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A dissertation submitted to the Eoaxd of University Studiee 
of the Johns Hopkins University in conformity with 
the requirements for the degree of 
Doctor cf Philosophy 


GrsLce Hadley Beaxdsley 




pa^s -10. 

List of aobx aviations — -— ^ 1 

Intxo duct ion > ■ 3 

Chciptsr I - The Introauction of the Ethiopian 

into Greece • 8 

II - The Fifth Century - The Ethiopian Type on 

Plastic Vases — 33 

III - The Fifth Century - The Ethiopian Type on 

Vase Paintings 53 

IV - The Fifth Century - The Ethiopian Type on 

Llincr Objects 83 

V - The EL,hiopi?:a Type in the Fourth Century S7 

VI - The Ethiopian in the Hellenistic Tfoxld. 111 

VII - The Ethiopian in Poman Literature ■ 1S7 

VIII - The Ethiopian in Boman Art 173 

Bi'Dlicgraphy — • 194 

Vita — — ^. 308 


A. J. A. Americcr. Journal of Archaeology 

Annali Annali dell' Institute di Corrf spondenza 

Ant.Denk, Ant ike Denkniaeler 
Axch.Aiiz. Archaeologischox Anzeiger 

*E(fi. 'A/OX' *^^'n/^^/^'S ^/OJ(/»^iO><oyttcfi 

Arch.Zeit. AxcliaeclogisGhe Zeitung 

Ath.MittU. Hittheilungen des deutschon archaeologisciien 

Institute, Athenische Attheilung 
B.S.A. Annual of the British School at Athens 

B.C.H. Bulletin de Ccrrespcndancs Hellenique 

B.Metr.Mus. Bulletin ex the Metropolitan Museum, Hev; York 
B.Mus.F.A. Museiim of Fins Arts Bulletin, Boston 
Bulletin© Bulletino dell' Institute di Gorr^spondenza 

V,-. J-alixb. Jarirbuch des deutschen axchaeolo^ischen 

Jb.Kunstisa&mji. Jahr touch der kunsthistoxischen Sanmlungen 

des Allsrhoechf^ten Kaiserhauses, Wien 
Jb.Phil.Paed. Keue Jshrbuecher fuex Philologie und Pae- 

da_,ogik (Fleckeisen' s Jahrbuecher) 
Jh.Oest.Axch.Iasr^. Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen 

axchcieolc.-isGhen Instituts 
J.H.S. Journal ci Hellenic Studies 

J.P.S. Journal of Ponan Studies 

^'A'V>^ >^»A)^CkA 1%^ ^i^ 

Mel. Arch. Hist. Llelanges d' Axcheclogie et d'Histoire 
Men. Ant. Monunaenti Antichi, Peale Accademia dei Lincei 

Mon.Pict Hon-uments et Memoires publies pax I'Academie 

des Inscriptions ot BellGs-Lettxes (Fcn- 

dation Piot) 
Monimienti iIo:iumenti Inediti publicata Jail' Institute 

di Coxiespondenza Axcheolo^ica 
Muen.JlD.Bild.Kttfrelr LIuenchnex Jahrbucli dsr Bildenden Kunst 
Not.Scav. Notizie degli Scavi 3i Antichita 
Kum.Chxon, Hiimismatic Chxonicle 
Vp^.Aroh, Pevi-ie Axcheolo^^ique 
P-:e^.Kijun. Peviae Numismatique 

Poeni.Mixtl/'. Mittheilungen des deutsclien archaeologischen 
Instituts, Posmische Abtheilung 



Wo Daxbaxian race had as continuous an interest for tne 
Greek and Roman artist as the Ethiopian. Realistic portraixs 
of tn© other kno'.vn races of the classical v/orld axe relatively 
fow, and oelong almost entirely to the Hellenistic and Roman 
eras. The negro, on the other haiid, was ^endorad with ths 
utmost fidelity to racial type d'oring the most restrained and 
idealistic period of Greek art. Attic vase painters who ;7ere 
content to indicate Orientals by their dress, wiuh scarcely 
any distinguishing marks of race, delineated with marked realism 
the woolly nair and thick lips of the Ethiopian. From its 
earliest appearance in the art of the sixth century, the popu- 
larity of the type never wansd in any productive period of 
classical art. It is probably due to the humble position of 
the Ethiopian that the great sculptors did nox consider him 
a sufficiently dignified or important subject, since life- 
sized heads and statues are comparatively few. But for smaller 
objects the popularity of the negro type v;as tremendous, a::d 
is attested by a wealth of statuettes, vases, engraved gems, 
coins, lamps, weights, ink-wells, finger-rings, ear-rings, 
necklaces and masks from classical sites. 

Lixerary evidence as to the place of the black race in 
Greek and Roman life is very scanty and it would seem logical 
to supplement our knowledge of it from the extended use of 
th'i type in art. This was probably the intention of a Goet- 
tingsn dissertation, "Di9 Aixniopen der altklassischen Kunst", 
published m 1861 oy R. Loev;enherz. No doubt his interest 

was attracted" to tiia proolom 'by the excitenieiit then raging 
in the Units 1 States about tha abolition of. negro slavery. 
Unfortunately Ms work has not proved available in American 
libraries, and efforts to get it from Germany have so far been 
unsuccessful. Citations from it cy othor scholars show, how- 
ever, that its conclusions could not be considered final now, 
since over half of the objects new kno'vn which show the negro 
type nave been excavated since 1861. 

Othsr work on the question has been confined to the pub- 
lication of individual specimens which have cone into museum 
collections. Most of these articles include a list of a few 
uni-elated exajnples of the type a^id a few generalizations irom 
then: which are inaccurate in the main. The most important attempt 
to classify chronologically the known examples is an article 
jy Schneider in the J'o. Xunst. Samml.III, 1885, pp. 3-14, -.7hich 
ha suppler.:ented the following year by a list of -uhe examples 

brou;^ht to his attention during the interval (IV, 1886, p. 120). 

Schrador nas published an article ( Berlin.Winck^VI,1900) 

which is important for its discussion of the tv/o most inter- 
esting life-sized heads but it does net give much information 
regarding the type as a whole. By far the most important con- 
tribution to the subject is an article by Buschor "Das Krokodil 
des Sotade6"(Muen. Jb. Bild. xjj'^'S* 1913, pp. 1-43) ,vmich deals 
conclusively with the negro on vases of the fifth century. 
Very little has been done ibr the other periols, however, emd 
tne need for a general stuay of the type in classical art has 

bean pointed out by Ba\)elon, Froehner, Perdxizat, Schreibex 
arid others. Wac© (B. a. A. X, 1903-4, p. 108) expressed the hope 
that this would form a part of Bisnkowski's C orpu s Barbaxorum, 
"but this hope has not as yat bean substantiated, Scnneidar, 
\7ho had great interest in the subject, announced at ona tine 
his intenxion of supplementing his catalogue of the type by 
a more complete study, but this was never done. 

In view of these facts it has ssemed increasingly desir- 
able to throw as much light as possible on a subject pointed 
out by scholars as a profitable field of work, and concernir.g 
which little definite infoxmaxion heis 'oeen present 3d hixrioroo. 

In defining the problem the question of terminology 
must first be settled, since the popular and tne scientific 
understanding of tne word "negro" are at variance. European 
usage in this natter is far from uniform. The G-srman archae- 
ologists use "Neger", "Mohr" and "Aexniop" indiscriminately 
as synonyns. tuvon Buscnor in his excellent article speaks 
cf the same axampls as "Monr" and as "Nsgsr* in xne sa-ie 
sentence. O-erman museum catalogues use one term about as 
frequently as tne otner, and a study cf tne objects shows 
that they are evidently considered interchangeable. French 
archaeologists, wnile occasionally employing "e'tiope", use 
"negre" to cover all vaxiations oi lark skin regai'dless of 
the features. This is doubtless because of nore frequent 
contact with tne Dlacks of tne French colonias in Northern 

Africa tnan those south oi cue Great Desert. English scholais, 
more raiailiax wi ch mgyct, generally call these classical ne- 
groes "Nubians", a usa^^e v;hich nas considerable v;arrant, since 
it seems estaolishjd chat many entered Greece by way of Egypt 
from the region which corresponds to modern Nubia. I'ne Eng- 
lish also employ tha word "negro", but tne longer term "tiiuni- 
opian" is generally avoided oy them. 

Science limics the name "negro" -co o-io group ox African 
races, tne Ulotricni, the deteruiining i actor being, not the 
skin, but zne crisply c\irling so-called woolly hair. Tne 
principal representatives of this group are the stock of 
Senegambia and Guinea, and its ooh;-r outf-,tanding charactor- 
istios aie a short, broad nose, thick, pro jecting lips, a 
prominent jaw and abnormally long arms. America, with a 
delicate race problau on her hanas, has long since disre- 
garded any scientific distinctions between the various Afri- 
can races, and popular usage in cnis country dexinss a negro 
in terus ci i;he color line. Th?.t we make certain illogical 
reservations is witnessed oy the lamous incident of the 
Southern darky who donned the fsz oi an oriental a^id pretended 
not xo unaerstand English in order co be allowed to travel 
Iron New York to San Francisco in a sleeper. But generally 
speaking our racial feeling is directed against skin, and 
variations of tne featvires are not taken into account. The 
use of the word is further complicated by existing legal 
definitions such as that of the Stats of Nortn Carolina, 

wliicli declares any person a negro v;ho has in his veins one- 
sixtsen-uh ox more of African olood. 

Greek literature has no such confusion in nomenclature 
and gives to any member of a dark-skinned race tne nam© 
which the Greek geographers derived from a.t0<ti ana o/ifi , that 
is to say, a man with a sun-browned face. In viev: of the 
tenebrous use of tne word "negro", and the ethnological re- 
grouping of the African races since the centuries before 
Christ, this study will adopt the general nar;.e of "Ethiopian" 
by which to designate members of the dark race in Greek and 
Roman art. 


The Ethiopia of Greek mythology has little relation to 
a study of the Ethiopian type in art. On a few vase paintings 
Ethiopians are depictsd as the attendants of characters con- 
nected with legendai-y 'p'thicpia, out these attendants are more 
interesting for tne :3aanner in whiDli tney portray contemporary 
slave liie in Greece than for their connection wicn the mych. 
The locale cl' sucn myths is worked out in an article entitled 
"Die Aithiopenlaender des Anciromedamythos" Dy K. Tumpel (Jb. 
Phil. Paed. ,Supplementb and i6, 1888, pp. 129-313) . 'I'ns xeierences 
to tne subject in Greek literature are given under the names 
Anar omega , Kepheus and Meninon in Poscher's "Lexikon der Griech- 
ischen und Roemiscnen Mythoiogie^, ai'.d under Aithiopia in 
Pauly-Wissowa' s "Real- encyclopaedia" . 

Tne mychical ii^thiopia or Homer was a laict at the remotest 
border of tne v;orld beslie the stream of Ocean, inhabited by 
a race of msn who nela saciixicial feasts -vhich even tne gois 

'Xf<^o^ es?j Kara 6a?ra^eeol S^ajuta, rr^^Te% 

erroyro. Illad, 1, 423-4 

wl Xk Ci A » \ \ ^ ^>A !•. 

Iliad, XXIII, 3j5-307 

A iOc o nas^ -rot SiyOa <Se So. i a. tol i^ ^<^y a.Tot a k<£o oj i^ 

As tne sun rose fror^ tne stroara of Ocaaii close cy, the innaJoi- 
■csLncs were subjectea to its lierct; ii^cjat ai-u -cnaix faces ^."era 
burned by it. this land was vaguely felt xo oe lar la tiia 
east, in the neisn:orhooa ci India. A sc:nev;hat clou'iy recon- 
ciliation of tne myth with -eographical tacts took placs ^Hm^-n 
black men oegan to appear iron the country south of Egypt. It 
was early understood as rea3onaK;ie, uowever, that an ilthiopia 
of the west should exist as well as an ujtniopia of tne east, 
since the sun must color aen dark in tho i-e7,ion 7/here it set 
no less than m tne region where it rose, uenco "cv/o -eo^raphi- 
cal Jiithiopias grew up in the place of the uythical JBtniopia. 
xne liiTiering pxi:/rtio .j. characteristics of the Asiatic and 
African blacks v/ere lecognized ty Herciotus, who catalogues 
the two cypes aEong the axr.:y of Xerxee and describes them as 
follows:(Bcok VII, chapters £9 ad 70, translated by Pawlinson)' 

"The bithicpians (of Africa) were clothed in the skins of 
leopcu-ds and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the 
palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they 
laid short arrows made of reed, a;--! armed at the tip, not with 


iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, cf the ^ 
kind used in engraving eeale. They carried li^ev/ise speare, \ 
tne head of v/hicn was the sharpened horn of an antelope; air.d in 
addition they nad I.notteo. clu'os. When they went into battle 
tney painted their "borliss, naif v;ith chalk, and half with ver- 
milion. ***** The eastern Ethiopians - for two nations of 
this r.a:.:e served in the army- were raarshalled with the Indians. 
They differed in nothing froc: the other Ethiopiazis, save in 
their language, a:id the character of their hair. For the 
eastern 'Ethiopians nave straight hair, 'vhile they cf Libya 
are more v:oolly-haired than any other people in the world. 
Their equipment v.'as in most points like that of the Indians; 
but they wore upon their heads the scalps of horses, witn the 
ears and niaiiss attached; the ears were made to stand upright, 
aiid tne mane served as a crest. For shielJs this people made 
use cf the skins of cranes.'' 

Ho sucn picturesque equipment as th:.t which Herodotus 
describ-.^s appears in the representations of Ethiopians in 
art. But the artist catches the more subtle differences 
in feature which Herodotus passes ty. 

In the absence cf exact geographical knowledge, the 
Pthicpia of Africa was something cf a mystery, since only 
its northern limits were knov/n, and its extent into the 
continent uniiefined. This, combined with the legendary 
aura which clung to it as a legacy fron ;..ythical :""^thiopia, 
can be held responsible in large measure for the spirit of 


fascinated curiosity with wiiich the Attic artists of the 
fifth century lepxcduced the Ethiopian type. 

How eaxly did the iaxeelis leaxn of the existence of the 
Afxicoii Fithi opioids? It has teen shov:n that Honier knev; only 
the ii.ythical ccuntxy. Neithex Minoan nox Ivlycenean axt haiz^ 
B.s yet afforded any portraits of a race with woolly hair and 
thick lips. T'.-^e earliest appearance of the type in the art 
of the mainlazid is -;.pon vases vrhich can oe lated in the 
latter part of the sixth century (Buschcr, I.Iuen. Jb.Bild. 
Kunst. ,XI,1919,pp.9-10) . The fidelity with "hich the ^acial 
ty;;e is iencleied is so r:.arked that thexeis no dou'ot that 
Ethiopians v/ere actually on Greek soil and served as models 
for tho Greek artists. What were the circumstancss of their 
introduction into Greece? 

The early date which can oe assigned tc these vases 
refutes the conjecture of Schneider that thsy first entered 
Greece in the army of Xerxes, and that their sudden 
aiice in art is dv.e to the deep impression leit .."^ehind .y their 
i^.nusual aspecx(Jb.Kunst.SarjiillII,1885,p. 5) . It is incxediole 
that these vases axe r.-eraory pictures of a retreating fee, and 
"ecause of their date one must look for an earlier li:ik "be- 
tween Greece and iJthiopia. 

'i'h3 most obvious connection cetv/een the tv.-o geographically 
is wgypt. Here the Ethiopian had been knov.n for centuries, 
and had appeared upon lugyx^tian monuments since the Twelfth 
Dynasty, rou.^hly correspcnii.ig to the Llinoaia period of Greek 


axt,(L9p'^ius, Denk::.aelcr aus Aegyrten un:i Aithiopen,paxt III, 
pl.CXXXVI; Champillon-le-Jeune, llonument s d'Egypte et le 
Kubie,pl.OCXXXIX) . In consideration cf the influence of 
Egypt upon the art cf Greece in the early period, it is 
improvable that a race familiar in Egyptian life could long 
remain unknov/n to tho Greeks. 

Prior to the founding of Alexandria, the strongest bond 
oetween Egypt and Greece was the city of llaucratis in the 
Nile delxa. Flinders Petrie (.:aui.ratis,I,p. ) and Prinz 
(Funde aus Naukratis,pp.l-6) placo tha date of its founding 
■jy IJilasian colonists in the oarly half cf the seventh cen- 
tury B.C. from the evidence of its pottery and its scar abacus 
industry, ai'x:. the testimony of Greek authors. By the middle 
of the sixth centui'y -c had achieved a marked commercial 
eminence. It v/as granted certain privileges and immunities 
by the government of Egypt. It v/as the gateway cf Egypt for 
all foreigners, since it v/as the only port cf the delta 
which foreign ships were permitted to enter. It '.vas therexbre 
the mo-t lo leal place for Greeks to have their first contact 
with Evambers cf tie Ethiopiai> ra:-e, and the fir^-:t negroes to 
enter Greece were in all pxcbability brought back by returning 
voyagers from Maucratis. 

waucratis v/as important not only as a comiaercial center 
but as an artistic as veil, av-d if v.^e are correct in assuiai:-.g 
th t Ethiopians c.ecame knov/n to Graece by v/ay of this cixy, 
v/e should expect .them to appear ir. the art of Naucratis before 


they ccciu- in ths art of the mainland. Kxcavaticns have 
proved this to be the case. Purthermore the founders of 
IJaucratis v/ere Ionic Greeks fron the mainland of Asia Minor 
a:.d the interrelation ce-'jween the lonieai art centers in 
the early period is well estaolished. There is additional 
support for our theory in the faces that the Ethiopian type 
is lound on objects from Cyprus a:-.d Rhodes dating ixon the 
seventh and sixth centuries. Furtv/aengler assig: s to an 
loniar- ai'tist the well-known Caeretan hydria depicting the 
Kiyth of Heracles a:id Eusirie, upon which Ethiopians appear 
as the attendants cf the fallen king (F.E,,xl«51» -ext 
pp. 255-360). Buschox (Muen. Jb.Bild.Kunst. ,XI,1919,p. "6) 
remarks that the luastsr v^ho painted this hydria must have 
ceen familicj: with the Kaucratite faerie and types. 

The lollowing is a list of the seventh aiid sixth century 
cbjects which have Decn found .it Kaucratis and othor Greek 
sites outside the mainland, upon whicn the ijJxhiopian type 
is represented: 

1. London - British Muse\im 

Naukr ati s, I , pi . V, f i g. 41 
,/f .r/:^ Dumont-Chapl ain, I , p. 312 , 2 

Walxers, Catalogue cf Vas2B,II,p.83,Blj3(33) 
Buschcr, liuen.Jb.Bild.Kunst.,XI,:.919,p.35 
Vase fragraent shewing the figure of an Ethiopian from head 


to v;aist, Tne type is strongly inaxked; the lips are prosiinent 
and everted, the nose short and "broad, the hair woolly. Th« 
head is in profile "but the body is i. full fror.t with srns 
held out at right angles to it. The shoulders are very broad 
and the waist narrow. Lines of ^-^hite aovai the front of the 
chest and at the ri~ht elbow seem to indicate that the figure 
is not nude but is wearing a close-fitting jacket with sleeves. 
Buschor (Icc.cit. ,p.S5) suggests that this Ethiopian nay be 
one ex the attendants of Busiris running away ;-efore the 
attack cf Heracles, sine: he considers that this story clearly 
criginated in Naucratis. It seen;s likely, however, that the 
pose, which recurs on the two fragments which follow, is a 
dancing one, particularly since it is identical with the pose 
of a number cf the revellers on the Fikellura amphora from 
Samcs new in Altenburg (Boehlau, Aus lonischan und Italischen "' 
iJekropolen, pp. 56-57, figs. 27 and dQ) . 

I'he design is in black on a drab ground, with details 
added in purple and white. Size 2 ^ oy 2-^- in. 

3. London •— British Museum 


Dumont-0haplain,I,p.5" 5,n. 5 

Buschor, LIusn.j j.Bild.Kuiot. , XI, 1919, p. 35 
Frag;.'.ent of a vase showir.g a figuie in olack on a light 
ground similco: in por-e to the preceding. The face is smaller 
and the featiorss are so conventionalized that it is net certain 
that an Ethiopian is meant, though the black paint a:ii simi- 


laxity of pose Make it probable. 

3. London - Erioish lluseiim 

H aukr at i s , I , pi . V, r i g . 42 
Dun:ont-Chapl ain, I , p . S'j 5, n. 5 

Busjhor, Iluen. Jb.Bild.Kun-t. ,XI,lS19,p.35 
Fragment similsj:- to the piecedir-g, except that the figuro 
is preserved as far- as belo\7 the knee. 

4. London - British Museum 

U aukr atiB, I , pi .15, lig. 13 

Walters, Catalogue of Terracottas, p. 258,0631 
Head of terra-cotta, undoubtedly intended to represent an 
Ethiopiaii, as the nose is ":-road and the lips are thick. The 
hair, however, is not woolly, :ut is in v;avy locks. 

The gro'cesq/e head listed as a negro by Walters (op.cit, 
p.259,c623; illustrated in Naukratis,II,pl.XV,iig.5) bears 
little resemblance in features to a ne ro, nor do nos.cbidS 
and c626 li::ted on the saue pare. It is unlikely that the 
axtist intended to represent an Ethiopian. 

5. London - British Museum 

Walters, Catalcg^J-e of Terracottas, p. 231, c643 
Grotesque uask cf texra-cotta with the thick lips, flat 
nose and receding forehead cf an Ethiopian. Ht. 2-^ in. 

6. London - British Museum 

Walters, Catalogu.e cf Terracottas, p. 261, c643 


Grotesque mask of terxa-cotta with tlis features cf an 
Ethiopian, possibly a v?oman. Ht. 2-^ in. 

7. London - Britisn Huse-um 

laltexs, Catalogixe of TerxacotT:as,p.43S,E53 
Mould fox a texxa-cotta head of an wthiopian. Ht. 3-| in. 

8. Lonaon - British Museum 

H^altaxs, Catalog^ae cf TexxaccttaB,p.439,E54 
Mould icx a texxa-cotta figuxii.s cf an mxhiopicja, broken 
off at the waist. The foxahead is wrinkled, the nose snub, 
the lips thick. The iext hai'id riolds a vase. Ht. 3-^ in. 

9. London - Britisn Museum 

Walters, Catalogue cf Texxacottas, p. 258,0617 
Fragment of a taxxa-cctta group of two Ethiopians v.'xest- 
ling. One rigure is broken cfi belcw the neck, the other 
belcw the waist. Ht. 1 5/8 in. 

10. London - Exitish Muse-um 

Walters, Catalog^je cf Texxacottas, p. 443, E91 
Mould for the iront of a paste scarab. The design is 
the head of an ij^thiopiari with a grinning expression. 
Diam. 1 1/8 in. 

11. London - British Museuru 

ITaukr atis , II , i:l . XVIII , no . 55 
Buschor ,Muen. Jb.Eild.Kunst. , XI, 1919, p. 54 
Scax'abs.aus of paste with the front design an Ethiopian's 
head in high relief. The lips axe very full, t.e nose short 


and i'lat. The reverse design is a winged aniraal. 

12. London - British iluseum 

Paste scarabae-us similar to the preceding. 

15-35. London - British Museum 

K aukr ati 8, 1, pi. XXXVII, no 8. 4, 9, 11, :^ 6, S3, 133, 141, 142 J 
pl. XXXVIII, 8, S, 10; II, pi. XVIII, 59, oO 
Scai-abaei cf paste witu xhe design of a human head . 
Buschox considsxs that they represent E.niopians. This is 
probable, though the crudity of the work makes it hard zo 
determine. The leverse design cf ^ost cf them is a v/inged 

As gin a 

36. Bsrlin (?) 

iftLi t?:aengler , Aegina, I , p. 433, no. 19 
Paste scarabaeus fron Haucratis with cji Ethiopian's head 
in high ^elisf on the front. It is ve^y natural to find an 
object which had been manufactured in KaucratiB,in Aegina, 
a city of great coirjnercial enterprise in the early pariod. 
Kaucr at is 

37. Bulak Museum 

Waukr ati s , I , p , 43 

Small head oi an mthiopian, male of dai-k clue glass, 
found in ti-3 remains cf a private house. 


38. Berlin - Antiouariua - Inv.3250 

BusGhor, LJuen, Jb.Bild.Kunst. ,XI,l"19,p.34, fig.49 

Pur twaenij;l sr , Ar ch. Anz. 1893, pp. 83-83 

Prinz, Funds aus 'llaukratis,p.l05 
An ointment vase of faience in the form of two conjoined 
lieadB representing ethnographic types, one a "bearded bax- 
baxian and the other an Ethiopian. The latter is represented 
with a broad Hat no?e ai-.d thick lips. His woolly hair is 
indicated by Squarss blocked out in the faience. The vase 
dates from the seventh century (Buschor) and was made at 
Naucratis, though found at Laxnaka on Cyprus (Prinz). 

<i9. London - British Museum - A1233 

Buschor, Muen.Jb.Biid.Kunst. ,XI,1919,p.54,fig.50 
A janiforn ointiiient vase very similar to the preceding, 
though differing in the treatment of the Ethiopian's hair. 
Instead cf being bloc:;ed out in squares as in the Berlin 
vase, it is indicated by lozen^e-shapsd incisions with a dot 
in tho center of each. 

ou. New York - Metropolitan Museum - Cesnola Coll. 

Myrss, Handbook cf the Cesnola Coll. , p. 371, uo. 1550 
Head of en Ethiopian carved from steatite. It was pro- 
bably intended to be worn as a pendant on a necklace, as it 
is pierced through c.bove the ears arid is flat at the back as 
if it were to lie against the neck. 


The profile is ape-like oecause of the prominence cf the 
3 aw and the low retreating forehead. The nose is very broad 
and flat, anl the lips wiie. The hair is inlicated as ^^oolly 
by a series ci •rjrillel holes. Ht. 1 1/8 in. 

31. Hev; York - lietropoliter. Museum - Cesnola Coll. 

llyres, Handbook cf the Cssnolc. Coll. , p. 380, no. 3161 
Ethiopian's head, carved froi. steatite, as penlant en a 
gold ear-ring. It is similar in type to the preceding, but 
eve: more like an animal in effect. Tne curly hair is in- 
dicated oy lozenge-shaped incisio -s similar to those on the 
oiritment vase in the British lluseum(nc.39, above) . A novel 
leature is that the eye-balls are painted red. 

:'3. LIunich - Ax'nclt Coll. 

Buschor , Lluen. Jb . Bil d. Kuns t . , XI , 1919 , p . 34, f i g. 51 
Head of an juthiopiaii carved from steatite. The features 
are similar to those of the steatite pendant in the Lletro- 
pcliteji LIussum ( above, . .0.30) . This head, however, is carved 
in high relief in the center oi an oval flat surface cf stea- 
tite. The hair is indicated by .aised dots. There are no 
holes to shcv; that it served as a pendant. Buschcr calls it 
a seal. 

33. Munich - Arndt Coll. 

Buschor , Muen. Jb. Kunst . , XI ,1919 , p. 34, fig. 52 
Steatite head cf an Ethiopian, smaller th;m the preceding. 
It is carved in high lelief fron; a depression in the center 
of a flet, round surface. The hair is shown by means cf 


raise, dots. Th: expression is very similar to the Ethiopian 
h-ad on the ear-xing in the Metropolitan ( above, no. 31) , though 
•Che features are not quite so ccaxse. 

24. London - British Museum 

Llarshall, Catalogu.e of Jewellery, p. 14, no. 144, tig. 3 
A thin strip of gold 3in..oss:d with rosettes and convention- 
alizsd animal heals. In the center of the strip at the top 
is the mask of an Ethiopian, placed sideways. The strip 
vvas found at Klaudia m a Bronze Age tomb, and is probably 
one of tne earliest inotances of the Ethiopian type in art 
outsi-ie of higyrt. Length 0,161 m. 

35. New York - Metxopolitan Museuu - Cesnola Coll. 

Myres,, Handbook of the Cesnola Coll. , p. 362, no. 3530 

Winter , Terr akot ten, II , p. 448, no . Ic 
Terra-cotta figurine of an mthiopisn seated v,-ith his right 
leg orawn up in fro;it of him and his leit leg drawn under him. 
Th-^ modelling is --lude and the laatures are indistinct, but 
the broad nose ana thick lips can be distinguished. Tha eyes 
are closed. There are remains of a dark xel color en the sur- 
face. The figure celon ;s to the series listed below rhich 
were found at Camirus by the British. Ht. 0.09 m. 

36. Lonaon - British liussum 

Salznann, Necropole la Caffiircs,pl.31 


Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum, Guide 

to the 2nd Vase Boom,pt.3, (lS78)p,10,no. 68 
Winter, Teirakotten,II,p.'x43,no.lA 
Walters, Catalogue ci Ten acottaB,p.ll8,B269 
Pigurii.e of terra-cotta seated in a crouching position, 
his right leg drav/n up in front of him a_".a his ieit leg ira>vn 
under him. His han::s clasp his right knee suad his chin res"i:s 
on thsm. He has thick, negro-likD lips, but his ears are 
those of a satyr. Ht. 4 1/8 in. 

37. London - British Museum - fror.: Camirus 

Synopsis, Guile to 3ii.i Vase Room, pt, 3, p. 10, no. 63 
Winter , Terr akotxen, II , p. 449 , rio . lb 
Walters, Catalogue of Terracottas, p. 118, B370 
Terra-cotta fi:;;::urine ci an Wthiopicja seated in a position 

'^iniilEi to no.iS, except that both legs are drawn up in, 

Traces cf red color reiuai.n. Ht. 4^in. 

38. London - British Iluseum - froi;i Ca^iir^As 

yynopsis, Guide to Z.l Vase Poom,pt.3,p.'^0,no. 64 
Winter , Terr akotten, 11 , p. 449, .^o . lb 
Walters, Catalogu.e of Terracottas, p. 118, B3?l 
Terra-cotta figurine cf an Hithiopian, siuilar to ;iC.o7. 
Ht. 4i- in. 

39. Lcn :cn - British Iluseuia - frcu Caairus 

Synopsis, Guide to 3nd Vase Poom,pt.2,p.l0,::i0.65 
Win t er , Terr ako 1 1 sn , 1 1 , p . 449 , no . lb 


¥3ltexs, Catalog^aa cf Terxacot:as, p. 118, B373 

Terra-cot-:a lirnarine cf an Ethicpian, similar zo no. 37. 
The right foct is brcksn off. Ht. 3 7/8 in. 

40. - Eritisn M-useuin - iror.i CaKiirus 

S3^nopsis, Gui \s to 3;-::l Vase PooK:,pt.3,p.lO,nO. 36 
Winter, Terral'^ott 3n,II,p.449,nc .lb 
Walters, Catalogivs cf Tsrracottas, p.ll8,B2Y3 
Terra-Go-:;ta figuri :3 cf eh H! .hiopicii, siuiilsx to :io. 37. 
Ht. 3 7/8 in. 

41. - British lluseua - frou Canirus 

Synopsis, Guide to 2nci Vase Boom, pt. 3, p. 10, no. 67 
Winter , Terr ako tten, II , p. 449 , no . It 
Walters, Catalogne cf Terracottas, p. 118, BaY4 
Terra-Got-ua xigurine of an Ethiopian, similar in pose 
to no. be. Ht. 4^ in. 

43. Paris - Louvre 

Heuzey, i'igurines Antiques ie Terre Cuite,p.oO,pl. 55,no. 6 
Winter , Terr akotton, II , p. 449 , ^lO . 1 
Terra-cc'ota firriirine of an Ethiopian, similar to the 
figures from Gamirus in the British Muse\ain. .Though found in 
the Gyrenaica, it uacloubtedly belongs to the sav.e series. 
The face is ape-like in expression. Ht. 0,09 m. 


43. AltenDurg - Herzoglich3s Iluseun; 

Bcehlau, Aug lonischen und Italisclisn Nekropolon, 

pp. 56-57, figs. :d6,J7 exxd ;^8 
Buschor, Grs3k Vase Painting, p. 61, fig. 63 
Fikellura amphora decor atel with a .cand of r;:ale figures 
painted solidly in black. They are dancers cr reveller s; 
soirie carry lecythi in iheir hands, some hold bov/ls to thsir 
lips a::d some play the double-flute. Their features axe 
net stroiugly marked as Kthicpian, though the black paint 
makes them, api: ear- so. The pose -: f a ntimoer cf fiooires is 
similcj: to tho pose ci' the Ethiopians en the vase fragments 
from i^aucxatis (above, nos,l,2 and 3). 

44. Vienna - K.K. Oesterr. Museum 
Monumenti,VlII,pls.l6 ai^.d 17 
., -'asiier, Sammlung aiitiker Vasen und Terrakotten,no.2l7,-cl. II 
F.ll., Griechische Vasen:.alexei,pl. 51, text pr:.2 55-ki61, where 
a complete description of the vase and a longer oiolicgraphy 
are given. 

Black-iigured hyoxia depicting the mytn of Hoxacles and 
Busiris, an iL'^yptian king v/ho made sacrificial victims of 
all strangers. Heracles permitted nimself to "be led to the 
altar- v;ithout any show oi lesis-uancs, but just as the rites 
were about to commence, turned on Busiris and his priests 
and killed them wi .h nis club and his bare hands. The 
Cae. etan hydria depicts on one side the scene at the altar. 


ivneie Heracles is aespatciiing Busiri6 and the ii'gyptian 
priests. The other side shows a body-guard of five Ethiopians 
niarchirxg to the assisxapxoe oi tiis prostrate king. 

The Ethiopiai-iS are strongly differentiated in type from 
the egyptiavis. Their hair is very v:oolly and their j av; 
structure prominent. Th^y are nude except for loin-cloths 
about their naists, and carry hooks ■. cluos. They :narch 
xorward with auoh spirit and the painter has succeeded in 
making them life-like a:id keenly comical. Thais are no 
livelier Ethiopians to be founl in Greek art. 


