifty years. Still there are a 
few buildings standing that go back in their history 
to colonial times, and give a fair representation of 
the taste and ability of their age. .At time 
very little aid was had from trained architectural 
work, and the pretentious buildings of that period, 
and in fact, for a long time after, were the work of 
skilled car])enters or masons, ''iieat credit is (Jue 
them for what they achieved, and as history repeats 
itself, so architecture returns once and again to the 
best and most retlnetl works of other times. We 
are only sorry that this spirit and taste does not 
always hold true, for there came a time in the 
history of our city when utility and the almighty 
dollar became dominant, and lu this is due the 
sameness and lack of beauty of a large |5art of our 
city. We are only sorry that the substantiality of 
the work was not as bad as the taste; in that case 
we might hope for a new outlit for so prominent a 
place as the ( urner of Maiket ami iJroad Streets, 
(or instance. IJut to such training as this can be 
traced the found.ition for the exceptional ability of the building 
trades of the city of Newark. Her architects are the ec|uals of 
any. her building firms have an unrivalletl re|)utation. both at 
home and abroad. The fact that almost all of the work done 
is by contract, |)roves their fairness and reliability. 

On this page the illustrations represent the old and time 
honored industry of .Mr. Charles iM. Russell, located at Nos. 38 
and 40 Crawford Street. Mr. Russell, the proprietor, is the 
successor to the firm of I'tussell X: Sayre, whose business was 
esttiblished in 1876, and continued uninterrupted until 1891, 
when this successful partnership was dissolved, Mr. Sayre retir- 
ing to enter other business. In this factory can be seen 






^ #&v 











the machinery that enables the modest house of to-day, to be 
finished far better than costly niansionsoftimesgone by. Almost 
everything in the building trade is here produced, work is given 
to a large force of men, and the facilities for trades, etc., equal 
to any other. 

In addition to the necessary machine work for their own busi- 
ness, they do all kinds of mill work, sash, blinds, doors, mould- 
ings, etc., for the trade. Personal attention is given to every 
part of the work, and a specialty is made of odd furniture, glass 
fittings, etc. At the corner of Kinney and Washington Streets 
is the lumber yard anne.x of this lusiness, where an assortment 
of everything for the retail trade is kept. 

Mr. Russell is a practical mechanic himself, a native of 
]\Iorris County; he came to this citv at the age of 17. was an 
apprentice in the shop of Mr. K/ra Reeves. Mr. E. R. Carhuff 
being foreman at the time. Just after completing his apprentice- 
ship, he with some half dozen others of the same shop enlisted 
in the service of his country. Mr. Russell joined the old city 
battalion, and spent some time drilling in the old burying 
ground under Captain Kinney. He was finally mustered into 
Co. K, Second Regiment. New Jersey Volunteers. After an 
honorable term of three years service, the survivorsof this regiment 
were mustered out. Mr. Russell resumed his trade. and aftersev- 
eral years was taken in as partner by his old employer, Mr. Ezra 
I'ieeve. After entering into business with his ne|)hew, Mr. 
Sayre. as liefore stated, extended their work to all [larts of the 
city and country. Several fine churches and many of the finest 
residences were erected by them. Mr. Russell is a member of 
Ciarhcld Post, C. A. K., is one who takes a great interest in the 
welfare of the city, having faithfully represented his ward in 
the Board of Education. 

The career of such a man is but a representation of what our 
.-\merican citizenship can do for those who are energetic and 
enterprising. The art of building is the oldest of all arts, and 
while, perhaps, not as honorable as some of its sister arts, yet 
it is fully as imporiant. The spirit of architecture has shaped 
the destiny of nations; with its advance we may see the 
growth and increasing wealth of every nation that fostered it, 
with its decline how quick the fall. It is largely educational. 
A mind growing in an environment of taste and refinement will 
become an intelli"ent citizen. 





H.-VRNESS and saddlery manufacture in Newark, allhough 
of niagnificenL proportions and volume, is not at the 
present day, in this respect, equal to the days previous to, during, 
and a few years after the war. In those palmy days New York 
city was the great head centre for merchants from all parts of 
the land, and Newark its great workshop. The Southern 
markets were the acme of all Northern merchants, the West a 
good fill-in, but a side issue. Cotton was King. To-day, how 
changed ; while the productions in bulk, in the above lines, fail 
seriouslv to reach former days, still the quality and variety 

none with 

have materially improved, keeping pace with all advanced ideas, 
that the money value of its productions no doubt e.\ceed those 
of old-fashioned times, and Newaik still maintains its lead and 
reputation as the great head centre for fine harness and saddlery. 
Among those of its manufacturers whose productions rank 
in the very hightest order of excellence, may be mentioned the 
the firm of N. J. Demarest & Co. The portraits of Mr. N. J. 
Demaresl and son Daniel Demarest, and their factory on New 
Jersey Railroad Avenue, Lafayette and Bruen Streets are given 
herewith. It is with pardonable pride that we are permitted to 
speak in words ofVommendation of our many industries, and of 
more pleasure 


than the manufacture of 
harness and saddlery and its 
highly respected representa- 
tives, Messrs. Demarest & 
Co., who are now among 
the patriarchs of the business 
yet full of that young fire, 
energy and ambition that 
never dies in the good busi- 
ness man. During the 
Franco-Prussian war, among 
other important contracts for 
the same purpose, this firm 
made and delivered artillery 
harness complete for four 
thousand horses, in eleven 
working days. This is a 
fair sample of the " push '' 
that exists in this city of 
workshops, which has be- 
come noted as the Birming- 
ham of America. 





ELIAS Heller, Senior, started the manufacture of files antl 
rasps, by all hand work, in Newark in 1S36, the trade 
lu-ing entirely with the ronsuniers of the city and live surround- 
u\g towns. The ]).inir of 1838 having compelled him to give 
up his business in Newark, he reiiioved to West Orange, but 
owing to the remoteness of this place as a business centre, and 
the inability to increase the business to any extent while dealing 
with the consumers e.xclusively, very little, if any, progress was 
made until 1866, when his three oldest sons, Elias G., I'eter J. 
and Lewis B. took hold of the business and loi ated at the 
corner of Mechanic and W.ird Streets, Newark, and by their 
energy and push the business conuiienced to thrive. They at 
once sought to increase the business by soliciting trade from 
jobbers and dealers in the hardware trade through the L'nited 
States and Canada. 

Thus at first meeting with no end of opposition from both 
dealer and consumer, as they were prejudiced against American 
t'desand rasps, claiming tiiat home goods could not be made equal 

On account of poor health, Peter J. was compelled to retire 
from the firm in 1881, thus leaving entire charge of the business 
on the shoulders of Elias G., who sought assistance by taking 
his two other brothers George E. and John J. and his brother- 
in-law Ernest A. Geoffroy in the firm, all of whom had been in 
his em|)loy for many years previous, thus having a thorough 
knowledge of all the varied details of the business, and since 
then he has had the assistance of his two oldest sons, Paul 1 . 
and Arnaud G. 

In 18S4, owing to their great success with horse rasjjs, the\ 
imdertook the manufacture of a high grade of Farriers' tools 
and to-day can offer the most complete line on the market. 
The Heller & I'rothers brand of goods are considered thr 
standard, and are now sold in every city in the United States, 
as well as exported to Canada, Me_xico, England, Russki. 
Ciermany, Australia and other foreign countries. 

The most tiseful tool in the world is acknowledged to be tlu- 
file, and the ]5urposes to which it is adaptable, embrace not 
onlv the requirements of tlie skilled mechanic, but the wants ol 



to the English files and rasps, which at that time had the markets 
of this country, but by perseverence and hard work the firm 
began to prosper, as the consumers realized the fact that the 
Americans coidd make as good files and rasps ns the fMiglish 

In 1872, Lewis B. withdrew from the firm, and in 1S74. 
owing to their limited (juarlers thev removed to their plant on the 
N. Y. cS: G. L. R. R. corner of Mt. Prospect Avenue and 
Verona Avenue, Newark. With the new works and new and 
improved machinery the (|uality of the goods was still further 
improved, but owing to the fact that they were compelled to 
buy their steel, which at the best was not uniform, they did not 
get as good results as they wished for, as first-class uniform 
steel is one of the essentials in the manufacture of high-grade files 
and rasps, so in 1880, they erected a steel plant for the manufac- 
ture of steel for their own use, and now they get the best results 
obtainable in their line, as shown by their steady increase in 
trade and universal reputation. 

almost every individual inhabitant. In early days crude files 
were constructeil from the dried skin of a peculiar fish ; next 
they were made from copper and used in working" the soft 
metals ; iron was next substituted, and this was finally replaced 
by steel, which metal is unsurpassed for the purpose. At the 
jjresent time, fully ninety per cent of all the files consumed are 
not only cut, but entirely manufactured bv machinery. The file 
of the present day, made by machinery, surpasses in every 
respect those made by the old and less progressive method. 

Heller & Brothers manufacture every description of files and 
rasps, running in size from two to thirty inches, and in grade of 
cut, from twelve teeth to the inch, up to the number so large 
that the teeth become so fine that they are undetected by the 
naked eye, yet will withstand the most severe test. 

The birds-eye view of the works illustrating this page, was 
sketched by our fellow-townsman, C. Durand Chapman, the 
well known artist, and they speak volumes for the determina- 
tion, pluck and enterprise of Heller & Brothers. 





GETTING right down to solid facts, it will be found that 
among those industries which tend most to the main- 
tenance of the high character which Newark is celebrated for, 
in its buildings wherein is domiciled the capitalist and work- 
man alike, is that of door, sash and blind, frame, bracket and 
that of general light wood-working as also that of the factory 
buildings which rear their lofty heads far above their less pre- 
tentious neighbors. This branch of the wood working indus- 
tries carried on in this city, must needs take the lead of all 
others, so far at least as its output is designed for home con- 
sumption, unless we make an exception of the saw mill and 
carpentery. than to the former must be rightfully awarded the 
first place or real initiative, unless we are permitted to follow 
the woodman into the depths of the fnrest. to see him bury the 

bit of glittering steel into the giant oak, cloud-sweeping pine 
or deep-sighing hemlock. 

While there are nearly, or quite a hundred of great establish- 
ments where the buzz-saw and planers by the score are kept 
running like the flash of lightning, and where hundreds of men 
and boys are kept busy, yet there never seems to be an over 
supply. All the product from these great establishments 
which is not caught up and consumed by the home builders, 
finds a ready sale in the markets of the world, and indeed, 
quite a large percentage of the output goes direct from mills to 
shipboard for exportation. 

.Among the great concerns engaged in the manufacture of 
doors, door frames, window sash and frames, brackets, moldings, 
etc., is that of Engelberger & Barkhorn, who have their plant 
housed in the great buildings erected for the purpose on the 


corner of Howard and Mercer 
Streets, with warerooms at 305, 307 
and 309 Springfield .Avenue. The 
beautiful illustration here seen, gives 
but an introduction to what the con- 
cern in reality is. This industrial 
business was begun in the early 
fifties by the Augster Bros., they 
being succeeded by Engelberger & 
Barkhorn, as now constituted. It 
was in 188 1, a little more than a 
decade of years ago, when the 
young firm with a capital all told, 
of less than three thousand dollars. 
Hung their business banner to the 
breeze, and at this writing they 
^tand at the head of this industry. 
Ihe partners are Newarkers 
and men of standing. Mr. Engel- 
berger not only handles tlie plank 
himself, but sees to it that his 
workmen do their share, while Mr. 
Barkhorn keeps his eye on the 
ledger and bank account. 






EWAKK'S prosperity is based on tlie variety and extent of 
her manufacturing interests, and she is always ready to 
welcome every new enterprise which promises to add to lier in- 
dustrial fame. Her latest important acquisition is tin- wall- 
paper factory of the Cory-Heller Company, the only enterprise 
of this ciiaracter within her limits. This establishinent is 
situated in the beautiful suburb of Forest Hill, at No. 878 Mt. 
Prospect Avenue, and taking into consideration the convenience 
of its appointments, the perfection of its machinery and the 
excellence of its organization, it is by no means invidious to say, 
that in every detail of its ecjuipmcnt, it is better adapted to the 
production of paper-hangings, at the minimum of cost, than 
any other existing factory in the United States. 

In the first place, the factory building was erected especi.illy 
for the ]iurposes of the Corv-Heller Comjianw under the super- 
vision of its I'resident. Mr. J. Stewart Cory, and its Superinten- 
dent and Colorist. Mr. IJenjamin Hems, the long connection of 

floors, thus saving in the item of expense for handling. Run- 
ning the full length of the shipping floors, along the whole 
building, is a side track accomodating eight cars, which, aftci 
loading, may lie transferred to any railroad within the territory 
of the United States, (loods may also be shipped by way of 
the Passaic Ri\er to .ill points accessible by water. These 
transportation facilities are ecpialh as valuable for the reception 
of all to be used in the manufacture of the goods. 
The establishment is also in rapid communication with Newark 
by trolley cars, which run to its door. 

Mr. J. Stewart Cory, tlie President and General Manager of 
tlie Company, is widely and favorably known in the wall-paper 
business, witli every department of which he is thoroughly 
accpiainted. Mr. K. G. Heller, the Vice President, is a successful 
manufacturer, a man of large means, the senior partner in tin 
extensive business of Heller & Brothers, of Newark, file, steel 
,nid tool makers, and has long been iilentified prominently with 
public affairs. His sons Paul E. and Arnaud G.. who are 

WORKS OF THE CORY-H l-:i.I.Kli CO., ON N. Y. A G. L. R. R. ANIi M f. 


both of whom with the industry, and their practical knowledge 
of its commerci.d and technical details, ha\e m.ide them 
acknowledge authoiilies on .ill pertain to the business. 
In the construction of the building, therefore, no labor or ex- 
pense has been spared to perfect the arrangement of details 
in every branch of the establishment in order to meet the latest 
and most exacting re(|uirements of the trade. 

Take as an illustration the extreme length of the factory. It 
measures 355 feel from front to with a space of fourteen 
feet between floor and ceiling where the printing machines .ire 
in operation. No other wall-paper factory in this counliv has 
the advantage of such m.ignihcent distances. 

Still another .id\. Ullage is enjoved b\ the faclorv. the 
economic \alue of which can sc.ircely be ovcr-estim.ited. Its 
shijiping facilities by rail, water or truck, to remote or near-by 
markets, are sinqily perfect. It is situated on the main line of 
the Greenwood Lake Division of iheluie Railroad. The goods 
ready for distribution .ire conveyed by chutes to the shipping 

respectively Treasurer and Secretary of the company, have 
long been associ.iled with their father in his varied undertak- 
ings, and their natural abilities have been supplemented by 
.1 thorough schooling in substantial and honorable business 
enterprises. The Superintendent and Colorist. Mr. Benjamin 
Hems, also a member of the company, has spent all his work- 
ing life in this business. 

With ample money, perfect equipment and the ln-st 
and business organization, the Cory-Heller Co. is detrrmined 
to make a grade of goods well suited to the trade, .ind in time 
will no doubt prove to be a successful investment for the enter- 
prising men who have founded the industry here. The manu- 
f.icture of wall-paper is a business which calls for the utmost 
attention to details before a reputation can be achived, and is 
retained only by unrelaxed watchfulness. 

The illustration presented on this page gives an idea of this 
immense plant which adds a new industry to the numerous 
others which h.ive made the city of Newark so well noted. 




THIS concern whose factory we illustrate, is one of the 
oldest members of the shoe trade in New Jersey. It was 
established in November, iS66, by the late Patrick Hogan, and 
its career has been invariably charactized by the energy and 
sterling integrity of its management. Begining with very 
limited capital, the venture was a success from its incejition, 
and rapidly assumed a position as one of the foremost shoe 
manufacturing firms of the State. After successfully weather- 
ing the financial panic of 1S73, Patrick Hogan was forced to 
the wall by heavy and successive losses in iSSr. The creditors, 
realizing that the failure was due entirely to misfortune and that 

expanded until new and more conmiodiuus cpiarlcrs became a 
necessity, and accordingly the present tine building, i 50 x 40, 
four stories and a basement, was erected, and the fn-in took 
possession January 2, 1896. 

Mindful of his promise ma<le to his creditors, Patrick Hogan, 
iluring all this time was accumulating a fund that was to 
redeem that pledge, but overwork defeated his noble ambition, 
and after a short but painfull illness, he died on March 3, 
1S89, with the dying injunction to his children to rcdci-m his 

The story of that incident is still fresh in the ]iul)lic mind; 
hardly a child in New;irk but knows how Miss Hogan paid 


no taint of dishonesty attached to the house, very readily 
accepted a settlement of their claims on the basis of twenty per 
cent., and Patrick Hogan, with shattered health, but indomitable 
energy, set out to retrieve the past, and, as he had promised, to 
repay his creditors in full. In this effort he was most ably 
assisted by his daughter. Miss Elizabeth E. Hogan, and by his 
adopted son, George Higginson. the former in charge of the 
fitting room, the latter as general superintendent. 

The new firm was conducted under the name of E. E. Hogan. 
and continued ;it tlie old stand, 337 Plane Street. Success 
followed the new firm from the start ; the business rapidly 

forty thousand dollars to her dead father's creditors, in full 
settlement of all their claims, and how this act was hailed 
as a most extraordinary proof of the sterling integrity and 
rugged honesty of the Hogan family. The desired end having 
been accomplished, Mr. George Higginson, to whom in a great 
measure was due the success of the firm, .ind Mr, Matthew 
\V. Hogan became partners in the concern, under the name of 
the E. E. Hogan Shoe Manufacturing ^."ompany, which began 
business on July 15, tSSp, with a [laid-up capital of $60,000. 
Starting under such auspicious circumstances, it is hardly 
necessary to Say that the firm has been successful. They 



make a line cif wuiiicn's. misses', children's, boy's and youth's shoes 
which have a weU desei\ed reputation as lieing the Ijest wear- 
ing goods made in the country, at the (irices charged, and wliich 
are fully the ec|ual of any line of shoes for style and appearance. 
Active and energetic, fully ali\e to the requirements of the 
trade, the V.. I'., Hogan Shoe Company are always keenly alive 
to the possibilities, and are alwa\s .ibre.isl of the times. Their is fully equipped with all the latest and nii>st inqiroved 
machinery, including the Goodyear system, and their two 
hundred and fifty employees are kept constantly hustling to 
supplv the ever-increasing demand for the company's product. 
The spring season of 1896 was a record-breaker in the histor\' 


TIll'^ lower section of the city east of the I'ennsyhania Ivail is steadily aflvancing as a manufacturing centre. 
Here are situated many large industrial plants, located among 
ihem being the large iron foundry of Messrs. Maher Ov Flock- 
h.irt. corner of folk and Clover Streets. 

This firm had a \ery humble beginning. In May, 1882, they 
rented a small building on I'olk .Street, and with the assistance 
of one employee, commenced the manufacture of grey 
iion castings. lieing practical men and thoroughly con- with the foundrv business, they soon established a 

\\'i<\<Ks iir M.\iirR A tiMCMi.M^r, <i.\ ruiK siRKKr. 

of the house, as they turned out dining rnUrc pci iod. an 
average of v,6oo pairs |)er week, the greatest piddu(iioii of 
shoes, by far, e\er credited to a shoe manufactory m New 
Jersey. 'Iln- firm's product is sold through Xew Kngland .uid 
ihe Middle and Southern Slates, and as a |)roof of their (|u,ilily, 
il is only necessary lo say that they hnd a ready sale even in 
Boslon and l.\nn, the vei\ heart of the shoe industry of 
Massachusclts, The ollicers of the comp.inv ,iie the s.ime 
now (1S971 as ,it Ihe sl.ut : Ceorge Higginson. I'lrsidenl; 
M.itthew W. Hogan. Secretary; I-Ti/.abeth I',. Hogan, Treasuiir, 
and if indicalions count for anything, the concern is but just 
entering upon a c.ueei will surpass in activity .ind pKjs- 
perily anything that lluy ha\c \ et experienced. 

The illusti.ilion ]ires(nled on the preceding page. gi\es lo the 
reader some idea of ihe ca|)acity of this plant, which has con- 
uibuled in no sm.ill degree to the prosperity and good name 
of the City of New.irk. 

repul.ilion for linking he.i\y ,iiid light 111. ichinery castings tif a 
superior (piality. The result that their business increased 
lo such an cMent that e.ich year saw an addition to their plant, 
until every available foot of ground was occupied. 

In 1889 they purchased a large plot of land bounded by Polk 
and Clover .Streets and the New Jersey Central Railroad, upon 
w hi( h they t reded .1 brick building 80 x 200, with additional 
buildings for boiler .ind engine rooms and pattern shop, which 
forms the ilhislrations lurewilh gi\eii. In i8i;i they again 
found it necessary to increase their capacily, and erecteil a 
building 65 X 85 for the manufacture of li.ght castings exclusively. 
I hey employ o\er loo men, ihe m.ijoriU" of whom are skilled 
mech. lilies. I'leing progressive business men ,ind thorough 
mechanics, llieir foundry is ei|iiipped wilh the latest improved 
I iipolas, power cranes, and every appliance to facilitate the 
manufacture and handling of castings. A siding connects the 
works with the main line of the Central Railroad. 


1 '.).-, 



THE foundation of Newark s greatness as a nianiifactminj]; 
city was laid in tlie tanning of hides and the makinc;" of 
leather. From the lieginning, this industry has seemed to draw 
the most active and business-like men, as well as the thoroughly 
skilled mechanics and artisans around its, in many respects, 
uninviting e.xterior. The reason for this lies in the fact that the 
great incentive which draw men on — the rich results— were ever 
pi'esent. Whether the puritv of the water and high quality of 
the materials used has done its part, results alone can tell. The 
facts are before us that no set of men can make a better show- 
ing on the tax books of the assessor than ('.-m those eng.igeil in 
the manufacture of the great staple — leather. 

Among the nearly one hundred firms engaged in this branch 
among the thousands of Newark's teeming industries, is that of 
the H. 1'. Witzel Company, who carry it on e.xtensively in the 
capacious factory buildings, photographs of which grace this 

This factory was established in 1879, .ind now lu-en run- 

H. p. wrrzEL, 

ning most successfully for nr.nly a decade and a half of years. 
Mr. H. I"". Witzel, who honors the concern with his name, and 
is I'residenl of the company, is a thorough tanner, and takes 
pride in his art, never ceasing to labor for its exaltation by 
turning out the very finest leather human ingenuity can 
produce. Close application to business, deep study and pains- 
t.iking care has produced such results, which, when studied 
with care by others, redound to his credit and m.ake him 
an authority. 

tn I 889 Messrs. August l.oehnberg and Daniel Kanlhrrr were 
admitted as partners in the concern, and thus bringing to con- 
duct the intlustry, genius, talent ;ind busir.ess acumen which 
soon confirmed the promises which Mr. Witzel s;iw in the \nii- 
posed combination and enlargement. I!ut many a brilliant 
promise has been nipped in the bud. .ind so it proved to this 
firm when the apparent certainty of an early future of success in 
business was checked by fire, when on Dec. 25, 1S90. the entire 
plant was destroyed. Nothing daunted by this cataslro|)hy how- 
ever, the go-ahe<ad firm, which knew no such word as fail, set to 
work immediately to clear aw'ay the charred remains of the 
debris out of the energy of years of labor, and the con- 
struction of larger, better and more modern and convenient 
buildings in which to rebuild the sliii ken industry, and in a 
maiAclouslv short period of lime the womli-rfnlly capacious and 
convenient buildings now occupied li\ the firm, and which the 
]5hotogra|)her's artist has transferred so truthfully to 
pages, were ready to receive all the very latest and best im- 
proved labor and time-saving furniture .uul machinery necessary 
for carrying on the manufacture of leather. The fire took place 
on December 25, 1890, and the new factories, to take the 
lilace of the old, were ready .Vugust 1,1891. i'le present 
oflicers of the company are: H. I'. Wilzel, President; Frank 
Schwarzmaelder, \'icc-President ; Daniel Kaufherr, Treasurer. 
Located convenient to railroad facilities, where an easy and 
cheap transportation of the raw material .ind finished produc- 
tions are enjoyed, this prosperous firm carry on their growing 
business, making all kinds of patent and enameled leathers for 
domestic and export trades. The tanneries of this firm also 
m.ike a fine grade of fancy morocco finish leather for uphol- 
sterers' use, which finds a ready sale wherever there is a demand 
for this line of leather productions. Into the vats of this firm. 
250 hides find their way each week, which aie put through and 
finished by the nearly fifty workmen. 




WHILE ihe iiiiluslry of wagon making is in 
the same line ix-ally witli that of carriage 
manufacturing, there is yet a niiglity difference, 
and tlie best explanation thereof which we are able 
to make in the short space allotted to this work, is 
that the wagon is made for business and the carri- 
age for pleasure. Now, while this statement will 
not bear too close a scrutiny, it is near enough 
to the fact for all practical, as well as our ow'n pur- 
poses, since in this article we have to do with the 
industrv as applied to the making of both heavy 
;md light farm and brewery wagons, light and he.ivy 
drays, carts and business vehicles generally, which 
is conducted extensively in Newark, not alone in a 
production for home sale, service and consumption, 
but for outside markets as well. 

Mr. Frederick Finter, one of the oUlest and most 
respected C.ernuin citizens, was born in Germany, 
June 8, 1814. He arrived in Newark, N. J., in 
1834, and devoted himself to the business of wagon 
making. When he came here there were only hve 
derman families in this city. He climbed up the 
ladder with a sturdy determination which brooked 
no failure, and as a result of his industry and per- 
severance he was able, along with six other wagon-makers, to 
begin business in 1848, at the corner of Hamilton and Bruen 
Streets. Step by step he went on increasing his knowledge and 
extending his efforts until finally he became sole proprietor of 
the large business which has since been carried on under his 
personal supervision up to a few months before he died, which 
was May 1. 1885. He employed very few helpers when he 
commenced business for himself, and depended largely on his 
own educated arms and hands to push his steadily growing 

The successful results which followed his efforts show how 
faithfully he worked and what an indomitable spirit of deter- 
mination he brought to bear in the consummation of his ideal 
project, of building up a great business upon such solid and en- 
during foundations as would be as lasting as the wagons he was 
engaged in building. The founder of this now enormous wagon 
manufacturing industry was one of those sturdy characters 
who was not content to scan the present with his clear eye, but 


was ever peering away into the future and endeavoring so far 
as possible to reach out for new ideas to build the very best he 
knew', and with this end in view he made wagons better and 
better as the years went on. but never, so far he could divine, 
did he build " better than he knew," When the time came 
that this father of one of Newark's important industries, and 
one who had laid the foundations in such, of the virtues that 
should make them enduring as time itself and had cemented 
it w ith his own good name, should lay aside his apron and tools 
for the last time, he could turn the institution over to his son, 
that he might continue its conduct tnider the name of its 

After the death of Mr. Finter, his son, William ¥. Finter, 
took full control of the business and, as it increased year by 
year, and the factory became too small to meet the require- 
ments of the trade, he ])urchased the ground, in 1891, at the 
corner of Market and Congress Streets, and erected one of the 
finest and most complete wagon factories in the State. He is a 


thorough mechanic, having learned the trade with 
his father before he took charge of the business. 

As the leader ttnns the pages of this ESSEX 
CouN tv. N. J., UAtKD, and art treasure, 
and reads the short and succinct histories of the 
several industries, there are few who will find that 
ihe illustration speaks a belter language than that 
representing the great establishment of Finter tS; 
Co.. on this Jiage. one of the oldest in its line in 
Newark, and conducted by his son. Thousands of 
business houses all over Essex Countv .md the 
Slate of New Jersey have abundant reason for 
.ippreciation of the good work done by this com- 
pany of wagon builders. F'or nearly a half a 
century the name of Finter branded on a wagon 
has been acce])tcd as the sign of its high quality 
in the State of New Jersey. 

The life-like photos of the founder and his son, 
who at present so ably conducts the business, are 
speaking likenesses of the men who have been fac- 
tors in promoting the carriage and wagon industry 
for which New-ark has become so justly noted. 





THE future of Newark as a niamifacturiiig point is not 
a matter of guess-\vorl<. It would have been made 
a certainty by its leather interests alone. The magni- 
tude of this industry can scarcely I)e related without ex- 
citing a doubt as to the credibility of the narrator and 
the credulity of the reader, but in commercial circles the 
immensity of the business is well known. 

In the front rank of the patent and enameled leather 
manufacturers, stands Mr. Reilly, who, in 1S71, established 
the factory on Avenue C, Murray and Aster Streets, near 
Kaimet Street Station, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, now 
one of the most prominent plants of its kind in the 
country. Every process through which the leather 
passes from its crude state to its finished state is under 
his personal supervision, and its market is the world. 
A thoroughness of manufacture and an enterprising 
policy of doing business, coupled with the known integ- 
rity of the man in commercial circles, compass the reasoiis 
of his exceptional success. Time was when Newark's 
leather industry was confined to a few tanners of hides, 
and those who put them in shape for carriage use - or 
for that matter any use to which enameled leather ni.iy 
be put — were few and far between. 

Their product was the poorest, and would have dri\ en 
the trade away from Newark but for the work of such 
men as Mr. John Reilly. He is one of those who brought 
to bear upon the industry a wealth of energy and brain 
which would have ensured success to any enterprise. 
It was attention to detail, a keen knowledge of the 
requirements of business, and a determination to win, 
characteristic of the man, which won the way. The half 
tone engravings, from photographs, represented on this 
page, convey to the reader an idea of the works which 
Mr. John Reilly founded, and has presided over for nearly 
a quarter of a century. 

The golden value of a jiractical and thorough business 


I'AIEXT AND E.\.\MlJ,liU l.lAllll R WOKKS OF JIIH.N RlilLI.V, 

educration for men who embark in the manufacturing pursuits, 
has seldom found a more forcible illustration than in the case 
of Mr. John Reilly. Here is a man whose steady success has 
frequently led citizens to inquire the cause, which was princi- 
pally his entering the patent and enameled leather industry 
with a keen understanding of its many intricate demands. 
He has labored strenuously to produce the very best of leather. 