What light does this list throv; upon the status of the 
£ithiopians and the attitude displayed tov/ard tnem by the 
Greeks of Kaucratis the Islanis? That they were slaves 
is without question and a fe-^r cluos as to their daily life 
are discoverable among these objects. 

The small vase neid in xhe na:il of the texra-cotta xig- 
urine frca ITaucratia (above, no. 8) points unmistaka'oly to 
domestic service. The Ethiopian bodyguard which advances to 
the aid of Busiris is the earliest instance of athiopiaas as 
fighters, a type v^hich recurs in Greek art. There is also 
evidence that these Ethiopian slaves iurnishjj. entertainment 
for their owners. The pov:erful fra.-.e of the negro, v/hich 
uakes nim a strong -'reatler and boxer, is witnessed by the 
number of pj.oiessional negro prizefighters in our own day. 
From the finding at Naucratis of a terra-cotta group shovj- 

ing a pair of- Ktliiopicai wrestlars locked in tne struggle, 
it is avident that such r.:atchos occurred for the entartaln- 
ueir. of tne sixth century O-reeksC above, ao.9). These wrest- 
lers have their counterpart in a pair of Ethiopian boxers 
froiu the Hellenistic period. Th;ry j-^e statuettes of terra- 
cotta and were made in southern Italy (Waltsis, Catalogue 
of Terracottas, p. 310, Do4 etad p.311,D35). 

Th. negro's propensity to quick laughter, his leali.ig 
for music a'ld the drairiatic, ana his loose-jointedness m 
aancing have alv;ays uade hin a popul'sr comedian. If these 
qualities are stll so luarked as to have "oecome stajidardizsd 
in the minstrsl shov; and black-face comedian, it is reason- 
able to suppose that th^y '.vere even more maxked twenty- four 
hundred years ago and that the Greeks enjoyed them fully 
as mxxoh as v;e do. For this rsason it see;.:s extremely likely 
that the vase fragments irom ilaucratis show a ..lancing pos- 
ture, and that Ethiopiaiis contributed to th3 gayety of their 
masters' ■ feasts in other ways than serving tne fcod. 

The meaning of the terra-cotta figurines found in num- 
bers at Camirus on th3 isla^id of Rhodes is difficult to ex- 
plain. The pose is practically the in all cas3s. The 
slave crouches on the ground v/ith one or both legs dra.Tn 
up in iron^of him. He rests his head on his hands, yhich are 
clasped about his knee, and his eyes are closed as if in 
sleep. These small ligures were all loun.i in gravss, and 
irom this it might be argued that the intention was lo provide 


the dead man with a slave in the next world. The closed 
eyes cf the ligures poBsibiy simulate the sleep of dea-uh. 
The difficiilty is that the pose recurs on objects of the 
fifth century and tne Hellenistic period -.vhich have no 
lunerary purpose. An inscribed -em of the fifth century 
now in the Gorneto Museum (Beazley, Lewes House Coll., p. 40, 
pi. A, no. 16) sho'.TG _. crouching wthiopian as the attendant 
of a youth v;ho is vigorously pouring oil upon himself after 
soi-ie gy:nnastiG exercises. Several early geus shcv: the 
sleeping slave alone. The pose is common in statuettes of 
bronze as well as terra-cotta from the Alexandrian era, 
one example even shewing an Ethiopian street-hawker asleep 
in this position, with a tray of iruit in front of him and 
a pet monkey on his shouldsr (Schreib^r, Ath.Mitt.X,1835, 
p. 383, pi. XI, 3) . Schneider dismisses the question with the 
remark that the pose was a favorite one icr slaves in anti- 
quity (Jb.Kunst.aajmn. ,III,l885,p.4) , But this statement 
seems to have been deduced from tne frequent occurrence of 
the figurines rather than to explain them. So::.e further 
interpretation is needed m the case of a pose -.vhich is used 
fcr both the funerary and the comic and which persists over 
a considerable period of time. 

While there see^us oo oe no satisfactory explanation at 
hand, it is conceivable that its signiiicacice may nave 
changed from one pariocl to another while it retained its 
popularity with the artists ibr technical reasons. In 


modslling a statuette, cno of ths mosi: iiuinediate problems 
in ths design is that cf balance. If a figure is to stand 
upright upon its feet, it must have a pedestal ,or else other support must 'oe incorporated in the design. 
This is doubly importaz^t in the case of a breakable material 
like terra-cotta, where one fall would mean the shattering 
of zl-.e object. Tha statuettes of ladies from Tanagra are 
supported oy "Che elaborate folds of their drapery. It is 
more difficult to represent a nude male figure in a standing 
position, whereas the problem can be simplified oy showing 
tne fig^ae in a seated posture. In the case of the Camirus 
figurines the le^^s are so modelled that the base has the 
general shape of a triangle, upon which the figure balances 
securely. Therefore it seens reasonable to ^ that one factor 
contributing to the popularity of the pose was that the early 
artists and the lass skilled of a later date found it an easy 
way to avoid technical pro:le:.-.s. This is further borne cut by 
the laot that the statuettss from tne Hellenistic period 
wnich shcv/ the greatest amount of technical skill and the 
most delicate arti3tic feeling rarely shcv; the crouching 

Tne steatite heais found on the ialaiid of Cyprus, which 
wera iV^ade either at llaucratis or under the influence of 
llaucratis (Buschcr, Muen. Jb.BIld.Kunr.t. ,XI,1919,p.34) remain 
to be interpreted. Two of them are obviously intended to be 
worn as ornaments. Now the tendency to wear or carry about 
on the person some small object co wai'd naLm away from the 
wearer or bring him good luck, is universcLLly xound. ihese 


s-ceatixs heads, as well as tne pas^e scarabaei from Naucratis 
showing ths Ethiopian type, and 'che gold strip ornamented 
with the Ethiopian mask, are iindouc-tedly apotropaic in function, 
This is the reason that the -agliness of the faatures has • 
been sxaggorated. The red 3ye-:alls ox ths heoxl on tna ear- 
ring are repulsive and the ^a:.'! is so prominent that it seems 
fairly co represent an animal. The satyr ears were -o doubt 
meant as an additional -couch cf ugliness in zhq case of one 
of the terra-cotta figurines, and thsir purpose was possibly 
to keep evil away from the tombs. It is significaiit that the 
ugliness cf the Ethiopian features is never stressed in the 
art of Attica, where the racial type is invested with a spirit 
which amounts almost to chax'm. While this is due in large 
ueasuxs to the delicacy of Attic art, there is an additional 
reason. The Orosks cf Kaucratis were familiar with tne Ethi- 
opian type. They were accustomed to seeing lar :e numbers cf 
them and therefore had fewer illusions about them. On the 
otner ha:r.d luthiopians were never coiiimon on the mainland even 
as late as the thir i century. For ths Attic artist they had 
therefore the charm of the strange and the unusual, combined 
with a remini=;cent association with legendary Ethiopia. 
Their features were considered carious rather than ugly. 
But at Ilaucratis it is natural to find ugliness of feature 
stressed as a prophylactic quality. In fact it will be seen 
that the v/hole history of the iiJthiopian type in classical art 
rexlec'cs not so much the :.rogress of the artist in the render- 
ing of an ethnographic type as tne changes in the popular 
attitude toward the type th t is portrayed. 


Th3 forei^oi-'. .^ cnapter ha= i::a'3 it sviio't that the Attic 
artists v.'ere net innovators in portraying the Sthiopian type, 
nor did they talis it ovsr directly frora Egyptian art, as the- 
generalizatio-is in previous articles (excepti'ag al^vays that • 
of Buschor) would lead one to infsr. Even the group who 
first adopted the type from llaucratis, na-ely the va^^e paint- 
ex s, Qorrov/el also the forr. of the oojact upon '.vhich the type 
appears. This link between the art of Naucratis aaad the pot- 
tery of Athens was the ointment-vase, a renre v/hich, as Bu- 
schor points out, always gave the potter the greatest oppor- 
tunity for the display ■ f individuality in treatment. It 
was s.:.all, needsi only one narrov/ mouth a.:d not much handle, 
and lent itself to variety aiid innovation. Since its shape 
was not prescriDsd it v;as the starting poi-t for novelties 
of .design whicn eventually influencal other vase fcr:r.s as 

Tne Kaucratite oi-itnie:."c vases with the Bthiopian (above, 
noB.38 a..d 39) were in the forai of two conjoined h2a:is back 
to back. The vase opening at the top was funnel-shaped and 
was supported by tv;o vertical nandles extending from the edge 
of the vase mouth to the top of the head. These vases are 
considered by Buschor to da«e from cna seven^n century (LIuen. 
Jo.Bild.Kunst XI, 1919, p. 54) . in tne following century at 
Athens, appro xiuiately between the years 540 ar.d 500 B.C., 
appeared a nvimber cf ointme;.t vases in tiie rorm of conjoined 



heads ■:7]iiGh cxa csssntially zno sans as those from llaucratis, 
except that tns shape has cee:.! rei'ined. The funnol-shaped 
mouth rests en a more slendsr cylinarical neck and tna han- 
cG-os '^'hich support its edge axe less clumsy. They now rise 
from the side of th3 head instead cf t.:3 hair above x;".9 cen- 
ter of the forehead. The ointnenc vase type froi" Naucratis 
had little grace, since the chins of the t\7o heans were en- 
larged and extended to meet and form the oval base upon which 
the vase rested. In tne Athenian vases the chins a^e normal 
in outline, a:id the necks of tne two hea'.s are moulded together 
so that -the vase rested upon the flr.t circular 'base at the 
bottom of the neck. But the similariuy of the t'.vo types is 

so proi.ouncod as to leave no dou:t in regard to their rela\.ion. 


At Axhens the ointment. occurs also in the form of a sin— 

gle wthiopian^ head, tne hair at tne back or tne head care- 
fully modelled and the spout rising fro;;i the top of the head. 
The iOllowi_.g is a li-t of tr.e Attic ointment vases in the 
for:.i of HJthicpia:--s' heais, cf tne two types described above: 

Double Head 

45. Athens - Sation :1 Museum - xrcm .Cabirion 

Nicole, Catalogue des Vases Peinxs, p. 383, no. 1232(^056) 
Ointme^.t vase in the fcr.v. oi the conjoinea heads of an 
Ethiopian and a v/hixe girl. Buschor lis..s tnis vase as a 
cantharus (lluen. Jb.Bild.Kunst. ,XI,1919,p.l5) , out the descrip- 
tion given by Nicole, '.vho calls it a balsamaire, spsciiies the 
spout and vertical handles ex an oint:r:er.t vase. Nicole states 
that the ty-e oi tne Ethiopian is identical wixh that of tne 


ir.scribed vas3 in the for;- oi a single iieaa ( :-3lov.', no.49) . 

'±6. Boston - Liuseujn o±" Fine Arts 9708/9 

Buschor , Muen. Jo . Bild. Kunr, t . , XI , 1919 , p. 10, pi . iV 
Janii'oxni ointmeiit vase. Botn heads are Etniopians, ail tns 
fac3s axe so similax that tiiey sssui to have oeen uaie from the 
sane mould. Tne forsheals axe lev; and retreating, the noses 
snort and flat and the lips thick and protrudi-.g. Tne hair 
is rendered oy raised dots in tne clay. T.e flesh is painted 
olack, but tne hair a;ad lips axe lelc in the original clay 
color lor contrast. White pal g is applied oo tne eye-balls, 
and tne pupils are painted black. 

47. Lonaon - Britisn lluseuni 

TJalte^s, History of Ancient Pottery, I, pi. 46, iig. 2 

Buschor, Muon.Jb.Bild.Kunst.,XI,1919,p.lO 
Janiform oint-rent vass coin"oini;..g the heads of an Ethiopian 
and a Greek girl. The profile cf the Ethiopian shows tne sloping 
lorehead, riat nose, tnick lips and prominent jaw of the Bos- 
ton vase. The Gre--k girl wsfla.-s a cap upon ^"hich is painted a 
wreath of laurel(?) leaves, and -oelc-.v it her hair is indicated 
by a fev; ro'.:s c f raised dots. 

48. Peris - Louvre 

Pettier, Men. Plot, IX, 1905, pis. XI and XII 
Herford, Handbook -f Greek Vase Paintiag, pl.3,iig.a 
Buschor , Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst . , XI . 1919, p. 10 

janiiorm ointuent xasa comoining tne heals oi' an Etlxiopian 
a^vi a Greek girl. Tne etiiiopiaii' s proiila is identical with 
that ex the Boston ani Paris vasos above. Th:^ Wthiopian* s 
eyes are almoad-shapecL a>.i.l set wide apart. The girl weai-s 
a cap on which a design of palmettes and cocks is painted. 
On eitner side of the girl's neck, runnijig dov/n, is xne ia- 
scription M^o^. 

^9. Athens - IJational '.-lusaum <!lbO - iron; Eretria 
B.3xt\\lg,^B<j> /A /OV 1834,pp.l31-lo8,pl.6 
Klsii-., Griecnischea Vason mit Licblimgsinschriftsn, 

p. 81, no. ^5 
^ lacols, Catalogue des Vases Paints ^ 333, no. 1237. 
Ointment vases with cylindrical ?;pout supported by ve_ti- 
cal handles, in tne foiHi of an Ethiopian''s head. The vase is 
perfectly prsssxvea, is one of the finest exarailss of the type 
and is b±^s^.q:^ l.£/\/\Po^ KAi^o^ . In profile it closely ra-eu- 
bles nos. 46, 47 and 48 a eve and except for a olight sharpness 

of the nose could have come from the same mould. Tne hair is 
indicated as in all the rest by raised lots of clay. Hair, 
lips and eys-balls ace left unpainted. The of iris 
and rapil aie indicated by incisad lines. Diameter of the base 
0.04 m. Kt. 0.28 m. 

50. Athens - National Llusevun 

lliccle. Catalogue des Vases Peints, p. 283, no. 1338 
Ethiopian'' Q head of same type as aoove. Tnere ai-e traces 
of an illegible inscription at the top. The eyes are painted 

white and tha ixis red. Ht. 0.12 lu. 

51. Berlin - Antiquaxiuii> - Satcuroff Coll.- from Attica 

Frrtwaenglex ,Beschrei''Dung dex Vasensamml, , 

II, p. 1027, no. 4049 

Schxadex, Berlir,.v:inckslraarin3px. 1900, p. 11 and pp. 34-5 

Ointr;.ent vase witii cylindi-ical moutn and two vertical han- 
dles above an Ethiopian*'s head. The hair is rendered by 
raised dots cf clay, which are left in the original clay color. 
The forehead is wrinkled. The skin was tainted liack, leaving 
the lips in the red color of the clay. Thers axe traces of 
white on the eye-ball. Ht. 0.105 u. 

52. - fxcni Calabria 
Not. Scav. 1913, suppl. p. 16 

BescIox, Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst., XI, 1919, p. 10. 
Ointment vase witii a cylindx-ical srcut in the forni cf an 
Ethiopian"s head. The profile is very different from that . 
of Tios. 46-50 above. The nose is tec long and pointed to be 
the charactistic Ethiopian nose. The hair hcwevex is rendered 
sidlar-ly oy raised dots cf clay and the flesh is painted black 
Tne lirs ai'3 tnick and protruding. 

Tne foregoing vases belong according to Buschen 
( Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst., XI, 1919, p.ll), at the end of the 
sixth centuxy. Ke ccr.siiers the vase in Athens with the in- 
acxipticn to be the latest, and states that no exaiv.ple is kzicwn 
after the tirue of Lea.t:x®s, 


Tney snovv many ccaiaon cnaxactexistics ai^cl axe a closely 

xslatsd grcup. In the lirst r.lace the vase nio^^th \vith up- 
right handles is the sane in all cases. Secondly, the tech- 
ni(^e is siuiilax. The haix is shown on all the vasss oy tlae 
siiiall raised lumps of clay. The skin is painted black, leaving 
hair and lips in the clay cclcx. In several instances the eyes 
ai-e decorated and it is possible that all were so treated, the 
color having been worn away on those v;hich do not new shcT; it. 

In the case of the double-heads, three of the four com- 
bine the Etniopian with a girl. She is of a type Tvhich re- 
calls the archaic statues of maidens from the acropolis. While 
the faces ai-e no"c quite so stiff, nor is the archaic smile so 
pronounced, the features axe very formal and tne lax-ge eyes, 
wide open, recall the older technique. One janiform example 
shcv;s Ethici'.ians on boxh faces. 

The similax'ity betv/een certain of these profiles is so 
max-ked that there is a strong for a common mould. A 
line in the clay on eitner side betv.'een tne two conjoined 
heads proves that tne vase v;a^ made in two sections. tEach of 
tne laces was moulded sepaxately, tne two being put tcgetnsr 
while the clay was still n.oist. Finger prints en the inside 
of fragments of vases of the head type, ^ound in the pre-Per- 
sian debris on the acrcjcclis, i^rove that the modelling was done 
from the inside, the features being pressed out from within. 
There seems little doubt from the examples listed below that a 
mould was used, and the clay pressed into this with tne fingers 
to form the features. The only important differences axe in 
the eyes, ihe painting of the face, and the outline cf the 


hair, details which •:vculd be added after the face had 'been witla- 
drawn fror.; the mould. A study cf the i,xotlles of the double- 
heads frcn: the Boston Museun;, British Museuir. ar.d the Louvre, 
aiid the single heads frorr. Athens, is sufficient to convince 
one that these five vases were not only made from the same 
Ethiopicin acdel, 'out iroi:. the identical mould in the saiiie work- 
shop. No photograch is available oi the double nead in Ath- 

ens, out Nicole si:at3s that Ethiopian profile is identical v/ith 


the Leagrms vase and it can ;robably oe added to tne -ist. 
Tne Berlin vase and the one published in the Kotizie (prassnt 
ov;n3rsnip unknown) axe diffexentiated, and although they may be 
products of the workshop which specialized in the Ethio- 
pian type, they CBrtainly do not represent the same model or 

It is necessar-y to presuppose a common mouli for ths two 
Ethiopian heads on ths same vase in Boston from their identity 
of outline and detail. Since they are proof cf the fact that 
tne same mould was used for more than one face it is not un- 
reasonable to suppose that it v/as used in the production of 
these other five vases. 

There is no definite clue which can oonnect any of the 
known vase painters with this group of Ethiopian ''s heads. It 
is evident that any identification made for one vase identifies 
the v/hcle group. There ai 3 only two inscriptions among them, 
one the worki^/it'^and tne otner tne more definite ^£/\/\/^^^ a/»^o^ 
This places thg vase in time :.ut furnishes no indication as to 
tne painter since Leagrus*" najiie is icund en the vases of at 
least fourteen painters and potters (Klein, Die Griecniscnen 
Vasen mit Lieblingainschriftsn, p. YO) . The vase in the Lcuvre 


(above, no. 48) is brought by Pettier into corinection witn 

anotnsr vase witn tne inscripticn£/r//.)-/vo;? /i/?^o^ since ths girl's 

head is the saine 'n ooth cases. The six vases than Delcng to 

the period of the love naciss Leagnue and Epilykus. 

If Prccleea'J'^ to be credited with ths introduction of the 

custcn; ci shewing girls'* hair by means of a fsv; rows of raised 

dots under the edge of a cap, these vases., r-ust definitely be 

assigned to .soEie. time af ter nim (Buschor, Muen. Jb. Bild,Kunst. 

XI, 1919, p. 12) The Louvre vase shows tne hair of the maiden 

indicated this v/ay under a cap elaborately painted with palssi— 

ettes arid cocks. A wreath of le-ves decorates the cap worn by 

tne girl on the British Museum vase. Since, these are certainly 

in the technique introduced by Proclees it is not unreascnaole 

to assume that the group of six vases is from his workshopif 

not from his hand. Tne life-like representation of the racial 

type and the delicate painting of the girls*' head-gear show 

them to be the work of no unskilled ar'tist. 

The next development of the v:.s3 in xhe forni of a head 

( according to Buschor) was the passing over of the types from 

the ointnent vase to other vase ior.-s, particularly the oenochoe 

and the cantharus. The cylindr-ical spout and upright handles 

were replaced by a trefoil pitcher mouth joined to the body 

of the vase at the back of the head. Buschor i^laces this 

development between tne yeaxs ilO ai-ia IfJO B.C. and at Isast 
one example of the cSnochos form gives indisputable evidence 

that the two types existed side by side for a short time at 
least. A ^aniform ofnoche in the Branteghem Collection shows 
not only a maiden with hair in the form of dots under a cap 
upon which a wr.ath of leaves is painted, but an Ethiopian 
identical with the group of s 

ix v/e nave '-ee-' -iscussin? acovSj 


and frcu^ tne saane iiiovild. 

The oinochces which sr.c-.v "Che Ethiopian'' s nead are the icl- 
lo'ivingr — 


53. Brussels - .Brantsgheca Coll. 

Pettier, ilcn. Pict. IX, 1903, p. 153, n.3 
Buschor, Muen. Jb.Bild. Kunst., XI, 1919, pp. 11-13, 
fig. 15. 
Janifcrn csnochce witn trsfcil lip shov;ing the ccnjoinad 
head of a girl arid an Ethiopian. The lattsx sssir.s in this in- 
stance intended to represent a woruan since only a hand of raised 
dots indicating hair is shown, hack of which is a cap paii.tsd 
Dlack and deco-s-ated by a wreath of ivy leaves. 

54. Caiuoridge - Coll. of G.T. Seltinan 

Seltman, A. J. A. XXI^,1820 pp. 14-36 
oii'xcnoe combining: a oearded niale head with the head of 
an Ethiopian wouan. Most of the color is gone from the vase 
and the v/orh is poorer than that of aiv/ of the ether known 
vases of tne type. Tne vase mouth is stocky and not graceful. 

Seltman, wr.c see:.:s to know only two of all the janiform 
vases '.vhich show the Etnicpian type, ccnsidars the male head a 
representation of Dionysus and the leraale HIthicpian the mon- 
ster Lamia (Mayer, Ath.Mitth.XVI,1891,p.300ff . ) . It is true 

tliat this vase shows large teeth which do not appear in the 

others. In spite of this. the face does not seem sufficient- 


ly iiideous, aiid sne is more likaly simply a type which 
intexestad tne artist. The other vases showing wthicpian 

woiuen certainly are net iaeant to be Laiaia. This vase is 

impcrtant principally because it .jives soras ilea of vThat 

the others may have looke?: like oeiore the olack paint 

was aaded. 

gin?.le Hea:.s 

5. Berlin - Anti-uaxium - Sacouroxf Coll. 

Fuxtwaenjier, Beschrei'oung der Vassnsairjulung,!!, 

p. 515, no. 2303 , ^ ,,^ 

Buschcr , Muen. JlD. Blld. Kunst . , XI , 1S19 , p. I3,^ii g. 59 

OSnochoe in tne form of an Ethiopian's head. The flesh 

is painted olack. The lips and hair, v;hich is indicated 

by rad.8ed dots, are leit in the original color if the 

clay. ht. 0.17 in. 

'c>6, Berlin - Antinuariun - I'ro::. Athens 

Furtv.'aengler, Beschrei ..ung der Vasensa:rjiilung, II, 
p. 51 5, no. 3304 
Ce-nconce similL-j.' to tns above. The v;crk is more care- 
less. The mouth of the vaso is oroken off. Ht. O.Oy m. 

57. NaiJles - ilationai Museum 

Heydenann, Vasensaircaiungen des Ivlusec Nazionale, 

p. 447, no. 2950, (Photo So:-:mer 110y9) 
Buschcr, Huen.Jb.Bild. Kunst, XI, I':'i9,p.i3 
Genochoe in the lorm of an Kthiopian' s head. Ht. 0.15 la/ 


d8. Not. Scav.,i8y8,pl.V,no.8 

Buscnor, Muon. Jb.BIld.Kunst. ,XI,i919,p.l2 
Vase in tha lorm of an Ethiopian's -leai. ninougr. of tne 
moutn remains to siicv.' that it was an oQ.noclioe. Tne nair 
is sho'.vn "oy raissl clots cf clay, but there is consi able 
advance in tne treatment cf tne eyes. Thsy are not \7icie 
open and prominent as in tne earlier ointment vas-3S, and 
the eye-lids ovsrlc.p. The Ethiopian is strongly indivi- 
aualized a^':d lifiers in type from the other vases. The 
oonochce probably belongs co the second quarter of tne 
lift- century, and is one of the latest of i':s type. 

i'rori: ci:.ti.;ent vases ar.d pitchers the Ethiopia;:' s 
head was next adopted to plastic dxiiiking cups, both tne 
one-hanaied forn: and the two-he.n;:l3d cantharus. This 
:.ev3lopr*»e.-.t also overlaps the previous one, sin:;e iz has 
oee:: snov^'n that Choxinus male Doth oe.nochocs a::d dri::k- 
i.g cups in tne fern cf h3a:ls (Heisch, Bo >m.:i±ttK.,V, 1390, 
pp./l3-532) . The fine heads of girls v/hich ai-e discussed 
in the article by Reisch have oeo/. kno?/n for soi'.e ti.^e 
cut ever. Buschcr doss net seem to know that Chcxinus 
modelled an Kithiopian' s head as v^ell. Yeu.dclla Seta's 
catalogue cf the Villa ulia Iluseur:. lists a fragment of 
a vase v'hose inscription i.;akes it o'.e of the most inter- 
esting cf the whole series cf Ethiopian's heads. "It is 
regrettable that it is net illustratel, a?'-d that a fuller 
:;3SGription is net given. The inscription reads 

/Kg-^ /</{Pr/} /f/\j^o^ 

- akiiig this vase tne cv^ly wtlxicxiarJ s hsad which com:ines 
both the aixist's na..s and. the love na'..e. 

l.losti cf the plastic axinkirig cups with one ex t-.vo 
riaiiales are latyr In date, since there is usually a Daiid 
of red-iiguxsd pcdntirig at the top ai'our.d the cup mouth. 
I.Iost cf these painted ban:'.s show v:hich have no 
relation in subject to the bo:iy of the vase a"j. are n-eiely 
'SCoratiYe. Only one of these bands is in tne black- 
figuxed style. 

The Ixinking cui^s in the fcriii cf an Ethiopian' s head 
ax 3 as fcllov^s: 

Cu::s 'with a single handle 

58. Boston - Museum of Fine Arts 9679 

Euschcr, Greek Vass Painting, p. 110, rig, 101 

" Muen.Jb.Bild.Kun-t,XI,lS19,p.l3,xig.l9 

B-inking cup in the fori.: cf an Ethiopian's head, a 
large lound vase mouth at the top. This vase is painted 
in the ;-lack--iguxe _ technique, showing the vase to be 
one of the earliest of the drinking-cup group. The single 
handle fxor.; xhe rim of the cup to the ,:ack cf the 
plastic head. 

The hair is shown by the lamiliax raised dots -hich 
axe left in the cclci of the clay. In the cla.y color also 
ar-e the eye«crov;s and the thick, protrudi-.g lips. The 
;:etails ax-e painto,! in viith elaborate caie and give the 


nead a striking appearance. The wrinklss in the forehead 
have bean incise 1 in the clay ani those in the cornc-r of 
the eyes have been added in white paint. The eye-oalla 
have been paints^ a staring white and the pupils clack. 
The suriace of the skin is a glossy black. 

60. Gre^au Collection 

Buschcr, Muen. JlD.Bild.Kunst,XI,191S,p.l3 

Froehner, TerrssGuites,ir:i,pl,V 
Drinking cup v^ith ons han.ile in the form of an Ethio- 
pian's head, dated by Euschor at about the oeginningof 
the fifth century. 

61. F0..-3 - Villa Julia Museum 

Delia Se-oa, Museo ai Villa Giulia, I,p,lll,no.26036 
iguent cf a drinking 
head, with the inscription 

Fragment cf a dr-inking cup in the form cf an Ethiopian's 

Delia Sex a would lestore the love nane as Elpinicus rather 
than Telenicus cr Paidicus. Delia Seta also states that 
Gharinus was an ai'tist of the beginning cf the fifth cen- 
tury, X>\i% Buschcr (loc. cit.,p.lS) places the girls' heads 
by Ckarinus cetween the yeais 520 and 510 B.vT. 

Canthaii - Janifox tn 

b2. Bologna Museum - fro::, the Gerto?=a 
Bulletinc, 1872, p. 83, no. -36 

Buschcr, I.Iu9n.Jb.Biid.Kunst,XI.l919,p.l4 

Sel tcian, A. J. A. , X7JV, 1930, p. 15 

Vase in-tre form cf tv/c conjcined hea'is, one a white 
gill v.-itii liox hair indioated in rows en her forehead in 
the technique introduced by Procless, the o'cner an Fthiopisui 
Toman. Her wooiiy hair which is indicated in tne clay, 
and hex thick lips, ar-a leit in the clay color. 

b3. Bologna 

Buschor, liu3n.Jc.Eild.Kunst,XI,19l9, p. 14 
Canthar-us in tne for:.; of the ccnjcir-ei heals cf an 
E-chiopian and a wnite -..cni£n. This vacc may be identical 
■.7itn tne foregoing. 

04. Boston - Museum cf Fine Arte 

Arch.Aaz.l899,p,l44,no.3 5 

Buschor , Musn. J b. Bild. Kunst , XI , 1918 , p. 14 
Canxhoi-us in tns torn: of tne conjoined h:ads cf an 
B^thiopian woman and a white gi-1. The_ e is a.':arid at tne 
top leccrated witn polmettss in .:lacl: en a white ground. 
Under it is t.:e inscription "^on/i/^ *-/>^o^ . Ht. 0.193 r.i. 

05. Petrograd - Hsraiitage - nc . . i 5 

Buscncr, Muen. Jb.B::id.Kunst,XI.l9i9,p.l4 
Janifox;:: cantharus with the heads cf an Kthiopian and 
a whi-oe girl. 

oo. Ho-.e - Vatican - LIuseo Gregoriano wtrvsco 

Museo Greg.,II,pl,LXXKIX 

tielbig. Fuehrer, ed. l9l2,I,p.i26,no, 5S3 

Buschor , LIuen . Jb . Bild. Kunst , XI , 1919 , p . 1 5 

Janiioxnr canthai-us whicn coacinss a he&.z of Heracles 
•.vith an Etiiiopiaii' s nsad. Hyl:ig sug-^sts that the TCtli- 
iopiaii may cs iritencle _ ic^ Busiris oecaase it is contrasted 
\vitxi Heracles. This sseu;s unlikely, since the liea.i cf 
Mdxaclss is alGC founa in comoination with the girl wno 
3c often forms tn other naif of the janiform Ethiopian 
vases. (-:e Eiddor, Vases Peints le laBibl. Nat. ,11, p. 508, 
-0.866; Pettier,' lien. Pict, IX, 1905, pia4j ard con unpub- 
lished vase in th© Metropolitan Museum, Wsv.' York). There 
sseu to ':e certain fixed com:inatio:is cf hea.ts for such 
vases: girl and Ethiopian man or \vomanj ^irl and Heracles 
gill arid satyr; Heracles and satyr; t7:o girls; or tv.c 
i^tniopians. - O ^v ,-■ ■ 

67. Bulletirio,i866,p.a36 

Seltman, A. J . A. , XXIV, I9:d0, r p . 14-1 5 
Janifoxin cantn?j:us -^ritn the conlomsd cf a "'hite 
girl and 0:1 Ethiopian ';voman. The lace cf tne white girl 
is pale and slightly archiiic m type. Above bo'ch heads 
is tr.-; inscription 

Canth3-ri - Sin.'tls Hea:;s 

68. St. Louis - Museui-i cf Fine Ai'ts 

Fuit'.Taengler, Bayer. Sitzun~sb. ,1905,p.3'i3,no .8 
Buschor,. Huen. Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI.1919,p.l4,:':. 5 
Canth3xus in tne lorrn of the head ci an Ethiopian 

v^'ornan. br.^ weaas a cao. The xlesn is paintea clack. 


leaving the lips m t/e rea color of tne clay. Tne 
teet:: ai-e sno'.vn and axe paintsa v;hiie. Tr.e nair is 
indicate! by -vvavy, incised linas ins-cscd of tne -asual 
raised dots. »;y--s and eye-bro77s are painted. 

■:<9. Visnna - K.K.Oest.Mus. - Castsllani Cell. 

»cn.:aia-i, Jb.Kunst. Sai.ial. ,III,1885,p. 7;n. 5 
'iasnsr, Saiamlung Antiker Vasen,p. 55,no.347,pl,VIII 
Canthaxus witla a band at tne top ornamented witJa pal- 
mettes in tiie red fi-3Uxed technique. At the foct of the 
band is the inscription Ho rAi:?^/y/Ai H/\i^o^KA^//T/i/\t [\ai ra ye 
Masnex) . The lower part is the kead of an Ktlaiopisn 
woman ^A-eaxing a cap, under the front cf vvhijh show a few 
xov.'s cf xaissd dots to inaicate ha^x (Proclees lechniqae) . 
Tne work has oeQn cai-erully done. Inte xlesh is painted 
tclack, leaving haix, eye-jxov7B and lips in t^e red color 
of the clay. The sye-balls ai-e paintai white and the 
ts8-cn sho-.7 white oetween tne, protruding lips. 
Pupil and iris are ...arked by incised circles. Behind 
the head is a uxoad xad oamd de:7orated with white box- 
ders ana dots. Ht. O.IyS n. 

Lecythus xype 
yO. Bexlin - Anxi-,uaxium 

Furtwaenglsx, BesCiireibung der Vasensa:m.aung,II, 
p. 784, .o.:j7 57 
Vase with a lecythus mouth over an FJtixiopian' s head 


Tne hair was indie atad in tne clay and painted. Lips 
arid syes were left unpaintsd. Purtwaengler assigns the 
vase tiia lattar nali oi' "Che fiftn century. Ht. o.ll5 ni. 