THF. stfiim saw plaiiinL; .'ind wimil 
turning; mill cnndnctfil In Mr^sis. 
SLliiiiidt and Sun diiriuL; ihi' pasl lifly 
\L*ars, lias rendered valuable seirice tn 
the building iiuUistry tif the ( ily, and in 
l)arlicular to the western section, whii h 
has been built up wilhin the last twenl\ 
\'ears sd sin |H isin^^ly. 'I'he illustrations 
presented on this |)aL;e, ir present the 
lime-honored plant, loe.iled on the easi 
side of llroonie Stieet. lulween S|irin;^- 
held and South Orange Avenues, with 
life-like photos of the founder and his 
enterprising son, who h.i\'c devoted tlieii 
lives to this partiruhir industi"\' which has 
ronlribuled, in ,in hiiniblr degree, towards 
<reating a (jieater Newark. 

To just such institutions as I his over 
which the .Si hniidts presiile, father and 
sou, is New. Ilk indebted tor her phenom- 
enal grow I h and material gre.atn ess. W'il h- 
out the .issist.ince of the steam s.iw ,ind 
planing mill establishments the cil\' 
would make but an orcHnary showing. 

This house, now so well ani.1 f.ivorably 
known, began its c.ireer ne.iiiv hall a cen- 
tury ago. Mr. Schmidt had been educated 
to the business and early been im- 

]iressed with the onegrand desideratum in wood-working, that his 
tiiiil)er must be thoroughly seasoned befcire using. When a 
piece of board Weill under his planers, or limber into his l.ithes, 
it was widl dried, h.inl and el.istic, willi a fibre .is straight 
as the bow wood of the native Inch. in. As his business 
grew and the want of assistance came upon him. he eniplo\cd 
none but skilled workmen and the Latest and best inipro\ed 
wood-working machines and machimrv. and at this time there 
is in constant use in the factory as line a jilaiit of machines, 
m.ichinery and wood-working tools .is ,ire to be found in any 
industrial esl.iblishment in the country. The factory buildinos 
of this firm, which li.ivi- a Iruthful illustr.ition on this page, are 

St-'HMIin A Sd.V, .S'l'lCAM SAW 

i'; mill 

very capacious, and ha\e ste.idily pro- 
gressed as the increase of business 
demanded. The manufactory building is 
a ihree-storv brick structure. 50 x So feet, 
gi\ iiig a floor room in each storv of 4,000 
S(|ii.ire feel. Almig with this thev lia\e 
ipiile exieiisi\e y.nd room for storing tim- 
ber and lumber. ,iiid vet the demand 
comes u|) for still more room cm 
be commanded from plots .\os. 2oan(l 22 
r.iDome .Street. The great \ariety of 
siyli-s. forms, patterns and shapes of 
wood articles which come forth from the 
doors of their factorx would create soiiie- 
ihing of ama/ement in the mind of anyone 
uii,ici|iiaiiited with the wood-w'orking 
indusliv. The firm makes a special!)' of 
c.u peiUers' s.iwing and turning, and 
iniong the multitudinous products niav 
be mentioiu-d. columns, balusters, line 
.md liitching posts, circular moldings and 
scores of articles in a great variety of 
p.itleins are reckoned among the output. 
Strangers h.ive keen known to stand for 
liours in the presence of one of their 
turning" lathes while the expert turner 
dexterously fashions the article of beauty 
or utility, close watching him as he guides 
the sh.irp tool o\er ils swift-Hying form 
of se.isoncd wood of o.ik, mahogany, 
rosewood, pine, hemlock, or whatever kind of wood the heart 
of the operator may be for the time inclined to use for the 
purpose intended or to hll an order. 

The bii//. upright .iiid scroll saws, the planers and moulders 
as handled l)\ this hriii h.ive done their part in the revolution in 
house irimming in the last fifty years. It is surprising, indeed, 
how beautifully many of these machines — automatic to a great 
extent— walk through the timber boards and planks placed 
before them, and it does seem as though by and by they would 
begin to talk — yes. in their own peculiar way they do even now 
speak a language that is easily interpreted by the manufacturer 
and banker, and we opine, as the years go by and the wealth of 

I'; and 


the capitalist unfolds more 
.iiid more clearly to the 
\ lew of the genius of 
inventions, and the gu.ird- 
ian .and key-holder of thi- 
still hitlden mysteries of 
mechanics and mecdian- 
isms is forced lo listen to 
I he persistent ap|ieals to 
unlock tlie inner doors of 
I lus inner safe and set 
Irer for the uses of man 
I he new, which perchance, 
may be old, that the 
evolutions now in pro- 
gress may startle the worl. I 
111 novelty, v.ilue and gold- 
en purpose. As the 
procession of the industrx 
moves on, ciparisoned In 
the hnishcd h.iiness of 
novelty and usefulness, 
the great cloud of witnes- 
ses will shout "well done." 




THE city of Newark, N. J., has bfconie notc-d 
throughout the civihzed world, priiicipallv on 
account of the finely tinished ami durahlc (|ualilies 
of its manufactured products. In this connection 
it will not be out of place to call some attention to 
the manufacture of cigars, wdiich has now become 
a prominent factor among the numerous industries 
for which the city has become famous. Among 
the many enterprising firms engaged in the cigar 
trade there is, perhaps, none belter or more widelv 
known than the firm of Haley X: Slaight, proprietors 
of the " Lincoln Cigar Factory." which form the 
illustrations on this page. 

The business was originally founiletl a t|u,uler nl 
a century ago by the senior member of the present 
firm of Haley & Slaight, whose life-like photos are 
herewith presented. Both gentlemen are well- 
known Newarkers from away back, Mr. Haley 
iieing a practical cigar maker by trade, while Mr. 
Slaight is a salesman of consitlerable experience. 
The factory is thoroughly eipiipped with cver\ 
known inipro\enicnt to the trade, the choicest 
brands of leaf tobacco are selected for stock, and 
practical cigar makers only are employed on the 
numerous brands of cigars which are manufac- 
tured by the firm. The following popular brands 
are well and favorably known in the city and su- 
burbs : "Haley's Original fJncoln," " I^ittle I'hil 
.Sheridan," "Sweet Mane," "Covernor tiriggs," 
"Henry Clay," "New St)le I'erfecto." etc, etc. 
The " Lincoln " brand has become famous to lovers 
of a good, (|uiet smoke, and are, without doubt, 
the best ten cent cigar produced in the I'nited 

Mr. Hale\ is a \eteran of the war for the Lhiion. 
a member of Lincoln Post, and is connected with 
many other organizations which rellect credit on 
our citv and its wonderful progress in the mechan- 
ical trades. The members of the tirni devote their 
personal attention to every ilelail of the cigar busi- 
ness, and by their diligence and honorable deahngs 
with customers have built up .1 trade in genuine 


p ^ 


H,\l.l;V & SL.\Ic;H1 S CHi.VK i-actorv, makkkt striski-. of late vears 

OKOKljK w . n.\i-i-.\ 

.idulleralion and deception have 
been c.uried on to a considerable 
extent in this country in the manu- 
f.K ture of cigars, so that the dilli- 
I ulty of obtaining a first-class smok- 
ing arlicle has become a by-word 
.unong lovers of the weed. There 
are, however, some firms that stead- 
f.istly adhere to honorable methods, 
who manufacture anil handle only 
genuine goods, and among such 
doing luisiness in this cily we men- 
linn with pleasure the "Lincoln |-'actory," whose fotinder, Mr. 
(leoige Haley, is a recognized au- 
ihorily on the grade and qualilv of 
leaf tobacco. 

The brands m.ide by this house 
.lie maintaineil at the highest stand- 
ard of excellence, and for quality, 
finish and llavor are unrivalled bv 
any similar product in the country. 

iiENKv 1,. si..\ioiir. 





TllKK]-; nu' iluiibtless those 
who never think beyoml 
tlie present, which they gormaii- 
(li/e witli satisfaction, iievei 
knowinjj or caring wliat may In 
in store for the morrow, whi i 
they are satistiecl with the to-day. 
As the denuding of the virgin 
forests wcnl on clay after day, 
month after month .ind year 
after year, and wood fuel ciintin- 
iied abundant, few there were 
who could iir would trouble 
themselves about the future, 
where scarcity was cert.ain to 
take the place of abundance. 
A word to the wise ought to be 
sufiicient. ISut we opine that 
the halt will not be sounded 
till the time w hen the pick and 
shovel uf the miner shall del\e 
in vain .md the car wheels no 
1 ^ngcr turn under the weight cif 
their |)recious burden, and tlie 

puff of thick smoke from tnc pipe of the ocean steamer shall 
no longer gladden the hcut of the w.itchnian at Fire island. 
Then, and not until then, will come up the ilreadful al.irm. 
So it was witli the work of conversion of the beautiful trees 
of the forests into fuel, and which have been forced away 
forever. The ring of the woodman's axe that felled the 
beauties, now cease to salute the ear, and the tongue of llama to 
devour, so long as there was a promise of pay or profit in it. 

There is no city in the American I'nion of like population constmies annualK' more coal than the city of Newark, 
N. |. With a popnl.itiim of 235,000 inhabitants, in which 
manufacturing establishments aie so numerous, the coal trade 
is one of the most important industries in the city. 

Among the many able and enterprising citizens now engaged 
in tlie trade of this city, we may mention the name of Mr. 
John .Schick, who deals in all kinds of f^ehigh and Free-lJurning" 



coal, t'lCOrge's Creek Cuml>erland coal a specialty. A view of 
the ollice and y.uds which form an illustration on this page, 
locateil at Nos. 74, 76, 78, So and 82 Garden Street, Newaik, 
N. J., between N. J. R. K. Avenue and Pacific Street. The 
business was established in May, 1875, and during the past 
twentv-two years, through hard work, energy and integrity, 
Mr. John Schick has built up a trade of which he may be proud. 
He has been before the |)ublic in general nearlv twenty-five 
years, and during ,dl time he has demonstrated his repu- 
tation of conducting the business on strictiv honest basis. 

The liberal jiatronage which the public have accorded this 
gentleman demonstrates that Mr. Schick has always dealt in 
the Ijest (|uality of coal; and he alwavs gives full weight, 
twenty hundred pounds to the ton. The facilities which Mr. 
.Schick possesses are in every respect A No. 1, and he is 
jnepared to furnish the verv best coal in any desired quantity at 


the lowest possible price. 
For the past ten years 
he has been most fortun- 
ately released from much 
of his business burden by 
his son. Albert Schick, 
w ho has taken the place 
of his honored father in 
ihe general management 
of tl^e business. Mr. .M- 
bcrt Schick, whose por- 
tr.ait is displ.i)ed before 
the public, is a \ery active 
young business man, hav- 
ing graduated from the 
New Jersey Business 
College in [8S7. He has 
since been very .active in 
Ihe m.'m.igenient of his 
I ,[ 1 h r r ' s business, and 
IroMi pnscnt indications 
he will make a successful 
helpmeet to his father. 





THE industries of Ntwark are so numerous 
and varied, that it would be dillicult to 
name any known branch of trade which is not 
represented among them. Few cities, if any, 
can l)e found of sindiar size and iiopulation 
where so many diversified industrial plants 
have been organized and established. The 
handiwork of Newark artificers liave been in 
steady and ever-increasing deniani.1 in all the 
countries of the world, and in this connection, 
we desire to call the attention of thereaders of 
Essex County, N. J., Illustr.^ted, to the 
merits of Freudenthal & Adler. proprietors of 
the Post Office cigar factory. 

The demand for cigars and tobacco has 
grown to such large proportions that the trade 
necessarily involves considerations of great im- 
portance. ]>ut even this rule applies to the 
trade at large. It will be observed, readily 
enough, that some firms possess advantages 
over others in the same line of business, the 
result, in some cases, of long experience, while 
in other instances, the fact comes about through 
a natural aptitude for the particular trade 
in which these firms are engaged. In the 
making of a fine cigar, for instance Messrs. 
Freudenthal lS; Adler, of No. 276 Market Street, 
have obtained an enviable reputation for the 
famous brand of " Post Office " cigars manu- 
factured by this firm. The illustrations here displayed show 
life-like photos of the firm, also their factory and salesroom. 
Both gentlemen are Newarkers, and practical cigar-makers of 
considerable experience, having a reputation for the various 
brands of cigars which are manufactured b\ their house. The 
firm have made a success with their superior "Post Office" 
brand, which is claimed to be one of the best ten cent cigars 
that can be had ; reliable and always the same. 

Their other brands are known as. " Gold Prize," "True 
American," " Our Captain," " Captain C," " F. & A. Specials," 
" F. & A, Ponies," " Flor De Leopold," "Newark's," and 
numerous others. The firm give steady employment to over 

(he country 


twenty-five men and boys, A choice stock of chewing and 
smoking tobacco, snuff, fancy pipes and smokers' articles, are 
always carried in stock, which are offered to customers at 
reasonable prices. All orders are carefully filled at the lowest 
market rates. The firm is well and favorable known in the 
trade, with good business [[ulifications combined with pluck 
and energy, having for their motto, the oidy rule whose guid- 
ance means success — the rule of commercial truth. 

The consumption of cigars by the people of the United States, 

has increased to immense proportions during the past ([uarter 

of a century, while the trade of m.inufacturing them has steadily 

increased, and has now become one of the noted industries of 

Millions of capital is 


in\ested, and thousands of people 
find employment in the production 
of this luxury, which has become 
so popular among lovers of the 
weed. Messrs. Freudenthal and 
/\dUr, proprietors of the " Post 
(.)ffice " cigar plant, have, by their 
thrift, skill and attention to busi- 
ness, raised themselves up from 
ihe position of journeymen, to 
their present standing in the trade. 
The products of their factory, con- 
sist of the choicest brands of 
•• Union made cigars," which are 
shipped to the leading cities of the 
country, and their home trade is 
of considerable imporl.ance in this 
city and its suburbs. 

The firm enjoys a well earned 
reputation in trade circles, and the 
good-will and esteem of all with 
who[ii they have business relations. 

LEorOl.l) l-KliUDENTHAI.. 





y.T\]. tile est.ililishiiicnt of this iiislltuliim in Xcw.irk, mi 
Oclober 13, 1S75. the ii\ri\\ helming iiLijorily cjf tlic 
American people were ilinied the priviKne and prolec tiun 
embraced in life insurance. There was ample insiiranc e oppor- 
Itmily for the rich nr well-to-dii minority: there was none whal- 
evir l'(jr Ihe waL;e-wnrkinj; majority. The former were able to 
meet the i|uarterly, semi-annual or yearly |iayments demanded 
by the only system uf insurance then in operation in this country, 
the "Old Line" or " ( Irdinary " system; the latter were not 
and hence uei-e alisohilely cut off from ,dl oppoiamiity to enjoy 
tile benetils of life insm'ance protection. In a 
coimlry whose fniid.iniental prim iples and Ion,;; 
established instilnlions were sworn enennesof diss 
institutions, here was one most pronouncetl and 
exclusive. The c onsei|uence was that society, col- 
lei lively and individnalK'. suffered i^i-eatly. When 
de.ith came, thousands of respectable but improvi- 
dent people had to be liuried by induidu.d or 
orj,rani/,ed charitv. or be cruelly consigned to ,1 
pauper's grave in the Potter's Field. And those 
left behind became, in m.iny i .ises, either a public 
charge or were obliged to de|)end upon the bounty 
of others. 

It was at this juncture that a hamlful of large- 
hearted .ind level-headed Newark manufacturers 
and other employers of labor were ])ersuaded that 
a system of insurance based u])on weekly payments 
and brought to the doors of the people could be 
m.ide to succeed. Such a s\stem long been 
III successful oper.ition in ICngl.ind. Why not here? 
The only problem was one of adapt.ition to the 
different conditions and ideas piex.dcnt in .Xmerici 
— a very serious problem, to be stire. but one 
it was believed could be satisfactorily solved in 
due time. 

/\.nd so, on the date stated, the I'rudeiitial Insur- 
ance Company of America came into existence. 
How the little acorn pl.inled in .1 liroad Street 
basement twenty-one \ears ago has grown and 
grown, until now it is .1 mighty oak whose br.uiches 
have out until they cover every populous 
centre of the Lniled St.ites. from Niagara Falls to 
Denver, Col., is a never-ceasing subject of wonder- 
ment, even to those who planted and cared for it. 
Its st.ileiiunt on J.uiuary I. IcS;;, shows that 
when it not ipiite lifteen months old. it less til. in 5.000 policy-holders. A year later 
it had but 11,226. To-tlay it has probably in its 
emplm' as nianv ])ersons as it had policv-holders 
when it twenty-eight months old. 

".\ history of the Company'^ progress from 
to," said .111 able and writer, in .1 
public journal recently, "would be simply a record of rapid 
and unchecked growth, exhibited in figmes running into high 
and evi-r higher periods. The I'rudential of to-day stands in 
the front rank of the great institutions of the world." Us total 
resources amount lo .about $19,000,000. The reserve on its poli- 
cies, and special, is about !jii 5,000,000, and its capital .ind sur- 
plus to ]K)licy-holders amount lo about |)4,ooo,ooo. It has o\er 
2.300,000 policies in force on its registers, insuring the almost in 
conceivable sum of about $325,000,000. It has paid out in claims 
to (late, over $25,000,000, or more than an average of one million 
dollars for every year it has been in existence. The pioneer of 
industrial insurance in .America, its example was followed by other 

companies as soon as it had fully demonstrated, 1)\ the all-satisfy- 
ing logic of success, the feasibility of the scheme as applied lo this 
country. As a grand result, there .ire now (i8c;7) operating 
the svstem in the LIniled .States, some twelve companies. 'These 
combined h.ive about 7,000000 policy-holders. They cover 
over $800,000,000 of risks, the average policy being for only a 
little more than $100. They have paid out in claims about 
$80,000,000, and they give remunerati\e employment lo an 
army of about 40.000 persons. Besides, the establishment of 
the s)stem here has well-nigh abolished the Potter's Field, is 
s.iving many millions of dollars aninially to the American tax- 
p.iyer, and in scores of ways is making better men, better 

■t c- 


women and happier homes wherever it has been established. 
The present (1897) officers of the company are: John F. 
I )r\ilen, President ; Leslie D. Ward, Vice-President ; Edgar U. 
\\ ,ird. Second Vice-l^resident and Counsel ; Forrest F. Dryden, 
Si'cretary ; Horace Ailing. Treasurer; John 11. Lunger, 
ager of ()rdin.iry llninch ;ind Actu.iry; I'.dward }L llaniill, 
M. I)., .Medical Director; Wilbur S. Johnson, Cashier. Direc- 
tors; John F. Dryden, Leslie D. Ward, Horace Ailing, Edgar 
P>. Ward, Aaron Carter, Theo. C. E. Blanchard, Charles (L 
C.impbell, .S. Ward, .Seth ,\. Keeney. Vrei\. C. ISkinc h.ird. 
I'.dward Kanouse, Forrest F. Dryden, Jerome T.iylor and 
William T. Carter. 





'rril tlioiijjjlufiil men, and womrn too. life 
insurance is a part of llicir business life. 
l'ios|n rily as well as arlversity, demonstrate its 
importance in the affairs of men. It is an effective 
means in securing the rewards of prosperity, and 
freqnently tills the n'ap made by ad\ersity. Anionic 
the many noted life insurance companies trans- 
acting business here, we take pleasine in meiition- 
ing ihc Kc|uilable Life Insurance Society of the 
Unilrd Slates, which is so ably represented in New 
Jersey by "ur well known fellou-tnwnsnien. Messis. 
Eiselc .and King, life-like photos of whom are pn- 
srnlrd in the illustrations on this page. 

The senior member of the tirm, John C. Kisek . 
was born in this city August I, [.S6d, and w.i^ 
educated in the Morton Street I'Liblic .SchooL 
Starting in life as an errand boy in the rni])li>\ of 
lienjaniin F. Mayo, continuing with him until 1SS5. 
when he embarked in the life insnr.nice business, 
as a soliciting agent for the I^ of this cit)', 
and later with the Equitable Life Insurance Society ^ 

of the L'nited States. By his untiring industry, 
attention to business and perseverence, in four 
years he had risen to the management of the .Societ\'s affairs in 
the State of New Jersey, increasing the business from a few 
hundred thousand a year, to the proud position it occupies to- 
day as the largest producing agency under one management, in 
the LInited States. 

He has been connected with the building .and loan associations 
of this city, and is an active member, being President of the 
Norfolk, and Treasurer of the Lincoln lUiilding and Loan 
Associations. Hiscareerin real estatetr.insaclions .also been 
unusually successful, being to-day a large owner in Newark 
real estate, and deeply interested in all projects for the advance- 
ment and wellfare of the city of Newark. In I1S93 he was 
elected to represent the people of the r3th W.ird in the 
State Legislature and was re-elected in 1S94, by the county, 
having received the the largest majority ever given to any 
.candid.ate for Assembly in Essex County. Mr. Eisele is con- 
nected with many well-known charitable, benevolent, social and 


JOHN t^. tlSELE. 

political organizations, being ,1 member of Kane Loilge, No, 55, 
F. & A. M.. L'nion Chapter. No. 7, Lucerne Lodge, No. 181, 
I. O. O. F. Corinthian Council, Royal Arcanum. Arion Singing 
Society, North End and Garfield CUdis. He also an active 
member in a large number of Republican associations. 

Inability to personally attend to all the details of the ever 
increasing business in which he is engaged, necessitated a 
division of labor. He. in 1894, as.socialed with himself in the 
business, Mr. Nath.iniel King, who is the junior member of the 
hrni. Nathaniel King was born in Washington, 1). C, Octol)er 
29, 1866, and came to the city al an early age. Ciiadualing 
from the time-honored Newark Academy, he commenced to 
sludv the profession of law with our present City Counsel, 
Col. E. L. Price, but gave that up to enter upon his present 
business of life insurance, in which he has made an unprecedented 
success, being recognized as one of the largest personal writers 
of insurance in this section of the country. In 1S94 he entered 

into parternership with Mr. Eisele, 

.md has been a potent factor in 

placing the New Jersey agency of 

the lu|iiilalile Life Insmance Soci- 

eU of the United States in the 

position it occupies to-day. 

The othcies of the firm, located 

in the Firemen's Insurance Build- 
ing, north-east coiner of Broad and 

Market Streets, is one of the mosl 

central places in the city. The 

entire second lloor is taken up with 

the business of the company, which 

continues to grow steadily in favor 

with the best citizens of this city 

and the State of New Jersey. 
The honorable and successful 

career of the New Jersey agency 

m the past, is a happy argury 

that the same |)olicy will continue 

in the future, which has heretofore 

directed the business affairs of the 

Equitable Life Insurance Society of 

the United States, 

N.\ rFl.\NItI. KING 




NI'.WAKK. with her steaily gmwih, will no (hmbl in the near 
future embrace the entire coimty of Essex and portions of 
Hudson. Bergen, Passaic and Union Counties. An e\ent no 
less sur|)rising lias been successfully .-icconiplished within ,i 
brief time in the consolidation of Creater New Vorl<. on the 
1 ludson. ICast River and harl>or line. In llic .ichievemtiit 
of this grand project, real estate will form no small part, and in 
this connection we take pleasure in calling the attention of oiu' 
fellow-citizens to the merits of our fellow-townsman, Mr. Lotus 
A. Felcler, whose life-like photo and residence are presented in 
the illustrations on this page. 

Tliis well-known gentleman commenced his present real 
estate career in tlie office of the late James F. 15ond. in 1880, 
anil after .several years of practical service he succeeded to the 
entire control of the business, in the management of which he formerlv been an assistant. Mr. Felder is a n.itive of New- 
ark and was educated in the schools of this city. He occupies 
very pleasant quarters in rooms 11 and 12 on second floor, in 
the Globe Building. 800-804 Broad Street, corner Mechanic. 
The oflice is supplied with every convenience for the successful 
carrying on of an extensive and general real estate and insur- 
ance business. He buys, sells, lets and exchanges city and 
coinilr\ properly, ])rocui"es loans on mortgages, invests money 
without loss of time or expense to the lender, and makes a 
specialty of renting houses and collecting rents. He generally 
has a variety of factories and residences for sale and to let, 
also parts of factories, houses and flats, and all business is 
transacted on the most lilieral terms. Mr. Felder is a Commis- 
sioner of Deeds ,ind a Notary Public, also a thoroughlv experi- 
enced man in writing and efteiting insurance in the most 
reliable companies. ]ironiiiient among whom he is noted as 
being identified with the American Fire Insurance Co., of 
Newark. All kinds of risks are taken and insured at the 
lowest rates conipatable with security. 

When embarking nri his present career ,is a real estate and 
instu'ance broker, he had the advantage of having received a 
complete training in the oflice of James F. Bond, deceased. 
After thoroughly mastering all the details of the business and 
having accumulated during the past seventeen years a wide 
experience, he is now in a position to offer extra facilities to his 
numerous customers in every section of the city and its suburbs. 




IN re\iewing the various industries for which the city has 
become noted, one will find some difficulty in selecting a 
professidii that affords greater opportunities for profit or a better 
source of investment than the market of real estate. It is one 
of the most reliable methods of investment, and at the same 
lime it is a transaction that never loses the power of securing 
virtue, for although values may fall, it can be but temporary. 
'I'his branch of business has at all times attracted the attention 
of many bright and able men, among whom we find .it the 

present tunc Mr. C. J. l>rown, 

real est.ite and insurance broker, 

located at Nos. 727-729 Broad 

Street, adjoining the new Post 

I >llice building, a life-like photo 

engraving of whom .ippears 

among the illustrations in this 

department of Essex County, 

\. J.. 1 LL u s r R A r E ii. Mr. 

Brown devotes his |iersonal at- 
tention to a general real estate 

business — buying, selling and 

exchanging property, attending 

to the duties of Notary Public, 

Commissioner of Deeds, negoti- 

.iting loans and writing lines on 

insurance. P.uticular attention 

is given to the collection of rents 

and the management of estates. 

Mr. Brown is a Newarker from 

Mw.iy back, a man of honor and 

a worthy representative of the 

real estate business. cuakles j. hkown. 




A photo of whom is ^iven in the ilhistrations. 
is a resident of the borough of \ailsburgh 
and a young business man well known in tju- 
tea, coffee and spice trade among many families 
of Essex County. Mr. Connelly makes a specialty 
of and devotes himself exclusively to selecting, 
buying and selling the finest giades of Oolong. 
Japan, Gunpowder, Young Hyson and many other 
noted brands of teas; Mocha, Java and liio 
coffees, and spices of all kintls. Regular weekly 
deliveries are made by wagon to families, restaurants 
and hotels throughout the county, and on the 
liberal terms. In that special trade he is enubli:d 
to offer the public a superior grade of goods which 
for freshness and flavor are unsurpassed, ami 
wherever his goods h.ive been gi\en a fair trial 
additional orders have resulted therefrom. Mi 
Connelly is a Newarker by birth, education ami 
enterprises, and is identified with many charitable, 
benevolent and social organizations. 



AFHOTl) of whom is presented among the Freeholders on 
page 126, is a well-known and highly respected citizen of 
Orange, in which city he was born, educated and conducts a 
general Hour and feed business. He is connected with many 
social, benevolent and political organizations and has ably repre- 
sented his fellow-citizens in the Assessor's office for three terms 
— iSSS-Sg-po-in the council chamber, in 1891, and in the 
Board of Freeholders in 1893. His executive ability was recog- 
nized when lie entered the board, by his appointment on import- 
ant committees, and finally by his election as director. In 1896 
hf was again re-elected to represent the people of his ward in 

the council. His record in all the various positions in which he 
has served is noted for his ability, fairness and honesty of 
])urpoEe in the discharge of public duty. 



A LIFE-LIFE photo of whom is given in the illustrations 
representing the aldermen of Newark, X. J., on page 141, 
first saw the light of day at Bcdmenster, Somerset County, 
N. J., in April, 1839. He was educated in the ])ublic school of 
his native village and graduated at Chester Institute, N. J. In 
1861 he commenced the study of medicine with his brother. Dr. 
I'. J. .Sutphen. ,it Peapack, N. J. After four years of prepara- 
tion, including six months of practical service rendered in the 
Ward United States General Hospital, at that time located in 
Newark, N. J., he graduated from the University of the City of 
New York, in 1865. .\fter six years' practice of medicine in 
his native county he removed to this city and located in the 
Fifteenth Ward, 
continuing in his 
profession in 
connection with 
a drug store. In 
1 878 he was 
elected to repre- 
sent his Ward 
in the Board of 
Chosen Free- 
holders and 
served during 
the years 1878- 
79 80. In 1891 
he represented 
his Ward in the 
Board of Educa- 
tion, and in 1896 
was chosen by 
the people of his 
Ward to re])re- 
sent them in the 
Common Coun- 
cil. IHU.MAb li. cu.N.NLLL'i . 




Rl'.XL estate is so designated as tl\ed ]imperty ; 
. and consequently differing from personal 
or movable pro])ertv. The sini]ile-minded abori- 
•^inis of the Hacl<cnsacl< tril)c. who liartered a\va\ 
the i^raiul domain encompassed by the I'.ssex 
County lines for about two hundred dollars worth 
of merchandise, assorted in small lots of powdei. 
lead. axes, pistols, swords, kettles, barrels of beer, 
troopers' coats and breeches, knives, hoes, b.arrels 
of other lic|Uors. and five thousand feet of w.impuni. 
more or less, no doubt thought they were getting full 
value received, as well .is giving the same, but the 
foresight of the white nut-ran that of the red man. 
and two and one-half centuries since then h.ut 
proved lliat tribes of men of either colony m.i\ 
come or go, but real ov fixed estate remains fm 

Kightv thousand acres have been divided up into 
the villages, towns and cities which now constitute 
Essex Comity. Some of these are now- very densely 
poiiulated, so that the l.uul included in the treaty 
effected in 1666 by the contingent of Connecticut 
Puritans, encouraged by Governor Carteret, whose 
claims by royal gift were also offered as concessions 
so as to secure their title clear to the same, all of which since 
has been well improved. This area described in the treaty of 
purchase as all the uplands and meadows, swamps, rivers, 
brooks, trees, quarries, mines, etc., bounded by the liay on the 
east, the Passaic l\i\er on the north, the Great Creek in the 
meadow running to the head of the cove, .uid bearing back 
to the westward to the mountain called ■■ Watchung, S miles 
west of the Passayic," remains to-day. 