1*113 loxegoir.g twenty-six vases in tne form of Eth- 
iopian's neaas (Inave bean able to add fiva to tne list 
given loy Buschor) nave clearly namy common characteristics. 
In all out two instances th v technique of rendering the 
hair oy means of raise- lumps of clay has oaen adhered to, 
even on tne vases which ai e clearly among the latest oa- 
cause of their band of red figure i painting. It is inter- 
esting that in all aasos tne hair has oeon left in the red 
color of tne clay or has oe :n painted orown. This can not 
ze taken to mean that the artist was not intending to 
rep^asent lai-k hair. The reason is more psychological. 
A contrast was tne exiact aesixea oy the G-reek artist, 
particularly in the case of the conjoine.1 heads which are 
set oif againot each other. The greatest contrast batween 
the G-reek and Ethiopian typas was in features and skin. 
The re,gul:ax-, so::.ev.'hat archaic nose and lips of tne Greek 
girl offset t.^ snub nose and piotxuding lips of the Eth- 
iopian, aiid the ■,:aie color of her skin emphasizes the 
shiny, olack ilesh. One suspects from tne spiritaa ex- 
pression of these JSthiopian races that tne artist took 
the greater pleasure in pcrtraying them, and that tne 
rather severe white face was introduced to contrast with 
tne jlack, rat -er than the reverse. It is evide.-ri: that 


tne sjainy black skin was tne laature on v;Jaich Ae wished 
to la^'' most, stress, and so the hair was leit in the dull 
clay color in order uc siicv/ up cne skin to greater advan- 

xne question arises as to wkathjx theso are mea:it to 
be tne jaeais of men or women. In the case ci' the single 
heads, where the ack of the hair as well as trie front 
is modelled, it is easy to decile. In tne case of tne 
double keads tne evidence is lesg clear. The two oint- 
ment vases in Athens a-"id the one published in tne Noti^iie 
fcr 1912; the pitchers in Berlin and Naples and the one 
publiaha - m the iJotizis fcr 1878; and the 'drinking oups 
in Boston and t:.e Grsau Collection (above, no8.49, 50, 51, 
53,55,56,57,58,59 aud 60), all single hi ads, evidently 
represent men, as the closely cropped, woolly hair is 
snown over xna entire head. Tne oenochoe in Dr .Seltm-ai' s 
Collection aiici one cantnajri in St. Louis and Vienna (above, 
nos, o'i, i5ii a:id ei9) axe cleaxly meant Co oe vvoman, since 
the hair is bound up in a cap or turban similcjc to that 
woEn - y tne Btniopian woman on tne gem in the Lewes House 
Uollection(Beazley, p. 49, pi. 3, no. 53) . In tne case of tne 
double heals ^rhere all the hair is not shown, tne features 
give little help in determining the sex, though -cnere seems 
to be something indefinably leminiae about most of them. I 
should like to su-^gest as a criterion that those which show 
■cne ear axe male neads, and cnat those which omit cr merely 
suggest it and where the outline of cne nair is orous^ht 


consideracly jiorward on the xorehead are intendad to repre- 
sent tne coiffure of a woman. Tne oi ::tineni; vases in Bos- 
ton and tna Louvre, tne canthari in Bologna and Boston 
and tiie one published in the Bulletiio for 186S (above, 
nos. '±6,*8,b2,S4 and 67) probably per tray '"oraen. 

That v/e have so:-e representations of v/omen, perhaps 
as luany as ten, on vases of the late sixth and early fifth 

centuries is interesting, not only froai the artistic stand- 

point but because it^BJthiopian •■omv.n as well as men to 

nave oeen at Athens at this tir:.©. This fact, and the pre- 
sence of HJtiiiopiar: boys en freir.s of the sai® period, a. e 
clear svidence of tne beginnings of an eotablished slave 
lire for tne race at Athens. 

There is . o direco avidence as to the nunber cf Ethi- 
opians in Greece at tne tine these vases "-ere made, but 
a statement maae cy Theophrastus '/7ho wrote in tne late 
lourth or early third century ( ed. J ebb, p. 7) has aii im- 
portant bearing on tna subject. AEioz-g his characters is 
a " Man cf Petty Ambition", {^iH'^ow'ho-rt iu-ia.<i ) who aims 
to do the fashionable thing at all tines. This cian is 
cai-eful xc have an tuthio pi en for his attendant {^rrt^e\i^- 

ed. Jebb, 1909, pp. 62-65, Characta- VII). Had Ethiopian 
slaves "cec . common even in Theophrastus' time, it is not 
likely that the rich and fashionable v/ould have affected 
them. They must have besn unusual and expensive. From 


this it iollows that they weie even mo^ e rare ac Athens 
two or three centiiries before. One gets this i'eelir.g from 
the vase themselves, where the artist seems to have talcsn 
pleasure in the pcrtraj^al cf a nov and curious race. There 
is no ra^e prejudice even in the hea;s v;hich cfi'set tr.e 
olack type againsx the white. The contrast is shown in 
a spirit cf sjinpathy which indicatss that the artist;s 
recognized their comic side rather than their ugliness. 

There seei-s to be no reason for connecting the type 
y/hich occurs en these vases with any of the mythology in- 
volving the Ethiopians. Nor is there any basis for inter- 
pretirig the off-set hea^iS from the point of viev; of any 
allegorical contrast such as day and night. In such a 
case there vrould sur.ely be Bo:.:e attrioute such as sun's 
rays or stars to cslLI attention to the iiieaning. It is true 
that Pausanias in describing the Chest of Cypselus relates 
that the woman who symbolizes Night holas in her ari-is the 
two Children Sleep and Death, tue former portrayed as white, 
the latter as blaci: or Jark ( V,18,l - ed. Frazer) . Hew- 
ever, the Greek vrc:;-d employed ±s/ce^a.<i , -hich is nov.'her© 
a synonym for A^^toyj . If Death h:;d been rendered with 
the features of an Ethiopian, Pausanias would have specified 
as he did in the case of the nude Ethiopicji boy standi; g 
near Memnon in Polygnotus' painting of the lower world 
(X,51,7). It is imprcbable that the heads on these vases 
have any further signiiicance th^si racial contrast. 


A kee.. sense cf the cciaic interest cf xhe Ethiopians 
is the pxedciiiinatir.g element in the next use cf the type 
on vases, a ioxi. v;hich is the special study cf Buschcr 
in his article cr. SotadsB. There exists a small group 
cf vases, cf Attic fifth century workmanship, in v;hich a 
drinking cup uouth wiv.h red figure i painting is combined 
at the base with a plasxic group shewing ar. Ethiopian boy 
seised -y .&. crocodile. The tv/o sor.erhat unrelated parts 
cf the cup are unified oy uaking the tail of the croco- 
dile cuil up to form the handle of the cup. The oand cf 
painti..g is difierent in each case but the ;lesign of the 
plastic group is the sa.-e. The crocodile has seized the 
Ethiopian's rigr.t arm in his jaws a:ii grasps him ai'ound the 
waist with his left icrepaw, piulling him down en his right 
knee. Thj pose cf the bey giv-js "che artist an opportunity 
to show his skill in modelling the muscul^ir stxuctui'8, a:id 
there is striki g realism in the pain expiessea by tna v/ide 
open mouth and eyes. Tx:e conception of the boy struggling 
in the grasp cf the river animal inevitaoly calls to mind 
the struggling Laocoon group, thougn the latter is mor- 
bidly tragic and the formsi- ccmic in intent. Ths humorous 
effe t is heightened b> contrast with the gayety cf the 
scenes paintcjd en the cup mouth above. Buschcr shrewdly 
points out thnt the c^rtist was familiar with the Ethiopian 
type but not v;ith the crocoiile, since the animal is far 
from true to lite, pai-ticulL^xly the head. He thinks it 


provable that the artist conceived the idea cf this plas- 
tic group fror.". stories cf the Hile told cTy returned tra- 
vellers. It see.-s i..ore likely th£.t Sctades must have seen 
crocoiiles at time a:i have attempted to reproduce 
them from memory. If he had never seen the animal it is 
improbable that the legs and claws would be as well ren- 
der ad. 

The theory which Buschcr sets forward in this article 
is that this group cf vases, together with others in the 
fori-, cf animal heads, can oe assigned to Soxades, from the 
resem^^lanoe cetween the oands of painting en the cup mouths 
a..d the painting on other vases whici. are signed works of 
Sotades. The article has been worked out in sue:, detail 
as to leave little rocm for douot as to the correctness 
cf his theory, but it has be n confirmed eyond dispute 
i jj^ by the finding cf Soiades' signature upcn jji unpublished 

0^J,'(- vase from Merce in the form of a hcrse©-fe©«*>DW in th? 

Boston Museum cf Fine Arts (D.M.Eobinscn, A.^A. ,XIII, 
P.1S4). Buschcr is interested mainly in the animal and 
the baiid of painting; but he has also assemoled many in- 
stances of the Ethiopian type in connection v/ith the 
figure on these vases, ad has made the first real clas- 
sii'icaticn of the vases in the form cf plastic heads 
which paved the way tcx Sotades' crocodile ^roup. The 
develcpme .t cf the Ethiopia:: type on these vases, as it 


has beon outlined in this chapter, is cased laxr^ely on 

his j.esults. 

Busohcr distin njiishes oetweeii the cxocodiie vase 

which aie cf genuine Attic fifth century wokmanahip, and 

those cf later ItallLixi v/oxkLianship vjhich v;exe made to imi- 
tate them. The Attic examples are the iollov/iiig: 

71. Boston - Museuia ci" Fine Arts 98. 881 

Annual Report, 1898, p. 72, no. 4-8 


Buschcr , Muen. Jo. Bild. Kunst , XI . 1919 , p. 3 , no . 3 , pie. 1&2 , 
figs. 32 & 33 
Drinking cup, the lower part a plastic group cf an Eth- 
iopian bey struggling wi ch a crocodile. The cup mouth is 
ornamented by a oand of red figured painting showing satyrs 
and Llaenacts. The crocodile was painter, green, with details 
added in black. The Etlaiopian's flesh was painted clack. 
Kye-li s, eye-brov7s and hair were paintc brown, the lips 
red and the tectn white. Ht. 0.34 m. 

72. Bran.eghe;.. Uoll.'- fcxLierxy Tyskiewicz Coll. 

J.H.S. ,IX,1899,p.330,iig.2 

Hoffman Sale Cat. no. 99 

Frceliner, Coll. Branteghem 291, pi. 48 

Buschcr, Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst, XI, 1919, p. 3, no. 4,;fig, 3 

Vase similar to the foregoirg. The band cf painting en 
the cup mouih is diifere-it, but has "che saiue subject, i.e. 

saty. s ai-jd Llaenads. Ht. 0.255 m. 


73. Dresden - Albeitinxam - iron Nola 

Buschor, Muen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,lC19,p.3,no.2,fig8.2&54 
Vase simileo: to the foregoing. The band of painting is 
pocrly preserve!, but the four figures en it were wejrrioro 
and v/omen. Ht. 0.235 m, 

74. Munich - Lluseum Antiker Kleinkunst - froiii Italy 

Buschor, Muen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,IY,1912,p.74 

" « .1 « n XI,1919,p.2,no.l,fi,'TS.l&35 

Vase siiiiila-x to the lore -.oing, but nuch restored. The 
band of painti::.g shoves fc^ur uaidens, one in hunting gar"b 
and the others in long Iraperies, Ht. 0.235 m. 

To "uhese vasas vvhici; are :enuir:e Attic examples, 
Budchor acias eoiother which pro"ba'.^ly belongs in this class: 

75. Catc.nia- Museo Biscari 

F. de Roberto, Oatsnia (Bergav.o 1SC7) p. 122 
Buschcr, MuenJb.Bild.Kunst,XI,l919,p.4,nc.5 
Vase similsr.' to the foregoing. It is leccrated only 

v/itr. a lozenge pattern and ^ranches, '^vhich are arranged 

over each other in the manner of a frieze. 

These Attic fifth century vases are probi-.'bly the eai-liest 
examples of the comic association of negro and crccodile, 
a motif very couiinon in the comic maQ;azines cf a generation 
ago aiid still found in the souvenir statuettes sold at 
so., e southern resorts. 



In leaving the plastic vas?B and passing over to the 
Ebhiopian ty. e in vase painting, the r.ytholofy surrounding 
HJthiopia is encountered. The myths cf Greece were the 
favorite subject of the vase pai:-ter, and when the Attio 
ai'tist unuertcok to reproduce a scone which involved 
characters connected ",'ith this legendary country, it 
was natural that he should give theu the features of the 
Exhiopiai-s whom he had seen, and v/ho had already been 
esxa.lished as an appropriate subject oy the moulders 
of plastic vases. It is interesting thct none of the 
actue.l rulers cf Ethiopia who appear' as principals in these 
vase paintings are themselves portrayed as black. It is 
only such attendants, soldiers and slaves as are intro- 
duced into the scene 7;ho ai-e given the genuine Ethiopian 
pnysiognony. The artists probably could not bring them- 
selves to give th3 ruling caste the features v;hich they 
associated with a group cf slaves cf their own tirae. . 

There are four legends which involve,! the clack races 
in their representations on vases. The first two, the 
stories of Mennon and Androme:^.a, concern tne mythical 
Ethiopia of the east; the third, the Busiris legend, is 
related to Egypt; and the fourth, the story cf Lamia, is 
connected with Libya. Of these, the first is the most 
fruitful in the matter cf mthiopieuis. 

Meninon, son of the davn and Tithonus, cair.e v;i^h his 
fcrces of Ethiopians to assist the 'irojan cause. He does 
rxot appeal- in the Iliad; but in the Odyssey he is tvrice 
rererrsd to, once icr his exploit of killing Antilochus 
the son of Kestcr ( IV, 188) and onco for his personal 
beauty ( X, 532 ). He is known also to Hesiod ( Tlisogo- 
ny 984 ). The events cf his liie often shov/n by vase 
painters are his victory over Antilochus, his contest 
with Achillas i?.'ho revenged Nestor's son and the mourning 
of his mother Eos over his d&ath. Even in the absence of 
Msmnon as the principal figure, it is likely that any 
armed Ethiopians found on vases can be connected with 
this warrior myth. 

The vases v:hiG>. refer u-r.nistakably to Memnon hin- 
self and introduce his Ethiopian v;arriors are the fol- 

76. London - British Museum 

Wiener Vcrlegerbl. ,1889,pl.III,no.3 
Gerhard, Auserles. Vasenb. ,111,307 
Loesch/.e, Arch. Zeit. ,18Sl,p,31,n.9 

* Bonner Studien,p.348 

Schneider, Jb.Kimst.Saiaral. , III, 1885, p. 4, n. 5 
Buschcr, Muen,Jb.Bild.Ku-:st,XI,1919,p.36 
Walters, Catalogije of Vases,II,p.l38,B309, \vhere 

a longer oibliography is given 


A olack i'igured amphora wixh the scene of Meunon 
armed for battle and attended on either side by an Ethi- 
opicji. These tv/o attendants aie given with great realism 
as to v;oolly hair and features. One wears a short chiton 
and cai-ries a pelta, the other wears a cuirass and Ghort 
chiton. Both cairy clubs in their right hariis. 

There is an inscription /fA;/*//^ an' some obscure 
letters v/hicn were at first read as f/'o/^^t-// , b\-t 
Loeschke has proved the vase to be the work of Kxecias 
and the name probably refers to the fallen negro by 
analogy with the vase in Philadelphia ( below, no. 79). 

77. Mujiich - Sammlung Konig Ludwigs 

Schneidsr, Jb.Kinist.Samnl. ,III,1805,p.4,n, 6 
Jahn, Beschreibung der Vasensaiuml. ,no. 541 
Buschor , Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst, XI, 1919, p. 57 
Ampnora showi g Memnon and his nithiopicn attendants, 
the lattcx characterize' by great prominence of jaw. Ac- 
cording to Buschor, the vase is later in date than tne 
Lonclcn amphora. 

78. New York - Metropolitan Museum 

Purtwaengler, Bayer. Sit ^un^sb. ,1905, p. 274, fig. 9 
Buschcr , Muen. Jb. Bild. Kunst , XI , 1919 , p. 37 
Black figured amphora similar to the Wxecias amphora 
in London ( above, no.v6 ). Hue sco-e of one side is an 
armed hero standing between two iiithiopians. The scene 
on the reverse side is Apollo oetween Hermes and Letc. 


78. Philadelphia - Univ. of Penn. Museiiin - from OrA-ieto 

Jjlirtwaenglex, Bayer. Sitzun-sb, ,1905,pp.357-258,riO.20 

Lung, Me::>non,p,38,fi. 

Bvischcr, Muen.Jb.Bilcl.Kunst,XI,lS19,p.37 

Black figured vase with a scene from the Trojan war'. 

Menelaus is killing an Ethiopian r/ho is inscribed 

( compare the inscription en the London aciphora ). Near 

th2 Gorpc:e of Antilochus, t-o other nude Ethiopians are 

riinnir.g bei"o_3 the attack of three ar:. ed Greek warriors. 

The inscription is probably in the genitive case. 
R.' ■■ ■ ' 

The vases on which there is no direct reference to j^. 
Memnon or his exploits, but v/hich can undoubtedly be ccn- '..^ 

nected v/ith the legend, ai-e the following: 

' /.'■ 

80. Wrlangsn - 

Buschor , Muen . Jb . Bi 1 d. Kuns t , XI , 1919 , p . 38 , pi . 3 
Three fragments of a large red fi^^ured amphora. On 
ons irag..:er.t a beards ^ and helmeted Greek v/arrior is 
piercing an Ethiopian with his spear-. The piece is bro- 
ken so that the Ethiopian's ayes and the top of his head 
are gone, and his figure is broken of^ at the waist, but 
the woolly hair and promine: t jaw reveal the race of the 
figure. The other two pieces are parts of a second Ethi- 
opian who is lying dead upon tha grouiia. The laces of 
the Ethiopians are sone\^hat idealized in feature, a:id 
there is no trace of the comic or gxptss^e in their 
pain such as is present in the croco/iile vases. 


ol. London - 15.0 gers Coll. 

Welcker, Ann all, 18^5, p-. 154-1 55 
Alts Denki:.a3l3r,V,p.388,r.o.34 
Schneider, Jb.Kunst.Saciml. , III, 1885, p. 4, n. 6 
On a hydxia whose principal desi'::n is the judgment of 
Paris axe tv.'o rraiTiors v;ho hold one shield between thsm. 
The shield device is a serpent between tv-o Kthiopir.ns, 
one CI whoiT. is tirmed v;ith a bov; and qUiver, the other v;ith 
a club, 

83. Paais - Lo-uvie - from Sornmavilla 
Bulletir.0, 1837, p. 75 

Schneider, Jb.Kunst.Saiima. ,lll,1885,p.4,n. 6 
Pettier, Vases Antiques du Louvre, II, 1901, p. 153, 
G93, pi. 98 
Archaic red fi-nired cylix, whose interior design is 
an armed Ethiopian, running. He is nude, but a chlamys 
placsa over his ri'^Tit shoulder han^s dovrn en si >e 
of his body. He nol-ls a lanca in his right i.a:'.d, and 
carries en his left arm a shield in the shape of a pelta, 
decorated with a vine of :lack ivy. His lips are thick, 
his nose short and his jaw structure very i^xomlner-t. In 
the field are sonie letters of an inscription, but they 
can not be interpreted. 

Potti:r says that tns provenance of ths vase is un- 
known, out it talliss in every detail, ;ven to the letters. 


with the vase described in the Bulletino rcr 1837, p. 73. If 
tnsy aiQ identical, the vase wcs excavate:! at Soiiiifiavilla, 
a village in centrs-l Italy. 

83. Naples - National M-use;i2i - ixoi^ Cumae 

Heyder^ann, Vasensainiiil. des liusec Nazionale,p.864, 

no. 172 
Schneider, Jb.Kunst.Samml. , III, 1885, p. 4, n. 6 
Graindor, Musee Beige, XII, 1908, p. 31 
Monument i Lincei, XXI I, pi. 61 
Buschor, Muen.Jt)Bild.Kunst,XI,l91G,p.38 

On a pclychroivie lecythus a bearded warrior with a 
ncn-Greek profile is arraying hinself in heavy arcior. He 
wears helmet, cuirass arid chiton, and a chlamys han^s be- 
hind Mm. His sword is hanging from his lance, v/hich is 
in front of him, and he is raising his shield from the ground 
with both han.iS. Buschcr suggests that the man is Menmon 
himself arming for battle, and this is possible, since the 
features are barbarian rather than negroid. 

Buschcr connec-s also with th Ethiopian warriors 
of Msmnon the tr\ampet olowex s "vho appear as a shield de- 
vice en several vases. Chase ( Harvard Stiadies, XIII, 
p. 88 ) includes thase Ethiopia^- trumpeters under tne 
class cf devices chosen to indicate rank, such as armod 
ni:iaan i±:.^xea a^ad horsemen. This explanation of the 
design uy no i^ieans precludr^s a possible leference to the 


Meiaion story. Tiis following are the vases which have the 
tr-umpeter c-s a shield desi::;n: 

84. Haples - Barone Coll. 

Arch. Zeit.,1847,p.l90 

Buachor, Muen. Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI.1^19,p.38,n.l2 
Ped figured u'ater on ■•/hich an Ethiopian olov;ing a 
long tximpet appeals as a shield design. 

85, Terra Nova - llavaixa Coll. - fxor.i Gel a 

Bulletino, 18o7,p.i357 
Heydeiiiann, Hall. Winck9lmannspr.III,p. 58 
Benndoxf, Griech. u. Siz. Vasenb. ,p.99,pl.46 
Chaso, Harvard Studies, XIII, p. 88 
Fairbanks, Athenian LeGythoi,p.247,no. 75 
Buschcr , Mucn. Jo . Bil d. Kuns t , XI . 1919 , p . 38 , n. 12 
Lecythus en -/hich a nude aan :.lowing a trumpet appears 
as a shield device. He is painted entirely Dlack, but his 
features ai-e not strongly marked. Chase docs not ceill him 
an Ethiopian, ncx does Benndoxf, but Buschcr states that 
he is a "Mohr* and ifairbaiiks a "nude black man". It sseius 
likely that he is luoant to be an Ethiopian by analogy with 
the other similar vases, 

•86. Vienna - K.K.Oest.Musoum - Castellani Coll, 4626 
Masner, Samral. Antiker Vasen,p.49,no,332,pl.VI 
Chase, Harvard Stuai^s, XIII, p, 38 
Buschcr, Muen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,Xl,iei9,p,58,n,12 


An Ethiopian ~s a shield decoxation en an Attic red 
figured amchora. He clows a long tr\ampet ;vhich iie lioldB 
in his right hand. A Liantle hangs over his right shoul- 
der and left arm. His left arm and knees are bent in a 
comic -ttitude. 

87. Wuxzbuig - lor.usrly Feoli Coll. 

Urlichs, V^rzeichniss dix Ant ikensamul. ,111,302 
Monuuenti , I , pi . XXXY 
lelcker,Alte D9nlJi:aeler,III,pl.xr/I 

Mueller-Wieseler,Denkmaeler dsr Alten Kunst,I,4'±,a09 
Overbeck, G-alerie Eeroischer Bildwerke,pl.XV,4 
Bauneistcr, Denkmaeler , I,p. 735,pl.XIII 

Chase, Harvard Studies, XIII, p. 88 
Buschor, Muen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,1919,p..:8,n.l2 
An Ethiopicri with a long ^'ar truiripet as a shield device 
on a black figured amphora. He is nude except for a band 
at h_s waist from .vhich are suspended a sword and sheath. 
The features are of pronounced a^thicpiaii type, and the 
angle cf the leit arm with hand resting or. the leit hip 
is very comic. A piece is jrokcn out so that the lower 
part of the figure is missing. Baumeister sugges^^s that 
the shield device may have a proleptic reference to the 
defeat cf Memnon by Achilles. 

With the warriors of Memncn it seeus reasonable to 
connect also a much aisputed group of alabastra, all of 


v.-nich. have pxac.icaliy the saj--.e aeRi-^n very cru;;ljly paint- 
ed in jlack on a dull vihite ground. In all, the principal 
figure is an Ethiopian wearing a sleeved jacket and trou- 
sers. He ralks toward the spectator's right but his head 
is turned Squarely in the opposite direction. The arns 
ai-e extended awkwardly at ri^,ht angles to his body. In 
his right han:i he holcis a double axe, and over his leit 
arm is spread a folded piece cf cloth. On the majority 
of these vases there is in the background a palm tree and 
an altar or table. On a few examples a Corinthian helmet -• 
is lying either en the ta'ole cr on the ground. Froehner 
was the first to call attention to this type cf alaoastrm^, 
in a monograph entitled "Deux Peinturss de Vases Grecs de 
la wecropole de Cameiros" (Paris 1871). He assembles four 
examples of the type, and this number has oeen added to 
.y others in subsequent articles until the total has reach- 
ed twenty-four. 

i'roehner's article was followed oy one .y Heyiemann 
xu txio loilowing year (Ai'ch. Zeit. ,1872,p.37) . uecil Smith 
(Naukrc..tis,I,1885,pp. 51-52) assigns the series to Naucrt^tis 
from the technique and the subject, and from the fact that 
three of the sxamples were excavated at Ehod3s. He agrees 
Y/itn Froehner in considering that the figures represent 
hJthiopian Amazons, since several such vases exist where 
the xigure has a white iace (ji'roehner, Deux Peintures le 


Vasss Grecs,no.l.:'4; Colli ^non-Couve, Gatalogu.e no. 1084; 
Peirot-Cnipi jz,X,p.692) . Winneleld. (Alacastra mit Negar- 
daxstellungen,Atli.i,fitt^. , XIV, 1889, pp. 41-50) considers that 
tile vases probably contained some product coming fron 
'^gyp't* and that the recurring Kthicpian type was a sort 
of advertisement or announcement of the contents. All 
existing ideas regarding the origin of these vases vrere 
changed, however, when a fragment of a pi axe of the same 
fabric and with the saiiie subject, but with en Athenian 
inscripxion, was published by Bethe (Zu den Alabastra 
mix i^egoruarstell-ungen, Ath.Mitth. ,XV,1890,p.244) . Bethe 
interprexs them no further than as a proof of the active 
commercial relaxions oetween iJJgypt and Axhens at the begin- 
ning of the fifth centuxy. 

All previo- s u^aterial is sucimod up and a ner list of 
eighteen sucn vases formed by Graindcr (Les Va^es au riegxe, 
Muse'e Beige, XII, 1908, rp. ^5-SS) . Graindor's viev.- is xhat 
these iiJthiopians are Asiatic, since their costmie is the 
one generally given on vase to Aiuazons, Scythians and in 
general all barbarians who come from Asia. This is strength- 
ened by the fact that on one example are two Sxhiopians 
wearing Phiygian caps (Winne-eld, loc,Git.p.45) . Graindcr 
believes that tne figures are all soldiers, armed v;ith the 
dou-le £Lxe and ueiiig the folded cloxh as a shield. He ar- 
-^ues xh::t Herodct' s lisxs Ethiopians .among xhe armies of 
Xerxes ar.d that th y had probably foughx at Maiathon; ai-:d 
that it is no serious objection xo his vie-.s that Hercaotus 


describes difeient cost-u::.e from ths one \-hich appears 
on t-.e vases. Since xiie Ethiopiaris were deieated together 
wibXi the Pcrsia^is, G-raindcr celieves that this series of 
vases was L.ale to ilatter Greek \anity. He sees in the 
helmet a dedicated trophy which is a delicate reierence 
to the Greek victory, and oelieves that the ii.tniopian is 
suppose., to Dti in flight. 

It is true that tne costumes suggest Asia; but the 
other points r.iade by Graindor ai e opn to serious objec- 
tion. In the first place tlie repiesentation of a contem- 
porary event is unusual in Greek art, particularly in con- 
trast with Poman which is so .:redominantly commemorative. 
Aeschylus did bring the Persian war upon tne Greek stage, 
but in a tragedy of dignified proportions; and it seeius 
inconsistent with the Greek pride in their trercendof.s vic- 
tory to ccmi::emorate it in art by Picturing a humble and 
almost grotesque auxiliaiy. Anotner argument againct the 
interpxetaticn is that at least four of the vases have oeen 
fouiid at sites in Boeooia, anu suoh a design would not be 
popular in a state which Medizud (Thucydides 111,52; Grundy, 
The Great Persian Wc.r, op. 294-296, o4Y, 4t59) . Furthermoio, 
if the helmet is to oe legardsd as a dedicate 1 trophy, v/hy 
is it a Greek helmet? '*7ould not so-ue Asiatic and more char- 
acteristic trophy have be.;- selected? Graindor lir.e-'ise 
makes no reference to the ssries of plastic vases in the 


form of heads which antedate these vases aiid which show that 
there were Ethiopians in Greece prior to the Persian Wars, 

If one sees, on the other hand, a reference to the 
Mecinon myth, these objections disappear. The Greek hel- 
met is that of the fallen Greek warrior Antilochus who 
had been slain by Memnon, and one of Memnon's Ethiopian 
wairiors Icoks back at it as he leaves the scene. The 
Asiatic dress is entirely appropriate sine they axe as- 
sisting the besieged cixy of Trey, which is situated in 

The following lists of these vases includes tne ex- 
sfciplss assembled by Graindor and the additions to his list 
made by Buschor (LIuen. Jb.Biid.Kunst,XI.1919,p.Z7) : 

88. Athens - National lluseum - from Thebes 

TBOuntas,^)?^. /^-Ji^. 1883, p. 180 

Winn© f el d,lo celt. p. 42 

Collignon-Couve, Catalogue des Vases, p. 338, no. 1089 

89. Athens - liational Museum - from Thebes 

Tsountas, L.p.180 

Winnei'eld, loc,cit.p.43 

Cecil Smith, lJaul.ratis,I,p. 51 

Beth©, loc.cit.p.24S 

Collignon-uouve, Catalogvis de- Vases, p. 338, no. 1088 

90. Athens - National Uuseum - from Athens 


Winnet'eld, loc.cit.p.4S 

Colli gnon-Couve, Catalogue, p. 339, no, 1090 

91. Athens - I'jationol Museum - from Tariagra 

Winneield, lcc,cit.p.43 
Collignon-Coux-e, Cataloguep.339,i"io.l091 

92. Athens - Sale- froK. LaUxion 

93. Athe.iS - loun 1 at Athens 

Bethe, Icc.cit. p. 344 

94. Berlin - Antiquaxiuni 

Heydeuann, Axch. Zeit. ,187a,p.37 

Furtwaengl6r, Beschreitoung der Vasensai.iml. ,11, 

p. 5.^2,110.3360 
Winnexeld, loc.cit.p.43,n.2 & p. 44 
Bethe, loc.cit.p.34o 
Fsinach, Repertoixs das Vases, I, p. 412, r.o. 5 

95. Boston - Musouiii of Fins Arts 

Arch. Anz., 1899, p. 144, no. 37 
Vas3 in the form of a girl's hsad, with a vase mouth 
upon which this same Ethiopian figure appears. 

96. Brussels - private coll. 

97. Brussels - Muse'e lu Cinquantenaire 

98. Compiegne - 

Froehnar, op.cit.p.lS 
Heyleuann, loc.cit.p.37, A 

99. Copenhagsn - 

Bdtne, loc . citp. 3 .1.-5, n. 1 

100. Dresden 

Axch.Anz. ,1889, p. 170 

101. ]>:iraiia Coll. 

Schr.eid&r , Jto.Kunst. Sarnriil . , III , 1885, p. 4, n. S 

102. London - British Iluseiim - frora Tanagra 

C.Smith, Naur-rati8,I,p. 51 

Ca-calos-ae of Vasas in the British Museum, II, p. 307,3374 

103. Naples - Brante^hem Coll. - formerly Barone 

Hey demann, Arch. Zeit. ,1859, p. 36, no. 10 

* " " 1873, p. 3 5 

FroehneXjColl. Branteghemp. 64, no. 155 

* Dsux Paintures de Vasas Grre33,p.l7 

Rainach, Pe'pextoixe das Va80s,I,p.413,no. 5 

104. Pai-ent Coll. 

Froehner, Deux Peintures de Vases a-recs,p.l7 
Haydemann, Arch. Zeit, ,1873, p. 350 
Yifinnexeld,loc.cit.pp.l4 & 41 

105. Paris - Louvre 


Fxoelinei-, Deux Pjint;ixss,p.l7 

106. Paris - Druot Sale 

Vents Druo t , 1904, r.o . 147 , pi. IX 

107. Paris - Lambros Sala 

Vente L amor o 3,1913, no. 39 

108. from Phodes 

C.Smith, Maukratis,I,p.51 

109. from Pliodss 

C. Smith, Naukrati8,I,p, 51 

110. Tarentum - found at Tax-entiua 

Bethe, loc.oit.p.345 
Pound plate with the saae Ethiopian figure as the 
alabastr a. 

111. Private Ooll. - from Lle^ara 


113. Pricksnhaus, eJmporion no. 135 
Pev. Arch., 1913, I, p. 99 

113. Frickanhaus, B^mporion no. 136 
hev. Arch., 1913, I, p. 99 

Buschcr passes over these nur.erous examples of the 
type with the statement that a reference to ileunon' s fol- 
lowers is probably intended. 


Compars^ with tne Memncn legend, otner mytis yield 
comparatively small returns in tne way of repxesentations 
of tiithiopians in art. A fev occur on vases connected 
witn the Andromeda story. This princess v/as the daughter 
of Cepkeus and Cassiopeia. Her mother boasted rashly 
about her beauty, saying that she was fairer than the 
Nereids, and thus incurring the displsasure of Neptune 
who sent a sea monstrjr against tne land. The oracle said 
that the only way of escape was to deliver up Andromeda 
to it, ana Cepheus in order to save his people had his 
daughter bound to a spot v/here she would be a prey to it. 
Perseus, returning from his victory over Meilusa, slew the 
s-3a monster, freed the maiden emd married her. 

Just as Memnon himself is never represente.l with 
negro features, neither are these rulers of Ethiopia, 
though the Poman Ovid describes Andromeia as swarthy (Her. 
XV,. .5 ^ '66 - "Placuit Cepheia Perseo Androuede, patriae 
fusca colore suae"). 

One vase shows Phrygia:is, not wthiopiaas, as the ser- 
vants of Cepheus ( Heydeuann, Yasensamml. des LIuseo Nazi- 
onale,p.5^0,no.5325 ) but -genuine Ethiopian faces occur 
on certain vases, --vhich are listed below: 

114. Berlin - Antiquariiim 3237 - from Capua 

Purtwaengler, Arch. Anz. ,VlII,1393,p.91,fig. 50 
Crater illustrati.ig the Andromeda story. Tne prin- 
cipal characters in t.-ie scene are An.troueda, Perseus, 


Ceplisus, Aphxodite aiid Hermes. Thexa is on addition a 
seated figure wearing a long-slseved jacket and trousers, 
gayly oxnamented. The hair is bound with a fillet and the 
features are unmistaka-Qly Ethicpisn. Furtwaengler does 
not lollow Froehner in thinking this a woman, who per- ;' 
sonifies Ethiopia. However it see-is impossible that the 
figure can be masculine because of the head-iress and fea- 
tures, and the allegorical meaning is certainly not without 
precedent. She can not be meant fox an Ethiopian servant 
or she would not be seated in the presence of the rulers. 
She i- evide -tly of equal importance with them, and the 
allegorical interpretation seeus the most satiaf actory, 

115. Lon.ion - British Museiim - Canino Coll. - from Vulci 

Archaeologia, XXXVI, pp. 53- v"0, pi. VI 

Annali, 1873, p. 108 

Robert, Arch.Zeit. ,1878,p.l6 

Tumpel, Jb.Phil.Paed. ,Suppl.XVI,p.l:i9 If. 

Bcsanquet, J.H.S. ,XIX,1899,p.l77 

Petersen, J.H.S. ,XXIV,1904, pp. 98-112, pi. V 

F. P., pi. 77, test, pp. 94-97 

Walters, Catalog'ae of Vases, III,p.l52,El69 
Hyiria snowing the chaining of Andromeda, not to a rock 
according to the more usual version of the myth, but to 
two upri^i-t posxs. The is being -.vatched by Porseus, 
at the extreme right, and next to him Oepheus wearing a 
tiara and seat 3 i on a throne. At the center of the pic- 


ture is a figure vjeaxing a sleeve.: jacket an.l trousers, and 
a tiara, and supported by t'.vo Ethiopicn slaves, each xiold- 
ing in both hanis the arras of the supported ligure. To 
the right of this group are three Kthiopians -^vho are pre- 
paring the ground an.d the stakes, and to the left of the 
group aie three more who are bringing up objects for the 
funeral rites. 

The supported figure is the subject of dispute. Peter- 
sen wishes to interpret it as Phineus, the betrothed sui- 
tor of Andromeda, from the height of the figure and the raas- 
culine dress, and thinks that he is bringing up the funer- 
al objects for the sacrifice of his jetrothed. Tne first 
objection to this interpretation is that if the figure is 
to be taken as Phineus, the main character, Andromeda her- 
self, is not shovm in the sce.-e. Also, this figure has 
the most important position in the scene, the center, and 
the arms are in the proper position to oe ^astened to the 
':.pri3ht stakes v;hich are already being fixed in the ground. 
Likewise the piteous expression is more appropriate to the 
victim than a mourner only. She is taller than the slaves 
Mho hold her up, but her importance in the story v/arrants 
this. Both sidoo cf the scene converge towai-d this fig- 
ure v.'hich is the center of interest, and it seeus unlikely 
th:.t it could be anyo/:s :vUt the heroine herself. The 
eight Kxhiopiaais have thick v/oolly hair, short noses and 
thick lii-S, and one has a wrinkled forehead which shows, 
according to Walters, that he is older than the others. 


THe myth of Busirie has already oeen outlined in con- 
nection with the the remarkable Caereta;a hydxia of Ionian 
v/orknanehip ( above, no. 44 ). This vase shov^el both Egypt- 
ian priests ai-il Ethiopians, whereas the majority of the 
Attic representations of the story shov/ only Egyptians, 
The usual type for such priests assisti:i2 at the sacri- 
fice is the lov; forehead, shaved heal and long musu aches. 
On certain of the vases, however, the type is either ne- 
groid or th Egyptians have been given a negroid appear- 

The vases v;hich illustrate the Busiris story have 
been listed by the following: Hslbig, Annali,1865,pp. 
396-307; Heylemann, Hall. Winckeluietnnsprogra!aim,VII,p.l8, 
11.20; Purtwaen-ler in Roscher's Lexicon under Busiris; 
Pettier in Dumont-Ghaplain,I,p.380; Hartwig, Meisterschal- 
en,p.51,n.l; Richter, A. J. A. ,XX,1916,pp,131-133. Miss 
Eichtar's list is the latest and most complete. 

Of all the Busiris vases, unly the lollowir^ show the 
Ethiopian type. 

116. Athens - Central Museum 

Dumont-Chapl ain, I , pp. 379-381 
Haitwig, Meisterschalen,p. 53,n.l 
Herzog, Studien zur G-eschichte der Griechischsn 
Bed ligured amphora of the severe style, showing the 
scene of Heracl-ss at the altar attacking the priests of 


Busiris. He wears the lien skin and lioldG one of the 
priests or servants in the air jy the feet. To the right 
of the altar, another servant holds a double axe with "both 
hands above his head as if about to strike(cf. the double 
axe held cy the Ethiopians on the Memnon alabastra). A 
third figure who has crouched lown on the ground has his 
arias raised i . an attitude cf fear. Pettier reiuarks that 
the type has frankly turned toward the grotesqU-e, and that 
the bald crania and burlesque attitudes suggest satyric 
dra.ia actors. This is probably the correct interpretation 
since it is knovrn xhat hiuxipides -^'xozs a satyr play around 
the Busiris story a..d that it was a favorite with the com- 
edy writers. . It is probable that th-^ diiiere;it priests 
who appear en the vases go back to different comedies or 
satyr plays as originals. 

117. Berlin - Antiouariun - Canino Coll. - frora Vulci 

Steyhani, Conpte Rendu, 1868, p. 41 
Gsrhacd, Trinkschals u. ae:aesse,pl.VIII,p.9 
Dumont-Chapl ain, I , p. 380 , no . 9 
Purtwaenglar, Vasensaniml. ,11, p, 714,3 534 
Ped figured cylix showing on the exterior a scene 
where Heracles is oeing led -co the sacrifice, oound, oy 
tv;o bai-barians of Ethiopian type. A third wallcs in iront 
of him, cai'rying a leoythus. 

118. Bologna - Mu3eo Givico 

Za.noni, Scavi della C3rto?a,pl.:J3,no.lO 


Schneidsr, Jb.Kunst.Saraml. ,III,1885,p.S,n,8 
Hcydemann, Hall. Winckelm^vil,p. b3,no.ll7 
Dumont-Chapl ain, p. 380, n. 7 
Amphora (Dvimont-Cliaplain) or crater (Sciineidar) with 
a 308113 froa zhe Busiris story. T.vo toaroarians of iith- 
iopian type, with stu...p noses and beards, hold s-^crifi- 
cial instruments. 

119. Munich - Koeni^ Ludv,'ig* s Coll. - from Vulci 

Bulletir-o, 1829, p. 109, no. 38 

Helbig, Annali,18b5,p.500, . 

Dumont-Chapl ain, I, p. 380, np, 8 

Jahn, Vasansamml, Koenig Lud'wi.7s,p,l07,no.o43 
Hydria with Lha Busiris story. The Ethiopians axe of a 
type similar to those on the Athens and Bologna vas3s, and 
wear ear-rings, 

130. Oxfoi'd - Ashnolean Museum - Oldfield Coll, 

nalbig, Annali,1855,p.300,pl.PQ 

Dumont-Chapl ain, I , p, 380 

Stamnus with the Busiris story. The attendants are 
Exhiopian as evidenced oy the woolly hair shov/n in dots 
ia the same manner as on plastic vases and ge:..s. The vase 
was known to Helbig from a drawing only, and Pottisr did 
not know its present ownership. It has since coma into 
the possession of the Ashmolean Mu;?eum. 


131. Naples - National Muse ^ju - i'rom the Basilicata 

Gerhai-d, Neapels Antik. Bildw. ,575,n.30 

Helbig, Annali,18G5,p.302 

HeydeLiann, Vasem-aLiiiil. ,p.3S3,ixo.3558 

Duraont-Ciiaplain, I, p. 380,n. 12 
Fragment cf a large red figured vase with the Busiris 
story. Busiris himself vfeai s a Phrygiaji cap. The atten- 
dants axe tv/o maidens and two bartoarian slaves of Ethiopia n 

132. On sale -ct Athens 

Buschcr , Uuen. Jb. Bild. Kunst , XI , 191S , p. 40 
Fragment of a red figured vase showing the upper part 
of an Ethiopii?ii who is cai'rying in his harid two sacrifi- 
cial spits and therefore is probably to be asso iatei with 
the Busiris legend. He is uarkedly dolichocephalic, and 
the outline of his woolly hair is indicated by a wavy in- 
cised line. His nose is short and his lips axe everted, 
making the racial type very pronounced, 

. The foregoing myths have had Asiatic ex Egyptian as- 
sociations, but the myth which Mayer wishes to see repre- 
sented en a vase in Athens is connected v;ith Libya. 

123, Athens - National Museum 

Mayer, Ath.Mitth. , XVI, 1891, pp. 300-312, pi. IX 
Seltm?ji,A.J.A. ,XXIV,1920,p.l5 


White Athenian lecythus whose decoration is a scene 
showing a woman cf grotesque and horritle aspect tied to 
a palm tree and tortured oy five satyrs. IJayer v;ishes to 
recognize in this figure Laiaia, a v.'itch-like creature 
v;ho was the bogey cf Greek children. She had been a 
Libyan queen beloved by Zeus, ana the jesLlous Hera had 
deprived her cf her 3hildi-en. In her frenzy Lamia stole 
the children of othor people, and from the cruelties 
which she practised on them became a hideous and distort- 
ed person. The vase fits the myth, for the woman's figxire 
is most horribly distorted. Likewise Zeus gave har the 
power cf tuking out her eyes and putting them back, so 
that when they were out she was quiet but when they were 
in she v/ent on her frightful rai.18. The woman on the vase 
seems di*stinctly to have empty eye sockets, v/hich proba- 
bly accounts for her helplessness at the hands cf the 
satyx s. 

This striking scene of cruelty is so stranQ;e a con- 
ception for Greek art that Mayer is undoubtedly right in 
associating it with soi..e dramatic presentation, parti- 
culco-ly from the presence of the satyrs. He suggests the 
travesties en myths which are knovm to have oeen perform- 
ed at the Cabiric sarxctuary at Thebes and v/hich are re- 
flected in the vases found there. This interpretation 
v/ould connect the vase with another group cf va^^es upon 
soiice of which one cf the famous chtu'acters of Greek myth- 
ology is frankly caricatured as an -iithiopieji. Latiia ha.'. 


African ancestry, and it is not surprising to find her por- 
trayed as a negxess. But thexe is no such tradition in 
the case of the enchantress Circe, and to find her ren- 
dered v,'ith Ethiopian features is an instance of the inten- 
tionally grotesque. J I 

The excavations at the Cabirionr and the vase frag- 
ments found there have been described ^y Judeich and Dcerp- 
feld, Ath.Mitth., XIII, 1888, pp. 81-99; Winnefeld, sacio vol- 
v^..e,pp.4lo-4j8; Walters, J.H.S. ,XIII,1893,pp.77-87. The 
Circe vases of this type are as follows: 

134. Baltimore - Coll. of Prof. D.l-I. Robinson 

A.J. A., XIX, 191 5, p. 79 

A.J. A., XXI, 1817, p. S7 
Unpublisho-I scyphus with black painting on a dull buff 
ground. A triple band of black paint runs ai'ound xhe cen- 
ter of the vase, aiid a wider single band at the top. Be- 
tween these axe tne .resigns; on one side a grapevine, on 
the other a scene in caricature cf Circe offering Odysseus 
a pox ion, Odysseus on the right is on his knees and re- 
ceives the bov;l with both hanJs. His hair is portrayed 
in com c disorder, and his fsaturss grotesqu.8. Cir- 
ce, at the leix, stands with her back to her loom, .ressed 
in a loose garmeno and holding the bowl ov.x to Odysseus. 
Her features are caricatured out not strongly Ethiopian 
as on the Oxford and London vases described belov;. 


135. Boston - Coll. of Prof. Horpin 

A. J. A., XIX, 191 5, p. 79 
Cabixic vase which caricatures the Circe myth. 

136. Chicago - Univ. of Chicago Museum 

A.J.A. ,XIX,1915,p.79 
Cabiric vase v/hich caricatures the Circe myth. 

137. London - British Museum 

Walters, J. H. S. , XIII, 1893, pp. 77-87, pi, IV 
Scyphus from the Cabiri&fi: similar to the foregoing. It 
has on one side the gxapeviiio pattern liLe thai en Dr.Pob- 
inson's vase, and. on the oxher the scene of Circe ofioring 
Odysseus the potion in a scyphus-shaped vase. Circe is 
frankly caricatured as a negress. Her nose is short and 
snub, her lips thick and her jaw protruding. Hex hair is 
fastened i:i a turban-like cap similar to that en the L^wes 
House gem (3Qazley,p.49,pl.5,no. 52) . She wears a loose 
garment and hex pose is p;LxpOEely ^uigraceful. She stands 
at the left of the scene facing Odysseus, arid is identi- 
fied y the inscription KIPKA above hex head. Odysseus is 
shown as an emaciated finjire, nude except for a cloal: thro"Ti 
about his shoulders and a pointed cap. He wears a sheathed 
sword and leans on a knotted staff. His legs are crossed 
and his attitude comic. Back of him is Circe's loom, and 
at the extrene right one of his companions v;ho has been 
transformed into a bear. 


128. Oxford - Ashmolec-r. Museum - lormerly Branteghen Coll. 

Frcelmer, Sal3 Catalogue, Branteghora Coll., no. 310 

Walters, J.h. S. ,XIII,1833,p. 79, lig.S 

Gardner, Greek Vases in the Ashnol.l!us.p.l9no.262,pl. 
Scyphus from the Catirioa en v;hich zhe sauie episod'j is 
shown m caricature. Odysseus is at the left of the pic- 
ture and is shown in full front, v;hereas the other vases 
shew hiiii m profile. He weaL-s the travelling hat and his 
cloak han^.s o- or his arm. His body is grotesquely distort- 
ed. At his right, in profile, stan s Circe facing hin, 
stirring a potion in a scyphus. She vjeaxs a long flov^ing 
garment. As on the Lcndon vase, sr.e is evidently meant to 
be an E-chiopian, from her nose, mouth and jaw. It is dif- 
ficult to determine r/hother the olack dots on her head axe 
intended to represent curly hair cr the pattern of a cap. 
Back of her is her loom end shuttle. The care v:ith v'hich 
all the slender threals cf the Icom ar-e represented is 
proof that the apparent crudity cf the figures is inten- 

One other instance of c ar- i c atui' e , from an eai-licr 
pariod than the Boecti?-n vases, shov/s the probable inten- 
tion of the artist to give Ethiopian features to one cf 
the figures he xepresen-s: 

139. - Paris - Louvre - from the Cyrenalca 


Perrot, Lc Triociphs d'HGrcule,pl.5 
Schneidsx^p. 6,n.8 
The vase is the I'amous caricature cf the triux-r^.h cf 
Heracles, rivon in a chariot iravm by centaurs, by a 
Victory who is cf a distinctly non-Greek type. Porrct 
(p. 23) says that she has the snub nose, thick lips and 
Squaxe jaw cf a negress, and that since the vase was in- 
tended icr Africa, tne artist -.vished tc give one of his 
principal personages the traixs ?Jhich belong to the phys- 
ical type 01 entixely African populations. It see;..s as 
if Perrot has exaggerated the negroid characteristics cf 
the victory, though she does undoubtedly suggest the 
African type. 

This closes the list cf vases which can be definite- 
ly associatsa v.'ith any f i the myths cf Greece. There still 
reiuain a fe-" vase paintin-^s where Ethiopians a^e represent- 
ed in 801-ie of the slave functions which they performed in 
everyday life. They maiie no pretence to direct caricature 
or the gro'^esque, though it is impossible to dissociate 
ficia the comic any realistic representation cf a genuine 
Ethiopian. These occurrences ox the type are unrelated 
aaving in coiumcn only the -"act thax they are all genre 

130. Athens - Acropolis 


BusGhGx , Lluen. J^o. Bilcl.Xunst , XI , 1919, p. 40,^f ig. 56 
Fragment of a red fi^urscl vase shov/iiig the upper paxt of 
an iRthiopiav. boy. He is evidently the slave of the person 
v.'hcse Itea-d is seen at the left of the fragiuent and '^ho is 
eni^agsd in pouring ointment from a vase. Tho scene is 
simileo.' to one on a gem in the Corneto Lluseur^, v.'here an 
Ethiopian slave "boy is crouching down on the ground near 
his :..aster, \Yho is also pouring oi.'-tiaent from a vase 
(Beazley, Le\7es House Coll. , pi. lb, A) . 

131. Berlin - Antiqusxium - from Bretria 
Bosanquet, J. H. S. , XIX, 1899, pi. Ill 
Fairbanks, Athenian Lecythoi, pp. 359-260, :o,5 
p4v4v<l^>-Biezler ,^Lecythen, pi . 35 

Euschor , Muen. Jb. Bild. Ku::st , XI , 1919 , p. 40 
An Athe.-ian lecythus with a grave scene. At the right 
of the stele is a Greek woman holding a lecythus in her 
hand. To xhe leix cf "it, facing her, is a slave girl 
cax-ryirg a stcol on her head and an alabastruu in the 
rignt hand. Her nose is snub, her li:.s thick and her 
hair short and wavy. Sh3 is certainly a baxbai'ian and the 
profile verges towai-d the Ethiopian type. Bosanquet says 
she "is not necesseuily a ne:;re3s'', b;;t it see...s pro- 
cable that sj:e is so L^eant when one compares her with the 
Ebhiopian stcc i-beaxer on the Androme :.a hydria in the Brit- 
ish Museum (above, no. 115). Boaanquet also notes a similar- 


p_oiile en a small lecythus at Gsiubridj^ (Gardn:-r, Cata- 
Icgue of the Fitzwilliaiu Li-as.p. 59,r.c.l38,pl.XXX) but the 
tyxQ of this latter vase seems tc be simply ■bax'b>:.ri3ii, not 

152. Copenhagen 

Ussing, To G-raeeke Vaser,p. 7,pl.I 
Ecsanquet, J.H.S. ,XIX,1899,p.l77 
Beazley, Attic P. F. Vases, p. 63 

Buschcr, Miien.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,1919,p.40 
Ped figured atiphora, on one side of i.vhich is shown an 
old man out walking, atten:led by an ^thiopicja slave boy. 
On the other side is pictured a youth buying zr- omxAora. 

133. Munich - Koenig Ludv-igs Coll. 

Jahn, Beschreibung dor Vasensaiaml. ,p.88,no.301 

Arch. Zeit., 1854, pi. LXVI; 1866,pl.XCV 

One of the figures on a red figured vase is a boy with 
thick lips and curly (though not woolly) hair. Ke is dree- 
seel for travelling, and v/eais hat, chiton, chlaiays aiid 
boots. Over his left shoulder is a skin which serves as 
a travelling sack. In hs right hand he holds a club. 

i:-'4. Par' is - Louvre - 

Pettier, Va-es AntiqUJs,p.lo4,G-lC0,pl,99 

" " " part III,1906,p.936 

Fragment of i red figured cylix, the interior scene 



.ilcpictin,'; r nu.d.c Ethiopian carryir.g an oinochoe. He is 
evidently the slave of the Eian whose shoes appear at the 
righ., of the fragment. Th;: Ethiopian's nose is short and 
broad and his thick lips hang open. 

135. Potrograd - Hermita-^e - Gampana Coll. 

Stephani, Compte Pendu,1875,pl.VI 
Schneider, Jb.Kunst.Saiuml. ,111,1885, p. 7,n.4 
Buschox , Muen. Jb. Bild. Xunst , XI , 1919 , p. 40 
One of the figures on a pelike is an Ethiopia:! boy 
vvhc leads a cajnel oy the halter. A similar figure is 
fcun-L on a silver patera of Assyrian origin nov; in the 
Louvre, one of the figures in a procession is an 
Eohiopian leading a dronedary (Longporier, Notice dos 
Antiquites Assyriennes du Mu^ee au Louvre, p. 113, no. 556; 
Annali,1847,p.343 & p. 359). 

136. Vienna 

A ploychrou.e lecyth^as showir.g a youth v.-ho is £-oin.^ to- 
ward Charon's boat, attended by sji Ethiopian slave v;ho car- 
ries a bill ca':e an:- a haxe. The slave wears a t-:rban aiid 
his fac3 is painted black. 

137. IvIonuLienti,VIII,1856,pl.IX 

One of the figures en a vase paintin^^ of late style is a 
nude l!ithiovian boy cf pronounced type, v/ho carries t-o stools, 
one inverted c:. the other. 


OH APT b]? IV 

While tiie developnienx of the Ethiopian typa on vases 
was its most important inaniiestation in the art of the 
laxe sixth and early fifth centuries on the Greek main- 
land, it was paralleled by a contemporaneous use of the 
type as the design on minor objects of the sa-ie period, 
namely, gems, coins and tesserae . These three classes 
of objects are so closely allied from their similar shape 
and size that the Ethiopian's head was doubtless imitated 
rrom one to another. It appears first upon gems not long 
after its appearance in the form of plastic vases, aid upon 
coiiis of Athens and Delpni ^hich date from the early pai't 
of the fifth century. On tha gems of the pariod recuxs 
also tii3 liguxe of a crouching Ethiopian already encounter- 
^•x ia oho terra-cotta ligurinas from Oamirus on the island 
of Phcdes. 

Tkera is apparently only one texra-cotta li.^urine irom 
Atheiie to repxaseiit tna hithiopian type, and he is not seated 
on the ground Dut on the back of a horse. 
138. London - British Museum - I'rci;: Athens 

Walters, Catalogue of Terracottas, p. 75, B37 
Archaic terra-cot^a figurine of an Exxiiopian on horsa- 
Dack with ^ basket of iruit in front of him. The work is 
rule and the oack of the figure is not modelled. Waiters 
calls the figure a negro, but no illustration is available 


oy wliiGii oo judge the pxeseatation of the xaoial type. 
Ht 3^* in. 

Tne otlier objacts of tli9 psriod iipon nhloh I'Jxhiopians 
appear axe as follows: 


139. Berlin - Anxinuariiim 

Puxtwaanglsr, Antiks Gem:iisn,I,pl.VIII,no.67 
" " " II, p. 41, no. 67 

Scarab of black jasper with the helmeted head of an 
Ethiopian in profile to the right. The nose is long and 
straight but the lips are thick and the negro -:lood of 
the subject is unmistakable. The nose was not always as 
well handled as the other Ethiopian features. The helmet 
has the Attic foxm and a feather is stuck in the side of 
it. The gem probably xeiers to the Memnon legend. Part- 
waengler places it in the early part of the fifth century. 

140. Berlin - Antinuarium 

Purtwaengler, Beschreibung der Geschnitteaen Steinen, 

p. 18, no. 4640 
Purtwaengler, Antike (jeriiL;en,I,pl,X, no.38 

« " * II, p. 53, no. 38 

0sborr:9, Engraved Geus, pp. 43 & 306, pi. IV, no. 14 
Oai'nelian scaraboid with the design of a crouching 


Ethiopian, asleep. Botii legs are Iravm up in front of liim 
ana his head rests on his han as, which clasp his right knee. 
His curly hair and thick lips are caraiully rendered, in 
spite of the small field of the gem, and an ointment vase 
for nis master is suspended from a ring on his right arm. 
The breast and abdomen are awkwardly rendered. Purtwaen- 
gler assigns this gem to the severe style of the early 
fifth century, Duffield Osborne to the sixth. 

141. Berlin - Antinuarium - no. 347 

Purtwaengler, Antike Geianien,I,pl.X,no.36 
» " " il, p. 51, no. 36 

Oarnelian with the figure of an Ethiopian crouching on the 
ground, eisleep. Both legs are drawn up in front and are 
shovrn in strong foreshortening. His head rests on his 
hands, which axe clasped about his left knee. The hair 
is indicated as woolly by means of dots, and the lips are 
thick. Furtwaengler assigns the work to the first half 
of the fifth century. 

143. Corneto Museum 

Baazley, Lewes House Coll. , p. 'iO, pi. A, no. IS 
Agaxe scarcaJ with the design of 'ixi Ethiopian boy crouch- 
iag on the ground uesiae a youth .vho is pouring oil into 
his h^and from an t^yballus. The Ethiopia:i has curly hair 
and a grinning face, and holds a sponge for his master. In 
the field is the inscription TeZ/r ( Pele or Peleus, perhaps 


meant to os the naus of tiia youtn) , Beazley placss tne gem 
in tne iirst quarter of tna xif on century* 

143. Lawes - TTarr-sn Goli. - lornarly Booinson Coll. 

fxirt-.vaenglar, Antika Genmsn, I, pi. XII, no. '±3 
« » " II, p. 60, no. 43 

Baaizley, Lewss House Coll. , p. 49, pi. 3, no. 53 
Scarab of sard \'ritn tiie head of an Ethiopian woman in 
profile to the left. The T^ork is very skilled, ad, as 
Purtv;aengl2r points out, the artist must have male a thor- 
ough stu:ly of the racial type. It is one of the most inter- 
esting of all the ancient studies of the type, and intro- 
duces several novelties of detail. For instance, the woman 
war as a necklace of beads and pendaat ear-rings in the form 
of lotus bu:"is. Her hair is bound up in a cap or kerchief 
vound round her head turoan-wise in the style that is as- 
sociated with tne southern mammy. The head-dress is the 
same as that worn cy Circe on the vases from the Caoiridn. 
The gem is assig.ned to the end of the fif oh century, 

144. London - British Museum - Oastellani Coll. 

Furtwaengler, Antike Geinmen,I,pl.XYI,no.5 
« « « il,p,75,no.5 

Sardonyx scarabcid with the design of an Ethiopian slave 
seatsd on the ground in the usual crouching position. Both 
lags are drawn up, the left sho'.vn on profile and the right 
in foreshortening. His head rests on his hands, which 


clasp nis left knee, and an ointrr^ent vase han-cs from a 
ring on nis left arm. His thick lips are prominent. 

145. London - Brixioii Museiim - Blacas Coll. 
Smioh, liingraved Gens, p. 181, no. 1564 
Head of an Ethiopian in profile to left, on a sai'd, 

14:6. London - British Museum - Laureiiti and Blacas Colls. 
Smith, JiingravQd Qems, p. 31, no. 471 
Scaiaboi.- oi said, with the back r, f the gem carved 
to represent an Ethiopian's head. 

147. London - C.N.'Rooinson Coll. - formerly Morrison 
Coll, catalogue no.^1 
Purtwaengler, Antik-3 Ge-^imsn, vol. I,pl.LXliI,no.2 
« " « II, p. 333, no. 2 

Gsxuelian scaraboid ":ith the design of an Ethiopian 
boy crouching do'.-rn on the ground in the usual attitude. 
Both legs are dra^.v! up, the left sho^vn on foreshortening 
and th9 rig-»-.t in piofile. His ri3;ht hand rests on his 
riglnt knee, and an ointment vase hangs from a ring on his 
left arm. His head is sho'.m in proiile to right. Tha 
forehaad is lov: and retreating, the nose long and the lips 
tlaick. The gem is assigne- zo the severe style of the 
early fifxh century. 

1^8. Lonaon - Fobinson Coll. 

uatalog^je of Engraved Gems, Auction London 1939, no, 17 


BusGlior, Muen Jt).Bild.Kunst,XI,1919,p,4l 
Black jaspis witii tiia head of an Etniopian engraved 
in proiile to left. Tno woolly liair is rendered by means 
of raisrd dots. The forehead is sloping, the nose short 
and the lips prominent and thick. The gem was found on 
Cyprus ana dates from the fifxh century, 

149. Panofka Coll. 

Panofka, Delphi und Melaine,p.8,no,8 
G-am of glass paste showing the head of an Ethiopian 
in profile to left, ^jrearing a travelling hat. The feat- 
ures are prominent and exaggerated; th5 forehead oulges, 
and the nose and chin are dravn out on a line. The hair 
io inlicatad oy raised dots. 


150. Athens 

Prokesch-Osten, Wiener Denkschrift, Phil. -Hist. 

Sahneider, Jb.Kunst.Sa-anl. ,lll,1885,p.4 
Buschor, Muan.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,1919,p.4l 
Athenian tri-obol, silver, of the early fifth century. 
Obverse type, head ci Athena; reverse, in a deep incuse 
Square, an olivs branch, the inscription , a-d a tiny 
head of an Ethiopian. Tho retreating fc. ahead and thick 
lips are clear, in spite of the siaall field of the coin. 


151. Delphi 

Bossst, Essai sur les Medaillss antiques des Ilea 

de Ceplialonie st d'It]iaque,pl.V,3 
Cavedoni, Bulletiao,1855,p.94 
Schneider, Jb.Kuiast.Sanml., Ill, 1885, p. 5 
British Museum Catalogue, Central Greece, Delphi, 

Seltm^n, A. J . A. ,XXIV,1930,p.l4,n.3 
Buschor, Muan.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI.1919,p.4l 
Kaxly fifth century coins of Delphi with the type of 
an Ethiopian's head in profile to left, 

152-rl53. Lesbos and Antissa 

Brandis, D^.s Munz-,IIass- und G-ewichtswesen in ; 
Vorder Asi9n,pp.331 & 450 

Pev. Num., Xiy, 1869/1870, p. 356 

Mel. de K\aa.,I,1874/5,p.a2 

Schneider, Jb.Kunst.Saroiul. ,1X1, 188 5, p. 5 

British Musetim Oaxalogue, Troas, Lesbos, p. 153, nos. 
42-45, pi . XXX, no . 19 

Seltiuan, A. J. A. , XXIV, 1930, p. 14, n. 2 

Babelon, Traits', pp. 857-8, ncs. 5:'5-599, pi. XV, nos. 6-9 
Coins of Lesbos with the type of an Ethiopian's head in 
profile to left. This issue appeaxs to have oeen raore 
plentiful than the coins of Athens and Delphi with a simile 
type. Ho less than sixty were contained in the Find of 
Auxiol, Bouchos- iu-Phone, 



154. Atliens - Societe'' Archeologique 

iiingel, B.C.H.,VIII,1884,p.l3,pl.IV,no,99 
Schneidax, Jb.Kunst.Saruml. ,III,1885,p.4,n.7 
Kound lead tessera wixh tlie laead of an Ethiopian in 

proiile to right. His lips are lar :e and his woolly hair 

is indicated by means of raised dots. 

155. Athens - Coll. Me'la'topoulos 

Scnneidor, Jb.Kunst.Sacciml. , III, 1885, p. 4, n. 7 
Pouxia lead tessera wixn the design of an HJ-chiopi::n' s 
head in full front. There is a marked depression in the 
middle of the forehead. The eyes are v.'ide open, the nose 
broad and short, and the lips thick. 

What signiricance has the li -ure of the Ethiopian on 
vase paintings and gems, and the Ethiopian head on plas- 
tic vases aad coins? A study of the scenes where wtniop- 
ians occur shows tnc; . engaged in various occupations, the 
majority of which lail under the category of personal 
attendance or valet service. Tne evidence aeei-s to show 
that in tne uain the Greeks regarded these strangers as 
curiosities and enjoyed going about, attended oy them. 
There is no indication in this century that they perform- 
the more menial kinds of service such as cooking and house 
work, or the ha^d labor of building and construction. The 
soldiers of Memnon shown on vases are the only class which 
do not entirely fall under tne above classification, though 


3ven they axe the slaves v7liom the artist sav/ upon the 
streets of Athens, oresssd up in the guise of mythology. 
On two of the Memnon vases the Ethiopians axe really acting 
as valets, and assisting the hero into his regalia. The 
artist probably received the idea of intxoducing wthiopians 
into the scene he v;as painting from having seen Ethiopians 
in Athans assisting in the robing of some Athenian gentle- 

The most customary func-;;ion fox these slaves, par- 
ticularly the boys, seems irom the evidence to have been 
attendance at the bath or the palaestra. This is attest- 
ed by both gems and vase paintings. It may be that con- 
tact with Biastern luxury through the Ionian expedition of 
4S8 B.C. and the Psrsian I^axs gave the Greeks a taste for 
being attended by black slaves. These small figures who 
have crouched down on the ground and gone to sleep may 
mean that the Greek had already discovered in the negro 
a characteristic willingness to take it easy when occasion 
permitted, and found it diverting rather than distressing. 
At all events, they became a vogue with the fashionable, 
and evidently delighted their owners by their unusual ap- 
pearance and curious ways. The little crouching bath slave 
v7ith his master's athletic equipment is found on two gems 
ncv; ia Berlin, one in Gorneto and two in London ( above, nos. 
140,141,143,144 & 147). On the vase fragment from the 


Acropolis ne Is evidently iuoj-S energetic, as iie is on his 
feet at least, and on tna fragi-ient in tiia Louvi-e ha is on 
his way to fill a pitcher for Ms iaaster( above, nos. ISO 
& 134 ) , Probably the luthiopian slave boy and his master 
on the Copenhagen amphora are also on their way to tna 
oatheC above, no»/3z). It is iatarestini^, that this bath 
slave, as i.e appears on the gens with a ring on his arm 
from which are saspended ointment vase and etrigil, was 
perpetuated in a life-sized marble statue from the Hellen- 
istic period no-vv in the Vatican (Helbig, Puehr3r,3rd ed. , 
I, p. 342, no. 575) . Tne right naiid which was broken off has 
beer, restored ;:.s carrying a spon-'S, a conjecture which is 
very likely, since the little slavo on the Corneto gem 
also holrls a sponge for his master. There is also a bronze 
weight in the British Musexim, from tne Poman period, in 
tha form cf a kneeling iiJthiopian slave boy ••■ho hoi is a 
sponge, though hej.e it is for the purpose of cleaning a 
boot( Walters, Catalogue of Bronz3S,p.3t59,no,1676, fig.37) . 