Wry .appropriate was the name which, in 1667, Rev. Abner 
Pierson liajnized its chief settlement with — "Newark" — for 
with its suburbs and environs, it has proved to be a />!/,• ai k 
for many a family, and established homesteads for millions since 
descendant and still resident. 

As a rule, over all this little more than one hundred square 
miles, the smile of health and prosperity reigns, and though 
lacking the length and breadth of territoiies in the West, it 


certainly has a reputation of giving the greatest possible number 
of spacious, comfortable, suitable and healthful homes to be 
found anywhere. The soil is of great diversity in character, 
from rock to rich loam, and the ever-varying altitude of the 
surface can be equalled nowhere except in New England for 
dwelling sites and adaptation to close settlement and rail access- 
ability to the greatest possible number of citizens. This it is 
in the future, as it has in the past, will contribute to place Essex 
County and keep her in the very front rank of advancing art 
and industry; while also affording within her mountain parks 
the most perfect suburban retreats for healthfid and charming 
homes. Her manufacturing sites are the best and most numer- 
ous of any, and most contiguous to the great marts of trade; 
vast numbers of these are already occupied by great factories 
and representing almost every staple industry known, as our 
pages will show, but there is ample room for as many more 


when properly disposed, and es- 
peciall)' after our reclamation 
of the salt meadows now being 
planned and called for. So we 
predict that our resident and 
manufacturing estate can 
not seriously decline. \\'e have 
no malaria-ridden bayous or 
cyclone-swept prairies, and w hen 
the coming day of commercial shall indeed arrive, and 
the wheels of |)rodiicti\e Ameri- 
can industries uni\'ersally turn, 
Essex County will be seen and 
heard in the advancing proces- 
sion, and stepping to the high 
music of glad progression in all 
the arts of peace, and her good 
credit and economic record will 
gradually broaden her exchequer, 
extending" through banks, build- 
ing and loan associations and 
realiable real estate agents, till 
every industrious artisan may 




have his own home, every large manufacturing interest its 
suitaljje site not axailable elsewhere, and this become a mode! 
region, miniature of what the true patriot and statesman could 
wish the nation to be — an intlustrial republic. 

About midsummer of the year 1S92, a few well-known youn.L; 
men, perceiving the unusual advantages for the development of 
that beautiful rolling piece of land then known as the Howell 
Farm, located on South Orange Avenue, just above the Newark 
Shooting Park, in tliat pleasant suburban town of South Urannge, 
now the thriving Borough of \'ailsburgh, combined their wealth 
and knowledge, and on July 29, 1892. they organized the corpora- 
tion now known as the West End Land lm|)rovement Company, 
the subject of this sketch. The hrst ollicers of the company 
were: Mr. Henry J. liloeniecke, Superintendent of the Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Company at Brooklyn, President; Mr. 
Camil P. Nagel, of the firm of Nagel & Kaut/.man, coal dealers, 
Vice-President; Mr. C. \V. Heilman. undertaker and liveryman, 
and at present a Freeholder of Essex County, Treasurer; and 
Mr. Ernest Nagel, Secretary. To these gentlemen, in a large 
measure, is due the com])any's phenomenal success. They 
still serve the company in the same capacity, with one excep- 
tion, Mr. Ernest Nagel having in 1S93 been ajipointed as the 
company's Manager, at which time Mr. Charles H. Burgesser 
was elected Secretary. 

The company purchased the Howell Farm, which has a front- 
age of 1,200 feet on South Orange Avenue and consisting of 
over 700 building lots, and the property was opened to the 
public on Saturday afternoon, August 20. 1S92, by President 
Henry J. Bloemecke, who, after outlining the company's policy, 
introduced as the orator of the day, the oldest resident of the 
borough, the then County Superintendent of the Public Schools, 
editor of the iVc-wiir/c Il,-m, Dr. M. H. C. Vail, who, after 
delivering an eloquent address, unfurled and tlung to the breeze 
the American stars and stripes and formally christened the plot 
Columbian Heights, to the tune of "Hail Columbia," struck \.\\t 
by \'oss' full First Regiment band, who were in attendance 
during the remainder of the afternoon, and discoursed popular 
and national music. 

The property is all restricted for residental purposes only, 
no building to cost less than §2,000, anil all to stand back ten 
feet from line of street, a very wise precaution as the present 
appearance of the streets will show. The coinpany has ful- 

filled all of 
the promises 
then made. 
They have 
laid through- 
out all the 
streets as 
handsome an 
artificial side- 
walk as ad- 
o r n s a n y 
properly and 
which, if laid 
in a continu- 
ous line 
would be 
o\er four 
miles long. 
The streets 
a re all graded 
and curbed 
and adorned 
by fine maple 
shade trees. 
A pure water 

supply has been brought to the property from the Pequannock 
water sheds by way of Newark and a perfect drainage system 
established. The first home on the property was begun during 
the winter of 1892, and was occupied by Mr. Etnil Schwieo-, its 
owner. January i, 1893, just four months after the formal open- 
ing of the property. Other dwellings followed in rapid succes- 
sion until at the present time of writing, no less than forty-two 
residences of as pleasing an architecture and structural stability 
as will be found in any niunici])ality in the State adorn this 
beautiful property. The comi)any's terins are very reasonable 
and of a special character and of unusual advantage to pur- 
chasers. It assists home builders not only financially but also 
in an advisory manner which, owing to the vast experience of 
its individual members in that line, it is fully qualified to do. It 
has engaged the services of a com])etcnt and experienced archi- 
tect who, owing to the origin.ility of his designs and complete- 
ness of interior arrangements and details, and close attention 

AMM. 1'. NAOIJ-, Vlf 



10 the interests of his clients, has 
^i\en complete satisfaction. He is at 
ihe service of all intending investors 
nid home seekers. 

The West End Land Improvement 
I ompany is certainly supplying a long- 
ii It want, by assisting persons of 
moderate means to own their homes. 
-ithoiU extortion, on .1 perfect and 
si>und basis, dealing fairly and honestly 
with its customers. May success 
ilways crown its efforts and serve as 
111 example for others to follow. 

The company has a pleasant and 
> onveniently located business office on 
1 he first tloor of the Niagara Fire 
I nsurance Company building, 766 
iJioad Street, near Market, where its 
|iopular and congenial manager can be 
lonsulted every morning. At all other 
I lines he can be found at the company's 
ollice on "Columbian Heights." In 
the illustrations are represented life- 
like photos of the officers. 






( iMl'F.TITIi )N is the mil essence of all 
progress. It is met witli in every depart- 

iiiL-nt of industry and human activity. It stimu- 
lates and encourages inventivc-ness and enter- 
prise, and enlivens private life as well as 
business. The steady development of Essex 
County real estate interests is due, in a large 
degree, to tlie honorable and conservative 
method pursued by the energetic men who 
have so ably represented this important branch 
of induslrv. At no time have they sought to 
create or inllate values, but rather to retain the 
market upon the basis of .actual worth, as 
regard an income producing capacity. 

There are but few, if any, interests in this 
industri.d centre tint are not secondary to 
that of real estate, and in this connection it 
will not be <jut of place to leccjrd the promoteis 
of this profession, .and in particular, some of 
those enterprising men who have given to real 
estate such a helping hand as has the subject 
of this sketch, Mr. Augustine J. I '.less, real estate 
and insurance broker, located on the southwest 
corner of Springfield and Belmont Avenues. 

This young and enterprising German-American citi/en has 
done much towards e.Ntending the material growth of the 
westerlv section of the city of Newark, by his honorable deal- 
ing and strict attention to business. A general real estate and 
insurance business is conducted by Mr. Gless, who devcjtes his 
personal attention to the buying, selling and exchanging of 
every description of property, and takes upon himself the entire 
care of estates ; he negotiates loans on bonds and mortgages, and 
writes lines of fire and life insurance policies, for all of which 
he has exceptional facilities. His office, which is presented in 
the illustration on this page, is admirably fitted up with every 

MH. A. J. GLliSS. 


convenience for the accommodation of his numerous clients, and 
his wide e.xperience and thorough knowledge of the real estate 
market enables him to transact the business of his clients with 
promptness and dispatch. A glance at the life-like photo pre- 
sented on this page, tells the manner of man he is, and speaks 
louder to the reader of this page than anything the writer could 

.Mr. Gless is rated as one of forniost real estate insurance 
brokers in Essex County, and is a worthy representative of the 
profession. Among the many able and enterprising men who 
have chosen this calling, in order to gather the necessities of 
life from its proceeds, or to build up a fortune, all do not 
succeed. Many yield to its bright allurements, and witnessing 
the marvelous success won by men of the pattern of A. J. Gless. 
enter but the portals, wait but a brief time, and then retire. 

Had thev but learned the way from those on whom dame 
fortune smiled, they would have heard the same old honest 
answer, " Commence with a determination to win ; " read the 
motto carefully, "by industry we thrive;" study the self-reli- 
ance which speaks from every lineament of his countenance, 
and learn from him how- to win in the real estate business. 

There is no doubt in the minds of wide-awake business men 
in regard to the western section of Newark being the locality,, in the near future, will furnish unsurpassed opportunities 
for investors, who are continually seeking for the most profitable 
inxestments for their funds. That part of the city is now open 
for solid improvement, and its de\elopment, in the near future, 
will increase more rapidly aiifl become permanent, especially 
when Clinton Township is annexed to the city and admitted as 
a new ward, towards creating a "Greater Newark." , The ex- 
tremes will never run away from the centre of the city, Spring- 
field and Belmont .Avenues being now one of the centres. It 
was this fact that induced Mr. A. J. Gless to establish his 
oIIkc on that corner. His office hours are usually from 9 to 
1 . and again in the late afternoon, during which time he m.ay 
be found faithflUy engaged with the interests of his customers. 
Mr. Gless takes a great delight in his honored profession, and 
devotes to all its various details, a continues study.-which has 
enabled him to become an expert in values. A view of his 
elegant new residence will be found on the following page. 




AMONG the many real estate men who are 
rapidly gaining prominence, few are making 
more steady progress than our fellow-townsman. 
Frank Wisijohn, one of the youngest representa- 
tives in the business, who began liis real estate 
career under Mr. Thomas J. Gray, in 1882. Mr. 
Wisijohn occupies very pleasant office rooms, 
corner Broad and Bank Streets, over the National 
Newark Banking Co., where he devotes his per- 
sonal attention to the general real estate and 
insurance business, in selling, buying, renting and 
exchanging city and country porperty, procures 
loans on mortgages, invests money without expense 
to the lender, and writes lines on insurance. Mr. 
Wisijohn, whose photo is herewith presented, makes 
a specialty of collecting rents and caring for estates, 
on the most reasonable terms. He is a Newarker 
by birth and education, and a worthy representa- 
tive of the real estate fraternitv. 


IN calling the attention of our fellow-citizens to the numerous 
engravings presented on the pages of EsSEX COUNI v, 
N. J. Illustrated, we are justly proud of the life-like photo of 
our fellow-townsman Thomas J. Gray, who has done much in 
advancing the growth and prosperity of Newark. Mr. Gray 
is a worthy representative of the real estate profession, and 
for more than a quarter of a century has handled large estates. 
Watching the interests of his clients, and being just and true to 
all. is what has gained for him the confidence of the public. 
His appraisements for executors, by order of courts, have never 
been questioned. Since 1870, he has been so closely identified 
with values, that we do not wonder that prudent investors, who 
desire to buy, sell or exchange real estate, or loan money on 
mortgage, wherein, like a savings bank, securitv is first to be 
thought of, frequently remark, " What is Mr. Gray's opinion." 
That settles it. A good name is like precious ointment. 

Mr. Gray's present oflice in the Clinton Building, is almost 
within a stone's throw of where he commenced business, in a 


modest way, twenty-seven years ago. If knowledge of values 
of property located anywhere in our city, county or State, are 
requisites as appraisements of value, coupled with excellent 
judgement and prudent counsel, the subject of this sketch fully 
merits all we have said. The business looks to be on the 
eve of recovery from long depression. Real estate has suffered 
but is fast coming to the front. Mr. Gray is a gentleman in 
every sense, and is a worthy representative of the profession. 



I'HOTO of whom is presented on page 127 of this illus- 
trated work, was born at Beatyestown, Warren County, 
this Slate, January 6. 1840. Coming to this city in T865, he 
started in the grocery business witli John Robertson, his 
brother-in-law. In 1872, he purchased the store and property 
of J. H. Richardson, and continued in the grocery trade until 
February i, 1884, when he commenced a wholesale trade in 


the prepared fiour, feed, grain and 
hay business, acting as agent in this 
city for E. H. Lairabee & Co., 
Chas. H. Paul \- Co. and Hetfield 
& Uucker's crackers and biscuit. 
Mr. Marlatt represented the citizens 
of the Tenth Ward in the Board of 
Education and the Common Coun- 
cil, and for two terms he represented 
the people of the Ninth Assembly 
district in the State Legislature. 

Few men indeed have represented 
the people with a more painstaking 
care than Mr. Marlatt. None but 
words of praise fall from the lips 
of his constituents. The potent 
results of his well applied legisla- 
tive and business acumen, will 
long remain as an example to 
future generations. Few men are 
better known in the business com- 
munity, and his character will re- 
main an heirloom to his family. 

1 hdmas j. guav. 






THE people of Newark aiui 
Essex County can point willi 
pardonable piride to the great estab- 
lishment of L. Bamberger 6t Co.. 
"the always busy store." whose 
place of business is represented in 
the illustration shown on this ])age. 
The house is one of the busiest in 
its line in the city, its countei-s being 
thronged daily by the leaders of 
fashion. A large number of people 
find employment with this enter- 
prising firm, affording some idea of 
the magnitude of the interests in- 
volved. Each flepartment is com- 
plete within itself, under an expert 
manager, while the employees are 
noted for their promptness, courtesy 
and obliging manners, combining 
with a thorough knowledge of their 
duties a faculty for anticipating the 
wants of patrons, laying before 
iheni a full v.irietv of textuies. pat- 
terns and shades from which to 
choose, so that when the excellence 
of the slock is considered, it is not 
surprising that rapid sales are made 
and general satisfaction given to 
buyers. The firm commands the 
direct patronage not only of the 
people of Newark, the Oranges, 
Belleville, Bloomfield, Montclair, 
Caldwell, South Orange and Irving- 
ton and the other surrounding 
subuibs, but its mail order depart- 
ment affortls a ready means for 
people from Warren, LIniun and 
Sussex Counties to satisfy their 
wants. Its business increases 
steadilv and the house foims an 
im|)orlant and ever-growing factor 
ui the commercial activity r.if the 
1 it\. The name anil fame of the 
tirni is so familiar to the general 
public that further comment un our 
part would be surperfiuous. Its 
connections are wides])read and 
influential both at home and abroad, 
its facilities for securing the latest 
designs and novelties for domestic 

,ind foreign designs and manufactures .ire unei|,illi(l, while the 
rare inducements ollered to the purchasing public cmnot be 
duplicated elsewhere. 

The firm of L. Bamberger tS: Companv. by their push and 
enterprise, have retained in this city much of the local trade 
that heretofore went to New ^'ork houses. ,uid it is an unde- 
niable fact, that this wide-awake house is to-dav successfully 
competing with many large firms in "(ire.iier New N'ork," in 
the wonderful induiemenls offered to the public in tlieir line 
of trade. In these days of close rivalry and competition in 
business of every description, the really useful men of the city 
are those who, with a ready hand, are helping to push on the 
developments of her commercial interests, and aid in fostering 
those branches of the tr.ide for which the communit\ has 


2 Wfi ^^ 

F.MPORIU.M nl- L. r.AMl;EKi;liR A CO., ON MARKET ST1-;EE1'. 

become so noted. The educational industries, in ,i measure, 
take care of themselves, but it is the class of enterprises 
depends wholly on the industri.d |)erseverance of the wide- 
awake merchant, that after .dl tend most widely to the build- 
ing up of the city's commercial reputation. Prominent among 
this'class of industries, is the dry and fancy goods trade that is 
so .ibly represented by L. Bamberger & Co., "the always busy 
store," and one of the most noted houses in this line of goods 
m Newcuk." The firm is located on Market Street, in the 
busiest part of the city, on the block bounded by Broad and 
Ilalsey Streets. The ])lant is one of the finest structures on 
the street, and the stock is the largest and best selected in its 
line of anv house in the city. The employees are polite and 
aim In every means to please the purchasing public. 




THE art of bookbinrling is one of tlif ancient i 
is a useful and valuable invention to iiiank 
those engaged in this particular trade, we raention 
the name of our fellow-townsman, 
John C. Scheller, ulterior views of 
whose shop is presented on this pai;e. 
with a life-like photo of the gentleman 
inider consideration. Durini;' the past 
eighteen years he has been connected 
with the bookbinding trade of this 
ritv, and through erUerprise, artistic 
skill and mechanical ability, has suc- 
ceeded in establishing one of the best 
equipped plants to be found in Essex 
County. The bindery is located m the 
Central Railroad building, S34-S36 
liroad Street, Mr. Scheller being a 
thorough, practical mechanic in the 
business, and devoting his personal 
attention to every iletail with careful 
supervision and good taste, he is en- 
abled to execute the higher grades of 
work, such as Levant (crushed and 
inlaid), genuine Russia, Sealskin, Alli- 
gator, Turkey Morocco, polished and 
Tree Calf, etc, in style and finish 
equal to any binder in the world. 
Special attention is devoted to public and priv 
colleges, etc. Single books of every description 

ndiistiies and 
incl. Among 
with pleasure 


ivate libraries, 
are i)rinted, 
ruled and bound to any pattern required ; ami perforating. 

numbering, punching, stamping, embossing, round corner 
cutting, wire stitching, eyeletting and edge gilding is promptly 
executed with neatness and dispatch for the trade. The highest 
premiums, silver medals and diplomas have been awarded to 
Mr. Scheller for the superiority of his 
workmanship in the bookbinding line. 
lie is also the inventor of several use- 
ful styles of self-binders which have 
liilhllcd a' long-felt want among liter- 
ary people. Proniplness, neatness and 
dispatch is llir motto of Mr, Scheller's 

'I'lie following is what a Berlin ((ler- 
niany) professor has to say : 

•• 1 take great pleasure in extend- 
ing my sincere thanks for the beauty 
of binding of the volume of our family 
gene.ilogy, just secured. 

Prof. D. MlCKLEV." 

From .Ambassadur Runvon, IJerlin, 
(lermany : 

■■ Okak Mk. SfHKl.LKR.— 1 thank 
you, my dear friend, for the beautifully 
bound copy of " New.irk, X. ]., llliis- 

A souvenir from Kane Lodge, of the 
late Ambassador Runyon, in full Tur- 
key Morocco, llexible, is a rare sample 
of his handiwork, as well as one of the same of John ^L Ran- 
dall, by the State Hank ; also an elegant volume in full Morocco, 
.1 souvenir to Hon. James L. Mays, of the lio.ird of Education. 

j/ J r <'l''lll^'/ y^'/'< ''""^ '^ f< '-''' ^^''^ "'\ 




THERE are few people in the eity 
iif Newark, or within twenty 
miles around, who are not familiar 
with the name of Walsh, the confee- 
lioner. There is no doubt that the 
linn of R. Walsh & Co, of 157 Market 
.Street and 673 Broad Street, are the 
leading confectioners and ice cream 
makers of New Jersey. With good 
t|uality goods at reasonable prices, 
they cater to, and have, the popular 
trade of the city and vicinity. Thev 
arc widely and favorably known to 
both the dealers in, and consumers of, 
sweets and ice cream which they man- 
ufactiu'e, both for the wholesale and 
retail trade. Occupying the whole of 
the four floors and basement facing on 
Market Street (No. 1571 and Wilbur's 
.Alley, and a newly buiit two-stoiy 
extension in the rear to Library Courl. 
yet they are crowded for room. 

In the basement of 673 Broad Street 
uhe branch) they also manufacture 
specialties for the retail counter. Since 
the business was started nearly a 
(piaiter of .i centur\ ago, at the old 
stand at 121 .Market Street, its owners 
have made a steady progress to their 
present position as the pojiular con- 
fectioners. Both the owners, whose 
portraits appear on this page, are 
l)ractical confectiotiersand well-known 

Newarkers. The other pictures show an exterior and interior 
view of the Market Street store with large ice cream saloon in 
rear. Their ice cream plant, capable of turning out 200 quarts 
of ice cream in 20 minutes, is fully eqinp|ied with all the latest 
improved machinery and appliances adapted to the industry. 
It includes a ferocious looking teethed ice-breaker, whose maker 
guarantees it capable of chewing up a ton of ice in five minutes. 
That this monster has been kept busy, may be granted, when 
during the five warm months of 1.S96. 3.500 tons of Hudson Rivei' 

ice was used. 

All the machinery 
is rim bv electric 
power, witli Steam 
as a reserve force 
in case of accident. 
A large force of 
hands are emploved 
b\ this firm in the 
many departinents 
of the two stores, in 
the manufacluring 
and sale of the con- 
fee tionery, popcorn 
goods and ice 
( i his house 
is particularly noted 
for their fine nea- 
politan ice cream in 
bricks, which they 
deliver by their 
KOBEKT wAisH, numeious wagons 

i;i'iT.lilNi; ov R. w.iVi.sH a. Cd., on market ,S'I 

loall parts of the city and suburban 
towns, and further, ship to all parts 
of the State. At time of writing 
11897) they lia\e in mind still further 
extensions and improvements, which 
will, in all probability, be carried out 
ere this book meets the public's eye. 

In their ]5articular lines, the man- 
ufacture and sale of ice cream, 
candies and confections, R. Walsh &; 
Co. have kept e\en pace with those 
of the citizens of Essex County en- 
gaged in the same or like callings, 
who ha\e marked the highest degree 
of success, and have outstrode many 
who had looked down upon them 
when beginners, as business foemen 
not worthy of their steel. .-Xlways 
modest and unobtrusive, the senior 
member of the firm, Mr. Robert 
Walsh, has pursued his wav up the 
slippery sides of the hill of fortune, 
holding firmly every inch gained on 
the perilous way. No blare of trum- 
pets announce his advance, as each 
season for his always seasonable 
goods approached, but the people, 
.ilways wide awake to the best possi- 
ble chances to procure the very best of 
goods at the most moderate prices, 
dways found the promises made in 
the modest advertisements to be seen 
in all the leading newspapers, to be 
founded on truth and honest business 
endeavors. So as the Inisiness years opened and closed, 
evidences of thrift and success were seen accumulating on every 
side of the Walsh " Candy store." as the snug little caboose 
at the old, old stand at No. 121 Market Street was then called. 
The f.icl that such evidences were apparent, made another 
fact no less, with the proofs drawn from such unimpeachable 
witnesses as the largely increased bank accounts. So many 
orders left unfilled owing to a lack of space wherein to conduct 
his manuf.icturing 
and to transact his 
business, did prove 
lo possess enough 
persuasiveness to 
cause the project- 
ion of the new- 
project which re- 
sulted in the secur- 
ance of the great 
building the liiin 
now occupy. Mr. 
Frank Wadsworth 
p r o \ i n g himself 
ni o s t acceptable 
as a brother-in-law , 
there would be no 
mistake in his ac- 
ceptance as a busi- 
ni ss ]iartner, and 
results prove that 
t h e combination 
was a good one. p^^^,, „,,,d,„„rth. 




WIlnSE photo appears in tlie illustrations on 
tliis page, is one oi Newark's higlily res- 
pected citizens aiul a well-known business man in 
the eastern section of the city, wliere he has been 
connected with the grocery trade for more than 
half a century. He is prominently connected with 
numerous German-American associations and is 
the President of the Twelfth Ward German-English 
School, on Niag.ira Street, in which he takes great 
interest. He is a man of sterling integrity w hose 
word is his bond, and is held in high esteem by his 
neighbors and all who h.ive dealings with him on 
business or public affairs. 


AI.IKIC-LIKIC phnto i)f whom appears in the 
illustrations herewith presented, is a well- 
known and |)opular business man of the Tenth 
Ward, having conducted a meat and vegetable 
trade for over a quarter of a century, on the north- 
west corner of Walnut and Jefferson Streets. A 
well-selected stock of beef, mutton, lamb, veal and 
])ork, salt and smoked meats, hsh, oysters and 
clams, sausages, lard and other food supplies, including vege- 
tables in season, are kept on hand. The store has excellent 
refrigerating facilities, enabling the pro])rietor to furnish his 
customers with the freshest of meats during all seasons of the 
year and upon the most reasonable terms, Mr, Hunt has 
represented the people of the Tenth Ward in the Board of 
Education in a very creditable manner, aiid is identified with 
many benevolent, social and political organizations. 


College with credit and satisfaction to himself. In 1890 he was 
elected from the Twelfth Ward to rt'present his (ellow-citizens 
in the PiOard of J^ducation, .ind served his constituents faith- 
fully as School Commissioner from Janu.iry, i<S9i, to May, 1X95. 
By trade he is a steel worker ami is now and has been for a 
number of years employed in the .\ew Jersey Steel Works. 


WlliiSE photo forms one of the illustrations in the school 
department of Essex County, N. J., Ii.lustr.xted, 
first saw the light of day in Newark, N. J., on October 20, 1863, 
He received his early education in St. James' I^arochial School 
and at the evening sessions of the South Market Street Public 
School, graduatnig from Prof. Mulvey's Newark Business 



IE subject of this sketch, a striking photo of whom is 
presented in the illustrations displayed on page 140 of 
this souxenir, hrst beheld the light of day in the beautiful land 
of the shamrock, October 31, 1838. Few men are better or more 
widely know-n in this city, where, for a nundier of years, he has 
successfully conducted the manufacture of mineral waters. 
He served with ability on the Essex County Public Koad Board 
for three consecutive terms, and was ,1 delegate to the Nation.d 

JOUN (1. ULN r. 

Democratic Conventions 
.It Cl'.icago in 1884 and 
St. Louis in 1888. He has 
represented the people of 
I he Iron liound District 
(jf this city in the State 
Eegislatuie for seven 
terms, during which he 
advocated in the of 
.Assembly w'ith success, 
the passage of several 
iniport.ant bills, notably 
the one pr(i\iding for the 
st.imping ol all goods 
manufactured in the State 
Prison with the n.ime of institution, and the 
bill i)ro V id i n g for the 
police and fire commis- 
sioners of Newark, which 
has been highly approved 
by the |)eopIe. He was 
the pioneer to introduce 

\. U. UUKKMAKp.T. 



ill llu- House of Assemljly a 
■\^atf" l)ill, coniiiellini;' ihe rail- 
mad companies to erect j;ates 
at street cinssings, to |ir(itei t 
the lives of the people, and was 
tiiitirinif in his efforts to have 
the bill passed in tlie house, de- 
spile a large and powerful lobby. 
During the legislature sessions 
of 1893-4, he served with marked 
distinction, and succeeded in 
h.i\ ing bills en.icted that will 
accrue gre.illv to the benelit of 
his I onstitucnts, particul.uiv 
those relating to the establish- 
ment of ,1 public park in the 
Iron lluund district, ami the 
erection of a much-needed liri( k 
sewer running through the east- 
ern section of the city. Mr. 
Harrigan is one of the staunch- 
est advocates of the movement 
to sei lire direct legislation, and 
tluring the session of the legis- 
lature of 1S94, hewasan ardent 
.111(1 consistent champion of the 
bill to provide, for the people, 
the right to choose their own 

He also served as Sergeant of 
Arms of the House of Assemblv 
during the sessions of 1891-2. 

He has represented the citizens of the 12th Ward in the 
Common Council for ten vears, during which time lie has 
discharged his duty on several important committees in a 
satisfactory manner, and was chosen the leader of his party in 
council during 1896. During the long years of his public ser- 
vice, faithfully rendered in behalf of the people, who have 
reposed their contidence in him, it is worthy to note here, that- 
no accusation or even suspicion of wrong-doing ever 
tainted his good name or impugned the motixes of this 
unostentatious and generous-hearted citi/en. 

srnKK clI'- V. \\ , lllMl'S<IN, niRNKR KI.M ,\NM> PRnSl'KCT .STRKKTS. 


'^ m 

\VM. JAfoBI. 

THIiRf-^ are. perhaps, but few commercial enterprises that 
contribute more directly to the growth and prosperity, or 
add more appreciably to the importance of a community, than 
a well-conducted grocery business. Among the numerous well 
equipped family grocery stores doing business in this city, we 
take pleasure in mentioning the name of one of our young and 
enterprising citizens, who is well and favorable known in the 
grocery trade, Mr. F. \V. Tonipson, a photo of whose place of 
business is presenteil in the illustrations shown on this page. 

The premises occupied are located 

corner Elm and l^rospect Streets, 

.lud are well .id.ipled for thegrocery 

business. 'I'he store is neath 

.irrangcd and fully eijuipped with :i 

choice stock of well-selected fancy 

and staple goods in the grocer)- 

.iiid provision line, embracing new 

crop teas, collee, pure spices, 

lined foreign and domestic fruits, 

lieimatically scaled goods in tin 

.mil glass; in fact, everything 111 

llie w-a\' of hoiisehoUl ami food 

supplies, all of which are sold for 

c.isli at the lowest possible price, 

ami delivered free to customers in 

any part of the cit\ or its suburbs. 
'I'he best goods in the grocerv 

line ,iie in stock, :ind llie patronage 

includes some of the best families 

in the city. Mr. 'rom|)Son is 

energetic, courteous and reliable 

in business, stagy b. kittenhocse. 




THERE are, perhaps, but few cities in the United States 
better or more favorable l<no\vn in the trade centres of 
the industrial world than the city of Newark, N. J. This 
result has been achieved principally through the finely finished 
and durable quality of its manufactured products. 

Among the numerous industries which have contributed to 
make the city famous, that of making clothing to cover and 
protect the human body, is one of the oldest and most import- 
ant. Many able and enterprising citizens have been, and are 
now, engaged in this time-honored branch of trade. Among 
these stand the well-known firm of Spielniann, Strack & Co., the 
one-price clothiers and gent's furnishers, whose place of busi- 
ness, located on the northeast corner of Market and Washing- 
ton Streets, forms an illustration on this page. 

The firm, photos of whom appear in the combination presented 
here, consists of E. W. Spielmann, F. P. Strack and A. Eschen- 
felder, all well-known Newarkers and practical business men, 
each of whom devotes his personal attention to the various 
processes of manufacture. Thus they are enaliled to fully 
guarantee the quality of all goods leaving their establishment. 
Each department is admirably equipped with every modern 
appliance known for the successful prosecution of the business, 
and the greatest attention and care is given to the selection of 
the entire stock, and especially to their Woolens and Suitnigs, 
which are unexcelled ; and as they employ only the very best 
talent in their custom departments, the trade and the general 
public have confidence in this trustworthy and enterprising firm. 

The garments of this house are unrivalled for quality of 
materials, fit, style, durabihty and workmanshii). In their 
ready made clothing and furnishing departments the range 
of sizes are designed to fit all proportions of the human form, 
while the grades of style and quality are sufficient to meet the 
wants of the most critical and exacting. 

Newark has ever been noted as a great centre for the manu- 
facture of clothing, and many of her prominent citizens have 
been identified with this useful and important industry. The 
United States census of 1890, states that in that year, there 
were ninety-three establishments engaged in manufacturing 
clothing, with a combined capital of one million two hundred 
and fifty-one thousand, two hundred and eighty-seven dollars, 
invested in the business. Since that time there has been a 
considerable increase in this trade, notwithstanding the depres- 



sion that has existed in all industries during the past four years. 
However, there is every prospect of l)righter times ahead, and 
no doubt the clothing trade will be one of the first to regain its 
former prestige among the industries of this citv. 

The wide awake firm of Spielmann, Strack tV Company, are 
noted as one of the most energetic, courteous and reliable 
houses engaged in the clothing trade of Newark. Their store 
is most eligibly located on a ])rominent corner, presenting a 
handsome expanse of elegantly 
dressed plate show-windows, facing 
on Market and Washington Streets. 
This house never varies from the 
one uniform standard, and that is 
always the best. In addition, they 
rairy a most complete and tempt- 
ing stock of fine furnishing goods 
for gentlemen — dress and outing 
shirts in all materials, stylish hats 
and fashionable neck-wear, etc. A 
large staff of courteous and alert 
assistants attend carefully to the 
wants of customers, who can rely 
upon the (juality of all goo<ls pur- 
chased here. The proprietors are 
business men who acknowledge no 
su|K:riors in their line, and are 
confident that the public will recog- 
nize the superior merits of their 
establishment liy comparison of 
goods and prices of other houses. 




THE illustraliun hercwitli presented shows to 
the rcMcler a naliiral \ie\v of the large and 
well e(|nipped wholesale prockice and commission 
house, conducted by our well known fellow-towns- 
man, Joseph P. Clarke, located on the northeast 
corner uf Mulberry and Commerce Streets. This 
enterprising citi/en was connected for a number of 
\<ars with the well-known fn ni of Rhodes, Chand- 
ler I.S; Co.. and commenced the present business in 
an lunnble way sojiie fourteen years ago. By close 
attention In his business and his honorable deal- 
ings with tlie public, he is now at the head of one 
of the largest houses engaged in the produce and 
commissicni industry in the citv of Newark. The 
storerooms are admirably ei|uipped with all the 
mo(lcrn conveniences and appliances, inclnding 
.unple storage and perfectly constructed refriger.i- 
liirs. Fifteen assistants are employed, and five 
delivery wagons add to the effecli\eness of the 

The house handles he. ivy consignments of tropi- 
cal and nati\e fruits, Canadian vegetables, berries, 
poultrv, calves, pork, eli ., \\ hich are received du'ect 
from the leading anil most reliable sources of 
supply. The favorable connections established by 
Mr. Clarke enable him to place consignments promptly and in 
the most profitable market, and though never neglecting his 
business, he has found time to act the ]>art of a good citizen, 
having represented his district in a creditable manner in the 
State Legislature. A photo of .Mr Clarke is presented on page 
127, with other representative citizens, and speaks for itself. 

Vou will find this house ready to answer any cjuestion 
relative to their business by return mail. Cards, stencils and 
market ciuotations mailed on application. 

' i 1 if!!, 





lERE is no trade that requires a more thorough knnw- 
ledge of details than that which 1 elates to the health of 
the people residing in large i ities. .iiid the sanitary condition of 
the homes, worksh()|)S and public institutions, in which we are 
confined. I'lumbing ol recent years, become practicallv a 
science, and upon its [iroper application and study, much will 
depend on the solution of numerous questions regarding drain- 
age, ventilation and sanitary conditions. Much sickness and 
disease in cities has been traced to the effects of poor plumb- 
ing, in the homes of many people who where in ignorance 
regarding this terrible evil existing in their household. 

It has been clearly demonstrated by the most eminent ,iiid 
disinterested jihysicians, that defective sewers and drains pro- 
duce malaria, with all its attendant evils. Hence, it becomes 
the duty of every person wlm values health, to make a thorough 
inspection, from time to time, of the ])luint)iiig work in their 
homes and workshops, as the very best work in this line gets 
out of repair with remarkable ease. In connection with these 
remarks, we take great pleasure in calling the attention of the 
[lenple of Newark to one of the best known sanitary plumbers 
in the city, Mr. Walter I'. I")unn. a photo of whose business 
place is here presented in the illustration on this page. During 
the past thirty vears this enterprising ami inthistrious citizen 
has conducted, in all its \arious branches, the plumbing 
business ;ind has at all times given to his numerous customers 
entire satisf.action in this all-important branch of industry. 

The plant is located at No. 98 Market Street, and is one, 
among the many, well-equipped sanitary plumbing and healing 
establishments, for which the city of Newark is noted Since 
tlie death of the founder, which occured in August, 1895, the 
business affairs of the house have been ably conducted under 
the title of Walter 1'. Dunn. Incin'porated, and the public can 
rest assured ih.'it the same treatment will continue in the futuie 
that has directed ils business in the 

They have installed numerous heating plants throughout 
the State in many public and private buildings. The system of 
healing bv hot water has been made a specialty by them. 





HE foundatiDn (if Newark's greatness rests 
upon her manufacturing interests. Tliese 

liave at alt times been regarded as her crowning 
glory, and tlirough the genius of her enterprising 
mechanics and inventors she has achieved a world- 
wide reputation, not alone because of their great 
volume and general excellence, but also on account 
of their wonderful variety. Over two hundred 
different branches of industry are successfully 
carried on within her coporate limits, and these are 
continually attracting others to locate here. There 
are but few cities to be found in the L'nited States 
whose people are occupied in employments at once 
so important and yet so distinct. For this vast 
diversity of pursuits, her citizens have reason lo 
feel grateful, and for the accruing benefits which 
have so fretjuently been enjoyed. In the often 
recurring panics and financial distresses, the affairs 
of the people of Newark have never been as des- 
perate as ha\e been those of other sections of the 
country where the prosjjerity of the inhabitanis 
has mainly depended upon the condition of a single 
industry, no matter how important it may have 
been. In the darkest hours, when the workshops 
of Newark have seemed to languish in despair, 
work has never ceased in many of the factories. 
Great credit is due to the foresight of her busi- 
ness men, as well as lo the genius and skill of 
her merchanics and inventors. 

In this connection we take pleasure in placing 
before the readers of Essex County, N. J., 
TRATKI), the name of a worthy and enterprising 
citizen, whose place of business is represented in 
the illustration on this I'.ige, Mr. J. J. Henry MuUer, 
who conducts one of the largest and most complclr 
furniture houses in the western section of the cily. 
The furniture trade of Newark, like every other 
staple branch of commerce, comprises every class 
of dealer, with corresponding ratios of value and 
excellence. As in everything else, so in furniture, 
it always pays to get the best. An establishment 
which stands in the front rank of the choicest 
furniture trade of this city is that of Mr. J. J. Heni\ Mullir. 
whose otiices and warerooms are situated at Nos. 113, 115 and 
117 Springfield Avenue. This extensive business was foumlid 
in 1885 by Messrs. Muller & Schmidt, who, on April i, 1S90. 
moved into tlie ]iremises now occupied bv Mr. Muller. In 
Januarv, i''^94, Mi. Muller succeeded to the sole control of the 
business and occupies a spacious four-story and basement 
building. 75 x 100 feet in area, fitted up with all modern appli- 
ances, elevators, handsome plate-glass front, etc. 

The first floor is devoted to offices and general lines of 
furniture; the seccnid. to carpets, oil-cloths, etc; the third Moor, 
to dining-room furniture; and the fourth lloor lo ch.imber suils, 
etc. This is the finest establishment of the kind in Newaik. 
and the stock also includes hall, library and kitchen furniuire, 
stoves, ranges, refrigeralors, upholstered goods, sofas, lounges, 
fancy chairs, rockers, sideboards, baby carriages, etc., which 
are offered to customers at prices that defy competition. Only 
the best grades of furniture are handletl. and the terms are 
either spot cash or on the installment plan by easy weekly or 
monthly payments, thus presenting to all an opporlunity of 
obtaining what they want for housekeeping. Mr. Muller tleals 
with all classes of ciiizens, and makes a specialty of completely 


furnishing all sizes of houses and Hats. He was born in Ger- 
many, but has resided in the United Slates for the greater jjarl 
of his life. He is highly esteemed in social and business circles 
for his strict integrity, and his eslanlishmenl is a prominent 
feature of Newark's activity and enterprise. Tlu- slock is 
valued at over §50,000, and fifurn clerks, assistants, clc, are 

The large and well-selected slock contained in this house is 
the just reward of industry, thrift and business morality, and 
fr(pni the start the characteristics of Mr. Muller h.ive been 
shrewdness, prudence ;ind integrity, combined .with honorable 
dealings with the public. 

Just here we may be permitted the interpolation of a fact 
which has contributed greatly towards Mr. Muller"s success as 
a business man, and that is, he possesses the faculty of being a 
o-ood buyer. When he goes into the marts of trade lo make 
his purchases, he sees at a glance the goods which will meet the 
wants of his customers for whom he caters, and the materials 
which will work up to the best advantage under the skillful 
manipulation of the artists who handle the tools in his large 
and commodious factory. 




AM(l.\(i ihr multiUicle of our progressive 
business men, the masses of whom have 
(lone a work which wih ever redound to their 
credit, and whose success will remain an e\"er- 
lastin;^ memorial, when they shall liave ceased 
to go in and out among us, few indeed of the 
number « ill be credited with the erection of a 
greater number of memorial tablets, or those 
which will shine more resplendent, or mark 
the lines over which the\ journeyed with more 
marvels of the outputs of genius, than the 
subject of this sketch, I'eter Hassinger, Esti. 
Like sonic of the others who caught the glim- 
mer of the star of hope hanging in all its 
tempting be.iut\ in the faraway western sky. 
and beckoned them on to the new world beyond 
the sea, .and liecamc a lamp to their feet. In 
guide their footsteps to the fair land of theii' 
destiny, so, too, Peter Hassinger caught the inspi- 
ration, which, to his voung mind, rode tri- 
umphant, each glimmering ray beside, and at 
the age of twenty-fi\'e, mature in strength and 
strong of heart, and with foundations laid deep 
HI truth .uid honor, no longer able to resist 
the demands of the good angel of his destiny, he bade adieti 
to the Fatherland, and followed its beckonings, and when 
the gates of his beloved liirlh-place closed behind him, he 
would have been less than did not a pang of regret 
arise in his heart, and mounting to the eve bedew it 
with unbidden tears when the good-by was .said to all that 
was dear to his young life wdien shut within the ide.d city 
of his home, old Darmstadt. IVlcr Hassinger first saw the 
light of day in the year of 1829. His father was a man whose 
wav l.iv .dong the middle w.dks uf life and was engaged in 
the business of gardening .ind a seedsman. After giving to 
I'eter the education wdiich the cimmion schools afforded, he 
.appienlii ed him to learn the; business of machinist and lock- 
smith, .uid thus fiom the age of thirteen, young Hassinger 
became his own bread-winner. Armed only with his perfected 
trade and with a determination to dare anri do. it was not long 
after the good ship which brought him over the ocean had 

landed h i m , 
w h ere t h e 
broad way to 
fort u n e lay 
witle open ,ind 
inviting to such 
as desire to 
walk therein, 
and in which 
h !■ immedi- 
.-ilely his 
N e w World 

The w.'iy of 
the young me- 
c h a n i c lay 
through New- 
ark, wdiere the 
rattle of busy 
machinery and 
the clang of 
hammers was 
I'tit-K u.vsbiM,i,K. music to his 


ears, and the puff of steam and furnace smoke had a charm for 
his eyes. Instead of waiting for employment to seek him, he 
sought and soon found with Henry C. Jones, the well-known 
lo( ksmith of I'ennsylvania I^ailroad Avenue, the place to 
exercise his peculiar genius and demonstrate his adaptiveness 
in the held of mechanical arts. Fortune smiled on the young 
mechanic, and in eight short years he associated with himself 
the well-known inventor and mechanical genius, C W. Romer, 
.md together they bought the concern which thev conductefl 
till 1870, when they sold out to John ISurkh.ndl, of I,ouis\ille, 

'I"o such an e.\tent had he prospered, that when the business 
was adjusted and profits embanked, he felt there was no longer 
a necessity for a denial of the right of satisfying his daily long- 
ings for a visit to dear old Darmstadt, a look once again into 
the face of those he had left behind, when he turned his foot- 
steps westward and quit the Fatherland. As mutations and 
changes follow in rapid succession, and our subject realizing 
the fact that delays are dangerous, inmediately set about the 
business, anil befoie the year had closed, siu'ounded bv his 
little family, he w, is en-route for the land of his birth and the 
scenes of his boyhood and royal young manhood. 

The gratification of his longings to renew his acquaintance 
with the scenes within and around the " pent-up Utica " of his 
early life past, tlid not alone wait upon and urge his crossing the 
ocean, but two other very laudable purposes he had in view. The 
first of these was the education of his three sons, which, soon 
.after his arrival, he placed in school where they were constantly 
kept in attendance until his return to Newark, three years later. 
His second of these purposes was the visitation of the great 
art galleries and the study of art, for which, from boyhood, he 
had had a longing and for which he had sought op|)ortunities 
for gratifying; and that he has so done to much purpose, the 
lover of the beautiful in art has only to visit Mr. Hassinger's 
capacious and comfortable home on Clinton Avenue. On his 
return from Europe, after a sojourn of three years, Mr. Hassin- 
ger went into the building business, and in this line prosperity 
w.iited on his every move, and success marked his e\ery \enture. 

Not alone did Newark feel the touch of his almost magic 
li.ind. but great structures for business purposes, villas 



and modest liomes. in New York, Orange and East Orant;e, 
grew up and turned into money at his command. Many 
a barren acre lie made to bloom in the growth of peoples' 
homes, and many a man is now the owner of his own domicile 
through the easy terms on which he could buy from Peter 
Hassinger. His first real estate mo\e was the purchase of the 
property on which the immense harness manufacturing estali- 
lishment of the late Nicholas Demarest iS; Son now stands. 

It is well to remark in passing, that the business arrange- 
ments with Mr. Romer were always )ileasant, and with the sale 
to the Louisville man, the friendh old business word, "ours," 
which had been the pass between the two, never forgotten, 
and their. social relations ha\e ever continued close indeed ; \ery 
like brothers have they been. Many of the specimens of Mr. 
Hassinger's ideal structures may be seen on Broad and Market 
Streets and many others of Newark's business thorough f.ues, 
as well as in the residental portions of our city, notablv Clinton 
and Belmont Avenues, Alpine and other streets, stand monu- 
ments of his skill and business foresight. 

The old taste for gardening and lloriculluie had not been 
allowed to cramp, but on the contrary, had beeii culti\ated, and 
the same growth and progress is now seen to manifest itself 
wherever the impress of his genius and master hand is fell. 
His home at 368 Clinton Avenue, situated in one of the choicest 
home parts of Newark, can be said, and verily, too. to be 
within a garden of sweet incensed flowers and plants, and a 
veritable bower of roses. The great green-houses are filled 
with delicate plants, ferns and rare exotics, abounding in 
amazing variety. There, on the home-plot, the master has 
erected buildings for every variety of purposes to keep every 
thing about the two or three actes given up to the fruits, plants 
and fiow'ers, par-excellence, and in marvellous abundance. Ere 
we close, it must not be forgotten that his home is a bower not 
unlike Hawthorne's, of Seven Gables, in many of which are 
hung and stored beautiful works of art wdiich this connisseur 
hascollected. and wdiich, were it not on the border of sacrilege to 
say it, he almost worships and truly adores. ()n the walls of 
his gallery, constructed for the purpose, and on the walls of his 
parlors and halls, hang gems, many of which are from the 
pencils of the greatest of ancient and modern painters; in fact, 
it can be said that from every nook and corner of his home 
come whispers of his love for art, and samples are seen which 

speak praises of his deMition to art ajid its studies. Every lover 
of art should see I'eter Hassinger's collection of rare paintings, 
both old and new, and no one can spend a few hours more de- 
lightfully than among his selections. Among Mr. Hassinger's 
collection is seen Rombout's celebrated scriptural and historical 
p.iiiiting, "The Slaughter of the innocents." This great 
picture, completed in 1629, by Theodore Rombout, a rival of 
the skilled painter, Rubens, was (it is said) onci- in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Orleans, who sold it for 10.000 guineas. 
■| his |)icture e.irned for its owner, before it cuiie into the hands 
of Mr. ll.issinger, by being exhibited in many cities, the 
niunihceiit sum of ftr 20,000. .Another notable picture is the 
"Decision of Solomon." This great painting, Mr. Hassinger 
thinks he is thoroughly justified in beliveing, from the evidence 
he has at hand, is a genuine I'iubens. Among the other l)eautiful 
and striking |)aintings in Mr. Hassinger's collection which the 
writer had the pleasure of examining, is one by Gilbert Stewart. 
of the revokilionary patriot, tk-neral Knox. It will be remem- 
bered that Stewart painte<l the very best portraits extant of 
George Washington. A " Cleopatra," by the celebrated Guido 
Reni. The figure is of life-size, and is said to be one of his 
grandest works. A " Nell Gynne," by I'eter Leyly, is a work 
highly prized by its owner. "Two Cows." by I'aul Potter, 
painted in 1530. is very much admired. Thus we might move 
on among the rare old works which this lo\fi- of true art has 
gathered. It is to be regretted the real lovers of art among our 
wealthy people are so few, for had we more like Peter Hassinger, 
who not alone possesses the love for art, but also possesses the 
wherewith to cultivate that love, .irlists need not go begging. 
That I'eter Hassinger is eminently .a self-made man, goes with- 
out the saying, and that he deserves all the good things which 
his own-earned competency can bring, none who know him 
will deny. 


HE manufacture of gold .uid silver ornaments for the har- 

iioted industry, largely carried on in this city of workshops. 
Among the many able and well-known firms, we take pleasure 
in mentioning the name of Mr. .Adam Kaas, who has been 
identified with the trade for more than h.alf ,i centurv, an 
photo of whom 


will be noticed on this page 
and speaks louder than any- 
thing we could say. The 
plant is located in the Wil- 
son Building, cor. Mechanic 
and Lawrence streets, and is 
one of the oldest and best 
equipped for the manufact- 
uring of fine harness orna- 
ments, letters, monograms, 
etc. Mr. Kass is an orna- 
ment maker by trade, and is 
principally noted in the har- 
ness market for the fine 
grade of goods that he is 
enabled to produce, which 
are wiilely known all o\ei 
the States of the rnion, 
Canada and South American 
ports, and used on the finest 
gr.ides of harness, etc., with 
great satisfaction. 

Ali.\.\l K.AAS. 




MR, ( wnii a dislin- 
i;insli<-'d posiliDii in tlic aillst^ 
circle of nouiil; Anuiican paiiilrrN. Mr 
comes of I'^rcin h lluL^iunol ami Kevolii- 
tioiiary stock, .iiul is .\ sun of the late 
Rev. Prof, fohn I^. and nephew 
of Asher 1.!. Durand. llie famous landscape 
painter, ex-presicknl of the Nalion.d 
.\i .idemy of l)esiL;n. Mr.'s 
e.ireei he^jan .it the N.ition.d .^e.nlianw 
New N'ork, iiiuha- I'lof. Wilm.uth. J. ('.. 
Brown. X. .\.. and |. Wells Cli.impney. 
graduating , I \i\\/.e student in 1S79 ^'^ '' 
ne\i lind him ocrup\in^ a studio in the 
historical old 'I'enth Street liuildiuL;. 
New York, the home of Ch.ise, llrown, 
De Haas, Guy and many otiiers. His 
lirsl success, the p.iintin;.; "Come In," 
w'.is c-\liil)ited in 1S1S2 in tfie N.ition.d 
Academy and pmch.ised tlieie 1)\ .1 
wealthy art connoisseur for .1 ]>rivate col- 
lei:tion in floston. 

In l<SXj we tind him in Mimich .uid 
later in Paris, undei- the celebrated French 
masters Fernando Cornion .ind Benjamin 
Constante. While there he painted "Mine 
Ease in JVIine Inn." "Eventide, ""Reverie.'' 

"'IHK WlCUDINi; f.cJ.NNkl. 

. I 

y . 


<,. OURAMI Cll.\l'M,\N .\NO Ills sru 

the latter e.xiiibited in the Paris Salon of 18S5. On his return he established a studio in 
the Cdobe Building, Newark, where he painted "The Wedding Bonnet," of 
which an illustration is here given. In iSyo he married Caroline A. F. 
i Holbrook, daughter of the late A. M. Holbrook, Esq., and resides at 

, Idniwood, Ir\ington, N. J,, the old homestead and country seat of 

the Chapmaiis for nearlv three generations. Mr. Chapman has occu- 
pied a studio in the Prudential Build- 
ing since its completion. His talents 
are versatile — ecpially strong in black 
,ind white, designing and illustrating, 
water color, pastel and oil, and ,1 most 
successful instructor. 

His paintings are seen at all the 
piinci|)al art exhibitions and are 
owned by many prominent art patrons. 
He delights in quaint interiors with 
tlgures, which he fills with a satisfying 
atmosphere of charming sympathy and 
truth. " The Reveries of a Bachelor," 
"In Disgrace," "Close of the Day," 
" I )ld Chums" aiul "Solid Comfort," 
.111' some of his important works. He 
is a member of the Newark .Sketch 
Club, .\meiican .'\rt Society and Salma- 
gundi Club, of New ^'o^k. 

Air. belie\es in gi\ ing his 

1. dents and energies to his native State and home. All the 

success he won has had its birth here and its inlluence gladly 

given for the advancement of art in this city. Interest in art 

has increased lar^elv in the last ten \ears in Newark. Art 

p.itions are liberal .mil ,ippreciati\ e.\ exhiliiiions. art 

I lubs, and noble works in p.iinting ,>\-\i\ sculpture ha\e enriched the city and added 

to its lenown. Mr. Chapni.m hopes to see a tine ,irt gallery established in Newark 

in the near future, with loan collections and public eNhibitions of the best exanqiles 

of modern art, the inlluence of which would be of incalulable ,l;ooiI to all classes 

of society as well as a \aluable addition to the city's institutions. 





',RE are but few, if anv. 

lames better or more 
widely known to the people 
residing in what is commonly 
desij,Miated as the " Ironbound 
District," situated east of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, than that 
of our fellow-townsman, now 
under consideration. This 
public-si)irited anil enterprisini; 
citizen has been identified with 
everything that has aimed to 
advance or promote the welfare 
of the district or its inhabitants 
during the [last half a century. 
The illustration shown on this 
page represents his place of 
business, which is one of the 
oldest in the neighborhood, and 
a first-class ]ihoto uf Mr. Duncan 
is presented in the illustrations 
on page 126 of this work. i\Ir. 
Duncan is one of the oldest and 
most reliable real estate and 
insurance brokers in the city aiul 
devotes his personal attention tt) 
the buying, selling and exchang- 
ing of property, renting of 
houses, caring for estates, pro- 
curing loans on bond and mortgage, placing lines of insurance 
in the most reliable companies and on the most favorable 
terms. He makes a specialty of drawing up and writing deeds, 
wills and agreements in all their various forms. In connection 
with this he conducts one of the largest and best equipped 
news and stationery depots in that section of the city, where 
everything in the stationery line will be found ; and in addition 
to this, a large and well-equipped library is maintained for the 
use of the general public. Mr. Duncan, while being a very 
busy man, has always found time to act the part of a good 
citizen, having represented the people of his district in the State 
Leoislature for three successive terms, serving with ability on 


several important committees. He is prominently identified 
with the building and loan associations of the city, and is con- 
nected with numerous patriotic, political, religious, benevolent 
and social organizations. 



AGREA r and useful work has been commenced by the 
Park Commissioners toward the embellishment of the 
city and its suburbs by the conversion of city squares into parks 
and by the planting of shade trees and shrubbery to beautify 
them. Of the great benefit will accrue to the people and of 
the immensely improved aspect of the whole County of Essex 

there can be little doubt. 
There is another question 

which requires condsideration 

— how far will these improve- 
ments tend toward advancing 

real estate ? There is no 

doubt but that all property 

fronting upon or adjoining 

these parks will continually 

increase, and investors will 

constantly be on the lookout 

for wide-awake agents to 

handle their bargains. 

We here take pleasuse in 

mentioning the name of Mr. 

C. H. Slaight, whose olTice 

is located at Xo. 122 Rose- 

ville Avenue, opposite the 

Roseville station of D. L. & 

\\'. R. R. This enterprising 

citizen conducts a general 

ri-al estate and insuranci: 

business. c. a. si.Aioiir. 




" u/ |( ui iitMii m for 

la CIlLtlN. 

3r llie Dudd IJrolhcrs in iS6S, in (he sJHirt s]iace of five- 
sole prupiiftor — anotlur example of success wrought 
out under the old adage, "Where there's a will there's away.'' Mr. 
Ihiclilein's resolve tlius early made, to conduct a manufacturing business, 
has been proven o\er and over again, was no wild venture but was born of 
an early developed business tact, and he had the push behind to make ;i 
success of what is a branch of manufacturing business carried on in the 
ciiv of Newark, known as the designing and making of seals, stamps, 
engra\ing and die sinking for jewelers and ornamental brass work, also for 
eather and paper endjossing, and which probably contains a greater number 
and variety of industries under a single head than any other known industry. 
This business in all its varieties is now cnnclucled by Mr. M. lluchlein at 787 
Broad Street, corner Market Street, thiid lloor. For such an extensive business 
Mr. liuchlcin carries on, in all probability he occupies, comparatively speaking, a 
ry small floor space, Mr. Buchlein has now been engaged in business more than 
a quarter of a century, and elegant specimens of the handiwork which he turns 
out are seen in all parts of the country and, in fact, wherever stamps are used and 
cndiossed ])aper or leather is manufactured or used the marvellous skill of Mr. 
Buchlem in the manufacture of dies is exhibited, and wdiatever conies from his 
factory are the resultant output of his genius and mechanical skill. 
Scarcely a business office of any pretensions at all, but has for a part of its clerks' paraphernalia and its Secretary's 
outfit the rubber stamps, or indeed, perhaps, where some other kind of stamps are deemed necessary, are made in his 
establishment. Mr. Buchlein is a marvel in his line and, in fact, his line has no boundaries. His out-spreading genius 
reaches, we might say, almost everywhere to find material to satisfy its demands. 

With such promptness does he meet all the demands upon him, individually or upon his time, that for many years he has 

■■^ been dubbed by those who know him Ijest, " Old Reliable." From all sections of our own country, and from across the 

water as well, where anything in the way of a marvel is wanted or is called for, the name of citizen Buchlein is the first on 

the list, and then, almost as c|uick as thought, when the order is given, the w-ork is very soon complete and ready for use. It is his 

unswerving honesty and unassailable character which has given to him the high standing wdiich he holds in the business community 

and which gives him such a high standing in the dep.utments where talent and energy win with so little apparent effort. 

County and city official badges are manufactured by Mr. Tiuchlein from patterns of his own designing. Some of them are gems, 
indeed, and show ])lainly that true art has an abiding place in his mind, where it rec|uires but the touch of a button to set the current 
in motion, with the production of some rare work to be enjoyed by all who look upon and handle. The stencils and brands which he 
turns out are most attractive .uid .dways yive the \ery best satisfaction to buver, seller and user. The production of rubber office 
stamps is a branch of his busi- 
ness which re((uires much time 
and capital to carry on, and 
the resultant outputs are equ.d 
if not, indeed, superior to 
anything ]irocluced in an\' other 
place in the world. It has not 
all been play. Ijv any means, for 
Mr. Buchlein to produce such 
satisfactory results, whether vou 
take it from the standpoint of 
genius and mechanical skill or 
whether from results financi.d. 
and it is safe to say that often in 
the busiest seasons the hours of 
daylight are not long enough to 
give Mr. liurhlein time and 
opportunity to w (u-k out his 
pl.msand togi\i- ihe tracings of 
the pencil fair pl.iv ; he often 
had to follow It fai irUu night. 
Should the reader be in need of 
any article in this line. Mr. 
I'luchlcin will be sure to [jlease. 