On tne Vienna lecythus the Ethiopian boy is takir.g 
care of the pets belonging to his i'-oung master. In one 
hand the slave holds a hare and in the other a cage or 
basket for the bird which is seen perched on the wrist 
of the young man. 

The vases also shcv; the slaves accompanying their 
owners to the stele where the rites for the dead v;ere 
performed, and carryi-:.g fcr them stcols, alabastra and 


other funeral objects involved in the service at the 
ton:ti. The Berlin leci^thus shcvs a slave girl carrying 
a stool for her mistress on her head and an alatoastrum 
for the ceremony in her hand( above, no. 131 ). Three 
male slaves appear in this capacity on ohe Andromela 
:'.ydria in London, one of them balanci:;g a stool en his 
head in the sa'-ie manner ( above, no. 115). The little 
stcol-beaxer en another vase brings up two, o "s inverted 
on the oth r, though he is not an attendant at funeral 
ritesC above, no. 13?). To the group of slaves described 
above probably bulong xhe i.iajorixy of Ethiopians who ap- 
pear- m connection with the Bueiris story and who hold 
the various sacrificial objeccs at the supposed ieath of 
ti.e hero. Hexe again the genre is introduced into mytho- 

The Ethiopian's head en ge;..s, coins and tesserae is 
not so easily interpreted, particularly since the use to 
v/hich this last-nameo. class was put has not been estao- 
lished. Accordir.g to Lafaye (Dar ember g a^id Saglio under 
tessera) these round lead tesserae are nowhere mentioned 
in literature and are an unsolved problem. A f avcri :e 
theory has been that they were a species of token money 
and had actual value. Certainly the Ethiopian type found 
on them closely resembles the type en the coins, though 
at the sar^e tins resembling o^ite as closely the type on 

geuis. Other tHeories advanced are that they were used as 
gaining counters, tokens cf identification, theatre tickets 
cr lucky pieces. Several of these uses suggest the pro- 
phylactic theory already net in the Ethiopian types of the 
seventh and sixth centuries, particularly since one of these 
pieces shows the head in full front, a position more apo- 
tropaic than the profile. Tne features also are sufficient- 
ly grotesque to ha^c toeen intended for this purpose. It is 
oarely possible also that the Ethiopian heads en gems were 
supposed to have had this fTinction, though the type of the 
little bath slave which occurs on sone is certainly pure 
genre. The evidence is too scanty to wcorrent an explana- 
tion v;hich will cover all cases. 

The Ethiopian head which occurs en coins is even more 
difficult to interpret. On cbjscts ef art the artist may- 
after all suit his own fancy largely in his choice of 
design, but the coinage of the state has an importance 
which attaches significance to any symbol chosen to repre- 
sent that state upon its money. The Greek coin type, wheth- 
er it referred tc the foremost religious cult of the state, 
or to the leading article of conferee, or was a punning 
allusion to the nane of the state, was in the nature cf a 
heraldic emblem to stand for that state to the rest ef the 
world. The coin types were ordinarily highly localized, 
ai:d the meaning of the E-chiopian head is all the more 
baffling because it is found on the coins of more than 
one city. 


The first association which the type on the coins of 
Delphi calls to mind, is the painting at Delphi of the 
lowex world, in v/hich, according to Pausanias, one of the 
figures was a Ethiopian boy standing near Meunon, "be- 
cause Memnon was king of the Ethiopian race" ( X,31,7 - 
Frazer,I,p.546) . The painting by Polygnotus was upon the 
walls CI the lesc e dedicaxed there by the Cnidians. Had 
it 'oeeri upon an Athenian "buildi-.g at Delphi, it might be 
tna soluxion of the problem, since the head replaces the 
owl on the Athenian tri-obol for a short tin.e. Even this 
however v;ould leave out of account the more frequent use 
of the type on the coins ox Lesbos, and the city in Ar- 
cadia. Tiie style of the head seems to place the coins too 
early for Polygnotus' painting. It is not uncommon to find 
statues set up at Delphi copied in other places, particu- 
larly the cities which dedicated them; a::d coin typ3s have 
frequently reproduced famous statues. Unfortunately no 
liie-sizea statue is known which could be the prototype of 
tuese coins, since a fourth cenxury date is the earliest 
which can reasona: ly be assigned vc a statue of a man with 
iithiopian blood (Smith, Marbles ai^.d Bronzes in the British 
MuBe\am,p.8,pl.41) . Even this man , who was probably a 
Lioyan victor in the chariot races at Delphi, has a small 
percentage of African ulood in comparison with the woolly 
hair and protruding lips of the typs on the coins. 

Sin:ilc\rity of the coin types of two or more cities 


is not frequent, and wh,en it does cccur it usually ai-gues 
soi^e political relation cr alliance. Th^eaning of the 
Ethiopian's head is more lik:-ly to be found in history 
than in art or religion. It can scarcely be another ref- 
erence to the Ethiopians in Xerxes' expedition, since Del- 
phi also Iledized ar^d advised capitulation. It procably 
refers to some other treaty or agreement v.iiiich either has 
not co.:.e down to us or vrhich has not yet been recognized 
as having any bearing on the coin -cype. The question 
must be left open further evidence comes to light. 



During the rourth century the popularity of the Eth- 
iopiar^ race as aa art subject seems to have waned, at Athens. 
Dcuotless the novelty of their appearance had v.'orn off 
sonswhat, and. the ten^enciss in ext "-hich r:.ade theia a fu- 
rore in the Hellenistic period v;hich followed, had not as 
yet ".cvelopsd. This century was the period of their great 
i;opularity in Magna Graecia. The Greeks of southern Italy 
had imported sous of the Attic vasssin the xora of E :hi- 
opians' hea^s, and had taken a particular fancy to the 
crocodile drinking cup of Sotades, Pealizing the possi- 
bilities of a vog'ae for these, local vase makers evident- 
ly decided to imitate rather than import, an;i in consequence 
we have a seriss of these vases, cf obvious fourth century 
Italian workuanship. 

There is no difficulty in differentiating the imi- 
tations from the Attic filth century originals. Tno Ital- 
ian .:-j:tists altered somewhat the proportions of the vasej 
they aaded ornamental details to the decoration cf the 
crocodile, and twisted his tail about the Ethiopian's left 
arm. Hence it no longer served as a handle for the cup, and 
another handle was added above it. The simple painting, 
usually of xo\.u' human iigurss, which Sotades put upon the 
cup mouth, gave v;ay to the mors riorid painting of the per- 
iod, v.-hich ran dovai over the whole of the cup mouth in- 
stead cf being restricted to a band.. 


A few havs evsn sltsred the posture of the Ethiopian, 
30 that his right leg instead of his right axm is held in 
the crocodile's mouth, and he is lashsd to the aody of the 
cup by the crocodile's tail. Another example, v'hils keep- 
ing the traditional posture of the figure, has replaced 
the cup by a trefoil pitcher mouth. These imitations or 
adaptations ax-e of interest for the painting of the croco- 
dile, since the pairio is gone from the animals on the At- 
tic vasss. The modelling of the crocodile is no more true 
to life than in the originals and shovrs no closer acquain- 
tance '.vith the ?j:i:nal. Although the Ethiopians must have 
been knov/n to the south Italian Greeks by a period as late 
as the fourth century, thses stiff little clack figurs-s 
with staring eyes have no individuality a:d have evident- 
ly oeen copied from the vases, not iron liie. ThOj.e is no 
ccntriijution zo the ren:leri.-g of the racial type. The tech- 
nique has oe n taken over, though v.dth less skill, cjid if 

the Italian vasss show a mor^ striking contrast botv/een 

black skin and white aye-calls, it is probably .^ecaune the 
paint on "chem has been better preserved. 

An in;eresting variation of the plastic drinking cup 
of Sotad'is, 7/hich may or may not have an Attic original, 
is .;^ vase in tne Jatta Goliection wixn painting on xhe cup 
mouth almost identical rith the painting en a crocoiile vas3 
in the sa:ae collection ( J. iii. Harrison, Myths of the Odys- 
sey, p. 195, pi. 55b; Buschcr, I,Iuen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,l919,p.6,no.lO) 


Bux the plastic pai't of trie vase is; t ne Ethiopian 

has dis appeared, and xnc upper pai't of "Che "ooay of a raai- 

den has oeen -dded xo a fish tail siinilia- to the crocodile's 

tail, thus forming a representation of the sea-nonater Scyllc 
s type of the 

■ri:e Apfulian vase, of the Kthiopian boy seized by a cro- 
I 4 

coaile imitating those of Sotades have been collected by 
Buschor (icc.cit. ,pp. 5-S) . They are listed belcv; 7:ith 
additional reierances: 

Type with. Ethiopian in usual pose 
15b. Oambrid^e - Fit2r/illi::au :iuse\im - Rlai-l cf Cadogan Coll. 
Gardner, Catal. cf Fitzw. Mus. ,p.SO,no. :344,pl.XXXVI 

157. London - Br^itish Museum - ircm Capua 

Wcaters , Catca. c^' Vasos,IV,p.l91,F4l7 

158. Naples - National Museum - Sant mr^elo Coll. - from Puvo 

Heylemann, Vasensamml. , p. 6^8, no. 42 

159. Naples - Nation:a Museum - Sa^itan-^elo Coll. - from Puvo 

Hoydemann, Vasensariiml. ,p. tt48,:io.'i4 

IbO. Paris - Bioliotheoue Nationale - Coll. Janze 157 
A. ae Pidder, Catalogu.e dss Vasos,p. 673,nc,1353, 
The va«e has a tre-oil pitcher mouth instead of the 
usual cup mouth. 

161. Paris - Louvre - Gampana 3636 


163. "Ruvo - Jatta Coll. nc.l333 
153. Puvo - Ja^ta Coll. nc.l368 
lb4. Puvo - Jatoa Coll. :ic.l408 

Type vrltii Ethiopian lashed xo cup 
165, Barlin - Anti ^uaxirun - Sabouroff Coll.- from T^uvo 
Puxtwaensler, Beschreioung der VasensaiiUiil. ,p.944 
no . 5403 

1S6. Petrograd - Hermit a:;e 

Peinach, Anti suites du Bosphoxe Ciinmerian,3nd ed. ,p.87 

16? . Huvo - Jatta Coll. no. 1460 

'EI2S. witn liJthiopian held by_ waist in crocodile' s paws 

1S8. Bsrlin - Antiguaxium - from Capua 

PurtwaeiiT^ler , Beschreibu 2 der Vasensairjnl, ,II,p.991, 
no. 3893 

Wegro and crocodile do :ict again appear combined on 
this zyre 01 vase, though the following vase painting of 
about the saiue period is probably an echo of the Sotades 

169. Kapl:a - National Museum - Mus.Bor bonico - Iron Ruvo 
Heydemann, Vasensaiiial. , p. 449, no. 3958 
Buschor, liuen.Jb.Bild.Kunst,XI,1919,p.43 
Drinking cup v/ixh a band of painting depicting a boy 


runni.ig away Trom a crocozlile, at which he is looking back. 
Belov: the animal is a snail Ethiopian's head in relief. 
Italian work. Ht. 0.32 m. 

Ths vase in the ioxm of the Ethiopian's head evident- 
ly enjoyed the saiiie kind of popularity and underv.-ent the 
saiae kind of imitation on the Italian peninsula. Fuxt- 
waengler has said of tne imitations that they "lack the 
characteristic ^strength of the Attic Moors' heads" (Be- 
schreioung der Vasensaiiiml. ,II,p.83l) . Not only is the 
expression of the face rendered with less uiaatarly skill, 
but the effect has been weakened cy the addition of vrreaths 
ribbons and other painted details -.vhich bridge the way to 
the developnen-Gs of the Hellenistic period which followed. 
Tne little raised dots of clay v.-hich ht.d heretofore been 
used to suggest the curls have i^een replaced in soiua in- 
stances oy an attempt at actual modelling of the hair, 
an i there is more use cf incised lines in adding details. 
There ar-e no more janiiorm vases, all that oc:-ux being 
exaiupl-s of the single head type: 

170. Baltimore - Coll. of Professor D.I.I. 'Robinson - 
Dought in Tarentum 
Unpublished drinking cup or pitcher in the form of an 
ELhiorian's head. His nejk serves as a base, and a simple 
cylinru:ical spoilt with a trefoil opening inside rises from 
the top of his head. A flat channeled handle curves from 


tne back of tTne spout to the back of his head. Only ihe 
r^ce and iront of the nair are modelled, the clay at the 
back of the haad being left smooth. Theie is an inscrip- 
tion at the oack of the Ethiopian's neck, near the bottom 
of the vase. The entire surf ace of the vase was 

covered with a black glaze, much of v.-hich still leuains. 
The vase was made in two sections, the modelled front and 
plain Jack, and then joined together. 

The hair of the Pithiopian is in three rows of spiral 
curls over his forehead and ears, and fits like a cap 
about his forehead, v:hich is deeply \7rinkled. The eye- 
brows are heavy, and are leniered by ueaas of incise i 
lines, herring-bone pattern, in the clay. Tne eyes are wia e 
open, the iris shown by an incised circle, with a raised 
dot in the center to represent the pupil. The nose, ris- 
ing from a depression between the eyes, oroadens at the 
base to almost the v;idth of the mouth. The lips are very 
thick and protruding, and are parted slightly to show the 
teeth. Tnere is a prominence about the jaw structuxe 
which renders the profile ape-like in effect. The ear-s 
ai-e set very low in the head, in line with the mouth. The 
throat is dxa</n and tense, and the muscles stand out sharp- 
ly. This vase is one of the most realistic of the Ital- 
ian group, and shows Hellenistic uendencies, particularly 
in the arran ••e:uent of the hair. Height of entire vase 
5^- in. (0.135 m.); neip;nt irom ease to top of inthiopian' s 
nead 4 1/8 in. (0.1C5 la.). 


171. Berlin - Antiquariun - San Ganino Coll. - from Vulci 
Panofka, Delpni u. Melain0,p. 6,nos.3 & 4 
Purtv:aengler, Beschreibung der Vasensauml. ,II,p.831, 
no. 28 70 
Drinking cup with single handle and large mouth, in 
tne form of an Ethiopian's head. Panofka considers that it 
is meant to represent a woman, from the head-lress of rib- 
Toon banis, painted red, which cross each other over the fore- 
head and either ear. The curly hair is indicated b^-- raised 
spirals like snail shells. The eys sjre deep-set, the 
cheeks nollow, the nose short and "broad and the lips pro- 
truding. There is no lii.e in the expression cf the face. 
Ht. 0.302 m. 

1y3. Berlin - Antinuarium - Sabcuroif Coll. 

Furtv;aen~ler, Beschreibung der Vasensaioiril. ,il,p,945, 
no. 3411 
Vase irom lower Italy with narrow pitcher mouth, in 
the lorm cf an Ethiopian's head. The flesh is painter! 
clack en a whits slip. Tns hair is in rows of curls, 
and the lips ace red. Above tne head is a thick yellov; 
cushion band with ends hanging dov;n on the shoulder. 
Ht. 0.12 :.:. 

173. Berlin - Antinuai'ium - Sabourcff Coll. 

Furtwaen:5lsr, Beschreibung der Vasensamnl. ,11, 
p. 945, no.: 412 


Vasc^ v.-itiT a naxrcv; pitcner mouth, in tne rorrn cf an 
Ktnicpirr.'s hea:i. Purtwaengler su,336sts that a v/oman is 
r.eciit, since the hair is decor atsd v/itn a rrreath. Tne 
ilesh is painted ^lack on a whits slip. Ht. 0.133 :r.. 

174. Berlin - Anti^uarium - Saoouroff Coll. 

Furt\7aengler, Beschxeitiung der Vasensanr.l. ,11, 
p. 959, no. 3655 
Vase t"rcr:i ItcLLy v;ith an. Ethiopian's head in relief en 
tne handle piece. 

17 5. London - Br'tish lluseun - Cast ell ani Ooll. - frou Capu 
WaluSxs, Catalo3^-^e of Vases,IV,p.3o3,ai56 
Ascus in the form of :^j:i Ethiopian's head, inter sting 
for its use oi coloring. A wreath around the front cf the 
head, v.-ith flowers at each end, is painted -.-hitej eyes 
ana teeth are painted v.-hiue; and red is use:l for the ej'-e- 
brows and li. s. Ht. 2 7/8 in, 

176. Lcnion - British Museum 

Walters, Catalog^.ie of Vases, IV,p.3b.3,G155 
Oenochce in the fen.: cf the head of an Ethiopian, v;ith 
thick curly hair. T'-o forehead is wrinkled, and over it 
is a heavy garland ?:hich falls in a loop over each ear. 
This vase was found on the isla:id cf Cos, but Walters as- 
signs it to fourth c,;nuury v.'orkr.anship, and it is there- 
fore contemporary with the ItsO-ian vases. Ht. 4-?; in. 


177. Pax-is - Bijlioth9qV8 ITationale 

De Witte, Cabinet Dux and, nc. 9 6 

Panofka, Delphi u. ilelaine,p.7 
One-handled drinking cup in tne form of the head of 
an lUthiopian ^A'oman. She v;eax<.s a sphendone set with stars 
and a laurel wreath. Panoika suggests that the stars may 
oe intended to mean that she represents night. Ht. 0.15 m, 

To tnis period or pcssiloly tne follov:ing belong a 
ieY< asci lound on tne island of Cyprus, "•here the Ethi- 
opian type seer;;s to have stayed in iavor as a subject for 


178. Camcridge - Fitzwillian Huseum 

Myres-Pichtcr, Uypriis Museuia,p.88,no.l773 
Ascus with an Ethiopian's head in front view, moulded 
in relief on the top. 

179. Cyprus LIuseum 

Llyres-Pichter, op.cit. ,p.B8,no.l773 
Ascus similar to tne foregoing. 

180. Par-is - Louvre - Foom H, no. 333 

Myres-Pichter, op.cit. , p. 88, no. 17 73 
Ascus similar to the foregoing. 


Tne vase, form one of tne only tv;o classes of objecos 

wnicn maae use of tne Etniopian's head to any noticeable 


e^ctent in this period. The other class is jewslry, and 
there reriiain a fsw instances ct the typo on contemporary 
gems and rings, net ir. Greece or Magna Graecia, nov/av-^x, 
cut on the islar-d of Sardinia. There is Oriental influence 
to be seen in son^e of these gems which sho;r the Ethiopian 
head strangely conjoined rith other heads net negroid. The 
prophjaactic theory is the most reasonable explanation cf 
these, since the types seem to be cf intentional ugliness. 

181. Cagliai'i Museum - from the necropolis at Tharros, 

Purtv/aengler, Ant ike Gear.isn,I,pl.XV,nc.83 
« » » II, p. 73, no. 83 

Scarab of green jasper v;ith the head of an Ethiopian in 
profile to right. The gem is not well preserved and the 
.outlines of tr.e face ax-e ^-roniewhat blurred, but the bro;.d 
nose and thick lii s shcv; the race of the subject. The 
scarab is ei Phoenicicji style. 

182. London - British Museum - from Tharros 

Smith, BIngraved Gei.:s, p. 51, no. 151, pi, C 
Green jasper scai-ab with the bust of an Ethiopian in 
profile to right. The v.'oolly hair is indicate:! by raised 
dots close together. The lips aie thick and the cheek- 
bones prominent, 

183. London - British Museuiii - from Tharros 


Smith, fcingxaved Gems, p. 52, no, 179, pi. C 
Green jaspex scai'i:-b showing t\vo conjoined heads, a 
beaxded male head in full front and an Ethiopian in pro- 
file. The nose of the Ethiopian is flat and his thick 
lips axe prominent, 

1G4. Lon ion - British Museum - iron Tharros 
Siaith, Engraved Gems, p. 55, no. 181 
Green jasper scarab with a head in profile to xight 
which is probably intended to represent an Ethiopian. 

185. London - British Museum ~ from Tharros 

Marshall, Catalogue of Finger-Pin ;;s, p. 17, no. 81 
Pale gold ring, the thin hoop broadening into an oval 
bezel, on which is engraved a head v;hich may ze meant for 
an Ethiopian. 

IBS. London - British Museum - from .Tharros, 
Smith, Engraved Ge^iS, p. 52, no. 171, pi. C 
Fuxtvaengler, Antike Gemmen,I,pl.YII,no,32 

* " " II, p. 34, no. 52 

Marshall, Catalogue of Pinger-Pings,p, 52,no.292,pl.VIII 
Gold ring with a revolving scarab of green jasper, car- 
ved v/ith an elaborate design. The space is filled at the 
bottom with an animal group, and at the top by three con- 
joined heads. The middle head is in full front, the other 
two in profile xight ai^d left. The profile heads axe 


clearly Rthicpior-s frcn theix short, broad ncses and 
thick lips. Tho central face, v/hich Is distorted in a grir^ 
is callid a negro .y Smith, "but a head of Bee 'cy Furt- 
waen-ler and Marshall. The ring is of the Phoenician 
U-Ghaped type. 

187. London - British lluseum - Franks Bequest 

ilcxshall, Catalog-ae of Finger-Pings, p. 323, no . 1456 
Silver ring, gold-plated, v/ith a pointed oval tezel, 
on v.-hich is engraved a hvj::an head in profile to left, 
which is pioba^ly an Ethiopian. 

While the fourth century made no advance in the I'en- 
dering of the racial type on sr^sll objects, it proiuced 
one cf the tv.'o life-sized heaic of men with Africcoi blood 
v;hich ai-e the finest in all Greek and Poinan art. The other 
is cf marble and dates from the second or third century • 
A.r.j this one is of bronze and v/as found among the ruins 
cf the temple cf Apollo at Cyxone. It is evident from the 
fragments cf bronze horses found v;ith it that it formed 
pai-t cf a chariot group, and from its dedication in the 
temple of Apollo it is probable that the ma., v/as a victor 
in the chariot races at Delphi. 

188. Lon.ion - British Museum - from Cyrone 

Smith and Pcrcher, Discoveries at Gyrene, pi. LXVI 
Trivicr, Gazette Arche'ologiqUQ,IY,1878,p. G0,pl.8 


Eayet, Llonuiiients cle I'Ai't An-ti-.-ae,II,p. 57 

Kev,'ton, Guide to Bronze T?con,p.49,12 

Gasette Arch8ologicfae,IX,1887,p. 397 

Golligncn-Baumgart0n,Griechische PI astik, p. 615,293 

Smith, Max"blos ar.d Bronzes in the British LIuseum, 
p. 8, ,1.41 

Walters, Catalo^fje cf Bronzes, p. 34, no. 268 

Studniczka, Kyr9ne,p.5 

Brunn-Arndt-Bruclauann, Griechisohe u. Poamische 
Portraets, pis. 41 a.d 43 

Schrader, Berlin. Winckelma^nex-r .LX,1900 
The style of the head appeea-s to be that of the fourth 
century, with possible Lysippeazi influence. The grov;ing 
beai'd and v;aving locks of hair are rendered v/ith care, 
but otherwise there is an abeence of realistic detail and 
any hint of emotion, and the head is notably gn idealistic 
portrait. The features are regular-; the only ones strongly 
su2{jestive of a strain cf negro blcod are the lips which 
have an uniaistakacle fulness. The man is a north African 
of LilDya, of a raee with features as fine c:s those cf the 
Cabyles ".'ho ncv: inhabit the region. The poise of the head 
IS so noble that it suggested to Trivior the idea that here 
v/as soue Libyan chieftain portrayed in bronze in tcken of 
the victory of his splendid horses. 

The vvoik is that of a fine artist, though nothing is 


knov;n ci his idsntity. He had complete mastery over hie 
mediujii, bronze, and even the rendering of the v^ravy hair 
v/hich is more difficult in a material Vjhich must be cast 
from a :;:culd thun one vrhich can be hai^uaered with the chi- 
sel, [!;ave him no difficulty. He struck the right propor- 
tion ...etv/een the requisite air.ount cf fidelity to detail 
and the effect cf the v/hole. In this respect as^.ecially 
his handling cf his subject is in contrast to the treat- 
iiient cf raciiil types in the next great period of Greek 
art, the Hellenistic era. 




After a century v.-liiGh contributed little to the devel- 
opment of the Exhiopian in ax-t as a racial type, except 
fcr a single fine erca^iple v/hcse intsre-t fcr the sculptor 
lay in sorae achievement of his cai-eex rather than his 
idealized barbarian features, there appeared rAi-idenly a 
flood of figurines in both bron-^e and terra-cotta whose 
ain appeal's to have been a reali-.m ^7hiGh often crosses the 
boundary of caricature and the grotesque. The sudden popu- 
larity ci a type which oi'fers adiriirable material fc- the 
exercise of this spirit must be accounted for oy sor.e new 
impulse in art, and all evidence points :;oti-.e founding of 
Alexandria. This city, one of the most brilliant centers 
cf the Hellenistic era, and placed most advantageously 
for the study of African types, is no doubt responsible 
in large measure fcr this renev;ed interest in the Ethiopicja 
and the many representations cf him in the smaller arts. 
In Asia liinor olso the type had long besn estaclished 
as an appropricvte motif, and the probable pai't of the 

Asia Minor centers in the reappearance of the Ethiopian 
is poin .sd out oy Dickins in his "jxilliant resurae of 
the Alexi-ndr'ic-n spirit (hallenistic Sculptur e, pp. 27-38) . 


"The people of Alexandria ^-ere noted in the ancient 
world as scoiiers and cynics. Their teTn;':er was fieiy, 
their jesv ^utal, and reveience of any kind •;7as un- 

kncva; tc the:.-. A oo»niopolitan ii;edley of Greek, Macsdcnian, 
native Egyptian, Jew and every nation of tne ^ast, they ^vere 
unit-jd only in their v.tter diversity ol point oi view and 
tnsir acepticism of all ideal obligation. To such a people 
G GT' i c at'j.r e and a love of the grotesque reio sec-- 
By the side of the greater art of coniic, grotesque c-.::- ccscc 
statuettes of every descri::tion. -—-—In Alexandria aocve 
all the grotesque exaggeration of natural defeci 
its true popularity. The negro, the hunch- back, the 
drunkai'd, the cretin of every kind, becojne popular models. 
As if tne delineation of ycuth and beauty vvexe exhausted, 
tne Hellenistic sculptors of Alexandria rushed into the 
portiayal of liseass, ci old age, and of mutilation in ev- 
ery xorm. They suiiered as much as the modern decadent 
rro'.:i'la nostalgie de la bcue''. Here a.gain vi'e liiust bev/ax© 
01 attributing to Alexandx'ia all the grotesoi^e figur.^s of 
riellei.istic art ar.d all its ;-:ieces of most painful natural- 

ism. PergaXi^Q^, if net Ehode = , and doubtless Antioch luust 
nave played t.-eir part in the " - I'crm of artistic 

decadence J but nave so much cf t-'-i":' work certiiisd as 


Alexandrian, that v;e are justified in regaxling Blgypt as 
its chief and most vopulax hor-o. Works of this type fall 
into two classes: the purely grotesque and the extremely 
naturalistic. — - We may presLims that the demand was pri- 
mai-ily foreign and not Greek, though all the sl.ill of 
Greek scvlptuxe is 3:.. loyed in trie faultless execution of 
ina-^.y of them"". 

Alexandi'ia, ti.^.., ^z o..^ _xA..e.^„ c.^-.^^o ^- w-.^ nura- 
oer of small bronze iigur_ne3 of negroes v/hich appear now 
for the first time, and which form perhaps the most imjor- 
tant class of negro irortraits from antinV-it^''. Schreiber 
(Ath. Mitt. X, 1885, pp. 380-400) advocates the theory that 
Alexandria was their distributing center, "out face would as- 
sign tneiu an Italic cri -in because so many are found c^J.t- 
side Egypt (B.5.A.X, 1903-4, pp. 105-114 ) The point of 
their scattered provenance is easily settled by assuming 
with Dickins that the demand was foreign. I would like to 
urf^e a point not heieto-fcre brought up in favor of the Al- 
exandrian theory. It is that representations of negroes, 
ceginning with this yericd, show a n;-" arran-jement 01 the 
hair in three or more rows of flat, syimnetrical curls, like 
a ccnventicnal Egyvtian wig, wcich v^ill be encountered on 
most of the c r c n z e s . Tfe'i s • h ai r ar r 'an gem'snt whi ah p er s i s t s " ' 


even in Roman ait, is no douct, as Perdi-izet joints cut (Coll, 
Fcuquet, p. 58) the style aiiected by the Ethiopian butlers 
of Triualohio, (Petxcnius, Gena Trinalchicnis sec. 34, ed. 
Buecheler p. 23- Inde subierunt due Aetmctes. G:::-cillati . ) a 
Y/crd which Friedlaenler (p, 225, note to sec. 34) ■'.vants to edit 
out ox this passage. The elaocxate axrangement of curls to 
oe seen on these ne2ro ligurines, illustrates the passage 

Of the two classes ci lig-orines s-eciiie.'. .^y Dic.^ins, 
the grotesque and the extreiiiely naturalistic, tne liiajority 
botn of bronze and tsira-octta fall into tne latter. Some 
of tne brcn'^es sncv; that extreme naturalisni in tne rendering 

of racial type is ccni-aticle with chaxn:, lex exai'ijle the 
famous bronze statuette of a negro boy playing the lyre, 
nov; in tne Bibliotheque Uaticnale (Babelcn-Blanchet, Cata- 
logue des Bronzes, Biblictneque IJaticnale, p. 439, no. 1009: 
Payet, Monunents de I'Aj&t Antique, II, S, pl.XIIIJ Bulle, 
Ser Schoene Llensch, pp. 145-3, no. 77, fig. 29, pi.), the 
dancing negro in tne National Museum at Naples (Roux-Barre, 
Herculaneun et PcnrTei, VI, p.lG9, ::1.104, 1 and 3), and tne 
fine str.tuette recently acr,'--lx3d by the Metrcrclitaji Huseum 
in Hew York (Picntsr, Bulletin of the Metrof.clitan Museum, 
XVI, 1921, pp. 33-34, fig. 3). 

The l^xge class of terra-coxta figurines iron tnis .pe- 
riod sseiii tc have nad otner centexs of Lianuf -..cture, and are 
found prinoijally in Asia Minor and Italy. P-:^rha::s tne in- 


liUencQ of the Psxgai^ene scnocl is leflected. in tncss of 
Asiatic proveaancs (For tns ts^xa-cottas of Asiatic ori:?in, 
ses tne intxxduction to Froehner, Terxss— C-_ ites d'Asie de 
la Collocticn Julien Gre'au ), while a Scutn Italiar. center 
may be coniectured for the lai-ge numbsr brought to light in 
the lov/er part of that peninsula. A few tena-ccttas of 
negroes, showing genre subjects, were found even in South 

Puesia, 'perhaps an import irom tne Asia Minor center of Man- 
ufacture (Stephani, Ccnipte Rendu, 1868, p. 81, no. 8; Atlas 
for 1868, pi. II, no. 3; Schneider, Jo. Kunst. Sa::aril. Ill, 
1885, p. 7, n.lj Stern, Jh. Oesteir. Ar-ch. Inst. VII, 1904, 
p.iOl). ITo Ethiopians have as yet been found among xhe 
statuettes trom Tsr^agra. Probably the irregular- features 
of the negro did not attract these artists, v;ho seem to have 
Concerned tne-.iselves principally with the dainty in art. 
The figxu'ines, or parts oi ligurinea ci terra-cctta 
from this period are as lolicv/sr 

189 .Athens - Central Museum - Misthos Ccllecticn - 
from Smyrna 

Monuments Pict IV, 1397,pl.XYIII, 3, p. 216 
TiVintax, Terrakotten, II, p44S,no.-' 
Head oi Etnio;:ia.. • : '. . -^ "• p "^ x z . .._l...;: oC nis 


head, v/xinkled, retrsaxir.g loreiisad, toroad nose and tnick 
lips. Height 0.03 u. 

ISO. Boll in - Koenigliciie Lluseeu - ixor^ PrieiiS' ''-H/ir - 5^/^i- 
Wegand and Schrader, Priene, p.S5£, fig. 440 
Scnraisr, Wi -Ckelaaans. Prog., Berlin, LX, 1900, 
pp.23 and 3S. 

Winter, Terr akot ten. II, _ p. 448, no. 4. 
Head" of an Etjriic:rikn, Grovmed'\':ion a wx:;£tn of Ilo^':- 
srs, ic\i;ia v/icn .-uariy other terra-cottas ir. a lic-ass ia Pxiene. 
It is net a cai-icatuio out aa sxtremely naturalistic por- 
trait 01 an African of tna lowtsst type of intelligence. 
Schrader says tna"c an autnority en African irioes to whom 
it '.vas snown stated without hesitation tnat a TToman v:as 
neant, aiid that It :i -rt s^-sily 03 the picture of a present 
day rjieintoer of one of the least civilized Gsntral African 

Tne nandling of detail a^id the efiect proauced art, 
li.ascirly. Tne thick, ccarse, half open iips are in startl- 
ing contrast to tne elaoorate gar-land, whicn hangs dov.'n on 
either sile of the face. There sxe reniains of dark brown 
color en hair and flesn. Height 0.07 ;2. 

IGL Berlin - Xocr:igliche Musaen no. 7597 - frorr. Asia Minor 
Winter, Terrakotten, II, p. 448, -c . 7 
Beai'ded nead of an Ethiopiaii or 'oarbai-iaL., v/ith short, 



orcc.d nc-- -""^ i----^ -v- i -- ^ . M«-:-.-t o.04 in. 

1£2. Bsrlir- - iiconi^iicna .Ausosn no. 6So8 - xroiri "cns Cyxsnaicc 
Winter, Texrakottsn, II, p. 443, no.S 

Head of a bax'^aiian ox an Exnicpia:-i v;itn a long 
Deai'd. Tiie liiis "^ s thick. The sin^pe o£ tne nose can not 
03 detexrainsd because it iias been oroken oil'. Heijnt 0.055 m. 