KktUi.KR I'Iii.\KI-:R IICIME. 




IT would be difficult to select out of the whole miscclLiny of 
Newark's domestic industries, one which has had a more 
important bearing upon the commercial affairs of the city than 
the trade in general, family groceries. This important and 
necessary business stands foremost in line with the many com- 
mercial enterprises that have contributed to the steady growth 
and prosperity of the city. In reviewing the many able and 
honorable names identified with this particular industry, we 
take pleasure in mentioning that of Mr. William Logel, a faith- 
ful picture of whom appears in the illustrations shown on this 
page. The business is located on Springfield Avenue, corner 
Fifteenth Street, and is one of the neatest and best equipped 
grocery plants in that section of the city. 

Stocked with a large and well-selected line of general family 
groceries and provisions, including new crop teas, coffees, 
spices, dried foreign and domestic fruits, hermetically sealed 
goods of every descri|)lion — in fact, everything in the line ol 
food supplies known to the trade, all of which are rereiveil 
from first hands, from the best and largest markets in the 
country, enabling the enterprismg proprietor to supply the 
customers at the lowest, rock-bottom prices. In connection 
with the grocery business, a well-regulated meat market is a 
prominent feature of the house, which is very convenient for 
the people residing in the neighborhood. Polite assistants are 
in attendance, and free deliveries are made to customers in all 
parts of the city and its suburbs. Mr. Logel was born in 
Newark and was educated in the schools of the city, and has 
been identified with the industries of Newark for nearly half 
a century. 


\'I.SIT through the western section of Newark \wll con- 
\ inee the visitor how rapidly that part of the citv is beinc 
built up with elegant, useful and substantial business places 
and residences. In this connection we mention with pleasm'e 
the many able architects of this city who are an honor to their 
profession, among whom stands Mr. William K. Schoenig, a 
first-class photo of whom is presented on this page. The 
skilled and talented efforts of this gentleman include manv of 


the more noted architectural features that have been perfected 
within the past twenty years, and the results of his handiwork 
are apparent in many neat residences, useful dwellings, hand- 
some fiats and numerous oilier buildings in the western section 
of the city. The plans of Mr. Schoenig are conspicuous for 
original ideas and display a masterly genius for architectural 
effect. His drawings or designs also show a deep study and a 
thorough knowledge of his profession. Mr. Shoenig's office 
and drawing rooms are located on the corner of Springfield and 
Littleton Avenues. He takes great pleasure in his business and 
his services are in constant dem.and. 


ONE of the oldest and best known representatives of the real 
estate and insurance business in this city is Mr. William 
A. Bird, whose photo apjiears on the preceding page. Mr. ISird 

W]LL1A.\1 LUCjtl.. 

transacted his first deal in this pro- 
fession in June, 1862, and during 
the thirty-five years which he has 
devoted to this calling, few men. if 
any, will be found with a clearer 
record. He is rightly characteiized 
as one of the many gentlemen who 
have chosen the real estate profes- 
sion, a fact which is demonstrated 
by his success. Mr. Bird's office is 
located in the Holies Building, 729 
Broad Street, adjoining the Post 
Office. He is engaged in a general 
city and county business, covering 
the buying, selling and exchanging 
of 'real estate, securing loans on 
mortgages and effecting insurance 
in the most reliable comp.anies. 
Mr. Bird is thoroughly posted in all 
of the details of the trade, and as 
a reliable appraiser of real estate 
in every section of the city and 
its suburbs, he stands without a 





IT seems within reason tliat a l)iisint'ss man with 
an experience of thirty-foui' years, must have 
facilities and connrctions and he in a position to 
offer induiemenls unl<nown to men of later date. 
Certain it is. that he has had the time to become 
familiar with the best sources of supply, learn the 
wishes and requirements of his patrons and carry 
the effect of his long experiments into ]il.i\. The 
number of names that are worthy of mention in 
this connection, includes that of Mr. Arthur Hinde. 
of 673-675 Broad Street, who has been notable as .1 
general real estate and instrance broker in city ,ind 
State property for the past thirty-four years. He 
buys, sells and exchanges realty, cares for estates, 
secures loans on bond and mortgage, writes lines 
on insurance in sterling companies, and is engaged 
as general manager of the American Building Loan 
and Savings Association of New Jersey. 

Mr. Hinde, a photo of whom is presented in the 
illustrations on this page, was born in Manchester. 
England, in 1844. and is regardetl among the clever 
and reliable of the city's underwriters and brokers 
in real estate. He has brought prestige into his 
every calling, having connections with some of the leading 
business men of, and he is Imnoied with tin- full indorse- 
ment of his ])atrons. who have learned to plai e their complete- 
confidence in his abilities. 


Pl\i IMINEN r a 111 ling tliose w ho have built up a wide-spread 
and permanent connection with propertv owners is Mr. 
I'hilip Miller, real estate and insurance broker, of Room 5, No. 
1S9 Market Street. He embarked in business in 187S, .is a 
member of the firm of Hedden & Miller, and at the death of 
his ])artner, in 1892, he assumed sole control. Mr. Miller has 
built up a subsl.intial and intluential ])atroiiage, aiul ociaipies a 
suite of offices which are handsomely fitted up, where he con- 
ducts a general real estate business in all its branches, buying, 
selling, exchanijing, leasing and letting lands and buildings of 


every description in citv and countrv. He has been a resident of 
Newark for nearly halt a centurv, .and is familiar with the 
present and prospective values of all kinds of realty in all parts 
of tills I ity and State. He has always on his books advant.age- 
ous bargains in stores, houses and lands, as well as lists and 
descriptions of stores, dwellings, flats, etc., to let. He negoti- 
ates loans on bond and mortgage, at five antl six percent., on 
commission, .ind is a reliable medium between borrower .and 
lender. I'aticular attention is gi\en to the management ol 
estates, which are kept in the highest state of repair and 
productiveness. Responsible tenants are secured, and rents 
are |)roniptlv collected Insurance is also placed with reliable 
companies. Mr. Miller, a striking photo of whom is [ire- 
sented on this page, was formerly engaged in the meat 
business, and during eleven years served as City ^^eat Inspector. 
He is an active member of the Masonic Order and numerous 
other well-known organizations. 


I'lllI II' .MILIJ'.K. 

I 1 \\ licir \'on will, thrnu;.;li 
.in\ part of this city 
there is nolliing lliat will at- 
tract the attention so much 
.is the many useful and ele- residences that e\ery- 
where adorn the streets ,ind 
, I venues. 

These are monuments that 
speak for the thrift and enter- 
prise of the inhabitants, ,iiid 
disclose the advance made in 
ircliitectural art. Among the 
ilhisir.iiions presented on this 
page will be found the resi- 
dence ot our fellow-townsman, 
.Mr. F.ngelberger, on South 
Seventh .Street. The grounds 
about the house are kept in the 
orderly wav, befitting the 
dwelling-place of .a gentleman 
who m.akes business a pleas- 
ure and home a sacred retreat. 

.\KillUK HINDE. 




THE Forest Hill Association was incor|)ora^ted in 1890, with 
Elias G. Heller as President. Tlie Association purchased 
several lary;e tracts of land located in the northern part of 
Newark on the New York and Greenwood Lake Railroad, and 
named the place and station Forest Hill. Throuijh the fore- 
sight, energy and ])ush of its President, the tracts of woodland 
was transformed into the most delightful 
suburban place in Newark. Forest Hill 
is the highest, coolest, healthiest and most 
beautiful suburban place within the city 
limits and only twenty minutes' ride from 
Market and Broad Streets on the Forest 
Hill electric car. and thirty minutes' ride 
from Chambers Street or Twenty-third 
Street. New York, on the N. Y. & G. L. 
R. R. In fact. Forest Hill has all the 
city pri\ileges. such as flagged, curbed, 
sewered anfl macadamized streets, gas 
and electric lights, pure water, i)ri\ate 
and public schools, church and club, mail 
delnerv, telegr.iph and telephone service, 
police and hre protection, etc.. with the 
advantage of a healthy country surround- 
ing of an elevation one hundred and sixly- 
hve feet above the tide water. The entire 
tract of about a mile s(]uare is restricted 
against all nuisances, and lots or plots .are 
only sold for residenlal ptu'poscs, which 
is a guarantee evoiv person has who 
locates his nr her home at Forest Hill. 


The Association, through its pre.sent i\S<yj) oflicers— Elias 
G. Heller, President ; J. Edwin Keene, Treasurer, and Paul E. 
Heller. Secretary, life-like photos of whom are presented in the 
illustrations, offers the most liberal terms to those flesirous of 
owning a home, which enables all to ])rocure one who can 
afford to pay rent, and thus have a warrantee deed to show for 
their savings as against an abundance of rent receijjts. 

The environs of Newark have been endowed by liie lavish 
hand of nature with a charming diversity 
of gifts. Look where you will, some 
delightful view of hill, or wood, or water 
arrests the eye. These picturesque topo- 
graphical features have been turned to 
good account in the making of homes, 
which are the fitting architectural jewels 
for so beautiful and bounteous a setting, 
.^ny description of the city, therefore, 
would be incomplete if we were to omit 
to direct attention to the attractions of 
the suburbs, which are occupied not only 
by the citizens of Newark, but also by 
thousands of families whose heads do 
business in New York, and llnd it in all 
respects more advantageous to live out- 
side the crowded city. But of all the 
]iieasant suburbs of Newark, the llower is 
the Forest Hill section, in the north- 
western part of the city. Here are com- 
bined in ecpial proportions the advantages 
of urban and suburban life, making this 
locality a (lerfect place of residence. 
In salubrity of situation and in charm 




of outluuk, P'urtst Hill can scarcely be surpassed by any 
iilhei- subuiii in the county of Essex. The most extended 
\ iiws over every point of the compass arc commanded. 
To the south is Newark, with her oulUing ]5lacrs. including her 
broad liav. the iu-ights of .Stalen Island .ind also a ghmpse of 
lirooklyn Bridge and the .Statue of Liberty. Eastward are the 
slopes of the .-\rlington Hills, dotted here and there with 
pleasant villas, fruitful orchards and grou]is of shade trees. To 
the west and northwest loom up the Orange Mountains, veiled 
in ro\al purple, willi Momi l.iu' and the Oranges in the fore- 

ground, while the outline of the dark blue hills toward distant 
Pompton bounds the hori/,on northwards. Here, indeed, is a 
very kaleidoscope of natural beauties of field, river, bay. forest 
and mountain. 

And yet these glimpses of nature, in ail her \ar)ing aspects, 
would not be sufficient in themselves to attract home-makers. 
Rapid transit, frequent trains and comfortable cars are also 
indispensable to the suburban resident. With all these neces- 
sities Forest Hill is amply provided. The centre of Newark is 
easily reached by means of a well-equipp( d line of electric 

.owiN ki,i;m:, tkka.-iL'UI-.u. 

street railwa\ cais, with a liberal 
system of transfers in operation, 
affording cheap transportation to 
every part of the city, as well as to 
the Oranges, Bloomfield, Belleville 
and other suburban places. Easy 
•access to the great city across the 
Hudson is obtained by taking the 
cars of the New \ork and GieeTi- 
wood Lake Railroad, either at the 
Silver Lake station of the < )range 
Branch, or those of the main liuf 
at Forest Hill station, which is 
• It the junction ol ihe two roads. 
New ^"ork, indeed is only nine and 
om-lialf miles distant, ;u)d the com- 
muter is landed at th<- loot of 
Chambers Street in about thirty- 
fix e minutes from the moment he 
bo.u'ds the train, at a cost of 
eighteen cents for the lound trip. 
including ferriage over the livej-. 
Practically, the residents of Forest 
flill are ne,irer the business centre 

I'ACI. !•;. HI'.I.I.liK, SKCIil'.TAKV. 


of New York than are the citizens of Harlem or the remoter 
p;irls of I?rool<lyn, while the comforts of tlie transit to and fro 
is iticomparably superior for the New lersey sul)url)an resi- 
(ji-nt. This is a fact beyond dispute. It is, therefore, not to 
1)1- wondered at, talking into consideration tlie his^h rents, 
impure air and generally unwholesome surroundings of city 
life, that so many New Yori; business men have shaken the 
dust of tlie metropolis from their feet and established them- 
selves in liomes at Forest Hill, where their houses are larger 
and more comfortably arranged than are any that could be 
secured, even by a far greater expenditure of money, within the 
limits of the city. 

lUil the advantages which give this suburb its distinguish- 
ing character and make it a |)lace of happy and contented 
homes are not yet exhausted. .Situated within the corporate 
limits, it is sulijected onlv to the low tax rate for which Newark 

from every point of view. Therefore, the Forest Hill Associa- 
tion was organized and al once set to work upon weli-considered 
and practical i)lans for developing the undertaking. Not a foot 
of ground has been sold, nor will be sold, except under the 
reasonable restrictions and guarantees which were originallv 
established. When a purchaser presents himself he is informed 
that, while the largest liberty is allowed in the exercise of 
personal taste, certain stipulations must be inexorably regarded. 
The deed which conveys to him his property binds him, his 
heirs and assigns, neither to occupy nor to sell his premises for 
the purpose of carrying on the manufacture of spirituous or 
malt liquors, fertilizers or other undesirable occupations, which 
are duly specified. Moreover, there are covenants which jire- 
clude building within a certain distance of the street line, 
erecting^ houses of an undesirable grade, or ptuiing up liarns, 
stables or outhouses within ])rohil)ited limits. 


deserves credit and under which she makes many and satis- 
factory civic improvements. The public schools of Forest Hill 
.-ue also part of the excellent educational system of Newark, 
than which there is none belter. The same may be said of 
in. ill, express, telegraph and police service, which are, respectively, 
parts of the nuinicipal organization. The streets arc curbed, 
Magged, macadamized and to some extent sewered, while they 
are lighted either by gas or electricity. The water supply 
comes from the Pequannock. and is of a purity almost un- 
equaled and of a quantity inexhaustible. 

And yet Forest Hill, as it stands to-day, with its pleasant and 
commodious homes, its well-kept lawns, its wide and graded 
streets, its churches, schools and fine shade trees, appeared 
only seven years ago as the mental vision of its founder and 
principal promoter, Mr. Elias G. Heller, a successful manufac- 
turer residing in the district. To him belongs the credit of 
bringing this model enterprise into lieing. He resolved upon 
building up a suburb which would be entirely unobjectionable 

The result of this extreme care li,i> lieeii to -M-cure the very 
best kind of residents, to double the value of all the property 
within five years, and to obtain a class of houses which rangi' 
in cost from S3.000 to $25,000. Tlie pictures herewith given of 
a few residences and parts of streets sufficiently indicate tin- 
character of the suburban homes which have sprung up in this 
beautiful section of Newark. And to cap the climax of good 
things which have already fallen to the residents of Forest Hill, 
the founder, Mr. Elias G. Heller, has generously donated eighteen 
acres of land to the Essex County Park Commissioners, who 
have secured about three hundred acres adjoining Forest Hill, 
which will be transformed into a public park at an early day. 

An elaborate park system for Essex County is now under 
way, controlled by a Board of five well-known citizens who 
were appointed by justice David A. Uepue, under an act of the 
legislature, in whom full and ample powers are invested to 
provide a park system at an expense of two and one-half 
millions of dollars. 




Till'; woiiilerful L;r()\\ih t>i XcwarU in the 
line iif new and elegant structures is 
cliaraiteri/eil bv athanred ideas in architect - 
nral art, as seen in the numerous residences, 
f,ict(irics and business places erected in ever\ 
section of the city. That skill which is shown 
in the various features of their substantial and 
;,;raceful construction, including;" de- 
tails, etc., reveals in them tlie deftness and 
talent of (Jin' le.idiiij; architects, aniline; whom 
we take pleasure in c.illintj attention to the 
name of Mr, H. \'. Ilobbis, who is noted in 
this hnniircd |)rofrssi(in, and whose photo we 
present m the ilkislralinns below. This enter- 
prising citizen conducts business in well- 
e(|uip|ie(l iidices and draughting rooms, on tin- 
liflh lloor (if the (jlobe Building, corner Ijro.ul 
and Mechanic streets. His ability and genuine 
merit have been quickly recognized, and have 
been rewarded with the most llattering success. 
.V general line of .uchilectur.d business is ably 
conducted, planning all kinds (jf sliuctures 
and guaranteeing fidelity to all tletails of his 
carefully diuwn specifications. He is a valuable .idflition to 
the already great number of honorable ,ind eneigelic architects 
in this city, and with his experience and thonjugh knuwledge 
of his profession in all its br.uiches, and strict attention to busi- 
ness, he will continue to merit, and doubtless receive, ,i 
share of public patronage. 


IT has been IrulhUdh stated by a prominent expert, 
that .ui) thing wantetl in the machine trade, from a needle 
111 .in .inchor, is to be fountl in the work-shojis of Newark, and 
there is no gainsaying the fact that the machinists .and 
inventors, as a class, h.ive been prominent factors in attractiii" 
various other trades to locate their pl.ints in this cit\, W'c 
mention, with pleasure, the well-knin\n name of iht- .\. (jh| 
Machine Works, manufacturers nf the celibratcd .\. ()h| 

KESIIIF,N( I 111 l-X-slll Rl I F t. W, HlNt, ll\ I'AKK .\\V.., OKANI.l',, N. J. 

I'.itent Water Filters, and patented l^aint and X'arnish 
Machines, general machinists and tool-makers, iinentors and 
designers of special machinery to iirtler. .'\ life-lii<e jihoto of 
the proprietor is presented herewith, and the well-equipped 
machine is located in the Wheaton Building, corner 
Market street and I'ennsylvania K. R. avenue — Nos. 365-367 
M.irket street and Xos. 25-31 Pennsylvania R. R. avenue, o]ip. 
Market Street Station. This enterprising mechanic is noted 
for his skill .uid .ibility in designing and inipiiiving upon the 
invention of others, having in his employ some of the nidst 
thinough and e.xperienced workmen known to the trade. 

This, combined with his personal knowledge, enables him 
to execute promptly the most delicate order in the machinists' 
trade. The plant is know n for having [iroduced some of the 
hnest dies and tools, presses, engines and a variety of ordinar\ 
machinery of the heaviest and most approved style. Mr. l.)hl 
being the owner of several valuable patented inventions whicli 
are a great help to the trade. 

A\'1I^W of the resiflence of V.\- 
Sheriff k'.dwin W. lline, of 
Orange is shmvn abci\r,-and a 
phiito of whom will be found on 
page 135. Mr. Hine was born in 
i)hi(i, March 1853, and edn- 
1 .lied in the public schonls of that 
Slate. He settled in Orange in 
1S72, .and engaged in the Hour and 
feed busmess, which he conducted 
successfully for a number of vears. 
In 1.S87, he represented the people 
111 the .Second Ward in the (trange 
Common Council, and in J.S.S7 he 
was elected Sheriff of l--ssex Countv. 
During the past six years he has 
been identified with ihc nianufai - 
lure of Harveyized Armor, the 
.\merican Washer and M.mufaclnr- 
ing Co. and the New Jersey Trac- 
tion Compan\-. He is Lieutenant 
Cdloiul of the 2d Reg. N. (".. N.J. 

n, V. HOiujis, AKcniiKcr. 


O Ot) 


ESSEX County, New Jersey, is 
famous throuLfhoiit civiliza- 
tion as tlie home of numerous co- 
operative associations, including 
religious, patriotic, educational, in- 
dustrial, fraternal, social, benevo- 
lent, charitable and various others 
too numerous to mention. All of 
these exist in a nourishing condi- 
tion, and meet with the approval 
and indorsement of the people, for 
whose good they exist. There are, 
perhaps, but few of our fellow- 
citi<:ens who really consider the 
amount of good that is continuallv 
being done, through the offices of 
these time honored organizations. 
Among them we mention with 
])leasure, and exhibit a striking 
photo of, Mr. J. B. Faitoute. who 
so creditably discharges the duties 
of Supreme Secretary of the 
Golden Star Fraternity. 

Besides being connected with the Supreme Coimcil of (jiie of 
the most tliri\'ing fraternal insurance organizations, Mr. Faitoute 
has been carrying on a large and most extensive insurance 
business, representing nearly all of the well-known and largest 
insurance companies in this country. For a nundier of years 
he lias also been Secretary of both the Fireside and Hearth- 
stone Building and Loan Association.s. Both .i.ssociations are 
well-known in business circles. His office is situated in the 
Clinton Building. 

The organization is a social, fraternal and bemvoleni 
association, and was incorporated under the laws of the .Si.iie 
of New Jer.sey, January 21, 18S2. The incor|)orators were 
residents of the city of Newark and well-known among the 
liusiness comnumity. hence it is absolutely a home institution. 
Its objects are to [iromote industry, morality and charity among 
its members, and to pi-ovide and establish a beneficiary fund 
from which, on satisfactory evidence of the death of a member, 
a sum not exceeding $2,000. shall be paid to the beneficiaries. 



IT is ,1 true s.iying, that " Music 
hath charms to soothe the 
savage breast." This may or may 
not be true : it all depends upon 
one's definition of music, and this 
ag.iin relies upon one's education. 
Then the savageness of the beast 
must be inveisely proportinate to 
ine savageness of the music. What 
might bring tears to the eyes of 
the savage, might bring tears to 
our eyes. too. but from a vastly 
different reason. Uncouth strains 
that might have a soothing effect 
upon a C hinese widow, might 
sooih us also, on the same princi- 
ple that a policeman's club has a 
soothing effect if judiciously ap- 
plied. \ glance at the strikmg 
photo which the artist has so suc- 
cessfully transferred to this page, 
will satisfy anyone who has the 
least smattering of |)hrcnological 
science, that the artist whom it represents is musically inclined, 
and that music is a natural characteristic. 

The elegant studio of this musical genuis is located in the 
Clinton Building, No. 22 Clinton .Street, between Broad and 
Beaver Streets. Here he devotes his personal attention in 
giving lessons to those desiring to learn the art of playing the 
soul-entrancing violin. Newark is justly proud of her many 
excellent artists, but few, if any, ]iossess the (|ualifi(alions to im- 
part their knowledge of this particular inslriMnenl to others 
better than our well-known fellow-townsm.ui, Mr. Otto I\. 
SchiU. who is noted as one of the niosl p.iinstaking. untiring 
and devoted instructors, whose ambition is to graduate musical 
artists who will be a credit to themselves and an honor to hin.. 


MON(; the business men of the Tenth Ward, the name of 
Stacy 11. Rittenhouse is well and favorably known, he 


havino- been identified in the industrial pursuits for the pasi 
twenty-five years. The photo pre- 
sented on page 214 is a good like- 
ness of the gentleman umler con- 
sideration, who is engaged in the 
grocery and dairy business located 
on the northwest corner of Pacific 
Street and New York Avenue. 
.Mr. Rittenhouse devotes his .itten- 
lion to the success of his calling, 
.ind while a strict business man, 
has found time to discharge the 
duties of citizenship, he having 
represented faithfully the people of 
of the Tenth Ward in the lioard 
of I'.ducation lor lour years and 
served with ability on some of the 
most imjiortant committees of the 

Mr. Rittenhouse, in connection 
with the grocery trade, conducts a 
dairy and produce business, supply- 
ing everything in these lines in — ' 
their season. orio k. schii-i. 




AKCIirri'.("ri'l\E slamN loniKKi in the various linuiclies 
()( all. It is d pruffSsiDii. tilt- techiiialities of whicli iiiiist 
br lioiii in a man, nr In no means will it out. That which 
is l)iiin within from a stan(l|>oint of art. is genins. and tlia't 
which is u;tnins. ri\eits b.ick to the hist piinciple. art. Thert- 
.111- iiKuiy alilf ,111(1 highly accomplished architects conducting 
their profession in this city, and among the number we take 
]5leasure in mentioning the name of \lf. .\lfred I'eter. a photo of 
whom IS presented .among the iiklstl■,ltion^ on this page. Mf. 
I'etef londuils his calling in tlie .mil well equipped 
office and diMUghling rooms, located .al No. 215 l-'erry Street, 
near the junction of H.imburg l'l,ice, ,in<l he is .an eminently 
skillful and ea|)ai)le anhitecl, who conscientiously discharges 
his duties toward those wTio intrust their work in tnis line to 
him. His pkms. specifications and eslim.ites are prepared with 
great care and accuracy, and he has achieved great success, 
as regards both the exterior and interior elegance of his build- 
ings, many of which now adorn the eastern section of the city. 
He is noted in the profession for closely adhering to the 
spei ihcations in supervising construction, and in every way 
promoting the best interests of his clients, Mr. Peter has 
won an en\ iable name in his honored profession, and exercises 
a wide influence in the domain of practical ar;:hitecture. in 
which he has fullilled his obligations to the letter. 


THI-'I\E is every ion of a Greater Newark in the near 
future, and with ilie iiicicised population, refinement 
,ind wc.dth that will necess.iiily follow, a growing demand will 
arise for the erection of beautiful, useful and substantial struc- 
tures, w ill become the pride of the public, and at the 
s.ime time attract the admiration of all visitors. In this connec- 
tion we take pleasure in mentioning the name of Mr. fancnln 
A. X'irtue, .1 |)hoto of whom is presented in the illustrations, as 
one among those of our fellow-citizens who ha\e achieved 
distinction for skill and artistic conceptions as architects in this 
city. Mr, \ irtue whose neat and well arranged oHices and 
draughting rooms are located corner Broad and Academy 
Streets, opposite the new ijost-ottiie, was born and educated in 


this State, and at an early age commenced the study of hi'- 
honored profession under Messrs, Thomas Cressey and William 
Halsey Wood, both gentlemen being now distinguished .archi- 
tects of Newark. 

In 1S89, Mr. Virtue entered upon the practice of his profes- 
sion on his owai account, and at once secured a liberal anil 
influential patronage. He is an able and talented architect, who 
attends faithfully to details, and whose plans are well digested 
and studied, .'\mong the buildings planned and constructed by 
Mr. \'irtue may be mentioned, the liaker Building on Market 
Street, the Hotel LJayonne in Jersey Cit\ , the Elizabeth Avenue 
Public School, which is represented in the educalional de])art- 

..\Ll-UEn I'ETBU. 

ment of this illustrated work, etc. 
He makes a specialty of designing 
and erecting public buildings, and 
has successfully solved the complex 
problem of how to utilize the mini- 
mum of building area with the 
maxmium of accommodation and 
.inhitectural beauty of design. Mr- 
\'irtue always aims to secure to 
owners the best results within the 
hiriits of estimates, and his close 
adherence to specifications points 
him out as an architect of the 
hightest professional attainments. 
,Mr. \'ilue is a member of the 
r.arfield Club and other noted 
organizations in this city. 

He is regarded as one of the 
ablest architects in the city, having 
won an enxiable reputation in his 
|^rofession, and exercises a wide in- 
fluence in the architectural and 
building trade. 





TUF. liistory of the world is filled with the aniaz- 
iiii; deeds of heroic men, and women, too. 
who have won honors on bloody fields, but the 
pages of this illustrated sou\enir has been devoted 
to recording the names, and |iresenting photos of 
men whose genius has contributed to make Essex 
County great and famous in the industrial world. 
The numerous interests that have contributed 
towaids this grand result, are to be congratulated 
for the parts played in accomplishing it. and promi- 
nent among them the tanning and manufacturing 
of leather h;is played an important part. Newark at 
the present writing lieing the centre of this trade in 
the United States. .Attention is directed to the 
enterprise of our well-knuwn fellnw-tnw nsni.iii. Mr. 
John Nieder, manufacturer of every description of 
book-binders' and pocket-book brands of leather, 
\\hich are creditable to the push, enterprise and 
ability of this voung and wide-awake mechanic. 
The plant is located on Emmett Street and 
Avenue C, near the Emmett Street .Station of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, and is one of the best ecpiipped factories of its size 
and kind in the citv. Mr. Nieder, a photo of whom is seen on 
this page, is a practical mechanic with a thorough knowledge 
of the leather business, especially those brands that he repre- 
sents, and these are noted principally for their quality and 
finish. He is a self-made man, having raised himself up from 
the bench to his present standing in the leather trade, and has 
on various occasions acted the part of a good citizen, having 
ably repiesented the people of the Tenth Ward in the Board of 
Education, and his district in the State Legislature. 



HK accompanving illustration represents a typhical self- 
made man, the story of whose life clearly demonstrates 

what can be accomplished by energy, integrity, sobriety and 
reliability. The subject of this sketch was born in Germany, 
December 31, 1S56, in humble circumstances. At the age of 
sixteen his parents emigrated with him and the remainder of 
the family to this country. Shortly after his arrival he secured 

by the \arious 

IHb; GERMAN HOSI'IT.-\ I., ON HANK s I !■; K ]■; I . 

a situation in a cigar factory, and by strict .illciuion to his 
business soon gained the reputation of an expert cigar maker. 

By hard work and economy he succeeded in laying aside 
sufficient to launch out as a cigar manufacturer on his own 
account, which he did February 2, 1883. Commencing in a 
very small way, his business soon began growing and steadily 
continued step by step, until to-day he occupies a well-equipped 
factory in the rear of 153-155 Hamburg Place, in which he now 
employes several experienced workmen. This is a remarkable 
growth considering the com|)etition he had to contend with. 
It must be noted that the chief source of his success was the 
never failing reliability in the gooils In- manufactured. A 
customer once secured, he rarely lost, lu June, 1896, he also 
embarked in the dry and fancy goods business in his store at 
155 Hamburg Place, and it is safe to say that he will employ 
the same traits, energy and reliability, to make his new business 
as great a success as the cigar business. On the front of 1 53- 
155 Hamburg Place he has erected a handscmic three-story 
frame and a two and one-half story brick structure. 

Mr. Gahr is ])Ossessed of a genial disposition which has won 
him a host of friends, and the popularity he enjoys is attested 
'anizations with 


which he is connected, mainly the 
Orpheus, Liederkrauz, Bethoven 
Maennerchor. St. Leonard Council, 
No. 448, Catholic Benevolent 
Legion, of which he is vice-presi- 
dent ; St. Benedict's Benevolent 
SocictN, of which he is the presi- 
dent, having been connected with 
St. Benedict's Church since his 
arrival in this country. .Mr. Gahr 
takes a deep interest 111 educational 
matters, and is an active member 
of the St. Benedict's Parochial 
School and the Twelth Ward Ger- 
man and English School Societies. 
The story of Mr. Gahr's career 
in his trade reads somewhat like 
a fairy tale, and at the same time 
demonstrates what can be accomp- 
lished by attention to business, and 
the secret he claims lo be honest), 
pluck and clctcriiiiii.ilion to win. 




uoiUi in wliii'll ihe 
l.tss jiroftsMons arr 

Tl lEKI': is no ciuinl|-\ in ll 
iiKirc rL-lined .mil liii;h 
iiiort w.iniilv iTcot;iiizeil ami (.•iicovir.i^^cd llian in 
tlif Stalls cif tile Ainericaii Union. There is, in 
partii'ul.ii" in this ( nuntrv, ime profession that has 
;^'ainiil wiile patron. i^e witliin tile last twenty 
years, .uul that is the vocation ol (lesiL;ninL;" larL;e 
striKluies fof niills, facloiies. stoi c-hotises. eti. 
■' C.reater Newai k." no iloiilil, will he an i-Ncelleiil 
lielil for the exercise of .1 hii^ii oiilerdi l.ilenl in 
ilie line iif modern aiclntei tare so ,ilil\ represented 
l)\ onr Icllow -tnw nsm.iii, Mr. 'I ln» Cressey, 
a life-like photo of whom is presented in the ilhis- 
tr.itions on this |>a;^i'. 

lie is a widcK -known ,ind eminent architect .ind 
snperinl<ndent. whose w ell-ei|nipped oHices and 
draii^lilin.L; rooms .ire loc.ited in tiie (dohe liuild- 
ing. .Soo street, curner Mech.mic, He 
born in Ma|)leton. I'lni^kind. ,md after lia\inL; 
received an e.veellent education, studied with suc- 
cess, as an tuchitect. He coiiimeneed the practice 
of his profession in Xewark more than a rjuarter of 
a century ago, and is recognized as one among the 
tile tihlest in this line. His plans are always accurate and com- 
|)lete in e\erv detail, and he has successfully sol\ed the complex 
prohlem of how to utilize the minimum of buikling area with 
the maximum nf accommodation and architectural l)eaul\ of 
design. Proofs of his skill and aljility are embodied in the 
manv extensive edifices erected under his direction and plans in 
Newark and vicinity, which are greatly admired by experts. 
Here are some of them : The Essex County National ISank, 
Stoutenburgh X; Co.'s Clothing House. Wilkinson, (iaddis tS; 
Co.'s Warehouse, l\)lar Cold Storage Building, Eastwood Wire 
Works, Ijelleville, N.J., Atha Steel Works, and many others. 
He makes a specialty of large buildings, factories, power 
houses, etc. Mr. Cressey is liighh esteemed for his strict 
integrity, .and has always aimed to secure to owners the best 
results within the limits of estimates. He is an active member 
of the Republican Club, the Board of Trade, and is connected 
with se\ eral other well-known organizations of this cit\'. 

HDMK lilK .\c.l-.|i WD.MKX. (JX Ml. fl.i;.\S.\ XT .WKNL'E. 


•riio.\i.\s|.;\, AKciii rivcr. 

) I'lJSSI'.S.S a .md llmroiigh knowledge of one's 
profession is one of the most commendable features of a 
man's tiusiness life. The man who cirefullv classifies his work 
is sure to attract the attention of the leading men of business 
and finance, and bring to his support, commissions from the 
highest walks of life. A notable citizen in this connection, we 
,ire pleased to nieiition the name of Mr. H. Gallowav Teneyck, 
architect, located in the I'iremen's Insurance Building, corner 
Broad and Market streets, whose life-like photo is herewith 
|)resented. The elegant and well-equipped office and draught- 
ing rooms of this worth}' representative of the architectural 
profession, disclose .at a glance the jirominent features of his 
honored CdUiiig, and the numerous residences, stores and other 
structures erected in this city and its suburbs attest his skill 
and ability in the trade he so abl\- represents. He is a 
thoroughly competent 
draughtsman and general 
architect of ample exper- 
ience and is. in a word, 
master of his art in all its 
branches. It would be 
useless to mention here 
the names of any partic- 
ular buildings, as this en- 
terprising citizen is willing 
to forward a beautiful 
souvenir to the public for 
the .asking. Mr. Teneyck 
is prepared to make |)lans 
for all cl.isses of build- 
ings, furnishing designs, 
specifications .iiid esti- 
mates at short notu e and 
guarantees perfect satis- 
laction. Particular atten- 
tion is gi\eii to interior 
designing, under his pei- 
soii.d supervisinii .nid 

•fi''^" '"'"■ 11. (..MI.OUAV rKM'.VCK, .Mil II 1 I KC T . 




THERE is, perhaps, nn (ine interest in New- 
ark to-dav' wliitli has shown such a 
healthy and continued growth as the biush 
business. The manufacture of high grade 
l)rushes constitutes a very important industry. 
The estaljlishment of Dixon & Rippel is not 
only the most prominent, but is also the oldest 
established in this cit\ . In the year 1S57 this 
house was founded by Mr. Kdwnrd Di.xon, the 
senior partner of the present firm. In 1866 he 
admitted .Mr. W. Dixon to partnership, and the 
firm became known as E. & \V. Dixon. In 
1891 the above firm dissolved and Mr. Edward 
Dixon continued the business under the name 
of Newark City Brush Manufactory. A few 
months later .Mr. Albert A. Rippel was admitted 
to partnership, and the firm became known as 
Dixon & Rippel. 

Mr. Edward Dixon, the founder of the firm. 
is an old citizen of Nenark. He is a practical 
brush maker and has been actively identified 
with the brush business in this city since 1852. 
The old sign (Newark Brush Factory) can still 
be seen on top of the factory building, at Nos. 
50 and 52 Market Street. 

Mr. Albert .\. Rippel. the junior partner, is a 
native of Newark, and has been actively identi- 
fied with the brush industry since 1880, having 
grown up in the business from boyhood. He 
represents what is called young blood in business, and since 
his connection the firm has experienced a continued increase in 
business. He is one of the few men who are to-day called 
successful salesmen. The high grade brushes manufactured 
by this firm are fast becoming celebrated for their su|)erior 
construction, durability and practical working (pudities. Always 

DlXn.X ,v Kll'I'Kl/S IIRl'SH WORKS, l.ORNKK .M.\KKl:,r .\.\1J l'l..\.\l; .-lUF.F.I.S. 

using the best materials, and combining the highest mechanical 
skill with thorough experience, they feel confident in claiming 
to produce the best brushes in the market. This firm enjoys 
the distinction of carrying on a general brush mantifacturing 
business. They are not confined to any one particular branch, 
but manufacture evervthing in the line. 


Al.HKKr ;\. kiri'1.1.. 



F. W. MUNN. 

ON'E (if the best ccjuipped ami i oniinddinus livi-iy and 
boarding stables to be found in the i ily of Newark is, 
perhaps, that of F. W. Munn, located on Chestnut and Oliver 
Streets, adjoining Chestnut Street station. I'ennsyhania Rail- 
to. id. Few cities of this count) v can boast of larger, better 
equipped or more honorably conducted eslablishnients than 
this r.ipidiv growing metropolitan city of New Jersey. W'hen 
we state the fact to strangers or those unac(|uainieil with the 
livery business as conducted by enterprising men in this noted 
manufacttning centre, that Newark maintains nearly one him- 
dred boarding and livery insliiutions where horses and vehicles 
can be obl.uned for hire, they would be startled by its magni- 
tude. We take |)leasure in c ailing the altention of the public 
to the establishment conducted by our well-known fellow-towns- 
man. Mr. I-'. W. Munn, which has been so skillfulK translerred 

always certain to be found in this establishment, ,ind that is 
polite attention. ,-\n ap])licalion made for .i rig in which to 
riile. lie it for one of his swift steppers or high lookers, or 
one of the patient, safe and steady plodding dobbins — for 
he keeps every variety — and turnouts of elegance or comfort, 
conunon or for a saddle horse to take a gallop on, is always 
met in a Inisiness way, and the want su])plied as though every- 
body was in a hurry. Flegaiice, care, cleanliness and dispatch 
are the leading wor<ls in Mr. Muiin's business dictionary. That 
Newark i-i lortunate in the class vl men who are engaged in 
the livery business is a fact that goes without the saying, and 
1' . W. .Munn. who is the sole proprietor of the business, is only 
a representative of this large class of business men eng.iged in 
letting horses and carri.iges in the city of Newark. I-"iom very 
modest beginnings the business of this concern has grown to 
its present inunense proportions under the lostering of this man 



III, ,4 ^ '^--- FW.MUNN. 


M I \ N s ( .\ r, \ \ 1 1 

n I \W' it:i I M. 

;iit-:sr\t"T srui i-:i. 

by our .artist to this p.ige of Essex Countv, N. |., Ili.u?- 
IR.\1K1). The stables front on Chestnut Street and tun 
through to < tliver Street, and within these capacious .mil 
roomy buildings are comfortably stabled the more than sInIv 
horses kept constantly on hand for livery purposes. .Among 
these are many fine' ai)pearing et|uines to haul the elegant 
buggies, carriages, coaches and l.ind.ius. an immense iiundier 
of which they have, in styles and patterns sullicicnt lo s.itislv 
the tastes of the most fastidious or exacting among the thous- 
ands who are their continuous ]5atrons. Not an 
part of their business arises from the demand made on 
their immense resources for supplying on short notice, coaches 
and drivers for funerals and weddings. The former are always 
clean and sweet, and woe betide the (hi\er who rides in the 
driver's seat of one of these coaches who is not ,dw.iys polite 
.ind p.iinsl.iking. or sliows dereliction of ilnt\. (hie thing is 

of pluck .ind \im. and he can trace his success to the original 
moiio. "deternuned to please," which h. is been carried out l<i 
the letter, not only by himself. Init by all his employees. .\ 
\isii to the stables is well worth the making by the lovers of 
the horse and the admirers of the stylish in harness, saddles, 
c.ii riages or sleighs, stylish and elegant representatives of either 
.ind all being found in the stables and repositories for vehicles. 
.Old iioudoiis .111(1 cloM'ts for the harness, robes, bl.inkcls. 
brooms, dusters and the Ily nettings, a variety of which are 
ki|it constantly on hand, for use when necessity or emergency 
1 <dls or efficienc\ demands. Mr. Munn alwav s deligiUs to show 
lluise around the establishment, in whi( h he takes ,i personal 
interest and pride, who are in pursuit of pleasure or mform.;- 
lion as lo where is the proper place to procure. ,it a model. ite 
price. |ust su( Ii ,i luinoiil .is tlic\ would like when llie\ wish [u 
I ide or dri\ c throu"h the rit\ or its suburbs. 



Every year the establishment sends out a neat circular, notify- 
ing the people as far as possible of the greatlv increased facili- 
ties he has made, in order to please and gratify his old customers 
and point to others whom he is ready and willing to please. 
Mr. Munn is one of those men who believe in having a good 
tiling — the very best the markets afford, and put into exercise 
the full measure of his pusli and vim to furnish evervbodv 
with "a good horse and carriage for a very little money." 

There is little doubt of this being one of the most thoroughly 
ei|uipped livery stables in ihe city of Newark'. I'esides the 
paraphernalia proper, he has his own blacksmilh, wheelwright 
and harness makers' shops with skilled iiuchanics to operate 
thrill. ,ill of which a wide-awake, thinknng ])ublic appreciate. 
He makes a s]ieciaity of furnishing horses and wagons separate 
or. together by the dac. week or iiioiitli. .Also two and foiii 
horse stages for pleasure parties and immense vans for moving 
merchandise or furniture. Mr. IMunn is a well-known business 
man with a thorough knowledge of the livery industrv which 
he so ably represents. He is a veteran of the war for the 
Union and a member of Lincoln Post, No. i i, (i. .A. K.. of this 
cit\. A hrst-class jihoto of him is hciewilh gi\cn in the ilkis- 
tratioiis, with that of his elegant lu w residence. ,nul they speak 
for him louder than anything we could sa\ . 


CI 11 'NSELLOR William J. Kearns. whose photo is presented 
on page 125 of this work, was a member of the legisla- 
ture during the year 1893. In the legislative manual of that 
year the following facts are given concerning him : " Mr. 
Kearns w'as born in Newark. N. J., .August 12, 1S64. and is a 
lawyer by profession. He was educated in St. Patrick's Paro- 
chial school and St. Benedict's College, Newark, and also in the 
Universitv of the City of New York, where he received the 
degree of L. h. I!., on May 26. 1892. He was admitted as an 
attornev-at-law at the June term of the Supreme Court, in 
1887, and as a counsellor-at-law at the February term, in 1892. 
He was made Master in Chancery, February 14, 188S." 

Counsellor Kearns, whose offices are located in the C.lobe 
Building, corner Broad and Mechanic Streets, commenceO his 
professional career by opening an office as a law stenographer 
in Newark, his native place, in January. 1883. at tire age of nine- 
teen. At 
that time 
he had al- 
read\' ac- 
(|uired the 
r e p u t a- 
t i o n of 
being one 
of the 
most ex- 
pert court 
in this 
State. He 
his pro- 
fession for 
s e v e r a 1 
years, at 
the same 
time con- 
the legal 
r. w. .MUN.N. studies he 


had already begun. During this period in his career he Ire- 
c|uently filled the place of the official stenographer of \'ice- 
Chancellor Bird's court, generally accompanxing the \'ice- 
Chancelloron his circuit into Warren, Morris Sussex, Hunterdon 
and .Somerset Counties. -.After his admission to the Bar in 
June, 1887, as stated above, he abandoned his stenographic 
practice and has since been devoting himself exclusively to the 
practice of the law, at which, for a young man, he lias achieveil 
a large measure of success. At the .April term, 1890, of the 
Essex Court of Oyer and Terminer, he was assigned by Justice 
Depue to defend James Smith, who was indicted for the murder 
of Hastings. This murder trial attracted considerable public 
attention at the time, because of the novelty of the defense — 
an insane delusion of persecutions — which Mr. Kearns ingeni- 
ously prepared, and which, together with the able assistance of 
Mr. Samuel Kalisch. whom he asked to have assigned as liis 
associate counsel, succeeded in saving Smith from the gallows. 

Latterly. Counsellor Kearns has been giving more especial 
attention to the civil branch of liis iirofession. In the legisla- 
ture of 1S93 he served as chairman of the House Committee 
on State Industrial School for Girls; he was also a member of 
the Committee on Federal Relations, and one of the committee 
on the Judiciary. On the Judicial-) Committee he earned the 
reputation of being one of its most useful and hard-working 
members. He was .also the Secretary of the Essex Democratic 
Assembly Caucus, for in politics he is a staunch Democrat. It 
was this caucus which determined to make the Hon. James 
Smith, Jr., a candidate for United States Senator, and it was 
Ml. Kearns who, as Secretary of the caucus, made public 
announcement of the action of tlie Essex lawmakers at their 
memorable meeting on the night of December 5, 1892. 

In the November elections, 1892, in the Se\enlh Assembly 
District, .Mr Kearns defeated the popular Ex-Freeholder Huegel, 
who was then considered invincible, by a majority of 239 votes, 
but was defeated in 1893 by Dr. Edwards by 24 votes. 






yrave. Air. Fischer is a worthy represeiitalive of tht- profession 
in which lie is engaged, and is noted for Ids courteous and 
Htjeral dealinys with all who have business transactions with 
him. A photo of Mr. Fischer is presented on this page. 


ONI", of the many well-known 
undertaking houses doing 

business in tliis city is that of [•". 

F.ngelhorn & Son. The house was 

established some thirty-five years 

.igo l)y John Engelhorn, and 

^nlce his death in 1893. the busi- 
ness lias been continuetl by Mrs. V. 

I'ngelhorn and lier son, Mr. (Jtto 

I'ischer. The ware-rooms and 

oilice are located at 16 Hambuig 

riace, and arc neatly htted uji with 

e\erythiiig connected in the fmieral 

lurnishing line. Mr. Fischer was 

luirn in this city, being educated in 

the pLd)lic schools of Newark, and 

L;raduatcd from the Massachusetts 

Sciiool of Fmbalmiiig. He is a 

practical expert in embalming and 

has a thorough knowledge of evci v 

detail connected with the duties of 

a funeral director, from tlie moment 

of death to the last sad rites at the 

Committee for si.x years. He is also a member of the Third 
Ward Republican and the U. S. (".rant Clubs, and is also Chair- 
man of the Committee on Public I'.uddings, of the Board of 
Chosen Freeholders, a member of the committees on Finance 
and Lunacy and is identified with the West ICnd Land Improve- 
ment Association. 

C. VV. ni-.lIMAN. 

FKLEHULDER C. W. Hcilman, of the Third Ward, 
Newark, was born in ("lermany, near the Rhine, in 1S57. 
When ten years of age he came to this country and learned the 
trade of toolmaker and machinist. At present he is proprietor 
of ,in undertaker's establishment at 29 West Street, Newark. 
He IS ])resident of the Honorary Singing Society, and is a 
mendier of the Moz.irt Singing Society, the Odd Fellows, 
Chosen Friends anrl A. O. U. W. He is also Director of the 
1 bird Ward liuiUling and Loan .Association. Mr. lleihnan, 
a photo of whom is displayed here, is an active Republican, and 
has been treasurer of the Third Ward Republican Executive 

G. L. ERB. 

WE take pleasure in mentioning, on these pages, the name 
of one of the many men who are worthy representatives 
of the funeral directors of this city, Mr. G. L. Erb, a truthful 
])hoto of whom is herewith produced. The office, ware-rooms 
and morgue .are located at 22 William .Street, and are admir- 
ably equipped w ith everything in the line of a first-class funeral 
furnishing plant. The business was established in 1S49, by 
A. L. I'2rb, who died in 1883, and was continued by his widow- 
Eva M. Erb, with G. L. Erb as manager, until 1890. Since 
then the undertaking branch, w hich is one of the best iipiipped in the city, has 
been conducted by the former 

nianager, Mr. G. L. Erb, and the ^ __ _ _ 

livery business is carried on jointly - ■ 

by Erb and Heilman. Mr. Erb has 
grown up with the business, and 
is endowed with all the traits of 
character for the successful carry- 
ing on of this peculiar calling. He 
devotes his personal attention to 
embalming, of which he has made 
,1 special stutly. He takes the en- 
lire charge of funerals, furnishing 
everything desired, on the most 
reasonable terms. Calls are at- 
tended to .it all hours of the day 
and night. Mr. Erb is a native of 
Cleveland. Dhio, and possesses a 
courteous and gentlemanly dispo- 
sition, qualifications that are abso- 
lutely necessary in discharging 
the last sad rite in the burial of the 
dead. e. b. vvooDKttFF, deceasicd. 



THERE are few men eni^aoed in llie tunt-iul furnishing or 
undertaking profession tliat are possessed of tlie various 
business qualities enjoyed l>y Messrs. William and Joseph 
MuUin, managers of the estate of Peter Mullin. The house 
was established in 1S70, and since the tragic death of the 
founder, which occurred in 1891. the business has been ablv 
conducted by his sons, both of whom are graduates of the New 
^'orU College and the Cincinnati School of Embalming. The 
ware-rooms and inorgue. whii h is illustrated on ihis page, are 
located at 91 l.afayelle Street, and are thoroughly supplied 
with everything in the line of funeral furnishing goods. 

Messrs. W. and J. i\Iullin. the managers, devote iheir 
attention to the business of their honored fnlhcr, and art- 
noted for tlieir courteous and obliging treatment towards the 
bereaved families of those who intrust them with the 
sad rites of decently interring their sacred dead. The house 
is one of the most honerable .ind trustworthy to be found in 
the business. Calls are-promplly attended to at all hours of 
the day and night, and Qii the most reasonable terms. 


IN reviewing the \arious industries that ale represented in 
this city, it is' cliflicult to select a calling that attracts a 
a more able set of men than the profession of an undertaker or 
funeral director. Newark has many honorable citizens who 
have chosen this business, and among them we take pleasure 
in mentioning the name of Mr. August Bernauer, undertaker, 
whose ware-roomsand morgue are located at 55 Barbara, corner 
Niagara Streets. Mr. Bernauer first beheld the light of day in 
this city in Se])tember, 1854, and was educated in the schools 
of Newark. He has been connected with the undertaking 
business for fourteen years, during which time he has officiated 
at the funerals of many well-known citizens, and always repre- 
sented the dignified profession of the honorable funeral director. 
He is prepared to assume entire charge of obsequies, 
secure burial plots in any cemetery, and supply hearses and 
coaches in any required number, and his services can be 
obtained at all hours of the day and night on the most reason- 
able terms. .Mr. Bernauer, a i)hoto of whoiu is displayed on 
this page, has demonstrated his ability in the profession of 

ON L.\l--.-\VinTE .STI^tEET. 

undertaker, and is respected by those who know him for his 
courtesy and sterling integrity. He is associated with many 
fraternal, benevolent and charitable societies and has been 
treasurer of St, l.eonar<l's Council, C. R. I,., since its organiza- 




YOUNG, enterprising and honorable re])resentative among 
he funeral directors of this city worthy of mention on 
these pages is Mr. James P. Dowling, who cotulucts business in 
the undertaking line, under the 
name of James P. Dowhng & 
Son. The oliice and ware-rooms 
are located at 40 Bowery Street. 
The house was founded in 1881, 
by the honored father of the 
present proprietor, who died in 
1S93. Since then he success- 
fully continued it. Mr. Dowling 
seems to be endowed with those 
qualifications necessary to carry 
on his profession. HeisaNew- 
.irker by birth and education and 
under his father's care learned 
his profession. Mr. Dowling is 
prepared to take entire charge 
of funerals, and furnish every- 
thing required. He makes a 
specialty of embalming on the 
most scientific methods. He is 
well-known in the eastern sec- 
tion of the city, and is esteemed 
by everyone. james p. 




Fl-^W iiulicd. among ihf many l)eaii- 
ti.'nl and ai'tistic illiislratioiis in 
ihis souN'enn- liook of ;4i-nis, show 
more clearly tht- hi.^h order of pholo- 
L;raphic skill made manifest in every 
lesullanl pirtnre, tlian this, where llie 
lionie and business planl ol Mr. C. C. 
Murray has l)een transferred to tliis 
paije of ICsSKX Cou^■l^. \. J.. 
TKATKU. It is a fact thai .goes with- 
out the sa\inL;. that the photoLjraphed 
results to be obtained through the 
argus eve of the relentless and close- 
peering camera, must be of the most 
perfect, bolil in outline anil searchiiiL; 
in character, before it is I'lt for the 
hand of the artist who transfers it to 
the plate, so that no (pieslion as to ii^ 
merits shall e\ er arise. In the I'lrst 
pi. ice, unless its ever\' line is raised in 
clearness no good results can be ob- 
t. lined in its transferrence. It is evideni, 
.IS will be seen at a glance, and .ill 
will lie sustained .ifler the closest .mil 
most critical sliiiK of the result as seen 
in the picture under consideration, of 
Mr. Murray's elegant resideiici- and 
undertaking business plant, all com- 
bined under one head, as s]iread before the reader on this page. 
Not alone have the artists, one and .ill. excelled in each of 
their departments or lines in produeing sui h ,in 
.ittracti\e and truthful delineatue picture, bill the\ h.ive gi\en 
the reader a chance to study the manner of man Mr, Murray is. 
as his face speaks out from its retiring place on this page. Any 
one who has had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Muir.iv and tran- 
sacting business with him, will see at a glance the pii lure 
represents him .ulmirably, and gives a starting point to that 
marvelous success which has marked his career as a business 
man and gave him such a standing among the funeral directors 
of Essex Count\. From every mark seen around his face and 

head s])eaks 
out those char- 
acteristics so 
necessary to 
the successful 
business man, 
giving proof of 
his possessing 
the elements of 
character that 
li.ave led up to 
the h.ip|)v re- 
sults which we 
shall endf.ivor 
to so depii t in 
the few words 
following, that 
" he who runs 
111 a v rea d ,' ' 
That Mr. Mur- 
r.i V had no 
special training 
for the work in 
c. c .\u Kn.w. which he is 







^^^^^^^^^' ' 







t'XilKK 1^ kINi; W.AREROdMS HI' C. C, M f R I-i A V. CnR. WAI^IRKN AND lllllSON .SIRKK'IS. 

engaged, is known to everybody who the pleasure of his 
actpiainlance, and there are a great many of them, and he litis 
as wide a friendship and as close an association with those 
whom he loves to meet and their society enjoy in his own ])ecu- 
liar way, as any other business man of his age. Any one who has 
the least smattering of phrenological science, or has tried his 
li.ind at studying chanicler from the facial standpoint, would see 
.It once, as they scanned his wide-open countenance standing out 
in the illustration |ilain and clear, that his predominating char- 
ticteristics are benevolence and cautious kindness of heart, and 
])erseyerance, the latter ever ready to come in to assist in over- 
roniing difficulties, wdiile the others give him first, a hopeful 
s|iirit and a sympathizing nature, and second, an unselfish but 
careful way. 

Seventeen years ago, in the year i88o, Mr. Murray began busi- 
ness at No. 14 Hunterdon Street. P'rom thence, in i8iSi,he 
removed to No. 295 Warren Street, where he remained until 
the completion of the elegant new building which he had 
erected on the plot of ground at the corner of Warren and 
Hudson Streets, into which, after furnishing it modestly and 
becomingly, he removed in 1X92. To its present proportions 
has the undertaking business grown in Mr. Murra\'s hands 
fiom very modest beginnings. 

In looking about for the causes which are to be held respon- 
sible for the happy results which have followed thick .iiul f.isi 
on his successful lareer in the undert. iking business, it will 
c.isiK be seen in the character of the surroundings of eveiy- 
thiiig in his neat .ind attractive place, which has little, infleed. 
of the sombre character usually attendant upon undertakers' 
concerns, but principally in the honorable character of the man 
himself, always ready at call to serve the rich and poor alike, 
with a ready tact a |)Ieasing way and soothing manner, he ever 
.illracis and seldom repels. With such a combination, wdiich 
always leads uj) to integrity in business, we have an easy solu- 
tion of the question of the gratifying success which it is always 
a pleasure to record. 





"UKRE is an old saying that "a lu-w hrDum 
sweeps clean." The asserlion does iku 
always hold good unless it ])enclratcs into the 
Ljla<les of life far enough to ascertain of what kind 
of stuff the broom is made up with, and only after 
frequent trials can we find out whether or not its 
qualities are durable. It is with feehngs of this 
kind that we take under consideration the gentle- 
man who is the subject of this sketch, Mr. Joshua 
Hrierley, one of the most reliable and coiu'teous 
funer.d directors of fCssex Coinitw Mr. I!rieii(\ 
was boin in England, coming tii this coinitr\ ni 
1S8:!, and successfidh conducted the under- 
taking business in this city and its suburbs for the 
past fifteen years, during which time he has won 
great fa\or from the public bv his courteous and 
sterling business qualities, and established one of 
the finest and most 1 oiiiplete undertaking esl.d)- 
lishments of be found in the Cilv of Xcw.nkor 
Stale of New Jersey. 

He thoroughly understands his profession. ha\- 
ing graduated from Clark's .School of ICmbalming, 
and is a practical expert in this partictdai- branch of 
the business. He makes a specialty of embalming in accord- 
ance with the latest and most approved scientific methods, and 
his services are in constant demand on account of his skdl ,ind 
ability in satisfactorily performing" these o])erations. Mr. 
Brierlev's office and warerooms are located at No. 374 ISroad 
street, and are admirably fitted up and eciuipped with every- 
thing appertaining to a first-class funeral furnishing midertaking 
establishment. He is prepared to take full charge of remains, 
procure burial plots oi' graves in any cemetery, fmnish hearses 
and coaches, flowers, etc., at all hours of the day or night. ,uid 
on the most liberal terms. .All details receive his personal 
attention and everything intiusteil to him is attended to with 
promptness. His dignified and sympathetic bearing in bereaved 
lionies have modified and alleviated the sorrowful situation 
.attendant u])on the burial of their dead. 

In connection with liis undertaking btisiness. Mr. brierlev 
(imdutts a large and commot'iiuis livery and bo.uiling stable, 

oc.ited corner 
High and Clay 
streets, .\ large 
nundK-r of tine 
horses, and ,1 \ariety of 
coaches, car- 
riages, light 
wagons, sleighs, 
etc., ,-ire coii- 
siantK nn hand 
(cir the use of 
I lie public, oil 
tin- most reason- 
aide terms. .Safe 
and comieoiis 
drivers .lie fur- 
nished wlien- 
i\er desired. 
Some of ihe tin- 
esl lurniiuls to 
1)0 srrii nil the 
slri'Cts .md .n e- 


1 . 1 K i; ( I o K . 

IDSHIA liRll.RI i;\ .S SIAI-.I.KS, CnK, llli;ll ANH (.I.AV SjRKKIS. 

nues of this city and its subtirbs come from this neatly- 
arranged and orderly establishment. The illustrations on this 
page represent the well-e(|uipped and commodious liverv 
plant, and a life-like [ihoto of Mr. Hrierley, who is looked upon 
as one of the most successful undertakers and li\ervnien of the 
city, and is noted .'is one of the most scientific emhalmers in 
Esse.v Couiilv. His reputation has steadily grown upon tin- 
rules of professional integrity laid down when commencing his 
business career in 1882. when he first began to carve his way 
through business rivalry, and his reward lies in a bright 
record and hopeful future. 