.195. Constantinople Husouia - fxc^i Assos 

Wintsx, Terral:ctten, II, p. 443, no. 9 
Fxagment of an Ethiopian's nead, the cra-ii-uni miss- 
ing. The hair is m long locks, out the negro olood is 
evident in tne broad nose, thick lips anci \7rinkied xcxe- 
head. Hsi^nt 0.035 la. 

194- Cyprus lr:.s3ui.i - fxo:u Kiticn, Kamelarja site 

Myres and Ricntsr, Cyprus Musau:;:, p. 155, no. 5549 

Terra-cctta head of an Ethiopian i^oman 'oroken irom 

a figuiine, tcuni :7ith other taxra-cottas in a sanctuax-y, 
probably that oi Ax-tsmis. H6i3ht 0.03 u. 

195. Gxsau Collection 

Froehnex, Terras Cuites d'Asie ie la Collection 
Julien Greau, vol. I, p. 70, no. 5; vol. II, pi. 83 

Head of an Ethiopian v;ith curly hair, lov/, ".rinkled, 
scov/ling lorehead, flat nose (partly gone), and thick lips. 


the lo'ver ons protruding. 

-lae. Loniou - Biibish jluseuin - rrora Italy- 
Walters, Caxalog-ae oi Texxacottas, p. 365, no. D361 

Liie-si33d mask cT an Ethiopian evidently intended 
to oi oO-Lii, as tns aouth, nostrils, and pupils of the eyes 

ai'e pierced through. Each Scu.' nas been piercea witn a nole, 
■vhich was probably intended fox tne ccxd which nsld the mask 
in ;^,lac3. 

The hair is in clusters of curls, the nose flat, 
c^.a o.:a ..loutn grinning, Y/ith tne u:,per row of teeth indi- 
cated. Work of the Hellenistic period, from Italy. 
Height S 7/3 in. 

187. Odessa Iluseun. - froin Olbia 

Invent ai'katalog, lY, 539 

Stern, Jh. Osst. Ai'Ch. Inst. Vil, 1904, p. 201, 
no. 2 
Unpublished tc^^ .:.-c. . „„ ._ .. - -. . '\ -___i_. v;o:uan 
paintei sninir.g black. 

ICa. Paxis - LouvEe - froia As gas (Aeclis) 

Pettier -Beinach, Lss Tsrres Ci:itS3 ae Llyrina, 

no. 687 

7?inter, Te.rakottsn, II, p. 448, no. 13 

Hsad of an Dunicpian inclmsd toward the Is ft snoul 


ddr. "dijxrat O.Ooo m. 

199.. P^u'is - Louvrs - fron. Snirma 

Pegnault, Pev^je lilncyclorediq'ae Larousse, X, 1800, 

p. 1063, -gl. li, 15 
■..'iu.^'i. , Terrakottsn, II, p. 448, no. 5 
Head of ati iltniopiaa witn curly naix, tns flesh 
painted black. 

3.00. Torcnoo IIugsuu - unpublished 

Terra-cotta head of an Ethiopian v.'ith flat nose, 
tnick parted lips and high cheek bones. Tne racial type 
is cax-icatux9d, 

3 01. CJisau Gollscticn - from Tarentum 

Froehner, Collection Greau, 1891, p. 148, no. 2 57 
Wints., Tsxrakotten, II, p.449, fcctnote 
Mould for a terra-cotta 'oust ox an Ethiopia:, 'boy 

his left ca.-m raised. 

2.0^. Sari i-iuseo Provinci:.le - from Monopcli 

Uotizis -ogli Scavo, 1896, p. 54S, sec. 3, no. 1783 
Winter, Terrakottsn, II, p.449, no. 8 

Fig^are of a man seated on a rock, nis nead resting 
on hi3 right hazid. His pose and expressior. denote preoccu- 
pation or sadness. To judge his leatures from the illus- 
trabion in Winter, thei s is nothing inhis physiognomy espe- 
cially to indicate an- Ethiopian. A baroarian aay oe intend- 
"^ . Height 0.33 u. 


20Zj. Berlin - Koeniglicir.e Musesn - ircm Prisne 
Piiens, p. 357, figs. 434-435 
WintOx, Tsxrakottea, II, p. 448, no.l 

A figuxins cax-icaturing tJas famcus "Spiaai-ic" as 
ail Ethiopian, nis icxshsad is ■"rinkled and his eyes have 
an expression of pain, his nose is shcrt and 'oroad at the 
bass, and while his lips ai e not large, a grctesq-s eriaet 
is given by his exaggerated puffed-out ohseks. i±e ;veai-s a 
cap on his head, arid some dx'apery fastened up over one sncul- 
der. Heignt 0.1S5 m. 

204 . Berlin - Eoenigliche lluseen - Greau Collection - from 

Asia Minor 

Froehner, T-in-'iS Cuites d^Asie :le la Coll. Greau, 
p. 38, pi. S9 
" Ooll. Greau, 1891, no. SS9 

P^artwaenglsr, Arch. Anzsijer, 1892, p.lOS, no. 13 
Winter, Terr akot ten, II, p, 448, no. 10 

Figurine of an Ethiopian his arras gone from xr.3 snoul- 
der and his legs broken off at tne knee. His face has an 
exijression of pain or grief, and his thia body snov.'s a-ove 

ths tolas of an exomis wilier, is tastened over his left shoul- 
der. On his head is a tnick v?reath, according to Froehner a 
funerar-y crown. T. is still has traces of color, si".ov;ing 
tnat it was originally painted. Tne icrehead is v^rmkled, 
the iirs "cnick and tne nose snub. • Height 0.145 m. 


2Q5. Berlin - KoeMiglicne iiuseen - Sabouxoii Colleoticn - 
fron Eoeotia 
Winter, Tsxrakottsn, II, p. 449, nc. 8 n. 
Purtwaenglsr Sammbuxg Sab our off, pi. CX:CXIX,3 

Ycutn ssatsd on a rock, nis elbcw resting on :iis 
left knse ar.d his le:t hani supporting his neal. riis right 
hadd rests on his right knee, Tne hands axe large in propor- 
tion to the size of tne figure. The feutures a^ e net strong- 
ly Ethiopian, 'out the ligure was painted a dark brown, snow- 
ing that the axtist inteaded to s'no?; a member of tnis ra.CQ, 

306., Lcndcn - Brixish Museum - frora Italy- 
Walters, Catalogue of Terracottas, p. 310, D84 
llthiopiaii oo:cer, wixn caestus on cctn nanus a-id a 
loin clOTsn ai.out his waist. His features are coax'se aiid he 
is partly bald. He leans back, with his ar-ms out in front 
of him. Hei-Tnt 10 3/8 in. Hellenistic period, 

307, London - Britisn Llussum - from Italy 

Walters, Catalog^je of Terracottas, p, 211, no,D85 

Mate to the foregoing figure, with left icct ad- 
vanced and right arm raised as if to strike. His face is 
more ycuthful than his companion's, and there axe traces of 
dax-k color still visible on it. Hsi ::.t 9 5/8 in. Hellenis- 
tic period. 


2.oa Lender- - British Museum - frcm Italy- 
Winter, Terrckotten, II, ■,:.449, no. 8 b 
Walters, Catalogue ex Terracettas, p. 311, no. DBS 

Etniopiaii with curly hair and. char ticteristlc leaturosj 
S3ated on a rock, aoout to writs on a scroll. Hellenistic 

period. Height 8 in. 

2 09 Naples-^ Musee Kazionaie 6655 (4704) - frcr.. Capua 
Winter, Tsrr eJcotten, II, p. 443, 8 c 
Figure seated on a rock. Similar tc no 2,03 al30ve 
from Bar-i. His head is resting on his hand. Height 0.31 ui. 

2 -IQ Pai'is - Louvre no. 335 - from ths necrcfclis of liyrina 
Pottisr-Eeinach, llyrina, II, p. 473, pi. XLVI, no. 2 
Winter, Terrakotten, II, p. 448, no. 13 

An Ethic :;i an or bai.-b?jcian slave, car-ryifig a disn on 
his up-raised left hadd (balanced as a modem waiter balan- 
ces a tray), and an oenochoe in his l3it hand, which r.angs 
by his side. He v/ear-s a loin cloth aoout his waist, nis 
wavy hair is long and hangs about his neck, his eyes are 
set far' apar't, his nose is short and his thick lips pro- 
trude soiiiswhat. Height 0.1? in. 

2 11. Pstrcgrad - Hermitage - frcm Cirmneria 

StephaJii, Compte Fendu, 1868, p. 61, no. 3 

Atlas, pi. II, no. 3 
Schneider, Jc. Kunst, Sai:iiid. Ill, 1325, p. 7, n.l 


A nude ^.tnicpian ycuth, found with a grcup of tne Uio- 
uids in tsxra-cctta. He has sunk to his kness and his head 
is thrown backv/aids. His right aii:i, which was evidently 
up raised, has been broken oti'. His lert hand holds the xe- 
maivis of a s<ick which was thrown ovex his Isft shculasr. 
This hui:ting sac], is evidence that the Ethiopietn was intend- 
ed as an attendant of the sons of Kiobe who wese-iHsd while 
cut hunting, (Hyginus, Fab. 9, "'Ob id Apollo filics eius in 
silva venantes inteiiscit in Monte Sipylo"). 

This figuri'ie is of especial interest because although 
a genre type, it is connected with rr.ythology. The portray- 
al ci Rtr.ic plans in connection with mythology is mainly ccn- 

fmad to vases. 

3.12, Syracuse Museum - from Ortygia 

Kekule vcn Stradonitz, Texi.c-kc teen von Sicilien, 
pi. LI, no. 1 

Pigij-xine with leg^^ close Gcgethsx, the ankles cross- 
ad. The position is not a walking one, and the figure could 
not have stood without a support, yet the oody is slightly 
bent so that it could not have oeen intended to lie prone, 
and the wide open eyes shov; that sleep is not represented. 
No explanation for tne icst-^.e h-^"? 'rsn -riersd. 


Tiie hands hang down at ths sides ai-.d tns head inclines 
±'crv;ard. Ths hair is only modexatsly curly. Tns fcrshead 
is excessively wrinkled between the eyes, v;hich ai'e v;ide 
open an:l rectanjalar in outline. The nose rises from a de- 
pression between the eyes, and is broad at the extremity. 
The lips ai-e tiiick, protruding and tightly closed. Tiis un- 
usually large eyes aie chax-acteri'^tic or th? riiodern Nubian. 
Height 0.34 m. 

313. Syracuse LIuseuu - 

Kekule, Terraicotten voii Sicilien, pi. LI, no. 2 

Winter, Tcxx akooten, p. 448, no. 7 

Figurine si::.ilai- tc nc.212, sxcc^pt that tne hands 
ai-e neld in iront oZ tne breast. hei;;rLt 0.34 m. 

314. Syracuse iluseum 

Kekule, Terr akot ten von Sicilien, pi. LI, no. 3 

Figurine similar to the aocve except that the arms 
and a portion of the right breast aie broken off. A- streak 
of olack color is still visiole in tne fe.ce and hair, making 
tne iaentixication as an Ethicriam certain. Meio-nt 0.34 m. 


il5, Trieste - Museo Civico - frcm Tox'enturi 

Winter, Tarralcc tten, II, p. 449, nc . 3 

Figure in tns traditional crcucliing position, asleep. 
His tnick lips ai'S the only evidence ox negro olocd in riis 
pnysiognoi-iy, but tns ;:ose is tne ccnventional one for tiie 
Etr.icpian slave. 

Pai't 01 tke rignt axm and right leg arc u:issing. 
Height 0.09 m. 

^6. Trieste - Musso Civico - xrou T:u.-3:"itum 

Winter, Terxakotten, II, p. 449, no. 6 

Standing figurine, wei-iring a loin-cloth c^....c nc^-ing 

castanets in his hand. His sli-htly -psstoa, tnick lips and 
his hair, in ccnventional rc"-s cf riat curTs, indicate his 


Far more ax'tistic thaa the terra-cottas is tne remark- 
aola group ©f bronze .^statuettes which found their inspira- 
tion ir. Alexai~i:u.-ia. The complete ma.stevy vir.lcn cnese ar- 
tists nal over their material produced effects ';;'hich iessrve 

luller mention than the classes of objects previously des- 
cribed. These statuettes -of bronze, v/nich show the Fltnic- 
pian in the various occupations of his slave life, ai s as 



31.7. Ai.-ols3ii -'luseiim 

G-aedeciiGiis, Die Antiksn I^aseu;: zu Arclssii, p. 108, 
no . 444 
Fxiedericns-Wolters, Gipscbru-esss, p. S8S, nc.l7S5 

Statuette ox an F.tiiicrian boy seated on the gxcuni 
i?;itn his left leg drawn undsx him axid his right drawn up in 
front. His head rests on his hands which clasp his ri^ht 
knee. His eyes are closed as if in sleep. 

218., - 2^1 ytechnikcn - Demetriou Gcllection - from 
Puchsteir., Ath. Llitth. VII, 1333, ^:. 14, no. 333 
Schrsiber, « »• X, 1885, pp. 383 Sqq, pi. XI, 3 

Reinach, Pspeitoixe le S^atuaire, II, p. 563, no. 4 
TI7aG0, British Sc.\ool Annual, X, 1903-4 p. 107 

Statustie of an Ethioirian seated on the ground, a-- 
s leep, a or ay of fruit i_: front of him and a tiny monkey on 
his righ-c shoulder. He is prodaoly, as Schreiber suggests, 
&xi Alexandrian fruit vendor taking his siesta by going to 
sleep at nis post, v;itn his -vTai-es in front of him. He is 
treated in strong cai'icature. His position is the tradi- 
tional crouching one, his herd rsGting on his hands, which 
clasp nis ri.^nt knee. His bo:ly is mis'3rabl|^ thin, and the 
ocny structure of his face stands out prominently. Tne hair 


is in rcvvs of conveiitional locks li'.-. -.,- -^ ,-^.._.:, tiie 
nos3 is sno--t and oroal and tns t ick lips g-i e sligntly 
parted. The wcrk is Alexandrian. hLei3nt 0.05 m. 

312. Berlin - Kaeniglicne Mussen - Antiquaiium nl. 7456- 
frcm Egypt 

AiCh. Zeiu. XXXVIII, 1880, p. 39 

Wao8, Britisia Schocl Annual, X, 1903-4, p. 107 

Young Ethiopian ^-.•eaL■ing trousers, nis haiids behind 
his back. 

320 . Be 1 gn a Mu s euni 

Gozzadini, Di Ulteriore Scoperte nell •'antica 

necropcli a IJai-aabc":tc nel Bclognese, pi. 

XII, 6 a--> comp. 38 
Schnsider, Jo. Kunst. Sajicil. Ill, 1885, p. 7, n.8 

Bronze statuette oi an Blonicpian youth cax-rying an 
amphora on his shoulder. 

231. Ccurtot Collection 

Reinach, Pepsrtcire de Sta-cuaire, IV, p. 353, no. 5 

Statuette of standing Ethioj:ian who holds scaie o'cject 

in his right kand. His hair is in wavy locks, his nose 
broad and his lips tnick. Hs is heavy in build, and loes 
-ot saov7 the emaciated thinness chax'acteris tie of most ne- 


gro per oraius. From tna sketch in P.oinacii, ciie v/culd be in- 
clined to cast douot on his aiitiquitj'', as he is so satirely 
unlike all other negroes in aiiciant art, 

22a Dsv.tsch-Altenourg Museum - from Gar nun turn 

'~^^--^ Schneider, J'o.Oesterr. Arch. Inst. IX, 1906, pp. 
335-4, T.l. Ill 
Kubitschek& Frankfurter Fuehrer durch G-ar nun turn 



Eeinach, Eepartcire do Statuairo, IV, p. 554, no. 1 
Perdrizeo, Collection Fcuquex, p. 57 

Bronze statuette of a negro daiicer caugnt at one of 

the vvildest moments oi his dance. The ^Ignt foot and left 
hand are gone, ov.t tna tv/ist of the ocdy indicates that ne 
was momentarily pcissd on the tee of tne icct v.'nich. is 

missing, his right leg up preparatory to the next leap 
of the dance. His head is thrown cack and tne^ a is an ex- 
pression of frenzy on nis lace. 

His hair is in three rows of spiral curls; his fore- 
head is deeply wrinkled. The eye-'oalls are inset in silver, 
with a hollow Isit zc indicate the pu-;il. Tne nose rises 
from a depression between the eyes and broadens zt tne end. 
His mouth is Isxge and his t:.ick lips are parted in the aban- 
don of ziie moment. The fingers of the right hand aj.-e tensely 

di avm oo^ethei., and tne linger-nails a- e rendered with fidel- 

It is one of ♦the most vivid aiid full of motion of cill 
classical pcx trails of Ethiopians. Height (in its pre- 
sent state) 0.085 m, 

333. Dortmund - Coll. cf Dr. Albrecht Jordan - iroBi 
Dreseel-Mlichhoeiiar, Ath.Mixth. ,ii,lodY,p.oui, 

no. 159 
Schneidsr, Jo.Sunst.Saroiil. ,111, 1885, p. 8 
Fxiederichs-^olters, (jipsao uessQ,p.S33,no.l785 
Bluemner , Fuehrer , p. 110, ■\o , 990 
Heinach, Repertoire de 3tatualre,III,p,158,no.l 

Boy seated on the ground in the usual crouching po- 
sition, asleep, his head resting on his right knee. The 
original publication of the figure ioes not call him a 
negro or mention any suggestion of nagro olood. In sub- 
sequent referjnc3s zo nim, nowever, he is called a negro 
without any coiam-snt. In the illustration available it ij 
impossible to see any traces of the Ethiopian in his 
physiogno:;y , though he is seated in the traditional 
posture fajiiliar ::iiong statuettes of Ethiopians fro:n an 
early period. This figure is more v.-idely known than 
many others moi s artistic because it has been re- 


produced iDy casta in the Berlin and Zurich museums. The left 
arm and ri gh-fe foot acre missing. Height 0.056 m. 

33i , Fouquet Collection - Greek bronze from Egypt 

Perdrizet, Coll. Fouquet, p. 57, no. 93, pi. XXV 

Ethiopian Doy crouching dovrn on all fours, with head 
thrown back and turned to the right. The left arm is gone 
at the elbow, the left leg at the knee and the right arm at 
the shoulder. The suggestions offered by Perdrizet in ex- 
planation of the pose are (l) that he is undergoing punish- 
ment (which is entirely out of harmony with the r.^ischievous 
expression of his face, and for which there is no parallel 
among representations of negroes) or (2) that he is stalking 
some prey, such as a bird*3 nest (which is admissible from 
pose and expression), I would like to suggest, however, 
that he is swimming, as his legs are drawn up in swimning 
position, and what remains of his arms imdicatas that they 
also would be correctly placed for this interpretation. His 
head is held up as if to keep it clear of the water. He has 
a parallel in the busts of diving negroes in the ychott Col- 
lection, the British Museum and the Bibliotheque Nationals 
from the Boman periods. His hair is in regular' rows of 
curls, his eyos have hollov/s to raprssent the pupils, his 
nose is short and very broad at the base and his lips are 
thick, the lower one prominent. He wears a short tunic fas- 


tened about his waist. The expression is full of mischief 
and lifelike, aiici this little figure is one of the raost in- 
teresting of the genre portraits of negroes. Length 0.103 m. 

335. Leipzig - Theodor Graf Collection - x'rom Egypt 

Schreioer, Ai-ch. Anzeiger. V, 1890, p. 157, fig. 8 

Wace, British School Annual, X, 1903-4, p. 107 
no. 9. 

Nude female li.gurine in sxiff erect pose, the legs 
close together. The arms are missing and there ai-e sockets 
Where they were intended to fit on. Tne hair is in conven- 
tional rows of flat locks, radiating txoiv. the top of the 
head as a center. The fac^ is very round, with low forehead, 
nose short but not negroid, and thick full lips. Schreiber 
calls her an "Aegypterin"', Wace a negress. Height 0.31 m. 

2ze. Lisbon - Bucellos Osorio 

Arch. Portugijes, VIII, 1903, p. 504 

Beinach, Repertoire de Statuaire, IV, p. 354, no. 3 

Bronze figure in the exact pose of the dancing Ethio- 
pian from Carnuntum (above, no.2y§.) Most of both arras is 
missing, but what remains is identical with tne other figure. 
The head, however, while bent in the satie way, shows differ- 
ent features, the hair being conventionalized, and the ex- 
pression of the face being softened from frenzy to passi- 


vity, Tne provenance of tiie figure is not given, but its 
relation to xne ctnor is indisputable. Its poorer workraan- 
snip would sesm to indicate a copy. 

2 37. Naples - Museo Nasionale no. 540S - frca Herculaneun 

EouK et Barre, VI, p. 199,. pi. 104, land 3 

Bronzi d'alrcclano II, p. 361, pi. XV 

Reinaoh, Repertoire ae Statuaire, Ij, p. 563, nos. 

Wace, British School Annual, X, 1903-4, p. 107 

Calza, Jcux. Roman Studies, V, 1915, p. 164 

Dancing Ethiopian in a short chiton fastened over nis 
left shoulder. The dance is not a furious one such as is 
shown in the Carnuntuia suid Lisocn bronzes but a slov/er, more 
graceful measure. The dancer's right ax-m is extended in 
front of him, with his left drawn back and bent at the el- 
bow, tie balances on his left foot, witli his right foot 
poised in the air back of him. head is bent back and 
turned to^vard the right. The hair is in rows of locks, and 
the broad nose and thick lirs attesx the negro origin. It 
is interesting tnat the nead is iar^e in proportion to the 
body, perhaps indicating a dv/ai-f. 

238. New York - Metropolitan Museiom 

Ricntar, Bulletin of tne Lletr. Mus., XV, 1920, 
p. 109 

Ricnter, Bulletin of the Metr. Uus., XVI, 1921, 
pp. 53-35, fig. 3 

Fine exaiiiple of Hellenistic art, a bronze statuette 
of an Etniopiari nude except for an elaborately twisted man- 
tle aoout his waist, revsaling the soft laodellins of tne 
flesn. He carries some object in his hand and leans for- 
ward in what Miss Piohter calls a walking attitude. This 
seems unlikely, as both knees are bent at more of an angle 
than would oe normal in ordinary walking. It ma^/ be a po- 
sition in some barbaric dance, in which G3.3e the objects 
in his hanis \vould oe castanets, or ne may be arn athlete, 
and his position cne of combat. Tnere is a certain tense- 
ness about the figure wiiich the latter interpretation would 
explain. It seams most probable tnat he is holding reins 
in his hand and 'driving, from the v;ay his foot is braced. 

The hair is in long spiral curls against the head, 
v;ith a single curl in the middle of the long retreating 
forehead. The hollow eye-sockets ^/rex e originally filled 
with some substance, probably silver, v.'hich has fallen av;ay. 
The nose, rising from a depression oetv-een the eyes, is very 
broad at the base, and the slightly parted lips ar-e thick, 
the lower one protruding. Height 7 3/l6 in. (0.183 m.) 


2.29. Paris - Bicliotneque iJaticnale - Caylua Cell, from 

Caylus, Pecusil, vol. VII, p. 280, pl.LXXXI, noe. 

3-5 du Mersan, Histoire au Cabinet las Me- 
daillss, p. 69, no. 2."^7 

Monunenti dell' Inst., IV, gl. 30 b 

Annali, XVII, 1845, pp. 3 33 Sqq. 

Panofka, Delptxi u.Melaine, p. 15, n.73 

Chabouillet, Catalogue du Cabinet des Uedailles, 

no. 5078 
Schreiber, Atn. Mitth. X, 1885, p. 595 
Schnaidar, Jb. Kunst. Saniml. Ill, 1385, p. 8 
Rayet, Mon-uuents de I'axt antiq;ae, II, 6, pi. XIII 
Heydeuann, Paxisor Antiken, p. 69, no. 9 

Babalon, Le Caoinat des Antiques, pp. 151-3, pi. 

Pottisr-Peinacn, Myrina, pp. 474 and 4:85 

Scnrader, Winckeluiannsf . Prog., Berlin, 60, 1900 

p. 16 
Wace, Britisn Schocl Ainiual, X, 1905-4, p. 107 
Collignon-Baumgar-ten, II, fig. 394 
P.einach, Bepertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 561, no. 4 

Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue :ies Bronzes, pp. 440- 

441, no. 1009 
Bulle, Der Schoeno Uenscn, ip. 145-6, uo. 77, fig. 

29 pi. 77 

This is the best knovm ancient statuette of an Ethiopian. 
It cams to light in the year' 1763 at Cnalon-sur-SaSne in a 


chest, together with some other "0x0112563 of svident Roman or- 
igin. The ccnditicn of the chest showed that it had not been 
buried long, tnough the mystery of its burial was never 
solved. The grace of the figure and the skill of the work 
are the reasons icr its asaigrjnent to the Hellenistic period, 
although the rest of the bronzes were Roman. Good illus- 
trations of it are available, the best being the Bulle 
plaxe and the one given by Rayet (see bibliography above). 
The statuette portrays an Ethio;-ian boy standing witli 
his slim body bent gracexully at the 7;aist, his leit arm 
neld in iron of him as if supporting some ob;ioct on his 
shoulder and his mouth open as if singing. It ssems reason- 
ably certain that his left hand held in place a trigoncn 
which rested against his shoulder, and from which he is 
di-awing the notes with his right hand, wnicn is r.iacoa as 
if about to pick the strings. The dreamy sadness of his 
expression and the "langueur"" of his pose give, as Gollignon 
suggests, the illusion tnat he is actually singing some sad 
song of his homeland. The interpretation of Wace that he 
is a hawker crying his waxes, seems untenable, not only 
fxoiu tne pose and the expression of the face, but also from 
the fact that such hawkers are generally portrayed in cai-i- 
cature. The interpretation of Caylus and Heyderiann, that 


iie is grounded and twisting with pain, is not accepted by 
the other authorities. 

While the characteristic Ethiopian features are pres- 
ent, paxticulai'ly in the profile, they are treated so that 
the effect is pleasing. The hair is arranged in forual 
stages of curls; the forehead is "-rinkled; the nose is not 
coareej and the thickness of the lips is cioleratsci. The 
upper row of teeth is indicated, and the eyes are inset 
in silver, v;ith a hollow to indicate the pupil. The work 
is generally assigned to Alexandria. The height is only 
0.20 m. , but the v;ork is so good that photographs give the 
illusion of a laxge statue. 

230. Paris - Biblictheqi^s Kati cnale 

du Mersan, Histoire du Gab. des Med., p. 65, 
no. 133 

Chabouillet, Catalogue, no. 3079 

Babelcn-Blanchet, Catalogr.e des Bronzes, p. 440, 
no. 1010 

Eeinach, Pepertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 563 

¥ace, British School Annual, X, 190S-4, p. 107 

Ethiopian boy, standing, clad in a tunic ?/hich covers 
hiiu froci his neck to his knees and which is drawn in at 
the waist by a girdle tied in front. His pose would seem 
to indicate that he is pulling seme heavy cbjsci? toward 
him, as his left foot and left shoulder are thrust fcrwai'd, 
with his head inclined away fror:; them. The arms are entire- 


ly gone, though there is an opening in the tunic on either 
side v/hich shows '"here they emerged. 

The hair is in conventional rcr;s of flat locks; the 
eye-balls exe inf;et in silvex; the nose is S(^at at the 
base; the lips axe thick. The work is T;3:cbably Alexanuiian. 
Hei-ht 0.175 m. 

23 1. Paris - Louvre - v/ithoiit no. 

Peinach, Pepertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 561, 
no. 8 

Ethicpiar. standing, his hands behind his back, his 
body bent as in the Chalon-sur-Saone statuette. His hair 
is curly and his lower lip protrudes in e :caggerated. fashion. 

SSa. Found at Rheims - St. Gerraain near Par-is 

Reinach, Pepertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 561, no. 5 

Statuette of a negro boy standing with the weight 
on the left foot, his body bent at the waist in the nianner 
of the preceding figure but in the oirosite direction. His 
right arm is missing and his left if extended in front of 
him v/ith palm upwards. His head inclines toward the left, 
his hair is in curls and his lips ai-s thick. 

S35. Stuttgart - Stactssammlung - from a Ponan house in 


Mayer, Arch. Anzeiger, V, 1890, p. 97, fig. S 
Reinach, Bspertoire de Statuaixe, II, p. 561 
Wace, British Schcol Annual, X, 190.:-4, p. 107 

Seated hunchback called a negro oy Wace, though neither 
hair nor face sxe strongly Elthicpian. 

BS4. Toulouse 

P.einach, Pepertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 561 

Ethiopian standing with lis weight on his right 
foot. Both arms are gone. The head is turned to the right, 
and shows curly hair, broad nose, and thick lips. 

Beinach states that the sketch he pu'olishes is taken 
from a photograph, no museum: ntu:;uer oeing givenj I do not 
find any record of this figure in the catalogue of the 
sculpture of the Musee de Toulouse by Henri Fachou, pub- 
lished in 1913. 

23 5. Vienna - Kaiserl. Kcenigl. Oesterr. Lluseimi 

Schneider, Jb. Eunst. SaEinil. Ill, 1885, p. 3 

» , Arch. Anzeiger, VII, 1892, p. 50 

Eeinach, Repertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 562, no. 2 

Bronze figtirine in relief style, of an Ethiopian boy 
crouching down with his head on his right knee, asleep. His 
woolly hair is indicated by large round dots, and his swollen 


lips are pai-ted. The exact provenance cf this figure is un- 
known, but it is supposed to have come from Greece. He is 
probably"- one of the earliest of the series. 

2'6jQ WeiiJiar - Goethe Collection 

Michaelis, Jahrbuch, XII, 1897, pp. 49-54 
Reinach, Repertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 561, no. 3 
Wace, British Schccl Annual, X, 1905-4, p. 107 

Standing ligure who has turned around as tea: as i.ossi- 
ble, and is luaiiing a gesture of thwab oetween lingers. Ho 
wears a cap on nis curly hair and is sligntly bearded. His 
hair in conventional rov,'s of flat curls, suggest the Eth- 
iopian. Height 0.145 ni. 

There is a single instance cf a bronze Ethiopian life- 
size which, if it is genuinely an axicient work of sculpture, 
probaoly belongs in this period. Only the illustration in 
Reinach' s Repertoire is available, and this shows tne gen- 
eral arpeax-ance of tne boy to oe so unlike all other clas- 
sical representations of Ethiopians that one g?ji not nelp 
doubting its genuineness. 

^37. Tai-ragon 

Reinach, Repertcire le Statuaira, IV, p. 353, no. 6 

Negro boy, standing, v;ith arus extended in front of 


him and palms upturned. His face is round and iiis tuild 
neavy. his hair is snort and curly, nis nose bread and 
nis lips thick. The general appearance is unlike other 
ancient negroes. 

Previous to the Hellenistic era the figurines v/eie all 
of the traditional texra-cotta and 'oronze; but in this pe- 
riod there was some experimenting in other materials. The 
suitability of some material inherently black for represent- 
ing black skin nor occured to the scu.lptors and there ai-e 
soL.e instances of basalt, olack stone and black ruar-Lle. One 
might expect a more frequent use of black uaterials tvere it 
not that bronze itself suggests the negro skin so aduiirab- 
ly ana teria-cotta is so easily ticatod with black paint. 
Even so it is scniGtimes difficult ir. the case of these two 
mediums alv/ays to define the intention of the artist where 
use of a black medium leaves no possible doubt. Tna known 
examples of a black substance are ds fellows: 

25S . Athens - Polytechnikon - Demetriou Collection - from 

Puchstein, Ath. llitth. VII, 1882, pp. 15 and 16 
Schreibsr, '^ " X , 1885, p. 583, pi. XII 

P.einach, Pepertcire de Statuaiio, II, p. 561, no.6 

Basalt Statuette of an Ethiopian boy, the ai-ms broken 
off at the 'vvrists and the le;-s broken off above the knees. 


The hair is in close spiral curls all over the head, 
the nose broad, and the lips thick ar-.cL slightly parted, with 
the lorer one protruding strongly. The hollo;? eye sockets 
wei. e originally filled with some stibstance, isxo''o3Jo1y silver, 
which has fallar; av;ay. There is a narked er/j.hasis of the 
lov;er part cf the facial structure. The whole is a very 
e:ccellent and pleasing portrayal of the type. 

The head inclines toward the right and the position 
of the arms shows that they were supporting some object on 
the left sho-^lder. The siuilar- i:ose of the famcus Chalon- 
sur-Sacne statuette in the Bibliothaque Katicnale, where 

the ai'ias oae placed as if holding the trigoncn ,or three- 

ccmersd lyre (aoove, noJ , indicates that the correct re- 
storation would be with the lyre. It is not impossible 
however, that he may be ixlding up a platter in the fashion 
of a terra-cotta figure found at Myrina (above, no. 310 ). 
Tlie first interprctaxiori seems more in keeping with the ex- 
pression cf his face. Height 0,40 m. 

2o9. Athens 

Sybil, K-atalog der Skulpturen zu Athen, no. 5110 
Schneider, Jb. Kunst. Samml. Ill, 1885, p. 7, n.6 
Head of an Ethiopian cf black stone. 


340. Bsrlin »Koenigliche Museen nc. 423 

Eeinach, Repertoire de Statuaire, II, p. 563, no. 8 
Kekulevori Stradcnitz, Beschreibung, p. 193 

Black rriarcle statuette of an. Ethic-ian rho has siink 
to the ground and is resting on one knee. The av/k7;:x'dness 
of the pose is doubtless due to the restorations, as oase, 
plinth, and ooth legs below the knees are modern. His 
head turns toward the left, and his hands ar-e behind his 
back as if tied. His hair is in long, conventionalized 
curls. His race is evidenced by his hair, lips, and the 
dax'k material of which he is made. Height 0.80 m. 

241. Nowby Hall, Yorkshire - Vyner Collection 

Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, 

59. 534, no. 43 
Schneider, Jb. Kunst. Sac-iml. Ill, 1885, p. 7,n. 6 

Bust of an nthicpiar. of basalt, in the collection of 
Lady Mary Vyner, made by Willia:ri Seidell Esq. about the 
year- 1765. 

White marble is also nov/ used for the first time in 
representing the Ethiopian. It required ccnside^aole skill 
in nandling on the jart of the arxist, since the aosence of 
color made it necessary to convey nis meariing by the pnysi- 
cal mar-ks of race. t^^ie ^^® °-^ white marble is limited, this 


period being represented by one example of relief sculpture, 
one statue in the round in life-size, cjil two statuettes of 
great interest. Tne sculpture in the round is siir.ple genre, 
"but the relief seeus again to lead to mythology, 

343. Naples - Museo wa-^ionale 

Museo Borbonico, VI, 23 

Puesch, Guida del Museo wazicnale, p. 570, no. G692 

Beinach, Eepertoire de Relieis, III, i';. 84, no.l 

Biga driven by a negrom a v/arricr walking in front of 
the horses. The r.egrc, sncwn in profile, has curly hair, 
snub nose, thick lips, and \rsars a sim-le tunic drawn in 
at the waist. He leans for'^'airi over the horses, holding 
the reins in his left hand. 

The meaning of the scene has not "oeen e:cplaiiicd, 
though P.einach suggests the Busiris myth. This is very un- 
likely, as there is nc suggestion cf Heracles in the wai-- 
ricr ai:id no apparent point of contact with the story. Per- 
haps the Ethiopian is a charioteer about to enter a contest 
in the hippodxoms. It seem.s most xrobable, though this in- 
terpretation has net been suggested, that the Ethiopian is 

-Memnon's chariot dx-iver, and that the warriol who pre- 
cedes the horses in none other than the hero himself. 

34 ;i Pome - Vatican - Galleria dei Csndelabri 


Visccnti, Museo Pio-Cleni. , III, 35, pi. bine. 2 

p. 236 
Braun, Euinen u. ilusson Poms, p. 506, n. 208 
Claiac, jiusee de Sculpture, 883, 22 50 
Schneider, Jb. Kunst. SaKiial., Ill, 1885, p. 6 
Schreiber, Ath. Mitth. X, 1885, p. 383 
Helbig, Fuehrer, 3rd F.d. , I, p. 242, no. 575 
Calza, Jcur. ?Voxaari Studies, V, 1S15, p. 167 

Pentelic mai-ble statue of an Ethicpia^i slave -Doy, who 
car-ries in his left hand a ring from which suspended a 
strigil and an ointment vessel for his master. His equip- 
ment Bhov/s hici to be a bath attendant. The fcllov;ing are 
modern restcraxionst the right arm, shoulder and breast; 
the left side of the neck; part of the foot; eind almost the 
whole support and plinth. The right hand has been restored 
as held out in front of him, holding a sponge. This is not 
an unlikely conjecture, for slaves holding sponges occur- 
on the Co-urneto gem (above no. 42) and a British Museum 
bronze (■iclc-.; no. ;:,35 ) . Helbig would rrefer to have the 
hand restored as making some gesture to correspond with the 
mischief in the eyes. 

One might expect some nifference ia the treatr.ient of 
tne negro features, some idealising in this portrait on a 
larger scale than the usual fi,^irine, 'out this iB not the 
case. Tne nair is short and v;cclly, a;id the nose and mouth 
axe Characteristic, tnougn by no means displeasing in effect, 


He is probably a favorite atteiidant of some gentleman, of 
tne time, -.vho wished to him ir-imcrtalizod in m;:j:ble. 

344. Londorx - British liuseuiu - Tov^neley Coll. - from Fome 
Clai-ac, V, pi. 82 5, :j225 a 

Siuith, Catalogue of Gk. Scoilp., Ill, p. 114, no. 1788 
Schneider, Jb. Kunst. Sainml., Ill, 1885, r:. 9 

Collignon-Baumgaxten,II, p. 616, fig. 293 

Wace, British School Anrual, X, 1903-4, p. 107 

Schreiber, Ath. llitth. X, 1885, p. 395 

Par-ian mar..:le statuette of a;i Ethiopian acrobat bal- 
ancing himself on hands and chest on the back cf a croco- 
dile. Head and neck ai-e stretched forwai'd. His haii is in 
corkscrew curls and his ncse is short and flat. The lips 
have been damaged so that their original outline is not 

The statuette as shown in the Collignon illustration 
was isstored ixi certain parts, which have subsequently been 
removed. These are, according to Smith, . tne nead and tail 
of the crocodile, the right le^;, left knee, and feet, taid 
both elbov/s of the acrobat, the forepaws and part of the 
jCGCk plinth. According to Clar'cc, the hands elso are modern. 
An illustration of how the figure locks v.'ithcut these re- 


stcratives sliculd be avails-'-le fox coiriiiaxisoa with ths fol- 
lowing stLituGtte. Hsight 2 ft. 5 •^- in., as restored. 

34 5. PoniQ - Villa Patrizi 

lIouL zie, 190S, pp. 43S a:a.l 440 

Peinach , Eel,.3rtcixe :l9 Sto.t\^aix3, IV, p. 3 50, no.l 

Marr;l6 statuette in tJie identical pose of the above, 
except that there is a plain base instead of a crocodile and 
that ths hands ai'e closed instead of being spread cut en 
ths base. The legs ai-e broken off at the knees, and very 
little of tne base re:v.ains. Ths notice of its excavation 
states that it was a figiire ror a fc-untain. 

To the eictsat of our information the sirailiu'ity of 
these two figures has nowhere been pointed cut. The pose 
is identical and either one is a copy of the otnor or 
both are copies cf the sarae original. The^ondon statuette 
is poorer work, and its face lacks entirely the liveliness 
of ths other. 

The position of the two bodies is identicil and the 
modelling of the flesh very similar, the differences consist- 
ing in the head, the base, and if the London figure has bsen 
restored in that place, the hands. There is no evidence in 
the case^f the Villa Patrizi that he is balancing 


on a crcGcaile. The treatment of the hair is fai' better in 
tna latter st?it-uett9, the ringlets of cnxly hair Geinf^ care- 
fully ccdelled. The Ethiopian has a i-iischievo\is grin and 
both rows of teeth ai-e indicated. The provenance of both 
is Pome, the fornier having been talien from Rome to London 
by the first Earl Ca^vdcr, the other having been excava-ced 
in 1908 in the Via Konentana. But the v/crkraanship and 
the presence of the crocodile v;resuppose an Alexandrian or- 
iginal, if the figures are not themselves Alexandrian. 
Both figures ai-e fountain figures, and it seems possible to 
connect the Villa Patrizi figure T,'ith another piece of sculp- 
ture, something v;hich cai^not ofte.i be dene in the case of 
representations of FIthicpians in art. This is aiiother foun- 
tain figure, a young satyr, which recently into the 
Smith College Lluseun. a;:d is published in the Bulletin of 
Smith College, Hillycr Ai^t Gallery, for May 1930. There is 
also a replica of the satyr fountain figi^re in Copenhagen 
in the Glyptotliek ijy Carlsberg (Eeinach, Eepertoire de 
la Statuaire, IV, p. 74) 

A com.pax'iscn cf these fig^ares reveals a similarity of 
treatment that leaves little doubt that the scaiie sculptor 
modelled both. The outline of the form, the surface of the 
flesh and the delicate revelation of muscle shov.- marlred 


siiiiilaxities. One cor-iiuon feature of both poses, thcugli 
the satyx stands ux:-ri£ht and the Ethiopian balances with 
feet in the air, is the sharp twist of the shoulder away 
from the chest necessitated by the suvporting of a heavy 
weight. But the strongest res^r.blance is in the expression. 
Both figures have their lips p^jcted in the saine impish 
smile. Both are surely the v;ork of the same hand, which 
probably specialized in fountain fi^gares. It is significant 
in this ccnnectioa that the head of a satyr was found with 
the Villa Patrizi figure. (llotisie, 1008, p. 439). 

The vases of the, period axe closely related to the 
texxa-cottas, a few of them being in reality figuxines of 
the genre type with a vase mouth. The Ethiopian'' s head 
however, still continues in favox as a type. 

346. Athens - National Iluseum 

llicole, Catalogu.e des Vases Feints p.2S3, i-o.i229 
Vase in the form of an Ethiopian's head, from the 
Hellenistic period. 

2 47. Athens - Haticnal iluseujm 

ITiccle, Catalogue des Vasos Feints, p. 283, no. 1530 

Vase in the form of an Ethiopian's head, simileu: to 
the preceding. 


248.. Athens - national Museum 

Ilicole, Catalogue des Vases Peints p. 38S, 
no. 1331 

Vase - in tlie form of an Ethiopian 's head, similax- to 
the preceding. 

3 49 London - British Lluseum - Castellani Coll. - frcr^: Capua 
Walter, Catalogue ci Vases, IV, p. 262, G 154 

A'SCus in the form of a crouching Ethiopian boy, asleep 
His right leg is drawn up in front of him, and his head 
rests on his hands, which clasp his right knee. He is nude 
except for a gaj:ment tied ai-cond his threat. An amphora 
at his back forms the spout of the vase. Fourtn century 
work. Hei~ht 3 -^ in. 

2Eo • Naples - National Iluseun - Museo Borbonico 

Heydemann, Museo Nazicnale, p. 7, no. 185 

Sriall black vase v.'ith the head of an Ethiopian in re- 

351. Ilev; Haven - Yale University - Stoddard Collection 
Baur-, Preliminary Catalo:^e, p. 38, no. 455 


Vase of light brown clay in ths foxiii of an Ethiopian, 
who cxcuohes ciovrn, on all fcurs, animal fashion, filling a 
vase irom a v.-ine skin. Over his heal is a panther's skin. 
The iJouth of the vase projects ircra the middle of his oack. 
The ■..xrk is poor. 

253. New York - Metropolitan Ivluseuiii - Morgaxi Collection 
formerly G-reau Collection 
Froehnsr, Verrerie Anti(jae, p. 367, no. 56, vol. V 
Pi. 335 

Fragment of a vase in the form of a grotesque Ethio- 
pian's head. The hair is indicated by three rors of conven- 
tional curls. The forehead is lor and crinkled, and the 
eye-bro\vs, modelled in the clay, oxe heavy and close to- 
gether. The nose is short, broad and flat, and tne lever 
lip thick a:id protruding, lisclcsing a ro"- of teeth, The 
beard is indicated by crescent-shaped incisions in the clay. 

25o. Odessa Iluseum 

Invent;irkatalog, IV, 843 

Stern, Jh. Oesterr. Arch., VII, 1904, p. 301, no. 3 

Unpublished vase in the form of a crouching Ethiopian 
painted black. The expression of the face is sad, like 
that of the Chalcns-sur-Saone bronze, (above, no.a29 )• 


^54 Odessa Museum - frou Oloia 

Terracotten des OdSGsaer Lluse^oins, II, pi. XII, 1 
Stern ^ jh. Oost. Aicii.Inst., Vli, 1904, p. 301, no. 5 

Vase in the form of a negio's head, painted 'black. 
The hair is lormed from dots of clay. 

355. Oxiord - Ashmolean Llussuin - from Tai'entum 
Evans, J.H.S. 1386, :,p. 37-38 

* A little negro slave boy coiled up fast asleep un- 
der an aaphora against which he hudllas as if for shelter 
from tne Bora. "^^^ ch:-r act eristic featiares of the race are 
addixably rendered, including the v/oolly hair, protuberant 
forehead, thici: lips and indescribable nigger grin. Tne 
bacicoone, ribs and mnsclss of the half-stai'ved little form 
are indicated \Tith anctcmic precision and even the dolichocepha- 
3,iG • ftkull and disproportionately long arms of the negro 
type are faithfully reproduced. This surpiising accuracy 
of detaj.l, hc7/ever is not wen at the expense of the genera:^, 
effect of the, Y.-hich for life-like realism and true 
pathos is probaoly without a rival amongst "terra cottas."' 

Height 3. 5 in. 

The vase is similar to the ascus in the British Mu- 
seum (abovs, no. ;j4S ) and Eva:is ^ais that a figure of black 


stcne spctt3d with greon identical in attitude axcapt that 
the Child T/as crying, T;as scld in Paris. The present owner- 
ship is unknown. 

2 5£. Pourtales Ccllection 

Panoi'ka, Cabinet Pourtales, ; . 115, ;;1, XXX 

Vase in the form of an Ethiccian ccy en knees, 
bending fox wear d as if v/ ashing some object in a streati. The 
vase mouth projects from the lower ijoxt of his back, and 
a handle ccnneets it with the r;dddle of his spine. His nose 
is snub, his lips tr.ick, his hair nioderataly curly and his 
TiThole face childish. 

3 5.7. Rome - Villa Julia Lluseum 

Delia Seta, Iluseo di Villa Giuiia p. 333, no. 25876 
Guttus decoraijed with the head of an Ethiopian in re- 
lief on the top. 

3 58, Vienna - Kimsthistorisches Lluseum 

Schneiler, Jh. Oest .Jirchvlhst, IX, 1906, p. 321, 

Vase in the forra of an RthiC: ian' s head, the features 
cai'icatured. The forehead is low and v/rinkled, the nose 
snub and the :.ips exaggeratedly tiiick. The woolly hair is 
surmounted by an ivy wreath. There is a simple cylin.iricaJL 


spcut at tho tcp cf tne iisad, a tv/isting handle connecting 
its brim v/itii the oack of the Ethiopian's head. Third Cen- 
tury v;ork. Height 0.15 a. 

25S'. Sold in New York - Chinielo-"ski Coll. - frcru Olbia 
Sale CatalO;^e, Auction Feo. 30, 1932. 

Vase shaped like an Ethiopian's head, painted black. 

Not the least inter jsting use oi the Ethiopian head 
dui'ing this period was its adomnent ox xiecklaces and ecx- 
rings. In fact, ioB irequeat ccourrsnca as a pendaiit or 
anulet is one of the main supports of the theory that the 
Ethiopian was considered prophylactic in aaitiquity. On a 
few necklaces the hook and loop of the clasp are soldered 
each to the top of a tiny head, carved in garnet, and he'ld 
in place in the chain by a collar of gold filigree work. 
In spite of the small size cf these heads every feature is 
clearly distinguisha.ole. The goldsmiths of the MellenistiG 
period showed great skill in rendering the hair by tiny 
tv/isted spirals of fine gold ivire afxi.xed to the head in 
rov/s to represent curls. 

Of the type of necklace v;ith the Ethiopian's heads at 

the clasp, the fcllov;ing Bxai^ples ai-a known: 


260. Dresden Musouni 

Axch. An^eigsx, 1892, VII, p. 188, fig. 38 

Necklace of xullex-shpaed beals of gold and carnelian, 
strung alternately. At each end it terminates in the head 
of an Ethiopian, c:av3d from carnelian, and held in place 
by a cisllax of spiral gold and a v;ig of gold v/ire tv;istcd 
into rings to indicate curls. The necklace fastens by means 
of a gnld hook attached to one ndad and a gold loop for it 
to pass through, attached to the other. 

361. London - British Iluseura - Bur gen Collection - from 

a tomb on the island of l-Ielos 
M3a-3hal.l, Catalogue of Jevellery, p. 216, no» ISol, 
pl. XXXVI 

Part of a necklace terminating in the heads of a ne- 
gro (Marshall), and a negress respectively, carved in garnet, 
to Which hook and loop are solder3d in the manner described 
above. The hair is rendered by rows of spirals of gold ^"ire, 
and the features ai-e almost ape-like from the effect of the 
protruding lower jav/. From tne evidence of tne hair— di-os sing 
and the features, I consider that both heads represent women. 
TiiB eyes v.'Gre originally filled v;ith some substance which 
has fallen a-^ay. Marshall places the -.vork in the third cen- 


tury B.C. 

26 3 Lcnclcii - British Lluseuin - Franks Be quest 

Mai-shall, Catalogue cf Jov/ollery, p. 317, no. 1963, 
pi. XXXVI 

necklace teriainating at each end in tlie head of an 
Ethiopian woiaan, carvod in gax-nst, the hair inriicated by 
spiral coils of gold wire in rows. The Ic-.vsr part of the 
face is heavily pronounced. Work of the third century B.C. 

26 3. London - Britisn lluseuni - Franks Bequcst 

Maj. shall, Catalosijie of Je\"ell3ry, p; 317, no. 1933 

Broken necklace, the end which is _.xdj;xV3d terminat- 
ing in the head of an Ethicpia:i '.vouan ccu-ved in garnet, the 
nair rendered oy coils of fine gold vilxe. Work oi the xhird 
century B.C. 

Of sinilea- techrlque and closely resembling the heads 
on necklaces is an eax-rin,'; from the period: 

2£4. London, - British lluseu^r: - from a tcmb at GjTr.e in 


Mar-shall, Catalogue of Je-.vellery, p. 186, no. 1709 
pi. XXXI 

Ear-ring of twisted gold '.7ire terninating in the head 


of a ne grass carved from gar not. Collar snl hair are formed 
from coils of fine gold '.vire. The features are clear, a:id 
tiie profile is almost ape-like, with tne protruding lov/er 
lip and jav/. Tnird century B.C. Height 0.019 lu. Weight 
30 grns. 

As this e-.r-riii': was found in Asia Minor it qualifies 
the statement of Halaczek (Ohrschmuck p. 76 n. 3) flat sax- 
rings "v'ith the heals of negross had h5Qn found cnly en Etrus- 
can sites. It is true that several of this type have ":een 
found in It?-ly, ai'd S9_ve as an adlitional instance of the 
relation betrresn the 15truscans a::d Asia llinor. 

The Etruscan ear- -ring of this type ai-e listsd belov;. 
Mo3t of then; resemble the Hellenistic ear-rin^and necklaces 
in the manner cl representing the hair. 

2S5. Berjin Koexiigliche ILusesn - from Orvieto 
Arch. Zeitung, XXXVII, 1379, p. 106 

Haiaczek, Ohrschmuck, p. 76, n. 3 

Circular- goli-eai'-ring of filigree work. A cap-shaped 
piece of tnis holo.s in i:iace the head or aii Ethicpian, carved 
from cax'nelian. The features ox the face ar-e characteristic, 
Etruscan ■vork, 

2qq. London - British Iluseum - from Atri in the Abruz3i 


MaxsheJl, CatalOT'ae cf Je^vellery, p. 350, no. 
2196, pi. XLIII 

Cuxvins ncllov7 tube of gold, texr.iinatins in the head 
of a v.'ouan with nef^roid features, nodellod in the gold. 
Hex nose is straight, but her hair is indicated as woolly 
by tiny raised dots close together. The syos ai'S large and 
lai' apax't, and tne lips axe thick. Etruscan cr Italian 
work cf tne sixth or fifth century B.C. Diarrieter 0.017 a. 
Weight 47 gxna. 

2 67, Lo-idcn - British I.Iuseum 

Marshall, Catalog-ae of Je\Tellexy, p. 250, no. 2197 
pi. XLIII 

Mate to the foregoing, '.7ith minor differences of de- 
tail found in the saiie tomb. 

^..-37S . Paris - Louvre - ncs. 8 

Fonte/.ay, Bijoux Anciens et Mod:x.wi^, ..106 
Mai'tha, L"Ai-t Etxusqae, p. 570, no. 382 
Hadaczek, Ohrschmuck, p. 76, no. 3. 

Eax'-rings of similar style, circulsj:, and terminating 
in the nead oi' an Ethiopian, cax'ved from a:.iber, and held in 
place by a v;ig of corded gold. 


37 4 P.o.v.e - Vatican - Miiseo Grejoriaiio 

Huseo Ftxusco Vatic ano, I, pi. 74 
Hads-Czek, Olirschmuck, p. 76, n.3 

Circulax- eai'-ring of gold terrninating in the head of 
an Ethiopian. 

375. Ai'netn, Ant. Geld u. Silbermon. , p. IV, G136 
Hadaczek, Oiirscnmuck, p. 76, n.3 

Ear-ring similoj;- to the foregoing. 

2, "5 -377 . Vol terra Muss^jin - 

Hadaczek, Ohrscniunck, p. 76, n.3 

Two circular gold ear-rings each terminating in the 
head of an, Ethiopian, held in place by a collar of gold v;ire 
and a wig of gold filigree r/ork. The heal is c.:.vsd from 
Siiber. Etruscan v;ork. 

The Ethiopian head as a penda-iu o:i a .leckxaCo, already 
met with in the small objects irciniJaucr atis ziid Cyprus, 
recurs again in the Hellenistic era en jov/elry found in 
Italy ci2:dScuth ""ussia. The prophylactic function of the 
Ethiopian seems to have been felt very strongly in this lat- 
ter part of the Greek ";orld, as evidenced by the nuiriber of 
finds from this period. 


2.7S-2S0. London - British ilussui;! - found near Llonteleone, 

Fxancica, Oggetti d'Aite Greca, pi. Ill 
i/lsa'shoj-l, Catalogue of Jev;sllory, p. 341, nos. 
2114-6, pi. XLI 

Three feaale heads ox hollo;v gold, the thick lips 
shewing E-chicpia:; olocd. They have cellars ornaj:.snted \7ith 
gold filigree rcrk, and ear-rings in the fori- of great 
loops of gold Tv'ire, which stand out at right a::.gles to the 
head. While Marshall considers that thsy ar-e either pin- 
he^.ds or pendants, it seeias more likely that they are the 
latter, and that they v;ere iield in place in tne necklace oy 
means of these loops. Unless the ear-rings had scrae such 
function, it haidly seems likely that they would be of such 
an exaggerated size. Fork of the third century B.C. Height 
0.02 m. 

28 1. London - British Lluseui.. - from llonteleone, Italy 
Fxancica, Oggetti d'Arte Greca, pi. Ill 
Marshall, Catalogue of Jerelleiy, ,:. 341, no. 2117, 
pi. XLI 

Pendant of hollow geld, v/ith two heads in Janifcrn 
lashion, ijc-th Ethiopians. On either side is an ear-ring 


cox-aaon tc both, and at the top is a v;ire loop by uhich it 
was suspended. The noses axe short and broad, and the lips 
thick. Work of the third cent-ary B.C. Height 0.026 m. 

2SQ . Odss-a Liuseioin 

Texraoctten des Odessaer IluseiiiuS, II, pi. XVIII, 2. 
Stern, Jh. Oesteir. Arch., VII, 1904, p. 201 

Pxagir.ent of a terra-cotta pendant in the foxu of an 
Ethiopian's head, 

383-505. Petrograd - Hermitage 

Stephani, Ccnpte Fendu, 1866, :;. 74 
Eeinach, Antiqi:.ites du Ecsphore Cimnerien, 
2nd Ed., p. 83, pi. 33, no. 6 

Small Ethiopian masks, of gold, which served as pen- 
dants on a necklace. Found in graves in South Russia. 

3^3 5-30 "?. Petrcgrad - Henuitage 

Stephani, Compte Rendu, 1866, p. 74 
Eeinach, Antiquites du Ecsphore Cir.nrierien, 
3nd Ed. , p. 35, n.l 

Three Ethiopian's heeds of dc?a:k olue glass, ajid one 
of paste, which probebly served as pendants on a necklace. 

To this series of jevfelry belonjs also an exai.iple fxoui 


South Pussia of an Ethioviai-i head as the head of a ^.in: 

:5jDa Peticgrad - Hermitage 

Stepharii, Compte Pendu, 18-."'S, ._ . 74 
Duruy, Histcire des Gxecs, vol. II, -^. 1?0 
Peinaoh, Antiquites du "osphcre Ciuiiaerien, 
'^nd. Ed., p. 54, pi. 13 a, 14 

Gold pin decorated with a negro head carved from sax-- 
donyx. ■ 

The Ethiopiaii head on gems seems to have passed out 
of fashion, though a garnet ctiXYod with the design of an 
Ethiopian mask in front view may oelcng in t.:is period, 
since garnet heads appe;?r- on the necklaces and negro masks 
serve as pendants. 

309 London - British Museum - Castellarii Collection 
Smith, Wr.^raved Gems, p. 188, no. 1767 

Garnet with ti:c design of a ^egro mask in front view. 

.,olQ Caubridge - Coll. of C.T. Ssitman 

Seltman, A. J. A. 24, 1920 pp. 18-26 
An intex jsting exaiirle of Greek work from Alexandria, 
Which Seltman believes to be connected with the ruling fam- 


ily of Meroe and i.erhaijs pcxtrays then:, is aii agate caivad 
tc xepieserit tlirse ccn^oined he^-ds. Part of xhe stcne is 
black and has oeeii cax-vsd v.'ith the fsatuxos of an Eth- 
iopian v.'anan. The artist has shewn groat s-;ill in adapt- 
ing a white band in the stcno so that it appears to "oe the 
edge of her veil. The other tvo heads in lighter stcne ax© 
a beai'ded rr:an a^id a ycuth with Ethiopian iea.tures. Soltnan 
suggests that this is either "che handle ci the lid ci a cas- 
ket or the head cf a small sceptre, since a sr^all vertical 
shaft has been drilled in the center of the stcne. 

The ccnception and the style ai-e nnique in the history 
cf the TTthiopian type in art, but if this tr^icophalic agate 
is genuine, it luight serve to establish the authenticity of 
the follov/ing gem in the British Musemi now listed as dcubt- 
ful, since the subject is evidently the sarier 

-511 London - British Lluseuti - Gastellani Collection 
S-iith, - Engraved Gems, p. 101, no. 16o3 

Agate cut in can:eo v;ith the head oi a veiled negress 

in full frcnt. 

The device cf using the olacl: part of the stone evident- 
ly anticipates the process described by King ( A:":tique Gens 

and Pings, Vol. I, p. 32S) in connection v/ith Feaaissance 


carjeos datin;^ a li-utle later thaii 150D A.D. He stated that 
this ags \7as "e-trGinely frijitful in heads of negroes aiid also 
cf negresses, tha latter often in the character of Cleopatra 
Holding to her breast the asp. There is reason to oelieve 
that souie cf the latter are inte:;led to ccuuieiuor axe tha re- 
nowned black ccncubine of Clement VII, the mother of Alessan- 

dxa del lledici Aiicther reason, besides the celebrity 

of the sable ceauty, that prompted the Florentine scnccl to 
produce s-ach swar-i..s of :.iiniatnre Ethiopians, Y;as their dis- 
covery cf the secret of staining Diack one of tne layers of 
the comiacn agate-onyx and obtaining ohus the contrast, so 
great a desideratum in tnis style". 

It is frora zhe Hellenistic figurines that ::q caii draw 
our most vivid picture of slave life in the Greek world. 
These shov; tne every-day occupations of oha Ethiopian 
with a realism which the most accurate literary account 
could not match. The lixtle slave boys, a vogiie v.-ith the 
rich, run about waiting on their masters, carrying dishes 
and amphoras, filling vases for the banquet from '.7i;:e skins 
(above, ncs.2lQ,33c>,349,35i3,255) . If entertainment is 
required as -veil as butler service, they sing songs which, 
to judge from the plaintive expression of cheir i'aces, 
were cne ancestors oi ohe presenc-day legro spirituals, 
and perhaps accompany themselves on the trigonon (nos, 
239,258). If a more exciting offering is required, they 


lance a furious, barbaric dance, a triba:. dcjice of Africa, 
or perhaps a gentler measure more adapted to Greek restraint. 
(nos. 330,326,216,22.7). Perhaps they hold boxing matches 
(nos.206,207) or even give an acroliatic porformance vath 
a taias croco.Iile (•.-ic.244). And when their part of the en- 
ter tainiv.g is over, they Jxop cff co sleep in the usual 
hunched-up crouching attitude (nos. 215,21.7, 223, 235,249, 356) . 

They still accompa:"iy their masters to the palaestra 
(no. 243) and sometimes go on c. hunting expedition with 
him to caj-'ry his equipment (no. 311). Perhars they gain a 
meagre living oy hawking fruit on the streets of Alexan- 
dria with a pet monkey to attract trade (no.31Sj, azicl their 
acrobatic stunts may have Ijeen street performances. Per- 
haps they entertained travellers ':y diving for coins, a 
common sight in modern hai'boxs ( ..o.33<i:) . 

An entirely now idea is suggested oy the figiari^:e of 
an Ethiopian seated en a rock, '.vriting on a scroll (no. SOS). 
It is the only hint in art that any of these Hthiopians 
were ever educated. The ;..nn can evidently vjxlze, \7as he 
so-.e special slave, sufficiently valued ■'.y his ov/ner so 
thiit it y/as considered worth '.vhile to train hfe intellagence? 

Ix is in these ri';';urinss also that v/e first t'ind in 
Greek art any sen^e of the pathos cf tim Ethiopian's lot, 
though compassion for the liie oi a slave is lound in the 
trageniss of a century earlier. Heretofore the only emo- 
tional element present has oeon that of humcr and carica- 


tuxe; but ai-ion:; tliese teixa-co etas a."-cl bronzes are a few 
v.'hich seen to sliov/ a consciousness cf another mood than 
ths purely humorous. The :octists regarded for an instant, 
not the strangeness Thich raals the Ethiopian an object of 
curiosity and entertainment to them, but the stran.-'^eness 
an:l pathos of an exile from his o-n land (ncs. 303,305, 
299,249,238,353). This Gentir-ientcaity is very fleeting 
and is novv'hers met in the later and more :..atter-cf-iact 
■Roman ax't. 

The distinction between a naturalistic portrait of 
a genuine South African and a caricature is hard to mal:e 
v/ithout having seen the original. This is -:o doubt the rea- 
son that in many museum catalogues heads anl statuettes of 
Ethiopians are often v/rongly called grotesquss. iJ'rom this 
the impression seems to have grov.-n that the greater num- 
ber of all ancient negro representations axe z'-^oteBqaee, 
and their popul^-rity explained from this standpoint. In 
reality v.e find among these figurines of Ethiopians very 
few of the distorted odies and hideous faces v/hich malce 
the Alezanxian grotesques so distasteful, nearly all of 
them being simply cas3s of extreme naturalism. The fev; 
actual grotesqaes, and some cf the realistic portraits, 
may perhaps be 'Accounted for by the theory -hich Hiss 
■Richter advances, namely, that the grotesques represented 
stock char-actexs in the mimes -.rhich hai such an enormous 
popularity throughout the Hollonistic and Poman eras. 


ccii about tne nature of v;hicli vie havs such scc^nty kno\/- 
Isdce (A.J.A. ,XViI,1913,;p.l49-i:36) . 

Euripides wrote a sat:-v play en the Busiris 3tory in 
r:hich he probably brought l^lthicpia^is upon the sta-e (llauck, 
Trag. Graec. Fr agi-snt a, i;p. 453-453, frags. 313-315) and tha 
myth was subseauently played upc^i by coiaedy v.-ritsrs. Prom 
the evidence of the vas5s, \7hich probably reproduce comedy 
scenes ar.d -uhich frequently introduce bl.hiopiaj'js, it is 
raasona^le to suppose that the type becai-ie a fa^aliax one 
on the stage. It v/ould be entirely natui-al that a race 
familiar in comedy and traatod in caricature in art should 
develop a stock character in the mine, perhars the Aithiops . 
This -'culd -ccount for the laasks of Ethiopians used as pen- 
dan, s on necklaces, and particularly fcr the life-sized 
mask cf terra-cotta which \7as evidently intended to be 
worn in some play, procession cr ritual, since eyes, nose 
and mouth are pierced th^^ovgh, and there aic holes above 
the sa^s for the cord \-hiGh held it in place. If the 
Aithiojps . vras actually a ■^tock ..uffcon in the mimes, the 
number cf figurines which -:hcw him crouching down on the 
ground and peacefully sleeping may mean that this charac- 
teristic inactivity was the lau3h-pioduciu2 role by v/hich 
he entertained Hellenistic audiences. 




HcT/evei gxeat tlie vaxiations oetveeii the objects 
which display the Ethiopian type in the different pexiods 
of Greek art, all had one feature in coininon. Whether they 
v:ere jewelry for the adcrnEient of the person, or statuettes 
to orncir.ent the house, the motif may te said to occiir alniost 
entirely on objects intended solely for decoration. The 
only exceptions to this classification are the vases which 
did serve an ctjective purpose though they are at the sano 
time highly decor r.tive. 

The Poiiian usage, on the othor hand, is as generally 
utilitarian as the Greek is decorative, and the type is prin- 
cipally found on objects which have a definite useful func- 
tion in audition to their attractive appearance. An artis- 
tic usage so max-kedly differant in two naticnalities pro- 
supposes not only a diffsrent artistic spirit but a differ- 
ence of attitude toward the race portrayed. 

The paucity of references to actual (not mytiiical) 
fthiopiaiis in Greek literature and the spirit in vriiich they 
ai-e snown in Attic art make it safe to believe that in Greoce 
proper, negroes in the flesh were comparatively rai-e, until 


the Aloxaaidxian pericd at least, and that the i:.:pressicn 
they made was due to their rai'ity a:id unusual appearance. 
In the irisllenistic era their popularity is due to the oppor- 
tunities which trieix physiognony g^ve for the expression 
of the extreme naturalism of the day, and does not necesseir- 
ily shov; that great nunbers of thei:i v;6re at l;?xga in the 
Grseh world. The evidence of Theophrastus would indicate 
the contrary. The first Ethio;.:ians filtered into the Greek 
vrcrld by way cf tne Greok colonies in Alrica or xiexe brou.ght 
there by the Persian invasion, and \ve have no evidence tnat 
the Greeks in^ported any black slaves military aggres- 

The Romans, on tne otner hand built up imporTiixn'u col- 
onies in Africa. The period cf their establishment involved 
many military canpaigns, and they v;e..e subsequently held by 
military ri;le. There can be no doubt that African tribes 
furnished the Rci-iaiis v/ith vast numbers of slaves and that 
the dark races v;ere a vastly mere coimaon sight at Rome than 
at Ithens. 