Mr. lirierlev is highly esteemed by .ill wiih wlioni he comes 
in contact in business or social rel.itions, and is connected with 
several of Newark's well-known societies, being an active 
member of the Golden .Star Fraternity, the K. of P.. and the 
I. O. O. F. He is one of those large-hearted men who asso- 
ciate with their fellows more on account of the benefits whiidi 
thev can confer, rather than those, like too many, whose selfish- 
ness and greed send them flying to the lodge-room in order to 
secine the full modicum of benefits which are supposed to 
accrue, and which .ill. too often, lind tin- way into unworth\- 
])ockels. Here, in passing, we might indite the fact that the 
nuniber of good sam.iritans. even when bound by the mvstic 
tie. are all too few when the clarion call of i< lief for the sick, 
the wounded .and distressed of their fellows is souiuled. We 
feel entirely safe in the assertion at least two pass bv on 
the other side while one stops to pour oil into the wounds 
which gap and fester before the greedy. Much of the iu-glei:t 
of duty may grow out of a Lack of ihoughtfulness, but herein 
lies a bane just as much in need of cure as the great primary 
wrong of utter selfishness. 

There is no better place to give e.vercise to the virtues learned 
in the lodge-room th.iii where death has entered the familv and 
broken the ties which bind the household. " Tis here that such 
men as Joshua Hrierley h.ive found the field where temperance, 
fortitude, prudence and justice can li.ive full pl.iy —the \ iriues, 
when combined, bring solace to the .iltlicted and hope to the 
lierea\ ed. and help to dispel the shadows which conceal for ,i 
time the bright sides of life. The life, character, prosperity and 
business standing of Mr. Hrierley is highly commended by all. 




THE "Old Fashioned Brewery," as it is appropi i- 
ately called by all who have visited it, is 
located at the southeast corner of South < )range 
and Morris .Avennes. Newark. N. J. The present 
])roprietors have entirely renovated the plant and 
have introduced the latest improved machinery for 
brewing ant! bottling purposes. The saloon, park 
and halls are the only place of their kind in the i"il\ . 
Everybody who has seen the place pronounces it a 
g.irden spot, and those who have visited German\. 
liken it to a miniature of the famous Krolls Garden, 
at lierlin. The beautiful Hower beds, fountain, 
iiiarble top tables, latest iniprowd garden chairs, 
handsomely dec orated pavilions, shady trees, with 
electric fans tmderneath. make it a cool and pleasant 
place to spend a social hour, for families as well 
as clubs or societies, where lunches fit for epicures, 
,ind the now famous Old l',Lshii)ned ,iiid Mucn- 
chener ISeers c.ui be had. 

A visit to this pkice creati'S a desire to call again^ 
The halls are engaged by some of the leading Sing- 
ing Societies, Orchestras, Clubs and litiilding and 
Loan Associations, who make this well-kept and 
orderly place their headc|uarters. It can be reached 
in live minutes from the corner of liroad ar.d Market Streets, 
\i.i .South I )range .Avenue electric cars, which ])ass the door 
every three minutes. 

The bottling establishment at the brewerv, beiiig the only 
place where the Old Fashioned and Muenchciirr iJeers are 
bottled, is inider the personal supervision of the ])roprietors, 
gre.U c.ire being t.d;en ;is to cleanliness and proper liandling. 
We feel proud to say that thev have manv piiMiiinint pli\sici;ms 
as regular customers, not only in this cit\ but through the 
Oranges and Kli/.abeth. The fnin were compelled to establish 
agencies to supph the dein.ind in those vicinities. They 
will furnish their celebr.ued Old Fashioned, at Si.oo per case, 
and Miienchener (dark) at Si -25 per case. Deliveretl free of 
charge to any part of Newark. Klizabelh or the Oranges. 
Orders by telephone. No. 1070, will receive their personal and 
promiil atlriilion. 


they could enjov Old Fashioned kiger. So im- 
piessetl have some people become 
with the necessit)' of adulteration, 
in order to make money rapidly, we 
regret to say that efforts ha\e been 
m.ide to p.dni oil spurious .irlic les 
for the genuine br.nid. but so l.n as 
w c h.ive been able to learn all such 
ha\e failed ilisastrously. and our 
(^lil Fashioned stands triumphant 
in its line of purlt\. snue 
science which is ref|Lnred to pro- 
cme such results as nuist accrue 
in the piiKluction ol the genuine 
.11 tide ,ue. as .1 rule, not found in 
the possessi(.>n of such .is resort to 
baud to overre.icli .i ri\ al. 

The illustrations di-ipl.i\ ed on this 
l)age represent the well-equipped 
plant, whcie the ( )l(l F.ishioned 
Lager lieer is brewed, and the life- 
like photos of the enterprising men 
who conduct it. 


We especialK call the attention of the public to their celebiated 
Miienchener lieer. 'I he purit\' of this beer thev guarantee, its 
age at six months, and that .is a table drink it is of the highest 
possible concentration, and at the same time the lowest pos- 
sible degree of alcohol. It is a so-called malt extract which 
will help convalescents and weakened persons to renewed vigor 
Taken as ;i t.ible drink it will sharpen the appetite and (|uicken 
digestion, and as .1 beverage for tiie festive circle, it is of a 
delightfiill) exhilarating effect. The best Bohemian ho])S and 
specially prepared malt is used, making it pure and healthful 
to use. 

It is a pleasure, indeiil. to place upon recoril the fact tliat 
men who are good judges of beer and who understand the rich 
qualities of the Old Fashioned lager beer, as produced by these 
thoroughly competent brewers, have often gone miles out of 
their way on a hot suninier evening, to reach the place where 
a draught of the 



^ %^ 









THE subject of this sketch is a gei\tlein;in 
well and favorably known to the citizens 
of every section of the city. Mr. Joseph Har- 
burger, the courteous and able manager of 
Harburger's Hall, an illustration of which is 
presented on this page, was born in the city of 
.Mainz, German, in 1S54. He was educated in 
the schools of his native land and was. in early 
life, trained in the culture of grapes and the 
])roduction of wine, which was one of the prin- 
cipal industrial occupations cit the people of his 
native country. Coming to America in 1871, 
he entered the employ of D. Dreyfus & Co.. 
wine merchants, of New York City, and con- 
tinued with the firm for a period of seven years, 
when he entered into business on his own 
account, opening what is known as the Jerse\ 
House, on Cortlandt Street, New York City, 
which he successfully carried on for ten years. 
During the past seven years Mr. Harburger 
has conducted the well-known place of amuse- 
ment located at Nos. 80 and 82 Hamburg Place, 
and deserves credit for the able and courteous 
treatment rendered to the patrons of this popu- 
lar resort, upon all occasions. Harburger's Hall is one of the 
most popular amusement places situated in the Iron Bound 
District, and is largelv patronized by the numerous religious, 
patriotic, educational, industrial, fraternal, musical, social, 
benevolent and political associations that flourish in the eastern 
part of the city. Attached to the hall is a large and well-kept 
garden capable of accommodating over five hundred people. 
The grounds are neatly laid out with shade trees, shrubbery, 
liowers. etc., planted in profusion. The hall is heated through- 
out bv steam and lighted well, and has every convenience 
tending to accommodate the public. The genial proprietor 
is courtesy itself. He embodies in one man. traits that are 
rarely found together; common sense and sterling business 
tact, and united with these, the hightest order of ])ersonal 
accomplishments. He is one of the finest caterers in the city, 
and is widely noted in this line. 

h.ari;lR(;ek'.s h.m.i., hn iiamkurc pi, .ace. 



IN the illustrations presented on this page will be found a 
view which takes in the southeast corner of Ferry and 
Prospect Streets, shovving Poortman's Hail, which is much used 
by many well-known organizations for a meeting place. The 
building is of brick, and is a substantial structure, lately erected, 
in a style of architecture very attractive for that section of 
the city. The proprietor of the hall. Mr. Adolph Poorlnian, 
was born in Zevenaar, Holland. November, 1845, receiving his 
early education in the schools of his native village, and by trade 
is an engraver, having followed the occupation for many years. 
Coming to this country in 1880, he found employment at his 
trade, and after a few years he started in business for himself on 
Elm Street, in the Tenth Ward, where he kept a hall known as 
Democratic Headquarters, and removed from there to his 
present elegant location. In catering to tlic refined and delicate 
palates of the section of the city where he is 
located, he has built up and established a 
flourishing business. Mr. Poortman is one of 
the representative men of this calling. He 
carries continuously a general line of high-class 
wines and liquors, some of the better qualities 
of his stock being fit articles with which to grace 
the table of a cultured epicure. He is an ex|)ert 
and seldom goes astray when called upon for 
a decision as to the qualities of wines. His 
numerous patrons are enthusiastic in support of 
this fact, and place implicit faith in his judg- 
ment in this respect. 

Mr. Poortman, a photo of whom is shown on 
ihe following page, is experienced in catering, 
and is noted for the orderly manner in which 
he conducts the business which he represents. 
He is public spirited and generous, and has ever 
been identified with the ])rogress of ihe district 
in which he resides. Mr. Poortman is a mem- 
ber of all nearly the associations that abound in 
the eastern section of the city. His establishment 
has a wide patronage wliich has been drawn 
there through the customers' respect for him. 



Insl-.l'II IlAKIa'KOi:K. 


Tin; siibjccl of ihi-s skclcli 
w^is born at New Bruns- 
wick. N. J., in 1845. When the 
hite war l)roke out he joined 
the 2Sth N. I. \'olunteers. for 
nint- nicr.lhs. reniainini; until 
tile expiration of his time, fie 
ihcn enlisteil in the V. S. Navy, 
.ind served until the close of 
the war. He then learned tlie 
trade of mason and builder 
u hi( h he followed fcjr nine years, 
when he received the appoint- 
ment as Assistant Street Com- 
missioner, serving' two years. 
He w:is next appointed as super- 
intendent of the N. ^". Cilobe 
Gas Light Co.. of New IJruns- 
wick, N. J. He was next 
appointed as a night sergeant of 
the pohce force, and from there 
was tendered a position as de- 


AliOI.I'U l'(jOKTMAN. 

te(ti\e (jf the I'ennsj Ivani.i Kailroatl, serving them 
ten years. While with the company he made several very im- 
portant arrests, one of which was for emlje/.zling §12,000 of the 
company's money, the greater part of wdiich he succeeded in 
getting back. He resigned from the company's employ in 1889, 
with letters of high commendation. He then started in busi- 
ness for himself, opening a branch oflice in this city of the 
N. J. .State Detective Agencv. having an ollice at iSS Market 
Street. He w,is chief of the N. J. State Detective Agency for 
three consecutive years, and is now general manager of a 
brancli office in this city. 

His association is the oid\ legally incoipcjrated detective 
agency in the State of New Jei'sey. ft was organized December 
23, 1S70, and chartered April 4. 1S71. The original organizers 
were Jacol) Wambold, at present a lieutennant of the police 
department of tliecity : I'xhvarcl Mc William, e.v-chief of ]>olice ; 
Micliael Killouley. John i\f. Monas, Chas. \V. Mahon, William 
()'I5rien and Cornelius C. Martindale. This organization has 

amongst its mendjers some of the cleverest and sharpest 
detectives in the U. S. Mr. Gregory, a ])hoto of whom appears 
on this page, has been a member of the association for several 
years. He was not long located in Newark when the great 
strike of the Clark's Thread Co., in 1891, took place, and which 
he brought to a peaceful issue. In the fall of 1893, the great 
strike on the llehigh \'alley Railroad took place, which was 
placed in his har.ds .and which he handled and saved the com- 
pany thousands of doll.irs, which was highly ap])reciated by the 
company. He also does work for the large tire insurance com- 
panys of N. Y. and N. J. At present he has a large force of 
skilled detectives and is doing a large business in private woik. 
Mr. Gregory owns his home at 78 .Murray Street. 


WM. F. \'an Houtcn.a pholiMjf whom appe.ns 
was born in the city of New' York, 1830 

tins page, 
ity ot New' York, 1H39, coming to 
Newark with his parents in 1844, where he has since made his 

JOHN i;Ki;GOkV. 

home. He attended the public 
schools until he was ten years 
old and then went to sea as 
cabin boy with his father on a 
coasting vessel, continuing his 
studies wdieii not engaged at 
his duties, and going to school 
in the winter months. When 
he was fifteen years old, his 
father died, and he then went to 
sea with strangers. lie entered 
the navv in 1S55 as tu'st-class 
apprentice boy and served three 
years and one-half on the U. S. 
ship San Jacinto in the East 
India and China nntler 
Conmiodore .Armstrong, who 
completed Perry's treaty with 
Japan. He assisted to erect the 
first flagstaff and hoist the first 
American flag that ever waved 
on shore, in the town of .Sam- 
i.ida, where they left Consid- 





\ JHHIiMliP^^ 


W 11,1,1AM 1'. \ ,\N niiu lEN. 




arrived at Harrison's Landing. From lliere In- was sent lionie. 
When again able for duty he entered the navy, and was dis- 
cliarged in 1S65, and was employed in the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard. He then became master of several coasting vessels until 
lS6y, when he left the water and went on the Newark Police 
force until 1S80, when he resigned and entered the service of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, as detective, where he is still em- 
ployed. Mr. Van Houten is a past com- 
mander of Phil. Kearny Post, No. i. In 
October, 1895. he organized, in this city, 
the Admiral Boggs Association of naval 
veterans, and was elected its Captain and 
he is still its commanding officer. He con- 
nected himself with the New Jersey 
Detective Association in 1882, and has 
continued an active member ever since, 
having served two terms as its Captain. 

(".eneral Townsend Harris as 

the representative of Amer- 
ica. He was also one of the 

suite of the Commodore's in 

Pan Kok, the capital of 

.Siam. when the United States 

obtained one of their most 

important treaties with that 

government, and was also 

engaged in the battle of 

Harriers Forts, near Canton. 

in 1856. 

( )n his arrival in New York 

he was discharged, and 

again entered the merchant 

service. On the breaking 

out of the Rebellion he 

entered the army in Kearny's 

Brigade, and was with it in 

all the battles on the Pen- 
insular under McClellan. but 

was compelled by sunstroke 

and sickness, to go to the 

hos]iital after the army had 

change in adminislralion in 1S92 
New' Jersey Detective Agency 



A STRIKING and natural photo of a 
well-known citizen is presented on 
this page, Mr. John A. Rodrigo, wdio 
lirst beheld the light of day in this city, in 
August, 1838, and was educated in the 
public schools. By trade he is a carriage 
trimmer, having served his apprenticeship 
with the well-known firm of M. C. and 
J. H. Green & Co., who at that time were 
located on N. J. R. R. Avenue. In 1S61 
he enlisted in the Fifth Regiment. New 
Jersey Volunteer Infantry, and after 
serving two and one-half years, was pro- 
moted to the medical staff of the United 
States Army, serving until the termina- 
tion of the war for the Union. Since 
that time his pursuits in life have been 
various. As a private citizen he was 
called to preside as police justice, under 
the Republican rule in 1888, and served 
with distinction until removed by the RESIDENCE OF w. j. KEARXS, ON eh;hth ST. 

I Ic is connecicd with the 
hich has ils head<|uarters in 
Jersey City, and is also the treasurer and manager of the 
Merchants' Protective Association of this citw 

Mr. Rodrigo is closely identified with the Grand Army of tlie 

Republic, being a charter member of I'hii. Kearnv Post, No. I, 

of this department, who celebrated their thirtieth anniversary 

on October 26, 1896, and he is connected 

with many other patriotic, fraternal, indus- 

tri.d. soci.d and polilic.-il associations. 



IKWARK is no doubt one of the 
greatest consumers of coal among 
the cities of the American Union, and a 
well-known dealer in the black diamond 
trade is the subject of this sketch, Mr. A. 
Steines, a photo of whom is presented on 
this page. He was born in Germany, 
October 29, r83r, and came to America 
in June, 1852. He was educated in the 
schools of Newark, and is by trade a 
moulder, having served an apprenticeship 
with a well-known firm in this city. 

Mr. Steins commenced business on his 
own aciount in 1875, starting a brass 
foundry which he successfully conducted 
for fourteen years, and during the past 
eight years has been identified with the 
coal trade. His office and yards are 
located at 706 Market, at the junction of 
Ferry Street, and all coal delivered by 
this enterprising citizen is well screened 
and guaranteed, to consumers, to be in 
every respect the highest standard of 
excellence. Mr. Steines also deals in new 
and second-hand machinery of ever 
description, and has earned by his thrift 
and enterprise an enviablit name in all his 
l)usiness transactions. 



IM i i 


ON Spriiii^fifUl Avenue, (Hie 
cif till- i;ri-at liusiness 
tli()riiUL;hl'.iies i)f the Cily of but a few blocks from 
ils junction with Pulmont A\e- 
iiue. stands the plant of one of 
the leading and popular brewing 
institutions of the City of New- 
ark and County of Essex, New 
Jerse)', viz: 'I'lie Hill's I'nion 
lirewer)- Co.. Limited. It is 
oue of tlie oldest plants in the 
Count), having passed through 
various hands and has e.xprr- 
ience<l many \icissitudes. but is 
now on the top wave of pros- 
perity and popularity. 

The Company now (i induct- 
ing the brewery purchased it in 
the year 18S9. of William Hill, 
and has continued to conduct 
the business at the old stand. 
Nos. 333-345 -Springtield ave- 
nue ever since. The Company 
has made many alterations and 
has built an entirely new and 
elegant storehouse, and has 
gathered as fine a lager beer 
brewing parapharnalia as is to 

be found in any brewing establishment in the .State. It is a 
startling fact to make known, but nevertheless the truth lying 
therein must be told. Under the present management the 
brewery has nearly doubled its output, and now has a capacity 
of one hundred thousand barrels a year. I'nder the manage- 
ment of Mr. Arthur de Grouchy, the astute and business-like 
head of the concern, the sales of lager beer have increased one 
half, showing pretty conclusively that in the conser\ative anrl 
hard-headed business man is where the credit lies. In the short 
time that Mr. Arthur de Grouchy lias handled the reins and 
directed the course of its business affairs, he has demonstrated 
the facts that he has the tact to increase trade and the ability 
to hold it. The corps of wide-awake, always-ready and 
business-like assistants which he has been marvelouslv fortun- 
ate in calling around him, has done not a little in helping him 
to push fill ward the affairs of the great concern and to lighten 
his own burthen. He has made a host of business friends, 
and numbers among those whom he meets socially, many who 
sl.and high in the community, and whom almost any might be 
honored by the touch of their palm. Mr. Arthur de Grouchy a wide-open heart and is ever read\ to take a deep and 
lively interest in all ])ublic affairs, and the poor and needy 
never go empty handed away from his door, if in his power to 
relieve their wants. 

Now we come to the man who gives to the beer which has 
so popularized the concern, that peculiar Hash and flavor which 
is delightful to those w^ho watch and wait to taste and choose 
the brand of that brewer's make, which cheers, but dees not 
inebriate, Mr. I'ius Reiser, the brew-master. 'I'hat Mr. Reiser 
carries with him the open sesame which unlocks the deep 
secret which lies concealed in the " beauty take " of the brew- 
ing science, few will deny, when they have tarried long, rising 
early and retiring late in order to secure the " crowning take," 

1^ ■ n f i^,ss~a 



as drawn from the wood wherein is housed the lager of his 
make. liy hard work, close study and with the utmost care. 
Mr. Reiser has succeeded in putting forth a brand of beer which 
has popularizeil itself and been named the A-I .American. 
Mr. Reiser is justly proud of his success, and his friends, and 
he has lots of them, feel that, without a doubt, his A-i Amer- 
ican brand is the foremost American beer on the market. Mr. 
Reiser is of a retiring disjiosition, and it is only when he has 
pleased his employers and the public he has pleased 

Here comes in the fact that without rasp or jar the wonder- 
ful truth that the A-i American lager beer is found in many a 
gentleman's cellar in New ^'ork City where the strong and in- 
toxicating liquors once held the front but are now driven out, 
but not without leaving the rich consolation to hearts no longer 
made sad, since tem])tation no longer lingers but has taken its 
departure, giving place to the mild German beverage which, 
while cheering the dispirited, gives tone to the digestive organs 
and stimulates to renewed health. 

The brewery itself is a land-mark, the old building in which 
the business offices are now situated being erected in 1876. ()ld 
L'nion Park, which was laid out where the new storage 
house now stands, was the place where many of Newark's 
German-.'^merican citizens congregated in the days gone by, 
talked over the scenes where their homes were built aw.ay 
over the sea, sang the songs of the fatherland, and unwittinglv, 
perhaps, inade history for Newark by reason of the gathering 
of politicians who on occasions assembled there. Could some 
of those who have gone to their final reward return to take a 
survey of the grounds where they tended their gardens, they 
could easily exclaim, " \\"e built better than we knew." The 
consumption of their beer is daily increasing and it will soon be 
beyond the power of the present |)lant to sujiph' the demand. 




Tl li lUGH'l'FL'L men, and women too, fninkly ailmit that 
the Iniikling loan and savings associations established 
throughout the United States are doing more to educate and 
encourage the people to become provident and tlirifty than any 
institution in the country. Every one appreciates tlie fact that 
the monthly accumulation of small sums from many sources- 
and the investment of the funds thus obtained in good real 
estate mortgages at fair rates of interest, with the risk improved 
each month, not only by the natural ap])reciation of values, but 
by the steady reduction of the principal of the loan by the 
montlily ])ayments of the mortagee, together with the mutual 
division of the profits between the borrower and the lender, as 
their interests appear, is undoubtedly one of the surest as well 
as most profitable means of reaching an end desired by most 
men, viz., the ownership of a home and the providing for a 
competency in old age. The American Building Loan and 

paid shares issued at $ioo, witlidrawable at any time, worth six 
per cent, per annum, interest jiayable semi-annually. These 
shares are intended for those who wish to make a short lenii 
investment and are without an e<|ual when safety is considered. 
On i)ayment of $50 per share, a dividend of eight per cent, per 
annum will be paid semi-annually in lieu of other profits in 
of excess fixed dividends. 

Another feature which commends itself, and not be found in 
many other similar organizations, is its suspension which 
provides that if a meniber is unable to pay dues at any time 
through sickness, loss of work, or other unfavorable conditions, 
he can obtain a suspension certificate for a reasonable period, 
allowing him to resume payinents after his circumstances im- 
prove, without sustaining loss of dividends, and no dues or fines 
are charged pending resumption of payments. 

To sum up. the whole plan of the American is one of eipiily 
and justice, and we recommend its shares to those tiesiring ;i 
safe depository for their surplus earnings as an investment 
without an equal. The management is in good hands. Mr. 


Sa\ings Association, of New Jersey, with home office at 673 
and 675 Broad Street, Newark, is making rapid strides to the 
front, and not only in this city, but local branches have been 
and are being established throughout the State in all the prin- 
cipal towns. They are in a flourishing condition and report 
steady progress. 

The American was organized as a national association in 
.\ugust, 1S95, and commenced business in the latter part of 
September, since which time it has realized the promoter's 
fondest expectation. Of course, the primary object of the 
association is to enable every man who buys its shares to be- 
come his own landlord, and what grander purpose could any 
institution have than this? John Howard I'ayne immortalized 
himself by writing those beautiful lines, " Home Sweet Home," 
and yet he died an exile. But thanks to such institutions as 
this, no man inclined to be provident need ever be an exile, for 
its whole aim and plan is to preach economy to the improvident 
and help them to better things. 

The American issues tw-o kinds of investment shares— pre- 
paid at S50. to mature at $100 in ninety-six months, and fully 

E. J. Murphy, a real estate man of many years' experience, is 
the President; W. H. Rowe, Vice-President ; S. W. Chapman, 
Secretary, and Arthur Hinde, Manager of Agencies, also the 
organizer of this association and other similar institutions in the 
Old Country. The Board of Directors is composed of Messrs. 
Harvey C. Pearce and John Kowe. of Arlington, Hon. C. H. 
Baake, of Atlantic City, and Hon. Kred. Schuehardt, of Egg 
Harbor City. Mr. Frank C. Wilcox, w ho was for a number of 
years connected with the government of this cily as assistant 
attorney, is counsel for the company. The mission of the 
American Building Loan and Savings .Association, of New 
Jersey, is a laudable one and well worthy of public patronage, 
and all its operations are open to the fullest investigation. 

It has been a settled fact for years that the public institutions 
known as building and loan associations have come among us 
and to use an old and hackneyed expression, " have come to 
stay." No institution which was new and untried was ever 
received by the working and middle classes, who are ever 
watchful and chary, with more im|)licit faith it its inale good- 
ness than the building and loan societies. 



Till". ele;4ant resilience whieli our artist has sn 
iieatlv broughtout on this iiagewasconslriicted 
and is now occupied by the veteran steam boiler 
manufacturer, Lewis J. Lyons. For iuan\ years 
Mr. Lvons has conducted the business of steam 
lioiler making in Newark and is now enjoying tlie 
well-earned competency which his close attention 
to business, his ui>right character and well-known 
mechanical abilities have brought him. Tin- exten- 
sive factory buddings wherein the business is con- 
ducted are situated on Commerce Street and 
Passaic Avenue. 


THE city of Newark, New Jersey, has always 
been noted in the harness and saikllery hard- 
ware trade, not only in this country InU throughout 
the whole world, wherever the horse and carriage 
is used by the people. The company forming the 
subject of this inc|uiry have been establislied in 
business, in this city, since the year 1879. and its 
career, from the hour of its inception, has been 
signalized chielly by steady and sure |M ogress in 
the direction of merchantile prosperity. The plant 
is located at 88-98 Monroe Street, and is well e(|uip|)ed with 
machinery of every description, operated by experienced 
workmen, who are constantly employed in the manufacture of 
martingale rings, poker checks, buttons, rosettes and numer- 
ous other varieties for use in the harness and saddlery trade. 

The goods are made from carefully selected materials and 
are unexcelled for their quality, finished appearance and dura- 
bility. The business of the house is conducted throughout 
tlie whole country, and a large share of the firm's trade is 
devoted to the export business. Mr. Kearsing and son. 
photos of whom are herewith presented, are practical mechanics 
who have considerable experience and possess an accurate 
knowledge of the trade which they so ably and successfully 
conduct. A large and complete assortment of the pioducts 
are kept constantly in stock, and the reputation which the goods 
of the company have throughout the country is of the hightest 
character. Mr. Kearsing was born in New ^"ork City. 

RESlliENl K III' 1.. J. r.VOXS, Ml. I'RnSi'El 1' AVENUE. 



MONCi the undertakers of the city of Newark few have 
risen to a more deservetl prominence than Enoch B. 
Woodruff, wiiose offices and ware-rooms are at 846 Broad 
Street. Here at all hours of the day and night he is found 
readv to respond to the call of those who are so unfortunate as 
to need the services of an undertaker. An experienced female 
is always in attenda.nce. For convenience of location the 
establishment has few equals and no superiors. Enoch B. 
Woodruff is one of the oldest undertakers in Newark, and is a 
worthy representati\ e of the calling and a citizen of high stand- 
ing. His photo, on page 236, is truly life-like and natural. 



THE subject of this brief sketch was born and educated in 
the Fifth Ward of this city, and is a practical sanitarv 
plumber by trade, having served 
an apprenticeship with the late 
Walter 1'. Dunn, after which he 
commenced business for himself, 
and by his thrift and attention to 
the wants of customers, has suc- 
ceeded in establishing one of the 
best equipped plumbing plants to 
be found in the Ironbound District 
of Newark. A photo of the gentle- under consideration will be 
found on page 140 of this illustrated 
souvenir, and though one of the 
youngest men in the business he 
has executed several important con- 
tracts for the city and county 
government, as well as for private 
individuals. He is well-known in 
the Fifth Ward, which he repre- 
sents in the Common Council. He 
is one of the pioneers who founded 
— ^ Ihe Newark Rowing Club, and is a 

member of many organizations. william u. kearsing. 




WE have only to run back over the history of inusic and 
musical instrunients. in Essex County, but little more 
than a quarter of a century of time, to find the record of how 
and when the now celebrated Bradbury piano began its marvel- 
ously successful career, an instrument which in all probability 
has achieved a greater popularity than any other which has been 
put on the market, during any period of time since music was 
made to spring from pearly lips through ^Eolian harp and 
sound-board combination in harmonic time. The Bradbury 
was named in honor of the late song writer and sweet singer, 
William B. Bradbury, of Montclair, who first manufactured the 
piano which now beats his name. 

The health of Mr. Bradbury failing and his phvsician and 
friends advising him to discontinue the business, he sold out to 
Mr. Freeborn G. Smith, his superintendent, who has since con- 
ducted the business, his manufacluring establishment, deposi- 
tories, stores and salesrooms keeping pace with the " lirad- 
bury's " growth and popularity, and the increasing demand for 
this be.iutiful instrument among people of culture. At present 



fl.AXl.) WARKROOMS (IK FKEKCCiRN" (;. .S.MITH, CORNER t:R().\l) .\ N U WEST l'.\RK STK1.E1.S 

the Stores where the " Bradbury" is sold direct from ihc factory, 
number twenty-seven. Among these are the stores in New 
York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Jersey City, Saratoga Springs, 
Washington, Chicago. Kansas City, Newark, etc., Brooklyn 
alone having five handsome warerooms and three large manufac- 
tories. Tor the past few vears Mr. Freeborn G. -Smith, 
Jr., has been a member of the firm, he taking to the business as 
naturally as a duck to the water, his f.ilher reposing great confi- 
dence in his business ability. 

Mr. Smith, being a capital judge of human nature, has been 
able to keep al)()Ut him such praiseworthy assistants and sales- 
men, that his great business has been run with veiy little 
fricticju. The "Bradbury" is represented in Essex County by 
Mr. I'. R. Feehan, a gentleman who thoroughly understands 
the piano trade, and has presided over the business with a 
dignity and care which made it a success from the beginning. 

The following editorial notice which .iiipeared in the Ni:wa)k 
Item about the time the Bradbury piano concern moved into the 
present Newark quarters, corner of Broad and West Park Streets, 
voices a tribute richly deserved. 

" As we were passing up Broad Street a day or two since, our 
attention was called to the elegant new quarters wherein is housed 
part of the piano interests of F. G. Smith, where the music-lov- 
ing public will fmd the sweet-toned instruments which continue 
to speak the name and musical fame of the lamented Bradbury in 
the same notes of gladsome harmony which leaped from the ivorv 
keys under liis skillful touch and from his almost inspired lips. 

" Curiosity bade us call in the familiar old store building at 
the southwest corner of Broad and West Park Streets, Nos. 
679 and 68 1 of the former, yet so elegantly altered and attired 
w\as it that nothing short of a formal introduction from the 
polite and business-like manager, Mr. F. R. Feehan. would 
satisfy us that it was the very same but metamorphosed place 
known to us of yore, liehind the great plate-glass windows, 
reposed on carpets of \elvet, the very prettiest and costliest of 
pianos and the richest in lone of the Bradbury make, while all 

along down the sides of the ex- 
tensive exhibition and salesroom 
were ranged instruments which 
for style, price and richness of 
tone could not help satisfying 
the most fastidious buyer. As 
ue drew- forth the richness of 
tone by touching the keys as we 
passed, our wonder grew at the 
modest sum which we learned 
they could be bought for as we 
asked the price, uid still the 
wonder grew, why so many 
households, otherwise artistic- 
ally finished and furnished, are 
yet without a " Bradbury." and 
this, too, when everybody knows 
how elevating, refining and edu- 
cating piano music is. Just 
here may as well be interpolated 
:i fact worth knowing, viz.: That 
iiistrmnents can be bought di- 
lect from the manufacturer at 
I he very lowest possible prices 
and on the easiest terms imagin- 
able, (he profit which ordinarilv 
linds its way into the middle- 
man's pocket reni.iining with 
the purchasers of these beautiful 
"On ascending the easy llight of stairs leading to the second 
door, we were amazed to find that the story "had but half 
been told,' for here was another extensive exhibit and sales 
room, carpeted with rich .\xminstei", moquet or Brussels, w'here 
the buyer can move from the rosewood or cherry, or from the 
exquisite upright (siq>erior) grand concert, new upright or the 
familiar old square, and from either of which the tones w'ill 
give out their sweetness for the satisfaction, delectation and with 
unalloyed pleasure, without disturbing sensitive or musical 
ears. And this reminds us that it might be well in this comiec- 
tion to say how easy an instrument the piano is to learn to play, 
it requiring but little study, while persistency in practice wins the 
day. Our readers may call as they pass that way, purchase 
an instrument aiul om- voucher for it, if you try you will soon 
learn to plav. Then, O, ecstatic satisfaction, even though life's 
journey is far beyoiul the month of May. We know . having tried. 




t-^--*-^, 1, « 

S-^ "5*^ 

C'AI, AN'li WLiiJli \AKLi ''1. >, r I; I \I M I- I ■ ,\ Ci i . i:i.)l<NI,R NKW j KKM- \" KAll,Kil\[) A \' ICX IM'. ANh lAl \NI I IK 


ONli i)f the iiiosl of tlic- coninn-rcial iiileresls 
Newark are tlmse cunnpclcd with supplyiiif; the needs 
(it this city anit its suburbs with all kinds of fuel. Among the 
enterprises of this character, a particularly noleworlhy one is 
that of S. Triinnier & Co.. wlio are wholesale and retail dealers 
in tile best qualities of Lehigh and free-burning coal, hickory, 
oak and pine kindling wood, charcoal, etc., ha\ing their ofiue 
at New Jersey Railroad A\enue and Lafayettr .Street. 'I'he 
business was establislied about twenty years ago by Mr. 
.Samuel Trimmer, who was at that time a large dealer in wood 
e.\clusivel\', and in Januaiy, 1894. the |iresent firm style was 
adopted. Previous 10 this time Mr. Trimmer had added the 
coal business to that of tlie wood industiy. Mr. Trimmer 
was th.e ])ioneer in introducing to the dealers in Newark the 
very jiopulai- kilii-ilned bundle kindling wood, and in fact the 
firm continue to make the wood br.mch of their business a 
prominent feature. They transact a larger business in this line 
til. Ill aiiv other firm in the city, and make a specialty of hand- 
ling wood bv the load, cord or in 1 ar-load lots. Their leading 

specialty in coal is their noted Lehigh No. 2 nut coal, to which 
they pay particular attention, and the enormous quantity of this 
si/e that they h.indle speaks for the quality and popularity of 
this coal. 

Their yard at New Jersey Avenue and Lafayette 
.Street is 175 b\' 100 feet in dimensions, and contains large 
sheds for storing coal, charcoal and wood, and a fully equipped 
electric power kindling wood ])lant for sawing and splitting 
the wood into any desired length and size. 15esides the very 
large C|uaiitiiy of coal 1 anied at their yard, they also have a 
large storage ca|)acity at the Lehigh Valley Coal Co.'s pockets, 
and are therefore able to supply every demand for the best grades 
of hard and free-burning coal for household use, steam coal 
for manufacturing. ,ind liitumiiious coal for blacksmithing and 
forging, .and c haicoal especially adapted for jewelers' and 
plumbers' use. The business conducted by this firm is \ ery 
extensive, for beside the almost countless number of private 
families that they supply, they count among their customers a 
large number of the representative manufacturing houses of the 
city. In addition to this thev do a \ery large car-load business, 

S.\MUl-;i, TKIM.MI-.U. 

supplying many plants through- 
out the northern part of New Jersey. 

The firm is coraposed of Mr. 
Samuel Trimmer and Mr. Ernest 
C. Strempel. Mr. Trimmer is a 
native of New Jersey, a survivor 
of the war for the L'nion. and now 
resides in New York, where he is 
engaged in the same line of busi- 
ness. Mr. Lrnevt C. Stnnipel is a 
n.-itive and life-long resident of this 
I il\ , and previous to his becoming a 
member of the firm, w'as for .1 
number of years manager ol tin 
Newark business, and under his 
direction and management the busi- 
ness has assumed its present large 
proportions, as well as its unqucs- 
lioiK'd reputation among the fore- 
most concerns in this line. 

The illustrations present ,111 r.K- 
celleiit view of the plant, on P. R.R. 
Avenue and L.ifa\etle Street and 
of the proprietors. 





IT would be difficult to select out of the whole miscellany of 
Newark's domestic industries, one which has had a more 
important bearing upon the commercial affairs of the city than 
the trade in general family groceries. This important and 
necessary business stands foremost in line with the many com- 
mercial enterprises that have contributed to the steady growth 
and prosperity of the city. In reviewing the many able and 
honorable names identified with this particular industry, we 
take pleasure in mentioning that of iVIr. Joseph Logel, a faith- 
ful picture of whom appears in the illustrations shown on this 
page. The business is located on Springfield avenue, corner 
Fifteenth street, and is one of the neatest and best equipped 
grocery plants in that section of the city. 

Stocked with a large and well-selected line of general family 
groceries and provisions, including new crop teas, coffees, 
spices, dried foreign and domestic fruits, hermetically sealed 
goods of every description— in fact, everything in the line of 
food supplies known to the trade, all of which are received 
from first hands, from the best and largest markets in the 
country, enabling the enterprising proprietor to supply the 
customers at the lowest, rock-bottom prices. In connection 
wiih the grocery business, a well-regulated meat market is a 
prominent feature of the house, which is very convenient for 
the people residing in the neighborhood. Polite assistants are 
in attendance, and free deliveries are made to customers in all 
parts of the city and its suburbs. Mr. Logel was born in 
Providence, R. I., and was educated in the schools of the city. 
He has been identified with the industries of Newaik for 
nearly thirty years. 


THERE are many of our citizens who pursue the occupation 
of real estate and insurance brokers and who have earned 
a well -merited reputation for the conscientious and efficient 
manner in which they handle all interests intrusted in their 
hands. Prominent among the number is Mr. H. E. Schwarz, 
whose office is now at 836 Broad street, but was formerly located 
at 210 Market street. He established the business of real 
estate and insurance in 1S73, at Elizabeth, N. J., and in 1875 


removetl it to Newark Mr. Schwarz has a wide range of prac- 
tical experience and a large and inlluenlial acquaintance in 
business circles. As a real estate broker he has ]iaid special 
attention to large tracts of lands for building and 
farms, ard upon his books are full descriptions of the most 
eligible bargains available in tracts of land to be laid out in 
building lots as well as farms, in every part of the State of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, etc. Mr. Schwarz, an excellent 
[ihoto of whom is presented on this page, is a veteran of the 
late war, having been an officer in one of the Pennsylvania 
regiments of infantry, and is a member of James A. Garfield 
Post, No. 4, G. A. R. 


THE striking photo of Miles F. Quinn, presented on page 88 
of this illustrated souvenir, will be readily recognized by 
his many frientls and admirers, and it is hardly necessary to go 

• > 

JUbbrii LtJuLL. 

into details concerning him 
or his business qualifications. 
He conducts a general real 
estate and insurance business 
at No. 16 Mulberry street, 
on the very location where 
he first beheld the light of 
day, and devotes his personal 
attention to the buying, sell- 
ing and exchanging of prop- 
erty, writing lines of insur- 
ance in the most reliable 
companies, procuring loans 
on bonds and mortgages, 
collecting rents and caring 
for estates. Mr. Quinn is 
also a commissioner of deeds 
as well as a notary public for 
New Jersey and several other 
states, and possesses a mas- 
terly knowledge of 
duties. His ability and 
courtesy have won for him the 
respect of his many clients. 

*W ^sn 






1 H ■ r H a i^ r r i ■ r r \ 


i^.i*^^ m % ,i. 

llfb •-■, ! r r a ^ r r r 'l 




WHILE the firniamcnt which o'erhangs the city of Nevvarl< 
is bespangled witli stars, emlilematical of the greatness, 
the grandeur, the sl<ill, the genius, the influence of men, who 
have made their marl; in one of the several particular lines 
which either may have followed, few have made their own parti- 
cular orb shine the brightei by the persistent effort and the 
zealousness with which they have followed it up when once they 
got it started, than has Joseph S. Mundy. 

It is not particularly necessary, for the searchers after signs 
which mark the places all over the city where success has been 
wrought, to dwell long on the ]ilot of ground on Prospect 
street, to find where the creat buildings are erected in 

which are manufactured the output of Joseph S. Mundy's genius, 
the Mundv Friction Drum Hoisting t2ngine, now in use all over 
the world. Joseph S. Mundy was brought up in the country, 
worked on the farm in the summer and went to school in the 
winter. In 1866 he came to Newark and apprenticed himself 
to an engineering firni. In 1871 he began sketching the plans 
for his famous Friction Drum Hoisting Engine. Since 1S70 he 
has been sole owner of the business. 


THE photographs of the gentlemen represented on this page 
are those of Messrs. De Jonge & Steiger, architects, doing 
business at No. 224 and 226 Market street. Air. Maurice De 


Jonge studied at the office of 
Staehlin & Steiger, after which he 
graduated from the Architectural 
department of Cooper Institute, 
New York City, in 1890. He re- 
mained with the firm imtil 1S93. 
xvhen he started in business for 
himself. Mr. Fred J. Steiger is the 
son of the late John F. Steiger, of 
the turn of .Siaehhn & Sleiger, 
uniler whose personal stipervision 
he engaged in the architectinal 
profession, and has acquired an 
experience beyond his years. Many 
handsome and costly residences 
and commercial buildingshavebeen 
erected m this city and nearby 
\icinity under their super\ision. 
among them being the residence of 
and stables of Edwin Kirch, Esc|., 
the residences of Sidney S. Smith. 
John F. Murphy and Frank Opdyke. 
also Jacoby Hall on Broad street. 

l-NKO J. sriilOKK, AK( HriECI', 




ARCHITECTURE has nourished since away 
back in the ages when mankind first quit his 
nomadic life where the tent was his home, and 
began the building of dwelHng places of wood and 
stone. Just how much of this science was dis- 
playe<l in the lines of the Tower of Babel and the 
great temples scattered through the eastern world, 
we have little means of divining. But from the 
time Solomon reigned in Jerusalem it is clearh' 
shown by bible history that this beautiful science 
of architecture flourished and has left its footprints 
on every page of history. It is hardly possible thai 
from the genius alone of Hiram, from whose trac- 
ing board sprang the beautiful ideal of David, tin- 
Temple of Solomon, which shone in its richness 
like a galaxy of stars in the firmanent at night, came 
with the inspiration of the moment, but rather from 
the result of his deep study of the thoughts and laliors 
of other scientific men antl the garnering by this 
brilliant student of what they had accomplishe I 
in ihe ages gone by and H.ished on the world from 
the beautiful lines of the temple as they came in 
full combinations from his tracing board. So clear, 
so concise, and with such marvelous perfection thev 
came from his pencil, that no sound of hammer, 
saw or any other metal tool was necessary to be 
heard in its erection, every huge stone and cedar 
stick being prepared in the quarries and on the hill 
sides from this great architect's working plans. 
Contemporaneous history gives examples in multitude of the 
growth of this beautiful science which has left its marks in the 
ruins of Balbec, the Pyramids, and ruins all along the great 
river Nile and where dash the cruel waves of the heartless 
Mediteranian. And so as time moves on to the hours when we 
reach this grand science in its perfection, as demonstrated in 
the work of the pencils of the famed Michael Angelo and 
Raphael and their contemporaries, when the beauty of poetry 
and the marvels of architecture rose and fell like the waves of 
the storm disturbed ocean. 

Enough of the past. It is not of the men under whose genius 
the science of architecture grew and prospered with which we 

WHK.4'rONS lillLUING. 

GEOKGIC B. HuuPlik. 

have to do in our ESSEX CouNTV, N. J., 1 1. lustra ted. nor is 
it of the men who wrought to bring out the fine lines of London's 
St. Paul or New York's old landmark. Trinity, the men of our 
era who have been and arc to-day engaged in the work of 
dotting the world over not alone with such mighty examples of 
their wonderful ca[)abililies as are seen in the Washington and 
Grant monuments, the Capitol building, where the representa- 
tives of the nation, the defenders of liberty assemble each year, 
the great building, which leaped from their plans and flew over 
thousands of miles of oiu' doni.iin lo where towered all along 
marvels of their exploits, to the banks of Lake Michigan and 
Jackson Park, to become the mightiest exhibits of the great 

Centennial fair, each startling the 

world with their grandeur, their 

beauty and strength, and all carried 

;iway in wonder at the mighty pro- 

|iortions of the one Manufacturers 

Huilding, covering 32 acres of 

ground and mounting heavenw-ard 

nearly five hundred feet, not to say a 

single word forthe Ferris wheel, the 

engineering feat of the ages. Among 

these men, architects of Newark 

< ity, it is our pleasure to speak in 

this souvenir work of Hooper & 

i"o.,Irvin G.and George B., who have 

their studios in the Credit System's 

Huilding, corner Washington and 

Market streets, w-here they are 

f a r n i n g fame for themselves 

and adding to the mighty 

treasures of architectural art and 

.1 doming their profession, in 

modesty of assuinption of thedegree 

of their skill and advancement. ikvin g. hooper. 




THE city of Newark looks to her young men for the steady 
rise and progress of her industrial interests, and she per- 
haps could not find two more energetic or competent men in 
whose hands she might trust a share of the work than Messrs. 
Philip J. Bowers and Walter H. Gray, general real estate and 
insurance brokers, of 189-191 Market street. A view of their 
elegant place of business and life-like photos of the firm, is 
herewith presented in the illustrations. The business waN 
founded by Mr. Philip J. Bowers, who is a Newarker by birth 
and education, and who recently associated with himself Mr. 
Walter H. Gi-ay, who was born and educated in lioston, Mass., 
and having considerable experience in the profession, makinj.; 
the present firm, known under the style of Philip J. Bowers & 
Co. During their short time in real estate transactions they 
have earned a reputation for being two of the most active youn.L; 
men in their line ; although, prior to their present venture, both 
of the partners had spent long terms with other houses, where 
they thoroughly mastered every detail of the intricate business. 
No greater recommendation could be given them than the record 
of the fact that just previous to the presidential election in 1896, 
when the banks and financial institutions of the city were un- 
wiilin'T to advance loans on almost any terms, this young firm 
were able to place a loan of $43,500, a transaction at that time 
noticed by the daily press as a deal out of all ordinary considera- 
tions. This firm conduct a general real estate and insurance 
brokerage, buying, selling and exchanging every description of 
property, placing loans on bond and mortgage, handling m- 
vestment securities and writing lines on insurance in the most 
reliable companies at the lowest premium rates. The firm have 
on their books constantly a list of bargains in factory buildings, 
elegant residences, stores, city lots, and well regulated and 
improved farms. Philip J. Bowers & Co. make a specialty of 
procuring loans, in which they have had a phenomenal success 
and it is said that they have been successful in placing more 
money on bond and mortgage in a certain period, than any 
other three firms doing business in the city, a remarkable show- 
ing for the youngest house in Newark. The firm transacts 
business through competent agencies in every section of the 
State, and Mr. Bowers is identified with the real estate depart- 
ments of one of the largest savings and loan associations in New 
Jersey, which gives this firm another advantage in this connec- 





tion. All this activity in no way interferes with these energetic 
and wide-awake young brokers from giving personal attention 
to all the details of their insurance department, which would be 
considered by itself a large and successful business for any firm 
so recently established. In this department they areably assisted 
by our well known fellow-townsman, Mr. E. A. Johnson, who 
has been connected for many years with several well known 
and reliable insmance companies, having a thorough knowledge 
with all the details and methods of fire and accident risks. The 
firm represents only the leading and most reliable companies in 
these lines and the countersign of Philip J. Bowers & Co. on a 
policy is a guarantee that it is correctly drawn and that the 
terms of the contract will be carried out. The secret of their 
success in all the branches of this business is due to the energy, 
activity and precision in all particulars and the most thorough 
care given to all transactions committed to their care, whether 
the amount involved is a few dollars or runs into hundreds of 
thousands. From their present beginning it is easy to predict 
for their future a foremost position among 
the real estate firms of Newark, founded 
upon strict attention to businesss, un- 
tkagging energy and unvarying integrity. 
To the efforts and business transactions 
of men like Messrs. Bowers & Co., the 
city is indebted to a great extent for its 
■^leady growili and advancement as an 
industrial centre, and with their ideas 
imbued by others it would be soon possi- 
lile to realize a greater Newark, embrac- 
ing all the territory east and west of the 
]iiesent city limits from and includiiii; 
lersey City, on the east, to and including 
I lie second range of the Orange Mountains 
on the west and stopping only at 
noith and south with the cities of Eliza- 
beth and Paterson. Such a district care- 
fully filled up with a variety of manufac- 
turing industries, and useful and attractive 
homes, would become distinguished as 
the most advanced and |:irosperous indus- 
trial centre in the United States. vvai.if.h 11. okav. 




THE subject of this sketch, whose 
excellent photo appears below, 
is a well known citizen, whose career 
in the struggles of life is worthy of 
record on the pages of this illustrated 
souvenir. He was born in Ireland in 
1S36, and came to this country in his 
early teens, receiving a limited educa- 
tion in the schools of this city, after 
which he was apprenticed to Mr. L. J. 
Lyons, with whom he learned the 
trade of steam boiler making. In 1864 
he associated with Mr. Samuel Lyons, 
a son of his former employer, and 
together they purchased the plant and 
conducted the business under the firm 
name of Samuel \V. Lyons & Co.. 
until the death of Mr, Samuel W. 
Lyons, which occurred in 1866. when 
the present well known firm of L. J. 
Lyons & Co. was organized, and has 
been successfully continued ever since 
that time. The plant of this firm is 
located on Commerce street, and 
occupies all the ground running 
through to Passaic avenue, and is 
admirably equipped with all the neces- 
sary machinery, and appliances for 

conducting the trade. It is a fact that the firm have made a 
great deal of noise in the conduct of their business, but this has 
been done without bluster or show. A large corps of 
experienced mechanics and skilled workmen are constantly em- 
ployed in manufacturing steam boilers of all grades and sizes, 
also in constructing revolving barrels, iron tanks, dryers, etc. 
The boilers of this firm are located in the churches, schools, 
institutions, factories and homes of the people all over the 
Union, and have a reputation for safety and durability as exten- 
sive as the land they live in. This is another demonstration of 
what pluck, determination and honesty can accomplish in the 
struggles of life, combined with attention to business. Mr. 
McCabe is, strictly speaking, a self-made man, having raised 
himself steadily to his present position by close attention to busi- 

Edwards was 


ness. He is well known in the industrial circles of this city and 
is honored for his integrity to business principles. He is a 
director and treasurer of St. James' Hospital, located in the 
eastern section of Newark, N. J. 


IN the illustrations presented on this page will be found an 
excellent and life-like portrait of Mr. F. C. Edwards, the 
well known broker and negotiator of loans, located in rooms 
6-7, at No. 191 .Market street. He first saw the light of the 
world in May. 1853, and has always resided in Newark, having 
attended the public grammar and high schools, graduating from 
the old Bryant, Stratton and Whitney Business College. Vr. 
connected with the old 


firms of C. Walsh & Son and Weiner & 
Co., as bookkeeper. He made an early 
start in business on his own account, at 
the age of twenty-one, having founded 
the Fhtt-nix Lock Works, which is still in 
existence on Halsey street. After ten 
years he severed his connection with the 
above concern and took up his present 
business. He is also the secretary and 
treasurer of the .'Vmerican Wall Paper 
and Paint Company, doing business at 
255 Market street, which was incorporated 
in 1895. They are the general agents for 
the Corey-Heller Company for this sec- 
tic ^n pf the State. Mr. Edwards is well 
known in business circles as one of the 
most successful negoliaters of stocks and 
bonds in this city. He is connected with 
several of Newark's industries and during 
his business career has aided many who 
were financially embarrassed. 

F. C. F,L)W,Mil>S 






HE city of Nfwark is ju!,tly noted (or the many anil various | 
kind of industrial pursuits conducted in lier corporate 
limits, and few cities in the United Slates arc better known princi- 
pally through the superiority of the manufactured products, fn 
lis connection we take pleasure in nienlioning an enterprise 
ijt is highly commendable, and whose career is worthy of 
iiilalion, in thtsc times of rivalry and sharp competition tliL- 
Ntwaik Coach Lamp Manufacturing Co.. whose plant is shown 
,n tlie illustrations, with life-like photos of the men who com- 
I ose the firm. The industry was commenced in a small wa\ 
. n Arlington street, in July 1891, and during the past six years 
has been successfully conducted by the original founders, Messrs. 
Hattel. Schmidt. Eberhardt and Walter, each of whom are 
practical mechanics and possess a thorough knowledge of the 
coach lamp industry. The firm manufactures every description 
l.unps, with a metal spinning, and 


of coach, carriage and hearse 
gold, silver and nickel plating departments, which are admir- 
ably equipped with every impiovement known to the trade. 
Each member having served an aiiprenticeshiii to the business, 
occupies a ])Osition in the 
factory, the duties of which 

side business, being well known on the road and is thoroughly 
familiar with the carriage builders throughout the entire coun- 
try. The firm have successfully cinducted their business and 
lireasted the hard times of the past three vears which will long 

be remembered as a period 
that trietl men's souls as 


are discharged in an able 

manner, Mr. Eberhardt 

being the superintendent. 

Mr. Hattel having charge 

of the lamp iiiakmg and 

plating departments, while 

Mr. Schmidt conducts the 

spinning department and 

acts as treasurer of the 

company, and Mr. Walter 

is the secretary and man- 
ager. The plant is coni- 

plete in all its arrange- 
ments, having a capacity 

for ]iroducing thirty thou- 

santl pairs of l.imps an- 
nually. The high grade 

lamps manufactured by 

this firm are r.ipidiv 

becoming celebrated for 

their superior const ruction, 

durability, workmanship 

and finish, and being expert mechanics they are enabled to do 

their own designing, having produced many new styles which 

have attracted the attention of the home as well as the export 

trade. Mr. Walter, the man.iger, personally attends to the out- 
business or the old axiom, that 

Tilings." These four young men, each of whom had studied 
the art of coach lamp making and had garnered all "the facts 
belonging to the trade, was ready to pull of^ his coat and roll up 
his sleeves and go to work with a will, determined to win in the 
light for supremacy. They had to come in contact with the 
experience of old heads and lo meet in the markets of the coun- 
11 y such a fieice competilion ,is the increase in the number of 
|iroducers always beget, and when the young firms win success, 
.IS this quariet most assuredly has, the reward comes in the 
increased demand for their goods and the well deserved and 
honest commendations which ever follow. To this young firm 
has come all this, and so systematic has been the conduct ol 
I he affairs of their business, their growth cannot but be com- 
mensurate with the effort put forth. The lamps from this con- 
cern show to the world in their real beauty, that there was real 
GUSTAVE L. H.vTTEi,. mechanical and artistic merit in each member. 

well as their bank accounts 
and the years 1894-5-6, 
will go down in history as 
a record breaker in the 
story of panics and indus- 
trial depression. Such, in 
brief, is the record which 
this firm can boast of, 
composed as it is of four 
united and determined 
mechanics, who have 
demonstrated their ability 
10 conduct their own busi- 
ness and have never per- 
mitted the business to in- 
lluence them. These men 
have set an example in 
pushing to success an in- 
dustrial pursuit which 
others might follow 
with satisfaction. Since 
thev have shown that even 
m the midst of the gravest of difliculties and throughout all the 
period of the gravest business and financial depression known in 
the history of either, these men have apparently never lost sight 
for a moment of the immense value of close application to 
■ I't rseverance Conquers All 





FOR more than half a century 
tliere has been conducted 
in this city an industry which, 
in extent and usefulness of its 
production, stands unrivalled. 
We refer to the steam saw and 
planing mills plant conducted 
under the firm name of L^avid 
Ripley & Sons Timber & Lumber 
Co.. a remarkable and telling 
photo of which appears in the 
beautiful illustration presented 
on this page. The business of this 
great concern has a convenience 
of situation surpassed by few. 
if any. similar industry in any 
city in the LInited States. More 
than half a century of years 
have passed auay since David 
Ripley, the founder, then a poor 
and almost friendless boy. came 
to this city from Green's Farms, 
in Connecticut, where he was 
born in 1803. He brought with 

him little or no cash, but possessed what was far better — an 
acli\e brain, a healthy physique and a strong right arm, great 
and mighty factors in the upbuilding of a home and a fortune. 
His business foundations were laid firm and deep in the great 
and lasting principles of the virtues of temperance, fortitude, 
prudence and justice, and he was never known, during all his 
long business career, e.xtending over a period of more than fifty 
years, to deviate or part from them. Early in life he imbibed 
a sti'ong hatred for the institution of slavery and was always a 
fearless champion of its abolition. In the latter part of the 
fifties he brought down on his head not a few maledictions on 
account of his sentiments in this regard, but his convictions of 
right were so strong and his inbred love of honor still stronger, 
that he was never happier or showed up to his neighbors in 
better form than when withstanding the taunts of the thought- 
lessness of those who opposed him. He was the founder in 



organizing the Clover Street ln<lustrial School, and contributed 
generously towards the support of the [loor children in that 
section of the city. A marked specialty of the business was 
the sawing of logs into timber, boards, planks, joists, sills, 
studding, etc., to order. The trees, being purchased on forest 
lands in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, were chopped down and 
rafted on the Delaware and Susciuehanna rivers and brought 
into his own plant via Passaic River and Morris Canal, both of 
which run past his doors. Many of the logs which were felled 
in the forests of Georgia antl Alabama were sawed into boards 
and planks in this time-honored mill. 

Few industries have, perhaps, done more toward advancing 
the manufacturing interests of this city than the lumber industry 
carried on under the well-known name of David Ripley & Sons. 
.Along with their e.Ktensive sawing and planing mill, the sons 
and grandsons who have succeeded the founder have added a 


box plant on a very e.xtensive scale. 
Thousands of boxes go forth from 
their works to the great manufacturing 
establishments engaged in other lines 
of trade that requires them to ship their 
product to the marts of trade through- 
out thecountry. Besidesfillingsuccess- 
fullyall the responsibilities attachingto 
such a large business, the present pro- 
jirietors have kept untarnished the 
badge of good citizenship. Ml'. William 
A. Ripley having served as one of the 
first police commissioners of this city, 
and represented his ward in the Board 
of Chosen Freeholders and his assem- 
bly district in the State Legislature 
with credit to himself and satisfaction 
to his constituency. Mr. John Wattles 
Ripley has also filled the responsible 
office of Alderman, representing the 
people of his ward with ability. After 
the death of John Wattles Ripley the 
new company was incorporated. 

CllAKl.KS O Kll'LEV. 




NE \V A K K stands to-day 
without a rival in the 
leather industry in the civili/ed 
world. The percentatje of her 
population engaged in the work 
of converting the hides of 
animals into leather, is truly 
startling in amount when com- 
pared With that of many of ht-r 
sister industries. When the 
amount of capital invested in the 
tanning plants which have grown 
np within her borders during the 
past decade is considered, there 
is little wonder that the growth 
of the city has been so pheno- 
menal, and that when it is added 
to the entirety of money invested 
in leather-making enterprises, it 
mounts up to more than sixty 
millions of dollars. 

When the first tanner laid the 
foundations for the lime pit and 
tannery in the early history of 
the town, he in all probability 
built better than he knew. He 
little thought in his modest 

beginnings he was lighting the spark of an industry that would 
know no quenching. He had much less thought that his modest 
beginnings would have the marvelous growth and development 
which marks the greatness of this important branch of the 
manufacturing industries of New Jersey's metropolitan city in 
1897. The history of the leather industry is so interwoven with 
the rise and progress of the city of Newark itself, that in writ- 
ing the history of one, the statement of facts relates to the other, 
so close do the lines of their march run together. 

Among the enterprising firms engaged in this great Ijranch of 
Newark's industrial interests, is found that of M. & M.