The Romans would naturally be fax- more i'aiv.iliax with 
the lie ox or Berber type of tne MeJiiteiXX^ea.. coioiiies than 
v/itn tne South African. A more extensive knowledge of the 
latter races doubtless ca::.e vrhen Rome took over the control 


of Egypt, ^"Jier6 the type nad been establisnsd for centuries. 

Ponian liter .iture gives scarcely ucre help thain Greek 
in tc our knov/ledge of the Ethici.ians' statuis, but 
a study of the .:"e\7 references throws soiiie light on the no- 
menclature eiuployed to designate the dark-skinned races. 

Iliger from v/hich come the v/ords used in many of the 
modern languages to designate the blacl's, seems not to have 
been used substantiyely for this puri'.cse in antiquity. . The 
one passage -.vhere it uight possibly be interpreted as refer- 
ring to black blood is in Vergils seccni eclogue, lines 16-18: 

"qusmvis ille niger, nuamvis tu candidus esses. 
formose puer, niiiiium ne crede color i. 

Alba ligustra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur". 

Conington (p. 34) considers that the passage simply 
means a swarthy complexion. The saue moaning probably at- 
taches to fusGus as ussi by Ovid to describe An:lromaia 
(Heroides XV, 36). Sy Tioullus it is used to designate the 
dark races cf the East (11,3,55 - "Illi sunt comites fusci 
quos Inaia torret). For the people of India is used also 
the word decolor (Propertius IV, 3,1; Ovid, Lletamorphoses, 
IV, 31; Tristia,V,3,24) , Juvenal uses it once to describe 
a half breed and makes it synonomous with Aethiops, another 
proof of the very general use of the latter term (VI, 300). 

The more definite Haurus is not often used wi-i;h refar- 
enoe oo ^^lack slaves at Roi-e. Llaxtial vrites contemptuous- 
ly of the curly hair of one (VI, 39 - re tor to crine) , a:id 


Juvsncd of thQ bony hand of a olack Lloor (V,55 - nigxl i.ia- 
nus ossea Llauii ) . 

Ko substitute has than oaen found xcr Aethiops , v/hich 
seeLiS to retain in Latin the sai..e significance as in Gxeek 
as a generic term which includas any memlDer of a tolack- 
skinned race. Sor;ie inferences regaxdiug tha attitude to- 
ward thdsa slaves can 'oe drav/n from ths referencos in lit- 
erature to Ethiopisuis. 

A certain vcg^ae for thea as attendants, during the 
later repuolic, T:erhaps in imitation of the Greek custom, ^ 
is implied in the Eunuchus of Terence, 11. 165-1S7: 
"llonne ubi mi dixti cupere ta ex Aothiopia 
ancillula^i, relictis rebus omnibus, quaesivi?" 
The saiie is to be inferred rrom TioullMS 11,3,55, vrhere 
Kirby Flower Smith gives ohe following note in his edition: 
"Colored attendants were a luxury specially affected by 
women liks KeL^esis largely because, as in Engla:id and Franc 
during the seventeenth aad eighteenth csntuiios, they sug- 
gested the fortune and position of foreign potentates, 
nabobs etc.". It is the foregoing Latin passages which 
Melville-¥hite, author of "The Gladiators", probably had 
in mind v/hon he describes the la:;y Valeria as attended by 
a negro bey v.'ho hel i her mirror for her(opening of Chapter 

On the other hand the vogue seeus to have waned as 
the AfricaiiG ocjcaiiie more common, and later authors of the 


empire refer to then; in a scornful tone. One of the :ost 
proofs tho.t Ethiopi-rx slaves were r;o longer rar'O and ex- 
pensive is that the Ethiopi^ji ^;70iaan so realistically de- 
scribed, in the Moretuni is not a handuaid of a rich Poiiian 
lady but the drudge of the impoverished faxmar Sinylus 
(Appendix Vergiliana, 11. 51-55, ed.Vollmer) : 

"erat unica custos 

Afra genus, tot a patxiam test ante figura 
tcrta comaui, labroque tUi:.8ris st fusca colore 
psctore lata, iacans inammis, compressior alvo, 
cruribus exilis, spatiosa prodiga planta. " 

Juvenal shov.'s clearly the decline in favor v.'hich 
the Ethiopians have undergone v;hen ho relates how they axe 
nelegated to serve the pcor guests, ^hile a more choice 
Asiatic slave v/aits on the patron and host (V, 53) 

It is txue that "Aethicpes capiilati" carry -vino be- 
tween trc of the countless coi^xses cf Triualchio's feast 
(Petrcnius -14, 3d. Buechelar) . Tri._alchio ' s uain object 
was to show off the extent 3jid variety of his retinue, but 
perhaps Petronius is giving an additional instance of the 
bad taste cf a provincial who brings Exhiopians into his 
dining-room v.'hsn they had gone out ox favor as table at- 
tendants :.t P-O-.e. 

Certainly ilartial has only scorn for them in such 
passages o.s VI, 36 a.-d VI 1, 3 7 ( 3d. Lin .Is ay) , cmd Juvenal 
crystallizes the racial feeling in the phra a "derideat 


Aethiopism altous*' (11,33 - ed. Jabn) . 

The immoral relations with thsm iuipliei in Llartial 
VI, o9 ar.l Juvsnal VI, 599-300 doubtless had sous basis in 
fact, though they axe probably the eza,2:^eration cf isolated 
incidents into aii accu3e.tion against tho timss after the 
ixianner of satirists. 

iiever":heless the evidence of litoratura v-'ould not 
lead one to anticipate any idealizing of the type in 
Rouiari ax't, ana a stuay of the objects sho-.vs a ccmplete 
disillusionment in regard to the Kthiopians. Hixcessive 
propinquity has vanished the last traces cf raylhical 



Tne US9 most couimonly made cf the lilthiopi3.n heal at 
Poms was its adaptation to small lamps, ooth of broiiT.e 
and terra-cotta. In thase the h-^ad rests in a horizontal 
posiuion, and the hole for the wick is either the open 
nouth of the Ethiopian or a nozzle projecting from his 
mouth. The follov/ing is a list of such lamps: 


312. London - British LIuseum - Towneley Ooll. 

Walters, Catalogue cf Lamps, p. 4, no. 17 
Lanp in the form of an Ethiopian's head, face up. 
The hair is indicated as thick and closely curling by 
means of incised rings in the metal with a lot in the 
center of each. A nozzle with a trefoil terruination 
projects from the Ethiopi:Ji's open mouth. Ht, 4 7/3 in. 

313. London - British Llusatim - Pay:is -Knight Coll. 

Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes, p. 328, no. 3531 
" * " Lamps, p. 4, no. 18 

La'-p in the form of the head of an Ethiopian, face up. 
He has chick woolly hair, a plait of "hich forms the haj:idle, 
and which is modelled even on the cover oi the filling- 
hole e.t the top of the head. He holds the long nozzle in 
his open mouth. Length 3 7/8 in. 


314. Paris - Bioliotheque llationale - Gaylus Coll. 
Caylus, PecuGil, vol. V, p. 353, pi. XC, no. 3 
Babslon-Blansh-st, Gatalogus las BrouzGs,p.444, 
no. 1030 
Latip in the form of an Ethiopian's head, -ace up, the 
hair quilled in rows. The face is unpleasantly elongated. 
A curved piece projects from the raout.- to form the spout, 
and the hole for fillinj is in the hair above the iorehead. 
The cover, on v,'hich the hair was probably modelled also, 
is missing. The eyes are wids open. Length 0.105 m, 

515. Paris - Biblioth~eq'j.9 Nationcae - Coll. iQ Luynos 

Gazette ArGheolotiique,V,1879,p.209 (illustrated in 

life size). 
Babelon, Le Cabinet des Antiques, pp. 153 aiid 173 
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronz5es,p.444,no.l019 
Lamp in the form of an Ethiopian's hsad, face up, with 
hair in lon^ curls standing out irregularly from his head. 
All the features are exaggerated - the ■;7ide open eyes, high 
cheek bones, short, flat nose a."! huge, gaping mouth. The 
forehead is long ani retreating, the cover for the tiliing- 
hole forming the upper pai't cf the forehead. This lamp is 
one of the most realistic of the series, and the oeot from 
an ax fistic point of view. 


516. Holbig,"" Bulle-cino,1874,p.84 

BxonzG lainp in the foir^ cf an E'Dhiopi n' 3 he:.d. 


517. Lcndcn - British Museum - frcn Haucratis 

Walteis, Gatalogus of Lajaps,p. 60,no.411 
La^iip in the form of an Ethiopian's he id, vath the fil- 
ling hole in the forehead. The nozzle is missing. The 
haix is thick and curly, the sye-brov.'s are raised and 
the teeth indicated. Work of the Fouan Period. Length 
2-^ in. 

318. London - British I-Iuseuu - from Armento 

Walters, Catalogue of Laiups, p. 60, no. 412 
Lamp in the form of an Ethiopian's head, face up. 
The mouth of the Ethiopian- forms the wick-hole, and the 
lower lip and chin are modelled below it. The eyes axe 
half closed and the cheek-bones prominent. The lainp is 
glazed black. Height 2^-' in. 

319. London - British Museum - Hamilton Collection 

Walters, Catalogue of Lamps, p. 60, no. 414 
Lamp, glazed dark brown, the top in the form of an 
Ethiopian's head with grotesque features. The mouth is 
grinning v/idely, exposing the teeth, and the hair is close- 
ly curled. Length 5f in, 

320. London - British litis eum - from Alexandi-ia 

Walters, Catalogue of Lamps, p. 60, no. 415 


Unglazed clay lamp in the form of an Ethiopian's head, 
with the spout below his cnin. His hair is in three rows 
of thick curls, his eyes are wide open and his nose is 
short and broad. Underneath the base is inscribed SX^. 
Length 3 3/8 in. 

331. London - British Museum - from Egypt 

Walters, Catalogue of Lamps, p. 60, no. 416, pi. XI. 
Lamp with black glaze, in the shape of an Ethiopian's 
head, the nozzle projecting from the wide open mouth. 
The curly hair is indicated by rings raised in the clay, 
set close together. The eyes ai-e wide open, the nose 
broad and flat. The upper row of teeth is indicated. 
Height 4 | in, 

522, London - British Museum - Towneley Coll. 

Walters, Catalogue of Lamps, p. 148, no. 984 
Lamp with plain handle and nozzle, the circular space 
bet'-veen them containing the design of the head of a boy 
or an Ethiopian. The lamp has a dull red glaze. Poman 
work of the second century A.D. Length 4. in., diam.3 3/4 

523. New Haven - Yale University - Stoddard Coll. 

Baur, Preliminaiy Catalogue, p. 52, no. 657 
Lamp in the form of an Ethiopian's head, the open 
mouth forming the nozzle. The clay is light brov;n, 


with a rod glaze. Ths hair is indicated by raised xings 
in the clay. 

324. New Haven - Yale University - Stoddard Coll. 

Baux, Preliminary Catalogue, p. 53, no. 663 
Praguent of a lamp from tarentum, showing the head 
of an Ethiopian in relief. Ths clay is light brown. 
The lips are thick, the nose short and the hair indica- 
ted by raised dots. 

325. Toronto - Poyal Ontor-io Museum of Archaeology 

Inv. no. G207 - Found at Fayun. 
Unpublished laiiip in ths form of an 1'lthiopian''s head. 
The nozzle is formed by his open mouth and his teeth 
are shown. The nose is flat and broad at the nostrils. 
He has high cheek-bones and a high forehead. 

326. Paris - Biblio-^eque Nationals 

Du Mersan, Histoire du Cabinet des Lledailles, 

p. 62, no. 137 
Bronze vasa in ths form of a crouching Ethiopian, 
asleep, his head betv;een his knees and his fists 
pressed against either cheek. His nose is flat, his 
mouth is open, and his hair is arranged in symmetrical 
flat locks against his head. A circular opening at the 
top of ^is head seems to indicate that he served as a 
perfume vase. Ht. 0.08 m. 


337. Pai-is - Biolicteque I'ationale 

iiSaoelon-Blanchat, Gatalogua les Brcnzes, p. 442, 

no, 1014 
Bronze vase in the foxia of a sleeping Ethiopian, 
diaped in a mantle, seated upon some object v;hich he 
seems to guard. His head is wreathed in a g^'ls^'i* 
in grotesque contrast to his Squat nose, thick protrud- 
ing lips and last-clcsei eyes. He probably served as 
a perfui-ie vase. Ht. 0.114 m. 


338. Pat- is - Biblioteque Rationale - Collection de Janze 

Gazette Archeologique, 1884, p. 206 
Babelon, Le Cabinet des Antiques, pp. 51-3, 

pi. XVI 
Babelcn-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 443, 

no. 1018 
Bronze head of an Ethiopian in the form of a vase. 
Pai'ts of rings for a handle still remain in the hair. 
This is a striking portrait of a fine type of African, 
The hair is thick, and ai-ranged in long rows of curls 
about his head, and the beard also is rolled into sight 
separate curls which hang from his cheeks. The eyes 
are '.Tide open and alert in expression. The cheek-bones 
ai'e prominent, the nose short and broad, the mouth 1 
lai-ge and slightly open. Yet in spite of the faithful 
rendering of racisd detail, there is a certain pov/er in 
the expression of the face. Ht. 0.158 m. 


529. Paris - Bi.liotheque Nationals - Coll. do Janze' 
Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 443, 
no. 1015 
Bronze vase, pxobably a roceptacls for perfume, in the 
foxi:i of the bust of an Ethiopian slave. His head is turned 
to the right, and his eyes cxe closed as if in sleep. His 
hair is in' xormal curls. Ht. 0.057 m, 

330. Odessa Museum - from Akkerman (ancient Tyras) 

E. von Stern, Jh.Oest. Arch. Inst. , VII, 1904, pp. 197-203 

Seltman, A. J. A. , XXIV, 1920, p. 14 
Bionze vase in the forni of a bust of a youn.5 girl. 
An elaborate handle passes through tv:o rings at the top 
of her head. She is called a negress ':y von Stern, but 
Seltaan "'ould seem -co be correct in failing to see any 
negro characteristics in the physiognomy beyond a sug- 
gestion of thickness in the lips. The coiffure in three 
tiers of soft curls is an exi^mple of the elaborate hair- 
dressing of the Poman empire, rather than the woolly hair 
01 a negress. 

Not unlike the figurines in the lorm of vases are 
two ink-wells of uronze: 

331. Paris - Bi:liotheque Rationale - Coll. de J^nzo 

Baoelon-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 441, 
no . 1013 


A receptacle in the form of an Ethiopian slave, crouch- 
ing on a cone shaped eminence, with an ovol opening 'oe- 
ti"een his feet which indicates tha": ho servel as an atra- 
mentarixim . Both his kness axe di-avm up in front of him; 
his face rests on the palm of his left hand, with his el"bov 
supported on his left knee, v;hilD his right hand rests on 
his right knee. Some drapery, tied about his waist, falls 
dovm in back of him. His hair i3 in rows cf long curls, 
and his features ai-e coai'se. The eyes are staring in ex- 
pression and tne moutn is half open. H-c. 0.088 m. 

o32. Paris - Bi.lictheque ll-itionale - Caylus Coll. 

Babelon-Blanchet, Catalog^Jio des Bronzes, p. 441, 

no. 1013 
Caylus, Pecueil, vol. III,p.213,pl.LIV,4 

Creu2er-a-uigni:-.ut, Peligions de 1' Anti-uite', 
Receptacle in the form cf 3Xi Ethiopian slave crouching 
on an eminr-nce, with both knoes drawn up and chin renting 
between them. He :^lasi.s with both hands a goat-skin sack, 
which he supports on his back. His hair is in regulcj: 
rows of curls, his eyes staring, his nose flat and his 
moutii partly open. At the left cf his feet is the re- 
pository for ink, a ".mall vase with a conical cover. 
Ht. 0.0S9 m. 


Even mere utilitarian than lainpsj, porf\ir.v3 vases and 
ink-v'Slls are the small bron-^e busts of Ethiopians '.vhich 
were use.i as "'eights on steel-yja-ds: 

333. Fouquet Coll. - iiom Tell-llo qdan (Lsontopolis) , 
Perdxizet, Coll. Fouquet,p. 57,no.94,pl.XXY 
Bust of an Ethiopian boy, his head coified vrith a 
four-pet ailed flo^ver upside down, through the stem cf 
which is pierced the hole for suspen=>ion. Hi-- hair is 
in short curls sa-ran^sl in rows; his i'orehead is concave 
above the temples; his oyes vrsre originally inset with 
sor:ie substance -.vhich has fallen away, probably silver; 
his nose is short; hie- lips thick and slightly parted. 
Ht. 0.085 m. 

354. Leipzig - Staeitische LIuseun - Theodor Graf Collec- 
Schreiber, Ai.-ch. Anz. , Y, 1690, p. 157, no. 7 
Bust of a negro with a round face, his hair falling 
about his head in long spiral curls. His forenead is 
ccnoave eril heavily v;rinkled; his eyes are inset with s 
silver; his nose is short and broad; and his thick li^.s 
ai'S pai'tsd to show the upper row of teeth. On either 
side, at the top of his head, is a ring through v:hich 
passed the handle by which he was suspended. Ht. 0.145 m. 


?55. London - British I.Iuseun - Hextz Ooll. 

Arch. Zeit. 1843, p. 303 

Hertz Coll. Sale Catalogue, 1853, no. 587 

Sraith, Guiae Illustrating Greok and "Rouan Life, 
p. 134, fig. 133 

Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes, p. 369, no. 1676, 
fig. 27 

Peinach., Repertoire de Statuaire 111, p. 158, no. 3 
Bronze figurine of an Ethiopian slave cleaning a 
boot ( calceus) , crouching down and supporting himself 
on his right knee. He holds the boot in his left hand 
and applies the sponge to it with his right. His -.vool- 
ly hair, indicated by rows of raised dots, is bound with 
a fillet. From the top of his head rises a cylindrical 
eiainence pierced through with a hols. This was probably 
for a ring by means of v;hich ths figure could be suspen- 
ded. Ht. 4 in. 

336. London - British Museuu - C::'.stellani Collection 
Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes, p. 369, no. 1677 
Bust of an Ethiopian, with a suspension ring at the 
back of his nsck. He wears a conical cap, and his eyes 
are inset with gai-nets. Ht. 6 in. 

537. Par'is - BibliolfBque Rationale - Caylus Collection 
Caylus, Pecueil, vol. IV, p. 313, pi. XCVll, 

nos. 3 aiid 4 


Babelon-Blancliet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 445, 

no. 1035 
Bust of an Ethiopian set in a thxeo-petalled flcv.'ox 
which covars par"ti of his chest. The haix is in three 
rows of flat curls, but the features are not negroid. 
Babelon and Elaixchet consider the 'oust a nagrc, but Cay- 
lus Uclies no uenticn of the possibility of negro blood 
and thinks it represents a vroiuan. The ring for suspen- 
sion is at the top of the head. Ht. 0.1 iii. 

538. Zurich - Sacmaung der Universitaet 

Eluemnar, Fuehrer, p. 119, no. 2073 
Head of an Ethiopian, used as a weight, from lot/er 

There is a group of four small bronze busts of 
Ethiopiaiis, the purpose of Y/hich is obscure. They re- 
present the upper part of divers, vrith ai'i-s outstretched 
in front and with a flat metal extension at their backs. 
If they T.ere uniforii in weight, their flat bases uight 
mean that they were balance weights. From their general 
shape they might have been handles on the lid of some 
bronze receptacle: 

339. lena - Schctt Ccllecticn 

Coll. Schott a lena, A 1475 


Peinao^i, Pepextoire de Statuaire, 111, p. 158, 

no. 6 
Head, and arms of an Ethiopian., of ''croxiss, v/ith thick 
lips and hair in spiral curls. Ee holds scnie object 
(probably a shell-fish) between his outstretched hands. 
There is a short metal extension at his back. The po- 
sition of his head, T.'hich is thrust back as if being 
held out of 7/ater, and the object in his hands, show 
that he is a diver. 

54C. London - British Lluseum - Payne-Knight Collection 
Walters, Catalogue of Bronzes, p. 269, no. 1674 
Upper part of a diver with woolly hair and Fthiopion 
features. His arias are extended in front of him and he 
holds betv/een his hands a shell-fish which he has just 
brought up. At his back is a flat Lietal extension. 
Length b ^ in, 

341. London - British Museum 

Walters, Catalogue of Eronzies, p. 26S, no. 1675 
Bronze bust of an Ethiopian diver sin.ilai' to the fore- 
going, but without the metal extension. The hair is nore 
syauiietrically ax'xanged. Length, 4 3/4 in., ht. 1 3/4 in, 

342, Biclictfique HationcJe 

BaDelon-Blanchet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 445, 

no. 1017 


Bxoiizs burst cf aii Ethiopian diver, similar to the 
foregoing. He has the long metal e-cten'sion at his back. 
Ht. 0.042 m. : length C.091 m. 

The Biblioteque Kationale has t'.'^o bronze nails 
v/hich teiuinate in the head of an Ethiopian: 


343. Pea-is - Bibliot^eque Ilationale 

Babelon-Bl?nch3t, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 445, 
no. 1033 
Bronze nail with the head of an Rthicpian in seui- 
round lelief style, at the top. Foiaan work. Ht. 0.035 m. 


344. pLU'is - Biblictenue Kationale 

A ''■ 

Babelon-Blenchet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 445, 
no. 1034 
Bronze nail with head sii-iilar to the foregoing. 

Ht. 0.035 lii. 

There is a single instance of a teri-inal 
with an Fthiopisn's head, which probably inar-ked the 
bcundar-y of soiue Fonian gentleman's property: 

345. Fcrtnu:^ Collection - Stenmcre Hall, Lliddlesex 
Llichaelis, Ancient l-Iarbles in Great Britain, 
p. 661, no. 18 


Schiisiaer, Jo. Kunst. SanH"!., Ill, 18G5, p. 7, u. 6 

This completes the list of adaptations of the L.ctif 
to xitili taxi ail objects. LIcot of then: axe c 00.^0 ripl ace, 
aiid only a fev; axe of value fxcia the ai-tist's standpoint, 
iloxe caie has been expended in the rroxkiLanship of two 
bi-onze pendants, v;hich seem to be the sole survivals of 
the Greik aiid EtrusCcJi use of the type on jev/elxy, since 
a gold liask of the Poinan period frcm Egypt is too laxge 
to be an orna-ient, 

346. Par-is - Bibliotewue Rationale 

Babelon-Blanchet, Catalogue les Bronzes, p. 445 
no. 1031 
Bronze penda:it in the icru of the head of an Ethio- 
pian boy. His hair is in three rov;s of spiral curls, 
radiating froa the top of his head, where the ring for 
suspension is fastened. His eyes ar-e v/ide open, his 
nose snub, and his lips thick. On his neck is a collai- 
ornauiented with a bulla . Kt. 0.OS2 u. 


347. Par' is - Biblioteque Rationale 

Babelon-Blcaichet, Catalogue des Brcnzes, p. 445, 

no. 1033 

Circulca bronze pendaiit, the border encrusted with 

silver. The center has an ornavientation, applied on it, 

the head of an Ethiopia:i modelled in bronze, in high re- 


lief. His h-^ir is in spiral curls, his nose is snub 
arxd. his lips core thick. The hcle icx suspension is in 
tho border above tho head. Biajii. 0.04 m. 

348. Lcndon - British Museiim 

Llai'shall, Catalogue of Js:7ellery, p. 369, no. 3094 
Gold iiiask of a negro, his hair indicated by raised 
dots. Ylcx'k. of the Fou-an period, fxora eiccavations at 
Benghazi and Teuchixa. Kt. 0.14 n. 

/jnong the purely decorative bronzes are tv:o busts 
published by Eienkov.'ski, in which a v/onan of lioorish 
type is used as a personification of Africa; coins of 

Kavxetania and lluniidia display a ai- type. 

349. Algiers - in a private collection - fxou i>errou- 

Pev. Arch. 1821, pp. 380-384 

BierJccv.-ski, Coxpcxis B^a'bar-onaiii PxoJ_l'OUUs, p. 84 
Bronze bust siiuilar to the foregoing but of poorer 

350. Const antine liuseum - frou Thibilis (Announa) 

Doublet-G-aukler, llusee f.e CG-sta::tii;, pi. IX 
Bienkov/ski, op. cit., p. 24 
Bronze bust of a '.vouan personifying Africa, v/ith 
xound flat face, full cheeks and thick lips. Hex hair 


falls ill thr«ee x-ov;s of spiral cuxls. 

351-2 53. Goius of LI avx e t ani a and ll-uinidia 

L. Llueller, ,I.Ionnaies de I'aiicienne Afrique 111, 

p. 43, no. 58; 100, 15, 107, 1 
Bienkov.'ski, Corporis Barbaxorum Prodxoiaus, p. 94 
Gciiis '^.'ith the type of a female head personifj'-ing 
Africa, her hair in long spiral c-urls. 

There reiiiain to "bs descrioed only a few decorative 
bronzes and marbles. Liost of these ax-e of as fine vfork- 
nanshif) as any portxcdts of Exhiopisns v;hich (Greece pro- 
duced. They r.ay be the -.Tork of Greek ax-tisxs at Por^e. 
The last of them, a marble head in life size is from ev- 
ery standpoint the finest portrait in classical art of 
a man v;ith Ethiopian blood. 

553. llaples - National iluseum - found at Ostia 
Calza, J.P.S., V, 1915, pp. 164-172 
A. de Bidder, Eevue des Etudes Grecques, XXX, 

1917, p. 199 
Small bronze bust of an Ethiopian boy -.Tearing a tunic, 
a sleeved cloak (paenula) , and a hood ( cucullus) r:hich 
is dxavm over his shoulder and held by his left hand. 
The hair is a mass of short curls, the nose snub, the 
lips thick and parted. The work is excellent in the ren- 
dering of detail. It was found in the house of a baker 


adjoining his bakeshop. 

354. Pax'is - Bibliote'nue Ilaticnale 

Babelon-Blaiiohet, Catalogue des Bronzes, p. 442 
Small bronze bust of an Ti^thiopiaii boy, his hair in 
curls, his lips thick, protruding and partly open. A 
strap is slung over his shoulder sx\<X hangs do^vn his 
chest to the left, as if he were cafxying soiiie object 
suspended by it on that side. Ht. 0.045 lu, 

555. P.0U18 - Villa Albani - Galleria de Canopo 

Brunn-Arndt Bruckiiiann, folic 73, pis. 729 and 730 
Helbig, Fxiehrer, 3rd ed. , vol. 11, p. 456, no. 1926 


Life-sized liiarble bust assigned to the Flavian period 
from the cutting ox the hair, v/hich is ninilar' to that 
of fenale portraits of the period. 

The ^.an is callsl a barbarian with negro blood. Be- 
fore deciding as to his race, one must imagine away the 
restorations, v.'hich include: most of the nose; part of 
the eais; most of the bust and par-t of the panther skin 
which hangs over his shoulder. 

The ncse has been restored as long and pointed, and 
there is no clue as to its original outlines. When the 
ncse is covered over the effect of the face is ucre ne- 
groid. The hair is tightly curling all over the head, 
and the lips axe fairly thick although the mouth is not 

large. The panther skin would seem tc point to an Afri- 
can origin. 

356. Scusse - Tunis 

Llusee de Sousse, pi. 1^ 

Eeinach, Ro'pcrtcire da Statuaire, 111, p. 273, no. 5 
Black liiar-ble head ajid torso of an r^thiopian boy, -"ho 
holds a pigeon in his left hand. His hair is short and 
thickly curling, his nose snub and his lips thick. His 
head bends toward the bird in his hand. The right ai-a 
below the slbov; is L.issing, and the legs below the knee. 
The vrork is probably of the roi;.an period, since Susa 
was a Po.uan colony. 

357. Pculd Collection 

Ghaoouillet, Description des Antiquites de ILL. 
Fould, no. 875 

Schneider, Jb. Kunst. SaEunl. Ill, 1385, p. 7, n.6 
Head of an Ethiopian of serpentine laaxble. It is proba- 
bly, a. 7;crk of the Foruaji period, because of the use of 
colored ir.arble. 

358. Ealtinoro - Walters O-allery - froni Fome 

Llel. Ar-ch. Hist., 1888, pi. 13 

Eeinach, Pepertoire de reliefs, 11, p. 19S, no.l 
In the "Triumph of Dionysus", principal relief on a 
niai'ble saxccphagus from the burial ground of the Licinii 
Crassi en the Via Salaria, two children are shown riding 



each on the i)ack cf one of the two panthers v;ho draw 
the triuiixphal cax- cf the god. The child who rides the 
farther anin^al has cuxly hair, snub nose and thick lips 
and isAi pronounced Ethiopian type, though these are in- 
tended to be Iniiai'i children. 

359. Eorlin - Koonigliche Lluseen - from Thyreatis/ ^^ > 
Schr ader, Berlin. Winckelniannspr . ,LX,1900 ' 
Jb. der Koonigl.Preuss.KunstsajxiEil.XXI,1900,p,l • 
'^Hekler, Bildni8kunst,p.381'j 
--W-ao-eT— Bt-SvAttXTI^DS -4 , p . 1 7 ~ 
_3Kekule'' vcn Stradonitz, Griech.Skulptur,p.370 ') 
' Brunn-Arndt-Bruckruann, folio 69, pis. 639-690 \ 
^F.vcn Bissing, Ath.Mitth. ,XXXIV,1909,p.31 -^ 
VxjBull. ac Danenark,1913,pp.418 and 427 ^ 
-■Dickins, Hellenistic Sculpture,?. 38 ; 
/^raindor, E.C.H. , XXXIX, 1915,^102-^13 

Liie-sizod marble head of a dan v/ith unmistakable 
Ethiopian blood. His woolly hair, cut close to his head, 
is wonderfully rendered in the liarble. He is markedly 
dolichocephalic and his forehead is lov; and retreating. 
The eyes are large, prominent and set wide apart, and the 
pupils are indicated by small round hollows in the surface. 
The nose is broken off, but enough remains to show that it 
mu-t have been fairly short and broad at the nostrils. The 
lips ai:e thick, though the mouth is not lsj:ge. The hair 
cf the graving beard is skillfully in:licated on tiif^heeks, 
chin and upper lip. The ears are small and set lov; in the 


head ;^q1ow tiie line of the ayee. The uax'ole has taken on 
a patina vrhich creates the illusion of dai'k skin, though 
the ni.orble was originally v;hite. 

There is no prominence of the j av; structure and con- 
sequently no trace of savagery in the effect. The intel- 
ligent expre'^sion of the eyes offsets the low forehead. 

Schrader in his original publication of the head 
concludes that the technique is that of the second or 
possibly third cenxury A.D. This was a period of realism 
in portraiture and it is safe to assume that \ve have here 
a fair likeness rhich is re|.liablo evidence in identifying 
him. Both the unu^^ual facial type ar.d the date assigned 
to the workmanship favcr the theory offered by Graindor 
th:t this splendid work of art represents a certain Mem- 
non, one ox the t'hxQQnyyod>i/^ot of He-rodes Atticus, the 
famous patron of art and learning in the rei^n of the 
emperor Hadrian. The head was found at Thyreatis (near 
the modern Loukou) in the Peloponnesus, in land that has 
subsequently proved to be property once owned by Herodes 
Atticus. It is kno"-n from liter atu:.e that Herodes set up 
herns of his tr ojt^himi after their de aths ( G-r aindor , 1 o c . c i t . ) 
and of the other two, with inscriptions, have been 
found en other estates. There is every reason to believe 
that the m-orble heed nov; in Berlin once was part of a 
marble herm of the third'Xo^^^'/x^'J" , Llemnon, set up by 
Atticus on this Peloponnesian estate. There could be no 


nsiiie for a BKin v/ith vit^h Ethiopian blood than one associated 
with the most famous king of legendary Ethiopia. Likewise 
Schrader had concluded from the ceixe given to every detail 
of hair and toe ax d that the head "belonged to a bust intended 
to be inspected at close ran^e, rather than a full-sized 
statue set upon a pedestal. 

The skill of the artist is revealed in the way in 
which he has contrived to unite in the face at the same 
time the liiar'ks of refinement and of primitive origin. 
The com.ination cf G-reek skill and Foman fidelity to 
nature mal.e thi:- head a fitting close for the long series 
of representations of the Ethiopian race in the art of 
the two great states, of the ancient world. ^^a^--^- '^^^"' 




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Grace Hadley Beardsley ( Grace I.Iaynar-d Hadley) was 
born in Brooklyn, Hew York, July 3,-1896. She received her 
secondary education in the Vail-Deane School, Elizabeth, 
Nev Jersey. In 1917 she was graduated v;ith honors fron 
Vassar College, and in 1921 received the degree of Master 
oi' Arts from xne Johns Hopkins University. Hjr residence 
at the University included the collegiate year cf 1917-1918; 

the first semester of 1919-1930; and the years cf 1920- 
1921 and 1921-1922. During this time she followed courses 
given L-y Professor David M. Eobinson in Greek and Pomazi 
Archaeology and Greek Literature; by Professors Kirby 
Flpv;er Smith, Terji--y Frank and Wilfred P. Mustard in Latin; 
by Professor P.V.D. Magoffin in Greek and Poman History 
and Rom^ja Archaeology; smd Prcxessor C.W.E. Miller in 
Greek. Her principal subjecx v/as Greek a:'.d Pomaii Archae- 
ology, her first subordinate Latin and her second subor- 
dinate Greek and Poman History. 

During her graduate residence sne has held two Fellow- 
ships from Vassar College and was awarded a Johns Hopkins 
Scholarship. She v/as also elected to Liembership in the 
Johns Hopkins Chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. The 
year- away from the University was spe^t in research - work 
for the Foreign Traile Bureau of the Guaranty Trust Company 
of Kew York, 

Tne subject of this disser ..ation was suggested by 
Prcxesscr David M. Pouinson, who has most generously 


supervissd aiid assisted in all stages of its pieparation. 
The -.vriter wishes xc express her appreciation of all that 
she owes to his oxoad scholarship and sound teaching. She 
T/ishes also x.c thank Professor Tenney Frank for his kind- 
ness m reading her work and giving har valuable criticisms, 


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